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UNITED STATES MAGiZINE, 



DEMOCRATIC REVIEW. 



1 iv? 



NEW SERIES. 



VOLUME XV. 



NEW YORK: 
HENBY G. lANGLEY, S ASTOE HOOSE. 



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INDEX TO VOLUME XV. 



AlSiri 

An^orilr Bgaiiut Seuoa . 
ATtrie* and Earf, a Tde . 
Barrett, Elizabeth B. 

Blind Jacqnn, b; Hra. Ellkt 

Book of Aatographa, bf N. HAWTHomNK 

Bridal oF Pennaeook, hj J. 6. WaiTTin 

Batlcr'g, Mr*., Poemt, Reriew «f . 

Critieixm in America . 

' ■ and Criticf of Uia 19th Ceatorr 

CrovDcd Rhyme* , 

Children'! Books, b; W. A. Jantt 

CarreacT Qantioii, Ju^ 

Death of a Friend'i Child, bf J. R Loweu. 

Drama of Life, hj Euzueth B. Buanr 

Draper'* l>aiiEEhter, the, « Tale 

Echoei of the Heart 

Egeria, by H. T. TttccriiMAir 

FestiTal, a Tonmamenl and a Jubilee 

Firit and Second Bate Men • 

^-~ Word afler the Election 

Franeii Litzt, bj Mas. Ellet 

Fraoklin'i Celebrated Line, "Eripnit ncki fnlinea, 

Harro Barring, a Sketch, by A. H. Evecett 

Hope, a Sonnet . . ■ . 

Horoe'i New Spirit of the Age ■ 

Infatnalioa, a Poem, bj P. ButiAMiir 

Influence of European on AtiatJe CiTilitation 

Inatinct, Beasoa, and Imagination , 

Jonrne; of a Day, *c. 

Law of ProjireM of the Kaco . 

Lay of the Imprisoned Knigbl 

L^end* of the Sioni, he. 

Iictler lo Farmer luachat . 

IieTcrett ; an Epitlle from a Lady, &c. 

LoTe'a Last Vigil .... 

Lore Tenui Taile, a Tale of Art, by Mr*. E. F. Eliat 

Mai^inalia, by E. A, PoE . 

Marie Antoinette and Hirabean . 

Mill'a Logic .... 

Monthly Financial and Comawrcial Article* 

— Literary Bulletio . 

Monrnfol Mother, the . . . 

NatDrVB Lyre, by J. Q. piaciraL . 

JfewBooki .... 



212,310, 419, E 
216,317,424,: 



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New School of FhHoMpbT .... 

— — York Hiitoriea] Soeietr . , , , 

O'Connell 

One LbiI Word Before the Election . 

One Nationa! Bank— Shall we Trr Another T 
Ontline Sketch of the Govemment, tte., of the P^^ Slate* 
Pertico'* Columbni . , . . . 

PraTSi, D, hj lin. Da Fonts .... 

Pment Slate of Caba ..... 

Bandom Llkeneu of Hre. Eoiulo .... 
Be-anneiHtk>n of Texat, iti laBaenca on the SUverr QmMim 
Rhode- Island, iu Rightful Governor, fce. . . . 

Select Party, a, by N.Hawtrobxe. , . • . 

She lhoq;ht of Jlim too deeply .... 
SoDDet, Work ...... 

.Hope 

, by H. T. Tuc»*«iAw .... 

flMiaetirbyH. T. Tdckbuun .... 

6taniaB,br P. BurJUiiK ..... 

Satnmer, Lore . _ . . 

Tale oT Teiai I,[re . . 

Teia' Question, by A. H. Eve»ktt 

" Be-aaaexation of, Ac. .... 

IVne Theory, k,c., oT oar Oovernineat , . 

The fieipoostmiice, by C. Wiluks Eini . . . 

The Piiioaer, by B. S. S. Aitinoi . . 

The Genenl Issue and the Particalar Ittaee 

The Heart'* Bridal, by H. T. TucKKUUir . 

Tbe World, by B. S. B. AwDaoa .... 

Unitarian Portmiu, by W. A. Jona 

TanBarea, Mr 

Welcome to 01e3aU . . 
WellJinown Socnment (lightly Para^muwd, &e. . 
Weit, the Poor Man'* Fanulfie .... 
Writins* of Anbepine, by W. HAWTHOura 



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THE 

UNITED STATES MAGAZINE, 

AND 

DEMOCRATIC EEVIEW. 



MR. VAN BUREN. 



It 1b not true that Mr. Van Baren ia Ihti in any form or eapacitj he win em 
in Roj seme a "fallen man." No — allow liimgeir to be again drawn Torth, 
thongh no longer, indeed, a candidate from s retiremeDl amply provided with 
for reelection to Ihe highest office of alt the elementa of domestic and social 
political station on the face of the globe happiness, into any furtheT active par- 
— thongh he has, indeed, descended ticipation in political aSaits. Posterity 
irreToeably, from that brilliaat and may be said to have now began foe 
powerfal part which he has so long him, even while yet in the prime of 
sustained on the stage of pohlic a^irs, powers abundant to earn for their po«- 
into the shaded obscuril; of simple pri- sessor another fame, no less honorabia 
Tate citizenship, side by side with the than that which a life of patriotic pub- 
hnmblest individual Dolinown beyond tic service haji already made his. All 
the limits of his native village ; ^et in truth may now be spoken of him, alike 
all the higher and truer appreciatmn of by friend and foe. To the latter, he ia 
dignity of patilical poailion, based on no longer an object of dread or of patti- 
the respect and encircled by the aSec- san animosity. Little ie to be gained 
tioDS of a great party — nay, a great by vilifying him — no party purpose to 
nation — there has been no momeot in be endangered by rendering him a fail 
Hr. Van Buren's whole career in which justice of approval. To the former hn 
he has stood, conscionslj to himself m no longer either the actoal or tho 
and confessedly by all, on a nobler ele- prospective dispenser of the variona 
nation than that which he now occupies forms of government patronage ; they 
and adorns. Fortune and foes have may condemn without fear of the Ion 
conspired to do more for him, than of poliiieal power — they mav praise 
friends foresaw, or oonld have them- without fear of the anspicion, from any 
aelvea effecied. We ahould not have qnartei, of personal adulation or iatec- 
envjed him the cnmle chair of restored eeted motive For ourselves, howevei 
power ; we do envy him the Pantheon mnch we might have preferred to post- 
niche to which he has been transferred pone for some fourorfiveyears the enjoy- 
by the very act that eiclnded him tVom ment of this privilege of full freedom of 
tbe former. speech, we are at least glad to be 
Mr. Van Buren's career as a statesman released from a restraint, of which we 
fs now, therefore, closed ; lo use his own acknowledge the pressure to have been 
emphatic though melancholy word, oot nnfelt i and while we regret as 
"forever." Nor indeed — (strongly as deeply as any the retired statesman's 
we would desire to deprecate the resolo' withdrawal from tmblie life, we seiie 
tion he has himself avowed) — is it likely tbe occasion whicB it affords, to Tecord ^~- 



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« Mr.Vml 

ft portTutnra of him which i> drawn from 
opportupiLies (rfobeerrauoa not eojojed 
hy taaat of our naden. 

We haie heard it uid of Mr. Van 
Buren with etriking freqoenoy and ear- 
neatnoM, among thoce friends who, 
froiB oeareM and longest peraoaat in- 
terconrae, hoow him beal, that, aa a 
man and BtateamaD, bo is "tooeood 
and pure for the limea ;" and while we 
take no such desponding *iew of "the 
times," yet, as a atrat^ testiroonj and 
tribute to the character to which it is 
applied, it ia neither untrue nor exagger- 
ated. No Preaident has efer filled 
that office — no statesman baa ever oc- 
onpiedsnjofthe high places of public 
aervice and honor under our ConstitU' 
tion — more upright in intngritj, more 
true in patriotism, more sincere in phi- 
lanthropic ajmpBthf with the rights 
and inlerests of the fflasaea, moie self- 
derated in dutj, more ealml;, eompre- 
heoaivel; wise in judgment. Without 
tiiat impulsire genius, fitting and im- 
pelling [0 a political epostolate, which 
baa stamped the impreas of the mind of 
Jefferaon so deepi; on his country and 
liis age, he combines a steady consis- 
tency of character with a practical sa- 
gacity in afTairs both public and private, 
to a degree which the warmest eulo- 
gist does not claim for that glorious 
name. Whether he could or could not 
hare performed the part in the rorma- 
tion of the Constitution on which rests 
Madison's chief title to immortality, 
«an never be tested, nor need be specu- 
lated upon ; but that he has shown him- 
aelf a more unjielding disciple in a ae- 
Terer acboot of the Republican and 
State- Rights doctrine, cannot be deaiod 
I^ any of ua who sigh over Madison's 
fiignatuts to a Natjonal Bank charter 
which he had himself but abrierpsriod 
before vetoed. Monroe we pass over 
in the catalogue of the great Republi- 
can Presidents. He wasaiespeetable 
gentlemao of qualities rather negative 
than poaitive, who stood quietly by the 
helm while the vessel of the state glid- 
ed smoothly over an nnmffled sea, de- 
cently and decorously performing a 
T^ular routine of official duty, — and 
thai is all Itiat is to be said about him. 
It is little worth while to distmb the 
dust of oblivion that is fast settling 
dawn over his name and period. Old 
Jackson affords few grounds on which 
any bind of comparison is possible. 
Hen of different types and missions, 



ti\ that is (o be nid of them in tbfa 
point of view, u that neitber eoold 
have been the other ; while the oioae 
and warm sympaibj between tbem— 
the mutual confidence, admiration and 
affection which hare cbaraoteriaed theit 
relations tugeiher from a very early pa- 
riod of Iheir aequeinlaiias — make each 
the strongest witaees possible to tba 
goodness and greatness nf lbs other. 
"That wise man and true patriot," was 
a frequent mode in which General 
Jackson used to characterise hif 
yonnger, calmer, and cooler friend. 
With Mr. Van Buren it has long been, 
as it still is, a favorite topic, to dwtdl, 
with reverential love, on toe extraordi- 
nary traits which bate made the Iron 
Old Chief the wonderful man that hia- 
tary has already written him. We will 
not pursue further this train of obaer- 
vation. We have alluded to these great 
names to mark the class of men by lbs 
side of whom Mr. Van Buren is to be 
ranked and judged, and among whoa, 
with variously balanced points of re- 
speetivediSereoce.heiaemitlediooect^ 

?y a place fully worthy of the nobln con- 
raternily of graainesa and honorable 

N» quid mmi* — is a motto which 
would have been appropriaie to sum m 
in brief Mr. Van Buren's character isa 
Ufa — nolhing too much. He is a man 
of a most rare degree of completeneee 
all round, and setf-poised equilibrium 
which no ordinary circumstances could 
shake — nor any of the extraordinary 
ones of which he has not been without 
experience. He is one of those few 
men whose moral centre of gravity ap- 
pears truly at the centre, with afl ths 
parts regularly distributed abont it in 
just symmetry and balance. Marked 
by no qoalitles running into that morbid 
or unnatural excess which is always 
sure to be at the expense of others es- 
sential to completeness, he is yet ths 
farthest iu the world removed from 
negativeness of character ; he is on the 
contrary emiaently positive — a man of 
decided force, movement, self-propelled 
and self-guided energy. He never in- 
deed is seen to act by fits and atarta ; hs 
is rarely in a hur^ — never out of breath. 
Calmly strong in conscious right— 
able to wait, and willing to bide his 
time — content to acquiesce in the prac- 
tical realities of the world as it is, and 
to make the beet ont of the actual men 
and things in it H be finds (hnm—mdy 



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ISM-l Mr. Fm Am-m. S 

for Mir-sacrifice nbeneveT necfltsary, would klona suffice to disjiroTO the im- 

.Uiough nul quixotically courting it — putaticm. Prone, perhaps, too far to Uie 

impregnabto in reliance oa ihe princi- opposite fault, we liave yet lired long 

Slea on whose rocky fnundaliufi he hu enough in the world to leAro how loueE 
uilded his house — &nd cornbining with better and higher ft stamp of ohanctec 
thcBe qaftliliet those eminent inlellec- isthat which, benealh aaurfaeeofcain 
taal powera, whethPt for counsel, de- andeautioosself-reBtraint.gtuwsdeepljr 
bale, or aotioo, which hia woiat eoe- with that latent heal which, onaecn to 
mies have admitted and admired CTea others, is eearcely conscious of itself 
in hating, Mr. Van Bureu, take him till developed by simng circumstances 
for all in all, eshibiu cenainly one of — thanlhat morequicklyardentiemper- 
the moat complete and consummate ament, whose superficial omoiiunB ex- 
politicians, in the best sense of the term, haast themselves in their own eSsrves- 
the working of oar instituttons has yet cencs ; a temperament at once common, 
created. and commonly averrated. How muoh 
There is, indeed, bat little that i* the Dutch breed and the half Yankee 
dazzting or picturesque iu such men, breeding have had to do in producing 
— the wonders of the pyrolechnie an this peculiar phase of character, which 
make a far more brilliant and beautiful has been so much niiauoderstnod in Ut. 
iriiow than iha quietly useful and henisa Van Buren, alike by foes and by friends, 
flame of the household hearth. But fur who have seen him only from a dis- 
leal public servioa, for reliability in the tanca, it might be worth while to cob- 
llDur of need, tbey are incalculably owre aider, had we more space and time at 
Taluablethanihoaefire-workpuliiiciana, command. Shakapere portrKja this 
Khoarefor ever aajHring to thBBkiesaa character with a marked homage of 
Kcketa, whirling coaad and round as respect and affection, when on the lipe 
eatbarine.wheela, and twialing in and of the impulsive and apecolaiive Prince 
out as fiery serpents, bewildering the of Benuiatk he puia tlie exclamation — ■ 
ear, meanwhile, with all manner of un- g, „. , 

expected explosions and reports. — ._, , „„, „.™i„.>.".?.^_ j "t'".!! 

C; ■ i. J -.L _r ■ 13 Inal u not paEHon'a uave, and I wiH 

He IS charged with a certain cddness wear him i "- • "•« 

of character— with being too cautious, i„ ^y heart's core-aye, in my faewt of 

too circumspect, — too unilormly under heart* 

the control of a cool, collected sagacity Aa I do thee." 
of judgment, — never either warmed or 

warped from the line of calculated poli- ^'7- "e whole passage of which 

cy, by any of the diaturbing impulses '"^^ "" ""e concluding words is so 

of heart or imagination. "Hiis charge «"l"ng in "le descripiinn of the sub- 

(whioh is one not unfreqnaotly brought jeet of our sketch, and in its applicaiion 

waiast those who deaerve it least, totnecircnmstaneesoftnal which have 

■ ■ habit of self-restraint, P^ved him what he is, that we are 



springing from the very warmth of templed to extend the quol 

feeling, and shrinking from display, " Horatio, thou art e'en ■« jait a man 

or even from indnlgence of itself] As e'er my convenaiion coped withaL 

may not be entirely unfounded, though • ■ ■ ■ 

we are assured that the trait it indi- Nay, do not think I flatten 

catea does mil proceed further than For what advaacemenl* may i; hope from ) 

a point at which it does not yet cease thee, 

to be a virtue. It is not selGshness— it That no revenue hait, but thy good i 

IS not eoldoesa of heart — it is nut in- spirits, 

•eneibiilty to the more generuas amo- To feed and clothe thee I Why aho«U 

tions and svmpathies. Mr. Van Buren „ w .t "^^ ^J". ^- , . ^ 

wamaDofatronganddeepfriendships. No. '« the candied toogoe hek abwad 

He baa had, and has, attached to him . . '^JP^L^ __ ... t, - ,. 

whhanenthuai..t>eaireciion,notafew "^"^ 1|^^e ^^ b«.ge. of the 

aen of an order of both ment^ and Where thrift may foHow (hwning. DoM 

moral excellence whose regard were ^j^qq ^^^^ j 

tn honor to the monarch of any throne since my dear soni irat BiistnM of Let 

00 the earth. Hia domestic life, into choice, 

which it would he foreign to the proper And could of mea digtingniA her dee- 

scope of (bit Article to out a glance, tio^ ^ . 

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She hmth wil'd thee Tor henelf : fbr tbon 
hul beea 

As one, in •oficriiig «U, that tnffen no- 
thing: 

A man thai fonnne'i bofiett awl rewudi 

HMrt t»'en with oqnsl Ihaakf : and hlewecl 
are tfaoK 

WhoM blood and jadgneat are (o well 
coDiauagled, 

Thai the; are not a pipe foi fwtoDB'i 

Ta Bonnd vhal stop she please. Give ne 

that man 
llkat ii not paitioa'B >lav«, and I viQ 

wear him 
In mr heart'i core, »,j, in m; heart oT 

Acldothee." 

"Wfl will not pats from tliia point in 
Mt. Van Bnron's eharacier without re- 
feirin^ to two instances that happen to 
occur to oar recollection, in which 
strong cireutnatances have drawn forth 
the expression of strong and deep feel- 
ing from this supposed heart of ice, in 
a maDoer highly and efei) beauttfallj 
pathetic, while etill reserred and regn- 
faled. The one is in his recent letter 
to the Democracj of the City of New 
York, in reply to an inTitation to pre- 
eide at a great latificatioD oiaeling to 
con&ria the noroinatiun of Ur. Polk. 
Af^et an earnest commendation of the 
ticket, formed on the sacri&ce of him- 
•elf— (a cornmendation well redeeming 
the pledge we ventured to give for htm 
in our tut Number, in the event of the 
seleeUon of another name by the Con- 
Tentioa) — he utters bimaelf personally 
to the friends who had so long and 
warmly stood by his side in fair weather 
and foul, in terms whose very simplicity 
shows the depth of true feeling from 
which they prooeed : 



<' Having now aaid all that the 
ealli for, In ra(ard to the ^nerml objects 
ofthe meeting, I moat be iodal^ in afew 
parting words to the democracy of the city 
and eounty of New York. Never before 
has a public man been honored by the sap- 
port oT tmer, Smer, or Aore diainteretted 
biends than they have been to nie. In 
pBO^erit; I have aearaelT known where to 
find thein^iB adversity the; have been 
with me always. Through evil a&d throngh 
nod report, I have fonnd the masset of the 
N«« Yorit Oenocracy the aaiae DD<rt>tm- 
rive, bnt noahrioking friends. Tlie hap- 
piMt, by At the happiestday in my whole 
political career was that on which, on my 
Mora Bnitn WaibiDgloB, tkey Bat meaa 



the Battery, in the nldst of a slorm of 
vlhd and rain, which would have kept 
fairweather frieod* at hume, and eilend- 
ed to me, a private citiien like thpmselve^ 
their bard hand*, and opened their boaeat 
haarta in a welcolne as cordial as maa ever 
received thxa maa. They nmt no a>snt>- 
aneee to talul^ them thai I afaall be for ev- 
er thankful for Iheir untnrpassed devotka 
to my welfare! they know tkatlcsanev. 
er cease to cherish with gratefnl tecUlee* 
ttoai the bsnored relation of repre»eua> 
tivc and cotutitncnl which has uulcd be- 
tween as for so long a period, in such va- 
ried forou, aad which is now for ever 

There waa no small nnmber of manly 
eyee dimmed by no dishonorable moist- 
ure, in the vaat aaaembly to which this 
letter was read. An iatelligent friend 
remarked afterwards upon it, that if 
Mr. Van Boren had oftener in his ea- 
reer, let ia the public eye to a glimpM 
into his Aeorf such as was shown bf 
the fact of faia remembering the fwm 
on the oeeaaion of his reception in 
1641, and the manner of his ailnaion 
to it onder the eireomstances of the 
preaent oeeaaion, the ptaventioa of lua 
renomination could not have beea rf> 
fected at Baltimore. 

The other instance referred to ia his 
beautiful ttilwte to the memory of Da 
Witt Clinton, on aDonaneing his death 
in a meeting of the New Vork Sena- 
tors and Representatives in Congreaa, 
Bsaembled at Washington. We quote 
from Holland's Life of Van Bdmb t 

" By the current of evniu which we 
have thna briefly related, Mr. Van Bnrca 
and Ur. Clinton were arrayed ogaiast 
each other as the distinguished and able 
leaden of opposite political parties. A. 
most violcnl contett ensont, snd wa* las- 
tained for yean with unabated energy on 
both side*. To enter lainately into the 
history of Ibeee conflicts woaM be an db- 
gtateful tuk, and wonld extend this por- 
tion of tbe present history beyond its pro- 
per bounds. It will suffice to My, that 
dariDR these eeaflicta, Ocivemor Clinloa 
was twice driven into retirMuent. and 
two of his diatin^iahed supporters, Chief 
Justice Spencer and Judge Tan Neai, both 
compelled (o retire from the bench (>f the 
Supreme Court; snd, on the other hand, 
Mr. Van Biiren was twice removed fnom 
oSce, and was parsaed, for many years, 
with (he moat unrelenling party violence. 
It is a point of bright relief in tbi« dark 
pictnre, that amid all the eoUifiont of 
part; vkdenee, tlie two gmt antagoaiata 



ley Google 



ISU.] Mr. VMtt Buren. 7 

ceuincd tliclr eonfidenee in the penoail to be eonsciom, that (he deceased kIm 

Integritr of e»ch other, and each eipress- felt and acknowledtted, that our political 

ed his reapect for the prirale nprif htness differences have been wholly ftee fhim 

And boaestf of big riraL Sach, at lea«l, that most venooiotii and comxtiiig of all 

ara Mid, on the baat anlhoritf, to bare poitona, peraonal hatred, 

baan tha aeatlnenla of Qnemor Oliatoa, " ' But, in other reipeetS) it it now im* 

aliwl ill Hill lilt iiiiiiiiiiali iif hii liPi , and material what w«j the character oTtliaae 

tlw tbUowiag affeetiag and eloquent i«Mi- colliaiona. The; hare been tarned to no- 

nuBT of Ut. Van Bnren to the paUie wF' thia^, and lesa than nothing, by the event 

vieal and pritate worth of hii iUnitriont we deplore, and T doubt not that we will, 

compelttor, is publicly on recoid. At a with one voice and with one heart, yield 

tneeting of the Senators and Repreienla- to his memory the weU-deaerred tribute of 

tives in Congreu, from the Slate of New oar respect for his aame, and onr warmett 

Tork, held at Washington, on the 19th of gratitude for his great and sigiial serriees. 

Februaiy, I82S, lo express their feelingi For myself, sir, bo «troi^c, so sincere, and 

on the sadden demise of Goirenior Clin- so en^irossing, is that feeling, thst T, who, 

ton, Hr. Van Buren, then a member of whilst living, nerer, — no, never, — eniiad 

the Senate, inirodneed some appropriate him anything, now that he has fUlen, am 

resMntiona with the foDowine remarks: greatly tempted to tavj him his graTS 

" ' Mb. CnntMAK — We have met to with its boDors. 

pay « tribnta of respect to the memory td* "'Of Ihia, the nasi aDictiag at all 

oar tale OoTCTOor and dittinguiabed fel- bcreaTemeati^ that haa lallen on liia 

low-citizen, De Witt Cliatoa. Some of wretched and deaponding family, what 

oar bretbren have been ao kind ai lo aak shall I say r Nothiag. Their grief il 

me to pnpareaiuilableexpreasioBof our too sacred for description; jiutiee eaa 

feelings) aad Ihare, in panuanccof their alone be done it by those deep ukdsilen^ 

wishes, drawn np what has occorred to bot agonizing feelings, which, on Iheic 

ne as proper to be said on this occasion, account, pBrrade every bosom.* " 
Before f submit it to the considention of 

the meeting, I beg to be indnlged in a few But enough on this head ;— we will 

brief remarks. I can say nothing of the pus from it with the single remark, 

deceased that is not familiar to you all. that while he himself has both appeared 

To all he was personally known, and to and bean far less moved from hia usual 

many of »s, intimately and familiarly, eqnanimitifthan moat of his intimftie or 

5*°^^*^ IT', "l?"^-.- ^^^ ^'^^ "; "^tached irieods, by the events of thq 

™f ^i^^^'h «v 'i*?.'"^ *? V"^ l"'" Convention Kome «;enea of itw^ 

^ ^.r^r;::TjXJ^T F-"".^ -^f-tauon of feeling hav. 

Totcd lo the pMseeoUoa of plan^ of gr«M W^" ^^aeaa^ among the latter, mor« 

pahlie ntiUiy, are alao knawa to yea alL '^'"7 bonoiable to the individual for 

and by all, I an satis&ed, dnly app^ whom ihej aprang, than all the pnUic 

eiated. The snhject can derive no addi- disttnctioDS or applausea which havd 

tlonal interest or importance itom any crowned bis political career. 

eulogy of mine. All other considerations The resolution adopted bj the Con- 

ODt of view, the single fact, thai the great- ventioo, in the vetj act of consummat- 

eat pnblieimprovenienloftheageiawhich ing the sacrifice which was so richly 

we live, wbs commoneed under the guid- garlanded with praises glowing wiUi aU 

anceofhiacoiini:il»,and splendidly accom- JiiB flowery hues of soalhern eloquence, 

t^^,r % - ?"".»?,!'' ■""£:=?*' ^*i. ooght not to be omitted in this place. 

of iueir, snfficeni to fill the ambUien of j^o o„e who was present on thatV:ca. 

sirh^Set: wS"hnf:.'aTd r 'T^' "r srr '"^ '"^a* 

character, and co^du^, hiSe b«omi the "^ e-j'huataam by whicl everv indi- - 

t«opertyoftha historian: and there is BO vidual was harned aw»y, on the first 

reason to donbt that history will do him mention of his name alUr the complo- 

josliee. The triumph of his taleats and *^°^ °^ ''■^ nomination, when the whols 

patriotism canaol fail lo become iwma- bo<lj Tose, amidst the waving of hand- 

ments of high and endoring fame. We keichie& and cheers whoaa uproar 

eannol, indeed, but remember that, in aeemed destined never to aubside : 
our poblic career, collisions of opinian 

and action, al once eilensive, earnest, and "StMlvad,7ha.t this Convenlion hdd ia 
enduring, have arisen between the de- the highest esllmatioo and regard, tbeir 
ceased and many of ua. For myself, sir, itlnstriou* fellow-citizen, Martin Van Ba- 
it gives me a deep-felt, though meUn- ren, of New Tori ; that we cherish the 
eholy, satisAeiioii to know, and more so, most grateftJ and abidiag sense of Uia 



vGooglp 



Mr. Vm Buren. 



fJnl,, 



mbiUt;,int^rilf,mDi)finiineEE, with which true charuter was illDUrated b; Mve- 



he discharfted tbe daiiea orthe hii;b office 
of f rciidcDt or the United Sutcs ; 
ecpecially uf the inflexible fidelity 
whieb he msiDtained the true docti 
ol llie Conn ilDl ion, and the iceaaun 
the Democratic Party, during 
ani nobly arduous Adminisu 
in Ihe Diemonible slrqggle or 
■ manyr to the great prii 



rat auch e I peri men 18, <ia the pulse t. 
the popular heart, as that made Id P»- 
ficiana county in Ohio ; where Ihe D*. 

. mocraUc eleciore being called opoo u> 

hiB Inme ■'S"'*7 '•'s*' presidsntiiJ preferenoM 

ilion • tbal ^ noting apposite to tbeir names in *. 

840 befell ^°°^ opened for ihe purpose, the esodi- 

" of which ''•'* of their choice for ihe noRiinaliiin, 

istheworthrrepfcseniatirc, andwe }V>i"ird* of oine^lentkM were for Mr. 

revere him as such ; and that we hereby *aii Bnren. His own Stale, with all 

tender to him, in htshouorable reiiremen^ tbe ioRaence of its greatness and power, 

the assurance of the deeply sealed cgnfi. held Bcrupolouslj bach fmtn any roore- 

dence, atfecliDn, andretpect, of the Ame- ment to bring him again before the De- 

ricaa Demociac; ." mocracy of the Union ; nor was it tiB 
after siiteen other Sutes had craphati- 

Some of Mr. VaiiBuTen'eoppanenls caily declared for him, that New York 

luLTe nrged against him tho charge of added the expresaion of her glad ud 

pressing forward upon (he Democratic cordial concurrence. This indeed is • 

party for its remiiiiinBiion, On such fact placed beyond question by the tm- 

Slges faia Missouri leuer, which we plest coscessions of those whose oppo- 
uw to bate expressed the eincerest siUun effected the defeat of faia friends 
■eotimenls of his heart, disavowing an^ in the ConTention, that prior to tho 
auch desire, and declaring his deiemni- introdactino of the new Texas issa« 
BBtion not to allow his name lo be made into the etnyasa, be was the choice of 
any occasion of discord in his party, what we may call the nnitersal Demo- 
Is wholly thrown away. Yel never cracy of ibe wh«le Union— the choice, 
was iinputBtioii more unjuat. Most of loo,of mostofthesprahersin tbatbodj, 
our readers— all indeed but a very who declared themielvea now corn- 
few— will now receive the intelligence pelted, with relueianl regret, nnder the 
for Uie first time, that sJier his defeat necessity created by ilie torrent of 
ill iMO, he was only prevented by iha p<ipular feeling in their section, oa the 
Mtnest remonstrances of his friends Texaa question, to advocate the selec- 
from rasking a similar positive and final lion of some oaodidaie more in bannanr 
witbdrawatashebasnuwmade. Such with that feeling. We advert to this 
was indeed his decided desire — though pwnt only for the porpoM of makins 
as clear then aa at any subsequent plain, that it was /rem the people tfaM 

Criod in the prophetic conviclion that the call for Mr. Vao Buren's renomina- 

foro iB44 the Democratic party would tion proceeded — proceeded in a manner 

bave returned into itahabitoal and nalo- denying to him any right to refuse a 

lal ascendency. It was well under- response of vfilling and grateful ac- 

■tood, too, at Washington, ihat the ceptance — and not upon the ppople that 

letter signed by nearly all the Repubti- it was in sny way or degree either 

can members of Congress inviiing him forced or pressed. We have it in our 

to a dinner before his departure from pouer to declare that no individwl can 

tfaat city, was meant as a formal ex- be found witliin ibe waters ibat encom- 

pression of their sense that he should pass our continent, to whom waa ad- 

Dot pursue that coorae,— and it would dressed, in sny mode or form, diractlr 

afford food for some curious speculation or indirectly proceeding from Mr. Van 

to recall niw the names of some whose Buren, a single syllable or single act 

^natures were appended to that call looking towards the end of effecting his 

upon him then. No : Mr. Van Boren's renomination. All in particular who 

lenomination, as made by the consiitu- approached him during his weMera 

ent popular bodies which sent their in- uiur, must testify of the sernpulouB 

Mructed representatives to the Balti- steadiness with whiob he declined ail 

more Convention, was the spontaneous conversalion on the subject; while 

and iaatlnctivu movement of the great some of bis friends, whose slarm at the 

massea of the Democracy, acting chiefly sUIe of things known to exist at Wtsh- 

ander the feeling uf a desire to light ingtoD a month or two prior to the 

the fight of 1840 over again, ander the assembling of tbe Convention, led tfaem 

aane flig and the same leader. Its to desiietoaseiuhialkvarinthatbodf, 



z.d- Google 



1944.] Avarice and Envy, a TaU. Q 

eoanta noting meant of influence nnd and of succession to a place in the no- 

eomtiinatina against those which ihey bla line of his Eto^niblicsn predeoesaora 

beiieied tu be sciiTe oa the other side in that affice — will undoubiadly be 

-^0 at to secure the coatummatiaa cf elected bj ■ sweeping majurity of botli 

the purpose for which they considered the popular and electoral vote ; and 

it* members sent tbere bv the penple — that elcctiun will be almost at complet« 
Tvoeiied from Mr. Van Burea himself a rererssl of the inaane fully of the 

an emphalie prohibition againit any- eleetiim of 1840, to ihe credit of Mr. 

tMag of (As kind; anything calculated Van Bursa's historical fame, st woald 

to iateifere in Ihe slightest degree with have been a formal reflection in bla 

the perfect freedom of action of any own person. 

namber of tbe body. It cannot be But enocgh. It is time now to tara 

necessary for ns to more than allude to over the leaf, io Ihe hook of eTenis, on 

the letter in which, in sdrance of its which we eiiafess thai we hare found % 

assembling, he requested his most in- graiefu) bat melaneholy satisfaction is 

timate friend there to vithdtaw his Uius far a brief while lingering. It ia 

name, the moment he should become time to ny "Qood Night to Marmion!" 

•atitfied that it wat desirable to do so We take lean vf Mr. Van Buren from 

liir ^e Rake of the harmony, union and the stage of political affairs, with emo- 

■ciooesa of tbe Democratic party and liunt which shrink from public utier- 

caoae. ance. Others may hasten to the mnun- 

So far, therefore, at regaids that Iain-tops to wait in eager impatience 

which ia the true honor of a renomina- for the firat ray of ihemorninii's dawn ; 

tion, to a oandidste fallen in buoorable we are reluctant to withdraw our gsae, 

martyrdum under the oircuin stances of rerereotial homage and admiration, 

which characterized the election of f>-am the glories streaming orer the 

ISIO— we mean iia expression of the departure of the sinking, the soaken 

feeling of the popular heart and the Just sun of ths day now for eter past. Wa 

Jodgmeni of the popular mind — -the lau- do not mean to be understood as apeak- 

rel of that honor at this moment adorns ing merely individually, — we are bat 

Mr. Van Buren's brow as undeniably interpreting thee^mpathiescf millions; 

U if that renuminttioa had been car- and well do we feet aasored [bat ther« 

lied into formal and practical eSect by are few of our readers, even among 

the Ciin*ention, as it had been already lh<iee least friendly tu Mr. Van Buren, 

virtnally made hy the people, in a ma- who wilt not yield, to this farewetl 

Jority which would almost justify us io tribute tu a great and good statesmao, 

calling it unanimity. Ths excellent now become historioal, a genervna ap- 
eandidale taken up in bis plwc — a can- , proTsl and response, 
(lidate well worthy of Urtt selection, 



AVARICE AND ENVY. 
A TsLi, rnoK rat raiNOB or tictor mmo. 

Entt and Avarice one aummer day, 

Sanntaring altroad 

In queal of the abode 
Of aoma poor wretch or fool who lired that wa;^ 
You — or myself perhaps — I cannot saj| — 
Along the Tuad, scarce heedinit whei« it tended, 
Tbeif way in sullen, sulky silence wended ; 
Fur thoutfh twin suters, these two chsrming oreMaiMi 
Rivals ia hideousneiia of form and features, 



Digitized by CtOOQ I ! 



Avarice md Etwy, a Tal4. 

Wule aa gnat lore between them. A> they went, 

Pale Avarice, 
Wilh gjciatiug eyes, 
And back and sboulders almost double bent, 
Was buggipg cloM that Tafal box 
For wtiich Ihe'a eier on the watch 
Some glance to catch 
SnspiciouBlj diiecled to ila locks ; 
And Envy too, no doubt, uUh sidelong vrinking 

Of her green greedy orba, no single minute 
Withdrawn rrom it, was bard a-ihiokiDg 
Of all the shining dollars in it. 

The only words that Avarice could otter, 

Her constant doom, in a low, frightened mntter, 

" There's nut enough, enough yet in my store !" 
While Envy, as ibe scanned the glitieiing light. 
Groaned as she gnashed her very teeth wiih spite, 

"She's more than me — more, still for ever moiel" 
Thae each in her own fashion, as they wandered, 
Upon the coffei'a precious coulenla pondered. 

When suddenly, to ibeir suTprise, 
The god Desire stood before Ibeir eyes — 
Dasiie, that couiteous deity who grants 

All wishes, prayers aod wania ; 
Said be to the two sieiers : " Beauteous ladiea. 
As I'm a gentleman, my task and trade ia 

To be the slave of your behest ; 
Choose therefore at your own sweet will and pleaaare. 

Honors or treasure, 
Or in one word whatever you'd like best. 
But let us nndeidtand each other — she 
Wbo speaks the hrst her prayer shall eertaiiiily 

Receive — the other, ibe same booo redmibUd," 
Imagine how oui amiable pair, 
At this proposal, all so frank ajid fair. 

Were muiually troubled ! 
Misers and enviers, of our human race. 
Say, what would you have done in such a^aaet 

Kach of the sislers murmured sad and low ; 
" What boots it, oh Desire, to me to have 
Crowns, treasures, all the goods that heart can crave. 

Or power divine bestow, ' 
Since still another must have always more !" 

So each, lest ahe should sp6ak before 

The other, hesitating slow and long. 
Till the god lost all patience, hlld her tongne. 
J^ frolicsome and merry little god, 

He was enraged, in such a way 

To be kept waiting there all day, 
VTith two such beaatiee in the public road ; 

Scarce able to be even civil. 

He wished them heartily both at the d — - L 
i^vy Bt last tbe silence broke, 

A»4 smikn^ vrith malignant aoeer 

Upon her sister dear. 
Who stood in eager expectation by. 

Ever implacable and cniel, apoke : 
"ImUbt Utttitd 0/ DM ey* /" 



lizcdbyGoOl^Ic 



1844.] TAe R»-Anntxation of Texat. 



THE EE-ANNEXATION OF TEXAS: 



On or the «rgunienta in frnvor of to- Ytnkee fanner with bii son* will IIt* 

■nnexiD^ Texas, which w&s well repra- and grow rich upon the corner of » 

Mnted by Mr. Walker in hii letter, farm, from which s Virginia planter 

seema to have been oierionked in the with hie alaTea has just ^en driven a 

tDora recant discDSsions of the question, banhmpt. The Ysnkro works him' 

B*en Mr. Calhona aeenu to suppose self, his son works at hia aide, hie wift 

that the pecuhar institntions of the and d&o^tera aro at work In the dair^ 

South, as it is the fashion to call slave- or the kitchen. The jail sare, for it ia 

ry, are to be rendered more durable by their own. They study to moreaae thv 

the annentioD ; and the Abolitiunists, prodaets of tho farm and (o iniproTS 

as well as some of the more rational the farm itself, fur it is their wealth <ft 

opponents of those inBtitulions, object to be their inheritance, 
to the anneialion on the same ground. Gu down into old Fairfax in Vir^nts, 

Boih are wrong, absolutely wrung, and just beyood the Potomac, the neighbor- 

a little attention to facts will prove the hood of General Washington, formerly 

error. So far from perpctusiing slave- the garden of the South. Ten years 

ry in the United States, the annevtiion ago it was almost a wilderness : like 

<rf Texas, or of the slave-hulding par- Actava devoured by hie own dogs, the 

tion of it at least, gives the only well- pUsters had been eaten up by their 

gronnded hope, acoording to all present slaves. First, came mortgages on th« 

appearances, for its ultimate extinction, proud old homestead i then mortgages 

Ijtis may appear to be a paradox ; but on the slaves to raise money to feed 

it is sober truth, and fully susoeplible them i at last the Sheriff : andtheold- 

of demonstration. Let ue reason coolly liithioned Virginia gentleman whonaed 

and candidly aboat this matter, wtthout to import hie pipe of wine a year and 

regard to the opposite f^aticisms drive his blood horse* to the Spring*, 

which rags on both sides oi'il- has become a ju lap drinker at the stags 

Every one who has cither read or bouse, or has struck out into the worid 

thought on the subject is aware that the lo seek his fortnne. But the land wat 

Talae of a slave's fcbor is never equal too good to be lost. The Yankee has 

to that of a freeiiisn, and that the ex- bought it. He has pat np the fences, 

Cse of his Mpport ie greater. He and driven his plough to the deeper 

less indi>.;ement to work hard, for he soil, and tnrned in the clover ; and old 

gains nothing b j it ; he has no induce- Fairfax is beginning to smile like a 

ment ti- be thnlly, for it aaves him colony of New Eng&nd. 
nothing- He gets hia food and bis We have moved one step forward ia 

clothing, whatever may be the crop or our argument j for we are agreed now 

the expenses of makieg it ; and in any that a freeman oan sapport himself bf 

event he gets nothing else. He is agricultural labor where a slave eaU' 

therefore an unthrifl, as all are who live not. But there is another thing to b« 

from hand to month 1 aad he only dif- considered, and that is skill. Now and 

fera from other nnthrifls in this, that then, yon will find in the South a smart 

he has no inducements to reform. He negro, who has iaaraed a tnde. Now 

is nnskitfol, too ; lie learns nothing i he ana then, not often, — for trades are not 

has no occasion to think. Whether he to be learned withont attention, and 

plough deep or shallow, it is all one to few will give much attention to that 

him. Besides, where slaves are, white which is not to repay them for their 

men will not work. Labor ia degraded trenhle. A skilful slave is worth more 

there, and the white freeman is glad to his master; but he is worth no more 

to Bxense his natnral laainess by refus- to himself Ifhe even makes himself a 

iag to wear what he calls the badge master workman, he gets no wages; 

of servitude. and if he is the veriest botch, he sttU 

The conBoqnense «f (his ia, tiat a geti his two wiits of elotlies, hia wm- 



i=yGoogh 



Tie IU-Annexati«n of Ttxai .- i 



t Injhimce 



[July, 




.meal, mnd his baeoo. Tha slaTe me- 
cbanius ire the.efure few and aot ei' 
pert. The great niaM of ihe alavea in 
All counlciea has alwajs been, fuid at- 
waya oinat be, empkiyed in mere labor, 
the cummunesl Jabur uf the pliutalion. 
Takeo *« a budj, Ihey caunut aupport 
themselTeB b; an; mhei agiioultuial 
occupation a. 

Nuw, sgiicultural emplofments le- 
quire more ground ihan anv otiier. A 
■huemaket can make his filing un six 
feet aquaie, a place just big enougb foi 
bis bed and liia bench. A ibouaand 
men cap noik in a aingle maDutactor;. 
People who live by (beir nits, ihaok 
BeaTeu, are not expected to be great 
laoilboldeiB. 

Freemen then can be slowed cIosct 
miidinakealiiiag,lhanriavescan. The 
tradera, maonraciurera, mechanics, pro- 
fessional men, ma; be crowded jow 
towns, BO that a hundred ihousand 
■hall live comfonabi; on a square mile 
«f land. The alaie roust be a fatmer, 
or rather a farmer's laborer, and a tax;, 
vnskiirul and ivasieful laburer lo boot, 
i*ha iBilies small crops, and requiiea 
therefore much land lo taise enough lo 
clothe and I'eed him. 

Remembering Ihia, as a second f«ct 
■buut which we are not to have an; 
further arijuraent, let as go on to 
another lopin. 

Id new countries, where land la 
"Cheap, agriculture is careless. That \t 
to aa;, ibe larmer picks out the beet 
toil and negiecta the worse, and worka 
over the best somewbai rough!;. 
When an acre of new land can be 
bought for a dollar and a quarler, peo- 
ple are nut apt tu pay much fur manur- 
ing an old one. In a new conniry, 
therefore, population is apt lu be acat- 
leied, on); the best aoila cultivated, and 
those cropped hard, au as tu make the 
most out of them for the time. When 
die; are eshausied, Ibe aetiler moTcs 
on to aaolber tract. 

But SB the country grows older, land 
becinnea more ooally. People leain 
the art of liiiog on smaller farms. 
The farmer tries to improve what be 
baa got, and to m^e it yield all that 
the beat culture caji bring out. Fopn- 
luion thickens, and at last the country 
beeomea su full, and land so dear, that 
h ta difficult to obiain a living b; mere 
Uior. Then it is ihai emigration be- 
gins, and the auiplua population, inca- 
laUe of fikding a auppott at home. 



moves away to regions where land is 
cheaper. 

Nuw, if ever sueh a time shall come 
to the slave States, it is very ceriain 
that the slarea, inalead of being valua- 
ble property to their maeiers, will be- 
come an incumbrance. Whenever a 
man eala more than he earitB, he must 
be dependent fur support on the earn- 
ings of ulhers ; and in the case of the 
alave, the dependence mual be on ih* 
master, for nu one else is bound to sup- 
port him. Let this state of ihingn 
come about, and there will be no oh> 
Jectinns to abolition, at least on the put 
of the masters. 

And this state of ihinga must and 
will cume, as aorely as men continue to 
oat and drink. The only question is — 
Wheo^ When will the land of the 
slave States be so fully covered with 



populatior 



e can answer this ques- 



There arc parts of Europe which we 
know to be fully slocked with puputa- 
tion, where mcro labor scarcely earns 
a living, but lelies in part on Ihe poiir- 
raies, and where government is n'llling 
to pay and doea pay passage money (or 
eniig^anta to America, in order to re- 
lieve li,elf of tlie burden of supporting 
them at Wme. In the more fertile part 
of the caiitWnl of Europe, the piiputa* 
lion at preaenvtime averages 110 per- 
sona for every k<^uare mile, or one for 
ever; six acres ; la the northern re- 
gions it is muoh less. Not that every 
square mile can do thik. One may be 
a swamp, another a coal ihld, hundreds 
of oiherB covered wiib the waters of 
rivers, lakes and inland seas , but on 
the whole, taking ilie good wit^ the 
bad, the productive wiih the impractica- 
ble, the city pavement and ihc turn- 
pike road, and the wuodland with the 
arable farm, in the long avenge, tix 
acres of laud in the weal of Europe, 
are barely sufficient lo raise food for a 
human bemg. Beyond this, with the 
slricleat economy, and highest skill, 
and most unlhncbiog industry, Euro- 
pean lands have nut guoe. Indeed, 
lung before Ihe papnialiuo reachea this 
point, vulualary emigration begins with 
those who have the means ; and when 
the point is fully reached, the guardians 
of Ibe poor are busy freighting ships to 
carry off their paupers. 

But all these Europeans do not live 
by agticoltuie. One half at Inst, so 



I =y Google 



1644.] m the Diavtitn of Slaeity. IS 

the book* Btty, lira in tha citiM ind r period or ten yearai Mmetimea aialb 

towns, in London irith its millians, in ing In >bai)t Hi, when c&uwa faappeo* 

Paris, ViettDB, Me-, trtisre tradesmen ed to enconrags rrai^r&tiun mors th«i 

c&n flouriBli withoat occnpyini^ their naual. The average hu been aboM 

shares of the land. Not so our Amer- 3D per cent. — ihst is to say, at the sb4 

ican slaTos; they, as we hare seen, oreveir ten years 130 inhiibitaatahaTa 

must lire in the country, and use np been found where 100 used to bo. 

their full proportinn of the soil. And Thus in 1790 the alave population wm 

hence as we know, there are no large about two millicms : in 1600 about twa 

towns it) the slave States, except such millions six hoadred thonaand: in lAlO 

aa are anppnrted by eommerce with something le«s than three minions and 

abroad. More thm fifteen sixteenths a half: m 1890 four millinns and ft 

«r all the inhabitants of those Slates, as half; in 1830 lire milliona ani threa 

shown by the last census, live on farina, quarter*: and in 1840, a little orer 

Remember now that the slave, what- seven milliona and a third. If tbs 

ever his eraplnytaent, produces less and population shall contiaue to increase a 

wastes more than the freeman, and add the Soaihern States, aa it haa dons 

to it the fact that frnm the nature of his thus far, it will have reached twenty- 

only occupation, he requires mure Uad, five millions by the year 1887, and 

and it will be easy to see that if six about the ;ear 19'jft will not be lesa 

acres, on the average, are required to than seventy millions. So far is plain 

Bopport a freeman, who works fur him- enough. There ia no miatake in tha 

self, a good deal more will be necessa- calculation, nor in the facts on which it 

ly to make food for a human being un- rests. Examine them as we may, the 

der the ignorant, lazy, and thrittlesa result is as we have juat stated it : — in 

ooltare of j slave. 18t47, twenty-Sve millions — in 1996, 

It has been said, and with apparent seventy millions. Now mark the nen 

truth, that from thirty-lire to forty In elosioD. 

the square mile, is about as large a The entire area of the present Slava 

population as slave labor can support. Stales and Slive Territories, counting 

Tha eilieint of England began to he in Delaware, the District of Columbia, 

freed when the population attained thia and the Floridas, is a little leas tlian 

rate, mnny hundred years a^. Dela- 830,000 square miles. A population 

ware, where slavery is nearly worn of Iweoty-Gve millions on this area, 

out, the entire number of its slaves be- auch as will be on it in 1887, gives 4(> 

ing but 9,600, has an average of little persons to the square mile ; a popala- 

over thirty-five ; — and those parts of lion of 70 milliona, suob aa it will hava 

Maryland and Virginia, which have in L036, an average to the square mila 

approached this average, Snd slave of 110. 

labor unproductive, and scarcely more It is a startling &ct, but we cannot 

than adequate to its own support. escape from it. In 1887, 43 ^eara 

Here, then, we have the two ex- from the time at which we are wntinf, 

bemes. Slavery hegias to be a bad the average value of a slave's labor 

business for the master when the ooon- throughout the South will be little 

try becomes so thickly settled that tKi more than adequate to his support ; in 
the average 40 people are living oo 1936, less than ^ years, it will be im- 

a square mile of land ; and when the possible for slavery to aubsist except 

Average reaches 110, mere iabofy as a banhen on the master. The 

whether bond or free, is unable to sap- politician who fancifully imagines that 

fort itself, but is forced to rely in a freeman is more apt to he fond of 

whole or in part on the skill and liberty if cradled in a land of slaves, 
charity of others. may mourn over so early a dnwo&ll of 

When will these numbers be reached his cherished iastitution ; and the abo- 

in onr Southern States > — It is a mere litionist may perhaps donbt, whether it 
question of arithmetic, and an easy is worth while to work so hard as he ia 
one. We know what the population of doings, in the vain imagination of hsa- 

the Slave States was in 1790, 1800, ten ing what moat neceasarily eume so 
1810, Xfaa, 1830 and 1840, and can soon. But there is the fact for thein 
easily calculate the rate of its increase, to ponder ou : those are now living 
This rate bos varied somewhat: some- who will aee the last of negm alBTtrr 
timee rising as high as 33 pei cent, for ia the United Stales. 



, Google 






11 



Tli4 Rt-Annexalion of Tetai ■■ in ilr Injbtnu 



P-lj, 



Bnt, wben thu time shall hive come, 
wW ii to be the lot of Ihe negroeal 
In 1881, vheD tbeir valae has become 
qnesiionabte, ihej will nnmbeT eipht 
tuA a hitf milliona : by the jear 1S26, 
the period before whicb the emauelpa^ 
tion most take place, tbe; will equal 
ttrentT four milliona of aocls. What 
is to K ^one in tbe next fortj-tbree 

EU8 witb these eight nilliona and a 
If of Drproductive laborers: "hsi in 
the next eighLjr-two, with these tnentj- 
four miltioDS of panpers 1 

Here ariibmetic fbils. Shall ihey 
be etnaucipated on tbe soil that bied 
themf Tnej nil! cover it with pau- 
peiiatn, with rapiue and desolation. 
Their maslera, ioipoTCriahed bj the 
depreciation and ultimate destruction 
of their property, wiib plantations en- 
cumbered and incapable of prolitable 
enttnie, — bow are the; to support in 
the puor bouse or hj parochial relief 
thoae wbo before constituted their 
wealth ? 

Shall ihej be retained in bondage? 
Tbe slaves of bankrupt masters, value- 
less themselves I It is out; lo levy in a 
different form an insupportable tax for 
{Auperism on those who themselves are 
paupera. 

Shall thejr be invited to migrate to 
the North and Westl Ohio has al- 
ready closed her door against them by 
laws making it penal to introduce a free 
negro without indeoinifying the Stats 
against the risk of his becoming a pau- 

Ki. Pennsylvania bas amended her 
)netitution so as to preclude the pos- 
■ibilily of any but a white mnn becom- 
ing a citizen. In the Eastern and 
more Northern States, and in Canada, 
where this philanthropy is most rife, 
the negro cannot live ; the climate de- 
stroys nira. In MasBai;hDsetts, though 
the negro and the while man are equal- 
ly freemen and citizens there, of three- 
quarters of a million of inhabitants but 
tight thousand are negroes. 

what, then, is to be tlie fate of tbe 
negro of our Soothem States 1 Re- 
main as be is, he cannot. His condi- 
tion must change — but what is Ihe 
change to bel ^hero is he to go— 
what to be his condition 1 Three- fourtha 
of a century, and the question will have 
been decided, for good or for evil. Nor 
can we blind ourselves to ita conae- 
qoencea, either to our Southern breth- 
ten oi to tbe tlnion, — to the white man 
n to the Mgio. 



Bnt is there no escape from the evSa 
that impeiid upon the emancipation 
of the Suuihem slaves T Is this great 
moral good to be Durcbased only by 
boiTOrs at which humanity slckensl. 
Let him that believes in the watchful- 
ness of Providence, or its wisdom, or 
its power, tremble in view of the ca- 
lamities that are before na ; a commu- 
nity ruined and hopeless, — a servilv 
war, with its bloody hfanhslones and 
desecrated altars, — a desolated empire. 
But to those who have faithfully mark- 
ed the dispensalious of The Most High, 
no crisis, preaeot or prospective, caa 
bring despair. 

The Republic of Texas, that now 
sues for admission into tbe American 
Union, skirts on the one side the south- 
ern line of the United Slates, and oit 



this last named country is the most 
favorable of the whole globe for die 
development of the negro race ; mors 
nnifonnty mild than the North or West, 
more salubrious than Africa, and with 
a Boil spontaneously productive. There, 
and in Central America, and in the vast 
regions still further south, the negro is 
already a free man .^socially as well as 
politically, the equal of the while. 
Nine-tenths of the population there is 
made up of the colored races : — the 
GeneraU, the Congress-men, the Presi- 
dents, are men of mixed blood. 

Let tbe emancipated negro find him- 
self on the borders of Mexico and the 
Slates beyond, and his fate is no longer 
doubtful or gloomy. He is near tbs 
land of his fellows, where equal rights 
and equal hopes await him and his off- 
spring. 

Nor does it require the myaterions 
foresight of a prophet, to mark out iho 
very steps by which he is to arrive 
there. The negro is less valuable as 
a laborer in the North than in the 
South : he exults in the sunshine of 
the tropics, and shrinks before the 
bracing winters of a more temperate 
latitude. The slave, too, is less vala- 
able as he approaches the conGnea of a 
free State. Exaggerating the happi- 
ness of that indolence which he regards 
as the characteristic of liberty, and 
aware of the possibility of escape into 
a country where slavery does not etlst, 
he becomes discontented, reluctant, in- 
Bubordinate. Besides he Is there in 
almost immediate competition wttk tlie 



1844. 1 m the Duration of Slavery. H 

Am libotei : ther fasve the ncne em- of population, in tliis u in all ottrii 

'tloymeDls, sad the ptoductB of their countries where it hu exiated— is « 

labor are of tlie same sort, while tbo problem vhich we do not heie fed 

slkTe is the mtao wutefol and lew cilted npoa to discuss. Thst any 

piodnetiTe Uborsr of the two. oompuleorf power fna without can 

A» & nUuntl consequence, negro erer EtccompliBb thst end, laoh u tho 

timretf rMsdM williagl; from the " Aboliiioniats" of the day ue striving 

man iwrthecn clinstA, espsciall; if it to appi;, it appears the absnidest folljr 

Mcuwe by m> doing from the perilous to suppose. It tua hitherto bad iw 

livalry of fre« labor. You faave only other effect than to exasperate tha 

to pieaent to the planter an equally fer- master, and make hea?(er and ligbtec 

tila region to the South of him, you the chain of the slate ; nor does there 

have only to shew bim thst it o^rs appear muoh likelihood of its exerting 

leas fitcililies for ibe escape of his any other tnflueBoe in its future eon* 

•laTea, and whether il be regard fbr tinnaooe. If, as has been txdealf 

their inoreased heatdi and consequent hoped and fondly believed by inaay it 

longevity, aoiiec; to retain his property the truer {rieoda of the negro, the la- 

in sscuiity, or the mere daaire to make suit of the British experiment of eman- 

thtir labor as profitable as poeaiUe, cipation in the West India lataads ahall 

yoa may be anre of his willingnasa to be snob as to prove its safety and wia- 

lemove there. Thus, we have seen dom, so as to open the eyee of tlis 

iba acquisition of Lonisiana in 1800, master himself to the truth urged upoa 

aod of Fli»ida in 1819, make an «b- btm bj his nortbeni neighlMr, Iii0 

Tions cheek on the increaae of slaves grounds of the question will be in m> 

in the old Sontbem Slates, by the in- respect cbaaged by the exiatenoe of 

dnoementa whioh they offered to ihair Texas in the Union. The master in 

omigration further eonth. Nearly Texas will be open lo the same meana 

1,100,000 slaves, as shown by the of conviction aa he would be if atill on 

oenaos, have already migrated into his old plaatation in VIrgiais. If, on 

States beyond the limits of the original the other band, that experiment ibaU 

thirteen, leavinf less than l,iOO,O00 not prove aueoessful, so as to diajvove 

'behind them. By this natural transfer the asserted possibility of the coexiat- 

it ie that Delaware haa become to all enoe of the two races and two o<riort| 

practical purposes a free State \ Marj- side by aide, on the same aoil, in a r*- 

umd nBarly so, and Virginia to a great lation of freedom and quality of right*, 

•stent i-— and the same cause is operat- how can any of the friende of eithei 

ug largely in ether States. desire to keep tbem forcibly pent va 

If Texas is annexed to tbe United nitfaio limits where every day is tenit 

States, with its more fertile soil and ing hater and faster to ferment tho 

warmer eky, is it not certain that the discordant elements into a resuitwhioh 

parts of it near the seaboard, which are threatens to be the deaolatioa of botlh— 

peoaliarl;y adapted by nature to pro- instead of opening this safety valve br 

ancttoos in which the negro's labor is which the noxious danger may pass off 

most profitable, will be filled by emi- harmleaaly and inaenaibly } 

gration from the Slave States T Can Crowd, then, your population into 

we not see, that in Maryland and Vit- the Soaihetn Slates aayou ma^, rapid- 

gink and Kentuoky, and the other ly and wichont fear, Texas will open 

Stales in which slavery is already on before it aa an outlst, and davery, 

the decline, the opening of Texas must retiring from the Middle and Southern 

naoesearily hasten its departure ; and. Slates of the present confederacy, will 

that thua, silently, without oomplaiat, find for a time a reating-^ace ther«. 

without effort, this dark visitation of But only for a time ; for the irrevwa- 

aoxiety and evil, once the just stigma ible law of population, which decrees 

of British cupidity, and now her unjust t^t in a densely peopled region 

and insolent taunt, may at last depart slavery shall .cease to exist, will 

from oar shores \ emancipate Texas in her turn, and the 

Whether by any possibility the aboli- Negro will then paaa to a land of potit* 

tiOD of Slavery is ever to be effected ical freedom and social dignity under a 

by other meana— in advance of the genial sky. He will pass without civil 

arrival of the period when il must yield convulsion, and leaving no donteatio 

to the sileut operation of the preeanre ruin in his path. As his labor becomea 



Googlp 



ijjj. r--' 



Tki Rt-Awntxation af Ttxas, 



I ■■ 



leas and Im* Tiloabla, EmaacipituHi, 
gradual, prograMive, at last antveraal, 
will paM him over the Southern bordet 
to hia more appropriate home in AUzi- 
co and the Statea bejond. 

"But ir Tnaa is to be the ontlet ftn- 
AmeriMn itayery, why not auffer her to 
be so, wilbont DnkioK her a party to Ihe 
Union 7 Will she nol be at broad an 
onilrt, and ai certain, whether the eome* 

ent, fiiendlj neighbor 1" 

It might be ao, indeed, if we conld 
Dnl; be certain tlul Texas, preaeed by 
neceaaitiea, and apurned from our con- 
federacy, would alwsya coniinoe to be 
independent and friendly. But what 
security have we that forty years hence 
ahe will be either 1 She ia, indeed, a 
young state, with Atnericae aympa- 
thies, anxious now to become a meioher 
of that Amerioan brotherhood from 
which moat of her oiiiaens bsTe been 
emigrants, and she has proffered her- 
aelf to OB without reaerre or condition. 
Bui ahe is not without other wooera. 
Great Britain has never yet leal a 
chance of getting a foothold on iha 
oulskirta of her neighbors' teirilory. 
She haa Gibraltar in Spain, tbe Cape 
of Good Hope in Africa, and Hong 
Kong in China. Once, Calcutta might 
hBTa been added to ihia list, bat that is 

siooa of the' East. With the 
dian Islands as aeutirrels upon our 
coast, ahe keeps Canada to the North 
•f us, and claiming Oregon on the 
Weat, ia actually negotiating with 
Texaa on the Soath. 

She is mediaiiog, aa ahe terms it, be- 
tween Mexico and Texas. And with 
what object 1 Not to obtain excluaiia 
pririleges, says Lord Abenleen ; not u 

' advance any pecniiar interests of Eng- 
land, or triih reference to any pecniiar 

_ ioflueuee. Truly, ahe itegotiates for 
noue of these. But tbe slare mistress 
of India, the overaaer and taakmaater 
of Ireland, ahe who but yesterday 
played the bully of the opiom amng- 
glera, and fought the Chinese into 
acceptance of tbe decencies of iotosi- 



eaiion, has become • saint in theaa 
later daya — a very Peckaniff— and now 

*■ Compounds fbr sins that she's inclined 

lo. 
By damaiag those she has im miitd to." 

" She desires," says Lord Aberdaeo, 
"to see slavery aboliabed thtoughaat 
the world, and will n«t desist from ber 
honttt tgorU for procnring this resulL 
She would wish even to see the South- 
ern States of this Union placed on lb* 
firm and solid footing which general 
freedom aione can attain for ihero ;" 
though 4he graciously pruniaes that aha 
" will make no difference in her traat- 
mant of the slaveholding and tbe free :" 
a promise the more gracious as wall as 
the more easily kept, since war atraioat 
one set of Siatee would be war against 
all, and she can never have peaceful 
inlereonrse with either siaTehoIdiDg or 
free, except by the JDairamentality of 
tbe joint and equally constituted gor- 
nrnment of both ! " She haa pat her- 
self forward, she admits, in pressiar 
Mexico to acknowledge the indepaif 
ence of Texas ;" and avowing bet 
" withas to see slavery abolished in 
Texas as well as elsewhere, she wodd 
rejoice," she says, " that her recogni- 
tion by Mexico should ba aecompanied 
by an engageonnt on the part of Teuw 
for its entire aimliiion." Such are tfas 
words of British ministers of state. 
And fae must be a stranger to the lao- 
guage of diplomacy, and torgetfbl of tba 
long history of Bntish intermeddling is 
the affairs of olhera, who does not sea 
in this, that if American alavery is to 
find an outlet for departure tbroogli 
Texaa, it must be by the relief of Texaa 
from British influence, and its annexa- 
tion to tbe American Union, 

To abandon Texas now is to inriu 
for her Britiah protection and British 
policy. It is to close loand oa lb« 
circle of Britiah power, leaving the 
emancipation of the ala*e within out 
bordera, the redintegration of bis man- 
hood, and his introduction to poliucat 
rights, a problem to be aolved b* iba 
caprice of an alien and not inprewrir 
hostile influence. 



lizcdbyGooi^le 



ISM.] rSpirit and Tendencies of the New School of PMloiophf. 



SPIRIT AND TENDENCIES OP THE NEW SCHOOL OF 
PHILOSOPHY. 

Thi great lav of the uniTerse is waj, or faint from eihaustiuD, — thangh 

growth — prograsa — improvemeiit ; — of we slip and fall in Taia attempts to reseb 

tlkia erea the earth itsolf ir a grand beyond our power, — etill, trtth hearty 

illuttratioa. What a change eiace the courage and unshaken Irast, let ua join 

time, when, in the BimpU but espresai'^e the van of the great army, and err," on- 

languageofHoly Writ, "The earth was ward!" Yes f fain would we belie7a 

without form and void, aod darkness tttat onward and npward, in his philoso- 

WBs upon the face of the deep!" Her phy as well as in his acta — in his 

bare ribs are corered with living green, thought — in hia religion — in hia life — 

her atreame dance in atinlight, and [he is the tendency of man. And when, 

musio of life breaks forth from mount- " fir up the height," the noble arm; of 

ain topandahadowy Tallej. The dark, our fathers fall, with their dying eyea 

chaotic, senseless mass is developed in fixed " heaTenwajrds — 
beautiful order, and becomea instinct 
with life and lore. Ever is the work 
of creation going on about us, and He 
who " reneweth the face of the earth" 
with his omnipresent agency, refreshes 

and renews the life and soul of man. — in the spirit of sneh sires, nay their 

Every age sees a new and eiiU more Bona take up that banner, and carry it 

perfect development of thought, — of onward to realma of atill greater light 

being. Fain would we believe, that in and glory. 

the epirilual, as well as the material In the faith, then, that man is a pro- 
world, God is the untiring Creator, gressive being, let us, in inveatig&ting 
With man, as well as with nature, is it the varioua phenomena of his existence, 
" first the blade, then the ear, then the with he.irta filled with hope and trust, 
green com in the ear." The watch- endeavor, if possible, to diaeriminate 
word of Iluraanity is ever " onward I" the real, good, and permanent, from the 
and as rank alter rank falls before the auperficial, fulae, and transient, which 
conquering force of time, fresh and may be intermingled. And, while we 
more vigorous banda take their places, condemn the departure from the true 
and, catching the sonnd from their coarae, let us be careful not to confound 
dying lips, louder and more earnestly the progresa with the error ; nor, in de- 
shout the cry, and press forward with nouacing the evil, include Che good, too, 
renewed energy, to the combat with in the aame sweeping category. 
Destiny. That distinguished philosopher, Vie- 
But slow and wearisome is the as- tor Cousin, in speaking of the diBereot 
cent from earth to heaven, — from the aystems of phitosophy, most wisely re- 
human to the divine. Like a spiral maika — "I discovered that the authori- 
wire, round and round, in almost the ly of these dilfereDi natema proceeded 
same plane, year after year, and age from the fact that ucy all contained 
(Aet age, winds the path np which we something that is true and good." So 
toil ; and often do those who fondly im- let vs endeavor to peroeive something 
agine they have risen far above the true and good in every movement of 
sightof all former civilisation, perceive, humanity, remembering, In the words 
^as ! that the men and the times they of the great French philosopher, Jonf- 
thought to look down upon, are perhaps froy, that "in giving laws to human 
opposed to them, in the same plane of intelligence, as He has given them to 
ascent, — as near to heaven and its all- the stars, God has pre -determined the 
embracing light as they. Yet, though course of humanity, as he baa establish- 
slow onr Journey, and scarcely per- ed that of the planets." Thua does the 
ceptible our progress, — though paet- knowledgeof this progressive teodeaoy, 
ing for weariness we often pause on the Uiia law of growth in man, luep kliva 

VOL. XT. — NP. LXXllI. 2 ^^ r 

I vt^OOgl 



I i! 



19 



l^rirU and Tendendei of the New School of fihUotopif. 



IMy, 



J 



that joj fill hope and eialtei] faith, which 
gire > feeling af happy serenity through 
kII changes and revulutioni in human 
philosophy, aad in human inBtiiutions ; 
which perauade ub, that in erery move- 
rnent, however aeemingly inauspiciouB, 



i divine hand, adfunce« to t clearer 
view of Truth, » higher alata of nis- 
dMQ, goodneae, and happiness, — a ncar- 
oriesemblance to and more perfect bar- 
nutoy with the UniTeiaal Spirit. 

As the artist, before commencing a 
gteat picture, examines well the inalni- 
Mcnls with which he is at work, pre- 
ptrea hia colore with peculiar care, 
•emtinizei his caniase, tries the effect 
4>f different lighta and shades ; so it 
dm; be of lome adrantapo to us, to ex- 
amins and define the terms employed, 
and discuia certain general questions, 
which may serve to throw light upon 
the sabject, and npon llio position and 
aspect of modern philosophy and its 
supporters,— before giving ODr view* 
upon a theme so eilensive and so im- 
porUol as (he one before us. 

In deciding, then, concerning the di- 
rection, aim, and peculiar tendencies of 
modem philosophy, it will be Grst ne- 
oesesry to inquire into the nature and 
distinctiie cltaraclerisiics of the philo- 
sophy of the day,— in what it difTere 
front the philosophy thai preceded it, — 
and from hence, as well from the 
effects it has produeed — the results al- 
ready brcoghi to pass — deduce ita pro- 
bable teikdencies. 

FhiloBophy has ever one object : — to 
explain man lo hiimelf; to give an ac- 
codDt of bis powers, — his relations, — 
Ilia actions ; to solve the enigma of hia 
existence and destiny. As science 
strifes to find the ultimate fact or prin- 
ei{de of nature, philosophy seeks to 
discover the proper principle by which 
man't beiafc and fate, and his relation 
toGodandtbeuniverBearaundbiin,may 
be fully elucidated. Philosophy is the 
■eience of man and the universe. Like 
sounding the deep ocean, or gauging 
the broad sea, is (his looking into the 
-great meaning and mystery of things; 
•o vast, so deep, so movable, bo Gllcd 
with life artd variety, is this wondrous 
exiateeoe. And yet, never is the mind 
satisfied, till all the pnsales of the oni- 
verea be solved. Ever, like the 
SphyBZ, ia italom wwins for the CEdi- 
(H to ezfoond her liddles; aad the 



scholar toils through the day, and wears 
away the night, fasting from food, and 
air, and sooabine, and willingly braving 
threatening death, in the faith that he 
shall be the man lo tiolve the great enig- 
ma, and thus save and bless for ever bis 
country and the world. And, thongh 
so vast in its variety, — so deep — so 
high — so wide — so numberless in its 
forme as this oniverse is, — still is no- 
thing isultUed and alone : each is con- 
nected with each, and every single ob- 
ject stands nniled by indissoluble honda 
with all others ; and, as the Bhell eehooa 
in its hollow cclla the voice of the 
moaning waves whence it came, so 
does evfry finite form utter the tone* 
of the infinite ocean whence it springs. 
From the swelling hills and softlj 
ronndcd landscapes, throutrh tlie beaa- 
tiful proportions and graceful curves of 
the human form, and its mystic harmt^ 
nious tones, tliat " sorily blend the finite 
whli the inlinite," is the one universal 
being speaking to our sonls. Happy is 
he who sees the Une and Infinite, 
through all and every portion of this 
wondrous variety 1 — whom every hill's 
aspiring summit lifia to heaven 1 — to 
whom every joyful stream raurmura, 
and every passing breeie whispers, 
" God is love 1" Oh ! to him how caha 
and Gcrene with the harmony of peaco 
are the moonijeame and the starry 
beavcTis — how warm with love, and 
bright with the wisdom of bencTolenee, 
the sunshine ! To his sense every bird 
hymns praiae, — (he pine trees chant 
Te Deums, — the waves raise an anthmi 
chorus ; — all nature is devout. 

As philosophy tn /general is the en- 
deavor lo explain tlie enigmas of hu- 
man life, the philosophy of a panicnlaT 
age ia the manner or way in which that 
age strives to solve the great riddle of 
man's being and history — to find the 
great principles that underlio all pbe- 
nonena of human life. Fhitoeoph; 
seeks the cause of his existence, pow- 
ers, action — the grnnnde of his know- 
ledge. This is always its object ; and 
if it fails to accomplish this object in 
one way, it turns to another. Every 
new era in philosophy, every change 
in the direction of philosophic (bought, 
originates from a sense of diasalisfae- 
tion with a former era,— from the ftdU 
ore to accomplish, in the direction for- 
merly pursued, the great object of ill 
philosophicst endeavor. As (he miner, 
with peraereriBB mduMry, follows, in 



ie«.] spirit and Tendeacies of the Nea School of PhUotophy. 19 , 

wioD* directions, AroDg:h nuraeroas dencies of the preaenl made of ptulo- 

windings, each btokBn trace of tho pre- so^iiing. 

cions mela), till he at lost arrives at That most distinguithed philoaophar 
the rich ureat central Tein of pureat »ndmanilial,Joufrra;,au[newhEren]P8, 
gold ; •» does philosophy, 'with untiring " Cummon sense is nothing but a cid- 
Ardor, pursue the Hjing foottttepB of lection of aolutiota to Ihoae questions 
Trnlh, through virious patha, till at which philosophers agitate." But the 
last she rejoices at the entrance of her views and opinions of the common 
temple, at the sight of her glorioua mind, the conctoaians of the common 
fonn, — at the opening of her immortal sense, change with everj variation of 
treasares. Now, in nature and the philosophy i and thcac aolntions are tho 
world of sense does philosophy strive resolts of the philosopher'a specula- 
to find the grand solution of the pro- tions. The i!i"i';;ht of the philosopher 
blem, to catch a glimpse of the beaute- is the Jafiody, that makes itself dis- 
cus face of Troth ; but almost despair- tinctiy audible, tlirin^gh all tho various 
ing of success here, she leaves the move men is of the grand harmony ef 
track,aQdbetakeEhersclf to the " spirit- huuun life. Like the pioneer in the 
land," and inspired anew by hope, she wiMcrness, philosiphy advance* into 
wanders on, till at last she teaches the vnknown regions, through before uo- 
bigh ideal clime, where thought loses trodden paths ; while, with slow bnt 
itself in mystic dreams, or bows dowa Bore steps, common senae, like the 
in humble faith and devotion. farmer and the artisan that follow the 

If the tthitoBophy of a pariicolarBge, ailrenturcr, improves, and applies to 

then, is the endeavor made at any given the purposes of life, the ground which 

period to Hud asnlutton to tho problems has thus been opened to its use. 

vflife — the peculiar way ip which that A Bacon, or a Locke, as he looks 

age accounts to itself for 'he being, the down the tide of succeeding years, sees 

thought, and the actiop of humanity — his own Ihoughta, his own philosophy, 

the questions arise, ^t'hcre is the phi- brought out and manifested in varions 

toMphy of any ags — the present, for forma and institutions of science, art, 

example — to bo Iiund ! Who are its literature, religion, and government, 

«xponente * VhM is its nalnre ^ He sees himself lo have been the great 

In former 'ftnca, the thinkers — those leader of his age, giving impulse, di- 
who were striving " to come at tho reolion and character lo the genius of 
meaning of things' — were but a hand- his times. Thus the philosopher seems 
ftil, Ih' very few ; and these represeated alwajis to stamp his own likeness upon 
the jrfiilosophy of their age. But now the minds and hearts— yea, upon the 
th< case is changed; and not to the very mater iii — of the age itself. The 
fbw, nor to the thmkers and the phila- great thinkers, whose sublime heads 
sophers merely, do we look to find what tower up among the ages, are the mile- 
modern philosophy is ; not in books of stones of man s progress ; and when 
philosophy alone, but in the bdktlct- the ^^'O^Id has reached the thought ex- 
tres, the romances, the poems, the pressed llirough one of these, another 

feneral literature of the day. In the rises up in the path of humanity, with 

cry words of the ultra reformer, as light and power to guide mankmd still 

well as in tho calm language of the further onward in the march of im- 

timid preacher of conservatism, are wc provement. 

to look, if we would fully ascertain the But as the age is influenced by the 

peculiar tone of thought, the mode of philoBophar, so is the philosopher by 

philosophizing that aistinguislics the the age. He does not create the 

ticne ; and hence, the results to which thought of the age ; he rather gives it 

such philosophy is leading ; in other expression. He is itd Mercury — its 

words, the tendencies of modern philo- mouth-piece, that gives distinct and 

tophy. In tho character of the popular articulate utterance to what the mass 

religious creed, as well as in the^ofifi- of the people only feel and dimly see. 

cat faith — finally, in the religious, mo- He catches the confused notes of tha 

ral, political and literary institutions melody that is floating in the huraan 

and esperimenta of civilised man — are sotil, and sends it forth again a full, 

we lo look for the effects that modern clear, aU-enchantfng harmoay. 

philosophy is producing, for the ten- We have said ^t the pnilow^liec 



:, Google 



'77;,_^. 



90 



Spirit and Tendtnd«* af tht Ntv School of PhUotopk^. [Jdjr, 



I 



wsB the month-piece of his aga ; and 
that though, through him, the pbiloso- 
phf is more fallj uttered, and more 
diBlincliy arlicuUted, il ia, howeTcr, 
expresaed in the general literature, &c., 
of the timea ; iliat tho reaults to which 
the philoBOphj of an age is leading — io 
Other worda, the tendeneiet of Bt;cB 
pkUasaphy — may be deduced not only 
from the Btal«ment8 of the philosophy 
itaelf, but liam the applicati una already 
made by llie commonsenseof mankind 
— by the age — to the aifiira of life. 

Uaving thus haatily dtsriuased iheae 
general questiona of pbiloeoahy, let us 
proceed without fnrlher delay to the 
more immedialH subject of this article, 
" the epiril and tendencies of mkdern 
philoBophy ;" and ascertaii), frooi a 
comparison with the philoaopliy ih^ 
has preceded it, aa well as from the 
leslifflony of ila originalora and advo- 
cates : — first, the peculiar character of 
our own philoaophy ; secondly, obaPrTC 
the probable tendency of its principles, 
ifcarriedout ; and, in conclusion, mark 
whether, in the applications that have 
beeo made of it, and in the partial re- 
lullB attained, such tendencies are not 
proved to be real. 

Id examining the philosophy of the 
last age, we cannot but see that it re- 
ferred all menial phenomena to outward 
causes — looked lo the material, rather 
than to the spirilnal world, for the so- 
lution of every problem Ibat presented 
itself. The outward, the finite — thai 
which the setifles take cognizance of— 
wa* itself the great principle or reality 
which could esplain ail things. Hence, 
the sensual or material scnonl, which 
waa diatinguished by the intellect of 
each men as Bacon and Iiocke, and 
included Htibbes, Bcntham, Condilloc, 
and a host of other writers, taking the 
j!;round that all ideas, ail knowledge, are 
derived alone from sensalioD, and re- 
fleetion upon the ideas gained through 
the senses, and denying tbat any addi- 
tional knowledge can be derived from 
ihe Bonl itself. Locke very naturally 
■npposea even " that God, in his omni- 
potence, might have endowed matter 
with the faculty of thought. " Cabanis, 
a French diaciple of the same school, 
made the soul, with alt ila faculties, 
the intellect and will, a mere product 
of the nervous syaiem, and suspected 
" that the hrain secretea Ihonght, aa the 
Uver doea the bile." Thas the other 
disciples of this school, if not Locks 



himself, were gross materialists, lie 
sou! — the spiritual nature — was lost 
eight of, and aunk in the external and 
phenomenal, and mind was but an at- 
tribute of matter. Disbelieving in any 
real sentiment of right atid wrong; and 
rrgarding, in ihe worda of Locke him- 
aelf, " conscience aa nothing else Ihaq 
our own opinions of our own actions," 
morality, as well aa civil polity, became 
a matter of choice and eipedleocy. 
Hobbes, Volney, and others, founding 
their ideas of good and evil enlirelj 
upon the agreeable or disagreeable 
seosalions (or inftuencca upon their 

to, mode enjoyment, and not virtue, llid 
great object uflife. Thus the moFalisU 
of Ihia philoaa[ihy were all aen^ualists. 
In their view, the health and comfort 
of the body should be the great aim of 
kvery man ; and to contribute to Uua 
wte the higbeal virtue ; to neglect thia 
alont. was ticc ; while real virtue, 
which ^ the true and healthy nUte of 
the mini, and soul, Ti-as entirely shot 
out from lltir consideration. 

With La tiacc, men of science made 
matter and mtf»on the only ejisteoce* 
in the " sysiem tf ihe world." Thiw 
matter and sens^ became the great 
object of worship, tx which man, his 
intellect, his soul, nay,^ven the Deity,' 
became merged. The cM ward, mate- 
rial and sensual, had a real (existence ; 
and spirhqal, waa 



but ! 



fictioi 



Such — carried to ita exIrcTne, its 
final limit or end — was the philosoplh 
of the past age ; a philosophy that u 
still visible in the elTecla it has pro- 
duced, and that still holds away over 
many minds. 

And here, perhaps, we may be ex- 
cused for dwelling a moment on that 
tendency to ultraism that we may per- 
ceive in the philosophical movement 
just described ; thai we continually 
notice aa an important fact in all the 
movement and progress of the htiman 
race, especially as it has been so se- 
verely rehukeif, as a peculiar tendency 
of modem philosophy and of the present 
age. For, what ia ullraism 1 Is it not 
the pursuit of an object to its goal — lo 
its final extreme 1 And is not sneh « 
pursuit an indication of moral energy 
and perseverance t Who should falter 
in tMt paih which, however miatakeD, 
he sincerely believe* will lead him 



1B44.] SpirU and Ttadenciti of the New School of Philotophi/. SI 

■Mght 10 the temple ofTrnlh * Tt is Not only in goin^ to the extreme tt 

trae, the Be«kor may be amenable to came to its lenninatioa — the end or its 

the ohiTge or naiTDWneu, one-iided- path, the Hmil of its power — but, by 

MBS, and fanaticism, from the Tact that that rery fact, proved that it could not 

he Buppoaei hia peculiar path alone the lead (o all truth, and thus declared thft 

right one. But it is necessary that (he absurdity ofits loo arrogant pretensions. 

beginning and the end, as well as every Manlcina, finding that in the end this 

torn and windin? of the path, be known, philosophy rejects certain great reali* 

How tar in its direction it varies from ties, sach as intuitive ideas, the sonl, 

the course of truth T How far is its spiritual existences, aid thnsGod him- 

tvnninatioD from the door of her tern- self, deny its claims to be considered 

pie 1 It is for the benefit of all her the only right path to trnth, the perfect 

followers — all mankind (for alt in their salution to the great problems of lifb ; 

way pnrsne Truth, or the groat reality and ask for another tray to be tried — k 

of all things)— that all paths that hn- new solution sought out. And, wdat- 

manity treads ahould be thoroughly in- ever the philosophy of onr time may 

vestigsted ; that all their errors, im- be, we are not only certain that it will 

~ irfoctions, and dilficnllies should he be carried oat to its furthest limits, but 



perfec 



To this parpose, they n 

pomed to their final extreme, their a former philosophy whence it set out; 

farthest bound. Has not, then, even that it will be apt to take everything; 

nltraiam its apology * For, has it not that is most distant, foreign and oppo- 

ita necessary and useful part to play < site from what it has left behind. Dis- 

Yet truth most be examined in every satiafied with the former pa^, wearied 

direction — approached on every aide, with its peculiar difficulties, and dis- 

Not one phasis of her heavenly orb^ gnstod with its reiterated errors, tlw 

but the full uid complete light of her aeeket — man — naturally turns, in hia 

whole brilliant sphere, most he seen new endeavor after Imlti, to Iha coura* 

and long contemplated ; and as slowly most dilTerent and remote from th« 

through the ages, Humanity revolves path by which he haa befora been mia- 

vround her calm and holy light, Philo- fed. 

aophy, with telescopic eye, makes eo- Ennnyed with rest, he seeks motion, 
rioBS survey, and takes careful obser- action ; wearied with toil and continual 
ntioRs, of each single phasis she pre- movement, he sighs for rest and re- 
sents to man, her dependent satellite, pose. Over the bright sunshine and 
Not from one set of observaliona csn noisy bustle of day, how gratefully 
we know fair Truth ; e»ch is but par- falls the shadowy curtain and soothing 
tial — but an approximation. To know silence of night I The first blades of 
her completely, we must study them greca grass on the sunny stream-bank', 
all : we must nave seen her on evety and the earliest anemones of spring, 
side ; we must have completed our re- gladden us, weary of the freeaing 
volution. Thus it is, that the most north-blaal, more than the rich foliage 
oomplete " many-sided" man has been and gorgeous flowers of summer time ; 
in former days, and at different times, and winter, with hia Aeeoy showen, 
one-sided and ultra. his robes of dazzling purt^, his bril- 

The oUraismof thelsst school, then, liant fretwork, and hangings of cryatali 

U well as that of tho present, has its once so beautifol to our vision, we 

apology. True, it carried sensualism would banish from earth for ever, so 

out to its further extreme. Starting that the inner life of nature might 

from the fintte and the seen, and utterly break forth in waving leaf and bursting 

abjuring " the element of the infinite, bud, in the dancing of stroams let 

it made enjoyment the highest morality, loose from their fetters, in the soaring 

expediency tho highest polity, outward wings and gushing songs of birds. So 

rules and laws the lellgion, where it the philosopher, tired and dissatisfied 

allowed religion to exist. But thus with the outward, welcomes, wilb a 

the true nature of the finite, its uses thrill and shout of joy, the fiist leave* 

and deficiencies, its incapability to ex- and bods thst bnrst forth from the irt- 

^lain, alona and by itself, tho genome- ward life, the earliest notes of a apirit- 

na of life, became fully evident. ual melody ; and would bantthfin ever. 



vGoogI: 



lil 



p' 



i 



J 



it and Tfndencit* of the New School of PJulotopiy. {^ul^r 

is, U the preMDt daj, at least, ika re- 
latiiB pasiiion of these naiioua ; aod 
the tone of ibougbt, the pbiloMphjr 
that prevails ia German;, will prevail 
amooK the apeculatuts, the tbinkersr 
the philoBopheis, ol Fiance, EngUnd. 
Bad America. Tndeed, even now, Ger- 
man literature and German thought are 
exerlicg a mighty influence upon iha 
civilized world. 

One distinguifihed writer in cnu 
midst complain! : " If we are to make 
eiperiment of a new system, we wobid 
fain have it fully and fairly before oar 
eyes ; which can never be the case, ao 
long as wo receife our ' philotophema- 
la' by a double tranaporlalion from 
Germany vi& France, io parcels to auit 
the importers ; — as fast as the French 
forwarding philoaopber gels it fcom 
Germany, and as fast as the American 
consignee can get it from France." 
And again, speaking of Ibe " hiero- 
pbants uf the new system," the same 
writer eontijiues : " Some of then are 
busily learning French, in order to 
Tead, in that laogaage, any ri/acii>i*mto 
of Teutonic metaphysics, which may 
come into their handa. Some are 
learning German ; others hare actoaUy 
learned it. He who caonut do eilfaer, 
strives te gather into one the Sibylline 
oraclea, and abortive sciape, of the 
gifted bat indolent Coleridge, and his 
gaping imitators ; or in default of all 
Uiia, Bits at the nrn of dilute wisdom, 
and sips the ihrice-drawn infusion of 
English from French, and Fieuoh front 
Gerinan. " 

Another, in diSeient atyle, Uuda 
German literature and iia iuflueace to 
the akies : " To our apprebeasion," 
be remarks, *' German literature ia the 
fairest, the ricbeBl, Ibe most original, 
fresh and reli^us Uteratvre of all 
modemtiroes. W'esajtbiaadTiaedly." 
Andi aAer decluiog that the Germans 
are the best classical sehoUra, the 
most iborongh ^[rammaitaoa, the moM 
erudite and philosophical histDriass, 
the most profound entics ; and, enume- 
rating the lon^ Uai of GermaB authwa 
distinguished id each of these aeTeral 
departments, hs adds, " It is onlylbe 
Germans in this age who study Th»- 
ology, at even the Bible, wiih the aid 
of enlightened and scieotifio ciiticinB. 
But this ii not all, and by do means 
the chief merit of German acholai*. 
Within less iban three-score years, 
there have appeared among them four 



in the haste of unreflecting 

the cold, fotmal, dead outwacd that has 

chilled bis soul. 

Having come to the limit of a sen- 
soal philosophy, the very principle of 
ultiaism, then, the tendency to depart 
as far as poseible from a former philo- 
sophy, and to proceed to the furthest 
extreme in a new paib, would induce a 
determination towards spiritualism, and 
lead UB to expect that spiritual philoso- 
phy, in which all that materialism hod 
denied should be fully asserted, and all 
that materialism had affirmed should 
be either passed by unnoticed, or ut- 
terly rejected, would succeed the sen- 
mau school, — a philosopby that made 
man and not nature, the soul and not 
the sense, the infinite and not the finite, 
its starting point. We might there- 
fore prophesy that such would be the 
leading philosophy of the present age. 
Though there may be at the present, 
as in all past, time, different philoso- 
phies existing at one and the same mo- 
ment, and obtaining to a certain eilent 
among men ; yet it will not be denied, 
that there is always some one panicn- 
lar philosophy or mode of th ought, 
more prominent than all others, which 
chscacteriies the ftge in which it pre- 
vails, and is the particular mode which 
the mind of the age takes, to solve the 
problems proposed to it. It is tme, 
the inhabitants of one State may bo 
earrying oat the principles of the sen- 
soat school, while those on its very 
borders m^ have commenced the ap- 
plication of^a new and spirituat pbilo- 
Bophj. Yea 1 in the very same com- 
muntty there may be a similar difier- 
ence. But the philosophy adopted by 
the most thinking, oullitated and ad- 
vanced people, by the most speculative 
and philosophical, rather than the most 
jnaetical nation, and by the greatest 
thinWs in snch nation, is the leading 



and diBUngnisbing philosophy of the 
■M 1 the ^iioeopby that will soon be, 
if it is not already, applied and carried 



It by piBCtieal men, in whose ap^i 
tiena of philos^hy we look to discover 
it* tendencies. Thus Germany is 
Icnown as the land of speculators, 
»ch<4ar«, philosophers ; France seems 
to bftve been appointed to state the re- 
mits of German peculation in clear, 
distinct propoaitionB and practical 
nles; while the office of England has 
fasen to apply and carry out these speo- 
nlattODS, so stated, in actual life. This 



1H4.1 Bpirit and Ttndtneie* of the New adrnd of PUlotopl^. S3 

]diflow^»h«TB, whs would haTs been ataniDg from the finite and seitraal to 

couapicaoua in any age, aod will hers- enny theu idea* to their fuithe* 

•Aer, we tbtnk, be DUoed with Pluo, limit. 

AriMMle, Bacos, Deeoartea, a.nd Lett»- We have regarded the tendency to 

nilx, araoBg the grMtsit ihinkere of accept of German modea of thonght, 

the world. They ue Kant, Fiefate, from the apiritual charaoter of the 

SefaeUiogi and Hegel. Silently these Geraian mind, aa aaolher evidMwe IhM 

ligfata aroM and went op the eky, with- the goneral tendency of modern pht- 

«nt noiso, to talcs their plaoe among losopby waa towards epiritualiam. 

tbe fixed atara ef Geniua and ahioe Passing by the intermediate lyatanw, 

with them ; namea that will oot fade wTiioh merely compose the stepping- 

ont of hearen anlil some age* aball st«naa from senaualtsm to BpiritualiNMi 

ttBTe paased away. Tbete men were let us glance at the great leaden ia 

IhJnkera all ; deep, mighty thiakera. Gerroany. tiiat land of "oloud, UMt, 

They knelt reverentty down before and ether" — of modem apecnlation tat 

Nature with religions heart*, and a*ked philosophy — among whom, by ani*wad 

hot question*. They sat on the brink oonaent, Kant, Fiehte, Sebelling and 

of the well of truth, and continued to Hegel ooonpy the foromost po*iik>D. 

draw for themaalTca and' the world. Different, in the coDclnsiona to whioh 

Take Kant alone, and in the whole they hare antTOd, aamay be the mem- 

eompM* of thonght, we acarce know her* of the spiritoal bcIkbI, the disci* 

hi* siqMiior." ■ plea of Kant from Kant himaelf, it 

Tlie paoegyrio aa well ae the com- aeem* hardly possible to deny that he 

pIniBt both indicate the promineDtpoai- waa the first to giro definite form to 

tion which Geitnaity ocenpiaa in mod- the philosophy of this acbool, that h» 

em philosophy. Now what ia the ten- i* the great leader, at leaat of that 

deocy of the German misd and tho part of it who derive from bia woAa 

German philoeopby ^ We will answer the titlo " TraiucendeDtal." DiSonlt, 

in the words of one of the Lowell nay ! almost impoasiblo, a* it ia fhll^ 

InatitBta leotorera, wlioni it ia but faint to understand the terms of the noineB- 

praiie to call tho Juofiroy of America : clature he himself invented, or to got 

" The leadeoc^ of the grnat leaders of at the thought through his peculiarly 

the German mind, of Descarte*, Iieib- dark and involved phraseology, we «an 

aitz and Kant, waa towards q>iritual- hardly expect to arrive at tbs dkareW 

ism, and if carried out exclusively, and ootiona of hie system ourselrea, nndi 

applied to religion, it would be apt to leas coovsy it to otbers, espeeirily >• 

deganerate into Pantheism. I do not the complaint was early made by tarn 

mean that there ia any danger of the own countrymen of its ineompTefaesri- 

Oenoans faeeoming Pantheist*, but bility, and disputes often arose, waang 

their great ibiakers pnt the mind on hie immediste disciples, concerning tM 

that ttaok. It leaned that way, and, if meaning of many of hi* proposition*. 

it fell, wonld M that way." We will therefore trust to wiser beada 

The tendency then to adopt a Qei- Uian our own to give an aoeoont of his 

maa mode of thought and philosophy, system, and with hut a few eilraola 

ia a teodeooy of philoBopby towarde from hb writing* proceed to those of 

spiriMalism. his followers. 

Wa have seBn that the tendency to And, in passing, it may not be inaii- 

idtnism waa more or lesa eharacleria* propriate to noliee in few words tha 

tie af eveiT movement of humanity, tendency of modem speenlators in o«T 

We have also inferred fn>m the nature own land a* well as elsewhere, to ini- 

of the phihwopfay of a preceding age, tate their leader, not only in the usa of 

that the gentrat lendency of modem a new technical voei^alaty, but, ia 

phikMo^y vranld be spiritual. And what seeto* to us, his indlatiiwt and 

Sy the "gensr^ tend«ney" of phi- involved phraaeology. In adopttng a 

loaophy is meant the temfency to de- new mode of philosophizing, Kant 

ralope it* own ttature, to go on in the might perchance have found it necea- 

peeiuiar direetion in which its move- sary to employ new and more exact 

nant oomnMnoed. Thai, for instance, terms than those commonly in tne. 

the general tendency of the school of But, in aeeepting those paru of tha 

Xiooke, Hobbes, Bentham, Ac, vraa now nomencla tare that aeem neoessa- 

towatds naterialisra, or sensoaKam ; ry, what need is there of adoptbg a 



Goog 



■TT7T". 



