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5oTH Congress, >HOU8B OF REPRESENTATIVES. (Doc. No. 91, 

1st Session, J \ Part 1. 



VOL. LV. 



NO. 204. 



Consular Reports. 



SEPTEMBER, 1897, 



COiMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, ETC. 



I 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1897. 



UBRARY OF THE 
LELAND 8UNF0RD JR. UNIVERSITY. 

CX..Z177Z 



I 



THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

From and after July i, 1897, the Bureau of Statistics, Depart- 
ment of State, will be known as the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, 
in accordance with the following order of the Secretary of State: 

Department of State, 

Washington^ July i^ iSgi- 
Under the authority conferred upon me by chapter 268, United 
States Statutes at Large, Fifty-fourth Congress, second session, 
under the heading ''Publication of Diplomatic, Consular, and other 
commercial reports," the name of the Bureau of Statistics of this 
Department is hereby changed to the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, 
and the title of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics shall hereafter 
be Chief of the Bureau of Foreign Commerce. 

John Sherman, 
Secretary of State, 

The reasons for the change are set forth in the following report 
from the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics to the Secretary of State: 

Department of State, 

Washington^ June jo^ 18^7. 
Honorable John Sherman, 

Secretary of State. 
Sir: I have the honor to call your attention to the clause in the 
diplomatic and consular appropriation bill for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1898, approved February 20, 1897, which provides for the 
publication of diplomatic, consular, and other commercial reports. 
(See page 590, United States Statutes at Large, Fifty-fourth Congress, 
second session.) The paragraph reads as follows: 

Preparation, printing, publication, and distribution, by the Department of State, 
of the diplomatic, consular, and other commercial reports, twenty-five thousand 
dollars; and of this sum -the Secretary of State is authorized to use not exceeding 
three thousand one hundred and twenty dollars for services of employees in the 
Bureau of Statistics, Department of State, in the work of compiling and distribut- 
ing such reports, and not exceeding two hundred and fifty dollars in the purchase 
of such books, maps, and periodicals as may be necessary to the editing of diplo- 
matic, consular, and other commercial reports: Provided, That all terms of meas- 
ure, weight, and money shall be reduced to, and expressed in, terms of the measure, 
weight, and coin of the United States, as well as in the foreign terms; that each 
issue of consular reports shall not exceed seven thousand copies: And provided 
further, That the Secretary of State be, and he is hereby, authorized to change the 



II THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

name of the Bureau of Statistics to the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, and that 
the foregoing provision shall apply with the same force and effect to the Bureau of 
Foreign Commerce as to the Bureau of Statistics. 

You will perceive that the Secretary of State is authorized by 
the foregoing to change the name of the Bureau of Statistics of this 
Department to the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, and that the pro- 
vision for the maintenance of the Bureau of Statistics is made to 
apply with the same force and effect to the Bureau of Foreign Com- 
merce. As the appropriation becomes available on the ist of July, 
I respectfully ask authority from you to carry the legislation speci- 
fied into effect. The reasons for making the change, as stated to 
Congress and approved by that body, are: 

(i) The confusion arising from the fact that there are three 
bureaus of statistics in the Executive Departments, viz: 

Bureau of Statistics, Department of State; 

Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department; 

Division of Statistics, Department of Agriculture. 

Shortly after taking charge of this Bureau, I became impressed 
with the fact that the general public was unable to discriminate be- 
tween the various bureaus of the same name, and that unnecessary 
labor and delay resulted. 

(2) The name Bureau of Statistics does not properly denote the 
functions of this Bureau, which is exclusively commercial in its char- 
acter, its work being that of collecting, compiling, and distributing 
the commercial reports of our diplomatic and consular officers. 
There is a wide range of statistics with which the Bureau has nothing 
to do, and its designation as a Bureau of Statistics is, therefore, mis- 
leading. The use of the words Bureau of Foreign Commerce, on 
the other hand, besides correctly indicating the character of the 
work, is likely, in my judgment, to impress upon the public mind 
the importance of the commercial functions of this Department. 

In view of these considerations, I submit the draft of an order 

for your signature. 

Respectfully yours, 

Frederic Emory, 

Chiefs Bureau of Statistics. 



CONTENTS. 



I. — Paper Trade in Foreign Countries i 

(New South Wales, i — New Zealand, 4 — Tasmania, 5 — Victoria, 
5 — New Caledonia, 7 — Honduras, 7 — Nicaragua, 9 — Argen- 
tine Republic, 16 — Brazil, 27 — British Guiana, 30 — Chile, 32 — 
Colombia, 33 — Ecuador, 38 — Paraguay, 38 — Peru, 39 — Uru- 
guay, 39 — Venezuela, 42.) 

II. — Telegraphing Without Wires in Germany de Kay 42 

III. — Foreign Commercial Travelers in Europe Stephan 45 

IV. — Trusts in Austria Judd 47 

V. — Produce Exchanges in Germany de Kay 50 

r Ridge ly 53 

VI. — Registration and Collection Laws in Switzerland.. k Gifford 55 

(^ Germain 56 

Vn. — American Petroleum in Germany ; Robertson 58 

VIII. — The Outlook for German Textiles Monaghan 62 

IX. — Forestry in WOrtemberg Hahn 64 

X. — WOrtemberg Vineyards Johnson 66 

XI, — The Hamburg-American Line in 1896 Robertson 67 

XII. — Production ok Pig Iron in Germany Opp 70 

XIII. — Germany and Russia Monaghan 72 

XIV. — Iron Industry in Russia in 1896 Karel 74 

XV. — Russia's Cotton Industries ' Monaghan 76 

XVI. — Export of Russian Flour .' \ 77 

XVII. — Russian Grain in Germany ;. Karel 78 

XVIII. — The Russian Census of 1897 ) 81 

XIX. — Increased Exports from Manchester to the United 

States Grinnell 84 

XX. — Eggs in Germany Johnson 84 

XXI. — Eggs in Northern Germany Crane 86 

XXII. — Eggs in Southern France Hall 87 

XXIII. — American Eggs in Cuba Hyatt 88 

XXIV. — Railway Scheme in the Euphrates Valley.^ Washington 89 

XXV. — New Tariff of Japan Dtm 91 

XXVI. — Drought in Australia Bell loi 

XXVII. — Rice-Hulling Machines in Madagascar Wetter 105 

XXVIII. — China: Trade in Hankow and Mine Regulations in Hu- 
nan Child 107 

\\\ 



IV CONTENTS. 

Pagre. 
XXIX. — Coffee in Nicaragua | . no 

XXX. — Government Certificates in Nicaragua ) in 

XXXI. — Wood in Paraguay Thorn/ 112 

XXXII. — Canadian Banking System Spence 114 

XXXIII. — Wheat Harvest of Germany and Hungary Mason 118 

XXXIV. — Congress of Commerce and Industry at Brussels 119 

XXXV. — Notes (United States Trade with China — Machinery in Mada- 
gascar — Flour in Madagascar — Population and Meteorological 
Conditions of Norfolk Island — Collection of Products of the 
Straits Settlements — The Fruit Season in Jamaica — Sugar In- 
dustry in Jamaica — Ice Machines and Refrigerators in Nica- 
ragua — Paint Trade in San Juan del Norte — Protection of 
Pearl-Oyster Beds in Venezuela — Soundings of the Harbors 
of La Guayra and Puerto Cabello — German Methods of Seek- 
ing Foreign Trade — Germany and South America — The Uni- 
versity of Bonn — Change in Numbering the Hours in Bel- 
gium — Netherlands-Bulgarian Convention — Bicycles in Russia 
(Correction) — Consular Reports Transmitted to Other Depart- 
ments) 122 

XXXVI. — Foreign Reports and Publications (Foreign Commerce of China 
in i8q6 — Japanese Cheap Labor — Gold in Russia — Siberian Gold 
Mines — Details of Roumanian Commerce in 1895 — Use of X 
Rays in Custom-Houses — Commercial Movement of Guatemala 
in 1895 — Commerce of Puerto Rico in 1894 — Industrial Condi- 
tion of Paraguay — German Commerce in the Transvaal — Com- 
merce of the Transvaal in 1896) 138 



REPORTS BY COUNTRIES. 

Argentine Republic: Pajfc. 

Paper trade in i6 

Australia: 

Drought in loi 

Austria: 

Trusts in '. 47 

Belgium: 

Change in numbering the hours in 135 

Congress of commerce and industry at Brussels 119 

Brazil: 

Paper trade in 27 

British Guiana: 

Paper trade in 30 

Bulgaria: 

Convention with Netherlands 136 

Canada: 

Banking system in 114 

Chile: 

Paper trade in 32 

China: 

Trade in Hankow and mine regulations in Hunan 107 

United States trade with 122 

Colombia: 

Paper trade in 33 

Cuba: 

American eggs in 88 

Ecuador: 

Paper trade in 38 

England: 

Increased exports from Manchester to United States 84 

Europe: 

Foreign commercial travelers in 45 

France : 

Eggs in southern 87 

Germany : 

American petroleum in 58 

And Russia 72 

And South America 134 

Eggs in northern 84 

German methods of seeking foreign trade 133 

Outlook for German textiles 62 

Produce exchanges in 50 

Production of pig iron in 70 

Russian grain in 78 

Telegraphing without wires in 42 

The Hamburg-American line in 1896 67 



VI REPORTS BY COUNTRIES. 

Germany — Continued. Paife. 

The University of Bonn 13S 

Wheat harvest of 118 

Honduras : 

Paper trade in 7 

Hungary : 

Wheat harvest of 118 

Jamaica : 

Sugar industry in 127 

The fruit season in 126 

Japan : 

New tariff of gi 

Madagascar : 

Flour in 123 

Machinery in 122 

Rice-hulling machines in 105 

Netherlands: 

Convention with Bulgaria 136 

New Caledonia: 

Paper trade in 7 

New South Wales: 

^aper trade in i 

New Zealand: 

Paper trade in 4 

Nicaragua: 

Coffee in no 

Government certificates in in 

Ice machines and refrigerators in 128 

Paint trade in San Juan del Norte 130 

Paper trade in 9 

Norfolk Island: 

Population and meteorological conditions of 125 

Paraguay: 

Paper trade in 38 

Wood in 112 

Peru : 

Paper trade in 39 

Russia: 

Bicycles in (correction) 136 

Census of 1897 81 

Cotton industries of 76 

Export of flour 77 

Iron industry in 1896 74 

Russia and Germany 72 

South America: 

South America and Germany 134 

Straits Settlements: 

Collection of products of, for Philadelphia Commercial Museum 126 

Switzerland: 

Registration and collection laws in Basel 55 

Registration and collection laws in Geneva 53 

Registration and collection laws in Zurich 56 



REPORTS BY COUNTRIES. VII 

Syria: Page. 

Railway scheme in the Euphrates Valley 89 

Tasmania: 

Paper trade in 5 

United States: 

Increased exports from Manchester to 84 

Uruguay: 

Paper trade in 39 

Venezuela: 

Paper trade in 42 

Protection of pearl-oyster beds in 132 

Soundings of the harbors of La Guayra and Puerto Cabello 132 

Victoria: 

Paper trade in 5 

WOrtemberg: 

Forestry in.« 64 

Vineyards in 66 



F^ull dlrectioxxtt for blxxdixiK the Corxsular Reports are aivexi in No. 

13Z, pase 663. 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 

The following statements show the valuation of foreign coins, as 
given by the Director of the United States Mint and published by the 
Secretary of the Treasury, in compliance with the first section of 
the act of March 3, 1873, viz : ** That the value of foreign coins, as ex- 
pressed in the money of account of the United States, shall be that of 
the pure metal of such coin of standard value," and that ** the value of 
the standard coins in circulation of the various nations of the world 
shall be estimated annually by the Director of the Mint, and be pro- 
claimed on the ist day of January by the Secretary of the Treasury." 

In compliance with the foregoing provisions of law, annual state- 
ments were issued by the Treasury Department, beginning with that 
issued on January i, 1874, and ending with that issued on January 
I, 1890. Since that date, in compliance with the act of October i, 
1890, these valuation statements have been issued quarterly, begin- 
ning with the statement issued on January i, 1891. 

These estimates **are to be taken (by customs officers) in com- 
puting the value of all foreign merchandise made out in any of said 
currencies, imported into the United States." 

The following statements, running from January i, 1874, to April 
I, 1897, have been prepared to assist in computing the proper values 
in American money of the trade, prices, values, wages, etc., of and in 
foreign countries, as given in consular and other reports. The series 
of years are given so that computations may be made for each year in 
the proper money values of such year. In hurried computations, the 
reductions of foreign currencies into American currency, no matter for 
how many years, are too often made on the bases of latest valuations. 
When it is taken into account that the ruble of Russia, for instance, 
has fluctuated from 77.17 cents in 1874 to 37.4 cents in April, 1897, 
such computations are wholly misleading. All computations of values, 
trade, wages, prices, etc., of and in the **fluctuating-currency coun- 
tries" should be made in the values of their currencies in each year 
up to and including 1890, and in the quarterly valuations thereafter. 

To meet typographical requirements, the quotations for the years 
1876, 1877, 1879, 1881, and 1882 are omitted, these years being se- 
lected as showing the least fluctuations when compared with years 
immediately preceding and following. 

To save unnecessary repetition, the estimates of valuations are 
divided into three classes, viz, (A) countries with fixed currencies, 
(B) countries with fluctuating currencies, and (C) quarterly valua- 
tions of fluctuating currencies, 
vm 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 



IX 



A. — Countries with fixed currencies. 

The following official (United States Treasury) valuations of foreig^n coins do not include '* rates of 
exchange." 



Countries. 



Standard. 



Monetary unit. | V|'« j^"; 



Coins. 



Argentine Republic*. I Gold and silver..! Peso. 



Austria-Hungaryt [ Gold 



I 



Belgium | Gold and silver..' 



Brazil. 



Gold .. 
Ao. 



British North Amer- 
ica (except New- | 
foundland). 

Chile i do 



Crown.. 
Franc... 
Milreis. 
Dollar.. 



I 



Peso. 



Costa Rica | do , 

Cuba ! Gold and silver. 



Colon. 



.do 



|o.9<5,5 



.ao,3 



»9.3 



•54.6 



i.oo 



Gold— Argentine ($4.82,4) and 
>^ Argentine; silver— peso and 
divisions. 

Gold— 20 crowns ($4.05,2) and 
10 crowns. 

Gold — 10 and 20 franc pieces; 
silver— 5 francs. 

Gold— 5, 10, and 20 milreis; sil- 
ver— 5^, 1, and 2 milreis. 



Denmark \ Gold .. 

Egypt I do 



I 
Finland 1 do 

I 
France 1 Gold and silver. 

Germany 1 Gold 

Great Britain 1 do 



Crown 

Pound (xoo pias- 
ters;. 

Mark 

Franc 



Mark 

Pound sterling. 



Greece 1 Gold and silver..' Drachma. 



Haiti I do 

Italy I .do 



Gourde. 
Lira 



Japan $ Gold , 1 

Liberia Ao ^ 

Netherlands^ Gold and silver.. j 



Yen 

Dollar. 
Flonn . 



Newfoundland Gold .. 

Portugal do 

Russia J Ao 



Dollar.. 
Milreis. 
Ruble... 



Spain Gold and silver..! Peseta. 



Sweden and Norway, j Gold 

Switzerland | Gold and silver. 



Crown. 
Franc. 



Piaster. 



Turkey ' CtoXA 

i 
Venezuela 1 Gold and silver..! Bolivar. 



• 361 5 Gold — escudo ($1.25), doubloon 
I (f3-65K and condor ($7.30); 
I Sliver — peso and divisions. 

Gold — 2, 5, 10, and 20 colons; sil- 
ver — 3, io,25,and socentisimos. 

Gold — doubloon ($5.01,7); sil- 
ver—peso. 

Gold— 10 and 20 crowns. 

Gold — 10, 20, 50, and 100 pias- 
ters; silver— 1, 2, 10, and 20 
piasters. 

Gold — 10 and 20 marks ($1.93 
and $3.85,q). 

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 
francs; silver — 5 francs. 

Gold — 5, 10, and 20 marks. 

Gold — sovereien (pound ster- 
ling) and half sovereign. 

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and loodrach- 
mas; silver— 5 drachmas. 

Silver— gourde. 

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 lire; 
silver — 5 lire. 

Gold — I, 2, 5, 10, and 20 yen. 

Gold— 10 florins; silver— V^, 1, 
and a'X florins. 

Gold — $2 ($2.02,7). 

Gold — I, 2, 5, and 10 milreis. 

Gold— imperial ($7,718) and \4 
imperial ($3.80); silver— >i^, i.^, 
and I ruble. 

Gold— 25 pesetas; silver— s pese- 
tas. 

Gold— 10 and 20 crowns. 

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 
francs; silver — 5 francs. 

Gold — 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 
piasters. 

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 boli- 
vars; silver— 5 bolivars. 



• 46.5 
.92,6 

.26,8 
4-94.3 

•»9.3 
.»9.3 

.23.8 
4.86,6H 

•I9»3 

.96,5 
■19.3 

•99.7 
1.00 
.40,2 

1.01,4 
1.08 
■77. a 

•»9.3 



.26 


3 


.19 


3 1 


.04 


4 


.19 


3 ' 



* In 1874 and 1875, the gold standard prevailed in the Argentine Republic. 

+ On reference to the table of *' fluctuating currencies," it will be seen that Austria had the silver 
standard up to and including the quarter ended July i, 1892. The next quarter (October i) inaugu- 
rated the gold standard (see note under table of "fluctuating currencies "). 

X For particulars as to the change from silver to the gold standard, see Consvlak Reports No. 201, 

p. »59- 

{The Netherlands florin, as will be seen in the "fluctuating" table, became flxed in value (40.2 
cents) in 1880. 

I Russia: Gold the nominal standard; silver the actual standard.— A'r?/^ by the United States Treas- 
mry. See, also, review of Russian industries and commerce by the Russian Minister of Finance ni 
••Review of the world's commerce," Commercial Relations of the United States for 1895-^6, p. 230. 



X 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 



B. — Countries with fluctuating currencies y iS74-jSgo. 



Countries. 



Standard. 



Monetary unit 



Value in terms of the United States gold dollar 
on January i — 



Austria- Hungary*.! Silver. 
Ek>livia ^o. 



Central America.... .do. 

China I Silver. 

Colombia .do. 

Ecuador ' .do. 

Egyptt Gold- 



India. 



Japan 

Mexico 

Netherlands^. 



Silver 

Gold , 

Silver f 

.do 

Gold and 
Silver. 

Peru Silver 

Russia .do 

Tripoli .do 




Florin ,|o.47.6 $0.45,3 

Dollar until 
2890; bolivi- 
ano there- 
after. 

Peso— j .96,5 

Haikwan tael.. 1.61 

Peso 96,5 

.do 96,5 

Pound (100 
piasters). 

Rupee 

Yen 

Dollar 
Florin 

Sol 

Ruble 

Mahbub of 20 
piasters. 



Countries. 



Standard. 



Austria-Hungary*. Silver. 
Bolivia i do. 



Central America. 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Egyptt 



India.... 

Japan... 

Mexico. 
Peru 



Silver. 
Gold... 
Silver. 

Ao. 

Silver. 
Russia do. 



.do. 

.do. 

.do. 

Gold... 



I Value in terms of the United States gold dollar 
I on Janury i — 



Monetary unit. 



1885. 



1886. 



Florin $0.39.3 

Dollar until .79.S 
1880; bolivi 
ano there 
after. 

Peso 

.do ! .79,5 

.do 79,5 

Pound (100 4.90 
piasters). 1 

Rupee 37,8 



$o.37»» 
.75,1 



1887. 



$0.35.9 
■72,7 



• 75.1 
.75.1 
4,90 

.35.7 



Yen. 



Tripoli. 



..do. 



Dollar 

Sol 

Ruble 

Mahbub of 20 
piasters. 



.85,8 


.81 1 


1 .86,4 


.81,6 


•79.5 


.75. » 


.63,6 


.60,1 


.71.7 


.67.7 



• 72.7 
■ 72,7 

4-94.3 

•34,6 
•99.7 
.78.4 
.79 

•72,7 
.58,2 
.65,6 



1888. 


1889. 


I0.34.5 


$0.33.6 


.69,9 


.68 


.69,9 


.68 


•69,9 


.68 


.69,9 


.68 


4.94.3 


4.94.3 


.32,2 


•32,3 


.99.7 


•99.7 


•75.3 


.73.4 


.75.9 


.73.9 


.69,9 


.68 


.55.9 


.54.4 


.63 


.61,4 



1890. 

$0.42 

•85 



•85 
•85 
•85 

4.94.3 
•40.4 

•99.7 

•91.7 

•92,3 

•85 

.68 

.76,7 



*The silver standard prevailed in Austria-Hungary up to 189a. The law of August 2 of that year 
fsee Consular Reports, No. 147, p. 623) established the gold standard. 
tThe Egyptian pound became fixed in value at $4.94,3 in 1887. 
$The Netherlands florin fluctuated up to the year z88o, when it became fixed at 40.2 cents. 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 



XI 



C. — Quarterly valuations of fluctuating currencies. 



Countries. 



Monetary unit. 



1894. 



Jan. I. 



April I.I July 1. ! Oct. i. 



Bolivia 

Central Amer- 
ica.* 



Silver boliviano. $0.51,6 .$0.46,5 $0.45,7 $0.46,4 
Silver peso 1 .51,6 .46,5 ; .45,7 , .46,4 



'895. 



Jan. I. April z. 



n 



Chinat.... 



Colombia . 
Ecuador... 

India 

JapanJ 

Mexico 

Pcr&ia 

Peru 

Russia §.... 
Tripoli 



Shanghai tael.... 
Haikwan tael.... 

Tientsin tael 

Chef 00 uel 

Silver peso. 

.do 

Silver rupee 

Silver yen 

Silver dollar 

Silver kran 

Silver sol 

Silver ruble 

Silver mahbub... 



.76,a 
•84,9 



.68,6 I 
.76,5 I 



.67,6 
•75,3 



•51.6 
.51.6 
.24,5 
•55,6 
.56 



.46,5 

• 46,5 
.22,1 

• 50,1 
•50,5 



•45,7 
•45,7 
.21,7 

•49,3 
■49.7 



.68,5 
•76,3 
■72.7 



$045. 5 
•45,5 



•7»,7 


•46,4 


•46,4 


.22 


.50 


.50,4 



$0.44,1 $0.48,6 
.48,6 



July X. 



•44. » 



.67,3 


.65,2 


•74,9 


75,6 


•71,4 


.69,2 


.70,4 


.68,3 


•45,5 


•44,1 


.45,5 


•44,1 


.21,6 


.21 


•49,1 


•47,6 


•49.5 


•47,9 



.51,6 
•41,3 

•46,5 ! 



•46.5 
•37,-« 
•4».9 



■45,7 
.36,6 

•41,3 



• 46,4 
.37,' 
.41,8 



•45,5 
•36,4 
.41,1 



•44»« 
•35,3 
■39,8 



Oct. 1. 



.7X.8 

.80 

.76,1 

•75, » 
.48,6 
.48,6 

• 23,1 
•52,4 
.52,8 
.08,9 
.48.6 

.38,9 
•43.8 



$0.48,6 
•48.6 

.71,8 

.80 

.76,2 

•75,2 
•48,6 

• 48,6 
.23, t 
•53,4 
.52,8 
.09 

• 48.6 

•38,9 
•43,8 



1896. 



1897. 



Countries. 



Bolivia 

Central America*. 



Monetary unit. 



Silver boliviano. $0.49,1 

Silver p>eso •49.1 

Amoy tael 

Canton tael 




China t. 



Colombia. 
Ecuador... 



Chef 00 tael 

Chinkiang tael. 

Fuchau tael 

Haikwan tael.... 

Hankow tael 

Ningpo tael , 

Niuchwang tael. 
Shanghai tael... . 

Swatow tael 

Takao uel 

Tientsin tael 

Silver peso 

.do 



75,9 



$o^49.3 l$o^49,7 
•49,3 I ^49, 7 



I 



•7<5,3 I ■76,9 



.80,8 



.81,2 ! .81,9 



.72,5 I -72,9 



73,5 



India \ Silver rupee. 



Silver yen 

Silver dollar. 



Japant 

Mexico 

Persia Silver kran 

Peru.^ Silver sol... 

Russia! Silver ruble 



Tripoli. 



Silver mahbub. 



.76,9 

•49,' 
•49,1 
•23 
.52 

■53 
.09 

•49 
■39 
•44 



•77,3 
•49,3 
•49,3 
■23.4 
.53.2 
■53.6 
.09,1 

.49.3 
•39,5 
•44,5 



.78 
•49,7 
■49,7 
• 23,6 

•53,2 

•54 
.09,2 

•49.7 
.39.8 

•44.9 



$0.49 
49 



79,3 
79 
75,8 
77,4 

73,3 
80,6 

74,2 

76,2 

74,3 

72,4 

73,2 

79,8 

76,8 

49 

49 

23.3 
52.8 

53.2 

09 

49 

39,2 

44,2 



$o-47,4 
•47,4 
•76,7 
• 76,5 
•73,3 

•74,9 
.70,9 

.78 

■71,7 

•73,7 

•7»,9 

.70 

.70,8 

•77,2 

•74,3 

•47,4 

•47,4 

•22,5 

■ 5J,i 
.51,5 
.08,7 

•47,4 
•37,9 



$0.46,8 

• 46,5 

•75,7 

•75,5 

•72,4 

•73,9 
.70 

•77 

.70,8 

.72,8 

•71 
.69,1 

•69,9 
.76,2 

•73,4 
.46,8 
.46,8 
.22,2 

.50,5 
.50,8 
.08,6 

• 46,8 
•37,4 



•©•44,3 
•44.3 
•7', 7 
•71,5 
.68,6 
.70 
.66,3 

•73.« 

.67,1 

.68,9 
•67,2 

•65,5 
.66,2 

•72,2 

•69,5 

•44.3 

• 44,3 
.21,1 



• 48.2 
.08,2 
•44, .1 



I 



* Costa Rica and British Honduras have the gold standard (see table showing countries with 
fixed currencies). 

t China (silver). The haikwan uel is the customs uel. The " British dollar " has the same legal 
value as the Mexican dollar in Hongkong, the Straits Settlements, and Labuan. 

t Japan has adopted the gold standard (see Consular Reports No. aoi, p. 259). 

{The Treasury Department, in its estimates of foreign values for the quarter ended July x, 1897, 
gives Russia the gold sundard, and in a footnote says: ''Gold is the nominal sundard, silver practi- 
cally the standard." To appreciate the complicated suteof Russian currency, see Co.nsular Rb- 
K>RTS No. x88, pp. 34-401 and Special Consular Reporu, Money and Prices in Foreign Countries, part 
2, pp. 38i>400. 



I 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



The following table embraces only such weights and measures as 
are given from time to time in Consular Reports and in Commer- 
cial Relations: 

Foreign weights and measures y "with American equivalents. 



Denominations. 



Where used. 



Almude 

Ardeb 

Are 

Arobe 

Arratel or libra. 

Arroba (dry) 

Do 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Arroba (liquid).... 

Arshine 

Arshine (square). 

Artel 

Baril 

Barrel 

Do 

Bcrkoveis 

Bong^kal 

Bouw 

Bu 

Butt (wine) 

Caffiso 

Candy 

Do 



Portugal... 

Egypt 

Metric 

Paraguay 

Portugal 

Argentine Republic 

Brazil 

Cuba 

Portugal 

Spain 

Venezuela 

Cuba, Spain, and Venezuela 

Russia 

.do 

Morocco 

Argentine Republic and Mexico. 

Malta (customs) 

Spain (raisins) 

Russia.- 

India 

Sumatra 

Japan 

Spain 

Malta 

India (Bombay) 

India (Madras) 



Cantar i Morocco. 

Do 

Do 

Cantaro (cantar) 

Carga 

Catty 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Centaro 

Centner 

Do 



Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Syria (Damascus) 

Turkey 

Malta 

Mexico and Salvador 

China 

Japan 

Java, Siam, and Malacca. 

Sumatra 

Central America 

Bremen and Brunswick... 

Darmstadt. 

Denmark and Norway 

Nuremberg 

Prussia 

Sweden 



Do j Vienna 

Do I Zollverein 

Do Double or metric. 

Chih China 

Coyan Sarawak. 



American equivalents. 



Do. 



4.422 gallons. 
7.6907 bushels. 
0.02471 acre. 
25 pounds. 

1. 01 1 pounds. 
2S-3»7S pounds. 
32.38 pounds. 
25.3664 pounds. 
32.38 pounds. 
25 . 36 pounds. 
25.4024 pounds. 
4.263 gallons. 
28 inches. 

5.44 square feet. 

1. 12 pounds. 
20.0787 gallons. 
1 1. 4 gallons. 
100 pounds. 
361. 12 pounds. 
832 grains. 

7,096.5 square meters. 

0.1 inch. 

140 gallons. 

5.4 gallons. 

529 pounds. 

500 pounds. 

113 pounds. 

575 pounds. 

124.7036 pounds. 

175 pounds. 

300 pounds. 

I -333'^ (»/5) pounds. 
1. 31 pounds. 
1.35 pounds. 
2.12 pounds. 
4.2631 gallons. 
117.5 pounds. 
110.24 pounds. 
110. II pounds. 

112.43 pounds. 

113.44 pounds. 
93.7 pounds. 
123.5 pounds. 
110.24 pounds. 
220.46 pounds. 
14 inches. 
3,098 pounds. 



Siam (Koyan) 2,667 pounds 



XII 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



XIII 



Foreign weights and measures, with American equivalents — Continued. 



Denominations. 



Where used. 



American equivalents. 



Cuadra. 

Dou.. 

Do 

Do.. 

Cubic meter 

Cwt. (hundredweight) 

Dessiatine 

Do 

Drachme 

Dun 

Egyptian weights and measures. 
Fanega (dry), 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Argentine Republic 

Paraguay 

Paraguay (square) 

Uruguay 

Metric 

British 

Russia , 

Spain. , 

Greece 

Japan , 

{See CoNSiLAR Rekokts No. 144.) 

Central America , 

Chile.. 

Cuba 

Mexico 

Morocco 



Do 

Do !. 

Do 

Fanega (liquid). 

Feddan 

Frail (raisins).... 
Frasco... 

Do 

Fuder 

Garnice 

Gram 

Hectare 

Hectoliter: 

Dry 

Liquid 



Uruguay (double).... 

Uruguay (single) 

Venezuela 

Spain 

Egypt 

Spain. 

Argentine Republic. 

Mexico 

Luxemburg 

Russian Poland 

Metric 

.do 



Joch 

Ken 

Kilogram (kilo). 

Kilometer 

Klafter 

Kou 

Korree 

Last 



.do 

.do 

Austria-Hungary. 

Japan 

Metric 

.do 

Russia 

Japan 



Do. 
Do. 



Do 

Do 

Do 

League (land). 
Li 



Libra (pound). 
Do 



Belgium and Holland. 

England (dry malt) 

Germany 



Prussia. 



4.2 acres. 
78.9 yards. 
8.077 square feet. 
Nearly 2 acres. 
35.3 cubic feel. 
112 pounds. 
2.6997 acres. 
1.599 bushels. 
Half ounce. 

I inch. 

1.5745 bushels. 

2.575 bushels. 

1.599 bushels. 

1.54728 bushels. 

Strike fanega, 70 lbs.; 
full fancKa, 118 lbs. 

7.776 bushels. 

3.888 bushels. 

z. 599 bushels. 

16 gallons. 

1.03 acres. 
50 pounds. 
2.5096 quarts. 
2.5 quarts. 
264.17 gallons. 
0.88 gallon. 
15-432 grains. 
2.471 acres. 

2.838 bushels. 
26.417 gallons. 
1.422 acres. 
4 yards. 
2.2046 pounds. 
0.621376 mile. 
216 cubic feet. 
5.13 bushels. 



Russia 3.5 bushels. 



85.134 bushels. 

82.52 bushels. 

2 metric tons 
pounds). 

112.29 bushels. 



(4,480 



Russian Poland 11 h bushels. 



4,760 pounds. 
4,633 acres. 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Liter 

Livre (pound). 

Do._ 



Spain (salt) 

Paraguay 

China j 2,115 feel. 

Castilian I 7,100 grains (troy). 

Argentine Republic 1.0127 pounds. 

Central America 1-043 pounds. 

Chile 1. 014 pounds. 

Cuba 1. 0161 pounds. 

Mexica i. 01465 pounds. 



Peru 

Portugal 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Metric ' 1.0567 quarts. 

Greece i.i pounds. 

Guiana 1.0791 pounds 



1. 0143 pounds. 
1. 01 1 pounds. 
1. 0143 pounds. 
1.0161 pounds. 



XIV 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Foreign weights and measures, ivith American equivalents — Continued. 



Denominations. 



Load. 



Manzana. 

Marc 

Maund.... 

Meter 

Mil 



Where used. 



American equivalents. 



England (timber). 



Do.. 
Morgen 
Oke 

Do.. 

Do.. 

Do.. 

Do.. 

Pic 

Picul 

Do.. 

Do.. 

Do.. 

Do.. 



Pie. 



Do 



Pik 

Pood 

Pund (pound) 

Quarter 

Do 

Quintal 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Rottle 

Do 

Sagen 

Salm 

Se 

Seer 

Shaku 

Sho 

Standard (St. Petersburg). 

Stone 

Sucrte 



Costa Rica 

Bolivia 

India 

Metric 

Denmark 

Denmark (geographical) 

Prussia 

Egypt 

Greece 

Hungary 

Turkey 

Hungary and Wallachia 

Egypt 

Borneo and Celebes 

China, Japan, and Sumatra 

Java 

Philippine Islands (hemp) 

Philippine Islands (sugar) 

Argentine Republic 

Castile 

Turkey 

Russia 

Denmark and Sweden 

Great Britain 

London (coal) 

Argentine Republic 

Brazil 

Castile, Chile, Mexico, and Peru. 

Greece 

Newfoundland (tish) 

Paraguay , 

Syria 

Metric 

Palestine 

Syria 

Russia 

Malta 

Japan , 

India , 

Japan , 

do 

Lumber measure 

British 

Uruguay 



Tael 

Tan 

To 

Ton 

Tonde (cereals). 

Tondeland 

Tsubo 

Tsun 

Tunna 

Tunnland 

Vara 

Do 

Do 



Cochin China... 

Japan 

.do 

Space measure. 

Denmark 

.do 

Japan 

China 

Sweden 

do 



Argentine Republic. 

Castile 

Central America 



Square, 50 cubic feet; 
unhewn, 40 cubic feet; 
inch planks, 600 super- 
ficial feet. 

i{ acres. 

0.507 pound. 

82I pounds. 

39.37 inches. 

4.68 miles. 

4.61 miles. 

0.63 acre. 

2.722$ pounds. 

2.84 pounds. 

3.0817 pounds. 

2.85418 pounds. 

2.5 pints. 
2iJ^ inches. 
135.64 pounds. 
133'^ pounds. 

135.1 pounds. 

139.45 pounds. 
140 pounds. 
0.9478 foot. 
0.91407 foot. 
27.9 inches. 
36.112 pounds. 
1. 102 pounds. 
8.252 bushels. 
36 bushels. 
101.42 pounds. 
130.06 pounds. 
101.61 pounds. 

123.2 pounds. 
112 pounds. 
100 pounds. 
125 pounds. 

220.46 pounds. 

6 pounds. 
SH pounds. 

7 feet. 

49t:> pounds. 

3.6 feel. 

1 pound ij ounces. 
10 inches. 

1.6 quarts. 

165 cubic feet. 

14 pounds. 

2,700 cuadras (see cua- 
dra). 

59075 grains <H"oy). 
0.25 acre. 

2 pecks. 

40 cubic feet. 
3.94783 bushels. 
1.36 acres. 
6 feet square. 
1.41 inches. 
4.5 bushels. 
1.22 acres. 
34.1208 inches. 
0.9111X7 yard. 
38.874 inches. 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. XV 

Foreign weights and measures^ with American equivalents — Continued. 



Denominations. Where used. 



American equivalents. 



Vara | Chile and Peru ' 33.367 inches. 

Do ' Cuba 33.384 inches. 

Do j Cura9ao 33.375 inches. 

Do Mexico 33 inches. 

I I 

Do I Paraguay 34 inches. 

Do , Venezuela ' 33.384 inches. 

Vedro j Russia ' a.707 gallons. 

Vcrgeca ^ Isle of Jersey 71. z square rods, 

Versi j Russia ' 0.663 mile. 

Vlocka Russian Poland ' 41.98 acres. 



METRIC WKKJHTS AND MKASIRKS. 

Metric weights. 

Milligram (^Virff ^^^^ equals 0.0154 grain. 

Centigram (jjjf gram) equals 0.1543 grain. 

Decigram {^ gram) equals 1.5432 grains. 

Gram equals 15.432 grains. 

Decagram (10 grams) equals 0.3527 ounce. 

Hectogram (100 grams) equals 3.5274 ounces. 

Kilogram (1,000 grams) equals 2.2046 pounds. 

Myriagram (10,000 grams) equals 22.046 pounds. 

Quintal (100 000 grams) equals 220.46 pounds. 

Millier or tonnea — ton (1,000,000 grams) equals 2,204.6 pounds. 

Metric dry measures. 

Milliliter (y^9 ^ter) equals 0.061 cubic inch. 
Centiliter (jj^ liter) equals 0.6102 cubic inch. 
Deciliter (y\f liter) equals 6.1022 cubic inches. 
Liter equals 0.908 quart. 
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 9.08 quarts. 
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 2.838 bushels. 
Kiloliter (r,ooo liters) equals 1.308 cubic yards. 

Metric liquid measures. 

Milliliter {^^^^ liter) equals 0.0388 fluid ounce. 

Centiliter (yju liter) equals 0.338 fluid ounce. 

Deciliter {^ liter) equals 0.845 gill. 

Liter equals 1.0567 quarts. 

Decaliter (10 liters) equals 2.6418 gallons. 

Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 26.418 gallons. 

Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 264.18 gallons. 

Metric measures of length. 

Millimeter (iVjrir meter) equals 0.0394 inch. 
Centimeter (xijj meter) equals 0.3937 inch. 
Decimeter (^u meter) equals 3.937 inches. 
Meter equals 39' 37 inches. 



XVI FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

Decameter (lo meters) equals 393.7 inches. 

Hectometer (100 meters) equals 328 feet i inch. 

Kilometer (1,000 meters) equals 0.62137 mile (3,280 feet 10 inches). 

Myriameter (10,000 meters) equals 6.2137 miles. 

Metric surface measures. 

Centare (i square meter) equals 1,550 square inches. 
Are (100 square meters) equals 119. 6 square yards. 
Hectare (10,000 square meters) equals 2.471 acres. 



I 



Consular Reports. 



COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, ETC. 



Vol. LV. 

NOS, 204, 20s, 206, AND 207. 

SEPTEMBER. OCTOBER, NOVEMBER, AND DECEMBER, 




WASHINGTON: 
GOVERNMENT PRINTING 
1897. 



CONSULAR REPORT'S. 



COMMERCE. MANUFACTURES, ETC. 



Vol. LV. SEPTEMBER, 1897. No. 204. 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

At the request of paper manufacturers of Massachusetts, the 
Department of State transmitted a circular, dated January 6, 1897, 
to the consular officers of the United States in Australasia and Cen- 
tral and South America directing them to make the necessary inves- 
tigations into the paper trade in their respective districts and report 
the results of such investigations at their earliest convenience. The 
particular points to be covered by their investigations and reports 
were the following: 

(i) The kinds of fine writing paper in use in your respective districts (ledger, 
bonds, linen laid and wove, fine, superfine, extra superfine — all flat, not folded). 

(2) Average price of each kind per pound. 

(3) Terms of sale. 

(4) Terms of payment. 

(5) Principal firms handling paper. 

(6) Manner of packing and size and weight of packages which give the most 
satisfaction, and whether any improvements in packing can be suggested. 

(7) Approximate quantity of papers used. 

The following reports have been received in answer to the fore- 
going circular. 

AUSTRALASIA. 

« 

NEW SOUTH WALES. 

The colony of New South Wales has an educated and reading 

population of about 1,225,000. In the Australasian colonies, there 

are eight hundred newspapers published, besides a considerable 

yearly output of books, magazines, and miscellaneous periodicals. 

No. 204 1. 1 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



Sydney is an important distributing point for much of continental 
Australia. 

Imports, — The following table was prepared by the Government 
statistician of New South Wales:* 

Value of imports of paper ^ books y ete.y into New South Wales for the year ended 

December j/, i8g6. 



Bags. 



Whence imported. 



iLustralasia : 

Victoria 

Queensland ... 

South Austra- 
lia 

Western Aus- 
tralia 

Tasmania 

New Zealand- 
United King^dom.. 
Canada 



Plain. 



Printed. 



$2,681 
97 

6.3>3 



$282 



Hongkong^. 
India 



28,353 



1,784 



Ceylon 

Cape Colony 

Belgium. 

China 

France 

Germany 

luly 

Japan 

Netherlands 

Philippine Islands 

Sweden 

United States 



68 



Brown 
and 

wrap- 
ping. 



$4,306 
380 

2,828 

IS 
19 



Circulars 
and ad- 
vertising 
matter. 



Printing 

and news 

pap>er. 



$14,486 
262 

1.973 



$13,902 
73 

3.856 



98,262 
204 



83 
816 

64,701 

1,205 



Waste. 



♦53 



Writing, 
note, en- 
velopes, 

and 
fancy. 



Books 

and 

periodic- 

als. 



$19,493 ; $134,768 
loa 6,673 



83 
322,609 

20,869 



316 



5,667 



2,863 
33.1" 



Total. 



589 

24 

1.458 

467 

2,756 



2,148 



1,448 



34 

49 

144.313 
146 



26,988 



4.130 



87 

209 

6,600 



36,480 

53 
3.669 

365 



569 
68 



914 
413 



437 
164,172 



".494 

X9' 
1,978 

8,923 
466,244 

345 

15 

X07 

97 



1X2- 



6,206 

6,444 



zoz 



1,225 



32,74* 



64,500 



2,066 ! 151,785 j 95,716 568,716 



369 I 168.774 



676,269 



The proportion of fine writing paper, such as ledger, bonds, linen 
laid and wove, fine, superfine, etc., unfolded, to the whole consump- 
tion is probably less than in the United States, but is large, con- 
sidering population. The varieties, as given by the most extensive 
wholesale dealers in Sydney, are fine and superfine, cream laid and 
wove, blue laid and blue wove, azure and yellow laid and wove, 
and azure laid account bank paper, in reams of 480 sheets, flat, not 
folded. A well-informed gentleman from New York, who has been in 
the Australasian trade eight years, tells me these are usually of the 
cheaper grades. 

Prices. — The prices, free on board at London, are: Ledger, 10 to 
15 cents per pound; bonds, 12 cents; and tub-sized writing, 4 to 5 
cents. 

* The fibres in the table were reduced from pounds sterling to dollars in the Bureau of Foreign. 
Commerce, Department of State. 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 3 

Terms. — Terms of sale, free on board at London or other port, and 
terms of payment, draft at sixty or ninety days' on Australia, though 
leading houses here make payment suited to demands of seller. 

Dealers. — The principal dealers in Sydney are Alex. Cowan & Sons, 
Edwards, Dunlop & Co., John Sands, James Spicer & Sons, Gordon 
& Gotch, and Sands & McDougal. 

Packing. — Greater care in packing is necessary on the part of 
American exporters. A leading Sydney dealer, in a note to me, 
says: 

All the papers* unless otherwise ordered, are packed in sheets of 480 to the ream, 
in good, strong wrappers, tied with tape, the wrapper covering the ends. All Brit- 
ish papers are excellently packed, and this goes a long way to help the sale, as 
these papers receive a lot of handling before being used. The cases or bales (former 
preferred) should not weigh more than 4 or 4^ cwts.*. A great fault with Ameri- 
can printing papers we have seen and handled is the flimsy wrappers, just kept 
together with wax, the consequence being that when the reams are lifted out of the 
case the wrappers fall to pieces. 

Another large dealer tells me the consumers prefer paper packed 
in cases. 

American trade. — Mr. Parsons, an American manufacturer who has 
done business in Sydney for eight years, says: 

The sizes used in Australia are all different to those used in the United States, 
and in sending samples out it is very desirable to have sheets cut to the size and 
weights of paper used here. The large buyers in Australia generally have their 
branch or parent house in London, so are very hard to start business with; but 
once started, it continues so long as they are protected against the fluctuations of 
the market. 

Already some of our best paper manufacturers, including the 
Everett Pulp and Paper Company, Washington, and W. H. Parsons 
& Co., New York, are well represented in Sydney, Melbourne, and 
in the cities of New Zealand. 

With several dealers, there is a prejudice in favor of Scottish 
paper, but the merits, backed by excellent business tact of the agents 
of the two firms above mentioned, have placed their papers in the 
front rank in Australia. 

Sydney is a strong competitive point, and I want to impress Amer- 
ican exporters with the importance of the question of packing goods, 
not only paper, but other classes of merchandise. 

Sydney is a free port, so there is no duty on paper. 

Geo. W. Bell, 
Sydney, May 6, i8^j. Consul. 

* 448 to 500 pounds. 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



NEW ZEALAND. 

Kinds and prices. — The kinds of fine writing paper generally used 
in New Zealand and the average wholesale price per pound are as 
follows: 

Large post, 21 by 16^ inches, cream laid and wove: Engine 
sized, 4d. (8 cents) ; fine tub sized, yd. (14 cents) ; superfine tub sized, 
Sd. (16 cents) ; extra superfine sized, 9d. to lod. (18 to 20 cents) ; imi- 
tation handmade or linen, 9d. (18 cents). 

The weight per ream is about 18 pounds. 

Double foolscap, 26^ by 16^ inches (sometimes 27 by 17 inches). 
The latter is the American size, which is most used here. The aver- 
age weight of this quality runs about 28 pounds to the ream. 

Bank papers (cream and azure mostly used): Large post, 11 
pounds; double cap, 14 pounds, 9d. to lod. (18 to 20 cents). 

Ledger papers: Engine sized, cheap, azure laid, say, 4d. (8 
cents) per pound; tub sized, cheap, azure laid, 9d. (18 cents). The 
engine sized, in sizes, as double cap and demy, 24 to 30 pounds; the 
tub size, in sizes, as demy, 24 pounds; medium, 34 pounds; and 
royal, 44 pounds per ream. 

All writing papers are imported flat and usually contain 480 
sheets to the ream. It must be understood that wholesale prices 
have to bear freight, plus importers' profit. Linen and azure papers, 
worth, say, 6d. (12 cents), should have nice ream wrapper, specifying 
contents, and with pleasing design to give it an attractive appear- 
ance. In every instance where these details are present it materially 
assists the salesman. 

All the paper used in this country is imported from England 
and the United States, but the greater proportion comes from the 
former country. 

Terms. — Ninety days' sight, frequently cash in London, one 
month. If possible, payment should be taken in London, as the ex- 
change between New Zealand and New York is almost prohibitive, 
being from 4 to 4)^ per cent. 

Dealers. — The principal firms handling papers in wholesale quan- 
tities are: Collins Bros., Auckland and Christ Church; Whitcomb 
& Tombs, Limited, Wellington and Christ Church; Ferguson & 
Mitchell, Dunedin. 

Packing. — Cases lined with oilcloth, with average measurement — 
say 10 cubic feet to the case — are regarded as being the most con- 
venient, profitable, and popular. 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 5 

Paper of sizes smaller than that known as demy is subject to a 
duty of 20 per cent ad valorem, hence foolscap size is always im- 
ported in the double size. 

Jno. D. Connolly, 

Auckland, May 8, iSgj. Consul. 



TASMANIA. 

I append copy of a letter from Messrs. J. Walch & Sons, of Ho- 
bart, the largest importers of paper here, dated May 7, 1897. I am 
unable to add to the information contained therein beyond observing 
that the total population of Tasmania is about 166,000. 

J. WALCH a. SONS TO CONSUL WEBSTER. 

At your request, we annex hereto a memorandum of the London prices for 
writing papers. The qualities range from lowest engine sized to extra superfine. 
Most of the papers imported into this colony are bought in London to direct order 
of dealers here. We are not aware that any papers are sent on consignment to 
Tasmania. The prices we quote are those of wholesale houses in London and are 
subject on importation to customs duty of 5 per cent or 20 per cent ad valorem, 
according to the style or character of the papers. The import charges (packages, 
freight, insurance, etc.) amount to, say, 15 per cent or 25 per cent on the London 
prices. Papers are usually bought in London for cash, when a discount of 2% 
to 5 per cent is allowed. If credit is required, the prices are net, and London 
bouses draw at sixty days' sight through a bank, to whom the shipping documents 
are sent for delivery when the draft is paid. We can not recommend any papers 
to be sent from America on consignment to this colony, as, under the circumstances 
we have named, it is not probable that a market would be found. The population 
of Tasmania is small and the demand for papers very limited. 

Prices. — Handmade papers for account books, all the usual sizes 
and weights, flat, is. to is. 6d. (24.3 to 36.4 cents) per pound; same, 
machine made, 3d. to 9d. (6 to 18 cents) per pound; cream wove and 
cream laid writing paper, all the usual sizes and weights, 2^d. to 
8d. (5 to 16 cents) per pound. The same papers, ruled, cut quarto 
and octavo and parceled in 5 quires and half-ream packets, about 
IS. to IS. 6d. per ream in advance of prices for flat papers. 

A. G. Webster, 
Hob ART, Afay 12, iSgj. Consul. 



VICTORIA. 

Kinds and prices. — All papers used here are flat, not folded, with 
480 sheets to the ream, unless otherwise ordered. The following are 
the kinds in general use: Cream laid and wove, engine-sized writings, 
selling on spot from 2^d. to 4d. (5 to 8 cents) per pound; cream 
laid and wove, tub-sized writings, from 4j^d. to 6j4d. (9^ to 13 



6 PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

cents) per pound ; vellum, cream laid and wove, tub-sized or vat 
writings (probably in the United States this class of paper would be 
termed ** bonds") sell at from yd. to iid. (14 to 22 cents) per pound; 
strong linen paper, such as that used for typewriting duplicates, sells 
on spot at from yd. to gj4d, (14 to 19 cents). The prices here 
mentioned are for trade lots to printers, ex warehouse, and range 
from single reams to cases. The stock houses or jobbers expect 
about 25 per cent gross on their landed cost for this class of trade, 
as there are expenses of delivery, collection of accounts, warehouse 
charges, and del credere to be provided for. 

Terms. — In the case of stock from warehouses, payments are made 
by the end of the month following the month of delivery, less 2}4 
per cent. For direct indents or importations, the practice varies. 
Some buyers will accept a ninety-day draft after sight ; others demand 
one hundred and twenty days; some will pay cash on presentation 
of manufacturer's invoice; but as a rule it is preferred to purchase 
at a price delivered, with the terms of payment same as from stock — 
that is, about sixty days after delivery of goods. Large buyers take 
draft at ninety days' sight. 

Packing. — Packing is usually done in cases of from 5 to 6 or from 
4 to 6 cwts. (560 to 672 or 448 to 672 pounds), and is the best 
method; the cases being three-fourths of an inch to i inch thick, 
with three steel bands (one on each end and one in center) or twisted 
steel wire over them, and no outside battens. The cases should be 
well made and lined with tarred or waterproof paper or oilcloth be- 
fore the reams are placed therein. 

Consumption. — No official statistics as to the exact quantity of 
paper used in the colony are available, but the estimates of experts 
show that an amount of about ^^300,000 ($1,459,950) is in use every 
year. The principal consumption is wood-pulp news for the daily 
papers, some of which comes from the United States, some from 
Great Britain, and a great deal from Norway. First cost is about 
£,9 ($43.79) per ton of 2,240 pounds free on board at place of export, 
and is packed on reels covered with packing paper and canvas. 
Next, the demand is for ordinary white printing paper for books, 
pamphlets, catalogues, posters, and the like, first cost of which is 
2d. (4 cents) per pound free on board at port of export. The writing 
papers have already been mentioned. There is also a trade in col- 
ored papers for writing, printing, and wrapping, for bag papers in 
brown and cap, and for brown and manila. A great deal of brown 
paper is imported from Germany. 

Tariff. — Writing and print, in original reams, free; other papers, 
which include all wrappings, tissues, blottings, bags, caps, and the 
like, 6s. ($1.46) per cwt. (112 pounds). 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 7 

Dealers. — The following are the principal firms in this colony 
handling paper, all in Melbourne: Watson & Gladwin, 335 Flinders 
lane; Alex. Cowan & Co., Limited, 395 Flinders lane; William Detinold 
& Co., Limited, 126 Flinders lane; James Spicer& Sons, 313 Flinders 
lane; Sands & McDougal, 365 Collins street; Plaff, Pinschoff & Co., 
314 Flinders lane ; George Robertson & Co. , 384 Little Collins street ; 
S. Schuhkraftt, 132 Flinders lane; A. Jack & Co., 349 Flinders 
lane; G. H. Adams & Co., 235 Flinders lane; and Gordon & Gotch, 
126 Queen street. 

Daniel W. Maratta, 

Melbourne, March 7j, i8gj. Consul-General. 



NEW CALEDONIA. 

Kinds. — All kinds of writing paper, for office use or otherwise, are 
imported direct from France, and is of French manufacture. Owing 
to a prohibitive tarifif, foreign-made paper is rarely to be met with 
here. 

Prices. — Prices vary to such an extent that it is hardly possible 
to give an average price. 

Dealers. — All the principal firms import from their French houses. 
The only two newspapers of the colony import their printing paper 
and material from Australia, but the quantity is so small that it is 
not worth mentioning. 

There is no local manufactory of paper in this colony. All paper — 
ledgers, books, forms, etc. — used in Government offices come here 
direct from State factories in France. 

S. Reichenbach, 
Acting Vice-Commercial Agent. 

Noumea, March 77, iSgj, 



CENTRAL AMERICA. 

HONDURAS. 

Kinds consumed. — No considerable quantity of fine writing paper is 
used in this country, the kinds in use being the ordinary and com- 
mon grades. Very little linen paper is sold. 

Prices. — The price of ordinary note paper (put up in reams of 500 
sheets and weighing 10 pounds) is 10 cents per pound, exclusive of 
freight, duty, etc., and retails at about $2.25 per ream; the price 



8 PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

of cheap foolscap (put up in reams of 500 sheets, weighing 12 pounds) 
is 6 cents per pound, and retails at about $2.25 per ream; the price 
of best paper ordinarily sold here (put up in reams of 500 sheets, 
weighing 16 pounds) is 15 cents per pound, and retails at about 
$4.50 per ream. 

Terms. — In case of goods bought in England and Germany (and 
most of them come from those countries), from six to nine months* 
time is given, while merchants of the United States give only three 
months. Payments are made by remittance of draft, etc. 

Dealers. — There are no special dealers in paper. The following 
are the leading general merchants who handle paper: C. W. Camp- 
bell & Co., Santos Soto, Daniel Fortin, R. Streber, Samuel Lainez, 
Ignacio Argucia, Ramiro Fernandez, Benito Fernandez, Manuel 
Ugarte (director-general of rents, who buys paper for the Govern- 
ment), all of Tegucigalpa; J. Rossner & Co., Theodore Kohncke, 
Abadie & Co., of Amapala; Daniel Fortin and Monico Cordova, of 
Yuscaran; C. W. Clark & Co., of Puerto Cortez; and Jorge Bah, 
Panting & Co., and J. M. Mitchell, of San Pedro Sula. 

Packing. — Paper should be packed for shipment in water-tight 
packages of not more than 125 pounds. Most goods introduced into 
the country have to be freighted on mule back to the interior. Gen- 
erally, merchants prefer paper put up in half reams of 250 sheets. 

Quantities consumed. — No recent statistics of importations giving 

total quantities imported of special articles have been published. 

Judging by former reports, the quantity for the whole country might 

be estimated at about 100,000 pounds. 

Wm. M. Little, 

Tegucigalpa, March 16, i8gj. Consul. 



Inquiry at some of the principal places where paper is sold in 
the Bay Islands of Honduras develops the fact that the paper trade 
here amounts to very little. Most of the paper used comes from the 
United States and is of American manufacture, put up in the com- 
mon way — one-fourth of a ream in a package. Small quantities of 
foreign paper — too small to be considered — come here from Belize, 

British Honduras. 

J. Eugene Jarnigan, 

Utilla, February 2, iS^j. Consul. 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



NICARAGUA. 

Kinds and prices. — There is but little demand in this consular dis- 
trict (San Juan del Norte) for fine writing paper. The best I have 
seen in this country is that which is used in the office of the inspector- 
general of the Atlantic coast at Bluefields. It is cut in single sheets 
'3tV ^y ^tV inches, and has 22 lines of 5^ inches. I do not know 
its cost, and can not give its exact weight, as I have but two or three 
sheets. Its watermark is ** Whiting's Linen Ledger, 1895." This 
will probably enable the trade to ascertain the weight and cost of the 
paper. 

All the communications which I have received from the officials 
at Managua have been written on double sheets, as follows: (i) Size, 
12-J^ by 8| inches, 32 lines, 7^ inches, i marginal ruling, weight 15 
pounds per 480 sheets; (2) size, i2-| by 8^ inches, 27 full lines, weight 
6 pounds per 480 sheets. 

I am unable to give the cost or place of manufacture of such 
papers. 

The writing paper imported into San Juan del Norte is of United 
States, English, and German manufacture. 

Unless otherwise stated, all prices and values given in this report 
are expressed in United States currency. 

The paper imported from England is described as follows: 

Foolscap (superfine, white wove), double sheets; size, 13 by 8; 
35 full lines; weight, 12 pounds per 472 sheets; cost price, $1.88 per 
472 sheets; selling price, $2.25. 

The paper imported from Germany is as follows: 

(i) Small note (fine) ; double sheets; size, 7j^ by 4^ ; 16 full lines; 
weight, 2 pounds per 500 sheets; cost price, 53 cents per 500 sheets; 
selling price, 75 cents. 

(2) Commercial note (superior); double sheets; size, 8^ by 55^; 
48 full lines, 5 pounds per 500 sheets; cost price, 71 cents per 500 
sheets; selling price, $1.50. 

(3) Letter cap (fine) ; double sheets; size, 11^ by 8^; 63 full 
lines; weight, 8 pounds per 500 sheets; cost price, $1.19 per 500 
sheets; selling price, $2.25. 

(4) Letter cap (superior) ; double sheets; size, 11^ by 8 J^ ; 27 
full lines;- weight, 8 pounds per 500 sheets; cost price, $1. 19 per 500 
sheets; selling price, $2.30. 

(5) Unruled foolscap;* double sheets; size, 13^8 by8j\^; weight, 



*This is printing paper, but is sold for writing paper. It is marked "Papel de Imprimir 
Superior." 



lO PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

lo pounds per 500 sheets; cost price, 71 cents per 500 sheets; sell- 
ing price, $1.60. 

(6) Unruled foolscap (superior); double sheets; size, 13 by 8-,^^; 
weight, 15 pounds per 500 sheets; cost price, 83 cents per 500 sheets; 
selling price, $1.75. 

(7) Ruled foolscap (fine); double sheets; size, 13 J4 t)y8^; 34 
full lines; weight, 10 pounds per 500 sheets; cost price, 75 cents per 
500 sheets; selling price, $1.60. 

The paper imported from the United States is as follows: 

(i) Commercial note (white laid, superfine), ruled ; double sheets; 

size, 8 by 5)^; weight, 5 pounds per 480 sheets; cost price, 42^ 

cents per 480 sheets; selling price, $1.10. 

(2) Commercial note (white wove); double sheets; size, 8 by 5; 
weight, 6 pounds per 480 sheets; cost prize, 70 cents per 480 sheets; 
selling price, $1.75. 

(3) Letter cap (white laid, superfine), ruled; double sheets; size, 
9}i by 7W; weight, 10 pounds per 480 sheets; cost price, 68 cents 
per 480 sheets; selling price, $1.75. 

(4) Letter cap (white wove); double sheets; size, 9^ by 7^; 
weight, 10 pounds per 480 sheets; cost price, $1.12 per 480 sheets; 
selling price, $2.50. 

(5) Foolscap (superfine); double sheets; size, 13 by S-^; 29 full 
lines; weight, 12 pounds per 480 sheets; cost price, $2.30 per 480 
sheets; selling price, $3.25. 

The sizes reported are according to actual measurements. The 
actual measurement of paper billed as 13 by S}4 is 13 by S^. In 
every case, there is a variance between the billed and actual size. 

It would seem as if some of the San Juan del Norte merchants 
pay for the same size of certain paper much more than other mer- 
chants pay for paper of better and finer quality, but this is easily 
accounted for. The merchants in San Juan del Norte have but very 
little knowledge regarding the actual value of any imported goods 
except flour, kerosene, liquors, beers, wines, and a few other articles. 
Nearly everything is bought through commission houses, and some 
of the prices paid are outrageously high. 

I had occasion to make two reports a few months ago in relation 
to boots and shoes. Not a merchant in the place had ever heard of 
a welted sole. 

For several years, foolscap paper was bought in the United States 
at from $1.40 to $1.50 per ream of 480 sheets, but most of the fools- 
cap is now bought in England and Germany. 

The paper and envelopes sold to the common people are manu- 
factured in Germany. Such paper and envelopes are put up in pic- 
tured envelopes, upon which are printed the name of the local dealer, 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. I I 

each printed envelope containing five double sheets of thin paper, 
6Ji by 4-1^, 17 full lines, five envelopes 4^ by 3^^, and one thin 
blotter. These packages are retailed at 5 cents each in Nicaraguan 
currency (a little less than 2}^ cents in United States currency), and 
are said to cost the dealers about 2 cents (United States) delivered 
in San Juan del Norte. The names of the manufacturers do not ap- 
pear on the packages. I inclose one of the packages herewith.* 
Twenty-five of these small packages are made up into a larger pack- 
age, and are so shipped from Germany, the larger package, includ- 
ing covering, weighing i^ pounds. 

There is no demand for legal cap. Writing tablets have not been 
introduced to any extent. All blotting papers are imported from 
the United States. Most of the blank books used, as stated in my 
report printed in Consular Reports No. 199 (April, 1897), p. 457, 
are manufactured in the United States. 

The Germans are great advertisers. Yesterday I was shown two 
sample books which had been sent out by a Hamburg house. One 
of the books has pasteboard covers, is 12 by 9, and contains 219 en- 
velopes of various sizes, shades, and designs. The book is numbered 
^064, and was received here about five months ago. 

In one of my requisition letters, I requested that all envelopes not 
cloth lined sent to me by the Department should be ungummed, as, 
owing to the moist atmosphere here, all gummed envelopes (unlined) 
theretofore sent out by the Department could only be saved by in- 
serting tissue or oiled paper beneath the flaps immediately upon 
receipt of the envelopes. The envelopes in the sample book men- 
tioned, however, although they have been here five months, are in 
perfect condition, owing, undoubtedly, either to the preparation of 
the gum itself or to the application of some substance on the surface 
of the gum. 

The other sample book sent out by the same house is cloth bound, 
iTj4 by i2j^ in size, and is numbered 25832. It contains samples as 
follows: Sixteen sheets of fine writing paper, various sizes, and six- 
teen envelopes to match ; twenty sheets of black border and other 
styles of mourning paper, various sizes, and twenty envelopes to 
match; eighty-five sheets of writing paper, various sizes, shades, 
etc., and thirty-two envelopes, various sizes and designs. But three 
sheets of foolscap appear on each page of the sample book, and 
from four to six of note and letter paper on each page. List prices 
are as follows: 

(1) Note, plain white; watermark, ** Royal Paper;" size, 7 by 4^; 
price, 90 pfennigs (21.42 cents) per 50 sheets and envelopes. 



* Filed in the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Department of State. 



12 PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

(2) Note, plain white; size, 8^ by 4^-^; watermark, '* Royal 
Paper;" price, 1.30 marks (30.94 cents) per 50 sheets and envelopes. 

(3) Note, plain white; watermark, ** Fleury Mill; " size, 7-1V ^X 
4tV» price, 60 pfennigs (14.28 cents) per 50 sheets and envelopes. 

(4) Note, plain white; no watermark; size, 7 by 4j4 ; price, 40 to 
53 pfennigs (9.52 to 12.6 cents) per 50 sheets and envelopes. 

(5) Commercial note, various shades; **Amistad" and other 
brands; size, 8j^ by 5)^; price, 50 pfennigs to i.io marks (11.9 to 
26.2 cents) per 100 sheets and envelopes. 

(6) Note, black border; watermark, **Fleury Mill;'* size, 7 by 
4/4 ; price, i mark (23.8 cents) per 50 sheets and envelopes. 

(7) Note, black border; watermark, ** Royal Paper;" size, 7 by 
4^ ; price, 1. 15 marks (27.4 cents) per 50 sheets and envelopes. 

(8) Note, black corner; watermark, ** Original Congo Mill ; " size, 
S}(by s}{ ; price, 1.78 marks (42. 4 cents) per 100 sheets and envelopes. 

(9) Note, black border; no watermark; size, 8^ t>y 5^; price, 
66 pfennigs to 1.14 marks (15.7 to 27.1 cents) per 100 sheets and 
envelopes. 

(10) Commercial note, various shades; **Amistad" and other 
brands; average size, S}( by 5^; price, i to 3.65 marks (23.8 to 86.9 
cents per 480 sheets. 

(11) Note, black border; no watermark; average size, 8 by 5'/^; 
price, 2.30 to 3.35 marks (54.7 to 79.7 cents) per 480 sheets. 

(12) Letter, various shades, sizes, and rulings; no watermark; 
price, 2.50 to 7.35 marks (59.5 cents to $1.75) per 480 sheets. 

(13) Letter, black border; no watermark; average size, 10^ by 
8^; price, 4.15 to 5.40 marks (98.9 cents to $1.28) per 480 sheets. 

(14) Letter, single sheets; marginal ruling; size io|^ by 8^; 
watermark, ** Original Congo Mill;" price, 55 pfennigs (13. i cents) 
per 100 sheets. 

(15) Letter, single sheets; marginal ruling; average size, lof^ by 
8X; no watermark; price, 55 to 70 pfennigs (13. i to 16.7 cents) per 
100 sheets. 

(16) Foolscap, various shades, sizes, and rulings; no watermark; 
price, 2.17 to 6.20 marks (51.6 cents to $1.47) per 480 sheets. 

(17) Trial balance; size, io|| by Sj\; price, 5.75 marks ($1.37) 
per 480 sheets. 

(18) Trial balance; size, 13^ by 8)4; price, 6 marks ($1.43) per 
480 sheets. 

(19) Trial balance, single sheets; size, ioj{ by 8^; price, 7.05 
marks ($1.68) per 480 sheets. 

(20) Billheads, single sheets; size, 9^ by 7^; price, 2.65 marks 
(63 cents) per 480 sheets. 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 1 3 

I 

(21) Printing paper, etc.; various kinds; price per kilogram 
(2 2046 pounds), 55 pfennigs to 1.65 marks (13.1 to 39.3 cents). 

(22) Envelopes, various shapes, shades, and sizes; price, 2.50 to 
11.70 marks (59.5 cents to $2.78) per 1,000. 

Among the samples are sheets having an impress of the coat 
of arms of the Republic of Colombia, and others having an impress of 
the coat of arms of the Republic of Salvador. 

The papers stamped **Republica de Colombia" are as follows: 

(i) Note; size, 8^^^ by 5j^; no watermark; price, 1.45 marks 
(hH cents) per 480 sheets. 

(2) Foolscap, 6 sizes, viz, 13^8 by 8^ll, i2f^ by 8yV, 13 by 8^8, 
^3/i by 8-i\, i2j^ by 8j4, 12^8 by 83/^, of 39, 33, 32, s^, 33, and 34 
full lines, respectively; price per 480 sheets, respectively, 5.82, 3.42, 
1.90, 4.12, 3.47, and 2.50 marks ($1.38^, 81.4 cents, 45 cents, 98 
cents, 82^ cents, and 59^ cents. 

The papers stamped **Republica del Salvador" are as fol- 
lows : 

Foolscap, 4 sizes, viz, 13^ by 83/8, 12/^ by 8>^, 13^ by S^, i^}4 
by 8^, of 35, 32, 39, and 35 full lines, respectively; price per 480 
sheets, respectively, 6.20, 4. iz, 2.82, and 2.50 marks ($1.47^, 98 cents, 
67 cents, and 59.5 cents). 

Terms. — German, English, and United States papers are sold on 
ninety days' time from date of invoices. Special arrangements are 
made with the commission houses. 

Dealers, — All the merchants on this coast keep general stores and 
handle everything that is salable in the country. The principal im- 
porters in San Juan del Norte are F. A. Pellas, H. F. Bingham, 
C. F. Bergmann, and E. L. D'Souza & Bro. Dr. Joseph Johnstone 
and Dr. Henry de Soto own drug stores and import small quantities 
of goods, including stationery. Nearly everything imported into 
San Juan del Norte from the United States is bought through com- 
mission houses in New York — Munoz & Espriella acting for F. A. 
Pellas, A. P. Strout for C. F. Bergmann, and Andreas & Co. for 
H. F. Bingham and E. L. D'Souza & Bro. 

Packing. — The mouth of this harbor is choked with sand, and all 
goods arriving here must be lightered from i to 2 miles. During 
the wet season, it rains for weeks at a time almost incessantly, and 
during the dry season there is more rain than in the very wettest 
season in most parts of the United States. Some of the lighters used 
have no covering but tarpaulin, and generally the seas run high on 
the bar. 

Goods shipped from here to the interior must be transferred from 
one vessel to another from three to six times, depending upon the 
season of year, before reaching Granada. 



14 PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

San Juan del Norte is a free port, but all goods shipped from the 
town to the interior are subject to the payment of duties at Castillo. 
Customs duties are specific and are levied according to weight, in- 
cluding weight of outside packages. 

Stationery destined for this port and for interior towns via the 
San Juan River should be packed in boxes having waterproof lin- 
ings. Packages should be iron bound and not exceed 200 or 25a 
pounds each in weight; and while the boxes should be sufficiently- 
strong, they should not be grossly heavy. 

Quantities consumed, — The population of Nicaragua is about 375,- 
000. There are three ports of entry in this consular district, viz, 
San Juan del Norte, Bluefields, and Cape Gracias-d-Dios, and twa 
in the western district — Corinto and San Juan del Sur. 

Our consular agent at Bluefields has been instructed to make re- 
port concerning the paper trade at Bluefields and Cape Gracias-a- 
Dios. His report will be transmitted to the Department.* 

It is estimated that of the goods of all kinds imported into Nica- 
ragua, 62.3 per cent are entered at Corinto, 4.3 per cent at San Juan 
del Sur, 22 per cent at Bluefields, 7.8 per cent at San Juan del Norte, 
and 3.6 per cent at Cape Gracias-d-Dios. 

I have seen no statistics, however, showing either the value or 
quantity of stationery entered at each of the five ports mentioned. 
During the year ended June 30, 1895, i case of copy books, 3 cases 
of envelopes, 29 cases of writing paper, 2 cases of tablets, and 13. 
cases billed as containing *' stationery " were imported into San Juan 
del Norte. The importations during the succeeding year were sub- 
stantially the same. 

The director-general of post-offices has made a report showing the 
number and weight of letters and other mail packages received at and 
dispatched from the principal post-offices in Nicaragua during the 
six months ended June 30, 1896. The post-offices mentioned are 
Bluefields, Cape de Gracias, Chinandega, Corinto, Estel6, Granada, 
Jinotega, Jinotepe, Juigalpa, Leon, Managua, Masaya, Matagalpa, 
Ocatal, Rama, Rivas, San Juan del Norte, San Juan del Sur, and 
Somoto. 

An abstract from this report is given herewith, with additional col- 
umns showing the number of pounds received and dispatched. This 
abstract is made for the benefit of our merchants and manufacturers, 
as knowledge of the exact number of newspapers and business cir- 
culars reaching the people of any foreign country during a period of 
six months ought to be of some value to them in aiding them to de- 
termine whether it would pay them to do newspaper advertising in 
such country. 



♦ Rcixjrt follows. 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



15 



Packages received and dispatched during the six months ended June jo^ i8g6. 



Description. 



Letters: 

Ordinary 

Semiofficial 

Official 

Cards: 

Single 

Double 

Business circulars.. 
Newspapers, etc.: 

Free. 

Postpaid 

Samples 

Registered letters: 

Ordinary , 

Official 

Postal service 

Return letters. 

Return receipts 

Parcels: 

Ordinary 

Official 



Number 
received. 



Weight, 



Number 
dispatched. 



Weight, 



Total. 



199.954 

3.*45 

25.864 

7,180 
199 
J94 

8o,a86 

271,269 

4.66a 

8,243 

4,57» 

2.519 

894 

11,470 

474 
2,676 



623,600 



Grams. 

2.496,497 

34.679 

447,895 

24,202 

1,192 

65.273 

10,824,395 

13.679.359 
1.538,751 

3,098,474 

4,114,805 

89.748 

12,971 

57,540 

211,149 
1,222,784 



37.919.714 



Pounds. 
5,503-78 
76.45 
987.43 

53.36 

2.63 

143.9 

23,863.46 

30,157.51 

3.392.33 

6,830.9 

9.071.5 
197.86 
28.6 
126.85 

465 -5 
2,695.75 



83.597.81 



211,742 

3.790 
24,026 

7.756 
267 
362 

88,956 

182,505 

3.321 

7.426 
4.963 
2.736 

899 
12,126 

475 
1.837 



Grams. 
2.125,774 
47.477 
452,833 

24,076 

893 
11.432 

11.582,531 

9,006,894 

282,942 

1.365.886 

4,106,955 

83.310 

13.713 
59,046 

254,250 
1,552,824 

553.187 30,970,836 



Pounds. 
4,686.4& 
104.67 
998.3* 

53.0& 
1.97 
25.2 

25.534.85 
19,856.6 
623.77 

3.011.23 

9,054.19. 

183.67 

30. 2i 
130.17 

560.52 
3.4233^ 



68,278.31 



Most of the envelopes used are of light weight. Estimating the 
weight of envelopes at i pound per 100 envelopes, the 267,708 let- 
ters dispatched contained but 15,521 pounds of paper, assuming that 
they contained nothing but paper. It is quite probable, however, 
that the 12,814 registered letters contained very many pounds of 
other matter than writing paper. This would seem to indicate that 
the paper trade in Nicaragua is not very extensive. 

Many of the dispatched letters, too, are reported not only from 
the mailing offices, but from dispatch offices in which they are dis- 
tributed. 

In 1895, with the assistance of Mr. Samuel Weil, of Bluefields, 
and Mr. Eugene Southworth, of Granada, I prepared a list of two 
hundred and forty-one articles imported into Nicaragua, according 
to which list the stationery entered at the ports of Corinto and San 
Juan del Sur is manufactured in the United States, England, France, 
and Germany, and that entered at Bluefields comes from Germany 
and the United States. 

Freight rates^ duties^ etc, — Freight rates to Bluefields and San Juan 
del Norte are published in Highways of Commerce, pages 75-77. 
For changes subsequently made, for lighterage charges, duties, gen- 
eral statistics, etc., see my reports printed in Consular Reports of 
July, October, and November, 1896. 

Thomas O'Hara, 

San Juan del Norte, February 24, i8gy. Consul. 



1 6 PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

I find, upon investigation, that no accurate report can be made 
upon the paper trade of Bluefields. All printing of a fine character, 
as well for the Government as business men and private individuals, 
is done in New Orleans; consequently, the paper itself is all pur- 
chased there. 

The paper in question includes note and letter heads, billheads, 
statements, and legal cap. 

Mr. Samuel Weil, a merchant of this place, recently returned from 
New Orleans, and the amount of printing he brought back with him 
was surprising. 

No account of paper annually purchased by the merchants here 
can be ascertained. 

The paper sold here in the town is of the cheapest kind and poor- 
est quality. Five hundred reams would cover all that is disposed of 
in Bluefields and vicinity. The paper is all of American manufac- 
ture, the favorite brand being the ** Phoenix.*' 

Paper is retailed as follows, per ream (values being reduced to 
United States currency): Legal cap, $2.11; bill paper, $1.87; fools- 
cap, $1.64; letter paper, $1.29; note paper, 82 cents. 

M. J. Clancy, 
Bluefields, May 24, i8<^j. Consular Agent. 



SOUTH AMERICA. 

ARGENTINE REPUBLIC. 

Kinds consumed. — There is only one paper mill in the Argentine 
Republic, located at Zarate, in the province of Buenos Ayres. It is 
of. limited capacity and is employed principally in turning out news 
and wrapping paper, for this purpose being well protected by the 
Argentine tariff. The great bulk of the various kinds of paper con- 
sumed in the Argentine Republic is imported. The total importa- 
tions (custom-house values) for the last five years have been as follows : 

1892 $1,615,948 

1893 1,558.932 

1894 1,822,331 

1895 1.335.753 

1896 (9 months) 1, 377, 291 

RAW MATERIALS. 

The importations of raw materials used here in the country in the 
manufacture of paper for the last four years were as follows (custom- 
house values) : 

1893 • $528,837 

1894 3^9.409 

1895 222, 552 

1896 (9 months) 222, 828 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



17 



MANUFACTURED ARTICLES OF PAPER. 

The custom-house value of the articles manufactured from paper 
imported into the country during the last five years was as follows: 

1892 $674,832 

1893 880, 796- 

1894 1,004, 766 

1895 678,644 

1896 (9 months) 547i045 

TOTAL CONSUMPTION. 

The total value of the importations of paper, of paper stock used 
in the manufacture of paper, and of articles manufactured from pa- 
per, for the last five years, was as follows (custom-house valuation) : 

1892 $2,687,956 

1893 3. 127,890 

1894 3. 194,506 

1895 2,236,947 

1896 (9 months) 2, 147, 164 

The latest classified custom-house returns which have been pub- 
lished are for the year 1895, and from these I compile the following 
tables of importations of the different varieties of paper into the 
Argentine Republic. 

WRITING PAPER. 

The total imports of writing paper for 1895 amounted to $166,- 
998, of which $150,217 passed through the Buenos Ayres custom- 
house and $15,105 through that at Rosario, and the small balance 
at various other custom-houses. The following are the countries 
from which it was imported : 



Countries. 



Quantity. 



Germany. 

Belgium 

Spain 

United States ... 

France 

Italy 

Great Britain.... 
Other countries 

Total 



Pounds. 

806,457 
286,948 

67.153 

".444 

39,886 

292,634 

308,995 
27,906 

1,841,423 



Value. 



$73. M7 

26,026 

6,091 

J. 037 
3,6x8 

a6,S4-» 
28,025 

2,5" 



166,998 



The duty on writing paper is 3 cents specific per kilogram (2.2046 
pounds). In boxes with envelopes, the duty is 25 per cent ad valo- 
rem. The finest ledger and blank-book papers come mostly from 
Great Britain and Germany, and the prices run from 8 to 20 cents 
per pound. Other writing paper — letter, note, and cap — is almost 
entirely German and Belgian, though considerable quantities also 
No. 204 2. 



\ 



i8 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



come from Great Britain and Italy. The price runs from lo to 24 
cents per pound, according to quality, whether linen laid and wove, 
fine, superfine, or extra superfine. 

NEWS PAPER. 

The value of the importations of paper intended for newspapers 
during 1895 was $259,811, against $990,693 in 1894, a difference of 
$735,882, made good by the amount manufactured in the country. 
Of the imports, paper to the amount of $237,943 passed through 
the Buenos Ayres custom-house and $16,864 through the Rosario 
custom-house. The following are the countries from which it was 
received : 



Countries. 



Germany 

Belgium 

United States 

France 

Italy 

Great Britain 

Other countries . 

Total 



Quantity. 


Value. 


Pounds. 




4i782,954 


$211,691 


23».867 


»o.5»5 


3.889 


176 


»5.384 


698 


678,052 


30.75* 


5.936 


270 


>5.65i 


710 


5.733.733 


254,811 



It will be seen that, except what is manufactured in the country, 
the paper for newspapers comes almost entirely from Germany. The 
duty for 1897 is 3 per cent specific per kilogram (2.2046 pounds). 
Most of this class of paper used in the country is a miserable 
article, with scarcely body enough to hold together with its own 
weight. The prices vary — 3 to 10 cents for the better qualities. 



BOOK PAPER. 



This class of paper (papel para obros), used in job and book 
offices, is also, in great part, imported from Germany. The imports 
for 1895 amounted to $285,226, of which $277,716 passed through 
the Buenos Ayres custom-house and $7,731 through that of Rosario. 
The following are the countries from which it was imported: 



Countries. 



Germany 

Belgium 

Spain 

United States... 

France 

Italy 

Great Britain.... 
Other countries 

Toul 



(Quantity. 



Pom mis. 
1.633,607 
533.920 

i3.2»o 
58,380 

19,463 

5«7.87i 

349.755 

9.525 

3.»55.73i 



Value. 



$148,170 

50,240 

1,198 

5.294 

1.765 

46,973 

32.722 

864 



I 



286,226 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



19 



Here, again, is seen the supremacy of Germany, which furnishes 
more than one-half of the book paper used in the Argentine Republic. 
The duty is 3 per cent specific per kilogram (2.2046 pounds). The 
custom-house valuation on this class of paper is 10 cents per kilo- 
gram, but for the best qualities the price runs up to 24 cents per 
kilogram. 

DRAWING PAPER. 

The quantity of drawing paper imported in 1895 was 7,128 kilo- 
grams (15,717 pounds), valued at $3,563, nearly all of which passed 
through the Buenos Ayres custom-house. The countries from which 
it was shipped were the following: 



Countries. 



Germany 

Belgium 

France 

Great Britain 

Other countries.. 



Total. 



Quantity. 


Value. 


Pounds. 




4,029 


$913 


3,a86 


745 


6.287 


1,426 


1,886 


427 


229 


52 


'5t7«7 


3.563 



The duty on drawing paper is 25 per cent ad valorem, the official 
value being fixed at 50 cents per kilogram (2.2046 pounds). 



PAPER FOR BINDING PURPOSES. 



The importations of paper used in bookbinding amounted in 
1895 to 4,419 kilograms (9,744 pounds), valued at $2,211. It came 
from the following countries : 



Countries. 



Germany 

Belgium 

United States 
Great Britain. 

ToUl.... 



Quantity. 



Pounds^ 

2,289 

6,132 

167 

1.156 



9.744 



Value. 



$519 

1.392 

38 

262 



2,211 



These figures show a great falling off compared with those of 
1894, when the quantity imported was 47,542 kilograms, valued at 
$24,532, but the difference is accounted for by the fact that not a 
little of this class of paper is now manufactured in the country. The 
duty on the imported article is 25 per cent on valuations ranging 
from 15 to 50 cents per kilogram. 



20 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



WRAPPING PAPER. 



The quantity of wrapping paper imported into this country in 
1895 was 586,156 kilograms, valued at $93,489. It was imported 
from the following countries: 



Countries. 



Germany 

Belgium 

United States... 

France 

luly 

Great Britain... 
Other countries 

Toul 



Quantity. 



Kilograms. 

174.443 

50.309 

3,653 

18,139 

302,897 

33.064 

4.651 

586,156 



Value. 



$28,172 

9.647 
409 

2,745 
46,059 

5,6oi 
856 



93.489 



Perhaps it will be something of a surprise to the paper makers 
of the United States to note that Italy furnishes fully one-half of the 
wrapping paper imported into the Argentine Republic. In 1892, 
the quantity from Italy was 321,537 kilograms (708,989 pounds), 
valued at $65,568; in 1893, it was 356,415 kilograms (785,895 
pounds), valued at $68,508; and in 1894, it was 313,376 kilograms 
(690,994 pounds), valued at $63,977. The duty is 12 cents per kilo- 
gram (2.2046 pounds) on a value of 15 cents per kilogram, and it 
includes all kinds of paper for bags or wrapping, whether made from 
paper stock, straw, fiber, or ** paja" grass. Of the imports for 1895, 
$76,900 came through the Buenos Ayres custom-house and $16,138 
through that of Rosario. 



CIGARETTE PAPER. 



The quantity of smoking paper imported into the Argentine Re- 
public in 1895 was 225,675 kilograms (497,613 pounds), valued at 
$180,539. It was imported from the following countries: 



Countries. 



Germany 

Belgium 

Spain 

France 

Other countries 

Toul 



Quantity. 


Value. 


Pounds. 




155,613 


$56,458 


233.878 


84.853 


25.971 


9.423 


61,442 


22,291 


20,709 


7,514 


497,613 


»8o,539 



Of these imports, $143,170 passed through the Buenos Ayres 
custom-house and $37,189 through the others. The duty on cigar- 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



21 



ette paper is 25 per cent per kilogram (2. 2046 pounds) ; its official value 
is 80 cents per kilogram. 



SANDPAPER. 



The quantity of sandpaper (papel de lija) imported into the Ar- 
gentine Republic in 1895 was 6,291 reams, valued at $13,422. The 
greater portion .came from the United States, as will be seen from 
the following returns: 



Countries. 



Germany 

United States.... 
Great Britain..., 
Other countries 

Toul 



Quantity. 


Value. 


Reams. 




785 


$1,660 


4,686 


9. 514 


743 


2,010 


177 


238 



6,39» 



$i3i4" 



Nearly all the importations of sandpaper passed through the 
Buenos Ayres custom-house. The duty on sand and emery paper 
is 25 per cent on a valuation of $2.60 to $4.60 per ream. 



DRV 1 NO PAPER. 



The importations of drying, or porous, paper in 1895 amounted 
to 34,365 kilograms (75,774 pounds), valued at $17,182. It was im- 
ported from the following countries: 



Countries. 



Germany 

Belgium 

United States... 
Great Britain... 
Other countries 

Toul 



Quantity. 


Value. 


Pounds. 




24,«93 


$5,486 


5.294 


i,aoi 


5,x66 


1,172 


37.758 


8,56a 


3.363 


821 



75.774 



17,18a 



Nearly all these imports passed through the custom-house of 
Buenos Ayres. The duty is 25 per cent on a valuation of 40 cents 
per kilogram (2.2046 pounds). 



TAPESTRY PAPER. 



The imports of wall, or tapestry, papers for 1895 amounted to 
286,645 kilograms (632,062 pounds), valued at $83,224. Of these, 



I 



22 



PAPER TR'ADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



about one-half came from Belgium, as will be seen from the follow- 
ing returns: 



Countries. 



Germany 

Bels^um 

United States... 

France 

Great Briuin ... 
Other countries 

ToUl 



Quantity. 



633,06a 



Value. 



P0un<U. 




i8a,i2o 


•24,063 


289,560 


37,386 


6,M3 


760 


"8,390 


17.886 


a3.S73 


a, 754 


2,196 


375 



83»«a4 



Of the imports of wall paper, $82,486 passed through the custom- 
house of Buenos Ayres and $738 through that of Rosario. The 
custom-house valuation of this class of paper is 25 cents per kilogram 
(2.2046 pounds) for ordinary print; 70 cents for- gilded, silvered, or 
bronzed; $1 for velvet paper, plain; $1.80 for velvet paper, gilded, 
silvered, or bronzed; $2 for albuminated paper — in all cases gross 
weight. The duty is 25 cents ad valorem per kilogram. 

SILK PAPER. 

For the year 1895, the importations of silk paper were 30,861 
kilograms (68,047 pounds), valued at $15,430, the most of it coming 
from Germany: 



Countries. 



Germany 

Belgium 

United States... 

France 

luly 

Great Britain... 
Other countries 

Total , 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

4»,587 
6,925 
1.884 
3.440 
',478 

12,679 

54 



68,047 



Value. 



$9,43' 

1,570 

427 

780 

335 

8,875 

12 



«5,43o 



The whole passed through the custom-house of Buenos Ayres. 
The duty is 25 per cent ad valorem on a valuation of 40 cents per 
kilogram (2.2046 pounds). 



PAPER FOR OTHER USES. 



The total quantity imported in 1895 ^^^ 97,553 kilograms (215,- 
104 pounds), valued at $48,776. It was imported from the following 
countries: 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



23 



Countries. 



Quantity. 



Value. 



i P9uiuis. 

Germany.- I 1x6,948 

Belcrium ' 26,200 

Spain 1,080 

United States ' 13,398 

France 16,650 

Italy .« j 6.452 

Great Britain ' ^0,379 

Other countries 3>997 

TotaL ^ ! 215,104 



$'8,843 
5»943 

3. 047 
3.8ai 
1.407 
4,6ao 
850 



48,716 



This article was almost exclusively imported through the custom- 
house of Buenos Ayres. The duty is 25 cents ad valorem on a value 
of 50 cents per kilogram. 

PASTEBOARD. 

The quantity of pasteboard, or carton, paper imported into the 
Argentine Republic during 1895 was 1,240,649 kilograms (2,735,730 
pounds), valued at $129,444, of which about one-half came from 
Germany and nearly all the rest from Belgium. The following are 
the returns: 



Countries. 



Germany 

Belgium 

Spain 

United States ... 

France ^ 

luly 

Great Britain... 
Other countries 

TotaL 



Quantity. , Value. 



Pounds. 

«.37«.528 

1,098,727 

7.33^ 

408 

20. 575 
141,711 

9»,703 
2.714 

2.753.698 



$67,036 

48,623 

498 

15 
982 

8.727 

3.465 

98 



129,444 



All this passed through the custom-house of Buenos Ayres. The 
duty on pasteboard is 25 per cent on a valuation of 8 cents per kilo- 
gram (2.2046 pounds) for ordinary and of 15 cents per kilogram for 
the finer qualities. 

CARDBOARD. 

The import of cardboard, especially for playing cards, in 1895, 
was 21,473 kilograms (47,348 pounds), valued at $3,320, of which 
16,811 kilograms came from Spain, 2,741 kilograms from Germany, 
740 kilograms from Italy, and the rest from France and Belgium, all 
of it passing through the Buenos Ayres custom-house. The imports 
of cardboard for other purposes than playing cards amounted in 



24 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



1895 ^^ i79»792 kilograms (396,441 pounds), valued at $37,118, and 
it came from the following countries: 



Countries. 



Germany 

Belgium 

Spain 

United States... 

France 

Italy 

Great Britain ... 
Other countries 

Total 



(Quantity. 


Value. 


Pounds. 




i3»iOQ5 


$xx.376 


' 174.022 


'7.376 


3.35a 


228 


a. 363 


262 


16,313 


«.32< 


60,230 


5.670 


7.440 


843 


626 


4» 


396,441 


37. "8 



The duty on cardboard, whether plain or for playing cards, is 25 
per cent on a valuation of 25 cents per kilogram (2.2046 pounds). 

PRINfE MATERIALS. 

I have, in the foregoing tables, included everything in the paper 
line imported into the Argentine Republic. I may add several arti- 
cles which have likewise been imported as prime materials used in 
the manufacture of paper here in the country. 

Potato starch. — The quantity imported in 1895 was 58,500 kilo- 
grams (128,992 pounds), valued at $23,910. Of this, 12,000 kilograms 
(26,400 pounds) came from Germany and 46,500 kilograms (102,532 
pounds) from Italy. The duty is 2^ per cent ad valorem. 

Paper stock. — The amount imported in 1895 was 4,322,037 kilo- 
grams (9,530,091 pounds), valued at $172,881. It all came from 
Belgium, except 711,316 kilograms (1,568,845 pounds), which was 
furnished by Great Britain. The duty is likewise 2^ per cent ad 
valorem. 

Sulphate of ammonia. — The imports of this article amounted in 
1895 to 257,586 kilograms (607,667 pounds), valued at $25,759. It 
all came from Belgium. The duty is 5 per cent on a valuation of $1 
per kilogram (2.2046 pounds). 

MANUFACTURED ARTICLES. 

I add to this report the following articles manufactured from pa- 
per which were imported during the year 1895: 

Albums. — The number of albums imported was 443 dozen, all of 
which came from Germany. Their value was $6,412. The duty is 
25 per cent, the valuation being $2.50 per dozen for ordinary, $6 per 
dozen for fine, and $1 2 per dozen for leather. On the finer varieties, 
with ornamentation, the valuation runs from $25 to $250 per dozen. 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



25 



Printed books and pamphlets, — The quantity imported was 404,145 
kilograms (891,440 pounds), valued at $202,068. They were im- 
ported from the following countries: 



Countries. 



Germany. 

Belgium 

Spain.- 

United States- 
France 

Italy 

Great Britain... 
Other countries, 

ToUl 



Quantity. 



Pounds. 

7o»979 
47,02a 

'37.«93 
66,979 
186,214 
211,318 
119,986 

5».769 



891,440 



Value. 



$16,094 
10,662 

3«.«>S 
>5.i87 

41,725 
47.918 

27.639 
".73B 

202,068 



The duty on printed matter generally is 5 per cent ad valorem 
on a valuation of 40 cents per kilogram (2.2046 pounds); on books 
bound in pasteboard, the duty is 25 per cent and the valuation 50 
cents per kilogram ; on books bound in russia leather or its imita- 
tions, the duty is 25 per cent on a valliation of $10 per kilogram; on 
books bound in pearl, tortoise shell, ivory, or fine metal, the duty is 
25 per cent on a valuation of $25 per kilogram. 

Blank books. — The blank books imported in 1895 amounted to 
138,815 kilograms (306,087 pounds), valued at $76,066. They came 
from the following countries: 



Countries. 



Germany.. 

Belgium 

Spain 

United Sutes..... 

France 

Italy 

Great Britain.... 
Other countries. 

ToUl 



Quantity. 



306,087 



Value. 








Pounds. 




64,240 


$»7.747 


31.814 


9,668 


7.99» 


1,840 


X.372 


435 


59.460 


«6,974 


35.919 


5.475 


102,275 


22,948 


3,016 


979 



76,066 



Of the blank books imported, $64,007 were entered at the custom- 
house of Buenos Ayres, the balance passing through that of Rosario. 
The duty on blank books is 25 per cent ad valorem. The official 
value of blank books in pasteboard is 30 cents per kilogram (2.2046 
pounds; on blank books bound in leather, 70 cents per kilogram ; on 
blank books in fine bindings, from $10 to $25 per kilogram. 

Music. — The printed music imported in 1895 was 6,308 kilograms. 



26 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



valued at $5,044. The printed music came from the following coun- 
tries : 



Countries. 



Quantity. 



Germany 

Belgium 

Spain 

United States... 

France 

Italy 

Great Britain... 
Other countries, 

Toul 



Value. 



Pounds. 




9,OOQ 


$3,268 


265 


96 


536 


"94 


994 


361 


1.380 


2«3 


7Q2 


287 


670 


243 


267 


382 


»3.9»3 


5. 044 



The reason there is so little music imported is that there are very 
few patents or commercial marks obtained for foreign music, and 
such music is at once republished in the country. The duty on 
printed music is 25 per cent on a valuation of 80 cents per kilogram 
(2.2046 pounds). 

Playing cards. — Nearly all the playing cards are now manufactured 
in the country, the duty being quite exceptional, with a view to en- 
courage home manufacturers. The quantity imported in 1895 ^^^ 
349 gross, valued at $3,490. Nearly all the playing cards came from 
France, Italy, and Spain — the kind of cards generally used here 
being different from those in use in Great Britain and the United 
States. The duty on playing cards is $15 per gross, thus making 
their importation almost prohibitive. 

Papier-mach/. — The amount of the importation of the products of 
papier-mach6 in 1895 was $54,072, nearly one-half of which came 
from Germany; Belgium, France, and Great Britain furnished nearly 
all the rest, the United States being put down in the returns for 
$1,357. The duty is 25 per cent ad valorem on a valuation of 50 
cents per kilogram (2.2046 pounds). 

Photographic products, — This class of goods, which includes photo- 
graphs, oleographs, engravings, maps, etc., were imported to the 
value of $13,813, nearly all from Germany, France, Italy, and Great 
Britain. The duty is 5 per cent ad valorem on a valuation of from 
$3 to $6 per dozen. 

Other paper articles. — Besides the above, the custom-house returns 
show the importation of other printed matter and other paper prod- 
ucts to the value of $327,870, most of these coming from Germany, 
Belgium, France, Italy, and Great Britain, the United States con- 
tributing to the value of $10,300. Whatever these unenumerated 
articles were, they paid a duty of 25 per cent on the declared value. 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 27 

PACKING. 

In regard to packing, different shippers have different ways. The 
larger sizes of paper for newspapers generally come rolled on strong 
spools or bobbins. The smaller sizes are packed flat. Book and 
writing papers are likewise usually packed flat, in ream packets of 
500 sheets. Letter papers generally come in packets of 200 sheets, 
folded. For protection against dampness or moisture, in the case 
of fine papers, the boxes are tin lined. 

TERMS OF SALE AND PAYMENT. 

Like all other imported goods, the terms of sale or payment are 
conventional, depending on previous arrangement between the par- 
ties. Paper from the United States, when ordered direct, is gener- 
ally cash on the signing of the bill of lading, or it is consigned to 
some banking house here, with the bill of lading, and delivered upon 
the payment of the amount to the bank. European firms are more 
liberal in their dealings with Argentine merchants, and, to well- 
accredited houses, they allow five or six months time, without interest. 

PRINCIPAL FIRMS IN PAPER BUSINESS. 

The names of the principal firms handling paper in this market 
are S. Ostwald & Co., E. A. Estrada & Co., Sinclair Gilchrist, Ja- 
cobo Penser, A. W. Best & Co., J. Schurer-Stolle, Mascias Rodri- 
guez & Co., Wiengreen & Co., and Galli Hermanos, any or which, 
upon request, will furnish American merchants and manufacturers 
full details in regard to the kinds and qualities of papers most in 

request in the Argentine Republic. 

E. L. Baker, 

Buenos Ayres, March 22^ 1^97- Consul. 



BRAZIL. 
PARA. 



Imports, — All kinds of fine writing paper are imported, the best 
grades coming principally from France, with Germany next. 

Prices. — Prices of the better grades range from 5 to 24 cents per 
pound; ordinary, from 40 cents to $2.40 per ream. 

Terms. — With few exceptions, goods are sold on from sixty to 
ninety days* time. Payment is made by bills of exchange on London 
bankers at ninety days' sight. 

Dealers. — The principal firms importing paper are Alfredo Silva 
& Co., A. Faciola, Tavares, Cardoso & Co., A. Jofto de C. Macedo, 
and A. Carlos da Serra Ferreira. 



28 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



Packing, — The finer grades are packed in boxes the same as any 
other merchandise for export. 

Consumption. — The quantity of paper used annually is large. I 
could not obtain an approximation of the amount. All blank books 
and paper used by commercial houses are prepared here. 

American paper, — It is claimed by dealers here that American pa- 
per is not much imported because American manufacturers do not 
send samples, prices, and terms, as European houses do. Each mail 
from Europe brings to the various dealers samples and prices, 
which enable them to place their orders where they can buy to the 
best advantage. If American manufacturers would adopt the same 
policy, there is no reason why they should not obtain a good share 
of this trade. 

American mill machinery, — A paper mill equipped with American 
machinery was established here a little over three years ago, with a 
capital of $120,000, to manufacture the ordinary grades of paper, 
such as wrapping and paper used in printing newspapers. It was 
the intention to make paper from the fiber of the banana stalks, 
which, up to the present, has only been an experiment, from which 
satisfactory results have not been obtained. The mill is subsidized 
by the State with a guaranty of 6 per cent on the capital. 

George G, Mathews, Jr., 
Para, April 24, iSqj. Consul. 



PERNAMBUCO. 

Kinds consumed, — The kinds of fine writing paper in use in this 
district are ledger, bonds, linen laid and wove, fine, superfine, extra 
superfine — all flat, not folded. Fine ledger paper comes mostly from 
France, but of late small quantities have been introduced from the 
United States, purchased from the Carew Manufacturing Company, 
and have given entire satisfaction. The sizes and weights mostly in 
use for ledger purposes are: 



Sizes. 


Weights. 


Centimeters. 


Inches. 


Kilograms. Pounds. 


36 by 46 


Z4.3 by 18. 1 


8 to 10 


17.6 to 22 


41 by 53 


15.7 by 20.9 


II to 13 


24 to 29 


45 by 56 


17.7 by 22 


14 to 16 


30.8 to 35.3 


so by 65 


19.7 by 25.6 


18 to 22 


39.7 to 46.5 


56 by 7a 


22 by 28.3 


27 to 30 


59.5 to 66.1 


57 by 80 


22.4 by 31.5 


34 to 35 


74.910 77.1 


63 by 90 


24-8by35.4 


45 to 57 


99.2 to 125.6 



Bond paper of the best quality and of popular size is used here. 
Linen laid and wove, fine, superfine, and extra superfine come gen- 
erally from Germany. 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 29 

Prices. — Average prices of each kind are: Ledger paper, $24 per 
100 kilograms (220.46 pounds) for common grades and $30 for the 
highest grade; bond paper, 12 cents per pound (mostly from United 
States) ; linen laid and wove, fine, superfine, and extra superfine 
range from 22 to 50 cents in boxes of 50 sheets and 50 envelopes. 

Terms. — Terms of sale are three months' credit; terms of pay- 
ment are ninety-day drafts. 

Dealers. — The principal firms handling paper are: Laemert & Co., 
Arthur de Mattos, Ramiro M. Costa & Co., J. W. de Medeiros & 
Co., Israel & Braga, Nogueira Irmftos, Francisco Nogueira & Co., 
Hugo & Co., and F. P. Boulitreau. 

Packing. — The manner of packing is usually in wood boxes, tin 
lined, holding about 200 pounds each. This can not be improved 
upon for the convenience of this market. 

Quantities consumed. — Statistics are of such a character as to 
make it very difficult to ascertain the quantity of paper used, but 
the custom-house books taken as a guide would indicate that about 
$20,000 worth of the mentioned grades of paper are introduced an- 
nually. 

John Malcolm Johnstone, 

Pernambuco, April 2j^ 1^97- Consul. 



RIO DE JANEIRO. 

I am indebted to Mr. John Crashley, of No. 67 Rua do Ouvidon, 
who does a large book and stationery business, for much of the infor- 
mation in this report. 

Kinds consumed. — Bonds, linen laid (in small quantities), linen 
Wove (in large quantities) ; fine, in medium-sized sheets about 47 by 
58 centimeters (18.2 by 22.8 inches); flat, in reams of 500 sheets, 
Weighing 14, 16, 18, and 22 pounds per ream (English and German 
manufacture); ledger paper, very little used. For general book work 
a heavier woven paper of different sizes and qualities is used. 

Prices. — Average prices, from 7s. to 25s. ($1.70 to $6. 08) per ream, 
approximately. 

Terms. — Against ninety or one hundred and twenty days sight 
bills, through banks; bill of lading, either direct or through banks, 
against accepted bill. 

Dealers. — Launeys & Co., 51 Rua General Camara; Luiz Macedo, 
64 Rua da Quitauda; Ribeiro Macedo & Co., 72 Rua da Quitauda; 
Leuziugre Irmaos, 31 Rua do Ouvidon; Compafiia Typographica do 
Brazil, 93 Rua das Invalidos; Mendes Marques & Co., 38 Rua do 
Ouvidon; Gepp, Edwards & Co., 64 Rua i'* de Margo; Alexandre 



30 TAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

Ribeiro & Co., Rua Hospicio; Henry Staltz & Co., 63 Rua do 
Alfaudega. 

Packing. — Printing and writing paper of any kind should be 
packed separately, because of the difference in duties. Packages 
must be able to stand rough handling. 

No statistics have been compiled by the custom-house as to the 
quantities or kinds of paper imported or consumed. 

John T. Lewis, 
Rio de Janeiro, March 2j, iSg^. Consul-General. 



RIO GRANDE DO SUL. 

Kinds consumed. — The principal kinds of paper (all flat, not folded) 
used here are linen laid and wove, fine, and superfine. Bond and 
ledger are not imported. 

Prices. — The average prices per ream of 480 sheets, 46 by 59 centi^ 
meters (18. i by 23.2 inches), free on board at London, are: Linen 
laid, fine, $2.43; linen laid, superfine, $3.65; wove, fine, $2.19; 
wove, superfine, $2.43. 

Terms. — The terms of sale are discount from 10 to 35 per cent. 
Nearly all stationery imported here is bought through commission 
houses in Europe. The terms of payment are frequently on presenta- 
tion of bank draft, on bill of lading being handed over; at other times 
commissioners in Europe open a credit to their order givers, who 
remit after receipt of goods. 

Dealers. — The principal firms handling paper are R. Strauch, 
Livraria Rio Grandense, Carlos Pinto & Co., successors to Livraria 
Americana, and Telles, jr. 

Packing. — The paper is packed in various ways — fine qualities in 
cases, inferior and lighter qualities in hessians and baled, having top 
and bottom board covering and fastened with iron hoops. 

Frank G. Berg, 
Rio Grande do Sul, April 14^ 1^97- Vice-Consul. 



BRITISH GUIANA. 

The trade in writing and printing paper is practically controlled 
by three firms or houses, who draw their supplies chiefly from Great 
Britain, and, to a less extent, from Holland and France. 

The firms alluded to are Bialdwin & Co., James Thomson, pub- 
lisher of the Argosy (newspaper), and C. K. Jardine, proprietor of 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGxN COUNTRIES. 



31 



the Daily Chronicle and printer to the Government of British Guiana. 
These houses have their business agents in Great Britain, all of 
long standing, through whom their supplies are obtained from first 
hands. 

In connection with the subject, I subjoin a statement which has 
been prepared by Mr. C. K. Jardine at the request of this consulate, 
and which appears to cover all technical points in connection there- 
with, so far as information is obtainable. 

Writing paper and stationery are not included in the schedule of 
specific duties, but are subject to the ad valorem rate of 10 percent. 

Under the heading ''General imports into the colony of British 
Guiana," contained in the latest issue of the official blue book, the 
following particulars relative to paper are enumerated : 



Countries. 



Manufactures of paper, 

United Kingdom 

United Sutes. 

British West Indies 

Otber countries... 

Total 

Paper o/toood or straw. 

United Kingdom 

Holland 

Toul 



Quantity. 



Packages. 

531 
99 

2 
18 

650 



Value.* 



♦7.178.3* 
863.70 

117.74 
409.26 



8,569.02 



9.390 
1.013 



10,403 



Duties (10 
per cent). 



♦7»7.83 

86.37 
11.77 

40.93 



856.90 



5.703.67 
762.52 



570.36 
76.25 



6,466.19 



646.61 



* United States currency. 

The above figures are, of course, general, and the contents, weight, 
and value of the packages enumerated not specified. In consequence 
of this, there is no way of arriving at an idea of even the approximate 
quantity of the different styles or qualities of writing paper imported. 

It must be admitted that the present outlook for opening trade 
in the lines indicated by our American paper manufacturers is not 
encouraging in view of the depression that exists in all branches 
of trade and industry in this colony; but if, having this fact in 
view, our manufacturers still feel inclined to put forth an effort 
to establish trade relations, it would be advisable to send a rep- 
resentative with samples and full information as to the propositions 
they are prepared to make. Even with this precaution, the attain- 
ment of their object would be an uphill work, at least at the present 
time. 

GUSTAV H. RlCHTER, 

Demerara, March //, iS^J, Vice-Consul. 



32 PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

c. k. jardine to vice-consul richter. 

Office of the Daily Chronicle, 

Demerara^ March i6^ 'Sqr^. 

Dear Sir: In reply to your request for information relating to the paper trade 
of this colony, I have to state as follows: 

Kinds. — Of fine writing papers, there is not a large variety used in this colony, 
and of handmade papers, hardly any except what is used for a few of the larger 
account books. Nearly all our fine writing papers are imported from Great Britain. 
The quality of writing papers comprise extra superfine, superfine, and fine tub- 
sized papers. Of engine-sized papers, a small quantity is also imported. 

Prices. — The prices average from 3d. to is. per pound. 

Terms. — Very few consignments of paper arc received in this colony, nearly all 
that is imported coming on merchants' account, and through agents, most of whom 
are in London. The terms of payment are usually cash on receipt of invoice by 
agent, less 5 per cent discount. 

Dealers. — There are only three firms in the colony handling writing papers; 
these are Baldwin & Co., James Thomson, and myself. 

Packing. — All writing papers are packed in wooden cases lined with oilcloth, 
and the average weight of each package is 560 pounds. 

Quantities consumed. — The approximate quantity of paper used in the colony 

in the course of a year I am unable to state. 

C. K. Jardine. 



CHILE. 



I have the honor to transmit the following, in reply to circular 
from the Department dated January 6, 1897, on the subject of fine 
writing papers. 

Kinds consumed. — Fine writing papers consumed here are ledger, 
medium qualities of cream laid and wove, linen paper, and bonds, 
the two latter having comparatively small sale. Writing and account- 
book papers are mostly of English manufacture. Glazed printing 
and book papers, label and tinted papers are principally of German 
and Belgian manufacture. The average prices of these papers de- 
pends entirely upon the quality. 

Prices. — Mr. L. F. Westcott, of the firm of Westcott & Co., a 
leading importing and jobbing house of this city, has kindly fur- 
nished me the following prices paid by them in Great Britain : Led- 
ger, 8 to 15 cents per pound ; medium quality of cream laid and wove, 
6 to 12 cents; linen, 12 to 18 cents; and bonds, 12 to 18 cents (manu- 
facturers' prices). Of the total quantity of paper of the classes 
referred to imported into Chile, only a small portion, not more than 
15 per cent of the whole, will average 6 cents per pound, manufac- 
turers' cost. 

Terms. — The average credits extended by European houses to 
importers of these goods are from thirty to ninety days after receipt 
of bill of lading. Owing to the limited capital usually invested in the 
majority of the retail concerns, which look to the importer for their 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 33 

supplies, credits are very carefully watched and the time allowed for 
payments does not, as a rule, exceed ninety days. 

Dealers. — The principal firms importing and dealing in these goods 
are Westcott & Co., J. W. Hardy, Guillermo Helfmann, and Kier- 
singer & Co., of this city, and Hume & Co., of Santiago. These 
firms are now handling American paper to some extent, and can 
easily be induced to handle more. It would be advantageous to the 
manufacturers and exporters to send them samples. They can be 
sent in the mails, gotten up in book form, neat and attractive. 

Packing. — The finer qualities of paper arrive here in cases, well 
packed, while the cheaper grades, to save freight, come in bales. 
The size and weight of packages are immaterial. There seems to 
be no preference in this respect, as transportation is entirely by rail 
and steamer, and all freights are calculated by cubic measure. 

The question of entering this market depends entirely upon 
whether our manufacturers are able to compete in price and quality 
with those of Great Britain, Germany, and Belgium. 

I desire to call their attention to the fact that a quantity of paper 

used by the Department of State, such as is forwarded for the use 

of this consulate (and if to this, of course, to other consulates and 

legations), is included in the class I am requested to report upon, and 

is of British manufacture. While they are clamoring for outside 

markets, our manufacturers permit the sale of foreign paper within 

200 or 300 miles of their factories. 

James M. Dobbs, 

Valparaiso, March 31^ ^^97- Consul. 



COLOMBIA. 
BARRANQUILLA. 

Kinds and prices. — Official paper, 32 by 44 centimeters (12.6 by 
17.3 inches) is imported from Germany, and costs there from 1.15 to 
3 marks (27.4 to 70.5 cents) per ream of 400 sheets. Much of this 
paper is watermarked ** Original Congo Mills." Letter paper from 
Germany, 22 by 27 centimeters (8.7 by 10.6 inches), in reams of 400 
sheets, costs from 2.45 to 6 marks (57 cents to $1.41). The same sized 
paper from Milan, Italy, costs 4.25 francs (82 cents) per ream of 400 

sheets. 

A linen paper 22 by 27 centimeters (8.7 by 10.6 inches) is im- 
ported from France; also, fine and superfine in the same sizes. The 
wholesale prices are refused me, but the retail prices are, for the linen, 
in reams of 500 sheets, $4 (gold), and for the fine and superfine, $2.40 
to $2.80. I found a fine white paper used for printing bills of lading, 
watermarked with a bull's head and ** Howard Jones, London." 
No. 204 3. 



34 PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

Ledgers and journals imported from France, 30 by 44 centimeters 
(11. 8 by 17.3 inches), brass corners, cost 60 francs ($11.58). 

Merchants here do not buy from the manufacturer direct, but 
through commission houses. They order printing paper and pack- 
ing paper by the pound, but official and writing paper always by the 
ream. All official paper, as well as writing paper imported, is folded. 

Terms. — On merchandise from the United States, three to four 
months is given, with interest at the rate of 6 per cent, charged from 
date of invoice, but if cash is paid, the commission house handling 
the merchandise charges only 2 per cent commission. Europe gives 
from six to eight months, with 6 per cent interest from date of in- 
voice; if cash is paid, a discount of 2 to 3 per cent is allowed. 

Dealers, — Villan, Bell & Co., Oswald Berne & Co., Gieseken, 
Ringe & Co., Flohr, Price & Co., Correa & Helm, A. Brun, Lopez 
Penha, J. A. Glen, M. S. Insignares, Pacini y Hermano, J. Mar- 
tinez, S. Senior, De Sola & Co., Wehdeking, Focke & Co., Castel- 
lano & Co., and La Compafiia Colombiana de Transportes (for their 
own use). 

Packing. — Official paper from Germany is packed in bales of from 
12 to 25 reams, according to weight of paper, which weigh about 125 
pounds. The bales are wrapped in strong paper and covered with 
burlap, with half-inch boards on top and bottom of packages, se- 
cured by two bands of hoop iron. Paper packed in this manner ar- 
rives in good order. Letter paper from France and Italy is packed 
in boxes (the boxes are strong but light, as duty is paid by weight 
of entire package). If the merchandise is intended for the coast 
towns, the box or package may be of any size, but if intended for 
the interior, it must be in boxes or packages of 125 pounds, well and 
securely packed so as to keep dry and of such shape as to be easily 
transported on mule back. A mule load is from 250 to 260 pounds. 

Quantities consumed. — During the year 1896 about $36,000 worth 
was imported through the Barranquilla custom-house. 

The seaport towns of Rio Hacha and Santa Marta, with popula- 
tions of 5,000 and 7,000, respectively, import only that paper which 
is required for their own use. During the year ended June, 1896, 
Rio Hacha imported from Europe 2,079 pounds of all classes of 
paper. The dealers in Rio Hacha are Victor Dugand and T. V. 
Henriquez. 

Santa Marta, the capital of the department, imports about 7,000 

pounds of all classes of paper. The dealers there are A. Perez, 

Manuel Avendafios, S. Francisco Noguera, Pedro Sales, and Diez 

Granados y Hermanos. The buyer for the department government 

is Joaquin Cevallos. 

John Bidlake, 

Barranquilla, February d, iSgj. Consul. 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 35 

BOGOTA. 

Kinds consumed. — Fine linen paper is only imported into this 
country for use in private correspondence. It is not introduced 
flat, but cut in quarto size, in single and double sheets, mostly ruled. 
A small quantity (about 20 per cent) is imported in foolscap size for 
legal purposes. In commercial circles, the paper most in use is 
"Crane Brothers' Japanese linen," either woven or laid, and similar 
qualities of different weights. Paper is sold here in reams of 400 
sheets, quarto size. It is usually ordered in blocks of 100 sheets. 

Prices, — It is not the custom here to sell paper by the pound, but 
by the ream, which is worth, in Bogotd, from $10 to $16 (Colombian), 
according to weight. Present exchange for United States gold is 
150 per cent premium. 

Terms. — Cash. 

Dealers. — Camacho Roldan & Tamayo, Rafael Balcazer, Jorge 
Roa, and Jos6 M. Samper Matiz. 

Packing. — Fine paper should be packed in cases of 160 to 170 
pounds gross. Cases should be lined with tin or covered with 
waterproof cloth. 

Quantities consumed. — It is estimated that the quantity of fine writ- 
ing paper imported yearly into Bogotd amounts to about 2,000 reams. 
Duties are paid on gross weight; it is therefore recommended that 

the cases be light, but strong. 

Jacob Sleeper, 

Bogota, April 2^^ ^^97- Consul- General. 



CUCUTA. 

Owing to the peculiar condition of trade here it is difficult to re- 
ply to the circular of the Department with regard to paper, and the 
following is all the information I am able to furnish on the subject. 

Kinds consumed. — Fine writing paper is not in great demand here, 
and little or none is imported for sale. All large houses import their 
own stationery for use in their offices. 

Price. — The business, as conducted here, is entirely retail, and the 
paper is sold by the ream or less, and on the average at about $4. 

Terms. — Terms of sale are from cash to six months, depending 
entirely on quantity bought. All buying is done in the United States 
and Europe, on the basis of four to nine months. Terms of pay- 
ment, however, depend almost entirely on whether the account is 
covered in coffee or by drafts. 

Dealers. — There are no firms here who deal exclusively in paper. 
Practically, all the firms named in the Commercial Directory of 
American Republics import more or less paper. 



36 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



Packing, — Goods should never be shipped in packages weighing 
more than 125 kilograms (275 pounds). The French system of pack- 
ing — in square, wooden boxes, with iron bands at the corners, each 
weighing 62}^ kilograms (138 pounds) — is the best. 

Quantities consumed, — In the absence of statistics, it is absolutely 

impossible to make a sufficiently accurate estimate of the approximate 

quantity of paper used here. 

Philip Tillinghast, Jr., 

CucuTA, May 27, 18^7. Consular Agent. 



PANAMA. 

Kinds consumed, — The paper for writing is, as a rule, linen (either 
ruled or unruled), fine, superfine, letter, cap, and note. American 
extra superfine is not used here on account of the dampness of the 
climate. Irish, Belgian, German, and French extra superfine is used. 

Prices, — Paper is not sold by the pound, except wrapping paper. 
It is sold by the ream. Through the kindness of a French dealer, 
Mr. Heurtematte, I am enabled to give selling figures here for several 
makes: 



Marks. 



Cap. 

3 P, not ruled 

Ruled: 

305 

303 

858 

30a 

LetteVy ruled. 

8 K, American 

French: 

6K - 

3 Faber '. 

439 Cc D 

438 Cu D 

10 K 

884 K 



Price per ream. 



Pesos. 
2.20 

3.00 
3-So 
4.00 
4.00 

1.40 

1.40 
I. so 
2.00 
a. 00 
2.20 
2.40 



$1.03 

Z.40 
1.64 
1.87 
1.87 



.65 Ji 

70 

94 

94 

03 
12 



Paper for newspapers is all American. For the dailies, very large 
size, $6.50 ($3.04 in United States currency) per ream; for the week- 
lies, large size, $7.50 ($3.51 in United States currency) per ream. 

Good American paper for job work is worth from 4 to 12 pesos 
($1.87 to $5.62) per ream, and colored paper the same price. White 
paper for posters is worth $4 (Colombian) per ream. All this paper 
comes from the United States. 

Wrapping paper of wood pulp or straw is worth 2 cents (United 
States) per pound. Norwegian seems to have the preference. Fine 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 37 

wrapping paper comes from Paris, and is worth 23^ cents (11 cents 
in United States currency), delivered here. 

Terms, — Large lots are sold somewhat cheaper than the forego- 
ing. Terms of payment, from four to six months. 

Dealers, — The Star and Herald Publishing Company, El Chronista 
Publishing Company, N. Remon, M. Heurtematte & Co., and Y. 
Preciado. Well-to-do merchants, as a rule, import their own paper. 

Packing. — No better packing can be done than that by our dis- 
patch agent in New York — Mr. I. P. Roosa — a solid, wooden box, 
lined with tin. For any point on the coast, the size of the package 
does not matter; but when it is to be packed on mules, the pack- 
age should not weigh over 125 pounds and should be of proper 
shape for such mode of conveyance. It would be better when it is 
to be loaded on mules that the inside tin cover be hermetically 
sealed or soldered. 

Quantities consumed, — As near as I can find out, the value of the 
paper consumed in Panama amounts to from 25,000 to 30,000 pesos 
($12,700 to $14,040) per annum. 

The paper used by the newspapers and the wrapping paper, 
whether wood pulp or straw, is not included in the foregoing esti- 
mate. Neither does the estimate include the paper used by the Pan- 
ama Railroad, the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, and the Panama 
Canal Company. These companies use more paper than all the rest 
of the town. The two former companies get all their stationery 
from the United States; the latter company from France. 

As a whole, the paper of the United States gives fair satisfaction, 
but the price is from 25 to 30 per cent higher than the European. 

The great trouble with paper here is the blurring, more particu- 
lar^ with United States paper. Some chemical preparation should 
be devised to prevent this. 

Nearly all books — that is to say, ledgers, hotel registers, etc. — 
come from Europe. Books from the United States, with the excep- 
tion of those sent by the Department of State, can hardly be 
used after two or three years, on account of blurring. There are 
records in this office the writing of which has become so dim that 
they can hardly be read. Whether this is due to the ink or the 
climate, I can not say — to both, probably. 

American envelopes are very defective on account of the mucilage. 
It is impossible to open them without wetting. This is not the case 
with European envelopes. 

Mr. Heurtematte receives much writing paper from the United 
States, not because he wants to, but because he is an exporter and 
importer. He showed me a bill rendered by a house in New York 
for a lot of supplies. This bill was on splendid paper, and, of course, 



38 PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 

it was American paper, but the paper sent to Mr. Heurtematte did not 
begin to compare with it, although first-class paper was called and 
paid for. 

I have sample books of all sorts of European papers, and I will 
forward them, should the Department so desire. I do not send them 
with this report because of the postage expense. 

Victor Vifquain, 
Panama, February 21^ ^Sgj. Consul- General, 



ECUADOR. 

Owing to the dreadful condition of the city, brought about by the 
fire of October and the immense amount of sickness — the health 
conditions being worse than ever known in recent years — I have found 
it impossible to get any data of value. From one-third to one-half 
of all employees in mercantile houses have been sick for the last 
three months and there is no sign of improvement yet. So it is 
impossible to get the attention of any one long enough to give any 
information of a definite character. 

I can only report in a general way that the great bulk of the 
papers used by the people in general is imported from Spain or 
France, and that used by the commercial houses, from those coun- 
tries, England, the United States, and Germany. The stamped 
paper of the Government comes from the United States or England, 
sometimes one, sometimes the other. The bank bills are supplied 
by the American Bank Note Company. 

I will say, further, that in a country like this, such information as 
is desired could only be satisfactorily obtained by an expert repre- 
sentative of dealers or manufacturers, who would spend weeks or 
months of investigation. The dealers in these countries are very 
loath to give up the secrets of their business. 

The principal importers of writing papers and stationery are 

Pedro Janer y Hijo, Manuel Orantia, Novero & Co., and Noverto, 

Osa & Co. 

Georoe G. Dillard, 

Guayaquil, March 27, 1S97. Consul-General. 



PARAGUAY. 



The paper dealers here are all Germans and import all their 
paper direct from Germany or through houses in Montevideo. 
There is no paper manufactured in the country, and I find these 
dealers rather loath to give any information. The information de- 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 39 

sired by the Department will have to be secured from the bureau of 

information. I shall make every effort to secure the same and 

forward as directed. 

Samuel W. Thom6, 

Asuncion, March 2, i8gy. Consul. 

PERU. 

Kinds consumed. — Ledgers, for fine-class blank books, flat, average 
weight 36 to 40 pounds, medium and royal; bonds, for shares, etc., 
average 32 pounds; double foolscap; linens, laid, principally for cor- 
respondence (letters, etc.), in commercial, letter, and note size — 
when plain, packed flat, in reams of 500; when ruled, folded, in half- 
reams. The paper consumed in Peru is chiefly German and Belgian. 

