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THE GIFT OF 



POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT 



ANNUAL REPORTS 

FOR THE 

FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1908 



REPORT OF THE 

POSTMASTER-GENERAL 

MISCELLANEOUS REPORTS 




WASHINGTON 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 

1908 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

[Report of the Postmaster-General.] 



Paj?e. 

Synopsis of receipts and expenditures 7 

Business methods 7 

Director of posts S 

Economies effected in administration 8 

Rural delivery service — Special parcel post confined to rural routes 9 

Postal savings banks 12 

Postal savings statistics — Extract from an official report entitled "Post- 
office savings banlc of Sweden in 1899" 15 

Changes in designs of postage stamps 20 

New 10-cent special delivery stamp 21 

Automatic stamp-vending machines 21 

Instruction of school children in ix)stal matters 22 

Standardization of forms 22 

Tying devices 23 

Names of branch iX)st-offices 28 

Signs for post-offices 23 

New official postal guide 24 

Appointment of postmasters _'_ 24 

Readjustment of postmasters' salaries 24 

Quarters for post-offices 24 

Equipment of the smaller post-offices 25 

Postal stations 26 

The postal situation in New Yorii City 20 

Evening deliveries of flrst-class mail matter 28 

Clerli hire at offices of the third class 29 

Efficiency records of post-office employees 29 

Annual leave of post-office employees 30 

Compensation of post-office employees 30 

Growth of the city delivery service. 31 

Extension of the city delivery service 31 

Use of automobiles in the collection of the mails 31 

Backstamping of postal cards 31 

Antiquated laws relative to the handling of the mails . 32 

Bonds of officers and employees of the postal service 32 

Labor-saving devices 33 

3 



20'72r79> 



4 TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Railroad mail transi)ortation : Page. 

Service and quadrennial readjustment 35 

Economy iu readjustment 37 

Readjustment for diversions of the mails 38 

Railway post-office car pay 30 

Data relating to the oi>eration, receipts, and exi)enditures Qf railroad 

companies transporting the mails 40 

Electric and cable car service 41 

Pneumatic-tube service 42 

Regulation screen-wagon service 44 

Mail-messenger service 44 

Special weighing of the mails in 1907__ 45 

Star-route service 40 

Steamboat service 49 

Special office service 49 

Foreign mail service: 

Volume and frequency of the mails ___ _ 49 

Ocean mail service _-_ _-_ 50 

International sea iwst-offices 51 

International parcel post.- 52 

Packages receivetl from abroad by parcel i)ost 52 

Universal postal union __ 53 

New York Harbor transfer service 54 

Two-cent iK)stago with Great Britain and Ireland 54 

Railway Mall Service: 

Service and equipment 55 

Made-up second-class matter , 5G 

Relief measures 56 

New division 57 

Inspection and certification 57 

Equipment 57 

Issue of postage-stamped paper 58 

Shipment of stamp supplies by freight 59 

Stamped envelopes and postal cards 59 

Postal money-order system 59 

Proposed postal note 60 

"Additional condition " in bonds of postmasters at money-order offices 

should be eliminated 60 

Improvements in the registry system 60 

Immediate payment of indemnity 61 

Value of service for which department receives no revenue 61 

Second-class mail matter 62 

Results nccompllshod under the new second-class mall regulations (>4 

Amendment to postal convention between the United States and Canada. 65 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. O 

Page. 

Fourth-class mail matter 66 

Perforating postage stamps for identification purposes.-- 66 

Redemption of stamped paper 66 

Postal depositaries 67 

Revision of accounting methods 67 

Supplies for the postal service 67 

Division of Dead letters 68 

Savings in purchases 68 

Division of Post-Offlce Inspectors 69 

Pay of inspectors 70 

Use of mails for unlawful purposes 70 

Bills for injunction 70 

Obscene and indecent matter 71 

Claims of postmasters for reimbursement for losses sustained 71 

Financial statement 72 

Postal revenues in detail 72 

Expenditures in detail 73 

The deficit and salary increases 74 

Growth of the service by years 75 



REPORT 

OF 

THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



Post-Office Department, 
Washington^ D. C.^ November SO, 1908. 
To the President : 

I have the honor to present the annual report of the Postmaster- 
General for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908. 

receipts and expenditures. 

The expenditures were $208,351,886.15, while the receipts amounted 
to $191,478,663.41, showing a deficit of $16,873,222.74, with an addi- 
tional loss from fire, burglary, etc., of $37,056.25. The increase in 
receipts over the previous year was $7,893,657.84, or 4.29 per cent. 
The normal increase in revenue for several years has been about 9 
per cent. The falling off is accounted for by the financial disturb- 
ances of the year. 

The appropriations for the present fiscal year are $222,960,892. 
It is estimated that the increase in receipts will be about 8 per cent, 
making the probable deficit for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909, 
again over $16,000,000. 

BUSINESS METHODS. 

A number of improvements in business methods, the striking need 
of which was pointed out in my last annual report, and certain sug- 
gestions made in the preliminary report of the Joint Postal Com- 
mission appointed by Congress, have been put in force to the advan- 
tage of the department and the postal service, some of the important 
changes being — 

The closer inspection of all supplies purchased. 



8 EEPOBT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

The consolidation of accounts in journal form, requiring one signa- 
ture instead of hundreds. 

The transfer of the printing section from the Postmaster-Generars 
Office to the Office of the Fourth Assistant Postmaster-General, 
Division of Supplies. 

The fixing of the functions and responsibility of the different 
bureaus in the purchase of supplies. 

Further increasing the efficiency of the Division of Supplies while 
decreasing the number of employees from 102 to 81. 

The taking of an annual inventory of stock in the Division of 
Supplies. 

Revision and standardization of form blanks and the elimination 
of unnecessary forms. 

General improvement in the filing systems of the department. 

The substitution of card systems for book records — ^a policy that 
will be extended. 

The installation of adding machines, loose-leaf ledgers, and carbon 
processes whereby several circular letters to different persons are 
written at the same time. These improvements will also be extended. 

The simplification of methods in the Division of Dead Letters, 
increasing the output of work without additional clerical force. 

DIBEGTOR OF POSTS. 

I would again invite the attention of the Congress to the wisdom of 
establishing the position of deputy postmaster-general or director of 
posts, at a salary that should not be less than $10,000 per annum, in 
order to command a business man of wide experience, who would 
hold office during good behavior, in order that this rapidly growing 
department, with expenditures increasing at the rate of more than 
$13,000,000 a year, may have a continuity of policies for the benefit 
of the postal service and the people of the United States. 

EGOKOMIES EFFECTED IN ADMINISTRATION. 

Every phase of the postal business has been closely scrutinized for 
the purpose of promoting efficiency and securing more rigid economy 
of administration. In this connection the report of the public ac- 
countants employed by the Joint Postal Commission and investiga- 
tions by committees consisting of post-office inspectors and experi- 
enced postal officials have been exceedingly helpful. 



REPORT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



9 



It has been my policy to impress upon every officer of the depart- 
ment having control over an appropriation the necessity for real 
economy, but not for sudi retrenchment as would impair the effi- 
ciency of the service. 

The following savings in expenditures for the periods named will 
be effected by economical administrative action taken during the 
fiscal years 1908 and 1909 : 



Items. 



Term cov- 
ered by 
orders. 



Estimated saving in cost of supplies at new contract rates 

Decrease in railroad transportation pay resulting from 
use of new divisor, as required by order of June 7, 1907, 
No. 412: 

Third contract section 

Second contract section 

Equalization of pay for railroad transportation on basis 
of shortest routes 

Reduction in railway poet-office car pay on the basis of 
service needs for space 

Saving in cost of contract transportation service in Chi- 
cago, 111., between wagon contract price and lowest 
Tunnel Company bid 

Saving in cost of steamboat service, second contract 



section . 



Saving effected by extensions of rural-delivery routes and 
by absorption of routes incidental thereto 




The foregoing table does not include the reductions in cost of rail- 
road transportation and railway post-office car service effected by the 
act of March 2, 1907. Such items are set forth elsewhere. 

RURAL DELIVERY — A SPECL^L LOCAL PARCEL POST CONFINED ENTIRELY TO 

RURAL ROUTES. 



The rural delivery system continues to grow, and on November 10, 
1908, there were in operation 39,516 routes, with a patronage of 
more than 18,000,000 people. In many States practically the entire 
area available for rural delivery is now covered with a network of 
rural routes. There was, however, a great increase during the past 
year in the number of petitions for rural service in different parts of 
the country. 

Rural delivery is now established on nearly 1,000,000 miles of 
roads throughout the country. During the current fiscal year the 



10 BEPOBT OF TH£ POSTMASTEB-GENEKAL. 

rural carriers will be required to travel more than 200,000,000 miles. 
Thus the necessity for good roads becomes more apparent. The pol- 
icy of the department in insisting that all roads covered by rural 
delivery shall be maintained in traversable condition throughout the 
seasons has resulted in greater advances toward universal good roads 
than ever before in the history of rural deliveiy. The legislatures of 
several of the States have enacted progressive road laws and made 
liberal appropriations for road building and improvement. 

An evidence of the growing usefulness of rural delivery is the 
increased quantity of mail delivered and collected. While no exact 
figures are now available giving the amount of mail handled by rural 
carriers, it is estimated to be nearly 2,000,000,000 pieces for the last 
fiscal year. 

The expenditure for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1897, was 
$14,840, while for 1908 it was $34,361,463. What the expenditure 
will be ten years from now it is startling to consider. 

Should the Congress grant the department authority to utilize 
rural routes still further by the establishment of a limited parcel 
post confined entirely to rural delivery routes, it would then be pos- 
sible to earn additional revenue amounting to millions of dollars, and 
at the same time benefit the farmer by enabling him to have merchan- 
dise delivered when ordered by telephone or postal card, which would 
otherwise not be purchased. Frequently consumption is reduced 
owing to inability to secure articles at the time they are wanted. 
The reason for increased consumption in the cities is that goods are 
accessible and are invariably delivered to the purchaser. This " rural 
parcel express " is to be confined entirely to rural routes, and there 
would be no cost to the Government for railroad transportation. 

No merchant or dealer not a bona fide resident of the town in which 
the distributing post-office is located or on the rural route would be 
permitted to have goods delivered at the proposed special rate, and 
packages would not be accepted from any person acting as agent for 
a concern located outside of the delivery limits of the rural routes. 
The result would be to increase the business of local merchants and 
country stores by facilitating consumption and the delivery of goods. 
It is of incalculable importance that these small dealers throughout 
the United States should not be driven to the wall. It has been esti- 
mated that if every rural carrier delivered 55 pounds each trip an 



BEPOBT OP THE POSTMASTEB-GENEKAL. 11 

income of $15,000,000 would be earned in one year. Were the Post- 
Office Department a modern business corporation its board of direct- 
ors would not hesitate forty-eight hours to utilize the present ma- 
chinery and establish a limited local parcel post on rural routes. 
With such an additional income as has been estimated the depart- 
ment could well afford to increase the equipment where the business 
demanded it. 

In my last annual report the establishment of such a system was 
recommended for packages originating on rural delivery routes, such 
packages not to exceed 11 pounds in weight or 3 feet 6 inches in V 
length. The special rate of postage to be 5 cents for the first pound 
and 2 cents for each additional pound or fractional part thereof, and 
as follows where the weight is less than 1 pound: Two ounces or 
less, 1 cent; over 2 ounces and not exceeding 4 ounces, 2 cents; over 4 
ounces and not exceeding 8 ounces, 3 cents; over 8 ounces and not 
exceeding 12 ounces, 4 cents, and over 12 ounces and not exceeding 1 
pound, 5 cents. 

The rural delivery routes will cost this year $35,500,000, and the 
service should be thoroughly utilized, especially where it would be to 
the benefit of 18,000,000 patrons. The special local parcel service will 
enable the farmers to have small parcels delivered at their gates, to 
live better, and to obtain easily the necessaries of life. The increased 
consumption will in turn increase the business of the local merchant, 
and benefit the jobber by the additional orders transmitted through 
the commercial traveler. 

In order to demonstrate that this recommendation is a valuable one 
and to ascertain its practicability on the rural routes throughout the 
United States, I urge that the Postmaster-General be authorized and 
directed to establish experimentally a limited local parcel post, con- 
fined entirely to rural delivery routes in not to exceed four counties 
in the United States, for packages of fourth-class matter originating 
on a rural route or at its distributing post-office for delivery by rural 
carriers to patrons thereof at such special rates of postage and under 
such regulations as the Postmaster-General may deem advisable, and 
that no parcel shall be accepted from any person acting as representa- 
tive for any person or company not a resident on such rural delivery 
routes or in the town from which they emanate, and that only such 
parcels shall be received for delivery at the special rates of postage as 



12 REPORT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

are offered by bona fide merchants or dealers whose regular places of 
business are on such rural delivery routes, in the ordinary and regular 
course of their business, and in their individual capacity by residents 
on such routes. The result of the experiment to be reported to Con- 
gress at the beginning of the Sixty-first Congress. 

POSTAL SAVINGS BANKS. 

I again urgently recommend that legislation be enacted permitting 
the Postmaster-General to establish postal savings banks or deposito- 
ries in connection with post-offices. 

The deposits in savings banks of the United States as reported to 

the Comptroller of the Currency are as follows : 

New England (^States) $1,257,537,805 

New York— ^ 1, 378, 232, 780 

New Jersey 92,631,487 

Pennsylvania 160, 638, 670 

Maryland 78, 469, 584 

Ohio - 53, 930, 291 

Illinois 181, 361, 054 

Iowa 132, 748, 558 

California 254, 695, 083 

In 14 States (98.4 per cent) ^ 3,590,245,402 

In remaining 32 States and all Territories (1.6 per cent). 70, 308, 543 

Total 3, 660, 553, 945 

In certain States, such as New York and Massachusetts, where 
special attention has been given to the establishment of mutual sav- 
ings banks and where they are conducted on a very conservative basis 
prescribed by law, the wage-earners and people of moderate means 
have availed themselves of the opportunities offered. In Massachu- 
setts the amount is $706,940,596. 

The table also demonstrates that while the money in savings 
banks amounts to $3,660,553,945, only 1.6 per cent, or $70,308,543, is 
in 32 States. The 14 other States are fortunate in possessing savings- 
bank deposits to the amount of $3,590,245,402, or 98.4 per cent. This 
is of great advantage to the latter States, as it increases their finan- 
cial resources and thus aids in their development. 

In the 32 States referred to there are many localities where there 
are no savings banks and in some cases no banks of any kind. It is 
there that considerable money is held in hiding, which is neither abso- 
lutely safe nor in circulation for the benefit of the community. It 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEBAL. 18 

has been estimated that altogether fully half a billion dollars not 
to-day placed in any bank, due to want of opportunity or lack of con- 
fidence, might be brought back into circulation through the agency 
of postal savings banks. 

In Japan the total amount of deposits in postal savings banks is 
about $46,000,000, an average of $5.77 to each depositor. This money 
would not in all probability have found its way into the channels of 
trade but for the postal savings banks. 

The additional opportunities for saving that can be afforded the 
people by postal savings banks in this country are made apparent by 
the fact that there are 60,624 post-offices, 40,000 of which are money- 
order post-offices. 

There has been apprehension in some quarters that postal savings 
banks would enter into serious competition with established banking 
institutions. The foregoing figures show conclusively that the postal 
banks would operate principally in a territory not now covered by 
private enterprise. 

As an evidence of the demand for postal savings banks we have 
reports from postmasters that they have been compelled to refuse to 
accept deposits offered by foreigners for safe-keeping, and also that 
our own people have bought postal money orders during the last year 
payable to themselves to the extent of $8,104,447, on which amount 
fees of $25,000 were paid. These money orders were bought to the 
greatest extent in the States of Arkansas, Colorado, Kansas, Missouri, 
Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, Oklahoma, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, and 
Washington. 

A post-office inspector has reported that one family residing near 
a small post-office in the State of Washington has $11,000 on deposit 
in the postal banks of British Columbia. 

Under the bill now before the Senate with a favorable report 
from the Committee on Post-Offices and Post-Roads, the money 
would be widely distributed, as it would be placed in the national 
banks in the districts where the deposits were first brought to the 
post-offices. The Government would not go into th banking busi- 
ness. The national banks are to pay not less than 2J per cent for the 
deposits, the Government in turn to pay the depositors 2 per cent, 
retaining one-fourth of 1 per cent in order that the system may be 
self-sustaining. No interest would be paid by the Government on 
deposits over $500. 



14 BBPOBT OF THE POSTMASTER-GBNEBAL. 

The deposits would be guaranteed by the Government, as it would 
make itself responsible by receiving them. 

Postal savings banks would foster thrift and increase the habit of 
saving in many States and localities where opportunities for deposit- 
ing savings do not now exist, and would in the end serve as feeders to 
the regular stock and mutual savings banks, where greater returns 
would.be received. Thus they would be a real benefit not only to the 
people, but also to existing financial institutions. Practically all the 
leading nations, with the exception of the United States, have postal 
savings banks in successful operation. No one can justly say they 
are not needed in the United States, with its vast sections unequipped 
with facilities for the deposit of savings. With the experience of 
Canada in mind no one can justly say they can not be managed 
successfully in the United States. 

I append a tabulation of postal savings statistics, which shows 
beyond question the steady and continuous increase in both the 
number of depositors and the amount of deposits which has inva- 
riably followed the establishment of the system in other coun- 
tries. With such data as are here collated it is impossible to draw con- 
clusions adverse to the propositions that postal savings banks are 
uniformly popular wherever introduced and constitute a peculiar and 
important adjunct to the financial policy of a nation. 



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REPORT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



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20 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

CHANGES IN DESIGNS OF POSTAGE STAMPS. 

The issue of postage stamps, known as the series of 1902, has been 
regarded as unsatisfactory on account of the redundancy of inscrip- 
tion and unnecessary elaboration. 

The subject was discussed with the Director of the Bureau of En- 
graving and Printing and it was demonstrated that a new design 
would be advantageous, not only for the reasons above stated, but 
for the additional and important reason that it was desired by the 
bureau to simplify the design and engrave it in such manner as to give 
longer life to the plates and thus reduce very materially the cost of 
production of the stamps. 

Following suggestions from this department the Bureau of 
Engraving and Printing has prepared drawings embodying the por- 
trait of Franklin on the one-cent stamps and the portrait of Washing- 
ton on the stamps of all other denominations. In each case the de- 
sign comprises the portrait in an ellipse, the only decoration being a 
spray of laurel leaves, and the inscription " U. S. Postage " in a 
straight line at the top, with the denominations expressed in a paral- 
lel line at the bottom. 

The portrait of Franklin on the one-cent stamps is from the Houdon 
bust now in the possession of the American Philosophical Society of 
Philadelphia, and that of Washington is from the bust at Mount Ver- 
non by the same artist. 

The new design is classical, simple, and dignified. Aside from 
the one-cent denomination, the only difference will be in the indi- 
cation of the value of the stamps and in the colors. In the deter- 
mination of the colors care will be observed to select those which 
will be at once distinctive and readily indicative of the value of 
the stamp, and every effort will be made to insure the permanency 
of the ink in order that the color may not vary. 

The colors of the one-cent and two-cent stamps will be the same as 
heretofore, except that the green of the one-cent stamp has been light- 
ened, to give a brighter effect. Equally distinctive and permanent 
colors will be selected for the other denominations, maintaining, as 
far as practicable, the same colors as at present, but making such 
changes as may be necessary to insure greater beauty and perma- 
nency. 



BEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 21 

The $2 and $5 stamps will be discontinued after the present supply 
is exhausted, as it is believed that, in view of the small quantity of 
these stamps used, the $1 stamp will be equally as serviceable for 
all purposes for which the two higher denominations are now used. 

NEW TEN-CENT SPECIAL-DELIVERY STAMP. 

A new special-delivery stamp has also been designed, and will be 
placed on sale about January 1 next. During the last Congress an 
act was passed providing that when there was attached to any letter 
or package of mail matter 10 cents' worth of stamps of any denomi- 
nation, with the words " Special delivery '' written or printed on the 
envelope or covering, in addition to the postage required for ordi- 
nary delivery, the article should be handled as though it bore the 
regular special-delivery stamp. This was meant merely as a con- 
venience to the public whenever it was impossible to obtain the ten- 
cent special-delivery stamp. The issuing of a new stamp will call the 
attention of the public to the fact that the department is opposed to 
discontinuing its use, as such a stamp is advantageous to postal 
employees in expediting the delivery of mail, in that it insures the 
instant recognition of special-delivery mail. 

AUTOMATIC STAMP-VENDING MACHINES. 

In the last annual report mention was made of the fact that the 
department was undertaking to demonstrate by careful experiments 
the advisability of adopting automatic stamp-vending machines for 
the sale of stamps and postal cards. Their adoption in post-office 
lobbies will afford an all-night service to the public, with no expendi- 
ture for clerk hire, and their use in post-office stations, hotels, railway 
stations, news stands, department stores, and drug stores will add 
immeasurably to public convenience. 

Twenty-five machines were submitted to a committee of this de- 
partment for test during the year, and 6 were found to possess suffi- 
cient merit to warrant practical trials under actual selling conditions 
in post-offices. The machines tested were not mechanically perfect, 
but the owners assert that the defects will be corrected. 

I have every expectation that satisfactory machines will result from 
the work now going on, but this department is not yet prepared to 
accept any make for its own use. 



22 BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEBAL. 

As a direct result of the department's action much interest has been 
aroused, and there are to-day in private use a number of American 
stamp-vending machines. 

INSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL CHILDREN IN POSTAL MATTERS. 

On September 18, 1908, the following order was issued : 

Postmasters are hereby directed to confer with their local school authorities 
with the view of adopting the most effective method of instructing school 
children as to the organization and operations of the postal service. These 
instructions should cover such features of the service as the delivery of the 
mails, the classification of mail matter, the registry and money-order systems, 
and particularly the proper addressing of letters and the importance of plac- 
ing return cards on envelopes. Postmasters should arrange, if possible, to de- 
liver personal talks to the pupils on these subjects and should give teachers 
access to the Postal Guide and the Postal I^ws and Regulations and render 
them every assistance in securing necessary information. 

Numerous reasons presented themselves showing the necessity for 
a systematic education of the public in the ordinary operations and 
requirements of the postal service. The thousands of pieces of mail 
matter received daily in the Division of Dead Letters present a most 
vivid illustration of the necessity for having the name and address 
of the sender appear on an envelope. 

Many letters from postmasters and school boards all over the 
country indicate the liveliest interest in the subject, and I believe 
this campaign of education will be beneficial to the department and 
the public. 

STANDARDIZATION OF FORMS. 

A committee appointed by the Postmaster-General has been at work 
for several months in standardizing the form blanks used in the de- 
partment and the postal service, and new forms have been approved 
already for the department and the railway mail service, resulting 
in various economies as well as greater uniformity. 

The committee is now engaged on the standardization of the post- 
office forms, of which there are many thousands. Considerable sav- 
ing in the cost of printing will ultimately be effected and more sys- 
tematic methods introduced in certain lines of work throughout the 
service. 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 23 

TYING DEVICES. 

A thorough investigation was made during the year by a commit- 
tee appointed to report on the feasibility of adopting a substitute for 
twine in tying up packages of letters in the mails. A large number of 
devices were submitted and tests were made for several months in 
post-offices and the railway mail service. While the committee found 
practical tying devices, it was deemed inadvisable to make a change 
in view of the very material reduction in the price of twine. 

NAMES OF BRANCH POST-OFFICES. 

On account^f many complaints made to the department that the 
importance of certain towns and cities was minimized by showing 
them in the Official Postal Guide as stations of other post-offices, an 
order was issued on May 20, 1908, directing that postal stations out- 
side the corporate limits of the city or town containing the post-office 
to which they are attached shall be known as branch post-offices. The 
names of these branch offices are now entered independently in the list 
of post-offices in the Postal Guide. To further enable such places to 
retain their individuality the postmarking stamps have been changed 
by omitting the name of the main post-office. Formerly the post- 
marking stamp contained the name of the post-office, followed by 
the name of the branch or station ; as, for instance, " Boston, Mass., 
Cambridge Station." Now the stamp for that branch office reads: 
" Cambridge, Mass." 

SIGNS FOR POST-OFFICES. 

During the year the department has been endeavoring to have a 
universal display of signs on post-offices, indicating the names of the 
offices, for the benefit of the traveling public While the country 
post-office usually has a sign reading " Post-office," its name is rarely 
shown. Last April an order was issued directing the attention of 
postmasters to the desirability of erecting such signs. This order was 
in the form of a suggestion, as there is no appropriation to cover the 
expense involved, except at post-offices of the first and second classes. 
At the smaller offices the postmasters are required to furnish the 
equipment themselves, and it will take some little time to bring about 
a general compliance with this request. Post-office inspectors have 
been instructed to urge the erection of these signs at all post-offices 
they visit. 



24 BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEBAL. 

NEW OFFICIAL POSTAL GUIDE. 

Beginning with the present fiscal year, the annual Postal Guide will 
be issued on the 1st of July each year instead of the 1st of January. 
This enables the department to include in it all changes authorized 
by the appropriation acts that become effective on the beginning of 
the fiscal year. 

The Guide has been so changed as to improve materially its 
appearance and arrangement. 

APPOINTMENT OF POSTMASTERS. 

During the year 14,119 postmasters were appointedj-^jlTl of whom 
were of the presidential class. A marked improvement in the effi- 
ciency of the service has been noted, due to the policy of retaining 
postmasters of all grades whose records have been satisfactory. As 
heretofore suggested, it is believed that the appointment of postmas- 
ters at offices of the second and third classes should be vested in the 
Postmaster-General, as is now the practice in the case of postmasters 
at offices of the fourth class. This would reserve to the President the 
appointment of postmasters at the more important offices, those of the 
first class, and would relieve him of a vast amount of routine work 
that is a tax upon his time. 



Under the present law the salaries of presidential postmasters are 
readjusted annually on the basis of the gross receipts for the four 
quarters ending March 31, all changes to take effect at the beginning 
of the next fiscal year. As was stated in the last annual report, the 
intervening period is not sufficient, now that the number of presi- 
dential post-offices has increased so largely, to permit of this work 
being done with that degree of accuracy and deliberation that its 
importance demands, and the recommendation is accordingly renewed 
that the salaries be fixed on the basis of the gross receipts for the cal- 
endar year, thus allowing six months within which to complete the 
readjustment. 

QUARTERS FOR POST-OFFICES. 

An appropriation of more than $18,000,000 was made last year 
for the purchase of sites and the erection of public buildings exclu- 
sively for post-office purposes in 400 cities and towns, and yet the 
selection of the sites and the erection of the buildings are matters 
entirely within the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Treasury. 



BEPOBT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 25 

Even the equipment of post-office buildings is controlled by the 
Treasury Department. The need for giving the Post-Office Depart- 
ment a voice in the selection of sites is apparent. Unquestionably 
the entire interior equipment of government buildings used entirely 
for post-offices should be controlled by the Post-Office Department. 
Not too strongly can I emphasize the need for a change in the pres- 
ent laws in this respect. 

Attention is again called to the desirability of locating post-offices 
in the large cities in the immediate vicinity of the union railway 
stations, where the mails are received and dispatched, and to the fact 
that such buildings should be constructed for the sole use of the 
post-office and planned for that purpose alone. At St. Louis a site 
has been acquired and a plan for a new post-office building adjoin- 
ing the Union Station has been approved. The building is to be 
used wholly for post-office purposes, and therefore it will be feasible 
to arrange the interior equipment and mechanical means for convey- 
ing the mails so that the maximum amount of work can be done with 
the minimum number of men, and the expense of transporting the 
mails to and from the station will be saved and the delivery of the 
mails expedited. 

An appropriation of $500,000 was made by the last Congress for 
the acquisition of a site for a new post-office building at Washington, 
D. C. A site adjoining the Union Station has been purchased at 
a cost of $450,000. It is important that an additional appropriation 
be made as soon as possible for the erection of a building in order 
that the postal service may gain the benefit of the new location at an 
early date. An appropriation for the purchase of a new site for 
post-office quarters in Chicago was made at the last session of the 
Congress, and it is hoped that it will be feasible to secure a suitable 
location near the principal railroad stations, where most of the mail 
is received and dispatched. Bids have already been submitted for 
a number of sites in the vicinity of the railroad stations. They are 
now under consideration by the Treasury Department, and it is 
expected that an early decision will be reached. 

EQUIPMENT OF THE SMALLER POST-OFFICES. 

The postmasters at offices of the fourth class are not appointed for 
a fixed term; the compensation is very small, and naturally they 
usually buy the cheapest fixtures and the smallest amount of neces- 



26 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

sary furniture. As stated in the last annual report, the adoption 
of the policy of providing all furniture and other equipment at 
government expense would not merely relieve postmasters at the 
smaller places of a burden for which they are not properly com- 
pensated, but would tend to increase the efficiency and dignity of the 
service in such places. 

POSTAL STATIONS. 

By the act of June 9, 1896, the department is prohibited from 
establishing postal stations more than five miles beyond the corporate 
limits of a city, although no such restriction exists with reference to 
the extension of the free-delivery service. This condition should not 
exist. The department should not be placed in the position of being 
able to deliver mail from door to door and at the same time of being 
forbidden to supply the district so served with the other usual postal 
conveniences. Instances could be cited in which this provision has 
worked a decided hardship on many growing communities located 
immediately adjacent to large cities. This provision of law is re- 
garded as exceedingly detrimental to the best interests of the service, 
and it is recommended that the Congress repeal so much of the act 
of June 9, 1896, as imposes this limitation on the establishment of 
stations. 

POSTAL SITUATION IN NEW YORK CITY. 

The maintenance of a suitable postal service in New York City 
becomes more difficult each year and requires increased expenditures. 
The necessity for relief of the congested condition of the central post- 
office and the requirements of proper post-office and transportation 
facilities, in connection with the existing and proposed new uptown 
railroad terminals, have been given special consideration. 

The erection of the new post-office building, for the continuance 
of which the Congress appropriated $100,000 at its last session, on 
Eighth avenue, between Thirty-first and Thirty-third streets, ad- 
joining the Pennsylvania Tunnel and Terminal Railroad Company's 
station now building, is progressing in connection with the construc- 
tion of the railroad tracks and platforms which are to be located be- 
neath the post-office. The assignment of space in the Terminal Rail- 
road Company's station for the use of the department for transporta- 



BEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 27 

tion and post-oflSce facilities in connection with the new post-oflSce has 
been arranged with the company. The Pennsylvania Railroad Com- 
pany is to occupy the new terminal property in October, 1909, after 
which date the present Jersey City terminal of that company will be 
discontinued for passenger traffic, and the handling of mails between 
the New York post-office and the Pennsylvania Railroad lines will 
present a difficult problem. For this reason alone it is very desirable 
that the new post-office should be constructed as soon as possible. It 
is estimated that two years' work will be required to complete the 
structure after the contracts are awarded. An appropriation for this 
building should therefore be made by the Congress at the earliest 
practicable date. 

For the purpose of adequately providing for a postal station in 
the terminal building of the New York Central and Hudson River 
Railroad Company, the department has accepted a proposal to lease 
for a term of twenty-five years from January 1, 1909, an area of 
60,352 square feet in the Grand Central Railroad Station, with an 
additional area of 44,143 square feet to be available in 1912. This 
lease was made in accordance with authority granted by the Congress 
appropriating $90,000 for the purpose. The rental will be at the 
rate of $55,480.29 per annum, and the heating, lighting and other 
charges will add about $30,000 additional to the cost of main- 
taining the station. It is estimated that the total cost of mainte- 
nance, including the rental, when the additional space becomes avail- 
able, will be $140,000 per annum. These quarters will be directly 
above the tracks of the New York Central Railroad, and elevators and 
chutes will connect the working floor of the station with the railroad 
platforms below. The terminal building is now under construction, 
and when the quarters for the postal station are ready for occupancy 
the leased building on Madison avenue and Forty-third street, now 
used by Station 11, will be vacated, and the work of the station trans- 
ferred to the railroad terminal. 

In order to relieve the congested condition in the workroom of 
the New York post-office, the department leased an area of 35,545 
square feet in the terminal of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad 
Company on Church street, between Cortlandt and Dey streets, 
and in July last the entire mailing division of the New York post- 
office was moved to these new quarters, to which the designation 



28 REPORT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

'^ Hudson Terminal Station " was given. Wagon service on ten and 
fifteen minute schedules was established and pneumatic-tube service 
extended between the general post-office and the new station for the 
purpose of affording it all necessary transportation facilities. The 
station itself has been equipped with elevators, chutes, and conveyors 
for expediting the handling of mails. The lease is for a term of five 
years from July 1, 1908, at an annual rental of $75,000. This pro- 
vides for the mailing division and gives space in the general post- 
office for the work of the city division. 

The installation of pneumatic-tube service for the further connec- 
tion of postal stations and uptown railroad terminals with the gen- 
eral office has been materially advanced. Since my last report not 
only has the new Hudson Terminal Station been connected with the 
general office, but the service has been extended to the west side 
stations, as far north as Station L, at One hundred and twenty-fifth 
street and Lexington avenue, excepting Station I, at One hundred 
and fifth street and Columbus avenue. Service has also been ex- 
tended from Station L east to Station J, Eighth avenue and West 
One hundred and twenty-fourth street. Additional space has been 
secured in the stations newly connected to permit of the installation 
of the terminal and power machinery. The increased annual rentals 
for this purpose approximate $8,640. The general contract provides 
further for the connection of all the principal stations on the east 
side as far north as L ; for the connection of Station C, Ninth avenue 
and West Thirteenth street; Foreign Branch, at Morton and West 
streets; and Station S, Broadway and Howard street (on the west 
side) ; and for a direct east and west connection between Times 
Square Station and Station H. 'When Station H is located in the 
Grand Central Station, the Pennsylvania terminals completed, and 
the tube service fully installed between the general post-office and all 
railroad terminals and principal postal stations, the full efficiency 
of the pneumatic-tube service will be realized. 

E\^NING DELIVERIES OF FIRST-CLASS MAIL MATTER. 

An experiment was tried last fall in some of the residential dis- 
tricts of New York City of delivering mail at 8 p. m. The plan is 
now a permanent and successful feature of the New York City postal 
service, and will be extended to other cities when it can be done 



BEPOKT OP THE POSTMASTEB-GENERAL. 29 

economically. It is found that the evening delivery of mail is the 
second heaviest of the day and relieves considerably the heavy morn- 
ing delivery, thus enabling the carriers to complete their first trip 
earlier, and thereby especially benefiting the patrons who live at the 
ends of the carriers' routes. The volume of local mail has been 
increased by this improvement. 

CLERK HIRE AT OFFICES OF THE THIRD CLASS. 

A liberal increase in the appropriation for clerk hire at third-class 
oflSces was granted at the last session of the Congress, and the appro- 
priation for temporary and auxiliary service heretofore provided for 
first and second class offices only was made available for summer 
and winter resort offices of the third and fourth classes. While the 
appropriation is not sufficient to pay the full cost of clerical services 
at third-class offices, it has enabled the department to relieve the post- 
masters of a considerable portion of the expenses hitherto paid from 
their personal funds. It should be borne in mind that postmasters 
at third-class offices are required to defray all the incidental expenses 
of their offices, since there is no appropriation for this purpose, and 
in the majority of cases they also have to provide the post-office 
equipment. 

Owing to the increased deficit, the department has not recommended 
an increase in the scale of allowances for clerk hire for third-class 
offices, but has estimated simply for sufficient funds to provide for the 
growth of the service. 

EFFICIENCY RECORDS OF POST-OFFICE EMPLOYEES. 

The experience of the past year has emphasized the necessity for 
establishing a uniform system by which postmasters can measure the 
efficiency and faithfulness of their clerks and carriers. The recom- 
mendations for promotions to the $1,200 grade show with especial 
clearness how widely divergent are the views of different postmasters 
as to the degree of excellence necessary to warrant such advancement. 
The law places the burden of deciding that question on the depart- 
ment, which can not consistently maintain varying requirements for 
different post-offices. A tentative system of efficiency records for 
clerks and carriers, prescribing uniform standards for the entire serv- 
ice, has therefore been adopted. 



80 REPOBT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

ANNUAL LEAVE OP POST-OFFICE EMPLOYEES. 

Eecommendation was made last year that the leave of absence 
with pay allowed by law to employees of the postal service be in- 
creased to thirty days. An experiment was instituted by the depart- 
ment during the vacation season to ascertain whether the cost of city 
letter carriers' vacations could not be decreased by reducing the 
number of collections and deliveries in residential districts during 
the heated term. As a result many thousand dollars were saved, so 
that the expense of allowing a vacation of a month will be by no 
means double the cost of allowing fifteen days' leave with pay. I 
believe the additional leave should be authorized whenever the postal 
revenues shall justify it. 

COMPENSATION OF POST-OFFICE EMPLOYEES. 

The new salary law, under which clerks and carriers are promoted 
annually for faithful and efficient service, has now been in operation 
more than a year. Under this law 15,825 clerks and 19,792 carriers 
were advanced in salary on July 1, 1907 ; 1,459 clerks and 1,190 carri- 
ers on October 1, 1907; 1,436 clerks and 1,342 carriers on January 1, 
1908; and 1,160 clerks and 1,179 carriers on April 1, 1908, the total 
number of promotions being 19,880 for clerks and 23,503 for carriers. 
Although these increases in salaries represent a large amount of 
money, the efficiency of the employees affected has been materially 
increased, with consequent improvement of the service as well as a 
relative decrease in the number of additional employees required. 
These increases in salaries, and especially the number of promotions 
to the $1,200 grade provided for by the appropriation for the current 
fiscal year, emphasize the urgent need for increases in the compensa- 
tion allowed supervisory employees. Their salaries are regulated by 
a law passed in 1883. In many cases subordinate clerks receive the 
same salary as their superintendents. This condition should be 
remedied, and it is believed that the restrictions imposed by the 
present statutes as to the maximum salaries should be modified. 
However, the department has not estimated for additional promo- 
tions for such employees for the next fiscal year, owing to the great 
increase in the deficit 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 81 

GROWTH OP CITY DELIVERY SERVICE. 

The free delivery of mails by city letter carriers was extended to 92 
additional cities during the year ended June 30, 1908, and 2 city 
delivery post-oflSces — Ballard, Wash., and East Providence, E. I. — 
were consolidated, respectively, with Seattle and Providence, making 
the net increase in the number of post-offices provided with city de- 
livery service 90, and the total number of such offices 1,330 on June 
30, 1908. The total number of regular letter carriers in the service 
on June 30, 1908, was 26,352, a net increase during the year of 1,776. 
As each of the carriers employed serves on an average more than 1,700 
persons, approximately 45,000,000 people are provided with the city 
delivery service. 

EXTENSION OF CITY DELIVERY SERVICE. 

There are in the aggregate millions of people residing in towns and 
cities having a population of from three to five thousand who have to 
call at the post-office for their mail. The farmer living on the rural 
route receives his mail from the carrier, and the resident of the city 
having a population of 10,000 or postal receipts of $10,000 has his 
mail delivered at his door. As this is really a discrimination, the 
law should be amended whenever the revenues will justify the addi- 
tional expense involved so as to permit the department to extend the 
delivery service to the towns and smaller cities, as recomended in 
previous annual reports. 

USE OF AUTOMOBILES IN THE COLLECTION OF MAILS. 

An experimental collection service by automobiles was established 
in Milwaukee last February. It is found that the same force of col- 
lectors can do twice the amount of work under this system as when 
using horse-drawn vehicles, and that the collection of mail is expedited. 
A temporary contract has been entered into recently for Washington, 
D. C, and the experiment will be tried also in Indianapolis, Ind., dur- 
ing the current year. The department will be in a position later to 
report to the Congress upon the advisability of using automobiles in 
all the larger cities. 

BACKSTAMPING OF POSTAL CARDS. 

On April 1, 1908, the postal regulation concerning backstamping 
was amended by the omission of the requirement that postal cards 
and post cards should be postmarked (on the address side) to show the 



82 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

date of their receipt at the post-office of address. While this amend- 
ment necessitates the separation of cards from letters (except when 
addressed to any of the few offices where letters are not backstamped), 
the labor required is much less than was involved in placing the 
" received " postmark on the address side, which made it necessary 
to remove the postal cards from the letter packages and reverse 
them. This change will be appreciated by the senders and addressees 
of souvenir and picture cards, which thereby escape the possibility of 
defacement by the backstamp. 

ANTIQUATED LAWS RELATIVE TO THE HANDLING OF THE MAILS. 

Attention has been invited in previous years to the fact that the 
work of the postal service was impeded by the existence on the 
statute books of a number of laws prescribing methods for the 
handling of mail, which, while perhaps excellent at the time of their 
enactment, are unsuited to present conditions. Among such laws are 
those prescribing that undelivered letters bearing on the envelope the 
writer's name and address without a request for return after a speci- 
fied number of days shall be held for thirty days before being 
returned to the writer, and that postmasters shall notify publishers 
when copies of their publications addressed to subscribers have 
remained undelivered for thirty days. In the last report of the 
department it was suggested that these laws be amended so as to 
permit the return of undelivered letters and the notification of pub- 
lishers at the expiration of a shorter period. The enactment of such 
legislation is very desirable. 

BONDS OF OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES OF THE POSTAL SERVICE. 

The establishment of a guaranty fund by collecting annually from 
postmasters and employees holding positions of financial responsi- 
bility small sums, to be used in paying losses that occur through 
defalcations, is suggested for consideration of the Congress. More 
than 200,000 officers and employees of the postal service are required 
to give bond, either by law or by regulation, in amounts aggregating 
about $300,000,000, with either corporate or individual surety. It 
is evident that the execution, acceptance, and filing of these 
bonds entails a vast amount of clerical work, the salaries of the 
clerks amounting to $37,000 a year. The average annual collections 



BEPORT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 88 

from surety companies and individual bondsmen amount to less 
than $32,000. Estimating the premium paid surety companies at $1 
per thousand on the bonds accepted from such companies and the 
total amount of these bonds at $200,000,000, the aggregate amount 
paid therefor annually by the oflScers and employees is $200,000. 

LABOR-SAVING DEVICES. 

In the preliminary report of the Postal Commission attention is 
called to the lack of labor-saving devices in the postal service. In 
a general way this criticism is fully justified. This condition is due, 
however, more to the lack of sufficient appropriations than to the fail- 
ure of the department to recognize the needs of the service in this 
regard. 

All the first-class offices and a majority of the second-class offices 
are provided with postmarking and canceling machines. Undoubt- 
edly the use of these machines could be extended with advantage to 
many of the smaller offices, where the postmarking is now done by 
hand, resulting frequently in defective and illegible postmarks. The 
use of typewriting and adding machines should also be materially 
extended. 

During the past year the subject of automatic conveyors in post- 
offices has received much attention. Those now in use in Chicago 
will serve as a type. The devices may be described in brief as a 
series of belts and automatic appliances for the transportation of 
mail between the different sections of the post-office workroom. The 
Chicago post-office covers a full city block, and the distributing cases 
are arranged around a light well, the distance from the first distribut- 
ing case to the last being 1,400 feet. Mail collected from the street 
letter boxes is sent in the carriers' satchels by a chute from the street 
level to the basement and is then carried from the basement on auto- 
matic elevators to an operator on the third floor, who dumps it loose 
in a car that runs on a track suspended over the facing tables. 

The bottoms of these cars are hinged and the contents can be auto- 
matically delivered into any one of the hoppers over any facing 
table. As soon as the load is delivered the car automatically returns 
to the starting point. The capacity of each car is about 350 pounds 
of first-class mail. The facing tables mentioned are equipped with 
or,(m— p M (} loos :\ 



84 REPORT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

conveyors or belts along the front edge. Letters when faced are 
placed edgewise upon these conveyors and are carried to a stacker 
which separates the long from the short letters, and they are then 
ready for the canceling machines. "When the letters have been post- 
marked and the stamps canceled by machinery they are placed in 
trays on a belt about 12 inches wide which runs constantly. The 
trays are provided with an adjustable finger so that they will deliver 
the mail to any one of the fourteen stations desired. At each one of 
these stations is a distributer who sorts them into his letter case. 

There is also a device for returning missent or miscased mail to the 
proper place. Letter mail is tied out, placed on the belt conveyors 
running over each distributer's case, and automatically carried to 
the distributing table, where it is delivered into chutes connected 
with the tube stations on the floor below and dispatched to the rail- 
road station. The minimum time for a letter deposited in one of the 
letter drops in the post-office to reach the railroad station is fifteen 
minutes and the maximum time about thirty minutes. Incoming 
mail is handled on the first flopr in a similar manner. The machinery 
has been in operation a sufficient length of time to enable the depart- 
ment to correct defects, and its value in the saving of labor and time 
is fully demonstrated. 

(Contracts have been entered into for conveyors of this character in 
several of the large stations of the New York City post-office, where 
the pneumatic-tube system is in operation. 

Somewhat similar devices are also in operation in the post-office at 
Washington, D. C, an appropriation of $10,000 for the purpose 
having been made during the last session of the Congress. Two belt 
conveyors, one tray conveyor, two overhead-cable systems, and a 
facing table have been installed. 

One of the belt conveyors, which is 12 inches in width, is used for 
conveying the incoming mail for city delivery from the dumping 
table to the canceling machines. The other, 18 inches in width, is util- 
ized for carrying mail from the dumping table to the point where 
all mail intended for delivery to the several executive departments 
and their various bureaus is handled. The tray conveyor, which is 
12 inches in width, is similar to the one now being used at the Chi- 
cago office, and serves to convey outgoing mail from the cancding 
machines to the various distributing cases. 



BEPOBT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAIi. 86 

One of the overhead-cable systems is used for conveying special- 
delivery letters from the mailing division, where letters for local 
delivery are mailed, and from the dumping table, where incoming 
special-delivery letters are first handled, to the special-delivery sec- 
tion. The other overhead device, which is equipped with 32 stations 
and a traveling car or basket, is used in conveying what is known as 
" returns " from the carriers' desks to the distributing cases. Owing 
to the large number of changes of address it is necessary for the car- 
riers to transfer great quantities of mail from one route to another. 
This has heretofore been done by the carriers leaving their desks and 
walking to the return distributing cases, and quite frequently it hap- 
pened that the returns were not made in time to be included in the 
next delivery, but were delayed in delivery until the next trip 
of the carrier on that day. With the use of the overhead device 
it is only necessary for the carriers to place their returns upon 
a station, and they are transported to the distributing case and again 
assorted for immediate delivery. 

The facing table is 24 feet in length and is similar to the one 
described as being in use at Chicago, except that canceling machines 
will be connected with the belt conveyors in such a manner that the 
short letters will be canceled without additional handling and the 
long letters separated and automatically stacked ready for the 
canceling machine. 

RAILROAD MAIL TRANSPORTATION. 
8EBVICE AND QUADRENNIAL READJUSTMENT. 

On June 30, 1908, the number of railroad mail routes in operation 
was 3,293, with a length of 213,220.47 miles and an annual travel of 
407,799,039.44 miles. The annual rate of expenditure for this service 
was $44,722,985.47, or $209.75 per mile of route, while the average 
cost per mile of travel was 10.96 cents. Compared with the previous 
year, these figures show an increase in number of routes of 2.19 
per cent, in length of routes of 2.88 per cent, and in annual travel of 
6.22 per cent, and a decrease in annual rate of expenditure of 0.87 
per cent, in rate of cost per mile of length of routes of 3.65 per cent, 
and in average cost per mile traveled of 5.89 per cent. 

The completion of the readjustment in the third contract section 
has enabled the department to compute the full effect of the reduc- 



tS() BEPOBT OP THE POSTMASTER-GEN ERAL. 

tion in the rate of pay for the transportation of mails on railroad 
routes and for railway post-office car service provided for by the act of 
March 2, 1907. The annual reduction in the railroad transportation 
pay in the third contract section is $759,145.88, or 4.10 per cent, and 
in railway post-office car service $442,755.76, or 1G.70 per cent, mak- 
ing a total annual reduction of $1,740,494.63 in transportation pay 
and of $935,974.09 in railway post-office car pay for the entire service. 

During the past fiscal year the mails were weighed on the railroad 
routes in the second contract section, embracing the States of North 
Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Tennessee, and Kentucky, and Porto Rico. The annual rate of ex- 
penditure for railroad transportation in that section on June 30, 1908, 
was $4,602,915.90. The readjustment of pay for the four years begin- 
ning July 1, 1908, based upon such weighing, has been nearly 
completed. The result as far as ascertained shows an increase in 
transportation pay of $67,237.58, or 1.46 per cent, and in railway 
post-office car pay of $2,981.35, or 0.8 per cent. When the mails were 
weighed in this section four years previously the increase in the rate 
of railroad transportation pay was 12.30 per cent. The smaller rate 
of increase under the current readjustment is due to the use of the 
whole number of days in the weighing period as the divisor for ascer- 
taining the average daily weight in accordance with my Order No. 
412, dated June 7, 1907, and to the withdrawal of equipment and sup- 
plies from the mails in accordance with the provisions of law. The 
application of the new divisor to the computation of the average daily 
weights in this weighing resulted in a saving of $434,730.82 per 
annum, or 8.78 per cent. 

At the time of the submission of the last annual report the read- 
justment of pay for railroad service in the third contract section 
had not been completed, and the results were not fully known. The 
completion shows an increase in railroad transportation pay of 
$380,333.94, or 2.41 per cent, and a decrease in railway post-office 
car pay of $507,634.68, or 18.01 per cent. The application of the 
new divisor to the computation of the average daily weights resulted 
in a saving of $1,787,378.10 per annum, or 9.65 per cent. It is 
apparent, therefore, that if the new divisor had not been adopted 
the adjustment would have shown an increase in railroad transpor- 
tation pay for this section alone of $2,167,712.04 instead of the small 
amount stated above. 



BEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 87 

Attention is called to the inconsistencies in the provisions of the law 
of March 2, 1907, above referred to, so far as they relate to the rates 
for land-grant roads. The rate for railroad transportation on land- 
grant roads for weights above 48,000 pounds is fixed at $17.10 for 
each 2,000 pounds. This is liigher than the land-grant rate for 
the same amount of mail between 5,000 and 48,000 pounds, which is 
$16.24 for each 2,000 pounds. As the general law provides that a rail-, 
road company whose railroad was constructed in whole or in part by 
a land grant, etc., shall receive only 80 per cent of the compensa- 
tion otherwise authorized, this rate of $17.10 for each 2,000 pounds 
above 48,000 pounds should be changed to $15.39, which is 80 per cent 
of $19.24, the ordinary rate for the same amount of mail. 

Last year attention was directed to the advantages of conducting 
in Washington the tabulation of weights of mails taken during the 
quadrennial weighings on railroad routes. In order to accomplish 
this, legislation is needed authorizing the renting of suitable quarters 
in Washington to accommodate the force of tabulators. The expenses 
of such tabulation are provided for by the act of March 3, 1875 (18 
Stat L., 341), which authorizes the payment for weighing the 
mails from the appropriations for railroad transportation. The 
weighing is done in cars and at railroad stations by employees of 
the department. The results are tabulated in the oflSces of the super- 
intendents of Railway Mail Service at division headquarters, and are 
then certified to the department, where the daily average weights are 
computed. For the purpose of securing the greatest economy and 
uniformity of method it is desirable to have the tabulations made in 
the department, and, in order to utilize the force of tabulators most 
efficiently for completing the adjustments, authority is desired to em- 
ploy them when necessary to assist in completing the computations. 
I therefore recommend the following legislation : 

Out of the appropriation for Inland mall transportation, the Postmaster-Gen- 
eral is authorized hereafter to pay rental for quarters in Washington, District 
of Columbia, and compensation to tabulators and clerks employed in connection 
with the weighings for assistance in completing the computations, in connection 
with the expense of taking weights of mails on railroad routes, as provided 
by Jaw. 

ECONOMY IN READJUSTMENT. 

Reference was made in the last annual report to the policy which 
had been inaugurated of effecting a saving to the Government in 
cases where, at the beginning of a contract term, the department has 



38 BEPORT OP THE POS'L'M ASTER-GENERAL. 

the choice of dispatching through mails with equal advantage by 
competing routes, one of which may be more economical than the 
other. Where the department has the opportunity, it seeks to se- 
cure to the Government the advantage in cost, although the mails 
may be permitted to be carried over the longer or more expensive 
route. The application of this principle is only possible when the 
adjustments are made, and accordingly it has been extended as far 
as practicable in the second contract section, in which the weighing 
has Tast occurred, resulting in a saving of $1,126.55 per annum from 
July 1, 1908 (or $4,506.20 for the four-year term), for service on 
routes Nos. 118002, 120030, 120002, 120005, 120004, and 121009, be- 
tween Weldon, N. C, and Jacksonville, Fla., and route No. 123018, 
between Jacksonville and Tampa, Fla. 

The saving effected in the third contract section by orders made to 
date, on routes Nos. 135007 and 143005, Chicago to Union Pacific 
Transfer (n. o.), Iowa, is $9,270.83 per annum from July 1, 1907, or 
$37,083.32 for the four-year term. 

READJUSTMENTS FOB DIVERSIONS OF MAILS. 

In the last annual report attention was called to the defect in the 
law in that it prevents the department from readjusting compensa- 
tions for carrying mails in cases where diversions are made from one 
route to another during a contract term, and remedial legislation was 
recommended. 

Under existing law and practice, compensation for railroad mail 
transportation in any one contract section is readjusted upon a gen- 
eral weighing of the mails in such section, but not oftener than once 
in every four years. It has been deemed inadvisable to authorize 
special weighings during a quadrennial term. As a result, when 
mails are diverted from one route to another during the term, pay- 
ments continue to be made to railroad companies for the remainder 
of the term for weights which they have ceased to carry, and the 
railroad companies carrying the diverted mails do so without receiv- 
ing additional compensation therefor. A practical and equitable 
readjustment of pay in such instances could be accomplished by 
ascertaining the effect of such diversions by taking the weights of the 
mails diverted, computing their daily average, and revising accord- 
ingly the average daily weights of the routes affected, but making 
due allowance for the increase in the weight of mails subsequent to 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENERAL. 89 

the general weighing, as it would not be just to subtract this increase 
from the weight carried by the one company or to credit it to 
that carried by the other. As there is a question, however, whether 
the Postmaster-General has suflScient authority under existing law 
to make readjustments in such cases without a new weighing of 
all the mails carried over the routes affected, I earnestly renew the 
recommendation made in the last report for the enactment of a pro- 
vision giving such authority. The proposed legislation is as follows: 
Wben, after a weighing of the mails for the purpose of readjusting the com- 
pensation for their transportation on a railroad route, mails are diverted 
therefrom, the Postmnster-General may, in his discretion, ascertain the effect 
of snch diversion by a weighing of the mails so diverted for such number of 
successive working days as he may determine and have the weights stated and 
verified to him as in other cases, and readjust the compensation upon the routes 
affected accordingly : Provided, That no readjustment shall be made unless the 
diverted mails equal at least 10 per cent of the average daily weight on either 
of the routes affected. 

RAILWAY POST-OFFICE CAB PAY. 

The annual rate of expenditure for railway post-oflSce cars on June 
30, 1908, was $4,681,777.58, being 20.50 per cent less than the previous 
year. 

This reduction is due mainly to the application of the provisions 
of the act of March 2, 1907 (34 Stat. L., 1212), reducing the rates of 
pay for railway post-oflSce car service, which became effective July 1, 
1907, and further to the efforts of the department to readjust the pay 
for this service upon an equitable basis of payment for the actual 
needs of the service. 

For a number of years it has been customary for the department 
to authorize, by agreement with the railroad companies, what are 
known as half lines of railway post-oflSce cars. These have generally 
arisen in cases where the needs of the service in one direction were 
sufiBcient to warrant the authorization of at least a 40-foot car for 
railway post-oflSce purposes, but not suflScient to authorize that space 
in the opposite direction. In such cases the companies have returned 
the railway post-office car in satisfaction of the requirement of an 
apartment car, where needed, without specific charge therefor and 
waited for the authorization of a full line until the needs of the 
service in both directions would justify it. Half car lines have been 
established also in cases where, after the authorization of a full line, 



40 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

the needs of the service in one direction became greater than in the 
opposite direction and therefore warranted an increase of space in that 
direction only. These increases have been authorized with the con- 
sent of the companies concerned, and such companies have operated 
the larger sized cars in both directions, receiving the maximum pay 
in but one direction until such time as the needs of the service would 
warrant the authorization of a full line at maximum pay. 

With few exceptions, the companies concerned have accepted and 
performed service under these conditions, though occasionally ex- 
pressing the belief that the maximum pay for the length of car run 
should in all cases be allowed in both directions. When, however, the 
department recently attempted to reduce instead of increase the 
service in one direction only, the action was met with protest, which 
brought under consideration the whole question of the equity of the 
department's practice of authorizing payment for less than full 
lines. A departmental commission was appointed to hear the repre- 
sentations of the companies. The conclusions of their report have 
been embodied in the regulations, and an endeavor has been made 
to give due consideration to the equities of both the Government and 
the companies. The regulation applies to new authorizations, and in 
behalf of the companies provides for the minimum pay of a 40-foot 
car in each direction, unless otherwise agreed upon, and in behalf of 
the Government provides for payment in each direction in accord- 
ance with the actual need for 40 feet or more of space. Other than 
the maximum pay for a full line is not to be stated, however, without 
agreement. This effort to reach a settlement of the difficult question 
has not been entirely successful, as the companies generally contend 
that less than the maximum pay is inadequate for the service of 
hauling a car of the same length in both directions. 

DATA RELATING TO THE OPERATION, RECEIPTS, AND EXPENDITURES OF RAILROAD COM- 
PANIES TRANSPORTING THE MAILS. 

It has been impracticable to fix the period during which the data 
may be secured relating to the operation, receipts, and expenditures 
of railroad companies transporting the mails, as required by the in- 
quiries, forms, and instructions prepared in the office of the Second 
Assistant Postmaster-General, in accordance with the provisions of 
the act of March 3, 1879 (20 Stat. L., 358), for the reason that the 
railroad companies at whose instance the postponement was made 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEKAL. 41 

had not been able until a recent date to agree upon a uniform 
method of considering the inquiries and furnishing the information. 
The results of their conferences have now been submitted, however, 
and the department has taken the matter up actively with all the 
large railway systems of the country with the hope of perfecting the 
plan for securing a complete and adequate statement. It is believed 
that this will be accomplished in a short time, and it is the purpose to 
secure the information by the earliest practicable date and submit it 
to the Congress. The reports will be voluminous and the tabulation 
and arrangement of the data will require the services of a number of 
clerks not available in the regular force. I therefore renew my rec- 
ommendation that the Congress appropriate $5,000 for this purpose, 
including the rental of suitable quarters in Washington, D. C. 

ET.ECTRIC AND CABLE CAR SERVICE. 

The number of electric and cable car routes in operation on June 30, 
1908, was 508, with a length of routes of 6,764.77 miles, and an annual 
travel of 11,716,416.26 miles. The annual rate of expenditure, exclu- 
sive of the Chicago underground electric service ($172,600), was 
$641,736.32. This is an increase in the number of routes of 4.31 per 
cent, in length 6.63 per cent, and in annual travel of 3.66 per cent. 
The rate of cost per mile of travel was 5.47 cents, an increase of 0.73 
per cent, and the cost per mile of length of route was $94.86, a 
decrease of 1.98 per cent. 

The readjustments of compensation under the provisions of the 
law authorizing increases where the quantity of mail is large and the 
number of exchange points numerous have proceeded, resulting in a 
net increase of compensation of $31,408.76 during the fiscal year. 

Last year attention was called to the fact that the clause in the 
post-office appropriation act making provision for this service in- 
cluded the sum of $172,600 for the purpose of covering the cost of 
mail service by underground electric cars in the city of Chicago, 111. ; 
that this service was contracted for under the authority of the act 
of March 3, 1905 ; that the contract entered into would expire June 
80, 1908; and that it would be necessary to secure authority for a 
new contract if the service were to continue. Accordingly recom- 
mendation was made to the Congress to renew the authority to con- 
tract for underground electric-car service at Chicago for a period of 
four years, and that in the event no contract was entered into for this 



42 BEPOBT OP THE POSTMASTEB-GENERAL. 

service for another term the amount appropriated, or so much thereof 
as might be necessary, should be available for regulation screen- 
wagon service for Chicago, and the Congress included in the item 
for regulation screen or other wagon service for the present fiscal 
year an authority to contract, for a term not exceeding four years 
from July 1, 1908, for either screen-wagon or underground electric- 
car service in the city of Chicago, 111. 

The department took prompt action to secure a renewal of the con- 
tract for underground electric-car service at a rate fair to the Gov- 
ernment and commensurate with the service required. The negotia- 
tions failed to secure a proposition for a renewal at a rate less than 
$300,000 per annum; and reliable proposals for regulation screen- 
wagon service having been received from bidders of wide experience, 
a contract was entered into with the lowest bidder at the rate of 
$145,400 per annum for the service, a saving of $154,600 per annum 
for the term of three years. This wagon service began on July 1, 
1908, and has proved entirely satisfactory, being as efficient as any 
service ever rendered in Chicago. 

PNEUMATIC-TUBE SERVICE. 

On June 30, 1908, pneumatic-tube service was under contract in 
the cities of Boston, Brooklyn, New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, 
and St. Louis. In Boston all service under contract, 6.652 miles of 
double lines of tubes, was in operation ; in Brooklyn all service under 
contract, 1.35 miles of double lines of tubes, was nearly ready for 
operation; in New York service by 9.3998 miles of double lines of 
tubes out of 26.89 miles under contract was in operation; in Phila- 
delphia service by 6.022 miles of double lines of tubes out of 7.35 
miles under contract was in operation; in Chicago service by 7.41 
miles of double lines of tubes out of 17.563 miles under contract was 
in operation; and in St. Louis service by 1.85 miles of double lines 
of tubes out of 3.47 miles under contract was in operation. 

The further installation of tubes in Chicago has been suspended by 
the contractor pending a change in the terms of the franchise under 
which the company operates. The line between the Chicago post- 
office and the Northwestern Railroad depot has not been restored, but 
the contracting company has agreed to do so as soon as practicable. 

The progress made in the installation of tubes and the inauguration 
of service in New York City has been already set forth. 



BEFOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GE^ERAL. 4S 

Since Jnne 30, 1908, service by the tube lines between Brooklyn, 
N. T., post-oflSoe and Station L, 1.35 miles, and between Philadelphia 
post-office and Soythwark Station and Station P, 1.91 miles^ has been 
pnt into operation. Favorable report has been made upon the pro- 
posed inauguration of service to Fairfield Station and North Phila- 
delphia Station, and the company has been asked to agree to the 
extension. 

In New York City and Brooklyn it has been necessary to arrange for 
additional space in some of the stations to acconmiodate the receiving 
and dispatching apparatus and other terminal machinery for the 
tube service. To this end negotiations have been carried to success- 
ful termination by which additional space has been secured in Stations 
C, J, L, N, W, and Y, in New York City, and Station L in Brook- 
lyn, and an exchange of space has been arranged at Station L in New 
York City. 

A committee was appointed in May, 1908, to consider the differ- 
ences existing between the contracting pneumatic-service companies 
and the Post-Office Department with reference to pneumatic-tube 
service in New York City, Chicago, and St. Louis. The matters con- 
sidered were the proper routes for acceptance between the Chicago, 
HL, post-office and the Northwestern Railroad depot, between the St 
Louis post-office and the Annex Station at the Union Station, ques- 
tions respecting the routes to be followed in New York City in ex- 
tensions of lines under contract, and the claims of the contracting 
companies for temporary service performed by the Illinois Tunnel 
Company between the Chicago post-office and the Northwestern Rail- 
road depot for the pneumatic-tube contractor. The differences were 
adjusted upon an equitable basis. 

By act of May 27, 1908, making appropriations for the service of 
the Post-Office Department for the present fiscal year, the Congress 
authorized and directed an investigation and report not later tlian 
January 1, 1909, as to the feasibility and desirability of the Govern- 
ment purchasing the equipment for pneumatic-tube service, and there- 
after operating the same in the cities where such service is now in 
operation, and also as to the approximate cost of purchase and of 
installation and the cost of maintenance and operation. Accordingly 
I appointed a commission of expert postal and departmental officials 
to make a thorough investigation and report to me upon all matters 



44 BEPOBT OP THE POSTMASTEB-GENERAL. 

involved, in order that the information desired by the Congress may 
be furnished as required. 

The commission has conducted an exhaustive investigation, cover- 
ing an inspection of the physical properties in the several cities, the 
ascertainment of the original cost of the same, the examination of 
the franchises under which tubes were installed and are operated, 
the ascertainment of the patents covering the devices used, the cost 
of like installation at this time, and the present cost of material, 
machinery, and labor to operate the tubes and perform service, the 
advantages and efficiency of the service as now performed, the char- 
ters of the contracting companies owning and operating the plants, 
their stock issues, assets, and liabilities, the probable relations that 
would exist between the General Government and the State and 
municipal governments in the cities named, and the extent of the 
use of pneumatic tubes for mail purposes in foreign countries. 

The report will be submitted to the Congress soon after it convenes. 

REGULATION SCREEN-WAGON SERVICE. 

On June 30, 1908, there were 309 wagon routes in operation, with a 
total length of 1,031.21 miles and an annual travel of 4,454,373.08 
miles. The annual rate of expenditure was $1,331,572.30, the rate of 
cost per mile of travel 29.89 cents, and per mile of length of route 
$1,291.27. This was an increase in routes of 5.82 per cent, in length 
of routes of 2.95 per cent, in length of travel of 4.48 per cent, in 
annual rate of expenditure of 9.53 per cent, in cost per mile of travel 
of 4.84 per cent, and in cost per milp of length of 6.40 per cent. 

During the fiscal year the service was advertised in the second con- 
tract section, and new contracts made for a term of four years, 
beginning July 1, 1908. The annual rate of expenditure on that date 
under the new contracts was $99,097.92, an increase of $27,574.92 
over the annual rate of expenditure on June 30, 1908, under the 
expiring contracts. The increase in the number of miles traveled 
annually in this service was 40,127.94. The rate of cost per mile of 
travel in this section on June 30, 1908, was 26.88 cents; on July 1, 
under new contracts, 32.36 cents, an increase of 20.38 per cent. 

MAIL MESSENGER SERVICE. 

On June 30, 1908, there were 7,654 routes in operation, with a 
length of routes of 5,079.64 miles and an annual travel of 11,878,031.92 
miles. The annual rate of expenditure on that date was $1,459,694.68. 



BEPORT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 45 

The rate of cost per mile of travel was 12.29 cents, of mile of routes 
$287.36. This was an increase in number of routes of 2.66 per cent, 
in length of routes of 1.32 per cent, and a decrease in annual travel of 
0,72 per cent, an increase in annual rate of expenditure of 6.42 per 
cent, in rate of cost per mile of travel of 7.24 per cent, and in rate of 
cost per mile of length of 5.09 per cent. 

SPECIAL WEIGHING OP THE MAILS IN 1907. 

In the last annual report there were set forth the terms of the law 
under which the special weighing of the mails was required, the 
steps taken by the department to carry out the provisions, and a 
detailed statement of the several weighings and records ordered to 
be made and kept. The principal weighing began July 1, 1907, and 
continued for six months. Other special weighings and records were 
required for different periods during that time. In all, nine differ- 
ent weighings and records were required. The conduct of the weigh- 
ings, records, and computations was in the direct charge of a depart- 
mental committee acting under the supervision of the Second As- 
sistant Postmaster-General. These weighings and records were made 
and kept by all postmasters and by the employees of the Railway 
Mail Service. 

The reports were rendered monthly, and at the close of each special 
period, to the department, where they were assorted, classified, and 
tabulated by a competent force of special employees, under the direc- 
tion of the committee. The computations incident to the several 
weighings and records were made in the same manner, and the com- 
plete report, giving all the details and results of the weighings and 
records, was prepared, and transmitted to the Congress on May 1, 
1908, the date fixed by the statute for report. The Congress appro- 
priated $300,000 to cover the expense of weighing and counting and 
the recording and compilation of the information so required. The 
amount expended for the purpose was $216,955.41, leaving a balance 
of $83,044.59. 

The detailed report is printed as Document No. 910, House of 
Representatives, Sixtieth Congress, first session, and contains infor- 
mation of great value to the postal service and to the Congress. 



46 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

STAR-ROUTE SERVICE. 

There were 14,032 routes in operation on June 30, 1908, with a 
length of routes of 182,286.51 miles and an annual travel of 94,314,- 
842.21 miles. The annual rate of expenditure on that date was 
$6,865,476.07. This was a decrease in the number of routes of 6.30 
per cent, in length of routes 6.35 per cent, in annual travel 6.58 per 
cent, and in the annual rate of expenditure 5.07 per cent. 

During the past fiscal year the star-route service in the second con- 
tract section was readvertised and contracts awarded for the term of 
four years beginning July 1, 1908. These new contracts cover 3,183 
routes with an annual rate of expenditure of $1,232,554.69, an increase 
of $122,877.34. 

The contracts for star-route service in all parts of the United States 
now provide for delivering mail into and collecting it from boxes 
along the lines of the routes. This feature of the service has proved 
highly satisfactory to the large number of patrons so served, and is 
recognized as a valuable public convenience. 

The star-route service discontinued during the fiscal year by reason 
of the establishment of rural delivery represented an annual rate of 
expenditure of $259,191.72. The previous year it was $418,487.60. 
During the year 758 routes were discontined, as against 1,311 during 
the year 1907, 1,337 during 1906, and 2,241 during 1905. 

In the last annual report attention was invited to the desirability of 
amending certain laws relating to contract mail service. The enact- 
ment of such amendments is again recommended. 

1. Under existing law, copies of advertisements for general lettings 
of star, steamboat, and screen- wagon service are required to be posted 
in every post-office in the State or Territory included in the adver- 
tisement, although many of the post-offices are not interested or 
located on the routes advertised. The posting of the advertisement 
in only those offices which are upon routes stated in the advertise- 
ment will meet the needs of the service. The act approved March 1, 
1881 (sec. 1254, P. L. and R., 1902), reads as follows: 

And hereafter the Postmaster-General shall cause advertisements of all 
general mail lettings of each State and Territory to be conspicuously posted In 
each post-office in the State and Territory embraced in said advertisements f6r 
at least sixty days before the time of such general lettings; and no other 
advertisement of such lettings shall be required; but this provision shall not 
apply to any other than general mail lettings. 



BEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAX.. 47 

It is believed that the desired change could be accomplished by 
enacting legislation to the following effect : 

So much of the act making appropriations for the service of the Post-Offlce 
Department for the fiscal year ended June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and 
eighty-two, and for other purposes, approved March first, eighteen hundred 
and eighty-one, as relates to the advertisements of mail lettings, is hereby 
amended to read as follows: 

" Hereafter the Postmaster-General shall cause advertisements of all general 
mail lettings of each State and Territory to be conspicuously posted in each 
post-office named in said advertisement for at least sixty days before the time 
of such general lettings; and no other advertisement of such lettings shall be 
required; but this provision shall not apply to any other than general mall 
lettings." 

2. The act making appropriations for the service of the Post-Office 
Department for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1883, approved May 4, 
1882, contains the following: 

If any person shall hereafter perform any service for any contractor or sub- 
contractor in carrying the mail, he shall, upon filing in the department his con- 
tract for such service and satisfactory evidence of its performance, thereafter 
have a lien on any money due such contractor or subcontractor for such service 
to the amount of the same ; and if such contractor or subcontractor shall fail to 
pay the party or parties who have performed service as aforesaid the amount 
due for such service within two months after the expiration of the quarter In 
which such service shall have been performed, the Postmaster-General may 
caase the amount due to be paid said party or parties and charged to the con- 
tractor, provided that such payment shall not in any case exceed the rate of 
pay per annum of the contractor or subcontractor. 

When the foregoing law was enacted payments were made to mail 
contractors quarterly. Payments are now made monthly, and the 
department should be authorized to settle with carriers within two 
months after the month in which the service has been performed in 
cases where contractors have failed to settle with their carriers. To 
accomplish this it is only necessary to strike out the word " quarter " 
in the clause " within two months after the expiration of the quarter 
in which the service shall have been performed," inserting in lieu 
thereof the word " month." 

3. The act of August 3, 1882 (ch. 379, 1 Supp. 372), provides that: 

The Postmaster-General is hereby authorized, in cases where the mail service 
would be thereby improved, to extend service on a mail route under contract, at 
not exceeding pro rata additional pay, for any distance not exceeding twenty- 
live miles beyond either terminal point named In said contract: Provided, That 



48 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

no service shall be extended beyond the original terminal points more than once 
during the term for which the contract shall have been made. 

In order that the department may extend a mail route more than 
once beyond its termini for the purpose of affording mail supply for 
post-offices in an economical manner, the following proposed amend- 
ment is submitted for consideration: 

The Postmaster-General Is hereby authorized, in cases where the mail service 
would be thereby improved, to extend service on a mail route under contract, at 
not exceeding pro rata additional pay: Provided, That the extensions beyond 
either terminus ordered during a contract term shall not, in the aggregate, 
exceed twenty-five miles. 

The development and growing importance of Alaska and the con- 
sequent increase in the postal needs of the Territory have been such as 
to necessitate material changes and improvements in the mail facili- 
ties. The increase in weight limit on the Valdez-Fairbanks route to 
800 pounds per trip, mentioned in the last report, did not provide for 
all mails to interior Alaskan points during the winter months. With 
the view of affording relief, arrangements have been perfected 
whereby the amount of mail to be carried from Valdez to Fairbanks 
will be increased by providing for the transportation of 48,000 pounds 
of additional matter during the midwinter months. The Valdez- 
Fairbanks route has become the main artery of travel to the Alaskan 
interior during the winter season. The amount of mail to be trans- 
ported over routes traversing the other main lines of travel from 
Fairbanks has also been proportionately increased, thus affording 
additional service to Tanana, St. Michael, Nome, the Cleary district, 
and certain other interior points. Although the amount of mail 
carried into Alaska during the winter season has been thus largely 
increased, the result has been secured without additional expense to 
the department by means of a rearrangement of certain service which 
has been found feasible owing to changed conditions. 

The large shipments of gold dust and bullion from Alaska by mail 
have made it difficult to contract for service, especially by steamships 
operating between Seattle, Wash., and Nome, Alaska, on account of 
the risk involved. 

The steamship companies have represented that the shipments of 
gold by mail subject them to possible extraordinary loss, and have 
petitioned for the exclusion of valuable minerals and metals from the 
Alaskan mails, or that they be relieved from responsibility in the 



KEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEBAL. 49 

event of the loss of such valuable minerals and metals. The Postal 
Liaws and Regulations prescribe the size and weight of individual 
packages, but do not limit the number of packages of any particular 
kind, and minerals and metals are especially enimierated as articles 
that shall be admitted to the domestic mails. It has not been the 
policy of the Government to exclude from the mails in any part of 
the United States any matter which would be admissible in other por- 
tions of the country nor to agree to any exemption from responsibility 
for loss. 

STEAMBOAT SEBVICB. 

On June 30, 1908, there were 215 steamboat routes in operation, 
with a length of 29,870.82 miles, and an annual travel of 4,977,950.79 
miles at an annual rate of expenditure of $758,235.09. This was a 
decrease in the number of routes of 3.15 per cent, in length of routes of 
17.68 per cent, in annual travel of 12.01 per oent, and in the annual 
rate of expenditure of 5.77 per cent. 

During the fiscal year the second contract section was advertised 
and contracts entered into for a term of four years beginning July 1, 
1908. The annual rate of expenditure on July 1, 1908, under the new 
contracts, was $138,119.50, a decrease as compared with the rate of 
June 30, 1908, under the old contracts, of 21.37 per cent. 

SPECIAL OFFICE SEBVICE. 

The Postmaster-General is authorized by law to enter into con- 
tracts to supply mails to post-oflSces not on any established route and 
to allow in each case as compensation for carrying the mails an amount 
not exceeding two-thirds of the salary to be paid to the postmaster at 
such special office. On June 30, 1908, there were 1,120 special offices, 
with an aggregate length of routes of 12,453.90 miles, and of an- 
nual travel of 3,298,069.04 miles, involving an expenditure during the 
year of $28,828.61. There was an increase in the number of routes of 
11.66 per cent, a decrease in the length of routes of 2.95 per cent, an 
increase in the annual travel of 9.28 per cent, and a decrease in the 
annual rate of expenditure of 15.37 per cent. 

FOBEIGN MAIL SEBVICE. 
VOLUME AND FREQUENCY OF MAILS. 

The aggregate weight of United States mails dispatched to foreign 
countries by sea during the fiscal year was 2,231,147 pounds of letters 

65064:— P M G 1908 4 



60 BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-OEKEBAL. 

and post cards and 12,466,612 pounds of other matter; and the total 
cost of the service was $2,875,911.72. 

As heretofore the mails for Great Britain and the continent of 
Europe have been dispatched by the fast steamers of all the different 
lines, care being taken to utilize such steamers as will deliver them 
at destination within the shortest time. This gives us a mail to 
Europe four days a week. The service to Central and South Amer- 
ica, the West Indies, Australasia, and the Orient has been reasonably 
frequent and regular, no important changes having occurred during 
the year. 

OCEAN MAIL SEBYICE. 

With the exception of our sei*vice to Europe, the American ocean 
mail facilities do not compare favorably with those of the other great 
nations. In no other branch of our postal service has so little been 
done in the way of helpful legislation, no provision having been made 
for improving the conditions since the act of March 3, 1891. Under 
that act we now have a good service to Jamaica, Cuba, and the Atlantic 
ports of Mexico in our own ships, subject to our own control^ but 
the longer and more expensive routes are not adequately provided f gr, 
and with the exceptions above noted our mails to Central and South 
America, the West Indies, Australasia, and the Orient are almost 
wholly dependent on foreign steamers over which we have no juris- 
diction. Last year the department recommended, and the Senate by a 
practically unanimous vote passed, a bill (S. 28) providing for more 
liberal treatment of American steamers carrying the mails. That 
bill, which is awaiting the action of the House, provides in substance 
that the compensation of $4 a mile now allowable to 20-knot trans- 
Atlantic American mail steamers shall also be allowable to American 
steamers of not less than 16 knots on routes of 4,000 miles or more 
to South America, the Philippines, Japan, China, and Australasia. 
I earnestly recommend its early enactment into law. 

Manifest considerations of public policy forbid that we should con- 
tinue to depend on the irregular service of steamers built abroad, 
owned abroad, and operated primarily by and for foreign interests. 
Now, even more than last year, we are dependent on the auxiliary 
cruiservS and merchant vessels of other nations for the means of reach- 
ing the Philippines and the markets of Australasia and the Orient. 
Within two years the number of American steamers crossing the 



BEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 51 

Pacific and available for carrying the mails has been reduced more 
than one-half. More liberal compensation to such steamers would 
appear to be imperative if they are to remain on the seas at all. 

In considering the question of additional cost it should be borne in 
mind that while the expenses of the department as a whole have 
exceeded the revenues, our international mail service for many years 
has produced a large surplus. 

It would require several years to establish the new mail routes con- 
templated in the bill (S. 28), for most of the fast steamers required 
would have to be built. The enactment of the bill would, therefore, 
involve no large expenditure in the immediate future. Incidentally, 
the creation and development of new ocean mail lines would promote 
our export trade and our shipbuilding industry and materially 
strengthen the auxiliary naval forces of our Government. I believe 
the American people expect and desire that their ocean mail service 
shall be equal to that of other nations, and I urgently recommend 
that Congress aid the department in making it so. 

Service on route No. 75, '* O. M. S.," San Francisco to Sydney via 
Honolulu, Pago Pago, and Auckland, which was suspended in March, 
1907, has not been resumed ; but service on the remainder of the con- 
tract routes has been performed to the satisfaction of the department. 
The total cost of the contract service for the year was $1,185,148.26, 
and the net excess of the cost of that service over the maximum 
amount allowable at the present rates to steamers not under contract 
is $626,261.04. 

The bids invited June 28, 1907, for contract ocean mail service 
on route No. 70, "O. M. S.," New York to Habana, resulted in 
a contract being awarded tb the previous carrier, the New York 
and Cuba Mail Steamship Company, for a period of five years, com- 
mencing on November 1, 1907, and the bids invited at the same time 
for service on route No. 74, " O. M. S.," from Boston and Philadelphia 
to Port Antonio, Jamaica, resulted in a contract being awarded to the 
previous carrier, the American Mail Steamship Company, for a period 
of ten years, beginning July 1, 1908. 

INTERNATIONAL SEA POST^FFIOIS. 

International sea post service has been in operation continuously 
during the year on the fast steamers of the American, Hamburg- 



62 BEPOBT OF THE P08TMASTEB-GENEBAU 

American, North German Lloyd, and White Star lines between New 
York and England and New York and Germany, 167 trips having 
been made from New York and 179 trips from Europe, during which 
there were distributed 60,107,300 ordinary and 599,896 registered 
articles, in adddition to 48,633 sacks of newspapers, etc. 

Negotiations are pending for the establishment of international sea 
post service on the fast steamers of the Cunard and the French lines 
plying between New York and England and New York and France, 
respectively, and it is hoped that the service will be extended to 
these lines at an early day. 

INTERNATIONAL PARCEL POST. 

Since my last annual report parcel-post conventions have been 
negotiated with the Netherlands, effective July 1, 1908; Uruguay, 
effective July 1, 1908 ; Italy, effective August 1, 1908 ; France, effect- 
ive August 15, 1908; and Austria, effective January 1, 1909; and 
the parcel-post rate of 20 cents a pound to Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, 
and Peru has been reduced to 12 cents a pound, now the uniform 
parcel-post rate to all countries and colonies with which the depart- 
ment has concluded parcel-post conventions. 

. The weight of the parcel-post mails dispatched from the United 
States was 968,513 pounds, consisting of 350,484 parcels, and the 
weight of the parcel-post mails received was 584,667 pounds, consist- 
ing of 200,660 parcels. Of the total weight of parcels dispatched, 
211,199 pounds were for Europe and consisted of 161,117 parcels, and 
of the total weight of parcels received, 435,162 pounds were from 
Europe and consisted of 145,123 parcels. The parcel post affords 
the only means, other than by the payment of letter postage, for the 
exchange of packages of merchandise (except bona fide trade 
samples) by mail between different countries. 

PArKAGRS RI2CBIVKD FROM ABROAD BY PARCEL POST. 

The Treasury Dej>artment experiencCvS difficulty in safeguarding 
tho customs rovonuos from loss through the importation of valuable 
articles iiuo this country by jiai^col ixist without payment of duty. 
Our |virivl-|Kxst conventions with tho nations of Europe and some 
other countries exclude packages exceedini]f ^*>0 in value, but in the 
majority of the conventions there is no such limit In order that 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENBEAL. 58 

the parcel-post service may not be seriously iiampered committees 
have been appointed by the Treasury Department and this department 
to consider the matter jointly, with the view of agreeing upon the 
best means of eliminating whatever danger there may be to the 
revenues in handling valuable packages and, if necessary", of uniting 
in asking Congress for additional legislation to this end. 

It is important that our international parcel post should provide for 
the exchange of parcels up to 11 pounds in weight without regard to 
the value. The present restriction as to value is out of harmony 
with parcel-post facilities in other countries and frequently causes the 
withdrawal from the mails of parcels intended for the United States, 
and their transmission to this country through the express companies, 
subject to payment of carrying charges on delivery, thus imposing on 
the addressees a burden regarded as unjust, since under the parcel 
post all carrying charges must be prepaid. The international parcel 
post is one of the necessary conveniences of the times, and we should 
free its operation from ever}" possible hindrance. 

UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION. 

The empire of Ethiopia entered the Universal Postal Union dur- 
ing the year. With that exception there has been no addition to 
the union. 

On the 1st of October, 1907, the Universal Postal Convention of 
Rome became operative, superseding the Universal Postal Convention 
of Washington, and our postal-union rate for letters became 5 cents 
for the first ounce or fraction thereof and 3 cents for each additional 
ounce or fraction thereof, instead of 5 cents for each half ounce or 
fraction thereof as theretofore. On the same date the provision of 
the convention with regard to an indemnity of 50 francs ($10) for the 
loss of a registered article, and that also in regard to international 
reply coupons became operative in so far as the United States service 
is concerned. The reply coupons are sold in this country for 6 cents 
each, and are exchangeable, in countries that have agreed to their 
use, for postage stamps of those countries to the amount of 25 centimes 
(6 cetfts) each, thus enabling one to prepay the postage on a reply 
to a letter which is sent to a foreign country. The advantages 
afforded by the reply coupons are greatly appreciated by the patrons 
of the service. During nine months of the fiscal year 228,760 
ooupons were issued. 



64 BEPOBT OP THE POSTMASTEB-GENEEAL. 

NEW YORK HABBOB TBANSFEB SEBVIOE. 

The contract for the transfer service in New York Harbor whereby 
a special mail boat or tender meets the fast mail steamers arriving 
from Europe at the quarantine station, receives the mails and conveys 
them as rapidly as possible to the various wharves, whence those for 
New York City are immediately sent to the New York post-office and 
those for other places are forwarded to destination at the earliest 
opportunity, will expire on the 30th of June, 1909. The harbor boat 
now in use under the contract is inadequate for the present needs. In 
order to care for the increasing volume of mails arriving by the trans- 
Atlantic steamers and to provide for a much-needed transfer of mails 
arriving by the steamers of the Ked "D," New York and Cuba, New 
York and Porto Kico, Panama Kailroad and Steamship Company, 
Lamport & Holt, and other lines, it is imperative to provide two mail 
boats. Our mails from Central and South American ports should be 
given the same advantage as those from European ports. In order to 
provide these facilities an increased appropriation will be necessary, 
and this has been included in the annual estimates. 

TWO-CENT POSTAGE WITH GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

Negotiations with the Postmaster-General of Great Britain, which 
were commenced during the year, resulted in the establishment of a 
2-cent-an-ounce rate of letter postage between the United States and 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, beginning Octo- 
ber 1, 1908. It is believed that this will ultimately bring about greater 
postal receipts, as it has been found in the past that every reduction 
in letter rates resulted, finally, in increasing the revenue. A lower 
postage rate will prove another bond toward closer social and com- 
mercial relations between the two great English-speaking countries. 
It will also do much to enable our manufacturers to advertise their 
goods better and thus increase their sales in those countries. 

Modern progress is annihilating distance, and revolutionized 
methods in shipbuilding have made the English markets but a few 
days from our ports. Cheaper and direct mail service stimulates the 
business as well as the friendly intercourse of nations, and it should 
be extended wherever practicable. 



BBPOBT OF THB POSTMASTBB-QBNERAL. 66 

RAILWAY MAIL SERVICE. 
SEBVIOB AND EQUIPMENT. 

On June 30, 1908, there were 1,676 lines of railway post-offices on 
railroads, steamboats, and electric cars, operated over a total of 
208,481.86 miles of routes. The total number of officers and employ- 
ees in the service was 16,296. The number of miles traveled by clerks 
while distributing mails was 288,889,194. The expenditure for the 
fiscal year on account of officers, clerks, and other items was 
$17,373,336.92. 

The increase over the preceding year in the amount of mail handled 
was approximately 6.71 per cent. 

During the year there were 4 railway postal clerks and 2 substi- 
tute clerks killed and 104 postal clerks and substitutes seriously in- 
jured and 636 slightly injured in railroad accidents, a decrease of 16 
killed and 21 injured as compared with last year. 

Railway post-office car equipment has been kept in good repair and 
the new equipment has been first class. There were in use and in 
reserve 6,036 cars and apartments for the distribution of mails. Of 
these, 1,342 were full railway post-office cars on railroad lines, 3,668 
apartments and cars on railroad lines, 22 railway post-office cars on 
electric and cable car lines, and 103 apartments on steamboat lines. 

During the year the railway mail service has been improved by 
the addition of more than 32,000 miles of railway post-office lines, 
12,000 of which are covered by full postal-car service, 5,000 by addi- 
tional apartment car space upon full postal-car routes, and over 
14,000 by apartment car service superseding closed pouch service. 
The efficiency of the service has been maintained. 

During the year there has been a curtailment in the operation of 
railway post-office cars, made necessary by changes in train schedules, 
and a reduction in authorized car space to meet the actual needs of 
the service, the result of economical administration. 

Mail service has been established on steamers of the Panama Rail- 
road and Steamship Company between New York, N. Y., and Colon, 
Panama, the railway post-office maintained thereon being known as 
the " New York and Canal Zone R. P. O." Clerks are assigned to 
this line and handle in transit all mails to and from New York, N. Y., 



66 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

and post-offices in the Canal Zone. This improvement is regarded 
as one of importance in caring for mails to and from not only the 
Canal Zone but the South and Central American countries. 

The act of May 27, 1908, making appropriations for the service of 
the Post-Office Department for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909, 
authorized the Postmaster-General to create an additional division 
of railway mail service with headquarters at New Orieans, La., and 
to assign a suitable force of officers and employees thereto. Accord- 
ingly, by order of November 10, 1908, such a division was estab- 
lished, embracing the States of Mississippi and Louisiana and such 
railway post-office lines lying outside of these States as may be 
assigned thereto. 

MADE-UP SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 

The work of inducing publishers to sort their publications before 
mailing, so as to facilitate the handling and expedite the delivery of 
such matter, has been continued, resulting in an increase of 1.1 per 
cent in pounds of fully made-up matter. 

Reports from 173 of the large post-offices showed that 7,303 pub- 
lishers mailed 1,342,375 sacks of second-class matter during the 
month of June, 1908, of which 77.3 per cent was fully made up 
before mailing and dispatched intact. More than 15 per cent 
additional was partly made up, and but 7.1 per cent was received 
from publishers without any separation. 

The plan of transporting second-class matter direct from pub- 
lishing houses in New York City to the various railroad stations, 
thus avoiding handling in the post-offices, has been extended. Dur- 
ing the month of June, 1908, of this class of matter 1,321,362 pounds 
were weighed at the publication houses and dispatched directly to 
railroad stations. This was in addition to the daily papers, which 
in large part were similarly handled. 

RELIEF MEASURES. 

It is recommended that legislation be enacted providing the fol- 
lowing changes in the railway mail service, namely : 

That when a clerk is so seriously disabled as not to be able to 
resume duty at the expiration of twelve months, he may be granted 
further leave with pay at 50 per cent of his regular compensation 
during such disability for not exceeding twelve additional months. 



BBPOBT OP THE POSTMASTEE-GENBRAL. 67 

That railway postal clerks be allowed leave of absence with pay, 
under such regulations as the Postmaster-General may prescribe, for 
a period not exceeding thirty days, and in case of sickness thirty ad- 
ditional days, in any one year, with the understanding that their 
duties shall be performed without expense to the Government during 
the period for which this leave is granted, the clerks to provide sub- 
stitutes at their own expense to perform such duties. 

I commend for the careful consideration of Congress these addi- 
tional subjects as soon as the postal revenues justify: 

Provisions for an allowance for traveling expenses of railway pos- 
tal clerks while away from their homes and the initial points of their 
runs and in the discharge of their duties. 

Suitable provision for the retirement of railway postal clerks who 
have or may become unfit for active service by reason of physical 
disability incurred in line of duty. 

NEW DIVISION.' 

The rapid growth of the section of country embraced in the States 
of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho, and the Territory of Alaska ren- 
ders it advisable to create a new division of Railway Mail Service in 
that section, and I recommend that Congress make suitable provision 
therefor. 

INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, the gross amount of 
fines and deductions from the pay of postal contractors and others 
was $1,045,062.06; the amount of remissions on account of satisfac- 
tory explanations was $269,607.26, leaving a net total of fines aijd 
deductions amounting to $775,454.80. 

It is expected that during the coming year the department will be 
able to arrange to make payments for the transportation of the mails 
by railroad and electric-car companies monthly instead of quarterly, 
as heretofore. Other classes of mail-transportation service are paid 
for monthly, and it is believed that the change contemplated will be 
decidedly in the interest of good service. 

EQUrPMBNT. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, the amount expended 
for mail bags, etc., and for repair of the same, was $445,029.35 ; for 



58 BEPOBT OP THE POSTMASTEB-GENBBAL. 

mail locks, keys, etc., including repair of the same, $45,205.41. Dur- 
ing the year 338,848 pouches and sacks of all kinds were purchased, 
being 27,011 more than during the previous fiscal year, while 99,462 
pieces of equipment were condemned as unfit for further use. Sacks 
to the number of 301,635 were issued to the Executive Departments 
and oflSces in Washington. The estimated number of mail pouches 
and sacks in use and in reserve June 30, 1908, was 2,238,891. 

In recent years various improvements have been made in mail 
equipment, and during the past fiscal year specifications were issued 
inviting propositions looking to improvements in mail pouch and 
sack opening and closing devices. The committee which examined 
the models submitted has suggested that a test be made of a special 
pouch prepared in the department. The pouch is lighter in weight 
than the one now used in the service. It is the constant desire of the 
department to produce lighter equipment, so as to effect a saving in 
the cost of mail transportation. 

The heavy demands for mail sacks and pouches during the Christ- 
mas holiday season render it necessary to carry a large proportion of 
the mail equipment in storage during a considerable part of the 
year; hence as the storage facilities at post-oflSces are limited, the 
problem is one difficult of solution. During the past year it has been 
necessary to make special arrangements at Rochester, N. Y., and 
Indianapolis, Ind. The post-office at Boston, Mass., uses large quan- 
tities of mail equipment. The accommodations at that place are so 
limited that barely more than a single carload can be stored at a time. 
In order that the Boston office and the New England States can be 
adequately supplied, it will be necessary to arrange for additional 
space in or near the Boston post-office. 

ISSUE or POSTAGE-STAMPED PAPER. 

The total number of ordinary, postage-due, and special-delivery 
stamps, stamped envelopes, newspaper wrappers, postal cards, and 
international reply coupons issued during the year was 9,772,059,664, 
and of stamp books, 18,213,310. The revenue value of these issues was 
$176,974,190.24, an increase of $3,967,713.97 over 1907. 

A postal card of new design was described in the last annual 
report, the object being to provide a space for messages on the ad- 
dress side. It was put on sale in the fiscal year 1908, and so popular 
has it become that it already forms half the number of cards issued. 



BBPOBT OP THE POSTMASTEE-QENEEAIi, 59 

SHIPMENT OF STAMP SUPPLIES BY FREIGHT. 

Energetic effort has been made to carry out the provision of the 
post-office appropriation act of March 2, 1907, requiring that prior 
to the mail weighings in each section stamped envelopes and postal 
cards shall be withdrawn from the mails, when in freightable lots 
and whenever practicable, and thereafter shipped by freight or 
express. To that end distributing depots are being established in 
centrally located post-offices in the section in which the mails are to 
be weighed. It has not been deemed practicable to ship cards or 
envelopes by freight in less than carload lots because of the danger of 
depredations if such valuable supplies were shipped in freight cars 
with mixed assortments of merchandise and were accessible to all the 
persons entering the cars. Cards, ordinary stamped envelopes, and 
stamped wrappers are also being shipped by freight to the cities 
having sufficient postal business to enable the postmasters to handle 
carload lots. 

STAMPED ENVELOPES AND POSTAL CARDS. 

The stamped-envelope contract was awarded to a new contractor 
for the four-year term beginning July 1, 1907. The envelopes fur- 
nished are up to standard, and orders are being filled promptly. 

The central location of the factory at Dayton, Ohio, is a matter of 
some importance in the saving of transportation of the envelopes by 
mail and freight. 

From an administrative standpoint there are many reasons why 
the Government should make its own stamped envelopes and print 
its postal cards. In no other way can thoroughly satisfactory super- 
vision be secured. 

POSTAL MONEY-ORDER SYSTEM. 

That the convenience and security of the postal money-order system 
are appreciated by the public is evidenced by the constant increase in 
the number of domestic money-order transactions. During the fiscal 
year 1908 there was an increase of nearly 3,000,000 in domestic orders. 
The total value of domestic orders was $498,699,637.49, or $19,049,- 
294.85 more than the previous year. The increase in international 
orders was 71,604, in the sum of $4,891,677.25. The fees for issuing 
money orders amounted to more than $4,700,000. 



60 BEPOET OF THB P06TMASTEE-GEKE&AL. 

The gain on foreign exchange purchased for the year in the settle- 
ment of foreign money-order balances was $324,244.03. 

The department increased the number of money-order oflSces from 
37,572 to 43,313 during the year. 

It has not been practicable up to this time to make all post-offices 
money-order offices, but no effort will be spared to extend the system 
so that in time its introduction will be coincident with the establish- 
ment of a post-office, and the transaction of money-order business 
will be a part of the duties of every postmaster. 

PROPOSED POSTAL NOTE. 

The unceasing demand for the introduction of a postal note such 
as would enable the public more cheaply and conveniently to transmit 
through the mails sums of money not exceeding $2.50 impels me to 
renew my recommendation of last year that a postal-note bill be 
enacted into law at the coming session of Congress. 

"additional condition " IN BONDS OF POSTMASTERS AT MONEY-ORDER 
OFFICES SHOULD BE ELIMINATED. 

As was pointed out in my last annual report, no necessity exists 
for the " additional condition " forming a part of the bonds of post- 
masters at money-order offices, and I therefore concur in the Third 
Assistant Postmaster-General's recommendation that section 3834 of 
the Revised Statutes be amended by striking therefrom the follow- 
ing words : 

" and where an office is designated as a money-order office, the bond of the post- 
master shall contain an additional condition for the faithful performance of 
all duties and obligations in connection with the money-order business." 

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE REGISTRY SYSTEM. 

The past fiscal year has brought improvements in the registry 
service, among which may be mentioned the discontinuance of the 
registry "gray card bill," saving considerable money and labor; the 
introduction of a new form of window registration receipt as a time 
saver to the public in registering mail ; indemnity for loss of regis- 
tered articles in the foreign mails ; and provision for handling regis- 
tered mail on board United States naval vessels. 



BBFOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-OEKEKAL. 61 

Hie rate of loss of domestic registered mail, based upon the num- 
ber of cases in which recovery was impossible and excluding those 
in which no financial loss occurred, was one in every 13,174. 

The aggregate registrations, letters and parcels, paid and free, for 
the year was 41,312,855, an increase of 3,057,206, or 7.99 per cent 

IMMEDIATE PAYMENT OF INDEMNITY. 

In perfecting arrangements for the payment of indemnity for the 
loss of domestic registered mail immediately upon proof of loss, with- 
out waiting until responsibility is fixed, it was ascertained through a 
decision of the Comptroller of the Treasury that under existing law 
any collections made after the payment of indemnity would have to 
be deposited in the Treasury as a part of the postal revenues. The 
Congress was therefore urged, without success, to enact legislation 
permitting the deposit of the collections to the credit of the appro- 
priation from which payment is made. The Congress, however, 
increased the appropriation, and under this new policy it is expected 
that during the current fiscal year every old indemnity claim will be 
settled, so that thereafter nothing but new cases will be outstanding. 