Spirit and Ttndtiuiet of tlit Neu Sei»ot of PkSonp/if. [J^, 






jargon, nninlelligible cwT' 
i the giemt masa of reiden, 
ana an oecMion of trouble, as well aa 
regret, to ererj man of clear percep- 
tions and pare laste ! Why wnte 
Knglish in a Gennaii idiom, and place 
nmple Ihoagfat in a BiyMical dialect * 
We fometimea ace disposed to doqbt, 
wlietber these writers do uot occaaion- 
aSf And themieUee in the condition of 
Kant himaeir, who was compelled to 
uuwer the demaade of hie fneoda for 
an expiaoatioD of aoroe of the moat 
ambiguoDs pasaagea in his writinfrS) 
that he knew very well at the (itoe he 
wrote them, what he meant, but ituit fae 
had better bnsioeaa al\erward than to 
be writing coiDmenluiea on hia own 

To the above critioiaDi it haa been 
answered, that the aobjects treated of, 
in thia dark and cloudy phraseology, 
were ao deep, ao br beyond the com- 
mon conacionsneM, and the capacity of 
common minds to fathom, that no worda 
and pbr&Ma, in common ose, could be 
linked together in such a W3.j aa to 
reach them. Finally, that the language 
of a material philoaophy was wholly 
ntifil, aa well a* insufficient, to eipreaa 
the ideaa of a new vtd spiritual ajs- 

Jouffroy certainly does not roove in 
■hallow viraters, and yet he is always 
aimple, clear, and lucid. So it it with 
oar own Channing, who has reached, 
and placed in clearest light, ihe deepest 
spiritual themes. And, in oar neigh- 
boring city, durieg the last three win- 
ter*, no superficial or shalloa' views 
have been eiven by a distinguished 
philosoj^ical leetDTer, of the piofocnd- 
est depths of thought, which the hu- 
man mind is capable of sounding, in 
Ungnage as clear, distinct, and well- 
arranged, as the thouchls it expreaaed. 
" ' 'a retnra to Kant and his phi- 
j and if, from his own words, 
ot receive a oorrsct idea of hia 
philoaophical notions, we may, pec- 
haps, not without some reason, lay a 
ptut of the blame on the great philoso- 
riier hiDtaelf, as well u on our own 
dnllDeaa and stu^ity. Leaving the 
gconnd oocnpied by the materialiats, 
that the nstuie of tlie mind and aool 
was to be learnt from the effects pro- 
dneed npon them by the influences of 
the oalwud world, and therefore that 
the finite, outward, and senaual, was 
the tne starting-point oC all philosophy, 



1 UaelT, 



rfc, 



he takes hii stand ii 
and observes the action of the inwud 
world npon the outward, regarding ihs 
mind, not as fonned and hahioDed bf 
external inflaBDces, but as itself fa^- 
ioning and moulding the external world. 
In his ovm words : " It sonnda 
strange, indeed, at first, bnt it is not 
less certain, when 1 saj in reqieet to 
the original lawi of the undcratai 
that it does not dtrtte them frm 
ture, bnt impo»*t them upon oMuie." 
He therefore commences with the in- 
quiry, " How syotbelica) Jadgmenta, 'k 
priori,' are possible with respect to ob- 
jects of experience V that is tossy (aa 
we understand it), how, and on vrhat 
gronnda, snoh ideas as thoae of power, 
beauty, goodness, cause and eSeot — 
which, originating bafoie, and inde- 
pendent of, all experience, we attseh, at 
first glaace, to certain objects wd 
events — exist. These " synthelteBl 
judgments k priori," or intuitive idss* 
which have in them someihing beyood 
what experience can give, arise, ac- 
cording to our pbilosopher, from a he- 
ulty of the soul itself. " Reasoa," says 
Kant, " is the faculty which furnishes 
the pritidplet of cogaition k priori,'' 
therefore, pure reason is that which con- 
tains the principles of knowing some- 
thingabsoluielv^pciori. "IlannallcogB 
nition 'Iranteendental,'' whiek coneenM 
itself, in general, not so much with ob- 
jects, aa with one mode of cognition of 
objects, so far as this may be psosibla 
ii priori — a tyslem of soch conception* 
wonld be called transcendental philoBO- 
phy." In iuvestigaling the pure rea- 
son, he finds tliat all its conceptions, in 
other words, " all tcanscendental ideas 
may bo brought niider three elattat, of 
which the Jiril coniains the ^>aolut« 
(unconditioned) nnily of the thinking 
*ubject ; the second, tbc absolnts unily 
of the terits of t/it condiliotu of th* 
phenomena; the third, the absolnto 
unily of the ctmdUion of all objeett of 
tJiought in general. The thinking sub- 
ject is the object of Psyefadogy ; Ihe 
complex of all phenomena (the world) 
ii the object of Cosmology ; and the 
thing which contains Ihe sujveme con- 



be thought (the essence of aj 
), is the object of all Theelc^; 
consequently pure reason furnishes the 
idea of a transceadental doctrine of tba 
soul {juychalogia niionalis) ; of \ 
tnoMeadeDtsl seiaioe of the worid 



.Google 



ISW.] Bpiril and TttuUnciet of M* Ntio Sdtool of Philotopky. 25 

(eosmologia ratitmftlis); and, finallf, ing of these, and their BTotem, in con- 
kho of a tnnBcendental cD^ilion of itection with the material school, Pro- 
God {Iheologia traD8e«ndeiitalis)." In fensnrs Edwards and Park reuiaik : 
the words of another commentiUDi on " The Gennanfl, howBTor, hare launeh- 
Kaot, then, "The reason, finallj, is ed forth to Ihe other extreme. It a 
the sablinie of human spontaneity. It said that Kanl'a BjBteto is in mina ; 
laltei cognizance of that which is self- bnt Kant's inflnence is not. Othei 
evident, necessary, absolnte, infinite, systems, it has been obeerred, hare 
eternal. Its objeotn are beyond the rolled orer his, and hare been them- 
^ihare, not merely of time and apace, s«Wes, m turn, displaced. Yet all 
but of ell ntiochiation; anditisamong these sysiemt bare conspired to one 
tbMB objeota, ■aboTe the stir and general effect. Tbey have all been 
smoke of this dim spot, which men at antipodes tr> Locke and Paley ; they 
e>]l Earth,' that the transcendental phi- have all made war npon the tensaal 
loMtdieia have matt sneoesafully ex- and the outward. The haaie of eveTT> 
paliated. ^Vllile the understanding is thing has been laid DpOD the internal 
disCDTaire, and collects proof, and de- and th» independent pamert of the hti> 
duces jodnneniK tiie reasoa is eelf- man eonl. Henoe the German Ian* 
BOffleient, mloilire, immediate, and in- gnage is so rich in all the terms which 
fallible, in all its dictates." Another are applied to spiritnat phenomena." 
writer, on the same enbject, obeerves : And, m the last sentence, by tbe way, 
"According to the transeendealal phi- we have the reason hinted at for the 
loaophy, then, what is properly termed use of German phraseology and tbe 
httealedge, is entirely confined within technicalities of German systems of 
the limits of experience. We know philosophy ; bnt thongh, in Germany, 
nothing, and can know nothing of any originated, or rather was earliest ex- 
object that may not be conceived to e] -........■ ..... ..■- — ■ 

ist in spaco and lime, which may ni , , _ 

tw assumed under the categoriei, or times, it wontd be highly irrational 

laws of thonifht, relative to the under- to call it a German philosophy, or svp- 

■tanding. The reason does, indeed, pose that it was wholly imbibed front 

fintn to itself pure ideas, which go be- Germany, by its disciples and advo- 

yond tbe limits of sense, and eiperi- cates in other lands. Many here, a* 

ence, but, as we know no object to wall as in other conntrtes, were charm- 

which these are applicable, they remain ed by the unfolding to their own minds 

aa mere id^a wholly incognizable, of spiritual ideas, and lofty " transcen- 

Saeh are onr notions of God, of moral dental" conceptions, -when, as yet, 

fmcdom, and of immortality, which German literature was to them a seal- 

wboUy transcend the limits of our in- ed hook, and before modem spirituaU 

teUsctnal nature." ism had any confessed friends, anylir- 

Kant himself says, all knowledge inv English authors. No ! let ns ra- 

'' of things derived, solely, from the ther believe that, led by a divine hand, 

pure understanding, or from pore rea- humanity passes from thought 10 

son, ia nothtitg but empty show, and thoaght. from syBlem to system, from 

inih is to be found only through expe- one height to another, in the great 

rieiioe." Thn» we see God and im- ascent to heaven. 

mortality, .according to Kant, are mere Next to Kant eomes Fiehte,hia dis- 

ideaa, exist only in human reason, in ciple and contemporary. According to 

th» consciousness of men. This is an Cousin, Fiohte's formula is ; " The me 

iuevitahla conclusion from his premi- supposes itself, it supposes the world, 

sea, however desirous the philosopher it supposes God; it supposes itself as 

might have been to conceal or avoid it, the primitive and permanent cause 

and of this we shallseethat his follow- with which everything commences, to 

era have made a use which he seems which everything is referred as at 

hardly to have anticipated. once the circle and the circumference ; 

Id the limits of an Article like this, it it sapposes Ihe world as a simple nega- 

is scarcely possible to do more than tion of itself ; it appose* God oj a w- 

slanee at some of those who have fol- gation of itself, taken ahtaltUehf." 

lowed in the footsteps of Kant, and Again; "According to Fiehte, God 

widened, modified, and improved the ii notking but the tubject of lh«ught, 

path of philoat^hy be opened. Speak- conceived aa ai$olut»i ho ia, there- 



Goog C 



Spirit mid Ttndmcie* of th» JVew SehMi of PkiUltftm. [inly. 



foM, Btill the 1" . . . "Fichis 
distinguithcs between a twofuld 1, the 
HDD phenomenal, namelf, the I which 
each of UB repreaeuM ; the other Is it- 
Self the substance of the I, namely, 
God himielf. Gad is the abaoluie I." 
To quote still further from Cousin : 
"The last resalt of the aystem of 
Pichte, was the me supposed, or rather 
Mppoaing itself as the aoie principle. 
Having arrived at this extremity, it 
waa naceasaiy that the German phi- 
losophy should either depart from it or 
perish. Sckelling ia the man who 
took it from a labyrinth of a psychol*- 

Jy at once ideal and skeptica], in or- 
er to restore it to reality aad life. 
Especially he vindicated the rights of 
the external world, of nature; and it is 
from this oircometance that bis phi- 
losophy derirea its name : ' The sys- 
tem of identity, or philosophy of tha 
ftbMlnte.' In bis opinion, philosophy 
must rise, al first, even to the absolute 
being, the common tubttaact, and the 
common ideal of the me, and the not 
mty which does not relate exclusively 
either to the one or tha other, but 
which eomprebenda them both, attd 
forms their identity. This aisoliite 
. idtntily of the mt and the not me, of 
man and nalare is God. It follows 
from this that God is in nature as well 
as in man ;" aad that " their only dif- 
ference is that of contciotuneu and 
non-oonacioDsnass," &c. 

0/ Hegel, the sanie aothor says: 
" Uegel lus borrowed mach of Scfael- 
liag ; I, iar more feeble than either, 
have borrowed from both. I puUicly 
called them both my ma*ter» and n»y 
frieiuU, and the leaders of the philoso- 
phy of the present age. " Thus we see 
that while, aocordiag to Fiohte, God is 



the person, the sbsolulai; withSchel' 
liof, God is the substance equally " of 
the me and the not me, of man sad na- 
Ivrt," hut in man and not in nature is 
Oad eenscious. This, if it does »ot 
rapreailj assert, would seem strongly 
ta imply, first, that, as God is the 
common ntitlono ^«1 the cmnmon 
iJaal of the m« and the Bot me, all 
thiogi aia God ; and, seoondly, that 
God only arrives at consciousness and 
persooafity in man ; benoe the tendan- 
ey (rf* modem philosophy is to panthe- 
ism, and, at the same time, to the apo- 

thaoMS of humanity. "Pi 

■eewding t 



most again be psnailUd to do Ibe !»• 
justice to quote from memory, " Paa- 
theism makes the InSnite, all, and Ibe 
Finite, nothing ; and as Atheism kwes 
Ood in nature, so Psniheism loses nft- 
tare in God. We may begin with tha 
Infinite, with God, and attempt to de- 
duce the Finite from it ; if we fail ui 
tliis, as, in strict logic, I thiak wa 
must, we sliall not attain the FioUe at 
ail. Hence Panthmtm." 

Is it oeccsaarv to go on further «ith 
OUT quotations from the great leader* 
of modern philoeophyl If so, thenext 
on the list, and not the least dittin- 
goished, is the professed disoipl* of 
Seheltjng aiid Hegel, Victor Cousia, <^ 
France, from whom we will quote a, 
few sentcooes, ohsracteristtc, we think, 
of the aalhor uid bis philoeophy. 

" The intisible,'' he says, " nlnek m 
eternally eoDoeaied from all direet ap- 
prehension, is revealed to humanity by 
the reason. . . . Reason ia Ifae 
faculty, not of perceiving, bnt of con- 
ceiving the Infinite (God). By whu 
means is the Infinite revMled la lea- 
sont . . By its idea. And what 
are the forms in which the idea of Ibe 
loliniie ia presented to humse r o sene 1 
. . The forms of the TViis, tk« 
Beataiful, the Good," JCe. Of naUna, 
he remarks :, " Tbe world, aoeordiiig- 
ly, is of the same stuff with oatselvea, 
and nature is the sister of man ; il i« 
active, living, animated like him; and 
its history is a drsma no less than our 
own. Natate, like humanity, is eem- 
pDsed of laws and of forces, of rm ssw 
and of aetivily," as "all law Mppoe e i 
a reseoD, and the kws of Ibe world tn 
nothing but reason, as manifMeil in 
the world." .... "As we hav« 
reduced the laws of reaaon and tha 
laws of her ferae to two, costd we bm 
also attempt a rednctioo of Ibe fonea 
of nature and .of their laws < CooM 
we not reduce ail the regular iModM of 
tbe action of nature to two, whioh, m 
their relation with the spontaneous aad 
reflective aetion of the me and of rea- 
son, would exhibit a still mere iBtimattt 
hannony than that which wa bare just 
indicated between tha iniental and ez- 
tetoal world!" .... "It will 
be perceived that I here allttde to «z- 

panaioB osd concentration 

.... What physieal inqqinr, 
sinoe Eoler, sseks anything in nalara 
but forees and laws ! Wboaowapsska 
of BbMns 1 And even maleoules, tha 



18M-] Sfiril tnd Tmdtndet e/ jJi« jVm Seiool of PhUotcphs. ST 

( 

old fttoms revired, who defends them above nMuTO ; finallj, it nooM tesd oa, 

U uiylhiog bat xn hypotKEsiB ! If the when carried out to its fullest limit, lo 

Au^t be iiKoniesiible, if modern phjsiu* regftid ra&n as the oentre aod >ourc« of 

• bo new employed oo); with (ocees all truth, all knowledge, all paw«r, 
Uid laws, I draw the ligoraua conolu- Nut only, to repeat the word* of Kant, 
■ions from it, that the scieace of phy- " the uoderatajiding imposes ita lawt 
sios, whether it know it or not, is no upon nature," hut, in the language of 
lonfei material, and that it became Cuuain, " the loRnite — the True — th« 
spiritual when it rejecled eT«ry other Good—God himself ia revealed 10 h»- 
method than ohaervalion and iuduclion, manily by the reasoo alone. " 

which can never lead to aug^ht but We peioeire, then, many subordinala 

forcetand 1>»'8. Vow what is there and particular teodeooioa that grow out 

malarial in forces and laws! The ofthe natureof modem pbiloHidiy, that 

Ehyweal sciencea then, ihemBelres, are merely subdiriaioaa of the great 

ave entered iato the broad path of an general tendency to the extreioo of 

Wlightened spijituaUsm." Spiritualism, — varions expressioiia of 

A few more remarks of Cousin, on the same grand principle. Let na, 

ItAUMt, and wo finish out quotations : therefore, conclude these remarks by 

"If oortaioty is to beobtaioed, if there noticing the inflaenoe of some of tlieaa. 

■» onirorsal truths, it is because Hea- tendencies upon the intellect, tbe heart, 

•on, which teaches them to us, baa it- aod tbe life of man. In other words, 

■elf a sovereign and nniTeteol aotbor- let us examine thb practical tendencies 

ily." " Indeed, which of our facultiea of modern philosophy. 

is it that, in the reading of tlie Holy And first, the tendeaoy to Rational- 

Sctiptures, must receive this sadden ism, as the Infiaiie : ia other words, 

light ! Examine, and you will find " the True, the Beautiful, the Good," 

* that it must be reason. It is reason is only "revealed to humanity by tb» 
which, endowed with the power of re- reason," to use the language of Cousin ; 
eogoiiing the True — the Goad — the and toitalone " we owelhe knowledgo 
Beautiful — the Grand — the Holy — the of universal and necessary truths, of 
Divine — wherever it ia, recognizes it principles which we all olicy and ota- 
inthe Holy Scriptures as it recogniaes not but obey; and, as ahe alone is " tlw 
it in Notare, as it recognizes it in con- interpreter of Cod and the teacher of 
scieoce aod in tbe soni, which is also s mau," then all must stand or fall by her 
Bible in its own way." " Reason, then, decision*. 

is literally a revelation, which is want- Thus, in the present age, in thai 

iiig to no man, and which enlightens name of reaaon, everything is cbaJ- 

every man on his coming into the lengsd to abow ita colors, give hei 

world. Season is the neceaaary me- watchword, or die. Every human in- 

diotor between God and man — tiie X>]v[ atilution is questioned to declare the 

of Pythagoras and Plato — the word principle in which it exists ; and, if 

mode flesh which serves as the inter- this does not accord with reaaais it 

preter of God and the teacher of man must perish. Art, acienoe, gevem- 

— divine and human at the aame lime, ment, religion, each in turn most stand 

It is nol, indeed, the Absolute God in forth and give a full aooouot of itself, 

hia maijeslic individuality, but his mani- Reason aiia on her judgmeot-teat, andt 

featatkm in spirit, and in truth ; it is in her hall, lighted from oa high, ai» 

not the Being of beings, but it ia tbe no dark comers for folly and (Ua^ood 

nvealed God of the human race." to hide in. Before her powertiil lighl. 

From the hasiy survey, then, we the wan spectres of fear, saperstition, 

have made of modem philosophy, as and blind credulity fade away, with th* 

we find it developed in the works of ita clooda aod darkness, in which they bti 

taostdiMiBguishedadrocatesiDEurope, their birth. Before the anthority of 

we cannot but perceive how enliieiy her word, the bands of tyntnoy and 

apiritosl is its direction and character ; hypocrisy, vice and bigotry, cower and 

that the tendenciea of this pbilosofihy tremble, and shrink away iula theii 

■re not only towards an extreme Spirit- graves. No niattei bow time-bonored, 

nal Rationalism, bnt to Idealism, Pan- how powerful, bow esteemed amMig- 

thBi*m,and Mvsticism, and to exalt tbe men, reverence for the outward bsa iw 

iowardaboveitiBoatward, — spirit above place in thia system: whatever oaiuot 

maUei, — teasoD above sense, — mau prove itself afriend of reosMt, and ift 



vGoog I 



;U 



S^ril and Tmdtneie* of Oe Ntm StMool of Phih$ophy. [Jnlf, 



humony wiih her Iswb, mtisi fkll. Nn- 
tbing so Xofly, m sacred — DOtbing m 
meBS aod luw, as to escape her acm- 
liny. Not eTen the Sabtnlh, the Bible, 
n Chriatisnitj itself. As " reason is 
& necMsiiy and nnireraal Tevelation 
wanting' to no man," the Bihle, saj our 
modern philosophers, is not to be re- 
eeired any fuither than it is in accord- 
ance vith Reason. The greatest man 
ia great ooly becaase he lives oot her 
intaitions ; and Christ ia only onr Sa- 
viour, and Chiistianily onr aaWation, 
because inspired by the "pure Rewon," 
and in conroTmity with her sublime 
conceptions^ 

Thus this tendency allows no secret 
■DcietieB, no masonic lodges ; ^y most 
oome oat to the cleat light of Reason, 
answer her interrogatories, receive her 
•eoteace. Hence the dcalmctiie prin- 
ciple, that at first waned only against 
whatever could not, or would not, give 
a clear account -of itself when chaU 



tely, this prineipl< 
Dot t^nars wait for the challenge to be 
answered ; but, in the beat of lU zeal, 
eonfbonding friend with foe, it is too 
willing to make war npon the true as 
w^ as the false, and to sweep away, in 
one promiacnona rain, the good with 
die evil, the beautiful and fair with the 
foul and ngly. Thus do we (ind in nor 
midst, sincere and nprighc inditidaals, 
perhaps, but too hot-beaded and enthiisi- 
aetic to judge clearly aad deliberately ; 
who, not satisfied with reforming the 
ateses, eradicating the corruption, and 
exterminating tho evils, which may 
have crept into Church and State, 
would destroy the whole. 

"Away!" cry Ihoy, "away with 
yotir Charefa, yonr Sabbath, your cler- 
gj ; ih'B up yui^ \awR and legislation : 
erertbrow the vile incubus of state : 
poll down your pulpits ; demolish your 
meeiing-honses ; abolish yonr religiona 
worship !" 

Thanh' Heaven ! there is divine 
power and vitality enough in the Chris- 
tian Chnreh to carrr it safely through 
all snch battles — to' bring it out un- 
•oathed from the Bre kindled to de- 
stroy it. Uiueathed! yea? conSrmed, 
strengthened and purijiad by the trial, 
as, when the tempsst wrestles with the 
mighty osJc, the dead leaves, decaying 
Imnehes and Inaeets, that marred its 
heauty and obstructed its growth, are 
— a ttc ied to tiie winds ', but, mure per- 



fect than ever in its proad and gtorimia 
majesty, the oat still stands, — the tem- 
pest has but revealed its strength. 

The nltra-spiritualist seems to fidget 
that reason, — the inuard wortd, — the 
avbject of (bought, — is bnt one party in 
the formation of every idea; that tba 
OHlvard world, the object also, is ne- 
oeaaary. Thus a man, to be a painteTt 
must not only be distinguished by hia 
appreciation of beautiRil forms and 
hues, but he must have, often and dis- 
tinctly brought before his vision, beau- 
tiful forma and colors, to appreciaM. 
The intaitions or coneaptioos of die 
reason need objects to awaken and 
develope them ; the outward world of 
man and nature, of aciencB, history and 
art. Prom a disregard of this aeoM- 
sity arises the tendency to undervalaa 
the outward, to depreeist* knowMge 
gained from eiperienec, to de^tiee th« 
learning of books and the wisdom of 
grey hairs. This may be called tha 
mtroversivt tendenty ot modem philo- 
Bophy, ot tendeooy to indifidutdi^, 
which makes the individual soul — the 
Me — the inward life — the centre and 
source of all things. In the writii^[s 
of the transcendental portion of ths 
spiritual school do we espeoially t~' 
this tendency prominent. Its eiirei 
as we shall see, by a cursory e 
Uon of the transcendental literalnre, is 
to make man the eonl, the self, Ibe 
great divmily ofthe universe. 

In a volume of essays by its moM 
disilnguishad and beautifel writer, W9 
find the following development of the 
tendency above allnded to : 

" It is only ss a man puts off fhmi him- 
self alt pxteiaal sapport and stands alone, 
that I see bim (o be stroBg and to prevail. 
He is weaker by every recruit to his baa- 
ner. Is not a man better tiian a Iowa t 
Ask nothing of men, and, in tbe endless 
matation, thou only firm colamn most 
presently appear the upholder of all that 
surronnds thee. He who knows that 
power it in tbe soul, that he it weak only 
because he has looked for good oat of 
him and elsewhere, and so perceiving, 
throws himself onhefiialiDgly on hia 
thought, instantly rights himself, stands 
in the erect position, camnands his limbi, 
works miracles." 

Again: 



z.d- Google 



1844.] Sjurit md TendeiuUs «/ the New School of Fhilotophy. 9t 

4t boDW with might ind main, and not ence of k)l men, and a lUlh and tniM 

laffer himself to be bullied by kings or in the soul hertelf. Chrisliiwity is llw 

empires, but know Ihai he is greater than doctrine of self-support, Jeans civea 

all the geographj and all the government his arm to none aave thoae who stand 

ofthe wotW. gjgpt, independent of church, suie, or 

AffBin he narrates : '''* '*''"^'''' '" '''*= '"legriiy of self-inaight 
and valor." 

« I remenber an answer, when qaile None more than we can approve and 

yonng, I was prompi to make lo a valned admire a lofty self-retiance — a rever- 

adviter who was wont lo importane me once for the son] as an inspiration from 

with IhedewoU doctrines ofthe Church: the Deity. "1 would not," to use tha 

00 mr saying 'what have 1 to do with words of the sainted Channinf, " I 
the sacredness of traditions, if I live would not disparage that nalnre, which 
wholly from within,' mjr friend suggested, ii common lo all man, for no ihooght 
" But these impulses may be from htlow, gan measure its grandeur. It ia tb* 
not from oio« ,' I replied : ' They do not j^age of God— the iEmge of hit in- 
seem to me to be such, hut if I am the fini[^_fi,r nj, limiis can be set to its 
devil's ehilJ. I will live Iheii from the o„f„ij:„„ «- who nossssses the di 
devil I' No law can be sacred lo me hnt ■'?""^"'B- ■'Jf w"" possesses Ibe di- 
thatofmyMlure. Good and bad arc bal ""« P^*" °f '^e soul « a part bemg 
names vefj readily traniferabls to [hat or — b« ''.'« ?'*■;'' *'1^'.« foij." But haa 
this; the only right is what is after ray "" '"» >endeney, in soioe, been ear- 
eoDSIitotion ; the only wrong, what is »»ed so far aa to canse them l« forgM 
against it." ....<* Perhaps, if there is snch a thing as human frailtj, 
we shonhl meet Shakspeare, we shonld and human sinfulneas 1 Has it oat led 
not be eonteionsof any iteepinfeiiority I some among us to despise the gifte, 
no, but of a great equalilj," to. . . . the revelationa, the wisdom of all other 
" I may say it of our preposterous uic of (oula, and tha various instil at kma and 
books— he knew not what lo do, snd so ,ns (q which they owe, in a meaaare, 
luTtad. Ican/A.nAofnolhmgioEllmy their present lofty stute of inteUimmee 
y?*/'!:'''??^ so. w,.hout any con.tmmt, ^^^ cullivalion ; and, finally, to pit the 

1 find the life of Brmnt. It .s a very ei- i„ji,idu,i ^^j (,he > of Fiehie/in the 
Ir^^rtC.e"'o^r/nX?w'^b! pUceof.hatuni'vera«lSpiri,,i„'a:^hT 
ingion. My lime shonld be as good as "'"'^. ™?, ^"J>' ""<" i"""' "«> »»▼• 
thiir time," fcc. . . . "Whaliaa our being!' Let us see. 

man bat Nat are's fine success in self-ex- in the same Kssays we quoted b»> 

plication7 What is a man bat a finer fore, we find such eiprcssionaaslhese: 

and compacler landscape than the bori- " God enters by a private door into eve- 

soD-fignres — Nature's eclecticism 7" r; individual :" — 

In a apeecli ^n the " meihod of na- " There is no great and no nnaU 

tore," by the aame author, we have this To the Saul that maketh all ; 

tendency still pronoinenl : "AlllhiDgs," Aad where ilcometh all things arej 

he says, " ate known to the soul ; it is And it cometh everywhere." 
not to be surprised by sjiy communica- 

lion. Nothing can be greater than ft." The same author, in another work. 

In an oration lo our scholars, he en- says : " I stand here. to say, let us wor- 

eourages them with : "Meek young ahip the mighty and transcendent Soul." 

men grow up in libmries, believing it Andagain: " That which, intellecuially 

their duly to accept the views which considered, we call reason, considered 

Cicero, which Locke, which Bacon, in relation to nuture, we call spirit, 

have given ; forgetful that Cicero, Spirit ia Iho Creator. Spirit haa life 

Locke and Bacon were only young in itself, and man, in all ages and eoun- 

men in libraries when the; wrote these irics, embodiesit in his luiguageaa the 

books." Another and still more tran- Father." Goethe, in a lUercry point 

acendental writer, if possible, telle ns of view, lh» great chief of the Traas- 

in his " Sayings :" " A man is diviner, cendental school, in his Hymn, " The 

mightier, holier, than rnlers ordained Godlike," haa such expressions aa— 

of time Christians lean 

on Jesua, and not on the aoul. Sneh " Hail lo the unknown, 

wu not the doeUine of this noble re- The U^ber Beiog 

fonur. He taught maii'B tDdepend- Fell witbiit ui." 

.) giti: 



I =y Google 



iil! 



Spirit and Tendmeiet of the Neio Seitool of Piiio$*fikf. {Jnlr, 



► 



"He alone mif 
The Good reward,— 
Tbe Gailty punUb,— 
Mead and delivei." 






n poau speaks 



pnwna, enemies, — TuiiBh." ABolIm 
dselarea: "The world is filled by 
God's energy and subslance ;" and 
" The difine energy and aubslanee 
poBseulhe humanroul," Asanatural 
consequence from the belief that man'B 
aoai IB divine in its Bubatanca, &c., all 

and miwry are of God, and Uievcf^ 



" Tbe oaty temple God deligbia tc 



"God is 



Says the author ofteneM quoted abor a, 
Not ihankB— not prayer, seem quite 
tbe highest uid tmesinanie for OUT com- 
ontnicalion with the Infinite — but glad 
and eonepiring reception — reception 
Asotbei Transcendental writer, whoso that becoiDEa piring, in its turn ; as tbe 
" Sayings" we have berore qnoled, re- receiver ia only the All-Giver in paat 
marks : " Man is a rudiment and em- and in infancy." . . " It is God in 
of God." Stii! another deelarea : ua which checks the language of peti- 
we in God; dirinest tion by a grander thought." .... 
life! foundation of freedom, of manhood, " Men's prayers are a disease of the 
of a godlike age." This tendency to will." . . , Agaia ; " Empedocles 
merge the universe and man in God, — undoubtedly spoke a troth of tbtwght, 
to roako all things Deity, and Deity all when he said, ' 1 am God!'" 
things, — is the pecnliar pantheism of Thus we see how inconsjatent b 
Ibe present day; and this pantheistic prayer, are all acta of outnard worship, 
teodenoy, to which we hare befoTB wilb tbe religious tendency of modern 
alluded, forms oae of tbe most dietin- philosophy. Kiinally so is a belief in 
gnishing chancterietics of modern phi- any particular illumination, or peenHac 
loaophy. inspiration, and in a special revelation. 

Saye a dialinguiahed literary advo- Says one of the popular leclur 
oate of this [Jiilosophjr, in England, preachers of Chriilianity (.») 
"Yes; tmly, if nature is one and a midst — "God' - 



living indivisible whole, much 
mankmd, the image that reflects and 
creates natare, withoat whii ' 



" Thro 



every star, — ihrongb every grass-biade, 
— aod most — through every living soul, 
the glory of a present God still beams." 
The author, again, of " Sayings," ob. 
serves — " Divinely speaking, God is 

the only person." "A 

man's idea of God corresponds to his 
ideal of himself. The noblar he is, the 



idly present in 
him. Tbe presence of God in the 
soul is what we call inepimlion ; it ia a 
breathingxa of God ;" — aod aska, " Has 
the Soul of ail sotils seen fit to shed 
his light only on some score of men! — 
In all ages, from the dawn of time to 



ihia n 



L all 1 






the spirit of God, his energy and sub- 
stance, have flowed into the soul, as tbs 

rain falls in all lands." 

Now to men there oan be but one 



OMre exalted his God. His own cul- kind ai inspiration ; it is the intuition, 

ture and discipline are a revelation of or direct and immediate pereeptiOD of 

Divinity. He apprehends the divine Truth, in some important mods; for 

character as he apprehends his own. eiample, religima at moral Trpth." 
Humanity is tbe glass ofDivinilyjerpe- , . "There can be but onemo^e 

Tienee of the soul ia a revelation of of inspiration ; it is the felt and ac- 

God." Sometimes all are God; some- knowledged presence of the Highest 

times God is nature— God i« man. A in the soul, imparting His Truth ; — the 

toriter whom we have before qnoted, in consciotia presertce of Him— «a trnlk, 

a little work on " Natnre," Says : " Ka- eharity, justice, hollBesa or love, infus- 

lare is not fixed but fluid. Spirit alters, iag himself into the soul and giving it 

moolda, makes it. A corre^Mmdent new life 1" 

revolulion in things will attend the in- Whatneed,then,ofaSavioart WTw* 

anx of the Spirit (ioto man). So fast teed of a Mediator any morel Te 

wUl diaagreeable appearances swim, — qnote again the words of Cotuia : — 

tifiAKt*, swJtea, pests, mnd-hoiises, " Reawra" (whieh he call* " the rere*!- 



tM4.] Bpirit and TendeTteiet of the Neie School of Philotephy. 91 

ed fiiocl of the haman race"), " Reason of this article. A nriter •nhota we 

ia the ueoeasary mediator between God quoted before on the enbjecl of Germaik 

•nd man, — the Word made fleah, which lileralure, aajB : " !□ point of freah- 

aerres as the inlerpieler of God, and nem, it haa no cqcal aint^e the days of 

the teacher of man,-— divine and human Sophocles. Who ahall match with 

at the same time." Tha author whom Wieland, and Leasing, the Schlegela — 

we have jnat qaoled on the atihject of Herder, ao aweet and beautiful — Jean 

ioipiiation, in speaking of the founder Paul, Tieck, and Schi]leT,andGoe(faef 

of Chiistianit;, remarka : " Wheiber We need not tnenlion lesser namea, 

Aeie ate future Cbiista in the infinite nor add more of their eq'iala." Now, 

diatance, but nobler than he, now on all these, and nutneions otbeta beside, 

their way to the eatth, ia known onlj who are extenaitely read in this coun- 

te Him who poaeeasea the riddle of try and all ever Europe, are more 01 

-destiny," Ac. The same writer says — leea tinctnred with the " new philoeo- 

" There can tie but one (M(, or crii*n'o« pby." There arc other more popular 

of inspiration : the truth of the thought, lecturers and writers than those quoted, , 

feelings, or doctrines." Hence the in tkU country, who apeak out, too, 

viowof miracles, held bj the neophytes more plainly uid bluntly, from whom 

of the Transcendental school. Speak- we have extracted nothing. From 

ing of the Chrittian miractea, a distin- pulpits and professorial chairs, aa well 

guiahed divine says : " They teach us as from private studies, does its voice 

dtat the mightiest foroe ia nature, — the eome. 

anergy to which all thing* are, by the Butwearepassingbeyond thereason- 

•onstuiiLion of nature, subordinate, — is able bounda of a single essay, and we 

spiritual foree : that this power resides, will therefore eonelude these remarka 

to an unknown extent, in the bosom of with alluding to one other practical 

man,. and, under certain conditions, will tendency of modern philoaophy — a ten- 

aaaert its supremacy." An English dency, perhapa, that has leaa about it 

Tranaeendenialist whom we quoted be- to be criticised or condemned than any 

fore, wriiea : — " To that Dutch king of other. The doctrines of spiritualisia 

Siam, an icicle had been a miracle ; we have been discuasing lead as to 

whosD had carried with him an air- place a high value upon man ; and, 

Eomp, and phial of vitriolic ether, might wherever it inspires aod influences the 

ave worked a miracle," &c. The affections and the heart, inducea a wide 

author of the "Sayings" declares — benevolence, an enlarged humanity, a 

" To apprehend a miracle, a man must Christian democracy. And we call 

first have wrought it. He knows only this the philanthropic tendency. A 

what he has lived, and iolerprete all tendency not only to believe that 
facts in the light of hia experience. 

Miracles are spiritual experiences, not " Our neighbor is the snfTerins man, 

feats of legerdemain, nor freaks of na- Though at the fiinhepi pole;" 

We have said enough to show what but, to look upon the vilest and moat 

is the religious tendency of modern abandoned sinner as, equally with oor- 

pbilOBOphy. Our space has hardly selves, possessed of a divine essence — 

permitted US to give more than a car- sons of the same Father. 

aory examination of the subject ; and Says one, whosn faith in humanity 

it may be aaid, that these quotations was perhaps his distinguishing charao- 

are from a sm^l number of authors, teristic — the lamented Dr. Channing^- 

Kttle read, and of no extenaive inSu- " Indeed, every man, in every condi- 

enoe. In this country there are, com- tion, is great. It is only our diseased 

panlively speaking, as yet, but few sight which makes him little. A man 

writers of the etaea, we confess ; but ia great as a man, be he when or what 

tiie inflaence of these writers, we ap- be may. The grandeur of his nature 

prebend, ia more extensive than ia turns to insignilicance ail outward dis- 

^eially imagined, especially with tinclions." iViTro^ij, a name tor a fa- 

.1 1. g coming forward into the vorite, beautiful German author, writes : 



world to fill iiB offices ; and this infln- " There ta but one temple in the world, 

enoe is increasing ovi — -■ — " — ■* "■— • ' '- ^- -> - ' ■ - 

asthat of kindred spi ^, ^ „^.. 

to whom we referred in a former part Ws inueh God whan we lay our hands 



Google 



^r 



Spirit and Tendeneie* of the JVew Scieet of PkUMOfhf. [J^T, 



on mhumanbody." "Allinen" — with- 
oat diatinctioQ uf rank, sex, color, pur- 
suit — ate great ; all "who posaeas the 
diTino powers of the aoul." Hence 
the movement to abolish var, skTery, 
and intemperance. The life of the 
meanest uuui is loo valuable to be the 
tool of a laskmaBler, or the plaything 
rf (tarliJte leaders and princes. The 
beggar has as priceless a jewel hidden 
under his rags as an emperoi conceals 
within his robes of woven gold. The 
poorest Bubjeot is %b precious as the 
king on hia throne. Isot what a man 
hai — whether of fortune, lea.tniiig, 
friends, oi repniation — but what he is, 
makes him great ; that is, his man- 
hood. Hence rcforjns, to assist and 
elevate the weak, the sulTering, and 
the sinful, become fashionable, and de- 
mocracy spreads tlirough the world 
like wildfire. Hence the fetters of the 
slave are broken, and the drunkard is 
raised from the rum-shop and the gut- 
ter. The name and funn of man are 
the highest title and stamp of nobility. 
The prince is nolhing ; and however 
wise and excellent, he must fall because 
he is a prince and not a man ; because 
he dares to suppose a greater title than 
humanity. Hence French revolutions ; 
hence that rabid pseudo-democtacj, 
which, forgetting that spiritual and in- 
tellectual development is the only thing 
that gives manhood its character and 
distinction, would degrade to the lowest 
level the wisest, the noblest, and the 
beet — those most truly deserving the 
pame of man. Hence kings are pulled 
from their thrones ; the thrones totter, 
and palaces are levelled with the dust. 
Bnt on these and kindred topics, how- 
ever desirous of dilating, ourproposed 
limits forbid a* to dwelt. While we 
confess to a slight jealousy of making 
Blavery the greatest evil, and the slave 
the most important of hnman beings ; 
entire abstinence from liquid stimulants 



In eoncInaioD. To the nltt* and 
bigoted cotuervative, to the oppo«er of 
bU new views, the enemy of all that ie 
modem in philosophy and literature, 
we would say : " tlare faith in man. 
While wedded to the great truths time 
has proved inralual^e, and to the noUe 
institutions of the past, be careftil not 
to oherish, with injudicious and iodis- 
criminate aOection, the errors and eor< 
ruptions that but mar and disfigure (heii 
excellence ; nor, holding on with too 
obstinate tenacity to the pillars joui 
fathers set up to mark the rise of the 
tide, allow the river of Truth, aa it 
swells higher and higher, to overwhelm 
you in its rushing waters.^' To the 
ultra reformer, the exclusive admirer 
of the new philosophy : " While with 
ardent enthusiasm you advance onward 
and upward, with the banner of pro- 
gress in your hand, to new heighta «f 
spiritual ibonght and life, despise not 
neither forget the steps your fttbera 
have hewn fur yon to ascend. Ke- 
member that another age may leave 
your boasted advancement far behind 
It, and what now is the front rank of 
progress and reform will be the extreme 
stronghold of conservatism." 

We conclude as we began, with » 
steady faith in humftn progress. In 
(he language of the sainted Cbaooiog, 
"Add but ttiat element, eternity, to 
man's progress, and the results of his 
existence surpass not only human bnt 
angelic thought. Give me tliis, and 
the future glory of the human mind 
becomes to me aa ineompreheneible as 
God himself. . . . We wonder, 
indeed, when we are told that one day 
we shall be as the angela of God. 1 
apprehend that as great a wonder hu 
been realized alre:uly on the earth. I 
apprehend that the distance between 
the mind of Newton and of a Hottentot 
may have been aa great as between 









the noblest hero ; the books " written 
down" to children the most valuable 
Uterataie ; and childhood itself the all- 
absorbiofl caie, and namefor perfection ; 
yet we bless God, that the true love 
for our neighbor, the regard for all men 
as our brethren—as a pait of out own 
sools, the spirit of Jesus's life and Je- 
•ns's precepts is gaming ground io the 
great heart of the world. 



"X°: 



1 < There is 
Ktldest antici- 
pation. We may truly become ona 
with Christ, a partaker of that celetlial 
mind. He is truly our brother — one 
of oar family. Let us make him our 
constant model." 

Yes ! faithless is he that Iruats not 
there it something higher and noUer 
in this life of ours than he baa yel 
dreamed of in bis wiMesl imagioiogs. 



lizcdbyGooi^le 



MM.] 



A SELECT PARTY. 

■r HlTBAinU RAWTBOBMB. 

A Mm of FuMj made *d eatertaia- At the kptMiDi«d hoar, the bojt alooA 

ment at one of hu oaatlea in tho air, in kia great saloon to receire the com- 

aiMl invited a aelect numbec of dintin- pany. It waa a raat and noble room, 

Eished personagea to ^Tor liim with Iha vaulted ceiling of which waa aop- 

sitpTeaenee. The manaion, 1 bough ported b; doable lowa of giganlie pu- 

lesa iplendid than many that have been lara, that had been hewn entire out of 

aitnated in the same region, was, never- maieea of variegated clouda. So brU- 

theleas, of a magnificence auch ae is liantly were they poliahed, and so ex- 

Mldom witoeaaed by tfaoee acquainted qniaiteljr wnoght bj the eculptor'a 

«nlf with terteMcial arobitectare. Ita ^ill, aa to reeemblo the fiaeat Bp«cl- 

stnMig foaDdatioDa and maaaire walls meoa of emerald, porphyry, opt], and 

wen quarried oat of a ledge of heavy ohrjsolite, thua piodacing a delicat* 

and BOBdwe olouda, which had hang richneaaof effhct,whieb ilMii immenae 

broodiog over the earth, apparently as aise reodeted not incompaiibte with 

dense and ponderooa aa ita own granite, grandeur. To each of these pillars a 

thioughont a whole antamnal day. meteor waa suspended. Thousands of 

PeroeiTing that lbs general efiect waa these ethereal lustres are conrinnallj 

fdootny — so that the airy caalle looked wandering about the flrmament, burning 

klw a feudal fottreaa, ot a moDatteij of out to waste, yet capable of imparting 

the middle age*, or a state-prison of a useful radiance to any person who 

oar own timea, rather than the bmne of has the art of eoDveniog them to do- 

rieasore and repose which he intended meetio purposes. Aa managed in the 

U to be — the owner, regardleaa of ex- aaloon, they are &r more economioa] 

CB, resolved to gild the exterior than ordinary Ismp-light. Snch, how* 

top to bottom, rottanately, there ever, was the iatenaitj of their blace, 

waa just then a flood of evening snn- that it had been found expedient to 

ihiite io the air. Thia being gathered cover eaeh meteor with a glebe of 

ap and poared abundantly npoD the roof evening mist, thereby mnflling the too 

and wwa, imbued them with a kind of potent glow, asd sooihiug it into a mild 

Mrfemn eheeifnlness ; while the eupolaa and comfortable splendor. It was lik* 

and pinnacles were made to glitter with the brilliancy of a powerful, yet cl 



the bnreat goM, and all the hnodied eued, imagioation ; alight whiobseem- 

wiitwws giMmed with a glad ligfaii as if ed to hida whatever waa unworthy to 

the ediAce itaelf were rejoicing in its be noticed, and give effect to everr 

heait. And dow, if the people of the beautiful and noble atlribate. The 

lower wortd ebaoeed to be looking up- gneots, therefore, aa they advanced «p 

ward, out of the tormotl of their petty the centre of the aaloon, appeared to 

peqdesitiea, tba^ pfobaUy mietook ibe better advantage than ever befbre in 

easUe io the ait for a heap of sonset their livee. 

cloods, to which the magie of light sod The first that entered, with old-tash- 

dwde bad imparted the aq>ec( of a Ian- ioned pnnotnality, was a venerable Sg- 

taatioaUr coostnieted mantiso. To nre in the costume of by-gone days, 

sash beholdeis it was unrea}, beeanse with his white hair flowing down over 

they lacked the im^inative laith. Had his shoulders, and a reverend beard 

they been worthy to pass within its por- upon his breast. He leaned upon a 

tal, they woald Iwve recognised the auS, the tremnlons stroke of whiah,aa 

tieth, that the dominions wbioh the he set it carefully npon the floor, re- 

B^rit conquers for itMlf among unreal- eokoed through the saloon at every fbot- 

ilies, beooma a thooaaad times more step. Reeoguising at once thia oete- 

nal than the earth whereon tbey atainp brated personage, whom it bad eoat him 

^eir feet, saying, " Thia is solid and a vast deal of Iroubla and r es ear ch to 

i»blanlial !— ^hia may ha called a diaeovet, the host advanced nearij 

fiiet!" three-fborths of tha diKaaea, down b^ 
roL. XT. — MO. Lxtnt 3 



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^-m 



■ -3 

I' :'? 



tweM ibe pi]kn,ta mMt ud weloom 
"Venerable air,'' said the Man of 



were m; teim of eiiateace 
happilj prolODgFd ui joni own." 

The old Kenllemam teceived (he com- 
bliment iHtb giaeioaa eaDdeaceDaioii ; 
he then ihrnitt up hi* speclaclea otci 
hU fbrehead, soa appeared to take a 
critical SDTTe; of the saloon. 

" Neier, wilhia mj lecollection," 
obaerred he, " ba«e I entered a more 
spaciona and coble hall. Bnt are jou 
•are that it ia built of solid mateiials, 
and that the atnctuie wilt be panua- 



'' Oh, nevei fear, u; venerable 
friend," replied the boat. "In refer- 
ence to a lifetime liLe jonr own, it ia 
tme, mj castle ma-j well be called a 
tenpoiary ediGce. But it will endim 
long enough to aoawer all the purpoaea 
fat which It was erected." 

Bat we forget that the reader haa 
not jret been made acquainted with Iha 
gueat. It was no Qiber tlian that uni' 
reieallj accredited character, ao con- 
stantly tefened to in all aeasone of in- 
tense cold ar heat — be that Temembers 
the hot Sunday and tbe cold Friday — 
the witness of a past aee, whose nega- 
dvo remiuisctaces find their way into 
BTeiy newspaper, yet whose antiquated 
and dusky abode is so OTerahadowed by 
accumulated years, and crowded back 
by modern edifices, thai noae but the 
Mao of Fancy could have discovered 
it — it was, in ehoil, that iwb-brothei 
of Time, and great- grand aire of man- 
kind, and hand- and -gloTo aeeoc'nie of 
all forgotten men ana thiugs, the Oldest 
Inhabitant! The host would willingly 
bare drawn him into conrersation, but 
aucceeded only ia eliciting a few re- 
niBThs as lo the oppressive almospliere 
of this present aumraer evening, com- 
pared with one which the guest had ex- 
perienced, about fQur-BCOco years ego. 
^e old gentleman, in fact, was a good 
deal overcome by his iaurncj among 
tbe clouds, which, to a fiame so eoith- 
inciaated by long conliouance in a low- 
er region, was unavoidably mote fa- 
tiguina than to younger spirits. He 
was uwiefote conducted to an eaay- 
cbair, well cndiioned, aod aluSed with 
vanotons softnesa, and left to take a 
litUfl lepoM. 



tJily, 



Tbe Man of fancy now d 
another guest, who Biood so quietly in 
tbe shadow of one of (he lullan, timt 
he misht easily have been overlooked. 

" tij dear air," exclaimed the twvt, 
grasping bim warmly by the hand, " al- 
low me ta p«et yon as the hero of Ifaa 
evening. Pray do not take it ■■ no 
enpty coa^liitttDt i Ibr if tbet« wer* 
D« another gneK in niyeaaUe, itwosld 
be entirsiy pervaded with yov p i w. 

" I thank yon," answered tbe nnpra- 
teudiug Bttanger, " bni, tkon^ yo« hap- 
pened to overlook me, I have not juaA 
aiiived. I cane very early, and| with, 
yoor permisHaa, ahall reauin after 
the rest of the eanpany h«vc retired." 
And who doea the reader imkgiiM 
was this nnofatmsive guest 1 It n» 
the faroona jwrformer of aekavwiadgMl 
impoaatbiliuen ; a cbarmeter of p h w i- 
hnman capaeiiy and viitott, and, if his 
enemien are to be credited, «t b» )ea« 
remarkable weakneaaes aad defeeta. 
With a geoerodiy of which be ahata 
sets us the example, «e will ghactt 
metely at bis nobler aUrifantaa. He it 
is, then, who prefers ilie interests of 
others to his own, and an bnmUe alatiaa 
to an exalted one. Careless of fnahioo. 
custom, tbe opinioM of mem, and tke 
influence of the press, he noainilaies 
his life to the standard of ideal TOoti- 
tode, and tbaa prorea himenlf the eaa 
independent oiiiien of our free eonnlry. 
Id point of ability, many people doolare 
bim to be the only mathematieian capa- 
ble of squariag the circle ; the only 
mechsBic aoqu&inted with the prinaipla 
of perpetual niDtion ; the only soiewtifio 
pbuoaopber who ean compel watar to 
run np hill ; the only writer of the age 
whose genins is eqnal to the praduetieii 
of an epic poena ; and, finally — so vsri- 
ona are his accomplishmsnta — tbe only 
proffssor of gyninaslics who has suc- 
ceeded in Jumping down his owo throat. 
With all these talents, however, he is 
M far fiom being considered a member 
of good Bocieiy, ihat it is the severest 
cemurfi of any fashionable asaemtdag«, 
to aSiim that this remarkaUo individnal 
was pMsent. Pablio orators, leeturera. 
and theatrical peribmers, partleulai^ 
eschew his company. For eapaeial 
reasoos, we are not at liberty to dia- 
olose his name, and shall meatioa 
mly one other trait — a roost singslu 



lizcdbyGooi^le 



lew.] A S*Uet Pmiy. SS 

wk»B bo tM^peoB to etat tiia eyoa upon Fkocy, that Ins vaa«nble ftnd moek 

» lo^ins-glMS, he bdutlda Nobody re- respected gttest had met with •• con- 

fleoted iBera ! Ksnial ma uaooiftts. GotreBtiii^ ihem 

Sflvenl ether gneata now made their both M make thenMeUes perfectly at 

appoarance, and smoiig them, cbatter- home, he new tnmed to recelTB tin 

ns with imineoM TolalHJit]', a briak Wandeiiag Jew. This pwaonagA, 

tUue geiMleman of DDirerMl regae in however, had latterly grown so com- 

ptirate aociety, and not uaknawn in iBon, by rainBling in all Borta of (ocietj, 

the ppblic joamala, nnder the title of and appearing at the beck of ereiy «»• ' 

Honaieur On-Dit. The nanw wouki tortainer, that he coald hardly btt 

aeem.ta indicate a Frea^iiian; but, deemed a proper guest in a very oxehl- 

whaterer be his coontry, he is tho- aive circle. Beaides, b«Bfl: eorared 

KWghly versed in all the languages of with dust from I>ls continual i ' 

an exprSBS I ' >• '-- > _ .i . , i_i . 

as much to the purpoae ii „ 

in any other tongue. No Boonar were partyi ■□ that the host felt relLered of 

tite ceremonies of salutation orer, than an iDcemmodity, when the restless in- 

ihia taJkatiTe little person put his dividual in qneation, after a brief stay, 

moath to the host's ear, and wiuspered took hta dapartare on a ramble towarda 

three secrets of slate, an iatpottant Ore^n. 

pies* of cotamercial intelligence, and a The portal wai now thnngad by ■ 

rich item of fashiooable scandal. He Crowd of shadowy people, with whom 

then saaured the Man of Fancy that he the Haa of Faocy had been aoenaintad 

would not fail to circulate in the so- in his viaionaiy yoDth. He iiad in* 

oiety of the lower world a minate de- viied thein hither for the sake of oh* 

■oriplion of this magnificent castle in serving how they would eompsrv, 

the air, and of the fealirities at which whether advantagoonaly or otherwiaer 

he had the honor to be el guest. So with the real ehsractera to wh<xu hi* 

saying. Monsieur On-l>it made hia bow maturer lile had inlrodaeed him. They 

and hurried from one to another of the were beings of crude imagiaatioD, suck 

company, with all of whom be seemed as glide before a young man's eye, sad 

to be acquainted, and to posaesa aotne petend to be aelual inhabitants of tha 

topio of interest or amoaement for earth ; the wise and witty, with whom 

every indiiidual. Coming at laat to be wonid hereaflar hold interconrse ; 

theOldeatlnhabitantiwhowaaslamber- the genereos and heroic friends, whoav 

iog comfortably in the easy chair, he devotion would be requited with hia 

applied his moath to that venerable own ; the beautiful dream- woman, who 

'«ar. would become the help^mate of hia 

"What do you suy?" cried the M baaaa toils and sorrows, and atones 

gentleman, starling fiom his nap, and the source and partaker of his happi- 

puiting up his hand to serve the pur* nesa. Alas 1 it is not good for tite foil 

pose of an ear-tiumpet. grown man to lodt ton ejosely at thste 

Monsieur On-Dil bent forward again, old acquaintances, but rather to rever- 

and repeated his eommunication. ence them at a distance, thioogh the 

" Never, within my mefnary," ex- medium of years tiiat have gathered 

claimed the Oldest Inhabitant, lifting duskily between. There was aome- 

his hands in astoniahment, " has so re- thing laughably untrue in their pomp- 

raarkabte an incident been heard of." ous stride and exaggerated Mntiment; 

Now came in the Clerk of the they were neither huraan, nor tolerabto 

Weather, who had been invited out of likeDessSs of hnmsaily, but fantastio 

deference to his oSicial station, al- masquers, resdering heroism and nature 

though the host was well aware ihal alike rnlioulous by the grave absurdity 

his conversation was likely to contri- of their pretensions to soeh altribntea. 

bate but little to the general enjoyment. And as for the peerless dream-lady, 

He soon, indeed, got into a corner with behold '. there advanoed up the saloon, 

his acqaaintauce of tong ago, the Oldest with a meveoienl like a painted doU, a 

Inhabitant, and began to coropare notes sort of wax figure of an angel — a eraa- 

vrith him in refereaoe to the peat lure as cold aa mooDahine — an artitofl 

I, gales of wind, and other atraos- in petticoats, with an intellect of pretty 



s eaaHuy past. It lejoieed the Man of lieaTt— yet, ia aU ibeae partionlan, tto 



Google 



rrn 



fl=< 



> 



tns typo oT ft T<i«v maii'B ia»g;iii>Tj 
mislreM. Hirdljr coald the boot's 
punctiliana conrteij roitiftia ft smile, 
ma he paid hii mpeota to this nniealitf, 
■nd met the aeaiirneDial gluioB wUh 
which the Dreim sought to ramind bin 
of their fonner lore-pMUgea. 

" No, no, fail lady," munnund be, 
* belniit nghiog and arailiag ; " mj 
laate is ehanged ! I hive lesroed to 
lore whit Nainie miJces, better tban 
my own creations in the guiae of wo- 
BMbood." 

''Ah, false one !" abrieked the dreftm- 
ladj, pieteodiag to biot, bat diaaoliing 
iDto thio air, out of whiob eame the de- 
plotable moraftar of bet Toiee— ^' you 
UMonetMicy baa annihilsted me !" 

" So be it," aaid the eniel Han of 
FftDcy to himself—" and ft good rid' 
dance, too !" 

Together with these ahadowt, aad 
fitmi the aame region, there IimI come 
ftn nniatited multitude of ahapea<wbicb, 
at any time duriiw bis life hM tormeot- 
ed the Man of FanGy in hia roooda of 
morbid melaocbdy, or liad hanntad btm 
is tbe delirium of ferer. The walla of 
bia eaatlo in the air were not desae 
enough to keep them out ; not would 
the strongeat of earthly srebiteetDre 
ba*e availed to their eKoloakm. Here 
were tboae forma of dire terror, which 
had beset him at tba entrance of lih, 
waiging warfare with hia hopes. Here 
were Mrange nglineaaes of earlier date, 
■oeh as hamit obildren in the ni^t 
time. He waa particularly startled by 
lbs Tinon of a defbnned old black wo- 
man, wbom he imagiued as lurking io 
tbe garret of hia imUtb home, and who, 
when he was an inbnt, bad 



bteek shadow, with otfaers almoat aa 
bideoua, now glided amoog tbe pillara 
of the ' luagnifieetit saloon, grinning 
raoognition, mtil (be man abnddereS 
anew at tba fcrgouen terrors of his 
ehildhood. Il eaosed him, howerer, 
to ohaerre the hlaek woman, witb tba 



OldeU InhaJnlaat, sod peep into hia 
lialf-dreamy mind. 

" Never wiiUn my nemory," mut- 
tered that veneraUe persoaagetagbaM, 
" did I see snob » faoa !" 

Almost immediately after dte unreal- 
ities just desoribad. ■rrived a number 
' * » issdoia 



Part,. [Jidf . 

may be inetifled to rank e^nslly smoar 
oreatDrea of imaginatioa. The moot 
noteworthy were an incompiibls Pa- 
triot ; a &:holar without pedantry ; ft 
Prieat wilhont worldly ambition, and K 
Beautiful Woman witheot pride at co- 
quetry ; a Uarried Puir, whoee life bad 
BSTer been disturbed by incongruity of 
ieeHng ; a Reformer, untrammelled by 
bia theory ; and a Poet, who felt do 
iealouBT towaida other votaries of tbo 
lyre. In tnUh, however, the boat wao 
iKit one of the cynics who eonuder 
ihess patterns of exeellenea, wilbovt 
tbe fatal &ftw,auch rarities is the world ; 
and be bad isviled them lo his select 
patty chiefly out of humble defereBco 
la the judgment of society, which pro- 
■MMtnces thcMi slmost impassible to be 

"In my yoonger days," obaerrftd 
lbs Oldest Inhabitant, " sucb cfaaraoton 
might be seen at tbe eomar of every 
atreel." 

Be that aa it might, theae apecimeos 
of perfection proved to be Mrt half so 



tbe ordinary aHowaaee of anhs. 
But now ^ipesred a atrsoger, wbook 



dian, witb an abundance of eoortesy 
irolavished on any olber, bo haatoaed 
down the whole length of the aslooD, 
in order to pay him emphatie boBor. 
Yet he was a young maa la pooraltiie, 
with no isaignis of rsnk or seknow- 
ledged emineace, not aaythtag lo distil 

Siiah him smong Uie crowd except a 
^, white forehead, beneath which a 
pair of deq^-set eyes were Rowing with 
wann light. It was sach a light as 
never illnminates ike earth, ^va when 
a great heart horns as tbe boosebold 
fire of a grand intellect. And irira 
was he ! Who, bat the Master Genius, 
for whan out country is looking snz- 
iously into the mist of tiuK, as destined 
to fulfil the great mission of crefttioK 
an American literature, hewing il, as it 
were, o«i of the unwrongbl granite of 
our iittellecinal qoaniea. From bin, 
wbeUicr moukled in tbe form ^ an 
epie poem, or assuming a guise allo- 
gotber new, as the s]Hrit itaeir may de- 
termine, we are to receive oar first 
neat origipal work, vriiich shall do sU 
Wist remains to be achieved for onr rlo- 
ry among tbe natimis. How this cbild 
(i(aiaq;h(y destiny had been diseoTsr- 
ed fay tba Hui of Fancy, it is of liKlo 



U44.1 A aa*et Ptrlf. tt 

tint he dwell! u ya anhonored uncmg aeeni»d to be kequintad wHk ererj^ 

mn, unreoogaiMa by thow who hftTB bodj. " He ie the repreaaDUtiTe of 

known faimfrom hUondle; — the noble PosieritT — themanof kn^Btooorael" 

eonntensnce, whioh ahonld be diatii>- ** And how cane he heief" aakedai 

gniilied by a fafUo diffaaed aroand it, figure who wee evidentlf the prototypa 

paaaas daily amid the throng of people, of the fashion-plate in a midline, and 

toiling and troobling themeelvee about might be taken to repteeent Aa Tanittea 

the trifle* of a moineDt — and none pay of the paasing roomeBt. "The fellmr 

rerereeee to the worker of immortality, iafrin^ee npon ear rigbta by eoraing b*> 

Nor does it matter mnofa to him, in kue fore hie time." 

(limnph orer all the a^ee, Ihoegh a " Bnt yon forget where we are/* 

generatieo or two of hie own times answered the Man of Faaor, who eTn> 

AaU do tfaenueUes the wrong to dis- heard the remaih ; " the lower eaitk, 

legard faim. it ia true, will be forbidden groimd to 

Bj this time, Honeiear On-Dit had bira for many ton^ years heooe ; bnt « 

-eanght ap the etranger'e name and dee- castle in the air is a aort of no-mu^ 

tiny, and was busily whispering the in- Issd, where Posterity may laake aa- 

tdtvenee emoeg the other guests. qnaiDtanee with n» on equsl tsnns." 

"Pehaw!" said one, "there oan No eoener wae his ideuitty knowa, 

never be an Amerieao Gienine." than a throng of gaeate g^eied aboot 

" Pish !" cried another, " we have Poeterity, all ezpreaeing the OMMt gem- 

already as good poets as any in Ibe eroue iateresl in his welhre, and many 

worid. For my part, I desire to see boatting of the eaeiifloea whioh thsy 

no better," had made, or were wiUing to make, m 

And the Oldest lohabitant, when it his behalf. Some, with as mneh aa- 

waa proposed to introdnce him to the ereey as posuble, desired hie JadgmeM 

Haster Genios, begged to be excused, npon certain copies of Toraea, or great 

obaeiTing, that a man who had been mannacript rolls of prose ; othma as- ' 

hmtored with tlie acquaintance of eosted him with the familiarity of old 

Dwight, Freeneau, and .Toel Barlow, friends, taking it for granted that he 

migb be flowed & little anstetitj of wae perfectly cognisant of their jiamn 

taete. and characters. At length, finding 

The saloon was now fast filling qp, himself Ihoa beeet. Posterity was pat 

bf the arrival of other reuarliaUe eha- quite beside his patieoee. 

Tseters; among whom were noticed " Gentlemen, my good friends," mM 

Davy Joneo, the distingaished naotioal he, breaking loose froro a misty poet, 

.personage, aad a rade, carelessly dress- who strove to hold bim iij the button, 

ed, hanun-searttro sort of elderly M- "I pray yon to attend to your owabosi- 

low, known by the rvickname of Old neas, sodleafemetotakeeareof minel 

Hany. The latter, however, after be- 1 expect to owe ron nothisg, naless it 

ing ahown to a dressing rooni, re-ap- be certain national debts, and other JR- 

pearedwithhie grey hair nicely combed, cnmbrsDees and impediments, physieal 

his clothes brusbsd, a clean dicky on and moral, which I shall find it troutda- 

hie neek, and altogether so ehanged in some enough to remove from my path, 

aspect as to merit the more respectful As to your verses, pray read them to 

appellation of Venerable Henry. John year DontempotarieB. YonrnamesarB 

]>De and Richard Roe came arm-in- as strange to roe aa your faoee; and 

ana, aecoropanied by a Man of Straw, even iveie it otherwise — let me whia- 

a fiolitions endorser, end several per- per you a secTet — the cold, ioy menKXy 

aona who had no existence except ae which one generaiioa majreiainofmn- 

Tolars in dosely cootesled elections, other, is hut a poor reeompeise to bar* 

Tba eelebrated Seate&eld, who now ter life for. Vet, if your heart is set 

eolored, was at first supposed to belong on being known to ne, the surest, ths 

to ibe same bruUierhood, until ha made only method, ie, to live truly and wtsely 

h appatent that he was a real man of for your own age, whereby, if the n*- 

fle^ and blood, and had hie earthly tivo loree be in yea, yes may likemaa 

'domicile in Germany. Among the lateal lire for poeterity !" 

earners, as might reasonably be expect- " It is nonsense," momsiad Ih* 

■ed, arrived a gnest from the far future. Oldest Inhabitant, wbo,as a man of tba 

" Do yon know him T — do you know paat, felt jealous tiiat all notice ahonid 

JuaV'whi«peiadHDnsieBiOa-Dit,wha be withdntwnfnnBhinatlfitobalaTishr 



CTOogfc 






i- It 



WMte BO RUKb tiiMight on wbftt onlj is 
to be!" 

To diTert tbQ miada of hia niesu, 
wbo veie cooBideiably abajb«Nl oj this 
littLa inculeEit, the Han of Fancy led 
theni throDgb Beveral ainruneots of Ibe 
«utJe, Kcehiag tbeir eompliineDts 
upon Ilie taste %id varied magnificenco 
tnat wete diaplajed in ea«fa. One of 
tikcM rooma me filled vrith moonJight, 
which did riM enter throogh the win- 
dow, but waa the aggregate oC all the 
Boon-ahiDe that ia Bcaueivd around the 
eaith m s aannner night, whUe do ejea 
m MMtke to enjoy iu beattr- ^^ 
nirita had patherod it op, whenrcir 
usy fovod It glesmtog an the bnad 
bMoa of k Ue, a ailvarisg th« mean- 
d«M of a atrean, «r ffUnrnwring among 
dM innd-atined bonglM at a wood, aid 
hai ganarad it ui one apeeioa* hall. 
Alon^ Um walls, iUmniBtfed by tii« 
■lild iBteHiqr of the uooD-shine, stood 
a DMihiiade of ideal etatuea, the original 
OODeeptiona of tbe great worka of aO' 
eient or modom art, which the aoulptocs 
did bat imperfectly succeed in potting 
into maible. For it ia not to be anp- 
poasd that the pare idea of an imntoT- 

SMMatai^ to know where they are de- 
posited, ID order to obtain poaseaaion of 
them. Id the alooiet of another last 
uutment was arranged a splendid 
lAiary, the rolDmes of which were ia- 
ealimable, becaute they consialed not 
of acmal perfermancea, but of tbe works 
vUchthe aothora only planned, withont 
everGndingtheiiappTtetaon to achieve 
tliem. TotakefatniliaTiBBtanoeBihere 
were the tmttjd tales of Chaucer's 
Canteriinry Pilgrims; the nnwritten 
Cantos of the tWy Qaeen; the coa- 
otusioo of Coleridge's Chriitabel ; and 
Um whole of Dryden'a projected Epic 
on the stibiect of KiDg Artbor. The 
ritelres wn« erowded ; for it woald 
aet be too tnveh to affirm that ersry ao- 
tbot has iaiagiMd, and shaped ont in his 
thonght, ntoM and ftr batter works than 
thoa* iriueh nelaallT proceeded from 
Us pen. And here, likewise, wen the 
aweaKcedeoneeptiotMofyoalhfnlpoeta, 
who died of the vary strength of their 
tma gen ins, bsfbre tbe wothThad caught 
one inspired namtnr from their Upe. 

When the peealiaritie* of the library 
and statne-gnllery were explained to 
the Olden Inhabitant, be appeared inH- 
aildr ptrplexsd, actd exelaiined, with 



note energy than dhsI, that he had 
nerer heaid of soeh a thing within hi* 
meinory, and, moreoTer, did not at all 
nnderstaad bow it could be. 

" Bnt my brain, 1 tiunk," said the 
good old ^otlesnan, " is getting not bo 
elrar ss it naed to be. Yen jonng 
folks, I sappose, can see year way 
thrODgh these strange laattets. Foe 
my part, I giie it up." 

" And BO do I," muttvred the Old 
Han?. " It ifl cnoagh to paasJe the 
aben!" 

Making as lit^e reply aa poaaiMe to 
these obserTstions, the Man of Fanej 
preceded tbe ooapaay to notbei noUe 
saloon, the pillars of which wer* adid 
polden aBBheams, lake* oat of the akr 
IB the Am hoar in the momiBg. nos, 
ss they retaiBed all their linng taom, 
the room waa filled with tlw moat 
cheerful radinnee imaginable, yM not 
too daasliag to be borne with oanfbit 
and delight. The windows were beam- 
tlfally Boomed with eortaina, mads of 
the many-colored clouds of aoBliae, all 
imbaed with virgin Hght, and haocii^ 
in magnilicent featooDB from the eeffing- 
to tbe floor. Moreorer, there were 
frsgmenuof ruBhows scattered thnMgfa 
the room ; bo that the gaeBtB,aB(ooiMt- 
ed at one another, reciprocally aaw 
their heads made gloriotis hy the saTen 
primary bees ; or, if they choee aa 
who would nnt T— they coold grasp s 
rtinbnw in the air, aWd convert it to 
their own apparel and adonunent. But 
the morning light and aeattared ratti- 
bows were only a typa and symbol of 
the real wonders of tbe Bpartmeat. 
By an inSneoee akin to magic, yet per- 
fectly natural, whatever means and 
opportnnitieB of joy ere neglected in 
the lower world, had been eattfallsr 
gathered up, and depoeited in the bbIdod 
of morning sunshine. Ae may wril 
be eonceired, tfaerefore, there was ma- 
teriai enoog^ to eupply not mere^ a 
joyoas evening, but also a happy life- 
time, to more than ta msny pei^e aa 
that apaeioas apartment eonid conttiB. 
The company seemed to renew their 
yeatb ; while that pattern and prorob- 
isl Btandard of innocence, the Cbttd 
Unborn, frolioked to and fm MWMg 
them, commBuicaitag his own nowiiii- 
kled gaiety to all who had tbe good 
fortane to wicnesa his gambols. 

" My honored friends," said the Han 
of Fancy, aAer they had enjojed tbem- 
•elvea awhile, " I am sow to raqaatt 



TiOO^Ic 



UH.] AMtelFmrty. 39 

yvat preseoee w tha banqnetin^-haH, aylldraba and Bommeiy from rlifl Pai^ 
irbere s slight eolUtioo w KWkitiug diss of Fools, whereof there wu a 
yoa." very great consumption. Asfordrink- 

**Ab, well nid!" ejinlftted a e«- ablea, the temperanee-people contented 
davMOoa flgnte, who had been inTited themselves with water, as ntnal, hot it 
ibr no other nasoo thu thfl h« wu was the water of the Fountain of 
pieuy eanatantlf in the habit of dining Youth ; the ladies sipped Nepenthe ; 
with Duke Huraphrej. " I was be- the love-lorn, the care-worn, and the 
l^miing to wonder whether a castle in sorrow-stricken, were supplied with 
tke air were prorided with a kitchen." briainiing gobleta of Lethe ; and it was 
It waa CDrimi, in troth, to see bow ahrewdiy conjectured that a eartafai 
isataataDeousl; the goestB were divert- golden Tsae, from which onj^ the man 
ed frao the high rooral esjoymenU dlatitigniahnl gueata were invited to 
whteh they had i>een taating witii ao partake, oontaiDed oeelar that had beea 
naefa apparent xeat, by a sogg ea t i on of tnetlowiog ever since the days of claa^ 
the more aolid as well as liquid delights ieal mythology. The clotli being i«- 
of the foative board. They ihrongad moved, the compftny, aa nanal, grew 
eagerly in the reat of the hoat, who eloquent over their liqnot, and daliv- 
Bow nabared'theni into a lofty and ex* ared tbemaelvea of a aneoeaaion ti 
Maahe haJI, fnwi end lo and of which brilliant speeobea ; Ibe task at report- 
waa ananged a taUe, slitteriog M ing wbish we resign to the more ado- 
over with ionamentblediahea and drink- qaate ability of Ctraaaellor Gill, whoM 
ing-Teaaeb of gold. It ia an unoeitain indispaaaable oo-^ieiaiioa tb Han of 
point, whether these rich article! of Fancy had takan the preoaution to 
plate were made fur the occasion, ont aecure. 

of molten sonbeania, or tccovered lirom When the feativity of tha banqoet 
the wrecks of Spanish Kalleons, that waa at ita moat ethereal {mIM, tlie 
had lain for ages at the ootlom of tha Clerk of the Weather waa obaarrad 
aea. The opper end of the table waa to ateal from tha table, and (hrast bia 
orerahadowMl by a canopy, beneath head between tbe purple and gotdeM 
ivhioh waa placed a chain of elaborate cnriaios of one of tbe windowa. 
naffniGcenee, which the host himself " My fellow-guesta," he remarked 
dedioed to aooopy, and beeonght bis aloud, after carefully noting the sign* 
gnests to aasign it to the worthieal of the night, " I adviae aoch of yon *■ 
among them. As a eaitable homage live at a diatance, to be going a« boob 
to hia inoalcolable antiquity and emi- as possible i for a thunder-storm ia ens 
Dent diatinctioD, the poat of honor was tainlv at hand," 

at Grat tendered to the Oldest InhaUt- " Alerey on me '." cried Mother Ca- 
ant. He, however, eschewed it, and rey, who had left her brood of ebidt 
Tequeoted the favor of a bowl of gruel ens, and come bilher in gasaaroer dn- 
at a side-table, where he coald rafreah pery, with pink silk atockiuga, "How 
himself with a quiet nap. There was shall I ever get home V 
mnt» liUit hesitation as lo the next Alt now was confusion and haaty 
e,antij Posterity took the Mas- departure, with but little aupetflnoua 

■ Ths Oldest Ii" ■■ - 

__ .. , the rule of th 

the princely canopy. When past days in which hia coatte^ had 
onoe they beheld him in his trae place, been studied, paused on the threabtdd 
the company aoknowledged the jnatice of tbe mataor-lighted hall, to ezpreae 
of the selection by a long thuaner-rcdl hia vast aatia&ction at the entertain- 
of vehement ai^jlanse. meat. 

Then waa aerTcd up a banqoet, eom- "Never, witbio my mecnory," ob- 
iHoing, if not all the delicacies of the served the graeioua old geotleinan, 
aeasoa, yet all the rarities whioh care- " haa it been my good fortane to spend 
ftil purveyors had met with in the fleah, a pleasanier evening, or in mora select 
lah, and vegetable markets of the land society." 

of Nowhere. The biU of fare being The wind here took his breath away, 
nafortuaately lost, we oan only mention and drowned what further corapUmenta 
a Phtenix, roasted in ita own llamas, it had been his pnrpose to bestow, 
eold potted Urda of Paradise, iee- Many of the eompony had bespoken 
onana from tiie llilky Way, utd whip- Will o! the Wiapa to cmvey thtB 

Coog Ic 



home ; Hid the bmt, in fail »nenl be- 
neficeDce.had eug&ged IbeM&iiinthe 
Moan, with an immenae horn luitern, 
to be ths goide of sacb desolate s^d- 
Btera u could do no belter Tor (Iiein- 
aelTea. Bat a blast nf the ritin^ tern- 
peat blew oat b]1 their lizhta in the 
twinkling of an tje. Kavr, in the 
darkneac that enaoed, the ^esta con- 
trived to get bask to earth, or whether 
the greater part of them oontrived to 



I'lly. 



get back at afi, or an 
amopg cloude, niiaia, and pufia of tem- 
pestuona wind, bruiwd by the beams 
and rafleiB of the erertbrown caatle in 
the air, and deluded bj all aorta of iis> 
reaJitiea, are pointa Ibal coDoeiii tbem- 
aeKes, liftich more than the wriiejt or 
the pablie. People should tUnk at 
theae matlera, before thejr tnut ibem- 
aelTBS on a pleaaoie-pi^y into tka 
realm of Nowoere. 



Bt Mnnr T. TocKnMav. 

Not yet, not yet, can I for thee awake a ntOTinF etiain, 
To weaTe tbe minatrel's carelesi rhyme woeld be a task of pain. 
And ihoD haei never fell the wants that proM upon the eon). 
When deeper moods with tender awe tta baoyancy control ; 
Hope's gladsome visions to thy mind the wend in light array, 
Ado only hoea of brilliaiicy aronnd thy fancy play : 
Bot when the fount within thy breast, now aeaied in Jeep repose. 
Shall gnsb to life and meh thy heart with musio aa it flows ; 
Wbea from the lightsome word yon tnrn, and gasiog through a teat. 
Look earnestly for kindred thoughts and sympathy sincere ; 
When Adiniralion can no more from Iaitb thy bosntn wean, 
And with a holy joy thy heart npon tme Mth would lean ; 
When sorrow comes across thy path its brooding shade to throw. 
And firee long pent in darkness op send forth a vital glow ; 
When shrinking from the light away, expanded feeling's tide 
Shall to the channels of the sanl liko hidden waters glide ; 
When for responeiTe glances look the eyes that now delight 
Only to trace the coantless aisna of Beauty's K^utle miffht ; 
When emilea npon thy hp shul [day because tny life is blest 
With a noble heart'a devatedneea and a cherished love's behest ; 
When Dnty Beeme a rnle of bliss, and Home a spell of joy — 
The precious gold whose wealth redeems the world'a most base alloy. 
And all (he pageants Fame can boast, or Fortnne e'er bestow, 
~ •■ ' - ■ ■ ■ ■ . p^ which it is thine to know ; 
« of all exalted Truth can bring, 
ne thy spirit folds its ning ; 
constant thought before aneetion's riirine, 
. ^ ^ ^ wear its tendemcBS divine, — 

Then, lady, bid me strike my harp, and scorning tricks of ait, 
ril breathe a strain whose tone luiy wake an echo in thy heart t 



Qrow dim before the high< 
When on thee dawns a ser 
And in her atmosphere ser 
When hallowed grows thy 
And all Ihy winning graces 



lizcdbyGooi^le 



BLIND JACQUES. 

■ T MB*. «. P. mLLmv. 

Am adnirei af H. Eagene Bm, ia a nuD nued hia haad Mgerlj, fait coaa- 

iMtor ■MrMwd to him in Uw Jomnul teoaiMe lighted op iritfa an nrpiiiwiiw 

ia DUafi,«xpremt M iaaMs\(finhani- ot jay, asd giH|tiD^ tha htnd that 

JaflacMd by AemotaKoTtM Mafm toochM hia, he axnlaioMd in a toos ct 

Brnde, in the Mjatariea of ^ria. emotioa — 

Bw, be adda, " aootlm ima(e abspea " Homianr DeagnuigM !" 

iladf befoia me— a litiog peiaonaga " How !" cried the yonn^ nua, anr* 

whom I faave eaen— «n image wbieh piaed, "yon reeMniie hua h^ the 

•eatnata with joora in aaeh a Buuner tomb of hia band T" 

aa to eaaipleta jronr idea. He ia bliad, " I hare no need of that ; vbonerer 

fike the Haltra d'Eede ; of the eom' he paaaee near me, 1 aay to myael^ 

nmi daaa, and in tbe peeeeasioa of idl 'TIM ia Ilia atep!'" 

Ua Bbengtb and (acnlUaa, in tbe midat *~ ' " '"" 

«r Ua irafortme ; yet be finda a aop- , „ ■ 

Mrt where the other finda an abjaa ; Deagiugva, wba hare aaved me f^om 

the maekeaelerMee him wbieh autka miaohaaeei it ia alwaya job !" 

Hm other to Mthing. Eveiy atep t>t ** Whj," naked the yeoM man, "da 

the Ualtie d'Beole pinngea bim de^er yon eapoee yonraelf to aneb aecidenta 

into bondage and deapair i formjhem, ojr drawing Una eaakl" 

OTOTT moment- that paaaes ia a tink "One moat do eoe'a bnaiaeaai Meo- 

CiUen fton hia chain, a ahadow diaaed aienr," replied tbedtayman.oheeifUly. 

Jrom hia aonl. In a won}, the one alill " Yoar boaineaaV 

aeeka good ; the other, eril : the one " Certainly," anBwared M, Deagni^ 

lovea ; the other hatea." ges. "Jaoqnea is «nr watar-earrier; 

Tlio dtetch, simple, and diawn from hot I most eeold him for going ont 

aetnml life, baa in oor erea a touching withoot hia wife to guide him.*' 

and beantifnl moral, Perhape stHne- " My wife waa abaent ; aitd I brongfat 

Ibing of its Ibree may be preierred in tha little girl ; yon see I bare done 

a translation. E. F. E. well ainee I have met Toa, dear H. 

— Dewraoges, and yon nave asiiated 

Abont a year since, in the moath of me." 

I>eeMnber, two meot one yonng, the '^Allaiu, Jaeqnoa ; finidi eerring 

other OB the rerge of old tge, were yonr cnatomeca, and afterwards ya« 

walking alon^ a stony road in (Hie of may come to see me. I am gouif 

the vijlaaes in the nwgbborhood of b^e." 

Palis. Coming towards them, and "Thanks, Monaienr Deagiaogeal 

oliwbing the rongh sacent, was a man Adiee, monaienr ! Adien " 

harnessed to a tort of drar laden whh And he went on, drawing bia water- 

a eaak ; be lield hia head down, and cask, white the little girl tnrtied bee 

beside bim walked a little girl of eight amiling, nay lace to look at the geiid»- 

yeaia old, holding by the end of the men. 

diay. Suddenly one wheel rolled npon "Blind, and a watar-eanrier t" n- 

an enormons stone, aod the dray was posted the yonng man, as tbey went 

nearly orertnrned on the side next the on. 

little girl. "Ah, yon wonder at oor Jaoqoee, 

"He ia drank!" cried the yonng my young friend ! Yea, it ia aomeibiBg 

■ant rnsbinf towards them ; bni when remarkable ; but what would yon IhinE 

he looked mto the manX &ce, be if yon knew bis history !" 

tused back qnickty towards his old "Will yon tell it meV 

erarpanion, and sud, " He ia blind '." " Willingly. It oentaina no nnccm- 

Titt other motioned him to be silent, mon eTcnts, and no dnmalie inoidenta ; 

eaae ap, and, wiibont a word, laid bia bnt I beliete you will be intereeied, foe 

hasdoa that of the dravman, while lbs it in the story of s sonl — anobt»eae ■ 

UttlagidaDiledrasDiaUy. Thebliad stnggling against oslamity. Teamj 



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T 



i:-..'i 



ofaaane bow, atep bj rtep, tlw victiin 
climb* oat of the abysg, aod renewB hia 
UTe; how a crndted heut gradually 
ncorers ita Tigori >im1 ihe helplew 
man finda ha bu jet a place in the 

The liieiida had aniTcd at the house 
of U. DeqgraDgw, wben he MMnmeRCod 
Ibeatory : 

" One tnanuDgt three years ago, I 
was waUciug aeioes the exteDsi*e dcj 
plain that aepsTates our Tillage fiom 
that ofNoiaeiooat, and >• paiiJ; covered 
with blaatsd rock*. I heard a vioJent 
eiplouon; IlQ<died,sn4at thedistaaee 
of foai 01 five handled paces saw a 
wkiUaliaiiMdte that seemed ta liaefrom 
» oaTity in the grotuid. Fragmeala of 
die roolE at the same tiaa weie throwa 
JBto Ae air I a moment after, I heard 
dreadful cites, and a man apnag nt 
of the cavity, and laa aero** the fidd 
like one ioMiie, flingiiiK his aims wildly 
pbaut, nttarijig criea of pain, and attim- 
hliog almoet at erery step. Ui* faoe, 
aa well as I could pwceiTs at a dis- 
twioe, and amidst hia rapid moTemeots, 
apomed eotered by a large ted ma^. 
I hastened towards bim, whJe from the 
dinetioa of NowemoDt came lunning 
1KB and women, with acreanis of tec- 
[u. I was the fiiat to reach the no- 
happy BMD ; and saw with borror that 
bie whole head was ops fiightful wound. 
Jlis skoU wa* laid bare ; the akin wu 
torn from bi« forehead and part of hia 
Sue; and the blood streaioBd in tor- 
lents from his torn garments. As I 
wok held of his arm, a woman ran to- 
vaids him, followed by twenty pea- 
•anls, exclaiming, ' Jacques, Jacques ! 
is it thou 1 I know thee not, Ju^ue* !' 
The nofortnnate man anawered not, 
bnt struggled to escape from our hands, 
and a* he did ao, scattered the blood in 
•very direction. 'Ah! ah!' cried the 
waouui, in a voice of heait-rendiog an- 

Ch, ' it is he !' She had recognised 
by a large ailTBr pin tliat tistened 
Weslik 

"It was indeed her husband, the 
ftlhor of thice chiMren, a poor miner, 
wbo, in Uaating a rock, W reoeired 
the whole es^oaion ia his face, and 
was blinded, moUlated, perhapa dmk- 
tally wonnded. 

" He was oanied home. I wa* 
(Uiged the same day to leftTe foe » 
BModt'a abaenee ; but I aent him oar 
ioMor/ft nao who Doitad tbe scieotiGe 
kanriedge of the nty practitionera ta 



is all be MLT 
an iaternal 


1 eontinnlly. I teu Itea 


■»»",■■ 




Devei 


'T 


th* aighl that tuMmtad 


ii*elf. 


waa seated oa a wootei 


■tool 
there 


beside 


the ebiiHMy, in wbioh 


bound 


ore* 


hi* eye* ; on tfa* gMo^ 




jioff. 


a*leep, an iofal thiw 


months old 


a little nrl, foor «Mn of 


age,ii 


raa play iac in the aahea ; uotb^. 


a little oUer 


wa* shinriag ia ita q»- 



the room, hi* wife wa* aealad «a tbe 
bed, pale, """■«'i'*^[ bar Km» ^"ff~t 
down. Then was more of niiawj iw 
this scene thao met Ihe ay*. Tb« 
oooviotion atniok on my boMt, that 
perhaps for hoars act a word had faaea 
uttered in this abode of deapair. Thm 
wife sat listleaa, and seenM aa iowgot 



had lost all hope. At theamuidof my 
footsteps, aa 1 entered, both naa, biu 
without speaking. 

" ' You ate the Mind man ofthagnat- 
ryl' lacked. 

" ' Yea ! Mopiiaar.' 

" * I hsTO come to see yon.' 

" ' Tbaoka, Mooaienr.' 

" 'You have aufiered agreatffiialac- 

" 'Yes! Mofisienr.' 

" Hia voiae waa cM, and b 
no emotion. He answered ai 
ailj. He expected nothing fnm eay 
one in the world. I said somethitv Of 
puUic aympatby, and of aid to be ex- 
tended. 

" ' Aid !' exclaimed the wonan, in a 
kind of deneration j ' tbey owe na aid« 
indeed ! We ougit to be reliered, far 
we hsTO done nothing to deaerre saeh 
a stroke as this 1 Uy children auitt 
not be suffered to die ^ htugar !' 

" She aqked m> obaitty ; abe claioi- 
ed SDCcoc aa a right, Tbia impnioa* 
an)eal toodied me mote fbreBtly thaa 
any lamentations sbo cottld b»T« em- 
ployed; and I emptied into ny haad 
some ^ece* of nlTOi fmn uj pan* ; 
bu ber hnsbaBd asaweradtiB • tow of 

.,i,.:,i. Google 



kt44.] Slmd Jmequtt. 4* 

•ideii deapur, ' Lot them die, Oie chfl- This exprenioo of iffistttien stnisk 

iran, liiwB I an ncTer to ««e again !' the young man ; and, aftar his friend 

Thsre is a stngular powu in the tonea had gone out, he a^toaehed the blind 

of the human voica. • I drc^ped ay Yiaiter. 

" Yon lore M. DeafTBOgea 1" 
" Do I love hinV repealed tb* 

ftlt tiiat it waa neceuary to gite more blind man, impetnonriy. " Monaieoi ! 

than a m«re alms; that money aonU " ' " ' ' " ' ' ' 

not restore ooatentment to that hearth. . 

I ntonwd home with my raaolntioH of deipair , 

txed." "He gare you mooey V 

" Btrt what could yoa do for them 1" "Money! what ii that* Ermv- 

■afced bia yoeog friend. body ffiTaa money ! Yes ! ha nooriah- 

" What eoald I dol" lepUed M. ed and elothed us ; he made a eolloe- 

Deegraagea; "what could I dot Fif- tionofBve hnndradfnooa. Bntallthv 

tan days after that iDi«r*iew, JaequeS is nothing. It is he who healed my 

ma iSTed ; in a year he waa in a way heart !" 

of earning hie own support: and now " And hovl" 

be sings at hie work." "By his good words, MoMienrl 

"Bat how was Ibis doneV Yes! he, a person so euallant and 

" How 1 By a means very natural : honorable, he oame every day to my 

b; hot auy, I think I hear him DOor fao*el ; he sat down on mf 

cetoing ; yes, it is he. I will leave Bench and talked widi me, for an hour,, 

iuin to tell ^00 himself bb simpla his- two hoore, that he might make me 



tory. Il will touch you more Rom his happy." 
llpa \ it will embarrass me less, snd his " What did he say to y 
a and Bordial manner will com- ** I eanoet tell ; I am 



pleta the eOeet of the narratira." fellow; and you ii 

A noise was heard without, of some peat what he said ; but it waa all 
ene drawing off his ssbets at the door, abont things I had noTer heard of be* 
and preeenUy a light knock was heard, fore. He epoko to me of the good 
" Come in, JacqusB." God better than a priest It was he 
He entered with bia wife. who taught me haw to sleep again \" 
" I hsTe brought Julienne this time, " How was that *" 
dear M. Deagrangea ; the poor woman " I had net had a night's sle^ fix 
ia eo happy to see you again for a little two months, for whenever I began t» 
while." dose, I wontd awake, saying to myseU^ 
"It ia very well, Jacques : sit ' Jacques, thou art blind v and then mr 
down." bead would whirl and whiri like a mad- 
He advaoeed, feeling before him man's; and that was killing me. One 
with his stick, so that he shoold not morning he came in — that dear friend— 
mn against any of the chairs, and bar- and said to me : ' Jacques, do you be- 
ing found one, seated bimaelf. He Iteve in God > Well, to-night, when 
was yonng, and of a slight figure, but ^ou strive in vain to sleep, and the 
atron|^ made. His dark hsir cnrled idea of yeor misfortune takes hold of 
over an open and eipansive forehead, your mind, repeat a prayer aland, then 
Hie features were pTepoesesetng, and two, or three, and yon shall aee that 
animated by a cheeifiil expression, pai> yon will go to sleep.' " 
licnJarlj when be showed his white " Yes 1" said hi* wife, with her calm • 
teeth in smiling. His wife remained Toice \ " th'e good God then gave him 
standiag Just behind him. sleep." 

" Jacques," said M. Desgrangee ; " Thst is not all. Monsieur I 1 waa 
"hers is one of my good fiiseds who going to kill myself! Isaid,* JaeqDee>- 
wisbed ranch to see yos." thon art nselsss to thy &ai)ly ; thm 
" He is an excellent person since he art a burden ; a eiok woman in the 
is TOUT friend." house!* But As said, 'la it not yoa 
" Yoa must talk with him while I go who still sappon your fomily ! Had 
to see my getanimns; bnt you mast you not been blind, would any one have- 
not be sad \ remember, I have forbid- given them five hundred franca V 
den Ant." " ' That is true, H. Desgrangee.' 

" No, M t my dear Aieod !" " ■ If you had net been blind, wonld _^ 



Googllc 



M 



anf one Imt* taken eai« of jout ehfl- 
4rm!' 

" ' True, Moniieor '.' 

" *lr7«a had not been blind, troold 
joa have been loved so mnch aa you 

" ' True, Uonaienr, it is trae !' 

"'Obeerre, Jacqoea, eiarj family 
has to bear aoioe nuBTonune. Disaster 
is like the rain ; something of it moat 
&11 on erery htad. If you were not 
Uind, your wife would, perhaps, be an 
iHTaJidi or you would lose one of jpot 
children ; in place of that, it is you/my 
poor ftiend, who hare all the suflering ; 
they an spared.' 

" ' True, true !' aad I began to feet 
leas depreaaed ; 1 felt happy to snffer 
for them. Afierwatda he aaid, ' My 
dear Jacqnee, miafortuDe is mans 
greatest eitemy or Ilia beat friend. 
There are panons whom it renders 
wioked ; there are otbere whoin it 
makes better. I wish it wonld oanae 
yon to lore ererybody ; to be so kind, 
ao grstefnl, bo affecUonatO, that when 
people are talking of the good, they 
may sar, " As good as the poor blind 
nan of Noisement. That will serre 
a« a porUoa to joar daughter." ' Thus 
he gave me conrago to be unhappy." 

"Yea! hnt when he waa not with 
yonr 

" Ah ! when he was not there, I had, 
iodeedt very gloomy mocnenlB ; I 
thoaght of my eyes, and of the bleas- 
ingofsigbt. Ah!" Jacques continued 
moomfnUy, "if God alioald permit 
me ever to see wain, 1 wonld never 
lose a mouent or the precious day- 
li^t!" 

" Jaoqnes, Jaeqsea !" aaid his wife. 

" You are right, Julienne ! Ha has 
forbidden roe to be aorrowful. He al- 
waya obaerved it, Monsieni. Would 

C. believe, whenever my head has 
D bad during the night, and he 
cornea in the morning, at the first 

emce he always aays, ' Jacques, you 
vebeen thinking of that ;*and then ho 
Bcofda me, that dear friend that he is." 

" Yes," added the blind man, with 
a smile, " and I like to|heur him, for he 
«annut speak harahly even if he would." 

"And how came yon to think of mak- 
ii^ yoaraelf a waler-carrierl" 

"It was he who thought of it. 
How ahould 1 liavB any ideas* 1 was 
cured of my great dialreas, but I began 
to ha weary of myself. Ooly thirty- 
Ma jeam mdi and to ait all day upoii a 



acguet. [Jnlft 

bench ! Thta be nndartM^ to iaatmot 
me, and told me a great many Bibia 
histories ; the history of Joseph, of 
David, and many others ; which ha 
made me repeat after him. Bol my 
head was hard, fbr it had not beea 
need to learn ; and I grew every day 
more weary of my arms and legs.' 

" And he tormented us all like a 
loup garou" said his wife, laaghiog. 

" All trne ;" answered the humndt 
iJso laughing. " I became wicked. 
Then ht came to me, and aaid, ' Jao- 
qnea, 1 must pot you to work.' I 
abowcd him my poor burned hand*. 
' I know it \ I have bought you a Btoek 
in trade.' 'Mel Monsieur DeagrangesV 
' Yes, Jacques, a stock when yon need 
deposit nodiing, and yet yon will al- 
ways find merchandise.' * It haa ooat 
yon much. Monsieur !' ' Nothing at 
all, mon garfon.' ' Where is it V 'In 
the river." 'The river! WiU yon 
have me turn fiaherman % ' No, yon 
shall oairy water.' * Carry water I btf 
my eyea !' ' What do you want with 
them 1' said he. ' Have the brewara' 
horses any t When one haa them, 
they do aerviee ; when one has than 
not, one muat do without them. AlloaSi 
yon shall be a water-carrier.' * But a 
cask V ' I will provide one for yon.' 
' Bnt a dray 1' ' I have ordered oas 
from the wheelwright.' ' Bnt custom- 
ers 1' 'I will give yoa my cuatncn iu 
the first place, eiahteeofrancsamouth; 
(that dear fiieoil t he paid as dear fbc 
water as wine !} and besidss, I will have 
no more said about it ; I have diaroi as cd 
my walflT-carrier, and yon wooM not 
hare my wife and me die of ^irat ! l^tat 
dear Madame Desgranges, indeed! 
Go, mon gar^on, in tbiee days, to 
work ! and yon, Madame Jact^ea, 
come along !' and he took Julienne — " 

" Yes, monsieur," intemiplod the wo- 
nun, " he took me, and pot on An 
leather atrapa, and harnessed me ; w« 
were quite oewildered, Jacques and I. 
But who can hold back against Hoik 
aieur Desgtsngea ! At the end of 
three daya there we were ; Jacqaea 
harnessed and drawing the cart with 
hia cask of water, and I following and 
direciiDK him how to go ! We w«r« 
ashamed at first aa we went throogh 
the village, as if we had done some- 
thing wrong ; it seemed that every- 
body was going to laogh at us i bnt 
there was M. Desgranges iu the street, 
eryiogi ' Allons, Jse^aes, conag* t 



IM4.] BtiHd jMfVtM. W 

ws want on ; ud in the eTeniiiK fag " Yea, maoMCBr ; when I h«*« » 

pnl into our huuU ft KiitU piece of ail- neiuge to ctrrjr to Helun, I lake mf 

Ter, lajing — " little pirl on mj abouldera, and avkj 

" Saying," cried the blind Qian,wilh we go ! She aees fur me ; I walk f»i 

emolioa, ' Jioiioea, here aro tweotj her ; and ihoee who meet me, aay, 

■on* which jou hare turned to-day.' There is ■ man who baa hla eyes Terj 

Eaiofld, monsieoT, think of that 1 high 1 to which I ansnet, It u to MO 

Earned ! And for the iaat fifteen the further. Aod in the evening 1 come 

monlha I had been eating the bread of loma with twenty bodb more in mf 

charily! It ia good to receiTe from pocket." 

good peraona, traly; hut the bread "Are you not afraid of stumbling 

earned by one's own handa, let it be against the stoaea V 

neret ao coarse, nourishes the best I "I lift my feet hi^h eMnghlo avoid 

I was no longer a useless peraon, a them ; and now that I am nsed to it, I 

bnrthen 1 but a workman ! Jacqaei come ofUa, from Noisemont hitber, 

earns his liTiiig!" A kind of rapture alone." 

•pread itself over his face. ''Alone! How do yon find yooz 

" How '." asked the young man, way !" 

'doM this occupation bring youeonagh "I take the wind when I stan froni 

to live upon 1" home, and that Berres me for the 

" Not entirely, monsienr; I have tno." 

jat another bnainess." " Bnt the pnddlea !" 

" Anothar bueineseV " 1 know ihem." 

"Oh, yea! the river is scmetimes "The walla V 

frwen over, and tha watST'CarnerB, aa "I feel them. When I come near 

M. Deagrangee saye, bare bat poor anything solid, monsieur, the air islcM 

enecnngement ; ha has given me a fcesb against my face. Not thai I 

bnaineta for winter as well as sum- al way a eeoape some pretty hard knocks; 

mer." for example, when a handcart ia left 

"A bnaiaess for winter!" standing u) the street, and I come upon 

At this moment H. Desgranges came it without waroiitg ! Bnt, bah 1 wluU 

ia ; Jacques heud him, and asKed, " Is matters that ! Then I hav« been so 

it MM tme, monsieur, thai I have ano- unlucky as to lose myself— as the day 

tber businoaa beside* that of oarrying before yesterday " 

watet ?" " Yon have not told me of that, Jac- 

"Certainly." quea," said M. Desgcanges. 

" And what !" " I was Ter^ mneh paailed, my ieaa 

" Ho is a wood-sawyer." friend. WhUe I was here, the wind 

" A waod'SBwye; I How is that changed ; I was not aware of it, and 

possible T How can yon measure ih« kept on my course, till, at Iha end of a 

fengih of the sticka, or manage the quarter of an hour, I found I had loat 

■■w* or cut the wood without hurting myself somewhere on tha plain ot 

yourself 1" Noiaemont. Yon know the plain ; not 

" Hurting myself, monsienr V re- a boose — not a pasaer-hy ; I dared not 

Mated the blind man, with a look of atir. 1. sat down on tM grannd, tad 

nooeat pride ; "yon ahall hear. Intfae listened; afier a few momenta I lMM»d 

first place, I usee to ssw wood, and I at a short distance the sound of running 

understood the business; the rest 1 water. I said to myself. It is the riveH 
have learned. Suppose a quantity of I groped my way, guided by thesonnd ; 

wood under the shed, at the left ; my I same to the water ; it was the river, 

ssw and knes-eovering before me; and By dipping in my hand, I tbonght I 

the wood to be sawn in three pieces, could find which way the water imn. 

I take a string ; I cut it one-third the Then I eoold follow it, and c<Miis 

length of tha wocid ; there isameasure. home." 

I am careful and expert ; and so 1 saw " Braro, Jaoqoea !" 

m) part of the wood nsed in the " Ah, the water was so low, and the 

«- current so weak, I eootd not feel it 

lidea," added U. Desgianges, against my hand. I put in the end of 

"be is a capital messenger," my stick, bnt it dio not move. I 

"AmeaaeDger1"iepeaMdtheyonng scratched my head, bawildered; then 

DUO, anrprised. cried, 1 im a fbol 1 where ia my haad- 



Googl : 



IT' 



ketcAiitf ^ I tied it on the end of taj 
atieki dropped it in the wster, and found 
th»t it nraved slowlj, rer; slovl;, to 
tbe right! Noiteoiont was on the 
right! I anived there saMy, just as 
JDhenne was begliiiiiiig to be anxiout 
about me." 

" Indeed !" exciaimed the joang 

man, " tliia is admiia " But H. 

Deasiangea checked biro bsstil^, atid 
teading him to the other end vT tbe 
n>om,whi8peced, "Siknee! donotcor- 
lopt b; a thtngbt of pride the sim- 
plicitf of Ibia honeet man. Obserfc, 
Low calm and tnuiqoil ia hi* face, after 
the atory wtiicb has affected joa. Do 
not spoil bin by admiiallDn." 