Prices. — Ledgers, 16 to 24 cents per pound; bonds, 24 to 36 cents 
per pound; letter papers, etc., 12 cents per pound. 

Terms. — Terms of sale, according to customer; terms of payment 
range from ninety days after receipt of goods to six months from 
date of invoice, some factories giving longer time than others. 

Dealers. — Colville & Co. and J. Newton, at Callao, and Imprenta 
Gil, at Lima. 

Packing. — Fine papers, in cases, up to 300 pounds per case. 

Quantities consumed. — It is impossible to form an estimate of the 

quantity of paper used. 

Leon Jastremski, 

Callao, March /j, i8gy. Consul. 

URUGUAY. 

Kinds and prices. — The average price of white papers for duty 
purposes can be easily calculated, taking the amount of kilograms 
of each kind and the value thereof. Regarding the actual prices 
paid for the various kinds of papers at the place of purchase, I have 
to say that merchants here are not inclined to make statements in 
such direction, but judge that our paper manufacturers are well 
posted as to the prices ruling in Europe on the various kinds. 

Terms. — The terms of sales are generally long, about six months, 
against notes. Terms of payment, according to agreement. Pay- 
ments are generally made through the banks here upon London, of 
which they are branches. 

Dealers. — There are two principal firms, wholesale jobbers, hand- 
ling paper — Schmidt & Franco and Barreiro y Ramos — and a num- 
ber of smaller firms, together with the newspaper publishers, who 
buy and import direct. 

Packing. — The packing of the paper should, in my judgment, be 
the same as in the United States — packages of one-fourth and one- 



40 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



half reams for writing. As to the printing paper, I refer to my re- 
port on the ** Paper trade of Uruguay," Consular Reports No. 192 
(September, 1896), p. 176. 

Quantities consumed. — The following tables show the full extent of 
the paper trade of Uruguay in all its branches for the calendar year 
1896: 



Imported from— 



Germany 

Belgium 

Italy 

England 

Argentine Republic 

France 

Spain 



Value. 



$118,954.42 
110,634.51 

37,758.11 
18,898.49 
15,196.60 

7t25S»6 



Imported from — 



United States 

Brazil 

Portugal , 

Paraguay.^.... 

Toul ... 



Value. 



$5,241.58 

59- ao 

35.00 

5.90 



385,188.91 



Details of the imports of paper into Uruguay in i8q6. 



Whence and kinds imported. 



Quantity. 



Printed paper {vatue^ $2^0 per kilogram : duiy^ $t per kilogram^ plus s P*^ 



ccnt^ plus 2% per cent =7}^ per cent). 



England 

Italy 

France 

Germany 

Belgium 

Argentine Republic. 
Paraguay 



Kilograms. 



Toul. 



Writing paper {value^ 3S cents per kilogram : duiyy 31 Per cent^ pins s Per 

centy plus 2% per ceni=jS% per cent). 
Belgium 



Italy 

Spain 

Germany , 

France 

England 

Argentine Republic. 

United States 

Paraguay 

Portugal 



Total. 



Wrapping Paper {value ^ 1$ cents per kilogram : duty^ 5 Per cent ^ plus 2% per 

cent —y^ per cent ; specific duty^ S cents per kilogram). 
Italy 



SI f 474 
3x1838 
i3,4«8 
13,116 

10.395 

5.435 

8,075 

10 

5 

50 



Value. 



$2,448.07 
1,879.72 

«.45»-4X 

«.33oS9 

692.90 

252.62 

2.50 



8,058.81 



34,092.80 

XX. 373.50 

4,716.60 

4,678.60 

3.940.45 
2,111.52 

X.972-50 

3.50 

3.40 

35.00 



133,816 I 62,927.87 



Germany 

Belgium 

France 

Spain 

England 

Argentine Republic 

United States 

Brazil 



Total. 



322,168 
103,425 
26,357 
20,253 
X5.866 
"3. 278 

6.5x9 
2.868 

370 
5*x,i04 



51.546.88 

16,548.00 

4,2x7.12 

3,240.48 

9.538.56 

2,124.48 

1,043.04 

458.88 

59.20 

81,776.64 



PAPER TRADE IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES. 



41 



Details 0/ the imports of paper into Uruguay in i8q6 — Continued. 



Whence and kinds imported. 



Printing paper {valuta 14 cents per kilpgram : duty^ S per cent ^ plus ^^r ceni^ 

plus 2% per cent=iS}i Per cent. •) 

Germany 

Belgium 



England 

Argentine Republic, 
luly 



France 

United States. 



ToUl. 



Silk paper (value ^ lO cents per kilogram; duty^S M^ cent ^ plus 2^ percent- 

7% J*"* ^'•^ .* specif duty^ S cents per kilogram). 
England 



Sandpaper (r>alme, 20 cents per kilogram ; duty^ 31 per cent^ plus S /*''' centy 

plus 2% per cent— 38% per cent). 

United States. 

England 

Germany 



Belgium 

Argentine Republic 

Total 

Tin-foil paper {value^sf^ ^ents per kilogram). 



Germany, 
luly 



France ... 
England. 



Total. 



Wall Paper (value^ 36 cents per kilogram ; duty^ 3i Per cent^ plus 5 per cent^ 

plus 2% per cent=3S% per cent). 
Prance » 



Germany 

England 

Argentine Republic , 

United Sutes. 

Belgium 



ToUl. 



Blotting paper {value^ 35 cents per kilogram: duty^ 31 per cent ^ plus s Per 

cent, plus 2yi per cent— 38% per cent). 
England , 



Belgium 

Argentine Republic. 
Germany 



Toul. 



Quantity. 



Kilograms. 
670,652 

509.94^ 
207,213 

109,752 

40,092 

24,169 

18,790 



1,580,614 



10,527 

i,88z 

348 

225 

37 



i3.o>8 



2t377 

it3«6 

562 

JOO 



4.355 



7.958 
2,968 

1,152 
536 
120 

175 



12,909 



3.4^ 
375 
185 
105 

4.125 



Value. 



$93,891.28 

71,392.44 

29,009.8a 

15.365.28 

5,6x2.88 

3.38366 

2,630.60 



221,285.96 



2.10 



2,105.40 

376.20 

69.60 

45.00 

7.40 



2,603.60 



1.331.12 
736.96 

314.7a 
56.00 



2,438.80 



2,864.88 

1,068.48 

418.92 

192.90 

43.20 

63.00 



4.651.38 



X, 2X1. 00 

131.25 

64.75 

36.75 



1.443. 75 



*The sizes of printing paper are generally 54 by 87 centimeters (21.3 by 34.3 inches). It comes 
in large packages, no cylinder presses being in use here yet. 

I have to repeat that, in order to reach this trade, it will require 
the sending out of salesmen or the establishment of permanent 
agencies here with full lines of samples. 

Edgar Schramm, 

Montevideo, March p, iSgy. Consul. 



\ 



42 TELEGRAPHY WITHOUT WIRES IN GERMANY. 



VENEZUELA. 

I find a diffidence on the part of the importers of Puerto Cabello 
to give information regarding source, price, terms of sale, etc. 

Kinds consumed. — There are no fine writing papers imported into 
Puerto Cabello. I have never been able to obtain linen or other 
superior kinds. The sizes obtainable are foolscap, letter, and note, 
the two former also ruled for accounts; there is no binding done 
here, all blank books being imported principally from Germany. 

The main source of supply is Germany, Austria, and Switzerland, 
with lesser quantities from France and Belgium. 

Owing to lack of statistics, I regret being unable to furnish the 
amount of imports. 

Dealers. — The names of firms engaged in this trade in Puerto 
Cabello are Messrs. Mestern & Co., W. Albrect, Kolster & Romer, 
Otto Redler & Co., and L. Seidel & Co. 

Inquiries directed to these parties, with samples of paper, would 
no doubt produce good results. More direct results would be ob- 
tained by sending a representative to visit this country, and thus 
personally force sales throughout Venezuela. 

Wm. H. Volkmar, 
Puerto Cabello, February lo, iSgy. Vice-Consui. 



TELEGRAPHY WITHOUT WIRES IN GERMANY. 

Some years ago, efforts were made, with but partial success, to 
telegraph without connecting wire from the mainland to an island 
by using the sympathy that is shown by a wire buried in the earth 
on the island when a charge of electricity was sent through a simi- 
lar wire buried on the mainland. In some cases, faint reactions were 
noted in the island wire, and it was hoped that by passing and dis- 
continuing the charge through one buried wire the ticks might be 
registered by the other, and thus a sympathetic telegraphy be per- 
fected. 

Large sheets of copper were also tried in place of wire, also wires 
wound round buried magnets; but it was found that the earth dif- 
fused the electricity so much that nothing of practical value ensued. 
Other experimenters, considering the extraordinary resemblances 
between the action of electric waves and light waves through the 
air, sought for means to send electricity through the air itself. This 
has been accomplished in England by Marconi, whose fame reached 
America some time ago. But since it may be that no popular de- 



TELEGRAPHY WITHOUT WIRES IN GERMANY. 43 

scription of his method has been published, and since the experi- 
ments of Professor Rubens, of Frankfort, instructor in electric 
physics at the Berlin Polytechnic, have helped to make the method 
more precise, I venture to send the following report: 

Marconi experimented from the British mainland to an island 4 
marine miles distant. He used a generator of electric waves invented 
by the late Professor Herz, which generator throws the waves of 
electricity in all directions, as the rays of light emanate on all sides 
from a flame. 

The problem was to concentrate these rays or waves of electricity 
in one direction, namely, toward the island. This he did by placing 
a concave mirror behind the Herz generator, by which the waves 
were reflected and made parallel in the required direction. On the 
island he placed what is called a ** coherer," that is to say, a tube 
tilled with particles of metal of just the right size and quality for the 
purposes now to be set forth. The coherer was set before another 
concave mirror, so placed that it would catch the electric waves com- 
ing parallel across the water from the concave mirror and Herz 
generator on the mainland. The coherer was set exactly at the focus. 
Imagine that the Herz generator on the mainland is a flame whose 
light rays are caught by a concave mirror, thrown over to the island, 
caught there in another concave mirror and focused on the coherer. 

Now, the metal particles in this coherer are so adjusted as to size 
that the whole may be likened to a violin string, which vibrates when 
a certain sound is made by the voice. 

As one can tune a violin string to a certain note, so one can find 
the metal particles that will vibrate to an electric wave of a certain 
size. Try to pass an electric current through these particles at ordi- 
nary times and there will be no result; but when the waves gener- 
ated by the Herz generator, coming from a distance, fall on these 
particles a vibration is set up in them, they touch each other, and a 
charge of electricity applied to the tube is allowed to pass through 
and can be registered in the usual way. 

Thus, the coherer, being supplied with an ordinary battery and 
Morse electro-magnet, permits the circuit to be closed when the elec- 
tric waves from the mainland reach it. The click is registered only 
when the rays or waves from the Herz generator are reflected on it. 

The electric waves are not believed to be vibrations in the air 
itself, but rather in the ether between the particles of air. As com- 
pared to light waves, they are of enormous relative size. It will be 
noted that the electric current on the island sent through the coherer 
has no other office than to strengthen and register the effects of these 
waves or rays caught by the concave mirror and focused upon the 
coherer. 



44 TELEGRAPHY WITHOUT WIRES IN GERMANY. 

That the electric waves do in many ways act like light rays, 
though they are much longer, I saw recently demonstrated in a lecture 
I was permitted to attend at the Polytechnicum in Charlottenburg- 
Berlin. To get some idea of the relative size of electric waves 
when compared with those of light, imagine that the light waves are 
represented by the width of the Hudson River at New York City; 
then the electric waves would be represented by the Atlantic Ocean 
and Baltic Sea, say from New York to St. Petersburg. 

Or, to express it in sound waves, the waves of light are so high 
and sharp, while those of electricity are so long and deep, that the 
light waves may be compared to the highest, shrillest sound which 
the human ear can grasp, while those of electricity are comparable 
to the deepest diapason note of an organ. 

The lecture I allude to was one which Professor Rubens, a young 
German of Dutch descent, now employed as instructor at the Poly- 
technic, gave to a number of teachers. Since Herz's death in 1888, 
he said, much progress has been made in reducing the size of the 
electric-wave generator. As the size of the apparatus has a relation 
to the length of the electric waves, and as it was desirable to shorten 
these waves, the decreased size of the apparatus has been of use in 
making air telegraphy more practicable. Shorter electric waves are 
more approximate in their action to waves of light, and go further. 
Up to the present, the shortest are those of the Russian experimenter 
Lebedew,who has produced them from 6 to 7 millimeters long. Pro- 
fessor Rubens showed a thermo element, or heat catcher, invented by 
himself to take the place of Marconi's coherer, which catches, like the 
coherer, the refracted and focused electric rays. The spark, he ob- 
served, was not at all a necessary phenomenon in electricity. He 
then made many curious experiments to show the similarity in action 
of waves of light and waves of electricity, and also drew attention to 
the very different way in which electric and light waves pass through 
different substances. Thus he reflected electric waves like light, 
refracted them with prisms, and diffracted them with a wire grating 
of parallel wires, as light is diffracted by Langley's grating. He 
then showed the polarization of these rays — freely, through the fibers 
of wood longitudinally; and badly, across the fiber; easily, through 
closed books with the leaves ; and with difficulty, across. Thus, a pile 
of books or sheets of glass showed polarization like crystals under 
light. He showed, also, that, on account of the length of these waves, 
their energy was absorbed differently by different substances; thus, 
(i) water absorbs all the energy, (2) metals absorb all the energy, (3) 
glass absorbs nearly all, (4) paraffin absorbs hardly any, and (5) hard 
rubber absorbs hardly any. Thus they move through hard, black rub- 
ber and paraffin as light moves through air, glass, or water — that 



FOREIGN COMMERCIAL TRAVELERS IN EUROPE. 45 

is to say, with hardly any resistance — while glass lets very little of 
them through, and metal and water are impervious to them. 

Professor Rubens imbeds his Herz generator in petroleum for 
better isolation, and as a handy concentrator of the electric waves 
or lens, uses a round, glass bottle filled with petroleum. By placing 
in turn the glass prism, wire grating, block of wood, pile of books, 
water, paraffin, and hard rubber in the line of the unseen electric 
waves pouring from the generator and concentrator toward the wave 
catcher, he showed on an indicator the passage, easy or retarded, of 
the unseen flow or its entire interruption. 

Of course, it is difficult by verbal description to make experiments 
of this kind clear, but I trust that this summary description may 
be of use to experimenters or stimulate inventors to solve in a simpler 
and more effective way the problem of telegraphy through the air. 

Charles de Kay, 
Berlin, June 24^ ^^97- Consul-General, 



FOREIGN COMMERCIAL TRAVELERS IN EUROPE. 

The following is a summary of the requirements of foreign com- 
mercial travelers in the various European states in respect to identi- 
fication, licenses, fees, customs duties on samples, etc. I trust that 
it will be found useful to those who desire to send travelers abroad. 
I may add that it is based on the latest regulations issued by the 
various governments. 

Germany and Austria- Hungary. — Foreign commercial travelers are 
required to carry with them a certificate of identification containing 
a personal description of the owner. The certificate is to be ob- 
tained from the authorities in the traveler*s place of residence. A 
trade tax is not charged, if it can be shown that such is paid by the 
firm at their home. Sample cards having no commercial value and 
suited for samples only, are duty free; other kinds of samples are 
to bear some mark to identify them, such as a seal of wax or lead, 
or something similar, and must be mentioned on a special sample 
pass. The duty levied is returned, provided the samples are pro- 
duced as unsold within a time previously specified. 

Switzerland, — The license required is based on that issued by the 
home authorities. This license costs 100 francs ($19.30) for six 
months and 150 francs ($28.95) ^^^ ^^e year. The regulations as to 
duty on samples are the same as in Germany. 

Italy. — The license of the home authorities suffices. German 
commercial travelers are exempt from a trade tax, as per stipulation 



46 FOREIGN COMMERCIAL TRAVELERS IN EUROPE. 

in the German-Italian commercial treaty. Samples are subject to 
the same customs regulations as in Germany. 

Belgium. — Only the home license is required. The tax is 25 
francs ($4.82), but German travelers are exempt, owing to reciprocity 
in this respect. With regard to customs duty, the samples are 
treated as in Germany; but German samples that bear a German 
customs mark do not have to receive a Belgian one on entering the 
territory, and Belgian samples marked by a Belgian custom-house 
do not have to be re-marked on entering Germany. 

Holland, — The tax is 15 florins ($6.03). Samples of small value 
are duty free. In other respects, the customs regulations are similar 
to those in Germany. 

Denmark. — The license to be taken out is based on that issued by 
home authorities. The firm represented must be stated on the 
license. The tax is 160 crowns ($42.88); if, however, more than 
one firm is represented, a tax of 80 crowns ($21.44) ^or each addi- 
tional firm is charged. Moreover, foreign commercial travelers are 
only allowed to do business in the larger cities. The customs duty 
on samples is returned, provided the same are taken out of the 
country again within three months. 

Sweden and Norway. — Here the regulations are exceptionally strin- 
gent. Every foreign commercial traveler has to take out a trading 
license at the nearest police station immediately upon landing, for 
which he is to pay 100 crowns ($26.80) in advance for each month, 
or any part thereof.* The license has to be submitted to the police 
authorities at each place visited. The penalties for any violation of 
the regulations are very high. A license issued in Sweden is only 
valid in that country, and one obtained in Norway is only valid there. 
The customs regulations with regard to samples are similar to those 
in Germany. 

England. — No license is required, nor tax levied. With regard 
to the reexporting of samples, the formalities are very simple. 

Russia. — The license required is based on that issued by the home 
authorities. The tax collected is from 37 to 39 rubles ($28.56 to 
$30.10). The customs regulations are similar to those of Germany. 

Senna and Roumania. — Subjects of the most-favored states re- 
quire only the license of their home authorities, but in Roumania 
business must be done only with taxpaying traders. No tax is levied 
on the traveler. Customs regulations in regard to samples are the 
same as in Germany. 



^ A report from Consul Monaghan, of Chemnitz, dated May 25, 1897 (printed in Consular Reports 
No. 202, July, 1897, p. 460) says that the legislature at Stockholm has under consideration a bill to 
reform this evil. It is proposed, when the tax is paid, that the license shall be good for thirty con- 
secutive days, instead of for each calendar month. 



TRUSTS IN AUSTRIA. 47 

Bulgaria. — The same applies to Bulgaria, except that the home 
license is to be legalized by one of the principal chambers of com- 
merce. 

Turkey and Greece, — No special tax is levied either in Turkey or 
Greece, nor is any license required in the latter country. In both 
countries, samples of no commercial value are duty free. Other 
samples are subject to a duty of 8 per cent ad valorem, of which 7 
per cent is returned, provided the samples are taken out of the 
country within six months. In Greece, the duty is returned if 
the exportation takes place within three months. 

Spain. — Spain levies no tax on foreign commercial travelers. 
Samples remain duty free for one year. 

Theodore M. Stephan, 
Annaberg, May 27, iSgy. Consul. 



TRUSTS IN AUSTRIA. 

I have the honor to inclose herewith a copy of the bill recently 
introduced in the Reichstag for the supervision of trusts controlling 
the price of sugar, brandy, beer, oil from minerals, salt, and such 
articles of consumption as are subjected to an excise. 

There is hardly any doubt that other trusts will be put under the 
same regulations. 

It will be observed that trusts in this country meet with nearly 
as much opposition as they do in the United States. 

Max Judd, 
Vienna, June 14, i8gy. Consul-General. 



THE TRUST BILL. 

Section i. Whenever independent enterprises unite themselves for the purpose of 
influencing the conditions of production, price, and consumption of such articles 
of consumption which, like sugar, brandy, beer, oil from minerals, and salt, are 
subject to an excise, such alliances of enterprises (trusts), according to this act, are to 
be subject to the supervision of the Government. 

The same governmental supervision takes place over agreements between two 
or more home trusts and over agreements between domestic trusts and similar or- 
ganizations in foreign countries. 

Sec. 2. A trust, in order to be valid, requires in all cases a statement, under a 
notary's acknowledgment, of the following details: 

(i) Purpose and object of the trust. 

(2) Branch of trade and number of members of the trust; name of each. 

(3) Privileges and obligations of the members and contracts or agreements en- 
tered into by the members as to penalties, etc. 



48 TRUSTS IN AUSTRIA. 

(4) Seat of the trust (office of the home management), or, should it be a foreign 
trust, the name of the manager and his place of residence in Austria must be given. 

(5) Management and general features of the business done. 

(6) Names of the foreign representatives, if there are any. 

(7) Duration of the agreement made by the trust members. 

(8) Eventual agreement as to the way of settling litigations arising from the 
trust. 

Sec. 3. The provisions of the act of April 7, 1870, section 2 (law of coalition), as 
far as they concern agreements on prices of wares under section 4 of the same act 
as to trusts concerned in the proposed act are hereby annulled; the other provisions 
of the first-mentioned act stand valid. 

Any kind of agreements or settlements mentioned, either by statute or by reso- 
lution of trusts, are prohibited; any other provisions on associations and unions 
stand untouched by these presents. 

Sec. 4. Notice must be given to the authorities of all statutes of trusts. Within 
eight days at most subsequent to executing the statutes of trusts, notice is to be 
given to the Ministry of Finance. The validity of the statute of trusts, or any 
amendment of the same, especially any calling of sessions of members of trusts, 
require the authentication of a notary; these facts and also the dissolution of trusts 
are to be given notice of in the same way. 

The notary shall present within eight days the statute, or any modification of 
it, to the Ministry of Finance in five authenticated copies. 

A new trust is not permitted to take action, nor are any of the statutes efficacious, 
earlier than a fortnight prior to the presenting of the notice. 

Any resolution relative to the fixing of prices, quantity of production, etc., are 
to be notified to the Ministry of Finance not later than one day after formation of 
the resolution. 

Sec. 5. The members of the trusts are obliged to have the notification provided 
for in section 4 made in person or by a specially empowered attorney or repre- 
sentative. 

Sec. 6. The governmental supervision over the trusts mentioned in section i is 
to be managed by the Ministry of Finance. 

It is authorized to examine for this purpose any commercial books of the trusts 
and notes of the business transacted by the same, and to demand from its directors, 
managers, and the interested enterprises any information respecting any business 
relation, external or among the members. 

The obligation of giving information shall not be extended to any technical 
contrivances and procedures. 

Sec. 7. The Ministry of Finance is authorized to prohibit the execution of reso- 
lutions of trusts (mentioned in section 4) if they are apt to cause increase or decrease 
in prices of goods or services to the injury of the producers or performers (unless 
the resolutions have for object to effect economy in branches of industry by the 
establishment of prices and in view of the condition of competition), on account 
of the damage to the capacity of consumption, to taxation, and to the proceeds of 
excises which may result from such resolutions. For the said reasons the existence 
of a trust and any alteration of the statutes can be annulled, if the trust has one of 
the aforesaid objects. In these cases, the manager of the trust and representatives 
of the branch of trade are to be heard. 

The Ministry of Finance has to decide, after careful examination, whether or 
not the circumstances are those provided for in the law. A trust trespassing on 
the provisions of section 3, paragraph 2, is to be annulled by the Ministry of Finance. 

Sec. 8. The existence of a trust, any modification of its statutes, or resolution 
named in the last sentence of section 4 having been annulled by the Ministry of 



TRUSTS IN AUSTRIA. 49 

Finance on the ground of this act (sections 7, 13, and 19), its existence is illegal and 
the statutes, amendments, or resolutions (section 4) shall be void. 

Sec. 9. The Ministry of Finance is authorized to order, at any time, the mana- 
gers of a trust to give bond, the amount of which is to be fixed in accordance with 
the extent of trades under the trust, but never exceeding 200,000 florins. This bond 
is to serve as security for the conformity of the trust to the provision of this act 
(section 19). The method of giving and depositing the bond will be controlled by 
special decree. 

Sec. 10. A special committee, consisting of twelve members and presided over 
by the minister himself, or a substitute designated by him, is to be formed in the 
Ministry of Finance. Of these members, half will be selected by the minister from 
among officials of the Ministry of Finance and other ministries concerned. The other 
half are to be selected from the professions to act for a certain period. Tax or 
excise officers are not allowed to be members of this committee. 

Prior to any decision (section 7) prohibiting a trust or a resolution of a trust by 
the Ministry of Finance, the opinion of the committee is to be heard. 

The Ministry of Finance, according to this act, is entitled to confer upon the 
committee the superintendence of the trusts, above-mentioned decisions excepted. 

The Ministry of Finance or the committee in charge is authorized to employ 
one or more commissioners, designated for special cases or for permanent service, 
to exercise governmental supervision. They have the authority noted in section 6, 
paragraph 2, to make the necessary inquiries, and they, too, shall not be selected 
from among tax officials. Particular provisions as to the selection and the nature 
of practice of the committee and as to the privileges of the commissioner will be 
issued by special decree. 

Sec. II. The members of the committee and the commissioner are bound by 
oath to secrecy, unless they are acting Government officers, who are bound by offi- 
cial oath to keep secret any official business. Duty of secrecy especially involves 
strict silence as to any object of business or trade. 

Sec. 12. This law applies to trusts (section i) already in existence, and they have 
to give notice (section 4) within a month from the day they begin work. 

Sec. 13. Should one of the notifications provided in sections 4 and 12 be omit- 
ted within the fixed period, any manager, member of a trust, legal representative of 
the companies, or their attorneys shall suffer for such an omission for any special 
case a disciplinary fine of not exceeding 2,000 florins. In the same manner, the no- 
tary is to be fined who omits the performance of duty as provided in section 4. 

When the persons aforesaid refuse to give information asked by the Government 
they shall be punished by a fine up to 1,000 florins. On a repeated refusal, the 
Ministry of Finance may annul the existence of the trust. 

Sec. 14. Whoever gives false or essentially incomplete information on points 
important for the consideration of the actions of the trust (whether by design or. 
gross carelessness), is guilty of an offense and is to be punished with imprisonment 
of from eight days to three months and with a fine of from 100 to 5,000 florins. 

Sec. 15. Whoever participates in the activity of a trust (section 1) designedly or 
by gross error — 

(i) In spite of the Government's prohibition or prior to expiration of the requi- 
site time provided in section 4; 

• (2) Whoever carries into effect a resolution of a trust which is prohibited by the 
Government; 

(3) Whoever participates in a trust having taken action (a) on the ground of a stat- 
ute of which the Government has not been notified, (//) without considering the pro- 
visions of the statute, (c) under an agreement of a trust which differs from that 
contained in the statutes, or (</) without any statute; 
No. 204 4. 



50 PRODUCE EXCHANGES IN GERMANY. 

(4) Who trespasses on the provision of section 3, paragraph 2 — 
is also guilty of an offense and shall be punished with one to six months' imprison- 
ment and with a fine of from 200 up to 10,000 florins. 

Sec. 16. Members of the committee not belonging to the corporation of Govern- 
ment officials having trespassed on the duty of secrecy shall be removed at once 
from their functions by the Ministry of Finance. 

If aggravated circumstances supervene, they are further to be fined up to 1,000 
florins. Government officials committing indiscretions in official business are to be 
punished according to disciplinarian provisions. 

Sec. 17. The authorities of the country (magistrates) can inflict the aforesaid 
fines (sections 13 and 14, paragraph 2), but appeals can be made within two weeks 
to the Ministry of Finance. The cases are to be tried in the district where the 
offense has been committed. The disciplinary fines go to the imperial treasury. 
Offenses named in sections 14 and 15 are submitted to the jurisdiction of the com- 
mon law cottrts* 

Sec. 18. The manager of a trade is responsible- jointly for any disciplinary fine 
inflicted upon his representative, according to the present law, and likewise for any 
fine against his attorney, on account of an offense (section 14) committed in pre- 
senting the proper notice. 

The manager is answerable jointly for the fines for other trespasses, inflicted on 
the ground of the present act, if the trespass has been committed by his own order, 
with his knowledge, or if it could have been prevented by his due care and atten- 
tion. The responsible person is to be summoned to the civil law court. 

Sec. 19. The bond given by the managment of the trust is held as security for 
all disciplinary or other fines inflicted from the time of the deposit of the bond 
against any manager, member, or representative. The Government has first claim 
on the bond for fines. 

In the cases of section 15, paragraphs (i) and (2), the Minister of Finance, after 
having heard the committee (section 10), is authorized to declare the bond forfeited 
in whole or in part. 

The bonds forfeited go to the imperial treasury, unless the bond has been de- 
posited a fortnight after the order of the Ministry of Finance was issued, or has 
been supplied to the full amount after the forfeiture. The Ministry of Finance 
shall be authorized to prohibit the existence of the trust or to cause the missing 
amount of the bond to be collected. 

Sec. 20. The Ministers of Finance, of Interior, of Justice, and of Commerce and 
Agriculture are ordered to carry this act into effect, which becomes valid with the 
day of its publication. 



PRODUCE EXCHANGES IN GERMANY. 

At the beginning of the present year I had the honor to report* 
to the Department of State the curious situation in which members of 
the produce exchanges in Prussia found themselves, owing to the 
endeavor of the landowning class to force upon the governing bodies 
of these exchanges a number of directors appointed by the Minister 
of Industries and Commerce, but not elected by the produce brokers 
themselves, as the directors have been chosen hitherto. Rather 
than submit to the new regulations in this respect, the grain men of 



♦ Published in Consulak Re^okts No. 198 (March, 1897), p. 397. 



PRODUCE EXCHANGES IN GERMANY. 5 1 

Berlin left their official quarters in the general bourse and, announc- 
ing that they no longer constituted a bourse, met thereafter infor- 
mally in a hall hired for the purpose. 

The Agrarian journals demanded that this informal meeting 
should be considered an exchange, and that the members should be 
governed by the rules relating to exchanges — that is to say, that 
they must pay the tax on business transactions, they must accept 
the supervision of the commissaries appointed without their consent, 
and they must not indulge in ** futures," or, in fact, any business 
which is not based on an actual tranfer of actual goods. I remarked 
at the time that the powerful social and political forces of the Agra- 
rians would make the combat too unequal, and the brokers would 
have to go to the wall. 

I have now to report that, by order of the chief of police of Ber- 
lin, the meetings of the produce men have been declared illegal. If 
in our land such orders excite surprise, it does not astonish any one 
here, where a policeman can declare any meeting at an end on the 
most frivolous pretext, if it excites the suspicion of the authorities. 
Last winter a policeman in Saxony dissolved a meeting to discuss 
matters of public interest because his feet were cold. Lately, in 
Prussia, another put a summary end to a conference because he 
found the room too hot for his personal comfort. It is natural, then, 
that the papers which most severely criticise the action of the Gov- 
ernment as regards the closing of the produce exchange and the 

« 

persecution of the brokers never express surprise; they merely strive 
to point out the probable harm that will ensue. 

It was supposed until recently that some compromise was about 
to be effected between the agriculturists and the brokers. It was 
said that the former had waived the right to have leading Agrarians 
appointed on the governing boards. There is strong probability 
that this was the case; the sudden move of the chief of police seems 
to have been the result of pressure brought to bear from quarters 
where a compromise of that sort, or, indeed, of any sort, is not desired. 
The brokers must submit or their livelihood is to be stopped. 

Since the brokers were driven from the official bourse, quotations 
have been uncertain and hard to obtain, but the season is not like 
midsummer, when the small farmer wishes to know at what prices 
Berlin is buying and selling grain, in order that he may not be over- 
reached by the local purchaser. But since the last ukase, even these 
uncertain price lists are in default. The grain growers are looking 
forward with anxiety to the approaching harvest; there seems no 
method by which quotations can be collected. Radical Agrarians 
waver between the idea of sending policemen to the several offices 
of the grain brokers and haling them to the produce exchange and 



52 PRODUCE EXCHANGES IN GERMANY. 

the suggestion that ** other" merchants be asked to constitute them- 
selves grain sellers. The ease with which this political party of 
Prussia can have laws passed and the police interfere in matters that 
concern their pockets springs from the fact that the great majority 
of high offices in the State^ army, and police and other departments 
are in the hands of members of the aristocracy. 

To give an idea of their methods, I can point to the Kreuz Zeitung, 
one of their organs. It has printed a statement that lately medical 
men had urged the publication of several recent cases of severe colic, 
which can clearly be traced to the eating of American sliced apples. 
These apples are said to be dried on zinc in order to give them a 
finer color and to preserve them better. While their paid ** experts '* 
write articles in the papers casting doubt on the thoroughness of 
meat inspection in the United States, their leaders in the Prussian 
Diet ask that meat inspection be stopped everywhere except at the 
frontiers — that is to say, that there shall be none for native meat. 
This is all the more remarkable, because statistics show a great in- 
crease in tuberculosis among native swine, attributed to feeding them 
with the refuse frorii the modern general dairies. To prevent the 
spread of the disease, it was proposed to have all refuse at these 
dairies submitted to a heat of 85° Celsius and certain other protect- 
ive measu^es enforced. But this did not suit the Agrarians, because 
it meant greater costs of production. The measure has not been ac- 
cepted. This recalls Graf von Arnim's proposition in 1896 that all 
foreign grain should be quarantined for three months, because it 
contained bacteria hurtful to the health. 

The probable result of measures of intimidation against the prod- 
uce exchanges will be to disorganize prices at the approaching har- 
vest, with consequent loss to the small farmer, who can not watch 
the market through foreign papers. It has already entailed much 
loss to the treasury, because the exchange taxes are not collected. 
It may further cause the emigration from Berlin of the grain market. 

Meantime the constant ventilation of the subject in the press has 
brought out several points interesting to Americans. One is that 
German grain does not keep well because of its softness and the 
amount of moisture it contains; another is that the millers must 
have foreign grain mixed with the German in order to get good 
bread; a third is the general belief that Germany can not supply 
her present population with breadstufifs, even if by quarantines and 
protective duties the Agrarians manage to make their own grain 
dearer. Owing to these and other reasons, I think American corn 
meal, oats, and wheat will have a better market this summer in Ger- 
many than ever before. 

Charles de Kay, 

Berlin, Jidne //, 18^7. Consul- General, 



REGISTRATION AND COLLECTION LAWS. 53 



REGISTRATION AND COLLECTION LAWS IN 

SWITZERLAND. 

The wish having been expressed by some of the American mer- 
cantile associations interested in exports that information might be 
placed at their disposal regarding such matters as the collection of 
debts in foreign countries, the recording of mortgages, the dissolu- 
tion of partnerships, etc., I have obtained from the United States 
consuls located in the three leading cities in Switzerland the reports 
which appear below, and which, it is hoped, may to some extent meet 
the requirements of American houses doing an export business in 

Switzerland. 

Irving B. Richman, 

St Gall, June /j", iSgy. Consul-Ge^ieral. 



GENEVA. 

[Benjamin H. Ridgely, consul.] 

Mortgage deeds must be drawn up by a notary and registered for 
the payment of the fiscal duty and recorded at the bureau of mort- 
gages. 

Sales can be drawn up by private deed or by notary. Sales of 
real estate are required to be drawn up by a notary and registered. 

Receiverships are ruled all over Switzerland by the federal law 
of April II, 1889, on ** prosecutions and failures." In each arron- 
dissement, or district, of Switzerland there is an office des poursuites 
(prosecutions) and an office des faillites (failures). Each office has 
a director, and the director of the office des faillites is de facto the 
legal receiver for his district. Under certain special circumstances, 
a liquidation can be made by common consent of all interested cred- 
itors without the intervention of the authority called office des 
faillites. 

Dissolutions or changes of partnership can be done either amica- 
bly, by private deed, or by notary, or, if parties do not agree, by 
applying to the courts. They must be inscribed at the register of 
commerce of the district if they are incorporated companies. 

For records of mortgages or deeds of sale, it is necessary to apply 
to the notary or to the custodian of mortgages. For records of dis- 
solutions or changes of partnerships, one may apply to the parties, 
to the notary, or, better still, to the director of the register of com- 
merce of the district; for receivership records, to the director of the 
office des faillites for the district. Charges vary according to 
the importance of the matter investigated. 



54 REGISTRATION AND COLLECTION LAWS. 

In this canton, the office des failiites advertises the business 
failures in the Feuille des Avis Officiels. 

There is in Geneva a Union pour la Sauvegarde des Credits, in 
the Place du Molard. The method of procedure is, I am told, th« 
same as at Basel, where the system exists in its perfection. 

The mode of proceeding of this company is set forth in its con- 
stitution as follows: 

(i) To protect its members from bad credits by furnishing them with the most 
accurate information and references possible. 

(2) To reform all abuses of credit. 

(3) To recover doubtful accounts by moral pressure, and, if necessary, by judi- 
cial proceedings on behalf of the member and at his expense. 

An entrance fee of 5 francs is charged, and the annual subscription is 15 francs, 
payable in advance. 

The association is managed by a committee of nine members, who are elected 
in general assembly of the company for a term of three years, the services of these 
members being rendered gratuitously. This committee meets once a month. 

Each member receives gratis all verbal information and references he may de- 
sire in town, and has a right, besides, to thirty written references per year on parties 
in town. Beyond this number, and for all references elsewhere, the ordinary tariff 
rates are charged him. 

For accounts to be recovered amicably, a first letter is sent to the debtor re- 
questing him to pay the amount in question; then, in a fortnight, a second letter is 
sent him by registered post. Should the debtor still persist in not complying with 
the demand, or does not furnish a valid excuse for not doing so, he is thereafter 
considered as being incapable of fulfilling his business engagements, and his name 
is recorded on a list of bad payers drawn up by the committee, which list is always 
kept at the disposal of any of the members. 

On receipt of a formal written order from the creditor (or, in cases of urgency, 
one from the bureau itself, should the latter deem it urgent in the interests of the 
member to do so of its own accord), the association institutes judicial proceedings, 
and, as the authorized agent of the creditor, fulfills all the preliminary formalities 
at the office des poursuites. Should the debtor oppose, the association requests 
the creditor to give a new letter of attorney to act in the matter, and then proceeds 
to engage the services of a lawyer and to institute the prosecution. The creditor, 
who must be a member, is responsible for all wrong information or mistakes, he 
undertaking, moreover, to pay all the expenses and charges indicated in the tariff, 
whatever may be the result obtained, as well as all fees incurred and money ad- 
vanced on his behalf by the bureau. Any member convicted of having knowingly 
furnished false information, or having put false accounts not due into the hands of 
the association for recovery, is liable to be expelled by the committee. 

Each member is exonerated from any individual responsibility for the engage- 
ments of the association. 

There are no such commercial agencies here as Dun's or Brad- 
street's, but there are individuals who, for a small fee, will under- 
take to furnish information as to commercial standing, credits, etc. 
It is the habit, however, of merchants and others who desire to know 
to what extent credit may be given to any individual or company to 
address themselves to their bankers, who are prompt, reliable, and 



REGISTRATION AND COLLECTION LAWS. 55 

thorough in furnishing the desired information. I would, for ex- 
ample, advise any American firms desirous of knowing the commer- 
cial standing of anybody in Geneva or in the territory adjacent 
thereto to address Messrs. J. T. Bates & Co., American bankers, No. 
10 Rue Petitot, Geneva. 

BASEL. 

[George Gifford, consuL] 

Mortgages are recorded in the Grundbuch, or registry of deeds, 
a bureau of the Department of Justice. The officer in charge is 
styled the ** Grundbuchverwalter, " assisted by a deputy and surveyor 
(Grundbuchgeometer). These officers permit an examination of the 
records only when the person applying to them for information can 
show that he has an interest in obtaining it. 

Bills of sale of personal property are registered at the clerk's 
office of the civil court. The Gerichtsschreiber (clerk of courts) is 
the custodian of these records. 

Partnerships, dissolutions, and changes in partnerships are 
recorded primarily in the cantonal commercial register (Handels- 
register) by the Registerfuhrer, an official of the Department of 
Commerce. All these entries are subsequently printed in the Can- 
tonsblatt, the official journal of Basel, and in the Handelsamtsblatt, 
or official organ of the federal Department of Commerce in Berne. 

Lists of business failures, — Business failures are officially recorded 
by the same authorities as the partnerships and printed in the same 
journals. The Cantonsblatt appears every week ; the Handelsamts- 
blatt daily. 

Protective and credit societies. — Not known in this district. 

Commercial reports, — There are no commercial reports like Dun's 
or Bradstreet's. 

Registration fees. — For recording mortgages and similar instru- 
ments in the Grundbuch, or registry of deeds, of this canton, the 
following are the legal charges : 



Value. 



1,000 francs (IZ93) 

i,aoo to 5,000 francs ($965) 

5,000 to 10,000 francs ($1,930)... 
10,000 to 20,000 francs ((3,860). 
Over 20,000 francs 



Fee. 



Francs. 




1. 00 


$0.19 


a. 50 


.48 


5-00 


.96 


10.00 


1-93 


15-00 


2.89 



For recording satisfaction or payment toward mortgage debt, 
change of debtor or creditor, and caveats, the legal fee is 1.50 francs 
up to a value of 5,000 francs; above that sum, 2.50 francs. 



56 REGISTRATION AND COLLECTION LAWS. 



ZURICH. 

[Eugene Germain, consul.] 

The recording of mortgages, bills of sale, deeds, etc., is done 
through the notary public in whose district the property to be re- 
corded is located. The notary is a public officer, elected by the 
people for a period of from three to six years. He gives a bond, 
varying in amount according to district, and the cantonal govern- 
ment becomes responsible for his official acts. The cantons are 
divided into notarial districts, apportioned in cities and country ac- 
cording to population. For instance, the city of Zurich has seven 
notarial districts ; hence seven notaries. The notary is the custodian 
of the real estate records of his district, and is also the officer to 
whom application for voluntary or involuntary bankruptcy must be 
made, and in conjunction with the Betreibungsbeamte, he is the 
officer through whom suits are brought to recover debts. He ad- 
ministers, disposes of, and settles insolvent estates under the super- 
vision of the district court.* 

Receivers are appointed for corporations only by the competent 
court, upon resolutions adopted by the majority at a duly authorized 
creditors' meeting. Stockholders of joint-stock companies, where 
the full amount of stock called for is paid up, are not further liable 
to creditors, but where stock is only partly paid in, stockholders are 
liable for the unpaid part of their respective holdings. 

Regarding the registration of firms, corporations, etc., the statutes 
of Switzerland provide for a federal register of commerce covering 
the whole of the Swiss territory. This branch of the Federal Gov- 
ernment has its headquarters at Berne, with district registry offices 
apportioned over the entire country. The registry is obligatory. 

New firms and corporations commencing business, dissolutions of 
partnerships, discontinuances by death or otherwise, etc., must be 
registered at the office of the district in which the principal place of 
business of the firm or corporation is located. These registrations 
are published by the federal registry bureau at Berne in the official 
Journal of Commerce, a paper issued three times or more a week. 
This paper has a large circulation among merchants, the subscrip- 
tion price being low. 

In registering, a firm must state the amount of capital invested 
by the silent partners, if any, the names of all the partners and 
silent partners, and corporations must state the amount of the capital 



*Thc "Gcmeindcammann" (who is at the same time " Betreibungsbeamte ") performs part of the 
functions of our sheriff and constable, such as Icvying^ on property, serving writs of attachment, 
serving summonses, etc., but there his authority ends; he can not make arrests, etc. 



REGISTRATION AND COLLECTION LAWS. 57 

Stock. The special partners do not become responsible for any in- 
debtedness of the firm except to the amount of capital contributed, 
and have no voice in the management of the concern. Corporations 
must state the amount of nominal capital stock, amount actually 
paid in, and names of directors; they must produce at the same time 
a copy of their by-laws — all of which is published in the above-named 
Journal of Commerce, as well as the names of parties holding sole 
or joint power of attorney for a firm or corporation. This journal 
is almost identical with the daily notification sheets issued by our 
mercantile agencies of Dun, Bradstreet, and others, with the ex- 
ception that it is official. The real estate transactions and records 
of mortgages are not made public in Switzerland, but can be as- 
certained by examination of the public records in the hands of 
notaries. 

The assessment rolls open for inspection will show what real 
estate a man owns, as well as the encumbrances thereon. The mer- 
cantile agencies in this district will make such searches, charging 
from 1.50 to 5 francs (28 to 96 cents) per inquiry. To regular sub- 
scribers, the charges are about 25 per cent less. 

Mercantile agencies, or information bureaus, as they are called 
here, issue no books of rating or notification sheets. They only 
furnish information upon each application. No creditor can take 
advantage of another in Switzerland. If a firm or corporation fails, 
the authorities take charge of the assets, wind them up, and all 
creditors share alike in the final distribution. 

If the creditors agree to a settlement, upon their request the 
property of the debtor is released and returned to him after the set- 
tlement has been satisfactorily consummated. The charges for levy- 
ing upon, administering, disposing of, and winding up an insolvent's 
property are established by law, and are very light in Switzerland ; 
in fact, the authorities claim that they are too low for present re- 
quirements. I name a few of these to give an idea of what it costs 
to recover indebtedness: 

Tariff of charges for prosecuting debtors. 

To register and issue, in duplicate, a summons demanding payment: 

Up to 100 francs ($19.30) $0. 30 

Over 100 francs 50 

If more than two summonses issue, for each additional service 10 

Service of summons: 

Up to 100 francs 30 

Over 100 francs 50 

Returns of collections made from debtor: 

Up to 100 francs 30 

Over 100 francs and up to 1,000 francs ($193) i;o 

Over 1,000 francs, one-half of i per cent. 



58 AMERICAN PETROLEUM IN GERMANY. 

Execution and issuing writ of attachment or garnishment: 

Up to loo francs $o. 19 

Over 100 francs -....— -38 

If the execution requires more than an hour, for each additiooa-l half hour... . 50 

For taking inventory, appraising, closing and sealing up premises, where 

not over an hour's time is required .*«.««— .^•...-.. 38 

If over an hour, for each additioaal Jiaif faoac..,^......... 10 



AMHRICAN PETROLEUM IN GERMANY. 

Believing it to be of interest to our petroleum producers at home, 
and, perhaps, not inopportune at a time when the international press 
is continually reporting that the German Government is likely to 
adopt measures to exclude American petroleum in retaliation for 
tariff legislation in the United States, I would beg to call attention 
to the following article, which appeared in the Hamburgische Bor- 
senhalle of March 18 last. This article reads: 

The report of the Sachsisch-Thllringsche Actiengesellschaft fUr Braunkohlen- 
verwerthung gives very interesting information as to conditions existing in the 
petroleum trade. It says, among other things: 

In the same way that the introduction of American petroleum has caused 
a decrease in the consumption of our solar oil, so the Standard Oil Company 
in New York is endeavoring, through its German commission men, to make paraf- 
fin (which is one of the kindred products of petroleum refining) more and more 
popular in the inland candle factories. They have been partially successful, through 
repeated cuts in prices; so that the existing customs duty of 10 marks per 100 
kilograms ($2.38 per 220 pounds) no longer offers any protection. Even if the con- 
temporaneous fall in tallow and stearin prices, which continued during the whole 
year, affords an explanation of this decline in value of foreign parafiin, there is no 
doubt that the action of the Americans is based upon the intention of systematically 
getting possession of- the German market for this residual product of petroleum. 
All the more does the German Government deserve credit for its cautious treatment 
of motions which, emanating from interested sources, look to differential duties in 
favor of raw petroleum, under the pretext of preventing a monopoly of the trade 
in Germany. The effect of such a tariff reduction would have been the manufacture, 
almost free of duty, of American paraffin within the limits of the German customs 
territory. The substitute which the federal council has found (the issue of differen- 
tial decrees, permitting the entry, duty free, under special control, of raw petroleum 
which is intended to be refined in inland refineries, but placing full duties upon the 
completed manufactures from said oil) must be regarded as a considerate and 
praiseworthy concession to our industry. 

The report devotes the following remarks to the petroleum industry: 

The investigation made in the beginning of the year by the Department of the 
Interior, with the assistance of experts, of the causes for the rapid rise in prices in 
the year 1895, which was supposed to be due to manipulations on the part of the 
Standard Oil Company, showed a negative result. To be sure, the desire of this 
company to get as much of the German petroleum business into its hands as pos- 
sible was nowhere denied; the monopoly, however, could only have been gained 
through low, and not through high, prices; and it was impossible to draw the con- 
clusion that the sudden rise in price of petroleum had emanated from that quarter. 



AMERICAN PETROLEUM IN GERMANY. 59 

Two practical measures were proposed against the monopoly, viz, first, the strength- 
ening of the German importers, who had thus far remained independent of the 
Standard Oil Company, and, second, the facilitation of the entry of Russian and 
Galician illuminating oils. The former, for instance, would have been possible, if 
the examinations of quality, which were made at the same time, had shown that the 
illuminating oil of the Standard Oil Company, especially of Lima and Ohio oil, was 
inferior or dangerous, as had been claimed. The official investigation, however, 
-did ix>t show any such deficiencies. On the other hand, and in order to aid the im- 
poruakm of petroleum from Russia and Austria, two countries with which we are 
on friendly terms, the introduction of a differential duty in favor of oil for refining 
purposes — an industry which it was intended to domesticate in Germany — was 
recommended. The Government did not agree to this; but at the close of the year 
exceptional decrees were issued admitting raw oils free from all producing countries, 
with the proviso that the refining process be controlled. The result of these new 
decrees must be awaited. America would hardly be considered as a shipper of 
raw oil, as the Standard Oil Company, for potent reasons, will not be inclined to 
ship, and the other American producers are controlled by this company. Galicia 
is the nearest producing center, but opinions differ as to whether the producers 
there will be able and willing to deliver the oil so cheaply that the refining of the 
same in Germany would pay. The rise in price of Galician oil, which has occurred 
in the meantime, would not appear to indicate that they will. 

This article, even for one well posted on all matters connected 
with the petroleum trade, is not quite clear in its references to a 
number of circumstances and conditions. I deem it proper to add 
a few remarks in explanation. In the first place, it is necessary to 
mention that the Sachsisch-Thiiringsche Actiengesellschaft fiir 
Braunkohlenverwerthung is a stock company, which manufactures 
from lignite, or brown coal, among other articles, an illuminating 
oil, called solar oil, and paraffin scales. The above extracts (which 
are taken from the company's annual report to its stockholders for 
the business year ended December 31, 1896) would seem to indicate 
that the managers, after an unfavorable year, desired to comfort the 
stockholders by painting the outlook for the future in as glowing 
colors as possible. They begin by admitting that the Standard Oil 
Company of New York is not only responsible for a continued de- 
crease in the sale of their solar oil, but has also, through repeated cuts 
in prices, and notwithstanding the comparatively high duty of $2.;^S 
per 220 pounds, become a dangerous competitor for their paraffin 
scales. Their business in these scales would have been further de- 
stroyed had the Government allowed all raw oil to come in free of duty. 
As it is, refined oil pays a duty of about $1.43 per 220 pounds here, 
while oil that is to be refined in Germany pays no duty; but kindred 
products, such as paraffin, are taxed just as though they had been 
imported from abroad. Otherwise, the competitors of the tar oil 
and paraffin people could manufacture an article from American raw 
petroleum duty free, and thus make the protection that was intended 
by the duty of $2.38 on foreign paraffin of no avail. It was thought 



6o AMERICAN PETROLEUM IN GERMANY. 

that, by admitting raw oil free for refining purposes, a new industry 
would be created in Germany, and that it would be better to let 
Russia and Galicia use this new market to drive out the Standard 
Oil Company. While German refineries were to keep out the Amer- 
ican refined oil, the differential duties in favor of Russia and Galicia 
were to keep out the American raw oil. It is needless to speculate 
as to why the German Government refused to thus add to its dis- 
criminations against our products. Suffice it to say that the scheme 
was simply impracticable, owing to the inferior quality of the Rus- 
sian and Galician oils, as well as to the fact that they can not be de- 
livered here at American prices. It was found impossible to create 
refineries for either European or American oils. The Americans 
naturally declined to destroy their own refineries by furnishing the 
crude article to those here, and it could not be procured elsewhere. 
As a matter of fact, there are no refineries of petroleum in Germany, 
with an unimportant exception in Bremen and some few refineries of 
German petroleum in Alsace-Lorraine. Very little i^aw oil comes 
from the United States, Russia, or Galicia. 

The report makes the very important admissions that the Stand- 
ard Oil Company was not responsible for the rapid rise in prices of 
oil in 1895 and that the severest official tests have failed to find any- 
thing dangerous in even the worst qualities of their refined petro- 
leum. It further concedes that efforts were made to discriminate in 
favor of Russian and Galician oils against American, on the ground 
that they were ** two countries with which we are on friendly terms" — 
a rather significant assertion just at present, and one which would, 
no doubt, interest our legislators. 

I have talked over the general situation with one of the largest Ham- 
burg oil merchants, who, though on intimate terms with the Standard 
Oil people, is entirely independent of them. It was interesting to learn 
that, in his opinion, it was utterly useless for the German Govern- 
ment to attempt the exclusion of American petroleum from Germany 
through legislative measures or otherwise. According to him, any 
action of the Germans could be met by the Standard Oil Company, 
which is fortunate enough to practically possess the monopoly of both 
the crude and the refined article. In support of his opinion, he 
cited the action of the Standard Oil Company in France. There, the 
duty on refined oil is double what it is on the crude article. When 
this tariff went into effect, large refineries were started in France 
which began importing their' raw oil from America. This oil, how- 
ever, was not purchased from the Standard Oil Company, but from 
its competitors. The Standard Oil Company, after making a few 
futile efforts to crowd out this competition, submitted an ultimatum 
to the French refiners, to the effect that it would at once open sev- 



AMERICAN PETROLEUM IN GERMANY. 6 1 

eral very large refineries of its own in France if the French would 
not bind themselves to buy their crude oil from the company. This 
had the desired effect. He also mentioned that the Russians have 
on hand a stock of over 1,000,000 barrels, which they have been try- 
ing in vain to reduce, and that when efforts were made some time 
ago by German dealers in Russian petroleum to undersell the Amer- 
ican article in certain districts of southeastern Germany, the Stand- 
ard Oil Company established in these localities retail dealers, to 
whom it furnished petroleum at such low figures that they soon 
drove out this competition. It would, however, in his opinion, never 
have become a very dangerous one, for the following reason: It 
appears that the Russian petroleum can not compare in its illumi- 
nating power with our product, and that, even if it is burned in 
lamps specially constructed for its use, it produces a stench not char- 
acteristic of American oil. This is due to the fact that the Russian 
article requires as pure air as possible — an air that must contain a 
certain amount of oxygen — which it finds in Norway, Sweden, 
Switzerland, and other mountainous countries, where it consequently 
sells well. In order to be able to use it in Germany, nearly all the 
lamps in that country would have to be supplied with new burners, 
and, as even the very poorest classes employ petroleum for lighting 
and cooking purposes to a very considerable extent, this fact in itself 
would seem to be a remarkably good protection for American oil. 
In Galicia, the oil wells possess such a low pressure that it is neces- 
sary, I am informed, to pump the oil, which naturally adds to the 
cost of production. 

My informant also seemed to think that if refineries of any im- 
portance should be established in the future in Germany, the Stand- 
ard Oil Company would be likely to repeat the tactics employed in 
France. In fact, he believes that this concern has not only deter- 
mined to hold the ground it has gained throughout Europe, but that 
it will continue to use its best efforts to increase the scope of its oper- 
ations, and that it does not fear threatened legislation of an exclu- 
sive or retaliatory nature, either by Germany or other countries. 

A close study of this question inclines me to believe that he is 
right, and that the facts above referred to are good illustrations of 
the futility of trying to force trade into unnatural channels by arti- 
ficial pressure or restrictions. 

W. Henry Robertson, 

Hamburg, June j^ ^^97- Consul. 



62 THE OUTLOOK FOR GERMAN TEXTILES. 



THE OUTLOOK FOR GERMAN TEXTILES. 

The Confectionair, Berlin's best and widest known textile jour- 
nal, published interviews a few days ago with leading manufacturers 
of this city. The subjects covered were hosiery, gloves, and up- 
holstery goods. Inasmuch as Chemnitz is the most important mar- 
ket and manufacturing center for hosiery on earth, it may be of 
interest and profit to our manufacturers to know just what German 
manufacturers think. The man interviewed (Director Wiede) is one 
of the partners in the largest house here, that of Moritz Sml. Esche. 
His words are very important. 

Mr. Wiede says nothing can take the place of the export business 
now and for many years carried on with the United States. ** Other 
territory for our hosiery is not worth the time taken to talk about 
it." Speaking of the new tariff bill, Mr. Weide said some one in the 
Reichstag recently went out of his way to say that America would 
ultimately collect as high as 60 per cent on imports. ** One hundred 
and twenty percent will be paid now," said Mr. Weide, *'on certain 
goods made here. For the last four weeks no orders to speak of 
have been booked. Every thinking manufacturer is curtailing his 
production. For over three hundred and sixty-six days machines in 
many of the very best factories have been idle. There are, however, 
manufacturers who produce millions of dozens, pile up stock, and 
afterwards bear down on the market so heavily as to injure, if they 
do not destroy, all legitimate trade. Cheap sales, fall in prices, and 
reduced wages are the consequences. The Chemnitz manufacturers 
of hosiery sell to the whole world. They have now no important 
competitors. England, it is true, makes something similar to Chem- 
nitz goods in Nottingham, and Apollda goods in Leicester. Still, the 
only place to be spoken of to-day as a hosiery center is Chemnitz. 

** American buyers formerly went to Nottingham, staying four or 
five weeks, and came to Chemnitz for eight days; now, they spend 
four or five weeks here and do not go to England at all. The Eng- 
lish hosiery trade may be regarded as beaten out of the world's mar- 
kets by the German. The principal factors in the battle were cheaper 
goods, easier terms, better delivery, and greater desire and willing- 
ness to do what was wanted. Manufacturers like Morley still make 
hose in large quantities, selling them even here in Germany, /. e., 
the better grades; this because there is a prejudice against German 
goods. The Americans are practical people; they have long since 
found out the facts. Our production has been reduced; a large 
number of machines are idle, the rest run only four days in the week. 



THE OUTLOOK FOR GERMAN TEXTILES. 63 

We could easily make five times as many as we turn off now. The 
prospects are far from encouraging. The only thing that can help 
the hosiery trade here is to secure trade treaties based on reason. 
I believe that the Americans have been approached on the matter; 
but the thing must be pressed with more energy by the Government. 
It is a well-known fact that rings of interested parties are organized 
who cause the tariffs to be increased by means of money and influ- 
ence. A tariff war must not be begun. America is making every 
effort to emancipate itself, little by little, from Germany. We will 
make it hard for them to get along without us. They will not find 
it so easy to throw us out; still, in time, it will be possible. Here, 
now, we earn so little, we would do better to close the factories. 
The idea of erecting factories in the United States has been consid- 
ered. We would do it at once, were we sure that the duties would 
be kept up; that, however, no man can predict. For ten years, fash- 
ion has asked for blacks. In the last two or three years, tans have 
gone in large quantities; and very recently, some fancies in which 
Germany excels. We are making now many colored, checkered, 
silk stockings exactly like the Scotch samples. We have become so 
skillful that we can imitate any sample, and we can overcome every 
technical difficulty. All this aids us in holding our position. 

**One evil against which Chemnitz has long contended is its mis- 
erable railroad connections. We want better, closer, and in every 
way quicker relations with Hamburg and Bremen. This is very 
necessary. Above and beyond all, however, it will aid us to get 
good commercial treaties with North and South America. There is 
not a workman in Saxony who does not detest the protective-tariff 
system of the United States. Most of our help have to look for 
work now in other branches. By and by, when business will be 
better, as we hope, it will be hard to find as good help as we now 
have to part with.'* 

The interview with Mr. Gulden, Chemnitz's leading glove man, 
and with Mr. Carl Durfeld, one of the leading manufacturers of up- 
holstery goods, were so similar in tone and temper to the one re- 
corded that I did not deem it necessary to report them. Both laid 
particular stress on the importance of our markets for German man- 
ufacturers, and, especially, for those in this consular district. The 
manufacturers believe they can beat ours in the end. They boast 
that no tariff would be high enough to keep them out if we would 
not change. They say: **Set the rates, stick to them, and we will 
climb over them with new machines and new conditions." 

J. C. MONAGHAN, 

Chemnitz, June 18, iSgj, Consul. 



64 KOkESTKV IN wCRTEMUERG. 



FORESTRY IN WURTEMBERG. 

STATE FORESTS. 

The aggregate extent of State forests is 418,904 acres. 

Geographical locality of main body. — The State forests extend over 
the entire Kingdom. This is situated between 25° 52' 20" and 28° 
9' 36" east longitude (from Ferro) and between 47° 34' 48" and 49° 
35 ' 17 " north latitude. Height above the sea, between i, 150 meters 
(3^773 feet) and 135 meters (426 feet); medium, 500 meters (1,640 
feet); annual quantity of rainfall, 600 millimeters (23.64 inches); 
temperature (at the capital, Stuttgart), between 3° and 90° F. ; 
average, 50°. 

Prevailing kinds of trees. 

Per cent. 

Pines, exclusively Abies excelsa, D. C 28. 2 

White pines, exclusively Abies alba. Mill 9. i 

Pitch pines, exclusively Pinus silvcstris and Carpinus bctnlius 20. 6 

Oak, exclusively Quercus sessiiifora and Qn. pcdumcitlata o. 8 

Other kinds o. i 

Pines, mixed .• 14. 3 

Pine and leaf wood, mixed 9. 7 

Leaf wood, without oak 2. 3 

Leaf and oak, mixed 7. 6 

Average estimated value per acre. — The value of the soil varies from 
$28.90 to $57.80 per acre. 

Annual aggregate expense of administration. — Officials, $259,468; 
forest guards, $138,468; culture, $90,440; roads, $147,560; cutting, 
$364,140; all other, $183,498; total, $1,183,574. 

Area annually so7un and planted to forest. — Sown, 296.52 acres; 
planted, 6,177.50 acres. As far as the natural falling of seed from 
standing trees occurs in proper time and of the desired kind, the 
same is used, otherwise artificial sowing or planting takes place. 
The natural falling of seed is estimated at about 25 per cent, and 
artificial sowing and planting at about 75 per cent. Reculture is 
almost exclusively done by planting. Sowing in free woodland is 
very seldom resorted to. 

As far as the age of the crops in the various sections of the forest 
districts permit, it is a principle to maintain an equal annual cutting. 
At present the cutting is limited to 910,000 cubic meters (32,347,770 
cubic feet), being equal to 68.87 cubic feet per acre. 

The cutting is contracted with laborers living in the neighborhood 
of the forests. 

By the usual culture the trees of a given block are generally of 
the same age. If it is intended to use the natural falling of seed 



FORESTRY IN WORTEMBERG. 65 

for restocking, the strongest trees, either single or in groups, are cut 
out in the direction against the prevailing winds; the remaining 
trees are thinned and gradually cut out as the growing young trees 
may demand. 

If natural seed falling is not considered, the wood crop is cut 
clean in narrow strips, also in the direction against the prevailing 
winds. The cutting of the second and following strips is postponed 
until the growing young plants can dispense with the protection of 
the old woods. 

It is a principle of the direction of the State forests that replant- 
ing follows immediately ais cutting progresses. Moreover, the Gov- 
ernment buys every year about 160 hectares (395.36 acres) of wood- 
land to increase and round off the estate of forests. 

The damage annually caused by fire is estimated at $642.60. The 
principal cause or causes of such fires are carelessness while smoking 
and lighting fires in or near the forests. In the last ten years, there 
were, of a total of one hundred and twenty fires, only eight caused 
by sparks from locomotives, and among these only one causing con- 
siderable damage ($3,570). 

All civil service officials are divided into different ranks. The 
forest service ranks, in general, equal to the other civil service grad- 
uates of the university. 

The department of forestry is directed by a president and a 
board of four technical and four administrative officers, with the title 
of *'Forstrath" and **Collegialrath," and one commander of the 
guards. The salary of the president is $1,844.50; of the other 
directors, from $1,190 to $1,618.40 each. 

The principal annual published report made on the administra- 
tion of the forests is the Forststatistische Mittheilungen aus Wilrtem- 
berg fiir das Jahr 1894 (the latest), published by the royal direction 
of forestry. It is the thirteenth annual report, and is not for sale. 

The best forest periodical is Die forstlichen Verhaltnisse Wiirtem- 
bergs, Stuttgart, Riegerische Verlags Buchhandlung, 1880. 

In regard to net revenue. Saxony and Wlirtemberg stand at the 
head of forest administration and culture. 

PRIVATE FORESTS. 

Aggregate extent, 528,794 acres, of which 210,000 acres are man- 
aged by technical forest officials and the remainder by private indi- 
viduals, but in a proper manner. 

The average value per acre and the average annual rate of per- 
centage of net income can not be answered by the Government. 

As the permission of the Government is required for cutting pri- 
vate forests, and as this permission is only given under the condition 
No. 204 5. 



66 wOrtemberg vineyards. 

that an area equal to that cut is replanted, the entire area of private 
forest land remains the same throughout the country, but a part 
thereof is gradually coming into possession of the Government. 

Wm. Hahn, 
Stuttgart, February ij, ^^97- Vice and Deputy Consul. 



WURTEMBERG VINEYARDS. 

A meeting has just been held in this city of the Wiirtemberg Vine- 
yard Society. From the report made at this meeting I take the 
following: 

In regard to the profit from the culture of the vine, the year 1896 can be con- 
sidered satisfactory. If the quality was not quite up to our wishes, the year was 
not without its encouraging side. The quantity was considerably (about 17 per 
cent) above the average for seventy years, and the autumn sales, which are so very 
important for us, have proved, contrary to all expectations, quite favorable, both as 
to price and quantity sold. • 

The spring of 1896 was propitious; the summer, however, brought thunder 
showers, with severe and lasting cool periods. In the second half of October, 
better weather set in, which, in connection with the circumstance that the vines, 
through careful spraying, had retained their leaves, favored the ripening of the 
grapes. 

According to the publications of the statistical bureau, the entire crop from 17,002 
hectares (42,002 acres), amounted to 427,300 hectoliters(i 1,287,984 gallons), averaging 
25.13 hectoliters (663.36 gallons) per hectare (2.471 acres), against 19.61 hectoliters, 
(518.05 gallons) in 1895. The average product during the preceding period of sixty- 
nine years (from 1827 to 1895) was 2ii6 hectoliters (570.6 gallons), or 16.3 percent less 
than the average product of last year. 

The average price realized was ascertained to be 24.42 marks per hectoliter (21 
cents per gallon), against 56.09 marks (50.53 cents per gallon) in 1895, and 23.21 
marks (20.9 cents per gallon) in 1894, almost equaling the average price of the pre- 
ceding period from 182710 1895 of 23.07 marks per hectoliter (20. 78 cents per gallon). 

The money value of the entire product of last year is calculated to amount to 
10,382,256 marks ($2,470,977), against 18,654,1.52 marks ($4,439,688) in 1895 and 
8,057,070 marks ($1,917,583) in 1894, approximating an average of 9,000,000 marks 
($2,142,000) during the years 1827 to 1895. For the year 1897, the vines justify the 
best hopes; the buds are in general so plentiful that, with favorable blossoming and 
warm, summer weather, a good vintage can be expected. 

Of diseases of the vine in the past year we have to mention the peronospora, the 
so-called leather berry disease, and the so-called soot dew. 

The import of wine and grapes from foreign countries during 1896 was not very 
large and aggregated one-fourteenth part of the home production. 

A long debate ensued about the usefulness of applying the pulver- 
ized mixture of vitriol of copper, with sugar and burnt lime, which 
has lately been offered for the prevention of the peronospora. This 
new remedy is said to have, beyond doubt, the same effect as the 
remedy which has previously been in use, but to have the advantage, 



THE HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE IN 1 896. 67 

in consequence of the solution of sugar, of being more adhesive; 
but it is said to be materially higher in price. 

After lengthy discussion on both sides, the presiding officer an- 
nounced a considerable majority for retaining the old, approved 
remedy — the solution of vitriol of copper — which, he added, should 
not exclude experiments with the addition of sugar. 

Baron von Gaisberg then opened an interesting discussion upon 
the question of wine-producing experimental stations in Wiirtem- 
berg. Referring to the favorable influence of farming experimental 
stations, the speaker especially commended them in the production 
of wine. Every wine-growing country, he said, had already estab- 
lished one or more such stations, and Wiirtemberg, where the people 
had their money so largely invested in vineyards, ought to be able 
to offer means to assist vine growing in this manner. Investigations 
of the soil, its productiveness, the flavor of the various kinds of 
grapes, as well as other experiments, would largely contribute to the 
improvement of vine growing. The education of persons for the 
special purpose of combatting the phylloxera would dlso have to be 
one of the problems of such experimental stations, and most of the 
vine growers would acknowledge the necessity and urgency of their 
establishment. A bill brought before Parliament by himself (the 
speaker) for this purpose had been passed by the lower house, but 
the upper house had not yet acted upon it. As the matter had 
now passed the first steps, he thought it would be proper for the 
Wiirtemberg Vineyard Society to approach the Government with a 
petition to establish as soon as possible such an experimental station. 

In the succeeding discussion, every speaker assented to this 

motion. The opinion was expressed, however, that the experimental 

station should not confine itself to purely scientific questions, but 

should be in constant touch with the vine-growing population of the 

country. By an unanimously adopted resolution, the assembly 

addressed a petition to the Government praying for the establishing 

of an experimental station in the town of Weinsberg at the earliest 

possible moment. 

Alfred C. Johnson, 

Stuttgart, June 18^ ^^97- Consul. 



THE HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE IN 1896. 

This consulate has recently received a copy of the annual report 
of the Hamburg-American Steamship Company for 1896, which 
covers the company's fiftieth year of business. The report is one of 
unusual interest in many directions. It shows, in the first place, a 



68 THE HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE IN 1 896. 

substantial dividend for the stockholders in spite of the general com- 
plaint of trade depression and of reduced emigration to the United 
States. It points with legitimate pride to the fact that its managers 
have had the foresight and courage to abandon the time-honored 
idea that a profitable steerage-passenger traffic was a sine qua non 
to a transatlantic company's success, and it claims that the results, so 
far, have fully justified the experiment. 

The situation was simply this: The older vessels of the fleet had 
been built with a view to an ever-increasing emigration to the United 
States, without which they could not be made to pay, on account of 
their large consumption of coal and small freight capacity. The 
question of freight earnings had been subordinated to the one of 
steerage-passenger earnings. Through various circumstances, how- 
ever, emigration to the United States from Hamburg has greatly 
fallen off in the last few years. An interchange of the products of 
the two countries is, however, a mutual necessity, and it was not 
very difficult for the company to see the advantage of disposing of 
its older and smaller ships and using vessels that would consume a 
minimum quantity of coal and carry a maximum quantity of freight. 
The older class of vessels consumed, on an average, 60 tons of coal 
per day, giving the vessel an average speed of 13 knots, and had an 
average freight-carrying capacity of only 4, 200 tons. In 1894, the 
five ** P" ships {Phcenicia, Persia, Prussia, Patria, and Palatia) were 
built, with a carrying capacity of 7,800 tons and an average daily 
consumption of only 75 tons of coal, giving the vessel an average 
speed of 13 knots. They were arranged to carry about 100 to 150 
first and second cabin and about 2,400 steerage passengers, besides 
horses, cattle, etc. It was soon found that the steerage traffic failed 
to justify such an allowance of space, and, in 1896, the six **A" 
ships were built, with about the same tonnage as the ** P " ships, but 
with an average length 50 feet shorter, and a coal consumption of 
only about 36 tons per day, giving the vessel an average speed 
of 11^ knots. In 1897, a further successful experiment was tried in 
the construction of the steamer Pennsylvania, the largest ship in the 
world, with a carrying capacity of 14,000 tons and a daily coal con- 
sumption of only 90 tons, giving her an average speed of 13 knots. 
One sister ship of the Pennsylvania is now in course of construction 
at the shipbuilding yard of Messrs. Blohm & Voss, of Hamburg, and 
will be in service in the course of 1898. 

All the vessels of the older fleet (not the express steamers) have 
been disposed of in one way or another, except the Scandia, Italia, 
Moravia, and Russia, and these will now run regularly between 
Genoa and La Plata. 

Nothing could better illustrate the rapid and complete trans- 



THE HAMBURG-AMERICAN LINE IN 1 896. 69 

formation of the fleet than the fact that the four just mentioned are 
now engaged in such a trade, while, only four or five years ago, they 
were the finest ships of the fleet, next to the express steamers. 
Hamburg now boasts of being the home port of not only the largest 
steamer in the world (the Fennsylvania)^ hut also of the largest 
sailing vessel (the Potosi)^ a five-master, running regularly to 
Chile. 

The report dwells in a very interesting and significant way upon 
the emergencies of a high protective tariff in the United States, in- 
jurious to German exports, and of a lasting tariff war between the 
two countries. It scouts the latter possibility as being a most re- 
mote one, owing to the mutual need of a full and free commercial 
intercourse. The report makes the noteworthy statement that, under 
the McKinley tariff of 1890, the freight traffic of the company showed 
a marked increase. This disposes of the arguments and protests of 
this country against the operation of the McKinley tariff in the same 
way that all the complaints and prophecies in connection with the 
sugar schedule of the Wilson tariff have been contradicted by actual 
circumstances. The export of German and Austrian sugars through 
this port since August 24, 1894, has been greater than for any pre- 
vious corresponding period since the two years 1890 and 189 1. Ger- 
man products have suffered under neither tariff, and these facts 
ought to prove a forcible argument in the hands of our Government 
against the protests that are now being made in the foreign press 
and in higher quarters against tariff legislation. 

The company claims that the trade from here to the United States 
has now reached such proportions that, although they have recently 
added immensely to their tonnage by the construction of many large 
vessels, full freights have already been secured in advance by defi- 
nite contracts. 

No fear is entertained that the measures looking to the reduction 
of immigration into the United States will injure this line, as it has 
little to do with such classes of emigrants as it is intended to exclude 
as undesirable. It refers to the large and unsettled arable area of 
our country and the fact that a protective tariff will increase the op- 
portunities of labor and necessitate the introduction of more laborers. 

The Hamburgishe Borsenhalle, March 16, 1897, commenting on 
the report, gives the following table of the tonnage of the largest 
steamship companies: 

Tons. 

Hamburg-American Line 290, 000 

North German Lloyd 265, 000 

Peninsular and Oriental Steamship Company 280, 000 

Messageries Maritimes 220, 000 



70 PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON IN GERMANY. 

No American can read such a report without mortification. He 
sees this magnificent fleet of ships carrying thousands of passengers 
and millions of dollars of freight annually to and from the United 
States, and remembers that but three American steamers have en- 
tered this port in over thirty-eight years. He stands on any quay 
of this busy harbor, and see$ the flag of every little petty power that 
has a few miles of seacoast, but never the American flag. He hears 
the ever-increasing blows of the hammer in the shipyards of Ham- 
burg, Bremen Kiel, Stettin, Elbing and Rostock, and blushes over 
his efforts to explain that the St. Louis and the St. Paul qltq the begin- 
ning of a rejuvenated merchant marine, worthy of the days of the 
fifties. There are some one hundred steamship lines in this city 
alone, giving remunerative employment to thousands and thousands 
of workmen (in a single yard 3,500 men are employed), and the Ham- 
burgers boast that they now possess regular lines of modern steam- 
ers to every quarter of the globe. 

It is estimated that the United States pays $300,000,000 annually 
to the owners of foreign vessels for transporting American products 
alone. This entire amount could not be suddenly, or even eventu- 
ally, transferred from foreign to American pockets, but the greater 
part of it could be saved ; and what is quite as important, immense 
industrial opportunities would be opened to American artisans under 
a Government policy that would protect and encourage shipbuilding. 
Hamburg, with astounding rapidity, has become the great distrib- 
uting center of Europe for the whole world, in late years surpassing 
both London and Liverpool in the amount of tonnage annually 
entering and clearing. Nowhere can the pulse of international trade 
be so accurately taken as in this great market, and nowhere can the 
prosperity of a nation with a powerful merchant marine be more 
readily seen. 

W. Henry Robertson, 

Hamburg, April jo, i8gy. Consul. 



PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON IN GERMANY. 

Upper Silesia, in this consular district, with its vast and rich beds 
of iron and coal, is justly esteemed to be the pearl of Prussia. 

I have, therefore, concluded that it would be of interest to her 
American rivals if I were to show the role she has taken in the pro- 
duction of iron by quoting from the statistics of the Society of Ger- 
man Iron and Steel Manufacturers. The production of all kinds of 
pig iron by the blast furnaces of the German Empire (including 



PRODUCTION OF PIG IRON IN GERMANY. 



Luxemburg) during the quarter ended March 31, 1897 (in tons of 
2,204.6 pounds) was: 



Months. 



January 

February... 
March 

Total 



Puddled 
and spec- 
ular. 


Bessemer. 


Tons. 

136,495 
129,682 
140,913 


Tons. 
47.481 
39.951 
57.582 


407,090 


M5.014 



Thomas. I Foundry. 



Total quan- Same pe- 
tity. riod, 1896. 



Tons. 
295,047 
267,756 
288,124 



850,927 



Tons. 

85.341 
82 , 570 
88,614 



256.525 



Tons. 
564.364 
519.959 
575.233 



Tons. 
497,481 
481,250 
531.750 



« .659.556 1,513,481 



Of this quantity, Upper Silesia produced: 



Months. 



January .... 
February... 
March. 

Total 



Puddled 
and spec- 
ular. 


Bessemer. 


Thomas. 


Foundry. 


Total quan- 
tity. 

Tons. 
54.250 
50,420 

57."' 


Tons. 
99.548 
27,622 

32.896 


Tons. 
99» 
1.525 

13.573 


Tons. 
18,809 
16,965 
7,227 

43.001 


Tons. 
4.902 
4.308 
3.415 


90,066 


16,089 


12,625 


161,781 



Same pe- 
riod, 1896. 



Tons. 
45.818 
47.302 
52,112 



145.232 



The increase of the pig-iron production in the German Empire, 
which was observed during the year 1896, has continued during the 
first quarter of 1897. According to the foregoing synopsis, the total 
production of pig iron has increased during the quarter in question, 
in comparison with the same quarter of last year, 146,075 tons, or 
9.65 per cent. Upper Silesia, in the same comparison, shows an in- 
crease of 16,549 tons, or 11.39 percent. Also, compared to the pre- 
ceding quarter, the total production has resulted in an advance of 
7,768 tons, or 0.47 per cent; for Upper Silesia, an advance of 4,473 
tons, or 3.04 per cent. 

The pig-iron production reached, during the first quarter of this 
year, a higher standard than ever before. It was caused by the con- 
siderably increased demands of the various works which consume pig 
Iron which are situated in the district. The blast-furnace works 
reached the utmost limit of their capacity and had to make enlarge- 
ments. The share of Upper Silesia in the total production amounted 
to 9.5 per cent during the quarter ended December 31, 1896, and 
rose during the first quarter of 1897 to 9. 75 per cent, while it was only 
9.25 per cent during :he same period of the preceding year. 

The consumption of Upper Silesian manufacturers was so large 
that only 11,017 tons, or 6.8 per cent, of the whole production re- 
mained in stock, compared to 11,347 tons, or 7.8 per cent, during the 
corresponding quarter of 1896. 



72 



GERMANY AND RUSSIA. 



There were exported (exclusive of foundry pig iron) 170 tons to 
Austria, 225 tons to Russia, and 40 tons to Roumania; in all, 435 
tons. 

In regard to the apportionment of all kinds of pig iron, the per- 
centage was as follows: 



Description. 



Puddled and specular 

Bessemer 

Thomas 

Foundry 



In the German Empire. 



1896. 



Per cent. 

26.55 
8.1 

14.2 



First quar- 
ter of 1897. 



Per cent. 

24 -53 
8.74 

5»-27 
15-45 



First quar- 
ter of 1896. 



Per cent. 

27-85 
7.17 

51.36 

13.61 



In Upper Silesia. 



1896. 



Per cent. 

57-3 
5.06 

29.02 
8.6 



First quar- 
ter of 1897. 



Per cent. 
55-67 

9-94 
26.57 

7.8 



First quar- 
ter of 1896. 



Per cent. 

58.28 

5-31 
29.26 

7-14 



According to this synopsis, the production of Thomas and pud- 
dled and specular pig iron is the largest; but the production of 
puddled and specular pig iron has considerably decreased in favor 
of all other kinds of iron. Furthermore, there was observed a rapid 
decrease of all kinds of iron in Upper Silesia during the quarter in 

question in favor of Bessemer iron. 

Frederick Opp, 

Breslau, June 2j, iSgy. Consul. 



GERMANY AND RUSSIA. 

The importance of Russia to any manufacturing people can not 
be overestimated. The idea that the great northern Empire, eager 
to make the most of its marvelous resources, will soon be able to 
supply its own needs, is absurd; more absurd than to think South 
America, South Africa, or Australia could have been developed with- 
out foreign capital. In Russia, the people are poor, and have been 
poor for centuries. Serfdom was abolished within man's memory. 
Capital has gone in slowly. Russia's great needs are machines, tools, 
implements, etc., and more will be wanted in the future, especially 
such as are made and used in the United States. 

The purchasing power of the Empire's peasants is small. As it 
increases, as the vast regions, long neglected, are brought under 
cultivation, capital will accumulate and capital will go in. The 
money markets of the Old World are full. Public debts are being 
refunded at interest rates that hardly pay. Money will make its 
way into places where the highest rates of interest are given. As 
the Russians increase in skill, technical knowledge, etc., as railroads 



GERMANY AND RUSSIA. J^ 

Open up more and more the mountainous regions and the vast plains 
of Siberia, the demand for tools, implements, and machinery will be 
ten times what it is to-day, and will far exceed the local supply. 

The manufacture of cast steel and cast iron that can be hammered 
is in its infancy. Foreign iron pays heavy freights and heavy duties. 
The Russian product is inferior, and people soon find out that the 
best is the cheapest. Thus, for years to come, Russia must buy out- 
side. 

Germany expects to do a large export business with the sister 
Empire. The special aim is to supply agricultural machines. Eco- 
nomic writers urge that efforts be made to overcome the English, but 
most of all, the powerful, advancing American competition. To-day, 
the chances of the three countries are about equal. Energy, indus- 
try, perseverance, and skill will gain the market for the United States. 
The factors of success-will be found, as consuls have so often pointed 
out, in the exhibition of working models by men able to speak the 
Russian language; in selling machines, parts of which can be easily 
obtained; in giving long credits; and in advertising in the Russian, 
rather than in the English, language. Germany sent Russia, in 
1894-95, iron, ironware, machines, wagons, and instruments worth 
111,000,000 marks ($27,000,000), /. ^., after the new treaty went into 
effect. In the years just preceding, she sent iron and ironware worth 
only 56,000,000 marks (a little less than $14,000,000). The year 1896 
makes a still better showing, especially in agricultural machines. Of 
these, she sent, in 1896, to the value of 33,000,000 marks; in 1895, 
23,000,000 marks; and in 1894, 16,000,000 marks. 

As soon as the Russian Government complies with the demands 
of its farmers and lowers duties on agricultural implements, Germany 
hopes not only to do a much larger business, but to almost monopo- 
lize this line. It is a question whether a reduction of rates on iron 
and steel will help here very much, since Russia is rendering all the 
aid in her power to further the importation of raw iron out of Fin- 
land. Since the new tariff regulations regarding the importation of 
raw iron from Finland, the quantity imported went up from 400,000 
poods (14,444,800 pounds) annually to 1,500,000 poods (54,168,000 
pounds). This was a great shock to the German smelters. They 
have not recovered, for Finland's iron is good, easy to get at, and 
cheap. In 1903, Russia and Finland are to have no duty or tariff 
boundaries between them. 

United States manufacturers can see how necessary it is to make 
efforts in Russia at once. Russia regards us with the friendliest 
feelings. The vast steppes are analogous to our plains, and they 
are to be planted. Cotton is being grown beyond the Caucasus; 
mines are to be opened up in the Urals, Caucasus, Siberian, and 



74 IRON INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA IN 1 896. 

Jablonnai hills; vines are to be planted, orchards laid out, forests 
cleared, canals dug, and railroads, bridges, and highways built. The 
battle is to be between the United States, England, and Germany. 

J. C. MONAGHAN, 

Chemnitz, June ^, 1^97- Consul, 



IRON INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA IN 1896. 

According to the statistics collected by the central office of the 
Russian iron manufacturers, the iron works in Russia produced, in 
1896, 98,414,000 poods (1,776,963 tons) of cast iron, 30,661,000 poods 
(553,615 tons) of iron, and 42,596,000 poods (768,113 tons) of steel. 
Of the above quantity of cast iron, 92,145,000 poods (1,663,770 tons) 
were produced by 187 private iron works, 4,404,000 poods (79,519 
tons) by 21 Government iron works in European Russia, 1,271,000 
poods (22,949 tons) in the iron works of Finland, and 594,000 poods 
(10,725 tons) in Siberia. This is an increase of 9,629,000 poods (173,- 
861 tons) over 1895, in which year the output of cast iron amounted 
to 88,785,000 poods (1,603,102 tons). 

The largest quantity of cast iron, namely, 38,995,000 poods 
(704,094 tons), was smelted by 8 iron works in the southern region, 
while the 91 private and 13 Government works in the Ural produced 
35,457,000 poods (640,212 tons). Thus these two regions pro- 
duced over 74,000,000 poods (1,336,144 tons), whereas the other 
regions together produced only about 22,000,000 poods (397,232 
tons), namely: The northern, 357,000 poods (6,446 tons); the Mos- 
cow, 8,226,000 poods (148,529 tons) ; the southwestern, 174,000 poods 
(3,142 tons); and the Polish, 13,062,000 poods (235,847 tons). 

The import from abroad of cast iron, iron, and steel into Russia 
during 1896 was: Cast iron, 4,592,000 poods (82,913 tons); iron and 
steel, unwrought, 23,009,000 poods (415,455 tons); iron and steel 
articles, 2,744,000 poods (49,546 tons); and machines and apparatus 
5,269,000 poods (95,137 tons). The iron, steel, and manufactures of 
the same amounted to 31,022,000 poods (560,133 tons), which, if 
changed into cast iron (counting lyi poods of cast iron for every 
pood of iron), would give 46,533,000 poods (840,200 tons). This, 
together with the 4,592,000 poods (82,913 tons) of cast iron imported 
into Russia, will make a total of 51,125,000 poods (923,113 tons). 
From the foregoing, it can be seen that, in order to satisfy the re- 
quirements of Russia's interior market, it required, in 1896, 149,- 
540,000 poods (2,700,094 tons) of cast iron, which, according to the 
population of 130,000,000, shows i.i poods (39.72 pounds) per head. 



IRON INDUSTRY IN RUSSIA IN 1 896. 



75 



The quantity of cast iron smelted, the import from abroad, and 
the consumption in Russia during the last four years can be seen 
from the following: 



Description. 



Cast iron: 
Smelted... 
Imported. 



Total. 



Consumption of iron, sieel, and articles im- 
ported 

Per head 



1893. 


1894. 




Poods. 
70,863,000 
9,799,000 


Tons. 
1,279,502 

176, 93* 


Poods, 
80,144,000 
9,441,000 


Tons. 
1,447,080 
170,467 


80.662,000 


1.456,433 


89.585,000 


1,617,54," 


102,440,000 
0.8 


>, 849. 657 


127,655,000 
I 


a,304,93<; 







Description. 



1895. 



1896. 



Cast iron: 
Smelted. 



Poods. 
88,785,000 
Imported | 8, 106,000 

TcuU 



96,891,000 



Consumption of iron, steel, and articles im- 
ported 

Per head 



136,281,000 
i.i 



Tons. Poods. 

1,603,102 ! 98,414,000 



146,362 



1,749.464 



2,460,690 



4,592,000 



103,006,000 



149,510,000 
i.i 



Tons. 
82,913 



1,859,876 



2.699.552 



I add data showing the production and consumption of casi 
iron in 1896 in the principal countries of Europe and in the United 
States : 



Countries. 



Quantity of cast iron pro- 
duced. 



Poods. 

United States. 585,671,000 

Great Britain 447,614,000 

Germany I 333,664,000 

France 1 122,460,000 



Russia 

Austria-H unwary. 

Bel^um 

Sweden .~ 

Spain 



ToUl. 



98,415,000 
65,983,000 
50,619,000 
28,262,000 
12,604,000 



1. 745. 292. «» 



Tons. 
10,574,875 
8,082,118 
6,024,637 
2,211,138 
1,776,981 
1,191,389 

913.977 
510,299 
227,578 



31,512,992 



Produc- 
tion of 
cast iron. 



Per cent. 
33-6 
25.6 
19.1 

7» 
5-6 
3.8 
2.9 
1.6 
0.7 



Quantity of iron 
produced per head. 



Consumption of cast 
iron per head. 



70ds. 


Pounds. 


Poods. 


5.9 


213 


8.8 


II. 4 


4"?1 


6.8 


7« 


256^3 


5-4 


3-3 


X19 


3.2 


0.7 


25>i 


115 


1.4 


S0V2 


»-5 


8.1 


292'/? 


6.6 


4 


114 k' 


2.9 


0.92 


332 


1.6 



Pounds. 
307 K 
245 J^ 
192 

115J4 
41 Jl^ 
54 

238 '<i 

57 '<i 



The percentage relation of the duty to the price of cast iron in 
Russia in 1896 was : Price per pood (36. 112 pounds) of cast iron in St. 
Petersburg — Cleveland, 85 J^ copecks (44 cents); shots, i.oi rubles 
(52 cents); duty per pood, 30 copecks (23 cents) ; percentage relation 
of the duty to the price — Cleveland, in per cent; shots, 80 percent. 

John Karel, 
St. Petersburg, June 77, j8qj, Consul-General. 



76 Russia's cotton industries. 



RUSSIA'S COTTON INDUSTRIES. 

Cotton manufacturing ranks first among Russian industries. In 
1843, there were 356,000 cotton spindles, each turning off 36 pounds 
of yarn; at present, there are 5,000,000 spindles, each turning off 
more than 72 pounds per annum. 

The demand for raw cotton is slowly but surely being supplied 
by the plantations in central Asia and the Caucasus. The cotton 
district in central Asia has increased from 61,000 to 136,000 dessia- 
tines (i dessiatine=2.6997 acres). The land fit for cotton cultiva- 
tion in the Turkestan territory amounts to 2,200,000 dessiatines; and 
of these, 1,500,000 dessiatines are already irrigated. Besides Turkes- 
tan, lands beyond the Caucasus grow cotton, yielding already 600,000 
poods (21,667,200 pounds). Russia uses 12,500,000 poods (451,400,- 
000 pounds), or one-tenth of all the cotton produced in Europe and 
America. Since Russia began to build mills and spin for herself, 
the imports of cotton yarns have steadily decreased. In 1883, 226,- 
000 poods (8,161,312 pounds) were imported; in 1894, 139,000 poods 
(5,019,568 pounds). The quantity imported bears to the home prod- 
uct a ratio of i to 80. From 1883 to 1890, an average of 140,000 
poods of sewing and knitting yarns were imported ; in the years 1891 
to 1894, it was not more than 50,000 poods. The imports of cotton 
cloths amounted, in 1883, to 454,000 poods (16,394,848 pounds), and 
decreased in 1894 to 169,000 poods. 

Russia's cotton exports. 

Russia is sending large quantities of cottons to Persia, Turkey, 
Roumania, and China; efforts are being made to find markets in 
South America. Of Persia's cotton-cloth imports, Russia supplies 
30 per cent. Its greatest competitor in the nations named is Eng- 
land. From 1887 to 1890, the average cotton-cloth exports were 
48,000 poods (1,733,376 pounds); in the years 1891 to 1894, 73,000 
poods (2,636,176 pounds), half of which went to Persia. The total 
value of Russia's cotton trade, with a production of 10,500,000 poods 
(379,176,000 pounds), amounts to 350,000,000 rubles,* giving it the 
first place among the Empire's industries. To farm and manufacture 
so much cotton, Russia needs machines such as have been success- 
fully used in the United States. Gins, pickers, cards, slubbers, spin- 
ning frames, mules, and warping, dressing, and dyeing machines are 
needed to carry on Russia's cotton and textile industries. By some 

♦The consul does not say whether the gold or silver ruble is meant. The value of the gold ruble 
is 77.a cents; the silver ruble, on April i, 1897, was 37.4 cents. 



EXPORT OF RUSSIAN FLOUR. 'J'] 

one these things must be supplied. The Germans have agents in 
every corner of Russia. Many of Saxony's large spinning concerns 
have branch houses there. 

J. C. MONAGHAN, 

Chemnitz, April 24, iSgy. Consul. 



EXPORT OF RUSSIAN FLOUR. 

Energy is shown by the Russian millers, supported conscien- 
tiously by their Government, in increasing the export of their prod- 
ucts. They try to find the real cause which prevents their export of 
flour, for, in spite of their efforts and the assistance accorded them 
by the Government, their export trade is scarcely developed. Ac- 
cording to official statistics, which are completed up to December i, 
1896, European Russia exported in the space of eleven months, /. ^., 
from January i to December i, 1896, 627,518 barrels of wheat flour 
and 719,292 barrels of rye flour; in all, 1,346, 8-10 barrels. Out of 
that quantity there were exported into Finland alone 261,259 barrels 
of wheat flour and 613,719 barrels of rye flour, or, together, 874,978 
barrels. These figures show that European Russia exported to for- 
eign countries during the first eleven months in 1896 only 366,259 bar- 
rels of wheat flour and 105,573 barrels of rye flour, or, in all, 471,832 
barrels. When the Russian millers ship flour for export, the rail- 
ways deduct 10 per cent from the general freight tariff on such flour; 
and when grain is shipped to a mill in some port to be ground into 
flour for export, a deduction of 7 per cent is made by the railways. 

Exporting millers held a meeting recently for the purpose of 
devising some method for increasing their trade. They acknowledged 
that, so far, they had been unable to find the real reason for the 
poor exports of Russian flour, but they are satisfied that the rebate 
given by the railways does not bring the desired result. In the 
London market, the prices of flour are, on an average, 40 copecks 
(20^ cents) per pood (36.112 pounds) lower than in Russia, which 
makes 2 rubles ($1.02) per sack. Some gave as a reason for this 
that grinding of grain in England is much cheaper than in Rus- 
sia, on account of the machinery being better and capital more 
available; others, again, claim that London does not use the best 
grades of flours, such as Russia manufactures for export, but 
demands only the middle grades. But they agree that the con- 
dition of the flour markets has recently changed at home as well as 
abroad, that the former difference in price of 2 rubles per sack has 
greatly decreased, and that there is now a prospect for the export of 
their flour at a profit. 

A request was addressed to the railway department to increase 



78 RUSSIAN GRAIN IN GERMANY. 

the privileges granted on the flour transported for export. The 
following demands were submitted: 

(i) That the deduction of the freight tariff on flour (including, 
also, groats, millet, and malt) for export abroad should be increased 
from lo per cent to 20 per cent; and on grain, groats, millet, and 
grain transported to mills in ports to be prepared for export flour, 
from 7 per cent to 15 per cent, on the ground that less than 75 per 
cent of good flour for export is produced. 

(2) That the rebate should be paid not later than within one 
month, and the time for presenting the custom-house documents 
relating to the export of grain should be extended to a month. 

(3) That flour intended for export should be transported by fast 
freight trains, without delays, and transferred from one railway to 
another so as to avoid all damages. 

(4) That the expenses of transfer from railway to vessels, and also 
the rate from the ports of the Baltic Sea, should be reduced. 

The general meeting of the representatives of Russian railways 
considered the miller's petition favorably, and expressed their readi- 
ness to grant all the claims possible for the development of the ex- 
port of flour. They answered the representatives of the millers that, 
as to the increase of the rebate, a new grain-freight tariff law would 
shortly be adopted, and the question of percentage of rebate would 
have to be postponed until the main question was decided. To 
facilitate the accounts of the exporters with the railroads, they pro- 
pose not to make the reduction in a percentage relative to the tariff, 
but to fix it once for all. Such a method is already in use by some 
of the southern railroads, by special agreement with the Novorossisk 
millers, and it is found convenient and advantageous, especially in 
avoiding misunderstandings. The other demands of the millers the 
representatives of the railways expressed themselves willing to grant. 
The question as to the lowering of the sea freight rates will be laid 
before the meeting of the Northern Sea Communication. There is no 
doubt that everything will be done to facilitate the export of Russian 
flour to foreign markets by the Russian railroads. 

John Karel, 
St. Petersburg, June 12, i8qj. Consul-General. 



RUSSIAN GRAIN IN GERMANY. 

It may be of interest for our commerce to hear that the United 
States is not the only country to the import of whose agricultural 
products Germany objects. Complaints are made in Russia against 
the German Agrarian party, on the ground that they are trying to 
ruin the Russian grain trade in Germany. The Agrarians are charged 



RUSSIAN GRAIN IN GERMANY. 79 

with discrediting the Russian grain by saying that it is of bad 
quality, dangerous from a hygienic standpoint, and that each gram 
of it contains millions of bacteria. The first trouble between Russia 
and Germany was a high tariff. The commission appointed by 
Russia and Germany in 1893 to negotiate a commercial treaty could 
not come to satisfactory terms, and the tariff war between the two 
countries continued. Russia announced her determination to en- 
force the maximum tariff against Germany, which was a discrimina- 
ting duty of from 20 to 30 per cent on all imports, from August i, 
1893. Germany, in answer, decided to levy an additional import 
duty of 50 per cent on articles imported from Russia. The principal 
export from Russia to Germany consists of agricultural products, 
and the principal export from Germany to Russia of manufactured 
articles. The business of both countries suffered greatly in conse- 
quence, until March, 1894, when a new and friendly treaty of com- 
merce between Russia and Germany went into effect. Russia soon 
resumed her former position as the source of a large portion of the 
imported cereal supplies of Germany. Then the German Agrarian 
party commenced to find fault with Russian grain. The Messenger 
of Finance, an official paper published in St. Petersburg, in its 
edition of May 30, 1897, says in defense: 

Every one knows that the Agrarian party has acquired a great influence in the 
economical, commercial, and financial policy of Germany, and sometimes to the 
detriment of the real interests of agriculture, which it does not understand; and 
that this party misuses its political influence. All its efforts are directed to destroy, 
or at least to weaken, the competition presented in the interior market by foreign 
produce. The party asserts that the decline in prices of agricultural products is 
due to the competition, forgetting that this decline was caused by a general increase 
of offers in the international market, and that it is useless to take measures which 
affect only the German market. 

Conscious of its power, the party persists in its pretensions, and in the contest 
with foreign competition does not stop even at measures which result in hampering 
commerce and which exercise a bad influence upon the interests of local agricul- 
ture. The representatives of the German Agrarian party use little discrimina- 
tion, and often present arguments that seem absurd to those with a real knowledge 
of the matter. One of these was the charge that Russian grain was of bad quality, 
and so caused the fall of prices in the German market. With the aid of such 
groundless accusations, the German Agrarians hope to discredit Russian grain in 
the eyes of the purchasers, who do not understand the real situation. At the last 
yearly meeting of the Union of German Farmers, one of the representatives of the 
Agrarian party went still further and declared that the import of Russian grain 
should be prohibited because each gram contained several million bacteria. 

Such a statement, of course, deserves no serious attention; but complaints 
against the bad quality of Russian grain and the claim that it causes a general fall 
in the prices can deceive the people. Therefore, we can not but welcome the seri- 
ous and detailed refutation of the undeserved accusations which has just appeared 
in German literature, especially when it is written by such a competent person as the 
representative of the firm of Emil Meyer, so well known in the German grain trade. 
This pamphlet, entitled Die Schuld dcr deuischcr Landwinhschall at\ mtdu^^tv 



8o RUSSIAN GRAIN IN GERMANY. 

Getreidepreisen durch die Erzeugung mindeswerthigen Getreidearten (The Infe- 
rior Quality of Grain Raised by German Farmers Responsible for the Low Prices), 
has attracted the attention of all persons interested in the grain trade, as it not only 
refutes the above accusation against the Russian grain, but proves that it can be 
more justly applied to German grain. Thus it appears that German Agrarians, 
conscious of their own responsibility for the fall in price of grain, hastened to accuse 
Russian agriculture, and repeated their statement so often that it gradually became 
accepted and passed without criticism — a method often adopted with success by the 
Agrarian party. 

In his pamphlet, George Meyer, first of all, objects to the customary accusation 
of the Agrarians that the grain traders find it advantageous for the price of grain to 
be low and force it by flooding the market with cheap foreign grain of bad quality. 
From a general point of view, the grain trader is not interested either in keeping 
prices down or in the poor quality of the grain circulating on the market. Of 
course, in the daily fluctuation of prices, he tries to buy as cheap as possible; but, 
in general, a high level of prices is more advantageous to him than a low one, be- 
cause his profit consists in a certain fixed percentage of the amount of stock 
involved, and the profit increases if the prices are high. In regard to the quality, 
the grain trader is only interested in grain which is most in demand, and, there- 
fore, the easiest to be sold. The requirements concerning the quality of the grain 
are established by the real consumers — the millers, the bakers, and the public. 
The accusation that the traders voluntarily make the prices fall by importing cheap 
and bad foreign wheat must be therefore considered, a priori, untrue. But, in 
reality, the refutation of the accusation offers no diflficulty. Foreign wheat is im- 
ported principally for use in mixtures for milling purposes, in order to improve 
local grain, from which the foreign wheat distinguishes itself by containing a larger 
quantity of gluten. The best kinds of the Danube wheat, Russian saksonka, win- 
ter wheat and girka, American red winter wheat, and the hard Argentine wheat are 
used. This explains the continual increase of the import, independent of the quan- 
tity of the local crop. In proportion to the increase of the consumption of flour 
(which depends on the condition of the population), the import of foreign wheat 
must also increase, even if the local production could supply the home consump- 
tion. It is natural, also, that the foreign grain, being of better quality than the 
local grain, should be valued at a higher price; and the prices of foreign wheat 
during the last two years were higher in the interior markets than the prices of 
local grain. The author proves this statement by figures. It is plain that, under 
such conditions, foreign wheat could not depress the price of local grain. The same 
can be said about Russian rye. Even poor varieties, with small grains and full of 
weeds, have great advantages as compared with the local rye. It is not difficult to 
clean the grain from the weeds, and the Russian grain has very fine skin, is dry, 
and produces much flour. Besides, flour obtained from Russian rye produces bread 
of heavier weight, and therefore this flour is in special demand. It is not strange 
that the prices of Russian rye, as well as wheat, are higher than those of local grain. 

The above data fully proves the inconsistency of the accusations. The author of 
the pamphlet does not stop here, however, but pays special attention to the attacks 
of the Agrarians against trade at a fixed rate of exchange, the prices of which they 
claim are always lower than the value of goods of high quality. The statement is 
quite true, but the author draws a conclusion opposite to the one made by the Agra- 
rians. The latter see in it the tendency of the merchants to keep down the prices 
by agreements, covered afterwards by the import of cheap grain. The author says 
that it is the local and not the foreign grain that depresses the prices. It has been 
said before that German grain is inferior to the foreign product. When contracts 
are made, the quality of the goods is mentioned only in general terms, without 
showing the country of production, the quantity of giuten they arc to contain, and 



THE RUSSIAN CENSUS OF 1897. 81 

the quantity of flour to be produced from a certain quantity of grain, and other 
qualities important to the consumers. These conditions are not specified in the 
contracts, for the reason that they can not be defined at first sight. The purchaser, 
buying a lot of grain for a certain term, can never be sure that he will not get the 
inferior local grain ; therefore, the prices are fixed at the rate for the cheapest goods. 

But why is the German grain of poorer quality ? It is the fault of the agrarians — 
the farmers themselves. About twenty-five years ago, German wheat was known 
for its good qualities, and was an article of export, especially to England, where it 
was used for improving milling mixtures in the same way as Russian and Ameri- 
can grain is now used in Germany. The large farmers, tempted by the productive- 
ness of English wheat, the average crop of which is 18 centners (34 bushels) per 
morgen (0.63 acre), whereas the local kind only gave 10 centners (19 bushels), 
imported seed from England, and gradually the English wheat supplanted the local 
product in Germany. But what was gained in quantity was lost in quality ; Eng- 
lish wheat grows abundantly, has large grains, containing much starch, and produces 
much flour, but it is not nourishing; it can not be used alone by the mills. To obtain 
from it the proper kind of flour, a wheat containing a certain quantity of gluten must 
be added. The difference in the size of the grains and in their firmness necessitates 
the substitution of rollers for millstones. Of course, the millers refuse to pay high 
prices for such quality of wheat. The same is observed with rye. Rye cultivated 
by the German farmers has a large grain, with very thick skin, and contains much 
water; therefore, the fiour obtained from it is very raw and absorbs little water when 
worked into dough, which, of course, diminishes the quantity of bread produced 
from such flour. The consumer, naturally, does not wish to pay for German rye, 
with which he has to buy a considerable quantity of water, the same price which 
he pays for foreign dry rye. 

Thus, the responsibility for the decline of prices in the German market — inasmuch 
as the local decrease exceeds the general depreciation of grain in the international 
market — does not fall on the import trade and foreign competition, but on German 
agriculture. 

John Karel, 
St. Petersburg, June ^^ 1^97- Consul-General. 



THE RUSSIAN CENSUS OF 1897. 

The first general census of the population of the Russian Empire 
was carried out very successfully in the time specified by the princi- 
pal census commission. It must be remembered that it is more diffi- 
cult to take a general census of Russia than of any other country on 
the globe, owing to the extensive territory, the hardships of the cli- 
matic conditions in winter, the shortness of the winter days, and the 
great diversity in education of the inhabitants. Furthermore, the 
rural population is generally illiterate, and the work of preparing and 
answering the required questions on the blanks had to be done exclu- 
sively by the census takers, instead of by the peasants themselves. 
When, under such conditions, the work has been done in three months, 
the management should receive credit. An army of over 150,000 cen- 
sus gatherers and officials were employed, under the direction of the 
diflFerent managers of the census districts and census establishments. 
No. 204 6. 



82 



THE RUSSIAN CENSUS OF 1 897. 



According to this census of 1897, the population of the whole 
Russian Empire, as now published, is 129,211,113, of which there are 
64,616,280 males and 64,594,833 females. The following table shows 
the population by separate territories of the Empire: 



Territories. 




In 50 governments of European Russia 

In 10 governments of the Kingdom of Poland 

In II governments and regions of Caucasus 

In 8 governments and regions of Siberia 

In 3 regions of Turkestan and Transcaspian region... 

In 5 regions of steppes 

In the Grand Duchy of Finland 

Russian subjects in Buhara and Khiva 

ToUl 



46,4331636 

41753.879 
5,129,931 

2.959.557 
2,281,340 
1,803,560 
1,250,426 
3.951 



Females. 



64,616,280 



47.755. "4 
4,688,711 
4.593.622 

2.772. >75 
1,893,761 
1,611,614 

1.277.375 
2,461 

64.594.833 




94,188,750 



9.442,590 
9.723.553 
5.731.732 
4,175.101 



3. 


415. 


174 


2 


527 1 


801 




6 


412 


129 


,211 


"3 



Inhabitants 

per square 

vcrst* 



22.2 

84.6 
23.6 
to. 5 

3.9 
X.6 

8.8 
6.8 



* I square vcrst=o.439i6 square mile. 

t The whole of Asiatic Russia, if the transural districts of Perm and Orenburg governments are 
added thereto, contains 15,300,000 inhabitants. 

This census shows 19 cities containing over 100,000 inhabitants 
each, 35 cities from 50,000 to 100,000, 69 cities from 25,000 to 50,000, 
13 cities from 10,000 to 25,000, and 3 cities from 5,000 to 10,000. 

The following table shows all the cities containing above 50,000 
inhabitants: i 



Cities. 



St. Petersburg 

Moscow 

Warsaw 

Odessa 

Lodz 

Riga 

Kiev 

Kharkov 

Tiflis 

Vilna 

Tashkent 

Saratov 

Kazan 

Ekaterinoslav 

Rostoff-on-Don 

Astrakhan 

Baku 

Tula 

Kishinev 

Nijni-Novgorod 

Nikolaev (government of Kherson). 

Samara 

Minsk 

Voronczsh 

Kovna 

Orenburg 

Dvinsk 




Population. 



1,267,023 
988,610 
614.752 
404.651 
314.780 
282,943 
248,750 
170,682 
159,862 
159.568 
156,506 
133. "6 
i3».5o8 
121,216 
119,889 

"3.075 
I", 253 

111,048 
108,506 

98,503 
92,060 

91.659 
91. "3 
84,015 
73.543 
72,740 
72,231 



Jaroslav 

Kherson 

Orel 

Vitebsk 

Ekaterinodar . 

Zshitomir 

Revel 

Libau 

Belostok 

Namangan 

Elisavetgrad... 

Cronstadt 

Kremenchug... 

Tsaritsine 

Penza 

Samarcand 

Kokand 

Sebastopol 

Berdichev 

Tver 

Poltava 

Kursk 

Tomsk 

Novocherkask. 

Taganrog 

Irkutsk 

Ufa 



70,610 
69,2x9 
68,558 
66,143 

65,697 
65.452 
64,578 
64.500 
63,927 
61,906 
61,841 
59,539 
57,879 
55, 9M 
S5,68o 
54.900 
54.452 
54.442 
53.728 

53.477 
53.060 

52,908 

52,430 
52,005 

51,748 
51,484 
50,576 



THE RUSSIAN CENSUS OF 1 897. 83 

At present, the local commissions are completing the final verifi- 
cation of the data collected. More than one-half is ready and has 
already been delivered to the central statistical committee, specially 
organized for the purpose of working out, on an extensive scale, the 
details of all the census returns. 

From the time of Peter the Great up to the beginning of the 
second half of the present century the only enumerations that were 
fairly reliable were the so-called ** revisions." There were ten of 
these, five in the past century and five in the present. The manifest 
of Nicolas I at the time of the seventh revision, in 1833, expressed a 
desire that the population of the whole Empire should be shown, if 
possible. The necessity of having such a census taken was fully rec- 
ognized by both Peter I and Nicolas I, and the ignorance and lack 
of organization of the census bureau were responsible for the poor 
success. 

The first correct information concerning the real apportionment 
of the whole population of the Empire is given by the general cen- 
sus. These figures, however, can be compared only with the figures 
of the revision in 185 1, when the population was 67,380,645, because, 
during serfdom, the peasants generally lived where they were en- 
rolled, and, on account of the absence of railroads and convenient 
highways, changed their residence little. A comparison of the 
figures of the present census with those of 1885 (given as 108,819,332 
by the central statistical committee) should be made with more cau- 
tion. The figures of 1885 were based upon the family registers of 
1876, and these statistics, on account of the shifting of the public 
masses, are far from being trustworthy. Thus, in forty-five years, 
the population of Russia doubled, and during the last twelve years 
has increased 20 per cent. The distribution of the 94,000,000 in- 
habitants in European Russia depends principally upon the natural 
and economic conditions of the plain of Russia, which is cut diago- 
nally from Podolia and Bessarabia to the government of Viatka by 
the chernoziom (black earth) region. This region comprises less 
than 1,500,000 square versts (658,740 square miles), but if the non- 
chernoziom governments, in which is included the Moscow industrial 
district, be added thereto, it contains more than 1,700,000 square 
versts (746,572 square miles), /*. ^., two-fifths of the whole plain of 
European Russia, which, according to the census, is inhabited by 
63,000,000 people, or by two-thirds of the whole population of 
European Russia. 

The most compact population is centered on the narrow strip 
formed by the governments of Podolia, the chernoziom part of Volyn, 
the larger part of Kiev and Poltava, the chernoziom part of Cherni- 
gov, the nonsteppe chernoziom parts of Kharkov and Voronezsh, 



84 



EGGS IN GERMANY. 



and the chernoziom parts of Orel, Tambov, Riazan, and Tula. The 

collected data show further that the population of Russia during the 

last thirty-five years has not only increased, but has also made great 

progress in the way of advanced civilization. 

John Karel, 

St. Petersburg, June lOy 1897, Co fisul- General, 



INCREASED EXPORTS FROM MANCHESTER TO 

THE UNITED STATES. 

I send a statement of exports hence to the United States for six 
months of 1897, compared with the same period of 1896. The United 
States is being flooded with goods. I do not, of course, instance 
this district only, for I am told of enormous shipments in woolens 
and worsteds from all Yorkshire, of linens and jute goods from Ire- 
land and Scotland in immense proportions, and of curtains, laces, 
and hosiery from the Nottingham-Leicester district, etc. 

Total of six months' exports {from January r to June jo, i8gi) from Manchester to 

the United States. 



Months. 



1897. 



First quarter: 

January 

February ... 
March 

ToUl 

Second quarter: 

April 

May 

June 

Total 



$569,952.41 

753t59»-93 
1,001,680.37 



1896. 



$1 1358, 339- 79 
1,285,024.31 
1,106,823.93 



2,425,224.71 I 3,750,188.03 



1,819,383.73 

1.059.315-59 
1,192,738.86 



4,071,438.18 



8^4.053-75 

878,657.53 

1,007,426.61 



2,710,137.89 



The figures show a decrease in the first quarter of 1897, compared 

with the first quarter of 1896, of $1,324,963.32, and an increase in 

the second quarter of 1897, compared with the same period in 1896, 

of $1,361,300.29. 

William F. Grinnell, 

Manchester, July j, i8gj. Consul. 



EGGS IN GERMANY.* 

Having been requested by American firms in the ^^^ trade to 
furnish statistics as to the production and consumption of eggs in 
Wiirtemberg and to express an opinion as to the market for the intro- 

♦ These reports on eggs were forwarded in response to inquiries by a dealer in New York City, to 
whom copies of the reports have been sent. 



EGGS IN GERMANY. 85 

duction of American eggs into this country, and, further, as to the 
use of desiccated eggs, I transmit the following statistics as to Ger- 
many, having been able to get no reliable figures for Wiirtemberg 
only. 

I find that Germany, next to Great Britain, is the largest consumer 
of eggs in Europe. By the statistics of 1890, 50,000,000 chickens were 
reported in the Empire, and it was estimated that 3,500,000,000 eggs 
were supplied from this source, besides which there was an import 
of 800,000 double cwts. (176,368,000 pounds), valued at 70,000,000 
marks ($16,660,000). In 1896, there was an import of 890,000 double 
cwts. (196,209,400 pounds), valued at 80,000,000 marks ($19,040,000). 
Against this import, we find, in 1890, an export of only 7,719 double 
cwts. (170,173,254 pounds), valued at 700,000 marks ($166,600). 

Eggs are usually imported in cases weighing 100 kilograms (220.46 
pounds), containing an average of 1,440 eggs each, which are valued 
at about 4 to 5 pfennigs (0.952 to 1.19 cents) apiece. 

It appears that the net importation, after deducting the small 
export, amounts to about 1,520,000,000 eggs. From the whole im- 
portation of about 850,000 double cwts. (187,391,000 pounds), about 
400,000 double cwts. (88,184,000 pounds), equaling 720,000,000 eggs, 
come from Russia; Austria-Hungary furnishes about 380,000 double 
cwts. (83,774,800 pounds), or 680,000,000 eggs; Italy, 50,000 double 
cwts. (11,023,000 pounds), or 90,000,000 eggs; Holland, 10,000 
double cwts. (2,204,600 pounds), equal to 18,000,000 eggs; and other 
countries, 9,000 double cwts. (1,984,140 pounds), equaling 15,000,000 

eggs. 

Following these figures further, it would give a consumption of 
about 100 eggs a year for each inhabitant of the Empire. The only 
reason I can discover why Germany does not produce sufficient eggs 
for her own consumption, and why she is obliged to pay from 70,- 
000,000 to 80,000,000 marks ($16,660,000 to $19,040,000) a year for 
eggs imported from other countries is the excessive dampness, caus- 
ing a large mortality among young chickens, and the further fact 
that large districts are occupied by extensive estates, where the peas- 
antry live in villages, which prevents a large number of flocks being 
kept. It is a well-known fact that the keeping of chickens is remu- 
nerative only to those peasants who have small places of their own. 

In all districts are to be found wholesale dealers in eggs, who 
buy up all small lots offered and pack and prepare them for the large 
markets. 

Different processes are used for the preservation of eggs, success- 
ful, however, only with eggs to be used for cooking purposes. In 
the great cities, it is difficult, if not impossible, to get thoroughly 
fresh eggs, suitable to be eaten boiled. 



86 EGGS IN NORTHERN GERMANV. 

It is interesting to note the difference in weight in eggs imported. 
We find i,ooo Austrian eggs averaging 50 kilograms (i 10. 23 pounds) ; 
the Russian eggs average 48 kilograms (105.82 pounds) ; whereas the 
Italian eggs rise to 58 kilograms (117.63 pounds) per 1,000. There 
being, also, an extensive importation of dressed and live fowls and 
feathers into this country, it is estimated that Germany pays yearly 
for fowls and products therefrom a sum considerably exceeding 
100,000,000 marks ($23,800,000). 

I have been unable to get any statistics as to the use of desiccated 
eggs, but from personal inquiries in this district, I find they are not in 
use here. The largest importer informs me that the facilities for get- 
ting Italian eggs are so good that he thinks it would be impossible to 
introduce desiccated eggs. The opportunity for the export of Ameri- 
can eggs to this country would therefore appear to depend entirely 
upon the price and the condition in which they could be delivered, so 
as to compete with the other countries above mentioned as large 
exporters to this market. The proximity of these countries gives 
them a great natural advantage. 

The German duty on eggs is 2 marks (47.6 cents) per 100 kilo- 
grams (220.46 pounds). 

The retail price of eggs varies, according to season, from 5 to 10 

pfennigs (i-J- to 2^ cents) each. 

Alfred C. Johnson, 

Stuttgart, May 6, i8gy. Consul. 



EGGS IN NORTHERN GERMANY. 

The duty on fresh eggs is 3 marks per 100 kilograms (71 cents 
per 220.46 pounds) gross; on prepared eggs, solid or liquid, 60 marks 
($14.28) per 100 kilograms, with 20 per cent tare allowance. 

Eggs are imported from Austria-Hungary, Italy, Russia, and, 
chiefly, from Galicia. They are packed in long boxes, each contain- 
ing 24 **schock" of 60 eggs, with a little straw. In cold weather, 
they keep very well; in hot weather, they are treated with a coating 
of a solution of what is called ** preserving salt." Such eggs, of 
course, sell for lower prices than ** country" eggs. 

The prices ruling on the ist of April were: Wholesale, country, 
2.45 marks (58 cents); early winter, 5 marks ($1.19); imported, 2.35 
marks (56 cents); early winter, 3.60 marks (85 cents) per **schock," 
delivered here, with packing free. 

Dried ** whites" are made in Germany. Of these, I inclose a 
sample manufactured in Hamburg. They are sold, wholesale, at 1.90 
marks (45 cents) per German pound (which is about a tenth heavier 



EGGS IN SOUTHERN FRANCE. 87 

than avoirdupois), and retail at 2.50 marks (59/^ cents). They are 
salable only in times of scarcity. 

The yolks are hard to dispose of. Wine dealers give them away 
mostly to their laborers, after they have made themselves and their 
families sick of omelets and pancakes. Still, Albert Ferchland, of 
Magdeburg, Neustadt, manufactures a liquid preparation of yolks, 
sold to distillers for **Eiercognac** and to restaurants for cooking. 
The price is 2.20 (52 cents) per liter bottle (i liter= 1.0567 quarts). 

Firms recommended for correspondence upon the subject are 
Bcckey & Miehe, Koester & Waldschmidt, and Meyer & Kanne, of 
Hanover, and H. Kirsten and Rehse & Goedecke, of Hamburg. 

E. P. Crane, 
Hanover, May 10^ 1^97^ Consul, 



EGGS IN SOUTHERN FRANCE. 

By information given me, through inquiries which I have caused 
to be made, I learn that the consumption of eggs in this consular 
district is largely regulated by the economic conditions dependent 
upon the season here and the laws of supply and demand in connec- 
tion therewith. The actual quantity used in this consular district, 
while large, can not be estimated. The markets and shops are 
amply supplied at all times, and they can always be had at very rea- 
sonable prices. They are supplied by the surrounding country, and 
also come from the adjacent regions of Italy. I am informed that 
eggs are sold here at prices ranging from 14 to 22 cents per dozen, 
according to the season, and that new-laid eggs will, when there is 
special demand, bring as much as 36 cents per dozen. Those who 
supply the markets are naturally satisfied with lower prices for sales 
involving large transactions. I am informed that the supply of eggs 
is always sufficient for the usual demand, and that large numbers 
collected during periods of abundance are kept in reserve, by being 
placed in lime or by other methods of conservation. 

The import duty, gross weight, I am told, is 10 francs ($1.93) per 
100 kilograms (220.46 pounds), and the city, or octroi, tax is 5 francs 
(96^ cents) for the quantity mentioned. 

It is said that desiccated eggs are not in use, or even known here. 
Fresh eggs are uaed whenever necessary, as already stated. 

In my opinion, the best way to establish business relations with 
this country is to create a general agency in Paris, which could intro- 
duce goods all over France and also establish subagencies in large 

towns, when the increase ot trade required it. 

W. B. Hall, 

Nice, May 10, iSpy, Consul, 



88 AMERICAN EGGS IN CUBA. 



AMERICAN EGGS IN CUBA. 

As the supply of domestic eggs in Cuba has been largely dimin- 
ished by the depopulation of the rural districts and the town and 
country fowls consumed have not been replaced by others, the island 
presents an excellent market for the sale of eggs from the United 
States. At present, about 3,000 dozen eggs are imported monthly at 
Santiago de Cuba from the United States. These eggs are brought 
in crates containing 36 dozen each, and are packed in trays subdi- 
vided into small squares so as to separate each egg. To lessen risk 
of breakage for the ocean voyage, oats are also used in packing. 

The price now paid in New York is from 10 to 11 cents per 
dozen. There is no wholesale price quoted at Santiago, the eggs 
usually being consigned and sold on commission directly to con- 
sumers, bringing 60 cents per dozen in Spanish silver (40 cents in 
United States gold). 

The duty imposed by the Spanish Government upon eggs im- 
ported into Cuba is $14 per 100 kilograms (220.46 pounds), to which 
are added 10 per cent ad valorem transitory tax, $1 per 1,000 kilo- 
grams (2, 204. 6 pounds) discharge tax, $1 per 1,000 kilograms port tax, 
5 per cent ad valorem cancellation tax, and 40 cents per 100 kilo- 
grams municipal tax, all in Spanish gold, which is at 10 percent dis- 
count compared with United States money. These taxes amount in 
the aggregate to about 10 cents per dozen eggs, so. that when the 
eggs are put upon this market they cost, including original price in 
New York, freight, insurance, commissions, duties, and petty ex- 
penses, 32 cents a dozen in Spanish gold (29 cents in United States 
gold). 

There is no attempt made to keep eggs from one season to an- 
other. Because of the tropical climate, importations at Santiago 
are usually limited to fortnightly consumption. The general-traffic 
steamships of the New York and Cuba Mail Steamship Company 
(American) leave foot of Wall street at 3 p. m. every other Thursday 
direct for Santiago and Cienfuegos. These vessels also touch every 
four weeks atGuantanamo and Manzanillo, in this consular district. 

The principal consignee for eggs in Santiago is Mr. Julian Cen- 
doya. Other commission merchants dealing largely in such goods 
are Lescaille, Grimany y Ca., E. Ros y Ca., J. Cuevas y Ca., and 
Brooks & Co. 