A large proportion of the loss of registered matter for which pay- 
ment of indemnity was approved during the year was chargeable to 
railway wrecks. During the previous year the largest proportion of 
such loss was due to burglaries. 

VALUE OF SERVICE FOR WHICH DEPARTMENT RECEIVES NO REVENUE. 

The special weighing of the mails of 1907 shows that the depart- 
ment carried free for the other executive departments during the past 
fiscal year mail matter which, if mailed by the public at regular rates, 
would have yielded a revenue to the department of $20,000,000. As 
this service assists the administration of the (jovemment, it inures 
to the benefit of the entire people. 

It also shows that the department carried periodicals free in the 
county of publication which, if paid for by the publishers at the 
same rate as other second-class matter, would have yielded the 
department a revenue of $531,560.94 per annum. 

Hie department handles second-class matter at an approximate 
average cost of 8f cents per pound, for which it receives a revenue of 



62 BEPOET OP THE POSTMASTER-GENEEAL. 

1 cent per pound. As there were 746,357,282 pounds of second-class 
matter — free-in-county and paid — carried during the fiscal year, the 
department performed a service the value of which was approxi- 
mately $57,000,000 without a specific money return for the cost 
involved. 

SECOND-CLASS MAIL MATTER. 

The ordinary rate on this class of matter is 1 cent per pound, bulk 
weight, from one point to any other within our own territory and 
insular possessions, and to Mexico and Cuba. 

The report of the special weighings of the mail under authority of 
Congress from July 1, 1907, to December 31, 1907, separates mail 
matter and the revenue derived therefrom into the following relative 
proportions : 

First-class mail matter contributes 12.81 per cent of the weight of 
the mail carried and yields 75.74 per cent of the revenue. 

Second-class mail matter contributes 63.91 per cent of the weight 
of mail carried and yields 5.19 per cent of the revenue. 

Third-class mail matter contributes 14.61 per cent of the weight of 
mail carried and yields 14.63 per cent of the revenue. 

Fourth-class mail matter contributes 4.79 per cent of the weight of 
mail carried and yields 4.44 per cent of the revenue. 

Congressional franked matter contributes 0.37 per cent of the 
weight of mail carried and yields no revenue. 

Departmental penalty matter contributes 3.51 per cent of the weight 
of mail carried and yields no revenue. 

Second-class mail matter, therefore, contributes approximately 64 
per cent of the total weight of mail carried, yet directly earns only 
about 5 per cent of the revenue. It is known, however, that second- 
class matter is instrumental in originating a large amount of other 
classes of mail matter. 

The charge for carrying second-class mail matter was intentionally 
fixed below cost for the purpose of encouraging the dissemination 
of information of educational value to the people, and the benefit of 
the cheap rate of postage is passed on to the subscriber in a lower 
subscription price than would otherwise be possible. That the Con- 
gress never intended that the law granting this low rate of postage 
should become the means of flooding the mails with trashy pub- 
lications, issued principally for advertising purposes, is shown by 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEBAIi. 68 

the language of the law itself, which requires that a publication, to 
be admissible to the second-class rates, must, among other things, 
have a "legitimate list of subscribers," and provides that nothing 
contained in the act " shall be so construed as to admit to the second- 
class rate regular publications designed primarily for advertising 
purposes, or for free circulation, or for circulation at nominal rates." 

Great abuses sprang up, nevertheless, and the department has 
endeavored to eliminate them. 

The greatest abuses with which the department has had to contend 
had their origin in the circulation of so-called sample copies almost 
without restriction, and the carrying of expired subscriptions upon 
which to base a privilege for more sample copies. Examinations 
have shown instances in which only about 3 per cent of the claimed 
legitimate list of subscribers of a publication was paid to a current 
date. In such cases large " circulation " was claimed, but such circu- 
lation, manifestly for the purpose of securing high advertising rates, 
consisted almost entirely of expired subscriptions and sample copies. 

To effect real reform and to attempt to restore the second-class 
mailing privilege to the status the law originally intended it should 
occupy it was necessary to strike at the root of the evil. Regulations 
were issued allowing publishers a reasonable time to secure renewals 
of subscriptions and providing that unless subscriptions were 
expressly renewed after the term for which they were paid (within 
periods specified and according to the frequency of issue of the pub- 
lication) they should not be counted in the legitimate list of sub- 
scribers, and limiting the sample copies to a 10 per cent cumulative 
privilege based on actual mailings to legitimate subscribers. 

These regulations were carefully considered from the standpoint 
of their consistency with the law and of their effects on the legiti- 
mate publisher. There was no desire to subject publishers to hard- 
ship, or to deny them any right consistent with a natural and reason- 
able construction of the statute governing the second class of mail 
matter. The amendments to the regulations were framed in the 
firm conviction that they would prove of little or no embarrassment 
to publishers generally, but, on the contrary, would be of real benefit 
and assistance to them as well as to the Post-Office Department. 

During the past year the department has endeavored to conduct a 
campaign of education among publishers in regard to the second class 



64 BEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENEBAL. 

of mail matter. Heretofore publishers as a whole have possessed but 
meager information in regard to the postal laws and regulations upon 
the subject. The department has availed itself of every opportunity 
to place authentic information in the hands of publishers, and 
the subject has been given as much publicity as possible through 
addresses to press associations, pamphlets, correspondence, etc. Such 
of the postal laws and regulations as pertain to the second class of 
mail matter have been printed in pamphlet form for free distribution. 
Every publisher in the United States and its possessions whose pub- 
lication is entered as second-class matter as well as every post-office in 
the United States at which second-class matter is entered has received 
one or more copies of this pamphlet. Furthermore, every such pub- 
lisher has been furnished with a copy of a pamphlet issued as a public 
document setting forth the policy of the department regarding 
second-class mail matter and an explanation of its order above men- 
tioned amending the regulations pertaining thereto. 

That the confidence of the department as to the reception of the 
regulations and their effect upon legitimate publishers' interests was 
not misplaced is shown by the fact that the legitimate publishers, 
with rare exceptions, have strongly indorsed the position of the 
department. This has been manifested not only by hundreds of 
letters from individual publishers, but by resolutions of approval 
from most of the editorial and newspaper and periodical publishers' 
associations of the country, as well as from associations of adver- 
tisers, merchants, and manufacturers, and even people not publishers 
have written letters of conmiendation. 

While the department will not attempt to deprive any publication 
of its second-class status when entitled thereto, the publishers who 
try to abuse the privilege will be compelled to obey the law. 

RESULTS ACCOMPLISHED UNDER THE NEW SECOND-CLASS MATT, 

REGULATIONS. 

The results accomplished under the new regulations covering 
second-class mail matter have been greater than were hoped for. 
During the fiscal year there were mailed 694,865,884 pounds of 
second-class matter upon which postage was paid at the cent-a-pound 
rate, yielding a revenue of $6,948,658.84, a decrease of 18,079,292 
pounds in weight and of $180,792.90 in revenue.' There was also 



SEFOBT OF THE POSTBIASTEB-GENEBAL. 66 

a net decrease of 758,974 pounds of free-in-county matter. For the 
previous five years there had been an average annual increase of 
51,758^64 pounds of paid and free matter combined. This shows 
that there was a decrease of nearly 70,000,000 pounds of second-class 
matter as the result of only six months of actual experience under the 
new regulations. This was a real benefit to legitimate publishers, 
and resulted in taking out of the mails an excess of sample copies cir- 
culated for purely advertising purposes contrary to tlie law granting 
the cent-a-pound rate. 

While this decrease in the annual weight of second-class matter 
resulted in a reduction of $180,000 in the revenue, its beneficial 
result, if it be maintained, will be reflected in a reduction in the cost 
of transportation, that will much exceed the reduction in revenues. 

While the new regulations have taken out of the mails millions of 
copies of publications not entitled, under the law, to be carried at 
the second-class rate of postage, and still further progress can be 
made by careful administration, there remain some grievous abuses 
which can be ended only by legislation. 

AMENDMENT TO POSTAL CONVENTION BETWEEN TIIE UNITED STATES AND 

CANADA. 

On May 8, 1907, the agreement between Canada and this country, 
which provided for the transmission of second-class matter originat- 
ing in either country and addressed for delivery in the other at the 
same rates as if addressed for domestic delivery, was terminated at 
the instance of the Canadian postal administration. 

Under the new arrangement which then went into effect the postage 
rate applicable to second-class matter in each country addressed for 
delivery in the other was 1 cent for each 4 ounces or fraction thereof, 
calculated on the bulk weight of each package and prepaid by stamps 
affixed* 

The Canadian administration, however, has since consented to a 
restoration of the former privileges, in so far as newspapers published 
as frequently as six times a week are concerned, and our daily publica- 
tions may now be mailed to Canada at the rate of 1 cent per pound. 

Arrangements have been made permitting American publishers of 
other than daily newspapers to have their publications accepted for 

G5064— I' M (i IIKJS 5 



66 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

mailing at certain stipulated Canadian post-offices at the applicable 
Canadian second-class postage rates, provided such publications are 
deemed ^^ legitimate '' by the Canadian authorities. Canadian pub- 
lishers have been accorded similar privileges in this country. The 
publisher is obliged to convey his mailings to the office of entry in 
the other country at his own expense. 

The present arrangements with Canada are not entirely satisfac- 
tory to this department, which is anxious to secure complete restora- 
tion of the old conditions. However, the department has greatly 
assisted American publishers by securing a partial restoration. 

FOURTH-CLASS MAHi MATTER. 

The attention of the Congress is again invited to the recommenda- 
tion for a reduction in the rate and an increase in the weight limit 
for fourth-class matter in order to remove an unjust discrimination 
to our own people. The rate to foreign countries is 12 cents a pound, 
while to any point in the United States it is 16 cents a pound. 

The six months' weighing of the mails authorized by the Congress 
demonstrated that the average weight of parcels of fourth-class 
matter conveyed through the mails was 5.44 ounces. 

PERFORATING POSTAGE STAMPS FOR mENTIFICATION PURPOSES. 

Representations having been made by individuals, firms, and com- 
mercial organizations of serious loss through the pilfering of post- 
age stamps by those having access to the supply on hand, purchasers 
of stamps were authorized by an order dated May 4, 1908, to perfo- 
rate or puncture their stamps with letters, numerals, or other marks 
or devices, not exceeding one thirty-second of an inch in diameter, 
and the whole space occupied by the identifying device not to exceed 
one-third of an inch square, for the purpose of identification and 
protection from theft, but not for advertising. 

REDEMPTION OF STAMPED PAPER. 

The value of postage stamps, stamped envelopes, newspaper wrap- 
pers, and postal cards redeemed from postmasters and destroyed 
during the fiscal year was $734,211.12, consisting of 1G,699 claims. 
This represents an increase compared with the preceding year of 
1,659 in the number of claims and $89,818.77 in value. 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEBAL. 67 

POSTAL DEPOSITARIES. 

Arrangements have been effected whereby, since July 1, 1908, all 
postmasters are depositing their surplus postal funds with a selected 
postmaster in each State instead of with the assistant treasurers of 
the United States. This method of deposit furnishes additional 
funds to these selected postmasters for the payment of salaries to 
employees of the rural-delivery service and will greatly reduce the 
number and amount of monthly advances heretofore required by such 
postmasters. Surplus postal funds now reach the Treasurer and 
assistant treasurers through the disbursing postmasters. 

REVISION OF ACCOUNTING METHODS. 

The subject of revising the departmental accounting methods has 
been given very careful consideration, in view of the recommendations 
made by the accountants in the preliminary report of February 10, 
1908, of the Joint Conmiission on Business Method of Post-OflSce De- 
partment and Postal Service. Although the Congress has not author- 
ized the clerical and administrative facilities to enable this department 
to maintain an adequate administrative audit, it was determined to 
inaugurate a complete system of double-entry bookkeeping covering 
the fiscal operations of the department. Accordingly, an accounting 
section of the Division of Finance has been created and is in success- 
ful operation, in which books of accounts are kept by double-entry or 
proof methods, showing the revenues and expenditures of the postal 
and money-order services, and all items of resource and liability 
relating thereto. The data as obtained from administrative sources 
in the department are treated tentatively, pending the certification 
of the accounts audited and settled by the Auditor for the Post-Office 
Department. It is hoped to extend the work to statistical infor- 
mation based upon analyses of expenditures and revenues in their 
relation to each other and as to the functions of a public-service 
institution. 

SUPPLIES FOR THE POSTAL SERVICE. 

The reorganization of the Division of Supplies was completed dur- 
ing the year and requisitions for stock supplies are now filled within 
twenty- four hours after receipt. A large amount of the correspond- 
ence formerly conducted by the division has been eliminated, and the 



68 BEPOET OP THE POSTMASTEB-GENBRAL. 

number of employees reduced 20 per cent. Congress made appro- 
priations amounting to $1,715,060 for the various items handled 
by this division during the current fiscal year, representing an in- 
crease of 35 per cent over last year. With these increased appropria- 
tions it is possible to keep an adequate stock of supplies on hand, so 
that the needs of the service can be met fully and promptly. No 
increase over the current appropriations has been requested in the 
estimates for 1910. 

An investigation was recently made by the Purchasing Agent and 
the superintendent of the Division of Supplies to determine the 
feasibility of purchasing in the larger cities the supplies used in 
the local oflSces of the postal service and of establishing supply 
branches at points outside of Washington. It was found that pur- 
chases could not be made as advantageously as under the present 
scheme, which provides for the delivery of the bulk of general sup- 
plies at Washington. The department would suffer a distinct loss in 
the purchase of supplies locally, the prices being on an average about 
40 per cent in excess of those paid under existing contracts. 

During the year regulations were promulgated fixing more clearly 
the functions of the Purchasing Agent and the bureau officers in 
ordering supplies and keeping accounts in connection therewith. 

DIVISION OF DEAD LETTERS. 

Improvement in methods and increased efficiency of personnel, due 
to progressive reorganization, made it possible to restore to the senders 
all the undelivered letters received during the year from which their 
names and addresses could be ascertained, and on the last day of the 
fiscal year every piece of mail matter then received had been opened 
and treated, an unprecedented achievement. 

The total number of pieces of mail matter received during the year 
was 13,145,172, an increase of 139,917 pieces. There were returned to 
senders 7,202,684 letters and parcels, an increase of 1,976,892. 

In order to promote a more general use of the sender's return card 
on letters a form giving a model address has been sent out with each 
returned letter. 

SAVINGS IN PURCHASES. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, there were negotiated 
by the Purchasing Agent 163 formal contracts. -Of this number 146 



BBPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GBNERAL. 69 

were for furnishing general or miscellaneous supplies for the Post- 
Office Department and postal service during the fiscal year beginning 
July 1, 1908. Owing to a decrease in the market price of raw mate- 
rials and greater competition among manufacturers and dealers, the 
prices at which many articles are being furnished under these con- 
tracts are much lower than prices previously paid for the^same 
articles. 

The amount of the contracts for miscellaneous supplies for the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, based on the estimated quantities 
given in the specifications, was $755,193.54, while the amounts of the 
ccmtracts for the same quantity and kind of supplies for the current 
fiscal year is $542,874.48— a saving to the department of $212,319.06. 

The other contracts negotiated during the fiscal year were 
for supplies used in large quantities by the postal service. All 
of these were made for a term of four years, except the contracts for 
facing slips, which were made for one year. The prices at which 
these supplies are being furnished under the new contracts do not 
differ materially from the prices named in the former contracts for 
the same articles. 

DIVISION OF POST-OFFICE INSPECTORS. 

During the past fiscal year inspectors visited Mexico, Canada, 
Guam, and the Philippine Islands for the purpose of securing evi- 
dence in the prosecution of offenders against the postal laws. 

The sea post service in and out of New York was inspected from 
port to port, and much improvement in the handling of trans- Atlantic 
mails will result. 

The inspection force investigated 312,138 cases of all kinds during 
the year, which was an increase of 20,980 over the total number 
investigated in 1907. Of this number 16,595 cases related to regis- 
tered mail matter, 135,299 to ordinary mail matter, and 41,700 to com- 
plaints affecting the postal service or employees, while 7,725 were 
investigations in connection with the establishment and inspection of 
rural delivery service, and the remainder were miscellaneous cases 
relating^to depredations, the investigation of foreign mail losses, in- 
spection of post-oflSces, etc. 

The collections made by post-office inspectors during the year aggre- 
gated $632,546.09, covering loss or rifling of or damage to mail, wrong 
payments of money orders, shortages in postal or money-order ac- 



70 BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEE-GENERAIi. 

counts, penalties for violations of the regulations, sums due the Qoy- 
emment on account of false returns of cancellations, etc 

The number of burglaries of post-oflSces reported increased from 
2,647 in 1907 to 3,304 in 1908, about 25 per cent, while the arrests for 
the two years numbered 1,984 and 2,548, respectively, an increase of 
28 per cent. 

PAT OF INSPBCTOBS. 

Attention is invited to the reconmiendation of last year that the 
salaries of inspectors be increased substantially to meet the compensa- 
tion which men of like ability and responsibility can command else- 
where, and this should be done as soon as the postal revenues will 
justify it. 

USE OF THE MAILS FOR UNLAWFUL PURPOSES. 

During the year there were 242 citations to appear and answer 
charges of illegal use of the mails. Of the 230 fraud orders issued 
23 were supplemental to previous orders and intended to reach those 
concerns which, having been declared fraudulent, were seeking 
to continue their operations under new names, and 23 were against 
foreign lottery concerns and their agents, who were ascertained to 
be using the mails of the United States in the promotion of lottery 
enterprises. 

In recent years the Post-Office Department has endeavored to apply 
the law to all grades and classes of unlawful enterprises, whether 
great or small. This course has aroused the intense antagonism of 
swindlers throughout the country who carry on their operations 
through the mails upon an extensive scale. They have endeavored 
to have the existing law authorizing the issuance of fraud orders 
either repealed or so amended as almost totally to destroy its effi- 
ciency in safeguarding the interest of the people. 

It has been the purpose of this department to make these fraudu- 
lent concerns realize that the laws must be obeyed by all, and it will 
not be deterred therefrom by the criticisms of the dishonest or mis- 
informed. 

BILLS FOR INJUNCTION. 

During the year four applications were made to the Federal courts 
for the process of injunction to restrain the enforcement of fraud 
orders issued to postmasters under the authority of the act of Septem- 



HBFOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEBAL. 71 

ber 19, 1890, and section 4 of the act of March 2, 1895, forbidding the 
delivery of mail and the payment of money orders to persons and 
concerns found to be conducting lotteries and fraudulent schemes. In 
three of these cases the application for injunction was denied upon 
preliminary hearing, while in the fourth case the suit was withdrawn 
by the complainant before the time fixed for the hearifig. 

OBSCENE AND INDECENT MATTEB. 

The policy of applying and enforcing more strictly the statute pro- 
hibiting the transmission in the mails of publications or other matter 
containing obscene or suggestive illustrations or advertisements has 
accomplished highly beneficial results. 

By the act approved May 27, 1908, making appropriations for the 
service of the Post-OflSce Department, it is provided : 

That section 3893 of the Revised Statutes of the United States be, and the 
same is hereby, amended by adding thereto the following: "And the term 
'Indecent' within the Intendment of this section shall include matter of a 
character tending to incite arson, murder, or assassination." 

On June 12, 1908, a general circular of instructions was issued to 
postmasters for their guidance in the enforcement of this provision. 
The beneficial effects of this enactment are already seen, although 
it has been in force only about five months, and there has been no 
indication that the statute has worked injustice or undue hardship 
upon any person or interest. 

CLAIMS OF POSTMASTERS FOR REIMBURSEMENT FOR LOSSES SUSTAINED. 

By the acts of C!ongress, approved June 11, 1896, and May 
9, 1898, the Postmaster-General is authorized to reimburse post- 
masters in simis not exceeding $10,000 for losses of government 
funds resulting from " fire, burglary, or other unavoidable casualty " 
at their respective post-offices, and for losses of such funds in transit 
from postmasters to their designated depositaries. The Assistant 
Attorney-General is required by the postal regulations to make 
examination of this class of cases and advise the Postmaster-General 
as to their allowance. The number of such claims received during the 
fiscal year just closed was 1,242, an increase of 103. The number of 
claims allowed was 865, a decrease of 28. 



72 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTBB-OEKEBAL. 
FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 



The following is a statement of the department's finances: 

The receipts for the year were $191,478,663.41; the expenditures 

$208,351,886.15; the excess of expenditures over receipts, $16,878,- 

222.74. 

Comparison of receipts and expenditures for the fiscal year ended June SO^ 1908, with those 

of the jtrevious year. 





1907. 


1906. 


RECEIPTS. 

Ordinary postal revenue 


$179,845,291.28 
8,739,714.29 


9187,681,849.68 


Receipts from monev-order bUKine.s8 


8,946,818.78 






Total receipts from all sources 


183,685,006.57 


191,478,668.41 






EXPENDITURES. 

Expenditures on account of the year 


189,935,242.79 


•W, WW, 222. 11 


Expenditures on account of prcviotiH years 

Total expenditures during' the year 


903,046.66 


828,664.04 


190,288,288.34 
183,565,006.57 


208,361,886.16 
191,478.668.41 


Total receints durinir the vear 




Total excess of exDonditures over receints 


6,653,282.77 i ML878-222-74 









POSTAL REVENUE IN DETAIL. 

The postal revenue for the year from all sources was as follows : 

Sales of stamps, stamped envelopes, newspaper wrappers, and 

postal cards $173, 374, 712. 02 

Bocond-class postage (pound rate) paid In money 6,950,606.76 

Hox rents 3, 833, 303. 66 

Uitvoiino from money-order business 3, 677, 766. 44 

Tlilnl and fourth class postage paid In money 3,033,943.46 

\t»\\vr pontage paid in money, principally balances due from 

^^r0lKn |M)iital administrations 107, 482. 11 

flMwi Mini iMmaltles 101,272.01 

MliHHsniiitfHiuii receipts 93, 986. 68 

M^hMHh fn»m unclaimed dead letters 36, 644. 06 

Vh^m^M wwwspy onlom more than one year old 269,068.34 

\\s\i^\ m^lptP 191,478,663.41 

^*^\^ ttvM Wf^xw of |H)Htal revenue above enumerated (sales of stamps, 
^^^ ^Hv4y\vW»^ iUi* Httumnt of special-delivery stamps sold, as well as 
"^^^ ^*^^ VVm^ tUi^ pnytnent of registry fees. The amount of stamps 
4^<\^ tm^M^ VHm^ mr tx^ \\m in the payment of registry fees doubtless 
^"^AwAjA^^ls^ ^M^ tm^mnt used during the year for such fees, viz, 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEE-GBKERAIi. 78 

$2,889,912.80. The estimated amount of special-delivery stamps sold, 
based upon the amount of the fees paid for special delivery of mail 
during the year, is $1,098,761.11. 

EXPENDITURES IN DETAIL. 

The expenditures of the postal service for the year are shown, by 
items, in the following statement : 

Transportation of malls on railroads $43,588,012.70 

Rural delivery 34,355,209.04 

Compensation to assistant postmasters and clerks in post-offices. 30, 903, 351. 75 

City delivery 26, 343, 201. 19 

Compensation to postmasters 25, 599, .397. 52 

Railway Mail Service 17, 373, 336. 92 

Transportation of mails on star routes 7, 125, 025. 30 

Railway post-office car service 4, 567, 366. 25 

Rent, light, and fuel for first, second, and third ^lass post-offices. ' 3, 193, 820. 94 

Transportation of foreign mails 2,844,679.63 

Mail-messenger service 1,416,300.19 

Transportation of mails — wagon service 1,319,017.18 

Special-delivery service 1, 108, 164. 35 

Manufacture of stamped envelopes 1, 094, 100. 49 

Post-office inspectors 1, 060, 847. 90 

Transportation of mails — electric and cable cars 791,733.33 

Transportation of malls on steamboats 763, 333. 75 

Manufacture of postage stamps 494,046.04 

Transportation of mails — pneumatic-tube service 482,812.62 

Mail bags, cord fasteners, label cases, etc 447,500.00 

Payment of money orders more than one year old 378, 010. 97 

Wrapping twine 280, 378. 09 

Canceling machines 274, Oil. 09 

Miscellaneous items at first and second class post-offices 254, 637. 37 

Freight and expressage on supplies ^ 211,497.07 

Blanks, blank books, etc., for money-order service 198,968.65 

Registered package, tag, official, and dead letter envelopes 197, 178. 74 

Manufacture of postal cards 180,152.98 

Balances due foreign countries 138, 052. 82 

Stationery : 94, 059. 75 

Typewriters, copying presses, etc 78, 699. T4 

Supplies, city-delivery service 67, 050. 60 

Hail locks and keys 44,736.10 

Buildings for use of Post-Offlce Department 43, 511. 31 

Facing slips, etc 42,746.36 

Bklpment of supplies 40, 674. 99 



74 EEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEE-GENBRAIi. 

Postmarking, rating, and money-order stamps $34, 979. 79 

Assistant superintendents, division of salaries and allowances— 30, 747. 03 

Distribution of stamped envelopes 21, 004. 47 

Eixpenditures under 16 smaller items of appropriation (less 

tlian $20,000 each) 45,867.10 

Total expenditures for the year 207, 528, 222. 11 

Receipts for the year 191,478,663.41 

Excess of expenditures over receipts 16, 049; 558. 70 

Expenditures on account of previous years 823, 664. 04 

Total excess of expenditures over receipts 16, 873, 222. 74 

Amount of loss by burglary, fire, bad debts, etc 37, 056. 25 

Gross deficit for fiscal year ended June 30, 1908 16, 910, 278. 99 

THE DEFICIT AND SAIiARY INCREASES. 

;rhis deficit of $16,910,278.99 is the largest in the history of the Post- 
OflSce Department. The increase in the revenues of the fiscal year 

1907 over those of the fiscal year 1906 was $15,652,222.62, or 9.32 per 
cent. The fiscal year 1908 showed an increase in receipts over 1907 
of $7,893,657.84, or 4.29 per cent. 

The increases authorized by the Congress in the rate of pay to rural 
carriers, post-office clerks, railway mail clerks, etc., for the fiscal year 

1908 over the fiscal year 1907, as shown by the report of the Auditor 
for the Post-Office Department, amounted to $9,891,321.92. Without 
these increases in salaries the deficit would have been but $320,925.60 
more than the previous year. 

If the usual percentage of increase in receipts had been maintained, 
the revenue in 1908 would have exceeded that in 1907 by $17,110,- 
122.51. This sum, added to the total revenue of 1907, would have 
amounted to $200,695,128.08, which represents the revenue the depart- 
ment would probably have secured but for the intervening financial 
depression. With these receipts there would have been a deficit of 
$7,656,758.07, but without the increases in salaries named below 
there would have been a surplus of receipts over expenditures of 
$2,234,563.85. 

The average pay of railway postal clerks was increased by $65.97, 
resulting in the expenditure of $1,009,080.37 more than would have 
been paid had the average salary remained the same as in 1907. 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEE-GENEBAL. 



75 



The average pay of rural carriers was increased by $168.48, result- 
ing in the expenditure of $6,594,837.18 more than would have been 
paid had the average salary remained the same as in 1907. 

The average pay of city letter carriers was increased by $53.72, 
resulting in the expenditure of $1,415,609.64 more than would have 
been paid had the average salary remained the same as in 1907. 

The average salary of post-oflSce clerks and assistant postmasters 
was increased by $27.89, resulting in the expenditure of $871,794.73 
more than would have been paid had the average salary remained at 
the 1907 rate. 



GROWTH OF THE SERVICE BY YEARS. 

The following table shows the receipts, expenditures, and appro- 
priations for the postal service by fiscal years since 1892, with the 
increase each year by amounts and percentages : 



Fis- 
cal 
year. 


Receipts. 


Increase 
over pre- 
vious 
year. 


Per 
cent 
of in- 
crease. 


Expendi- 
tures, postal 
service. 


Increase 
over pre- 
vious 
year. 


Per 
cent 
of in- 
crease. 


Appropria- 
tions, postal 
service. 


Increase 
over pre- 
vious 
year. 


Per 

cent 
of in- 
crease. 


1892.. 


870, 930, 475 


$4, 998, 690 


7.58 


$76,980,846 


$3,921,827 


5.36 


$77, 907, 222 






1893.. 


75,896,933 


6,066,457 


7.14 


81.681,681 


4.600,836 


6.97 


79,829,115 


$1,921,893 


2.46 


1894.. 


75,080,479 


a 816. 454 


al.07 


84,994,111 


3.412,430 


4.18 


84,004,314 


4,175,199 


5.28 


1896.. 


76,983,128 


1,902,W9 


2.63 


87,179,661 


2,185,440 


2.67 


87,236,699 


3,232,286 


3.84 


1896.. 


82.499,208 


5,516,080 


7.16 


90,932,669 


3,763,118 


4.30 


89,646,997 


2,309,398 


2.64 


1897.. 


82.665,462 


166,254 


.20 


94,077,242 


3,144,673 


3.46 


92,571,564 


3,025,567 


3.37 


1898.. 


89,012,618 


6,347,155 


7.67 98,033,523 


3,966,281 


4.20 


95,665,338 


3,093,774 


3.34 


1899.. 


95, 0-21, 384 


6,008,765 


6.75 101,632,160 


3,698,637 


3.67 


99,202,300 


3,536,962 


3.69 


1900.. 


102, 354, 579 


7,333,196 


7.71 107,740,267 


6, 108, 107 


6.01 


105,627,138 


6,424,838 


6.47 


1901.. 


111,631,193 


9,276,614 


9.06 115,554,920 


7,814,663 


7.26 


113,658,238 


8,031,100 


7.63 


1902.. 


121,848,047 


10,216,854 


9.16 124,785,697 


9,230,777 


7.98 


123,782,688 


10,124,460 


8.90 


1903.. 


134,224,443 


12,376,896 


10.15 138,784,487 


13,998,790 


11.21 


138,416,698 


14,633,910 


11.82 


1904.. 


143,582,624 


9,358,181 


6.97 162,362,116 


13,677,629 


9.78 


163,611,549 


15,094,951 


10.90 


1905.. 


152,826,58.') 


9,243,961 


6.42 ' 167,399,169 


15,037,053 


9.86 


170,845,998 


17,334,449 


11.28 


1906.. 


167,932,782 


15, 106, 197 


9.88 178,449,778 


11,050,609 


6.60 


181,022,093 


10,176,095 


5.95 


1907.. 


183,585,005 


15,652,223 


9,32 1 190,238,288 


11,788,610 


6.60 


191,670,998 


10,648,905 


6.88 


1908.. 


191,478,663 


7,893,6.')8 


4.29 208,351,886 


18,113,698 


9.62 


211,654,393 


19,983,395 


10.42 


1909.. 






{ 






222,960,892 


11.306.499 


5.34 






i 









aDecre&ae. 



Gborge v. L, Meyer, 

Postmaster- General. 



REPORT 

OF THE 

ASSISTANT ATTORNEY-GENERAL FOR 
THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT 

TO THE 

POSTMASTER-GENERAL 

FOR 

THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1908 



77 



REPORT 

OF THE 

ASSISTANT AHORNEY-GENERAL FOR THE POST-OFFICE 

DEPARTMENT. 



Office of the Assistant Attorney-General 

FOR THE Post-Office Department, 

Washington^ September 28^ J908. 
Sir : I have the honor to submit the following report of the opera- 
tions of this office for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908. 

In some branches the volume of work during the fiscal year 1908 
has not been so great as during the year immediately preceding, but 
these decreases have been more than counterbalanced by added labor 
in other directions. Thus, w^hile there is shown a diminution of 203- 
in the number of opinions rendered as compared with the fiscal year 
1907, the increase in the fraud orders issued over the number for that 
year was nearly 50 per cent. 

This increase, however, is not to be taken as meaning that the use 
of the mails for purposes of fraud has increased, for there can be no 

Question that quite the contrary is true. This is shown by the marked 
iminution in the volume of complaints received from the public, as 
w^ell as by the reduced number of cases reported upon by the division 
of post-office inspectors. The explanation is simply that, taking 
advantage of the reduction in the number of opinions required and 
of the decreased work in one or two other directions, the office has of 
its own initiative instituted inquiries and disposed of cases involving 
unlawful use of the mails, which in the previous year it would have 
been impossible for it to have done because of lack of time. 

FRAUDULENT SCHEMES AND LOTTERY ENTERPRISES. 

By section 3929 of the Revised Statutes, as amended bv the act of 
September 19, 1890, the Postmaster-General is authorized, upon evi- 
dence satisfactory to him that any person or company is engaged in 
conducting through the mails a lottery or similar enterprise, or a 
scheme for obtaining money or property by means of fraudulent pre- 
tenses or false representations, to direct the postmaster at any post- 
office at which registered letters may arrive addressed to such persons 
or company to return such letters, stamped " Fraudulent," to the 
writer thereof. Section 4041, as amended by the same act, empowers 
the Postmaster-General to forbid the payment of money orders drawn 
to the order of any person or company found to be using the mails in 
the conduct of a lottery or fraudulent scheme, and to provide by regu- 



80 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

lation for the repayment to the remitters of the sums named in such 
money orders. By the act of March 2, 1895, section 4, the provisions 
of section 3929 as amended are extended to " all letters or other matter 
sent bj^ mail." 

By regulation, the duty of considering the evidence gathered by 
post-office insi^ictoi-s tending to establish that the mails are being used 
in the conduct of lotteries or fraudulent schemes is assigned to the 
Assistant Attorney-General. To him, accordingly, are forwarded 
the reports of inspectors showing the results of their investigations. 
These reports and the evidence submitted with them are carefully 
examined, and in those cases in which it is indicated prima facie that 
the mails are being used in contravention of the statutes, the party 
seemingly chargeable with the violation is furnished with a statement 
or memorandum setting forth the scheme in brief, and informed that 
on a day stated he will be afforded opportunity to make answer to the 
allegations, also contained in said memorandum, that he is conduct- 
ing an enterprise prohibited by law. It is the uniform practice to 
require the filing of a written answer to such allegations or charges 
on or before the day fixed, although this may be supplemented ty 
oral argimient or explanation, if desired. The charges, evidence in 
support and defense of them, and the answer submitted are considered 
by the Assistant Attorney-General. If, in his judgment, it is estab- 
lished that the scheme in question is one which is prohibited by the 
statutes, a memorandum is prepared for submission to the Postmaster- 
General, showing the charges, the evidence adduced in support of 
them, the answer and the evidence offered by way of defense or ex- 
planation, and the conclusion reached thereupon by the Assistant 
Attorney-General. Upon this memorandum final action is taken by 
the Postmaster-(ieneral, consisting either in the issuance of a pro- 
hibitory order, in pursuance of the statutes referred to, or the dis- 
missal of the charges. 

During the year ended June 30, 1908, there were 242 citations to 
ai^pear and make answer to charges of illegal use of the mails, and 
fraud orders to the number of 230 were issued. Of the total number 
of fraud orders issued, 23 were supplemental to previous orders and 
intended to reach those persons and concerns who, having been 
declared fraudulent, were seeking to continue their operations un- 
der new names, and 23 were against foreign lottery concerns and 
their a*rents who were ascertained to be using the mails of the 
United States in the promotion of lottery enterprises. In the case 
of su])pleniental orders full hearing has already been accorded to 
the parties interested and the unlawful character of the business 
established. In such cases, therefore, hearings are unnecessary and 
could accomplish no useful end. The character of foreign lottery 
enterprises, on the other hand, is fully disclosed by the advertising 
matter used, and hearinjrs in respect of the oj^erations of such enter- 
prises would be wholly useless as well as quite impracticable. 

It will be seen that excluding the orders against foreign lotteries 
and domestic orders supplemental to those previously issued the cita- 
tions exceeded the fraud orders in number by 58. 

In recent years the Post-Office Department has not confined its 
work of suppressing fraudulent schemes to those of smaller magni- 
tude, but has endeavored to apply the law^ to all grades and classes of 



ASSISTANT ATTORNEY-GENERAL NEW JERSEY MINERAL CO. 81 

fraudulent enterprises, whether great or small. This course has 
aroused the intense antagonism of swindlers throughout the country 
who carry on their operations through the mails upon an extensive 
scale, and these by combination have endeavored to have the existing 
law either repealed or so amended as to almost totally destroy its 
efficiency, but so far they have failed to mislead Congress into any 
such step. Notwithstanding their opposition, the Post-Office Depart- 
ment is proceeding as before in the exercise of this important duty, 
and will not be deterred therefrom by the hue and cry of the desir- 
ing and dishonest or the blind and mistaken criticism of the preju- 
diced and uninformed. 

That the work of suppressing fraud is not conjSned to schemes of 
a petty or unimportant character will be indicated by reference to 
those described below, all of which have been suppressed during the 
fiscal year just closed. 

NEW JERSEY MINERAL COMPANY. 

On December 2, 1907, the Postmaster-General signed an order 
denying the use of the mails to the New Jersey Mineral Company, a 
corporation of New Jersey, with offices at Newark, N. J., and New 
York, N. Y. 

The New Jersev Mineral Company was incorporated in November, 
1905, with a capital stock of $2,000,000, divided into 800,000 shares 
of the par value of $25 each. A large block of the stock was dis- 
tributed among the promoters, who paid absolutely nothing for it. 

The company purchased from C. and D. D. Munson, of Franklin 
Furnace, N. J., a tract of land 475 acres in area, which prior to that 
time had been used solely for agricultural purposes. This land is 
valued by tax assessors at about $10,000 and is situated about 1 
mile from the well-known zinc mines of the New Jersey Zinc 
Company. 

The company began the sale of treasury stock to the public in the 
spring or summer of 1906. Most of it was disposed of to persons of 
small means living in distant localities, and the offer of the company 
was conveyed to prospective investors through the medium of the 
mails. 

The alleged object of the corporation was to mine an enormous 
deposit of zinc which it was claimed had been found in the property, 
and correspondents were assured that the company expected to 
realize from $2,000,000 to $3,000,000 a year in the mining of this 
mineral. 

The proximity of the mines of the New Jersey Zinc Company 
afforded a strong basis for the claim that zinc was to be found in the 
land of the mineral company. It was represented that two holes had 
been bored and that zinc had been found in each; and the booklet 
of the company entitled " How Fortunes Are Made " contained a 
copy of the analysis of a sample of ore alleged to have been taken 
from the property showing 35 per cent zinc contents. In addition 
to the zinc, it was represented that the land contained limestone of 
such value as would yield a large profit to the stockholders. 

The story broke before the statements , of the engineer and the 
affidavits of the drillers who bored the holes from which the company 
claimed the ore had been taken, in which the pretense of the company 
G50G4— p M G 1908 6 



82 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

that ore had been found was flatly contradicted. The journal kept 
by one of the drillers supplied additional evidence to the same effect. 

The argument based upon the nearness of the zinc company's mines 
was overturned by the testimony of Dr. Henry B. Kiinimel, state 
geologist of New Jersey, who contradicted the claim of the company 
that the trend of the ore body in the land of the New Jersey Zinc 
Company was toward the property of the mineral company, and 
showed that the trend was in fact in the opposite direction. This 
fact was also attested by the superintendent of the zinc company's 
mines at Franklin Furnace. 

Doctor Kiimmel also stated, and proved by the citation of authori- 
ties, that the claims of the company as to the value of the limestone 
contained in its property were absurd and without foundation in 
truth. 

Many other misrepresentations were made by the company in its 
endeavor to foist its stock upon the public. The percentage of zinc 
contents in New Jersey ore was grossly exaggerated. Representations 
were made to the effect that Thomas A. Edison had agreed with the 
company to locate the position of the ore, that the Munson farm was 
fully owned by the company, and that large dividends would be paid 
at certain periods, all of which representations were false and known 
by the promoters of the enterprise so to be. As a basis for the compu- 
tation of the earnings of the New Jersey Mineral Company, figures 
representing the vaUie of the property and the past profits of the 
New Jersey Zinc Company were given. The figures named were 
false and so known to be. 

The magnitude of the operations of the company is shown by the 
fact that from November, 1905, to October, 1907, over $180,000 was 
received in subscriptions for stock. Not a cent of this money was 
used to mine the alleged deposit of zinc. Most of it was dissipated 
in paying postage, printing, advertising, commissions, and salaries to 
officers and employees. 

The action of the Postmaster-General put an end to the scheme 
through which, however, many investors of small means had already 
suffered severe losses. 

(il)Ll) LEAF CONSOLIDATED 3riNES COMPANY. 

The case of the Gold Leaf Consolidated Mines Company affords 
another illustration of the organization of a corporation for the pur- 
pose of enriching the promoters at the expense of people living in 
communities distant from the place of the company s operations by 
means of false representations calculated to create a favorable opin- 
ion of the companv's prospects. The evidence in this case showed 
that the promoters located certain mining claims near Idaho Springs. 
Colo., the value of which was unascertained and speculative, ana 
proceeded to organize three corporations, which were subsequently 
merged into the Gold Leaf Consolidated Mines Company, for the 
alleged purpose of developing the claims. 

A large portion of the stock of the corporations was divided among 
the j)romoters in exchange for the mining claims. These men were 
in absolute control and ilmply appropriated the stock, setting their 
own price upon the claims and making the exchange in a manner 
which made the transaction appear legitimate to the casual investi- 



ASSISTANT ATTORNEY-GENERAL CAL. FRUIT GROWERS' ASSOC. 83 

gator. In addition to the stock, the promoters caused the companies 
to become indebted to them by the execution of notes for large sums 
of money. 

In the sale of the stock to the public circulars were used contain- 
ing representations of a grossly deceptive character: the claims were 
held out as properties of ascertained value, susceptible, after a little 
development work, of yielding large projSts to stockholders. It was 
stated specifically that the property of the company comprised some 
200 acres, consisting of 27 claims on which patents nad been granted 
bj the United States; that the company owned a valuable mill, mill 
site, and water right which had been secured at a cost much less than 
its real value ; that a large and valuable vein of ore had been found 
which assayed over $420 to the ton; and that the stock was on a 
dividend-paying basis. All of these pretenses were found to be false 
and fraudulent. 

About $53,000 was obtained from the public in this enterprise, 
but at the time of the investigation the treasury was empty. 

An end was put to this fraudulent enterprise by the issuance of a 
fraud order on October 3, 1907, and by the indictment by the federal 
grand jury at Denver of the men who promoted it. 

PITTSBURG-MANHATTAN MINING COMPANY. 

Mackay, Munroe & Co., Pittsburg-Manhattan Mining Company, 
and George Mackay were names adopted by one T. K. Hauer, oi 
Goldfield, J^^ev., in an attempt to sell worthless stock to the public. In 
March, 1907, Hauer had pleaded guilty to an indictment found 
against him as a result of the operation of this scheme through the 
mails, and had been sentenced to serve a term of one year and one day 
in the penitentiary at Carson City, Nev. Upon receipt of the in- 
spector's report showing these facts, and upon the advice of the post- 
masters at Goldfield and Tonopah to the effect that the small amount 
of mail at that time coming to their offices for the concerns and party 
named was being treated as unclaimed or refused, it was decided that 
further action was unnecessary. 

It developed, however, that imprisonment in the penitentiary had 
no deterrent effect upon Hauer's eagerness to obtain funds from the 

?iublic. Investigation disclosed the fact that he was sending letters 
rom the penitentiary asking the addressees to direct communications 
in connection with his enterprises to the Pittsburg-Manhattan Mining 
Company at Tonopah. 
A fraud order was accordingly issued on October 3, 1907. 

CALIFORNIA FRUrT GROWERS' ASSOCIATION. 

On July 24, 1907, a fraud order was issued against the California 
Fruit Growers' Association and its officers and agents, at Los Angeles, 
Cal.; Rialto, Cal.; Denver, Colo.; Detroit, Mich.; and New York, 

The California Fruit Growers' Association was a corporation or- 
ganized and controlled by one OUie J. Watkins, who had served a 
term in a penitentiary for passing a forged instrument and had been 
fined $100 for conducting a lottery. The corporation bought 1,933 
acres of unimproved land from the Fontana Development Company, 
of San Francisco, Cal., giving a trust deed to the Merchants' Trust 



84 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

Company, of Los Angeles, to secure the payment of $20,000 of the 
purchase price. The land has never been paid for and is encumbered 
by mortgages, taxes, tax titles, bonds, and water assessments. 

Under the absolute domination of Watkins and his associates, the 
association began in 1905 to advertise the sale of 5-acre 5-year-old 
orange groves through newspapers, printed matter sent through the 
mails, and agents in various parts of the United States. Contracts 
were entered into whereby the purchaser agreed to pay $10 down and 
$10 monthly for seven years, when his contract would mature, and a 
deed to a 5-acre 5-year-old orange grove would be delivered to him. 
The association agreed to plant five hundred orange trees on each 
grove when the contractor had made twenty-five payments and to 
" cultivate, irrigate, fertilize, and prune said grove " for five years 
and to convey the necessary water rights for future culture 
of oranges. If the contractor failed to make his monthly payments 
for six months, his contract lapsed -and he forfeited all that he had 
theretofore paid to the association. 

The investigation developed the facts that orange land could not 
be purchased, cultivated, and irrigated for less than a sum of money 
exceeding per acre many times what the association agreed to do it 
for; that the land offered for sale was of such poor quality that its 
preparation for orange culture would require the expenditure of large 
sums of money over and above that obtained from contract holders ; 
that many persons had been induced to enter into contracts with the 
association and go to California in the belief induced by the repre- 
sentations of the association that they would be given steady employ- 
ment in the orange groves, only to be discharged after a short period 
of employment and to be compelled to forfeit what money they had 
paid ; and that Watkins' plan was to defer the delivery of the deeds 
for seven years in the hope that he would be enabled in that time in 
some way to squirm out of his agreement. The success of this plan 
is evidenced by the fact that out of COO contracts entered into by the 
company over 300 had been allowed to lapse by contract holders who 
had learned how highly improbable it was that Watkins would ever 
carry out his promises. At the time the fraud order was issued, a 
recent expose of the methods and character of Watkins in a Los 
Angeles newspaper had caused every contract holder to cease his 
payments. 

Just previous to the issuance of the fraud order, Watkins and his 
associates were indicted by the federal grand jury for fraudulent use 
of the mails. 

PROF. HARRIS EDISON. 

An attempt to prey upon the credulity of the public was made 
by " Prof. Harris Edison," of Binghamton, N. i ., a self-styled 
astrologer and prophet. His true name was Edson, and the evidence 
in the case tended to indicate that the insertion of the " i " was made 
for the purpose of trading upon the fame of Thomas A. Edison, the 
inventor. 

Edson advertised extensively in newspapers and magazines, harp- 
ing upon the wonders of astrology, and promising to reveal to those 
who paid him for casting their horoscopes the entire future, so that 
nothing would be left untold and the correspondent would know just 



ASSISTANT ATTORNEY-GENERAL — FRAUD ORDERS. 85 

what was in store for him and how to avoid trouble, worry, and mis- 
takes and make life a success. He called himself the " Wizard of 
the Stars," and represented that he was the " most prominent among 
the astrologers or the modern time." With his assistance every 
person could maintain friends, avoid enemies, obtain health, make 
money, win fame, and secure a position in business and social life. 
The reader was impressed with the fact that " Professor Edison " 
erected a horoscope for each individual and gave him a reading per- 
sonal and peculiar to himself. He promised a reading for "your 
own individual self" — ^"my more complete horoscope of your own 
case." 

As a matter of fact, Edson used the system, with slight changes, 
adopted by all of the " mail-order astrologers." He had 144 prepared 
forms, based upon a division of each sign of the zodiac into twelve 
parts. Each remitter was sent one of these forms. All persons born 
in the same subdivision were sent the same stock readmg, entirely 
irrespective of sex, age, color, or environment. 

The pretense that ne was an astrologer was false. His system was 
an arbitrary one; no horoscopes were erected; the position of the 
moon, the presence of comets, the place of the planets, were all ig- 
nored ; and a person bom the same day of the year in 1908 would 
receive a reading the exact duplicate of that sent a person born on 
that day in 1880. The representation that this was astrology was a 
flagrant untruth, and so known to be by Edson. 

The readings fulfilled none of the promises made for them. They 
contained information of the character of that given in yearly 
almanacs, a hopeless array of characteristics that might well apply 
to anyone. That these forms would enable the subject of the reading 
to guide his life aright^ avoid sorrow and trouble, and amass wealth 
was an absurd and ridiculous fancy. 

The fraud order of December 11, 1907, put an end to a business 
that was thriving upon the credulous and superstitious. 

H. H. TUCKER, JR. 

One of the important orders issued during the year was that for- 
bidding the delivery of mail and the payment of money orders to 
H. H. Tucker, jr., of Kansas City, Kans. Tucker was endeavoring 
to enforce payment from some 9,000 persons, scattered throughout the 
United States, whom he had theretofore induced to purchase stock 
in a certain Uncle Sam Oil Company, a corporation organized under 
the laws of the Territory of Arizona, and promoted and controlled 
entirely by him, of an assessment levied on the stock so purchased. 
In his efforts to collect this assessment, Tucker made many false and 
fraudulent representations. 

The Uncle Sam Oil Company was incorporated under the laws of 
Arizona in February, 1905, for the alleged purpose of producing, 
refining, and selling oil. The capitalization was 75,000,000 shares, 
par value $1 each. Before placing the stock before the public Tucker 
reduced this capitalization to $10,000,000, and divided the capital 
stock into 1,000,000 shares preferred, with a voting power of ei^ht 
votes per share, and 9,000,000 shares of common stock, with a voting 
power of one-half vote per share, and appropriated to himself all 
of the preferred stock and 100,000 shares oi common stock. 



86 KEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

Immediately after organization Tucker began a systematic effort 
to dispose of the remainder of the common stock, and advertisements 
were placed in metropolitan newspapers and circulars sent through 
the mails inviting the people to invest in a corporation whose shares 
of stock, then selling at from 4 cents to 20 cents, would soon be 
worth par. It was pretended that the Uncle Sam Oil Company 
had entered the field for the purpose of driving the Standard Oil 
Company out of business in that section of the country. Representa- 
tions were made to the effect that pipe lines had been laid, and photo- 
fraphs were printed showing pipe lines under construction. Divi- 
ends were paid when the condition of the company did not warrant 
it. Promises were made that the properties of the company would 
never be incumbered and that bonds would never be issued. State- 
ments were made to the effect that the company had made arran^- 
ments to ship oil to Norway via the Arkansas, Missouri, and Missis- 
sippi rivers. Claims were made that within a very short time the 
company's income from the sale of oil would amount to the sum of 
$10,000 daily. 

All of these pretenses, representations, and promises were found to 
be false and fraudulent, and Tucker was, in April, 1907, indicted for 
using the mails in the furtherance of a scheme to defraud. Imme- 
diately following his arrest a petition was filed in the United States 
district court asking the appointment of a receiver in bankruptcy. 
In his answer Tucker charged a conspiracy between the United States 
attorney, the post-office inspectors, the Standard Oil Company, et al., 
having for its object the demolition of the Uncle Sam Oil Company. 
A motion was made to discharge the receiver appointed in conse- 
quence of the petition and was denied. Thereupon Tucker filed an 
affidavit directed against Judge Pollock. .In consequence of the 
nature of this affidavit Tucker was called upon to show cause before 
Judge Hook why he should not be adjudged in contempt. Upon the 
hearing Tucker was found guilty and sentenced to three months' 
imprisonment. Mr. Tucker's attorneys applied to the President for 
a pardon for him from this order of commitment, whereby all of the 
allegations charging the conspiracy were brought before the President 
for review. The matter was, I am informed, thoroughly inquired 
into by the Attorney-General personally. The President denied the 
application. 

After a trial before District Judge Amidon from June 11 to June 
19, 1907, the Uncle Sam Oil Company was adjudged bankrupt and 
passed into the hands of a referee. 

Tucker then began appealing to the stockholders for money to 
make up a so-called defense fund, and in January, 1908, called upon 
each of the stockholders to send to him personally at Kansas City, 
Kans., 4 cents for each share of the capital stock held by the ad- 
dressees as an assessment to pay the debts of the company and take it 
out of bankruptcy and to complete its plans and place it on a full 
operating basis by finishing its pipe line to its refinery at Atchison, 
Kans., and by erecting certain wax works at that place. These circu- 
lars represented that on payment of the assessment the stockholder 
would be given one share oi stock for each 10 cents so paid ; that if 
payment was not made the shares of stock held by the addressees 
would be forfeited to the company by action of its directors. A 
statement made by one Fleming, general manager of the company 



ASSISTANT ATTORNEY-GENERAL — FRAUD ORDERS. 87 

under the trustee, was printed in such form as to lead the reader to 
believe that it was an official report made in the course of his duties 
as an officer of the court. The circular also contained what purported 
to be a legal opinion by the company's counsel to the effect that the 
assessment was legal and enforceable at law, and representations to 
the effect that the money received by the assessment would place the 
company in a position where it could earn $950,000 a year, and that 
it was even then in a condition to earn $250,000 a year. 

It was developed by the investigation that the stock had been sold 
as fully paid and nonassessable; that the assessment was without 
right or authority in law ; that there was no necessity for the building 
of the contemplated pipe line; that the statement of Fleming was 
gratuitous and not official; that if the improvements were made as 
contemplated the company would not have an earning power of $950,- 
000 a year or anything lite that sum ; and that the company was not 
then in shape to earn $250,000 a year. 

On March 26, 1908, a fraud order was issued against Tucker upon 
the recommendation of this office. Tucker was, however, subsequently 
acquitted of the charge of criminal fraud alleged in the indictment 
returned against him in the United States court for the district of 
Kansas. But it should be understood that this proceeding was wholly 
separate and distinct from that which resulted in the issuance of the 
fraud order and was based upon a different statute and state of 
facts. 

REMARKS. 

It is only through unremitting vigilance on the part of this office 
and of the corps of post-office inspectors that the authority contained 
in the statutes referred to is rendered effective in protecting the public 
from fraud sought to be practiced through the medium of the mails ; 
but there can be no doubt whatever that the vigorous and impartial 
exercise of that authority for the several years past has produced most 
wholesome results and proved of immeasurable value to the public. 

In some of the cases it is found at the hearing upon the charges 
that the evidence in the possession of the Post-Office Department is 
insufficient to establish a violation of law, or that the scheme had 
been abandoned prior to the sending of the citation and is no longer 
in existence, or that for some other good reason a fraud order is un- 
warranted or unnecessary. It sometimes occurs that legitimate en- 
terprises are so advertised as to mislead the public, with result that 
complaints of fraud are received by the Post-Office Department. In 
those instances, however, in which it is established satisfactorily that 
the misleading advertisements were framed without intention to 
defraud, and that in all other respects the business is fair and honest, 
opportunity is afforded to eliminate such advertisements, or the ob- 
jectionable portions of them. In all these cases complete adjustment 
of the matters complained of and the filing of an affidavit that the 
deceptive representations will be at once eliminated, and not at any 
time thereafter used, are required. Failure to comply strictly with the 
promise embodied in the affidavit is promptly followed by the recom- 
mendation that a fraud order be issued. 

The Post-Office Department has occasionally been subjected to 
rather severe criticism, sometimes by the daily or weekly press^tix\<l'^<. 



88 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

others by individuals, because of its failure to take action against per- 
sons or companies alleged to be exploiting mining shares through the 
medium of the mails by means of false or misleading representations. 
Investments in mining enterprises are from necessity attended with 
great risk, and very often the honest as well as the dishonest mining 
properties turn out to be absolute failures. It is easy to misrepresent 
mining properties and extremely diflScult to show the falsity of such 
representations. Even experienced mining engineers are often misled 
or mistaken as to the extent and value of ore deposits, and post-office 
inspectors do not pretend to possess the technical knowledge and 
training required to determine unfailingly whether representations 
as to the character of mining properties made in selling shares in sucli 
properties are true or willfully false and misleading. In many cases 
the difficulties of investigation are increased by reason of the fact 
that the alleged mines are located in Mexico, South America,' or other 
foreign countries, where the language, local customs, and conditions 
are strange to the investigating officers. Nevertheless, inquiries into 
the operations of mining companies whose shares are offered through 
the mails and whose honesty is questioned are in no sense desultory 
or half-hearted; on the contrary, everything physically and legally 
possible is done to discover the facts and suppress fraud if estab- 
lished. 

BILLS FOR INJUNCTION. 

During the year four applications were made to the federal courts 
for the process of injunction to restrain the enforcement of fraud 
orders issued to postmasters under the authority of the act of Sep- 
tember 19, 1890, and section 4 of the act of March 2, 1895, forbidding 
the delivery of mail and the pajment of money orders to persons and 
concerns found to be conducting lotteries and fraudulent schemes. 
In three of these cases the application for injunction was denied 
upon preliminary hearing, while in the fourth case the suit was 
withdrawn by the complainant before the time fixed for the hearing. 

REPORTS OF POST-OFFICE INSPECTORS. 

The record of fraud and lottery cases reported upon by post-office 
inspectors which was inaugurated in December, 1904, and to which 
reference has been made in my last three annual reports, shows that 
during the fiscal year 606 reports of this character have been made, 
as against 688 for the previous year, being a decrease of 82. 

In most cases investigations by inspectors are instituted upon com- 
plaint received from the public, but not infrequently this office or 
the inspectors themselves take the initiative. Very commonly pub- 
lished advertisements afford good reason for the surmise that the 
concerns publishing them are engaged in fraudulent practices, and 
whenever such advertisements come to our notice, or information 
is received from any other source, indicating that the mails are being 
used unlawfully, this matter is at once called to the attention of the 
Division of Post-Office Inspectors and request made that it receive 
prompt investigation. 



ASSISTANT ATTORNEY-GENERAL OBSCENE MATTER. 89 

OBSCENE AND INDECENT MATTER. 

The policy of applying and enforcing more strictly the statute 
prohibiting the transmission in the mails of publications or other 
matter containing obscene or suggestive illustrations or advertise- 
ments, which policy was inaugurated nearly four years ago, has ac- 
complished highly beneficial results. Among the concerns affected 
by this policy are those offering so-called " cures " for sexual diseases, 
whose advertisements are frequently found to be obscene as well as 
fraudulent, and whose remedies are in many instances not only worth- 
less, but positively injurious to health. It is believed, however, that 
most of the enterprises of this nature have been suppressed either by 
means of fraud orders or the exclusion of their advertising matter 
from the mails; for in the year just closed comparatively lew cases 
have come to the attention of the department. The importance of 
the closest possible scrutiny of the operations of such concerns, with 
the object of protecting the unfortunate from fraud and physical 
harm, is self-evident, and the policy of dealing with them promptly 
and vigorously will be continued. 

By the act approved May 27, 1908, making appropriations for the 
service of the JPost-OflSce Department, it is provided : 

That section 3893 of the Revised Statutes of the United States be, and the 
same is hereby, amended by adding thereto the following : And the term " in- 
decent" within the intendment of this section shall include matter of a char- 
acter tending to incite arson, murder, or assassination. 

The duty of enforcing this enactment was by order of the Post- 
master-General assigned to this oflSce, and on June 12, 1908, the fol- 
lowing instructions to postmasters were issued by him : 

In pursuance of section 3893 of the Revised Statutes (section 497 of the 
Postal Laws and Regulations), as thus amended, you are directed hereafter 
to exclude from the mails not only publications and articles of the character 
heretofore forbidden by that section to be carried, but in addition " all matter 
tending to incite arson, murder, or assassination," the depositing, conveying, 
or delivering of which is prohibited by the section as now amended. 

When any Issue of a publication printed in whole or in part in a language 
other than English shall be offered for mailing, and which you have reason 
to believe contains matter that is forbidden transmission in the malls by sec- 
tion 3S93 of the Revised Statutes as now amended, you will require the pub- 
lisher to file a true translation in English of so much of the contents of the 
publication as are believed to be unmallable under said section and to certify 
the same as the true translation of such contents; and, pending the filing of 
such translation so certified, you will decline to accept for transmission in the 
mails any copies of such Issue. 

Upon the filing of the translation so required, you will carefully examine the 
same, and, if It shall appear from such translation that the Issue from which it 
is taken contains matter which is obscene or indecent or which tends to incite 
arson, murder, or assassination, or gives information where or of whom or by 
what means any such matter, or any article designed or intended for the pre- 
vention of conception or procuring of abortion, or intended or adapted for any 
indecent or Immoral use, may be obtained, you will decline to accept any 
copies of such issue for transmission. Should you be in doubt whether the 
issue in question contains matter which is unmallable under the provisions of 
section 3893 of the Revised Statutes as amended, you will promptly submit the 
question to the Assistant Attorney-General for the Post-Office Department for 
determination, and, pending instructions from that officer, will decline to accept 
coi)les of the issue of the publication in question for mailing. 

These instructions are not to be used to irritate, annoy, or intimidate pub- 
lishers. They are intended merely for your guidance In carrying out the provi- 
sions of amended section 3893 of the Revised Statutes, to the end that no matter^ 



90 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GEKERAL. 

the circulation in the mails of which is forbidden by that section, may be 
accepted or carried. Their enforcement should be characterized by wise dis- 
cretion and conservatism in order that no innocent publisher may suffer in- 
justice. 

The method herein directed to be followed in dealing with second-class pub- 
lications printed in foreign languages is equally applicable to suspected third- 
class matter printed in any such language when offered for mailing. 

The beneficial effects of this enactment are already seen, although 
it has been in force only about ninety days, nor has there been any 
indication, so far as this office is aware, that the statute has worked 
injustice or undue hardship upon any pei-son or interest. 

OPINIONS. 

By the postal regulations the Assistant Attorney-General is charged 
with a variety of duties in addition to the highly important and semi- 
judicial function of hearing and considering cases of alleged unlawful 
use of the mails, all of which have relation more or less direct to the 
federal statutes governing the Post-Office Department and the postal 
service. The duty of giving to the Postmaster-General, to the heads 
of the various bureaus of the Post-OflSce Department, and to post- 
masters opinions and advice upon questions of law arising in the 
course of administration of the postal service involves in a large 
degree the interpretation of statutes, contracts, and postal conventions 
with foreign countries. Manifestly this is a very exacting and 
responsible duty, requiring in its proper discharge exceeding care 
and frequently exhaustive search of authorities. 

During the year ended June 30, 1908, there have been rendered 
2,4G9 official written opinions, as compared with 2,672 during the 
previous year. Of the whole number of opinions given in writing, 
200 were upon miscellaneous questions of law, many of which involved 
the construction and application of statutes, the interpretation of 
contracts, etc., in comparison with 367 in the previous year. The 
remaining 2,260 opinions were in the nature of rulings upon the 
admissibility of matter to the mails under the provisions of the act 
of September 19, 1890, amending sections 3894, 3929, and 4041 of the 
Revised Statutes, section 3893 of the Revised Statutes, and the act 
of September 26, 1888, chapter 1039 (1 Supp., 621), as well as miscel- 
laneous questions arising under the regulations and various statutes 
affecting the postal service. 

The question for determination under sections 3894, 3929, and 4041 
of the Revised Statutes, as amended, is whether or not the plan of 
business to which such matter relates is a lottery enterprise or a 
fraudulent scheme within the meaning of those statutes. Under sec- 
tion 3893 of the Revised Statutes and the act of September 26, 1888, 
supra, is considered the q^uestion whether matter transmitted, or pro- 
posed to be transmitted, in the mails is obscene, indecent, scurrilous, 
or defamatory in nature. This latter work, as well as that of decid- 
ing cases of disputed ownership of mail and giving rulings to post- 
masters and others upon miscellaneous questions, was formerly per- 
formed by the division of correspondence, under the direction of 
the First Assistant Postmaster-General. 

No record, of course, is kept of the verbal and informal opinions 
given to departmental officers upon questions of law constantly arising 
and relating to matters requiring immediate disposition. 



ASST. ATTORNEY-GENERAL — REIMBURSEMENT OF POSTMASTERS. 91 

CONTRACTS EXAMINED. 

Contracts for supplies or services, or for the use of buildings as 
post-offices, postal stations, or like purposes in large numbers nave 
been examined and approved as to form during the year. The 
number of contracts for supplies and services passed upon was 196, 
bein^ a slight increase over the number passed upon during the 
previous year. 

Post-office leases to the number of 720 were passed upon and ap- 
proved or disapproved, this representing an increase of 197 over the 
number reported last year. 

A record has been kept of the number of bonds of post-office in- 
spectors examined and shows that 41 were passed upon. 

CLAIMS FOR REWARD. 

During the fiscal year 71 claims for reward for services rendered 
in the detection, apprehension, and conviction of post-office burglars, 
highway mail robbers, and other offenders against the postal service 
were examined and advice as to their allowance or disallowance con- 
veyed in formal communications to the chief post-office inspector, 
being a decrease of 6 as compared with the number of such claims 
passed upon the previous year. 

PETITIONS FOR PARDON. 

During the year the cases of 56 persons convicted of offenses against 
the postal laws, and in behalf of whom petitions for executive clem- 
ency were filed, have been reported upon to the Attorney-General, 
with recommendation that the petition be either granted or denied, 
being an increase of 20 over the number of such cases reported upon 
in the preceding year. 

CLAIMS OF POSTMASTERS FOR REIMBURSEMENT FOR LOSSES SUSTAINED. 

By the acts of Congress approved, respectively, May 9, 1888, and 
June 11, 1896, the Postmaster-General is authorized to reimburse 
postmasters in sums not exceeding $10,000 for losses of government 
lunds resulting from " fire, burglary, or other unavoidable casualty," 
at their respective post-offices, and tor losses of such funds in transit 
from postmasters to their designated depositaries. The Assistant 
Attorney-General is required by the postal regulations also to make 
examination of this class of cases and advise the Postmaster-General 
in the matter of their allowance. 

The number of such claims received during the fiscal year just 
closed was 1,242, being an increase in the number received of 103, 
as compared with the fiscal year immediately preceding, and an in- 
crease of 61 in comparison with the year en^ed June 30, 1906. The 
number of claims allowed was 865, a decrease of 28 as compared with 
the preceding year. The number disallowed was 244, representing 
a decrease of 17 as compared with the year previous. Nine claims 
were withdrawn and 45 dismissed, being an increase of 3 and 3, re- 
spectively, as compared with the previous year. The dismissal of 
claims results from the recovery of the funds ow. ^^^^\ix^ ^^ S^^\«?s. 



92 REPORT OF THE .POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

of which reimbursement is asked, and the withdrawal of a claim is 
the voluntary act of the claimant. The total of the allowance was 
$135,084.16, as against $148,454.18 allowed the year previous and 
$128,208.05 allowed during the year ended June 30, 1906. The num- 
ber of claims settled — that is to say, allowed, disallowed, withdrawn, 
and dismissed — was 1,163, being an increase in comparison with the 
previous year of 11 and a decrease from the number settled during the 
year ended June 30, 1906, of 42. Of those allowed, 3 were claims 
which had been previously disallowed, but which, upon the presenta- 
tion of new evidence, were reconsidered and allowed. The number of 
claims pending June 30, 1908, was 589, being an increase of 82 in 
comparison with the number pending at the close of the previous year. 
In pursuance of the act of March 17, 1872 (22 Stat. L., 29), as 
amended by the act of May 9, 1888 (25 Stat. L., 135), and the act 
of June 11, 1896 (29 Stat. L., 458), there has b^n prepared for sub- 
mission to Congress a statement in tabular form showing in detail 
the claims of postmasters for reimbursement for losses of money- 
order and postal funds, postage stamps, etc., which have been exam- 
ined and considered in this office and acted upon by the Postmaster- 
General during the fiscal year just closed, with the amounts claimed, 
amounts allowed, disallowances, causes of loss, etc. 

OFFERS OF COMPROMISE. 

Somewhat similar is the duty of considering the offers of com- 
promise of liabilities to the United States, submitted on behalf of 
mail contractors, former postmasters, and others, as well as proposi- 
tions to remit fines, penalties, and forfeitures accruing to the Govern- 
ment under the postal statutes, and submitting them to the Post- 
master-General with advice as to his official action. During the year 
43 offers, made by or on behalf of postmasters and contractors for 
transporting the mails or furnishing postal supplies, to compromise 
indebtedness owing by them to the United States and certified to the 
Postmaster-General by the Auditor for the Post-Office Department 
under the provisions of sections 295 and 409 of the Revised Statutes, 
have been received from the Postmaster-General and returned to hir* 
with advice that they be accepted or rejected, according to the cir- 
cumstances of the particular case. This is a decrease of 85 from the 
number of such offers received and disposed of during the previous 
year. 

PRINTING AND BINDING OF OPINIONS. 

The work of editing and compiling the opinions of the Assistant 
Attorneys-General for the Post-Office Department for the period 
from March, 1892, to June 30, 1908, for the printing and binding of 
which an appropriation of $10,000 was provided m the post-office 
appropriation act for the year 1908, was entered upon in January of 
the present year, and has progressed remarkably well, notwithstand- 
ing that it has been subject to many interruptions. It has been 
exceedingly difficult with the present force of the office to carry for- 
ward this work, which involves the close examination and comparison 
of about 2,000 opinions (most of which had to be copied in type- 
writing from the original letter books), as well as the digesting and 
indexing of those selected for publication; and time after time it has 



ASSISTANT ATTORNEY-GENERAL SUMMARY. 



98 



had to be wholly suspended in consequence of the call of those 
engaged upon it to some other work requiring immediate attention. 

The first installment of the proof has been received from the 
Public Printer, corrected and returned, and additional copy will soon 
be ready for the types. The work has now reached the stage at 
which it will go forward more rapidly, and it will be expedited as 
much as possible. The opinions of the Assistant Attorneys-General 
from the establishment or the office, in June, 1872, to March 17, 1892, 
are in print, and the work now in progress is designed to carry into 
printed volumes the opinions given from the latter date to June 
30, 1908. 



SUMMARY. 



The following summary will indicate more clearly the volume of 
work performed during the year in comparison with that of the year 
immediately preceding : 



1906-7. 


1907-8. 




1906-7. 


1907-8, 


Citations 


155 
158 

688 

2,672 

77 


242 
230 

606 

2,469 

71 


Applications for pardon 


31 

128 
193 
528 
205 
1,152 


55 


Fraud orders issued 


' Oners of compromise . 


43 


Reports of inspectors on lotteries 
and fraudulent schemes re- 


Contracts examined 


196 


Leases examined . 


720 


ceived and examined 


Bonds examined 

Claims of pMtmasters settled 


41 


Opinions and rulings 


1 163 


Claims for reward 





Respectfully submitted. 

R. P. Goodwin, 
Assistant Attorney-General. 
Hon. George von L. Meyer, 

Postmaster- General. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



PURCHASING AGENT FOR THE POST-OFFICE 
DEPARTMENT 

TO THE 

POSTMASTER-GENERAL 

FOR 

THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1908 



95 



REPORT 

OP THE 

PURCHASING AGENT FOR THE POST-OFFICE 

DEPARTMENT. 



Post-Office Department, 
Office of the Purchasing Agent, 

Washington, October 17, 1908, 
Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report of the business 
transacted by this office during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908: 

FORMAL CONTRACTS. 

During the fiscal year there were negotiated by the purchasing 
agent 163 formal contracts. Of this number^ 146 are for furnishing 
general or miscellaneous supplies to the Post-Office Department and 
postal service during the nscal year beginning July 1, 1908. The 
suppUes furnished under these contracts are stationary, typewriters, 
computing machines, metal and rubber stamps, numbering machines, 
seals, letter-copying presses, furniture, carpets, baskets, buckets, 
boxes, dry goods, twine and cordage, hardware and trucks, leather 
and leather belting, electrical suppues, paints, oils, chemicals, glass, 
lumber, fuel, ice, forage, and household supplies. 

The advertisement mviting proposals for furnishing these supplies 
was pubUshed March 11, 1908; the bids were opened April 15, 1908, 
and the award made June 29, 1908. Owing to a decrease in the mar- 
ket price of raw materials and increased competition between dealers 
and manufacturers, the prices named in these contracts for many of 
the articles are substantially lower than the prices paid for the same 
articles during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908. 

The difference between the prices paid for the* different articles 
included in the general supply schedule under the contracts for the 
fiscal year ended Jime 30, 1908, and the prices which will be paid for 
the same articles during the current fiscal year is shown in the follow- 
ing table. The amounts given are based on the estimated quantities 
stated in the specifications for the current fiscal year: 

Comparison of prices for general supplies. 



Articles. 




Stationery 

Typewriters and supplies 

Computing machines 

Stamps, numbering machines, seals, etc. 

Letter-copying presses 

Furniture, carpets, etc 

Baskets, buckets, and boxes 

Dry goods 

Twine and cordage 

Hardware and trucks 

Leather and leather belting 



$142,066.72 

54,265.05 

29,381.25 

50,193.23 

2,722.60 

5,462.35 

7,232.60 

2,318.31 

435,586.40 

12,240.50 

3,824.50 



1909. 



$128,013.77 
54,508.20 
29,381.25 
38,244.35 
2,503.00 
4,944.45 
7,032.00 
1,968.60 
252,957.77 
9,956.81 
3,420.00 



Differences. 



1908. 



$332.25 



1909. 



$14,052.95 



G5064— P M G 1908 7 



11,948.88 
129.50 
517.90 
200.50 
349.71 
182,628.63 
2,283.60 
404.50 



98 



KEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 
Comparison of prices for general supplies — Continued. 



Articles. 


1908. 


1909. 

$1,426.25 

1,824.62 

3,607.60 

1,500.00 

569.60 

936.41 


Differences 


1908. 


19$9. 


£lectrlcaL supplies 


$1,426.25 

1,893.93 

3,704.25 

1,470.00 

510.00 

894.90. 




Pdintt?, 0^18, cliemicals, and glass 




$<19. 31 


T.^Tmhfir.- 


! 


190. 75 


Fuel, ice, etc 


130.00 
59.50 
41.51 




Forage. 




Household supplies 








Total 


755,193.54 


542,874.48 




Total differences 


463.26 1 

1 


212,782.32 








463.26 


Total savings 


212,319.06 








1 





The number of contracts negotiated for supplies other than those 
included in the general supply schedule is shown in the following hst : 



% Articles. 



Facing slips: 

Plain, per million 

Printed, per thousand 

Official Postal Guide: 

Cloth bound . each 

Paper bound, each 

Supplements, each 

Special aeii very and collectors' canvas satchels: 

Special delivery, each 

Collectors', large, each 

Collectors', small, each 

Package boxes and combination letter and package boxes: 

Package boxes, each 

Comb&ation boxes, each ^ 

Mail-conveyer system in Washington City post-office 

Mail-conveyer system in New York, N. Y., post-office (terminal station). 



Contract prices. 



Present. Previous. 



$42.00 
.0575 

.26 
.13 
.01 

.9995 
3.1384 
2.4765 

7.70 
9.75 



Special. 
Special. 



$43.00 
.0575 

.35 
.10 
.005 

.815 
3.387 
3.214 

fl8.35 
09.85 



a Includes extra charge for time-card frames. 

It is proper to state in explanation of the prices named in this list 
that the Official Postal Guide furnished under the present contract is 
printed on better paper and is in many ways superior to the Guide 
furnished under the former contract. In the purchase of package 
boxes and combination letter and package boxes under the former con- 
tract an extra charge of 35 cents was made for each time-card frame, 
while in .the current contract the price of the time-card frame is 
included in the price of the box. 

OPEN-MARKET PURCHASES. 

In accordance with the practice which has been followed in previous 
years, all of the supplies tne need of which could be anticipated were 
provided for in formal contracts. It freauently happened, however, 
that requisitions were made for the purcnase of articles not covered 
by contract. The quantity needed being small and immediate deliv- 
ery required, it was found unpracticable to negotiate formal contracts 
covering these purchases. In cases of this land an advertisement 
inviting proposals for furnishing the articles desired was posted on the 
bulletin ooard in the lobby of the Washington City post-office and 
blank bids addressed to two or more dealers in Wasmngton or nearby 



PURCHASING AGENT — SUPPLIES. 



99 



cities. On a day named in the advertisement the bids were opened in 
this office and tne award made to the lowest satisfactory bicider. 



EXIGENCY PURCHASES. 

In every case where the sale of the article required was not con- 
trolled exclusively by one individual or company two or more dealers 
or manufacturers were given an opportimity to submit bids. The 
number of exigency purchases made during the year was small and 
confined to patented articles. 

ENVELOPES. 

The Comptroller of the Treasury decided in April, 1908, that the 
Library of Congress and the District of Columbia are government 
establishments within the meaning of the statute concerning the pur- 
chase of envelopes (34 Stat., 476), and must purchase the envelopes 
used b V them under contracts made by the Postmaster-General. At the 
time the contracts for envelopes for the executive departments were 
negotiated it was thought that neither the District of Columbia nor 
the Library of Congress was covered by the provisions of the statute, 
and their requirements were not provided for. As both of these 
institutions use certain envelopes which are not covered by the 
departmental contracts, this office, since the date of the Comptroller's 
decision, has made agreements with dealers and manufacturers for sup- 
plying their needs. 

AMOUNTS EXPENDED FOR SUPPLIES. 

The followii^ table shows the amounts expended for the different 
kinds of supplies purchased for the Post-Office Department and the 
postal service during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, with the 
number of orders issued and the appropriations from which said 
amounts were paid: 



Appropriations. 



POS1K)FFICE DEPARTMENT. 

Stationery and blank books, including amount noces- 
sary for the purchase of free penalty envelopes 

Fuel and repairs to heating, lignting, and power plants, 
including repairs to elevator 

Gas and electric lights 

Plumbing 

Painting 

Carpets and matting 

Furniture 

For purchase, exchange, and keeping of horses and 
wagons, and repair ofwagons and harness, to be used 
only for official purposes 

Indexes and filing devices 

Miscellaneous itcins, Including telephone service, law 
books, books of reference, rulway guides, city direc- 
tories, and books necessary to conduct the business 
of the department 

Official Postal Guide 

Post-route maps 

Postage stamps for correspondence addressed abroad 
which is not exempt ffbm postage under article 8 of 
the Paris convention of the Univer»l Postal Union. . 



Under formal contract. 



Number 
of orders. 



Total. 



30 



Amount. 



$17,839.10 
20,491.81 



203 
13 
60 



78.50 
795.37 



1,313.29 
835.44 



11,187.62 
15,570.20 
17,947.71 



1,293 I 



87,487.92 



Open market. 



Number 
of orders. 



148 

115 
3 
12 
32 



361 

'"38" 



882 



Amount. 



12,456.20 

13,062.75 
110.00 
596.50 

1,620.29 
196.65 

1,031.41 



1,429.05 
1,869.32 



6,739.59 
'3,'344*63 



730.00 
33,085.48 



100 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 





Under formal contract. 


1 

Open market. 


Appropriations. 


Number 
of orders. 


Amount.' 


Number 
of orders. 


Amoimt. 


POSTAL SERVICE. 

Travel and miscellaneous expenses in the postal service, 
office of the First Assistant Postmaster-General, in- 
cluding city dirfy>tor1f,s ftnd l>ooks of refer«noft 






8 
92 


12,683.00 
11,360.97 


Stationery for postal service 


410 

92 

6 

12 

508 
27 

12 
1,355 

580 
163 
69 


S82,2ia58 

279,670.64 

6,483.28 

3,554.36 

34,342.40 
1,939.67 

25,497.32 
197,225.88 

62,991.89 

321,48a 28 

3,096.63 


Wrapping twine and tying devices 


Wrapping paper 


7 
22 

19 
9 


5,724.03 
3,892.88 

324 18 


Letter b^ances. scales, and test wei^ts, and repairs 
to same, and for tape measures 


Postmarldng, rating,*and money-order stamps, and re- 
pairs to same, ink and pads for stamping and cancel- 
ing purposes, and year blocks for old postmarldng 
stamx)s, not to exceed four consecutive years for each 
stamp; rubber stamps and type, metal-bodied rubber 
type, dates, figures, and holders, and inking pads for 
ruhb«r st-ftTPps . , , . , 


Packing boxes, sawdust, paste, and hardware 

Facing slips, plain and printed, including the furnishing 
of paper for the same; also for card-slide labels, blanks, 
and booksof an urgent nature 


229.83 


Blanks, blank books, printed and engraved matter. 

For the purchase or exchange of typewriting machines, 
envelope-opening macWnes, computing machines, 
and for the purchase of copying presses, numbering 
machines, and for miscellaneous articles purchased 
and furnished dlrivtly t^ thft po5?fcfiI sftrvifte. ... 


6 

64 

64 

52 

243 


1,32L67 
16,734.69 


Mail bags, cord fteteners, label cases, and labor and map 
terial necessary for repah>ing equipment and inci- 
dental exi)eTise8 pertalTiing thereto 


7,783.08 


Mail locks and ke}^, chains,^tools, and machinery, and 
labor and material necessary for repairing same* and 
incidental expenses pertaining thereto 


6,138.29 


Miscellaneous office expenses of railway maU service. In- 
cluding schedules of mail trains, typewriting ma- 
chines, and badges for railway postal clerks 


22,802.54 


Manufacture of a&eslve postage and special-delivery 

.qt^mps apd hoolrs tit stJ^mpA _ . , . . . , 


958 

647 
242 

788 

718 

555 

15 

49 

1 


494,045.99 

1,094,086.94 
184,232.78 
180,532.47 

73,072.78 

67,867.09 

345.55 

5,389.46 

16.22 




Manul^ture of stamped envelopes and newsi)aper 
wrappers 






Manuracture of postal cards 






Official and registry envelopes 


1 
22 

13 

165 

189 

2 


19,283.28 


Supplies for tne city-delivery service, including letter 
boxes, package boxes, posts, furniture, satchels, 
straps, baskets, time cards, time-card frames, time- 
recorder supplies, freight, package and cartage 
charges, maps, and transfer designs and stencils 

Supplies for the rural-delivery service. Including collec- 
tion boxes, furniture, satchels, straps, badges, and the 
making of maps for use of the rural-delivery service, 
repairing satchels, repairing, painting, and erecting 
collection boxes, etc 


6,69a 14 
937.60 


Rental or purchase of canceling machines, Including cost 
of power In rented buildings, motors, repairs to mo- 
tors, and miscellaneous expenses of installation and 
operation 


7,690.66 
6,939.72 
2, 72a 01 


Weighing, counting, and recording mall matter, 1908 

Plan fcs, registry se?*vice 




Total 


7,207 


3,118,081.00 


978 


123,055.47 






Grand total 


8,500 


3,205,66&92 


1,860 


156, 14a 95 





Total number of orders. . 
Total expenditures 



10,360 
$3,361,709.87 



Very respectfully, 



The Postmaster-General. 



W. E. Cochran. 
Purchasing Agent. 



REPORT 

OF THE 

CHIEF INSPECTOR 

DIVISION OF POST-OFFICE INSPECTORS 

TO THE 

POSTMASTER-GENERAL 

FOR 

THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1908 



101 



REPORT OF THE CHIEF INSPECTOR. 



Post-Office Department, 
Office of the Chief Inspector, 
Washington, D. (7., September 11, 1908. 

Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the annual report of the 
chief inspector for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908. 

All complaints concerning depredations upon the mails and losses 
or irregularities therein and violations of the postal laws and^ regula- 
tions and many questions arising in the other offices or bxireaus of 
the department regarding the service are referred to this office for 
investigation. Upon receipt these complaints are jacketed under a 
case or a file number, as the circumstances warrant, and an investi- 
gation is made either by inspectors or by correspondence. For con- 
venience in handling and to distinguish the character of a case or fiJie, 
they are divided into classes, each class being represented by a letter 
or letters. 

The number of each class of cases or files jacketed and closed during 
the fiscal year 1908, as compared with the preceding fiscal year, is as 
follows: 



Jacketed. 



1907. 



A cases 14,076 

B cases [ 130,197 

C cases 36,801 

D cases ' 9,463 

F files I 38,602 

leases 33,995 

R cases 68 

S cases 21,491 

R E cases I 2,948 

R I cases I 4,323 

Total 291,964 



1906. 



17,446 
129,566 

39,904 
9,605 

40,290 

33,536 
83 

18,109 
3,468 
4,490 



Closed. 



1907. 



11,530 
138,924 

30,345 
8,463 

36,808 

32,121 
76 

21,034 
3,366 
8,491 



296,497 I 291,158 



1906. 



16,505 
135,299 

41,700 
9,802 

43,291 

37,627 
80 

19,929 
3,023 
4,702 



312,138 



On Jime 30, 1908, there were 77,121 cases outstanding in the 
field under investigation, and 13,009 under consideration in the 
department. 



103 



104 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-OENERAL. 



The following is an explanation of the different classes of cases and 
the subjects embraced in each class: 



A CASES — BEGISTBBED MAIL. 



The A series of cases represents complaints concerning the rifling, 
loss, destruction, delay or wrong deUveiy of domestic [registered mau, 
and similar complaints concerning the foreign registered mail as 
can not be adjusted by correspondence. 



B CASES — ORDINARY MAIL. 

The B series of cases represents complaiuts concerning the tamper- 
ing with, rifling or loss or domestic ordinary mail, and similar com- 
plaiQts concemmg foreign ordinary mail as can not be adjusted by 
correspondence. 

C CASES — MISCELLANEOUS. 

The C series of cases represents miscellaneous comi)laints, affecting 
the business of the postal service or employees, violations of the 
postal laws and regulations, wrong payment of international money 
orders, failure of postmasters te remit custom duties, requests of the 
other bureaus and ofl^ces of the department for investigation of 
charges against postal employees, etc. The origia of the C cases 
jacketed during tne past fiscal year was as follows: 

Request of: 

First Assistant Postmaster-General 3, 252 

Second Assistant Postmaster-General 306 

Third Assistant Postmaster-General 1, 618 

Fourth Assistant Postmaster-General , 644 

Assistant Attorney-General 416 

Auditor for the Post-Office Department 16, 247 

Miscellaneous origin 17, 421 

Total 39,904 

The principal subjects covered by C cases during the fiscal year 1908 
and the number of cases under each subject, as compared with the 
preceding fiscal year, are given in the following table: 



No. of 
section. 



329 

1678 

555 

484 

499 

497-496 

1617 

612 

266 

113&-1141 

162^1623 

1688 

1604 

1606 

160^1610 

168a-1686 



Subject. 



[Irregularities on the part of postmasters in the sale of postage stami>s, false 
returns of cancellations, etc. 

Evasion of payment of proper rates of postage 

Lottery matter in the mails or express 

Scurrilous and obscene matter 

Use of mails for fraudulent purposes 

Unlawful use of penalty enveloi)es 

Post-offices located in barrooms 

Carrying mail by private express 

Obstructing the mails 

Foreing, counterfeiting, or wrong payment of money orders 

EmoeMlement of valuable letters oy postal employees 

Delay, opening or destruction of letters by postal employees 

Intercepting or stealing mall by any person 

Removing cancellations from postage stamps 



Number of 



1907. 1906. 



13 

17,333 

268 

2,633 

3,631 

66 

2 

37 

72 

717 

386 

437 

772 

645 



710 

16,776 

169 

3,997 

4,402 

64 

66 

46 

87 

981 

776 

1,966 

1,192 

924 



CHIEF INSPECTOR — ^DEPREDATIONS. 



106 



D OASES — ^DEPREDATIONS. 



The D series of cases represents principally the subjects given as 
captions in the following table, which is a comparative statement of 
the cases jacketed imder those headings for the past five years: 





Robberies. 


Postal 

cars 

burned 

or 
wrecked. 


• 

Post, 
offices 
burned. 




Year. 


Post- 
offices. 


RaQway 
po8tK>fflce 

routes, rural 
deUvery 
routes, 
screen 
wagon 
service. 


Letter 
boxes, 
street and 
rural de- 
livery. 

• 


MaU 
pouches 

damaged, 

rifled, and 

foUureto 

recover). 


1904 


1,503 
1,581 
1,802 
1,677 
1,821 


60 
26 
16 
15 
32 


940 
1,009 
1,060 
1,055 
1,451 


66 
113 
131 
147 
162 


560 
549 
539 
500 

539 


2,397 


1905 


2,535 


1906 


3,111 


1907 


5,444 


1908 


5,246 







The increase in the number of D cases is given consideration imder 
the subject of arrests. 

F PILES — FOREIGN. 

The F files represent complaints concerning tampering with, loss, 
or rifling of matter mailed in or addressed to post-offices in the United 
States with the office of origin or destination in a foreign country. 
This series of complaints is handled by correspondence direct from 
this office, except in instances when the complaint can not be ad- 
justed by correspondence. On such occasions the file is converted 
mto a case and referred to the field for investigation by an inspector. 
It required 19,164 translations during the fiscal year 1907, and 
23,804 translations during the fiscal year 1908, to conduct the cor- 
respondence necessary with foreign postal administrations in the 
handling of these files. 

I CASES — INSPECTIONS. 

The I series of cases represents the annual inspection of money- 
order offices. As there were 33,379 money-order offices (not includ- 
ing stations) in operation June 30, 1907, the inspections covered 
practically every money-order office which had been in operation a 

?''ear. That there were more cases closed than jacketed is accounted 
or by the fact that there were 4,689 cases outstanding at the close 
of the preceding fiscal year. 

B CASES — ^REWARDS. 

The R series of cases represents the claims ffied imder the Post- 
master-Generars offer of reward for information leading to the arrest 
and conviction of persons on the charge of robbing, or attempting 
to rob^ the mails, robbery of post-offices, etc. There were 83 sucn 
cases jacketed during the year and 80 were investigated. In 5 of 
these the claims were rejected and in 75 the claims were allowed; the 
total of the rewards paid amounted to $9,735. 



106 



BEPORT OP THE PqpTMASTEB-GENEBAL. 



8 GASES — SUBETIES. 



The S series of cases represents the requests of the First Assistant 
Postmaster- General for information as to the responsibility of 
sureties on postmasters' bonds. 



B E AND R I CASES— BUBAL. 

• 

The R E and R I cases represent requests of the Fourth Assistant 
Postmaster-General for investigation as regards the establishment 
of rural service and the inspection of existing rural service, respec- 
tively. 

COLLECTIONS. 

In connection with their investigation and handling of cases, 
inspectors are authorized to collect for the loss or rifling, or, or dam- 
age to, mail, wrong payment of money orders, shortages in postal 
or money-order accoimts, penalties for violations of the regulations, 
and siuns due the Government on account of false returns of cancel- 
lations, etc. There being no question as to the ownership of postal 
and money-order fimds collected by inspectors, these funds are not 
forwarded to the department but are remitted direct by the inspect- 
ors to the proper depository. As these two items constitute the 
larger part of tne collections made, the total amount handled in the 
field exceeds the total amoimt handled by the chief inspector. As 
the cases in which the collections involve the question of responsi- 
bility and discipline must receive the approval of the chief inspector 
before disbursement is made, except collections on account of the 
wrong payment of money orders, the money is forwarded to the 
department. In accordance with yoiu^ desire to cooperate with the 
reconmiendations made by the Joint Commission on business Method 
of the Post-Office Department and the Postal Service, all of the mon- 
eys now collected by inspectors and sent to the chief inspector are 
deposited with the supermtendent of the division of finance. Office 
of the Third Assistant Postmaster-General, for disbursement. On 
July 1, 1908, all cash on hand and on deposit in bank to the credit 
of the chief inspector, was disposed of in the same manner. This 
division no longer has a bank accoimt, except a sufficient amoimt to 
meet outstanding checks issued prior to July 1 . 1908. The foUowing 
table shows the total coUections for the past five years: 



Year. 



Total field 
collectloiis. 



1904 $350, 304. 72 

1905 479,913.64 

1906 515,540.23 

1907 616,270.59 

1908 632,546.09 

Total 2,503,675.17 



Handled by 
chief in- 
spectoT. 



$33,772.92 
63,942.34 
78,699.42 

117,787.04 
96,956.79 



391, 157. 51 



Number of 
* checks 
issued. 



1,376 
2,060 
2,816 
3,049 
2,911 



12,211 



^7 

inspector during the past year is attributed entirely to the fact that 
there was a decrease m the number of cases jacketed alleging the vio- 



CHIEF INSPECTOR ROBBERIES AND ARRESTS. 



107 



lation of section 484. In nearly all of these cases there is a collection 
of $10 or a multiple thereof ($10 being the penalty fixed hj law for 
each violation), and a reduction in the number of such cases jadseted 
affects materially the collections. 



ROBBERIES AND ARRESTS. 



A comparison of the number of robberies reported duringeach of 
the past five years (* * * D cases) shows a fluctuation. Burglars 
ov yeggmen are systematic in their operations and after a year of 
great activity, in the endeavor to avoia suspicion and escape punish- 
ment, they either reduce the mmaber of operations or change their 
base to a new field, which has a tendency to reduce the mmaber of 
robberies imtil they become familiar with the territory and its con- 
ditions. The number of robberies reported during 1907 was 2,647, 
and dnring 1908 was 3,304, or an increase of 657, nearly 25 per cent. 
The total niunber of arrests during 1907 was 1,984, and the total 
niunber of arrests during 1908 was 2,548, or an increase of 664, more 
than 28 per cent. It will thus be seen that there has been more than 
a corresponding number or arrests. The disposition of those arrested 
was as follows:] 

Discharged by grand jury 169 

Discharged at preliminary hearing 175 

Proceedings dismissed 112 

Tried and acquitted 89 

Died awaiting trial 13 

Forfeited bail 13 

Escaped from custody 10 

Convicted 1, 174 

Gases pending 793 

Total 2, 648 

The Assistant Attomey-Greneral approved claims for reimburse- 
ments on accoimt of losses by burglars amounting to $107,572.63, of 
which $19,482.94 was for postal funds, $74,056.49 was for postage 
stamps, and $14,033.20 was for money-order funds. Closely asso- 
ciated with the consideration of the increase in the nTm[)]ber of rob- 
beries, is the penalty provided by law for the conviction of a person 
of robbery of a post-ofl&ce. The maximum penalty for sucn con- 
viction, five years, is so small that many professional robbers, or 
even vagabonds, would not hesitate to roD a post-office as only in 
a few instances are they unsuccessful in their work, and in many 
cases they are well paid for their trouble even if they are convicted 
and sentenced to the full extent of the law. As an idea of the amount 
secured in the robbery of some post-offices, I give below the largest 
claims for loss of government funds on account of robberies: 



PostK>ffioe. 



stamps. 



Postal 
funds. 



Money- 
order fonds. 



TotaL 



Winchenden, Mass 

South Pittsburg, Tenn. 

Everett, Wash 

Attica, Ind 

Eulaula, Ala 

Las Vegas, Nev 

Maryrme, Tenn. 



$2,896.81 
2,786.64 
2,233.27 
2,76^47 
1,958.76 
1,65a 32 
1,368.66 



S76.76 
11&48 
91.45 



$398.74 
220.85 



342.33 
650.70 
329.62 



451.93 
354.78 
141.61 



$3,372.31 
3,125.97 
2,324.72 
2, 76a 47 
2,753.02 
2,655.80 
1,833.78 



108 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

As in addition to the above amounts registered and ordinary letters 
are nearly always rifled, and key-deposit and personal fiinds are 
secured, it is quite apparent that the robbers are well repaid for their 
work. Then, in contemplating a robbery, the criminal always mag- 
nifies in his opinion the chances for escape and therefore gives but 
little heed to the question of punishment, especially so when the 
maximum sentence is so small. I believe that a greater maximum 
sentence would have a very beneficial effect. 

CHANGES IN DIVISION HEADQUARTERS. 

During the past fiscal year the division headquarters at New 
Orleans, La.^ was moved to Austin, Tex., to secure a more advanta- 
geous handling of the work. The San Juan division headquarters 
was discontinued and the Atlanta, Ga., division headquarters was 
established in lieu thereof for the oetterment of the service. Both 
changes have proven satisfactory. 

INCREASE IN BUSINESS. 

The departmental force of this division has not been increased since 
July 1, 1907, yet the business transacted has increased steadily. The 
rate of increase in the number of cases jacketed during the fiscal 
year 1908 over the fiscal year 1906 was 19.8 per cent, and the rate 
of increase in the number of cases closed during the same period was * 
17.8 per cent. The rate of increase in the correspondence during the 
fiscal vear 1908 over the fiscal year 1907 was 8.2 per cent. Onfy bv 
the adoption of modem methods have we been able to keep up with 
the growth. However, the limit has about been reached and unless 
the force is increased as recommended in the estimates for 1910, it 
will be impossible to handle the work. 

ASSISTANT CHIEF INSPECTOR. 

Owing to the complex work of this division and the necessity for 
closer supervision therein, as well as to provide adequately for the 
supervision of the field force during the absence of the chief inspector 
and in cases of emergency, I reconmiend that the position or chief 
clerk of the division of post-oflSce inspectors be abolished and in 
lieu thereof the position of assistant chief inspector be established. 
The duties of this position differ from those or the ordinary division 
chief in that to it is assigned not only the responsibility of the super- 
vision of the clerical force attached to the division in the department, 
but also often the supervision and direction of the entire neld force, 
and a position carrying the title, rank, and salary commensurate 
with the duties and responsibilities is a prime necessity in view of 
the conditions, as well as in the interest or a more compact and effi- 
cient organization. 

SALARY OF INSPECTORS. 

All of the arguments advanced in the past few years for, and which 
have resulted in, the increase in the salary of those engaged in public 
and private employment are applicable to post-office inspectors. It is 
both xmjust ana unreasonable to ask that a man should fit himself for 



CHIEF INSPECTOR — SALABY OF INSPECTORS. 109 

the arduous duties of an inspector and then ask that he work for a 
salary only equal to that paid for delivering mail in a restricted dis- 
trict. The inspector, unlike other employees in the postal service, 
is rarely permitted to visit his family, and on accoimt of this ana 
manv other hardships endured, that class of experienced postal 
employees so much needed no longer seeks this service. The pros- 
pects are not very flattering to the man who enters the service at 
$1,200 a year and who can not hope to get a promotion imtil there is 
death, resignation, or removal at the top. This arrangement is 
wrong and unfair, and produces a direct loss to the department in 
that merit — the great personal equation — can not be rewarded 
properly. An inspector's promotion should depend absolutely upon 
nis own efforts and experience, and when the postal revenues will 
warrant a reclassification this branch of the service should receive just 
consideration. 

It will be the aim of this division to devote a large part of the 
inspectors' time to the education of postal employees in the scientific 
handling of mails and to a thorough renovation of the postal service. 
It is beneved that considerable waste of labor can be eliminated and 
the mails expedited by a closer application of the inspectors' energies. 
The inspector who can not or will not become a postal expert must 
seek other employment. 

Respectfully, J^^rane E. McMillin, 

Chief Inspector. 

The Postmaster-General. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



FIRST ASSISTANT POSTMASTER-GENERAL 



TO THE 



POSTMASTER-GENERAL 



FOR 



THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1908 



111 



CONTENTS. 

[Report of the First Assistant Postmaster- General. ] 



Pag«. 