**It is most tooching!" rejdied he 
nftlowToiee. 

'* Ttoi;r i ■™' y' th^ ^"^ *■"* oo* 

atitnle hu auperioriiy. A thoOBUid 
blind men might have been itigenioas 
in finding resources ; there are po limits 
to the devices of the human mind ; but 
tfaia ia a work of tbe heart. It is the 
heart tbai, in this case, opened itself so 
quickly to elevating consolatione. It 
was tbe heart whioh reeonciied him to 
his unfortunate lot — which acoeptcd a 
new life. Be not led into enot ; it is not 
1 who have ssTcd him ; it is hia affec- 
tion for me. His warm gratitude has 
filed hia being, and soslained him ; ho 
ia restored, because he baa loved !" 

At this moment Jacques rose scfily, 
hearing their voices, and with a kind of 
delicate discretion, said to hia wife, 

" Let ua go, without making any 

" You are going, Jacques \ " 

"I interrupt yon, my dear ^L Des- 
grattgea." 

" No, May longer," aaid his bene- 
fiiOtor, and approached, cordially ex- 
tending his hand. The blind man 
seised and pressed it to bis breast. 

" My dear, hind friend !'' hs cried, 
" you permit me to stay longer wiih 
you ! yoa know bow happy it makes 
nM to be with you. Whenever I am 
mdaneholy, I aay to myaelf, Jacques, 
the good God, because tbou hast auBer' 
ed ranch, will perhaps place thee to like 
same paradise with Monsieur Des- 
grangea, and the thought givM me joy 

Tbe young man lattghed, in apite of 
bimaelf, at this eimeaaon of regard. 
" Tou laagh, HonaieBr t And ia it 



'aegvet. [My, 

not he who has made Jaotpiaa a maa 
again ! I have never seen lum, but hia 
image is always before me. Ob, if 
Godshoulderetgive me mj eyes again, 
I would gase cpon bim always, like th* 
sun, lilt he aaid to me, ' Jaoqnea, go 
away, thou weariest me 1' but Ilb wodd 
■ot aay so, he is loo good." 

" Jacques ! Jacques I" said H. Des- 
grangea grarely, interrupting him. Bat 
tbe blind man went on - 

" I rejoiee when 1 know he ia in tbe 
Tillage ; 1 dare not oonts hither aa often 
as I wish, hut I pass before tbe house, 
which always stands there ; and wtwm 
he ia gone on a journey, 1 make Juli- 
enne lead me to the plain of Noiaemont, 
and hid her turn me in the direction in 
which he has gone, that I may breaths 
tbe same air with bim." 

H. Desgiangea placed bis hand on 
his mouth, but Jacqoea esc^ied ftna 
the restraint. 

" You are right, Monaiear Desgrao- 
gea I my mooih ia a fool, it ia oo^ 
my heart that can apeak. Come, wife," 
continued he, gaily, and wiping awajr 
the tears that rolled from his sightleaa 
eyeballs, " we must go and get sapper 
for the young ones. Adieu, my dear, 
kind friend ! Adien, Monsieur " 

And be went out, feeling before him 
with bis stick. As he pat hia hand 
upon the latch M. Desgraages called 
him back. 

'.' I have a piece of news yet that 
will please yoo, Jacques," said he. "I 
bad intended to leave ths village this 
Tear, bot I have joat agreed upon a 
lease of five years with my landlady." 

" There, JuUenoe," said the Uind 
man lurniog to bis wife ; " did 1 not 
tell thee he intended to go away?" 

" How did you know it ! I forttade 
every one to say anything to you about 
it." 

" Yea — bat " — be placed bis hand 
upon his heart, " thii informed me. I 
heard a few words, a month ago, whioh 
eansed me some trouble in my mind ; 
and then. Monsieur, last Sunday, yoai 
landlady called me, and apefce to me in 
a manner much more kind and frieodlj 
than usual. AlXeiwards I said to taf 
wife, ' now I know thai Honaienr Des- 
grnngea ia eeriaioly going to leave us, 
that woman wanted to cona^e m«.' " 

Jnequee departed a ftw i 
after. 



lizcdbyGoOl^Ic 



jUv tf lA« fiUp riw i w rf JTn^U ,• or, 1A« Ar^t-nH-mL 



LAY OP THE IMPRISONED KNIGHT; OR, THE POSGET-ME-NOT. 



As ! well I know the loreliaat flowor, 

The fairest of the Ikir, 
Of *U that deck mjr lady's bower, 

Or bind her flowing hair. 
And in theve dreary walla I pine. 
Or I woatd make the treaaare mtDe ; 
Bat be it Bquire, or be it knight, 

Who brings it here to me, 
Behold ihie jewel, bluing bright. 

His gnerdon it shall be. 

TBI Boei. 
Beneath thy grated window's seat, 

Beneath Ihj castle wall, 
I bloom amid my kindred sweet, 

The sweetest of them all. 
And surely, then, Sir Knight, 'tis I 

For whom thy wishes long. 
For whom they draw the weary sigh, 

For whom they wake the song. 

To thee, when Teniai Mphyra blow, 
The sweetest breath was given ; 

Hie brightest hne that decks the bow 

. Thai spans the arch of hesven. 

Tby tints may bloom on beauty's brow 
As radiant ss her own ; ' 

But, lovely rose, it is not thou 
For whom I make my looan. 



Her haagtity glance the rose may c>M 

O'er all the sut^ect plain ; 
The lily's fatmblet charms sarpasaed 

The pomp of Judah's reign. 
Esoh heart where virtuous paaaiona rtsa. 

And chaste emotions lie, 
May lesrn, 9ir Knight, like yoo, to priie 

The flower of poiity. 



This heart is pare, ^is hand is clear, 

I boast them free from slain ; 
Yet while one beats in prison here. 

The other's might is Tain. 
Ajm), loTely flower, the image thou 

Of virgin beauty's form, 
Bnt, ah ! thy drooping petals bow 

Before December's storm. 



Digitized by CtOO^Ic 



jMf ti At Imprittiud Knight t or, (At Forgtt4itMmt. 

TBI CAUUnON. 

The wsrder of this tianghtj tower 

Has rear'd me inlo day ; 
Ai>d well the proad carnatian's flower 

The carcB of man repaj. 
In Flora's thoueand glories dretMd, 

My Taried petala bloom ; 
And well the loaded galea allQM 

Tbeii bnrdeas of perfame. 



Yea, fottercd bj tbe care of man, 

Id Banahine or in shade, 
The peasant rears thee aa he can. 

Or TiewB Ihoe droop and fade. 
A flower which feara not winlsr'a harm*, 

Tbe ilia that wait on yaa, 
Oflowl; &Dd of native charms, 

iiy wisbei ■till puraoe. 

TBI vioLvr. 
From tbe far covert of die grove 

All bumble I implore ; 
If each. Sir Knight, the flower ;oa loie, 

Thy wear; search is o'er. 
No peasant's hand nwj e'er invade, 

"ro culture or to bill. 
The shelter of the wild wood'a shade 

Tbat akirts the distaat hill. 

Thy modest beauties well I [oite, 

RetirJDK from the view. 
Fare as the light of beattty'a eyea, 

Atid of their aanre fane. 
Noi on the mountain's shelving aide. 

Not in the cdltared ground. 
Nor in the garden's painted pride 

The flower I seek is found. 

Where time on Sorrow's page of sluon 

Haa filed iu envioos Uot, 
Or svrept the record from the toodi. 

It aa^ B Foaerr-Ma-NoT. 
And this ia still the loveliest flower, 

Tbe fairest of the fair, 
OraO tbat deck my lady's bower, 

Or bind her flowug hair. 



lizcdbyGoOl^Ic 



JSmw'j Am ^irit tf tkt Ag*. 



HOBNE'S NEW SPIRIT OF THE AGE." 

l^oc attempt to daguerreotTpft, as it in & long histoi;. In :i poilrait, wo re< 

ware, t<io living' fantarce of the most quire more than meicly a, head, which 

diHiingaiahcd men of the age, ia no occars in a great hisiarical painting, 

alight one : it implies boldneaii, at least, From the very laet, then, nf their jso- 

if it does not argne presumption. With lated position, these portraits chaMenga 

this charge HailiKwasnut unjustly at- attention, and seem to inri'a criticism. . 

taclisd by the Kdinburgh Review, on tho Thus it appeared lo us v.iih regrard lo 

appearance of his own btiHianJ galbry the S[)irit of the Age fi'mtriy, and 

or portraits, bearing the same title as with this New Spirit of the Agp now. 

that which appearsasthecaptiontolhis At best, it is an awkirard method of 

Kper. Mr. llorne has modelled his writing. The manner of writing is a 

ok indirectly on that of Hazlitt, and mixed mode. You have portrait, essay 

with the same characteristic confidence, and criticism in one sketch. Now we 

has far less of almost every otherqnali- look in a portrait for nothing else, yet 

?that distinijuiBhed the anthoT ofTable strict adherence to pure character 

ilk.excepttbosemostlsndableTirtnes writing would too much diminish the 

of sincerity and a love of the truth, size of the book — consequently mcta- 

Mr. Home cannot lay claim to the bril- phvsicat disquisition is introduced, in 

tiancy or the acateness of his master, order to ijicrcase it. The style of 

though he is aomctimes ingenious (his these sketches, too, ia apt to bceoms, 

attempts at declamation are often insaf- from the nature of the subject, a little 

ferably absurd); bnt when he aims to ambitious, some^mes inflated, and fre- 

hit the gist of a question, to gel at the quently altogether viciotis. This ia 

truth, he is generally sound and sensi- true more particularly of Hailitt. Mr. 

hie. He fails much rather in excess of Home is a much plainer writer, when 

eulogy, than of censnrc, — a generous he writes from his good sense, but his 

&ult, that does bnt little h^rm. Yet attempts at fine writing are oflen simply 

his book is full of defects, most of which ridiculous. Let any one read the last 

consist rather in omission than in per- page of the last paper in the volume if 

formancc. The title is a striking one, he doobts our judgment, or suspects a 

and promises a good deal ; docs it ao- want of appreciation. Perhaps, after 

eofflplish as much 1 is it satisfactory ! all, honever, we are not rightly situ- 

That must be our first inqniry ; for ated lo estimate fairly this kind of 

from a book of this kind, one is inclined writing. For ten years we have dealt 

to look for a bird's-eye view of contem- pretty extensively in this sort of wares, 

poiary literature (if not of science, also); Li tei'ary criticism has been on r hobby, — ' 

and at the same time for spiriled and a Utile over-ridden of late,— and ws 

faithful individual t^haracterB. Ddtaeh- must confess we begin lo lire of the 

«d aketehcB uf this snrl attract much trade. Say what we may, (hers is a, 

more attention than similar portraitures certain eant of criticism — a species of 

in a long work ; and also infer more re- schnlaslic skng, into which one is apt 

liancB in the moral painler. In Clarcn- to fall. We get afWr a while into tlie 

don, in Burnet, In GibbnR,or in llume, habit of readin;; boaksalmoel solely for 

wo expect liaished miniatures; but if the sake of nritiitf upon tham, and loss 

eithec of these masters of the histori- all relish for wo:kB that do not make a 

cal style had given ns only separate constant appeal to ihe judgment, and 

e'ctures, we should have required more critical anal/sis. Short, incidental 

bor and pains than we expect lo be critiques, vritten from fullness of 

bealowed on the incidental character knowledge, in a sincere and hearty 

drawing which must frequently occur ipiritiSiul with a clear eye, are certatn- 



•«ANew Spirit of the An." Edited to R. H. BotMi pp. 360 1 Hrir Yack, 
3. C. Biker. 1641. 

vol. XV. — HO. LXXIIi. 4 



I =y Google 



^7T7'; 



rs 



> 



Hornt't Nta Spirit of the Age, 



[My, 



}y more graWfnt than long, tbrma], eel 
criticiBins 1 yet we have commettced 
the task, and will caaclude it aa ve best 

There are certain obvioua defects in 
the book, and, as it is our first [lutji, so 
it will be our aim, to attempt a fair 
e of that. The title is a nis- 
— the leading porlratta, with 
xceptions, are of ihoae who be- 
lt least as much to Hazliti's peri' 



od as to that to which Mr. Home pro- 
fesses to have confined himself. They 
aie of the last age of authorship. And 
of the living writers many are barely 
cteTei writers, pleasant authors, to be 
mre, but very far from ranking with 
the controlling minds of the period. 
Great ioeqaalily, not only in kind but 
of degree also, is to be found among 
manv who ate here placed on the same 
ierel ; much the same thing as if in the 
official list of the officers of the army. 
Captains, Generals, Majors, and Corpo- 
lals, were classed together in the same 
rank. Dickens, Bulwer, Macaulay, 
Carlyle, are leading iniellecta — tepre- 
•ent certain classes of JilcTature, of 
which they stand at the head, but Mary 
Howitt (delightful as she is in her best 
and earliest hooks), is by no means of 
tbo same order of mind, and belongs, 
in fact, to a much lower grade : neither 
is the author of the Ingoldsby Legends, 
nor, at least, one-half the names that 
might be mentioned, entitled to such a 
nsnding and consideration as tbeir po- 
sition in the bonk implies. In a volume 
of portraits of the leading minds of the 
age, ihoae only should be iocluded 
whose efforts really leave their mark 
behind them, giving ibo age its form 
and prestute. To tell the truth, the 
book was not wanted, whence arises 
no small portion of diasalisfacliun. 
Haalitt had painted the portraits of the 
brilliant and jiiilicious of his age, like 
another Titian, to which but very few 
new names ought to be added. The 
selection, too, has ^een unfortunate ; 
some of the best naues having been 
omitted. Thus Lord Ashley and Dr. 
Souibwood Smith, most norUiy in their 
sphere, still do not represeit the Ihera- 
ry character of the present day. Nei- 
dier do several of the illustrious ob- 
scure among the poetic favorttes of 
Hi. Hoine, who appears to ohetiah 
Ihese poetic failures, out of misplaced 
iMDevowncfl and unwise sympathy. 
Very many cleret men ought never to 



appear in a work like this, wfakh should 
be devoted to theit masters. Sydney 
Smith, Hook, Hunt, lender, Words- 
worth, belong to the past. Haxlilt, 
singularly enough, did not include (be 
witty Canon of St. Paul's, while he 
sketched the features of Jeffrey, GiT- 
ford, Brougham, ajtd Soothey. Mtrange 
omissions, (oo, may be noted ; thus we 
have a half dozen mediocre poets, — and 
the manly Elliott is omitted^ undoubt- 
edly a true poet of the people, a genuine 
product of this century ; we should add 



Clat 



a the 



r Ellioi 






word of Miss Edgeworth, the head of 
the Irish novelists, in a professed paper 
00 Ihcm. Hazlitt gives us Bentharo, 
that original representatiTe of the 
Utilitarians, yet Uorne does not give us 
John Mill, bis adherent and disciple. 
Many bright periodical writers, as Foa- 
ler of the Examiner, the best literary 
critic of Ibo English press, are passed 
over in silence ; so, loo, of the clever 
magazinists, of the writers in tlie Pen- 
ny M^szine and Penny Cyclopedia, 
tie. The new school of translators, 
with Mrs. Austin, is not tJluded to. If 
Lord Ashley is introduced, the excellent 
and able Horner ought to be, also. 
Not one historian is meotioucd. Not 
a syllable of Mr. Hallam, Sharon Tur- 
ner, Dr. Lingard, Sir Francis Pitlgrave, 
&c., though these writers have con- 
fessedly founded a new school of his- 
tory, and given a new face to the An- 
gIn-Saxon history, to the constitutional 
hitlory of England, and to the liistory 
of the English Church. 

Pusey and Puseyism might he omit- 
ted, without any detriment to a fail 
view of the literary character of the 
age, but if the subject is at all intro- 
duced, these names should be added to 
bis— Newman, Keble and Palmer— men, 
writers and disciples perhaps writing 
under and after him, vet much his su- 
periors. The Oiford school of histo- 
rians, poets and preachers, is at least aa 
characteristic aa the Irish school of 
novelists. We da not so much com- 
plain that a sufficient number of writers 
are not mentioned, aa we do that some 
arc, who might be much betlei passed 
over, and mho fill the place of better 
men. The writers are strangely group- 
ed together : in one paper. 



Jfi44.] Hontf* Nob Spirit of A* Age. SI 

BUtely conjoined we oannot noder- tbe Reriew. We shall, tberefate, pte- 
eUnd. They are all men of wit, and aent pencit-sketchea of Dickena and 
writers in whom ibu qaalitjr is promi- Biitwer, Carliale and Macaolaj, with % 
sent and cfaancteriatical. Yet Iheii few pen and ink louche* of other pKK 
wit ie iadJTidnal, aad of the moat oppo- filea. Mr. Horns leads aS with DLok- 
■ils oharaciera. One is a divine, the ena [the whole series may be likened 
■econd a jonmaliBt, the third a miacel- to a contra-dauce, in which the moat 
lueouB wtiter ; of the two last named opposite characters are diatingnished 
die Arst is a generoas and kindly ho- by antilheticat contrast]. 
xaorist, the last a coarse and vulgar From hia vast popataiity, no less 
•Btirist. One la the last of the old line than his meiit and anccess, the name 
of olerica] satirists, another ia a sharp, of Uickeni occuis first in a liil of eon- 
shrewd, poUlical wit, the third is a temporary writers. He ia undoobtedly 
lively pointer of tnanmis and moral the best living novelist. Yet hia uteri [0^ 
satirist. Between Tom Hood and ^aal as they are, ate not unaecoapft' 
Theodore Hook, there ia the least Bted by striking defeots, and it is our 
poMible sympathy : Hood, a poet of object now, rather to notice these since 
■Detancy,awit,asapQnsterunnuiched, ihaae have been so warmly adrocated 
with keen sense and fresh feeling, and aod frankly recognized. In hia beat 
a ^neral hnmoiiat of the best class, wnrks eten, and in the hnraoroas por- 
Heok, an aeute man of the world, a lions of them, he is very ^i to run iatv 
olsf et painter of Tnlgaiity aod high esricature. His muae ia riant and oret- 
lifo, and a Tiirient paitixan writer, steps the modestT of nature, He ia 
orrerltewing with iJiuse and TiraleDce. oflea compared witli Hogarth, whom is 
TIria wotk, too, labors under the tBony respects he reaemblea [petbapa 
defeet of being a profeaaed continoation the reader is not aware that the novel- 
(alwaya a heavy dnwbaek) and also a ist is married to a grand -daughter tiS 
close intitation. It is true the imita- the great arliat, a tit canjunction in tha 
tton ia confined chiefly to the manner aristocracy of genius — the only genuine 
of handling, yet the matter is in moat aristocracy] ; yet, we make bold to 
eases hardly worthy of it. Too mach snggest a much closer resemblance t» 
Ima been attempted altogether. Too Cruikshank. In this parallel, we \rf 
wide a range was at first marked out, no means intend to depreciate the no-- 
and the fUling up, is, conseqnentty velist, nor exaggerate the lalcni of the 
meagre. Yet the volume has certain admirable artist. Cruikshank ia, 
geaenl merit. It is in the main fair in his walk, unrivalled, and eomea 
and judicious ; some of the slighter much closer to Hogarth, in our judg- 
sketcfaeB being ertremely well done, ment, thui Uickens himself. Yei iit 
The notices of Ainswnrth and Satan both writer and artist, there are, com- 
Hontgomery are verycleverandnoless pared with Hofl^rth, similar detieiei»- 
tme. Tbe judgments passed on tbe cies; a want of substantial force an<fi 
Borelista are very well extatted. The riebncsa of materials — something too 
merits of Tennyson are endiusiastical' much of sketchiiiess end comparative 
)y, and in a spirit of true appreciative meagrenesa, witli a similar tendeoev ti* 
eriticism, brought forward. So much estravagancn and burlesque. The 
fiir the work itsrif. We shall by no paper on Dickens is very full and 
means attempt to re-write the separate genial — overfloning niih admiration 
portraits, nor hope to comprise, in a andfullofingeniousobservBtion. Front 
lew pages, a general view of contem- this we would wish to detract little, 
por&ry English lileratore ; we will only Dickens ia primai inter pnmoi, yet by 
•ndeaf or to depict the striking foatores no tat»SM J'actie princtpi, among the 
of a few of the leading men of the day, writers of the diiy. Ho has many 
with iuetdentallimnings of inferior art- clever rivals, ilill he surpasses thent 
iats. The most popular literature of all in the a^fregate. Lover, I^ver, . 
the day is that for thoea who read aod Jerrold singly, may give infeiior.' 
purely for amosement — the Novels; writers"pause,"yet DickensisamatcUi 
and ^at for those who would blend for tha whole body. He has been cam- 
something of learning with relaxatien, pared to I^ Sage, to Scoit, to Irving; 
who woiUd unite history, philosophic yet we thinb he has not been fairly 
•eculation, and criticiam with wit, dealt with by those 1^0 would write 
doquence and argument, in a word — either his eulogium or a libel. He has 



, Goog 



/3/ 



f: 



Barnt't AVw Spirit of ike Age. 



[Jrfj, 



not tbe infistlQ variel; of (dientnTft 
that msiks Gil Blu, 8 Spanish novel, 
albeit ils autbor was a FrencliniMi. He 
liunottliebistoHcal resources of Si'olt, 
nor hia wide Teadiog, The modem 
Smollelt makea freeh draughts of life 
from nature and is little of a mere 
•cbolai, if we may judge froni liia writ- 
ings. Ilia style Uftnls llie elaborate 
fioiah of Irrisg, whose classic laste 
dietiaguiahea him ns almost the sole 
Addisonian writei of the day. Uickena 
lias certainly gieaier exuberance aud 
liclmess ot' malciials than living, but 
he cannot HaiBh a pictuie with such 
•laboiate care and atlPnlion. Lcl the 
reader compare, for inBlance, the best 
fteptnte tkciches of the two wiiien, 
and he will lind the individual pictures 
and ecenes of the earlier writer the 
most delicate. Cunipared with the 
noTeliata, our classic humorist ia a 
cabinet- painter, confined entirely to 
miniatorea or cabinet pictures; still in 
them he aoilea the fidelity of Uennon 
to the rich coloring of Stuart Newton. 
The story aricliabod Crane, the Coun- 
try Choir, Rip Van Wmkle, and other 
master-pieces, ri«e at ottee to view. 
KnickeTbocker mad Salmagundi con- 
tain more of exinTagansa and purely 
grotesque descriptinn, while the later 
tales (delightful as they are) betray 
«*idesl imitation of Addison and Gold- 
smilh. In character, dramatic force, 
vivacity and copioaaness, however, 
there eta be no comparison. Still, 
though Itiss striking and abundant, we 
believe Irving's humor (from the magic 
of his style) will probably ontlast the 
more flaunting works of more popular 
anthoca, in the same line. Dickens 
haa much, however, beaida hia humor 
to recommend him ; although it vras 
that quality by which be firat gained 
die ear of'^the poblia, and that, upon 
which he roust mainly rely for more 
popularity. He has almoat always a 
moral purpose, to expose hypocrisy, 
awaken honest indignation, or excite 
the too often dull and latent feeling of 
humanity. lie haa, in general, manli- 
ness of sentiment in spite of a senli- 
mentaiitj he ia obliged to assume, from 
its exceeding popularity. The publio 
at large has no perception of delicate 
foeling and not much idea of the lim- 

Slicity of deep •cnlimenl — in writing. 
^ weak sentimentality too oHen usurp* 
it* place, mora agreealde to the public 



palate and more con^nial to Uie cora- 

<>ur author, notwithstanding, eome- 
linies dtan-s honest tears of geiirrotM 
cympalhy, for the we^tk subjects of op> 
ptcfeHioa and wrong. He would aaaiat 
the St ru)r^ling and defend 'the oppressed. 
He u'Liuld at imalc all. Man is dear to 
him, as hia fellow, and he would aid 
him aa hia friend. Of the apecial >t- 
lacta of Dickens opon onr countfy, wo 
think they must furnish in ihemselves 
a sufHcicnt puniehment for him. The^ 
convict him of meanness and ingrati- 
tude — tlie lowei>1, and one of the bigfa- 
eal crimes a man can be guilty of. Ia 
the same book, there arc stiii admirable 
things, as the account of his voyage is 
as good in its way, as Rabelais' des- 
cription of a stcrm at aea. His ac- 
counts too, of the public iastiiutioim bs 
visited, are no less excellent. But hia 
social pictnrea are oot only unfair, bat 
much wone. In truth, Dickens was 
not the proper Judge of our state of so- 
ciety, nor of any data of companj 
above the cmnmon. To bo a judg« «f 

sufficient merely to bo able to depict 
the opposite style. A comic writer is 
not, necessarily, a geniteman or a tnsn 
of feeling. The author was esacntialljr 
a cockney ; hie dress betrayed him : 
(the flash vest, long hair, corded pan- 
talooDS, watch guard, Si.e.) his nan- 
ners, phrases, uid sir. Alwsys fond 
of describing such character*, he is oot 
altogether without a strong fellow feel* 
ing for them, that generally makes us 
to wondrona kind. These are among 
bis best akelches, the Benjamin Aliens, 
Dick Swivellers, and the like. All pec- 
BOnal defects and literary sios, however, 
we consider expiated by the last pro- 
duction of Mr. Dickens — his charming 
Christmas Carol, a work which does 
honor lo human nature. It ia a nobis 
work, in every point of view, and to- 
getber with Oliver Twist, the beat 
caricatures in Pickwick and NicklebT. 
ioBi;ree a permanent reputation for lis 
author. It tea work calculated to open 
the heart closed lo the dull moan of 
human Buffering, and extend the sym- 
pathies of those, who have centered all 
feeling in the narroweai possible circle, 
of K'hich self is the centre. 

Mr. Horne'a catimaie of Dicben^ 

ran to ns, ttflei all, exag^rated. 
we believe it aincwe. Tiwd by • 



z.d- Google 



1644.] Home't Nm ^Ht of the Agt. 53 

liigh BtaDdard, the admirer of Dickans eomparabl; his best. This jea d'esprit 
nDHt abate somewbat of liis admintton. of oririeism was pronoanced at the time 
Compared with Fielding and Smdielt, b|f the North American Re>iew (for 
Dickens is bat ''eldest apprentice in April, 1B40), as, containing '*nior0 
the (their) achool of art.' with all his troth in a short space, npon the works 
auperioTtt; of fullness and diulogue, he of that great mjislagoguo of modern 
has great artistic defects, no less than frivolity and nonsense, than we have 
geniuB inferior to theirs. He cannot, elsewhere »cen." Though this notice 
Mr. Horne admits, constmct a plat for is fiir more Haltering than in eooth, wa 
a long work, nor condact a fictitious most confess, the very slight skotcb de- 
history with Fielding's matchless skill, serres, stiJl we quote it in part apologj 
Neither has he the metaphysical nicety fur employing the same materials. We 
and pbiloeophie ^11 in discriminating are not aware, bowsTcr, that we shoalcl 
ebaracier of the proee-Ho«ner of hnman materially alter the judgment expressed, 
Dalsre. Smollett, too, is hin master in thon^h certain expressions ought to be 
Mberthings. InwarmthandTtgorofsen- modified, which the jest leajler cbd 
timent, in certain indiTidna! chameters manage for himself : 
that are to be regarded as types of hn- 
mantty, in romantio adventure, in epi- 
sodes, in true hamor, in scholarship. , ..^_ 
In pure style, too, exactly adapted to larity. The admimble snceetsor ofSmoU 
his subjects, Smollett's is the best. In lett and Fieldiog, Mr. Dickens, equals bin 
one line of writing, the descriptions of i" 'he Ian respect, but is witUl, a »ery 
sea life, Smollett was the first, and is modest nan— for an author. The first 
•till, the best— who hot ha has painted osmed itentlemanisthemost sncceaafuloT 
» Trunnion, a Pipes, a Bowling, &c. ; blerary impostors, having palmed off more 
BMCooper, not MIrfyat^not the French "^""'t^l '"ll, """^t"'* "" ""; ^^'^ J" 
■■.■■.....\ri. .ri.i. * .?„»i. «(,...>«. „f anyolhcrwnterof theptesentday. Pos- 
ravine nOTelists. A single chapter of ^singon^ qu,ii„aloneinperr«tion. he 
Roderick Random u worth a half has obtained, fmm -skilful Lrci«; ofiu 
rolume of the suceeMOnJ of Smollett, the credit of jwaessina ait others. Were 
ID thiB way of writing. Almost Uie ^e weak enough to be deluded by the 
poorest work of Smollett conlains bail» be holds out in his prefaces, we 
characters and writing, equal to the should have considered him the most ori- 
best of Dickens. If any one doubts ginalof writers, a! well as the profoandesl 
OUT judgment let him read for himseir. of phihisophers. He spesks of analyzing 
The rapidity of Diekena' pen does not certain passions and punting characters, 
aDow him to cherish the excellences "« "" no one before had ever succeeded 
of style (that charm of manner, which ''^'""^ '" •imilar attempts. He will show 
has enriched and preserved often quite ^"'» '"^''^ ""'«■■ wi'ers bsva been, ta 
inferior matter). We doubt, for this '"'^'' ""^ "?'" "penor.ty-biulding h>a 
reason, if even llie finest of Dickens' ''W-'re|.ulaUononlhen..ns«ndrra8Dients 
prodnetione will outlast the Vicar of 1"'. -,!^ i ^l^"". ?'«=""%''"- 
&-._.! 1 1 - I - . tecia «'Q0 would erect edihces of (tone 
Wakefield-^specimcQ of tbe minia- f„m the defaced alatues of anliquity. 
tnrenovel which Schlegel prononnces "Asa wriicrof ficiion.Mr.BuIwerhaa 
the best ever written. We may be attempted much: let us see what he has 
thought very old-fashioned for our re- really accomplished. In what has he sne- 
trospective admiration, but time thus ceeded, or in what failed ? His fkilures, 
far lias proved an argument in oMr fa- in our estimate, predominate so greatly, 
*or. Dr. Moore (luthor of Zcliico, that we will begin with them. 
&e.) preferred by Burns to Addison "His chief diaraeltn are, lovers, sln< 
and Sterne, is a reapectabic competitor dents, line geotlemeo, men of the world, 
with Dickeaa. Yet, we wouW place and CuWic personages. The first are any. 
DickeoB,froMtheaffiueoceofhismiDd, ""?8 »>a' true and sincere ; they are, 
•biTTe the two last and immediately ^fher, elegant libertines. Hi. stndeats. 
next below Smoilett~a position, we ji""''!^' »» *« suppose, as repr^en la- 
feel that he ooght to be MLtUfled w^th. ^l'^/'^" ^f ' ^l^^^'^^rA ""': 
■n ^1 ■ ses— are gonn critics enoueh, and snrcvd 
Byway of pendant or rather con- observcisT but feverish in Iheir aspira- 
traat, we Bubjo.n a portrait of Bolwcr, ijons, and misanthropic. His fine genlle-- 
which we wrote aome years ago and men and men of the world, ate well 
previonaly to the appearance of his drawni Ihiais hlsfone.end he Mecatcsil 
B« two wotks, in oar judgmeot in- mtavm*. He it strongest in delineatins 



Google 



■fr 



Hone's .VeiD Spirit »/ tit Agt. 



9i 

liMKlMiiieH and wotiilj raHr- Of late, 
•titee be baa beeo eteraled into paUic 
life, he has conceiTcd a great pasaion Tor 
detcribing public men. An intenM ego- 
tism pervajes all bis ebaracters. He 
draws from hiatafif, we suspect, for loost 
ofliis materialo ; and from the siagleaess 
of bia awn ebaracter, there resnlls a great 
aameneis in all his irorks. His egotism, 
too, is not of the fnnk, relyiai; nature of 
the great old viiter^ bat it is an aneatf 
competition of artificial modesty and irri- 
table vanitf. Alt of the dramaiu ptr- 
tonrn are cut aAer the same paltero, and 
made from tha same blockj each one of 
a clan reaemblei all the olhcn of (he saiae 
class. Their sentinieBts are provided for 
the occksioD — Kcond'hand, not of tpon- 
taoeovs growth) the; sit awkvardlj on 

"His pAtbsopAu is borrowed from the 
French ; his hpad is Riled vrilh mailms 
drawn from the moralisls of thai nalion, 
and rrom L«lin writers. He is a [[real 
admirer of Hclvetins — a sensualist, a glit- 
tering, paradoxical sophist. He is a 
Frenchman in dis^isc, with nothing ol 
the Easlishman aboni bim ; without the 
hrilliancj of Ibe former, and certainly, 
destituteoflhc solidity of the latter. His 
iolellect isof an Intermediate quality be- 
tween the two. HeaffecU the m eta physi- 
cal critic and specalntist; but ia a most 
shallow theorist in moralB, though nice io 
discriminating artificial chnrncteis, and 
their gnrerniDg lootires. His morality is 
most daneerous in its tendency, and licen- 
tious to the core. He is thought very 
philosophical by those who study meta- 
physics in works of fiction— the last re- 
sort of' divine philosophy,' 

"Inpointoftfy/f, be is mechanical, ela- 
borate, strained, and tedious. There is no 
easy current or plain groundwork; eveiy- 
thing is perked into the reader's Ihcc. He 
writes as one who reads everylhiDg in an 
emphalic tone. All his sentences ought 
to be printed in capitals, for he tries lo be 
■tarlling in every phrase. He has no re- 
pose — no calm—no dignity. He has strik- 
ing obsercalions, but seems to care little 
alwut their truth. His Ftyle is partly 
French, partly German, and slightly Eng- 
lilh. In his epigrammatic passage;, which 
are his best, he is French; in his rhapso- 
dies, where he drops down plump into tbe 
region ofbombasl, he is Gerraau ; and in 
his prefaces, where he aims at elegant 
criticism, he is n writer of most slovenly 
Engiish. His fgmilieriiy is labored and 
heaT>-, his trifling ridicnlons and silly. To 
trifle with elegance is B nice arl, nnd Mr. 
Bnlwer cannot acquire it; the more ea- 
gerly he pursties it, tbe worse he writes. 
Ee ia utterly deficient in humor; and the 



('■*. 



cemUance of wil be baa it a eertajs nnn- 
new, the effect of style. He has none of 
Irring'i Gae descripttoD and nice skill in 
tbe cqpdnct of his narralives. He is a 
great admirer of Tom Jones: why not 
study thai perfect nanatiie ? — perfect, at 
least, as a work of aK. His story is in. 
hanoonious in the managtmetit of inci- 
dent, and abrupt. He has no power of 
fosion in his mind, and cannot melt down 
hi* materials into a continnons wbole. 
Eierything stands out by ilself— Ibe inri- 
dents being the enenee of eooimotiplBce. 
His high personages are inflated talkera, 
his low characters retailen of ribaldry 
and vulgarity. His easays at eloquence 
are lamentable instances of sheer rhapco- 
dy. What, then, has heT Why, these 
practical qnolilies, which carry eTerylhing 
before tbem: He knows the public loste 
well; just what it will lake; bow much 
It will bear. He has eelcBlaied all the 
chmcei of imposition, and is familiarwilh 
tbe art of making the most of the very 
meanest materials- He has tad, and 
great indnslry ; a very clever compiler of 
nMnances. He is a perfect master of all 
the tridcs of authorship sod all the devi- 
ces of book-making. He wants nature 
and getiins, bni he has ability and perse- 
Ternncc. No one can deny hii general 
scholarship and critical acumen ; but 
then he haa a Frenchman's taste, being 
easily caught by glitler. The high opi- 
nions he entertains of Young, and writers 
of bis descriptiim, di« 



hist. 



ray plainly. 



He is the painter of the fashionable 
world and of artificial life. He roles ni- 
preme in the dress-circle and the saloon. 
He is B matter of badinage aad nillery. 
lato the world of natnre he has never 
found entranee ; lo natnral pasaian, 
which, ' mouerlesa, sways na to the mood 
of wltat she like* or leatbes,' he it an 
utter stranger. Whenever be aaaunws 
enthusiasm — for it never has the appear* 
ance of rising out of the subject — ha 
writes with a baslard heal, as difierent 
from genuiae enthusiasm, as gold leaf is 
dilTe rent from pure gold, or as Ere painted 
on the canvass is diJQerent from Uie real 
element. He wants the lotty dignity of 
the greatest intellects, bnt (l^ls and fnmea 
on every occasion, inlo something like 
declamntio*. Ia fine, he is a shillbl lit- 
erary manufacturer, bat will rank with 
the Capulets tweiHy yeara hence- If be 
lives that lengtb of lime, be will oollive 
his own ref)atation ; and may cry vat, if 
wise, with good-natured Master Belly, in 
the decline of life, ' Ob, Memory, MeoMV 



The remainiog aotelista ofilhe ia,y 



1M4.1 Homa-M Ntw Sfirit of tit Aga. 66 

hnta moeh tho largaot bodr of popnlH' The elusicB of sulier Akjb ol^m pn- 
wiitera ; aod, ia jmtice, we ehould, at cedeooe. lliese moit be re«d, at all 
leMt, TUn IhrouKli a catalogue of tbaii eTents : later wrtten muBt wait. Oa\j 
tmnet. DefDcta, eommoD to them all, the brighten portion* of the best worn 
(w a cU», we mention ineideplally. can be Tead, where there i« Buoh a maM 
To keep up a very popular name, Lhej of admirable writing to run througl^— 
mnet writ* ancti and lapidir — a noTel roanf good things will be neglected ia 
ft-jear ■■ the amaUeit allowance, while fov or of the master-piBces of this claw 
some ntitsra turn out one ererj four of composition. The mediocre, the in- 
moatlw. Thef write mote than they difiereni, the onlTso-soish pieces, muM 
inveot ; they wuld create ont of no "go by the board." Yet, in the mean* 
Kttletial, or the moat Bwagie. From est prodactioas of ficiiiioaa wciteis, 
DDtbii^, nothing can come ; whence the there arc often gleams of wit, aparkt 
H^itioea* and verbiage of most modem of fancy, that, enshrined in a elasaie 
ito*ela, K d«fest at least eqttal to the fonu, would infallibly have serred ta 
aina of reviewers, who mpin s doien brighten with later posterity, A fisw 
pBgM out of what B closer writer could, wisda of particular writers : — a cleTM 
with saw, have eondenaed into a siDgle writer in the Norih Amerioan ReTi«w, 
oalunin. We cannot, therefore, be lately exposed, most jostly, the hollow- 
biamed for predicting for most of tbera neas of Mr. Jamefl's reputation a« aR 
a speedy nunialtty. The olasaes and author, and his very medioore claims— 
Tsiieties of tbs geniu novel are many ; as much might be aaid of other writen 
there ia the novel of faahi(»i, by Mrs. that have t^en as mnoh read. Lai^ 
Gore ; the sea'tales of Harryatt and daeses of readers have endnred (Mt 
Chamier; the hiatorioal patchwork of can poeterityl) the eoareenesa of MrB. 
Jamea and Ainswarlh; Ehe excellent TroUope;* theflinisinossoflhefaahioR- 
lriah pictDTCB of Baoim, Lover, Lever, able novelist ; the alanff of what ia 
fte. Then, we have the aubliniated conTentionally termed nigh life, in 
reflnemencs of Mr. Bulwer, the (essen- Mra. Gora's especially ; the inanity of 
tial) vulgarities of Mr. Trollope, the Jamea and Ainsworch ; the broad ex* 
fanciful mysttoiem of Mrs. Shelley — travagnnces of Hook's description* ; 
variety enough, one wonld think, to the elaborale rhapsodiee of D Israeli 
suit the most catholic taste. Of Mr. the younger. — But to pass to a graver 
Dichene, we will add nothing to oor olass of writer* (one of which every 
■ketch of him, nor will we repeal the writer makes, at times)— we mean tu 
strLCturBB oontained in onr previooi oritice. Of this formidable band, Ma- 
srtiole on female noveliats, We cannot eaulay and Carlyle are the chiefs, and 
be expected, of course, to re-write eha- we shall attempt to do their poitrail* 
neters of all the writer* whose names accordingly, 

are oomprised even in Mr. Honie's Macaday, the Gdinbar^h reviewer, 
delbotive list, yet we may tonoh upon is, probably, the moat brilliant wrilerof 
their most etriktog trait*, if only by an English prase now living, the last re- 
«pithet, or in a parenthesis. We can- maining member of that glorioae bairf 
didly think the next age will know lit- of wils, oritics and fine thinkers, wh» 
lie, if anything, of the second rate constituted the force of the Edinborgli 
writer* among them, and that, in all in it* prime — JeRrev, Maointosh, Hax- 
probability, the next generation aSMx litt, Brou^am, Carlyle, Stephens, ttod 
that will know nothing at all. Very himself; uniting alao the fame of a eoo^ 
few of the first rank, it may be reason- cessful politician to that of a aplendid 
ably doubted, will preserve anything periodical writer, he ha* obtained aa 
like 3 cepntatiDD of the kind thay now acoumnlstion of honors rarely to be met 
enjoy. To anch a degree it cannot in the pereon of a single individuaL 
Jast, for the mare maliitude of their Review writing hu now become aa 
work* will distract the attention and art, and one, too, in which very few 
"UmAd to obecnre their powen. How srucceed even respectably, and inwbiefl 
fliifle of Scott, Byroo, or Jeffrey, can innumerable foilare* occttr quarterly. 
'TOnain with aU its flist gloaa npuu it. It ia methodised inloasystem. It has 



o us fair game for a psnater ; and exactly ty^eal of ita 

l).g,t,zcd=y Google 



' -iL. u^i- 



Bont't New Spirit tf Ikt Age. 



[J«ly, 



its rules tad esnons uti pAcnlisT sivle. 
It mnat be exhaustive and thoiough in 
its ftnstysia ; tbo wiitiufc mnat be neat 
and desn ; ihc vit, brigbl and " palpa- 
ble J lbs logic, clasa and ineeniona ; 
ihe thetotic, elstwmUe and oaztUng. 
The aljte must never lag behind the 
alar;. There must be animation, at all 
BTent*, oven wilb error (for the Bslte of 
piquancj), rather than dulinew, how- 
ever just and airtceie. A fiat reviciFer, 
hovever accnrale and true, must fail ; 
» trae story docs not answer the por- 
poee of a lively leviewer, while a cla- 
Tfir conjecture passes for more than an 
scJcaewlcdKed truth, which wants the 
etimulu* of novelty. Thia, aurely, is 
bM as it ought to be. Is it as we 
repTeaent 1 Yon have onlv to read 
liaeaula; to become satislied as to the 
eorrectnesB of the criticism. Macau- 
lay's reviews are the very Iliad and 
Odyuey of criticism — models of that 
kind of writing. Abler men and deeper 
acholars hare written review articles, 

SI without that masterjr of the art. 
izUtt had a more copunta &ncy, a 
richer veio, and was altogether a more 
original thinker aod critic, yet his re- 
Tiews lie buried nmler a mass of duller 
matter. We doubt whether Macaulay 
(KHild have written the Surrey Lectures, 
bat that is travelling cut of the rtcord. 
HacaulBT'a articles are not to be raia- 
takea. It is like love at Erst sight, yun 
nUT always linow his -hand. He wants, 
to be sure, the aoUdiiy of Butke, the 
liob philosophy of that poetic thinker; 
yet even Buike could not have hit the 
mark with creater nicety. He would 
have carriM too much metal. Macau- 
Jay is essentially a criticid essayist ; 
not a mere critic, not an original Judge, 
not a lecturer, but that rare union of 
eritioaud DiiscellaceouB writer — a criti- 
cal essayist. Probably, in no other 
form ef cDEnpositiun could he have suo< 
oeeded to such a degree of exceilencB. 
Hb could not compress himself into 



. a and delicacy, for purely 

elegant writing. He paints on too 
brud a cuivass, and aims too much at 
atrikiag colort and at effects, to elabor- 
Sto ingenioos beaolies, and perfect llie 
fthnost perfect beautiea of nature, in his 
■iyle. Then, again, in a long wuik he 
««ald BooD tire : his genius would 
dioop when he bM beyoi^ his hundred 
psgea 01 ao. Pampfaieteeriog worUd, 



tbsn r 



letter salt Haoanlay'B fl e ai — 
ew writing, fur be is a parti- 
'erylhing he writes. Id hia 
capacity of eriiie, he loo often allows 
his political hiaa to influence his judg- 
ment — the cabinet minister is some- 
times • mere smart, ingenious pan- 
graphist, by no means so intent on the 
trutii as he should be. We rrautrked 
this particularly i* two conseeniiv* 
papers, the one on Soutbey'a Colioqaiea, 
the other on Moore's Bjran. 'Hie first 
writer is treated as a lory : the seconil 
as a whig. Contrast, also, the papers 
on Milton and on Boswell. Once an- 
derstood, this partiality doea no harm, 
but rather gives an edge to his style. 
History, no less than Letters, has faeea 
vividly illoatralcd by Macaulay, aod 
many of his articles, in Iheraselres, 
preserve the essence of books of groat 
size but not equal value. Portrait 

einting and finished declamation bave 
en carried to perfertion in bis arti- 
cles, in which you find, besides, a trea- 
sury of fine and ingenious lhoo|thts, 
richly illustrated and admirably em- 
ployed. He is so much, in a word, Iba 
opposite of (Jarlyle, that a character- 
istic sketch of the latter will not fail ta 
include all the qualities oppoaed to taia 
own, that we have ooiituid in the abora 

Thomas Carlyle is a name to bft 
treated with respect, for, notwitliatand- 
iDg all his abBuittity and pretension, ha 
is undeniably so vigorous, wtd even 
sometimes so profound a writer, ao sin- 
cere and genial a critic, and when 
warmed aiKl in earnest, so powerful, 
that it would a^ue a deficieocy, both of 
acotenesa and candor, to deny his very 
^reat merits ; at the same time, then 
IB so much in this writer to excite a 
quite contrary feeling, that we hope t» 
he pardooed for indulging ia free oe»> 
sure that may not seem warranted by 
the idolaters of hia genius. Carlyle 
has dislingntshed himself in several 
lines of excellence ; let ns glance at 
Ilia proficiency in each. As the bio- 
grafber of Schiller, hia first attempt at 
crliiciara and narrative, be has aurpass- 
ed all his future efibrts, except in hia 
translations, his admirable Sartor Re- 
sartuB, and his later endeavors in b«- 
half of sincere and intclligeai Reform. 
In the light in which he ia most fre- 
quently eonsidered, that of a mere 
apeaulative refbnDer, we- do not rale 
him so highly by any mean* as we do 



1844.] Amw'« JVm ^irU ef Ik* Ag*. 97 

ngard bim in eerbiiiflMlMT«liantctera. neas with G«niuui Bcholarthip tad fma- 

He insists, in a right man); itriin, on cy. The races in him sra mixed. Ha 

the ntriileneBs, the necessitj, of those is best its ctitio and of German aolhors, 

great virtues, tmth, sincerity, persere- whom he has tranatated with eipial 

ranee. Ho preaches muif an old fitrce, fidelity, ond spirit. The Ger- 

tezt with new bfe and vigor, but we man romances, in his hands, are very 

eMmot Ibink that ha is eminently origi- different thlntfs frem the eomroon 

ml, \t, indeed, he has any pretensions IranalalionB of tha Sorrows of Wer- 

that way at all. We do not aek for ler, or Kolzebue's tragedies, or Klop- 

norelty : it ia sotnethinf to make tiia stock's Messiah. His pspars, too, on 

tBOBt of what we have, a truth very Novalia, &c., are eieellenl: that oa 

few, either nnoraJiats or legialatora, Richler (his favorite and model) is a 

■eem to consider. But when a gresl mieterpieira. Some of his papers on 

oatcry ofdiscovery isiaade.we docer- iilngluh liieratare are almost as good, 

teinly expect something mora than The noble criticisms on Borns and 

Cariyle fomisfaes by way of substitute. Johnson must be familiar to every one, 

Vfixh Rob Roy, oar author may unite The critic's sirictnres on ajistems and 

in declaring that, polities wc do net so much admire. 
His tneroty specnlalive inquiries do 

"Ofoldthin^, aUarenowold, "">l amount to much. The critic has 

or Kood things, none are SDodenongh," aoutenass and force, bnt hardly eijuat 
subilfliy and power of ooncentration. 

and, in effect, be makes the same History, in the hands of Carlyle, is 

vaunt : descriptive and illastrative, rather than 
porely narrative . He is Toeeh mare of 
the critic of constitutions, measures 
luid men, than the relater of events. 
He is picturesque aod dramatic, bat 

Yet, after all, we slaud where we true history is epical and legendary, 

stood before ; the world has nofr moved The (so coiled) history of the Revola- 

a jot, wemeanas to praelicalfpercepti- tion in France, is rather a gallery of 

ble benefits. It is undeniable that portraits and scenea of civil war. It is 

Carlyle'a writings have done great wild and fitful (like ibeblascsof winter 

good, if only by making men think, bowling over a desolate heath), rather 

and soggestinK an appreciation of the than a sustained elegy or a grand tri- 

lerrible evils that hang, like a thunder- umphat Ode to Freedom, ft is, in a 

doed (ready to burst on nor heads) word, melo-dramatic. Compared with 

over the mass of society. The politi- it, the classic historians are tame and 

cal atmosphere, charged (as in England insipid. The style iscurt and jeriinf, 

and France) with the groans of Ihsop- and like a careering horse, too often 

pressed, the s%hs of auSering, and the unseats the sober judgment of the his- 

ourses of outraged humanity, must torian. Sartor Hcsartus is the master 

needs be furnished with some safe con- work uf its author (indeed, tuck, every 

doeloT to pretect the miscreants inpow- clever writer can point to, auroe one aq- 

er and place, who thns goad on their perior thing which be eoald never sar- 

fellows, by misery, to crime. An aw- pass). It is close, ingenious, profonndi 

fnt doom awaits Uie mercileas legisla- and earnest ; fall of a deep satirical 

tors of England, if they ceasa not to hnnwr that, like all true humor, cos- 

obatmol the pub of freedom, nor lay ceala 'deep thought and feeling, striking 

heavy bnrtheas on the back of the seenes ineiinot with knowledge of life, 

rnnoh wronged poor and working- U is, in fact, a philosophicBl picture of 

olasws of that country. Cartyle'e the inner life of a real man in the 

practical suggestions of education^ world ; a munificent piece of anta- 

esngiation, sou Uie like, are not saffi- biography, sauce, aentimcBt, and apeo- 

oieot. They are highlv useful, but ulaiion. It eontaitn the portrait of th« 

mnch more is needed, and which ought tine scfaotar, tha genuine human betne, 

to come from tiie landholders and the and not the mere pedant nor antaide 

inannlVuittiiers themselves, else olbera man, whom it cuttingly exposes. It is 

may work in vain. To regard the brimful of admiiaJile aenae, the better 

writer, however, pnrel* as such. He for being good comnMin seise, ao much 

is s liDgulaT mixtura af Scotch shrewd- rarer thu any etbci faealty. We fael 



Google 



m 



Homt'l AW Sjnril of tht Age. 



('•It. 



t 






namnted ia calUng thia Carly le's b««t 
work i the ace geoiallj meditated, 
moat earoestly workod out; jret (we 
c&d'i help dincovering il) the work, 
vhich first rccorda ihit tortuous style 
of writing-, which we cannot avoid 
thinking a rile form of alTeDtaikin, it- 
self one of the most disagreeable of the 
yenial eins of aulhorEhip. When we 
compare the earlier and later aiylea of 
this same writer, the difTerence is more 
obrions. The life of Schiller is a 
model of pure English, while some of 
Carlyla's later works are horrible di>- 
tortioDB of the language. 

The cause of this great change is to 
oa clear : some have conjectnTed it to 
lesult from confusion of ideas, the 
common apology for a daric style, but 
we believe il to arise from a perverse 
imitation of the worst parts of certain 
German lulliom. — Carlyle is utterly 
destitute of genuine wit, though his ad- 
mirers claim that for him, as well as 
partial genius. lis iometimes discov- 
ers a streak of soriy humor, as it were, 
such as Quin, the actor, was said to 
possess. Qf light, pleasant raillery, he 
has not a particle. His jests are as 
awkward as the gambola of the ele- 
phant, ia Milton. His wit — to copy an 
expreasioa of his own, ia a sort of 
small-beer faculty. Carlyle's favorite 
characters are rougki, lardiy Saxoa 
men — aomewhat in his own vein, as 
Kdox, Luther, Joliasoti and Qorns ; 
and daring revoIulioniBts preserving the 
parallel, as Napoleon, Daaton, Mira- 
bean. Force of character and siaceri- 

g furnish his reqaisiles for a hero, 
irlyle paints with a bold hand^— firm 
titd free — usee strong colors ^vithout 
mucEigrace orart,Hod with no elegance 
or taste. Still he has a certain peoQ- 
liaricy, that is very striking. Araoag 
painters our critic would rank with 
Hans Holbein — the court painter of 
Henry VIIT. and friend of Erasmus. 
His descriptiona have something of 
Salvator Rjna in them, as wild and 
savage. He is no Vandyke, no Sir 
Joshua Keynolds, no Sir Thomas Law- 



Among artists of the last age, he would 
rank with Fuseli. Like him ho luc- 
eeeds in slrone characters and tumnliu- 
ons Bcsnea. This ia but a alight pro- 
file aketeh vf a veir able man, a loan 
of consummate tateot, but no pure, 
«ri|insl geoios; of great capacity but 



m«nt aeule,jM«i 
in simple, deep eentimeni — a writer of 
most vicious taste and perverted man- 
ner, wanting in the individual impress of 
personal power — of great acquisilioDB 
and aonsequent aggregate increase of 
faculty andmentalpower rather than of 
vigorous internal impulso ; in a word 
a man of talent of the first rank, but 
not to be classed with men of real 
genius. After the nanaes of these two 
master critics, Maoaulay and Carlyie, 
none can be placed except at a very 
conaideiable distance. Some of the 
critics of the London weeklies are verj' 
excellent, as Foster of the Examiner, 
and the writer of llie notiees in the 
Spectator, in particular. The ladies 
have done something very respectable 
of this kind — we might mention Miaa 
Alartineau and Airs. Jamicaon- Mr. 
Stephens (wo omitted), a very close 
imitator of Macaulay and almost woi* 
thy of being called a rival, were it not 
fur his evident imitation. — Before we 
come to the Poets (with whom w« ohall 
conclude), we must say a few words of 
the professed wilt of the day ; writers 
displaying that peculiar and attractive 
quality in the tale, review, aketeb, 
newspaper editorial, and indeed erery 
form of minor and tniacellaoeous lite- 
rature. These being the best knowa, 
we suj)p««e> of all contemporary writers 
oei^i to the Dovelisis, ntll not delay ua 
long for any detailed criticism. It ia 
almost snScient to meution their nnmea 
— Sydney Smith, Huok, Hood, Fon- 
blanque^ and Denglas Jerrold. A dif- 
ferent classification might unite them, 
that of periodical writers ; ss they are 
Buch, to a man, in the different forma of 
journalism, the newspaper, the inag»- 
zine, the review. First, there is Syd- 
ney Smith (namesake of the gallant 
Knight who distinguished bimwif U 
thesiegcof Acre), the wittiest and most 
seasible of living parsooa — the last of 
the good old line of clerical Saliriate — 
not mere savage butchers of repulattcHi, 
but moral censors, sad except, perhape, 
in one case, kindly teaetaers of truth, 
and priests of humanity — Bishop liall, 
Donne, South, Swift, Eaohard and 
Sterne. The peculiar wit of the caooit 
residentiary of St. Paul's, we idl know 
well from hearsay and reading, so that 
we shall only atop to make one remark 
aboMt it, and that ia, that it )s anoUter 
formoflagicalaonteness.the growth of & 
cleat, sharp inielleot, eseroiaed on pnw- 



1844.] Htme't N«u> Spirit of tA« Age. M 

t^l mMten— it is nat pvrelf sportira monU ehancter for &U his \irituig«, 

pleuuitrj, deaigoeil merely lo aiDuw. vhich wb believe they really powesa. 

It haa always a praclieal, and generaUy He is a generoM criiio end aa haooat 

A moral Bim. Witb certain extraTS- man. 

ganwu, that a CBTeleaa reader might The PoeU of the day. — This ia % 
miatake for imitatioDi of Rabelais, it ponioD of tbe genwal subject of mhi- 
is Mill full of meaning. Tbe aketch of temporaij literaturB that wa ^all not 
this moat aseful of (he wita, ia very venture to go very deeply ioto at pre*- 
trell done in the NewSpirit of IbeAgei ent, for two reaaons, vis., becanae tbe 
fta are aUo the portraits of all these best poetry of the fineat living poats 
clever vriieia, whom we have aaaooiat- belongs tothegeoe ration that has passed, 
«d Qader the same general head, and beeanse we hope soon to be eat 
Hook repreaenta the achool of vulgar abled to present n liillet view of tlw 
humoriats, wboae chief weapon is claims of the poetry of the mneteenth 
eoarseaess itself ; a writer and man of century npon our admiration and le- 
gieat cleverness and menul activity, gard, than we can do with anytbiof 
but utterly wanting in refiaement, taste, liice justice, in a niche of an article 
and sometimes to be taxed wilb far guile short enou^ without any addi- 
heavier ains.awant of humanity and of tional condensation. Wordsworth and 
juatioe. Hood is a chaiaotei of aqnile Hunt and Proctor, perhaps the firat 
apposite description, a puet, a hamorist, poetic names among English batda 
a punster — the equal of Lamb, in eve> now living, belong to die school which 
lything bat the eKquiaite criticism and preceded the presoic : at all evaot% 
Mntiment of Elia. His head is a they gained theii laurels before moat 
perfect mine of puna, and all sorts of of the present race of writers of Teiaa 
odditiea and comicalities. Hia"Upthe commenced writing at all, and indeed 
Rhine" is almost as good as Hum- before most of them were born. Com- 
phrey Clinker, of which it is a profess- pared with these genuine tQaMers, the 
«d copy. He has written herein some cleverest of the new generation are bat 
vefy fanciful, and some very sweet poe- faithful disciples and ingenloas iini- 
try. All his satire is sportive and af- tatore. Most of the contemporary 
fectiotiate — bia descriptions freah and English poeta are rather taateAil 
lively. The author, too, aa Hszlitt ecbolara, brilliant men of talent, clerec 
•aid so handsomely of Hunt, translates women of high culture and fine fancy) 
admicabty into the man. He is said to than original painters, authors of teal 
be as gentle, kindly, loving and hu- genius, true poets. Whoever coaaiden 
mane, as one might readily suspect the high claims of poetry, the maoi- 
from the best nf bis writings. He baa fold requisitea of the great poet, will 
StAme'a feeling, without his affectation bo lulb to Myle every clever or eves 
«i hardness of heart. And with equal fine writer of verse by that holy name- 
wit he has none of the violence oi the Uinor poets are more approptiately 
rancour i^tbe editor of the John Bull, classed with clever writers. Judged 
Fontdanque, as a political wit, is first by theHiltonicstandard, Wardsworthis 
rate; his argument is none the less our sole English poet ; a lower standard 
close because hia irony is fine. His would admit Hunt, Proctor, Tennyson, 
pM allusions lo farce, eomedy.and the Elizabeth Barrett; ayetlowerdeep(aCill 
comic novels, are alnwst equal to good far from low) would include Elliott, Mil- 
original wittioiims. His style is naat nes, Mrs. NotIdd. In a small clase of 
and full of pith and point. His views t«etic wits, may be placed Hood, 
are in general just and fair, uid dictated rraed, and a few others. Aa daae- 
by feelings honorable to the man aa ical copyists, Talfonrd, Knowlea, and 
wellas the politician. Douglas Jerrold, Nelson Coleridee, deserve a respeet- 
we knew too little of, to apeak very able place : while Sir Edward BoWat 
confidently in the way of criticism. He Lyiton and Satan Montgomery would 
is perhaps at the head of tbe English lead off a file of poctaaten, writers of 
ma^azjnisls, uniting the talent of jour- philosophic vena, and mystical trans* 
oalist, critic, writer of tales and sketch- cendentaliels, to the lowest pit of tha 
es of life and manners, and dramatist, critical Tartatus, there to endure tkg 
Some of his farcesand domestic dramas panga and agony of damned anthon 
arestandardpieces,andholdposaesBioit and honelese projectors, 
of tbe stage. Tbe critic claims a Yet tliov^ taste, ctevemesB,uid fago- 



l=yG00g C 



i 
i 1 ■■ 



90 



Uornt't New Spirit of tht Age. 



[jBly. 



Doity are tho chi;f irajta of the eiisi- 

iRK school of English poetry, vte still 
diacem much of real exeellcnce in iL 
Though most of the writers of ptjclry 
Are nilhet Me wtitera of Ter»e than 
geDuiae poets — (wa da not mean any 
diarespect in speaking of vfrje, we re- 
fer only to the foroi and Tcliiele of 
cooiposilton) — still they have led ilieir 
nark. Not to lewritc the slanJard 
critieisnis upon Wordaworth, Hunt 
tiod Proctor, nons of whom, except the 
second writer, adeqaacety rRprespiit the 
Spirit of the age, if, indeed, ihey appear 
to be imbued wilh it at all : we must 
pass to the younfrer apprentices in the 
•chotd of art — (he candidates for im- 
nxstalLty. We have just ran over th« 
names of tnost of these, of which, at 
preBent, we will only subjoin n wnrd or 
two of criticism. The mnBic of Ten- 
nyson, bis rematkably fine ear in the 
maoagement of rhythm, is his great 
eharm : this has been Tcry judiciously 
retnarked by a critic in this JournsJ, 
about two ymrs since, and to that no- 
tice we can add nothing of consequence. 
Tennyson is ingenious and imilalive, 
sweet, sad, thoaghtful, classic and ro- 
mantic, severe and luxuriant alternate- 
ly. This command of styles and va- 
riety of talent of themselves denote 
second rate genius, in whioh skill in 
eieeution exceeds the conception or ca- 
pacity. The very ^catcst poet* have 
■ marked manner of their own, and leave 
a distinct impression of individualit]^ on 
their works, which ia apt to run into 
nanoerism, yet which inclndes a per- 
sonality not to be mistaken. Milton and 
Wordsworth could never have become 
Butler or Moure ; yet Tennyson is in 
one place a follower of Wordsworth, 
then of the old ballad writers, then a 
spm^ivo wit. The critic, in the new 
Bpiiil, demaitds too high a place for 
bim altogether, as we expect lo show 
hsreafUr. Talfmird is a chaste, cor- 
rect copyist of the Grecian drama in 
its purest translation ; a (ine scholar, 
a man of delicate taste, he is no 
poet ; though he can write pleas- 
ing verses, and has produced a tragedy 
■npertor to Cato. Of Miss Barrett, 
the only poetess we shall mention, 
we shall say no more than to refer 
the reader to another page in oor 
present number which he will find 
rnoed with her name. Of the manly 
Elliott and the elegant Mitnes, we have 
•aid elsewhere what we do not now con- 



sider it necessary to repeat — (vide Po- 
etry for the Peo^e). Hood, fall as h« 
is of his punning and cnmicalities, has 
pcused sume very delightful verses, and 
one poem at least, of singular bumy 
— the Dream of Eugene .\x»ai. The 
plays of Knowlcs are almost Ihs sol» 
new tragedies that deserve to keep the 
stage. 

Having thus ran over most i«pidly 
the surface of conlemporaiy English 
literature, we stop to oak ourselves a 
few questions — what is the present 
slate of poetry and the belles-lettres in 
that country 1 What ia the prevailing 
scope and character and aims of tha 
great body of living writers? Is the 
vigor of the national mind, as ex- 
hibited in the worifs of its writers, on- 
impaired 1 What are ha prospects, and 
how does Qitr young but rapidly de- 
veloping literature compare with it * 
To answer these in a few paragraphs, 
the questions that might be espaoded 
in a full consideration to the extent of 
a voiome. We are one of ihat claaa 
who believe not only (as indeed all to 
a certain degree most) in the parallel- 
isms of history, but also in the perpetu- 
ally recurring changes to be noted Id 
the literary history of every people. 
Every nation that has had a htantore 
thus far, has gone through certain 
epochs, periods of literary glorv and 
of the declioe of letters. With th« 
exception of Kussia, every country on 
the continent of Eitrope has had its 
day of literary splendor, its Augustan 
age : and now at the present lime even 
Germany, the last in tUo field with an 
original literature (previously to the 
beginning of this century, she was the 
cauotry of pedants and commentators), 
has no distinguished original living 
writers, Tieck and his compeera not 
being included, as Ihey flourished con- 
temporaneously with Giitho and Schil- 
ler. Italy and Spain are as good 'as 
excluded from all remark at (his time. 
Some centuries have passed sinctt 
either land has produced an univeran] 
ciassie. And England, at (his moment, 
is the land of exceeding intelleolUBl 
activity, cleverness, schoiarship, bril- 
liant talent, and imitaiive genius, hot 
thongh with a few original minds (not 
of the lirsi class, however}, she can lay 
no pretence to reviving her former 
literary gieatoeSB. She can institotv 
no parallel between hot present literary 
coodiUon and that of tbs age of Elixa- 



dv Goalie 



1S44.] llome't Kta Spirit of the Age. 61 

bstll and Jamea I., or of the Connnon- Et(iT,tlie ETeceftsCofailpaitieB). Sine* 
wealth, oi erea of Charles II. No Canning^B lime, we know of no ele^nt 
ffTMt dramatiElB, epia pueta, diriiica, piece* of pulilical wmia([ : no English 
EliB Tajtor and Soulhey, wila like But- inodelti in oiutury tlia.1 read ndl. Out 
ler 0[ Swil^, no auch prose as Cowley countrf abounds u-iih clever wiiten ia 
or Temple could write. Yot we have periodicals of afery kind. Wo wa 
an inliniui number of good, if no very getting to have curiuus Bcholarsbip and 
gnax n^iiteis. The same criiicisni ap- nrofound speculation, from Jonathan 
^ies pretty nearly to the slate of Ame- lildwardB to the present race of tran- 
licsD literature, wliich will probably acendeotalists, we hive inquirerB of 
b« ciHiupted (the jiitle we have) by all classes. A singular trait marks tha 
•iroilai or ibe same causes, i. c, great writings of mast of Iheae ; an artificial 
general activity of mind, eihansted in finish hardly lo be expected in ao new 
numberless brief labors, whirh do nut a literature. Indcc^d, thtre has been 
allow repose for a great work : the far loo tnaeh imitation and copying, 
ispid groifth of physical science and We have many writers who would hare 
the material philosophy that acMimpa- done well anywhere by themselves, who 
nies it. In some departments, wc think have jct been al the pains of modelling 
American authors of the present day themselves oa some great masters, 
may fairly olsim an equal rank with We argue the gradual deoline of 
their English rivals. In poetry, ex- ISnglish and American literature (joined 
elude the great name of Wordsworth much as the established church of the 
as the poet of a former era, and w« first country and the branch of it here), 
ehalleoge comparison between Dans, of the same stock, though oars being 
Bryant, Halleck, Holmes, Lowth, Wil- the yonnger in all probability will sar- 
lis. Street, and Ijongfellow, and the re- vive the elder, and at least more than 
maiuing best living Eugiiah poets, outlast our day, not only from tha nuni~ 
They are fairly met on their own ber of merely olever writers and the 
ground and in their own vein of deli- general prevalence of imitation, but 
eaey, taste, fancy, speoulation, humor, also from the love of pertodioal eriti- 
pathoB, and descriptive power, to say oiam and the success with which it ia 
nothing of a maatery of style, il^thm cultivated. Criticism has always 
and the finest poetical dialect. Then, flourished in the absence of alt other 
loo, in humor, we have referred to Ir- kinds of geniua : it ia best when others 
ving, in sketching Dickens, there ia ere in decay or gone, and this seenw 
Paulding, a strong satirist, Wirt, a de- to as one of the mnst remarkable of 
lieate wit, WilHa, full of sparkling the Signs of the Times. From (he 
gaiety, and m certain of his beet great increase, loo, of periodical lite- 
sketches, the author of the Motley rature, moat of the minor kinds of 
Book. In all England, we know not writing are mors cultivated than the 
the writers of late, who could suipass longer and soore imposing. We have 
these fotu writers in their respective few histories, and long poems (thank 
styles (to say nothing of a host of clever heaven 1} bat abandance of critiques 
Btagazine skeiehers beside] — Irving, of all kinds, politioal, literary, lh«)lo- 
Dana, Willis, and Hawthorne. Hip gical and oharacteristio essays, on all 
Van Winkle are the best attempts of lubjects, of manners, morals, medicine- 
Irving : all of Dana's romantic tales, and mercantile policy ; sketches atlifa 
asPaut Fellow, Edward and Mary, Ao., and scenery; letters, from abroad and 
are, we believe, without an equal in at home, tales, abort biographic* and 
Engliah contemporary literature, Wil- every passible variety of the lesser or- 
lis, as a lighter writer, is the cleverest ders of poetry. 

English and American author now liv- \¥e apprehend that literature of thia 
ing ; and our prose poet, Hawthorne, grade and character — short, to the point, 
can be paralleled only in Germany, interesting — willbethepievailingliler- 
We have three classic writers of his- ature far a long time to come. The 
tory ; we have produced the beat popa- chief instruction of the people, their 
lar moralistsofihedsy ; Bewe^,Chan- main intellectual resource of amuse- 
ning,aiid the intellectual Unitarian sect, ment, also, will be found in the periodi- 
Oor orators have, in many cases, pro- oal press. In a busy age of the world, 
notmced orations perfectly admirable in the mass of men (even of readers) 
4hetr way, as those of Wirt, Ames, Web> have litiJe leisure. This they eaanot 



Google 



^:l 



:;•■":! 



Jitfiuenct of EuTOfean on A»ialie Civiktation. 



IJoiy, 



ftnd will not dsTote U> long;, abatnct 
' les on religioQ or pditicB. Our 
I age epoch maj not come On 
ten ceutaries ; meamrhile we need to 
read much and rapidly. The infusioa 
of popular feeling into oni works of 
Bpeealalion, the great aims of re- 
fiumiiig. enlightening, Knd, in a word, 
sdocating the people and impressing 
tbe importance of the individual, — thia 
w one of the great problems of the 
>ge, and perhaps Iht Problem. To 
tender man ph; ucally comfortable, and 



to gire him eofltcieDt occupation, of 

whatever sort circumslancei demand, 
IB the primary duty of society ; bat, 
immediately neit to that, to seek to 
elevate and refine, deepen and expand, 
the charactera of all men, till they 
come to know, appreciate, and act opon 
the immutable principles of Justice and 
Humanity ; to reeogaite one Father 
and Master above, and all brothers and 
equals below. This is (he great lesson 
of life, the very object and end of 
being. 



► 



INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN ON ASIATIC CIVILISATION. 



u 



EuBOPt ie commoolj said to be the 
centre of human civUiBatimi, and the 
extension of European civitisation the 
hope of mankind. We do not mean to 
dispute this poBilion in the sense in 
which it is probably understood, for 
European eivUiaation la, without donbt, 
the highest that has yet been at- 
tained, although it promises more from 
the principles which it contains, almost 
buried out of sight, than from the frails 
which it has hitherto actually produced. 
The Eoiopeui race, however, is not 
primary and aboriginal, but derived 
and composite ; not indigenous to that 
continent, but sprang from eastern 
sources ; and the germs of its civilisa- 
tion, such as it now exiata, were found 
in the Celtic, Gothic, and Slavonic 
tribes, of which it ie composed. Now 
that Europe has gained an unqucslion- 
able asceadency iu controlling the affaits 
of the world, it is both convenient and 

a central or etarting-point, and to trace 
the influences which, hj means of. ita 
pecoliar civilisation, u is exereis- 
mg over the rest of maakiod. There 
are only tliree main directions in which 
it CBD make its influence felt — to the 
south, to the west, and to the east In 
the south, Europe has been to Africa a 
onise ; the European has been to the 
African race a spoiler and a tyrant. 
In the west, Europe has taken posses- 
sion of America, trampling with almost 
equal audacity and recklesaaess on Uie 
rights of the Aborigiaes, bat affording 



some compensation, not to them, bat 
to the race at lar^e, by casting ofl" tlt« 
sloDgh of feudality, and sabetituiing 
somewhat improved forms of its own 
civilisation. The influence of Europa 
has not been confined to the south and 
tvest, but has extended to the east. 
In the same manner as America, which 
derives its existing civilisation from 
Europe, is reflecting its own premier and 
independent inflneneea, and essentially 
modifying public opinion and social in- 
stitutions on that cominent; so Eur^te, 
which stilt more remotely derived its 
civilisation from Asia, has exerted, and 
coniinnes, with accelerated foree, to 
exert, its inflaenee over the destinies of 
Ae Eastern continent. Tbe law of 
action and reaction is found to prevail 
not only in the physic^, but in the 
moral world ; affecting not only the 
character of individuals but the condi- 
tion of nations. Asia, which formerly 
seat forth her hordes to overrun and 
subdue Europe, is now revisited in hei 
nlosl ancient seats, and in her securest 
recesses, by its diseipliaed armies, and 
controlled by its civilized governments. 
The inquiry oatatallv arises : In what 
condition does modem find ancient 
civilisation 1 In what guise does En- 
rope present herself to Asia < What 
character does she assome ! What 
benefits or evils does she carrr along 
with,het 1 What instruments does Bb» 
employ ? What are the actual reaalts 
and the apparent tendeBcics of this 
ooncnrmee of the two mart iapoitaDt 



r.Googlc 



18U.] Imflvmce of European oti Atiatic CmUialion. 63 

tbnns of ci*il)MttioTi, the EuTOpean ind oua matations, Ih&t diTersity or nationat 

the Aaiatic, mutaalljr relftled, yet dia- character nbieh we actuallj witness. 

RKtiicall; opposed, to eftch olher* Society in Asia has undergone also 

1. Tbe first fact that cmnea under great chaD^ee; one tido of conquest 

oor observation is, that nhen the two succeeding another until it is in vain to 

ncea are broaglit,as it were, into each seek ibe original tjpe and matrix of 

other'* presenoe, allhongb Ihns mutual- bnman cmlisation. Empire has suc- 

I7 related, they do not recognite each eeeded empire, conqueror has foliowed 

other; they do not perceive or acknow- in the trsA of conqueror, petty tribaa 

led^ the affiaity tbat Eubsiats Iwtween b^TB swallowed up surrounding states, 

them: they regard eaoh other aeetran' and been consolidated into great domi- 

' '■ ■■' ' -■ • - nj^jj, pQ„ej, which haTO again fallen 
asunder and been broken to pieces ; but, 
(unidst all these changies and ccitqI- 

tribe, of kindred or family. In other sions, the actual almclure and ioHtitu- 

woids, they are so widely separated In tkina of society have been comparative- 

dress,n!kannera, and customs — language, ly little affected. Mahmood of Ghanni, 

Triigion,and [natitutiona — [bat,allhou^ Chengbiz Khan, Timurlung and Nadir 

not only belonging to the same species, S hob, came and went like destroying 

bnt tracing their origin to the same torrents, nilb resistleis power eweep- 

primeval soorce of ciTJlisation, they ing all l^poahion before them ; but, 

yet have no common groond to stand when tbtfy retired within their ancient 

on. They remiitd one of what has limits, leaving soeielT to more on in its 

been known to occur in the more inll- accustomed channels. Europe baa 

natfl relationa of real life — of brothers, been Icsa convulsed, but has been sub- 

•eputited ifl their early years, and ject to deeper and more extensiva 

meeting again in matDre or advanced changes. Asia lias been more shaken, 

age, without molual recognition, with- bat has retained, with a firmer grasp, 

out fraternal affection, without common her original institutions and her aocial 

remembrances or aisociationB ; having forms ; thus widening the difference 

different habits of thought, of feeling, between the two, whenever and wher- 

and of conduct ; and looking upon each ever they Bhall be brought into contact. 

Mheraccordiogto the ordinary [wiralily As this source of the alienation of 

of society, as fit objects of piunder and the European and Asiatic races is found 

Oppression, or of fraud and deception, in emigration and conquest, and in tbe 
llins it is that man estranges himself changes that have resulted from them, 

ftom his fellow man, and, whether in so another source is found in religion, 

the lamily or in the tribe, in tbe nation and in the changes which it has pro- 

or in the race, comes to lose all pereep- daeed. The religions sentirnent of the 

tion or appreciation of the ties that early colonists who passed from Asia 

^ould bind them together io a conunon into Europe, first assumed the forms of 

brotherhood. the Grecian, and subsequently of the 

Tbe causes of this alienatiim of the Roman, mythotocy ; but has ultimately 

Earopeae and Asiatic races are not ob- settled down in the profession ofChris- 

■eore. Divergingfrom a common cen- Canity, which is thedisiinguiihingcha- 

tre, they have each pursued a widely racleristio of the entire European race. 

different course. Society in Europe The religious sentiment of Asia has 
is more the result of migration than of* embodied itself most anciently in the 

conquest : in Asia, more of eonqaest innitutions of firahmTinism, neit in 

than of migration, although both cansea those of Buddhism, and more recently 

hare operated in each. ^ arious streams in those of Muhammad an ism, the three 

of population, in successive ages, have prevailing religions of tbe continent, 

oecnpied the F.uropeanconlinent; some not only differing from each other, but 

flowing on and intermixing with those radically differing in common from the 
tbat bad gone before ; others, receding dominant religion of Europe, and pre- 

and intermixing vrith those that were senting an almost insuperable Wrier to 

advancing from behind; and others intercommunity of sentiment and affec- 

afain stopping short almost at tbe part tion between the two races. 

«t which they emered ; crossing each To this it may be added, that nntil 

Other at variona points, absorbing one modern timee, tbe intercourse between 

anotbeTt and reproducing, by thNr rari- Enrope and Asia baa been ooly trait- 



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Infineyiea ef European on Atiatie Cisiiisatitn. 



£Jalr, 



■ient knd little Triendly. Alexandsi 

ptfiietrued beyond the Indus, but il wia 
a march raihei thta a conquest, which 
be achieved. He ciinqucrod Peiaiai, 
but he WQB himseir subdued in his tuin 
by iu luxuries and Ticea, and his uui;- 
ceisois ruled as Asiatic monarclia, 
rather than ia the foundera of European 
dynasties. The Greek colonics in Asia 
Hiaoi were fur the most pait under the 
coDlrul of Persia ; and the Romans 
faaie left no lasting memorials orthem- 
Bclves in Asia as Ihey have done in 
Europe. The crusades merely graicd, 
&• il were, the conGnea urAsi-i, suthat 
when Vasco di Gu ma lauded at Ca!iciit 
in 1498, he found himself amongst a 
people as foreign in manners, langua^, 
and religion, as did Coluntbus when tie 
first landed in America. 

We have referred to the rantual igno- 
rance and estiangemcnl of the Eu- 
lopean and Asiiiliu races, not merely 
as a fact in history, but on account of 
the effect which is attributable to this 
cause. W^e have DO doubt that it is at tho 
foundation of mucb of (he injustice 
with nbiiii the strooger has treated 
the weaker party in the modern inter- 
course between E^urope and Asia. In 
proportion as ne increase the ties be- 
tween ouraelTea and oar fellow men, 
that is, the better we know them, the 
mote incapable do we become of doiog 
them an injury ; sod in proportion as 
we lessen the number of associationi 
that we have in common, that is, the 
less we know them, the leas we are 
•hocked at doing them an injustice. If 
the benevolent Las Casas had known 
the black as well as ho did the red 
tace, could be have proposed to sub- 
stitute the labor of the one fur that of 
the other in the Spaoish mines \ CouM 
the massacre of Ijuallah Baltoo, on the 
coast of Sumatra, have taken place, if 
in that Tillage, however guilty, the 
American commander had had a wife 
or mother, a brother or sistet I It is 
in this way, inparl, that we account fur 
the injustice of the Spaniards in Mexi- 
co, of the American people towards 
the colored races, both black and red, 
and of the English towards the natives 
of the Eastern tforid. In each cose 
there have been few or no asimciations 
io common ; few or none of the links 
that bind man to man; few or none of 
the checks on the corrupt and pervert- 
ed aelfishnets of bis heart ; and hence 
tbe importance of extending the know- 



ledge of our specia*, and of btingiog 

all the tribes of men within the scope 
of our sympathies, in order that no 
cumbi nation of circumstances raaj 
tempt us to commit or tolerate an in- 
justice against iheiti. 

3. The next important fact that ar- 
retls attention in a coropaiative esti- 
mate of European and Asiatic civilisa^ 
tioQ, when brought into contact, is, that 
the former is essentially progressive ia 
its L'lutaoter, while the latter is sta- 
tionary and even reiroerade. The 
progressive character of European ciri- 
iisalion baa been evinced in every SUC- 
ccdsive stage of its developmenL We 
SCO Greece emerging from a state of 
barbarism, and in policy and art, in lite- 
rature and philosophvi producing the 
highest and noblest forms of thougbt 
aiid action ; forms which have descended 
to the present time, audbave been per- 
manently interwoven with the intellec- 
tuaJ culture of the race. Rome, teaa 
polished and refined, bnt more vigoioua 
and diffusive, has let^ her broad im- 
press upon the language and laws of 
every European people. Wo need not 
speak of the civilisation of modem 
Europe, of the rapidity with which it 
is moving, of the height to which it ia 
riaiog, and of the extent to which it is 
spreading, notwithstanding tbe incnbua 
under nbuh it labors, of despotic gov- 
ernments, feudal institutioos and privi- 
leged classes. To know what it is ct- 



we see the fuiest falling before the axe, 
and populBtie cities risina in the wiUer- 
nesa, where we feel tbo breath and hear 
the tread, and respond to tbe voicea of 
the advancing muliilndsB,that we judge, 
in all its reality, of the progreaaiveness 
of European civilisation. Even whai 
we see with our eyes, and hear with 
our ears, and perform wiili our hands, 
■must git e a very inadequate conceptiou 
of it, without the contrast which a 
knowledge of tlie dull monotony of 
AsijJic civilisation wouldiupply. What 
a dtlTerent scens there presents itself! 
In almost all Asiatic countries a eea- 
ttalized and all-perrading despotism 
rests upon and paraJyies the public 
mind. There is nothing of the natun) 
of what we call pnblic o[unian, public 
enterprise, and public improvement. 
The government and its thousand myr- 
midons are everything, iIm people, with 
their te» aad hnndteda nf loilliiwa are 



.y Google 



1944.] Infiuenee of European on Asiatic CivUitat%«n. 65 

Dotbing. A doll, dead, atationury, uai- foreenturieB been retrogradiog. There 

fonuiU encruBta Bocieljr. The hietoiy are proofs extaol, not only of present 

of to-£i; was tlta history of yesterday, debasement,but of foTmec advancemeDt j 

vai will be the history of to-morrow, of ground once gained, but now lost i 

ocoasiuaally relieved by the match of ruins of scholMtic inslitulione, iha 

devutating armies, and more frequent- bequests and memorials of bygone 

]y by the lyranoous freaks of locsl times ; systems of law and literature 

{Hide and power. In eitensire coun- which the present generiaioiis but im- 

ttiea and prorinces, real property ia perfectly understand, and can much lest 

land is denied to the people who cuiti- improTe ; clear indications of civil 

rate it as tenaQts at will, ander the rights and social advantages which the 

gOTemment, on lenos agreed od be- men of to-day have neither (he intellect 

tween them and its officers from year to appreciate, nor the spirit to maintam. 

to year, or for longer periods. The Contrast these two kinds or form* of 

fhiits of industry are thus held at the eiviliaation, and then judge what most 

abeolntedisposalof govemmentgin any be Uie result when they comenotonlj 

proportion which its nscessities may into contact, but into oolliaion and 

dictate, determined b^ its own sole conflict. 

wdl and pteasnre. Piivate and public 3. Having thus bronghi EuiopcMi 

prosperity are nipped in the bud, and the and Aaiatic civilisation into each other'* 

wholeof society becomes stagnant with presence, let u« advert to the meana 

oomiption and oppression. Languor, which they respectively possess oe 

■Inggishness, and apathy take passes- have employed, to influence the condi- 

•ion of the general mind ; poverty and tion of the world, and especially tD 

irnoiance abound ; and there is no pub- those which Europe has employed to 

he provision either for the relief of des- influencethe condition of Asia. Civili- 

titntion or for the education of the sation, as it now exists in Asia, is the 

people. The education they provide effect of three principal causes that 

tbr themselves consists of the merest have been employed to produce it — 

elements, and a knowledge of these is conquest, colonisation, and relig'ion ; 

limited to a very small proportion of the and the same means hare been einploy- 

tnass. The learning that exists, often ed to produce the civilisation which 

profound and abstruse, never includes now exists in Kiirope, and which Eu- 

the natural and social sciences, but is rope, stQl in the use of the same means, 

almost exclusively inielleotual and has transferred to America. Snbordi- 

metsphyaical, and, such as it is, is nale means, it may be admitted, have 

always at the command of the govern- been employed to co-operate with these, 

ment or in the pay of the wealthy, but their influence has for the most pail 

Thescr then, are the chief features been merged and lost in that of the 

of Asiatic civilisation : a grinding des- three we have just mentioned. Some- 

potism carrying out its behests by limes one, sometimes another of theae 

meane of untold hosts of corrupt and has been dispensed with ; but taken al- 

oppressive satellites of every grade ; together, they constitute the chief in- 

princes, and nobles, and chiefs alter- stru mentalities by which Asia and Eu- 

Hatcly cringiofl and tyrannical, accord- rope have produced the pecniiar civili- 

iug as then laces are turned towards aotions that respectively characterise 

the powerful or the weak ; an ignorant them. Sometimes the conquering peo- 

and prostrate multitude trembling at pie have been of the same religion a* 

every display of power i speculative the conquered ; and at other times 

philosophers, springing from a dry when they were of different religiena, 

mtellectnality, and producing a cormpt the conquerors have ultimately em- 

pnblic sentiment thioogh the medinm braced the religion of the conqnered, 

of the popular superatitions, of which instead of imposing their own. Some- 

Ibey arc the interested teachers and times from peculiar circumalincea co- 

untielieving priests ; no moral life, lonisalion to any great extent haa 

because no principle of morality ; no not followed conquest ; but in general 

social progress, because no principle of the threefold process hae been perform- 

progress. And even to this piclnre -ed, cooqncst gaining a fooling on k 

■omething must be added. Asiatic foreign soil, colonisation securing it, 

UTilisation is at the present day not and religion riveting the chains. Tfaaa 

OBlTiMitprogTeseiT«,bntit haspTwably the best attainable evidence shows that 
VOL. XT. — tto, uutni. 5 



Google 




hfiutnei ttf European on Aiwlie CiviUtatitm. 



tJaly. 



► 



tke Hindoos are not the tborigioM of 
India, but that they Bubjugsted by foioo 
of arms the race tint pieceded them, 
gradually extenited their colonies with 
theii coaquesls, or their conquMls irf 
means of their calonies, and slill more 
graduallj conrerted the real abori^nes 
to their own failb, a process which i« 
still going on, and which is even now 
hi from being corai^eted. The pro- 
grese'of MuhamtnadaniBm ihroughoat 
Aaia is an iUuatration of the combined 
<^ration of the same causes. We see 
the Totariee of that religion, sword in 
hand, taking posaeBsion of extensiTo 
countries, permanently setting in them 
after having enslaved or expelled the 
fbrmer inlubilanta, and making the 
profeBsioQ of Mubaromadanism a qoali- 
fication for civil and social righle. We 
need only remind ihe reader that in the 
ancient civilisation of Euiope, in the 
transition from the ancient to the mo- 
dem by the overthrow of the Roman 
Empire, and in the eilension of the 
modem civilisation of Europe to Ame- 
rica, these three instruments have, 
with various modifications, been mainly 
araplayad. Bat when we turn from 
ifas west to the east, and consider tho 
means which Europe has employed to 
infineoee the condition of Aeia in mo- 
dem limes, na see that one of these 
inalrumenlalitics has been dropped, snd 
another lubetttuled for it. Commerce 
has taken the place of colonisation, not 
performing ptccieeiy the same office, 
nor always following in the name order, 
but constituting oue of the three great 
means employed at the present dav to 
extend the power and influence of Eu- 
rope in Asia. The circnmstances that 
have induced or necessitated this sub- 
stitution are not without interest and 
instruction. The conditions of coloni- 
a scale large enough to aflect 



. it and uninfluenlial exceptions, 
are a climate adapted to the physical 
eonstitutions and previous habits of the 
colonials ; a deficiency of population in 
Lbs country 10 be colonised ; or, if the 
poptdation is numerous, a debasement 
of character in that popnlation, subjecl- 
ing tbem either to enslavement or ex- 
jmlsion, with a willingness on tho part 
of the conquering colonisls lo proceed 
to either of these exiremiiies. Now in 
thoae Asiatic oonotries that have been 
lo a greater or leas extent brought un- 
der t£e influence of Europe, the climate 



is not friendlj to the conatitutioiM or 
congenial lo the habits of the natives 
of northern Europe, who have chiefij 
exerted that influence ; those countriea, 
probably the earliest settled on the face 
of the globe, are numerously peopled ; 
and it ia not consistent with the interest 
of the dominant powers or with the 
humanity of Ihe age, either peraonally 
10 enslave the inhabitsnts or lo expM 
them from their native soil. Colonisa- 



t least, is o 



tic ooontnes, as yet at least, u 
the question. On the other hand, c 
merce, always an imporlani infloence, 
but confined within a narrow range, 
the settlement of America 



and the discoverv of the p; 
the ' 
. - '■<^"" 
imwer. It traverses the globe from 



passage to In- 
dia by the wav of the Capo of Good 
Hope, acquired a new and commanding 



east to west, snd from north to sontb. 
It embraces Ihe remotest islands ; it 
penetrates the interior of continents. 
It supplies the warns of all ; it draws 
forth the resources of nil. The snbeti- 
tution of commerce for colonisation as 
a means of influence might seem lo be 
sn advance in civilisation, snd to pro* 
raise pacific and salutary results ; for 
colonisation has usually been preceded 
or accompanied by violence and injus- 
tice towards the original inhabitants of 
the country colonised, while commerce 
in itself is simply an interchaneo of 
benefits, and directly tends to bind man 
to man and nation to nation in mutual 
and friendly dependence apon each 
other. But alas for the perverted in- 
^nuily of man, and the false position 
in which the institutions of aocietj 
have placed him, too powerfully (einpt< 
ing him to lurn good into evU! For 
what do we behold in the history of tile 
influence which Europe is now exert- 
ing over Asia' Wo seo commerce, bo 
beneficent in ils direct tendencies, made 
the base pander to a rampant last of 

Solitica! power and lortitorial aggran- 
izcment. Wc see the same men whose 
talk has been of barter and exchange, 
of bales of merchandize and chests of 
opium, directing the movemenls of 
armies and ihe invasions of empires, 
subverting dynasty af\et dynasty, and 
acquiring kingdom aflcr kingdom, nil- 
ing their subjects with a rod of iron, 
subjecting them lo a system of grinding 
taxation, and closing the whole by oBer- 
ing them Christianity as a solace for 
their woes, from the hands of a clergy 



lizcdbyGoOl^Ic 



18440 Iiffiiune* »/ Eunpean on Atia^ie CMUatioK. tff 

wid from the TSTenaea which are drawn mentaia India, Tnnqoebsruid Senn- 

man the poTcrtj of those whom thev pore. 

ure employed to coriTeTl. Wtut opi- Tha French have the settlementa of 

nion mutt Asiatics form of our com- PDDdichBi[7,M&he,«DdChanderiikgDre 

merce when it is followed, and of oar id India, and the Isle of Bourbon is 

lel^ios when it ia* preceded, hj coa- the Indian Ocean. 

qnett and miagoveirnmeni 1 Tbo English dirsetlj mle, or indi- 

4. We are now prepared to take an- rectlv coatiol, the whole of India; and 

other Htep in advance, and to endeavor besides [toasess the Mauritiua, Cej]on, 

"to acquire a comctview of the existing aod various provinces, islands, and 

political system of Asia, resaUing from aettlements to the East of Bangslf 

the combined influence of European whieh it is nnnecessar^ to eaumerus. 

commerce, conqnest, and religion ; an Russia, which it, stnctly, an Aaiatie 

influence which has more or Teas ope- as well as an European pinvtr, extend* 

rated during a period of nearly 350 her authority over a vast extent of 

veats, and ibe effects of whiob, there- country, oonslituting tbe whole of 

lore, cannot fail to be distinctly marked. Northern Asia, 

The political aysiem of Asia may be She is the only proper Asiatic powsi 

conveniently redded from two differ- that ia Christian, and the remaining 

-CDt points of view : first, by classing Asiatic powers, strictly so called, may 

the different powers according to their be subdivided into two great classes; 

origin, as Eunq«an or Asiatio; and those which profess the Muharomadao, 

aecondty, according to their relative and those which profess tbe Baddbist 

importance, aa first, second, or third religion. The prmcipal Mubammadan 

xate powers ; in the same manner aa governments are Tnikej, Persia, Khi- 

the different independent governments va, Bokhara, and Cabul, together with 

of Europe and Anmica are classed in various smaller aUtes in Central Asia ; 

tba political systems of those eonti- and the government of the Imain of 

jients. Muscat, on the coast of Arabia. Tha 

The Poitngueae were the first of the Buddhist oovernments are thoae of 

European powerawhomade settlements China, with its dependencies, Thibtrt, 

in Asia, but their Itifluence is now re- Ccrea, and Bhoolan, Japan, Cochin 

dnced to a nullity. Their possessions Cbina^ Siam, and Bormah. 

are inaigniGcant ; suchaaGaa, Damaun Such is a bare enumeration of ths 

and Din in India, and Macao in China; various European and Asiatic powera 

but they have left a deep impression of existing in Asia, or eiercising an influ- 

tbemselvesin the mixed race descended en ee over it, omitting a!) refersoce to 

from them called Portuguese, and tbe nomadic Turcoman tribes of Cen- 

epread all over the East ; and in the ttal Asia, and of the desert bordering 

corrupt dialect aUo called Portuguese, on the eastern shores of the Caspian 

and spoken by that class. Sea ; to tbe Bedoweeo, or independant 

The Spaniards possess the Philip- tribes of Arabia ; to the petty Malajr 

pine Isles, but their power does not ex- states, some of them piratical, on the 

tend within that archipelago beyond the peninsula of Malacca ; and to the sar- 

imraediate reach of their armies, and age and half civilised tribes in the in* 

the influence of their religion. They terior of moat of the islands of the In- 

are in perpetual hostilities with several dian archipelago, 

of the native tribes. This enumeration, dry and maa^r 

The Dutch possess the island of Java, in itself, may reader mors clearly u- 
and the Molucca, or Spice Islands, lelligible tba eatimate now to be mad* 
They have settlements on the coast of of the relative political importance of 
Sumatra, and are engaged in fiei]nent the different states or govsmmenta es- 
offensive and defensive wars with the ercising authority in Asia. 
tribee of the interior. They claim the In this estimate we may dismiss all 
whole of Borneo, although they have reference to the Portuguese and DaoMf 
only a few nnimportant settlements on whose territorial possessions are insig- 
the coast. The Dutch and PortugDeaa niflcant, and whose political influenca 
claimbctweentbemtheislandof TuDor, ianulli as well as to the varioos Tur- 
in the Indian archipelago, coman, Arab, Malayan, and savagv 

The Daties have two small settle- tribes jnal manliooea, who hare not 



=1 Google 



It^fivtnee »f European en Atiatic CimlUalion. 



[j"i,. 



w yet been broUBlit under tbe influence 
eTen ot Aaiatic civiliauion, in its most 
impeifect forma. 

Holtaad, France, and Spain, may be 
described as belonging to the diss of 
thiid-rale powers, frani their insular 
poewaions ; as well as Bonnah, Siam, 
and Cochin-Cbina, the chief Indo' 
Chinese nations, (reqnently' engaged in 
mtiltial hostilities, but taking no part in 
the general politics of Asia. A higher 
place might be civen to Hdland, if she 
really possessea what ahe claims, — tbe 
three largest islands in tbe world (with 
the exception of New Holland, which 
la B continent rather than an island), — 
viz : Java, Sumatra, and Borneo, al- 
thoQgh in fact she can be said to pos- 
MsB only Java ; in itself, however, an 
inTaluabfe acquisition, and pre-eminent- 
ly rich in natural resources. Hallanil, 
however, as well as France and Spain, 
holds her Eastern possessions by a bind 
of sufferance ; for England could with 
ease make herself master of tbem all 
within three months afler the declara* 
tioD of hostilities. 

In the class of aeeond-rate powers 
may be marked Turkey, whose impor- 
tance ia derived in part from her con- 
nection with Earopean politics, and in 
part from the fact that she is the chief 
representaliTe of orthodox Muhamma- 
danism in the eyes of all the Muhamma- 
dan states, chiefs, and people found 
throughout Asia. Ferala is the next 
power in the same class, not becaase 
of her resources and strength, which 
are few and small, but because she 
offers a templing prey to Russia, and 
a barrier against her advance to the 
sonih and *east, and also because, as 
Turkey is the representatiTe of the 
Soon nee, or orthodox doctrine, so 
Persia is the representative of the 
Sheea, or so-called heterodox feith, 
amongst the Muhammadans of Asiatic 
coontries. Khiva, Bokhara, and Ca- 
bal, belong to the same class, deriving 
their importance from (heir relative 
position between Russia and India ; to 
which may be added Japan, forming, as 
Thibet does to the west of China, an 
outpost to the east of that empire, of 
congenial policy, although, unlike Thi- 
bet, enjoying perfect national indepen- 

The oniy^ remaining powers are 
China, Russia snd England, who alone 
ate entitled to be nuked among the 
Gnt-iMe political powers of Asia. 



Heir relations to each other, and the 
influence which they respectively exerl 
on the condition and destinies of the 
whole continent, are questions of deep 
and complicated interest. 