John T. Hyatt, 

Santiago de Cuba, May d, iSpy. Vice-Consul. 



RAILWAY SCHEME IN THE EUPHRATES VALLEY. 89 



RAILWAY SCHEME IN THE EUPHRATES VALLEY. 

The practicability of a shorter route to India than that via the 
Suez Canaly by means of railway connection from Alexandretta 
through Aleppo and the valley of the Euphrates to Bagdad, has been 
clearly established, and a concession from the Ottoman Government 
to construct this line has been sought for the past twenty-seven years. 

In 1870, a well-known English engineer, W. J. Maxwell, was com- 
missioned by a private* corporation to survey and report upon the 
project. He spent over a year between this port and the Euphrates 
River, but devoted the greater part of the time to prospecting 
between Alexandretta and Aleppo, a large city 90 miles distant by 
the present carriage road. Here the most serious engineering diffi- 
culties present themselves. The concession was not obtained, and, 
in fact, I understand permission to use his instruments was never 
officially granted ; but the engineer secured sufficient data to demon- 
strate before a select committee of the House of Commons the feasi- 
bility of constructing a road. 

Since then, various other attempts to obtain a firman for this pur- 
pose have been made by companies of recognized stability, capital- 
ized generally in France or England, the titular petitioner being 
always, as the law requires, an Ottoman subject. 

The nearest approach to success was made by a French banker 
named Caporal, residing in Constantinople, who succeeded some 
three years ago in getting the favorable recommendation of the 
council of ministers, but the concession was arrested by higher 
authority. This application for a firman requested, also, an indem- 
nity guarantying 10,000 francs per kilometer ($1,930 per 0.62137 mile) 
yearly should the line not earn that amount. 

The son of the governor-general of this district, himself an engi- 
neer, has, he informs me, recently made strenuous efforts to obtain a 
concession, without asking any indemnity whatever. Chakir Pasha, 
whose knowledge of this section of the country is exceptional, derived 
through his investigations as high commissioner of reforms, states his 
belief that the line from here to Aleppo would run on a paying basis 
were the cost of construction twice what has been estimated. 

The intention of the original promoters was to construct the 
line over the range of hills east of Alexandretta by the Baylan Pass 
(2,100 feet). The engineer first referred to studied the old Mont 
Cenis Railway before proceeding to Syria. Later investigators favor 
tunneling the pass at a point in the valley where not more than 
3^ miles of excavation is reported necessary. This, by the aid of 



90 RAILWAY SCHEME IN THE EUPHRATES VALLEY. 

causeways on the further side, would shorten the line to Aleppo to 
70 miles. 

The completion of the line through Bagdad to the port of Grane, 
or Koweit, would, it is estimated, lessen the time from Europe to 
India by seven or eight days, the results of which need no comment. 
The operation of this railroad even to the city of Aleppo would be 
highly profitable, as all who have so far studied the scheme realize. 

Alexandretta is the seaport of Aleppo, which has a population of 
from 110,000 to 120,000. The district (vilayet), of which it is the 
capital, has nearly 1,000,000. It is the distributing point of the great 
caravans that come from Bagdad, the country beyond the Euphrates, 
and the populous districts of Diarbekir and Mousoul. Much of the 
freight to and from the Kharput district also passes through Alex- 
andretta over this route. 

A good idea of the traffic is obtained from the tally of pack ani- 
mals (camels, horses, and mules) going and coming over the Baylan 
Pass above referred to. These number about 500,000 yearly. It is of 
interest to know that it requires 60,000 camel loads to transport to the 
coast the licorice root which is yearly shipped to the United States. 

The merchandise thus carried gives employment to the French 
Messageries, the Austrian Lloyd, two English lines (Bell's and Prince), 
the Khediviah, from Alexandria, and the Turkish Hadji-Daout lines 
of steamers, each sending four vessels monthly, and to numerous 
** tramps" and sailing ships. 

In the tourist season, the travel would doubtless be heavy, for 
Aleppo, where Abraham is believed to have lived, is one of the most 
ancient and interesting of oriental cities, possessing bazaars finer 
than those of Smyrna, and the intervening route, now too tedious 
to attract travelers, is replete with interest. The lake and ruins of 
Antioch, with ancient walls running over the hills 1,500 feet above the 
river, its Crusaders* Church and Roman castle, and, beyond, the 
great half-ruined church of Kelat-Seman (somewhat resembling St. 
Paul's, in London), where is the base of the pillar on which St. Simon 
Stylites is reputed to have lived thirty years, are a few of the objects 
of interest. 

The concession for the Beirut-Damascus Railway carries author- 
ity to extend the line from the latter point to Aleppo, but this has 
not been done, nor is such action probable, since a railway from this 
point, which is only a question of time, would be much shorter. It 
would have the advantage of terminating at the only natural harbor 
on the Syrian coast — one which affords safe anchorage for any num- 
ber of vessels. The port dues are trivial, whereas at Beirut, owing 
to a costly breakwater, they are excessive. 

Horace Lee Washington, 

Alexandretta, May 2Q, iSgT, Consul, 



NEW TARIFF OF JAPAN. 



^I 



NEW TARIFF OF JAPAN. 

I have the honor to state that the budget for the year 1897 has 
been passed without amendment by both branches of the Japanese 
Diet, it having received the approval of the House of Peers on the 
19th instant, and that a statutory tariff bill, regulating the customs 
dues to be levied in all cases wherein Japan is not bound by treaty 
stipulations, was passed by the lower house of the Diet on the 17th 
instant. 

As these bills have not yet appeared in the Official Gazette, the 
publication being contingent upon their receiving the approval of 
the Emperor, I am unable to send translations by this mail, but hope 
to forward them by the next outgoing steamer. 

Edwin Dun, 

Tokyo, March 2j, iSgy, Minister. 



Under date of April 12, 1897, Minister Dun sends from Tokyo 
the following translation of the tariff law: 



The Customs Tariff Law. 



TARIFF ANNEXED TO PROTOCOL OF THE ANGLO-JAPANESE TREATY, SIGNED AT LON- 
DON, JULY 16, 1894. 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

Caoutchouc, manufactures of 10 

Cement, portland 5 

Cotton: 

Yarns 8 

Tissues of all sorts, plain or 
mixed with tissues of flax, 
hemp, or other fiber, including 
wool, the cotton, however, 

predominating 10 

Glass, window, ordinary: 

(a) Uncolored and unstained... 8 

{b) Colored, stained, or ground.. 10 

Hats, including also hats of felt 10 

Indigo, dry 10 

Iron and steel: 

Pig and ingot 5 

Rails 5 

Bar, rod, plate, and sheet 7^ 

Tinned plates 10 

Galvanized sheet 10 

Pipes and tubes 10 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

Lead (pig, ingot, and slab) 5 

Leather: 

Sole 15 

Other kinds • 10 

Linen: 

Yarns 8 

Tissues 10 

Mercury, or quicksilver. 5 

Milk, condensed or desiccated 5 

Nails, iron 10 

Oil, paraffin 10 

Paint in oil ,.•• 'o 

Paper, printing 10 

Refined sugar 10 

Saltpeter ." 5 

Screws, bolts, and nuts (iron) 10 

Silk, satins, and silk and cotton 

mixtures 15 

Tin: 

Block, pig, and slab 5 

Plates 10 



92 



NEW TARIFF OF JAPAN. 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

Wax, paraffin 5 

Wire: 

Telegraph 5 

Iron and steel and rod iron 
and steel not exceeding one- 
fourth of an inch in diameter.. 10 
Woolen and worsted: 

Yarns 8 

Tissues of all sorts, plain or 
mixed with other material, 
the wool, however, predomi- 
nating 10 

Yarns of all sorts, not specially 
provided for...... 10 



„. Ad valorem, 

Zinc: percent. 

Block, pig, and slab 5 

Sheet 7j 

RULE FOR CALCULATING AD VALOREM 

DUTIES. 

Import duties payable ad valorem un- 
der this tarifif shall be calculated on the 
actual cost of the articles at the place of 
purchase, production, or fabrication, 
with the addition of the cost of insur- 
ance and transportation from the place 
of purchase, production, or fabrication 
to the port of discharge, as well as com- 
mission, if any exists. 



TARIFF ANNEXED TO THE PROTOCOL OF THE JAPANESE-GERMAN TREATY. 



LOfficial Gazette of November 20, 1896.] 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

Cotton fabrics: 

(i) Cotton velvets 10 

(2) All sorts of piece goods 

wholly of cotton or mixed 
with flax, jute, wool, or 
any other spinnable ma- 
terial, cotton, however, 
predominating 10 

(3) Lead, pig or ingot 5 

Chemicals, medicines, and drugs: 

(4) Red phosphorus 10 

(5) Subnitrate of bismuth 10 

(6) Bromides 10 

(7) Quinine 8 

(8) Chlorate of potash 10 

(9) Dynamite 10 

(10) Iodide of potash 10 

(11) Nitrate of potash 5 

(12) Salicylic acid 10 

Wires: 

(13) Telegraph wires 5 

(14) Iron or steel wires and 

small iron or steel rods 
not exceeding one-fourth 
of an inch in diameter ... 10 
Iron and steel: 

(15) Pig 5 

(16) Rails 5 

Bars, rods, and plates: 

(17) Of iron 7J 

(18) Of steel 7i 



10 



8 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

Bars, rods, and plates — Continued. 

(19) Galvanized plates (corru- 

gated or otherwise) 10 

(20) Tin plates of iron or steel.. 10 

(21) Pipes and tubes 10 

(22) Railway carriages and parts 

of 5 

(23) Iron nails 10 

(24) Ironscrews, bolts, and nuts 

(including those galvan- 
ized) 

Window glass (ordinary): 

(25) Uncolored and unstained... 

(26) Colored, stained, and 

ground 10 

Dyes and paints: 

(27) Aniline dyes 10 

(28) Alizarin dyes 10 

(29) Logwood extract 10 

(30) Paints in oil 10 

Yarns: 

(31) Of cotton 8 

(32) Of flax, hemp, jute, wool. 

etc. (including carded 
wool) 8 

(33) For weaving purposes 8 

(34) For other purposes 8 

(35) Other sorts of yarns not 

enumerated 10 

(36) Satins of cotton and silk 10 

(37) Hops 5 



NEW TARIFF UF JAPAN. 



93 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

(38) Hals (including hats of felt).... 10 

(39) India rubber, manufactures oO- 10 

(40) Flax and hemp piece goods 10 

Leather: 

(41) Sole 15 

(42) Other sorts 10 

(43) Railway engine cars and parts 

of. 5 

Milk: 

(44) Condensed or evaporated... 5 

(45) Sterilized 5 

(46) Papers 10 

(47) Paraffin oil 10 

(48) Paraffin wax 5 

(49) Portland cement 5 

(50) Clocks (watches not included) 
and parts of 10 

Woolen piece goods (including those 
of worsted yarns), either wholly of 
wool or mixed with other material, 
wool, however, predominating: 
(51) Blankets 10 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

Woolen piece goods, etc. — Continued. 

(52) Flannels 10 

(53) Mousseline de laine 10 

(54) Woolen cloths 10 

(55) Italian cloths 10 

(56) Other piece goods 10 

Zinc: 

(57) Block, ingot, and slab 5 

(58) Thin plates 7J 

(59) Refined sugar 10 

RULES FOR CALCULATING AD VALOREM 

DUTIES. 

Duties payable ad valorem under this 
tariff shall be calculated on the actual 
cost of the articles at the place of pur- 
chase, production, or fabrication, with 
the addition of the cost of insurance and 
transportation from the place of pur- 
chase, production, or fabrication to the 
port of discharge, as well as commission, 
if any exists. 



TARIFF AS PASSED BY BILL OF THE IMPERIAL PARLIAMENT AND PUBLISHED IN THE 

OFFICIAL GAZETTE. 



The customs tariff law, as passed by 
the imperial Parliament, has been pub- 
lished in the Official Gazette. It divides 
articles imported into three classes — (i) 
dutiable, (2) free of duty, and (3) prohib- 
ited for importation. Articles for the use 
of the imperial family; arms, powder, 
and explosives imported by the army 
and navy, ships and boats for the navy, 
articles for the use of foreign ministers to 
Japan, medals and decorations, archives 
and other documents, samples of mer- 
chandise, personal effects of travelers, 
articles to be permanently exhibited in 
official or private museums; home prod- 
uce, other than tobacco and liquors, re- 
imported within five years in the condi- 
tion in which they had been exported; 
articles exported for repairs and reim- 
ported, are included among articles free 
of duty. Articles temporarily imported 
for repairs, for the use of scientific in- 
vestigators or travelers, for experimental 
purposes, for use as samples by mer- 
chants, manufacturers, or traders travel- 



ing for the purpose of obtaining orders, 
or for show and performance purposes 
are also free of duty, when they are to be 
reexported within six months; it being, 
however, required of the importer to 
guaranty such reexportation by deposit- 
ing a sum equal to the import duties of 
such articles or security in some other 
form. Below is the tariff annexed to 
the law. 

CLASS I— UUTIAULK. 

Section I. — Arms, clocks^ scientific appara- 
iuSf and machinery. 

, Ad valorem, 
per cent, 
(i) Cannon, muskets, revolvers, 
swords, cannon balls, powder, 
and all arms and munitions 
of war 25 

(2) Balances and scales 10 

(3) Barometers 10 

(4) Opera or field glasses: 

{a) Leathered or lacquered.. 15 
(ff) All others 20 

(5) Clocks and parts of 20 



94 



NEW TARIFF OF JAPAN. 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

(6) Compasses, clocks, and parts of 

(for mariners' use) lo 

(7) Crucibles (all sorts) 10 

(8) Cutlery (other than mentioned 

elsewhere) 20 

(9) Diving apparatus and parts of.. 10 

(10) Electric-light machinery and 

parts of 10 

(11) Fire engines and parts of 10 

(12) Agricultural and mechanical 

implements and parts of 5 

(13) Musical instruments and fit- 

tings of 15 

(14) Chemical, drawing, surveying, 

surgical, and other scientific 
instruments (other than men- 
tioned elsewhere).. 10 

(15) Photographic instruments and 

parts of 15 

(16) Railway engine cars and parts 

of 10 

(17) All other machinery and instru- 

ments (other than mentioned 

elsewhere) 10 

(18) Microscopes and parts of 10 

(19) Phonographs and parts of 25 

(20) Pumps and parts of 10 

(21) Sewing machinery and parts of. 10 

(22) Spectacles and parts of 10 

(23) Fowling pieces and fittings of.. 25 

(24) Boilers, engines, and parts of... lu 

(25) Telephonic machinery and parts 

of 10 

(26) Telescopes 10 

(27) Thermometers 10 

(28) Typewriters 10 

(29) Watches, cases, and fittings of: 

(a) Made of gold or plati- 
num 30 

{/f) Made of silver and other 
• sorts 25 

(30) Watch machinery and parts of. 15 

Section J I. — Beverages and provisions. 

(31) All beverages not containing al- 

cohol, such as mineral, lemon- 
ade, or soda water 10 

(32) Biscuits: 

(a) Ship's biscuits 10 

{h) Sweet biscuits 15 

(33) Butter 15 

(34) Cheese 15 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

(35) Coffee 20 

(36) Confectioneries and preserves.. 25 

(37) Fresh eggs 10 

(38) Flour of all kinds 10 

(39) Fresh and dried fruits and corn 

(other than mentioned else- 
where) 15 

(40) Ham and bacon 15 

(41) Fresh meat 10 

(42) Condensed or dessicated milk... 15 

(43) Pepper 15 

(44) Salt (marine or mineral, irre- 

spective): 

{a) Crude 10 

{b) Refined 15 

(45) Salted fish 15 

(46) Salted meat 10 

(47) Kantengusa or tokorotengusa.. 10 

(48) Tea 25 

(49) Vegetables (green, dry, or 

salted) 10 

(50) All other provisions 15 

Section III. — Clothing and apparel. 

(51) Boots and shoes 20 

(52) Braces and suspenders; 

{a) Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

(/') All other sorts 20 

(53) Buttons (other than ornamental 

buttons) 20 

(54) Comforters and tippets: 

(ri) Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

{b) All other sorts 20 

(55) Gloves (all sorts) 20 

(56) Hats, caps, etc: 

{a) Inlaid with gold, silver, 

or precious stones 30 

(/') Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

(r) All other sorts 20 

(57) Neckties: 

(a) Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

{b) All other sorts 20 

(58) Shawls: 

(rt) Woolen and embroid- 
ered or made of or 
mixed with silk 25 

{b) All other sorts 20 

(59) Shirts 20 



NEW TARIFF OF JAPAN. 



95 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

(60) Socks and stockings, merino 

work, irrespective of sizes: 
(a) Made of cotton or wool 

or mixed with both ... 20 
(d) Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

(r) All other sorts 20 

(61) Ornamental buttons (studs and 

solitaires): 

{a) Made of gold or plati- 
num (either inlaid or 
not with precious 
stones) 30 

(If) All other sorts 25 

(62) Trimmings (ribbons, laces, tas- 

sels, knots, metallic threads 
or ribbons, etc.), not men- 
tioned elsewhere: 
(a) Made of or mixed with 

gold or silver 30 

{6) Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

(c) All other sorts 20 

(63) Underwear (merino): 

(a) Made of or mixed with 

cotton or wool 20 

(6) Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

(c) All other sorts 20 

(64) Waterproof coats: 

(a) Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

{S) All other sorts 20 

(6s) All other clothing and apparel: 

(a) Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

(if) All other sorts 20 

Section /F. — Drugs ^ chemicals, and medi- 

cines. 
Under this head, seventy-one articles — 
No. 66 to No. 136 — are mentioned, the 
rates being 10 per cent, except for alco- 
hol and musk, natural and artificial, on 
which are imposed duties of 40 and 15 
per cent, respectively. 

Section V. — Dyes and paints. 

Under this head thirty articles — No. 
137 to No. 166 — are mentioned, the rates 
being 10 per cent, except for gold, silver, 
and platinum fluids, on which are im- 
posed duties of IS per cent. 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

Section VI. — Glass and glassware. 

(167) Window glass (ordinary): 

{a) Uncolored and un- 
stained 10 

{b) All other sorts 15 

(168) Plate glass (either quicksil- 

vered or not) 20 

(169) Glass beads (Venice beads) 20 

(170) Broken or powdered glass 5 

(171) Looking glasses 25 

(172) All other glassware (other than 

mentioned elsewhere) 20 

Section VII. — Grain and seeds. 

(173) Barley 5 

(174) Beans, pease, and pulse 5 

(175) Indian corn 5 

(176) Oats 5 

(177) Sesame 5 

(178) Wheat 5 

(i 79) All other grain and seeds (other 

than mentioned elsewhere).. 5 

Section VIII. — Horns , ivory, skifts, hair, 

shells, etc, 

(180) Animal bones 5 

(181) Feathers (all sorts) 25 

(182) Furs 25 

(183) Animal hair (wool and camel 

hair excepted) 5 

(184) Human hair 20 

(185) Buffalo and cow hides (raw, 

dry, or salted and not 

dressed) 5 

(186) Deerskins (raw, dry, or salted 

and not dressed 5 

(187) Samba skins(raw, dry, orsalted 

and not dressed) 5 

(188) Hoofs 5 

(189) Cow and buffalo horns 5 

(190) Deer horns 5 

(191) Rhinoceros horns to 

(192) Elephants' teeth 10 

(193) Elephants' teeth, waste 10 

(194) Narwhals' teeth 10 

(195) Sea horses' teeth 10 

(196) Sole leather 15 

(197) All other sorts of leather 15 

(198) Tortoise shells 15 

(199) Tortoise shells, waste 15 

(200) All other sorts of bones, horns, 

skins, and shells 5 

(201) All other sorts of animal teeth, lu 



96 



NEW TARIFF OF JAPAN. 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

Section IX, — Metals and manufactures of. 

(202) Antimony (block and ingot)... 5 
Brass: 

(203) Bars, rods, and plates 10 

(204) Pipes and tubes 10 

(205) Screw nails lo 

(206) Old brass (for recasting)... 5 
Copper: 

(207) Block and ingot 5 

(208) Bars, rods, and plates 10 

(209) Nails 10 

(2To) Pipes and tubes 10 

(211) Wires 10 

(212) Copper and nickel coins... 5 

(213) Old copper (for recasting). 5 
(214) German silver (plates, rods, 

and wires) lo 

Iron and mild steel: 

(215) Pig iron and ingot 5 

(216) Sheathing iron and steel.. 5 

(217) Bars, rods, hoops, and 

bands 10 

(218) T, angle, and other sim- 

ilar wrought iron and 
mild steel 10 

(219) Rails and accessory bolt 

and nut screws, chairs, 
dog spikes, fish plates, 
etc 10 

(220) Plates (corrugated or oth- 

erwise) 10 

(221) Galvanized plates (corru- 

gated or otherwise) 10 

(222) Figured plates 10 

(223) Pipes and tubes 10 

(224) Nails (galvanized or not, 

other than mentioned 
elsewhere) 10 

(225) Screws, nuts, and bolts 

(other than mentioned 
elsewhere) 10 

(226) Tin plates, iron or steel 

(plain or crystallized)... 10 

(227) Wires and small rods not 

exceeding one-fourth of 
an inch in diameter 10 

(228) Telegraph wires (galvan- 

ized) 10 

(229) Wire ropes (galvanized or 

not) 10 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

Iron and mild steel — Continued. 

(230) Old wire ropes (galvanized 

or not) 5 

(231) Old hoops and wires and 

other sorts of old iron or 

mild steel(for recasting). 5 
Lead: 

(232) Pig and ingot 5 

(233) Plates 10 

(234) Pipes and tubes 10 

(235) Mercury 5 

(236) Nickel \ 5 

Platinum: 

(237) Block 5 

(238) Bars, rods, and wires 10 

(239) Solder (all sorts) 5 

Steel (other than mild steel): 

(240) Block 5 

(241) Bars, rods, and plates 10 

(242) Pipes and tubes 10 

(243) Wires and small rods not 

exceeding one-fourth of 
an inch in diameter 10 

(244) Wires for umbrella ribs... 10 

(245) Wire ropes (galvanized or 

not) 10 

(246) Old files and other old 

steel (for recasting) 5 

Tin: 

(247) Block and ingot s 

(248) Plates 10 

(249) Babbitt metal 5 

Yellow metal: 

(250) Plates 10 

(251) Bars and rods 10 

(252) Nails 10 

(253) Pipes and tubes 10 

(254) Old yellow metal (for re- 

casting) 5 

Zinc: 

(255) Block and ingot 5 

(256) Plates 10 

(257) Old plates and other old 

zinc (for recasting) 5 

(258) Nails and screws, other than 

mentioned elsewhere lo 

(259) Anchors and anchor chains (old 

or new) 10 

(260) Metal fittings for handbags.... 15 

(261) Capsules 15 



NEW TARIFF OF JAPAN. 



97 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

(262) Iron chains other than men- 

tioned elsewhere 15 

(263) Doorchains, doorhandles, and 

hinges 15 

(264) Gold, silver, and other metallic 

leaves and dust 35 

(265) Gold and silver ware other 

than mentioned elsewhere... 15 

(266) Electroplated ware other than 

mentioned elsewhere 25 

(267) Grates, stoves, and accessories. 20 

(268) Safes 20 

(269) Umbrella ribs and accessories., i s 

(270) Metals not mentioned else- 

where 5 

(271) Metallic ware not mentioned 

elsewhere 20 

Section X. — on and wax. 

(272) Candles 15 

(273) Volatile oil 10 

(274) Bean or pea oil 10 

(275) Castor oil 10 

(276) Cocoanut oil 10 

(277) Groundnut oil 10 

{278) Kerosene oil 10 

{279) Linseed oil 10 

(280) Olive oil 10 

(281) Palm oil 10 

(282) Paraffin oil 10 

(283) Spirit of turpentine 10 

(284) Honey wax 10 

(285) Paraffin wax 10 

(286) Other sorts of oil and wax 10 

Section XI. — Papers and stationeries. 

(287) Albums 25 

(288) Note books and forms 15 

(289) Ink (printing, writing, copy- 

ing, or lithographic) 15 

(290) Chinese papers 15 

(291) Wail papers 15 

(292) Printing papers 15 

(293) Other sorts of paper 15 

(294) Pencils: 

{a) Made of gold or plati- 
num 30 

(^) All other sorts 15 

(295) Pens: 

(<i) Made of gold 30 

(^) All other sorts 15 

(296) Sealing wax 15 

No. 204 7. 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

(297) Straw paper 15 

(298) All other stationeries 15 

Section XII. — Sugar. 

(299) Sugar, ordinary 5 

(300) Loaf, lump, etc 20 

(301) Rock candy 25 

(302) Molasses 10 

(303) Sirup 10 

Section XIII. — Textile fabrics^ yarns ^ 

threads y and raio materials thereof. 

Part I. 

304) Cotton yarns 10 

305) Cotton threads 15 

306) Cotton fabrics for bookbind- 

ing purposes 15 

307) Cotton damasks 15 

308) Cotton drills 15 

309) Cotton ducks 15 

310) Printed cottons 15 

311) Cotton satins, brocades, Italian 
cloths, and figured shirtings. 1 5 

312) Cotton velvets 15 

313) Ginghams 15 

314) Gray shirtings 15 

315) White shirtings 15 

316) Twilled shirtings 15 

317) Dyed shirtings 15 

318) Taffachclasses 15 

319) T cloths 15 

320) Turkey reds 15 

321) Victoria lawns 15 

322) All other cotton piece goods 

(either wholly of cotton or 
mixed with other material, 
cotton, however, predomi- 
nating in weight) 15 

Part 2. 

(323) Woolen and worsted yarns 10 

(324) Alpacas 15 

(325) Balzarines 15 

(326) Buntings 15 

(327) Camlets, lastings, etc 15 

(328) Camlet cords 15 

(329) China figures 15 

(330) Flannels (wholly of wool or 

mixed with cotton) 15 

(331) Italian cloths 15 

(332) Long ells 15 

(333) Mousseline de laine (wholly of 

wool or mixed with cotton).. 15 



98 



NEW TARIFF OF JAPAN. 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

(334) Orleans and lusters 15 

(335) Serges 15 

(336) Spanish stripes 15 

(337) Woolen cloths (all sorts) 15 

(338) Woolen damasks 15 

(339) Woolen felts 15 

(340) All other sorts of woolen piece 

goods (wholly of wool or 
mixed with other material, 
wool, however, predominat- 
ing in weight) 15 

Part 3. 

(341) Raw silk, waste silk, etc 15 

(342) Flosssilk 15 

(343) Silk yarns (spun), pure or 

mixed 15 

(344) Silk threads (other than men- 

tioned elsewhere) 20 

(345) Chinese crapes 20 

(346) Chinese pongee 20 

(347) Chinese silk satins 20 

(348) Chinese figured silk satins 20 

(349) Satins mixed with cotton and 

silk 20 

(350) Embroidered piece goods, 

wholly of silk or mixed 
with cotton 25 

(351) All other sorts of silk piece 

goods (wholly of silk or 
mixed with cotton, silk, 
however, predominating in 
weight) 20 

Part 4. 

(352) Flax andhemp yarns 10 

(353) f^Jax ^"^ hemp threads 15 

(354) Canvas 15 

(355) Linen (gray, white, dyed, or 

printed) 15 

(356) Flax or hemp damasks 15 

(357) All other sorts of flax or hemp 

piece goods (wholly of 
flax or hemp or mixed with 
other material, flax or hemp, 
however, predominating in 
weight) 15 

(358) Blankets (single or joined) 15 

(359) Brussels carpets 20 

(360) Felt carpets 20 

(361) Hemp or jute carpets 20 

(362) Patent tapestries. 20 

(363) All other sorts of carpets 20 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

(364) Chikufu 15 

(365) Curtains: 

{a) Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

ip) All other sorts 20 

(366) Elastic webbings: 

{a) Mixed with silk 20 

{b) All other sorts 15 

(367) Elastic ribbons, strings, etc.... 15 

(368) Handkerchiefs: 

{a) Made of cotton, flax, 
or hemp, or mixture 
of them (joined or 
single) 15 

{h) Silk and lace handker- 
chiefs 25 

(369) Mosquito nettings (all sorts)... 20 

(370) Leather cloths (for use as furni- 

ture) 15 

(371) Oilcloths and linoleum 15 

(372) Table cloths: 

{a) Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

{b) All other sorts 20 

(373) Towels (single or joined) 15 

(374) Traveling rugs (single or 

joined): 

{a) Mixed with silk 25 

ip) All other sorts 15 

(375) Cotton, flax, hemp, or jute 

threads 10 

(376) Yarns and threads (other than 

mentioned elsewhere) 15 

(377) All other sorts of cloths 15 

(378) All other manufactures of tex- 

tile fabrics: 
{a) Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

{b) All other sorts 20 

Section XIV. — Tobaccos. 

(379) Cigars 40 

(380) Cigarettes 40 

nSi) Snuffs 40 

(382) Cut 40 

(383) Leaves 35 

(384) All other manufactures of to- 

bacco 40 

Section XV. — Liquors. 

(3S5) Beer, ale, stout, and porter.... 25 
(386) Brandy 40 



NEW TARIFF OF JAPAN. 



99 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

(387) Champagne 35 

(388) Chinese liquors (all sorts) 40 

(389) Gin 40 

(390) Liqueur (all sorts) 40 

(391) Port 35 

(392) Rum 40 

(393) Sake (similar to home produce). 40 

(394) Sherry 35 

(395) Vermouth 35 

(396) Whisky 40 

(397) Wine (red or white) 35 

(398) All other distilled liquors 40 

(399) All other brewed liquors 35 

Section X VI. — Miscellaneous. 

(400) Aloes wood #. 10 

(401) Amber: 

{a) Unworked 10 

{b) Worked 20 

Animals: 

(402) Cattle, horses, donkeys, 

asses, sheep, goats, and 
fowls 5 

(403) All other animals 10 

(404) Asbestos (plates) 10 

(405) Bamboo (unworked) 5 

(406) Leather bands, caoutchouc 

bands, canvas, india-rubber 
tubes, and canvas hose (for 
machinery use) 10 

(407) Billiard tables and accessories. 30 

(408) Blasting, gelatin, other similar 

explosives, detonator and 
fuse 15 

(409) Bricks and tiles (for building 

purposes) 10 

(410) Brushes and brooms 20 

(411) Sticks and whips 20 

(ti2) India rubber and gutta-percha: 

{fl) Raw 5 

{b) Sheets 10 

(r) Worked (other than 
mentioned else- 
where) * 20 

(413) Carriages, cycles, and parts 

thereof 25 

(414) Railway carriages and parts 

thereof. 10 

(415) Railway wagons and parts 

thereof.^ 10 

(416) Tram cars and parts thereof... 10 



417 
418 



419 
420 

421 
422 

423 
424 
425 
426 

427 
428 

429 
430 

431 
432 
433 
434 
435 
436; 
437 
438 

439 
440 

441 



(442) 



(443) 
(444) 
(445) 
(446) 
(447) 
(448) 

(449) 



(450) 



(451) 
(452) 

(453) 
(454) 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

Drays 10 

Celluloid: 

(n) Sheets or rods 10 

{H) Worked 20 

Portland cement 5 

Chalk and whiting 5 

Charcoal and bone black 5 

Clay (all kinds) 5 

Coal 15 

Coke 15 

Coral (worked or otherwise)... 30 
Hemp ropes (for rigging or 

otherwise) 10 

Cork-tree bark 5 

Corks 10 

Glass cutters 10 

Dynamite 15 

Emery 5 

Emery papers and cloths 5 

Emery and other whetstones.. 5 

Felt (for ship or roofing) 10 

Fireworks (all sorts) 30 

Fishing gut 5 

Flints 5 

Artificial flowers 25 

Picture frames and headings.. 20 

Funori 5 

Furniture (old or new, other 

than mentioned elsewhere).. 20 
Tennis, cricket, chess, and 
other sporting apparatus 
(other than mentioned else- 
where) 25 

Glue (ordinary) 5 

Gun cotton 15 

Powder (all sorts) 15 

Gypsum 5 

Fodder 5 

Ivory, manufactures of (other 

than mentioned elsewhere).. 20 
Gold and silver ware (either 
inlaid with precious stones, 

pearls, etc., or not) 35 

Imitation gold or silver ware 
(inlaid with precious stones, 

pearls, etc., or not) 30 

Labels (for bottles, tins, etc.).. 15 

Lamps, lanterns, and parts of. 20 

Lard and tallow 10 

Leather manufactures (other 

than mentioned elsewhere).. 20 



lOO 



NEW TARIFF OF JAPAN. 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

(455) Malt 5 

(456) Matches (all sorts) 20 

(457) Chinese mattings (40 yards per 

roll) 20 

(458) Cocoa mattings 20 

(459) Mats for floor (all kinds) 20 

(460) Mica, sheets 10 

(461) Oakum 5 

(462) Packing (for steam engines)... 10 

(463) Oil paint, water color, litho- 

graphic and colored litho- 
graphic pictures, photo- 
graphs,caligraphs, and other 
pictures and writings not 
mentioned elsewhere 25 

(464) Asphalt, wood, or coal tar 5 

(465) Plaster of paris 5 

(466) Cards (all sorts) 35 

(467) Graphite 5 

(46S) Porcelain and earthen ware 

(other than mentioned else- 
where) 20 

(469) Precious stones and pearls 35 

(470) Imitation precious stones and 

pearls 30 

(471) Pulp for paper making 5 

(472) Putty 5 

(473) Rattans (either split or entire). 5 

(474) Saddlery 25 

(475) Sandalwood 10 

(476) Shoe blacking (all sorts) 20 

(477) Smoking apparatus (those for 

opium smoking excepted)... 30 

(478) Soap: 

{a) Toilet 20 

{/>) All other sorts 10 

(479) Soapstone (block or powder)... 5 

(480) Spaltery(?), for hat making.... 10 

(481) Sponges 5 

(482) Stones: 

(a) Those for building pur- 
poses, and other 
blocks, unworked 5 

{d) Those for ornamental 
or house-furnishing 
purposes, and other 
blocks, worked 20 

{c) Sculptures and engrav- 
ings 10 

(483) Submarine and underground 

cables 10 



(484) 
(485) 
(486) 

(487) 
(488) 



(489) 
(490) 
(491) 
(492) 



(493) 



(494) 

(495) 
(496) 



(497) 



(498) 

(499) 
(500) 

(501) 
(502) 



(503) 
(504) 
(505) 
(506) 

(507) 
(508) 

(509) 
(510) 

(511) 
(512) 

(513) 
(514) 



Ad valorem, 
per cent. 

Rosetta wood 5 

Teak wood 5 

Wood and planks (other than 

mentioned elsewhere) 5 

Toilet boxes 25 

Perfumed water, hair oil, tooth 
powder, and other cosmetics 

and perfumeries 30 

Tortoise-shell manufactures... 25 

Toys (all sorts) 25 

Trunks, handbags, purses, etc. 20 
Umbrellas: 

(a) Made of or mixed with 

silk 25 

(//) All other sorts 20 

Umbrella handles and sticks 
(those made of gold or silver 

excepted) 20 

Steamers, sailing vessels, and 

other ships and boats 5 

Rosetta and ebony ware 25 

Raw, crude, or unmanufac- 
tured material not enumer- 
ated 10 

Manufactured or half-manu- 
factured articles not enu- 
merated 20 

CLASS II. — FREE OF DUTY. 

a 

Writings and pictures for adver- 
tisements, and signboards. 

Bone ashes. 

Maps, charts, and other scientific 
drawings. 

Bank notes, coupons, share bonds, 
and other value-bearing notes. 

Books, penmanship and drawing 
copy books, newspapers, and 
magazines. 

Gold and silver bullion. 

Cocoons (all sorts).- 

Gold and silver coins. 

Old cotton. 

Ginned cotton. 

Raw cotton. 

Waste cotton. 

Waste cotton yarns. 

Hemp (carded or not). 

Guano. 

Gunny bags (old or new). 

Gunny cloth. 



DROUGHT IN AUSTRALIA. 



lOI 



(515) Packing mats. 

(516) Models and drafts. 

(517) Oil cakes. 

(518) Opium for medicinal purposes (im- 

ported by the Government). 

(519) Plants, sprouts, and roots. 

(520) Rice and husked rice. 

(521) Dried sardines. 

(522) Tea baskets, tea sieves, and tea 

winnowers. 
{523) Tea pans. 

(524) Tea lead. 

(525) Wool, goat hair, and camel hair 

(old or new). 

CLASS III. — PROHIBITED FROM IMPORTA- 
TION. 

(526) Drugs, chemicals, medicines, bev- 

erages, and provisions of impure 
nature, to be regarded injurious 
under laws and orders. 

(527) Opium-smoking apparatus. 



(528) Articles to be regarded as injurious 

to the public health or to animals 
and plants under laws and or- 
ders. 

(529) Articles infringing the law of the 

Empire relating to patent de- 
signs, trade-marks, and copy- 
rights. 

(530) Counterfeit money or imitation 

money to be regarded as coun- 
terfeit. 

(531) Opium (opium for medicinal pur- 

poses imported by the Govern- 
ment excepted). 

(532) Books, pictures, sculptures, en- 

gravings, etc., injurious to the 
public peace or morality. 
It is provided that some of the items 
given in the above tariff may be altered 
to specific duties based on average prices 
of six months or more. The date of the 
enforcement of the tariff law is to be 
fixed by an imperial ordinance. 



DROUGHT IN AUSTRALIA. 

Droughts in Australia are not uncommon. In the most valuable 
and productive districts, they occur too frequently for the happi- 
ness of the inhabitants of this, in many ways, favored land ; but the 
drought from which the country is now suffering is the most severe, 
prolonged, disastrous, and far-reaching of any visitation of the kind 
experienced for half a century, Save along the coast and a few 
favored spots not far inside of the '* coast range," the present drought 
spreads well-nigh over the continental colonies. 

As published in a former report, the colony of New South Wales 
alone lost 9,000,000 sheep during the year 1895, the number being 
reduced from 56,000,000 to 47,000,000 through the severity of the 
prolonged drought, while most of the other colonies suffered enor- 
mously from the same cause. 

The baleful results of the present drought are intensified by the 
fact that this may almost be said to be but a continuation of 
the drought of 1895, as for fully two and a half years there has not 
been sufficient rainfall in the interior to be considered as a break in 
the almost changeless dry spell. 

In the chief wool-growing colony (New South Wales), not only was 
there a failure to recover the losses of 1895, but many well-informed 



I02 DROUGHT IN AUSTRALIA. 

persons claim that there had been a further decline during the year 
1896. 

From the extensive pastoral districts of the interior come reports 
of the most appalling conditions. During the hot summer months in 
Australia — December, January, and February — the pastures are dry 
and the grass dead; but in autumn there are usually rains which 
cause a fine growth of herbage for the winter months. At this time 
of year, the feed should be fresh, green, and abundant throughout 
the whole interior, while, as a fact, throughout the main sheep dis- 
tricts there has been very little rain for many months; in some local- 
ities, for almost a year. 

From the very nature of its superficial configuration, continental 
Australia has but a scant rainfall and, owing to the same natural 
causes, it is very unequally distributed. If the total annual rainfall 
of the whole Australian continent were equally distributed over the 
entire area, it is doubtful if it would aggregate as much as 6 inches. 
The reasons are obvious. Owing to the rotary motion of the globe, 
the rain clouds, or vapor-laden atmosphere, come chiefly from the 
eastern seas or basins of evaporation. In every quarter of the globe, 
the distribution of the rainfall depends upon local influences, chiefly 
upon mountain chains or land elevations. Some 50 or 100 miles from 
the coast, and almost parallel therewith, a chain of mountains, or 
high table-lands, runs along the whole east side of the continent, 
from about 12° to 38° south latitude, having a total length of nearly 
1,500 miles. 

While these ranges are low (they average 4,000 or 5,000 feet) as 
compared with the great mountain chains of other countries, they 
are sufficiently high to empty the westerly moving rain clouds of most 
of their rather meager supply of moisture. 

In a comparatively small area, east of some of the higher portions 
of this range, there is quite a heavy rainfall. There is also a district 
in tropical Australia, west of the Gulf of Carpentaria and north of the 
Raper River, embracing some 30,000 square miles, having an annual 
rainfall of from 40 to 50 inches. 

A semicircular belt of country, some 400 miles wide and over 
2,000 miles long, lying west of the above-mentioned coast range and 
south of the north shore line, has an average annual precipitation of 
from 10 to 30 inches, the amount gradually decreasing to 5 inches 
and less toward the interior. Fully one-half of the vast interior of 
the continent of Australia, a country with a superficial area of nearly 
1,500,000 square miles, may be said to be almost rainless. 

The enormous pastoral industry and the princely sheep runs — 
called in Australian speech ** stations" — are inside the mountain 
range and reach out to the dry and withered plains in the semicir- 



DROUGHT IN AUSTRALIA. IO3 

cular belt with the scant rainfall before described. As it will be 
observed that the highest average rainfall in any of these interior 
regions is but a few inches, the loss and distress in a country usu- 
ally stocked up to the possibilities of the most favorable seasons, 
caused by the failure of the meager supply of rain, may be easily 
imagined. Inside of this coast range, in the continental interior and 
bordering on the dry and rainless plains, are pastured the 100,000,- 
000 sheep and most of the 10,000,000 cattle of Australia. 

New South Wales is the wool-growing country of Australia, as 
over one-half of the flocks of the Australian continent are in this 
colony. In 1891, there were 62,000,000 sheep in New South Wales 
alone. But prices began to decline and seasons began to fail, so that 
at the beginning of the wool season of 1895-96 the number had de- 
creased to 56,000,000. In 1895, came a severe drought, and, as before 
said. New South Wales in that season lost 9,000,000 sheep, leaving 
her but 47,000,000. 

Now, while 1896 was a better year than 1895, it is doubtful if the 
numbers more than held their own; it is even doubtful if there were 
more than 45,000,000 sheep in New South Wales at the beginning of 
the 1896-97 season. But never, it is said, has the outlook for the 
sheep raisers been more gloomy than now. 

Owing to the enormous development of the artesian-well system, 
the extensive colony of Queensland has suffered proportionately much 
less than the other continental colonies. From all parts of South 
and Western Australia, from Victoria and New South Wales, the 
reports are disheartening. The feed has been dry and dead so long, 
and the water has become so nearly exhausted and so poor, that 
stock is dying by the hundreds of thousands, or even by the millions. 
Thousands of men are being employed in the various districts cutting 
the boughs of the apple, the oak, and other trees for food for the 
starving sheep, and in skinning the animals that perish in the mud 
at the failing water holes. Autumn and the lambing season has 
come, and since there is no fresh, wholesome food to nourish the 
breeding ewes, they are too weak to furnish milk, and the lambs are 
either killed by the owners to save the mothers' lives or allowed to 
die with them. 

That I might see for myself, I took a hasty run 400 miles south- 
west into the famous Riverina district, whence comes the fine wools 
bought by American manufacturers. It was the picture of desola- 
tion. For miles and miles not a blade of grass, not a green weed or 
sprig of vegetation could be seen. Sheep, cattle, birds, and rabbits 
were succumbing to the awful ravages of the drought. Some well- 
informed people have declared through the public press that New 
South Wales would lose one-half of her sheep and one-fourth of her 



I04 DROUGHT IN AUSTRALIA. 

cattle during the season, even if relief came soon. Others, less pes- 
simistic, though no better informed, estimate the loss at one-fourth. 
I asked the New South Wales stock inspector his opinion regarding 
the probable loss; he said the situation was **too deplorable to spec- 
ulate upon," and he would only make estimates when sufficient facts 
were presented to justify them. 

The wool year in Australia ends June 30. From the secretary of 
the Wool Sellers' Association, I learn that for the year ended June 
30, 1895, there were shipped from the ports of Sydney and Newcastle, 
N. S. W., 755,769 bales; for the year ended June 30, 1896, 683,001 
bales; and for the year ended June, 1897 (estimated), 687,000 bales, 
the average weight of bales being 350 pounds. 

Owing to ** tricks in the trade," these figures do not fully reveal 
the facts we would expect to find when the number of sheep sheared 
during each of these years is considered. 

As before mentioned, there was a loss in the wool year of 1894-95 
of 9,000,000 head of sheep in New South Wales, while the next 
year's fleece, from the reduced number, fell short of the former year 
but 72,768 bales. This was owing to the better season during 1895-96 
and the consequent greatly increased weight of fleece. A very dry 
season always means a very light fleece. Well-informed wool deal- 
ers estimate a decline in the coming year's clip of at least 200,000 
bales. 

Recently, on one station in the interior, 45,000 well-bred sheep 
were killed that the pelts might be saved, and the following clip- 
ping from the Daily Telegraph of June 7 is but a sample of the re- 
ports from most of the stock centers of the continent: 

Melbourne, Sunday. 
Upwards of 50 per cent of the cattle and sheep in the Nhill district have died 
within the last few weeks through starvation, entailed by the prolonged drought. 
Chaff at Nhill is £t 12s. ($31.63) per ton. Generally, stock of all kinds in the dis- 
trict are in a deplorable condition. The water supply at Ingle wood gave out last 
evening, and the town is now faced with a water famine. At Benalla, Charlton, 
and Pyramid Hill enormous mortality has occurred among the herds in consequence 
of the drought. 

While it seems almost impracticable to feed flocks of sheep rang- 
ing from 50,000 to 300,000 head, many are striving to save their stock 
by feeding hay and chaff, lucerne (alfalfa) being purchased at jQ6 6s. 
(say $30) per ton. 

I made a hasty tour of inspection some two weeks ago, covering 
some 1,500 miles of country. I have seen many well-informed squat- 
ters and I conclude, while the total losses will be enormous, and in 
certain districts equal to the highest estimates yet published, the 
evils are somewhat exaggerated. However, wool buyers need not 
be surprised to learn that fully one-fifth of the finest wool sheep on 



RICE-HULLING MACHINES IN MADAGASCAR. IO5 

the globe have perished from this widespread and long-protracted 
drought, and that the fleece of the new clip will be very light, through 
a marked absence of yolk. 

Even in Queensland, notwithstanding her enormous efforts and 
splendid success in artesian boring, the flocks have declined. While 
in Brisbane (600 miles north of Sydney), I learned from the Agricul- 
tural Department that, in 1894, Queensland had 19,587,691 sheep; in 
1895, 19,856,959; in 1896, 19,350,000; and this year there would be 
a decrease of nearly 1,000,000 head. In 1894, Queensland had 7,012,- 
997 cattle; in 1895, 6,828,000; and in 1896, 6,520,000, while this 
year the number will decrease at least 300,000 head. Queensland is 
twelve times as large as the State of Iowa, with one-fifth of Iowa's 
population. 

The meat export of Australia will probably be reduced one-third, 
while the grain imports are likely to be nearly as large as in 1895-96. 
The general trade must suffer depression until the country has time 
to recuperate. Owing to her wonderful resources and the energy of 
her people, recuperation will be very rapid when the long dry spell 
is once broken. 

From the awful destruction of the recent drought, there may 
arise a real good, as the question of conserving the waters that rush 
down the Darling and its tributaries is being earnestly urged by 
many influential people, and the ** artesian bore " promises to become 
a great factor in the productive energy of the continent. 

It is not so much more rain or even more water that is needed 
in the eastern colonies of Australia, but a more scientific method of 
conserving and utilizing the waters available in nearly every portion 
of the leading pastoral districts. 

While this report has been waiting the steamer, there have been 
heavy rains along the coast (7 inches in a single day at Sydney) and 
large districts in the interior have been favored with refreshing show- 
ers. However, there is but little evidence of a general break in the 

drought. 

Geo. W. Bell- 
Sydney, June /, iS^T. Consul. 



RICE-HULLING MACHINES IN MADAGASCAR. 

As an impression seems to have got abroad, from the publication 
of the information contained in my report of February 18,* that I am 
personally interested either in the rice-hulling machine trade or in 
the rice crop of this island, and as certain letters received since said 

^Published in Consular Reports No. 200 (May, 1897), p. 156. 



I06 RICE-HULLING MACHINES IN MADAGASCAR. 

publication seem also to indicate a desire for further details as to 
the kind of machine adapted to the wants of these people, I would 
now ask the publication of the inclosed. 

HINTS AS TO THE RICE-HULLING MACHINES NEEDED IN MADAGASCAR. 

J, The kind of machine. 

It ought not to exceed 50 to 100 pounds in weight; the lighter 
the better. It ought to be as compactly built as possible, and made 
so as to admit of being attached to the heads of posts set in the 
ground or to uprights. It ought to be constructed so as to work 
with the same revolution the hulling and winnowing devices. 

The great desideratum is a machine for family use. A few ma- 
chines of greater capacity can naturally be placed in the larger vil- 
lages ; but what is really wanted is a cheap machine — one that can be 
sold here at a profit at prices ranging from $5 to $25 each. I do not 
want to be understood as saying that higher-priced machines can 
not find a market here, but the actual need is, as before stated, for a 
family or household machine. It is also essential that the machine 
should be simply but strongly constructed. The parts ought to be 
capable of ready adjustment and removal for repairs and cleaning, 
and yet with a minimum of small pieces, etc., liable to be mislaid by 
careless handling. 

All exposed metal parts ought to be galvanized, or at least painted. 
All parts made of metal should be of as lightweight as is compatible 
with the work they are required to perform. The main object is to 
hull and winnow the rice. That the kernels of rice should be more 
or less broken in the process would not militate against the sale of 
the machine, as by the present manner of hulling and winnowing 
there is a very large proportion of broken rice. 

It should always be borne in mind that, in the majority of cases, 
this machine will have to be carried on men's shoulders through a 
rugged country before reaching its final destination. 

2. Hon* to put it on the market. 

No manufacturer must for a moment expect to find here parties 
willing to guaranty fhe sale of any number of machines. American 
cottons and petroleum are the only articles bought and sold here on 
an actual cash basis. All other goods are handled on credit terms 
ranging from ninety days to six months and longer. 

To properly introduce and secure large sales for rice-hulling ma- 
chines, a salesman having sufficient mechanical ability and knowl- 
edge to thoroughly master the most minute details of said machines 
ought to be sent out here as general agent, with privilege of estab- 
lishing subagencies and depots where needed and to exhibit and 



china: trade and mine regulations. 107 

instruct the natives in the use of the machine offered for sale. He 
ought to have sufficient executive ability to select competent native 
or Creole agents to act as distributing peddlers or salesmen. 

All manner of advertising material is, in an instance of this kind, 
when it is intended to reach the native buyer, practically valueless 
and an actual waste of money. And yet the intelligence and adapt- 
ability of these natives is of such a character as to render them capa- 
ble of comprehending and using such simple hand-power machines 
after they have once been shown how to work them. 

If manufacturers of rice-hulling machines, such as I have de- 
scribed, are not willing to send out a practical man to introduce their 
machines, but would prefer to sell one or more sample machines, in 
the hope that the local need will in time create a market, they might 
send me illustrated pamphlets or circulars printed in the French lan- 
guage. I will cheerfully place them with parties likely to become 
interested in the introduction of the machines. I would not advise 
the sending of more than fifty to one hundred circulars or pamphlets. 

Edw. Telfair Wetter, 
Tamatave, May 75, 18^7, Consul, 



CHINA: TRADE IN HANKOW AND MINE REGULA- 
TIONS IN HUNAN. 

I have the honor to inclose extracts clipped from the Shanghai 
Daily News in regard to trade in this consular district for the quar- 
ter ended December 31, 1896, and a translation of a proclamation in 
regard to the opening of mines in Hunan. 

Jacob T. Child, 

Hankow, April j^ ^8^7- Consul. 



THE CUSTOMS GAZETTE, OCTOBER-DECEMBER, 1 896. 

The real revenue at Hankow in the last quarter of 1896 showed an advance, the 
apparent falling off in the collection being due to the smaller balance of river- 
steamer and coast-trade deposits carried over. The apparent falling off was 4,000 
uels ($3,120, taking the value of the haikwan tael on January i, 1897), but as the 
decline in the balance of deposits was 18,000 taels ($14,040), there was really a net 
gain of 14,000 taels made under export duty and transit dues. The tonnage en- 
tered and cleared during the quarter was 231 vessels of 195,090 tons and 323 of 
208,694 tons, against 236 of 190,345 tons and 446 of 210,711 tons, respectively. 
Of opium, 116 piculs (15,466 pounds) of Indian and 2,506 piculs (334,133 pounds) 
of Szechuen were imported, against 136 piculs of Indian and 5,035 piculs of 
Szechuen in 1895. The import of cotton piece goods showed a marked decline. 



io8 



china: trade and mine regulations. 



except in American drills, of which 51,408 pieces were taken, against 14,170 pieces 
in i8g5 and 18,165 pieces in 1894. The comparative figures of cotton yarn were: 



Description. 




English... 
Indian..... 
Shanghai 



Piculs. 

58,645 
4.431 



Pounds. 
593.466 

7.819,333 
590,800 



Piculs. 
3.291 
77.63" 



In woolens, with the exception of Spanish stripes, there was a general decline, 
which extended to metals, tin and copper excepted. Foreign sundries were gen- 
erally less, except kerosene oil and sugar. In native sundries, there was a marked 
advance in raw cotton and a large decline in medicines. Exports were fairly 
maintained on the whole, with a large advance in brick tea. Of transit passes, 
18,637 were issued, against 56,813 in 1895 and an average of about 11,000 for the 
two previous years. The treasure table shows an import of gold to the value of 
37,520 taels ($29,265) and of silver to the value of 1,174,418 taels ($916,046), against 
an export of the same metals to the value of 12,050 taels and 294,420 taels, 
respectively. 

In Kiukiang, there was a heavy decline under export duty, but the total collec- 
tion looks much better than it really was, owing to an excess of 20,000 taels ($15,600) 
in the balance of river-steamer deposits. The tonnage entered and cleared was 
about I per cent larger than in 1895. Of opium, 684 piculs (91,200 pounds) of 
Indian and 26 piculs (3,466 pounds) of native were imported, against 742 piculs and 
5 piculs, respectively, in the previous year. Cotton goods showed a general im- 
provement, especially in English sheetings, while the comparative figures of 
cotton yarn were: 



Description. 



English... 

Indian 

Japanese. 
Shanghai 



1896. 


Piculs. 


Pounds. 


261 


35.800 


15.939 


2,125,200 


630 


84,000 


615 


82,000 



1895. 



Piculs. 

258 

8,716 

186 

50X 



Woolens participated in the improvement, but there was a slight decline in 
metals, lead excepted. Foreign and native sundries kept up well, Russian kerosene 
oil showing a large advance. The chief feature to note in exports was the decline 
in black and green tea. Of transit passes, 2,576 were issued, against an average 
of over 3,000 for the three previous years. There were also issued 34 free-transit 
passes for Shanghai cotton manufactures. The treasure table shows an import of 
silver to the value of 240,405 taels ($185,716) and an export of the same metal to 
the value of 195,320 taels ($152,235). 



THE OPENING OF MINES IN HUNAN. 

The bureau of mines for the province of Hunan has recently issued a proclama- 
tion setting forth certain regulations for the opening of mines in that province. 
The following are the important regulations of the bureau: 

Manner of opening mines. — {a) Where the Government have the chief superin- 
tendence of a mine and no shares are offered to the public, such mines will be 



china: trade and mine regulations. 109 

called ** Government mines;'* (^) where the public are invited to subscribe for 
shares, such mines will be styled "semiofficial mines," or "mines worked con- 
jointly by Government and a syndicate or company;" (c) where application has been 
made by a syndicate or company for permission to open mines and the Government 
has no shares in such mines, they will be styled "mines supervised by the Govern- 
ment, but worked by a commercial company or syndicate." 

In the case of Government mines and semiofficial mines, such mines will be 
managed by deputies appointed by the bureau of mines. Mines supervised by the 
Government, but worked by a commercial syndicate, will be managed by the syn- 
dicate alone, but arrangements will have to be made about the granting of permits 
for taking possession of the output of said mines, or deputies will be appointed to 
assess taxes on said output as well as levy duty on the smelting furnaces. 

Output of mines. — When permission to open mines is applied for, specimen ores 
must be presented for examination. Mines yielding saltpeter, sulphur, antimony, 
bismuth, nickel, and gold ores are a monopoly of the Government. The bureau 
decides whether mines are to be worked as Government, semiofficial, or commercial 
mines under Government supervision. 

Transport^ sales ^ and prevention of smuggling. — The product of Government and 
semiofficial mines and those bought by the Government must be transported to the 
markets and sold. Whether the products are sent to the provincial capital or de- 
posited in godowns, their sales are supervised by the bureau officers, and no one 
will be allowed to transport or sell the output without the knowledge of the bureau. 
To prevent smuggling, the likin stations keep strict watch, and ores that are the 
basis for illegal transactions are seized. 

Assessment of duty and exemption from likin. — The output of all mines is sub- 
ject to duty; but as at first there will probably not be a great demand, temporary 
exemption is granted. When the demand for the output has reached a proper 
mark, the usual duties will be demanded and the governor will notify the board 
of revenue, in order that record of the matter may be made. When all the mines 
are sufficiently prosperous to pay the duty, they will all be exempted from the 
payment of likin. 

Bonuses. — When Government and semiofficial mines have a surplus over ex- 
penses after the first trial year, the board shall decide as to the amounts to be dis- 
tributed among the following: Local charities, officials of receiving depots and of 
branch offices, excise men of the preventive service, owners of land where the mines 
are located, and military posts in the vicinity. In the case of commercial mines su- 
pervised by the Government, the officials are left to their own discretion in the pay- 
ment of bonuses. 

The following regulations affect Government and semiofficial mines: 

Sites. — The bureau will appoint deputies to accompany the mining engineers in 
prospecting. Should quantities of good ore be found not interfered with by graves, 
cultivated fields, houses, etc., arrangements can be made for opening the mines. 
If the mine is important and foreign machinery is necessary, the regulations will 
be as follows: No private owner of property within a radius of 10 li (21,150 feet) 
will be allowed to sink shafts or bore on his own account. If the mines are small, 
requiring only manual labor, no owner within 3 li (6,345 feet) shall sink shafts or 
bore. The officers of the new mines shall select one fixed shaft as a radius of 
prohibition. 

Furnaces. — A suitable site will be chosen in Ch'angsha (the provincial capital) to 
erect foreign furnaces for smelting ores, such as silver, copper, antimony, bismuth, 
nickel, etc. Coke, sulphur, saltpeter, and the like can be made and purified in 
furnaces built in the vicinity of the mines. 



I lO COFFE?: IN NICARAGUA. 

Further regulations for semiofficial mines are: 

Shares. — The engineer will determine the size of the mine and recommend the 
capital necessary. The shares shall be equal to 50 Ch'angsha taels* each. The 
shares are divided into ten parts, of which the Government may hold three and the 
commercial shareholders seven, or the Government may hold four and the share- 
holders six, or the division may be equal. If it is necessary to extend the work or 
to add to the existing capital, the original shareholders will have the refusal of the 
new shares. If they do not take them, the shares will be put on the market. 

Interest on shares, — A balance sheet of expenses, etc., of each mine will be issued 
by the bureau at the close of the year, when interest on Government and commer- 
cial capital will be paid at the rate of 8 per cent. 

Commercial directors. — Privilege will be granted shareholders in mines for which 
public capital has been raised or which have been opened by syndicates with Gov- 
ernment permission when the capital has been subscribed to choose a shareholder 
to represent them on the board of management. 

Commercial mines under Government supervision are subject to the following 
regulations : 

Mining sites. — Merchants having found a workable mine shall provide the nec- 
essary bondsmen, who shall ask permission from the bureau to work the mine, or 
the merchants can petition through the local authorities. If the bureau finds the 
men to be responsible, a deputy will investigate the site, and if it is found that it 
does not interfere with graves, cultivated fields, or houses, permission will be 
granted. If the site is on private property, the merchants have the option of leasing 
it; but if it is on Government ground, the site can be rented or the mine be made 
semiofficial in character. 

Government permits. — When the bureau has granted its sanction, the representa- 
tives of the syndicate shall personally receive the permit to open from the bureau. 
A fee of 100 taels is due (except in case of coal mines). Mines extracting silver, 
copper, or galena will be allowed to erect smelting furnaces. When the output is 
large, a deputy shall reside at the mine. The governor will decide the amount of 
ground rent. The salaries of the deputy, the assistants at the mines, the wages 
and board of the military guards, and miscellaneous expenses, must not amount 
to over 100 taels a month. When mines of silver, copper, or galena are on a limited 
scale, it is advisable for the promoters to take specimen ores to the bureau before 
paying for a permit. The bureau will grant passes for the transportation of the 
ores after the mine is worked and will buy the ore after it is put on the market. 

Ordinary coal mines worked by the people shall be allowed to continue the in- 
dustry without a permit. But if foreign machinery is used or foreign furnaces 
erected, a permit must be obtained and the output will be taxed. 



COFFEE IN NICARAGUA. 

I send an article translated from the market review for the month 
of May, published by R. Samf)er & Co., in Paris, France, trusting 
that the subject may be of interest to coffee planters. 

Paul Wiesike, 
M.\NAGUA, June 14^ iS^T- Consul. 



* The value of the Ch'angsha tael is not given ; it is probably between 70 and 80 cents. 



GOVERNMENT CERTIFICATES IN NICARAGUA. I I I 

THE COFFEE MARKET. 

Many people interested in the coffee trade have believed that the quotations 
could not reach a lower mark, and that we have reached a price that could be 
considered as the extreme limit from where the movement must be an advance. 
Relying upon this, several speculators and capitalists made operations, with the 
result of bettering for a few days the quotations of Santos good average on delivery, 
and the Brazilians, availing themselves of these favorable conditions, sold whatever 
quantity of their coffee they could. But these transactions did not influence the 
general market, for the Brazilians offered their coffee at the same time at a lower 
figure, and in this manner frustrated the efforts to create a favorable tendency. 

It is evident that the crop of Brazil for the year 1896-97, with its 9,000,000 bags, 
is extraordinary, and one would be led to believe that the crop of the year 1897-98 
would be much reduced in proportion and would counterbalance the excess of the 
last one, giving importers a chance to reestablish former prices; but if one con- 
siders that the high prices that have been paid have brought large revenues to the 
planters, it will appear natural that the planters should increase their plantations. 
The amount produced will increase annually even if climatic conditions are not 
favorable. 

As the coffee planters in Central America, Venezuela, Colonibia, and the other 
countries in which coffee is raised are proceeding in the same manner, we shall 
have every year greater importations than we can consume, even if the consump- 
tion should increase as it has done so far. This abundance, together with the sur- 
plus of years of large crops, will not allow the high prices at which the different 
grades of coffee have been sold in former years to be again established. 

There is no fear that the plantations now in existence will be abandoned as long 
as they bring revenue to the proprietors, and it is certain that the present prices 
can go much lower before this possibility can occur. Therefore, it is logical to 
predict that the quotations will decline in proportion to the production and that 
the production will far exceed the consumption of the whole world. 

It is a well-known fact that the crop in Brazil for the year 1897-98 will amount 
to about 7,500,000 bags, and from this it appears certain that the present prices will 
not be maintained and that still lower ones will prevail during the coming season. 

The buyers who supply the consumers understand the situation and offer such 
low prices that one does not dare to accept them, although convinced that the situ- 
ation might grow worse. This state of affairs causes the difficulty in selling and 
the progressive diminution of prices. 

If the crisis we are now undergoing should arrest the heedless development of 
the cultivation of coffee and should lead to the abandonment of certain plantations, 
it would result to the advantage of most planters for the coming season; other- 
wise, it is impossible to foresee the final result of the grave disproportion between 
production and consumption. 



GOVERNMENT CERTIFICATES IN NICARAGUA. 

I send recently issued decrees concerning the adjudication and 
the determination of the price of public lands in Nicaragua.* 

Many letters of inquiry reach this office from parties in the United 
States, the writers laboring under the impression that public lands 



* These decrees were published in Consular Reports No. 203 (August, 1897), in a report by 
Consul O Hara, of San Juan del Norte, dated June 3, 1897. 



112 WOOD IN PARAGUAY. 

in Nicaragua can be had for nothing, or as low as lo cents per acre. 
The decrees will serve as a full reply to inquiring parties. 

Further, I beg to give an explanation of the term ** documents of 
the public credit legally liquidated and recognized," which appears 
in these decrees, as well as in other decrees concerning national loans, 
etc. An explanation of the term will also make clear to Americans 
the manner in which the Nicaraguan Government pays the premi- 
ums offered for planting rubber, coffee, cacao, and other trees, if the 
premiums are paid at all. In fact, but two cases are known here in 
which this Government has paid the premiums on trees, by means of 
scrip that, after an examination by the auditor, was exchanged for 
certificates of the public credit. 

Documents of the public credit legally liquidated and recognized. — Any 
claim against the Government of Nicaragua, be it the result of 
damages or losses suffered during the revolutions, of forced or vol- 
untary contributions, of premiums offered for the planting of coffee, 
rubber, cacao, or other trees — in fact, resulting from any source — is 
provisionally paid by a scrip, issued by the commanding officers of 
the prefectures of the respective departments (provinces). Such 
scrip is presented at the office of public credit, to be examined by 
the auditor, and, if found correct, a certificate is issued for the spe- 
cified amount. These certificates, thus legally liquidated and recog- 
nized, are taken in payment by the Government in certain instances, 
such as in paying the one-third for public lands, at their face value. 
In commercial circles, they do not bring more than 15 to 20 per cent 
of their face value on account of the financial condition of the Nica- 
raguan Government and owing to the monetary crisis at the present 

time existing in this country. 

Paul Wiesike, 

Managua, June 2, /<?p7. Consul, 



WOOD IN PARAGUAY. 

The following report was prepared by the late Consul Thome, 
of Asuncion. It was forwarded to the Department by Vice-Consul 
Eben M. Flagg after Mr. Thome's death. It is in reply to an in- 
quiry by the Big Horn Improvement Company, of Omaha, Nebr., 
and a copy was sent to the company. 

Yours of November 20 received some time in January. It is the 
first letter of inquiry that suits this country and the lumber dealers 
here. Others make inquiry in regard to the price of timber and 
lumber in this country for the purpose of entering into negotiations 
for the sale of their own home products. 



WOOD IN PARAGUAY. II3 

This country has wood of all kinds and does not want to import. 
What it wants is to manufacture its wood here on the ground into 
commercial shapes and supply the market from here to Buenos 
Ayres. I at once set about to find men that I thought would be of 
service to you. Mr. Stanley, who writes you at my request, has 
been in the log-cutting and transporting business a long time and 
knows all about the aifferent kinds of timber. The timber industry 
of this country has greatly increased of late years, owing to the ex- 
cellence of its wood. The hard woods of the country are used in 
Buenos Ayres not only for railway bridges and carriages, but also 
for sleepers. Orders are continually coming here from below for 
large contracts, but for want of machinery and capital dealers can 
not take them, and confine themselves to small contracts with neigh- 
boring towns on the river. 

I see by the Buenos Ayres English paper that the great Southern 
Railway of Buenos Ayres has lately made a large contract with 
Australia for sleepers, simply because no one here has the facilities 
for turning out a large number of hard-wood sleepers in a given 
time. The forests abound in splendid woods, and their lasting 
powers, either in earth or water, have been proven over and over 
again. As an example, the Paraguayan Central Railway, built by 
Lopez fifty years ago, was the first railway line in South America. 
Many of the sleepers then put in, and constantly in service since, are 
now practically sound, and will be for years to come. The local 
consumption is small — probably 200 tons per month of all classes 
would supply the demand — but for export the quantity is unlimited. 

Mr. Stanley is now sending to Bremen large quantities of cedar. 
The demand for this wood has been chiefly created by the war in 
Cuba, by which the Cuban supply has been cut off. It is sent away 
as timber — that is, roughly squared logs, ranging from 4 yards long 
upward, squaring 12 to 25 inches. It is sold in Asuncion at about 
90 cents (gold) per vara of 34 English inches, 10 by 10 inches. As 
regards the hard woods, they can be both cut and bought very 
cheaply. Labor is very cheap. A peon is satisfied to make 12 cents 
(gold) per day, which is the present value of the paper dollar here. 
A ** shift-all woodcutter,** as we call them here, is well satisfied to 
make is. (24 cents) per day. 

The freights on the railway are extremely light — for a distance 
of 40 or 50 miles, 25s. ($6.08) per 12 tons. 

The hard woods can be brought to the railway at about 7 cents 
(native money) per vara, 10 by 10 inches. By hard woods, I mean 
lapacho, curupay, viraro, urunday, etc. 

The best wood of the country is quebracho. This wood is now 
to be found only in the Paraguayan ** chaco.** There is a tremendous 
No. 204 8. 



114 CANADIAN BANKING SYSTEM. 

demand for it, not only for railway sleepers, but also for its extract, 
which is used in tanning. The sleepers easily bring $i (gold) each, 
put in at Buenos Ayres, which, after expenses are paid, leaves a 
profit of 36 cents (gold). 

There is much money to be made in all classes of wood business 
here. Every one is poor, and mill owners, I know, are paying as 
much as 5 per cent per month and yet have something over. Losses 
all through the country have been caused by the immense decrease 
of the value of the paper dollar; but as long as you pay wages in 
paper and sell your products for gold, you make a very satisfactory 
return on your investment. 

I would strongly advise you to make a trip to this country and 
see for yourself. It is a pleasant and instructive journey, and if you 
come at once you will be here in the pleasantest part of the year. 
The months of June, July, and August are the coolest. 

Further information I will be glad to give you at any time. 

Samuel W. Thom6, 
Asuncion, March i^^ ^^97- Consul, 



CANADIAN BANKING SYSTEM. 

Having made an investigation of the banking system of Canada, 
especially among the bankers and business men of Quebec, I am 
thoroughly convinced that the system is giving entire satisfaction to 
the whole community. It is pronounced by the best financiers to be 
almost perfect, and, as it is revised every ten years, amendments are 
continually being made, either correcting existing errors or creating 
new facilities. The following is a condensation of the banking act 
which was passed by Parliament in 1890 and will continue in force 
until 1901 : 

The capital stock of a bank must be $500,000 bona fide subscribed, divided into 
shares of $100 each. 

The number of provisional directors is fixed at not less than five nor more than 
ten. 

The paid-up capital must be $250,000, and shall be paid to the Minister of 
Finance. No notes can be issued or business conducted until the treasury board 
grants a certificate of authority. The necessary authority granted, the Minister of 
Finance pays back the amount of capital in his hands, less an amount held to rep- 
resent tho portion to be placed in the note circulation redemption fund. 

A majority of the directors must be natural-born or naturalized subjects of the 
Queen. All oflicers are compelled to give guaranty bonds. 

Upon a certificate being granted by the treasury board, the capital stock may be 
increased by by-law. For that purpose, application must be made within three 
months of passing the said by-law. The capital stock may be reduced by certifi- 
cate from the treasury board, but reduction of the capital in no way lessens the 



CANADIAN BANKING SYSTEM. II5 

liability of shareholders. A penalty of 10 per cent may be levied upon amount of 
shares, in cases where there has been neglect or refusal to pay calls on shares. All 
directors are liable for declaring a bonus or dividend impairing paid-up capital. 
A dividend exceeding 8 per cent may be paid only when the reserve is equal to 30 
per cent of paid-up capital. The penalty for holding less than 40 per cent of cash 
reserve in Dominion notes is $500. The total circulation shall at no time exceed 
the amount of unimpaired paid-up capital (except that of the Bank of British North 
America, which shall not exceed 75 per cent of such capital, unless by special addi- 
tional deposit with the Minister of Finance). Notes of all banks are of the de- 
nomination of $5 and multiples thereof. The schedule of penalties for overissues 
is as follows: Excess $1,000 and under, the amount of excess; over $1,000 and not 
over $20,000, $1,000 penalty; over $20,000 and not over $100,000, $10,000 pen- 
alty; over $100,000 and not over $200,000, $50,000 penalty; over $200,000, $100,000 
penalty. 

Any officer of the bank pledging or assigning the bank notes may be fined not 
less than $400 nor more than $2,000, or imprisoned for two years, or both may be 
imposed. Any officer of the bank issuing notes with intent to deceive, as well as the 
party receiving the same with knowledge of such intent, shall be liable to impris- 
onment for seven years or a fine of $2,000. 

In the case of insolvency, the notes issued by the bank and any interest paya- 
ble thereon shall be the first charge. Penalties ior which the bank may be liable 
are not a charge until all other liabilities are discharged. 

Five per cent on the average note circulation must be set apart and held by the 
Government and designated **the bank circulation redemption fund." 

Bank notes are payable at par throughout the Dominion, and all banks are 
bound to make arrangements for the redemption of their notes at certain specified 
centers of trade. For issuing any note intended to circulate as money by other than 
the banks to which the banking act applies, a penalty of $400 is levied, half of which 
goes to the person suing and half to the Government. 

Officers in charge of public money, officers of banks, etc., must write or stamp 
on the face of altered or defaced bills "counterfeit," "altered," or "worthless." If 
an officer thus wrongfully stamps a note, he is obliged to redeem it at its face value. 

For making or issuing an advertisement liablb to deceive and be taken for Do- 
minion notes, there is a penalty provided of $iod or three months' imprisonment, 
or both. 

For neglecting to send monthly returns of previous months to the Minister of 
Finance within the first fifteen days of the current month, there is a penalty of $50 
per day for each day so neglected. The post-mark on the envelope is held as suf- 
ficient proof. For neglecting or refusing to send special returns when called for 
by the Minister of Finance, within thirty days of date of call, the penalty is $500 per 
day. The post-mark on the envelope is proof thereof. There is also a penalty of 
$50 per day for neglecting, within the first twenty days of the new year, to send a 
list of the shareholders on the 31st of December. (The list of shareholders of all 
banks are published in an annual blue book issued by the Government.) For neg- 
lecting to send a statement of dividends remaining unpaid for more than five years, 
as well as balances of accounts in which no transactions have taken place or in- 
terest been paid thereon for five years (except money deposited for a fixed period), 
the penalty for each day is $50 until such return is received. 

Any person using the title "bank," "banking company," "banking house," 
"banking association," or "banking institution" without authority is guilty of 
an offense against the banking act of the Dominion. The penalty for committing an 
offense against this act is a fine of $1,000 or imprisonment for five years, or both. 

Public notice required to be given by this act, unless otherwise specified, may 



Il6 CANADIAN BANKING SYSTEM. 

be by advertisement in one or more newspapers of the place where the head office 
is situated, and in the Canada Gazette, the official organ of the Government. No 
discount or commission can be charged upon Government or departmental checks. 

The act of iSgo, which is the present banking law of Canada, repeals all former 
acts except cases pending and unsettled transactions which have taken place in 
compliance with and during the time former acts were operative. 

The amount of Dominion notes issued and outstanding at any time may, by 
order of the council, founded on a report of the treasury board, be increased to, 
but not exceed, $25,000,000, by amounts not exceeding $1,000,000 at one time and 
not exceeding $4,000,000 in any one year; provided that the Minister of Finance 
and receiver-general shall always hold as security for the redemption of such notes 
issued and outstanding an amount in gold and Canadian securities, guarantied by 
the Government of the United Kingdom, equal to not less than 25 per cent of the 
amount of such notes, at least 15 per cent of the total amount of such notes being 
held in gold; and provided, also, that the Minister of Finance shall always hold 
for the redemption of such notes an amount equal to the remaining security. Five 
per cent of the total amount thereof shall be in Dominion debentures issued by 
authority of Parliament. Such notes are a legal tender in every part of Canada 
except at the offices at which they are respectively made payable. The proceeds 
thereof shall form part of the consolidated revenue fund of Canada, and the ex- 
penses lawfully incurred under this act are paid out of this fund. 

The foregoing is a brief synopsis of the provisions of the Canadian 
bank act, which experience has proved to be perfectly adapted to 
the wants and requirements of the banking and business community. 

A comparison of the banking system of the United States with 
the other prominent systems of the world, will reveal certain features 
in which the United States system differs from the others. In Eng- 
land, France, Germany, Scotland, and Canada, the banks are few in 
number, with large capital and branches, while the banks of the 
United States are numbered by thousands, have individually small 
capital, and no branches. In the five countries, the paper money is 
created almost altogether by the banks, and these are, of course, in 
constant touch with the business community. 

In the United States, the paper money, by whatever name it may 
be known, is practically all created by the Government, which is not 
in immediate contact with the business community. These are dif- 
ferences of considerable importance, and are considered to be the 
cause of most of the present evils in the finances of the United States, 
and if the third quality possessed by the national banking system is 
added — that of legal reserves — we have the three most potent causes 
of high interest rates and panics. 

The evils of the present United States national currency system 
were never more apparent than to-day, and the all-absorbing topic 
before the American people ought to be the question of providing 
a sound financial system. 

A currency based upon securities or land can never respond to 
the demands of commerce. The bill holder is secured beyond a 



CANADIAN BANKING SYSTEM. II 7 

doubt, but aside from this fact, the notes do not perform the service 
required save in a very limited way. The problem is to evolve a 
plan that will, first of all, be adapted to the surrounding conditions, 
and that will be likely to meet the approval of the law-making 
powers. 

A brief glance at the Canadian system of currency is here in 
order. 

Each chartered bank has the power to issue notes in denomina- 
tion of $5 and multiples thereof for circulation as money, which they 
may not issue in excess of their unimpaired paid-up capital stock. 
These notes are redeemable at par at various points throughout the 
country. As a satisfactory guaranty for the protection of the public, 
these notes were, in i88o, made a first lien on the assets of any in- 
solvent bank and claimed double liability of its stockholders. For 
further insuring prompt redemption of the notes of an insolvent 
bank, the **bank circulation redemption fund " was created. This 
fund has been contributed to by all the banks, in sums equal to 5 
per cent of the average circulation of each during the twelve months 
preceding the 15th of July, 1892. Should this not be sufficient to 
meet the claims on it, the solvent banks must contribute to make 
good the deficiency by annual payments not exceeding i per cent 
of their average circulation. These provisions furnish a positive 
guaranty to the public that the notes of any chartered bank are cer- 
tain of ultimate payment; in fact, as the bank circulation redemp- 
tion fund provides that the notes of an insolvent bank bear interest 
at the rate of 6 per cent per annum from the day of suspension to 
the day of payment, they become a profitable investment and are 
sought for. As a matter of fact, when La Banque du Peuple re- 
cently suspended, its notes circulated next day as freely as ever. 

The elasticity of the Canadian currency is shown by its adapting 
itself so perfectly to the trade and other requirements. The numer- 
ous branches of the thirty-seven banks, scattered from Prince Ed- 
ward Island to the Pacific, dispense the notes of their respective 
banks in response to the needs of their customers, and as there is no 
inducement to hoard these notes, they find their way back, when no 
longer wanted, to the banks that issued them. It is a currency that 
ebbs and flows with the commercial tide — it responds automatically 
to commercial requirements, and is to be found whenever and wher- 
ever wanted. When its mission is performed, it returns to the seclu- 
sion of the bank vaults until another commercial event brings it 

forth. 

Philip B. Spence, 

Quebec, May 25, 1891, Consul. 



Il8 WHEAT HARVEST OF GERMANY AND HUNGARY. 



WHEAT HARVEST OF GERMANY AND HUNGARY. 

The winter-wheat harvest is now in progress, and that of rye 
nearly finished, throughout southern Germany. From the most 
trustworthy information that can be obtained, the yield of both 
grains will be generally good in quality, but quite below the average 
in quantity. Official reports giving the condition of principal crops 
throughout the German Empire on the 15th of July have just been 
issued, and are succinctly as follows, it being understood that under 
the German system of crop notation, i indicates a full maximum 
yield, 2 fair, 3 scanty, 4 poor, and 5 a failure, the intermediate con- 
ditions being expressed in decimal fractions of the five classifying 
numbers. 

The consolidated returns from the whole Empire at the date 
named gave the following averages: Winter wheat, 2.3; spring 
wheat, 2.7; winter rye, 2.4; spring rye, 2.7; barley, 2.7; oats, 3; 
potatoes, 2.7; clover and lucern, 2.6; hay and grass, 2.4. From 
the middle of June, more or less serious drought prevailed, particu- 
larly in North Germany, from which spring crops, especially grass, 
suffered considerable damage. Hailstorms did some injury to grapes 
and other growing crops in Hesse-Nassau, and, on the whole, south- 
ern Bavaria alone gives a wholly satisfactory report. 

From Hungary, semiofficial, but trustworthy, advices indicate a 
still more unsatisfactory wheat harvest. From Budapest, it is re- 
ported that in consequence of excessive autumn rains and other 
causes, the area of winter wheat sown was 275,972 joch (393,252 
acres) less than the acreage of the previous year, and that the ex- 
cessive rainfall, being prolonged throughout the winter and far into 
the spring, inflicted serious injury upon the growing wheat. 

As a result of this and the excessive heat of early and middle 
June, rust, sunburn, and other diseases attacked the growing wheat, 
so that not only the quantity of the yield, but the weight and sub- 
stance of the grain, have been more or less seriously impaired. The 
net yield is now estimated at 25,000,000 meter centners (91,858,334 
bushels), a decline of 13,000,000 meter centners (47,749,665 bushels) 
as compared with the crop of 1896. The deficit in weight is stated 
to be 4 kilograms per hectoliter (approximately 3 pounds per bushel) 
as compared to the wheat of last year's harvest. 

As to rye, the outlook in Hungary is equally unpromising. Not 
only was the area of cultivation this year greatly diminished, but the 
total crop is estimated at only 8,000,000 meter centners (29,395,000 
bushels), against 14,000,000 meter centners (51,440,667 bushels) last 



CONGRESS OF COMMEkCfi AND INDUSTRY. 11^ 

year, while its weight is 3 kilograms per hectoliter (about 2 pounds 
per bushel) lighter than the rye of 1896. 

In India, the wheat deficit is about 30 per cent of an average 
crop — that is, 78,393,000 bushels, against 101,243,400 bushels last 
year. As the normal home consumption of wheat in India is about 
95,000,000 bushels, this leaves an actual deficit of 16,000,000 bush- 
els, and makes any considerable export of wheat from 'that country 
impossible. The Russian wheat crop is roughly estimated at only 
70 per cent of a normal harvest, and that of Roumania drops from 
8,600,000 meter centners (31,599,267 bushels) in 1896 to less than 
half that quantity in 1897. Add to this the meager wheat surplus 
in Australia and Argentina, and it becomes evident that the United 
States, with its wheat crop of 550,000,000 bushels, will easily and 
surely dominate the market of the current cereal year. 

Frank H. Mason, 
Frankfort, July 27, 189J, Consul- General, 



CONGRESS OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY AT 

BRUSSELS. 

The Department of State has received a note from the Belgian 
charg6 d'affaires, of which the following is a translation: 

Belgian Legation, 

Newport^ August ij, i8gr^, 

Mr. Secretary of State: I am instructed to notify Your Excellency that the 
Syndical Union of Brussels has decided to organize, during the exhibition now 
open in that city, an International Congress of Commerce and Industry, which will 
be held from the 6th to the nth of September next. 

I have the honor to inclose herewith to Your Excellency a copy of a circular 
relative to the congress in question. 

I venture to call Your Excellency's attention to the importance of this congress, 
which has inserted in its programme questions relating especially to industrial prop- 
erty, commercial law, industrial labor, and transportation; and I have the honor, 
in the name of my Government, to invite the United States Government to have 
itself represented there by special delegates. 

I am directed to inform Your Excellency, at the same time, of the importance 
attached by the organizations to having a certain amount of publicity given in the 
United States to the proposed assembly. 

I avail myself, etc., Maurice Joostens. 



Intsenational Exhibition at Brussels in 1897, 

September 6-1 i, 1897, 
International Congress of Commerce and Industry, Etc, 

Brussels^ July, i8gy. 
Sir: The International Exhibition of Brussels has occasioned the meeting of 
various congresses. Commerce and industry and the arts and sciences connected 
with them can not fail to seize this opportunity of discussing some of the principal 



I20 CONGRESS OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. 

questions within their province, not only among citizens, but also with such for- 
eigners as may honor our country with their presence. 

The Syndical Union has undertaken to organize an International Congress of 
Commerce and Industry in the month of September next, under the honorary 
presidency of M. Nyssens, Minister of Industry and Labor, and with the kind co> 
operation of the commercial and industrial associations of Belgium. 

You will find inclosed the programme of the questions proposed for examination 
by the congress, which relate to the following subjects: Industrial property, com- 
mercial law, political economy, industrial labor, international relations and trans- 
portation. Reports will be prepared upon each of the questions, and will be 
published in time to permit a useful and profitable discussion. 

The importance of the International Congress of Commerce and Industry will 
not escape you. It could not be held at a more favorable time than during the 
exhibition of 1897. 

We hope, therefore, that you will be pleased to respond to the appeal which we 

have the honor to address you, and that you will grant us your cooperation for the 

success of this work. You will find inclosed a bulletin of adhesion, which we 

request you to return after filling it up in due form. 

Accept, sir, etc.. 

The Committee on Organization. 

President, . 

Ch. Spinnael, 

President of the Syndical Union of Brussels, 

[Followed by the names of the vice-presidents and secretaries.] 



notice. 



The International Congress of Commerce and Industry of 1897 has as its object 
to furnish scientists, economists, engineers, lawyers, merchants, and manufacturers 
of all countries an opportunity of studying in common some of the chief problems 
arising from the commercial and industrial activity of our age. 

Governments, public administrations, chambers of commerce, commercial and 
industrial associations, and syndical chambers, are especially invited to lend their 
cooperation to the congress, and to have themselves represented in it by delegates. 

All persons who shall, within the proper time, send in their adhesion to the 
president of the Syndical Union and who shall pay the assessment of 20 francs are 
members of the congress. 

The congress will meet in Brussels in the month of September, 1897. It will 
last six days — from Monday, the 6th, to Saturday, the nth, of September. Monday 
and Saturday will be specially devoted to the opening and closing sessions of the 
congress. The sessions of Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, and Friday will be de- 
voted, in the morning, to meetings of special sections; in the evening, to the general 
assemblies and united sections. 

The congress is divided into five sections — (i) section of industrial property, (2) 
section of commercial law, (3) section of political economy, (4) section of industrial 
labor, (5) section of international relations and transportation. 

All members may, at their choice, have themselves inscribed in one or more 
sections. 

Each section discusses, with full liberty, the questions within its province. 

At least one of the questions given to each section may be discussed in the 
general meeting — all the sections united. 

All opinions may be freely expressed, subject to the personal responsibility of 
their advocates. 



CONGRESS OF COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. 121 

The members are urgently entreated to send to the president of the Syndical 
Union of Brussels, as soon as possible, the memoranda, notes, and documents re- 
lating to the questions which they may wish to discuss. 

Reports will be prepared upon all the questions on the programme. 

The papers will be printed, as well as the minutes of the deliberations of the 
congress. 

QUESTIONS PROPOSED FOR EXAMINATION BY THE CONGRESS. 

/. — Section of industrial property, 

(i) Legislation with regard to patents ; desirability of an international agree- 
ment. 

Scope of international conventions with regard to patents for inventions and 
for imports. 

Measures for the recognition of the right of priority, resulting from such con- 
vention. 

Amendment of the provisions relating to the lapse of patents. 

(2) Legislation with regard to industrial models and drawings ; desirability of 
uniform legislation. 

//. — Section of commercial law, 

(i) Legislation with regard to corporations; desirability of an international 
agreement. 

(2) International financial law : (a) Gambling in stocks, {b) loss or theft of secu- 
rities payable to bearer, (c) organization of the professions of broker and stock 
broker, {d) tax upon securities payable to bearer. 

(3) Execution of judgments rendered in a foreign country, especially in cases 
of bankruptcy. 

///. — Section of political economy. 

(i) The question of taxes. 

(2) Cooperative societies ; examination of the criticisms caused by the present 
legislation. 

IV. — Section of industrial labor. 

(i) Effects upon the condition of industry and commerce in the various coun- 
tries which have legislated on these points : (a) Concerning insurance against acci- 
dents, sickness, disability, old age, stoppage of work ; (b) concerning the regulation 
of Sunday labor and the limitation of working hours for adults. 

(2) Minimum of wages in public adjudications. 

(3) Effects of syndicates of employers and syndicates of workmen on the phy- 
sical and moral condition of those syndicated and upon the development of the 
industry. 

V. — Section of international relations and transportation. 

(i) International tariffs of transportation ; their lawfulness and their influence 
upon business. 

(2) Admission of foreigners to public adjudications (awards of contracts). 

(3) Investigation of the best means of developing merchant marines. 



NOTES. 

United States Trade with China. — Consul-General Jernigan 
wrote from Shanghai, April i6, 1897: 

It is gratifying to report that the value of the trade between the 
United States and China during the year 1896 was the largest since 
trade relations were established between the two countries, and the 
most pleasing feature of the increase is credited to imports from 
the United States. Although the exports to the United States ma- 
terially declined, the increase in imports was so marked as to make 
the aggregate value larger than for any previous year. About the 
first of the year, I sent a lengthy report to the Department on 
the ** Trade and industries of China," in which was pointed out the 
lines on which our trade with China had increased and decreased.* 
The internal taxation of China and kindred subjects were referred 
to. The report was intended to answer many inquiries I have re- 
ceived from business men. 



Machinery in Madagascar. — Consul Wetter sends from Tama- 
tave, under date of May 13, 1897, the following letter, in answer to 
inquiries from the E. C. Austin Manufacturing Company, Chicago, 
111. The report was sent to that company June 25, 1897. 

Your favor of March 22 duly to hand. Replying thereto, permit 
me to state categorically: 

(i) There are many firms here who correspond in English, but 
for your line I would suggest that all catalogues and communica- 
tions ought to be in the French language. 

(2) No introduction of American machinery has yet occurred in 
this country. A pump or two, as many sewing machines, a very 
few hammers and other small tools (not a dozen all told), a small 
Enterprise hand mill, and one lawn mower would cover the entire 
introduction here of American machinery, tools, and implements in 
the last five years. 

(3) I do not see any general prospect for the successful intro- 
duction of your machines, primarily because of the great difficulty 
you will have in overcoming the prejudices against foreign machinery 
in the French official mind. You will understand that for a long 
time to come the only works that will be possible in Madagascar will 
come under the heads of public works undertaken by the Govern- 

* Printed in Commercial Relations, 1895-961 p. 773. 
122 



NOTES. 123 

ment, works undertaken by concessionary corporations, and indi- 
vidual enterprises. Unless this country develops some valuable 
gold mines in the near future, its development will be very slow. 
You will read wonderful things in the newspapers, but actual prog- 
ress will be at the minimum rate. There is certainly a large amount 
of work to be done in Madagascar — Government, corporative, and 
private — of a character to call for the use of your machines, but as to 
when that work will be undertaken is a question of the future. 

(4) There are no American firms whatsoever introducing machines 
or machinery into this country. 

(5) There are no native firms at all. There are certain French 
and Manistian-English and English firms engaged in general com- 
merce here, but they deal only in hand-serving machines. 

(6) The only public work at present going on in Madagascar, out- 
ride of some street leveling in the capital, is the cutting of connecting 
canals between a chain of lakes extending from this place down the 
coast to Andevoranto. I understand the contractor is E. Payet, of 
this place, and that the work is under the personal supervision 
of Mr. H. Palu, conducteur, chef du service des travaux publics, 
Tamatave. Both parties would have to be corresponded with in 
French. 

In conclusion, I would add that goods coming in for public works 
would probably be duty free, while for private persons and corpo- 
rations American machinery would probably pay the same duties as 
in France. As soon as I know of any possible chance for your line 
of goods to be introduced, I shall give prompt notification thereof to 
our manufacturers through the Department of State. 

I regret that existing conditions do not warrant me in writing 
more encouragingly. 

Flour in Madagascar. — In answer to a request by the Philadel- 
phia Museums, Consul Wetter sends the following report from Tam- 
atave, dated May 15, 1897. The original was transmitted to the 
Philadelphia Museums June 24, 1897. 

Character and variety, — Bombay and Australian flour are the usual 
flours used here. Some French flour comes in, but is found too ex- 
pensive for this market. The Bombay flour most generally sold is 
the superfine ** Elephant*' brand. The Australian flour is not sold 
under any particular brands, and French flour is branded ** MinoteVie 
Marseillaise." 

Countries of origin^ etc, — Australian and Bombay flours come here 
from Mauritius, hence names and addresses of manufacturers are 
unobtainable. French flours come in either for the use of the army 
or for individual traders, and, being bought through French com- 



1 24 NOTES. 

mission agents, the addresses and names of manufacturers are like- 
wise unobtainable. 

Quantity imported, — There are no official figures available as to the 
quantity and quality imported since June 30, 1894. For the six 
months ended that day, the import of flour into Madagascar from 
French, English, and German sources was 17,525 francs ($3,302) in 
value. Exclusive of flour imported for army use, the local consump- 
tion at Tamatave has fully trebled, while at Antananarivo the civil- 
ian use must have doubled, at least. I think it may be safely stated 
that the gross consumption of flour in Madagascar (including the 
interior towns of Fianarantoa and Antananarivo) can be estimated 
at about 900 bags of 100 kilograms each of French manufacture, val- 
ued at 21,600 francs ($4,168.80); 1,000 bags of 90 kilograms each of 
Australian manufacture, valued at 15,000 francs ($2,895) » 2,600 bags 
of 90 kilograms each of Bombay manufacture, valued at 36,400 francs 
($7,025.20); total, 4,500 bags, valued at 73,000 francs ($14,089). 

Manufacturers* prices. — Bombay flour is purchased in Mauritius at 
from 9 to 10 rupees ($2.73 to $2.98) per bag, and Australian flour 
at 10 rupees ($2.98), according to exchange. French flour costs in 
France 24 francs ($4.63). 

Retail prices, — Bombay and Australian flours sell at from $5.50 to 
$7 per bag of 90 kilograms (198.41 pounds), the higher prices being 
for the Australian. French flour sells at from $8 to $9 per bag of 
100 kilograms (220.46 pounds). By the single pound or in broken 
lots, it retails at from 4 to 6 cents per pound. 

Transportation charges, — From Mauritius, from $5 to $6 per ton; 
from Marseilles, from 50 to 55 francs ($9.65 to $10.62) per ton. 

Import rate. — French flours, free; foreign flours, 10 per cent on 
cost and charges. At Tamatave, in addition, all flour imports pay 
I per cent municipal tax an original cost. 

Character 0/ packing. — Usually packed in bags — Australian and 
Bombay in bags holding 90 kilograms each and French flour in bags 
holding 100 kilograms. Flour destined for the use of the army 
comes in 50-kilogram cases (vide ** General remarks"). 

Merchants handling this line of goods ^ etc. — Bomemaison Freres, 
Tamatave and Diego Saurez; F. Laroque & Co., Tamatave, Vato- 
mandry, Fianarantsoa, and Antananarivo; Proctor Bros., Tamatave, 
Fort Dauphin, Mananjary, Vatomandry, Fianarantsoa, and Maroant- 
setra; Chan Ming & Cie. and N. Gaquel & Co., Tamatave and An- 
tananarivo; P. Visvilingum & Co., Tamatave; Rebut & Sarrante, 
Tamatave, Diego Saurez, Majonga, and Nossi Be; Porter, Aitken & 
Co., Tamatave, Vatomandry, and Antananarivo. 

Field of distribution. — From Fort Dauphin, immediate vicinity; 
from Mananjary, immediate vicinity and interior to Fianarantsoa, 



NOTES. 



125 



whence the entire Betsileo country is supplied ; from Vatomandry, 
coast ports, north and south, and the interior of the island, includ- 
ing places above named ; from Diego Saurez, Manahara, Sambava, 
coast ports, and interior in vicinity; from Nossi Be, the islands of 
Nossi Be; from Majonga, the entire west coast of Madagascar and a 
very few interior towns on the Ikopo River. 

General remarks, — The natives of Madagascar seldom eat bread, 
owing to its expense (vide report on pages 491-492, vol. 10, Special 
Consular Reports). The liberation of the slaves in Madagascar 
has already produced and will continue to bring about a short rice 
crop, which may force the natives to consume the dearer farinaceous 
products. The flour usually imported here is always more or less 
deteriorated, owing to the style of packing. I would suggest, for 
these humid and tropical countries, the packing of American flours 
in 10 and 15 kilogram tins, soldered tight, or with patent opening 
device. These tins could then be packed in cases of from 90 to 100 
kilograms, which would cost little more than the present method of 
barreling; and the article would always be in good condition and 
ready for immediate transport. 

For fully a year there has been no apparent trade in American 
flour, no importations having been made since March i, 1896. 



Population and Meteorological Conditions of Norfolk Is- 
land. — Consular Agent Robinson sends from Norfolk Island the 
following report (received by the Department June 9, 1897), giving 
statistics relative to the island for 1896: 

Return of population^ December j/, i8q6. 



Description. 



Norfolk community. 

Married couples. 

Widows and widowers. 

Unmarried men and women 

Above the age of ao years 

Above the age of 14 years. , 

Under 24 years. 



Absent from the island 
Total 



Melanesian Mission. 



White staff 

Native men and women. 



Toul 

Grand total. 



Males. 



100 

»9 
xo 

47 
4X 

XZI 



12 



Females. 



zoo 

1 
37 

X2Z 



«57 



x68 



8 
46 



54 



Total. 



200 

34 
xz 

84 

99 

23a 



660 
14 



646 



19 
203 



222 



868 



126 



NOTES. 



During the year there were 20 births — 7 males and 13 females (i at 
mission), 12 marriages, 12 deaths — 7 adults (2 males and 5 females) 
and 5 children (2 males and 3 females) ; also, 3 deaths at mission 
(native males). 

Meteorological record for i8g6, 
[Observations taken at 9 p. m.; height, 300 feet.] 



Months. 



January 

t^cbruary... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September.. 

October 

November.. 
December .. 

ToUl 



Rainfall. 


Barometer. 


Thermometer. 


Number 
of days. 


Quantity. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 


Highest. 


Lowest. 




Inches. 






Degrees.* 


Degrees* 


4 


0.47 


29.900 


29.700 


79 


72 


«5 


8.48 


.850 


.510 


79 


72 


17 


4.07 


.830 


.440 


76 


69 


6 


1.88 


•934 


.500 


74 


67 


so 


5.84 


.900 


.466 


70 


62 


18 


7.66 


.900 


.408 


70 


60 


18 


4.83 


.740 


.120 


65 


57 


IS 


7.86 


30.024 


.382 


66 


57 


16 


2.9s 


29.950 


.520 


69 


59 


13 


1-35 


30.136 


.584 


70 


58 


9 


a. 88 


29.920 


.550 


72 


68 


13 


I.I 


.880 


.700 


76 


7» 


164 


49-37 


















♦ Fahrenheit. 











Collection of Products of the Straits Settlements. — A com- 
munication from Consul-General Pratt, dated Singapore, March f8, 
1897, says that he has interested himself, with the cooperation of the 
colonial secretary, in making a collection of the raw products of 
the Straits Settlements for the benefit of the Philadelphia Commer- 
cial Museum, Philadelphia, Pa. The Philadelphia Museum has been 
notified and expresses its gratification. 



The Fruit Season in Jamaica. — Commercial Agent Walton 
wrote from Port Antonio, April i, 1897: 

Since my last report there has been but little change in the agri- 
cultural and industrial condition of the island. Recent rains have 
cheered the agriculturists, and the prospect for a large yield of ba- 
nanas and oranges is good. Early last winter a company was organ- 
ized to carry bananas and oranges from this island direct to England 
in vessels provided with cold-storage compartments, and several ship- 
loads were sent; but as yet the venture has not proven successful 
financially. The fruit landed in good condition brought remunera- 
tive prices, but in hardly a cargo was 50 per cent of the fruit good. 



NOTES. I 2 7 

The fruit season opened with greater activity than usual, and the 
exports from the island to the United States promise to be greater 
this season than ever. The price of bananas, which was only is. 
(24 cents) per full bunch during the months of November, Decem- 
ber, January, and February, has now gone to double that amount, 
with the prospect of still higher prices. The prices of cocoanuts 
range from $12.50 for large to $7.50 for small. 

The royal commission appointed by the British Government to 
inquire into the sugar industry and the industrial condition of the 
British West India islands, after visiting the other British West 
Indies, has about completed its inquiries in Jamaica. The report of 
this commission, when published, will no doubt be valuable read- 
ing to all interested in the commercial prosperity of the island. 



Sugar Industry in Jamaica. — Under date of April 14, 1897, 
Consul Eckford sends from Kingston a copy of the schedule of in- 
formation collected for the commission appointed to inquire into 
the sugar industry. There is an elaborate series of questions and 
answers, covering not only the cultivation of sugar, but the general 
agricultural condition of Jamaica. The following is a summary of 
the information collected : 

The total area of the colony is 2,692,480 acres, approximately, of 
which 2.97 per cent consists of swamps and useless lands. Of the 
cultivable land, 2,340,412 acres are in private hands and 272,068 
acres belong to the Crown. About half of this cultivable land is 
at an elevation of 1,000 feet or over. The climate in these regions 
is cool and salubrious. In the higher altitudes, it is suited to the 
labor of white men. There is no malaria resulting from damp, 
undrained land. There are large areas of uncultivated land, be- 
longing both to the Crown and to private owners, that are highly 
suitable to the cultivation of oranges, coffee, kola, rubber, cacao, 
nutmeg, etc. An effort has been made to induce persons to take up 
the Crown lands in freeholds of from 5 to 50 acres, paying one-fifth 
of the purchase money at once and the rest in ten yearly payments 
without interest. A refund of one-fifth of the purchase money is 
given any settler who, within ten years, establishes one-fifth of his 
acreage in a permanent crop-producing plant. The cost of making 
these lands accessible depends upon the kind of road provided. 
Bridle roads can be made for ^250 ($1,216) per mile and cart roads 
for ^600 ($2,919). 

The principal agricultural industries, in the order of their impor- 
tance as determined by exports of 1895-96, are sugar, bananas, coffee, 
oranges, pimento, ginger, and cacao. Pimento is cultivated more 



128 



NOTES. 



widely than any other plant. Out of the total population of 639,491, 
6. 1 per cent is employed in the sugar industry. The majority of the 
sugar estates in the colony comprise over 500 acres each, and employ 
steam. The production of sugar and rum for the last ten years was : 



Year. 



1885-86. 
1886-87. 
1887-88. 
1888-89. 
1889-90. 
1890-91. 
1891-92. 
1892-93. 
'893-94. 

«894-95. 
1895-^. 



Sug^r. 



Rum. 



Tinu. 

"1843 

28,323 

28,0103^ 

21,728 

28,210 

23,014 

2it994 
20,408 
26,221}^ 
21 1378 
"t93o 



Go/Ums. 

»i940,95o 
2,648,9x0 

21694.560 
1,622,060 
1,992,210 

2.273.700 
2,272,600 
2,zx6,i8o 
2,465,870 

2,173.050 
2,z89,zxo 



In the year 1895-96, 322,252 cwts. of sugar and 41,370 gallons of 
rum were exported to the United States. To the United Kingdom 
54,084 cwts. of sugar and 1,569,106 gallons of rum were exported. 
The sugar sent to the United States represented 82.43 P^^ cent of 
the total export thereof, and the rum sent to the United Kingdom 
represented 83.46 per cent of the total quantity of that article ex- 
ported. The export of sugar, rum, and molasses during the year 
under consideration represented 19 per cent of the total value of 
produce exported. 



Ice Machines and Refrigerators in Nicaragua. — Consul 

O'Hara writes from San Juan del Norte, under date of May 27, 1897, 
in answer to an inquiry from Mr. W. P. Wilson, director of the Phil- 
adelphia Museums, Philadelphia, Pa. (the letter was forwarded to 
Mr. Wilson June 16), as follows: 

I am in receipt of your letter of the 7th instant, inquiring as to 
ice machines and refrigerating machinery. I had a talk this afternoon 
with Mr. Edward Kattengell, of Managua. Mr. Kattengell says: 

The only ice machine in western Nicaragua for several years was set up by Mr. 
Theodore Tefel and myself. The machine was purchased in Chicago, the company 
furnishing it being known, I believe, as the Consolidated Ice Machine Company. 
The capacity of the machine is 3 tons per day of twenty-four hours. The ordinary 
output per day is 2 tons. For a long time, we used Lake Managua water, but 
well water is now used. The well is 40 feet deep and has a flow of 1,000 gallons 
an hour. 

The cost of operating the plant is: One engineer, $200 in Nicaraguan currency 
($93.60 in United States currency) per month, with no allowance for extra time; 
one oiler, $60 ($28.08 in United States currency) per month, with no allowance for 
extra time; one fireman, $r. 60 (74.88 cents in United States currency) per day of 



NOTfeS. 1 29 

twelve hours and 26 centavos (12.168 cents in United States currency) per hour for 
extra time; two laborers, $1.20 (56.16 cents in United States currency) each per 
day of twelve hours and 20 centavos (9.36 cents in United States currency) per hour 
for extra time; one cartman, same wages as laborers. 

Wood costs $3 to $3.25 ($1.40 to $1.52 in United States currency) per cord 3>^ 
varas long, i vara high, and i vara wide, the vara being equivalent to 38.874 inches. 
The wood is of various varieties and is of medium hardness. Four cords are used 
per day of twelve hours. But two horses are employed. The estimated cost of 
horse feed is 50 centavos (23.4 cents in United States currency) per day for each 
horse. 

The ice is manufactured in blocks of 108 to no pounds each, which are sold at 
100 pounds. The wholesale price is 3 centavos (1.40 cents in United States cur- 
rency) and the retail price is 5 centavos (2.34 cents in United States currency) per 
pound. Ice is delivered in a single horse cart to persons buying in wholesale quan- 
tities, but is not delivered to families. 

Eighteen to 20 head of cattle are killed per day in Managua and about 12 head 
in Granada. The average daily consumption of ice in Managua is twelve blocks, 
or about 1,200 pounds ; six to eight blocks have been shipped daily to Granada, and 
the balance of the output to Le6n, Corinto, and one or two other points on the rail- 
way. A 3-ton machine has recently been ordered for Granada, which, if success- 
fully operated, will probably destroy Managua's ice trade in Granada. Ice has 
retailed in Granada at the same rate as in Managua, but is retailed in Le6n and 
Corinto at 10 centavos (4.68 cents in United States currency) per pound. The ice 
is shipped in sacks partly filled with sawdust. The sawdust comes from mills in 
Managua, and costs nothing. There is a storehouse in connection with the factory, 
but no refrigerating is done. 

At present, the two factories at Managua and Granada can supply the demand 
in western Nicaragua, as most of the consumers have no ice boxes or refrigerators. 
They buy a pound or two of ice and put cracked pieces in water, beer, etc., and 
occasionally in butter dishes. Even at San Antonio, where the sugar refinery em- 
ployees order a sack or two of ice three times a week, there is no refrigerator. Meats 
in all the towns must be sold on the day of killing, as but little ice is used in meat 
stalls and markets. There is nothing in Nicaragua like the American meat market 
or butcher shop. Meats and vegetables are all sold at the regular market place. 
In the market building at Granada, there are twenty-seven stalls in which meats 
are sold. 

It might take two or three years to dispose of them, but I believe that from fifteen 
hundred to two thousand refrigerators, large and small, might be sold in western 
Nicaragua. They should be sold by the ice company at actual cost. A company 
doing this could eventually dispose of 25 tons of ice a day. The ice plant at Ma- 
nagua is now owned by a stock company with one hundred and twenty-eight shares 
of $500 ($234 in United States currency) each. The business is not properly man- 
aged, but it pays about i per cent a month on the capital stock, a profit of $600 
($280.80 in United States currency) per month. The stock could probably be bought 
for considerably less than half its face value. 

A year ago, Mr. A. P. Criswell, representing the Fred. W. Wolf 
Company, of Chicago, visited San Juan del Norte. He had had 
some correspondence with Mr. B. W. Pyle, of San Juan del Norte, 
who contemplates the manufacture of ice at that place in case of the 
commencement of work on the Nicaraguan Canal. Messrs. Criswell 
and Pyle went to Granada and Managua, and from there to San 
No. 204 9. 



1 30 NOTES. 

Salvador, but concluded not to engage in the ice business at either 
place. Mr. Pyle says: 

There is a 5-ton ice machine in San Salvador. Eighty-five head of cattle are killed 
daily. Wood costs $14 ($6.55 in United States currency) per cord. Ice retails for 
5 centavos (2.34 cents in United States currency) per pound. Coffee and rice clean- 
ing machines are run in connection with the ice plant at Salvador. 

The ice plant at Managua is in fairly good condition, and requires but little 
repair. About 2 tons are manufactured daily. The business is improperly man- 
aged, and the plant could be bought for very little money. 

Five tons of ice per day are all that can be sold in western Nicaragua. I believe 
more cattle are killed in Granada than Managua. The population of Granada is 
said to be 20,000, but 12,000 would seem to be nearer the mark. They claim to 
have 15,000 population in Managua, but the place does not appear to have anything 
like that number of inhabitants. I may, however, be mistaken as to the popula- 
tion of both places. 

Mr. Kattengell informs me that there is a small ice plant in San 
Jos6, Costa Rica, and another at Port Limon, Costa Rica. The only 
ice machine in eastern Nicaragua is at Bluefields. The plant was 
originally set up at Rama, on the Bluefields River. The population 
of Bluefields is now estimated by the municipal authorities to be 
5,000, but others claim that it is nearer 3,000 or 3,500. Our consular 
agent at Bluefields has been instructed to reply to your letter. 

My opinion is that a few small and cheap ice machines might be 
sold in Nicaragua, but that the outlook for the sale of ice machines 
and refrigerators is not, upon the whole, very encouraging. Wages 
in the country are low, and most of the people are too poor to buy 
ice. No ice is used in San Juan del Norte. Everybody drinks rain 
water. I have been here over two years ; I missed ice for a month 
or two, but for two years I have had no desire for it. 



Paint Trade in San Juan del Norte. — In answer to a request 
from Mr. Theodore C. Search, president of the National Association 
of Manufacturers, Philadelphia, Pa., Consul O'Hara sent from San 
Juan del Norte the following report, dated May i, 1897 (a copy of 
which was sent Mr. Search) : 

The names of the principal merchants in San Juan del Norte, 
Nicaragua, are C. F. Bergmann, H. F. Bingham, and E. L. D'Souza 
& Bro. 

Mr. Bergmann buys most of his United States goods through the 
New York commission house of A. P. Stewart and Messrs. Bing- 
ham and D'Souza Bros, through the New York commission house 
of Andreas & Co. 

The population of San Juan del Norte, according to the census 
of March, 1897, is 1,434. The surrounding country is unsettled. 
There are neither railways nor wagon roads. 



NOTES. 1 3 1 

The trade in paints, etc., is small. In 1895, the imports were as 
follows : Thirteen barrels, 2 casks, and i drum of linseed oil ; 66 boxes, 
4 barrels, and i drum of turpentine ; 20 boxes and i keg of varnish ; 
106 boxes, 2 casks, 28 kegs, and 3 barrels of mixed paints and colors; 
42 kegs of dry paints; 26 kegs of Yed lead; and i box and 26 kegs 
of white lead. It is estimated that four-fifths of the paints imported 
are from England. 

Most of the paints and oils used in the town are imported by 
F. A. Pellas, the sole owner of the only steamboats on the San Juan 
River and Lake Nicaragua. Mr. Pellas does business under the 
name of the Nicaragua Mail Steam Navigation and Trading Com- 
pany. His New York commission house is that of Muftoz & Espriella. 

Mr. Bergmann imports all his paints, colors, and white lead from 
the United States, handling the manufactures of Longman & Marti- 
nez, of New York, exclusively. The colors are put up in i -pound 
and I -gallon tins, respectively, and the white lead in tins of from i 
to 25 pounds each. E. L. D'Souza & Bro. handle John's asbestos 
paints, put up in barrels. The only colors they carry are put up in 
i-pound tins marked ** Clinton Paint Works, New York." This white 
lead comes from England, and is put up in unlabeled i -pound tins. 

Mr. Bingham carries nothing but i -pound tins of blue, red, impe- 
rial green, raw and burnt umber, all put up by the Riverside Color 
Works, of New York, and i -pound tins of white lead marked 
** Newtown Paint Works, New York." 

Mr. Pellas has on hand 25-pound tins of red paint and 25-pound 
tins of burnt umber, put up by the Riverside Color Works, of New 
York. The major part of his stock, however, consists of 14-pound 
tins of british green, brilliant green, lead color, black paint, **best 
white lead," and patent white zinc, all manufactured by Hubbuck 
& Son, London, England. He also carries a considerable quantity 
of 6-gallon drums of metallic lead marked ** Burrell's Mixed Paints, 
London. " A short time ago he received 20 kegs of white lead in oil 
from New York, 50 pounds to the keg. The price was 6j4 cents per 
pound, with a discount of 35 per cent. 

The following is an abstract of a recent invoice of Hubbuck's 
paints, etc., shipped to Mr. Pellas: One hundred pounds light stone 
anticorrosive paint, 24s. ($5.84) ; 36 tins (4 pounds each) patent drier, 
9s. 6d. per dozen, 28s. 6d. ($6.93); 48 tins (14 pounds each) white 
lead (oil ground), 32s. per dozen, 128s. ($31.14); 48 tins (14 pounds 
each) black paint (oil ground), 26s. 3d. per dozen, 105s. ($25.55); 48 
tins (14 pounds each) black paint (prepared liquid), 42s. 6d. per dozen, 
170S. ($41.37); 48 tins (14 pounds each) british green (prepared 
liquid), 46s. per dozen, 184s. ($44.77); 96 tins (14 pounds each) lead 
color (prepared liquid), 46s. per dozen, 368s. ($89.54); 36 tins (14 



132 NOTES. 

pounds each) light blue (prepared liquid), 49s. 6d. per dozen, 148s. 
6d. ($36.13); 24 tins (14 pounds each) red oxide (prepared liquid), 
46s. per dozen, 92s. ($22.39) 5 ^^ ^^^^ (^4 pounds each) brilliant green 
(prepared liquid), $32.48. 

At the same time he ordered 46 drums (5 gallons each) dark lead 
color for canvas decks at 24s. ($5.84) per drum and 40 drums (6 
gallons each) metallic lead at 21s. ($5.11) per drum. The discounts 
allowed were 5 per cent and 2}4 per cent. The freight from London 
to San Juan del Norte cost him 40s. ($9.73) per ton. Freight rates 
from New York to San Juan del Norte (Atlas Line) are $7 per ton 
and 15 cents per cubic foot. 



Protection of Pearl-Oyster Beds in Venezuela. — The De- 
partment has received from Consul Plumacher, of Maracaibo, under 
date of May 22, 1897, a translation of a new law in regard to the 
protection of the pearl-oyster beds along the coast of Venezuela. 
The consul adds that the law, if enforced, will be of great service in 
preserving this source of wealth. The substance of the regulations 
is as follows: 

Collectors of customs at ports where oyster beds are found shall collect informa- 
tion with a view to preparing statistics as to the number of beds, their situation, 
extent, the quantity and quality of product, the depth from the surface, the ways 
employed in gathering the pearls, the abuses committed, and other circumstances 
relating to the subject. Monthly reports shall be made to the Department of Fi- 
nance. The fishing of pearls in a way that will tend to the extinction of the beds 
is absolutely prohibited. Each vessel engaged in the trade shall be provided with 
a license, issued gratis by the collector of customs, but written on paper on which 
stamps to the value of 20 bolivars ($3.86) shall be used. This license must be re- 
newed annually, and the name and dimensions of the vessel, the number of the 
crew, name of the owner, etc., must be stated therein. An inspector will be ap- 
pointed to see that the provisions of the law are complied with. The Department 
of Finance, in view of the reports from the collectors of customs and the general 
inspector, will annually desfgnate the number of oyster beds that can be worked. 
Licenses will be good only for the places specified, and all other beds shall be re- 
served for six years, in order to permit the maturing of the pearls. The owners 
and crew of vessels engaged in the work are held responsible for infringements of 
the law. The new smooth shell, known under the name of " flor," shall be returned 
immediately to the water, as it contains no pearls. 



Soundings of the Harbors of La Guayra and Puerto Ca- 

bello. — Consul Plumacher sends from Maracaibo, in a communica- 
tion dated June 8, 1897, copies of reports of official soundings in the 
harbors of La Guayra and Puerto Cabello. The consul says that 
the reports are published by the War and Navy Department of Vene- 
zuela, and he thinks they will be of interest to shipmasters. The 



NOTES. 



^33 



reports, copies of which have been sent to the Bureau of Navigation, 
are as follows: 

Za Guayra, — Soundings made on the last of April, the level being 
taken at medium tide, measured in English feet from southeast to 
northwest. 



Quays. 



Soundings. 




No. X 
No. 2 
No. 3 



The quays of Bajo Seco and Cabotaje have the same water, 13 
to 18 feet; Ddrsena has the same water, 13)^ feet. The buoys 
show 21, 23, 26, 30, and 35 feet. Quay No. i has lost 3 and 2 feet 
on its southeast end and its center, respectively. Quay No. 3 has 
gained 6 feet on its southeast end, due to the accumulation of mud. 

Puerto Cabello, — Soundings taken May 5, from east of Castello 
Libertador to the south of the bay: Entrance to harbor, 54 feet; 
center of the canal, 42 feet. Landings at the quay : First, 24 feet ; sec- 
ond, 24 feet; third, 24 feet; fourth, 24 feet; fifth, 21}^ feet. There 
is a difference of some 13^ feet at high tide. 



German Methods of Seeking Foreign Trade. — Consul Mon- 
aghan writes from Chemnitz, April 26, 1897: 

No land is so spiall or so far away as to escape the Germans. 
Their methods in Palestine, reported recently by a British consul, 
show how success is won. In 1894, England supplied 15.6 per cent 
of all Palestine's imports; she had, in 1895, only 10.5 per cent; and 
in 1896, 10.8 per cent. French imports into Palestine have decreased. 
Germany's exports went up from 7.3 per cent in 1894 to 8.5 per cent 
in 1895, and 8.9 per cent in 1896. The British consul says (I quote 
freely from the German report) : 

This is unquestionably due to the system adopted by German export houses of 
sending out a large number of traveling salesmen, who place properly prepared 
and carefully kept samples before the people visited; and who study tastes, pecul- 
iarities in packing, putting up, etc., and prices. The number of traveling agents 
in Palestine in 1895 was twenty-nine Germans, eighteen Austrians, thirteen French- 
men, four Englishmen, three Swiss, two Italians, and one Belgian. Two of the 
English agents represented five London firms. 

It is, of course, not only possible, but wise to have one agent 
represent several houses, as long as he carries goods that in no way 
conflict. For instance, an agent sent by an export union to sell 
paints, oils, etc., could carry white lead, dry colors, varnish, putty^ 



1 34 NOTES. 

aniline colors, water colors, oil colors for art and for houses, kalso- 
mine, etc., and yet have no one article in the line conflict with the 
other. In this way, merchants seeking trade in new territory might 
save much that would have to be paid were a man sent out by each 
manufacturer. 

The English consul continues: 

It IS therefore evident that the system adopted by Germany in sending out these 
technically trained agents, especially into new territory, is the only effective way to 
win such success as has marked the footsteps of their travelers in recent years. 
Only in this way is it possible to get a good knowledge of other nations' needs, 
markets, etc. 

Germany and South America. — Consul Monaghan, of Chem- 
nitz, May 26, 1897, says: 

Germany sent to South America via Hamburg, in 1896, manu- 
factured wares worth 102,000,000 marks ($24,316,000). They were 
sent to the Argentine Republic, Chile, and Uruguay. In 1895, goods 
worth 81,000,000 marks were sent; in 1894, 60,000,000 marks. Of 
these, the Argentine Republic took, in 1896, 51,000,000 marks; in 
1895, 34,000,000 marks; in 1894, 27,000,000 marks. The total ex- 
ports to these countries is put down at 200,000,000 marks ($57,- 
600,000). The growing importance of South American markets for 
German merchants and manufacturers is manifested by this large 
growth of trade, not marked by decades, but by single years. While 
it is true that England leads the list in trade with most South Amer- 
ican countries, this Empire is following fast and gaining with each 
year. British consuls can not help calling attention to Germany's 
success, especially in the Argentine Republic, in iron wires, bar and 
band iron, hardware, knives, tools, etc. Bar and band iron and iron 
wires are now bought by that Republic almost exclusively from Ger- 
many; its reductions in duties has done, and is doing, a great deal to 
help Germany's exports thither. This is especially true in the matter 
of machinery and motors. The raw products of the Argentine Re- 
public have not had the success in Germ'any which was feared by 
German farmers. Her wheat exports to this Empire sunk very much 
in 1895 ^^^ 1896, and are now only one-twelfth of the Empire's im- 
portations. More important is the falling off in the importation of 
quebracho wood. The Argentine Republic is using this wood for 
railroad sleepers, and has talked some of putting an export duty 
thereon. A leading editorial in the Government official organ of 
this city is as follows : 

When the new pan-American efforts of the United States are being made, it is 
of the highest importance for Germany to hold fast to the most-favored-nation 
treaties with the southern and middle American states. The reciprocity clause in 
the Dingley bill is based upon a desire to bring about the closest possible com- 



NOTES. 135 

m 

mercial relations between the United States and South America, with a view to 
granting and getting certain tariff reductions, under which the United States will 
be able to build up a big trade with all the southern and middle American states. 
That such a clause, if it ever becomes law and effects the desired result, will wound 
this Empire and others very materially, is manifest the moment one turns to the 
record of our losses and the United States' gains under the reciprocity provision of 
the McKinley bill. Many of the middle and southern American states and islands, 
viz, Puerto Rico, Brazil, Colombia, British West Indies, Cuba, etc., deemed it their 
duty, if not a commercial and financial necessity, to grant specially reduced rates 
to the United States, in order to get them to let their products — sugar, coffee, and 
hides — in free. At that time Germany, because of the most-favored-nation clauses 
in her treaties with most of these countries, enjoyed every benefit bestowed upon 
the United States. During those years, there was no commercial treaty with 
Brazil. The result was that machines, tools, instruments of all kinds, iron and 
rubber, cotton, and leather and leather goods from Germany had to pay a much 
higher rate of duty going into Brazil than did the same class of goods from the 
United States. Thus the most-favored-nation clauses in our commercial treaties 
act as a protecting wall against all the United States* pan-American projects. 
Nothing more nonsensical could be thought of than to put these treaties in question 
without good reasons. It is true that a motion was made last year in the Argen- 
tine Senate to give notice to such nations as had treaties containing the most- 
favored-nation clauses that the same, upon expiration of term, would not be renewed. 
Up to date nothing has been done to show that the nation is in earnest with this 
motion. The mover of the motion is on record with the words: "The purpose is to 
wipe out these treaties in order to make others, giving to nations that take the 
largest quantities of Argentine articles of export, especially Germany, larger and 
much more favorable concessions." 

How necessary reciprocity is to us, how much the very thought 
of it disturbs the merchants and manufacturers here, how much it 
has helped in times past, how much it must help in times to come, 
if organized and carried out in a just, equitable, and friendly way, 
is apparent from all one hears, reads, and sees. 



The University of Bonn. — Acting Consul Madden sends from 
Cologne, under date of April 30, 1897, a comprehensive report, cov- 
ering the work of the university, the faculty, the number of students 
in different branches, cost of lectures, etc. The report has been re- 
ferred to the Bureau of Education. 