Growth of the service : 115 

Appointment of postmasters 116 

Navy mail clerks : 116 

Postmasters' associations 117 

Postmasters* salaries 1 17 

Bonds of postal employees 119 

Compensation of supervisory officers in post-offices 120 

Compensation of employees where conditions are unusual 1 20 

Effect of the new salary law 121 

Efficiency records of post-office employees 121 

Annual leave for post-office employees 123 

Hours of service of post-office employees 124 

Clerk hire at third-class offices 125 

Branch offices and postal stations 125 

Postal facilities in New York City 126 

Hudson Terminal Station 127 

New quarters for Station H 127 

New post-office building 128 

Quarters and equipment for post-offices 128 

Miscellaneous and incidental expenses of post-olUces 130 

Extension of the city delivery service 131 

New features of the city delivery service 132 

Street letter boxes 132 

Automobiles in the collection of mail 132 

Street-car collection service 133 

Improvements in office records 133 

Le^lation recommended 133 

Appropriations and expenditures 135 

Reports of the divisions: 

Division of Postmasters' Appointments 141 

Division of Salaries and Allowances 143 

Division of City Delivery 144 

65064— P M G 1908 8 1 13 



REPORT 



FIRST ASSISTANT POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



PosT-OmcB Department, 
OmcE OF THE First Assistant Postmaster-General, 

Washington^ D. C.^ November 25, 1908. 
Sir : I have the honor to submit the annual report of this bureau 
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, and to invite your attention 
to a number of recommwidations which are believed to be in the 
interest of the service. 

GROWTH OF THE SERVICE. 

The gross revenue of the postal service for the last fiscal year 
amounted to nearly $191,500,000, an increase of more than $7,600,000, 
or 4.29 per cent. While the ratio of increase was less than for any 
year since 1899, the increase in the number of presidential offices (for 
which most of the appropriations under this Dureau are made) was 
greater than ever before. On July 1, 1908, the number of presidential 
post-offices was 6,846, of which 384 were first class, an increase of 26 ; 
1,695 were second class, an increase of 86; and 4,867 were third class, 
an increase of 382, making a total increase of 494. During the year 
2,193 post-offices were established and 3,694 were discontinued, leav- 
ing a total of 61,158 post-offices in operation on June 30, 1908. The 
number of postmasters appointed at presidential offices was 2,174. 
Of these appointments 623 were at offices advanced to the presidential 
class during the year. At offices of the fourth class 11,945 postmasters 
were appomted. 

The number of assistant postmasters at first and second class 
offices increased from 1,716 to 1,862. The clerical force at first and 
second class offices increased from 26,447 to 29,314, and the number 
of letter carriers at city delivery offices from 24,577 to 26,362, a net 
increase of 2,867 clerks and 1,775 carriers. Of the additional clerks 
appointed, 228 were assigned to the new second-class offices. In a 
great majority of these offices the clerks had been employed during 
tne preceding year and paid by the postmasters largely irom their per- 
sonal funds. There were 7,114 clerks appointed during the year and 
2,794 letter carriers. Of this number of clerks 4,247 were appointed 
to fill vacancies and 2,867 to new positions, while 1,008 carriers were 
appointed to fill vacancies and 1,786 to new positions. 

The aggregate salaries of the additional clerks appointed during 
the year amounted to approximately $1,555,000, ana of the carriers 
to nearly $559,000. The saving effected by the appointment of clerks 

115 



116 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

at $600 to fill vacancies caused by separations from higher grades 
amounted to about $150,000, and the saving due to failure to fill va- 
cancies promptly and to unexpended amounts deducted from the sal- 
aries of absent clerks was approximately $116,000. Similar figures 
for the carrier service are $175,000 and $125,000, respectively. The 
increased expense due to the payment for the entire year of the sal- 
aries of employees appointed for a portion of the preceding year was 
about $506,000 for clerks and $465,000 for carriers. The net amount 
required for the promotion of clerks under the new salary law was 
nearly $2,071,000, and of carriers nearly $1,909,000, while the expense 
of promoting supervisory officers paid from the clerk-hire appropria- 
tion was $39,200. The net increase in the expenditures for clerk hire 
was $3,906,076, making the aggregate expenditures $25,980,482, and 
for letter carriers $3,034,941, resulting in a total cost of $25,200,141, 
including the expense for substitute, auxiliary, and temporary car- 
riers, which was about $402,000 greater in 1908 than in 1907. The 
city delivery service was established at 92 offices with 282 carriers, 
at an expense of $57,336. The number of city delivery offices at the 
close of the fiscal year was 1,330. 

APPOINTMENT OF POSTMASTERS. 

Under the present policy of the department postmasters at offices 
of the fourth class are not changed periodically, but are retained as 
long as satisfactory service is rendered the public and the department. 
Postmasters at presidential offices are appointed for a term of four 
years, and the policy of reappointing those whose records have been 
satisfactory has resulted in decided benefit to the service. No large 
cori)oration could possibly manage its affairs successfully if its ad- 
ministrative officers were changea frequently, and the same principle 
applies to the postal service. 

It is believea that the appointment of postmasters at offices of the 
second and third classes should be vested in the Postmaster-General, 
as heretofore recommended. This would reserve to the President 
the appointment of postmasters at the more important offices, those 
of the first class, and would relieve him of routine work that is merely 
a tax upon his time. 

NAVY MAIL CLERKS. 

The post-office appropriation act approved May 27, 1908, author- 
ized the Post-Office Department to designate as " navy mail clerks " 
and " assistant navy mail clerks " enlisted men selected by the Sec- 
retary of the Navy, and provided that such clerks should make deliv- 
ery of all mail addressed to naval vessels, receive and dispatch mail, 
receipt for registered matter, keep for sale an adequate supply of 
postage stamps, and perform such other postal duties as might be 
authorized hj the Postmaster-General. It was further provided 
that navy mail clerks and assistants should take the oath of office as 
employees of the Post-Office Department, should give bond in the sum 
of $1,000 for the faithful performance of their duties, and should be 
paid by the Navy Department, as compensation for their services, in 
addition to the pay of the grade in the navy to which they were 
assigned, a sum not to exceed $500 per annum in the case of navy 



FIRST ASSISTANT — POSTMASTERS ' SALARIES. 117 

mail clerks, and not to exceed $300 per annum in the case of assistant 
navy mail clerks. 

Upon the recommendation of the Secretary of the Navy 64 clerks 
and 29 assistants have been already designated for service on board 
64 naval vessels. Instructions for their guidance have been promul- 
gated and they have been supplied with post-marking stamps and with 
postage stamps and stamped envelopes. 



In addition to the National Association of Postmasters of the First 
Class, the National Association of Postmasters of the Second and 
Third Classes, and the National League of Postmasters of the Fourth 
Class^ nearly every State has a State association, in some cases several 
associations. Undoubtedly the annual meeting of postmasters in con- 
vention is most advantageous to the service. The department has en- 
couraged these meeting by sending representatives to join with the 
postmasters in discussing postal affairs and making plans for the 
betterment of the service. The conventions, however, would have a 
larger attendance and their influence would be thereby extended if 
there were not so many associations and such frequent meetings. It 
is believed that better results would follow if a number of associations 
would consolidate, following the example of the Postmasters' Asso- 
ciation of New England, which is made up of officials from the six 
New England States, all postmasters and assistant postmasters at 
presidential offices in these States being eligible for membership. It 
IS, of course, impossible for department officials to attend meetings 
in forty-six States, and hence the suggestion for reducing the number 
of meetings each year. 



Attention is again invited to the need of amending the law under 
which the salaries of presidential postmasters are readjusted annually 
on the basis of the gross receipts for the four quarters ending March 
31 each year, to take effect at the beginning of the next fiscal year. 
As stated in the annual report last year, the intervening period is not 
sufficient, now that the number of presidential offices has increased 
so largely, to permit of this work being done with the degree of 
accuracy and aeliberation that its importance demands. It is there- 
fore recommended that the salaries of presidential postmasters be 
fixed on the basis of the gross receipts for the calendar year, thus 
allowing six months within which to effect the readjustment. When 
the present law was enacted there were 2,193 offices of the pres- 
idential class; now there are 6,817. 

The present law provides that a post-office of the fourth class shall 
be advanced to the presidential class when the postmaster's compen- 
sation has been $250 in each of four successive quarters, provided the 
gross receipts for the same period were not less than $1,900. If the 
compensation falls below $250 in any one quarter, the office can not 
be advanced, nor can the postmaster receive a salary in excess of 
$1,000, notwithstanding that the gross receipts may amount to several 
thousand dollars. The law works an injustice to the postmaster at 
an office where a large amount of business is transacted vwt^^^i <^^^JKs?y^ 



118 KEPORT OP THE POSTMASTER-GEKERAL. 

quarters and where the business falls off in the remainder of the 
year, as at summer and winter resort offices. It is especially desir- 
able to have these offices in the presidential class, since the patrons 
are more exacting and more dimcult to serve than at the ordinal^ 
fourth-class office. As long as a post-office remains in the fourth 
class, the department can not make any allowance for rent or reg- 
ular clerk hire, and in the majority of cases the office is conducted 
in connection with some other business, which results in a condition 
that is highly unsatisfactory to the patrons. The law should be 
amended so as to provide that an office shall be advanced to the third 
class whenever the annual compensation of the postmaster amounts 
to $1,000 and the otoss receipts to $1,900. The number of offices that 
would be affected by the proposed change in the law is comparatively 
small, and the additional expense involved for salaries would he 
insignificant. • 

No satisfactory plan hasyet been devised for adjusting the compen- 
sation of postmasters at omces of the fourth class in a more equitable 
way than that provided by the current law, under which the compen- 
sation is based on commissions on the value of the stamps canceled. 
The present method, however, is cumbersome^ involving a large 
amount of unnecessary work in both the post-office and the auditor's 
office, and is open to the very grave objection that it invites fraud. 

The extension of the rural delivery service will in time effect a 
partial solution of this problem, especially if the plan of establi^ing 
a local parcel-delivery system on rural routes is adopted, since the 
resulting increase in revenue will be sufficient in a majority of cases 
to raise the offices to the presidential class. 

The establishment of the rural delivery service has brought about 
a condition that works a hardship on postmasters at fourth-class 
offices and to some extent at the small third-class offices. It has in- 
creased the volume of incoming mail in much larger proportion than 
the outgoing mail, on which the postmaster's compensation is based. 
It is estimated that a small office having rural routes receives four 
or five times as much^mail as it sends out. It would seem that this 
fact should be taken into consideration in fixing the postmaster's 
compensation, or that the department should have authority to allow 
clerk hire, for the same reason that allowances are made for the han- 
dling of transit mail at separating offices. The two conditions are 
exactly similar. At separating offices allowances are based on the 
number of pieces of transit mail handled for which the postmaster 
receives no pay in commissions. An amendment to the present law 
making the appropriation for separating service available for clerk 
hire at offices where the amount of mail received and delivered on 
rural routes is largely in excess of the amount of mail dispatched 
would be equitable. 

Where small offices are located in the vicinity of city delivery offices, 
it has been the policy of the department, when feasible, to make them 
branches of the city delivery offices. This solves the question of com- 
pensation by makmg the former postmaster a salaried employee of 
the city delivery office. However, the present law, as stated else- 
where m this report, prohibits the establishment of branch offices or 
stations, in place of post-offices, more than 5 miles beyond the cor- 
porate limits of the city to which such branches or stations would be 



FIRST ASSISTANT — BONDS. 119 

attached. By the repeal of this restriction a large number of fourth- 
class offices could be eliminated with advantage to the public through 
better postal facilities, and with decided benefit to the service from 
both aoministrative and accounting standpoints. 

BONDS OF POSTAIi EMPLOYEES. 

All postmasters are required to furnish a satisfactory bond before 
entering upon their duties. The amount of the bond ranges from 
$500 to more than half a million dollars. Assistant postmasters at 
presidential offices, cashiers, all other supervisory and clerical em- 
ployees at first and second class offices who have any financial respon- 
sibility, and city letter carriers are also required by law to give bond. 
Many other employees, including rural letter carriers and railway 
mail clerks, are required to give bond under the regulations of the 
department. 

The sureties on the great majority of bonds of officers and em- 
ployees other than postmasters are corporations, and the premiums 
charged probably avera^ $1 for each $1,000 of the bond. Post- 
masters are required to give personal sureties, and at least one of the 
sureties must be a patron of the post-office to which the suretyship 
relates. At offices of the first and second classes surety companies 
are accepted for one-half the penalty of the bond. It is the usual 
practice, however, where a personal l)ond is given, for the postmaster 
to furnish to his bondsmen an indemnity Iwnd from a surety com- 
pany. The giving of bonds therefore costs postal officers and em- 
Eloyees a large sum in the ag^egate, the premiums on the bonds 
eing sufficient to pay many times over all the losses that occur 
through defalcations. It is apparent that the execution, acceptance, 
and fUing of these bonds entails a vast amount of clerical work. The 
average annual collections from surety companies and individual 
bondsmen on account of defalcations of postmasters and employees 
amount to less than $32,000. The salaries of employees in this 
bureau alone who are engaged on work incident to the bonding of 
postmasters, assistant postmasters, clerks, and letter carriers amount 
to over $20,000 per annum. 

It is estimated that the total penalty of postmasters' bonds is 
$125,000,000. The amount of the bonds furnished by surety com- 
panies for assistant postmasters at first, second, and third class 
offices and for clerks at first and second class offices is about 
$40,000,000. The bonds of city letter carriers aggregate about 
$35,000,000. The total for the officers and employees whose bonds 
are handled in this bureau is therefore about $200,000,000. At the 
rate of $1 premium for each $1 ,000 of bond the annual payments to 
surety companies would be $200,000. It is estimated that the num- 
ber of bonded officers and employees in the entire postal service, 
including mail contractors, is 238,513, and the estimated amount of 
the premiums paid on the bonds is $320,000. 

In most instances these officers and employees must furnish a satis- 
factory bond before entering upon their duties. This necessarily 
consumes time and entails labor. If, therefore, the department can 
do away with the system of bonding employees, a considerable amount 
of time and work will be saved. Many private corporations collect 



120 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

an indemnity fund from their employees instead of requiring bonds. 
The same system prevails in the Canadian postal service, and it is 
believed that the plan would give excellent results in our own service. 
It is recommended therefore that the attention of Congress be 
called to the need for legislation that will enable the department, 
instead of requiring bonds as at present, to collect an indenmity fund 
from the officers and employees of the postal service at a rate not ex- 
ceeding $1 per annum on each $1,000 of insurance required, this 
fund to be deposited in the Treasury, subject to withdrawal on the 
Postmaster-General's order to make good any losses that occur 
through the defalcations of the persons insured. Every officer or 
employee contributing to the indemnity fund would have a direct 
and personal interest in the integrity of his fellows, a fact entitled 
to considerable weight in balancing the advantages and disadvantages 
of the proposed plan. Among the other advantages of the system 
proposed are, first, the facility with which losses could be adjusted 
without resort to the courts; second, the labor saved by dispensing 
with the periodical examination of personal bonds to ascertain the 
sufficiency of the sureties thereon ; and, third, the protection afforded 
subordinate employees against increasing premiums on corporate- 
surety bonds. 

COMPENSATION OF SUPERVISORY OFFICERS IN POST-OFFICES. 

In the last annual report of this bureau attention was called to the 
inadequacy of the salaries paid supervisory officers in post-offices^ and 
a new classification of supervisory positions was suggested providing 
for somewhat higher maximum salaries. The increases in the pay oi 
clerks and carriers under the new salary law, and especially the num- 
ber of promotions to the $1,200 grade provided for by the appropria- 
tion act for the current fiscal year, have brought out more clearly the 
necessity for additional compensation for the supervisory officers. 
In many cases letter carriers receive the same salary as their super- 
intendents, and subordinate clerks are paid as much as their foremen. 

Should the new classification be adopted by Congress, the depart- 
ment will not ask for an appropriation sufficient to pay the maximum 
salaries fixed by the proposed measure, but will merely request that 
provision be made for increases of $100 for those employees whose 
compensation is manifestly too low, and that their pay be thus grad- 
ually raised from year to year in proportion to the importance of 
the positions they hold. The estimates that have been submitted 
contain no provision for even such increases, but it is believed that 
if the law is amended as suggested and provision is made for a number 
of additional positions in the higher grades, the increases in salary 
can be authorized without an additional appropriation, as the grant- 
ing of better salaries to supervisory officers will undoubtedly result 
in better supervision and will thus effect economies in other directions. 

COMPENSATION OF EMPLOYEES WHERE CONDITIONS ARE UNUSUAL. 

The law provides that the initial salary for clerks and carriers at first 
and second class offices shall be $600, and in the great majority of post- 
offices the salary is sufficient, in view of the provision for advancement 



FIBST ASSISTANT — EFFICIENCY RECORDS. 121 

to $800 after one year's satisfactory service. In certain sections of 
the comitry, however, particularly in the mining districts of the 
West, where the wages paid in other lines of employment are high 
and the demands for labor great, it has been impossible to obtain the 
services of competent men at $G00. In such cases it has been neces- 
sary to employ temporary clerks and carriers at the rate of 30 cents 
an hour, payable from the appropriation for temporary and auxiliary 
service, or to make an allowance from the appropriation for unusual 
conditions. 

This bureau renews the recommendation made in its last annual 
report that the law be amended so as to make clear the department's 
authority to appoint clerks and carriers, where necessary, at such rate 
of compensation within the grades prescribed by law as may be re- 
quired to insure a proper conduct of the postal business. 

EFFECT OF THE NEW SALARY LAW. 

The new salary law, which provides for the annual promotion of 
clerks and carriers for faithful and eflScient service, had been in opera- 
tion a full year on June 30, 1908, and resulted in the promotion of 
19,880 clerl^ and 23,503 carriers during the four quarters of the year, 
as follows: 15,825 clerks and 19,792 carriers on July 1, 1907; 1,459 
clerks and 1,190 carriers on October 1, 1907; 1,436 clerks and 1,342 
carriers on January 1, 1908, and 1,160 clerks and 1,179 carriers on 
April 1, 1908. Although these promotions represent a large outlay 
oi money, it is believed that the expenditures are justified by the 
increased efficiency of the employees affected, which has resulted in 
an improved service and in a relative decrease in the number of 
additional employees required. 

EFFICIENCY RECORDS OF POST-OFFICE EMPLOYEES. 

Continued attention has been given to the problem of providing a 
method by which the department can comply more strictly with the 
new salary law by assuring itself that a reasonably high and uniform 
degree of efficiency has been attained by all employees recommended 
for promotion. After considering carefully the numerous sugges- 
tions and criticisms offered by postmasters with respect to the pro- 
posed system the department has decided to install it, with some 
modifications, in all city-delivery post-offices for thorough trial, and 
has issued forms and instructions for that purpose. 

The principal objects of the plan are (1) to provide a convenient 
means of recording from day to day the various acts and omissions 
that make employees' service satisfactory or unsatisfactory and to 
combine the record annually into a general rating, instead of depend- 
ing on the supervisory officer's memory of a year's work, and (2) to 
advise the postmaster of the department's judgment as to the weight 
to be accorded to every such act and omission in deciding the question 
of promotion, while allowing him to consider duly any extenuating 
or aggravating circumstances. The necessity for some such method is 
clearly shown by the wide variation in the disciplinary action recom- 
mended by different postmasters for the same misdemeanor. Thus, 
for the first case of intoxication on duty one postmaster consistently 



122 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

recommends immediate removal from the service, while another sug- 
gests reduction in salary only after the second or third offense. 

The plan provides for rating employees on the speed and accuracy 
with which they perform their work from day to day, on their con- 
duct, or faithfulness in observing the postal laws and regulations 
and the office rules published for ttieir guidance, on their promptness 
and regularity in attendance, and on the thoroughness with which 
they prepare themselves for their work by becoming familiar with 
the regulations and instructions pertaining thereto, and in the case 
of distributers with the necessary schemes of distribution. 

The rating on average speed or quantity of work performed is to 
be based on the supervisory officer's observation, supplemented when 
practicable by actual counts of the amount of work done during 
representative brief periods. Accuracy, conduct, and attendance are 
to be marked by making deductions from the speed rating for errors, 
misconduct, tardiness, and absence in excess of thirty days in one 
fiscal year when not due to illness or other unavoidable cause. 
Knowledge of duties and of distribution schemes is to be rated by 
means or examinations. On such examinations a certain standard 
will be required and credits will be given for higher records. 

The plan of basing the rating so far as possible on definite penal- 
ties imposed for tan^ble delinquencies is believed to have decided 
advantages in that it places dependence on specific rather than 
general impressions of the rating officer and eliminates his memory 
as a factor in the result. However, the difficulties that attend the 
assignment of weights to the various delinquencies have proved to be 
serious. It is necessary to take into account not only the possible 
consequences of the fault and the ease with which it can be com- 
mitted but also the likelihood of its being detected and traced to 
the delinquent employee. The weights fixed in the published schedule 
of demerits represent the best judgment of the department as to the 
penalty that should ordinarily he imposed for the delinquencies 
specified. It is fully realized, however, that the seriousness of every 
offense against discipline and of the majority of errors varies widely 
with the circumstances under which the fault is committed. Post- 
masters have therefore been authorized to use considerable discretion 
in imposing penalties in special cases, while following the published 
schedule under ordinary circumstances and departing merefrom 
only for definite reasons. They have also been instructed to be less 
stringent in marking the errors of employees whose duties are much 
varied than of those who are assigned continuously to a single task. 

In order to assist employees in preparing for examination on their 
knowledge of their duties the department expects to issue pamphlets 
of instruction covering the work of the several divisions of the post- 
office. It is also considering the plan of preparing the examination 
questions for the entire service, m order that all employees doing 
the same work may stand the same test. 

Numerous modifications of the proposed system have been suggested 
by postmasters, among the most frequently offered being the addi- 
tion of credits on account of continued good conduct, exceptionally 
meritorious service, and the like, and of ratings on application, 
industry, or effort, as distinguished from actual accomplishment. 
These suggestions have received careful consideration, but it has 
not been deemed advisable to incorporate them into the plan at 



FIRST ASSISTANT — ANNUAL LEAVE. 123 

present. If experience demonstrates the necessity for changes they 
will be promptfy made. 

A number oi postmasters have protested against the imposition 
of demerits for absence without pay, urging that leave of absence is 
not granted except for good reasons, and that the employee is suffi- 
denfly penalized by the loss of his salary while he is off duty. On 
the other hand it is urged that frequent absence unquestionably de- 
creases an emplovee's usefulness, and that the absentee's work is 
seldom done satisfactorily by the substitute paid out of his salary. It 
is not considered that any penalty should oe imposed for unavoid- 
able absence without pay, but in view of the fact that the new salary 
law provides for promotion only upon evidence of a year's satisfac- 
tory service the department can not justify itself in authorizing the 
promotion at the end of a year of an employee who has failed ta 
render service during any considerable part of that time. It has 
therefore been provided that an employee who has been absent for 
ninety days or more during the year following appointment or pro- 
motion shall not become eligible for the next promotion until the 
completion of another quarter's service ; that one who has been absent 
one nundred and fifty days or more in the year shall not become 
eligible for promotion until the completion of two more quarters' 
service, etc. 

The department also feels that for the good of the service unneces- 
sary absence nhould l)e discouraged. It has therefore prescribed a 
moderate penalty for absence in excess of thirty days m one fiscal 
year when not due to illness or other unavoidable cause. The policy 
of allowing without penalty fifteen days' leave in addition to the 
fifteen days with pay provided for by law has been adopted because 
the majority of the employees in the federal service receive thirty 
days' annual leave of absence, and the department is in favor of 
extending the same rule to the postal service. 

Since frequent absence for brief periods is more troublesome to the 
department and usually less excusable than continued absence at one 
time, it has been thought best to provide a greater penalty for the 
first day of a period of absence than for succeeding days of the same 
period. 

It is not expected that the new plan will prove uniformly satis- 
factory in the beginning, but it is hoped that with the help of experi- 
ence and the support of the oflScers and emploj^ees of the service it 
may be so perfected as to become a valuable aid to postmasters in 
forming their judgments as to the eflSciencv of their employees accord- 
ing to the standards that are just and uniform throughout the service. 

ANNUAL LEAVE FOR POST-OFFICE EMPLOYEES. 

Under the law employees of the executive departments in Washing- 
ton may be allowed thirty days' annual leave with pay, exclusive of 
Sundays and holidays, and in case of sickness thirty days' additional 
leave with pay. Post-oflSce clerks and city letter carriers are entitled 
by law to fifteen days' leave with pay, exclusive of Sundays and holi- 
days. The recommendation was made last year that the leave of 
absence with pay allowed by law to employees of the postal service 
be increased to thirty days. These employees are required to work 
Sundays and holidays and at all hours of the night. In the casft. <i;t 



124 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

§ost-ofl5ce clerks, during the holiday season they are frequently on 
uty from ten to fifteen hours daily, and if they are sick their pay 
is forfeited. If other employees of the Government may be granted 
thirty days' leave with pay, and in case of sickness an additional leave 
of thirty days, surely the hard-working post-office clerks and city 
letter carriers are entitled to at least thirty days' leave with pay as a 
maximum. 

Post-office clerks and letter carriers should be placed on a par in 
this regard with employees in other branches of the federal service, 
and it is confidently oelieved that the improved health and increased 
vigor and enthusiasm of the employees would justify the cost of the 
change. Like every other improvement in the conditions of employ- 
ment, it would tend to bring better men into the service. 

In the case of post-office clerks it is in most instances feasible to 
grant leave of absence with pay durinff the dull season of the year 
without any expense, bv requiring the clerks on duty to render extra 
service and do the work of those on leave. The entire appropriation 
for substitutes for clerks on vacation is only $110,000. In the case of 
letter carriers, however, the practice has been to allow a substitute 
in place of each carrier every day of his annual vacation, so that the 
expense of allowing a carrier fifteen days leave with pay (including 
intervening Sundays and holidays) would be about $40, or for the 
26,352 carriers in the service on June 30, 1908, more than $1,000,000 

§er annum. Believing that the cost of carriers' vacations coula be 
ecreased by reducing the number of collections and deliveries in 
residential districts during the heated term when many of the patrons 
are away from home, an experiment was tried last summer to ascer- 
tain how much could be saved in this way without impairing tiie 
efficiency of the service, with the result that an economy oi more than 
$100,000 was effected. It is believed, therefore, that if authority is 

fiven the department to allow clerks and carriers not to exceed thirty 
ays leave of absence with pay in each fiscal year, the expense will 
not be by any means double the cost of allowing them fifteen days' 
leave under present conditions. 

HOURS OF SERVICE OF POST-OFFICE EMPLOYEES. 

It has been the policy of the department to limit the average daily 
hours of service of post-office clerks as nearly as possible to eight, and 
to have only such work done on Sundays as is necessary to prevent 
delay in the transmission of the mails and inconvenience to the public. 
As a result, the service is practically on an eight-hour basis so far as 
the larger post-offices are concerned. At the smaller offices it is not 
always feasible to establish an eight-hour schedule without increas- 
ing the allowance for clerk, hire in excess of the needs of the office, 
owing to the early and late arrival and departure of mails, requiring 
the office to be kept open for the gp:eater part of the twenty-four hours. 
However, instructions have been issued to postmasters in such cases to 
allow the clerks brief periods off duty at times when mails are not 
being received or dispatched. In the larger cities and at transfer 
points it is necessary to have much of the mail distributed at night, 
and during the holiday season, when the volume of mail is largely 
increased, extra efforts on the part of post-office employees are re- 
quired and often extra hours, since much of the work can be done only 



FIBST ASSISTANT — BRANCH OFFICES. 



125 



by experienced clerks. In the case of distributers and mailing clerks 
study after hours is necessary, in order that they may i)erfect them- 
selT^ in their schemes of distribution. It is therefore important in 
the interest of health that the clerks be given regular hours and that 
their schedules be so arranged that they will alternate on Sundays 
and holidays. 

CLERK HIRE AT THIRD-CLASS OFFICES. 



The fyppropriation for the current year for clerk hire at post- 
offices oi the third class was increased from $850,000 to $1,150,000, 
and the appropriation for temporary and auxiliary clerk hire, hereto- 
fore proviaed for first and second class offices only, was made avail- 
able for summer and winter resort offices of the third and fourth 
classes also. While the appropriation is not sufficient to cover the 
entire cost of derk hire at thira-class offices, and postmasters are still 
compelled to expend a portion of their salaries in employing clerks, 
the mcrease in the appropriation has enabled the department to adopt 
the following average scale of allowances : 



Salary of postmaster. 



11,900. 
1,800. 
1,700. 
1,000. 
1,500. 



Allowance. 



$500 
444 
360 
300 
240 



Salary of postmaster. 



$1,400. 
1,300. 
1,200. 
1,100. 
1,000. 



Allowanoe. 



$180 
144 
120 
108 
00 



It is not possible to allow the full amount authorized by law, since 
the appropriation is not sufficient. To do so would require more 
than $2,000,000 annually. It should be borne in mind that there is 
no appropriation for the payment of miscellaneous expenses at third- 
class offices, and therefore the postmaster is compelled to pay all of 
these expenses, including a part of the clerk hire, from his personal 
funds. 

BRANCH OFFICES AND POSTAL STATIONS. 

Numbered stations transact money-order and registry business and 
sell postal supplies, but do not receive or dispatch mail. Stations 
desi^ated by letters or local names and branch post-offices also 
receive and dispatch mail and, in fact, have all the functions of a 
post-office. 

Section 3871 of the Revised Statutes provides that the department 
may establish within any post-office delivery branch offices for the 
receipt and delivery of mail matter, but the act of June 3, 1896, pro- 
hibits the establishment of branch offices or stations outside the cor- 
porate limits of a citv except in the case of cities, towns, or villages 
of 1,500 or more inhabitants, located within 5 miles of the city limits. 
No such restriction exists, however, with reference to the extension of 
free-delivery service. The department is thus placed in the anoma- 
lous position of being able to deliver mail from door to door and at 
the same time of being forbidden to supply the district so served with 
the^ other usual postal conveniences. Instances could be cited in 
which this provision has worked decided injustice to growing com- 
munities located immediately adjacent to the limits of large cities. 



126 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

If the department had authority to establish branch offices in lieu of 
post-offices without regard to the distance from the main office it 
would be possible to reduce materially the number of post-offices und 
at the same time improve the service by giving the smaller offices 
better faciliCes and better supervision. The Boston postal district, 
for example, comprises 16 separate municipalities, served by 30 
branch offices, all managed and supervised by the postmaster of 
Boston and his aids. The principal objection usually raised to 
making a small post-office a station of a lar^e office is that the village 
or town loses its separate identity. This objection has been overcome 
by the simple expedient of designating postal stations outside of the 
corporate limits of cities as branch offices and retaining the name in 
the Postal Guide and on the postmarking stamps ; in other words, by 
continuing them as separate post-offices in every respect but their 
internal management and accounting. 

The present method of compensatmg postmasters at offices of the 
fourth class, while perhaps as equitable as any system that could be 
devised, is extremely cumbersome and involves a large amount of 
unnecessary labor in settling the accounts of these offices. The oppor- 
tunities for fraud are numerous and frauds are hard to detect, smee 
the postmaster practically audits his own accounts. Therefore any 
plan to reduce the number of such offices is worth considering. 
Furthermore, at small presidential post-offices contiguous to large 
cities there have been reported many cases of irregular sales of stamps 
made with a view to increasing the postmaster's salary, and notwitn- 
standing the vi^lance of the mspectors it is not always possible to 
detect irregularities of this character. It is therefore very desirable 
to make stations or branches of all post-offices located in the vicinity 
of large cities, and thus not merely to take away the incentive to 
fraud, but to make fraud impossible. 

In the preliminary report of the Postal Commission the expert 
accountants strongly advocate fixed salaries for postmasters at fourth- 
class offices and a material reduction in the number of accounting 
offices. To make such offices branches of neighboring larger offices is 
believed to be the most satisfactory way of accomplishing both of 
these ends. Since Congress vested in the department authority to 
establish post-offices wherever the public convenience requires, it would 
seem that the authority to establish branch offices should not be 
restricted, especially when it is conclusively proved that the branch 
office will serve the public better and more economically. It is there- 
fore recommended that the department be given authority to estab- 
lish branch offices without restriction. 

POSTAL FACILITIES IN NEW YORK CITY. 

The New York post-office furnishes nearly one-tenth of the entire 
postal revenue. To handle the enormous and constantly growing 
postal business of that city requires each year greater effort and in- 
creased expenditures. The post-office building is entirely inade^juate. 
The department has been aole to afford relief only by establishing 
stations and branch offices throughout the city. There are now in 
operation 40 carrier stations, and the rent of suitable quarters for 
these stations for the current year will amount to more than $500,000. 



FIBST ASSISTANT — POSTAL FACILITIES IN NEW YOBK CITY. 127 



HUDSON TEBMINAL STATION. 



In previous reports attention has been called to the congestion in 
the workroom oi the New York office, and numerous efforts have 
been made to find a remedy for the unsatisfactory conditions. The 
situation finally became so intolerable that it was necessary to move 
the entire mailing division out of the post-office building proper, and 
accordingly a lease was entered into lor the second floor of the ter- 
minal building of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Company 
on Church street, between Cortlandt and Dey streets, containing about 
35,000 square feet of floor space^ the annual rental being $75,000. 
The transfer of the mailing division to these new quarters, to which 
the designation " Hudson Terminal Station " was given, was effected 
on July 1 last, and that division now occupies a room of ample 
area, well lighted and equipped. The new station, which is located 
directly above the end of the tunnel that connects the Jersey City 
terminals of the Pennsylvania, Erie, and Lackawanna railroads with 
New York, is 4 blocks from the main office. An elaborate system of 
elevators, chutes, and conveyors for expediting the handling of mails 
is also being put into operation. 

The quarters formerly occupied by the mailing division in the 
main post-office are to be used by other divisions as soon as certain 
structural changes are completed. It is hoped that it will be practi- 
cable to vacate the Hudson Terminal Station when the new post-office 
building at the Pennsylvania terminal is completed, ana thereby 
relieve the appropriation for rent, light, and fuel of this large 
expenditure. 

NEW QUARTERS FOR STATION H. 

In the act of Congress making appropriation for the service of the 
Post-Office Department for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1905, an 
item of $90,000 was included for the purpose of leasing quarters for 
a postal station in the terminal builaing of the New York Central 
and Hudson River Railroad Company in l^^ew York City. Since that 
date this terminal building has been under construction and quarters 
for the postal station have been included in the plans. On April 3, 
1908, the department formally accepted a proposal to lease for a term 
of twenty-five years from January 1, 1909, an area of 60,352 square 
feet in the Grand Central Railroad Station. An additional area of 
44,143 square feet is to be available in 1912. When the quarters for 
which the department has already accepted a proposal are ready for 
occupancy, the leased building on Madison avenue and Forty-third 
street, now used by Station H of the New York post-office, will be 
vacated and the work of the station will be transferred to the railroad 
terminal. The new quarters are directly above the tracks of the New 
York Central Railroad, and elevators and chutes connect the working 
floor of the station with the railroad platforms below. The annual 
diarge for rent alone will be $55,480.29, and the cost of heat, light, 
and other requirements will add nearly $30,000 annually to the ex- 
pense of maintaining the station. Contracts for the eqmpment have 
Deen made by the department, and it is expected that no delay will 
occur in the occupation of the new quarters. It is estimated that 



128 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

the cost of maintaining the station when the additional area becomes 
available will reach an annual total of $140,000. This station and 
Hudson Terminal Station furnish striking examples of the heavy 
charges which it seems impracticable to evade in maintaining the 
postal service in New York City. 

NEW POST-OFFICE BUILDING. 

At the last session of Congress an appropriation of $100,000 was 
made to continue the work of constructing the new post-office building 
on Eighth avenue between Thirty-first and Thirty-third streets, ad- 
joining the Pennsylvania Railroad terminal. This amount is to be 
used TOT the foundation only. The work is now progressing in con- 
junction with the building of the railroad tracks and platforms which 
are to be located beneath the post-office. No appropriation has yet 
been made available for the construction of the post-office building, 
but the architects have already completed plans for the exterior oi 
the structure. A beautiful fagade has been desired, which has re- 
ceived the highest commendation from other leadmg architects, some 
of whom were competitors for the task. The interior arrangement 
of the post-office has not yet been planned, but the requirements have 
been the subject of careiul investigation by postal experts and the 
architects are being fully advised of the factors that should be con- 
sidered in the arrangement of the areas within the building. Abun- 
dant natural light wUl be available in the proposed structure^ and it is 
confidently expected that the working conditions in the various divi- 
sions of the new office will be highly satisfactory. The basement is 
surrounded on three sides by a light well 40 feet wide and extending 
from 4 to 10 feet below the street levels, and space on this floor, which 
would under ordinary conditions be considered undesirable, will be 
valuable for post-office work. 

The early completion of this new post-office would be of great ad- 
vantage to the department. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
will probably occupy the new terminal in October, 1909. The use of 
the present Jersey City station of that railroad for passenger traffic 
will then be discontinued and the transfer of the mails between the 
New York post-office and the Pennsylvania Railroad lines will present 
a difficult problem until the new post-office building is occupied, as 
the available space in the New York railroad terminal will probably 
be insufficient to permit the handling there of the great amount of 
mail to be received and dispatched over those lines. An appropria- 
tion for the new building should be made by Congress at the earliest 
practicable date and its construction should be expedited as much as 
possible. It is estimated that two years will be required to complete 
the structure after the contracts are awarded. 

QUARTERS AND EQUIPMENT FOR POST-OFFICES. 

The question of providing suitable quarters for post-offices^ prop- 
erly equipped with the furniture and fixtures necessary lor the 
prompt and accurate handling of mails, becomes more important 
each year, and greater difficulty is experienced and increased expense 
incurred by the department with the growth of the service and the 
general increase in property values throughout the coimtry. The 



FIBST ASSISTANT QUARTERS AND EQUIPMENT. 129 

appropriation for rent for the current year has proved to be wholly 
inadequate. 

ITiere are now housed in government buildings 419 post-offices and 
stations for which the equipment is provided by the Treasury Depart- 
ment. At most of the remaining first and second class offices and at a 
number of the larger third-class offices the department has been able 
to negotiate leases imder the terms of which the lessor furnishes the 
outfit of boxes, fixtures, and furniture. At all other offices the post- 
masters are required to provide the equipment, since there is no appro- 
priation for the purpose. When leases are entered into, the con- 
tract is usually for a term of five or ten years, and as a general rule 
the lessor adds a sufficient amount to the rental value of flie building 
to pay for the equipment during the term of the lease. It is believed 
that in the long i;un it would be much more economical for the depart- 
ment to own and furnish the post-office equipment. It is therefore 
recommended that authority be given to utilize $100,000 of the appro- 
priation for rent, light, and fuel for presidential offices in providing 
the equipment in offices where it is not feasible to enter into a lease 
for quarters properly equipped. Should such action be taken it is 
believed that contracts could be made with equipment companies to 
furnish post-office fixtures at a much lower rate than is now paid 
under the system of having each landlord make his own contract. 
The screen work could be built on the unit system and enlarged or 
diminished at slight expense. 

The postmasters at offices of the fourth class are not appointed for 
a fixed term; their tenure of office is somewhat uncertain; the com- 
pensation is small; and naturally they equip their offices with the 
cheapest fixtures and the least furniture that will answer their pur- 
pose. If the department had an appropriation to purchase fixtures 
for offices of the presidential class it would be practicable, when an 
office outerows the equipment furnished, to transfer it to a smaller 
office and thus relieve tne postmaster of the expense. In time the 
department would thus be able to have post-omces fitted up in a 
uniform and satisfactory manner throughout the entire coimtry. 

Although Congress is appropriating liberally for new federal 
buildings — more Uian $18,000,000 having been authorized at the last 
session for sites and structures to be used for post-office purposes 
exclusively — this Department has practically no voice in the selection 
of the site or the desiring and equipping of the building. 

A convenient location, an interior arrangement planned with 
special reference to post-office needs, and a proper equipment are 
vital to the prompt and economical handling of the mails. More- 
over, the requirements of the larger post-offices with respect to loca- 
tion and design differ so materially irom those of the other govern- 
ment establishments usually housed in federal buildings that it is 
rarely feasible to place them under the same roof without disad- 
vantage to the postal service. 

In view of the excellent results obtained by the corps of field repre- 
sentatives of this bureau in securing under lease suitable post-office 
buildings properly equipped, it is believed that the services of these 
agents could fee utilized to great advantage in connection with the 
choice of sites, the arrangement of floor space and screen work, and 

65064— P M 1908 9 



180 ^ REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

the selection and placing of the other fixtures and the furniture -in 
government buildings. The recommendations are therefore renewed 
fliat federal buildings in which post-offices are to be located be de- 
signed especially for that purpose and reserved exclusively for post- 
office use, and that this department be granted definite authority in 
connection with the selection of the sites and the planning of the 
interior arrangement of such buildings, and be given direct control of 
tiie appropriations for their equipment. 

MISCELLANEOUS AND INCmENTAL EXPENSES OF POST-OFFICBS. 

For the current year the appropriation for miscellaneous expenses 
at post-offices is $2y5,000, which is only $25,000 more than it was in 
1902. This appropriation is designed to cover all expenses at first 
and second class offices that are not otherwise specifically provided 
for, the principal items being janitor service and cleaning supplies, 
telephones, and directories. The appropriation has not been sufficient 
for a great many years to pay these expenses in full; in fact, at a 
large number of the smaller second-class offices no allowances what- 
ever are made for keeping the quarters clean, and the postmasters 
are compelled to meet such charges from their personal f imds. 

It is from this inadequate appropriation that most of the labor- 
saving devices in use are purchased, a fact which explains in part 
the paucity of such devices in the service, to which the attention of 
Congress was called in the preliminary report of the Postal Com- 
mission. 

Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made within the last 
few years in the introduction of labor-saving machinery. A very 
elaborate and expensive system of automatic mail conveyors, chutes, 
and elevators was put in operation in the new post-office building at 
Chicago when it was first occupied, the cost being defrayed from the 
appropriation under the control of the Treasury Department. A 
special appropriation of $10,000 was obtained at the last session of 
Congress for the purchase and installation of mechanical conveyors 
and equipment for the handling of mail in the post-office at Washmg- 
ton, D. C. The new conveyors are now in operation and, it is believed, 
will demonstrate the economy of providing appliances of this kind 
in a number of the larger offices. Station J5. New York City, which 
is to occupy quarters in the new terminal oi the New York Central 
Bailroad Company, is to be equipped with automatic conveyors 
at a cost of about $12,000, the expense being charged to the special 
appropriation for the rent, equipment, and maintenance of the sta- 
tion ; and notwithstanding the inadequacy of the appropriation pro- 
vided for miscellaneous items, the department has deemed it advisable, 
in the interest of economy, to utilize about $9,000 of that appropria- 
tion in making a contract for an automatic conveyor system in the 
Hudson Terminal Station of the New York City post-office. The 
mechanical equipment is being installed and will be in operation in a 
few weeks. Automatic conveyors have also been utilized on a smaller 
scale in a number of other large offices, the expense being met from 
the appropriation for miscellaneous items. 



FIRST ASSISTANT — CITY DELIVERY. 181 

One of the moet important labor-saving devices recently introduced 
into t he p ostal service is an improved facing table. The one in use 
in the Washington post-office is 24 feet long oy 4 feet 6 inches wide, 
and is constructed principally of steel. Each sid^.of the table is 
equipped with a 6-inch belt conveyor on which are grooves for the 
letters, one sroove being for the long letters and another for the short ' 
ones. The oelt conveyors carry the letters to the end of the table, 
where the long letters are automatically stacked ready for the cancel- 
ing machine, while the short letters are carried by the belt directly 
into the canceling machine and by it stacked ready for distribution, 
thus doing away with another handling by clerks. Over the center 
of the table is a 12-inch belt conveyor on which are placed letters and 
otlier matter too bulky to be inserted in the grooves. Such matter is 
carried by this conveyor to the end of the table and dropped into a 
receptade. The belts are so arranged that they may be used con- 

I'oinUy or separately, thus making it unnecessary to operate any belt 
mt the one needed. Numerous tests have proved that the use of this 
inidDg table saves one man in seven employed in facing mail, and of 
course the mail is greatly expedited, since it is postmarked and placed 
in the hands of the distributers as fast as it is faced. About 30 men 
can work at this table at a time. The initial cost of a device of this 
diaracter is considerable, amounting to about $3,000, but as it is 
practicAlly indestructible the economy of its use is apparent. 

It is believed that real economies of time and labor can be effected 
by the extension of the use of mechanical conveyors and special 
appliances for the handling of mails, and that in order to permit 
fiuoi an extension the appropriation for miscellaneous expenses of 
first and second class offices should be largely increased. The result 
of the experiments made possible by the appropriation of $10,000 
granted by the last Congress for expenses incident to the investiga- 
Son and testing of mechanical and labor-saving devices will be given 
in the next annual report. 

EXTENSION OF THE CITY DELIVERY SERVICE. 

All cities having a population of 10,000 and nearly all post-offices 
where the receipts are $10,000 have city delivery service. Fifteen 
or twenty million people are served by the rural delivery service, 
whi(^ is confirtfed exclusively to rural districts. This leaves millions 
of people residing in small towns of from 3,000 to 5,000 inhabitants 
witnout any form of free delivery. It is believed that this condition 
should be remedied by amending the present law so as to permit the 
department to establish city delivery service at post-offices where 
the receipts are as much as $5,000 annually. This would increase the 
number of free delivery offices by about 1,400. It is believed, too, 
that the recommendation previously made, namely, that hereafter 
mail shall not be delivered oy city letter carriers except at residences 
or offices where suitable mail receptacles are placed at the door or 
entrance, is in the interest of the service. The expense to the patrons 
would be trifling, while the amount of time saved the letter carriers 
who now wait for an answer to the doorbell would in the aggregate 
represent a very large sum of money that might well be spent in 
giving more frequent deliveries and collections. 



132 BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

NEW FEATURES OF THE CITY DELIVERY SERVICE. 

The experiment of delivering mail after 6 p. m. was tried last 
fall in some of the best residental districts of New York City. The 
ends sought in the establishment of the evening delivery were two^ 
first, to expedite the delivery of local mail, and second, to relieve the 
first morning delivery. Both objects appear to have been attained. 
The evening trip is the second heaviest of the day. Seventy-five 
thousand pieces of mail matter in round niunbers are disposed of on 
that trip, thereby relieving the carriers of about one-third of their 
former burden on the first morning trip. Furthermore, letters posted 
during the late afternoon are now delivered the same night within 
the districts affected, and if answers are mailed before 10.50 p. m., 
they will be delivered throughout the city on the first trip of the 
carriers in the morning. Arrangements have been made for the ex- 
tension of the evening delivery to certain sections of Boston and 
Philadelphia. 

In Washington improvements in the collection service have been 
made without any material increase in expense, whereby a letter de- 
posited in any street letter box before 2 p. m. is delivered the same day 
m any section of the city, except one or two of the outlying districts. 
The effect of improvements of this character will undoubtedly be to 
increase the volume, of mail for local delivery — ^the most profitable 
class of mail handled. 

STREET LETTER BOXES. 

The current contract for furnishing street letter boxes will expire 
on June 30, 1909. The boxes now supplied are fairly satisfactory, 
out it is believed that improvements might be made in their appear- 
ance and in the arrangements for removmg the contents. At present 
the door is in the side of the box and when opened forms an inclined 
plane up which the mail must be pulled by the handful. A box that 
would unfailingly empty itself by gravity through an opening in the 
bottom would be a great improvement. 

It would be advantageous also to have some device that would show 
whether the scheduled collections had actually been made, and thus 
would prevent collectors from shirking their dutv. Several appli- 
ances for this purpose have been submitted, but all of them are open 
to the objection that they either consume too much of the carriers' 
time or are too complicated and expensive. 

AUTOMOBILES IN THE COLLECTION OF MAILS. 

An experimental collection service by automobiles was established 
in Milwaukee in February, 1907. Twice as many collections are made 
as were practicable when the service was performed by horse-drawn 
vehicles, and the collection and dispatch of mail has bleen expedited, 
but it is questionable whether any economy has been effected. A con- 
tract has recently been entered into for the use of six automobiles, with 
chauffeurs, for collecting mail in the city of Washington. It is prob- 
able that the new service will prove more expensive than the former, 
but it is believed to be an improvement on tne old method of collect- 
ing mail. A contract has also been made with two of the lettcnr 



FIBST ASSISTANT — LEGISLATION RECOMMENDED. 133 

carriers of the Washington city office to furnish and operate their 
own automobiles insteaa of horses and vehicles, and apparently a 
considerable saying will result. The machines furnished by the car- 
riers are a credit to the service and have been the subject of favorable 
comment on the part of the many patrons of the office. The experi- 
ment of collecting mails with automobiles, is also to be tried in 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

By the dose of the fiscal year the department will probably be in 
a position to report to Congress as to the advisability of the general 
use of automobiles in the larger cities. 

STREET-CAR COLLECTION SERVICE. 

Collection service has been performed for a number of years in 
Grand Sapids, Mich., and Des Moines, Burlington, and Ottumwa, 
Iowa, by means of letter boxes attached to street cars, and at the 
last session of Congress a special appropriation of $10,900 was made 
to pay for such service. It was louna that owing to the peculiar 
conditions at Grand Rapids, Des Moines, and Burlington the col- 
lection of mail^ matter could be expedited in this manner to a suffi- 
cient extent to justify the added expenditure. 

IMPR0\T;MENTS in departmental RECORDS. 

Important improvements have been effected in the method of 
handnng tJie work relating to the appointment and bonding of post- 
masters. In the place of the book records heretofore kept, in which 
there was considerable duplication, a modern card-index system has 
been introduced. The adoption of the new system, it is believed, will 
greatly facilitate the work of the bureau and effect a considerable 
saving of labor. 

A card index of post-office employees other than letter carriers was 
also completed during the year, superseding the cumbersome and un- 
satisfactory book records previously in use. 

LEGISLATION RECOMMENDED. 
READJUSTMENT OF POSTMASTERS* SALARIES. 

That after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and nine, the compensation of 
postmasters at post-offices of the first, second, and third classes shall be annual 
salaries, graded in even hundreds of dollars, and payable in quarterly install- 
ments, and shall .be ascertained and fixed by the Postmaster-General upon the 
basis of the gross receipts of their respective offices for the four quarters of the 
calendar year, to take effect at the beginning of the ensuing fiscal year. 

ADVANCEMENT OF POST-OFFICES FROM THE FOURTH CLASS TO THE PRESIDENTIAL 

CLASS. 

That after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and nine, when the total com- 
pensation of any postmaster at a post-office of the fourth clnss for four consecu- 
Bve quarters shall amount to one thousand dollars, exclusive of commissions 
on money orders issued, and the receipts of such iK)st-otHce for the same period 
shall aggregate as much as one thousand nine hundred dollars, the Auditor 
for the Post-Office Department shall so reiwrt, and the Postmaster-General shall 
assign such post-office to its proper class, to become effective at the beginning 
of the next succeeding quarterly period, and fix the salary of the postmaster 
accordingly. 



134 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

COMPENSATION OF SUPEBVISOBT AND SUBCLEBICAL EMPLOYEES. 

That after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and nine, the salaries of em- 
ployees above the clerical grades in post-offices of the first and second classes 
and of assistant postmasters at offices where city delivery service is in opera- 
tion shall be graded, in even hundreds of dollars, as follows: 

Assistant postmasters, salary not less than forty per cent and not exceeding 
sixty per cent of the salary of the postmaster, from seven hundred dollars to 
four thousand eight hundred dollars. 

Superintendents of mails, superintendents of delivery, superintendents of 
money orders, and superintendents of registry, salary not exceeding fifty per 
cent of the salary of the postmaster, from one thousand three hundred dollars 
to four thousand dollars. 

Superintendents of stations, salary based on the amount of business transacted, 
from one thousand three hundred dollars to three thousand five hundred dollars. 

Cashiers and auditors, salary not exceeding forty-five per cent of the salary 
of the postmaster, from one thousand three hundred dollars to three thousand 
six hundred dollars. 

Assistant superintendents, assistant cashiers, and assistant auditors, salary 
not exceeding forty per cent of the salary of the postmaster, from one thousand 
three hundred dollars to three thousand two hundred dollars. 

Private secretaries, salary not exceeding thirty-five per cent of the salary of 
the postmaster, from one thousand three hundred dollars to two thousand 
eight hundred dollars. 

Foremen, bookkeepers, and stenographers, salaries from one thousand three 
hundred dollars to two thousand dollars. 

That after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and nine, the salaries of me- 
chanics and subclerical employees shall be graded in even hundreds of dollars, 
as follows: Printers, mechanics, and skilled laborers, salaries from nine hun- 
dred dollars to one thousand two hundred dollars; watchmen, messengers, and 
laborers, salaries from five hundred dollars to nine hundred dollars. 

THIRTY DAYS' ANNUAL LEAVE FOB POST-OFFICE EMPLOYEES. 

That after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and nine, employees in first and 
second class post-offices and in other post-offices having city delivery service 
may be granted leave of absence with full pay for not exceeding thirty days 
in a fiscal year. 

EXTENSION OP CITY DELIVERY SERVICE. 

That after June thirtieth, nineteen hundred and nine, city delivery service 
may be established at any post-office that produced a gross revenue of not less 
than five thousand dollars during the four quarters on which the salary of the 
postmaster is based, and letter carriers may be employed for that purpose: 
Provided, That no delivery by carrier shall be made except at residences and 
offices where approved mail receptacles are placed at the door or entrance. 

PRIVATE MAIL RECEPTACLES. 

That after December thirty-first, nineteen hundred and nine, mail shall not be 
delivered by city carriers except at residences and offices where approved mall 
receptacles are placed at the door or entrance. 

TIME OF HOLDING UNDELIVERED MAIL. 

That section three thousand eight hundred and eighty-five of the Revised 
Statutes be amended to read as follows : 

" Postmasters shall notify the publisher of any newspaper or other periodical 
when any subscriber shall Refuse to take the same from the office, or wheal it 
shall remain undelivered during such period as the Postmaster-General shall 
prescribe." 

That section thirty-nine hundred and thirty-nine of the Revised Statutes be 
amended to read as follows : 

" When the writer of any letter on which the postage is prepaid shall endorse 
upon the outside thereof his name and address, such letter shall not be adver- 
tised, but, after remaining uncalled for at the office to which it is directed tiie 



PIBST ASSISTANT — Al>l>ROPRlATlONS AND EXPENDITURES. 185 

tlxne the writer may direct or the Postmaster-General perscribe, shall be 
returned to .the writer without additional charge for postage, and if not then 
deliv^ed, shall be treated as a dead letter." 

APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDITURES. 

The following table shows the amounts appropriated under the sev- 
eral heads, the amounts expended, and the unexpended balances : 



Item. 



Appropria- 



Expenditure. 



Balance. 



CompCDsattoii to postmasters 

C oi^ww atkin to assistant postmasters, first and second class 

OooqMDsatlon to derks' at first and second class offices , 

Compensation to sabstltutes for clerks on vacation at first and 

second class offices , 

Tanpomy derk hire at first and second dass offices , 

Separating service at third and fourth dass offices 

Unosaal ocmditlons at post-offices 

Regcdar derk hire at third-class offices 

Bent, light, and fud at first, second, and third class offices. . . , 

Klsodlaneoos items, first and second class offices 

Rental and pmtdiase of cancdinp machines , 

Compensation and per diem or assistant superintendents, 

division of salaries and allowances , 

Incidental expenses of the dtv ddiverv service , 

Pmt of letter carriers at established offices , 

SoDstltute, auxiliary, and temporary letter carriers 

P«y of letter carriers at new offices 

Hone hire 

CttT fiare and bicydes 

P»y of medianlcs , 

ICarine postal service at Detroit, Mich 

Fees to speeial-ddl very messengers 

Car Hare for special-delivery messengers 

Travd and misoeQaneous expenses, office of First Assistant 

Poetmaster-Oeneral 

Total 



S25, 500,000 

2,336,800 
27,020,200 

110,000 
225,000 
776,000 
100,000 
800,000 
3,229,000 
275,000 
275,000 

34,600 

45,000 

24,460,000 

1,200,000 

70,000 

765,000 

360,000 

19,800 

4,600 

1,076,000 

10,000 

1,000 



$25,509,397.52 

2,288,995.53 
26,709,035.05 

92.227.06 
173,611.94 
741,036.28 

98,445.89 

800,000.00 

3,193,820.94 

254,637.87 

274,011.09 

30,747.03 

37,923.17 

24,123,605.93 

1,019,198.92 

57,336.34 

743,062.64 

341,644.04 

16,080.15 

4,460.00 

1,098,761.11 

9,403.24 

689.95 



a|99,397.a2 

47,804.47 
811,164.96 

17,772.94 

51,388.06 

83,963.72 

1,554.11 



36,179.06 

20,362.68 

988.91 

8,852.97 

7,076.83 

326,394.07 

180,801.06 

12,663.60 

21,937.80 

18,465.96 

8,719.86 

50.00 

a 23, 761. 11 

596.70 

810.06 



88,680,900 



87,708,021.19 



972,878.81 



a Deficit. 



The following tables show the estimates, the appropriations, and 
the expenditures under the several heads lor each fiscal year from 
1899 to 1908, inclusive, the estimates and appropriations for the fiscal 
year 1909, and the estimates for the fiscal year 1910 : 



COMPENSATION TO POSTMASTERS. 



Tear ended 
Jmie30— 



Estimate. 



1800 $16,^^,000 

1900 17,fX*T,0Q0 

1901 1 17,00<XOOO 

1902 ' 18,iKJO,OijO 

1903 20,rX10,000 

1904 2i.:a).ooo 

1905 24,000,000 

1006 23,750^000 

1907 24,.'i00,00n 

1006 25,,t00,€00 

1009 26,2iSO,0Oa 

1910 1 27,000,000 



Appropriation. 



Expenditure. 



116.7^,000.00 
17,0t», 000. 00 
17,978. T8.> 86 
l9,9S7Ha-.l 19 
2f), 37 1.77; 97 
23 ■ '67 

Z- 00 

2-5.: ■ 00 

2S,SOO.0<Nj.0O 

20,25i,0O!i 00 



Increase. 



9250,000.00 
978,785.86 

2,008,265.33 
987,724.78 
764,393.60 

1,510,830.43 
500,000.00 
250,00a00 

1,500,000.00 

754,ooaoo 



Per I 
(wnt of , 

in- I 
crease. 



Amount. 



1.49 
&76 
11.17 
4.94 

aeo 

6.95 
2.15 
1.05 
6.25 
2.96 



$18,223, 
19,112, 
19,949, 
20,783, 
21,631, 
22,273, 
22,743, 
23,544, 
24,575, 
25,509, 



506.81 
096.99 
514.79 
919.97 
724.04 
343.90 
342.03 
585.09 
696.10 
397.52 



I 



Increase. 



$770,073.23 
888,fi9ai8 
837,417.80 
834,405.18 
847,80407 
641,619.86 
469,998.13 
801,243.06 
1,031,111.01 
1,023,701.42 



Per 

cent of 

in- 



4.41 
4.88 
4.38 
4.18 
4. OS 
2.07 
2.U 
3.63 
4.37 
4.12 



186 



REPORT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



COMPENSATION TO ASSISTANT POSTMASTERS AT FIRST AND SSICOND CLASS 

POST-OFFICES. 

[Prior to 1901 assistant postmasters at first and second class offices were paid from the 

appropriation for clerks.] 





Estimate, 


Approprlfiitlon* 


ExpeitdJIme^ 


Year endad 
June 30— 


Amomit. 


Incnsaae. 


Per 

oentof 
in- 


AmoanL 


loicnan. 


Per 

OBQt of 


1901 . 


ft 428,600 
1,550,800 
1,701,500 
l,a94, 100 
2,000,000 
2,164,^ 
2.123, SOO 
2,276.000 
2,fl00,000 
2,«2O,O0O 


11,347,700.00 
1,550,300.00 
1.7(Jl,5f)O.O0 
1,SH100.0D 
2,037,800.00 
2,123.800.00 
S,m,8O0.0O 
2.33C.SOO.0O 
2,500,000.00 






tl,33fl*333.07 

1.4TCI-B74.0fi 






1802 


t2ii,ooaoo 

142.200.00 
102,600.00 
]43,70a00 
86,000.00 


IfitTO 


ti4f).a4aoa 


10.41 


1003,. 


^ 13 ' l[e32. 73a 12 \ 143' DB6. 07 


Oi^er 


IKH 

iao& * * 


11.32 
7.S9 

12 


ltS0ti.42S.19; 183, 886.07 
1^8&5,H2.72 8^.714. fi3 


11.33 
4.91 


1906.... 


1.97S.210.4S 

a,io&,34aso 

2,2SS,9ft&.63 


M, 076, 78 
130,020.33 
1*0,746.73 


4.3i 


1B07 


t.Sf 


1908 


213,000.00 
103,200.00 


10.03 
©.09 


0.OT 


1000.. 




1910 























COMPENSATION TO CLERKS AT FIRST AND SECOND CLASS POST-OFFICES. 

[Expenditures on account of separating mails at third and fourth class offices are Included 

in years prior to 1900.] 



ia»o 

1900 

1901.. 

iwa 

1903 

1901..... 

190&... 

1906 

1S07 

1908...., 

1900 

1910,, 



Stl. 300.000 

n,soo,ooo 

11,056,900 
13,300,000 
14,878.200 
la, 101,900 
1^,000.000 
21,630,500 
22,680,000 
25,700,000 
31,240,000 
32,000,000 



osiijoe, 

fr 11,518, 

* 11.725, 
d 13,051, 
f 15. 715, 
/ IS, 1S4, 

19,995. 

21.060. 

*22,ffi30, 

* 27,020, 
J 30, 212, 



loaoo 
eezio 

911 H 
64&S1 
02103 
730. 43 

Toaoo 

OOOiOO 

ooaoo 
3oaoo I 

.L 



f.^ 100.00 
410, 762. 1» 
207,051.05 
1,325,734.07 
3,663,375,22 
2, 409, 706l 40 
1,870,069.57 
1,064.300.00 
1,760,000.00 
4,200,20a00 

3,i92,ioaoo 



4.79 

3l70 

1.80 

1L31 

20.41 

15.26 

ia32 

5.32 

8,36 

IS. 89 

11.81 



111,098,10422 

11,50B,1Q&92 

. 11,716,447.35 

I 13,164,307.98 

I IS, 735, 284. 14 

17,788,312152 

19,657,fKW,30 

21,034,553 81 

I 22,731.641.0* 

I 26,7O0,O35LOfl 



J 



S50G,336,53 
400,914 70 
306,338.43 
1,448,360^63 
2,570,476^ 16 
2,053,028.38 
1,8&0,337.7S 
1,376^903.51 
1,097, 087. M 
3,977,3M.Q0 



4.7« 
3Ln 
L8t 
1Z30 
16.34 
13. OS 

ia5i 

(150 
&07 
17.50 



COMPENSATION TO SUBSTITUTES FOR CLERKS AT FIRST AND SECOND CLASS 
POST-OFFICES ON VACATION. 

[Prior to 1000 no separate appropriation was made for substitutes for post-office clerks.] 



1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1906 
1909 
1910 



S75,000 
100,000 
150,000 
200,000 
200,000 
(») 

100,000 
100,000 
110,000 
200,000 
120,000 



S75,000.00 
125,000.00 
150,000.00 
175,000.00 
200,000.00 
100,000.00 
100,000.00 
100,000.00 

» no, 000. 00 

110,000.00 



$50,000.00 

25,000.00 

25,000.00 

25,000.00 

1100,000.00 



10,000.00 



66.67 
20.00 
16.67 
14.29 
150.00 



10.00 



$71,838.51 
125,405.79 
146,277.91 
158,833.06 
157,123.88 
58,496.33 
85,686.42 
83,754.21 
92,227.06 



$53,567.28 
19,872.12 
13,555.17 
11,700.20 

I 96,625.55 

27,188.00 

11,032.21 

8,472.06 



74.57 
15.86 
ft. 81 
II. OB 
I62.77 
46.48 
12.36 
10. U 



'Includes |8,100 deficiency appropriation. 

* Includes $10,962.19 deficiency appropriation. 

« Includes $21,214.14 transferred from compensation to postmasters on account of post- 
offices discontinued. 

* Includes $12,948.81 transferred from compensation to postmasters on account of post- 
offices discontinued. 

* Includes $25,224.03 transferred from compensation to postmasters on account of post- 
offices discontinued. 

f Includes $10,830.43 transferred from compensation to postmasters on account of post- 
offices discontinued. 
a Includes estimates for temporary clerks and for substitutes for clerks on vacatioii. 

* Includes $700,000 for contract stations and $120,000 carried by appropriation act for 
1008. 

* Includes $750,000 for contract stations and $750,000 deficiency appronriation, and ex- 
cludes $120,000 made available for clerks during fiscal year ended June SO, 1007. 

^ Includes $750,000 for contract stations ; $24,800 for printers, mechanics, and skilled 
laborers, and $711,000 for watchmen, messengers, and laborers previouBly paid from M,p- 
propriation for clerk hire. 

'^ Included in estimates for compensation to clerks. 

* Decrease. 

■» Includes $10,000 deficiency appropriation. 



FIBST ASSISTANT — APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDITURES. 187 
TBIMPORABY CLBRK HIRE AT FIRST AND SECOND CLASS POST-OFFICB& 

(Prior to 1900 temporary clerks at first and second class post-offices were paid from the 

appropriation fOr clerks.] 





EsUmmte. 


ApptopilSitUni 


E^poaditai^ 


Yew i»d*d 


Amocmt. 


IncTQue, 


Per 
omtof 


Amoonl 


InezwQ. 


Per 

omtot 

In- 


1900 




«r76,l34.14 






179,134.14 
1U,36L41 






1901 „. 


tioo^ooo 

lfiO.000 

900,000 

^.«>, 

150.000 
166,000 
360^,000 

aaoiooo 


6115,000.00 


t30.gfi5.fifi 


53.00 
40.00 


**iabwn^.^ Bs'ii 


1908,,, ,. 


125.000.00 10^000.00 
175:DOO.OO - 50,000.00 
2OO,0Oa.<lO ' 25,000 00 


123,155.59 S,7W. !8 i 7.60 


1903 


lAft sm AT ! <K 7ia Rfl HA aj 


1901.. 


u ao i iftr'ittj K2 ' ihim 3a ia ta 


1905. „ ., 


160,000.00 J 50. 000- 00 'il2S.OO ' 131.4.^7.90 ' d&S il«i.S3 i d 3ft 71 


J90ft..,,- , 


150.000. DO 
t52. !)00. 00 






140,99&.§8 
141,50(i.2l 
173, 611. M 


i$,53S.S9 1 14.10 
tf 8, #00.67 1 J 6. 00 
32,015.73 '■ « *» 


190? 


'1 !¥» m 


1.33 
48.03 
0.f7 


1908.. ,*,, 


*225,000.00 73,U00.00 
24O,D(]O.0Q 15,000.00 


lj909 






iiio„. 





















SEPARATING SERVICE AT THIRD AND FOURTH CLASS POST-OFFICES. 

(Prior to 1900 expenditures for separating service were made from the appropriation for 
clerks at first and second class post-offices.] 



1100 „, 




$750, OX. 00 
900,000. 00 

i,ii50,ooaoo 

1,10O,O00lOO 

i,aoo,<moo 

750,000.00 
800,orxlO0 

soo,t>t».oo 
776,ooaoo 
75o,ooaoo 






«I40,6U.44 

8S8>4B3.0fl 

1,003,525,88 

1,080,751.95 

1,099,412,25 

720,579.10 

743,579.73 

765,787.152 

741,036.28 






i9oi„..: 

1902 


1000,000 

1,050,000 

1,100,000 

1,300^000 

/l,7OO,€O0 

900,000 

800,000 

775,000 

775,000 

735,000 


tl50,000.fl0 
150,000.00 

5o,ooaoQ 


20.00 
1&.67 
4.T» 


11381,877.92 
115,032.83 
77,226.07 

is,eoa30 


18.53 
1Z92 


1903, 


7,70 


1904..., 

1905 ...1 


20o,ooaoo ' isiis 


L73 


190&..., 


50,000.66 6.07 


23,000163 

22,207.89 

d 24,751. 34 


3.19 


1907 


2.99 


1908... 


d25,0Qa00 ''3.12 
'^25,000100 <I3.^ 


^3-23 


1909 , 




1910 





















NoTS. — ^The reduction in the appropriation for separating service in 1905 is due to the 
fact that in that year appropriations were made for the first time for regular clerk hire 
at third-class post-offices and for unusual conditions at third and fourth class post-offices. 

UNUSUAL CONDITIONS AT POST-OFFICES. 

(Prior to 1905 expenditures for unusual conditions were made from the appropriation f6r 

separating service.] 



1006 


76,000 
100.000 
160,000 
125,000 


< $50,000.00 
<60,000.00 

* 100, 000. 00 
100,000.00 

i25,ooaoo 






140,016.83 
48,067.95 
99,281.96 
98,445.89 






1906 






$8,051.12 

51.214.03 

d836.00 


20.11 


MO?;;:;:::::. 


S60,ooaoo 


loaoo 


106.64 


1906 


d.84 


SS;;;;:::::: 


25,000.00 


25.00 




1910 























•Includes $134.14 deficiency appropriation. 

* Includes tl5,000 deficiency appropriation. 
•Included in estimate for compensation to clerks. 

* Decrease. 

* Includes $25,000 deficiency appropriation. 

t Includes estimates for regular clerk hire at third-class post-offices and for unusual 
conditions at third and fourth class post-offices. 

' Includes estimate for unusual conditions at third and fourth class post-offices. 

* Includes estimates for separating service at third and fourth class post-offices and 
for regular clerk hire at third-class post-offices. 

* For third and fourth class post-offices. 

' Includes estimate for separating service at third and fourth class post-offices. 

* For second, third, and fourth class post-offices. 



138 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



REGULAR CLERK HIRE AT THIRD-CLASS P0ST-0FPICB8. 
[Prior to 1005 there was no appropriation for regular clerk hire at third-class offices.*] 





Estimate. 


Appropriation. 


Expenditure. 


Year ended 
June 30— 


Amount. 


Increase. 


Per 
cent of 

in- 
crease. 


Amount. 


Increase. 


Per 
oentttf 

in- 
crease. 


1905 


011,700,000 

900,000 

900,000 

900,000 

2,000,000 

1,250,000 


S700,00a00 
760,00a00 

760,ooaoo 

800,ooaoo 

i,i50,ooaoo 






|607,10a86 
666,128.97 
708,689.93 

800,ooaoo 






1906 


i50,ooaoo 


7.14 


$48,Q2&11 
68, 66a 06 
91,3ia07 


7.91 


1907 


8.18 


1908 


66,666.66 
360,ooaoo 


ae7 

43.76 


12.88 


1909 




1910 















i 1 





RENT. LIGHT. AND FUEL AT FIRST, SECOND, AND THIRD CLASS POST-OFFICBS. 



1899., 


11,750,000 
1,760.000 
1,960,000 
2,100.000 
2,250,000 
2,500.000 
2,760,000 
2,800,000 
3,000,000 
3,150,000 
3,350,000 
3,800,000 


6tl,7O4,00a0O 

«1, 825.000. 00 

l,860.00aOO 

J2,16O,00a0O 

^2,400.000.00 

2.55o,ooaoo 

f 2.000.000 00 
2,800.000,00 
3,000.000.00 

ff 3,229,000. 00 
A3,471,0OQLCO 


»ioi,ooaoo 
i2v.ooaoo 

125,000.00 
V!00. 000.00 

25o,ooaoo 

150,000 00 

i40.ooaoo 

iio,ooaoo 

2oo,ooaoo 

p:^,ooaoo 

A242,00[K00 


7A0 
(LS5 

ia20 

lLfi3 
tL25 
6.49 
5.24 
7.14 
7.63 
7.49 


11,007,686.32 
1,803,54L13 
l,94g,71L7G 
2, 125, 18a ia 
2,a64,74L74 
2,042,640.17 
2,56^,572.73 

2.714, laa 00 

2,a9S,Q2L7S 
3, 193, 82a M 


t99,a^is 

106.954 81 
145,17a 63 
176,438.53 
239,667.71 
277,807.43 
/73,07fl.4l 
- 145,557.33 

ia3,aeL73 

296,7S&16 


&20 


1900 


&24 


1901 ,,-.. 


aofi 


100*2 


9^05 


1O03 

1004..,, 


1L23 
11-7* 


1B05. 

IQOO..., ...... 


/3L7» 


Ifl07 

1008- 


fl.7S 
10.31 


1009 ,.. 




1910 























MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS, FIRST AND SECOND CLASS POST-OFFICES. 



1899 
1900. 
1901. 
1902 
1903 
1904. 
1906 
1906. 
1907 
1908. 
1909 
1910. 



S200,000 
200,000 
250,000 
250,000 
260,000 
250,000 
250,000 
250,000 
250,000 
265,000 
370,000 
350,000 



<$175, 
200, 
225, 
260, 
260, 
260, 
250, 
225, 
250, 

«275, 
275, 



066.60 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 



$25,066.50 
24,93^60 
25,000.00 
26,000.00 



/25,000.00 
25,000.00 
25,000.00 



16.71 
14.24 
12.50 
ILll 



/laoo 

11.11 
10.00 



$176,066.50 
199,131.26 
225,022.19 
264,877.03 
262,306.96 
246,461.96 
237,987.74 
209,681.44 
237,326.55 
264,637.37 



$26,620.85 
24,064.76 
26,89a 04 
20,854.84 
7,420.98 

/16,846w01 
/7,474.21 

/28, 406.30 
27,744.11 
17,311.82 



17.M 

18.76 

IS. 00 

13.27 

2.92 

/ft. 43 

/&04 

/ILW 

1&24 

7.29 



RENTAL AND PURCHASE OF CANCELING MACHINES. 



1899 

1900 

1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 


$125,000 
150,000 
200,000 
200,000 
190,000 
300,000 


$100,000.00 
150,000.00 
150,000.00 

/ 190,225.00 
190,000.00 
250,000.00 
200,000.00 
225,000.00 
250,000.00 
275,000.00 
300,000.00 


$35,000.00 
60,000.00 


53.86 
50.00 


$99,830.08 
149,426.56 
149,534.48 
199,725.00 
196,409.38 
174,651.45 
186,721.19 
220,604.00 
242,979.38 
274,011.09 


$34,946.88 

49,606.47 

107.93 

60, 19a 62 

/3,256.62 

/21,817.98 
12,060.74 
33,882.81 
22,376.38 
31,031.71 




40,225.00 
/225.00 
60,000.00 
/50,000.00 
25,000.00 
25,000.00 
25,000.00 
25,000.00 


26.67 

"si." 58* 

/20.00 

12.50 

11.11 

laoo 

9.09 


/U.11 


1905 


250,000 
250,000 
275.000 
300,000 
315,000 
325,000 


tt.91 


1906 


18.14 


1907 


10l14 


1908 


12:77 


1909 




1910 


::::::::::::::: 










1 









<* Includes estimates for separating service and for unusual conditions at third and 
fourth class post-oflBces. 

» Includes $4,000 deficiency appropriation. 
*> Includes {25,000 deficiency appropriation. 
' Includes S50,000 deficiency appropriation. 

• Includes $140,000 deficiency appropriation. 
f Decrease. 

' Includes $79,000 deficiency appropriation. 

* Excludes $29,000, made available for 1908. 
« Includes $66.50 deficiency appropriation. 

i Includes $225 deficiency appropriation. 



FIBST ASSISTANT — APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDITURES. 189 
INCIDBNTAL EXPENSES, CITY DELIVERY SERVICE. 





Estimate. 


Appropriation. Expendltnrs. 


Yev ended 
Jimwao- 


Amount 


Increase. 


Pnr 

°^.»' Amount 
OTBase. 


Increase. 


Per 
cent of 

in- 
crease. 


lan 


$110,000 
150,000 
180,000 
220,000 
300,000 
300,000 
300,000 
300,000 
40,000 
45,000 


a$100,000.00 
» 465,571. 99 

a2oe,ooaoo 

a220,00a00 
272,30a00 
300,000.00 

3oo,ooaoo 
3oo,ooaoo 

40,000.00 
45,000.00 

45,ooaoo 


$34,80L60 

365,571.99 

£265,671.99 

20,ooaoo 

52,300.00 
27,700.00 


32.19 $141,791.16 

365.57 465,555.90 

£57.04 226,968.87 

laOO 232,372.87 

23.77 272,299.94 

iai7 50,650.26 

i 60,227.72 


$86,592.76 

323,764.74 

£238,587.03 

5,404.00 

39,927.07 

£221,649.68 

9,577.46 

42,55a 82 

£72,70a77 

7,845.40 


88.56 


1900 


228.34 


1901 


£51.37 


1902 


2.38 


1903 


17.18 


1904 


£81.31 


1906 


18.91 


1906 




102,778.54 


70.65 


1907 


£260,000.00 

6,ooaoo 


£86.06 i 30,077.77 
12.50 37,923.17 


£70.73 


190B 


26. OS 


1900 




1910 




1 , 






1 


. 1 1 ' 





PAY OF LETTER CARRIERS AT ESTABLISHED OFFICES. 



ISOO ..., 

1901 

1903.... 

lWS.,.w 

IS«-. 

1105 

1905-,.. 

1B0?_..,,.... 

I90ft.,.. 

1909.,.. 

ISIO 



tai35,4K» 
I3,607p200 
14,724,200 
16,000,000 
17,430,450 
19,028,300 
20,006, SSO 
21,296,^5 
22,228,000 
23.384,700 

29,SDO,000 



Sa,08£, 
13.00?, 
14,7B7, 
16,090, 
17, 430 

lo.ajs: 

aO,2BO, 
21,2M, 
22,228, 
24,4^}, 
27,835, 



4OQlO0 
200.00 
600.00 
tMXJ.OO 
450.00 

eoaoo 

000.00 
S7&.00 
[100.00 
000.00 I 
000.00 



1550,400.00 
611,900.00 
l,0BO,4£]0.D0 
1,293,300.00 
1,349,560.00 
1,39S,3^.00 
1.221,300.00 
1,046,575.00 

3,252,000.00 
3,3S5,OO0iOD 



4.44 

4.67 
7.96 
8.76 
g.^ 
9.17 
6.42 

4.13 
10.00 
13. M 






14,7S7, 
16,0Q4, 
17,343, 
18, 

30,920, 
22,11&, 
34,123, 



921.83 
675,87 
610.70 
091.24 
122.50 
715.^ 
BOO. 00 
509. SO 
g7&^ 

eo&^ 



•400,483. 4fi 

A46,7ABl04 
1,225, «t9. 83 
1,^6, 474, 64 
1,319,031.36 
1,346,593.05 
1^79,083.76 
1,063,709.80 
l,t96,3fi6tH 
2,007,7m U 



I 



3.25 
4.20 
9.04 
8.36 
8.^ 
7.76 
6.31 
6,30 
fl.71 
9.08 



SUBSTITUTE, AUXILIARY, AND TEMPORARY LETTER CARRIERS. 

[Prtor t<f 1908 no separate appropriation was made for substitute, auxiliary, and tem- 
porary letter carriers.] 



1908 


$1,300,000 


1909 


1910 





$1,200,000 






$1,019,198.92 






1,300,000 


$100,000.00 


8.33 














i 











PAY OF LETTER CARRIERS AT NEW OFFICES. 



1899 iff) 

1900 $60,000 

1901 75,000 

1908 75,000 

1903 90,000 

1904 100,000 

1906 125,000 

1906 110,000 

1907 ; 75,000 

1908 50,000 

IW I (/) 

mo j 100,000 



$50,000.00 
60,000.00 
60,000.00 
75,000.00 
90,000.00 

100,000.00 

iio,ooaoo 

110,000.00 
50,000.00 

*70,ooaoo 

75,000.00 



£$40,000.00 
10,000. 00 



15,000.00 
15,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 



£60,000.00 
20,000.00 

5,ooaoo 



£44.44 
20.00 



25.00 

2a 00 
11.11 
laoo 



£5ft.54 

4a 00 

7.14 



$55,233.37 
56,822.25 
91,990.65 
82,182.56 
83,727.09 
65,048.10 
29,667.46 
27,901.97 
43,939.15 
57,336.34 



£$31,767.25 

1,588.88 

35,168.40 

£9,808.09 

1,544.53 

£18,67&99 

£35, 38a 64 

£1,765.49 

16,037.18 

13,397.19 



£86.61 

2.88 

6L89 

«ia66 
1.88 

£22.81 

£64.39 
£5.05 
57.48 
80.49 



' Includes amounts for Detroit marine service and for mechanics. 

* Includes deficiency appropriation of $315,571.09, and amounts for Detroit marine 
•eryice and for mechanics. 

•Decrease. 

' Included in estimate for miscellaneous items, first and second class offices. 

* Includes $700,000 for pay of letter carriers at offices where city delivery is established 
daring the fiscal year to which the appropriation applies. 

'Included in estimate for pay of letter carriers at offices where dty delivery is in 
operation. 

9 Included Id estimate for additional carriers. 

* Includes a deficiency appropriation of $20,000. 



140 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 
HORSE HIRE. 





Estimate. 


Appropriation. 


Expenditure. 


Year ended 
June 30— 


Amount. 


Increase. 


Per 
cent of 

in- 
crease. 


Amount. 


Increase. 


Per 
cent of 

in- 
crease. 


1899 


1380,000 
410,000 
475,000 
510,000 
650,000 
750,000 
800,000 
725,000 
750,000 
750,000 
900,000 
875,000 


I380,00a00 

4io,ooaoo 

475,00a00 
a611,968.61 
650,000.00 
750,000.00 
700,000.00 
725.000.00 
725,000.00 
e765,00a00 
800,000.00 


S10,000.00 

30,ooaoo 
65,ooaoo 

36,968.51 
138,031.49 
100,000.00 

&50,ooaoo 

25,000.00 


2.72 

7.89 
16.86 

7.80 
2a 96 
15.38 
6&66 

3.57 


1406,768.81 
440,347.00 
496,242.28 
662,947.91 
627,161.73 
665,217.97 
658,147.57 
682.256.96 
720,221.18 
743,062.64 


133,892.81 
43,578.19 
46,805.28 
66,705.63 
64,213.82 
88,056.24 
* 7,07a 40 
24,10&a9 
87,966.22 
22,841.46 


9.11 


1900 


ia78 


1901 

1902 

1903 

1904 

1906 

1906 

1907 


ia46 

18.46 
11.40 
6.06 
61.04 
8.81 
6.66 


1908 

1909 


40,000.00 
36,000.00 


6.52 
4.58 


8.17 


1910 






1 






1 


1 






CAR PARE AND BICYCLES. 






1809 


S185,000 
195,000 
230,000 
255,000 
275,000 
300,000 
325,000 
350,000 
350,000 
360,000 
425,000 
425,000 


$185,000.00 
195,000.00 
230,000.00 
255,000.00 
275,000.00 
300,000.00 

3oo,ooaoo 

325,000.00 
340 00a00 

<<36o,ooaoo 

400,000.00 


S10,000.00 

io,ooaoo 
35,ooaoo 

25,000.00 
20,000.00 
25,000.00 


5.71 
6.41 
17.86 
ia87 
7.84 
9.09 


S182,684.83 
194, 02a 58 
230,012.68 
230,128.93 
254,796.57 
269,586.68 
281,937.21 
302, 28a 62 
316,804.73 
341,544.04 


S12,607.86 
11.338.75 
35,980.10 
116.25 
24,667.64 
14, 79a 11 
12, 35a 63 
20,343.41 
14,614.11 
24,640.31 


7.41 


1900 


6.21 


1901 


ia66 


1002 


.000 


1903 


ia72 


1904 


6.80 


1905 


4.68 


1906 


25,000.00 

i5,ooaoo 
2o,ooaoo 

40,000.00 


8.33 
4.61 
5.88 
11.11 


7.2S 


1907 


4.83 


1908 


7.78 


1909 




1910 











1 1 








PA 


Y OP MECHANICS. 








1899 


(«) 

:i 

S19,800 
19,800 
19,800 
19,800 
19,800 
19,800 
19,800 


If) 

S18,000.00 
19,800.00 
19,800.00 
19,800.00 
19,800.00 
19,800.00 
19,800.00 










1900 










1901 










1902 










1903 




S16,239.97 
16,771.70 
16,851.26 
16,000.75 
17,077.26 
16, 08a 15 






1904 

1005 


SI, 800. 00 


laoo 


$531.78 
79.65 
148.60 
77.60 

»997.10 


8.87 
.06 


1906 






.08 


1907 







.OS 


1908 




66.84 


1909 


! 




1910 






! 










1 




MAR 


INE POSTAL 


SERVICE AT DET 


ROIT, MICH 






1899 


(0 

iii 

in 

14,500 
12,000 
4,500 
4,500 
4,600 
4,500 
6.000 


$4,6oaoo 
4,5oaoo 

4,500.00 
4.500.00 
4,500.00 
4,500.00 
4,500.00 












1900 













1901 












1902 


i 








1903 


1 


$4,645.00 
8,836.00 
4,446.00 
4, 45a 00 
4,450.00 
4,460.00 






1904 


. . 1 . 


^1800. 00 

6iaoo 

4.00 


61.72 


1905 




L80 


1906 






.008 


1907 








1908 










1909 










1910 























« Includes a deficiency appropriation of $1,968.51. 

* Decrease. 

' Includes a deficiency appropriation of $15,000. 

* Includes a deficiency appropriation of $10,000. 

* No specific amount. 

f Included in the appropriation for incidental expenses, free delivery seryiee. 



FIBST ASSISTANT — REPORTS OF DIVISIONS. 



141 



FEES TO SPECIAL-DELIVERY MESSENGERS. 
[Prior to 1902 no appropriation was made for fees to special-deliyery messengers.] 





Estimate. 


Appropriation. ' Ezpendltore. 

1 


Tw ended 
Jane 30- 


Amomit 


Increase. 


Per 
cent of 

in- 
crease. 


Amount 


Increase. 


Per 
cent of 

in- 
oreMS. 


1800 




1 




$415,994.02 
477,184.97 
642,128.01 
621,014.80 
716,765.49 
791,076.64 
847,492.39 

QUA F£M\ M 


$46,610.46 
61,190.96 
64,943.04. 
78,886.79 
96,760.60 
74,311.05 
56,415.85 
87,098.25 
97,114.90 
67,055.57 


12.30 


1000 




i 




14.70 


1001 




t ' *" 




13.60 


1002 


$666,000 

742,000 

800,000 

960,000 

950,000 

1,000,000 

1,076,000 

1,200,000 

1,300,000 


$666,000.00 






14.61 


1003 


742,000.00 

800,000.00 

900,000.00 

a920,000.00 

M,025, 000.00 

1,075,000.00 

1,200,000.00 


$77,000.00 
68,000.00 

100,000.00 
20,000.00 

105,000.00 
60,000.00 

125,000.00 


11.68 
7.96 

12.60 
2 22 


16.42 


1004 


10.36 


1006 


7.13 


1006 


10.27 


1007 


11.41 ' l,03l';706.64 
4.88 ' i.nan.iM.u 


10.30 


1906 


6.40 


1000 


11.63 






1010 










1 


1 







CAR FARE FOR SPECIAL-DELIVERY MESSENGERS. 
[Prior to 1000 no appropriation was made for car fare for special-deliyery messengers.] 



1000 


$10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
12,000 
12,000 
10,000 
10,000 
12,000 
12,000 
12,000 


$10,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 
12,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 
10,000.00 
12,000.00 






$2,153.20 
2,657.37 
3,709.20 
6,577.15 
6,988.47 
7, 69a 28 
8,417.31 
9,066.87 
9, 403. 24 






1001 


1 


$504.17 
1,051.83 
2,867.95 
411.32 
704.81 
724.03 
648.66 
337.37 


23.41 


1002 






39.68 


1003 






74.62 


1004 


$2,000.00 
c2,000.00 


20.00 
C16.67 


6.26 


1006 


10.01 


1006 


9.41 


1007 




7.71 


lOOB 






a72 


1009 


2,000.00 


20.00 




1910 










1 









* Includes a deficiency appropriation of $20,000. 

* Includes a deficiency appropriatio nof $75,000. 

* Decrease. 

BEPOBTS OF THE DIVISIONS. 
DIVISION OP POSTMASTERS' APPOINTMENTS. 

The number of presidential postmasters appointed during the year 
ended June 30, 1908, was 2,174. Of this number 853 were previous 
incumbents whose commissions had expired or become invalid through 
the change of their names by marriage or through changes in tne 
names of the offices, while the remainder were new appointees — ^262 
at offices where the commissions of the postmasters had expired, 623 
at offices advanced to the presidential class, and 436 at offices where 
the postmasters had resigned, died, or been removed for cause. There 
were 232 resignations, 102 aeaths, and 102 removals. Of the post- 
masters whose commissions expired, about 76 per cent were reap- 
pointed. 

The number of fourth-class postmasters ai)pointed during the year 
was 11,945. Of this number 2,193 were appointed ftpon the establish- 
ment of new offices, 8,572 at offices where the postmasters had resigned, 
died, or been removed, 18 at offices relegated to fourth class, 64 by 
reason of change of name of postmaster by marriage, 316 by reason 
of change of name of the office, and 782 at offices wnere the original 
appointee had declined or failed to quali^. 

The total number of postmasters of all classes appointed during 
the year was 14,119, an increase of 1,422 over the preceding ^ft«x. 



142 



BEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



The following tables show in detail the principal operations of the 
Division of Postmasters' Appointments for the fiscal year as com- 
pared with those for the preceding year: 



Item. 



PoBtmasters appointed: 
At presldeiitlal offloea— 

On resignation of predecessor 

On deaui of predecessor 

On removal of predecessor 

On expiration of term— 

Reappointments 

New appointments 

On advancement of office to presidential class 

On diange of name of office 

On change of postmaster's name by marriage. 

Total at presidential offices 

At fourth-class offices— 

On resignation of predecessor 

O n death of predecessor 

On removal of predecessor 

Onreleeation of office to fourth dass 

On estahlishmeD t of office 

On change of postmaster's name by marriage . . 

On failure to commission appointee 

On change of name of office 

Total at fourth-class offices 

Total at all offices 

Post-offices established 

PoBtK>ffioe8 discontinued 

Names of x>ost-offices chanj 
Bites of post-offices chanr~ 

• Not separately recorded. 



Year ended 
June 30— 



In- 



1907. 1908. 



200 
80 
59 

704 
379 
326 



u 



1,748 



232 
102 
102 



2,174 



7,737 

675 

1»041 , 

28 
2,191 I 
75 I 
(a) 
221 j 



7,172 
538 
862 
18 
2,193 
64 
782 
316 



11,863 { 11,945 



13,611 14,119 



2,191 

5,132 

289 

1,856 



2,193 

3,694 

337 

1,968 



32 
22 
43 

123 



207 
21 
5 



De- 



117 



543 I 



117 



782 
05 



565 

87 

170 

6 



U 



870 ! 



707 



1,402 



014 



48 ' 

112 ; 



Item. 



Bonds examined and accepted: 

Bonds of newlv appointed postmasters. 
Renewed bonds 

Total 

Commissions issued 



Presiden- 
tial offices. 



2,154 
286 



Fourth- 



money-or- 
der ofDces. 



Fourth- 
class not 
money-oir- 
deroffioes. 



5,243 
9,074 



2,440 



14,317 



2,154 I 



5,243 



5,082 
4,012 



9,044 



5,082 



Total. 



13.409 
18,372 



35,801 



13,439 



The following table gives the number of post-offices of each dass 
at the close of business on June 80 of each year from 1898 to 1908, in- 
clusive: 



Tear. 


Ftret 
ctasB. 


Second 
otaaa. 


Third 
class. 


Total 

preaf- 
dflsttal 
clauea. 


Fourth 
dasi 


T^MaU 


laoa , 


IfiO 
176 


749 ' 2p^ 
7»a R.mR 


8,aie 

3.903 
4,233 
4,«30 

J;^ 

5,3ii5 
S,(t53 
5,910 
6,314 
fl,817 


09.754 
71,007 
72,455 
73,479 
71 p 193 

m,m 

65,780 
a3,478 

56,345' 
HSU 


73, £70 


IS99 *.,.,,. * , .* _,** ..* .. 


75 000 


1900* .-..- , - ..-.. 


IM m 3M 
30S WO ApSlS 
220 \ htm 3p4fig 
243 1,107 a,090 
365 ' 1,2(H ^,m 
275 IpSSS 4,130 
290 ' lp30& : 4p315 
316 1.40O 1 4,593 
SH 1.4flfi 1 i.MA 


7G»66S 


1001 - . ,. * . 


71^ SM5 


1S02* ,,._„,.——....,.-. ,,,.,.,,,,,,,.-. 


^ttKM 


1903 - 


74,109 


190*. ,,,.,— -,*^*-. 


71,131 


1906, .— - *-— - 


@S»13l 


1906 * ....>...*>..*.....*..... ,*.. 


ft5,60tl 
62p6S0 


1B07 ,,., 4-,..— ,.>*„- , 


liQS „. , „.„ 











FIRST ASSISTANT REPORTS OF DIVISIONS. 



148 



DIVISION OF SALARIES AND ALLOWANCES. 
BEA]>JUSTMEirr OF P0STMASTEB8* SALARIES. 

The following table shows the changes resulting from the annual 
adjustment of presidential postmasters' salaries and the assignment 
of post-offices to the presidential classes on the basis of the receipts in 
the four ouarters ended March 31, 1908, and also the number of presi- 
dential offices discontinued during the fiscal year 1908, and the num- 
ber of offices advanced from the fourth class to the presidential grade 
on October 1, 1907, January 1, 1908, April 1, 1908, and July 1, 1908: 



Number of oiBoes July 1, 1007 . 



Advanced from fourth class October 1, 1007. . 

Advanced from fourth class January 1, 1008. 

Advanced from fourth class April 1, 1906 

Advanced from lower class Jufv 1, 1008 

Relegated from higher class July 1, 1006 

Decreases: 

Advanced to higher class July 1, 1006 

Relegated to lower class July 1, 1008 

Discontinued subsequent to July 1, 1007 

Number of ofllces July 1,1008 

Net Increase since July 1, 1007 



First 
class. 



I I 

I Second 
class. 



Third 
class. 



1,500 



30 



2 

2 

384 

26 



SalarlflB of postmasters: 

July 1,1006 $1,380,100 

Inorpase over salaries on July 1, 1007 | 06,000 

' Orms receipts: 

Four quarters ended March 81, 1008 121,033,646 

Increase over receipts for four quarters ended March 
81,1007 1 7,786,768 



120 
'' 2 

30 
12 
3 I 
,505 
86 , 



4,485 

114 
306 
50 
62 
11 

120 

32 



4,867 



$3,757,400 ' $7,010,600 

207,000 I 564,600 

24,648,231 | 10,102,711 

1,800,703 2,880,824 



Total presl- 
dentiaL 



114 
306 

50 
221 

13 

150 

46 

14 

6,846 

404 



$12,137,100 
867,500 

165,684,488 

12,068,380 



QUABTEBS FOB POST-OFFICES. 



The number of offices in federal buildings and in leased quarters on 
June 30, 1908, as compared with June 30, 1907, was as follows : 





Year ended June 80- 


Item. 


1007. 




1008. 






In federal 
buildings. 


In leased quarters. 


In federal 
buUdlngs. 


In leased 

Number. 


I quarters. 




Number. 


Rental. 


Rental. 




242 

3 

146 


74 


si45.fins 


253 

3 

143 


75 

576 

1,220 

16 
1,050 


$162,227 
035.065 
886,778 
5,070 
338,404 


Stations 


500 ! 850,436 

1,112 ' 810,302 

18 6,007 

017 280,217 


Stations 


ThfrdKrfasS OfflkJflS 


17 
2 


17 
8 












Total 


410 


2,630 2,110,657 

1 


410 


2,055 


2,327,544 



144 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



POSTAL STATIONS. 



The following table shows the changes in postal stations during 
the year ended June 30, 1908 : 



Item. 



Stations established: 

Delivery stations 

Nnmb^ed stations 

Total 

Stations established in place of post-offioes discontinued: 

Delivery stations 

Numb^ed stations 

Total 

Stations discontinued: 

Delivery stations 

Numbered stations 

Total 

Numbered stations changed to delivery stations 

Delivery stations changed to numbered stations 



Number. 



49 



4Sl 



25 
11 



14 
43 



DIVISION OF CITY DELIVERY. 



The city delivery service was extended during the year to 92 
additional post-offices and two city delivery offices were consolidated 
with others which had the service, thus making a net increase of 90, 
the largest during any year since 1903. At the close of the year the 
number of regular earners employed was 26,352, an increase during 
the vear of 1,775. 

The following table shows the development of the service during 
the forty-five years of its existence : 




Carriers. 



1864. 
1865. 
1866. 
1867. 
1868. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1876. 
1876.. 
1877. 
1878., 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 

poo. 



52 
52 




52 




87 


35 


87 




87 




87 




87 




88 


1 


104 


16 


109 


5 


112 


3 


154 


42 


150 


5 


178 


19 


181 


3 


189 


8 


868 


160 


401 


43 


454 


63 



685 
757 
863 
943 
1,198 
1,246 
362 
1,419 
1.443 
1,498 
2,049 
2,195 
2,269 
2,265 
2,275 
2,359 
2,628 
2,861 
3,115 
3,680 
3,890 
4,358 
4,841 
5,310 
6,346 
8,257 
9,066 



In- 



Oross receipts of city , 
delivery offices. 



Cost of service. 



Amount. 



In- 



Amount. 



_L 



Perct. I 



Perct. 



.1. 



0.4 

lao 

6.4 

8.8 
18.1 

5.7 
12 
11 

9.6 
19.3 
30.1 

9.7 



$12,117,820.24 
13,066,470.76 
15,082,166.65 
16,887,086.23 
19,414,772.80 
22, 317, 49$. 94 
21,606,020 06 
21,940,109.42 
22,629,826.66 
25,014,385.30 
29,459,043.33 
32,206,403.72 
36,648,000.40 



7.8 
15.4 
11.9 
14.9 
14.9 
3.2 
1.6 
3.1 
10.5 
13.7 
9.3 
13.8 



, In- 
crease. 



$317,063.20 
448,664.51 
589,236.41 

995,934 59 
1,183,915.31 
1,230,079.85 
1,353,923.23 
1,385,965.76 
1,422,495.48 
1,802,696.41 
1,880,041.99 
1,981,186.51 
1,893,619.85 
1,824,166.96 
1,947,706.61 
2,363,693.14 
2,499,911.54 
2,623,262.74 
3.173,336.51 
3,504,206.52 
3,985,952.55 
4,312,306.70 
4,618,692.07 
5,422,356.36 
6,057,941.90 
7,976,208.72 



Perct. 



6 
21.4 

5.7 

4.9 
20.9 
10.4 
13.4 

9 

6.7 
17.4 
28.8 
14.6 



Ratio 
of cost 
to gross 

re- 
ceipts. 



Perct. 



16.05 
14.90 
15.66 

laei 
18. a 

14.21 
16.22 
18.16 
19.06 
18.46 
18.40 
21.60 
2L21 



Cost 
per 
car- 
rier. 