China, \vhieh flrtt demands attention, 
is a power of the first order from the 
extent and compactaeasof her territory, 
the amount of her population, the cen- 
tralisation and apparent immobility of 
her government, and the prtilige at- 
tached to her name by the antiquity 
and alleged superiority of her civilisa- 
tion. There are, however, various coa- 
siderations which tend to show that her 
preienaions and repute are overrated. 
She is governed by a foreign dynasty 
of conquerors, who, while ihey appear 
to have prudently identified themselves 
with the religion and inslitnlious of the 
country, yet evince their jealousy of 
the conquered race by retaining the 
military authority in their own hands. 
It is known also that there are widely 
ramified secret associations among the 
native Chinese, aiming at the ovetlBrow 
of the existing government, and keenly 
watched by their Tartar conquerors. 
It is further notorious that dangerous 
and threatening insurrections have 
within a comparatively recent period 
taken place both among the Muhsmroa- 
dan tribes in Tartary, and among the 
tribes of mountaineers in the very hcsrt 
of ihe empire. The restriction of the 
foreign trade to the port of Canton was 
contrary to the original policy of the 
empire, was dictated by the fesr of the 
encroachments of European powers, 
and was a palpable confession of con- 
scious weakness— a weakness which ia 
rendered more apparent by the remnval 
of the restriction at the close of a war, 
by means of which Englsnd was ena- 
bled to dictate her own terms, and 
in which China, with all the will to 
injure her opponent, exhibited a total 
ignorance of the art of war, and an 
incapacity to wield with effect 



hero' 



Her r 



lauons with England are at present 
friendly, but the late war, at once on- 
provoked in its cause, unjust in its 
objects, and sanguinary in its conse- 
quences, must have left a hostile feeling 
rankling in Ihe minds both of the people 
and of the government, which will here- 
aflet find expression ; and what expe- 
rience suggests as probeble the best 
accocnie make certain. With Russia 
China ia and has uointertuptedlj been 

Digitized byGoOl^le 



1344.] li^uenct »f European on Aiiatic CwUitatum. W 

on still Riore friendlj tenns, hmag betwaaa the Black and CMpitn HU, 

«IloweiI bar uiDUally to send a certain &nd she conid at any time ovenma anj 

oumbsr of Roasiaa jonths to Fekin Tot take poueision of all the renuining 

• Ctiiaese edacation, at a time when provinces in Asia, of both tbose conu- 

tfae eea-board was almost bermctjcally tries. From iha peculiar difficalties of 

aealed against otber oalioDs. Russia the coactry and tbe daring spirit of the 

■a her natural nlly against England, people, she has been fui years engaged 

whose career in India is well known to in an unavailing attempt to brins Cic- 

ber, and whose further adrances she cassia under hci complete control; bnt 

jnslly fears ; but it is probable that her oltimate success can scarcely be 

shut ap in her own self-aaSciency she deemed doubtful. It was the intrigues 

does not appreoitte the importance of of a Russian agent with tbe chieH of 

establishing positive internaliooal rela- Candahar and Cabul, professing to act 

tione with Russia witb a view to ber under tbe authority of the Russian am- 

futnre safety, and that therefore in sae~ bassador in Persia, and of the Russiaa 

oessive struggles she will fall an easy minister at St. Petersburgh, and tbe 

prey to her reslless and aspiring neigh- apparent readiness of those chiefs to 

bor. ^he partakes pre-eminently of listen to his proposals, that constituted 

the Asiatic character, and is in fact its the primary motives to the invasion of 

highest and most perfect development. Affghaoistan by the British in )83B-3Q. 

Her- policy is isolated; her position No sooner was this expedition uadeC' 

■tuionary ; her government a despot- taken, than Russia sent an army to 

ism ; her people panpets. Without Khiva, professedly to liberate Russian 

freedom oi a knowledge of freedom ; slaves, but in reality to cooDteract the 

without progress or the idea of pro- ambitions views of Kngland, and to 

greas ; without sympathy or the desire restore ths supposed balance of power 

of sympathy with or from others, she in Central Asia. It is known that pn- 

eziles herself from the eomtnanity of sons have been deputed by the Rossian 

nations, and escept by the mere passive goverament to survey the Hteral 

endurance of sunering- and passive re- routes to India, and to report on tbe 

sistance to attack, she will not end topography and resources of the loter- 

oannot join in the movements that are mediate countries ; and it is alleged 

changing and must still farther change that on the occasion of a di^domatic 

the wnole form and structare of Asiatic difficulty between tbe two courts, it 

society. was suggested in the official gaietta 

Russia and England alone remain ; of St. Petersburgh, that it might pro* 

gcivemmenta with whose general cha- bably require to be adjusted at Calcntta. 

raolei we are well acquainted, bat Whatever truth or falsehood there may 

whose relative position, policy, and be in this statement, we da not believe 

influence, in Asia, are not ed fully an- that Russia has, or ever had, a settled 

derstood. design to invade British India, althougb 

Tbe designs of Rassia in tbe East the English sometimes allow them- 

are much less known than those of selves to be troubled with such an sp> 

England, from the different nature of prehenaion. ladependenlly of the dif- 

the governments of the two coantiies ; ficnlties of the route, and the formida- 

but they may be inferred from her ble opposition she would encounter on 

history, her position, and her acts. She the banks of the Indus, she oannot 

has an extensive territory in Northern spare her armies from Europe for sncli 

Asia, but it is sterile and sparsely peo- a purpose. She will attempt nothing 

p]ed,and is employed either as a vast of the kind by asnddaneffortonalarge 

prison-honse fur state criminals, or as scale ; but what she will accomplish 

the abode of wandering and uncivilized will be by steady and progressive steps, 

hordes of human beings. As in Bu- not ths less snre because they will be 

Xit has been and is her notorious slow. In the meantime, she pushes 

:y to extend her power and inSu- het oommerce at every point ; and tbe 

encB to the South, so it is in Asia testimony of British travellers shows 

also; and the means she has employed that Russian products and mann&o- 

bave been chiefly those formerly indt- tures are found in abundance at all the 

eated — commerce, arms, and religion, great marls of Central Asia, As ft 

She has wrested from Turkey and government, Russia poanesses the paa- 

Persia soom of their £uiest provinces sive iaunobjlity of an Asiatic power tot 



Google 



laflutnce tfE m n p tmn on Atiatie Cwiluati^. 



P">T, 



pnrpowi of renttanee, and f»t par- 
poaes of oflencB and progrets she hu 
tbe energy and enligbieameBt of an 
BJvTopesn ponei. She is directing faer 
ConrH from the north to the south ni 
Asia, as well la in Guiope, aa sure u 
that the coarse of the son is from oast 
to west. Thii is a moral necessity, 
arising fTam her histoTir and position as 
a nation, SDd the iaflaencs she wiU ex- 
ercise mnsl partake of the mixed chs- 
lactei th&t belongs to her ciTilisalion, 

Kngland next claims attention, and, 
of all the political powers in Asia, she 
has exerted, and will continue to exert, 
tbe widest and most commanding influ- 
ence over the condition and character 
of that coDtineot. She is a power of 
the first magnitude in the poliiioal sys- 
tems both of Europe and America ; 
and in the political system of Asia the 
nme higli rank must be asfligoed to 
her, whether we consider the extent of 
her territorial possessions, the number 
of her Asiatic subjecis, the physical 
tveoDrces of the connlries she thus 
rales and controls, or the efficient sys- 
tem of government which she hss or- 
ganiied both for the pnrpose of detel- 
oping those resenrees, for coercing 
efteaence to her will, and, whenever 
her policy may dictate, extending the 
kMKindaries of har authority and empire. 
Three hundred years ago she first ap- 
peared in the Iiidian seas as an hntnMe 
trader, and presented petitions to the 
head of the Moghul empire for permis- 
sion to traffic within his dominions. 
She is now the paramonnt power in 
India, having a standing snoj of at 
least 150,000 troops, native and Bu- 
ropea n,protectingalsnd frontier of3,SS6 
British miles, and covering 1,111,163 
■qnare miles within that frontier, with 
a population of 123,000,000 of souls. 
Tfafs estimate, made in 1637, in an 
official report addressed la the Indian 
government, does not include the recent 
•cqniftition of Sinde on the western 
frontier of India. Not content with 
die whole continent of India, she has 
■t SDceessive periods, nnder real or 
alleged provocation, engaged in war 
botli with Nepal and Bormah, and hss 
ODTtailed them of extensive and valua- 
Me territories is the price of peace. 
Lahore on the northern frontier, which 
inclnden the fine coimtry of the Punjab, 
die province of Uonltan, and the betn- 
tiftil vdley of Caahmete, is in a state 
of civil war, which, aa the general 



eoBservatoT of the peace in India and 
on its bordera, she will consider herself 
(Miged to settle by taking possession 
of the conntiy. In attemptingto gsBrd 
against the intrigues of Raseia and 
Persia, she has lately sought to control 
the politics of Central Asia, by rrj^ao' 
ing on the throne of Cabul the repte- 
senlative of an old and repudiated dy- 
nasty. She has signally faded, and 
has created sEainst JMrseff a feeling of 
hostility in those countries, which are 
thus prepared to throw themselves into 
the arms of Russia against England, 
whenever the fit time shall como~-thns 
inereasing a thousand -fold the danger 
she songtit to avert. The subsequent 
acquisition of Sinde, however, inclnd- 
ing the command of the banks of the 
Indus, hsa greatly strengthened her 
western frontier, and will afford an 
invaluable inlet for her c 



India, and between India and Persia. 
The extension of ber commerce ip«s 
the real object of the late war with 
China, which has opened five ports of 
that great empire to the commerce oC 
the world, and brought her throrrginf; 
millioDS within the range, for good or 
for ill, of the fall tide of European in- 
fluences. 

There is another source of infloeaee 
over the Eastern world, which Kng- 
land possesses, not fully developed, 
and as yet probably almost wbol); un- 
appreciated. England is sowing the 
seeds of future empires on the Aoslr*- 
tian continent, in Van Dieman's Land, 
and in the island of New Zealand, by 
means of colonies, in some of which 
the nascent and vigorous spirit of free- 
dom is already demanding a representa- 
tive form of government. Hobart 
Town and Sidney are within three 
weeks' sail of Canton, and by steam 
probably less than a fortnight. Fiftj 
or a hundred years hence, when these 
settlements shall be full grown colonies, 
or younp and independent governments, 
they will not only spread over the whole 
of Australia, and extend their civilisa- 
tion to the numerous oceanic isles, be- 
tween the American and AsiBlie con- 
tinent, but by the inevitable force of 
circumstances, wilt carry their com- 
merce, if not their arms, into China, 
Corea,andthe islesof Japan. Webavft 
spoken of the f tret of circvmtlancta ; 
and England, to do her jnstiee, does 
not seek the nere aequiatlioa of teni- 



1U4.] ■ If^venei ef Buropeaa im Aiiatic Cieiiitatioa, 71 

tory, of whicli she bu eooagb, &□<! « purpose — a. wise and beaeficent ptu- 
more Ib&n enough. It is the eitensioa pose — and to tnce it fiom tU first feebl« 
of her commeroe, in which every sue- glimmerings, to its preseat deuDBsa 
cessiTO jear she finds more acliTe utd distiDctness, snd in prospect, to iu 
eompetitora ; it is the coIoeiMtion of future full and glorious deTelopment. 
her growiug popuUlion, ever; year This purpose we hold to be the pereep- 
roore numerous and leas mauageabte ; tiou and establishmeat of ibe meiil 
it is the supply of old markets snd the nnitj of universal humanity, the moral 
creation of new ones, at which she uuityof all the familiesoftherace with 
Aims. It is for these purposes that she eaoh other in the bosom of their corn- 
founds, Had cherishes, and extends her men God and Father. There is indeed 
colonies, and it was for these purposes an apparent wide discrepance between 
that in India she first eBtablishod facto- the means and the end ; but there is in 
ries, then buitt forts, then aeauired pro- faet no greater discrepance than be- 
vbces, and finally subdued empires, twecn the evil which we see and feel 
nnlit ber statesmen, groaning under the around us, and the good which we also 
toad of power and responsibility, faavo see and feel arises from it, as a part of 
resolved and re-resolved that an end the moral tnining which we receive, 
most be put to terriiotial aoqnisition in It behoves ns to distingaish between 
Ute East. Bat all in vain. White the purposes of individual agents and 
these Hsolutions are framing in En^- the aggregate resolta of their acts, 
land, a eon^ngenoy has arisen in India ColninmiB and Vasca de Gama, bv theii 
which oompcds the aniltoritiee Iheie to diecoveries, contribeted to bring Ameri- 
engaoe inanewwar, fbrthepnrpoMfit e& tbe youngest daughter of hnmanity, 
nay M, of punishing a refractory chief, and Asia its eldest proKeoitoi, into uai* 
01 <tf keeping the general peace, or of t; with the other divistans of the race, 
avenging an unprovided msult, or of bnt the moral conception and purpose 
protecting an eiposed frontier, and the which we have indicated probably never 
result BlSl is more territory. Uer entered into their minds. Each has 
mission, as well as ^al of Russia, ap- achieved an imperishable memory Cat 
parently is to advance—to awaken die himself in faithfully performing the du- 
natioDS of the east from the slumbers lies which he owed, the one to the 
of ages, — to spread their comnurce, crown of Spain, the other to the crown 
their arms, their religion, their civilisa- of PorUgal ; but neither looked beyond 
tioo over the whole of Asia. In the these results. They did not centeat- 
prosecution of these objects, these two plate the political, the social, moch lesa 
powers will infallibly, sooner or later, the moral unity of the whole race, as 
come into collision ; and the result it is the certain, the probable, or even the 
of course impossible to predict. They desirable noosequcoce of their high ge- 
may rebound from each other like two nios and enterprise. Even now into 
air-balls without permanent mutual how many minds does Ibis conception 
injury ; or like images of clay or enter, altbough it is the conception 
potter's vessels they may dash each which above ^1 others shines forth and 
other to pieces ) but the result will be is embodied in the religion we profess, 
the same to the cause of hnmanity. The sod which sheds a peculiar lustrft 
barriers will have been effectually around the name and doctrine of lbs 
thrown down between Asiatic and Eu- peasant of Galilee, above all the philoao- 
ropean civilisation ; a new spirit will phers of all other eges and countries, 
have bean infused into Asiatic society ; Sitting at His feet and imbibing the 
precious seed will have been widely spirit of His meek and all-compreben- 
SOwn,wbichwiligerminaleandpTodoce sive benevolence, we can form some 
some thirty, sooke fifty, and some a ban- conception of this central truth of 
dred fold in a renovated people, venevat- Christianity and of the science of bn- 
•d goremmeots and renovated institu- man natare ; bnt how far is that tralh 
tions. from being yet practically lealixed! 
It is consoling to the human mind, Africa, — injured,Dppresaed, insulted Af- 
amid the waning passions of man, the rica, — has not yet been brought within 
fierce conflicts of opposing civilisations, the pale of a commoa humaoily. Calo- 
aod the crime and misery which they nisation, commerce, conquest, and reli- 
^oduce, to discover in these mystc- giou have indeed conduced to akind of 
nous operattons of Divine ProviclBQoe political nnity between Europe, AaUg -. 

Coog c 



EUtaitth Bamll. 



[Mr. 



W -A 



tnd America, for no iinparunl political 
erent cao take piece id one withjpt be- 
ing felt and reaponded to hy eUSusand 
eliorde in the othere. Bien >e & eys- 
tem of political \ia\ly,jpfvnret, bow 
imperfect and bToken.VnKr repngnint 
and Jarring, it ie, we Wjunow. nat tbe 
natoral coasequetoe of political unity ie 
aocial unity, of Irhich, in ite true and 
coinprehenule e^nae, we are just be- 
ginning to tofm the conception, while, 
of thepiBctical means foi its attainment, 
wo arc yet profoundly ignotanl. So- 
cial unity, again, is the indispensable 
precursor of a tree and all-embracing 
moral nnity among the direraiGed laoii- 
lies, tribes and nations of manlcind, 
which is consequently atill farther re- 
moved from ua in the &r vista of fature 



ages. TheM is thna a loDg and nobl« 
career for miD yet to ran on the &ce 
of this globe, high and exalted aims 

iilaced before him. Those who nmy 
Dok upon all Uiis as visionary and Uto- 
pian, we will only refer to the history of 
events both in America and in Asia, 
during the last three centnries and a 
half; events which have bionght both 
continents, prevloosly ignorant of each 
other's existence, into the closest and 
moat intimate relations with each other 
and with Europe ; which have given an 
unquestioned ascendency to EuTopean 
civilisation in both ; and which have 
thus paved the way for thai social and 
moral nnity which is one of the bighesi 
aspirations of the human soul, and the 
true end and destiny of man on earth. 



ELIZABETH BARRETT 



1b for the first lime made popnlarly 
known, on this side of the Atlantic, by 
the account given of her in Home's 
late goBsippiog book, the " New SfMrit 
of the Age." We are glad to be able 
toannounoe that before long the Ameri- 
can public will be favored with the 
opportunity of knowing her still better, 
through some of her own most exquisite 
utterances of the divino soul of poetry 
that glows within her, generated of the 
sweetest union of womanly tenderness 
of heart and masculine lofiineas and 
power of ioiellect. A couple of vol- 
umes of her poems (most of them now 
for the first time given to the world) are 
mt the present moment passing through 
the press of Moxon, in London, under 
the title of " A Drama of Life, and other 
poems ;" and will be republished here 
by Langley on the reception of the re- 
mahideT of'^the sheets, — a part of which, 
containing theprincipat poem of the col- 
lection, we have been &vored with per- 
mission to peruHH ; with the farther 
privilege of inserting it, some time in 
advance of the pnblication on either side 
of the ocean, in this Review. One of 
the most beantiful poems which our day 
has produced (an excellent judge has 
declared it the finest that has appeared 
sinoe " Manfred"), we are glad to grace 



these pages with it ; only regretting 
that the present Number affords room 
for bet half of it, compelling ns to re* 
serve the remainder, which is perhaps 
the superior half, for oar next. 

It wilt not be inappropriate, nor un- 
welcome to the reader, to complete theae 
introductory remarks by quoting from 
Mr. Home the following personal ac- 
count of this fair poetess and wondroos 
woman. Speaking of Mrs. Norton in 
connection with Miss Barrett, he say* : 

" The former lady is well known, person- 
alty, to a Isr^e and admiring circle, and is 
also exleosively known to the reading pub- 
lic by her works. The latter lady, or 
'Aunhade' — whichever she may be^ — is 
not known personally, to anybody, we 
had almost said; bet her poetry is known to 
a highly intelleelual cla>s,and she 'lives* 
in constant correspondenoe with many of 
the most eminent peraoni of the tUae. 
When, however, we consider the many 
strange and ingenious conjectures that 
are made in aner years, coDceroing au- 
thors who appeared but little among their 
caDtemporsriet, or of whose biography 
little is sctnally known, we should not be 
in tbe least inrprised, could we MCI up our 
ear out of our grave a century hence, to 
hear some learned Tfael»n8 expressing 
shrewd ^mbU as to whether such an in- 



lizcdbyGoOl^Ic 



19U.] Eliatheti BarrtU. 1* 

dtridail m Min E. B. Burett had erer from Genni* Id Haltcbi (am i^tttA ber 

nallrnuted, Letteia «nd uotea, and «i- course to be (topped br the Chsldean), 

qvlsite Eagllsh Irrica, aad perhipt a few jet tbere is probablj not ■ nngle good r^ 

deifani Latia Terse*, and ipirited traula- mance, c^ Ihe molt romantic Itiod, in 

thms from Sat^laf, might alt be dis- vboae tnarvelloDa and imposaible teenes 

eaT««d under tbat name ; bat thia wonid sbe hat not delighted, over tbe rortunci of 

not prove that such a ladf had erer dwell whose immaculate or incredible heroes 

■mongni. CerlaJn admirable and eradiie and heroines she hs.< not wept; not a 

pTOM articles on Ihe 'Greek Christian eleTer novel or fancirul sketch of onr own 

Poeta,' mif hi liketrise be ascertained bj day, over the brij^blest pages of which she 

A« eihnmation ot snndrr private letters has not smiled inwardly, or langbed out- 

■ad doeumeots, touching periodical lilera- right, jnsl as their anlhon themaeliea 

tore, to hare been from (he hand of that would have desired The 

•ana ' Valerian ;' bat neither the poetry, promineut ebaracteriatiei of these two 

nor (be prose, nor the delightfolly gossip- poetesses may be designated as the ftmg- 

ping notes to Ihir friends, nor the frank gles of woman towards happloess, and the 

correfpondence with scholars, sneh as straggles of a sonl towards heaven. The 

Lady Jane Grey might have written (a one is oppressed with a sense of iojastice, 

Soger Aachoai — no, not even if (he great- aad feeh the need of human love ; the 

gtaadson of some learned Jewish doctor oUier is troabledwithasenieorfflortalily, 

oonld show a note in Hebrew (quite a and aspires to identify herself with ethe- 

likely thing really to be extant) with the real eiisteoces. The one has a certain 

same (ignalnre, darkly translated by fhor liage of morbid despondency taking (he 

letten, — oey, though he ^onld diq>lay aa tone of complaint and the ampliUcatioB of 

a relic treasured in his family, the very prirate griefs j the other too oflea dis- 

pan, with ita oUiqne Hebraic nib, that plays an energetic moibidity on the nV 

wrote it— not any one, nor all of those ject ofdestb, together with a cerlaia pre- 

things conld be snffieient to demonstrate dilection for 'terrort.' The imagiaatiott 

the fket, tbat such a lady had really adorn- of Mrs. Norton is chiefly oecn pied with 

«d the present century domestic feelings and images, and breathes 

Confined entirely to her own apartment, melodions plaints or indignations over (he 

•nd almost hermetically sealed, in con- desecrations of her tei's loveliness ; that 

■eqnence of an extremely delicate state of Miss Barrett often wanders amiiltt th« 

of keahb, the poetess of whom we write tupernatnral darkness of Calvary, some- 

ii scarcely seen by any but her own fami- times with augnish and tsars <rf' Uood, 

ly. But thowrh thus separated fhim the sometimes like one who echoes the songi 

world— and often, daring many weeks at of triumphal choirs. Both possess not 

> tine, in darkness almoot equal to that of only great mental enei^es, bat that de< 

Bight, Miss Barrett has yet found means, scription of strength which sinin^ fran 

faf extiaordiaary inherent energies, to de- a fine nature, and manifests itself in pn>> 

Telope heriawsrd nature; togiveventto duc(iDns which evidenUy originated in 

the Bool in a anocesafbl straggle with its genuine impulses of feeling. The snb- 

dcatiny while on earth; and to attain and jecta they both choose appear spontane- 

maiter more knowledge and accomplish- ous, and not resulting from study or imi- 

ments than are usually within (he power tation, though cast into carefUl moulds of 

of those of either sex who possess every art. Both are exeelleot ardata; (he one 

adventitious opportanity, as irell as health in dealing with subjects of domestic inte- 

OBd indaslry. Six or seven years of (hi* rest ; (he other in designs from sxnd 

imprisonment she has now endured, not sobjects, pnems of religions tendency, or 

wi^i Tain repinings, though deeply eon- of the sapematura] world. Mr*. Norton 

seious ri (he loss of eiternal nature's is beau(ifally dear aad intelligible in her 

beauty; but with resigaalion, with p«- narrmtive and course of thought and feel- 

tieoee, with cheerfolneas, and generous iug; Miss Barrett ha* great iaventive- 

■ympalhies towards the world wittaoat ; — nesa, but not an eqoal power in eowtme' 

with indefatigable ' work' by thought, by tion. The one is all womanhood ; (ha 

book, by the pen, and with deront faith, other all wings. The one writes from the 

aad adoration, anl a bigh and hopeful dictates of a human heart in all the elo- 

wailiog for the time when this nwital quenee of beanty and individuality ; the 

frame ■ putteth on immortality.' . . , other like an inspired priestess — notwith- 

Probably no living iadividnal has a more out a most truthful heart, bnt a heart that 

extensive and diffuse acquaintance with isdevotedto religion, and whoM individth- 

literatare— that of the present day inclu- ality is cast upward in the divine afflatus, 

aiirc— than Miss Barrett. Althoughahe anddissolved andearrted offiathe recipi- 

ha* read Plato, in the original, IVom be- out breath of angelic uiolitrants." 
ginaiag to end, sad the Hebrew Biblo 

.) giti: 



i^vCtOO^JC 



A Drmm of EriU. 
A DRAMA OF EXILE. 



[Jdy, 




KimE.—Tlu •attr 
ftMt leilk cindt. frtm lilt *rflitj 
tXt award of fire ttlf-mored. Ji 



Mm in 0,1 diHarut, fyi*t 1*»r l** #<■" 



Luetfer, Ibu1,Gabrid, the keeper of 

the gate J 
Now that ^e fruit it plucked, prince Oa- 

brjel, 
I hoU that Edea ii impragBahle 
TTnder thf keeping. 

QiibTia. Angel of the Bin, 

Saeh M thOQ (tandeit — pale in lh« drear 

light 
Which ronnds the Kbel'a woA with 

Maker's wratb, — 
Thou (halt be an Idea to all Moli ,— 
A monumental melancholy gloom 
Seen down all agei; whence to mark de- 

(pair. 
And meaiure ont the dislaneet from good 1 
Go Trom os ■traightwftj. 
Liu^tT. Wherefore J 

Grtftrut. Lncifer, 

Thjr laM ttep in tbit place, trod M>n«w np. 
Iteeoil before that sorrow, if not thii 

ZMCifir. Angels are in the world — 
wherefore not 1 7 
Eliiles are ia the world — wherefore not I ? 
The ctmed arc in the world — wh^efore 

GafrnsJ. Depart. 

iMei/tT. And Where's the logic 

of "depart 7" 
Our lady Etc bad half been latl&fied 
To ober her Maker, if I bad not leaml 
To fix my poitnlate betler. Dott thoa 



To the length ofth; wiflE*. 

GaMtl. I do not dream. 

ThJaitBot Heatea,eteaiaadn»m; nor 
eanh. 



Aa earth wai once, — first hicalhed «~Ttj 

the slam,— 
Artieolate glar; from the month dirlae, — 
To which the myriad sphere* thrilled •«- 

diUr, 
Toachrd like a Inle-striag, — and the ku 

of God 
Said AKEN, tinjjing it, I know that this 
Is earth, not new created, but new 

This, Eden's gate, not opened, but built op 
With a final cloud of snnM. Do I 

Alas, not so I this ii the Eden kMt 

By Locifet the serpent I this the swotd 

(,Thi* (Word, aliTe with justice and witb 

firel) 
That smote nptm the forehead, Lncifer 
The an«el ! Wherefore, angel, go . . . 

Eooagh is sinned and iufferad. 

LmciftT. By no mean*. 

Here's a brave earth to sia and snffer on I 
It holds fast still — it cracks not unds 

It hoM*, like mine irnmortal. Pretenllr 
We^ sow it thick enotagh with gnres u 

green 
Or greener, cntes, Aan it* kncnrledge- 

We'll haTe the cypres* for the tree of life. 
More emioeat for shadow — for the reff 
We'll build il dark with towns and pjra- 

And temples, if it pleue yon : — we^l 

bare feasts 
And faaerala alao, merrymake* and wan, 
TUl bkrad and wine shall mix and mn 

Right o'er the edgn. And good Gabriel, 
(Ye like that word in Heaven \) I ton 

have strength — 
Strength to behold Him, and not wortUp 

Himg 
Strength to fall Irom Him, and not ay oa 

Him; 
Strength to be in the naiveiae, and yet 
Neither God nor his wrvant. The red tifn 
Burnt on my forehead, which yon taoot 

me witb. 
Is God's gign that it bows not onto God ; 
The potter's mark npoo hi* woric, lo diow 
It rings well to the striker. 1 and the 

earth 
Can bear more enrse. 
Gabritl. miserable eaith, 

rtiiaed angel 1 

L»d/tT. WeU I and if it be, 

1 cHora this ruin i I elected it 

or my will, not of serriee. What I do, 
I do volitient, not obediont, 



) giti: 



I =y Google 



1M4.I A Drama of Erik. 75- 

And •TCttop tkj erowB with kj deapair. So mnch as tfae fini shell oT,— lowud tbe 

Hr tatrow erowns me. Get Uee buk to IhroDe ; 

Hesves ; Wheo I fell b«ek, down, — staring np U I 

And Inve me to tlte ewtb, which ii miae fell, — 

own The l^htoiD^ holdliig open my wtthed 

In tirtne of her miierr, u I hen, lidi, 

In virtoe of my mini tnm from both, And that thonght oflbe inSDits of God, 
Hut bright, impaMive, puiive ugel- Drwwn from the finite, ipeediag my de- 
hood ; Kent ; 
Andipnre to read na backward anymore When conntlett angel-fhcM, iliU tad 
Of your spent hallelnjahs. ilem, 

Gobritl. Spirit of atom! Pretied out tipon me from the IctcI 

I might say, of nnreoion \ I might ray, heaven*. 

That who drnpaira, acts ; that who acta, Adown the abyimal ipaeet g and I fell, 

connives Trampled down by yonr stilincse, and 

With God> relation! set in time and itmek blind 

space i By the light in yonr eyea g — 'twas then I 

That wbo elects, assumes a somnhiog knew 

good How ye eould pity, my Iciiid angelhood I 

VUch Qod made possible; that who OiiritL Yet, lb on discrowned one, by 

lives, obeys the truth in me 

Tbelaw<rf'a Life-maker . . . Which God keep* in me, I would give 

Imeyitr. Let it pass t away 

No more, than Gabriel t What if I stand All,— save that trath, and His love over 

np it,— 

And strike my hrow against the eryslal- To lead thee home again inlo the light, 

line AtHl hear thy voice chant with the morn- 
Roofing the enalnrea, — sbaU I sa; for ing stars j 

that, When their rays tremble round them with 

Hy slataie is too high for me to stand, — mnch song. 

Henceforward I must sit 1 Sit thoa. 8nng in more gladness t 

Oabrid. I kneel. XMC^/ir. Sing, my morning 

Xa«t/n-. A beavenly nnswer. Get thee star 1 

to thy Heaven, Last beantifnl — last heavenly — (hat I 

And leave my earth to me. loved t 

Oabritl. Through Hea- If I eoald drench thy golden locks with 

ven and earth tears, 

God's will moves freely ; and I fdlew It, What were it to this angel 1 

As color followi light. Heoverflows GoMd. What Love is t 

The flrmaraenla] walls with deity. And now I have named Ood. 

Ther«fere with hive i His lightnbgs go iMeiftr. Tet, Gahriel, 

abroad. By the lie in me which I keep myself, 

Thon'rt • Iklse swearer. Were it olher- 

tMciflr. ' ~ Yerily, What dost thoa here, voacbsnfii^ tender 

I and my demons — who are spirits of thoughts 

•com — To that eartlMmgd or earth-demon — 

Ififht hold this charge of standing with a which, 

awotd Then and I have not solved his proUem 

Twiit man and his inheritance, as well yet 

Aslhebenlgoest angel of yon all. Enough to ai^c, — that ihllen Adam 

Gabrid. Thon speakesi in the shadow there,— 

of thy change. That Ted-day and a breath T who most, 

Kthon hadst gazed upon the face of God fotaoolb, 

This morning, lor a moment, thon badst Live in a new apoenlypse of sense, 

known With beaaty and music waving in his trees 

That only pity fitly can ebaslise. And running lo faisvivera, to make glad 

While hate avengelh. His soal made perfect g if it were not for 

iMoftr^ As it is, I know The hope within thee, deeper than thy 

Something of pity. When I reeled in tralh, 

Heaven, Of finally conducting him and his 

And my sword grew too heavy for my To fill the vacant thrones ofme and mine, 

wrist, Which aOhmt Heaven with their vaenily T 

Stabbing through matter, which it could Oabritl. Angel, there are no vacant 

jMt pierce thrones in Heaven 



iyGoOgilc 



76 



A Drama of EtAe. 



v-ij, 



! '■ 



To snit tb; bitter wotdi. Otorj and lif« 
Fnlfil their own dGpleliont : and if God 
aigbed f on far from Him, Hii next breath 

A compeatalire (plendor ap the >kie«, 
Ftnihing the starry arteries I 

Laci/er. With « chanire ! 

So, let Ibe Tscant tbroaes, and gai^ena loo. 
Fit! as may please jon I — and be pitifal. 
Am je tnoBlate that word, to the dethron'd 
And exiled, inan er aogel. The fact 

That I, the rebel, the caM out aad down, 
Am bere, and will not go; while there. 

The light to which re flash the desert oat, 
FUet joor adopted Adam I joar red elaj 
In lira kinds, both being flawed. Wbr> 

what is this f 
Whose work it this J WboK haitd was 

in the work T 
Agaiiut whose hand 7 la this last slrtfe, 

melhinks, 
J am not a fallen angel '. 

Oabritl. Dost than know 

Anght of thoaa eiilea T 

Luci/tT. Ar 1 I know they have fled 
Wordless all day along the wilderness : 
I know they weaj, for buiden on their 

The thonghl of a shnt gate of Paradise, 
And faces of the marshalled chembim 
Shining against, not for them I and I 

know 
Ther dare not look in one aBather** face. 
As if eaeh were a cherub I 

OabrM. Dost thou know 

Aoght of their fnlnre 1 

Latiftr. Only as mach as this : 

That CTJ] will increase and mnlliply 
WitboBt a benediction. 

Onbritl. Nothing more I 

iMciftT. Why so the angeU tannt I 
What should be more T 

Oairisl. God is more. 

laciftT. Proving what f 

Oabria. That He is God, 

And capable of saving. Lncirer, 
I«h*rge thee by the lolitade He kept 
Ere he created, — leave the earth to God I 

Lac^tr. My foot is on the earth, firm 

Gabritl. I charge thee by tbe memory 
of Hearen 
Ere any sin was done, — leave earth to 
GodI 
iMcifrr. My sin is on the earth, to 

reign thereon. 
Gabritl. I charge thee by Ihe choral 
song we tang. 
When DP against the white shore of onr 

feet, 
The depths of the creation swelled and 

And the new worlds, the beaded foam and 



Of all tbal coil, roared outward into space 

On thnnder.edges, leave the earth to God. 

iMctftr. My wo is on the earth, to 

cnrse thereby. 
GahUl. I charge thee by that mourn- 
ful morning star 
Which iremblelb.... 
Laeiftr. Hush 1 1 wiD not hear thee 

Of snch things. Enonghtpoken. Aa the 

lo norland forest, drops its weight ofsoows 
By a night's growth, so, growing toward 

my end*, 
I drop thy coanscl!. Farewell, Gabriel ! 
Wateh ont thy service ; I assert my wiU- 
And perad venture in the after yeara. 
When thonghifnl men bend slow their 

spacious brows 
Upon the storm and strife seen everywhere 
To mfflc tbeirunooth manhood, and break 

np 
WthluridlighlsofintennitleDt hope 
Their bumas fear and wrong, — they may 

The heart of ■ lost angel in the earth. 

csoBDS or KEuN ariBiTS. 

(CkatiMtfrrK Ftrad ui. uJu le ^iim md Eh A 
Hariren, oh barken t let yonr sonli, behind 



Our Toie 
TOO, 

O lost, beloved 1 
Through the thick-ahidded and ttrong- 
marshalled aageU, 

They press and pierce : 
Onr requiems fallow fast on our evaigrit; 

Voice throbs in verve I 
We are bnt orphaned Spirits left in Edtai, 

God gave as golden cops,' and we were 

To feed yon so 1 
But now ODT right hand hath no cap 
remaining. 

No work to do ; 
The mystic hydromel ii spUt, and staining 

The whole earth through ; 
And all Ihnse stains lie clearly round for 
•bowing 

(Not interfused !) 
That brighter colon were the world's fore- 
going. 

Than shall be used. 
Harken, oh horken ! ye shall harkcn 

For years and years. 
The noise beside you, dripping coldly. 

Of ipirits' leant 
Tbe yearning to a beaulifnl denied yn, 
Aall strain yonr pt 



Ajoogle 



IM«.] 



A Drmnu of Enle, 



Ideil ■WMtBcnd ihall orer-glidB jod, 

ReBnmed from oun ! 
In all jmr music "'^^ pathetic dudoi 

your Mrs ihall ctoh ; 
And all fair lighu ibBll mind joq of 

WithiCDieoriowl 
We bIikU be near, ia all laai poeMai^iiw* 

And will! eitremrs ; 
What time ye tu tb« detert with rain 
•Bgen, 

Or light iritli dreamt r 
Aad whea apon ran, weary aftv rcNUuag, 

Death'* teal it pot, 
Br the Rtregaiie ie ihill diteem the 

Through eretidt ihut. 

Hark I the Eden treet are sllrring, 
Sloir aod Mlemn lo jour hearing t 
Plane and cedar, palm and dr, 
Tamariak and janiper, 
Each ia throbbing in vibration 
Siace that ciownin; of creation. 
When the God-breath tpake abroad. 
Pealing down the depths of Godhead, 






»lilulo God. 



And the pine ilood quivering 
In the Eden-gorget wooded. 
As the awftal word nent by ; 
Like a vibrant cborded ilriag 
Stretched fVom monnlaia-peak to tb; .' 
And the cypra9 did expand, 
Bloir and gradnal, branth and head; 
And the cedar's stroeg black ihade 
Flntlered brobenlr and grand < — 
Grove and forest bowed aslant 
In emotion jabitani. 
Vak* t^tht «nM, M iqfUr, 
Which divine impattion cleaves 
In din uovefflenlt to the leaves 
Dmpt and lihed, dropt and lilted 
In the innlight greenlr siRed, — 
In the.aonlight and this moonlight 
Greenly tilled Ihrongh the treet. 
Ever wave the Eden trees 
In the nighllight, and the noonlight, 
With a loffling of green branches 
Shaded off to reHmances ; 
Never stirred by rain n breeze I 

Fare ye well, fartwell I 
The lylvan sounds, no longer andible, 
Expire at Eden't door I 
Each footstep of yonr treading 
I^eadionttomeBiinnarwhich ye heard 



Kvir-SpiriU. 
Hark 1 the flow of the four rivcfs — 

Bark the ftow I 
Kow the silence round yon ibivers, 
While oBr voicet tbroogh it go, 

Cold and dear. 



J ttlfler vo(ct. 
Think a little, while ye hear,— 

0f the banks 
Where the green palms and red iea 
Crowd in intermingled ranks, 
At if alt would drink at once. 
Where the living water mnt ! 
Of the fishes' golden edges 
Flashing in and out the sedges : 
Of the swans on silver thrones, 
Floating down the winding slreams. 
With impassive eyes tamed shorevraidj 
And a chant of anderlonet, — 
And the lotos leaning forward 
To help them into dreamt. 

Fare ye wdl, farewell I 
The river-sonnds, no longer andible. 

Expire at Eden's doort 

Each foolttep of yonr treading 

ir which ye heari 



Treadi oat tome m 



Farewell t the tireams of Eden, 
Ye shall hear nevermore. 

Bird-SpirU. 

I am the nearett nightingale 

That singeth in Eden after yon ; 

And I an singing load and tnie, 



Andr 






fail! 



sit opon a cyprcss-bongh, 
Close to the gate ; and 1 Omg my img 
Over the gate and t tiro ugh the mail 
Of the wardcnangcls marsbBlted stroi^,^ 

Over the gate and after you I 
And the warden angels let il past, 
Beeanse the poor brown bird, alas '. 

Sings in Ibe garden, sweet and trne. 
And 1 baild my song of high pure notes. 

Note over note, height over height. 

Till I strike tbe arch of the Infinite ; 
And I bridge abysmal igonies 
With strong, clear cnlms of harmonies, — 
And something abides, and something 

In the song which T sing after yon : 
Fare ye well, farewell 1 

The creatare-soonds, no longer andible. 
Expire at Eden's do«»' I 
Each footstap of yonr treading 

Treads onl some cadence which ys heard 

Farewell I the birds of Eden, 
Ye sball bear nevermore. 
FlmMr-SpiTiit, 
We linger, we linger, 

Thelastoftbe tbrongt 
Like the tones of a singer 

Who loves his own song. 
We are spiril-aronias 

Of blossom and blocon ; 
We call your ihonghls home, as 

Ye breathe our pernune ; 
To the amarcnth't splendor 

Afire on the slopes; 
To the lily-bells tender. 

And gK7 hdiotKipet I 



iyGoOg I 




A Dnna «/ £■>'•' 



[Jrfy, 



Such dmm-breath and bll!. 
That the aogelt there *leppiB( 

Grev whiter to lee I 
To the nook, lel with aw);. 

Ye jetted one day in. 
Till jonr smile waied too holy. 

And left yonr lips praying '. 
To the ro«e in the bower-place, 

That dripped o'er you sleeping; 
To the asphodel flower place, 

Ye walked ankle deep in ! 
Wejilnck at joor raiment. 

We stroke down yoor hair, — 
We faint in oar lament. 
And pine into air. 

Fare ye well, farewell ! 
The Eden seenti, do loader sensible, 
Expire at Eden'i door I 
Each foottlep of your treadioR, 
7readt out some fragrance which ye 
knew before : 
Farewell ! -tbe Sowen of Eden, 
Ye (kail smell nevennore. 

nd -En Jlf n, ad 



ClMped bi^ U a tSms patU above Oeir 

heads,— 
We «Bly i^en fhaa hence, and ant dj»- 

£m. Thoagh we woe near eooai^ t» 
see them shine. 
The ihodow on thy facr were awMler, 
To me, at least,— thaa coaU ^peu tMr 
light. 
Adam. What ii this. Eve T thoD dn^- 



LU Siiitr*tltrt. 



•mr fuiln, " CMt *im 



SCEHE.— TjU Rtmijcy •/■ lit Smrri'gltTt. 
Jdam. Paosing a momenl on this outer 
edge. 

Where the supernal sword-glare catt in 
l^ht 

The dark exterior desert, — faa«t thou 
stieugth, 

BeloTcd, to look behind us to the gate ? 
£m. I hare strength to look upward 

to thy face. 
Jdam. We need be strong -. yoa specta- 
cle of cloud 

Wbicb seals the gate ap to the finni doom, 

IsGod'ssealiaacIoud. There seem to Ue 

A hundred Ibunders in it, dark and dead ; 

The anmollen lightniDgs vein it motion- 
less i 

And, outward from its depth, the self- 
moved sword 

Swings slow its awful guomon of red fire 

From aide to side, — in pendnlooa horror 
slow,— 

AeroM the stagoanl, gbaslly glare thrown 
flit 

On the intermediate ground (Tom that to 
this, 
. In BtLQ reflection of still splendor. They, 

The angelic ho»ts, the orcbangelic pomps. 

Thrones, dominations, priacedoma, rank 

Rising lublimely to the feet of God, 
On either side, >utd overhead the gale, — 
Show like a glittering and sustained smoke 
Set in an apex. That their faces shiae 
Betwixt the solemn claspings of their 
wiogs, , 



.- "ily 
Id a heap corlhwaid i nod thy body heave* 
Under the golden floodingsof tbjr hairl 
Evt. O Adam, Adam I by that name of 
Eve— 
Thine Eve, thy life— which ■niUotelittlc 



O Love, be jolt T and, ere we pass beyond 
The light east outward by the fiery sword. 
Into the dark which earth must be to us. 
Bruise my head with thy foot, — u the 

Hy seed shall the first tempter's : strike 

with curse, 
As God stmck, in the garden > and as H^ 
Being satisfied with Justice aad with 

Did roll His thunder gentler at the dose, — 
Thou, peradvenlure, may'sl at lost recoO 
To some soft need of mercy. Strike, Bij 

lord I 



As Euils me, O my tempted. 

.idom. Hy bdoved, 

Mioe Etc and life — I have do other oaiDe 
For thee or for the sun than what ye are. 
My blMsed life and light t If we have 

fallen. 
It is that we have sinned^^we: God ia 



ADd,B 



« Hi* cnrae doth eomprebend ns 



It must be that Uts balance hoUa the 

Of first and last sis on a level. What t 
Shall I who had not viitne lo staikd 

stiaigbt 
Among the hills of Eden, heie asanmc 
To mend the justice of the perfect God, 
By piling np a curse apoD Hit eone. 
Against Ihee — thee — 

Ett. For so, percbaaee, thy God 

Might lake thee into grace for scoraiog 

Thy wrath against the sinner giving protrf' 
Of inward abrogation of the sin T 
And N, the blessed aageli night 



oogic 



1844.] A Drama e/ ExiU. TV 

And nik with the* m ent,— I Ibtak tbey And vith ujr lipa spon her lip*,— ihs^ 

WOOld,— IhO!,— 

_BecaQKliruiiotD«artamiIce theniMd, Do quicken aad Eablinate my motl^ 

Or soil Ibe rostling of Iheir iDDocenee. bmlb. 

Mam. The)' know me. 1 am deepest Which eaanol climb agBiut tbe fnire'$ 

in Ibe gain, ilecp tideg, 

ITIut in thetnmwreMion. But oTerlopt tbif grief t , 

Eve. Thou I Bv. I am rmewed : 

Mam. IT Gad, H; tye* growitfa the light which ii b 

Who gare Ihe light and joTBBDce of Ihe thine ; 

worM The tilence of mj heart Is full of soand. 

BMh unto thee and me, — gave thee to me. Hold me vp — lo I Because I comprehesd 

The best gift last; the hat sin wa« the Tfait human bTe, I shall not be afraid 

wont, or anj hnman death j and jet beeavw 

Which linned ngaioit more complement I know tbit strength of Iotc, I aeon t« 

of gifts know 

Andgraeaofginng. OodT I render back Death's strength, b; that same sign. Kin 

ftroag benedielioD and peipelnal praise on mj lips, 

Frommortalfteblelipi(a«incenfe-smokc, To shut the door close on aj rising 

Oat of a little censer, hm; fill henten), soul, — 

Thkl Thon, la stiikiag m; bennmbed Lest it pass ontvards in aitouiihment, 

hands, And leave thee lonely. 

And forciBg them to drop all other boons Jdam. Yet tfaoQ liest, Ere, 

Of beantj, and dominion, and delight, — Bent heavily on thyself across mine aim. 

Hast left this wall-belo*ed Ere— this life Thy face Sat to the iky. 

Within life— this beat gift between their Ett, Ay ! and the tears 

palms, RuDniag, as it might seem, my life fna 

In graeiont compensation 1 me t * 

Eet. It it thy voice T lliey ran so Ilut and wann. Let me fia 

Or some saloling aogel'S'-calling home so. 

My feet into the garden ? Aqd weep so, — as if in a dream or 

Adam. my God I prayer, — 

I, Btandiag hote between the ^ry and UnEutening, ctasp by claap, the hard, 

dark,— 

The glory of thy armth projected forth 

From Eden's wait; Ihedark of onr dis- 

tress, Loathed of thy jnstiee as I loathe the 

Which setUes a step off in that drear snake, 

world — And as Ihs pure ones loathe onr sin. To- 

lift np to Thee ttte hands from whence day, 

hath fallen AU day, beloved, as we fled across 

Only crealioa's sceptre,— thanking Thee This deaotaling radiance, east by swords 

That rather Thon hast cast me out with Not snns, — my lips prayed loundlesa to 

her, myself, 

Than left me loro ofher in Paradise; — Rocking against each other — O Lord God! 

With angel looks and angel soi^aarODnd, (Twu so 1 piayedj I ask Thee by my 

To show the absence of her eyes and sin, 

voice. And by thy corse, and by tbf blameless 

And make society full deseitness, beavens, 

Wilhonl thenses of her comforting. Make dreadful baite to hide me from thy 

Ev. Or is it bat a dream of thee, that face, 

speaks And from the face of my beloved here. 

Mine own love's loogue ? For whom I am no helpmate, quick away 

Adam. Becanse with htr, I stand Into the new dark mystery of death T 

Upright, as far as can be in this fall, I willlie still there; IwillmakenopkiDt; 

And look sway from haaveo, which doth I will not sigh, nor sob, nor speak » 

accuse me, word,— 

And look up from Ihe earth which dolh Notstiuggte to come bs«k beneath the 

convict me, son. 

Into her face j and crown my discrowned Whei« peradvenlnre 1 might sin anew 

brow Against thy mercy and hi* feasor*. 

Out of her love ; and put the thought of Death, 

her Oh death, whate'er it be, is goad etiOBgh 

Aronnd mc, fbr an Eden full of birds ; For saeh as I.— For ^lan— (here's M 

Andliflherbodjnp— thw— tomyheart'f voifCi 

.) giti: 



I =y Google 



A Drrna of Exilt. 



Stain erer mj •eaio, in heaTcn or earth, 

Jt it not good /or him tobi alomt. 
Jdam. And waiiLgood for lach a prayer 

My nulcind Eve, belwUt oor mutoal Utci T 
IT I am exiled, muit I be bereaved ? 
Eve. Twu an iU prayer: it ihaU be 

And God did uie it far a fooliahneis, 
Giriag no answer. Now my heart bu 

Too liigta and slrODg for Bucb a Cof^i^ 

prayer: 
Loire makes it ttning : and lince I wu 

the first 
In the Imugression, wilh a steady fool 
I will be the first to tread riotDlhii (word- 

glare 
Into the outer darkneu of the wailc, — 
And ttana I do it. 

.ddani. Tbu« I follow thee. 

As erewbile in the lin. — What BOnndi I 

what tonndi I 
I feel a masic which comes slant from 

As lender as a watering dew. 

Evt. I (hink 

TbA angelB — not those guarding Faia- 

Bnt the tote-angels who came erri to tis, 
And when we said ' God,* fainted una- 

Back from our mortal presence nnto God 
(As if He drew them inward in a breatb) 
His name being heard of Ihem, — I think 

that they 
With sliding voices lean from heaveDly 

InTisible, but gradous. Hark — how soil ! 

CHOBOH or INTIBIBLI iMOVLe. 






Mortal man aod woman, 

Qo opoD your travel I 
Heaven assist the Human 

Smoothly tonnravel 
All that web of pain 

Wherein ye are holden. 
Do ye know onr voices 

Chanting down the Golden 1 
D« ye guesB onr choice is, 

Being anbeholden. 
To be harkteed by yon, yet afain 7 

This pure door of opal, 

God bath shut between ns ; 
Us, his shining people, — 

TToD, who once hare seen ns, 
And are Uinded new '. 

Yet, across the doormj, 
Pait the silenee reaching, 

Farewells evermore may, 
Neaaing in the teaching, 

Glide from 01 to yoD. 



Think how enl your Edeo, 
Day on day sneccnIiDg, 
With our presence glowed. 

Fe came as if the Heavens were bowed 
Ton milder music rare I 

'e saw ns in oar solemn treading, 

Treadingdown the steps of ckiad; 
White our wings, oatipreading 
Double calms of whiteness. 
Dropped superdoons brighUciK 
Down fntn stair to stair> 

Or, abmpt thongb lender, 

While ye gaied on space, 
We fiaahed onr angel-sideBilM 
In either human face I 
With mystic lilies in onr hands, 
From the almosphcric bands, 
Breaking, with a sudden grace. 
We took yoa unaware I 
While onr feet struck ^oriea 
Ootward, smooth and fair. 
Which we stood on floorwise, 
PlaUormed in njd air. 

Oft, when Heaven-descended, 

E^nt up in a secret light 

Stood we speechless in yosr sighl, 
In a mute apocalypse I 
With dumb vibrations on our lipa. 

From boMmaaa ended ; 

And grand baJf-vantshings 

Of the foregone things. 

Within DOT eyes, belated ! 
TtU the heavenly Infinite 
Falling off from oar Created, 
I-eA our inward eonlemplatktn 
Opening into ministration. 

Then in odes of burning, 

Brake we suddenly. 
And sang out the morning 

Nobly up the sky. — 

Or we drew 

Onr music through 
The noontide's hush and beat and shine. 
And taught tbem our intense Divine — 
With our vital fiery notes 
All di^Mrted hilber, thither. 
Trembling out into the lether,— 
Visible like beamy moles r — 

Or, as IwUight driAed 

Tbningh the cedar masses. 

The massive sno we lifted, 
Trailing purple, Imiling gold 

Out between the passes 
Of the mouDtains manifold. 

To anthems slowly sang I 
While he, aweary and in swoon, 
For joy to hear oar climbing tone' 
Tierce the faint stars' concentric 



Google 



1S44.] A Drama of Emit. U 

{Ctaal^tH «njr mfaidly, ni nUr I.neirrl.] WHo Stunt "><«. "OttO BOarlj ! M*Uk 

jMt{ftT. rfDirmaraJIfruitsbepteBaant fTrc, Hold th^ wralb, 

to Uif lipi. Beloved Adun 1 let me antwer bioi ; 

Beautiral Ere r The timn have (ome> For ihu time he spealci truth, which «a 

vtwt changed ibould hew, 

fiinee Ihon and I b«d talk beneath a tree t And aska for mercf, which I most tbould 

Albeit ye arc not gods fet. grant. 

En. Adam ! bold In Hke wiM, at he tells as — In like irUel 

Mj right hand ilronglf . It h ZiaGifer — And therefore 1 thee panloa, Lacifer, 

And we hare love to lose. Aa Treetr as the streams of Eden Bowed, 

Mirm. 1' the name of God, When we were happy b; them. Si>,d^ 

Go apail tima as, O thou Luoifer 1 ptft ; 

And leave aslDihedesert Ihon hast made Leave iu to walk the remnant of our liow 

Oat tit iUj treason. Bring no Ktfeutr Out mttdlj in the desert. L'u not sedc 

(Ikne To harm ns my more or scoff al as. 

Athwart this path kept holy to oar tear^ Or ere the dost be laid upoa our fuce 

Orwe may cunelhee with their bittemesa. To £nd^it the communion of the dust 

LucyiT. Cuiae freely ! curses thicken. And issue of the curae. — Go, 

Why, this Eve Adam. At once, go. 

Who tboaght me once part worthy of her L%tiftr. Forgive I and go ! Ye Image* 

ear, - ■ ' of clar, 

And somewhat wiser than the other Shrank sonewhat in tbe moB)d,~-what 

b;asts,— jest is this? 

Drawing together her targe globe* of eyes. What words are these to use T By what* 

Tbe light of which n throbbiDg in and ont thought 

ArOD^ Uieir continuity of gaze, — Conceive ye of meT Yesterday — asaakeli 

Knots her fair eyebrows in so hard a knot, To-day— what 7 

Jlnd, down froia her white heights of wo- .Jdom. A strong spirit. 

EMohood, £m. a sad spirit 

IrfWki on me so amazed,— I seam should Adam. Perhaps a bllen angel.— Who 

fear ^all say t 

To wager such an apple ai she placlred, Imc^t. Who toU tbee, Adam ? 

Against one riper from the tree of life, Adam, TTum t The prodigy 

Tbalsheeonldcnrsetoo-asawotnannuiy— Of thy vast brows and melaaeholy eyes, 

amaolh in the vowris. Which comprehend the heights of some 

Boi. So— speak wickedlyt great Tall. 

IlikcitbeMto. Lelthy words bewonnds— I think that Ihou hast one day worn K 

For, M, 1 shall not fear thy power to hart : crown 

Trench on the forms of gciod by open ill — Under the eyes of God. 

FU:,«o, I (hall wax strong and grand with t^c^er. And why of God t 

scorn ; Adam. It were xi» crown else I YerUy, 

Bcorafng myself for ever trtiMiag thee I think 

A* ftr at thinking, ere a snake ate dnst, Thou'rt fallen far. [ had not yesterday 

He cootd apeak wisdom. Said it so surely; bnt I know lo-dajr 

iMciftr. Our new ^ods, methiniA, Grief by grid, sin by sin. 

Deal more in thunders than in conrtesieB t Lw/tr. A crovm, by a crown. 

And, sooth, mine own Olympus, which Adam. Ay, mock me I now I know 

anon more Uian 1 boew. 

J AaU bnild np to land-voiced imagerf, Now I know thon an fallen below h^e 

From alt the wandering visiona of the Offinsl re-ascent. 

work}, — Litcytr. Because T 

May show wane railing than our lady Eve Adam. Because 

Ponn o'er the taunding of her argent arm. A spirit who expected to see God, 

Bat why should this her Adam pardooad Though at the last point of a millia« 

Eve. years, 

Adam. Adam loved Eve. Jehovah Could dare no mockery of a ruined man 

pardoned both 1 Such as this Adam. 
Ett' Adam forgave Eve— because lov. Luctftr. Who is high and hold- 
ing Ere. Be it said passing I — of a good red clay 
lmcif*r. So, wetL Yet Adam waa Diacovered on some top (rf* Lebanon, 

nndoae of Eve, Or haply of Aornus, beyond sweep 

As both were by the snake. Thetefbte Of the black eagle's wing I A furlong 

foTE^ve, lower 

la like wise, fellow-temptress, the poor Had made a meeker king for Eden. iSohl 

anak^~ , b it imI poeiiUe, by nn and grief 



TOL.XV. — «o. LXZIII. 6 

.) giti: 



I =y Google 



ti) A Drama of Exil*. [Jnlji 

(To live tbe UiItiKe jMr Dunet) ttitl Vhicli I call beMHj T » it thoogtt or 

ipirils EbmM [iic Uiiiig 7 

jBite«d oT falling r It it • tkoaclit accepted Tor a thing T 

Jdam. Host impotuble. Or Iwtta 1 oi Bchber T— a picten — K 

The HighHt being the Ho); and tbe Glad, vord I 

Whoerer ritetfa mntt approach delight Tti meaning flatters in me Ulfe a flame 

And sanelilr in the act. Uader m; own bmth : m; peneptiona 

laciftr. Ha, my claj-klng • reel 

Than wflt not rnle hy wisdooi very long; For titnaan aninnd it, and Tatl dT, 

The after genemtions. Earth, methinJ^ At if it too were holy. 

Will ditinherit thy phitoaophy Bv€. Which it it. 

For a new docbine suited to thine heir«g ^dam. The esMDCC oTall beamy I «□ 

Clatringtheie prMent dogmaswiththe rcit lore, 

or tbe oM-world traditiona — Edea frnila The attribate, tbe cTideoce, and end. 

And lanriaQ ronila. The coninmmation to the inward ttmtt^ 

Eve, Bpeak no laore with bim, Of benntr apprehended from withoat, 

BeWed 1 it i( not good to tpeak with him. I still call love. As form, when eolorlesa, 

Oofrom Ds, Lnclfer, and tpeaknomorei Ii Kilbiag to the eye i tbat pine tree there, 

Ve bare no pardon vUch thoo do« not Withont its btiek and green, beiof nil « 

tconi, UkDkj 

IToT any faliu, thon leert, for coietlng, Bo, wtthont love^ it beanty uadncemed 

VorinnocenceforitalniDg. Being bmft, In maa or angel. Angel I rather ask 

We woald be atone. — Go. Whal hn e is in thee, what Iotc more* to 

Xmc^c. Ah ■ ye lallc tbe nme, thee, 

All of yon — gpiriti and elay — go, and And what collateral kve raoret on with 

depart! the«; 

In Heayea they said so; and at Eden's Tbn ibalt thou know If thon art bwi- 

gale,— tiftil. 

And here, reiterant, in Ibe wilderness t ZMei/tr. Loret what is IoTe7 I loae 

Nose taith, Stay with me, for thy ftn b it. Beauty and loTe ! 

Ihii 1 I darken to the image. Beaoty — Love : 

Hoaesoith, Stay with me, for thy voice is fttiftittmf.^kiitiUwmmt^uKitii. 



rfav The precipice 01 lu 



Eti. lUijnkno 

' Bjthehi'pi 



X«iftr. S hSS-Ho. lMd»i ■*^"- ^ "Kr.'.l'I'"' -^ 



0.«Il5fbSftllr,tt.tI«mi .■^"- H«PPi«"".>'ul„i^l,,». 

Host abaolnte in beaaiy. As yonnelres 4i„„ n, — .i,„ v_ ,\. .•<■ , ,. 

WereftsbienedTerTgoodMbUt,*)« "*'*'"■ ^"{^J^'^ "* Me of the 

Bpr-ng Te^ beanteon. fh,m the crtant g,^ j^ ,j,^ „^, ^^^^ „^ ^^^ y^^ 

Which thrilled aronnd «s_God Himwlf *"" """^ "'"* ^ ^'^ '»"' ""* ^^^ 

being mwed, ' ^V "'H;;' '' ^'™'?j^;^'^' *■•*■ 

When that aogntt work of a perfttt shape, K-ttiw"- 

H!i dignitiea of sovran angel-hood, Kve. It throbi in onus like a plaintiTe 

flwept ont into the nnireree, — divine heart, * 

With thnnderons nxrrements, eamett Pretsing, with slow pnlniioDB, Tibrative. 

looks of gods, lu gradual sweetness through the yicM- 

And silTer-siriema e^h of cymbal wings. ing air. 

Whereof I was, in motion nad in form, To sneh eipression as (he stars may oa^ 

A part not poorest. And yet,— yet, Most starry-sweet, and strange 1 Witk 

perhaps, evoy note 

This bCBuly whieh I speak of, is not here. That grows more lond, the aofel gt«ws 

As God's voice is not here ; nor even my more dim, 

crown— Seceding in proportion to appnadt, 

I do not know. What is Ibis thongbt or Until he staod abr,--« shade. 

tW»f •iWflM. Now, wttdh 



lizcdbyGoOl^Ic 



Kwa or ntt xeumie iTAa TO LDona. Ib n great fire, I iIqimi took Tw God! 

Mine ortMd ioMge itnlii Thine iingel glory vinlci 

Back rnun Ibec, bmck n«u IhM, ^ Down from ne, dovn frcm me— 

Ai Uon art fkUen, Dwlbinki, Mj bMat; falls, metbinbs. 

Back from me, back ftwD me. Down from IbM, down [nm Uwct 

O my lisht-bearer, O my li£)i(-bearer, 

CoQld wiotlwr nUrar O my palh-preparer, 

Lack to thee, lack to thee 7 G«iie frwn mr, ^ne rrom me t 

iU, al, HeiMphora* I Ai, ai, Heotphoros ', 

IloTei thee, vith the fiery lore of (tan, I eaonot kindle nnderneuh tbebro# 
"Wha tore by hamiiiB, and by loTJog more, OT Ihit nev aiwel here, who ic not Tbon i 
Too near tke thntaed Jehovab, not to love. AU tbiogs are aliered tince ihat lime agow 
Ai, ai, Heoipboros 1 Andifl ibinealcTe, I shalt not know— 

ncir hrom ftuli btt oa me from glidii^ I im Miange — I am alow I 

can, Ai, ai, Heoapboroi ■ 

HcQceforwanl, homan eyes of lorera be 
The only sweetest tight thai I tball aee, 
Wiih lean between the kwkiraiied np t* 

_ ^'"^ 

When, kaTing wept all night, al break of 
JDmrn uon me, dowa fonn me. day, 

O my light-beaicr. Above the folded hill* they ihafl nrrey 

li aoothor (hirer Hy light, a Utile trembling, in the grey. 
Won tothce,won tolheer Ai,ail 

Ai, ai, Heoiphorof, 
Oreai love preceded loes. 
Known t« thee, kaowa to ihee. 

^ ai I And melancholy leaning ont of Heaven, 

Tbon, breathing thy eamannioaUe grac« That love, their own divine, may ehan» 

or life into my Yigbt, n end, 

WjM aalMl beet, Iron thine angel faee. Thai love may cloM in losa t 

Hatt inly fed, Ai, ai, Heotpboroi ! 

And flooded me with radiaaee overmneh 

From thy port height. eci!N&-*w^^ ..-;;* ^ .««„«- 

Al, ai 1 eofttlt w <*' nprraarkiitg MifU. 

Thon, With calm, flnaling piBioiii both 

wayi cpi«ad, Jdam, How dotb the wide and meUa> 

Erect) irradiated, choly earth 

Sidit aling my wheel of glory Gather hei hill* around n«, tjey and ghail, 

On, oa before thee, And ttare with blank aigniflcance of lost 

A]imglheGodlirht,byaqnickeningloacb! Right in oar faces 1 I« the wind up 7 

Ha, ha I £tt. If ay. 

Anmod, around the finnamental ocean, Jdant. And yel the cedars and the 

I swam dilating with delirioas fire I junipers 

Aioiud, aronnd, arannd, in blind desire Rock slowly Ibrough the mist, witboni a 

To be drawn ontward to the InJinite— noise ) 

Ba, ha I And shapes, which hare no certainty of 

Orin du^y in and ont belween the piaet. 

And loom along the edge* of the hills. 



I woand and i , 

Vbile all the cyclic heaveniabont me span! 
Stan, plaaeti, sou, and moons, expanded 

Tken fladied together into a single taa, 

And would, and wound in one) 
Aad MB they weoMd 



And lengtben as w( 


; gue on them, 


Eve. 


OLife 


Which la not m.B'1 


t nor angel's ! What 


is Ibis r 




JiMm. No canse 


for fear. The cirele 


of God's life 




Conwins aU liA betide. 


e«. 


I think tbe earth 


U vnxei with can 


le, and waodera flroa 



=1 Google 



SiS 



ADramanfEMU. 



t Mam. We will m 

C We were brare siDaing. 

^ £m. Yea, I plucked tliefniit pore; 

■ iDg there Almott as loatUy to oar qet, pcrtap^ 

b Our god-tbronet, a» the templer aaid,— At we are ia (he pareit I Pttf as— 

U not God. Us too ! nor itanl at in the duk, ftway 

■ Hy bean, which bett IbcB, sinlu. The From TCtity and from atabiUly, 

S sun hath innk Oi what we naue nid), thnngb the ore- 

jt Oat of sight wiOi oar Eden. eedence 

Y Mam. Kighti»n«ir. Of earlh'i adjnatdl a•e^ — ETcnDore 

i Ere. And God-> cane, neareat. LeC To doabt, betwUc oar Mfuci ud mx 

I as travel back, ' loali, 

i , And stand within the swcsd-glare till we Whtcta are the mut distnnglil, aikd foil 

% die : of pain, 

•- BelieTing il ia better to meet death And weak of apprrteitafaa. 

i Than soffer desolation. Mtim. Coance, Sweet t 

I Jjdam. Kay, beloTedl The mr»tic »hape« ebb back from as, and 

•j We must not pluck death from the tli- drop 

; kerthand. WUh «k»» coBeenlrie moieKeat, each o» 

* As erst we plucked the apple : we Dinst wail each, — 

TJntil He gives death, as He g»re ns life : Eipmcing wider tpMev-anlcoChfiMd 

Nor mnrmur faintly o'er the primal giA, In lioea more definite for Jmaferr 

BecaDse wc spoilt its sweetaeu with oar And eleaier for i«lalkiii ; lill the thioug 

, <in- or shapeless Epeclra merge into a few 

. Ete. Ah, ah < Dost thou diieern what Distingniihable pknBlBBmc, ragae «iil 

4 T behold t gtud, 

. .fdam. I see all. How the spirits in Which sweep oat and aromd m vastilf, 

I thine eyes. And hold as in • circle and a cals). 

I Front their dilated orbits, bound before Eve. StraafepbaBtaKOiofpedeahadvwI 

; To meet the spectral Dread I Ibera ara twelre. 

Eve. I am afraid— Then, wb didat Mune all lires, fcaff 

* Ab,ahl The twilight biiiLles wild with names for these 7 

*'>*P«> Mam, Metbinka this is the ladiae cf 

Of intermiitent motion, aspect Twtue the eanh. 

And myslic bearings, which o'ercreep the Whidi roonds ns with iu visioiian 

earth, drawl,— ' 

Keeping slow time wilh horrors ia the Bcsponding with twelve shadowy "iffia of 

biood. eanh, 

; How near they reach ... and far 1 How In fantasquc apposition and approBch. 

grey they move— To those celesUal, eomteUoled Iwelye 

Tr=«aiagapon thedaikness wilhoutfeel— Which palpitate aJown the silent Bisfats 

And flattering on the darkness without Under the pressure of the hand of God 

wings I Stretched wide in benediction. At thV 

Some ran like doga, with noses to the hour, 

Sroinilt Not a mar pricketh the fiat skora rf 

, Some keep one path, like sheep; some heaven I 

<L_. r!?*,^^'^,; , , . But, girdling close onr nether wilderness. 

Some glide like a fallen leaf; and some The lodiac-figures of the earth loom 

1 Bow on, slow,— 

J Copious as rirers. Dmwo out, as suiteth with the idaee ud 

I .Adam. Some spring up like fire — time, 

:• ^i!'*"'*ft"\;„ . ^^ '^«'" «*»^ •>«'"". •■»«l«d of 

^ Aw. Ah, ah I Dost thon pnnse to say stars. 

Like what?— coil like the serpent, when Through which the ecliptic line of mysterT 

■* f n iT**' u , J , . Strikesbleaklywithannnrelealingacope. 

, FromaUtbeemeraldspIendorrfhaheieht, Foreshowing life and death 

And wnthad,— and aonU not dimb against Evt. By dnam or sence 

-• ., 5'"'.«,°"^,, , , , . Do we see this? 

Not a nng's^ogth. I am afreld-afraid- Mm. Onr spirit* have cBmbed bMi 

I thmt It IS God's wJl to make ne afraid : Sj rea«« of theWion of onr«fe£- 

Permilling tkssb to hsanln, m the pUce And, from the loTcT •«««, l«£ri^ 

r Of Hii bebved angels-^ooe fi«m os, ^^' "™™ "'" 



z.d.vCiOOglff 



1B44.] A Drama 0/ Enlt. 8S 

To tb* iatifniScuee ud h«ut rf tHng* 8h«nld llgkt tbeni forvBHJ non theb oni- 

Baikal tb>Q tbiaga UMtnadveB. line Tagne, 

£vt. And the dim twetre To dear ccnfi^iratioo — 

Man. Are dim exponents oC tbe Bie«- jvi ^Vn'u. >f orfiwie sad Aatrrjranfc utiini 

lare-Iife ariie J?m> U« fmad. 

Ai earth eentaios it. Gaze on theas, ^)t~ Bat wbat Shape* 

lored I Rife ap betveen ni ia the open «pace, — 

B; ttricter appreheiiBioii of the eight, And ttimst aie into horror, beck fnm 

Sa^estioDB of tbe crestuces EhoU asiaage hope I 

Thjr terror of the ahadows ; — what i* ^dam. CoIoMal Shapri — twin lovna 

known ImaEcs. — 
Bnbdnlng theunkaown, and taming it 
From ail prodigfoos dread. That phtut- 

laxffl, there, looK, 

Preaenta a lion, — albeit, twenty tboet And ytt an aapect— a ugaiJteance 

As large as an; lion— with a roar Of iadiTJdaal lire and pamionate endi, 

Set sonndleta in his vibratory jaw^ Which oreieainei ni gaxing. 

And a alrange horror stirring in his nane 1 O bleak winnd I 

And, there, a peadolons shadow aeemi to O shadow of aonnd, O {dtanluin of tbta 

weigh — Bonnd I 

Good agaioat ill, pcrehaneet and there, 1 How it eomei, wheeling as the palenolb 

crab wheels, 

Fall foidly ont it* gradtwl shadow^elaWi, Wheeling and wheeling in eontioHont 

Like a slow blot that spreads,— till all the wall, 

gronnd, Aran nd the cyclic xodiac ; and gains fbreat. 

Crawled orer by it, seema to arawl itself; And gathers, settling coUty like a moth, 

A boll stands homed here with gibbons On the wan faces of these images 

^oout ; We see before ae; whereby modified. 

And a ram likewise; and a teorpion It draws a slrsighl line of anicaUte song * 

writhes Framoollhat spiral fkintness of lament — 

2t* tail in ghastly sUdk, and stings tbe And, by one TOiee, expresses many grieik. 

dark ■ Firtf Spirit. 

This way a goat leaps, with wiU blank of I am the spirit of the harmless earth ; 

beard ; God spake me softly out among the sian. 

And here, fantastic fishes dndily float, As soflly as a blessing of mneh worth, — 

Using the calm for waters, while their fins AjmI then. His smile did follownnaware^ 

Thiob out slow rhythms along the shnllow That all things, fhshioned, so, for nse and 

air [ dntj. 

While images more human Uight shine anointed with His duismoT 

Evt, How he stands, beanty — 

That phantasm of a man— who is not Vet I wail I 

ttoB I I dnvc on with the worlds einltingly. 

Two phantasms of two men 1 Obliqnely down the Godlight's gradntt 

■Idam. One that sostnins, fall— 

And one that striTcs I— resnmiiig, so, the Individaal aspect and eompleiily 

CAds Of gyratory orb and interval, 

Of manhood's curse of labor.* Dost thon Lost in the Aaent motioD of delight 

see Toward Ihe high ends of Bcicg, beyond 

ThatphaUasraofawoDMnt— sight— 

£*e. I have seen— Yet I wail I 

Bat look off to those small huaaoities,t Stcond Spiril. 

Wkidi draw me tenderly acioai my feari I am the Spirit of the harmless beasts. 

Lesser and &inter than my womBahood, Of dying things, and creeping tbui(s. 

Or yet thy manhood — with strange inno- and swimming ; 

ceoc« Of atl the lives, erst set at silent feasts. 

Set in the misty lines of head and hand That fonnd the love-kus on the goblet 

They lean together .' Iwonldgaieonlhem brimming, 

Loaaerandlnger,lillmy walebingeye* — And tasted, in each drop within the 

A* Uie stars do in watching anything, — measare, 



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■3 



» A Drama ^ BaOt. [Mr* 

Tbenr*etetttd«»tai«oraeirL«id'*pMl Row htppy vara r«,HttettiidpMM«ii«. 

pleUOre ---...- . _ _ i .rn_ni.i^ 

YetliraJlr 
What B Toll hum of life, around HU lip*, f {rif Spirit. 
Bore witnei* to the falneM of cr— ■'"• ' 



Hon aU tbe grand tiati» were folMaden 



I wmO, 1 wail I Noif hear mf ctiarEe te- 

E«h3i jg onward, from «no«i.,io«, ^hoQ waMhou wom.o, marked a. tte 

?b,'^S^;'J,"l™'rf'?it^''S^ BrGod'i«^'atyonrt.ck.! Ilentm, 

iBB crestarea power oi jarmg, ncfiDg, ' , — j * 

•. i ^!«- They wail, bdored ! they ipeak . . ^rown »«" ^7^"^.» y i™. « 

4 ofgloirandGod, And now, it. change for what I lent, t« 

i ""^ '^eZj"'^* "^"-^ •f The thCTo%«, the tempest-fir. to 

: i Drops from it Iflw its ftui^ and hewrUr "'"''L'S'^. i i 

-•i falls Apdlwail. 

;5 IntothelapofsUence! Seeoad Spirit. 

! ^dam. Hark, again t 1 wail, I wail 1 BeboM ye that I faHen 

'\ pinl Spirit. ^1 eofraw'a ttng upon yo«r aouls dif- 

•J Mj joy stood up within me bold and Accuned iraMgreMJia I dewa Oe ateep 

; ' ; FBlerel through roses, did the %hl ia< ^'""jSid I wail ! 

■' 3 1 close me I r- . 

■[ And bnnches of the grape swang bine ririi Spirit. 

■* -I aenws me— I ,^1, i ^mil r Do ye bear that 1 wail ? 

■ '} Yel I waQ ! 1 bod no part in jonr trusgreiBioa— 

.' " Second Spirit. none 1 

' : I bonnded with mj panthen ! I n^oiecd Mj ™*?« on U.e bough did bnd not pale— 

; In my young tnmbling lims. rolled "' """■ ^"^ """ """" '" "" •"" 
,• blether) 

. ■ Myitag — the river at bit felloek»--poised, 

i Then dipped his antlers, tlirongh the 

> golden weather, 

, '' In the tame ripple which (bealligaioT 

J<eA his joyon* iTODbUng of the water- 
Yet 1 wailt 

I Fint SpirU. ed ! 

; O my deep waters, CBUracl and flood,— ^^ nightuigales nng sweet wUhont ■ 

■ 1 What wordless uiumph did Toar *oice» „ ""r, , . , ^ . . 

■ '- render! MygenlleleopardsinaocenUyboonded! 



•' * O nwnntain-sununils, where tbe angela "''wereobedient-whali.lhiscwTOtee. 

: •• stood ""' blamelen life with pangs and fever- 

"■ r And shook from head and wing thick pnlse*? 

, ■ f dews of splendor; „ , *« ' ™ ' ^ , „ 

\ How, with ■ holy qniet, did yoor Earthy ■^"- ^ chooseGod's tbander and Hb 

.■^! Accept that Heavenly— knowing yo were ™ ,. ""Reh swords 

. -_ > worthTl To die by, Adam, rather than sneb words, 

, *"; Yet'lwail! Let us pasaimt, and He*. 

U.' «.™-jjD„!_i, Jiam. We eannol flee. 

flMMWBjKrw. This sodUflofthe creatures' emelfy 

I '\ O my wild wood-di^i, with your listening Cnrlsronod us, like iri*er cold aad drear, 

, .i tjti\ AndshulBusin, Gonstrainingas tohear. 

"■^ *lr horses— my ground eagles, for Fint Spirit. 

*"''* fleeing r I r«ei yonr steps, wandering sianera, 

.r, ■ "T huds, wiih Tiewlees wings of har- strite 

«"»■, monies, — A senie of death to me, and trndng 

<f , Hyeatm coldflahesof a sUTer being, — gniTw! 



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1B44.] A Drama of EtiU. tft 

TJie bavt of cutb, onca nlm, ii tmo- Stota dean raliliou towud* ■ tpoiUi 
bling, like will. 

The ragged totm aloog tbc oeeut' From tbe wronged to Uic vrooger t thit 
Wftres: and no more ; 

Tbe rcEtleu earthiiuilLn rack againil I do not isk more. I am 'ware, iodeedt 

each other ; — That absolute pard'ia b imposaible 

Tbeclementimonn'roundme — "Molbei, From yoa tome, by TeHion o{ mj rid, — 

motber " — And that I cannot cTeratare, as oace. 

And I wail I With worthy acceptation of pore joy, 

Secosd f^JTit. BehoM the trancea of tbe b^y hilb 

Your inelancholy loolu do pierce me Beneath the leaning start; oi watch th* 
through i vale*, 

Comipcioa awathes the paleoess oT Dew-pallid with tkeir moraiogecsiatyi 

your beanty. Or hear the windi make pasloral peae* 
Wity bare ye dooe tliis thing T What bctwetn 

did we do Two gnuay apUnds, — and the riTer-wellt 

That we ahooM fall from bliM, at ya Work out their bubbling lengths benaUk 

from dnty ; tbe gronod, — 

Wild shriek the hawks, In wailing for And all the birds siag, till, for joy of sonf, 

(heirjesaes. They lid their trembling wings, as if to 

Fierce howl the woItcs along tbe wilder- heave 

nease* — Tho loo-much weight of mnsie from their 
And I wail I heart, 

Mam. To thee, tbe Spirit of tbe barm- And float it up the [Ether 1 I am 'ware 

lew earth— That thejc things I can no mora apptt- 
To tbee, the Spirit of earth's haimlesa bend, 

lives — With a pure organ, into a Ml delight; 

Interior creatures, but stilt innoccn^^ The sense of beauty and oT melody 

Be salutation f>0Di a guilty month, Being no more aided in me by the senM 

Yet worthy of some aadience and respect Of personal adjustment to those height* 

From you who are not guilty. It we OP what 1 see well-formed or hear well> 

have sinned, tuned, — 

God hath rebuked us, who is over ns. But rather coupled darkly, and mads 
To give rebuke m death ; and IT ye wail ashamed, 

Becaase of any luSering fhim onr sin. By my peieipieney of sin and fall, 

Ye, who ara under and not over ns. And melancholy of homilianl thought!. 

Be satisfied with God, If not with na, But, oh [ fair, dreadful Bpirils— albeit this 

And pass oat teom oar prsMnee in sueh Yonr aecaialion mast eoafroat mr aotil, 

peace And yonr pathetic utterance and full gaM 

Aa we hare left yon, to eajoy revenge. Must erermore subdoe me ; be coateut— 

Sueh as the HeaTeos hare made you. Conquer me gently — as if pitying me, 

" ''" Not to say loving 1 let my tears (all thick 

s, large a* AsTatermgdewiof £den,unreprDache4| 

fin . And when your tongues reprove me, oulca 
Ett. No strife, mine Adam I Let nt me smooth, 

not stand high Not raffled — smooth and still with yonr 
Upon the wrong we did, to reach disdain, reprool^ 

Who rattier should be humbler erennorb And peradventure better, while more sad. 

Since self-made sadder. Adamt shall I For look to it, sweet Spirits — look well Id 

I who s^ke once to loch a bitter end — It will not be ami** in yoa who kept 

Shall I apeak humbly now, who once wai The law of yonr own righteousneat, aal 

proud T keep 

I, tcbooled by Bta to more humility The right of yonr own griefs l« mooni 
Than thou hasl, mine Adam, O my themaelres, — 

king— To pity me twice falien,— from that, aad 
JTjiking, if not the world's? this,— 

Mam. Speak a* tbon wiU. FromJayofplice,andalsorightorwail,-^ 

Evt. Thus, then — my hand in thine — " I wail" being not fur me — only " 1 tin." 

.... Sweel, dreadful Spirits I Look to it, sweet Spirit* !— 

I pny yon hambly in (be name of God t For was I not* 

Not to say of these tears, which are im- At that last snuMt seen in Paradise, 

When all the westeriag clouds flaahed oU 

in throngs 
Of sudden angei-faees, face by 



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A Dnaut ef JBxil*. 



(JnJr. 



An iMOed and folnoD, u a tboVfht of 

God 
Beld tktm viwpeiided, — m* I not, that 

Tht !»dj oTlbc irorld, prlncew of life, 
Uiktreu of fcatt and favor? Could I 

A Tote with mv while hand, but it became 
Redder at once f CdhU I walk leianrdy 
Along oar awarded fardcn, bat the grass 
Tr«<j[ed me with greenneett Could I 

stand aside 
A motoent ludenmtfa a eornel-lTee, 
J^t all the leBTCB did tremble as alive. 
With MBgi of Bitj bird* who were made 

glad 
BecatiM I ttood there 7 Could I tani Iw 

look 
With these twain eye» of mine, ect weep- 
Now Rood for onlf weeping, — upon man. 
Angel, or beast, or bird, bnt eaeb rejoic^ 
BenDse 1 Icipked on htm 1 Alas, a^ I 
And ii not this mnch wo, to crj " alas !" 
SpMldag of jo; 1 Ajid it not ihia more 

To have made the wo mTuIf, from aB 

IhaljoTt 
To have atretphed mine hand, and plucked 

11 fVotn the tree, 
And ehosen it ibr finit J Nay, is not this 
Still mott despair,— to have halved thai 

bitter frmit. 
And ruined, so, the sweetest friend I have. 
Turning the ckeatest to mine enemy t 
Mam. I will not hear thee speak lo. 

HeaAeo, Spirits I 
Onr God, who is the enemy of none. 
But odIt of their sin, — halh set yonrhope 
And my hope, in a promise, on this Hnd. 
ce, then, — and never breiie 



Wilb unpermitted and extreme reproach ; 
Lett, panioiMte in anguish, she fling down 
Seneath joui tramming feet, God's gift to 

n*. 
Of aovranty by reason and iVeewiH ; 
Sinning against the province of the 3onl 
To rule the tonllesi. Reverence her 

estate) 
And para ont Com her presence wilb no 

£m. dearest Heart, have patience 
with my heart, — 
O Spirits, have patience, 'stead of revci- 

And let me tpeab ) for, not being inno- 



And preoiiee set upon me, that hrncefm}). 
Only my genllenees shall make me grre^ 
Hy hnnifalenets exalt me. Awful Spirita, 
Be witness that I stand in your reprocd" 
Bnt one ton's length of)' fioia my hapt>i* 

Happy, as I have said, to look aronad — 
Clou- to look up ! — .^jid now 1 I need not 

Ye see me what I am j ye scorn me so, — 
Beeanse ye see me what I have made my- 
self 
From God's best mtdting t Alas,~peace 

Love wtDOged, — and virtne fbrfeit, and 

tears wept 
Upon all, raialy I Alas, me ■ alas. 
Who have undone mys^ from al] that's 

beet. 
Fairest and sweetest, to this wretchedest. 
Saddest and most defiled — cast out, east 

What word melei absolnle loss 7 let abso- 
lute lou 
Safficeyouforrevengc. For I, wbo lired 
Beneath the wings of angels yesterday. 
Wander to-day beneath theroofiess world! ' 
I, reigning the earth's empress, yesteHsy, 
Pnl off ftom Eie, to-day, yonr hate with 

prayeni 
r, yesterday, who answered the L«rd God, 
Composed and glad, aa singinK-biids the 

Might shriek now fiom oor dismal desert, 

"God," 
And hear Him make reply, "Whatisthy 

Thou whom I cursed (o-day ?" 



£re. 



it last, 



Who yesterday was belpniale and delight 
Unto my Adam, am to-daj the grief 
And corse-mete for him I And, so, pity na. 
Ye BenlIeSpitJla,and pardon htm and me. 
And let lome tender peace, made of our 

pais. 
Grow np betwixt ue, as a tree might grow 
WithbiMgbion both sides. Intbeshade 

of which. 
When presently ye shall behold us dead, — 
For the poor sake of our humility. 
Breathe ont yonr pardon on our Inealhleal 

And drop yonr twilight dews against oar 

And stroking with mild airs, our harmleu 

Left empty of all fl-nit, perceive your lovo 
Distilling tlumigh yonr pity over as, 
And raSer it, seir-ieronoled, to past. 



lizcdbyGooi^le 



18m.] G9MTnmitU mid AAitinutratim of J 



OUTLINE SKETCH OF THE GOVERNMENT AND ADMINIS- 
TRATION OF ROME AND THE PAPAL STATES. 

■T I. S, KCADLCT. 

Thi Mbjeet bere indicated a one on stale, either Bpiritnal or tempon^, and 

which few tnTellers inqatre or rtport, has the title of Monstgnore. There 

and few re«deca know aoythin^;. Its are upwards of two handred of them tn 

IKraelly will, we tnist, make tlie sketch the kingdom, eome attached to the 

■we propose to gJTc in some degree ennrt of the Pope, and others to the 

acceptable to the readera ofthc Oemo- government buarda. The office to 

eratic Re*iew. aonghl aOerehiefly bceause it is in the 

Nothisgiemorecomnionthan tooTcr- higli mad to prefenncnt, and the Pre- 

look the present policy and character late often (indeed, ueualK) becomes 

•f those eities whieh are linked, by governor of Rome, nuscio, delegate, 

such strong amoeiatinos, with ^Ithat auditor-general, or treasnrer, and aome- 

is great in the history of the Mat. times gets « seat in the aacred college, 

Rome haa hernins — her Fonnn, Coli- among the oardinals. His costume 

seittn, Capitoline and Palatine hills ; dieiinguiehee him from other officers, 

•he baa aJto her St. John in Laterane, fa; the short black silk oloak and violet 

Maiia Haggiore, and St. Peter's, all stockings. 

iinposiiig and foil of interest. But Tlie proTineea mentioned aboTS are 
Rmne has alto her schools, her eoorta each subdivided into dietricis, hav- 
<tf jnattee, and berpdiiies; and, amid iog their own peculiar local govern- 
all, her magnificent ediflcee and great ment, siibjeci, however, to these head 
bistories. It is not of least in- Legates, or Del^ales. 
teteet to look into her secret policy. The government of the kingdom is 
and see how it goes, in practical mat- an elective bierarehy, the Pope be- 
ters, with what is left of the Old Km- ing its head. He is chosen by the Col- 
pire. lege of Cardinals, wboaeoomber is limit- 

Aethots differ as to the nnmber of ed to serentj, tfaongh it boa never yet 

a^ara miles in the PapiJ Slates. The reached, we believe, that nnmber. 

government generally make tbe super- When the Pope dies, they are shot up 

ficial ares about 13,000 Italian iqaare in the papal palace on the Quirinal, ana 

miles, of sixty to a degree. The are not allowed to come out or commii' 

Raceoha, ar censas, of IS33, makes nieate with each other, except to cast 

the popolalioD of this territory 2,739,- their ballots, until the Pope is elected. 

736. Poor as the inhabitants sre, only A majority of two-thirds is necessaiT 

one-third of Ibis territory is cnllivated. to a choice, Austria, France aiut Spain 

The dominions of the Pope are di- having the power to pot each ita vetw 

Tided into twenty prorincea, the larg- on one candidate. During the nine 

est of which is the Comsrea of Rome, days between the Pope's death and fii- 

inehiding in its limits Tivoli, Rome neral, the chief power is exercised b)r 

and Sabiaco. I^e remaining nine- the Cardinal Chamberlain, who can 

teen are divided into two diftercnt coin money daring that time in his own 

elaases, called Legations and Delega- name, impressed with his own coat of 

lions, tbe former of which are gov- arms, — and the wa^ he rattles it off does 

emed by Cardbials, and the latter by great credit to his bosiness qnalitiee. 

Prelates. And hers, by the way, I During that time tbe edicts go fortk 

■tight tKf, dial the office of Prelate is from St. John's, it being the Mother 

eonfined to the Papal States, and be Chorch. 

may or may not be a bishop. Indeed, Tbe administration of the goveti^ 

it is not at alt neceeaary he sboald be ment is carried on, nitder the I^pe, by 

In holy orders, and if be does not take a Cardinal Seeretary of State, and sev. 

ordination he goes bnek into tbe rank eral boards, or, aa tbey Br# ealted, 

•f laymen, when he retires from office. Congregaiioni, *ii.,the Camera Apo*- 

He is a sort of under secretary of tolica, ar Finasetal Department, the / ~' 



Googlz 



fi GoeertutieHl and Admmitlration of Some, tic. V^t 

Cuwelleriai tbe Distent, knd the Feni- town, iail of whom retite emj two 
teniitn or Secret InquiBition. The yeftts wittiiheG(Hifitli>iiiflie,or Miijror, 
mlv life office under the Pope, is that This Coniwil uaautfafl rmtea,&<)., mud 



of CardioBl Chamberlain, (be lesl being an annual budget is preMnted to tbem 
M the diepoMl of his Holinesa. The by the Mavor, wbicn, after it receivM 
GoTernoi of Rome poMCHses great their ssnciion, is iubmitled to the Del- 



power, and cannot be deprived of his ^te, who in his turn acnds ii 
office. He can, however, be promoted Buon Govemo, which is composed of 
into the College of Cardinsua, if he tweWe Caidiotla aod Prelates, afkor 
riioold exeicisa his power too freelv ; which it is returned to the eommuiM, 
and thns cease to be goreinor. If he and becomes law. The municiptl ao- 
bocomes too frastious, his promotion is Ihorities can discharge qo account with- 
certain. He has coqItoI OTsr all the out this furmalily, and not a dollar can 
Comarea, nnlimited power over the be raised without it, eren foe local nut- 
police, and can himseif inflict capital poses. This is not, perhaps, an ill-bal- 
pDaishmeDt. It is the AucUtor's bust- anced Bystem on the whole, and were 
ness to examine the titles of all candl- it not in a tyrannical gOTCiainent, might 
dates for bishoprics, and decide cases work well, iboagb slowly. But th» 
of appeal ID the Pope. The Cancelle- difficulty is, one spirit perTadea the 
ria, mentioned above, is the Chancery whole, and (be checks on the pei^Ia 
Court, and (he Dataria, a court for ec- are not from the people, but from the 
olcsiastieal benefices. To these might Pope, so that there is the semblanctt 
be added the Buon Gov erno for the Mu- of freedom, without its enjoyment. 
nicipal Police, the Congrcgnzione de There is no use in legislating, when 
Monti forthepublic debts, and the Sacra men are not allowed to legislate except 
Consutta. in one wav. The veto power of too 
The LeBStesand Delegates, who ad- Pope is, after alt, by this very system, 
minister the goverpment of the pro- extended to the minatest matters. 
Tinees, are assisted by a Council (called The Pope receives less as a moo- 



Congregaaione di Govemo}, composed arch, than most men imagine. The 
of the Uayot of the principal town, average rovonne of the Papal States te 
called the Gonfaloniere. and from two less than ClO.OOO^O. It costs sim- 



o four Councillors, designated by the ply to collect this sum, about £2,320,' 
Pope, and linlding office two years. 000. Then there goes to pay the in- 
Thenumber of Councillors corresponds lerest of the public debt 93,547,655. 
to the rank of the provinces — the first The government and state expenses 
clasa having four, the second three, and are nearly 4500,000, and about the 
the third two. These Councillors, same amount goes to the Cardinals, 
however, have bat little power. They Foreign Ministers, tie., to say nothing 
have no vote on questions, and can only of hospitals, festivals, Ac, &e. The 
send to the Pope their written objec- expenses of the Court are about (300,- 
tious to a decision of the Delegate. 000, of which the Pope gets onlv a 
The Delegate has also two ABsessoia, small portion. Many an English bisnop 
who are judges in civil cases, in the is better secured in his pecuntatr 
principal towns, but they must not be emoluments than the Pope himselt 
natives of the province. So, also, There is one thing to be taken into 
eleven of the Delegations are cut up constdet^on, however ; the eecleaiao- 
iolo districts, each ruled by a Governor, ticai revenue does not enter at all into 
wlu) cannot bea nativeof the province, the Stale returns, and its amount is 
and who is subject to the Delegate, known only to his Holiness, and his ad- 
Tbese Governors sit as judges in cer- visers. Indeed, we think that the Pope 
tain civil and criminal cases in the die- derives very little pecuniary profit from 
tricts. his temporal power; what he has, be it 
These districts are again divided into more or less, comes ia the shape of 
communes, with their Council, eorres- church revenue, 
ponding to our.Common Councils, pre- But what a miserable slate of oivil 
udedover by the iownGonraloniere,or and municipal government must a king- 
Mayor, elected out of the Council, and dom be in, when it takes more than 
holding his place for two years. He is one-fifth of the entire rectipti to collect 
assisted by Aaziani, or AJdermen, from tA« rtveaue ! On some of (he revennet 
two to six, according to the size of the the cost of collecting is 60 per cent.-^ 



Google 



1844.] GwtrwMfU and AAimuHralion of Rtmt, tie. M 

•■ lotteriM 69 Mr MDt. The tnureM of Cliristendaai.DnwfaDM deeu4oin At 

•f tfae pnbliedeU u neutySSperoeiii. eirilaed woild wuMd with awe anl 

«ii the wMe nett i«*eiKia of the king- deference. Prot»bly no court irf thm 

don. Pftit of tbi> intereM is pud U worid hu erer hmd eaoh eway, aiti 

Milan, the reat at Paria fiw Frenck commanded aaeb ictpeet, w tfaia Sacnt 

loaaa. Rooia. It atill OTerabadowi tbe Pwpil 

The Papal nary enuiste of two Statea, and extsoda its iDflnenee into 

Meanma, and a few gen bii|a, and tbe tbe Catholic countriee of Eoit^. It 

■tanding aimy ie ODly about 14,000 ii compoeed of twehe pieUtoe. 8ts 

Bfln, whioh eomtitate no efieetite of tbeae are appoiatod by the pepo— 

ftcee, either fbr offence or defimee. the other eix by different kiagdoma of 

The King of Sardinia alone, haa a Europe. Fianoe appeiQU one, Spain 

aUndiof aimy of 80,000. His Holi- two, Oermany and Uilan eaeh (rflhen 

neia Inna on AuMria in alt belligerent one, and Tuscany and Peragia titn- 

iMtten, aod although it ia oootrary lo nataly the namtning niembet. Thta 

a Pual decree that any foreign anny court gim the reaaona of ita deciaiona^ 

aboold qoaiter in the kingdom, Auatna which can be reviewed by itaelf, or oat^ 

teepa a ganieon in Femra. Withoat ried to the Supreme Court of the Ca- 

tUseonstantoTer^adowingof theAuB- mera Apoatolica. No great eanae ia 

uiao army, Italy wonld be conTulied eonaiderod aeitled nntil two Jndgneatai > 

in three momlw by her internal agit*- agreeing wtdi each other, hare beei 

tiona. pronounced upon it, diat is, either ■ 

Jnttiee is adrainiatered on the Canon eecond Jodgoient on review t^ the 8k- 

kw, and the lawa of the "Corp«s en Roota, or jodgment by the Camet* 

Jiuis." Tbe Pope ^points tbe Jndgee, Apoetolioa. Beftre all Ihia yntoeaa is 

who muat be 30 yean of age, doctora gone Ihrongh with, death often pvo- 

of law, and five years nraetiaing advc^ oenncea aentenoe on the poor praaa 

eatei. We hare mtieed before that ontor himedf. Thna a caae which ibo 

the Geremer of a country district bas goremment may not care to have act- 

Inriadiotion over both civil and orim- ed on at all, eaa be as effectually laid 

inal cases, of a minor chaTnotar ; ia to rest in the very heart of ha in^prifi- 

eivil caaea for any sum up to C300, cent eonrts, as the moat despoiio Uag 

ia eriminal caaea, for slight offencet ; eould wish. 

though his decinona can be sppenled In erimind eases, the dspoaitieae at« 
irom. In the luge towna, stnaH written down, and the whole ea«ae ear- 
offencea, m we have already remarked Had on and completed with elooed 
befMo, are decidod opon by the aseees- doors. Oorarnment prtvridea a son of 
OTs of the delegate. In every provimo moraer-general, wboeo aorvieea ths 
there ie a court, ealted the Collegiate acoiieed a«n alwaya command. He ia 
CoBTt, haling loiiediotioB over the appointed by the Pi^w, and ooppMed 
whole provinoe, both in civil and crim- m aulary, and cMiithe Apcoeato dei 
inal caeee. This conrt is compoeed of Pmgri (advocato of the poor). Thia 
tbe delegate of the province, hia two would not be a bad plan ftr vs to adopt. 
asaeBean,ajBdge,andBmeaiberafthe , An attomey-genenllo <fe/iiM(thepoor, 
oetnmon conncii. All appeals f^om the ralhsr than one to acense them, wonUt 
local governors and ■wceeore, are car- we think, belter snbeerve the ends of 
lied to this court ; but its decisionB are justice. In the Segnatara and Sacra 
not final. The provinces have three Huota, the adTocalcsBro cempetled ta 
eonrta of appeal from the Collegiate Eiddresa the court in Latin, a piMttea 
Conn; one at Bologna, another at Ha- certainly tending to secure ihoriapoeeh- 
cerata, and a third the Segnstura of es, and allow very little rhetoric. 
Rome. If, on appeal, the first decision This Hystem, faulty as it is, cooU ba 
be enatained, the thing is settled for home with, were it not that in all erimi- 
0ver ; but, if it is teversed, then the nal offences, the suspected person may 
ease is carried to the Segnatura, whose be imprisoned merely on tiupieititt, ad 
basineee it is to decide whether further indejinitum. The accused may Ian- 
prosecution may or mav not be permit- gniah hta life away, withoat the power 
ted. If it bedecided that the auitina.y of briaging his case to trial. Thia 
still be proaecDied, it goes iota the Sa- gives to those exercising aothority tho 
era Rnola, formerly the Supreme Court power of shutting up in prison an eaa- 



Google 



ia their ws;, vrjEhout utswering for il appeal gnuted. 