Change in Numbering the Hours in Belgium. — The following 

has been received from Consul Johnson, dated Antwerp, May 10, 
1897: 

I send a translation of a recent public notice, coming from the 
Belgian Minister of State Railways, changing the manner of calling 
the hours of the day: 

Beginning on May i, 1897, and by virtue of a decision of the Minister of the State 
Railways, the naming of the hours of the day will be made from o to 24 By reason 



136 NOTES. 

of the adoption of this new regulation, the indications M (matin — morning) and S 
(soir— evening) appearing in the official railway guide will be suppressed. The 
minutes comprised between midnight and i o'clock in the morning, such as 12.02, 
12.13, and 12.47, will he indicated by a zero followed by a period and by the number 
of minutes corresponding, viz, 0.2, 0.13, and 0.47. Midday will be always indicated 
by 12. Midnight will be indicated, according to the circumstances, by o or 24. For 
a train which leaves a station exactly at midnight, it will be written that it leaves 
at o of the day during which the train is in movement. For a train which arrives at 
a station exactly at midnight, it will be written that it arrives at 24 of the day 
during which the train has been in movement. The dials of all the station clocks 
will be completed by the addition of the figures 13, 14, * * * 24, placed, respect- 
ively, just beneath the existing figures i, 2, * * * 12. 

This regulation is now used in the official State railway guide, 
and is posted in all the post-offices of the Kingdom. 



Netherlands-Bulgarian Convention. — Minister Quinby writes 
from The Hague, under date of July 1,1897, that the Minister of 
Foreign Affairs makes public announcement that, on the 24th of June, 
1897, notes were exchanged by the Netherlands and Bulgarian Gov- 
ernments, in virtue whereof, from that date, all Netherlands and 
Netherlands colonial products on importation into Bulgaria shall be 
subject to no higher import duty than that levied on similar products 
of the most-favored nation. 



Bicycles in Russia (Correction). — Consul-General Karel, St. 

Petersburg, August 2, writes relative to his report on ** Bicycles in 
Russia," printed in Consular Reports No. 203 (August, 1897): 

To-day, the Advance Sheets of Consular Reports for August reached me, 
and in my report on "Bicycles in Russia," I notice a small mistake slipped in. 

After my clerk copied the report, reading it over, I discovered that he misspelled 
the word "too" (also), writing "two," which I corrected; but the error appears 
in the printed report. 

I wished to convey the idea that bicycles now are not only imported from Ger- 
many and England, but also from the United States; but the report, as printed, 
says that only two bicycles came from the United States to Russia. 

The manuscript of Consul-General Karel's report, as received at 
the Department, read as follows: 

In Russia are sold bicycles of Russian, American, English, and German make. 
The principal import is made from Germany; then comes England, and last year 
two from the United States. 

What the consul-general intended to have written was that 
** bicycles were also imported from the United States " last year; but 
the editor could only have assumed from the text that ** two bicycles 
were imported from the United States last year." 



NOTES. 



^2>7 



Consular Reports Transmitted to Other Departments. — The 

following reports from consular officers (originals or copies) have 
been transmitted since the date of the last report to other Depart- 
ments for publication or for other action thereon : 



Consular officer reporting. 



John H. Miller, Port Sun- 

ley. 
E. Whidden, St Stephen... 
John Karel, St. Petersburg.. 

I>o 

Do 

William Hahn, Stuttgart... 

A. C. Johnson, Stuttgart 

E. Schneegans, Saigon 

Philip B. Spence, Quebec... 



Date. 



April 16,1897 

July 31 1*897 
July 5,1897 

June 5,1897 
June 12,1897 
Feb. 13,1897 
June 18,1897 
June 36,1897 
May 25,1897 



Subject. 



Projected naval station in 
the Falkland Islands. 

Crop report. 

Map showing condition of 
grain in European Russia. 

Russian grain in Germany.. 

Export of Russian flour 

Forestry in WUrtemberg 

WUrtemberg vine]rards 

Rice report 

Canadian banking system... 



Department to which re- 
ferred. 



Navy Department. 

Department of Agriculture. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Comptroller of the Currency. 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



Foreign Commerce of China in 1896.' — The Revue du Com- 
merce Ext^rieur, Paris, July 3, 1897, takes the following from the 
report of the secretary of the imperial customs: 

The total foreign commerce of China rose from 315,000,000 haikwan taels 
($245,700,000) in 1895 to 333,600,000 taels ($260,208,000) in 1896, of which 202,- 
590,000 taels ($158,301,000) were in imports and 131,081,000 taels ($102,243,180) in 
exports. 

The following table gives the imports and exports according to the principal 
countries: 



Countries. 



Great Britain 

Hongkong 

British India 

Singapore and Straits Settlements 

Australasia 

United States. 

Europe (except Russia) 

Russia 

Japan 

Macao 

Canada 



Imports. 



Taels, 
44,571,000 

91. 357. 000 
23,027,000 

3,240,000 

535. ooo 

11,930,000 
9,432,000 
2,035,000 

17,390,000 
3,984,000 
2,148,000 



$34. 770. 380 

71,258,460 

17,961,060 

2,527,200 

417. 300 
9.305.400 
7.356,960 
1.587.300 
13,564,200 
3,107,520 
X. 675.440 



Exports. 



Taels. 
11,282,000 
54.053.000 

2,176,000 

X. 739.000 
688,000 
IX, 124, 000 
18,078,000 
12,582,000 
xz, 379, 000 

3,223,000 
427,000 



$8,799,960 

42,161,340 

1,697,280 

X, 356, 420 

536,640 

8,676,720 

14,300,840 

9,8x3,960 

8,875,620 

1.733.940 
333,060 



Taken as a whole, the figures for 1896 show decided progress over those ot 1895, 
for, although the exports were somewhat less, the imports increased in a marked 
manner, especially in cotton tissues and thread. Woolens, metals, and petroleum 
should be mentioned among the increased imports, h^ large quantity of cotton 
goods came from the United States. Cotton thread came chiefly from India and 
Japan. India sent during 1896, 195,043,000 pounds (53,400,000 pounds more 
than in 1895); Japan exported to China 13,500,000 pounds (2,500,000 pounds 
more than during the preceding year). The imports of Italian cloths increased from 
63,000 pieces in 1895 to 161,000 pieces in 1896. There is a growing demand for 
most metals, especially for iron nails, steel, and old iron, the importation of which 
has doubled during the year. Other articles which sell readily are candles, cigars 
and cigarettes, clocks, dyestuffs, flour, glass, needles, petroleum, and soap. 

The decrease in the exports of silk and tea (the two chief articles of export of 
China) is due to various causes. The poor harvest, the lack of demand in the 
United States, and the high prices caused by the speculation of certain Chinese 
merchants are responsible for the smaller export of silk. The teas of India and 
Ceylon are injuring the sale of the Chinese product; but now that the factories are 
adopting the methods of preparation employed in India and Ceylon, it is thought 
that within a few years the Chinese tea will regain much of the lost ground. 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 1 39 

Japanese Cheap Labor.— The London and China Telegraph, 
London, June 21, 1897, says: 

It is interesting to note that Japan is importing cheap laborers from Korea to 
work in her coal mines. Five years ago, the wages of carpenters were 33 cents a 
day. Kott tfaejr mdwcttiae that their wages have risen to 80 cents a day — say is. 
8d. (40 cents in United States Tnnreticy), The cost of Hving lias nearly doubled in 
five years and the cost of labor has risen in proportion. Rice, in 1890, was $4.90 a 
koku; to-day, it is $8.90 to $9.10 (about $4.50). The bogey of Japanese cheap 
labor, which many English writers are so fond of calling up from the (to them) 
vasty deeps of the unknown East, is as illusory as any other phantom. 



Gold in Russia. — From the London and China Telegraph, Lon- 
don, June 21, 1897, the following is taken: 

A writer in a Parisian journal points out that Russia occupies a singularly inter- 
esting position to-day as a gold producer. She is gradually feeling her way from a 
silver standard to a gold, and she is herself the fourth largest producer of the more 
precious metal. It is estimated that eastern Siberia, including the region of the 
Yenissei, will alone give an annual production of gold of the value of ;f 3,000,000 
($14,599,500). With the completion of the Transsiberian line, there will be four 
great and steady producers of gold — the United States, South Africa, Australia, and 
Siberia, with her neighboring Chinese territories. Besides these, there must con- 
tinue to exist a number of other producers, like India, Brazil, the Guianas, British 
Columbia, Mexico, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bolivia. But these, it believes, 
can never seriously compete with the four producers just named. 



Siberian Gold Mines. — A paragraph in the London and China 
Telegraph, London, June 21, 1897, reads: 

Some details furnished to the Geographical Society of Paris confirm the state- 
ments made from time to time as to the value of the gold deposits in Siberia. The 
particulars were given by M. E. D. Levat, C. E., who went over the ground in the 
company of a Russian engineer, M. Th. Sabachnikoff. They state that an immense 
development of the gold placers has been carried on between the Ural and Vladi- 
Tostock. Nowhere in the world, states M. Levat, are there such vast stores of gold 
and spread over so large a surface. Eastern Siberia at present produces between 
135,000,000 and 150,000,000 francs of gold, without taking into account what is clan- 
destinely exported. In the Amoor province, at least a quarter of the production is 
so dealt with. The majority of the mines are situated far from the Amoor, from 
whence stores and provisions have to be drawn and considerable transport difficulties 
are experienced. Work can only be carried on for about one hundred to one hun- 
dred and twenty days in the year — say from May to September — for the indispen- 
sable water is frozen hard for the rest of the time. During the cold season, however, 
prospecting is carried on. No medal is without its reverse. The smuggling of gold 
is reduced to a fine art. Entire villages exist of gold stealers, who are practically 
free, as the result of the immense distances open to their enterprise. If caught, 
they affirm the gold comes from China. Even on the Russian gold fields, theft by 
the workmen can not be prevented, and their methods of disposing of it are more 



140 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



numerous than would be imagined. The want of greater development must be 
put down to the difficulties of transport and the want of further technical advice. 
The Siberian Railway will be the means of remedying the two defects. 



Details of Roumanian Commerce in 1895. — The Annales du 
Commerce Ext6rieur, Paris, 1897, No. 5, has these figures: 

The total importations into Roumania amounted to 304,574,517 francs ($58,782,- 
881. The principal articles were : 



Articles. 



Alimentary products. 

Medical and chemical products , 

Animals (including horses) 

Oils and fats. 

Skins and leather 

Textiles and manufactures of 

Paper and articles of 

Wood and articles of 

Combustibles, mineral and bituminous. 

Earthenware and glassware 

Metals, crude and worked 



Value. 



Francs. 




40,549.000 


♦71825,957 


26,536 ,'000 


5,X2i,44« 


1,831,000 


353,383 


6,075,000 


i,«6a,475 


iz, 100, 000 


2,142,300 


ziz, 914,000 


ai, 599.40a 


11,465,000 


2,2X2,745 


5,2X0,000 


1,005,530 


9,431,000 


1,8x8,253 


16,870,000 


2,097,910 


58,882,000 


11,364,226 



The exports, the total value of which was 265,048,411 francs 
($49,417,343), were divided, according to principal articles, as follows: 



Articles. 



Alimentary products. 

Living animals (including horses). 

Skins and leather 

Textiles and manufactures of 

Wood and articles of 

Metals, crude and worked 



Value. 



Francs. 




234,584,000 


$45,374, 71a 


8,487,000 


«, 637.99' 


3,598,000 


694.4*4 


5,380,000 


1,038,340 


4,848,000 


935.664 


2,972,000 


573.596 



The export of grain and flour, which was included under the head- 
ing ** alimentary products," amounted to 194,857,000 francs ($37,- 
607,401) and was the largest single article exported. The import 
amounted to something over 5,000,000 francs ($965,000). 



Use of X Rays in Custom-Houses. — In the Revue du Com- 
merce Ext6rieur, Paris, July 3, 1897, the following paragraph ap- 
pears : 

Some interesting experiments took place in the oflSce of the general director of 
the customs on the 23(1 of last June, in the presence of the council of administra- 
tion and of the chiefs of the service. It was the object to see if the X rays could 
be put to practicable use in the examination of imported articles, and the experi- 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 141 

ments were so successful that the customs bureau can at once proceed to employ 
this method. The inspector can decide the contents of a package at a glance. This 
application of a scientific process will greatly facilitate the discover/ of fraud. It 
will be of benefit to travelers, since, in the majority of cases, the opening of bag- 
gage will not be necessary. 



Commercial Movement of Guatemala in 1895. — From the 
Moniteur Officiel du Commerce, Paris, May 6, 1897, the following is 
taken : 

The total commerce of Guatemala in 1895 amounted to the value of 34,697,206 
pesos ($17,036,328*). Of this amount, 8,911,630 pesos ($4,375,612) were imports. 
The exports consisted chiefly of coffee, bananas, skins, and rubber. Shoes are also 
an article of export. Germany imports from Guatemala more largely than does 
any other country; the United States, England, and France follow in the order of 
their importance. Of the imports into Guatemala, the United States has about 37 
per cent, Germany 21 per cent, England 20.5 per cent, and France 12 per cent. 
Although the United States has the largest part of the import trade, Germany would 
equal her if certain alimentary products which must necessarily remain the mo- 
nopoly of the United States were eliminated from the total. Another advantage 
which the United States has is her proximity, which lessens the cost of transport and 
so shortens the voyage that orders can be executed in a month, by way of New York 
or San Francisco, which would need at least three or four months if they were 
placed in Europe. It is an important question for us to discover why Germany has 
nearly twice as much commerce with Guatemala as France. In Germany, the 
merchant marine and the exporters aid and sustain each other. National industries 
are encouraged by the community. Banks, railroads, and individual enterprises of 
all sorts are favored by commerce. The intervention of the Government is asked 
only in case of international legislative difliculties. The Germans study the tastes, 
habits, and needs of their clients. Alluring credits are offered, payments are 
made easy, delivery of goods is prompt and exact, and exchanges are accepted that 
are refused in France. Why should not Havre imitate Hamburg in buying coffee 
from Guatemala? There is the same opening for French trade as for German, and 
petty jealousies and rivalries should not be allowed to interfere. United and vigor- 
ous effort will result in success, as Germany has shown us. 



Commerce of Puerto Rico in 1894. — The Estadistica General 
del Commercio Exterior, Puerto Rico, 1897, gives the following 
statistics : 

The importations during the year 1894 amounted to 19,778,587 pesos ($18,316,- 
971), an increase of nearly 2,500,000 pesos over the previous year. The exports 
were to the value of 17,295,535 pesos ($16,015,665), an increase of some 500,000 
pesos over 1893. The articles of import in which the increase was most marked 
were rice, flour, and fish. There was a decrease in the import of wrought iron. In 
the commerce with the United States, the imports amounted to 4,852,565 pesos 
($4,593,481) and the exports to 2,433,024 pesos ($2,251,970). The chief articles im- 
ported were coal, woods, flour, fish, and petroleum. Sugar was the principal article 
exported. The largest amount of trade was transacted with Spain, the United 
States, England, and Germany following in order. 

* Taking the value of the peso on January i, 1896, as 49.x cents. 



142 FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 

Industrial Condition of Paraguay.— The Bollettino del Minis- 
tro degli Affari Esteri, Rome, October, 1896, says: 

It has been estimated that there are about 17,000 foreigners resident in Para- 
guay. The laws are very liberal in regard to strangers. They are not obliged to 
become citizens, although citizenship is easily acquired. They are allowed all the 
privileges and civil rights that are granted to natives. There are 1,305 commercial 
houses in Paraguay, of which 117 are under the management of Italians, with an 
actual capital, it is calculated, of some 8,000,000 francs ($1,544,000). In this list 
may be counted manufacturers of furniture, clothing, foot wear, hats, matches, ali- 
mentary products, ice, etc. Clothing and shoes are expensive. Labor is paid at 
the following rates: Masons, from 3 to 4 pesos per day (49 to 65 cents*); carpenters, 
from 2 to 2.50 pesos (32 to 40 cents); smiths, 2.50 to 3 pesos (40 to 49 cents); day 
laborers, 1.50 pesos (24 cents); machinists, 70 to 100 pesos per month ($11.48 to 
$16.40); firemen, 30 to 50 pesos ($4.90 to $8.20); tinkers, 2.50 to 3 pesos (40 to 49 
cents) per day; bakers, 1.50 to 2 pesos (24 to 32 cents); shoemakers, 2 to 3 pesos (32 
to 49 cents); diggers, 2 to 3 pesos (32 to 49 cents); cooks, 20 to 40 pesos ($3.20 to 
$6.40) per month; gardeners, 40 pesos ($6.40) per month; domestic servants, 10 to 15 
pesos ($1.64 to $2.45) per month. 

There is a railway which connects the capital (Asuncion) with Pirapd, a river 
port where a great quantity of wood is shipped. It is intended to complete the road 
to Encarnacion, on the Parana River, and thus connect with the Argentine Republic. 
The railway touches Luque, Aregud, Paraguari, and Villa Rica, which are among 
the most important commercial centers of the country. But the rivers are the usual 
means of communication. The Paraguay is navigable throughout the country, and 
the Parana for a long distance. By the first, the Brazilian State of Matto Grosso 
and Chaco Argentine can be reached; the second places Paraguay in connection 
with the Argentine province of Corrientes, and thus with Plata and the Atlantic. 
There are a number of navigation companies. There is a weekly service of good 
boats from Montevideo to Asuncion, touching at HumaitiL, Pilar, Villa Franca, 
Oliva, and other points. It takes eight days to ascend the rivers, including a day 
and a half stop at Buenos Ayres. On the return trip, four days are spent between 
Asuncion and Buenos Ayres, where a stop is made long enough to discharge cargo 
before proceeding to the capital of Uruguay. Freight boats make frequent trips up 
and down the rivers; some go as far as Villa Concezione. There is a regular service 
between the capital and Villa Hayes, between Corrientes, Posadas, and Villa Encar- 
nacion, and between Posadas and Tacurd Pucd, on the Parana. 

There are three telegraph lines — from Asuncion to Pirapd, from the capital to 
Paso de la Patria, in the Argentine province of Corrientes (which connects with La 
Plata, and thus with Europe and America), and from the capital to Villa Hayes. It 
is expected that by the end of the year another will be in operation between Asun- 
cion and Villa Concezione. 

Over 5,000,000 lire ($1,000,000) worth of yerba mate was exported in 1894. The 
export of skins, animal fats, etc., amounted in the same year to 1,446,614 pesos 
($237,244). Plumes of birds (which abound in number and variety) are also ex- 
ported. Tobacco was exported in 1894 to the value of 1,294,860 pesos ($202,357). 
This amount would have been much increased if the industrial appliances were less 
primitive. The tobacco is of excellent quality, and received the gold medal at the 
Paris Exposition of 1889. There are inexhaustible treasures of wood in Paraguay; 
970,000 pesos ($162,080) worth were exported in 1894; also 45,616 pesos ($7,481) of 
ornamental plants, for which there is a growing demand. 

* The Italian consul says that the peso, at the time the report was made, was valued at about 85 
centimes of the lira, which would equal 16.4 cents in United States currency. 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



143 



The articles imported during the second trimester of the year under considera- 
tion were: 



Articles. 



Alcohol barrels... 

Do bottles of 4 gallons... 

Anise do 

Absinthe. cases of xa bottles... 

Cognac do 

Beer cases of 48 bottles... 

Gin. cases of za bottles... 

Do bottles of 4 gallons... 

Champagne cases of xa bottles... 

Bordeaux do 

Italian wine. barrels... 

Spanish wine do 

Vermouth cases of za bottles... 

Bitters do 

Vinegar.^ bottles of 4 gallons... 

Various liquors. cases of za bottles... 

Candles, cases of 7 kilograms (15.43 

pounds) 

Paper .~ bales... 

Tissues. do 

Coffee, sacks of zoo kilograms (aaa46 

pounds) 

Flour, sacks of 90 kilograms (X98.4Z 

pounds) 



Number. 



»63 
Z70 
a66 

449 

323 
690 

zx8 

a&> 

40 
970 

4»9 
540 
448 
88z 
aay 

37 

x»275 
711 

747 

397 

",5x5 



Articles. 



Iron wire rolls... 

Cheese...... casks... 

Animal fats t^trrels... 

Oil tin cans... 

Beans and dried vegetables, sacks of 

zoo kilograms (230.46 pounds) 

Indian com, sacks of zoo kilc^rams 

(aao.46 pounds) 

Various machines, parts of boxes... 

Soap do 

Zinc sheets... 

Olives, barrels of 7 kilograms (Z5.43 

pounds 

Petroleum.... cases... 

Rice, sacks of zoo kilc^rams (230.46 

pounds) 

Sugar, sacks of zx5 kilograms (253.52 

pounds) 

Grain, unground sacks... 

Bluing, cases of iz kilograms (24.25 

pounds) 

Dried herbs, bales of 50 kilograms 

(1Z0.23 pounds) 



Number. 



3 1055 
203 
20Z 
276 

198 

4i29i 
154 
147 
150 

244 
z,z5o 

997 

x,oz8 
3.040 

1.524 

1.893 



German Commerce in the Transvaal. — An article published 

in a German paper and translated in the Revue du Commerce Ext6- 
rieur, Paris, June 5, 1897, says: 

Since the foundation of the Boer Republic, the Germans have had successful com- 
mercial relations with the country; but this prosperity is capable of much greater 
development. Efforts will be well repaid, for the Transvaal has no large indus- 
tries and is consequently dependent upon importation to satisfy the needs of a pop- 
ulation which, on account of the immigration toward the gold mines, is constantly 
increasing. Until recently, the Republic imported only through the ports of Cape 
Colony and the commerce was in the hands of English firms. These traditions 
have been broken, and a number of colonists from both Germany and Holland have 
emigrated to the country. The adoption by England of a tariff on German mer- 
chandise in the ports of Natal and Cape Colony and the construction of the rail- 
way in the Transvaal attracted German imports to Pretoria and Johannesburg. 
Perseverance and a knowledge of the conditions of the market are necessary. It 
is a mistake to think that the Boers have any special friendship for the Germans 
on account of the similarity of race. This may be true in isolated cases, but as a 
general rule the Boer treats every one who is not a Boer or an African as an " uit- 
lander," or stranger. If German exporters become acquainted with the needs of 
the country, they have a fair chance to share the commerce with England and 
America. 

The principal articles which are of daily use in the Transvaal, arc: Calico tissues 
(white and colored), ticking, flannels, cotton and woolen covers, cotton comforts, 
house linen, canvas for sails, etc.; large and small iron wire, metal trellis, ropes, 
and brushes; all sorts of preserved fruits, comestibles of milk, etc. (nine-tenths of 
these must be imported); chocolate, cacao, bonbons, sweetmeats, and cotvl^cllotv^r'^ 



144 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



of all sorts; butter, margarin, cheese, liqueurs, beer, and cigars; perfumery and 
soaps, Swedish matches, candles of stearin, chemical products, medicines, alcohol, 
furniture, instruments of iron, zinc, and tin, and works in stucco; machines of all 
sorts, bicycles, construction materials, etc.; papers of all sorts, books, ledgers, inks, 
pencils, etc. ; carriages, from the heavy Boer cart to the most elegant conveyance. 
The Government of Germany should not delay in lending assistance to trade 
with the Transvaal. It is well known that the agent sent by Germany to the Chi- 
cago Exposition succeeded in forming business relations between some eight hun- 
dred German and American houses. The same method should be adopted in the 
Transvaal. Norway and Sweden have already made this experiment with success. 
The agent should have a good technical education and understand various branches 
of trade. He should be assisted by a chamber of commerce which would furnish 
information in regard to weights and measures, methods of packing, color of mer- 
chandise, reliability of firms, and the needs of the trade. 



Commerce of the Transvaal in 1896. — The Revue du Com- 
merce Ext6rieur, Paris, in its editions of June 19 and July 3, has an 
article from the French consul at Pretoria on the commercial con- 
dition of the South African Republic. The article says, in part: 

In spite of all the difficulties and disasters of 1896, the Republic continues to 
enjoy the era of prosperity which the discovery of the gold mines inaugurated. 
Neither the Johannesburg troubles, nor the bovine plague (which is still destroying 
the cattle), nor the poor harvests have seriously injured commerce or interrupted 
industry in 1896. The value of the imports during this year was 352,000,000 francs 
($67,936,000), or 107,000,000 francs more than during the preceding year, which, in 
turn, was more than 84,000,000 francs in excess of that for 1894. Most of the im- 
ports (200,000,000 francs) came through Cape Colony, thanks to the regular lines of 
steamers and the enterprising spirit of the commercial houses of Port Elizabeth 
and East London. Nearly 50,000,000 francs ($9,650,000) of this amount was for 
products of Cape Colony. About 75,000,000 francs ($14,475,000) came through 
Natal, one-half of this representing the special commerce. The chief articles of 
import were (in round numbers): 



Articles. 



Steel 

Animals 

Butter. 

Jewelry and objects of 

art. 

Wood 

Coffee 

Wagons and carriages... 

Bicycles 

Cereals and flour 

Oils 

Machinery 

Furniture 

Petroleum 



Value. 



Francs. 

18,000,000 
3,000,000 



15,000,000 
3,000,000 
6,000,000 
a, 000, 000 

27,000,000 
2,400,000 

55,000,000 
9,000,000 
1,000,000 



$50x,8oo 
3,474,000 

579i<»o 

2,123,000 
2,895,000 

579.000 
1,158,000 

386,000 
5,211,000 

463,200 

10,6x5,000 

1,737,000 

193,000 



Articles. 



Chemicals and drugs..... 

TotMiCco 

Clothing 

Hats.. 

Leather and articles of.. 

Groceries. 

Cotton and linen goods.. 

Wool goods 

Iron and articles of 

Railway materials 

SpiriU 

Sugar 

Wines 



Value. 



Francs. 

3,000,000 

25,000,000 

1,500,000 

11,000,000 

6,500,000 

8,000,000 

5,000,000 

23,000,000 

15,800,000 

9,000,000 

4,000,000 

4,000,000 



$1,158,000 

579,000 

4,825,000 

289,500 

2,123,000 

X. 254. 500 

X. 544. 000 

965,000 

4,439,000 

2.779.400 

X. 737. 000 

772,000 

772,000 



The administration of the customs of the South African Republic does not pub- 
lish an account of the exports. According to statistics furnished by the railway 
companies, the principal articles exported were coal, minerals, and skins. 



55th Congress, )HOUSE OF REPRESENTATlVES.(Doc.No.91, 
1st Session, ] I Part 2. 



VOL LV. NO. 205. 



Consular Reports. 



OCTOBER, 1897. 



COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, ETC. 



«*- 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE. 

1897. 



THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

From and after July i, 1897, the Bureau of Statistics, Depart- 
ment of State, will be known as the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, 
in accordance with the following order of the Secretary of State : 

Department of State, 

Washington^ July 7, 18^7. 
Under the authority conferred upon me by chapter 268, United 
States Statutes at Large, Fifty-fourth Congress, second session, 
under the heading ** Publication of Diplomatic, Consular, and other 
commercial reports,** the name of the Bureau of Statistics of this 
Department is hereby changed to the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, 
and the title of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics shall hereafter 
be Chief of the Bureau of Foreign Commerce. 

John Sherman, 
Secretary of State, 

The reasons for the change are set forth in the following report 
from the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics to the Secretary of State: 

Department of State, 

Washington, June jo, iS^y, 
Honorable John Sherman, 

Secretary of State. 
Sir: I have the honor to call your attention to the clause in the 
diplomatic and consular appropriation bill for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1898, approved February 20, 1897, which provides for the 
publication of diplomatic, consular, and other commercial reports. 
(See page 590, United States Statutes at Large, Fifty-fourth Congress, 
second session.) The paragraph reads as follows: 

Preparation, printing, publication, and distribution, by the Department of State, 
of the diplomatic, consular, and other commercial reports, twenty-five thousand 
dollars; and of this sum the Secretary of State is authorized to use not exceeding 
three thousand one hundred and twenty dollars for services of employees in the 
Bureau of Statistics, Department of State, in the work of compiling and distribut- 
ing such reports, and not exceeding two hundred and fifty dollars in the purchase 
of such books, maps, and periodicals as may be necessary to the editing of diplo- 
matic, consular, and other commercial reports: Provided, That all terms of meas- 
ure, weight, and money shall be reduced to, and expressed in, terms of the measure, 
weight, and coin of the United States, as well as in the foreign terms; that each 
issue of consular reports shall not exceed seven thousand copies: And provided 
further, That the Secretary of State be, and he is hereby, authorized to change the 



II THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

name of the Bureau of Statistics to the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, and that 
the foregoing provision shall apply with the same force and efifect to the Bureau of 
Foreign Commerce as to the Bureau of Statistics. 

You will perceive that the Secretary of State is authorized by 
the foregoing to change the name of the Bureau of Statistics of this 
Department to the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, and that the pro- 
vision for the maintenance of the Bureau of Statistics is made to 
apply with the same force and effect to the Bureau of Foreign Com- 
merce. As the appropriation becomes available on the ist of July, 
I respectfully ask authority from you to carry the legislation speci- 
fied into effect. The reasons for making the change, as stated to 
Congress and approved by that body, are: 

(i) The confusion arising from the fact that there are three 
bureaus of statistics in the Executive Departments, viz: 

Bureau of Statistics, Department of State; 

Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department; 

Division of Statistics, Department of Agriculture. 

Shortly after taking charge of this Bureau, I became impressed 
with the fact that the general public was unable to discriminate be- 
tween the various bureaus of the same name, and that unnecessary 
labor and delay resulted. 

(2) The name Bureau of Statistics does not properly denote the 
functions of this Bureau, which is exclusively commercial in its char- 
acter, its work being that of collecting, compiling, and distributing 
the commercial reports of our diplomatic and consular officers. 
There is a wide range of statistics with which the Bureau has nothing 
to do, and its designation as a Bureau of Statistics is, therefore, mis- 
leading. The use of the words Bureau of Foreign Commerce, on 
the other hand, besides correctly indicating the character of the 
work, is likely, in my judgment, to impress upon the public mind 
the importance of the commercial functions of this Department. 

In view of these considerations, I submit the draft of an order 

for your signature. 

Respectfully yours, 

Frederic Emory, 

Chiefs Bureau of Statistics, 



CONTENTS. 



I. — Yukon Gold Region: Canada's Mining Regulations Turner 145 

II. — Tariff of Canada 151 

(Index to tariff, 192.) 

III. — Tariff of Venezuela. Russell 233 

IV. — British Treaties of Commerce Denounced 234 

V. — Value of Commercial Treaties in Germany Monaghan 242 

VI. — Foreign Trade and Industries of Germany Mason 243 

VII. — Foreign Commerce of Hamburg ) 254 

>• Robertson 

VIII. — Exports from Hamburg to the United States ) 256 

IX. — Bicycles and Foreign Trade-Marks in Germany de Kay 257 

X. — Agitation in Germany against American Y^\qmq\jl^,,. Monaghan 259 

XI. — Bicycles in Bremen Keenan 261 

XII. — Demand for Increased Duties on Bicycles in Ykkscv^. Monaghan 262 

Xlll. — American Corn in Germany Stern 263 

XIV. — Danish Complaints against United States Corn Kirk 264 

XV. — United States Flour in Germany Madden 267 

XVI. — The Continental Channel Ports Morris 268 

XVII. — German Agricultural Machinery in Russia Stern 270 

XVIII. — Farming Machinery in Russia Karel 271 

XIX. — Agriculture in Russia: Opening for United States Ma- 
chinery Heenan 274 

277 



in \ 



XX. — European Fruit-Crop Outlook Germain 

278 

XXI. — Proposed Asiatic Commercial Museum at San Fkascisco, Barrett 279 

XXII. — Adulteration of Beer Grains Robertson 283 

( Coxe 

XXIII. — Union of the Central American Republics < 285 

I Baher 

XXIV. — Opening for American Enterprise in China Read 289 

XXV. — Prussia's Railroad Earnings Monaghan 291 

XXVI. — Notes (Coal and Iron Trusts in Germany — German Employment 
of Women and Children — Medical View of Bicycle Riding — Pre- 
mature Burials — Textile Industry in Russia — Constitutional 
Amendments in Switzerland — Sicilian Fruit Exports in 1896 — 
Steamship Service Between New York and Tangier — ^Japanese 
Petroleum — Oil Wells in Quebec — Imports into British India — 
American Catalogues in China — United States Life Insuta.t\c^ 

\\\ 



IV CONTENTS. 

Page. 
Company in China — Railways Projected in the Malay Penin- 
sula — Fiscal Duties in Peru — Financial Conditions in Mexico — 
Commercial Agency in Mexico — New Steamship Line to Colom- 
bia — Export Duty on Coffee Suspended in Colombia — Coffee Ex- 
ports from Brazil — Waterworks in Panama — Margarin in Mar- 
tinique — Railroad in the Dominican Republic — American Type 
in South America — Antidote for Snake Bites — United States 
Money in Chile — Hemp and Hemp Machines in Italy — Italian 
Statistics as to Trade with the United States — Metric System in 
Paraguay and Uruguay — Bananas in Colombia (Correction) — 

Consular Reports Transmitted to Other Departments) 293 

XXVII. — Foreign Reports and Publications (French Commerce in the 
First Half of 1897 — Brussels as a Seaport — Commercial Travel- 
ers in Sweden — Fruit Trade in Germany — Public Works Pro- 
jected in Roumania — Commercial Movement of Cyprus in 
1895 — The Commercial Future of Tunis — Foreign Commerce of 
Egypt in 1896 — Commerce of Louren90 Marquez in 1896 — Foreign 
Population of China — Mineral Resources of Koung-Toung — The 
Cotton Season in India — Foreign Trade of Siam in 1896 — Com- 
mercial Condition of New South Wales in 1896 — Economic 
Situation of Victoria in 1896 — Foreign Commerce of Western 
Australia in 1896) 310 



REPORTS BY COUNTRIES. 

Asia : Pa^e. 

Proposed Asiatic commercial museum at San Francisco 279 

Belgium : 

British treaty of commerce with, denounced 234 

Brazil : 

American type in South America 306 

Coflfee exports from 304 

British India: 

Imports into 299 

Canada : 

Index to tariff of 192 

Oil wells in Quebec 299 

Tariff of, 1897 151 

Yukon gold region: Canada's mining regulations 145 

Chile • 

United States money in 307 

China : 

American catalogues in 300 

Opening for American enterprise in 289 

United States insurance company in 300 

Colombia • 

Bananas in (correction) 309 

Export duty on coffee suspended in 303 

New steamship line to 303 

Waterworks in Panama 304 

Denmark : 

Danish complaints against United States corn in 264 

Dominican Republic: 

Railroad in 305 

Europe: 

Fruit-crop outlook 277 

The continental channel ports 268 

France: 

Demand for increased duties on bicycles in 262 

Germany: 

Adulteration of beer grains in 283 

Agitation in, against American bicycles 259 

American com in 263 

Bicycles and foreign trade-marks in 257 

Bicycles in Bremen 261 

British commercial treaty with, denounced 236 

Coal and iron trusts in 263 

Employment of women and children in 293 

Exports from Hamburg to the United States 256 

Foreign commerce of Hamburg 1^\ 



J 



VI REPORTS BY COUNTRIES. 

Germany — Continued. Page. 

Foreign trade and industries in . 243 

Medical view of bicycling in 294 

Prussia's railroad earnings 291 

United States flour in 267 

Value of commercial treaties in 242 

Italy: 

Hemp and hemp machines in 307 

Premature burials in 295 

Sicilian fruit exports 297 

Statistics as to trade with the United States ^.....T 308 

Japan : 

Petroleum in 297 

Martinique : 

Margarin in 305 

Mexico : 

Commercial agency in 302 

Financial conditions in 302 

Morocco : 

Steamship service between New York and Tangier 297 

Paraguay : 

Metric system in 308 

Peru : 

Fiscal duties in 302 

Republic of Central America : 

Union of Central American Republics 285 

Russia : 

Agriculture in : Opening for United States machinery 274 

Farming machinery in 271 

German agricultural machinery in 270 

Textile industry in 295 

Straits Settlements: 

Railways projected in the Malay Peninsula 301 

Switzerland : 

Antidote for snake bites 306 

Constitutional amendments in 296 

Uruguay : 

Metric system in.. 308 

Venezuela : 

Tariff of (abstract) 233 



P^ull direction* for blncllxia tHe CoxiAular Reports are slven In No. 

13Z, pane 663. 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 

The following statements show the valuation of foreign coins, as 
given by the Director of the United States Mint and published by the 
Secretary of the Treasury, in compliance with the first section of 
the act of March 3, 1873, viz : ** That the valuie of foreign coins, as ex- 
pressed in the money of account of the United States, shall be that of 
the pure metal of such coin of standard value," and that ** the value of 
the standard coins in circulation of the various nations of the world 
shall be estimated annually by the Director of the Mint, and be pro- 
claimed on the I St day of January by the Secretary of the Treasury." 

In compliance with the foregoing provisions of law, annual state- 
ments were issued by the Treasury Department, beginning with that 
issued on January i, 1874, and ending with that issued on January 
I, 1890. Since that date, in compliance with the act of October i, 
1890, these valuation statements have been issued quarterly, begin- 
ning with the statement issued on January i, 1891. 

These estimates **are to be taken (by customs officers) in com- 
puting the value of all foreign merchandise made out in any of said 
currencies, imported into the United States." 

The following statements, running from January i, 1874, to July 
I, 1897, have been prepared to assist in computing the proper values 
in American money of the trade, prices, values, wages, etc., of and in 
foreign countries, as given in consular and other reports. The series 
of years are given so that computations may be made for each year in 
the proper money values of such year. In hurried computations, the 
reductions of foreign currencies into American currency, no matter for 
how many years, are too often made on the bases of latest valuations. 
When it is taken into account that the ruble of Russia, for instance, 
has fluctuated from 77.17 cents in 1874 to 37.4 cents in April, 1897, 
such computations are wholly misleading. All computations of values, 
trade, wages, prices, etc., of and in the **fluctuating-currency coun- 
tries " should be made in the values of their currencies in each year 
up to and including 1890, and in the quarterly valuations thereafter. 

To meet typographical requirements, the quotations for the years 
1876, 1877, 1879, 1881, and 1882 are omitted, these years being se- 
lected as showing the least fluctuations when compared with years 
immediately preceding and following. 

To save unnecessary repetition, the estimates of valuations are 
divided into three classes, viz, (A) countries with fixed currencies, 
(B) countries with fluctuating currencies, and (C) quarterly valua- 
tions of fluctuating currencies. 



VIII 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 



A. — Countries with fixed currencies. 

The following official (United Sutes Treasury) valuations of foreign coins do not include " rates of 
exchange.'* 



Countries. 



Argentine Republic*. 

Austria-Hungaryt 

Belgium 

Brazil.^ 



British North Amer- 
ica (except New- 
foundland). 

Chile 



CosU Rica.. 
Cuba 



Denmark 
Efirypt 



Finland. 



France 



Germany 

Great Britain. 



Greece. 



Haiti 
luly. 



Japan t 

Liberia 

Netherlands^. 



Newfoundland 

Portugal 

Russia I 



Spain. 



Sweden and Norway. 
Switzerland 



Turkey 

Venezuela. 



Standard. 



Gold and siWer.. 



Gold 



Gold and silver. 
Gold 



.Ao 



.Ao 



.Ao 



Gold and silver. 



Gold .. 
Ao 



.Ao 



Gold and silver. 



Gold .. 
Ao 



Monetary unit. 



Peso. 



Crown. 



Franc... 
Milreis. 
Dollar.. 



Peso. 



Colon.. 
Ao 



Crown 

Pound (loo pias- 
ters). 



Mark.. 



Franc. 



Mark 

Pound sterling. 



Gold and silver.. 



.Ao, 
.Ao 



Gold 

....^Ao 

Gold and silver- 



Gold.. 

Ao 

Ao 



Gold and silver., 



Gold 

Gold and silver.. 



Gold 



Gold and silver.. 



Drachma. 



Gourde. 
Lira 



Yen 

Dollar. 
Florin . 



Value in 
U.S.gold. 



Dollar.. 
Milreis. 
Ruble... 



Peseta. 

Crown. 
Franc. 



Piaster. 



Bolivar. 



$0-96,5 

.20,3 

• 19.3 

• 54.6 
1. 00 

.36,5 

.46.5 
.93,6 

.26,8 
4-94,3 

.19,3 
.>9,3 

.23,8 
4.86,6^ 

.>9f3 

•96.5 
.19,3 

•99,7 
1. 00 
.40,2 

1.01,4 
1.08 
•77,2 

->9,3 

.26,8 
.>9,3 

• 04,4 
.>9.3 



Coins. 



Gold — Argentine (|4.8a«4) and 
% Argentine; silver—piesoand 
divisions. 

Gold — 90 crowns (14.05,2) and 
10 crowns. 

Gold— 10 and ao franc pieces; 
silver— 5 francs. 

Gold— 5, xo, and ao milreis; sil- 
ver~)i(, z, and a milreis. 



Gold— escudo ($1.25), doubloon 
(f3-65), and condor ($7.30); 
silver— peso and divisions. 

Gold — 2, 5, 10, and 20 colons; sil- 
ver — 5,io,25,and socentisimos. 

Gold — doubloon ($5.01,7); sil- 
ver-peso. 

Gold — 10 and ao crowns. 

Gold — 10, 20, 50, and xoo pias- 
ters; silver — i, 2, 10, and ao 
piasters. 

Gold— 10 and ao marks ($1.93 
and $3.85,9). 

Gold — 5, 10, 90, 50, and 100 
francs; silver— 5 francs. 

Gold — 5, xo, and 20 marks. 

Gold — sovereign (pound ster- 
ling) and half sovereign. 

Gold — 5, 10, ao, 50, and loodrach- 
mas; silver— 5 drachmas. 

Silver — gourde. 

Crold — 5, 10, ao, 50, and 100 lire; 
silver— 5 lire. 

Gold — I, a, 5, 10, and ao yen. 

Gold— lo florins; silver— J^, i, 
and 2% florins. 

Gold — $a ($2.02,7). 

Gold — I, 2, 5, and zo milreis. 

Gold— imperial ($7,718) and % 
imperial ($3.80); silver— X, J4, 
and I ruble. 

Gold— 25 pesetas; silver — 5 pese- 
tas. 

Gold— 10 and 20 crowns. 

Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 
francs; silver— 5 francs. 

Gold — 25, 50, 100, 200, and 500 
piasters. 

Gold — 5, 10, ao, 50, and zoo boli- 
vars; silver— 5 bolivars. 



* In Z874 and 1875, the gold standard prevailed in the Argentine Republic. 

tOn reference to the table of ** fluctuating currencies," it will be seen that Austria had the silver 
standard up to and including the quarter ended July z, X892. The next quarter (October z) inaugu- 
rated the gold standard (see note under table of ** fluctuating currencies"). 

X For particulars as to the change from silver to the gold standard, see Consi'lak Reports No. 201, 
p. 259. 

{The Netherlands florin, as will be seen in the '* fluctuating " table, became fixed in value (40.2 
cents) in z88a 

I Russia: Gold the nominal standard; silver the actual standard. — Note hy the United States Treas- 
ury. See, also, review of Russian industries and commerce by the Russian Minister of Finance in 
'* Review of the world's commerce," Commercial Relations of the United States for Z895-96, p. 230. 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 



IX 



B. — Countries with fluctuating currencies^ i8y 4-18^0, 



CcHintries. 



Austria-Hungary*. 
Bolivia 



Central America. 

China 

Colombia... 

Ecuador. 

Egyptt -.. 



India. 

Japan. 

Mexico 

Netherlands^. 



Peru 

Russia.. 
Tripoli. 



Standard. 



Silver. 
Ao. 



Ao. 

Silver. 

.do. 

.do. 

Gold... 



Silver 

Gold 

Silver ) 

.do 

Gold and 
Silver. 

Silver 

.do 

.do 



Monetary unit. 



Florin 

Dollar until 
1890; bolivi- 
ano there- 
after. 

Peso.- , 

Haikwan tael.. 

Peso 

.do 

Pound (100 
piasters). 

Rupee. , 



Yen. 



Dollar. 
Florin.. 



Sol 

Ruble 

Mahbub of ao 
piasters. 



Value in terms of the United States gold dollar 
on January i — 



1874. 



$0.47,6 
•96. S 



1. 61 
•96.5 
.96,5 



.45.8 
.99.7 



187s. 



|o-45f3 
•96.5 



.91,8 
1. 61 

•96.5 
.91,8 



•43i6 
•99.7 



i.o4.7f -99.8 
.38,5 



•40,5 

.92,5 

•77.17 

.87.09 



.91,8 
•73.4 
• 8a, 9 



1878. 



I0.45.3 
.96.5 



.91,8 



•96,5 

•91.8 

4-97.4 

•43.6 
•99.7 



•99.8 
•38,5 

.91,8 

.73.4 
.8a, 9 



1880. 



I0.41.3 
.83,6 



• 83.6 



.83,6 

.83,6 

4.97.4 

•39.7 
.99.7 



.90,9 
.40,3 

.83,6 
.66,9 
• 74.8 



1883. 



$0.40,1 
.8z,a 



.81,3 
.81, a 
4.90 

.38,6 



.87,6 
.88, a 



.8z,2 

.65 

•73.3 



1884. 



$0.39.8 
.80,6 



.80,6 
.80,6 
4.90 

.38,3 



.86,9 
•87,5 



.80,6 
•64.S 
.73.7 



Countries. 



Austria-Hungary*. 
Bolivia 



Central America.. 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Egyptt... 



India 

Japan.... 

Mexico.. 

Peru 

Russia... 
Tripoli.. 



Standard. 



Silver. 
do. 



.do. 

Ao. 

.do. 

Gold... 



Silver , 

Gold [ 

Silver J 

.do 

Silver 

.do 

.do 



Monetary unit. 



Florin 

Dollar until 
1880; bolivi- 
ano there- 
after. 

Peso , 

.do 

Ao 

Pound (100 
piasters). 

Rupee. 



Yen. 



Dollar 

Sol 

Ruble , 

Mahbub of 20 
piasters. 



Value in terms of the United States gold dollar 
on Janury x — 



1885. 



$0.39.3 
•79.5 



•79.5 

•79.5 
4.90 

.37.8 



•85.8 

.86,4 

.79.5 
.63,6 

•71.7 



1886. 



$0.37.1 
•75,1 



•75.1 
•75.1 
4.90 

•35,7 



.8t 
.8t,6 

•75.1 
.60,1 

•67,7 



1887. 



$0.35.9 
•73.7 



•72.7 

.72,7 

4^94.3 

.34,6 

•99.7 

•78,4 

•79 

•72.7 

• 58,2 

.65,6 



1888. 



$0.34.5 
.69,9 



69.9 
69.9 
69.9 
94.3 

32.2 
99.7 
75.3 
75.9 
69.9 
55.9 
63 



1889. 



$0.33.6 
.68 



68 
68 
68 
94.3 

32,3 

99,7 

73.4 

73,9 
68 

54.4 
61,4 



1890. 



$0.42 
•8S 



•85 

•85 

•85 

4.94,3 

•40,4 

•99,7 

•91,7 

.92,3 

•85 

.68 

•76,7 



*The silver standard prevailed in Austria-Hungary up to 1892. The law of August a of that year 
(see Consular Reports, No. 147, p. 623) established the gold standard. 
t The Egyptian pound became fixed in value at $4.94,3 in 1887. 
% The Netherlands florin fluctuated up to the year z88o, when it became fixed at 40.2 cents. 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 



C. — Quarterly valuations of fluctuating currencies. 



Countries. 



Bolivia 

Central Amer- 
ica.* 



Chinat...» 

Colombia . 
Ecuador... 

India 

Japant 

Mexico 

Persia 

Peru. 

Russia^.... 
Tripoli 



Monetary unit. 



Silver boliviano. 
Silver peso 



Shanghai tael.... 
Haikwan tael.... 

Tientsin tael 

Chefoo tael 

Silver peso. 

Ao 

Silver rupee 

Silver yen 

Silver dollar 

Silver kran. 

Silver sol 

Silver ruble 

Silver mahbub... 



1894. 



Jan. I. 



.76,2 
.84,9 



•51.6 
.51.6 

.24,5 
.55.6 

.56 



.51.6 
.46,5 



April I. 



I0.46.5 
.46.5 

.68.6 
.76,5 



.46.5 

.46.5 
.22,1 

•50,1 

.50.5 



.46.5 
•37.2 
.41.9 



July 



Oct. 



|o-45.7 
•45.7 

.67,6 
•75.3 



.45.7 
•45.7 

.21,7 

•49.3 
.49.7 



■45.7 
,36,6 

■41.3 



|o^46.4 
•46.4 

.68.5 
•76,3 
•72,7 
•7».7 
•46.4 
.46.4 
.22 

•50 
.50,4 



•46,4 

•37.* 
.41,8 



1895. 



Jan. I. 



I045.5 
•45.5 

.67,3 
•74.9 
•7«.4 
•70,4 
•45.5 
•45.5 

.21,6 

•49.1 
•49.5 



•45.5 

•36.4 
.41,1 



April I, 



|o^44.i 
•44.* 

.65.2 
•75.6 
.69,2 

.68.3 
•44.1 
•44,1 
.21 

.47.6 
•47.9 



•44.1 
•35.3 
•39.8 



July I. 



$0.48,6 
.48,6 

.71,8 

.80 

.76,1 

.75,1 
.48,6 
.48,6 
.23.' 
•52.4 
.52,8 
.08,9 
.48,6 

•38.9 
•43.8 



Oct. 1. 



$0.48,6 
.48,6 

.71,8 

.80 

.76,2 

•75.2 
.48,6 
.48,6 
.23.1 

• 52,4 

• 52,8 
.09 
.48,6 
.38,9 
•43,8 



Countries. 



Bolivia 

Central America*. 



Chinat. 



Colombia . 
Ecuador... 

India 

Japan^ 

Mexico 

Persia 

Peru 

Russia^.... 
Tripoli 



Monetary unit. 



1896. 



Jan. I. 



Silver boliviano, 

Silver peso 

Amoy tael 

Canton lael 

Chefoo tael 

Chinkiang tael.. 

Fuchau tael 

Haikwan tael.... 

Hankow tael 

Ninfifpo tael 

Niuchwang tael. 
Shanghai tael.... 

Swatow tael 

Takao Uel 

Tientsin tael 

Silver peso. 

do 

Silver rupee 

Silver yen 

Silver dollar 

Silver kran 

Silver sol 

Silver ruble 

Silver mahbub... 



$t>.49.i 
•49.1 



75,9 



.80,8 



.72,5 



April I. 



July I. 



$^•49. 3 
•49.3 



$0.49.7 
.49.7 



•76.3 



.81,2 



72,9 



.76,9 


•77.3 


.78 


•49.1 


•49.3 


•49.7 


•49.1 


•49.3 


•49.7 


•23,3 


•23.4 


•23.6 


•52.9 


.53,2 


•53.2 


■53.3 


.53.6 


•54 


.09 


.09,1 


.09,2 


•49.1 


•49,3 


•49.7 


•39.3 


.39,5 


• 39,8 


•44.3 


•44.5 


.44,9 



.76,9 



.81,9 



•73,5 



Oct. 



1897. 



Jan. I. 



April I. 



49 

49 

79.3 

79 

75,8 

77.4 

73.3 
80,6 

74.2 
76,2 

74.3 
72,4 
73,2 
79,8 
76,8 

49 
49 
23.3 
52,8 

53,2 

09 

49 

39.2 

44.2 



$o^47,4 
•47,4 
•76.7 
.76.5 
•73.3 

•74,9 
.70,9 

.78 
7'. 7 
•73.7 

•71.9 
.70 

.70,8 
•77.2 
•74.3 
•47.4 
•47.4 
.22,5 

• 51. 1 
•5».5 
.08,7 

•47.4 
•37.9 



$0.46,8 
•46.5 
•75.7 
•75.5 
•72,4 
•73.9 
.70 

•77 

.70,8 

.72.8 

•7» 
.69,1 
.69,9 
.76,2 

•73.4 
.46,8 
.46,8 
.22,2 

•50.5 
•50,8 
.08,6 
.46,8 
•37.4 



July I. 



$0.44.3 
•44.3 
•7«,7 
•7»,5 
.68,6 
.70 
.66,3 

•73. » 
.67,1 

.68,9 

.67,2 

.65.5 
.66,2 
.72,2 

•69.5 
•44.3 
•44,3 



.48,2 
.08,2 
•44.3 



* Costa Rica and British Honduras have the gold standard (see table showing countries with 
fixed currencies). 

t China (silver). The haikwan tael is the customs tael. The ** British dollar" has the same legal 
value as the Mexican dollar in Hongkong, the Straits Settlements, and Labuan. 

$ Japan has adopted the gold standard (see Consular Rbi'ukts No. 201, p. 259). 

(The Treasury Department, in its estimates of foreign values for the quarter ended July z, 1897, 
gives Russia the gold standard, and in a footnote says: **Gold is the nominal standard, silver practi- 
cally the standard." To appreciate the complicated state of Russian currency, sec Consular Re- 
ports No. 188, pp. 34-40, and Special Consular Reports, Money and Prices in Foreign Countries, part 
2« PP^ 381-400. 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



The following table embraces only such weights and measures as 
are given from time to time in Consular Reports and in Commer- 
cial Relations: 

Foreign weights and measures^ itnth American equivalents. 



Denominations. 



Almude 

Ardcb 

Arc ^ 

Arobe 

Arratel or libra. 

Arroba (dry) 

Do 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Arroba (liquid) 

Arsfaine 

Arshine (square).. 

Artel 

Baril 

Barrel 

Do 

Berkovcts 

Bong^kal 

Bouw 

Bu..- 

Butt (wine).~ 

Caflliso... 

Candy 

Do 

Cantar.^ 

Do 

Do 

Cantaro (cantarX* 

Carira 

Catty 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Centaro 

Centner 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Chth... 

Coyan.^ 

Do 



Where used. 



American equivalents. 



Portugal 

Egypt 

Metric 

Paraguay 

Portugal 

Argentine Republic 

Brazil 

Cuba 

Portugal... 

Spain 

Venezuela 

Cuba, Spain, and Venezuela. 

Russia 

xlo 

Morocco 

Argentine Republic and Mexico. 

Malta (customs) 

Spain (raisins) 

Russia— 

India 

Sumatra 

Japan 

Spain 

Malu 

India (Bombay) 

India (Madras) 

Morocco 

Syria (Damascus). 

Turkey 

Malta 

Mexico and Salvador 

China 

Japan 

Java, Siam, and Malacca... 

Sumatra 

Central America 

Bremen and Brunswick. 

Darmstadt 

Denmark and Norway 

Niiremberg 

Prussia 

Sweden 

Vienna , 

Zollverein 

Double or metric 

China 

Sarawak , 

Siam (Koyan) 



4.42a gallons. 

7.6907 bushels. 

0.02471 acre. 

25 pounds. 

z.oii pounds. 

25-3'75 pounds. 

32.38 pounds. 

25.3664 pounds. 

32.38 pounds. 

25.36 pounds. 

25.4024 pounds. 

4.263 gallons. 

28 inches. 

5.44 square feet. 

1. 12 pounds. 

20.0787 gallons. 

1 1. 4 gallons. 

zoo pounds. 

361.12 pounds. 

832 grains. 

7,og6. 5 square meters. 

o.i inch. 

140 gallons. 

5.4 gallons. 

529 pounds. 

500 pounds. 

1 13 pounds. 

575 pounds. 

124.7036 pounds. 

175 pounds. 

300 pounds. 

i.333M(»54) pounds. 

1.31 pounds. 

X.35 pounds. 

2.12 pounds. 

4.2631 gallons. 

1x7.5 pounds. 

I to. 24 pounds. 

no. II pounds. 

112.43 pounds. 

113.44 pounds. 
93.7 pounds. 
123.5 pounds. 
110.24 pounds. 
220.46 pounds. 
14 inches. 
3,098 pounds. 
2,667 pounds. 



XII 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Foreign weights and measures^ with American equivalents — Continued. 



Denominations. 



Cuadra. 

Da.. 

Do 

Do 

Cubic meter 

Cwt. (hundredweis^ht) 

Dessiatine 

Do 

Drachma 

Dun 

Egyptian weis^hts and measures.... 
Fanega (dry). 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Fanega (liquid). 

Feddan 

Frail (raisins).... 
Frasca.. 

Do 

Fudcr 

Garnice 

Gram 

Hectare 

Hectoliter: 

Dry 

Liquid 

Joch 

Ken 

Kilogram (kilo).. 

Kilometer 

Klafter 

Kou 

Korree 

Last 

Do 

Do 



Do 

Do 

Do 

League (land). 

Li 

Libra (pound). 

Do 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Liter 

Livre (pound). 

Do..« 



Where used. 



Argentine Republic 

Paraguay 

Paraguay (square) 

Uruguay 

Metric 

British 

Russia 

Spain. 

Greece , 

Japan 

i^See Consular Reports No. 144.) 

Central America 

Chile. '. 

Cuba 

Mexico 

Morocco 



Uruguay (double).... 

Uruguay (single) 

Venezuela 

Spain 

Egypt 

Spain. 

Argentine Republic. 

Mexico 

Luxemburg. 

Russian Poland 

Metric 

Ao 



Ao 

Aq 

Austria-Hungary 

Japan 

Metric 

.do 

Russia 

Japan. 

Russia 

Belgium and Holland. 
England (dry malti.... 
Germany 



Prussia 

Russian Poland 

Spain (salt) 

Paraguay 

China 

Castilian 

Argentine Republic 

Central America 

Chile 

Cuba 

Mexica 

Peru 

Portugal. 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Metric 

Greece... 

Guiana.. 



American equivalents. 




4.2 acres. 
78.9 yards. 
8.077 square feet. 
Nearly 2 acres. 
35.3 cubic feet. 
Z12 pounds. 
a.6997 acres. 
Z.599 bushels. 
Half ounce. 

1 inch. 

1*5745 bushels. 

a. 575 bushels. 

Z.5Q9 bushels. 

Z.S4728 bushels. 

Strike fanega, 70 lbs.; 
full fanega, zi8 lbs. 

7.776 bushels. 

3.888 bushels. 

t.599 bushels. 

16 gallons. 

1.03 acres. 
50 pounds. 
2.5096 quarts. 
2.5 quarts. 
264.17 gallons. 
0.88 gallon. 
15-43^ grains. 
a.471 acres. 

2.838 bushels. 
26.417 gallons. 
1.422 acres. 
4 yards. 
2.2046 pounds. 
0.621376 mile. 
2x6 cubic feet. 
5.13 bushels. 
3.5 bushels. 
85.134 bushels. 
82.52 bushels. 

2 metric tons (4,480 
pounds). 

112.29 bushels. 

wyi bushels. 

4,760 pounds. 

4,633 acres. 

2,115 feet. 

7,100 grains (troy) 

1.0127 pounds. 

Z.043 pounds. 

1.0x4 pounds. 

x.oi6x pounds. 

1.0146s pounds. 

X.0143 pounds. 

x.oxi pounds. 

1.0x43 pounds. 

i.oi6x pounds. 

1-0567 quarts. 

i.z pounds. 

1.079Z pounds. 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



XIII 



Foreign weights and measures^ with American equivalents — Continued. 



Denominations. 



Load....~. 



Manxana... 

Marc ' 

Maund 

Meter 

Mil 

Do 

Morgen 

Okc 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Pic 

Picul 

Do 

Do 

Do .~ 

Do... 

Pie 

Do 

Pit ... 

Pood 

Pund (pound) 

Qoarter 

Do 

QuinuL 

Do 

Do... 

Do.~ 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do- 

Rottlc 

Do... 

Sagen 

Salm 

Se 

Seer 

Shaku 

Sho 

Sundard (St. Petersburg). 

Stone. 

Suerte 



TaeU 

Tan 

Ta.. 

Ton 

Tonde (cereals). 

Tondeland 

Tsubo 

Tsun. 

Tonna 

Tunnland 

Vara 

Do 

Do 



Where used. 



England (timber).. 



Costa Rica 

Bolivia 

India 

Metric 

Denmark. 

Denmark (geographical) 

Prussia 

Egypt 

Greece 

Hungary 

Turkey 

Hungary and Wallachia 

Egypt 

Borneo and Celebes. 

China, Japan, and Sumatra 

Java 

Philippine Islands (hemp) 

Philippine Islands (sugar) , 

Argentine Republic 

Castile , 

Turkey , 

Russia , 

Denmark and Sweden 

Great Britain. , 

London (coal) 

Argentine Republic , 

Brazil 

Castile, Chile, Mexico, and Peru. 

Greece 

Newfoundland (fish) 

Paraguay 

Syria... 

Metric 

Palestine 

Syria 

Russia 

Malu 

Japan 

India 

Japan 

^o 

Lumber measure 

British 

Uruguay 



Cochin China 

Japan 

^o 

Space measure 

Denmark 

^o 

Japan. 

China 

Sweden. 

jAo 

Argentine Republic. 

Castile 

Central America 



American equivalents. 



Square, 50 cubic feet; 
unhewn, ao cubic feet; 
inch planks, 600 super- 
ficial feet. 

if acres. 

0.507 pound. 

82I pounds. 

39.37 inches. 

4.68 miles. 

4.61 miles. 

0.63 acre. 

2.7225 pounds. 

2.84 pounds. 

3.08x7 pounds. 

2.854x8 pounds. 

2.5 pints. 
^1% inches. 
135.64 pounds. 
»33M pounds. 
135. X pounds. 
'39*45 pounds. 
140 pounds. 
0.9478 foot. 
0.9x407 foot. 
27.9 inches. 
36.1x2 pounds. 
X.X02 pounds. 
8.252 bushels. 
36 bushels. 
XOX.42 pounds. 
130.06 pounds. 
xox.6z pounds. 
123.2 pounds. 
ZX2 pounds, 
xoo pounds. 
Z25 pounds. 
220.46 pounds. 

6 pounds. 
syi pounds. 

7 feet. 

490 pounds. 

3.6 feet. 

X pound 13 ounces. 

xo inches. 

X.6 quarts. 

X65 cubic feet. 

X4 pounds. 

2,700 cuadras (see cua- 
dra). 

590.75 grains (troy). 

0.25 acre. 

2 pecks. 

40 cubic feet. 

3.94783 bushels. 

X.36 acres. 

6 feet square. 

Z.4X inches. 

4.5 bushels. 

X.22 acres. 

34.1208 inches. 

0.914x17 yard. 

38.874 inches. 



XIV 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Foreign weights and measures^ with American equivalents — Continued. 



Denominations. 


Where used. 


American equivalents. 


Vara 


Chile and Peru 


33.367 inches. 
33.384 inches. 
33.375 inches. 

33 inches. 

34 inches. 
33.384 inches, 
a. 707 gallons. 
71.1 square rods. 
0.663 mile. 
41.98 acres. 


Do 


Cuba 


Do 


Curacao 


Do 


Mexico 


Do 


Paramiav 


Do 


Venezuela 


Vedro 


Russia 


Vergees. 


Isle of Tersev 


Verst. 


Russia 


Vlocka 


Russian Poland 







METRIC WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Metric weights. 

Milligram (ji^ gram) equals 0.0154 grain. 

Centigram (y^i^ gram) equals 0.1543 grain. 

Decigram (-j^ gram) equals 1.5432 grains. 

Gram equals 15.432 grains. 

Decagram (10 grams) equals 0.3527 ounce. 

Hectogram (100 grams) equals 3.5274 ounces. 

Kilogram (1,000 grams) equals 2.2046 pounds. 

Myriagram (10,000 grams) equals 22.046 pounds. 

Quintal (100,000 grams) equals 220.46 pounds. 

Millier or tonnea — ton (1,000,000 grams) equals 2,204.6 pounds. 

Metric dry. measures. 

Milliliter (yinnj liter) equals 0.061 cubic inch. 
Centiliter (^iu liter) equals 0.6102 cubic inch. 
Deciliter (^ liter) equals 6. 1022 cubic inches. 
Liter equals 0.908 quart. 
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 9.08 quarts. 
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 2.838 bushels. 
Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 1.308 cubic yards. 

Metric liquid measures. 

Milliliter (x^ liter) equals 0.0388 fluid ounce. 

Centiliter (pjj^ liter) equals 0.338 fluid ounce. 

Deciliter (y^ liter) equals 0.845 gj^l- 

Liter equals 1.0567 quarts. 

Decaliter (10 liters) equals 2.6418 gallons. 

Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 26.418 gallons. 

Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 264.18 gallons. 

Metric measures of length. 

Millimeter (nftnF meter) equals 0.0394 inch. 
Centimeter (y^ meter) equals 0.3937 inch. 
Decimeter (^ meter) equals 3.937 inches. 
Meter equals 39.37 inches. 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. XV 

Decameter (lo meters) equals 393.7 inches. 

Hectometer (100 meters) equals 328 feet i inch. 

Kilometer (1,000 meters) equals 0.62137 mile (3,280 feet 10 inches). 

Myriameter (10,000 meters) equals 6.2137 miles. 

Metric surface measures, 

Centare (i square meter) equals 1,550 square inches. 
Are (100 square meters) equals 119. 6 square yards. 
Hectare (10,000 square meters) equals 2.471 acres. 



f 



CONSUI^AR RKPORXS- 



COMMERCE MANUFACTURES, ETC. 



Vol. LV. OCTOBER, 1897. No. 205. 



YUKON GOLD REGION: CANADA'S MINING REG- 
ULATIONS. 

Referring to Department's instruction dated August ii, 1897, I 
have the honor to inclose herewith copies, in duplicate, of the regula- 
tions governing placer mining on the Yukon River, issued by the 

Canadian Government. 

Charles E. Turner, 

Ottawa, A ugust 14, iSpy. Consul- General, 



Regulations Governing Placer Mining Along the Yukon River and its Trib- 
utaries IN THE Northwest Territories. 

[Approved by order in council No. 1189, of May 21, 1897, as amended.] 

INTERPRETATION. 

**Bar diggings" shall mean any part of a river over which the water extends 
when the water is in its flooded state and which is not covered at low water. 

Mines on benches shall be known as *' bench diggings," and shall, for the pur- 
pose of defining the size of such claims, be excepted from dry diggings. 

**Dry diggings" shall mean any mine over which a river never extends. 

** Miner" shall mean a male or female over the age of 18, but not under that age. 

'* Claim" shall mean the personal right of property in a placer mine or diggings 
during the time for which the grant of such mine or diggings is made. 

** Legal post" shall mean a stake standing not less than 4 feet above the ground 
and squared on four sides for at least i foot from the top. Both sides so squared 
shall measure at least 4 inches across the face. It shall also mean any stump or 
tree cut off and squared or faced to the above height and size. 

** Close season" shall mean the period of the year during which placer mining 
is generally suspended, the period to be fixed by the gold commissioner in whose 
district the claim is situated. 

•* Locality" shall mean the territory along a river (tributary of the Yukon River) 
and its affluents. 

" Mineral" shall include all minerals whatsoever other than coal. 

No. 205 1. \AS 



146 YUKON GOLD REGION: MINING REGULATIONS. 

NATURE AND SIZE OF CLAIMS. 

(i) " Bar diggings," a strip of land 100 feet wide at high-water mark and thence 
extending into the river to its lowest water level. 

(2) The sides of a claim for bar digging shall be two parallel lines run as nearly 
as possible at right angles to the stream and shall be marked by four legal posts, 
one at each end of the claim at or about high-water mark; also, one at each end of 
the claim at or about the edge of the water. One of the posts at high-water mark 
shall be legibly marked with the name of the miner and the date upon which the 
claim was staked. 

(3) Dry diggings shall be 100 feet square and shall have placed at each of its 
four corners a legal post, upon one of which shall be legibly marked the name of 
the miner and the date upon which the claim was staked. 

(4) Creek and river claims shall be 500 feet long, measured in the direction of 
the general course of the stream, and shall extend in width from base to base of the 
hill or bench on each side; but when the hills or benches are less than 100 feet apart, 
the claim may be 100 feet in depth. The sides of a claim shall be two parallel lines 
run as nearly as possible at right angles to the stream. The sides shall be marked 
with legal posts at or about the edge of the water and at the rear boundaries of the 
claim. One of the legal posts at the stream shall be legibly marked with the name 
of the miner and the date upon which the claim was staked.* 

(5) A bench claim shall be 100 feet square, and shall have placed at each of its 
four corners a legal post, upon which shall be legibly marked the name of the miner 
and the date upon which the claim was staked. 

(6) Entry shall only be granted for alternate claims, the other alternate claims 
being reserved for the Crown, to be disposed of at public auction or in such manner 
as may be decided by the Minister of the Interior. 

The penalty for trespassing upon a claim reserved for the Crown shall be im • 
mediate cancellation by the gold commissioner of any entry or entries which the 
person trespassing may have obtained, whether by original entry or purchase, for a 
mining claim, and the refusal by the gold commissioner of the acceptance of any 
application which the person trespassing may at any time make for a claim. In 
addition to such penalty, the mounted police, upon a requisition from the gold com 
missioner to that effect, shall take the necessary steps to eject the trespasser. 

(7) In defining the size of claims, they shall be measured horizontally, irrespec- 
tive of inequalities on the surface of the ground. 

(8) If any person or persons shall discover a new mine and such discovery shall 
be established to the satisfaction of the gold commissioner, a creek and river claim 
750 feet in length may be granted. 

A new stratum of auriferous earth or gravel situated in a locality where the 
claims are abandoned shall, for this purpose, be deemed a new mine, although 
the same locality shall have been previously worked at a different level. 

(9) The forms of application for a grant for placer mining and the grant of the 
same shall be those contained in Forms H and I in the schedule hereto. 

(10) A claim shall be recorded with the gold commissioner in whose district it 
is situated within three days after the location thereof if it is located within 10 



♦ NOTICE. 

Department of the Interior, 

Ottawa^ A ugust 7, iSQfJ. 

Clauses 4 and 8 of the rein^lations governing- placer mining on the Yukon River and its tributaries, 
in the Northwest Territories, are amended by reducing the length of a creek and river claim to 100 
feet and the length of a creek and river claim to be granted to the discoverer of a new mine to 300 feet 
The fee for a renewal of an entry for a claim has been reduced from $100 to $15. 



YUKON GOLD REGION: MINING REGULATIONS. I47 

miles of the commissioner's office. One extra day shall be allowed for making 
such record for every additional 10 miles or fraction thereof. 

(11) In the event of the absence of the gold commissioner from his qffice, entry 
for a claim may be granted by any person whom he may appoint to perform his 
duties in his absence. 

(12) Entry shall not be granted for a claim which has not been staked by the 
applicant in person in the manner specified in these regulations. An affidavit that 
the claim was staked out by the applicant shall be embodied in Form H of the 
schedule hereto. 

(13) An entry fee of $15 shall be charged the first year and an annual fee of 
$100 for each of the following years. This provision shall apply to locations for 
which entries have already been granted. 

(14) A royalty of 10 per cent on the gold mined shall be levied and collected by 
officers to be appointed for the purpose, provided the amount so mined and taken 
from a single claim docs not exceed $500 per week. In case the amount mined 
and taken from any single claim exceeds $500 per week, there shall be levied and 
collected a royalty of 10 percent upon the amount so taken out up to $500, and upon 
the excess, or amount taken from any single claim over $500 per week, there shall 
be levied and collected a royalty of 20 per cent, such royalty to form part of the con- 
solidated revenue and to be accounted for by the officers who collect the same in 
due course. The time and manner in which such royalty shall be collected and 
the persons who shall collect the same shall be provided for by regulations to be 
made by the gold commissioner. 

Default in payment of such royalty, if continued for ten days after notice has 
been posted upon the claim in respect of which it is demanded or in the vicinity 
of such claim by the gold commissioner or his agent, shall be followed by cancel- 
lation of the claim. Any attempt to defraud the Crown by withholding any part 
of the revenue thus provided for, by making false statements of the amount taken 
out, shall be punished by cancellation of the claim in respect of which fraud or 
false statements have been committed or made. In respect of the facts as to such 
fraud or false statements or nonpayment of royalty, the decision of the gold com- 
missioner shall be final. 

(15) After the recording of a claim, the removal of any post by the holder 
thereof or by any person acting in his behalf for the purpose of changing the bound- 
aries of his claim shall act as a forfeiture of the claim. 

(16) The entry of every holder of a grant for placer mining must be renewed 
and his receipt relinquished and replaced every year, the entry fee being paid each 
time. 

(17) No miner shall receive a grant of more than one mining claim in the same 
locality, but the same miner may hold any number of claims by purchase and any 
number of miners may unite to work their claims in common upon such terms as 
they may arrange, provided such agreement be registered with the gold commis- 
sioner and a fee of $5 paid for each registration. 

(18) Any miner or miners may sell, mortgage, or dispose of his or their claims, 
provided such disposal be registered with, and a fee of $2 paid to, the gold commis- 
sioner, who shall thereupon give the assignee a certificate in Form J in the schedule 
hereto. 

(19) Every miner shall, during the continuance of his grant, have the exclusive 
right of entry upon his own claim for the miner-like working thereof and the con- 
struction of a residence thereon, and shall be entitled exclusively to all the proceeds 
realized therefrom, upon which, however, the royalty prescribed by clause 14 of 
these regulations shall be payable, but he shall have no surface rights therein; and 
the gold commissioner may grant to the holders of adjacent claims such right of 



148 YUKON GOLD REGION: MINING REGULATIONS. 

entry thereon as may be absolutely necessary for the working of their claims upon 
such terms as may to him seem reasonable. He may also grant permits to miners 
to cut timber thereon for their own use upon payment of the dues prescribed by 
the regulations in that behalf. 

(20) Every miner shall be entitled to the use of so much of the water naturally 
flowing through or past his claim and not already lawfully appropriated as shall, in 
the opinion of the gold commissioner, be necessary for the due working thereof, 
and shall be entitled to drain his own claim free of charge. 

(21) A claim shall be deemed to be abandoned and open to occupation and entry 
by any person when the same shall have remained unworked on working days by 
the grantee thereof or by some person on his behalf for the space of seventy-two 
hours,* unless sickness or other reasonable cause be shown to the satisfaction of 
the gold commissioner or unless the grantee is absent on leave given by the com- 
missioner, and the gold commissioner, upon obtaining evidence satisfactory to him- 
self that this provision is not being complied with, may cancel the entry given for 
a claim. 

(22) If the land upon which a claim has been located is not the property of the 
Crown it. will be necessary for the person who applied for entry to furnish proof 
that he has acquired from the owner of the land the surface rights before entry can 
be granted. 

(23) If the occupier of the land has not received a patent therefor, the purchase 
money of the surface rights must be paid to the Crown, and a patent of the surface 
rights will issue to the party who acquired the mining rights. The money so col- 
lected will either be refunded to the occupier of the land when he is entitled to a 
patent therefor or will be credited to him on account of payment for land. 

(24) When the party obtaining the mining rights to lands can not make an ar- 
rangement with the owner or his agent or the occupant thereof for the acquisition 
of the surface rights, it shall be lawful for him to give notice to the owner or his 
agent or the occupier to appoint an arbitrator to act with another arbitrator named 
by him, in order to award the amount of compensation to which the owner or oc- 
cupant shall be entitled. The notice mentioned in this section shall be according 
to a form to be obtained upon application from the gold commissioner for the dis- 
trict in which the lands in question lie, and shall, when practicable, be personally 
served on such owner, or his agent if known, or occupant; and after reasonable 
efforts have been made to effect personal service, without success, then such notice 
shall be served by leaving it at, or sending by registered letter to, the last place of 
abode of the owner, agent, or occupant. Such notice shall be served upon the 
owner or agent within a period to be fixed by the gold commissioner before the ex- 
piration of the time limited in such notice. If the proprietor refuses or declines to 
appoint an arbitrator, or when, for any other reason, no arbitrator is appointed by 
the proprietor in the time limited therefor in the notice provided for by this section, 
the gold commissioner for the district in which the lands in question lie shall, on 
being satisfied by affidavit that such notice has come to the knowledge of such 
owner, agent, or occupant, or that such owner, agent, or occupant willfully evades 
the service of such notice, or can not be found, and that reasonable efforts have 
been made to effect such service and that the notice was left at the last place of 
abode of such owner, agent, or occupant, appoint an arbitrator on his behalf. 

(25) («) All the arbitrators appointed under the authority of these regulations 
shall be sworn before a justice of the peace to the impartial discharge of the duties 
assigned to them, and they shall forthwith proceed to estimate the reasonable dam- 
ages which the owner or occupants of such lands, according to their several interests 
therein, shall oustain by reason of such prospecting and mining operations. 

* Seventy-two hours means three consecutive days of twenty-four hours each. 



YUKON GOLD REGION: MININC; REGULATIONS. I49 

(^) In estimating such damages the arbitrators shall determine the value of the 
land irrespectively of any enhancement thereof from the existence of minerals 
therein. 

(c) In case such arbitrators can not agree, they may select a third arbitrator, and 
when the two arbitrators can not agree upon a third arbitrator, the gold commis- 
sioner for the district in which the lands in question lie shall select such third 
arbitrator. 

{(/) The award of any two such arbitrators made in writing shall be final, and 
shall be filed with the gold commissioner for the district in which the lands lie. 

If any cases arise for which no provision is made in these regulations, the pro- 
visions of the regulations governing the disposal of mineral lands other than coal 
lands, approved by his excellency the governor in council on the 9th of November, 
1889, shall apply. 



FORM H. 

Application for grant for placer mining and aj^avit of applicant. 

I (or we), , of , hereby apply, under the Dominion mining reg- 
ulations, for a grant of a claim for placer mining as defined in the said regulations 
in (here describe locality) and I (or we) solemnly swear : 

(i) That I (or we) have discovered therein a deposit of (here name the metal or 
mineral). 

(2) That I (or we) am (or are), to the best of my (or our) knowledge and belief, 
the first discoverer (or discoverers) of the said deposit ; or, 

(3) That the said claim was previously granted to (here name the last grantee), 
but has remained unworked by the said grantee for not less than . 

(4) That I (or we) am (or are) unaware that the land is other than vacant Do- 
minion land. 

(5) That I (or we) did, on the day of , mark out on the ground, in ac- 
cordance in every particular with the provisions of the mining regulations for the 
Yukon River and its tributaries, the claim for which I (or we) make this application, 
and that in so doing I (or we) did not encroach on any other claim or mining loca- 
tion previously laid out by any other person. 

(6) That the said claim contains, as nearly as I (or we) could measure or estimate, 

an area of square feet, and that the description (and sketch, if any) of this date 

hereto attached, signed by me (or us), sets (or set) forth in detail, to the best of my 
(or our) knowledge and ability, its position, form, and dimensions. 

(7) That I (or we) niake this application in good faith, to acquire the claim for 
the sole purpose of mining, to be prosecuted by myself (or us) or by myself and 
associates, or by my (or our) assigns. 

Sworn before me at , this day of , 18 

(Signature.) . 



FORM I. 

Grant for placer mining. 

No. . Department of the Interior, 

Agency^ , 18 . 

In consideration of the payment of the fee prescribed by clause 13 of the mining 

regulations for the Yukon River and its tributaries, by , of , 

accompanying his (or their) application No. , dated , 18 , for a mining 

claim in (here insert description of locality). 



150 YUKON GOLD REGION: MINING REGULATIONS. 

The Minister of the Interior hereby grants to the said , for the term 

of one year from the date hereof, the exclusive right of entry upon the claim (here 
describe in detail the claim granted) for the miner-like working thereof and the 
construction of a residence thereon, and the exclusive right to all the proceeds re- 
alized therefrom, upon which, however, the royalty prescribed by clause 14 of the 
regulations shall be paid. 

The said shall be entitled to the use of so much of the water nat- 
urally flowing through or past his (or their) claim, and not already lawfully appro- 
priated, as shall be necessary for the due working thereof and to drain his (or their) 
claim, free of charge. 

This grant does not convey to the said any surface rights in the 

said claim or any right of ownership in the soil covered by the said claim ; and 
the said grant shall lapse and be forfeited unless the claim is continuously and in 
good faith worked by the said or his (or their) associates. 

The rights hereby granted are those laid down in the aforesaid mining regula- 
tions, and no more, and are subject to all the provisions of the said regulations, 
whether the same are expressed herein or not. 



Gold Commissioner. 



FORM J. 

Certificate of the assignment of a placer mining claim. 

No. . Department of the Interior, 

Agency, , 18 . 

This is to certify that , of , has (or have) filed an assignment 

in due form dated , 18 , and accompanied by a registration fee of $2, of the 

grant to , of , of the right to mine in (insert description of claim) 

for one year from the , 18 

This certificate entitles the said to all the rights and privileges of 

the said in respect to the claim assigned, that is to say, to the exclu- 
sive right of entry upon the said claim for the miner-like working thereof and the 
construction of a residence thereon and the exclusive right to all the proceeds real- 
ized therefrom (upon which, however, the royalty prescribed by clause 14 of the 
regulations shall be paid) for the remaining portion of the year for which the said 

claim was granted to the said — , that is to say, until the day 

of , 18 . 

The said shall be entitled to the use of so much of the water 

naturally flowing through or past his (or their) claim and not already lawfully ap- 
propriated as shall be necessary for the due working thereof and to drain the claim 
free of charge. 

This grant does not convey to the said any surface rights in the 

said claim or any right of ownership in the soil covered by the said claim; and 
the said grant shall lapse and be forfeited unless the claim is continuously and in 
good faith worked by the said or his (or their) associates. 

The rights hereby granted are those laid down in the Dominion mining regula- 
tions, and no more, and are subject to all the provisions of the said regulations, 
whether the same are expressed herein or not. 



Gold Commissioner. 
N. B. — The provisions of these regulations are liable to be changed at any time. 
Copies of the latest regulations may be obtained by applying to the Department of 
the Interior, Ottawa, Ontario, or to the gold commissioner at Cudahy, Yukon Dis- 
trict, Northwest Territories. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. I51 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. 

Following is the text of the new Canadian tariff, with index, as 
issued from the Customs Department, Ottawa, June 29, 1897: 

60-61 VICTORIA. 
Chap. 16. 

An Act to consolidate and amend the acts respecting the duties 

of customs. 

[Assented to 2gth June ^ 18^.^ 

Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Sen- 
ate and House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows: — 

1. This act may be cited as the customs tariff, 1897. Short title. 

2. In this act, and in any other act relating to customs, unless Tnterprctation. 
the context otherwise requires, — 

(a.) The initials "n. e. s." represent and have the meaning of "N. e. s." 
the words **not elsewhere specified"; 

{h.) The initials *' n. o. p." represent and have the meaning of *'N. o. p." 
the words **not otherwise provided for" ; 

{c.) The expression "gallon" means an imperial gallon; "Gallon." 

{d.) The expression '* ton " means two thousand pounds aver- "Ton." 
dupois; 

(«'.) The expression "proof" or "proof spirits," when applied "Proof" or "proof 
10 wines or spirits of any kind, means spirits of a strength equal ^^ '*' 
to that of pure ethyl alcohol compounded with distilled water in 
such proportions that the resultant mixture shall at a tempera- 
ture of sixty degrees Fahrenheit have a specific gravity of 0.9198 
as compared with that of distilled water at the same tempera- 
ture; 

(/.) The expression "gauge," when applied to metal sheets "Gauge." 
or plates or to wire, means the thickness as determined byStubbs's 
standard gauge; 

(f.) The expression "in diameter," when applied to tubing, "In diameter." 
means the actual inside diameter; 

{h.) The expression "sheet," when applied to metals, means "Sheet." 
a sheet or plate not exceeding three-sixteenths of an inch in 
thickness; 

(1.) The expression "plate," when applied to metals, means "Plate." 
a plate or sheet more than three-sixteenths of an inch in thick- 
ness. 

3. The expressions mentioned in section two of the customs Interpretation, 
act, as amended by section two of the customs amendment act, 

1888, whenever they occur herein or in any act relating to the 
customs, unless the context otherwise requires, have the mean- 
ing assigned to them respectively by the said sections two; and Saving ceruin power of 

. , , . ., , , governor in council, 

any power conferred upon the governor in council by the customs 

act to transfer dutiable goods to the list of goods which may be 
imported free of duty is not hereby abrogated or impaired. 

4. Subject to the provisions of this act and to the require- Duties in Schedule A 
ments of the customs act, chapter thirty-two of the revised stat- *™P***^- 



152 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 

utes, as amended, there shall be levied, collected and paid upon 
all goods enumerated, referred to as not enumerated, in Sched- 
ule A to this act, the several rates of duties of customs set forth 
and described in the said schedule and set opposite to each item 
respectively or charged thereon as not enumerated, when such 
goods are imported into Canada or taken out of warehouse for 
consumption therein. 
Goods free of duty. 5* Subject to the same provisions and to the further condi- 
tions contained in Schedule B to this act, all goods enumerated 
in the said Schedule B may be imported into Canada or may be 
taken out of warehouse for consumption in Canada without the 
payment of any duties of customs thereon. 
Prohibited goods. 6. The importation into Canada of any goods enumerated, 

described or referred to in Schedule C to this act, is prohibited; 
and any such goods imported shall thereby become forfeited to 
the Crown and shall be destroyed; and any person importing 
any such prohibited goods, or causing or permitting them to be 
imported, shall for each offense incur a penalty of two hundred 
dollars. 
Fish, etc., to be free 7* '^^^ whole or part of the duties hereby imposed upon fish 
States and NewfbunSu *"^ other products of the fisheries may be remitted as respects 
land. either the United States or Newfoundland, or both, upon procla- 

mation of the governor in council, which may be issued when- 
ever it appears to his satisfaction that the governments of the 
United States and Newfoundland, or either of them, have made 
changes in their tariffs of duties imposed upon articles imported 
from Canada, in reduction or repeal of the duties in force in the 
said countries respectively. 
ExDort of game pro- 8. The export of deer, wild turkeys, quail, partridge, prairie 

fowl and woodcock, in the carcase or parts thereof, is hereby de- 
clared unlawful and prohibited; and any person exporting or 
attempting to export any such article shall for each such offense 
incur a penalty of one hundred dollars, and the article so at- 
tempted to be exported shall be forfeited, and may, on reasona- 
ble cause of suspicion of intention to export, be seized by any 
officer of the customs, and, if such intention is proved, shall be 

As to export of carcase dealt with as for breach of the customs laws: Provided, that this 
of certain deer. 

section shall not apply to the export, under such regulations as 

are made by the governor in council, of any carcase or part thereof 
of any deer raised or bred by any person, company or association 
of persons upon his or their own lands. 
Molasses and sirups, 9. Regulations respecting the manner in which molasses and 
^eierm na on o u X gjj-^pg ghaji ^g sampled and tested for the purpose of determin- 
ing the classes to which they belong with reference to the duty 
chargeable thereon shall be made by the controller of customs, 
and the instruments and appliances necessary for such determi- 
nation shall be designated by him and supplied to such officers 
as are by him charged with the duty of sampling and testing 
such molasses and sirups; and the decision of any officer (to 
whom is so assigned the testing of such articles) as to the duties 
to which they are subject under the tariff shall be final and con- 
clusive, unless, upon appeal to the commissioner of customs 
within thirty days from the rendering of such decision, such 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 1 53 

decision is, with the approval of the controller, changed; and the 
decision of the commissioner with such approval shall be 
final. 

10. In the case of all wines, spirits, or alcoholic liquors sub- Wines, spirits, etc., dc- 
, ,. , . , . . , , , termination of duty on. 

ject to duty according to their relative strength of proof, such 

strength shall be ascertained either by means of Sykes's hydrom- 
eter or of the specific gravity bottle, as the controller of cus- 
toms directs; and in case such relative strength can not be 
correctly ascertained by the direct use of the hydrometer or 
gravity bottle, it shall be ascertained by the distillation of a 
sample and the subsequent test in like manner of the distillate. 

11. All medicinal or toilet preparations imported for com- Value for duty of me- 
pleting the manufacture thereof, or for the manufacture of any r^tiJJ^si^^j^rrecTfor*' 
other article by the addition of any ingredient or ingredients, "rtai" purposes. 

or by mixing such preparations, or by putting up or labeling 
the same, alone or with other articles or compounds under any 
proprietary or special name or trade-mark, shall be valued for 
duty under the provisions of subsection two of section sixty-hve 
of the customs act, as amended by section fifteen of chapter 
fourteen of the statutes of 1888. 

12. All medicinal preparations, whether chemical or other, Medicinal preparations 
usually imported with the name of the manufacturer, shall have 

the true name of such manufacturer and the place where they 
are prepared, and the word "alcoholic" or "nonalcoholic," 
permanently and legibly affixed to each parcel by stamp, label 
or otherwise; and all medicinal preparations imported without 
such names and word so affixed may be forfeited. 

13. Packages shall be subject to the following provisions: — Packages. 

(a.) All bottles, flasks, jars, demijohns, carboys, casks, hogs- 
heads, pipes, barrels, and all other vessels or packages, manu- 
factured of tin, iron, lead, zinc, glass or any other material 
capable of holding liquids, and all packages in which goods are 
commonly placed for home consumption, including cases, not 
otherwise provided for, in which bottled spirits, wines or malt 
liquors or other liquids are contained, and every package being 

the first receptacle or covering inclosing goods for the purpose 
of sale, shall in all cases, not otherwise provided for, in which 
they contain goods subject to an ad valorem duty or a specific and 
ad valorem duty, be charged with the same rate of ad valorem 
duty as is to be levied and collected on the goods they contain, 
and the value of the packages may be included in the value of 
such goods; 

{6.) All such packages as aforesaid containing goods subject 
to a specific duty only, and not otherwise provided for, shall be 
charged with a duty of twenty per cent ad valorem; 

(r.) Packages not hereinbefore specified, and not herein spe- 
cially charged with or declared liable to duty, and being the 
usual and ordinary packages in which goods are packed for ex- 
portation, according to the general usage and custom of trade, 
shall be free of duty; 

(d.) All such special packages or coverings as are of any use. 
or apparently designed for use other than in the importation of 
the goods they contain, shall be subject to the same rate of duty 



154 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. 

as would therein be levied if imported empty or separate from 

their contents; 

(f.) Packages (inside or outside) containing free goods shall be 

exempt from duty vfhen the packages are of such a nature that 

their destruction is necessary in order to release the goods. 

Penalty for having i^^ Any person who, without lawful excuse, the proof of 

blank invoice with cer- . 

tificate of correctness, which shall be on the person accused, sends or brings into 

Canada, or who, being in Canada, has in his possession, any 
billheading or other paper appearing to be a heading or blank 
capable of being filled up and used as an invoice, and bearing 
any certificate purporting to show, or which may be used to 
show, that the invoice which may be made from such billheading 
or blank is correct or authentic, is guilty of an indictable offense 
and liable to a penalty of five hundred dollars, and to imprison- 
ment for a term not exceeding twelve months, in the discretion 
of the court, and the goods entered under any invoice made 
from any such billheading or blank shall be forfeited. 

Affidavit of importer 25. With respect to goods imported for manufacturing pur- 
claiming lower rate of ^t_ ^ j • 't. 1 j ^u* ^r -e. 
duty on ceruin goods, poses that are admissible under this act for any specific purposes 

at a lower rate of duty than would otherwise be chargeable, or 
exempt from duty, the importer claiming such exemption from 
duty, or proportionate exemption from duty, shall make and 
subscribe to the following afiidavit or affirmation before the col- 
lector of customs at the port of entry, or before a notary public 
or a commissioner for taking affidavits: 

I, (name of importer) the undersigned, importer of the (names 
of the goods or articles) mentioned in this entry, do solemnly 
(swear or affirm) that such (names of the goods or articles) are 
imported by me for the manufacture of (names of the goods to be 
manufactured) in my own factory, situated at (name of the place, 
county and province), and that no portion of the same will be 
used for any other purpose or disposed of until so manufactured. 
'J94. c- a. x6. Nothing contained in the foregoing provisions shall affect 

IcK^, C. 3* 

the French treaty act, 1894, or chapter three of the statutes of 
1895, intituled an act respecting commercial treaties affecting 
Canada. 
Reciprocal tariff. ij. When the customs tariff of any country admits the prod- 
ucts of Canada on terms which, on the whole, are as favorable 
to Canada as the terms of the reciprocal tariff herein referred to 
are to the countries to which it may apply, articles which are the 
growth, produce, or manufacture of such country, when im- 
ported direct therefrom, may then be entered for duty, or taken 
out of warehouse for consumption in Canada, at the reduced 
rates of duty provided in the reciprocal tariff set forth in Sched- 
ule D to this act. 
Question as to its ap- 2. Any question arising as to the countries entitled to the 
p ica ion. benefits of the reciprocal tariff shall be decided by the controller 

of customs, subject to the authority of the governor in council. 
Application by virtue 3. The governor in council may extend the benefits of the 

reciprocal tariff to any country entitled thereto by virtue of a 
treaty with Her Majesty. 
Regulations. 4. The controller of customs may make such regulations as 
are necessary for carrying out the intention of this section. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. I 55 

18. Whenever the governor in council has reason to believe Trusts and combines, 
. , . . , , , . commissioners to in- 

that with regard to any article of commerce there exists any quire into. 

trust, combination, association, or agreement of any kind among 
manufacturers of such articles or dealers therein, to unduly en- 
hance the price of such article or in any other way to unduly 
promote the advantage of the manufacturers or dealers at the 
expense of the consumers, the governor in council may com- 
mission or empower any judge of the supreme court or ex- 
chequer court of Canada, or of any superior court in any province 
of Canada, to inquire in a summary way into and report to the 
governor in council whether such trust, combination, associa- 
tion or agreement exists. 

2. The judge may compel the attendance of witnesses and powers of commis- 

' "^ "' *^ sioncr. 

examine them under oath and require the production of books 

and papers, and shall have such other necessary powers as are 

conferred upon him by the governor in council for the purposes 

of such inquiry. 

3. If the judge reports that such trust, combination, associa- His report, and action 
tion or agreement exists, and if it appears to the governor in *''*"P*'"- 
council that such disadvantage to the consumers is facilitated by 

the duties of customs imposed on a like article, when imported, 
then the governor in council shall place such article on the free 
list, or so reduce the duty on it as to give to the public the benefit 
of reasonable competition in such article. 

zo. The following acts are hereby repealed: — The customs Repeal: 
tariff, 1894, being chapter thirty-three of the statutes of 1894; iSqs,' c! 24! 
chapter twenty-three of the statutes of 1895. intituled an act to ^^' *^' ®* 
amend the customs tariff, 1894; and chapter eight of the statutes 
of 1896, intituled an act further to amend the customs tariff, 1894. 

20. All orders in council and all departmental regulations Repeal of orders in 

. , , , . . , , . , . council, etc. 

inconsistent with any of the provisions of this act are hereby 

repealed. 

21. The foregoing provisions of this act shall be held to have Foregoing provisions 

, . , , ,...., deemed to take effect 

come into force on the twenty-third day of April, in the present on 23rd April, 1897. 

year one thousand eight hundred and ninety-seven, and to apply 
and to have applied to all goods imported or taken out of ware- 
house for consumption on or after the said day: Provided, that P/oyiso: as to change 
. J , . , . . . , of duty after that day 

m the case of goods which were imported or taken out of ware- and before passing of 

house for consumption, and on which duty was paid, on or after ' ***^ ' 
the twenty-third day of April, one thousand eight hundred and 
ninety-seven, in accordance with the rate of duty set forth as 
payable on such goods in the resolutions respecting the duties 
of customs introduced in the House of Commons on the twenty- 
second day of the said month, or in any such resolutions subse- 
quently introduced in the said House, the duty so paid shall not 
be affected, nor shall the person paying it be entitled to any re- 
fund or be liable to any further payment of duty, by reason of 
such rate of duty being altered by any resolution introduced 
subsequently to that in accordance with which such duty was 
paid and before the passing of this act. 



156 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 

SCHEDULE A. 
fiOODS SUBJECT TO Dl'TIKS. 

A/cs^ beers, ivines and liquors. 

1. Ale, beer and porter, when imported in casks or otherwise than in 

bottle, sixteen cents per gallon i6c. p. gall. 

2. Ale, beer and porter, when imported in bottles (six quart or 

twelve pint bottles to be held to contain one gallon), twenty- 
four cents per gallon 24c. p. gall. 

3. Cider, not clarified or refined, five cents per gallon 5c. p. gall. 

4. Cider, clarified or refined, ten cents per gallon loc. p. gall. 

5. Lime juice and fruit juices, fortified with or containing not more 

than twenty-five per cent of proof spirits, sixty cents per gallon; 60c. p. gall. 

and when containing more than twenty-five per cent of proof 

spirits, two dollars per gallon $2 p. gall. 

6. Lime juice and other fruit sirups and fruit juices, n. o. p., twenty 

per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

7. Spirituous or alcoholic liquors, distilled from any material, or con- 

taining or compounded from or with distilled spirits of any kind, 
and any mixture thereof with water, for every gallon thereof of 
the strength of proof, and when of a greater strength than that 
of proof, at the same rate on the increased quantity that there 
would be if the liquors were reduced to the strength of proof. 
When the liquors are of a less strength than that of proof, the 
duty shall be at a rate herein provided, but computed on a re- 
duced quantity of the liquors in proportion to the lesser degree 
of strength; provided, however, that no reduction in quantity 
shall be computed or made on any liquors below the strength 
of fifteen per cent under proof, but all such liquors shall be 
computed as of the strength of fifteen per cent under proof, as 
follows: — 
(<7.) Ethyl alcohol, or the substance commonly known as al- 
cohol, hydrated oxide of ethyl or spirits of wine; gin of 
all kinds, n. e. s. ; rum, whisky and all spirituous or al- 
coholic liquors, n. o. p.; amyl alcohol or fusel oil, or 
any substance known as potato spirit or potato oil; 
methyl alcohol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha, pyroxylic 
spirit or any substance known as wood spirit or methyl- 
ated spirits, absinthe, arrack or palm spirit, brandy, in- 
cluding artificial brandy and imitations of brandy; 
'^ cordials and liqueurs of all kinds, n. e. s. ; mescal, 

pulque, rum shrub, schiedam and other schnapps; tafia, 
angostura and similar alcoholic bitters or beverages, 

two dollars and forty cents per gallon $2.40 p. g^ll. 

{b.^ Spirits and strong waters of any kind, mixed with any 
ingredient or ingredients, as being or known or desig- 
nated as anodynes, elixirs, essences, extracts, lotions, 
tinctures or medicines, or medicinal wines (so called), 
or ethereal and spirituous fruit essences, n. e. s. , two dol- 
lars and forty cents per gallon and thirty per cent ad $2.40 p. gall. 

valorem and 30 p. c. 

(r.) Alcoholic perfumes and perfumed spirits, bay rum, cologne 
and lavender waters, hair, tooth and skin washes, and 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. I 57 

7. Spirituous or alcoholic liquors, etc. — Continued. 

other toilet preparations containing spirits of any kind, 
when in bottles or flasks containing not more than four 

ounces each, fifty per cent ad valorem 50 p. c. 

When in bottles, flasks or other packages, containing more 

than four ounces each, two dollars and forty cents per $2.40 p. gall, 
gallon and forty per cent ad valorem and 40 p. c. 

(</.) Nitrous ether, sweet spirits of niter and aromatic spirits 

of ammonia, two dollars and forty cents per gallon $2.40 p. gall, 
and thirty per cent ad valorem and 30 p. c. 

(r.) Vermouth containing not more than thirty-six per cent, 
and ginger wine containing not more than twenty-six 

per cent of proof spirits, ninety cents per gallon 90c. p. gall. 

If containing more than these percentages respectively of 

proof spirits, two dollars and forty cents per gallon $2.40 p. gall. 

{/.) Medicinal or medicated wines containing not more than 
forty per cent of proof spirits, one dollar and fifty cents 
per gallon $1.50 p. gall. 

8. Wines of all kinds, except sparkling wines, including orange, 

lemon, strawberry, raspberry, elder and currant wines, con- 
taining twenty-six per cent or less of spirits of the strength of 
proof, whether imported in wood or in bottles (six quart or 
twelve pint bottles to be held to contain a gallon), twenty-five 25c. p. gall. 
cents per gallon; and for each degree or fraction of a degree 
of strength in excess of the twenty-six per cent of spirits as 
aforesaid, an additional duty of three cents until the strength 3c. p. deg. 
reaches forty per cent of proof spirits; and in addition thereto, 
thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

9. Champagne and all other sparkling wines in bottles containing 

each not more than a quart but more than a pint, three dollars $3.30 p. doz. 
and thirty cents per dozen bottles; containing not more than 
a pint each, but more than one-half pint, one dollar and sixty- $1.65 p. doz. 
five cents per dozen bottles; containing one-half pint each or 
less, eighty-two cents per dozen bottles; bottles containing 82c. p. doz. 
more than one quart each shall pay, in addition to three dol- 
lars and thirty cents per dozen bottles, at the rate of one dollar $1.65 p. gall, 
and sixty-five cents per gallon on the quantity in excess of one 
quart per bottle, the quarts and pints in each case being old 
wine measure; in addition to the above specific duty there 

shall be an ad valorem duty of thirty per cent 30 p. c. 

TO. But any liquors imported under the name of wine, and contain- 
ing more than forty per cent of spirits of the strength of proof 
shall be rated for duty as unenumerated spirits. 

Animah, and agricultural^ animal and dairy products. 

11. Animals, living, n. e. s., twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

12. Live hogs, one and one-half cent per pound ijc. per lb. 

13. Meats, n. e. s. (when in barrel, the barrel to be free), two cents 

per pound 2c. per lb. 

14. Meats, fresh, n. e. s., three cents per pound 3c. per lb. 

15. Canned meats, and canned poultry and game, extracts of meats 

and fluid beef not medicated, and soups, twenty-five per cent 

ad valorem 25 p. c. 



158 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 

16. Mutton and lamb, fresh, thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

17. Poultry and game, n. o. p., twenty per. cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

1 8. Lard, lard compound and similar substances, cottolene and ani- 

mal stearin, of all kinds, n. e. s., two cents per pound 2c. per lb. 

19. Tallow and stearic acid, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

20. Beeswax, ten percent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

21. Candles, n. e. s., twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

22. Paraffin wax candles, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

23. Soap, common or laundry, one cent per pound ic. p. lb. 

24. Castile soap, mottled or white, two cents per pound 2c. p. lb. 

25. Soap, n. e. s., thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

26. Pearline and other soap powders, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

27. Glue, liquid, powdered or sheet, and mucilage, gelatin, and 

isinglass, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

28. Feathers, undressed, twenty percent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

29. Feathers, n. e. s., thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

30. Eggs, three cents per dozen 3c. p. doz. 

31. Butter, four cents per pound 4c. p. lb. 

32. Cheese, three cents per pound 3c. p. lb. 

33. Condensed milk (weight of the package to be included in the 

weight for duty), three and one-quarter cents per pound 3jc. p. lb. 

34. Condensed coffee with milk, milk foods and all similar prepara- 

tions, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

35. Apples, including the duty on the barrel, forty cents p^r barrel.. 40c. p. brl. 

36. Beans, fifteen cents per bushel 15c. p. bush. 

37. Buckwheat, ten cents per bushel loc. p. bush. 

38. Pease, n. e. s., ten cents per bushel loc. p. bush. 

39. Potatoes, n. e. s., fifteen cents per bushel 15c. p. bush. 

40. Rye, ten cents per bushel loc. p. bush. 

41. Rye flour, including the duty on the barrel, fifty cents per barrel.. 50c. p. brl. 

42. Hay, two dollars per ton $2 p. ton. 

43« Vegetables, n. o. p., twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

44. Barley, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

45. Dutiable breadstuffs, grain and flour and meal of all kinds, when 

damaged by water in transit, twenty per cent ad valorem on 
the appraised value, such appraised value to be ascertained as 
provided by sections 58,. 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75 and 76 of the 
customs act 20 p. c. 

46. Buckwheat, meal or flour, one-fourth of one cent per pound \c. p. lb. 

47. Corn meal, including the duty on the barrel, twenty-five cents 

per barrel 25c. p. brl. 

48. Indian corn for purposes of distillation, subject to regulations 

to be approved by the governor in council, seven and one-half 

cents per bushel 7jc. p. bush. 

49. Oats, ten cents per bushel loc. p. bush. 

50. Oatmeal, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

51. Rice, uncleaned, unhulled or paddy, one-half cent per lb Jc. p. lb. 

52. Rice, cleaned, one and one-quarter cent per pound i{c. p. lb. 

53. Rice and sago flour and sago, and tapioca, twenty-five per cent 

ad valorem 25 p. c. 

54. Rice, when imported by makers of rice starch for use in their 

factories in making starch, three-fourths of one cent per pound.. |c. p. lb. 

55. Wheat, twelve cents per bushel 12c. p. bush. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. I59 

56. Wheat flour, including the duty on the barrel, sixty cents per 

barrel 60c. p. brl. 

57. Biscuits not sweetened, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

58. Biscuits, sweetened, twenty-seven and one-half per cent ad 

valorem , 27^ p. c. 

5g. Macaroni and vermicelli, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

60. Starch, including farina, corn starch or flour and all preparations 

having the qualities of starch, the weight of the package to be 
in all cases included in the weight for duty, one and one-half 
cent per pound ijc. p. lb. 

61. Seeds, viz.: — garden, field and other seeds for agricultural or 

other purposes, n. o. p., sunflower, canary, hemp and millet 
seed, when in bulk or in large parcels, ten per cent ad valorem.. 10 p. c. 
When put up in small papers or parcels, twenty-five per cent ad 
valorem 25 p. c. 

62. Mustard, ground, twenty-five percent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

63. Mustard cake, fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

64. Sweet potatoes and yams, ten cents per bushel loc. p. bush. 

65. Tomatoes, fresh, twenty cents per bushel and ten per cent ad 20c. p. bush. 

valorem and 10 p. c. 

66. Tomatoes and other vegetables, including corn and baked beans, 

in cans or other packages, n. e. s., the weight of the cans or 
other packages to be included in the weight for duty, one and 
one-half cent per pound i^. p. lb. 

67. Pickles, sauces and catsups, including soy, thirty-five per cent 

ad valorem 35 p. c. 

68. Malt, upon entry for warehouse subject to excise regulations, 

fifteen cents per bushel 15c. p. bush. 

69. Extract of malt (nonalcoholic), for medicinal and baking pur- 

poses, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

70. Hops, six cents per pound 6c. p. lb. 

71. Compressed yeast, in bulk or mass of not less than fifty pounds, 

three cents per lb; in packages weighing less than fifty pounds, 3c. p. lb. 

six cents per pound ; the weight of the package in the latter 

case to be included in the weight for duty 6c. p. lb. 

72. Yeast cakes and baking powder, the weight of the packages to 

be included in the weight for duty, six cents per pound 6c. p. lb. 

73. Trees, viz.: — apple, cherry, peach, pear, plum and quince, of all 

kinds, and small peach trees known as June buds, three cents 

each 3c. each. 

74. Grape vines, gooseberry, raspberry, currant and rose bushes ; 

fruit plants, n. e. s., and shade, lawn and ornamental trees, 
shrubs and plants, n. e. s., twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

75. Blackberries, gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries, cherries 

and currants, n. e. s., the weight of the package to be included 

in the weight for duty, two cents per pound 2c. p. lb. 

76. Cranberries, plums and quinces, twenty-five per cent ad valorem.. 25 p. c. 

77. Prunes, including raisins, dried currants, and California or silver 

prunes, one cent per pound ic. p. lb. 

78. Apples, dried, desiccated or evaporated ; dates, figs, and other 

dried, desiccated or evaporated fruits, n. e. s., twenty-five per 

cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

79. Grapes, two cents per pound 2c. p. lb. 



^ 



l6o TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. 

80. Oranges, lemons and limes, in boxes of capacity not exceeding 

two and one-half cubic feel, twenty-five cents per box 25c. p. box. 

In one-half boxes, capacity not exceeding one and one-fourth 
cubic foot, thirteen cents per half box 13c. p. i box. 

In cases and all other packages, per cubic foot holding capac- 
ity, ten cents loc. p. cub. ft. 

In bulk, per one thousand oranges, lemons or limes, one dol- 
lar and fifty cents $1.50 p. M. 

In barrels, not exceeding in capacity that of the one hundred 
and ninety-six pounds flour barrel, fifty-five cents per barrel 55c. p. brl. 

81. Peaches, n. o. p., the weight of the package to be included in the 

weight for duty, one cent per pound... ic. p. lb. 

82. Fruits in air-tight cans or other packages, the weight of the cans 

or other packages to be included in the weight for duty, two 

and one-quarter cents per pound 2}c, p. lb. 

83. Fruits preserved in brandy, or preserved in other spirits, two 

dollars per gallon $2 p. gall. 

84. Preserved ginger, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

85. Jellies, jams and preserves, n. e. s., three and one-quarter cents 

per pound 3-l<:. p. lb. 

86. Honey, in the comb or otherwise, and imitations thereof, three 

cents per pound , 3c. p. lb. 

87. Tea and green coflfee, n. e. s., ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

88. Coflfee, roasted or ground, when not imported direct from the 

country of growth and production, two cents per pound and 2c. p. lb. and 
ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

89. Coflfee, roasted or ground, and all imitations thereof and substi- 

tutes therefor, including acorn nuts, n. o. p., two cents per 

pound 2c. p. lb. 

yo. Extract of coflfee, n. e. s., or substitutes therefor of all kinds, three 

cents per pound 3c. p. lb. 

91. Chicory, raw or green, three cents per pound 3c. p. lb. 

92. Chicory, kiln-dried, roasted or ground, four cents per pound 4c. p. lb. 

93. Cocoa shells and nibs, chocolate, and other preparations of cocoa 

n. e. s., twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

94. Cocoa paste, chocolate paste, cocosand cocoa butter, n. o. p., four 

cents per pound 4c. p. lb. 

95. Nuts, shelled, n. e. s., five cents per pound 5c. p. lb. 

96. Almonds, walnuts, Brazil nuts, pecans and shelled peanuts, 

n. e. s., three cents per pound 3c. p. lb. 

And nuts of all kinds, n. o. p., two cents per pound 2c. p. lb. 

97. Cocoanuts, n. e. s., one dollar per hundred $1 p. 100. 

98. Cocoanuts, when imported from the place of growth, by vessel, 

direct to a Canadian pgrt, fifty cents per hundred 50c. p. 100. 

99. Cocoanut, desiccated, sweetened or not, five cents per pound 5c. p. lb. 

100. Nutmegs and mace, twenty-five percent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

loi. Spices, viz.: — ginger and spices of all kinds, unground, n. e. s., 

twelve and one-half per cent ad valorem 12J p. c. 

Ground, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

102. Fine salt in bulk, and coarse salt, n. e. s., five cents per one hun- 

dred pounds 5c. p. 100 lbs. 

103. Salt, n. e. s., in bags, barrels and other packages, — the bags, 

barrels or other packages, being the first coverings or inside 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. 161 

packages, to bear the same duty as if such packages or first 
coverings were imported empty, — seven and one-half cents 
per hundred pounds 7^c. p. 100 lbs. 

Fish and products of the fisheries. 

104. Mackerel, one cent per pound ic. p. lb. 

105. Herrings, pickled or salted, one-half cent per pound ^c. p. lb. 

106. Salmon, fresh, one-half cent per pound ^c. p. lb. 

107. Salmon, pickled or salted, one cent per pound ic. p. lb. 

108. All other fish, pickled or salted, in barrels, one cent per pound., ic. p. lb. 

109. Foreign-caught fish, imported otherwise than in barrels or half- 

barrels, whether fresh, dried, salted or pickled, not specially 
enun^erated or provided for by this act, fifty cents per hun- 
dred pounds 50C. p. 100 lbs. 

no. Fish, smoked and boneless, one cent per pound ic. p. lb. 

111. Anchovies and sardines, packed in oil or otherwise, in tin boxes 

measuring not more than five inches long, four inches wide 
and three and a half inches deep, per whole box, five cents... 5c. p. box. 
(^.) In half boxes measuring not more than five inches long, 
four inches wide and one and five-eighths deep, per 

half box, two and one-half cents 2^c. p. \ box. 

(r.) In quarter boxes, measuring not more than four inches 
and three-quarters long, three and a half inches wide 
and one and a quarter deep, per quarter box, two 
cents 2c. p. \ box. 

112. Anchovies and sardines when imported in any other form, 

thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

113. Fish preserved in oil, except anchovies and sardines, thirty per 

cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

114. Fresh or dried fish, n. e. s., imported in barrels, or half barrels, 

one cent per pound ic. p. lb. 

115. Salmon and all other fish prepared or preserved, including oys- 

ters, not specially enumerated or provided for in this act, 
twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

116. Oysters, shelled, in bulk, ten cents per gallon loc. p. gall. 

117. Oysters, shelled, in cans not over one pint, three cents per can, 

including the cans 3c. p. can. 

118. Oysters, shelled, in cans over one pint and not over one quart, 

five cents per can, including the cans 5c. p. can. 

119. Oysters, shelled, in cans exceeding one quart in capacity, an 

additional duty of five cents for each quart or fraction of a 

quart of capacity over a quart, including the cans 5c. p. quart. 

120. Oysters in the shell, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

121. Packages containing oysters or other fish, n. o. p., twenty-five 

percent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

122. Oils, spermaceti, whale and other fish oils, and all other arti- 

cles the produce of the fisheries not specially provided for, 
twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

Books and paper. 

123. Albumenized and other papers and films chemically prepared 

for photographers' use, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

124. Books, viz.: — Novels or works of fiction, or literature of a sim- 

ilar character, unbound or paper bound or in sheets, including 

No. 205 2, 



l62 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 

freight rates for railways and telegraph rates, bound in book 
or pamphlet form, but not to include Christmas annuals or 
publications commonly known as juvenile and toy books, 
twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

125. Books, printed, periodicals and pamphlets, or parts thereof 

n. e. s., — not to include blank account books, copy books, 

or books to be written or drawn upon, ten per cent ad valorem. 10 p. c. 

126. Advertising and printed matter, viz.: — Advertising pamphlets. 

advertising pictorial show cards, illustrated advertising peri- 
odicals; illustrated price books, catalogues and price lists, 
advertising almanacs and calendars; patent medicine or 
other advertising circulars, fly sheets or pamphlets; adver- 
tising chromos, chromotypes, oleographs or like work pro- 
duced by any process other than hand painting or drawing, 
and having any advertisement or advertising matter printed, 
lithographed or stamped thereon, or attached thereto, in- 
cluding advertising bills, folders and posters, or other simi- 
lar artistic work, lithographed, printed or stamped on paper 
or cardboard for business or advertisement purposes, n. o. p., 
fifteen cents per pound 15c. p. lb. 

127. Labels for cigar boxes, fruits, vegetables, meats, fish, confec- 

tionery or other goods or wares; shipping, price or other 
tags, tickets or labels, and railroad or other tickets, whether 
lithographed or printed, or partly printed, n. e. s., thirty-five 
per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

128. Bank notes, bonds, bills of exchange, checks, promissory notes, 

drafts and all similar work, unsigned, and cards or other 
commercial blank forms printed or lithographed, or printed 
from steel or copper or other plates, and other printed matter, 
n. e. s., thirty-five percent ad valorem. .„ 35 p. c. 

129. Printed music, bound or in sheets, ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

130. Photographs, chromos, chromotypes, artotypes, oleographs, 

paintings, drawings, pictures, engravings or prints, or proofs 
therefrom, and similar works of art, n. o. p.; blue prints, 
building plans, maps and charts, n. e. s., twenty per cent ad 
valorem 20 p. c. 

131. Newspapers or supplemental editions or parts thereof, partly 

printed and intended to be completed and published in Can- 
ada, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

132. Union collar cloth paper in rolls or sheets, not glossed or fin- 

ished, fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

133. Union collar cloth paper in rolls or sheets, glossed or finished, 

twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

134. Millboard, not straw board, ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

135. Straw board, in sheets or rolls; tarred paper, felt or straw board; 

sandpaper, glass or fiint paper, and emery paper or emery 

cloth, twenty-five percent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

136. Paper sacks or bags of all kinds, printed or not, twenty-five per 

cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

137. Playing cards, six cents per pack 6c. p. pack. 

138. Paper hangings or wall papers, borders or bordering, and win- 

dow blinds of paper of all kinds, thirty-five per cent ad va- 

Jprem 35 p. c, 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 1 63 

139. Printing paper and paper of all kinds, n. e. 5., twenty-five i>er 

cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

140. Ruled and border and coated papers, papeteries, boxed papers, 

pads not printed, papier-mach6, ware, n. o. p.; envelopes, and 
all manufactures of paper, n. e. s., thirty-five per cent ad va- 
lorem 35 p. c. 

Chemicals and drugs. 

141. Acid, acetic acid and pyroligneous, n. e. s., and vinegar, a spe- 

cific duty of fifteen cents for each gallon of any strength not 15c. p. gall, 
exceeding the strength of proof, and for each degree of strength 
in excess of the strength of proof an additional duty of two 

cents 2c. p. deg. 

The strength of proof shall be held to be equal to six per cent 
of absolute acid, and in all cases the strength shall be deter- 
mined in such manner as is established by the governor in 
council. 

142. Acid, acetic and crude, and pyroligneous crude, of any strength 

not exceeding thirty per cent, twenty-five per cent ad va- 
lorem 25 p. c. 

143. Acid, muriatic and nitric, and all mixed or other acids, n. e. s., 

twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

144. Acid, sulphuric, twenty-five percent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

145. Acid phosphate, n. o. p., twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

146. Sulphuric ether, chloroform, and solutions of peroxides of hy- 

drogen, twenty-five percent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

147. All medicinal, chemical and pharmaceutical preparations, when 

compounded of more than one substance, including patent 
and proprietary preparations, tinctures, pills, powders, troches, 
lozenges, sirups, cordials, bitters, anodynes, tonics, plasters, 
liniments, salves, ointments, pastes, drops, waters, essences 
and oils, n. o. p. ; provided that drugs, pill mass and prepara- 
tions, not including pills or medicinal plasters, recognized 
by the British or the United States pharmacopoeia or the 
French Codex as ofi&cinal, shallnot be held to be covered by 
this item; all liquids, containing alcohol, fifty per cent ad 50 p. c. 
valorem; and all others, liquid or not, twenty-five per cent 
ad valorem 25 p. c. 

148. Pomades, French or flower odors preserved in fat or oil for the 

purpose of conserving the odors of flowers which do not bear 
the heat of distillation, when imported in tins of not less than 
ten pounds each, fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

149. Perfumery, including toilet preparations (nonalcoholic), viz.: — 

Hair oils, tooth and other powders and washes, pomatums, 
pastes and all other perfumed preparations, n. o. p., used for 
the hair, mouth or skin, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

150. Licorice paste and licorice in rolls and sticks, twenty per cent 

ad valorem 20 p. c. 

151. Paraffin wax, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

152. Antiseptic surgical dressing, such as absorbent cotton, cotton 

wool, lint, lamb's wool, tow, jute, gauzes and oakum, pre- 
pared for use as surgical dressings, plain or medicated; sur- 
gical belts and trusses, electric belts, pessaries and suspensory 
bandages of all kinds, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 \>. c. 



164 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 

153. Surgical and dental instruments (not being furniture) and sur- 

gical needles, ten percent ad valorem until ist January, 1898; 
thereafter free 10 p. c. 

154. Cod-liver oil, twenty percent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

Opium. 

155. Opium, crude, the outward ball or covering to be free of duty, 

one dollar per pound $1 p. lb. 

156. Opium, powdered, one dpllar and thirty-five cents per pound... $1.35 p. lb. 

157. Opium, prepared for smoking, five dollars per pound $5 p. lb. 

Colors^ paints^ oils^ varnishes^ etc. 

158. Dry white and red lead, orange mineral and zinc white, five 

per cent ad valorem 5 p. c. 

159. Ochers, ochrey earths, raw siennas, and colors, dry, n. e. s., 

twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

160. Oxides, umbers, burnt siennas, and fireproofs, n. e. s. ; laundry 

bluing of all kinds, rough stuff and dry and liquid fillers, anti- 
corrosive and antifouling paints commonly used for ships' 
hulls, and ground and liquid paints, n. e. s., twenty-five per 
cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

161. Paints and colors, ground in spirits, and all spirit varnishes 

and lacquers, one dollar and twelve and one-half cents per 

gallon $1.12^ p. gali. 

162. Paris green, dry, ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

163. Ink for writing, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

164. Blacking, shoe, and shoemakers' ink; shoe, harness and leather 
' dressing, harness soap, and knife or other polish or composi- 
tion, n. o. p., twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

165. Putty, of all kinds, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

166. Turpentine, spirits of, five per cent ad valorem 5 p. c. 

167. British gum, dextrin, sizing cream and enamel sizing, ten per 

cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

168. Varnishes, lacquers, japans, japan driers, liquid driers, and oil 

finish, n. e. s., twenty cents per gallon and twenty percent ad 20c. p. gall, 
valorem.. and 20 p. c. 

169. Linseed or flax seed oil, raw or boiled, lard oil, neat's-foot oil, 

and sesame seed oil, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

170. Illuminating oils composed wholly or in part of the products of 

petroleum, coal, shale or lignite, costing more than thirty 

cents per gallon, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

1 71. Lubricating oils, composed wholly or in part of petroleum, cost- 

ing less than twenty-five cents per gallon, five cents per gallon.. 5c. per gall. 

172. Crude petroleum, fuel and gas oils (other than naphtha, benzine 

or gasoline) when imported by manufacturers (other than oil 
refiners) for use in their own factories for fuel purposes or for 
the manufacture of gas, two and one-half cents per gallon ... 2^c. p. gall. 

173. Oils, coal and kerosene distilled, purified or refined, naphtha and 

petroleum, and products of petroleum, n. e. s., five cents per 

gallon 5c. p. gall. 

174. Barrels, containing petroleum or its products, or any mixture 

of which petroleum forms a part, when such contents are 
chargeable with a specific duty, twenty cents each 20c. each. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 1 65 

175. Lubricating oils, n. c. s., and axle grease, twenty-five per cent 

ad valorem ; 25 p. c. 

176. Olive oil, n. e. s., twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

177. Essential oils, ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

178. Vaseline, and all similar preparations of petroleum for toilet, 

medicinal or other purposes, thirty-five per cent ad valorem.. 35 p. c. 

Coal. 

179. Bituminous slack coal, such as will pass through a half-inch 

screen, subject to regulations to be made by the controller of 
customs, twenty per cent ad valorem, but not to exceed thir- 
teen cents per ton of 2,000 pounds (being the equivalent of 
fifteen cents per ton of 2,240 pounds): Provided that if the 
United States Congress fixes the duty on such slack coal at a 
rate not exceeding fifteen cents per ton of 2,240 pounds, then 
the duty on such coal imported into Canada, as provided in 
this item, shall be the minimum duty on such coal from all 

countries, notwithstanding section seventeen of this act 20 p. c. 

iSo. Coal, bituminous, round and run of mine, and coal, n. e. s., fifty- 
three cents per ton of 2,000 pounds (being the equivalent of 
sixty cents per ton of 2,240 pounds): Provided that if the 
United States Congress fixes the duty on such coal at a rate 
not exceeding forty cents per ton of 2,240 pounds, the governor 
in council may by proclamation reduce the duty mentioned 
in this item to forty cents per ton of 2,240 pounds, or the 
equivalent thereof per ton of 2,000 pounds, and the duty de- 
* clared by such proclamation shall then be the minimum duty 
on such coal from all countries, notwithstanding section sev- 53c. p. ton of 
enteen of this act 2,000 lbs. 

Earthenware^ cements ^ slate and stoneware. 