$462.86 
502.68 
682.77 
7^24 
SSL 33 
060.17 
903.14 
054.14 
970l43 
949.60 
870.79 
856.51 
87a 16 
836.03 
801.84 
826.60 
870.81 
87a 78 
848.46 
862.21 
801.82 
014.62 
800.68 
860.82 
864.46 
842.67 
870. 7S 



FIRST ASSISTANT — REPORTS OF DIVISIONS. 



145 



Year 
ended 


City ddlyery 
offices. 


Carriers. 


Gross receipts of city 
deliyery offices. 


Cost of service. 


Ratio 
of cost 
to^ross 

re- 
ceipts. 


Cost 
per 


June 
30- 


Num- 
ber. 


In- 
crease. 


Num- 
ber. 


In- 
crease. 


Amount. 


rn- 

crease. 


Amount. 


In- 
crease. 

Perct. 

13.7 
9.9 
7 

6.1 
8 

4.7 
.88 
4.4 
3.9 
4.4 
8.65 
8.7 

12.93 
6.33 
1.71 
5.07 
6.41 

13.33 


car- 
rier. 


1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 
1899 
1900 
1901 
1902 
1903 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 




519 

568 

610 

610 

604 

627 

629 

688 

735 

796 

866 

933 

1,032 

1,100 

1,144 

1,184 

1,240 

1,330 


65 
42 

23' 

2 
59 
47 
61 
• 71 
67 
99 
68 
44 
40 
56 
90 


10,130 
10,737 
11,625 
11,736 
12,714 
12,834 
12,931 
13,696 
14,256 
15,322 
16,389 
17,787 
19,542 
20,758 
21,778 
22,906 
24,577 
26,352 


Perct. 

11.7 

5.8 

8.2 

.9 

a2 

.94 
.75 
6.9 
4 

7.48 
6.96 
8.5 
9.9 
6.24 
4.91 
5.45 
7.02 
7.22 


140,405,386.28 
44,031,728.77 
48,444,363.83 
45,801,210.16 
49,128,621.42 
52,567,624.42 
52,741,470.37 
56,681,804.68 
61,807,916.82 
66,775,903.86 
74,295,394.67 
83,330,812.37 
93,466,623.13 
101,708,230.31 
109,801,335.35 
120,852,776.60 
133,562,381.11 
139,585,504.07 


Perct. 
10.2 
9 
10 

a 6. 16 
7.2 
7.7 
.33 
7.47 
9.04 
8 

11.26 
12.16 
12.14 
8.82 
7.96 
10.06 
10.62 
4.51 


19,072,160.31 
9,966,892.67 
10,683,676.26 
11,229,436.78 
12,135,644.93 
12,713,861.41 
12,827,396.69 
13,387,606.10 
13,905,800.00 
14,612,190.04 
15,752,600.00 
17,123,310.90 
19,337,986.00 
20,561,208.10 
20,919,078.13 
21,980,632.92 
23,170,203.63 
20,258,039.16 


Perct. 
22.47 
22.63 
22.05 
24.51 
24.70 
24.18 
24.32 
23.62 
22.50 
21.73 
21.20 
20.55 
20.69 
20.22 
19.05 
18.19 
17.35 
18.81 


$895.67 
928.27 
919.01 
956.83 
954.50 
970.50 
991.98 
977.47 
976.43 
979.78 
961.17 
962.80 
989.56 
990.38 
960.56 
957.14 
942.76 
996.43 



a Decrease. 
Note. — Prior to the fiscal year 1878 the gross receipts of city deiivery offices were not reported sepa- 
rately by the auditor. 

SPECIAL-DELIVERY SEBVICE. 

Fees of 8 cents each on special-delivery mail were claimed by post- 
masters last year to the total amount of $1,098,761.11, indicating that 
13,784,514 pieces of mail of this character were delivered. These 
figures relate to all post-offices, irrespective of class. The following 
table contains a comparative statement of special-delivery man 
handled at city delivery offices during the fiscal years 1907 and 1908 : 



Item. 



Year ended June 30— 



Increase. 



Number of special-delivery messengers 

Number of pieces of special-delivery mail arriving from 

other offices 

Number of pieces of special-delivery mail for local delivery . 



1907. 



1908. 



3,404 



9,660,190 
1,712,621 



Total ; 11,372,811 



Number of pieces that failed of delivery by messengers . . . 
Amount of compensation paid to messengers or others for 

specitd delivery 

Average number of minutes consumed in making delivery . 



569,765 

1896,181.82 
18 



3,649 



245 



10,243,463 
1,781,117 1 



683,273 
68,496 



12,024,580 { 651,769 



593,241 

1954,007.71 
18 



a 23, 476 
$57,825.89 



Percent- 
age of 
Increase. 



7.20 



T 



6.04 
4.00 



5.73 



4.12 
6.45 



• The number of pieces falling of special delivery in 1908 was but 4.93 per cent of the 
total number received, against oiOl per cent in 1907. 

Respectfully, 

C. P. Grandfield, 
First Assistant Postmaster-General. 
Hon. George v. L. Meyer, 

Postmaster- General. 



65064— P .M c; 11)08- 



-10 



REPORT 



OF THE 



SECOND ASSISTANT POSTMASTER-GENERAL 



TO THE 



POSTMASTER-GENERAL 



FOR 



THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1908 



147 



TABLE OF OOIS'TEI^TS. 

[Report of the Second Assistant Postmaster-General.] 



Paga 

Poetal subjects under jurisdiction of Second Assistant Postmaster-General 151 

Greneral statement of mail service 151 

Expenditures, appropriations, and estimates 152 

Increase in expenditures for mail transportation 152 

Division of Railway Adjustments : 

Railroad transportation 153 

Service and expenditures 153 

Quadrennial readjustment 154 

Tabulations at Washington 155 

Economy in readjustments 156 

Readjustments for diversions of mails ^. . . 156 

Railroad mail transportation and compensation therefor 157 

• Increase in annual rate of expenditure 157 

Railway i)ost-oflBce cars 158 

Postal facilities in New York terminals 160 

Electric and cable car service 161 

Service and expenditures 161 

Chicago tunnel service succeeded by screen- wagon service 161 

Pneumatic-tube service 162 

Regulation, screen, or other wagon service 164 

Mail-messenger service 165 

Freight or expressage on postal cards, etc 166 

Special weighing of the mails of 1907 166 

Division of Contracts: 

Star service 167 

Service and expenditures 167 

Annual letting of contracts 168 

Advertisements for proposals 168 

Box delivery and collection on star routes 168 

Star service discontinued 168 

Alaska 168 

Minerals and metals in Alaskan mails. 169 

Porto Rico 169 

Legislation 170 

Special oflSce service 171 

Steam boat service 171 

Division of Foreign Mails: 

Cost of service, weights of mails, etc 172 

Contract ocean mail service 174 

Trans-Atlantic mails 175 

Trans- Pacific mails 175 

Central and South American and West Indian mai Is 175 

Sea post-offices 175 

International parcel-post 175 

Universal Postal Union 176 

New York Harbor transfer service 176 

Division of Railway Mail Service: 

Operation 177 

Extent of service and force employed 177 

Equipment 178 

Distribution 178 

Illegible addresses 178 

Case examinations 178 

Casualties 178 

Establishment of Twelfth Division 179 

Estimates and expenditures 179 

Via 



150 TABLR OF OOKTBNTB. 

Division of Railway Mail Service— Continued. Piige. 

Secx>nd-cla8s matter 180 

Separation by publishers 180 

Direct delivery of second-class mail to depots by publishers 181 

Relief measures 181 

Absence on account of injury 181 

Leave of absence 181 

Traveling expenses of railway postal clerks 181 

Superannuation 181 

Reorganization 182 

Proposed new division 182 

Improvements 182 

Division of Inspection 183 

Division of Equipment: 

Operation and expenditures 184 

Mail-bag repair shop 185 

Number of mail bags in use 186 

Subrepair shop 186 

Improvements .. 185 

Mail-lock repair shop 186 

Waste material from equipment shops 186 

Storage of mail equipment 186 

Leave of absence for employees in equipment shops 187 

Recommendations -. 187 

Summary 187 

Tables appended 189 



REPORT 

OP THE 

SECOND ASSISTANT POSTMASTER-GENERAL 



Post-Officb Department, 
OmcB Second Assistant Postmaster-General, 

Washington^ D. (7., November 23^ 1908. 
Sir: I have the honor to submit the following report for the fiscal 
year ended June 30^ 1908 : 

The Second Assistant Postmaster-General is charged with the 
authorization and management of the transportation or the domestic 
and forei^ mails, and this bureau comprises six divisions, as fol- 
lows: Division of Eailway Adjustments, Division of Contracts, 
Division of Foreign Mails, Division of Eailway Mail Service, Divi- 
sion of Inspection, and Division of Equipment. 

GENERAL STATEMENT OF MAIL SERVICE. 

The mail service in operation on June 80, 1908, was as follows : 



Service. 



fltftrrotites 

Special office routes 

Sieftmboat routes 

Railroad routes 

Railway po8tK>ffice cars 

Railway mail service (officers and clerks) . 

MaU-messenger routes 

Wifon routes ( 1 n cities ) 

Xlactzio and cable car routes 

Pneomatio-tube routes 

Mail equipment 

VMiflit or expressage on mail bags, etc . . . 
MiaoeUaneous expenses 



Total Inland mail service , 

flQg^ gn m ails: 

Aggregate cost 

Lev intermediary service to foreign countries. 



Total. 



Number, i 



14,082 

1,120 

215 

8,293 



Aggregate 
length. 



Miles. 

182,286.51 
12,458.90 
29,870.82 

213,220.477 



15,295 

7,654 

S09 

508 

6 



6,079.64 
1,031.21 
6,764.77 
81.883 



«3, 072, 623. 24 
$196,711.62 



Annual rate of 
expenditure. 



96,865,476.071 

28,828.61 

768,235.09 

44,722,986.47 

4,681,777.68 

17,479,504.84 

1,459,694.68 

1,381,672.80 

814,836.82 

682,679.74 

588,276.76 

211,890.30 

805.58 



79,421,068.841 



2,875,911.72 



82,296,975.06* 



*Inelvde8 $43,511.31 for rent of buildings for use of Post-Offlce Department. 

151 



152 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



Summary of all classes of domestic mail service in operation June SO, 1908, 

Number of routes 27,136 

Length of routes miles— 450,788.66 

Number of miles traveled per annum 538,438,722.74 

Annual rate of expenditure $79, 421, 063. 34i 

Rate of cost per mile traveled cents__ 14. 75 

Rate of cost per mile of length $176. 20 

Average number of trips per week 11.48 

Comparison with the report of June 30, 1907, shows: 

Percent. 

Decrease in number of routes 523 or 1.89 

Decrease in length of routes miles— 12, 667. 88 or 2. 78 

Increase in number of miles traveled per annum 13, 712, 975. 28 or 2. 61 

Increase in annual rate of expenditure $611, 969. 96 or 0. 77 

Decrease in rate of cost per mile traveled cent— 0.26 or 1.76 

Increase in rate of cost per mile of length $6. 14 or 3. 61 

Increase in average number of trips per week 0. 60 or 5. 51 

Number. 

Contracts drawn in duplicate during the year 4, 246 

Proposals received during the year under general ad- 
vertisements 6, 716 

Proposals received during the year under bulletin ad- 
vertisements 8, 335 

EXPENDITURES, APPROPRIATIONS, AND ESTIMATES. 

The following statement shows the e^enditures for the past fiscal 
year, as reported by the Auditor for the Tost-OflBce Department' under 
accounts stated to September 30, 1908, the appropriation for the cur- 
rent fiscal year, and the estimate of amount required for the next 
fiscal year for each item of service : 



Service. 



Star service, including special offices 

Steamboat service 

Railroad transportation 

Railway post-office cars 

Railway Mail Service 

Mail-messenger service 

Electric and cable car service 

Wagon service, in cities 

Pneumatic-tube service 

Mail equipment 

Freight or expressage on postal cards, etc . 
Miscellaneous service 



Expenditures 

for fiscal year 

ended June 

30, 1908. 



$7, 125, 

763, 

43,588, 

4.567, 

17,373, 

1,416. 

791. 

1,819, 

482, 

a 5^5. 

211 



025.80 
338.75 
012. 70 
366.26 
336.92 
300 19 
33 33 
017 18 
812 62 
747.41 
497. 07 
8a5.68 



Appropriations 

for fiscal year 

ending June 

30, 1909. 



$7,200, 

800, 

44,000, 

4.800, 

18.986, 

1,660, 

7'25 

1,700, 

1,000. 

650, 

300, 

1, 



000.00 
000 00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000 00 
000.00 
000 00 
000.00 
000.00 



Estimates for 
fiscal year end- 
ing June 80, 
1910. 



97.060, 

760, 

46.500. 

4.800, 

19,899, 

1,680, 

730, 

1.705, 

1,010, 

468. 

350, 

1, 



000.00 
000.00 
000 00 
000.00 
600.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000 00 
000 00 
500.00 
000 00 
000.00 



Total inland service 

Foreign mail service: 

Transportation 

Balances due foreign countries 

Assistant superintendent, New York, N. Y. 



78.174,988.8 



2,842,179.68 

12S. 052 82 

2 500.00 



Aggregate . 



81,157.720.75 



81, 572. 000 00 I 84, 914, 100. 00 



3.508.862.00 I 
179.000.00 
2,600.00 



3,673.000.00 

804,000.00 

2,600.00 



85, 262, 362 00 88, 798, 600. 00 



• Includes ** Rent of balldlngs for use of Post-Office Department, $43,511.31." 
INCREASE IN EXPENDITURES FOR MAIL TRANSPORTATION. 



The following table shows the aggregate expenditures for all items 
under the supervision of this office, by fiscal years, from 1888 to 1908, 



SEgOND ASSISTANT RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION. 



153 



inclusiye, the increase in amount and the per cent of increase for 
each year over the preceding year : 



Year. 


Expenditures. 


rncreMed ex- 
penditure over 
preceding year. 


Pteroent, 


vm, ,.,.. ,.,. 


130,393,209.53 
33.a06.<548,7U 
35,24^,162.89 
3S,(toI9.6ft4,7S 
40,358,432.04 
42,904,dU3,38 
4i,9^,C03,G4 
45.716, S6Q. 33 
47,B«,486.B6 
49,3ff7,«92,a2 
52, 319, 7911, §a 
63,^D,79ti.»9 
66,374,206,19 
58, 254, WO. 67 
61,153,775.92 
65,821, 711, T4 
&9,«S0,732.77 
72,862,605.41 ' 
fl76.}2U506.2« 
aS0.971,2ftl,37 
fl>ll,157,72(K75 


SI, 617, 064, 97 
3,113,439.20 
1,739,614,16 
2. 793. 4^1. M 
2,318,347.26 
2, Mi, 161.34 
2,01,5,440.26 

79<i,346.69 
2,17S,10R.23 
2,003,505.76 
2.421,798,54 
1,626,006. Oa 
2, 4 28, 409 fiO 
l.S89,S54,]8- 
2,8M9, 735.25 
4,167, fiS5.e2 
4,439,0^1.03 
3,Oll,*i72.64 
3.2nS,!»0.85 
4, &49, 758,11 

186,455.38 


h.72 


m» 


10.24 


i«» -,. ..,, 

ISM .„, , 


A.ie 

7.93 


IMS-. , „ , 


6.09 


jS::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;::::: 


6,30 


ISH , ....* >,. 


4.69 


18B6 


1.77 


1900 „, ,„ , 


4.76 


im .,. .,.. 


4. IS 


M8B_..- , , 


4.8A 


tSM-... .— - ^.. 


3.11 


1900 .„„„ ...,. .,-_-,- 


#.&0 


liM_„.,„„,. , ................ 


3.35 


iS:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;::::::::::::::::::::::: 


4.96 
6.!tl 


1S04,..- , ,.., , 


6.B8 


XB06. 


4,35 


1900 , ,..„,. 


4.47 


liCI.-... 


6,87 


IWB , 


.28 



a Under accounts stated to September 30, 1908. 



DIVISION OF BAILWAY ADJUSTMENTS. 



RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION. 



Service and expenditure. 

Number of routes 1 3,293 

LeDgtli of routes miles— 213,220.477 

Annual travel do 407, 799,039.44 

Annual rate of expenditure $44,722,985.47 

Rate of cost per mile traveled cents— 10.96 

Rate of cost per mile of length $209.75 

Average number of trips per week 18.39 

Comparison with the previous year shows : 

Percent 

Increase In number of routes 69 or 2. 19 

Increase in length of routes nilles— 5, 982. 607 or 2. 88 

Increase in annual travel do 20, 241, 873. 91 or 5. 22 

Decrease in annual rate of expenditure $395, 886. 87 or 0. 87 

Decrease in rate of cost i^er mile traveled cent__ 0. 68 or 5. 84 

Decrease in rate of cost per mile of length $7. 96 or 3. 65 

Increase in average number of trips per week 0. 41 or 2. 28 

There was no unadjusted service on June 30, 1008. The appropria- 
tion for the last fiscal year was $44,660,000. The auditor reports the 
amount expended, under accounts stated to September 30, 1908, as 
$43,588,012.70, leaving an unexpended balance of $1,071,987.30, out of 
which unsettled accounts must be paid. 

The appropriation for railroad transportation for the current 
fiscal year is $44,000,000, which is in accordance with the revised 
estimate submitted after the publication of the last annual report 
The estimate named in that report was made before the readjust- 
ments in the third contract section had been completed and before it 
was possible to know what result could be expected from the applica- 
tion of the new divisor. The amount of the appropriation is, how- 



154 



REPORT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENEBAL. 



ever, inadequate, for the reason that after the estunate was made and 
before the beginning of the present fiscal year certain Pacific rail- 
roads, from whose compensation the Treasury Department was re- 
quired to withhold a certain amount on account ox balance due the 
Government upon their bonded indebtedness, canceled such indebt- 
edness. As a result this amount theretofore withheld will be paid to 
such companies and will create a deficiency in this appropriation 
which win be covered in a deficiency estimate. 
The annual rate of expenditure was — 

June 30, 1908 $44,722,085:47 

July 1, 1008 44,718»048.26 

September 30, 1908 44,778,874.84 

For information as to the several routes on which the mails were 
weighed and the pay adiusted from July 1, 1908, see Table B.^ 

The Timount estimated as necessary for railroad transportation for 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1910, is $46,600,000, being $2,50a000. 
or 6.68 per cent, more than the appropriation for the current fiscal 
year. 

At the time the last annual report was submitted the reduction of 
paj for the transportation of the mails on railroad routes and for 
railway post-oflSce car service, as provided for by the act of March 2, 
1907, was known for the first, second, and fourth contract sections and 
stated therein. The third contract section was being readjusted, and 
the reduction for that section had not been ascertained. This is now 
shown below, namely : 



Contract section. 


Railroad transportation. 


Railway po8tK>ffioe cars. 


Amount. Percent. 


Amount. 


Percent 


Third 


$759,146,88 


4.10 


9442,755.70 


lfi.70 







The total reduction, in accordance with the provisions of the law, 
for the fiscal year 1908 for both services was, therefore, $2,676,468.72, 
or 5.24 per cent. 

These rates per cent are based on the entire pay for transportation 
and for railway post-office cars in the section named. If based on 
the rate of pay of the routes from which reductions were made, in 
accordance with the provisions of the act above referred to, the rates 
per cent of reduction would be as follows : 



Section. 



Transpor- 
tation. 



Third, 



Per cent. 
5.08 



Railway 

poet-office 

cars. 



PercenL 
35.88 



Qyadrennidl readfustment. — ^During the fiscal year the mails were 
weighed on the railroad routes in the second section, embracing the 
States of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Ala- 
bama, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Kentucky, and the island of Porto 
Bico. The annual rate of expenditure for railroad transportation 
in that section on June 30, 1908, was $4,602,915.90. 



SECOND ASSISTANT — RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION. 155 

The result of the readjustment of pay for railroad transportation 
effective July 1, 1908, tor the ensuing four years in this section, 
based upon the weighing of the mails, shows an increase of $67,- 
287.58, being 1.49 per cent; and for railway post-oflSce car pay an 
increase of $2,981.35, or 0.8 per cent. The rate of increase for 
railroad transportation pay in this section under the previous re- 
adjustment was 12.30 per cent. The reduction in this rate of 
transportation pay is due to the application of the Postmaster- 
General's order oi June 7, 1907, No. 412, requiring the use of the 
whole number of days in the weighing period as a divisor in obtain- 
ing the average daily weight, and to the withdrawal of equipment 
and supplies from the mails. The true effect of the application of 
the new divisor is not shown in these figures, as the comparison is 
made with the transportation pay on June 30, 1908, computed upon 
the old weights. The difference between the transportation pay 
computed on the new weights by the use of the old divisor and by 
the use of the new divisor is found to be $434,730.82 per annum, or 
a saving 6f 8.78 per cent. 

The completion of the work of readjustment in the third contract 
section, which occurred after the submission of the last annual 
report, shows an increase in railroad transportation pay for that 
section of $380,333.94, or 2.41 per cent, and a decrease in railway 
post-office car pay of $507,634.68, or 18.01 per cent. 

The application of the Postmaster-General's order of June 7, 1907, 
No, 412, requiring the use of the whole number of days in the weigh- 
ing period as a divisor in obtaining the average daily weight to the 
computations for the readjustment of this, the third contract section, 
effective July 1, 1907, resulted in a reduction in the total compensa- 
tion for service in such section of $1,787,378.10 per annum, or 9.65 
per cent 

Tabulations at Washington. — In the last annual report attention 
was called to the manner in which the tabulations of weights taken 
during the quadrennial weighing and their certification to the divi- 
sion of railway adjustments in this office are made. At present these 
tabulations are made in the offices of the superintendents. Railway 
Mail Service, at division headq^uarters, by a special force of tabu- 
lators employed during the period for that purpose. The expenses 
of the weighings, including these tabulations, are paid out of the 
appropriation for the transportation of the mails, as provided for by 
law. (Act of March 3, 1875, ch. 128, 18 Stat. L., 841.) 

The advisability of making these tabulations in the department 
under one general supervision, securing uniformity of method and 

Sjater economy, was set forth. I fully agree with this view and 
ieve that it would be an improvement in administration if this 
were done. Legislative authority to rent quarters in the District of 
Columbia for the accommodation of the tabulators to be so employed 
is lacking. I therefore recommend that this authority be secured, 
and in order that the services of tabulators so employed may be made 
most effective, as under the decision of the Comptroller they can not 
now be employed upon the work of completing computations, suggest 
the f ollowmg provision for enactment : 

Out of the appropriation for inland mail transportation, the Postmaster- 
General is authorized hereafter to pay rental in Washington, District of 
Colombia, and compensation to tabulators and clerks employed in connection 



156 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

with the weighings, for assistance in completing computations, In oonnection 
with the expenses of taking the weights of mails on railroad routes^ as provided 
by law. 

Economy in readjustments. — Reference was made in the last annual 
report to the policy of the department to equalize the rates of pay 
for transportation hy railroad routes where the department has the 
opportunity of dispatching mails by competing Imes to the same 
destination, one of which is shorter or less expensive* than the other, 
and where such mails can be carried as advantageously for the de- 
partment by the shorter or less expensive route as by the lon^r or 
more expensive one, and the mails are allowed to remain wim the 
latter. In adjusting the pay for the second contract section, where 
the mails were last weighed, the principle was applied to adjustments 
of compensation for the new term of service begmning July 1, 1908, 
on routes Nos. 118002, 120030, 120002, 120005, 120004, and 121009, 
between Weldon, N. C., and Jacksonville, Fla., and on route No. 
123018 from Jacksonville to Tampa, Fla. The equalization of rates 
on these routes resulted in a saving of $1,126.55 per anDum from 
July 1, 1908, or $4,506.20 for the four-year term. 

At the time the last annual report was submitted, the adjustments 
in the third contract section had not been completed, and tne saving 
by reason of the equalization of rates mentioned therein was not 
known. The saving effected by orders made to date (on routes Nos. 
135007 and 143005, Chicago, 111., to Union Pacific Transfer (n. c), 
Iowa) is $9,270.83 per annum from July 1, 1907, or $37,083.32 for the 
four-year term. 

Readjustments for diversions of mails. — In the last annual report 
mention was made of the fact that after the weighing is had and the 
compensation is adjusted upon routes in a contract section mails may 
be diverted from one route to another, on account of changes in rail- 
road schedules, and the department is unable to readjust tne compen- 
sation upon the routes affected without another weighing. In such a 
case the railroad company to whose route mails are diverted must 
carry the additional weights to the end of the contract term without 
receiving additional compensation therefor, and the company from 
whose route the mails have been diverted continues to receive com- 
pensation for mails it no longer carries. A reweighing during the 
contract term of all the mails upon the routes affected is undesirable. 
The weights of such diverted mails could, however, be taken alone, 
their daily average computed, and the daily average weights of the 
routes affected could be revised accordingly, making allowance for the 
increase in the weights of mails subsequent to the regular weighing 
in order that the average daily weight of the divert^ mails should 
not be augmented thereby. I renew the recommendation that specific 
authority therefor be enacted by Congress as follows : 

When, after a weighing of the mails for the purpose of readjusting the com- 
pensation for their transi)ortation on a railroad route, mails are diverted there- 
from, the Postmaster-General may, in his discretion, ascertain the effect of such 
diversion by a weighing of such mails for such number of successive worthing 
days as he may determine, and have the weights stated and verified to him as 
in other cases, and readjust the compensation upon the routes affected accord- 
ingly : Provided, That no readjustment shall be made unless the diverted mails 
equal at least ten per centum of the average dally weight of either of the routes 
affected. 



SECOND ASSISTANT — ^RAILBOAD TRANSPORTATION. 



157 



RaMroad maU transportation and compensation therefor. — In the 
last annual report mention was made of the fact that the period fixed 
for securing data relative to the operating, receipts and expenditures 
of railroad companies had been postponed at the instance of com- 
panies wishing to suggest uniform methods of treating the inquiries 
issued by this oflSce. Delay in submitting these suggestions has 
preventea again fixing the period. The matter has been taken up 
with all the large railway systems with the hope of perfecting the 
plan, so that the statements when submitted will be complete and 
adequate. It is believed that in a short time the revised inquiries 
and forms will be issued, and the data will be secured and submitted 
to Congress. 

The reports will be voluminous and the tabulation and arrange- 
ment of the data will require the special work of clerks not available 
in the regular force. I therefore renew the recommendation that 
Congress appropriate $5,000 for this purpose, including the rental 
of suitable quarters in Washington, D. C. 

There is an inconsistency in flie present law fixing the rate for rail- 
road transportation upon land-grant roads for weights above 48,000 
pounds, to which attention is respectfully called. The statute fixes 
this land-grant rate at $17.10 for each 2,000 pounds. This is a higher 
rate than the land-grant rate for the same weight between 5,000 and 
48,000 pounds, which is $16.24 for each 2,000 pounds. It is believed 
that this discrepancy occurred through an inadvertence when the law 
was revised in 1907. As the general law provides that a railroad 
company whose railroad was constructed in whole or in part by a 
land grant, etc., shall receive only 80 per centum of the compensation 
otherwise authorized, this rate of $17.10 for each 2,000 pounds above 
48,000 pounds should be changed to $15.39, which is 80 per centum 
of $19.24, the rate for other service for the same amount of mail. 

Increase in annual rate of expenditure. — ^The following table indi- 
cates the increase or decrease, by years, in the annual rate of expendi- 
ture for the transportation of the mail by railroad according to rates 
fixed by Congress. 

Annual cost of railroad transportation from 1880 to 1908^ inclusive. 



Fisca vear 
June 80— 



1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 
1883 
1884 
1885 
188C 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 



Annual rate of 
expenditure. 



S8,463. 
9,237, 
10,249, 
11.297, 
12,288, 
13,273, 
1 J, 758, 
15.520, 
10, 174, 
17,528, 
19, 441, 
20,869, 
22,398, 
24,196, 
26, 716. 



197.00 
945.00 
261.00 
333.00 
799.00 
606.00 
495.00 
191.00 
691.22 
599.80 
095.78 
231.55 
868.66 
329.71 
605.85 



Increase. 



8774,748.00 

1,011,316.00 

1,084,072.00 

991,466.00 

984.807.00 

1,484,889.00 

761,696.00 

654,500.22 

1,353,908.68 

1,912,495.98 

1,428,136.77 

1,529,637.11 

1,797,461.05 

1,520,276.11 



Per 
cent. 



9.16 
10.94 
10.57 
8.77 
8.00 
11.18 
6.16 
4.21 
8.37 
10.91 
7.34 
7.32 
8.02 
6.28 



I 



Fiscal year lAnnual rate of 
June 30^— I expenditure. 



1897. 



1894 $27,163, 

1895 27,961, 

28,941, 
30,171, 
30,786. 
81,942, 

1900 1 33,424, 

1901 ! 33,881, 

1902 35,049, 

1903 1 36,607, 

1904 39,177, 

19(«5 39,833, 

1906 ! 41.610, 

1907 45,118. 

1^8 44,722, 



091.16 
931.78 
880.47 
642.69 
375.89 
150.88 
982.15 
390.24 
211.22 
624.80 
376. 52 
070.75 
785. 62 
872.34 
985.47 



Increase. 



81,436, 

808, 

979, 

1,229, 

614, 

1,166, 

1.482, 

456, 

1,167, 

1.658, 

2,569, 

655, 

1,777, 

3,608, 

a 395, 



485.31 
840.62 
948.69 
662.22 
833.20 
774.99 
831.27 
408.09 
820.98 
313.58 
861.72 
694.23 
714.87 
086.72 
886.57 



Per 
cent. 



5.58 
2.97 
8.50 
4.24 
2.03 
3.76 
4.64 
1.86 
8.44 
4.44 
7.02 
1.67 
4.46 
8.43 
0.87 



• Decrease. 



158 KEPOKT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GBNBRAIi. 

Annual cost of railroad poat-offlce cars from 1880 to 1908, indiMivfi, 



Fiwal year 
June 30— 


Aniimil mtoof t,.««»o«« 
expenditure. I"crea«e. 


Per 
cent. 


Fiscal year 
June 30— 


Annual rate of 
expenditure. 


Increaae. 


Per 
cent 


1879 


$1,101,392.00 
1,261 041.00 






1894 


63,205,096.86 
3,243,410.80 
8,463,016.70 
8.704.978.60 
3,917.471.67 
4,176.724.86 
4.868,999 69 
4,688,284.08 
4,904,396.78 
6,279,328.79 
5,618.233.84 
6.743,444.41 
6.870.261.94 
6,889,288.98 
4,681,777.68 


CI, 600. 40 
88,811.96 
220,606.90 
241,06L80 
212,408.17 
266,258.19 
198,274.78 
269.284.44 
266,162.70 
874.927.06 
238,910.06 
226.2ia67 
126,807.61 
18,987.04 
•1,307.461.40 


Ol86 


IhSO 


«1 54^ 649 no 


14.18 
8.17 
6.78 
9.83 
8.76 
7 50 


1895 


1.19 


1881 


1,364.107.00 '103; 066. 00 
1.455,851.00 91,744.00 
1,599,(X)1.00 143.150.00 
1,73.8,997.00 139,996.00 
1,869,488.00 130.491.00 


1896 


6.79 


1882 


1897 


6.95 


1H83 


1898 


6. 73 


188-1 


1899 


6.69 


IsSo 


1900 


4.62 


1886 


1,816.321.00 1 a 53, 167.00 a 2.^1 
1,881,580.50 65.259.50 ' 3.59 


1901 


6.16 


1S.S7 


1902 


6.73 


1888 


1,996,359.35 
2,198,517.5.5 
2.526,000.11 
2,784.815.16 
2,930, 1!». 40 


114,778.85 1 6.10 
20-2, ir)8. 20 1 10. 12 
327,482.56 14.89 
268,845.05 | 10.24 
145.:i'>l.!^4 ; 5.22 


1903 


7.64 


1S89 


1904 


4.62 


1890 


1905 


4.06 


1891 


1906 


2.20 


1892 


1907 


.32 


1893 


3,193,589.45 1 263.390.6.") 1 8.98 1 


1908 


«20.fi0 








1 







Annual cost of railroad transportation and railroad post-office cars combined, 

1880 to 1908, inclusive. 



FLscal year 
June 30— 



Annual niteof, 
cxiienditure. 



Increase. 



Per 
cent. 



1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 

1883 

1884 

1885 

18S6 

1887 

1888 

1S,S9 

1S90 

1891 

1892 

1893 



.1 S9,567, 

.' 10,498, 

-I 11,613. 

., 12. 753, 

.1 13.8^7, 

. 15,012, 

J 16,62^ 

. 17,:«(), 

.' 18.056, 

. 19,524, 

.' 21,6;W, 

. 23,395. 

. 25.183, 

. 27,126, 

.1 28,910, 



589.00 ' 

9s«i.0O j 

368.00 I 
184.00 

8(X).00 I 

(•.03.00 I 

98:3.00 ' 

512.00 I 
271.72 

959.15 I 

613. 3:t , 

231.66 ' 

713.82 I 
529.11 

195.30 I 



I 



5931 
1,114, 
1,139. 
l.K^l. 
1.124, 
1,615, 
708, 
719, 
1, 1«)8, 
2. 11 1, 
1.755, 
1.78S, 
1,012. 
1.783, 



397. 00 
382.00 ' 
816.00 I 
616.00 I 
803.00 I 
liso.oO 
529.00 I 
759.72 I 
687.43 I 
(IM. IS i 

618. ;w I 

482.16 I 
815.29 I 
6<)6.19 I 



9.73 
10.61 
9.81 
8. 89 
■ 8. 09 
10. 76 
4.26 
4. 15 
8.13 
10.83 
8.11 
l.M 
7.71 
6.57 



Fiscal year 
June so- 



Annual rate of 
expenditure. 



I 

i 1894 

, 1895 

' 1896 

! 1897 

, 1898 

1899 

' llKX) 

, 1901 

, 1902 

! 1903 

1 1904 

1*H)6 

I 1906 

1907 

I 1908 

I 



$30.358, 190. 01 
31,205,342.68 
32,406,797.17 
33,876.521.19 
34,703,847.66 
36,117,876.74 
37.793,981.74 
38,519,624.27 
39,953,607.96 
41,886,848.69 
44,695,610.36 
45,576,615.16 
47,481,037.56 
51, 008, Ul. 32 
49.404,763.05 



Increaae. 



$1,447,994.71 

847,168.67 
1,200,464.69 
1,470,724.02 

827,826.87 
1,414.028.18 
1,676,106.00 

726,642.68 
1,488,968.68 
1,933,240.64 
2,808,76L77 

880,904.80 

1.904,622.40 

3,527.078.76 

al, 608, 318. 27 



Per 
cent 



6.00 
2.79 
8.84 ^ 
4.66 ^ 
2.44 
4.06 
4.64 
1.92 
8.72 
4.84 
6.70 
L97 
4.17 
7.42 
• 8.24 



» Decrease. 



Railway post-oftce cars. — ^The annual rate of expenditure for this 
service on June 30, 1908, was $4,681,777.58, being $1,207,461.40, or 
20.50 per cent less than the previous year. 

The appropriation for the last fiscal year was $5,080,000; tlie sum 
expended, as reported by the auditor, was $4,567,366.25. 

The ai)propriation for the present fiscal year is $4,800,000. 

The annual rate of expenditure was — 

June 30, 1908 $4,681,777.68 

July 1, 1908 4,649,900.01 

September 30. 1908 4, 628, 061. 14 

The amount estimated as necessary for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1910, is $4,800,000, being the same as for the current year. 

The effect, for the third contract section, of the provisions of the 
act of 1907, reducing the pay for railway post-office car service, ascer- 
tained from the complete readjustment of pay for that section, is 
shown on page 8. 

During the fiscal year careful inquiry has been made as to the 
necessities for railway post-office car service, resulting, in a number 
of cases, in a restatement of the authorized car space to conform to 



SECOND ASSISTANT — ^RAILBOAD TRANSPORTATION. 159 

the needs of the service and in accordance with the Postmaster- 
General's order of March 28, 1908. No. 1219, and effecting a saving 
of $272,040.60 (an annual rate of $346,287.06) during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1908. This will result in a total saving of $811,903.18 
during the terms for which existing pay is stated. 

From the passage of the law in 1873 allowing additional compensa- 
tion for railway post-office cars, to the year 1897, authorized half 
lines of railway post-office cars were unknown in the service. There- 
after a practice graduallj^ arose of making agreements with railroad 
companies for the authorization and operation of half lines in cases 
where the postal needs in one direction warranted the authorization 
of such cars, but in the opposite direction did not. It became the 
practice to secure an agreement from the railroad company, when 
practicable, for the authorization and operation of a hali line where 
these conditions arose. 

Half lines arose also where, after authorization of a full line of 
railway post-office cars, the needs of the service in one direction grew 
faster than those in the opposite direction. In such a case it was 
customary to offer the company pay for additional space in one direc- 
tion only. If accepted by the company, this converted the full line 
into two half lines with different rates of pay. It has also been cus- 
tomary to deduct the pay for a car-run where the railway post-office 
car was returned deadhead — that is, without mail or clerks therein. 

When, during the past year, the department made orders reducing 
lines to half lines where it was learned that the authorizations were 
in excess of the actual needs of the service in one direction^ protests 
were made by the companies concerned, which brought unaer con- 
sideration the whole subject. A departmental commission was ap- 
pointed to hear with the Second Assistant Postmaster-General tne 
representations of the companies, consider the matter, and report 
thereon. The companies have claimed that the law does not recognize 
half lines ; that if a car is furnished for postal purposes it must be run 
in both directions, and is practically the same expense in its operation 
whether the department uses it one way or both ways; that if a 50- 
foot or a 60-foot car is required to meet the needs of the service in one 
direction it is necessary to return the car in the opposite direction, 
and that, although the department may not need the full space in the 
opposite direction, the operation of the car is as expensive as if the 
department were to use it in both directions ; and that the department 
does not allow them to use any part of the railway post-office car, 
although it may be only partially used by the depjartment. For these 
reasons they contend that they should be fully paid for the maximum 
leou^th of the car actually operated. 

Uijon the other hand, it is contended that, inasmuch as additional 
pay is allowed by the statute for additional railway post-office car 
space upon the theory that such space is needed and used by the de- 
partment for such purposes, the department would not be warranted 
in paying for space in excess of those needs or upon a trip where the 
space was not so used, and that, keeping in view the equities in favor 
of the Government, as well as those claimed by the companies, good 
administration requires an effort to state the pay upon the basis of 
the actual needs of the service. 



160 BEPORT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

The commission's report recommends allowance of full pay for a 
line of 40-foot cars in all cases where a 40-foot car must be run and 
returned, although the requirements of the service in the return direc- 
tion do not demand 40 feet of space. It preserves the principle of 
half lines as far as the rates of^ay are concerned in cases where the 
needs of the service differ in different directions, but does not contem- 
plate the statement of pay in this manner excepting by agreement 
with the company. It recommends the statement as luU lines of 
cars of the maximum length required to operate the service, with pay, 
however, equal to the allowance for half lines of the several dimen- 
sions needed. It recognizes the propriety of stating half lines with- 
out agreements where the cars are operated over afferent routes in 
different directions. It approves the practice of requiring the com- 
pany to furnish apartment car space where a line of 60-foot cars is 
already authorized and the additional requirement does not warrant 
an additional 40- foot car. Finally, the report contemplates preserv- 
ing the status of half lines which have heretofore been authorized 
under agreements or which have developed in the service without 
objection, so long as the same conditions of service continue; but 
contemplates the restatement, with increased pay, in those cases where 
the conditions of the service will warrant it or where half lines have 
been authorized without agreement and under objection and where 
agreements can not be secured for their continuance. These conclu- 
sions have been promulgated by an order of the Postmaster-General. 

This effort to reach a satisfactory settlement of the perplexing 
question has not been altogether successful. A number of companies 
have cooperated with the department and accepted adjustments upon 
this basis, while others havo. refused. In all cases they contend that 
any rate less than the maximum rate for the full length of the car 
operated is inadequate. 

Postal facilities in New York terminals, — ^The Pennsylvania Tun- 
nel and Terminal Railroad Company's station, which will be the 
new terminal of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company in New York 
City, situated between Seventh and Ninth avenues and Thirty-first 
and Thirty-third streets, is now under construction and is expected 
to be readv for train service early in 1910. Steps have been taken 
to secure the best facilities for handling the mails in connection with 
it and the proposed new general post-office. The mail traffic prob- 
lems would be simplified if the post-office building were ready for 
use at the time the new terminal is ready in 1910, and I recommend 
that action be taken to secure its early construction. Suitable action 
has been taken by this office with reference to the proper allotment 
of ^ace in the new terminal for the use of the Post-Office Depart- 
ment. 

The permanent location of branch post-office Station H, New York 
City, under the lease between the rost-Office Department and the 
New York Central Railroad Company, is to be on the eastern side 
of the terminal between Forty-thir^ and Forty-fifth street and 
Lexington avenue and Depew place. The construction of the new 
terminal has necessitated immediate steps for securing adequate 
transportation facilities in connection with the branch post-office, 
which have been taken. 



SECOND ASSISTANT — RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION. 161 

ELECTRIC AND CABLE CAR SERVICE. 

Service and expenditures. 

Number of routes 60^ 

Length of routes miles__ 6,764.77 

Annual travel do 11, 716, 416. 2(J 

Annual rate of expenditure (exclusive of $172,600 for Chi- 
cago underground electric service) $641,736.32 

Rate of cost per mile traveled cents— 5.47 

Rate of cost per mile of length $94.80 

Average number of trips per week 16.65 

Comparison with the previous year shows: 

Per cent 

Increase in number of routes 21 or 4.31 

Increase in length of routes miles— 420.85 or 6.63 

Increase in annual travel do 413,861.31 or 3.66 

Increase in annual rate of expenditure .S27, 728.93 or 4.51 

Increase in rate of cost per mile traveled cent— 0.04 or 0.73 

Decrease in rate of cost per mile of length $1.92 or 1.98 

Decrease in average number of trips per week 0. 48 or 2. 80 

The above figures do not include the item of $172,600 appropriated 
for mail service by under^ound electric cars in Chicago, 111. This 
underground service terminated with the close of the fiscal year, 
and the mails are now being carried in wagons by contract under the 
appropriation for wagon service, the same being secured at an annual 
rate of expenditure of $145,400. 

The appropriation for the last fiscal year was $870,000, the amount 
expended, as reported by the auditor, $791,733.33, leaving an unex- 
pended balance of $78,266.67. 

The appropriation for the current fiscal year is $725,000. 

The annual rate of expenditure was — 

July 1, 1908 ^ $643,010.78 

September 30, 1908 643,963. 32 

The sum estimated as necessary for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1910, is $730,000, being $5,000, or 0.68 per dfent more than for the 
current fiscal year. 

Chicago tunnel service succeeded by screen wagon service. — In the 
last annual report attention was called to the fact that the service for 
the transportation of the mails between the general post-office and the 
railroad stations in Chicago, 111., was conducted by the Illinois Tunnel 
Company, operating underground cars, under a contract specially au- 
thorized by statute, which would expire June 30, 1908. Authority 
was requested for a renewal of this contract for a period of four years 
with the proviso that in the event no contract were entered into for 
such tunnel service for another term the amount appropriated, or as 
much thereof as might be necessary, should be available tor regulation 
screen wagon service. Accordingly Congress, in making the annual 
appropriation for screen or other wagon service, inclucled the fol- 
lowing proviso, viz : 

That the Postmaster-General is hereby authorized to contract, for a period 
not exceeding four years from July first, nineteen hundred and eight, by either 
screen wagon or underground electric car service in the city of Chicago, 
nilnois. 

The amount appropriated for screen or other wagon service in- 
cluded the sum of $340,000. in addition to the department's estimate 

G5064— P M G 1908 11 



162 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



for wagon service, the contractor having given the department notice 
that it would not renew the contract at tne old rate of $172,600 and 
that fact having been communicated to the committees of Congress. 

While the matter was still pending before Congress^the department 
endeavored to secure a renewal of the tunnel contract at a reasonable 
rate. The best proposal received was at a maximum price of $395,140 
per annum. 

An advertisement for regulation screen wagon service covering the 
service being performed by the tunnel company was issued inviting 
proposals for the performance of the service for the period of three 
years from July 1, 1908. Three proposals from responsible parties 
were submitted, the lowest being for $145,400 and the highest for 
$215,000. While these were under consideration the tunnel company 
was recjuested to submit the lowest rate at which it was williiLff to 
renew its contract and submitted a rate of $300,000 per annum. This 
was deemed too high for the service required, and an award was made 
to the lowest bidder for wagon service, being at the rate of $145,400 
per annum, and a contract entered into accordingly. The wagon 
contractors have had extensive experience in the conduct of wagon 
service in Chicago and are giving satisfactory service. The amount 
saved to the department is $154,600 per annum, the difference between 
the lowest bid of the tunnel company and the accepted bid of the 
wagon contractor. This will amount to a saving of $463,800 during 
the term of the contract. 

PNEUMATIC-TUBE SERVICE. 

The following statement shows the pneumatic-tube service under 
contract and that part of it in operation on June 30 and July 1, 1908 : 

Pneumatic tube service in operation June SO and July 7, 1908. 



state. 


Route 
No. 

60400;} 
507003 


City. 

Boston ... 
Brooklyn . 

New York 
Philadel- 
phia. 
Chicago . . 

St. Louis.. 


Contractor. 


Total service under 
contract. 


Service In operation 

June 30 andi July l, 

1908. 


length. 


Annual 
pay. 


Length. 


Annual 
pay. 


Massachnsetts . . . 
New York 


Boston Pneumatic 
Transit Co. 

New York Pneu- 
matic Service 
Co. 

do 

Pneumatic Tran- 
sit Co. 

Chicago Postal 
Pneuma tic 
Tube Co. 

St. Louis Pneu- 
matic Tube Co. 


MOes. 
6.652 

1.35 

26.89 
7.35 

17.563 
3.47 


S113,089.14 
22,950.00 

457.130.00 
124,950.00 

294,470.80 
54,82L15 


MUes. 
6.652 


$118,089.14 


Do 

Pennsylvania ... 

Illinois 

Missouri 


507011 
510006 

5350(M 
54500-2 


9.3998 
6.022 

7.41 
1.85 


159,796.60 
102.874.00 

125,970.00 
81,450.00 


Total 




63.275 11.067.411.09 


3L3338 


532,679.74 












' 



The appropriation for the last fiscal year was $1,250,000. The sum 
expended, as reported by the auditor, was $482,812.62, leaving an 
unexpended balance of $767,187.38. 

The appropriation for th« ^'irrent fiscal year is $1,000,000, 



- SECOND ASSISTANT PNEUMATIC-TUBE SERVICE. 168 

The sum estimated as necessary for the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1910, to meet contract obligations, is $1,010,000, being $10,000, or 1 
per cent, more than the appropriation for the current fiscal year. 

Since the last annual report tubes have been extended and service 
inaugurated to Stations V, A, O, E, Times Square, G, N, W, J, and 
L, in New York, N. Y. The tubes have been extended also from 
the general post-oflSce to the new postal station in the Hudson and 
Maimattan Terminal building, to which the mailing division for first- 
class mail was moved July 1, 1908. This extension was made under 
an agreement with the company at the same rate per mile per annum 
as the original contract. These extensions cover a mileage of ap- 

Sroximately 12.30, making *a total mileage of 19.30 in operation m 
few York, at a cost of $328,195.20 per annum. The general contract 
provides also for the connection oi all the principal stations on the 
feast Side as far north as Station L,and for the connection of Stations 
C, Foreign Branch, and S, and an east-and-west connection between 
Times Square Station and Station H. It is expected that Station 
H will be located in the Grand Central Station by January, 1909. 
When the uptown railroad terminals shall have been completed and 
connections made with the postal stations on each side of the city, 
the full measure of utility and eflSciency of the service will be 
realized. 

The installation of terminal machinery in connection with the ex- 
tension of the tube lines on the west side in New York and also in 
Brooklyn necessitated arranging for additional space in Stations C, J, 
L, N, W, and Y, and for an exchange of space at Station H in New 
York and for additional space in Station L in Brooklyn. The 
increased rentals for this purpose approximate $8,640. 

Service under the contract on route No. 507003 between the general 
post-oflSce and Station L in Brooklyn, N. Y., 1.35 miles, has been put 
in operation since June 30, 1908. 

Service has been extended in Philadelphia under the contract con- 
necting Southwark Station and Station D from November 23, 1908, 
an approximate distance of 1.91 miles. A favorable report has been 
made upon the proposed extension of tubes and service to Fairhill 
Station and North Philadelphia Station, but the company has not 
formally agreed to it. 

No further extension of tube lines under contract in Chicago has 
been made, the contracting company claiming that the desired 
changes in the terms of the franchise under which it is operating 
have not been secured. The company has not yet restored the line 
between the Chicago post-office and the Northwestern Depot, but 
reports efforts toward that end. 

The differences existing between the department and the contracting 
pneumatic service companies with reference to pneumatic tubes laid 
m New York, Chicago, and St. Louis led to the appointment of a 
commission for the purpose of adjusting them. The matters consid- 
ered were the proper routes for acceptance between the Chicago, 
111., post-office and Northwestern Depot, between the St. Louis, Mo., 
post-office and the annex station at the Union Depot, questions 
respecting the routes to be followed in New York City by extensions 
of lines under the present contract, and the claims of the contracting 



164 BEPOBT OF THE POBTMASTEB-GENEBAL. 

company for temporary service performed for it by the Illinois 
Tunnel Company between the Chicago posi-office and Northwe^;em 
Depot. These differences were adjusted upon an equitable basis. 

The act of May 27, 1908, making appropriations for the service of 
the Post-Office Department for the present fiscal year, contains the 
following provision : 

And the Postmaster-General is hereby authorized and directed to investi- 
gate and report to Congress not later than January first, nineteen hundred and 
nine, the feasibility and desirability of the Goyemment purchasing or Installing 
the equipment for pneumatic tube service, and thereafter operating the same in 
the cities where such service is now in operation, and also ascertain and report 
the approximate cost of purchase and likewise^ of installation and the cost of 
maintenance and operation. 

The Postmaster-General appointed a commission consisting of ex- 
pert departmental and postal officials charged with the duty of making 
a thorough examination and a report to him upon all matters in- 
volved, in order that the information desired by Congress might be 
submitted. The commission has conducted an exhaustive investiga- 
tion covering the properties, patents, and franchises, the original 
cost of the existing properties and the cost of like installation at the 
present time, the cost of operation, the efficiency and desirability of 
the service, the probable relations between the General Government 
and the State and municipal governments in case of governmental 
control, etc. A report will be made at an early day. 

REGULATION, SCREEN, OR OTHER WAGON SERVICE. 

Number of routes 809 

Length of routes miles.. 1, 081. 21 

Annual travel do 4,454,378.08 

Annual rate of expenditure $1,881,572.30 

Rate of cost per mile traveled cents.. 29.89 

Rate of cost per mile of length $1,291.27 

Average number of trips per week 41. 53 

Comparison with the previous year shows — 

Per cent 

Increase in number of routes 17, or 5. 82 

Increase in length of routes miles.. 29. 65, or 2. 95 

Increase in annual travel do 191, 068. 81, or 4. 48 

Increase in annual rate of expenditure $115, 950. 65, or 9. 58 

Increase in rate of cost per mile traveled cents.. 1.38, or 4. 84 

Increase in cost per mile of length $77. 67, or 6. 40 

Increase in average number of trips per week 0. 61, or 1. 49 

The appropriation for the last fiscal year was $1,275,000, which, 
with the smn of $46,000 appropriated by the deficiency act of Mbj 
80, 1908, made the sum of $1,321,000 available for the year. The 
amount reported by the auditor as expended under accounts stated to 
September 30, 1908, is $1^19,017.18, leaving an unexpended balance 
of $1,982.82. 

The contracts for this class of service in the second contract section 
expired June 80, 1908, and new contracts were made for a term of 
four years from July 1, 1908. 

The annual rate oi expenditure on July 1, 1908, under the new con- 
tracts was $99,097.92, an increase of $27,574.92 over the annual rate 
on June 80, 1908, under the expirinff contracts. The increase in an- 
nuiJ travel was 40,127.94 miles. The rate of cost per mile on June 



SECOND ASSISTANT — MAIL-MESSENGER SERVICE. 165 

30, 1908, was 26.88 cents; on July 1, 1908, 32.66 cents, an increase of 
5.48 cents, or 20.38 per cent. 

The pending general advertisement invites proposals for this serv- 
ice in the first section, embracing the states of Maine, New Hamp- 
shire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, District of 
Columbia, Virginia, and West Virginia for the period rrom July 1, 
1909, to June 30, 1913. The wagon service of this section covered, 
on September 30, 1908, 108 routes with an aggregate length of 435.05 
miles and an annual travel of 2,236,625.19 miles, at an annual rate of 
expenditure of $667,091.36, or 29.82 cents per mile. This advertise- 
ment embraces 85 routes, with an aggregate length of 478.31 miles 
and an annual travel of 2,445,550.82 miles, an increase of 208,925.63 
miles over the present service. 

The appropriation for the current fiscal year is $1,700,000. 

The annual rate of expenditure was — 

July 1, 1908 $1,519,347.22 

September 30. 1908 1,527.185.22 

The above amount of $1,700,000 includes a sum transferred from 
the item for electric and cable car service, and intended to cover the 
cost of underground electric car service in Chicago, 111., or a wagon 
service in lieu thereof. The disposition of this contract is explained 
under the caption " Electric and cable car service — Chicago tunnel 
service succeeded by screen wagon service." 

The amount estimated as necessary for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1910, is $1,705,000, being $5,000, or 0.29 per cent, more than the 
appropriation for the current fiscal year. 

MAIL-MESSENGER SERVICE. 

Number of routes 7,664 

Length of routes miles— 5, 079.W 

Annual travel do 11, 878, 031. 92 

Annual rate of expenditure $1,459,694.68 

Bate of cost per mile traveled cents— 12.29 

Rate of cost per mile of length $287. 86 

Average number of trips per week ^ 22.48 

Comparison with the previous year shows: 

Percent 

Increase in number of routes 199 or 2.66 

Increase in length of routes miles— 66.56 or 1.82 

Decrease in annual travel do 88,820.72 or 0.72 

Increase in annual rate of expenditure * $88,985.62 or 6.42 

Increase in rate of cost per mile traveled cents— 0.83 or 7.24 

Increase in rate of cost per mile of length $13.93 or 5.09 

Decrease in average number of trips per week 0.47 or 2.04 

The appropriation for the last fiscal year was $1^80,000, which, 
with the additional sum of $47,000 appropriated by the deficiency act 
of May 30, 1908, made the simi of $1,427,000 available for this service. 
The sum reported by the auditor as expended under accounts stated 
to September, 30, 1908, is $1,416,300.19, leaving an unexpended bal- 
ance of $10,699.81, out of which must be paid such accounts as may 
be unadjusted on that date. 



166 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

The appropriation for the current fiscal year is $1,560,000. The 
annual rate of expenditure was: 

July 1, 1908 $1,450,672.43 

Sept. ao. 1908 1,481,087.05 

The amount estimated as necessary for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1910, is $1,030,000, being $70,000, or 4.48 per cent more than the 
appropriation for the present fiscal year. 

FREIGHT OR EXPRESSAGE. 

The act making appropriations for the service of the Post-OflBce 
Department for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, contains the 
following provision: 

For pay of freight or expressage on postal cards, stamped envelopes, news- 
Iiaper wrappers, and empty mail bags, two hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 
And the Postmaster-General shall require, when in freightable lots and when- 
ever practicable, the withdrawal from the mails of all postal cards, stamped 
<'nvelopes, newspaper wrappers, empty mail bags, furniture, equipment, and other 
supplies for the postal service, except postage stamps, in the respective weighing 
divisions of the country, immediately preceding the weighing period in said 
divisions, and thereafter such postal cards, stamped envelopes, newspaper wrap- 
[lers, empty mail bags, furniture, equipment, and other supplies for the postal 
service, except postage stamps, shall be transmitted by either freight or express. 

Under the appropriation of $250,000 for 1908 the following pay- 
ments have been authorized by orders issued to September 30, 1908 : 

On postal cards $34,202.43 

On stamped envelopes 12,406.27 

On newspaper wrappers 949.00 

On empty mail bags 164,332.54 

Total - 211. 891. 80 

The appropriation for the current fiscal year is $300,000. The 
}i mount estimated as necessary for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1910, 
is $350,000, being $50,000, or 16§ per cent, more than the appropria- 
tion for the current fiscal year. 

SPECIAL WEIGHING OF THE MAILS OF 1907. 

The act msBcinff appropriations for the service of the Post-Office 
Department for the nscal year ended June 30, 1908, contains the fol- 
lowing provision : 

The Postmaster-General shall cause a record to be kept from July first to 
December thirty-first, nineteen hundred and seven, inclusive, of the weight in 
pounds, respectively, of first-class, second-class, free, paid-at-the-pound rate, and 
transient, third-class, and fourth-class matter and all franked and penalty 
iiintter and the equipment carried in connection therewith. 

For thirty days during such period he shall require a record to be kept of the 
weight of each of the classes above specified dispatched from such post-office 
as he shall determine to be representative for the purpose and have computed 
thereon, in the most practicable way, the average haul of the mail of the dif- 
forent classes and subclasses as hereinbefore set out. For seven days during 
such period he shall cause a record to be kept of the revenue received from each 
of the classes and subclasses of mail matter hereinbefore specified and a count 
of the number of pieces of each class and subclass, showing also for the first- 
class the number of letters, postal cards, and other matter separately, and for 
thirty consecutive days during such period he shall cause a record to be kept 
for the purpose of ascertaining the average load of railway post-office cars other 
than storage cars, the average load of storage cars, and the average load in 
compartment cars. 



SECOND ASSISTANT — STAR SERVICE. 167 

Such record shall be reported to Congress by May first, nineteen hundred and 
eight and the sum of three hundred thousand dollars, or so much thereof as 
may be necessary, is hereby appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not 
otherwise appropriated, to cover the expense of such weighing and counting and 
the recording and compilation of the information so acquired, and the rent of 
necessary rooms in the city of Washington, and the same shall be immediately 
available. 

In the last annual report the steps taken to carry out the provisions 
of this law were detailed. The principal weighing began July 1, 
1907, and continued for six months. Other special weighings and 
records were required for different periods during that time. In all, 
nine different weighings and records were kept. These were con-, 
ducted under the direct charge of the departmental committee acting 
under the supervision of the Second Assistant Postmaster-GeneraL 
The weighings were had, records kept, and reports made satisfactorily. 
These reports were classified and tabulated by a force of special 
employees, under the direction of the committee. The computations 
incident to the requirements of the statute were made in the same 
manner. 

A complete report, giving all the details and results, was prepared, 
and submitted by the Postmaster-General to Congress on May 1, 1908, 
the date fixed by the statute for such report, and was printed as 
Document No. 910, House of Representatives, Sixtieth Congress, first 
session. 

Congress appropriated $300,000 to cover the expenses, of which sum 
$216,955.41 were expended, leaving a balance of $83,044.59. 

DIVISION OF CONTBACTS. 

STAR SERVICE. 

Service and expenditures. 

Number of routes 14,032 

Length of routes miles.. 182»2S6.51 

Annual travel do... 94, 314, 842. 21 

Annual rate of expenditure $6, 865, 476. 07i 

Rate of cost per mile traveled cents.. 7.28 

Bate of cost per mile of length $37. 66 

Average number of trips per week 4.97 

Comparison with the report for the previous year shows: 

Per cent 

Decrease in number of routes 944 or 6. 30 

Decrease in length of routes miles.. 12, 371. 94 or 6. 35 

Decrease in annual travel do 6,646,010.33 or 6. 68 

Decrease in annual rate of expenditure $366, 756. 35| or 5. 07 

Increase in rate of cost per mile traveled cents.. 0. 12 or 1. 67 

Increase in rate of cost per mile of length $0. 51 or 1. 37 

Decrease in average number of trips per week 0. 01 or 0. 20 

The appropriation for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, was 
$7,250,000. The sum expended, as reported by the auditor, was $7,- 
125,025.30, leaving an unexpended balance of $124,974.70, out of 
which unadjusted accounts must be paid. 

The appropriation for the current fiscal year is $7,200,000. 

The annual rate of expenditure was : 

July 1, 1908 $6,988,353,411 

September 30, 1908 6,917,049.271 



168 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

The amount estimated as necessary for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1910, is $7,060,000, being $140,000, or 1.94 per cent, less than the 
appropriation for the current fiscal year. The reduction in the 
amount estimated as necessary for the fiscal year 1910 is largely due 
to the fact that the reletting of service in the second contract section 
was at a cost approximately $122,000 less than expected, mainly be- 
cause of the reduction in mileage of annual travel. 

Annual letting of contracts. — The contracts for the star service in 
the second contract section, embracing the states of North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida. Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, 
and Kentucky, and the Island oi Porto Rico, expired on June 30, 
1908, and new contracts were made for this service for the four-year 
term from July 1, 1908, to June 30, 1912. These new contracts cover 
3,183 routes, aggregating 32,901.98 miles in length and 18,469,487.92 
miles of annual travel at an annual rate of expenditure of $1^2,- 
554.69i, an increase of $122,877.34^. 

The average rate per mile on June 30, 1908, was 5.79 cents; on July 
1, 1908, 6.67 cents, an increase of 0.88 cent or 15.19 per cent At this 
average rate of 6.67 cents per mile traveled, a contractor traveling 24 
miles each week day would receive about $1.60 per day, or $501.05 per 
annum. 

Advertisements for proposals, — The pending general advertise- 
ment invites proposals for star service in the first contract section, 
embracing the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia and West Virginia, for 
four years from July 1, 1909, to June 30, 1913. The star service in 
this section covered, on August 31, 1908, 3,816 routes with a length of 
31,086.57 miles and an annual travel of 21,299,245.48 miles. The an- 
nual rate of expenditure was $1,417,054.42, the rate of cost per mile 
being 6.65 cents. 

Box delivery and collection on star routes, — The department inaug- 
urated the policy of delivering mail into and collecting it from boxes 
alon^ tlie lines of star routes, and an obligation requiring such service 
was incorporated in the new contracts as they were made from year to 
year covering the four contract sections. VC^ith the reletting of serv- 
ice from July 1, 1907, the contracts throughout the entire country 
provide for the box delivery and collection feature. A large number 
of persons have accepted the opportunity offered, especially on star 
routes where the frequency is six or more times a week. The service 
is incidental to the transportation of the mail over star routes and 
involves no specific increase in expenditure. These facilities supply 
a valuable convenience to rural residents and are appreciated. 

Star service discontinued, — The star service discontinued during 
the year ended June 30, 1908, because of the establishment of rural 
delivery service, represented an annual rate of expenditure of 
$259,191.72. During the preceding year it was $418,437.50. The 
total length of the routes discontinued during the last year was 
6,887.51 miles, as against 11,748.83 miles the year before. During 
the past year 758 routes were so discontinued, as against 1,311 during 
1907. 

Alaska, — The growing commercial importance of Alaska has de- 
manded frequent and material changes in the postal facilities. In 
the winter of 1903-4 the first p 11- American route from Valdez via 



SECOND ASSISTANT — STAR SERVICE. 169 

Fairbanks ta Tanana was successfully operated, with a weight limit 
of 200 pounds per trip each way. Subsequently the limit was in- 
creased to 800 pounds per trip, out a consideraole amount of mail 
continued to accumulate at Valdez and Seattle for transportation to 
interior Alaskan post-offices. In the last report reference was made 
to contemplated improvements of the winter mail facilities to the 
interior points. Provision has been made to transport from Valdez 
to Fairbanks during the four midwinter months an increase in weight 
of mails of 48,000 pounds. The Valdez-Fairbanks route is the main 
route of travel to the interior of Alaska during the winter season. 
In connection with the increase in the weight of mail to be carried to 
Fairbanks, arrangements have been made for the transportation of 
proportionately increased weights of mails over other main lines of 
travel from Fairbanks, thereoy affording improved service to the 
post-offices at Tanana, St. Michael, Nome, and those in the Cleary 
district and the Seward Peninsula, and certain other interior points. 
These improvements have been secured without additional expense to 
the department, by means of a rearrangement of service, found feasi- 
ble owing to changed conditions. The meteorological and topo- 
^aphical conditions in Alaska make the winter mail service expen- 
sive and difficult ; therefore there must be a limit to the weights and 
classes of mail carried to the interior during the winter season pend- 
ing the development of improved methods of transportation. 

The post-offices in the southeastern portion of Alaska can be sup- 
plied without difficulty throughout the entire year regardless of the 
weight of mails handled, and during the summer season practically 
the entire territory is supplied without restriction. 

Minerals and metals tn Alas/can mails. — In the last annual report 
attention was called to the fact that large shipments of gold dust and 
bullion were being made from Alaska by mail. During the year the 
practice has continued. Considerable difficulty has been experienced 
m providing mail service by steamship lines operating between 
Seattle, Wash., and Nome, Alaska, because steamship companies have 
objected to assuming the risk of handling mails containing these ship- 
ments. Contracts were made, however, for service during the summer 
season of 1908 at the rate of 6 cents per pound, less $15 per trip each 
way to cover the handling of mails between the place of anchorage 
and the Nome post-office by lighters not under the contractors' control. 

Steamship companies carrying these Alaskan mails have requested 
the exclusion of valuable minerals and metals therefrom, or exemption 
firom liability in tjie event of their loss. Minerals and metals are 
enumerated by the postal regulations as articles which shall be ad- 
mitted to the domestic mails, and it has not been the policy of the 
Government to exclude from the mails in any part or the United 
States any matter which might be admissible in other portions of the 
country, nor to agree to any exemption from responsibility for loss. 

Porto Rico. — The island of Porto Rico is now supplied by steamer 
service from New York. Under a domestic contract the mails are car- 
ried between New York and Porto Rico twenty-six times a year, and a 
foreign mail contract includes the supply of the island as an inter- 
mediate point twenty-six times a year on tho route from New York to 
La Guaira. The mails are also carried on return trips twenty-six 
times a year under domestic contract. The sailings under the two con- 
tracts are upon alternate Saturdays. Efforts have been maAft.\» ^^^- 



170 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

vide semi-weekly mail service, but as the sailing dates of the steam- 
ship companies operating vessels between the United States and Porto 
Rican ports occur upon Saturdays it has not been accomplished. The 
growing importance of the island and the value of the interests in- 
volved are recognized and efforts will be continued to provide in- 
creased mail facilities. 

Legislation. — Past reports have invited attention to the desira- 
bility of amending certain laws relating to contract mail service. 
The matter is again submitted for consideration. 

1. The act of March 1, 1881 (21 Stat. L., ch. 96, p. 374), provides 
that copies of the advertisement of all general lettings of star, steam- 
boat, and screen wagon service shall be posted in every post-office in 
the State or Territory included in the advertisement; merefore, in 
the course of four years, they must be posted in every post-office in 
the United States, although many of the post-offices are not interested 
or located on the routes advertised. The provision is as follows : 

The Postmaster-General shall cause advertisements of aU general mail 
lettings of each State and Territory to be conspicuously posted In each post- 
office in the State and Territory embraced In said advertlsem^its for at least 
sixty days before the time of such general letting; and no other advertisement 
of such lettings shall be required, but this provision shall not apply to any other 
than general mail lettings. 

It is suggested that a desirable change may be accomplished by 
enacting the following: 

So much of the act making appropriations for the service of the Post-Oflace 
Department for the fiscal year ended June thirtieth, eighteen hundred and 
eighty-two, and for other puri)oses, approved March first, eighteen hundred and 
eighty-one, as relates to the advertisements of mail lettings, is hereby amended 
to read as follows: 

" Hereafter the Postmaster-General shall cause advertisements of all general 
mail lettings of each State and Territory to be conspicuously posted in each 
post-office named in said advertisements for at least sixty days before the time 
of such general lettings; and no other advertisement of such lettings shall be 
required, but this provision shall not apply to any other than general mall 
lettings." 

2. The act of May 4^ 1882 (22 Stat. L., ch. 116, p. 54), provides as 
follows : 

If any person shall hereafter perform any service for any contractor or sub- 
contractor in carrying the mail, he shall, upon filing in the department his con- 
tract for such service, and satisfactory evidence of its performance thereafter, 
have a lien on any money due such contractor or subcontractor for such service 
to the amount of the same; and if such contractor or subcontractor shall fall 
to pay the party or parties who have performed service as aforesaid the amount 
due for such service within two months after the expiration of the quarter In 
which such service shall have been performed, the Postmaster-General may 
cause the amount to be paid said party or parties and charged to the contractor, 
provided that such payment shall not in any case exceed the rate of pay per 
annum of the contractor or subcontractor. 

At the time the law was enacted payments were made to mail 
contractors quarterly. For several years past payments have been 
made monthly, and the department should be authorized to settle 
with carriers within two months after the month in which the service 
shall have been performed, in cases where contractors have failed 
to settle with their carriers. In order to accomplish this it is only 
necessary to substitute the word "month" for the word "quarter'' 
in the clause " within two months after the expiration of the quarter 
in which the service shall have been performed." 



SECOND ASSISTANT — STEAMBOAT SERVICE. 171 

3. The act of August 3, 1882 (22 Stat. L., ch. 379, p. 216), pro- 
vides as follows: 

The Postmaster-General is hereby authorized, in cases where the mail service 
would be thereby improved, to extend service on a mail route under contract, 
at not exceeding pro rata additional pay, for any distance not exceeding 
twenty-five miles beyond either terminal point named in said contract: Pro- 
videdy That no service shall be extended beyond the original terminal points 
more than once during the term for which the contract shall have been made. 

It is frequently desirable to extend a mail route beyond its ter- 
mini more than once during a contract term, in order to provide 
supply for post-offices which may properly be served on such route. 
In such case, if the route has been once extended, it becomes neces- 
sary to readvertise the route, including the service desired, and this 
course often results in an increase in the cost over that which would 
result from an extension of the route with a pro rata allowance of 
additional pay. It is suggested, therefore, that the law be amended 
by the enactment of the following: 

The Postmaster-General is hereby authorized, in cases where the mail service 
would be thereby improved, to extend service on a mail route under contract, 
at not exceeding pro rata additional pay : Provided, That the extensions beyond 
either terminus ordered during a contract term shall not, in the aggregate, 
exceed twenty-flve miles. 

SPECIAL OFFICE SERVICE. 

The amount expended for this class of service during the year 
ended June 30, 1908, was $28,828.61 ; during the year ended June 30, 
1907, $34,067.75. 

The number of special offices on June 30, 1908, was 1,120, with an 
aggregate length of 12,453.90 miles and an annual travel (estimated 
on the basis of 2.54 trips per week) of 3,298,069.04 miles. 

Comparison with the previous year shows : 

Per cent. 

Increase in number of routes 117, or 11. 66 

Decrease in length of routes miles>- 379.07, or 2.95 

Increase in estimated annual travel do 280, 328. 77, or 9.28 

Decrease in annual rate of expenditure $5, 239. 14, or 15. 37 

Decrease in rate of cost per mile traveled cent— 0.25, or 22. 3? 

Decrease in rate of cost per mile of length $0. 34, or 12. 83 

Increase in average number of trips per week 0. 29, or 12. 88 

Compensation for this class of service is limited by law ; the Post- 
master-General may allow an amount not exceeding two-thirds of the 
£-alary paid to the postmaster at such special office. Special office 
service is regarded as a temporary arrangement for the supply of 
offices not on or near established mail routes. 

Expenditures for this service are chargeable to appropriations for 
star service. 

STEAMBOAT SERVICE. 

Number of routes 215 

Ij&igth of routes miles__ 20,870.82 

Annual travel do 4, 977, 950. 79 

Annual rate of exi>enditure $758,235.09 

Rate of cost per mile traveled cents— 15.23 

Rate of cost per mile of length 25.38 

Average number of trips per week 1.60 



172 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENBBAL. 

Comparison with the previous year shows : 

Percent. 

Decrease in number of routes 7, or 3.16 

Decrease in length of routes miles— . 6, 419. 28, or 17. 68 

Decrease in annual travel do 679, 826. 47, or 12. 01 

Decrease in annual rate of expenditure $46, 502. 42, or 5.77 

Increase in rate of cost per mile traveled cents»_ 1. 01, or 7. 10 

Increase in rate of cost per mile of length $3. 21, or 14. 47 

Increase in average number of trips per week 0. 10, or 6. 67 

The appropriation for the last fiscal year was $829,000; the sum 
expended, as reported by the auditor on accounts stated to Septem- 
ber 30, 1908, was $763,333.75, leaving an unexpended balance of 
$65,666.25, out of which must be paid accounts unadjusted on that 
date. 

The contracts for steamboat service in the second contract section 
expired on June 30, 1908, and during the past year new contracts 
were entered into for a term of four years from July 1, 1908. The 
annual rate of expenditure on July 1, 1908, under the new contracts, 
was $138,119.50, a decrease from the rate on June 30, 1908, under 
the old contracts of $37,549.41, or 21.37 per cent. 

The general advertisement of October 24, 1908, includes the steam- 
boat service in the first contract section. This service embraced on 
July 1, 1908, 77 routes, with an aggregate length of 3,228.58 miles, 
and an annual travel of 1,367,985.09 miles, at an annual rate of ex- 
penditure of $149,319.36, or 10.92 cents per mile. 

The appropriation for the current fiscal year is $800,000. 

The annual rate of expenditure was: 

July 1, 1908 $692,560.96 

September 30, 1908 605,400.84 

The amount estimated as necessary for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1910, is $760,000, being $40,000, or 5 per cent, less than the appro- 
priation for the current fiscal year. 

DIVISION OF FOREIGN MAILS. 

COST OF SERVICE, W^EIGHTS OF MAILS, ETC. 

. The net cost of the transportation of foreign mails during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1908, was distributed as follows : 

Trans-Atlantic service $1, 555, 060. 82 

Transpacific service 172, 967. 80 

Miscellaneous service 672, 260. 78 

Panama Railroad service 55,547.17 

Sea post service 82, 986. 80 

Steamboat transfer service. New York 89, 000. 00 

Miscellaneous items, telegrams, etc 8,811.81 

Sea conveyance from the United States of closed mail of foreign 

origin 295, 007. 78 

Paid to foreign countries for the intermediary maritime and ex- 
traordinary land transit of mails of United States origin, in- 
cluding parcel-post transit from Panama to Valparaiso 53, 492. 61 

Paid for intermediary ordinary territorial transit of mails of 

United States origin 129, 935. 46 

EiXpenses of United States postal agency at Shanghai 6,759.03 

For this department's share in maintaining the International 
Bureau at Berne, Switzerland, including subscription to the 
Journal L'Union Postale and the Universal Dictionary of Post- 
Offices 1, 804. 59 

Making the aggregate cost of the service 8,072,623.24 



SECOND ASSIST-ANT FOREIGN MAILS. 178 

Less amounts received for the intermediary mari- 
time transit of mails of foreign origin, including 
transit of British closed malls from San Fran- 
cisco to the Australian colonies $141,059.78 

For the intermediary land transit of malls of 
foreign orlghi 46, 274. 13 

Receipts of the United States postal agency at 
Shanghai for postage stamps sold and postage and 

box rents collected 9, 377. 61 

$196, 711. 52 

Leaving the net cost of the service 2, 875, 911. 72 

The appropriation for foreign mail transportation for the last fiscal 
year was $3,268,000; for balances due foreign countries, $170,000, 
and for assistant superintendent, division of foreign mails, New York, 
N. Y., $2,500. 

The amounts reported by the auditor as expended from the above 
appropriations, under accounts stated to September 30, 1908, are: 
Transportation, $2,842,179.63; balances due foreign countries, 
$138,052.82, and for assistant superintendent, division of foreign 
mails. New York, N. Y., $2,500. 

The appropriations for the current fiscal year are : Transportation, 
$3,508,862; for balances due foreign countries, $179,000, and for as- 
sistant superintendent, division of foreign mails. New York, N. Y., 
$2,500. 

The amounts estimated as necessary for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1910, are: 

For transportation $3, 573, 000 

For balances due foreign countries 304, 000 

For assistant superintendent, division of foreign malls, with head- 
quarters at New York, N. Y 2, 500 

Total 3, 879: 500 

being $189,138, or 5.12 per cent, more than the appropriation for the 
current fiscal year. 

The weight of the mails dispatched by sea to foreign countries for 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, was : 



Grams. I Pounds. 



Letters and post cards 1,011,858,596 1 2,231,147 

Other articles , 6,653,797,691 I 12,466,612 

Total 14,697,759 



Of the foregoing, the mails for trans- Atlantic destinations com- 
prised — 



Grams. 



Letters and post cards I 869, 722, 909 

Other articles 3,502,789,030 



Pounds. 



1,917,789 
7,723,639 



Per cent. 



86.96 
61.96 



Steamers flying the flag of the United States, but not under con- 
tract, are allowed for the conveyance of the mails the full postage 
collected on the mails conveyed, estimated to be at present 80 cents 



174 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

per pound for letters and post cards and 8 cents per pound for other 
articles; and steamers under a foreign flag are at present, allowed 
4 francs per kilogram (about 35 cents per pound) for letters and 
post cards and 50 centimes per kilogram (about 4J cents per pound) 
for other articles, calculated on the basis of the actual net weights of 
the mails conveyed. For the conveyance of foreign closed mails the 
conveying steamers, whether under the United States or a foreign 
flag, are compensated at the rate of 4 francs per kilogram for letters 
and post cards and 50 centimes per kilogram for other articles. 

Statement A of Table D appended hereto shows in detail the 
weights of the mails conveyed and the amount of compensation re- 
ceived by each of the different lines of steamers, as well as by the 
steamers of United States and of foreign register; Statement B of 
Table D shows the weights of foreign closea mails forwarded from 
the United States by the different lines of steamers and the compen- 
sation paid to each line for the conveyance of said closed mails. 

The cost of the service for the year was $2,875^911.72, and the 
estimated cost of the service for the year ending June 30, 1910, is 
$3,879,500. 

Based upon a count made at United States exchange post-offices 
during seven days in October, 1907, and a like number of days in 
April, 1908, it is estimated that the number of articles exchanged 
with all foreign countries (including Canada and Mexico, by land 
and sea) during the year ended June 30, 1908, was 308,001,320 pieces 
sent and 250,122,981 pieces received, and that the amount collected 
by the United States as postage on said articles was $8,585,564.24. 

CONTRACT OCEAN MAIL SERVICE. 

During the year there have been eight contracts in force for the 
performance oi ocean mail service under the provisions of the act of 
March 3, 1891. The total annual cost of the contract service was 
$1,185,148.26, an excess of $626,261.04 over the maximum amount 
allowable at the present rates to steamers not under contract. 

Service on route Xo. 75 "O. M. S.," from San Francisco, CaL, 
to Sydney, New South Wales, was suspended in March, 1907, and 
has not been resumed. Since August, 1907, the Australian Mail 
Line has been conveying mails for Australasia by means of its steam- 
ers sailing from San Francisco once every four weeks, alternating 
with the steamers of the Canadian Line sailing once every four weeks 
from Vancouver, British Columbia, The sailings of these two lines 
occur at such times as to enable the dispatch of mails for Australasia 
eveiT two weeks. Compensation for the service of the Australian 
Mail Line is based upon the net weights of the mails dispatched. 

The advertisement of June 28, 1907, for Contract Ocean Mail Serv- 
ice resulted in a contract being awarded to the previous contractors, 
the New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Company, for service on 
route No. 70, " O. M. S.," New York to Habana, for a period of five 
years, commencing on November 1, 1907; and in a contract being 
awarded to the previous contractors, the American Mail Steamship 
Company, for service on route No. 74, " O. M. S.," from Boston and 
Philadelphia to Port Antonio, Jamacia, for a period of ten years, 
conmiencing on July 1, 1908. 



SECOND ASSISTANT — INTERNATIONAL PARCEL-POST. 176 

'trans- ATLANTIC MAILS. 

As heretofore the mails for Great Britain and the Continent of 
Europe have been dispatched by the fast steamers of the several 
lines. When two fast steamers sail on the same day or succeeding 
days, the mails have been assigned, as a rule, to the vessel whose 
previous record indicated the probable earlier delivery of the mails 
at destination. The practice has been continued, however, of giving 
preference to steamers sailing under the flag of the United States, 
and particularly to those steamers which are under regular con- 
tract with the department to carry the mails from New York to 
Southampton. 

TRANS-PACinC MAILS. 

The mails for trans-Pacific destinations have been dispatched with 
the usual frequency and regularity, as have those for Australia, with 
the exception noted above. It is regretted that the fast service from 
San Francisco to Sydnev, via Honolulu, Pago Pago, and Auckland 
(route No. 75 " O. M. S.") has not been resumed. 

CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN AND WEST INDIAN MAILS. 

The service to Central and South America and the West Indies 
has been frequent and reasonably regular. No material changes have 
occurred during the year. 

The service to Brazil and the River Plata countries is frequent, 
but not regular, the steamers, as a rule, seldom sailing on the dates 
originally announced. A service on fixed dates and at regular inter- 
vals would be a vast improvement of our mail facilities to those im- 
portant countries. 

SEA POST-OFFICES. 

International sea post service has been in operation continuously 
during the year on the fast steamers of the American, Hamburg- 
American, North German Lloyd, and White Star Lines between the 
United States and England and Germany, 167 trips having been 
made from New York and 179 trips from Europe, during which 
there were distributed 60,107,300 ordinary and 599,896 registered 
articles in addition to 48,663 sacks of newspapers, etc. In the distri- 
bution of 38,751,743 letters and post cards only 230 errors were 
reported. 

Negotiations are still pending for the establishment of inter- 
national sea post service on the fast steamers of the Cunard and 
French lines plying between New York and England and France, 
respectively, and it is hoped that it will be extended to these lines at 
an early day. 

INTERNATIONAL PARCEL-POST. 

Since the last annual report additional parcel-post conventions 
have been negotiated with the Netherlands, effective July 1, 1908; 
Uruguay, effective July 1, 1908; Italy, effective August 1, 1908; 
France, effective August 15, 1908 ; and with Austria, effective January 
1, 1909; and the parcel-post rate of 20 cents a pound to Bolivia, 
Chile, Ecuador, and Peru, has been reduced to 12 cents a pound, 



176 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

the parcel-post rate to all the 36 countries and colonies with which 
the aepartment has concluded such conventions. 

The weight of the parcel-post mails dispatched from the United 
States during the year was 968,513 pounds; an increase over the 
previous year of 92,167 pounds or 10.50 per cent. The number of 
parcels dispatched was 350,484, of an average weight of about 2| 
pounds per parcel. The weiffht of the parcel-post mails received was 
584,667 pounds and consisted of 200,660 parcels, the average weight 
of the parcels being about 2 J pounds. Of the total weight of 968,513 
pounds dispatched, 211,199 pounds were for Europe and consisted of 
161,117 parcels, and of the total weight of 584,667 pounds received 
435,162 pounds were from Europe and consisted of 145,123 parcels. 

The parcel-post affords the only means, other than by the payment 
of letter postage, for the exchange of packages of miscellaneous mer- 
chandise by mail between different countries. It gives to persons in 
different countries substantially the same facilities for the exchan^ 
of small parcels as is afforded in our domestic postal service by the 

Provision for the admission to the mails of " fourth-class matter." 
ts extension to all countries with which we have direct mail com- 
munication is desirable. 

UNIVERSAL POSTAL UNION. 

The Empire of Ethiopia entered the Universal Postal Union dur- 
ing the year. 

On the 1st of October, 1907, the Universal Postal Convention of 
Rome became operative, superseding the Universal Postal Convention 
of Washington, and our Postal Union rate for letters became 5 cents 
for the first ounce or fraction thereof and 3 cents for each additional 
ounce or fraction thereof ; and the provisions of the convention in re- 
gard to an indemnity of 50 francs ($10) for the loss of a registered 
article and also in regard to international reply coupons became opera- 
tive in so far as the United States service is concerned. The reply cou- 
pons are sold in this country for 6 cents each, and are exchangeable in 
countries which have agreed to their use for a postage stamp or stamps 
of the country to which they are sent of the value of 25 centimes (6 
cents), thus enabling the prepayment of postage on a reply to a letter 
sent to a foreign country. Heretofore this has been dimcult of ac- 
complishment, as prepayment of postage on letters in the Postal 
Union mails can be made only by postage stamps of the country in 
which letters are mailed. The facilities thus afforded are much 
appreciated. 

Negotiations commenced during the year resulted in the conclusion 
of an arrangement with Great Britain, effective October 1, 1908, re- 
ducing to 2 cents per ounce the rate of postage applicable to letters 
in the mails exchanged between the United States and the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland ; a consummation of far-reach- 
ing importance in the further development of closer relations, social 
and commercial, between the two countries. 

NEW YORK HARBOR TRANSFER SERVICE. 

The contract for the transfer of the mails from the steamers arriv- 
ing from Europe at quarantine station by a special mail boat, to the 
various wharves, whence the mails for New York City are immedi- 



SECOND ASSISTANT — RAILWAY MAIL SERVICE. 



177 



ately sent to the New York post-office and those for other^ places are 
forwarded to destination at the earliest opportunity practicable, will 
expire on the 30th of June, 1909. The facilities are not adequate on 
all occasions for the present needs of the service and better ones 
must be provided. Two mail boats will be necessary and will enable 
the department to provide not only for the increasing volume of 
trans- Atlantic mails, but also for tne transfer of mails arriving by 
steamers of the Red "D," New York and Cuba, New York and 
Porto Rico, Panama Railroad and Steamship Company, Lamport & 
Holt, and such other steamship lines as may be established. The 
estimate submitted for the appropriation necessary to provide for 
this service for the new term is based upon the conditions indicated 
here. 

DIVISION OF BATLWAY MAIL SEBVICE. 
OPERATION. 

Extent of service and force employed. — On June 30, 1908, there 
were 167 full railway post-office lines, manned by 2,557 crews, aggre- 
gating 8,988 clerks (including 60 acting clerks) ; 1,334 apartment 
railway post-office lines, manned by 3,763 crews, aggregating 4,812 
clerks (including 62 acting clerks) ; 20 electric-car lines, with 18 
crews and 20 clerks; 54 steamboat lines, with 101 crews and 108 
clerks (including 18 acting clerks) ; making a total of 1,575 lines of 
all kinds, manned by 13,928 clerks. There were 46 officials, 116 chief 
clerks, 752 transfer clerks employed in handling mails at important 
junction points, and 458 clerks detailed to clerical duty in the various 
offices of the service. The total number of* officers and employees 
was therefore 15,295, an increase during the year of 938. 

The following table shows the miles of railroad covered by full- 
car railway post-offices, apartment railway post-offices, electric and 
cable cars, and steamboat lines upon which railway postal clerks are 
employed, also the miles of railroad, electric, and steamboat lines 
covered by closed-pouch service, and the mileage of closed-pouch 
service on express trains upon lines upon which there is railway post- 
office service on other trains, during the last fiscal year: 



Character of service. 


Length of 
lines. 


Per cent 

of 
increase. 


Annual 
miles of 
service. 


Per cent 

of 
increase. 


Raaway pott-office tervice. 
On f ull*car lines 


56,169.86 

188,418.97 

684.70 

18,868.88 


8.75 

2.45 

a4.84 

6.81 


126,583.469 

159,187,973 

696,718 

2.521,034 


0.7 


On apartment-car lines 


1.82 


On efectric-car lines ...... 


080.87 


On steamboat lines 


a8.77 






Total 


206,481.86 


8.06 


288,889,194 


.86 






doied^pouch service. 
On railroads 


28,681.90 
5,941.97 
11,607.49 


8.89 

11.14 

a 89. 22 


27,247,424 
8,686,172 
2,466,916 

94,780,178 


2.78 


On electric lines 


6 82 


On steamboat lines 


a 9. 14 


On express trains 


6 85 









Total 


41,081.86 


al2.84 


188.169,686 


4.78 






Grand total 


249.568.22 


.06 


422,068,879 


2.06 







a Decrease. 



65064— P M G 1908- 



-12 



178 BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEBAl,. 

Eqmpment. — Railway post-offioe car eauipment has been kept in 
good repair and all the new equipment is nrst class. The building of 
new cars and the replacement of cars of the older pattern by steel cars 
or cars of improved construction begun by some railway companies 
has been retarded during the year ; however, some steel cars have been 
placed in service. The department has not relaxed its efforts to im- 
prove the general character of the equipment. The following table 
shows the equipment in operation on June 30, 1908 : 

dumber of cars and apartments. 

On raUroad lines: 

Whole cars in use 1*080 

Whole cars in reserve 2©2 

Apartment cars in use 2,d80 

Apartment cars in reserve 588 

4,910 
On electric and cable lines : 

Cars in use 22 

On steamboat lines: 

Apartments in use 103 

Grand total 5,036 

Distribution. — It is estimated that there were 11,913,509,120 dis- 
tributions and redistributions of pieces of first-class matter, 9,737,- 
340,625 distributions and redistributions of pieces of second, third, 
and fourth class matter, making a total of 21,650,849,745 distributions 
and redistributions, exclusive of registered matter, by railway postal 
clerks during the year. Of regi^red matter there were handled 
57,416,565 packages and cases, through-registered pouches, inner 
registered sacks, and registered package jackets. The number of 
registered pouches and inner registered sacks made up by railway 
postal clerks increased over 64 per cent, indicating increased direct 
exchanges from one railway post-office line to another, thus expediting 
delivery of this class of mail. 

During the year there were 1,970,426 errors in distribution reported, 
as against 1,652,409 for the preceding year. The increase in the 
number of errors is accounted zov partly by the increase in the amount 
of mail handled, but more largely, it is believed, by the great number 
of changes in train schedules, which have affected the schemes of 
distribution. 

Illegible addresses. — The number of pieces of mail matter so 
illegibly addressed as to require special attention before delivery 
could he effected, or which could not be delivered at all, was 35,565,- 
361, an increase of 2,026,789 over the previous year. Of the above 
number of pieces handled, 18,988,626 were returned to senders or 
corrected and forwarded to destinations, and the balance were sent 
to the dead letter division or otherwise disposed of in accordance 
with the regulations. 

Case examinations. — ^There were 37,174 examinations of permanent 
railway postal clerks, at which 34,889,799 cards were handled, of 
which 98.60 per cent were distributed correctly. Probationary clerks 
passed 2,261 examinations, handling 2,056,153 cards, with a per- 
centage of 96.78 correct. 

Casualties. — There were 405 railroad accidents during the year in 
which postal clerks were either killed or injured or in which mail 



SECOND ASSISTANT — RAILWAY MAIL SERVICE. 179 

matter was lost or damaged. Four clerks and 2 substitutes were 
killed, 104 seriously and 536 slightly injured. 

The nimiber of clerks killed while on duty duriujg the past year 
i9 less than the nimiber killed in any one of the past eight years. The 
number of clerks seriously injured, however, is greater than in pre- 
ceding years, except in 1905 and 1907, in each of which years there 
were 125 clerks seriously injured, as against 104 for the past year. 
The number of clerks slightly injured is greater than for any preced- 
iiig year, except the year 1907^ when there were 662 injured. 

Establishment of twelfth division. — ^The act making appropriations 
for the service of the Post-Office Department for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1909, contains the following provision, viz : 

That the Postmaster-General be, and he is hereby, authorized to create an 
additional division of the Railway Mail Service with headquarters at New 
Orleans, Louisiana, and to assign to duty one division superintendent, in addi- 
tion to those heretofore appointed, and who shall be paid a salary of three 
thousand dollars per annum; and one additional assistant division supep- 
intendent at two thousand dollars per annum, and to defray the expenses of said 
headquarters the sum of twenty thousand dollars is hereby appropriated. 

Accordingly a new division, to be known as the '* twelfth division," 
Railway Mail Service, with headquarters at New Orleans, La., has 
been established^ comprising the States of Mississippi and Louisiana 
and such additional railway post-office lines as may hereafter be 
assigned to it. 

Estimates and expenditures. — ^The expenditure on account of offi- 
cers, clerks, and other items of the Railway Mail Service during the 
fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, as reported by the auditor under 
accounts to September 30, 1908, was $17,373,336.92. The appro- 
priation, includmg the sum of $400, added bv the deficiency act of 
May 30, 1908, was $17,749,843. The unexpenaed balance on Septem- 
ber 30, 1908, was $376,506.08. These figures do not include railroad 
transportation or railway post-office cars. 

The number of officials and clerks was 15,295. 

Compared with the previous year there was an increase of 938, or 
6.53 per cent, in the number of officials and clerks, and of $2,230,- 
903.29, or 14.63 per cent, in the annual rate of eicpenditure for all 
purposes. The unusual increase in expenditure was due to the gen- 
eral advance in salaries of railway postal clerks allowed by the 
Congress, eflfective July 1. 1907. 

The appropriation for tne current fiscal year is $18,936,000. This 
does not mclude the salaries of the general superintendent^ assistant 
general superintendent, chief clerk office of general superintendent, 
assistant diief clerk office of general superintendent, nve clerks oi 
class 3, six clerks of class 2, five clerks of class 1, three clerks at $1,000 
each, two clerks at $900 each, provided for in the legislative, execu- 
tive, and judicial appropriation bill. 

The estimate submitted for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1910, is 
as follows: 

Division superintendents, at $3,000 per annum each 12 

Assistant division superintendents, at $2,000 per annum each 12 

Assistant superintendents, at $2,000 per annum each 6 

Assistant superintendents, at $1,800 per annum each 19 

Chief clerks, at $1,800 per annum each 186 

Clerks, class 6, at not exceeding $1,000 per annum each 286 

Clerks, class 6, at not exceeding $1,500 per annum each I^AXL 



180 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

Clerks, class 5, at not exceeding $1,400 per annum each 588 

Clerks, class 4, at not exceeding $1,300 per annum each 2, 284 

Clerks, class 4, at not exceeding $1,200 per annum each — 2,479 

Clerks, class 3, at not exceeding $1,100 per annum each 0,286 

Clerks, class 2, at not exceeding $1,000 per annum each 2, Q41 

Clerks, class 1, at not exceeding $900 per annum each 000 

Clerks, class 1, at not exceeding $800 per annum each 600 

For temporary clerk hire in classes one and two for emergency senrlce, fifty- 
five thousand dollars. 

For substitutes for clerks on vacation, fifty-five thousand dollars : Provided^ 
That the Postmaster-General may hereafter allow railway postal clerks whose 
duties require them to work six days or more per week, fifty-two weeks per 
year, an annual vacation of fifteen days with pay. 

For acting clerks, in place of clerks or substitutes injured while on duty, and 
to enable the Postmaster-General to pay the sum of one thousand dollars, which 
shall be exempt from payment of debts of the deceased, to the legal representa- 
tives of any railway postal clerk or substitute railway postal clerk who shall 
be killed while on duty, or who, being injured while on duty, shall die within 
one year thereafter as the result of such injury, one hundred thousand dollars. 

For actual and necessary expenses of division superintendents, assistant divi- 
sion superintendents, and chief clerks, railway mail service, and railway postal 
clerks, while actually traveling on business of the Post-Office Department and 
away from their several designated headquarters, twenty-three thousand 
dollars. 

For rent, light, fuel, telegraph, and miscellaneous office expenses, schedules of 
mail trains, telephone service, and badges for railway postal clerks, sixty-nbie 
thousand dollars. 

For per diem allowance of assistant superintendents while actually traveling 
on official business away from their homes, their official domicile, and their 
headquarters, at a rate to be fixed by the Postmaster-General, not to exceed 
four dollars per day, thirty-three thousand six hundred dollars, out of which 
sum may be expended not exceeding three thousand six hundred dollars for 
their necessary official expenses not covered by their per diem allowance, making 
a total of nineteen million eight hundred and ninety-nine thousand six hundred 
dollars, being nine hundred and sixty-three thousand six hundred dollars, or 
five and eight one-hundredths per centum more than the appropriation for the 
current fiscal year. 

SECOND-CLASS MATTER. 

Separation by publishers. — ^Last year 694,865,884 pounds of paid 
second-class mail matter were received from publishers, a decrease 
compared with the previous year of 18,079,292 pounds. During the 
past few years the work of inducing publishers to make separations 
of their publications before mailing, so as to facilitate the handlinjg 
and expedite the delivery, has resmted in such improvement in this 
respect that the per cent of unseparated or mixed matter is now quite 
small. The increase in sacks fully made up during the last year was 
1.1 per cent over the number for the preceding year. In 1908 the 
per cent of mixed second-class matter reported W the large post- 
ofSces was 7.1, as against 29.7 in 1896. At 173 of the largest post- 
offices 7,303 publishers delivered 1,342,375 sacks of second-class mat- 
ter during the month of June, 1908, of which 77.3 per cent were fully 
made up by them and were dispatched intact. Over 15 per cent 
additional were partly made up, and only 7.1 per cent were mixed, 
i. e., received without any separations by States, cities, or routes. 

TTie first statistics secured in New York City as to the condition 
of second-class matter received from publishers was in September, 
1895, when the " mixed " mail was found to be 38 per cent of the 
whole ; during the year 1908 it was but 5.1 per cent During the last 



s 



SECOND ASSISTANT — RELIEF MEASURES. 181 

year the New York post-office received 2,105,273 sacks of mail " fullv 
made up," or an average of 6,926 sacks for each working-day. All 
of this mail was dispatched intact. The New York oflace also re- 
ceived 854,039 sacks " partly made up " and 188,749 sacks of " mixed,'* 
making a total of 3,148,061 sacks. 
Direct delivery of second-class tnail to depots hy vuhlishers. — ^The 

Elan of transporting second-class matter direct from publication 
ouses in New York City to the various railroad stations without 
assing through the post-office has been extended during the past year, 
n the month of June a total of 1,321,362 pounds was weigned at the 
publication houses by representatives of the postmaster, and dis- 
patched direct to the railroad stations. This comprises about 12 per 
cent of the total weight of second-class matter mailed during that 
month, and was in addition to the daily papers, a large proportion of 
the weights of which is similariy handled. 

RELIEF MEASURES. 

Absence on account of injury » — Under the law, the department is 
permitted to pay to the leffal representatives of a clerk killed while in 
the performance of duty tne sum of $1,000, and to grant to an injured 
clerk leave of absence, with pay, not exceeding one year, during the 
period of disability. It frejjuently happens, however, that a clerk is 
so seriously injured that he is not able to return to duty at the expira- 
tion of one year. In the last annual report recommendation was made 
that the Postmaster-General be authorized in such cases to grant to 
the clerk further leave, with pay, equal to 50 per cent of the regular 
salary, such extension of leave not to exceed twelve additional months. 
I renew the recommendation. 