Z 



to *»j Mithly iiiboDal. Under siiDh a We bave eztesded this utide M 

•m, there oan be no end or liinit* to much fHrther tbui we SBtioipated, that 

__._ injuatioe that mtj be piuLised. we can gire bat a ward to tlie aobjeOt 

The poor are perfectly in the powei of of Education. The edncaiioDal ^b- 

tbe public officers, to be used, flight- tern of the Papal Statte is dirided into 

ened, or iuiprisonod, as they like, three parts ; Unireraities, Bisb^i^ 

What makes it still worse is, that meo scbools, snd eonnnon sobools. Tba 

MBimprtsoned ontheslishtsst oITeiiceB, eliaiscter of the UoiTerBtUes is wtU 

while bail ia net er allowed. This known ; the Bishops' schools answer 

keeps the prisons choked with Ticiims, sonewbat in rank to otu academies, 

and the itmocent man is more likely to and the parish schools are aimilai t* 

stay there than the guilty, for his aa- out own, except that tha edocatiim is 

ensar will not be inolioed to risk his cliiefly rsligioua. \ The GorenMcot 

olisntetsl, or expose bis tyranCiy, by fsntiEhea the oeans of edneatioii to 

aUowioff the man he has injured to ap- about o«e in fifly of the entire tK^wla- 

pear in tiis own defence. It ia a btun' tion. About thiee-foarlhs of tfae ehib- 

ing disgtftee to the admiaisiration of dren of Rome reeeire gralniioua in- 

^e Pa^ Slates, that this injustice is straction ; and there sie 378 eouBKn 

•llowed to exist. Tfae practical results aohools in the city, containing id aK 

al so lile a system are such as one 14,000 scholars. Parish priests ar« 

woald expect. It ia estimated that the teachers, asd corporeal p ' ' 



6000 ar« imprisoned in the Papal States is stric^y forbidden. There is DO wo- 

QTerr year, whieh is about one to er ery vision far edooating (he females. 

fiMinuHdred and ffly-five of the entire Those of tbs higher classes go ioto 

p<^tdation. Crime, or uiynst imprison- the conTeota, while the poor are tui^M 

vent, mtist be ft«qnent, to have one out in some of the charilahle institutioaai 

«f every five hundrsd and fifty see the called CanBerrstori. Edneatioa is ia 

innda oi a prisoii aaauatly. a low state, and the igtMranoe of the 

In addition to the Courts ws have poor most deplonble. 
BSOtieiMd, are the Ecoteuaetical In the ^nve article we have bad IM 

Coarta, whose duty it is to decide on reference to the Catholio religioDi fanc 

all natters that come uoder the juris- have »poken of the Pope's dominiaM 

dietioa of the eburcb. The chief Ea> aa a politieal State ; giving simpjy >a 

deataslieal Court is the Pecitenziers, outline of its civil and municipal inmi~ 

«■ Secret Ipqnisition, composed of tutions, and the manner in whicb As 

lIuTtwB Cardiaals, one acting as Pre- governiaent is carried on. 
sidetrt, and a prelate acting as assessor. 



■r ELiiAs BTH B. Biaarrr. 
Wrat are we sst on earth for ! Say, to toil — 
Nor seek to leave the tending of the vines, 
For all the heat o' the day, tul it decliues, 
And Death's mild curfew shall from work assoU. 
God did anoint thee with bis odorous oil. 
To wrestle, not to reigo ; and Ue assigns 
All thy tears over, like pure cryBtallieeB, 
For younger fellow-workers of the soil 
To wear for amulets. So otbera shall 
Take patience, labor, to their heart and hands. 
From thy hands, and thy heart, and thy brave cheer. 
And God's grace fructify ifaron^h thee to all. 
The least flower, with a brimming cup, may stand, 
And share its dew-drop with anouier near. 



=1 Google 



SUMMER LOVE. 

TaiRB wu a joalb who IWed beneath the sun 
TbBt streams upon the balmy Indian shore, 

Among all fairest jouths the faireat one 

That roamed its hill-sidei and aaTaoDBha o'er. 

Id a few Buniiner monthi his conrse was tun, 
And ne'er returned that gtacefnl footstep more ; 

Ov«r that silent life my thought has bent. 

And bailded to its &me an unknom monumept. 

If what thereaa is carved may pleasure thee, 

A deeper beauty muat it ever wear ; 
Within me it is reared so ouiiously — 

Half crowned with memory and wreathed with c: 
Not of mine own, but spirits tenderly 

FreaerTs a feeble form when Lore ia there ; 
He was my friend, (hough we each other knew 
Without famUiar inteiconrae, as spirits do. 

Hia hce was very fair ; hit large ealia eyas. 

Not all anlighted with a ailent fire. 
Lay as in some awset b«wet of surprise, 

With a full BBDse of beauty growing nigher, 
A« who eniraitced ahould see Sie morning liae. 

And the cool atars in deeper light expire ; 
His words were few — tbea first it seemed to me 
Why o'er the watery deep, God brooded silently. 

Hia wwidrmis beauty araoog other men 

Won fat hia brow the golden crown of praise, 

For when one looked at him, he looked again. 
Noting bis graceful carriage and hia wsya ; 

Not ahvays some withoat a lenae of pain. 



And women looked at him with peaceful heart. 
As on a summer landscape, not to be 

With cmel aeiGshnesa withheld apart. 
To aome dim home a honsehold melody; 

For hii full life, unmoulded by low art, 
Flowed largely out like the unmeaaured sea. 

And a deep health to them hia presence bote, 

Aa when they saw the ooean rolling to the shore. 

We met as strangera meet ; aeareely a word 
Waa spokeu by us, but our glances fell 

Upon each other, and our hearts were alirrad. 
Though of that motion he did never tell, 

Yet the coal silence from bis features heard 
What words had never spoken half so well. 

The air was wanned by those heart-gushing twantt. 

And flowed with freer tide Ufe'a hidden atmins. 



I =y Google 



Stimmtr Lavt' 

Tet Minetmiea 1 would fsio )»Te told to him, 
What plewant paiii be woke within mj bteut ; 

I B*zed upon bim liU my eyes were dim. 
Then his remembrance was the charm of reat ; 

He waa m one who slogeth & far bynui, 
EInding ever, yet eoticing, quest. 

I WMted eftgetl;, bat could Dot g&se. 

With burning earnestness upon that placid face. 

He left his home while yet his years were few. 
And euTtest hopes were wove like silken saile. 

The soundless ocean-paths to wafl him through, 
FillM quite out, for prayers are fav'ring g^a. 

He sought the nonh while aammer yet was near. 
And later spring-time told its sunny tales, 

Twa* then I saw him first, and only then; 

Silent we parted theio and met no more again. 

In the still fragrance of the summer honra, 
I sat alone and dreamed what we misht be, 

Fair dreams Ibac wreathed ray beating brow with fli 
Culled from the garden of dim fantasy. 

I lived the future in those golden bowers. 



That he conid not be fair, as him of whom 1 drbimed. 

I said we parted and my eyes no more 
Revelled amid such beauty'a fairy prime ; 

With willmg gaze he saw his native share, 
Heard with deep Joy the old accostomed etume. 

That knelled soon his pale, cold body o'er. 
In the wan dying of the smniner time. 

My heart was very calm, when it was said 

That the young atianger in his island heme wm dead. 

My heart was calm, but evermore a fitir 
And shadowy presence atieamad my life around. 

Like the faint perfume of the morning air. 
Sweetened fy early flowers or sprmg birds' aonnd. 

But never early Bowers or apring bird there 
Amid the dewy freshness oanH found. 

Ah ! might 1 speak the thought that 1 would say ! 

When the deep founts are fUl, the waters eUi away. 

Tis pietnred here, that calm majeaiic face, 
Informed with beauty which the aoul confers. 

His motions liquid with a floniog grace. 
As when the wooing wind the tall tree stirs. 

The heart outlookiog with a regal ^aze. 
Like a true king upon his worabippers. 

The Indian boy deeps silent o'er the sea, 

" Q a gentle spirit glides with me. 



lizcdbyGoOl^Ic 



IBt*.} Ptrtito't C*ItnHto#. 



PERSiCO'S COLUMBUS. 

Oom lart Number eonuised & j*pa idioM retohd have changed Ibe cW- 

fisiB k Yihted eoutribmtor, Mr, Alex* acter knd condition of the world. The 

>ader H. Eveiett, devoted to one noble wondering beholder in irreaiBtiblr im< 

pndoctton of the cbiMl, with which preued with all the higher focnities of 

the fedeta] Capitol ha* beea recentlj patient endoruice, el«*ated pnrpoae, 

adorned, Greenong-h'a colowal etatoe diicnminating jndj^ent, and the well 

of Washington. At the period at balanced apirit of reiolntion and of 

wtiieh the aceompliehed writer waa U eontummation whieh are developed 

Waehinpon, gasing npon the wotIc to and hannonized in the head of Colum- 

whicb it waa a grateful taak i« reader bna. Mied, majeaty and grandeur per- 

ha Jnat meed it praiae, another glo- vade, and thoagbt aeema to niter the 

riooa peifomuDce in the aame glorioua poetical realiaaiion of all thq principlea 

an had not ][et been ereeted to ita at wfaieh an ignvraat world liad scoffed. 

placet M>d exhibited to the public eye. One ia not ■pproached as with etatuuj 

We lefer to Pemco's mop of Cotnm- generally.and ether works of the aame 

bne and a female Indiao, with which soolptor which stand near by (the 

(be east part of the Capitol is now stainea of Pccce and War, eminentl; 

adorned. Hod it then boen visible, it distingnished for ability), fail in the 

wonld not have fuled to receive from effect of this compcaition. 

the suae elegant and ^rscefnl pen a " In Columbus, there ia an eloquent 

Dotiee better worthy of its merita, than and toaehing appeal to the feelings, an 

tlut whidi we now hasten with [JMaure enersy of character, and an emotion 

n anp^ly. which excites and moves, which per- 

> !.._«! __.. 1_... ■_ -■__ ,uajei to esteem, and carries recoUeo- 

tion along through the dark chamber* 

Coinotding aa his views do for the of five cenlurjea, placing ns,a8 it were, 

■KMt part vrith ont own, we cheerfaily &ee to face, with a oommcn aneeator, 

adopt in quoting them r ^istioguiahed bejond the men of his 

" By far, the greatest object ef at- time, and foremoat in the march of 

tnetiun and admiration at Washington civilisation and Chriatisnitv. Even 

is Penieo'a laat and best work, the Ihia generation, in the mind a eye, haa 

Discoverer and Diaeovered of Ameriea, formed a felloivship with the man and 

whieh now oeenpiea its permanent bis a^e ; and the prompting;, both of 

resting-place, in rtoot of the eaatem affection nnd reverence, urge the Ame- 

portico of the Capitol bnilding. As a rican heart, as it expands in glowing 

work of art, of prcdific genina, of in- homage to the discoverer of a Cont^ 

tellectnal conception, of precise and nent, desijjpied as the experiment and 

admirable execaiion, thia groap, eon- perpetuation of free institutiona. 

■iBting of Colnmbua, at the moment be " The Indian figure is of exliaordi- 

Nalicee his theory of the rotundity of nary ease and most pleasing attitude, 

the earth, whieh ia aimpty yet beauti- She ia unnoticed by Columbus, bot is 

Ally illostrated by the globe held forth herself alarmed at the advent of this 

trinroptiantly in the right hand, and the mailed discoverer. Every characteris- 

ilgare of an Indian female, startled at tie feature of that peculiar race is most 

die approach of the bold adventurer, appropriately blended and developed in 

pMseirts no entire picture, unequalled the lineaments and symmetry of this 

to graee, and unapproached in majesty, animated marble ; and the combiDatioii 

by anything which native or foreign is so perfect, and the scene ao real lo 

talent aSbrde in the public or private the active mind, that it wants but a 

coUeetione of the country. The anist Prometheos to act the machine of life 

haa graeped the hiatory of the man, in motion. Ignorartce, aa uaual, has 

his undismayed courage amidst all vi- become quite offended at the indelicacy 

eiaaitndeB, the providential mklance of this flgnre, because the drapery haa 

whieh overruled his destiny, ue great fallen nauirally and gracefully at Um 
^m and the beginning of an smerpiise, insiant of faei stuprise, which ^scOTera 



Google 



H Perueo't CWumiuf . V^fyi 

propoTtians that prndu think ougfat to Thete ia but one mistake which it ia 
M baDdaged up with ^reat oare, and DVceaaaTj to coireot in tbe above, 
eonoealed from obaeiTalion. Saoh ridi- The author haii after all but imperfectly 
coloua pratensions to deeenoj and deli- conceiTed the true sraodear of tim 
cae; bave too often oKt tbe Tsbtik« idea of the artist. Its miin point Ja 
they deaerTC, to requite either ar^- this — that Columbus is auppoaed to be 
iMiiC or cenatue bow. Sin and crime looking towards Europe frooi the New 
are meaaurad b; the degree of inleniion World of whii.h be has jiut coosou- 
which iuQueaces the act ; and, in the mated the discoverr ; and in that New 
taoial woiEd, Duritj oonsista, not in the World, from the Capitol of the great 
obseiranca of a coaventional code, or Ameiiaan Union, the spot whii^ ma; 
the edicts of morbid aociety, hiii in the be regarded as the moat inteoae con- 
heart, and iha inner temple of all tbings oentiatioa, lo a ainglo point, of ths 
sacred. Tbe female, of proper capa- whole idea of the daatinj of the New 
city and edncation, who would except Continent, both as to ita own incalcuhv- 
to the simple and graceful postnre of bla future and as to tits reaction of its 
this unpolished but honest Indian, has influence on the test of the world. 
much need to ciamiae ber own con- From this spot, erect in an attitude of 
science, leit association and tbe liberal gnnd and glorious exullati«q, with tlw 
doctrioea of bshionable life hare mis- figure advanced as in an eager uneal 
led her judgment and shaken ber ^in- to the attention of tbe old world to 
ciples J ano the more fastidious, and which be addresses the triumph of hia 
less intellectual, will see in thi* picture d^iionsiratioa, he thus eibibits, majse- 
a lesson of nature in its primitive beau- tically silent, in the globe held high 
tj, greatij in contrast with the vulgar aloft in his right hand, hia reply to all 
and loathing accomplu/mitnti of the ths sneers of incredulity, and tbe per- 
toilet, so pruminenlty elaborate is them- aecuLiona of malignity, with which his 
selves, outraging every notion of pro- wild and visionary projects had been 
ptieiy, and utterly at war with the sen- received. Some acconnts we hav« 
timents of a truly virtuous woman. In >e«n of the group aasnme that it te- 
the whole work, there is everything to presents Columbus na in tbe act of 
admire and nothing to condemn. It is landing on tbe shores of the New 
sablimo wiihout pretension and great World. This is a total misconoeption, 
without effort. * as the view of the writer from wfaom 

" The marble used in this work was we have quoted is an imperfect concep- 

lakeo from the recently opened quarry lion, of the sculptor's sublime design- 

of La Psila, at Sira-Verra, between Manifest as tbe whole story of lb» 

Pisa and Carrara, about twenty miles group is upon ita surbee, we are only 

distant Irom tbe latter. It differs from surptiaed that this explaoatioB sbould 

the Carrara marble, of which the be necessary to any beholder. 

Statues of Peace and War are com- The female Indian figure by tlie aiite 

posed, being harder, whiter, more of Columbus la wonhy of no leas 

trsn^arent and impervious to almos- praise. The two together well r^re- 

pherio action, for which quality it was aenl tbe roesting of the two races ; 

selected. Tranipareitcy seems a sin- and at the same time that the selection 

gular expression la apply to a heavy of the female sex for the Indian allows 

bedy of marble, but it requites on!/ lo tbe aoulpior to odd to the general ef- 

be studied under the influence of s feet of the whole oil the cbaim an4 

vertical sun, to realiie the life-bestaw' grace of womanly lovdiness, a just 

mg lustre which it sheds not only upon, idea is exhibited, in its compaiativa 

But thraugk tbe figures. physical weakness and manifest moral 

" Peraico was employed five years and intoiiectual inferiority, of the nui- 

npon this creation of his genius, and tual relation of the two raees as tbay 

the loarble was tranaported to hia are for the first time brought into cnn- 

stndio in Naples, a distance of TOO tact. Intent on the mighty thoughts 

utiles from the quarry. The armor with whieb his great heart ia sweUiDE 

upon the statue of Columbus, is accu- — ihoughia which deal with worlds SM 

rale to a rivet, having been copied ages — the Columbus pays no bead ta 

from a suit in the palace of the de- tbe half- frightened, hal^adoring fonn, 

acendsnis of the Discoverer, at Gnea. which, front beside him, is gasing up 

The ce» of Ihe groap is $30,000." in beauUful wonder on tb 



rioogic 



MM.} JTmtUy JVimhcmI nd Cotmiureial ArtiOt, ffj 

■ttuger who Iim dMconded like a lime mononimt to thg mwmarf of tho 

iBTOluioo rrom hea*ea. The whole aoulplor whom it has placed ia the 

WMieptiun is truly great ; its esecutioe taij front rank of tbe ut of bU age. 
Mniute ; and it will coaatitute a auh. 



UONTHLY FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL ARTICLE. 

T>a marketa continoe to erince the of comnMree id the Umob. Prieea of 
yragieaa of that apecalatioo caDaequeat all desctiptiona of goods fell, and money 
■pon the violent chanm in the ehan- beeanM a perfect drug. Mercantile 
nele of buaineM, caused by the ruthless enierprise had besn oruahed, trad^ 
and sudden increase of the tariff from a paralyzed, and there was no emploj* 
lange of 30 to 35 per cent. The cum- menl fur money. In the meantime, 
promise act of lb32 provided fur a by the process of cnnsompiioa with 
gTadntJ reduction of the then level of small tappltea, the stocks of goods on 
ostiea, from 3S per cent, to 20 per the aca-boaid and in the towns of the 
cent., in a period of ten jears, which interioi became greatly reduced ; gra- 
waa a time aufficiently short in order dually, the actual wants of the people 
Wt to disturb the interests which had leading to new purchases, prices hegan 
^wn np under the high tariff, or to to advance, and they new feel the full 
iBJnre the espital whicE by its opera- weight of the tariff as we illustrated in . 
tioti had been drawn into particular our Number for May, in the article of 
pursuits. When the unconstitutional iron, whioh has egam considerably ad* 
and impolitic principle of protection vsnced. The effect of the stagnation 
had once been adopted, it was in some of trade caused by the sudden raising 
degree due to the Innocent third par- of the lariB", was unqnestionably the 
ties, who bad availed themselves of its accumuktiun of idle capital. This mo- 
Hppoaed bane&ta, that time sboold he ney for a length of time remained un- 
lives them to escape the evils of a employed, but gradually stimulated a 
new ohsa^e in policy. The justice of great speculation in slocks. Had the 
diis principle was admitted and gene- public credit of the several States been 
lallj acquiesced in by the adoption of unimpaired and the fearful disasters in 
the oompromiae act providing fur bien- the stock market not of so recent a 
aial and small reductions, until the date, there is nu doubt but one of lh« 
fenaral level of 30 per cent, was greatest bubbles the world has ever 
nached in 1842. In that period great witnessed would now be in active pro- 
oommercial interest* had sprnng up, ceesof inflation; as it is, the abundance 
and vast capitals were employed in the of money has promoted scenes of specn- 
eommerce of the country, gradually latian, which, had they been predicted 
increasing under the descending scale twelve months since, would have heen 
of dotie*. In the new revision of the considered as hut the Tisiona of lunacy. 
tariff, no thuaght and no heed was Stocks of the most worthless deecrip- 
given to the wsote and wishes itf this Jion rise in price several per cent, in % 
lai-ge class, bnt in 40 days the duty day, and continns lo advance, although 
wsa raised from 30 to 36 per cenk, admitted on all sides to be petfecuy 
being to the eame level from which, to worthless. This is the natural eflsel 

CDleet manufacturers, ten ^eais had of forcibly throwing money by process 

en allowed for the reduction. The of law, out of the regular cbanneli of 

iaiaeliea of such incoiuidetaie legisla- busineas and compelling it to find em- 

tion is aelf-evident, and its effects are ploymeot even in the demonliaing 

■ow beginning to be felt. The first speeulatkona of the stock mailet. If 

MM of these high dutiea was marked fromthepresentlariffofSSperceoL the 

aj a perfect atagnation of trade, a great dutiea should be immediatf'y taken off 

(timiBotioa of revenue, and an acenmu- and entire free trade adojAed, pnibaMj 

iMioB of capital at all the great MDiros aorae •^0,000,000 of espilsl now em- 

'"■ "-"'"■ ■•"'"■ ' Googk 



98 Honthly Fiaaneiat and Commtreiat ArlicU. V^Tt 

plojrei] in inaiiiirBi^tDrinK would be with- ft loan of 9500,000, 6 p^r.ceot., Ift 

drkwn, and remnin idle iinul dissemL' years to run at ll per c«lut. prEoiium, 

asied in the nhannels uf trade. In the to pay cuntiactuia, lieing pari uf iii« 

meantime the efTurts of lis ownere to eoOO.OOOautliurjlt'dat Iheaieseseiua; 

make it tempotarily productive, wuuld one yar since, a bI^ per cent, stuck of 

foBler JmraeDse speculation. The sud- the same tenor brought 9.25 per cent, 

deo advaoce in the tariif haa had the premium. Ttae cquiraleol in a aix 

lame eSecc upon capital employed in per cent, stock for a fire per cenL at 

IrtuJe and commerce. The tans' of 1} premium would be 113, hence ths 

IS38 produced the same result. Capi- Talue of New Yurk stock within the 

tal accumulated, and stimulated into jear has advanced 10.5 per cent. If 

life those speculations, which, assisted we Iwik back at the terms at which 

S other causes, swelled until the ex- New Yuik slock have been negotiated, 

)sinn dishonored ten sovereign States we shall have a good index of the sUtU 

of (he Union. of the money market al different per^ 

The State of New York has obtained ods, as follows : 

ERMS OH WHICH THB HEW TORX CANAL DEBT WAB COKTEACTCD, WITH THI 
TALUS or THE BT0C8 TO TWU> PITE PBR CENT. 



% 



an.Hi 
xo,aa 
n.na 
M3.tm 



In 1840, under tlie influence of dia- portion of those stocks sobseqnenl);' 

credit, the & per cent, stock sold at 17 tecams worthless, and the preMOt 

per cent, below its actual value. The speculationa thus far ran more int(> lb« 

rate of interest was then raised to fl resusoilsuun of (hose stooks than Iho 

per cent., which sold, in liMS, I3'4 creation of new ones. Sohscriptiona 

per cent, below its actual value, to for two impoflant niilroadB are, how- 

yield 5 per cent, during the time it had ever, in prioress of filling tip. Th« 

to run. At that time the first move- Erie Railroad and a road to coorkect 

meni towards a restoration of credit of the New Haren and Hartford Railroad 

the Union was made in (he Legislature with the New York line. A charter 

of New York, by the impiwition of the for this company, with a capital not to 

mill tax, and stopping the issue ' of esL'eed $3,000,000, has reaenily been 

ttonb. Il appears, then, from depre- obtained from the Le^islatnre uf Con- 

eiuian the v^ua of New York stocks necticut. This road, by cooneoting 

his risen to the level they occu- with the Harlem, will throw open ta 

pied in leSR, when the accDmuh tion o^ this city a comraunieatirm with the ex- 

capital consequent npon the ennrmoua tensive chain nf railroads crossing New 

tariff of thai jear, commenced sLimu- England in every direction, and wliicli 

lating speculation. In 1830 it appears, having cost some 831,000,000, com. 

Mder its influence. New York S per mand a business which yields from 4 

cents, had risen to over 10 per cent, to 5 per cent, per annum. 

prenihim,BndintB33,lhey commanded The Erie Railroad, built bj indi- 

I7'&l per cent, premium. The enor- vidua! enterprise, will undiiubiedly b« 

tonus p'ices for sinck generaMy indl- a work of vast importance, but is likely 

eaied in tint value fiir Now York Fives, to exercise a material iollaenoe ojtOB 

led l« the creation of an immenBe the finances of the State. Commnai- 

amonnt of ainch of all descripliona eating with Lake Erie at a point which 

iM uiul wi tntBd \t obU. a large pro- will cemmaad the trade earlier in thn 



Google 



1844.] Monthly Fittaaeia! and Cimmeraat Artiett. M 

•pring tnd Itter in ths fall thin tha ttaDces wbich are likeljto affeet oiKta* 
Caniil, it hu the adTaotaga over thai rially ths levenuea of ihe Eiie Caoal, 
work thai it will be vpen the year mure especially when we consider iha 
round, and while the aouLhern cuuniiei fact aet forth in the able repurt of thv 
will always have free access tu the Canal ComnuBsionera, that id the last 
citf , the produce of the tresiern States fire jearB there has been actually \ da- 
will never be airesled on its wa^ lo crease in the revenue derived from iha 
market by sudden frosl, and bo obliged produce of this SlatP, and that all ths 
to be wintered over, at great expense, increase has been derived from the pio- 
in the interior. These are circuni' dace of wesCetD Stains, as follows: 
ToUl IncreMeoftolli on Erie Canal for Grefean, .... (1,730,TM 

locrewe on merebandiae, 1373,696 

InereaM OB prodaec of western States .... 1,534,987 



Deereaic on prodnels oT this Slale, 77,929 1,730,754 

The fact is here evident, ibkl nolonlj with the winding up of the pemieiona 

ioe» sll the future increase of the Eria iasues of paper mune^ which so Iniif 

tolls depend upon the trade ot the other held sway in the agricultural Stales; 

States, but that a large portion, near 30 with the cesealion of bank loans, fm- 

fet cent uf present revenues are de- gality returned, and the avenues of 

livable from that aonree. The Erie trade poar forth wealth in quanlitieaof 

Railroad, in all probability, will soon be unequalled maiiniiude, destroying tbtt 

an BGtiTB and efficient compeliior for theory that banks are in an^ way m- 

that business, in which ease the pre»- eeasary to the developmetit nf the ro- 

•nt debt uf the Slate will be found snf- eonrces of the country. Money was 

ficienlly burdensorne opon our farming never so plenty hi all sectinnt as now, 

iwpulation, who are now paying a di- exchanges » regalar, nor the means of 

rent tax moailj occasioned by the large retnitlanees ao plenty and cheap. Ths 

loam of Slate mooey to the Erie Rail- only drawback upnn the prospects of 

road, and eipended in the canal en- the country is the destruction of for- 

largemenl, for no other purpose than ts eign trade, which took place last year. 

<dme their own produce out of lb* At- This reduced our exports at a moment 

lantic markets, through th»t of the when the supplies are the largest, and 

competition of the Western States, therefore in the face of extieme abua- 

Tbat the Slate derivea large revenues dance of miiney caused prices of pro- 

from the Western'radepouriugthroDgh duoe to rule lower thao ever, white 

the canal, is perlainly a maiierof con- those of imported and manufaelured 

eatDlatio", were it not evident that the goods are exlravagsnlly high. Tht 

rger those revenues are, the more rapid rise in prices of impoired goods 

■evere is the competition with which has Induced large imports, and the ex- 

the farmers of this Slate ha*a to con- changes have risen lo a height whick 

tend. Whenihatcompeiitionisbrooght indicates that specie will speedily go 

about through Individual enterprise, aa abroad in payment, notwithstandinglhat 

will now be the case with (he Erie 'one argument used in ftvor of the im- 

Hsilroad, if that work is built at all, poaition of the Uriff was, that it would 

thfre is no cause of complaint, but it is " retain specie in the country." 

too much to ask of the agricultural io- The renewal of the charter of tha 

teretta of this Slate, that they luan Bank of England, which expires is 

their money for faciliiaiiiig an opposi- August next, is attended with ohangM 

tion lo their own buaineas, in the paper system of England, which 

The progreas of business in all sec- will have an influence in every quarter 

tione uf the c»uatry, as indicated in the of the commercial world. At the last 

awelling re*enoea of all the public renewal nf the charter, which tnok 

works, continues to present the most place In 1833, it was prorided that, apoo 

flattering indieatiooa. The Western one year's notice being given within 

trade parti ru la rty, eiinces an unprece- ail raontha afler the expiration of ih» 

denied activity, to be ascribed chiefly ten years, from August 1, 1834, snd 

to the absence io the Weatem States the payment of alt sums due by tha 

of aUapeculative action, which eeaaed putilia lo the Bank, ths chBiterod priti-.--. i. 

Coogie 



IM iffftfUy f JMMial mut CmmereM ArlicU. [Jnlr. 

kges riiall eeiM. This time ia now Boon became apparpoi that the hi^ 
rapidly approaching, but it i« the deter- level to which prices hod been raised 
nination of goTernment lo renew its in England b; the free dm of irra- 
prifilegea for ten years more, under deemable paper money, how little in- 
certain litnitalions, producing an or- convenience soever might have been 
ganic change in ihe system, with the experienced frum it while conmereid 
view of limiting the Tacillaiiohs of pa- Inlercuurse wiih oiher nations did not 

Ser money, and of prevenling an inor- exist, would be fata! to hei ascendencT 

inate rise in prices through the action when bronght inio contact with th« 

of paper money. This marks an era specie currencies of other nationa. 

in the progress of the commercial Hence (be necessity for, and the paal 

world. The Bank in question was es- sage of. Peel's hill of 1819, which 

tablished in 1694, with a capital of restored specie payments in 1691, 

£1,200,000, which was loaned to the thereby reducing the value of ptoper- 

govetoroent at 8 per cent, interest, ty and the range of prices something 

This wBStheciHnniencGment orthe fa- nearer to the level of those of oibet 

mous paper system, which has aince countries. This had for a time tbe do- 

swelled to snch enormous magnitude in aired eirect,and in some degree re«ored 

Ibe shape of government debts in ail the export trade of Britain. The im- 



nationa and the use of paper money in provemont of other ,..^. ,„ ui«ui.- 

Eogland and the United Slates. The Jactures was howaver very rapid, and 
cause of the creation of the Bank was to maintain the supremacy of England, 
the poverty of tbe government, and the it was indtspens^le to reduce the coM I 
almiMt utter imposaihility of supplying of production, which was eOecled part- 
Its wBDim by means of taxation, from ly hy remuviitg doties upon raw mats- 
the scarcity of money. The increase rials imported. The object tbns aougbt 
of the volume of the cnrreocy by means to be attained w»s, however, frustratod 
of paper, by adTancmg prices, enabled by the expansive nature of the curren- 
tke government to cidtect its taxes cy, which, alihough oonverlible into 
freely and to swell its reve«,es to an coin, wss capable of a great eipansioo, 
■Jmoat limiileas extent. Ftom a reve- which raifiiog prices, caused an expMt 
jiae of a. few thousand pounds only in of bullion that undermined the fiibtic 
1884, the government waa enabled to and produced a revulsion that, followed 
■well lis expecdiiuie to XlOO,OOO.Oao by ^ short harvest, threatened bauk- 
W 1815, by means of the operation of rnptcy. This was peculiarly the ca« 
raper. The gtios of Waletloo, white in five years, ending in 1838. DotiiM 
they dispelled the war clouds that for that period of time the eipaasioo Tt 
cenloriea had hung over the continent, bank currency had been verr aroat 
Sigoalucd the approaching eod of the and tl)e general level of prices hwt 
ijaper system. Up lo that time, Eng- risen at an average about 36 per cent 
laud, by her superior advantages, had causing large imports and greatly di- 
eojoyed a monopoly of manufacturing minishing the exports, by which meuM 
for the markets of the world. Her ex- the bullion in the Bank had been great- 
ports could not be supplied bo well ly reduced, at the same time the faai I 

.from any other quarter, and sales of her vests having been good, ihe foieiim 

manufactures were made ^most at hef com trade had ceased The inov« 

.ownprices. When, however, the peace ment ia seen in the following table 

Of EBrope became establiahed, ide in- which expresses the quantity of wheat 

dDstry of nations received anew direc- in quarters imparled into England in 

don, active competiiion to English each year, and ihe amount of ballion 

.nanufactureB started into life, and it held by the Bank at different limes. 
wi-OBT or WHiiT nrro BNei^D for bitbbai, veahs, ash thb biii.lios in Tm 
r«r. yntuunei. ^"^^ ''•"■ wt™itap,-d. B»!iioni, 

IS32 320,43S £6,283,160 1B38 JMUABODec'SO fot^Bfita 

1834 64,653 9,948,000 IS40 ],993JS7 ' Jfl^'S! 

1835 30,664 7,06O,OC0 1W2 2!668 061 lOflMDBD 
183T 244^19 4.04SJX0 1843 "mjt^ IJtmC 

."Google 



1841.] JtfmfUy Fauneiat and Conuiureial Articit. 191 

Itapp«ftl«thatffOml8311oIB37, b1- llaUe to fluctuate, sliall riM and ftS 
though DO wheat wu imported, the eiictlj in proportiun aa the apecie ia 
bulliiH) io the Bank ran down from the Bank increases ur diminithea. 7^ 
£9,0(K},000 to jCt.OOO.OOO ; when the attain ibie abject, the Bank uf Englsnl 
Bank, becoiuing alarmed, powerfully is divided into two parts ; one of iania, 
curuiled its circulation, and brought and the ulher to conduct Ihe ordinatr 
back to its vaults a large amount of banking business. All the bullion heli 
bullion, in 1S38: when, the harvest by the institutioo, is to be transferced 
beitig short, 1,241,400 qrs. of wheat to the isauins dapartuient, which shall 
were imported, causing a drain fur gold emit paper of two deacriplioni, the oat 
which, ia the fullowinfi year, redoced based upon securities coa fixed amount, ' 
the Bank to the degradation of askins and the ether on specie, — dollar Toi 
a loan of £^,500,000 of the Bank oT dollar on hand. The secuniiea are W 
France, lo avoid bankruptcy. In the CDasist of the debt due tbe Bank by tho 
four ^sars sabsequent to that event, at- gevernment, £11.000,000, and snaddi- 
thoDgh the import of wheal continued tion of £3,000,000 of exchequer bills, 
larger than ever, yet the export trade roakinr £14,000,000 asa hxedamnunt, 
inereased loan extent which not only beyond which the Bank cannot issne 
pwd for that corn, bitt a larjre amount bills far its own profit. This fixed 
of bullion in addition. The whole Kmount is supposed to bo less thao tho 
quantity of wheat imported has been, lowest sum to which the Bank eurreaey 
for 13 years, 14,730,503 qrs., at a coal is ever liable to be reduced. A.II tbe 
of £l^,43l,tlS, or an average nf 673 psfier which is put in circulation aboto 
pet quarter. Hence, in IS43, the that amount, will be represented bj 
4|itaDtiiy of wheat imported. being larger the same amount of epecie on hand; 
than ever, cost £7,003,945, wbii^h was eo that in fnct a specie currency haa 
■ot only all paid for, but near £ll,0OO- been adopted in London, at the centro 
000 was added to the bullion in tbe of the commercial world. The iuues 
vaults of the Bank. In 1843 the im- of the couDtry Banks are in like man- 
port of wheat still further declined, and ner to b« restricted to the average eir- 
the accumulation of bullion has contin- culation of the last few year*, which ia 
««d up to the present moment ; the about £7,000,000. Hence the fls«d 
neceaaary result of the immense ei- circulation of England will be £3t,000y 
ports comequeot upon the low level at 000 ; the actual otrculation ia nbir 
wbieh prices have ruled. At this par- £30,000,000; tin difference niaatfln»> 
tioelar jam;ture, so fsTotable to a tnate with the bullion in bank. Ha4 
«kang« in tbe baukiug system, the gar- this law been in operation laal year, 
aimnent has brou^t forward its pTan ; and tbe oioveinetit of apecie been tba 
tbe leading principle of which is, that tame, the effect would faafe been M 
tlnl proportion of the paper currency follows : — 



Clrmlitt«i, ^*TK 


Total. 


BoniEB. 


nta. 


cimimsa 


iLk^EjmJktBA. """■ 










lTjma.<m UB\mi 


«9.isfcm 


4Mi.mi 


mjnajM 






»l,Des.T34 


D.OMJMO 


aifiOtuM 




iB.Ma.wu i.-m-jv 




ii.3^.am 


ai.ooMaa 




nsauat a3ii.aM 


ai.-Ki.tm 




3ixioo.Ma 






aajaa^ 


»,Olt,tK» 


SLOOMW 


ajfiUM* 



Tbe aelaal oireolation, it is observS'. notes over the average, and if they ^- 

Ue, U fat less than would have been al- ply for Bank of England notes, that ••- 

lowed nnder this immense acourauU- atiuiinn. cannot issiie them nnlesatba 

lira of coin, bnt in IR4 1 the actual oir- range of the bullion warraota it, whiok 

anlatton was more than would have under such cireumatancea is not Hkely 

been allowed, and that e^ioesa arose to happen, because it ia the fall of the 

fiera the large issues nf the eonniry amnualoripecie on hand which oausM 

'Banks. When the Bank of England the Bank to curtail its own movement, 

■waa obliged to reduce its issues, that Thus England has in fact, taught bj 

reduetion created a natural demand for the vicissitudes and'disaaters ofche pa- 

money which the country Banks siip- per ayslsm, gone back to a specie cur- 

Elied : this under the new plan cannot reacy after 150 years of curreocj 

Sdoae. Tbey eaoftut iasne their own schsmiog. It ia howerer woiUty «/— i 

Coogle 



>09 Jftte BooJir. [July, 

lemftrk ihu ihe govemnient hsa not ab- e; is in openiilbn, altliongh ifiey hti*9 

aolutel]' Tiirbidden the extenaiun of sufTerfd mora than other niriona frutii 

the secumy circulaiion beyund the the abtiae of the Bystem. Nearly all 

^14,000,000, bul that it can be done llieevilg t>rthere*iil8iiin whichnvertook 

only by the consent uf ihe Queen IwnhLng hare paaaed away, mnney tl 

in council, and (hen the whole pro- abundant, the rate of iniereai liiw, ths 

fit derivable from that iasue must be currency ia equal and uniruim, eichan- 

paid over to the governmenL This gea pprfecily regular and cheap, and % 

proriaiun, fnr all practical businets pur- more fitting uppiirtuntty cannot preaent 

Cta, nonid seem to be onneeeaaary; itaelf for aeparating the guiernment 

it haa probably rererenoe to the pos- from banha, and utterly repudiating the 

aihie exigeneiea of the government gambling aynem, thereby proteciiRg 

ilaeir which may require inch aniasae. the peuple against a recurrence of the 

The United Staiea are noir the only diaaatera of the paat ten yean, 
nation where an eipanaiTepapeicarren* 



NEW BOOKS. 

71itEarhiClaiitia*FaSitnior,MtnoiTt Weinclieeto ftdnpt the •eriptnral prDof, | 

or ffia* DitiinguiAtd Ttaehiri iff Hit to well expanded in Uie tract, "EpiMo- | 

Ckrulian Faiti, during Iht fint tkrti paey Traied by Scriptare." Yet ther* 

CmtnTUt, tnditdng thtir Ttttimony to are a hotil of able writers against ihi^ 

A* Thm-fM MitMlty of Iht ChurA. To the churchman, the argumeot appeara 

By tbeRev. W. H.Cauuciiael,D.D., conclnsire, the effect, in ■ great measo re, 

B«Cl(iror St. Tbomu'iHatl, Flashing, of education and prrjndicc. As muck 

L.I. New York: AlraukderV.Bbike, may be «atd for and ag«inai (he oppMiie 

77 Falttw streeL 1844. aide. The Confregaiionaltsla point to Je- 

Fome, and a number of able defender*. 

Tri* fa a very exeeneat Tolnme on the In (he Church of England ilaHf, tb«re b 

mbjeetoTwhichk treats: afhToritetheiDe the nwnly Roadler and the present Arek 

•r late, not only with ihe chnrebmaB and biihop of Dnblio, Whately, fairly teostei 

AcpndcMed rrader of works of the tort, aodBboaed.asonly controversialiatsabDSi 

but alto with the great readin; public each other (in a mode nnknowBtogentlo- 

Df eoarae, the topic of Episcopacy baa men and Chriilians), for tfauir simple ljbe> 

been varioBsly handed, wiredrawn by rality aad(proresi[onBlly*peal[iag}I>x^, 

many, and forcibly (rrated by n few. By on this VC17 dogma. 

BO American writer, that weareawareof. In general, the Episcopal clergy ara 

lias tbe whole matter been more thorongh- strongly for EpiKopacr, from evident and 

ly discuned,lhan by theauthorof thevol- interested views of advancement. Poi 

Vme under consideration. He has adopted this reason, a defence of Epi<^opacy front 

tbe historical method, and aimed (0 piove (bem lacks the Height of rmpartisliiyt 

the divine origin of Episcopacy, fVom the whi]e,on the same grounds, (heantimeaM 

testimony oftbe early fathers, (o whom the of Ihe ConEreiationalist derive addiiiooal 

church nniveml refer npon points of force IVom his persiinal disin (crested neWi 

doctrine, which they hnvr eopioasly iltns- And always we lm*t that witnes* mo«lio>- 

tnted in their wridugs, and to defend the pl'^itly, who has the least to gain or low 

truth of which, and testify their faith, from the iasae. 

tbey willingly surrendered the inyiteiMna Perhaps, it may beconeeded — we wonld 

lift of life Kself. certainly onrselTM allow a* much— that 

We eantio(, of course, be expected to Episeopaty is eipedient in certain eircao^ 

enter into (he merits of so vexed a ques- stances. It Is a vise palier, to preserve t 

lion I one, the parties engaged on either gradation of rank, where the incumbent* 

llile of which are so evenly matched. As are clearly fit and good men. Bat what 

pnemi critics, we see no cause for (be an army of bad' hiihnp*, as well as poor 

great excilement : it does not nflect the sinfhl laymen I The office tends to aeget 

eommon Christivnity of all seels, nor (he a feeling of spirilnal arrmrance, much to 

common humanity of all true men. It is be deplored. We heard an hanest, clever 

■ qaeatim of power, of ditdplisa,(^ rank. •eliolai'(wbolsaBapllai.clergytnu)^ n^ i 



3844.] JVn» Bookt. 101 

narlr, tbat Ihe hamblMt p«reoa lireomM power, yet we do doI bencc eontidcr thst 

• sew man, bj gaining « bbbopric. It ongbl lo be Ibe ratural iDfeteace. With 

Chiiines mtnlinms inlo pride, and mode* Pope we maji eielaipi, "E»a ina Biibop 

raiwn into msteriif . We koow a itorj I eao apr dccf ii," ibungta we abould t^ 

[one oT a bundrcd casei) in imiot : » cer- no mean* eouiidn' the olGw • wan te«t vt 

tain Eagliah Bishop, at one of Ihe ^vern- a nan's Chrnlia ait j. 
tneol utationa in [nilia, at a larfe dinner We bope, however, reader* of all aoiti 

IMrtf, where tlie eompan)' was Eeteci, and will make ii a fniot before oiakiag up 

coropoieil of official diiinitarieii, wai called their mindE foi or againil Ihe doctrine, l« 

upon in pronounce a Uruinjr, apon which proeore and tlodT ibii latni treatiae. It 

be drew himseir ap with a n>o«t Chriitian furniihn a Ihorongh aurrey of the whoU 

disnit)', andobtierred,thal theeliqurtleor groand bjr hiMorical iilnilration. It caiw 

the Eottliah Charch did not permit a Bi- riea clear deii^n, « complete naater; of 

shop to j;o ibroDgh the ceremony, but hi* materiala, and wide reading, Tbe Mylt 

dliipfaia uoalit ocf (u Ail >a(t<tlBlt. Here ti aatnral aod eaty, appropriate U Iht 

ynt an hamble, apoatolieal, Cbriilian tabjeet, and without IfaeilishteM tioctnrq 

inas. Alt Bishop* are not such, yet the of afleelalinu or ditptay. The wril«r )!•■ 

tendency eertainly lir* that way- Office (he anlqect at hean,BBJl i* rally paraaadad 

fbaten pride, and pride a the natural ene- of lu Terily and itnparlance. 
my of letigion. In Great Britain, where The apfointmenia of the book are ia 

Ihe Cbnreb U often a dtntitr rtuorl to cicelleal keeping with iit eharaclcr. It 

yoanier aons, many gain rank fVom pnrely ii ne.itly, and even bandnmely " got np," 

worldly motiTe*. H're, in thetc Doited aa to print, paper, and biadiog. Wetrut 

State*, we bare had a White, Moore, h will be eitenaiTcly read by hoMtt i» 

CbeTereni, and may «r« have many more ^niren^ eliarcbaea or MiMrwiae. 



At (o apotloliea] soeeeuion, that ia a ^~' 

tough qoeatioa. Before making np hb Thmy itf aToraU , A te^ajry metnbu 
Bund, ererr honest inquirer would do well Ikt laa of nraraJ dUliMiim md M* 
lo read eareruliy Hacanlay's ■tatemenl of variaiieiu aad tlu (eafradicf ioat ^f(W- 
tbe matter, in htf article on Choreh and aU coda. By RicHtao HruaKTH. 
ttate. {Bd. Her. 1839.) Oaemayeatjly Bonon : Charlea C. Little ft ivDm 
gnnt Ihe dirine origin and inatitnlioo of Brown. 1S44, 
Spiaeopaey, and yet reaionably doubt 

whether the precent race ii a true descent Ih an age whieh keep* up ntrt only aseh 

io the right tine. « a terrible thinking," but Kcb a terrible 

Thus much could one with jattice argue writing and ipeaking ai this, it would 

•gainst Ihe Episcopal m-der, an order hardly be fair to blame this book for con- 

adoned, totakebutoneGonntryibyalonc tainint litlleor nothing original. It is a 

teries of most eieellent pastors and most brief inqniry inlo the nature of Right and 

able men in England : an order that can Wran^, and gives a passing analysts of 

point to ■•Lalimer, a Cranmer, a Hall, a the principal syttcmi of mental nhiloto. 

Taylor, a Kerr, a Tillolson, a Wilson, a phy, whith either have prevailed, or are 

Hoadley, and many othen of equal worth now prevalent in the world. The author 

and pi^tj. has the merit, at least, of writing Tcty 

If we could feel as sure of the sincere plainly and eiplicitty ; no small merit 

adhesion of tbe mBJortiy of good church- when we consider the obscurity with 

men, to this favorite dogma, as we are which ethical subjecis are.now-a-days, so 

flilly convinced of the high and pare views, oflen treated. We do not know, however, 

■nd Christian nanlinest, of the author of that, io avoiding one eilreme, he has not 

this work, we should not apprehend the fallea into Ihe other. Wilhnat any loss of 

order to be in any dan^jer. But tookiog clearnesi, his style might, prohably, have 

■boat OS, we see not Ihe man slyled Bi- been somewhnt more rigid than it I*, 

■hop, elevated lo that dignity, who has the But it iii, of course, cilrcmety difficult to 

tiMrk or an Aposile upon him. Bishop write with precision upon metaphysics fn 

Moore, of Virginia, was almost Ihe last a language so destitute as ours of a inib 

«r the noble old race. able nomenclature. We can easily coo- 

The bishopricitnat, toourmind.essen- ceive of the confiition there would be in 

ttal to a Church. We are demoeralic natural sciences if every trealite thereoa 

enna«h to admit King Charles's nasi m, had itsown peculiartermsanddriiniilone, 

"_ no King nn Bishop," since a nttnrnl al- If a Sied languaee be ihns important ia 

liance appears to exist between civil and practical pbitosophy. il would reem to be 

RlivioDs despotism. Still, thoaib Birhop* actually indiipen sable to ihe sobtle dit- 

generallyaretpoiledbytheiroffice, nndlbe tinelion^and intricate reasoninf* of «>• 

tMiptUiA& it eitend* to a pervetskm of lal philoiopliy. 

).,i,zod=;Googte 



m NemBtokt. [J*^ 

Mr. Hilireth amepw the TmrioM trB> fn^ iiOenttati ttmj. b w tlw itft or« 

Icm ul murala, u well aBciml a* niMlera, Kries or treatiwi, wtikb il it prapowd W 

wukr Uiec.riapreheQ*Jvecta*!ifi«>tiaaor eollecliTclj cnlille " Bndimems of U« 

the Uftlic ThKTf, or thai *hich make! Science of Man." Thej ate lo be pnb. 

Ikiif* rigAt or wrong BccordtDg as Lhey liihed in tbe followia^ order: Theoij ot 

an pleasjag or di^plewiaf to the Drily i MoralB—Theory of Pulilies— Tlteorj df 

Md tfce Fortatic TMtory, or Uial whieh Weallh— Throrir of Ta«e— Theorr of 

^ea thiag* right or wrong aceoiding aa Knowledge— Theory of EducaUoa. Thia 

tier >" f*^ *^ iolercat oi dindiantase reminds as of aa anecdote toM of (he pn- 

of aoeieir. Periiopa the diSereaae be- eenl liing of Bavaria. When riiilingooca 

twmt these Btbool* will niit appear efj- an ubibilion of modern painLisfra in Mii> 

imat U fint, be«aMe there ia a cooiiimb oinb, that capilal which hii laRle aac 

graoad belween Ibem upon which thejr nnDiGcepce have contecraied to art, *^ 

•an^ and in fact do, unite. It is nid enceaDdliieraIurc,he wBtsbowe aaenea 

that the true interml of man Dererciin be of painlingi bj a young arliRl, whoM de. 

weofalitPnt with Ibe pleainre at God ; iigna bad, nofurtunaleif, far exceeded bit 

aad, tiace lhey wiU ihui agree ai lo whal sliiil- They were called ihe " Tnumpb 

lU^ are rifthl and what thing* are of Peace," " Trinmpb of Vinue,— of 

wrong, the diffrreal hypolheMS from Tnilh," ic, Ac. Maiimilian lejcanM 

whiektheyilartoniy to meetattheaame ihem Bileotlj for wme time, and then, 

•onehiaiana, are oTliUle inporlancc. BnE, Inrning to the limner, who ilood anxioDtlJ 

■pon atrippLng the two »y«eo>s of any by, said that he missed one Uiumph there. 

taodihatiuns, and reducing them lo Iheir " And what is that, if your mijcitf 

elameols, il will be fonnd thai, whiUt ihe pleaso V " The Triumph of Art," laiii 

Myilica cooaider morality fomelhing ab- the royal conooisseor, and In rued shoittj 

alracl or indepeniicnl or society, the Forcn- on *>is heel. And we mifs one theory 

Bici consider il merely convenlionai, or Ihe here; the most imporlanl of all tbeoriest 

aipreision of public opinion. Wr. Hii- the Theory of Li^e. Thij was not ex- 

dreth,whosnpportsihevieWBorihelallei plained in the academy ; the Kbolia*[» 

claai, layi tliu in so many trord* : made it, if poHible, more obscure than it 
had been before ; and it remains as unio* 

" Uonlllj. liMnd of bnlug n ateincl ifahig, lelii^ible now as k probably waa whek 

tadeprndeMcirhDinan mium. ■uniihinjeiiEninT (hg foundation Has laid of the pynmid of 

10 It, whether mtgln»llnf In Ue alwilBla nslun of p. 

IbtDfih In ilw dKrew uf <:«l, or ihe im of man, ^""ipB. 



. .. . _ „ - ,. J or Thoughli oa a SpirHual 

the Author, indeed, does not himself draw mtdirilandivg qf I& Jpocalypie or B«dt 

Mcb a deduction, ma in Lain iag, on Ibe con- e/ Rtctlnlitm; viA imnt nsurfci vpm 

Irary, that morals are progretiive, it ap- w Pannuia or Hand coming ^ Ma 

peara lo ns, neverthelcM, to be quite irre- Lord Jaut Chriil, ovd an Jp^wijx 

tistiUe. If we believe, and who doea not, npomOu Man of Sin. New York: Lm^ 

that the eighteenth ceDlur7 in any im- Titl, Trow &. Co., Fnblisbeif, l&H. 
proveotent on the eighth, we are, of neees- 

aUy,e)itablLshinga separate and independ- Tsu work is a eonmentar; upoa a 

cot sUuidard by which to measure the porlionuf the sacred writings, confetsedly 

Borality of the world. One nan is rail er hnt little understood hy the CiiristiaB 

than another, just in proportion as he it public, and lo which many coQtndictei7. 

nearer ihesliy, orfartber from the earth interpretations have been assigned. It 

limn that other i and, in the tame way. Las generally been considered a propbelie 

one age is better or worse than another aeeoiint of political and ecclesiastical 

age, just in proportion at it more or less erer.ti which should tnke place upon the 

eorTetpoDds (o some abslract or hitther eanh subcequent to the promulgation oC 

test (^ virtue. WithonI this, bow can we Christianity. The writer of tbe present 

■ay thai one naiion is better than anothi r work has regarded this mystical portioa 

ntlion, or civiliied life better ttian savage of Scriptare as having a different design, 

life T The contradictions into which the and at having an utdtrtnit or tpirituU 

doelriae of ronventionnl morality lends, interpretation, wliich he atlrmpts lo d»< 

are too manLfest to require commeuL teruiine by comparing iis highly fiiursUye 

Though we are Ihn; compelled to ra- lan:;uase with olher portions cf Scripture 

Bies* a total disapprobatian of the very generally allowed to bear such an inter* 

faypnihesis u|wn which Mr. Hitilreth's pretalion, and supposes it inlended lor an 

theory '» founded, wr can still recommend eipotiiiion and illustntion or the pr«ini- 

V^ worfc M our readers at a well-argned aent truUis of Chrittiao doctrine, and lit 



oogic 



M-1 



MemOfy Littrmry Bulhlm. 



Ika Xmitmtj sod efieet oT Mid tmn in 
■cgBrd to Xktn u will arbe U all periodi 
ef Ibe wMid't bitlorr, fron Ibe Bitanl 
diiVMitiDD* of the bcart. Hi* fteatral 
id«B M, Uwt tlK Apocalypw b ool « Re- 
Vdatioa of falare evenU or an; kind, but 
■ reTclBlion or unvtiiiag made bf Jeiui 
'CkriM <!^iniur{/*and of bii owo character 
UidaaeM; an inteUFctual manirMiaiioo 
enrr M ptntding villi wtaai he appnthenda 
MbelheMcmi eoraimg tf tlit Son e/ Ma» 
in the Scriptnral a«nae of (he Urm. 

We bate not cxamiiicd the Tolame 
-Mffieteotij to past apon ita merits, but 
the aalnra of the subjeet conuaeodt ii to 
tbe atleolion of tbe Cbrutian public, and 
if the writei'i metboil of interprclation is 
the correct oae, much of tbe learned 
iabor hitherto taeitowed on thii •abject in 
reference to church hiRor]r might Iwve 
bera (pared ; while a nev and intemlinf 
field of inveitigalion is opened for eierf 
UMieal atadnt. It mar, indeed, be con- 
■idered aa a aomewhal na*et dream- 
■taaee, that a lolume of lereral haodred 
pa^tea, oclaTo, thouU have been written 
bf a ProtestBDt npon the Book of Bevela- 
tioo, vilbont ereii an incidenial notice irf 
tbe Cbnrfh of Rome, the Pope, ihe Pa- 
pacf, or the Freueb Republic, eo long 
eoMidered bj firilitb eommentalaf* eape- 
viaUr, the pecoliar aubjecU of apocaly^ 
lie predietioa. 



TroMtatliatu of&t Stv Ymk SImU Jgri- 
tmUmnl Soeitly, togtlhrr viik on abttriui 



Hnl aedtUti. Td. Ul. 1S43. Alhuyi 
Printed bf Camill & Coolie, Printer* W 
the Auemblj. 1844. 8io., ?p. 671. 

The Aftrieollnral Report of the preaaot 
jear presmis a large and baadfone ral- 
nme, richly filled. The TraMactioD* tf 
the County Agricultural Socielie* iDaka 
about half of ill ample bulk) (be otliac 
portion be iag occupied vithafreatTarielr 
of HWful and intereitiog mntter, cUeflf 
Beport), Prize iltMya, &c., collected wUIh 
ia ibeTciirl843. Tbe whole uiUunraled 
with numerou* and well execnied weod- 
cats; and constilute* a highly creditaUa 
annual monuoient to Ihe aeal and effieir^ 
cy brouKhi to their bnnorable nsd utelVil 
labor* t>y the body from vbich it proaeada. 



Tit Chriiliam Itult%cltd in Ik* way tf 
ik* Qoiftl asi Ikt ChurcA .- a Stria if 
DMioKrjM Mitmrd w Si /om*!**' 
Chanh, GoAtn, <buiiig tki ytart 1840- 
42. By Aei. J. A SrcncM, A. M^ 
laleBeclor. New York: D.ApplMon 
JlCo., 200 Broadway. Philadelphia ■ 
Genr;* S. AppletoA, Cbeilnat ttnet. 
1844. 16ma., pp. 325. 

Strmeu; btarifg oa SiAjteti cf U< Ikm. 
By JoUK HsNRT Newnan, B. D., Fel- 
low of Oriel Colleae, Ozfonj. New 
York 1 D Applelon k. Co., 300 Broad* 
way. Philadelphia t George 8. Appl»- 
too, Cbeaont atTMi. 1844. l<ino.,iip. 
367. 



MONTHLY LITERARY BULLETIN. 



AKEIICAK. 

CtmiotiTT is DO Irniser on the lip-toe re- 
apmling Mr. Gre^'a Ion;- promised 
Toiume* on the Great Weilern Prartrt : 
Uds pleaiins | rodnclion baa fhlly real- 
iied the hi^h expectalions (bit we en- 
tertained re^prctini it, from the notice 
nniicipatory giTcn in cur preTinn* iune. 
We need not, lAer what has been said 
already, add anythina farther in eom- 
mendalioit of Mr. Gregg's charming 

Geo. Endicott ft, Co. bare nearly ready 

' IhefirstparloT their splendid edition of 

*j Dr. Weber'i Aaalomicil Atlas of Ibe 



Hmnn Body," in natural liie. 'Riil 

grent work hss already enjoyed a repm- 
(alion in Europe nninrpasied by anr 
other pntduction of its class; itiinee^ 
less, IhcTPfore, lo lay, that the present 
liberal enterprise of Mr. Endicott, ia. 
the proposal lo sap;ily an improved edi- 
tion of ihlv co<tly work, and at a mneh 
lower pHee than the foreiin edilioB, 
richly merits, a* we irnst it will receive^ 
the widMl patronase from the member* 
of Ihe medical profcuion. We aie ha|^ 
py to observe that onr esteemed friend 
and ex -contributor, Br. 8. } orry, is ap. 
pointed to nuperinlend its edilorlil sn- 
perrision, who will give in ibis editioa 



Goog|e 



IW 



Mantily LUtrary BtiUtlm. 



CJ"ij. 



from Ilie Gemum, i 
pinnalorx mailer to 



ae rndditioDtl ex- 

« Suppicmentarr 
I the Ikte Turtign 
enilions. ll a to M cnnipletMl id twen- 
ty-thrcc parti, at $1 60 eBCh, |iaT>'>le 

"Biognpbicat, Litcnry^and Philoiophicil 
£>»ay»," cuntri bated to the Kc tetie Re- 
Ti>w, by John F<i«ler. 1 vol. 1. mo. 
400 pn^ea. There cootribtitiaai well 
dmerre to class nilh those of Macaa- 
hjr, JeOreji, sod Sydnry Smith. 

"Ecays on Cbrinian Moral*, Eiperi- 
nmlBt and Practical," by Jofan Fouer. 
] Tol.lSmo. 

" Thiok berore yim Act, aad other Tale*," 
by Mrt. SbervDod. 

"Very Little TiOei for Tery LitUe Clul- 
dren" — aecoBit serin. 

••The Price Story'Buok," eoBU«lins oT 
Talei Iranalated lioia the Gennan, 
Frencfa, and llatian, together with le- 
leet lalea from the Ekuilish. 

"Holiday T«1e«," eoDtiiting oTpleaiiag 
Tale* for the Yoong. 

A new JDvenfle ftDnnal, cDlillfd "Tlie 
Child's delight, a Gill for the Yoong." 
Edited by • Lady. Embelliibcd with 
asmerDnt enfmringi on ateel j and a 
new work by lbs author oT Ibe " Three 
Eiperimenis ofLiTing," entitled " The 
L(^ Cabin, or the World Before Yon ;" 
embellished with a steel plate. 

Dr. Darbin't " Observaliont in Enrope, 
principally in Prance and Great Bri- 
tain," baa recently been issued by the 
Barpen, — • Tact need lenly •latcd, vince 
few literary novelistt of the day have 
become more generally esleemcd. We 
learn Ibe anlbor it engaged on anotfaec 
irark, de«criptiTe of his visit to the 
Ewt. 

The Appletons antroaDCe the rollowing 
new Jovenilet: " Dr.' Co. ke Taylor's 
Stadcnl'i Hannals of Ancient and 
Uodem History"— 4 vols. <■ Tbr Ele- 
ments of Nalnral History," by Wm. 
Lee. " The Book of the Army," by JF. 
Frost, authot of " The Book of the Na- 
Tj," with plates. " Gary's Translation 
of l}snIe,"—reTtBed edition. " Dumes- 
tic Tales and Alle|rorie* itlagtmtiDg 
Hatnan Life," by Hannah More— 3 
Tots. We ought 10 observe, alto, the 
following oa Ibeir list of annoanee- 
nrnts: "Dr. Thirlwall's Hislory of 
Greece;" "The Poetical Worts of 
Mrs. KemNns,"comp1ete, H vols, tflmo. 
"Otlo Specter's Fable Book,"'wilh 100 
Oluslmtions, and bis "Puss in Bonis," 
wilh twcl»e spirited dcsitns, Jie. They 
also have jast ready, in theoli^y, the 
" Complete works of Hooker," edited 
bs the Itev. J. Keble, ^ vols. 8vo.; 
"Pnteikal Sermons for every day in 



the year, and prineipal HolUays," bf 
Be«. C. Biailley; "The Double Wil- 
Dessfor the Church,' hy Ke*. W. I. 
Kipp; also, a new volume of "Tba 
Ruse," t'ur 1845, wilh ten simI plains 
and anolber annual to be called "lite 
K.eep»akF," Tor 1N45. 

" The Lad) Equeslriao,"islhe UHeoT « 
little hand.bMik jaai puUiphed by Re^ 
£eld, cuDiprisinti a coocise irtatite on 
the art of riding, adaptnt Iron Asblon'i 
ill uBtn lions, wilh noinen^at adililiuBa 
and mudill cations, to which are append* 
' td full descriptions of the prevaillag 
styles of ladle*' riding habila, li«., tf 
Mr, A. E. Campbell. 

The same publisher lias also in eoorae ct 
puhliCBlion "Dr. Norwood's ltcvia«4 
Edition ol Suchan't eelebmtcd node cm 
Dunn Lie Medicine." 

•• The Cbess-PUyer'e Hand Book" i* in 
preparation and will soon appear. 

« The New American Drawing-Book," b; 
Chapman, is now in an advanced slate 
of preparation { it will commence witb 
the elementary principles of the art, and, 
by easy and progreetive Jesww*, wiB 
advance the pnpil to a thoFoogb and 
complete knowledge of this deli;litri4 
important, and valnabic accomplislt- 
meat. It will form one lai^ octavo, 
embellisbed wilh numerovs eograTfog^ 
and will be pnbttihed shortly. 

"The American t'ieiorial Museum ;" con- 
sisling or itlartrations of events ia 
American Hictory ; portraits of diMin- 
guisbed Amerieansi views of priiwlpBl 
cities, or oatanlearioeilie*, and work* 
of art; deeds of daring and beroinni 
Indian bistory, etc. 

We have beard rumors of certain distin- 
rnished visitors being eipecinl fhm 
Europe I and as we believe we can 
make the annonacpmcnl without hesi- 
tation, and give it, moreover, exclusive- 
ly, we do it for the information of onr 
friends. We refer lo the fact of tbe 
immediate visit to our shores of E^ 
Spencer, belief remembered by his lata 
title, Lord Althorp. It i« well known 
that few members of tbe British Peei- 
age have been so little indebted to the 
Aielitious distinctioop of tank for their 
high repulBlLon as the present Lord 
Gpeneer. Besides combinina the advan- 
taees of deep learning and the i ich in- 
heritance orbii Tather'smuniGceDlloTe 
and patronage oriiierslore, he is alMin 
practical man. His maincbjeet in mak- 
iot! th ' touroftbe United States ia, with 
a view to new dugBeslions and compari- 
■ons in the important fcipDce of agri- 
cnllnre,— the resull* nf which will b« 
given to tbe world. Hit lordship Will 
preserve the strictest inei^to. "' 



oogic 



lUt-l 



Xonthly Lilerary Btdletin. 



wer, — w1io wu expected to bave come 
bf the Isil neamsr, — Brja^hua, inj 
■ome olher<, are meatiaael as ei- 

tecleJ enmsj and ve learn rrom a 
■tier of Ihe fair and l^variie poetess, 
Eliza Cook, thai she ton^s to vieit Ihe 

" " Land of Washington," and only re- 
gnu ber medical attenJant has inter- 
4icied the graiiSeaiioa of her wisliEs. 

la deviating Trom oar ordinarr cusiom, we 
lake pleasure in noliein; a new eandl- 
dale in peHodiirBl lilernlnre, recently 
eommi^need vith erilent saccea?, bf S. 
Lilieil fc Co., Boston, pnlitled " The 
Lirin> Ajc." Betidi:s beini aboni the 
cheapest iwae of the day, it a oot 
amon; the least altraeiive in lypo^ra- 
phieal skill 1 and its eJiiorhas displayed 
more than ordinary taste and diuzretiaa 
In his lelcctian of the most choice and 
interest injr articles which are eoDStaotly 
to be fteaned from the larger English 
Reviews and Joarnsls. 

We regret to no ice the dreeaae of Mr. 
Town, the architect and well knowe 
book-collectorof this city— onee a trne 
disciple, with Allen, Brerort, Corwin, 
and other*, of the literary patriarch, 

Lan^ey's next poblieations wilt be, Min 
8edi wick's" Aliila, orTown andCoaa- 
try;" -'Ellen Voodfille, or Life in Ihe 
WeWi" " Alala," fVom Ihe French of 
Chateaabriaod, translated by Smead 
and LeTebTre, of Richa>ond, Va., and 
Madame De Stael's cfaef-d'nnTre, 
« Corinne." Each of these works will 
be issaed in the cheap style. 

Oonld, Kendall k Lincoln hare jast issa- 
ed a neat TOlamc of " Miseeltanle*, 
consisting principally of Sermons and 
Eoairs," by the Rev. John Harrit, B. 
D., HDtbor of the well known Prize 
Esss^s, "Maniioon," "The Great 
Teather," &,c., edited, and with an in- 
trodnclion, by Joseph Belcher, D. D. 
Dr, B. mast have rendered a very ac- 
ceptable service to the reli^iont public 
by the presentation of the present eol- 
leetion of fta^itive papers, by Dr. Har. 
ris; since every emanation from his 
elei^nnt pen has met with such nniver. 
sal welcome in both hemispheres; and 
w those who are familiar with the aa- 
lbor*s previans prodoclions will not 
fail to avail themselves of this new eon- 
Iribniion, It !s needless for qs to My 
more on the Rabjeet. 

A new e.'liiion of an admirahle volnne has 
just been i»»ned, enlilled "The Genins 
■nd Design of the Domeslie Conftitn- 
tlon, with its tTntransferabteOMiialiont 
■nd Peculiar AdvanlaKer," hy Christo- 
pher Andenon. This work is a eam- 
plele hoffle-treamry, and onght to be in 



the book -case of every bons'hold ; its 
important lessons of inslmcliun are of 

'to 'the adeation of all 



(, &c. Mead of Ibii 



leeibletype; it will be published in ■ 
few das8. Also a fine edition of" Bar- 
row's Works," the 8 cols, nf the English 



3 vols. 8 



. Het 



lualsin 



pro^res* for Ihe approBchini; holidays — 
"The Opal for 1845," edited by Mrt. 
Hale, and embellished by a ser es of 
highly dnisbed engravinfis — much (d- 
periarlolhoseof the preceding volame. 
The 'ither i» to be styled the " Haw- 
thoroe," being a kind of rifhccia- 
meniDorthe pieces of Mrs. Child, Let. 
lie, Hnghes, lie. It will be accompa- 
nlcd with ieretal very aluactive to- 
gravings. 

Danegan, of this city, bat nearly com- 
pleted his Bpleadidly embellished edition 
of the Douay Bible. We have aeen 
early proofs of the ptaies (fourteen in 
number), which we can safely affirm, 
are of very high merit, and great beau- 
ty. The illuminated tille.pages are 
nniqae, as well as the chaste and ele- 
gant desi»n» by Croome of the " Fatal- 
ly Reeord." The typography will ba 
of corresponding beauty, and yet the 
entire volume will be issued at Ihe very 
moderate rate of Iweoty-flve cents per 
number, tweniy.four completing the 
work. We shall refer to this beBatiTal 
issne in oar next more at length. 

We Icara from a late number of the Pica- 
ynnc, that amon« the passengers by the 
Virginia Antoinette, was B. M. Ifor- 
nian, Esq., author of" Travels in Tuea- 
tan " We understand that he has made 
sev ral important diiicoveries in the way 
of ruins, Jic, in the region of connln' 
back ofTampico, and has brought over 
many choice specimens of statuary, &C., 
many of them of exquisite workman- 
ship, which he is to present to the New 
York Historical Socety. We shaU 
know more of his discoveries heresfler. 
Mr. N. bruuffht despatches for odc 
Government from China, which cama 
overland from the Pacific. 



s rbr immediate publica- 
tion, "Tlie Public and Privaie Life of 
LoidChaocclliirEldoa)" with 
ttom Ui eoiretpandcne^ compriain( 



Google 



MoKtUf IdttTvry BalUtm. 



(J»^. 



jMten rrom George ITI., George IT., 

ma t oiber eiidtritii ; aniJ KleciiunHrrcim 
fe(( *■ Anecdolc Booh," wriltcn bf faioi- 
lelf. Edited by Horace Tviss— tobe 
iUnalrated with porlraiU and *ieWB, &c. 
3 Toll. 8m>. "An Excursion Ihrough 
tbe Slave Slatn, froin tbe Potomac to 
Ihe Frontkrs of Mexico." Bj G. W. 
Fealherslonbangh — wilh plate*. Mr. 
Poulett Scrope'a " M emoiri of Lord Sy- 
denham," with a narrative of his ad- 
minislmlion io Canada, and sclecltone 
fhini h « CO rmpon deuce. Newedilion. 
Drinkn'ater'B " History of the Biojie of 
Gibraltar " " Farmine Tor Ladies," bjr 
(heauthor or" British Huabandry." 

A netr warlc, for home nscs, enlilled 
" An Encyclopffi:fin of Domestic Eco- 
nomj-," by T. Webster. 1 larRB vol, 

A new work on the known phenomena 
connected with the chemical influence 
of the solar rays ; ineludinit the photo- 
graphic process, and many new discov- 
eries in art, &c., eolilled " Besearchei 
on Light," by Robert Hunt. 

Tbe rollowin.x are also fiirlbcooting novel- 
tica :—•' Rambles in Germnol and Ita- 
ly in IW2-3," by M«. Shelley." 
" Rambles and Recollcctii'ns oT an In- 
dian Official," by Lieat.-Col. Sleeman. 
" The Le|[ends of Saints and Martyr*, 
their Lives and Acts, Characters, Hab- 
it*, Allributei nnd Emblems, aa illa»- 
ttaled by Art, Tram (he Earliest Ages 
of Cbrislianiiy to tbe present time," by 
Mr*. Jameson. "Critical Remark* on 
Mr. Payne Collier's and Mr. Ktiijht'a 
EditioDs of Shakspeare,' by Rev. A. 
Dyee. " The Exile, and other Poems," 
by Min Barrett. A new Play by Mr. 
Browniaa. A new talc by Lady Geor- 
giana Fullerlon, railed » Ellen Middle. 
Ion.'* AIm, another styled « The Malt 
without a Prorcniun." depicting the lire 
olan emigrant, by C. RowcroR, aatbor 
ol" Jale* of the Colonies." 

Hr>. Hartley's new novel (Ihe aothorew of 
" Indian Life,") is entitled " Claodioe 
Misnot. 

Beatley, the pabli«her, ha* in preparatiM 
for pabllcation, some velMble original 
state paper*, comprising letters of 
Charles 1. and IL ; also a lar^e number 
of Prince Rupert's; many of them are 
said to be of area! historical, national 
and personal interest. 

Tapper has a new work just onl, called 
" The Twin*," a domestic novel i 
" Heart,' a social novel, and other 
minor tales. 

An imponiBi w«fc on (he botany of Ihe 
froS'O world, is aboot [o appear, com- 
prising the plants of Capt. Boss's Ao- 

Wb obterte Hf. J. Caiherwood la* now 



ready, in London, hii folio «f illuitim- 
tioos of ancient moDamentt in Ceatnl 
America, Chiapas and Yncatan, coa- 
•iiiiing: of 29 large folio plates in tilho- 
tinl. Some sets, colored and inonated, 
sell at 12 guineas. 

Tbe two concluding votnmes of " Letlen 
ofBoraceWalpole to Sir Horace Hau," 
are also now ready in Londoo; aM 
a Narrative of a Mis»iun to Efsypt, 
the Red Sea, Persian Gulf, the East 
Indies, and the I«laad of fioorttott, hf 
M. V. Fonlanier. 

Anew novel by the aalhDro^>'BeBBnd- 
shaw," called "The Mysterious Maa," 
Mills's new work, entitled "TheEng- 
lish Fireside," arc also just ready. 

Sir Harris Nicolas is prepHriott for speedy 
publication, " The Despatches and Let- 
ters of Admiral Lord Viscouol Nelson," 
from original sources, and which wiR 
compriie much that is entirely new and 
calculated to throw li^ht on some Set- 
ture* of dtaracier in that great Bav«l 
hero. 

A paiofally curious slatislicnl work is 
also announced, "On the Coses of 
Death by Slarvatiaa, as the height oT 
Social DisoriBDizBLion, with Soggea- 
tians towards its Prtvcnlion in tba 
Metropolis," by J. L., Ute of the 
Colonial Service ; trith aa lotrDdactiaa, 
by Viscount Ranclagh. 

A very choice and qnaint-toobinj; totntt 
has just appeared, entitled " The Print 
Collector," beitig an introduction to the 
knowledee necessary for formlag a col- 
iectioD of ancient print*) and Benlley'l 
new works of Gclton eomprise '*11w 
Trinmpbs of Time," bein; a third series 
of "Two Old Men's Taiesj" "Coa- 
ttancy and Contrition, oc Woman'a 
Trials;" Mr*. Gort^s "Popular Mein- 
beri" " Constance D'Oy ley," by the an- 
tbor of " Clandestine Marriage," Ju. t 
" Ttie Wilfalne** uf Woman," by tfca 
author of "History of a Flirt." "He 
Bridal of Melcba," by Hiss M. L. Bofle, 
and the seventh volome of ftrieklaitd'a 
"Lives of the Queen* of Englaad,* 
are on Col barn 'a list. 

Mr. Edward Jesse, the naturalist, haa « 
new work entitled "Scenes and Talea 
nf Country Life." 

Amon;; the recent deaths in the literatr 
world, we nolice tbe vell.4nown aama 
orGeurecLackinRton, tookseller. Hi* 
decease occurred on tbe ;jlBt of Manb. 
It is needless to notice the charccler of 
one so lone and prommenlly connected 
with the hif lory of the bnuk-busiueia cf 
London, further than to say, he pro^eela 
another to the mnny instances we ha*« 
on record, of a distinguished, m " 



=1 Google 



1844.] 



ibrntUy Litertay BmlUtm. 



iq., the ■ntbor of " Vr- 
Uck" «nd olbrr wetl-kaovn pablici- 
tkin*, difd on Thumiif, tSaj 2d, at hii 
hone ID LiDidawar CrcscMI, Bath. 
Mr. Bfclirnrd ms in bis S4th fear, aai 
with Rogen and Wordswarth, u the 
time of hit deatb, the oldnt ef the rmi- 
■cDt HTia; aalhon oT Great Brilain. 
He once wai also llie eccenlric and 
vell-knowa proprietor of Fouthill Ab- 
ber ,aDd lis aniqne aad meaiScent mo- 
Ugm or cmioaiti^ which coet ia baiU- 
Sag ODcqaarter ofi DiiUioa. 
ne Patrie cUlet Ihat M. Thien hai con- 
doded hit "Hitlnrr of the Empire," 
•ad is to receive 500,000 rrann for the 

The rullowing item* of roreign tilerarr in- 
lelligeoce, in addition, we tnbjoio, from 
Wiley .'i Puloam's last Neim-leller : 

Hr. Lyell hat nearly completed his work 
on America. It is to be publiined in 
London by Hi. Msrra}, aad in this 
MBKtrr by Wiley k. Palnam. The 
tllk is, " North American Oeolofcr, with 
m Jeuraal of a Tuor in I84J-3. ^ 
Charlea Lyell, Etq., anlbor of ■ Priaei- 
ples of Geology,' 0.c." In 1 vol. 8vo. 

The Re*. Uoralto Soulhgate, aalhor of 
"Travels ia Mesopotamia," &C., has 
ararly cotnpleted » " Nnrrative of ao- 
olhei Journey into Mesopotamia," a 
Titit to the Monophysite Churches in 
tbat Country, ftc, with an account of 
tba prment state and prospects of the 
Eastern Charchesi and also apolber 
TolumeoBthe Minntry, Worship, Rite*] 
Docirineo, Usages, tix., of the Syriaa 
Jacobite Church. 

TIm following are announced as ia prctt, 
in addition to former lists, vie i 

" The History of the English Re*Dlulion." 
By F. C. Dahlmann, late Professor of 
Hiatory at the Universily of Goilingen. 

The 8th aad last vol. of "Thirlwall's 
Greece" (completing " Lardaer*! Cy- 
dop<Edia}. In July. 

" The Zoohfy of the Voyafie of H. M. S. 
Erebai and Terror," under the COIb- 
aaand of Capt. Sir James Ross, R. N. 
Edited by John Bictaardson, M. D. T. 
R. &, and by John Edw. Gray, Esq., F. 
R. a Fart I. 

<' Flora Antarctica ; or, the Botany of the 
Voyage of the Erebna and Terror," itc. 
By ]. D. Hooker, M. D. F. h. B., Bo- 
Unitl to ih« Eipedilioa. In 20 znonth- 
ly parity royal 4to., each containing 8 
&ne rialcs of new or imperfectly knows 
■pMtea. Parti. 

"The RdiiqM of AoeieatBriuin." By 
Oeo^c Smith, F. A . S. 

''liM'rathe nf a Mitura to Egypt, tlie Red 
8m, the PcrtiaDGDlph, the East ladica, 
awl the Itie oTBowba*. By Mob*. S. 



Fontenirr, By order of the French 
Govern nwnt." 

" Memoirs of the Heign of Georee III." 
By Horace Walpole. 2 vols. 8vo. 

" Rnaiblpa aad Kecotleciiont of an Indian 
Official." By Lieut. Col. W. L. Slee- 
man, 2 vols, royal 8vo., with nnneroni 
engravings. The " Kambles" eoDsbl 
ehicSy of a joDrney from the banks of 
(he Nerbudda to the Hltcmaleh moan- 
taint; but with these are incorporated 
the " Recollections" of the author's pre- 
vioni experieoeei exhibiting in th« 
whole a sketch of the picturesqne cha-. 
lacter ofthe coanlry, its principal geo- 
logical fealnree, state of cultnre and re- 
source*, and of the cnstoins, habits, 
snpenliiioDs, knowledge, and capabilk 
ties of the people. Among the rravet 
sections isaa historical piece, giving as 
account of the celebrated contest BmoB( 
the four sons of ^lah Jehan for the Ekh 
pire of Hindostan. The utmoal can 
and attention hate been bestowed opoa 
the UtattratioDs. The original draw^ 
iaga— eonsnmmalely wronght— «re tha 
piodoctions of native artists, of high 
talent, from which perfect fac«iaulM 
will be obtained. 

" Biblical Criticism on the first Foartcen 
Historical Books of the Old Testament) 
also OD the Srst Nine Prophetical 
Books." By S. Horsley, LL.D., LonI 
Bishop of St. Asaph. New edition, S 
vob.Sro. The high estimation in wbkh 
Bishop Hor«le>'s " Biblical Criticism" 
is- held, notwithstanding the disadvaa- 
tages nnder which it first appeared, at 
a posthumous publication, hat enesn- 
raged the poblishers to spare no pains 
in making the present edition of the 
work more worthy of the reptttatloii tf 
iu eminently learned anlbor, and better 
adapted to the use of students in Ibeo- 
lory. Great care has been taken In 
CDTieeiinK the Greek aad HelMvw, aad 
in rectifying the very vicioas punetoa- 
lion which had disgraced the forma 
edition. 

» Viiilantius and hit Times." By W. 8. 
Gilly, D.D. 1 vol. 8vo. 

» The Cbnrch Visible in all Aget." By 
Charlotte Elizabeth. 1 ToL with en- 

" Bone and th^ Reformstlon." By J. H. 

Merle D'Auhigns. 
"The Foot Prophetic Empires, and die 

KingdMn of Messiah." By the Rn. 

T. R. Birkt, M. A. 1 vol. 8vo. 
»New Illustrations of the Life, Stndie*, 

and Writings of Shak^eare," By Rav. 

J. Honter, F. 8. A. 
The lUnminalcd Books of the Midile 

A^ea— by the Editor of the" Palrofn. 

piua"— k hntoty «r lUnainaled Boidii 



Google 



110 Ntw York Hulorkai Soeitiy. {laij, 

l>on the IVth IB tbe XVUlh Century, are all drawn, colored, and dcwribcd 

vilh faG-»imiles, it anooanced to be from Andtni Autburiiir*. 

pubUthed ID moathty parls. We liave Tbe M»Eoiii and > ortcfjibiidrace of Ibe 

SWD (he pJaiM lo a gorgeoua volooie laie enijiienl scholar, ThcDiBS Aroold, 

aboat to be published,— " Putin's Gloi- D. D., Holhar of " Hislor) i,f Bime.^ 

•ar7 of Ecelcsinstieal OrnaBieat and &c., are preparing for the preis, edited 

CcMlanie,"— which certainly sorpas* bjr the Kev. A. P. Stanl*)', 

■nf of the liJnd hitherto produced. Fealherttoobaugh'i ronhcdning beck os 

There are 70 plates printed in gold nnd the United Slal<^E«efiDs to bea «rDr[|«r. 

color*. The detail) of man y of Ibe eEpeciallj on Ibe folks dcim HBlJt; we 

OriuuneaU are giien of full »ize, aod jni^e froio quoUtions in the AlhensniD. 



NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY. 

The BkODlhlr meelJDg for Jnne wu tbeir works for the United Slatei: M. 

beld at the rooma of Ihe Soeieiy in the Elien Gatloisj Le Cotnie rBru,Fairda 

UoiTersily, tbe Hod. Albert GallaliD io France; M. Atlerz, Chef an Minbtra 

the Chair. A large nnD>b«rof meinberl dea Aflaire* eton^creK Coorni Grneiat i 

were ID atleDdaoce, aad many dialin- Geneij C. D'Orbigny, Diirctetir dn Dic- 

Gished visiion, among whom wae ibe ticnoaire UDireree] d'HiMoire NaiartUe, 

»ican Minifler, General Almonte. &c. ; DnmerEon, Chevalier de la leeion 

The Qiinalea having been read by Ihe d'bunoeur.l'nn denConMrvaTeuTsduCab- 

Secrelftry, and the doDationalo Ihe library inet det Mednillea de la Bibliolfaeque 

annoonccd by Ihe Librarian, Mi. Fotaom, Soyale, Ilc, fcc, &c. ; M. F. Eglahcelin, 

one of Ihe Corrnponding Seerelariei, membie de la Cfaambre dn QFruif^,— Le 

read lettera from the following gentle- Cumple Leon de Laboide, M. Key, tntnt- 

men ;-— Mr. Brantz Slayer, of Baltimore; brede la Society Royale dea Aniiquaim 

Mr. Jacob B. Moore, of Waafaington ; de France, &c., JL«., M. A. Jal, HieHk 

Ber. Jo.C<M;»we1l,D.D.,ofEaatWindiur, riograpbe de la Marine, &c., U. Leon 

Conn ; J. &. TeSl, Em]., < if Savannah, Vj'da), Contervateurde laBiblfolheqoe ad- 

Ga. ; Hon. Thomaa Day, of Hartlbrd, niniatraliTe an miBihUre de I'lnterieur, 

PreaidenI of the Historical Bociely of fcc. — and olben. 

Conneclicut; HeEekiab L. Hoamer, of M.Vallnnare alatet that all doCQUenta 

Peiryibnrgta, Ohio ) Sir William R, Ham- and work* eopcerning hiitory, geogiaphy, 

[Itoii, of Dablin, and Sir John Bickerlon lecislalioD, JDrispradenee, acience, art, 

Williama, of Wem, nekr Sbrewabnry, indoitry, commerce, public atboolv, bot- 

EoRland. pilal*, bontes of refnge, prifona, penilen- 

Hr. Folfom alio read a note fVom Rob- tiariei, in ■ word all woilu of general 

eH Wal*h, Eaq., of Paria, slating that public utility, publiahed in tbe Gniled 

Mr. Draper had forwarded from Havre Siatea and parlicutarty in the Slate of 

two aeti of Maliatieal reports, eight quar- New York, will be gladly accepted by 

loa each, one for tbe New York Hiitorical ibeir public insttlationt. 

Bociety and the other for the National Tbe Chairman of the Executive Cod- 

Inilitnle at Waiihington ; and adding that niltee, Mr. Wetmore, presenled a report 

the Mininer of Cummeree had promised npon Ihe nomi nation* which bad bprn re- 

to give the whole aeries, which will ferred to them, and these gentlemen were 

air.oDDt to eishly-sii volumen, one for Ifaerenpon elected. 

each Uepartmenl of France, provided the CorreipondtagJfnnbn. — Robert Than 

Snciely wish lo potsess ihem. of China, ber Britannic Majesty's lnter> 

The Foreign Correiponding Secretary preter, end Jemrs H. Trnffibull, Esq., of 

was initrneted lo make a proper aeknow- Stoninpton, Cunneciicul. 

led^ment and reply. StsuUnl AfrmlxTi.— Hon. John McKr- 

A Ian; and jnteres'iag letter was aim on, Jonathan Edwards, Esq. 

■nbmrited from M. Aleiandre Vatiemare, A targe number of nominatioot for 

of Paris, who is pursnin;: with nnremit- memlterahip wne mede, and the qtnlifi- 

ting aelrviiy hi» admirable ptao of litera- caiiona of some of Ibe gcDtlemcn namdl 

ry elchangc, transmitting to the New were stated to the Society. 

Yorii RiMorical Society a lai^e colleetioQ Mr. Schoolcraft, from tbe Committee 

ef valnable worict, forty.nne in nnmber, on Indmn names, to whom had been re- 

of which a correct list will be published, ferred ihe ofden map of part of New 

M. Valieoiare appended to his commnni- York, pretenied bv Mr. Verplandc, at Ibe 

cation ealraels from letter* addressed to last mrelinp, said that the Ctmmittee 

Um bygenttesicn tmnmittiiig eopieaof were ttButimoiu in their opinioii of iu 



oogle 



New York H'atorieal SoeUtf. 



Ugb Tallin— 4hBt it embrBced tcTcrml 
■ainn eunlamed in no other map, Bnil 
■Uhoo^h irtlhaDE date, it tnt evideni, 
frooj ita tneliiJinv Albaa; coantr, il wai 
made prior to the eirelion of Trjon 
eouiilf, probablf abaul the rear 1760. It 
eilended ai^ far as Cafaia lake. 

Mr Laifience remarked thai it wat 
within the recolleclian o( ihr meniben, 
thai a committee had been appointed 
lome lime since to report npon the valn'e 
of the documenti collected by Mr. BrnaJ- 
bead, and (he general meriis of the Hig- 
torical azency. The Society bad Telt il 
incumbent up'in Iheni to vindicate the ea- 
terpriic rrom ihe atperaioni which had 
been can upon it, in a report presented 
to tbe higher braneb or oar Leitslaturo 
by aa hanorabte Senator. And Ihe Hon. 
Mr. Btrecker, of Albfiny, bad been ap- 
plied to Tor the purpose, both by letter and 
through Mr. Schoiilerifl, anil thai ;ent1e- 



t had f 



o Ihe 



invaluable assistanc-. It «iu snin aHer- 
wards oaderitond that Mr. Broadhead 
wat about reinmin; rrom Europe, irilh 
•11 the remiinint documents he had tac- 
eeeded in procuring, and the committee 
had delermiaed, Ihererure, to await hi* 
coniiaK. But he had the pleasure or as- 
anriail the members, on their behalf, that 
tbair report woull n no case be delayed 
beyond Ihe Brat mpcia^ of (he Society, 
aAer tbe summer vacation. 

Mr. John IV. E Imonds read an histo- 
rical sketch, entitled "Some passages in 
tbe life of Oovemor Tompkint." 

I The paper was eonSned principally to 

.the events of 1814 — ■ very gloomy and 
■niioas period of the late irar with Eng- 
land. It commeaeed by deKribini the 
■tate of thinm at the belinninn of that 
jear. The Lake Champlain Fhintier was 
threatened with a powerful army under 
Sir Oeo. Provost, and dwcketts Haibor, 
Osweio, and (he mouth of the Qenesee 
river, by a eombinei land anf sea force 
ttnler Sir James Yeo. On the Niagara 
frontier tbe American army hnd been 
driven out of Canada, and Lt. Qen. 
Srnmmoiid had croa<el Ihe lines, hnrned 

; LewistoD. Sehtwser, Btiffalo and Black 

Bock, and driven oar forcrs and the in- 
habitauta far into Ihe interior. Sat Har- 
toron Lonz Island was also threateoed, 
■ad I'Ord Hill was a^semblin? n lar^e 
force at Halifai dealined to the attach of 
New Yort ; the enemy intenHin^ by simul- 
taneous attacks to form a junction by the 
Halson river and cat off all eommunica- 
li(M between the Butern Stales and the 
lenl oT tbe Union At this lime Qov. 
ToMpkioi, with the Hunje of Assembly 
an,l the ConQcIl of Appointment opposed 
to him it) politic*— wbh little aid from ihe 



111 

General Government, for it w«s almoM 
penniless — brought into Ihe fitld nearlj 
30,000 troops, raised 13,000,0011 for th« 
public service, commanded nearly :fO,UOO, 
troops in pcnon, called an extra tetbioit 
of Ihe L^iilaiure, and underwent besides 
all the onJiaary labors vt nduiiniiileriag 
the Rovernment of Ihe Stale. DuriQt[ 
this year he was tendered by Mr, Madi- 
son the oBice of Secretary of State, which 
he declined, but ha necrpted (he eatira 
eommaad of (he 3d Military Uislriet, 
which he held until the April rullowin;. 

The eonseqoenee of his measures wa^ 
that the enemy were beaten at Platte 
burgh, aud their Oeei on I.ake Champlain 
destroyed, were driven from the Niagara 
frontier, and the threatened attack oa 
New York was directed to New Orleans, 
where the war terminated with the vic- 
tory of (he 8lh of January, 1819. 

Mr. Edmonds had aelecled an inlerett- 
inn period for his paper, and he made it 
(he more inlercslint by AllinR It princj- 
pally with the eormpondence of Ihs 
promiaenl men of thai day. 

Among that correspondence wai ona 
between the Goveraor and a Clemyman, 
the Rev. Benjamin Woostcr, Fairljcid, 
Vermont, from which it appeared that 
when Sir Gearse Prevost with his ncaj 
invaded our Champlain frontier, the 
Militia of Vermont were called oat. 
When the alarm reached Fairfield, Mr. 
Wootter was juat preparing to preach to 
his poople, preparatory to (he sacrameolal 
■upper; withoul a momenl's delay, hia 
people taroed out en maitt, chose their 
pBS(or (o be their leader, under his cmn- 
nand, reached Ptattiborgh in season, and 
fought bravely (hrongh the whola of that 
iuece*sfnl hatde. 

The Governor commenced (bete lervi- 
ces by a prrtenl of a superb copy of (ha 
Bible, which was accompanied, and tta 
r eeipl acknowledged, by {eltera, which 
proved a very interEStia; portion of ths 
paper read to the Society. 

On motion of Prof. Mason, Ihe Ihanba 
of Ihe Society were returned to Mr. Ed- 
moads for Ihe interrsling paper read bf 
him, and a copy reqaesled for depoMi IB 

The Preaident appointed Hr. W, W. 
Campbell to (ill the vacancy in (he emiu 
mittee of publication, caused by Ihe re- 
signation of Mr. Gibbs. 

The Society then adioamed to nEel on 
tbe first Wednesday in October, unlets 
sooner called (ugether by tbe ExeeutiVQ 
Comrailtee, 

The doM ofthe evening was pleasant- 
ly parsed by the memben and visitots Jft 
the gal)et7, whereaiimple refMt awaited 



=1 Google 



lis Nan York Kulaneal SoeUly. [July, 1844. 

Tbe pablic inlercft in the proceeding 3d. StKtinics orFrance, Eiteriar Caw 

oriheNeirYDrbUuloricslSMiety,B.eiii« BKree. Paris, 1838. 
to be steadily increasing; the allendance 4lh. Statistic* of France, Agricnllnie, 

ji more PQinerous and oont^tanl; the Cor- 4 TnlnmcE. 1840-42. 
ttapoDdeDce more extended; the pepere tilh. Suiisties of France, PnbUc Ad- 

vead agreeable, able and appropriate minialrnliaa. 1843. 
•ontribntions lu Ibe Historic matrriali, in Theae volamei, which are aplendidly 

Which the rnstilntion ii alreadj so rich, printed at the Hojal Presi, form an ele- 

A new catalogue of the Library is in pre- gant as well as a tiilaabie addition to the 

pamiioD. A new Tcjume of collection ii librarr, sod well deserve an examinalioit 

dmoat completed; and a commiileeof oar from onr pnblic men. 
moil respectable lB<r;er« end mercbinls The Chairman of the EiecntiTc Cem- 

•n now engaged in raiMn; * sufficient mitlee preaeoted a report upon Ibe oont- 

MBoont of money to place tba Saeiety, nations whicfa had been referred lo tfaem 

wtaieb i»Dowfree from debt, upon a stable at the laU meeting, and the geoUeiDeit rs- 

and permBDcnt foundation. commended were nnnnimouBlj elected. 

Mr. Jay gave notice of a propoMd 

amendment lo the Tib section of the Con- 

Speciat. Mektino — Tuesday evening, stitution, to restore tbe furtner mle, of 

June 18.— The First Vice President, Wm. electing members ai a meeting snbseqnMt 

B. Lawkenci:, Esq., in the Chair. to the one at wbicb Ihey have been noml- 

Mr. Folsom slated that the slatistieal a^ted. 
wports which were referred to in the let- The gentlemen e'ected'are asfollowt: 
t«r of Mr, Walsh, of Paris, read at the SuUtnl Jlfeinier*.— John C. Qreene, 

lutrntering, bad been reeeiTcd ; and on Geo;^ C. Oriswold, Waldron B. Port, 

kis motion ii was— Ocorae Potts, D. D., Her, Corhan Ab- 

Beaolied, That Ibe tbanka of Ihit So- bat, Rev. Jacob Abbot, Vm. E. Wilmo- 

Ciely be giren to the Hinislei of Com- ding, »r, Richard S KisMm, Benjtiain H. 

nieice, of PraBce, foe the very valonhle Field, Jobn L. Mason, CambridgeLiTing. 

Mid moat acceptaUe donation of eight ston, Henry Hnll Ward, Rev. Wm. Adam*, 

lolnmes o{ the Statulique de la Franet tit D. !>., Charle* F. Hunler, Charl^ E. 

thil Society; and that the Foreign Cor- West, ElUba F. Hurlbut, Hon. Wm. In- 

responding SecreUry be instnicted to com- oljs, Joehna M. Van Cotl, George W. 

mDDieate this fieiolotion to that distin- Moirell, Pliny Earle, M. D., Fraoeil W. 

gnished fnnctionary. ~ Edmonds, John B. Peters, Esqrs. 

A dapllcale set of these reports has Corrrtpoiidag Mrvibtri JaredP.Kirt- 

been received for ihe National loslilnle at innd, M. D., of Cleavelnnd, Ohio j Hob. 