181. Building brick, paving brick, stove linings, and fire brick, n. e. s., 
• and manufactures of clay or cement, n. o. p., twenty per cent 

ad valorem 20 p. c. 

182. Earthenware and stoneware, viz: demijohns, churns or crocks, 

thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

183. Drain tiles, not glazed, twenty percent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

184. Drain pipes, sewer pipes, chimney linings or vents, chimney 

tops and inverted blocks, glazed or unglazed, and earthen- 
ware tiles, thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

185. China and porcelain ware, also earthenware and stoneware, 

brown or colored and Rockingham ware, white granite or iron 
stoneware, **c. c." or cream-colored ware, decorated, printed 
or sponged, and all earthenware, n. e. s., thirty per cent ad 
valorem 30 p. c. 

186. Baths, tubs and washstands of earthenware, stone, cement or 

clay, or of other material, n. o. p., thirty per cent ad valorem.. 30 p. c. 

187. Cement, portland and hydraulic or water lime, in bags, barrels 

or casks, the weight of the package to be included in the 

weight for duty, twelve and one-half cents per one hundred I2jc. p. 100 

pounds lbs. 

188. Plaster of paris, or gypsum, ground, not calcined, fifteen per 

cent ad valorem is V> c. 



1 66 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 

189. Plaster of pans, or gypsum, calcined or manufactured, the 

weight of the package to be included in the weight for duty, I2jc. p. 100 
twelve and one-half cents per one hundred pounds lbs. 

190. Lithographic stones, not engraved, twenty per cent ad valorem... 20 p. c. 

191. Grindstones, not mounted, and not less than thirty-six inches in 

diameter, fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

192. Grindstones, n. e. s., twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

193. Flagstone, sandstone and all building stone, not hammered 

or chiseled; and marble and granite, rough, not hammered or 
chiseled, fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

194. Marble and granite, sawn only; flagstone and all other building 

stone, dressed; and paving blocks of stone, twenty per cent 

ad valorem 20 p. c. 

195. Marble and granite, n. e. s., and all manufactures of marble or 

granite, n. o. p., thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

196. Manufactures of stone, n. o. p., thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

197. Roofing slate, twenty-five per cent ad valorem; provided that 

the duty shall not exceed seventy-five cents per square 25 p. c. 

198. Slate mantels and other manufactures of slate, n. e. s., thirty 

per centad valorem 30 p. c. 

199. Slate pencils and school writing slates, twenty-five per cent ad 

valorem 25 p. c. 

200. Mosaic flooring of any material, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

Glass and glassware. 

201. Common and colorless window glass, and plain colored, opaque, 

stained or tinted, or mufl[)ed glass, in sheets, twenty per cent 

ad valorem 20 p. c. 

202. Ornamental, figured, and enameled colored glass, vitrified or 

painted, chipped, figured, enameled, and obscured white 
glass; stained glass windows, and memorial or ornamental 
window glass, n. o. p., and rough rolled plate glass, thirty per 
cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

203. Plate glass, net beveled, in sheets or panes, not exceeding 

twenty-five square feet each, n. o. p., twenty-five per cent ad 
valorem 25 p. c. 

204. Plate glass, not beveled, in sheets or panes, n.e. s., thirty-five 

per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

205. Plate glass, beveled, in sheets or panes, n.o. p., thirty-five per 

cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

206. Silvered glass, beveled or not and framed or not, thirty-five per 

cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

207. German looking-glass plate, (thin plate), unsilvered or for silver- 

ing, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

208. Glass demijohns or carboys, empty or filled, bottles, decanters, 

flasks, phials, glass jars and glass balls, lamp chimneys, glass 
shades or globes, cut, pressed or molded crystal or glass table- 
ware, decorated or not, and blown glass tableware, thirty per 
cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

209. Bent plate or other sheet glass, and all other glass, and manu- 

factures of glass, n. o. p., twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

210. Spectacles and eyeglasses, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

211. Spectacle and eyeglass frames, and metal parts thereof, twenty 

per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 167 

Leather^ rubber and manufactures of. 

i\'2„ Oongola, cordovan, calf, sheep, lamb, kid or goat, kangaroo, 
alligator, or other upper leather, and all leather, dressed, 
waxed, glazed or further finished than tanned, n. e. s. ; harness 
leather, and chamois skin, seventeen and one-half per cent 
ad valorem 17J p. c. 

213. Skins for morocco leather, tanned but not further manufac- 

tured; sole leather, and belting leather, of all kinds; tanners' 
scrap leather; and leather.and skins, n. o. p., fifteen per cent 
ad valorem 15 p. c. 

214. Glove leathers, tanned or dressed, colored or uncolored, when 

imported by glove manufacturers for use in their own facto- 
ries in the manufacture of gloves, ten per cent ad valorem.... 10 p. c. 

215. Japanned, patent or enameled leather, and morocco leather, 

twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

216. Leather board, leatheroid, and manufactures thereof, n. o. p., 

twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

217. Whips of all kinds, including thongs and lashes, thirty-five per 

cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

21S. Belting, of leather or other material, n. e. s., twenty per cent ad 

valorem 20 p. c. 

219. Boots and shoes, and slippers, of any material, n. e. s., twenty- 

five per cent ad valorem 25 p. 0. 

220. Manufactures of raw hide, and all manufactures of leather, 

n. o. p., twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

221. India-rubber boots and shoes; and all manufactures of india 

rubber and gutta-percha, n. o. p., twenty-five per cent ad va- 
lorem 25 p. c. 

222. India-rubber clothing and clothing made waterproof with india 

rubber, rubber or gutta-percha hose, and cotton or linen hose 
lined with rubber, rubber mats or matting, and rubber pack- 
ing, thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

Aletals and manufactures of. 

223. Iron or steel scrap, wrought, being waste or refuse, including 

punchings, cuttings or clippings of iron or steel plates or 
sheets having been in actual use; crop ends of tin plate bars, 
or of blooms, or of rails, the same not having been in actual 

use, one dollar per ton $1 p. ton. 

Nothing shall be deemed scrap iron or scrap steel except waste 
or refuse iron or steel fit only to be remanufactured in roll- 
ing mills. 

224. Iron in pigs, iron kentledge, and cast scrap iron, two dollars 

and fifty cents per ton $2.50 p. ton. 

225. Ferrosilicon, ferromanganese, and spiegeleisen, five per cent 

ad valorem 5 p. c. 

226. Iron or steel ingots, cogged ingots, blooms, slabs, billets, pud- 

dled bars and loops or other forms, n. o. p., less finished than 
iron or steel bars but more advanced than pig iron, except 
castings, two dollars per ton $2 p. ton. 

227. Rolled iron or steel angles, tees, beams, channels, girders and 

other rolled shapes or sections, weighing less than thirty-five 



1 



l68 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. 

pounds per lineal yard, not punched, drilled or further man- 
ufactured than rolled, n. o. p., seven dollars per ton $7 p. ton. 

228. Rolled iron or steel angles, tees, beams, channels, joists, gird- 

ers, zees, stars or other rolled shapes, or trough, bridge, build- 
ing or structural rolled sections or shapes, not punched, 
drilled or further manufactured than rolled, n. e. s., and fiat 
eye-bar blanks not punched or drilled, ten per cent ad valo- 
rem 10 p. c. 

229. Bar iron or steel, rolled, whether in coils, rods, bars or bundles, 

comprising rounds, ovals and squares, and flats; and rolled 
shapes, n. o. p.; and rolled iron or steel hoop, band, scroll or 
strip, eight inches or less in width, number eighteen gauge 
and thicker, n. e. s., seven dollars per ton $7 p. ton. 

230. Universal mill or rolled edge bridge plates of steel when im- 

ported by manufacturers of bridges, ten per cent ad valorem.. 10 p. c. 

231. Rolled iron or steel plates not less than thirty inches in width, 

and not less than one quarter of an inch in thickness, n. o. p., 

ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

232. Rolled iron or steel sheets or plates, sheared or unsheared, and 

skelp iron or steel, sheared or rolled in grooves, n. e. s., seven 

dollars per ton $7 p. ton. 

233. Skelp iron or steel, sheared or rolled in grooves, when imported 

by manufacturers of wrought iron or steel pipe for use only 
in the manufacture of wrought iron or steel pipe in their own 
factories, five per cent ad valorem 5 p. c. 

234. Rolled iron or steel sheets number seventeen gauge, and thin- 

ner, n. o. p.; Canada plates; Russia iron; flat galvanized iron 
or steel sheets, terne plate, and rolled sheets of iron or steel 
coated with zinc, spelter or other metal, of all widths or thick- 
ness, n. o. p., and rolled iron or steel hoop, band, scroll or 
strip, thinner than number eighteen gauge, n. e. s., five per 
cent ad valorem 5 p. c. 

235. Chrome steel, fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

236. Steel, in bars, bands, hoops, scroll or strips, sheets or plates, of 

any size, thickness or width, when of greater value than 
two and one-half cents per pound, n. o. p., five per cent ad 
valorem 5 p. c. 

237. Swedish rolled iron and Swedish rolled steel nail rods under half 

an inch in diameter for the manufacture of horseshoe nails, 

fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

238. Iron and steel railway bars or rails of any form, punched or not, 

n. e. s., for railways, which term for the purposes of this item 
shall include all kinds of railways, street railways and tram- 
ways, even although they are used for private purposes only, 
and even although they are not used or intended to be used in 
connection with the business of common carrying of goods or 
passengers, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. • 

239. Railway fish plates and tie plates, eight dollars per ton $8 p. ton. 

240. Switches, frogs, crossings and intersections for railways, thirty 

per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

241. Locomotives for railways, n. e. s., thirty-five per cent ad valo- 

rem 35 p. c. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 1 69 

242. Iron or steel bridges, or parts thereof; iron or steel structural 

work, columns, shapes or sections, drilled, punched or in any 
further stage of manufacture than as rolled or cast, n. e. s., 
thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

243. Forgings of iron or steel of whatever shape or size or in what- 

ever stage of manufacture, n. e. s. ; and steel shafting, turned, 
compressed, or polished; and hammered iron or steel bars or 
shapes, n. o. p., thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

244. Iron or steel castings, in the rough, n. e. s., twenty-five per cent 

ad valorem 25 p. c. 

245. Stove plates, stoves of all kinds, for oil, gas, coal or wood, or 

parts thereof, and sad or smoothing, hatters' and tailors* 
irons, plated wholly or in part, or not, twenty-five per cent 
ad valorem 25 p. c. 

246. Springs, axles, axle bars, n. e. s., and axle blanks, and parts 

thereof, of iron or steel, for railway or tramway, or other 
vehicles, thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

247. Cart or wagon skeins or boxes, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

248. Cast iron pipe of every description, eight dollars per ton $8 per ton. 

249. Wrought iron or steel boiler tubes, n. e. s., including flues and 

corrugated tubes for marine boilers, five per cent ad valorem.. 5 p. c. 

250. Tubes of rolled steel, seamless not joined or welded, not more 

than one and one-half inch in diameter; and seamless steel 

tubes for bicycles, ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

251. Wrought iron or steel tubing, plain or galvanized, threaded and 

coupled or not, over two inches in diameter, n. e. s., fifteen 
percent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

252. Wrought iron or steel tubing, plain or galvanized, threaded and 

coupled or not, two inches or less in diameter, n. e. s., thirty- 
five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

253. Other iron or steel pipe or tubing, plain or galvanized, riveted, 

corrugated or otherwise specially manufactured, n. o. p., 

thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

254. Iron or steel fittings for iron or steel pipe, of every description, 

and chilled iron or steel rolls, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

255. Iron or steel cut nails and spikes, (ordinary builders'); and rail- 

road spikes, one-half of one cent per pound Jc. p. lb. 

256. WVought and pressed nails and spikes, trunk, clout, coopers', 

cigar box, Hungarian, horseshoe, and other nails, n. e. s.; 

horse, mule and ox shoes, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

257. Wire nails of all kinds, n. o. p., three-fifths of one cent per 

pound fc. p. lb. 

258. Composition nails and spikes and sheathing nails, fifteen per 

cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

259. Iron or steel shoe tacks, and ordinary cut tacks, leathered or 

not, brads, sprigs and shoe nails, double pointed tacks, and 
other tacks of iron and steel, n. o. p., thirty-five per cent ad 
valorem 35 p. c. 

260. Screws, commonly called "wood screws," of iron or steel, brass 

or other metal, including lag or coach screws, plated or not, 
and machine or other screws, n. o. p., thirty-five per cent ad 
valorem 35 p. c. 



170 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 

261. Coil chain, coil chain links, and chain shackles, of iron or steel, 

five-sixteenths of an inch in diameter and over, five per cent 

ad valorem 5 p. c. 

262. Barbed wire; and galvanized wire for fencing, numbers nine, 

twelve and thirteen gauge, fifteen per cent ad valorem, until 

ist January, 1898; thereafter free 15 p. c. 

263. Buckthorn strip fencing, woven wire fencing, and wire fencing 

of iron or steel, n. e. s., fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

264. Wire, single or several, covered with cotton, linen, silk, rubber 

or other material, including cable so covered, n. e. s., thirty 

per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

265. Brass wire, plain, ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

266. Copper wire, plain, tinned or plated, fifteen per cent ad valorem.. 15 p. c. 

267. Wire cloth, or woven wire of brass or copper, twenty-five per 

cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

268. Wire of all metals and kinds, n. o. p., twenty per cent ad 

valorem 20 p. c. 

269. Wire rope, stranded or twisted wire, clothes line, picture or 

other twisted wire and wire cable, n. e. s., twenty-five per 

cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

270. Wire cloth or wove wire, and wire netting, of iron or steel, thirty 

per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

271. Needles, of any material or kind, and pins manufactured from 

wire of any metal, n. o. p., thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

272. Lead, old, scrap, pig and block, fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

273. Lead, in bars, and in sheets, twenty-five per cent ad valorem... 25 p. c. 

274. Lead pipe, lead shot and lead bullets, thirty-five per cent ad 

valorem 35 p. c. 

275. Lead, manufactures of, n. o. p., thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

276. Brass and copper nails, tacks, rivets and burrs or washers; 

bells and gongs, n. e. s., and all manufactures of brass or 
copper, n. o. p., thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

277. Zinc, manufactures of, n. o. p., twenty-five per cent ad valorem.. 25 p. c. 

278. Nickel anodes, ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

279. Iron or steel nuts, washers, rivets, and bolts, with or without 

threads, and nut, bolt and hinge blanks, and T and strap 

hinges of all kinds, n. e. s., three-quarters of one cent per fc. p. lb. and 

pound and twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

280. Builders', cabinetmakers', upholsterers', harness makers', sad- 

dlers', and carriage hardware, including butt hinges, locks, 
currycombs or curry cards, horse boots, harness and sad- 
dlery, n. e. s., thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

281. Skates of all kinds, roller or other, and parts thereof, thirty-five 

per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

282. Gas meters, thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p c. 

283. Safes, doors for safes and vaults; scales, balances, weighing 

beams, and strength testing machines of all kinds, thirty per 

cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

284. Carvers, knives and forks of steel, butcher and table steels, 

oyster, bread, kitchen, cooks', butcher, shoe, farrier, putty, 
hacking and glaziers' knives, cigar knives, spatulas or palette 
knives, razors, erasers or office knives, pen, pocket, pruning, 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. I7I 

sportsmen's or hunters* knives, manicure files, scissors, trim- 
mers; barbers', tailors* and lamp shears, horse and toilet 
clippers, and all like cutlery, plated or not, n. o. p., — when 
any of the above articles are imported in cases or cabinets, 
the cases or cabinets shall be dutiable at the same rate as 
their contents, — thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

285. Knife blades or blanks, and table forks of iron or steel in the 

rough, not handled, filed, ground or otherwise manufactured, 

ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

286. Celluloid, molded into sizes for handles of knives and forks, 

not bored nor otherwise manufactured; also, molded cellu- 
loid balls and cylinders, coated with tin foil or not, but not 
finished or further manufactured, and celluloid lamp shade 
blanks, ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

287. Bird, parrot, squirrel and rat cages, of wire, and metal parts 

thereof, thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

288. Files and rasps, n. e. s., thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

289. Adzes, cleavers, hatchets, saws, wedges, sledges, hammers, crow- 

bars, cant dogs and track tools; picks, mattocks, and eyes or 
poles for the same; anvils, vises; and tools, of all kinds, for 
hand or for machine use, including shoemakers' and tinsmiths* 
tools or bench machines, n. o. p., thirty per cent ad valorem.. 30 p. c. 

290. Axes, scythes, sickles or reaping hooks, hay or straw knives, 

edging knives, hoes, rakes, pronged forks, snaths, farm, road 
or field rollers, post hole diggers, and other agricultural im- 
plements, n. e. s., twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

291. Shovels and spades, iron or steel, n. e. s. ; shovel and spade 

blanks, and iron or steel cut to shape for the same; and lawn 
mowers, thirty-five percent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

292. Britannia metal, nickel silver, Nevada and German silver, man- 

ufactures of, not plated, and manufactures of aluminium, 

n. o. p., twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

293. Sterling and other silverware, nickel-plated ware, gilt or electro- 

plated ware, wholly or in part, of all kinds, n. e. s., thirty per 

cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

294. Telephone and telegraph instruments, electric and galvanic 

batteries, electric motors, dynamos, generators, sockets, in- 
sulators of all kinds; and electric apparatus, n. e. s., twenty- 
five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

295. Electric light carbons and carbon points, of all kinds, n. e. s., 

thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

296. Carbons over six inches in circumference, fifteen per cent ad 

valorem 15 p. c. 

297. Lamps, side lights and headlights, lanterns, chandeliers, gas, 

coal or other oil fixtures and electric light fixtures, or metal 
parts thereof, including lava or other tips, burners, collars, 
galleries, shades and shade holders, thirty per cent ad valorem. 30 p. c. 

298. Lamp springs, and glass bulbs for electric lights, ten per cent 

ad valorem 10 p. c. 

299. Babbitt metal, type metal, phosphor tin and phosphor bronze in 

blocks, bars, plates, sheets and wire, ten per cent ad valorem.. 10 p. c. 

300. Type for printing, including chases, quoins and slugs, of all 

kinds, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 



172 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 

301. Plates engraved on wood, steel, or other metal, and transfers 

taken from the same, including engravers' plates of steel, 
polished, engraved or for engraving thereupon, twenty per 
cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

302. Stereotypes, electrotypes, and celluloids for almanacs, calen- 

dars, illustrated pamphlets, newspaper advertisements or en- 
gravings, and all other like work for commercial, trade or 
other purposes, n. e. s., and matrices or copper shells for the 
same, one and one-half cent per square inch i|c. p. sq. in. 

303. Stereotypes, electrotypes and celluloids of newspaper columns, 

and bases for the same, composed wholly or partially of metal 

or celluloid, one-fourth of one cent per square inch }c. p. sq. in. 

And matrices or copper shells for the same, one and one-half 
cent per square inch i^. p. sq. in. 

304. Clothes wringers for domestic use, and parts thereof, thirty-five 

per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

305. Buckles of iron, steel, brass or copper, of all kinds, n. o. p., (not 

being jewelry), thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

306. Guns, rifles, including air guns and air rifles not being toys, 

muskets, cannons, pistols, revolvers, or other firearms; car- 
tridge cases, cartridges, primers, percussion caps, wads, or 
other am munition, n. o. p.; bayonets, swords, fencing foils and 
masks; gun or pistol covers or cases, game bags, loading tools 
and cartridge belts of any material, thirty per cent ad valorem.. 30 p. c. 

307. Agate, granite or enameled iron or steel hollow ware, thirty- 

five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

308. Enameled iron or steel ware, n. e. s. ; iron or steel hollow ware, 

plain black, tinned or coated; and nickel and aluminium 
kitchen or household hollow ware, n. e. s., thirty per cent ad 
valorem 30 p. c. 

309. Tinware, plain, japanned or lithographed, and all manufactures 

of tin, n. e. s., and manufactures of galvanized sheet iron or of 
galvanized sheet steel, n.o. p., twenty-five per cent ad valorem. 25 p. c. 

310. Signs, of any material, framed or not; and letters of any ma- 

terial for signs or similar use, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

311. Fire engines and fire extinguishing machines, including sprink- 

lers for fire protection, thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

312. Brass pumps of all kinds, and garden or lawn sprinklers, thirty 

per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

313. Printing presses, printing machines, lithographic presses and 

type-making accessories therefor; folding machines, book- 
binders' bookbinding, ruling, embossing and paper cutting 
machines, and parts thereof, ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

314. Sewing machines, and parts thereof , thirty per cent ad valorem.. 30 p. c. 

315. Steam engines, boilers, ore crushers and rock crushers, stamp 

mills, Cornish and belted rolls, rock drills, air compressors, 
cranes, derricks, percussion coal cutters, pumps, n. e. s., wind- 
mills, horsepowers, portable engines, thrashers, separators, 
fodder or feed cutters, potato diggers, grain crushers, fanning 
mills, hay tedders, farm wagons, slot machines and type- 
writers, and all machinery composed wholly or in part of 
iron or steel, n. o. p., twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

316. Machine card clothing, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. I 7 

317. Mold boards or shares, or plow plates, land sides, and other 

plates for agricultural implements, when cut to shape from 
rolled plates of steel but not molded, punched, polished or 
otherwise manufactured, five per cent ad valorem 5 p. c. 

318. Mowing machines, harvesters self-binding or without binders, 

binding attachments, reapers, cultivators, plows, harrows, 
horse rakes, seed drills, manure spreaders, weeders, and 
malleable sprocket or link belting chain for binders, twenty 
per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

319. Trawls, trawling spoons, fly hooks, sinkers, swivels, and sports- 

men's fishing bait, and fishhooks, n. e. s., thirty per cent ad 
valorem 30 p. c. 

320. Patterns of brass, iron, steel or other metal (not being models), 

thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

321. Manufactures, articles or wares not specially enumerated or pro- 

vided for, composed wholly or in part of iron or steel, and 
whether wholly or partly manufactured, thirty per cent ad 
valorem 30 p. c. 

• 

Vehicles. 

322. Freight wagons, drays, sleighs and similar vehicles, twenty-five 

per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

323. Buggies, carriages, pleasure carts and similar vehicles, n. e. s., 

including cutters, children's carriages and sleds, and finished 

parts thereof, n. o. p., thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

324. Railway cars, (or other cars), wheelbarrows, trucks, road or rail- 

way scrapers and hand carts, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

325. Bicycles and tricycles, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

Manufactures of wood^ cane^ cork, 

326. Cane, reed or rattan, split or otherwise manufactured, n. o. p., 

fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

327. Corks, and other manufactures of cork wood or cork bark, 

n. o. p., twenty percent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

328. Sawed boards, planks and deals planed or dressed on one or 

both sides, when the edges thereof are jointed or tongued 

and grooved, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

329. Lumber and timber, manufactured, n. e. s., twenty per cent ad 

valorem 20 p. c. 

330. Pails and tubs of wood; churns, brooms and whisks, wash- 

boards, pounders and rolling pins, twenty per cent ad va- 
lorem 20 p. c. 

331. Veneers of wood, not over three thirty-seconds of an inch in 

thickness, seven and one-half per cent ad valorem 7^ p. c. 

332. Moldings of wood, plain, gilded or otherwise further manu- 

factured, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

333. Wood pulp, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

334. Manufactures of wood, n. o. p., twenty-five per cent ad valorem.. 25 p. c. 

335. Fishing rods, walking sticks and walking canes, of all kinds, 

n. e. s., thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

336. Picture frames and photograph frames, of any material, thirty 

per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 



-7 



174 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. 

337. Umbrella, parasol and sunshade sticks or handles, n. e. s. , twenty 

per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

338. Coffins and caskets, and metal parts thereof, twenty-five per 

cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

339. Show cases, of all kinds, and metal parts thereof, thirty-five per 

cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

340. Billiard tables, with or without pockets, and bagatelle tables or 

boards, cues, balls, cue racks, and cue tips, thirty-five per 

cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

341. Vulcanized fiber, kartavert, indurated fiber, and like material, 

and manufactures of, n. e. s., twenty-five per cent ad valorem.. 25 p. c 

342. Blinds of wood, metal or other material, not textile or paper, 

thirty percent ad valorem 30 p. c 

343. House, office, cabinet or store furniture of wood, iron, or other 

material, in parts or finished; wire screens, wire doors and 
wire windows; cash registers; window cornices and cornice 
poles of all kinds; hair, spring and other mattresses, bolsters 
and pillows, including furniture springs and carpet sweepers; 
thirty per cent ad valorem ;. 30 p. c. 

344. Window shade or blind rollers, thirty-five per cent ad valorem.. 35 p. c. 

Jewelry and material therefor^ etc. 

345. Watch cases, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

346. Clocks, watches, watch glasses, clock and watch keys, and clock 

movements, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

347. Watch actions and movements, ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

348. Precious stones, n. e. s., polished, but not set, pierced or other- 

wise manufactured, and imitations thereof, ten per cent ad 
valorem 10 p. c. 

349. Composition metal for the manufacture of jewelry and filled 

gold watch cases, ten per cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

350. Jewelry, for the adornment of the person, including hat pins, 

hairpins, belt or other buckles, and similar personal orna 
mental articles commercially known as jewelry, n. o. p., and 
all manufactures of gold and silver, n. e. s., thirty per cent ad 
valorem 30 p. c. 

351. Fancy writing desks, fancy cases for jewelry, watches, silver- 

ware, plated ware and cutlery; glove, handkerchief and collar 
boxes or cases, brush or toilet cases, and all fancy cases for 
similar fancy articles, of any material; fans, dolls and toys of 
all kinds; ornaments of alabaster, spar, amber, terra cotta or 
composition; statuettes and bead ornaments, n. e. s., thirty- 
five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

352. Gold, silver and aluminium leaf, Dutch or schlag metal leaf; 

brocade and bronze powders and gold liquid paint, twenty- 
five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

Minerals. 

353. Asbestos in any form other than crude, and all manufactures 

thereof, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

354. Plumbago, not ground or otherwise manufactured, ten per cent 

ad valorem 10 p. c. 

355. Plumbago, ground, and manufactures of, n. e. s., and foundry 

facings of all kinds, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, I 89 7. I 75 

Musical instruments, 

356. Pianofortes, organs and musical instruments of all kinds, 

thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

357. Brass band instruments, parts of pianofortes and parts of 

organs, twenty-five percent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

Provided that musical instrument cases shall be dutiable at 
the same rate as their contents when imported containing the 
instruments. 

Textiles^ kats, furs, etc. 

35S. Cotton batts, batting and sheet wadding, cotton warps and cot- 
ton yarns, dyed or not, n.e.s., twenty-five per cent ad valorem.. 25 p. c. 

359. Cotton fabrics, white or gray, bleached or unbleached, n. o. p., 

twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c 

360. Cotton fabrics, printed, dyed or colored, n. o. p., thirty-five per 

cent ad valorem 35 p, c. 

361. Damask of linen, stair linen, diaper, napkins, doilies, table 

and tray cloths, sheets, quilts, towels, and like articles of 
linen or cotton, or of linen and cotton combined, made up or 
not, n. o. p., thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

362. Embroideries, n. e. s., laces, braids, fringes, cords, elastic, round 

or flat; garter elastic, tassels and bracelets, n. o. p., braids, 
chains, cords, or other manufactures of hair, n. e. s. ; hand- 
kerchiefs of all kinds ; lace collars and ail similar lace goods ; 
lace nets and nettings of cotton, linen, silk or other material ; 
shams, curtains, when made up, trimmed or untrimmed ; re- 
galia, badges and belts of all kinds, n. o. p. ; linen, silk and 
cotton clothing, and all other articles made up by the seam- 
stress from linen or cotton fabrics, n. o. p., corsets of all kinds, 
corset clasps, busks, blanks and steels, and covered corset 
wires, cut to lengths, tipped or untipped, thirty-five per cent 
ad valorem 35 p. c. 

363. White cotton embroideries, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

364. Jeans, sateens and coutils, when imported by corset and dress 

stay makers for use in the manufacture of such articles in 

their own factories, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

365. Collars and cuffs, of cotton, linen, xylonite, xyolite or celluloid, 

thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

366. Shirts of any material, and ladies' or misses' blouses and shirt 

waists, thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

367. Crapes, black, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

368. Velvets, velveteens, silk velvets, plush and silk fabrics, thirty 

percent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

369. Ribbons of all kinds and materials, and manufactures of silk 

or of which silk is the component part of chief value, n. e. s., 
thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

370. Cotton sewing thread in hanks, three and six cord, fifteen per 

cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

371. Cotton sewing thread and crochet cotton, on spools or tubes or 

in balls, and all other cotton thread, n. e. s., twenty-five per 

cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

372. Silk in the gum, or spun, not more advanced than singles, tram 



( 



176 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 

and thrown organzine, not colored, fifteen per cent ad va- 
lorem 15 p. c 

373. Sewing and embroidery silk, and silk twist, twenty-five per 

cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

374. Jute cloth, uncolored, not otherwise finished than bleached or 

calendered, ten percent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

375. Horse clothing of jute, shaped or otherwise manufactured, 

thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

376. All manufactures of hemp, fiax or jute, n. e. s., or of flax, hemp 

and jute combined, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

377. Bags or sacks of hemp, linen or jute, and cotton seamless bags, 

twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

378. Felt, pressed, of all kinds, not filled or covered by or with any 

woven fabric, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

379. Haircloth of all kinds, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

380. Sails for boats and ships, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

381. Cloths, not rubbered or made waterproof, whether of wool, 

cotton, unions, silk or ramie, sixty inches or over in width 
and weighing not more than seven ounces to the square yard, 
when imported exclusively for the manufacture of mackintosh 
clothing, under regulations to be adopted by the governor in 
council, fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

382. Featherbone, plain or covered, in coils, twenty per cent ad va- 

lorem 20 p. c. 

383. Stockinettes for the manufacture of rubber boots and shoes, 

when imported by manufacturers of rubber boots and shoes, 
for use exclusively in the manufacture thereof in their own 
factories, fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 

384. Cotton duck, gray or white, n. e. s., twenty-two and one-half 

per cent ad valorem 22! p. c. 

385. Oiled silk and oiled cloth, and tape or other textile india 

rubbered, flocked or coated, n. o. p., thirty per cent ad valorem. 30 p. c. 

386. Women's and children's dress goods, coat linings, italian cloths, 

alpacas, Orleans, cashmeres, henriettas, serges, buntings, 
nun's cloth, bengalines, whip cords, twills, plains or jac- 
quards of similar fabrics, composed wholly or in part of wool, 
worsted, the hair of the camel, alpaca, goat, or like animal, 
not exceeding in weight six ounces to the square yard, when 
imported in the gray or unfinished state for the purpose of 
being dyed or finished in Canada, under such regulations as 
are established by the governor in council, twenty-five per 
cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

387. Socks and stockings of all kinds, thirty-five per cent ad valorem.. 35 p. c. 

388. Knitted goods, n. e. s., undershirts and drawers, and hosiery of 

all kinds, n. e. s., thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

389. Shawls of all kinds; railway or traveling rugs and lap dusters 

of all kinds, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

390. Wool, viz.: Leicester, Cotswold, Lincolnshire, Southdown comb- 

ing wools, or wools known as luster wools and other like 
combing wools, such as are grown in Canada, three cents 
per pound 3c. p. lb. 

391. Worsted tops made from such wools as are mentioned in the 

next preceding item, fifteen per cent ad valorem 15 p. c. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. I 77 

392. Yarns, woolen and worsted, n. e. s., thirty per cent ad valorem.. 30 p. c. 

393. Yarns, composed wholly or in part of wool, worsted, the hair 

of the alpaca, goat or like animal, costing thirty cents per 
pound and over, when imported on the cop or tube or in the 
hank by manufacturers of woolen goods for use in their prod- 
ucts, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

394. Fabrics, manufactures, wearing apparel and ready-made cloth- 

ing, composed wholly or in part of wool, worsted, the hair of 
the alpaca, goat or other like animal, n. e. s. ; blankets, bed 
comforters, or counterpanes, flannels, cloths, doeskins, cas- 
simeres, tweeds, coatings, overcoatings and felt cloth, n. e. s., 
thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

395. Mats, door or carriage, n. e. s., thirty-five per cent ad valorem.. 35 p. c. 

396. Carpeting, rugs, mats and matting of cocoa, straw, hemp or 

jute; carpet linings and stair pads, twenty-five per cent ad 
valorem 25 p. c. 

397. Turkish or imitation Turkish or others rugs or carpets; and 

carpets, n. e. s., thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

398. Enameled carriage, floor, shelf, and table oilcloth, linoleum, 

and cork matting or carpets, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

399. Window shades in the piece or cut and hemmed or mounted on 

rollers, n. e. s., thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

400. Webbing, elastic and nonelastic, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

401. Umbrellas, parasols and sunshades of all kinds and materials, 

thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

402. Gloves and mitts, of all kinds, thirty-five per cent ad valorem.. 35 p. c. 

403. Hats, caps and bonnets, n. e. s., and hat, cap and bonnet 

shapes, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

404. Braces or suspenders, and metal parts thereof, thirty-five per 

cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

405. Boot, shoe and stay laces of any material, thirty per cent ad 

valorem 30 p. c. 

406. Fur skins, wholly or partially dressed, fifteen per cent ad va- 

lorem 15 p. c. 

407. Caps, hats, muflfs, tippets, capes, coats, cloaks and other man- 

ufactures of fur, n. o. p., thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

408. Church vestments of any material, twenty per cent ad valorem. 20 p. c. 

Sundries. 

409. Ships and other vessels, built in any foreign country, whether 

steam or sailing vessels, on application for Canadian register, 

on the fair market value of the hull, rigging, machinery and 

all appurtenances; on the hull, rigging and all appurtenances, 

except machinery, ten per cent ad Valortsm; on the boilers, 10 p. c. 

steam engines and other machinery, twenty-five per cent 

ad valorem 25 p. c. 

410. Canoes, skiffs, or open pleasure sailboats, of any material, 

twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

411. Canvas, and sail twine of hemp and flax, when to be used for 

boats' and ships' sails, five per cent ad valorem 5 p. c. 

412. Blasting and mining powder, two cents per pound 2c. p. lb. 

413. Cannon, musket, rifle, gun and sporting powder and canister 

powder, three cents per pound 3c. p. lb. 

No. 205 3. 



178 • TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 

414. Nitroglycerin, giant powder, nitro and other explosives, three 

cents per pound 3c. p. lb. 

415. Glycerin, when imported by manufacturers of explosives, for 

use in the manufacture thereof in their own factories, ten per 

cent ad valorem 10 p. c. 

416. Torpedoes, firecrackers, and fireworks of all kinds, twenty-five 

per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

417. Fertilizers, compounded or manufactured, ten per cent ad 

valorem 10 p. c. 

418. Lamp wicks, twenty-five percent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

419. Photographic dry plates, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

420. Emery wheels, and manufactures of emery, twenty-five per 

cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

421. Lead pencils, pens, penholders and rulers of all kinds, twenty- 

five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

422. Magic lanterns and slides therefor, philosophical, photographic, 

mathematical and optical instruments, n. e. s., cyclometers 
and pedometers, and tape lines of any material, twenty-five 
per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

423. Tobacco pipes of all kinds, pipe mounts, cigar and cigarette 

cases, cigar and cigarette holders, and cases for the same, 
smokers* sets and cases therefor, and tobacco pouches, thirty- 
five percent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

424. Trunks, valises, hat boxes, carpet bags, tool bags or baskets, 

satchels, reticules, musical instrument cases, purses, port- 
• manteaus, pocketbooks, fly books, and parts thereof, n. o. p., 

and baskets of all kinds, thirty per cent ad valorem 30 p. c. 

425. Frames, clasps and fasteners for purses and chatelaine bags or 

reticules not more than seven inches in width, when imported 
by manufacturers of purses and chatelaine bags or reticules, 
for use in the manufacture thereof, in their own. factories, 
twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

426. Buttons, viz: — Pantaloon buttons wholly of metal, and shoe but- 

tons, n. e. s., twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

Buttons of all kinds covered or not, n. o. p., including recogni- 
tion buttons, and cuff or collar buttons (not being jewelry), 
thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

427. Combs for dress and toilet, including mane combs, of all kinds, 

thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

428. Brushes, of all kinds, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

429. Hair, curled or dyed, twenty per cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 

430. Artificial flowers, twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

431. Twine and cordage of all kinds, n. e. s., twenty-five per cent ad 

valorem 25 p. c. 

432. Rove, when imported for the manufacture of twine for harvest 

binders, five per cent ad valorem 5 p. c. 

433. Binders* twine or twine for harvest binders of hemp, jute, ma- 

nila or sisal, and of manila and sisal mixed, ten per cent ad 
valorem until ist January, 1898; thereafter to be free 10 p. c. 

434. Hammocks, lawn tennis nets, sportsmen's fish nets, and other 

articles manufactured of twine, n. o. p., thirty percent ad 
valorem 30 p. c. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. I 79 

Sugar ^ sirups a9id molasses. 

435. All sugar above number sixteen Dutch standard in color, and 

all refined sugars of whatever kinds, grades or standards, one 

cent per pound ic. p. lb. 

436. Sugar, n. e. s. , not above number sixteen Dutch standard in color, 

sugar drainings, or pumpings drained in transit, melado or 
concentrated melado, tank bottoms and sugar concrete, one- 
half cent per pound; the usual packages in which imported 
to be free \z, p. lb. 

437. Glucose or grape sugar, glucose sirup and corn sirup, or any 

sirups containing any admixture thereof, three-fourths of 

one cent per pound .* fc. p. lb. 

438. Sugar candy, brown or white, and confectionery, including 

sweetened gums, candied peel and pop corn, one-half of one -Jc. p. lb. and 
cent per pound and thirty-five per cent ad valorem 35 p. c. 

439. Maple sugar, and maple sirup, twenty per cent ad valorem .... 20 p. c. 

440. Sirup and molasses of all kinds, n. o. p. , the product of the sugar 

cane or beet, n. e. s., and all imitations thereof or substitutes 
therefor, three-fourths of one cent per pound }c. p. lb. 

441. Molasses produced in the process of the manufacture of cane 

sugar from the juice of the cane without any admixture with 
any other ingredient, when imported in the original package 
in which it was placed at the point of production and not af- 
terwards subjected to any process of treating or mixing, the 
package in which imported, when of wood, to be free, — 
(a.) Testing by polariscope forty degrees or over, one and 

three-fourths cent per gallon i}c. p. gall. 

(^.) When testing by polariscope less than forty degrees and 

not less than thirty-five degrees, one and three- ifc. p. gall, 
fourths cent per gallon, and in addition thereto one 
cent per gallon for each degree or fraction of a de- ic. additional 
gree less than forty degrees p. degree. 

Tobacco, and manufactures of, 

442. Cigars and cigarettes, the weight of the cigarettes to include 

the weight of the paper covering, three dollars per pound and $3 p. lb. and 
twenty-five per cent ad valorem 25 p. c. 

443. Cut tobacco, fifty-five cents per pound 55c. p. lb. 

444. Manufactured tobacco, n. e. s., and snuff, fifty cents per pound.. 50c. p. lb. 

445. Foreign leaf raw tobacco, unstcmmed, unmanufactured, for ex- 

cise purposes, under conditions of the inland revenue act, 
after 30th June, 1897, ten cents per pound, to be computed 
on the weight when ex-warehoused loc. p. lb. 

446. Foreign raw leaf tobacco, stemmed, unmanufactured, for excise 

purposes, under conditions of the inland revenue act, after 
3olh June, 1897, fourteen cents per pound, to be computed on 
the weight when ex-warehoused 14c. p. lb. 

i ^nen um era ted goods. 

447. All goods not enumerated in this act as subject to any other 

rate of duty, nor declared free of duty by this act, and not 
being goods the importation whereof is by this act or any 
other act prohibited, shall be subject to a duty of twenty per 
cent ad valorem 20 p. c. 



I 



l8o TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



SCHEDULE H. 
FREE GOODS. 



448. Articles for the use of the governor-general. 

449. Articles when imported by and for the use of the army and navy, viz.: Arms, 

military or naval clothing, musical instruments for bands, military stores 
and munitions of war; also articles consigned direct to officers and men on 
board vessels of Her Majesty's navy, for their own personal use or con- 
sumption. 

450. Articles imported by or for the use of the Dominion Government, or of any 

of the departments thereof, or by and for the Senate or House of Commons, 
including the following articles when imported by the said Government or 
through any of the departments thereof for the use of the Canadian militia: 
Military clothing, musical instruments for military bands, military stores 
and munitions of war. 

451. Articles for the personal or official use of consuls-general who are natives or 

citizens of the country they represent and who are not engaged in any other 
business or profession. 

452. Travelers* baggage, under regulations prescribed by the controller of customs. 

453. Carriages for travelers and carriages laden with .merchandise, and not to in- 

clude circus troupes or hawkers, under regulations prescribed by the con- 
troller of customs. 

454. Apparel, wearing and other personal and household effects, not merchandise, 

of British subjects dying abroad, but domiciled in Canada; books, pictures, 
family plate or furniture, personal effects and heirlooms left by bequest. 

455. Settlers' effects, viz.: Wearing apparel, household furniture, books, imple- 

ments and tools of trade, occupation or employment, guns, musical instru- 
ments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters, live stock, bicycles, carts and 
other vehicles and agricultural implements in use by the settler for at least 
six months before his removal to Canada, not to include machinery, or 
articles imported for use in any manufacturing establishment, or for sale; 
provided that any dutiable article entered as settlers' effects may not be so 
entered unless brought with the settler on his first arrival, and shall not be 
sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of duty, until after twelve 
months' actual use in Canada; provided also, that under regulations made 
by the controller of customs, live stock, when imported into Manitoba or 
the Northwest Territories by intending settlers, shall be free until otherwise 
ordered by the governor in council. 
45O. Animals and articles brought into Canada temporarily and for a period not 
exceeding three months, for the purpose of exhibition or of competition for 
prizes offered by any agricultural or other association; (but a bond shall be 
first given in accordance with regulations prescribed by the controller of 
customs, with the condition that the full duty to which such animals or 
articles would otherwise be liable shall be paid in case of their sale in 
Canada, or if not reexported within the time specified in such bond). 

457. Horses, cattle, sheep, swine and dogs, for the improvement of stock, under 

regulations made by the treasury board and approved by the governor in 
council. 

458. Menageries, horses, cattle, carriages and harness of, under regulations pre- 

scribed by the controller of customs. 

459. Admiralty charts. 

460. Typewriters, tablets with movable fixtures, and musical instruments, when 

imported by and for the use of schools for the blind, and being and remain- 
ing the sole property of the governing bodies of the said schools and not of 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 181 

private individuals; the above particulars to be verified by special affidavit 
on each entry when presented. 

461. Globes, geographical, topographical and astronomical; maps and charts for 

the use of schools for the blind; pictorial illustrations of insects or similar 
studies, when imported for the use of colleges, schools and scientific and 
literary societies; manuscripts and insurance maps, and album insides of 
papier. 

462. Philosophical instruments and apparatus — that is to say, such as are not man- 

ufactured in Canada, when imported for use in universities, colleges, schools, 
scientific societies, and public hospitals. 

463. Botanical and entomological specimens; mineralogical specimens; skins of 

birds, and skins of animals not natives of Canada, for taxidermic purposes, 
not further manufactured than prepared for preservation; fishskins; and 
anatomical preparations and skeletons or parts thereof; and specimens, 
models and wall diagrams for illustration of natural history for universities 
and public museums. 

464. Books, viz.: Books on the application of science to industries of all kinds, in- 

cluding books on agriculture, horticulture, forestry, fish and fishing, mining, 
metallurgy, architecture, electric and other engineering, carpentry, ship- 
building, mechanism, dyeing, bleaching, tanning, weaving and other me- 
chanic arts, and similar industrial books; also books printed in any language 
other than the English and French languages, or in any two languages not 
being English and French, or in any three or more languages; and Bibles, 
prayer books, psalm and hymn books, religious tracts, and Sunday school 
lesson pictures. 

465. Books, embossed, for the blind, and books for the instruction of the deaf and 

dumb and blind. 
4^j(^>. Books printed by any government or by any association for the promotion of 
science or letters, and official annual reports of religious or benevolent asso- 
ciations, and issued in the course of the proceedings of the said associations, 
to their members, and not for the purpose of sale or trade. 

467. Books, not printed or reprinted in Canada, which are included and used as 

text-books in the curriculum of any university, incorporated college or nor- 
mal school in Canada; books specially imported for the bona fide use of in- 
corporated mechanics' institutes, public libraries, libraries of universities, 
colleges and schools, or for the library of any incorporated medical, law, 
literary, scientific or art association or society, and being the property of the 
organized authorities of such library, and not in any case the property of 
individuals, — the whole under regulations to be made by the controller 
of customs, — provided that importers of books who have sold the same for 
the purpose mentioned in this item, shall, upon proof of sale and delivery 
for such purpose, be entitled to a refund of any duty paid thereon. 

468. Books, bound or unbound, which have been printed and manufactured more 

than twelve years. 

469. Newspapers, and quarterly, monthly and semimonthly magazines, and weekly 

literary papers, unbound; and tailors', milliners', and mantle-makers' fashion 
plates. 

470. Paintings in oil or water colors, by artists of well-known merit, or copies of 

the old masters by such artists; and paintings, in oil or water colors, the 
production of Canadian artists, under regulations to be made by the con- 
troller of customs. 

471. Clothing and books, donations of, for charitable purposes, and photographs, 

not exceeding three, sent by friends and not for the purpose of sale. 



1 82 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 

472. Lifeboats and life-saving apparatus specially imported by societies established 
to encourage the saving of human life. 

473' Coins, cabinets of, collections of medals and of other antiquities including col- 
lections of postage stamps; gold and silver coins, except United States silver 
coin; medals of gold, silver or copper, and other metallic articles actually 
bestowed as trophies or prizes and received and accepted as honorary dis- 
tinctions, and cups or other prizes won in bona fide competitions; and medals 
commemorating the Diamond Jubilee of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, until 
the thirty-first of December, 1897, and dies for manufacturing such medals. 

'>74. Locomotive and railway passenger, baggage and freight cars, being the prop- 
erty of railway companies in the United States, running upon any line of 
road crossing the frontier, so long as Canadian locomotives and cars are ad- 
mitted free under similar circumstances into the United States, under regu- 
lations prescribed by the controller of customs. 

475. Models of inventions and of other improvements in the arts, — but no article 

shall be deemed a model which can be fitted for use. 

476. Aluminium in ingots, block or bars, strips, sheets or plates; alumina and chlo- 

ride of aluminium, or chloralum, sulphate of alumina and alum cake; and 
alum in bulk only, ground or unground. 

477. Ambergris; ammonia, sulphate of, sal ammoniac, and nitrate of ammonia; 

arsenic; bromine, burgundy pitch; cinnabar, cochineal, cyanide of potas- 
sium, and cyanogen or compound of bromine and potassium for reducing 
metals in mining operations; iodine, crude; kryolite or cryolite, mineral, 
oxalic acid; quinine, salts of; saltpeter; calcareous tufa; alizarin and arti- 
ficial alizarin; aniline oil, crude; aniline salts and arseniate of aniline; an- 
notto, liquid or solid; aniline dyes and coal tar dyes in bulk or packages of 
not less than one pound weight. 

478. Antimony salts; antimony, or regulus of, not ground, pulverized or otherwise 

manufactured. 

479. Artificial limbs. 

480. Asphalt or asphaltum; bone pitch, crude only; and resin or rosin in packages 

of not less than one hundred pounds; and resin oil. 

481. Anchors for vessels. 

482. Bees. 

483. Bells, when imported for the use of churches only. 

484. Bismuth, metallic, in its natural state; blood albumen and tannic acid. 

485. Blast furnace slag. 

486. Blanketing and lapping, and discs or mills for engraving copper rollers, when 

imported by cotton manufacturers, calico printers, and wall paper manu- 
facturers, for use in their own factories only. 

487. Bolting cloth not made up. 

488. Bones, crude, not manufactured, burned, calcined, ground or steamed. 

489. Bookbinders* cloth. 

490. Boracic acid, and borax, ground or unground, in bulk of not less than twenty- 

five pounds. 

491. Bristles, broom corn and hair brush pads. 

492. Brass and copper, old and scrap, or in blocks; and brass or copper in bolts, 

bars and rods in coil or otherwise, not less than six feet in length, unmanu- 
factured, and brass or copper in strips, sheets or plates, not polished, plan- 
ished or coated, and brass or copper tubing, in lengths of not less than six 
feet, and not polished, bent or otherwise manufactured, and copper in ingots 
or pigs. 

493. Britannia metal in pigs, blocks or bars. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 1 83 

494. Buckram, when imported for the manufacture of hat and bonnet shapes. 

495. Bullion, gold and silver, in ingots, blocks, bars, drops, sheets or plates, un- 

manufactured; gold and silver sweepings, and bullion or gold fringe. 

496. Burr stones, in blocks, rough or unmanufactured, not bound up or prepared for 

binding into millstones. 

497. Caplins, unfinishe'd leghorn hats and manila hoods. 

498. Casts, as models for the use of schools of design. 

499. Cane and rattans, not manufactured; osiers or willows, and bamboos, unman- 

ufactured, and bamboo reeds, not further manufactured than cut into suita- 
ble lengths for walking sticks or canes, or for sticks for umbrellas, parasols 
or sunshades. 

500. Catgut or gut cord, for musical instruments; and catgut or worm gut, un- 

manufactured, for whip and other cord. 

501. Celluloid, xylonite or xyolite in sheets, and in lumps, blocks or balls in the 

rough. 

502. Chloride of lime, in packages of not less than twenty-five pounds weight; 

cobalt, ore of; oxide of cobalt, oxide of tin and oxide of copper; copper, pre- 
cipitate of, crude; dragon's blood; gypsum, crude (sulphate of lime); lava, 
unmanufactured; manganese, oxide of; phosphorus; litharge; saffron, saf- 
fron cake, safflower, and extract of; sulphate of iron (copperas); sulphate of 
copper (blue vitriol); sulphur and brimstone, crude, or in roll or flour; tartar 
emetic and gray tartar; cream of tartar in crystals and argal or argols; ver- 
digris, or sub-acetate of copper, dry; zinc, salts of, and tartaric acid crystals. 

503. Chronometers and compasses for ships. 

504. Citron, lemon and orange rinds in brine. 

505. Clays, including china clay, fire clay and pipe clay; gannister and sand. 

506. Coal, anthracite and anthracite coal dust; coke. 

507. Coal and pine pitch, and coal and pine tar in packages of not less than 15 gal- 

lons. 

508. Coir and coir yarn; raw cotton or cotton wool; and cotton waste, not dyed, 

cleaned, bleached or otherwise manufactured; cotton yarns, number forty 
and finer; and mohair yarns. 

509. Communion plate, when imported for the use of churches. 

510. Crucibles, clay or plumbago. 

511. Curling stones. 

512. Cups, brass, being rough blanks, for the manufacture of paper shells or car- 

tridges, when imported by manufacturers of brass and paper shells and 
cartridges, for use in the manufacture of such articles in their own factories. 

513. Diamonds, unset, diamond dust or bort and black, for borers; and diamond 

drills for prospecting for minerals, not to include motive power. 

514. Domestic fowls, pure bred, for the improvement of stock, homing or messen- 

ger pigeons and pheasants and quails. 
515- Drugs, crude, such as barks, flowers, roots, beans, berries, balsams, bulbs, 
fruits, insects, grains, gums and gum resins, herbs, leaves, nuts, fruit and stem 
seeds — which are not edible and which are in a crude state and not advanced 
in value by refining or grinding or any other process of manufacture and not 
otherwise provided for; egg yolk; fuller's earth, in bulk only, not prepared 
for toilet or other purposes; lead, nitrate and acetate of, not ground; litmus 
and all lichens, prepared or not prepared; musk, in pods or in grain; roots, 
medicinal, viz.: — alkanet, crude, crushed or ground, aconite, calumba, folia 
digitalis, gentian, ginseng, jalap, ipecacuanha, iris, orris root, licorice, sar- 
saparilla, squills, taraxacum, rhubarb and valerian, unground; vaccine and 
ivory vaccine points; gum chicle or sappato gum, crude; platinum and black 



184 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 

oxide of copper, for use in the manufacture of chlorate; potash, chloride 
of, not further prepared than ground, and free from admixture with any 
other substance; and bacteriological products or serum for subcutaneous 
injection. 

516. Duck for belting and hose, when imported by manufacturers of such articles 

for use in the manufacture thereof in their own factories; and canvas or 
fabric, not frictionized, for the manufacture of bicycle tires when imported 
by the manufacturers of bicycle tires for use exclusively in the manufacture 
of bicycle tires in their own factories. 

517. Dyeing or tanning articles, in a crude state, used in dyeing or tanning, n. e. s. ; 

berries for dyeing or used for composing dyes; turmeric, nutgalls and ex- 
tracts thereof; lac, crude, seed, button, stick and shell; indigo, indigo paste 
and extracts of, and indigo auxiliary or zinc dust; persis, or extract of archil 
and cudbear; terra japonica, gambler or cutch, extract of logwood, fustic, 
oak and oak bark and quebracho; camwood and sumac and extract thereof, 
tanner's bark, hemlock bark and oak bark; ground logwood, ground fustic, 
patent prepared dyes, and ground oak bark; iron liquor, solutions of acetate 
or nitrate of iron for dyeing and calico printing; madder and munjeet, or 
Indian madder, ground or prepared, and all extracts of; red liquor, a crude 
acetate of aluminium prepared from pyroligneous acid, for dyeing and calico 
printing. 

518. Emery in bulk, crushed or ground. 

519. Felt, adhesive for sheathing vessels. 

520. Fertilizers, uncompounded or unmanufactured, including phosphate rock, kai- 

nite or German potash salts, German mineral potash, bone dust, bone black 
or charred bone and bone ash, fish offal or refuse, guano and other animal or 
vegetable manures. 

521. Fiber, Mexican, natural, and tampico or istle and vegetable fibers; fibrilla, flax 

jfiber and flax tow; grass, manila, esparto or Spanish, and other grasses, 
and pulp of, including fancy grasses, dried but not colored or otherwise 
manufactured; moss, Iceland, and other mosses, sea grass and seaweed, crude 
or in their natural state, or cleaned only; and kelp. 

522. Fire bricks, for use in processes of manufacture, or for manufacturing pur- 

poses. 

523. Fillets of cotton and rubber not exceeding seven inches wide, when imported 

by and for the use of manufacturers of card clothing in their own factories. 

524. Fishhooks, for deep sea or lake fishing, not smaller in size than number 2.0; 

bank, cod, pollack and mackerel fish lines; and mackerel, herring, salmon, 
seal, seine, mullet, net and trawl twine in hanks or coil, barked or not, — in 
variety of sizes and threads, — including gilling thread in balls, and head 
ropes, barked marline, and net morsels of cotton, hemp or flax, and deep 
sea fishing nets or seines, when used exclusively for the fisheries, and not to 
include hooks, lines or nets commonly used for sportsmen's purposes. 

525. Flint, flints and ground flint stones; feldspar, cliff, chalk, china or Cornwall 

stone, ground or unground; gravels; precious stones in the rough. 

526. Florists' stock, viz. : — Palms, bulbs, corms, tubers, rhizomes, araucaria, spiraea 

and lilies of the valley; seedling stock for grafting, viz.: plum, pear, peach 
and other fruit trees; seeds, viz.: annotto, beet, carrot, flax, turnip, man- 
gold, mustard, sowing rape seed and mushroom spawn; aromatic seeds 
which are not edible and are in a crude state, and not advanced in value or 
condition by grinding or refining or by any other process of manufacture, 
viz.: anise, anise star, caraway, cardamom, coriander, cumin, fennel and 
fenugreek; seed pease and seed beans from Britain; beans, viz.: tonquin. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 1 85 

vanilla and nux vomica, crude only, locust beans and locust bean meal, and 
cocoa beans, not roasted, crushed or ground; fruits, viz.: bananas, plan- 
tains, pineapples, pomegranates, guavas, mangoes and shaddocks; wild blue- 
berries, wild strawberries and wild raspberries; and trees, n. e. s. 

527. Fossils, shells, tortoise and mother-of-pearl, and other shells unmanufactured. 

528. Foot grease, being the refuse of cotton seed after the oil has been pressed out, 

but not when treated with alkalies ; and grease, rough, the refuse of animal 
fat for the manufacture of soap and oils only. 

529. Fur skins of all kinds not dressed in any manner. 

530. Goldbeaters' molds and goldbeaters* skins. 

531. Gums, viz. ; — Amber, Arabic, Australian, copal, dammar, elemy, kaurie, mas- 

tic, sandarac, Senegal, shellac ; and white shellac in gum or flake, for man- 
ufacturing purposes ; and gum tragacanth, gum gedda and gum barbery. 

532. Hair, cleaned or uncleaned, but not curled, dyed or otherwise manufactured ; 

and horsehair not further manufactured than simply cleaned and dipped or 
dyed, imported by manufacturers of haircloth for use in the manufacture 
of such article in their own factories. 

533. Hatters* furs, not on the skin, and hatters' plush of silk or cotton ; and hat- 

ters* bands (not cords), bindings, tips and sides, hat sweats and linings both 
tips and sides, when imported by hat and cap manufacturers for use in the 
manufacture of these articles only in their own factories. 

534. Hemp, undressed. 

535. Hemp paper, made on four cylinder machines and calendered to between .006 

and .008 inch thickness for the manufacture of shot shells ; primers for shot 
shells and cartridges, and felt board sized and hydraulic pressed, and cov- 
ered with paper or uncovered, for the manufacture of gun wads, when such 
articles are imported by manufacturers of shot shells, cartridges and gun 
wads, to be used for these purposes only in their own factories, until such 
time as the said articles are manufactured in Canada ; Provided always that 
the said articles, when imported, shall be entered only at such port or ports 
as are named by the controller of customs, and at no other place ; samples of 
such articles to be furnished to the collector of the said port or ports by the 
customs department for the guidance of the officers when accepting free 
entries of such materials. 

536. Hides and skins, raw, whether dry, salted or pickled, and raw pelts. 

537. Hoofs, horn strips, horn and horn tips, in the rough, not polished or otherwise 

manufactured than cleaned. 

538. Hoop iron not exceeding ^ inch in width and being 25 gauge and thinner. 

used for the manufacture of tubular rivets. 

539. Ice. 

540. Indian corn, not for purposes of distillation and under customs regulations. 

541. Ingot molds, iron sand or globules or iron shot and dry putty for polishing 

glass or granite. 

542. Iron or steel masts, or parts thereof, and iron or steel beams, angles, sheets, 

plates, knees and cable chain for wooden, iron, steel or composite ships and 
vessels; and iron, steel or brass manufactures which at the time of their im- 
portation are of a class or kind not manufactured in Canada, when imported 
for use in the construction or equipment of ships or vessels. 

543. Ivory and ivory nuts, piano key ivories and veneers of ivory unmanufactured. 

544. Junk, old. 

545. Jute and jute butts; and jute cloth, as taken from the loom, not colored, 

cropped, mangled, pressed, calendered nor finished in any way. 



1 86 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 

546. Jute, flax or hemp yarn, plain, dyed or colored, jute canvas, not pressed or 

calendered, when imported by the manufacturers of carpets, rugs and mats, 
jute webbing or jute cloth, hammocks, twines and floor oilcloth, for use in 
the manufacture of any of these articles only, in their own factories. 

547. Lamp black and ivory black. 

548. Lastings, mohair cloth, or other manufactures of cloth, when imported by 

manufacturers of buttons for use in their own factories, and woven or made 
in patterns of such size, shape or form, or cut in such manner as to be fit for 
covering buttons, exclusively. These conditions to be ascertained by special 
examination by the proper officer of customs, and so certified on the face of 
each entry. 

549. Leeches. 

550. Lime juice, crude only. 

551. Locomotive and car wheel tires of steel in the rough. 

552. Meerschaum, crude or raw. 

553. Metal glove fasteners; papier-mach6 shoe buttons, shoe eyelets, shoe eyelet 

hooks, shoe lace wire fasteners, and sewing machine attachments. 

554. Mineral waters, natural, not in bottle, under regulations prescribed by the 

controller of customs. 

555. Machinery imported exclusively for mining, smelting and reducing, viz. : — Coal 

cutting machines except percussion coal cutters, coal heading machines, 
coal augers and rotary coal drills, core drills, miners' safety lamps, coal 
washing machinery, coke-making machinery, ore drying machinery, ore 
roasting machinery, electric or magnetic machines for separating or concen- 
trating iron ores, blast furnace water jackets, converters for metallurgical 
processes in iron or copper, briquette making machines, ball and rock emery 
grinding machines, copper plates, plated or not, machinery for extraction of 
precious metals by the chlorination or cyanide processes, monitors, giants 
and elevators for hydraulic mining, amalgam safes, automatic ore samplers, 
automatic feeders, jigs, classifiers, separators, retorts, buddies, vanners, 
mercury pumps, pyrometers, bullion furnaces, amalgam cleaners, gold 
mining slime tables, blast furnace blowing engines, wrought iron tubing, 
butt or lap welded, threaded or coupled or not, not less than 2^ inches 
diameter, when imported for use exclusively in mining, smelting, reducing 
or refining. 

556. Nickel; and ores of metal of all kinds; and silex or crystallized quartz. 

557. Oakum. 

558. Oils, viz.: Cocoanut and palm, in their natural state; and carbolic or heavy 

oil; oil of roses and ottar or attar of roses, and olive oil for manufacturing 
soap or tobacco, or for canning fish. 

559. Oil cake and oil cake meal, cotton seed cake and cotton seed meal, and palm 

nut cake and meal. 

560. Oysters, seed and breeding, imported for the purpose of being planted in 

Canadian waters. 

561. Oleo-stearin and degras. 

562. Palm leaf, unmanufactured. 

563. Plaits, plain, not to include braid or fancy trimmings, composed of chip, 

manila, cotton, mohair, straw, tuscan and grass. 

564. Platinum wire and platinum in bars, strips, sheets or plates; platinum retorts, 

pans, condensers, tubing and pipe, when imported by manufacturers of 
sulphuric acid for use in their works in the manufacture or concentration 
of sulphuric acid. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 1 87 

565. Potash, muriate and bichromate of crude, caustic potash, and red and yellow 
prussiate of potash; also pot and pearl ash, in packages of not less than 
twenty-five pounds weight. 

56^). Prunella. 

567. Pumice and pumice stone, ground or unground. 

568. Quicksilver. 

569. Quills in their natural state or unplumcd. 

570. Rags of cotton, linen, jute, hemp and woolen, paper waste clippings, and 

waste of any kind except mineral. 

571. Rennet, raw and prepared. 

572. Ribs of brass, iron or steel, runners, rings, caps, notches, ferrules, mounts and 

sticks or canes in the rough, or not further manufactured than cut into lengths 
suitable for umbrella, parasol or sunshade or walking sticks, when imported 
by manufacturers of umbrellas, parasols and sunshades for use in their fac- 
tories in the manufacture of umbrellas, parasols, sunshades or walking sticks. 

573. Rubber and gutta-percha, crude caoutchouc or india rubber, unmanufactured; 

powdered rubber and rubber waste; hard rubber in sheets but not further 
manufactured, and recovered rubber and rubber substitute. 

574. Rolled round wire rods in the coil, of iron or steel, not over three-eighths of 

an inch in diameter, when imported by wire manufacturers for use in 
making wire in the coil, in their own factories. 

575. Rubber thread, elastic. 

576. Reeds, square or round, and raw-hide centers, textile leather or rubber heads, 

thumbs and tips, and steel, iron or nickel caps for whip ends, when im- 
ported by whip manufacturers, for use in the manufacture of whips in their 
own factories. 

577. Rollers, copper, for use in calico printing, when imported by calico printers 

for use in their factories in the printing of calicoes and for no other purpose 
(such rollers not being manufactured in Canada). 

578. Astrakhan or Russian hare skins and China goat plates or rugs, wholly or 

partially dressed, but not dyed. 

579. Salt, imported from the United Kingdom or any British possession, or im- 

ported for the use of the sea or gulf fisheries. 

580. Sausage skins or casings, not cleaned. 

581. Scrap iron or scrap steel, old and fit only to be remanufactured, being part of or 

recovered from any vessel wrecked in waters subject to the jurisdiction of 
Canada. 

582. Silk, raw or as reeled from the cocoon, not being doubled, twisted or advanced 

in manufacture in any way; silk cocoons and silk waste. 

583. Silk in the gum or spun, when imported by manufacturers of silk underwear 

to be used for such manufacture in their own factories. 

584. Silver, nickel and german, in ingqts, blocks, bars, strips, sheets or plates, 

unmanufactured. 

585. Steel rails weighing not less than 45 pounds per lineal yard for use only in the 

tracks of a railway which is employed in the common carrying of goods and 
passengers and is operated by steam motive power only; provided that this 
item shall not extend to rails for tracks of a railway which is used for 
private purposes only, nor shall this item extend to rails for use in the 
tracks of any electric railway, street railway, or tramway. 

586. Soda, sulphate of. crude, known as salt cake, barilla or soda ash. caustic soda; 

silicate of soda in crystals or in solution; bichromate of soda, nitrate of soda 
or cubic niter, sal soda, sulphide of sodium, nitrite of soda, arseniate, bin- 
arseniate, chloride, chlorate, bisulphite and sunnate of soda. 



l88 TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 

587. Spurs and stilts, used in the manufacture of earthenware. 

588. Steel bowls for cream separators, and cream separators. 

589. Steel saws and straw cutters cut to shape, but not further manufactured. 

590. Crucible sheet steel, eleven to sixteen gauge, two and one-half to eighteen inches 

wide for the manufacture of mower and reaper knives, when imported by 
the manufacturers thereof for use for such purpose in their own factories. 

591. Steel of number twenty gauge and thinner, but not thinner than number 

thirty gauge, for the manufacture of corset steels, clock springs and shoe 
shanks, when imported by the manufacturers of such articles for exclusive 
use in the manufacture thereof in their own factories. 

592. Flat steel wire, of number sixteen gauge or thinner, when imported by the 

manufacturers of crinoline or corset wire and dress stays, for use in the 
manufacture of such articles in their own factories. 

593. Steel valued at two and one-half cents per pound and upwards, when imported 

by the manufacturers of skates, for use exclusively in the manufacture 
thereof in their own factories. 

594. Steel, under one-half inch in diameter, or under one-half inch square, when 

imported by the manufacturers of cutlery, or of knobs, or of locks, for use 
exclusively in the manufacture of such articles in their own factories. 

595. Steel of number twelve gauge and thinner, but not thinner than number thirty 

gauge, for the manufacture of buckle clasps, bed fasts, furniture casters, 
and ice creepers, when imported by the manufacturers of such articles, for 
use exclusively in the manufacture thereof in their own factories. 

596. Steel of number twenty-four and seventeen gauge, in sheets sixty-three inches 

long, and from eighteen inches to thirty-two inches wide, when imported by 
the manufacturers of tubular bow sockets for use in the manufacture of such 
articles in their own factories. 

597. Steel for the manufacture of bicycle chain, when imported by the manufac- 

turers of bicycle chain for use in the manufacture thereof in their own 
factories. 

598. Steel for the manufacture of files, augers, auger bits, hammers, axes, hatchets, 

scythes, reaping hooks, hoes, hand rakes, hay or straw knives, windmills 
and agricultural or harvesting forks when imported by the manufacturers 
of such or any of such articles for use exclusively in the manufacture thereof 
in their own factories. 

599. Steel springs for the manufacture of surgical trusses, when imported by the 

manufacturers for use exclusively in the manufacture thereof in their own 
factories. 

600. Flat spring steel, steel billets and steel axle bars, when imported by manufac- 

turers of carriage springs and carriage axles for use exclusively in the man- 
ufacture of springs and axles for carriages or vehicles other than railway 
or tramway, in their own factories. 

601. Spiral spring steel for spiral springs for railways, when imported by the man- 

ufacturers of railway springs for use exclusively in the manufacture of rail- 
way spiral springs in their own factories. 
f»o2. Steel strip and flat steel wire when imported into Canada by manufacturers 
of buckthorn and plain strip fencing, for use in the manufacture of such 
articles in their own factories; and barbed fencing wire of iron or steel 
after January ist, 1898. 

603. Galvanized iron or steel wire number nine, twelve and thirteen gauge, after 

January ist, 1898. 

604. Stereotypes, electrotypes and celluloids of newspaper columns in any language 

other than French and English, and of books and bases and matrices and 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 1 89 

copper shells for the same, whether composed wholly or in part of metal or 
celluloid. 

605. Surgical and dental instruments (not being furniture) and surgical needles, 

after January ist, 1898. 

606. Tagging metal, plain, japanned or coated, in coils, not over one and a half 

inch in width, when imported by manufacturers of shoe and corset laces for 
use in their factories. 

607. Tails, undressed. 

608. Tea and green coffee imported direct from the country of growth and produc- 

tion, and tea and green coffee purchased in bond in the United Kingdom, 
provided there is satisfactory proof that the tea or coffee so purchased in 
bond is such as might be entered for home consumption in the United 
Kingdom. 

609. Teasels, 

610. Tin, in blocks, pigs, bars and sheets, tin plates, tin crystals, tin strip waste, 

and tin foil, tea lead. 

611. Timber or lumber or wood, viz.: lumber and timber planks and boards of 

amaranth,cocoboral, boxwood, cherry, chestnut, walnut, gum wood, mahog- 
any, pitch pine, rosewood, sandalwood, sycamore, Spanish cedar, oak, 
hickory, whitewood, African teak, black-heart ebony, lignum-vitse, red 
cedar, redwood, satinwood and white ash, when not otherwise manufac- 
tured than rough sawn or split or creosoted, vulcanized or treated by any 
other preserving process; sawed or split boards, planks, deals and other 
lumber when not further manufactured than dressed on one side only or 
creosoted, vulcanized or treated by any preserving process; pine and spruce 
clapboards; timber or lumber hewn or sawed, squared or sided or creosoted; 
laths, pickets and palings; staves not listed or jointed of wood of all kinds; 
firewood, handle, heading, stave, and shingle bolts, hop poles, fence posts, 
railroad ties; hubs for wheels, posts, last blocks, wagon, oar, gun, heading 
and all like blocks or sticks rough hewn, or sawed only; felloes of hickory 
wood, rough sawn to shape only, or rough sawn and bent to shape, not 
planed, smoothed or otherwise manufactured; hickory billets and hickory 
lumber, sawn to shape for spokes of wheels, but not further manufactured; 
hickory spokes, rough turned, not tenoned, mitered, throated, faced, sized, 
cut to length, round tenoned or polished; shingles of wood; the wood of the 
persimmon and dogwood trees; and logs and round unmanufactured timber, 
ship timber or ship planking, not specially enumerated or provided for in 
this act. 

612. D shovel handles, wholly of wood, and Mexican saddletrees and stirrups of 

wood. 

613. Cork wood, or cork bark, unmanufactured. 

614. Sawdust of the following woods: Armaranth, cocoboral, boxwood, cherry, 

chestnut, walnut, gum wood, mahogany, pitch pine, rosewood, sandal- 
wood, sycamore, Spanish cedar, oak, hickory, whitewood, African teak, 
black-heart ebony, lignum-vitae, red cedar, redwood, satinwood, white ash, 
persimmon and dogwood. 

615. Tree nails. 

616. Tobacco, unmanufactured, for excise purposes, under conditions of the inland 

revenue act, until July ist, 1897. 

617. Tubes, rolled iron not welded or joined, under one and one-half inch in 

diameter, angle iron, nine and ten gauge not over one and one-half inch 
wide, iron tubing lacquered or brass covered, not over one and one-half 
inch in diameter, all of which are to be cut to lengths for the manufacture 



igO TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. 

of bedsteads, and to be used for no other purpose, and brass trimmings for 
bedsteads, when imported by or for manufacturers of iron or brass bed- 
steads to be used for such purposes only in their own factories, until such 
time as any of the said articles are manufactured in Canada. 

618. Turpentine, raw or crude. 

619. Turtles. 

620. After 1st January, 1898, binders* twine, or twine for harvest binders, of hemp, 

jute, manila or sisal, and of manila and sisal mixed, and all articles upon 
which duties are levied which enter into the cost of the manufacture of such 
twine, under regulations to be made by the controller of customs. 

621. Ultramarine blue, dry or in pulp. 

622. Varnish, black and bright,^ for ships' purposes. 

623. Whalebone, unmanufactured. 

624. Whiting or whitening, paris white and gilders' whiting, blanc fixe and satin 

white. 

625. Wire, crucible cast steel. 

626. Wire rigging for ships and vessels. 

627. Wire, of brass, zinc, iron or steel, screwed or twisted, or flattened or corrugated, 

for use in connection with nailing machines for the manufacture of boots 
and shoes, when'im ported by manufacturers of boots and shoes, to be used 
for such purposes only in their own factories. 

628. Steel wire, bessemer soft drawn spring, of numbers ten, twelve and thirteen 

gauge, respectively, and homo steel spring wire of numbers eleven and 
twelve gauge, respectively, when imported by manufacturers of wire mat- 
tresses, to be used in their own factories in the manufacture of such articles. 

629. Wool and the hair of the camel, alpaca, goat, and other like animals, not fur- 

ther prepared than washed, n. e. s. ; noils, being the short wool which falls 
from the combs in worsted factories; and worsted tops, n. e. s. 

630. Wool or worsted yarns, when genapped, dyed or finished and imported by 

manufacturers of braids, cords, tassels, and fringes to be used in the manu- 
facture of such articles only in their own factories. 

631. Yarn spun from the hair of the alpaca or of the angora goat, when imported 

by manufacturers of braids for use exclusively in their factories in the man- 
ufacture of such braids only, under such regulations as are adopted by the 
controller of customs. 

632. Yellow metal, in bolts, bars and for sheathing. 

633. Zinc spelter and zinc in blocks, pigs, sheets and plates; and seamless drawn 

tubing. 

634. Molasses, second process, or molasses derived from the manufacture of ''mo- 

lasses sugar," testing by polariscope less than 35 degrees, when imported by 
manufacturers of blacking, for use in their own factories, in the manufac- 
ture of blacking, — conditional that the importers shall, in addition to making 
oath at the time of entry that such molasses is imported for such use and will 
not be used for any other purpose, cause such molasses to be at once mixed 
in a proper tank made for the purpose with at least one-fifth of the quantity 
thereof of cod or other oil, whereby such molasses may be rendered unfit for 
any other use, such mixing to be done in the presence of a customs officer at 
the expense of the importer, and under such further regulations as are from 
lime to time considered necessary in the interest and for the protection of 
the revenue, and that until such mixing is done and duly certified on the 
face of the entry thereof by such customs officer the entry shall be held to be 
incomplete and the molasses subject to the usual rate of duty as when im- 
ported for any other purpose. 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. I9I 

635. Bags, barrels, boxes, casks and other vessels exported filled with Canadian 

products, or exported empty and returned filled with foreign products; and 
articles the growth, produce and manufacture of Canada, when returned 
after having been exported; provided that proof of the identity of such arti- 
cles and goods shall be made under regulations to be prescribed by the con- 
troller of customs, and that such articles and goods are returned within 
three years from time of exportation, without having been advanced in 
value or improved in condition by any process of manufacture or other means; 
provided further that this item shall not apply to any article or goods upon 
which an allowance of drawback has been made, the reimportation of which 
is hereby prohibited except upon payment of duties equal to the drawback 
allowed; nor shall this item apply to any article or goods manufactured in 
customs or excise bonded warehouse and exported under any provision of 
law. 

SCHEDULE C. 

r'KOHlHITKD GOODS. 

636. Books, printed paper, drawings, paintings, prints, photographs or represen- 

tations of any kind of a treasonable or seditious, or of an immoral or inde- 
cent character. 

637. Reprints of Canadian copyright works, and reprints of British copyright 

works which have been copyrighted in Canada also. 

638. Coin, base or counterfeit. 

639. Oleomargarine^ butterin or other similar substitute for butter. 

640. Tea adulterated with spurious leaf or with exhausted leaves, or containing so 

great an admixture of chemical or other deleterious substances as to make 
it unfit for use. 

641. Goods manufactured or produced wholly or in part by prison labor, or which 

have been made within or in connection with any prison, jail or peniten- 
tiary; also goods similar in character to those produced in such institutions, 
when sold or offered for sale by any person, firm or corporation having a 
contract for the manufacture of such articles in such institutions or by any 
agent of such person, firm or corporation, or when such goods were origi- 
nally purchased from or transferred by any such contractor. 

SCHEDULE D. 

KKCII'KOCAL TARIFF. 

On all the products of countries entitled to the benefits of this reciprocal tariff, 
under the provisions of section sixteen, the duties mentioned in Schedule A shall 
be reduced as follows: — 

On and afterthe twenty-third of April, 1897, until the thirtieth day of June, 1898, 
inclusive, the reduction shall in every case be one-eighth of the duty mentioned in 
Schedule A, and the duty to be levied, collected and paid shall be seven-eighths 
of the duty mentioned in Schedule A. 

On and after the first day of July, 1898, the reduction shall in every case be one- 
fourth of the duty mentioned in Schedule A, and the duty to be levied, collected 
and paid shall be three-fourths of the duty mentioned in Schedule. A. 

Provided, however, that these reductions shall not apply to any of the following 
articles, and that such articles^ shall in all cases be subject to the duties mentioned 
in Schedule A, viz.: — wines, malt liquors, spirits, spirituous liquors, liquid medi- 
cines and articles containing alcohol; sugar, molasses and sirups of all kinds, the 
product of the sugar cane or beet root; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes. 



192 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



INDEX. 



Number of 
A. tariff item. 

Absinthe 7 (a) 

Absorbent cotton, surgical dressing 152 

Acetate of aluminium (red liquor) 517 

iron (iron liquor) 517 

lead, not ground 515 

Acid, acetic and pyroligenous, n. c. s., crude.. 141 

not over 30 per cent.*. 142 

boracic 4go 

muriatic and- nitric 143 

other, n. e. s. 143 

oxalic 477 

phosphate, n. o. p... 145 

stearic 19 

sulphuric 144 

tannic 484 

tartaric crystals 502 

Acids, mixed 143 

Aconite root, unground 515 

Acorn nuts, n. o. p 89 

Actions, watch 347 

Adhesive felt for sheathing vessels 519 

Admiralty charts 459 

Adulterated tea, prohibited 640 

Advertising almanacs 126 

bills, folders, and posters. 126 

calendars 126 

circulars and fly sheets. 126 

chromos, chromotypes, etc 126 

pamphlets 126 

periodicals 126 

Adzes 289 

African teak, lumber, etc 6ir 

sawdust 614 

Agate ware, hollow 307 

Agriculture, books on 464 

Agricultural forks, steel for 598 

Agricultural implements, plates for, cut to 

shape but not 

molded, etc 317 

n. e. s.. 290 

settlers' 455 

Air guns and rifles. 306 

compressors 315 

Alabaster ornaments 351 

Album insides, of paper 461 

Albumen, blood 484 

Albumenized paper for photographers 123 

Alcohol, amyl 7 {a) 

ethyl 7 (rt) 

methyl 7 (a) 

wood 7 (a) 

Alcoholic bitters and beverages— 7 (a) 

liquors. ~ 7 

n. o. p 7 (a) 

perfumes, 7 («) 

Ale in bottles 2 

casks, etc i 

Alizarin 477 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Alizarin, artificial 477 

Alkanet root, crude, crushed, or ground s'S 

Alligator leather 212 

Almanacs, advertising 126 

Almonds 96 

Alpacas, fabrics, to be dyed and finished in 

Canada, etc.- 3S6 

hair fabrics, n. c. s. 394 

manufactures, viz, blankets 
and flannels, cloths, doe- 
skins, cassimeres, tweeds, 
coatings, overcoatings, and 

felt cloth, n. c. s. 394 

or wool, not further prepared 

than washed, n. e. s. 629 

yarn spun from, for manufac- 
turing braid 631 

ready-made clothing or wearing 

apparel, n. o. p 394 

yarn costing 30 cents and over, per 

pound— 393 

Alpacas, to be dyed and finished in Canada. 

etc j86 

Alum, in bulk only 476 

cake 476 

Alumina 476 

sulphate of.- 476 

Aluminium, in ingots, blocks, or bars, strips, 

sheets, or plates 47.*) 

chloride of.- 476 

crude, acetate of, etc. (red liq- 
uor) for dyeing and calico 

printing 517 

hollow ware, n. e. s 308 

leaf 352 

manufactures of, n. o. p 292 

Amalgam safes and cleaners 5^5 

Amaranth, lumber, etc., of, rough sawn or 

split, etc 611 

sawdust 614 

Amber gum 531 

ornaments 351 

Ambergris. 477 

Ammonia, aromatic spirits of 7 {(/) 

nitrate of 477 

sulphate of 477 

Ammoniac, sal 477 

Ammunition, n. o. p 306 

Amyl alcohol 7 (#1) 

Anatomical preparations 463 

Anchors 481 

Anchovies, in tin cans m 

any other form 112 

Angle iron, 9 and 10 gauge, for manufacture 

of bedsteads. 617 

Angles, iron or steel, for vessels. 542 

rolled iron or steel, less than 35 
pounds per lineal yard 227 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



193 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Angles, rolled iron or steel, n. e. s. 228 

Angora goat hair, yarn spun from, for man- 
ufacturing braids. 631 

Angostura bitters 7 (a) 

Aniline, arseniate of 477 

dyes, not less than i pound 477 

oil, crude.. 477 

salts.» 477 

Animals for exhibition or competition 456 

improvement of stock 457 

living II 

skins of, for taxidermic purposes..... 463 

Animal manures. 520 

stearin 18 

Anise seed, crude, not ground, etc 526 

star seed, crude, not ground, etc 526 

Annotto, liquid or solid 477 

seed, crude, not ground, etc 526 

Annual reports of religious or benevolent as- 
sociations.. 466 

Anodes, nickel 278 

Anodynes, alcohol, n. e. s.. 7 (fi) 

n. o. p 147 

Anthracite coal 506 

dust 506 

Anticorrosive and antifouling paints 160 

Antimony salts 478 

not ground, pulverized, or manu- 
factured 478 

Antiseptic surgical dressing 152 

Antiquities, collections of 473 

Anvils. » 289 

Apparatus, electric, n. c. s. 294 

life saving 472 

philosophical, not manufactured 

in Canada, for colleges, etc 462 

Apparel, wearing, wool, worsted, hair of al- 
paca, goat, or like ani- 
mal, n. e. s 394 

of British subject dying 

abroad 454 

settler's 455 

Apples. 35 

dried, desiccated, or evaporated 78 

pine 526 

Apple trees 73 

Arabic, gum 531 

Archil, extract of.- 517 

Architecture, books on 464 

Argal or argols 502 

Arms, for use of army and navy 449 

fire 206 

Army and navy, articles imported by and for 

use of 449 

Aromatic seeds, viz, anise, anise star, cara- 
way, cardamom, coriander, cu- 
min, fennel, and fenugreek, 

crude, not ground, etc 5/6 

spirits of ammonia 7 {</) 

Arrack 7 (a) 

Arseniate of aniline 477 

soda 586 

Arsenic 477 

Articles exported and returned 635 

No. 205 4. 



Number of 
tarifif item. 

Articles, fancy, n. e. s 351 

for use of governor-general 448 

the personal use of consuls-gen- 
eral 451 

iron or steel, n. o. p 321 

by and for army and navy 449 

Dominion Government.. 450 
Senate or House of Com- 
mons 450 

made from cotton or linen fabrics, 

n. o. p 362 

produce of the fisheries, n. o. p 122 

to officers and men of navy 449 

unemumerated 447 

used in dyeing or tanning, crude, 

n. e. s 517 

Artificial alizarin 477 

brandy 7 (a) 

flowers 430 

limbs 479 

Artistic work, other than hand painting or 

drawing, n. e. s.. 126 

Artotypes 130 

Arts, improvements in 475 

mechanic, books on 464 

Araucaria 526 

Asbestos, other than crude, and manufac- 
tures of 353 

Ash, bone.. 520 

soda 586 

white, lumber, etc., of 611 

sawdust 614 

Ashes, pot and pearl, in packages not less 

than 25 pounds 565 

Asphalt or asphaltum 480 

Associations, religious or benevolent, annual 

reports of 466 

Astrakhan hair skins, not dyed 578 

Astronomical globes 461 

Attachments, binding 318 

sewing machine 553 

Attar of roses. 558 

Augers, coal 555 

steel for manufacture of 598 

Augur bits, steel for manufacture of 598 

Australian gum 531 

Automatic samplers, etc 555 

Auxiliary indigo 517 

Ax(^s. 290 

steel for manufacture of 598 

Axle bars, iron or steel, for railway or tram- 
way vehicles, etc 246 

for manufacture of axles for ve- 
hicles, etc 600 

blanks, iron or steel, for railway or 

tramway vehicles, etc 246 

Axles, iron or steel, for railway or tramway 

vehicles, etc 246 

Axle grease 175 

R 

Babbitt metal 299 

Bacteriological products 515 

Badges 362 



^ 



194 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Bagatelle tables, cues, and balls 340 

Bags, carpet and tool 424 

cotton, seamless. 377 

exported and returned 635 

of hemp, linen, or jute 377 

game 306 

of paper 136 

chatelaine, frames, clasps, or fasten- 
ers for 425 

Baggage cars, railway, running on lines 

crossing frontier 474 

travelers' 452 

Bait, fishing, sportsmen's 319 

Baked beans, in cans or other packages. 66 

Baking powders. 72 

Ball and rock emery grinding machines. 555 

Balls, bagatelle and billiard 340 

celluloid, xylonite, or xyolite in the 

rough... 501 

molded.... 286 

glass 208 

Balances 283 

Balsams, crude drugs 515 

Bamboos, unmanufactured 499 

Bamboo reeds for walking sticks, etc 499 

Bananas 526 

Band iron or steel, thinner than 18 ji^au^e, 

n. e. s 234 

8 inches and less wide, 
18 gauge and thicker. 229 
steel more than 2]4 cents per pound, 

n. o. p. 236 

I^ndages, suspensory 152 

Band instruments 357 

Bands, hatters' 533 

Bank fish lines. 524 

notes, unsigned 128 

Bar iron, rolled 229 

Barberry gum 531 

Barbed wire. 262 

fencing wire 602 

Barbers' shears 284 

Barilla 586 

Bark, cork, manufactures of . n. o. p 327 

unmanufactured 613 

hemlock 517 

oaJc 517 

extract of 5,7 

tanners* 517 

Barked marline 524 

Barks, crude drugs, n. o. p 515 

Barley 44 

Barrels, Canadian manufacture, exported 

and returned 635 

containing petroleum 174 

Bars, aluminium 476 

axle, iron or steel, for railway or tram- 
way vehicles, etc 246 

for manufacture of axles for vehicles, 

etc 600 

brass 492 

britannia metal 493 

copper 492 

gold and silver bullion 495 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Bars, iron or steel, hammered, n. o p 243 

railway, n. e. s 238 

lead 273 

nickel and german silver in. 584 

phosphor bronze 299 

platinum 564 

puddled iron or steel 226 

steel, more than 2^ cents per pound, 

n. o. p 236 

tin 610 

plate, crop ends of 223 

yellow metal in. 633 

Base coin, prohibited 638 

Bases for electrotypes, etc., of books, etc... 604 

newspaper 

columns.. 303 

Baskets of all kinds 434 

Baths, n.o. p. 186 

Batteries, electric 294 

galvanic 394 

Batting, cotton 358 

Batts, cotton 358 

Bayonets 306 

Bay rum 7 (c) 

Bead ornaments, n. e. s 351 

Beams, iron or steel, for vessels.. 542 

rolled iron or steel . lessthan 35 pounds 

per lineal yard 227 

n. e. s 228 

weighing 283 

Bean meal, locust 526 

Beans 36 

seed, from Great Britain 526 

baked, in cans or other packages 66 

cocoa, not roasted, crushed, or ground.. 526 

crude drugs, n. o. p 515 

locust 526 

viz, tonquin, vanilla, and nux vomica, 

crude only 526 

Bed comforters, wool, etc 394 

Bedsteads, certain articles for manufacture of. 61 7 

Bed fasts, steel, for manufacture of 595 

Beef, fluid, not medicated... 15 

Beer in bottles. 2 

casks, etc i 

Bees 482 

Beeswax 20 

Beet seed 526 

sirups, n. e. s. 440 

Bells, when imported for use of churches..... 483 

other 276 

Belt buckles, jewelry 350 

Belted rolls 315 

Belting chain for binder 318 

duck for, imported by manufacturers. 516 
of leather or other material, n. e. s... 218 

leather 213 

Belts, cartridge 306 

surgical and electric 152 

of all kinds, n. o. p 362 

Bench machines, n. o. p. 289 

Bengalines, to be dyed and finished in Can- 
ada, etc 386 

Bent plate glass. 309 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



195 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Berries, black, goose, rasp, and straw 75 

blue, straw, and rasp, wild $26 

cranberries 76 

crude drugs, n. o. p. 515 

for dyeing or for composing dyes..... 517 

Berry bushes, goose and rasp 74 

Bessemer steel wire for wire mattresses. 6a8 

Beverages, angostura, tafia, and similar alco- 
holic 7(a) 

Bibles 464 

Bichromate of potash, crude 565 

soda 586 

Bicycle chain, steel for manufacture of 597 

Bicycles 325 

settlers' 455 

canvas for manufacture of tires for.. 516 

Billets, hickory 611 

iron or steel 226 

steel, for manufacture of axles 600 

Billiard tables, cues, and balls. 340 

Bills, advertising 126 

of exchange, unsigned 128 

Binarseniate of soda 586 

Binding attachments 318 

Bindings, hatters' 533 

Binder twine 433. 620 

Binders, chains for 318 

Bird cages. 287 

Birds, skins of, for taxidermic purposes. 463 

Biscuits, sweetened 58 

not sweetened 57 

Bismuth, metallic, in its natural state 484 

Bisulphite of soda 586 

Bits, auger, steel for manufacture of 598 

Bitters, n. o. p. 147 

angostura. tafia, and similar alco- 
holic 7 (a) 

Bituminous coal, round, etc 180 

slack 179 

Blackberries. 75 

Black, bone 520 

crape 367 

diamonds for borers 513 

heart ebony, lumber, etc., of 611 

sawdust of 614 

ivory 547 

lamp 547 

oxide of copper, for manufacture of 

chlorate. 515 

varnish for ships* use 622 

Blacking, shoe 164 

molasses used for the manufacture 

of 634 

Blades, knife, in the rough 285 

Blanc fix^ 624 

Blankets, wool, worsted, hairol alpaca, goat, 

and like animals, n. e. s 394 

Blanketing and lapping imported by cotton 
manufacturers, calico printers, and wall- 
paper manufacturers 486 

Blank forms, commercial, printed or litho- 
graphed 128 

Blanks, axle, iron or steel, for railway vehi- 
cles, etc 246 



Number of 
uriff item. 

Blanks, bolt, nut, and hinge, n. e. s 279 

celluloid lamp shade 286 

corset 362 

eye bar, flat, not punched or drilled.. 228 

knife, in the rough 285 

shovel, and iron or steel cut to shape 

for 291 

spade, and iron or steel cut to shape 

for 291 

Blast-furnace slag 485 

blowing engines 555 

water jackets. 555 

Blasting powder. 4x2 

Bleached cotton fabrics, n. o. p 359 

Bleaching, books on 464 

Blind, embossed books for, etc 465 

maps and charts for schools of 461 

rollers 344 

typewriters, tablets, and musical in- 
struments for schools of 460 

Blinds, window, of paper 138 

not textile or paper 342 

Blocks, lead 272 

tin 6io 

aluminium 476 

brass and copper in. 492 

britannia metal 493 

burr stones, rough 496 

celluloid, xylonite or xyolite in the 

rough 501 

gold and silver bullion 495 

gun, rough hewn or sawed only 611 

heading, rough hewn or sawed only. 611 

inverted, earthenware 184 

last and like blocks, rough hewn, etc. 61 1 

nickel and german silver in. 584 

oar, rough hewn or sawed only... 611 

paving, of stone 194 

phosphor bronze 299 

wagon, rough hewn or sawed only.. 611 

zinc in 633 

Blood albumen 484 

dragon's 502 

Blooms, crop ends of 223 

iron or steel 226 

Blouses, ladies' and misses* 366 

Blown-glass tableware 208 

Blowing engines, blast furnace 555 

Blueberries, wild 526 

Blue prints 130 

ultramarine, dry or in pulp 621 

vitriol 502 

Bluing, laundry x6o 

Board, felt, sized, etc., for manufacture of 

gun wads 535 

mill 134 

straw, in sheets or rolls 135 

tarred 135 

Boards, bagatelle 340 

sawed, planed, jointed, etc 328 

undressed or dressed on one 

side only, etc 611 

wood, of certain kinds, when not oth- 
erwise manufactured thansawn;,etc. 6vv 



196 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Boats, sail, open pleasure 410 

life 472 

sails for 380 

Boilers composed wholly or in part of iron 

or steel, n. o. p 315 

Boiler tubes of wrought iron or steel 24Q 

Bolsters 343 

Bolt blanks, iron or steel, n. e. s. 279 

Bolts, brass 492 

copper 492 

handle 611 

heading 611 

iron or steel, n. e, s 279 

stave 611 

shingle 611 

yellow metal in 632 

Bolting cloth, not made up 487 

Bolsters 343 

Bonds, unsigned 128 

Bone ash 520 

blaclc 520 

charred— 520 

dust 520 

pitch, crude 480 

Bones, crude, not manufactured, etc 488 

Boneless fish no 

Bonnet shapes. 403 

Bonnets, n. e. s 403 

Bonnet shapes, buckram for manufacture of. 494 

Bookbinding machines 313 

Bookbinders* cloth 489 

Books, viz. Bibles, prayer books, psalm and 

hymn books 464 

British subjects dying abroad 454 

donations of, for charitable purposes. 471 

electrotypes, etc., of 604 

embossed, for the blind 465 

illustrated price 126 

for the instruction of the deaf and 

dumb and blind 465 

fly 4-24 

mechanics' institutes, public free 

libraries, university, college, law 

libraries, etc 467 

not printed in Canada, for universi- 
ties and colleges. 467 

viz, novels, etc., paper, bound or in 

sheets 124 

railway, freight, and telegraph rates, 

in book and pamphlet f rm 124 

pocket 424 

printed in any other than French or 

English language, etc 464 

by any government or associa- 
tion for promotion of learn 

ing, etc 466 

and manufactured more than 

twelve years 468 

n. e. s 125 

prohibited 636 

scientific 464 

'settlers' 455 

Boot laces. 405 

Boots, n. c. s. 219 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Boots, horse 280 

india rubber 221 

rubber, stockinettes for 383 

wire (brass, steel, iron, and zinc), 

twisted, for manufacture of 627 

Boracic acid 490 

Borax, in bulk of not less than 25 pounds 490 

Border papers. 140 

Borders, wall paper 138 

Borers, black diamonds for 513 

Bort, or diamond dust 51-; 

Botanical specimens. 463 

Bottles, glass. 208 

Bottoms, tank sugar 436 

Bow sockets, tubular, steel for 596 

Bowls, steel, for cream separators. 588 

Boxes, collar 351 

exported and returned 635 

glove 351 

handkerchief 351 

hat. 424 

or skeins, cart.. 247 

Boxed papers 140 

Boxwood, lumber, etc., of 611 

sawdust 6:4 

Bracelets, n. o. p 362 

Braces, or parts thereof 404 

Brads 259 

Braids 362 

alpaca or angora goat yarn for manu- 
facture of 631 

hair 362 

wool or worsted yarn for manufacture 

of, etc 630 

Brandy 7(a) 

artificial 7(a) 

fruits preserved in 83 

imitations. 7 (a) 

Brass band instruments 357 

bars 492 

blocks 492 

bolts 492 

buckles, n. o. p 305 

burrs, rivets, or washers 276 

cups for manufacture of paper shells 

or cartridges. 512 

in sheets or plates. 492 

strips, etc 492 

manufactures of , n. o. p 276 

not manufactured in 
Canada for ships 

or vessels. 542 

nails and tacks 276 

old 492 

pumps 312 

ribs for manutaclure of umbrellas, par- 
asols, etc 572 

rods 492 

screws n. o. p. 260 

scrap 492 

trimmings for bedsteads 617 

tubing 492 

wire. 265 

cloth or woven wire 267 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



197 



Number of 
tariff Item. 

Brass wire, twisted, for manufacturers of 

boots and shoes 627 

Braril nuts 96 

Bread knives 284 

Breadstuff s, damaged by water in transit. 45 

Breeding oysters 560 

Bricks, fire, for manufacturing purposes, etc.. 522 

n. e. s 181 

for building 181 

paving i8i 

Bridge plate, universal mill ^ 2^0 

structural sections, n. c. s. 228 

Bridges, iron or steel 242 

Bright varnish for ships' use 622 

Brimstone, crude, or in roll or flour .S02 

Briquette-making machines 555 

Bristles 491 

Britannia metal, manufactures of, not plated.. 292 

in pigs, blocks, and bars 493 

British copyright works, reprints of, copy- 
righted in Canada, prohibited 637 

British gum 167 

subjects dying abroad, personal and 

household effects of 454 

Brocade powders 352 

Bromine 477 

Bronze, phosphor, in blocks, bars, sheets, and 

wire 299 

powders 3S2 

Broom com 491 

Brooms 330 

Brushes 428 

Brush cases 351 

pads, hair 491 

Buckle clasps, steel, 12 to 30 gauge, inclusive, 

for manufacture of 595 

Buckles, n. o. p 305 

belt, or other jewelry 35r> 

Buckram for manufacture of hat and bonnet 

shapes 494 

Buckthorn fencing 263 

wire, etc., for manufacture of 602 

Buckwheat 37 

meal or flour 46 

Buddies... 55S 

Buds, June 73 

Buggies, n. e. s, 323 

Builders' hardware 280 

Building brick 181 

plans, n. e. s 130 

stone, not hammered or chiseled.... 193 

stone, dressed 194 

structural sections, n. e. s 228 

Bulbs, crude drugs, n. o. p 515 

floral stock. 526 

glass, for electric lights 298 

Bullets, lead 274 

Bullion fringe 495 

furnaces 555 

gold and silver, in blocks bars, in- 
gots, etc 495 

Buntings, to be dyed and finished m Canada, 

etc.- 386 

Burgundy pitch 477 



Number of 
Uriff item. 

Burners 297 

Burnt siennas, n. c. s 160 

Burr stones, in blocks, rough 496 

Burrs, brass and copp>er 276 

Bushes, gooseberry, raspberry, currant, and 

rose 74 

Busks, for corsets 362 

Builders' nails and spikes 255 

Butchers' steels and knives 284 

Butter 31 

cocoa 94 

substitutes, prohibited 639 

Butterin, prohibited 639 

Butt hinges 280 

Button lac 517 

Buttons, cloth for manufacture of 548 

collar, cuff, and recognition, not 

jewelry 426 

pantaloon, metal 426 

papier-mach^, shoe 553 

shoe, n. e. s 426 

all other, n. o. p 426 

Butts, jute 545 

C. 

Cabinetsof coins 473 

Cabinetmakers' hardware 280 

Cabinet furniture 343 

Cable, chain 542 

Cables, covered 264 

wire. n. e. s 269 

Cages, bird, parrot, squirrel, and rat 287 

Cake, alum 476 

cotton seed 55^ 

meal oil 559 

mustard 63 

oil 559 

palm nut 559 

saffron 502 

salt 586 

Cakes, yeast 72 

Calcareous tufa 477 

Calendars, advertising 126 

Calf leather, dressed, waxed, or glazed 212 

Calico printing, copp>er rollers for use in 577 

California prunes 77 

Calumba root, unground 515 

Camel hair fabrics, etc., to be dyed and fin- 
ished in Canada, etc 386 

not further prepared than 

washed, n. e. s. 629 

Camwood and extract thereof 517 

Canada plates. 234 

Canadian copyright works, reprints prohib- 
ited 637 

militia, certain articles for use of.. 450 

Canary seed 61 

Candied peel 438 

Candles, n. e. s 21 

paraffin wax 22 

Candy, sugar 438 

Cane sirups, n. e. s 440 

split or manufactured, reed, etc., n. o. p.. 326 
unmanufactured ,...,.„. ^q(C) 



198 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Canes, bamboo reeds cut into lengths for 499 

umbrella, parasol, etc., rough or cut 

into lengths, etc 572 

walking, n. e. s. 335 

Canned meats 15 

oysters 117 118, 119 

poultry and game 15 

Canister powder. 413 

Cannon powder. 413 

Cannons. 306 

Canoes 410 

Cant dogs. 289 

Canvas, jute, not pressed, etc., for manufac- 
ture of carpets, etc S46 

to be used for boats and ships' sails.. 411 

for manufacture of bicycle tires 516 

Caoutchouc, crude 573 

Capes, fur 407 

Caplins 497 

Caps, fur 407 

n. e. s., and cap shapes. 403 

for manufacture of umbrellas, parasols 

and sunshades 572 

for whip ends, of steel, iron, or nickel.. 576 

percussion 306 

Caraway seed, crude, not ground, etc 526 

Carbolic oil 558 

Carbon points 295 

(!arbons, electric light, n. e. s 295 

over 6 inches in circumference 296 

Carboys, glass. 208 

Cardamom seed, crude, not ground 5>6 

(^ard clothing, cotton and rubber fillets for 

manufacture of 523 

machine 316 

Cards, curry 280 

pictorial show 126 

playing 137 

printed or lithographed (commercial).. 128 

Carpentry, books on 464 

Carpet bags. 424 

cork 398 

linings. 396 

sweepers, 343 

Carpeting of cocoa, straw, hemp, or jute 396 

Carpels, jute, hemp, or flax yarn, for the 

manufacture of .* 546 

n. e. s 397 

Carriage hardware, n. e. s 280 

mats. n. e. s 395 

oilcloth, enameled 398 

(!urriages, childrens' 323 

for travelers 453 

laden with merchandise 453 

menagerie 458 

n. e. s 323 

Carrot seed 526 

Cars, railway, running on lines crossing 

frontier 474 

or other 324 

Car-wheel tires of steel, in the rough 551 

Cartridge belts and cases 306 

Cartridges.. 306 

brass cups for manufacture of 512 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Cartridges, primers for the manufacture of... 535 

Cart skeins or boxes. 247 

Carts, hand 324 

pleasure, n. e. s 323 

settlers' 455 

Carvers 284 

Cases, cartridge 306 

fancy 351 

cigar and cigarette, and holders. 423 

for smokers' sets 423 

musical instrument. 434 

show 339 

watch 345 

Cashmeres to be dyed or finished in Canada, 

etc 386 

Cash registers. 343 

Casings, sausage, not cleaned 580 

Caskets 338 

Casks, etc., exported and returned 635 

Cashmeres, wool, worsted, hair of alpaca, 

etc., n, e. s 394 

Casters, steel for manufacture of 595 

Castings, malleable iron, n. e. s. 255 

iron or steel in the rough, n. e. s.... 244 
Casts, as models, for use of schools of design.. 498 

Cast iron, scrap 224 

pipe of every description 248 

steel wire, crucible 625 

Castile soap, mottled or white 24 

Catalogues 126 

Catgut, for musical instruments. 500 

unmanufactured, for whip cord, etc... 500 

Catsups 67 

Cattle for ii^provement of stock 457 

menagerie 458 

Caustic potash 565 

soda 586 

''C.C' ware, decorated, printed, or sponged. 185 
Cedar, red, lumber and timber, planks, and 

boards of 611 

sawdust 614 

Spanish, lumber and timber, planks 

and boards of 611 

sawdust 614 

Celluloid balls and cylinders, molded, not 

finished a86 

collars 36s 

cuffs 365 

in sheets and in lumps, blocks, or 

balls in the rough 501 

lamp-shade blanks 286 

molded into sizes for knife and 

fork handles, not bored, etc 286 

Celluloids, for almanacs, newspaper adver- 
tisements, etc., n. 

e. 8 302 

matrices or copper 

shells for 303 

of books, etc., and matrices, bases 

and copper shells for same 604 

newspaper columns 303 

bases, matrices or cop- 
per shells for 303 

Cement baths, tubs, and washstands. 186 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



199 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Cement, manufacttires of, n. o. p i8i 

including portland and hydraulic 

or water lime 187 

Centers, rawhide, for manufacture of whips. 576 

Chain, bicycles, steel for manufacture of 597 

shackle»and links 261 

for binders 31S 

cable 542 

Chains, hair 362 

iron or steel, ^ of an inch and over.. 261 

Chalk stone 525 

Chamob skins 212 

Champagne 9 

Chandeliers 297 

Channels, rolled iron or steel, less than 35 

pounds per 
lineal yard. 227 

n e. s 228 

Charitable purposes, donations of clothing 

and books for 471 

Charred bone 520 

Charts, n. e. s 130 

admiralty 459 

for use of schools for blind 461 

Chases for printing 300 

Chatelaine bags, frames, clasps, or fasteners 

for. not more than 7 inches wide 425 

Checks, unsigned 128 

Cheese 32 

Chemical preparations, n. o. p 147 

Cherries, n. e. s 75 

Cherry lumber and timber, planks and boards 

of ■... 611 

sawdust 461 

trees 73 

Chestnut, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 611 

sawdust 614 

Chicle gum, crude 515 

Chicory, kiln dried, roasted, or ground 92 

raw or green 91 

Children's carriages. 323 

Chilled iron or steel rolls 254 

Chimney linings or vents and tops 184 

Chimneys, lamp 208 

China clay 505 

goat plates or rugs, not dyed 578 

stone 525 

ware 185 

Chip plaits 563 

Chloralum. 476 

Chloride of aluminium 476 

lime 502 

soda 586 

Chlorate of pota^, ground only 515 

soda 586 

platinum and black oxide of cop- 
per, for manufacture of 515 

Chloroform 146 

Chocolate 93 

paste 94 

Chrome steel i 235 

Chromos, advertising 126 

n e. s 130 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Chromotypes, advertising 126 

n. e. s 130 

Chronometers 503 

Church vestments 408 

Churns 330 

earthen or stone ware 182 

Cider, clarified or refined 4 

not clarified or refined 3 

Cigarettes 442 

Cigarette cases and holders therefor 423 

Cigars. 442 

Cigar boxes, labels for 127 

box nails 256 

knives 284 

cases and holders therefor 423 

Cinnabar 477 

Circulars 126 

Citron rinds in brine 504 

Clapboards, pine 611 

spruce 611 

Clasps, buckle, steel. 12 to 30 gauge for man- 
ufacture of 595 

corset 362 

for purses, etc., not more than 7 

inches wide 425 

Classifiers 555 

Clay crucibles. 510 

manufactures of, n. o. p 181 

baths, tubs, and washstands 186 

Clays, including china clay, fire clay, and 

pipe clay 505 

Cleavers 289 

Cleaners, amalgam 555 

Cliff stone 525 

Clippers, horse and toilet 284 

Clippings, paper waste 570 

iron or steel 223 

Cloaks, fur ; 407 

Clock keys 346 

springs, steel, for manufacture of, etc.. 591 

Clocks and clock movements 346 

Cloth, bookbinders' 489 

bolting, not made up 487 

emery 135 

felt, n. c. s 394 

hair 379 

jute, not otherwise finished than 

bleached, etc 374 

as taken from the loom, etc 545 

mohair, etc., for the manufacture of 

buttons 548 

nun's, to be dyed and finished in Can- 
ada, etc 386 

oiled, India rubbered, flocked, or 

coated, n. o. p 385 

paper, union collar, glossed or finished. 133 

not glossed or fin- 
ished 132 

wire, of brass or copper 267 

iron or steel 270 

Clothesline wire 269 

Clothes wringers 304 

Clothing, card, cotton, and rubber fillets for 
manufacture of $23 



200 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



Number of 
tariflf item. 

Clothinf?, cotton, n. o. p 362 

donations of, for charitable pur- 
poses.. 471 

horse, jute 375 

India rubber aaa 

linen, n. o. p 362 

made waterproof with india rub- 
ber 223 

machine card 316 

mackintosh, certain cloths for 

manufacture of 381 

military or naval, by and for use 

of army and navy 449 

for use of Canadian mili- 
tia 450 

ready made, wool, worsted, hair, 

of alpaca, etc., n. o. p. 394 

silk, n. o. p 362 

Cloths, horsehair for manufacture of 532 

Italian, to be finished in Canada, etc.. 386 
not rubbered, etc., for manufacture 

of mackintosh clothing 381 

tray, damask, of linen 361 

table 361 

of wool, worsted, hair of alpaca, goat, 

etc., n. e. s 394 

Clout nails 256 

Coach screws, n. o. p 260 

Coal, anthracite 506 

dust 506 

augers and drills 555 

bituminous, slack 180 

cutters 315 

cutting machines 555 

heading machines .1^5$ 

dust, n. e. s 180 

n. e. s 180 

oil fixtures, or parts thereof 297 

illuminating, costing more than 30 

cents per gallon 170 

n. e. s 173 

pitch 507 

tar 507 

dyes, not less than i pound 477 

washing machinery 555 

Coarse salt, n. e. s 102 

Coat linings, to be dyed and finished in Can 

ada, etc 386 

Coated papers. 140 

sheet iron, 17 gauge and thinner 242 

Coats, fur 407 

Coatings, wool, worsted, hair ol alpaca, 

goat, etc.n. e. s. 394 

Cobalt, ore of 502 

oxide of 502 

Cochineal 477 

Cocoa beans, not roasted, crushed, or ground. 526 

butter 94 

carpets, mats, and matting 396 

nuts, n. e. s. 97 

imported direct by vessel 98 

nut, desiccated 99 

paste 94 

preparations of, n. e. s. 93 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Cocoa shells and nibs 93 

Cocoanut oil, natural 558 

Cocoboral, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 6it 

sawdust 6t4 

Cocoons, silk 582 

Cocos 94 

Cod-liver oil 154 

fish lines 524 

Coffee, condensed, with milk 34 

extract of, and substitutes. 90 

green, n. e. s 87 

imported direct from country 

of growth, etc 608 

purchased in bond in the United 

Kingdom 608 

roasted or ground, not imported direct. 88 

and imitations and 
substitutes, n. c. s. 89 

Coffins. 338 

Cogged ingots, iron or steel 226 

Coil chain and links 261 

Coin, base or counterfeit, prohibited 638 

Coins, cabinets of 473 

gold and silver, except United Sutes 

silver coin 473 

Coir 508 

yarns 508 

Coke 506 

making machinery 55s 

Collar boxes. 351 

buttons, not jewelry 426 

cloth paper, union, glossed or finished. 133 

not glossed or fin- 
ished 132 

Collars of cotton, linen, xylonite, etc 365 

lace 362 

light fixtures 297 

Collections of medals, antiquities. 473 

postage stamps 473 

Cologne water... 7 (r) 

Colored cotton fabrics, n. o. p 360 

Colors, dry, n e s. 159 

ground in spirits rOi 

Columns. newspap>ers. celluloids, etc., of 604 

Combing wools, such as a re grown in Canada. 390 

Combs, curry 280 

for dress and toilet and mane combs... 427 

Comforters, bed. wool, etc 394 

Commercial blank forms 128 

Commons, House of. articles by and for use 

of 450 

Common soap 23 

Communion plate imported for use of 

churches 509 

Compasses for ships. 503 

Competition, animals for 456 

Competitions, cups and prizes won in 473 

Composition metal for manufacture of filled 

gold watch cases. 349 

ornaments 351 

nails and spikes 258 

or polish, n. o. p 164 

Compound, lard 18 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



201 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Compound of bromine and potassium 477 

Compressed yeast 71 

Compressers, air 31S 

Concentrated melado 436 

Concrete, sugar 436 

Condensed coflfee, with milk 34 

milk 33 

Condensers, platinum, by manufacturers of 

sulphuric acid, etc 564 

Confectionery 438 

labels for 127 

Consuls-general, articles for use of 451 

Converters, machinery 555 

Cooks* knives. 284 

Coopers' nails 256 

Copal gum -. 531 

Copperas 502 

Copper, black oxide of, for manufacture of 

chlorate 515 

buckles, n. o. p 305 

burrs, rivets, or washers 276 

ingots 492 

blocks 492 

in pigs, bars, rods, and bolts 492 

manufactures of, n. e. s. 276 

medals 473 

nails and tacks. 276 

old and scrap. 492 

oxide of 502 

plates, not planished or coated 492 

mining machinery 555 

precipitate of, crude 502 

rivets 276 

rollers for use in calico printing 577 

sheets, not planished or coated 492 

strips 492 

sub-acetate of, dry 502 

sulphate of. 502 

shells, for stereotypes, etc., of alma- 
nacs, etc., n. e. s 302 

shells, for the stereotypes, etc., of 

books, etc 604 

shells, for the stereotypes, etc., of 

newspaper columns 303 

tubing 492 

wire 266 

cloth, or woven wire 267 

Copyright works, prohibited 637 

Cordage, n. e. s. 431 

Cord, gut, for musical instruments 5cx> 

Cordials, n. o .p 147 

n. e. 8 7(a) 

Cordovan leather, dressed, waxed, or glazed.. 212 

Cords, n. o. p 362 

hair 362 

whip, to be dyed and finished in Can- 
ada, etc 386 

wool or worsted yarn for manufacture 

of, etc 630 

Core drills. 555 

Coriander seed, crude, not ground, etc 526 

Cork bark, unmanufactured 613 

manufactures of, n. o. p 327 

carpet 398 



Number of 
tariflf item. 

Cork bark, matting 398 

wood, unmanufactured 613 

manufactures of, n. o. p 327 

Corks 3J7 

Corms, florist slock 526 

Cornices and cornice poles 343 

Corn, broom 491 

flour 60 

indian, for distillation 48 

not for distillation 540 

meal 47 

pop 438 

sjrup 437 

starch 60 

n. e. s., in cans or other packages 66 

Cornish rolls 315 

Cornwall stone 525 

Corrugated tubes or flues for marine boilers.. 249 

Corsets 362 

Corset blanks and busks. 362 

clasps 362 

laces, tagging metal for manufacture 

of 606 

steels. 362 

2« to 30 gauge, inclusive, for 

manufacture of, etc 591 

wire, flat wire of steel, 16 gauge and 

thinner, for manufacture of 592 

wires. 362 

Cotswold combing wools ^qu 

Cottolene 18 

Cotton absorbent 152 

batts 358 

batting 358 

clothing, n. o. p. 362 

cloths of certain kinds for manufac- 
ture of waterproof clothing 381 

collars. 365 

crochet, on spools, tubes, or in balls... 371 

cuffs. 365 

damask 361 

duck, gray or white 384 

embroideries, white 363 

fabrics, articles made from, n. o. p 362 

white or gray, n. o, p 359 

printed, dyed, or colored, 

n. o. p 360 

fillets, 7 inches and under wide, for 

card clothing 523 

hatters' plush 533 

hose, lined with rubber 222 

net morsels 524 

nettings 362 

plaits 563 

rags 570 

raw 508 

seamless bags 377 

seed cake 559 

meal 559 

refuse, etc. (foot grease) 528 

sewing thread, in hanks. 370 

on spools, tubes, or in 

balls 371 

thread, n. e. s viv 



202 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



Number of 
.tariff item. 

Cotton wadding, sheet 358 

warps, n. e. s 358 

waste 508 

wool 508 

surgical dressing 152 

yams, n. e. s 358 

No. 40 and finer 508 

Counterfeit coin, prohibited 638 

Counterpanes, wool, etc 394 

Coutils, imported by corset and dress-stay 

makers 364 

Covered wire 264 

corset wire 362 

Covers, gun or pistol 306 

Cranberries. 76 

Cranes 315 

Crapes, black 367 

Cream-colored ware, decorated, printed, or 

sponged 185 

Cream separators and steel bowls for 588 

sizing 167 

of tartar in crystals 502 

Creepers, ice, steel for manufacture of 595 

Creosoted lumber or timber. 611 

Crinoline wire, flat wire, steel, 16 gauge and 

thinner, for manufacture of 592 

Crochet cotton, on spools, tubes, or in 

balls. 371 

Crocks, earthen or stone ware 182 

Crop ends of tin-plate bars, etc 223 

Crossings for railways 240 

Crowbars 289 

Crucibles, plumbago or clay 510 

Crucible cast steel wire 625 

sheet steel for mower and reaper 

knives. 590 

Crude acetate of aluminium, etc. (red liquor) 

for dyeing and calico priming 517 

acetic acid 142 

alkanet root 515 

aniline oil ^ 477 

aromatic seeds, not edible, anise, car- 
away, etc 526 

beans, viz, Tonquin, vanilla, and nux 

vomica 526 

bichromate of potash 565 

bone pitch 480 

bones, not manufactured, etc 488 

brimstone 502 

caoutchouc 573 

drugs, such as berries, beans, etc., not 

edible, etc., n. o, p 515 

dyeing or tanning articles n. e. s. 517 

gum chicle or sappato gum 515 

gypsum 502 

iodine 477 

lac ; 517 

lime juice 550 

meerschaum 552 

moss 521 

muriate of potash 565 

oils, by manufacturers for fuel and 

gas purposes 172 

opium 155 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Crude petroleum, etc., by manufacturers for 
fuel purposes or for manufacture of 

gas 172 

precipitate of copper 502 

pyroligneous acid 142 

rubber 679 

sulphur. 502 

seaweed 521 

sea grass 521 

sulphate of soda 586 

turpentine 618 

Crushed alkanet root 515 

emery in bulk 518 

Crushers, ore, rock grain 315 

Cryolite, mineral 477 

Crystal glass tableware 208 

Crystallized quartz 556 

Crystals, cream of tartar 502 

tartaric acid 502 

tin 6io 

Cubic niter 586 

Cudbear, extract of 517 

Cue racks and tips 340 

Cues, billiard and bagatelle 340 

Cuff buttons, not jewelry 426 

Cuffs of cotton, linen, xylonite, xyolite, or 

celluloid..... 365 

Cultivators 318 

Cumin seed, crude, not ground, etc 526 

Cups and other prizes won in bona 6de com- 
petitions. 473 

Cujjs, brass, for shells or cartridges- 512 

Curled hair 429 

Curling stones.... 511 

Currant bushes 74 

wine 8 

Currants, n. e. s. 75 

dried 77 

Curry cards 280 

combs. 280 

Curtains 362 

Cut glass tableware 208 

nails and spikes of iron or steel 255 

tacks, brads, or sprigs. 259 

tobacco. 443 

Cutch 517 

Cutlery, cases for 351 

steel, under % inch, for manufac- 
ture of 594 

n o. p 284 

Cutters 323 

coal and feed 315 

straw, steel for, cut to shape only 589 

Cutting machines, coal 555 

paper 313 

Cuttings, iron or steel 223 

Cyanide of potassium 477 

Cyanogen. 477 

Cyclometers 422 

Cylinders, celluloid, molded, not finished 286 

D. 

Damask of linen or cotton 36X 

stair linen and diaper 361 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



203 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Dammar gum.^ 531 

Dates 78 

Deaf and dumb and blind, books for instruc- 
tion of 465 

Deals, sawed, undressed, or dressed on one 

side only, etc 6n 

planed, jointed, etc 338 

Decanters, g^lass. 208 

Def^^ras 561 

Demijohns, earthen or stone ware i8a 

glass. 208 

Dental instruments i53«^5 

Derricks. 315 

Desiccated apples 78 

cocoanut 99 

fruits, n. e. s. 78 

Desks, writing, fancy 351 

Dextrin 167 

Diagrams, wall 463 

Diamond drills for prospecting for minerals.. 513 

dust orbort 513 

Diamonds, black, for borers. 513 

unset 513 

Diaper linen. 361 

Dies for manufacture of jubilee medals. 473 

Diggers, post hole 290 

potato 315 

Digitalis, foHae 515 

Discs for engraving copper rollers, by cotton 
and wall-paper manufacturers and calico 

printers 486 

Doeskins, wool, worsted, hair of alpaca, 

goat, etc., n. e. s 394 

Dogs, for improvement of stock. 457 

Dogwood 611 

sawdust 614 

Doilies 361 

Dolls 35» 

Domestic fowls, pure bred, for improvement 

of stock 514 

sewing machines 455 

Dominion Government, articles imported by 

and for use of 450 

Donations of clothing and books for charita- 
ble purposes. 471 

Dongola leather, dressed, waxed, or glazed... 212 

Doormats, n. e. s 395 

Doors, for safes and vaults 283 

wire 343 

Drafts, un»gned 128 

Dragon's blood 502 

Drain pipes, glazed or unglazed 184 

tiles, not glazed 183 

Drainings, sugar, drained in transit 436 

Drawers. 388 

Drawings, prohibited 636 

n. e. s 130 

Drawn tubing, zinc seamless 633 

Drays 322 

Dress combs. 427 

goods, women's and children's, to be 

finished in Canada, etc 386 

stays, flat wire of steel, 16 gauge and 
thinner, for manufacture of 592 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Dressing, shoe, harness, and leather 164 

surgical, antiseptic 152 

Dried apples 78 

currants 77 

fruits, n. e. s 78 

fish, n. e. s., in barrels or half barrels.. 114 
not imported in barrels... 109 

Driers, japan 168 

liquid 168 

Drills, diamond, for prospecting for miner- 
als 513 

rock 315 

core and rotary, coal 555 

seed 318 

Drops, medicinal, n. o. p 147 

gold and silver bullion. 495 

Drugs, crude, such as berries, beans, etc., not 

edible, etc., n. o. p. 515 

Dry colors, n. e. s 159 

fillers, n. e. s 160 

plates, photographic 419 

putty for polishing glass or granite. 541 

sub-acetate of copper verdigris. 502 

ultramarine blue 6ai 

white and red lead, orange mineral, and 

zinc white 158 

Drying machinery, ore 555 

" D " shovel handles of wood 612 

Duck, cotton, gray or white 384 

for belting and hose, when imported 
by manufacturers of such articles... 516 
Dumb and deaf and blind, books for instruc- 
tion of 465 

Dust, coal, anthracite 506 

diamond 513 

zinc 517 

Dusters, lap, of all kinds 389 

Dutch metal leaf 352 

Dyed cotton fabrics, n. o. p.- 360 

hair 429 

Dyes, aniline, not less than z pound 477 

berries for composing 517 

coal tar, not less than i pound 477 

patent, prepared 517 

Dyeing articles, crude, n. e. s 517 

berries for 517 

books on 464 

Dynamos, electric 294 

E. 