Leave of absence. — It has heretofore been recommended that the 
Postmaster-General be authorized, under such regulations as he may 
provide, to allow railway postal clerks leave of absence, with pay, for 
a period not exceeding thirty days, and in cases of sickness thirtj 
additional days, in any one year, with the understanding that their 
duties shall be performed without expense to the Government during 
the period for which tJie leaves are granted, the clerks to OToyide 
substitutes at their own expense to perform such duties. This is 
intended to be additional to the leave with pay now authorized. I 
renew the recommendation. 

Traveling expenses of railway postal clerks. — In the last annual 
report attention was called to the claims of clerks for an allowance 
for traveling expenses while away from their homes and the initial 
terminals of their runs and in the discharge of their duties. I recom- 
mend favorable consideration and appropriate legislation. 

Superannuation. — Recommendation has been submitted from time 
to time that suitable provision be made for the retirement of railway 
postal clerks who have become unfit for active service by reason of 
advanced age or physical disability. Unless general legislation is 
enacted to provide for superannuated employees m all branches of the 

Sivernment service, special provision should be made for the Railway 
ail Service. This service is hazardous and exacting and requires 
the employment of able young men to sustain its efficiency, and those 
who have spent the best part of their energies and years in faithful 



182 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

service of this character are entitled to consideration when old age or 
disability comes. 

REORGANIZATION. 

The extension of the Railway Mail Service and the increase in the 
force required to handle the mails has correspondingly increased the 
administrative requirements. Such changes warrant a readjustment 
of salary grades of the assistant division superintendents, assistant 
superintendents, chief clerks, assistant chief clerks, and clerks on 
duty on certain apartment-car lines. The changed conditions de- 
volve upon the assistant division superintendents, assistant superin- 
tendents, and chief clerks largely increased responsibilities. Chief 
clerks who formerly had supervision of from five to ten lines with 30, 
40, or 50 clerks now have supervision over twenty to thirty lines, with 
200 or 300 clerks, thus imposing upon them more details of adminis- 
tration. The subject is receiving careful consideration. 

PROPOSED NEW DIVISION. 

The rapid OTOwth of the section of country embraced in the States 
of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho and the Territory of Alaska 
renders it advisable to create a new division of Railway Mail Serv- 
ice in that section. The service in the section named is now un- 
der the immediate supervision of the division superintendent at San 
Francisco, Cal., who, under present schedules, in time of transit, is 
thirty-five hours from Portland, fifty-one hours from Spokane, and 
forty-three hours from Seattle. Suitable legislative authority is 
required before action can be taken, and I recommend that it be 
secured. 

IMPROVEMENTS. 

In the last annual report mention was made of the curtailment of 
railway mail facilities on account of reduction in train service in 
connection with which the department had developed a highly satis- 
factory mail service. In many cases the train service reauced was 
of a most important character, and such reduction resulted in the 
discontinuance of well-established trunk line mail routes, some of the 
class designated " fast mail." Notwithstanding this the efficiency of 
the mail service has been well maintained, and but few complaints 
growing out of this feature have been made by the patrons of the 
service. It is believed that they recognize the satisfactory character 
of service based upon reasonable speed of trains insuring approxi- 
mate maintenance of train schedules. 

During the fiscal year the Railway Mail Service has been improved 
by the addition of more than 32,000 miles of railway post-office lines. 
Upon 12,000 miles full postal-car service superseded service performed 
in apartment carsj upon 5,000 or more miles additional apartment- 
car space was provided on full postal-car routes, and upon over 14,000 
miles apartment-car service superseded closed-pouch service. The 
changes in the service aflfected 54,000 miles, and of this entire amount 
there was a net betterment of over 9,000 miles of new and improved 
service. 

During the fiscal year there has been a curtailment in the opera- 
tion of railway post-office cars amounting to 10,500 route-miles of 



SECOND ASSISTANT — DIVISION OF INSPECTION. 188 

service. This was the result of changes in train schedules and a read- 
justment of authorized car space to the actual needs of the mail 
service. These changes have not curtailed facilities necessary for the 
distribution of mails en route. 

The fast-mail service operated over the several trunk-line systems 
of railroads continues in a fairly satisfactory condition. Notwith- 
standing the general curtailment of train service, the railroad com- 
panies have continued to supply a reasonable number of fast trains 
by which a fast mail has been provided. 

Commencing with the sailing of the Panama Railroad and Steam- 
ship Company^s steamer Colon on October 31, 1907, from New York, 
N. I ., mail service was established on the steamers of this company, 
to be operated as the New York and Canal Zone railway post-office. 
The clerks assimed to this line perform service on all of the steamers 
between New York and Colon, handling in transit all mails to and 
from New York, N. Y., and post-offices in the Canal Zone. . This 
service expedites the delivery of mails, as northbound mails need not 
pass through the New York post-office, but upon arrival are dis- 
patched directly to destination, and southbouna mails are made up 
for each of the 18 post-offices in the Canal Zone for immediate dis- 
patch to destination upon arrival at Colon. 

This is considered an important addition to the mail-service system, 
because of the increasing volume of correspondencie, both commercial 
and social, between the States and the Canal Zone. It has also been 
found practicable to further utilize the new railway post-office for 
the handling and distribution of certain mails for the South and 
Central Americas. Closed mails from South and Central American 
Republics destined for New York, N. Y., carried by other steamers, 
are delivered to this railway post-office when connection can be made 
therewith at some common port of call, and opened and distrib- 
uted in the railway post-office and made up in such manner as to 
advance their delivery at destination. 

DIVISION OP INSPECTION. 

Regular reports at frequent intervals are received from post- 
masters and other employees along the routes over which the mails 
are carried in order that contracts may be enforced. Deductions are 
made for failures to perform service and fines imposed for delinquen- 
cies, with a view to preventing a recurrence and securing greater 
efficient in the handling of maus. 

The following statement shows the amounts of deductions and fines 
and remissions: 

Gross amonnt of deductions and fines from the pay of postal con- 
tractors and others by orders issued during the ^scal year 
ended June 30, 1908 $1,046,062.06 

Amount of remissions on deductions on account of 
satisfactory explanations $262, ©98. 50 

Amount of remissions on fines 6, 608. 76 

269, 607. 26 

Net amount of deductions and fines under orders issued 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1»)8 776, 454. 80 



184 report:' of the postmaster-general. 

The above amounts are classified as follows : 



Service. 



Deductions 
and fines. 



Remissions. 



Net deduc- 
tions and 
fines. 



Star 

Steamboat 

Railroad transportation . 
Railway post-office car. . 

Mail messenger 

Electric and cable car. . . 

Wagon 

Railway mail 

Pneumatic-tube 

Special facilities 



$53,055.41 
22,824.14 

930,011.17 
8,361.64 
1,265.86 
4,986.83 
4.634.67 
6,422.60 
10,828.63 
2,671.11 



B259, 
3, 



270.00 
417.32 
922.13 
281.85 

10.14 
100.58 
196.25 

70.82 
338.17 



$47,785.41 
22,406.82 

670.069.04 
5,079.79 
1,266.72 
4.886.25 
4,438.42 
6.351.78 
10.490.46 
2,671.11 



Total. 



1,045.062.06 



269,607.26 



775.454.80 



a Deductions subsequently remitted were largely due to delay on the part of railroad companies 
in furnishing satisfactory excuse for delays to mail trains. 

It is expected that during the year the department will be able to 
make arrangements for payments monthly instead of quarterly for 
the transportation of mails by railroad and electric-car companies. 
The payments for various other classes of mail transportation service 
are now being made monthly, and it is believed that the change con- 
templated win be in the interest of good administration. 

DIVISION OF EQUIPMENT. 



OPERATION AND EXPENDITURES. 

The appropriation for mail bags, with their appurtenances, and for 
the repair oi the same, for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, was 
$450,000. Under the urgent deficiency act of February 15, 1908, $2,500 
was transferred to the appropriation for mail locks and keys. The 
sum of $6.73 was transferred irom the appropriation for " Supplies " 
for material and labor furnished other departments, thus making the 
amount available $447,506.73. The amount expended was $445,- 
029.35, leaving an unexpended balance of $2,477.38. 

The appropriation for mail locks, keys, etc., including the repair of 
same, was $45,000, which, with the sum of $2,500 transferred oy the 
urgent deficiency act from the appropriation for mail ba^ etc., as 
above recited, and the further sum of $409.31 transferred from other 
appropriations for labor and material furnished other departments, 
makes a total of $47,909.31. The amount expended was $45,205.41, 
leaving an unexpended balance of $2,703.90. The amount transferred 
to the appropriation for mail locks and keys was intended for the pur- 
chase of certain materials, but the money did not become available 
until late in the fiscal year 1908, and the manufacture of the equip- 
ment was deferred, as it was learned that the materials could be pur- 
chased at a saving of nearly 37^ per cent in cost if secured under the 
new contract. 

The appropriations for the current fiscal year for items under the 
division of equipment were as follows: 

For mail bags, etc $500,000 

For mail locks, keys, etc 45,000 

For subworkshop at Chicago, 111 5,000 

Total 550,000 



SECOND ASSISTANT — MAIL-BAG REPAIK SHOP. 185 

The withdrawal of empty equipment from the mails and its trans- 
portation by freight, a much slower method, necessitated providing 
an increase in the stock, because large quantities of sacks must be 
assembled at important distributing points to meet the emergen- 
cies of the service. The increase in the appropriation for 1909 over 
that for 1908 has enabled the purchase of this necessary additional 
equipment. 

Tne amounts estimated as necessary for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1910, are: 

For mail bags, etc $420,000 

For mail locks, keys, etc 45,000 

For subworkshop at Chicago, 111 3,500 

Total -- 468,500 

being $81,500, or 17.34 per cent, less than the appropriation for the 
current fiscal year. 

MAIL-BAG REPAIR SHOP. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, the department pur- 
chased and placed in service 338,848 pouches and sacks, being 
27,011 more than during the previous fiscal year. The mail-bag 
repair shop repaired 1,360,299 pouches and sacks, and 99,462 were 
condemned as unfit for further use. It handled 7,119,966 incoming 
and outgoing pouches and sacks. There were 301,635 pieces of 
equipment issued from the Washington storehouse to the executive 
departments and offices in Washington. 

Number of mail bags in use. — ^The estimated number of mail 
pouches and sacks in use and in reserve in the postal service on June 
30, 1908, was 2,238,891, an increase of 246,608 over the number in the 
service on the corresponding date of the previous fiscal year. 

Subrepair shop. — The act making appropriations for the service 
of the Post-Office Department for tne fiscal year 1909 appropriated 
the sum of $5,000 for rent, light, fuel, electric power, and incidental 
expenses pertaining to the maintenance of a subrepair shop at Chi- 
cago, m., for the repair of mail bags. Its establishment has been 
deferred pending consideration of relevant matters, which will be 
soon determined. It is estimated that the sum of $3,500 will be nec- 
essary for the maintenance and operation of the shop during the 
fiscal year 1910. 

Improvements. — For a number of years eflfort has been made to 
reduce the weight of mail equipment. On February 18, 1908, the 
department issued specifications inviting proposals for granting the 
use of patented improvements in mail pouch and sack opening and 
closing devices. None of the devices submitted fully answered the 
postal requirements or were superior in any respect to equipment 
now in use. A pouch designed and manufactured in the equipment 
division has favorable features, and it is being given a practical test 
in actual use. 

MAIL-LOCK REPAIR SHOP. 

During the past fiscal year there were 203,036 Eagle locks and 
14,371 registry locks handled at the mail-lock repair shop. The 
high standard of the workmanship of the shop has been maintained, 



186 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



and its output as to quantities has been satisfactory. During the 
year the operations of the shop were as follows : 



Article. 



lured. I *tepalrea. 



Inspected. 



Eagle locks 

Letter-box padlocks (old style) 

Inside letter-box locks (old style) 

Inside letter-box locks (Arrow) 

Rotary registered locks 

Blue rotary registered locks (for Railway Mail Service) . 

Mail keys of various kinds and combinations 

Mail-bag cord fastener 

Cord clamps 

Label cases . 



33, 
1, 



160 , 



Stapl es pounds. 

Burrs do... 

Double burrs do . . . 

Cockeyes do. . . 

Rivets do. . . 

Mail-pouch clips 

Fasteners for soft-head pouches 

Grommetfl 

Railway Mail Service badges 

Key chains 



3, 
8, 
8, 
12, 
225, 
981, 
98, 
2, 



4&8 I 
842 
200 I 
362 ; 
000| 
260 i 
360 ! 
786 I 



30,660 
9,374 
2.708 



180,886 



1,719 

139 

728 

7,040 

31,763 

190,100 



471 
3,160 



During the fiscal year considerable work was done on behalf of the 
Canal Zone, Porto Rican, Hawaiian, and Philippine Island mail 
services. 

It is estimated that on June 30, 1907, there were 762,175 Eagle 
mail locks in the service. During the year 33,150 were placed in use. 
It is estimated that the number in use and in reserve on June 80, 
1908, was 795,325. ^ 

WASTE MATERIAL FROM EQUIPMENT SHOPS. 

Waste material, consisting of scrap leather, cotton-duck scraps, iron 
and steel, phosphor bronze, etc., accumulating in the equipment shops 
during the fiscal year and which could not be used for any other pur- 
pose m the manufacture or repair of equipment, was disposed of 
under contract. The proceeds from the sales of this unserviceable 
material amounted to $13,276.86, which sum was covered into the 
Treasury as directed by law. The plan of selling this scrap material 
was inaugurated in 1897, and from that date to June 30, 1908, the 
sum of $97,902.18 has been turned into the Treasury on this account 



STORAGE OF MAIL EQUIPMENT. 

The volume of mail transported during the Christmas holiday 
season renders it necessary to maintain a large surplus of mail equip- 
ment in storage during a part of the year. The storage facilities at 
post-offices are limited, thus rendering it difficult to care for the equips 
ment when out of use. During the past fiscal year temporary arrange- 
ments have been made for the storage of mail bags at Kochester, 
N. Y., and Indianapolis, Ind. The post-office at Boston, Mass., is 
the mail-bag depository for the New England States and should have 
facilities for storing 50,000 sacks for distribution in that territory. 
At present its facilities are much less, and it is hoped tliat arrange- 
ments may be made in the near future for increasing them. 



SECOND ASSISTANT — RECOMMENDATIONS. 1 87 

LEAVE OF ABSENCE FOR EMPLOYEES IN THE EQUIPMENT SHOPS. 

The act of October 1, 1890 (26 Stat L., ch. 1260, p. 648)^ authorizes 
the granting of leave of absence to clerkis and employees m first and 
second-class post-offices, and to employees of the Post-Office Depart- 
ment equipment shops, ^^ for not exceeding fifteen days in an^ one 
fiscal year." This leave of absence includes Sundays and holidays. 
There are 179 persons employed in the mail-lock and mail-bag repair 
shops, performing service ei^ht hours daily^ except Sundays and holi- 
days. I recommend that legislative authority be secured for allowing 
these employees not exceeding thirty days' leave in any one fiscal year. 

BECOMMENDATIONS. 
SUMMABY. 

First That authority of law be secured for the rental of quarters 
in Washington, D. C, for conducting the tabulations in connection 
with the weighings of the mails for readjusting compensation for 
service on railroads. 

Second. That authority of law be secured enabling the readjust- 
ment of compensation for railroad mail service during the term, when 
the diversions made materially affect the average dafly weights. 

Third. That Congress be asked to make suitable appropriation for 
completing tiie arrangement and tabulation of data relating to the 
operating, receipts and expenditures of railroad companies transport- 
ing the mails, to be furnished as provided for by the act of March 3, 
1879, chapter 180, section 6, including the rental of suitable quarters 
in Washington, D. C. 

Fourth. That the act of Congress making appropriations for the 
service of the Post-Office Department for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1882, and approved March 1, 1881, be amended as set forth under 
the caption entitled " Legislation." 

Fiftn. That the act of Congress making appropriations for the 
service of the Post-Office Department for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1883, and approved May 4, 1882, be amended as set forth under 
the caption entitled " Legislation." 

Sixth. That the act of Congress making appropriations for the 
service of the Post-Office Department for the nscal year ended June 
30, 1883, and approved August 3, 1882, be amended as set forth under 
the caption entitled " Legi3ation." 

Seventh. That authority of law be secured for granting further 
leave, with pay at 50 per cent of his regular compensation during 
period of disability, not exceeding twelve additional months, to a 
railway postal clerk who is so seriously injured as not to be able to 
resume duty at the expiration of twelve months. 

Eighth. That authority of law be secured for granting railway 
postal clerks thirty days' leave with pay each year, without expense 
to the department, and in case of sickness sixty days such leave. 

Ninth. That Congress provide for payment of traveling expenses 
of railway postal clerks while away from their homes and the mitial 
terminals of their runs and in the discharge of their duties. 



188 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

Tenth. That Congress be requested to give consideration to the 
question of providing for the retirement of railway postal clerks in- 
capacitated for further duty by reason of advanced age or physical 
disability. 

Eleventh. That authority of law be secured authorizing the estab- 
lishment of a new division of Railway Mail Service to embrace the 
States of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, and the Territory of 
Alaska. 

Twelfth. That authority of law be secured for granting not exceed- 
ing thirty days' leave in any one fiscal year to employees of the mail- 
lock and mail-bag repair shops. 

Very respectfully, Joseph Stewart, 

Second Assistant Postmaster-General. 

Hon. George v. L. Meyer, 

Postmaster-General. 



TABLES APPENDED. 



A. Mail service in operation, by States and classes. 

B. Readjustment of railroad pay in one section, based on weights taken in 
the last fiscal year. 

C. Table of railroad service from 1836 to 1908. 

D. Table of weights of foreign mails, etc. 

E. Expenditure on account of mail bags, etc. 

F. Expenditure on account of mail locks, keys, etc. 

G. Mail bags in service. 

189 



X, —Table ofttar, $teamhoat. tneeial-o^kCj railroad^ TTtail^mmengerj regulationt icreen, or 
other wagon eerviee^ ana titctrk or cablt car eetviet in operation June SO, 1908. 

TOTAL SERVICE. 

[The entire serrloe on each imite li looliided In Ibe unoiutt oppoeite tlie State or Tenltonr under which 
the n7ut« f» immbered, th«u£h the route majr extaiul into other States or Territories.] 



State or Tenftotf. 


Total 
Qombar 
ofzwitM. 


Tot^ 

length of 
routes. 

5,771.70 

3,aeo.60 

3,363.7*1 

3,843,51 
555.72 

1,024,05 
14,467.30 

2,770,53 

13.02L337 

384.31 

4,278.59 
13,211 U 

8,304.54 


Total distance 

ti»Teie*i per 

annum. 


Total aocntial 

rate of 
expenditiiro. 


Uata -.,.,.,,„„ * *- 


580 
»72 
350 
487 
72 
223 

1,021 
435 

ltS40 

4/a 

326 

1,105 

83.^ 


0,195i41l.93 
3,705,078.80 
3,^,682.40 

12,453,685.38 
1,336,375,25 
7,768,076.60 

33,990,078.73 
6,006,610.41 

27,187,521.30 

748,009.35 

0,573,082.55 

14,792,806,29 
7,084,375.35 


DoUart. 
544, 431, 15 


N*W HMEMhtfP . - -IT- -^^-- -. . *.~ 


247.024.13 


Venuont,....!... -...*. — 


270 142. W 


Hiwnchniottn . . . ,, , . ,.. ■ 


1,004.495.80 


Rhode I^tlimS . .........„.......,^,....,..*..- 


60, 010. 83 


COQQti^tli^llti .L*.. >,,,...-.«.. ...i..*......*^i.«--- ■ 


727. 366.74 


Kow York *...-„.-, - 


4,127,411.71 


Ntw Jener.... *— „.,--.*.*.- 


787,043151 




2.926,910.99 


SSSSifTri:::"""::::::::™:"""."^^ 


51,130.34 


Itarvtaad .. * .*-..* ,,,..^ 


1,043,333.41 


Vir^t*. .",..'." , .— 


1,402,490110 


Vfmt Vinrtnla. ..*...— ...-p. ««*^. 


510,520.05 






Total Qr5tBectl4Wi , 


8,107 


74,017,057 


135,000,683.40 


13.900,315,04 


North Cani]liia..».,-.,.----.-.r>>. — 


747 
840 
483 
473 

& 
fl5 
»4 

402 
1.318 


30,535.02 
4,964,30 
0,703.27 
7,340.95 

iC48a4o 

8,012.35 

0,017.81 
5,930.98 
]3,9U01 


13,001, €80. 78 
6,632,107 08 

12.220,981.^ 
5,010,290. S> 
647,071.14 
8,808,430.33 
0,112,253.01 
6,236,178.50 

13,808,775.50 


1,139,850.74 


South CaiY}lLDa ............... ...........*....^ 


451,507.10 


gSS'j :::::::::::::::::::::::::;:::;: 


1,055.768.33 
533,117.10 


Forto HlcQ.. «.„.,,, «.-_-., ...,«.,^__.«_... 


77,738.21 


Almbftma * ......>«.. .* >.*,..... 


043.930,63 


MlBriMlppl. **.... *.. - " 


741,280.34 


feniMaiee, r..rr- ^^r—— — ..-— -^. 


544.393.33 


Kaatu«kr 


1,298, 137, 33i 






Tot^aectmd section » .- 


4,983 


73,997.oe 


73^077,139.27 


0,475, 7801 79i 






Ohio,.. -, .-. 


905 

473 
041 
098 
540 
530 
465 
880 


14,628.80 
0,872.45 
12,57L96 
10,544.00 
0,275-54 
12, 187. 45 
10,111.93 
13,577.38 


40,402,000.98 
11,063,38154 
29,801,021.43 
16,131,432. &5 
13,230,580.83 
14,244,009.95 
17,401,503.38 
10,207,045.01 


0,524,465.43 


ladlaoa . »..,„,.....*..,..*..... 


1,655.596.81 


XUtDcOfl _ ,.,„ - 


3.C37, 370. 14 


Iflctilfan. .. ,„„,., ...-- , 


1.330.045.36 




1,470x180,83 


MloneeatA. ........ , ,..,..>......,....-, 


1,782,310.19 


Imn... .,... 


1,003,048.^ 


Hlnim?!! ,., - 


2,133,782.03 






Total thtH section. ..... ,T . K Tx T T T 1^ r - n. 


5,133 


eo.7«0.6O 


164,717,072.70 


30,443,717.10 






Arkanma ....... ,., ,..,.,. 


m 

080 

s 

M 
877 

V^ 

334 

I4i 
317 
284 

478 

m 

151 
840 
73 
67 
3 


11,857.55 

7.964.10 

26,520.57 

13,735.90 

12,801 40 

11,812.01 

7.407.53 

10.351. 89 

8,021 

5,806,34 

8,900.23 

7,5Sfi,«9 

4,244,88 

4,557.41 

5,850,03 

8.332.98 

8,803,02 

5,823.45 

n, 103.57 

17,071.03 

10,333.54 

185 


10,281,511.55 
0,384,837.03 
23,&00,05&15 
13,309,962,80 
18,060^124.38 
13,57^401,01 
4,330,000.00 
7.^28,854, 80 
4,107,521.60 
t, 030,912, 03 
8.637,808.10 
5,0^012,47 
2,884,388.34 
4,259,8^40 
3.253,079.73 
7,177,108.31 
5,570,230.50 
2,774,813.11 
18,172,263.94 
1,017,338.55 
013,174.94 
12,860 


1,078.078.06 


IjWllHlUl* ._„ ,...-._. 


545,205, 20 


T^^nii,,. ..................x..T^T^x -t^^ t — 


3,120,474.91 


OkUbotma...... ....,.«—...-, ->..,. 


1,239,916,05 




3,040,010.35 


NehiMto'I **.,.. * -.-- -...* 


3,840.5(]2.88 


6<wtbJ>akoca ,..,,.„ - 

North Dakota.....*., *»...* 

HoDtaoa -....* ....» -•- 


421,311.03 

1,502, 256. a 

413,000. 13 


Wyiming ,,,,,rr- t - ^- --- - ---- 


380,204.36 


Gofotado .„,,^.; ..., 


806,053,53 


Hew Meidoa „...,.,.,.>,.. — -_...,-,>*..- 


586,92198 


Arfxona., ,.,..*. .- *,,.„.,»,.. 


^,21167 


Utah ... .«.........««..,....«.,..... - 


33P,345.8r 


Idaho „,,....,* , *....... 


44&.03a82 


WMhliifton. ..... ...XHT.T . t.-. —- -— 


751, 83& 14 


OnmT. -....— 


075, 375. 80 


N«Tada . .*,.,.,.*. -.....«.. ....-,. 


301,170.45 


rillbmla , ........... .XX. XT -r 


3,301.884.03 


Alaaka........ ,.....^.....*...^. — ,- 


£01,479.30 


Hawaii . , ,..,.,..-»,...,.....> 


109,984.70 


Bainoa ,._...., ., 


1.000.00 




*. WW. w 


Total fourth «etIoa......*... ....... .*...^ 


«,019 


213,92^09 


163,743.227.37 


19,814,355.58 






Grand total ««..*.«.*.........*... 


37, m 


460.7ll7.3r 


538,m,TSE.T4 


60,034,077.511 




Hatiwa? Mailferrleo,.., ,..-.... 








17,479,504.84 


Pmumfttlo-tube shvUsb. .... ......d.. ........... 








532,679.74 


flpeclAJ-ofBoeaerTUM.... -* 


28,828.61 


Iqrnl^ht or gypfCBrop^ ^ ,,,,., ^ . . . . . ^ , , , , ^ , . 


211,890.80 


Bnlldlii£i tor use ofPoirt-OffiCft D^Dsrlm^nt . .*....,,*..,, ^ ..,,_„. „ 


43,511.31 


Mall equLpment .„.,,...,..,........ - 


489,765.45 


Itisoeliazuotiu expeosu, oflle« of SiHDOiid Aailitaii 


tPoitmiat 


eHle&eial... 




805.58 








Acrawata. 


79,421,063.34i 


*#e*^t"w* — 








IQV 



192 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



A. — Table of $tar, iUamboal, special-office^ railroad^ mail'mesaenger^ regulation, ecreen, or 
other wagon service^ and electric or cable car service in operation June SO, 1908^Con, 



RAILROAD SERVICE. 



State or Territory. 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

•Massachusetts... 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia.... 



Total, first section. .. 



North Carolina.. 
South Carolina. . 

Georgia 

Florida 

Porto Rico 

Alabama 

Mississippi 



Kentucky 

Total, second section. 



Ohio 

Indiana 

Illinois 

Michigan.. 
Wisconsin. 
Minnesota. 

Iowa 

Missouri... 



Total, third section... 



Arkansas 

Louisiana 

Texas 

Oklahoma 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

South Dakota.. 
North Dakota. 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico... 

Arizona 

Utah 

Idaho 

Washington... 

Oregon 

Nevada 

California 

Alaska 

Hawaii 



routes.! "*"^ 



Total, fourth section. 
Grand total 



46 
24 
23 
79 

23 

171 
75 

258 
8 
29 
71 
81 



897 



33,707.167 



84 
52 
108 
69 
6 
67 
55 
50 



557 



111 
64 
140 
125 
112 
97 
116 
92 



«57 



65 
59 

133 
62 

102 
61 
44 
38 
24 
10 
60 
25 
21 
25 
22 
55 
34 
20 

115 
1 
6 



982 



3,293 



MOes. 
2,014.18 

99L76 

933.19 
2,059.34 

170.57 
1,246. la 
8,250.63 
1,840. 11 
7,492.507 

286.03 
1,718.49 
4,417.88 
2,286.35 



4,830.29 
2,811.09 
7,139.66 
3,217.98 
177.75 
3,780.26 
4,104.05 
2,642.22 
4,246.33 



Distance 

traveled per 

annum. 



MUes. 

3,560,751.37 

2,619,011.20 

2,048,424.64 

9,920,087.94 

705,115.92 

6,840,449.38 

26,171,696.74 

7,825,568.81 

20,571,305.66 

623,071.50 

7,543,374.05 

9,095,785.42 

3,603,180.37 



101,127,723.09 



7,500, 
4,204, 
10,564, 
3,500, 
183, 
6,176, 
6,364, 
4,077, 
8,215, 



643.30 
601.50 
926.04 
173.23 
681.02 
686.70 
426.03 
522.94 
184. 04 



32,949.63 



11,672.26 
5,517.84 

11,142.27 
7,237.20 
6,807.41 
8,511.84 
9,236.89 
6,986.03 



67,111.74 



3,813.34 
3,309.30 
12,331.24 
6,604.39 
9,714.30 
6,954.41 
3,391.91 
6,417.33 
1,962.59 
1,081.01 
4,426.34 
2,727.94 
1,525,58 
1,833.54 
1,262.51 
3,007.91 
1,84a 94 
1,733.91 
6,353.01 
20.60 
131.84 



79,451.94 



213,220.477 



50,787,844.80 



36,725, 
12,657, 
27,830, 
13,354, 
11,394, 
12,426, 
16,330, 
14,625, 



205.49 
286.10 
742.20 
120.09 
972.64 
432.86 
190.43 
190.85 



145,244,140.66 



6,050, 
3,867, 

16, 134, 
9,544, 

16, 147, 

11, 185, 
2,877, 
6, 168, 
1,969, 
918, 
6,522, 
3,044, 
1,796, 
2,739, 
1,253, 
4,608, 
2,285, 
1,432, 

12,014, 

12, 

170, 



121. 79 
456.50 
673.77 
433.70 
864.14 
737.69 
620.01 
385.50 
073.60 
531.83 
366.93 
660.47 
170.66 
444.36 
258.22 
576.26 
161.31 
849.11 
528.86 
854.40 
672.88 



110,639,330.89 



407,799,039.44 



Annual rate 
of expendi- 
ture for 
transporta- 
tion. 



Dollars. 
323,291.61 
145,760.44 
160,469.03 
734,829.41 
20,060.98 
548.528.14 

2,950,843.81 
608,096.22 

2,132,265.65 

41,517.53 

763,160.80 

1,026,832.65 
265,270.45 



9,720,926.71 



864,497.52 
346,434.44 
887,227.91 
298,091.61 
10,369.06 
448,898.68 
529,222.01 
362,316.19 
855,858.48 



4,602,915.90 



5,358,299.55 
1,318,310.35 
2,766,295.16 
1,029,205.05 
1,161,441.11 
1,428,134.90 
1,580,845.60 
1,620,283.31 



16,162,815.12 



709,705.46 
336,422.97 

1,610,366.50 
934,074.94 

1,738,603.67 

2,422,752.29 
295,914.15 

1,272,196.92 
232,948.80 
213,904.06 
619,109.35 
446,064.21 
280,323.81 
235,215.03 
230,801.79 
481,512.35 
347,319.30 
149,324.69 

1,672,203.68 
1,866.97 
5,676.80 



14,236,327.74 



44,722,985.47 



Annual rate 
of expendi- 
ture for rail- 
way post- 
office cars. 



DoUars. 
21,267.22 
16,129.27 
29,925.25 

107,742.81 



101,870.91 

289,726.63 

75,383.44 

219,984.19 



95,927.26 

109,245.81 

9,710.10 



1,076,912.79 



58,115.00 
25,267.78 
59,049.69 
16,747.73 



29,261.94 
35,434.75 
42,003.94 
103,7ia97 



369,599.80 



828,348.39 
203,443.79 
450,804.54 
85,852.89 
141,738.37 
164,141.97 
204,450.89 
231,665.86 



2,310,446.70 



81,246.15 

4,343.00 

44,972.15 

54,878.42 

139,351.52 

244,782.44 

5,185.37 

81,644.06 



8,676.20 
11,293.75 

4,420.00 
14,084.00 



21,225.10 
22,303.59 
37,273.27 



149,240.27 



924.818.29 



4,681,777.58 



Annual rate 
of expendi- 
ture for rail- 
road service. 



Dollars. 

344,568.83 

161,889.71 

190,394.28 

842,572.22 

20,060.98 

660,399.05 

3,240,670.34 

683,479.66 

2,352,249.74 

41,617.53 

859,088.16 

1,136,078.46 

274,980.55 



10,797,839.50 



922,612.82 
371,702.22 
946,277.60 
314,839.34 
10,360.06 
478,160.62 
664,656.76 
404,320. 13 
069,577.45 



4,972,515.70 



6,186,647.94 
1,521,764.14 
3,217,099.70 
1,115,057.94 
1,303,179.48 
1,602,276.87 
1,785,296.68 
1,751,949.17 



18,473,261.82 



790,961.61 
340,765.97 

1,655,338.66 
988,953.36 

1,877,955.19 

2, 66/, 534. 73 
301,099.62 

1,353,84a 98 
232,948.80 
222,479.26 
630,403.10 
460,604.21 
294,407.81 
236,21&08 
252,026.89 
503,815.94 
384,602.67 
149,324.69 

1,821,443.95 
1,866.97 
6,676.80 



16,161.146.03 



49,404,763.06 



SECOND ASSISTANT — ELECTRIC AND CABLE CAR SERVICE. 198 

A. — Table of star ^ steamboat, spedal-office, railroad, maxl'messenger, regulation, screen, or 
other wagon service, and electric or cable car service in operation June SO, 1908 — Con. 

ELECTRIC AND CABLE CAR SERVICE. 



State or Territory. 


Number 
of routes. 


Length of 
routes. 


Distance trav- 
eled per an- 
num. 


Annual rate 

ofexx)endi- 

ture. 


Maine 


12 
8 
7 

64 
10 
25 
47 
13 
66 


129.25 
79.50 
40.86 
668.45 
118.40 
199.26 
620.22 
107.61 
843.85 


MUes. 
175,714.85 
136,587.25 
85,780.61 

1,212,252.36 
284,387.57 
288,380.12 

1,327,078.85 
194,886.52 

1,541,329.05 


DoOart. 
6,663.62 
9,304.82 


Nflw Hanii>shirA. . . . ... 


Vermont. .' 


2,866.62 


Massachusetts 


73,542.13 


Hhod« Island 


9,848.06 


Connecticut 


9, 443. 20 


New York 


74,844.46 


New Jersey 


6,216.39 


PAnrvsylvania 


81,940.69 


Delaware 




Maryland 


15 
9 

4 


22id2 
85.97 
50.11 


523,865.34 
107,810.75 
63,707.82 


48,201.66 


Virginia 


3,438.26 
1, 975. 10 


West Virginia 






Total first section 


280 


3,168.50 


5,941,781.09 


328,273.70 






North Carolina. ... 


1 
3 
4 
3 
1 
5 
1 
6 
2 


1.90 
13,66 
49.71 
17.53 

3.33 
43.19 

6.22 
81.58 
29.74 


3,963.40 
21,449.14 
74,746.84 
25,602.34 
4,861.80 
113, 100. 65 
12,265.44 
145,583.26 
80,879.58 


200.00 


South Carolina 


683.06 


Georgia 


2, 440. 50 


Florida 


897.85 


Porto Rico 


60.00 


Alabama 


3,392.99 


Mississippi 


367.96 


Tennessee 


6,387.41 


Kentucky 


2,426.34 








26 


246.86 


482,451.45 


16,856.13 






Ohio 


63 
16 
26 
19 
6 
8 
9 
• 4 


1,024.95 
283.22 
324.94 
407.07 
33.04 
117. 13 
222.08 
123.60 


1,536,358.35 
221,491.62 
630,308.07 
543,065.61 
60,494.55 
168,012.77 
243,609.17 
415,321.75 


67,249.06 


Indiana . 


6,442.91 
239,620.96 


Illinois 


Michigan 


22,163.39 


Wisconsin 


2,006.85 


Minnesota. ... 


6, 164. 00 


Iowa 


9, 151. 50 


Missouri 


60,848.50 






Total third section 


150 


2,536.03 


3,817,681.89 


412,646.17 






Arkansas 










Ix>uisiana 


1 
3 
2 
2 
2 


15.06 
51.56 
12.66 
12.63 
26.25 


58,343.16 
69,358.26 
22,35162 
30,943.68 
114,075.68 


1,75a 29 


Tflxas. . , . 


2, 129. 37 


oWahoma 


696.27 




1,012.83 


Nebraska 


4,439.92 


South Dakota. . 




North Dakota 


' 


2.51 


2,473.15 



175.00 


Montana 




Wyoming 










Colorado 


2 


41.32 


65,518.18 


1,966.62 


New Mexico 




Arixona 










TTtfth 


2 
2 

7 
6 


23.34 
61.62 
122.71 
87.46 


36,996.17 
76,313.35 
165,572.68 
147,043.20 


1, 174. 79 


Td*bo. 


3,378.84 


Washington 


7,476.96 


Oregon 


5,706.02 


Nevada 




California 


22 


356.26 


687,509.80 


27,666.61 


Alaska 




Hawaii 



















Total fourth section 


62 


813.38 


1,474,501.83 


67,660.32 






Orand total 


506 


6,764.77 


11,716,416.26 


814,336.32 







65064--P M o 1908 



194 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



A. — Table of start atearriboaif spfdQl-oJfke^ railroad^ rhail-me&sengerj regulation^ screen^ or 
other wagon sennccj and eUclric or cable car service in operation June SO, 1908 — Con. 

REGULATION, SCREEN, OR OTHER WAQQN SERVICE. 



State or Terrltoiy* 



Maine 

New Hflnipahire. 
Vemiont......... 

h^vr Yorlf 

Now Jers^^y.,. ... 
Pennsylvania — 
UtJawjw^' ,,,..... 

M^yland , 

VlfglQ [&-...-. — 
W est Virginia. . - . 



Total fi rat section. 



North Carolina.. 
South Ci]rDllti&. . 
Georgia**.-..... 

Florida... 

Porto Itico 

Atatiama. .*. 

Ittntnippl 

Tf^aneasw.,,.... 
Kentucky 



Total secocd secUon. 



Ohio 

Indiana* . . . 

IlllnolB 

Michigan... 
Wlacoasia, 
Minnesota. 
Iowa. ,..,.. 
Mlxsotuf... 



TotaJ third scctloa . 



ArkAfisas,. 
L(rqlaJana. 



OklEihoma 

IT^] Baa. ...„,*. 
Nebmskft..,.,, 
South Dakota., 
North Dakota., 
Idootana. ,*.... 
W^otnlog,.,.,. 
rolorado. *...,. 
New MpTtico*.* 

Utah.. 



Nmbor 
ot routes. 



105 



31 



US 



Idfihti*,,.,... 
Washington.. 
Oregon..,,.*. 
Nevada ...... 

CjUlforala*,.. 

Alaska 

Hawaii 



I .^^th «r B (stance trav- 
Qtitn. 



24.37 

6,23 
31S,04 

12. W 

4.2» I 
4D,78 
22.74 

7.39 ' 



34,677.36 
J7,29&,3ij 
7,7&7.Sa 
108,79&84 
36,l»9*2«t 
W, 722* IS 
l,tf»4,34e,57 

324,383*90 
1^,339, S4 

157,342. la 
Gti,lfj0.12 
31,3&7.7D 



C&.7Q 3,17D,245.79 



5.22 
B.39 
10 
3.16 



39,584*24 
4e,S09.«» 
14,577, IG 



3*63 

3.30 
m40 
15.30 



14,501.76 

50,213. 80 
UO^OChS. IS 



62.4^1 2m,tm*Ei 



SO 

32.33 

40,00 

56.62 

3L74 

20.81 

30.43 

mZS ! 



331,340.82 
112,030. S2 
19*,7<^.6S 
1KI,0S1.Q0 
107, 67 L 88 
135,363,28 
92,535.90 
118, 112. 2S 



Annua] rate 

or eitpendi- 

ture. 



6,584.00 
4,622.50 
2,209.60 
G2, 02ft. 00 
8,240.00 
1€, 124.00 
362,807.60 
16,272.00 
90,110.37 
3,500.00 
46,453,00 
1S,38S.OO 
12,56^00 



321.20 ; l,20l,€S0.75 



U.OQ 
16*1* 
18.63 
2*63 
29.93 
24.43 
6.21 
2*42 
L50 



3S,060.08 I 
29,313. 44 
71,407.36 
9,481.68 I 
102,830.60 I 
88,189.92 
10,703.68 I 
6,364.80 
0,672.00 



16.71 



56,071.24 



2*87 



H960.40 



640^001.36 



6,200.00 
7,106.00 
12,755.00 
4,760.00 



^,7^.00 
5,626.00 
n, 043. 00 
17,219.00 



71,523.00 



93,668.00 
31,589.00 
68,611*00 
44,4«a.D0 

32,097.00 
42,339.00 
33,464,00 
35,497.00 



382,227.00 



9.680.00 

15,344.00 

23,776.00 

2,899*00 

25,480,00 

24,857*74 

3,700.00 

3,340. 30 

1,788.00 



15^247. Oft 



4,600.00 



12,87 
8.08 



66.79 



26,571.04 ' 
26,412.40 



239,460.56 



16,605. 00 
5,500*00 



75,006.00 



Total fourth sec tlOQ. 
Or^d total , 



55 



2ZMS 



7^,408,20 227,830.04 



309 



1,03L21 



4,4M>373.08 " 1,331,572,30 



SECOND ASSISTANT — MAIL-MESSENGER SERVICE. 



195 



A. — Table of star ^ steamboat, special-office^ railroad^ mail-messenger, regulation, screen, or 
other wagon service, and electric or cable car service in operation June SO, 1908— Con 



MAIL-MESSENGER SERVICE. 



State or Territory. 



Maine 

New Hampshire. 

Vermont 

Massachuaetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Pennsylvania 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Virginia 

West Virginia.... 



Number 
of routes. 



Total arst section. 



North Carolina. . 
South Carolina. . 

Georgia 

Florida 

Porto Rico 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 



Total second section. 



Ohio . 

Indiana 

lUinois 

Michigan... 
Wisconsin.. 
Minnesota.. 

Iowa 

Missouri 



Total third section. 



Arkansas 

Louisiana . 

Texas 

Oklahoma 

Kansas 

Nebraska 

South Dakota.. 
North Dakota.. 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico... 

Arizona 

Utah 

Idaho 

Washington... 

Oregon 

Nevada 

California 

Alaska 

Hawaii 



Total fourth section. 
Grand total 



157 
87 
74 
181 
24 
05 
723 
202 
779 
20 
99 
195 
139 



2,775 



116 
53 
117 
102 
13 
138 
76 
100 
135 



850 



493 
264 
337 
310 
200 
173 
254 
219 



2,250 



105 
184 
190 
182 
256 
116 
50 
46 
40 
29 
70 
43 
18 
64 
42 
93 
48 
6 
175 
3 
19 



1,779 



7,654 



Length of 
routes. 



MUes. 

123.19 

80.35 

5L44 

120.90 

14.24 

68.13 

532.14 

120.74 

454.74 

12.90 

67.70 

127.94 

62.24 



1,836.65 



68.22 
34.95 
78.71 
76.76 
9.31 
96.19 
48.55 
63.06 
79.04 



654.79 



343.09 
159.90 
234.61 
195.70 
126.98 
96.32 
165.31 
149.83 



1,47L74 



56.21 

146.50 

142.68 

96.12 

157.63 

83.31 

21.64 

19.60 

30.72 

18.51 

35.91 

23.47 

13.04 

67.70 

24.28 

62.17 

33.60 

6.14 

127.98 

5.25 

65 



1,216.46 



5,079.64 



Distance trav- 
eled per an- 
num. 



MUes. 
230,795.76 
153,180.56 
117,302.64 
343,598.80 
32,852.56 
185,503.76 

1,611,214.80 
295,895.60 

1,066,986.96 
28,137.20 
147,323.28 
276,124.16 
115,029.20 



4,603,945.28 



152,036.56 
82,308.72 
151,035.04 
127,034.96 
14,365.52 
178,080.24 
93,975.44 
144,097.20 
198,957.20 



1,141,8 



841,536.80 
4n,859.20 
630,984.64 
494,928.72 
317,754.32 
230,500.40 
426,570.56 
367,572.40 



3,787,707.04 



Annual rate 
of expendi- 
ture. 



85,675.36 

251,487.60 

263,690.96 

216,047.52 

397,379.84 

191,356.88 

39,303.68 

31,229.12 

50,107.20 

27,856.40 

66,406.16 

37,505.52 

20,977.84 

92,166.88 

28,227.68 

117,016.64 

76,756.12 

8,262.80 

293,171.84 

2,761.20 

47,200.48 



2,344,488.72 



11,878,031.92 



Dollars. 

29,119.90 

15,366.90 

12,125.00 

42,345.05 

4,387.50 

21,502.60 

191,186.02 

37,151.65 

136,331.91 

3,344.50 

14,919.15 

28,553.07 

18,760.34 



555,093.55 



17,561.32 
9,300.50 
16,892.43 
15,503.75 
1,252.00 
18,799.60 
11,938.67 
16,666.69 
22,633.74 



130,548.70 



93,899.22 
56,606.08 
70,434.79 
51,222.00 
39,262.55 
31,467.65 
51,518.27 
42,283.59 



439,694.15 



15,437.91 

28,663.25 

36,942.35 

32,667.80 

49,612.24 

23,079.20 

8,548.00 

6,687.00 

7,615.00 

6,514.00 

11,822.80 

6,481.50 

4,061.00 

9,188.60 

6,979.00 

22,157.80 

11,876.75 

1,680.00 

39,634.08 

1,314.00 

4,696.00 



334,358.28 



1,459,694.68 



196 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



A. — Table of star ^ ateawJboat, sp^dal-officet railroad^ mailrmessenger, regulation^ screen, or 
other wagon service, and electric or cable car service in operation June SO, 1908 — Con. 



STAR SERVICE. 



State or Territofy. 



of hckiUh. 



JLiengthof 
routes. 



Distance trav- 
eled per ac-^ 



of eximidl- 



Uflloe .,.,.,. 

Now HampshkB. 
Vermont-.-,..,** 

Mttssachtis^tts 

Eho<)e IslAcd^' ^. 
Connocticin.,..,. 

New York.. , 

New Jers*;y...,„ 
P^DUsylvuila* . . » 

Delflwarfl 

Mary land _^.*.^* 

VlrgiDln** 

West Virginia. *,- 



Total, first section* 



North Carolina., 
South Ctirollna.. 
OMsreia. *.*-.**, 

Florida 

Porto Uloo*,*.. 

Alabama. 

MlsstssippL^*,*, 

Tonnessijo 

Kentucky,. «.«, 



Total, a^cond soctlon. 



Ohio 

Indiana.... 

JUJnois 

HlchlgAn . . 
Wisconsin . 
Minnesota. 

Iowa.- 

MJssouTl * * , 



Total* third section. 



Arkansas,**... 
Louislaita...... 

Tejcaa-.,. -*,.,. 

Oklahoma 

Kansas*...,,,. 

Nebraska. 

South Dakota., 
N<>rth Dakota. 
Montana...,,,. 

Wyoming 

Colorado .*,.„. 
New M«]e1oo. . . 
ArisoDa*. *-,,.. 

Dtab 

Idaho., *. 

Washington... 

OreROD ... 

Nevada. 

California 

Alaska.,....., 

Hawaii 

Bamoa^ . ....,,, 



Total, fourth section* 
Grand total,.,,.,,*-. 



300 

141 

149 

145 

22 

73 

fiOfi 

133 

714 

17 

167 

781 

»5 



3|S2I 



512 
176 
334 
25a 
30 

433 

201 
966 



3,276 



211 
111 

m 
m 

19fi 
221 

m 

636 



1.632 



39A 
7S0 
393 
171 
334 
171 
a38 
IfiB 

im 

346 
184 

m 

117 
186 
24Q 
SSD 
90 

m 

24 
26 
1 



2,738176 

t,C3&£5 

1,23a 56 

873* B5 

10GLS6 

403*20 

4,4^3Q 

653*38 

£,036136 

SI. ID 

1, 2% 75 

7,52a S3 

6, 821 66 



1,826, 143. 2S 
769,034 24 
970, 38& 52 
737, 316. *2 
106,577.12 
3S3,92ai6 

3,441,87a 64 
570,854.06 

3,662,431.76 

77,550.72 

871,671.84 

4,727,763 04 

3,2K»3,700lSO 



XJoflor*. 

137, S24* ^ 
54, 752. 64 
62,45a 10 
50,SO&0a 
8,76&75 
29,897.8» 

235, 406i 13 
43,77191 

300,287.38 

2, 75a 21 

60,302.13 

257, 417* S3 

210,30406 



31,21475 21,360,1^40 1,410,848135 



5, 25a 10 
1,763.42 
2,33&82 
3,916146 
479L10 
4,061. 72 
4,68^45 
3,(^.16 

o,isa70 



3,116,665.76 
l,050,70il6 
l,34B,107.70 
1,472,225.04 
335,31&80 
2,282,846,80 
2,5CS,63&72 
1,804,253*36 
5,159,776.06 



167, lOa 46 
56, soft; 31 
75, 03a 13 
l(»,559.g6 
22,657.15 
137,781.06 
157,513. 86 
104, 075. 00 
2S7,23a66i 



33, 77a 02 



1,303*50 

B4SL92 

80a5S 

1,038.60 

2,a4a22 

3,07&85 

44^72 

6,165.54 



16|71da0 



7,323.60 
3,787.03 
13,30X21 
5,70a04 
2,75&50 
4,482,36 
3,737.27 
4,324 78 
5,36a 10 
4,24a 65 
4,20a05 
4,05L33 
2,347.26 
2,£OSt06 
4,05ft 72 
3,262*40 
6,445.26 
3,480.40 
fi,2O0.84 
5,2Sa50 
51L70 
80 



10, 138, 7L1 35 1, 100, 677, 35^ 



1, 010, 67a C^ 

565, 46a 60 

661,647.84 

1,15»,077.52 

1,231,643.02 

1,190, 55a 64 

306,23a 32 

3, 820,0;^. 76 



^,354.60 
30,208.68 
40,01160 
87, 162. 78 
91,116194 

106,762*67 
23,617,07 

243*200.77 



9,884, 26a Sg^ 712,343.19 



6,300 



100,576.94 



14,632 



lS2,28a5l 



3,926,112.32 
1,940,542.40 
6,739,574 80 
3,341,63a 44 i' 
1,333,829.12 
1,917,771.44 
1,356,334 72 
1,610,47a 32 
1,041,804 80 
J, 587, 147. 12 
1,853,860.68 
3,73l,20L68 
05a,13U84 
1,334,987.68 
1,843, 38a 48 
l,4ai,5ia40 
2, 870,556 
1,148,001*20 
4,580.103.84 
26e,*S165 
166,23464 
1,0«> 



43,031,^87.57 



94,314,842,21 



239,210, 14 
1^5,065^51 
406,568.54 
2H,70Le2 

86,641.00 
126, SOU 20 
107, 963. 56 
138,213.30 
170, 757. 33 
162,211. 10 
146,614 11 
120,030*24 

83,745,06 

89, 167. 46 
176,655.74 
136.05152 
257, 56a 87 
110,171.76 
381, 02a 40 
313,55L05 

13,(>8a57 
1,000.00 

3,6Z3,607. IS 



t,S65,47a07| 



SECOND ASSISTANT — SPECIAL-OFFICE SERVICE. 



197 



A. — Table of star ^ steamboat, specialrofficej railroad, mail'messengerj regulation, screen, or 
other wagon service, and eleAric or cable car service in operation June SO, 1908— Qon. 



8PBCIAL-0FFICB SERVICE. 



State or Territory. 



Number 
of routes. 



Length of 
routes. 



Distance 

traveled per 

annum. 



Maine 

New Hampshire.. 

Vermont 

Massachusetts 

Rhode Island 

Connecticut 

New York 

New Jersey 

Penns]^vwila. . . . 

Delaware 

Maryland 

Vlrrinia 

West Virginia.... 



Total first section. 



North Carolina. 
South Carolina. 

Oeorgia 

Florida 

Porto Rico 

Alabama 

Mississippi 

Tennessee 

Kentucky 



Total second section. 



Ohio 

Indiana. . . , 

Illinois 

Michigan.. 
Wisconsin. 
Minnesota. 

Iowa 

Missouri... 



Total third section. 



Arkansas.. 
Louisiana. . 

Texas 

Oklahoma. 



Nebraska 

South Dakota. 
North Dakota. 

Montana 

Wyoming 

Colorado 

New Mexico... 

Arizona 

Utah 

Idaho 

Washington... 

Oregon 

Nevada 

California 

Alaska 

Hawaii 

Samoa 



Total fourth section. 
Grand total 



MUet. 

246.58 

18.76 

.05 

10.50 



97.75 
30.75 
33.95 



18.76 
80.50 
116 



151 



653.59 



108.43 

213.50 

54.37 

268.47 



84 
147.25 

46.50 
171.60 



203 



1,094.02 



10 

29.25 
6.50 
302 
135.25 
211.50 
7.50 
134 



100 



194.50 

180.10 

622.75 

221.25 

131.50 

241.25 

260.50 

485.25 

658 

468.16 

236 

78415 

369 

134 

410.25 

500.75 

184.63 

505 

533 

1,327 

1,248.25 
105 



Milet. 
154,115.52 
11,706.24 
31.20 
6,552 



30,498 
12,792 
21,184 



7,800 
25,116 
36,192 



305,986.96 



33,830.16 
66,612 
16,963.44 
83,762.64 



26,208 
45,942 
14,608 
53,508 



341,334.24 



6,240 
9,126 
2,028 
188,448 
84,396 
65,988 
2,340 
41,808 



400,374 



60,684 

56,191.20 
194,298 

60,030 

47,268 

75,270 

52,104 
100,932 
136,864 

97,377.28 

73,632 
244,654.80 
112,008 

41,806 

43,732 
156,234 

57,604.56 
185,640 
166,296 
138,008 
129,818 

10,920 



666 



9,870.29 



2,250,373.84 



1,120 



12,453.90 



3,298,060.04 



198 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



A. — Table of star, steamboat , special-office^ railroad^ maxlrmessenger, regvlation, screen, or 
other wagon service, and electric or cable car service in operation June SO, 1908 — Con. 



STEAMBOAT SERVICE. 



State or Territory. 


Number 
of routes. 


Length of 
routes. 


Distance 

traveled per 

annum. 


Annual rate 
of expendi- 
ture. 


MaIpa . - 


22 
4 


Miles, 
5ia09 
4&75 


Miles. 
213,2ia78 
7,360.04 


DoUttrs. 
29,680.32 


New Haxni>Rhir<> 


1,067.56 


Vermont. .*..! 




MMflflflhi'setts 


3 
6 


86 
134 


65,081. i2 
80,252.80 


14,20a00 


Rhode Island . . 


17,711.64 


Connecticut r r . . , 




New York 


17 

1 


306.02 
5 


192,473.13 
4,680 


22,507.26 


New Jersey 


15a 00 


Pennsvlvanis , . , 




Pelftwnre , 




t 




Maryland . ... 


10 
11 

1 


948.10 

952.25 

17.80 


322,605.92 

494,046.80 

11, 107. 20 


i4,'360.42 


VfTfSniA 


48, 62a 48 


West Virginia 


849.00 






Total, first section . . - . - 


75 


3,011.01 


1,390,820.79 


149,268.58 






Nortel ramllna 


8 
6 
2 
17 
2 
1 
1 


271.67 
119.29 

32 

846.59 
2,814 

23.^6 

20 


172,122.08 

66,817.92 

18,304 
395,915.52 
109,746 

17,006.08 

17,472 


16, 129. 45 


South Carolina 


5,875.09 


Georgia 

Florida 


1,466.67 
96, 56a 31 


Porto Rico 


43,40a00 


AUbftTPft .• 


2,009.46 


irif^mippi . 


1, 187. 00 


Tentiessee ... 




Kentucky 


3 


184.40 


121,461.60 


9,034.03 






Total, second section . 


40 


4,311.31 


918,845.20 


175,668.91 






Ohio 

Indiana... . , . 


2 



105 


32,745.44 


2, 64a 52 


Illinois.... 


1 
9 
2 

1 


17 
408 

93 
153 


10,608 
190,891.52 
29,757.52 
27,846 


800.00 


Michigan 


13,873.25 
2,525.00 


Wisconsin 


MinneantA . . . 


3,70a00 


Iowa 




Missouri 




















Total , third section 


16 


776 


291,848.48 


23,644.77 




Arkansafi 


4 

7 
2 


458.75 
509.06 
6a 50 


123,058 
172,502.72 
37,752 


22,700.00 


LfOuisiana .... 


22,80a27 


Texas 


4, 72a 00 




Kan.<tas 






Nebraska ' 




South Dakota i 




North Dakota 1 




MontftTiA ' 




Wyoming 




Colorado! 




New Mexico - 


! 


Arisona .1 




Utah ! 






Idaho 

Washington 


1 

33 

6 


32.25 

1,354.17 

194.75 


10,062 
724,680.32 
113,698 


09a 35 
65,720.02 


Oregon 

Nevada 


10,140.68 


California 

Alaska 

Hawaii 


5 
16 
11 


456.69 
10,429.67 
8,276.66 


191,193.04 
594,231.30 
409,25a 94 


17,216.00 
184, 74a 28 
80,623.33 


Total, fourth section 


85 


21,772.50 


2,376,436.32 


409,762.83 






Grand total 


215 


29,870.82 


4,977,950.79 


758,235.09 







SECOND ASSISTANT RAILROAD SERVICE. 



199 



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309 



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280 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 






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BEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 




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285 






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238 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



C. — SUUistics of mileage, increase in mileage^ annual tranaporiationt and cost of the raU" 
road service from June SO, 18S6, to June SO, 1908, 



Date. 



June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
Juno 30, 
Juno 30. 
Nov. 4, 
Juno 30, 
June 30, 
Oct. 31, 
June 30, 
Nov. 1, 
June 30, 
Nov. 1, 
June 30, 
Oct. 1, 
Juno 30, 
Juno 30, 
June 30, 
Juno :i0, 
Juno 30, 
Juno 30, 
June 30, 
J unc 30, 
Juno 30, 
June 30, 
Juno 30, 
June 30, 
May 31, 
June 30, 
Juno 30, 
J line 30, 
Juno 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
Juno 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 
Juno 30, 
June 30, 
Juno 30, 
Juno 30, 
Juno 30, 
Juno 30, 
June 30. 
Juno 30, 
Juno 30, 
Juno 30, 
Juno 30, 
June 30, 
Juno 30, 
June 30, 
Juno 30, 
Juno 30, 
Juno 30, 
June 30, 
June 30, 



1836.. 
1837., 
1838.. 
1839.. 
1840.. 
1841.. 
1842., 
1843. 
1843. 
1844.. 
184.')., 
1845. 
1846. 
1846. 
1847. 
1847. 
1848. 
1848. 
1849. 
1850. 
1851. 
1852. 
1&53. 
1&54. 
1855. 

is.'vn. 

18.')7. 
1858. 
1&'J9. 
18C.0. 
18*51. 
18<;i. 
18*2. 
ISii.'I. 
1S«)4. 
18<i5. 
18<)G. 
1807., 
18ti8. 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872. 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876. 
1877. 
1878. 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1JS82. 
1S83. 
1881. 
188.-). 
lS8»i. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
18'J0. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895 



1896. 
1897. 
1898. 
1899. 
1900. 



Length of 
routes. 



MUe9. 



974 



Annua] tnuis- 
portAtloji' 



3,091 



3.714 



4,092 I 
'4,402'' 



4,73,-) 



-I 



4,957 
5,497 
6,886 
8,255 
10, 146 
12,415 
14,440 
18,3;i3 
20,323 
22,530 
24,431 
26,010 
27,129 
16,886 
22,018 
21,3,38 
22, 152 
22.616 
23,401 
32.092 
.34,015 
3(i.018 
39,537 
43,727 
49,834 
57, 911 
63,457 
67, 734 
70,083 
72,348 
74,546 
77,120 
79.991 
85.320 
91,569 
100,5<)3 
110,208 
117, ItK) 
121,032 
123.933 
130,949 
143,713 I 
150, .ISl 
154,779 I 
159.518 I 
162.576 
U16.9.52 I 
169,768 ' 
171,212 j 
172,701 
173,475 
174,777 
176,727 
179,982 ' 



al,87S,296 
«l,T0(3,ca4 
o 2fa'"Hl,S5a 
a3,396;035 
>>S,g39,053 
'<3,046,4'iO 
a 4,41^4,263 

(a) 
a 5,747,355 
fl (J, 484,093 



4,170,4U3 



4,^7,400 



CoBtf>ef 



In length 4^f 



4,861,177 

S,3f»4,^13 
n,0S2,7ti8 

15,433,389 

2lH8ni=".2«i 
24,'i67,iM4 
21,7(13,452 
27,26ii,3S4 
27,ft53,740 
& 5,701.05*3 
23,lUi,S»a 
22,777,219 
2*.87i..'5.SS 
S3,3ai,IM2 

a4;n87,.*y^ 
3incoa.467 

32,437h900 
34, 886 J 7g 

47,561.970 
55,5f»7.^J4» 
62t]9L,749 
G^,6SU44fi 
72,4dO>546 
75.164,910 
77,74hm 
S5, 358, 710 
92,l20t395 
93,001,902 
06. 407, 4*53 
ID3, 521,239 

ii3,vy5,ai8 

129,198,641 
142, 54 J, 392 
151,910,845 
l<35,(K^,3g§ 

1S6.4S5,7S3 
2WHlBe,4S0 
2^5,715.680 
228,719,900 
239,731,508 
252,750,574 

IW. 117,737 

273,190,356 I 
281,585,612 
2»<7.591,269 
297, 256, 303 



ngtho 



aS307,4M 
<»4»4,123 

<! 585,843 
4.^,568 

ari3,(i87 
531,752 

a 843, 430 
5S7,7B9 
* 870,570 
&S7,7^ 
W7,4TS 
597.923 
584,193 
AS7.2Q4 
0^,7iD 
B1»,2Z7 
985,010 
I, 275,520 
1, 601,329 
1,758,(110 
2,073, (JSS 
2,310,389 
2,560, 847 
2,S2S,30l 
3,m074 
3,349,662 
AO7Et,9l0 
2,543,709 
2,49S, 115 
2,538,517 
2,,%7,044 
2,7m,m 
3,301,592 
3,m2,tK)a 
4,177,120 
4, 73;^, 680 
5,128,901 
a,724,07BL 
6,502,771 
7,257,190 
9,113,190 
9, 21ft, MS 
9,&43,134 
rf 9,(153. 030 
9.566,595 
'9,5(17,590 
10,498,086 
11,613h368 
12,753JS4 
13,86f7,80P 
15, 012, €03 
Ifi, 697,0^ 
17,S36.fil2 
18,05G,272 
ly,524.9fi» 
21,639.613 
23,395,232 
25,183,713 
27,130,629 
28,910,196 
30.3^8,190 
31.205,343 
32.405.797 
33,876,521 
34, 703, 847 
3(j, 117,876 
li7. 7'Jia, a^ 



In 



JfUev. 



3,117 ;. 
"""63a"|! 



310 



33a 



222 
540 

1,38» 
1,309 

iiaoi 

2,368 
2|0Q5 
3,8B:1 
1,900 
2,207 
t,Wl 
1,57» 
l,Llft 



1,775 



814 , 
«.4 
TSS 
*S.fl0l ^, 
h93a : 
2,003 f 
3,519 
4,190 
6,107 

«,a/7 

5,548 
4,277 

2,349 
2,265 
2,198 
2,57-1 
2,871 

a,3« 

8,994 

9,445 

6,059 
3,871 
2,901 
7,016 
12,764 
6,668 
4,898 
4,739 
3,058 
4,376 
2,816 
1,444 
1,581 
681 
1,393 
1.950 
8. 256 



m 



aRallroa-l an-1 steamboat s»;r\'icc combined; no separate report. 

6Decreas»* causcl by the (iiscontiniianco of senice in the Southern States. 

c Increase attributable in part to th«> rcs.imptiori of sc^rvice in the Southern States. 

d Decrease in cost caused by reduction in the rnte of pay under act of July 12, 18W. 

e Decrease in cost caused by reduction in the rute of pay under act of June 17 1878. 



SECOND ASSISTANT — WEIGHTS OF FOREIGN MAILS. 



239 



C. — Statistics of mileage^ increase in mileage^ annwal transportation ^ and cost of the rail- 
road service from June SO, 18S6, to June S9, 1908 — Continued. 



Bfttc. 



JUI1Q30, 1001 

June ;ii), ld03 
Juneau. 19CM 
luas m. I9tt5 

Jima aia, 190T 
June ^,1908 



Langthof 
routfHt 



183,3^3 
187, 130 
102,853 
196,007 
200,005 
203,823 
307,237 
2U:^ 



portHtlou. 



a03p0l3t3S& 
312,521,47S 
333,4gl,0£4 
358,038,398 
362tM!5.731 
371,661,071 
387,557,166 
407^790,039 



Coat per 



133.519,024 
aO, 053, 608 
4],83li,§^9 
44,6«i,fHfl 
45,676,515 
47,431,037 
51,008,111 

149,404,763 



in IfiDfftb ol 



Milet, 
3,377 
3,771 
11,732 
4,055 

2,S5S 
3.414 



la lenf th of 



JTIJfff. 



o Decrease In cost caused by reduction In the rate of pay under act of March 2, 1907. 

D. — Tables of weights of foreign mails ^ etc. 

The following statement (1) shows the weights of the mails con- 
veyed and the amount of compensation received by each of the differ- 
ent lines of steamers, as well as which are of United States and which 
of foreign register; and statement (2) shows the weights of foreign 
closed mails forwarded from the United States bv the different lines 
of steamers and the compensation paid to each line tor their conveyance. 



1. — Statement showing the net weights of the United States mails conveyed by the steamers 
appointed to transport the mails to foreign countries, and the rate and amount of com^ 
pensation paid therefor. 

(1) Since October 1, 1907, steamers of United States register not under contract receive 80 cents per pound 
for letters and post cards and 8 cents per pound for other articles. 

(2) Steamers of foreign register and all sailing vessels receive 4 francs per Icilogram (about 35 cents per 
pound— 2.205 pounds I kilogram) for letters and post cards and 50 centimes per kilogram (about 4i cents 
per pound) for other articles. 

TRANS-ATLANTIC SERVICE. 

[The sailings are from New York except when otherwise stated.] 



Name of line. 



International Mercantile Marine Co. , contract sbttIm a. 
International Mercantile Marine Co., Red Staro.._-..^ 
International Mercantile Marine Co., Red Btar&.. . ,.. 
International Mercantile Marine Co., A mcdt-on from 

Philadelphia 7. 

North German Lloyd 6 .*,*,.,...,.,* ., 

White Star ft . .„ 

White Star from Boston 6 .„„-_.„,,,„,„.„, 

White Star 6 ,. 

Cunardb ,,,.,*...,._.,-,,.,., 

Cunardfrom Boston & -__...,...,* 

Canard 6 „,,._.„__,„„ 

Hamburg-American 5 ...^_, _,,_,_.- 

Scandinavian-American b , ,,.,.,,_.,,..,, 

General Trans- Atlantic be ^ ^ 

Compagnie G6nerale Trans-Atlfuittfjua from Forto i 

Rico to France direct & c „„„*.»....- 

Insular Navigation *> , , 

Compafifa Trans-.\tlAntica EspalJoliiCrom Forto Bieo \ 

to Spai n direct .....,,..,. 

Pinlllos Ezquerdo and Co. from Porto Elco to SpiklTi i 

dhectft ' 

La Voloce from Porto Rico to ItiUy direct * *^, * * 



t63,4S7,0&t 



480 

222,873,833 

3lL,33a,&72 

3,255,(161 



142,837,117 
524,120 



£0,079,171 

'74,"€a»,'sis' 

68, «^ 
3je,5S0 

lQ2,74g 

3S,830 



Total. 



800, 722, we 



FZtatB. 



^,130,123 
1,005,165 
1,341, £70 

^:r7,440 
024,401,888 
758,597,720 

I5,8>'>y378 

353,094,155 

2,474,036 

5,147,242 

238,440,704 

U,378, l€5 

232,4£8,298 

102,922 



270,453 



16,7161 
8,418 



3,fi(B,7aP,Q90 



CoropeuB^ 
tlotL 



1737,016.00 
,28a Ifl 
'l29.4« 

32.94 

273.85a 1 2 

246,046,70 

3.272-86 

1,1^.48 

147^804.40 

607.63 

496.71 

Hflmi3 

1, 245. 49 
78,340.40 

144,32 
334.M 

187,73 

29. 2i 
3.U 



l,afiS,050.3a 



a American register, b Foreign register, c Settled for In account of balances due foreign ooontrles. 



240 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTBB-GENEBAL. 



1. — Statement showing ihe net weights of the United States mails conveyed by the ateamen 
appointed to transport the maih to foreign countries^ and ihe rate ana amount of earn- 
pensation paid therefor — Continued. 

TRANS-PACIFIC SERVICE. 
STEAMIBS or UNITED STATES R3GI8TEB. 

[See note (1) at the head of this statement.] 



Name of line. 


Letters. 


Prints. 


Compeoaa- 


Panlflc MaU: 

San FrancLsco to Hongkong, via Hawaii 
and Japan 


Grams. 
13,864,629 

714,671 

1,530,136 

26,305 

1,141,767 

173,642 


Pounds. 
30,572 

1,576 

3,374 

58 

2,517 

383 


Onms. 
162,189,344 

2,791,572 

15,103,821 

172,674 

13,409,531 

2,777,800 


Poimdt. 
357,628 

6,156 

33,304 

381 

29,568 

6,125 


S68,«3.6I 

2,043.73 

1S,a0L58 

78.86 


United States postal agency, Shanghai to 


Qreat Northern Steamship Co.: 

Seattle to Hongkong, via Japan 

Seattle 


Boston Steamship Co., Seattle and Tacoma 
to Hongkong, via Japan 


4,408.26 
87,982.00 


Oceanic, San Francisco to Tahiti and Mar- 
quesas Islands (contract) 




Total 


17,461,150 


38,480 


196,444,742 


433,161 


100,876.08 





MISCELLANEOUS SERVICE. 

STEAMERS Or FOREIGN REGIBTEE. 

[See note (2) at the head of this statement.] 
(1) Weights included in weights of Panama Railroad Steamship Company and paid to Onat Bxltalii. 



Name of line. 



Panama R. R. Steamship Line: New York to Central 

and South America 

Atlast New York to Haiti, Jamaica, Bahamas, etc 

Hamburg-American: Porto Rico to Haiti, San Domingo, 

Cuba, and Venezuela 

Royal Dutch West India MaU: New York to HaiU, 

west Indies, and Venezuela 

Royal Dutch West India MaU: New York to Haiti, 

west Indies, etc. « 

Roval MaU Steam Packet Co.: New York to Jamaica, 

west Indies, Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela. 
Quebec: New York to west Indies and Venezuela. 



Trinidad Shipping and Trading Co.: New York to West 
Indies and Venezuela. 



Red D: New York to Dutch West Indies and Venezuela. 

New York and Demerara: New York to Dutch West 
Indies 

Earn: Philadelphia to West Indies 

Lamport and Holt: New York to Brazil, Argentine Re- 
pubUo. Uruguay, and Paraguay 

Prince: New York to BrazU, Argentine RepubUc, Uru- 
guay, and Paraguay 

Booth: New York to Brazil, Argentine Republic, Uru- 
guay and Paraguay 

Barber: New York to Argentine Republic, Uruguay, 
and Paraguay 

Hamburg-American: New York to BrazU, West Indies, 
British French, and Dutch Oulana 

Brazilian: New York to Brazil, West Indies, British, 
French, and Dutch Oulana 

Sloman's United States and BrazU: New York to BrazU. 

Norton: New York to Argentine RepubUc, Uraguay 
and Paraguay '. 

Houston: New York to Argentine Republic, Uruguay, 
and Paraguay 

Howard Houlder Rowat & Co.: New York to Argentine 
RepubUc, Uruguay, and Paraguay 

New York and Cuba: New York to Bahamas. 



Letters. 



Peninsular and Occidental: New York to Bahamas. 



Orams. 
2,444,025 
5,799,415 

126,730 

376,950 



2,853,370 
2,222,140 

1,377,475 
132,630 

262,806 
21,245 

5,188,846 

1,258,355 

1,950,600 

1,066,506 

603,945 

716,955 
161,145 

516,010 

370,025 

195,965 
814,676 
537,005 



Prints. 



Oramt. 
55,511,340 
129,894,225 

410,388 

3,921,420 

4,189,700 

43,302,146 
22,882,708 

18,302,170 
1,803,180 

3,073,230 
297.586 

132,586,575 

35,860,800 

25,921,805 

23,842,120 

17,4U,6B0 

13,060.130 
1,508,560 

9» 878, 016 

6,488,080 

4,211,026 
0,240,888 
2,843,480 



Compcnio 



t7,a06.fll 
17,301.87 

148.U 

060.41 

666.24 

0,406.06 
4,020.77 

' 2,808.66 
276w40 

05.10 
46.12 

10^087.17 
4^101.08 
8,SIS.96 

uva.m 



l«8ia86 

OOOlIS 

660L7O 
l»6i8.72 



aSettled for In accounts due foreign countries. 



SECOND ASSISTANT — WEIGHTS OF FOBEIGN MAILS. 



241 



1. — Statement showing the net weights of the United States mails conveyed by the steamers 
appointed to transport the mails to foreign countries, and the rate and aTrumnt ofoomr 
pensation paid therefor — Continued. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERYICE-Continoed. 
STEAMERS or roBBiON REOiSTEB— continoed. 



Name of line. 


Letters. 


Prints. 


Compensa- 
tion. 


Qnebec: New York to Bermuda 


OratM. 
2,404,970 
714,169 
302,106 

384,681 

92,032 
39,883 

49,068 

32,322 

625 

7,154,904 

1,999,023 

336,429 

51,703 
148,261 

117,444 

547,035 

877,808 

80,325 

42,040 

365,325 

17,565 

5,320 

160 

6,975,217 

706,256 

11,644 


Orams. 
18,215,165 
6,737,623 
917,732 

620,214 

184,598 
128,240 

55,871 


13,681.44 


Miinsnnr MnhilA t^ C^lhft 


1,240.64 


Heirera: Porto Rico to Cuba and Haiti 


331.41 


Compagnle G6n6rale Trans-Atlantlque: Porto Rico to 
Cuba, San Domingo, Haiti, and West Indies. . . 


220.30 


Compafila Trana-Atl&ntica Espaflola: Porto Rico to 

Cuba, Mexico, Costa Rica, and Republic of Panama. . 

Pinillos Yiquierdo & Co.: Porto Rico to Cuba 


93.76 
44.68 


Sociedad Andnima de Navegnrtdn: Porto RiootoCuba 
and Sftn DoTningo . . - r , . , r 


44.35 


Atlantic and Mexican Oulf: Mobile to Mexico 


26.70 


Direct: New York to Mexico 


4,875 

134,548,126 
11,420,981 
5,763,350 

4,082 
2,020,054 

1,738,363 

12,641,097 

5,890,116 

6,434,035 

680,070 

6,334,630 

320,645 

2,418,635 

70,505 

32,004,385 

5,218,759 

30,528 

1,310,265 


1.07 


United Fruit: New Orleans, Mobile, Colombia, Re- 
public of Honduras, Panama, and Guatemala 


18,806.86 


United Fruit: New Orleans to British Honduras 

Vaccaro Bros.: New Orleans to Republic of Honduras.. 
Orr-Laubenhelmer Co:. New Orleans to British Hon- 
duras 


1,924.28 
829.44 

42.72 


Oteri: New Orleans to Republic of Honduras 

Hubbard Zemurray Cx).: New Orleans to Republic of 
Honduras 


318.15 
258.42 


Blueflelds: New Orleans to Nicaragua ; 


1,658.73 




1,286.89 


United Fruit: Boston to Jamaica and Costa Rica 

United Fruit: New York to San Domingo 


931.93 
88.43 


United Fruit: Philad^phia to San Donttngo 


914.52 


Uziited Fruit: Baltimore to San Domingo 


44.50 


Red Cross: New York to Newfoundlandf. 


824.20 


Allen: Philadelphia to Newfoundland 


9.47 


Dominion Atlantic: Boston to Nova Scotia 


7,104.96 


Canada Atlantic and Plant: Boston to Nova Scotiao 

Kosmos: San Francisco to Central and South America. . 
United Tjrser: New York to Australia 


741.88 
11.93 
126.44 


Paciflc Steam Navigation 




2,012.70 










Total 


62,869,712 
-lbs. 116,578 


822.462,218 
-lbs. 1,813,529 


121,676.38 







ai cent a letter compensation. 
TRANS-PACIFIC SERVICE. 

STEAMERS Or FOREIGN BSOISTER. 

[See note (2) at the head of this statement] 



Oriental: San Francisco to Hongkong via Hawaii and 
Japana 

UnitiBd States postal agency, Shanghai to San Francisco. 

Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha: Seattie to Hongkong 
via Japan a 

United States postal agency, Shanghai to Seattle 

Seattie to Hongkong via Japan 

Occidental and Oriental: San Francisco to Hongkong 
via Hawaii and Japan 

United States postal agency, Shanghai to San Francisco. 

Ocean: Seattie to Hongkong via Japan 

Chhia Mutual Steam Navigation Co.: Seattie to Hong- 
kong via Japan 

Portland and Asiatic Steamship Co.: Portland to Japan. 

Frank Waterhouse & Co.: Seattie to Japan 

Australian Mail: San Francisco to Australasian oolonies. 

Davis & Co.: Honolulu to Australia 

Raebum: Venesuela to AustraUa 

Allen Line: Pago Pago to Apia 

Manua Cooperating Co.: Pago Pago to Apia 

Total 



Orama. 
10,570,245 
661,719 

7,360,502 

139,390 

1,763,262 

4,148,168 
218,836 
367,017 

13,010 
3,371 
6,807 
4,960,961 
3,176 
2,722 

11,423 
3,643 



30,234,131 
= lbs. 66,666 



QrafM. 
120,242,231 
2,267,047 

66,679,114 

664,666 

15,001,116 

47,911,006 
1,006,667 
3,267,540 

66,460 



7,283 
110,826,638 

9,076 
13,163 
22,367 

4,932 



866,979,066 
ribs. 809, 169 



t21,803.66 
867.34 

13,431.27 

198.64 

2,801.12 

8,104.14 
271,43 
606.73 

16.46 
2.60 
6.90 
14,710.60 
3.94 
3.90 

10.96 
3.21 



63,091.36 



a Settled for In account of balances due foreign countries. 
65064— P M G 1908 ^16 



242 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GBNBRAL. 



1. — Statement showing the net weights of the United States maUs oonveyed by the steamers 
appointed to transport the mails to foreign ootmtrieSf and the rate and amount ofcamr 
pensation paid therefor — Continued. 



MISCELLANEOUS SERVICE. 

STKAMEBS OF XTNITED SX4TBB BBCOBnEB. 

[See note (1) at the head of this statement] 



Name of line. 



Letters. 



Prints. 



New York and Cuba Mail: New York to 
Cuba and Mexico contract 

New York and Cuba Mall: New York to 
Cuba contract 

New York and Cuba Mall: New York to 
Cuba 

Southern Pacific: New Orleans to Cuba. . . 

Red D (Boulton Bliss & Dallett): New 
York to Porto Rico, Venezuela, and 
Dutch West Indies contract 

Red D: New York to Maracaibo and 
Dutch West Indies contract 

Red D: New York to Porto Rico, nonoon- 
tract 

Panama Railroad Steamship Line: New 
York to Colon 

Clyde: New York to liaiti and Santo Do- 
mingo 

American Mail: Boston, Philadelphia, and 
New York to Jamaica 

Pacific Mail: San Francisco to Panama 

Pacific coast: 

San Francisco to Mexico 

San Francisco to British Columbia a. . . 

Total 



Oranu. 
4,511,780 

534,815 

61,060 
278,640 



7,099,640 

1,464,145 

658,740 

21,321,425 

2,071,535 

2,153,800 
466,576 

32,822 
25,126 



41,580,604 



Pounds. 
9,948 

1,179 

130 
014 



17,039 
3,228 
1,453 

47,014 

4,508 

4,740 
1,029 

72 
55 



Oranu, 
77,930^000 

9,743,280 

773,490 
1,473,888 



112,010,449 
30,357,846 
0,720,006 

473,491,008 

22,661,070 

25,754,795 
4,700,399 

494,977 
84 



01,684 



706,122,035 



PoiMldt. 
171,837 

21,481 

1,706 
3,348 



a46»968 

00,989 

14,882 

1,041,8«3 

49,908 

50,789 
10,378 

1,001 



8180,884.00 
71,088.00 

si&ao 

87&87 

68»44180 

44,148L80 

2, SOL 00 

128,38Bu07 

8,438.86 

106,006.06 
l,M6.9i 

182:21 
3a 80 



1,087,004 



660,684.40 



a Compensation, 1 cent a letter. 

2. — Statement showing the net weights of the closed mails of foreign origin forwarded and 
the amounts paid by this Department to the steamers which conveyed themfiom the United 
States, 

TRANS-ATLANTIC SERVICE— NONCONTR ACT. 

[Compensation at the rate of 4 francs per kilogram for letters and post cards and 50 centimes per kttognm 

for other articles.] 



Name of line. 



Lettera. 



Prints. 



Com] 



mpeuMF 



White Star 

North Oerman Lloyd 

Cunard 

Hamburg- American 

Total noncontract trans-Atlantic 



Oranu, 

66,460,230 

50,977,837 

38,021,300 

14,982,847 



Oranu. 
237,131,884 
178,753,399 
106,803,689 

46,848,306 



170,382,204 
- lbs. 375,693 



361,536,070 
-lbs.1,388,187 



876,426^81 
68,706.40 
40,806.64 
1O.88L00 



198.816.86 



SECOND ASSISTANT WEIGHTS OF FOREIGN MAILS. 



243 



2. — Statement showing the net weights of the closed mails of foreign origin forwarded and 
the amoujits paid by this department to the steamers which conveyed them from the United 
Slates — Continued. 

MISCELLANEOUS SERVICE— NONCONTRACT. 



NAjua of tine, 



Lctten, 



PrtDtfl. 



Com 

tfOill 



Pajiama Rallioad Co. (Colon tv Pfuiams)*^ , « . . , . . . _ 

FanEima Railroad SteainshJp Line (New York to Colon) 

UniUKl Fralt Co. (New Oneans to Ouatomala and Costa j 

Kjctt) ,„_.._.„_.,,„„ „ , „ . 

Hambtn-g'.\inericaii (AUss]...... ....^..,h. ....-, 

PacUlc Mail.. ......._.,...,„, , , „„ 

AosUikllati Mali Line 

OHeotoJ „„,....„._..,„_ , „ . . . , 

Royal Mall Steam PactortCb -.„ 

NlppoD Yusen Kabusldki Kaisha 6. .._„,.,,,„_.„_.. , 

Oocfdental and Orl«iUa| .,.__._ _ _ . 

Nfifw York and Ciiba Mall ( New York to fiabamM) ^ . . . , „ 
United Fmit Co. (of BritiaH origin* Now York to Britlah 

] [ondiirEu;j * ... ^ ......................... . . , . ^. 

Ofoai Xorthflm , , , ,..., 

Nippon \' usen Kabushikt Xafaha ({lAld to the compviy) , . , 

Dominion Atlantic Railway Co ,*,.** ,, , , 

Boston iStotnishTp Co. .^ ..... ^ ...... ^ , 

Roroi Dutch West India Mall*^,,..., 

United FruH Co. (othef than Brittih. New Otteans to 

British Honduras)......*,,,.. .„ ,„„„,,..... 

Lamport and TIoll. ,..,.. ^.^^ 

PflDinsnlar and Occidental {Miami to Bahama*). .,...-*.., 

R6d D , .., ...,...„.„.... 

Cljde 

Bfneflelda,,. ,, ., 

Booth- 



Barbief.,.,,.,... „., 

l*rln<5e.., 

Unlt«d Friijt Co. ( Philadelphia to JamAlcftj . 

Hooiinn .............. . _ 

OcMn. 



New York and Cuba Mall (New York to BahaOTM, r^oid to 

Ibe company) 

Norton, „..,,.. „..,...,.. ....,..,....._,...,_.,„... 

BntUian „ 

Quebec,...,.,..,,,.,..,...,,..., — ..,,,,,,,►,,,.,- 

Sbatbem Faclflc ,.....>... 

Howvrd Houldflrandl Partneiv _....*.,..,. ,.,,,,,,,„^,„, 

Ron) Dutch W<<5t India Haf 1 tpnld to th« oompany) 

TrfiUdftd Shipping and Trading Cjo. ,... 



Total coiujontnMft xuisoetloneous. 



ToIbI noncontract service . 



5,g39^0&l 
li 107,720 

036,070 
43fi,Q3£ 

224pao» 
104, eoi 
186,ft&0 
1^,000 
80,4fi7 

5S.1D5 
74,afiH 

3,700 
13,830 
37,158 
S4,555 
30,710 

3,550 
12,2S£ 

8,605 

ll,nS2 
11,840 
2,440 
4,%10 
3,930 
3,706 



a09,3S6,835 
214,530,947 

73,912,fl0& 
01,015,84$ 

is,%9,oa5 

14,042,304 
13»85f»,404 
ll,4fl7,307 
12,560.^73 
0,009,387 
5,085,803 

5,777.528 
0, 110, 149 
0,502,882 
5,740,flC@ 
3,287,308 
3,724,710 

LS29,090 

1,5%, SAO 

1,418,851 

1,074,051 

1,739,210 

1,041,010 

093, 160 

405,185 

428,350 

475,430 

197,075 

215,505 

172,576 
153,800 
194,046 
152,405 
13^253 
70,730 
8t,215 
44,445 



21,500,990 
= lbs. 47,500 



4T«,«fil,07l 
-1b9.1p048,Bll 



191,951,504 ! 
-Ibe. 423,263 I- 



1,037,187,141 
lbs. 2, 280*098 



S39J60.3e 
26t427,l5 

11,001.82 
7,105.60 
2,732.90 
2,190.80 
2,l!S,7a 
1,855l85 
U 810. 28 
l,a7L7« 
038123 

858.43 

78a 81 
754.00 
712.27 
430.11 
^3.30 

225.35 
304.90 
2ID.8S 
I02L03 
170.70 
115,08 
91.18 
71.57 
67.33 
48.93 
28.50 
27.46 

25.19 
24.95 
20.01 
18.03 
10^30 
D.00 
7.84 
4,20 



102,001.03 



2P^D07.7§ 



o The weights of the mails conveyed from Colon to Panama are included in those conveyed from New 
York to Colon. 
h Settled for in account of balances due foreign countries. 

CONTRACT SERVICE. 
[Conveyed by vessels under contract with this Department and without additional cost.) 



International Mercantile Marine Co 

RedD 

New York and Cuba Mail (New York to Cuba) 
American Mail , 

Total contract service 

A ggregate 



17,045,122 
924,320 
803,180 
445,335 



20,117,903 
-lbs. 44,300 



212,009,557 
-lbs. 407,013 



01,290,360 

21,978,081 

19,145,796 

4,727,098 



107,148,524 
-lbs. 230,202 



1.144,335,605 
-lbs. 2, 523, 260 



$296,007.78 



244 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



E. — Itemized statement of number , pricesy and cost of all mail hags, and aUto the cost of 
wages J cotton canvas, etc., paid for during the fiscal year ended June SO, 1908, out of 
the appropriation for mail bags, etc. 



Mallpouches, sacks, etc.: 

Canvas pouches with leather bottoms and soft 

heads 

Do 

Do 



Horse mail bags 

Through registered pouches., 
Do 



Size. 



Inner registered sacks.. 
Do 



Catcher pouches 

Sacks for second, third, and fourth class matter. . 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



I 



No. 2 
No. 3 
No. 4 

No.l 
No.l 
No. 2 

No. 2 
No. 3 



Number. 



No.l 
No. 2 
No. 3 
No.l 
No. 2 
No. 3 



Foreign canvas sacks I No. 

Do No.l 

I No. 2 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



No.O 

I No.l 

No.2 

Foreign reglijtered sacks No. 

Do 1 No.l 

Do I No.O 

Do No.l 



Steel lockers 

Rivet heating furnace with blower 

Parts for sewing machines 

Steel for cord fasteners, label cases, etc pounds. .1 ' 90, 648 



No.2 



a 10,800 

a 10,800 

1,341 

1,000 
3,000 
3,000 

4,000 
61,000 

12,600 

215,000 

37,000 

12,000 

1,955 

313 

17 

3,170 
14,918 
2,520 I 
26 ' 

144 I 
20 



Price. 



$2,166 
1.865 
1.6495 

3.9840 
5.1609 
4.0149 

,7914 



1.53 
.735 
.586 
.3267 
.665 
.526 
.2767 

.742 
.633 
,447 
.642 
.553 
.387 



2,167 , 
1,460 

3 I 

152 



.40 
.582 
.32 



Itemized 
cost. 



$23,284.80 
20,142.00 
2,211.98 



15,482.70 
12,044.70 



Aggregate 
cost. 



3,165u60 
650.30 



158,025.00 

21,662.00 

8,920.40 

l,30a06 

164.63 

4.70 



2,362. 14 I 
9,443.00 
1,126.44 
16.69 I 
79.63 I 
7.74 



1,480.06 I 

58aoo 

2.33 I 
.96, 



Brass for grommets, etc do. 

Castings (link for softrhead pouches and dogs for 

cord fasteners) pounds. . 

Leather do 

Wire, charcoal iron, phosphor bronze, brass, etc 

Ice pounds. . 

Laundry. 



I 



12,531 

13,996 ' 
5,167 , 



Repairing pouches, sacks, etc.: 
Labor. 



Repairs made by postmasters and allowed by 
tnls ofTice. 



Cord, thread, and twine. 
Beeswax.. 



36,657 , 



Malleable iron rings 

Rivets and burrs 

Cotton canvas, including remnants, for repairs. 

Traveling expenso<5 and Lnsi)Cction for shop 

Miscellaneous exiwnscs for tools, stock, etc 



U5,638.78 
3,585.60 



27,527.40 



3,815.90 
19,06L50 



185,096.81 



13,02&73 



2,063.35 

904.00 

70.00 

280.74 

3,70L80 

3,063.06 

1,190.46 

2,00151 

189.27 



Total. 



Unexpended balance 

Appropriation, including the sum of 16.73 trans- 
ferred from appropriation for "Supplies," and 
the sum of $2,500 deducted and transferred to 
appropriation for mail locks and keys 



22.47 

117,474.38 

95.50 
8,621.85 
220.50 
177.43 
73L27 
5,674.90 
394.50 
889.80 

445,029.35 
2,477.38 



447,506.73 



a Ten per cent deducted from contract price for defective workmanship. 

t> Ten per cent deducted from contract price on 1,415 catcher pouches for defective workmanahip. 



SECOND ASSISTANT — MAIL POUCHES IN SEEVICE. 



245 



F. — Statement of expenditures out of the approjyriation for mail locks and keys, chains, 
tools, and machiriery, and for labor and material necessary for repairing same, and for 
incidental expenses pertaining thereto, during f seal year enaing June SO, 1908. 



Articles purchased. 



Cost. 



Labor 

Steel 

Brass 

Castings 

Wire, brass, steel, charcoal Iron, phosphor-bronze, etc 

Acids 

Tin and zinc , 

White cotton waste 

Pyralin disks (20,000) , 

Flat steel-spring key rings (5,000) 

Key blanks (4,590) 

Short safety-key chains (3,000) 

Electric motors 

Inverting and changing motors for waii attachment 

Erecting galvanized-iron pipe 

Steel, tilting oblique tumbling barrel, complete 

Wire inclosure for protecting keys 

Laundry 

Ice 

Miscellaneous expenses for tools, stock, etc 

Total : 

Unexpended balance of appropriation 

Appropriation, Including transfers from other appropriations 



S35 
I, 



826.26 

414.61 

767. 41 

879.03 

554.15 

131.81 

201.90 

22.17 

680.00 

25.00 

60.95 

240.00 

341.09 

52.65 

98.00 

£6.00 

148.90 

7.48 

29.86 

678. 14 



45,205. 41 
2,703.90 



a 47,909. 31 



a The sum of 82,909.31 transferred from other appropriations to that for mail locks and keys on account 
of work done by mail lock repair shop. 

G. — Number of United States mml pouches and sacks in service June SO, 1908. 





In use 


Innm 


nUlicd 
uDdfir 
contract 
during 
year. 


Made at 

■hop. 


Total. 


Con- 
demned 
and re- 
tired 
from 
serYloe, 


Inusa 


Ptnjdiea: 

No»2 .,..........*, 


98,825 
75,04fi 

^^ 

51,888 

2.m 
''Si 

934,006 
155,880 
95,253 

8,321 

9,538 
52,018 
21,590 
11,577 

15,378 
31,9efi 
3,838 
2,340 


101,173 
70,311 
35,810 
28,080 

8,401 
10,009 

1,700 
54,000 

1,928 

2,688 

537 

1,068,581 
178,509 
104,012 

BT 

11,393 

4,452 

742 

11,550 
02,SS9 
33,772 
11,529 

18,373 
23,958 

3,338 


10,800 
10,S00 
1,341 

3,000 
3,000 




111,973 
90.111 
37,151 
28,060 

11,401 

13,060 

1,790 

87,209 ' 

2.930 

2,828 
537 

1,306,519 
315,822 
118,829 

57 
18.393 
5,452 

743 

14,758 

77,^1 
30,312 
11,520 

18,544 

25,409 

3.^1 

2,338 


8,376 
5,047 
4,279 
5,238 

155 

002 

424 

12.533 

241 
530 
240 

57,790 
3,635 
1,057 


103,597 


No. 3.. .»....-. _,-. 




84,104 


No.4 .*..-.,... 




32.872 


No, 5. 




35,822 


Through regtot^fld pouobeB: 


n,3oe 


No.2„ ,....,.-.,. 


12,787 


No.3 „..,... 




1,30S 


Cstchi!^ t>ouches ^.-^^.^ . 


12,600 
1,000 




54,676 


QoT^ mall bam: 

No. 1 ^^ 




2,585 


No.2 ......„„, 


a 140 


2,206 


No*3 , 





388 


Sicks for second, third, &nd 
taarth iOMas mutton 
Mo.1, 


210,955 
37,313 
12,017 




1,247,739 


|fa,3 „„„ ,„., 




212. 187 


No.S.... 




115,572 


iKnniiSlEc Inner registeied 
No 1 .,. 




57 


Nd. 2,. 


4,000 
1,000 




21S 
00 
13 

84 
4S8 

52 


15,175 


No.3 „.,-„.„ 




5,353 


No 4 ,., 




728 


Foreign canvas bscI^: 

NoTo 


3pioe 

15,002 
2,540 




14,071 


No. 1„,.,...,... .*-. 




77,443 


No. 2. 




28; 260 


No, 3., „.....-. 




11, 5» 


For^lp njgtstored iadar 


2,171 
],453 




1 

4 


1 18,537 


No.l.. 




^,395 


Ko. 2... „.,.„„.... 






3,830 




.J ,.,, 


2,334 



a Made from old leather 



246 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

G. — Number of United States mail pouches and sacks in service June SO, 190& — Con. 





In use 

Julyl, 

1906. 


In use 

July 1, 

1907. 


Fur- 
nished 
under 
contract 
during 
year. 


Made at 
shop. 


TotaL 


Con- 
demned 
and re- 
tired 
from 
servioe. 


In use 




49,933 
14,952 
36 
110 
250 
248 
252 
150 
20,409 

2,802 
51 

817 
43 

100 

100 

1,225 

200 

12,383 

950 
600 


50,233 
14,952 
36 
110 
250 
248 
205 
150 
19,451 

8,063 

51 

836 

43 

100 

280 

2,116 

200 

24,421 

950 
600 






50,233 

"•"^ 

110 
250 
248 
206 
150 
19,451 

848 
48 
100 

580 

3,141 

400 

29,421 

950 
600 
550 




50,233 


Sea Island sacks 








"'•S 


Knapsack pouches 








Sacks for letter boxes 






1 


109 


Special sacks for Alaska 






260 


Special pouches for Alaska 

Special "3A " pouches 








218 








206 


Special No. 3 sacks, strung 

Special R. M. S. waste sa&.. 








150 






613 
18 


18,888 


Special R. M. S. canvas sacks 
for postal clerks 






"Queen Bee" pouches 






Pneumatic tube pouches 

Special lock pouches 




7 


67 


786 
43 


R. M. S. collectors' satchels... 









100 


" Parcels-post" sacks: 

No 




300 
1,025 

200 
5,000 




580 


No.l 






3,141 
400 


No.2 




"B, P," sacks 




***26" 
11 


29,806 
939 


Sea post sacks: 

No.O 




No.l 






600 


Domestic registered sacks 




550 




560 














Total 


1,757,659 


1,992,283 


338,248 


7,222 


2,337,753 


89,462 


2,238,291 





REPORT 



OF THE 



THIRD ASSISTANT POSTMASTER-GENERAL 



TO THE 



POSTMASTER-GENERAL 



FOR 



THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1908 



247 



[Report of the Third Assistant Postmaster-General.] 