Wuhingtoa; and Mr. Walsh's letter men- JobnUw, ViaGenneB,Ind.'.HenryBrown, 

tioaed that the Minntet of Commerce Esq., of Chicago, III.; Giles F. Yatei, 

Iwd promised to give the whole series, E»ii , of Scbenertedy, N. Y. ; Thomaa 

which will amoDDt to eighly-sii volumes. Colley Grallan, Esq., Her Britannic Ma- 

The admirable arrangemenl and rnlness jesly'i Coniol at fiostoni Wm. B. Samp- 

of detail which characterize these vol. son, Esq., of London (author of Criminal 

«IDM gire lo them great interest and Jurisprudence, Ac. lu:.); Eev. Dr. Wm. 

nloc. They are briefly as follows i Scoresby, of England. 

1st. Statirtienl documents upon France, ifonororj Sfemfer*— Thomas Clarktoo, 

published by the Minister of Commerce, the Philanthropist, of Playford Halt, Ip*- 

Imperial cjaario, Paris, 18.1IS, 1 volume. wich, England; Hon. Charles Aogtutaa 

This constitutes the inlroduclory toI- Murray, of England, 
mme lo the collection, Ibe pnblieation of The Chairman submitted an interealing 

which WHS cominencedin that year, and docnment of the periodof the Bevolution, 

contains a slieteh of the system proposed, presented to the Society bjr JonaUian £d- 

The general divisions are as follows: wards, Esq., of this city. The original 

1st, Territory ; 2d, Popalation ; 3d, Ag- commission of the Traitor Benedict Ar- 

rienltore; 4th, Mines; 5lh,Indnslry; 6th, nold, as commander of the Expedition 

CcnmRce; 7th, Nangalion; 8th, Colo- against Ticonderoga, in July, t77&. Thii 

nies| Bth, Inlernal Administration ; lOth, doeoment pasaed into Ihe hands of Ibe 

Hnaneet; Ilth, Militaty Force; ISth, donor from the papers of his late grand- 

UariDe; 13lh, Justice; 14th, Pnbiic Li- falha-, the Hon. Pierpont Edwa^ of 

MractiOB. Connecltcnl. 

These general divisiDns are further mib- Onmotionof Mr. 6ibba,il wasreaolred 

J JTJded . and tha phn of statitlical inquiry that the Library be closed from and after 

^ rt W l « H . the 1st day of July proxioM, dnriag W^ek 

Sd. IJUiiitia of France, Tetritorr aad Timn si ihi Tiliisiis aj iliiiwni iiiiHif 

FopoUlion, to). Paris, 1S37. Tbe Society then a^jowwd. 



IJ.gitizcd by 



Google 



DNITED STATES MIGAZING, 



DEMOCRATIC REVIEW. 



AUGUST, IB44. 



FIRST AND SECOND HATE MEN. 

Tib Whin have aunmed the right to he hu dstbt mads himMlf the rapn- 
■oesT, with Tsry mnaMia exaltation, MDUtive of speoikl inlereat*, powerfhl 
orar our Braaideatut] namination, in ihoi]g:h partial, great thou^ nnJoM 
eonbmat with their own, with rsapect to and unconBtitutional, so as to be an 
the alleged personal oalibre of the two antbor of " •yaloroa" miattamed "Ame- 
candidates. Clsj is what is commoniy rican," and to be looked up to bj rast 
oalled a " gioat man," — in ererj aeiwe intetesta, pecuniary and lectioiia], as 
thej claim the title fot faira, and in their special hope and delight ; — or so 
some we freelj oonoede it. Lucifer as lo be takea up by a large corporat» 
once held hi* head among the highest moneyed power to head its forces in a 
in the angelic host. Polk is indeed a eampaign of excerminatioD-agaiDM the 
lABch TBunger man, aad diat he has goTomment of the ooantry. None of 
heretofore filled a much less oilenaiTe these, Mr. Clay's unchallenged claiioB 
and brilliant space in tbe public eye, is to greatness, it must be admitted, eau 
ondeni^le. The same might once be pretended, for Mr. Polk. On the 
have been eaid of a certain giant whoae strength of these and other aimilat U- 
■peai was a weaver's beam, and a sbep- ties, our opponents are welcome to all 
herd boy whose sole weapon was a their pride in their chief as a " great 
sUng and tiiree jpebblea from the brook man," — we are content with duts as a 
by which he had been wont to tend the g(fod one, and great enoagb (or all 
flocks of Jesse. Ur. Polk has, indeed, practioat pnrpoees. 
naret had the opportonity of placing The two oandidatea indeed, with a 
Unwelfin the "line of safe pceoedents" felicity of adaptation and correspond- 
far the Presidential sucoessian as Se- ence, which ie no mere accident, majr 
exettfry of State, under Btreumstanees be said in a remarkable manner to re- 
aiiU aaforgotten, andnerertobe forgot, present, respectirely, the spirit and 
— and if ho had enjoyed a similar op- character of the tvro great parties t^ 
poitanity, we fear we must concede the whom they have been chosen. Aaa 
eonfeaaion thalhemost assuredly would general role, though liable to aoei- 
nerer hare made a similar nse of it. denial exception, this mast nsaally bv 
He has nerer beso thrice beaten as a the case. 

catididMe for the Presidency, — nor, as Hi. Clay is tmly the living embodi- 

WD nnat again needs Bonfess, is he ever menl and incarnation of his party. 

likely to be, evea onoe. He baa never Eloqsent, ahowy, versatile, adrmt, im- 

bcena gnat, bold and hi^ gambler at perioua, and nnscrnpulona — as George 

the rmdette taUa of pditicd ambition the Fourth was the reoognised perfee- , ~. .. 

— (nor at any othBr)~4nd, ther«fere, tion and pattern of a " geDtleBan," u- t^jOOQ IC 



116 Firtt md Second Rate Aftn. [Aug. 

eordiBg to Ihe Anglo- ariEtoentic eense aonal raoralit; laitabte to tbem, msd of ' 

<rf'tbe word, m employed bj those who % political integrity leli&ble for their 

were wont bo to apply it to him, so is faithful and firm Bappart. These ooodi- 

Ifr. Clay the patieio and perfeciioD of tiona aeeorei], that of the rer; highest 

a Whig — in the modern degenerate intellectual emiaenoe, thoogh not to be 

awaiUDgof the term. As the prc^gate disregarded, is bnt teeonaarj in out 

ininee was " the first gentleman in care. I 

England," so ia the profligate pditi- And these conditions are bj com- 

oian fitly the first Whig in America. A mon conaent admirably nnited in Mr. ' 

■eeoitd-rate imn in point of eloqoence, Polk. He woold, therefore, haie been 

^ktallectual force, and emioenee of rank, perfectly satisfactory to ns ss oar i 

wonld never have answered— eonld party candidate foi the presidency, 

DOTer haTe been adopted — aa the head CTen if he had poaseaaed in a far less 

of snch a party. We concede them degree than be has already amply 

Ibis credit. They are nataially fond proved, the farther addition of the lat- 

of splendor and Btrength~laige and ter qaalification, for the high oflica to | 

Bweepiog action — bold and ^illiant which he is about to he called. Instead | 

ener^ of enterprise, Soch is precise- of bebg cooled in the zeal of their | 

1y the character their tRstiact has ever support of him, for the saJce of the 

tended uid striven to impress upon the caDae represented in his person and 

government. Aristocracies generally name, by all the Whig sneers of de- . 

require high personal qualifications in precialion, the Democracy would have | 

dieir leaders and Ibeir inatnimenta, as been perfectly content had he indeed 

the most brilliant talent at the bar is been less of a * great man,' than they 

osnally feed highest in cases of the already full well know him to be. His 

most equivocal morality. Your Pitta purity of private life no tongue even of 

and Peels, you T Clays and Webstets, partisan slander ventuies to assail. H* 

uethe statesmen for them. u not merely the leforaied penitent of 

The Democratic parly on the other past habits of vice and degradation — 

bod care much less for " great men," (the best that can be even pretended 

— great men, we mean, by Ihia stand- for his competitor) — hot he baa been- 

udof eatimation. We prefer a I^- eoosistently and conscieatioody & mo- 

Ayelte to a Bonaparte, We care little ral and religious man from his youth, 

for gold or gem on the hilt, if the sim- The firmness of bis politioal integrity 

pie blade be but tmsty and true. The has been proved by an uodeviating 

elitter of greatness has Utile charm in conaistency of principle and conduct 

It to daszle our eyea. True, firm, through all his past political life, to- 

honeat and consiBteat men are, if not ^ether with an energetic leal and ardor 

all we want, yet what we want firat in the support of hia opiniona and his 

Ud most. Hence it is that we never party, best attesting the source from 

take up the deBerters from the other which they apring. He has come into 

side to oScei onr troops ; the Whigs his present position, too, in a mode not 

always do. Our eyes, our thoughta, only disproving any possible cha^e of 

oar hearts, are more steadily, more de- the employment of intrigue or eObrt to 

votedly, more confidently, fixed on our attain it, but denying to bis worst eoo- 

prineiplea, than on the personal parade my the very poaaibility of insinuating 

of oui politicians. We rarely give the charge. He had not aspired to it 

large latitude of discretion, in reliance — had not desired it — had not dreamed 

on personal character and power of of it. He waa at a distance, and had 

inlelleet. Our public men never think taken no part in it — had had no know- 

MT a^ing a "generous confidence" at ledge of the ^itations which so long 

Otn hsnu. We are the party that give reigned in the Convention. At a mo* 

iBStmetions to our represenlalivea, and ment when the dissensions by which 

novor forgive their violation of them, that body was distracted were at their 

Oar opponents are avowedly the party height — when, in the contest between 

thai diMonntenancea the former, while ths friends and the opponents of Mr. 

h ai^nds and welcomes to its highest Van Buren, the latter being for the 

nWards those who from our side can most part united on an indiv^aal who 

hang the latter title to their fa- waa thus made the representative of 

Tor. Representatives of our princi- the movement of opposition t« him,. . 

j/iet an wbM we want—men of a per- a state of feeling had gradually d*- q\c 



WU.] TVif mi Steend JUtt Men. 1 17 

veloped iUelf which wonld probablj c«MioTi toitutWhi^imptUitianigunat 
have DWdD it axtremely dang-erons to our candidate lo which we hare klladed. 
Bominate either — at that moment when Nothing can be further from out inton- 
nmtlers had loached that criaia id tion — nothing further from out opinion 
oomiQUinK bodies when the aelection — nothing further from the truth, in- 
ef a thircT man, mutually aooepuble, deed, we haje do doubt that Mr. Folk 
affordn the onlj meaoa of reuniting the will retirefrom the PresideDoyfolioived 
alienated and embittered Motions, Hr. by the concurrent testimonv of all can- 
Polk waa broDght forward without .did and liberal men of all parties, that 
ftgenoy of hca own or of hia special the office had lent him no honor which 
frienda, simply bj tiie force of cirouro- be did not return to it. He u a " fir>t- 
atances, eodpetalinf happily with his late" man — first-rata in ability — firat- 
own perao&al qnalifieaiiona and posi- rate Id dignity of character and condoet 
tion. It waa no mere accident, how- — fimt-rsie in political and peraonai 
ever. It oould not hare happened to integrity — Arsi-raie in purity i^ oonati- 
an inferior or an nnwortfay man. If a tutional principles, according to the 
crown was floating in the air uncertain fundamental docLrines ofthe Repablioait 
on what head to settle, none but a high Party. He has already been amply 
one, of diroenaiona to fit and strength tried, and those who were present to 
to wear it, could attract it to itself, behold with their own eyes, know best 
On the mamutg of the day on which how admirably he has passed through 
the iHHBiiiation was made, the proposi- some of the severest ordeals by which 
lion waa orffed on the friends of Hr. the highest qualities of statesmanship 
Van Bareo, from those Southern mem- can be tested. We refer to hie parli»- 
bera of Congreea whose organised and mentary career in the House of Kepie- 
■ciive opposition had matured his de- sentatiTes — and espeoially to his lead- 
feat, to take up either Hr. Wright or erehip of the Democratic Patty in the 
Mr. Pclk. None hot a man in the memorable panic period, together with 
highest degree possessing, by hsTing his subsequent stormy and aidaons 
desotred, the confidence of all, both in speakeiBhjp. By his conduct on thoM 
his talents and his integrity, was likely oooasians Hr. Folk placed himself on 
to have been proposed at that time, or an eminence, in the judgment of all by 
wonld haie bean aooepCed. The union whom it was witneased, not below thA 
of the latter name with the former, level of any political duty or rank to 
abowB at once the calibre and the cha- which the circumstances of the oouniry 
raetei that were looked for — that were might at any day afterwards call him. 
felt to be demanded by the crisis — and " Faithful over a few things," he well 
that were koown to meet ia the person proved himself fit and worthy to be k 
of eidiet of these two. It waa one of " mler aver many things." Bonaparte, 
those occasions on which the spoota- whose power of judging men was one 
neons choice of mnltitndes constitutea of the greatest of bis qualiliea, did not 
the highest evidence of the natural wait for men to have consnmed half a 
" right divine" for command, of those life in the tactics of the higher etrategy 
on whom the honor of its instinctive at the head of armies, before he en- 
selection fixes itself. When men trusted the destinies of nations to their 
need a leader, they rarely fail to choose bands. In a cumpaialively narrower 
one from their number best entitled to and less elevated sphere, they mi^ 
the post because best qualified for it. afford abundant evideDee of their ca- 
Tha quick eathnaiasm with which the pacity for all the duties of the broadest 
choice of Mr. Polk was received by and the highest. 

all saetiona in the Convention, and all Yet why do we so far yield to the 
aeclions of the Democracy out of it, common modes of estimation, as to 
alone constitniea a anflicient proof of refer to Mr. Polk's celebrated "leader- 
the eminent and firmly- founded posi- ship " of the House of Repreaenla- 
tion, even though not in the first tives, as having been enacted on a 
foie-ground of national polities, which stage " narrower and leas elevated," 
be already occupied in the respect and than any other that can be afforded by 
confidence of all. out institutions fur the disj^y of wbU 

Some'reader may, possibly, ao far is in a man and what a man isl In 
miseoaeeive the spirit of the foregoing England that post is one, during i(a 
lenuka, M to read in them some con- oceupaney by a prisie nioisiei, mo- CiOOQIc 



U$ Fir*t mi Ste^md Jlcto Mtm. [Aag. 

OKdkTf ml; to Um thnxw itMlf. And of tbe Capitol foutpetni to tint of 

CMlkinij tbaio bta Reroi beeo » •«■- tgitatkiQ and paiiM ; ut eifikjadicwl 

noa in the Houm of ConunooB in «ad bnutding •entanoe pnnoanced opoi 

whkh that Mrrice hM been mate ax- the Chief Hagisti*!* of the ratim, in 

dnons— D«Ter one in wbtch it hka beea violatioii of usage tnd of the Constitii. 

mart adaaiMy eostsiiMd — than it w«b tkm, — tbeee faatnres present tnd a faint 

mt tfae period in qneKion in oni Hooae pictnre of tlM Blnnn and oMdarion 

of KepreMDlatiTei, But we pmfei to wbtcb prevailed. CtiHOTBatiw had 

') Iron) a farmer Dumber of this almoet seised upon tiieiepaUieuiraaka, 



«nte iiom a farmer Dumber of this almaet seised upon tiieiepaUieuiraake, 

Hsriaw (May, 1B38), the accamt of it Hunned by deiettioiia and batasMd bf 

then readered, at a tinie when none of diatiaeting doubla and fean. But tlie 

the motnea to a iwtiiral esaggeiatioa atern reaolve of him vfaoee ina am 

eiiated, vbioh might perhaps be im- guided the helm of State, oxtdvcted the 

MUed to any preaent eology from a periloiu conflict to a BQecaaafnl iisne. 

DamooTatio pen : Nor abaaid we for^ the eminent aer- 

"In Se^ranber, 1833, the Preeident, vicee of the individnsl who presided 

indiffnant at the open defiance of law overtheCoramittBeof WayaandMeans. 

t^ae Bank of the United States, and Hiscaoloeee,pKimptitiida,andabaBdant 

lUng oonupltoa which it teeonreee were never at bait. Hh 

etennined npoa the bold and opemng epeeeh in vinditatipn of the 

Msnie of the removal of the Preaidenf a mMaore, conlaina all the 

hieh was eAeted in the fol> material facte and leasoos on the lepob- 

ith. The act pratBced mneh licanadeof the«neatiN),«9tfcncedwi(fa 

duonriuHit tbe coantry, and mtusb power and illaatnted bf great 

nen Aat a great add donbt- iceewcli. To this nieecfa almost every 



pnetised, determined npoa the bold and opemng epeeeh in vinditation of the 

salntny meaanre of the removal of the Preaidenf a mMaore, conlaina all the 

depoHta, which was oAeted in the foU mMerial facte and leaaoos on the lepob- 

knnngmanth. The act pratBced mneh licanadeof the«neatiN),«9tfcncedw'^ 
'''*'' * war and illaatnted bf gr 

To this qieecfa almost every 
fal oondict waa abavt~to eaane. At member of tbe Oj^nailioa, who spoke 
aoch a erisia it became important to npon die queelion, attempted to rMly, 
have at the bead of the Committee of bst the argmneBts which its anuior 
W^B and Means, a man Of courage to hnm^ forward to eatabliah the pemr j 
naet, and fltmaeee to sustain, tbe for- of tlwI^eeidentnndertheCoiistitiitioa, 
midaUe ebox^. Bach a man waa foaad as elncidated by contcmporaneoaa er 
in Hi. Pcdk, and he proved lumaeif early expoaitMxi, to do the act, n4iich. 
eqoBl to the ccoaaion. Cingress met, had bemaobcMlydenomioed asa Mgti- 
and the cenfliot proved even Seioer than banded and tyrannical neuipation, could 
had been anticipated. Tbe canoe of tbe neither be refuted nor weakened. Mr. 
Bank was mppotted in the Houae by UcDnffie, the diatingnished leader of 
raeb men aa Mr. HcDuffie, Adams and ibe C^^weition in this eventfnl conflict, 
fiiuaT, not to mention a inat of otlter bore testimonj, in his condndii^ re- 
names. It is instmetive to look back, raaiks, to tbe "boUneseandmMilinesa'* 
tn cahnn- times, te the reign of twror with which Mt. Pdh had aeemned tbe 
known aa tbe Panic Session. The only poaition which coald be jodiciowsly | 
Bank, with the whole commerce of tbe taken. The financial portion of this 
ooHntry at its feet, attematdy tortoring speech, and that in which be eicposed j 
and easing its miserable peneionera as the g^aiing misdeeds of the bank, were 
tbey increased or rehuted llieir cries <^ no less emcient. When Mr. McDoSe I 
finaanial agony ; pntdic meetings held had oonclnded the remarks to irttich we 
in overj city with scarcely the inter- have alluded, a member from Virginia, 
nMNon of a day.dntouncing the Freai- after a Gbw pertinent trfnervationB, de- 
deat as a tyrant and tbe enen^ of hie mandedtheiwevioneqnestion. A more 
coantry ; ^^pntations ftooktng frmn (he intense excitement was never felt in 
towna tn extort from him a reiactant Congress than at this thrillinff moment, 
anfamiaaion ; Whig oraton liaveraing Tlie two parties looked at each other for , 
y,and etimnlartng the pasaioos a space, in sullen silence, like two 
1 mohitadea, without respect anmee on (be eve of a deadly ewflict. 
n to the aaactit^ of the Sabbath; in- Tbe motion of Mr. Mason prevailed, the 
(Buamatoty raemonale poured into Con- debate was arrested, and die division I 
gieas from every qnaiter ; the Senate proved a trium^dttAt victory far die re- 
ahnoet deeremng itself into a stats of publican cause. 'Hie Bank then gave 
pennanentinmrrection,andpraelaiminf np tbacanteat in despair. * 
lhntaievalutiOBhadali«eSybegnn;aS "The position c^ Cfaainaan of t^ 
UwboaiiMMOf lepdatioDinboUiwinga Conanittaeof Ways and Hetna, t^uJ^.-vQl/r. 



hacovntn,a 
if excited m 



UU.] Tir*t nd Second lUU Mt». tl9 

tUaw » nKMt udvouB »aA respauiUB tmcamrnaiiaing conne hul rendand 

■oe, wMfbnblj aost this aenioo, which him less acceptable, anGCMded ineket- 

iriUioimui epoch iathepoUtic»lMiBal« ing a genUeman, then a profBMed fiiHid, 

of the Goantr^. Hr. Polk occupied it but biiic«, ■ decided of^Kaent of tba 

far tiie ftr«t tune. Fran it* orguiin- President and iue measoiea. Kb". Pdk'e 

tioB aad the nature (rf its duties, this detintiniaducednochuigeiahiscoiuse. 

ffflnmittTm mast be at all timM the chief He remained faithful to hia pai^, and 

of!giii of aveiy adminisliaticai in the aaoiduoua in the pericsiiiance of Ida 

HwMe. At this BBwipn it was fcr ob- ardnons duties. In December, 1836,be 

rioaa iCMotw pacntiaflr so. To attack was elected Speaker ol the Honae ai 

it, tbea,wa8to8trikeBttheg0Tenmieat; RspresentatiTee, and choaen again in 

to embanasB its actioa was to thwart September bat, after an animated con- 

the co«ne of dw adniBMtntian. Ex- test ThedntiesoftliiadifficnltaitDatiaD, 

tiMrdioKry and indisctiotiDate opposition it ia now cooceded, he baa diacbai^ 

waa acctwdin^y made to all the appro- with rare fidelity and &imes8. [n the 

pdalka hills. It wwarowed in debate, beginning nnueoal difficotties were 

that it ma within Ae scope of legiti- &ri>wn in hia way by an animoei^ 

mate o^osition, to withhold even die which was aometioies carried to an 

Oidinafy anaiiliee until the depoaito extent that called frath genoial animad- 

weKKsUvedto the Bank of the United veraEon. Dnring the first seaairai in 

Slatea ; thM this raatitntion mnBt be which he pieaided ram a(q»eak were 

awde, ttr wrnhdian enaae. The Bank takra &om hia deeiaion than had ee- 

BMt trinnipbi or the wbeela <tf Govent- enrred in the ^hdA period since tha 

ntat be aaeetad. The people ahmiH originoftheGovwnmentsbiitbewmaani- 

naver ianit Hk pmk of a owlest, in fbnaly stutaioed br the Houae, and by 

whioh tbey were alntoet GooHrained to many of hia political advemriea. Stnn- 

•aacnoib. The recoUectienalwald warn fera of all parlieB wbo visit Waahinghm , 

theoi not to build m a^ain a power in are struck with the dignity, pDmptttnde, 

the State of such fonmdahle ucoltiea. and impartiality with which be preaiilBa 

The tactics whioh we have just describ- over the delUwtationa of the Hooae. h 

edi thiew great addittooal labor apm waa with peat pleaante that we l»aid, 

the ■•■''— """"i and paitictilarly upon bat the o&rday, an eminent member 

ita chairman. Fully apprised of die of the OpjuaitioQ in that body, bear the 

djgcultiee be had to encounln, be same teatmHmy. Notwithsiandiif tlie 

" ''tined bis poat with aleej^essvigi- violence with which bebad been aa- 

aod unlirin; acting. He was aailed, Ctn^reaa passed, at the doae of 

9 ready to give the Honae ample tbe aessiiui m 1637, an unanimouB vote 



enlMiationa upon every item, however trf' Ih&nka to its oreaiding officer, from 
Bunute, of the various appiopriatiOBa. whom it e^amted with tlwk' 



always 

tions 

, oft ,.., . 

Ue was ever prompt to meet any ob- logs ; and no man, now, could couoy its 

JBctione which might be started, aiid of confidence and friendship in a niglm 

quick wgacity to detect tbe art^cea to degree. Hie calmnessaodgood te~ - 

which StctJoDs diBiDfeDOoneness is have alla^ the violence of oppos 

Bfooe to resort AD Uie meaaurea of in a station for which bis quid 



Bfooe t _ _ ___ .. .. , 

the committee, including those of para- coolness, and sagacity eminently quality 

moant importance, relating to the bank him. 

and tlw depoeita, weie carried in spite "Fewpublicmenbaveparenedafirmer 

of tbe most immitisable opposition, ormore consistent couiaethauUr. Folk. 

The tru^Jtaarted republicans who con- Upon several emer|^nciee,when the cm^ 

dactad this critical cimflict to a success- rent of popidar opinion threatened to 

~ ' a whom Ht. Polk oecn- overwhebn him, be haa sternly adhered 



aiee a diatiiifuisbed rank, deserve tbe to the convictions of duty, preferring to 

La^nff giatUude of the country. sink with his (mnciples, rather tnan 

''TWaids the cloae of the memorable rise by their abandmimeot. This, we 

seaaion vi 1834, Mr. Speaker Steven- have noticed, was the case after his 

son resigned die chair, as well as his bank report in 1833, and be jncarTed 

seat in the Houm. The majority of tbe same haaard, when in 183A he avow- 

the Democratic party preferred Mr. ed his unalterable purpose not to se- 

P^ 9B his snceeaaot, out in watue- paiate imm tiie democratio pai^ in tha 

qnenee of a division in its ranks, the presidential election. Ob each of thaaa 

Cf^oeitwn, to whom hi* pratninent and occaeioas, die popvlarexctteManta kda 



Google 



IM Firtt md Secimd lUUt Men. [Aq>. 

iliftrict would fa»ve appftlkd and dri*«i need be uhuned. Hr. Folk na.j «dl 

back a timid and tune^erving poIiticiBii. be proud of the appoiluton, tbooRli fint 

Had be been governed by arifish mo- beaiowed as a aoesT — as indeed bave 

tivee; had he consulted hieown pehoiml been moil of the parij nicknames that 

ease and looked to his re-electioQ alone; have become moat lioiiDTabl« and re- 

faad be, in sbort, regarded auccesa more nmriwd. Its happj adaptatioa waa 

than principle, he wonld have yielded promptly and iaatiiictiTely reeognixMl 

bis own convictjons to the indjcatima, — the name baa ma like wUd-fiia 

not to be mistaken, of popnlar apiniMl. OTet the wbols countiy — and we maT 

But he look counsel of noUer senti- well say to ila nninttiiig author, who- 

mente, and with a fearlesBnesB charao- erer he maj ba?e be«t, 
teristic of his whole public conine, 

avowed and persisted in his wsll-nia- " We thank thee, Jew, foe tcachiag ici 

tared determinations. He succeeded in that word !" 
carrying trath home to an enli^tened 

C(»iBtitneney, was sustained by increaa- Mr. Folk will enter on the Pmideii- 
ing majorities, and is now so strong in cy {of that ereot there ia, indeed, as 
the good will of bis district, that at the Uitle donbl as oan ever attend tdoh po- 
last election no oppoeittm was at litto^ apecalations) — imderthehai^ieBt 
iMnpted." aoapicea. He will go in aa a new man 
It may perhaps afford some slight, — fresh, pore, unembairassed, hmd- 
even thou^ needless, illustration of the tangled. He baa do special retinue of 
tmih of this portraiture, to mention the friends and laToritea, formed round him 
candid remark recently Tolunteered by in gradual clostering in the cnarse of 
a Wk^ member of Ctmgms, in con- yearaofunbitioas aspiration, and Turtoal, 
Tersaiioa with a Demooratio member thonghlacit,candidat«ahipfbrthePreai- 
, (now, in a different elation, a resident dency. He has no special set or seo> 
of the city oTNew York) — bothfaariDg tion of politiciana to «4iom be oan feel 
serted with Mr. Folk throngh the pe- that he owes hia own eleration, aa aajr 
lioda referred to : " It is absurd to talk act of personal derotion or aetriee on 
«f Hi. Polk'a uafitueSB or ineompeten- their part, entitling them lo grateful 
cy for lbs Presidency, should be be reciprocation on his. He Stands in a 
eleotsd. We, who know, know better, position perfectly free and independent. 
There is noolEce under our institutiona He can have no other motiTC of action 
to which he is not emineuily adequate, tiian to prove hia worthiness of the 
both, in talents, deportment, and char- magniliceot tribute of honor and oiwfi- 
acler." We do not pretend to qoote dence bestowed upon him by hia party 
the exact words employed, but gi«e the and bie country. With a dignified self- 
nnezaggerated sense, for the peculiar denial creditable equally to his saguity 
bensGt of those Whig editors and ora- and hia modeaty, in the very act of ac- 
tora with whom this is one of their cepting the nomination he declared hia 
hroritc topics. intention not to be a candidate for a 
It will readily be perceived from the second term. In this he acted both 
^Nive, that the Whig author of the wisely and well. It cannot be denied 
name " Young Hickory," ^plied to that the experience of Hr. l^ler'a ad- 
Mr. Polk, was mnch nearer the truth ministration has placed this qseelion of 
than he knew himaelf to be — taking the reeligibility of tfae Present in a 
that tree as natomtly and fitly lymboli- very different light from that irtiich bad 
cal of BDch qnalities as have made the been caat upon it by all Am former 
whole country recugnite the " Old course of oar political history. For 
Hickory '' as the happiest and truest onraelves, We atill think no less deetd- 
designation of General Jackson. Such edly than ever, that very great benefits 
devicea or cant names are purely ridi- attend the rule of reSligibillt*, as the 
oulons and contemptiUe when ibey only mode of bringing the prioDiple of 
are adopted arbitrarily, and as mere reipontibilUy to bear upon tiw Presi- 
fdtraaes of party clap-trap — such as deniial offiee, and at Uie aarae lima 
" log-cabins," " cider-barrets," and affording the people the opportunity of 
" old coons." Bat when thua felici- indulging that natural feeling towarda 
tonaly eapreaaive or descriptive, they ita incumbent, that may of^n spring 
benome elevated into a legitimate pro- from the events of bis first term. Snsh 
pmty ud difniqr of which no man was the populai fMling tomid Ur. 



.^'F 



1«M.) SMoeU. UI 

Tma Baieit, roi hii nteuuTe of the Tn- Term Pitneiple, u it hu bMn ulled 

depeiulBiilTr«Mar;,>ndfoi the gallant — lo be operatiTe io ill futuM omb 

eoateat be fooght in iu behalf. Such, which may not be nude proper and 

too, towmid General Jackwn foi bu necesMry eKceptions bj vetj estnor- 

Bank uid Inteinal Inproveniciit ve- dinary canaea. Mr. Polk, we bara 

toea in his ficBt lanD. Were the tenure seen, wu prompt to take that grausd, 

«f tb« office a ahorter one — and were even at the ezpeaae of hia own futDTe. 

ha powers of patronage redaeed as we All the benefits argued heretofore In- 

tonat ere long to behold them — we our oppooenca to he incident to thu 

abould then indeed atill insist most principle, we shall have n moat Hjvnr- 

etrneatlj onthe rale. But Telnctantas ble opportunity to see teated, — in eim- 

we ate to aarrender the benefiis attend- traat, too, with the corresponding OTila 

ing it, we are atili more nnwilLiog erer that may grow ontoftbe other practice, 

again to see the power of the oflica lia- as thev hare been illiistrated in di« 

bte to the oatrageoua abuse and misuse, term oi hia predeceaaor. We ^all ba 

in corrupt iatrigoe for re-nomiaatioo, rejoiced to witneaa and prompt b 



which the whole country has witoessed knowledge them — and conclude by ii 
oflate with taeb indignant diaguat. Un- Toking auch of out whig fcienda i 
til the reform, thereiore, in the tenure hare been loudest c 



and power of the offioe, which we hope to 

see effected ere long, we am now com- l . . . . ._ 

polled by the demonstration of eTents, President, Polk, the Young Hkkotjirf 

to give w a frank adhesion to the One Tenneaaee. 



SONNETS. 
I. 

Th'at in tiiis noble land makes Ii 
Was tempered to a wiser truat by pab, 

Hope's earl^ blight, — a chaateniog aense of ill ; 
And 1 was eiiled to a sunny clime, 

Where cloud and flower a aofler meaning caught 
From graceful forms and holy wrecks of lime, 

Appealing alt to fond and penaire thought; 
Enamored of the Beautiful I grew, 

And at her altar pledged my virgin soul, — 
let me hare those treasured vows renew. 

And thou the senice shall henceforth control; 
For in thy graces and thy lore sincere 

Liiee the bleat spirit that 1 yet leTCre ! * 

'TIS well ;— let self be all— live on aerene. 

Throned io thy own pure nature, firm and wise, 
"Too brave and free on any heart to lean. 

Or read thy dearest joy in otbera' eyes. 
Tia weil ; the law of change is writ on iH, — 

Far lafer thou in hoarding up thy trust ; ' . 

Love's brightest chain ia atiil a golden thrall. 

And her awest tears oft water but the dust. i 

Tet while so jealous of ihy spirit's youth. 

Art thou content 1 Does thy soul live and know I | 

Hast then e'er caught one glimpee of that deep tnUb— 

That higbeet good doth come through feeling'a ghnrt 
The Holy One thia aaered ihongbt eonfcM, ^^ I 

Wiealwuring oo hi> fond iiKkfie't bmaL j ^,,,^5^ „^ LjOOQIC 



Ib tbere tag JonBg i>uui> undei whose preaent ngttd to partieultt neMon* 

in bis choiee between the two grcst yoaag nsq, we r^Mtf, mttoeidad wilb 

BslitioftI fattiesi nncertMii to which of whieh of the two pwties to east in hi*- 

5wi to atjKh himself^ — foi after &II, lot — od which aide or the other ef the 

rtilimii pMolisiittes of opinioa indi- bioed diTiding lioe to fix hie geacnl 

Tidoala BST entertsio on psrticalar p<ditic«l home and sbidiDg plaeel IT 

pwnts of polioy, u v wisace with the we cmn gein the eai of aor maab, wa 

fenenl dootrine of their pertr, they wovld euneBtly ud with all tki afiec- 

mnst slSl all) OB the whole and in (be tionateBjmpathieaof jonth wtAToathf. 

If^ng TBH, bfllimg to the one peitT or the of coiiiiti7maii with eoaDtnmaii, «r 

•(her. Anddiemsiiitensiice of his party patiiot wUh pMriot, itrtkt b» atiaa- 

io BBoejtdaiiej, for the sake of its geee- tiou to the Rhode Idaad qnestiMi ftoMk 

lal •fstem, Bpixit and leDdenoj, may iie first atage te its last, as afoding- 

w^prqterlylieaDobioctof &rbighBr oneof Ibe best usta that )wT«faeeDpi«- ^ 

aa ute iB to a trne patiiotism than the seated withio the pttmii |eDai*iio& i 

present promotion of one paniciilsr of the tine aharacter and ipuit of tfa» 

maasore or other, however large ihe Whig and Demooratic parties re^ieo- 

interests inTolved in it. On the point tirely. ' 

oftheTsriff, for instance, there may be The general &etsaf the oaee may bo- 

maDjaDemocrBt who, from a mistaken rery brieHv recapiinlated. The een- 

fiew of the economical question, is in trsVprincipleinTolTedisthatoftheTight 

&Tor of stions and striDgent piotec- of the people to organise and re-eira- 

tioDt who would neverthelesa M ex- niie the eonstitntionof theStale, inde- 

ohanging gold for copper to sacrilice [wndeiiil; of iIm exislin^ legal aathori- 

the aaeendeDcy of the ffeneral principles ties. After along series of froitless- 

of DeinoeTaeyandibel>emoci«tiepuiy elToTlB to obtain sn extensioii of tha- 

toUie muatenance of the present high rigfal of snffrap from the Ttrinntair 

moteotiTe tariff'. On the other hand, concessions of the priTileged miiiori^' 

Uiete may be many a Whig, better en- possessing it bv the tight of landed 

Jightened in the phiiosopby of &ee- property, the Sufirage J^rly adopte- 

tnde, yet so attached to the consena- the only other mode left open for the- 

tire and uiti- democratic spirit of the accomplishment of this object, by a di- 

Wbig party, and so impressed by their rect appeal to the great noinericd maaa 

charge* amost as of a wild, destmc- of the People themseWes. This is^ 

tive and disorganizing tendency, that, done, and with all regularity and so- 

framhU point ofvievi, he would make lemnily a Constitution is gaoied by a 

an eqntlly sbsaid mistake in contribul- pnblic ConTention and eubmilled to the 

ing to the eleration of such a paciy. popular vote. The Tote is taken, with 

So too of the Currency gaestioD, vital the precaution of requiring every TOt- 

as that is in its bearings on the highest er's name to be written on his ballot, 

moral as well as material interests of and the proxy votes sirailarly attested 

the conntry— a qaestion on which by by witnesses. The Constiiniion is 

eotamon consent the two main bodies adopted ty a large majority of tlie adult 

of oar parties stand divided, as on the male population of the State, and Ihete- 

Mie aide Ihe National Bank and Paper upon proclaimed to be the organic law 

Honey party, and on the other the Id' to which sllegiaace is due from all 

dependent Treasury and Hard Money membersofthecomBiunity. Theofaar' 

party — yet even this may tnra either ler authorities are invited to assist in 

side be very properly enbordinated to the probass of iDveetigating and eoant- 

the ftill larger, higher and stronger ing ibie popular vote ; and their refusal 

motives of choice % which the Whig to accept this invitation closes that 

or the Democt«t may be inflnenced in qoestion of fact as to tbc actual majority 

Ihe detenninalion of his general poKti- — Ihat Tefoaal resliog on the groond ct 

e>l character, fint, letting aside all tbe pjneiple before stated, which dn— > 

Lioogic 



1844,] lit Rightful GootmOT and VnrighUoiu Govenuntni. IS3 

■fed ill worth or ralMitr to snj put of Mated. It ia not denied that hiB whole 

Ae whole proeeediafa eTen tbongh the coarse in the afikir has been in perfect 

popular TOte had been abeolnteljDnMii- canaialency with that principle — haa 

Under this ConatitDtian an indeed BTolred itaelf, by absolute logi- 



elaetioii ia held, and a m>Tenimeat or- cal neeescity, out of that principle, 
ganiied aecordiuKly. The qneation of that principle was sonnii, he was 
tight and duty here arieea for ever; true Govetnor of the Slate, and all the 



eitiMB, which of the two Hts of public acts which defeat has made Crimea, 

■nUMiitiee ia the true goTerament to were bnt the inipeiative duties of that 

wltidl hia obedience and sapport ate poaition. Even if he was mistakeD in 

(ig^^iilly and loyallj dne. Each claim - the aoDDdneu of the principle, it cannot 

iog that character, eaob prepares to at lesat be queelianed that he was ho- 

mainlaia it, by a force of anna whiob nest, as he was contiaient and unyield- 

w ert a itaelf to be simply and neoessa- ing in bis maintenance of it ; and io- 

rily defensire, sgainsi rebeltiooa ag- TolTin^aait does the hia4<eat elements 

graseiaii from the other. of pohttcal acienee and law, in an ii>- 

At thiioriaie the Federal Garemment Mruse depth which affords ample ri 



interrenee, nader the iiifluene« of the for diffbreDcea of jadnnent, what coold 

BBBtai oowweb that then awayed its be more ootraeeons than to treat «a ig- 

utiad, and easts the award of Uie mi- nomlniooa andnnpardonable crime aueh 

litary and naral power of the Union a mere error of poUtical opinion, at- 

iiit« the soale agamat the popular par- tended only by the actions necessaiily 

ty, whose caaae ia acoordingly made te oonaistenl with ilaelft 
kick the bean. Some fatal mistakea lliat this principle should be even a 

of ^aetieal conduct are at the same subject of argiunenl at this day in this 

tiBM Bade on that aide, and it ia con- couoCry, woold alone be surpiising; 

qaerad, roated, and its leaders driren that its asaenion should hate been 

from the Ckate. Another attempt at saceessfutly resisted and defeated, and 

nOitaij rally is made, and again in si- hs aupporters punished with ignomioi- 

■lilu mannet Mtppreased, by the snpe- oas penalties, does indeed appear 

lior fnttrf of wealth, organisation, scareelr credible. That it was the 

nilitarj (nee and the mtligt of law, principle constituting the Tcry carcer- 

*til), asbefbre, backed by tfae menacing stone of our whole poUtical system — 

array of the military power of the the jostificsiion of the estabtishment of 

Uueo. In the nteaetime under the our independence of the mother country 

anapieea of the charter government a — and one of the leading ideas of all the 

new CoDatitDlion is submitted to the founders of our institutions, and of the 

people, which after receiving the votes most revered of our sages of public 

of a thin minority is declared establish- law — is beyond dispute or question. It 

ed, and ia carried oat into fiill practical is asserted in the Declaration of Inde- 

effiict. Wearied ^ agitation and per- pendence, and in the Constitutions of 

seention, and ctHueioas of the Imposai- twenty of the States of the Union — in 

bility of reviving their own prostrate the declaration of the Conveutioa of 

and hopeless Conatitution, the main Rhode Island itself called to ratify the 

bah of ibeSnBrage party give in their Conatitution of the United Slates in 

adhesion to the new Constitution, by 1790. It is to be found in Washing-- 

n^iatering and voting under it. After Ion's Farewell Address — abundantly m 

a tune, Governor Dorr, to disprove the the writings of Jefferson — in those of 

alaodera againsthimselfandhii friends, Iredell, Wilson, Patterson, Maraball 

vdoBtarily returns to ftee the worst and Story, all of the Supreme Court — 

peraecntiona well known to await him, in those of Madison, Rawle, Chapman, 

and to bring the whole history of the Jobuson, and many others whom it 

aflair under the somtiny of legal invea- were tedious lo enumerate. It way 

tigation, even before the tribonals of the practically illustrated in the formation 

Matile and triampbant party. The re- of our present Constitution, and in the 

soft is known to all — be is senienoed otganiiation of three of aur States 

to a felon's doom, of solitary confine- (Tennesaee, Michigan and Arkansas) 

ment fbr life, at hard labor, in tiie from tertiiories into Slates. In the 

State'o-prison I Convention that framed the existing 

And for whatt For his simple ConiiitntioD of Virginia, a propoailioa 

kuntenaDce of the principle above to insert a provision for a mode for " '' 



H^ooglc 



UM Rhode blai»l, [Aflff- 

liitiira amendment wss rejected on the pltote of his connlrrmpn. We de Mrt 1 

Terj ground thai a majority of the exhort him to remain firm and true to | 

people had the power a.1 anj time, and fais position. This we full well know i 

u any roanner they pleased, to amend to be need!e«a. We know thai Dorr 
the Conatilulian, or make a new one r — ia made of that material that he wouM 
and this was done by the large vote of lalher die there a thousand deaths, ! 

68 to S5; theoameof JoAn IV'^''^^'"? whether of quick torture or alowdeear, 
amoDg those who then asserted the than yield a hair's breadth. We only 
principle of which he haa now beeo bid him be of good cheer — to retain that i 

ibe moat &tal foe — together with these high aareniiy and manly cheerMneaa ! 

of Madiaon and Marshall. of heart, of nhich, both in his prlTai* ! 

P And in Ibe present instance, the end letters and in hia public demunetra- 
ittt which this great fundamental prio- tiona, we have aeeo the raoel louohing 
ciple of American political law and evidences. His enemies — oureMmiea 
public right was called into action, was — the enemief of their country and of I 

certvnly one worthy of the means and the memory of their country's greatest 
the mode. It was only resorted to and best — will ere long be compelled to | 

after a long series of fruitless altempla yield before the moral dignity of euch | 

through other channels. None deny a noble endurance. They are atriving 
the magnitude of the grievance — few only to humiliate bim — to extort from 
the necessity of its redress in one way the unnerved weariness of close, long 
or another. The charter party thetn- captivity, thatsabraiBsioowitboutwhioh I 

Belvea made full concession of this, by all the practical fruits of the victory 
Iheir own movement for the extension they owe to the military force of the 
of suffrage — though made only when Fedetal Union will lose their sweetest 
too late to interrupt the rightful course savor. But they cannot long majntaia 
•of the Constitution already voted itito aconteat which in this country muatba 
validity by the people tbeoiselTes ; and ao Dnequal. Bally will the ga4hertng 
when made, accompanied slill by a thunders of the public indigoatioii 
cunning evasion of nearly all suhsiaa- swell loader aod louder from all qnar- 
tial benefit in the change. ters of the Utiion, and a universal eiy 

For the assertion of this principle of " shame !" will force tbem to abtn- 
and for this object — or rather for hav- don the dastardly baseness of a Ten- 
ing been defealcd by tho President and geance purely personal, and , malignant 
Commander-in-Chief of the United in proportion to its conscious wrongful* 
States in its assertion— Dorr is now nesa. It will rally again the broken 
the inmate of a prison, under a sen- and disorganized array of the old Suf- 
tenee of moBt alrociooa severity and frage party in Rhode Island itself; and 
ignominy, while the memory of Wash- as a turning point of party division, the 
ington is Gauooized, and the names of qoestioo oftbe Liberation of the Priaon- 
.ajf the great worthies of the better er will require but a brief period of agi- 
daya of the liepublic, from whose lalion to revolutionise again the parties 
words and deeds the congenial pupil of the State. 

learned the noble lesson, are blazoned We will not let the occasion pas* 

with an unfading lustre on the brighteat without placing on the record of our 

pages of our history — pages Mr. Dorr's admirsble speech to 

the Court who sentenced him to the 

"Can such things be, fearful doom which they had the power 

And overcome us like a sammer cloud, to decree, hut of which they can never 
And not eicile our special wonder !" have the power tocarrj out the e»ccu- 

-, „ , , tion. For calm dignity, magnanimooa 

For Mr. Dorr wo have no condol- p„ienee. and hrave serenity of spirit, it 
-enee to offer. On the contrary we envy ja one of the finest models afforded by . 
Tiunhis gloriods cell. We envy him jji the annala of the similar encoanlere 
the honor of being the object of those ^f the martyrs of freedom and tha 
indignant feeling which are rising op minione of tyranny 
to him and for him from the great heart 

of the American people. We envy "The court have, thronith their offieer. 
turn the not distant triumph of hie re- addrewd to the defendant the usnal 
turn to freedom and worthily compen- quettion, whether he have anjihing to 
eating prooft of the aynpalby and ap- laj why seatenee should not be pnK- , 

Coogic 



1$M.] Its Rightful Omtmtr mti OnrightMua Oovernment. 139 

BOVKOd npoD him. I bave wmetliiag to " It is trae the jorj w«re nbunt more 

M7, wbi^ ihaJl be brier knd iatelligiUe than two honn; but not for deliberation, 

to tbe conrt, thoagb it mnM be neces- One of them wm asked, immediately BRer 

nrilT nnanuliag:. Wilbont nekiog to tb« vetdicl was delivered, and (be jar; 

bringiDTKlf iDcontroTeriTTiththeconrt, -wan discharged, whether ther bad been 

I UD dedrona to declare to youlbe plain detaiaedbraajdiaagreemeDt. Hereplied, 

tnith. < we had nothing to do. The court had 

" I ant bontid, in dnty to mTself, to ex- made ererjlbing plain for ns.' 

preM to Ton my deep and Mlemn eonvic- " Oa bearing a bill of eiceplioas to the 

tioa that I have not received, at your Terdiet tbns nndcred, the court promptlr 

handi, (be fair trial by an impnTlial jury, overruled all the points of law. 

«) vhleh by law and jaiticfflvs entitled. "The court also denied to the defend- 

"The (list hu been pennitled to take ant an opportunity of EhowJug to them 

place in a county where, to tay the lea$t, that ihree of the jurora, before they were 

it wai donbtfol whether the defeadaut empnnnelled, mnnirested itrong feelings, 

eoald be tried according to the law of the and had made ase of vindiclivc and hostile 

State: andia aeaae of doobt lilce this, he expretsioni agaiatt him personally: afler 

pgfEht to have bad the benefit of it, etpe- tbe defendant had egtabliihed by bis affi- 

eklly Bsthe trial hefemnslbein ft eonnty dsTii the fact that he was not informed 

to which tbe defendant was a strantter, in of thie hostility of feeling and eipres- 

Ihe mjdit of bii DMSt excited political op- sum before they were empannelled, 

poneut*. and with reganl la two of them, be- 

" All bnt one of thoie freeholder*, lOS fore the verdict was rendered. Tbe de- 

In nnmber, who were suDunoaed here for fendant expected lo prove, by twelve 

Oe purpose of selecting a jury to try the witnesses, tbat one of these jurois had 

dcfeadant were of the opposite parly in expressed a wish to have the defendant put 

tbeSlate.and weredelibemtelyselagainM to death, and had d crli red, shortly afler 

Ihedeffendantwitbthefeelingsof parlixan the verdict, to n person inquiring the re> 

hottility. The single demoetatic jttroi salt, that he had convicted the defendant 

was set aside for hating expressed an and that ibis was what he intended lo do; 

opinion. Of the drawn jnrorg, IS in that another Juror had also declared, (hat 

number, two only were members of tbe tbe defendant ongbt 10 be executed ; and 

democratic p»ly; and one of (hem for that Ihe third had frequently made tbe 

cause, and tbe other for allied cause, tame declaration, with a wish that he 

was removed. might be permittn] lo do tbe work of an 

" Every one of the jory finally aeleeted eiecotioner, or to shoot bim as he would 

to try the ddendant was, of course, a po- a serpent, and put him to death. 

Illieal opponent. "Nor would the court permit the de- 

"And even as so constituted, the jury ftndani to show hj proofs which he de- 
were not permitled to have the whole esse clared on oath to have been unknown to 
preeenied to their consideralion. Tbey him at the time of empannellin; of the 
were not, as ia capital, if not in nil crimi- jnry, thai an array of twelve men. sum- 
nal cases, they are cniilled (o be, permitted moned on venire by a deputy sheriff, were, 
to judge of the law and the fact. The or a considcrsble part of them, at least, 
defendant and his counsel were not per- the same persons who hod been selected 
mitted to argue to the jury any matter of by anAttomeyofthis court, who assisted 
law. the officer in tbe service of the «um- 

«The court revised to hear Ihe law mens, 

a^oed to themselves, except on tbe ques- " These, and other matters which I will 

lion whether treason be an offence against not stop toenumerale, show that ibistrial^ 

m Bitte or against the'United Slate*. which has been carried through (he form* 

"iniefioQrt refused to permit (ha de- of law, wosdestilule of (herealityof Just- 

fendanl lo justify himself by proving the ice, and was but a ceremony preceding 

CoDStitnlioo, the election, and (he aathoT' conviction. That there is any precedent 

ily ander which be acted ; or lo permit fbr it, ia the most aerimonious period of 

btm lo produce tbe same proofs, ia order the most excited party times in Ibis eoun- 

U repel tbe charges of^ tnalicious and try, I am nol awarefromany examinalioa 

trailoross molives made ia the indictment, or recollection of its political history. 

and lealously urged against bim by tbe "In a trial of an alleged political 

counsel for thfe State. offence, involving tbe feeling* of the whole 

"By the charge of the jadie, the jury community,andgrowingoutofacondilioll 

were irratroded that the only question of aOairs which placed the whole people 

wWch they had to try waf>, whether tbe of the Stale on one side or tbe other of an 

defendant intended to do the acts which cjasperaled coniroveisy, the strictest and "■ I 

be performed; a question of eapadty most sacred impartialilyahoold ha*ebee»^iOL)vlL 

nthtf Iban of motive* and intealiont. observed la the most careful inveitiiatioB ^' 



136 fibie Uland, [Aaf 

bothof l&wu>dfftctby thr jiDTiSBctnian lie^uoiiifl, whoM rightcooi dacMM will 

the decitioDs and dinetkmi of the eonrt. ktqim all the wroogi whieh B>r h» turn 

In what cMe thonld thejr have be«i boom committed, and place that cHiraatB ^e« 

diftnutTal oT the political biaa of their my actiou to which tber mkj he &idr 

own mindfl, marc oarcTul in «U IheJt de- catilled. 

liberatioDt, more eaniME is the innica- « The pnwen of thi* eoiit doe* boI 

lioa of a itrsngth above tbeir own, that reach the man within. The court caosot 

(hey might not only appear to be jiut, bnt (hake the eoavictiao* of the rnlad, nor 

dojaEtice iaa manDcrso above allintpi' the fixed pnrpoK which i> lutained hy 

cion thai the defendant and bU thoee with integrity of heart. 

whim he is asKoeiated, might be satisfied " Claiming nf eiemiitiDB Aiom the !■• 

that he had had hit da; in court, and that flrmitiea ^c^ bcMt na all, aad which 

every reqtiisilioi] of the law bad been ob- may altenAia in the p tit ee ntiwi oT the 

served and fulfilled. In how different a mott importaat ealeipriMa, and at tlw 

gpirit were the proceedinga ofthii trial lame lime caoscioM of the reetitah of 

condnclcd I And with what emotions mj iatention*, aod of baytag aetad l>on | 

must the defendaat have liflened li) the good motivn, in an atletaiil to prwunte 

declaration of one of your honors, that the cqaality and to eM«Ui*h the jaM 

' in the hurry of this trial I' they conld not freedom and interetti of my' fclhnr-citi- 

, attend to ibe qaestjons of law, which he leo^ I c«o regud with eqaaninity, thia 

■o earnestly pressed apon their immedialn last infiiction of the eonrt i nor would I, 

cODsideraUan, u vitall)' important to the even at this eitremiCy of the law, in view 

righteoni determination of his case 1 of Ibe oinDions which you entertain, and | 

" The result of this trial which your of the sentiments by which yon are ani. 

Benlence is abont to proclaim, is the per- mated, cicbaoge the place of a pritener 

petual imprisonment of (he defendant, and at the bar for a eeal by your aide vifon ths 

his seclusion from the face of society, and bench. 

Itom all eofflmimieation with bit fellow- "The eentcnee whieh yo« wiH pa>- 

aien. oonnee, to the extent of the power mmA 

" Is il too mneh to say, thai the object inflneace which this court can eiol, it » 

of hi* political opponents is the grMifiea- oondemnalion of the doctrine* of '76, aad 

tion of an insatiable tplrit of revenge, a reversal of the f^real ^inciplea which 

raUier than the attainment of legal jast- sustain and give vitality to our demoei^e 

lee 7 They are also bent upon bit polili- Repnblie ; and which are regarded by thft 

eal destmction, which results from the great body of oor feUow-cilixen*, as ft 

aentence of the conrl, in tbe deprivation portion of the birth-right of a tiee People. 
of hit political and civil rights. They aim "From this sentence of the eonrt I 

alao at social annihilalioo, by bis com- sppeal to tbe People of onr State and of ' 

mitment to that tomb of the Uving, from our country. They shall decide between 

which, in ordinary cases, those who ns. I e<»Dmit myself, withantdistinst, to 

emerge are looked npon as marked and their flnal award. I have iwthiagmon 

doomed men, to be excluded from there- to say." 
potable walk* of life. But there my op- 

paoeiits and peraecnlort are detlioed to , , 

SUappointment. Tbe court may, thiongb * few words more, ppoo the moral 

thccon»equence»ortheir«eDtence,abridgo "f »« U"«. "i illustration of the tme 

the term of his existence here ; Ibey can characters of our two great political 

•anaihilate his political rights; bulmorc pu-liet. There maf have been a very 

Aan tbi( they cannot accomplish. Tbe few anotiulouB exceptions on eithei 

benest Judgment of his friends and fellow aide ; but, aa a general rule, the Whiga, 

eitiieat resting npon the traih of his frnm the beginning to the end, have 

easse, and faithful to the dictate* of hn- auttuoed the Charter party with their 

manity and justice, will not *o much regard BTrnpaUiy and applaaae ; while the heart 

the place to which he w consigned, as the of the Democracy haa been with the 

cwwes which have led to bu incarccra- „,„ ,„j ^^ j^^y of freedom and popu. 

bettecODse. Inthe*^ccofthat«o.e '^.,'5°""'"' ^"» imprwonment ; 

I have, no right to complain that I am "'"'e both the presa and public meet- 

eaUednponto tnffer hardship*, whatever mgaof the otheraieatrongui theirpro- 

uaTbetheertJmaieoflheiBJnsticewhich tett against it. By hearen, were we 

infliels them. yet undecided in our oboioe of a vatf, 

"All tbete proceeding* will be recon- this fact would alone anffiee to detai-^ > 

aidered by that nltiaate tribnnal tA Pnb- tune ou MleetioD ! Ralhei any pi^i O O Q I C 



19H.] 7A* MMraM MctMtr. Wf 

MDt ntwmie of ptriiticBl poU«T, Uuui State. The mowm of the Whig pu- 

Um ehmttioa of » nw^ u deiilr h(»»- tj, on the other hMd, wooU grMtljr 

tile tothe genituof oaroonntiTaiMl the ^vlong and ■ggnrata hie iDoaroen* 

■{Hiit of ooi age I tion. We tnut that eTery Demooratie 

' We regtrd dais aa one of die moM meeting that ahall aaaemUe between 

interettiog iwaea inrolTed in, the pre- Ibis tine ud the eleetioo, will mike it 

eent conteat. Clar — ustnntf j and £tlj the sabjeci of a resolDtion witahle lo 

— haa declared hiroaelf atronglr againat the oeoaaioa ; of which copiea ehonld be 

the popular paitj id the RlMde ulaod eeat to GoTemOT Dorr's friends in 

oonteet. He even introduced it for- ProTidence te be tnnnnitted to him- 

maUy into bis Raleigh speech, which is Nothing of this kind is to be ezpHieA 

the piincipsl Whig manifesto of the from snjof theineetiiigeof the WU^ 

eampaign. The election of Polk, on For the sake of a patrurtiam rimng 

the other hand, will have ■ direct besT' abore the lower le?el of partisanship, 

ing on the liberation of Mr. Dorr, we shoaid rejMoe te witneea some ex- 

There can be no doobi that the strong- ceptioiu te this ; bet, at anj rate, wa 

eat joflnenee of the Federal Govern- invoke our Demoeratia frienda to draw 

ment will then be exerted to indnce or broad snd deep the line of ooamst b*. 

-extort it from ^e petty tjranny now tween &a and our oppoaeats ea this 

dominant in that dishonored little point of vital democrstio priiioi[de. 



THE MOURNFUL HOTHBR. 



That no more with eaeh other. 

Sweet coQosel ye can have I— 
That lie, left dark by natnre. 

Can never more be led 
By thee, maternal creature, 

Along smooth pstha instesd % 
That tlwra oaaat no more show him • 

The •nnshiae, by the heat ( 
The river's silver flowing. 

By mnnnuiB at hie feet ? 
The foliage, by its coolness ; 

The roses, t^ their stnell ; 
And all creation's fnlness, 

By Love's invisible ? 
Weepest thou to behold not 

His meek blind eyes agsio,^ 
Closed doorways which were folded, 

And piayed agaiost in vain — 
And undei whien, s*t« smiling 

The obild-mouth evermore. 
As one who watebeth, wiling 

The time by, si a door » 
And weepest thou to feel not 

Hie clinging bsnd on thioe— 
Which now, at dream-lime, will DM 

Its eold tonch disentwine t 



lizcdbyGoOl^lc 



Th« M«ttmfia Motk*r. {Aag. 

And weepeet tboa Btill ofter. 

Oh, nevei more to mftrk 
His low soft words, made softer 

Bj aposking io the dark ! 
Weep on, tbon moiucDTal mother ! 

Bat Bince to bim when liring. 

Thou weit both mii and moon. 
Look o'er his grave, surviTing, 

From a high sphere alone 
Soetain that exaltation — 

Eipand that tender light ; 
And hold in mother-passion, 

Tby blessed, in thy sight. 
See how be went -out etiaightwaj 

From the dark iroTld he knew, — 
No twilight in the gateway 

To m^iate 'twixt the two,— 
Into the sadden glory. 

Out of the dark he trod, 
Departiitg from before thse. 

At once to Light and God ! — 
For the first face, beholding 

The Christ's in its divine, — 
For the first place, the golden 

And tideleSB hyaline ; 
With trees, at lasting summer. 

That rock to songful sound. 
While angels, the new-comer. 

Wrap a still smile sroand ! 
(Hi, in the Messed paalm now, 

His happy voice he tries, — 
Spreading a thicker paim-hough, 

Than othere, o'er his eyes, — 
Yet still, in all the singing, 

Thinks haply of thy song 
Which, in his life's first springing, 

San^ to him all night long, — 
And wishes it beside him. 

With kissing lip^ that cool 
And soft did overglide hLm, 

To make the sweetness fhll. 
Look up, O mournful mother ; 

Thj blind be; walks in light ! 
Ye wait for one another, 

Before God's infinite ! 
But ihtm art now the darkest, 

Thon mother left below — 
7%mt, the sole blind, — thon markast. 

Content that it be so ; — 
Until ye two give meeting 

Wbere the great Heaven-gate is, 
And he shall lead thy feet in, 

As OBce thon leddest Am.' 
Wait OD, thoa Dwoinful motlm. 



lizcdbyGoOl^Ip 



4.] Omt National B*nli—*UUvt try mttier J 1 

ONE NATIONAL BANK-5HAtL WE TRY ANOTHER « 



^ueilion to be Mttled bv the approftch^ Steojuily, for i 

fng eleclian. A now tnuilt, e«U it by bility, 

wh»t name jron will — rognlBlor, fiscal Thirdly, for oor politiMl ponty. 

nwohine, uDiforni nationaJ carreocy, or I. What thi bahe ma roB ihth 

any other that nill best express the subikiss mqhalitt. 

«heruhed ides but etade tbe obnoxious The openine' of the bank booka, in 

word — a new Bakk is undeniably tkt 1817, threw intu -.l nuiket, already 

groat measure of the Whig Party, and ecrewed up and eoiii»c, thirty-five mil- 

partxttUenet of Mr. Clay. lions of stock to be sold. How woe it 

The "repeal of the sub-treasorr to be paid for? Through tbe tica of 

bill," and "tbe ineorporation of a bans it* constitution, much more than from 

adapted to the wants of tbe people and the corruption of its manafera, a plan 

of the gOTerameat," were the flisE two was hit upon that apparently dieposej 

meaaorea laid down by Mr. Clay for of the stock, without dcmagini the 

tbe adoption of the Whig Congress of purchaaer. Aa aoon aa the actual cap- 

1640. The bank charter was passed, italiats had paid in their first instal- 

•hom, it ia true, of eome of ita more menta, the doors were thronged with 

significant ehanctetistica, la meet the speculatora who scrambled up, holding 

eappoeed scruples of Mr. Tyler ; and in their hands certificates of stock 

was Tetoed, even ia it* emasculated which they had porchased, and for 

state, when Mr. Tyler foond it was a whichlhey could not pay. On the 26th 

bankatitI,Dat less mischiefOQS, because of August, 1917, when tlie market price 

it was mutilated. A bank is again of the stock was tI44, a resoluiioa 

brought before the people ; and test was squeezed through the hoard, an- 

there should be any doubt what a bank thoiiiing discounta on stock, to be 

ie, Mr. Clay has pointed to the late valued at 9135 a share. At once tbe 

Bank of tbe TTnited States, unabated, line was formed. The apecalator 

unaltered, unsoflened, in all its coles- whose pockets last night were empty, 

ealTigor and dimensions, as tbe model.* would march up this morning to the 

What did that bank do 1 Did it give bank, with the certificate of transfer in 

energy and firmness to our moral tone 1 hia hand — aomeiimes without it — claim 

Did It give ease and uniformity to our the discount of f 135 per share, pay 

monetary system * Did it derote itself the first instalment, and watch the tide 

to the wants of the bnsiness coramuni- till a rise toot place in the market, 

ty, steadibr averting its eye from the when be woald sell out, boy in a new 

turmoils ofUie political worldl What lot, borrow money on the purchase, 

it did then, it will do again ; and if it and wait for another fiesbet. Direc- 

shonld appear that it polkled the moral tors, — certainly a majority of themr~* 

atmosphere, that it distracled the mo- brokers without number, speculators of 

netar^ system, and that it completed eTecr breed — entered into tbe game, 

ita mtssion by corruption as extensiTe With all, the object was to pulTouI the 

aa it was deTsstating, then it muat be stock ; and every day during 'change 

plain, — plain, if hut a small [wrtion of might be seen the great body of Ue 

Its early Tiger remains to this youne stockhdders, either in person or hj 

and great republic, — that rather should proxy, employed at tbe job of hlowbg 

we desire onr rivers to dry up and our out and swellinK the dimensions of the 

Areata to wither, than we shonld suck hollow little boobies that were in mol- 

once more into our vitals poison so titudes tossed off upon the world. 

enbtle and potent. The object of this In January, 1818, ttl,344,514 had 

paper ia to inquire, aa briefly as the been discounted upon the hypotbeca- 

eubject will allow, what the hank did— tica of stock. The bank had aoU 

* In May, 1836, Mr. Clay declared his willingneM, were it praeticaUr, "to adopt 



Google 



IM One Naiioital Bmi^tkaii we try wmlAtr t [Aug. 

about one-half its capita to bond fide him, belonged to tbsl raie claaa of men 
holders, and hid aoid the other half to who do not eTcn parley with tempUi- 
putchaaerB nho paid foi itwitb the tion ; and Mt. Cberei, therefore, wma 
same funds which hud paid for the the mast nnenitable man in the worM 
first. But was not SQch wholesale to Batisf; the Bchemes of the apecol*' 
nmbling fatal to Ihe integrity of the tors nho had then the upper baiid. He 
bosinesB uammanit; 1 Did not the rich- reduced the diTideada to their just di- 
nesa and heat of the new elements mensions, and at once the proxr-di- 
apawn into life myriads of new apecn- liders and ibe oertificale -pledgers 
lations, each exceeding its predeces- were in an nproar. Aflei bringing the 
Bors in tihallownesa and imposture f bank to convalescence, he resigned, 
Snch, in fact, was the result ; and such, leading the way fur an administrstLoD 
ID future, will be the result wbeflever which, by its masterly boldness, its 
thirty millions of dollars are piled np brilliant epochs, its splendid imposi- 
niidei the charge of human wisdom, tions, made more awful the calamitioa 
and subjected to the assaults of haman which it eventually produced. 
appeiite. "'For the information of those not 
It is scarcely worth while to perch oonTersant with the portion of the busi- 
for a moment upon the proxy-di Tiding neasof the bank referred toby Hr. Bid- 
stratagem of 1B16, though in itself a die," said Mr. LippiDcott,a resMctaUa 
straw that indicates loo painfully the and aged mercliant of Philadelphia, the 
current of the morality the new Inte- chairman for many years of the Divi- 
rests had called into action. By the dend Committee, in a speech made by 
first fandamenlal arlLcle of the charter, him at a meeting of the stockhatdereon 
no person, copartnership, or body poll- Ibe 4lh of Hay, 1841, " I wiltatatethat 
tic was to be entitled to more than these reports (the reports of the impor- 
tbirly toIob ; and yet it appeared on tant committees) were always previocs- 
the eTidence before the iniestigating ly prepared by the officers of the bank, 
committee, of which Mr. John C. (and as now appears) etry art/uilu and 
Spencer was chairman, that it was a with great circumtpection, and Ming 
eommon and general practice, well neatly copied hy a clerk, in the tmt, 
known to the jndges of the election were handed to the Dividend Commit- 
and to the directors, to divide shares tee for th^r examination and compari- 
into small parcels, varying from one to son, and numerous documents aeeom- 
tweoty shares to a name, held in the panying them. These reports were al- 
names of persona who haJd 06 interest so usually ccnnpaied widi the general 
in them, and to vote npon the shares ledKer,aDd if foundtocorrespondthere- 
tiina held, as atloTooys for the pretend- with also (whish was always the case], 
ed proprietors. In Baltimore alone, weresignedby ihechairmanofthecom- 
cODspicuoas for the looseness with miitee and presented to the board." 
whicn the branch there situated was Such being the course pursued at tfas 
conducted, a Mr. Geoi^ Williams, bank, it would be absuru to attempt te 
one of the chief actors, presented him- track back through its chartered exist- 
self as the attorney for 1173 shares, ence the abuses which were displsyed 
boneht in 1 173 names. at tbe explosion of 1S40. It was Uien 
Mr. Jones, the lirst president of the that the dealings ofthe institntlon were 
bank, at one time an amiable and res- for the first time opened to the pnblie 
pectsble man, with eonslderabte prn- eye. The Teil was suddenly liAed,aod 
tensions but meager parts, soon broke the secret things of the temple broDgbt 
down under the seductions of his office, to light. By the statement ofthe inves- 
and fleng himself, a ready victim, into tigaiing committee (April 3, 1641) it 
the arms of those who pressed forward appeared tbat on the active debt, on 
to prostitute him to their desires. But December 91, 1810, were loans to aev- 
Mr. Jones had not the sagacity to con- en incorporated or other companies ^ 
cea! his frailty ; and amazed (he world •1,211,163, including one of 9&0S,3S3 
by sbawing Uiem in bow short a period to the Wilmington railroad. The sum 
a middle-aged business man, who has of f 740,066 was on obligations having 
gone half through life with a pitKd at least six months loroD; asdofthis 
front and hit colors, may be led away sum, t697,038 had more than twelve 
by the charms sod temptations of months to run. Nine compuiies had 
bukiog. Hr. ChcTes, who fallowed disooantsamoaDtinf lomoreihanf lOO* 



8lf 



1B44.] Ont National Bank—ihailvit Iry amathtr J m 

000 OMh. OnthetuipeDdeddebtwere mioed by the lone of faia ]aat and un- 

found fiAy-two lEidiTidiiBU, firniH and digeued meal. If such ft tctt be ap- 

companietebMgedvithnioiethftiifSO- plied to the temains of the bank of the 

DOO each, tnentT-nine with more than United Statee, it is a qneetion whether 

$50,000 eaeb, and nine esceediDK the ioquicei would not be a little pui- 

$100,000 each. Six concerns were eled lo Gnil out to what clus the mon- 

«burged'with $8,314,000. One Phila- 8(er in qaestion belonged. Ccrlaiol;^, 

delpbia finD, through the agency of the the Ia«t auppogilion would be (hat it 

ExchaiigeCoinhUtee,whoseoperations was an institution establiahed for the 

will in a moment be adverted to, receiv- purpose of loading money on good 

•d aooommodationa between August, commeicial paper bavins a short tima 

1S35 and November, 1837, to the exieut to run, for, of all securities remaining 

of $4^13,S78, more than half of which in its crop, such paper was about the 

wia obiainsd in 1837. The olhcers of rarest. The substaaiial viands Bod 

the bank came in for shftres, which, plain meats which the just course of 

KTsst aa wtL» the plunder, seem almost hanking woald procure, seam never to 

luspniporiiosate, Mr. Samuel Jaudon, hare met its taste ; and, in their place, 

when he resigned ascaBhier,andwasap- itsappelile was sated with fancy dishea 

poioied foreign agent, was indebted m of a character as fatal to itself as they 

the sum of $408^80, and the ingenions were deieierioua . to the aommnnity. 

reaaon the directors gave for crediting Among the ingredients, in the Tart 

him with an enormona salary, when in chaos whiob the final exposure de*e- 

tbe latter capacity, was (hat by so do- loped, were to be found atooks of cveiT 

ing they tosk the only way of sinking imaginable tinge of badness, from tail- 

anytfaing of bis debt. In 1S30, under roads which were only laid for the 

the old bank, another individual, then purpose of borrowing money, down to 

oaahier, stood charged with $104,000. town-Iota which never had been laid out 

At the aame time, the first assistant stall. Notes o f broken-do wnpoliticiana, 

oaahier wasindebt«t toihe bank, $116- — notes, alas! of some who were once 

000, which sum was soon afterwards among (he most honored of our public 

swollen to $326,363, about which time men,-— deeds for nunUjerless lots in 

he was promoted to the post of cashier, cities on the bed of the Mississippi,— 

If it should be inquired what became Texas scrip, and Panama scrip, and 

of Mich great sams, it is answered that scrip of nations nut to be found on the 

the three last-named officers had been map, — stock of Dismal Swamp Canal 

prafuaely engaged in investing, on Uieir and of Bald Eagle Spring Navigation 

iO(iitoonceni,intheCamdenand Wood- Campanv, — fancy stocks of every hue, 

bury railroad, or the Wilmington ruU — were ibund imbedded in ihe general 

road, in the Daophin and Lycoming Vicksburg bottom, 

eoal lands, and in the Grand Gulf rail- The cotton speculations give a fair 

road, the stocks of which, when they idea of the method in which a national 

were dropped by their holders aa a bad bank is to be managed. The chaitet 

speoulatioa, were pitched off upon Ihe prescribed that the bank should not 

bank, in satlsfaetion for the debt. In deal in meroliandiae. The bank, how- 

1836, (he sum lent on the bypotheca- ever, or rather its officers, who had 

tioB of faitcy stacks, amonnted to near- usurped its sole management, thought 

ly $30,400,000, a sum sufficient to dia- differently \ and in 1837, without the 

charge half the debt of the State of authority or even the knowledge of the 

PeBnaylvaois, but which was sunk in board, tbe first advances, amounting to 

mad specnlatioDS, or abstracted with 83,183,Q05, were made to A. G. Jau- 

fraudnlent designs, to the destruction, don, for Ihe purchase of cotton, to be 

not onlyofthe property of those who remitted to Baring, Brothers & Co., of 

had been enticed within the bank por- Liveipool. " The derangement of the 

tals, but of the credit and character of currency," said Mr. Biddle, on the 10th 

the conntry. of December, 1838, when explaining In 

It is said that a geologist is able to a letter lo Mr. Adams the nature (^ 

deeide upon the genua and properties the operation, " placed the staples of 

of a fossti monster, by examining the the south entirely at the meroy of th» 

eODlents of hie maw ; — cainivoroua foreign purchaser, who could have die- 

or bertiiTOKiua, tbe ehuacter of the tued the terms of sale to the prostrated 

•■bjeetiaalqwiat invariably to be deter- planier. It was thought proper to C~^oOllIp 



m Om Nmtimid Bmk—thall we try aiMitr f [Aug. 

A*att tbe STil bj employing: & ^x^e in the tenate, thai " the eha^ea of n- 

portion or the cepitKl of the b&nk m Becaril; aod insolTancT of Ihe bulk 

makingailTaDaesDnBaDthernprodnca." iFere withoat th« ali^iteet faand^Kn," 

In 1839, dte o«i»ld drawD from the mod that time, the ^at arbiter of bm- 

bnnk, let it be rMnembeTed, without the naa eateTprioea, had confirmed hiadoe- 

advica or cooseiit of the diieotore, laration. Upon this deelaniion be 

■moooted to $8,960,490. In 1840, on foonded one of his moot poeitire ki^ 

feakueing' the accoanta, the banlc wa« menta in favor of the reaolalioaa vir- 

Aond to be a lo«er to the timonnt of tuallj impeaobins Geieral Jaefcaon; 

4iS3,ftM, neaH; one-thirtieth of ita and naieted tb« eoorta fiw tbeir lepsrf. 

■e^tal, a deficit which af^emrds waa In September, 1837, be proetkinted 

^woaiderably anelled, and whioh, when a National Bank to he " the great wast 

ih« parties iverec^ed upcn for settle- of the country," and "the only safe umI 

aoent, waa divided inlo four portions, certain remedy" fur (he alarming dis- 

«ne of which was Tcpadiated ahogelber, tress nhlch he declared the conittry lo 

-•nd the remainder replaced fay a mass be eufferingfrom the termiaalionof the 

of worthless trash, under the name of charter of the late National Bank. 

edlaterat security. It is said that, of the thirty^iTS mil- 

Who can justify the re-isaoe, by Uie lion capital, fifkeen millioa was loat bf 

PeBHylTania Bank of the United the depreclBtion of fancy stocks, aM 

'8tM«a, of notes otiginally iMned by Ave million by dowBright depMdMicm. 

11m pareot bank, and by it redsemed 1 It ia well known that the losses in Bat- 

Gerttinly not Mr. Clay, who in Feb., limore alone, in Ilia fliat two yean af 

18S8, scarcely ventured to sustain (he bank's eirislenss, araoonted to 

wImi he called " the ttricl legality" of •3400,(H)0. It was suted in the fiiat 

'4|m traoaaction, and yet, with astonirii- report of the etockholdets' iorestigatiBg 

iug boldnesa, be defended the breach of comntttee that " there was a eharfo 

Anh 1^ saying that " nobody doubts under date of Jane 30(h, I84A, of 

the perfiwt safety of the notes, — no one 9400,000 to 'Parent Bank note* m»- 

■oan believe that tbey witi not be fnlty dooM' which bad not been explained M 

wid Akirly paid." Such was the petioy (he BSlisfitotiin of the committee, it 

-which DDtaioed with the bank'a preai' must also be neationed that amoBg llie 

daKaad tiie bank's friends ; and in such cspenditims of (be bank there an m- 

« manner, aasumptioD after asaumptioa, tered at *arion8 dates, commeneiog 

naorpation after marpstion, embMtle- Hay 6, 1830, sums amounting in all la 

mentaflerembeiilemeotwerejustified. C6I8,(M0 16, aa paid on tbe voocfaets 

" It is wrong, we do not deny, hot took, of ' Mr. N. Biddle,' of ' Mr. N. Blddta 

lunr pro&tabte I It may be a breach of and J. Cowperthwaite,' and 'cashier^ 

&ith for us to pay out notes w6 ptwn- voaehere.' As the oommittee vrai« 

(aed ti cancel, and which belong to us unable to obtain satisfactory inGnwa- 

fiv that pnrpaee alone, bat hew can we tion upon the subject of these expeosBS 

liesitate at a job so premising 1" In fiom the books and officers of the baidl, 

fact, one of xhe worst fsaiures abont the application was made by letter to Hi. 

game which the bank playad, waa the N. Biddle and Mr. J. Gowperthwaite, 

ialse representations it vraa in the habit from whom no reply was received." 

«f bolding out to the community. Mr. Such was the story told on the 6r«t r«- 

Clay, nioae sanguine tempemment al- pott of the committee, and oniiappfly 

waysmsdebimone of the most danger- for the reputation of the officers of tbe 

ooe, as he waa one of the most doped, bank, every fresh atep brought then 

of its supporters, repeatedly expressed deeper into the mud. The fact re- 

hia faith tn it when it was essentially mains imdisputed, that 9800,000 were 

kaoktupl, and called upon the people spent for purposes of which the dii«o- 

to eonw up for shelter under so firni tion knew nothing, and which were 

and impregnable a fortress. glossed over by a seriee of fklae en- 

Ttms, in Janoary, 1887, he declared tries and intricate traaepontiona.* 



X, 



The ■sbseqncDt report* of the committee ^ce the matter in a maeb stronger 



aiwnat dtsboned for purposes nnexobuned ammmted. btlbre 
MmtASS, tSt»,Xo 



1844.] OntPfalurudBrnk—thaUietlri/aiMhtrf 13S 

Wbat M TUt K (am wu expeoded in American espiul ia to b« iiaeked tuHsa 

will be inquired iolo at the oloM of this to the convulBife and profllgUe esai- 

Article. liooa of the Bank of the Uaiied States, 

The brief limita before u* vill not futare examioatioiu will eipoae. la 

•Jlow anything more than a pasting two initencea, at leatt, it is ctaar, that 

glance at what is among the most im- the repodiaied bonds had been obtain- 

portaat i>f the reaolta of the profligate ed b; the bank for its piiTate porpose* 

menagemenl which the bsnk was no- abroad, and had been peid for onlj to ft 

der. In 1838, and 1839, when money small araounl. 

waa eeaice and exchange on England What then did the bank do for our 
Ugh, the bank found it necessary to business moralitjt The answer is a* 
look about for aecutitiea which woold plain aa it is melancholy. It atimuIUed 
meet with accepUnee in the foreign a system of miserable and shallow 
maiket. Fancy stocks, no matter bow apeeuiation, which ate sp our mean* 
napectable here, were of no lepntation aad destroyed oar credit. By a seriea 
oa the other side of the Atlantic. The of mammoth frandi it showed to thft 
indiridnal credit of the bank was ex- community how successfully the ere* 
tienelf low, and it heeaoiB necessary dutityofthemanTCouldbsworkednpoB 
fiir it to attain every net* e to prevent to satiate the lusts of the few. It 
baokniptcy. The plan was seuad on aohieTed ita mission — it succeeded in 
of getting hold of as much State stock perverting in the bttsiaeas commnnitj 
as was possible, and sending it to Eu- those safe and ancient principles of mo- 
rope as a pledge for future advances, rality which are the chief sinews of ao- 
Haobinery was al once put in motion ciety — it contaminated everything that 
for the purpose. The Morris Canal, came within ila touch — and then it ex- 
■t that lime largely inToWed with the ploded, to pour ruin on the heads at 
bank, took hold of the State of Michl- thoae who had trusted Ibemselvea to iu 
gan, and aoeceeded in negoliatiog with shelter. It is the fashion to invoke od 
It a heavy loan, the oertificatea of the head of Mr. Biddls the whole dta- 
wbi«i) were at onee sent lo Europe and credit arising from the fall of the bank 
there hypothecated, bat the inatalmenta he governed ; but it is well to pause 
of which, BH due from the canal to the and inqaire how far the blood of one 
state government, were never paid man, however profligate, can wash off 
Over. A similar arrangement was made stains bo permanent and deep. It is 
witb Miksiasippi, through the inatm- easy to point to him and say be was 
BiMltaHty of tbe Union Bank, by an the man ; but it would be well to in- 
SKieement dated August IS, 163S, quire wliat made him the oiaa. la it 
"nte circumatancee of the Penasylvania clear that other men could have emerge 
loan taken by the bank of the United ed from the bank, aller fifteen years 
States, by the means of which an im- goverimient, without being satorated 
neoae amount of Pennsylvaoia bonds by the atmosphere which aurronoded 
were looked up abroad, were of a simi- it ! Mr. Biddle's history, in fact, ia ft 
lar oharacter. Are not tbe operations pregnant illustration of Ibe incapacity 
thus carried on, to be oonnected with of human nature, in its finest mould, to 
tbemelsacboly insolvency of the Stales resist the operation of infloencea in 
in question, the first two of which — themBelves desolating and corrupt. 
wrongly, without doubt, but still nnder Originally a federalist, and elected at 
cireumataoces which shifted a large a very early age to ^e Fenusylvanift 
share of tbe blame on the bank — direct- Senate, he distinguished himself when 
W repudiated the debt thus incurred t in that body by a report, aa able s 
la bow great a degree the shameful it was manly, ...•.• 
pioatiuiioa of American credit and ^' " ' " 

To which most be added an item whieh, tbongh entered in the books at , 

sabeeqacot periods, was expended before lest dale 66,118 

And sjso amoant nbeadv mentioned as ehaned on parent bank note 

seeoant 400,000 

fcma thus espcKledia the nineteen meotha succeeding March £», 1836 191,08a ^ i 

Lsft*isclb«iAoleamoanltob«ascow>tedfw »1,01B^ ^OO^IC 



134 One NttienalBank—thaJIfoe fry (mother f [Ang. 

BDbniiUed to the iction of the different one ont-blBzing ita predeeeMor in the 
l^al&toreE. Taken up at onee by there- cplendorof Iti congntiili.tioni and ttie , 
poblicKn partj, be was notninated by it glare of it* proniaes — till it begsn to 
10 repreaent the city of Fbiladetpbia in be discoTered at Wariiin^n that eor- 
the fineenth Confess, but was defeat- rnpttcm was at the core of the bank, 
ed by Mr. John Sergeant, who lome and it befian to be snapectsd at Pht]«- 
yeats after became one of his most ac- delpbia that the Government bad foond 
tJTO collbaguea in the management of out the imposture, ^r. Biddle, al- 
the bank. When ihe charter received ways bold, and genenlly s^aciooB, 
the President's sigrtatnre, Mr. Biddle, saw that the General Administrattoa 
whose reputation for business ability, must be crashed, or eiposure wonld be 
U well as literary acoompliabments, inevitable ; and forthwith eommesesd 
bad reached Waahinglon, was appoint- a conflict which has proved to the ' 
•d by Mr. Madison among the first vorid that of all dangerane things the 
government direclors, and continued as most dangerons is a moneyed powvr, 
Buch Duiil his election as president, injured and desperate, bnt not hamUed. 
PoBseased of unruffled self-confidence. Secret service money ran from press 
of intimate acquaintance with the to press — from patriot to patriot-— till, 
elementa of human nature, never de- in the roedlej, the great body of the 
ficient in expedient, and always able people knew not where to look. False 
to express himself in a style clear, ele- itsnee were made to alarm the timid, 
sant, and forcible, he was qnalified un- and to excnse the corrupt. Mr. Bid- 
der less trying circumstaneea to reflect die rode bravely on the head of tbe 
Otedit on his country, and to draw honor wave, dispensing favors like a naboli, 
tobimielf. When he went into the pre- receiving the allegiance of the moaey- 
sidency, the bank, throogh tbe severe ed interests, and mwntajoing for two 
and active remedies parsoed by Mr. years an equ^ cooSict with the Pren- 
Cheves, was recovering from the proa- dent and the people. The Senate was 
tration it had experieooed under Mr. drawn into the mliJe, and passed by a 
Jones. It was then that Mr. Biddte large majority the famous impeaching 
oommilted his first error — an error resolutions. Still, iho bank was break- 
■pringing so immediately from the poai- ing. What it wanted was ths breath 
tiOB of the bank, that it is much easier of life, of which the President's reM 
to ceitsare the fault, than lo have es- bad robbed it. Byastmn^Basdaring 
esped the contagion whieb influenced aa it was soceeMful, the legislature of 
it. The stock, which Mr. Jones bad Pennsylvania wis broaght up, belhws 
pn^d out and inflated to prodigions ro- in hand, to inflate the Innge of tbe ex- 
tundity, and which had nadnallr, piring monster ; and in Jooe, 1936, 
diTDDgb the prudent dividends of Mr. lacked to the end of an omnibae bill, 
Choves, shronk lo its just dimensions, was passed the new charter of tbe 
on the secession of Mr. Biddle scarcely Bank of the United States. 
obtminedmote thanMO ortSSashare. The stimulant, however, foiled in 
Somodiing must be done to swdl it out renovating the frame of the bank. Mr. 
•gain, or the speculators who had tak- Biddle retired from its head, conseions 
W up tbe investment would come out of the ruin which would soon be expos- 
the worse for the sdventuifl. Mr. Bid- ed, tormented probaUy 
" flJn * 



B had marched into the presidency by a 

with ftying colors, and he felt that if loss which wonid ensue. The storm 

the mcmicnt of his accession went by came, and on his head preeminently its 

withont a rise, the hopes which arose fury burst. Criminal prosecutions and 

fkom it would be dsshed. The temp- civil snits waited on him to his grave ; 

tatioQ could not be resisted. First and be died at last, unable to drag bis 

came a florid report, then an eoormons reputation or his fortune from tbe ruiiu 

dividend. Ths stock needed nothing of that great edifice which he had lor ■ 

more, and after a successioD of rapid so long ptoodly governed. 'Diat he 

Jumps, reached its old level. For ten might have wiUislood the temputtiona 

J Bars the gams was kept np; great of bis position, or have stemined the 

Ividands came sprouting ont, drawing cormpuon of the times is possible ; and 

off tbe sap and drying up the sabstanee yet, perhapa, his beat ezonae ib that hs 

tit the Mink, — annual statement* and fell the chief victim to the cootagioQa -ilry 

oeoasioBBl speeches were made, each touch of a system whleh has dnmat^d ,v 



1S44.) OmSMMiaBMilt—tkaUiBHiymiulIttrt 1S6 

dte fbttoDeBaiMl tka ohknetcra ofiaa)- to proeate k consUnt soeeeaaion of 

titndes. Ib ihia tbeor; 1 Wm it theorr ^ood aecarities (o ihe amount of 970,- 

wben B great political economiBt u 000,000. Local bunks can do it, ba- 

well as a moat logical rhetorieiaii, cause ihej have amall capitals and » 



maintainod th^ a great central banking cupied dutricta; bni wbeo a single 
sntao) pollnieB the moral energies of bank attempts to collect investmeota to 
tMia with whom it haa to do — ibat ii the ^reat sum which haa jnst been 



we«keiw the principles, enbatilutes a mentiooed, it will find that ii 
■aw rule of right and wrong, and that menaitf of its sweep it will be obliged 
tkat mie ia money 1 Alas ! tbe history Ui gather latn ita gamer cbaff aa well 
of the bank shows it was not theory, aa wheat. What is to be dona io the 
bat fact t Gambling specDlations were next six months, will be the conetant 
•tatted in every qnarter, from VJckS' inquiry. We have oar diridend of ona 
bar; to Bangor, and wherever they millioa lo tnahe, and we cannot suffat 
were ataned, the natural fraits — fraud, oor captal to lie idle. Interest for oar 
faleehood, corruption — aprang forth money we must get by hook or bj 
abnndanlty. Of those connected with crook ; and if we cannot find eontmer- 
the bank id ita flood, who is there that cial paper to diaoount, we will accept 
has emerssd with an nnblemished repn- fancy atooka. Hr. Ntebolaa Biddle, in 
tation T It is for the plain and honest his foarth letter to Mr. Clayton, gave 
m«a of the country — the hard-thinking aa a reason for the immense loans lo 
and hard-working men — who wiah to several Philadelphia firma, that sneh 
return to tbe good old days of repubti- was the only way that the hank could 
eaa simplicity and repnblican integrity, get rid of ila money. Such being th« 
to aay whether once more, with full case, does it not follow that in a caun- 
kaowledge of the oonseqaences, we try like oura, where there are banks ia 
shall call among ns a cDise which has every village, each with its paouliai 
destroyed our credit, and, what ia far and appropriated field of action, a na- 
worse, haa eatablisbed a nong us a false tioaal bant would And it impoasible to 
standard of busineas morality which it dispose of ita eighty or ona handred 
will take years of patient and ene^etic millions of notes in ordinary and aaffl 
effort to break down. busineaa operaiions, but would be forced 
In conclnsion, if a new Bank of tbe either to stop paying divideads, oi to 
United Staiea be chartered, ia it pnrfia- loan money on stock security ! It is 
ble that it will do otberwiae than the auch a neceaaity that keeps the Bank 
late bank didT The fact is, that the of England from diaconnting; aod tbe 
aeade of the disease which broke down same neceaaity should make us moat 
the bank in IB40, were inherent in its careful bow, we incur again tbe di*- 
eonatitalioa. An inslitutton with thirty- grace and injury which the late baidt 
five millions capital, and with discounts brought upon ss.* 
to tha amount of aeventy millions, must ji. What thk bakk did fob otra 
neoessarily, in the coarse of a few covnaacwt, eTASiLiTT. 
years, fail into similar diffieultias. In an essay published by Mr. Biddte, 
Were there no second-class banks, jn ,|,e National Gazette, on the lOlh of 
there might be leas difficulty in finding April, 1838, occurs the following pas- 
good commercial paper enough at short ^^gg . 

dates to discount upon, but situated as 

a bank in this country mast needs be, « if « bank lends its money oa mort- 

in the midst of a crowded market, it is gages or stocks, for long terms, aad lo 

impoeaible for the eentral government persons careless of protests, it inenrs Ihl* 



• "Sneheoasequences/'sajt a shrewd observer, "are insepsrable from the prct- 
eat system, and mast not be ascribed to the faults in the men who manage it. Under 
another preaident and another boatdof directors, the Baak of the United Stales might 
dM bare committed precisely Ihe same fiultt, but it might bave cracmitled l^alta 
which vrould have inflicted still greater evils en the eonunonily. A president and 
board of dircetota who would refnae to take measures necessary to raise Ibe rate of 
dividends and tbe price (rf' shares as high as possible would be very unpopalar with 
the steekholdan, and wonU probably tooa be Hipi^JHTit from their ofltc^ stalioaa." 
— Os^'f Aufsry f^ JleaUng, p. 400. 



Google 



IM OiuNatumaiBaidt^-tJuiiiMtrfaiudktrt [AiV- 

greu riik, tb4t, on ths one hud, iu notei tbay tnte baen ni«4« good. Lst k bo- 

■re pajrable on demanil; while, on tbe inquired, briefly, 

other, iU aebW cannol be caBed io wilh- iBt_ !£„„ f„ ji aoMliied iha TioiNi- 

oat great delay— ■ delsy ftt«I to iti eredit m^, ^f „^e ■ I 

Iwsk bu ittftindB miwly in short loan* eesMa of banLina- ! 

topenont to bofineM — tbe ranh of boii- -,.,_ ti r '.'i _ n i .l - .- 

«irb«tt.otion^-p.yaWa on a day . ad^.How&ritletdladthaiMqu.li- 
BaBied." '^ of eichange. 

, Suob, in fact, tn tbe Uitee graU 

Suob ■ risk it wu that tbe btak of ntiribate* which were claimed fbi it b^ 

tbe United Statea ran at two diatinot ita mOBt eminsnt adrocnte ; and, if it 

enm in ita history. When, on the 17lh be ahown that the bank, bj iia bialoir, , 

of JiDowj, I81T, it went into open- haa negatited the elaima which are 

tion, it made no heaitation ia oSiwiDg ihua mada, it ia difficult to aae tm wbat ■ 

ita diaoounta, and iaaning notea, upon apeoiea ofioaaonii^ it oau in future bft 

alnoet erery imaginablo aeogritj, at anpported. I 

the moat piotiaoted datea. Inatead of lat. How far the bank equalized tbe- [ 

•7,Oao,0W batnf paid in specie, aa Ticiaailndea of trade. 

tba ohuier required, Uitle more than 1831- — The sevete ooatraction of 

ope-thicd that amonnt waa receifcd. 181B-10 beginning to give place t» 

Bnt the dajr for Uie reeiKoption of ape- more genial meaaurea, tba apecDlatuw 

eie pa]piDBnta waa drawing nigh, aitd intereala awoke from their torpor, and, 

. tia apU «xpaaaioB which marked ita on the atraogth of freih iaaoes aod io- 

lliat year waa aaeeeeded b; a atill mora creaaed diacounta from the bank, prieea 

rapid contraeiioa. In eight moniha, roae rapidly and fanoy iaveetm«nt» | 

between the 30th of July, I81S, and thickened. 

die lat of April, IS19, loana were 1B39. — A reaction began aboai Uay* 

drawn in to the amoant of $6,630,000. and, during the whole year, tbe mCNMy 

The bank found ttaelf on the ver^e of market waa tight and the buaineaa in- 

bankmptcy, and only recoTOied itaelf tereata dietieased. 

by meana which brought tbe aercantila 1633. — The bank took a freah staxt, 

iWereata to thedust. AAer pampering and threw out on the world a vaat 

wd indulging ita debtori, renewing quantity of notea — (ao many, that the 

tfaair notea when they becamedue, and number at last waa checked only from 

ioomaing ^eir loans when it waa de- the phyaical inability of the officers to 

aired, it snddeniy called in ita dues, aign any more] — and diaeotmled with 

tsd) without a moment's grace, com- great profuHeoesi. 

nenced a oourae of treatment aastrin- I8S4-5. — The mercantile interesia 

Eit aa that wbirh had preceded it waa were stimolated bv the liberality of the 

Such was the secret of the great bank, and engaged in a number of fre^ 

eniTnlaionof 1816-19, by which credit enterprieea, to meet which their paper 

was npset, and an amount of bank- was freely discounted. So great waa 

raptey incnrred which threw into the the exoitemeot among the moneyed in- 

worat conffaaion our commercial rela- tereata, (bat, in one day (April 0, 18911^, , 

tiona. seTOD expresses arriied at Fliiladelphja | 

Throwing out of the calculation the from New York, with news of the risa 

first foor years of the bank's hiatory, of the Lirerpool cotton market. The- 

vben its aberrations may be excused price of cotton rose ooe-lhird ; angar 

M the ground of the noTolty of the ex- doubled ; cotton goods rose sixty per 

paiiment and tbe inexperience of those cent.; and wages participated in the 

ngaged in ita management, there re- nniveraa! Jump. ETery day, according 

maio, from 1691 to 1834, fifteen years to the newspapers of the time, reporla 

of corporate existence, ample enough were to be heard of men, who, by one 

alid recent enough to enable us to dia- operation, bad made, thirty, forty, or 

eoTer, with some accuracy, how much, fifty thouaand dollars. The Charleston 

during ao long a cooTse of power, the Patriot, to show the slate of feeling, 

bank did for the commercial community, mentioned ihal, in many cases, so great 

It ia here that we are able to go home was the activity of the uiarkeL " the 

to ita own aasumptiona, and determino same parcel of cotton had changed 

tna faot, not from theory, how far owaan mx oi asTeo times in a wmI^ i 

Google 



1844.] Om JtotoMJ BMi ' l ia B «m try mmatktrf 1S7 

vithoat iMviif As hudt of the ba< (he diMreH whieh hid ebtr»oMri»4 

toi." Id M«7, 1694, the fimoQi Peon- 1885-6. At the aoith the taeMom 

■jtTmaw bank bill wu paued, which was extreme. The pieBident of tha 

esUblubed, in the Sute, •16,000,000 bank, in » letter to the Secietar; of the 

baukiog capiuL ThefiiiT ■pieadovei Treuurj, dated July 18th, 1639^ mja 

the whole eounlrj ; in New Yoric atooe thftt ihe offioe at Fon«moQth " laat jear 

Ji53,000,OOOofcoiporaliTe capital were was nesily proatratsd in the geaenl 

chutered, and not a Stale was exempt rain which spread otm that eonntn. 

ftom the oontagioo. Oat of 1460,000 oC idWWt •146,000 

lo Julj, 1835, the bank, fiadiag ila were ihiowD under proieat: atill fat* 

DOtea were not ^id, became alainiedi thei iitate«ta were eipMted ; and the 

and began drawing in it* accginmoda- actual iMa auHained ibare will bsI b* 

tiona. A general luapenaion of specie leaa than $119,000." 

pajrmeDta waa threatened bj the oiiec- 1830. — Monej beeame mere p]«ntt> 

ton, sot only of the local banka, but ful,and ibebaBk.deaitanaof keepingay 

aveu, at one period, of the parent inati- ila dividend*, diaeonnted once cgaia 

tatioD. Of four thoasand weaveia em- with Ubeialiiy. 

ployed at Philadelphia in UiebeginninR 1631. — Another relapae, leieie hot 

of 1835, only one tbouaand could find tranaient, waa experieaced, and, aftM 

woik at the aame lime is the following a abort reooil, pricea appeared to hn% 

y«u. found their true lerd, and labor its aaA 

lesO.—In April, 1630, iba Marble market." It waa abont tb« cloM sf 

Haanbeturing Company, one of the 1831 that ibe hank opened a eonrae of 

new banka, was bankrupt, and in its dealing the maddaal and the moM u- 

wake, with ail imaginable rapidity, jaatifiabte. The preceding leaaoes war* 

awam the Dundaff aad New Hope forgotten. It forgot — or if it remam- 
banks of Pennaylvaoia, the Jerasy City , be^cd ii, it did so only to make nse oC 

bank, and Paterson bank of New Jer- its experience for mischief — how teni- 

sey, — the Green Counly baDb, the bly its previoa* fluetuation* bad worked 

United States Lombard, the Fianklin out upon Ihe community, bow its vsiy 

UsnufaclDring Company, and the New retfiration, Uie periodical inhaling asd 

Yuk Life Insurance Company, of New exhaling of its losns, had convulsed 

York ; and, at a short time afler, they the continent ; and, without Jnatifyiag 

were followed by a ahoal of insurance causea, it begsn an expansion uopaia)' 

Ud alook-jobbiag compaoiea, which lelsd in history. An act of Congraaa 

bad been spawned in the previous ax- had been obtained to aotboriie the pre- 

pansioD, and had not strength to bear sident and cashier lo appoint depirtiea 

the firat shock. far the prnpsse of signing neiaa, and 

18S7.-~The bank, feeling a lilde the only cbeek being thos remored, 

more easy, sod seeing that bniiness paper of all standards — paj-nojes, post- 
was beginning to rally, crawled out of notes, small notes, large notes, drafts, 

the shade, and detetmined gradually to bills, kiies, rsce-horses — were showac- 

relax the severe measures which the ed on ibe community. In October, 

late re Tuition had forced upon it. But 18BU, the aiatementsoftbe bank showed 

so sensitive had the commercial system a total of loans of •39,900,063, and in 

become, under the violent excesses lo May, ie3S„of •70,438,070. 

whioh it had been subjected, that Ihe Who wonders at the mad specula 

slight stimulant thus administered, and tion and (he debssing luxury ibat M- 



the increasing accommodations thus lowed 1 Who wonders at tha daep 
given, ted to a great rise in prices and disgrace and general rain that ansoedl 
Iresh attempts at specnlation. The And need we to go any further to de- 



bank, a Litle more oautioua than be- tennine how much it was that Ibe bank 

fore, immediately ahrunk in its eiroda- did to equalise the virissiiudes of trade 1 

lion, and pared down its discounts. Instead of rsmedying the mischief, it 

1839. — Abcal the beginning of 1638 ineressed it. Instead of smoothing tha 

Ihe coantr; gradually relapsed into waves, it agitated them atill lurdiei. 