Earth, fuller's. 515 

Earths, ochrey , 159 

Earthenware, brown or colored 185 

bath tuDs and washstands 186 

demijohns, churns, or crocks.. 182 
stilts and spurs, used in man- 

facture of 587 

tiles 184 

n. e. s. 185 

Ebony,* black heart, lumber and timber, 

planks and boards 

of 611 

sawdust 614 

Edging knives. t^fi 



204 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Effects, personal and household, of British 

subjects dying abroad 454 

left by bequest 454 

settlers' 455 

Egg yolk 515 

Eggs 30 

Elastic, garter. 362 

rubber thread 575 

round or flat 362 

webbing 400 

Elder wine 8 

Electric apparatus, n. e. s. 294 

batteries 294 

f belts 152 

dynamos 294 

generators 294 

machinery for separating, etc., iron 

ores 555 

motors 294 

sockets 294 

light, glass bulbs for 298 

carbons, or carbon points, 

n. e. s 295 

fixtures or parts 297 

Electroplated ware 293 

Electrotypes of almanacs, newspaper adver- 
tisements, etc., 

etc., matrices or 
copper shells 

for 302 

books,etc.,and matrices, cop- 
per shells, and bases for 604 

newspaper columns. 303 

matrices, 
etc., for.. 303 

Elcmy gum 531 

Elevators for hydraulic mining 555 

Elixirs, alcoholic, n. e. s y(fi) 

Embossed books for the blind 465 

Embossing machines 313 

Embroideries, n. e. s. 362 

white cotton 363 

Embroidery silk. 373 

Emery in bulk, crushed or ground.... 518 

grinding machines, rock 555 

manufactures of 420 

paper or cloth 135 

wheels 420 

Emetic, tartar 502 

Enamel sizing 167 

Enameled floor, etc., oilcloth 398 

iron or steel, agate or granite hol- 
low ware 3C7 

ware, n. e. s 308 

Enameled leather 215 

Ends, crop, of tin-plate bars, etc 223 

Engineering, books on 464 

Engines, fire 311 

blast furnace blowing 55s 

steam, portable and parts 315 

n. e. s. 315 

Engraved plate 301 

Engravings, n. e. s 130 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Entomological specimens 463 

Envelopes 140 

Eraser knives. 284 

Esparto grass. 521 

Essences, alcoholic, n. e. s 7 (6) 

fruit, spirituous or ethereal, n. e. s. 7 (6) 

n. o. p. 147 

Essential oils 177 

Ether, nitrous 7 (</) 

sulphuric. 146 

Ethereal fruit essences, n. e. s 7 (6) 

Ethyl alcohol 7 (a) 

hydrated oxide of 7 (a) 

Evaporated apples 78 

fruits, n. e. s 78 

Exchange, bills of, unsigned 128 

Exhibition, animals for 456 

Explosives, other 414 

glycerin, for the manufacture of. 415 

Extinguishing machine, fire 311 

Extract, archil and cudbear. 517 

camwood and sumac 517 

of coffee, n. e. s., or substitutes 

therefor qo 

indigo 517 

logwood, fustic, oak, and oak 

bark 517 

madder, munjeet or Indian 

madder 517 

malt (nonalcoholic) for medici- 
nal purposes 69 

saffron and safilower 502 

turmeric and nutgalls 517 

Extracts, alcoholic, n. e. s 7 (fi) 

of meat 15 

Eye bar blanks, flat, not punched or drilled.. 228 

Eyeglass frames, parts of 211 

Eyeglasses 210 

Eyelet hooks, shoe 553 

Eyelets, shoe 553 

Eyes for picks, mattocks. 289 

F. 

Fabric for manufacture of bicycle tires 516 

cotton or linen articles made from, 

n. o. p 362 

gray or white, n. o. p 359 

printed, dyed, or colored 360 

plush, n. e. s...: 368 

silk. 368 

wool, worsted, hair of alpaca, goat, 

etc., n. e. s 394 

etc., to be dyed, etc., 

in Canada 386 

Facings, foundry 355 

Family plate, left by bequest 454 

Fancy articles, n. e. s 351 

grasses, dried, but not colored, etc 521 

Fanning mills 315 

Fans 351 

Farina 60 

Farm wagons. 315 

rollers 290 

Farriers' knives 284 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



205 



Number of 
Uriff item. 

Fashion plates, tailors', mantle makers' and 

milliners' 469 

Fasteners, glove, metal 553 

shoe lace, wire 553 

for purses, etc 425 

Featherbone 382 

Feathers, undressed 28 

n. e. s. 2q 

Feed cutters. 315 

Feeders, automatic, mining 555 

Feldspar 525 

Felloes of hickory, rough hewn or sawn only. 611 

Felt, adhesive, for sheathing vessels 519 

Felt board, sized, etc., for manufacture of 

gun wads. 535 

cloth, n. e. s 394 

pressed, not filled or covered with any 

woven fabric 378 

Fence posts 611 

Fencing, barbed wire, iron or steel 602 

buckthorn strip 263 

foils and masks 306 

galvanized wire, Nos. q, 12, and 13 

gauge 262 

iron or steel, n. e. s 263 

woven wire 263 

steel wire for manufacture of 602 

Fennel seed, crude, not ground, etc 526 

Fenugreek seed, crude, not ground, etc 526 

Ferromanganese 225 

Ferrosilicon 225 

Ferrules, for manufacture of umbrellas, etc. 572 

Fertilizers, compounded or manufactured 417 

uncompounded or unmanufac- 
tured 520 

Fiber, flax 521 

Mexican 521 

ware, manufactures of, n. c. s 341 

indurated 341 

vulcanized 341 

Fibers, vegetable, tampico and istle 521 

Ftbrilla 521 

Fiction, works of, unbound, etc 124 

Field rollers. 290 

seed. n. o. p 61 

Figs. 78 

Files 288 

manicure 284 

steel for manufacture of 598 

Fillers, dry and liquid 160 

Fillets of cotton or rubber, 7 inches and less 

wide, for card clothing 523 

Films for photographs 123 

Fine salt, in bulk, n. e. s 102 

Finish, oil, n. e. s 168 

Firearms 306 

Fire bricks for manufacturing purposes, etc. 522 

brick, n. e. s. 181 

clay 502 

crackers 416 

engines and extinguishers 311 

Flreproofs, n. e. s 160 

Firewood 611 

Fireworks.- 416 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Fish, anchovies, in tin boxes m 

any other form 112 

and fishing, books on 464 

all other, pickled or salted, in barrels.. 108 

boneless no 

foreign caught, otherwise than in bar- 
rels or half barrels, n. o. p 109 

fresh or dried, n. e. s., in barrels or half 

barrels 114 

herrings, pickled or salted 105 

hooks, n. e. s 319 

for deep sea or lake fishing 524 

labels for 127 

lines, not sporting 524 

mackerel 104 

nets, deep sea 524 

sportsmen's 434 

offal or refuse S2o 

oils 122 

oysters, in the shell 120 

cans, not over 1 pint. 117 

over I pint but not over 

I quart... 118 

over I quart 119 

shelled, in bulk 116 

packages containing, n. o. p 121 

plates, railway 239 

preserved in oil, except anchovies, etc.. 113 
prepared and preserved, all other, 

n. o. p 115 

salmon, fresh 106 

pickled or salted 107 

sardines, in tin boxes m 

any other form 112 

seines 524 

sldns 463 

smoked no 

twines, to be used in making nets and 

seines 524 

Fisheries, articles product of, n. o. p 122 

Fishing bait, sportsmen's 319 

lines, not sporting fishing tackle, 

etc 524 

rods 335 

Fittings, iron and steel 254 

Fixtures, gas, coal oil, and electric light, or 

f>arts 297 

Flagstones, not hammered or chiseled 193 

dressed 194 

Flake, white shellac in, for manufacturing 

purposes. 531 

Flannels, wool, worsted, hair of alpaca, etc., 

n. e. s 394 

Flasks, glass 208 

Flat wire of steel, 16 gauge and thinner, for 
manufacture of crinoline, corset wires, 

and dress stays. 592 

spring steel fur manufacture of axles, 

etc 600 

steel wire for manufacture of fencing... 602 

Fl^ts, iron or steel, rolled 229 

Flax fiber 521 

hemp and jute combined, manufac- 
tures of ^76 



206 



TARIFF UF CANADA, 1 897. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Flax, manufactures of, n. e. s. 376 

net, morsels of 524 

sail twine, to be used for boats* and 

ships' sails 411 

seed, crude, etc 526 

oil : 169 

tow .~ 521 

yam, by manufacturers of carpets, 

rugs, mats, etc 546 

Flint 525 

paper 135 

stones, ground 525 

Flints 525 

Flooring, mosaic 200 

Floor oilcloth, enameled... 398 

jute canvas for the manufac- 
ture of 546 

Florist stock, viz, palms, bulbs, etc 526 

Flour, brimstone in 50a 

buckwheat 46 

corn 60 

damaged by water in transit 45 

rice 53 

rye 4« 

Mgo 53 

sulphur in 503 

wheat 56 

Flower bulbs of all kinds 526 

odors, preserved in fat, etc 148' 

Flowers, artificial 430 

crude drugs, not edible, etc., n. o. p. 515 

Flues for marine boilers. 249 

Fluid beef, not medicated 15 

Fly sheets, advertising 126 

hooks, 319 

books 424 

Fodder cutters. 315 

Foil, tin 610 

Foils, fencing 306 

Folders, advertising 126 

Folding machines. 313 

Folis digitalis 515 

Foods, milk, and similar preparations. 34 

Foot grease, cotton-seed refuse, etc 528 

Foreign leaf tobacco, unstemmed 445 

stemmed 446 

Forestry, books on 464 

Forgings, iron and steel, n. e. s. 243 

Forks, pronged 290 

table and carving 284 

iron or steel, in the rough 285 

agricultural and harvesting, steel for.. 598 
Forms, commercial blanks, printed or litho- 
graphed 128 

Fossils 527 

Foundry facings. 355 

Fowls, domestic, pure bred, for improvement 

of stock 514 

Frames, picture and photograph 33ft 

for purses, etc 425 

spectacle and eyeglass, parts of 211 

Freight cars, running on lines crossing fron- 
tier, etc 474 

wagons 322 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Freight rates, for railways 124 

French odors, preserved in oil, etc 148 

Fresh fish, n. e. s., in barrels or half barrels.. 114 

otherwise than in barrels 

or half barrels. 109 

lamb 16 

meats, n. e. s 14 

mutton 16 

salmon 106 

tomatoes 65 

Fringe, bullion 495 

Fringes 362 

wool or worsted yarn for manufac- 
ture of 630 

Frogs for railways 240 

Fruit essences, spirituous or ethereal, n. e. s.. 7 (6) 

Fruit juices containing spirits. 5 

n. o. p 6 

plants, n. e. s 74 

sirups, n. o. p. 6 

trees, seedling stock for grafting . 526 

Fruits in air-tight cans and other packages.. 8a 
viz, bananas, plantains, pineapples, 
pomegranates, guavas, mangoes 
and shaddocks, wild blue, straw, 

and raspberries 526 

crude drugs, not edible, etc., n. o. p... 515 
dried, desiccated, or evaporated, n. e.s. 78 

labels for 127 

preserved in brandy or in other spirits. 83 
Fruit seeds, crude drugs, not edible, etc., 

n. o. p. 515 

Fuel oils, by manufacturers for fuel purposes 

or for manufacture of gas. 172 

Fuller's earth 515 

Fur caps, hats, muffs, tippets, capes, coats, 

and cloaks 407 

skins, not dressed in any manner. 529 

wholly or partially dressed 406 

other manufactures of, n. o. p 407 

Furs, hatters', not on the skin 533 

Furnace slag, blast 485 

Furnaces, bullion 555 

Furniture of wood, iron, or other material 343 

British subjects dying abroad.. 454 

household, settlers' effects, etc 455 

springs 343 

casters, steel for manufacture of... 595 

Fusel oil 7 (rt) 

Fustic, extract of 517 

ground 517 

G. 

Galleries, light fixtures 297 

Galvanic batteries 294 

Galvanized sheet iron or steel, manufactures 

of, n. o. p y.x) 

wire, 9, 12, and 13 gauge, for 

fencing 262.603 

Gambler 517 

Game bags 306 

canned 15 

n. o. p 17 

Gannister. 505 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



207 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Garden seeds, n. o. p 61 

sprinklers 313 

Garter elastic 362 

Gas fixtures or parts thereof 297 

Gas meters 282 

oils, by manufacturers for fuel purposes, 

etc 172 

Gauzes, surgical dressing 152 

Gedda, gum 531 

Gelatin 27 

Generators, electric 294 

Gentian root, unground 515 

Geographical globes 461 

German looking glass. 207 

mineral potash 530 

potash salts. 520 

silver, manufactures of, not plated.. 292 

ingots, etc 584 

Giant powder 414 

Giants, hydraulic mining 555 

Gilders* whiting 624 

Gilling thread 524 

Gilt ware, plated 293 

Gin of all kinds, n. e. s 7 (a) 

Ginger loi 

preserved 84 

wine 7 (e) 

Ginseng root, unground 515 

Girders, rolled iron or steel, less than 35 

pounds per lineal yard 227 

n. e. s 228 

Glasses, watch 346 

Glass, all other, and manufactures of, n. o. p. 209 

balls. 208 

bent plate 309 

bottles and decanters 308 

bulbs for electric lights 298 

carboys and demijohns 208 

figured, enameled, and obscured, 

white. 202 

flasks and phials 208 

globes, shades, and lamp chimneys.... 208 
iron sand and dry putty, etc., for pol- 
ishing 541 

jars 308 

looking, German, unsilvered 307 

muffled 201 

ornamental, figured and enameled, 

colored 20a 

painted and vitrified.. 202 

paper 135 

plain, colored, stained, tinted, or muf- 
fled, etc., in sheets. 201 

plate, not over 35 square feet, not 

beveled 203 

n. e. 8., not beveled 204 

rolled, rough 202 

beveled, n. o. p 205 

silvered 206 

tableware, blown 208 

cut, pressed, or molded 208 

window, common and colorless 301 

memorial, etc., n. o. p 302 

windows, stained 30a 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Glaziers' knives 284 

Globes, geographical, topographical, etc 461 

glass 208 

Globules, iron, for polishing granite or glass. 541 

Glove boxes or cases 351 

fasteners, metal 553 

leathers 214 

Gloves of all kinds 403 

Glucose 437 

sirup 437 

Glue 27 

Glycerin for manufacture of explosives. 415 

Goat hair fabrics, to be dyed and finished in 

Canada 386 

and manufactures, n. e. s.. 394 

or wool, washed only, n. e. s 639 

manufactures, viz, blankets, etc., 

n. e. s. 394 

plates or rugs, China, not dyed 578 

wearing apparel or ready-made 

clothing, n. e. s 394 

(angora) yam, for manufacture of 

braids 631 

Goat leather 313 

Gold beater's molds. 530 

skins 530 

bullion, in bars, blocks, ingots, etc 495 

coin 473 

fringe 495 

leaf 353 

liquid paint 353 

manufactures of, n. e. s. 350 

medals 473 

mining slime tables. 555 

sweepings 495 

Gongs, n. e. s 276 

Goods, dress, wool, worsted, etc., to be fin- 
ished in Canada, etc 386 

manufactured by prison labor, pro- 
hibited 64Z 

unenumerated 447 

Gooseberry bushes 74 

Gooseberries, n. e. s. 75 

Government, Dominion, articles imported 

by and for use of 450 

Governor-general, articles for use of 448 

Grain crushers 315 

damaged by water in transit. 45 

Grains, crude drugs, not edible, etc., n. o. p... 515 

musk in 515 

Grafting, seedling stock for. 526 

Granite and manufactures, n. e. s. 195 

iron sand, dry putty, etc., for polish- 

in? 541 

not hammered or chiseled 193 

sawn only 194 

ware, hollow 307 

white 185 

Grape sugar 437 

vines j^ 

Grapes ^ 

Grass, manila, esparto, or Spanish, etc 521 

Plaits- 563 

pulp of sai 



1 



208 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Grasses, fancy, dried only 521 

Gravels 525 

Gray tartar 502 

cotton fabrics. 359 

Grease, axle 175 

foot, refuse of cotton seed, etc 528 

rough, refuse of animal fat, for man- 
ufacture of soap and oils 528 

Green chicory 91 

coffee, imported direct, etc 608 

n. e. s 87 

pans, dry 269 

Grindstones, not mounted, not less than 36 

inches in diameter 191 

n. e. s 19a 

Grinding machines, rock emery 555 

Ground alkanet 515 

chicory. 92 

coffee, not imported direct 88 

and imitations, etc 89 

emery, in bulk 518 

flintstones 525 

fustic. S17 

logwood 517 

mustard 62 

oak bark 517 

spices, n. e. s toi 

Guana 520 

Guavas 526 

Gum, amber, Arabic, and Australian 531 

barberry 531 

British 167 

chicle 515 

copal.., 531 

dammar and elcmy 531 

(fcdda 531 

kaurie 531 

mastic 531 

resin, crude drugs not edible, etc., 

n. o. P 5»5 

sandarac, Senegal, and shellac 531 

sappato 515 

tragacanth 531 

white shellac, for manufacturing pur- 
poses 531 

wood, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 6ii 

sawdust 614 

Gums, crude drugs, not edible, etc., n. o. p..... 515 

sweetened 438 

Gun blocks, rough hewn or sawed only 611 

covers 306 

powder 413 

felt board for manufacture of... 535 

Guns 306 

»«ttlers* 455 

(iut cord for musical instruments 500 

worm, unmanufactured, for whip and 

other cord 500 

Gutta-percha hose, packing, etc 222 

crude 573 

manufactures of, n. o. p 221 

unmanufactured 573 

Gypsum, crude 50a 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Gypsum, ground, not calcined 188 

calcined or manufactured 189 

H. 

Hacking knives. 284 

Hairbrush pads. 491 

Hair of camel, goat, etc., washed only, n. e. s.. 629 
cleaned or uncleaned, not curled, etc ... 532 

cloth of all kinds. 379 

curled or dyed 439 

horse, for manufacture of horsehair 

cloths 532 

manufactures of 362 

mattresses. 343 

oils, nonalcoholic 149 

pins, jewelry 350 

skins, Russian, etc 578 

washes, alcoholic 7 (c) 

Hammered iron or steel bars or shapes, n. o. p. 243 

Hammers 289 

steel for manufacture of 598 

Hammocks 434 

Handcarts 324 

Handkerchief boxes or cases 351 

Handkerchiefs 362 

Handle bolts 611 

Handles, umbrella, parasol, etc., n. e. s. 337 

"D," shovel, wood 612 

Hand rakes, steel for 598 

Hangings, paper 138 

Hard rubber in sheets, but not further man- 
ufactured 573 

Hardware, builders', cabinetmakers*, uphol- 
sterers', etc 280 

carriage, n. e. s 280 

Harness dressing 164 

leather 212 

makers' hardware 280 

menagerie 458 

and saddlery, n. e. s 280 

soap 164 

Harrows « 318 

Harvest binder twine 433,620 

Harvesters without binders 318 

self binders 318 

Harvesting forks, steel for 598 

Hatchets 289 

steel for manufacture of 598 

Hat boxes 424 

pins, jewelry 350 

sweats and linings, both tips and sides.. 533 
shapes, buckram for the manufacture of.. 494 

Hats, fur 407 

leghorn, unfinished 497 

n. e. s. and hat shapes 403 

Hatters' bands 533 

bindings, tips, and sides 533 

furs, not on the skin 533 

irons. 245 

plush of silk or cotton 533 

Hay 42 

knives 290 

steel for 598 

tedders 315 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



209 



Number of 
Uriff item. 

Heading blocks, rough hewn or sawed only.. 6ix 

bolts. 611 

machines, coal 555 

Headlights... 297 

Head ropes 524 

Heads for whips, rubber or textile leather... 576 

Heavy oil (carbolic). 558 

Heirlooms, left by bequest 454 

Hemlock bark. 517 

Hemp bags or sacks. 377 

carpets, mats, and matting 396 

flax, and jute combined, manufactures 

of 376 

manufactures of, n. e. s 376 

net, morsels of 524 

paper for manufacture of shot shells.. 535 

rags 570 

sail twine, to be used for boats' and 

ships* sails 411 

seeds 61 

twine for harvest binders. 4331620 

undressed 534 

yarn, by manufacturers of carpets, 

twines, etc 546 

Henriettas, to be dyed and finished in Canada. 386 

Herbs, crude drugs, not edible, etc., n. o. p.. 515 

Herring-net twine. 524 

Herrings, pickled or salted 105 

Hewn timber 6u 

Hickory billets 611 

felloes 611 

lumber, sawn for spokes 6iz 

and timber, planks and 

boards of 6iz 

sawdust 614 

spokes, rough turned, not tenoned, 

mitered, etc 6iz 

Hides, raw 536 

Hinge blanks, n. e. s 279 

Hinges, T and strap. 279 

butL 280 

Hoes 290 

steel for manufacture of 598 

Hogs, live. 12 

Holders, cigar and cigarette, and cases. 423 

shade 297 

Hollow ware, agate, granite, or enameled 

iron or steel 307 

iron or steel, plain, etc 308 

n, e. 8 308 

Homing pigeons 514 

Homo steel, spring wire for mattresses 628 

Honey and imitations. 86 

Hoods, manila 497 

Hoofs in the rough, not polished, etc.. J 537 

Hooks, eyelet... 553 

fly and fishing, n. e. s 319 

for deep sea and lake fishing 524 

reaping 290 

steel for 598 

Hoop iron, for tubular rivets 538 

or steel, 18 gauge and thicker, etc. 229 

thinner than 18 gauge, 

n. e. s 234 

No. 205 5. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Hoop steel, more than 2% cents per pound... 236 

Hop poles 61X 

Hops 70 

Horn in the rough, not polished, etc 537 

strips in the rough 537 

tips 537 

Horse boots 280 

clippers 284 

clothing, jute 375 

hair, not further manufactured than 

dyed, etc 53a 

powers and parts. 315 

rakes 318 

shoe nails 256 

shoes 256 

Horses for improvement of stock 457 

menagerie 458 

Horticulture, books on 464 

Hose, cotton or linen, lined with rubber 222 

duck for, when imported by manufac- 
turers. 516 

gutta-percha or rubber 222 

Hosiery, n. e. s 388 

House of Commons, articles imported by and 

for use of 450 

House furniture 343 

Household effects of British subjects dying 

abroad 454 

furniture, settlers* 455 

hollow ware, n. e. s 308 

Hubs, rough hewn or sawn only, for wheels.. 6zz 

Hungarian nails 256 

Hunters* knives 284 

Hydrated oxide of ethyl 7 (a) 

Hydraulic cement Z87 

Hydrogen, solution of peroxides of Z46 

Hymn books. 464 

I. 

Ic« 539 

creepers, steel for manufacture of. 595 

Iceland moss, crude, or cleaned only 52Z 

Illuminating oils, costing more than 30 cents 

per gallon Z70 

Illustrated advertising periodicals Z26 

price lists, etc Z26 

Illustrations of insects, pictorial, for col 

leges, etc 461 

Imitations of brandy 7 (a) 

honey 86 

precious stones, polished, not 

set, etc 384 

roasted or ground coffee 89 

Turkish, etc., rugs and carpets. 397 
Implements, agricultural, plates for, cut to 

shape, but not 
molded, etc 317 

settlers* 455 

Improvements in the arts. 475 

of stock, animals for. 457 

fowls for 514 

India-rubber boots and shoes 22Z 

clothing, etc 22a 



2IO 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

India rubber, manufactures of, n. o. p. 221 

unmanufactured 573 

Indian com for distillation 48 

not for distillation 540 

madder, ground or prepared, and ex- 
tract of 517 

Indiga 517 

auxiliary 517 

extract of 517 

paste 517 

Indurated fiber 341 

Industrial books. 464 

Ingot molds. 541 

Ingots, aluminium. 476 

cogged, iron or steel 226 

copper 492 

gold and silver bullion 495 

iron or steel... 226 

nickel and german silver in 584 

Ink for writing 163 

shoemakers* 264 

Insects, crude drugs, not refined, etc., n. o. p. 515 
pictorial illustrations of, for col- 
leges, etc 461 

Insides, album, paper. 461 

Instruments, brass band... ~ 357 

musical, for army and navy 449 

Canadian militia... 450 
schools of the 

blind 460 

settlers* 455 

n. o. p. 356 

philosophical, for colleges, etc.. 462 
photographic, 
mathematical, 
and optical, 

n. e. s. 422 

surgical and dental 153,605 

telephone and telegraph 294 

Insulators of all kinds. 294 

Insurance maps. 461 

Intersections for railways. 240 

Inventions, models of 475 

Inverted blocks, earthenware 184 

Iodine, crude 477 

Ipecacuanha root, unground 515 

Iris root, unground 515 

Iron, acetate of (iron liquor) 517 

angle, for manufacture of bedsteads... 617 

angles, rolled, n. e. s 228 

less than 35 pounds per 
lineal yard, n. o. p..... 227 

for vessels. 542 

articles, manufactures of, etc., n. o. p.. 321 
axles, axle bars, etc., for railway vehi- 
cles, etc 246 

band, 8 inches or less wide, 18 gauge 

and thicker, n. e. s 229 

thinner than 18 gauge, n. e. s..... 234 

bar, rolled 229 

bars, pieces, punch! ngs, and clippings 

of, etc 229 

hammered, n. o. p 243 

beams for vessels 542 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Iron, beams, rolled, not less than 35 pounds 

per lineal yard 227 

n. e. s. 228 

billets 226 

blooms 226 

boilers and machinery, n. e. s 315 

boiler tubes, wrought. 249 

bolt blanks 279 

bolts. 279 

brads, shoe tacks, sprigs, and tacks, 

n. o. p 259 

bridges. 242 

buckles, n. o. p 305 

building or bridge structural sections, 

n. e. s. 228 

caps for whip ends. 576 

castings in the rough, n. e. s. 244 

chains, -^ of an inch and over 261 

channels, not less than 35 pounds per 

lineal yard 227 

rolled, n. e. s 228 

column sections, etc., n. e. s. 242 

cut to* shape for spade and shovel 

blanks 291 

enameled, agate, etc., hollow ware 307 

ware, n. e. s 308 

eye baf blanks, n. e. s. 228 

fencing, barbed wire 602 

buckthorn strip, etc 263 

flats 229 

flues, wrought, for marine boilers... 249 

forgings, n. e. s 243 

forks, table, in the rough 285 

furniture, house, cabinet, or office. 343 

galvanized, manufactures of 309 

girders, rolled, not less than 35 pounds 

per lineal yard 227 

n. e. s 228 

globules for polishing granite or glass.. 541 

hinge blanks. 279 

hinges, T and strap 279 

hollow ware, n. e. s 308 

hoop, for tubular rivets 538 

8 inches or less wide, 18 gauge 

and thicker, n. e. s. 229 

thinner than 18 gauge, n. e. s 234 

ingots and cogged ingots 226 

joists, rolled, n. e. s 228 

kentledge 224 

knees for vessels 542 

knife blades or blanks, rough 285 

liquor, solution of acetate or nitrate of 

iron, for dyeing and calico printing.. 517 

loo|>s, etc '. 226 

manufactures of, n. o. p. 321 

not manufactured in 

Canada, for ships or 

vessels 542 

masts for ships, or parts of 542 

nails, cut 255 

n. e. s. 256 

nitrate of (iron liquor) 517 

nut blanks. 279 

nuts 279 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



21 I 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Iron, pieces, punchings, or clippings of plate, 

etC.~ 923 

in pigs. 224 

pipe, cast 248 

fittings for. 254 

plates for vessels 542 

Canada 234 

pieces, punchings, etc., of 223 

30 inches wide and over and ^ 

inch and over thick. 231 

sheared or unsheared 232 

puddled bars 226 

rails, crop ends of, etc 223 

railway bars or rails, n. e. s. 238 

ribs for manufacture of umbrellas, 

parasols, and sunshades... 572 

riveu 279 

rods, rolled, round, wire, for manufac- 
ture of wire 574 

Swedish rolled, under ^ inch in 

diameter.^ 237 

nail, Swedish rolled, under ^ inch 
in diameter, for manufacture 

of horseshoe nails. 237 

rolls, chilled 254 

Russia. 234 

sand for polishing granite or glass. 541 

scrap, cast.~ 224 

old, etc., part of vessels wrecked 

in Canadian waters. 581 

wrought, having been in actual 

use, etc... 223 

screws, n. o. p. 260 

scroll, 8 inches or less wide, z8 gauge 

and thicker, n. e. s 229 

thinner than j8 gauge, n. e. s..... 234 
sections, rolled, less than 35 pounds per 

lineal yard, n. o. p. 227 

sections, n. e. s 228 

shapes, rolled 227 

less than 35 pounds per 

lineal yard 227 

n. e. s. and n. o. p 228, 229 

sheets, 17 gauge and thinner 234 

flat, galvanized 234 

sheared or unsheared 232 

for vessels. 542 

coated, n. o. p 234 

pieces, punchings, etc., of 223 

skelp, sheared or rolled in grooves 232 

for manufacture of steel pipe..... 233 

shot, for glass or granite 541 

slabs.- 226 

spikes, cut 255 

springs for railway or tramway vehi- 
cles, etc 246 

surs, rolled, n. e. s. 228 

steam engines, n. e. s. 315 

stone ware. 185 

strip, 8 Inches or less wide, 18 gauge and 

thicker, n. e. s... 229 

thinner than x8 gauge, n. e. s. 234 

solfdiate of 502 

tees, Ictstban 35 pounds per lineal yard. 227 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Iron tees, n. e. s. 228 

teme plate 234 

trough sections, n. e. s. 228 

tubes for manufacture of bedsteads..... 617 
tubing, lacquered or brass covered, for 

manufacture of bedsteads 617 

wrought, for mining, etc 555 

over a inches in di- 
ameter, n. e. s. 251 

a inches or less in di- 
ameter, n. e. s. 252 

other, n. o. p. 253 

ware, enameled, n. e. s. 308 

washers 279 

wire, galvanized, 9, 12, and 13 gauge... 603 
cloth, wove wire,and wire netting. 270 
for manufacture of boots and 

shoes 627 

twisted, for boots and shoes. 627 

work, structuraL 242 

zees, n. e. s 228 

Irons, sad, hatters* and Uilors* 245 

Isinglass 27 

Istle 521 

Italian cloth, to be finished in Canada, etc.... 386 

Ivory black 547 

nuts, unmanufactured 543 

unmanufactured 543 

vaccine points.- S'S 

veneers of 543 

Ivories, piano key 543 

J. 

Jackets, water, blast furnace 555 

Jacquards, to be dyed and finished in Canada, 

etc 286 

Jalap root, unground 515 

Jams, n. e. s 85 

Japan driers, n. e. s 168 

Japanned leather 215 

Japans, n. e. s. 168 

Japonica, terra 517 

Jars, glass. 208 

Jeans, imported by corset and dress-sUy 

makers 364 

Jellies, n. e. s 85 

Jewelry 350 

Jewels, cases for 351 

Jigs, mining machinery 555 

Joists, rolled iron or steel, n. e. s 228 

Juice, lime, containing spirits 5 

crude 550 

n. o. p. 6 

Juices, fruit, containing spirits 5 

n. o. p 6 

June buds. 73 

Junk, old 544 

Jute and jute butts. 545 

bags or sacks. 377 

canvas, not pressed, etc., by manufac- 
turers of carpets, etc 546 

carpets, mats, and matting.- 396 

cloth as taken from the loom , not colored, 
cu S4S 



212 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Jute cloth not otherwise finished than 

bleached or calendered 374 

flax, and hemp combined, manufac- 
tures of. 376 

horse clothing, shaped 375 

manufactures of, n. e. s 376 

rags 570 

surgical dressing 152 

twine for harvest binders. 433, 6ao 

yam, by manufacturers of carpets, 
rugs, mats, etc 546 

K. 

Kainite 520 

Kangaroo leather, dressed, waxed, or glazed. 212 

Kartavert 341 

Kaurie, gum. 531 

Kelp 521 

Kentledge, iron. 224 

Kerosene oils, n. e. s 173 

Keys, watch and clock 346 

Kid leather, dressed, waxed, or glazed 212 

Kiln-dried chicory 92 

Kitchen knives 284 

hollow ware, n. e. s 308 

Knees, iron or steel, for vessels. 542 

Knife blades and blanks in the rough 285 

polish, n. o. p. 164 

Knitted goods, n. e. s 388 

Knives, hay or straw, and edging 290 

steel for manufacture 

of 598 

table, pocket, glaziers', etc 284 

reaper and mower, steel for manu- 
facture of. 599 

Knobs, steel for manufacture of 594 

Kryolite, mineral 477 

L. 

Labels for fruits, confectionery, etc. 127 

Lac, crude, seed, button, stick, and shell 517 

Lace collars and similar goods 362 

nets 362 

wire fasteners, shoe.. 553 

Laces, n. o. p 362 

boot, shoe, and stay 405 

shoe and corset, tagging metal, for 

manufacture of 606 

Lacquers i6t 

n. e. s 168 

Ladies* blouses and shirt waists. 366 

Lag or coach screws, n. o. p 260 

Lamb, fresh. 16 

leather, dressed, waxed, or glazed 212 

Lambs' wool, surgical dressing 152 

Lamp black. 547 

Lamp chimneys 208 

shade blanks, celluloid 286 

shears. 284 

springs 298 

wicks. 418 

Lamps. 279 

miners* safety 555 

Land sides, cut to shape but not molded, etc.. 3x7 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Lanterns 297 

magic, and slides therefor 422 

Lap dusters 389 

Lapping and blanketing, for cotton manu- 
facturers, etc 486 

Lard 18 

compound and similar substances 18 

oil 169 

Lashes for whips 217 

Last blocks, rough hewn or sawed only... 611 

Lastings for manufacture of buttons 548 

Laths 611 

Laundry soap 23 

bluing 160 

Lava, unmanufactured 50a 

tips 297 

Lavender water, alcoholic. 7 (c) 

Lawn mowers. 391 

sprinklers 31a 

tennis nets 434 

trees, shrubs, and plants 74 

Lead, acetate of, not ground 515 

bullets 274 

dry, red and white 158 

in bars and sheets. 273 

manufactures, n. o. p. 275 

nitrate of, not ground 515 

old scrap, pig, and block.. 272 

pencils 421 

pipe 274 

shot 274 

tea 610 

Leaf, Dutch or schlag metal 35a 

gold and silver and aluminium 352 

palm, unmanufactured 56a 

tobacco, unstemmed 445 

stemmed 446 

Leather, belting 213 

of 218 

board 216 

dressing 164 

harness 212 

heads for manufacture of whips 576 

japanned 215 

manufactures of, n. o, p.. 220 

morocco 215 

skins for. 213 

patent or enameled 215 

scrap, tanners' 213 

upper, including dongola, kid, lamb, 

etc., dressed 21a 

n. e. s., dressed, etc aia 

n. o. p 213 

Leathers, glove, for glove manufacturers..... 214 

Leatheroid 216 

Leaves, crude drugs, not edible, etc., n. o. p.. 515 

Leeches 549 

Leghorn hats, unfinished 497 

Leicester combing wool. 390 

Lemon rinds, in brine 504 

wine. 8 

Lemons.. 80 

Lesson pictures, Sunday school 464 

Letters for signs, etc 310 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



213 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Libraries, books for. 467 

Lichens 515 

Licorice paste. 150 

in rolls and sticks. 150 

root, unground 515 

Life boats. 472 

saving apparatus 472 

Light, electric carbons or carbon points. 295 

gas, or coal oil fixtures, or 

parts thereof 297 

glass bulbs for. 298 

Lights, head and side 297 

Lignite oils, illuminating, over 30 cents per 

gallon 170 

Lignum>vitie, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 611 

sawdust 614 

Lilies of the valley 526 

Limbs, artificial 479 

Lime, chloride of 502 

juice, containing spirits. 5 

crude 550 

n. o. p 6 

sulphate of (gypsum, crude) 502 

Limes .~ 80 

Lincolnshire combing wools. 390 

Linen bags or sacks. 377 

clothing, n. o. p. 362 

collars 365 

cuffs 365 

damask of 361 

stair and diaper.. 361 

fabrics, articles made from, n. o. p 362 

hose, lined with rubber... 222 

nettings. 362 

rags 570 

Lines, fishing, not including sporting tackle, 

etc... 524 

tape 422 

Liniments, n. o. p.. 147 

Linings, carpet. 396 

stove x8i 

tips and sides, for hats. 533 

chimney 184 

coat, to be finished in Canada, etc... 386 

Link belting chain for binders. 318 

Links, coil chain. 261 

Linoleum 398 

Linseed oil.. 169 

Lint 152 

Liquors of all kinds, n. e. s. 7 (a) 

Lquid paints and fillers, n. e. s.. 160 

paint, gold.. 35a 

driers, n. e. s x68 

Liquor, iron, solution of acetate or nitrate of 

iron, for dyeing or calico printing.. 517 

red, crude acetate of aluminium, etc. 5x7 

Liquors, alcoholic or spirituous. 7 

n. o. p. 7 (a) 

Lists, illustrated price xa6 

Literary papers, weekly, unbound 469 

Litharge 50a 

Lithographed commercial blank forms 128 

tickets, posters, etc X27 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Lithographic presses, etc 313 

stones, not engraved 190 

Litmus 515 

Live hogs X2 

stock, settlers* 455 

Living animals, n. e. s. xi 

Loading tools 306 

Locks, n. e. s 280 

steel for manufacture of. 594 

Locomotive wheel tires, steel, rough 551 

Locomotives for railways, n. e. s 241 

running on lines crossing fron- 
tier, etc 474 

Locust bean meal 526 

beans 526 

Logs 611 

Logwood, extract of. 517 

ground 517 

Looking glass, German 207 

Loops, iron or steel 226 

Lotions, alcoholic, n. e. s. 7 (^) 

Lozenges, n. o. p 147 

Lubricating oils, petroleum, costing less than 

25 cents per gallon. 171 

n. e. s 175 

Lumber, creosoted, squared, or sided.. 611 

hickory, sawn to shape for spokes... 61 1 

manufactured, n. e. s... 329 

of amaranth, cocoboral, etc., rough 

sawn or split, etc 611 

sawed, undressed, or dressed on 

one side only. 611 

Lumps, celluloid, xyolite, or xylonite, in the 

rough 501 

Luster wools, etc 390 

M. 

Macaroni 59 

Mace 100 

Machinery and boilers, composed wholly or 

in part of iron or steel, n. e. s 315 

Machine attachments, sewing 553 

nailing, certain wire for use in con- 
nection with 627 

card clothing 316 

screws, n. o. p. 260 

Machinery, mining, smelting, and reduc- 
ing '. 555 

Machines, bench, n. o. p. 289 

fire extinguishing 311 

Machinery, n. e. s. 315 

folding and cutting 313 

mowing 318 

printing 313 

ruling .« 313 

sewing or parts. 314 

settlers' 455 

smelting, mining, and reducing.. 555 

slot 3»5 

strength testing 283 

typewriting 315 

Mackerel 104 

fishlines 524 

net twine « v\ 



214 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Mackintosh clothiniTt certain cloths for man- 
ufacture of 381 

Madder, ground or prepared, and extract of.. 517 
Indian, ground or prepared, and 

extract of. 5x7 

Magazines, monthly, etc., unbound... 469 

Magic lanterns and slides therefor 422 

Magnetic machinery for separating, etc., 

iron ores.~ 555 

Mahogany, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 611 

sawdust 6x4 

Malleable spocket chain for binders... 318 

Malt. 68 

extract of (nonalcoholic). 69 

Mane combs. 427 

Manganese, oxide of 502 

ferro 225 

Mangold seed... 526 

Mangoes 526 

Manicure files. 284 

Manila and sisal mixed, twine for harvest 

binders .~ 433,620 

grass 52t 

hoods 497 

plaite 563 

twine for harvest binders... 4331620 

Mantels, slate... xgS 

Mantle-makers' fashion plates 469 

Manufactured tobacco, n. e. s. 444 

Manure spreaders. 318 

Manures, animal or vegetable 520 

Manuscripts... 46X 

Maple sugar and sirup 439 

Maps, n. e. s. 130 

insurance 461 

for use of schools of blind 461 

Marble, sawn only 194 

n. e. s. and manufactures of 195 

rough 193 

Marline, barked... 524 

Masks, fencing 306 

Mastic gum 531 

Masts, iron or steel, for ships, or parts of 542 

Mathematical instruments, n. e. s 422 

Matrices for the stereotypes, etc., of alma- 
nacs, etc., n. 

e. s.» 302 

of books, etc.. 604 
newspaper 
columns... 303 

Mats of cocoa, straw, hemp, or jute 396 

door or carriage, n. e. s 395 

gutta-percha or rubber 222 

Matting of cocoa, straw, hemp, or jute 396 

corlc. 398 

gutta-percha or rubber 222 

Mattocks and eyes or poles for 289 

Mattresses, hair, spring, and other 343 

wire, steel wire for manufacture 

of 628 

Meal, buckwheat 46 

com 47 

cotton seed S5Q 



Number of 
uriff item. 

Meal, damaged by water in transit 45 

locust bean 526 

oat 50 

oil cake... 559 

palm nut 559 

Meats, canned 15 

extracts of 15 

fresh, n. e. s 14 

n. e. s 13 

labels for 127 

Mechanic arts, books on 464 

Medals, collections of 473 

won in competition 473 

jubilee and dies therefor 473 

Medicinal preparations, n. o. p 147 

of petroleum, etc., 
(similar to vase- 
line) 178 

roots. 515 

wines, alcoholic 7 {6) 

not over 40 per cent spirits.. 7 (/) 

Medicines, alcoholic, n. e. s 7(^) 

Meerschaum, crude or raw 552 

Melado 436 

concentrated 436 

Memorial window glass. 202 

Menageries 458 

Merchandise, carriages laden with 453 

Mercury pumps 555 

Mescal 7 (<,) 

Messenger pigeons 514 

Meul, babbitt 299 

britannia,nianufacturesof, not plated.. 292 
in pigs, bloclcs, and bars...... 493 

composition for manufacture of filled- 

gold watch cases. 349 

glove fasteners... 553 

leaf, Dutch or schlag 352 

ores of 556 

screws, n. o. p 260 

tagging, by shoe and corset lace man- 
ufacturers 606 

type 299 

yellow 632 

Metallic bismuth in its natural sutc 484 

Metallurgy, books on ^.... 464 

Metals, compound of bromine and potassium, 

for reducing 477 

Meters, gas 282 

Methyl alcohol ^(a) 

Methylated spirits. 7 («) 

Mexican liber 521 

saddletrees 612 

Military bands, Canadian, musical instru- 
ments for 450 

clothing, by and for use of army and 

navy 449 

for use of Canadian mili- 
tia 450 

stores, by and for use of army and 

navy 449 

f on use of Canadian militia.. 450 
Militia, Canadian, ceruln articles for use of.. 450 
Milk, condensed... 33 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



215 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Milk foods and similar preparations. 34 

Millboard 134 

Millet seed 61 

Milliners' fashion plates» 469 

Mill, universal, steel plates. 230 

Mills, for enipraving copper rollers. 486 

fanning 315 

stamp 315 

wind 3x5 

Mine, run of, coal x8o 

Mineral cryolite orkryolite 477 

orange 158 

potash, German 520 

waters, natural, not in bottles 554 

Minerals, diamond drills for prospecting for.. 513 

Mineralc^ical specimens. 463 

Miners' safety lamps 555 

Mining, books on 464 

machinery 5^5 

powder 412 

Misses' blouses and shirt waists 366 

Mitts of all kinds 40a 

Mixed acids 143 

Models, casts as, for use of schools of design.. 498 

for illustrating natural history 463 

of inventions 475 

Mc^iair cloth, for manufacture of buttons..... 548 

plaits 563 

]rams 508 

Molasses, for manufacture of blacking 634 

produced in manufacture of sugar, 
imported in original package, 

etc 441 

and imitations, n. o. p. 440 

Monitors, hydraulic mining 555 

Monthly magazines, unbound 469 

Morocco leather. 215 

skins for, tanned only 213 

Morsels, net, of cotton, etc 524 

Mosaic flooring 200 

Moss, crude, natural or cleaned only..... 521 

Iceland, crude, natural or cleaned 

only 52Z 

Mother-of-pearl shells, unmanufactured 527 

Motors, electric 294 

Mold boards, cut to shape but not molded, etc.. 317 
Molded oelluloid balls or cylinders, not fin- 
ished 286 

glass tableware... 208 

Moldings of wood '. 332 

Molds, gold beaters* 530 

ingot 541 

Mounts for manufacture of umbrellas, para- 
sols and sunshades 572 

pipe 433 

Movements, clock. 346 

watch 347 

Mowers, lawn 291 

Mower knives, steel for manufacture of. 590 

Mowing machines. 318 

Mucilage 27 

Muffs, fur 407 

Mule shoes 256 

Mullet net twine 524 



Number of 
uriff item. 

Munitions of war by and for army and navy.. 449 

for Canadian militia. 450 

Munjeet, ground or prepared, and extractsof.. 517 

Muriatic and nitric acid 143 

Muriate of potash, crude.» 565 

Mushroom spawn 526 

Music, printed 129 

Musical instrument cases. 424 

instrumenu for bands, by and for 

army and 

navy 449 

Canadian 

militia.... 450 

schools of the 

blind 460 

settlers'... 455 

n. o. p 356 

Musk, in pods or in grain 515 

Musket powder 413 

Muskets y^ 

Mustard cake 63 

ground 6a 

seed 526 

Mutton, fresh z6 

N. 

Nail rods, Swedish, rolled iron or steel for 

manufacture of horseshoe nails 237 

Nails, brass. 276 

composition. 258 

copper 276 

cut, of iron or steel 255 

sheathing 258 

shoe 259 

wire, n. o. p.. 257 

wrought and pressed 256 

n. e. s. 256 

Naphtha, wood 7(a) 

n. e. s 173 

Napkins, damask, of linen. 361 

Natural mineral waters, not in bottles. 554 

Natural Mexican fiber 521 

Navy, articles by and for use of. 449 

Neat's-foot oil 169 

Needles 27X 

surgical 153, 605 

Net, morsels of cotton, etc 524 

Nets, fish, and twine for. 524 

sportsmen's. 434 

lace 362 

lawn tennis 434 

Netting, wire, of iron or steel 270 

Nettings of cotton, silk, linen, or other mate- 
rial 36a 

Nevada silver, manufactures of, not plated... 29a 

Newspapers, partly printed 313 

unbound 469 

Newspaper columns, stereotypes, etc., of 604 

Nibs, cocoa 93 

Nickel 556 

anodes 278 

caps for whip ends 576 

plated ware. 293 

hollow ware 308 



2l6 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Nickel silver, manufactures of, not plated 292 

ingots, etc 584 

Niter, cubic 586 

sweet spirits of jid) 

Nitrate of ammonia 477 

iron (iron liquor) 517 

lead, not ground 515 

soda 586 

Nitric and muriatic acid 143 

Nitrite of soda. 586 

Nitroand other explosives 414 

Nitroglycerin... 414 

Nitrous ether. 7{d) 

Noils. 629 

Nonelastic webbing 400 

Notches, for manufacture of umbrellas, para- 
sols, and sunshades 572 

Notes, bank, unsigned 128 

promissory, unsigned xa8 

Novels, etc., unbound or paper bound, etc.... 124 
Nun*s cloth, to be dyed and finished in Can- 
ada, etc 386 

Nut, cocoa, desiccated 99 

Nutgalls. , 517 

Nutmegs. xoo 

Nuts, viz, almonds, walnuts, Brazil, pecans, 

and shelled peanuts, n. e. s 96 

of all kinds, n. o. p 96 

shelled, n. e. s. 95 

acorn, n. o. p 89 

cocoa, n. e. s. 97 

imported direct by vessel 98 

crude drugs, not edible, etc., n. o. p 515 

ivory, unmanufactured 543 

tubular, iron or steel for manufacture 

of 538 

iron or steel 279 

Nut blanks, ironorsteeL 279 

Nux vomica beans, crude only 526 

O. 

Oak bark 5x7 

ground 5x7 

extract of 5x7 

extract of. 517 

lumber and timber, planksand boards of.. 6ix 

sawdust 614 

Oakum 557 

surgical dressing 152 

Oar blocks, rough hewn or sawed only 6xx 

Oatmeal 50 

Oats 49 

Ochers 159 

Ochrey earths. 159 

Odors, French or flower, preserved in oils, 

etc X48 

Offal, fish 520 

Office furniture 343 

knives 284 

Oiled silk and cloth, n. o. p 385 

Oil, aniline, crude. 477 

cake and oil-cake meal 559 

carbolic or heavy 558 

cloth, floor, etc., enameled 398 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Oil, coal and kerosene, n. e. s X73 

coal, fixtures or parts. 297 

cocoanut, natural 558 

cod liver X54 

essential 177 

finish, n e. s 168 

fuel and gas, by manufacturers for fuel 

purposes, etc 172 

fusel 7 (a) 

hair, nonalcoholic 149 

illuminating, petroleum, coal, shale, or 
lignite, costing more than 30 cents per 

gallon 170 

lard 169 

linseed or flaxseed 169 

lubricating, less than 25 cents per gallon.. 171 

n. c. s. 175 

medicinal, etc., n. o. p 147 

neat's-foot 169 

olive, n. c. s. 176 

for manufacturing soap or tobacco 

or for canning fish 558 

paintings by artists of well-known merit. 470 

Canadian artists. 470 

palm, natural 558 

petroleum, for fuel purposes, etc 172 

potato 7 (a) 

of roses 558 

resin 480 

sesame seed 169 

spermaceti, whale, and other fish oils, 

n. o. p 132 

Ointments, n. o. p 147 

Old brass 492 

copper 492 

junk 544 

lead 272 

scrap iron and steel recovered from ves- 
sels wrecked in Canadian waters 581 

Oleographs, advertising 126 

n. e. s. 130 

Oleomargarine, prohibited 639 

Oleostearin 561 

Olive oil, n. e. s 176 

for manufacturing soap or tobacco 

or for canning fish 558 

Opium, crude X55 

powdered X56 

prepared for smoking 157 

Optical instruments, n. e. s 422 

Orange mineral 158 

rinds in brine 504 

wine 8 

Oranges 80 

Ore crushers. 315 

of cobalt > 503 

drying machinery 555 

roasting machinery 555 

samplers, automatic 555 

Ores of metal of all kinds 556 

Organs 356 

parts of 357 

Orleans, to be dyed and finished in Canada, 
etc 386 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



217 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Ornamental trees, shrubs, and plants 74 

Ornaments of alabaster, spar, amber, etc 351 

bead, n. e. s. 351 

Orris root, unbound 515 

Osiers, unmanufactured 49q 

Ottar of roses 558 

Ovals, rolled iron or steel.^ 229 

Overcoating^ wool, worsted, hair of alpaca, 

etc., n. e. s. 394 

Ox shoes 256 

Oxalic acid 477 

Oxide of ethyl, hydrated 7 (a) 

manganese... 502 

copper, cobalt, and tin 502 

black, for manufacture of 

chlorate 5x5 

Oxides, n. e. s 160 

Oyster knives... 284 

Oysters, canned, in cans not over i pint 117 

over I pint but not 

over I quart. xi8 

exceeding 1 quart... 119 

in the shell 120 

packages containing, n. o. p 121 

preserved or prepared, n. o. p 1x5 

seed and breeding 560 

shelled, in bulk. 1x6 

P. 

Packages, Canadian, exported and returned.. 635 
containing oysters and other fish, 

n. o. p X2x 

Packing, rubber or gutta-percha 222 

Pads, hair brush 491 

paper, not printed 140 

stair. 396 

Pails 330 

Paint, gold liquid 352 

Paints, anticorrosive and antifouling 160 

ground in spirits. x6z 

n. e. s. 160 

Paintings, copies of the old masters, by artists 

of well-known merit 470 

oil or water colors, by artists of 

well-known merit 470 

oil or water colors by Canadian 

artists 470 

prohibited 636 

n. e. 8. 130 

Palette knives. 284 

Palings 61Z 

Palm leaf, unmanufactured 562 

nut cake and meal 559 

oil, natural 558 

spirit. 7 (a) 

Palms. 526 

Pamphlets, advertising X26 

n. e. 8. X2S 

Pans, platinum, for manufacturers of sul- 
phuric acid, etc 564 

Pantaloon buttons. 426 

Paper, album insides 461 

borders 138 

* boxed 140 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Paper cutting machines 313 

envelopes 140 

hangings or wall 138 

hemp, for manufacture of shot shells.. 535 

manufactures of... X40 

pads. 140 

printing 139 

ruled, bordered, and coated 140 

sacks and bags of all kinds 136 

sand, glass, flint, and emery 135 

shells, brass cups for manufacture of.. 512 

tarred 135 

union collar cloth, glossed or finished.. 133 

not glossed or fin- 
ished X3a 

waste clippings 570 

of all kinds, n. e. s. 139 

Papers, albumenized, etc., for photographers. 123 

news, F>artly printed 131 

weekly, literary, unbound... 469 

window blinds. 138 

Papeteries. X40 

Papier-mach^ shoe buttons 553 

ware, n. o. p X40 

Paraffin wax... 151 

candles. aa 

Parasol or sunshade sticks, bamboo reeds for.. 499 

sticks or handles, n. e. s 337 

of bamboo, not manufactured.. 499 

Parasols. 491 

articles for the manufacture of. 57a 

Paris green, dry z6a 

plaster of, ground, not calcined x88 

calcined or manufactured... X89 

Paris white 624 

Parrot cages 287 

Passenger cars, railway, running on lines 

cros»ng frontier, etc 474 

Paste, chocolate. 94 

cocoa 94 

indigo 517 

licorice Z50 

Pastes, nonalcoholic 149 

n. o. p 147 

Patent leather. 215 

prepared dyes. 5x7 

preparations, n. o. p 247 

Patterns 320 

Paving brick x8z 

blocks of stone 194 

Peaches, n. o. p 81 

Peach trees 73 

seedling stock for grafting 526 

Peanuts, shelled, n. e. s 96 

Pear trees. 73 

seedling stock for grafting 526 

Pearl ashes, in packages of not less than 25 

pounds 565 

Pearline 26 

Pease, n. e. s 38 

seed from Great Britain 526 

Pecans 96 

Pedometers.. 42a 

Peel, candied 438 



2l8 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



Number of 
Uriff item. 

Pelts, raw 536 

Pencils, lead 421 

slate 199 

Penknives 284 

Pens and penholders 421 

Percussion caps. 306 

coal cutters 315 

Perfumes, preparations, n. o. p 149 

spirits 7 (c) 

Perfumery, nonalcoholic 149 

Perfumes, alcoholic 7 (c) 

Periodicals, illustrated, advertising 126 

n. e. s. 125 

Peroxides of hydrogen, solutions 146 

Persimmon wood 611 

sawdust 614 

Persis 517 

Personal effects of British subjects dying 

abroad 454 

left by bequest 454 

Pessaries '. 152 

Petroleum, barrels containing 174 

crude, imported by manufactu- 
rers for fuel purposes, etc. 172 

illuminating oils, costing over 30 

cents per gallon 170 

lubricating oils, less than 25 cents 

per gallon. 171 

oils, n. e. s 173 

preparations of, similar to vase- 
line 178 

Pharmaceutical preparations, n. o. p 147 

Pheasants 514 

Phials 208 

Philosophical instruments, n. e. s 422 

and apparatus, 
not manufac- 
tured in Can- 
ada, etc.~ 462 

Phosphate, acid, n. o. p 145 

rock 520 

Phosphor bronze and phosphor tin, in blocks, 

bars, sheets, and wire 299 

Phosphorus 502 

Photograph frames 336 

Photographic dry plates 4x9 

instruments, n. e. s... 422 

Photographers' paper, chemically prepared.. 123 

Photographs prohibited... 636 

sent by friends. 471 

n. e. 8 Z30 

Pianofortes 356 

parts of 357 

Piano key ivories 543 

Pickets 611 

Pickled fish, other, in barrels 108 

not in barrels or half barrels, 

n. o. p 109 

herrings 105 

salmon 107 

Pickles 67 

Picks and eyes or polls for 289 

Pictorial illustrations of insects, for colleges, 
etc 461 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Pictorial show cards 126 

Picture frames. 336 

wire. 269 

Pictures, left by bequest 454 

Sunday school lesson 464 

n. e. s 130 

Pigeons, homing or messenger 514 

Pigs, britannia metal in. 493 

copper in 492 

iron in. 224 

lead in 272 

tin in 610 

zinc in. 633 

Pillows 343 

Pills, n. o. p. 147 

Pineapples 526 

Pine clapboards. 611 

pitch, in packages not less than 15 gal- 
lons each 507 

tar in packages not less than 15 gallons 

each 507 

Pins, hat and hair, jewelry 350 

wire, n. o. p 271 

Pipe, cast iron 248 

clay ...^ 505 

lead 274 

mounts. 423 

platinum, for manufacture of sulphuric 

acid 564 

iron or steel, fittings of 254 

Pipes, drain 184 

sewer 184 

tobacco 423 

iron or steel, other, n. o. p 253 

Pistol cases or covers 306 

Pistols. 306 

Pitch, bone, crude 480 

burgundy 477 

coal 507 

pine so? 

lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of. 611 

sawdust 614 

Plain strip fencing, wire, etc., for manufac- 
ture of 602 

Plains, to be dyed and finished in Canada, 

etc 386 

Plaits, chip, manila, cotton, mohair, straw, 

Tuscan, and grass. 563 

Planking, ship 6xx 

Planks, sawed, undressed, or dressed on one 

side only, etc 611 

planed, jointed, etc 328 

of certain lumber, rough, sawn, or 

split, etc 611 

Plans, building, n. e. s. 130 

Plantains 526 

Plants, fruit, n. e. s 74 

shade, lawn, and ornamental 74 

Plaster of paris, calcined or manufactured.. 189 

ground, not calcined 188 

Plasters, n. o. p 147 

Plate, pieces, punchings, or clippings of, 
etc ,. 223 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



219 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Plate, bridge, rolled iron or steel, not less 

than 30 inches wide, etc~ 231 

communion 5^9 

family, left by bequest.. 454 

glass, rough rolled 20a 

not beveled, not over 25 square 

feet 203 

n. e. s. 204 

beveled, n. o. p. 205 

bent 209 

German looking 207 

universal mill, or rolled edge steel 230 

rolled iron or steel, sheared or un- 

sheared .~ 232 

Plated cutlery 284 

ware, nickel and electra 293 

cases for, fancy 35' 

Plates, for agricultural implements, not 

molded, etc 317 

aluminium 47<^ 

brass and copper 49^ 

Canada 234 

China, goat, etc~ 57^ 

copper 492 

mining.. 555 

dry, photographic 419 

engraved on wood, steel, etc 301 

fashion, Uilors'and mantle makers*.. 469 

gold and sUver bullion 495 

nickel and german silver in.~ 584 

stove 24s 

iron or steel, 30 inches and over 

wide, etc 231 

for vessels. 542 

phosphor bronze..~ 299 

plow, etc., cut to shape, but not 

molded, etc 3<7 

platinum.. 5^ 

railway fish. 239 

steel, more than 2% cents per pound.. 236 

teme.. 234 

tie, railway 239 

tin 610 

zinc 633 

Platinum, for manufacture of chlorate 5x5 

retorts, pans, condensers, etc., by 

manufacturers of sulphuric add.. 564 

bars, strips, sheets, or plates 564 

wire 564 

Playing cards. x37 

Pleasure carts, n. e. s 323 

Plow plates, cut to shape, but not molded, 

etc 3>7 

Plows 318 

Plumbago crucibles. 510 

manufactures of, n. e. s 355 

unmanufactured 354 

Plum trees.~ 73 

seedling stock for grafting 526 

Plums... 76 

Plush fabrics, n. e s.~ 368 

hatters*, of silk or cotton. 533 

Pockctbooks... 424 

Pocketknhrct 284 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Pods, musk in. 515 

Points, carbon, n. e. s.. 295 

ivory, vaccine 515 

Poles, cornice 343 

hop 6x1 

Polish, knife and other 164 

Pollock fish lines 524 

Polls for picks and mattocks.^ 289 

Pomades, preserved in fat, etc 148 

Pomatums, nonalcoholic 149 

Pomegranates. 526 

Pop corn 438 

Porcelain ware 185 

Portable machines or parts.. 315 

engines 315 

Porter, in bottles 2 

casks, etc i 

Portland cement 187 

Portmanteaus 424 

Postage stamps, collections of 473 

Posters 126 

Post-hole diggers.. 290 

Posts, fence 611 

rough hewn or sawed only 611 

Pot ashes, in packages not less than 25 

pounds 565 

Potash, bichromate of, crude 565 

caustic 565 

chlorate of, ground, etc 5x5 

German mineral 520 

muriate of, crude. 565 

prussiate of, red and yellow 565 

salts, German. 520 

Potassium, cyanide of. 477 

Potato diggers. 315 

spirit or oil 7 (a) 

Potatoes, n. e. s 39 

sweet 64 

Pouches, tobacco 423 

Poultry, canned 15 

n. o. p. 17 

Pounders 330 

Powder, blasting and mining 412 

canister 413 

cannon, musket, rifle, gun, and 

sporting 4x3 

giant 4x4 

Powdered opium 156 

rubber 573 

Powders, baking 72 

brocade and bronze 352 

soap 26 

tooth and other, nonalcoholic X49 

n. o. p. X47 

Prayer books 464 

Precious stones in the rough 5^5 

and imitations, polished, not 

set, etc., n. e. s 348 

Precipitate of copper, crude 50^ 

Preparations, anatomical 463 

medicinal, chemical, and phar- 
maceutical, n. o. p X47 

of petroleum, similar to vase- 
line .« X78 



220 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Preparations, patent and proprietary, n. o. p.. 147 

perfumed, n. o. p. 149 

toilet, alcoholic 7 (<-) 

nonalcoholic 149 

Prepared opium (for smoking) 157 

Preserved ginger 84 

Preserves, n. e. s 85 

Pressed felt, not filled, etc., by any woven 

fabric. 378 

glass tableware 208 

nails and spikes 256 

Presses, lithographic 313 

printing 313 

Price books and lists, illustrated 126 

Primers 306 

for manufacture of shot shells and 

cartridges 535 

Printed blank forms, commercial 128 

books, n. e. s 125 

cotton fabrics, n. o. p. 360 

matter, n. e. s. 128 

music 129 

paper, prohibited 636 

advertising bills, etc 126 

Printing machines. 313 

paper 139 

presses 313 

type for 300 

Prints, prohibited 636 

n. e. s 130 

Prison labor, goods produced by, prohibited.. 641 

Prizes won in competitions 473 

Prohibited books, papers, paintings, etc 636 

coins 638 

copyright works 637 

goods made in prisons 641 

oleomargarine, butterin, etc 639 

tea, adulterated... » 640 

Promissory notes, unsigned 128 

Pronged forks. 290 

Proprietary preparations, n. o. p 147 

Prunella 566 

Prunes 77 

Pruning knives 284 

Prussiate of potash, red and yellow 565 

Psalm books. 464 

Puddled bars, iron or steel 226 

Pulp of grass 521 

ultramarine blue 621 

wood 333 

Pulque 7M 

Pumice and pumice stone.- 567 

Pumpings, sugar, drained in transit 436 

Pumps, brass 312 

mercury 555 

n. e. s. 315 

Punchings, iron or steel 223 

Pure-bred domestic fowls. 514 

Purses 424 

fast- icrs, frames, and clasps for 425 

Putty 165 

dry, f< polishing glass or granite 541 

knives 284 

Pjrroligneous acid, n. e. s 141 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Pyroligenous acid, crude, not over 30 per 

cent 142 

Pyrometers 555 

Pyroxylic spirit 7 (a) 

Q. 

Quails 514 

Quarterly magazines, unbound 469 

Quartz, crystallized 556 

Quebracho, extract of 517 

Quicksilver 568 

Quills, natural or unplumed 569 

Quilts, linen or cotton, n. o. p. 361 

Quince trees. : 73 

Quinces 76 

Quinine, salts of 477 

Quoins for printing 300 

R. 

Racks, cue 340 

Rags of cotton, linen, hemp, jute, and wool. 570 

Railroad spikes 255 

tickets 127 

ties 611 

Railway bars or rails, iron or steel, n. e. s..... 238 

cars 324 

running on lines crossing fron- 
tier 474 

fish plates 239 

freight rates. 124 

rugs 389 

scrapers 324 

Railways, locomotives for, n. e. s. 241 

switches, frogs, crossings, and in- 
tersections for 240 

Rails, iron or steel, crops from, etc 223 

railway, n. e. s 238 

steel, not less than 45 pounds per lineal 

yard, etc 585 

Raisins 77 

Rakes, horse 318 

n. e. s 990 

Ramie cloth, for mackintosh clothing 381 

Rape seed 526 

Raspberry bushes. 74 

wine 8 

Raspberries, wild 526 

n. e. s 75 

Rasps 288 

Rat cages. 287 

Rattan, split or manufactured, n. o. p 326 

Rattans, unmanufactured 499 

Raw chicory 91 

cotton 508 

hide centers for whips. 576 

manufactures of, n. o p 220 

hides, dry, salted, or pickled 536 

meerschaum 552 

pelts 536 

rennet 571 

siennas. 159 

skins 536 

silk s8i 

tobacco leaf, unstemmed 44s 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



221 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Raw tobacco leaf, stemmed.^ 446 

turpentine 618 

Razors 284 

Ready-made clothing, wool, etc., n. o. p 394 

Reapers 3x8 

Reaper kniyes, steel for manufacture of 590 

Reaping hooks 290 

steel for manufacture of 598 

Recognition buttons. 426 

Recovered rubber. 573 

Red cedar, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 6xx 

sawdust 614 

lead, dry. 158 

liquor, a crude acetate of aluminium, 

etc 5x7 

prussiate of potash 565 

wood, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 6iz 

sawdust 6x4 

Reducing machinery 555 

Reeds, bamboo, for umbrellas, etc 499 

for whips, square 576 

split or otherwise manufactured, 

n. o. p 336 

Refined sugars 435 

Refuse, fish 520 

Regalia 36a 

Registers, cash 343 

Rcgulus of antimony 478 

Religious tracts 464 

Rennet, raw or prepared 571 

Reports, annual, of religious or benevolent 

associations. 466 

Reprints of copyright works copyrighted in 

Canada, prohibited 637 

Resin, in packages not less than xoo pounds.. 480 
Resins, gum, crude drugs, not edible, etc., 

n, o. p 515 

Reticules 424 

frames, clasps, and fasteners for... 425 

Retorts, mining 555 

platinum 564 

Revolvers 306 

Rhizomes 526 

Rhubarb root, unground 515 

Ribbons of all kinds. 369 

Ribs of brass, etc., for manufacture of um- 
brellas, etc 572 

Rice, cleaned 52 

flour 53 

for making starch 54 

uncleaned, unhuUed, or paddy 5X 

Rifle powder 413 

Rifles. 306 

I^iggin^« wire, for ships and vessels.... 626 

Rinds, citron, orange, and lemon, in brine ... 504 

Rings for manufacture of umbrellas, etc 572 

Rivets, brass 276 

copper.^ 276 

iron or steel 279 

tubular, hoop iron for manufacture of. 538 

Roax) scrapers. 324 

rollers. 290 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Roasted chicory 92 

coffee, not imported direct 88 

and imitations of, etc 89 

Roasting machinery, ore 555 

Rock crushers and drills... 3x5 

phosphate 520 

emery grinding machines. 555 

Rockingham ware. 185 

' Rods, brass 49a 

copper 493 

fishing 335 

iron or steel for manufacture of wire. 574 
Swedish rolled iron, under ^ inch in 

diameter 237 

Swedish rolled steel, under % inch in 
diameter, etc., for manufacture of 

horseshoe nails... 237 

Rolls, brimstone in 503 

sulphur in 50a 

Rolled edge steel plate, not less than 30 

inches wide, etc 231 

bridge plates, imiversal mill 230 

german silver 694 

iron tubes for manufacture of bed- 
steads „ 617 

nail rods, Swedish, for manufac- 
ture of horseshoe nails 237 

or steel angles, channels, etc., less 
than 35 pounds 

per yard 227 

channels, etc., 

n. e. s 228 

bars 229 

beams, joists, etc., n. e. s. 228 

shapes, n. o. p. 229 

sheets or plates, sheared, 

etc 232 

17 g&uge and thin- 
ner 234 

hoop, band, scroll, or 
strip, thinner than x8 

gauge, n. e. s 234 

rods, Swedish, under % inch in 

diameter, etc 237 

round wire rods for manufacture of 

wire 574 

steel tubcs^ not more than i^ inches 

in diameter 250 

Roller skates 281 

Rollers, copper, for use in calico printing 577 

road or field 290 

window shade 344 

Rolls, chilled iron or steel 254 

cornish and belted 315 

Rolling pins. 330 

Roofing slate 197 

Roots, orris 515 

medicinal 5x5 

crude drugs, not edible, etc., n. o. p... 515 

Rope wire 269 

Ropes, head 524 

Rosebushes 74 

Roses, attar of, orottarof 558 

oil of 558 



222 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Rosewood, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 6xz 

sawdust 6x4 

Rosin oil 480 

in packages of not less than zoo pounds. 480 

Rotary coal drills 55S 

Rough burr stones, in blocks 496 

grease, refuse of animal fat, for man- 
ufacture of soap and oil 528 

marble. 193 

stuff, n. e. s 160 

Round, unmanufactured timber. 611 

Rounds, bar iron or steel, rolled iig 

Rove, for manufacture of binder twine 432 

Rubber hose, packing, mats, and matting aaa 

boots, stockinettes for 383 

cotton or linen hose lined with S22 

crude... 573 

fillets for card clothing 523 

hard, in sheets 573 

heads for whips. 576 

India, boots and shoes. 221 

clothing, etc 222 

manufactures of , n. o. p 221 

powdered 573 

recovered 573 

sheets. 573 

substitute 573 

thread, elastic 575 

waste 573 

Rubberized oilcloth 385 

Rugs, railway or traveling 389 

cocoa, straw, hemp, or jute 396 

Chinese goat, etc., not dyed 578 

n. e. s 397 

Ruled paper. 140 

Rulers. 421 

Ruling machines 313 

Rum 7(«) 

bay. 7 (c) 

shrub 7 M 

Run of mine coal x8o 

Runners for manufacture of umbrellas, etc... 572 

Russia iron 934 

Russian hair skins. 578 

Rye 40 

flour 41 

S. 

Sacks of hemp, linen, or jute 377 

paper. 136 

Sadirons 245 

Saddletrees, Mexican 612 

Saddlers' hardware 280 

Saddlery, n. e. s 280 

Safes, amalgam 555 

and doors of 283 

Safety lamps, miners* 555 

Safl!ower and extract of 502 

Saffron and extract of 502 

cake soa 

Saga 53 

flour 53 

Sailboats, open, pleasure 4x0 



Number of 
Uriff item. 

Sail twine of hemp or flax and canvas, for 

boats* or ships' sails. 41Z 

Sails for boats and ships. 380 

Sal ammoniac 477 

soda. 586 

Salmon, fresh... zo6 

net twine. 524 

pickled or salted 107 

prepared, etc., n. e. s. zz5 

Salt cake 586 

coarse, n. e. s. loz 

fine, in bulk, n. e. s. zoa 

from United Kingdom, etc 579 

for use of fisheries 579 

n. e. s., packages containing 103 

in bags, barrels, etc Z03 

Saltpeter 477 

Salted fish, all other, in barrels. xo8 

not in barrels or half barrels. Z09 

herrings. 105 

salmon Z07 

Salts, aniline 477 

antimony 478 

German potash 520 

of quinine 477 

zinc 502 

Salves, n. o. p Z47 

Samplers, ore, automatic 555 

Sandarac gum 53Z 

Sand 505 

iron, for polishing granite or glass 54Z 

paper 135 

Sandstone, not hammered or chiseled 193 

Sandalwood, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 6xz 

sawdust 6x4 

Sappatogum, crude 5x5 

Sardines in tin boxes ixz 

any other form ixa 

Sarsaparilla root, unground 5x5 

Satchels. 424 

Sateens for corset and dress-stay makers 364 

Satin, white 634 

wood, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 6iz 

sawdust 6x4 

Sauces. 67 

Sausage skins or casings, not cleaned 580 

Sawdust of certain woods. 6x4 

Sawed boards, planks, etc., undressed, or 

dressed on one 

side only, etc 6xz 

and deals, planed, 

etc 328 

timber 6iz 

Saws, steel for, cut to shape only 580 

of all kinds 289 

Scales 283 

Schiedam 7(a) 

Schlag metal leaf 35a 

Schnapps 7(a) 

Scissors 284 

School writing slates 199 

Schools of blind, articles for 460,461 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



223 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Scrap brass. 49^ 

copper 492 

iron, cast 324 

or steel from vessels wrecked in 

Canadian waters. 581 

wrought, waste... 233 

lead 373 

leather, tanners' 3x3 

Scrapers, road or railway 334 

Screens, wire 343 

Screws, commonly called wood screws 360 

metal, n. o. p... 360 

Scroll, iron or steel, 8 inches and less wide, 

x8 gauge and thicker, 

n. e. s. 329 

thinner than x8 gauge, 

n. e. s. 334 

steel, more than a% cents per pound, 

n. o. pu~ 236 

Scythes 390 

steel for manufacture of 598 

Seal net twine 534 

Seamless bags, cotton 377 

drawn tubing, zinc 633 

tubes of rolled steel, not oyer z^ 

inches in diameter. 250 

steel, for bicycles 250 

Sea grass, crude, natural or cleaned only 52X 

weed, crude, natural or cleaned only 521 

Sections, iron or steel, further manufactured 

than rolled.^ 243 

rolled iron or steel, less than 35 

pounds per 

lineal yard. 337 

structural building and bridge iron 

or steel, n. e. s. 328 

trough, iron or steel, n. e. s 228 

Seed cake« cotton 559 

drills. 3»8 

lac 517 

meal, cotton 559 

pease and beans from Great Britain 526 

oysters. 560 

rape, sowing. 526 

Seeding stock for grafting 526 

Seeds, viz, annotto, beet, carrot, flax, turnip, 

mangold, and mustard 526 

aromatic, viz, anise, anise star, cara- 
way, coriander, cardamom, cumin, 
fenneU and fenugreek, crude, not 

edible, etc 526 

stem, and fruits, crude drugs, not edi- 
ble, etc., n. o. p. 515 

n. o. p 6x 

sunflower, canary, hemp, and millet... 6x 

Seines, fish, and twine for... 534 

Self-binding harvesters. 318 

Semimonthly magazines, unbound 469 

3enate. articles imported by and for use of 450 

Senegal gum S3x 

Separators, cream, and steel bowls for 588 

and parts. 3x5 

mining machinery 555 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Serges, to be dyed and finished in Canada, etc. 386 

Serum for subcutaneous injection 5x5 

Sesame seed oil x6o 

Sets, smokers', and cases for 433 

Settlers* effects 455 

Sewer pipes. 184 

Sewing machine attachments. 553 

machines or parts. 314 

domestic, settlers* 455 

silk 373 

thread, cotton, in hanks. 370 

on spools, etc 371 

Shackles, chain 36x 

Shaddocks. • 536 

Shade blanks, lamp, celluloid 286 

rollers, window 344 

trees, shrubs, and plants 74 

Shades and shade holders. 297 

glass 208 

window, n. e. s. 399 

Shafting, steel, turned, etc 243 

Shale oils, illuminating, over 30 cents per 

gallon X70 

Shams 362 

Shanks, shoe, steel for manufacture of 591 

Shapes, hat, cap, and bonnet 403 

and bonnet, buckram for manu- 
facture of 494 

of iron or steel, rolled, less than 35 

pounds per lineal 

3rard 227 

rolled n. e. s. and 

n. o. p ..•••• 228, 329 

further manufac- 
tured than rolled, 

etc 342 

hammered, n. o. p.. 243 

Shares, plow, cut to 9hape, etc 317 

Shawls of all kinds 389 

Shears 284 

Sheathing nails. 358 

yellow metal for 633 

vessels, felt, adhesive for 519 

Sheep for the improvement of stock. 457 

leather, dressed, waxed, etc 2x2 

Sheet aluminium 476 

brass 492 

celluloid, xylonite, or xyoKte 501 

copper, not coated or planished 492 

glass 209 

hard rubber, not further manufactured. 573 

iron or steel for vessels. 542 

manufactures of, n. o. p.. 309 
30 inches wfdc and ^ inch 

and over thick 23X 

No. 17 gauge and thinner, 

n. o. p. 234 

flat, galvanized 234 

coate<f, n. o. p 234 

steel, more than s^ cents per pound, 

n. o. p 236 

music, printed X29 

steel, crucible, for manufacture of 
mower and paper knives. ^qp 



224 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



Number of 
Uriff item. 

Sheet wadding 358 

Sheets of gennan silver. 584 

gold and silver bullion 495 

iron or steel, No. 17 gauge and thin- 
ner, n. o. p 334 

lead 273 

linen or cotton, n. o. p. 361 

nickel silver.^ 584 

phosphor bronze 299 

platinum 564 

rolled iron or steel, sheared or un- 

sheared 232 

rubber in 573 

silver, nickel, and german. 584 

tin. 6zo 

zinc in. 633 

Shelf oilcloth, enameled. 398 

Shell, lac in 517 

Shellac gum. 531 

white, in gum or flakes, for man- 
ufacturing purposes 531 

Shelled nuts, n. e. s 95 

oysters, in bulk. xi6 

peanuts .~ 96 

Shells, cocoa 93 

copper, for electrotypes, etc., of books, 

etc 604 

for stereotypes, etc., of alma- 

' nacs, etc 302 

for stereot3rpes, etc., of news- 
paper columns 303 

paper, brass cups for. 512 

shot, primers and hemp paper for 535 

unmanufactured 527 

Shingle bolts 6zz 

Shingles \ 6ir 

Ship building, books on 464 

planking 611 

timber 6iz 

Shipping tags.~ 127 

Ships, chronometers and compasses for. 503 

foreign, appl3^ng for Canadian regis- 
ter 409 

sails for 380 

wire rigging for 626 

Shirts and shirt waists. 366 

Shoemakers' ink. 164 

Shoe blacking 164 

buttons, papier-machd 553 

n. e. s. 426 

dressing 164 

knives 284 

eyelets, hooks, and fasteners 553 

laces. 405 

tagging metal for manufacture of. 606 

nails. 259 

shanks, steel for manufacture of 591 

tacks 259 

makers' tools 289 

Shoes, horse, mule, and ox 256 

indla rubber 221 

iron or steel wire used in manufac- 
ture of 627 

rubber, stocldnettes for 383 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Shoes, wire of brass, iron, steel, and zinc, 

twisted, for the manufacture of 627 

n. e. s 219 

Shot, iron, for polishing glass or granite 541 

lead 274 

shells, hemp paper for manufacture of.. 535 

primers for. 535 

Shovel blanks, and iron or steel cut to shape 

for..... ••»...... 291 

handles, **D," wood.~ 6x2 

Shovels 291 

Show cards, pictorial 126 

cases 339 

Shrub, rum. 7 (a) 

Shrubs, shade, lawn, and ornamental 74 

Sickles. 290 

Side lights. 297 

Sided timber.^ 6iz 

Sides and tips, hatters', and linings for 533 

Siennas, burnt, n. e. s 160 

raw 159 

Signs 310 

Silcx 556 

Silicate of soda 586 

Silicon, ferro 225 

Silk cloth, for manufacture of mackintosh 

clothing 381 

clothing, n. o. p. 362 

cocoona 582 

embroidery 373 

fabrics 368 

hatters' plush 533 

in the gum or spun, not more advanced 

than singles, etc. 372 

for underwear... 583 

manufactures, n. e. s. 369 

nettings 362 

oiled, India rubbered, flocked, etc 385 

raw or as reeled from cocoon. 582 

«ewing 373 

twist 373 

velvets 368 

waste. 582 

Silver bullion, .in blocks, bars, ingots, etc 495 

coin, except United States silver coin. 473 
German, Nevada, and nickel, manu- 
factures of, not plated 292 

ingots, etc 584 

leaf.w 352 

manufactures, n. e. s. 350 

medals won in competition, etc 473 

nickel ingots, etc 584 

prunes 77 

sweepings 495 

ware, sterling or other 293 

cases for, fancy 351 

Silvered glass. 206 

Sinkers 319 

Sirup, corn 437 

glucose 437 

n»aple 439 

Sirups containing admixture of glucose or 

corn 437 

fruit, n. o. p. 6 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. 



225 



Number of 
uriflf item. 

Sirupcs medicinal, n. o. p 147 

n. o. p., product of sugar cane, etc... 440 

Sisal and manila twine mixed, for binders. 433,620 

twine for binders. 433,620 

Sizing cream 167 

enamel ; 167 

Skates 281 

steel for manufacture of 593 

Skeins, cart or wagon 247 

Skeletons or parts thereof 463 

Skelp iron or steel, sheared, etc., n. e. s. 232 

for manufacture of steel 

pipe 233 

Skiffs 4x0 

Skin washes, alcoholic 7 (r) 

Skins, Russian hair 578 

chamois 212 

for taxidermic purposes, yiz, birds and 

animals. 463 

fish 463 

fur, wholly or partially dressed 406 

not dressed in any manner. 529 

for morocco leather, tanned only 213 

gold beaters' 530 

raw, whether dry, salted, or pickled.. 536 

sausage, not cleaned 580 

n. o. p 2x3 

Slabs, iron or steel 226 

Slack coal, bituminous 179 

Slag, blast furnace 485 

Slate pencils. 199 

mantels 198 

manufactures of , n. e. s 198 

roofing 197 

Slates, school, writing 199 

Sledges 289 

Sleds, children s. 323 

Sleighs 322 

Slides, magic lantern 422 

Slippers, n. e. s. 2x9 

Slime tables, mining 555 

Slot machines. 315 

Slugs for printing 300 

Smelting machinery 555 

Smoked fish no 

Smokers' seta, etc., cases for. 432 

Smoothing irons. 245 

Snaths.~ 290 

Snuff 444 

Soap, castile, mottled or white 24 

common or laundry, not perfumed 23 

harness. 164 

powders 26 

rough grease, refuse of animal fat, for 

manufacture of 528 

n. e. 8 25 

Sockets, electric. 294 

tubular bow, steel for manufacture 

of 596 

Socks of all kinds 387 

Soda, arseniateof 586 

ash 586 

bichromate of 586 

binarseniate of. 586 

No. 205 6. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Soda, bisulphite of 586 

caustic 586 

chlorate of 586 

chloride of 586 

nitrateof 586 

nitrite of 586 

sal 586 

silicate of. 586 

stannate of. 586 

sulphate of, crude 586 

Sodium, sulphide of 586 

Sole leather. »X3 

Solutions of peroxides of hydrogen X46 

Soups 15 

Southdown combing wools. 390 

Sowing rape seed 526 

Soy 67 

Spade blanks and iron or steel cut to shape 

for. 291 

Spades 291 

Spanish grass 521 

cedar, lumber and timber, planks 

and boards of. 6zz 

sawdust... .'. 6x4 

Spar ornaments 351 

Sparkling wines. 9 

Spatulas. 284 

Spawn, mushroom 526 

Specimens, botanical 463 

entomol(^ical 463 

mineralogical 463 

for illustrating natural history... 463 

Spectacle frames, parts of. 2x1 

Spectacles 2x0 

Spelter, zinc 633 

Spermaceti oiL 122 

Spices, n. e. s xox 

Spiegeleisen 225 

Spikes, composition. 258 

cut, of iron or steel 255 

railroad 255 

wrought and pressed 256 

Spiraea 526 

Spiral railway springs, steel for. 601 

Spirit, palm j 7 (a) 

potato 7 (a) 

pjrroxylic 7 (</) 

yamishes. x6z 

wood 7 (a) 

Spirits of ammonia, aromatic 7 (^) 

fruits preserved in 83 

lime juice and fruit juices fortified 

with 5 

methylated 7 (a) 

of niter, sweet 7 (</) 

turpentine 166 

wine 7 (a) 

paints and colors ground in. i6x 

perfumed 7 (c) 

Spirituous or alcoholic liquors. 7 

fruit essences, n. e. s. 7 (6) 

liquors, n. o. p... 7(a) 

Spokes, hickory, rough turned only 6xx 

lumber lawn tn shape for..... 6zx 



226 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



Number of 
Uriff item. 

Sportins^ powder 413 

Sportsmen's knives 284 

- fish nets 434 

Spreaders, manure 318 

Sprigs, cut 759 

Spring mattresses.... 343 

steel, flat, for yehicle springs. 600 

spiral, for spiral railway 

springs. 601 

Springs and farts of, iron or steel, for rail- 
way vehicles, etc 246 

for manufacture of surgical trusses.. 59Q 

clock, steel for manufacture of 591 

furniture 343 

lamp 298 

Sprinklers for fire protection 311 

lawn 312 

Sprocket or link chain for binders 318 

Spruce clapboards. 611 

Spurs and stilts, used in manufacture of 

earthenware 587 

Square reeds for manufacture of whips 576 

Square timber 611 

Squares, bar iron or steel, rolled 229 

Squills, root, unground 515 

Squirrel cages. 287 

Stained glass windows 202 

Stair linen. 361 

pads 396 

Stamp mills. 315 

Stamps, postage, collections of 473 

Stannateof soda 586 

Starch and similar preparations. 60 

com 60 

rice for the manufacture of 54 

Stars, iron or steel, n. e. s 228 

Statuettes, n. e. s 351 

Stave bolts 6ix 

Staves of wood 6ix 

Stays, dress, flat wire of steel for manufac- 
ture of. 592 

Stay laces... 405 

Stearic acid 19 

Stearin, animal, n. e. s x8 

Steam engines, portable, and parts 315 

n. e. s 315 

Steel angles for iron vessels, etc 542 

rolled, less than 35 pounds per 

lineal yard, n. o. p 227 

n. e. s..... 228 

articles, manufactures, etc., n. o. p 321 

axles, axle bars, etc., for railway ve- 
hicles, etc 246 

axle bars, for manufacture of axles 600 

bands, thinner than 18 gauge, n. e. s.... 234 
8-inch and less wide, x8 gauge 

and thicker, n. e. s 229 

more than 2^^ cents per pound, 

n. o. p 236 

bar, rolled 229 

bars, railway, n. e. s. 238 

hammered, n. o. p 243 

more than a}4 cents per pound, 
n. o. p 236 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Steel beams for vessels 542 

rolled, less than 35 pounds per 

lineal yard 227 

n. e. s 228 

billets... 226 

for springs and axles 600 

blooms 226 

boiler tubes 249 

boilers and machinery, n. e. s 315 

bolt blanks 279 

bolts. 279 

bowls for cream separators 588 

brads, sprigs, and tacks, n. o. p 259 

bridge plate, universal mill 230 

bridges ' 242 

buckles, n. o. p 305 

caps for whip ends 576 

castings in the rough, n. e. s. 244 

chains ^ of an inch and over 261 

channels, rolled, less than 35 pounds per 

lineal yard, n. o. p... 327 

n. e. s. 228 

chrome 235 

column sections, further manufactured 

than rolled, etc 242 

crucible sheet, for manufacture of 

mower and reaper knives. 590 

cutlery, n. o. p. 284 

cut to shape for spade and shovel 

blanks. 291 

eye bar blanks, flat 228 

fencing, barbed wire 602 

buckthorn strip, etc 263 

flats.M 239 

forgings, n. e. s 243 

for manufacture of files 700 

bicycle chains... 597 

hammers, augers, 
and auger bits, 

etc. 598 

tubular bow sock- 
ets. 596 

knob and lock manufacturers and 

cutters. 594 

corset steels, clock springs, and 

shoe shanks. 591 

saws and straw cutters, cut to shape 

only 589 

manufacture of skates. 593 

buckle clasps, bed 
fasts, furniture 
casters, and ice 

creepers 595 

galvanized sheet, manufacture of, 

n. o. p 309 

girders, rolled, less than 35 pounds per 

lineal yard 227 

n. e. s 228 

hinge blanks. 279 

hinges, T and strap, n. e. s. 279 

hollow ware, enameled, agate, etc 307 

plain, etc 308 

hoop, 8 inches and less wide, x8 gauge 
and thicker, n. e. s. 229 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1897. 



227 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Steel hoop, thinner than x8 fir^uge, n. e. s..... 234 
more than 2^ cents per pound, 

n. o. p 236 

ingots and cogged ingots 226 

joists, rolled, n. e. s 228 

knees for iron vessels, etc 542 

knife blades or blanks and table forks, 

in the rough 285 

loops, etc 226 

manufactures, not manufactured in 

Canada, for ships and vessels. 542 

masts for ships or parts of 542 

nails, cut 255 

nail rods, Swedish 237 

nails, n. e. s. 255, 256 

netting 270 

nut blanks. 279 

nuts... 279 

pieces, punchings, or chppings of plate, 

etc. 223 

pipe, fittings for 254 

plate, universal mill or rolled edge 230 

agricultural, cut to shape, etc... 3x7 
more than 2% cents per pound, 

n. o. p. 236 

engravers' 301 

plates, for iron or steel vessels, etc 54a 

30 inches wide and over and 3i 

inch and over thick. 231 

sheared or unsheared 232 

puddled bars 226 

rails, crops from, etc 223 

not less than 45 pounds per lineal 

yard for railway tracks, etc 585 

railway bars or rails, n. e. s 238 

ribs for manufacture of umbrellas, par- 
asols, etc 572 

rivets 279 

rolled round wire rods for manufacture 

of wire 574 

rolls, chilled 254 

sq^ap, old, etc., recovered from wrecks.. 581 

having been in use 223 

screws, n. o. p 260 

scroll, 8 inches and less wide, x8 gauge 

and thicker, n. e. s 229 

thinner than 18 gauge, n. e. s..... 234 
more than 2% cents per pound, 

n. o. p 236 

sections, rolled, less than 35 pounds per 

lineal yard, n. o. p.... 227 

n. e. s 228 

shafting, tunnel, etc 243 

shapes, hammered, n. o. p. 243 

rolled, less than 35 pounds per 

lineal yard 227 

n. e. s 228 

sheets, 17 gauge and thinner, n. o. p 234 

flat, galvanized 234 

coated, n. o. p 234 

for iron vessels, etc 542 

sheared or unsheared 232 

more than 2}^ cents per pound, 
n. o. p 236 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Steel skelp, sheared, etc., n. e. s. 232 

for manufacture of steel pipe..... 233 

slabs 226 

spikes, cut 255 

spring, flat, for springs and axles 600 

for the manufacture of surgical 

trusses. 599 

spiral, for manufacture of spi- 
ral railway springs 601 

springs, for railway vehicles, etc 246 

stars, rolled, n. e. s 228 

steam engines, n. o. p 315 

strip for manufacturing wire fencing 8 
inches and less wide, 18 gauge 

and thicker. 229 

thinner than 18 gauge, n. e. s 234 

more than 2% cents per pound, 

n. o. p.... 236 

structural sections, building and bridge, 

rolled 228, 242 

tees, less than 35 pounds per lineal 

yard 227 

n. e. s 228 

tires, locomotive and car wheel, rough.. 551 

trough sections, rolled 228, 242 

tubing, over 2 inches in diameter 251 

2 inches in diameter or less, 

n. e. s 252 

tubes or pipes, other, n. o. p. 253 

rolled, not welded, etc., not over 

1% inches in diameter 250 

seamless, for bicycles. 250 

ware, n. e. s 308 

washers. 279 

wire, crucible cast. 625 

flat, for dress stays, crinoline, and 

corset wire 592 

for manufacture of wire fenc- 
ing 602 

for manufacture of mattresses..... 628 
galvanized, 9, 12, and 13 gauge... 603 
for manufacture of boots, shoes, 

etc 627 

zees, n. e. s 228 

Steels, corset 362 

table and butchers' 284 

steel for manufacture of 591 

Stem seeds, crude drugs, not edible, etc., 

n. o. p 515 

Stereotypes for almanacs, etc., n. c. s. 302 

matrices or copper shells for 302 

of books, etc., matrices or copper 

shells for 604 

for newspaper columns. 303 

bases, matrices, and copper shells 

for 303 

Sterling silverware 293 

Stick lac 517 

Sticks as last blocks, etc., rough hewn or 

sawed only 6ti 

umbrella, etc.. rough or cut to length 

only 572 

bamboo reeds for 499 

n. e. s. "i-iT 



( 



228 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Sticks, walldns^, n. e. s. 335 

bamtxx) reeds for. 409 

Stilts and spurs, for the manufacture of earth- 
enware 587 

Stirrups of wood 612 

Stock, animals for improvement of 457 

florist, viz, palms, orchids, azaleas, 

cacti, flower bulbs, etc 526 

fowls for improvement of.~ 514 

live, settlers'... 455 

seedling, for grafting 526 

Stockinettes for rubber boots and shoes. 383 

Stockings of all kinds 387 

Stone, building, dressed 194 

not hammered, etc 193 

baths, tubs, and washstands 186 

chalk 525 

china or Cornwall 525 

cliff 52s 

flint 525 

manufactures of, n. o. p 196 

paving blocks 194 

pumice... 567 

Stones, burr, rough, for binding into mill- 
stones. 496 

curling 511 

ground flint 525 

lithographic, not engraved 190 

precious, n. e. s., polished but not set, 

and imitations of. 348 

precious, in the rough 525 

Stoneware, brown or colored 185 

demijohns, churns, or crocks 182 

Store furniture 343 

Stores, military, by and for use of army and 

navy 449 

for use of Canadian militia.. 450 

Stove plates. 345 

linings. i8x 

Stoves 245 

Stiianded wire. 269 

Strap hinges. 279 

Strawberries, wild 526 

n. e. 8. 75 

Strawberry wine 8 

Straw boards 135 

carpeting, rugs, mats, etc 396 

Straw cutters, steel for 589 

knives 290 

steel for manufacture of 598 

Straw plaits. 563 

Strength testing machine. 283 

Strip fencing, buckthorn 363 

wire, etc., for manufacture of. 602 

Strips, aluminium 476 

german and nickel silver 584 

brasSi 49a 

horn in the rough 537 

iron or steel, 8 inches and less wide, 

x8 gauge and thicker, n. e. s. 229 

platinum. 564 

thinner than 18 guage, n. e. &. 234 

steel, more than a}^ cents per pound, 
D, o. p,-, 336 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Structural sections, building and bridge 218 

work, iron or steel 242 

Stuff, rough, n. e. s 160 

Subacetate of copper, dry. 502 

Substitute, rubber 573 

for extract of coffee, n. e. s ^ 

roasted or ground coffee. 89 

Sugar above No. 16 Dutch standard in color.. 435 

cane, sirups, and molasses. 440 

candy 438 

concrete 436 

drainings or pumpings, drained in 

transit 436 

grape or glucose 437 

maple 439 

n. e. s., not above No. 16 Dutch stand- 
ard .*. 436 

Sugars, refined 435 

Sulphate of alumina 476 

ammonia 477 

copper (blue vitriol). 502 

iron (copperas) 50a 

lime S02 

soda, crude 586 

Sulphide of sodium 586 

Sulphur, crude or in roll or flour 502 

Sulphuric add 144 

articles for the manufacture 

of 5^ 

ether 146 

Sumac and extract thereof 517 

Sunday school lesson pictures. 464 

Sunflower seed 61 

Sunshade sticks or handles, n. e. s. 337 

of bamboo, not manufac- 
tured 499 

Sunshades, articles for the manufacture of... 573 

Sunshades 401 

Surgical belts and trusses... 15a 

dressing, antiseptic 152 

instruments. 153, 605 

'needles. 153 

trusses, steel springs for. 599 

Suspenders or parts thereof.^ 404 

Suspensory bandages 25a 

Sweats, bat, for the manufacture of hats 533 

Swedish rolled iron or steel nail rods, for 

manufacture of horseshoe nails. 337 

Sweepers, carpet 343 

Sweepings, gold and silver 495 

Sweet potatoes 64 

spirits of niter. 7 {d) 

Sweetened gums 438 

Swine for improvement of stock. 457 

Switches for railways. 240 

Swords 306 

Sycamore, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 611 

sawdust 614 

T. 

Table cloths, n. o. p 361 

forks, not handled, etc 285 

oilcloth, enameled 998 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



229 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Table steels 284 

ware, glass, cut, molded, or pressed.. ao8 

blown ao8 

Tables, bagatelle 340 

billiard 340 

slime, gold mining 555 

Tablets with movable fixtures for schools of 

blind 460 

Tacks, brass and copper. 276 

cut, and tacks n. o. p. 259 

shoe. .*. 259 

Tafia bitters. ;. 7 (a) 

Tagging metal for manufacture of shoe and 

corset laces 606 

Tags, shipping, etc 127 

Tailors* fashion plates 469 

irons 245 

shears 284 

Tails, undres&ed 607 

Tallow XQ 

Tampico. 521 

Tank bottoms, sugar 436 

Tanners* bark. 517 

scrap leather 213 

Tannic acid 484 

Tanning articles in crude state, n. e. s 517 

books on. 464 

Tape, rubbered, etc. 385 

lines 42a 

Tapioca 53 

Tar, coal 507 

dyes. 477 

pine 507 

Taraxacum root unground 515 

Tarred paper 135 

Tartar, cream of, crystals. 502 

emetic 502 

gray 502 

Tartaric acid in crystals. 502 

Tassels 362 

yarn for manufacture of, etc 630 

Tea adulterated with spurious leaf, etc., pro- 
hibited 640 

imported direct from country of growth. 608 

lead.~ 610 

n. e. s. 87 

purchased in bond in United Kingdom.. 608 
Teak, African, lumber and timber, planks 

and boards of 611 

sawdust 614 

Teasels. 609 

Tedders, hay 315 

Tecs, rolled iron or steel, less than 35 pounds 

per lineal yard... 227 

n. e. 8. 228 

Telegraph rates. , 124 

instruments 294 

Telephone instruments 294 

Tennis nets, lawn 434 

Terra cotta ornaments. 351 

japonica 517 

Teme plate 234 

Textile leather heads for manufacture of 

whips. 576 

T hinges. 279 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Thongs for whips 2x7 

Thread, cotton, sewing, in hanks. 370 

on spools.^ 371 

n. e. s. 371 

gilling 524 

rubber elastic 575 

Thrashers 315 

Thumbs and tips for manufacture of whips.. 576 

Tickets 127 

Tie plates, railway 239 

Ties, railroad 611 

Tiles, drain, not glazed 183 

earthenware 184 

Timber, hewn or sawed 6x1 

manufactured, n. e. s. 329 

of certain kinds, rough sawn, etc... 61 x 

round, unmanufactured 6ix 

ship 61X 

squared or sided or creosoted 61 x 

Tin crystals. 610 

foil 6x0 

in blocks, pigs, bars, and sheets. 610 

manufactures of, n. e. s 309 

oxide of 502 

phosphor 299 

plate bars, crop ends of 223 

plates 610 

strip waste 610 

Tinware 309 

Tinctures, alcoholic, n. e. s. 7 (^) 

n. o. p X47 

Tinsmith's tools. 289 

Tips, cue 340 

horn, in the rough 537 

lava or other 297 

and sides, and linings for hatters' 533 

for manufacture of whips 576 

Tippets, fur. 407 

Tires, bicycle, duck or canvas for manufac- 
ture of 516 

locomotive and car wheel, of steel, in 

the rough 551 

Tobacco, cut 443 

manufactured, n. e. s. 444 

pipes 423 

pouches 423 

unmanufactured, unstemmed, for 

excise purposes. 445, 6x6 

unmanufactured, stemmed, for ex- 
cise 446. 616 

Toilet cases 351 

clippers. 284 

combs. 427 

preparations, alcoholic 7 (c) 

nonalcoholic 149 

of petroleum, similar to 

vaseline X78 

Tomatoes, fresh. 65 

n. e. s., in cans, etc 66 

Tonquin beans, crude only 526 

Tonics, n. o. p. 147 

Tool bags. 424 

Tools, hand or machine 289 

loading 306 

settlers' ^^b 



230 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Tools, track .» »„- 289 

Tooth powders and washes.^ 149 

washes, alcoholic 7 (c) 

Topog^phical globes. 461 

Tops, chimney^ 184 

worsted 391 

n. e. 8... 629 

Torpedoes 4x6 

Tortoise shells, unmanufactured 527 

Tow, flax 521 

surgical dressing 152 

Towels 361 

Toys 351 

Track tools 289 

Tracts, religious. 464 

Tragacanth, gum 531 

Transfers taken from plates, engraved on 

wood or metal 301 

Travelers* baggage 452 

carriages for. 453 

Traveling rugs 389 

Trawl twine for nets, etc 524 

Trawls and trawling spoons 319 

Tray cloths, damask of linen, etc 361 

Tree nails. 615 

Trees, viz, apple, cherry, peach, pear, plum, 

and quince 73 

fruit, seedling stock for grafting. 526 

shade, lawn, and ornamental 74 

n. e. s 526 

saddle, Mexican 612 

Tricycles 325 

Trimmers 284 

Trimmmgs, brass, for bedsteads 617 

Troches, n.o. p 147 

Trophies, honorary 473 

Trucks 324 

Trunk nails 256 

Trunks 424 

Trusses, surgical 152 

steel springs for 599 

Tubes, boiler, wrought iron or steel 249 

corrugated, for marine boilers. 249 

rolled iron, not welded, for manufac- 
ture of bedsteads 617 

steel, not welded, seamless, not 
more than ^ inch in diame- 
ter 250 

seamless, for bicycles 350 

Tubers 526 

Tubing, brass 492 

copper 492 

lacquered or brass covered, for man- 
ufacture of bedsteads. 617 

wrought iron, etc., for mining, etc... 555 
platinum, by manufacturers of sul- 
phuric acid 564 

wrought iron or steeI,over 2 inches 

in diameter, 

n. e. s 251 

a inches or less 
in diameter, 

n. e. s 252 

iron or steel, other, n. o. p 253 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Tubing, zinc, seamless drawn 633 

Tubs 330 

n. o. p 186 

Tubular bow sockets, steel for 596 

rivets, hoop iron, for manufacture 

of 538 

Tufa, calcareous 477 

Turkish rugs or carpets... 397 

Turmeric 517 

Turnip seed 526 

Turpentine, raw or crude .• 618 

spirits of 166 

Turtles 619 

Tuscan plaits 563 

Tweeds, wool, worsted, hair of alpaca, goat, 

etc., n. e. s 394 

Twills, to be dyed and finished in Canada, 

etc 386 

Twine, n. e. s 431 

articles, manufactures of . n. o. p 434 

for harvest binders 433,620 

jute, flax, or hemp yarn for the man- 
ufacture of 546 

rove, for manufacture of twine for 

harvest binders 432 

sail, of hemp or flax 411 

Twines, fishing, to be used in making nets, 

etc 524 

Twist, silk 373 

Twisted brass, iron, and copper wire for man- 
ufacture of boots and shoes 627 

Twisted wire. n. e. s 269 

Type metal 299 

for printing. 300 

Typewriters. 315 

for schools of the blind 460 

settlers* 455 

U. 

Ultramarine blue, dry or in pulp. •.. 6ax 

Umbers, n. e. s 160 

Umbrella handles or sticks, n. e. s 337 

Umbrellas 401 

articles for the manufacture of ... 572 
sticks of bamboo, not manufac- 
tured 499 

Unbleached cotton fabrics, n. o. p. 359 

Unbound newspapers, magazines, etc 469 

Uncleaned nair 532 

Undershirts 388 

Underwear, silk in the gum or spun for 583 

Undressed feathers 28 

licmp 534 

tails. 607 

Unenumerated articles 447 

Union cloths of certain kinds for manufac- 
ture of mackintosh clothing 381 

collar cloth paper, glossed or finished. 133 

not glossed or fin- 
ished 132 

Universal mill steel plate 230 

Unmanufactured bamboos, osiers, and wil- 
lows. 499 

caoutchouc 573 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 897. 



231 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Unmanufactured india rubber 573 

lava 50a 

palm leaf 56a 

shells 527 

timber, round, n. o. p 611 

tobacco for excise purposes. 616 

whalebone 623 

Unplumed quills 569 

Unset diamonds 513 

Unsigned notes, drafts, etc ia8 

Upholsterers' hardware 280 

Upper leather, dressed, waxed, or glazed 212 

V. 

Vaccine .-. 515 

points, ivory 515 

Valerian root, unground 515 

Valises '. 424 

Valley, lilies of the 536 

Vanilla beans, crude only 526 

Vanners, mining 555 

Varnish, black and bright, for ships' use 622 

Varnishes, spirit z6i 

n. e. s 168 

Vaseline and similar preparations of petro- 
leum 178 

Vaults, doors for 283 

Vegetable fibers. 521 

manures 520 

Vegetables, n. o. p 43 

n.e.s., in cans or other packages. 66 

labels for 127 

Vehicles, viz, freight wagons, drays, sleighs, 

etc 322 

buggies, etc., n. e. s 323 

settlers' 455 

Velveteens. 368 

Velvets 368 

silk. 368 

Veneers of ivory... 543 

wood 331 

Vents, chimney 184 

Verdigris, dry 502 

Vermicelli 59 

Vermouth, wine 7 (/) 

Vessels, foreign, applying for Canadian reg- 
ister 409 

felt, adhesive, for sheathing 519 

wire rigging for... 6a6 

wood, iron, steel, or composite, 

beams, sheets, etc., for 54a 

iron, steel, or brass manufactures, 

not manufactured in Canada 542 

wrecked in Canadian waters, scrap 

iron and steel from 581 

Vestments, church 408 

Vinegar 141 

Vines, grape 74 

Vises. 289 

Vitriol, blue 502 

Vulcanized fiber 341 

W. 

Wadding, sheet, cotton 358 

Wads, gun 306 



Number of 
Uriff item. 

Wads, gun, felt board for manufacture of..... 535 
Wagon blocks, rough hewn or sawed only... 6xx 

skeins or boxes 247 

Wagons, farm 315 

freight 32a 

Waists, ladies' and misses' 366 

Walking sticks, bamboo reeds, cut into 

lengths only 499 

and canes, n. e. s 335 

Wall diagrams 463 

Walnut, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 6x1 

sawdust 614 

Wall paper 138 

Walnuts. 96 

Wares, iron or steel, n. o. p. 321 

Warps, cotton, n. e. s 358 

Washboards. 330 

Washstands, n. o. p 186 

Washers, brass or copper. 376 

iron or steel, n. e. s... 279 

Washes, nonalcoholic 149 

spirituous 7 {c) 

Washing machinery, coal 555 

Waste of any kind, except mineral waste 570 

clippings, paper 570 

cotton 508 

rubber 573 

silk 58a 

tin, strip 610 

Watch actions or movements 347 

cases. 345 

glasses and keys... 346 

Watches. 346 

cases for, fancy 351 

Water, cologne. 7 (c) 

color paintings by artists of well 

known merit. 470 
Canadian art- 
ists 470 

jackets, blast furnace 555 

lavender 7 (c) 

mineral, natural, not in bottles 554 

Waters, n. o. p Z47 

Water lime cement 187 

Wax, bees' 20 

paraffin -. 151 

candles aa 

Wearing apparel of British subjects dying 

abroad 454 

wool, worsted, hair of 
alpaca, etc., n. o. p... 394 

settlers 455 

Weaving, books on 464 

Webbing, elastic, and nonelastic 400 

Wedges. a89 

Weeders. 318 

Weekly literary papers, unbound 469 

Weighing beams a83 

Whale oil 12a 

bone, unmanufactured 623 

Wheat 55 

flour 56 

Wheelbarrows 324 



f 



232 



TARIFF OF CANADA, 1 89 7. 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Wheels, emery 420 

hubs for, rough hewn or sawed only. 61 1 
hickory lumber sawn to shape for 

spokes of 611 

Whip cords, to be dyed and finished in Can- 
ada, etc 386 

Whips, articles for manufacture of 576 

of all kinds 2x7 

Whisky 7 («) 

Whisks 330 

White ash, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 611 

sawdust.. 614 

cotton embroideries 363 

fabrics, n. o. p. 359 

glass, obscured 202 

granite ware. 185 

lead, dry 158 

pans... 624 

satin 624 

shellac, in gum or flake, for manufac- 
turing purposes 53' 

wood, lumber and timber, planks and 

boards of 611 

sawdust 614 

line 158 

Whiting, gilders* 624 

or whitening 624 

Wicks, lamp. 418 

Wild blueberries 5»6 

raspberries 526 

strawberries. 526 

Willows, unmanufactured 499 

Windmills. 3>5 

steel for manufacture of 598 

Window blinds, paper. 138 

cornices and poles 343 

glass, common and colorless. aoi 

memorial 202 

shade rollers. 344 

shades, n. e. s 399 

Windows, stained glass 202 

wire 343 

Wine, ginger 7 (') 

spirits of 7(a) 

vermouth 7 U) 

Wines, containing more than 40 per cent 

spirits. 10 

medicinal, alcoholic 7 {6) 

not over 40 per cent 

spirits 7(/) 

of all kinds, except sparkling 8 

sparkling 9 

Wire, barbed 262 

brass 265 

iron, steel, or zinc, for boot and 

shoe manufacturers 627 

cable, n. e. s 369 

cloth of brass or copper or woven wire. 267 

iron or steel 270 

copper 266 

covered 264 

corset 362 

crucible cast steel 625 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Wire doors, screens, and windows 343 

fencing, iron or steel, n. e. s 363 

barbed 602 

for manufacture of fencing 602 

wire mattresses.... 628 
galvanized, of certain gauges, for fenc- 
ing 262 

iron or steel, 9, 12, and 13 

gauge 603 

iron or steel, for manufacturing boots. 627 

nails, n. o. p 257 

netting 270 

of all kinds, n. o. p. 368 

phosphor bronze 299 

pins. 271 

platinum 564 

rigging for ships and vessels 626 

rods, rolled round, for manufacture of 

wire 574 

rope 269 

shoe lace fasteners 553 

steel, flat, for manufacture of crinoline 

or corset wire and dress stays. 592 

stranded or twisted, clothes line, pic- 
ture, or other twisted wire 269 

wove, iron, or steel 270 

Wires, corset, covered 362 

Wood alcohol 7 {a) 

cork, manufactures of, n. o. p 327 

unmanufactured 613 

dogwood 611 

fire 611 

furniture, house, cabinet, or office 343 

manufactures of, n. o. p 334 

moldings 332 

naphtha 7 (a) 

pails, tubs, etc 330 

persimmon « 611 

pulp 333 

screws. 260 

shovel handles, "D" 612 

spirit 7 (a) 

staves 611 

stirrups 612 

veneers 331 

Wool and hair of camel, alpaca, goat, etc., 

washed only, n. e. s. 629 

cloth for manufacture of mackintosh 

clothing .'. 381 

combing, such as is grown in Canada.. 390 

cotton. 508 

surgical dressing 152 

fabrics, etc., to be dyed and finished 

in Canada 386 

and manufactures of, n. e. s... 394 
manufactures, viz, blankets, flannels, 
cloths, doeskins, cassimeres, tweeds, 

etc., n. e. s 394 

ready-made clothing or wearing ap- 
parel, n. o. p 394 

yarns costing 30 cents per pound and 

over 393 

for manufacture of braids, cords, tas- 
sels, and fringes... 630 



NEW TARIFF LAW OF VENEZUELA. 



233 



Number of 
tariff item. 

Wool, n. e. s 39a 

Woolen rags 570 

Worm gut, unmanufactured, for whip cord, 

etc 500 

Worsted fabrics, etc., to be dyed, etc., in 

Canada, etc... 386 

and manufactures, n. e. s... 394 
manufactures, viz, blankets, flan- 
nels, etc., n. e. s. 394 

ready-made clothing, n. o. p 394 

tops.... 391 

n. c. s 629 

yams for manufacture of braids, 

cords, tassels, and fringes.. 630 
costing 30 cents per pound 

and over 393 

n. e. s.~ 39a 

Woven wire fencing, iron or steeL~ 363 

brass or copper. 967 

iron or steel 270 

Wringers, clothes.. 304 

Writing desks, fancy 351 

ink. 163 

slates, school 199 

Wrooght-iron or steel boiler tubes, n. e. s 249 

tubing over 2 inches in 

diameter.... 251 

2 inches or less in di- 
ameter 252 

tubing for mining, etc. 555 
nails and spikes, 

scrap iron p.nd scrap steeL.. 223 

X. 

Xylonite collars.... 365 

cuffs. 365 

sheets and in lumps, blocks, or balls, 
in the rough... 501 



Number of 
Uriff item. 

Xyolite collars 365 

cuffs. 365 

sheets and in lumps, blocks, or balls, 

in the rough 501 

Y. 

Yams 64 

Yam, alpaca or angora, for manufacture of 

braids 631 

jute, hemp, or flax, by manufacturers 
of carpets, jute cloth, twines, etc... 546 

Yams, ooir 508 

cotton. No. 40 and finer 508 

n. e. 8 358 

mohair 508 

wool or worsted for manufacture of 

braids, cords, tassels, and fringes... 630 
woolen, worsted, etc., costing 30 cents 

per pound and over 393 

woolen or worsted, n. e. s 39a 

Yeast cakes 7a 

compressed 71 

Yellow metal in bolts, bars, and for sheath- 
ing 632 

prussiate of potash 565 

Yolk, egg s>5 

Z. 

Zinc, in blocks, pigs, sheets, and plates 633 

dust.. 517 

manufactures of , n. o. p 277 

saltsof 502 

seamless drawn tubing 633 

spelter. 633 

white 158 

wire for manufactures of boots and 
shoes 627 



NEW TARIFF LAW OF VENEZUELA. 

The new tariff law of Venezuela, as approved by the last Con- 
gress, has not yet appeared in pamphlet form. Awaiting said publi- 
cation, I have the honor to herewith inclose a clipping and trans- 
lation from a journal of the chamber of commerce showing the 
differences between the new and old law. 

William W. Russell, 
Caracas, July 14, i8gy. Secretary of Legation, 



[Translation.] 
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TARIFF LAW PASSED BY THE LAST CONGRESS AND THE 

ONE FORMERLY IN FORCE. 

Class /, free. — There are included in this class: Mineral waters, formerly third 
class; iron ore and old iron, suitable for foundry purposes, formerly second class; 
potato sprouts, formerly third class; windmills, formerly second class. 



234 BRITISH TREATIES OF COMMERCE DENOUNCED. 

Class 2, lo centimes per kilogram. — There are included in this class: Liquid car- 
bonic acid gas, elbows for water pipes, and glass dust. 

Class J, 2S centimes per kilogram, — There are included in this class: Cotton, 
formerly prohibited; asbestos; harness, formerly second class; muscovado sugar, 
formerly prohibited; gum arabic, formerly fifth class; pure lard (the mixtures and 
the oleomargarine formerly comprised in this class are excluded); poisons used in 
preserving hides, formerly fifth class. 

Class 4, 75" centimes per kilogram. — Parlor air guns are transferred to the seventh 
class. There are included in this class: Refined white sugar, formerly prohibited; 
bituminous oil for cleaning harness, painted rope mats for tables, naphtha; pork, 
lard, mixed with other greases, and oleomargarine, formerly third class; wooden 
strips for matches, formerly prohibited. 

Class s^ ''^S bolivars per kilogram. — There are included in this class: Rum of all 
sorts, except that made from sugar cane, the importation of which is prohibited; 
brandy or cognac or essences thereof; absinthe, gin, and essences to 22" Cartier 
(beyond this grade the duties will be calculated proportionately), formerly sixth 
class; cotton batting; gunpowder, formerly sixth class; plug tobacco (el tabaco 
hueva) and twisted chewing tobacco, formerly sixth class. 

Class 7, 5 bolivars per kilogram. — The importation of matches is prohibited. 
There are included in this class: Parlor air guns, formerly fourth class. 

Class 9, 20 bolivars per kilogram. — The importation of ready-made clothing, 
formerly in this class, is prohibited by article 3 of the new law. 

The tariff law recently passed has two new articles, as follows: 

Article 4. The Executive shall have the power to prohibit the importation of 
all or any pieces of all kinds of ready-made clothing, of hats of all classes, caps, 
helmets, and trimmed caps through those custom-houses of the Republic in whose 
jurisdiction such industries or trades may have acquired the necessary extension 
and development for the supply of said articles without detriment to the consumers. 

Article 13. Articles imported into the country as disconnected parts of a whole 
for the purpose of avoiding duty, whether in a single package or in separate pack- 
ages, shall pay the duty of the class to which the article belongs when put together. 

There is this difference between article 4 of the old law and article 5 of the new 
law: By the first, saltpeter could be imported only by druggists and in small por- 
tions; by the second, the quantity is not limited, and it can be imported by any 
one with the proper permit. 

Between article 11 of the old law and article 12 of the new law, there is this 
difference: By the first, the governor was authorized to increase, diminish, and 
suppress duties without specifying the article; by the second, he is authorized to 
diminish and suppress duties on the necessaries of life only when unforeseen circum- 
stances make it advisable, etc. 



BRITISH TREATIES OF COMMERCE DENOUNCED. 

BELGIUM. 

I have the honor to state that the Moniteur Beige, the official 
paper of Belgium, published on the ist instant a notice from the 
Department of Foreign Affairs, of which the following is a transla- 
tion: 

By an official communication of the 29th of July, 1897, the Government of Her 
Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland has de- 
nounced the treaty of commerce and navigation concluded on the 23d of July, 1862, 



BRITISH TREATIES OF COMMERCE DENOUNCED. 



235 



between Belgium and Great Britain. The Government of the King has acknowl- 
edged the fact of this denunciation. 

According to article 25 of the treaty, the latter shall remain in force until July 
29, 1898. 

In notifying the denunciation in question, the Government of Her Britannic Maj- 
esty has made known that it is disposed to enter into negotiation with the Govern- 
ment of the King for the conclusion of a new treaty. 

This news, although foreseen, for the leading papers of the country 
had been discussing the question for several weeks and had announced 
as imminent the denunciation in question, has nevertheless produced 
a profound sensation in the commercial centers of Belgium. 

In my opinion, there is some reason for the belief that this action 
of the British Government may be followed by grave economic con- 
sequences for Belgium. For instance, the official statistics of the 
commerce of Belgium with foreign countries for 1896 show that the 
general importations from England into Belgium amounted to $66,- 
204,790 and the special importations to $39,684,274. By **general 
importations " is meant goods in transit through the country, and 
by ** special importations" is meant goods consumed in the country.* 

The same statistics give the amount of the general exportations 
from Belgium to England as $108,872,072, and the special as $56,- 
201,986. 

The difference between the special importations and exportations 
is, therefore, $16,517,712, the amount by which the exports from Bel- 
gium to England exceed those from England to Belgium. 

The principal articles exported from Belgium to England dur- 
ing the year 1896 were: 



Articles. 



Woolen yam. 

Linen thread 

Raw wool 

Iron (wrought and laminated and wire) 

Zinc, unworked 

Paper 

Sugar: 

Raw 

Re6ned 

Glass 



General com- 
merce. 



♦5,338,766 

4,925,939 
4,774,820 
2,476,190 
2,716,089 
2,002,761 

2,920,669 

2,653,750 
6,588,441 



Special com- 
merce. 



14,890,620 
4,602,08s 

4,726,377 

989,704 

2,625,958 

1,696,663 

2,657,224 
2,594,885 
5,871,832 



Brussels, August 2 ^ iS^j, 



Bellamy Storer, 

Minister, 



A report to the same effect has been received from Consul Roose- 
velt, dated Brussels, August 2, 1897. 

* " General importations " embrace the total imports of Belgium, goods in trannt as well as goods 
consumed in the country, *' general exportations " embrace the total exports, goods in transit as well 
as goods manufactured and produced in Belgium. 



236 BRITISH TREATIES OF COMMERCE DENOUNCED. 



GERMANY. 

The Department of State has received no official information rela- 
tive to the denunciation of the Anglo-German treaty of commerce,* 
but the Imperial Gazette, Berlin, July 31, 1897, makes the following 
announcement: 

The treaty of commerce of May 30, 1865, between the German customs union 
and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was denounced on July 30 
of this year by the British Government. 

In consequence of this denunciation, the above-mentioned treaty, together with 
the supplementary agreements regulating its extension to the various German states 
which subsequently joined the customs union and to Alsace-Lorraine, will pass out 
of force on July 31, 1898. 

The Berlin correspondent of the London Times (August 2, 1897) 
says that the tone of the comments of the German press is for the 
most part calm and impartial. It is considered that Germany has 
no cause for anxiety, since her economic position is strong enough 
to enable her to undertake a commerce war, should it be necessary. 
England, however, appears to have no intention of provoking such 
a war, but wishes, by means of a new treaty, to remove the obsta- 
cles to a close business connection with her colonies. So far as Ger- 
man relations with England alone are concerned, it is felt to be a 
matter of indifference whether a treaty exists or not. Almost the 
only cause for anxiety is afforded by the protectionist policy of the 
governments of British colonies. The correspondent continues: 

The desire of England to respond in some material way to the commercial ad- 
vantages held out to her by her colonies and the dread of German competition 
may, it is feared, eventually lead to the introduction of preferential tarififs. The 
sugar importation in particular is exposed to this danger, and here Germany is 
interested very considerably. In 1896, Germany exported candied and loaf sugar 
to the extent of 388,826 tons, valued at nearly 107,000,000 marks (in round num- 
bers, $25,000,000), and raw sugar to the extent of 585,369 tons, valued at more than 
125,000,000 marks ($29,700,000). Of these totals, 304,376 tons of candied and loaf 
sugar, valued at 83,700,000 marks, and 208,486 tons of raw sugar, valued at 44, 700,- 
000 marks, went to Great Britain. The English policy hitherto has been to give to 
the consumers cheap sugar at the cost of the English sugar refiners. It is con- 
sidered in Germany questionable whether this policy will always be maintained. 
But, in any case, sugar would be the first article to be included in the tarifif rates, 
as not only would the colonies be benefited thereby, but the step would inflict seri- 
ous disadvantages on the sugar-exporting countries. 

A special aspect of the criticisms in the Liberal sections of the press is the de- 
fense of the denunciation at the expense of the German Agrarians. While one 
reason for Canada's proposed tariff regulations in favor of the mother country is to 
be found in the movement toward British imperial federation, little doubt is felt 
that the colony was also actuated by economic and agricultural interests. The 

* ConArmaiion is, however, given to the announcement in a dispatch from Ambassador Hay, 
dated London, July 30, 1897. 



BRITISH TREATIES OF COMMERCE DENOUNCED. 237 

difficulties imposed by other countries on the importation of Canadian agricultural 
products must have led to a desire for retaliation. In this respect, therefore, the 
Agrarian agitations in Germany must be held responsible for the danger threaten- 
ing the German export trade. According to another theory, England felt herself 
constrained to take the present step by the trend of protectionist schemes in the 
German Empire. The commercial treaties of the Caprivi era expire early in 
the next century, and even now preparations are being made for the introduction 
in their stead of a rigorous policy of protection. The extent to which this may be 
carried is not to be foreseen, and England has done well by arming herself betimes 
in order to insure free scope of action. 

It remains, however, to the KSlnische Volkszeitung to reveal the real cause of 
the denunciation of the Anglo-German commercial treaty. Who seriously believes, 
asks the Clerical organ, that England was actuated by a desire to insure advantages 
for Canadian products? John Bull's sole object was *'to annihilate the German 
export trade to the United States and thereby to deal the detested German manu- 
facturers a fatal blow." Not Canada, but America, brought about the denuncia- 
tion, for England's aim is to avail herself of the 20 per cent duty remission granted 
by the new tariff bill to those countries which accord the same to the United States; 
and she will carry this aim through, even at the cost of raising the price of neces- 
sary articles of food and of raw stuffs, for, in the opinion of the K51nische Volks- 
zeitung, England will have to put a duty on these articles in order to do her colonies 
a service by remitting it again in their favor. 

The London Statist, in its edition of August 7, 1897, says in re- 
gard to the denunciation of the treaties: 

Last week the British Government gave notice to Germany and Belgium of its 
intention to terminate the commercial treaties with those countries at the end of 
July next year, at the same time expressing its willingness to conclude fresh treaties. 
This important step is a fitting sequel to the jubilee festivities. It is a graceful 
recognition of the great loyalty displayed by our colonies toward the mother coun- 
try and prepares the way to that closer union which this paper has strongly ad- 
vocated. In twelve months* time, therefore, we shall be free from our embarrass- 
ing engagements not to permit our colonies to place higher or other import duties 
on the produce of Germany and Belgium than upon the produce of the United 
Kingdom. Our colonies will thus have complete freedom to place what duties they 
choose on any produce they care to purchase from the United Kingdom or from any 
other country, and if they so desire they may place discriminating duties on their 
own exports. 