Pagew 

Postal subjects under jurisdiction of the Third Assistant Postmaster-General. . 251 

Revision of accounting methods 251 

Division of Finance 253 

Statement of revenues and expenditures for the fiscal year 253 

Comparison with previous fiscal year 254 

Losses by burglary, fire, bad debts, and compromises 255 

The deficit 255 

Free service performed by Post-OflBce Denartment 255 

Estimated weight and postage on second-class franked and penalty matter. 256 

Amount of uncompensated service 256 

Postal appropriations and expenditures thereunder 256 

Transactions at Treasury depositories 258 

Comparison of deposits during 1908 with those during 1907 258 

Amounts drawn from the Treasury * 258 

Comparison of disbursements, by warrants, issued during 1908 and 1907. . 259 

Statement of receipts at and withdrawals froni depositories 259 

Balances between United States and foreign countries on postal account 

paid by means of exchanges 260 

Remittances received during fiscal year 260 

Treatment of money receiv^ by chief inspector 261 

Advances of postal funds to disbursing postmasters 261 

Designation of disbursing postmasters as depositaries for postal funds of 

all postmasters 262 

False returns of business by postmasters, illegal commissions claimed 263 

Duplicate warrants and checKS 264 

Temporarv deposits of postal funds in national banks and remittances by 

bank drafts 264 

Miscellaneous 265 

New method of certifying accounts for payment of public creditors 265 

Unavailable funds 266 

Statement of gross postal receipts at 50 largest post-oflSces for period from 

July 1, 1899, toJune30, 1908 267 

Division of Stamps: 

Value and number of stamp pieces issued during fiscal year 268 

Requisitions filled 269 

Stamp books 270 

Stamped envelopes 270 

Expert testing of stamped-envelope paper 271 

Box-board containers 271 

Stamped envelopes made of paper supplied by the public 271 

Revision of special-request regulations 273 

Postal cards 273 

Special-delivery stamps 273 

Jamestown commemorative postage stamps 273 

International reply coupons 273 

Stamped paper for the Philippine Islands 274 

Freight shipments 274 

Stamp-vending machines 275 

Furnishing stamps in coils 276 

Perforating post^ stamps for identification 276 

Division of Redemption 276 

Division of Classification: 

Relative proportions of mail matter and the percentage of revenue de- 
rived therefrom 277 

Cost of hand ling second-class mail matter 278 

249 



250 CONTENTS. 

Division of Classification — Continued. P*«e- 

The abuses of the sei'ond-class mailing privileges 279 

Expired-subscription regulation 278 

The revised sample-copy regulation 279 

Results achieved under the new regulations 279 

Premium offers and extraneous inducements for subscriptions 281 

Bulk subscriptions 283 

The final alternative 283 

Compai-ati ve statement of second-class mailings 284 

Numoer of applicationa 284 

Collections or postage on matter improperly mailed at second-class rates 285 

Amendments to postal convention between United States and Canada 285 

Mailing of third and fourth class matter without stamps affixed 286 

Division of Mono}^ Orders: 

Domestic business 287 

International business 287 

DupHcates and repayments 288 

Warrants issued in payment of invalid domestic money orders and postal 

notes 288 

Number of ofliccs 288 

Net proceeds of money-order business 288 

Growth of domestic money-order system 289 

Money orders incorrectly paid 1 289 

Ti-ansfers between money order and postal accounts 290 

Money-order drafts d rawn on postmaster at New York 290 

Reserves 290 

Remittances or deposits of surplus money-ordcT funds 291 

Loss of money-order funds in transit, and by fire, burglary, etc 291 

International uioney-order conventions 291 

Foreijrn exchanjre .*. 291 

Gain in exchanj^e 292 

Changes in the international system 292 

Money -order business with Liberia suspended 292 

Savings feature of the money -order system 293 

Cost of operating system 293 

Cooperation of money ordt^r and registry systems 294 

Recommendations for improved service, proposed postal note 294 

Proposed elimination of ** additional" condition in bonds of postmasters at 

money-order offices 295 

Extension of system 296 

Division of Registered Mails: 

Growth of registry system 297 

Free registrations'. 298 

Volume of the registry business 298 

Money and money values sent in the registered mails 301 

Carrier registration 801 

Handling registered mail on board United States naval vessels 302 

Collections of deliciencies on short-paid registry matter 302 

Ix>sses in registered mails 303 

Indemnity for lost registered mail 903 

Domestic indemnity 304 

Foreign indenmity ' 304 

Immediate payment of indemnity 305 

Through registry exchanj^ea 305 

Not-regular dispatches of inner registenKi sacks 305 

RegistercM.! package jac^kets 306 

Their use in railway mail service 306 

Improvements in the registry service 307 



REPORT 

OF THB 

THIRD ASSISTANT POSTMASTER-GENERAL 

TO THB 

POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



Post-Officb Dbpaktment, 
Office of Third Assistant Postmaster-Gbneral, 

Washington^ D. C, October H^ 1908. 

Sir : I have the honor to submit the report of the Third Assistant 
Postmaster-General for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908. 

The postal subjects within the jurisdiction of this office are the classi- 
fication of domestic mail matter, including the determination of the 
admissibility of publications to the second-class rates, the hearing of 
cases involving the withdrawal of the second-class rates from a publi- 
cation duly entered for nonobservance of the law under which entered, 
the use of penalty envelopes and the franking privilege, and the de- 
termination of questions involvii^ the limit of weight of mail matter; 
the financial system, including the payment by warrant of accounts 
settled by the auditor, the designation of depositories for postal funds, 
the instruction of postmasters relative to the disposition of the postal 
revenue and the disposition of all moneys cominff directly to the de- 
partment; the supervision of the manufacture and issuance of postage 
stamps, stamp books, stamped envelopes, newspaper wrappers, and 
postal cards, the keeping of the accounts involved and the redemption 
of stamped paper ; the money-order system, involving the supervision 
and management of the money-order service, both domestic and inter- 
national, and the preparation of conventions for the exchange of 
money orders with foreign countries: the registry system, involving 
the supervision of the registered-mail service, the establishment and 
control of registered-pouch exchanges and instruction of postal offi- 
cers relative thereto, and the consideration of claims for limited in- 
demnity for lost registered mail matter. 

BEVISION OF ACCOUNTIKa METHODS. 

In the annual report of this bureau for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1907, reference was made to the need^ for a better centralized 
system of statistical and financial bookkeeping for the department as 
a whole. The work incident to such revision logically fell to this 
office as the duly designated financial bureau of the Post-Office De- 
partment. The subject has been given considerable attention and 
much has been done along practicable lines, as will hereafter ax^i^-wt. 



252 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENEBAL, 

Prior to 1836 the Post-Office Department audited its own accounts. 
Conditions became so intolerable under the system that Postniaster- 
General Kendall and Secretary of the Treasury Woodbury sought a 
change, which was brought about by the establishment of the oflBce 
of Auditor for the Post-OfBce Department, and all laws since that 
time have provided that all accounts under the jurisdiction of the 
Post-Office Department " shall be settled and adjusted in the Depart- 
ment of the Treasury." 

Under these laws, and particularly under the construction origi- 
nally given to the act of July 31, 1894, known as the " Dockery Act," 
the postal and money order accounts of postmasters are transmittcKl 
from postmasters direct to the auditor. This method of procedure, 
which is believed to be of doubtful validity, deprives the department 
of an opportunity of making an administrative review oi the acts 
of its own fiscal agents and of analyzing its revenues and expendi- 
tures as correlated to each other as a guide to its administration as a 
public-service institution. The Auditor for the Post-Office Depart- 
ment, a treasury official, is, by the act named, the legal bookkeeper 
of the department, and the administration of the Post-Office Depart- 
ment is therefore compelled to seek from outside sources information 
which should of right be available from sources under its own control. 

Section 14 of the act of July 31, 1894, provides that in all cases 
in which a claim (account) has not received an administrative exami- 
nation it shall be examined by two clerks in the office of the auditor 
acting independently of each other. This requirement of existing 
law is complied with in the office of the Auditor for the Post-Office 
Department with respect to the accounts of the postal service. It is 
needless to say that more satisfactory results would be obtained if 
this duplication of work in the office of the auditor were dispensed 
with and the extra clerical force so employed could be made avail- 
able to the Post-Office Department for the purpose of establishing 
and maintaining the admmistrative examination of accounts it so 
much needs, and which every other executive department has been 
enabled to have. 

Without in any manner interfering with the necessary work of 
the auditor, the Post-Office Department should maintain compre- 
hensive records and books of account covering the transactions of 
its own postmasters and agents, but should limit its work to an 
administrative review of its accounts and an analysis of cost as com- 
pared to correlated revenues. The basic principle of our fiscal 
system, that no officer having control over the expenditure of money 
shall have a voice in the settlement of the accounts thereby createa, 
should be maintained. 

It is not believed that postmasters' accounts for postal and money- 
crder transactions should be merged. The integrity of trust funds 
should be maintained, and their use confined to the purpose of the 
trust. Once consolidated it might be impossible to segregate the 
accounts. 

The department should receive credit for all service performed 
without compensation, and be charged with service rendered it by 
other departments, for the purpose of obtaining the true revenue and 
expense of the service. 



THIKD ASSISTANT DIVISION OF FINANCE. 253 

With the benefits of previous accounting history and the necessity 
of confining innovations within the limitations of existing legisla- 
tion, it was decided that the department might inaugurate a system 
of bookkeeping covering the fiscal operations of its postmasters and 
agents. 

An accounting section to the Division of Finance was created 
by departmental order, as of July 1, 1908. This section maintains 
books of account based upon scientific double-entry or proof methods, 
showing the revenues and expenditures of the postal and money-order 
services, and all items of resource and liability relating thereto, by 
obtaining as far as practicable from administrative sources in the 
department all data within its knowledge, and recording the same 
tentatively pending the certification from the auditor of audited and 
settled accounts. Upon receipt of such settled accounts the tentative 
entries will be compared. If they agree they are made positive and 
finally recorded as such. If they disagree the individual differences 
and errors are brought to light and must be reconciled. 

With the work thoroughly organized the scope of statistical infor- 
mation may be enlarged by making an analysis of expenditures and 
revenues in their relation to each other and as to the functions of a 
public-service institution. 

Apart from the focalized accounting for the department as a unit, 
much detail work may be done in the various administrative divisions, 
the aggregated results serving as a basis of entries in the accounting 
section and at the same time furnishing data for internal admin- 
istration. 

Proof systems of accounting have been successfully installed during 
the year m the Division of Stamps at Washington; at the United 
States stamped-envelope agency at Dayton, Ohio ; and at the stamped- 
envelope and postal-card subagency at St. Louis, Mo. 

An earnest and concerted effort has been made to remedy the defects 
in the department's accounting methods within the limitations per- 
mitted by law. It is felt that a return to the system which existed 
K'or to 1836, as has been suggested in part at least, would be unwise, 
e functions of an auditor should be to settle accounts, and the 
administrative officer should have no voice in such settlement. Review 
or reconciliation, or a " double check " on the factors contained in such 
settlements and the proper recording of such reconciled settlements 
is, however, an administrative necessity, if an analysis of expenditures 
and revenues in such manner as would produce statistical results 
applicable to administrative functions is to be secured. 

DIVISION OF FINANCE. 

The following financial statement shows the postal revenue, by 
sources, and the total actual expenditures for the fiscal year 1908 : 

Ordinary postal revenue, consisting of — 

Sales of postage stamps, stamped en- 
velopes, newspaper wrappers, and 
postal cards $173,374,712.02 

Second-class postage (pound rate) paid 
in money 6, 950, 506. 75 

Receipts from box rents 3, 833, 303. 55 

Third and fourth class postage paid in 
money ^,QSi,^^A^ 



254 BEPOBT OF THE P08TMASTEB-6ENE&AU 

Ordinary postal revenue, consisting of — Ck)n, 
Letter postage paid in money (made up 
principally of balances due from for- 
eign administrations) $107» 482. 11 

Fines and penalties 101,272.01 

Miscellaneous receipts 93,985.68 

Receipts from unclaimed dead letters 36,644.06 

Total ordinary postal revalue 187, 531, 840. 68 

Receipts from money-order business- 3, 677, 755. 44 

Unpaid money orders more than 1 year 

old 260.058.34 

Total receipts from all sources $191, 478» 663. 41 

Expenditures : 

Actual amount of expenditures for the 
service of the year ended June 30, 1908 
(which includes all the expenditures 
made on account of the year up to 

three months after its close) 207,528,222.11 

Expenditures during the year on account 

of previous years 823,664.04 

208,851,886.15 

Excess of expenditures over receipts 16, 873, 222. 74 

COMPARISON WITH PREVIOUS FISCAL YEAR. 

The following comparisons of receipts, expenditures, and defi- 
ciencies with those of the previous year are presented: 

Receipts : 

Postal receipts for 1908, including amount derived from 

money-order business $191,478^063.41 

Postal receipts for 1907, including amount derived from 

money-order business $183,686,005.67 

Increase in postal receipts, including amount derived 
from money-order business, for 1908, as compared witli 
1907 $7, 803, 667. 84 

Per cent of increase 4.29 

Postal receipts for 1908, excluding amount derived from 
money-order business $187,631,849.68 

Postal receipts for 1907, excluding amount derived from 
money-order business $179,846,201.28 

Increase in postal receipts, excluding amount derived 
from money-order business, for 1908, as compared with 
1907 $7, 686, 668. 86 

Per cent of increase 4.27 

Expenditures : 

Total expenditures during 1908, including amount ex- 
pended on account of previous years $208, 861, 886. 16 

Total expenditures during 1907, including amount ex- 
pended on account of previous years $190, 288, 288. 34 

Increase in expenditures in 1908 over 1907 $18,113,607.81 

Per cent of increase 9.62 

Deficiencies : 

Excess of expenditures over receipts 1908 $16, 873, ^g?, 74 

Excess of expenditures over receipts 1907 $6, 663, 282. 77 

Increase in excess of expenditures over receipts 1908 
over 1907 $10,21^939.97 



THIBD ASSISTANT FREE SERVICE. ' 255 

The outstanding liabilities at the close of the year, and the cost of 
transporting the mails over the subsidized Pacific railroads which 
have not yet settled their bonded accounts with the Government, 
amounting to $742,647.22, are not included in the foregoing state- 
ment. 

LOSSES BY BURGLARY, FIRE, BAD DEBTS, AND COMPROMISES. 

During the year, in cases of loss by burglary and fire, where com- 
promises with debtors were found to be necessary, and in others where 
outstanding debts could not be collected, the department suffered 
losses amounting altogether to $37,056.25. 

THE DEFICIT. 

To the excess of expenditures over receipts, of $16,873,222.74, 
there should be added the sum of $37,056.25, in losses by burgkry, 
fire, bad debts, etc., making the gross deficit $16,910,278.99. While 
this deficit is the largest in the history of the Post-Office Department, 
it was for the most part anticipated, due to increases in salaries to 
postal employees authorized by Congress, effective July 1, 1907. 

These increases in salaries, due to increased rate of pay to post- 
office clerks, letter carriers, rural delivery carriers, etc., for the fiscal 
year 1908 over the fiscal year 1907, as shown by the report of the 
auditor, amounted to $9,891,321.92. But for these increases the 
deficit would have been $7,018,957.07, or but $326,925.60 in excess 
of the deficit of the previous year, notwithstanding the usual 
annual increase in receipts of over 9 per cent was not maintained. 
The increase of postal receipts of 1908 over 1907, as shown in the 
financial statement, was but $7,893,657.84, or 4.29 per cent, while the 
increase of 1907 over 1906 was $15,652,222.62, or 9.32 per cent. 

Had the usual percentage of increase in receipts, as shown last 
year over the previous year, been maintained, there would have been 
an increase of revenue over 1907 of $17,110,122.51, which added to 
the total revenue of 1907 would have amounted to $200,695,128.08. 
Subtracting these figures from the expenditures on account of 1908, 
amounting to $208,351,886.15, would leave a difference of $7,656,- 
768.07. Under normal conditions and without the increases in salaries 
above referred to there would have been a surplus of $2,234,563.85 
in the postal revenues for 1908. 

FREE SERVICE PERFORMED BY THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 

The report covering the special weighings of the mails for the six 
months from July 1 to December 31, 1907 (H. Doc. 910), furnishes 
statistics upon which to base calculations approximately accurate as 
to the revenue which would have accrued to the Post-Office Depart- 
ment for the fiscal year 1908 if postage at the usual rates had been 
paid on all matter carried free in the mails for the public and for the 
other executive departments. 

In the following table the volume of second-class matter delivered 
free in the county of publication is considered at the statutory rate 
of 1 cent per pound, and the departmental penalty matter and con- 



256 



BEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEBAL. 



gressional franked matter is rated as sealed or first-class matter, 
which it ordinarily is, at the known average rate per pound derived 
from first-class matter of $0.8753. ( See Table Y, H. Doc, 910.) The 
proportion of penalty matter chargeable to the postal service, esti- 
mated at 56.97 per cent, based on flie report of tne special six days 
weighing of the mails, December 18 to 24, 1907 (Table Za) , is not 
included. 



Class of matter. 


Estimated 
weight. 


JCmUmmtaA 
IKMti«e. 


Second-claRs matter 


Pounds, 
18,644.010 


iG81,50O.M 
8,967.616.44 
16.862,]iL96 


Franked matter 


Peualty matter - -- - - 






Total 


76,866,788 


ao,88i,2».n 


7 



It is not contended that the department is entitled to credit for 
this sum without a corresponding charge to it for CTatuitous service 
it receives from other departments, notably reasonable annual rental 
for post-office quarters and equipment in government buildings pro- 
vided by the Treasury Department, concerning which no iSgures are 
available, but the facts presented have statistical value nevertheless. 

The Post-Office Department, in addition to the foregoing, carried 
for itself and for the postal service 24,683,924 pounds of mail mat- 
ter usually first class, having a postal value, when so rated, of 
$21,662,808.68. 

Based on the cost of handling and transporting second-class mail 
matter of 8§ cents per pound (see p. 32), the Post-Office Department 
during the year 1908 gave to the people, through the publishers of 
newspapers and periodicals enterea as second-class matter, approxi- 
mately $57,000,000 in uncompensated service, this amount being the 
cost of handling and transporting 746,357,282 pounds of second-class 
matter over and above the direct revenue derived therefrom. 

POSTAL APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDITURES THEBEUKDEB. 

Statement of the appropriations, expenditures^ and halances unexpended on 
account of the postal service for the fiscal year ended June SO, 1908. 



Service. 



Office of the Postjnagter-OenercU. 



Advertising 

Post-office inspet'tors , 

Rewards , 

Printing and binding opinions of AssLstaDt Attorney- 
General 

M iscellaneous i terns 



Office qf the First Assistant PostTnaster-OenercU. 



Compensation to postmasters 

Compensation to assistant postmasters and clerks in 

post-offices 

Rent, light, and fuel at first, second, and third class 

post-offices 



Appropria- 
tions. 



$6,000.00 

1,186,770.00 

20,000.00 

10,000.00 
1,000.00 



25,600,000.00 

31,867.000.00 

8,229,000.00 



Expended to 
Sept 80, 1908. 



14,466.64 

1,060,847.90 

1,968.84 



228.85 

25,609,397.62 
30,908,851.75 
8,193,820.94 



Balance mi- 
expended. 



75,922.10 
18,061.16 

10,000.00 
771.65 



a99,a07.6S 

488,6t&9l 

8&,179.0tf 



• Expended in excess of appropriation, but by authority of law. 



THIRD ASSISTANT — APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDITURES. 257 
Statement of the appropriations ^ expenditures, etc. — Continued. 



Service. 



Office of the First AsttistatU Postnuuter-Oeneral—ConVd. 

MLscellaneous items at first and second class post-offices. 

Canceling machines 

Assistant superintendents, division of salaries and 

allowances 

City delivery service 

Special delivery service 

Miscellaneous items 

Office of the Second AsHstarU PottmatUr-QemeroL 

Inland mail transportation, star routes 

Inland mail transportation, steamboat routes 

Mail messengers 

Pneumatic tubes 

Regulation screen wagon 

Inland mail transportation, railroad 

Freight on railroads 

Railway post-office car service 

Inland mail transportation, electric and cable cars 

Mail bags 

Mail locics and keys 

Rent and equipment of buildings for Post-Office De- 
partment 

Railway Mail Service 

Transportation of foreign mails 

Balances due foreign countries 

Miscellaneous items 

Office of the Third ABsiUatU Pottnuuier-Oeneral. 

Manufacture of postage stamps , 

Manufacture of stamped envelopes and newspaper 

wrappers 

Distribution of stamped envelopes and newspaper 

w rappers 

Manufacture of postal cards , 

Distribution of postal cards 

Ship, steamboat, and way letters 

Indemnities for losses by registered mail (first class) . . 
Special counsel, suits second-class mailing privilege.... 

Payment of money orders more than 1 year old , 

Miscellaneous items , 

OffU:e of the Fourth AssUiarU Pogtnuuter-OenercU. 

Stationery for postal and mon6y -order service , 

Registered paclcage, tag, official, and dead-letter envel- 
opes , 

Blanks, etc., for money-order service , 

Blanks, blank tx>oks, etc., for registry system 

Supplies, city delivery service 

Postmarlclng, rating, and money-order stamps 

Letter balances, scales, and test weights 

Wrapping paper 

Wrapping twine 

Packing boxes, sawdust, paste, and hardware 

Printing facing slips, etc 

Typewriters, copying presses, etc 

Rural delivery service 

Shipment of supplies 

Distribution of official and registry envelopes 

Miscellaneous Items 

Total 



Appropria- 
tions. 



9275,000.00 
276,000.00 

84,600.00 

28,914.800.00 

1,065.000.00 

1,000.00 



7,260,000.00 

829,000.00 

1,427,000.00 

1,260,000.00 

1.321.000.00 

44,660.000.00 

260,000.00 

5,080.000.00 

870,000.00 

447.600.00 

47,500.00 

43.855.00 

17,749.843.00 

3,270,500.00 

179,000.00 

1,000.00 



609,000.00 

1,275,000.00 

22.060.00 

214,000.00 

6,720.00 

500.00 

10,000.00 

2,787.68 

878,010.97 

1,000.00 



95,000.00 

200.000.00 

2(X),000.00 

5.000.00 

80,000.00 

35.000.00 

10.000.00 

13.000.00 

800.000.00 

2.500.00 

60.000.00 

80,000.00 

34,986,000.00 

100,000.00 

11,020.00 

1,000.00 



Expended to 
Sept. 80, 1908. 



9254,687.87 
274,011.09 

80,747.03 

26,348,201.19 

1,108,164.36 

689.96 



7,125, 
763, 

1,416, 
482, 

1.319. 

43,588, 

211. 

4,567, 
791, 
447, 



026.30 
333.76 
300.19 
812.62 
017. 18 
012.70 
497.07 
366.25 
783.33 
500.00 
786.10 



43.611.31 

17,878,836.92 

2,844,679.63 

138,062.82 

806.58 



494,046.04 

1,094,100.49 

21,004.47 

180,152.98 

5,716.59 

124. 76 

1,461.67 

2,788.38 

878,010.97 

802.84 



94,060.76 

197. 178. 74 

198.968.65 

8.030.81 

67,050.60 

34.979.79 

7,814.85 

10.141.03 

280,378.09 

2,600.00 

42,746.86 

78,699.74 

84,355,209.04 

40.674.99 

2,862.06 

620.30 



213,126,466.66 207,528,222.11 



Balance un- 
expended. 



•20,862.63 
988.91 

8,852.97 

571,098.81 

ii 23, 164. 36 

310.05 



124.974.70 

65,666.26 

10,699.81 

767 187.38 

1,982.82 

1,071,987.30 

38.502.98 

512.638.76 

78,266.67 



2,768.90 

348.69 
876,506.08 
425,820.87 
40,947.18 

194.42 



14.953.96 

180,899.61 

1,055.68 

83,847.02 

8.41 

875.24 

8,538.33 

4.85 



197.66 



940.25 

2,821.26 
1.031.35 
1,969.19 

12,949.40 

20.21 

2, 185. 15 

2.858.97 

19,621.91 



17,253.64 
1,300.26 
629,790.96 
59,825.01 
8,167.94 
479.70 



6,719,806.41 



« Expended In excess of appropriation, but by authority of law. 
CnOCM— p M a 11)08 17 



258 BEPORT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEBAL. 

TRANSACTIONS AT TREASURr DEPOSITORIES. 

The account for the year shows the following receipts and dis- 
bursements at Treasury depositories, viz : 
Amount of outstanding warrants June 30, 1907 $1,658,617.51 

Balance on hand June 30, 1907 $12,638,298.75 

Counter entry of deposit on account of previous 

year 1, 028. 20 

12. 632, 265. 49 

Deposits : 

On account of postal revenue 66,080,872.44 

On account of grants from the General 

Treasury 13,035,430.16 

79, 125. 302. 60 

Total amount received during the year ended June 30, 

1908 91,767,568.09 

Amount of warrants paid during the year ended June 30, 1908 83, 169, 309. 69 

Balance at depositories ' 8,598.268.40 

Ajnount of outstanding warrants June 30, 1908 1, 761.442.03 

Balance subject to draft June 30, 1908 6, 836, 816. 37 

COMPARISON OF DEPOSITS DURING 1908 WITH THOSE DURING 1907. 

Grants from Treasury during 190S $13,035,430.16 

Grants from Treasury during 1907 7,695,998.21 

Increase in grants during 1908 over 1907 $5,389,431.95 

Deposits during 1907 73, 346, 499. 95 

Deposits during 1908 06,089,872.44 

Decrease in deposits during 1908 from 1907— $7, 256, 627. 51 

Per cent of decrease 9.89 

Total decrease in grants and deposits $1,917,195.56 

Per cent of total decrease 2.36 

The grants during 1007 and 1908, above stated, were on account of 
the fiscal years named and prior years also. 

AMOUNTS DRAWN FROM THE TREASURY. 

The following amounts were drawn from the General Treasury 
within the last fiscal year on account of special and deficiency appro- 
priations, viz: 

Deficiency in postal revenue: 

For 1903 $26,950.00 

For 1905 and previous years 8, 480. 16 

For 1906 600, 000. 00 

For 1907 1, 400, 000. 00 

For 1908 11, 000, 000. 00 

. Total 13,035,430.16 

Grants from the General Treasury on account of deficiency in the 
postal revenue during the fiscal year enderl June 80, 1907, and on ac- 
count of that fiscal year only, aggregated $0,000,000, while the grants 
on account of the fiscal year 1908 only were $11,000,000. 



THIRD ASSISTANT — WITHDRAWALS. 



269 



C0MPASI80N OF DISBUBSEMENTS BT WABBANT8 ISSUED DURING 1908 WITH THOSE 

ISSUED DURING 1907. 

Amount of warrants issued during 1908 $83, 262, 134. 21 

Amount of warrants issued during 1907 79, 722, 880. 65 

Increase in amount of warrants issued during 1908 over 

1907 $3, 539, 253. 66 

Per cent of increase 4.43 

Of the $79,125^02.60 deposited on account of postal revenue, 
$31,877.06 came through national-bank depositories. The balance 
remaining in national-bank depositories at tne close of the year was 
$11,267. 28. 

statement of receipts at and withdrawals from Treasury depositories during the 

fiscal year ended June SO, 1808, 

RECEIPTS. 



Treasurer United States, Washington, 
D.C 

Assistant treasurer United States: 



Net deposits. 



Ja«7,036,430.16 
t 1,311,331.64 



Baltimore, Md 

Boston, Mass 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio... 
New Orleans, La... 

New York, N.Y.... 

Philadelphia, Pa... 
San Francisco, Cal . 



St. Louis, Mo 

Designated national banks. 



^6. 
15, 
3, 
2. 

ro5. 

[22, 
5, 
3, 



Total 79,125,302. 



400,000.00 
061,696.21 
048,024.68 
414.382.55 
667,707.26 
663, 921. 15 
000,000.00 
991,803.67 
618,098.81 
614,640.58 
600,000.00 
766,388.83 
31,877.06 



Transfer account. 



To— 



I »2, 532, 195. 14 
I 1,100,000.00 



1,800,000.00 
200,000.00 



I 8,500,000.00 
800,000.00 



} 1,300, 



000.00 



From — 



$5,400,000.00 



100,000.00 

2,700,000.00 

3,000,000.00 

200.000.00 

1,300,000.00 

1,000,000.00 

200,000.00 
1,800,000.00 



82,195.14 



15,232.195.14 15,232,195.14 94,357,497 74 



Aggregate 
accumula- 
tion. 



S10,878,956.94 



2,561,696.21 

5,048,024.68 
16,714.382.55 
3,767,707.26 
2,663.921.15 

36,491,803.67 

5,918,098.81 
8,614,640.58 

6,666,888.88 

81,877.06 



■ Grants from the General Treasury on account of deficiency in the postal reyenue. 

WITHDRAWALS. 



Treasurer United States, Washington, 

D.C 

Assistant treasurer United States. 

Baltimore. Md 

Boston, Mass 

Chicago, 111 

Cincinnati, Ohio 

New Orleans, La 

New York, N.Y 

Philadelphia, Pa 

San Francisco, Cal 

St. Louis, Mo 

Designated national banks 

Old accounts 



Total. 



Amount of war- 
rants paid for 
1908. 



93,687,459.81 

2.428,938.96 
2,729,812.23 

14.673,897.57 
4,098,363.59 
1,984.363.50 

37,331,288.34 
6,683,865.46 
2,715,422.78 
6.825,897.45 



83,159,309.69 



Balance on 

hand June 30, 

1908. 



$2,066,218.19 

280,108.87 

380,968.91 

2,041,721.11 

284,955.98 

330,813.87 

1,142,625.70 

686,255.07 

614,938.25 

771, 113. 61 

11,267.28 

37,277.06 



8,598,258.40 



^e jui?5o Ject to draft 
im |june30,1908. 



$1,178.01 

96,496.75 

19,179.59 
146,826.90 
219,778.89 

65,628.63 
632,654.72 

25,004.73 
805,535.06 
249.159.26 



$2,065,035.18 

188,612.12 

361,789.82 

1,894,894.21 

65,177.59 

265,184.74 

509,970.98 

661,250.34 

309,403.20 

521,954.85 

11,267.28 

87,277.06 



1,761,442.03 I 6,836,816.37 



Balance on hand June 30, 1907 $12, 633, 293. 75 

Counter entry receipt account of 1907 1, 028. 26 

12 632 265 49 

Receipts for fiscal year 1908 79l 125l 302! 60 

Total 91, 757, 568. 09 

Warrants paid for fiscal year 1908 83,159,309.69 

Balance 

Warrants outstanding June 30, 1908 



8, 598, 258. 40 

1, 761, 442. 08 

l^et balance subject to warrant June 80, 1908 6«836^S1^.&T 



260 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

BALANCES BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND FOREIGN GOtTKTBIES ON 
POSTAL ACCOUNT PAID BY MEANS OV EXCHANGES. 

The amount of the balances due the United States from foreign 
countries settled during the year was $69,825.34, of whidi amount 
$19,373.10 represented balances due this department from foreign 
countries on postal account, which were credited to the United States 
as remittances on money-order account and their equivalent in United 
States currency deposited with the assistant treasurer ^t New York, 
N. Y., to the credit of the postal revenue. 

The amount of balances due foreign countries from the United 
States, as reported to this department by the Auditor for the Post- 
Office Department, and remitted by means of bills of exchan^ pur- 
chased through the postmaster at New York, N. Y., during the year 
was $289,222.40. 

REMITTANCES RECEIVED DURING THE YEAR. 

The aggregate sum of $271,442.01 was received from postmasters 
who erroneously remitted to this bureau balances due tne Govern- 
ment; from collections made by the chief inspector on account of 
defaulting postmasters and the recovery of postal remittances lost 
in transit; from stamp collectors and others for the purchase of 
stamps, stamped envelopes, and for other purposes; by bills of ex- 
change coverm^ balances due from foreign postal administrations, 
and money received from the Fourth Assistant Postmaster-General 
found in dead letters for which no owners could be found and that 
realized fi'om the auction sale of unclaimed articles accumulated in 
the Division of Dead Letters. 

The disposition of the sums received was as follows: 

Amount deposited with the Treasurer of the United 

States at Washington, D. C $206,490.34 

Amount deposited with the assistant treasurer of the 

United States at New Yorlt, N. Y 22, 528. 48 

Amounts otherwise properly disposed of 689. 51 

Amount returned to remitters 5,014.43 

Total $284, 722.76 

Dead-letter fund : 

Amount in current funds deposited in the Treas- 
ury at Washington, D. C 35,920.48 

Amount realized from the sale of foreign and un- 
current funds by the postmaster at New York, 
N. Y., and deposited with the assistant treas- 
urer at New York, N. Y 780.83 

Total amount deposited 36, 701.31 

Amount of loss sustained in sale of uneurrent 
funds from counterfeits and mutilated minor 
coin, and deductions on account of light-weight 
gold 17. 94 

Total dead-letter fund 80,719.25 

Total receipts from all sources 271,442.01 



THIRD ASSISTANT — POSTAL FUNDS. 261 

TREATMENT OF MONEY RECEIVED BY THE CHIEF INSPECTOR. 

Under date of June 9, 1908, section 157 of the Postal Laws and 
Regulations was amended to read as follows : 

All moneys received from mail robbers, or other offenders against the postal 
laws, and moneys recovered by suit, or otherwise, on account of moneys taken 
from the mail or losses therein, shall be forwarded at once to the chief in- 
spector, who shall deposit the same daily with the superintendent, Division of 
Finance, office of the Third Assistant Postmaster-General. 

The chief inspector shall determine, upon satisfactory evidence, the proper 
parties or owners to whom the moneys shall be restored, and the superintendent. 
Division of Finance, office of the Third Assistant Postmaster-General, shall 
make payments in accordance with the schedule furnished and approved by the 
chief inspector, under the authorization of the Postmaster-General. 

Under this order, the superintendent, Division of Finance, on July 
1, 1908, opened a disbursing account with the Treasurer of the United 
States, to which deposits have been made daily of moneys received 
from the chief inspector, and disbursements are made twice a month. 
The average amount received from the chief inspector approximates 
$19,000 per month, and the average number of checks issued per 
month is 400. Formerly such money as could not otherwise be dis- 
posed of by post-office inspectors was forwarded to the chief inspector, 
who deposited the same m bank to his credit, payments being made 
by his personal check under an approved schedule of the Postmaster- 
General. 

ADVANCES OF POSTAL FUNDS TO DISBURSING POSTMASTERS. 

This bureau during the past fiscal year approved 268 requisitions 
representing monthly advances of postal funds to disbursing post- 
masters whose receipts were insufficient to meet the payment oi sal- 
aries of employees of the postal service authorized to be paid from 
their offices. Warrants were issued to these officials in the sum of 
$14,475^50. 

The amounts advanced to disbursing postmasters by warrants from 
December, 1904, when this method was first introduced, to and in- 
cluding the fiscal year 1908, and the average amount so advanced each 
month, are shown as follows: 



Year. 


Amount. 


Average 

amount per 

month. 


1906 (last 7 months) 


$5,434,650.00 
10,881,675.00 
11,802,100.00 
14,475,150.00 


«776,378.89 


1906 . 


906,806.25 


1907 


983.508.33 


1908 . - - .. --. 


1,206,262.50 









This is an increase of $2,678,050 over the amount advanced to 
these postmasters during the fiscal year 1907, and is due mainly to 
the increase in the number and salaries of employees of the service 
and a decrease in receipts at some post-offices. 

Prior to July 1, 1908, 27 disbursing postmasters were accustomed to 
make monthly requisitions for sums ranging from $1,000 to $180,000 
in amount, to provide for the authorized expenses of their offices and 



262 REPORT OF THE POST MASTER-GEN EBAL* 

the payment of rural carriers in their States. Since that date only 
12 of these disbursing postmasters have found it necessary to apply 
for advances for this purpose, and the additional deposits received 
from presidential postmasters have enabled them to materially re- 
duce their requisitions. When the instructions. of the department 
with regard to such deposits are fully understood and complied 
with, a further reduction in the amount of advances required by 
disbursing postmasters will result. These advances are now made by 
acountable warrants drawn on the Treasurer of the United States in 
favor of the assistant treasurer for credit to the disbursing account 
of the postmaster, a time-saving expedient. 

DESIGNATION OF DISBURSING POSTMASTERS AS DEPOSITARIES FOR THE 
POSTAL FUNDS OF ALL POSTMASTERS. 

The act of July 1, 1884, authorized the Postmaster-Greneral to 
designate postmasters at money-order post-offices as disbursing 
officers for the payment of the salaries of officers and employees of 
the postal service, and for such other payments from postal revenues 
as postmasters are now authorized to make. 

Under this authority the department designated 50 disbursing post^ 
masters for the purpose of paying the salaries of employees of the 
rural-delivery service in their respective States or Territories. These 
payments were made by checks drawn on the depositary national 
bank in which the postmaster carried his disbursing account. Kural 
carriers and others sometimes were compelled to pay exchange on 
these checks when presented at banks and business houses. When 
cashed by postmasters and forwarded to their depositaries they were 
often returned because they could not be handled. The disbursing 
postmaster in each State who makes payment of the salaries of rural 
carriei*s thereupon was made the depositary for postal funds for all 
postmasters of the fourth class in that State. 

This tentative change was intended to afford to the hdlders of 
government paper increased facilities for obtaining cash thereon, 
and to lessen the amount of advances of funds by the department to 
disbursing postmasters to meet the authorized expenses of their 
offices. The deposits of fourth-class postmasters only slightly re- 
duced the necessary advances to disbursing postmasters, and presi- 
dential postmasters were still unable to handle disbursing post- 
masters' checks drawn on national banks, because the assistant treas- 
urers with whom they made their deposits declined to receive in 
lieu of cash the checks to rural carriers drawn on depositary national 
banks. To relieve the situation and still further reduce the amount 
of advances of funds to disbursing postmasters, the Postmaster- 
General directed that on and after July 1, 1908, the disbursing post- 
master in each State or Territory should be the depositary for postal 
funds of all postmasters in that State or Territory. The disbursing 
postmasters themselves continue to deposit with the Treasurer or 
an assistant treasurer of the United States as heretofore. 

Arrangements have been made for disbursing postmasters to use 
uniform official checks drawn on assistant treasurers of the United 
States for the payment of rural carriers. These checks are drawn 
against deposits made with assistant treasurers in a special disbursing 



THERD ASSISTANT — FALSE RETURNS.* 263 

account in the name of the postmaster, and are treated as government 
paper. They are cashed by postmasters everywhere, when the receipts 
of their offices permit, and are remitted to their depositaries in lieu 
of currency and coin. 

This change in depositaries of postmasters from assistant treas- 
urers of the United States to disbursing postmasters has apparently 
accomplished the objects desired. Complaints are no longer received 
from the holders of government paper of difficulty in securing cash 
thereon. The increased receipts at disbursing post-offices have re- 
duced the requisitions for monthly advances of runds from disbursing 
postmasters as stated elsewhere. 

FALSE RETURNS OF BUSINESS BY POSTMASTERS — ILLEGAL COMMISSIONS 

CLAIMED. 

The following statement shows the work of the year on the subject 
of false returns of business by postmasters involving claims for com- 
missions on padded cancellations and diverted mail matter : 

Cases on hand awaiting action June 30, 1907 511 

New cases received 821 

Total 1, 332 

Cases closed by orders withholding illegal commissions 151 

Cases closed without action after investigation 575 

Cases awaiting reports of investigations 5S0 

Cases on hand awaiting action 26 

Total 1, 832 

New cases prepared for Investigation : 

On false cancellations 600 

On diversion of mail 88 

On failure to deposit postal funds 133 

Total 821 

Amount received from collections $21,648.08 

Number of orders withholding commissions and requiring charges 

In postmasters' accounts 160 

Amount of commissions withheld requiring charges in postmasters' 

accounts $31,442. 12 

This^atement shows an apparent increase of 255 new cases of this 
character over last year. Attention has been drawn to the increasing 
number of cases growing out of false reports of cancellations and 
diversions of mail matter for the purpose of increasing postmasters' 
compensation at offices of the fourth class. No accurate estimate can 
be made of the probable loss of revenue to the department arising 
from such practices, but the experience of this bureau in dealing with 
such abuses fully warrants a renewal of previous recommenoations 
for corrective legislation as follows: 

First. That the annual compensation of postmasters at offices of the fourth 
class be in fixed sums, not exceeding $1,000, In a graded scale of even tens and 
hundreds of dollars. 

Second. That at the beginning the compensation of each postmaster of this 
class be determined upon the returns for the preceding four quarters, made ac- 
cording to the provisions of the present law. 



264 BEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

Third. That the salaries thus established remain during a period of four 
years, except in special cases showing abnormal increases or decreases in 
business, in which the Postmaster-General be given the authority to readjust 
the salaries of the postmasters. 

Fourth. That at the end of this period and every four years thereafter the 
annual compensation then existing shall be increased or decreased In eyean 
tens of dollars in proportion to the increase or decrease of population and of 
the business of the offices, as shown by — 

(a) Record of registered mail delivered and dispatched. 

(6) Record of money orders issued and paid. 

(c) Volume of ordinary mail matter handled and such other factors as shall 
be required by the Postmaster-General. 

Fifth. That where the tributary population and business of an office remains 
practically stationary or shows no greater increase or decrease of business than 
10 per cent there shall be no new adjustment of salary. 

Under a fixed annual compensation it is believed that cases of this 
character would be entirely disposed of with no real injustice to any 
postmaster. The present ineflfectual restrictions upon the sales of 
postage stamps, stamped envelopes, and postal cards would, further- 
more, be removed. 

DUPLICATE WABRANTS AND CHECKS. 

Under the act of May 27, 1908, specific legislation has been obtained 
governing the issuance of duplicates of lost original post-office de- 
partment warrants and disbursing postmasters' checks. The law 
read^ as follows : 

Whenever any original check or warrant of the Post-Office Department has 
been lost, stolen, or destroyed, the Postmaster-General may authorize the 
Issuance of a duplicate thereof within three years from the date of such original 
check or warrant, upon the execution by the owner thereof of such bond of 
indemnity as the Postmaster-General may prescribe : Provided^ That when such 
original check or warrant does not exceed in amount the sum of fifty dollars, 
and the payee is, at the date of the application, an officer or employee in the 
service of the Post-Offlce Department, whether by contract, designation, or 
appointment, the Postmaster-General may, in lieu of an indemnity bond, author- 
ize the issuance of a duplicate check or warrant upon such an affidavit as he 
may prescribe, to be made before any postmaster by the payee of an original 
check or warrant. 

The forms of bond of indemnity and affidavit referred to in the law 
have been prescribed and approved by the Assistant Attorney- 
General for the Post-Office Department, and are now in use. This 
legislation now permits the owner of a lost Post-Office Department 
warrant or disbursing postmaster's check to secure a duplipate of 
same without any imdue loss of time after the execution of the neces- 
sary bond or affidavit, as the case may be. 

TEMPORARY DEPOSITS OF POSTAL FUNDS IN NATIONAL BANKS AND 
REMITTANCES BY BANK DRAFTS. 

In previous reports of this bureau the need for a change in the pro- 
visions of law governing temporary deposits of government moneys 
by postmasters m bank was discussed. The law then confined such 
deposits to national banks located in the county in which a post-office 
was situated, and the postmaster could only deposit in a national 
bank in the absence of a designated depositary, or treasurer, or as- 
sistant treasurer of the United States, within that county. This 

ised postmasters great embarrassment and inconvenience, in locali- 



THIBD ASSISTANT — CERTIFYING ACCOUNTS. 265 

ties where there were no national banks, and where the national bank 
in the county was located at a considerable distance from the post- 
office. If there was in the county a designated depositary for govern- 
ment moneys, the postmaster, if he deposited temporarily at all, was 
forced to select that depositary for the purpose, even though it might 
be miles distant and inaccessible to his office. Moreover, as postmas- 
ters were not authorized to deposit in state or private banks, the use 
of drafts of such banks in making remittances to their depositaries 
was not, of course, perpiitted. This also was a source of much an- 
noyance to postmasters, and numerous complaints were received at 
the department on the subject. Pursuant to these recommendations 
referred to section 3847 of the Revised Statutes (sec. 358 of the 
Postal Laws and Regulations) was amended by act of Congress of 
May 27, 1908, as follows: 

Any postmaster having public money belonging to the Government, at an Office 
within a city or town where there is no Treasurer or assistant treasurer of the 
United States, or designated depositary, may deposit the same temporarily, at 
his own risl£ and in his official capacity, in any national or state bank in the 
State in which the said postmaster resides, or in which his office is located, or 
within a reasonable radius of his post-office in an adjacent State, t)ut no author- 
ity or permission is or shall be given for the payment to or receipt by a post- 
master or any other person of interest, directly or indirectly, on any deposit 
made as herein described. 

Where temporary deposits are maintained by postmasters in national or 
state banks regular remittances must be made to their depositaries as pro- 
vided in sections 362 to 370. 

This legislation has removed the embarrassing restrictions which 
heretofore existed. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

The number of accounts of contractors and other creditors of the 
Government on account of the postal service received from the audi- 
tor and paid during the year was 299,073, requiring the recording, 
drawing, signing, and mailing of the same number of warrants, a 
decrease of 2,994 irom the preceding year. The net amount expended 
by warrants was $83,262,134.21. 

The number of accounts of balances due present and late post- 
masters received from the auditor and paid during the year was 
6,514, requiring the issuance of the same number of transfer drafts, 
aggregatmff in amount $110,628.53. 

The number of collection drafts prepared by the Auditor for the 
Post-Office Department and transmitted for signature during the 
year was 3,902. 

The number of new contracts for mail service received, examined, 
and entered was 3,972, and the number of orders of the Postmaster- 
General ajffecting the mail service entered was 27,515. 

There were 821 cases involving the accounts of present and late 
postmasters prepared by this office and referred to the chief inspector 
for investigation, an increase over 1907 of 329 cases, or 66.8 per cent. 

NEW METHOD OP CERTIFYING ACCOUNTS FOR THE PAYMENT OP PUBLIC 

CREDPTORS. 

A change was made bv the Auditor for the Post-Office Department 
July 1, 1^8, in the metnod of certifying the accounts of creditors of 



266 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

the department and balances due postmasters, for payment by war- 
rant. Formerly such certifications were made on sheets containing 
the accounts oi from one to ten creditors and these sheets were not 
furnished in duplicate. Since July 1, balances due creditors have 
been certified in duplicate on sheets containing often as many as 40 
names, arranged according to the depositary upon whom the warrant 
is to be drawn, and showmg the appropriation from which each ac- 
count is to be paid. While some difficulty has been experienced in 
preparing warrants from these large sheets, yet it is believed that 
this is an improvement over the former method of certification, as 
the department has a retained record in the form of loose sheets which 
may be bound into permanent records. 

UNAVAILABLE FUNDS. 

In the last annual report of the bureau it was recommended that 
legislation be obtained to relieve the Treasurer of the United States 
from further accountability for the sum of $37,277.06 carried as 
"unavailable funds^" which balance represents items charged to cer- 
tain subtreasury officials at the beginnmg of the civil war in 1861. 
This balance has been carried on the records of the department forty- 
seven years, and legislation is again urged which will permit of a 
corresponding credit to the Treasurer of the United States so that 
this old account may be closed. The balances are not collectible, and 
the Treasurer of the United States is not responsible for the sum. 



1?HIBD ASSISTANT — POSTAL RECEIPTS. 



267 



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268 



REPORT OF THE POST MASTER-GEN EJElAL. 



DIVISION OF STAMPS. 

During the fiscal year 1908 there was an increase in the total issue 
of postage-stamped paper amounting to 2.29 per cent over the previ- 
ous year. Postmasters' requisitions filled duruigthe year aggregated 
$176,974,190.24, an increase of $3,967,713.97. The total number of 
pieces of stamped paper was 9,772,059,664. an increase of 440,140,609: 
books of stamps, 18,213,310, an increase or 526,510. ^ That the issue or 
postage stamps will cross the ten-billion mark during the fiscal year 
1909 is confidently anticipated. 

Details of the stamped-paper issues of 1908 are given in the tables 
following: 

Statement of postage stamps, stamp hooks, postal cards, stam,ped etwelopes^ €md 
newspaper wrappers, by denominations, issued during the fiscal year ended 
June SO, 1908. 



Postage stamps. 


mitve. 


0niln*Ty. 


due. 


1-cent ^ 


H&, 730,300 


42,687,880 
4.BSd,0^.fiOQ 

a7fl,5S9,a20 

Ill-.-ll.^^HI 
■,■■,■."'- I> l> 

51,M9JU0 
6,770.700 
7, 733,1^0 


I@, 607,600 


l-cent in stamp books 




2-cent , 


4fl,419,SW 


lS,Sl^,400 


2-<'ent, ill slump l»H)ks 




3-cent ,..,.,_,....,* 


602,000 


4-('ent '■ -- 




6-ceiit 


a,m,2uo 


1,46&,90U 


6-cent . . 




8-ceiit .... ...^' *,,•* 




10-cent L,.., 


4.W9,KS0 


13-cent .1. ,, ,, 


15-cent .,..,- -^ . . ..^- 




30-eent - *** 


t^ 


50-cent .*...-. ^, ... ^,.1 


1,355 

730 

12,119.430 


1 -d ol 1 a r . . _ . 


2-dollar 


: 




S-dollar 4. . 




10-cei)t, special delivery ..... 










Total 


F2, 472, 400 


7,fiei,407,435 


33,^121,760 


Valut' 


iU4n.su 


9140, ess, 76e 


fl.O»l,«SS 





stamp hooks. 
Denomination : 

Books of 24 1-cent stamps each 

Books of 12 2-cent stamps each 

Books of 24 2-cent stamps each 

Books of 48 2-cent stamps each 



Total. 



Number. 
1, 778, 040 

12, 021, 21(11 
3, 314, 220 
1,099,240 

18, 213, 310 



Value $6, 140, la^ 10 



Postal cards. 



Denomination : 

A, 1-cent 

D, 1-cent, double- 

E, 2-cent 

F, 2-cent, double. 
K, 1-cent. 



187, 600 

16, 526, 600 

1, 386, 900 

110, 850 

1, 391, 60O 

McKinley, 1-cent 789, 823, 60O 



Total 809,426,750 

Value $8.276,72r 



THIRD ASSISTANT — REQUISITIONS FILLED. 



369 



stamped envelopes and newspaper wrappers. 



Denomination. 



Ordinary 
stamped en- 
velopes and 

wrappers. 



r 

Special-re- \ 

quest stamped : 

envelopes, j 



Total. 



1-cent envelopes. 
2-cent envelopes. 
4-cent envelopes. 
&-cent envelopes, 
1-cent wrappers . 
2-cent wrappers , 
4-cent wrappers . 

Total 

Value 



75,023.260 

309,710,225 

285,250 

411,750 

34,511,250 

2,920,600 

24,250 



51,977,50C 

790,334,584 

893,000 

411,000 



127,000,750 

,100,044,809 

678,250 

822,760 

34,511,260 

2,920,500 

24,250 



422,886,475 1 843,116,084; 1,266,002,569 



$7, 926, 672. 11 i $17, 489, 672. 43 , »25, 416, 344. 54 



Statement showing increase in issue of postage stamps, stamp hooks, stamped 
envelopes, newspaper wrappers, postal cards, and international reply covr 
pons for the fiscal year ended June SO, 1908, as compared toith the issue of 
the previous year. 



Ordinary postage stamps 

Pottage stamps in books 

Commemorative series of 1907. 

Special-delivery stamps 

Postage-due stamps 

Ordinary stamped envelopes. . 

Special-request envelopes 

Newspaper wrappers 

Postal cards 

International reply coupons . . 



Total 

Add stamp books. 



Grand total 178,006,476.27 176,974,190.24 



• Decrease. 



Value. 



1907. 



1908. 



Increase. 



n25,310.349.00 
5,837,469.60 
2,712,841.00 
1.385.616.00 
1,029,368.00 
7,890,&51.28 
19,854,132.14 
576,862.25 
8,232,119.00 



172,889,608.27 
176,868.00 



$133,468,753.00 

5,958.060.00 

1,411,811.00 

1,211,943.00 

l,aS4,693.00 

7, 49.% 837. 42 

17,489,672.43 

430,834.69 

8,276,727.00 

13,725.60 



$8,158,404.00 

120,590.40 

01,301,030.00 

a 173, 673. 00 

5,325.00 

a 395, 013. 86 

a 2, 364. 459. 71 

a 146, 027. 56 

44,608.00 

13, 725. 60 



176,792,057.14 
182, 133. 10 



3,962,448.87 
5,265.10 



3,967,713.97 



Per cent of 
increase. 



8.01 
16.64 

(6) 

7.06 

3.85 
21.59 
12.58 
17.38 

1.01 



10.73 
18.90 



10.74 j 



►No issue in previous years. 



1906. 



6.51 

2.06 

a 47. 95 

12.53 

.61 

O5.00 

oil. 90 

a 25. 31 

.54 

(6) 



2.29 
2.97 



2.29 



REQUISITIONS FILLED. 



The number of requisitions filled during the past year, compared 
with the number filled in the fiscal year 1907, follows : 



stock. 



1907. 



Stamps: 

Ordinary 187,793 

Commemorative aeries, 1907 11, 074 

Stamp books i 57, 326 

Postage due 17, 191 

International reply coupons 

Stamped envelopes: , 

Unprinted and wrappers 1 67,774 

Spe<;ia1 request 480, 314 

Postal cards | 75,536 



Total • 897,008 

Net decrease 



1908. 



169,796 

2,322 

52,005 

15,374 

1,319 

53,536 
423, 840 
71,211 



Increase. Decrease. Per cent. 



788,903 j 



1,319 



17,997 
8,752 
5,821 
1.817 



14,238 
66.974 
4,325 



1,319 ; 



I 



119,424 

lie, 105 



* No issue in previous years. 



9.58 
79.03 

9.28 
10.67 
(a) 

21.01 
13.94 
5.72 



13.17 



270 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GEN EBAL. 

Although there was an increase in quantity of ordinary and post- 
age-due stamps and stamp books issued, the number of requisitions 
for these varieties of stamped paper was less than last year. This 
shows that in the fiscal year 1908 postmasters drew their requisitions 
in larger amounts than previously. The decrease in requisitions for 
special-delivery stamps^ stamped envelopes^ and wrappers is due to 
reduced issues, as explained elsewhere in this report. 

During the past year special attention has been given to reducing 
the time required for passing requisitions for stamped paper through 
the Division of Stamps. Formerly it took four to six days to ex- 
amine, record, and pass a requisition. Under present methods requisi- 
tions are forwarded the day following their receipt at the department. 

STAMP BOOKS. 

The issue of stamp books, 18,213,310, was an increase of 2.97 per 
cent over 1907. The 1 cent charged for these books over the value 
of the stamps contained therein pays the cost of manufacture and 
provides a profit to the department of a little less than three-fourths 
of a cent on each book. The total profit on the stamp books issued in 
1908 amounts to $131,181.54, and the grand total profit from this 
source on the 98,375,217 stamp books issued since their introduction 
in 1900 is $674,841.26. 

The demand for books of 1-cent stamps, which were first issued 
March 1, 1907, has fully met the department's anticipations, totaling 
in 1908, 1,778,640 books. 

STAMPED ENVELOPES. 

The issue of stamped envelopes and newspaper wrappers of all 
varieties during 1908 was 1,266,002,559. Ot these 843,116,084, or 
66.59 per cent, were what are known as " special-reauest ^ envelopes, 
bearing printed return cards, and 422,886,475 envelopes and wrap- 
pers, or 33.41 per cent, were unprinted. 

The gross selling value of stamped envelopes and wrappers issued 
was $25,416,344.54, and the postage value was $23,743,563.68, leaving 
$1,672,780.86 to defray cost of manufacture and distribution. The 
contract cost of manufacture was $1,058,197.95, leaving $614,582.91 to 
defrav the cost of distribution. In 1907 the amount applicable to 
cost of distribution was $631,633.84. 

There was a considerable decrease in the issue of stamped envelopes 
as compared with 1907, due in part to the fact that in the latter part 
of the fiscal jeav 1907 the department stocked various pc^omces 
and the distributing depot at St. Louis prior to the operation of a 
new stamped-envelope manufactory beginning July, 1907, which it 
was anticipated might at the outset experience dimcultv in produc- 
ing envelopes in the quantities required to meet the public demand. 
This anticipation was realized, lor, although the new plant was 
equipped with machinery of the most approved patterns and its 
capacity was ample, the inexperience of the contractor's organization 
resulted in considerable delay in the filling of orders. The demand 
is now recovering, however, issues thus far in the present fiscal year 
showing a substantial increase as compared with those of the first 



THIRD ASSISTANT STAMPED ENVELOPES. 271 

months of the fiscal year 1906, when conditions were normal. The 
output of the new factory is now greatly improved, and envelopes 
on regular orders are being shipped out four days after the orders 
reach the factory. 

EXPERT TESTING OF 8TAMPED-ENVEL0PE PAPER. 

The Secretary of Agriculture has assigned to the stamped-envelope 
agency an employee skilled in the testing of paper, with adequate 
apparatus, whose duty it is to test the supphes of paper received 
from the mills to determine whether they conform to contract stand- 
ard as to stock, weight, and strength. 

BOX-BOARD CONTAINERS. 

The department has recently entered into an agreement with the 
stamped-envelojpe contractor providing for the packing of envelopes 
and wrappers m box-board shipping boxes, instead of wooden cases, 
and their use will be inaugurated at an early date. They are to be 
repellent to moisture, of good material, well reenforced, and suffi- 
ciently substantial to withstand transportation and afford adequate 
protection to the envelopes. The principal advantages to the postal 
service are their decreased weight as compared with wooden cases 
and the greater ease and safety with which they may be handled by 
postal employees. The weight of the new containers is but one-fourth 
to one-half that of the old-style wooden cases, and this substantial 
reduction will be a considerable factor in the mail weighings. 

STAMPED ENVELOPES MADE OF PAPER SUPPLIED BY THE PUBLIC. 

Ofjposition, more or less acute, has alwajs existed amone com- 
mercial envelope manufacturers, printers, lithographers, and their 
organizations, to the alleged competition of the special-request 
stamped envelope with private industry. So far as the printing is 
concerned, that is limited by law to a " request to return the letter 
to the writer," the department being specifically prohibited from 
placing any lithoCTaphmg, engraving, or advertismg upon envelopes 
it may furnish. While the interests of the trades mentioned are not 
believed to outweigh the established advantages of the special- 
request envelope to the business public and to the postal service, it is 
believed that by another method of procedure results beneficial alike 
to the Post-Office Department, the public, and the printing and 
paper trades may be achieved. The scheme suggested can only be 
perfected by legislation authorizing the department to emboss postage 
stamps upon envelope blanks furnished by the printer or consumer. 

Under this plan any ordinary or special kind of paper not below 
a prescribed standard of quality could be selected by the printer or 
his customer, and any desired advertisement or cut could be printed 
or lithographed thereon, the paper thus prepared being shipped to 
the stamped-envelope factory, there to be stamped, cut, and either 
gummed and folded, or, if furnished by an envelope maker, returned 
to him for gumminff and folding. The charge of the department 
would be for the value of the stamps imprinted upon the envelopes, 



272 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

plus the contractor's charge at a rate to be agreed upon and the 
expense to the department for administration and for distribution of 
the envelopes. Tne printer or envelope manufacturer would be per- 
mitted to make such additional charge to his customer as might be 
agreed upon between them. This plan does not contemplate dis- 
continuance of the present system, but to supplement it, giving the 
public its preference. It would largely increase the use of stamped 
envelopes, to the benefit of the postal service and all concerned, while 
eliminating all cause for complaint of competition in this respect 
on the part of the department with private business. I respect- 
fully recommend that the matter be submitted to Congress for 
consideration. 

In order to accomplish the desired end, the act of Congress ap- 
proved June 26, 1906, which reads as follows: 

Provided, That no envelope shall be sold by the Government containing any 
lithographing or engraving nor any printing nor advertisement, except a printed 
request to return the letter to the writer, 

should be amended by adding the following: 

And provided further. That under regulations to be prescribed by the Post- 
master-General any person, firm, or corporation may deliver or cause to be 
delivered to the stamped-enveloi)e agency paper of suitable quality, color, 
weight, and finish with return requests not exclusive of advertising thereon in 
lithographing, eugraving, embossing, or printing, and have such paper embossed 
with the stamps used on Governmeut stamped envelopes and made into en- 
velopes at the usual schedule price therefor less the cost of the paper which 
would otherwise have been furnished by the Post-Office Departm^it ; and that 
paper in sheets with stamps embossed thereon, for manufacture into stamped 
envelopes, may be furnished to the public in lieu of stamped envelopes and at 
the same schedule price : Provided further. That all orders for the manufacture 
of paper into stamped envelopes and all orders for sheets embossed with stamps 
shall be made through the post-office to which the person ordering the same 
makes his undeliverable mail returnable. 

Special-request envelopes are of great advantage to the business 
public and to the postal service, ana the printing of return cards by 
the department very largelv encourages and increases their use. 
The return card is a valuable part of an envelop^ stamped or un- 
stamped, as it insures the prompt return of an undelivered letter to 
the writer — often a matter of vital importance. Were the depart- 
ment to cease furnishing special-request envelopes, unddiverable and 
unreturnable mail woum vastly increase. Their use saves an enor- 
mous amount of work to the Division of Dead Letters. The return 
cards are printed without additional cost to the department and at 
trifling expense to the stamped-envelope contractor, because the 
printing is done on one machine simultaneously with the embossing 
of the postage stamp. This is a direct saving to the user of the envcf 
opes, as by law they must be supplied without anv additional charge 
for the printing. Furthermore, stamped envelopes mutilated or 
spoiled in addressing are redeemed irom original purchasers at 
stamp value. 

If Congress decides, for the purpose of obtaining better superyision, 
that the department shall manufacture its own envelopes, the system 
herein outhned would confine such work to the mere embcfssinff of the 
stamp and the gumming and folding of the paper when the latter is 
furmshed already printed by the consumer. 



THIRD ASSISTANT REPLY COUPONS. 278 

REVISION OF SPECIAL-REQUEST REGULATIONS. 

The regulations governing the printing of return cards on stamped 
envelopes were revised during the past year, the law on the subject 
being ffiven a more liberal construction than formerly. The revised 
rules, however, exclude everything of an advertising nature, as re- 
quired by law, and eliminate any printing not in harmony with the 
purpose of the return card to secure the return of undelivered letters 
to the writer. 

POSTAL CARDS. 

As announced in the report of this office for 1907, a postal card has 
been issued providing a space for message on the address side. This 
card was first issued in the fiscal year 1908, and at once met with 
popular favor. The design, known as " McKinley No. 3," is the same 
as the regular " McKinley " card described in the last annual report 
of this omce, except that a vertical line one-third the distance from 
the left edge sets off the space for the message, the inscription being 
lowered and set sufficiently to the right to escape the stamp and the 
vertical line. 

The postal cards issued during the past year have been much im- 

E roved in finish and appearance over those formerly supplied. It is 
elieved, however, that the quality of our postal cards should be 
further improved, but this will require a modification of the paper 
formula which can not be done under the existing contract. The 
specifications for the next contract will shortly be taken up and the 
matter of providing a better grade of paper will then receive 
attention. 

SPECIAL-DELIVERY STAMPS. 

The use of ordinary postage stamps to secure special-delivery serv- 
ice authorized by act oi Congress last year has resulted in decreasing 
the demand for special-delivery stamps, though not to the extent an- 
ticipated. The issue of these stamps in 1908 was 12,119,430, compared 
with 13,856,160 in 1907. 

JAMESTOWN COMMEMORATIVE POSTAGE STAMPS. 

It was intended to confine the sale of these stamps to the term of 
the commemorative exposition, following the practice in connection 
with the Pan-American and Louisiana Purchase issues, as stated in 
the last annual report of this office. At the close of the Jamestown 
Exposition, however, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing had a 
considerable quantity of the stamps on hand and to destroy them 
would have involved an tmwarranted waste. It was accordingly de- 
termined to issue and sell the remaining stock so long as it lasted, 
and this is being done. 

INTERNATIONAL REPLY COUPONS. 

The number of reply coupons issued during the fiscal year 1908 was 
228,760; value, at 6 cents each, $13,725.60. 

Reports having reached this office that foreign postmasters had in 
some instances foiled to postmark reply coupons sold by them, as 

65064— P M G 190.S 18 



274 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

required by the regulations adopted by the convention of the Uni- 
versal Postal Union, the International Bureau at Berne was asked 
to waive this reauirement, at least tentatively, on the ground that 
the use of the reply coupons should not be defeated by a mere techni- 
cality. This request was granted, and United States postmasters are 
now permitted to redeem such reply coupons issued by other govern- 
ments as do not exhibit the stamp of the issuing post-office. 

In one important particular tne international reply coupon is de- 
fective. It comprehends only the international postage rate of 5 
cents per ounce, making no provision for correspondence with the 
several countries with which we exchange mails at the United States 
domestic rates of postage — Great Britain, the Philippine Islands, 
the Eepublic of Panama, Canada, Cuba, and Mexico. It is recom- 
mended that steps be taken to effect direct arrangements with tliese 
countries for a reply coupon of suitable denomination, which should 
perhaps be 3 cents, the reply coupon to be redeemable in stamps 
equivalent in value to 2 cents. It is necessary to sell the reply cou- 
pons at more than their redemption value; otherwise they would be 
in more demand for international remittance purposes than to pre- 
pay return postage. 

Another aefect is that no provision is made to adjust the interna- 
tional reply coupon to the action of the Universal Postal Congress in 
fixing the rate of international letter postage at 3 cents for each 
ounce in addition to the first ounce. As it stands, the reply coupon 
provides for prepayment at 10 cents instead of 8 cents on a reply 
from abroad weighing 2 ounces, 15 cents instead of 11 cents on a reply 
weighing 3 ounces, etc. The proportion of replies weighing over 1 
ounce will probably be small. Provision should be made for this, but 
it may be necessary to await the next congress of the Universal Postal 
Union. 

STAMPED PAPER FOR THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 

The bureau of posts of the Philippines having adopted distinctive 
designs for its postage stamps and stamped envelopes, the supplying 
of United States stamps and envelopes overprinted " Philippines'^ 
has been discontinued. The orders are therefore no longer trans- 
mitted through this office, but are drawn by the director of posts of 
the Philippines through the War Department upon the Bureau of 
Engiaving and Printing for stamps and stamp books and upon the 
Mercantile Corporation, of Dayton, Ohio, the contractor of this de- 
partment for envelopes and wrappers. 

FREIGHT SHIPMENTS. 

Substantial progress has been made in complying with the law 
enacted in the Fifty-ninth Congress which required that all postal 
cards, stamped envelopes, and newspaper wrappers, when in freight- 
able lots and whenever practicable, should be withdrawn from the 
mails immediately preceding the weighing period in the respective 
mail- weighing sections of the country, and that these supplies should 
thereafter be shipped by freight or express. The mails were weighed 
during the fiscal year 1908 in the South Atlantic States, and they are 
now being weighed in the New England States. On account of the 



THIRD ASSISTANT — STAMP-VENDING MACHINES. 275 

value of postal cards and stamped envelopes it is onljr practicable to 
ship them by freight when they can be dispatched m full carloads 
which may be sealed or locked, with special government locks, 
through to destination. In pursuance of the law this office has 
established a supply depot in a centrally located city for each State 
in which the mails were to be weighed. The depots are stocked with 
carloads of postal cards, stamped envelopes, and newspaper wrappers 
shipped by freight. These stocks, in charge of the postmaster at the 
distributing point, are drawn upon to supply other postmasters as 
their requisitions are received by the department, shipment being 
made from the supply depot by registered mail. This method re- 
moves the heavy and bullrjr shipments of cards and envelopes from 
the mails between the factory and the distributing point. 

Thus far the stocks handled by the distributing postmasters have 
been confined, because of inadequate facilities, to unbroken boxes of 
5,000 and 10,000 of the varieties of cards and envelopes most in use. 
Where so large a quantity would not be warranted, or where a 
variety of cards or envelopes not carried in the distributing stock is 
called for, the requisition must be filled by mail from the postal-card 
or stamped-envelope agency, or the nearest subagency, but the quan- 
tity of cards and unprinted envelopes so shipped by mail into a 
weighed section is comparatively small. 

This arrangement for the distribution of stamped paper does not 
apply to special-request envelopes, as they must be speciallv printed 
at the factory upon orders received from pifrchasers, and can not 
therefore be carried in stock at a distributing depot or held for car- 
load accumulation. 

One obstacle to freight shipments that has presented itself is the 
refusal of certain railroads connecting with southern points to accept 
shipments by freight, holding that stamped paper is too valuable to 
be so shipped, although freight shipments of cards and envelopes are 
freely accepted by omer railroads throughout the country. In the 
event of destructfon or damage to stamped paper in transit, the re- 
sponsibility of the railroad would only be for the cost of manufac- 
ture. Only in the event the stock were stolen or lost, thus becoming 
redeemable in service, would the transportation company become 
responsible for postage value. If the railroads referred to persist in 
their, position it will result in forcing some shipments back into the 
mails, and, as they were excluded when the mails were last weighed, 
the roads will be obliged to carry these bulky shipments without com- 
pensation for nearly four years. 

STAMP-VENDING MACHINES. 

The committee appointed by the Postmaster-General last year to 
investigate and report upon stamp-vending machines examined 
about 25 machines which were submitted for the purpose. Of these 
6 were found to possess sufficient merit to warrant further experi- 
ments, and the owners were given permission to install machines in 
their home post-offices, without expense to the department, for a 
thirty-day practical test. The owners of 5 of these machines have 
responded, and tests have been made in the post-offices at Baltimore, 
Minneapolis, New York, and Washington, while the fifth machine is 



276 BEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

now undergoing test at Indianapolis. While the machines tested 
have not been so perfected as to give wholly satisfactory results, the 
experiments have been sufficiently encouraging to justify a continu- 
ance of the investigation, and to that end the committee has been 
directed to resume its labors. Since the preliminary tests Congress 
has provided an appropriation of $10,000 for the purpose of defray- 
ing the department's expenses in the investigation of labor-saving 
devices, so that the committee will not be hampered for lack of 
necessary funds in performing its duties. 

The department is now prepared to fill requisitions of postmasters 
for limited quantities of stamps in coils or rolls for use in stamp 
vending and stamj) affixing machines. There is a growing demand 
for stamps put up in this form, which the department will endeavor 
to meet. 

PERFORATING POSTAGE STAMPS FOR IDENTIFICATION. 

The department has been asked by individuals, business houses, 
and organizations from time to time to permit i)urcnasers of adhesive 
postage stamps to perforate their initials therein for the purpose of 
identification, representations being made that the presence of the 
initials would deter office boys and others from purloining the stamps 
of their employers, which was said to be a growing evil and one whidi 
often led to more serious crime. For many years the privilege was 
denied by the department on the ground that it would lead to abuses, 
but upon consideration of the matter it was concluded that perfora- 
tions might be allowed for purposes of identification only, out not 
for advertising, as the latter would be contrary to law. The postal 
laws and regulations have been amended accordingly by the 
Postmaster-General's Order No. 1342, of May 4, 1908, making it 
permissible to puncture or perforate letters, numerals, or other marks 
or devices in United States postage and special-delivery stamps. The 
punctures or perforations are limited to one thirty -second of an inch 
m diameter, and the whole space occupied by the identifying device 
is required not to exceed one-half inch square. The puncturing or 
perforating must be done in such manner as to leave the stamp easily 
recognizable as genuine and not previously used, and tiie use of ink 
or other coloring matter in connection therewith is prohibited. Many 
business houses are availing themselves of the privilege and there 
has been little or no indication of a purpose to turn the privilege to 
advertising account. 

DIVISION OF REDEMPTION. 

Daring the year 18,077 claims for the redemption of stamped 
paper were received, representing a value of $735,436.94, while 1,378 
whole claims and 1,522 portions of claims, amountinjg to $1,225.82 
were rejected and the stamped paper returned, making a total of 
16,699 whole claims allowed, with a valuation of $734j211.12. This 
represents an increase over the previous year of 1,659 in claims and 
$89,818.77 in value. 

The stamped paper redeemed includes international reply coupons 
valued at $237.60, which were accepted during three quarters of the 
jear, the coupons not being issued until October 1, 1907. 



THIBB ASSISTANT — DIVISION OF CLASSIFICATION. 277 

Postage stamps valued at $1,437.47, received from postmasters in 
payment of deoeiencies in registry fees and postage, were counted 
and destroyed. 

There were also counted and destroyed 947 cases of stamps, amount- 
ing to $20,516.72, which were canceled and remitted by postmasters 
as representing money deposit^ for postage at the third-class rate 
on publications, the applications of which lor the second-class mail- 
ing privileges were denied, and the matter determined to be charge- 
able at the higher or third-class rate. These deposits are made oy 
publishers to obtain permission for mailing their publications in the 
manner prescribed for matter of the second-class pending the classi- 
fication thereof. This amount includes also the stamps canceled and 
remitted by postmasters as representing deficient postage collected 
in cases where matter mailed was chargeable with a hi^er rate of 
postage. 

Postage stamps of the value of $408.06, which were recovered by 
the chief post-office inspector in the investigations of robberies, etc., 
were counted and destroyed. 

THE DIVISION OF CLASSIFICATION. 

The results of the special weighings of the mail by the Second 
Assistant Postmaster-General, under authority of the Congress, for 
the period from July 1, 1907, to December 31, 1907, in all post-offices 
and railway cars, the tabulation of which was but recently completed 
(H. E. Doc. 910), shed new light on the second-class postage question. 
These special weighings separate mail matter and the revenue de- 
rived therefrom into the following proportions, compared with the 
total weight of mail carried and the total revenue derived therefrom : 

First-class mail matter: 

Per cent of weight 12.81 

Per cent of revenue 75.74 

Second-class mail matter: 

Per cent of weight 63.91 

Per cent of revenue 5.19 

Third-class mail matter : 

Per cent of weight 14.61 

Per cent of revenue 14.63 

Fourth-class mail matter : 

Per cent of weight 4.79 

Per cent of revenue 4.44 

Congressional franked matter: 

Per cent of weight .37 

No revenue. 

Departmental penalty matter: 

Per cent of weight 3.51 

No revenue. 

The average hauls of second-class matter were found to be as 
follows : 
Second-class matter: 

Paid at the pound rate — Miles. 

Subscribers* copies 602 

Sample copies 873 

Free in county 7 

Transient, 1 cent for each 4 ounces 698 

All subclasses combined 610 

The average haul of daily newspapers is 291 miles, of weekly and 
other newspapers 558 miles, of magazines 1,049 miles, and of miscel- 
laneous periodicals 1,128 miles. 



278 REPORT OF THE POST MASTER-GENERAL. 

Most of our weekly newspapers are situated in the smaller centers 
and circulate very largely within the county in which located. As 
the average haul of free county mailings was 7 miles, it is evident 
that the country weekly not only greatly reduces the average weeklj 
newspaper haul, but that the average haul of the country weekly is 
much less than the 558 miles shown above. 

Daily newspapers furnish a little over 40 per cent of the second- 
class mail. Weekly and other newspapers furnish a little over 15 per 
cent. The periodicals, including the monthly magazines, scientific, 
educational, religious, trade, ana other journals, furnish the remain- 
ing 45 per cent of the whole. 

COST OF HANDLING SECOND-CLASS MAHi MATTER. 

A carefully compiled estimate of the cost of handling second-class 
mail matter, covermg all the elements of cost from transportation 
to audit of accounts, shows that such average cost is approximately 
8§ cents per pound. This does not mean that it costs 8 cents per 
pound to handle every publication, but that the amount stated is the 
average cost, taking the country over. Of this amount, approximately 
2J cents per pound is paid to the railroad companies for transporta- 
tion; a few mills must be added for car service, freight on empty 
mail bags, etc., which items increase the total cost of railway han- 
dling of second-class matter to approximately 2J cents per pound. 
The other elements of cost making up the 8 cents include all oUier 
classes of tributary transportation, handling in post-ofl5ces, the cost 
of delivery to individual addresses, and general administration. 

Whether the department can afford to continue the present cent-a- 
pound rate for newspapers and periodicals in view of the statistics 
presented herewith is for the Congress to determine. The purpose of 
the act when originally passed was to encourage the dissemination of 
useful information among the people for educational purposes. 
While the rate, considered alone, is beyond doubt a heaviW losing 
one, second-class matter originates a large volume of mail matter 
of other classes, the amount of which is impossible of determination. 

It is suggested, however, that there should be no increase in the 
rate, because of the disastrous effect it would have upon legitimate 
publishers, until other possible remedial legislation has been applied 
and without success. 

THE ABUSES. 

The main abuses of the past— the departures from the dear intent 
of the law — have had their origin (a) in carrying persons as subscrib- 
ers long after the period of the subscription had expired, for the pur- 
pose of inflating the mailings as to subscribers; (6) through the mail- 
mg of copies marked " sample copy " in tremendous numbers, not for 
bona fide sample-copy purposes but for advertising purposes, thereby 
maintaining an enlarged " circulation " upon which to base high 
advertising rates; and (c) through securing subscriptioas by tiie use 
of premiums and other extraneous inducements. 

The revised regulations governing second-class mail matter, which 
were intended to curb the abuses (a) and (b] above, by striMng at the 
root of the evil, appear as paragraph 3, section 436, and paragraph 6, 



THIBD ASSISTANT — NEW REGULATIONS. 279 

section 466, of the Postal Laws and Eegulations, and read, respec- 
tivdy , as follows : 

Sec. 436. (3) A reasonable time will be allowed publishers to secure renewals 
of subscriptions, but unless subscriptions are expressly renewed after the term 
for which they are paid, within the following periods: Dailies, within three 
months; triweeklies, within six months; semiweeklies, within nine months; 
weeklies, within one year; semimonthlies, within three months; monthlies, 
within four months; bimonthlies, within six months; quarterlies, within six 
months, they shall not be counted in the legitimate list of subscribers, and copies 
mailed on account thereof shall not be accepted for mailing at the second-class 
postage rate of 1 cent a pound, but may be mailed at the transient second-class 
postage rate of 1 cent for each 4 ounces or fraction thereof, prepaid by 
stamps affixed. The right of a publisher to extend credit for subscriptions to 
his publication is not denied or questioned, but his compliance or noncompli- 
ance with this regulation will be taken into consideration in determimng 
whether the publication is entitled to transmission at the second-class postage 
rates. 

Sec. 456. (5) Sample copies of publications entered as second-class matter 
shall be accepted for mailing at the second-class postage rate of 1 cent a 
pound to the extent of 10 per cent of the total weight of copies mailed to sub- 
scribers during the calendar year. Such sample copies may be mailed at any 
time during the year, based on an estimate of the probable mailings to sub- 
scribers during the year obtained from the best information at hand; for in- 
stance, a publisher of a " weekly " mailing an average of 1,000 pounds per 
week to subscribers would mail during the year 52,000 pounds to such sub- 
scribers, and may therefore mail sample copies to the extent of 5,200 pounds at 
any time during that year at the second-class postage rate of 1 cent a pound. 
Should a publisher offer for mailhig as " sample copies " copies in excess of 
the amount above prescribed, the postmaster shall require on such excess 
copies a deposit of money sufficient to cover postage at the transient second- 
class rate — 1 cent for each 4 ounces or fraction thereof on each separately 
addressed copy or package of unaddressed copies — ^and forward to the Third 
Assistant Postmaster-General a reiwrt of the facts accompanied with a copy 
of the issue in question and a sworn statement of the publisher giving (a) the 
number of copies of the issue printed, (&) the number of subscribers to such 
issue, and any further statement the publishers may care to submit. The par- 
ticular facts and circumstances in each case will be considered in determining 
whether such additional mailings or any part thereof can properly be regarded 
and accepted as sample copies. 

These regulations are believed to be wholly within the letter as well 
as the spirit and purpose of the statute, and therefore valid, and have 
done much toward eliminating the two classes of abuse covered by 
them. 

RESX7LTS ACHIEVED UNDER THE NEW REGULATIONS. 

The statistical statements of the department are compiled by fiscal 
years, and as the new regulations governing second-class mail matter 
did not become effective until the middle of the fiscal year, only six 
months of actual experience enters into this report. A tabulation of 
the returns of postmasters covering second-dass mail matter discloses 
both the extent of the abuses which have been practiced and the 
effectiveness of the remedy applied. 

The number of pounds of second-class matter mailed during the 
entire fiscal year upon which postage at the cent-a-pound rate was 
paid was 694,865,884, creating a revenue of $6,948,658.84, a decrease 
of 18,079,292 pounds in weight and $180,792.92 in postage collected 
at the pound rate, a decrease of 2.53 per cent from the year 1907. 

The number of pounds of second-class matter mailed free of postage 
within the county of publication during the fiscal year was 51,701,277, 



280 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

a decrease of 758,974 pounds, or 1.44 per cent, and constituting 6.92 
per cent of the entire amount of second-class matter mailed at the 
pound rate and free of postage during the year in the United States. 

The aggregate amount of second-class matter mailed at the pound 
rate and free of postage during the year was 746,567,161 pounds, or 
373,283.5 tons, a decrease of 18,838,266 pounds, or 9,419.2 tons, from 
the previous year. 

The average annual increase in the weight of mailings of second- 
class matter, subject to postage, for a period of five jears ending with 
the fiscal year 1907 was 51,758,564 pounds. If in the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1908, this average increase had continued, the total 
weight would have been 764,703,740 pounds. It is found to be, how- 
ever, only 694,865,884 pounds, or an actual decrease from what would 
have been the normal weight, if the same conditions had continued, 
of 69,837,856 pounds. 

For the purposes of computation, assuming that tiie actual decrease 
from the normal weight was 70,000,000 pounds per annum, an esti- 
mate has been made by the Second Assistant Postmaster-General as 
to the probable ultimate saving in the cost to accrue on account of 
railroad transportation alone. Due to the fact that railroad trans- 
portation pay IS based on weighings occurring quadrennially instead 
of annually, this saving will notT)e immediate. Therefore^ it wiU 
require the passing of lour years to obtain the full eflPect of the cost 
reduction. At that time it is estimated from the figures given liiat 
the saving will amount annually to $1,654,930.68. If the second-cdi^s 
mailings are distributed equally throughout the country, the comuig 
year will show a saving oi $413,732.67 ; the second year hence twice 
that, or $827,465.34 ; the third year $1,241,198.01 ; the fourth year 
$1,654,930.68 ; and this latter amount each year thereafter. 

As previously stated, the regulations which are held to be largelv 
responsible for this tremendous decrease in the mailings of sec(Mia- 
class matter were in operation only during the last half of the fiscal 
year, i. e., from January 1 to June 30, 1908, inclusive. 

Another element of benefit, and by no means the least, is in relief 
from handling this vast volume of mail matter, much or which was 
" dead " and undeliverable. The disappearance of this matter re- 
sulted in expedition to other classes of mail matter. It costs much 
more to handle undeliverable matter than it does to handle " live ^ or 
deliverable matter, because of the efforts which must be made to effect 
delivery by searching directories and office records before the fact 
is ascertained that the matter is not deliverable. 

It has been alleged with some show of plausibility that the policy 
of the department, as indicated in the new regulations, is detrimental 
to the interests of those mechanically employed in the production of 
newspapers and periodicals, but an analysis of the facts does not sup- 

Eort this conclHsion. The decrease in mailable output is but an in- 
nitesimal percentage of the total production of printing, and the 
reduction in second-class matter is so uniformly distributed through- 
out the country that the effect upon the individual employee has been 
minimized. On the other hand, it is the consensus of opinion among 
legitimate publishers — the producers of that class of newspapers and 
periodicals which the present law was intended to encourage — that 
the business has been benefited in being put on a more sound and 



THIRD ASSISTANT — PREMIUM OFFERS. 281 

printable basis. However, to urge that an illegal practice should 
not be curbed or stopped because of the loss of employment it would 
^itail is analogous to saying that counterfeiting, illicit distilling, the 
manufacture of impure and adulterated foods and drugs should not 
be suppressed because such production affords remunerative employ- 
ment to some of our people. ^ . 

PBEMIUM OFFERS AND EXTRANEOUS INDUCEMENTS FOR SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

While the new regulations have done much toward restoring right 
conditions, it is the oi)inion of this office that the abuses of the 
seccmd-class mailing privilege can not be reduced to the minimum 
until the practice ot offering premiums and other extraneous in- 
ducements for subscriptions is effectually stopped, either by legal 
prohibition or by imposing a higher rate of postaj^e on the news- 

Eiper or periodical which invokes such methods of securing circu- 
tion. The low rate provided by law was unquestionably for the 
purpose of benefiting the public by affording a cheap postage rate 
on publications which were actually desired by the public and for 
which the public was willing to pay more than a nominal price, and in 
no sense can it be regarded as a rate to benefit the publisher per se. 

A newspaper or periodical to be entitled to the second-class postage 
rate of 1 cent per pound should circulate on its merits alone. 

This, it seems, is clearly evidenced by the requirement of the law 
that a publication, to be entitled to the rate, '^ must be orij^nated 
and published for the dissemination of information of a public char- 
acter, or devoted to literature, the sciences, arts, or some special in- 
dustry," and have a " legitimate list of subscribers," and its admission 
is prohibited provided it is " designed primarily for advertising 
purposes, or for free circulation, or for circulation at nominal rates. 
Manifestly, subscriptions to a publication made merely for the 
purpose of securing the premium offered by the publisher, do not 
come within the spirit of that law. A " legitimate list of subscribers," 
as required by the law, should consist oi the names of persons who 
subscribed for the paper because they wanted it — not because they or 
some one else wanted a premium offered or desired to win a prize. 

Certainly the least objectionable of premium offers are those which 
involve the distribution of good books — clean, wholesome literature — 
in connection with high-ffrade newspapers and periodicals. 

Combination or so-called club subscription offers ao^ among the 
most objectionable of premium methods from the standpoint of the 
law excluding from second-class postage rates publications designed 
primarily for free circulation or circulation at nominal rates, because 
publications of this description, which desire circulation for purely 
advertising purposes, are always seeking to get into such combina- 
tions for the sole purpose of enlarging circulation, with little or no 
regard whatever for the alleged subscription price. 

The practice of giving premiums is in a large measure the out- 
growth of competition among publishers. If a publisher were forced 
to compete upon the qualities of his publication as a news or literary 
ioumal instead of by the premium method, the subscriber would 
De benefited by the higher literary standard which would have to 
be maintained, and this would inure to the public good. 



282 REPOKT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAI.. 

As a rule the publisher who employs premium methods does so 
to force the circulation of his publication for the additional profit 
accruing from increased advertising rates, or for the purpose of fur- 
thering his other interests. 

Publishers who indulge in the practice of giving premiums usually 
have a multitude of oners, some ^o great as to onset any material 
cost of the publication to the alleged subscriber, and all of a nature 
to materially reduce the price of the publication to the subscriber. 
Some publishers indulge m the practice of distributing premiums, 
etc., to such an extent that it is difficult to determine whether the real 
business of the concern is merchandising or publishing, and, gener- 
ally, the cheaper and trashier the publication the more the pumisher 
thereof resorts to the practice of inducing subscriptions through the 
medium of the premium. 

A law prohibiting premium offers in connection with second-class 
mail matter would apply equally in all cases and would not give any 
advantage to one publication over another, and the mails would lie 
relieved of the enormous circulation of the trashy publications which 
have little or no educational value and whose subscribers are obtained 
mainly through premium offers. That legislation of the sort dis- 
cussed would be welcomed by many of the foremost publishers of the 
country is a fact that has been brought to light in the campaign of 
education which the department has conducted on this subject during 
the past year. Many publishers of periodicals generally recognizea 
as of the highest class have freely admitted verbally and in corre- 
spondence that they are forced by competition to resort to premium 
methods, and that they would gladly discontinue the practice if 
others would do the same. Most publishers seem to feel that their 
vocation calls for the sale and dissemination of news and information 
of a public character in the form of newspapers and periodicals, 
rather than the distribution of merchandise. It appears that they 
would gladly restrict the field of their endeavors accordingly. 

A law or regulation prohibiting premiums, as stated, would be as 
fair for one publisher as for another, and it is believed that the 
publishers of high-grade publications especially would welcome it, 
as premiums are distasteful to many of them and only competitian 
compels their use. 

In this connection attention is invited to the recommendations for 
legislation abolishing rebates, premiums, etc., by the Postal Ckmmiis- 
sion of Congress, as set forth in sections 41, 42, and 43 on Page LX of 
its report on second-class mail matter, and also to the recommenda- 
tions for the " prohibition of premium schemes or clubbing sch^nes 
which serve to make abnormal discounts upon the price of subecrip- 
tion " by the committee of the American Newspaper Association on 
page 184 of the same report, and remarks of otner gentlemen repre- 
senting various phases and even conflicting interests of the publishing 
business. 

It is, therefore, recommended that the Congress be asked to enact 
a law which will prohibit the use of premiums and other extraneous 
inducements for the purpose of securing subscriptions, to beoome 
effective a reasonable time after enactment in order that the publish- 
ers may have ample opportunity to bring their practices into harmony 
therewith. 



THlBD ASSISTANT — ALTERNATIVE. 283 

BULK' SUBSCRIPTIONS. 

Another abuse of lesser magnitude, yet one worthy of consideration 
with a view to remedial action, is found in what are known to the 
department as " bulk subscriptions." 

A limited number of publishers, whose output is large as a rule, 
sell subscriptions in considerable numbers to business institutions and 
individuals and mail the papers in fulfilment of such subscriptions 
to a list of names furnished by the purchasers. Although no legal 
exception can be taken to this method of obtaining subscriptions, 
when the elements of a genuine and legitimate subscription exist, yet 
the practices of some publishers, when they so circulate their papers 
for purely personal or commercial purposes, result in a serious abuse 
of the second-class mailing privilege. I^apers which circulate largely 
in this manner, as a rule, contain matter in the interest of the pur- 
chasers of the bulk subscriptions. It frequently comes to the atten- 
tion of the department that the mailings are purely for advertising 
purposes. Under the law, were the purchaser himself to mail such 
copies it would be necessarj for him to prepay postage thereon, by 
stamps affixed, at the transient second-class rate of 1 cent for each 4 
ounces or fraction thereof; whereas, by having the publishers mail 
the copies, merely the cent-a- pound rate is charg;ed. Necessarily, if 
the practice described is inordinately indulged in, the second-class 
status of the paper would be thereby affected, for the extensive circu- 
lation of such copies indicates that the primary design of the publica- 
tion is for advertising purposes, and that it is not, therefore, 
admissible to the mails at the second-class postage rates. 

The difficulty with which the department has to contend in this 
class of cases is to confine these bulk orders to bona fide subscriptions, 
in fulfillment of which the publication is sent with the legitimate 
intent of furnishing information of a public character and not for 
the purpose of circulating advertising matter. The conditions dis- 
closed are often such as to make it dimcult of determination whether 
the copies should be regarded as having been mailed in fulfillment 
of bona fide subscriptions or whether mailed for purely advertising 
purposes, and in the latter case subject to the higher rate of postage 
which would have been charged had the purchaser mailed them. 

THE FINAL ALTERNATIVE. 

With the second-class mailing privilege restricted, as was originally 
contemplated in the enactment ojc the law, there would yet be a loss to 
the department in the handling of this class of mail matter, but it 
would oe a worthv generosity for the benefit of the people, and not 
for the benefit of publishers who abuse the privileges of the law. 
However, if it is not possible to curb the abuses along the lines sug- 
gested, or along other practical lines, there will be justification for 
and inevitably must be a very material increase in the second-class 
postage rate to cover the cost of the service, and with such a rate 
there would be no need for restrictive regulations of any sort. 

In passing the discussion of the second class of mail matter, I beg 
to call attention to the recommendation in my report of last year re- 
garding the enactment of a law providing for the return of unde- 



284 



REPOBT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



liverable second-class matter to the publisher at his expense ; also to 
the need for a law to simplify the rates of postage on second-class 
matter. 



COMPARATIVE STATEMENTS OF SECOND-CLASS MAILINGS. 

Below is a statement by years, for ten years, from 1899 to 1908, in- 
clusive, of the weight of paid second-class matter mailed by pub- 
lishers and news agents, together with increase or decrease from year 
to year and the per cent of such increase or decrease. 



Year. 



WeigliC. 



1899 •■ ^m^'m.'m 

1900 1 :J.Ht2.53S,999 

1901 42y , -144, ftV3 

1902 ! ^M,Ly2,S59 

1903 ; fi09, 587» W2 

1904 ; fieft,7ltt.819 

1905 1 618,6*^4,751 

190H -. i 6dO,S3g,84a 

1907 j 712,W&,176 

1908 e9*,S65.®4 



IncretiiH!. 



DocnAue. 



Percetit 



16,676,868 




29,835,773 
46.0116,574 




24,707.7W 
55,386.003 
60, m, 857 
48,^,986 
lL,G74,ti8£ 


' " 




52,606,335 


*"iKm,^' 






The weight of mailings of matter of the second class in the fiscal 
year 1908 was nearly fifteen times greater than in the fiscal year 1878, 
a period of three decades. 

The total weight of second-class matter in the three decades was 

as follows: 

Pounds. 

1879 to 188S, inclusive 960,1U.14S 

1889 to 1898, incliisivo 2,474,430,120 

1899 to 1908, inclusivo 6,377,606,408 

Total for thirty years 8, 821, 147, OH 

The number of post-oflSces at which second-class matter was mailed 
at the pound rate was 10,395, an increase of 163 over the previous 
year. 

At 45 offices where the largest amount of second-class matter was 
mailed 80.32 per cent of the entire amount of postage on such mail- 
ings was collected, leaving only 19.68 per cent for the remaining 
10,350 offices at which second-class matter is entered. 

In Xew York City alone 19.98 per cent of the total amount of 
second-class postage was collected as against 21.82 per cent in 1007, 
and at Chicago 10.63 per cent was collected against 10.75 per cent 
in 1907. At the 5 offices of New York, Chicago, Philadelphia, St 
Louis, and Boston 44.43 per cent was collected of the total amount of 
postage paid on mailings of matter of the second cla«s in the United 
States. 

NUMBER or APPLICATIONS. 

The total number of applications for admission of publications to 
the second class passed upon during the fiscal year was 8,942, a de- 
crease of 707 from the previous year. 

The numl>er of such applications which were favorably acted upon 
was 3,080, a decrease of 233 from the previous year. Admission was 
denied 2G2 publications, a decrease of 474 from the previous year. 



THIBD ASSISTANT — ^POSTAL. COJJVENTION. 285 

The number of news agents' pormits issued was 220, a decrease of 
60 from the previous year. 

OOUiFCTIONS OF POSTAGE ON SfAXTER IMPBOPERLT MAn^KD AT 8EOOND- 

CUkBS HATES. 

The receipts of third-class postage up<Mi publications which were 
determined to be matter of the third and not of the second class, 
including the amount of postage collected on matter of a higher class 
improperly mailed with or as second-class matter, were $20,615.48, a 
decrease of $46,366.47, or 69.2 per cent from the previous year. 

Under section 441 of the Postal Laws and Regulations it is required 
that when a publidier applies for entry of a publication to the second 
class of mail matter he shall deposit with the postmaster, in trust, 
while the case is pending, a sum of money sufficient to cover the third- 
class rate on the copies mailed. The purpose of this is to guard the 
Oovemment against loss in case the publication should be determined 
to be matter of the third class and not of the second class. 

AMENDMENT TO POSTAIj CONVENTION BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND 

CANADA. 

Prior to Mav 8, 1907, the rates of postage which applied to 
newspapers and periodicals of either Canada or the United States 
addressed for domestic delivery applied also to newspapers and 
periodicals sent from one country to the other. 

On the above date, however, this arrangement was terminated at 
the instance of the Canadian postal admmistration, and a new ar- 
rangement effected which provided that the postage rate applicable 
to second-class matter in each country addressed for delivery in the 
other should be 1 cent for each 4 ounces or fraction thereof, calculated 
on Uie bulk weight of each package and prepaid by stamps affixed. 

The Canadian postal administration was advised at the time that 
this arrangement was not satisfactory to this department, and that a 
restoration in whole or in part of the old conditions would be wel- 
comed. Accordingly, on January 7, 1908, an agreement was entered 
into between the Dominion of Canada and this country amending 
article 1 of the postal convention of January, 1888, by providing that 
the rate of postage on le^timate daily newspapers of either country, 
issued as frequently as six times a week and addressed to bona fide 
subscribers in the other country, should be reduced to not less than 
1 cent per pound or fraction thereof. 

Under this amendment the 1-cent-a-pound rate has been restored 
to daihr newspapers entered as second-class matter in this country and 
mailea to subscribers in Canada. So far as such papers are con- 
cerned the postage rate is now the same as it was prior to May 8, 
1907. 

Arrangements have also been made wherebj the Canadian adminis- 
tration has relinquished the position which it had taken at the time 
of my last report in regard to the invocation of the provisions of 
article 4 of the postal convention, and it has now been made possible 
for American publishers to have their publications accepted for mail- 
ing at the following Canadian post-offices at the applicable Canadian 



286 llEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

second-class postage rates, providing the publication is deemed by 
the Postmaster-General of Canada to be "legitimate/' 

St. John, New Brunswick. Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Montreal, Quebec. Calgary, Alberta. 

Toronto, Ontario. Vancouver, British Ck>lumbia. 

Similar concessions have been made by this country to Canadian 
publishers, so that Canadian publications which meet the require- 
ments of our domestic law governing second-class matter are, upon 
proper application, accorded ^econd-class mailing privileges at the 
loUowing post-offices in this country: 

Boston, Mass. St. Albans, Vt 

Buffalo, N. Y. St. Paul, Minn. 

Detroit, Mich. Sault Ste. Marie, Mich. 

Grand B'orks, N. Dak. Seattle, Wash. 

Helena, Mont. Spokane, Wash. 
Ogdensburg, N. Y. 

This is a restoration of the second-class mailing privile^ to the 
publishers of all periodicals which the respective administrations 
regard as admissible to their mails under their own laws, it being, 
however, incumbent upon the publisher to lay the matter down at the 
office of entry in the other country at his own expense. 

Therefore, while the rate of postage on copies of United States 
publications mailed to Canada prior to May 8, 1907, was 1 cent per 
pound, the present rates are as follows: 

(1) On daily newspapers, 1 cent per pound. 

(2) On publications other than daily newspapers, when entered at the stipu- 
lated Canadian post-offices, 1 cent per pound, payable at the Canadian ofBce of 
entry, the mailings to be laid down at such office at the publisher's expense. 

(3) On publications other than daily newspapers mailed in this country for 
delivery in Canada, 1 cent for each 4 ounces or fraction thereof, calculated 
on the weight of each package and prepaid by stamps affixed. 

The attitude of this administration has been, and will continue to 
be, to do everything possible to bring about the complete restoration 
of the old privileges, as it is believed to be in the interests of our 

Eeople to remove, as far as possible, every postal barrier existing 
etween the United States and Canada. 

MAILINGS OF THIRD AND FOURTH CLASS MATTER WTTHOUT STAMPS 

AFFIXED. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, a total of 212,909,546 
pieces of third and fourth class matter, on which postage to the value 
of $2,979,754.46 was paid, were mailed without stamps affixed under 
the provisions of the act of April 28, 1904, an increase of 9,627,667 
pieces and $241,692.58 in postage over the previous year. 

As a great many authorizations for mailings without* stamps 
affixed were never availed of, a canvass was made, and at offices where 
it was found no mailings had occurred and were not likdjr to occur 
the authority granted the postmaster to accept such mailings was 
withdrawn, thereby eliminating needless records. 

DIVISION OF MONEY ORDERS. 

The considerable increase in postal money order transactions ex- 
hibited in the following report bespeaks the continued and growing 
favor in which the system i?. \\e\d oy the public. During me fisou 



THIRD ASSISTANT — MONEY ORDERS. 



28; 



year 1908 there were 64,864,570 domestic money orders issued, repre- 
senting an increase of 2,794,787 as compared with those issued in 1907. 
The amount of such orders was $498,699,637.49, or $19,049^94.85 
more than in the previous year. For the issue of these domestic 
money orders there were exacted fees amounting to $3^949,001.88, an 
increase in this item of $143,642.47 over the correspondmg figures for 
1907. Postmasters at third and fourth class post-offices are allowed 
by law a commission of 3 cents for each money order issued. Allow- 
ances were thus made in the aggregate sum of $1,133,024.73, an in- 
crease over 1907 of $17,802.81. 

International money orders to the number of 3,711,640, amounting 
to $88,972,388.31, were issued, representing an increase of 71,504 in 
number and $4,891,677.25 in amount over like transactions in 1907. 
There were received in fees for the issue of these orders $754,884.69, 
or $27,644.36 more than in 1907. 

The following tabulated statements give in some detail the domes- 
tic and international transactions, and show as well the net proceeds 
of the business for the year and the annual growth of the system • 
since 1865. 

Domestic business. 



Year ended June 30— 



1907. 



1908. 



Increase ( + ) or 

decrease (— ) 

in 1908. 