^Google 



138 One Natimud Bttnt—thall w try tmUm t [Anf . 

We h>Te been t«DDled with the reflec- were qooMd t only four pet cent, dw- 

tioa that WB are theoristi ; we uk the count," 

AiokiDg men and the recollecting men The fact ia— aed the oMnHnli*0 

of the coantrj to accompejiy the bank eqoaJitj of eiohangee ejoee tlte bank 

front its cndle to its graTe, and to aak hu been got rid of provee it to be ao — 

bow our theo^ ii borne out b^ facta. that a National Bank ie ntteil; aselesa. 

Secondly, Row far the bank con- and often vorae than oeeleee, as an ez- 

troQed tiie excesses of banking. ahange regulator. Either the locd 

It wa« one of the grealTecoouDeoda' banks pa^ specie, or they do not. If 

tisDS of the bank, at the period of its the; do, the premium of eschaue 

oharter, that it would check the State from one point to anotbei, ahould M 

banks from over-isBue, and preTsot an the price that it wouM take to transport 

imdne extension of banking capital, specie over the giTen dietanee. Iftbej 

How did the bank ntake good the pro- do not, in addition to the price thnrre- 

misB > From 1830 to IS30, acearding quired, it will be necesaar; to tak« into 

to Hr. GaUatin, the bank notes in cir- ealoulation the premium to be paid ott 

cnlation increased from (44,090,000 to conTerting the local notes into specie. 

401,000,000. In 1816, when tbo bank Such, in fact, is the natural diSerenos 

was chartered, tbe aggregate baoking in exchange, and it is tgij clear, that 

oapitri of tbe Union was is6,000,000 ; though a National Bank may, if it 

in 1830, it was $145,000,000. But tar cboosea, oeeasioiiaJly have the oppoiia- 

greater was the swell that arose in the nitj of selling drafts che^mr, jret on tbo 

tiiree ^eara from 1B30 to 1834. There long ran, tbe average of ita expeiMea 

was DO limit to the extension of bank will be that marked out bv the neceanrj 

■■aoea, except tbe ability of the country causes of trade. But a National Bank, 

to take them. The reealt was, at one by thraMiog its hand too tooghly into 

tn,exeease9 of tbe wildest order, at the the delicate machineir, maTembarrasa 

next, eyapension and bankruptcy. The and clo^ it; or for the saie of largtt 

Natioital Bank, instead of oheoking and profits, it may esU its drafts, whsnever 

moderating, by its (operioc weight and it mouopolisee the market, at exorbitant 

CZpeiience, tbe motley band about it, rates. Sueh, ii 



n forth te the dance. It was a of the )at« Bank, and aach were tbe 

dance of death to many i but it will reasons of tboM great viaiasitudes 

have been prodoclive at least of one which convulsed our mottetary syatem 

benefit, if it shows what it was that the during the twenty yesrsof ita corporate 

bank did to moderate exeessea in the ezisteace. 
banking system. III. — Wbjlt thi Bakk om ron OVB 

Thirdly, How ftr the Bank levelled politicil poaiTT. 
the inequalities of exchange. Tliat the Bank did bat little in poU- 

To ran over tbe extrao^inary varia- tics in tbe first few years of its career 

tiona which were suffered by exchanges, was becaose it foniMit hadin thatqaar- 

domestic and foreign, during the bank's ter nothing to do. Mr. Jones, it is Irvet 

■Dpremacy, would ocmpy a pamphlet once or twice, from mere wayvnirdneea, 

by ileelf. The broker's index eeems ihrast his baiid into the oaldron, but he 

men to have run round and round tbe spesdily withdrew it, not beeaoae po- 

dial plate, and to have fixed within tbe litieal interference was unwise, hot 

■hOTtest interval, upon ralea of every beeanseitwaaonneceseary, Ur. Mon- 

pi«b and oharacler. Take, as a single roe's plaeid nantrajity, and Mr Adams' 

ilfaistration, the condition of exchangee lealous friendsh^i, left the Bank at 

between Philadelphia and New Or* liberty to parstie its own sebemes, and 

leans, in 1836, at a period when tbe to indulge in its own extravagances, at 

Bank and its branches were at full one era with toleration, at the oHmt 

blast. " New Orleana notes," says with encouragement. But when in 

Hr. Gouge, "which were at two or 1838, tbe republican party regained tbe 

tiiree per cent. diseonntBt Philadelphia aeeendeoey, the bank BwtAe from ita 

k the spring, fell on tbe 31st of Sep- lethargy. Oenetal Jackaoo, in hiafirsi 

lember to fifteen per cent., and were message, had intimated a doubt both sa 

quoted on the 98tb of tbe same month, to its conatitutiooality and its expedi- 

M fifty-six per cent, below par. On «ioy ; uid at onoe, aa with ifaa aoimd 

(be 4th of Deccmbar, tbe same notes of a trumpet, tbe armed men atoae. A- 



oogic 



1044.] Oiu NatioiMt Brnk—thM »« try ohmW / 130 

ractliag wu beard in the ixiamj, mad mnniotM to the people urfonnMion in 
in k moment, with alftcrit^ and aDergy regBtdtothenataTemndepermtionBofche 
wlueh ezlribitBd the i^em and effi- bank." Imtnediatd;, the ramB paid foi 
ewoe; of the Damp diMipUne, acouts piintingaodatatwiieiTTaiinpfduringiha 
and spies were aent oot. It waa do litsthalf of lBSl,to9»9,97«. Thefol- 
oonunon campaigD that waa to opea. lowing loans, about the eame lime, were. 
It was to be ^ straggle of a Tnaromoih reported by the Mvemment directors : 
BOMred interest, woanded but not The NewToTklnqnirer . . 9SS|0M 
erin™<)> fo' B^(*noc- ItwBsastrag- Philadelphia I nqnirer . . . 39,000 
pie on the part of those who goTSrnad United Suies Telegra|A . 20,000 
W fhr DBine and foitane. In the ■eear- National latelliseDceT . . . S0,000 
iW of oaJm they had laid out a sjstem The government lirecton remonatratvd 
«t oovntption and depredation which, — proteateA — bat their pretests sad tc- 
aooneror later, ihey knew, must ez- nonatraneeawereneglectedorspnmed. 
^ode, bat the consummation of which Ob the 16th of Aagast, 1833, a resola- 
thej had expected to ha delared till the tion was ottvctA by one of the numbsr, 
Mnention to which thev belonged had representing that the stationery and 
oeseended, booty in hand, tj that grsTO pnntiog charges, in two years, had 
where the aearch of e<mimitt«ea of in- reached eighty thoueand dollara, and 
veatigation woqM be baffled. They asking that the cashier be ioatraetsd to 
fall thai their good name, aa well as lay on the table the Touchers on which 
the life of the Bank, rested on the re- die looaej was paid, which had searce- 
enll. Arouse, then, horse and foot I ly been read, when the Ibilowing sub- 
One day the Bank awoke to the dan- atitute was proposed, which waa im- 
gei, and the oext day its operations mediately adopMd : "Resolved, that 
were discoverable, in the last six the boaid have ooafidence in the wi^ 
months of IS99, the sum paid for aia- dom and integrity of the president, aad 
ttoneryandprialingamoantedto $3,765. in the propriety of the reaatotioaa of 
In the first six momhs of 1S30, the ac- die 30th of November and 11th of 
oooDt awclled to $7,131 ; and in the March, 1831, and entertain a full oon- 
laat six montha to 96,9d0. At the viction of the neeesaily of a renewed 
same time 97,000 were paid for print- atlention to the object of those resola- 
iog and distribotiDg Mr. McDuffie'e tione; and thatthepreaideotbe HiLhor~ 
teport, and Mr. Gallatin's pamphlet. utA and requeated to continue hie ex- 
On the 30th of November, 1830, il ap- ertions, for the promotion of that ob- 
r«an by the bank minutes, that " the ject." To what extent the trust tfaua 
President sobmitted to the board a copy imposed was executed, the books of the 
of an article on banka and currency, bank do not show, for in such transao- 
Jdst poblisbed in the Anteriean Quar- tiona the bank kept no books. Loose 
lerty Revi«w, of this city, containing a scraps of paper, scribbled over vrith 
favorable notice of this institution, and sums of immense extent, and footed 
suggested the expediency of making with the initialaofarane of the officers, 
the views of the author more exten- extricated by a future adm.inistration 
sively known to the public, than they from a mass of rubtuah with which the 
ean be by the subscription list, — where- chinks and ersonies of the desks were 
npon it was, on motion, Resolved, that filled, are now the only memorials <rf a 
tha President be authoriied to take course of expenditure which corrupted 
sneh measures, in regard to the circu- the press, bought over everything in 
latioD of the contents of the said article politics which could be bought, and 
either in whole or in part, as he may finally prostrated the Bank. 
deem most for the InterAata of the It iBnnneceasary here togobaekand 
Bank." On the 11th of March, 1631, review the great contest which ended, 
immediately after the adjournmenl of at lost, with the bank's diacomliture. 
Coi^ress, a similar suggestion appears It was a battle, without doubt, moat 
from the minutes of. the board to have petseveringly fought ; and had it not 
been made by tbe pT«aideDt,and thereup- been for ibe energy and wisdom of that 
oatheboard,fiDdingitadTisabletodolhe great man iriiose sun is now setting 
whole work at a jump, " Resolved, tiiat behind the western mountains, the oh 
tbe president is hereby authorised to forts of the bank would have proved 
cause to be prepared and circulated, sooeessfnl. Driven, however, from the,-. . 
mmA documents and papers aa may oo»- field of national polUies, it toi^ re(iife\_,QQ 13 |q 



Om National BanJt—^haU ice tiy»MllMrf [Am$, 



M a Um reaart, ip tha mrrow eDcIosnn a»d rse«i*e the bill iritk ol 

Bi^«d out b; the bonndaHe* of Penn- aoftij *od noMeloMlT U> hawij it ; 

■jItMiui. Suddanly, without note or Uirouah into the 0»<mnet'a hp, «u a- | 

pcmntioD, wiUkoat the naaal deo«itt thing oj which the peo^e were ^Miek- 

l^imiHTies of eTsn lietiUoaa meet- ed rad dumb-foonM. It ia not fn n» . 

]us and afaam petitiona, a bill la gi*e to isterrogal* tlie eoneeimeea, and t» 

a State obartei to the National Bank, aean the motirea of thoae who left th* 

waa Melted on to an oranibua bill, diiTQD repablican pertf on Ibal mamnmhfe 

thrangh the Honae, and liAed over the oeoaaioa. A putioaof the aecret hi*- 

SeaatA. Hie nnnater wh awallowed, lory of the aeMkn wh adTnted to- 

BOt by the nanal proeeaa of degluli- some jeata aflor by a oommittM of lb« 

IjoD — not by breaking ita beoea and State Hoaae of ReyiMcntatite^ at 

aaftening ita excreacencea — bnt by one wboae head waa a diatiofniahed feit' 

gigantic gnlpj and when the tank waa tieman, who, ifaongk then conneeled 

over, and when the State aat down lo by aaaooiatioa with tha whig party, w>» I 

digeatitamealiit wouIdfaaTebeenhaid one of the boMeat asd noat oMMnpr^ I 

fer an obaerrer to deoide which of the mialog in hia efforta to aignally pnniw* i 

two waatoratajn and imMirt its indi- the actor* in the guilty lOeMB bf wbMt 

Tidnality to the other. The people the Hatiiabnig opemtiona of the haak ' 

Blood by amaaed. LitUe better waa were diatingniabM. In a rraort flbdo- 

M^eetad from the House of Repreaen- in 1S49, ratbeohargeabToogfatagaiBal 

taliToa, whiek had alidden into power the praviona legialaino of eonnpt an- 

throngb the oleft qwned at Uie pieeed- tioo on the Taaumption reeolHliODa, tha 

ing eleetioD in tha noka of the major- eoountttee aaya :■ . 

in by the nohiam between Wolf and „, . ,i ^ , . 

UidJeDberB;bntfortheS«>ata,nlarKe _ ' J* '/^ " ^' "-charter of the 

•»i,«i- «? -^i,,-^ »_» ...»ul.»j ,^ Bank of U. 8., some evideiice, howeTer, 

r^^, L"'^S?™ J^Si.™ '" iocidenUIlV brought befori the Mm^ 

be atnrdy repubhoana^ Mme of wbon. „iit« from which it wonld .orcdy seem 

had oven diatiDgniriied thoDisalies ^ ^^ donbted, that the aame meani were 

by nuBi^ nnoMoaaary tonmamenta rttempled. if oot .ctnalli emplojed, at 

BgHoM the Btomter aAer it waa fairly th„ ^mt, as dnrint the Kulon^or 18W. 

cntahed— for the Senato, pledgad aa it The permanent expenae accoont of that 

waa, nwoBoled aa it waa by every tie imk, bebre rclbrrtd to, ibowi tha BO^ 

of honor and decency — tobow ita knee*, lowing entrin : 

I83S. Hay 5 Receipt of N. Biddle, Pieaident tUQfiliQO 

" " 7 " " « ■' fi,OO0O» 

" " IS Tonchec for iDcideotal eipeniea at HarriabDTg IJIIOO 

" "23 Receipt of N. Biddle 8,697 60 

" " " J. B. \r. (a member of the legitUlore), for profenional 

serriee* 10,000 M 

" " " J. M 10,000 00 

" « 29 N. BIddle 10,000 00 

« Jene 13 " « 6,000 00 

- » M M. Wilaon, It Co., HarriabnrK, fbr eipentei 3,4(6 BO 

« « 10 S. Biddle 6,000 00 

CT0,OIUOO 

"How many more of the items of the entry on the book*. Beth of the agent* 

aameieeonot entered at of ■ tnbteqneut who appear lobave been employed on tluB 

datercrerbaektothe traoMctioniaqnes- occaiioo are now deceased, and to hava 

tlon, the committee cannot determine, proeecded further In tnch an infMtig»> 

Theyealt ■tlention, however to the eri- tion, wilhoatbaving the timeloprofecate ' 

dence of lonathan PalterioD, one of the it to its fall extent, did n ' ' 

tdlmof thebani:, who proTM the use of proper nodcr the ci " 
tte «am of (400,000 by the offieer«, at or 

rtont the vary period of the re-charter ; Snch ie what lbs bank #d for tbs 

tka withdrawal of which from the bank political parity of the country. It in B 

WM attanpted ta be conceded by a AUe and thing fbr an Ameriean M see how 



* JoubbI Pa. Honae BcprtcenUli*ca. 1840. App. lUt., 



,11. :, I- Google 



1044.1 ^* National Battk~~»haB tM try anothtr f 141 

potentlj did the spell work, but Btill eommercitl BtabilityiSDdforoiirpaliti- 
aBdder ia it for 0T07 PemwyWaniBii eal iateeritf . Let Dottbereralt ofthe 
to look back npoBtbe&sud, the intrigue, inquiry be paaaed by unheeded. It mtj 
and the dbhonor, whioh haa thna bean be thooght alight thing that the old and 
biooght apoo tbe State to irbicb be be- rigarous maxims with which we began 
longa. He cannot tun his eye back oat national career, ahoold ^ire plaoa 
ten yesTB oo tbe legielatiTe JDunah, to othera more accommodating. Om 
without seeing every Totume polluted of the woral sigaa at the limes ia the 
with tbe eridence of the energy with ealloueaess with which the reproach of 
which the poiaoD worked. There wm dishonesty is boine, and tbe slighlaeM 
-the charter, ohtained by what means m with which tbe aTenoes of teinptatioB 
«hown by the auddenteTgiTeraatiDDB of are goarded. But be assared, that 
politieisBB, and the extraordinary dia- twbita of bnaiaeaa luoaenca*, of leok' 
faanemenUoflhe buik. And lheii,aa less speculation, of privaM luxury, if 
ft fit consummation, came the goTern- onoe they sat into the republie, will 
<ai'8 deetion of iaS7-8, with its scenaa Jiriug it to tbe doat. Already the mod 
of Tidence and of fraud. There ate name of three State* has been loiled ; 
to be foaod repetle of l^i^Ktive oooi- bat still there is time to atop the plague 
mittees, exhibiting the fact, thu at from going further. If wewoaMehedk 
election after election, large aoms of its progress, we mnat sit down graTely 
nxHiey were aquandered at the poUs and earnestly to the work, determined 
from Murces tniieh no one eoula dia- that if necessarv we will cut off oik 
«0VBr ; and there alao ia tho truth right band, or pluck out oor right eye. 
Mrongly itluatrated, that when the Call back the good old watch-worda of 
motu principle once biealu down be- former times, the days of our iiountry'a 
fore an asaault flora one quarter, it childhood, when our muscles weoe 
readily yields to temptation from an- hardening, and out atreogth settling, 
«ther. The men who received moDer and our shape moalding, and aak tJie 
for their individual votes, did not heai- wise and brave men of those better 
tate forcibly to tvaz open the ballot box, days, how it waa they lived, attd how 
or ftandulently to stuff il with false It was they conquered. They will 



o be aaid that if another point to tbeit aimple homea, to their 

rtared itmight steer clear frugal habils, to their severe morals 

of the political errors which made the to the cold, cushiouless chnrches ii 



]ast so fatal 1 The last bank did what which they worshipped God, and tbei 

jta Ttataie prompted it to do, it made ornamented brick eourt-bousea whete 

uae ofthe machinery it possessed for the early committees met, and from 

the accompliehment of its end*, and it whence the revolution was guided, and 

made uae of it witboot stint. Wilt not then they will point us to Bunker Hill, 

XDOther bank, when it considers itself to Princeton and to Yorktown. Lft 

attacked — and into an attack will be us bring home tbe moral they teaoh. 

tortured every metle in the political To revenge no party grief, to eeonps 

atmoephere — make liberal use of those no public spoils do we go out to the 

weftponaof wUeh its armory isao fall' straggle. Arise, then, man and breth- 

Is bonati nature so strong that it can ren, and for tbe sake of out own young 

be expected, when the time draws and dear country, dishonored as it has 

■Igh, for it to surrender poasesajon of been by those it nursed on the &tnesa 

jta gains and its power without a atnig- of its bosom^ — for the sake of that past 

gle 1 Will not an expiring bank clutch history, which, lose whatever else we 

at any ioslmnicnl that might promise may, wilt still be ours, but which will 

to procure for it an extension of its ex- deepen our shame, should we be deaf 

istonce T Will not an existing bank to its teaching — for the sake of those 

adopt any means which wilt bid fair to about us, and those to come after ua, 

<^tain far it an extension of its privi- arise, and let us gird ourselTea and be 

leges? if another bank lie chartered, ready. The issue is, bank or do bank, 

tbe same perils will be ensouolsred »a honesty or disbooeaty, stability or in- 

came near raining the eounby under stability, eomptioo or inlegnty. It ia 

tbe auspices of tbe last. wiibauehan issuetbitweean triai^ 

The objest of the preoAdiog pages with a good lUth and etear eonaeienoe, 

has been to point oat what the bank or if it needs be, can patiently and 

Jtid for OUT buaiqeM mormUty, for our bravely suffer. 



Googljz 



J Drmia efBtiU. 
A DRAMA OF EXILE. 



I 



LrciFti niu Ti ut cird*. Wiih his calm, nutsf iie face loned fnll 

£«t{/tr. Who Ulki bere of ■ mmple- od Ibinc, 

menl of grief T And his msnc Usteaing. Wben tbe cad- 

OreipitiioD vixonghl by Ion and Tall 1 ed cane 

Of haiembdnableio piiyT En 1 Led silence in tbe world, — right fad denlf 

Take coDDiel from tb; eoanKllor the He ipracg up rampant, and ilooditfaigJit 

make, and etil^ 

And boast nu more in grief, nor hope from Ai if the new realit]' of detUi 

pain. Were daihed againM hit eyei, — and raar- 

Mj docile Kve ! I teach you to despond, ed to fierce 

Who tanght yoD diMbediiasce. Look (Such thick auniTOTotii paniM in hia 

anniad ) — throat | 

Earih-apiritt and phanlumi beu joa Tcatiag a pattage ihrongh the wratti aid 

talk, munored, fear) — | 

At if ^e vere red clay again, and talked I And Toared m nild, and uootc Iron all | 

What are your woidi t« tbeu 1 ronr gricA the bills 

to them I Such fiBt, keen echoe« cnuabUng dowB 

Tour deatha, indeed, to Ihem I Did tbe the vales i 

band pBOK To distaol silence— (hat the forest beasts^ 

For Ihtir lake, in the plneking trf' the One aner one, did matter a reipooM 

fmit, In savage and in sorrowlU comiriaiBl 

That ther atioald pause for jna, in baling Which trailed along the gorges. Tbea, 

Ton t at ouce. 

Or vill ronr giief or death, as did joar He fell back, and loUed eiaahiag fram the 

sin, height. 

Bring ebaoge upon their final doom? B«- Hid b| the daik-orbed pfnei. 

bold, Mam, It migbt bave been. 

Tonrgrief iibnt 7oar MD in therebcnind, I heaid the cnrseakne. 

AmleaDooteiidate fbr iu Earth Spitit: Iwail,I«aill 

Mam. It is true. Luei/tr. TbmX lion is tbe type of wbal 

iMttftr. At, it is ttae. Tbe eJar-king I am t 

tetlifiia And at he Hied thee vitb bit foil-faced 

Totbesnake'tcaanael — heat himt— very hate, 

tne. And roaied, Adam — eomprebending 

Emrik Spirit: I wati, I wsil I doom ; 

iMdfir. And certea. Out is trne. So, fming on the face oTtbe Unseen, 

Ye waii, yc all wait. Pemdventnre I I cry out bert^ between the Heavens and 

CovU wait among yon. O thoa nniverae, earth, 

That holdett sin and wo— more room for My eonsoience of Ois sin, thit wo, Ibit 

wall) wrath, 

tfosl itarry niet. Ai, ai, Heoapbo- Which damn m 

roir EartkSpirili 

EmtOi apiriU. I wail, I wail 1 Eve. I wail— O Cod 

Mam. Maik Lneifer, He ebaoges JLuctftr. I tcorn you that ye wail, 

awAiUy. Who ate your petty grieA for pedestals 

Em. It leenu as he looked from grief To stand on, beckoning pity fh>D wilhonl, 

to Ood, And deal in palhos of antithesis 

And could not sec Him; — wretched Lu- Of what ye ven forsooth, and what ye 

cifer I are ;- 

.Mam. How he itandt— yet an angel I I tcora you like an angel I Yet one cry, 

Ettrlh Spirit*. I wail — wall I I, too, would drive up, tike acoloma erect, 

Imc^. {4fttr a foast.) DosI tboa re- Marble to marble, from my heart to 

member, Adam, when the cnne Heaven, 

Took ni in Edca T On a moantain-peak A monameat of angntth, to (raavi*rM 

BalT-abeatbed in primal woods, and glil- Aad overtc^ yoni vapory camplalati 

tering Expressed from fccUe woes I 

Ib spaMH of awfnl nnriiiBe, at tint hoar Etrth Spiritt. Iwail,IWBil< 

A lion coached,— part taind npon hit iMtifir. for,0;cHe«tcBt,7e aMay 



Google 



18M.I A DntiM of ExiU. ]«3 

TbU 1, itrack ost rrom iMtoK in ■ blot, I wouU not urtM cut irm tboit ia Late— 

The ootCMl, Bud Uie miUcw of Ibingi Far be il ftwn dm I hue «d ■• r« can I 

good, I brealbe lato yoar facet, ipiriti of euth. 

The leper of angels, the excepted dust A* wiolrr blast najr bfcalbe ou wiatrr 
Under the eooiiDOo rain of dailf giRs, — leaves, 

I the inalce, I tbe tempter, I Ibe curved, — And, lilling up tbeir browBDCM, ibow be- 
To whom the hishett aatt the lowest alike neaih 

Stf, Go from as — ire hale no need of Tbe bcanchei very bare. Beieech }ini, 

tbee, — give 

Was made by Ood like others. Good and To Ere, vbo beggarl]' enlraat* yoor Ion 

fair For her and Adam wbea they ihall be 
He did create me t — a^ Him, if not fair ; 
Alk, if I eaoght not lair aod tilrerly 
His blessing for chief angels, on my head. 
Until it grew there, a crown crystallised I trow, 

Alk, if He ne<er called me by my name, ForjnHica' salie, gave theirs. 
Xsct^r — kindly said as " Gabriel" — 1 curse yoa boU>, 

Xw^tr— soft as" Michael!" while serene Adam and Ere <. Say pace as after mea^ 

I, Blaoding in the glory of the limpe, After my curse*. May your tear* fall hot 

Answered " mj Father," ionoeeot of On all the biasing scams o' the ereuoiet 

shame bwe, — 

And oT the sense of thnnder. HaT je Asd I'M rejoice. iBcreaw and tonll^, 

think. Ye and your generations, in all plagoes, 

White angel* in yonr niches, — I repent, — Cormptions, uelaneholiei, pOTcrtiei, 

And would tread down my own offences. And bideoai forms of life and fears of 

back death ; 

To terrice at tbe footstool T Thal'inaA Tbe thought of death being elwayetBintnt 

wrong : Imnkof cable and drsadfal in your lift, 
I cry ai the beast did, tbat I may cry — And deafly aad dumbly iasigaiGcasI 
" '.appealing! Fallen *o deep Of any hope beyond, — ai death ilaelf, — 
Whichever of yoa lietb de*d the £rit,— 



Against the sides of this prodigious pit, 
I cry — ery — dashing oat the bands of wail. 



« the sarf iror — yet rcjotee I 

On each aide, to meet aogvish everywltere. My curse catch at you strongly, body aw) 

And to Utest it in the ecstasy soni. 

And exaltation of a wo sustained And Hz find no redeinpti*a — nor the 

Becaosc provoked and chosen. wing 

Pais along Of teraph move you way — and yet re- 

Yoar wPdernesi, vain mortals I Puny joice '. 

griefs, [ed Rejoiee, — bccaase ye bare not act In yoa 

In transitory shapes, be hencefoith dwarf. This hale vbieb shall porsne yon — this 

To your own conscieaee, by the dread ex- fire-hate 

tremes Which glares without, beeauM it bnms 

Ofwhat I am and have been. If ye have within — 

fallen, Which kills fron asbea— this potealial 

It ia a step's fall, — the whole ground bate, 

beneath Wherein I, angel, in antagotusm 

Strewn woolly soft with promise; if ye To God and His reflex beatitudes, 

bave sinned. Moan ever in the central aniverse, 

YoOT prayers tread high u angels ! if ye With the great wo of striviag against 

have grieved. Love — 

Ye are too mortal to be pitiable. And gasp for space amid the lafiaile — 

Aad power to die disproTeth right lo And Iom for rest amkl the Desertne*s— 

grieve. Self-orphaned hy my will, and self-elect 

(>o to! ye call this ruin. I half scorn To kingship of resistant agony 

The ill 1 did you 1 Were ye wronged by Toward the Good arouod me—hating 

me, good and love. 

Hated and tempted, and undone of me, — And wUIinglohalegood and to hate love. 

Still, what's yonr hurt to mine, of doing And wllliag to will on m evermore, 

hurt. Scorning the Past, and damning the To 

Of hating, tempting, and so mining 1 Dome — 

Thia swoid'* kUI is the sharpest, and eats 9o "ik^ rejoice I I curse yoa 1 

through [Lvcifvi vaawAo. 

Tke band that w'.elds it. EarlK Spiritt. 

Qo — I cnrse yoo aO. Aod we scorn yon I there '« no pwdM 

Hat« one auother— feebly— «« y« can ; Which can lean to yon aright t 



Google 



144 

When yoor bodiei take tbe Kneidon 

or Ike deaUi-cone in MI light, 

TbCB (he bee that htuameth lowatt *lmi 

inmcaad yoa. 

Then jt shftll not more as tjttii 

Though tha Han iaak down ;«• 

And tbe earth, wliidi jt deftled. 
She ihall ihow jau to the skiet, — 
"Lol IheM kingi df our— who aosgi 

lo coBpreEead yoa." 
Firtt SpiTit. 
And the element* tbalt boUlr 

AU yonr dast to dott eonitraiD < 
Unreiisledly and caidlj, 
I will amile fan with mr rain I 
From the tl«w««t of mf froiu it no c« 

cedJa«. 
fytimd Spirit. 
A»d mr littl* wonn, appoiated 

To aatDiiie a roral part. 
Be thai] rdgo, crowa«d and anointod, 
O'er tha noUe bamaB heart I 
Oire kim caoBtri agaiait toting of tlMt 
Eden I 

DoreveoransT Back yoniMoni 
Toward yvar &eM gnt and lorp, 
Aa tlM wikd drivca badt Itie rain, 
Tku I drire wMk paasioii-rtiiflgi 
I who Btand beneatk God'a ann, 
Haite like Goi, and, tluragh oaHoae, 
Hot nnnade for lore and life. 
Lo I re nltar wordi ia Tain 1 
Bf tar free will that ehoae ain. 
By mine agony within 
Sound the passage of the &rei 
By the pioings which disdoae 
Ti»at my native aool ii higher 
Than what it ckoae,— 
We an yet (00 high, tpatt, ft>r your 



Nay, bdo«<ed I If tkeae be b«. 
We eunfront them with nokeight; 
We Mooped down to their Inral 
In irorking (ham (hat evil t 
And thtir aconi (bat meet* onr Mow, 

Seathei aright. 
Amen- Lei it be to. 
EamSpiril: 
We ehall trinuph— triomph greatly. 
When ye lie beneath the award t 
There my lily aball grow ttately, 
Thoatb ye annrn not a went— 
Aad her tVagrance ahall b« MornlU of 
year dOenee I 
While yonr throne aaoendiaf calmly. 

We, la hurdom of yonr lonl, 
Flaah the riter, tilt the palm tree, 
The ditatMl ooeaa roU 
With the (hoBghta that throbbed within 
yoB — roBftd the idaada. 



A Drama of Emit*. 



[A»ff. 



With the graadaar ofyvor apirit, 
Bhall oar broad laTannaka Sit- 
in onr wind*, yoar exnllalloM thell be 
•pringing. 
Et^ your parhnee irtieh iareiglM, 



Heart* poetic in oar eaglet, 
StuUl beat ap agninM the ibb. 
And poor downward, in aitinilate dear 
•iagiag. 

Tour bold ipeeches, our Behemoth, 

With hiK ihonderoas jaw, Btiall wield I 

Yonr high fanciei ihsll onr Mammoth 

Breathe tnblimelr np the shield 

or St. Michael, at GoJ'i thtone, 

waits to speed him; 

Till the heavens' imooth-groaTed thon- 



whn I 



der 



Bpinoing bade, shall leave ihem dear; 
And the angels, smiling wonder, 
With dropt lodes from iphera to 
sphere, 
Shall cry, " Ho, ye beirs of Adam I ye ex- 
ceed him !" , 
.idam. Soot ont thine eyes, aweed 
ttom thedreaiT grannd. 
Beloved, we may be overcome hj God, 
Bat not by Aoc. 
Evt. By Oad, perhapa, in Acm. 
Jdam. I think not so. Had God fore- 
doomed despair. 
He had not spoken hope. He may destroy, 
Certea, liut not deceive. 

£(«. Behold this rose ( 

I plncked it in onr bower of Paradise 
This morning ai I went forth i and my 

heart 
Hath beat against its petals all the day. 
I (bODxhl it wonid be always red and AH, 
As when I plncked it— A it T— ye may 

seel 
I cast it down to yon thai ye may see. 
All of yon 1— count the petals IomI oTil— 
And note the colorv fainted ! ye may see : 
And I am as it is who yeiterday 
Grew In tbe same place. O ye spirita of 

earth! 
I almoat, fVom my miserable heart, 
Conld here npbraid you for yoar cruel 

heart. 
Which will not let me, down the akp* of 

death, 
Draw any of yonr pity after me. 
Or lie stilt in the quiet of your looks, 
Aa my flower, there, In mine. 



Jl Utt KhU, tmlilaati witl itMrntlit famw 
«*<«(. »(M armW lit ttrUk-^aUtt ; iiijai' 
iMgtlutirtltwUiUtfmaut,a*i»mwiilbiui 
^nttUitmt, larrim (Si jl»«- <mv «M d. 
Sn^Uti^nttrfmt. Asia fUaib ncS. 

Mant. So, verily. 

The last depart*. -^ , 

Em. SoHoDoty follow! Hoi^QQn I Q 



AnA Life both. Lore nid to m^ « Da 



And I replied, " Lore, I win not die. 
I esOsd and I will not orpbaa Love." 
Bat nov it it no choice oT anoe to die— 
My heart thniba Troai me. 

Jiam. C«n it ittainlitwar ba<^ 

Itealli^ ceoMBimBtlan erowM con^eted 

life. 
Or ccfam too oadf. Hope btiaf aet on 






Let th7 tool (hake iti Imtm^ 
To feel ihe mystic viad— Hark I 

£m. I heti life, 

fc/ant roii:*! paiiing in Iht inad. 
O we live, O we live— 
And tbii iiCe that we receive, 
Ii n wum thing and a oew, 
'Which we BorUjr bud into, 

From the heart and from the brain, 

Sotnethiag strange, that overmuch ii 

Of the sooad and of the sight, 
Flowing roand in trickling toaehet, 
. ^ j^ delight,— 



Yetii 



[aUin 



ukKSj, 
Lett it be an in vaIo. 
yonAM voicet patting. 
Owelive, OweTiTe— 
And thii liTe that we achier«. 
Is a load thing anil a bold. 
Which, with pa lies maaiTDld, 
Strikes the heart oat full and faia-— 
AcliTE doer, noble liver, 
Strong to straggle, inrt to eaD- 

Thoagh the ressePg prow wiS qiuTer 

At the lining of the anchor : 
Tet do we atrive in vain I 
lafiimt volcu iNMring. 

Rock us softly. 
Left it be all in vain. 
PMtvoieupauiag. 

O we live, we live— 
And this life that we conceive. 
Is • clear thing and a fair. 
Which we set ia cryital air, 
Tbal its beaniy may be plain : 
With a breathing and a flooding 

Of the heavenOife on the whole, 
Wbile we hear the forests bnddiiig 

To Ihe music of the sonl — 
Tet ii it tuned in Tain ? 



i>|A>iW 



upmtiur 



uiv. 

Rack tti soAly, 
IiOft it be an in vain. 
FUlotopltic vMcu pfuHag. 
O we live, we live — 
And thb lift that we ptreeire, 

vol.. XT. — HO. LXSIT. 



fc a strong thing and a grave, 
which for others" use we have, 
Dnty-laden to remain. 
Weare helpers, reltow-creatuTet, 
_Of the rijht B^iDSt the wrong,— 
We are earnest-hearted teachers 

Of the truth which maketh strong— 
Tet do we teach in vain 1 
hfaat vcicu pdiimg. 

Rock as soAlr, 
I>«st It he all in Tain. 

O we live, O we live— 
And this life that we repriere,. 
Is a kiw thing and a light. 
Which Uieited out of Bight, 
And made worthy of disdain I 
artte with bold electric Uaghter 

The high tops of thing! divine— 
Tnm thy head, my brother, after. 

Lest thy lean fall in my wine;— 
For IS all Unghed in vain I 
hrfiai roieitfaning. 

Hock IIS softhr, 
I.e*t It be all in vain. 
*B». I hear a sonad of life— of lift lik« 

Of langhler and of wailing,— of gnve 

Of little plaintive Toices innocent, 

Oflife in separate courses flowing out 
J-** onr four rivers to some outwanJ mida. 

Mam. And, so, thy cheeks hava 

■natefaed 
8e«riet to palenessf and Ihine eyes drink 

fkst rtip. 

Of tHoTj fVom fUl cnpe; and thy moist 
Be«n tremhliog, both of them, with ear- 
nest doabts 
Wbether to utter words or only smils. 
JEve Shall I be mothei of the oomin* 
lifel ^ 

Hear the steep generations; how they AB 
Adown the visionary staiis of 'Hme, 
Likcsnperaatiiral thanders — far yet near | 
Sowing their flery echoes Ihrongh thebUIa. 
Am [ a clond lo these — mother to these T 
EarA SplrUt. ^d bringerof thecnrse 
niwa all these. 

[Ent sMn doum agait. 
Foil witu patting , 

O we live, O we Uve — 
And this life that we belfev^ 
la a noble tbing and high. 
Which we climb up lofli^. 
To view Ood withont a slain : 
Ti^ recoiling where the shade ii^ 

We retread onr steps ««BiD, 
And descend the glocnny Hades, 

To taste man's niortal pain. 
Shall it be climbed in vain T 
tiffani vote4t pOMting . 

Roek vs teAIf, 
Lertitbcall invnin. -^ ^' 

10 



I 
, Google 



O we live, O we lite — 
And tbis hie ve would retiieve. 
Is a nulbfal thing xpart, 
Wbicb we loTe in, beart to heart, 
Unlil one heart filteth twain. 
" Wilt Iboa be one witb me 1" 
« I will be one wilb thee I" 
« Ha, ha ! — we lore >pd li»e I" 
Alas I fe love and die! 
Shriek— who shall replj t 
For is it not loved in vain 1 
h^nt voku pcumg. 

BockiusolU;, 
Tbough it be all in vain. 
Old vaUa i>aitiitg. 

O we live, O we live— 
And this life that we receive. 
It a gloomT thing and brief, 
Which, consammated in grief^ 
Leaveth aihM for all gain, 
t« it not all in vain T 
I^f^nt voku patiing. 

Koek Di BoIUr. 
Though it be all in vain. 

[Voicti ditamof. 
Sarih Spirilt. And bringer of the cnne 

upon all theee. 
Ett. The voicei oT foteihown Houmlb- 



AJJnma^Erilt. 



[A«r. 



_■'' 






Sleoffi 

JdaiR So let ns die, 

When Qod's w3I wnadeth the right hoot 
of death. 

tSarUi Spirili. And bringer of Ihecurie 



inalltl 



[M 



In gliding water* nnder lily-learea, — 
In chirp of cricket*, and the settling hnih 
Abirdmalcei in her ne*t, with feet and 

wing*,— 
Fnlfll T°°r natnrea 1 Do not any more 
Tannt u or taock xis — let oe die alone. 
Eartk Sptritt. 
Ji^reei; allowed I 
We gather ont oor names like a eland. 
And thai Ailfil Iheir lightnii^B [ Thus, and 
(host 

Heaikeo, O hewken to u! 
Finf Spiril. 

Aa the east wind blows bleakly in the 

norland] — 
Aa the snow-vrind beats blindly from 

thentoorland, — 
As the simooia drives wild aeroM the 

desert,— 
As the thnoder roai« deep in the Ua- 



As the toirent tears an ocean-world to 

A« Ibe whirlpool grinds fathoms befanr 
fathoma,— 

Thu^— utd lb as I 



Smxid SpirU. 
A* the yellow toad, that spits its pt 

chilly,— 
A« the tiger, in the jnngl^ e 

slillj,— 
As the wild boai, with i^ged tniks aT 

anger,— 
Ai the w(df-dog, with teclh of gltttCMg 

clai^aur, — 
As the vulloret that tenam agamtt the 

thander, — 
Aa the owleU that sit and moaii un^ 

der,— 

Thus,— aod ihos t 
Ev*. Adam ! God 1 
■Afatn. Ye etnel, cmel DSielentiDg 

By the power in me of the sovran loal. 
Whose Ihooghts keep pace yet with the 

angels' march, 
I chaise yoa into silence — trample you 
Down to obedience. — I am king of yon t 
Earth SpiriU. 

Ha, ha I Ihoo art king ! 

With a sin for a erowa. 

And a sod] andone : 

ThOD, who aniagoaised, 

Tortnredtmd agoDised, 

Art held in the ring 

Oftheiodiac! 

Now, king, beware I 

We are many and strong. 

Whom Ihon standest amoof, — 

And we press on the air. 

And we ttiSe thee back, 

And we mnlliply where 

Thou woold*t trample os dow« 

From rights of our own. 

To an nller wrong — 
And, from under the feet of thy seom, 
O forlorn ! 

We shall spring up like corn, 

And oar etabble bettrong. 
^dam. God, there is power in Thee I 1 

make appeal 
Unto Thy kingdiip. 

Eet There is pily in Thee, 

0, sinned agaioBt, great God I— My aecd, 

There is hope set on Thee— I cry *> 

thee, 
Tboo mysiic seed that shall be!— leave 

In agony beyond what we can bear. 
And in debasement below thunder-mark 
For thine arch-image)— taunted and per- 

pleil 
By all thege creatures we roled yesterday. 
Whom Ihon, Lord, rulesl alway. my 

Seed, 
Throogh the tempestnons years that rmin 

so thick 

Belwjitmy ghostly vision and Iby ftce. 
Let me have token ! for my soul is bniMB i 

Befcre the serpent's hend. Aj O O Q I C 




A Drama tfExUe. 147 

And melaneholr pardon, «verj rile 
And lerriee in ^a■a, la this sceptred hand. 
Be ye lo mm ii angelt be to God, 
Serrnnts in pleiaore, singers of delight, 
Su^esteis lo bii Bonl offaigber Uiiog* i 

Than an; of jaar highest. So, at last. 
He ita.'.\ look roond on too, vith lida tW 

. . straifht | 

lift ur nnl apwmrd till it tonch tbrTeet I To hold (he snteral tears, »nd Ibaolc jm ] 

Or lift it only, — not to »eem loo prond, — iretl ; 

To the knr bei^bt of some good angel's And bleu joo. wben he prara his secret 

Be*,— prajers, j 

For nch to lieadoB, when he walketh And praise yoa wben he aingi bia open i 

smighl, songs, I 

And Ih} lipa praiM bjm. For the dear soug-note be hu learnt ik 

CRHtT. Spirit* oflhe earth, Ton, 

I meet tos with rebnke for the reproach Or pnrifying sweetness; and extend 

And erne] and nninhigated blame Across jonr head his golden fantasies, 

Ye cut npon jonr mtsien. True, thejr Which glorify yon into sool from »«nte I 

IntTesinasdi Go, serve him forsneh price. That not 

Aad tme, UeJT sin is reekgned into loss in vain j 

For yon the *Inle«s. Ytx yonr innocence Nor yet ignobly ye shall scitg, I place 

Whieh of yon prmise* T sinse God made My word here for an oathj mine oath flv 

IlliereBt In your lire*, and bonnd ymir To be hereafter. In the name of which 

band* Peifeet redemption, and perpelnal f race, 

Wnh initinela and imperiont sanelitiet, I blesa yon throngh the hope and throogh 

From aeU-deftieement ? Which of yon di*- tbepence, 

dains Which are mine,^lo the Lore, which im 

Thete sinner*, who, in falling, proved myself, 

their height Svt. Speak on ctDI, Christ. Albeit 

Above yon, by their liberty to fall ? then bless me not 

And which of yon complains of loss by In set wonts, I am blessed in hearkening 

them, tbee— 

For «ho*e delight and tue ye have yov Bpeak, Christ. 

life Cbust. Speak, Adam. Bles* the 

And bMor in creation t Ponder it I waman, man— 

This regent and snhlime Homanity, It i* thine office, 

noogh thllen, exeeeda yon f tbu shall Jiam. Mother of thr worM, 

film yonr snn,~ Take heart before this Presence. Rise, 

Shall hnnt yonr lightning lo it* laii of aspire 

cloud, — Unto (he calms and magnanimitie*, 

Torn bac^ yiMr rivtrs, footpath all yonr Tbe lolly n»es, and the noble ends, 

seaa. The sanclijied devotion and full work. 

Lay Sat yonr forests, master with a look To which thou art elect for evermore, 

Yoar lion at his fasiiog, and fetch down First woman, wife, and mother. 

Tooie^le lying. Nay, without this rale Ect. And first in sin. 

Of Dandom, ye wonld perish, — beosi by Jdam. And also the sole bearer of (he 

beau 3eed 

Devaluing ; tree by tree, with strangling Wberehy sin dieth ! Baiae (he majestic* 

roots Of ihj disconsolBlebron's, well-beloved, 

And trnnk* set tnakwise. Ye would gaie And ftvni with level eyelifls the To-Come, 

on God And all the dark o' the world. Behold 

With impcreeptive blankne**i)p(he *lan my voice. 

And mutter, " Why, God, hast thoa made Which, naaiing ertt the creatnres, did ei- 

as thns P' pre**, — 

And pining to a sallow Idiocy, God breathing throngh my brca(h,~lfae 

Slaggtrnp blindly againit the endsoflifa; attributes 

Then stagnats into rottenness, and drop Andinslinclsoreach creature in itiaane; 

HeavHy-^Kior, dead miLiteT—pIecemeal Float* to the tame afflatus,— float* and 

down heave* 

The abytmat spaces — like a little stone Likeawaler-weedlhatopeusloawave,— 

Let fall to cbao*. Therefore oter yoo, A fbll-leaved propheiy affecting thee. 

Accept tki* seeptret therefore be einlent Oat fkirly and wide. Heocefiuwanl, wa> ^ ~- I 

T« Milliner wiib volsntary grace man, rise V^iOOQIC 



1(8 A Drama o/EsiU. [A^B- 

To IhT peenUai and b««t Bititndes And Ij the iowmt, whcM fpiiiU AiU tf 

or doing good and of enduring iH, — inwlla 

Wcomlorlingror ill, aod lEacliiDg good. Did TalEo* tofUjTi pinckias m behind 

AndreeoDciliog all thai ill and good Back to Ihe gradual biuJu and toomI 

Ualo the patieoce of a coneianl hope, — bowers 

Kite with thy daaghtere t If sin came bj And fborfold river counes : bf all thete ; 

tbee, I blets thee to (he contraries of thetc] 

And hj tin, deatb, — the ransom-righleouv I bleu thee to the deaerl and the lbni% 

tttnSj To the elomenta] change and tttrbnlcnwfc 

^le heaTenlr life and eompen«ated rest And to the roar of theestraiifed beatti. 

Stall come bj meant of tbee, IT wo by And to the solemn dignities of grie^— 

thee To each one of thete endi,— ftnd to thii 

Had ittue to the world, thou Ehttit go forth ckd 

An angel of the wo tbon didtt achieve; OfDeath and Ibe heieafUrl 

Found acceptable to the worid instead Eve. I aoeaif 

Of Dthen of that name, of whose bright For me and fw ut daughters Ihii hi^ 

■teps part, 

Thr deed (tripped bate the hilla. Be tat- Which Uwlf shaU b« connted. NoUe 

iafled; work 

Sometbinf; thou bait to bear tbrongb wo- Shall bold me in the place of gaiden-rett ; 

manhood — And in Ibe place cf Eden'i kiM delight 

PeesliaT inifering aniwertng to tbe sin g Worthy endurance of permitted pain; 

Some pang paid down for each new hn- While on jaj longest patience then sbA 

man life ; voit 

Death's speecblets angel, smiling ia tkt 

_. WhsQce Cometh the cold wind. I tatv 

From those thoa haat too well serred ; mytdf 

from Urate beloved Rumblr heDee&rward on the ill I did. 

Too loyally, some tieaion : feebleneti That humblcnew may keep it in the tbada. 

Within thy heart, and cmelly wilhuuti Shall it be to? ^aUIamile, eayiog soT 

Andpretlsarei of an alien trninny, Oseedl O Elogl Ood, who »Mt bt 

With its dynastic reasonH of larger bonei seed, — 

And stronger sinews. Bat goto r tby lore What thalll say? As Eden't fountains 

Shall chant itself its own beatitudes, awelled 

After Us own iife-wotking. A child's Brightly betwiil their banks, aotwelljny 

kbs, tool 

Stt on thy sighing lips, sball make thee Belwiit Ihf love aod power 1 

glad : And, iweelesi thoughts 

A poor man, served by tbee, ghall moke Of Ibregoae Eden 1 now, for Lhe &at time 

thee rich ; Since God said " Adam," walking throagfe 

An M man, helped by thee, shall mnks the treee, 

tbee sironpi I dare toplack you, as I plucked erewWc 

Thov (helt be served tbytelf by ever; The lily or pink, the rose or beliotnipe, 

sense So pluck I you — so largely — with botk 

Of icrviee which tbon rendereat. Such a hands, — 

crown And throw yon forward on the ontereaift 

I set upon Iby head, — Christ witnettiag Wherein we aie cost out, to eweetea tL 

With looks of prompting love — la keep Mata, A* thoa, Christ, to illtune it, 

thee clear boldest Heaven 

Of an reproach 'againtt the sin fbr^one, Broadly above vur beads. 
Prom all the generations which sneceed. 
Thy band which plucked the apple, I 

clasp close; TUCmmitgrmiKMllftrwanHiiarimrtki 

Tbj lin which spake wrong counsel,! /ntUmi^riAmffiiugm^KUkfJimiStai 

kiss dose, — nfmimg. 
I bless tbee in the name of Paradise, 

And by the memory of Edenie joys Ewt. O Savionr Christ 

Forfeit and loM;— by that last cypress Thou slandestmnle in glory, like the swb 

tree Adam. We worship in Tliy sileiMa* 

Oreen at the gate, which thrilled at we Saiioar Christ. 

Evt, Thy brow* grow gnnder whk a 
foreeatt wo^ — 
Diviner, with lhe possible of Detih I ^ , 

It! melaneholy mnsic afler u \— We wMiUpintbytoncWj&vioiirCkrirtiOQQ P 



MM.] A AvMM ffExat. 149 

Mum. How do Oj deu-, lOi efta Evt. pale, [athctie OffiH— I vow 

IniupwTce osr tonli, (hip ttiM I 

Ab gulDg ttr«Bji tbem toi^id tke I thank tbee fbr that ironaat 

Patber-lkrane, CHiin'. For, M lut. 

In a patbetical fbU Dcitr, I| wrapping nnind me yonr hunHuii^, 

SetenetrafUnnnngaxe throngh Ueair WUeb, being nistained, ihall n^tfaet 

Bliai^t on eack otter. break nor born 

£*(. O pMketk Chrin, Beneath the fire of Godhead, wiH tre«t 

Tkoo rtandett mnte is ^mt, like tb» earth, 

BOOB> And lauom 70Q and it, and cot Stzpog 

Chu*t. Elenltr Maadi alwayi IVobI- peace 

ingOodt Betwixt Ton aad in crealOTM. With B17 

A Ren eokMaaliMtfe, witthUadeytt, pangi 

And grand din lipt, ttat nnmnr erer- I will eonfVanI Tonr tint ; and ilnce jttn 

Qod,Qad,eDdliMlethenAorHfeaBd HaxB lunkea to an Natvre'i heart &aa 

death, 7oani, 

ne raar ef act aad thoagh^ of eril and The tean of mj clean tonl ihall fUhnr 

gMdy— them, 

TbeaTalanebeieftheTniafagworUa And Nt a ho); panioa to woik eleai 

ToUing down apaoe^Mka new worldi' Abaohie conaee ration, {nmrbrow 

gosaaia OT klnglr whiteneH, ihall be ercnmed 

Badding In fii^— the gndnal hmnsung anew 

growth Toot diatrowned hnman nature. Look 

Oftheaaeimt a t ea u, aad iialftinni oT on met 

earth, Ai I ahaU be nplifted on a eroM 

n* tlow pi(ie«BiiiD««rthe«watIiingaeu IndaAneaiof eclipie and annbh dread, 

And finnameatal watera,— aad the noise So vfaall I lift up ia mj pierced hasd^ 

Of the bma^ flneot etrataef pare ainy Not into dark, bat light — not onto deaths 

AH Iheae flow oflwaid in the ialerralt Bat life, — befood the reacli oT gnUt aM 

Of that retterant, aotecan tonnd of— God t grief, 

Vhidi wou), InnnineraiN angela (rtmight- The whole ereation. HeDceTorth In ibT 

High on celeMialahitadeior long Take courage, Otlioawi»nan,-Miian,td[e 

And choral admation, and (hen drop hope I 

The harden aoftlr ; riiaKlng thelaatnetea TonrgraTesalullbe at nnooth a* Edenl 

Hathednpin tilferwingt! I'thenoonof rward, 

time, Beneath the itep of foor pnwpectiva 

Nalklet^ that a^itic-lipped Etenitj thonglits g 

Shall wax aa aileDt-dtUDb as I^th hhn- And, one itep put them, a new Gdea-gate 

•elf, Kiall open on a Unge of harmony 

While a new voice beneath the ([AeTe* And let :roa through to mere}. Ye ahaB 

■hall err, fkll 
"Oodl wh7 hut tboa {bnakea me, my 

GodT", 
AB^Mt a Tolee in Hearen Ihall anawer iL 

Fint lianeti and fint monneti. Lin 

TlK tm^ftmntltm U um ri f is nim u . Doing both noblf, becanie lowlilj' j 

Life and work, atrongiT,— beeanae pa- 

■*^,«'o's;?.i."°' """'""*' A.d,f.?s"'dUdrfd«o,,™i,«.<w, 

A_Aint h'lman •»))>. vni^a an^ t.^M I That it be wcll donc, nilreneoled of, 

thine ere* atanlpraieM 

Ch-iw. Then, in the noon of time, Fulen yonr ««I. « h«h, that eoM^ 

ihall one /h)(n Heaven The •«!!• of yoor heroic eheermayflort 

Ab aagel freih from looking npon God, ^"^ "'.' ^f °''.t!^'"'^"/*!* 

Deacend before a woman, blesBLns het P'>ri««*tion bewg the joy of paia ! 
With perfect benedielian of pure love, 
Forallthe world in allltaelemenU; 
For all the crealnres of earth, air, and 



* Goog c 



pnennf dmtgt. 



UO ADrama 

EarOi SpirUt. 

Br the mighly word thai ipoken 
Bolb for living vai. for dfiug. 
We, oat homaxc-oath oace bn>ken, 
Fislen back again in lighing; 
And the creaiam and Ihe elements re- 
new their coveBoDting. 
Here, foinive ni all our scorning) 
Here we promise milder duty i 
And the erening and the momiog 
Shall re-ot^nUe is beaut;, 
A nbbuh day in sabbalh jo;, for oniver- 
tal chanting. 
And if, ililli thii melaadiolr 

Ua; be ttrong to oTercome b( ) 
If this mortal and anholiT) 
We still fail to cait oat from ns, — 
And we torn upon 70a, nnaware, Font 
own dark inSaeuees; 
If ye tremble, whea lurrounded 

B; oorforesl pine and i«Im trees; 
IT we cannot core the wonoded 
With our tDBrjorBm and ttala treei ; 
And if foai jodIb, all moDufnllr, sit dows 
among jour tentet, — 
Yet, mortal), do not feai ui, — 
We are gentle in onr laoguor ; 
' And more good jt tboll Imtb noai at, 

Than anf painoran^eri 
And God's refracted bleHUtg, in oorUeiB- 
ing, ihall be given! 
B7 the detert'a endless vigil. 

We wi!l solemnize TDutpasiiona; 
Bt the wheel of the black eagle 
We witi Inch you exaltations, 
Wli«n he tails against the wind, to the 
white spot up in Heaven. 
ye shall End us tender nnrEM 

To your wcarioesi of nature ; 

And our hands shall stroke the curse's 

Dreary rurTDWirroiii the creature, 

Till yonr bodies shall lie smooth in death, 

and straight and slamberful : 

Then, a conch we will iHMvide you. 

Where no summer heal shaU daule ; 
Strewing on you and beside yon 
The thyme and sweet basil — 
And the eypress shall grow overhead, to 

keep all safe and cool, 
. Tin the Holy blood availed 

Shall be chrism around as mining. 
Whereby, newly -consecrated. 

We shall leap up in God's snnning. 
To join the spheric company, where the 
pure worlds assemble ; 
While, renewed by oew eTangcIs, 

Soal-consnmmated, made glorjons, 
Te shall brighien past the tngeli — 
Ye (hall kneel lo Christ vietorioas 1 
And the rays around his feet, beneath 
roar sobbing %s, shall tiemble. 



|A«. 



Hear oar heavenly promisej 

Thnia^h your mortal pas 

Love, ye shall have from tti 

In B pnre relation I 
As a Gsb 01 bird 

Swims or flics, if moving, 
We, anaeeo, are heard 
To Ii»e on by loving. 
Far above the glances 
Of yoni eager eyes, 
Listen! we are loving ( 
Listen, through man's ignoi 
Listen, through God's mysti 
Listen down the heart of thinct. 
Ye shall hear oar mystic wiags 
Bustle with our loving t 
Throngh the opal door, 
Lislen evermore 
How we live by loving. 
Firit Minichonu. 
When you bodies, ihwdbre, 

Lie in grave or goal, 
GoAly will we ewe for 

Each enffanebised soul I 
Softly and aalothly, 

Through the door of opa^ 
We will draw yoa soothty 

Toward the Heavenly pesple. 
Floated on a minor fine 
Lito tba fbll cbanl divine. 

We will draw yon cmoolhly^— 
While the human in the minoi 
Makes the harmony diviner 1 
Lislea to onr loving I 
Second (tmii^konu. 
Then a sough of glory 

Shall yoor entranee greet; 
Raffling, roond the doorway. 

The smoDlh radiance it shall meet. 
From the Heavenly thnmed centn 

Heavenly voices shall repeat — 
'■ Sonls redeemed and psrdoned, eotea i 

For the chrism on yoa is swtet." 
And every angel in the place 
Lowlily ^all bow his fbce. 

Folded fair on aoHened sounds, 
Bccanse npon yonr hand* and feet 
He thinks he sees his Masler'swonndl: 
Listen to onr loving. 
Wlnt umichona. 
So, in the univene's 

Consommlled undoing, 
Our angels of white mercies 

Shall hover roond the rain I 
Theirwlngssha11ctretmnp<m the flame, 
As if incorporate of the same. 

In elemental fVisioo i 
And calm their faces shall bam ont. 
With a pale and mastering thoaght, 
And BSledfast looking of desire. 
Plan onl between the dcRs of ' 



"Google 



IS44.1 A Drmti 

' While the* err, in Ihs Holf^ auM, 
To the fiaal ReilitatioB ! 
Litten to oar Iniog ! 

So, Then the dar of Ood >■ 

To the thick grevet Rccompled ; 
AwBhiDg the drad bodies, 

Tiie iasel afthe trampei 
&aU B^it the ehBTnel eanh 
To the roots of the grave, 
Whiefa sever before were alsekenad ; 

And qoieken the ebarod Urth, 
With hii blut 10 deer and bn*e f 
Till the Dead all itawl ereetr^ 
And eTCTT face of the hnrial-plaee 
Shall the awTnl, tintiie look, reflect, 
Wherevilh he them awakened. 
Litten to ovr lorins I 
first mniehonu. 
But wfld ii the bone of Death I 
He wUl leap np wild at the clamor 
Above and beneath ; 
And where il hii Tamer 
Oa that lut day, 
When he ciieth, Ha, ha! 
To the trampet'i eTaogel, 
And paweih the earlh'i Aceldama t 
When be tonelh his head. 
The drear-wbite iteed. 
And champeth athwart tbe hat moon- 
ray,— 
Oh, where is the angel 
Can lead him away, 
That the living mar role for the D«ad T 
S*a>md itmidtonu. 

Yet • Tamu shall be fonnd I 
Onemore bright than lerapha crowned, 
Aad more tUoag than cherub bold j 
Elder, toa, than an^I old, 
Bj bU f rey eiemiiiet, — 
He ihall maiter and (orptiae 

The Iteed of Death, 
For He ii strong, and He il fain; 
He ahalt qnell him with a breath. 
And iball lead him where He will. 
With a whisper in the ear, 
Wbkh It alone esa hear — 

Full of fear— 
And a hand npon tha maae, 
Brand and still. 
Wirti itmidiomt. 
Thrvagh the flaii of Hades, where the 

tonl« aiaemble. 
He will guide the Death-steed, calm be- 
tween their raolu { 
While, like beaten dog>,lhe7alitUemonii 

and tremble 
To lee tbe darkneaa enrdle Ihmi the 

horae't glitierinK Hanki. 
Through the fata of Hades, where the 

dreary shade is, — 
Vf the steep of Heaven, will the Tamer 

Knide the steed,— 
Up tbe spheric drdea— circle above 



t o/EmU. 151 

We, whoeonnl the age«,shan const the 

ttdling tread — 
Every hooT-fall striking a blinder, blank- 

Fnm the stony orbs, which shall ibow ■« 



theyw 
Suomd Mtmidionu, 
AU the way the Death-iteed, with mikf- 

fled hoofs, shall travel, 
Aahen grey the planets shall ba motion> 

Loosely shall tbe syitEms eject their parts 

fiugaant in the apace* shall float tha 
pallid Buwni; 

And sans that tonch Ihe^ apogees, reel- 
ing (Vom their level, 

Shall ma back on their axle*, in wild, 
low, broken tune*. 
CkDnu. 

Up against the archea of the nystal 

Shall the horse's nostrils Ueam the Unrt- 

ing breath ; 
Up between the angels pale with silent 

Will tbe Tamer, ealmly,lead the bone of 
death. 

Cleaving all that silence, cleiviiv all 

that glory, 
Will the Tamer lead him itraightway to 

the Throne : 
"Look oDt, O Jehovah, to this I bring 

before Thee, 
With a hand nail-pierced, — I, wbo am 

thy Son." 
Then the Eye Qivinest, from the Deepeat, 

On the borse-eyee feeding, shall bnni out 

their fire : 
Bliad the beast shall stagger, where It 

overcame him, — 
Heek as lamb at pasture — hloodles* i 

Down the beast shall shiver, — slain amid 

the taming, — 
And by Life essential, tbe phanlaflB 
Death expire. 
J Voia. Gabriel, thoB Gabriel I 
.JaeiAer Vmc*. What wonldat Uoa with 

ner 
Firtt Vaitt. I heard thy voice eonnd in 
the angel's song ; 
And I woald give tbee question. 
Second Voict. Question me. 
Ftnl Void. Why have I called thriee 
to my morning star 
And had no an«wer I All the Stan an 

And loand the earth, npon theb sHvw 

Wheel out the mssic of the inner lift, 
And answer in their place*. Only in *i 
I cast ny voice against the onter nya 



Googje 



Of tnr (tw, shut in light beUod Um SOD I 
ITo BKire repir Hum from t breaking 

ttriag. And Ukc the fiUniCM ef Hia vi 

ibeikiiif; when tonebed. Or u the ■<>( To eorar lots ud udoeM ? 

nT (tar ? Bteomi Foiu, II ii trne. 

Where u 1117 bIit, mr stftr? Hare fe FirrfPoin. UMnne, UXniel Omon* 

cut down iog'Stu I Hm I 

Ho glorjlike my glorf 1 Hat the wued Vko tittett leciet ia a veil of l«ht, 

MoiUI, like Adam T Pas the iMirnt to Far np the tttirr ipacn, aa;— (fttrlMr 

hale 4»e«k bat m load •■ doUi a mtftoJawM 

U^e ao} anKcl? To TjrrbcH valeral I am Loeifcr— 

AcoiuJ KoiM. SbeUaadfoilheei [.fiMaM. <SiJaK< m A< afar*. 

AL thiofi grow ndder to thee, one bjr AH tluiici gnw HuUerlo maiOBe t^Me^ 



Oionw. Lire, wwk on, O Eaitk; t 
Br the Acloafi teotioD, 
Speed the am>w worth; 

or a pare accention. 
FiWQ the low earth round job. 
Reach the height* abore T<n>; 
n«m The (tripe* thai voqiid yon, 

Seek the loVea that hiYe yon I 
God's diTiDest bnraeth plain 

Tbrongb the cryaltl diaphans 
or our lore* that lore yon. 
FinI Void. Oabriel, Gabriel t 
Stami Vaiet. What woaldit IAm viHi 

meT 
Fint Foiet. b it trne, O thon Gabriel, 
that the erowD 
Of MUTow which I claimed, aaoUtcr 

That Hb ctaimi tbat too T 

Acrnd Vaitt. Loat one, it is tne. 

Firt Vde*. That Hx will be an eifle 
ftom His Hearen, 
To lead thcNe exiles bomewaid t 

Stami tVet. It is true. 

Fim Voitt. That He wfll be an olle 
by Hii will. 
As I by mine election? 

Btcimd Coic*. II is trae. 

Firtl'Voict. That I shall stand sola 
exOe Snalty,— 
Hade desolate for &DilJon 7 

SnohI roics. It Is true. 

Fint Vaict. Gabriel I 

Sattmd Koit*. I beaAen. __ ,, ^^,, ^ . „ 

Fir,tV^. I, H true besides- '^'^^^ffiSSf^r 



Ctorw. ExDed homaa enatnru. 

Let yonr hope grow laigu I 
Larger grows the Tiaioa. 

Of the new ddigbL 
Fnm this chain of Nature's 

God ia the Disoharger) 
And the Aetnal'g prisoa 

Open* to your sight. 
Sentdbnu. 

Cafan the ilais and golden. 

In a light exceeding : 
What their rays bave meatujm 

Let jam hearts fulfill 
Theie are stars beholden 

By jonr eyes is Eden) 
Tet, across the desert. 

See them shining (till. 

CXortu. Fatare joy and far light 

Working inch relalions, — 
Bear ns smgiag gently— 

EiMtd it not lott! 
God, above the Marlfgbt, 

God, above the patience, 
Shall at last present ye 

Onardon* worth the cost. 
Fstiendy enduring, 

Painrnlly sorroonded. 
Listen how we love you— 

Hope the ottennost — 
Wniting for thai curing 

Whieh exalts the wounded. 
Hear us sing above yon — 

EXIUm, SOT MOT lO%T'. 



trz. 



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lizcdbyGooi^le 



1844.] Critic* and Critkitm of At NineltmUh Ctntury. ISft 

CRITICS AND CEITIcfsM OF THE NINETEENTH CENTUBY* 
I)f the present aketch of the hiatoiy of woiaaii, are described with all the ba- 
orilics and ctilicism, we ahail confine bitasl piquancj and grace of M&oau- 
oorBelTes chiefly to thoM of British lay'a expreasiTe pen. The hatefulneaa- 
origin, and wbote glotiea ate the pro- of the life led by court miniona, woolil 
doct of Ediobaigh and London, in- of itaelf be aafficient, we should ima- 
eluding the boroagh of WealmiDaier. gine, to diaguat all of those wbo baTO 
Germany, France, and oar own dear erer liied wiibin the precincts of a 
eountry, ao rich in peiiodical literatare, palace, and were expected to haog on 
deaene much more than a mere paaa- the smile or nod of a monarch. W» 
ing notice, ;et that is all' we ahul be iboald aay, sach a aerritude would fui- 
enabled to gire them, if only from a nish tha beat anlidote to the ektrava' 
want of sufficient space, at pteaent gant idolatry, with which the ignorant 
(reserving for a future opponanily a seem to regard a King. MajeatT dQ< 
view of the state of criticism in this prived of ita aateroals, is truly called a 
eountry), and for the sake of a continu- Jeal : a bitter one in a case like this, 
«as interest. Nor do we pretend to which ought to pave the way for the 
fttmish a nairatiTe strictly accnrate or lore of and thirst for (at least] a more 
exact in alt parttcolars, but rather aim tolerant and manly goTernment. 
to giTe a fair general view and a not The article upon Addiaon, admirabla 
illiberal estimate of some of the moat in moat iesp«cts, is diaiorted by a wan- 
diatbignisbed critics of this critical age. ton disregard of jasiicetowarda the two 
In theptesent.aTowedlTananaljlicage, most celebrated contemporary wita o£ 
in which criticism has flouriahed almost the lime of Addison — Pope and Swele. 
la rankneas, it seeros necessary to criti- The latter writer, whom in the Taller 
ei*e occasionally thecrilicathemselvea, and Spectator, we agree with Hailitt 
in order to learn where to fix our faith, and Hunt in believing the superior in 
irhom to trust, and huw &r to credit spirit and genins, to his mure favored 
any one of them. friend, vet not his equal, by any means, 
The appearance of a new volume of in careml finish, exact scholarship, or 
Hacaulay has led ns to make selection rigid moral propriety, ia incessantly 
of this subject, as a vehicle for that depreciated in the most nnworthy man- 
deaulton melange of history and crili- ner. Of this disregard to historical 
ciam, which is the most we can pro- truth no lets than to fair criticism, the 
mise our readers at present. This instances ate too numerooa to particu- 
latest volume of Macanlay's papers, col- larize at present, but deserve a fuller 
looted, we believe, by the American explanation hereafter. The critic's 
pibUsher, includes some of hia latest, strictures upon Pope, too, are uospai- 
with other of his earlier articles. The ingly censorious. A suspicion much 
paper on Madame D'Arbla^ is, perhaps, belter founded in the nature of the case 
the beat in tbe volume: it presents a than Macaulay allows, in the instance of 
very agreeable account of her life and asingleBminenlrival,iBtorturedinloev< 
works, if indeed that can be called idence of a malignity of dispcgjlioo that 
agreeable, which is occupied with some accompanied the poet through life, 
very unhappy details. The position of despite tbe numerooa instances in his 
tbe autbnresB of Evelina, in the literary life, lettera and poetry, of ^reat friend- 
world, is accurately aettied, and, as it liness, charity, piety and filial affection, 
seems to ns, a very just estimate is We hope at no dieiant period to make 
rendered of her character and talents, this clear. 

The episode of Mr. Ortap furniahes a The review of Satan Montgomery's 

^ite jiew and singular chapter in the abottioDa of the Muse, which have been 

history of the literary character ; and almost incredibly popular, is moat just, 

may serve aa a beacon to many. The though at the tame time moat cauatie, 

contemporary literatnTc and the great- and as we are inclined to think neces- 

er contemporary statesmet), of the tarilr ao. A bad writer (however 

youth and middle age and declining good a man), who vili go on aecumn- 

years of this brilliant bet yet unhappy laiing literary offences, deaervet opon 



. Pbil< 



^•Google 



fM OriiMV and Cntidm ofth* Mm«(m»M Cmtwr^. [Aog. 

}iM ovm head, the pnnishmenl he ssbtdb Comeille wd lUcine. It wm thU Hime 

to coDil. Fabe oompaMion n>*7, in lute that led Voltaire &fterwud« to 

sach cases, do g-reuiajuiy. Forthoagh write of Shalupeare a* a Saeaget 

it be tree, that eitieme Justice ia, of while AddisoD waa crowned with al[ 

all thtn^, the moat unjast ; yet ex- the haoora of the Tragic Uuae. It 

treine and inconsiderate pity may ooca- was tbis prevailing ignorance of a 

sion (and often does) no little hitm even geniiine philoaoph; of cesthetica, which 

to. the one we would benefit by forbear- was supplanted by a perverted code of 

ttaee and mercifol treatment. taste, that iDclined the readers aod 

The paper on Barere is iDore in the writers of that day to OTerlook the im- 
tiiaiinerofStephenB(Hacau)ay's double) nieasely superior claims of the great 
than of Macaulay himself: admirable older writers |a English literature, ea- 
as it would appear for any other writer, pecially in the Drama and in the Pol- 
it is not one of the very best of Hacan- pit, for witty, clerer, smart epigram- 
lay's later critiques. The aatne remark matists and pithy writers of essays, 
applies to the Essays on the utilitarian letters and " vert de locUU." 
philoBophy, which are a little dry and The age of Aane was undoDbtedly 
argumentative, coming often after tbe a brilliant period, bat it is thrown into 
witty epigrams, the rich icholarBhip comparative obscurity by the great 
aod (he brilliant declamation of their ages of Elisabeth and James I. an3 the I 
author. Still, the style and manner of age of the commonwealth, that preced- ' 
treatment is more appropriate and in od it. It was the age of comedy, of f 
aecordance with the subject. The periodical writing, of true satire, t^ I 
civil disabilities of the Jews are admi- manly and sensiblb political writing 
rably refuted ; aod some of the means and preaching, but it was quite deficient ' 
of testing trnlh by ridicule, in this sa- in imagination, philosophy and the I 
titical argument, are capital. Tbe to- highec kinds of genius. The critieisna ' 
]ume,aaawhole,haweTer,cannotmain- of such an age was the counterpart of 
tain a fair equality with those that its original writing. It was just but 
preceded it. There is nothing' in it tame, its prudence degenerated into I 
to be compared to the articles on Chat- mere cautiiin, it was timid, nay almaat I 
ham, Bacon, or Clive. servile. Thia school lasted through 

Previously to the introduction of the the reign of the first two Georges aod 

school of eriticiam that has aubsisted continued down to the foity-secoud 

daring the present century and which year of the reign of George III. Dur- i 

grew out of the tone adopted by the ing all this period the French criticism 

Edinburgh Reviewers ; the prevailing was dominant, and most of the tenets 

fashion ufjodgingwasablind following of this school were held, and most of 

Of the old, conventional, Anglo-Gallic its canons applied bv that perfect em- 

principlea of taste and opinions in mat- bodiment of it. Dr. Blair — a writer of 

ters of style and invention, introduced the same calibre and aim with those of 

into England at the Restoratidn by the French critics i a sensible guide on i 

Charles H. and the court Poeta — men, the less abstruse questions of criticism 

who professedly copied the French aod taste : aod a clear, methodical 

writers iffeverything— their ingenuity, teacher of Rhetoric, He has been fol- i 

smartness, conventionalities and imita- lowed by men of much greater reputa- I 

tions of the classics : critics who fol- tion, especially among the Germans ; ' 

lowed Boilean, and tragedians who and intrinsically, he is no contemptible 

worshipped Racins. During the reigns writer. 

of William III. and dueeo Anne, this At the commencement of the present 

taste became confirmed. Of the an- century a new alate of things appears: , 

eienls, the Latin writers were univer- with the foundation of the Edinburgh j 

Htlly studied and closely copied, while Review (180S), arose a new style of 

the noble old Greeks were compara- criticism, fresh, original, independent : 1 

lively little known. Classicalily, or generally judicious and ftir, sometimes I 

tsatefnlimilationof models, nsurped the a little malicious, rarely very uujuat, { 

place of true genius: this &iBe taste allhongh some few marked and emioeat ' 

made the fortune of Cato, a correct and exceptions to this are well known (dU* 1 

proper, but cold and tame, transcript the glorious namea, Wordsworth, COI0- I 

of the Greek drama through the filter- ndae. Shelly, Hazlitt, Hunt, Lambt. .' 

i*g of the French imitations of it, by aod their disciples) : the matter of thlfM, O O Q I'C 



1944.] Critie* a^^d Critkum of At NiiuUtnth CtrOury. IfiS 

'pkpon, aooonte tni fall, Mmeiimas wnndftl sod "mon contemptible oom- 
wudito and profoandi the loaiiDer, tempt" on other true poeia and manlj 
(lutcing, rapid, and popular in the taen and origiDal thinkers : atill, u tbe 
h^fant degree, fntm ^ etear eKpOBition Teprewotalive of a very large claas of 
amaitij set Uaxh, lo the acnteat logio critics, the amall critics, par txcetlenct, 
and mott brilliaDl rbetorio. We be- we will not heeitate to draw a picteie 
lievB the history of the setting up of of them, which may indeed eerre as a 
the Edinburgh Reriew is tolerably well sebstilute Tor that of the cobbling editor 
kBOwn, from the prefkce to Sidney of the Quailetly. The small oritio is 
Smith'aworks, by hinuelf This might to the Irae, indepeedeot, thoroaghlf 
kare been a little more eircumelantial qaalilied jadge whit the minutt philo- 
withoot doing anybody serious harm, tepkeri ate to Plato and Baeoe. Ho 
It was characteristic of the age and of is great in little thinge, and eammoaly 
the spirit of its projectors. All of them litUe Ip great things. His gen Ids is 
young men, not long remoTed from the bent on inreMigatiug trifles ; in correet- 
restraiots ef uniTcisity discipline, and ing errors of ptuctoation or orthogn- 
hil of spirit and oonfidenoe. Host of phy, riips of the pen, and, in a word, 
" ' ' ' erbal errors of ^1 sorts. He is proof 
) irony or satire, mistaking both for 
iMrodootion to poleroiea and criticism, downright condemnation of nitae or 
by its general tendenoy to render the approval of vice. With him, a homiljr 
iBtelleotaalfaculuesclear, active, acnte on hypocriay passes for a scandal on 
and witty, though it tends too mneh religion, between which two he makee 
towards begetting a love for verbal do distination. Poetry, he judges in 
criticism and " wil-combata," rather the most literal manner possible; re- 
tban porely jest appreciation of excel- garding solely the mechanical part,ihe 
leoee aod honest sympathy with it), verse, rbytbra, pauses sod aceente. 
Jeffrey, Scott, Broogham, Mackinloab. He ot^n spoils the beauty of a fine 
Soiilh, we beliere, was the sole parson passage because he cannot see thednli- 
anong tbem. Hazlitt, Macanlay. Car- cacy of a pictntesqae epithet. He 
lyle and Stephens, the most brilliant of has no feeling for sentiment, no taste 
Ae oontiibntors, came in some time for fanciful extravagances, which ap- 
aflerwatds. Of these, as the chiefs of pear to him utterly afasnrd. Correet- 
this new school, we wilt speak present- nees and clear expression are the very 
1*. No very long interval elapsed height ef his ambition. He remaru 
(aboal seven years) before the Quar- how many lines of a poem end with ■ 
terly was established, whose editor, monosyllable, or with a similar termioa- 
Mr. Giflford, and his compeers are as tion, or how often the same word oe- 
well known, thongh by no means so cnrs in the same sentence or paragraph, 
{avonbly, as their Scotch rivals. Upon He pretends to be skilful in metres and 
the charaoters of these writers we shall various readings, and. indeed, master 
•pend little lime or attention. The of the art ef poetry. By this he means 
perverse malignity and narrowness of the rules of Aristotle and Bossn : his 
the first editor stamp him as " a small models being Pope and Boilean. Ao- 
oritio" in every sense of the word, cording to his standard, therefore, Hay- 
Literally and with jastice might he lay enrpaases Wordsworth, sndhisowD 
Iwve been considered, in the language heroic couplets are saperior to Cols-- 
•f the old proverb, ne mlor ultra ere- ridge's varied mniio. Of the source*. 
fidam. This old crab-apple was a eob- of poetry, the heart, the passions, na- 
Uer to the vary latt — a word-catcher, tare ; of ^e masters of the Divine 
« dove-tailet and joiner of sentences, Science, he ie quite ignorant. He may 
« literary meohaoic. Many clever com- have read Shakspeare and Schiller, 
positors and proof-readers would have bnt he can never peoetiate into their 
made as intelligent [and some mote so) spirit. His nndentanding is purely 
editors of old plays, while we trnst verbal, ^d below the surface of Un- 
done could have been less honest and guage, into its bidden meaning, he never 
■nprejndiced. Yet though we shall descends. Thus, from ignorance, mi*- 
■ot stop to analvae his pettinesses, his apprehension, want of sympathy, all 
litmalaeOT aod dull malioe, which *erv- inherent defects in himself, he nus- 
ed te crush one of the noblest spirits judges the wisest qiirits, perverts the 
lliat ever breathed, and heaped vile wisett philMo^y, seeks to dagtida 



Google 



IH Critic* and Critieitm aftht Nmtltenlk Ctntury. (^'ff- 

the fineit imaffinatian — ^t in Tun ; it ISienl tone of mind in other Teiii«en. 

i* tn idle uu to etj, " he will Nwn Yet though this jonrnai wis and is ■!- 

bmk <towD"— ''this is all tnsh"— wavs well fiUad with mgneabls and 

**lhiswillDemdo,"&c. Theaeegre- olalKiTata Hrticles, Mill it baa b>d d» 

nwis Uanden are soon discoTerad. genaiira criuc eonneeted widi it eom- 

TlMHndloritioiadBligtiied with petty parable to the list of those tkat con- 

beaottea and tbe minntaat dotaila. tiibnted to the Edinbaigl. Aa evident 

Heaoe some of the most emineDt of reason for tbe infsrionty of tbe writeis. 

thia ttibe tuTe been gnat sdmirera of in tbe London Qaarieilj ms^t be fined 

tbe Dntoh sobsol of patatiiig, of tbe in the yeij nature of their positioa. 

Dcnners, Ostades, and Vsohaysnms. They were partj writers, tbej iniist 

Rather than praise, however, hs Iotcs defend a certain sjEtem at all hasaids, 

Still more to oarp at petty huka ia a and reject the olaimaof all who did not 

ffteat man, and Ihioka be maiteB a fine fight andet the same banner. Iliey' 

disooTory when be meets with a trivisl fimght too like feudal followan for % 
flaw. He looks, as it ware, throegh— master — not like freemen, for fteedeoi. 

an invarted telescope, and to his eye They often contended for the wtdi^, 

Ifrcat objects dimmlah. He makes knowingly ; and baaca not only pei~ 

eeat things appear small, and the little, verted theii moral sense, which inaen- 

w. ' sibly weaken* the intellect, bot ware 

(^igtoality pnts bim ont ; boldnMS, ania of a defhat. For nothing can 

he styles eziraTBgaikce, and aofanow* siUerly withstand Tnith and the R^t 

ledges none bat imitative excelleDce. — not power, nor eloquence, not even 

All invenlors he looks nponaa arrogant genios. Hence we find the fertils 



interiopers. He is distrnsifDl of novel- geoina of Sir Walter, the lieh aoqnisi- 
ty, and apmbends failure in every new tions and deseriptive powers of — ''~ 
t distinguish be- the brightnesa of Many oleve 



kT apmben 
ae. He c 



twaen freshness of feeling and affecta- rebeked by tbe nnening decisions of 

tian. He bos a horror of individoaliiy, justice, expoaed aa they are in variosa 

andwiUnotallowtbeweightofpersonal ways, bnt in none more powerful 

impreBaions. Strong passion he so- among men, than by Captain Pen. 

oonnts a weak prejudice, and tbe ain- The old maxim was reversed — Might 

cere convictions ofa pore spirit, " idola did not make Ri^t, bat Right mibda 

of tbe care." Indignation at meanoees Hiobt, 

and a scorn of rascality, he saiimates After these two leading Review* 

as "whim-wbam and prejudice." eame others, each devotM to- some 

As be is a trite critic and stale particular cause, or whose aim was di- 

theorist, so is be also a false logician, rected to soma particular purpos*. 

He is in faot a mere special p^ader. The Westminster, the organ of th« 

-He cavils at literal ntiatakes, and dia- Utilitarians : the Retrospective, of tb« 

pstoslerma lather than abetraot troths: Antiqoarian sofacdara : the British 

» newMaper Thomas Aqnines, or tbe Critic, of the Chorebmea. We shall 

Itana Scotos of a Monthly. Erudi- not attempt to present a biMory of pe- 

tioa is to hira a great bug-beat,— aa riodical litentuis ; out endeavor ia 

fiMrfol of diseovering his ignorance, he rather to hit off a series of portraits 

dM«s net diaecedit the claima of pe- of tbe leading regnlar crittca, not of 

danlty. His Judgments are tradition- the reviewa only, to whioh we shall by 

Wtj i Us opinions heredilan. " He no means restrict onrsetves, bnt also 

tluaha by pro^ aid tattles by rate ;" of the magaitnes and newspapers, 

laada everything, and faela notking, Wa most, in consequence, omit sny 

Butte learethis episode, and come Girtber mantton of particular joarnala 

Barediteetlyinlatheheart ofour sob- (we have not enumerated nae-thitd of 

Jeot. Thoagh tbe Qnarteriy had fat die first daas, even), and prooaed at 

ita first editor, a moat narrow, conven- omM to the business with i^ich we sat 

tmisl, carping critic, wilhonl any fed- ont.^William Hazliti we r^fard, all 

bg or peteqition for anght but the tUnga otmaideted, aa the first of th» 

Boi'dy mechaiiical part of bis mechsn- regdai critios in this nineteeBlh cen- 

ml art, still that Review baa since had tory, sarpaasad by several in aome one- 

writen fer It of a very efficient stamp, particular quality or ae^isition, twt 

to be sure of the ssme political school, superior to litem all, in general force, r 

(Mjndioes and all, yet men of a more ongin^ity and indepenuace. With \ C 



1844.] Critia and CritieUm of the NnuUenA Catlmy. IffT 

IcM Beholuvh^ oonridsnUy thut eritie, with no aoull iafuaioii of (be 

Hont or Soutkej, he bu more aub- poetie cbaTactei. Aaslyiic JudgoieDt 

Manee tban either : with lest of Lamb's (of the very finest and rareat kind) and 

fineoeaaaadnothiDgof hiasubilBhiunor, poetic ftney, nuarally ricb, and ran- 

he has a widei gmp and ahogelfaei a dwed atiil oiare eapiooe and brillint 

jiMtre manly oast of iatelleet. He bj the goldeo aasociationa of hia UTs, 

baa ien H*eHne>a and men amanoesB earl; intercoane with hoMmble poMp 

thaa JeSr^, but a far profoaoder in- and a moot appteciaitTfl aympatfaT witk 

«ight into the mjateriea of poeaj, and the moater-pieoea of poesj. Adaui»- 

^tfaieatlf a moie genial syiapathj Ua aa a genend ciitie on books lal 

with cODUDflB lifr. Then, too, what oien, of maDBeraand cbanetAr,of pU- 

freahnesa in all bif wriliiifs, " wild wit, loaophieal s;ateDia and thMwiea of 

aoTeatioB erei new :" for allhoagh he taate and art, jret he is more OTpedallf 

^iaclaiiDB baTing anj imaginatioD, he the genniiifl critic in bit hvorit* wallu 

^eitainlj poasesaed oreative talent and of art and poesy ; pcliiies and tlta 

fiae ingeanitj. Moat of hia esaaya Inie titerUDie of real life— the dotnes- 

an, as baa ieea well remarked, " ori- tic nov eli, the drama and the batle* 

«iaal cuattoDB," not mere bontiliea or leKrea. We shall not now stop to eoD- 

aidaetis theaea, so noeb aa a new illns- inerate in detail the diaUDCtiTs traits «t 

tcmtiim from experience and obsem- thii master, beyond a mere maotiDD of 

tioit of great traths colored and aet off his roost striking qaalitie* aa a writer, 

by ail the brilliant aids of eloqueoee, Aa a deaoriptiTe writer, in hia beet 

faoey, and the cboieeat atrnwa of aecu- paassgea be ranka with Barke and 

lOBlatioii. It is not one porpoae, at Honaasaa, in delineation of aentiiiMDli 

present, to draw an elaborate portrait and ia a rich rhetorical 7eio, be htm 

'Of this greu oritie. We hare Bnl- whole pages worthy of Taylor or Loi4 

wer'e and Talfouid's fine critical Baoon. Thsre is notfaing in Uaoaolay, 

sketches too much in onr eye and fiii profbond gorgeooa deelamation, 

memory, to feel qoite sore that we auperior to the chRiracter of Coleridge, 

ahoald not unconacionsly borrow eriti- or of Hilton, or of Borke, or of a 

cisma so well thonght and finely ex* score of men of genius whose portraits 

preaaed aa the oritieal opinions in their be bas painted with Ioto and with 



re^eetiTe papers. We oan only pre- power. In pare crittcisni, who has 
«ent a faint miniature of one who de- done so much for the noreliste, the 
eervee to be painted in the same bril- essaviats, writers of oomedy ; for the 
liant Titian hnea, in which he himself old dtafflatista and elder poets 1 Lamb's 
-depicted hia early friends, the idols of fine notes are mere notes—^oleridge's 
bis jonthfiil admiration. As a literary improvised critioisms are merely f^- 
oritie, we think Haslitt may be placed mentary, while if Hazliit has borrowed 
tmtker among the independent judges their opinions in aome cases, be bas 
of origioal power, than among the made much more of them than they 
tniDedoriticBofedaeationand acquire- conid have done Uiemselvea. Cole- 
ments. . He relies almost entirely on ridge was a poet: Lamb, .a ibeoriat. 
indiridiw] impressions and personal To neither of these eharaoteis had 
feeling, Ihua giving a charm to his Hazlitt any fair pretension, for with ^ 
wrinnge, quite apart from, and indepen- his fancy be had a metiphysioal under- 
coat of, their purely oritical excellen- standing (a bad ground for the tender 
ces. Though he baa never published plant of poesy to flourish in) and to 
an antobii^ra^y,* yet all of hia works wit and humor ha laid no claim, being 
are, in a certain sense, confessions, too much in earnest to indulge in 
Ha ponra out bis feelings on a theme pleasantly and jeetiog — though be has 
of interest to him, and treats the im- satirie wit at will and the very kemeat 
f okes of bis heart and the movements sarcasm. Many of hia papers are 
of his mind as historical and philoso- prose satires, while in others diere ai* 
ftiicsl data. Thongh ha almost inva- to be fbund eiqiisite jeux d'ttprit, 
riably trnsts himself, be is almost ss delicate banter and the parest inisl- 
invariably in the right. For, as soma lectual refinements upon works of wit 
are bom p6ets, so he too was bom a and humor. In all, however, th»critt- 

• The Liber Anorii can hardly be called aa oveptton. ij gmzod sy CjOOQ I C 



IM Cntic* and Crittam «f the Niiultmth Century. Ikag. 

«kl quality predominaiea, be Ute fann in Uie EdiBbvrab) wm nthei a. criiis 

tlUt of eaasj, criticism, sketch, bio- of philoeophic&T ■jatems, etpMiaUy in 

graphj, or even ttavela. ethica aod politic!, than purely a erili* 

ToaccouDtfoTHaKliu'scomparative of lileratuis or of the cbonLCten of 

onpopulatit;, aever&I eauaea are ob- men. Yet, In nooe of these walks 

*ioas. To Bay Qoihing of his slrong coold he be cdled oiigiaaL Wiih ili* 

political and personal prsjudicea, he ia native acuteness and ioletleetual tena>- 

oAen too fair and just to be a realoue oitj of a Scotchman, he had alao their 

puliaan, and ha* hsnce secured no po- loye for acquisition and respect for 

litical party of admirera. His egoiiam, acholarahip. He had talent, unqoaa- 

to Bome BO offeasife, iDasnuch as it lionably, and very cooaiderable store* 

mortifies their own weak vaoily, is to of acquired research. In the hiatorj, 

DS one of his most attracliye qualities; Dot only of states and parties, but also 

at least it implies openness and strong of schools and opioiona, he waa entirdj 

ayrapathies. To inapire affection, to a at home. Nor was he less familiBx 

certain axtent the most disinterested with the writinga of tbeoriats of all 

man ronst be a self-Iorer. Haw or ag«a who have epeeulated on thedeep> 

why elae should he be so powerfully est qneatiens of politics] or of mom 

^ected by ihe tnoat stirring ineidenia science. He was, in addition to all 

ofUfe and reality, ifhehimaetf, the cen- this, an acconiplished general scholar. 

tre of tiiat i«al world (every man is One quality he posseased in perfectiant 

■neh to hinBelf ) — if his mind, the axis a liberal loue of mind and a fiuraeaa 

opon which all taras that really con- of judgment, the growth of a natorally 

cema him, be quit« indifferent to all benevolent, comprehensive, and en- 

enrronndiDg phenomena > Can ho be lightened intellect. Pure geoias ha 

•aid to take an interest in anything who had none, and consequently, perhapsf 

does not lend himself to the illusions of he relied too mach on mere learning, 

Ufe! To express sn interest in any- both in others aa well as in fainuelf. 

thing, ia to make a personal revelation, But, excepting thia one essential defi- 

and this is egotism — not to evlDOa the ctency (a very great one, to be sure, 

highest regard for oneself, so mnch as but I7 no meaua to be implied as a 

todiaplay tike deep feeling one may en- volonuiy sin), we have heard of n« 

teitain for any person, thing, doctrine Mher defect, intelleciual or moral, of 

(w dogma. this true philosopher and philosophio 

Perhaps the unfortunate state of his critic, but that upon which Sidney 

private circumstances, in pecuniary Smith lays some stress in his cele> 

mattera as well as in his domestic rela- brated letter to the son of Sir James — 

tioDB — an unfortunate attachment, the a defect arising from, an eioeas of li- 

rebuffs of half-friends, the ridicole of beratity, that ran almost into laxity, in 

contemptible opponents, no less than an his favor^le judgments expressed of 

irritable temperament and an organiza- rather doubtful ehatactera, and of opi< 

lion partaking more largely of the poet nions of (at least) a mixed cbancteT. 

than lbs peasani, ringly and united. This epicurean tendency to generoaity 

should serve as ample apologies for the in criticism might, in some men, risa 

occasional wavwardness of the writer into posilive licentiousness, but, in Sir 

and the impruaeoce of ^e man. Those James Mackintosh, it was a veoiid 

who knew Hazliit best spoke most error — the fruit of benevolence sod 

highly of him, as his friends Hunt and wisdom. 

Lsn^, and his admirers, Talfourd, and Mackintosh wrote largely for the 

Knoirtes and Bulwer. The influence Review, but he is best known by his 

of the critic, too, is dearly perceptible dissertation and historv. Dy neither 



n the periodical liieraiure of the day. (rf these is he to be fairly judged, sioca 
"'le bnt critics now living in England the last is a fragment and the first s 
i thia country belong, emphatically, sketch. Both of these, however, are 



to the school of Hsaiitt. Mr.Hoine conceived and executed in a most pU- 

has nnaoGoantably omitted tbe portrait losophical spirit ; though, as mere eom- 

of his master and favorite critic m his positions, we do not rue either of thcot 

late gallery of portraits — an omission ss equal to his excellent life of Sir 

which we may attempt to sopply in a Thomas More, which has always ap- 

latDie sketch. — Mackintosh (to relnrn peared to ns a model of bios * ~ 

loUteeoniemporariesofthefiiMWTitera Compaied with Haalilt, Mac! 