The action taken indicates no change in the policy of this country, and foreign 
nations need have no fear that British markets will be closed to their produce. It 
is quite possible that at some future time, when the colonies have much further 
developed their resources and the struggle for existence becomes still keener, we 
may be disposed to give a greater preference to colonial than to foreign produce, 
but that period has not yet come. Of course, the time may be greatly hastened by 
the attitude of foreign countries. The unfriendliness of Germany last year caused 
a wave of feeling in this country in favor of a duty upon German goods, and the 
Canadian offer of preferential duties to the mother country has created a responsive 
desire to assist Canadian trade. Should our other colonies follow the lead of Can- 
ada, which, from Mr. Chamberlain's statement, appears most likely, a strong move- 
ment might arise for giving them preferential treatment, especially if, at the same 
time, Germany, Belgium, or any one else were disposed to raise their duties on 
British goods. But neither Germany nor Belgium is likely to place atv^ %^x\q>\% 



238 BRITISH TREATIES OP^ COMMERCE DENOUNCED. 

obstacle in the way of concluding fresh treaties, for neither have much to lose, even 
should the whole of the colonies grant preferential treatment to the produce of the 
mother country. 

The total value of the imports into our four great colonies — Canada, Australasia, 
Cape, and Natal — amounts to about ;£"94,ooo,ooo ($457,451,000), of which Germany 
supplies less than ;£'2, 900,000 ($14,112,850), and Belgium only ;£"36o,ooo ($1,751,940). 
On the other hand, Germany, in 1896, sent to this country goods to the value of 
;f 27, 585,000 and Belgium of ;£'i9, 22 1,000. Hence it will be apparent that the free- 
dom of the British market is of the greatest importance to both countries. At the 
same time, it must also be recognized that Germany and Belgium are important 
customers for both British and colonial produce — that, indeed, our exports of British 
produce alone, irrespective of colonial produce reshipped to these two countries, are 
three-fourths as great as our exports to our four great colonies of Canada, Austral- 
asia, the Cape, and Natal. 

In 1896, our exports to the four colonies reached ;£"4i,o88,ooo ($199,954, 752), while 
our shipments to Germany and Belgium were ;£"3o,o6o,ooo ($146,286,990). The 
figures are as follows : 

Exports of British produce. 

To Australasia ;£^2i, 915,000 

To Cape... 10, 687,000 

To Canada 5, 352,000 

To Natal 3, 134, 000 

Total 41,088,000 

To Germany 22, 244, 000 

To Belgium 7, 816, 000 

Total 30,060,000 

Including our reexports of foreign and colonial produce, however, the figures 
are: 

Exports of British and colonial and foreign produce. 

To Australasia £2^^ 355»ooo 

To Cape 11, 515,000 

To Canada 6, 226,000 

To Natal 3, 370,000 

Total 45,466,000 

Total in United States currency $221, 162. 296 

To Germany ;f 33. 985* 000 

To Belgium 12, 327.000 

Total 46, 312,000 

Total in United States currency $225,377,347 

The latter figures are the more important, as, were it not for the German and 
Belgian purchases of colonial wool, our colonies might not be able to buy so much 
British produce. It is apparent, therefore, that the German and Belgian trade is 
as important to us as that the British trade is essential to these countries, and that, 
consequently, it is to the interests of all these countries to come to a fresh agree- 
ment by which no interruption to trade may occur. 

To show exactly how our purchases from Germany and Belgium compare with 
their purchases from us, we set out below, first, the figures for 1896 relating to 
Germany, and, secondly, those concerning Belgium. 



BRITISH TREATIES OF COMMERCE DENOUNCED. 



239 



Our trade with Germany in i8q6. 



Description. 


Value. 


fTvnortR of British oroduce to Germanv.... 


;C22, 244*000 
11,740,000 


$108,250,426 
51,132,776 


Rxnorts of colonia.1 and foreiirn oroduce to Gcrmanv.. 




TotaL 


33.985.000 
27,585,000 


165,388,002 

«34.a42,402 


Imoorts from Gcnnanv 




Excess of extmrls over imoorts..... 


6,400,000 


31,145,600 





Our trade with Belgium in i8g6. 



Description. 


Value. 


ImtMrts from Belsrium. 


;Cl0,22I,OOO 


$93,538,996 




ExtMrts of British oroduce to Belsrium 


7,816,000 
4,510,000 


38,036,564 
21,947,915 


ExDorts of forciirn and colonial oroduce to Belcrium 




Total exportSi.............t.t.t...t... 


12,326,000 


59,984,479 




Balance of imoorts over exports. 


6,895,000 


33.554.Si7 





To enable our readers to form a true conception of the nature of our trade with 
Germany and Belgium in 1896, we have taken out in some detail our imports from 
and exports to these two countries. A cursory inspection clearly shows that each 
country supplies the other with many things it is unable to produce. Thus, for in- 
stance, Germany sent us ;£"9,300,ooo worth of sugar at a price below the cost of 
production, German home consumers contributing to pay for our sugar. 

Imports from Germany in i8g6. 



Articles. 



Sugar: 

Refined 

Unrefined 

ToUl 

Woolen: 

Manufactures 

Yam 

Rags 

TotaL 

Glass: 

Manufactures 

Bottles. 

Window 

TouU 

Leather 

Boots and shoes... 

Gloves 

Miscellaneous 

ToUL 

Seeds: 

Clover and grass. 
Flax or linseed.... 
Miscellaneous 

TouL , 



Value. 



;C6, 715,000 
2.579.000 



9,294,000 



1,252,000 
337.000 
207,000 



1,796,000 



495.000 

178,000 

87,000 



760,000 



263,000 
27,000 
94,000 
31,000 



415.000 



223,000 
87,000 
85,000 



395.000 



Articles. 



Wood 

Musical instruments. 

Paper of all sorts 

Toys 

Iron manufactures 

Iron sewing machines. 

Zinc: 

Crude 

Manufactures 

Hemp, dressed and undressed 

Oil: 

Palm 

Seed 

ToUl 

Oilseed cake 

Painters' colors 

Rice 

Skins and furs. 

Wool 

Tobacco: 

Unmanufactured 

Cigars. 

Parcel post 

All other articles 

Grand total 

Total , United Stales cuttctvcy 



Value. 



;Ci,i93.ooo 
697,000 
613,000 
579.000 
513.000 
137,000 

336,000 
133.000 
227,000 

273,000 
161,000 



434,000 



211,000 
202,000 
122,000 
121 ,000 
116,000 

53.000 

24,000 

330,000 

8,884,000 

27,585,000 



^x-^^iK-i^V^ 



240 



BRITISH TREATIES OF COMMERCE DENOUNCED. 



Exports to Germany of British and Irish produce and manufactures in i8g6. 



Articles. 



Woolen and worsted yarn 

Yarn, alpaca, mohair, etc 

Woolen and worsted piece. 

Total 

Cotton: 

Yam 

Piece 

ToUl 

Coal 

Products of 

Machinery 

Meuls: 

Iron, wrought and unwrought. 

Copper, wrought and un- 

wrought 

Tin. 

Brass. 

Unenumerated 

Fish: 

Herrings 

Other 

Linen: 

Yarn 

Piece 

ToUl 



Value. 



915,000 
1,133,000 



5,563,000 



2,069,000 
1.785,000 



3,854,000 



1,785,000 

346,000 

1,788,000 

1,707,000 

303,000 
28,000 
28,000 
84.000 

7931O00 
31,000 



246,000 
287,000 



533. 000 



Articles. 



Wool: 

Noils, waste, etc 

Flocks and rag 

Raw 

ToUl 

Leather 

Chemical products 

Oil: 

Seed 

6ther 

Caoutchouc 

Hardware and cutlery 

Stones, slates 

Telegraphic wires, etc 

Painters' colors 

Hides, raw 

Silk: 

Manufactures 

Twist or yarn 

Cycles, etc 

Pictures 

Implements and tools. 

Parcel post 

Miscellaneous. 

Grand total 

Total, United States currency. 



Value. 



;C663,ooo 

177,000 

95,000 



935. «» 



333»«» 
312,000 

283,000 
56,000 
171,000 
124,000 
124,000 
116,000 
106,000 
98,000 

94.000 
26,000 
93. «» 
73.000 
60,000 
255,000 
2,137,000 



22,244,000 



$108,250,426 



Exports of foreign and colonial merchandise from Great Britain to Germany in i8q6. 



Articles. 



Wool 

Skins and furs 
Caoutchouc... 

Coffee 

Lard 

Indigo 

Leather 

Tea. 

Cotton: 

Raw 

Waste 

Tallow 

Jute 

Hides 



Value. 



;C4,O5O,O0O 

959,000 
735.000 
625,000 
370,000 
283,000 
275,000 
241,000 

231,000 
196,000 
219,000 
210,000 
206,000 



Articles. 



Gum 

Metals, tin 

Oils 

Feathers 

Drugs. 

Metals: 

Copper 

Lead 

Shells 

Miscellaneous. 

ToUL 

Total, United States currency 



Value. 



;C203,000 
174,000 
154,000 
151,000 
144,000 

60,000 

39,000 

74,000 

2,151,000 



11,740,000 



$57,132,770 



BRITISH TREATIES OF COMMERCE DENOUNCED. 



241 



Imports from Belgium in i8q6. 



Articles. 



Silk: 

Manufactured 

Raw, thrown, etc. 

Woolen: 

Yarn 

Manufactured 

Raifs 

Total 




/t, 991, 000 
83,000 



Glass: 

Manufactured. 

Window 

Plate 



1,107,000 
430,000 
103,000 

1,640,000 



444,000 
360,000 
365,000 



Total. 



Flax 

Cotton manufactures.. 

Sugar: 

Refined 

Unrefined 



ToUL 

Iron manufactures.. 

Linen: 

Yarn. 

Manufactures... 



1,169,000 

1,078,000 
1,025,000 

433.000 
55^, 000 



985,000 



918,000 



626,000 
130,000 



ToUl. 



Eggs- 



756,000 



694,000 



Leather: 

Boots and shoes. 

Miscellaneous manufactures... 
Unmanufactured 

ToUl 

Oil 

Clocks. 

Rabbits 

Watches 

Stones. 

Butter....'. 

Meat 

Poultry and game 

Embroidery, etc 

Gold, leaves of 

Miscellaneous 

Grand total 

Total, United States currency. 



Exports of British and Irish produce to Belgium in i8g6. 



Articles. 



Value. 



Articles. 



Cotton: 

Piece. 

Yam 

ToUl 

Woolen and worsted piece 

Woolen yam, noils, etc 

TouU 

Machinery 

MeUls: 

Iron 

Copper 

Horses. 

No. 205 7. 



;Cl,279,000 
330,000 



1,609,000 



960,000 
509.000 

1,469,000 



721,000 

538.000 
106,000 
223,000 



Coal 

Products 

Fish 

Linen: 

Yarn 

Piece 

Manure 

Leather and manufactures of. 

Caoutchouc 

Cycles. 

Miscellaneous. 



Articles. 


Value. 


Wool, raw 


;^6oO,000 




Zinc: 

Crude 


444,000 
88.000 


Manufactures 






Total 


532,000 




Paper 


431,000 
432,000 
313.000 


Leather srloves 


Hides raw 





156,000 

26,000 

117,000 



299,000 



295,000 

291,000 
251,000 
198,000 
198,000 
190,000 
188,000 
143.000 

142,000 
130,000 

4,249,000 

19,221,000 



$93,538,996 



Value. 



Grand total 

Total , United Slates currency. 



;Ci35.ooo 
205,000 
191,000 

171,000 
82,000 
166,000 
155,000 
119,000 
101,000 
i,825,<xx) 



7,816,000 



$38,036,564 



242 VALUE OF COMMERCIAL TREATIES IN GERMANY. 

Foreign and colonial produce exported to Belgium from Great Britain in i8q6. 



Articles. 



Wool 

Cotton, raw.... 
Skins and furs. 

Jute 

Coffee 

Palm oil 

Straw plaiting 



Value. 



;(^I, 760,000 
274,000 
237,000 
172,000 
171,000 
166,000 
88,000 



Articles. 



Leather 

Bacon and hams 

Lead ore 

Miscellaneous 

Total 

Total, United States currency 



Value. 



;C86,ooo 

84,000 

82,000 

1,390,000 



4.510,000 



$21,947,915 



VALUE OF COMMERCIAL TREATIES IN GERMANY. 

In 1896, Germany's foreign trade rose to dimensions not only 
very flattering, but hitherto unknown. The world is watching, with 
increasing interest, the rapid growth, not only of the Empire's inland 
development, but of its foreign trade. Here it is hoped that the 
growth of recent years has been healthy and that the results are to 
be lasting. In ten years, the imports doubled in weight and went 
up in value 1,613,000,000 marks ($383,894,000), or 50 per cent. Dur- 
ing the same years, the exports increased 6,800,000 tons, or 36 percent, 
and 702,500,000 marks ($167,950,000), or 23 percent. Since 1895, 
the increase in imports was 3,870,000 tons, or 312,000,000 marks 
($74,256,000) ; in exports, 1,900,000 tons, or 329,700,000 marks ($78,- 
468,600). The value of commercial treaties is proven by the develop- 
ment of trade. Since they went into effect, imports increased 272,- 
500,000 marks ($64,855,000), or 6.4 percent; the exports, however, 
increased 703,300,000 marks ($167,385,400), or 23 per cent. The pas- 
sivity of the balance of trade, as the excess of imports over exports is 
called, went down from 1,234,000,000 marks ($293,692,000) in 1894 
to 804,000,000 marks ($191,352,000) in 1895. 

The trade treaties have helped Germany's exports. No wonder 
she wants to make more of them. Of course, all branches have not 
had an equal share in these results. The nation knows now, as it 
never knew before, what benefits are to be secured by wise conces- 
sions, by local interests yielding to national ones, by taking counsel 
not from narrow, selfish men, but from men broad enough to put 
personal politics aside for the higher and better results of states- 
manship. The Empire is as eager now to make such treaties as she 
was once indifferent. 

The long time that it takes trade to develop, under even the very 
best conditions, is in favor of making trade treaties. Nothing is so 
necessary to business as the belief that its basis is stable. When 
merchants know that treaties have been made, covering tariff rates 
for ten or more years, it is an easy matter to make adjustments nee- 



FOREIGN TRADE AND INDUSTRIES OF GERMANY. 



243 



essary to meet the conditions agreed upon. The Empire's present 
prosperous and profitable relations with countries with which trade 
treaties have been made encourage the belief that others will be 
projected, and that every effort will be made to secure their adoption. 
In 1880, 78.5 per cent of the Empire's people were farmers, 21.5 per 
cent in cities; in 1895, 69 per cent were in the country, the rest in 
towns.- These figures tell their own story. The efforts to secure 
the farming population by passing protective legislation looking to 
the exclusion of food products will prove powerless, /. ^., if the 
Empire is to go on as in the years recorded above. Saxony has seen 
its sheep fields turned into market gardens. Argentina, all South 
America, Australia, Russia, Canada, and other countries, to say 
never a word about the United States, are making it more and more 
difficult for Germany to raise enough cattle and grain to feed her 
own people. She has to choose one of two ways — the one pursued 
by her wisest and best statesmen, or one leading back to the Ger- 
many behind 1870, the Germany of divided, sectional interests. 

J. C. MONAGHAN, 

Chemnitz, June /f, 18^7, Consul, 



THE FOREIGN TRADE AND INDUSTRIES OF GER- 
MANY, 1896. 

The commercial and industrial prosperity of Germany, which 
was so elaborately described in consular reports from this country 
for the year 1895, continued with steadily increasing volume through- 
out the following year. In respect to foreign commerce, there was 
a notable increase in both the quantity and values of imports and 
exports, which, in comparison with those of the three preceding 
years, present the following exhibit, it being understood that the 
values herein given are not actual, but are officially estimated by 
taking the average market value of each class of merchandise for 
the year under consideration : 



Year. 



1893 

1894 

1895 

i8g6 

Increase, 1896 



Imports. 



$983,908,660 
1,019,956,854 
1,010,574,418 
1,088,480,624 



77,906,206 



Exports. 



$772,205,756 
726,252,240 

8i4»977t45o 
874.287,702 



59,310,252 



Total. 



$1,756,114,416 
1,746,209,194 
1.825,551,868 
1,962,768,326 



There is thus shown a net gain of $137,216,458 over the already 
prosperous foreign trade of 1895. 



244 FOREIGN TRADE AND INDUSTRIES OF GERMANY. 
THE BULK AND VALUES OF IMPORTS AND EXPORTS. 

There is but one source of definite information on this subject, 
viz, the official figures published by the imperial bureau of statistics, 
which group the entire bulk of imports and exports under the forty- 
four titles or categories specified by the German tariff law, and 
which, as has been explained in previous reports, has the important 
technical disadvantage of grouping together manufactured products 
and the raw or partly finished materials from which they are made. 

In respect to weight, the imports of Germany in 1896 aggre- 
gated 36,407,516 metric tons of 2,204 pounds and the exports 25,718,- 
533 tons, an increase of 3,870,540 tons of imports and 1,888,874 ^ons 
of exports, respectively, over the totals of the preceding year. 

In respect to values, a more elaborate comparison will be of inter- 
est, and the following table will show in United States currency the 
estimated values of imports and exports for 1895 and 1896, as classi- 
fied under the German tariff: 



Articles. 



Waste of all kinds 

Cotton and cotton goods 

Lead and manufactures of 

Brushes and sieves 

Drugs, medicines, and dyes. 

Iron and manufactures of 

Ores, earths, and precious metals..... 
Flax and other fibers, except cotton 

Grain and agricultural products 

Glass and glassware 

Hair, feathers, and bristles 

Hides and skins. 

Wood and manufactures of 

Hops 

Instruments, machines, and vehicles 

Calendars. 

Caoutchouc and manufactures of 

Clothing of all kinds 

Copper and manufactures of 

Hardware 

Leather and manufactures of 

Linen yarn and manufactures of 

Literature and art 

Groceries and confectionery 

Oils and fat, not otherwise specified. 

Paper and manufactures of 

Furs 

Petroleum 

Silk and manufactures of 

Soaps and perfumeries 

Playmg cards. 

Stone and earthen ware 

Coal, coke, and peat 

Straw and hemp goods 

Tar^ pitch, resin, and asphaltum 



Imports. 



Exports. 



■■"■■ • 

1896. 


1895. 


1896. 


1895. 


$12,431,930 


$9,66a,8oo 


♦2,521,848 


$2,928,590 


69.995.562 


71.997.142 


54.054.560 


55.440,672 


1,770,720 


1.543.906 


2,571.590 


2.770.558 


713.524 


688,296 


4,918,746 


4,489,870 


58,026,780 


55.433.294 


75.782,532 


71,116,542 


11,182,906 


7,322,070 


76,822,830 


71,821,736 


82,891,872 


55.535. 158 


67,254,992 


36,386,154 


22,340,822 


24,729,866 


7.373.240 


7,976,808 


173.330,878 


142,478,224 


17.427.550 


19.447.218 


a. 547. 790 


2,298,842 


10,324,678 


11,175,528 


»».I79.336 


10,686,914 


6,991,726 


6,422,430 


40,529,020 


44.357.964 


18,006,842 


19.474,350 


57.958,236 


50,684,004 


22,789,690 


23.348,038 


2,352,392 


1.573,656 


5,918,108 


6,495,258 


8,683,668 


8,768,634 


37.097.536 


37,828,196 


78,064 


87.584 


125,664 


94.248 


10,210,914 


8,505.168 


7,249,480 


6,528,816 


2,522,800 


2.355.962 


28,577.850 


24.053.708 


16,545.046 


13,217,806 


20,121,948 


17,364,480 


9,257,486 


8,595.846 


27,845,286 


17.493.000 


13,689,284 


13.044,304 


36,013,208 


39,462,066 


6,379.828 


6,039,964 


5,716,046 


5,984,272 


8,489,460 


7,947,296 


26,924,702 


25,512,648 


149,826,636 


142,230,466 


81,481,442 


75.713.368 


34.320,790 


32,491,284 


6,459.320 


6,281,772 


3,004,988 


2,559.952 


24,078,936 


24,836,252 


495.040 


490,518 


788,494 


809,200 


19,268,242 


18,164,398 


315.350 


273.938 


36,218,840 


39,606,056 


36,919,274 


39,481,820 


430,300 


625,464 


3,903,100 


2,554.692 


1,666 


1.904 


75.208 


92,820 


7.595.770 


7.557.928 


6,087,326 


5,202,680 


27,881,700 


26,356,596 


37,460,010 


34,693,022 


». 953. 980 


1,755.250 


1.035,062 


962,472 


8.977.360 


7.938,014 


2,320,500 


1.978,256 



FOREIGN TRADE AND INDUSTRIES OF GERMANY. 



245 



EstitnaUd values of imports and exports for iSgj and i8g6 — Continued. 



Articles. 



Animals and animal products. 

Manufactures of clay 

Cattle. 

Oilcloth 

Wool and woolen goods. 

Zinc and manufactures of 

Tin and tinware 

Sundries, not otherwise classified. 



Total^ 



Increase, 1896.... 



Imports. 



1896. 



$31,720,640 

1.461,558 

34. 733. 244 

231.574 

96.379.052 

1.305.906 
4,4x2,044 



1,088,480,624 



77.906,206 



iSgs. 



$30,403,310 

1,315,426 

44,409,134 

293.930 
102,2x8,620 

1.259,972 

3,314,626 



1,0x0,574,418 



Exports. 



1896. 



$2,352,868 
10,266,368 

5,539,688 

3". 780 

77.541,352 

2.643,664 

1,254.374 
1,745.730 



864,327,702 



49,397,614 



1895. 



$2,187,458 

9.197.748 

6,190,142 

271,320 

80,037,734 

5,959.044 
1,171,674 

3.273.452 



814,930,088 



EXPORTS FROM SOUTHERN GERMANY TO THE UNITED STATES. 

The Statistics of declared exports to the United States from the 
consular district of Frankfort and the several consulates under its 
supervision bring the record down to the close of the fiscal year 
ended June 30, 1897, and are, therefore, much more recent than any 
similar statistics published by the German Government. A compar- 
ison of the export values to our country from each consular district 
in southern Germany during the past three years ended on June 30 
presents the following exhibit: 



Consulates. 



Year ended June 30— 



1895. 



Frankfort $3,996,486.46 

1,220,558.31 

4S4,xx2.87 
6,482,897.30 
2,037,256.15 
3,392,516.81 

693,041.99 



Aix la Cbapelle. 

Bambei^ 

Barmen. 

Coloi^e 

Crefeld 

Dusseldorf , 



Freiburg 1,302,582.82 



FQrth. 

Kehl 

Mannheim.. 
Mayence .... 

Munich 

Nuremberg. 
Sonneberg.. 
Stuttgart.... 
Weimar. 



Total. 



1,550,252.68 

690,454-93 
3,648,989.94 
1,898,8x6.65 

658,044.94 
',406,740.42 

2,039.450.74 
1,003,555. 21 

582,437-92 



33,058,196.14 



1896. 



$4,368,386.59 

1,610,675.73 

557,920.13 

6,707,591-38 
2,619,232.40 
3,948,812.68 

909.873.63 
1.303,807.90 
2,059,322.61 
1,123,948.60 
3.875,538.22 
2,144,000.33 

758,985.52 
1,525,204-17 
2,752,933-50 
1,164,594.27 

760,590.18 



38,193,414.34 



1897. 



♦♦.909.750.34 
1.901.319-23 

567,420.15 
6,428,456.77 
2,164,045.59 
3,198,461.65 

995.373-60 

1.445.922.74 
1.946,251.29 

955,533.42 
3,468,261.72 
2,ox9,96x.oo 

859,276.50 
1.561,521.75 
3. 3". 595-70 
1. 168,577.96 

883,933.67 

37,780,663.08 



Of the last year's exports, by far the greater proportion belong 
to the first six months of 1897, during which period legislation on 
import duties has been imminent or actually in progress. Thus, the 



246 FOREIGN TRADE AND INDUSTRIES OF GERMANY. 

total exports from South Germany to the United States during the last 
six months of 1896 aggregated $16,712,098.47, while those of the 
first two quarters of 1897 reached an aggregate declared value of 
$21,068,564.61. 

GENERAL PROSPERITY OF GERMAN MANUFACTURES. 

To report that the manufacturing industries of Germany have 
been active and prosperous throughout the year 1896 and down to 
the date of this report, and that the published complaints of growing 
German competition in Great Britain, France, South America, and 
elsewhere have only served to stimulate the German Government, as 
well as manufacturers, merchants, banks, chambers of commerce, 
and steamship companies to new and more determined exertions to 
enlarge and extend their export trade, would be to merely repeat 
what has been told and reiterated in full and circumstantial detail 
by reports from the United States consular officers in this country. 
Nothing that can contribute to the development or protection of 
Germany's foreign commerce has been neglected or is likely to be in 
the future. The Imperial Government, the great banks of Berlin, 
Hamburg, Frankfort, and other financial centers, the State railways, 
subsidized steamship lines, consuls and ambassadors, technical and 
trade schools — in short, the Government and people (with the ex- 
ception of the Agrarian leaders) labor together for this result, which 
is the keynote of Germany's national policy to-day. 

Among the more important enterprises for the promotion of Ger- 
man export trade during the year under report was the organization 
of an economic expedition to China and Japan, which sailed in Feb- 
ruary last, and is still absent. The proposition came originally from 
the silk manufacturers at Crefeld, but it was immediately seconded 
by the textile industries of Augsburg, Saxony, and Barmen, -the cot- 
ton exchange of Bremen, the North German Lloyd Steamship Com- 
pany, and behind all the Imperial Government. Each of these 
organized interests sent from one to three expert representatives, 
whose duty it is to study the wants and tastes of the Chinese and 
Japanese and instruct their special industries at home how best to 
carry German competition into those markets and make it as nearly 
as possible irresistible. 

Preparations have been already begun for a German exhibit at 
Paris in 1900 which shall eclipse any display ever before made or 
attempted by the Fatherland, either at home or abroad. Notwith- 
standing all historical and political differences and resentments, the 
economic interests of the two countries are, after all, very closely 
allied, and it seems to be the imperial policy to conciliate France by 
all legitimate means. German exports to France in 1895 amounted 



FOREIGN TRADE AND INDUSTRIES OF GERMANY. 247 

to 229,900,000 marks ($54,716,200) and imports into Germany from 
France during the same year were valued at 202,800,000 marks ($48,- 
266,400), so that, in respect to her direct trade with France, Germany 
already holds the second place in the list. The great department stores 
of Paris are piled with goods which, although bearing French labels, 
are in fact made in Germany and German commercial travelers work 
the provinces of France with bag and sample as industriously as they 
do Italy, Russia, the United States, and the South American republics. 

It is intended that the exhibit at Paris shall be a complete, har- 
monious picture of the resources and industries of Germany down 
to the latest date. Everything is to be collected at home, assorted, 
adjudged, classified, and its position assigned by an expert imperial 
commission, so that duplicates and everything trivial or inferior to 
the best shall be excluded, and the whole display presented in its 
most striking and effective form. The German section at Paris in 
1900 promises to be even a greater surprise than it was at Chicago 
in 1893, and it will be made and managed for the express purpose 
of showing the merchants of all civilized nations what Germany has 
to sell. 

Apropos of this subject, it may be stated that the interest in in- 
dustrial exhibitions has been greatly stimulated by the demonstrated 
results of the Bavarian Trade Exposition which was held at Nurem- 
berg last year. Although not large, this was an admirably conceived 
and managed display of the commercial products of Bavaria, and it 
occurred to the managers to keep a careful record of its practical 
results, as shown by sales actually made and orders taken on the 
spot for future delivery. The record at the close showed 9,117 sales 
and 8,728 orders, with an aggregate value of 3,381,786 marks, equiv- 
alent to $804,865, although the commercial feature was, of course, 
wholly secondary to that of displaying together and making known 
the artistic and scientific industries of the Kingdom. 

INLAND WATER TRANSPORTATION. 

No one who studies the underlying causes of German industrial 
progress can fail to notice the important and rapidly increasing role 
that is played by the canals and navigable rivers, which are being 
improved and extended year by year and carry freights at such low 
rates that protective economists begin to complain that they render 
the importation of foreign merchandise altogether too cheap and 
easy. A few figures will show the enormous development of inland 
water traffic in this country during the past ten or twenty years. 
Prior to the canalization of the River Main from Frankfort to its 
confluence with the Rhine at Mayence, which was finished in 1886, 
only small boats ascended the river to this point, and Frankfort had 



248 FOREIGN TRADE AND INDUSTRIES OF GERMANY. 

a total river traffic of not more than 150,000 tons, against 930,000 
tons of freight received and sent annually by rail, the percentage of 
each being as 14 to 86, respectively. During the first five years after 
the river was canalized, the water traffic rose to 700,000 tons, against 
1,400,000 tons by rail — an increase of 467 per cent by river to 50 per 
cent increase by rail. Since then, the river traffic has steadily in- 
creased year by year to a total of 1,753,799 tons in 1896, to which is 
to be added 225,253 tons of logs and lumber arriving in the form of 
rafts from the Upper Main. Similarly, the trade of Cologne rose 
from 200,000 tons in 1876 to 1,000,000 tons in 1896, and the grand 
aggregate of the German Rhine ports grew from 5,100,000 tons to 
16,250,000 tons during the same period. 

The total length of German canals and inland waterways is 8,700 
miles, and important extensions, such as the Oder canal group and 
the Elbe-Trave canal, are still in course of construction. The Danube- 
Oder and Oder-Moldau-Elbe canals will, when completed, form a 
continuous waterway nearly 2,000 miles long, and will connect the 
waters of the Baltic with those of the Black Sea. 

AGRICULTURE AND THE SUGAR INDUSTRY. 

The rapid conversion of Germany from an agricultural to an in- 
dustrial and commercial nation has inevitably imposed great hard- 
ships upon the farming and landowning classes, and the division, 
political and economical, between the Agrarian party on the one 
side and the commercial and industrial classes on the other seems 
to grow deeper and more determined. The agriculturists feel that 
most of the favors of government are reserved for the interests of 
manufacture and trade, while they, bound to their costly lands, 
which can be kept productive only by careful tillage and the use of 
expensive fertilizers, are left exposed to the competition of food 
products from newer and more fertile countries, where taxation is 
trifling compared with that which prevails in Germany. Various 
measures of protection, extending to the absolute prohibition of 
cereal imports, have been proposed by the Agrarian leaders and uni- 
formly rejected by the Reichstag as impracticable and ruinous. The 
one notable exception to this was the sugar legislation of May, 1896, 
which, after a long and heated discussion, was granted as a pallia- 
tive to the agricultural interest. This measure, which has been fully 
described in these reports, sought, by restoring and increasing the 
bounty on exported beet sugar, to fortify and secure against future 
danger the supremacy which the German sugar industry had already 
won; but, for reasons that were readily foreseen, the act has proven 
abortive in that its effects have been to enlarge the area of beet cul- 
ture in Germany and increase the cost of sugar for home consump- 



FOREIGN TRADE AND INDUSTRIES OF GERMANY. 249 

tion while reducing its price in foreign markets, thus practically 
taxing the German people for the benefit of dealers and consumers 
in Great Britain, the United States, and other sugar-importing coun- 
tries. The situation thus created has been so abortive and disap- 
pointing that radical amendments to the existing law have been 
proposed by the leaders of the sugar interest. The recent debate 
over these propositions is thus synopsized by the editor of the 
Deutsche Zuckerindustrie, an expert authority on the subject: 

The debate presented an unsatisfactory picture of the most studied perversion 
of facts on the part of the Left and defective acquaintance with the subject on the 
part of the Right side of the house. The discussion has had at least one result, 
viz, that the Union of Sugar Manufacturers, from which the proposals for altera- 
tion originated, is freed from all further responsibility for the further continuance 
of the unfortunate "contingent" arrangements. The entire responsibility now 
rests with the federal governments, who have had given them a proof that the 
Reichstag is not, on its own initiative, in a position to repair the sins it has com- 
mitted. 

The same journal elsewhere remarks: 

Another sugar debate in the German and Austrian parliaments would hardly 
result in a victory for those concerned in the manufacture of sugar. 

IMPORTS OF AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 

The past year and the first six months of 1897 have witnessed a 
notable increase in the export of certain kinds of American manu- 
factured articles to Germany. Particularly is this true of tanning 
and shoemaking machinery, bicycles and bicycle parts, and sundries, 
in all of which lines the superiority of the best American makes is 
clear and undisputed. In respect to tanning, it may be said that 
Germany has now adopted American machinery and methods so far 
as they can be applied to the conditions existing here, and the sale 
of improved tanning and leather-dressing machines from Boston, 
Chicopee Falls, and other places in our country has reached within 
the past six months proportions never before attained. There has 
been during recent years an enormous export of hides and skins from 
Germany to the United States, a large part of which returned to 
this country in the form of finished leather. This showed, of course, 
the superiority of the American tanning system, especially by the 
, chrome process, and the German tanners have been quick to learn 
the lesson and welcome the introduction of the machinery by which 
such results are accomplished. They also go to our country and 
make a round of visits among the tanneries, bringing back in many 
cases an experienced foreman to teach their employees the improved 
methods. While there will continue to be a demand for certain 
grades and qualities of American tanned leather, the prospect is that, 
with the enlarged and improved facilities that are now beitv^ 's^Ci 



250 FOREIGN TRADE AND INDUSTRIES OF GERMANY. 

rapidly introduced, Germany will become more and more independ- 
ent of all foreign supplies. 

The importation of American bicycles has continued on a scale 
far beyond that of any previous year, and the product of several 
leading makers is now retailed in all the more important cities. 
Their price is from 20 to 30 per cent greater than is asked for home- 
made wheels, and they are used generally by the more wealthy, lux- 
urious classes, who appreciate and can afford to pay for the best of 
everything that can be obtained. This has naturally roused the 
German bicycle manufacturers to an attitude of militant hostility 
against all imported bicycles, especially those of American origin, 
which are recognized as the most dangerous to their own trade. 
Their resentment has taken the form of fervid appeals to the Govern- 
ment to impose greatly increased duties on all imported bicycles, 
with a differential and much higher rate against those of American 
manufacture. Several of the cycle-trade journals, organs of the man- 
ufacturing interest, refuse to accept advertisements of American 
bicycles or fixtures, and their editorial columns are eloquent with 
patriotic appeals to their countrymen to ride only German-made 
wheels. 

Meanwhile, the German cycle manufacturers, of whom there are 
about fifty established firms, employing in all over 25,000 workmen, 
have gone on studying and copying many of the superior features of 
high-grade American bicycles, and have thus rapidly improved their 
standard of excellence, though it is conceded that the peculiar grace 
of model, easy-running qualities, and rigidity of structure combined 
with extreme lightness that characterize the best grade of American 
wheels has not yet been attained in this country. Wooden wheel 
rims and handle bars, single-tube tires, and American lamps, cyclom- 
eters, and other materials and fixtures are now more extensively used 
in this country than ever before, as the German-made bicycle ap- 
proaches more nearly to the best American type. There will con- 
tinue to be here, at least for some years to come, a market for the 
highest grade of American-made bicycles, but their quality must be 
kept up to the highest attainable standard, and their price gradually 
reduced to meet upon equal terms the best product of the native 
manufacturers. 

THE GERMAN MARKET FOR AMERICAN MANUFACTURES. 

American consulates in this country receive constant inquiries 
from manufacturers, merchants, and exporters' associations asking 
what chance there may be here for the introduction of every con- 
ceivable product, from shoe laces to printing paper and fertilizers. 
Some of these inquiries are obviously made at random, as the articles 



FOREIGN TRADE AND INDUSTRIES OF GERMANY. 25 1 

to which they refer are more abundant and cheap here than any- 
where else in the world, and are exported, through more or less ad- 
vanced import duties, to the United States. 

It should be clearly understood that Germany offers no open, 
ready market for the manufactured goods of any country. Her im- 
ports are principally food products and the raw materials which are 
consumed by her own rapidly growing industries. When Germany 
imports a manufactured product it is because that product is better 
in quality or cheaper in price, one or both, than can be produced at 
home. There is now a practicable market in southern Germany for the 
following articles of American origin, provided, always, that they are 
offered here by competent salesmen who can explain what they have 
in hand and sell it upon the long-established terms and conditions 
which have been so often explained in consular reports, and which 
involve the essential principle that the goods shall be paid for when 
they have been received and seen by the purchaser. 

(i) Leather, particularly chrome-tanned glazed kid, American 
russia, and also furniture leathers, such as are used for upholstering 
railway cars, smoking rooms, and heavy furniture. Chrome-tanned 
kid leather, such as is made in Philadelphia, Wilmington, Newark, 
Boston, Milwaukee, and Chicago, is now imported in large quanti- 
ties to Germany, and has a high and firmly established reputation. 
Within the past two weeks a third American leather house has been 
opened in Frankfort, with excellent prospects for a successful busi- 
ness. 

(2) American shoes, notwithstanding all doubts and a certain tim- 
idity on the part of American exporters, are steadily finding their way 
to Germany, generally by way of London or Paris, and are meeting 
ready sale. There are now two stores at Frankfort and three at 
Wiesbaden, in this district, where American-made shoes are kept, 
but as yet in small assortment and limited quantities. The same 
situation is reported from Berlin, Hamburg, Dresden, and other 
leading German cities. From all that appears, the prices charged 
are inordinately high in comparison with the retail values of similar 
shoes in America, and the grades offered are not above medium or 
common. The statement is here reiterated, upon the judgment of 
competent experts, that in every important German city or large 
town there could be established with practical -certainty of success 
an American shoe store, which should sell at wholesale and retail 
the product of firms of acknowledged preeminence, whose names 
stand for a recognized quality in the shoe trade. These goods 
should be tastefully displayed and sold at American prices, plus the 
cost of exportation, duty, and other incidentals, and when sold in 
lots to German retailers the name and location of the manufacturer 



252 FOREIGN TRADE AND INDUSTRIES OF GERMANY. 

and its retail price in marks and pfennigs should be stamped or 
labeled on each shoe. Such American shoes as are now sold here 
are offered as a costly luxury, whereas the fact is that good factory- 
made boots and shoes are cheaper, quality considered, in the United 
States than anywhere else in the world. 

(3) Lumber and timber. The importation of American lumber, 
oak staves, and roughly squared logs to be afterwards sawed is 
steadily increasing, especially since certain exporters have had the en- 
terprise, during the past two years, to come over and study the 
market and form personal relations with the importers, some of 
whom have responded by going in person to the United States to 
make purchases. Complaints are heard of bad faith on the part of 
certain exporters, who have sent squared logs of oak and walnut 
which, on being sawed, proved almost worthless, and even sawed 
oak flooring so wormeaten and filled with knots as to be unmarket- 
able. An American lumber merchant who made a highly successful 
tour of the Rhine cities last May stated to the undersigned that he 
saw at Rotterdam some squared logs that had been shipped on con- 
signment by an American exporter, which his firm ** would not have 
thought worth hauling out of the woods." Southern oak, being 
softer and more easily worked, is generally preferred in Germany to 
that grown in the Northern States and Canada. Here, as elsewhere, 
the invariable principle obtains that only the best of everything 
that can be turned out, from canned meat to staves, should be ex- 
ported to a country so critical and so resentful of imposition as 
Germany. 

(4) There is also a good market here for roofing slates, provided 
they can be furnished of good, uniform color and quality and so 
packed and shipped as to minimize the loss by breakage in transit. 
It is the opinion of good judges that if the slate makers of the United 
States would organize so as to classify and control their surplus prod- 
uct for export, they could in a few years not only hold the German 
market against England, but invade Great Britain itself. Some 
months ago the principal slate dealer in this region applied to this 
consulate for advice in opening connections for importing American 
roofing slates, the supply in Germany being unequal to the demand. 
An exporting firm was recommended and a trial order given, which 
was filled promptly and to the entire satisfaction of the purchaser, 
the slates being of good color and in excellent condition. Thus en- 
couraged, the same dealer gave another and much larger order, 

• 

which overtaxed the legitimate resources of the exporter, who there- 
upon gathered up from various quarries enough odds and ends to fill 
the order. Not only was this shipment of such various colors as to 
be practically unmarketable, but, owing to defective packing and 



FOREIGN TRADE AND INDUSTRIES OF GERMANY. 253 

rough handling, the breakage amounted to nearly 20 per cent, and a 
promising trade was thus ruined at its inception. 

(5) There ought to be in Germany a far more extensive market 
than has yet been developed for American mechanics' tools, but this 
branch of trade presents some peculiar difficulties. The carpenters' 
and joiners* tools used in this country, notably saws, hammers, 
planes, and mortising and boring implements, are rude and poor com- 
pared with those made and used in the United States; but they have 
two important merits — they are very cheap and they are what the 
German mechanic has been accustomed to use since his boyhood. 
Hardware dealers will generally admit the superiority of American 
tools, locks, and other hardware, but say that, by reason of their 
higher price, their sale is and must long remain limited in this coun- 
try There are indications, however, that the conservatism of Ger- 
man mechanics in this respect is slowly yielding to more progressive 
ideas, and with the increased use of improved machinery and ma- 
chine tools, the demand for mechanics* tools of improved forms and 
quality has been noticeably stimulated. 

But — and here is the marrow of the whole matter — whatever the 
article to be sold, it is useless for American exporters to expect, as 
so many of them obviously do, that German retailers and jobbers 
will order direct supplies of American manufactured goods from 
catalogues and circulars printed in English, in dollar prices and 
pounds avoirdupois, pay for them free on board at the factory or 
New York, and take all the chances and risks of importation in small 
quantities on their own account. Generally speaking, American 
goods, to be introduced in Germany, must be offered here as German 
and English goods are offered in the United States and other im- 
porting countries, either by established agents or by salesmen who 
can show and explain samples and make prices and conditions in 
currency, weights, and measures that the purchaser can readily un- 
derstand. If it be a machine, it should be sold by a man who can 
not only explain its working, but can set it up and put it into opera- 
tion; if it be a tool or implement, it should be presented by a sales- 
man who can show how it is to be used. 

And in all cases, whatever the article offered or price demanded, 
absolute good faith is requisite; fair, honest dealing — the honesty 
that scorns to send abroad anything inferior in quality to the sample 
from which it was sold. For the lack of this sort of integrity, no 
mere cheapness in price will atone. Whatever market there may be 
in Germany for American manufactured merchandise can be con- 
quered only by the best that our country can produce and retained 
by a strict fulfillment of every contract and obligation. 

Frank H. Mason, 
Frankfort, July 22, i8^j. Consul-General. 



254 



FOREIGN COMMERCE OF HAMBURG. 



FOREIGN COMMERCE OF HAMBURG. 

I have the honor to transmit a statement of the export and im- 
port trade of the city of Hamburg (bullion and specie not included) 
during the years 1894, 1895, and 1896. This statement has been 
extracted from the Hamburgischen Correspondent of April 15, 1897. 

I have no doubt that it will interest and surprise many of our 
people to see that the volume of business over this one port of Ger- 
many in 1896 equaled about 40 per cent of the entire export and 

import trade of the United States. 

W. Henry Robertson, 

Hamburg, A ugust tf, J^pj. Consul, 



imports into HAMBURG (bY SEA). 
Imports by articles. 



Articles. 



Food products. 

Building materials and fuel 

Raw materials and unfinished manufactures 

Dry goods. 

Industrial products 

Total 




$"4,455,198 

61337.464 

208,553,212 

".553.786 

20,821,668 



$138,321,792 

6,203,470 

213,029,754 

15. 152.032 

22,713.530 



372,721,328 I 395.420,578 



1896. 



$14'. 405. 082 

6,580,462 

220,343,256 

15.370.040 
24,011,820 



407,710,660 



Imports by countries. 



Countries of origin. 



Europe, 

Prussia 

Bremen 

Other German ports. 

Russia on the Baltic 

Russia on the Black Sea and Sea of Azov 

Sweden and Norway 

Great Britain : 

Coal 

Other goods. 

Netherlands 

Belgium 

France 

Spain and Gibraltar 

Portugal 

Italy and Malta 

Other European countries...- 

Total 



1894. 


1895. 


1896. 


$2,963,100 


$3,530,730 


$5,663,924 


5,289,074 


4.783.324 


5,879, 3»4 


52,186 


198,730 


403,886 


1.283.703 


2,415.938 


4,993,7»6 


12.697.776 


17.578,442 


13.478,654 


6,9x2,234 


8,689,856 


8,311,436 


4,859,246 


4.543.896 


4,942,070 


89,498,472 


90,680,856 


92,624,364 


7,003,388 


7,191,170 


7,544,124 


4,100,264 


4.725.728 


4,685,982 


12,412,176 


13,002,178 


11,464,698 


2,462,586 


2,039,898 


2,469,488 


3.097.570 


3,461,472 


3,330,572 


3.585.946 


4,161,192 


4,414,186 


7. 351. 106 


6,097,084 


9.338,406 


163,568,827 


173,100,494 


179.544,820 



FOREIGN COMMERCE OK HAMBURG. 



255 



Imports by countries — Continued. 



Countries of orijjin. 



1894. 



NoK -Eu ro^ca n . 

United States 

Mexico 

Guatemala 

Other Central American countries 

Haiti 

Cuba 

Other West Indies. 

Venezuela 

Brazil 

Argentine Republic 

Uruguay 

Chile 

Peru 

Bolivia 

Ecuador 

America, all other 

Africa on the Atlantic 

Cape Colony 

Africa, all other 

British East India 

East India, all other, including the Archipelago 

China 

Japan 

Other parts of Asia, all^ther 

Australia and the islands 

ToUl 

Grand total direct imports by sea 



$47."4i7i8 
2,961,672 
6,6x1,164 
3,810,380 

3.2051384 
3,605,224 
4,6iz,oi2 
6,596,646 
21,428,330 

i6, 553.^8 
2,128,910 

20,118,616 
1,589,840 
1.139,306 
2,106,778 
3,131,604 
7.354.676 
1,899,716 
3,520,496 

28,321,048 
4,078,844 
4,380,628 
2,073,218 
2,404,514 
8,449. 7M 



1895. 



$47,441,968 
2,822,918 

8,294,776 
3 ,.666, 152 
4,524,142 
3,829,420 
3,612,840 

4.7»3.352 

31,000,938 

20,462,288 

2,179,842 

17,2x4,778 

1,316,378 

572,628 

2,205,070 

2,233,868 

8,245,510 

1,926,848 

2,995,706 

29,791,888 

3.917.956 

4.079,558 

3,381,266 

3,471,706 

8,438,290 



209,195,556 222,340,076 



372.764,383 I 395.440,570 



1896. 



$55,468,518 
3,803,716 
7,682,640 
2.582,538 

2.493.764 

3.719.940 

5,302,402 

4,838,064 

26,330,416 

16,029,062 

2.313.360 

20,847,372 

1,555,806 

836,570 
2,583.252 

3.567,382 
8,113,658 
2,627,758 
3,461,710 
30,339,526 
4.732,630 

4,5»3.i94 
3.053.540 

2,773,414 
8,592,276 



228,162,518 



407,707,338 



EXPORTS FROM HAMBURG (iJY SKa). 
Exports by articles. 



Articles. 



Food products. 

Building materials and fuel 

Raw material and unfinished manufactures. 

Dry goods , 

Industrial products 

ToUl 



1894. 



$111,949,012 

2,100,112 

68,660,144 

40,606,608 

65,755,830 



289,071,706 



1895. 



$106,806,308 

2,786,980 

77,131,040 

46,904,326 

85,103,802 



318,732,456 



1896. 



$120,246,644 

2,682,260 

77,612,990 

49.291,942 

92,697,668 

342,53»,504 



Exports by countries. 



Countries of destination. 



Europe. 

Prussia 

Bremen 

Other German ports. 

Russia. 

Sweden 

Norway 




$10,884,216 

".524.9" 

85,204 

6,427,666 

8,509.452 

11,774,812 



1895. 



$12,251,764 

10,352,762 

398,412 

6.833,694 

9,129,204 

12,155,850 



1896. 



$14,413,994 
11.622,730 

593, 810 

10,298,260 

9,426,228 

13,119.274 



256 EXPORTS FROM HAMBURG TO THE UNITED STATES. 



Exports by countries — Continued. 



Countries of desiination. 



J?Mr<;/r— Continued. 
Denmaric, with Iceland and Far5e Islands 

Great Britain 

Netherlands. 

Belgium 

France 

Spain and Gibraltar 

Portugal 

Italy and Malta 

Trieste 

Other European countries. 

Total 

NoH- European. 

British North America 

United States 

Mexico 

Guatemala 

Other Central American countries 

West Indies 

Colombia 

Venezuela 

Brazil 

Argentine Republic 

Uruguay 

Chile 

Peru 

America^ all other 

Africa on the Atlantic 

Cape Colony 

Africa, all other 

British East India 

Philippine Islands. 

East India, all other 

China... 

Japan 

Asia, all other 

Australia and the islands 

Total 

Grand total exports by sea 



1894. 



$5,154,604 
93,271,010 

4.432.5" 
3,021,648 

3.258,934 
3,922,478 

2.309.3M 
2,522,562 

2,674,168 

2.53«.368 



172,304.860 



2.494.478 
28,765,156 
3,686,144 
1,060,528 
1,451,086 
4,177,614 
1,179,766 
3,193,960 
21,056,574 
6,360,550 
2,327.878 
5,708,192 
1,199,996 
1,077,664 
4,649,806 
3,170,874 
3,243,702 
5,190,304 
867,510 
2,174,606 
5,249,566 
4,318,986 

1.140,734 
3,018,316 



116,763,990 



289,068,850 



1895. 



$5,289,312 

93,157,008 

4,497,486 

3.511,690 

3,680,432 

4.655.756 
2.580,872 
3,222,920 
2,422,126 
2,565.164 



175.704.452 



3,066,868 

32,295,172 

4,930,884 

I. 845. 214 
2,097,970 

3,252,270 
1,449,896 
3,196,102 
26,495.588 
8,025,836 
2,164,848 
9,114,448 

1.393.490 
1,128,596 

4.585.546 
3.519,782 
3.847.508 
7,487,242 

931.294 
2,135,812 

9.523.094 
5,421,164 
I. 407^294 
3,708,992 



143.024,910 



1896. 



$6,065,430 
91,108,304 
4.533.662 
3,701,614 
3,654,728 
6,354,838 
2,782,458 
2.483,292 
2.343.348 
1,603,082 



184,105,052 



318,729.362 



1.893.052 
44.192,792 
4.779.040 
1.926,372 
2,194,598 

2.733.133 
2,432,122 

3.175.872 

21,0x0,878 

13,109,440 

2,562,308 

9,610,916 

2.133.908 

1.605,310 

4.897.326 

5.433. 540 

4.576,978 

7.315.644 

825,622 

2,653,224 

5,454,008 

7.490,336 
2,127,244 
5,060,594 

158,187,652 



343,292,704 



EXPORTS FROM HAMBURG TO THE UNITED 

STATES. 



I deem it proper to call the Department's attention to the fact 
that the declared-export statement of this consulate for the fiscal 
year just completed shows a total increase over the preceding year 
of $9,173,714.32, the total exports having reached the sum of $16,- 
143,675.93, the largest amount in the existence of this consulate. 
This very considerable increase is largely due to the enormous ship- 
ments of sugar, the aggregate value of which was $10,227,599.91, as 



BICYCLES AND FOREIGN TRADE-MARKS IN GERMANY. 257 

against $3,004,825.88 for the year ended June 30, 1896. Besides 
sugar, the following articles show an appreciable increase: 

Cofifee (about) $300,000 

Gutta-percha paper 48,000 

India rubber, crude 58, 000 

Portland cement 753f 000 

Rags 292,000 

Raw hides and skins 123,000 

Raw tobacco , 538, 000 

The more extensive shipments of rags and raw tobacco are prob- 
ably due to the fear of an increased tariff. There has been no ma- 
terial decrease in any article. 

W. Henry Robertson, 

Hamburg, July 6, 1897. Consul. 



BICYCLES AND FOREIGN TRADE-MARKS IN 

GERMANY. 

BICYCLES. 

The wish of German manufacturers of cycles to stop the importa- 
tion of American wheels has been the father of the following thought: 
At present bicycles are met with the same duty as other articles of 
**fine ironware," that is to say, they are classed as such and pay 24 
marks on the 100 kilograms ($5.71 per 220.46 pounds), which pro- 
duces a duty of from 3 to 4 marks (71 to 95 cents) on the wheel of 
average weight. On a valuation of an average wheel at $50, this 
duty is only from i^ to 2 per cent. The suggestion has now been 
made that the customs authorities have merely to decree that bicycles 
come under the head of ** vehicles," when the duty would be from 
6 to 10 per cent of the value. Other authorities regard such action 
as impossible, because of the wording of the law, which makes only 
four exceptions to the rule of 24 marks per 100 kilograms on articles 
of **fine ironware," these four being guns, works of clocks and 
watches, sewing needles, and pens. It is held by them that a change 
of bicycles to the category of vehicles would be a violation of treaty. 
Their suggestion is a higher rate of duty on the materials of which 
bicycles are composed, especially iron and india-rubber tubing. 
These suggestions are not reported because they seem likely to be 
put into effect, but merely to keep the Department informed of the 
efforts which are being made by the manufacturers here to devise 
some method of shutting out American wheels. There can be no 
reasonable doubt that our wheels have attained and still hold a 
position of advantage in the minds of buyers in Germany. Whether 
No. 205 8. 



258 BICYCLES AND FOREIGN TRADE-MARKS IN GERMANY. 

this superiority is to be preserved, is a question that concerns our 
makers at home. If they can guard against the shipping to Germany 
of any inferior wheels, they are sure to hold this market. 

FOREIGN TRADE-MARKS. 

With regard to the protection of trade-marks on American bicy- 
cles, I have the honor to report that very few cases of trade-marks 
taken out by Germans with intent to interfere with American sales 
of the bicycle thus marked have been brought to my attention dur- 
ing this year. I have no means of knowing if any exist, unless I am 
directly notified of the fact, since cases of this kind are very rarely 
mentioned by the press. But the entire status of trade-marks and 
patents is at present in a peculiar condition. 

According to the lately issued law, the German Chancellor has 
the power to give or withhold a protection in Germany on trade- 
marks of foreign origin. He has the power of reciprocity toward 
foreign countries. If he publishes in the official organ a decree that 
the trade-marks of a given country are to be held inviolable, then, 
and not till then, can a German who uses a foreign trade-mark be 
held to answer before the court. When we consider the reason for 
the granting of this power, we see at once that it was given in order 
that the Chancellor should be able to demand some substantial return 
forthe privilege. We may be certain, therefore, that it will not be 
extended to the United States without a privilege granted in return. 
Yet, under Article XVII of the consular convention with Germany 
(December 11, 187 1), American citizens should enjoy in Germany the 
same protection — **with regard to patterns and marks of manufac- 
ture and trade " — as Germans. 

INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION OF TRADE-MARKS, ETC. 

In this connection I would like to call attention to a society of 
jurists, patent lawyers, industrials, and others, called International 
Association for the Protection of Industrial Property, which held its 
first congress recently in Brussels. Its president is Dr. Exner, of 
Vienna; its general secretary, Dr. Albert Osterrieth, of Berlin. 
.Members were present from Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, 
Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, 
Russia, Spain, and Switzerland. The only American member is 
Mr. Paul Oeker, of San Francisco. A second congress is to be held 
next October in Vienna and Budapest. 

The object of this association is to promote the protection of 
inventions, trade-marks, industrial designs and models, trade names, 
etc., by studying and comparing the laws of different countries and 
suggesting uniformity in them. It appeals to manufacturers, in- 



AGITATION AGAINST AMERICAN BICYCLES. 259 

ventors, and others for membership and donations. Among the 
suggestions at the Brussels congress was one that may deserve con- 
sideration, namely, that some central city be selected, like Berne, in 
Switzerland, where a permanent bureau should be established. All 
trade-marks, designs, models, etc., registered there should be ac- 
cepted as binding in all the countries belonging to the association 
or league. However difficult it might be to reach the point where 
the governments of various countries would agree to abide by the 
rules of this league, yet it can scarcely be denied that great advan- 
tages would result if some such system were in existence. It would 
avoid the great expenses and uncertainties that at present interfere 
with the protection of the rights of inventors and manufacturers in 
various parts of the world. English and American manufacturers 
have suffered grievously from the imitation of their trade-marks on 
the European continent, since the reputation of their wares has been 
injured when inferior goods have been sold as theirs. 

I have the honor to inclose the rules, list of members, and pro- 
ceedings at Brussels of the association in question,* without passing 
any judgment on the feasibility of the plans on which the gentle- 
men interested have resolved to work. 

Charles de Kay, 

Berlin, July 16, /<Pp7. Consul-General. 



AGITATION IN GERMANY AGAINST AMERICAN 

BICYCLES. 

A Hamburg paper, under the heading **The German bicycle 
industry," says: 

No industry in recent years has developed so fast as the bicycle industry. In 
spite of this, it is very far from being fully developed. Since the bicycle grows to 
be more and more an article of necessity, manufacturers may expect larger busi- 
ness than was dreamed of in the beginning. The principal makers are the United 
States, England, and Germany. About ten years ago this industry, in Germany, 
took on very large dimensions. It has grown from a very modest beginning. It 
is an eloquent proof of the Empire's ability to nourish other branches, even after 
rotten limbs fall from the tree of trade. To-day it has 25,000 persons making 
wheels. They are made with as much skill and precision as marked the Empire's 
manufactures in sewing machines and guns. Their fame is so well founded that 
it has gone out into foreign parts. The fact that the first four tnonths of this year 
saw 7,515 wheels and 1,200 double hundreds of bicycle parts shipped to foreign 
countries, to Switzerland, Austria-Hungary, Denmark, Australia, etc., proves this. 
In 1886, England had 68 bicycle factories; to-day she has 680. The development 
in the United States was so widespread and rapid that failures are reported as far 
from infrequent, and the surplus product is flooding free-trade England. In 1896, 



* Filed in the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Department of State. 



26o AGITATION AGAINST AMERICAN BICYCLES. 

the United States exported more than $4,000,000 of machines and parts. In 
1885, the United States had only 6 factories, producing in a year 11,000 wheels; 
in 1890, there were 70, producing 40,000; in 1894, 125,000 wheels were made, and in 
1896, 600,000. Now, in 1897, there are 800 to 900 factories, furnishing over 1,000,- 
000 "bikes" every twelve months. The capital employed amounts to more than 
$100,000,000. 

Before the beginning of this year, there was no official note of bicycle imports 
into Germany. In the first four months of 1897, we find that 7,536 wheels and 
1,404 double hundreds of parts have been imported. Most of these came from 
England and the United States. A few come from France and Austria. Against 
these imports, the Empire's Industrial Union is up in arms. German duties on 
bicycles are low; rates in the United States are thirty times as high as the Empire's. 
In the face of such facts, an effort to have the duties increased is easy to under- 
stand. Dr. Miquel's remark that articles are too little specialized in Germany's 
tariff schedules in order to give bicycles a suitable position (Passende Position), etc., 
is construed into a willingness on the part of the Government to meet the manu- 
facturers and to find a way out of the present difficult and dangerous position. 
The thing needed is a general increase of duties on wheels. The inland iron and 
steel makers would also be justified in asking for higher duties on imported parts 
of machines; for it is here that England and the United States are just now threat- 
ening to swamp German manufacturers. 

"A syndicate or trust to control the manufacture of piping for bicycle frames" 
is reported. It is composed of English and American capitalists. It is said to 
have bought the Ellwood and Greenville works for $3,000,000. There are said 
to be only three frame pipe factories in the United States — those at Shelby ville, 
Toledo, and Brooklyn. Besides this, a rubber ring will be organized. The enor- 
mous consumption of rubber is sure to awaken the ambition of speculators to make 
such a combine. Against all of this it is time to take precautionary measures. We 
must make our people understand, also, that German wheels are just as good as 
those they get from England and the United States. 

The correspondent of the Industrial Union urges that, in his 
opinion, **no trade treaty would be broken were Germany to tax 
bicycles under the title Fahrzeug,* which pay now from 6 to 10 per 
cent ad valorem, and may be taxed very much higher. Inasmuch 
as bicycles are not specifically mentioned in any of our trade treaties 
and are not specified in our tariff lists, they can easily be brought 
under this class of articles." The best thing for our manufacturers 
to do is to send over enormous quantities of parts before such action 
is taken. There is a big market here and all over Europe, for many 
years, for good wheels at fair prices. It will be a mistake if German 
tariff legislation is not anticipated (as our legislation has been by the 
Germans) by big shipments of goods against which the new laws 
are aimed. 

J. C. MONAGHAN, 

Chemnitz, July p, 1897, Consul. 



* The definition of which in the dictionaaies is a vessel, boat, or craft, although from analogy the 
word may easily be made to mean any vehicle used for transportation. 



BICYCLES IN BREMEN. 261 



BICYCLES IN BREMEN. 

**The social-political significance of the bicycle" is a topic dis- 
cussed in the annual report for 1896 by the supervising office of in- 
dustry for Prussia, and it is now being taken up by the press. 

The Bremer Nachrichten of this date says: 

The supervisor of industry for the district of Leignitz declares that the bicycle 
is being more and more used by the workingman to carry him to and from his 
place of work, and that it will surely tend to elevate both the moral and industrial 
character of the laboring class. The opportunity which the wheel offers will be 
taken advantage of, especially by that class of people who live on the outskirts of 
the larger cities and who may possess their own homes and gardens. These peo- 
ple, who spend the hours of the day in the workshops, will, thanks to the bicycle, 
be enabled to take a refreshing and exhilarating " spin" to their homes, and, being 
there, do work in the garden and field which usually fell to the lot of the women. 

It is to be noted that many of the laboring people of Germany, 
by possessing their own homes and gardens and producing there a 
means of living for themselves, constitute an important factor in the 
problem of the industrial life of the Empire. 

A large part of the laboring men of the city of Bremen own their 
own dwellings and gardens away from the city. The Government 
recognizes this condition, and supplies a ** workingman's" train to 
convey them to and from their work at a cost not much more than 
the street-car fares. 

The railroad is a Government concern. The working people who 
choose to live in this manner are either born on the premises or they 
come from the country districts, where they inherit a taste for that 
way of living. The working people who crowd the city and who must 
pay rent, from which they receive no product in return, demand and 
receive a higher wage rate than those who live in the country; but 
they live neither so happily nor so well. 

The overseer of industry for the district of Hildesheim and Liin- 
nenburg states that **a bicycle firm in Gottingen is making efforts to 
secure cheap and good houses for the laboring man " (primarily they 
are making an effort to create a demand for, and to secure the sale 
of, cheap bicycles). This firm proposes to supply wheels to the la- 
borer at an especially low rate, and in case the laborer does not or 
can not use the wheel, it will be taken back at the price paid for it. 

It is obvious that this proposed scheme is as enterprising as it is 
philanthropic. If the working people make the bicycle an article of 
use, it goes without saying that the demand for that class of wheel 
will be great. Without such demand, the German-made wheel will 
have difficulty in holding its own against the American product. It 



262 INCREASED DUTIES ON BICYCLES IN FRANCE. 

appears that if the working people use the German bicycle, the 
** social" place for the wheel will be lost and the **61ite" will use 
only the American make. 

One year ago, the leading retail wheel concern in Bremen han- 
dled the **Weser" wheel entirely and had an American wheel as a 
curiosity sample. To-day, this house handles American wheels only. 

Geo. Keenan, 
Bremen, July lo^ ^Sgy, Consul. 



DEMAND FOR INCREASED DUTIES ON BICYCLES 

IN FRANCE. 

Recent reports from France say that a demand has been made to 
raise the duties on bicycles and automobiles — on the former, 600 
francs per 100 kilograms ($115.58 per 220.46 pounds) on wheels and 
parts in the general tariff and 500 francs ($96.50) per 100 kilograms 
in the minimum tariff; on the automobiles or their parts, 250 francs 
($48.25) in the general tariff and 210 francs ($40.53) in the mini- 
mum for vehicles under 200 kilograms, 150 to 180 francs ($28.95 ^^ 
$34.74) for vehicles between 200 and 500 kilograms (440 to 1,102 
pounds), 100 to 120 francs ($19.30 to $23.16) for vehicles weighing 
500 to 2,000 kilograms (4,409 pounds), and 50 to 60 francs ($9.65 to 
$11.58) for those weighing upwards of 2,000 kilograms. 

The motive for this is found in the fact that the rapid and suc- 
cessful development in France of this industry, its permanence, its 
needs, etc., have revealed certain defects in the present tariff sys- 
tem. American wheels are so much lighter, stronger, neater, and 
better that efforts to decry them in the press having failed, some- 
thing must be done to keep them out. The claim is made that the 
rates when made were based on the average weight of wheels much 
greater than those that prevail now. They were 10 francs* ($1.93) 
per kilogram (2.2046 pounds), and wheels weighed 20 to 25 kilo- 
grams. This put a tax of 200 to 250 francs ($38 to $48) on each 
wheel. Mechanical skill has reduced the weight of wheels to 10 and 
12 kilograms, hence the duties per bicycle are from 100 to 120 
francs. High as are these rates, they are far from rendering French 
manufacturers secure against American, English, and German 
wheels; hence the move to increase the duties. One of the argu- 
ments used is that it is only fair to gauge the rates by the progress 

*The French tariff, as published in April, i8q6, by the International Tariffs Commission, Brussels, 
gives the following as the duties imposed upon bicycles: Velocipedes and parts thereof, including 
tires and pneumatic tubes for bicycle and tricycle wheels, etc., 250 francs ($48.25) per 100 kilograms 
(220.46 pounds), or about 1.14 francs (2a cents in United States currency) per kilogram (2.3046 pounds). 



AMERICAN CORN IN GERMANY. 263 

in construction, so as to make it harmonize with the basic principles 
of the whole tariff system. By adding the proposed rates, the duties 
on a 10 and 12 kilogram (23 and 26.4 pound) wheel will be 150 to 
160 francs ($28 to $30) and 180 to 190 francs ($34 to $36), respectively. 
Of course, this means, practically, prohibition. I am not sure that 
any other would be a satisfactory solution. 

If I may be permitted to give a word of advice here, I will repeat 
what can not be urged upon our manufacturers too often, and that 
is, go to South America, Australia, the East, Russia, etc., and get 
markets that will pay more in a month, by and by, than these ever 
will in years. 

J. C. MONAGHAN, 

Chemnitz, July 16^ i^p?- Consul. 



AMERICAN CORN IN GERMANY. 

The importation of American corn (maize) into Germany has this 
year reached an unprecedented figure. During the first four months 
of this year, no fewer than 346,027 tons of maize were imported from 
the United States into the German Empire, as against 175,516 tons 
and 28,794 tons, respectively, in the corresponding periods of the 
two preceding years. In April, the import amounted to 135,349 
tons and in March to 99,222 tons, as against 61,115 ^^^ 42,115 tons 
in April and March, 1896, respectively. 

There are, however, as it appears even from the reports of papers 
which do not uphold the principles of German **agrarianism," com- 
plaints about some of the maize imported from our country. It is 
asserted that large quantities of inferior and damaged maize has 
been received, and that many dealers have had unfortunate experi- 
ences with their purchases. This is said to have been the case par- 
ticularly at Hamburg, where many contracts for maize had been 
made, and, as the buyers and sellers can not agree as to the degree 
of inferiority of the article in question, lawsuits are about to be in- 
stituted. I do not know how far the American shippers are to be 
blamed for these occurrences; it is, however, a fact that the maize 
often lies for weeks in absolutely unfit stores at the seaports, and this 
certainly does not conduce to the improvement of the article. 

Attention has lately been drawn in the Consular Reports to the 
fact that the German Government is endeavoring to further the in- 
terests of German agriculture, and, as a matter of fact, the efiforts 
of the Agrarian party in Prussian and German legislatures are mainly 
directed toward impeding as much as possible the importation of for- 
eign agricultural products. Proof of this is found in the obstacles 



264 DANISH COMPLAINTS AGAINST UNITED STATES CORN. 

thrown in the way of importing American cattle and meat. The 

Agrarian press begins to advance the opinion that the importation 

of American maize of inferior quality might, in the end, endanger 

the German cattle stock. Whether such a claim could be verified — 

I think it could not — can not be discussed here. Our grain export 

firms should, however, in view of the hostile position of the Agrarian 

party, make a point of sending only a good article to the German 

market, for this is the only way in which they will be able to keep it. 

This short report has been occasioned by various accounts which, 

as stated before, have appeared in the German press during the last 

few weeks. Inquiries made of merchants of this city connected 

with the trade have resulted in the discovery that the complaints are 

exaggerated, but not unfounded. 

Louis Stern, 

Bamberg, July 2, iSqj, Commercial Agent, 



DANISH COMPLAINTS AGAINST UNITED STATES 

CORN. 

In view of the great efforts made during recent years to find and 
maintain a market in Europe for our annual crop of corn (maize), I 
fear that the wretched condition of at least half of the crop of 1896 
which has been landed at this port has dealt a serious blow to our 
grain trade. 

For some time back, I have been aware that corn in bad condi- 
tion had been landed in Copenhagen, but attributed this bad condition 
to injury by the sea in the voyage across. Its repeated ogcurrence, 
however, the open and general complaints of the merchants, and the 
sudden and unenviable notoriety it has given at least two American 
ports appear to force the conviction that there is something radi- 
cally wrong with the crop of 1896. The following statements are 
presented just as I have gathered them: 

TERMS OF SALE. 

It appears that this grain was sold under what is known in Eng- 
land as ** tale-quale" terms, that is, that the shippers' weights and 
grades are final as to quantity and quality. If, therefore, at the land- 
ing port the grain is out of condition, there is, as I understand it, no 
redress to the purchaser, who must bear the loss alone. For the 
benefit or protection of the purchaser, the shipper's weights and 
grades are supported by the certificate of an inspector that they are 
as -stated in the certificate. All the grain was shipped, as I am in- 
formed, as first-class, or No. 2, corn, and under certificate. If, there- 



DANISH COMPLAINTS AGAINST UNITED STATES CORN. 265 

fore, the various cargoes arriving out of condition were not damaged 
by the sea (a contingency too remote for serious consideration and 
which is categorically denied) they should have reached the landing 
port in a condition equally good as at shipment, as was the case 
with the crop of 1895. On the contrary, out of a quantity variously 
estimated at from 175,000 to 200, 000 quarters (1,400,000 to 1,600,000 
bushels) competent judges declare that at least one-half arrived in a 
hot, moldy, or sour condition, the deterioration in quality varying 
from 15 to 50 per cent. Hence the Danish purchaser asks, Of what 
value is your inspector's certificate? 

On May 24, in company with Mr. Charles T. Ballard, of Louis- 
ville, Ky., I inspected this damaged corn, mostly stored in the free 
port. Mr. Ballard is not a corn merchant, being the proprietor of a 
flour mill; but having served on the grain committee of the Louis- 
ville Board of Trade, he understands the different grades of corn. 
At my request, he made an inspection and gave me his opinion as to 
its condition. His name and views are here quoted with his knowl- 
edge and consent. He says: 

There was no corn which was strictly first-class, or No. 2. There was a consider- 
able portion merchantable, or No. 3, but the greater part of that which the official 
pointed out to us he thought should properly be classed as below No. 3, or no grade. 

For myself, I will add that the great bulk of it showed signs of 
having once been hot; some of it was still hot, and again some was 
moldy and sour. 

The farmers refusing to buy any but grain in first-class condition 
(or as near that condition as can be had) the warehouses have be- 
come choked and the corn is stored in railway cars on side tracks, 
in barges in the docks, in sheds hastily constructed on the quays, 
and even on the open quay, where it is exposed to further injury 
from every passing shower. In addition, there is said to be now on 
the way from Atlantic ports six steamers carrying collectively 48,000 
quarters (384,000 bushels). 

THE PORTS INVOLVED. 

With the exception of New York, every port shipping corn to 
Denmark is involved more or less in the charge of sending bad grain 
to Denmark. Philadelphia has a little bad corn charged against 
her. Baltimore, Newport News, and Norfolk, have each sent con- 
siderable quantities in bad condition ; but the principal offenders are 
New Orleans and Galveston. One firm informs me that, with the 
exception of grain arriving in December, they have not had a single 
cargo delivered in good condition from either New Orleans or Gal- 
veston. This firm is the largest importer, and consequently the 



266 DANISH COMPLAINTS AGAINST UNITED STATES CORN. 

heaviest loser. Another firm informs me that they have *Most con- 
fidence as to New Orleans and Galveston." I am sorry that I must 
state that there is a strong undercurrent of suspicion that the in- 
spectors have not done their duty. It is charged that the grades at 
certain ports are not high enough, and that corn graded as No. 2 at 
New Orleans, for instance, wQuld grade below No. 2 in New York. 
It is also complained that the inspectors are not responsible for the 
certificates they issue, nor can the merchant here tell whether they 
are appointed by the shippers themselves as a mercantile body, by 
the municipalities, or by the States. There seems to be no general 
law governing their appointment or controlling their acts. 

CAUSE OF DETERIORATION SUGGESTED. 

Mr. Ballard has suggested what may prove to be the true cause 
and explanation of the condition of the grain arriving here. He 
says he has been informed by a prominent official of the Illinois 
Central Railroad that **the corn crop of Nebraska, Kansas, and 
Texas was harvested in bad condition at gathering time, owing to 
damp weather; and this view would seem to be strengthened by the 
fact that the no grade and inferior corn arriving has been mostly 
shipped from New Orleans and Galveston, ports which largely draw 
their supplies from these three states. '* 

The same conditions have never occurred before in the twenty 
years American corn has been shipped to Denmark. An occasional 
cargo would arrive in a damaged state, but no such general spoiling 
of the grain has ever happened before. As a consequence, the loss has 
been heavy — estimated easily at 1,000,000 kroners ($373,000) — and, 
as I am informed, at least one failure is threatened. It is also said that 
there is the same trouble with corn in London, Antwerp, Bremen, 
and Amsterdam, but of these places I have no definite information. 

PROBABLE TERMS OF FUTURE PURCHASES. 

It is a most unfortunate occurrence when our corn exports have 
been making such rapid strides of late, and especially in Scandinavia, 
where corn as a cheap cattle food has played such a prominent role. 
One of the almost certain consequences will be, that in future trans- 
actions **rye terms," or condition guarantied at the port of delivery, 
will be demanded ; for confidence has received a shock which will 
take both time and fair treatment to obliterate. 

Robert J. Kirk, 
Copenhagen, June /, iSgy, ConsuL 



UNITED STATES FLOUR IN GERMANY. 267 



UNITED STATES FLOUR IN GERMANY. 

The Cologne Gazette of the 12th instant contained an article on 
the alleged adulteration of American wheat flour by the admixture 
of maize flour, of which I inclose a translation : 

AMERICAN FLOUR. 

» 

According to official statistics of the imports of flour into Germany, America 
takes the third place; in 1896, 6,168 tons were received from America, and from 
Jauuary to May, 1897, 1,622 tons. The quantity is thus sufficient to warrant our 
taking an interest in certain transactions which are now being discussed in the 
country where they are taking place. The adulteration of wheat flour with maize 
flour appears to have attained such proportions in America that honest men find it 
difficult to contend against this " unfair competition." No. 25 of the Weekly North- 
western Miller, of June 18, contains a copy of a report made by Mr. F. E. Kaufif- 
mann, a mill owner of St. Louis, to the National Union of American Millers, as 
well as to the winter wheat millers of the Southwest, upon this matter, which throws 
a light upon these manipulations. The substance of the report is to the following 
effect: The high price of wheat, together with the low price of maize, have caused 
enormous quantities of a mixture of wheat flour with maize flour to be thrown on 
the market. At first, this was only done by a few unscrupulous millers, but later 
on the custom spread to such a degree that large numbers of millers were com- 
pelled, quite against their inclination, to adopt this practice or have their mills 
stand idle. At times, the price of maize even regulated the price of wheat flour. 
The mixture was always brought on the market as pure wheat flour, and frequently, 
indeed, with the ordinary mill marks; it was of a good color, and could only be 
detected by an expert when the bread or biscuit was hot from the oven. The price 
which the buyer had to pay thus never corresponded to the real value. Mr. Kauff- 
mann points out the dangers to which the American trade will be exposed unless 
the millers resolutely strive against such practices. He warns them that foreign 
countries will vigorously resist the importation of this adulterated stuff; he laments 
the demoralization which will inevitably follow should the practice still further 
increase, and, with difficulty, finds words severe enough to characterize such a dan- 
gerous custom. In point of fact, the custom must already be widely spread, when 
those in America interested in the trade speak thus publicly about it; and, from Mr. 
Kauffmann's utterances, it is evident that this inferior mixture is exported. How 
many hundreds of tons may there not already have been in the quantities imported 
from America as wheat meal ! In any case, it is our duty to look well to it that our 
people are not deceived by this mixture and that our millers are not ruined by the 
low prices asked by Americans. The situation is becoming more critical, involv- 
ing, on the one hand, the competition of French millers by the unfair means of a 
disguised bounty; on the other, this fraudulent manipulation by a number of Amer- 
icans, which threatens our millers with the loss of the markets at home and abroad. 

William H. Madden, 
Cologne, July //, /<Pp7. Vice and Acting Consul, 



268 THE CONTINENTAL CHANNEL PORTS. 



THE CONTINENTAL CHANNEL PORTS. 

The Temps, of Paris, recently published an interesting article 
from the pen of Mr. Georges Villain on the development and pres- 
ent condition of the great continental ports situated on the English 
Channel, giving especial attention to Calais, Boujogne, and Ostend. 
A brief review of these statements may be of value: 

Thirty-five years ago, the number of travelers between England 
and the Continent in both directions was 249,322. Almost all passed 
through the French ports of Calais, Boulogne, Dieppe, and Havre. 
Ostend, the only continental port outside France and which was 
only entering on this trade, counted only 5,119 travelers. Boulogne 
led, with 113,425; then came Calais, with 75,177; Dieppe, with 41,- 
605; and Havre, with 13,996 passengers. 

To-day the number of individuals has almost tripled. Last year 
the figures were 820,500 travelers, not including the large number 
of one-day excursionists who came from England to pass only a few 
hours on the Continent. The share of the French ports, although 
still very important, amounts to not more than two-thirds of the 
total ; for, with Ostend are now to be reckoned the Dutch ports of 
Flushing and the Hook of Holland, the last mentioned at the mouth 
of the Meuse. Last year Ostend counted 118,600 travelers. Flush- 
ing began in 1875 with 5,000 passengers; in 1896, there were 81,316, 
an increase of 12,000 over the preceding year. Finally, the Hook of 
Holland, which counted only 36,300 travelers in 1890, last year had 
more than 73,000. 

The topographical situation of the Dutch ports does not permit 
them to become serious competitors of the French, but as regards 
Ostend the situation is different, as shown by the efforts to popularize 
the Belgian railways and lead travelers over routes lying outside 
French territory. This competition is serious; especially has it be- 
come so during the past eight years. In 1889, Ostend scarcely 
counted 50,000 travelers; its traffic has therefore more than doubled 
in seven years. This fact is in a great measure due to the increased 
speed of its mail-packet service. In other days, with an average of 
10 to 12 knots, the trip was made from Calais to Dover in two hours 
and from Ostend to Dover in six hours. The French port then had 
the advantage of four hours on the sea passage, which is considera- 
ble. Now, with the speed of 20 knots, the difference has decreased 
one-half. The passage from Dover to Calais is only one hour and 
twenty minutes, but that from Dover to Ostend has fallen to three 
hours and a quarter. The English, never afraid of the sea, are 



THE CONTINENTAL CHANNEL PORTS. 269 

more inclined to go via Ostend to the principal cities of Europe, 
as there is great comfort on the boats; the direct railway connec- 
tions are excellent, through express trains are numerous, and the 
expense is less than by some other routes. 

Some figures in this connection may not be useless. Take, for 
example, the journey from London to Vienna, which may be made 
by four different routes — Ostend-Cologne, Calais-Brussels, Calais- 
Chalons sur Marne, or Calais-Paris. The first costs $37 and requires 
twenty-nine and one-half hours; there is no change en route, and 
the customs examination is made on the train. The expense of the 
second route is only $39.44 and the sea journey is two hours shorter; 
but a change of train must be made at Brussels, with the risk of 
missing connections. The total time required for the journey is 
thirty and one-half hours. The Calais-Chalons route involves an 
expense of $43.98 and annoying changes en route; the total time 
is thirty hours fifty-two minutes. Finally, the fourth route, by 
Calais and Paris, much more expensive and longer than the others, 
costs $47.83 and requires thirty-two hours fifty-two minutes. 

Evidently this competition can not fail to be very burdensome. 
The operating of the Ostend-Dover sea service is far from profitable. 
The deficit in the operating expenses for the period 1887-1895 
amounted to $1,745,106, which is equivalent to an average annual 
loss of $193,000; and, when it is considered that in these figures are 
included neither the interest nor the funding of a capital exceeding 
$4,000,000, it is easily seen under what ** economic" conditions the 
Ostend-Dover sea service is carried on and in what a comparatively 
inferior situation the French sea lines are placed. 

Nor is this all; not only is the Belgian line striving to divert the 
stream of travelers, but it has also just recently completed, by a rapid 
service between Ostend and Tilbury (London), a direct freight line 
from London to central Europe and vice versa. Negotiations have 
been concluded between the Belgian State Railway and its eastern 
and southern connections to forward, via the former's sea service, 
freight and express goods coming from Italy by the St. Gothard 
Tunnel route. It can easily be imagined what a disastrous competi- 
tion is thus occasioned to the French lines, especially those forming 
the Boulogne-Folkestone channel service. 

Calais, for its travelers, and Boulogne, for its travelers and freight, 
are thus directly affected by the efforts which Ostend is making to 
seize the transit business. Meanwhile, from such ingenious arrange- 
ments with the Belgian system, the shippers of Italy and central 
Europe are reaping rich rewards. 

Great efforts are being made by the French Government to main- 
tain the ascendency of its ports and to recover some proportion of 



270 GERMAN AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN RUSSIA. 

their lost trade. Belgium, on the other hand, is putting forth all 
possible endeavors, by improvement of its harbors, enlargement of 
its boats, and reduction of cost of the various services, to still further 
increase its share of travel and freight. Under these conditions the 
traveling public can not fail to be greatly benefited. 

Henry C. Morris, 
Ghent, July 20, iSgy, Consul, 



GERMAN AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY IN RUSSIA. 

In view of the present negotiations at St. Petersburg about the 
reduction of duty on agricultural machinery or the iron requisite 
therefor, the following particulars, based on official Russian statis- 
tics, are of special interest: 

There are in Russia, at the present time, 193 factories producing 
agricultural machinery and implements to the value of 9,600,000 
rubles (the gold ruble=77.2 cents; the silver ruble, on January i, 
1897 = 37.9 cents), while in 1896 the value of the imports in said 
articles amounted to 5,800,000 rubles. 

Last year, Germany was responsible for nearly one-half of the 
total imports, for, of the 882,000 poods (31,850,764 pounds) of agri- 
cultural machines imported, 432,080 poods oame from Germany. 
The United States supplied 223,726 poods (8,079,193 pounds); Eng- 
land, 120,435 poods (4,349,148 pounds); Austria-Hungary, 85,526 
poods (3,088,312 pounds). The importation from Germany increased 
even in the year of the customs war (1893), rising from 288,684 poods 
in 1892 to 379,428 poods in 1893. In 1894, it amounted to 379,769 
poods (13,714,217 pounds). This increase was made at the expense 
of the English exports, which rose, in 1893, to 314,908 poods (from 
181,880 poods in 1892) and to 383,160 poods (13,836,673 pounds) in 
1894, but which fell to 225,533 poods in 1895, and even to 120,435 
poods in 1896. 

German exporters seem, it is true, to have made great sacrifices 
in order to win the Russian market. A memorandum issued by ex- 
perts of the Russian Ministry of Finance shows that German man- 
ufacturers of agricultural machines and implements frequently sell 
their products at a very low price in Russia. For instance, the 
Eckert plow, which, in Germany, is sold for 37.66 rubles (81 marks*) 
at the factory, is retailed at Charkov for 41 rubles, and for quanti- 
ties sold to depots of agricultural districts, agricultural societies, 
etc., a discount of no less than 10 per cent is allowed. In this case, 
the Russian agent sells the Eckert plow, costing in Germany 37.66 

♦$19.27. 



FARMING MACHINERY IN RUSSIA. 271 

rubles, for 36.90 rubles. If it is considered that out of this amount 
4.62 rubles have to be paid for freight, 5.46 rubles for duty, and that 
there are further expenses for storage, commissions, etc., the extent 
of the sacrifices made for the Russian trade by the Eckert plow 
works may be estimated. 

This short report is meant to demonstrate to American manufac- 
turers what efforts their German competitors are making to conquer 

foreign markets. 

Louis Stern, 

Bamberg, July rf, i8^j. Commercial Agent. 



FARMING MACHINERY IN RUSSIA. 

Russian agriculturists make frequent appeals to their Govern- 
ment, pointing out the difficulties which prevent their success in the 
world's market. They say that the decrease in the price of grain so 
affects their income that they are obliged to reduce the expenses of 
production of agricultural products, and they claim that the only 
remedy is the use of agricultural machinery. The scarcity of labor 
in harvest time often causes great loss, and they feel sure that the 
use of machinery and implements would increase the productiveness 
and improve agriculture in all respects. Machinery would be widely 
employed in Russia if it were not for its cost, which places it beyond 
the reach of the average farmer. 

The principal cause of the high price of agricultural machinery 
and implements is the excessive customs duty. It is claimed that 
the import duty increases the cost from 18 to 20 per cent on har- 
vesters, 20 to 25 per cent on thrashers, 20 to 35 per cent on plows, 
straw cutters, etc., 40 to 45 per cent on steam engines, and 35 to 50 
per cent on parts of agricultural machinery. The duty on agricul- 
tural machinery and implements, not provided with steam motors, 
is 52 copecks in gold (40 cents) per pood (36.112 pounds); on porta- 
ble engines, with thrashers, 1.40 rubles ($1.08) per pood. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the duty on farming machinery 
was made to protect the home production, its object was not attained, 
and the manufacture of agricultural machinery in Russia has not 
developed. It can not satisfy the local demand. Lately the Minister 
of Finance concluded that something should be done for the farming 
community, and proposed that machinery not manufactured in Rus- 
sia, such as harvesters, self-binders, etc., should be admitted free of 
duty. The minister ordered that a meeting be called, consisting 
of one representative of the Ministry of Finance, one of the Agricul- 
tural Department, thirty-three landowners appointed by the Minis- 



272 FARMING MACHINERY IN RUSSIA. 

try of Agriculture, and also of representatives of manufacturers of 
machinery and iron works. The director of trade and manufacture 
was to be president, and the meeting should consider whether the 
action suggested by the Minister would help the Russian farmers, 
and should make suggestions to benefit the agriculturists. The 
meeting concluded its work on the 19th of June, 1897. The machine 
manufacturers and iron producers differed in opinion from the agri- 
culturists, and two different recommendations were submitted to the 
Minister of Finance. 

The representatives of agriculture proposed in their report that 
import duty should be removed from the following articles: (i) Self- 
binders; (2) twine for self-binders; (3) steam plows without engines; 
(4) pulverizers for sprinkling fruit trees and boughs; (5) steam 
thrashers, locomotives with beater drums (not less than 4^ feet 
wide), and pike drums (not less than 40 inches wide), and parts 
thereof; (6) combined clover thrashers with two drums; (7) hay 
rakes; (8) sorting machines with spiral wire cylinders; (9) sorting 
machines for potatoes; (10) centrifugal milk separators and their 
parts; (11) machines for plaiting straw mats; (12) fingers for horse- 
rakes; (13) beater plates for thrashers; (14) horse steel shovels; 
(15) cloth for self-binders aud sorting machines; (16) hand and horse- 
power machines (not more than 4 horsepower) for making brick, tiles, 
and turf, according to certificates issued to farmers from competent 
establishments; (17) machines for scattering manure; (18) engines 
for agricultural purposes, according to certificates from competent 
Government or public establishments; (19) machines for cleaning 
fruit and vegetables; (20) cockle separators and machines for clean- 
ing clover; (21) horse rakes. 

It was further proposed that the duty should be reduced to 50 
copecks (38.6 cents) per pood on the following articles: (i) Reserve 
parts of agricultural machines and instruments, imported together 
with whole instruments and machines or separately; (2) kerosene 
motors, according to certificates issued by competent Government 
or public establishments; (3) apparatus for boiling food; (4) appa- 
ratus for boiling fodder; (5) apparatus for cooling milk. 

The representatives of machine manufacturers recommended in 
their report: 

(i) That measures should be taken to obtain cheap raw material 
for the construction of agricultural machinery; (2) that the Govern- 
ment should appoint a commission, consisting of representatives of 
the zemstvos, farmers, machine manufacturers, and officers of the 
Government Bank, to evolve measures to satisfy both the agricultu- 
rists and the machine manufacturers; (3) that the present duty on 
agricultural machinery should not be changed, as its reduction during 



FARMING MACHINERY IN RUSSIA. 273 

present conditions wouiq put a premium on foreign machinery and 
would be a final blow to the home manufacture; (4) that the exist- 
ing duty on reserve and compound parts of agricultural machines 
should be reduced to 50 copecks gold (38.6 cents); (5) that a pre- 
mium be granted on exports of agricultural machinery of home pro- 
duction to the amount of the existing import duty; (6) that a min- 
imum term be fixed during which the amount of the customs duty on 
agricultural machinery shall not be changed, since foreign producers, 
owing to commercial treaties, profit by a more stable customs tariff 
than the Russian industry; (7) the regulation of transport tariffs for 
agricultural machinery, which now favor the foreign rather than the 
home producers; (8) that rights and privileges be granted students 
who have completed the practical course of studies of the manufac- 
ture of agricultural machinery ; (9) in case the customs duties change, 
that the new ones take effect at the end of the manufacturing season, 
in the month of November; (10) that the duty collected on agricul- 
tural machinery imported from abroad be used to aid the Russian 
farming and machine-making industries by the establishment and 
maintenance in each government of the agricultural region of trade 
schools (for the instruction of locksmiths, founders, mounters, and 
machinists) and for giving premiums to manufacturers who first 
undertake the construction of new agricultural machines and attain 
satisfactory results. 

In the beginning of the sixties, the attention of the Government 
was drawn to the necessities of the Russian farming industry, and it 
took measures to develop the construction of farming machines and' 
implements in Russia by aiding certain mechanical works, by giving 
subsidies, and allowing such factories to receive iron and pig iron 
duty free; it concurred in the organization of depots, and founded, 
in 1865, the Imperial Farming Museum in St. Petersburg, which is in 
a flourishing condition. New samples were imported and distrib- 
uted, exhibitions arranged, and special efforts made to encourage the 
industry. 

According to statistical information, the present total income of 
the duty collected on farming machinery amounts only to 450,000 
rubles ($347,400) per annum, and the chief of the statistical section 
of the department of customs duties thought that the reduction of 
duties on machinery demanded by the agriculturists would entail 
so small a loss to the Government that it would not be felt. The 
statistics show further that the annual import of farming machinery 
and implements into Russia amounts to 5,000,000 rubles* ($2,570,000) 



* The duty values arc estimated in gold rubles (77.2 cents) and the other values in paper rubles 
(51.4 cents). The '* paper ruble" — officially called "credit ruble"— is the actual currency in Russia 
and that in which all general business and other commercial values are estimated. 

No. 205 9. 



2/4 AGRICULTUKK IN RUSSIA. 

and the home production to 9,000,000 rubles ($4,626,000). In Euro- 
pean Russia, there are about 100,000,000 dessiatines (269,970,000 
acres) of cultivated land, so that about 15 copecks (7.7 cents), it is 
calculated, is spent annually per each dessiatine (2.6997 acres) for 
agricultural machinery. 

The manufacture of farm machinery in Russia developed earlier in 
the Baltic and Vistula governments than in the other parts of the Em- 
pire ; but, during the last fifteen years, conditions have changed. The 
mining industry has developed greatly in southern Russia, especially 
in iron and pit coal. New factories were established there, new 
mines explored, and the center of the iron industry was transferred 
to southern Russia. The agricultural-machine industry developed 
in that region in proportion. Progress was marked in the three 
southern governments of Ekaterinoslav, Tauride, and Kherson. The 
Moscow, Kharkov, Don, Riazan, Tula, and other governments fol- 
lowed. In the old centers of machine manufacture — Warsaw and 
Livonia governments — there has been but little progress. 

The number of plows, reapers, and thrashing machines manufac- 
tured in Russia in the year 1895 was: Plows, 75,546; reapers, 26,980; 
and thrashing machines, 3,561. Agents of the Austrian manufactu- 
rers have been working hard to introduce their scythes in Russia, 
and according to statistics, Russia imported during 1896 over the 
European frontier 208,000 poods (3,756 tons) of scythes and sickles, 
to the value of 1,807,000 rubles ($928,798), which came principally 
from Austria. The sickles represent from i to 2 per cent of that 
amount, so that about 200,000 poods of scythes alone were imported, 
and as a pood contains about thirty scythes of the larger size, the 
total number imported was about six million, which is three times 
larger than the number of scythes manufactured in Russia in 1896. 

John Karel, 
St. Pktersburc, .///Aj. /^P7- Consul-GencraL 



AGRICULTURE IN RUSSIA: OPENING FOR UNITED 

STATES MACHINERY. 

I have the honor to report that a very important meeting of the 
presidents of the various agricultural societies in Russia, together 
with numerous other persons representing large agricultural interests, 
has recently been sitting at St. Petersburg under the presidency of 
the Russian Minister of Agriculture. The labors of this meeting 
were brought to a close during the present week, and I have been 
verbally informed of the more important results of the meeting. 

The condition of the agricultural interests in Russia has been tlu' 



AGRICULTURE IN RUSSIA. 2/5 

source of great anxiety for many years to the Imperial Government. 
Numerous measures having for their object the amelioration of the 
condition of the farming population have been tried; **land banks" 
have been established for the nobility, or great landowners, and sep- 
arate banks have been inaugurated to supply money to the peasant 
class of farmers; land values have been from time to time increased 
and every increase in value has resulted in an application for an in- 
crease in the amount of the mortgage. Until the present time, this 
application has usually met with a favorable response, but the banks 
(which are really governmental) have at length reached a point where 
they must stop. If ever the idea existed that these loans were of a 
temporary character and would be repaid, it has disappeared. The 
Government being the creditor, there is a marked disinclination to 
foreclose mortgages — even those on which the interest has remained 
unpaid for years. In a few cases, where foreclosure has taken place, 
the property has changed hands, but in the majority of cases the 
proprietor has been placed in charge as caretaker, and he manages 
the estate, sells the crops, is paid for his services, and is probably 
better off financially than he was before the foreclosure. To evict 
and take possession of the mortgaged estates in Russia, would be 
beyond the power of the Imperial Government, as it would simply 
mean taking possession of two-thirds of the landed estates of Euro- 
pean Russia. 

In order to enable all classes of the farming population to obtain 
the greatest return for the results of their labpr and the fruits of 
their industry, the Government has been advancing money on grain 
in the stack and on grain in the warehouse and has charged the low- 
rate of 2 per cent per annum. This plan, after four years' trial, can 
not be said to have been a success, simply because the people whom 
it was intended to benefit have not profited by it on account of the 
expense incident to obtaining the loan. This expense, in the case 
of a small farmer, was a serious drawback to the scheme, and was 
caused by the conditions attached to granting the advance, con- 
nected with the visits of the officials who were designated to place 
safeguards over the property, etc. 

Farmers who purchased agricultural machines of Russian make 
could, if they so desired, obtain a loan at the Government Bank on 
such machinery at a low rate of interest. This was done to tempt 
the farmer into purchasing a homemade and probably inferior article 
and thereby benefiting the Russian manufacturer. For some reason, 
this scheme did not prove successful, and the banks were generally 
the losers. A different plan has since been adopted and is now in 
force. This plan reverses the previous order of things, and instead 
of loaning the farmer money on his Russian-made machine, the money 



2/6 AGRICULTURE IN RUSSIA. 

is loaned to the maker of the machine; in other words, to the man- 
ufacturer. Whether the manufacturer will be any more successful 
in collecting his debt from the farmer than the banks were remains 
to be seen. 

The change inaugurated about two years ago in the currency of 
Russia, from a silver to what is supposed to be a gold basis, has had 
a somewhat depressing effect on the mind of the peasant farmer. 
By imperial edict, it was made known that a 5-ruble gold piece would, 
until further notice, be equal to 7.50 rubles paper currency, and a 
check drawn on any Russian bank for 75 rubles must be considered 
paid should the holder receive 50 rubles in gold. 

The masses of Russia are said to be uneducated and ignorant; 
nevertheless, when they were offered a 5-ruble gold piece in pay- 
ment of a debt due them for 7.50 rubles, they refused to accept it, 
and pointed out that stamped on this gold piece in plain Russian 
characters were the words 5 rubles, and they furthermore demanded 
to know why it was that they were expected to believe that twice 
two and a half made 7.50 rubles in money or anything else. The 
Government was equal to the emergency; it recoined the same 
5-ruble gold piece and stamped on it 7.50 rubles. 

The meeting of agriculturists and those who are interested in 
agriculture, which has just finished its sessions at St. Petersburg, 
was called for the purpose of discussing and recommending to the 
Imperial Government measures to improve the condition of agricul- 
ture and agriculturists. One measure which will be of great inter- 
est to our agricultural machine and implement manufacturers was, 
after full discussion, favorably recommended to the consideration 
of the Russian Government, viz, that harvesters, binders, mowers, 
plows, and thrashers be admitted into Russia free of duty. It was 
recommended, also, that thrashing engines be admitted free when 
they are to be devoted exclusively to farming purposes and proof of 
this purpose is furnished. 

The principal reason advanced for this action on the part of the 
meeting was the fact that none of the items enumerated are manu- 
factured in Russia — at least not on a sufficiently large scale to be 
taken into consideration. 

The duty on a harvester and binder is at present about $33. The 
duty on a thrashing outfit (including the engine) is $450. The duty 
is estimated by weight. On the thrasher, it is 38)^ cents for 36 
pounds; on the engine, 92^ cents for 36 pounds, provided the engine 
and thrasher are imported together; otherwise the duty on the en- 
gine will be $1.24 for 36 pounds. The duty on a traction engine is 
$2 for ;^6 pounds. 

Should the Russian Government favor this scheme (and there is 



KUROPEAN KRUIT<:R()I' OUTLOOK. 277 

good reason for believing that it will do so) great relief will be 
granted the agricultural interests. I am informed that, in all prob- 
ability, on and after January i, 1898, the machines and implements 
mentioned will be permitted to enter Russia free of duty. 

In harvesters and binders, the American manufacturer already 
holds the field and is not likely to be ousted, though he must be 
prepared to meet strong competition from Germany. The Russians 
are afraid of our thrashing outfits. They say that both thrasher and 
engine are much too lightly constructed for the use and abuse to 
which they will be subjected in a country like Russia. It is impos- 
sible to make them understand that to be strong does not necessarily 
mean to look heavy, and it is to be feared that if we could not com- 
pete successfully with the heavy English thrashing machine and 
engine when they paid a duty on weight, we are not likely to do so 
when that duty is taken off. 

The duty on plows has for many years prevented their introduc- 
tion into Russia in large numbers. This duty was purposely made 
high in order to enable the Russian manufacturer to supply the 
market with plows at a reasonable price. The Russian-made plow 
is an inferior article and costs almost as much as the imported 
plow, so that the only persons who have benefited by the high duty 
were the manufacturers. Our American-made plows will easily cap- 
ture the Russian trade if our manufacturers are sufficiently active 
and are early in the market. It is desirable that they should be 
advised at an early date that so enormous a field as Russia is about 
to be opened to free competition in plows. In harvesters, binders, 
mowers, reapers, hay rakes, etc., we are already in a position to 
almost defy competition in Russia, and with the duty taken from 
plows there is no reason why a similar condition should not exist. 

The information which I have received, and which I regard as 

reliable, indicates that the articles I have enumerated will shortly 

be placed on the free list, and, believing this to be true, I feel it my 

duty to so inform the Department. 

Thos. E. Heenan, 

Odessa, June /j, iS^T- Consul. 



EUROPEAN FRUIT-CROP OUTLOOK. 

Through the courtesy of some of our consular officers in Ger- 
many, France, Italy, Austria-Hungary, and Spain, and also from 
other reliable sources, I have gathered some information regarding 
the outlook for the incoming European fruit crop. I will confine 
my report, however, to fruits with which American fruit growers 
have to compete in the home as well as in the foreign market. 



278 EUROPEAN FRUIT-CROP OUTLOOK. 

The months of March and April were exceptionally fine and warm 
throughout Europe, thus causing vegetation and trees to start ear- 
lier than usual. Then came May and the first part of June, bringing 
late frosts, rain, and damp, cold weather. This materially injured 
the fruit blossoms. The predictions are that the fruit crop will be 
generally very small and the quality inferior. In central and north- 
ern Europe, caterpillars have infested the apple and plum trees, and 
in the localities thus affected the apple crop is almost entirely lost. 
In southern Spain, an unusually dry season has prevailed, thus causing 
great damage to the raisin, olive, almond, and walnut crops. Lack 
of moisture, together with a prevailing dry wind, will prevent raisins, 
grapes, olives, and nuts from developing, so that crops will be small 
and quality undesirable. In France, the prune crop, as well as the 
wine grapes, have been injured by frosts. In the Grenoble district, 
severe storms have injured walnuts, so that, all in all, the outlook 
this season is discouraging for European fruit growers. 

There will be a good chance to place American dried fruits, as 
well as green apples, in Europe this season, provided our growers 
will put up choice stock only. They must keep small, inferior fruits 
at home. Transportation and other charges being high, it will not 
pay to ship anything but the very best. Nothing smaller than 80s 
in French prunes will pay to ship to Europe, and all other dried 
fruits, as apricots, peaches, and pears, must be of uniform size, 
bright, and packed in attractive manner. 

So much has already been said on this subject that I shall not 
reiterate, but simply summarize the situation as reported to me. 
The estimates at hand are about as follows: Walnuts, 50 per cent 
short of last crop; almonds, 25 per cent short of last crop; French 
prunes, 75 per cent short of last crop; apricots, peaches, raisins, and 
wine grapes, 50 per cent short of last crop; olives, 33 per cent short 
of last crop; apples, 50 percent short of last crop, and in some local- 
ities they are an entire failure. Pears have done better and the crop 
in some localities will be fair; still there will be a good European 
market for choice American pears, both green and dried, if landed 
in good order for reshipment to the interier. 

EUGENK GkRMAIN, 

Zurich, July 14, ^^97- Consul. 



SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT. 

The following modifies my former report on walnuts somewhat, 
but only as far as Grenobles are concerned, and confirms the same 
as to the qualities of Spanish raisins. 

Walnuts, — Our consul at Grenoble, under recent date, informs 
me that the prospects for the walnut crop are better than anticipated, 



ASIATIC COMMERCIAL MUSEUM AT SAX FRANCISCO. 279 

that the trees have recuperated, are in "fine condition, and that the 
yield will, as it now looks, nearly equal that of last year. 

Malaga raisins. — I am in receipt of a communication from Malaga, 
Spain, in which my correspondent writes as follows: 

In reply to your inquiry of May 20, which I should have answered ere this, I 
beg to inform you that at the beginning of the season the outlook for a bountiful 
crop of malaga raisins was very favorable and a much heavier yield than that of last 
year was looked for. But the continued drought prevalent in the raisin-growing 
districts of Spain, together with the exceedingly high and dry temperature, has 
injured the growth and development of the raisin berries. This district, in partic- 
ular, is affected to such an extent that the output will be only equal to that of last 
year, namely, 650,000 boxes of 10 kilograms (22 pounds) net each, or 14,300,000 
pounds. 

From the above, it will be seen that while the quantity of malaga 
raisins will equal that of last season, fancy grades will be scarce in 
Spain, and our California raisin growers will have a good oppor- 
tunity to sell their fancy clusters and first-class London layers at 
advantageous figures in our home markets. 

Euc.ENE Germain, 
Zurich, August 2, iS^j. Consul, 



PROPOSED ASIATIC COMMERCIAL MUSEUM AT 

SAN FRANCISCO. 

The commercial situation in the far East, or Asiatic Pacific, is 
now so critical, so far as American interests are concerned, and the 
opportunity for the development and advancement of such interests 
is so great, if this critical period is successfully passed, that I feel it 
my duty to make a proposition which I trust the exporters and man- 
ufacturers of the United States in general, and of the Pacific Coast 
n particular, will carefully consider. 

What I propose is something practical and tangible; it does not 
require extensive legislation, it can be accomplished without pro- 
longed delay or large expenditure of money, and it is in such a form 
that its promoters and supporters can see what is actually done. 

It is the establishment of an Asiatic commercial museum or bureau 
in San Francisco on lines similar to those of the Philadelphia Mu- 
seums (which are already doing much good, especially in aiding 
American trade with South America), for the special purpose of 
bringing the immense markets of the Asian Pacific into closer touch 
with those of the United States and providing our manufacturers 
and exporters with ready and accessible means of securing all kinds 
of information relative to the markets of the far East. 



28o ASIATIC COMMERCIAL MUSEUM AT SAN FRANCISCO. 

There is a woeful lack of accurate knowledge in the United States 
about this great field of trade opportunities, which reaches from 
Batavia, in Java, to Vladivostock, in Pacific Siberia, and covers a 
coast line of nearly 4,000 miles. It represents a population of 500,- 
000,000, has already a foreign trade of nearly $1,000,000,000, pos- 
sesses ten times the shipping of our own Pacific coast and boasts of 
several ports whose respective populations exceed those of our At- 
lantic cities, with the possible exception of New York, and where 
the number of vessels entering and clearing exceeds that of any At- 
lantic port exclusive of New York. 

While the United States ministers and consuls are doing all in 
their power, through official reports and replies to individual letters, 
to make the demands and characteristics of these Asiatic markets 
well known, the practical assistance of a commercial museum, bureau, 
exhibit, or whatever name is fit, is required. Here can be placed 
useful and representative exhibits of (i) what Japan, China, Korea, 
eastern Siberia, Manchuria, Formosa, Indo-China, Siam, Straits Set- 
tlements, Java, Borneo, and Philippines are now importing, including 
(2) prices at which products are sold to the consumer by the retailer, 
to the retailer by the wholesaler, and to the wholesaler by the ex- 
porting firms of Europe and other lands; (3) amount imported of 
each class of goods, how packed, and how placed on the market; 
(4) characteristics and features of the local market, conditions of de- 
mand and supply; (5) different specific qualities and classes of goods 
as well as the general line; (6) methods of doing business, remitting 
payments, negotiating exchange; (7) customs charges or duties and 
other Government taxes or rules governing trade ; (8) names of re- 
liable firms handling each kind of imports; (9) names of banking 
houses; (10) names of steamship companies running to the port, 
American connections, freight rates; (11) and, finally, any other data 
that might be of use to the American exporter. The above subdi- 
visions I have made not only from questions asked by hundreds of 
letters received from the United States, but from discussions with 
local firms in different ports of the far East. 

These exhibits should be samples which could be readily obtained 
and shipped to the museum or bureau at San Francisco. When too 
cumbersome or expensive, photographs could be made at small cost. 
The main object of these samples is to show exactly what competi- 
tion must be met in quality and style. A study of these, with the 
data as to prices, etc. , will speedily provide the exporter with sufficient 
information to determine whether he can enter the field or not. They 
could be renewed and added to as occasion demanded, when the man- 
agers of the museum might think best, or as learned from their cor- 
respondence with consuls, chambers of commerce, or special agents. 



ASIATIC COMMERCIAL MUSEUM AT SAN FRANCISCO. 28 I 

The expense of securing these exhibits or samples need not be 
great. A few hundred dollars for each port, or a total of $25,000 
for the leading markets of Yokohama and Kob6, in Japan ; Vladi- 
vostock, in eastern Siberia; Chemulpo, in Korea; Niuchwang, Tien- 
tsin, Shanghai, Hankow, and Canton, in China; Hongkong and 
Singapore, British colonies; Saigon, in Indo-China; Bangkok, in 
Siam • Batavia, in Java; and Manila, in the Philippines, would suffice 
to equip the museum admirably. This would be the first or opening 
cost; the expense of maintenance each year should not exceed $10,- 
000 to $15,000, including cost of new exhibits, rent of rooms, and 
salaries of manager and assistants. 

San Francisco would subserve its best interests if the city govern- 
ment should give the project its direct support, as Philadelphia does 
for its celebrated Commercial Museum. An appropriation by the 
municipality of sufficient funds to secure initial exhibits, rent rooms, 
or to pay a portion of such expense, with the rest to be raised by 
subscriptions among merchants, manufacturers, exporters, and other 
interested parties, would avoid delay, which might be injurious to the 
welfare of United States trade. If the city is unwilling to officially 
support the scheme, an organization could be formed with head- 
quarters in San Francisco and connections in other cities, both West 
and East, which should be able to raise the necessary funds by 
annual subscriptions. The San Francisco Chamber of Commerce 
or a similar local body could take the lead in its promotion. 

San Francisco is suggested as the seat of this museum or bureau, 
because of its location and commercial relations with the Asian 
Pacific. If, however, some other city or port should adopt the idea, 
the principle would still hold good. While the Philadelphia Muse- 
ums are doing an excellent work and are extending their scope to the 
far East, their greatest field is naturally South America, South Africa, 
and Europe. In all these, they will continue to advance American 
trade interests, but the extent and value of the opening in Asia 
demand the establishment of such a bureau at San Francisco or at 
some port directly concerned. If the cities of the Pacific Slope — 
Seattle, Tacoma, Spokane, Portland, Sacramento, San Jos6, Stock- 
ton, Oakland, Los Angeles, and San Diego — will cooperate with San 
Francisco, they can alone carry on this institution, which will surely 
bring them large and material returns. It would be wise, however, 
to have the organization comprise Eastern States and cities, and thus 
have the sympathy and support of the whole land. 

It now requires fully three months for an American manufacturer 
to receive a reply to inquiries sent to Asiatic ports; through this 
museum, the same information in most instances could be obtained 
in ten to twelve days at the outside. One letter would secure data 



282 ASIATIC COMMERCIAL MUSEUM AT SAN FRANCISCO. 

that now requires a dozen and in one-tenth of the time; one visit to 
the museum would enable a merchant to see in an hour what prob- 
ably he could not see in six months of expensive traveling through 
the original ports represented. Exporters near at hand would reap 
the advantage of frequent consultation and ready access, but with a 
good system of correspondence, those at a distance would lose very 
little. 

In connection with the exhibit of imports, should be one of ex- 
ports. This could be made at remarkably small expense, because the 
exporting firms in the Asiatic ports would be glad to provide exhibits 
practically free of charge of all kinds of exports that merchants in 
the United States might wish to purchase. With this, would also be 
the necessary data as to prices, houses, duties, etc., so that the 
American importer could ascertain at short notice where, how, and at 
what cost he could buy what he wanted. 

The unquestioned success of the Philadelphia Museums proves 
the possibility of success in San Francisco and the actual utility of 
the plan; but before making this suggestion through the Depart- 
ment of State, I have consulted the leading importing and exporting 
firms of the far East, from Singapore to Yokohama, as well as many 
responsible houses in the United States. Without exception, they 
commend the idea and express a willingness to aid in every way in 
their power. I am, moreover, confident that ministers and consuls 
of the United States would lend what assistance they could, whether 
the exhibits for the museum with the necessary data were collected 
through them or through special agents sent out by the museum or 
bureau. 

Such a commercial museum would eventually be a center of 
interest to other than business men; it would have an educating 
influence in spreading exact knowledge about a vast and compara- 
tively unknown section of the world; it would bring the far East in 
one sense near to the United States, and hence develop not only 
closer commercial, but more intimate social relations with a part of 
the globe which is destined to wield a strong influence in shaping 
the history of man; it would enable the United States to obtain 
good results and yet be sufficiently distant in space to escape any 
evil effects of immediate proximity to the uncounted millions of 
different blood and race. 

John Barrett, 
Minister Resident and Consul- General. 

Bangkok, May 7p, iSgy, 



ADULTERATION OF BEER GRAINS. 283 



ADULTERATION OF BEER GRAINS. 

After a careful investigation of the whole subject, I had the honor, 
under date of March 12, 1897, to forward a lengthy report to the 
Department of State upon ** Dried beer grains as cattle food," show- 
ing that not only was there a valuable and rapidly growing market 
in Germany for this article for our brewers and driers of these grains, 
but that our farmers were throwing away great advantages in allow- 
ing such a cheap and excellent cattle food to be exported abroad 
instead of using it to the fullest extent on our own farms, where one 
hears so much of the scarcity and high cost of food for animals. 

This report, although it has not yet appeared in the monthly 
Consular Reports,* has been favorably noticed by the United 
States press, and shipments of dried beer grains to Germany have 
steadily increased. Unusually large orders have been given for the 
future, and I happen to know that one firm alone here has some 
3,500 tons now under way from New York, with thousands more to 
be contracted for. It has been disappointing, however, to learn 
from an importer who has recently determined to deal heavily in this 
article that some of his initial consignments have fallen far below sam- 
ples .and show an unscrupulous admixture of the goods with ground 
indian corn, in order to increase the weight of an ordinarily light 
substance. Leaving out the dishonesty of the matter, nothing could 
be more shortsighted. The Germans, above all other peoples, are 
wedded to scientific methods in all things. They have more faith in 
the veracity of chemical analyses than in that of figures, for they know 
that, while ** figures never lie," liars sometimes figure. A chemical 
test is, therefore, applied to everything that admits of it, and it 
takes a very simple process to detect the adulteration of such an 
article as beer grains. In fact, the addition of maize is evident to 
the naked eye. It is not necessary to claim that the admixture 
renders the food dangerous to health. It is sufficient that it is made 
with a substance that reduces the requisite percentage of protein and 
other fattening properties. The Germans could just as well import 
indian corn and be done with it; but they do not want this. They 
have found dried beer grains a cattle food preferable for fattening 
purposes to indian corn, and they want no other when they order it. 
They prescribe that it shall show such and such a percentage and 
composition, and they will accept nothing that does not fulfill the 
conditions of their orders. The result is that, unless these short- 
sighted methods of admixture are immediately stopped, our entire 



• Report was printed in Consular Rbports No. 202 (July, 1897), p. 389, 



284 ADlLTERATlOxX OF BEER GRAINS. 

export trade in this article, which ought to have such a brilliant 
future before it (ten years ago our breweries had to pay some one to 
cart the grains away), will be permanently destroyed, not only for 
dishonest, but for honest exporters. Once given a bad name in this 
market, it will never recover, and its fate will be a just one. Most 
articles, in whatever condition they may be, can be put to one use 
or another; but it is different with the beer grains, which can not be 
sold at any price whatever if once adulterated. Already, news has 
been received here by one of the leading dealers that there is an 
organized determination on the part of some New York exporters 
to mix ground Indian corn with their shipments. I am authorized 
to say that, in all cases of impure goods, drafts will be protested 
and shipments totally refused. The result will be heavy losses and 
costly lawsuits to our exporters. I to-day read a letter of one of 
the largest local dealers to an importer, warning him that he will 
not accept goods that are not thoroughly pure and up to conditions 
of order, and that he will cancel all orders heretofore given and 
deal elsewhere. Owing to the fact that we do not extract as much 
of the substance of the barley in the manufacture of our beers, 
American dried beer grains have the important advantage over those 
of England and Germany of containing about 33J<3 per cent more of 
protien, or fatty properties. It is, therefore, all the more to be re- 
gretted that such an advantage should be negatived by adulteration 
to gain a little more w^eight. 

I have taken occasion in several previous reports to the Depart- 
ment on the subject of the introduction of our food products into 
the German market — and what is true of Germany is true of Europe 
and the world over — to repeatedly point out the necessity on the 
part of our farmers and exporters of having their wares so raised, 
prepared, and shipped as to leave no opportunity whatever for com- 
plaints against them. They should, above all things, be healthful, 
and should fully conform to sample and any conditions of analysis. 
The battles which our products are having to fight just now in 
European markets are too unequal and unfair for us to send any but 
our purest and most vigorous representatives into the strife. If we 
ever wish to gain such an enlightened trade as that of European 
countries, we must get rid of the idea that we can make this a dump- 
ing ground for such things as we can not dispose of elsewhere. On 
the contrary, the merest novice in business tries to gain a new cus- 
tomer with his most tempting wares. 

W. Henrv Rop.f.rtson, 

Hamiujr(;, July 3. ^^97- Consul 



UNION OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 285 



UNION OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

The Department has received reports from Minister Coxe, dated 
Guatemala, June 18, 1897, and Minister Baker, dated Managua, July 
5, 1897, inclosing copies of the treaty of union between the Republics 
of Central America. The treaty reads as follows: 

The Governments of Guatemala, Costa Rica, and the Greater Republic of Central 
America, through the medium of their respective delegates and plenipotentiaries, as 
follows: Antonio Batres Jduregui, Mariano Cruz, and Antonio Gonzalez Saravia, for 
Guatemala; Leonidas Pacheco, for Costa Rica; Dr. Tiburcio G. Bonilla ^nd Manuel 
Delgado, for the Greater Republic of Central America — desiring the earliest possible 
realization of the union of Central America in a permanent manner for the imme- 
diate extension of their united mutual political relations, which are henceforth uni- 
fied as regards foreign nations, and in view of the fact that the States have like 
grounds of union, the same securities, and similar principles of liberty, order, and 
progress; to this end, and after exhibiting their full powers, which have been found 
in due form, and after the necessary conferences and discussions, have agreed upon 
the following provisions: 

Article i. The Republics of Guatemala, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, and 
Salvador shall form henceforward a free and independent nation, which shall be 
called the Republic of Central America. 

Art. 2. The signatory Republics constituting the new political unity retain their 
complete liberty and independence, except as to the points set forth in this treaty, 
with regard to which they are to be considered as a single nationality. 

Art. 3. They shall retain their autonomy in their interior administration, and 
their unification shall have as its sole object to make them appear in their interna- 
tional relations as a single body for the security of their common independence, 
their rights, and their dignity. 

Art. 4. With this object, the Republics, which in future shall be denominated 
States, agree to organize a national executive power, the head of which shall be 
entitled the President of the Republic of Central America. 

Art. 5. The Presidents of the present Republics shall be denominated Heads of 
States. 

Art. 6. The Presidency of the Republic of Central America shall be held alter- 
nately by terms by the respective Heads of States in the alphabetic order of the 
nations, to wit: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Salvador. 

Art. 7. The term shall be one year and shall begin on the 15th of September of 
the present year if this treaty shall have been definitively ratified by that date, and 
if it is not so ratified by that date, the term shall begin on such day as shall be fixed 
at the proper time by the majority of the States. 

Art. 8. The President of the Republic of Central America shall be assisted by 
a council of two delegates from each State, who shall have the character of responsi- 
ble ministers. 

Art. 9. The default or absence of any of the said delegates, provided an abso- 
lute majority are present, shall not interfere with their deliberations or action. 

Art. 10. The President of Central America shall designate one of the members 
to assume the office of Secretary of State, who shall countersign his decrees and 
shall be his medium of communication. 

Art. II. The councilors shall be appointed for one year by the executives of 
the States, and they may be reappointed. 



286 UNION OF THE CENTRAL AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

Art. 12. In all measures affecting the foreign policy of Central America, the 
President shall proceed by deliberation in council and with the vote of an absolute 
majority of those present. In case of a tie, the vote of the President shall decide. 

Art. 13. The duties of the President of Central America shall be: (i) In con- 
junction with the council, to defend the independence and the honor of the nation 
and the inviolability of its territory; (2) to observe the provisions of the present 
treaty and to cause them to be observed by the States; (3) to secure, by pacific 
means, the maintenance of public order in the States; (4) to determine, in necessary 
cases, the manner and means by which each of the States shall contribute to the 
defense of the national territory and honor; (5) to appoint diplomatic ministers, 
consuls, and consular agents; (6) to receive the ministers and other envoys sent from 
other nations and to issue the exequatur to commissions of foreign consuls; (7) to 
cultivate and develop international relations; (8) to issue passports to ministers and 
envoys from other nations and to withdraw the exequatur from the commissions of 
consuls in cases provided by law; (9) to determine the proportionate amount which 
each State must contribute to the common expenses; (10) to maintain good harmony 
between the States; (11) to conclude and ratify, when necessary, treaties of peace, 
friendship, commerce, navigation, and exportation, and conventions, contracts, and 
arrangements affecting the general interests of Central America, but such as affect 
the peculiar interests of any State or have been concluded at the request of a State 
shall be submitted to the assembly of that State for approval; (12) to secure the 
greatest possible development of the means of communication between the States 
and of maritime commerce on their coasts; (13) to secure the most thorough and 
speedy unification of coins, weights, and measures under the decimal system, and 
the fiscal and customs union, and uniformity in the plan of studies. 

Art. 14. The council shall have power to develop, in its labors, such methods 
as may tend to unify the interests of Central America, particularly in the depart- 
ment of legislation. 

Art. 15. The diplomatic and consular representation shall, in future, be in the 
name of the Republic of Central America. 

Art. 16. In the exercise of the power referred to in article 13, section (5), the 
council shall take due care that the representatives come from the different States. 

Art. 17. It is understood that whenever a state shall need a separate diplomatic 
or consular representation, such persons shall be appointed as that State may nom- 
inate. 

Art. 18. It shall be an essential duty of the council to maintain fraternal har- 
mony between the States, and if its good offices should not accomplish the object 
desired, it shall be compulsory to refer the matter to arbitration. 

Art. 19. It is admitted that this treaty has in view only an approximation to a 
permanent reorganization of the Central American country, and, consequently, no 
other object shall be considered, nor shall there .be any other construction of its 
clauses than such as conduce to this ultimate object by pacific measures and mu- 
tual expediency. 

Art. 20. The Republic of Central America shall be held to be organized when- 
ever more than one State shall unite in its formation, and the nonacceptance of 
one or more of the clauses here inserted shall not prevent the State rejecting such 
clause from coming in as a part of the union, provided that, in the opinion of the 
executive council, this compact is not materially affected. 

Art. 21. A native of one of the States shall not be considered a foreigner in any 
of the other States, but shall have the status of a citizen upon his declaration before 
the persons in charge of the civil register of his wish to be a citizen. 

Art. 22. The civil and political status of a Central American, after complying 
with the requirements of the foregoing article, shall be governed by the laws of the 
State in which he resides as to acts committed there. 



UNION OK THE CENTRAL AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 287 

Art. 23. Hence the election to which article 21 refers will give him the status 
of a native-born citizen, with all its duties and securities, and domicile will invest 
him with all the rights and obligations of residency without exception. 

Art. 24. Documents issued by any official, when certified, shall have force and 
effect in each State, subject to its laws; but for the practice of the learned pro- 
fessions, a special permit shall be necessary. In order to do business as a notary 
public, it shall also be necessary to possess the special qualifications required by the 
laws of the State. 

Art. 25. The states of Central America shall make common cause in inter- 
national questions affecting their sovereignty or independence. 