Orders issued: 

Number 

Amount 

Orders paid and repaid: 

Number 

Amount 

Excess of issues over payments and repayments: 

Number 

Amount 

Fees received 

Average amount of orders 

Average amount of fees 



62,069,783 
$479,650,342.64 

61,993,528 
$479,236,313.43 

76,255 

8414,029.21 

a $3, 805, aw. 41 

6 $7. 73 

a$0.0608 



$498, 



$494 



$3, 
a $3, 



64,864,570 
699,637.49 

64.173,450 
971,500.91 

691.120 

728, 136. 58 

949,001.88 

6 $7. 69 

a$0.0604 



+ 2,794,787 

+$19,049,294.85 

+ 2,179,922 

+115,735,187.48 

+ 614.865 

+ $3,314,107.37 
+ a $143, 642. 47 
- 6$0.04 

o$0.0004 



• Including fees for orders drawn on British Guiana, Canada, Cuba, Newfoundland, 
the Pbilippine Islands, and other countries with which business Is transacted on the 
domestic basis. 

* Not Including amounts of orders drawn on countries named in a. 

Intemaiional business. 



Year ended June 30^ 



1907. 



1908. 



Increase ( + ) 
or decrease 
(-)lnl908. 



Orders issued: 

Number 

Amount 

Orders paid and repaid: 

Number 

Amount 

Excess ol issues over payments and repavnients 

Number 

Amount 

Fees received 

Average amount of drders 

Average amount of tees 



3.640,136 
$84,080,711.06 

1,330,372 
$18,223,083.72 

2,309,764 

$65, H.57, 627. U 

a $727, 240. 33 

6 $23. 10 

a $0.2287 



3,711,640 
$88,972,888.31 

1,496,622 
$23,316,576.03 

2,215,018 

865,655,812.28 

a$754.884.69 

6 $23. 97 

a $0.2336 



+71,604 
+$4,891,677.25 

+166,250 
+$5,093,492.31 

—94 746 
-$201,815.06 
+a$27,644.36 

+&$0.87 
+a $0.0049 



• Not including fees for orders drawn on British Guiana, Canada, Cuba, Newfoundland, 
the Philippine Islands, and other countries with which business is transacted on the 
domestic basis. 

• Including amounts of orders drawn on countries named in a. 



288 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 
Duplicates and repayments. 



Duplicates Issued by the department: 

(1) Of orders issued and payable in the United States , 

(2) Of orders issued in the United States payable in France , 

(3) Of orders issued in the United States payable in Germany , 

(4) Of orders issued in the United States payable in British Guiana, Can- 

ada, Cuba, Newfoundland, the Philippine Islands, and other conn- 
tries with which business is transactca on the domestic basis 

(5) Of orders payable In the United States issued in foreigrn countries, with 

the exception of France and those named in (4) , 

Repayments authorized by the department: a 

(6) Of orders payable in the United States Issued in countries not named 

in (4) 

(7) Of orders issued in the United States payable in the countries not 

named in (4) 



Number. 



Increase 
/+)orde- 

in 1906. 




+2,610 
— 66 
+ 7 



+ 297 
+ 6M 

+2,030 
+2,802 



« Domestic repaid orders are included in the statement of paid orders, and no separate 
record of them is kept. 

Warrants issued in payment of invalid domestic orders and postal note^. 



Year ended June 30— 
1907. 



Monev orders i $228,126.60 

Postal notes ' 75. 26 



1908. 



9320,104.70 
56.60 



Increase (+) 
or decrease 
(-)inJ908. 



+991,97S.10 
-18.66 



\ninbcr of offices. 



Number June 30, 1907 

Established during the year . 
Discontinued during year . . . 

Number June 30, 1908 

Increase during year 




NET PROCEEDS OF THE MONEY-ORDER BUSINESS. 



Section 4050 of the United States Revised Statutes requires that 
" the Postmaster-General shall cause to be placed to the credit of the 
Treasurer of the United States, for the service of the Post-Office De- 
partment, the net proceeds of the money-order business." Such de- 
posits are made quarterly upon receipt of statements from the auditor 
showing the sums due on this account. The following table shows 
the amounts thus turned in to the Treasurer in compliance with law 
for the fiscal year and the respective dates of deposit: 



For the (inarter cndod- 



September 30, 1907 . 
December 31, 1907.. 

March 31. 1908 

June 30, 190S 



Amount. 



8865.633.06 

1,072,157.40 

938,861.90 

801,103.06 



Total 3,677,755.44 

Excess over total proceeds in year ended June 30, 1907 154, 777. 17 



Date of deposit. 



Jan. 
Apr. 
July 
Oct. 



1M«^ 
6.1900 
9.19QS 
8,19QS 



THIBD ASSISTANT MONEY-ORDER SYSTEM. 



289 



In addition to the revenue above reported, there was duly deposited. 
in accordance with the act of January 27, 1894, with the Treasurer ot 
the United States, the sum of $269,058.34. This amount was in turn 
credited to the Post-OfEce Department for use as current revenues. 
Hence the total amount turned over to the department by the postal 
money-order system for use as current revenues during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1908, was $3,677,755.44 (revenue) plus $269,058.34 
(amount of unpaid money orders) equals $3,946,813.78. 

GROWTH OF THE DOMESTIC MONEY-ORDER SYSTEM. 

An act authorizing. the establishment of the postal money-order 
system^ was approved May 17, 1864, and the business was put into 
operation on November 1 of that year. The following table exhibits 
the growth of the system during the forty-four years of its existence. 



Yeai ended June d&— 



1867„ 

1871.. 
1873.- 
1875,, 

1876.. 
1879.. 
ISBO.. 
1881. 

1883., 

1884.. 
Iffifi.. 
1886.. 
1887.. 
1W8.. 
188».. 
1890.. 
18B1.. 
1899.. 
1888.. 
1894.. 

im^.. 

18»8.. 
1887. . 
188fi.. 

Jim.. 

l^OO.. 
1901.. 
1902,. 

im.. 

IflW.. 
IIIOS,. 
1906,, 
1S07.. 
1908.. 



Number qI 
money-order 
offices in op- 
eration. 



419 
7ti6 
l,*i4 
1.468 
1p4^ 
1,^ 
5L056 

2,775 

$.m 

8.401 
8.097 
4,148 

4, an 

4,e2!J 
C,188 

&.m 

*,997 

e,aio 

7,060 
?,tS7 
7,853 
8,241 
8,727 
9,382 
10.070 

I2,yau 
i«,4:n 

19,264 
]9,m 
2U,60'2 
21,082 
S8.421 
'2$,7U I 

S0,ri29 I 

SI. em ' 

■;ii,s32 
s:,4-i4 , 

43,ai3 



Number of 

domestic! 

money ordets 

L'vtued. 



7K2T7 
1,071,^;; 

3,151,794 

5,006,32:1 
4.99»ptin0 

6.372, 'Jia 
7,240,587 
7.<J(ia,232 
8,4^,869 
8,807,566 
7,!Ha5,()^4 
7,725,SKi 
7,940,802 
B» 232, 177 
t,&6a.207 
10» 130, 140 
m, 024. 727 
U.4M,274 
12,0tI9.412 
la, 309, 735 
14,;101,(M1 
22,031.120 
2S,9fi2.05a 

2^Jfil*,0ftQ 

27.7SK,07S 
29,0O7.H7O 
32,0ti0,9S3 
35,5h(],379 
40,474.2127 
4.1. 9^11. tiPl 
S0,3a:i,5^ 
^^,37^.327 
58,4B1.3AS 

64,864.^70 



inr^HHr' Tnnni^v me*llc inouejr 



\ 



Amount of fee^ 

for domcfitto 

ordertinnd mia^ 

cellaneouH 

recelpUa. 



fl.STiO. 

3,877, 

9,229. 

la. IW7, 

24,«^tH, 

^i4.a>i 

42. l&i 

48. 51^ 

57, MS. 

74J2-I, 

77.431, 

77,0Gri. 

72,ai0, 

8J.442, 

fiB,2r>4, 

100.3.^^, 

lO^.OT.'i, 

iia, HX.\ 

117. ^«9, 

122 J21. 

113, 819* 
117,462. 
119,(^9. 
116, QSl, 
114, 362. 

119, m, 

120, 06d, 
127, &70, 
180.793, 
16a.709, 
172,100. 
174, 4S2, 
191,354. 
211, 2Ui 
230,021 
274,rHfl» 
313.5^1, 
353,627, 

390.008, 
444,615, 
47lr.6ft0, 
49S.099. 



122.52 I 
2iW.28 I 
327.72 
8''jS.47 
0iiS.9S : 
184. 7L 
1IS.03 : 

216. fi» 
ft.M.71 

9?J.7S 
.^i0i*.7O 
3fri.87 
041.02 
m8.i*3 
709.33 
lift. 21 
406.31 
2tll. m 
fi2l.27 
B2L21 
G6Q.S9 
064,98 
845,79 
757,12 
23S.50 
801.07 
433. && 
57»,49 
0^9. 77 
(>19.02 
07d.94 
121.03 
.^2. ft I 
00JJ.«7 
0@7.34 
,279.88 
.04^.03 
488.84 
483.80 
790.60 
^2.64 
&T7.49 



Total 763,891,350 



6,756,399,298.87 



31,313, 
3.903. 
fl.07Z, 
16, il^ 
24,(5&J, 
a3.927. 
42.027, 
4^,419. 
57.295, 
74,210, 
77. J61. 
77. 1U6. 
72.'J08. 
Al,279, 
i!i8,0D6, 
100,165, 
101,924, 

113. \m, 

117,;H4, 
121,971. 

117, oye, 

113, +^^, 
117.2&4. 
U9.743. 
US,2H1, 
114.^47, 

118, »13, 
120. IJl, 
127,697, 
138. 72ft, 
15e,lF*9. 
171.475. 
174.302, 
190,67**, 
211,458, 
238, W22. 
2TJ.SB2. 
S15,2^i0. 
353,178, 
B78,&11, 
3«,817, 
442.338. 
479,236, 
494,971, 



577.08 

2KJ.73 

537.03 

123.46 

924.79 

336.31 

&44.97 

012.27 

156. 2S 

690. 7g 

3aw,8;"i 

47"i.25 

910. H) 

200.20 

P82.78 

853. CI 

301, UO 

281. 7» 

U83,80 

205.06 

403.04 

026.66 

^15. 25 

90C.94 

6SI.35 

H75.71 

75^-19 

SJ<1.70 I 

^29. 29 ' 

Ii89.26 

4Tti.3o 

783. 13 

429.08 

156.83 

043.73 

268.02 

48f^,68 

a20,S2 

407.13 

107.^ 

6?5,28 

313.43 

500.91 



811,536.40 

35.803.06 

70. 889. W 

] 24, 503. 19 

170,217.87 

1^^,557.05 

295,563.38 

350, 499, 40 

364. 816, G6 

4ri2,238,f<4 

494,717,27 

647,021, fi2 

624,409.60 

7l6,63B,i]8 

799.347,09 

Lfl7,09l.6a 

967.T?i.93 

1,054.63^.63 

l,I02,S*3fi.42 

1*50,479.39 

925.125.03 

922, 78 L 97 

914,071*. 67 

947,310.36 

933^^21.36 

951,293.03 

1,005,298.19 

1,037.027,45 

1,121,207.62 

1.212,338.19 

1,292,331.97 

l,41l.46ti,S5 

1,458,258.86 

1, 600, ^.-jS. 13 

J,718.04&.40 

1,916.462.60 

2.147,215.10 

2, 468, 6^7. 52 

2, SOI. 705. fit 

3,040.608.03 

3,21S,3S0.43 

a,56t!i.269.69 

8, 811, &^. 95 

3,951.430.98 



6,745,253,081.89 ' 



MONEY ORDERS INCORRECTLY PAD). 



From the table below it will be seen that this bureau passed upon 
614 cases of alleged erroneous payment of money orders, amounting 

e50©4--P M o 1008 19 



290 



BEPOET OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEBAL. 



to $11,528.34 ; that 416 of such orders were found to have been 
improperly paid, while 198 of them were correctly paid in the first 
instance. There were 65,670,072 orders paid during the year; hence 
the number improperly paid was in the ratio of 1 to over 157,000. In 
only 7 cases, aggregating in amount $265.75, did investigation 
warrant the department in assuming the loss. 



Result of inve5>tiR:ati(in. 

Recovered 

Properly paid 

Chargea to paying poetmastor 

Charged to payee 

Department assumes loss 

Charged to remitter 

Charged to issuing postmaster 

Total • 



614 



Number. 


Amount 


272 


t4.S9171 


198 


4,804.63 


128 


1,826.98 


8 


122.12 


7 


26&.75 


6 


84.20 


1 


80.00 



11,628.84 



TRANSFERS BETWEEN MONEY-ORDER AND POSTAL ACCOUNTS. 

Section 1100 of the Postal Laws and Regulations very properly 
provides that when in need of funds with which to effect payment 
of money orders drawn on his office the postmaster may transfer 
available postal funds to his money-order account, while, on the 
other hana, section 1101 authorizes a postmaster to transfer funds 
from the money-order to the postal account when the available general 
funds of his office are insufficient to pay postal-account expenses. 
The auditor for this department reports the total amount of transfers 
made during each quarter, and the resulting balance is in the one case 
duly repaid by the deposit of money-order funds to an equal amount 
with the assistant treasurer at New York, N. Y., to the credit of the 
Treasurer of the United States for the service of the Post-Office De- 
partment, while if due by the postal to the money-order account it 
IS adjusted by transfer from the former to the latter account in the 
office of the postmaster at New York. Transfers from postal to 
money-order account during the year aggregated $6,397,959.41, and 
from money-order to postal account $6,493,953.50. 

MONEY-ORDER DRAFTS DRAWN ON THE POSTMASTER AT NEW YORK, N. Y. 

It frequently happens that the available money-order and postal 
receipts combined are insufficient to promptly honor all orders arawn 
on a postmaster, in which case he is granted a credit on money-order 
account with the postmaster at New York, who during the year 
paid 59,006 drafts against such credit, aggregating in amount 
$32,411,666.27. 

RESERVES. 

It is the constant aim of the department to see that money orders 
are promptly paid on due presentation, and at certain cffioes it is 
necessary that a fixed sum be held in reserve to meet unusual con- 
ditions due to the fluctuating character of the business. In sud 
cases the department grants tne required reserve, whidi manifestly 
varies greathr in amount, the minimum being $25 and the maximum 
$300,000, ana a large asset of the system is represented by tiie i 



THIBD ASSISTANT MONEY-ORDEB SYSTEM. 291 

gate of reserves. On June 30, 1908, the amount thereof was 
$3,123,765. Under section 1115 of the Postal Laws and Regulations 
postmasters are directed to exercise good judgment in the matter of 
withholding the authorized reserve from deposit and advised that 
only such portion thereof should be retained as is necessary to pro- 
vide for the payment of orders. 

REMITTANCES OR DEPOSITS OF SURPLUS MONEY-ORDER FUNDS. 

As a general proposition, most of the issuing of money orders is 
done at the smaller offices and the paying at the larger offices. It is 
necessary, therefore, that the latter must at all times be in possession 
of funds to meet these payments. As a means to that end, all surplus 
money-order funds, except when the amount is less than $50, in the 
hands of postmasters must be deposited or remitted daily. Offices 
receiving such remittances are known as depositories, and they in 
turn remit their surplus money-order funds to another large office, 
the final depository being the post-office at New York. Under the 
present system of transfer from one office to another these funds on 
an average pass through about three depositories. The aggregate 
number of certificates of deposit issued by money-order depositories 
during the year was 2,317,421, aggregating in amount $545,645,306.80. 

LOSS OF MONEY-ORDER FUNDS IN TRANSIT. OR BY FIRE, BURGLARY, ETC. 

By authority of law the Postmaster-General allows postmasters 
credit for the amount of money-order funds lost in transit, or by 
burglary, fire, or other casualty, provided investigation shows that 
the loss sustained was not due to fault or negligence on the part of 
any employee of the department and the claim has been certified bv 
the Assistant Attorney-General. During the year allowances of such 
claims were made amounting in the aggregate to $18,088.87. 

INTERNATIONAL MONEY-ORDER CONVENTIONS. 

Conventions are in force for the direct exchange of international 
money orders between the United States and 57 countries, which prQ- 
vide also for business with their colonies and dependencies. In addi- 
tion, the leading postal administrations have agreed to act as inter- 
mediaries for the United States in maintaining indirect exchange 
with nearly all other countries in which money-order systems have 
been established. 

FOREIGN EXCHANGE. 

In conducting its large business with foreign countries under duly 
executed conventions, the United States is constantly the debtor, in 
considerable sums, to most of the countries of Europe, and also to 
Japan and Newfoundland, while on the other hand the British 
colonies as well as Canada, Cuba, the Philippine Islands, the Canal 
Zone, and the Central and South American states are generally 
debtors to this country. Payment of balances due on money-order 
account are in the main made by means of bills of exchange drawn on 
financial centers, such as London, Paris^ Berlin, New York, etc., 
and occasionally, at the request of the creditor coimtry, by deposits oi 



292 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

money with such financial agents as it may designate. In thus liqui- 
dating its indebtedness to foreign countries this dei)artment pur- 
chases exchange from certain reliable banking houses in New York, 
N. Y., and during the year $73,312,143.55 worth, or $4,945,285.30 
more than during the preceding year, was thus bought at advan- 
tageous rates, with the result that $324,244.03 was gained. 

CHANGES IN THE INTERNATIONAL SYSTEM. 

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, a new convention was 
concluded with the Colony of Trinidad and Tobago by which the 
exchange of money orders was placed upon the domestic basis; such 
convention took effect July 1, 1908. 

Negotiations for the inauguration of an exchange of money orders 
with the Danish West Indies on this system were resumed, but have 
not yet been brought to a satisfactory conclusion. 

Correspondence was initiated in March, 1908, with the Mexican 
postal administration with a view to transferring the exchange of 
money orders with that Republic from the international to the domes- 
tic system. Negotiations with the same object in view, which were 
contmued with the British post-office department, have not as yet 
borne fruit. 

By agreement with the postal administrations of Grermany, Hong- 
kong, and Portugal, the commission allowed for money orders paid 
was reduced from one-half of 1 per cent to one- fourth oi 1 per cent of 
the aggregate amount of the orders, and this department was conse- 
quently enabled on October 1, 1907, to make a corresponding reduction 
in the fees charged for orders payable in these countries and at the 
German post-office at Apia, Samoa. 

There are now 24 countries with which the reduced rates of fees 
(from 8 cents for $10 to 50 cents for $100) are in operation, namely: 

Apia. 

Austria. 

Belplum. 

Bolivia. 

Chill. 

Costn Rica. 

Denmark. 

Egyi»t. 

Of the 13 remaining countries, for which the higher scale of fees 
(from 10 cents for $10 to $1 for $100) is still charged, Greece has 
accepted in principle the reduction to the lower scale, but tiie final 
steps are delayed until legislative ratification of such action has been 
obtained by the Greek postal administration. 

To facilitate the work of the auditor's office in checking the par- 
ticulars of international orders issued in the United States, the details 
of the exchange office lists have been rearranged so as to bring the 
columns referring to the amounts in juxtaposition with the columns 
containing the numbers and dates of the orders. 

3I0NEY-0RDEH BUSINESS WITH T.TBF.RTA SUSPENDED. 

Owing to embarrassing financial conditions in Liberia that Bepnb- 
lie notified this country on June 29, 1907, that it was found neoessaiy 
to suspend the issue oi money orders on ^^ United States. At that 



Germany. 


New Zealand. 


Hongkong. 


Norway. 


Hungary. 


Orange River Oolony. 


Japan. 


Peru. 


Liberia. 


Portugal. 


Luxemburg. 


Sweden. 


Mexico. 


Switzerland. 


Netherlands. 


Transvaal. 



THIRD ASSISTANT — MONEY-ORDER SYSTEM. 293 

time Liberia was indebted to this country on money-order account, 
but in the hope that matters would soon be adjusted this department 
continued to issue money orders on Liberia. The demand for such 
orders, however, was slight, and owing to the continued delay on 
the part of the debtor country in liquidating its indebtedness, this 
department was compelled on April 1, 1908, to notify the Liberian 
postal administration, in accordance with convention stipulations, 
that effective May 1, 1908, the issue of money orders drawn thereon 
by postmasters in this country would be suspended. The matter pf 
collection from Liberia of the amount due the United States was 
placed in the hands of the State Department, with the result that 
formal demand for immediate settlement has been made and that the 
United States has received assurances that the demand will receive 
early attention. 

SAVINGS FEATURE OF THE MONEY-ORDER SYSTEM. 

As an evidence of the public demand for postal savings banks it 
appears that many patrons of the postal money-order system tem- 
porarily deposit funds for safe-keeping by obtaining money orders, 
for which, of course, they pay the fee prescribed by law. The pur- 
chaser has simply to have a money order drawn in his favor, knowing 
that the amount thereof will be refunded on demand. Such an order 
may also be indorsed and payment will be made thereon to the 
indlorsee, or if lost, a duplicate or a warrant will be issued without 
cost 

The department has for some time, in the absence of postal-savings 
banks in this country, encouraged the savings feature of the postal 
money-order system, and it should be borne in mind that the sums 
thus converted into money orders are not lost to the circulating 
m^ium. Postmasters are allowed to retain on deposit some millions 
of dollars in the shape of " reserves " on money-order account, and 
these reserves are as a rule deposited in national banks, thus making 
such funds available for commercial use. 

In an effort to obtain fairly reliable figures representing the 
number and amount of postal money orders issued for savings 
purposes, a circular letter was addressed in March, 1908, to the post- 
master at each of the first and second class post-offices, calling tor a 
conservative estimate based upon calculations made after examina- 
tion of certain files covering the twelve months from March 1, 1907, 
to March 1, 1908. As a result of this action it is interesting to note 
that no less than 128,146 money orders aggregating in amount 
$8,104,447, were issued at the first and second class offices alone for 
savings purposes during the twelve months in question. 

COST OF OPERATING THE SYSTEM. 

In my previous annual report attention was called to the fact that 
it had been alleged " that the postal money-order system is being 
conducted at a financial loss to the Government of $1,000 per dav, 
and that in consequence statistics were being collected and compiled 
which when collated would enable the department to somewhat 
definitely ascertain the cost of operating its money-order system. I 



294 REPORT OF TEIE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

also stated in that report that '' the system is in no sense a public 
burden." 

Without attempting to encumber this report with a detailed state- 
ment of the course pursued in arriving at the results attained, it is 
extremely gratifying to be able to state that, after careful investiga- 
tion of the entire matter, there can be no doubt that during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1907 — the last complete year for which figures 
were available at the time the matter was investigated — ^the total re- 
ceipts of the money-order system exceeded by more than $500,000 the 
total expense properly chargeable to that system. This, it would 
seem, should effectually coniute the allegations made that the busi- 
ness is conducted at a loss. 

The real cost of the money-order system, as an auxiliary to our 
postal system, is the net amount which would be saved to the depart- 
ment if the money-order system were eliminated. On this basis the 
expense would be much less than that considered, and the gain would 
be correspondingly greater. 

COOPERATION OF MONEY-ORDER AND REGISTRY SYSTEMS. 

Continued good results are in evidence of the arrangement made in 
May, 1907, by which the assistant superintendents of the Division of 
Registered Mails are required to report upon the conduct of money- 
order as well as registry business at post-offices and stations visited. 
This, together with the warning contained in Postmaster-Greneral's 
Order No. 3G8, of May 24, 1907, that postmasters and their employees 
must not speak disparagingly of the registry and money-or^r sys- 
tems and the requirement therein contained, that they must "recom- 
mend to the public that postal money orders be used whenever avail- 
able instead of cash for remittances by mail, and when postal money 
orders are not available that money should be sent by registered mail," 
has accomplished the desired result. The money-order and registry 
services now operate together for a common good under the most har- 
monious relations. 

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVED SERVICE. 
PROPOSED POSTAL NOTE. 

Recognizing the continued demand on the part of the public for a 
postal not(», or some form of postal remittance which will obviate the 
necessity for sending postage stamps and coins through the mails, 
result in great diminution ox the amount of actual money transmitted 
through ordinary mails, and furnish a means for the transmission 
of small sums or money not exceeding $2.50 more cheaply and with 
less inconvenience than is afforded by the postal money order, I 
urgently renew the recommendation made in my report for the fiscal 
year ended June 80, 1907, that a postal note bill hke the following 
be speedily enacted into law : 

A BILL To provide additional facilltloa for the transmission of small sums thxongh the 

mails. 

Be it enacted hy the Senate and House of Representatives of the United Statea 
of Ameriea in Congress assembled. That to facilitate the traDsmission of wnyii 
sums through the mails the Postmaster-General shall be, and is hereby, empow- 
ered to authorize postmasters at money-order offices, and at such other oflteoi 
as be may designate, under such regulations as he may from time to time pre- 



THIRD ASSISTANT IMPROVED SERVICE. 295 

Bcribe, to issue money orders, without corresponding advices, on a form to be 
prescribed and furnished by him, and a money order issued on such form shall 
be designated and known as a '* postal note," and, in addition to its face value, 
a fee, to be fixed by the Postmaster-General, but not to exceed two cents, shall 
be charged for each postal note issued, except that postal notes for amounts less 
than ten cents may be issued without fee, at the discretion of the Postmaster- 
General: Provided, That postal notes issued under the provisions of this act 
shall be for fixed amounts not above two dollars and fifty cents, and shall be 
redeemable or payable at any money-order post-oflice, or at any other post-offlce 
designated by the Postmaster-General for the purpose of redemption or payment 
thereof but shall not be negotiable or transferable through indorsement: And 
provided further. That such postal notes shall not be payable after the expira- 
tion of six calendar months from the last day of the month of their issue. 

Sec. 2. After a postal note has once been paid, the United States shall not be 
liable on account of any further claim for the amount thereof. 

Sec. 3. Postmasters at offices of the third and fourth classes may be allowed 
as compensation for issuing postal notes such part of the fees thereon as the 
Postmaster-General may prescribe, but such commissions shall not exceed the 
rate of one dollar per hundred notes, and no commission shall be allowed for 
the sale of postal notes issued without fee. 

Sec. 4. A duplicate of a postal note which has become invalid by reason of 
age may be issued to the owner of the original by the Post-Office Department 
under such regulations as the Postmaster-General may prescribe. In lilse man- 
ner, provided application therefor be made before the expiration of six months 
from the date when the original would have become invalid by reason of age, 
upon production of such proof of ownership and loss or destruction as the 
Postmaster-General may require, a duplicate may be issued in lieu of a 
postal note which has been lost or destroyed ; but no duplicate shall be issued 
within the period during which the original would have been payable on pres- 
entation in due form, nor at any time in lieu of a postal note for which no 
fee has been paid. An additional fee equal to the fee charged for the original 
shall be exacted for the issue of a duplicate postal note. Each duplicate issued 
shall be valid for the same length of time as was the original and no longer. 
In case of nonpayment of the duplicate within the period of its validity, how- 
ever, it may be renewed upon surrender of the same to the Post-Office Depart- 
ment with an application in due form for renewal thereof. 

Sec. 5. All provisions of the statutes relating to money orders, so far as 
the same may be applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions of this 
act, shall apply to the postal notes herein described. 

Sec. 6. That the sum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, or so much 
thereof as may be necessary, be, and the same is hereby, appropriated, out of 
any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, to be used and ex- 
pended as the Postmaster-General may direct, for carrying into effect the pro- 
visions of this act during the fiscal year endinj? June thirtieth, nineteen 
hundred and ten : Provided, That of said amount not exceeding twenty thou- 
sand dollars may be used in payment of the salaries of one postal-note agent 
and necessary assistants, and such additional clerks as for the purposes of 
this act may be required in the Post-Office Department. 

PROPOSED ELIMINATION OF " ADDITIONAL CONDITION " IN BONDS OF POST* 
MASTERS AT MONEY-ORDER OFFICES. 

Under the law (sec. 3834, R. S.) the bond of a postmaster at a 
money-order office " shall contain an additional condition for the 
faithful performance of all duties and obligations in connection with 
the money-order business." Inasmuch as all postmasters' bonds are 
conditioned for the faithful discharge of all duties and trusts im- 

B)sed upon them either by law or the rules and regulations of the 
apartment and are for a single sum only, it would seem that it 
is time to do away with the unnecessary and embarrassing require- 
ment covered by the specific " additional condition " above men- 
tioned, and that there is no more reason for its retention than there 
would be for the insertion in postmasters' bonds of additional con- 
ditions applicable to other branches of the service. 



296 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

1 therefore renew my reconimeiidatiou of last year " that Conffress 
be asked to amend section 3834 of the Revised Statutes by striking 
tiierefrom the following words: 

and where an office is designated as a money-order office, the bond of the 
postmaster shall contain an additional condition for the faithful performance 
of all duties and obligations in connection with the money-order buslne8&'* 

EXTENSION OF SYSTEM. 

On June 14, 1907, the Postmaster-General's Order No. 431 was 
issued in recognition of the public demand that the facilities offered 
for safely transmitting money through the mails by means of p>ostaI 
money orders be extended, and it is gratifying to state in this connec- 
tion that the steps which were promptly taken to carry out the order 
in question have resulted in adding during the fiscal year nearly 6,000 
offices to the list of those previously authorized to transact postal 
money-order business. It is worthy of note also that such result bears 
out the estimate made in my last annual report that " in carrying out 
the plan adopted not less than 5,000 more (money-order offices) will 
have been added within a year * * *." 

It seems pertinent to ask why all post-offices should not be money- 
order offices. Under the law all post-offices are required to transact 
registry business — why not money-order business? 

At the suggestion of the Bureau of Navigation of the Navy De- 
partment, the advisability of extending the postal money-order serv- 
ice to commissioned vessels of the navy in domestic or foreign waters 
was considered. The Postmaster-General and the Secretary of the 
Navy having mutually agreed that the power to issue such p>ostaI 
money orders should be restricted to paj' officers of the navy, who are 
bonded officers of that service, the authority of Congress for the pur- 
pose was sought, and a bill containing the necessary provisions was 
introduced in the Senate and referred to the Committee on Post- 
Offices and Post-Roads. Owing to the great press of business at the 
close of the session, the measure did not receive consideration, but it 
is hoped that it may be favorably acted upon at the coming session. 

DIVISION OF REGISTERED MAILS. 

The reports from postmasters show the following registry business 

for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908 : 

Paid refjistrations : 

Domestic letters 24,853,173 

Domestic iwircels 6,859,621 

Foreign letters 8,666,255 

Foreign parcels 744,861 

Total number of paid registrations 36,123,910 

Official letters and parcels registered free 4,027,887 

Total number of letters and parcels registered, paid and 
free 40,151,797 

Distribution letters and parcels re-registered free*' 1,161,058 

Aggregate number of letters and parcels registered, paid, official 
free, and distribution free 41,812,865 

Total free and distribution 6^188^945 

Amount collected for registry fees $2,889,912.80 

° This item is a new one and appears tot t\ie first time in this annual report 



THIBD ASSISTANT — REGISTRY SYSTEM. 



297 



Compared with the registry business transacted during the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1907, these figures show the following increases : 

Domestic letters 1,342, 765 

Domestic parcels 620, 823 

Letters for foreign destinations 58,366 

Parcels for foreign destinations 1 71,377 

Total increase in the number of letters and parcels on 

which registry fee was paid 2,093,331 

Per cent of increase in number of paid registrations 6. 12 

Increase of registry fees $167,466.48 

Increase in combined items, official registered free, and distribu- 
tion reregistered free over official free of previous year 963,875 

Per cent of increase of aggregate free registrations 22. 81 

Increase in the aggregate number of letters and parcels registered, 

paid, official free, and distribution free 3,057, 206 

Per cent of increase of aggregate number of letters and parcels 
registered, paid, official free, and distribution free 7. 99 

GROWTH OF THE REGISTRY SYSTEM. 

The following table shows the growth of the registry system since 
1876, prior to which date no statistics were regularly compiled in 
annual reports : 



Year. 



Number 
of post- 
oflices. 



Numbt'i' fil regiAtratJons. 



1876 30, 3ft3 

1877 S7.SJ5 

1878 m,2^ 

1879 40,e&S 

1880 4%9m 

1881 44,51'2 I 

1882 4d.aSl 

1883 47,863 

1884 50p0n 

1886 ^1.252 

1886 63,614 

1887 £5.157 

1888 H'i7,3"(j 

1889 fi8,9W 

1890 62,401 

1891 Oi,»'J0 

1892 m, la 

1893 ikS,403 

1894 m,m.y 

1895 70,t]64 

1896 70,:H}0 

1897 7U^£l 

1898 73,570 

1899 75,(K>0 

1900 76,aSft I 

1901 76,iN5 ' 

1902 7fiMi 

1903 14,im 

1904 71J31 I 

1906 fia.iSl ' 

1906 o^,m> 

1907 G%(m 

1908 01,158 

t 



Tdld, 



Di>mest1c. Foreign 



3,19Ah9S1 

S,^%,001 

h,^m,77i 
Ct,J901.5lO 
7.999.37 
S, 797, 902 
11.074.208 
fl,7T7.a7lO 
9. 158.907 
0,737.139 

10.773.199 
11,366.652 
11,509,240 
IL, 012,032 
ll,774,3fi0 
U,612;]^ 

11,154,855 

io*6^,na 

11,420,990 
U, 23^564 

in,&57j2e 

17,fiatl,071 

19, '.*4(?/ia'3 

21,G01,fitt7 I 

2ii, ;^-lH. |5;t I 

^,7i%,M 

ai,TJU,7W 



1^.335 
145.906 
153,993 
liie.TSi 
267.969 

4U7,5a5 
496.390 
611,614 

Mfj.eao 

609,629 
715^,558 
737,026 
79S,517 

Sai,978 
1,028,034 
U% 252 
&ia,33& 
1.037,5011 
l,0;f0,6i^ 
1,056,508 
1,172,600 
1,4.^,648 
1,660,162 
1.092,072 
2, 449, U8 
2,7M,070 
3,014J15 
3,60fjJ6e 
4.281.^7^ 
4,411.116 



Free, 



«53,ti51 
U7B, 739 
74«. SJO 
^1,665 

1,03a. no 

], 2111,096 
1.212.943 
1,329.219 
1,675,91^2 
l,7H'^,27a 
1,<HS.700 
^n7,flS3 
2,425,625 
2.561, (Kl 
2,7B2,912 

a.658,&ai 

2,710,084 
*2, 759, 016 
'2,589,116 
2.6S3>^ 
2,913 975 
2.SSB,677 
3.122,7-22 
2,674,9as 
3,029,713 
3,197,2^3 
,H, 303, 257 
3,5fil,82& 
a,Sl«,l33 
3,^2,022 
4,215,673 
4,225,070 
4,027,887 



Total paid 



4,007, 317 
4, S4», 127 
4,ti9M,$404 
5,4ii9,t)22 
6,996,M3 

9,6^,922 
10,5^,716 
11.246,515 
n,CH3.2Si 
11,&I8,2S7 
li,5^,421 
13,677,169 
I4,»;i,8ri6 
14,tH7,tlftl 
16,0^7,602 
15.260,094 
15,5(n,4tU 
l&.050,f64 
14,42^,081 
1M06,336 
H,55EJ.0«3 
15,600,220 
ie,0H6.0'i2 
1^,422.649 
20,m4,501 
22,881.400 
25,951,178 
m21»,if70 
30,200,177 
34,165,4^ 
SH. 255, 549 
40,151,797 



celled* 



S335. 

mi, 

414, 
459, 
5Sn, 
712. 
841, 
9%. 
937. 

«es, 

969, 

1.084, 

1,125, 

1.151, 

J. 216. 

1.238. 

1.2&4, 

1.150, 

990. 

939, 

976. 

935, 

998, 

1,072, 

1.231, 

1,409, 

1>570, 

1,791, 

l,95J, 

2,107, 

2,395, 

2,722, 

2,Sg&. 



416.60 
43a. iU 
999,40 
735.70 
771. ^1) 
682.20 
497.50 
.^9,7U 
069. »0 
^^.40 
952. 70 
676. NO 
154. 40 
082.50 
416.90 
906,70 
40LC0 
790.10 
915.04 
562,00 
388.88 
232,48 
199.84 

434.88 
382.24 
251.44 
148.24 
G58.96 
052.4(1 
992:^ 
446.32 
912,80 



298 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

Under the original act establishing the registry service the regis- 
tration fee was fixed at 5 cents; subsequenuy, by act of March 3, 
1863, it was fixed at not to exceed 20 cents. By order of the Post- 
master-General the fee was reduced to 15 cents on January 1, 1869, 
and to 8 cents on January 1, 1874 ; it was mcreased to 10 cente October 
1, 1875, and reduced to 8 cents January 1, 1893. 

Free registration was extended to all executive departments 
located at Washington, D. C, by act of Ciongress of July 5, 1884. 
Prior to that date free registration was restricted to the official busi- 
ness of the Post-Office Department. 

FREE REGISTRATIONS. 

For the first time in the history of the registry service the free 
registrations for this fiscal year are divided under two items: " Offi- 
cial registered free," and " Distribution re-registered free." All 
registered mail, whether originally registered free or upon which the 
registry fee was paid at the office of mailing^ when missent and for- 
warded to some other office, returned to writer, forwarded, or sent 
to the Fourth Assistant Postmaster-General, Division of Dead Let- 
ters, is required by the regulations to be re-registered free, and some 
postmasters in rendering their reports to the Department were in- 
cluding such matter upon which the fee had been paid at the office of 
origin in the item " free registrations." As this condition resulted 
in a misstatement of the facts as to free registrations, postmasters 
were required for the fiscal year 1908 to report the free registrations 
under separate items, namely, official matter entitled to &ee regis- 
tration, and distribution re-registered free matter upon most of 
which the registry fee was originally paid. 

The total tree registrations this year show an increase of 963,876 
pieces, or 22.81 per centj over the total free registrations for the pre- 
vious year, but the official free registrations upon which no registry 
fee was paid, reported for this year, as compared with the free reg- 
istrations reported last year, show a decrease of 197,183 pieces^ or 
4.66 per cent. This is conclusive evidence that the free registrations 
reported in the past have been incorrect, as not showing the actual 
matter that was entitled by law to registration without flie payment 
of the registry fee. The aggregate registrations, paid and free, re- 
ported in the past were also in error to the same e2ctent, but future 
reports of this character will show the actual facts. 

VOLUME OF THE REGISTRY BUSINESS. 

The total number of letters and parcels — domestic, foreign, official 
free, and distribution re-registered free — registered in each State and 
Territory of the United States during the fiscal year, and the increase 
and decrease in each State and Territorv compared with the preoed- 
inff year, as well as a recapitulation of the whole, is ^qwn py the 
following table : 



THIBD ASSISTANT — REGISTBY BUSINESS. 



299 



i 






^■af wtt- 












t^9i*B*?l^H r^?!'^ * 






Si 



Jilt 









SS i 






n iCj r*" ^ t^H !ffl ei ^*> d^ffi r^'O ag iH a*" to » ^i^"g"u£f i^^rtr^'^d' j^ 



■a . 

1^ 






£ 



!l 
il 



2 












c 

B 

t 

if 




g 

Q 



300 



REPORT OF TFiE POSTMASTER-GEN ERilL. 



2&a 



E 



SS2S$S$g8S5S 









S; 

&} 



?lo» o»eoc5'««iH<o*4-»iO'««*i-i 



Ids' S?^S3S?^5?S?2SSr: 



2l£l 



II 



o 






s ! 

S ! 



5 . 



4S 



53 






^ 

s 

I 



is -i8«i§igiiii 



g§ 









§i'Sisiiiis§is.i 



riO>i-l C^<OCIt^ 






■'^•osSri'- 



»o» i^i-ico-HT-nHi-iiTScioao-H 



1-1 S 1-1 eo «o •-1 1-1 ift •»• ^ C0 1-1 









Si 
eg 

2^ 



pans 









98 



gg 









00 <o 






c.S5|rl.2 £ 



iiiiiiiiiiiiiii 






it I 



;s 

la 

12 



II 



£ II I 



XHIBD ASSISTANT — CARRIER REGISTRATION. 



801 



MONET AND MONET VAIiUES SENT IN THE REGISTERED MAIL. 

The following table shows the number and value in money and 
stamped paper of letters and parcels sent by registered mail during 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, for the Post-OflSce and Treasury 
departments : 



Number of 
packages. 



Value. 



Postal funds received at post-office depositories 

Postage stamps from Division of Stamps 

Stamped envelopes from the Hartford, Conn., and Dayton, Ohio, agen- 
cies, and the subagency at St. Louis, Mo 

Stamped envelopes dispatched by freight to five cities from which they 
were distributed to postmasters by registered mail 

Postal cards from the agency at Rumford, Me., and the subagencies at 
Cincinnati, St. Louis, Troy, and Washington 

Surplus money-order funds remitted for deposit 

Total for Po6^0ffice Department 

Secretary of the Treasury: 

Received 

Sent. 



Register of the Treasury: 

Received 

Sent. 



Commissioner of Internal Revenue: 
Received 



Sent. 



Coxnptroller of (currency: 

Received 

Sent. 



Auditor for Poe^Office Department: 

Received 

Sent. 



Trea.Hurer of the United States: 
Received. . . / 



Sent. 



Assistant treasurers of the United States : 

Received 

Sent 



Total for Treasury Department . 
Aggregate 



275,864 
430,070 



116,184 



822,118 



9,888 
2,660 

2.167 
8,443 

6,742 
116,161 

2,278 
358 

11.969 
1,495 

16,680 
21,186 

71.452 
17,809 



283,768 
1,105,886 



$7,071,389.75 
143,281,118.70 

22,352,060.40 

1,310,033.04 

6,151,001.05 
546,158,672.53 



725,324,275.47 



96,178,287.77 
397,949.12 

27,216,146.86 
34,794,140.00 

19,457,110.34 
266,750,402.89 

29,440,859.00 
16,486,682.00 

10,317.19 
36,635.29 

65,015,239.69 
31,604,882.07 

25,08(/,476.39 
1,003,282,741.84 



1,615.650,770.46 
2,340,975,045.92 



CARRIER REGISTRATION. 



The following table shows the extent to which the public has 
availed itself of the opportunity of registering letters by city carriers 
since January 15, 1900, when city carrier registration was first put 
in operation. The figures for the year 1900 are for a period of five 
and one-half months only, from January 15 to June 30, 1900. 



Year. 



Number of 
post-offices. 



1900 
1901 
1902 
1908 
1904 
1905 
1906 
1907 
U08 



789 
866 
933 
1,032 
1,000 
1,144 
1,184 
1,240 
1,330 



v„«,>w.-rvf Number of 
^k letters reg- 
carriers. jstered. 



14,254 
16,389 
17,785 
19,540 
20,761 
21,776 
22,9^ 
24,677 
26,862 



75,820 
287,716 
817,942 
379,169 
444.584 
462,692 
614.327 
670,327 
548,647 



Average 
for each 
office. 



95 
274 
341 
367 
404 
404 
484 
460 
404 



302 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

Out of 39,278 rural routes in operation during the year at 16,365 
post-offices, where 39,143 rural carriers were employed, reports have 
been received from postmasters showing the following registry busi- 
ness transacted during the year by 38,508 rural carriers : 

letters and parcels registered 945,424 

Registered letters and parcels delivered 1, 267, 979 

Registered packages handled in transit 340,095 

Total registered pieces bandied by rural carriers 2,553,498 

Fifty-three pieces of mail were registered by marine carriers during 
the year at Detroit, Mich., the only office where mail is so registered. 

HANDLING REGISTERED MAIL ON BOARD UNITED STATES NAVAL VESSELS. 

In accordance with the provisions of the appropriation act ap- 
proved May 27, 1908, instructions have been issued for the govern- 
ment of " navy mail clerks " and " assistant navy mail clerks " in the 
handling of registered mail on board United States naval vessels. 

The introduction of the postal service on board naval vessels, under 
rules and regulations prescribed by the Post-Office Department 
governing postmasters, is considered a decided improvement. It is 
believed that registered matter will be handled and recorded to and 
from and on board such vessels with more satisfaction both to the 
Navy and Post-Office departments than in the past. 

COLLECTION OF DEFICIENCIES ON SHORT-PAID REGISTERED MATTER. 

The following statement shows the transactions in adjusting 
deficiencies on short-paid registered matter during the fiscal year : 

Outstanding June 30, 1907, on account of deficiencies on domestic 

matter $107. 88 

Deficiencies on domestic matter reported during the year 1, 294. 23 

Deficiencies on foreign matter reported during tlie year 8S4. 48 

Total 2, 34a 59 

Deficiencies on domestic matter collected during the year 1,451.37 

Outstanding June 30, 1908, on account of deficiencies on domestic 

matter during tlie year 6.68 

Deficiencies on niMtter sent to foreign countries certified to the Audi- 
tor for Post-Ofllce DeT)artment for charges in postmasters* accounts. 884. 48 

Deficiency charges on domestic matter canceled during the year 4. 06 

Total 2,340.59 

Total amount of domestic deficiencies reported during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1907 1,760.96 

Total amount of domestic deficiencies reported during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1908 1,294.23 

Decrease 456. 73 

Total amount of foreign deficiencies reported during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1907 1,845.89 

Total amount of foreign deficiencies reported during the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1908 884.48 

Decrease 460, 91 



THIBD ASSISTANT — ^LOST REGISTERED MAIL. 303 

Hie total number of domestic deficiency cases acted on during 
the year was 87,418, a decrease of 2,653 over the preceding year. The 
total number of foreign deficiency cases acted on during the year 
was 12,907, a decrease of 3,193 over the preceding year. 

During the year the past practice of the department i^i requiring 
the collection of deficiency in postage on short-paid domestic regis- 
tered matter from the addressee and reporting any deficiency in the 
registry fee to the department for collection from the mailing post- 
master as a penalty for his neglect was changed so as to require the 
entire deficiency in both postage and registry fee to bo collected 
from the addressee upon delivery. The new regulation became ef- 
fective April 1, 1908, and applied only to the nnal quarter of the 
fiscal year covered by this report. 

LOSSES IN THE REGISTERED MAILS. 

Information furnished by the chief inspector shows that during 
the fiscal year 1908, 45,533 complaints were received relating to 
registered matter mailed at or addressed to United States post- 
omces. During the same period tliere were 4G,191 complaints of 
this class closed. Of the 46,191 complaints closed, 8,00.*) were found 
to involve losses. Eecoyeries in the latter complaints wore made and 
the value of the lost articles restored to the owners as follows : 

Through oflace of chief Inspector 1,500 

Through Division of Dead Letters 120 

Through Inspectors in the field and postmasters 1,154 

Through indemnity 454 

Through office of chief inspector and indemnity 11) 

Through foreign administrations 4 

Total recoveries 8, 317 

Complaints in which recovery was impossible 2, 713 

Complaints in which no financial loss occurred 2,035 

Aggregate 8, 005 

Following past custom in determining the rate of loss among the 
domestic letters and parcels registered, namely, by taking cognizance 
of only those cases in which recovery was impossible and exchiding 
those m which no financial loss occurred, it will be seen that irre- 
coverable losses occurred in less than 2,713 cases out of 35,740,681 
domestic paid and free registrations, or 1 in every 13,174. 

INDEMNTTY FOR LOST REGISTERED MAIL. 

The following table shows the various causes of the 768 losses for 
which claims for indemnity were certified during the year, with the 
number and amount of tne losses and the amount of indemnity 
approved : 



804 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



Cause of loss. 



Railway wrecks 

Burglaries 

Post-offices burned 

Chargeable to railway-postal clerks 

Chargeable to other postal employees 

Stolen while in custody of railway and other contractors , 

Stolen during Christmas holiday rush in large post-offica^ , 

Pouches accidentally damaged in transit 

Fraudulently obtained by impersonating addressee , 

Lost by carrier in fording flooded stream 

Stolen from postmaster^s home, where it was taken for greater 

security 

Rifled by special-delivery messenger 

Cause undetermined 



Number 
of 



Total 

Average amount of indemnity per piece . 



276 
129 
32 
41 
91 
51 
15 
80 
10 
1 

1 

1 

91 



768 



Aggregate. 



Value. Indemnity. 



110,663.70 

2,695.81 

698.28 

12,280.83 

2,843.12 

3,288.02 

1,151.00 

2,821.17 

185.68 

155.00 

5.00 

20.00 

1,516.04 



37,276.16 



92,686.04 
1.228.16 
326.28 
350.83 
928.95 
615 93 
151.00 
219.17 
132.80 
25.00 

5.00 

20.00 

972.83 



7,561.99 
9.85 



DOMESTIC INDEMNITY. 



The following table shows the amount of limited liability for loss 
of domestic registered mail, the number of claims approved, and the 
amount of money involved each year for the period during which 
indemnity has been payable : 



Year. 



1899. 
1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1908. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 



Total . 



Amount 

limited 

to— 



Number 
of claims. 



$10 
10 
10 
10 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 



22 
58 
161 
108 
469 
696 
612 
529 
84S 
768 



8,746 



Amount 
paid. 



1138.03 
332.42 
1,034.88 
654.18 
8,091.01 
4.970.46 
5,310.87 
4,486.82 
8,286.83 
7,561.99 



80,866.49 



was 



The average amount of indemnity per piece for the period 

$8.23. 

FOREIGN INDEMNITY. 

The payment by the United States of indemnity for the loss of 
registered matter addressed to foreign countries is a new feature. 
Under the provisions of the Universal Postal Convention, the sender, 
or at his request the addressee, except in cases beyond control, is 
indemnified for the loss of any registered article addressed to a 
foreign country embraced in the Universal Postal Union, for its full 
value up to 50 francs, but only four cases of foreign indemnity have 
been received in the Division of Registered MaUs for consideration 
during the fiscal year. 



THIRD ASSISTANT NOT-REGULAR DISPATCHES. 



305 



IMMEDIATE PAYMENT OF INDEMNITY. 

Every effort is beinff made to inau^rate a system under which in- 
demnity claims may be promptly paid. It is expected that during 
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1909, every outstanding indemnity 
case of any appreciate age will be paid and that only current cases 
will be under investigation or consideration under the new procedure 
for immediate payment. 

Under a recent decision of the Comptroller of the Treasury the 
United States is required to pay indemnity for the loss in the mter- 
national mails of any class of registered mail, while the law govern- 
ing the payment of indemnity for domestic registered mail provides 
for indemnity only for lost first-class matter. This gives to foreign- 
ers in this country and those who have foreign correspondence an 
advantage over American citizens and those whose correspondence is 
exclusively domestic. It is therefore recommended that section 3926 
of the Revised Statutes be further amended to permit the owners of 
any class of domestic registered mail to be indemnified for the loss 
tihereof in the United States. 

THROUGH REGISTRY EXCHANGES. 

The fcUowinff table shows the number of through re^stered pouch, 
inner registered sack, railway post-office through registered pouch, 
Kulway post-office inner registered sack, and brass-lock exchanges in 
operation June 30, 1908, compared with the number in operation at 
the end of each of the last five preceding fiscal years : 



Nature of exchange. 



1902. 1903. 1904. 1905. 1906. 1907. 1908. 



Through registered pouch 

Innerregistered sack 

R. P. O. through registered pouch . 

R. P. O. inner registered sack 

BiBflB-lock pouch 



505 

546 

23 

2 

354 I 



467 

603 

46 

20 

344 



Total 1,430; 1,870 



442 
480 
151 
41 
356 



1,469 



399 
417 
166 
62 
269 



1,313 



414 

222 

76 

278 



440 
413 
138 
290 



367 
403 
478 
223 
299 



1,379 1,664 I 1,765 



The railway post-office through registered i)ouch and inner regis- 
tered sack exchanges are steadfly increasing in numbers, while the 
ordinary through pouch and inner sack exchanges have decreased. 
The ordinary through pouch and inner sack, as well as the brass- 
lock exchanges, are old features of the registry service, while the rail- 
way post-omce through pouch and inner sack exchanges are com- 
paratively new. As these new features are introduced it is found 
that a portion of the old exchanges are no longer necessary, and they 
are therefore discontinued. 

NOT-REGULAR DISPATCHES OF INNER REGISTERED SACKS. 

The not-regular dispatch of inner registered sacks is a very recent 
feature of the registry service, the same having been first authorized 
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1907. Not-regular dispatches 
are authorized for the same purpose as regular dispatches; the not- 
regular dispatches being particularly advantageous in disposing of 
any accumulation of registered mail between the hours of regular 
dispatches, and in obviating the dispatch of empty equipment. This 
not-regular feature was first authorized only at certain offices, but it 

66064— P M O1906 ^20 



i^sft-^. 



806 KEPOBT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

has proved so successful and such an advantage to the registry service 
that during the fiscal year covered by this report the authority for 
not-regular dispatches of inner registered sacks was made general by 
being extended to every post-office having an exchange or dispatch of 
through registered pouches or inner registered sacks. 

The authority for not-regular dispatehes of inner registered sacks 
was still further extended during the year to permit postmasters to 
make such dispatches to any of nearly 300 post-offices named, in 
addition to those offices having a regular exchange or dispatch of 
through registered pouches or inner registered sacks. These addi- 
tional offices to which not-regular dispatches of inner registered 
sacks were permitted to be made were not authorized themselves to 
make not-regular dispatches except in returning the not-regular 
equipment received with registered mail dispatched to their offices, 
because the quantity of registered mail involved did not justifjr it. 

This list of offices is specially selected from experience, and others 
will be added to the same from time to time as may be round neces- 
sary or advisable. 

The general extension of the authorization for not-regular dis- 
patches of inner registered sacks does not include such dispatches to 
railway post-offices or terminal railway post-offices, and is therefore 
confined to postmasters. 

Special authorization for not-regular dispatches of railway post- 
office inner registered sacks from certain terminal railway post- 
offices to any post-office or railway post-office known to be supplied 
with a railway mail service rotary-lock key has been made, and these 
not-regular dispatches are watched with interest. 

It is expected to extend a similar feature in the future, as far as 
practicable, to dispatches of ordinary through registered pouches, 
railway post-office through registered pouches, and railway post-office 
inner registered sacks. 

REGISTERED PACKAGE JACKETS. 

Registered package jackets, although a new feature of the registry 
service, have proved so satistactory that their use has been extended 
from a limited number of offices to all post-offices where the condi- 
tions justify. 

Authority has now been given for the use of registered package 
jackets by all post-offices and by all railway post-offices in the country 
m the dispatch of five or more separate registered packages where at 
least one record of handling in transit oi the package mclosed will 
be saved. 

USE OF REGISTERED PACKAGE JACKETS IN THE RAILWAY MAIL SERVICE. 

The following figures show the extent to which registered package 
jackets have been used in the Railway Mail Service alone during 
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908: 

Made up and dispatched 406,458 

Pieces inclosed 2,909,497 

Received and opened 204,020 

Pieces inclosed 1, 603, 744 

Handled in transit 61,497,8a) 



THIBD ASSISTANT — REGISTRY SERVICE. 807 

IMPROVEMENTS IN THE REGISTRY SERVICE. 

The fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, has been prolific in improve- 
ments in the registry service and in the extension of improvements 
previously begun. The following improvements or modifications are 
especially noteworthy : 

(a) Tne elimination of the gray card bill from the registiy service 
in the dispatch of registered mail for domestic destinations. Excep- 
tion is made of registered mail addressed to foreign countries in order 
to prevent delay in dispatch of such mail after it reaches United 
States exchange offices. 

(6) The extension of the authority for not-regular dispatches of 
inner registered sacks to all offices having a regular exchange or dis- 
patch of through registered pouches or inner registered sacks. 

(c) Special authorization for not-regular dispatches of railway 
post-office inner registered sacks from certain terminal railway post- 
offices. 

(d) Extension of the authority for the use of registered-package 
jacK^s to all post-offices whore conditions justify. 

(e) Amendment of section 812 of the Postal Laws and Regula- 
tions, governing the numl^ering of rogistorcd mail, registered package, 
and tag envelopes. 

(/) Amendment to section 898 of the Postal Laws and Regula- 
tions, requiring registry reports to be rendered annually for tho ontire 
fiscal year instead of semiannuallv as heretofore. 

(g) The addition of a " Distribution '' item to the annual registry 
report rendered by postmasters to show the number of registered 
letters and parcels " Misscnt," *' Forwarded," " Returned to writer," 
etc., upon wnich the registry fee had once been paid, but which were 
required to be re-registereti free, to distinguish it from other free 
registrations for which no fee is charged. 

(A) Amendment to section 873 of the Postal Laws and Regula- 
tions, requiring deficiencies in rc»gistry fees as well as postage on 
short-paid domestic registered matter, to be collected by postmasters 
from addressees upon (leliverv, instead of the deficiencies in registry 
fees being reported by postmasters for collection bv the department 
from mailing postmasters as a penalty for their neglect. 

(i) The authorization of separate j^ouches for registered letter 
mail and registered mail of other classes when the quantity of such 
mail in any one dispatch warrants the use of two or moi*e through 
registered pouches or inner registered sacks, the class of the contents 
of the pouches or sacks to be distinguished by an ai:)propriate indorse- 
ment on the label. 

(J) The authorization of separate pouch bills for registered letter 
and other mail when there is but one through j^ouch or inner sack 
to a dispatch. 

(k) The authorization of all post-office stations designated by 
letters or local names to make up registered matter for direct out- 
ward dispatch. 

(l) The establishment of a uniform rule permitting the extension 
of the tissue-slip system for the delivery of registered mail by city 
carriers to such post-offices or stations as have a minimum of 50,000 



308 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

registry deliveries by carriers at the main office or any station 
annually; provided, in addition to such number of deliveries annu- 
ally, the other conditions at the office warrant the introduction of 
this system. 

(m) The establishment of a rule permitting the extension of the 
" ordinary slip system " (more generally known as the " 05 and 06 
slip system " oecause of the numbers given to the slips used), for 
delivery of registered mail by carriers, to any city delivery post-office 
wliere the number of carriers employed and the conditions at the 
office justify. 

(n) The establishment of a uniform rule permitting the extension 
of the " card system of desk delivery " of registered mail to such 
main offices and stations as have a minimum of 25,000 desk deliveries 
at the main office or any station annually; provided, in addition to 
such number of deliveries, the other conditions at the office warrant 
the institution of this system. 

(o) Transfer of registry transfer stations at Chicago, 111., to the 
railway mail service. 

(p) A new policy which will ^result in the immediate payment 
of indemnity for lost registered mail. 

(q) Provision for indemnity for the loss of registered articles 
addressed to foreign countries, under the terms of the Universal 
Postal Convention, which became effective October 1, 1907. 

(r) Additional number of post-offices authorized to use lead-sealed 
sacKS as registered package envelopes and registered package jackets 
to permit the covering of a number of pieces of registered mail of 
bulky character under one sack in cases where the ordinary paper 
registered package envelopes and jackets would not suffice. 

(s) Authorization for the dispatch of registered mail by the United 
States Stamped Envelope Agency, Dayton, Ohio, in lead sealed regis- 
tered canvas tie sacks in lieu of rotary-locked, ordinary, and railway 
post-office through registered pouches and inner registered sacks, 
under a specially printed registry tag. 

(t) Preparation for the handling and recording of registered mail 
sent to and from, and on board, United States naval vessels, in antici- 
pation of the promulgation of regulations for the government of 
" navy mail clerks " and " assistant navy mail clerks," under the pro- 
visions of the act of Congress approved May 27, 1908. 

(u) Introduction of a new form of window receipt designed to 
relieve the public of having to wait at post-office windows any con- 
siderable length of time to register letters or parcels. 

(v) The revision of the sender's registry return receipt, Form 1548, 
so as to require the mailing office to use but one side of the card and 
to write thereon only the original registration number and the name 
and address of the sender. 

{w) Amendment to the stub of window registration book. Form 
1549, so as to preclude the necessity for a transit book at post-offices 
having no transit matter, stations, or rural or city carriers, by pro- 
viding spaces for a record of the dispatch and the witnesses of dis- 
patch 01 registered mail of local origin. 



THIBD ASSISTANT REGISTRY SERVICE. 809 

Numerous important changes in blank forms were made during 
the year by discontinuing old forms, introducing new ones, and 
amending and combining others. Constant efforts are being made 
to simplify operations and reduce expense, while increasing efficiency 
and maintaining proper safeguards. This may be said with respect 
to even^ matter under the jurisdiction of this office. 
Ilespectfully, 

A. L. Lawshe, 
Third Assistant Postmaster-General. 
Hon. Geo. v. L. Meyer, 

Postmaster-General. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



FOURTH ASSISTANT POSTMASTER-GENERAL 



TO THE 



POSTiVlASTER-CENERAL 



FOR 



THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1906 



'M\ 



CONTENTS. 

[Report of the Fourth Assistant Postmaster-General.] 



Page. 

Condition of work in the Bureau 315 

Improvements inaugurated 315 

Increase necessary in higher clerical grades 316 

Division of Rural Delivery 316 

Growth of the service 317 

Patronage 317 

Transportation of mail 317 

Road miprovement 317 

Rural letter carriers 318 

Delivery of packages on rural routes 318 

Estimates for the fiscal year 1910 319 

Division of Supplies 320 

Division of Dead Letters 320 

Division of Topography 321 

Post-route maps 322 

Rural-delivery maps 322 

Increased number of draftsmen necessary 322 

Recommendations 323 

313 



1^; 



REPORT 

OF THE 

FOURTH ASSISTANT POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



Post-Opfice Department, 
Office Fourth Assistant Postmaster-General, 

WdshmgUm, Novemher S, 1908. 
Sir: In submitting herewith the annual report of the Fourth Assist- 
ant Postmaster-General for the fiscal year ended June 30. 1908, I 
desire to emphasize the fact that your authorization to adopt new 
methods of procedure, and your general encouragement m the 
arrangement of office details made it possible to modernize the sev- 
eral mvisions comprising this Bureau. The hearty cooperation of 
officers and clerks developed through the existing esprit du corps of 
the several divisions, which materially aided in the undertaking, is 
also duly acknowledged. 

CONDITION OF WOBK IN THE BTTBEATT. 

As an instance of the results achieved, each superintendent of divi- 
sion reported on the afternoon of June 30 that all business received, 
to and mcluding that day, had been disposed of — a condition without 
porecedent in the divisions involved — and that record is being con- 
tinued from day to day, except in the Division of Rural Dmivery 
where the clerical work mcident to the installation of routes is several 
months in advance. 

In the Division of SuppUes requisitions are filled on the day of 
receipt. 

In the Division of Dead Letters all matter received, that is return- 
able, is restored to the writer or sender. 

In the Division of Topography maps of rural routes, in addition to 
post-route maps, are now being made for use in the service and for 
sale. The new maps outline rural county service, indicating on each 
rural route the locations of residences, churches, and schoolhoiises, 
making a complete guide. 

IMPROVEMENTS INATTGTTBATED. 

This Bureau concurs in the recommendations of the expert accoimt- 
ants of the Joint Postal Commission ''on Business Method of the 
Post-Office Department and Postal Service,'' in so far as they apply 
to the Divisions of Rural Delivery, Supplies, Dead Letters, and 

315 



816 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

Topography. Nearly all the necessary changes, incident thereto 
had either become effective, or were in course or promulgation, prior 
to the receipt by the Department of the prelimmary report or the 
Commission. 

The special commission appointed by you to investigate the fea- 
sibility of purchasing supplies for consimiption in the larger post- 
offices and postal agencies, in the cities in which they are located, 
will report to you in the near future; as will also the special com- 
mittee charged with an investigation of the feasibility of confining 
contracts of the Post-Office Department to one type of computing 
machine and one manufacture of typewriter to be determined 
through competitive bids, invited by advertisements through the 
purchasing agent. 

Shipments of suppUes are being made by this Biu'eau ''whenever 
practicable" by freight and express in all directions, in compliance 
with the act making appropriations for the service of the Post-Office 
Department for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908, which provided 
that: 

The Postmaster-General shall require, when in freightable lots and whenever prac- 
ticable, the withdrawal from the mails of all * * * furniture, equipment and 
other supplies * * * in the respective weighing divisions of the coimtry imme- 
diately preceding the weighing period in said divisions » » » and thereafter 
such * * * furniture, equipment and other supplies » » » shall be trans- 
mitted by either freight or express. 

INCREASE NECESSARY IN HIGHER CLERICAL GRADES. 

For some time past this Bureau has been losing many of its yoimg 
and efficient clerks by reason of the great preponderance in *,he num- 
ber of places in the $900 and $1,000 grades, which condition makes 
promotion so infrequent as to render the service undesirable to the 
more able class of employees. It is decidedly detrimental to the 
service to lose employees who have become skilled workers, as much 
time and efficiency are lost in training new clerks. Much of the work 
in the several divisions is of a high order and the employees engaged 
upon it dischargee their duties faithfully and well merit promotion. 
To relieve the situation the number of positions in the higher grades 
should be increased, with a corresponding decrease in the lower 
grades. 

DIVISION OF RURAL DELIVERY. 

The number of petitions for rural delivery service filed during the 
past fiscal year agCTegated 4,064, an increase of 1,510 over the 
previous year. Of tne petitions filed, 2,981 have been accepted for 
investigation and 184 are still under consideration. 

On June 30, 1908, the service was in operation on 39,277 routes, 
and 39,143 carriers were employed. On 659 routes the service was 
triweekly, a decrease of 30 as compared with the previous year. 

During the year 1,672 new routes were establisned, 17 routes dis- 
continued prior thereto were reestablished, and 140 routes were dis- 
continued, leaving the net increase in the number of routes in opera- 
tion 1,649. 



FOUBTH ASSISTANT — ROAD IMPROVEMENT. 



317 



GROWTH OF THE SEBYIOE. 



The following table shows the growth of rural delivery during the 
twelve years of its existence: 



Fiscal year. 


CanfBTB. 


Ap^ljprt.- 


Eipfflultture. 


IncreaHA in 
expenditure. 


1897 


«3 

118 

301 

1,270 

4,301 

a, 466 

16,119 

74, m 

32,0-'iS 

3&,6eft 

37,682 

30,143 


H0,000' 

60;250 

150,033 

450,000 1 

1,760,796 

4,089,075 

S, 590, 364 

i2,oaB,aos 

21.116,600 
26,K2fi.3O0 
28,360,000 
S4, 900,000 


114,840 

60.241 

150,012 

*20,433 

1,750,321 

4,oe».Ml 

8,061,600 

12,645.276 

30,804,886 

25,f»l!,025 

26.747,000 




18K ..- ,.,., 


835,401 
99,771 
270, 421 


1899 ...-, 


1900 


1901 


1,329,888 


1902 


2,338,720 


1908 


3,962,668 


1904 

190B 

1906 

1907 

1908 


4,593.676 
8,219,610 
4,146.740 
1,735,376 










COUNTY SERVICE. 

In 805 counties the service had been readjusted on June 30, 1908, 
80 as to furnish rural delivery to the largest possible proportion of the 
rural population. 

PATRONAGE. 

A larger use of the rural delivery service by the people is manifest 
from the reports of inspections which have been made during the past 
fiscal year, and also from the enormous increase in the amount of mail 
handled. It is significant that on only 4,061, or 10.3 per cent, of the 
rural routes the quantity of mail handled was less than 9,000 pieces 
per quarter, which heretofore has been considered a fair average for a 
standard route. Included in this number are 659 triweekly routes 
and a number of short-length routes serving restricted territories. 
Diuing the year 1,958 post-offices were discontinued and the patrons 
rendered service by rural carriers. 

TRANSPORTATION OP MAIL. 

Incident to their other duties, when expedient, rural carriers are 
required to transport the mail for post-offices located on their routes 
without any additional expense. The number of post-offices thus 
served on June 30, 1908, was 3,381. 

ROAD IMPROVEMENT 

Rural delivery is in operation on 943,087 miles of road, over which 
carriers are required to travel daily. Thirty-five thousand miles of 
these roads are macadam^ the remainder being earth, sand, or gravel. 
Postmasters at rural delivery offices were recently required to fur- 
nish the Department with detailed reports on roads covered by rural 
delivery, compilation of which shows that since the service was first 
established $70,632,162 has been expended on roads traversed by 
rural carriers. Road officials and patrons are notified whenever the 
road reports received indicate the necessity for repairs', and this 



818 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

Bureau takes pleasure in acknowledging the general cooperation of 
patrons and road oflBicials in securing improvements essential to the 
maintenance of the service on a high plane of efficiency. During the 
past year more work has been done on pubKc highways covert by 
rural deliverer and more expenditures have been made in their improve- 
ment than in any previous year in the history of rural delivery, 
and reports received clearly indicate that interest in road improve- 
ment is being generally manifested tliroughout the country 

RURAL LETTER CARRIERS, 

During the past year 2,124 resignations of carriers were accepted, 
which is 50 per cent less than the number accepted in the preceding 
fiscal year and about 5 per cent of the numoer of carriers in the 
service June 30, 1908. One hundred and seventy-eight carriers were 
separated from the service by death. The high standard of efficiency 
maintained by^ rural carriers and their fideUty and integrity is force- 
fully attested by the fact that only 165 carriers out of a total num- 
ber of 39,143 were dismissed for cause. 

The recommendation made in the last annual report of this Bureau 
that a uniform dress be prescribed for carriers in the rural delivery 
service is respectfully renewed. Sei-viceable uniforms can be pro- 
cured without greater cost to the carrier than the clothing ordinarily 
worn ; and the adoption of a uniform suitable to the conditions under 
which the rural carriers must work would undoubtedly add to the 
dignity and efficiency of the rural service, the carriers of which daily 
pass 3,900,000 homes. 

DELIVERY OF PACKAGES ON RURAL ROUTES. 

In the early days of rural delivery the carriers were encouraged to 
engage in carrying express matter for hire and were permitted to 
act as agents for newspapers, the purpose being to augment the then 
small compensation allowed. There was Utue restriction of this 
privilege, and from July 1, 1902, until July 1, 1904, the law expresdy 
provided for it. Thus it was possible for the public to secure the 
transmission of matter outside the mails by rural carriers at a low 
rate because of their employment by the Government. Complaints 
followed to the effect that if allowed to act as agents for newspapers 
it was only fair that carriers also be allowed to accept other soliciting 
agencies. It was urged, therefore, that rural earners be prohibited 
from doing an express package business; be restricted while on duty 
to their official work, and be allowed a compensation commensurate 
with the service performed. Congress consequently provided for 
increased salaries for rural carriers, prohibiting them from acting as 
agents, and provided that rural earners — 

shall not, during their hours of employment, carry any merchandise for hire: Pft>- 
videdy That said carriers may carry merchandise for hire for and upon the request of 
patrons residing upon their respective routes whenever it shall not interfere with the 
proper discharge of their ofticial duties and under such regulations as the Postmaster- 
General may prescribe. 

Believing that commissions performed by virtue of this provision 
of law should not include anvthing which might be transmitted by 
mail, the regulations promulgated so provided; and rural carriers 



FOUBTH ASSISTANT — ESTIMATES FOR 1910. 319 

are not permitted to carry for hire any matter or package that is 
mailable. Since the above restrictions have been enforced the Con- 
fess has, in line with the reconmiendations of this Department, again 
increased the salaries of rural carriers. This increase was allowed in 
'View of the enhanced cost of horse feed and to make the compensa- 
tion adequate to the service performed. The demand for a package 
service by rural carriers, which was fostered in the first years of rurid 
delivery, still exists. It presents an opportunity to increase the use- 
fulness of the postal service to a large class of its patrons, and should 
be met, not in the old way, which permitted the use of the Govern- 
ment's agency for private gain, but by the establishment of a system 
for the carriage of merchandise by rural carriers at such rates as will 
be a fair compensation for the service performed, the revenues to be 
credited to the postal receipts. The present fourth-class rate is prohib- 
itive as applied to the transmission of merchandise on rural routes. 
Patrons and merchants desire to have small packages of merchandise 
delivered by rural carriers, but ^vill not pay the foiu-th-class rate. 
Such a service would be beneficial alike to the patrons of rural deUv- 
ery and local merchants, without iniuring or competing with any other 
service. It can be given with the facilities now employed and would 
materially increase the revenues of the Department. A special 
reduced rate of postage for merchandise carried only by rural carriers, 
such as you have recommended, would unquestionably be of material 
value to the retail merchants on rural routes and at rural-delivery 
distributing centers, as well as enhance the influence of the rural 
service in making lire in the country more attractive. 

ESTIMATES FOR THE FISCAL YEAR 1910. 

It has been found very diflScult to estimate with any degree of cer- 
tainty the appropriation necessary for the rural-delivery service. 
EJstimates have been made in accordance with conditions which pre- 
vail at the time the law requires the estimates to be submitted. Dur- 
ing the fiscal years 1906 and 1907 the number of petitions received 
for the service decreased materially as compared with the demand in 
1904 and 1905, and as a result appropriations for the first-named years 
were in excess of the expenditures. It being reasonable to suppose 
that the demand for new rural routes would continue to be moderate, 
an appropriation of $35,873,000, or an increase of $973,000 over the 
preceaing year, was asked for the fiscal year 1008-9. The amount 
appropriated by Congress was $35,573,000, or $300,000 less than the 
estimates. Contrary to anticipations the number of petitions filed for 
rural service rose to an average of 415 per month for the six months 
ended June 30, 1908, as compared with an average of 262 per month for 
the previous six months. About 45.6 per cent of the petitions received 
are favorably reported for installation. During the past year applica- 
tion for extensions of existing routes have also oeen unusually large, a 
considerable number of them involving increases of salaries of carriers 
who are paid on the basis of distance traveled. Notwithstanding the 
fact that such extensions are allowed only when additional patronage 
would be secured or existing patronage better served, the average sal- 
ary per route has risen in tne last twelve months from $861.41 to 
$865.37 per annum. In preparing the estimates for the ensuing fiscal 



320 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

year an average of $867 per route is given in order to allow for all 
reasonable demands for extension of routes. 

On September 1, 1908, there were 1,526 petitions for new routes 
unacted upon, and 290 routes had been established or ordered installed 
since the beginning of the fiscal year. With the appropriation avail- 
able it is estunated that 433 additional routes can oe installed during 
the remainder of the fiscal year. It is believed that there will be not 
less than 954 cases awaiting installation July 1, 1909, and at least 
1,500 new routes will bo recommended for installation during the next 
fiscal year, and that the sum of $37,599,000 would be required to 
meet all demands for service. However, the estimate ($36,246,000) 
submitted is based on the same increase ($673,000) over the appro- 
priation for 1909 ($35,573,000) as was granted by the Congress in 
excess of that ($34,900,000) for 1908. 

The estimate of $36,246,000 which has been submitted for the 
fiscal year 1910 is made up as follows: 

To continue the service on 39,277 routes in operation June 30, 1908 $34, 053, 159 

To continue the service on 723 routes which it is estimated will be estab- 
lished during the current fiscal year, at an estimated average salaiy 

for carriers of $867 per annum 626, 841 

To inaugurate new service during the fiscal year 1910 - 179, 000 

To pay substitutes for 39,638 carriers on vacation, at an estimated aver- 
age rate of $867 per annum, less 6 per cent deducted accoimt of carriers 

not in service twelve months 1, 360, 000 

To pay clerks in chai^ge of stations of rural delivery service 12, 000 

To pay tolls and ferriage charged for carriers who traverse toll roads or 
turnpikes or cross streams over toll bridges or ferries 15, 000 

Total 36,246,000 

DIVISION OF SUPPLIES. 

The unfavorable conditions in regard to furnishing supplies to the 
postal service, which were cited in the report for the preceding fiscal 
year, have been overcome. The reorganization of tne Division of 
Supplies which was be^n in December, 1906, has been completed, 
and under this reorganization all requisitions for stock supphes are 
filled and the suppues en route to postmasters within twenty-four 
hours after the requisitions are received. These conditions have 
existed since Novemoer, 1907, and while a large amount of additional 
work has been delegated to this division the clerical work is now 
performed by 49 clerks as against 69 clerks when this reorganization 
was begun. 

A large amoimt of the correspondence formerly conducted by the 
division has been eliminated, tne volume being reduced by nearly 
one-half under the new methods. 

The increase in appropriations granted by Congress at the last 
session has enabled the oi vision to secure a more adequate stock of 
stationery and other supplies, and also to make considerable progress 
in equipping post-ofRces with typewriters, adding machines, and 
other labor and time saving devices. 

DIVISION OF DEAD LETTERS. 

All undehvered letters received during the year from which the 
names ^nd addresses of the writers could be ascertained have been 
returned, and on the last day of the fiscal year every piece of mail 



FOURTH ASSISTANT — DIVISION OF TOPOGRAPHY. 321 

matter received had been opened and treated, an unprecedented con- 
dition in the work of the division. The total number of pieces of mail 
matter received during the year was 13,145,172, an increase of 139,917 
pieces over the receipts for the preceding year. There were returned 
to senders 7,202,684 letters and parcels, or 1,976,892 pieces more than 
were returned in 1906-7. Of the mail matter received, 1,949,495 
pieces were posted in foreign countries and failed of delivery in this 
coui^ry, and 651,321 pieces were addressed to forei^ coimtries and 
returned to this coimtry as unclaimed. The remaining 10,544,356 

Sieces were of domestic origin and intended for domestic delivery. 
If the mail matter received, 1,086,131 letters and parcels were foimd 
to contain inclosures of suflScient value to be made subject of entry. 
The inclosures included $65,599.57 in money, a decrease of $2,166.12 
as compared with the preceding fiscal year, and drafts, checks, money 
orders, etc., to the race value of $2,203,922.54, an increase of 
$185,846.18 over the face value of such inclosures received during the 
preceding year. The division was able to restore $46,854.76 of the 
cash received to the senders. 

In addition to the receipts of mail matter as described above, there 
were received for destruction in the division approximately 6,000,000 
imdeliverable post cards and postal cards, post cards for min g about 
80 per cent of such receipts. 

The receipts of imdeUverable letters and parcels in the dead letter 
bureaus of Hawaii and Porto Rico for the fiscal year 1908 were as 
follows: In Hawaii, matter of domestic origin, 18,949; mailed in the 
United States, 5,016; mailed in foreign countries, 7,408. In Porto 
Rico, matter of domestic origin, 22,626; mailed in the United States, 
1,283; mailed in foreign countries, 2,002. 

The revenue derived from dead mail matter amounted to 
$34,346.46. This included $25,308.48 removed from letters and 
found loose in the mails, $8,708.86 derived from the annual sale of 
merchandise, and $329.12 received for postage, and was an increase 
of $5,143.09 over revenues for the fiscal year 1907. 

In addition to the regular work of the division the compilation of 
data for the new edition of ** Street Directory of the Principal Cities 
of the United States" was taken up and continued during the year. 
Congress at the last session granted an appropriation of $12,000 for 
the printing of such new edition of the puoUcation, which it is 
expected will be ready for distribution within a few months. 

The division has been active in endeavoring to promote a more gen- 
eral use of the writer's return card on letters, a card giving a model 
form of address and other information to prevent loss of mail matter 
having been sent out with each returned letter. 

Recommendation is renewed that legislation be enacted which will 

Eermit of an improved method of disposing of undeUverable articles 
y sale, so as to eUminate as far as possible the objectionable lottery 
features involved in carrying out the existing law. 

DIVISION OF TOPOGRAPHY. 

The Division of Topography is charged with the duty of preparing 
and publishing post-route maps and rural-delivery maps. 

65064— p M G 1908 21 



322 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

POST-ROUTE MAPS. 

The post-route maps, embracing 41 separate maps of States and 
Territories, are revised or renewed every quarter, when there is 
published a new edition of the maps printed by the pnotolithographic 
process. They are in constant demand by the Department and the 

Eostal service. Five hundred of the maps used in the Department 
uilding are working diagrams, which have to be hand corrected to 
date once a month, being brought to the Division of Topograpfey for 
this purpose. The other maps at the Department, as weU as the maps 
needed m the field, are suppUed from the quarterly editions. All 
these maps are put up by the Division in suitable shape for reference, 
being mounted for racks or in some portable form. Besides the regu- 
lar editions of the maps, special issues on thin paper, numbering from 
300 to 600 copies each, are required at frequent intervals, these being 
called for by the general superintendent of the railway mail service 
for the guidance of the railway postal clerks. 

RURAL-DELIVERY MAPS. 

The rural-delivery maps, which cover much smaller areas than the 
post-route maps, are of two classes, being maps of local-route centers 
and maps of counties. Each map of the former class exhibits the 
routes emanating from a center, whereas each map of the latter class 
shows the routes from all the local centers in tne county mapped. 
The local maps, necessarily preliminary in their nature, are being 
gradually superseded by the comprehensive county maps, upon which 
a force of draftsmen is now actively engaged. The rural-delivery 
maps, whether local or county, are kept up to date in accordance with 
the Department's orders affecting the course or existence of routes, 
and are reproduced by the blueprinting process for the use of the 
officials in touch with the service. 

Many interests outside of the postal service, including other branches 
of the (jrovemment, business firms, and private individuals, make con- 
siderable use of the post-route maps and the rural-deUvery maps. 
These maps are funiisned under the statutory provision that author- 
izes the sale of copies at the cost of printing and 10 per cent thereof 
added, the proceeds of such sales to be used as a further appro- 
priation for the preparation and publication of the maps. 

INCREASED NUMBER OF DRAFTSMEN NECESSARY. 

Authority for the sale of the rural-delivery maps was given by 
Congress at the last session. To meet the demand tor maps of coun- 
ties naving complete rural-deUvery service it is necessair that all 
such maps shall be redrawn. Most of this work is now being per- 
formed by temporary draftsmen, employed at piecework and paid 
for out of the miscellaneous appropriation. In order that the work 
may be done by regular employees, additional positions in the grade 
of draftsman should be provided. 



FOURTH ASSISTANT — RECOMMENDATIONS. 323 

BECOMMENDATIONS. 

First. That the provisions of section 3867 of the Revised Statutes, 
authorizing the Postmaster-General to prescribe a uniform dress to 
be worn by letter carriers in the city-dehvery service, be extended to 
letter earners in the rural-delivery service. 

Second. That legislation be enacted providing for delivery, at a 
special rate of postage, of packages not exceeding 1 1 pounds in weight, 
to be effective between the distributing post-office and the patrons of 
any rural route emanating from such post-office. 

Third. That Congress enact legislation which will permit the adop- 
tion of an improved method of disposing of undeliverable articles 
by sale, so as to eliminate as far as practicable the objectionable 
lottery features involved in carrying out the existing law on the 
subject. 

Respectfully, P. V. Db Geaw, 

Fourth Assistant Postmaster-^eneraL 

The Postmaster-General. 



REPORT 



OF THE 



AUDITOR FOR THE POST-OFFICE 
DEPARTMENT 



TO THE 



POSTMASTER-GENERAL 



FOR 



THE YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1908 



325 



REPORT 

OF THE 

AUDITOR FOR THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 



Treasury Department, Office of the Auditor 

FOR THE PoST-OfFICE DEPARTMENT, 

Washington^ D. C, October 5, 1908. 

Sm: In compliance with law I have the honor to submit herewith 

the annual report of the receipts and expenditures of the Post- 

Office Department as shown by the accounts of this bureau for the 

fiscal year ended June 30, 1908. The net deficit is $16,910,278.99. 

FINANCIAL STATEMENT. 

All expenditures on account of service of last and prior fiscal years 
are stated to September 30, 1908, the audit and payment or the 
accounts for the fiscal year not being completed until that date. 

REVENUE ACCOUNT OP THE POST-OFFICE DEPARTMENT. 

Service of the fiscal year 1908, 

Postal revenue of the year ended June 30, 1908 $191, 478, 663. 41 

Expenditures 207, 528, 222. 11 

Excess of expenditures over revenue 16, 049, 558. 70 

Amounts placed with the Treasurer of the United States to the credit 
of the aepartment, being erants from the General Treasury in aid 
of the postal revenues unaer the act approved March 2, 1907 (34 
Stat. L. , 1205) 11, 000, 000. 00 

Excess of deficiency over grants 5, 049, 558. 70 

Amount of balances due from late postmasters on postal 

accounts closed by "bad debts " $12, 633. 66 

Amount of balances due from late postmasters on postal 

accounts closed by * * compromise debts " 1, 667. 35 

Amount credited to postmasters and late postmasters for 

loss of postal funds by burglary, fire, etc 22, 845. 47 

Total 37, 146. 48 

Amount of balances due to late postmasters on postal 
accounts closed to ''suspense" 90. 23 

Net loss 37,056. 25 

Amount to be placed with the Treasurer of the United States 5, 086, 614. 95 

327 



328 REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 

Service of the fiscal year 1907, 

Amount to be placed with the Treasurer of the United States to the 
credit of the department by grants from the General Treasury, as 
shown by the report for the fiscal year 1907 |388, 986. 92 

Expenditures 780, 414. 66 

1,169,400.58 
Amount placed with the Treasurer of the United States to the credit 
of the department, being grants from the General Treasury in aid of 
the postal revenues under the act approved June.26, 1906 (34 Stat. 
L., 467) 1,400,000.00 

Balance on account of the fiscal year 1907 230, 599. 42 

Service of the fiscal year 1906, 

Amount to be placed with the Treasurer of the United States to the 
credit of the Department by grants from the General Treasury, as 
shown by the report for the hscal year 1907 $562,080. 60 

Expenditures 7, 779. 82 

569,860.42 
Amount placed with the Treasurer of the United States to the credit 
of the Department, being grants from the General Treasury in aid of 
the postal revenues under section 2 of the act approved" March 3, 
3905 (33 Stat. L., 1091) 600, 000. 00 

Balance on account of the fiscal year 1906 30, 139. 58 

Service of the fiscal year 1905. 

Balance October 1, 1907 $39, 800. 72 

Expenditures 0. 00 

Balance on account of the f seal year 1905 39, 800. 72 

Service of the fiscal year 1904. 

Balance October 1, 1907 $98, 073. 47 

Expenditures $67. 72 

Amount certified to the Postmaster-General, certificate No. 
49798, dated June 25, 1908, and paid to the General Treasury 

by warrant No. 2161, Washington, dated June 30, 1908 98,005.75 

98,078.47 

Service of the fiscal year 1903. 

Amount placed with the Treasurer of the United States to the credit of the 
department, being grants from the General Treasury in aid of the postal 
revenues under the deficiency act approved May 30, 1908 $26, 950. 00 

Expenditures 26, 950. 00 

Service of the fiscal year 1905 and prior years. 

Amount placed with the Treasurer of the United States to the credit of the 
department, being grants from the General Treasury in aid of the postal 
revenues under the deficiency act approved February 15, 1908 $43. 20 

Expenditures .00 

Balance on account of the fiscal year 1905 and prior years. 48. 20 

Claims, 1905 and prioT years. 

Amount placed with the Treasurer of the United States to the credit of the 
department, being grants from the General Treasury in aid of the postal 

revenues under deficiency acts approved February 15 and May 30, 1908. $8, 436. 96 

Expenditures 8,416. 34 

-Sa/auce available September 30, 1908 20.02 



AUDITOB — POSTAL DEFICIT OF 1908. 829 

Claims, 1904 and prior years. 

Balance available October 1, 1907 $1. 50 

Amount to be placed with the Treasurer of the United States to the credit 
of the department, being grants from the General Treasury in aid of the 
postal revenues under the deficiency act approved March 4, 1907 35. 50 

37.00 
Expenditures 35. 50 



Balance available September 30, 1908 1. 50 

Claims, 190S and prior years. 

Balance available October 1, 1907 $70.02 

Amount certified to the Postmaster-General, certificate No. 49797, dated 
June 25, 1908, and paid to the General Treasury by warrant No. 2162, 
Washington,* dated June 30, 1908 70. 02 

General revenue account. 

Postal revenues of the fiscal year ended June 30, 1908 $191, 478, 663. 41 

Expenditures for service of — 

1908 $207,528,222.11 

1907 780,414.66 

1906 7,779.82 

1904 67.72 

1903 26,950.00 

1905 and prior years 8, 416. 34 

1904 and prior years 35. 50 



Total expenditures 208, 351, 886. 15 

Excess of expenditures over revenue 16, 873, 222. 74 

Amount of loss by burglary, fire, bad debts, etc 37, 056. 25 



Deficit for fiscal year ended June 30, 1908 16, 910, 278. 99 

Grants from the General Treasury: 

Under postal act of March 2, 1907 $11,000, 000. 00 

Under postal act of June 26, 1906 1,400,000. 00 

Under postal act of March 3, 1905 600, 000. 00 

Under deficiency act of February 15, 1908 1, 423. 38 

Under deficiency act of May 30, 1908 34, 006. 78 

Total grants 13,035,430.16 

Repayments to the General Treasury: 

On account of 1904 $98, 005. 75 

On account of 1903 and prior years. 70. 02 

98,075.77 

Net amount received from the General Treasury 12, 937, 354. 39 

Excess of deficit over amount received from General Treasury. . 3, 972, 924. 60 
Balance standing to the credit of the general revenue account Sep- 
tember 30, 1907 2,620,843.22 

Balance standing to the debit of the general revenue account 
September 30, 1908 1,352,081.38 

THE POSTAL DEFICIT OF 1908. 

The revenues of the postal service for the''fiscal year 1908 amounted 
to $191,478,663.41; the expenditures, $208,351,886.15; excess of ex- 
penditures, $16,873,222.74; including losses by fire, burglary, etc., 
the deficiency is $16,910,278.99. 



380 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENERAL. 



An analysis of the figures shows that $9,891,321.92 of the deficiency- 
was caused by the increased rate of compensation authorized by 
Congress to be paid to employees of the Railway Mail Service, Rural 
DeUvery Service, city dehvery service, and in post-offices, to wit: 



Assistant posimasUrs and clerks. 

Number of clerks, etc 

Cost of service 

Average salary 

31^258 clerks, at Id88.65+(1908 rate) . . 
31,258 clerks, at I9e0.76+(1907 rate) . . 



1907. 



1908. 



a27,727 
$26,638,999.80 
$960.76+ 



a 31,258 
$30,903,351.75 
$988.65+ 



3,531 
$4,264,351.95 
$27.80+ 



Increase.. 



City delivery service. 

Number of carriers | 24,677 

Cost of service $23,248^.90 

Average salary $945. 94+ 

26,352 carriers, at $999.66+(1908 rate) 

26,352 carriers , at $945.94+ ( 1907 rate ) 




1.775 
$3,094,665.29 
$53.72- 



Increase.. 



I 



Railway Mail Service. I 

I 

Number of clerks 14,184 15,295 

Cost of service I$15,175,587.76 $17,373,336.92 

Average salary 51,069.90+ $1,135.88+ 

15,295 clerks, at $1,135.88+(1908 rate) 

15,295 clerks, at $l,oe9.90+(1907 rate) 



Rural Delivery Service. 



Number of carriers 37,582 , 30,143 

Costofservioe $26,653,304.36 $34,355,209.04 

Average salary $709.20+ $877.68+ 

30,143 carriers, at $877.68+(1908 rate) 

39,143 carriers, at $709.20+(1907 rate) 



Increase 

Total increase. 



Increase. 



$30,903,35L76 
30,031,557.08 



871,704.73 



26,343,20L19 
24,927,50L56 



1,415,609.64 



1,111 
$2,197,749.16 
$65.97+ 



17,373,336l92 
16,364,256.55 



1,009,08a 37 



1,561 
$7,701,904.68 . 
$168.48+. 



34,355,200.04 
27,760,37L86 



6,504,837.18 



9,801,32L92 



a Number authorized by Congress exclusive of deficiency appropriation. 



Deficiency fiscal year ended June 30, 1908 $16,910,278.00 

Amount due to increased rate of compensation to clerks and carriers, 1908 over 1907 0, 801, 82L 92 

7,018,057.07 

A further analysis shows that the salary and compensation of post- 
masters, both presidential and fourth-class, was $1,612,796.49 more 
than in 1907, on account of increased volume of business. 

The total amount paid for increased salaries was $11,504,118.41, 
as shown, which sum deducted from the amoimt of the deficiency 
leaves $5,406,160.58. 

It follows that if it were not for the increased amounts paid to the 
officers and employees named the deficit of 1908 would have been 
less than the deficit of 1907. 



AUDITOR QUARTERLY RECEIPTS. 



331 



The following tables show in detail the transactions for the fiscal 
year ended June 30, 1908: 

No. 1. — Statement Exhibiting Quarterly the Receipts op the Post-Oppicb 
Department, under their Several Heads, for the Fiscal Year ended June 
30, 1908. 



Accounts. 



Letter postage 

Box rents and branch offices., 
Fines and penalties.. 



Postage stamps, stamped envel- 
opes, postal cards, etc 

Second-class postaee 

Third and fourth class postage. . . 

Dead letters *. . . 

Revenue from money-order busi- 
ness 

Miscellaneous 



Unpaid monev orders more than 
rold 



one year c 



Quarters ended— 



i I 

Sept. 30, 1907. Dec. 31, 1907. ; Mar. 31, 1008. June 30, 1008. 



145,024.20 
940,296.24 
31,019.00 



1397.37 

955,338.12 

14,839.36 



40,230,081.13 ,47,165,277.47 

1,700,620.32 j 1,838,873.44 

625,267.85 806,071.73 

13,255.52 13,180.28 



865,633.06 
30,473.80 



$18,806.53 
958,621.03 
34,294.33 

44,521,232.96 

1,716,075.58 

1,011,494.43 

5,126.20 



1,072,167.40 
18,639.39 

269,058.34 ' 



$43,254.01 
979,048.16 
21,119.32 

41,458,120.46 

1,694,937.41 

592,109.44 

5,062.06 



938,861.90 801,103.06 
23,118.07 21,754.42 



Total 44,481,671.14 52,162,832.90 49,227,631.03 46,616,628.34 



Aggregate. 



$107,482.11 

3,833,303.66 

101,272.01 

173,374,712.02 

6,960,606.76 

3,033,943.45 

36,644.06 

3,677,755.44 
93,965.68 

269,0S8.34 



191,478,663.41 



882 



KEPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



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835. 
877. 
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AUDITOR — QUARTERLY EXPENDITURES. 



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952. 
018. 
152. 
716. 
124. 
476. 
802. 
783. 
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180. 
178. 
071. 
030. 
685. 
238. 
228. 
141. 
816. 
500. 
227. 
021. 
269. 
674. 
520. 
852. 


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384 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GEN ERAX.. 



No. 3. — Statement Showing the Condition op the Account with each Appro- 
priation FOR THE Service op the Post-Oppice Department for the Fiscal 
Year ended June 30, 1908. 



Appropriations. 



Office of the Postmaster-Oeneral. 

Advertising, Postmaster-General 

Post-oflice Inspectors 

Payment of rewards 

Printing and binding opinions of Assistant Attomey- 

Qeneral 

Miscellaneous expenses, Postmaster-General 



Amount 
appropriated, 

including 

special acts and 

deficiencies. 



I 



Office of the First A ssistant Postmaster-Oeneral. 

Compensation to postmasters 

Assistant postmasters and clerks in post-ofGces 

Rent, light, and fuel 

Miscellaneous items, first and second class offices 

Canceling machines, etc 

Assistant superintendents, salary and allowance division.. 

City-delivery service I 

Special delivery service { 

Miscellaneous expenses, First Assistant Postmaster- j 
General 

Office of the Second Assistant Postmaster-Oeneral. 

Mail transportation— star 

Mail transportation— boat 

Mail messenger service 

Pneumatic tube service 

Wagon service 

Mail bags, etc 

Mail locks and keys, etc 

Buildings for use of Post-Oflfice Department 

Mail transportation— railroad 

Freight on mail bags, postal cards, etc 

R^lway post-office car service 

Railway Mail Service 

Mail transportation— electric and cable cars 

Transportation of foreign malls 

Btdances due foreign countries 

Miscellaneous expenses, Second Assistant Postmaster- 
General 



$5,000.00 

1,136,770.00 

20,000.00 

10,000.00 
1,000.00 



25,500,000.00 

31,367,000.00 

3,229,000.00 

276,000.00 

275,000.00 

34,600.00 

26,914,300.00 

1,085,000.00 

1,000.00 



Expended. 



Office of the Third Assistant Postmaster-Oeneral. 

Manufacture of postage stamps 

Manufacture of stamped envelopes 

Distribution of stamped envelopes 

Manufacture of postal cards 

Distribution of postal cards 

Ship, steamboat, and way letters 

Indemnities, domestic registered mail 

Miscellaneous expenses, Third Assistant Postmaster- 
General 

Special counsel — suits, second-class mailing privilege 

Payment of money orders more than one year old 



Office of the Fourth Assistant Postmaster-Oeneral. 

Stationery 

Official envelopes 

Blanks, etc., for money-order service 

Miscellaneous items, registry system 

Supplies, cltj'-dellvery service 

Postmarking, rating, and money-order stamps 

Letter balances and scales 

Wrapping paper 

Wrapping twine 

Packing boxes, etc 

Facing slips, etc 

Typewriters, copying presses, etc 

Rural-delivery service 

Shipment of supplies 

Miscellaneous expenses. Fourth Assistant Postmaster- 
General 

Distribution of official envelopes 



7,250, 

829, 

1,427, 

1,250, 

1,321, 

447, 

47, 

43, 

44,660, 

250, 

5,080, 

17,749, 

870, 

3,270, 

179, 



000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
500.00 
500.00 
855.00 
000.00 
000.00 
000.00 
843.00 
000.00 
500.00 
000.00 



1,000.00 



509,000.00 

1,275,000.00 

22,060.00 

214,000.00 

5, 720. 00 

500.00 

10,000.00 

1,000.00 

2, 787. 68 

378,010.97 



95,000.00 

200,000.00 

200,000.00 

5, 000. 00 

80,000.00 

35, 000. 00 

10,000.00 

13,000.00 

300,000.00 

2,500.00 

60,000.00 

80,000.00 

31,9^5,000.00 

100,000.00 



1,000.00 • 
11,020.00 ! 



$4,456.64 

1,060,847.90 

1,938.84 



228.35 



25,599,397.52 

30,903,351.75 

3,193,820.94 

254,637.37 

274,011.09 

30,747.03 

26,343,201.19 

1, 108, 164. 35 

689.95 



7,125, 

763, 
1,416, 

482, 
1,319, 

447, 

44. 

43, 

43,588, 

211, 
4,567, 
17,373, 

791, 
2,844, 

138, 



025.30 

333.75 

300.19 

812.62 

017. 18 

500.00 

736.10 

511.31 

012. 70 

497.07 

366.25 

336.92 

733.33 I 

679.63 

052.82 

805.58 



Balance 
unexpended. 