Art. 26. The aid which one State gives to another shall be at the expense of the 
State rendering such service. 

Art. 27. The President of the Republic of Central America, in conjunction 
with the executive council, shall determine the mode and form of the aid, so that 
there may be unity of action. 

Art. 28. The authority of the commander in chief of the forces shall be subordi- 
nate to that of the State in which the troops happen to be, except when the Presi- 
dent of the Republic assumes the direct command. The aid must be given at the 
place of conflict. 

Art. 29. In such cases, all matters relating to peace shall be determined by the 
National Executive. 

Art. 30. Peace between the States of Central America shall be secured by the 
recognition of the principle of nonintervention. This shall not prevent the States 
from rendering mutual and voluntary assistance for the maintenance of peace 
when summoned to do so. 

Art. 31. Hence no head of a State shall interfere motu proprio, in any manner, 
in the questions of internal management of another State. 

Art. 32. In order to carry out the provisions of article 18, when one State 
believes itself threatened or wronged by another, it shall address its memorandum 
to the executive council, giving a detailed account of the pending difficulty and 
all the necessary explanations, maintaining in the meantime the status quo. 

Art. 33. If the conciliatory intervention of the executive council is not successful 
after hearing the other side, the parties shall be asked to nominate an arbitrator 
within a fixed time. In case of disagreement, the appointment shall be made by 
the council organized for the proceedings to be instituted in such cases. The council 
shall be composed of the members who have no direct interest in the question, and 
if the President of the Republic should happen to be excluded, the qualified mem- 
bers shall designate, by a majority vote, the person who shall have a double vote in 
case of a tie. The arbitral award will have the force of a final judgment. 

Art. 34. No State shall authorize or permit in its territory acts of hostility 
against any of the others. 

Art. 35. The surrender of political emigrants shall be made without any other 
procedure than the demand of the Government concerned. 

Art. 36. The right of asylum shall be inviolable in the States and in the 
Republic, except in the cases mentioned in the treaties of extradition. 

Art. 37. The pecuniary and all other liabilities which have been, or may here- 
after be, incurred by the respective States shall be the exclusive liabilities of the 
State incurring them. 

Ari. 38. In order that the same political spirit which is to facilitate their per- 
manent union may prevail in the constitutions of the States, they shall establish 
as the basis of their constitutional public law the following ; (i) The separation of 
church and state, absolute respect for creeds ; (2) the liberty of the press, without 
previous censorship (the courts shall lake cognizance of offenses and wrongs com- 



288 UNION OK THE CENTRAL AMERICAN REPUBLICS. 

mitted by the press and punish them); (3) the right to dispose of property by will, 
subject only to such restrictions as may be attached by statute to intestate estates 
in favor of institutions of a religious character and to the proper provision for one's 
family ; (4) the inviolability of human life for political crimes ; (5) absolute equality 
in the civil status of men and women ; (6) the purely civil character of the acts which 
establish or modify the civil status of persons, without hindering the celebration 
of any religious ceremony ; (7) the abolition of all perpetuities and institutions of 
mortmain, with the exception of those which have for their object either beneficence 
or public instruction ; (8) the security of the writ of habeas corpus and the inviola- 
bility of property, except in the case of eminent domain for public use or necessity, 
legally proved, and after payment for the property taken (in time of war, the pay- 
ment need not be in advance) ; (9) the absolute mutual independence of the legisla- 
tive, executive, and judicial powers ; (10) the inviolability of the person, except in 
the case of crime or misdemeanor, and the time of detention for examination shall 
not exceed five days; (11) the fundamental laws shall not be retroactive, except 
in criminal matters when they are favorable to the accused and do not authorize 
confiscation or torture ; (12) the right of individual and collective petition is 
recognized ; (13) the right of peaceful meeting, without arms, and for lawful pur- 
poses, is recognized ; (14) the right of self-defense is inviolable ; (15) every citizen 
is free to fix his own domicile, and to enter or leave the country, except where he 
has incurred liabilities ; (16) the home is inviolable, and shall not be invaded except 
in the cases and with the forms prescribed by law ; (17) in no case shall the private 
papers of the inhabitants of the Republic be seized, still less examined, without the 
order of a competent judge; (18) instruction is free, subject to the restrictions 
required by good morals, but the instruction given in the establishments sup- 
ported by the State shall be secular, free, and compulsory ; (19) equality before 
the law. 

Art. 39. The declaration of these principles shall not prevent any State from 
inserting in its constitution such others as it may think proper. 

Art. 40. The previous treaties concluded between the States shall remain in 
force so far as they do not conflict with the present compact. 

Art. 41. The executive council shall call a national assembly within five years, 
or sooner, if possible, to frame the permanent constitution of the Republic of Cen- 
tral America, and said term may be extended at the discretion of the council. The 
national assembly shall consist of ten representatives and five alternates from 
each State. 

Art. 42. The coat of arms and flag of Central America shall be those of the 
former federation. The present treaty shall be submitted for approval to the as- 
semblies and constitutional bodies, which shall be convoked at the proper time by 
each State, and they shall endeavor to secure its ratification before September 15 
next. Nevertheless, if, on that date, any or all of the ratifications should be want- 
ing, this fact shall not invalidate this agreement. This compact shall be considered 
as accepted without the necessity of exchange of ratifications from the day upon 
which all the Governments of Central America shall have notified each other of its 
approval by their respective congresses. 

In witness whereof, the undersigned plenipotentiaries have signed and sealed it 
in triplicate at Guatemala, on the 15th of June of the year 1897. 

Antonio Batrks. 

Mariano Cruz. 

Antonio Gonzalez Saravia. 

Leonidas Pack ECO. 

T. G. Bonilla. 

Manuel Delcado. 



OPENING FOR AMERICAN ENTERPRISE IN CHINA. 289 

The foregoing treaty should not be confused with the treaty made 
June 20, 1895, whereby the Republics of Honduras, Nicaragua, and 
Salvador were united under the name of the Greater Republic of 
Central America — see report from Consul Little, dated Tegucigalpa, 
August 23, 1895, printed in Consular Reports No. 182 (November, 
1895), p. 387. The treaty of June 20, 1895, provided that if the re- 
publics of Guatemala and Costa Rica should accept that agreement, 
the whole should be called the Republic of Central America. It will 
thus be seen that the treaty of June 15, 1897, was supplementary to 
the first treaty. 



OPENING FOR AMERICAN ENTERPRISE IN CHINA. 

Under date of May 11, 1897, Consul Read, of Tientsin, says: 

I inclose a copy of a communication from Messrs. Taylor & Co., 
of Tientsin, as to opportunities for doing business in China. Messrs. 
Taylor & Co. have recently established themselves in Shanghai and 
Tientsin, and their partners at this port have already gained a repu- 
tation for business integrity and sagacity. Their statements with 
regard to the advisability of our large firms in America being repre- 
sented by one American firm of assured standing, are in accord with 
those frequently expressed by me to the Department. 

I earnestly trust and strongly urge that these suggestions may 
be utilized to the advantage, of our trade. 

The letter of Messrs. Taylor & Co. (dated Tientsin, May 8, 1897) 
is, in part, as follows: 

As one of the most popular movements in the United States is the advancement 
of American commerce, and as many prominent men are interested therein, we 
would ask you to make the subject part of an official communication to the Depart- 
ment of State. 

China in the next few years will be a buyer for all classes of machinery, and 
especially railway materials. It has been demonstrated that America has chances 
as good as those of any other country to secure orders. 

If our American manufacturers will make the proper efforts, it will result in 
millions of dollars of trade. 

A commercial representative should be selected, care being taken that he has 
influence in the proper quarters, which, as you know, is absolutely essential. This 
representative should be the sole agent in the East. He should be authorized in 
the proper form, as are the representatives of European houses, with the seal of the 
foreign office; and his name should be registered here in the consulates. 

In the construction of a railway, the Chinese require rails, sleepers, couplers, 
and structural iron for bridges and locomotives. If the best houses in America 
will place their respective business interests in the hands of one good business firm 
in Tientsin, this firm can bid for everything wanted, will appear strong in the eyes 
of the Chinese, and each transaction will, perforce, strengthen the mutual business 
relations between America and China. 

No. 205 10. 



290 OPENING FOR AMERICAN ENTERPRISE IN CHINA. 

If we may be allowed to do so, we would advise that you lay all we have to say 
before the officials of the Department of State at Washington, with the suggestion 
that they call the attention of our manufacturers of railway materials, including 
the Westinghouse Air Brake and Wharton Switch companies, and manufacturers 
of firearms, locomotives, and men-of-war to the existing opportunities for doing 
business in this section of the world. 

We have information that the Chinese Emperor has issued an imperial edict 
authorizing the purchase of six first-class battle ships, six first-class cruisers, six 
second-class cruisers, and twelve topedo boats. The Chinese Government is going 
to create a loan of 100,000,000 taels, a part of which will go toward purchasing the 
vessels. 

His Excellency Li Hung Chang (who is now at the head of the Tsung-li Yamen), 
in recognition of the assistance of America in bringing about peace in China's war 
with Japan, is anxious to do something for America, and if there is half a chance 
we can secure a large share of this business for that reason. 

There will be an enormous trade done here within the next few years, and if 
America can gain her part, it will mean additional labor to thousands of our work- 
ingmen and the bringing to our country large returns in profits to manufacturers. 

We write in this manner, not looking so much for personal advantage, as from 
the standpoint of public-spirited Americans, and if the benefit does not accrue to 
us, we want to see the business placed upon such lines as to insure to our people at 
home their rightful share of it. Any assistance toward achieving this end that we 
can render you will be given with pleasure. 

Unfortunately, America has suffered by the class known as adventurers and 
fortune hunters, who have no visible means of existence and who come to China 
willing and anxious to advance or accept any visionary scheme that offers the least 
prospect of success — schemes that no business man would have anything to do 
with, and each failure sets American interests further in the rear. 

From the unceasing energy and active interest you have ever shown in the past 
to advance everything American, and from your high standing among Chinese offi- 
cials and merchants of all nationalities, we feel that this communication will meet 
with your approval. 

Mr. Read speaks of the presence in China of Mr. C. D. Jameson, 
representing the Baldwin Locomotive Works, of Philadelphia. It 
seems that Mr. Jameson made a contract with the Chinese Govern- 
ment for four locomotives to be delivered at Tangku on or before 
June 30, 1897; also, for eight locomotives to be delivered between 
July 20 and September 20, 1897. In a communication dated Tien- 
tsin, June 8, 1897, Consul Read says that all the locomotives were 
shipped by steamer on or about the middle of May. The first four 
would arrive slightly after the date they were due, but as the other 
eight would reach China some time in advance, the consul adds that 
the Chinese seem satisfied. 



Prussia's railroad earnings. 291 



PRUSSIA'S RAILROAD EARNINGS. 

State ownership of railroads plays a very important part in Prus- 
sia's finances. Earning enormous sums, serving commerce and man- 
ufacturers in times of peace and all strategic purposes in times of 
war, they have more than justified the arguments that urged the 
Government to own them and the liberal policies that constructed 
and developed them in all parts of the Empire. The receipts for 
1890-91 were 889,488,579 marks ($211,698,282); for 1895-96, 1,039,- 
420,046 marks ($247,381,970). In 1896-97, they have gone far be- 
yond the budget estimates of 1,020,592,400 marks ($242,900,991). 
The budget estimates for 1897-98 are 1,110,210,350 marks ($264,- 
230,063). How large and important these figures are will be seen 
when one compares them with the Kingdom's total income of a trifle 
over 2,000,000,000 marks ($476,006,000). Thus, more than half 
Prussia's income is derived from railroads. Direct and indirect 
taxes bring 234,500,000 marks ($55,911,000) ; mining and smelting 
works owned by the State, 127,000,000 marks ($30,226,000); forests 
and lands, 91,000,000 marks ($21,658,000). These figures represent 
21 per cent, 11 per cent, and 8 per cent as much as is made on rail- 
roads. 

The real value of these railroad statistics is not evident till one 
takes up the net gains. These, in the last estimate, were 436,000,000 
marks ($103,768,000). Out of this surplus, 217,000,000 marks ($51,- 
646,000) go to pay interest, bonds, etc., leaving 219,000,000 marks 
($52,122,000) to be employed as the Government may deem best in 
other departments. The budget estimates of all other Government 
expenses amount to 480,000,000 marks ($114,240,000). After cover- 
ing their own expense^, Prussia's railroads supply 46 percent of this 
amount. 

By careful estimates, wise and economical running of the roads, 
the results may be easily made much better. In the year just closed 
(June 30, 1897), the railroads were expected to earn a surplus of 
438,000,000 marks ($104, 244,000) and to pay of the 440,000,000 
marks ($104,720,000), needed to cover expenses in other departments, 
at least 174,000,000 marks ($41,412,000). The actual railroad sur- 
plus was 500,000,000 marks ($119,000,000), giving the Government 
for other purposes from 230,000,000 marks ($54,740,000) to 240,000,- 
000 marks ($57,120,000). Even after paying or putting aside 20,- 
000,000 marks ($4,760,000) for the disposition fund, the railroads paid 
a full half of all other Government expenses. Of the 100,000,000 



292 PRUSSIA S RAILROAD EARNINGS. 

marks ($23,800,000) surplus noted in 1896-97 returns, more than 
half had its origin in the surplus of the railroads. 

No other branch of public property pays so surely and so well. 
The certainty of the receipts, the amount, the ease with which they 
are obtained, and their cash character render them the most useful 
of all the moneys turned into the public treasury. Whether the rail- 
roads are managed more successfully than they would have been 
under private ownership it is hard to say. The State has had its 
hand on the roads from the very beginning. Seeing how they would 
aid armies, and also how necessary they would be in the new era 
opening up to the Empire, the Prussian Government did not hesi- 
tate to take the management of the railroads. Their quasi-public 
character has helped the people to understand that they should be 
controlled, if not owned, by the State. The tendency all over the 
Empire is toward State and city ownership of all kinds of transpor- 
tation facilities, roads, railroads for steam, horses, electricity, etc., 
as well as of telephones, telegraphs, and other means of communi- 
cation. 

J. C. MONAGHAN, 

Chemnitz, August 7, iS^7^ Consul. 



NOTES. 

Coal and Iron Trusts in Germany.— The following is from 
Consul Bouchsein, dated Barmen, July 24, 1897: 

I quote a few extracts from German papers which I believe to be of 
great interest to the iron and steel industry of the United States in the 
extension of the export to Germany. An extract from the yearly report 
of the chamber of commerce at Hagen, Westphalia, dwells at length 
on coal, coke, and iron trusts. These trusts have called forth a good 
many complaints from steel and iron manufacturers as to the greatly 
advanced price of coal, coke, and raw iron. The report criticizes the 
coke syndicate for exporting coke to foreign ports at a price almost 
lower than that given by home manufacturers. It goes so far as to 
call the coke syndicate a great danger to the national interest. The 
great demand for and the high prices of coal and coke have naturally 
forced the iron and steel manufacturers to raise their prices, and the 
chamber of commerce fears that through the manipulations of 
the syndicates the doors will be opened to a foreign market and the 
home industry greatly endangered. 

A lengthy article of the Deutsche Metall Industrie Zeitung also 
dwells upon the above subject, and goes even further and prophesies 
that in the near future not only the bulk of raw iron will be imported 
from the United States, but also a market for American manu- 
factured iron and steel will be opened. 



German Employment of Women and Children. — Consul 
Monaghan, of Chemnitz, writes on July 3, 1897: 

An imperial decree dealing with the work of women and children 
in clothing establishments is in many ways interesting. It shows 
us how even the lot of the humblest workers may be made easier by 
the watchful care of a government. The shops covered by the law 
are those that make all kinds of men's and women's clothing. These 
concerns must give notice to the local police whenever they wish to 
employ children 14 or 15 years old. They must hang up in the shops, 
in conspicuous places, lists of the children employed, the number of 
pauses permitted them, and a card containing a copy of the law 
regarding the employment of children. School children must not be 
employed at all in such shops. Children under 14 years, not in duty 
bound to go to school, must not work more than six hours in each 



294 NOTES. 

day; children between 15 and 16 years old must not work more than 
ten hours. The work of these little ones must not begin before 5.30 
a. m. nor must it continue later than 8.30 p. m. Each day must 
have its pauses, hours in which not only no work must be done, but 
in which the workers must not be allowed to remain in the shops, except 
in certain cases. Women must not be employed between 8. 30 p. m. and 
5.50 a. m., nor must they work after 5.30 p. m. Saturdays or on the 
evenings preceding holidays. They must not work more than eleven 
hours daily and ten hours on Saturdays and the days preceding holi- 
days, exclusive at least of a one-hour midday pause. Inasmuch as 
most of this work depends upon the changes of seasons, the law allows 
women to work thirteen hours a day in the busy season, but not later 
than 10 p. m. for sixty days. 

Medical View of Bicycle Riding. — Under date of July 26, 1897, 
Consul Keenan sends the following from Bremen: 

At a meeting of the medical society in Berlin, January, 1896, Dr. 
Mendelssohn, professor in the university, read a paper on the medi- 
cal view of bicycle riding, which was published in the Deutsche Med- 
ical Wochenschrift, No. 18, 1896. More recently it has appeared in 
the Centralblatt fiir allgemeine Gesundheitspflege, and it is now 
being discussed in the German press in general. The chief points 
of the paper were : 

The advantages of wheel riding may be inestimable, if practiced intelligently 
and with moderation, but harmful or absolutely dangerous if carried to excess or 
in cases where riding should be prohibited. The advantages accruing to riders are 
obvious, since the wheel affords exercise and recreation to the mentally overworked, 
and as an independent and inexpensive means of locomotion it is ideal. The danger 
of the wheel may consist of injuries from accident, inflammation of the knee joint 
resulting from overwork, inflammation of both male and female pelvic organs re- 
sulting from pressure of the saddle, etc. Another danger is in the constant ex- 
cessive exertion, which can produce an increased atomic and molecular change 
throughout the body, especially in the vital organs, to such a degree that a general 
weakening of the individual and an especial susceptibility to infectious diseases 
may result. The tendency to catch cold is proved by experience to be great. The 
heart is subject to the greatest danger in cases of excessive cycle riding. A large 
number of sudden deaths have already been recorded, due to excessive strain on the 
heart. 

Cases where wheeling should be prohibited are as follows: (i) Existing heart 
lesions, (2) arterial calsification, (3) albuminuria, (4) old age, and (5) childhood. 

Cases where bicycling is beneficial are: (i) When excessive uric acid and gout 
exist, (2) in certain mild forms of chronic disturbances in the pelvic organs, which 
are thereby subjected to a certain degree of exercise, which has an effect similar to 
the gymnastics and massage of the Thur Brandt method; (3) when there are slight 
disturbances in the respiratory organs, except absolute lung dilatation. 

It can be said that important points relating to the advisability 
of bicycling by girls and boys of certain temperament, as well as by 



NOTES. 295 

certain neurotic women, are not observed in the foregoing remarks, 
but it must be conceded that the conclusions stated by Dr. Men- 
delssohn are true. 

Premature Burials. — Consul Mantius writes from Turin, July 
28, 1897: 

Prominent physicians and laymen are at present busily engaged 
in preparing an exhaustive report, with exhibits, on the subject of 
** Apparent death and premature burial.'* This report will be the 
striking feature of the medical department at the national exposition 
to be opened here in April, 1898. 

Reports of similar kind are expected from all over the world. 
There will be an international competition and a prize will be awarded 
for the best work on the solution of a problem in which not only 
the profession, but, more or less, every mortal is interested. 

Up to the present time, no infallible test for distinguishing ap- 
parent from real death has been discovered, in consequence of which 
horrifying cases of persons buried alive occur from time to time, and 
are narrated in medical journals and daily papers. The committee 
of physicians and laymen organized to gather and sift the material 
realize that the first step to remedy such conditions should be to ob- 
tain modification of the laws relative to the limited space of time 
allowed for bodies to be kept before burial in some countries. It is 
clearly proved that the number of persons buried alive is much larger 
in such countries. Therefore, the members of this commission ap- 
peal to the heads of the governments and to all those whose position 
gives them influence over the people for their support in a movement 
which can not fail to interest humanity. It is the intention to start 
a periodical, which will be devoted to the furtherance of the matter 
in hand. 

Early this year, the Italian Government, through foreign ambas- 
sadors and ministers, extended an invitation to other nations to take 
active part in those branches of the Turin exposition which are of an 
international character. The main feature of the medical depart- 
ment might have been easily overlooked in the bulk of other inter- 
esting material. I believe inestimable good to the cause will be done 
by bringing it to the notice of the people of the United States. 



Textile Industry in Russia. — Consul Monaghan, of Chemnitz, 
July 17, 1897, says: 

The textile industry in Russia, established in 1848 by French emi- 
grants in Moscow, consumes more than 40,000,000 francs' ($7,720,000) 
worth. of raw silk, imported from Europe and from the extreme East. 



296 NOTES, 

This industry is almost exclusively concentrated in the district of 
Moscow, where, since 1855, there have been built 148 large factories, 
containing 8,874 looms, producing goods worth more than 7,000,000 
rubles,* and 72 establishments of lesser importance. In other dis- 
tricts, are found 25 mills, producing goods worth 1,000,000 rubles. 

The ribbon industry, protected by the highest import duties, has 
made great progress during recent years. All the ribbon factories 
are in or near Moscow; their annual production amounts to over 
600,000 rubles. 

The cotton plantations, established in 1885 in the district of 
Ferghane, Russian Turkestan, are now of considerable importance. 
The cotton production amounted in 1890 to 300,000 poods (4,823 
metric tons) and 17 establishments were occupied in the ginning and 
cleaning of raw cotton. In 1892, the cotton industry of Russia em- 
ployed 191,290 looms, 639,000 men, 210,000 women, 8,200 girls, and 
18,000 boys. The mills situated in Moscow and in the districts of 
Vladimir, Tver, and St. Petersburg are producing cotton articles 
worth nearly 260,000,000 rubles. 

Russia, the first nation in Europe in the production of wool, has 
45,000,000 common sheep and 15,000,000 merino sheep pasturing on 
the vast prairies of southern Russia. Russia's wool production 
amounts to 10,000,000 poods (361,120,000 pounds) annually, nearly 
6 pounds per sheep. In 1895, there were 68 spinning mills in the 
districts of Moscow and St. Petersburg, employing 4,789 hands and 
producing wares worth more than 5,000,000 rubles. Moscow and 
surroundings lead in woolen weaving; then come Tver, St. Peters- 
burg, Warsaw, Lodz, and Kharkov. European Russia has nearly 450 
mills, employing 50,000 workmen and producing woolen articles 
worth 45,000,000 rubles. 



Constitutional Amendments in Switzerland. — Consul Ger- 
main writes from Zurich, July 15, 1897: 

Constitutional amendments were voted on and adopted by the 
Swiss people on Sunday last, July 11. The first amendment 
relates to forestry and gives the Federal Government control over 
and power to enact uniform laws to regulate Swiss forests. The 
second amendment puts the manufacture, sale, and importation of 
food products under federal control. These two amendments will 
relieve the cantons from vexatious legislation, heretofore differing 
in each of the twenty cantons and four half cantons, and give the 
whole of Switzerland uniform laws on forestry and the manufacture, 
sale, and importation of food products. 



♦The "paper ruble" is the actual currency of Russia, and was estimated by Consul General 
Karel, in July, 1897, ^t 51.4 cents. 



NOTES. 



297 



Sicilian Fruit Exports in 1896. — Under date of July 21, 1896, 
Consul Seymour writes from Palermo: 

I inclose table showing exports in tons of green fruit from Sicil- 
ian ports to foreign countries during the year ended December 31, 
1896; also, duty levied per box by the different countries. The best 
fruit goes to the United States, Germany, and Russia; the poorest 
quality to the United States, Austria, and England. Comparatively 
little fruit is exported to Italy — the duty imposed by some Italian 
towns is as much as 50 cents per box. 

Exports to foreign countries and duty on box lueighing about qo pounds {about 2% 

cubic feet space). 



Exports from — 



Countries. 



Duty 
per box. 



Palermo. 



ToUl. 



United Sutes |o.aa 

Austria | Free. 

England .do 

Russia 1 .60 



Germany 

Turkey 

Australia 

Holland 

France 

Other countries , 



Total 



.40 

8 per cent. 

.28 to .68 

10 per cent. 

.70 




* Includes fruit exported to Canada, about 15,000 boxes. 



Steamship Service between New York and Tangier. — Con- 

sul-General Burke, of Tangier, reports July 3, 1897, as follows: 

Referring to my report of June 21,* I have the honor to say that 
for some reason the steamship Sarnia^ from Genoa for New York, 
while it anchored at this port this morning, did not communicate with 
the shore. I am informed there was a misunderstanding on the part 
of some one connected with the agency, -either here or at Genoa. 
I regret very much that it so happened, as it will be likely to dis- 
courage the Atlantic Line Company in the attempt to place Tangier 
on its itinerary. However, I shall write the agents at Genoa re- 
garding the matter. 



Japanese Petroleum — Consul-General Mclvor writes from 
Kanagawa, July 26, 1897: 

I have the honor to forward, for the information of the Depart- 
in ent, an article taken from the recent issue of the Chugai Shogyo, 



♦ Printed in Consi'lar Reports No. 303 (Aug^ust, 1897), p. 588. 



298 



NOTES. 



a Japanese periodical, giving certain figures as to the increase in the 
native production of kerosene oil in Japan. I forward the article in 
continuation of my report under date of October 22, 1896.* 

The demand for kerosene oil in Japan has become very extensive. It is not 
only used for lighting purposes, but as the originator of motive power. It may 
also be refined and used as machinery oil. At present some 6,000,000 yen worth 
of American and Russian oils are imported annually, but the actual conditions of 
the oil districts in Japan — that is to say, the province of Echigo and its environs — 
are very promising. The oil districts of Japan extend from Hokkaido to Akita on 
the north, traverse the provinces of Echigo and Shinano, and reach the Totomi 
province. In Amagasemachi, Mishima district; Niitsumachi, Kambara district; 
Miyagawamachi, Kariha district; and Urase, Koshi district, in Echigo province, 
there are a number of companies which have boring machinery used for their work. 
The number of machines now in course of fitting up by the various companies in 
Tosan district is as follows: 



Companies. 


Number of 
machines. 


Companies. 


Number of 
machines. 


NiDDon Kaisha 


8 

7 

2 
1 


Naikokii Kaisha 


I 


Koshi Takarada Kaisha 


Niifrata Kosrvo Kaisha 


7 


Hinomoto Kaisha 


Zo-o Kaisha 


T 


Hokuju Kaisha 

NioDon Kaivo Kaisha 


Hokuvetsu Kaisha 


4 

2 


I 
I 


Ma Iran Tfalaha 


Koshidani Kaisha 


Katsura Kaisha. 


I 


Seirei Kaisha 


I 
8 


Kit2, Serizawa Kaisha 


I 


Ohira Kaisha 


Fuii Kaisha 


1 






Total.. 




Fuso Kaisha. 


6 

a 
I 






56 


Kvovetsu Kaisha 




Zenvetsu Kaisha 









Besides, 28 machines will have to be fixed within the year, making the total 84. 
Hitherto the work had not been earnestly undertaken on account of the easy access 
to the foreign oil, and the wells have been sunk in an unscientific manner about 600 
feet, but since i8go American boring machinery and its accessories have been intro- 
duced, and at present oil is taken out from the depth of 800 to 2,000 feet. The 
process of refining has also been greatly improved, so that Japanese oil is now 
practically the same in quality as foreign petroleum. The principal markets of 
the Echigo oil are the Hokkaido, Shinano, and northern provinces in the mainland. 

Consul Monaghan, of Chemnitz, on July 10, 1897, says: 
The German Empire is turning its attention to the oil territory of 
Japan. In 1891, Japan produced, so say German papers, 10,080,000 
liters (i liter= 1.0567 quarts) of petroleum; in 1892, 13,140,000 liters; 
in 1893, 16,740,000 liters; in 1894, 24,840,000 liters. If, instead of 
the eighty men who work the wells now, a syndicate similar to that 
of the Standard Oil Company or Russian Trust could be organized, 
the product could be multiplied many times. An effort is being made 
in Tokyo to organize such a syndicate. Even the 24,840,000 liters 
of 1894 do not supply the demand. In 1895, Japan imported 
2,240,000 hectoliters of petroleum, worth $5,135,000. The demand 



* Printed in Consulak Rki'orts No. 197 (February, 1897), P- ^64. 



NOTES. 



299 



is increasing. All eastern Asia offers a market for Japan's oil, hence 
any and every effort to develop the industry must pay. The oil is 
found in considerable quantities in several places. Recent reports 
say Formosa has wells. It might be worth while for our manufac- 
turers of oil-well working and refining machinery to look to the 
Japanese oil districts for markets. 



Oil Wells in Quebec— Consul Dickson writes from Gasp6 
Basin, July 30, 1897: 

The Petroleum Oil Trust Company has for some time extended 
its operations to a district about 22 miles distant from Gasp6 Basin, 
near one of the tributaries of the York River, called the Mississippi 
Brook. Several wells have been bored in that neighborhood, with 
varying results; some have yielded half a barrel, some one barrel, 
per day. On the 23d of July, well No. 27, in that district, produced 
a quantity of oil from a depth of 1,400 to 1,500 feet. This is the 
best known so far in Gasp6. The well flowed several times before 
it was under control, and 300 to 400 barrels are said to have been 
lost. It was pumped this week, and gave at one pumping 1,600 gal- 
lons. During the time taken to replace the plug the well filled again, 
and the oil was forcing the plug. 

I deem it my duty to draw the Department's attention to this 
well, as the oil is of very good quality and the rock beds are nearly 
flat in its neighborhood, whereas in the parts of the country first 
prospected, the wells were bored into the rock at a sharp angle. The 
company is having several tanks built around this well, and it is said 
they intend to bore other wells in the vicinity immediately. 



Imports into British India. — Under date of July 10, 1897, 
Consul Monaghan sends the following from Chemnitz: 

British India imported in 1895-96, 2,012,000,000 rupees (the rupee 
was valued July i, 1897, at 21. i cents), against 1,967,000,000 rupees 
in 1894-95. The following tables tell from what countries the imports 
came: 



Countries. 



England 

China 

Germany 

France 

United States 
Belgium 



Ru/ees. 
866,soo,cxx> 
147,000,000 

93,500,000 
118,500,000 

54,000,000 

78,000,000 



1894-95. 



Rubers. 
849,500,000 
154,000,000 
94,500,000 
95.500,000 
69,500,000 
56,500,000 



1895-96. 



Rupees. 
833,000,000 

j67.5<»i«» 

164,000,000 

96,500,000 

70,500,000 

67,000,000 



300 



NOTES. 



Thus Germany, in 1895-96, has gone up to third place, as com 
pared with seventh place in 1891-92. 

The imports of manufactured articles were as follows: 



Countries. 



Enf^land 

China 

Belgium 

Germany 

Straits Settlements, 
Russia 



1893-94- 
Ruptifs. 

520, 000, OCX) 

35,500,003 

20,500,000 
17,000,000 
25,000,000 
12,500,000 



1894-95. 



1895-96. 



Rupees. 
511,000,000 
26,500,000 
18,500,000 
17,500,000 
21,000,000 
16,000,000 



Ruffes. 

47i,5oo,ixjo 
28,000,000 
27,500,000 

23»5oo.o«> 
21,000,000 
18,500,000 



India offers a fair field for many of our articles of export. Half 
the effort made by German agents ought to obtain a much larger 
share than we have hitherto had of the markets of Calcutta, Bombay, 
and Benares. 



American Catalogues in China. — Consul Read writes from 
Tientsin, June 17, 1897: 

I inclose herewith a copy of a letter addressed to me yesterday 
by Mr. F. H. Clarke, manager of the Tientsin Trading Company at 
this port. The complaint made by Mr. Clarke that discounts are 
not given in the American catalogues sent to him deserves to be 
called to the attention of our manufacturers who are seeking foreign 
markets for their products. I would respectfully suggest that Mr. 
Clarke's communication to me be given publicity in Consular Re- 
ports, with the advice that when catalogues are sent abroad discount 

sheets should accompany them. 

Tientsin, China, /!/«/• /6, iSgj, 
Sheridan P. Read, Esq., 

United States Consul, Tientsin. 

Dear Sir: Knowing that you take a keen interest in furthering American trade, 
I beg to draw your attention to one point, in the hope that you may be able to do 
something in order to remedy it. 

I have lately received quite a number of catalogues from American houses, but 
in no single case do they state terms. Many of the catalogues appear to be in- 
tended for the general public and not for wholesale dealers. There must neces- 
sarily be heavy discounts, but on this point no information is given. 

If they made it clear that the price quoted was wholesale net price, we could 
understand it; as it is, the catalogues are useless. 

Apologizing for troubling you, I beg to remain, yours truly, 

F. H. Clarke. 



United States Life Insurance Company in China. — Consul 
Read, of Tientsin, under date of June 19, 1897, says: 

I have the honor to call attention to the fact that the Equitable 
Life Assurance Society of the United States has lately begun to insure 



NOTES. 301 

Chinese, which is a departure in the right direction, as the Chinese 
higher classes and officials take readily to the endowment policies as 
a safe means of making investments which can not be touched and 
upon which ** squeezes" can not be levied. J. P. Grant, esq., the 
representative of the Equitable, is now in Tientsin. I introduced 
Mr. Grant to the taotai, who was much interested in the explanations 
of modern forms of life insurance. Within a few days after his 
arrival, Mr. Grant insured Chang Yen-mow, the managing director 
of the Chinese Engineering and Mining Company, for 100,000 taels,* 
and has written in other quarters 160,000 taels. Mr. Grant states 
that before the closing of the port for the winter he is confident of 
writing 1,500,000 taels in Tientsin. That China is a rich field for 
insurance is shown by the fact that, with but intermittent canvass- 
ing for several months, the Equitable has issued to the Chinese be- 
tween twenty-five hundred and three thousand policies. 



Railways Projected in the Malay Peninsula. — Consul-General 

Pratt writes from Singapore, July 15, 1897: 

As the result of a movement inaugurated by the enterprising 
resident-general of the federated Malay states. Sir Frank Athelstane 
Sweltenham, the Secretary of State for the colonies recently ap- 
proved a loan of $5,000,000 (Mexican) for the building of new lines 
of railway in the Malay Peninsula, to be constructed in sections as 
follows: (i) From Kuala Prai to Ulu Sa' Petang — 50 miles — from 
whence there is a line already in existence to Taipeng; (2) Taipeng 
to Kuala Kangsae, 20 miles; (3) Tapuh Road to Tanjong Malim, 50 
miles; (4) Tanjong Malim to Kuala Kubu, 16 miles; (5) Kajang to 
Seramban, 31 miles. When completed, these lines will give through 
communication from Kuala Prai, directly opposite Penang, to Port 
Dickson, a total distance of from 315 to 320 miles, without counting 
the lines from Taipeng to Port Weld (8 miles), Tapuh Road to Telok 
Anson (17 miles), and Kuala Lumpur to Kuala Klang (29 miles), 
making a total of some 370 miles of railway, which it is expected to 
have in operation here within the next five years. Work has already 
begun on section 2, and is shortly to begin on sections i, 3, and 4. 
It is not yet determined how the loan referred to is to be negotiated, 
but it is considered probable that a portion of it will be subscribed 
for on the spot. The routes which the new lines are to follow may 
be located upon the map I had the honor to transmit in my dispatch 
of the 28th ultimo. f The present undertaking, which, in my opinion, 
is but the beginning of a general extension of the Malayan railway 



♦On July I, i8q7, ihe vulue of the Shang^hai lacl was 65 s cents. 
t Filed in the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Department of State. 



302 NOTES. 

system, might, I think, be turned to the advantage of steel-rail man - 
ufacturers and car and locomotive builders in the United States, and 
it is with this object that I am now seeking for fuller information to 
submit on the subject. 



Fiscal Duties in Peru. — The following copy of a decree has 
been received from Vice-Consul McBride, of Callao, under date of 
July 12, 1897: 

[From the Lima Commercio. June 24, 1897. J 
EQUIVALENCY OF COIN. 

The President of the Republic, considering that it is to the interest of the na- 
tion, decrees: 

The fiscal duties can be paid in pounds sterling, coined money, at the rate of £1 
per each 10 soles. 

Issued at the House of Government at Lima, the 24th day of June, 1897. 

N. DE PlEROLA. 



Financial Conditions in Mexico. — Under date of August 12, 
1897, Consul-General Donnelly, of Nuevo Laredo, says: 

I have the honor to report a marked rise in the prices of all com- 
modities in Mexico, as a result of the recent fall in the price of silver. 
This was to be expected of imported goods, but domestic products 
and even rents have risen. There has been no corresponding ad- 
vance, however, in wages or salaries. Labor stays on its silver basis. 

On September i, 1897, Consul-General Barlow sends from Mexico 
City the following answer to an inquiry from the Northwestern Ag- 
riculturist, Minneapolis, Minn. : 

From what I learn, wages here are generally the same, although 
paid in silver, which is declining. The larger business houses and 
a number of the smaller dealers are endeavoring to protect them- 
selves by advancing prices. This refers to the necessaries of life 
raised in this country as well as goods imported. 



Commercial Agency in Mexico. — Consul-General Donnelly 
writes from Nuevo Lai*edo, July 21, 1897: 

Referring to my dispatch of April 24, urging the need of a com- 
mercial agency in Mexico (which the Department saw fit to give im- 
mediate publicity*), I have the honor to report that, as a result 
thereof, negotiations for the establishment of such an agency under 
the very best American auspices are already pending and seem cer- 
tain to be speedily consummated. 



♦Primed in Cossi lak Rkj'okts No. .!oi (June, iSt^/), p. 32cy. 



NOTES. 303 

New Steamship Line to Colombia. — The following is from 

Consul Smyth, dated Cartagena, July 30, 1897: 

I have the honor to report the arrival at this port during the past 
week of the steamship John Wilson^ from Mobile, Ala., with a cargo 
of pitch pine, thus inaugurating a new steamship line between this 
port, Bocas del Toro, and Mobile. This line is to run under the 
auspices of the Snyder Banana Company. It is proposed to bring 
freight from Mobile here and to take a return cargo of bananas 
from Bocas del Toro to Mobile. The steamers will run fortnightly. 
The authorities of Mobile have stationed a health officer in Carta- 
gena to give certificates to these steamers in order that the latter 
may not have their cargo of bananas detained by the quarantine in 
force in Mobile. If this line of steamers proves a success and be- 
comes perqianent, it will furnish excellent mail facilities between 
Cartagena and the United States. 



Export Duty on Coffee Suspended in Colombia. — Consul 

Bidlake writes from Barranquilla, July 28, 1897: 

The export duty on coffee in Colombia will be suspended from 
the ist of August next. I am unable to say if this suspension is 
permanent, as the only information that I have is the telegram (a 
copy of which I inclose) received by the collector of customs at this 
port. Article 2 of law 37 of 1896 empowers the President **to di- 
minish or abolish the present duty on coffee, should this article suffer 
a great depreciation in foreign or local markets. " I forwarded to 
the Department a copy of this law in a dispatch dated February 
20, 1897.* 

[Translation.] 

Official.] Office ok thk Collector ok Customs, 

Cartagena^ July 2y^ 'Si/f. 
ColUctor of Customs ^ Barranquilla. 

The export tax on coffee is suspended from the ist day of August next. In the 

Diario Oficial of the 20th of this month you will see the decree on the subject. 

Emigdio Solano. 

Consul Smyth, of Cartagena, under date of July 30, 1897, sends 
a report on the same subject, and adds that the tax has been in force 
for over two years. It was originally imposed, says the consul, on 
account of the extra expense incurred by the Government in the 
civil war of 1894-95. The tax consisted of $1.60 for every 50 kilo- 
grams (110.23 pounds) of coffee exported from Colombia or used 
for home consumption. 



♦Printed in Consilak Rki'okt> No. .foi (June 1&97), p. 281. 



304 



NOTES. 



Coffee Exports from Brazil. — Under date of July i, 1897, Con- 
sul Hill, of Santos, says: 

I inclose herewith a table issued to-day, and which was com- 
piled by the secretary of the chamber of commerce of Santos, show- 
ing the quantity of coffee exported from this port during the fiscal 
year ended yesterday and the destination of the same. 

Re'sunU of the exportation of coffee for the fiscal year iSgr^. 



To— 



New York 

Hamburg 

Havre 

Rotterdam.... 

Trieste 

Antwerp 

New Orleans. 

Marseilles 

Genoa 

Bremen 

Baltimore 

London 

Copenhagen.. 

Canal 

Venice 

Charleston 

Fiume 

Alexandria.... 



Quantity. 



Bags, 
1,463,280 
1,050,206 

7«.226 

617,865 

372»4»3 

333.004 

67,922 

58,436 
58,120 
48,671 
24,128 
22,515 

17.875 
17.500 
15,100 
12,500 
9,000 
4,208 



To- 



Quanliiv- 



Bordeaux 

Odessa 

Buenos Ayres. 

Naples 

Stockholm 

Constantinople 

Beirut 

Varna. 

Liverpool 

Algiers 

Oran 

Palermo 

Catania 

Lisbon 

Oporto 

Coast cities (Brazil). 



Bags 



3.8*5 
700 

555 
54 i 
400 
400 
301 
250 
250 
250 

>^5 
100 

40 
30 
20 

37,3»5 



Total i 4,963,a6a 



Waterworks in Panama. — Consul-General Vifquain writes 
from Panama under date of July 20, 1897: 

I beg to report that the department of Panama has signed a con- 
tract with Messrs. Emile Lebon and Belisaire Marenovich, of Brus- 
sels, Belgium, for the construction of waterworks in this city.. The 
contract was signed June 29, 1897, and the contractors are to assume 
actual charge of the works within six months from that date. The 
capital stock of the company is to be $1,000,000 (gold). The water 
is to be brought by pipes from the Juan Diaz River, 15 miles from 
this city. This water is excellent, coming from the mountains. All 
plans and studies have been completed, and a great deal of actual 
work has been done in the construction of roads, bridges, dams, etc. 
All this work was done under the direction of the Government, and 
the same is for the account of the contracting company. The con- 
tractors have a period of two and a half years from June 29 to have 
the waterworks completed and the city furnished throughout with 
water. The importance of this enterprise can not be realized. Water 
used here now comes either from the roofs of houses or from bad 
wells, and is very unwholesome and causes much sickness. The sew- 



NOTES. 305 

erage of this city also dates back to the time of the Spaniards, and 
is little better than no sewerage at all, being stopped up at many 
places, hence resulting in bad odors throughout the streets. Water- 
works, with good drinking water, proper sewers, and drainage will 
result in a vast improvement in the healthfulness of this city. The 
laying of the pipes in the streets, involving opening the ancient sew- 
ers, together with the customary bad effects of excavating in this 
country, will probably cause an epidemic of yellow fever. 



Margarin in Martinique. — Under date of July 7, 1897, Consul 
Tucker sends the following from Martinique: 

Referring to my dispatch dated July 5,* I have the honor here- 
with to inclose the official notice to commerce, duly translated, as 
follows : 

NOTICE TO COMMERCE. 

The law of April 16, 1897, concerning the repression of fraud in the butter busi- 
ness and in the manufacture of margarin, which was promulgated in this colony 
as per decree of May 29, 1897, and published in the Official Journal of June i, con- 
tains, among other prescriptions, the complete prohibition of colored margarin. 

The administration, realizing that the merchants were not informed in due time 
of that prohibition, has authorized the entry of the colored margarin already landed, 
since it was upon the sea before the promulgation of the said law of the i6th of 
April, 1897. But commerce is informed that in the future the law will be strictly 
applied and that colored margarin will no longer be admitted into this colony. 



Railroad in the Dominican Republic. — Under date of July 28, 
1897, Consul Grimke writes from Santo Domingo: 

I have to inform the Department of the completion of a railroad 
about 45 miles long between Puerto Plata, on the north coast, and 
Santiago, in the interior of the Dominican Republic. Although the 
distance covered by the road is comparatively unimportant when 
compared with the great railway lines of the United States, it is by 
no means insignificant for this country. Its construction has been 
the work of years, and the line, short as it is, crosses two mountain 
ranges. American and European capital is embarked in the enter- 
prise, and the road is operated by the San Domingo Improvement 
Company, an American corporation. Since 1892, Edward Hall, an 
American engineer, has directed the work of construction. The 
materials for building and operating the road have come largely from 
Europe, although a portion, such as bridges and some of the rolling 
stock, has been imported from the United States. Messrs. Drake 
& Stratton, American contractors, were awarded the contract for 



* Printed in Consular Reports No. 303 (August, 1897), p. 578. 

No. 205 n. 



306 NOTES. 

constructing a part of the line. On the i6th of next month the road 
will be formally opened by the President of the Republic, General 
Heureaux. I am informed that it is well equipped with rolling 
stock, and will run three trains a day between Puerto Plata and 
Santiago. The country through which the line passes comprises 
some of the richest coffee and cacao lands of the island. The object 
is to connect the fertile valley of Santiago with a seaport. This 
valley produces for export coffee, cacao, tobacco, beeswax, hides, 
lignum-vitae, mahogany, satinwood, logwood, etc. In the Domini- 
can Republic, there is but one other railroad for public use, viz, the 
Samana and Santiago Railroad, which has been in operation since 
about the year 1887 and runs from Samana to La Vega, in the val- 
ley of Santiago, a distance of 60 miles. It was built and is owned 
and operated by Scotch capital. 



American Type in South America. — Vice-Consul Berg writes 
from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil: 

A printer in my district, who uses type from various countries, 
expressed to me his opinion as to the superior quality of the Ameri- 
can kind. He had lately given an order for American type, asking, 
also, for the accented letters used in the Portuguese language, 
which apparently could not be supplied, and the order had to remain 
unexecuted. Type founders in other countries are prepared to 
supply complete alphabets for almost any language. The American 
type also has a defect in the eyes of printers here, as it does not 
correspond exactly in pointage with that of other countries, which 
have type all alike in this respect. That of American manufacture 
shows an increase of about half a point in length and a trifling 
increase in the height of each letter. This objection to the American 
article has no doubt not only been raised here, but in other places 
as well. I feel confident, could those difficulties be overcome, that 
American type would be more largely employed for stationery print- 
ing. Under present conditions, printers are unable to use the same 
in combination with that of other countries. 



Antidote for Snake Bites. — Consul Germain, of Zurich, under 
date of July 15, 1897, calls the attention of the Department to an 
article appearing in the Weekly Scotchman in regard to the anti- 
venomous properties of the bile of serpents. Experiments with the 
bile of the African cobra, the puff adder, and the rattlesnake, it was 
stated at a meeting of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, showed that 
the bile, when mixed with the venom of serpents, was able to pre- 



NOTES. 307 

vent lethal doses of the latter from producing death. Although 
nontoxic in the alimentary canal, the bile salts and pigments acted 
as poisons when injected under the skin or into a blood vessel. It 
was improbable, the article continued, that bile in its natural form 
could be used as an antidote, except by internal administration or 
by application to the wound caused by a snake bite. The report 
has been referred to the United States Marine Hospital Service. 



United States Money in Chile. — Vice-Consul Greene writes 
from Antofagasta, July 26, 1897: 

I observe that men coming to the coast bring American gold. 
Travelers should be informed that British sovereigns are better. 
People are always ready to buy them at fair rates of exchange. Ex- 
cept in large commercial centers like Valparaiso, American gold is 
little known. In the interior towns, its sale is difficult. I would 
again call attention to the valuable services rendered American pro- 
ducers and manufacturers by the steamers of Browne, Beeche & Co. 
and W. R. Grace & Co.* Though exclusively employed in the Ameri- 
can trade, the Browne, Beeche & Co. and W. R. Grace & Co. steamers 
are British. Besides two Chile companies (one large and one small), 
the Pacific Steam Navigation Company, of Liverpool, England, is 
engaged in the coasting trade. 



Hemp and Hemp Machines in Italy. — Mr. Carlo Gardini, 
consular agent at Bologna, has sent to the Department a long and 
elaborate report upon the cultivation of hemp in the provinces of 
Bologna and Ferrara, in which provinces it is the leading agricul- 
tural industry, the product being considered **the best hemp in the 
world." The report, being detailed and technical, has been turned 
over to the Fiber Division of the Department of Agriculture for such 
use as that division may consider best for the information of Ameri- 
can hemp growers. 

The value of this hemp declared at Bologna for export to the 
United States amounted to $246,691 and $219,476 during the fiscal 
years 1895 and 1896, respectively. Besides this, Mr. Gardini says 
that many other invoices were declared at Leghorn, Venice, Liver- 
pool, and Hamburg. 

Mr. Gardini calls attention to the fact that sowing machinery of 
advanced American manufacture is not well known among the farm- 
ers, and, in this connection, he suggests that it would be both prac- 

• See Consular Reports No. 177 (June, 1895), p. 371. 



308 NOTES. 

tical and profitable to American manufacturers to be represented by 
their machines in Milan, Bologna, and Naples, so that the hemp 
farmers could become acquainted with their uses and utility. 

Among the illustrations which accompany Mr. Gardini's report is 
one of a scutching machine of recent invention, and not yet patented, 
which gives excellent results. This machine, he says, can easily 
clean 25 tons of fiber per day of twelve hours when well attended 
by eighteen or twenty adults. It can be driven by a common thrash- 
ing engine. The price of this machine is 750 lire ($144.75). 



Italian Statistics as to Trade with the United States. — 

Ambassador Draper writes from Rome, under date of August 21, 
1897, to the following effect: 

In my studies of the commerce of the United States with Italy, 
I observed that in the Italian custom-house returns, the trade of 
Canada was consolidated with that of the United States, while other 
nations having important commercial relations with Italy were 
classified separately. I brought the matter to the attention of the 
authorities here, and stated that it would be most useful for the 
merchants of the United States to have statistics from Italian official 
sources covering the import and export trade between the two 
countries. I am gratified to be able to report that the Government 
has ordered that hereafter the statements of commerce with the 
United States shall be made separate and apart from those of any 
other country. 



Metric System in Paragfuay and Uruguay. — Under date of 

August 6, 1897, Minister Stuart writes from Montevideo: 

**In the Consular Reports published by the Department, Para- 
guay and Uruguay do not appear in the list of countries that have 
adopted the metric system of weights and measures. The use of 
this system was made obligatory by law in Uruguay in 1894, and it 
is strictly enforced. It is also obligatory in Paraguay, but I am in- 
formed that it is not strictly enforced as yet in the country districts." 
By reference to the table of foreign weights and measures given 
in each number of the Consular Reports, it will be observed that 
the table of metric weights and measures, with English equivalents, 
is given without statement as to the countries to which they apply, 
their use in many countries being merely nominal. The table to 
which Minister Stuart refers gives the weights and measures in com- 
mon or frequent use in the various countries of the world. 



NOTES. 



309 



Bananas in Colombia (Correction). — Consul O'Hara writes 

from San Juan del Norte, August 30, 1897, that, in his report on the 
** Banana trade of Colombia, "printed in Consular Reports No. 203 
(August, 1897), p. 564, the statement is made that bananas bring 
37.44 centavos (18.72 cents in United States currency) per bunch. 
The consul says the sentence should be corrected to read: *' Bananas 
bring 37.44 cents (United States) per bunch for firsts, and 18.72 cents 
(United States) for seconds." 



Consular Reports Transmitted to Other Departments. — The 

following reports from consular officers (originals or copies) have 
been transmitted since the date of the last report to other Depart- 
ments for publication or for other action thereon : 



Consular officer reporting. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Department to which re- 
ferred. 


Robert J. MacBride, Leith 
(Edinburgh). 

Edwin F. Bishop, Chatham. 

Louis Stern, Bamberg 

William H. Madden, Co- 
logne. 

Eugene Germain, Zurich... 

Thos. E. Heenan, Odessa... 

Daniel W. Maratta, Mel- 


July 3,1897 

Aug. 24,1897 
July 2,1897 
July 17,1897 

July 14,1897 
June 15,1897 

July 20,1897 
July 15,1897 


Canada's food supplies. 

Canadian croo reoort. 


Department of Agriculture. 
Do. 


American corn in Germany.. 

United States flour in Ger- 
many. 

European fruit-crop outlook. 

Agriculture in Russia: 
opening for United States 
machinery. 

Gold returns 


Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Treasury Department. 
Marine Hospital Service. 


bourne. 
Eugene Germain, Zurich... 


Antidote for snake bites 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



French Commerce in the First Half of 1897. — The Revue du 
Commerce Ext6rieur, Paris, August 7, 1897, says: 

The results of the first six months of the year have been very favorable, both to 
agriculture and national industries. There has been a decrease in the imports and 
an increase in the exports of agricultural products of 12 per cent and 6 per cent, 
respectively. The export of the products of national industries is 5 per cent larger 
than it was during the corresponding period of last year. The imminent change 
in the tariff laws of the United States is, of course, responsible in part for the in- 
crease in exports; but only about one-seventh of the gain can be accounted for in 
this way. The jubilee celebration caused an augmentation of exports to England 
during the month of June; but a steady growth is apparent during the other five 
months. 

The exports to Russia and Switzerland remained stationary; they were one- 
fourth less for Brazil, 6 per cent less for the Argentine Republic, and 3 percent less 
for several other countries. There was a large increase in the products sent to 
Italy, Turkey, and Spain. Silk goods, woolens, and prepared skins showed the 
principal gain; it amounted to the value of 29,000,000 francs ($5,597,000) for silks, 
of which nearly one-fourth went to the United States, 9,000,000 francs ($i,737,ooo) in 
woolen goods, and about the same amount in skins, although there was a decrease 
in leather articles. 

In the import trade, a striking fact was the decrease in wiiies. There was also 
a noticeable reduction in cattle, meats, cereals, and sugar. An increase was made 
in the fats imported, but it amounted to the value of only 3,000,000 francs ($5 79,000). 
The decrease in wools imported was 23,000,000 francs ($4,539,000). More silk 
(56,000,000 francs, or $10,808,000 worth) was imported. The increase in the import 
of cotton amounted to 26,000,000 francs ($5,018,000), and there was 9,000,000 francs' 
($1,737,000) worth more of oil brought into France than during the first six months 
of 1896. There was also a gain in industrial machinery to the value of 6,000,000 
francs ($1,158,000). The United States, Turkey, Switzerland, Russia, and Brazil 
did not suffer in this reduction of French imports — especially the first-named country, 
which showed an increase of over 42,000,000 francs ($8,106,000). Less of the prod- 
uct of Great Britain and the Argentine Republic was imported, but the chief de- 
crease was in the commerce with Spain. The difference amounted to 64,000,000 
francs ($12,352,000), of which 62,000,000 francs* worth was in wines. 

The following tables give further details: 

Imports and exports for the first six months of iSqf. 



Articles. 



Alimentary objects 

Raw materials 

Manufactured articles. 
Postal packages 

Toul 



Imports. 



Francs. 
444,756,000 
1,220,337,000 
309,897,000 



i.974.990i«» 



185,837,908 

235,525,041 

59,810,121 



38i,X73,070 



Exports. 



Francs. 
334,014,000 
470,863,000 
945,691,000 

82,427,000 



1,832,994,000 



$64,464,702 

90,876,366 

182,518,363 

>5, 908,4" 



3531767,842 



310 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



311 



Imports and exports according to countries. 



Countries. 



Russia 

Enfi^Und 

Germany 

Belgium 

SwiUerland 

Italy 

Spain 

Turkey 

United Sutes. 

Brazil 

Argentine Republic 
Other countries. 

Toul 



Imports. 



Francs. 

86,612,000 
251,572,000 
145,885,000 
139,129,000 

40,868,000 

68,107,000 
105,204,000 

48,277,000 
218,761,000 

44,526,000 
146,733.000 
679,316,000 



«.974»990.<»o 



$42,220,873 



Exports. 



Francs. 

9,769,000 

589,584,000 

i84.355»a» 

269,063,000 

88,703,000 

70,194,000 

50,579.000 
22,663,000 

140,768,00c 
27,435.000 
27,180,000 

352,501,000 



1,832,994,000 



$27,268,224 



Brussels as a Seaport. — A report published in the Revue du 
Commerce Ext6rieur, Paris, August 7, 1897, says: 

The project of making Brussels a maritime port, which has long been under 
consideration, is about to be realized. A basin of 12 hectares (29.652 acres) is to be 
constructed, with a depth of some 18 feet, and two large quays at which vessels can- 
touch. Ample freight accommodations will be provided, and the port will be 
equipped with the latest improvements in the way of machinery, etc. Branch 
lines will lead from the quays to the railway stations. It is expected that a large 
extension of industry and commerce will result from these improvements. 



Commercial Travelers in Sweden. — The following paragraph 
is from the Revue du Commerce Ext6rieur, Paris, August 7, 1897: 

According to Swedish law, licenses for commercial travelers have been issued 
for calendar months, dating only from the first of each month. In this way, the 
tax of 100 crowns ($26.80) did not give the traveler the right to exercise his profes- 
sion during thirty consecutive days from the time of payment; if busy only on the 
last day of the month, he would still be subject to the tax. Many requests have 
been made by the representatives of foreign governments for the reform of this 
legislation, and the Swedish Government has finally taken action. According to a 
new royal ordinance, which will take effect January i, 1898, the calendar month will 
be replaced by the month of thirty consecutive days, so far as the validity of com- 
mercial licenses is concerned. 



Fruit Trade in Germany. — In the Moniteur Officiel du Com- 
merce, Paris, May 27, 1897, the following appears: 

During the last three years, the quantity of fresh fruit imported into Germany 
has been as follows: In 1894, 116,033 tons; 1895, 117,452 tons; 1896, 104,604 tons. 



312 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



Figures showing comparative imports for the last two years, according to coun- 
tries, are: 



Countries. 



Austria-Hungary 

Holland 

Belgium 

Switzerland 

North America 

France. 

July 



>895. 


1896. 


Tons. 


Tons. 


53,408 


35,078 


25,018 


15,333 


15,3x6 


18,696 


4,144 


",135 


719 


7,820 


12,574 


5.168 


3,163 


4,163 



The increase of the exports from Switzerland and the appearance for the first 
time of large quantities of American fruit upon the German markets are the most 
notable facts concerning the trade for 1896. The total quantity of apples sent from 
America to Europe during the past year was 1,720,803 tons, while the average for 
the past ten years has been only 897,000 tons; that is to say, the exports almost 
doubled. British ports — Liverpool, London, and Glasgow — and Bremen and Ham- 
burg receive most of these imports. American apples have been very well re- 
ceived both in Berlin and Hamburg. The importation of dried fruits was as fol- 
lows: In 1894, 34,339 tons; 1895, 37,665 tons; 1896, 41,505 tons. According to 
countries, the imports were: 



Countries. 



Servia 

Austria-Hungary 

France 

United States 

Italy 

Holland 



1895. 



1896. 



Tons. 


Tons. 


15,268 


13,227 


12,858 


16,424 


2,153 


1,625 


5,262 


8,412 


526 


528 


873 


580 



Here, again, the increase of exports from the United States is to be noted, espe- 
cially in view of the diminution in the quantities received from Servia and France. 
They consist principally of dried apples, cored and sliced in the shape of rings, from 
which they have received the name of "apfelringe." The value of the imports of 
fresh and dried fruit into Germany amounts to almost 38,000,000 marks ($9,044,- 
000), and the exports from that country hardly reach the figure of 4,000,000 marks 
($952,000). The opening for American fruit, if the present standard and prices are 
maintained, appears to be excellent. 



Public Works Projected in Roumania.— The Revue du Com- 
merce Ext6rieur, Paris, August 7, 1897, says: 

The Roumanian Government is planning to construct a new railway between 
Constantza and the Danube. A new system of waterworks for the same city is 
also under consideration (there is practically no drinking water), and other works 
of less importance. It is expected that a large Government building will be erected, 
comprising court rooms, offices, banking accommodations, etc. Two light-houses 
will be constructed on the coast between Constantza and Bulgaria. 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 313 

Commercial Movement of Cyprus in 1895. — In the Moniteur 

Officiel du Commerce, Paris, June 3, 1897, the following report 
appears : 

The total value of the imports into Cyprus during the year 1895 was 6,112,217 
francs ($1,179,657), a decrease of over 300,000 francs as compared with that of 1894. 
England sent nearly 30 per cent of the imports; Turkey, over 25 per cent; Austria 
and Egypt. 14 per cent each; France, 7^ per cent; and Greece, 3^ per cent. The 
chief articles imported were coffee, sugar, tobacco, cotton thread, cotton and woolen 
tissues^ building wood, and leather. The exports amounted to the value of 6,502,- 
708 francs ($1,255,022), an increase of 149,000 francs over the previous year. Eng- 
land and Egypt received each 27.64 per cent of the exports; Turkey, 18 per cent; 
France, 16.57 per tent; Austria, 4.25 per cent; and Italy, 3.74 percent. Carob 
beans, wheat, oats, wines, fruits, and living animals were the principal articles of 
export. The United States received 1,1 11 francs' ($214) worth of exports. 



The Commercial Future of Tunis. — The Bulletin de la So- 
ci6t6 de G6ographie Commerciale, Paris, Vol. XIX (Nos. 6 and 7), 
has the following: 

Before the establishment of the protectorate, the commerce of Tunis did not exceed 
23,000,000 francs ($4,439,000). In 1886, this amount was more than doubled; in 1895, 
it reached the figure of 85,000,000 francs ($16,405,000), of which 48,000,000 francs 
($9,264,000) represented the imports. The chief articles of export are cereals, olive 
oil, cattle, alfalfa, sponges, ores, and wines. Cereals represent about one-third of 
the total export. The chief imports in 1895 were as follows: Tissues, 8,000,000 francs 
($1,544,000), from France, England, and Germany; flour, 5,000,000 francs ($965,000), 
almost entirely from Marseilles; colonial products, 3,800,000 francs ($733,400), from 
France, Australia, and Italy; machinery and tools, 1,300,000 francs ($250,900), 
from France and Belgium; wood and articles thereof, 1,200,000 francs ($231,600), from 
Norway and Sweden; materials for construction, 1,190,000 francs ($229,670), 
from France, except in the case of marble, which came from Italy; skins and arti- 
cles of leather, 1,500,000 francs ($289, 500), from France; wines and spirits, 1,800,000 
francs ($347,400), from France and Italy; coal, 600,000 francs ($115,800), from Eng- 
land; mineral oils for lighting, 570,000 francs ($1 10,010), from America and Russia, 
via Italy and Malta. 

The production of cereals must increase, since new and improved methods of 
agriculture are being employed, and large tracts of ground hitherto uncultivated 
are now being developed. Before long, 123,550 acres will be planted in olives, and 
the average production of oil will be 1,589,000 gallons. Larger numbers of cattle 
will also be raised. The soil and climate of Tunis are adapted to the cultivation 
of early fruits, medicinal plants, etc. The exploitation of mineral ores, especially 
the rich deposits of Gafsa, waits only the establishment of good roads to become 
important. Since 1891, the number of French inhabitants has increased 1,300 
annually. 



Foreign Commerce of Egypt in 1896. — A report published in 
the Moniteur Officiel du Commerce, Paris, May 27, 1897, is as follows : 

The total value of the imports into Egypt during the past year was 251,467,700 
francs ($48,533,266), an increase of over 37,000,000 francs as compared with the pre- 



3H 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



ceding year. This increase was in spite of the fact that a large number of people 
left the country on account of the prevalent epidemic. The cotton season was suffi- 
ciently good to insure prosperous conditions. The countries from which Egypt 
imported were: 



Countries. 



England and possessions 

Turkey 

France and possessions... 

Austria-Hungary 

Belgium 

Russia 

luly 

Germany 

Greece 

America 

Norway and Sweden. 

China and the far East.... 

Persia 

Roumania 

Morocco 

Holland.^ 

Spain 



Value. 



Francs. 




95,900,000 


$18,508,700 


51,600,000 


9,958,800 


31,400,000 


6,060,200 


18,200,000 


3,512,600 


11,900,000 


2,396,700 


9,600,000 


1,852,800 


8,600,000 


1,659,800 


7,300,000 


1,408,900 


3,100,000 


4051300 


a, 060, 000 


397.580 


2,040,000 


393. 7«> 


2,030,000 


391.790 


1,500,000 


289,500 


1,300,000 


250,900 


700,000 


135. >oo 


180,000 


34.740 


48.000 


9,264 



Turkey sends tobacco and wood. Less wood has been received from Sweden 
than during the previous year; on the other hand, the import of wood from Rou- 
mania has increased. The chief articles imported into Egypt were flour, coal, iron 
and manufactures, tobacco, cotton tissues, cotton thread, woolen tissues, wine, 
raw silk and silk thread, sacks, ordinary soap, petroleum, indigo, coffee, cheese, 
foot wear of various kinds, butter, beer, and liqueurs. The greatest gain has been 
in cotton tissues, woolen tissues, iron and articles thereof, and flour. 

The value of the exports was 343,780,800 francs ($66,349,694), some 15,000,000 
francs more than during 1895. There were exported 183,000,000 francs* ($35,319,- 
000) worth to England and possessions; to Russia, 38,000,000 francs ($7,334,000); 
to France and her possessions, 31,000,000 francs ($5,983,000); to the United States, 
24,000,000 francs ($4,632,000); to Austria-Hungary, 15,000,000 francs ($2,895,000); 
to Italy, 9,000,000 francs ($i,737,ooo); to Turkey, 9,000,000 francs ($1,737,000); to 
Germany, 8,000,000 francs ($1,544,000); to Spain, 7,000,000 francs ($1,351,000); 
to Belgium, 600,000 francs ($115,800); to Greece, 390,000 francs ($75,270); to China, 
320,000 francs ($61,760); and to Roumania, 120,000 francs ($23,160). The principal 
articles of export, besides cotton, which represented over two-thirds of the total, 
were cane sugar, beans, wheat, onions, skins, and natural wool. There was a no- 
table reduction in the export of maize. Cotton and cane sugar showed the principal 
increase. 



Commerce of Lourenco Marquez in 1896. — The Revue du 
Commerce Ext6rieur, Paris, August 7, 1897, says: 

The increased commercial movement of the port during the last year is due in 
part to the development of the railway. The imports of merchandise destined 
for the Transvaal still represent the bulk of the trade. The total value of the com- 
merce in 1896 was over 50,000,000 francs ($10,000,000), more than twice that of 1895. 
About one-fourth of the trade was with Portugal, a marked increase over that of 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 315 

the preceding year. The import of chemical products ($500,000 worth) was twelve 
times that of 1895. Ready-made clothing also constitutes an important item, the 
better qualities coming from England and the cheaper ones from Germany and 
Belgium. The natives of South Africa buy this class of goods largely. The popu- 
lation of the port at the end of 1896 consisted of 3,692 inhabitants, of whom 1,544 
were Europeans, 764 Asiatics, and 1,384 natives. 

The Moniteur Ofiiciel du Commerce, Paris, June 3, 1897, pub- 
lishes the following additional details: 

The amount of money invested in real estate during the past year shows the 
progress made by the city. Over ;f 150, 000 ($729,975) has been spent in this way, 
and prices have advanced in a surprising manner. Land in the center of the city 
sells for from ;^io to ;f 20 ($48 to $96) per square meter (10.76 square feet). The 
total receipts of the railroad for 1896 were ;f 148,350 ($721,945), an increase of ;f 66,171 
over 1895; 159,000 tons of merchandise were carried, against 88,000 tons in the pre- 
ceding year. The length of the line is 55.3 miles. Louren9o Marquez is only 390 
miles from Johannesburg, while the Cape is 1,060 miles distant from the same city. 
The location of Louren9o Marquez and the excellence of its harbor can not fail to 
promote its development. 



Foreigfn Population of China. — In the Bulletin de la Soci6t6 de 
G6ographie Commerciale, Paris, Vol. XIX (Nos. 6 and 7), a report 
is published from which the following extracts are taken: 

There are over te.i thousand Europeans and Americans resident in China. The 
English head the list with 4,000; the Americans number 1,325; Germans, 882; 
French, 875 ; Portuguese, 805 ; Spaniards, 461 ; Norwegians, 375 ; Russians, 116; 
Italians, 108, etc. There are 669 Japanese. Twenty-two ports are open to foreign 
residence, that is to say, that Europeans are allowed to acquire conditional title to 
certain lands, on which they live, govern themselves, and have special privileges 
in judicial matters. The ports are Mengtz, Lung Chow, Pakhoi, King Chow, 
Lappa, Canton, Kowlon, Swatow, Amoy, Fuchau, Winchow, Ningpo, Shanghai, 
Chinkiang, Wuhu, Kiukiang, Hankow, Ichang, Chungking, Chefoo, Tientsin, and 
Niuchwang. It is to be noted that Peking does not appear on this list, although the 
embassies and legations are established there. The Chinese who find themselves 
under foreign jurisdiction appear more than contented with the situation, because, 
although taxes are high, they are fixed. Two hundred thousand natives live in the 
European settlements of Shanghai. Besides the foreign residents of China, a large 
number live in ports that have been ceded to other nations. For instance, Hong- 
kong comprises in its civil population 4,195 Europeans and Americans. With the 
troops and sailors, this number is raised to 8,545. Hongkong is the actual capital 
of foreign industry in the far East. More than 3,000 vessels, with a tonnage of 
nearly 4,000,000, touch there annually. The same spirit which caused the develop- 
ment of Singapore, Colombo, and Hongkong is to be found in the foreign settle- 
ments of the open ports of China. 



Mineral Resources of Kouang-Toung. — According to an ar- 
ticle in the Bulletin de la Soci6t6 de G6ographie Commerciale, Paris, 
Vol. XIX (Nos. 6 and 7), there are many indications of mineral wealth 
in the province of Kouang-Toung, China. Coal is abundant, gold, sil- 



3l6 FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 

ver, and copper have been found, and more iron ore than in any other 
province of the Empire. The mining industry in China has always 
been considered of less importance than that of agriculture. Little 
native capital has been invested in this manner; but, according to 
the terms of the "Franco-Chinese convention of 1895, the French now 
have an opportunity of developing the mines. 



The Cotton Season in India. — The Moniteur Officiel du Com- 
merce, Paris, May 13, 1897, says that the cotton crop for the year 
1896-97 will be 26 per cent less than that of the preceding year. The 
total is estimated at about 1,818,000 bales. Nearly as much land 
was under cultivation as in 1895-96, when the crop was unusually 
good. In Bombay, Berar, the territories of Nizam, and the central 
provinces, the decrease was most noticeable. 



Foreigfn Trade of Siam in 1896. — The London and China 
Telegraph, London, July 6, 1897, has the following: 

The Bangkok Times groups figures to show how the foreign trade of Siam grows 
year by year. Last year's exports show an increase of $5,082,214. Hongkong and 
Singapore took the greater part of the increase, but it is noteworthy that the direct 
trade with Europe shows a very marked increase, being now $1,209,827 — over three 
times what it was in 1895. This is due, however^ to rice being taken direct, and 
not to any increased export of teak wood. The only places that show a decrease 
are China, Rio de Janeiro, and Saigon. The quantity of rice exported is still going 
slowly downwards, as it has been since 1893. But, owing to the greatly enhanced 
price of this staple, there is an increase in the value of the amount exported that 
considerably more than accounts for the whole increase in the exports of the year. 
That, in fact, is the chief feature of the returns, for other things of importance are 
about an average. The increase was $6,443,352. Only $17. 793 worth of gold left 
Bangkok in 1896, while the value in 1895 was $53,877. Diamonds, rubies, and 
precious stones only totaled little more than a third of the export of the previous 
year. The value of the bullock trade with Singapore increased from $403,095 to I 

$460,294, representing an increased export of 4,421 head. 

The imports show an increase of $1,659,815 over 1895 and nearly $4,000,000 over 
1894. They are $9,318,584 less than the exports. There is a falling oflf of close on 
$500,000 in shirtings, and the same may be said of colored piece goods, turkey-red 
cloth, twists, and threads. Woolen goods have trebled in value; linen goods, prints, 
and chintz show increase. All forms of silk goods also show a marked increase. 

The exports last year reached $30,362,000, to which Singapore contributed $10,- 
399,000. The imports aggregated $21,044,000, of which Singapore accounted for 
$8,867,000.* 



^According to a reix>rt from Consul-General Barrett, Bangkok, September 35, 1896, the average 
value of the silver dollar is about 53 cents of a gold dollar. 



. 



\ 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



317 



Commercial Condition of New South Wales in 1896. — The 

New South Wales Statistical Register, Part III, Sydney, 1897, shows 
that the total value of the imports into the colony for 1896 was 
;^2o,56i,5io ($100,062,593). The imports from the United States 
amounted to ;^i, 729,871 ($8,418,427), more than twice those for 1895. 
The exports were to the value of ;^23, 103,349 ($112,434,447); and in 
the trade with the United States, ;^2,o64,964 ($10,049,146), almost 
three times that of the preceding year. In both the import and ex- 
port trade an increase was noted especially in the former. Wool 
represented 52.42 per cent of the total exports. The chief articles 
of import are wearing apparel, draperies, flour and wheat, sugar, 
and machinery. Flour and wheat and machinery show the most 
marked increase over the preceding year. The following is a table 
of the chief imports from the United States, the values being given 
in round numbers: 



Articles. 



Plows 

Plow materials 

Reapers and binders. 

Other agrricultural imple- 
ments 

Other machinery 

Sheep 

Wearing apparel 

Arms and ammunition 

Dynamite 

Bicycles, tricycles, and parts.. 

Boots and shoes. 

Bottles 

Building materials 

Carriages and materials. 

Chemical products 

Coffee 

Confectionery 

Dentists* tools and materials.. 

Drapery 

Drugs 

Dyes 

Fancy goods 

Farinaceous and milk foods.. 

Fish 

Fruit 

Furniture and upholstery 

Glassware 

Glucose 

Flour 

Maize 

Wheat 

Grease 

Grindery 

Hardware and ironmongery- 
Hops 

India-rubber goods 



Value. 


;Cit9«> 


••9.500 


1,400 


7,000 


2,800 


14,000 


7,000 


35.000 


51,000 


255.000 


1,000 


5.000 


6,000 


30,000 


13,000 


65,000 


2,500 


12,500 


50,000 


250,000 


40,000 


200,000 


2,000 


10,000 


x,6oo 


8,000 


23,000 


115,000 


4,000 


20,000 


4.500 


24,500 


1,700 


8,500 


3,600 


18,000 


7,800 


39.000 


ao,ooo 


100,000 


3,000 


15.000 


2,000 


10,000 


1,000 


5.000 


35.000 


175. ow 


11,000 


55.000 


6,000 


30,000 


2,000 


10,000 


6,000 


30,000 


260,000 


1,300,000 


3.000 


15,000 


445.000 


2,225,000 


2,900 


14.500 


4,000 


20,000 


33.000 


165,000 


9.000 


45.000 


4,000 


20,000 



Articles. 



Musical instruments 

Nails, bolts, etc. (iron) 

Galvanized wire 

Jewelry and precious stones.. 

Lamp ware 

Leather 

Meat 

Onions 

Paints and colors. 

Paper, books, etc 

Picture frames 

Plaster and plaster of paris.. 

Plate and plated ware 

Playing cards 

Preserves. 

Printers' materials 

Railway plant 

Resin 

Saddles and saddlers' ware., 

Sausage skins 

Sewing machines. 

Slates 

Soap 

Perfumes 

Sarsaparilla 

Tinctures 

Stationery 

Materials for telegraphs, etc. 

Timber 

Tobacco 

Various tools. 

Turnery and wooden ware.. 

Turpentine 

Typewriters 

Varnish 

Watches and clocks 

Wax 



Value. 



A. 000 


$20,000 


2,000 


10,000 


9.000 


45.000 


2,000 


10,000 


5.000 


25,000 


24,000 


iao,ooo 


8,000 


40,000 


1,000 


5.000 


4,000 


20,000 


48,000 


240,000 


2,900 


14.500 


t,9oo 


9.500 


2,700 


"3.500 


1,400 


7.000 


8,000 


40,000 


3,000 


15,000 


2,000 


10,000 


9,000 


45.000 


2,000 


10,000 


6,uou 


30,000 


19,000 


95.000 


7.000 


35,000 


10,000 


50,000 


1,400 


7,000 


3.000 


15,000 


3.300 


16,500 


7.500 


37,500 


1,400 


7,000 


118,000 


• 590.000 


1x0,000 


550,000 


39.000 


195,000 


3.400 


17,000 


8,000 


40,000 


i^.ooo 


60,000 


1,400 


7.000 


10,000 


50,000 


5.000 


25,000 



* In this table the reductions are made ia ro\uid numbers, I5 to the pound; the exact value of the 
pound is I4.8665. 



3l8 FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 

Among other articles of less importance may be mentioned bee- 
keepers' material, blacking and shoe polish, brush ware and brooms, 
brass ware, ale and beer, horses, cheese, china ware, cutlery, cotton, 
gas fittings, gloves, barley, beans, bran, pease, oatmeal, oats, scien- 
tific instruments, marble, oils, photographic materials, pickles, 
plants, satchels, silks, seeds, tinware, whisky, vegetables, and wines. 

The Government statistician, in a report on the wealth and prog- 
ress of New South Wales, Sydney, 1897, says that the trade of the 
colony is larger than that of any other in gross amount, but it is 
exceeded by the commerce of Western Australia, South Australia, 
and Queensland in value per head of population. Until 1892, the 
United States was the largest foreign market of the colony, the value 
both of the imports and exjK>rts far exceeding that of any other 
country; but the direct shipments of wool to Europe, which are 
steadily increasing, have placed it below France and Germany. 
The exports to the United States are chiefly confined to specie and 
a few articles of raw material, such as coal, tin, wool, and marsupial 
skins. The production of gold in 1896 was ;£^i,o73,36o ($5,223,506). 
The number of miners employed in 1895 was 21,434. New South 
Wales has rich deposits of iron ore, and it is probable that this in- 
dustry will become very important, as the average yearly import of 
iron and manufactures thereof for the past four years has exceeded 
the value of ^^2,000,000. During the year 1895, 3,738,589 tons of 
coal were raised. There are 2,616 miles of railway. New South 
Wales possesses immense areas of land now devoted to sheep raising 
that could be much more profitably used for wheat cultivation. 
Only about 0.7 per cent of the total area of the colony is actually 
devoted to the growth of agricultural produce. Another industry 
which would prove very profitable if developed is the fisheries. 



Economic Situation of Victoria in 1896. — A report appearing 
in the Moniteur Officiel du Commerce, Paris, July i, 1897, is as fol- 
lows: 

The drought (with which the Australian continent is always threatened), was re- 
sponsible in 1896 for the decrease of exports. For three years the balance of trade 
has been in favor of Victoria, but during the last year the imports exceeded the ex- 
ports. The chief increase in imports was noted in those articles in favor of which 
reduced tariff rates took efifect January i, 1896. The total imports were ;f 14,846,579 
($72,250,876) and the exports ;f 14,198,518 ($68,097,087). Victoria imported ;£'2,5oo,- 
000 ($12,166,200) worth of wool and exported ;£"4,900,ooo ($23,845,850) worth ; im- 
ported ;£"i94,ooo ($944,101) worth of coal, and exported ;£"874,ooo ($4,253,121) worth 
of butter, ;£'i 78,000 ($865,247) worth of frozen mutton and ;£"i8o,ooo ($875,970) 
worth of grease. Wool is imported in transit from New South Wales to Melbourne, 
where it is shipped. The net export of wool from Victoria was nearly ;f 2,400,000 



I 
I 



* 



\ 



FOREIGN REPORTS AND PUBLICATIONS. 



319 



($11,679,600). For the first time since butter was exported, the quantity was less 
than that sent from the country during the preceding year. The export of cheese 
also decreased, representing only two-fifths of its value in 1895. The net export of 
grain and flour fell from ;£"544,ooo ($2,647,376) in 1895 to ;£"29,8oo«($i45,oii) in 1896. 
On the other hand, the production of the gold mines has somewhat increased. 
The following table shows the highest and lowest quantities extracted from the 
mines since they were first worked : 



Year. 



1851 

1853 
1854 
1856 
1867, 
1868, 



Quantity. 



Ounces. 

ai2,899 
2.744.098 
2,218,483 

3.053.744 
1.501,446 
1,684,918 




Since 1891, the refuse of abandoned mines (estimated at 40,000,000 tons) has 
been treated with cyanuration. Frequently, the mine was insufiiciently or igno- 
rantly exploited, and this new method promises to be remunerative. An establish- 
ment at Maldon paid the expenses of construction, etc., within two months from 
the profits gained in this way. The coal production during the year was 226,562 
tons. The quantity of coal imported is decreasing annually. 



Foreign Commerce of Western Australia in 1896. — The 

Moniteur Ofiiciel du Commerce, Paris, July 29, 1897, publishes the 
following: 

The total imports of Western Australia in 1896 amounted to ;f6,493,557 ($31,- 
639,905), of which ;£^950,370 was in coined gold. The exports were only ;£'i, 650,226 
($8,029,824). Wool figured for ;£'267,5o6 in the exports, and wood for ;£" 11 6, 420. 
The excess of imports over exports is due partly to the money borrowed by the 
colony and the capital introduced by immigrants. Authorities say that the future 
of Western Australia, according to the present outlook, depends upon the quantity of 
gold produced. 



55th CONGRBSS, )HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. <DorJ. No. 91, 
Int Session. J ( Pnrt 3. 



Vol. lv. no. 206. 



Consular Reports. 



NOVEMBER, 1897. 



COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, ETC. 



WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENI I'RINTINO OFFICE. 

1897. 



THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

From and after July i, 1897, the Bureau of Statistics, Depart- 
ment of State, will be known as the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, 
in accordance with the following order of the Secretary of State : 

Department of State, 

Washington, July 7, i^py. 
Under the authority conferred upon me by chapter 268, United 
States Statutes at Large, Fifty-fourth Congress, second session, 
under the heading ** Publication of Diplomatic, Consular, and other 
commercial reports," the name of the Bureau of Statistics of this 
Department is hereby changed to the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, 
and the title of the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics shall hereafter 
be Chief of the Bureau of Foreign Commerce. 

John Sherman, 
Secretary of State, 

The reasons for the change are set forth in the following report 
from the Chief of the Bureau of Statistics to the Secretary of State 

Department of State, 

Washington, June jo, iSpj, 
Honorable John Sherman, 

Secretary of State. 
Sir: I have the honor to call your attention to the clause in the 
diplomatic and consular appropriation bill for the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1898, approved February 20, 1897, which provides for the 
publication of diplomatic, consular, and other commercial reports. 
(See page 590, United States Statutes at Large, Fifty-fourth Congress, 
second session.) The paragraph reads as follows: 

Preparation, printing, publication, and distribution, by the Department of State, 
of the diplomatic, consular, and other commercial reports, twenty-five thousand 
dollars; and of this sum the Secretary of State is authorized to use not exceeding 
three thousand one hundred and twenty dollars for services of employees in the 
Bureau of Statistics, Department of State, in the work of compiling and distribut- 
ing such reports, and not exceeding two hundred and fifty dollars in the purchase 
of such books, maps, and periodicals as may be necessary to the editing of diplo- 
matic, consular, and other commercial reports: Provided, That all terms of meas- 
ure, weight, and money shall be reduced to, and expressed in, terms of the measure, 
weight, and coin of the United States, as well as in the foreign terms; that each 
issue of consular reports shall not exceed seven thousand copies: And provided 
further. That the Secretary of State be, and he is hereby, authorized v.o ^Vv^tv^'c "Ocvt 



II THE BUREAU OF FOREIGN COMMERCE. 

name of the Bureau of Statistics to the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, and that 
the foregoing provision shall apply with the same force and effect to the Bureau of 
Foreign Commerce as to the Bureau of Statistics. 

You will perceive that the Secretary of State is authorized by 
the foregoing to change the name of the Bureau of Statistics of this 
Department to the Bureau of Foreign Commerce, and that the pro- 
vision for the maintenance of the Bureau of Statistics is made to 
apply with the same force and effect to the Bureau of Foreign Com- 
merce. As the appropriation becomes available on the ist of July, 
I respectfully ask authority from you to carry the legislation speci- 
fied into effect. The reasons for making the change, as stated to 
Congress and approved by that body, are : 

(i) The confusion arising from the fact that there are three 
bureaus of statistics in the Executive Departments, viz: 

Bureau of Statistics, Department of State; 

Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department; 

Division of Statistics, Department of Agriculture. 

Shortly after taking charge of this Bureau, I became impressed 
with the fact that the general public was unable to discriminate be- 
tween the various bureaus of the same name, and that unnecessary 
labor and delay resulted. 

{2) The name Bureau of Statistics does not properly denote the 
functions of this Bureau, which is exclusively commercial in its char- 
acter, its work being that of collecting, compiling, and distributing 
the commercial reports of our diplomatic and consular officers. 
There is a wide range of statistics with which the Bureau has nothing 
to do, and its designation as a Bureau of Statistics is, therefore, mis- 
leading. The use of the words Bureau of Foreign Commerce, on 
the other hand, besides correctly indicating the character of the 
work, is likely, in my judgment, to impress upon the public mind 
the importance of the commercial functions of this Department. 

In view of these considerations, I submit the draft of an order 

for your signature. 

Respectfully yours, 

Frederic Emory, 

Chiefs Bureau of Statistics, 



CONXENTS. 



Pa^e. 

I. — Foreign View of United States Tin Plate Parker 321 

II. — French Military and Nationality Laws Vignaud 325 

III. — United States Products in Germany Robertson 327 

IV. — English Trade With Hamburg and Bremen Keenan 329 

V. — United States vs. German Hops Stem 329 

( Day 331 

VI. — Calcium Carbide and Acetylene Gas \ 

f Mason 337 

( Mason 341 

VII. — Cooperation in German Sugar Production -J 

f Muth 345 

VIII. — Building Regulations in Germany Sawyer 350 

IX. — Germany's Exports to Mexico in 1896 Monaghan 352 

X. — Economic Situation of Mexico in 1895 Clayton 353 

XI. — Trade Between the United States and Mexico George 356 

XII. — Wages at Brussels j 357 

r Roosevelt 

XIII. — Strikes in Belgium , ) 358 

XIV. — The New Tariff and Europe Monaghan 360 

XV. — English Cotton-Yarn Exports to the United %iKiY.^..Grinnell 361 

XVI. — Agriculture AND Trade in Plymouth Fox 362 

XVII. — New Method of Retting and Drying Flax Karel 363 

XVIII. — Russia's Industrial Development Monaghan 365 

XIX. — Wages and Agricultural Machinery in Russia \ 366 

XX. — The Russian Coasting Trade V Karel 369 

XXI. — Cattle Market in Russia ) 370 

XXII. — Petroleum in Venice Johnson 371 

XXIII. — Artificial Black Marble. BrUhl 373 

XXIV. — Opening for American Windmills in Greece Norton 374 

XXV. — Development of the Straits Settlements Pratt 375 

^ ( Jerniean 380 

XXVI. — Opening of Rivers in China \ 

( Denby 383 

XXVII. — The Great Salt Wells at Tsz-Liu-Ching Smithers 384 

XXVIII. — Cotton Imports of Japan in 1896 Pratt 391 

XXIX. — American Horses in Denmark A7r>& 392 

XXX.— Financial Condition of China Denby 394 

XXXI.— Suez Canal Traffic Watts 400 

XXXII.— Date Industry in Persia McDonald 401 

III 



IV CONTENTS. 



XXXIII. — Railroad Laws in Venezuela 

XXXIV. — Venezuelan Railway Enterprise. 



Page. 

402 

405 

XXXV. — Heron Hunting in Venezuela \ Plumacher 407 

XXXVI. — Wharfage Charges at Maracaibo 408 

XXXVII. — Waterworks at Maracaibo J 409 

XXXVIII. — Tobacco in Martinique Tucker 410 

XXXIX. — Wool in the Argentine Republic Buchanan 411 

XL. — Tonnage Dues in Colombia Bidlake 419 

/ Bidlake 420 

XLI. — Match Concession in Colombia X Smyth 422 

( Hart 423 

XLII. — Twine and Rope in Uruguay Schramm 423 

XLIII. — Nicaragua: Transportation Contracts and Trade., j 424 

XLIV. — Nicaragua and the San Juan River V O'JIara 428 

XLV. — Agriculture in Southern Nicaragua ) 429 

XLVI. — Failure of Crops in Russia. Heenan 432 

XLVII. — The Wheat Harvest in France in 1897 Brunoi 433 

XLVIII. — Crops in Sicily and Calabria Bruhl 434 

XLIX. — Reduced Cotton Crop in India Patterson 435 

L. — Railways in China i 436 

LI. — Trade Conditions in Peking ) 438 

LII. — Discriminating Duties in France Tourg^e 440 

LIII. — Exports from Barmen to United States Bouchsein 442 

LIV. — Dried Beer Grains in Germany Robertson 444 

LV. — Commercial Companies in Egypt Watts 445 

LVI. — Swiss Exports to the United States Germain 445 

LVII.— Tariff of Madagascar Vignaud 446 

LVIII. — Butter in Martinique Tucker 449 

LIX. — Gold Export Tax in Nicaragua O'Hara 451 

LX. — Proposed Changes in Haiti's Finances Powell 453 

LXI. — Gold Standard in Salvador ChabU 454 

LXII. — United States Syndicate in Honduras Jarnigan 455 

LXI 1 1. — Notes (Wine Lees in Greece — Vehicles in Madeira — The Metric 
System in Germany — German Statistics of French Trade — 
Belgian Industrial and Trade Schools — Workmen's Houses 
Exempt from Taxation in Belgium — Tax on Business Men in 
Germany — Russian versus United States Petroleum in Ger- 
many — United States Aluminium in Germany — German Emi- 
grants to Mexico — Outlook for German Commerce — Bicycle 
Census in France — The World's Telegraph Net — Tax on Dogs 
in Great Britain — Ribbon Purchases by the United States — 
Municipal Control of Gas Works in Vienna — Locust Plague In 
Cyprus — Dock Dues in Santos — Bicycles, Typewriters, etc., 



CONTENTS. V 

Page, 
in Nicaragua — Bottle Stoppers in Nicaragua — Earthquakes in 

Guadeloupe — National Museum at Managua — Electric Lighting 
in Belize — Weaving in Japan — Bicycles in Hawaii — A Great 
Market for Ginseng — Imports of Clocks into the Straits Settle- 
ments — Steamship Service Between New York and Singapore — 
United States Bacon and Leather in England — Declared Ex- 
ports from Nottingham — Proposed Government Ownership of 
Railways in Switzerland — United States Trade with French 
Switzerland — Commercial Conditions in Spain — United States 
Machinery and Tools in Germany — Lead Pencils in Germany — 
United States Periodicals in Canada — United States Trade with 
Santo Domingo — Gold Settlements in Nicaraguan Trade — 
Sugar Crop of British Guiana — Consular Reports Transmitted 
to Other Departments — Opening for Indian Corn and Barbed 

Wire in Canada) 458 

LXIV. — Foreign Reports and Publications (The Textile Industry in 
Germany — Belgian Enterprise in Foreign Countries — Com- 
merce of Iceland — Wood in Norway — Exposition of Machinery 
at Breslau — Mexican Commerce in April and May, 1897 — Shoe 
Factory in Mexico — Portuguese Commerce in 1896 — Agricul- 
tural Machinery in Smyrna — Commercial Conditions in Per- 
sia — Petroleum in Java — Salt Monopoly in Tonkin) 488 



REPORTS BY COUNTRIES. 

ArgeKtine Republic: Page. 

Wool in 411 

Austria: 

Municipal control of gas works in Vienna 467 

Belgium: 

Industrial and trade schools in 461 

Strikes in 358 

Wages at Brussels 357 

Workmen's houses exempt from taxation in 461 

Brazil: 

Dock dues in Santos 46S 

British Guiana: 

Sugar crop of. 485 

British Honduras: 

Electric lighting in Belize 470 

Canada: 

Opening for Indian corn and barbed wire in 487 

United States periodicals in 484 

China: 

A great market for ginseng 473 

Financial condition of 394 

Opening of rivers in 380, 383 

Railways in 436 

The great salt wells at Tsz-Liu-Ching 384 

Trade conditions in Peking 438 

Colombia : 

Match concession in 423 

Tonnage dues in 419 

Cyprus : 

Locust plague in 467 

Denmark : 

American horses in 392 

Egypt : 

Commercial companies in 445 

Suez Canal traffic 400 

England: 

Agriculture and trade in Plymouth 362 

Cotton-yarn exports to the United States 361 

Declared exports from Nottingham 477 

Foreign view of United States tin plate 321 

United States bacon and leather in 475 

Europe: 

Europe and the new tariff 360 

France : 

Bicycle census in 465 

Discriminating duties in 440 

VI 



REPORTS BY COUNTRIES. VII 

France — Continued. Pa^e. 

Military and nationality laws of 325 

New method of retting and drying flax in 363 

Ribbon purchases by the United States 466 

Wheat harvest in 1897 433 

French Switzerland : 

United States trade with 479 

Germany : 

Building regulations in 350 

Calcium carbide and acetylene gas 331 

Cooperation in sugar production 341 

Dried beer grains in 444 

English trade with Hamburg and Bremen 329 

Exports from Barmen to United States 442 

Exports to Mexico in 1896 352 

Lead pencils in 483 

Metric system in 460 

Outlook for German commerce 464 

Russian versus United States petroleum in 463 

Statistics of French trade 460 

Tax on business men in 462 

United States aluminium in 463 

United States machinery and tools in 482 

United States products in 327 

United States vs. German hops 329 

Great Britain : 

Tax on dogs in 466 

Greece : 

Opening for American windmills in 374 

Wine lees in 458 

Guadeloupe : 

Earthquakes in 470 

Haiti : 

Proposed changes in finances of 453 

Hawaii : 

Bicycles in 472 

Honduras: 

United States syndicate in 455 

India : 

Reduced cotton crop in 435 

Italy : 

Artificial black marble in 373 

Crops in Sicily and Calabria 434 

Petroleum in Venice 371 

Japan : 

Cotton imports in 1896 391 

Weaving in 472 

Madagascar: 

Tariff of , 446 

Madeira : 

Vehicles in .• 459 

Martinique : 

Butter in 449 

Tobacco in 407 



VIII REPORTS BY COUNTRIES. 

Mexico: Page. 

Economic situation in 1895 353 

German emigrants to 464 

Trade with the United States 356 

Nicaragua : 

Agriculture in southern 429 

And the San Juan River 428 

Bicycles, typewriters, etc., in 468 

Bottle stoppers in 469 

Gold export tax in 451 

Gold settlements in trade of 485 

National museum at Managua 470 

Transportation contracts and trade 424 

Persia: 

Date industry in 401 

Russia: 

Cattle market in 370 

Coasting trade of 369 

Failure of crops in 432 

Industrial development in 365 

Wages and agricultural machinery in 366 

Salvador: 

Gold standard in 454 

Santo Domingo: 

United States trade with 485 

Spain : 

Commercial conditions in 481 

Straits Settlements: 

Development of 375 

Imports of clocks into 474 

Steamship service between New York and Singapore 474 

Switzerland : 

Exports to United States 445 

Proposed Government ownership of railways in 478 

The world's telegraph net 466 

United States: 

Imports of English cotton yarn 361 

Trade with Mexico 356 

Ribbon purchases by 466 

Uruguay: 

Twine and rope in 423 

Venezuela : 

Heron hunting in 410 

Railroad laws in 402 

Railway enterprise in 405 

Waterworks at Maracaibo 409 

Wharfage charges at Maracaibo 408 



F^ull dlrectioriA for blndins tHe Consular Reports are slven in Xo. 

13X, paise 663. 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 

The following statements show the valuation of foreign coins, as 
given by the Director of the United States Mint and published by the 
Secretary of the Treasury, in compliance with the first section of 
the act of March 3, 1873, viz : ** That the value of foreign coins, as ex- 
pressed in the money of account of the United States, shall be that of 
the pure metal of such coin of standard value," and that ** the value of 
the standard coins in circulation of the various nations of the world 
shall be estimated annually by the Director of the Mint, and be pro- 
claimed on the ist day of January by the Secretary of the Treasury.'* 

In compliance with the foregoing provisions of law, annual state- 
ments were issued by the Treasury Department, beginning with that 
issued on January i, 1874, and ending with that issued on January 
I, 1890. Since that date, in compliance with the act of October i, 
1890, these valuation statements have been issued quarterly, begin- 
ning with the statement issued on January i, 1891. 

These estimates **are to be taken (by customs officers) in com- 
puting the value of all foreign merchandise made out in any of said 
currencies, imported into the United States." 

The following statements, running from January i, 1874, to April 
I, 1897, have been prepared to assist in computing the proper values 
in American money of the trade, prices, values, wages, etc., of and in 
foreign countries, as given in consular and other reports. The series 
of years are given so that computations may be made for each year in 
the proper money values of such year. In hurried computations, the 
reductions of foreign currencies into American currency, no matter for 
how many years, are too often made on the bases of latest valuations. 
When it is taken into account that the ruble of Russia, for instance, 
has fluctuated from 77.17 cents in 1874 to 37.4 cents in April, 1897, 
such computations are wholly misleading. All computations of values, 
trade, wages, prices, etc., of and in the ** fluctuating-currency coun- 
tries " should be made in the values of their currencies in each year 
up to and including 1890, and in the quarterly valuations thereafter. 

To meet typographical requirements, the quotations for the years 
1876, 1877, 1879, 1881, and 1882 are omitted, these years being se- 
lected as showing the least fluctuations when compared with years 
immediately preceding and following. 

To save unnecessary repetition, the estimates of valuations are 
divided into three classes, viz, (A) countries with fixed currencies, 
(B) countries with fluctuating currencies, and (C) quarterly valua- 
tions of fluctuating currencies. 

IX 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 



A. — Countries with fixed currencies. 

The followinfiT official (United States Treasury) valuations of foreign coins do not include " rates of 
exchange." 



Countries. 


Standard. 


Monetary unit. 


Value in 
U.S.gold. 


Coins. 


Argentine Republic*. 

Austria-Hun^aryt 

Belgium 

Brazil 


Gold and silver.. 
Gold 


Peso 


$0.96,5 

.20,3 

.19.3 
• 54.6 
1. 00 

•36,5 

.46,5 
.92,6 

.26,8 
4-94.3 

.19.3 
.19.3 

.23,8 
4.86,6M 

•19.3 

.96.5 
•19.3 

.99.7 
1. 00 
.40,2 

1.01,4 
x.08 
.77. a 

.19.3 

.26,8 
.19.3 

.04.4 

•19.3 


Gold— Argentine ($4.82,4) and 
% Ar^^entine; silver— peso and 
divisions. 

Gold — 20 crowns ($4.05,2) and 
10 crowns. 

Gold— 10 and 20 franc pieces; 
silver— 5 francs. 

Gold— 5, 10, and 20 milreis; sil- 
ver— ji, I, and 2 milreis. 


Crown 


Gold and silver.. 
Gold 


Franc 


Milreis 


British North Amer- 


xlo 


Dollar 


ica (except New- 
foundland). 

Chile 


.do 


Peso 


Gold— escudo ($1.25), doubloon 
($3.65), and condor ($7.30); 
silver— peso and divisions. 

Gold — 2, 5, 10, and 20 colons; sil- 
ver— 5, io,25,and socentisimos. 

Gold— doubloon ($5.01,7); sil- 
ver-peso. 

Gold — 10 and 20 crowns. 


Costa Rica 


.do 


Colon. 


Cuba 


Gold and silver.. 


xlo 


Denmark 


Gold 


Crown 


EirvDt 


xlo 


Pound (loo pias- 
ters). 

Mark. 


Gold— xo, 20, 50, and 100 pias- 
ters; silver— I, 2, xo, and 20 
piasters. 

Gold— 10 and 20 marks ($1.93 

and $3.85,9). 
Gold — 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 

francs; silver— 5 francs. 

Gold— 5, 10, and 20 marks. 

Gold— sovereign (pound ster- 
ling) and half sovereign. 

Gold— 5, 10, 20, 50, and loodrach- 
mas; silver— 5 drachmas. 

Silver— gourde. 

Gold— 5, xo. 20, 50, and xoo lire; 
silver — 5 lire. 

Gold— I, 2, 5, xo, and 20 yen. 


Finland 


.do 


France 


Gold and silver.. 
Gold 


Franc 


Germany 


Mark 


Great Britain 


xlo 


Pound sterling... 
Drachma 


Greece 


Gold and silver.. 
.do 


Haiti 


Gourde 


Italy 


xlo 


Lira 


Taoan 1 


Gold 


Yen 


Liberia 


.do 


Dollar 


Nether lands{...„ 

Newfoundland 


Gold and silver.. 
Gold 


Florin 


Gold— xo florins; silver— >4, x» 
and %% florins. 

Gold— $2 ($2.02,7). 


Dollar 


Portugal 


..do 


Milreis 


Gold — I, 2, 5, and xo milreis. 


Russia \ 


.do 


Ruble 


Gold— imperial ($7,718) and % 
imperial ($3.80); silver— J<, J^i, 
and I ruble. 

Gold— 25 pesetas; silver— 5 pese- 
tas. 

Gold — xo and 20 crowns. 


Spain 


Gold and silver.. 
Gold 


Peseta 


Sweden and Norway. 
Switzerland 


Crown 


Gold and silver.. 
Gold 


Franc 


Gold — s. 10, 20, ^o, and 100 


Turkey 


Piaster 


francs; silver— 5 francs. 

Gold — 25, 50, xoo, 200, and 500 
piasters. 

Gold— 5, xo, 20, 50, and xoo boli- 
vars; silver— 5 bolivars. 


Venezuela 


Gold and silver.. 


Bolivar. 







* In 1874 and 1875, '^c gold standard prevailed in the Argentine Republic. 

t On reference to the table of ** fluctuating currencies," it will be seen that Austria had the silver 
standard up to and including the quarter ended July x, 1892. The next quarter (October i) inaugu- 
rated the gold standard (see note under table of '' fluctuating currencies "). 

X For particulars as to the change from silver to the gold standard, see Consular Reports No. 20X, 

P- 259. 

§The Netherlands florin, as will be seen in the V fluctuating" uble, became fixed in value (40.1 

cents) in 1880. 

11 Russia: Crold the nominal standard; silver the actual standard.— A^o/r by the United States Treat' 

ury. See, also, review of Russian industries and commerce by the Russian Minister of Finance in 

*' Review of the world's commerce," Commercial Relations of the United States for 1895-96, p. 230. 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 



XI 



B. — Countries unth fltutuating currencies^ iSy^r-iSgo. 



Countries. 



Standard. 



Monetary unit. 



Value in terms of the United States gold dollar 
on January i — 



Austria-Hungary*. ■ Silver. 
Bolivia Ao. 



Central America 

China 

Colombia... 




Silver. 

Gold J 

Silver s 

.Ao. 

Gold and 
Silver. 

Peru Silver 

Russia Ao 

Tripoli , -do 



Netherlands^ 




Florin $0.47.6 $0.45.3 

Dollar until | .96,5 I .96,5 
1890; bolivi- 
ano there- 
after. 

Peso.-.. 

Haikwan tael 

Peso 

.Ao 

Pound (100 
piasters). 

Rupee. 

Yen 

Dollar 
Florin. 

Sol. 

Ruble 

Mahbub of 20 
piasters. 



Countries. 




Austria-Hungary*.; Silver 
Bolivia ' Ao 



Central America. 

Colombia 

Ecuador 

Egyptt 



Value in terms of the United States gold dollar 
on Janury i — 



Monetary unit. 



1885. 



1886. 




India Silver 

Gold { 



Japan.... 

Mexico.. 

Peru 

Russia... 






Silver I 

Ao 

Silver 

.do 



Florin $0.39,3 

Dollar until .79,5 
x88o; bolivi- 
ano there- 
after. 

Peso 

•^o 79,5 

.^o 79,5 

Pound (100 4.90 
piasters). 

Rupee 37,8 



$o-37.» 
•75. » 




Yen. 



Tripoli Ao 



Dollar 

Sol 

Ruble 

Mahbub of 20 
piasters. 



.85,8 
.86,4 

•79.5 
.63,6 

•7».7 



•75.1 
•75.1 
4.90 

•35.7 



.81 
.81,6 

•75. » 
.60,1 

•67.7 



•72,7 

•72.7 

4-94.3 

•34.6 

•99.7 

.78,4 

•79 

•72,7 

.58.2 

.65.6 



1888. 



1889. 



$034. 5 i$o^33.6 
.69,9 I .68 



69.9 
69.9 
69.9 
94.3 

32.2 
99.7 
75.3 
75.9 
69.9 
55.9 
63 



68 
68 
68 
94.3 

32.3 
99.7 
73.4 
73.9 
68 

54.4 
61,4 



189a 



$0.42 
.85 



•85 

•85 

•85 

4^94.3 

•40.4 
•99.7 
•91.7 
•92,3 

.85 
.68 

• 76.7 



* The silver standard prevailed in Austria-Hungary up to 1892. The law of August 2 of that year 
(see Consular Reports, No. 147, p. 623) established the gold standard. 
tThe Egyptian pound became fixed in value at $4.94,3 in 1887. 
X The Netherlands florin fluctuated up to the year 1880, when it became flxed at 40.2 cents. 



XII 



VALUES OF FOREIGN COINS AND CURRENCIES. 



C. — Quarterly valuations of fluctuating currencies. 



Countries. 



Monetary unit. 



1894. 



Jan. I. 



April I. 



Bolivia 

Central Amer- 
ica.* 



Chinat..» ' 



Silver boliviano. $0.51,6 
Silver peso ' .51 16 



Colombia , 
Ecuador... 

India 

Japan $..... 

Mexico 

Persia 

Peru 

Russia§.... 
Tripoli 



Shanghai tael... 
Haikwan tael 
Tientsin tael 
Chefoo tael 
Silver peso., 

Ao 

Silver rupee 
Silver yen 
Silver dollar 

Silver kran. 

Silver sol 

Silver ruble 

Silver mahbub... 



July I. I Oct. I. 



1895- 



Jan. I. 



April I., July I. Oct. I. 



$0-46.5 |o-45.7 '|o-46,4 




|o-45.5 


|o.44.» 


•45.5 


•44.1 


.67,3 


.65.2 


•74.9 


.75.6 


•71.4 


.69,2 


•70.4 


.68,3 


.45.5 


•44.1 


.45.5 


.44.1 


.21,6 


.21 


.49. » 


•47.6 


•49.5 


.47.9 


• 45.5 


.44,1 


•36.4 


.35,3 


.41,1 


•39.8 



$0.48,6 i $0.48.6 
.48,6 .48,6 



.71,8 

.80 

.76,1 

•75.1 
.48,6 
.48,6 

.23. » 

.52,4 

.52.8 
.08,9 
.48,6 

•38,9 
.43.8 



.71.8 

.80 

.76,2 

.75.2 

.48,6 

.48,6 

.23,1 

• 52,4 
^52,8 
.09 
.48.6 

•38,9 
•43.8 



Countries. 



Bolivia 

Central America*. 



Chinat. 



Colombia. 
Ecuador... 

India 

Japan^ 

Mexico 

Persia 

Peru 

Russiaf.... 
Tripoli 



•75.9 



.80,8 



Monetary unit. 



Silver boliviano. $0.49,1 

Silver peso 1 .49,1 

Amoy tael 

Canton tael 

Chefoo tael 

Chinkiang tael.. 

Fuchau tael 

Haikwan tael.... 

Hankow tael 

Ningpo tael 

Niuchwang tael. 
Shanghai tael.... 

Swatow tael 

Takao tael 

Tientsin tael 

Silver pesa 

Ao 

Silver rupee 

Silver yen 

Silver dollar 

Silver kran 

Silver sol 

Silver ruble 

Silver mahbub... 




1897. 



Jan. I. 1 April 1.' July 1. 



$o^49.3 $o-49.7 
.49.3 ' ^49. 7 



76.3 -76,9 



.81,2 i .81,9 



72.5 



72,9 



.76,9 



■49i 
■49< 
■23. 

•52, 

■53i 
.09 

•49. 
•39. 



•77.3 
•49.3 
•49.3 
.23.4 
•53.2 

•53.6 
.09,1 

•49.3 
•39.5 
•44.5 



•73.5 



.78 
.49.7 
•49.7 
.23,6 

•53.2 

.54 
.09,2 

•49.7 
•39.8 
•44.9 



49 

49 

79.3 

79 

75.8 

77.4 

73.3 
80,6 

74.2 
76,2 

74.3 
72.4 
73.2 
79,8 
76.8 

49 
49 
23.3 
52,8 

53.2 
09 

49 

39.2 

44.2 



47 
47 
76 
76 

73 
74 
70 

78 
71 
73 
71 
70 

70 

77 

74 

47 

47 
22 

51 
51 
08 

47 
37 



46.8 

46,5 

75.7 

75.5 

72.4 

73.9 

70 

77 

70,8 

72,8 

71 
69.x 

69.9 
76,2 

73.4 
46.8 
46,8 
22,2 

50.5 
50,8 
08,6 
46,8 
37.4 



44.3 

44.3 

7».7 

71.5 

68,6 

70 

66,3 

73.1 
67,1 

68,9 

67.2 

65. 5 
66,2 
72.2 
69.5 
44.3 
44.3 
21. 1 



48,2 
08,2 
44,3 



•Costa Rica and British Honduras have the gold standard (see table showing countries with 
fixed currencies). 

t China (silver). The haikwan tael is the Customs tael. The " British dollar" has the same legal 
value as the Mexican dollar in Hongkong, the Straits Settlements, and Labuan. 

^ Japan has adopted the gold standard (see Consular Reports No. 201, p. 259). 

8 The Treasury Department, in its estimates of foreign values for the quarter ended July i, 1897, 
gives Russia the gold standard, and in a footnote says: "Gold is the nominal standard, silver practi- 
cally the standard." To appreciate the complicated state of Russian currency, see Consular Re- 
ports No. 188, pp. 34-401 and Special Consular Reports, Money and Prices in Foreign Countries, part 
a, pp. 381-400. 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



The following table embraces only such weights and measures as 
are given from time to time in Consular Reports and in Commer- 
cial Relations: 

Foreign weights and measures ^ itnth American equivalents. 



Denominations. 



Almude 
Ardeb... 
Are 



Arobe 

Arratel or libra. 

Arroba (dry) 

Do 



Where used. 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Arroba (liquid).... 

Arshine 

Arshine (square). 

Artel 

Baril 

Barrel 

Do 

Berkovets 

Bong^kal 

Bouw 

Bu 



Butt (wine) 

Cafiiso 

Candy 

Do 

Cantar 

Do 

Do 

Cantaro (cantar). 

Carga 

Catty 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Centaro 

Centner 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do. 

Do 

Chih 

Coyan 

Do 



Portugal 

Egypt 

Metric 

Paraguay 

Portugal 

Argentine Republic 

Brazil 

Cuba 

Portugal 

Spain 

Venezuela 

Cuba, Spain, and Venezuela 

Russia 

Ao 

Morocco 

Argentine Republic and Mexico. 

Malta (customs) 

Spain (raisins) 

Russia.. 

India 

Sumatra 

Japan 

Spain 

Malta 

India (Bombay) 

India (Madras) 

Morocco 

Syria (Damascus) 

Turkey 

Malta 

Mexico and Salvador 

China 

Japan 

Java, Siam, and Malacca..... 

Sumatra 

Central America 

Bremen and Brunswick 

Darmstadt. 

Denmark and Norway 

Nuremberg 

Prussia 

Sweden 

Vienna 

Zollverein 

Double or metric 

China 

Sarawak 

Siam (Koyan) 



American equivalents. 



4.422 gallons. 
7.6907 bushels. 
0.02471 acre. 
25 pounds. 

1. 01 1 pounds. 
25.3175 pounds. 
32 . 38 pounds. 
25.3664 pounds. 
32.38 pounds. 
25.36 pounds. 
25.4024 pounds. 
4.263 gallons. 
28 inches. 

5.44 square feet. 

Z.12 pounds. 

20.0787 gallons. 

1 1. 4 gallons. 

zoo pounds. 

361.12 pounds. 

832 grains. 

7,096.5 square meters. 

o.i inch. 

140 gallons. 

5.4 gallons. 

529 pounds. 

500 pounds. 

Z13 pounds. 

575 pounds. 

z 24 . 7036 pou nd s. 

175 pounds. 

300 pounds. 

1-333/^ (»M) pounds. 
1.31 pounds. 
1 . 35 pounds. 

2.12 pounds. 
4.2631 gallons. 
1 1 7. 5 pounds. 
110.24 pounds. 
1 10. 1 1 pounds. 

112.43 pounds. 

113.44 pounds. 
93.7 pounds. 
123.5 pounds. 
110.24 pounob. 
220.46 pounds. 
14 inches. 
3,098 pounds. 
2,667 pounds.. 

XIII 



XIV 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Foreign weights and measures^ with American equivalents — Continued. 



Denominations. 



Where used. 



Cuadra Argentine Republic. 

Do Paraguay 



Do 

Do 

Cubic meter 

Cwt. (hundredweight) 

Dessiatine 

Do 

Drachme i Greece , 

Dun Japan , 

Egyptian weights and measures.....' (5^/ Consular Reports No. 144.) 
Fanega (dry) I Central America , 



Paraguay (square). 

Uruguay 

Metric 

British 

Russia 

Spain. 



Chile.. 
Cuba.. 



Do 

Do 

Do Mexico... 

Do Morocco. 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Fanega (liquid). 

Feddan 

Frail (raisins).... 
Frasca 

Do 

Fuder 

Gamice 

Gram 

Hectare 

Hectoliter: 

Dry 

Liquid 

Joch 

Ken 

Kilogram (kilo).. 

Kilometer 

Klafter 

Kota 

Korree 

Last 

Do 

Do 



Do 

Do 

Do 

League (land). 
Li 



Libra (pound). 
Do 



Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Liter 

Livre (pound). 

Do 



Urug^uay (double).... 

Uruguay (single) 

Venezuela 

Spain 

Egypt 

Spain 

Argentine Republic. 

Mexico 

Luxemburg 

Russian Poland 

Metric 

.do 



..do. 
.Ao. 



Austria- Hungary 

Japan 

Metric 

Ao 

Russia 

Japan 

Russia 

Belgium and Holland. 
England (dry malt)..... 
Germany 



American equivalents. 



Prussia 

Russian Poland 

Spain (salt) 

Paraguay 

China. 

Castilian 

Argentine Republic. 

Central America 

Chile 

Cuba 

Mexico 

Peru 

Portugal 

Uruguay 

Venezuela 

Metric 

Greece 

Guiana 



4.2 acres. 
78. 9 yards. 
8.077 square feet. 
Nearly a acres. 
35.3 cubic feet. 
112 pounds. 
2.6997 acres. 
1.599 bushels. 
Half ounce. 

X inch. 

i>5745 bushels. 

a. 575 bushels. 

1.599 bushels. 

1.54728 bushels. 

Strike fanega, 70 lbs.; 
full fanega, xi8 lbs. 

7.776 bushels. 

3.888 bushels. 

1.599 bushels. 

16 gallons. 

1.03 acres. 
50 pounds. 
2.5096 quarts. 
2.5 quarts. 
264.17 gallons. 
0.88 gallon. 
15.432 grains. 
2.471 acres. 

2.838 bushels. 

26.417 gallons. 

X.422 acres. 

4 yards. 

2.2046 pounds. 

0.621376 mile. 

216 cubic feet. 

5.X3 bushels. 

3.5 bushels. 

85.134 bushels. 

82.52 bushels. 

2 metric tons (4,480 
pounds). 

112.29 bushels. 

wyi bushels. 

4,760 pounds. 

4,633 acres. 

2,115 feet. 

7, 100 grains (troy). 

1. 0127 pounds. 

X.043 pounds. 

1.014 pounds. 

i.oi6x pounds. 

X. 01465 pounds. 

X.0143 pounds. 

x.oix pounds. 

1.0x43 pounds. 

1.0161 pounds. 

1.0567 quarts. 

I.I pounds. 

1. 079 1 pounds. 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



XV 



Foreign weights and measures^ xtrith American equivalents — Continued. 



Denominations. 



Load. 



Manzana.. 

Marc 

Maund 

Meter 

Mil 



Do.. 
Morgen 
Olce 

Do.. 

Do.. 

Do.. 

Do.. 

Pic 

Picul 

Do.. 

Do.. 

Do.. 

Do.. 



Where used. 



England (timber). 



Pie. 



Do, 



Pik 

Pood 

Pund (pound) 

Quarter 

Do 

Quintal 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Rottle 

Do 

Sagen 

Salm 

Se 

Seer 

Shaku 

Sho 

Sundard (St. Petersburg). 

Stone. 

Suerte 



Tael. 
Tan. 
Ta... 



Costa Rica. 

Bolivia 

India 

Metric. 

Denmark. 

Denmark (geographical). 

Prussia. 

Egypt 

Greece 

Hungary 

Turkey 

Hungary and Wallachia. 

Egypt 

Borneo and Celebes 

China, Japan, and Sumatra. 

Java 

Philippine Islands (hemp)... 
Philippine Islands (sugar)... 

Argentine Republic 

Castile. 

Turkey. 

Russia. 

Denmark and Sweden. 

Great Britain. 

London (coal). 

Argentine Republic. 

Brazil. 

Castile, Chile, Mexico, and Peru. 

Greece 

Newfoundland (fish) , 

Paraguay , 

Syria 

Metric , 

Palestine 

Syria 

Russia 

Malu 

Japan 

India 

Japan 

.do , 

Lumber measure 

British 

Uruguay 



Ton 

Tonde (cereals). 

Tondeland 

Tsubo 

Tsun 

Tunna 

Tunnland 

Vara 

Do 

Do 



Cochin China 

Japan 

do 

Space measure 

Denmark. 

do 

Japan 

China 

Sweden 

do 

Argentine Republic. 

Castile 

Central America 



American equivalents. 

Square, 50 cubic feet; 
unhewn, ^o cubic feet; 
inch planxs, 600 super- 
ficial feet. 

i\ acres. 

0.507 pound. 

82I pounds. 

39.37 inches. 

4.68 miles. 

4.61 miles. 

0.63 acre. 

2.7325 pounds. 

2.84 pounds. 

3.0817 pounds. 

2.85418 pounds. 

2.5 pints. 
■z\'% inches. 
135.64 pounds. 
»33^S pounds. 

135.1 pounds. 
I39-45 pounds. 
140 pounds. 
0.9478 foot. 
0.91407 foot. 
27.9 inches. 
36. 1 12 pounds. 
1. 102 pounds. 
8.252 bushels. 
36 bushels. 
101.42 pounds. 
130.06 pounds. 
101.61 pounds. 

123.2 pounds. 
112 pounds. 
100 pounds. 
125 pounds. 
220.46 pounds. 

6 pounds. 
5^ pounds. 

7 leet. 

490 pounds. 

3.6 feet. 

1 pound 13 ounces. 
10 inches. 

1.6 quarts. 

165 cubic feet. 

14 pounds. 

2,700 cuadras (see cua- 
dra). 

590.75 grains (troy). 

0.25 acre. 

2 pecks. 

40 cubic feet. 
3.94783 bushels. 
1.36 acres. 
6 feet square. 
1. 41 inches. 
4.5 bushels. 
1.22 acres. 
34.1208 inches. 
0.914117 yard. 
38.874 inches. 



XVI 



FOREIGN WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



Foreign weights and measures, with American equivalents — Continued. 



Denominations. 



Where used. 



Chile and PeriL. 

Cuba 

Cura9ao 



Vara 

Do 

Do 

Do Mexico 

Do Paraguay 

Do ' Venezuela 

r 

Vedro Russia 

Vergees Isle of Jersey... 

Verst I Russia 

VIocka Russian Poland 



American equivalents. 



33.367 inches. 
33.384 inches. 
33-375 inches. 

33 inches. 

34 inches. 
33.384 inches, 
a. 707 gallons. 
71. 1 square rods. 
0.663 n^iic. 

41. 98 acres. 



METRIC WEIGHTS ANl> MEASURES. 

Metric weights. 

Milligram (roVir g'"2i'") equals 0.0154 grain. 

Centigram (y^ gram) equals 0.1543 grain. 

Decigram (^ gram) equals 1.5432 grains. 

Gram equals 15.432 grains. 

Decagram (10 grams) equals 0.3527 ounce. 

Hectogram (100 grams) equals 3.5274 ounces. 

Kilogram (1,000 grams) equals 2.2046 pounds. 

Myriagram (10,000 grams) equals 22.046 pounds. 

Quintal (100,000 grams) equals 220.46 pounds. 

Millier or tonnea — ton (1,000,000 grams) equals 2,204.6 pounds. 

Metric dry measures. 

Milliliter (joVff liter) equals 0.061 cubic inch. 
Centiliter (yj^ liter) equals 0.6102 cubic inch. 
Deciliter {^^ liter) equals 6.1022 cubic inches. 
Liter equals 0.908 quart. 
Decaliter (10 liters) equals 9.08 quarts. 
Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 2.838 bushels. 
Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 1.308 cubic yards. 

Metric liquid measures. 

Milliliter (yu^inj liter) equals 0.0388 fluid ounce. 

Centiliter (yjjj liter) equals 0.338 fluid ounce. 

Deciliter Qj^ liter) equals 0.845 gill. 

Liter equals 1.0567 quarts. 

Decaliter (10 liters) equals 2.6418 gallons. 

Hectoliter (100 liters) equals 26.418 gallons. 

Kiloliter (1,000 liters) equals 264.18 gallons. 

Metric measures of lengths 

Millimeter (yuVu meter) equals 0.0394 inch. 

Centimeter (^ J^ meter) equals 0.3937 inch. 

Decimeter (3*5 meter) equals 3.937 inches. 

Meter equals 39.37 inches. 

Decameter (10 meters) equals 393.7 inches. 

Hectometer (100 meters) equals 328 feet i inch. 

Kilometer (1,000 meters) equals 0.62137 mile (3,280 feet 10 inches). 

Myriameter (10,000 meters) equals 6.2137 miles. 

Metric surface measures, 

Centare (i square meter) equals 1,550 square inches. 
Are (lofj square meters) equals 119. 6 square yards. 
Hectare (10,000 square meters) equals 2.471 acres. 



CONSUI^AR RBPORTS- 



COMMERCE, MANUFACTURES, ETC. 



Vol. LV. NOVEMBER, 1897. No. 206. 



FOREIGN VIEW OF UNITED STATES TIN PLATE. 

Consul Parker sends from Birmingham, under date of July 21, 
1897, a report on the ** American Tin-Plate Industry and the Welsh 
Tin-Plate Export Trade to the United States,'* made to the British 
ambassador at Washington, Sir Julian Pauncefote, by the second sec- 
retary, Mr. Hugh J. G'Beirne. ** The report," says the consul, ** con- 
tains a review of the establishment and growth of this industry in the 
United States, written from the point of view of an official from an- 
other country, who has evidentiy made a careful study of it in its 
relations to the trade of the whole world. It will, I venture to think, 
give our manufacturers and consumers a fair idea of the conditions 
surrounding this trade. I also send an editorial article, cut from the 
columns of the Daily Post, of this city, a paper which keeps itself 
closely in touch with all the metal industries. This is in the nature 
of speculation as to the effect upon British industries of business and 
legislation in the United States, and is thus, in some degree, a com- 
plement to the official report." 

In the report (Foreign Office, 1897, Miscellaneous Series, No. 
426), Mr. O'Beirne says the tin-plate industry in the United States 
dates practically from the passage of the McKinley Act of October i, 
1890, at which time the United State