$543.36 
75,922.10 
18,061.16 

10,000.00 
771.65 



a 99, 397. 52 

463,648.25 

35,179.06 

20,362.63 

988.91 

3,852.97 

571,098.81 

a 23, 164. 35 

310.05 



124,974.70 
65,666.25 
10,699.81 

767,187.38 
1,982.82 



494,046.04 

1,094,100.49 

21,004.47 

180, 152. 98 

5,716.59 

124.76 

1,461.67 

802.34 

2.783.33 

378,010.97 



94,059.75 

197, 178. 74 

198,968.65 

3,030.81 

67,050.60 

34,979.79 

7,814.85 

10, 141. 03 

280.378.09 

2,500.00 

42,746.36 

78,699.74 

34,355,209.04 



2,763.90 

343.69 

1,071,987.30 

38,502.93 

512,633.75 

376,506.08 

78,266.67 

425,820.37 

40,947.18 

194.42 



14,953.96 

180,899.51 

1,055.53 

33,847.02 

3.41 

375.24 

8,538.33 



197.66 
4.35 



940.25 
2,821.26 
1,031.35 
1,969.19 
12,949.40 
20.21 
2,185.15 
2,858.97 
19,621.91 



I 
40,674.99 I 

520.30 I 
2,852.06 I 



17,253.64 

1,300.26 

629,790.96 

69,325.01 

479.70 
8,167.94 



Total I 213.125,466.65 207,528,222.11 5.719,806.41 



o Expended In excess of appropriation. 



AUDITOR CONDITION OF ACCOUNTS. 



335 



No. 4. — Statement Showing the Condition op the Accounts under Subheads, 
AND Items of the Appropriations for the Service op the Post-Opficb Depart- 
ment FOR THE Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1908. 



Appropriations. 



Office of the Poalmaiter-Oeneral. 

rost-offloe inspectors: 

Salaries 

Per diem 

Clerks and laborers 

Traveling expenses 

Liverv hire 

Miscellaneous expenses — division headquarters. 
Payment of rewards: 

Information 



Office of the FirH AttiatarU Poatmaster-Oeneral. 

Assistant postmasters and clerks in post-ofGccs: 

Assistant postmasters 

Clerks, first and second class oifioes 

Clerks, contract stations, compensation above $300 

Clerks, contract stations, compensation not exceed- 
ing$300 

Vacation service, first and second class offices 

Temporary and auxiliary service, first and second 
class offices 

Separating mails, third and fourth class offices 

Unusual conditions 

Clerks, third-class offices 

City delivery service: 

Letter carriers 

Substitute, auxiliary, and temporary letter carriers. . . 

Letter carriers, new offices 

Horse hire 

Car fare and bicycles 

Mechanics 

Marine service 

Incidental expenses 

Special delivery service: 

Car fare for messengers 

Fees to messengers 



Office of the Second Aisittant Postmaster-Oeneral. 

Buildings for use of Post-Office Department: 

Rent 

Electric power and light 

Moving 

Railway mail service: 

Salaries 

Emergency service 

Vacation service 

Injured service 

Traveling expenses 

Office expenses 

Per diem, assistant superintendents 

Expenses, assistant superintendents 

Mail transportation— electric and cable cars: 

Underground service in Chicago 

Transportation of foreien mails: 

Sea post-office service 

Transfer service 

Indemnities for losses, international r^stered mail. 

Assistant superintendent 



Amount 




appropriated, 
Including spe- 


Expended. 


cial acts and 




deficiencies. 




$599,150.00 


$573,072.34 


350,000.00 


326,624.00 


96,620.00 


74,941.89 


25,000.00 


21,906.86 


60,000.00 


58,674.99 


6,000.00 


5,627.82 


2,000.00 


839.09 


2,336,800.00 


2,288,995.53 


26,270,200.00 


25,980,481.71 


235,000.00 


234,236.06 


515,000.00 


494,317.28 


110,000.00 


92,227.06 


225,000.00 


173,6n.94 


775,000.00 


741,036.28 


100,000.00 


98,445.89 


800,000.00 


800,000.00 


24,450,000.00 


24,123,605.93 


1,200,000.00 


1,019,198.92 


70,000.00 


57,336.34 


765,000.00 


743,062.64 


360,000.00 


341,544.04 


19,800.00 


16,080.15 


4,500.00 


4,450.00 


45,000.00 


37,923.17 


"10,000.00 


9,403.24 


« 1,075,000.00 


1,098,761.11 



32,800.00 
8,150.00 
2,906.00 

17,439,443.00 
50,000.00 
50,000.00 
100,000.00 
20.000.00 
60,000.00 
27,500.00 
2,900.00 

172,600.00 

105,000.00 
40,000.00 
5,000.00 
2,500.00 



Office of the Fourth A sstatant PoHmatter-Oeneral. 



Rural delivery service: 

Supplies 85,000.00 

Carriers, clerks, tolls, and ferriage ' 34,900,000.00 

Clerks at substations ^ 12, 000. 00 

Distribution of official envelopes: 

Registry envelopes 5,060. 00 

Omcial envelopes 5,960. 00 

a Fees— expended in excess of appropriation 

Car fare— unexpended balance of appropriation 



32,800.00 

7,816.31 

• 2,895.00 

17,090,436.82 
42.884.74 
46,064.75 
87 301.56 
19,809.17 
56,660.65 
27,280.00 
2,899.23 

172,193.00 

83,235.43 
39,000.00 



2,500.00 



53,985.17 

34,301,223.87 

7,861.32 



Balance un- 
expended. 



$26,077.66 

23,376.00 

21,678.11 

3,093.14 

1,325.01 

372. 18 

1,160.91 



47,804.47 

289,718.29 

763.94 

20,682.72 
17,772.94 

51,388.06 

33,963.72 

1,554.11 



1,591.44 
1,260.62 1 



326,394.07 
180,801.06 
12,663.66 
21,937.36 
18,455.96 
3,719.85 
50.00 
7,076.83 

596.76 
23,761.11 



333.69 
10.00 

349,006.18 
7,115.26 
3,935.25 
12.698.44 
190.83 
3,339.35 
220.00 

.n 

407.00 

21,764.67 
1,000.00 
5,000.00 



31,014.83 

598,776.13 

4,138.68 

3,468.56 
4,699.38 

...: $23,761.11 

596.76 

Expended in excess of appropriation for special delivery service (see Table 3) 23, 164. 35 

b Included in preceding item. 



336 



REPOBT OF THE POSTMASTEB-GENEBAL. 



No. 5. — Comparative Statement op Receipts and Expenditures op the Pobt- 
Opfice Department prom July 1, 1836, to June 30, 1908. 



Fiscal year. 



1837.. 
1838.. 
1839.. 
1840.. 
1841.. 
1842.. 
1843.. 
1844.. 
1845.. 
1846.. 
1847.. 
1848.. 
1849.. 
1850.. 
1851.. 
1852.. 
1853., 
1854.. 
1855.. 
1856.. 
1857.. 
1858.. 
1859.. 
I860.. 
1861.. 
1862.. 
1863.. 
1864. 
1865.. 
1866. 
1867., 
1868., 
1869. 
1870. 
1871. 
1872., 
1873. 
1874. 
1875. 
1876., 
1877., 
1878., 
1879. 
1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883., 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 



1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 



1900. 
1901. 
1902. 
1903. 
1904. 
1905. 
1906. 
1907. 
1908. 




S4,d45. 

4,238, 

4,484, 

4,543, 

4,407. 

4,546. 

4,296, 

4.237, 

4,289, 

3,487. 

3,880, 

4,555, 

4,705, 

5,499, 

6,410, 

5,184, 

5,240, 

6,255. 

6,042, 

6,920, 

7,353, 

7,486, 

7,908, 

8,518. 

8,349, 

8.299, 

11,163 

12,438; 

14,550, 

14,436, 

15,297, 

1(1,292, 

18,344, 

19.772, 

20,037, 

21,915, 

22,996, 

26,471, 

26,791, 

28,644. 

27.531 

29,277, 

30,041, 

33,315, 

36,785, 

41,870, 

45,508, 

43,325, 

42, 5(0, 

43,948, 

48,837, 

52,095, 

56, 175, 

00,882. 

05.931, 

70,930, 

75,890, 

75,080, 

70.9&3. 

82,499. 

82,005. 

89,012, 

95,021, 

102,354, 

lll.<i31, 

121.848, 

134,224, 

143,582, 

152,826, 

107,932. 

183,585, 

191,473, 



008.21 
733.46 
656.70 
521. 92 
720. 27 
849.65 
225.43 
287.83 
841.80 ' 
199.35 I 
309.23 i 
211.10 
176.28 
984.86 ; 
004.33 
520.84 I 
724.70 I 
580.22 
130. 13 
821.66 
951. 76 
'92.86 
484.07 
067.40 
296.40 
820.90 
789. 59 
253.78 
158.70 
986.21 
020.87 
000.80 
510. 72 
220.05 
045.42 
420.37 
741.57 
071. 82 
300.59 
197.50 
585.20 
516. 95 
982.80 
479. 34 
397.97 
410. 15 
092. 61 
968.81 
843.83 
422.95 
009.39 
170. 79 
011.18 
097.92 
785.72 
475.98 
993.16 
479. 04 
128.19 
2aS.40 
462. 73 
018. 55 
384.17 
579.29 I 
193.39 
047.20 
443.24 
024.34 
585.10 
782.95 
005.57 
663.41 



-I 



$482,057.00 ' 



750,000.00 

12,500.00 

125,000.00 



1,741,444.44 
2.2.7.^,000.00 
::, 7:^^,748.96 
3. IH, 542. 26 
:^. 7 48,881.66 
4.5i!>i.004.67 
4.iny,270.71 
3, l> 15. 946. 49 
lt.l.7^i.l67.54 
4JkW,806.53 
2,5>S,953.7l 
lJX>r.848.72 
74^?, 980. 00 
3,968.46 



5.707, 
4,022. 

4, l^P^r 
4,903, 
5,990. 
5,9:^, 
6,704, 

5, OSS. 
7.013, 
5.307, 
3,297, 

3,sn7, 

3,297, 
0, 

140. 
6.0t»), 

8,751, 
4.74!V, 

6. 7-15. 
fi, 100, 
4. 441, 
fp.2<iO, 
6,727, 

9,H72, 
8,^0, 
12h L33, 
9,341. 
7,9CK?, 
fi,250. 
4,001, 

7,031, 

11,071, 
7.(>24, 
13.035, 



<i--i-.67 i 
b25. 00 ! 
115.30 , 
140.85 I 
200.00 

47.'j..00 I 
4i:j.55 
Mi}. 96 
583.03 
300.00 
052.82 
90525 
717.20 
921.46 
S95. 12 
4ia85 
<^,79 
473.00 
070. 73 
Ifj'.OO 
441.70 
017.89 
000.00 
772,08 
232.64 
828.43 
895.13 
9G2,53 
(rA56 
392.88 
258.81 
040.58 
01^.95 
345.17 
34 
95^50 
837,43 
€88.45 
558 22 
439.99 
430.16 



S4, 945, 668. 21 

4,238,733.46 

4,484,656.70 

4,543,521.92 

4,890.383.27 

4,546,849.65 

4,296,225.43 

4,237,287.83 

4,289,841.80 

4,237,199.35 

3,892.809.23 

4,680,211.10 

4,705,176.28 

5,499,984.86 

6,410,604.33 

6,925,971.28 

7,495,724.70 

8,992,335.18 

9,766.678.39 

10,669,703.22 

11,881,956.43 

12,166,063.67 

11,884.430.56 

19,672,234.94 

12,989,102.93 

10,898,774.61 

12,171,638.31 

13,188,233.78 

14,560,127.16 

14,436,986.21 

19,288,693.54 

21,989,125.80 

24,051.626.02 

23,794,361.50 

24,163,245.42 

26,909,176.37 

28.987,216.67 

32,393,505.37 

33,490,007.55 

33,732,780.53 

34,544,885.26 

34,585,169.77 

33,339,948.11 

36,913.196.54 

40,083,319.43 

41,833,005.27 

45,530,109.46 

43,466,649.60 

48,627,316.83 

62,699,493.68 

53,583,776.45 

50,aSl,018,49 

61,920,029.07 

66,018:^.097.92 

70,373,557.80 

77,190,708.62 

82,624,761.50 

a^. 281, 374.17 

84i.850,090i72 

9], ^20, 80S* 06 

94.796.^^55^01 

93,353,877.36 

IOG.9^,424 75 

10«.OM,5M.24 

115,fi32,538.5«j 

124,33S,eKL60 

137, 978. aw. 74 

151,214.461.77 

167.758,273.55 

179.004,341.17 

191,209,445. 50 

204,6l4,OQawS7 



43,288,319.03 

4.430.662.21 

4.^6.53^31 

4,718,235.64 

4f4».5'/7,61 

5,674,751.80 

4,374,750.71 

4,206,512:70 

4,320,731.99 

4,076.036.91 

3,$»79,542.10 

i 320, 850.27 

4,479>04gLl3 

6,212,0^43 

e.27S, 401.68 

7,108,46^04 

7,9^,7fi&.50 

8,577,424.12 

9,1^.3^.29 

10,405.2§e.a6 

11.5<>8,057.93 

12,722,470.01 

11,458,083.63 

19,170.609.89 

13,606,759.11 

11,125,364.13 

11,314,207.84 

rj.n44,786 20 

13,004,72^.28 

15,352,079.30 

19,235,483.46 

22,73^1, .-ias. 66 

23,[lfle,13l.60 

23,998 S37. 63 

24.3^,lf>4.08 

2G.G58. t92.31 

29,064.^5.67 

32,13t,4H.58 

^,(111,309.45 

33,203,487.68 

33,^1,332.44 

34,165,084.49 

33,449,S99.45 

3ti, 642,^03. 68 

39,562.560.22 

40,4^2,021.23 

4'!, 282,944. 43 

47,224,560.27 

50.0ie,:?35.21 

61,004.743.80 

53,006,194.39 

56. *j^, 3^5. 20 

G2,317,ne,38 

6?,2S9,54T.fi4 

73,0^, 519. m 

7C,OeO,84«.10 

81.581,681.33 

84, %4, 111.0(2 

ST. 179 551.28 

9O,0a2.«i9.fiO 

94.077,242.38 

OS,0S3, SCI 61 

101,633,160.93 

107,740,^7, » 

11 ^ 554,930, S7 

124.785,607.07 

im7S4, 487.97 

152.362,116.70 

167,^99,169^33 

178, 4«. 778: 89 

190,338,388,34 

aQ8,35U8iai5 



a Includes expenditures made during the year for the current and prior fiscal years. 
1908 see page 332 of this report. 



For details fbr 



AUDITOB — TRANSACTIONS OF MONEY-OBDEB OFFICES. 



887 



No. 6. — Statement Showing the Transactions op the Money-Order Offices 
OF THE United States during the Year ended June 30, 1908. 



States and Ter- 
ritories. 



from lest 
year. 



Domestic numey oiders Issued. 



Intenmtlomd ortJers Issued. 



Number. Amount. 



Fees. Niintber, Amount. Feea, 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia 

Florida 

Geon^a 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

TTftnjtfta 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine ; 

Maryland ^ 

Massachusetts * 

Michip:an :; 

Minnesota j 

Mississippi ' 

Missouri ' 

Montana ■ 

Nebraska 

Nevada j 

New Ilampshire 

New Jersey I 

New Mexico 

New York I 

North Carolina : 

North Dakota ! 

Ohio 

Oklahoma I 

Oregon j 

Pennsylvania 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah , 

Vermont ' 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Tutuila I 

Shanghai 

Sunerintendent M, 

o. system 

Guam 



175, 334 S7 
127,787.22 
105,48(3.01 
033,13(1.25 
20», 000.82 
l43,fla£L72 
7,080.57 
14,999.24 
93.7^a77| 
£9,455.45 
158,2^9.80 
S3. GOO. 05 
013,5615.35; 

ifi^,sn.6i! 

1».BP1.50| 
lis, 1^431 

G1.m7.43 
13fi,0US,24' 
107.257.06 

r.S, 044,411 
395,071.07 

2g».^t2.02! 
C».7Q3^GOi 

244,454,18! 

334.S37.89! 

175.9l0.2ia| 
G7.559.S0 
49.M&.02 

143, 53a M 

tsldsolOs: 

B8. 327.03 

89, 773. W 

3RZ.19S.W 

05,211.02 

2nU 1^.40 

€S.^00S.00 

99,194.04 

4n.&Z7.95 

53pOS7.2S| 

lZ3,eBL07^ 
a03.g72.0S 
14|S,2S4.34 

47,084.36 
13e,5&1.6a! 
550. '03.34' 
1.^^, 4Sr|. BOl 
200,660. F2' 

70,651,97, 
3.fiflO.90 
fi,77L2B 



31.658,10 



1,122,599^ 

2S1,S27 
l.OlO^SfiO^ 
2,960,«2 
1|091,00£H 

800,001 
AS) 4A(y 

230|527; 

720. M4i 
l,715,GS0i 

101,013; 

432.546i 
4.113,303 
?, 115.675. 
2,347.015 
1,003,312^ 

733. 57G; 

740,709" 

709.909, 

2,210,472 

2.810,23^ 

1,780. <«) 

1.100.^ 

2,19^,033' 

^7, ISO 

1,450,030 

2S4.201 

397,517 

1,044, (^^ 

245, ms 

4,933.2G5; 
S39,&42 
700,128 

3,009J2g, 

1,350,507! 
899,733 

4,1+3,705' 
iri9,ai2 
259,555 

044,025 
1,005,205 
2;,«l&,035 

31U333i 



394.frl6 

853,003 
1,4^7,517 

000, 104 
1,910,225 

227, 7M 

37,132 
1,437 



17,003,68424! 
2,0a3,lS7.4Si: 
3.3S!9,fi35L05' 
6,130.^23.23 
32,303.509.99, 
10,454.820.70 
€,803,fi72L4&' 
639,407.83: 
2,275.920.74 
4,533,09^.45 
8.309,0^02 
2t2H.300.73 
4, 351, 32a S4 
30,438.557.73 
14,057.040.10 
12.708.744.80 
11,702.021,39: 
<343,SQaO0, 
5,575,250, OB 
5, 477, 747. S7 1 
3,729,100.35 
17,400,774.00 
an, 233, 027. 40 
13,221, £23. 12 
<i, 214, 894. 32 
14,282.601,94 
fi,534,ie0.83 
8,848,1300.91 
4,927,925.02 
2,837,233,27 
9,238^474.20 
2,2;>«.590.0S 
44,429,329.00 
4,397, 9&av 43 
4,i31,S2l66 
22. 3 IS, 070. 01 
9,162,392.66 
a(K^l,9SS.57 
37:^12. 30ft. 9(2 
3,074,444.60 
2,5li79j,34 
3.fi'*fl,865,33 
4,2C3.22S,96 
6,I10S.^%'».49 
20,078.940,55 
3,30^.054. 18 
2,7-:0,g49l[H 
0,0^,4«3.49 
15,630,3^*7 

14, {X^"), 153. 70 

2,415.021.24 

l.'i,93R07 

54, £36.35 

800.627.70 
55,278.35 



Tptal 10,197.512.27 'ifiS, 343, 395 .WO. 170, 014. 02 3, 949, OOl. 88 3, 230, 31.^ 81, £02. 01 1. IS 751, 531, 60 



i01,455.9G 
7,993,23 
20,951.15 
64.79S.7« 

214,301.48 
71,994.02; 
51,357,03 
5,485.71' 
15,39148 
40. 4rj3. 32 
34,^^-30 

io,4n.2i; 

29, ; 13. 71 

247,332.2tJ 

120, 3^1, (« 

122.720.701 

101, ,55(1 fS 

39,224.57 

44,220 33 

43,^4.70, 

27.905.67 

131,169.35 

100.392.15; 

i05.£74.0l| 

58.548. OO; 

122, 433. 12 

40,153.91! 

79, la^ Hi 

25. 5™. 03' 

24,122 83; 

68,723.10, 

16,0^.84^ 

£14, OTA. 3 L 

43, 465. 39 

40,860.64 

179.556. 37 

76./133,05 

59.08^21 

273,773.79 

14.013. S8 

18, Of*. 14 

30,083.09 

54.803.29 
I«5.934.29 
22,060,33 
23.213.08 
40,432.40 
102.792.79 
3^,412.23 
113,790.77 
15,946,88 
M.47 
2S2.00 



212.04 



lO.OSfi 

4,886 
26,378 

2,910 

233.644 

43,180 

33,298 

3.010 
10,880' 

3,826 

6, 3a I! 
42,881 
10,829 
384,095 
28,775: 
31.0831 
13,3j8 

7,126 
14,0r2 
13.535 
2^.848! 
2fx2.7231 
32.825 
62.3:;i 

3,050 
50,7?J 
3.^94S 
13.D1S 

8,580, 
H.7lt 
170.2r.3 

3,833 
750,000 

2,714 
17,466 
132,102 

5,994 
38,480 
300, Ct2 

1.772 
30,553 

3,553' 

6,078^ 

6.123 
2fl,618 
26,372 
10,403 
12,983 
9i,09lS 
I9,fid4 
76,117 

8,483 



703 



t299,021. 

350.721. 

902,357. 

73,408. 

7,000,0001 

1,751,840. 

2,330.803. 

80,148. 

443, 7KL 

244.701. 

149,453. 
1,211. IMi 

400,939. 
7,507. 

311.330. 

444,234. 

S^,3rvK 

U3.522. 

390, 08L 

307,350. 

€20,491. 
5,587.806. 
2,0<8.9n. 
1,504,393. 
77,4t8. 
1,343.850. 
1,380,507. 

435,913. 

^3.75e, 

299,831. 
3,408,789. 

120,945. 

14.745,314. 

00.218. 

190.017. 
3,442.454. 

209.563. 

1.478, 3(52. 

7,72l.2:rk 

52,070. 

720,BQQi 
50.213, 

150. 192. 

129.614. 

697,975. 

393.227. 

343.730. 

311,827. 
3,700.073. 

431,825. 
3,106,403. 

362,^7. 



SN |3,96a.20 
36 1,635.4.9 
83 7,033,91 
""' 723.33 
50,762.87 
14.109.05 



13" 28,931.23 



825,35 

4,7(50.00 

2,S3fi,41 

1.597.86 

7,341.24 

3.353.42 

501 C6,015.23 

571 7.177.23 

4,457.Ij3 

4,440.09 

1 ILVOO 

3..%3.77 

3,302.22 

0,338-06 

59,749,00 

19,229.59 

12,387.38 

7fi0.7a 

10.4^57.43 

11.000.50 

4.f.30.4& 

8.481.61 

3,135,01 

33,989.15 

912.97 

151,524.15 



553.3* 

l,m»S.l2 

30,729.0* 

1,981.55 

11,W2.77 

87, 77.450.0(1 

544 89 

7,625.80 

5,^.13 

1,234.07 

1,383.43 

5,164.01 

8,288.21 

2,.'^.6S 

88 3,1.58 50 

77 27,728.50 

26 4,221.7i 

07 17,404.12 

04 3/913.79 



57,403.57 



30a 02 



a Payable In foreii^n coimtrics and the Philippines, 480,825, amounting to 17,470,377.13. 
05064— P M o 1908 22 



338 



REPORT OP THE POST MASTER-GENERAL. 



No. 6. — Statement Showing the Transactions op the Monet-Order Offices 
OF the United States during the Year ended June 30, 1908— Continued. 



stales and Tar- 
ritoriea. 


Foreign 
exchange 


Number 
certiQ- 
CBteaof 
deposit. 


Deposits re- 
ceived from 
postmasters. 


Droftaon 
postmaster 

at New 
York, N. Y, 


Drafts on 

assistant 

treasurer ai 

New Yof k, 

N, Y. 


Transferred 
from 


Alabama—. .._ 




37,996 
377 

34 041 

iM;gS4 

20,835 
25,845 
2,033 
15,556 

4S,&56 
3 260 

ti.m 

303,583 
49,944 
Q,524 
30,063 
24,^1 
36,021 
2tipaS4 
^,3ffl 

101,941 
S4,372 
B0,4Tg 

144, 12B 
J0,SG3 

9,272 
37,371 

a,7d> 

250, S99 
19,94j6 
lA,m7 

101,557 
16,077 
2S,g35 

5,425 
11,6&7 
2), 121 

52,gS7 
B7,lSl 

n,m 

11,14J 
21,^ 

ai,iM 

4,715 


fieA,64437 
2,3^,200,41 
2,mO,GS&.99 

27,(^9,304.00 
6,488,374.17 
3,600,393.99 
230,527.12 
2,122,901.11 
2,034,108,30 
5,7B2,2S7.09 
2,327,883.27 
l,lfi3,S29LS5 
110,079,S74.12 
6,056,474.35* 
0,945,541.35 
3,257,6^0.42 
2,49t'i,37L27 
6,007,219.02 
3.21G.840.24 
a,31B,54&20 

20,3-^7,401.21 

ll,99r^050.19 

12,59S,.'i07.20 
2.000,048,58 

22,894,394.69 

3,8ftcJ>^L65 

6,374,110.56 

33,877.91 

912,339.01 

4,7^,SU31 

1,2^,121.43 

133,638,271.58 

l,7ti5,619.02 

1,5-9,587.08 

15,249,607.74 
l,"ti5,5lO.E8 
6,0S1,SS4.27 

34,2"3,9i!2.aT 
1,433,345.24 
1,907,010.65 
2,038.042.41 
1,589,164,04 
0,3(12,^15.43 

13.208,157,76 
3,053,551.22 
1,207,490.72 
3,885,708,24 

U,S80.015.C1 
3,523,294.34 
9,003, 04a 42 
1,057,403.86 


196,430.00 
6(14.00 

27 447.00 
38l,10a00 
890,287.73 
253,595,00 
221,774.90 

14.9'22-00 
705,000.00 

73. 108 OO 
264,^4.28 




t27,94&lT 


Alaska,, „..,.,„ 






932.78 


ArtzoTta - 







24. 255. 10 


Afi^tvn^^ ... ^^..x X 




57,909.28 


CalifornJa 






i77,Ci93,72 


Colar&do, . *„,**.**,,*. 






95,9110.34 


Cdnnocticut 






17,0"Jfi.4t 


|>e]awBTe », * ^ **.♦«„., * 






4,038.55 


District of CoLtunbla. . . 








riorida ...,. 

O^orela 






£6,31&91 
£8,3S0.fit 


Hawaii 






2101 


Idaho. 




166,421.00 
3,710,743.89 
914,109.00 
806,008,00 
477,900.22 
687, 209. 5j 
67,212.41 

20i.a'>e.&i 

136,402.00 
2,541.412.5s 

mo.73i.4S 

421.839.00 
664,614.00 
29,530.00 
675,410.00 
69,510,00 
53,724,77 
350,644.50 
225,024.19 




20,771.94 


IllinoLs „ .., 






262,370,06 


Indltma 




jei,319.17 


Ioira„« .„*„,.„ 






180,95a 78 


Kaaaas 






135,702.43 


Kentucky ,....„ 







113,606.53 


LouJslui^ 






54, 19X 23 


Maine. ,.,. 






68, 427, 09 


Marrloact 






11,083.65 








50,571,72 


Miclileaii-, , 






242.045.81 


MianesotiL ...,.,.. 






90,203177 


Mississippi.,,, *.. 




"""";;]"; 


30,5891.74 
lll,4i5.3S 


MiSSii..::::: ::::::: 






Mm^tX'ilfVj 







10,83152 


Kbraaka _. 






73,27183 


Nevada..,,,. 






25,1S5lS6 


New Ilamp^blre 






12*037.37 


New Jersay ............ 






40,407.37 

15,577.41 
2, 292, cm 19 


How Mexico ^ .,..,, , 






New York 


(J, 117,585.52 


9,556,880.65 eo. 4M1. Sttl 15 


Not til Camliiiu.. ... 


€33,80i3O 

HS^.^4 

1,205,112,00 

150,083.90 

4U7,344.9(» 

1,442,412.00 

92,706,00 

16,318.00 

153,010.00 

53,913.00 

669,763.00 

M>,4fiL2l 

81,919.00 

51,037.00 

409,220.14 

207,196.00 

55,623.70 




35,215.71 
25,7t£0O 


North DaJtotfl*. *.,,**,. 






Ohio..,. 






292,99407 


Okl&boma*. .. . ., . .,_*,. 






I35,9f>4.50 
62,633.64 
190,687.95 


Oregon,... .. 




Pennsylvania..,..,.*,, 






PortQ Rico. .., 






60,572.48 


Ilborif? Island _..*,.. -._ 




——— 


B.S50.0D 


Bouth Carolina. ........ 




18,518.49 


Bouili Dakota*.,*,..,*,, 






17,789,62 


Tenneseo. ...... .....^ 






127,010,04 


Tocxa^, ** ,*.^ 






259, 109 49 


Utah 






13,999.63 
31,632.52 


Vermont* ..-* .*,*- 






Vii^lnia,.. -...*** 






76,613,97 
80,946,56 


"W aahincton. -.-.-- . . . --i 






Wesi Virginia..., 






7,015 33 
112 301.^ 


Wisconsin .., 




367,35^.9^ 




WyomitiE ....,*,.** 




58,61&00 




6,575.74 








Total 


%,iu,m^m 


^317,121 


545,645,306^80 


33,752,8e2.fi7 


G6, 496,963. 15 A 2^7 9f^ 4t 









AUDITOR TRANSACTIONS OF MONEY-ORDER OFFICES. 



339 



No. 6. — Statement Showing the Transactions op the Money-Order Offices, 
OF THE TJNiTBy) States DURING THE Yeak ENDED JuNB 30, 1908— Continued, 



States and Territories. 



Gain. 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Hawaii 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Ilampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina. 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Porto Rico 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

Strii ■; ;■ .V.. 

Texas. , 

Utah.,..._ 

Veraiom. ...--. 

Virginia, .„ 

Washington..- ,- . ............ 

West vrrginiii, 

\VlB™iiBin.„ »„,,.* .*,, 

Wyoming , 

Tututla ,. 

Shanghai.. 

Superintendent AL O. sy«;tam. 
<}uftni.», , 






I Balance 
due post- 
masters. 



I 



S29.18, 

1.17 
11.00 

7.12 
875.76 
116.12 

2.70 

.88 

.77 

11.99 

176.20 

2.45| 
13.39 
27.62; 
13.92 
15.01! 
15.26 

1.56 

14.18' 

.31| 

2.74 
13.93 
72.03 

7.04 
73.63 

3.38 
13.83 

5.36 

&29 

1.10, 

10.621 

475.02 

54.80; 

4.51 
10.38 
22.08 
79.33 
35.66 
25.86 
50.54 
.22 
.65 

3.45 

2.0§ 
24.50 

1.34 

1.33 
45.88 
13.6a 

8.67 
13.31 
l&4g 



S408.75, 



45.77 
670. 72 
914- 15i 
117.06 

33.41 



192.51 
291.62 
.05 
22.12 
105.00 
120.48 
728.37 
186.99 
31.84 
41.70 
8.65 
87.04 
86.76 
182.31 
147.52 
171.12 
251.46 
161. 37 
26.89 



14.84 
43.93 
172. 61 
256.02 
121. 73 
744. 75 
06.71 
559.86 
666.34 
292.25; 



.10, 
205.57 
33. 1*7 
U7.TO 
554.79 

14. 9o; 

2r.3.52 
107. 75 
117,16, 
S?i.38 



Total ....,- 2, 429l 10, 10,17X03 a 65,317,528 507, MB, 615, €2, 4Ja, 



I 



DomeatiC! moDej ordem 
paid. 



Number. 



520,108 

11,321 

86,221 

465,684 

2, 129, 740 
757,967 
534,664 
70,722 
502,760 
461,508 

1,333,301 

72,303 

135,459 

13,215,023 

1,009,458 

1,583,663 
965,512 
670,755 
457,603 
748,301 
397,604 

2,950,713 

2,289,291 

1,648,668 
397, 418 

3,463,099 
166,090 
968,116 
86,018 
195,224 
808,053 
102,2901 

9,714,004 
527,801! 
179,270 

2,988,790 
492,040 
572,072: 

3,930,058 

119, 2io: 

251,972 
271,097 

U7^.US£ 
15^,(37 
1B1,848 
fi53,537 

19^J74 

l,30ti,726 

HOOO, 

(Si, 

1,270 

36,430 

ija, 



Amount. 



Ititomnt tonal orders 
paid. 

Number. I Amount. 



S4,ld9, 

467, 

1,492, 

3,570, 

30,580, 
8,627, 
4,437, 
498, 
3,470, 
3,077, 
6,394, 
1,709, 
1,985, 

83,728, 

11,533, 
9,942, 
7,017, 
4,129, 
4,091, 
3,735, 
3.536, 

18,849, 

17,603, 

11,585, 
2,910, 

22,416. 
2,525, 
7,429, 
2.065. 
1,603, 
6,978. 
1,366, 

84.061. 
3,176, 
1,832, 

20,811, 
4,875, 
7,238, 

31,409, 
1,957, 
1,910, 
1,897, 



037.10 
044.90 
820.26 
19&23 
336.38 
889.96 

971. 11 ; 

127. 14 
364.231 
120.80 
951.65 
142.26 
103.25 
651.91 
599.22 
768.14 
816.12 
309.81 
100.82 
435.97 
310. 71 
168.01 
955^74 
05a 68; 
042.65 
675. 4l' 
630.74 
211.85 
930.35 
743.41 
829.80 
098.38 
602.09 
228.39 
358.20 
079.23 
753.80 
267.98 
761. 12 
890.20 
806.87 
848.31 



G,204.a&u,a4 
I4,07O,5£6.S5 
2,358,450.711 
l,5g7,A25.7S 
4,(11^,305,M 
I0,9l7,S31.7tl 
1,942. 14&2X 
10,316,ft5a4» 
743,257. g» 

33,14L7(>. 
2&fl,7Ga20 
7,183. SO 



751 
1091 
973i 



540 

24,640 

4,578 

6,450 

550 

17,370 

910! 

843 

689, 

501 

54,112 

7,2911 

3,935 

2,387 

1,007 

2,249 

1,100 

3,494! 

25, 471 j 

10,583 

6,595! 

313; 

11,473; 

1,126 

2,443 

433 

725 

16,025, 

670 

146,0401 

475 

1,294 

18,336 

710 

2,102 

40,405 

193 

3,103. 

371 

840 

9^ 

9.278 

1,238 

544; 

l,S17, 

1J82 

8,1~» 

300 



$25,155.82 
5,457.19 
31,343.08 
17,158.87 

589,279.20 

145,379.80 

217,216.38 
15,277.81 

186,719.93 
27,512.60 
17,820.07 
19,623.61 
20,708.10 
1,190,008.49 

100.531.74 

117,623.38 
80,506.78 
26.676.78 
70,767.34 
20,128.78 
93,255.90 

472,213.80 

311.776.31 

250.90152 
8,899.01 

336,572.07 
42.702.28 
84,086. 17 
19, 198. 38 
16,380.73 

483.093.82 

15,026.62 

2,511,003 89 

12,006.54 

62,663.28 

578,307.42 

28,433.56 

80,144.39 

1,208,883.74 

4,927.71 

81,783.16 

7.870.40 

3n, 7(10. 59 

24,279.74 

S4,fi*».14 
3S,24L^7 
13,288,03 
40, Wl. 17 

181,97Zf^ 
54,017^00 

267,03SL07 
1^,434.27 



4 



I 



S^S+d 10,638, 



,»}7.50 
r^,5ii 



4&i.a2 



Statea and T«rrttoflM. 



District of Columbia. 

IIIinoU.„, , 

NflwYark... 



Total, 



Foreign 
exchange 
pureba«od. 



I DmTcs paid 
by poalmiksLer 
al New Yqt^, 
N. Y* 

i 



tffT.tt 



7a.3l3,04Ul5 



73,312,143.55 



Deposited 

with o.'isbtant 

treasEirer at 

New York, 

N. Y.. and 



132, 411, Mid 27 



i37,21S,0OaOCJ 
3l,fi58,a2llSI 



Si, 411, 06a 37 



ri8^T7a,|2(LSl 



Deposited 
on aooount 
or revenue. 



t3,G6fl,K]3.a 



3,089,813168 



a Issued in foreign countries and the Philippines, 1,044,078, amounting to $12,678,114.71. 



340 



REPORT OP THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



.No. 6. — Statement Showing the Transactions of the Monet-Order Offices 
OF the United States during the Year ended June 30, 1908 — Continued 



States and Ter> 
ritorles. 



Deposited nt 

QnitrOlMS 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona ■ 

Arkansas J 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware ...J 

District of Columbia. . . 

Florida J 

Georgia ..,* 

Hawaii 

Idaho ,..- 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa „ 

Kansas 

Kentucky , 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massacliusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana , 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire... 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsvlvania 

Porto kico 

Rhode Island , 

South Carolina . 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 

Tutulla 

Shanghai 

Guam 



b. 111 

5.748; 

37,730, 

10,358, 

4G3, 
1,842, 
4,435, 
8,im, 

4,0gC, 
30,213, 
10,218, 
H\8J2, 

3,4X% 
7,950, 

4,213, 

IS, 049, 

15,320. 
5,S8S, 

17,035, 
fl,324, 
fi,873. 
3,384, 
2,4(56. 

10.419, 
2.515. 

49,804. 
3J7a 
4,902, 

21,029, 
6,364i 
ft, 811, 

49t0O9, 
2.344. 
3.201, 
4,011, 
4,^133. 
ft. 758. 

6,CL2. 

2.719, 

fl.032, 
20,911. 

7.ft37, 
15,237. 

3,m 

10, 
123, 



363.63 
054.84 
022. fiS 
Oiadti 
&»U.34 
300.84 
233.09 
523. 12 
223.05 
540. 3U! 
778.78 
325.27 
08179, 
375. 81 ! 
483.01 
072. 07, 
5DL01| 
ATiOiSli 

hi^ ml 

5U,2ti 

m9.9,s 

490.01 
223. 10 

52&74 

8SS.81 

821.54 

4iL03 

0(52., 27| 
905.03 

tyis. 0!il 

511. 33 
784.70 
324, 0» 
62189 
15^56' 
6<iL87 
32fl.0l" 
4u7..77; 
301.83 
431.57 
259.11 

mt.m 

099.47, 
lS9.7fi 
519.56 
157. S7: 

842.07 
285.60 
139.00 
S24.fi0 
979.90 



Transferred 

topostaeQ 

ibud. 



|7,90&1D 

18,aS2.B9 

1,257.60 

33,51U03 

10, sail. 90 

27.3ta.0G 

2,03ckO(2 

2,771.52 

57,000.00 

30,037-58 

2fl,8U23 

55i.8l 

7,<HX}.32 

55,750.05 

223,303. 19 

302,3.U57 

84, 149, 00 

l8l,90fZ27 

4,039.90 

10,^=39.33 

4, 265. Of) 

8,24(i. 13 

1,223,133.03 

1,003,307. .19 

1(1,045, 31 

113,302:08 

20,122.84 

14.1,729.67 

7,003.70 

10,7^4.43 

11,515.89 

2.3CKJ.10 

259.501.73 

543,072.55 

53,587.72 

32S,20fl.42 

404,702.59 

.1,735.51 

245,330.78 

82.92 

3,348.10 

SJ9U51 

237,589.03 

4,V32L97 

331,335.00 

24, 418. OS 

7.810.81 

18.5Wl.fi4 

2,S20.0y 

34.598.61 

32,494.70 

4S,05&15 



399.53 



Total ' 540.158,072.53 0,493,953.50 



Loss. 



Commissions 
I on money 
orders. 



S48L59 



994.86 

2,015.04 

328.10 

647.81 



137.80 
592,31 



39.52 
63.59 
87.44 
97&52 
627.11 



130.34 
140.63 
172. 14 
338.39 
238.13 
57.00 



$24,885.30 
1,515.09 
5,420.43 
24,063.271 
40,481.34, 
15,373.92 
8,113.53 
1,836.09, 



15,169.62 

36,946.65 

3,045.03: 

8,892.60 

61,369.86 

35,071.53 

48,839.46 

39,920.85 

14,690.88 

16,773.30 

14,942.31 

6,076.44 

13,29&30 

51.244.98 

34,851.18 

26,229.33 

40,887.21 

9,625.08 

33,368.01 

5,155.92 

6,554.94 

10,358.73 

5,476.56 

54,399.93 

18,337.92 

17,212.921 

45,364.59' 

30,853.83 

15,846.33 

59,981.19 

3,310.74 

2,615.55 

15,083.61 

16,042.38 

23,224.86 

58.880.61 

5,821.65 

8,176.11 

16,625.64 

24,479.73 

12,371.10 

38,074.89 

5,093.79 

10.44 

76.29 

64.20 



Balance doe 

the United 

States. 



Balaxioe 
duapost- 
mastefB 
last year. 



1126,761.13 

365,759.75' 

79,261.03 

99,969.02: 

719,263.221 

166,202.29 

118.13&31 

9,961.66' 

20,838.07 

92,721.03 

141,005.361 

218,752.68 

73,884.47 

546,094.44 

169,586.70 

210,079.92 

138,622.30 

91,496.65 

143,285.30 

113,491.67 

64,421.85 

356,671.39 

305,869.95 

238.313.59 

88,827.87 

235,403.15 

204.720.17 

150.455.88 

62,389.75 

48,898.13 

170,485.33 

66,783.23 

820,348.73 

76,011.32 

86,262.16 

304.260.79 

132.528.78 

205.827.91 

573,566.81 

117,181.94 

35,001.01 

64,023.14 

77,565.57 

118.779.09 

317,677.07 

95,790.28 

59.073.18 

112,243.77 

415,521.37 

120.904.07 

214,370.25 

85.952.35 

7,473.61 

7,iiaoi 

13,199.53 



19,551.38 1,133,024.73 9,699,156.03 14,328.80 



11,763.87 



3ia]6 
601.23 
152.94 
30.72 

.'77 
182.30 
989.94 



&S7 

290.94 

17&73 

84.02 

94.61 

17a 08 

226.13 

.96 

161. 76 

28.74 

1,114.22 

87.21 

307.24 

565.78 

105.37 

65.00 

9.90 

13.36 

88.38 

6.00 

309.39 

263.46 

418.78 

184.12 

051.81 

56.18 

1,051.13 



75.41 

74.76 

426.21 

1,631.83 

7^57 

2.42 

674.95 

239.79 

244.93 

152.46 

.41 



No. 7. — Statement Showing the Receipts and Disbursements of the Money- 
Order Offices of the United States during the P'iscal Year ended June 30, 
1908. 

RECEIPTS. 

Balance in the hands of postmasters June 30, 1907 110,197,612 27 

Domestic money orders issued ; $506,170,014.62 

International money orders Issued 81,502,011.18 

Fees on domestic money orders issued 3,949,001.88 

Fees on international money orders Issued 754,884.69 

Foreign exchange received 6.117,595.52 

Deposits received from postmasters 645.645,306.80 

Drafts drawn on postmaster at New York, N. Y 32,752,862.57 

Drafts drawn on assistant treasurer at New York, N. Y 66,496.963.15 

Transferred from postage fund 6,397.959.41 

Miscellaneous 2,429.10 

Adjustments due postmasters June 30, 1906 10,173.03 

1,249,799,201.95 

TotaJ receipts l,2-.9,996.714.22 



AUDITOR RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS. 341 

DISBURSEMENTS. 

Domestic money orders paid $507,649,615.82 

Intemationai money orders paid 10,638,461.32 

Foreign exchange purchased. 73,312,143.55 

Drafts paid by postmaster at New York, N. Y 32,411,666.27 

Deposited with assistant treasurer at New York, N. Y., to credit of 

Fostmaster-General on money-order account 31,558,326.81 

Deposited with assistant treasurer at Chicago, HI., to credit of Postmaster- 

Ocneral on money-order account 37,218,00a00 

Deposited with assistant treasurer at New York, N. Y., to credit of 

Treasurer of the United States for use of the Post-Office Department, 

being revenue on money-order account 3, 689, 813. 68 

Deposi ted at firstrclass offices by other postmasters 546, 158. 672. 53 

Transferred to postage fimd... 6,493,953.50 

Losses by fire, burgiary, etc 19,551.38 

Commissions on money orders 1,133,024.73 

Settlement of balances due postmasters J une 30, 1907 14 , 328. 80 

Total disbursements 11,250,297,558.19 

Balance in the hands of postmasters June 30, 1906 9,699,156.03 

1,259,996,714.22 

No. 8. — Statement Showing the Revenue which Accrued on Monet-Ordbb 
Account during the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1908. 

DOMESTIC. 

Received for fees on orders issued 13,949,001.88 

From miscellaneous 2,429.10 

■ 13, 951, 43a 98 

Allowed postmasters: 

For commissions 1,121,272.02 

For losses by fire, burglary, etc 19,661.38 

Total 1,140,823.40 

Balance 2,810, «)7. 58 

3. 951, 43a 98 
INTERNATIONAL. 

"Received for fees on orders issued 754,88«.6r 

Received from foreign countries for conunissions 17,090.0k 

Gain on exchange 391,876.80 

l,163,8SLi>l> 

Allowed postmasters for commissions 11, 752. 71 

Allowed loreipn countries: 

For commissions 284, 662. 61 

For incidental expenses 288w35 

Total 296,703.67 

Balance 867,147.86 

1,163,85L58 
RECAPITULATION OF BALANCES. 

Balance on domestic money-order transactions 2,810,607.58 

Balance on international money-order transactions 867,147.86 

Total 3,677,765.44 

No. 9.— Statement op Assets and Liabilities of the Money-Order Servicb 

June 30, 1908. 

ASSETS. 

In the hands of assistant treasurer at New York, N. Y 13,829,615.43 

In the hands of assistant treasurer at Chicago, 111 3,947,000.00 

In the hands of postmasters 9, 699, 166. 03 

Due money-order account, being balance on transfers for quarters ended 

March 31 and June 30, 1908 71,609.29 

$17,647,880.76 

LIABILITIES. 

Due Post-Oflfice Department, being revenue on money-order account for 
quarters ended March 31 and June 30, 1908 1,739,964.96 

Due unpaid money-order account, being the amount of Invalid advices re- 
ceived from postmasters during the year ended June 30, 1908 360, 159. 47 

Unpaid domestic monev orders 10,009,444.34 

Outstanding certificates of deposit 1,434,406.02 

Balance due on intemationai money-order lists for which no accounts have 
been received 2,523,950.13 

Value of international orders certified to United States, and not paid prior to 
June 30. 1908 1,469,273.80 

A d j ostmen ts d ue postmasters J mie 30, 1908 1 0, 1 73. 03 

17, 647,38a 76 



842 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAX,. 



No. 10. — Statement Showing the Number and Value op Orders Issued in 
THE United States and Paid in Foreign Countries during the Year ending 
June 30. 1908. 



Nationality. 


Number 
of orders 
certified. 


Value of orders 
certified. 

129,116.60 

8,189.67 

355,156.69 

16,636.25 

16,186.47 

1,688.65 

6,077,710.40 

33,380.75 

337,691.04 

2,658.67 

39,311.25 

201,288.00 

6,844.26 

2,157.46 

110,276.10 

185,068.16 

15,321.78 

16,945.55 

14,486.15 

263.23 


Increase. 

$8,766.80 

2,437.23 

124,839.07 

5,510.76 

1,019.73 

402.56 

398,740.27 

15,123.32 


Decrease. 


Antig;ua 


2,450 

441 

25,943 

781 

1,300 

142 

402,210 

1,584 

16,277 

224 

2,177 

12,542 

612 

181 

5,248 

6,676 

794 

1,154 

1,064 

25 




Bahamas 




Barbados 




Bermuda 




British Guiana 




British Honduras 




Canada 





Canal Zone 




Cuba 


128,050.80 


Dominica 


1,149.61 
15,133.04 
78,011.16 

1,773.85 
160.12 




Grenada 




Jamaica 




Montserrat 




Nevis 




Newfoundland 


15, 94a 78 


Philippines 


6,526.13 
1,114.87 
4,200.73 
6,019.25 


Saint Kitts 




Saint Lucia 




Samt Vincent 




Virgin Islands 


3 23 








Total of orders exchanged on the domes- 
tic basis 


480,825 


7,470,377.13 


670,937.60 


43,994.81 




Austria 


259,064 

28,859 

48 

1,173 

309 

128 

33,823 

1,114 

80,189 

270, ?tl 

780,939 

53,201 

32 

752 

226,056 

488,564 

126,886 

47 

1,477 

60,663 

22,031 

2,982 

1.879 

122,590 

129 

232 

1,351 

617 

376,844 

20 

VS7 

176,390 

50,099 

282 

917 

830 

1,936 


7,805,631.61 

789,248.59 

815 50 

22,261.09 

7,643.10 

1,819.20 

609,555.21 

24,129.97 

1,514,453.33 

4,344,768.50 

12,411 387.79 

2,358,010.28 

568.03 

17,554.61 

8,010,017.87 

21,292,938.57 

4,636,994.01 

2,617.11 

43,605.42 

1,636,109.68 

280,338.28 

75,105.48 

45,713.73 

3,021,042.40 

2,609.99 

6,946.72 

25,831.77 

12,666.88 

7,898,483.94 

193.98 

6,156.35 

4,014,270.28 

852,327.41 

5,033.14 

22,378.12 

12,433.02 

42,318.76 


196,996.25 

38,004.84 

499.50 

1,260.93 




Belgium 




Bolivia 




Cape Colony 




chSe.. !.....: ::.:.:...:.:::::::.:::: 


745.23 


Costa Rica 




1.18 


Denmark 


33,114.79 
3,112.44 
229,077.40 
210,245.26 
829,359.25 
258, 166. 75 




Egypt 




France 




Germany 




Great Britain 




Greece 




Honduras 


204 26 


Hongkong 




2,324.99 
745,338.43 


Hunearv 




iteK^ ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 


2,306,418.96 

200,981.27 

1,037.93 

3,999.66 

240,848.79 

50,538.06 

6,821.34 


Japan 




Liberia 




Luxemburg 




Mexico 




Netherlands 




New South Wales 




New Zealand 


6,491.74 


Norway 


133,014.27 
1,270.24 
1,239.07 
4,775.23 


Orange River Colony 




Peru 




Portugal 




Qu eensland 

Russia 


1,595.49 


667,630.25 

18.17 

205.05 

111,858.83 

27,439.99 

1,064.48 

3,671.82 

473.03 

1,522.16 




Salvador 




South Australia 




Sweden 




Switzerland 




Tasmania 




Transvaal 




Trinidad 




Victoria. 









Total of orders exchanged on basis of cer- 
tified lists 


3,173,161 


81,863,977.71 


6,663,686.81 


756,701.32 



Grand total, 1908.. 
Grand total, 1907.. 

Increase 



3.663,986 
3.644,666 ' 



89,324.354.84 
83.890,426.66 • 



6,234.624.31 j 800,696.13 



9,330 



5,433,928.18 I 



AUDITOR INTERNATIONAL MONEY-ORDER STATEMENT. 



348 



No. 11. — Statement Showing the Number and Value of Orders Issued in 
Foreign Countries and Paid in the United States during the Fiscal Year 
ending June 30, 1908. 



Nationality. 


Number 
of orders 
certified. 


Value of 

orders 

certified. 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Antigua. 


449 

1,340 

1,310 

701 

2,146 

3,041 

779,613 

115,657 

83,499 

263 

625 

3,702 

67 

59 

4,502 

46,477 

105 

237 

186 

99 


$5,143.61 

13,025.41 

28,089.87 

6,769.10 

10,030.48 

30,291.52 

6,777,879.19 

3,163,087.94 

1,205,068.61 

6,481.72 

8,171.30 

60,032.77 

2,405.11 

i,ooa35 

49,579.36 
1,298,576.71 
1,494.37 
3,774.09 
1,993.84 
5,219.36 




$19,601.77 


Bah£nas 


18,176.63 
1,246.77 
1,844.59 


Barbados 




Berm uda 




British Oniana 


3,193.60 


British Honduras 


20,436.44 

819,646.34 

1,581,836.03 

158,823.24 


Canada 




Canal Zone 




Cuba 




Dominica 


4,666.74 


G renada 


293.17 
3, 79a 33 


Jamaica 




Montserrat 


1,099.97 


Nevis 




{Newfoundland 


1,755.57 
36,308.19 




Philippines 




St. Kttts 


2,980.60 


St. Lucia 


1,735.24 


St. Vincent 


817 29 


Virgin Islands 


2,473.45 








Total of orders exchanged on the domestic 
basis 


1,044,078 


12,678,114.71 


2,638,365.99 


32,707.63 




Austria 


25,633 

5,628 

188 

3,232 

1,386 

1,076 

5,637 

2,022 

20,776 

76,320 

131,681 

566 

162 

712 

24,258 

22,364 

6,408 


1,144,837.58 

180,430.05 

1,661.00 

28,764.16 

9,380.80 

14,147.35 

155,429.43 

39,624.73 

297,381.29 

1,910,324.94 

1,853,564.07 

14,395.96 

1,529.42 

5,273.40 

1,276,814.30 

022,263.96 

106,084.77 


412,183.47 

31,794.79 

06L5O 




Belgium 




Bolivia 




Cape Colony 


5,943.61 


Chile ?.;::::::::::.:.:.:.::::::::::::::::: 


2ia64 
3,583.62 
41,609.24 
3,009.64 
35,504.62 
300,506.65 
310,018.66 
11,627.24 


Costa Rica 




Denmark 




Egypt 




France 




Germany 




Great Britain 




Greece 




Honduras 


660 76 


Honglcong 




242.69 


HuuKary 


688,248.88 
355,004.52 




Italy...": ::.:...: :::::::: 




Japan 


3,647.63 
6,072.91 


Liberia (no business) 




Luxemburg 


239 

59,667 

5,154 

4,146 

9,143 

7,607 

596 

613 

363 

1,898 

222 
1,261 
13,170 
8,110 
741 
2,987 
2,467 
3,396 


20,283.09 

779,750.70 

83,091.12 

41,734.50 

82,230.87 

267,115.85 

4,508.73 

11,362.68 

5,974.91 

15,185.23 

509,021.99 

928.45 

10,616.96 

593,15L70 

184,301.43 

5,475.75 

41,819.50 

19,30&45 

33,592.58 


1,890.52 

107,295.96 

20,452.65 

81.68 


Mexico 




Netherlands. 




New South Wales 




New Zealand 


13,018.12 


Norway 


60,865.16 

516.80 

7,11&81 

355.14 

1,822.67 

170,761.87 

109.11 


Orange River Colony 




Peru 




Portugal 




Queensland 




Russia ! 




Salvador 




South Australia 


573.03 


Sweden 


35,903.31 
51,205.79 




Switzerland 




Tasmania ^ 


895.92 


Transvaal 




1,804.50 

2,425.58 

8.95 


Trinidad 




Victoria 










Total of orders exchanged on basis of 
certified lists 


463,884 


10, 670, 46a 70 


2,653,03L54 


36,103.50 




Grand total, 1908 


1,507,966 
1,332,744 


23,348,576.41 
18,125,989.01 


6,291,397.53 


68,811.13 


Grand total, 1907 








Increase 


175,222 


5,222,58&40 < 













844 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



No. 12. — Statement Showing the Volume op Mail Matter Originatino in the 
United States and Dispatched to Foreign Countries by the Various Steam- 
ship Lines, and the Amount Paid for its Conveyance, during the Fiscal 
Year ending June 30, 1908. 



ipUnM, 



Lettets. 



Prtots. 



Anunmt paid. 



Alton (to Newroupdland} . . .... 

AlJeo ( to Pofp Paea} ....^^.*,.....^^ 

American M«U (oonttuct) „ 

American (Froin PhiladelphliiJ ...,., ^ . 

Atlantic and Mexican Ginf ....... 

Australian Mail ,....._,....._.. 

Bart>tr . , , , 

Blueflelds, . , 

Booth,, „„ 

Boston ,. ........._...... 

BraniUan . . ,. , 

Boulton, Bliss and Dollett tcotstnot). 

Camera McConu*^U ._......„,.„. 

Canada A tlnntic and Plant. .......... 

Canadiau AustralLaii Royal Malt , 

Canadian Paciflc 

China Mutual St^am Navlgatfon , 

Clyde 

Compaflta Tranii-Allfiiitlca K^paAola,, 
Ccmps^nio Tnuts-Atlfinliquc 

Cuoard (parcels post) a. 

Direct ,,,„,,, .,- 

Domiafon Atlantic R- R 

Davis and Company,^ , ..,.._,.,.„,, 
Earn 



Frank \Vatorlioiise,,,,.„,,„ , 

General T rans^ Allan tic. .,..., - 

Great KoriJiflm, „ . , . , 

Hamburg Americazi {Atlaa Line) 

IlarriLiTa, , . . ,,...,, . , 

H.I, M, 9 

Howard irouidPF, Rowat and Fartncis. ,,._».., 

Honston 

Hubbard Zcmunay „ ,_„„,, ^.. 

Itisulur Navigation . . . 

Intemationat Mercantile Marina (ccmtTQCC}. . w . 

Kernp . . 

Kostuo9, , , „ „ , 

Lamport and Holt . . . . , . . . , ,..,.,..... 

La V'^alocc. ...... . . , 

Lower California Development ........ ^.. .. . 

Mauim Cooperating Company , 

Munson ,....„..., , 

New York and Cuba Maih 

Contracts , , , , ., 

N 011(500 ttttct,, , , 

To Bahamas. . . .............. ...... 

New York and Demerara.. ..„.,,, , , . . . 

Nippon Yuscn KabuslilkL Kaisha(t 13,639.01) a. 

Norm Gortnan Lloyd .,.,„,.„.,,_.,, „ „ . 

Norton . . . . 

OeeiJental and Oriental,,....,,..,. , 

Ocean ......................_..., _ . . _ 

Oceanic (contractj , , 

O riental «..».. ................. 

Orr Laubenhelrtier , ,.. 

Ott*ri. 



pBcific Coast, ,, , ,,.,,,. „ . „ . 

PDCincMail: 

To Japan . , , , , . , 

Torajiama........... ._.......,.... 

Panama Kailroed Bteamshlp Company ,, 

Perilnsnlar and Occidental: 

To Cuba ,, , , ,,.. 

To Bahamas a_.__„._ .._._...... 

Pacific Steani Navigailon o„ _^, ,..,__ ^_, .., , 

Prf nco 

Flntlloa y ii[n1erdo , ,.**.,,...,....,,.. 

Portland and Asiatic ........._., 

Suebec,,,,, ,.,.,, 
ed Cross 

Red Star (tntematlonal Ifert^mtlle Harine), 
Royal. Dutch West India (9^1^,24) a 



160 

11.I23 

2|lsa,800 

4SQ 

32.3^ 

4,980,901 

li066,5Q5 

1.960.600 

1, HI, 767 

71tt,95» 

S77,80e 

SS5,1QG 

7,096. 35« 

12,087, a^ 

13,010 

3,071,535 

2S4,80a 

452,709 

143,411,237 



e25 
0,975,217 

3, ne 

21,245 

6,807 

74,fi29,§15 

1,550,441 

5§^69B,5ai 

302 JOS 

78,4&4 

iei5»«&5 

370.025 

117,444 

336, .^igO 

103,487,0&4 

240 

1L644 

fi|l§S,84S 

309,653 

3,543 

714, 169 

5,0*6, 5ft5 

61,650 

Sl4,fl75 

262,805 

9,343, 144 

222,sn,fi33 

5ifl.OlO 

4,366,993 

367.017 

173,642 

11.231,964 

51,709 

148,301 

57,948 

14,579,300 

1,399.723 

36,183,635 

1,551.618 
537,005 



1,258.355 
75,713 

3,3tl 
4, 627 J 10 

5,330 



Oram** 
70,505 
22,367 

2S,754,7ft5 
337,440 



110,l£ffi,S3a 

23,M2,420 

12,541,097 

25,92L985 

13,409.531 

13,959.130 

150. 808, 13» 

5,890, 116 

6.733,409 

133,902,847 

140,630, 7S6 

66,469 

22,e6T,070 

45S,ail 

923 J36 

355,568, 190 

£,147,242 

4,875 

37,001, 3&^ 

9,072 

297,585 

7,263 

332,458,298 

15,376,495 

376,195,907 

917,732 

93,884 

4,209,025 

6,4-««.iJ30 

1,738,35*3 

52.''^^ 

960,136.123 

300 

30,528 

132,58.'*, 575 

S.418 

4,231,673 

4.932 

0,737.023 

88,673,150 

773,490 

9,240,853 

3,073.230 

81,344,785 

924,401,888 

^,373,015 

48,917.665 

3,257, 540 

2,777,800 

122,50*, 27S 

4,083 

2,020, a54 

49.'^, 061 

164,980.916 

17,130,479 

831,301,296 

2,992,474 
2,843,480 
29,570,041 
35,850.860 
U5,021 



703,530 



4l,0fi^,S73 
2,418,635 
2,946,735 
3,111,120 



ie.47 

10.98 

105,660,00 

32.94 

25.70 

14,710.59 

3, 136. 81 

1,658.73 

4,103.08 

4,468.28 

1,917.39 

105,212.60 

1,2S6.S9 

74LS8 



m.46 

8,42».B5 

28L47 



148,472.03 

496.71 

1,07 

7,104.96 

3.94 

45.12 

5.96 

78,340.40 

6,468.39 

84,294.61 

331,41 



55®,7tJ 
906.93 
2.S8,42 
334.00 
737,016,00 



tt,9S 
16,967.57 



3.21 
1,240.64 

201,916.00 

245.20 

1,558.72 

515. 10 

16,431.03 

272,856.12 

1,310.66 

8,375.57 

608,73 

37,962.00 

22,060,99 

42,72 

318. 15 

1S3,01 

60,977 « 

1,940.94 

189,330.83 



688,96 
2,854.09 
4,438.78 

2.60 

7,711.31 

324,20 

412.62 
1,334.66 



a Paid in general aocoimt. 



AUDITOR MAILS DISPATCHED TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



345 



No. 12. — Statement Showing the Volume os- Mail Matter Orioinating in the 
United States and Dispatched to Foreign Countries, etc. — Continued. 



Steamship lines. 



Roval Mall Steam Packet 

Raibum Verel 

Scandinavian American 

Slomans United States and Brazil. 

Southern Pacific 

Sociedad4ln6nima Navegacidn... 
Trinidad Shipping and Trading. . . 
United Fruit: 

From Baltimore 

From Boston 

From New York 

From New Orleans 

From Philadelphia 

To British Honduraso 

United Tyser 

Vacara Brothers 

White Star : 

White Star (parcels post) « 



Letters. 



Qramt. 
2,853,370 
2,722 



161,145 

278,640 

49,068 

1,377,475 

17,565 

380,325 

42,040 

7,154,904 

365,325 

1,009,023 



336,429 
214,604,233 



Total 

Increase.. 
Decrease.. 



1,046,424,343 
103,967,551 



Prints. 



Qramt. 

43,302,145 

13,153 

11,378,165 

1,593,650 

1,472,883 

55,871 

18,362,170 

320,645 

6,434,035 

580,070 

134,548,126 

6,334,630 

11,420,981 

1,310,265 

5,763,350 

765,180,909 

15,859,878 



Amount paid. 



6,292,520,034 
245,031,366 



16,495.06 

3.90 

1,245.49 

809.29 

875.37 

44.35 

2,898.65 

44.50 

931.93 

88.43 

18,806.85 

914.52 

1,924.28 

126.44 

829.44 

249,318.56 

1,530.48 



2,456,041.47 
""'99,384.' 42 



No. 13. — Statement Showing the Weights op Closed Mails Originating in 
Foreign Countries and the Amounts Accruing to Steamship Companies for 
their Conveyance, during the Fiscal Year ending June 30, 1908. 



Steamship lines. 



American Mall (contract) 

Aostralian Mail 

Barber 

Bloefields 

Booth 

Boston 

Boulton, Bliss & Dallett (noncontract) 

Brazilian 

Canadian Pacific 

Clyde 

Canard 

Dominion Atlantic Railway 

Great Northern 

Hamburg- American 

Hamburg- American (Atlas) 

Houston 

Howard Houlder and Partners 

International Mercantile Marine 

Lamport and Holt 

Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha ($890.40) a. . 

North German Lloyd 

Norton 

New York and Cuba Mail: 

Contract 

Noncontract 

To Bahamas 

Ocean 

Oriental o 

Occidental and Oriental 

Pacific Mail (Japan and China) 

Panama Raihx>ad Steamship: 

To Colon 

Colon to Panama 

Peninsular and Occidental o 

Prince 

Quebec 

Royal Mail Steam Packet 

Royal Dutch « 

Do 

Southern Pacific 

Trinidad Shipping and Trading 



Letters. 



Orams. 

445,335 

1,133,863 

34,555 

18,826 

27,158 

154,000 

963,809 

2,440 

9,803 

3,700 

38,021,300 

186,659 

224,308 

14,922,847 

1,484,580 

12,285 

3,705 

17,945,122 

74,568 

790.684 

50,977,837 

11,840 

803,186 

11,062 

425,035 

8,605 

876,107 

586,074 

1,167,729 

6,968,615 
6,256,659 
82,853 
20,710 
4,300 
923,646 
80,467 



3,930 



Prints. 



Orams. 

4,727,696 

14,042,304 

465,185 

1,041,910 

693,160 

3,287,268 

23,652,732 

194,045 

115,912 

1,739,210 

108,803,529 

6,740,603 

6,110,149 

46,848,308 

61,105,845 

197,975 

70,720 

61,296,350 

1,526,880 

19,063,555 

178,752,299 

163,860 

19,145,796 
172,575 
5,965,803 
215,505 
13,858,404 
6,009,387 
18,369,936 

214,536,947 

203,386,825 

1,418,851 

428,350 

152,405 

11,497,307 

3, 724, no 

81,215 

133,253 

44.446 



Amounts 
paid. 



$2,190.80 
71.57 
115.06 
91.18 
436.11 
192.03 
20.61 



170.70 

40,393.64 

712.27 

789.81 

23,926.60 

28.59 
9.69 



204.90 

1,646.00 

68,706.40 

24.95 



26.19 
928.23 

27.46 
1,063.23 
1,07L78 
2,732.90 

26,427.16 

39,156.36 

200.88 

67.33 

18.02 

1,856.86 

423.26 

7.84 

16.36 

4.29 



a Paid In general aocoont. 



846 



REPORT OF THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL. 



No. 13. — Statement Showing the Weights of Closed Mails Obioinatino ik 
Foreign Countries and the Amounts Accruing to Steamship Companies for 
their Conveyance, durine the Fiscal Year ending June 30, 1908 — Continued. 



steamship lines. 


Letters. 


Prints. 


Amonnts 
paid. 


United Fruit: 

From New Orleans 


Orams. 

6,520,001 

3650 

685,289 

68,106 

66,460,220 


Orams. 

73,912,606 

476,430 

6,777,628 

1,829,096 

227,131,934 


$11.661. 82 


From Philadelphia 


48.93 


To British Honduras 




Other than PriWsh a 


* 225.35 


White Star 


76» 425.81 




Total 


218,404,447 
39,023,676 


1,347,838,402 
206,410,129 


292,106.87 
31,860.29 


Increase ..,..- - - 





a Paid in general account. 



Respectfully, 
The Postmasteb-General. 



M. O. Chance, 

AvoUar. 



IISTDEX. 



Accounting methods: PB«e. 

Proof systems installed 253 

Revision of 67,251 

Accounts: 

Miscellaneous 265 

New method of certifying, in payment of public creditors 265 

Present and late postmasters 265 

Adding machines 33 

Advances of postal fimds to disbursing postmasters 261 

Alaska: 

Minerals and metals in mails 169 

Postal service in 48,168 

Annual leave of thirty days to postal employees, legislation recommended . 30, 123, 134 

Anti(^uated laws, legislation recommended. 32 

Appomtment of postmasters 24 

Of second and third classes, vested in Postmaster-General, legislation 

recommend ed 24, 1 16 

Appropriations: 

Comparative statement by amounts and percentages, since 1892 75 

Condition of several accounts 334 

Under office of First Assistant Postmaster-General 135 

Under subheads 335 

Expenditures and balances unexpended 256, 334 

Under subheads 335 

For year 1909 7 

Arrests by post-office inspectors 70, 107 

Assets and liabilities, money-order service 341 

Assistant Attorney-General: 
Office of— 

Bills for injimction 88 

Claims for reward 91 

Claims of postmasters for reimbursement on account of losses 91 

Contracts examined. . .• 91 

Fraudulent schemes and enterprises 79 

Obscene and indecent matter 89 

Offers of compromise 92 

Petitions for pardon 91 

RepK)rts of post-office inspectors 88 

Summary of work in 93 

Opinions 90 

Printing and binding 92 

Report of 77 

Associations of postmasters 117 

Auditor, report of, to Postmaster-General 325 

Automatic conveyors in post-offices 33, 34 

Automobiles in the pK)6tal service 31, 132 

Backstamping of postal cards 31 

Balances between United States and foreign countries 260 

Revenue from 72 

Balances unexpended 256, 334 

Under office of First Assistant Postmaster-General 135 

Under subheads 335 

Bicycle allowance, comparative statement 140 

Bills for injunction 70, 88 

Blank forms, standardization of 22 

Blanks, money-order system, expenditure 73 

347 



348 INDEX. 

Bonds of — Page. 

Postal employees 32 

Indemnity fund, legislation recommended 119 

Postmasters at money-onier offices, '' additional condition," legislation rec- 

onmiended 60, 295 

Box delivery and collection on star routes 168 

Box rents, revenue from 72 

Branch post-offices: 

Legislation recommended 125 

Names of 23 

Buildings for post-offices, Department should have voice in selection of sites, 

plans of buildings, and interior equipment 25 

Buildings for use of Post-Office Department, expenditure 73 

Burglary, fire, and bad debts: 

Cases investigated 70 

Losses by 7, 74,255,291 

Business methods, improvements inaugurated in : 

Bureau of First Assistant Postmaster-General 133 

Bureau of Fourth Assistant Postmaster-General 315 

Bureau of Third Assistant Postmaster-General 67, 251 

Department and service 7 

Cable-car service. {See Electric and cable car service.) 

California Fruit Growers Association, fraudulent scheme. ..j^ 83 

Canada, second-class matter, amendment to postal convention 65, 285 

Canal Zone, mail service with 55, 183 

Canceling machines: 

Expenditure 73 

Rental and purchase, comparative statement 138 

Use extended to smaller omces 33 

Car construction 40 

Car-fare allowance: 

Comparative statement 140 

Special-delivery messengers, comparative statement 141 

Carriers. (See City-delivery service; Rural delivery service.) 

Casualties, Railway-Mail Service 178 

Central American mails 175 

Chicago, 111.: 
Post-office — 

Automatic conveyers in 33 

Site for 25 

Tunnel service succeeded by wagon service 161 

Chief Inspector: 

Assistant, legislation recommended 108 

Report of 101 

Treatment of money received by 261 

City Delivery, Division of 144 

City-delivery service: 
Carriers — 

Annual leave, legislation recommended 30, 123, 124 

Average increase in pay 75 

Compensation, comparative statements 139 

Effect of new salary law 30, 121 

Efficiency records 29, 121 

Hours of service 124 

Number of 31 

Registrations by 301 

Collection service — 

Automobiles 132 

Street cars 133 

Street letter boxes 132 

Development during forty-five years 144 

Evening deliveries 28, 132 

Expenditures 73, 139 

Extension of, legislation recommended 31, 131, 134 

Growth of 31 

Incidental expenses, comparative statement 139 

Mechanics, pay of, comparative statement 140 

New featured 132 



INDEX. 349 

City-delivery service — Continued. 

Number of people served 31 

Statistics 144 

Supplies, expenditure 73 

Claims for reward 91 

Claims of postmasters for reimbursement on account of losses 71 

Classification, Division of 277 

Clerk hire: 

First and second class offices 136, 137 

Fourth-class offices, separating service 137 

Third-class offices 29, 125, 137, 138 

Clerks in post-offices: 

Annual leave, legislation recommended 30, 123, 124 

Average increase in pay 75 

Bonds of ' 32 

Compensation: 

Comparative statements 136, 137, 138 

Expenditure : 73 

Effect of new salary law 30, 121 

Efficiency records 29, 121 

Hours of service 124 

Collection drafts 265 

Collections by post-office inspectors 69, 106 

Commemorative stamps, Jamestown Tercentennial 273 

Compensation: 

Employees in post-offices — 

Supervisory and subclerical, legislation recommended 120, 134 

Under unusual conditions, legislation recommended 120 

Postmasters, assistant postmasters, and clerks — 

Comparative statement 135, 136 

Expenditure 73 

Compromise, offers of 92 

Computing machines, one type of 316 

Contract mail service, legislation recommended 170 

Contractors, fines and deductions 57 

Contracts: 

Division of 167 

Examined in office of Assistant Attorney-General 91 

Negotiated by Purchasing Agent 68 

County service, rural delivery 317 

Dead letters: 
Division of — 

Number of pieces handled 68 

Report of 320 

Unclaimed, receipts from 72 

Dead mail matter, revenue from 321 

Deficit 7,72,329 

Estimate for year 1910 7 

Including losses by burglary, fire, and bad debts 74 

Reasons for increase 74, 255, 330 

Depositaries for postal funds 67 

Deputy Postmaster-General, legislation recommended 8 

Detroit, Mich., marine postal service: 

Comparative statement 140 

Registrations by carriers 302 

Disbursements: 

By warrants, comparison with previous year 259 

Money-order offices, statement of 340 

Disbursing postmasters: 

Advances of postal funds 261 

Designated as depositaries for postal fimds 262 

District oi Columbia, envelopes for 99 

Division of — 

City Delivery 144 

Classification : 277 

Contracts 167 

Dead Letters 320 

Equipment 184 



350 INDEX. 

Division of — Continued. Page. 

Finance 253 

Foreign Mails 172 

Inspection 183 

Money Orders 286 

Postmasters' Appointments 141 

Post-Office Inspectors 103 

Railway Adjustments 153 

Railway Mail Service 177 

Redemption 276 

Registered Mails 296 

Rural Delivery 316 

Salaries and Allowances 143 

Stamps 268 

Supplies 320 

Topography 321 

Draftsmen, increased number necessary 322 

Duplicate warrants and checks. ^ 264 

Economies effected in administration 8 

Edison, Prof. Harris, of Binghamton, N. Y., fraudulent scheme * 84 

EflSciency records, post-office employees 29, 121 

Electric and cable car service 41 

By States, in operation June 30, 1908 193 

Chicago tunnel service succeeded by wagon service 41, 161 

Expenditure 73 

Monthly instead of quarterly payments 57 

Statistics 161 

Employees at post-offices: 

Annual leave of thirty days, legislation reconmiended 30, 123, 134 

Average increase in pay 75 

Bonds of 32 

Compensation of 30, 121 

Efficiency records 29, 121 

Hours of service 124 

Supervisory and subclerical, legislation recommended 30 

Envelopes, Government manufacture of 272 

Library of CouCTess and District of Columbia 99 

Registered package, tag, official, and dead letter, expenditure 73 

Stamped . (See Stamped envelopes. ) 
Equipment: 

Division of 184 

Freight or expressage on 166, 316 

Post-office buildings, Department should have voice in selection, legisla- 
tion recommended 25 

Railway Mail Service 178 

Shops 185, 186, 187 

Evening deliveries 28, 132 

Expenditures 7, 72, 256 

Comparative statement — 

By amounts and percentages, since 1892 75 

1836 to 1908 336 

1908 with 1907 254 

Condition of several accounts 334 

Under office of First Assistant Postmaster-General 135 

Under subheads 335 

Excess of, over receipts 72, 74 

In detail 73 

Mail transportation 152 

Increase durinj? twenty years 152 153 

Office of First Assistant Postmaster-General 135 

On account of previous years 72, 74 

Supplies, Post-Office Department and postal service 99, 100 

Under separate heads, statement by quarters 332 

Facing slips, expenditure 73 

False returns of business by postmasters, Ic^slation recommended 263 

Federal buildings, number of post-offices m 143 

Fees to special-delivery messengers, comparative statement 141 



INDEX. 351 

Page. 

Fmance, Division of 253 

Accounting section 67 

Financial statement 72, 253, 327 

Comparison with previous year 254 

Fines and penalties 57 

Revenue from 72 

Fire, burglary, etc., losses by 7 , 24, 255, 291 

First and second class offices: 

Clerk hire, comparative statements 136, 137 

Compensation to assistant postmasters and clerks, comparative statements. . 136 
Miscellaneous items 138 

First Assistant Postmaster-General, report of Ill 

First, second, and third class offices; rent, light, and fuel: 

Comparative statement 138 

Expenditure 73 

Foreign countries, balances due; 

Expenditure 73 

Revenue from 72 

Foreign exchange, money orders 291 

Foreign mails: 

Cases handled by post-office inspectors 105 

Central, South American, and West Indian mails 175 

Contract service •. 50 

Division of 172 

Expenditure '. 73, 172 

Inaemnity for lost roistered mail 303, S04 

International reply coupons 53, 269, 273 

New York Harbor transfer service 176 

Noncontract service 242, 243 

Parcel post 52,175 

Sea post-offices 51, 175 

Ship-subsidy bill 50 

Trans-Atlantic and trans-Pacific mails 175, 239 

Two-cent postage with Great Britain and Ireland 54 

Universal postal union 176 

Volume and frequency 49 

Volume dispatched abroad and amount paid for conveyance 344 

Weight 173 

And compensation 239, 242, 243 

Closed mails originating in foreign countries and amounts paid for con- 
veyance 345 

Dispatched to foreign countries 49 

Form blanks, standardization of 22 

Fourth Assistant Postmaster-General: 
Bureau of— 

Condition of work 315 

Improvements inaugurated in 315 

Increase in higher clerical grades necessar>' 316 

Report of 311 

Fourth-class matter, reduction in rate and increase in weight limit; legislation 
recommended 66 

Fourth-class post-offices: 

Advancement of, to presidential class, legislation reconmiended 133 

Equipment, Department should have voice in selection, legislation rec- 
ommended 25 

Franked matter; estimated weight and postage 256 

Fraud orders 70 

Fraudulent schemes 79 

Free county matter: 

Decrease in weight of 65 

Estimated revenue from, if mailed at regular rates 61 

Free service performed : 

By Post-Office Department 255 

For other executive departments 61 

Freight and expressage on supplies 59, 166, 316 

Expenditure 73 



352 INDEX. 

Funds: **«««- 

Advanced to diBbursing poetmasters - 261 

Depositories for 262 

{See Postal funds.) 

Gold Leaf Consolidated Mines Company, fraudulent scheme 82 

Great Britain and Ireland, two-cent postage with 54 

Horse-hire allowance, comparative statement 140 

Hours of service, post-office employees 124 

Illegal commissions claimed by postmasters, l^islation recommended 263 

Incidental expenses, city delivery service, comparative statement 139 

Indemnity for lost r^:i8tered mail 303, 304 

Immediate payment 306 

Indemnity fund; bonds of postal employees, legislation recommended 119 

Injunction, bills for 70, 88 

Inspection, Division of 183 

Inspectors. (See Post-office inspectors.) 

International reply coupons 53, 273 

Increase in issue of _ 269 

Requisitions filled 269 

Jamestown commemorative stamps 273 

Labor-saving devices 33, 130 

Leased quarters, number of post-offices in 143 

Leave of absence, postal employees, l^:islation recominended 30, 123, 134 

Legislation recommended. (See Recommendations for legislation.) 
Letter carriers. (See Carriers.) 

Liberia, suspension of money-order business with 292 

Library of Congress, envelopes for 99 

Losses: 

Burglary, fire, bad debts, and compromises 7, 74, 255 

Cases investigated by post-office inspectors, registered, ordinary and miscel- 
laneous 103-106 

Claims of postmasters for reimbursement on account of 71, 91 

Money-oraer funds in transit, or by fire, burglary, etc 291 

Registered mails 303 

Indemnity for, immediate payment 61, 305 

Through defalcation, guaranty fund recommended 32 

Lottery enterprises 70, 79 

Mail bags: 

Cord fasteners, label cases, expenditure 73 

Improvements 58, 185 

Itemized statement of number, prices, cost, etc 244 

Number in service 185, 245 

Mail equipment: 

Freignt or expressage 166, 316 

Statistics 57 

Storage 58,186 

Mail-equipment shops 185 

Employees, thirty days annual leave of absence, l^slation recom- 
mended 187,188 

Subrepair shop 185 

Waste material 186 

Mail-lock repair shop 185 

Waste material 186 

Mail locks and keys, expenditure 73, 245 

Mail matter: 

Carried free for other Executive Departments 61 

Diversion of, readjustment of compensation for railroad service 38, 156, 187 

Proportions of, and revenue derived 62 

Volume dispatched abroad and amount paid for conveyance 344 

Mail messenger service 44 

By States 195 

Expenditure 73 

Statistics 165 

Mail service: 

Appropriations, expenditures, and estimates 152 

Automobile 31, 132 

City delivery service 31, 131 



INDEX. ' 353 

Mail service — Continued. Page. 

Comparison with previous year 152 

Contract, legislation recommended 170 

Deductions, fines, and remissions 183, 184 

Electric and cable car 41,161,193 

Expenditure, increase in, during twenty years 152, 153 

Foreign mails 49, 172-176, 239-243 

General statement 151 

In operation, by States and classes 191 

Legislation recommended 46 

Mail messenger 44, 165, 195 

Monthly instead of auarterljr payments 57, 184 

New contracts, number received , examined, and entered 265 

Pneumatic tube 28,42,162 

Raihroad 35,153,187,192 

Railway 55, 177 

Routes, aggregate number, length, anti expenditure 191-198 

Rural delivery 9, 316 

Special office 49,171,197 

Star 46,167,196 

Steamboat 46,49,171,198 

Wagon 44,164,194 

Mails, special weighings, of all classes, report of 166 

Marine service at Detroit, Mich. : 

Comparative statement 140 

Registrations by carriers 302 

Maps, post-route and rural-delivery 322 

Miscellaneous accounts 265 

Miscellaneous and incidental expenses, post-offices 130 

Miscellaneous items, first and second class offices: 

Comparative statement 138 

Expenditure 73 

Miscellaneous receipts, revenue from 72 

Money and money values sent in registered mail 301 

Money-order account: 

Drafts on postmaster at New York 290 

Revenue from 341 

Should not be merged with postal account 252 

Transfers with postal account 290 

Money-order business: 

Domestic and international 287 

Net proceeds 288 

Revenue from 72 

Money-order funds: 

Lost in transit or by fire, burglary, etc 291 

Remittances or deposits of surplus 291 

Money-order offices: 

Bonds of postmasters, **additional condition, " legislation recommended . . 60, 295 

N umber GO, 288 

Receipts and disbursements 340 

Money-order system: 

Assets and liabilities 341 

Blanks, blank books, etc., expenditure 73 

Business with Liberia suspended 292 

Cooperation with registry system 294 

Cost of operating 293 

Domestic and international, comparative statement 287 

Domestic, growth of, since 1864 289 

Extension of system 296 

Foreign exchange 60, 291 

Growth of 59 

International — 

Changes in 292 

New conventions 291 

Number and value of transactions ' 287 

Postal note 294 

Recommendation for improved service 294 

65064— p M G 1908 23 



354 INDEX. 

Muuey-order system — (.'on I iiiued . Pap:o. 

Reserves 290 

Savinp:8 features of 293 

Statement of transactions by States 337 

Money orders: 

Division of 286 

Domestic — 

Issued by States , 337 

Number and value 287 

Warrants issued in payment of invalid 288 

Duplicates and repayments 288 

Incorrectly paid 289 

International, issued by States 337 

More than one year old — 

Expenditure 73 

Revenue from 72 

Number and value 59 

Paid in foreign countries 342 

Paid in the United States 343 

Naval vessels, registered mail on 302 

Navy mail clerks 116 

New Jersey Mineral Company, fraudulent scheme 81 

New Orleans, La., additional division. Railway Mail Service 56 

Newspaper wrappers: 

Box board shipping boxes 271 

Depots of supply 275 

Freight or expressage on 166, 274 

Increase in issue of 269 

Issued by denominations 269 

Revenue from 72 

New York City: 

Pneumatic-tube service 28 

Postal situation in 26, 126 

Postmaster at, draft.s on, on account of money-order service 290 

Post-office — 

Automatic conveyers in 34 

Building, appropriation recommended 26, 128 

Terminals, postal facilities 27, 28, 127, 160 

New York Harbor, transfer service 54, 176 

Obscene and indecent matter 71, 89 

Ocean mail service 50, 174, 175 

Offers of compromise 92 

Opinions of Assistant Attorney-Cieneral 90 

Printing and binding 92 

Pacific railroads; bonded accounts with 255 

Parcel post: 

International 52, 175 

Rural-delivery service 9 

Legislation recommended 11, 318 

Pardon, petitions for 91 

Penalty matter, estimated weight and postage 256 

Philippines, stamped paper furnished 274 

Pittsburg Manhattan Mining Company, fraudulent scheme 83 

Pneumatic tube service 42 

Commission of experts 43 

Expenditure 73 

New York City 28 

Statistics 162 

Porto Rico, mail service 169 

Postage rates: 

Fourth-class matter, legislation recommended 66 

Reduction of, to Great Britain and Ireland 54 

Second-class matter 62 

Simplification of, legislation recommended 284 

Universal Postal Union 53 

Postage stamps . (See Stamps . ) 

Postage, third and fourth class, paid in money 72 



INDEX. 355 

Postal account: ^a«o- 

Should not be merged with money-order account 252 

Transfers with money-order account 290 

Postal cards: 

Backstamping • 31 

Depots of supply 275 

Freight or expressage on 59, 166, 274 

Government should manufacture 59 

Improvement in 273 

Increase in issue of 269 

International reply coupons 53, 273 

Issued by denominations 268 

Manufacture, expenditure 73 

New design, space for message on address side 58, 273 

Requisitions filled 269 

Revenue from 72 

Withdrawn from mails during weighing season 59 

Postal convention with Canada 65, 285 

Postal depositaries 67 

Postal funds: 

Disbursing postmasters — 

Advances to 261 

Designated as depositaries for 262 

Temporary deposits in national banks 264 

Unavailable; legislation recommended 266 

Postal Guide: 

New edition 24 

Superior to Guide under former contract 98 

Postal matters, instructions of school children 22 

Postal note, proposed, legislation recommended GO, 294 

Postal notes, warrants issued in payment of invalid 288 

Postal savings banks: 

Recommendation for legislation 12 

Saving feature of money-order system 293 

Statistics 15 

Postal service: 

Appropriations, expenditures, and balances unexpended 256, 334 

Appropriations, 1909 7 

Financial statements 72, 253, 327 

Growth of 115 

Comparative statement, since 1892 75 

Revenue account 327 

Supplies 67 

Postal stations: 

Changes in 144 

Limitations as to establishment of, legislation recommended 26, 125 

Post cards. (See Postal cards.) 

Postmarking machines 33 

Postmarking, rating and money-order stamps; expenditure 74 

Postmaster-General^ report of 7 

Postmasters: 

Appointment 24 

Appointment and bonding, improvements in departmental records 133 

Appointments, Division of 141 

Assistant, compensation, expenditure 73 

Associations 117 

At money order offices, bonds of, "additional condition," legislation rec- 
ommended 60, 295 

Claims for reimbursement on account of losses 71, 91 

Compensation — 

Comparative statement 135 

Expenditure 73 

Disbursing — 

Advances of postal funds 261 

Designated as depositaries for postal funds 262 

False return of business, illegal commissions claimed, legislation recom- 
mended 263 



356 INDEX. 

Postmasters — Continued. Page. 

Notice to publishers when publications remain undelivered thirty days, 

legislation recommended 32 

Salaries, readjustjient of — 

Changes resulting : 143 

Legislation recommended 24, 117, 133 

Second and third classes, appointment of, vested in Postmaster-General, 

legislation recommended 24, 116 

PostrOflSce Department: 

Buildings for use of, expenditure 73 

Free matter carried for 256 

Post-office employees: 

Compensation 30 

Assistant postmasters, clerks, etc., comparative statements 136 

Supervisory and subclerical, legislation recommended 120, 134 

Under unusual conditions, legislation recommended 120 

Annual leave of thirty days, legislation recommended 30, 123, 134 

Efficiency records 29, 121 

Hours of service 124 

Post-office inspectors: 

Arrests 70, 107 

Assistant chief inspector, legislation recommended 108 

Cases investigated 103 

Collections by 69, 106 

Division headquarters; changes in 108 

Division of — 

Increase in business 108 

Work of 69, 103 

Expenditure 73 

Reports to Assistant Attorney-General 88 

Robberies of post-offices, treatment by 70, 107 

Salaries, legislation recommended 70, 108 

Post-offices: 

Automatic conveyors in 33, 34 

Burglaries 70 

Equipment of smaller 25 

Fourth clasvs, advancement of, to presidential clas.s, legislation recom- 
mended 133 

Miscellaneous and incidental expenses 130 

Names of branches 23 

Number of each class since 1898, comparative statement 142 

Number of offices in federal buildings and leased quarters 143 

Quarters, sites, and equipment. Department should have voice in selec- 
tion, legislation recommended 24, 25, 128 

Signs for/ 23 

Stations 26, 125, 144 

Third and fourth classes, separating service, comparative statement 137 

Third-class clerk hire 125 

Comparative statement 138 

Unusual conditions, comparative statement 137 

Post-route maps 322 

Pound rate and free-of-postage matter 279 

Revenue from 72 

Premium offers, second-class matter, legislation recommended 281 

Printing and binding, opinions of Assistant Attorney-General 92 

Private mail receptacles, legislation recommended 134 

Public creditors, new methods of certifying accounts for payment of 265 

Purchases, under formal contract or in open market 98, 99 

Purchasing agent: 

Contracts negotiated 68, 97 

Duties of, in ordering supplies and keeping accoimts 68 

Report of 95 

Quadrennial readjustment, compensation, railroad transportation and railway 

post-office cars combined . '. 35 

Quarterly statements, receipts and expenditures 331-333 

Quarters for post-offices 24 

Department should have voice in selection, legislation recommended 25, 128 

Number of ofScea in federal and leased buildings 143 



INDEX. 357 

Railroad companies, operations, receipts and expenditures of:. Page- 
Force to compute and quarters for, legislation recommended 157 

Railroad service 35 

Annual cast, 1880 to 1908 157 

By States 192 

Compensation 157 

Monthly instead of quarterly payment*^ 57 

Readjustment — 

On account of diversion of mail, legislation recommended 38, 156, 187 

Economy in 37, 156 

In one section, table showing 199 

Quadrennial 35, 154 

Tabulation at Washington, force and quarters, legislation recom- 
mended 37, 155, 187 

Expenditure 73 

Operation, receipts, and expenditures, tabulation of data, legislation recom- 
mended 40, 187 

Routes, number, length, expenditure, etc 153 

Statistics, 1836 to 1908 238 

Railway Adjustment, Division of 153 

Railway Mail Service: 

Annual leave, legislation recommended 57 

Average increase in pay 74 

Case examination 178 

Casualties 178 

Distribution 178 

Division of 177 

Equipment 1 78 

Establishment of twelfth division . . . , 179 

Estimates and expenditures 179 

Extent of service and force employed 177 

Illegible addresses \ 178 

Improvements 182 

New division — 

Proposed, embracing Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Alaska, legisla- 
tion recommended 57, 182, 188 

With headquarters at New Orleans, La 56 

Registered package jackets 306 

Relief measures, legislation recommended 56, 181, 187 

Reorganization 182 

Retirement of superannuated employees, legislation rocommended 57 

Second-class matter made up by publishers 56 

Service and equipment 55 

Traveling expenses, legislation recommended 57 

Railway post-office cars 1 58 

Annual cost, 1880 to 1908 ' 158 

Expenditure 39, 73 

New regulation as to construction 40 

Railway transportation and railroad ])ost-otli(t* cars coinhiiuMl, annual cost of, 

1880 to 1908 158 

Rate of postage, second-class matter 62 

Amendment to postal convention with Canada 285 

Receipts 7, 72 

Comparative statement — 

By amounts and percentages since 1892 75 

1836 to 1908 336 

With previous year 254 

Estimate for 1910 7 

Excess of expenditures over 72, 74 

Fifty largest post-offices and percentage of increase over previous year 267 

Increase in 7 

Money-order system 72, 340 

Under several heads, statement by quarters : 331 

Recommendations for legislation: 

Antiquated laws as to handling of mail 32 

City delivery service, extension of 31, 131, 134 

Deputy Poetmaster-General 8 

Fourth -class matter, reduction in rate and increase in weight limit 66 



358 . INDEX. 

Kecommendations for legislation — Continued. Page. 

Labor-saving devices 130 

Mail-equipment shops, thirty days leave of absence to employet\>^ 187,188 

Mail service— 

American steamers carrying mail, more liberal treatment of 50 

Contract 46, 170, 171 

Parcel post on rural routes 11, 318, 323 

Postal employees — 

Annual leave of thirty days 30, 123, 134 

Bonds of, indemnity fund ^ . 32, 119 

Compensation 30, 120, 134 

Postal note 60, 294 

Postal savings banks 12 

Postmasters — 

Appointment of second and third class of, vested in Postmaster- 
General 24,116 

Bonds of, at money-order offices, ''additional condition " eliminated. . 60, 295 

False returns of business by 263 

Readjustment of salaries 24, 117, 133 

Post-office inspectors — 

Assistant chief 108 

Salaries 70, 108 

Post-offices- 
Advancement of fourth to presidential class 133 

Branches and stations 26, 125 

Building at New York 26, 128 

Department should have voice in selection of sites, plans, and equip- 
ment of government buildings 25, 128 

Equipment should be provided at government expense 26 

Private mail receptacles 134 

Railroad companies, operation, receipts, and expenditures, force to com- 
pute and quarters for 157 

Railroad service — 

Compensation, readjustment — 

On account of diversion of mail 38, 156, 187 

Tabulation at Washington, force and quarters 155, 187 

Operation, receipts, and expenditures of railroad companies 37,40, 187 

Railway Mail Service — 

New division, embracing Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Alaska. 57, 182, 188 

Relief measures 56, 181, 187 

Retirement of superannuated 57 

Rural delivery service, uniforms 318, 323 

Second-class matter — 

Notice to publishers when publications remain undelivered for thirty 

days 32 

Prohibiting use of premiums in securing subscriptions 281 

Rates of postage, simplification of 284 

Undeliverable, return to publishers 283, 284 

Specially held for delivery mail 32 

Stamped envelopes made of paper supplied by the public 271 

Unavailable funds 266 

Undeliverable mail — 

Improved method of disposing of 321, 323 

Time of holding 134 

Redemption, Division of 276 

Redemption of stamped paper 66 

Registered mails: 

Division of 296 

Losses 303 

Indemnity for 53, 303, 304 

Immediate payment of 61 

Naval vessels 302 

Short-paid, collections of deficiencies 302 

Registered package jackets 306 

Registered package, tag, official and dead-letter envelopes, expenditure 73 

Registrations: 

By city, marine, and rural carriers 301, 302 



INDEX. 359 

Kegistrationfl — Continued. p****-*. 

Free 61, 297, 298 

Extended to all executive departments 298 

Paid 296,297 

R^istry system: 

Cooperation with money-order system 294 

Fees paid 73 

Growth of 297 

Improvements 60, 307 

Inner registered sacks, not regular dispatchcH of 305 

Money and money values sent 301 

Through exchanges, operation of 305 

Volume of business by States 299, 300 

Regulation, screen or other wagon service, statiatics 164 

Relief measures, Railway Mail Service 181 

Legislation recommended 56 

Remittances received during year 260 

Rent, light, and fuel, first, second, and third clafw oflicw: 

Comparative statement 138 

Expenditure 73 

Reply coupons in foreign correspondence 53, 273 

Report of: 

Assistant Attorney-General -. 77 

Auditor 325 

Chief inspector 101 

First Assistant Postmaster-General Ill 

Fourth Assistant Postmaster-General 311 

Postmaster-General 7 

Purchasing agent 95 

Second Assistant Postmaster-General 147 

Third Assistant Postmaster-General 247 

Return cards on let ers 321 

Revenue: 

Account 327 

Dead mail matter 321 

Estimate of, on matter carried free 256 

For other executive departments 61 

In county of publication 61 

In detail 72 

Money-order account 341 

Normal increase in 7 

Per cent of increase over previous year 74 

Reward, claims for 91 

Robberies of post-offices, treatment by post-office inspectors 107 

Rural Delivery, Division of 316 

Rural delivery service: 
Carriers- 
Amount of mail handled by 10 

Average increase in pay 75 

Miles traveled by 9, 10, 317 

Number qm\)loyed 316, 318 

Prohibitca from doing express package busint^tw 318 

Re^trations by 302 

Uniforms, legislation recommende<l 318, 323 

County service 317 

Estimal(»8 of appropriations 319 

Expenditure 10, 73 

Good roads 10, 317 

Growth of, comparative statement 317 

Maps 322 

Parcel post 9, 10 

Legislation recommended 318, 323 

People served; number of 9, 31 7 

Routes in operation, number and length of 9, 316 

Transportation of mail 317 

St. Louis, Mo., site tor poet-office 25 

Salaries and Allowances, Division of 14& 

Aflsistant superintendents, expendituxe '^^ 



360 INDEX. 

Salaries in post-offices: ^a^ 

Effect of new law 121 

Increase in, considered in connection with deficit 74 

Salaries, postmasters, readjustment 24, 143 

Legislation recommended ^4,117, 133 

Savings banks, report of Comptroller of Currency as to deposits 12 

School children, instruction as to postal matters 22 

Screen wagon service 44 

By States 194 

Legislation recommended 46 

Statistics 164 

Sea post-offices 51, 175 

Second and third class postmasters, appointment of, vested in Postmaster- 
General, legislation recommended 24, 116 

Second Assistant Postmaster-General, report of 147 

Second-class matter: 

Abuses 63, 278 

Application for admission of publications 284 

Average hauls 277 

Bulk subscriptions 283 

Canada, amendment to postal convention with 05, 285 

Contributes 64 per cent of total weight of mail, yet earuH but 5 por cent of 

revenue ^. 62 

Cost of handling 278 

New regulations, results accomplished under 64, 279 

Postage collected on matter improperly mailed as 285 

Postage, free of — 

And paid 62 

Cost of handling 256 

Revenue from, if mailed at regular rates 61 

Weight and postage, estimate of 256, 280 

Postage, pound rate — 

NumDer of pounds and postage 279 

Paid in money 72 

Postage — rate on 62 

Simplification of, legislation recommended 284 

Premium offers, etc., legislation recommended 281 

Publishers — 

Campaign of education among 64 

Delivery direct to depots ISl 

Make-up - 56 

Return of undeliverable matter to, legislation recommended 283, 284 

Separation of matter by 180 

Revenue 72 

Decrease in 64 

Weight— 

(.Comparative statement 284 

Decrease in 64 

Results shown by special weighings 277 

Separating service at third and fourth class offices, comparative staLenieiil 137 

Ship subsidy bill 50 

Si.c:ns for post-offices 23 

Sites for post-offices: 

Chicago, 111., St. Louis, Mo., and Washington, I). C 25 

Department should have voice in selection 25 

South American mails 175 

Special-delivery service: 

Comparative statement 145 

Expenditure 73 

Messengers — 

Car fare for, comparative statement 141 

Fees to, comparative statement 141 

Stamps 21,273 

Estimated amount 73 

Special office service 49 

By States 197 

Statistics 171