^^oogle 



1644.] Criliet oMt CriMiam oflht NintUtnih Cenlvry. IS» 

«u & mere MlM»>ti« man, beaide a his uigeniiitj, bis actiritjr, hia cQDQUf 
man of impatuve seDina, though it fence of arsumeat, his livelioeaa of 
miut not "be suppoeea we weald depre- illuslntlon, he ig yet a Scotchman all 
ciate the able lawj^er and aagacioua evet. His eaae, plajfulneaa, piquancy, 
Btaieamaa while we confeas hia inferi- are equally eharacteriaiic aad equally 
otity, as a ntiter and literary critic, to French i for, aa we hare stated, the 
the bold and biillLant, bal imprudent criticism of the last eecturj was Aoglo- 
Uid paiadpxicai, author of " Table Gallic, and the ehrewd banister cam- 
Talk ^ aod the " Plain Speaker." menced writing with hia principles of 
Lord Brougham maybe conaidered criticism already aeitled, some of whick 
as, in sotue reapects, the rival, and, ia be Dever loat sight of. For those rea- 
another point of view, the very anti- sona Mr. JeSrey never became (£br it 

Kdea, of Mackintosh. Yet, between was not in hia nataie) a poetical critic 
ih there ezialed a sufficient Tesem- of any authority, for aome of the gieal- 
blance, of cirenmalances and pursuits, eat blunders in modem criticiam, with 
to warrant a partial parallel. Both regard to poets, occurred in hia own 
were men of aludy, hard-working and Review, and nnder his own eye. For 
active ; both general students, able and certain of these egregious mistakes he 
. busy lawyers, and political characters is birnself persondly rcsponaihie. We 
of eminence. Here the likeness ends apeak thus moderately of hie trealmeat 
— Brougbam was an active, Mackin- of Byron, Wordsworth, and Iheir com* 
toah chiefly a apeculative, reformer, peers, from no ill-judged lemperaooe. 
The fonnar effected the most practical nut a sense of fairness. For although 
good to the public, while the latter ia- Jeffrey, from want of sympathy and 
fased a better spirit into all with whom deficiency of imaginalion, could see no- 
he came in social contact. The tern- thinginByron, Wordsworth, Coleridge, 
per of Mackintosh was amiable and Lamb and Hunt, still it was &om no 
moderate, while Brougham ia said to malicious petveraion of the truth, from 
exhibit all the virulence of hisaarcaatic no mean deaire to depreciate genius. 
venom. Mackintosh was the better The faolt lay in the lawyer, not in iha 
writer and deeper thinker: firougbaia's man; in proof of which, take noiic* 
bead is fillea with facts in natural bow warmly he praised the verses of 
aeience and legal reforms. Yet both Grabbe and the rliymea of Sir Walter, 
have done Iheit share — the former as which he could undeiaiaDd. 
Uiinker and writer, the latter as re- Evidently, Jeffrey baa little of th« 
former and politician. The friends of poet in him ; he baa wit, logic, acute- 
Sir James may expatiate more gene- nees, a sense of fairness, a hatred (^ 
jaliy on the private virtues of the man, impoature, a manly contempt of affeclft> 
while the admirers of Baron Vaux will tion ; be is a clever man — a man of 
point to his public lervices and untiring bright talent, but not an original or a 
efforts in behalf of the public good. great man. He prefers Pope, we 
Jeffrey is the last remaining link be- should suspect, to Pope's maatera. 
twecn the old and tbe present school of Yet, strangely, in hta later age, he 
English (or Scotch) criticiam— the last conceived an nnaocountable fondneas 
of the band that started the Edinburgh for tbe poetry of Keats, a writer, one 
(Sidney Smith, though living, wa be- would think, quite out of the sphere <k 
Ueve has long since ceased to write for his literary sytnpaihiea. Educated in 
it). Like his early coadjutors, he wsa tbe school of French criticism, a claad- 
a lawyer ; and, like some of them, en- cal scholar, taught to regard the imita- 
joys high regard and an elevated poeii tors of the ancienta aa the best modern 
tion. Unlike the two writera just no- writers, it ia but natural that Jeffrey 
ticed, he was always more of the law- ahoald regard, with a certain faslidioua 
jex tiian the statesman ; rather ingeni- apprehension, the rather violent oul- 
ooa than profound, acute rather than buraia of strong genius in the nine- 
comprehensive ; a logician rather than teenlb century. Probably, induced to 
a pbUoaopher, and moreof an advoeate believe that true poetry had beooma 
than a judge. He defenda rather than extinct in the island of Great Britain^ 
charges home ; he fights in the ranks he considered it his duty to put down 
inatead of commanding at the head of a any juvenile attempts towarda reviving 
baltalioB. He cannot cast off hia nati- it. With a not unjuai dread of nefr ^ 
Titj, as a serpent hia skip. With all repntationa, boastful and iprenudiir«i( OOoIc 



be is quite st borne. With his e\eu, of only the acM rem&rfcaUe — Leigli 



paaeed with eqnU JuMiee oa 
« poet, Landor, and the Sao 
■^ L«nb. But fdt the Mon^y 



ISO Critict and Critieitm ofiht ffineUenth Ctntiiry. i^^- 

that, for the time being, would seek tn eriticU iontnals, tKe RsriewB, is 

dUplaee the great DamsB of the " great not renncted to them, aovoe of ttas 

heirs of memotj," be wished to nip finest eritioal writera bsve fitniiabed 

Id the bod blossoms that be honaatly their contributions either solelj 1« 

thoaght would oevei be likely to flowei ni&gaciiwa, or else, if ther have writtea 

in perfect beauty. This wa judge to toi qoarteiiies, they are Eiest known as 

be the seoret of his iiarsh ti«atineDt ot writers in raonibly journals, 

genuine poets ; and, iJl cirennutaoces In this class, a very large one, of 

eonstdered, he is not witfasat boom critics of ereiy grade, from the ingeni- 

IdMible apology. one snd bright, op to the eloquent and 

" ■ Bubjeeta of prose crhloisn prafmmd.we will "^ 

■X home. With his clear, of only the ao« 

^rewd, professional eye he detects, at Haut, Haslitt, Landor, Lamb, Bnlwer 

once, so^isms, absDrdities, quackeries, and Talfonrd. The first four of these 

of all sorts. His paper, for iostanctt, names sow rank among classical writ- 

on pbisndogy, and on similar eobJeetS) ers, i.e., writsrs who hare gained a 

fiimisbss an exorilent example of his psTnasent and enrtsble position in a 

eomiuoa sense way of handlLng the walk of literature worthy of their 

norelties of the day. Oh ! for a simi- powera. Criticism is the forte par cx- 

lar SEposilion from his entting pen of etllence of them all ; for although, in 

the abortiTS projects and oruy impos- prose, Hunt is alto an agreeable narrt- 

tnrefl of the day, in religion, morale, tor and s sketcber, with fine descriptiTe 

medicine, and politics. tact, still he has written more in the 

Activ)^, acuteness, and a certain way of literary ciitioitm than alniost 

•misble l«mpeTof mind, seem tous the anything else. Haslitt wrote in all 

leading ohsracteristtes of Jeffrey. His tbims, yet always with the eritied 

^tdleci is lively and " forgetiTe," yet spirit uppermost A similar criticism 

no leas steady and indnttrions. It is may be passed with eqoU i '' 

•aid that a laige proportion of the arii- the prose F ' ' ' 

eles, for seretal years, came ftem his homcrist, L _, 

own pen. We beUere that, for a long Magaaine we should, probaUy, hare 

period,hefnruishedabo<nhalftlismat^ bad little or no prose from Elia. His 

ter of each nnmber of the ReTiew ; yet fine laonbrBtions would bsTe been lost 

this hard work (often amoanting to in a long reriew-article, and yet ar« 

dradgery) did not appear to blunt his too substantial for nevspapei para~ 

wit, or dull his foebn^ of pleasarable graphs. Hailitt wrote in reviews, 

•xeiteroent. The public need a correct magazines and newspapers. His best 

index to the Edinburgh, when they may critical powen are shown in bis Lee- 

be enabled ts estimate the force, vita>- tnres, and, next to those, in his TsUs 

eity, resoarces and ismper of this Tilks ; for his long articles are almost 

pioQser of the periodical liteiatare of indistingnishable, partly because not his 

this century. beat, since written hastily, and as mneh 

Of Carlyte, Hacaolay and Stephens, from the want of a stamp of iodiTidn- 

of whom we have written so lately alit^. Bulwer and Tslfonrd, as palps^ 

( Jo]y onmber of Demociatio Reriew), tde imitators of Hazlitt, demaud no par- 

we shall add nMhing, nolesa we place tieolar notiee. 

sfourthnameiooonJunetionwiththeirB, The newspapers, also, have their 

tlntt of Uie most bnlliaal writer in the critics, and capital ones, too. Haslitt 

British Cri^ (disoontiniied not long snd Hunt wrote theatrical notices that 

unoe), Pr^essor 8ewall. There is a are sufficient, had they written nothing 

large body of TsnTcleTer reviewers st else, to hare given them a classio re- 

tbia moasnt is England, Ir^asd and potation. Foster, of the £xamineT, 

SoMlaod, wboss names bare never the critic of itie Spectator, and writers 

reaohad as, for which reason we must b the Athenssum, Atlas, &e., approadi i 

be sUent, or rstnm only general thanks them quite nearly. I 

and DDdistingnisblng praise, when we At the onlset we promised ndr a 

would inoline l« discriminate the excel- passing notice of criticism on die Cfon- 

leoes and dwell on the iDdividaal merits linsnt, which Bfaonld be more fhBy 

«f separate writers. treated by an able sobolar. 

The eritieiBm of the day, thoBgh it (Temiany,tiiefbantain-faead,haspnK , 

Ibda Us nostpioffiiiwMplueb purely dnced a noUe array of fine orineS|,QQO C 



1844.] CrilicMiaid Cribeiim of Ihe NintUenth Century. 161 

iBithetic, hiatorioal and philosophia. tnde of fine thing! io thia tub atUtnpt 

Oa the general principlea and tbeorj »t immortalitj. 

of tule, theiB aie Wiakieman and And, now, here in thus glorions 
Lewing; aod, in poetrj and art, Wie- UnitedSiatesofoara, bon fare* iha art 
land, SchiUai and Goethd. The writer of oriticiam ! But weaki; ! It is yet 
who uaw-oamed the old phitosopb; of a veiy tender plant, almoal a aenai- 
taste, bj the mofe aiiractive title, lire plant. With abaodanoe of good 
<BBtbeticB, Baumgarten, we believe waa writers, nice reasDnen,ingeniona think- 
not celebrated for machbeaide hi^ talent en, we have little reliable oritioiam on 
of naming. Io luator?, ihej hare the the whols. Thsre are, to be aare, eer- 
inorDUiidBateriiica,NiebuhrandSchloa- tain judieioat and aome graceful writers 
aer and Heeren and MilUer. Alwaya DneritictamiaQdafewre^lyfineoritiea 
senaible, ther are often much iDore. aoatterad np and down tha coontrj, but 
What a model of a oiitic ia Goethe, the no concentered, well-taught pnblia lite- 
prince of modern aulhora ! No dicta- rarj tribunal : no inaMer-oritie or hand 
lorial, swanering bully : no word- of aasoeUted roTiewan, juil, trae, abis 
estehor, no EJ^yptian taak-maater, le- and learned. 

^ring impoaaibilitiea, and condemning ■ We want independenay, honeMy, 

Keata becauaa he ia not Milton, and temperance and learning ; we do not 

Lowell because he i( not Wordsworth, wiah the erudition of commenlatora, 

No padant, though a moat accurate and but judgments well formed by being 

tborongh aobolar; a poet without ex- well instructed. The cutae of paffing, 

traTBgance, a writer of sentiment with- of paid criticism, haa been hot too rife ; 

out weaknesa, who ntierly diaearded ana thongh we havean Emeraon and a 

hia own *' Werther." Equally able to Dewey in philoaopby, a Bancroft in I 

appreciate the most opposite qualities history, and the whole intallaetnd I 

and the most rarious styles, all of clergy of the Unitarian sect, the moat ' 

which he coald himself so admiiabiy accomplished and scbolaatic clergy, wa 

ezemplify, as he so oftea has done. believe, in the world, and who can iiir- 

HappT tha Irae author who fell into niah a dozen as able critics as are to 

hij) bands ; as for pretenders, he took be found anywhere ; thoagb we have, 

the beet way with them— paswd them here and tbere, an editor who really 

ailenlly over. doea bis work fairly, bare and there * 

Among the historical critica, we moat retired student who ofteriabea delioaoy 

admire Heeren, whom Mr. Baacroft of taste and sound Judgment, yet, take 

has translated with each cleamesa and the body of writers aod readers in 

fidelity. He is all he professes to be, the country (one that lives on periodical 

a lucid, methodical critic ; bia com- literature), and see how little true, hon- 

pends are syllabuses rather than abridg- est, aod sincere criticism there is. 

menta, and, as we think, rightly ; for it While npon this subject, it mav do no 

is possible to indicate the periods and harm to eifwsss ourselves a little mors 

epochs of universal ancient and modem copiously on the aubjaot of newspaper 

history io a volume or two, bat quite criuciam- The common vice of news* 

useless to crowd all the important facts paper criticism consists in its eitra- 

of history into that short space. vagsnca i it ia either a eologinm or a 

la France, they have a multitude of libsl, both dictated, loo ofteo, by por- 

critiee among the feuilletonists; hot sonal feeliogoflikeor dislike — abusive 

only one literary critic is known aa of sr complimanury. If an author is a 

distinguished merit, Villemain, and he Aivorite, he is certain to be overrated ; 

ia a literary orator rather than a scho- and, even where this arises from per- 

lastic lecturer. History and philoao- sonal affeolion, it is plainly wrong, a--* 

-'■- — — :i the most brilliant men, the '" '*•■ '"^ *•""" "•» "hiMt n( iKa . 



9 Gaizots, Jooffroys, aod tie's admiration, for it inevitably te 
' --- ^- """^ "'■ !t of belong 



Si 

Thiertya, with a host beside. A body to depress him. Tbe bet of belonging 

of men, bright, learned, showy, yet to the some town, having graduated at 

French to, the core, — perhaps more the same college, is auScienr to pro- 

' showy than solid. Dootaa, for io- cure a man a favorable notice. 

stance, represents the majority of then^ There is more danger, however, in 

i — brilli&nt, paradoxical, ingenious — the field of ceuaure. When one cooai- ^~- i 

\ wriline everything, dramas, talea, tra- dera how little dispraise arises inimk ^.jOOQIC 

I Teii, histories ; doing nothing in a sheer ooBvietioD of the writer's deft- O 

j tfomplela way, yet throwing off a mslti- cieaej, Mtd how much ^rtnga from 

TOL. ZV.— NO. LXXir. II 



193 Critict imd Critieum of tkt NinBteenlk Ctntury. [Aug. 

piqoe or perMiul dislike, ot » tmadred pTeferred, that telli the plan and uoa- 
otlier diUurbip^ causes of tnu, it is tents of a book, without pujung ■& 
Tflrj Iwrd 10 SBsigo tbe motivs of justice opioion Dpou it, or thst depicts ths 
to severil; ia ciiiicism. class to which the toIdtds beloaga : 

Newspaper criticism, in this eoaotry oi discusses ths subject of it, witbont 
at teut, aiKl the teodenaj of it ia the referaaoe to the author himself. Some- 
aame abroad, though by no means to timea it is sUowaUe by an oblique eom- 
the Muoe extent or in au equsi degree, plimont to hint » defeot : though thn 
owing to the much higher conditiim of is but sji evasiTS edit of ccitioism Wfl 
tia pMsa of Europe, discovers ths reiy hare little Uk iog for. Intariabl j, / 
lowest phitse of the art of oiiiioiam. however, sincerity and fair judgDMDt| 
It is indeed a per* ersion of the tenn to shonld be cherished and exercised, else t 
ajqtly it to tbe pstagrsphs of allernala ciitieism becomee oomplimeat, or do- | 
praise and blsme, alike iadiscriminatiDg iceDda into satire- The eommoa ideft 
and ucaggeiued, which pass under of honeat criticiera coincides with sa- 
ttat name. It is likewise no essj tire <» aarcasm, a state of feeling and 
matter lo criticise a class of writing, public judgment that caenet be too 
cmfined and brief as this is, in a pa^e warmlv deprecated. Good critics are 
or two; yet as tbe newspaper critics needee, if only to disabuae the public 
wre a elaaa of SQthars desultory and mind of this and similar osfiMmdedl 
various, we may be excused for a se- errors. 

lies of remarks upon tbem, equally The trao poutioo <^ Ae genuine 
general and disconnected. critic ia net yet acquired. Id the re- 

They are the least of the bduU cri- public of letter*, he sits just below the 
tics ; the most microscopic of the mi- poet. Wanting his invention, with 
nnte philosophers : their judgments are less imagination, teaa fancy, he is still 
parely Aragmentary and as detached, if his eqoal in honest enthuaiasm ; in 
net aa de^ aa the maxima of the old independence, perbapa superior j in a 
Gnomia philosophers, or the more love of the beautiful, oidy lower, b«- 
laodetir Orphic (iranaoendenlal) sa^- cause he has less poetic power ; in a 
ingSii — Criticism is an art, sad has its reverence for the good ud tmot ft 
Tsles: hence even criticism itself may faithful brother ; of an aecnraie per- 
te eriucise^. Brooght to a close in- ception, clear jadgment, and yet a 
.apecUon aod compared with high lively sensilHlity, all working in an 
Btandards, we know not bow these atmosphere of the poreat candor and 
AriMarcfausns and ^oiluses would date lUietalily, the critio ia the advocate of 
to shaw thenitelvM. . Nor indeed the poet, the exponent at tbe filings 
should they cooit a oriiical notice, of the people towarda him, the middle- 
Perhaps it may be thought unwise and man between tbe two. His office is 
UuMoeaaiy to devote any ccasidenble judicial, and ahonld be held in respect, 
space to ephemera] scribblers, but any If he soar not so bi^ aa the poet, 
ose who knows the va« influence the if his anUwrity be leas divine than that 
duly preaa exeita upon pnbUc o^on, of the moral teacher : yet it is a nobis 
will not Uiink a little eaiueat re- office notwitb standing. It ia his pro- 
monstranee against the vices of this vince to administer, in the first place, 
kind of writing (which may be brought impartial jostioe, and to extract from 
toa high pilch of perfeoiion, and for tbe good and beautiful and noble and 
that reason deserves the more repre- manly, whatever ia excellent and tme : 
hension beeaose so egregioaely abnsed] and mercifolly to conceal those petty 
and the evita it occaaioas, thrown away defects, from which humanity in its 
ot ill judged. Ugfaeat forma ia not exempt. Equallr 

We are aware, that it ia thonght wkh this generona dnly— it is his of- 
—ti et e to remonstrate against the fice— a noat ungrateful task— to atrip 
aboMS of critieiam: in time, to be offthadiaguisesof inpoBtnre,toreduoe 
sure, all cornea right, but meanwhileBn the bloated awaggerer to bis original 
honeat man and a good writer may proportions, and utterly to discard all 
suffer. Extended and detailed critical those patchea of an and diaguiaea of 
aoslysis cannot of course be expected custom, Uiat would endeavor to mska 
in a newspaper, but joalice, diacrimi- tbe world believe ffenius existed, whsD 
nation and sympathy should enter even indeed not a partiole of it Wtt t* bo 

iaio a parajpaph. It may be thst fonnd. , 

nUiaUTe or deKripti» oritioin. k u gitizcd byCOOgIC 



Tht Draptr't Davghttr. 



THE DRAPER'S DAUGHTER.— A TALE.* 

I.— TSI ADVWITttRU OP A BIV. 

At tlM pniodof the mioarityof Loaia tide oat to the light of tlift etrset ba- 

Xm. iitth« old, DHrow and obKure DMihthe pn>t«eling flhed. Attfae«ndr 

■tT«et of la Tiiennderie, not hi from nae a winding ataireue, maauTe and 

the Hotel de Ville, atood a much fit- old, leading to the npper aloiiea of ths 

SLflnted ahnp, which was the scene of home, 
e prinoipal oTCnta of this hiatarjr. Humble u ma^ aeem th» anaiig** 

The house was of that antique fitabion menta of thia ancient ahop in eompari- 

saaal with the middle claasea of the aon with the magniBcentestaUiehiBNiia 

middle ages, with ila gabls end upon of onr da;, yet ceitain it ia that about 

tlie street, the second fioor projecting the jreai 1613 it enjojed a woaderiol 

conaiderabty orer, while on tu from ran. Nicholaa PdiTeau,itapr<^rietori 

were Tisible the ctoaaed beama com- was a iiadeaman of the old Mjle, op- 

piaing the f^me-woTk. "nie roof waa right, honomble, and incapaUe of m- 

annnounted with leaden apoata which ceiTiog a caatomer ia dte qoalit; of * 

ia rainy weather neveTfailad to showei clcitb,orofoTerebaigingbiminitapTiatt, 

dewn moat liberal lorrente on the heads Peraonally, moreorei, the worthy <1»- 

of all who might pus beneath. Foe per of the OnDd-Sainl>Martin Muafi' 

protection from theae inundations, the ed to the aristocracy of the hontgaoian, 

metcfaanta of thai day erected broad so to speak. He had been preaident 

wooden abeds in fiont of their shops, of ihe guild of the dnpera, and had &g- 

On the top of the hug^e and dilapidated nred in that capacity at the eBtraaca of 

Mrnctate of thia kindin the pieaent in- Marie de Medicia intoPaiia; he had 

•tanoe, a plate of iron was fixed, at a eren for seTeral years filled the offios 

anitableheight,on which waarepreseat- ef ^chsTin in the muiicipality of tha 

ed a knight in fbll armor dtciding his city, which, by the terms of the ediot </ 

I cloak with a half-naked beggar ; and Henri IH. had bestowed npon him tba 

aronnd this magnilicent piece of paint- priTilege of oiAiiily, ia which tba good 

log waa written in large characters : man secretly cherished no little pride, 

" At TBI Gbaito^Siiht-Mabtik, Nich- thoagh he would nerer confese it. In 

da* Poliveaa veniU Cloth and VeiesJ." oonseqnence of tbeae oiric hooora, his 

Such waa the sign in all its antique shop was the resort of the richest loid> 

■iigpliciiy. and the noblest ladies. The street 

No glazed window opposed the free whs oFlen blocked up with ihe enU^ 

entrance of the aii into the shop ; two aoned coaches of duchesses, the males 

thick oaken shutters folded back upon of prekles, and the )enneta of gentle- 

Ae outer walla, forming s hogs yawn- men ; a legion of pages and laoken 

ing opeeiog. On each side stood little grumbled in the fool depths of itSDHM; 

tahtea of antique forms, loaded with and (he neighbors who saw all tbesa 

pyramids of cloths or TsUets, orer the sumptuous equipages stopping at the 

•afety of which, from the perils of door of the honest draper were well 

thicTea and beggars, an apprentice waa nigh bursting with jealousy, 
always watching. Beyond thia mora- We must, howoTer, confeaa that all 

Ue scafiblding, the eve penetrated into this popularity waa not entirely due M 

^ depths of the shop, the walls of the honorable repute eajoyed by ths 

whieh were corered from top to bottom worthy ez-^hevin, and the anporin 

with shekaa loaded with pieces of quality of his fabrics of silk or wool; it 

meiotaaAdiie; while a counter extended is but proper to allow her Jnet propel* 

ita whole length, for the display of the tion of^ thia tide of custom to a yonnc 

gooda, — though it was so darkwiihin aod pretty personage, MadeaioiieUs 

Uiat the wary customer was rarely Rosette FoliTeau, his only daugbtert 

willing to buy without bringing the sr- who usually est enthroned lUta a qoeeb 

— GooqIc 

*Taried aod adapted from the Ficnch <rf'Elie Bertbct. '^ 



IM Tht Draper'^ Daughter. [Aug. 

brtad the palsnml eoonler. Roaetta to the bi]*i[ieu oT the maiiiei|wli^, be 

«•> a 1)U|« bninette, with sn aroh ind had neglected hia owd ; nor had tbs 

miaebieToaB conDteDance, and fully beaat ifi^ eyea or the piett; praule of Ro- 

«qnipped with all tbooe fasciDating gra- Kite aTaited to preveot ume moat dis- 

eea BbU peculiar to the marehandei of aatroae TariaLiooa in the pricet of ailka 

Pari*. Sbehad thatezactre&nementof and woollena. MoieoTer, the grand 

eoqDctrj which stimnlBtes and Becnrea folba of the court who frequented the 

its object, without committing the fair ^op of the good draper weie not the 

onployer. She was irresiBtible, eape- niost punctual CDaiomera in the paj- 

ciuly fortbe men, when aha would ex- ment of theii bills ; and it was eren 

hibit to advantage the color or the said that Polivean had received more 

quality of a cloth or a TeWet ; and the than one rough rebuff for having been 

Tooog BoUea woold come from the a little too preaaing with thia one or 

ntrtlieat end of Paris to bay tbe mate* that one amoog hia noble cuatomera. 

rial for a doaUel choaeii % little Ro- Aiia of compassioD, coantesances of 

ante, or tbe beautiful Draper'a Daughter, hypoerilieal aympadiy, were already 

It was all the fiishion at the Lotirre to aeanmed towarda him ; and aome of bia 

hate made one'a pnrchaaea from her ; kind and charitable friends would even 

and the nsnal answer of a petit-maitre, go so far as to bint in private corners 

to any eriticiam npon the tint of hia that the poor fchevin might aoon find 

eloak, was that he bad found aothing bimaelf reduced to the necessity of 

finer at the pretty Poliveau'i. bankruptcy — that he might soon be 

It ia scarcely to be supposed that onr compelled to pot on the green bonnet, 

sweet little Roeetta was not somewhat which would certainly be a very mel- 

toncbed with vanity at finding heraelf ancboly event for the corporation oT 

M bawilderingly the rage ; andthatthe drapers and for bis friends, &e., dec. 

tlHrag:ht had never orossed her mind of One aommer morning, before the uau- 

exeMngingher cloth hoodfoTone of vel- al hour of the more wealthy customers, 

TCt, as uia Baying was, — in otherwords, Roseite was already at her post in the 

of maTryingsomeoneof these handsome paternal shop. The master waa abroad, 

yonng lords who were for ever flirting and the daughter, aided by the two ap- 

loand ber, and aevetal of whom loved prentices, who kept moving abonl her 

Iter to distraction. But whatever levi- with a very busy air, undertook to aup- 

tj or vanity there might he in her com- oly hia place to the best of her Utility, 

position, Rosette waa at heart a good Mademoiselle Poliveau was dressed aa 

Siri, and repaid the adoration of her old a simple boorgeoise, obeying at once 

Lthet with the tenderest affection, the rules of mixlesty and the sumptuarT 

Nor had slander ever found in her the laws yet in force ; hut her attire, thougn 

slightest opening in which to bsten its excloaively of woollen atuff, bad an air 

envenomed tooth ; and all tbe Roe de of neatness and elegance that any fine 

la Tixeranderie waa loud in ptaiae of dame might well have envied, Shewaain 

her virtooos discretion. her usnsl seat behiud one of the show- 

Sneh were the elements of snceess caeca which obstructed the broad en- 

df the establiahment we have deacrib- trance of the shop ; where she could 

ed, which had been in the Polivean einde the too eager curiosity of the 

&niiily for two oentoriea, from father to paaaer-bv, with, at the same time, am- 

•on, — ID all respeels, both without and pie opportunity to indalge her own ; 

within, tbe same ; except, of course, in for, through the heaps of merchandice, 

tbe poflaession of our pretty Rosette. tbe quick and mischteTous eyes of tbe 

Unhappily every medal has ita re- little watcher could observe at her 

veraed side, and after having related leisure all that passed io the street 

tke eansea of the rise and greatness of while her pretty fingers were dexter- 

&e house of Poliveau, we must fain to onaly knitting an ample woollen stock- 

altiide to the sinister rumors that were ing destined for a gift to Master Poli- 

■broad of ita spftroaobing decay, at veau on St. Nicholas'a day. On this 

iboot the period at which ocr narrative particular occasion she appeared to be 

eOBSBSiKes. It waa whispered that watching the paaserB-hy with an unn- 

dMMBbitionofPolivean might perhaps sual degree of attention. Her looks 

eaoae his fUL While die echevio had ranged eagerly to one of tbe extremities 

derated his time at tlie Hotel de Ville of the street ; and aa the moraing ad^ 



-Google 



1844.] The Draptr't Daughter. 1*5 

' TUMMd, h«r gBj ud ftpukling coontcn- her two poor and obacare adoran, tbej 

ance beeune clouded with an ezptM' had conceived a conmioa hatred agaioat 

■ioD of unpBticnee and disappointment, the nobility. 

The ezcraoidimr; preoccapalion of Roseile'a patience waa fsirlj el- 

their young mistreaa did not escape the hausted when the chime of a nei«h- 

eyea of the two apjnenlicea, who e*- boring church struck nine. The uit 

changed glances of intelligence aa they draper'a daughter let fall her ball of 

otweTTcd her. The elder of the two worsted, and with an air of Texatioo,. 

was a tall young man of twsnty-fiTe, perhaps unconaciaualy, monuured, 

whoae doablet and hose, thoagh of aioi- " Moo Dien ! he will never come I" 

Ele brown cloth, were always of tbn "Courage,mademoiBellB!"BaidGile8 
Lteat cut, and whoae perruque was a)- Ponaelot, who had been hovering near 
Taya curled with a peculiar nicety, her, and now sprang forward to 
He waa aclire, intelligent, and posaesa- pick up the ball. " Cotbleu ! yoD nead 
ed of insinuating mannera which made not be so alarnied. Tl>e maater cannot 
him Tery popular with the onalomera. be much longer gone, and we nnitt hope 
OilcB Ponselot — anch waa the sppren- that be will retnm with the ten thon- 
tice's name — was aaid moieover lo be sand crowns made np which he has to 
a prond fellow, with ideas above his pay to-morrow nnorning at thia boai to 
biisiaeaa, which had drawn down many that outrageous usurer, Jaeomcny." 
a lecture opon his head fiom Master Rosette looked at him abstractedly, 
PoliTeaa. There were people who aa if she had not understood the mean- 
even declared that on Sundays, when ingof his words ; she then resinned her 
the shop was shnt, Giles used to dress work, sayiog in a csreleaa tone : 
np aa a csTalier, with plumed hat and " Yes, yea. Master Giles, I am not 
eword on thigh, and play the gentle- uneasy — all that will be esaily arranged, 
man at the Que en 'a- Court, in tbe neigh- I am snre." 

borhood of the Louvre ; but this waa The apprentice in bin turn looked al 

a matter too serioua to be credited on ber with aurprise, " What, demoi- 

alight evidence, and his master bad not aelle," he asked in a lower voice, "ue 

yet sifked it to the bottom. yon not aware that if that torn ia not 

Tbe other apprentice, by way of paid to Jacomeay before noon to-mof- 

GOntraat, waa abort, thick, heavy, and row, we most indeed I dare not 

taciturn ; as careless in his attire aa his say what would happen to ns all 1" 

colleague was particular. Goillaume Rosette made a pretty little face of 

Leronx ipoke but rarely, and then very aaucy impatience. " Go to yonr work, 

laconically ; bat he was a man of ac- Master Giles," she said, rather imperi- 

tion, and at the firat provocation be ouslv i " you ate as melancholy aa a 

would fall upon hia adversary, with an knell. One would suppose, to hear 

enormons pair of fiats which would you, that the shop of the Grand St. 

have felled an ox. Martin ia to be abut up to-morrow, and 

Such as they were, the two yonng that my father has already all the bai- 

men worked adminU>!y together ; there liffs and ofiicera of tbe Chatelet at bis 

ma a aort of partnerahip between them, heels. Go to your work ; tbie ia Uie 

to which the one contribnled bis intel- hoar of business, and the eostomen 

ligence and the other his muscular will soon be here." 

Rtrenglb. They were nnited moreover " I did not mean to offend, demoi- 

hv the instinct of a common aentiraent. selle," aaid he, with deference ; " and 

£ach in secret, and aflerhis own fsah- aitice it ia not the absence of the 

ion, loved hia yonng mistress, and maater that causes your tuieaaineaa 

■ thia sentiment which might naturally " 

have diena^ them, had only served " And why should my father'a ab- 

lo draw them the closer together, senee disquiet me more to-day than 

Seeing Rosette always surrounded by any other ia.j 1" said Rosette, with 

young and g&.llaDt lorda of the court, her tone of mingled levity and impa- 

wbo exercised the right of saying to tience. " He has gone to ask for 

ber, lightlv and laughingly, all that money from some of our rich debtora, 

neither of tnem dared to utter, and con- and he will no doubt bring back pre- 

vioced that their fair mistress, with her seolly more than he baa any need of. 

Bead turned by these brilliant coxcombs, Monsieur le Marshal alone owes, fn 

would never deign to cast a glance on himself and hia honsehold, nore tku . -. f 

LrOOglf 



IM Tb Draptr't Daughter. [Aug. 

Ihrw thoiimid erownB, and the Dneh- of the abop turned the cbdm of the 

ets da Liche " ttnhapp; affljciion which hw) ledoced 

"It ia not on Aese great lorda and bira to thU atate. From one of lu» 

noble iKdiea that the naatei moat rely niinieroaa eaialea in the country, he 

fbr the repayment of Jaeomeny," cried had yeiterdiy leeeived the inielUgenee 

the apprentice, with bitteinesB. " No, of the death of a farorite tame deer, 

ne, doDot belieye it, demoiaelle! For- Diane, of which he had been fond to 

tnnately 1 know that he means to call dietroction ! and the purpoie for which 

alao OS he pasBes, on hia comrade he liad now come, was to purcbaae a 

Oaiidillet,thefiitdTaper of IbeRue 6o' hundred yards of black cloth, to pot 

n^ietat, and that is what reassures me." his hoDsehold in due moumino' on tha 

PoBMlot sighed, and reaumed hia melancholy occasion — all which h9 

mmk in aBaDcei at the other end of the mast have of the richest and costlieat. 

abop. As for Rosette, she seemed On learning that the maelet was ab- 

tmmediately to forget this conversation, sent, he expressed some vexation at 

which donbtless had not entirely di~ the necessity of his returning, bat 

verted her from her dominant thought, Rosette hastened to assure bioi that 

and ahe continned to east fattive that c iron m stance was immaterial, aid 



glances along the street, etill plying Uiat if he would have the kiodneaa te 

her needles as dexteronsly as before, make bis selection of the elufb, all 

A few moments elapsed. Suddenly that he needed should be sent withont 

the maiden started, and leaning towards delay, to the hotel he shonld designate, 

the door, as if to have a better view of The connt very gallantly and graei- 

amoe one approaching, ahe mnrmured ously left the selection to the pretty 

imndihly : — " Here he is at last !" mistress of the shop, who expressed 

But presently aha resnmed aloud, her hope that she might be able I( 



the Coont de Mante, that lord who is hy a sign, to bring forth the deaired 



'a followed by a regiment of pages commodities. With a considerate r 



Men 



with s tone of impatience, ** No, it's tiafy him, and directed the apprentieea 
■ Manfe.tf .,,.,... ,. = .. 

mya followed by a re^ , „ 

>nd lackeye. Come, messieurs, pre- gard to ber convenience, he said that 

rooeive him a oiiair for as he wanted it that very day, he would 

r Uie Count." aeud some of hia people witiEdn a eanp}tt 

"He ia coming, perhaps, to bring of hours tu carryit home, 

the hundred and thir^r lirrea for the At the moment when the yonoe 

pieee of velvet which he took six maiden was about to accept with gtati- 

BHmtha ago," said the incorrigible tude this kind offer, Giles Ponseiol 

Giles, with a look to his mistress. started forward to the front, and said to 

The personage who now entered, ber with an unusual vivacity : 

leaning on theBnouIders of a secretary "Take esre. Rosette, what yon pee- 

and a valet, and followed by several mise!" 

laekeys, wae a mau of from forty to " Whatdoyoamean, Master Otles!" 

forty-five, well made, though a little " I have positive knowledge. Hat 

indined to obesity, with a complexion this fine lord is a " 

•till fresh, and a well waxed moustache " What doea this fellow meu \" aud 

Sit entirely free from tinge of grey, the count insolently, and without tnm- 

s was attired in idl the elegance of ing his bead towards the young appreft- 

an aoeompKahed coartier ; while st bis tice ; " and why does he intrude bin- 

aide was snapended a large duelling self upon our conversation!" 

nroid, and long golden apura jingled " I say," resumed the young mUt 

•tbiabeela,thuagfahehadcomeonf(>ot. growing pale with rage, "that a prv- 

Tba Connt de Manle was plunged in dent person ought to hesitate befoi« 

1' state of dejection so extreme, thst giving credit for a hundred yards of 

aflar being ^posited in the buteuil cloth, to an hsbitaal frequenter of tba 

prepared for his accommodation, it was gamblius house of the Golden Applet 

•onw time before he recovered bis eon- espeeialTy when he has been seen to 

•ekmneas of where he was, suffici- play with loaded dice !" 

vnlly to address to onr pretty little A flash of angry surprise shot fnm 

friend any of the customary eompli- the countenance of the Count de Blanle; 

ments of which his speech was usually his fellows had their eyes on him to 

lavUi. In the meantime it was only divine his thought, and to obey bis 

froin Us atteadaata that the inmatea least ugnal. On the other hand, Gileft 



gle 



1844.1 Tht Drap^r'M Daughter. U1 



I br > sign Iiii friend a ciedit u » hundred jtxdM of cloA to 
OnillkDnw, who plseed' bimself by bia an iatrif[uing swindler. Suck ft lots M 
Mde, ktmed with his formidable abeara. this momeat would be fatal to ooi 
But the count, after outing a keen and good master." 

aerutiniEingelanse upon the apprentice, What might have been ibc iasue of 
oaat biiaself back upoa the faulenil, this eitraordinarj ecene, we caoDOt 
and baTBt into a loud fit of laughter. tell. In esireme diatresa and perplex- 

"Tlte-Diea!" be exclaimed ;" here i]^. Rosette, who had often seen tho 
iaa fban; fellow, to be sure '. I would Count da Manle on afootiax of perfect 
aweai tbat tbe beggar dreacas bimself equalitv in the companj of the moat 
up Bometime* aa a gentleman, and goes honorable peraoDS, waa tarning faet 
to risk hU pistale at the Golden Ap- ejea frequently into the street during' 

51e,like amauof qoalitjr. And now I this harangue, aa if ahe expected to mo 
remember," he continued, with re- her father make his appearanoe, who 
-doubled laughter snd mockery, "thia alone was competent to all tho diffi- 
is the floe caratier I plumed la«t Sun- cnlties of the case. 
day ; and with all his airs I suapeoted At this moment a new peraonage ap- 
ke was no gentleman, if only from the peared en the ibreahold of the door, 
tie of his ruff, and the way he would and Rosette started quickly up with, a 
entangle his sword between his legs — slight cry of surprise and Joy. Uei 
Fardien ! Uiis will be a capital Joke to eyea shone with a heightened brilU- 
teU !" ancy, — and yet it waa not her fathra 

" Is this true. Master Giles 1" said who caused ner ao liTcjy a sensation. 
Bosette, with severity. " Hare you The new oomer was a young cava- 
teally dared to slip yourself in among lier of seventeen or Eighteen at the 

gentlemen, and " outside, whose upper lip was barriy 

" Well, then, yes, demoiselle," re- shadowed by a naseent moustache, and 
plied the apprentice, with a courageous whose bine eye had a charming sweet- 
«Sbrt, and raising himself erect " I neas of expression. He waa dressed 
eonfeas it, a foolish curiosity and de- with as much richness as the Count 
eire to catch the tone and manners of de Manle, but with better taate, bd- 
these people of quality whom yon tirety free from the ridiculous affecta- 
ftncy so much, have led me two or lion of the fashion of the day. Ha 
three times to an ordinary said to be therefore wore no perruque, and his 
frequented by the young lords of the beautiful light hair ftll in long ringlets 
-eoart. You will tell the master, and upon hie shoulders. His satin doublet 
I know that I shall be expelled with and bis base were of excellent style, 
disgrace &om the shop, but I prefer to and his cloak of velvet embroidered 
reoeive the treatment 1 merit, to allow- with gold, hung loosely over his 
ing the good master, whose bread I left shoulder, vrith a light and gracefbl 
have eaten for five years, to be the effect. Notwithstanding hia eitrema 
dupe of a swindler. I therefore de- youth and hia timidity, he aifeoted a 
elare that thia gentleman, with all hia pretty little air of aristocratic imperti- 
ffrand airs, is well known at the Golden nence, which became him delightfully, 
Apple as a blackleg well skilled ia all and he made the lackeys of the oount, 
the tricks of cheating. I learned these who were aboot the door, withdraw to 
.details from a poor devil who had been give him room, with a haughty geaton 
a witness to my mishap under his worthy of a man long accustomed to 
hands, and who bad before been a command. 

similar victim to this fine gantlemaa's His looks were first directed to 
dexterity. He told me loo, that though Roaette, who blushed, and lowered bet 
Iw did associate with some persons of eves. The elegsnt youth raised bis 
zeal distinction, the Count da Manle plumed bat, and bent gracefully before 
was suspected of living on the profits ter, and without even peroeiviog tba 
of bis gaunbling — that no one knew any- presence of other persona, waa about 
tbiog of hie lands or revenues, nor for to addreashis salutations to her, whani 
most of the time of bie dwelling place, euddenly, the Count de Haole rose 
He told me loo, that bis pretended from his seat, and hastened towards 

Tsleta ■ ■ but I hold my tongue, him with open arras. 

Yon know enough now to look twice " Ah ! by rar f^ith, it is thai deai 
before yoa leap, into giving so lai^ge Marquis de ViUeoegre!" lie exeUimad ^— i 

LrOOglC 



Ita TA« Dnpet't Daughter. [Aog. 

widi an axag^rated Joj'. " Upoit 1117 tsken the yaao^ marqaia by the hand, 

lift, I must ii^ead embiaee jron !" and placed him faca to face with 

The Marquis de Yillen^gre did not the blnshing maiden, nhose confusion 

tnanifeat an; extraordinaiv pteaaare in vu vaatl; incieaaed bj this impudent 

tbe meetiBg, aa aoon as ne perceived act), — " look at that beaDtifnl face," he 

who his friend vraa. However, he put exclaimed, painting to the noble and 

a good bee on tbe matter, and tbongh pure brow of the yonth ; " look at those 

easting a gluice of regret towards Ro- eyes gleaming like diamonds, that com- 

settn, he yielded to the importunate plexion of lilies and tosec, that prettjr 

eivilities of the Coant de Manle. moustache, and tell me, I piay yoa, 

"^ And what have you been doing with have you ever seen a more cl^rming 

Jonrself for this age!" retaining the cavalier 1" 
and of the yonng man who was greatly This absurd interrogation completed 

embaTraasad by his demonstratioDs. tbe confbsion with which the yoong 

"And that dear Duke de Vilten^gre, people were overwhelmed. 
yotiT ftther, and that best of duchesses, "My lord," at last Rosette stam- 

youT mother, how are they > Are not meied out, twisting a coiner of het 

they going to die pretty soon and leave apron, "without wishing to deny the 

yon that cbannifig dnchy of Villen^gre, merits of Monsieur the Marquis, you 

where they say there is such capital know it does not belong to a yonng 

hunting 1 You are never to be seen maiden like me to " 

DOW either in the cabinet of the King, " But that is all nothiug yet," re- 

nor at the Queen's-Conrt, nor at somed the imperturbable panegyriat ; 

church ; and pity it is, for you are just " my dearest of friends, Villeuigre, 

made to make yoor way with the wo- lias moreover wit, birth, and they say 

men. Ill bet a hundred pistoles you the ducby he is one day to have is weU 

are in love \" worth a hundred thousand crowns. 

"Hie marquia blushed end hung his And then, too, he is brave, a gallant 

head, while tiis blush was reflected from player, and all the ladies of the coart ' 

the face of Rosette. The count was would be mad with love of him if he 

quick to perceive such a aymptom, and would but deign to cast on them one 

asifenjoyingtheir confusion, proceeded single little glance of compaarion. So . 

in a tone of raillery : tell me, now, ought not the misohicvous 

" I have taken a fancy, marquis, that little puss who ia tormenting him, to be 

it ia not with any great lady yon are in proud of having so accomplished a gal- 

love, bnt some sweet, fresh, delicious, iant 1" 

little bourgeoise — that is the way we "Metcy,mercy,mydearDeManlel*' 

always begin. Ah," he continaed, in exclaimed the marquis ; " do you not 

reply to the young man's disclaimer, see that you put mademoiselle to the 

"you mean to play the discreet, eh 1 torture, in attempting to force upon her 

All right, all right, my young friend, an esteemformypeisonwhichabedoes 

It's my own way too. But tell me, eh, not entertain V 
does tne beaoty share your flame V* " Monsieur the marquis cannot snp- 

" Indeed," said Villenegre, forget- pose—" timidly interposed poor Ro- 

ting himself perhaps, and casting a se- setie. 

erst side glanee at Rosette, " for two " I bet at least," resumed the count 

naonlhs I have not been able to obtain with his imperturbable sang-froid, "that 

the favor of a word with her without Mademoiselle Rosette, Beveie and fe- 

witnesses." rocious as she may be, cannot help 

The count burnt into a fresh eiplo- approving one thing done by my young 

aionofhiDghteT, till the marquis scarce- friend here. Afewdaysago, Polaatron 

ly bnew wtiether to participate in his had said at table that the marquis was 

mirth or to resent it. in love with a little bourgeuise, and 

''Ob,(hefa«iHMia^ladin of the Round that she had accepted him far her lover. 

TaUe 1" eiclaimed De Manle. " How This bonrgeoise was an honorable and 

well I reoosnixe there my own begin- excellent young maiden whose name I 

mng '. And ao the cniel one (otments will not mention " 

Ihmt poor little heart. Bhelt mend, " Count," abruptly interrupted Vil- 

■tae'H mend, the barbarian ! 1 take to lenigre," hnw could yon know " 



▼•■({"{and aalwipok«the oonnt had miqnisgocsaDdfiiidsPidsMroniiBgood 



IKOOd t.' 



1844.] The Dtaper't Baughier. 109 

«ic«ty,aDdBajilohini : "Sit caralier, Perceiring tlie flsntlemcn who hod 
yoabavesaid lliatl wu the fiiTorite of establisbed itiemselrcs in bis shop, 3 
■ certain virtuous demoiselle iyoo were aliglilexpresiionofdiasaliariclioncroHs- 
mistakea ; you must retract." Polaa- ed hia face. lie saluted them, howev- 
troaietortsthathewilldoaosuchlhiDg. er, pulildy though coolly, while thej 
They go out, and Polastron Teceiros a were both eager in a more courteon* 
ferociouB Ihiusl in the shoulder, from address to him than was exactly re- 
wbich he is still in his bed : and so the quired by the etiquette of rank. Tha 
honor of the demoiBelle is saTed." draper'a Arst care was to dispose of the 

During this narratire Rosette had sacks of money, which he dcliicied 
. experieoced a lively emotion ; she bad over to iiis apprentices to be deposited 
■O difficulty in guessing who was the in tlie strong box in his cabinet in the 
young bourgeoise for whom the mar- rear of the shop. The Count appeai- 
quiB had fought, and Jixing on him an cd to regard them with aatonishment 
«ye Bwimming in tears: as they lay piled on the cmtntcr. 

" Yon hare done that. Monsieur da " "Ry ray faith !" he said at length, 
Villenej[re V said she, ioipctaousty. "these messieurs citizens have as muck 
" Too have defended the honor of an money as wo geotleroen ! Why, 
humble maiiiec, of inferior rank to your there are as many crowns ihere as my 
own, and yon have fonght for her sake 1 county of Manle yields me in three 
Oh! that was noble, and I thank you — months!" ">_j_, 

fit her whom jou caused to be re- " Yes, monsieur,'" r^rti««t- the dra- 
■peetedl" per, with some ill humor, seating him- 

As she spoke she extended her hand self on a wooden stool by the aide of 
to Villen^gre, who raised il to his lips, his daughter, and wiping the perspire- 
and slipped into it a little billet. At any tion from his forehead; "but yonr 
other moment Itoaelte would perhaps ntoDey, you great perBonages, is destin- 
have refused to receive such a missive, cd to be squandered in follies, in gam- 
but her imagination was still po»-erfully bling and trintoting and tine equipages ; 
inSoenced by the recital of thu count, ours, we poor trailers, is destined to 
and the paper passed rapidly from the pay our debts." 

young maiden's hand to the pocket of "Yes, I have indeed heard," said 
" ■ the count with an air of indifference, 

" that among traders receipts and ac- 
knowledgments were given, and that 
when the day arrives ther must ba 
paid— il is very wonderful ! 
rapidly the corner of the next " And when the gentlemen, who take 
Bireei, and to advance swiftly toward our wares on credit, refuse to pay," 
the shop. The apprentices allowed a continued Polivcau, with a tone of much 
gesture of satisfaction lo escape them, bitterness, " wo must feel ourselves 
and Rosette rose quickly to meet him. very much embarrassed." 
At the same moment Master Poliveau " You seem fatigued, father," said 
entered, preceded by two ataut fellows Rosette ; " you have been obliged pei- 
carrying on their backs leathern bags haps to importune your noble customer* 
which appeared to be fuU of silver. lo make up the sum you required V 

" " It little man, with " To the doviloi 

ich presented yet replied " 
i, though he was past regard 
sixty. A largo great-coat of brown worthymanthenprocccdedlogivcpret- 
Jioaey-woolsey, black woollen stock- ty free vent to the feelings excited by 
inge, and a high and broad-btimmedhat his morninB's adventures. From the 
completed a costume of extreme aim- hotels of all the great lords where ha 
plicity and tolerable age. had been to solicit payment of part of 

Everything in the appearance of the his dues, he had either been repulsed 
ex-echevin recalled one of those trades- with insult, or despatched with barreii 
laeo of tbe olden time, who thought fine speeches; and the friendship of hia 
more about honoring their commercial worthy friend of hie own class, Gandil- 
engagemenia than aiiout dazzling the lot, had alone rescued him from the 
eyes of their customers by a showy ex- ruin imminent over his head on llie mor- 
letior. row. The attention of the Count de 

Tot. IV, NO. LZXIV. 13 



u :,™- 


One person alone per- 


eeived this ] 


movement—it was Giles 


Ponselot. 




A abort tin 


ac only elapsed after this 


before a nev 


I' personage was seen lo 



Google 



170 Tkt Draper'* Daughter. [Aug. 

M*nle WIS chiefly occupied in nbMir- your impoliteness. Yon are under As 
ing the IrBrsportalioo of the saEks of proleetion of a yonnp demoiselle whom 
silyer by tbe apprentices into tbe ad- I respect and honor, and I wilt atiffOT 
joining c&blnet. Villenegre ventQred no harm to be done to yini," 
a few words, TCspectfully and kindly, " Nor would it be Tety pnident to 
indefenceof his class. De Made in- altemptlhe contrary !" eaid Giles Pon- 
terposed at length with great insolence, selot, suddenly making his appoaiwwe 
being very vehement in maintaining es- behind his master, armed witli a thick 
pecially the honorable character of him- Tard alick, and supported bj OuiUlnmo, 
self and his friend. orandishiog his shears. 

" One wants to rob him of his cloth, The marqois answered this brarado 
and theotherofhisdanghler!" muttered only by a glance of contempt, and the 
PoDselot, at the rear of the shop, to his count by a barat of langhter ; and tbe 
fellow apprentice. two gentlemen left the shop arm in arm 

Matters were fast proceeding from befois the merchant haj reeoTered 
bad to worse. The old drapsr, with fmrn the terror into which he had been 
ancb more frankness than cirility, gave thrown by this unexpected scene, 
a distinct intimation to Villenegre, that Tbcy hud scarcely gone twenty steps 
he was but little pleased nith the fre- when De Manle, saddenlj ceasing lua 
quency of his a1|ectionB at bis shop, laughter, said to the young maiquis, 
**liLl 'il^'i'^^' '" which they nolu- who was still mnch agitated by what 
ralft gave rise in the neighborhood ; had Jnit passed : 

and expressed his hope on behalf "Look you now, Villenigte, I ha»« 
of himself and his daughter, that they gueaeed the truth : yon love the little 
might hereafter be relieved from bis thing and the little thing lores you. 
honotnble company. The yonng man Yon are .a child, and do not yet know 
was only restrained from an ekpression how to manage these matters. I am 
of his indignation at this, by a quick disposed to ard you, that we may both 
motion of Rosette, who passed close by take our revenge upon that old clown 
bim, to withdraw to tb* rear of the shop, of a tiadesmao. To-night she shall be 
addrasaing to bim a glance and gesture yours." 

of supplication as she did so. The " To-nisht 1" repeated the marqnu. 
Count informed tbe angry draper that quite bewildered, and apening his eyea 
he had come with the gracioos purpose to their utmost width. 
of bnying a hundred yards of cloth, but " To-nigbt. Bnt wait for me a ino- 
that be had now changed his mind — a ment. I must dismiss these fellow* 
loss of custom to which the latter bad here, who would only enenmber us, till 
little difficully in reconciling himself the moment arrivea when we shall 
very contentedly. want Uiem i" and (hen turning back his 

"Will Toa come, connti" at last steps at the same moment, he spoke a 
■aid Villenegre. "Suppose we dine to- few words to bis followers who imme- 
getber at tiie Golden Apple 1" diately dispersed. He then rejoined 

"With all my heart, marqois; bnt the young man, who waited (or him 
do you know an amusing ^ea that with raocR anxiety, 
crosses my mind 1" " Have the cards and dice left you a 

"What is ill" few pistoles in your pocket!" he asked 

" Wby, simply to make my fellows bim. 
je a gentle dnibbioa to our dear * ' 
roliveaa here ;" and he burst i 
[h u though the fancy struc 
n excellent joke. return them tc 

Poliveau's ruling passion was not I am to touch a pretty sum — ten thoo- 
courage, and he believed De Manle sand crowns!" 
Terjr capable of follnwbg bis threat by " Willingly— but could you not tell 

its immediate execution. He shrank me " i 

back a few steps, and turned pale with " Nothing. Come along to the Gol- 
alarni. den Apple ; and providea yoo let me 

" Tear nothing, master Polivean," act out my own i>lans, I promise yon 
said Villenegre coolly, with a gesiare that this very night we shall take our 
flill of dignity, " I have not for a mo- full saiisfaclion out of all this low bOOT- i 

men! conceired the idea of ohMtising geoisie." VjOOQIC 



f've a gentle dnibbios to our dear friend " I have a few crowns by me," was 
oliveaa here ;" and he burst into a the reply. 
laugh u though the fancy struck him " You will lend them to me — t will 



1844.] The Draftr't Daughter. 171 

II. Tai Adtidtdus of a Nisht. 

At the epoch of thia history, Paria had now a plumed hat, a doablet uid 

waa not inundated with light sa it is ia hose of dark gceen, with blae aatin 

our time. At the cloae of the day, aJKuillstlea, and boota with gilt spurs ; 

tbeiefoie, ibere waa a andden ceasa- a large black baldiick auatained fait tb- 

UoD of all noise and morement ; Ibe pier, and a oloak of Ibe same color aa 

t^urchea and theatres were closed, and his doublet huag from ooe aboolder. 

the citiaeDB retired to their dwellings ; We need not describe the storm of 

the circulation waa eTcijwbere aus- iodignatioD which barst on the devoted 

pended, except in one or two priTileged head of peor Giles, aa he adraoced 

.quarters. After nightfall, the city be- irieaolutely, with bis hat in his hand, 

came the prey of the thieves, robbers, towards hia master. He waited sub- 

and asaaasins who infested it ; and if missively until it had aomcwhat ipent 

a peaceful iradesman ventured abroad, itself, when he slated ibat thia cob- 

it waa only on some indispenaable boat- tnme waa oeceaaary for an ezcur- 

nesB, and well rnrDished with a we^ion sion which he designed to make that 

for defence, and a lantern for light. evening, A fiill avowal oeoeaaarily 

On the present evening the shop of eosued of the former occaaions on 

maater Puliveau was closed at its usual which he had enacted a similar maB- 

hour of dusk, and the family of the queiade, which, indeed, he had sup- 

r! draper assembled roand the table posed already known, and for the cod' 

the evening meal, in Ihe large cealment of which, he cast a look of 

apartment on the seeond floor. The gratitude to Roaette e.nd Guillaorae- 

seat of Giles Ponselot waa the only After a severe reprimand, however, 

one vacant. Rosette gtvlog for him the and contrary to hia ezpsctation, hi* 

apology with which he had entrusted master declared his pardon for theae 

her, that he had withdrawn to his room past offences, on the condition of bis 

to dress himself, an explanation litlle for ever forewearing all similar follies, 

satisfactory or intelligible to bis maater. and on Ihe coostderation of hia being 

She waa very carefiH to make no alln- an orphan, destitute of other frienda in 

sion to the confession which had fallen Paris than his master, to whom he had 

from himin themoroing, aalohisocca- come recommended by a miserly old 

■ional habits and haunts. Master Po- uncle &om the country. Overjoyed 

livean recounted at Aill length, ail the at thia clemency, and overflowing with 

vexatious adventures of the day, which gratitude, Giles Ponselot aacerly pro- 

had worked him up to such a. pilch of mised what waa demanded ofhim. 

irritation against the whole nobility, " Oh, I promise you, indeed, I re- 

ihat he bad taken out his vengeance on noqnce for ever theae foolish notions 

the flist of the class he bad happened of pride ! I see too well that I muat 

to meet. He had no regreta for hie deapaii of ever in thia wa^ flndmiF 

treatment of De Manle, whom he more favor in the eyea of one who But,'' 

than auspected to be a worthlesa ad- he proceeded, inlerrupting himself with 

ventuier who had intrigued and bullied an air of reaolntion, " your very good- 

hia way into honorable society by dint neaa atimnlalea me to carry out the 

of knavery and pretenaioa. As for project I have conceived, rerroit me 

Villen^gro, though he knew bat little to go abroad this once to-night, and to- 

of him, he took Rosette rather sharply morrow I awear to obey you in allyoa 

to task for allowing him to hang ao may command." 

much around her, and wound up by " And where do you want to go to- 

neremptorily forbidding her to hold any night V 

farther intercourse will) him. " I entreat you not (o queation oie. 

The supper was nearlv concluded. Perhaps thia very night I may have an 

when the door opened, and by the light opportunity of proving to you all my 

of the lamp which the old serving wo- gratitude loc your past kindness, and 

man bad just placed on the table, Giles yonr present indulgence. " 

Ponselot was seen to enter the apart- Bat the master was inflexible. He 

ment, though scarcely indeed to be would understand none of aueh Boa- 

lecognized m the complete tranaforma- aenae. He fancied it the proper ocoa- 

tion which had taken place in his sion to exert and mamtsin all tha 

^pearsoee. Instead of hu aaoal [Jain antique dignity of the domestic diaetv^ . 

and bnmUe attire aa an ttpfxeatiat, he pUoe, and be totdc hia poaitioo aecotd^^^ O O Q I ' ^ 



1T» 7%e Droftr't Daughter. Aag- 

ingly. If he weol forth tiiat night, it tmwer, kbA declared that be would b« 
•iMDld be to retom do more. It was >t the height of his B^Hntionfl, if the 
!■ Tain that Giles enlreatod. EipUon- adoraUfl ftoseUc would hot let fall a 
tioas ke would not or could Dot gire, glaoce ai pitj oa her ]>oor slave. This 
tlut would appear other than vague huienagc, coDtrastii^as it did wilhtfae 
lad friTolouB. He did not exactly audacious and ticnohaot style of the 
jatom his own mind, only he was fully galtantB who asDslly addressed her, 
impressed with the idea that some was preciselj thfl one caknlated t» 
great nuafortnae meuaced his master tnalie the most impression od a joung 
u)d bis bouHehold, vrhich in some mys- girl who, while ditereet and hoaorable, 
teriuus way be hoped to find the means n-as not free from a iitlle canity. And 
to counteract. All was in vain i in so the fair draper's daughter hung with 
vain the entreaties of Rosette to Giles, an infioiie delight over theee lines, ia 
assuring him of lier affection for him which shn believed that she saw mic- 
as for a brother, to yieiil to her fkther's rored a sool as pure and candid as her 
now inflexible will ; in vain the honest own. She weigfaed every expresaiao, 
ffiief of Gaillaame ; in vain even tbe smiling over it, and measnring its full 
msinuations of his master, that it was bearings. At that roomeot all the 
a mere pretext lo abandon a house events of the day faded from her 
which he believed to be on the eve of memory ; she tboughlnomoreof Giles, 
rain. It was a sore and severe trial, nor of the prohibition imposed on her 
bat in the midst of his own grief his against ever more seeing the marqais; 
resolution was anshaken — and he was she was wholly absorbed in this first 
gone. letter of love, which she read aod re- 

A melancholy parting that evening read with atitl increasing hairiness, 

dispersed the family to Ibeir respective Reflection, however, after a time, 

placea of rest. The old man affected seemed to change into bLttereess the 

an indifference at the loss of his favor- charm of this occupation. Rosette's 

ite apprentice which he was liir from head drooped upon her breast ; the- 

Ibeling. To conceal his real emotions letter fell from her handn, with no at- 

be sent th«Q earlier to bed than usual, tetnpt to pick It up again, and two tears 

"We roust be up betimes to-morrow, coursed silently down her cheeks, 

ud since this fop ^f an apprentice has "Oh, yes," she murmured at last, in 

chosen to quit us, we shall all have so broken accents, and leaning her fore- 

mDch tbe more to do. Genevieve, head upon the bed; "my father is 

bring the lights. Kiss roe. Rosette, right. It is madness for a poor girl 

and God gram thee a good night." like me to soar so high ia her aims. 

Rosette's chamber was on the first What am I by the side of him ^ He is 

Soor, by the aide of the coromon hall, young, beautiful, rich, lovely ; he will 

last mentioned ; and ita single window, one day be a duke — he will bave car- 

deeorated with a modest wooden bal- riages, castles, hotels, and as for me — 

cony, opened on the street, » little ob God ! oh God !" 

higher than the old shed which pro- And she prostrated herself before Uie 

jected from the front of the shop. She waxen image of the Madonna which 

quickly dismissed the old servant, and surmounted the mantel, all bedecked 

after locking the door, cast hereelf with tinsel and glitter, and addressed 

upon a large faoieuil near tbe bed, and to it a short prayer. She then ad- 

aner all the fatigues, emotions and vaneed to cluse the window, which 

Mfieringsofthoday, yielded to a brief from the warmth of the season had 

period of repose. But she presently been left open behind the ouruin. 

started up, and approaching tbe lamp, It was at thai moment about eleven 

drew from her pocket die billet of the o'clock, and the most profound silence 

marquis, which, though she had already reigned thronghoot (bat quarter of the 

before found a momeat for a glance city. All the lights had long since 

into itscontents, she proceeded to read been extinguished, and the narrow 

again with an ottentioa which proved street of la Tixsranderie was [dnsgod 

all the interest she felt in its oonieBU. in a toul darkoeas. Nevertheless, at 

Tbe letter, thoogh coached m the the moment when the fur draper's 

inflated style of the time, was tievertbs- daughter was abont to close the win- 

Ims mosi tender aad laspeatfiil. The dow, she fancied that she heard a slight 

muqnia implored only & single word of sound without, underneath the balcony. 



gl: 



I64(.l Tht Dr^er't Daughter. 173 

She pauaod in terror, and bent hei ear here ;ou bivc bol listened to ihe stiI 

eagerly to listen, but ibe aooad <xm bo coanBelsorotharB." 

cUgbt that she Buppoeed she bad been " Ob, that ia tiue !" cried the Toana; 

mtstaken. Quite reaBBored, she waa man Teheinently. " I aevei felt tiD 

Jnat ia the act of raising her tii.ai to now all the erueltj of auch a piooeed- 

dnw forward Ihe thiek serge curlaia ing. I was dec eiTed-r-be witched. I 

befare the window, when the two folding — will go — Igo — but Id mercy, made* 

aaaheg opened gently, and a. man eove^ mniseile, sutler me lo hope (hat yon 

iofei in a cloak, appeared erect on will not despise me foe having wished 

the balcony. to introduce myself here." 

R«aette shrank back, pale, silent, This sabmission and repentance were 

and panic -Btiicheo, as at the light of a well calculated to diaarm Roaetta's aa- 

■pectre; tbisappariiion was so strange, ger; so there was less severity in her 

BO unexpected, that all the young tone as she replied : 

maiden's blood froze in her veins. " I will not, 1 ought rnit to proouu 

Heroresence of mind, however, im me- anylhiog. In the admission you have 

diatery returned, and persuaded (hat it made I recognize the justice of the 

fionid only be a robber who would thus fears I have heard expressed in regard 

tntioduce himsoir into her abode, she to you. Beware of the Count de 

waa about to call for help, nhen the Manle ; he is a vile wretch, who will 

•trauger sprang lightly fniward into ruinyouif you foUowhiBCounseU. But 

die chamber, casting on his cloak, and we may he sorprised. In the name of 

murmuring in a stifled voice : God, begone at once, and perhaps I may 

" Pardon, pardon, mademoiselle ! yet be able to preserve same esteem 

But 1 had no other means of reaching fur Tou." 

yen !" Villenegre cast a glance behind him. 

It was Ihe young Marquis dc Villene- " Mademoiselle," be said, with a little 

gie. Kosetle, on recofinizing him, ap- more assurance, " be not alarmed. A 

pesred neither less surprised nor less ladder is applied to the wall, and the 

alarmed than before, and the aSection poor count of whom you entertain so 

she secretly cbeiished for him did not bad an opiaion, is watching for me in 

seem at all to diminish her resentment the street, with some faithful servants, 

St the effrontery of this step. She and in a moment T can rejoin them, 

sprang hack with a light bound lo the without the least dinger for either yon 

opposite extremity of the room, and or me. Let me then before I go at 

said in a tone of authority : least say " 

" Do not advance a step, sir, nor " Not a word," said the maiden, ae- 

make the slightest movement to ap- verely. " 1 ought not to listen to you, 

proach me, or I call my fatlier who is Mon Dieu ! Was this what 1 had to 

m the adjoining room. Your conduct expect after your letter, so timid, M 

is base and unworthy of a gentleman !" respectful '. I thought you good, loyal. 

It must, however, be acknowledged generous " 

that the youib's countenance was hardly " Well, Rosetle," interrupted Ihe 

such as to justify this terror. He stood marquis, " tell me only that you do not 

motionless, tremUing, and with down- hate me, and 1 am gone." 

«ast eyes. He might have been taken " Why thus place me under compol- 

for a schoolboy surprised by a severe sion to speak what might not he true. 

master in the very act of some flaffrant Begone without conditions." 

piece of mischief, so awkward Hod em- " I stay then," said the marquis ra- 

birrasBsd was he. solutely, seating himself in a fauteuil. 

" Mademoiselle," he stHnmercd, " I Alter the hesitation he bad at first 

%ave no other excuse, I confess, than exhibited. Rosette doubtless had not 

the power of the lovoyon hare inspired counted on so bold a determination. 

me with," " What is to be done ! Oh, God, 

** Begone, sir, — begone immediate- what is to be done ! He has no mercy, 

ly," resumed the agitated Rosette. Well, I will call for aid, and rouse tho 

" Do you not perceive that your pre- house." 

sence in my chamber at this hour of " Vory well," said Henri. " I hav> 

the night may dishonor me, may ruia no objection." 

me! Begone on the instant, and I " My father will come — he i* rloleiU ^.'~> i 

nq perhaps yet believe that in coming —he will kill you." ■ ) gitizod -y VjOOQ IC 



174 7^* DiaftrU DouglatT. [Aug-. 

" Or be ^) force me to marry ;od, k number ofhoreestl fall gallop on tlie 

and that ia all I aak." paTement, % isltling of iirms, and s 

I "Marryme! — you, monHiear ttie mar- confused Bound of loices apptoaehing. 

qnie!" aaid Rosette, tritb ao intolnn- Thiatimethemarqaiihinadf extutnted 

taiy soflness of tone. some oueaainess. 

" Why not ! I love yon." " Hang the scoundrel 1" he retnark- 

" Bat your father — your mother !" ed. " That cowardly knaTe's criee 

" They wD! be made to listen to rea- haye attracted the patrol. We are 

aon; ana beeides*! shall be master lost if the soldiers perceive the ladder 

myself one of these days." and those who are watching it." 

"But yoor fortune, your rank " Rosetle had no power to utter a cry, 

" At the sight of you all will be ex- and a TioJent effort of will alone saved 

cnBed." her IVom fainting. Her heart scarcely 

Roaetle teileeted a few moments, beat, ae die clatter of the horaea ap- 

"This dblermihatioD is iosaue," she proached the hoaae. Both remained 

reeameif, with much emotion. "The ereot, face to face, pale, trembling, and 

distance between you and me is too with suspended breath, 

wide ever to be crossed. Go.Monsieni There was (or some moments a 

de Villenegre, your perserering to re- great movement of going and coming 

main here can have no other reault than before the bouse; orders were heard 

to eompromise my honor, and nothing given in nnder-tones, and sUded oaths; 

can bridge the abyss that separates ns. there seemed to be even a sort of 

Begone — once again, sir, I implore skirmish beneath the windows, for 

you, in die name of all that is holiest !" the clashing of steel was heard ; then 

Henri de Villen^^ was ahaken by precipitate steps soiioded in different 

the solemnity of this appeal, and he directions, and the ^Hoping of horses 

rose. indicated the putiuit of the fugitives by 

" Tell me then," eaid he paeaionate- the eoldieia ; at last the noise was en- 

ly, "tell m« that you love me!" tirely extinguished, and that quarter of 

Rosette was about to answer, and the city became as calm and silent as 

perhaps might the confession so eagerly before. 

desired have bllen from her lipe, when " They are goae 1" said the marquis, 

piercing cries were heard without. after B few moments' paose, " and they 

The two young persons remained have donbtless discovered nothing. 
motionless and listening. The noise God is my witness that in this danger 
appeared to proceed from the extremity I have trembled only for you." 
of the street, and a powerful voice was "They may return!" said the maid- 
crying out: en, with feverish agitation. " Profit l^r 

*' Alarm !' Alarm ! Murder ! Rob- this moment to fly. The noise of this 

bers !" disturbance has no doubt aw^ened my 

The cries proceeded as from a per- father — and wo to yon and to me if at 

eon in violent struggle with several shoold encounter yon here!" 

aseailants, and the sounds of such a "I go. Rosette : butat least willyon 

strife were distinctly audible, Rosette not say " 

thought that she recognized in them Ibe " I will say that every word yon ut- 

voice of Giles Ponselot. ter at Ibis moment is a crime!" in- 

" Oh, God !" she murmnied, pale terrnpled the young draper's daughter, 

with the terror that froxe her to the quite beside herself. "Your culpable 

spot, "what is talcing place? For madness has already perhaps caused 

mercy's sake, monsieur, perceiving the death of several pereons, and per- 

tliat the cries, which were at first en- hups mj repntation ia already for ever 

e^Mie, subsided gradually till they ruined. Is not that enough to satisfy 

more resembled groans, " Msten to the yoo, mnnsieur the marquis V 

aid of that unfortunate sufferer !" Villenegre could no longer resist this 

"1 will go and see," said Villenegre, aoaei at once so noble and so rightful. 

adtsDciog towards the balcony. Deem- "Ifl have committed a fault, I will 

ins it some common affair of street repair it as a gentleman," he said ' 

robbery, he had not before felt much " — . !.. ._ ..t _u__ 

«onaem about it. 

At that moment & new sound was 
heard at a short distance, the clatter of 



accent of penitence. "I obey yw, 
msdemoiselle, and I hope that yon wilt 
DotfoMetil. Adiea!-* £^r^,-x(\\o 

"Aoien! odien!" she nmHBOwA^jLJUy H_ 



1844.] The Dn^tr't DaughUr. 17« 

ViUenigrs thrsw hi* cloak round him hia calL " Quick, qnick ! 

ud sprang lightljr to the window, have broken i 

The maideo followed bioi »niioiis1j Help ! help !'' 



; lightljr to the window, have broken into the shop! 
!D followed him anxiously Help ! help !" 
ivilh hei e;ea, and whea he had diaap- There was immediately a 



peared in the oboeurity of the b&Icony, mult on the groaad floor ; the door of 

ihe believed herseir saved ; but almost the abop was thrawa violently open, 

at the aame instant the marquis a^o and seTeral persons set off to run down 

pat aaide the aerge curtain and exhibit- the slceet. The soldiers of [he patrol, 

ed his face pale with eonBteiuation. seeing suspicious persons issue trom a 

" The ladder is gone ! — either the bonse and fly aI (hll speed, sprang aflei 

patrol or my friends have no doubt car- them in pursuit, and the more eagerly 

Ttnd it off with ihem!" aa the voice already heard by Hosette 

This news revived all tba anguish of fit the first alarm, and which ah« had 

the fair draper's daughter. taken for that of Giles Foneelot, cried 

" All is lost !" she cried to an agony feebly ; 

of sobs. "God has cursed me for "That's themi Upon thsm, upon 

baring been too vain and proud. I them, Messieurs of the uuard ! Those 

need never more expect either peace are the miscreants I toio you of 1" 

at (uty !" During this tumult without and with- 

llie aight of this grief, of which he in. Rosette was trembling and entirely 

■lone was the cause, made a strong im- beside herself, bat the marquis dis- 

Pfession on the young gentleman. played a presence of mind of which, 

" I implore you, mademoiselle, do the yonng girl was incapable at that 

not thus torment yonrself. The Count moment. 

de Made who accompanied me, and "The honse will be searched, and 

eome of hiBservanls,knowlhesilualion I will not have myself found here," 

in which I am lef^ and they will cer- he said rapidly, " The door of the 

tainty soon return to my relief, I even shop is still open, and I may escape 

think I heard a alight whispering under under cover of the daHuess. Tell me 

the wiodow when I went to the baico- the way to descend." 

ny, and if I had not been afraid of " The stairs are at the other end 

awaking the house by calling Sut of the hall, and you have only to tra- 

st any rate," he continued resolutely, verse the shop." 

BMtng that Rosette's tears did not "Very well," and he opened the door 

eease to flow, " I am strong and aclive, of the chamber. 

and to save the honor of a woman I "But, monsieur the marquis," she 

love and respect, I can very well risk stammered, at the moment he was go- 

a leap of twenty-five feet." ing, "you forget! They will perhaps 

He at the same moment made a step confound you with those wretches who 

towards the window, to accomplish this have been robbing my fhther !" 

desperate project ; but Rosette ran to Withuutreplying, the marquis sprang 

him and held him by the arm. forward into the hall, and she presently 

" You shall not — I forbid you !" she heard the sound of his steps on the 

•ud in a tone of terror. " Can you floor. For a moment she thought him 

think of such a thing '. You will kill saved, but her hope was of no long du- 

youiselfl I would rather wait for the ration, The voice she had already 

wretches you call your friends, and heard, and which she now recognized 

who have impelled you to this fatal certainly as that of Giles Ponaelol, was 

proceeding from motives doubtless of again heard below : 

their own." "Help I gentlemen of the patrol!" 

The marquis was about to persevere, he cried. " Here is one of the sconn- 

wben further action was again arrested drela ! Help, help, or he will escape 

by the reuim of the cavaJry, which me !" 

laMdty approached the house, cutting Several soldiers dismounted and 

off the chance of flight in that direction ; hastened into the shap. Tbeo followed 
at the same time suddenly the voice of a violent struggle of a few moments, 

Poliveau was beard in a oeighboring as if a desperate defence wu made by 

room, and reechoing through the house : the person attacked. 

" Hola! Gnillaume ! Giles!" he All this pasaed in a state of pro* 

eried, forgetting that one of his two fouod darkness, and the people of the 

apprestices ooiud no more answer to patrol called loudly for lights. At last^ ~~- 



"Googlp 



176 The Draper'* Daughter. (Aag. 

PoUToau iMued h&ir-drsEHd froin his ^ond in AotHeet «uh«n4th6MilBp-- 

room, holding in one hand a lanip which iDg of their hones, 

ha biid iucceeded in iighiinj, and in At this spectacle RoHett« ssved ber- 

the oiher ao old pike, die oftlj oDen- self from Rilliog only jrf leaoiiiff udob' 

si?e netpon ba possessed, tod de- tlie hanialer of the stairs ; she felt bar 

seeoded rspidly into the shop. The limbs rink beneath her. She did net 

moment he appeared, the lumolt rose however jet fallr cemprflhend all that 

still loader, and exelamatiooB, obiIib, w>a passing, and she listened mecfaait- 

complaints poured forth (ogethet so ae '(^'I't to the words of Giles PoBselot. 

to disiarb the lepose of the whole The latter related how his snapi' 

neigh boihood. cions had been excited by the laoka - 

llasetie fdt crushed to the earth ; cast by the Count de Manle on the - 

the still renewed distresses of the last treasure, and on the localities of tbe 

few hoars bad completely exhausted shop. His companion was an object 

her powers. Nevertheless, when she of suspicion to him on other groooda, 

dislingnished in the midit of the noise though ho had considered him to be 

and confusion (ho proud and hangbtj of loo high birth to be the asHoeiale 

Toice of the marquis, when she heard of robbers, aa his prcseDce here seenMd ' 

the heart-rending cries of her father, to prove him. He heard their appoint- 

she could not resist the desire of see- ment to dine together, and reaolTed to 

ing for herSsIf the realitv of the disaa- watch them ; though he wia ouiy able 

ters she anticipated. All trembling she to obtain the chance of doing so at the 

rushed towanls the staircase, from cost of his discharge. He found the 

tbe lop of which a strange spectacle two gentiemen at the appointed place, 

presented itself. already in very plain dresses, very dif- 

The utmost disorder perraded the fcrcnt from those of the morning, and 
shop ; the tables were upset, the goods he saw the lackeys of the pretended 
were scattered over tbe llnor. The Count de Msnie arrive in similar 
feeble light of a lamp revealed imper- disguise. He ohserved nwcb that 
fectly the diOerent groups nhich £I1bc! sireugthened his saspicions. The 
the whole space. In the centre was night was dark — they all went forth 
Giles PoDselot, the ex-apptentice, seat- — and he foUoweil them. In tbe ob- 
ed on a fauteuil, liis clulbes torn, and scurity be missed them, but conSdent 
bis doublet open, exhibiting on his that tney were engaged in some plot 
breast his shirt covered with blood, as Bgainst his master's hunse, he haatelked 
from a recent wound. In front of him in that direction. 
stood a personage dressed in blsck, " As I turned the comer of (he 
with a short cloak, whom Rosette im- street," he proceeded, "a short dia- 
mediately recogniaed as Master De- tance from here, I waa accosted by 
fanclis, the Lieutenant of the Criminal two men enveloped in cloaks, who 
Police, already celebrated at that day appeared stationed on the watch, and * 
for bia eiploita against the evil-doers whom 1 lecogniied as the secretary 
with, which Pads was infested. He and valet of the count. They re- 
was interrogating the wounded man, quested me civilly enough to take 
who appeared tu deliver evnry reply another road, and gave me to tinder- 
with extreme difficulty and pain. At stand that a gentleman of their com- 
the foot of the stairs, by the entrance pany was on an afoir of oatlantry in 
ofthe little cabinet in which the strong- that direction, Ihad no Idea of re- 
box was kept, was Puliveau in a state of traciuff my steps, and when I por- 
desperation before bis plundered cof- ceived a ladder applied to the waU of 
fers, from which hsd been carried off tliis house, and several persons stand- 
tbe ten thousand crowns which he had ing motionless under tbe shed, I hesi- 
that morning made up. At the other tatcd no longer to utter cries of alarm. 
extremity, near the door, was the Mar- The scoundrels who were on the watcb 
quis de ^ Viltenegre, his clothes in threw iliemselves upon me, and en- 
shreds, bis hands bound, held hy two deavored to prevent me from crying 
soldiers, bnt erect tind preserring his out I drew my sword and fought 
habitual disdainful air. llto horsemen with them, still shoudng tat help, whett ' 
of the patrol, with their euirasses and one of those under the shed, whom I 
easquco of browned steel, blocked up recognized as the Count de Msnle, n^-. i 
the door, and from the darkness b^ pidly approaohed, and struck no \_iOOQIC 



1U4.] The Drofr'* Dtufluef. 177 

KT«nre aUb in tb« breut. I fall with' Tb« Heutoncnt of polioo eught 

ontcoDBciooMwu. Tbe patrol arrived esfrarlf &t thia aolutkii. 

tliBt moraeni, anil Meimg tbai I gave " And *d," aaid be, " it i* not im- 

•ome BignB of life, oarriod me to yoar poasibla tbst tbere may have boM ■ 

owD hoase, Uoneieur the Lieolenant, aeoret intngoa between — " 

tbuyou might receive the RTetatioo " Giles Ponielol," oriedtbedtatnet- 

I abouM have to m^e. Iibtok^aufor ed old &ther Tiolsntlj, "in epite ot 

tbe ptMaptreliefyoo extended to me, and all the aervteea be bat rendarad me 

von perceive bow eflbetgal It baa been, ifaia night, baa lied like a acooBdret ^ 

WlienIcametoiB;se1f,andleBniad that he baa dand to make aof aueb in- 

noae of the eriminala had been aireat- sinaation ! Is it not eaougb that I 

ed, I begced you to send the patrol have kwt, thia fatal night, fottiiHti 

again in this direction, for fear that credit, ebaraeler— mnat 1 be atta^ed, 

tbe ihievM might Rtum ; and notwftb- toe, in what I bold the dearest of all, 

standing my weakneaa 1 begged to the honor of ny child)" 

aecompin; you, to direct your re- DefiiDctts impMed ailenoe on the 

•earehea. My apprebeoBionB did not unhappy dnper, sod was aboat preas- 

deceive me, ainee the atrival of the ing Guea with further qneatieBa, whw 

guard again pat them to Ihght." tbe priaooer advanced impeinoualy 

The wounded man sank back in a into the midst of the ass eaabhge. 

state or too great ezhanation to admit " It ia naeleee M open any disena- 

offoTtber interrogation. aioD on that snbject," be said, with that 

^ Master Defutictis was hinuelf in a easv tone vrhieh oODUraatad airongtT' 

condition of no atnalt embartaaament. wUh hia timidity with RosetM ; " tfaey 

<hi the one tide were the power and mar do what they like with me, bot I 

rank of the great &niity wboee heir will never conaentto sar* my hoDor as 

apparent atood before bim as (he eul- a gentleman at the expense of that «f 

prit under aecnsatton ; on the other a pure and irteproaohable yonng nai- 

waa the helnoes msgnitade of the den. Knongh of thia — ainoe I have 

offence, together with tbe flagrancy been found in tbe eompatiy of tboae 

of the detection— a shop broken open, who have robbed Master Folivean, I 

an apprentice nearly murdered, an mast needs be taken as their aceom- 

amoant of ten thousand crovma rob- {dice. I thank Monsieur the Ueu- 

bod. The yonng man replied to his tenant fur his good wilt towards me, 

interrogattona with a haugtity disdain bat can never aeek my eaeape from a 

which refused explanations or de- danger by an act of such basenesa." 

niala, and only threatened vengeance. Tbe magistrate had made a gesture 

The magistrate stood firm beaeaih of disappointment as he peneivad 

these somewhat insolent menaces, and Villenigre thus turn disdainrallj from 

declared thai jaatice ahould have its the means efaao^M be had offered Ua. 

eonrse, be the conaeqnenees what they " A foolish generosity bliuda yoa, 

might. He was nevertheless extreme- perhaps, Moosienr tbe Marquis," he 

ly anxious to find eome other explana- resntned cffeetiaaatBly. *' Reflect, I 

tien of the case than the presnmptiou entreat yon, upon tbe aiUotioB this 

of his being an accomplice in the rob- - sfiatr must oauae Mooaieur the Dnka 

bBTj. He even soeght so escape at yottr father, and Madame the Ducheas' 

tbo expense of poor Rosette. Giles your RMIber, whose idol yon are. 

Ponselot at his examination at the 1 invite you, before it is too late, to 

lieatenant'a house had dropped seme- retrae^ths ackuowledgmeat yott have 

thing about one of tbe persons sua- just a*de." 

pected by him bein? la love with his Villeitigre was still silent; perbapa 
master's besatiful daughter ; and was the retnembraitca of hia fkmily thos 
DOW b^ pressing inquiries eomftelled invdwd by the msgistrate badezeit- 
to admit that behad reason to believe ed too deep an etnotion to admit of 
that this feeBng wss not uureeiprocat- his speaking without betrayiur it by 
ed ; and that one of hia princip^ mo- the nenMiag of his vaica. But Da- 
tives for his anxiety and for the pro- fnnctis guessed it, and OMtinned in 
eeedings it had led bim to tafae, had a lower tone : 

becH jeahHiay of the deaigna of his " Reflect, for faearen'a aake, Uon- 

more fortunate rival. aiear the Marquis, on what avraiu:yi>i 



Google 



179 TU BraptrU DaugkUr. [Aof. 

if jtn |>eraiat id dM defending yoorself. they lecogniied hex, mtde a maTemuit 

You will be tried sod oondenmed ; your of ourpriM. Ilie mapslnte e^ecled 

esouteheoD will be publicly broken by mum important levelatioD. 

ths band of the executioner, yoai " Stop [" be oried to the gnaid wbs 

■word tDd epnrt wiil be stiuok fVom were bemogoSlh« priaoner. 

yon sa a man annortby to vest them, " Wliat butinesa have yon here, my 

and you will have to drag oat in tbe chjIdV laid Poliiean. " Moat yon i 

kiag B nUeya the roat of a life which come hate to witneu the gieateat ea~ 

mi^ DaTe been ao brilliant, four lamity that baa atiioken me sioce the 

bmily has powerful friend*, I know, death of your poor DKitheil" 

bat powerfiil enemiAa too, and among " I came to prevent an ael of iujos- 

ihem Madame la Mar^hale. Nothing lice," the replied. "My father, we 

can Bare yon. Remember Beauma- will weep bye and bye over your mia- 

noir, lemsrober the Baron de Beanvean, fortnnea j at this moment my conKienee 

uid ao many othera ! I entreat yon compela me to leadei homage to 

to rsfleot that the reputation of a little truth," 

bonTgeoiae coqaette is not worih the " Mon Diea ! What ia ahe abont to 

honor of an ancient and illoatrioua &^ aay !" cried Ponaelot, taiaing hiraeelf 

rally !" up, and fixing on her hia haggard eye*. 

Roaette, who bad remaiaed in the Poliieaa remained etupified with 

■badow of her poaition, bad heard attoiUBhaient. 

eTcrything, and had anxionaly fol- " Speak, madetaoiaeUe," aaid the 

lowed the moTemenlB of yonog Til- magiatrate. "What do ^on know 1" 

lenegre. Sbe saw him drifop hia Roaette waa silent, aa if the violence 

bead, and paas hia hand acroaa his fore- of her emotions prevented her opening 

head, which waa covered with a cold her lipa. 

sweat. She aoppoaad that he heaitat' " What is the aae of this detention !" 

ed, and afae shuddered. But Villen^- cried the Maiqoia de Viliendgre, with a 

gte immediately raised himaelf erect, motion to proceed. "Let os begone — 

and said in a firm voice : do you not perceive, monsieur the 

" I will meet my judges. I have lieutenant, that the melancholy eveots 

nothing more to add." of thia night have turned thia poot 

" Monsieur the aergaaot of the pa- yoang girl's head !" 

trol," said the magiatrate with a deep " No, no, monsieur — hear me !" cried 

ugh, "conduct this gentleman to pris- Rosette vehemently, selling the judge's- 

on. His fault fall on hia own head !" cloak aa though she feared he would 

Thia order set the whole aeaemblaga escape her. " I know — I have s poei- 

in movement. The lientenant, after tive cenainiy— that Monsieur de Vil- 

giving a few ordera for the further pro- lenegre has taken no part in the lubbe- 

tection of the premises, prepared to ry wniob has been committed." 

take his departure. The soldiers ad- " Are you quite sure of that, made- 

Tkneed to seiie the prisoner, and al- moiaelle V asked the magiatiaW, 

ready was beard in the street the clat- " Where then waa Monsieur the Mar- 

lerof arms, uid thehoraee' hoofs inmo- quia when your father's shop was forc- 

tion on the pavement, announcing that ed open 1" 

they wer« idraut to set foith on their " He was," stammered the fur dta- 
march. Rosette, by an unexpected and per'a daughter — " he was — be waa — ■■ 
^Nffltaneoua movement, sprang forward, in my chamber." 
aitd nisbed to the door at the mement The most profannd ailence reigoeA 
the marquis was about to cross the for a moment in the assembly. Snd- 
thieeboH with hia friend, and in a firm denly the old merchant mahed to Bo- 
voice she said to the lieutenant of the sette, and seized her rudely by the snn,. 
criminal polios : exclaiming violently : 

" A moment more, monsienr the " She Tiea ! Do not believe her ! 

jedge ; you do not know the whole She loves thia young man, and she i 

trtith ; it is I who will have the ceur- wishes tu aave him ! And for that bIm 

age to declare it." does not shrink from dishonoring her 

1^ sudden apparition of Rosette, &ther, from diahonoring hereelf ! She 1 

her excited air, hsr anthoritalive gea- lies, I swear it! Gome, go in, go in I" 

toM, itrvok all preaent with astonish- he added, seeking to drag hia daugbtsE^ > I 

want. Polivean and the maiqaia, as toward the staircase, "you have atM(^^Q(3Q I C 



1844.] The Draper't Daughter. 

«d-noosense enough to-d»j 1 And jon, n»itj whieb I appreciata. 
Hesaire Derunciis, ^ou were cnce 1117 the reputation of the poor boorgeoiM 
oemrade and my mend — forget what to ibe pride of the apotleu eaenteheon 
(bu little fool has said. When yonng of his ancestors. He haa wished to 
girls nndertabe to meddle in serionB ncriSce for me his Dame, his rank, hia 
matters, they speak all at sixes and liberty, perhaps his life — I da not ae- 
MTflDS. Think no more of this ; 1 eept the sacrifice. I deelare, there- 
will punish hei as ^e deserres, I fore, that this night the gentleman 
promise yon." bere present introdneed himself by 

" I am aorn to oppose yon, sire Pali- means of a ladder into my chamber, 

TSau," replied the liealenant, "hutyoa against my will, and that he reraaioad 

mast suffer your daughter to speak be- there the whole time in which ^e reb- 

fore me with entire freedom." bers were eogaged in eomroittiog ibt' 

"Bntlswear to yon sbelies!" cried tcAbery. ,1'he ladder having been k> 

the draper, in a paroxysm of grief moTed"^ at the first alarm, he had no' 

and rage. " She does not know what other maana of escape dian at the mo- 

ia the matter — she does not know what menl the robbers quitted the honse-; 

she aaya ! A man ooneealed in her and if proob are wanted of whM I a^ 

ebambsr ! — if that were so would I not TSnce, the marks of Monsienr de Vil- 

already hare killed her ? She, so good len&gre's feet wilt be fbund on the win- 

aitd daiifnl, recetTC a yoQog gentleman dow of iny chamber, and hi* cloalc is 

into her ohambec — and that while rob- still on a obair near the chimney." 

bers are pillaging rav honse, wounding Gradually u she spoke her father's 

my servants, and reaoeiog me to beg- face assamed an expression more and 

gary, to bankruptcy, to infamy — is that more terrible ; but when sbe came tO' 

poatible ? — is not that absurd^ I tell the eiidenees which'were to prove t» 

yon it is a lie ibat she inTenia to save a conclusively the truth of her testimony, 

coxcomb who has sometimes poured ha was seized wiib so fittions a tran*- 

gallantries into her ear in frequenting port of rage, that be raehed upon her 

the shop. Tell her t« give yon proof 10 uinibilate her. 

of what she advancea. I del^ her to " And she did not cry out t Sbe did 

give yon proof !" not call for help!" said he, gnaahiag 

Aiid he set to langhing with an idiot hia teeth — " miserable creature !" 

laughter which drew tears from sever- The soldiers seized htm to prevent 

a] of the spectators. But Defunctis his doing hiroselfanyinjury. He con- 

•nbdned bis emotion to pursue his in- tinaed in a stale of frantic madness, 

terrontions. " Father ! father !" cried Rosette, 

" Giles Ponseloc," he said to the dragging herself on ber hneea befsn 

wounded roan, whose despair was little him ; " for the sake of mercy, do not 

short of Poliveao's own, " what do yon curse me ! Father, father ! I am not 

think of this young girl's confession V guiity !" 

" Alas !" answered the apprentice. But tlie old man would not hearken 

" she can speak nothing but the truth, to her, and continued to nttsr tVighifbl 

and what I dreaded most has cometn ravings, struggling violently in the 
pasal" 'Biidst irf the powerfnl men who held 

"Bat the proof— the proof 1" raved bfm. Villendgre approached her and 

the merehaot. " Aek ber for the said with deep emotion : 

proof!" "Unhappy girl! What hare you 

** My fotber," cried the draper's done ! It was I alone who had sinned, 

daoghter, " be not hasty to accuse me. was it for yon to bear the ponisbment f 

I swear to yon before God that I am Was K not better to ^>andon me te my 

ianoeent of all crime, and therefore it is fate) 1 waa sore that with powerM 

that I thns obey the impulses of ny friends — " 

ciHMeience. Yoa have said to the "Leave me, monaienr," replied Ibe 

Harqaisde Vitlen^gre," sbe continued, young girl, repulsing him wi^ » dm- 

tnming toward the magistrate, "that tore full of dtgoity. " 1 have not bSm- 

tbe honor of a poor and obscore hour- en to accept the saeriSce yoo won. 

muae maiden was not worth that of an making to me ofyonr honor, and Ibave 

UhstrioDS family ; bnt Monsienr de sacrificed myself. We now owe eadi 

VillenegTe, on a sentiment of gene- other nothing ; I know yoo in more. /- ~- ^-. ^ -^ I ^ 



IW Ti4 Draptr't Dutghler. [Kv^ 

I now belong wholly to this wretebed And yon belieie, becsaw foa bsre, to ' 

old mwi whose lut days you have deceive edc, conscaled to paM for a | 

poisooed." Ihkf, that I will not accoae jou of 

" Tbs trolh is establisliedi" said De- bciuji ■ pecjared villain when jou affinn I 
functia alood, alter receiviag the report that she is innoceai 1 No, no ; youc j 
of bis MTgesDt, who had piOG«eded to presence here has blighted her with 
Tetity the declniations of Rosetle in dishonor — she is yours — take bet ! 
hei Bpattment. " It was Crom delicacy Demon, bear off the soul yoa bave ; 
and generoNty that MonsieuT de Vil- danmed 1 What should I do with thia { 
lenegre declared himself at) aeoom- guihy thing by my bed of deaths I 
plica in the ToU>ery. The true cul- will see hei no more ; Begone all — j 
ntita — that is, the pretended Coast de cany her away or I alull ki)! bar !" 
MmIa and bis servants — shall be pur- "Father, dearest father!" cried Bo- 
Biied and poniahed, depend apoB that, sette, •till dragging herself at bis feet; | 
Id the meantime," be continued, bow- "do not overwhelm me with yoiu 
ing before the young genllemui, and wiath and your scorn ! Do not 
hinuelf nn&stening the cord which Urn from me — do not drive ms from I 
boood his bands, " you are free, and I you 1 I swear by the Holy Virgin, 
hope yon wiU mentien to ;y'our parents and by the memory of mv mother 
the real and good will '' whom you loved so woU, I do not de- 
Bat ViJlenegre did not listen to serve yonr cetiaure !" 
him. His liberty appeared to engage The insane father rcpuleed her with 
hid thoughts much less than the tears his foot, with a gloomy and Berce de- 
shed by the young girl, who was still termination. There was that in bis 
sobbing on her knees before her father, eye and bearing which attested tha 
As soon as bis hands were released, he danger of his execullDp bia raving 
advanced towards Polivean, and said to menace if sbe were left m his power, I 
him with profound respeet : and the lieutenant of tlie police deter- I 

" I implore vou, monsieur, moderate mined to take her away with him, to 

yoaranger,ariddo not jorse your unhap- place her undei the charge of his wife; i 

. py child \ 1 declare tu you on my honor to be thence conaigned to the pr<rtec- 

aa a gentleman, and on lay conacience, lion of the convent of the Ave-Maria, ' 

that MadenMiselle Rosette has done thosuperior of which was a relation of 

nothing to forfeit your respect — that his own. Against this resolve sbe 

she is as worthy as ever of your offeo- contended vehemently, refusiag to 

tion and esteem. I penetrated to her leave her father, and willing to brave 

chamber by sarprise, and, overcome any fate with him or at bis hands. 
by her entreaties, I was in the act of " 1 will not leave him !" cried the 

departing, when the noises in the street poor child, violently ; " I will not leave 

and the disappearance of the ladder him when so many calamities ooospire 

frustrated the execution of that inien- to overwhelm him ! Who wovld sne- 

tion." tain him, who would console faiai, who 

Bat these explanations ouly exas- love him V 
pented still farther the o«traged fa- " I will !" interrupted Giles Ponaelot, 

iber. with a feeble voice. 

" Do you hear him," be cried, with Villenigre approaQhed the young I 

a poignant irony, " the gentle cavalier, maiden to Join his. entreaties to those ^ 

tha chivalrous snight, the defender of of the magistrate, but she repulsed 

afflioied beauties % He gives me his him with a gesture of anger and dis- 

word as a gentleman ! Oh ! euned be daia. 

all that has ever borne that exeorabla " And by whsi right, moarionr," she 

title, for the shame and misfortune of asked, " do you come to give me your 

honest people ! ^Vhile one was lob- counsels 1 Is it because I bear the 

bing me of my money in my shop, the punishmeot of your dastardly haaeoesa, 

other was robbing mc of my daughter that you claim over me an autharity j 

in her ebsmber ! They had made a which I disavow J" I 

&ir division of the spoils of the |>oor The young man raised himself ere^ I 

metehaat — the one was breaking m at with a noble air. " You ask me I? 

the door, the other at the window — the what right V he cried, so oa to M 

one was carrying off fhe gold, the other heard by all present. " By the ni^^ I I 

the honor! Wretches! wretches! of the guilty to repent and to eipuiftjiOOQlC 



1844.] Croumtd Rkymet, 161 

their boltft— bj llie right of the imprn- chionem !" said Polivesu, with hia 

deot to repaji the miHcbJef Ihey have maaiaa laugh ; " she wishes lo be 

done; And, if that 13 not eDODgb, by the forced lo it, (he aood atid genUe erea- 

right of a huBbsnd to watch over his tore ! Come, the rest of yon, take 

wife, for I call to witnese all here pro- hold of ber — she will reward yoa when 

MDt, OD my faith as a gentleman aod ahc becomes a duchess, and I will thuilc 

OD my bonoi> I swear to bate no other you." 

wife than this unhappy girl whom I " Father ! father !*' cried poor Ro- 

tone compromised by an ineonaiderate seite, while DefuDCtis was drsiggiDg 

proceeding." her away in spile of her resiatancB ; 

Ae he listened to this sotemn pro- " hare you indeed so cut me off 1" 

miae, the magistrate shook his head 8he was aboat lo diaappeai with the 

•lightly, in token of doubt, while Poli- lieutenant and Villenegte. The ttA- 

Tcau btiiet into a fit <^m(K)king laugh- diera of the guard were already 

ter. mounted. 

"Come, sir," continued the maTqcis, " Sica Poliveaa," said Defonctis, 

addressing himselftDDefoactis," carry paaeing on the threshold, "when youc 

nto effect your laudable intention ; and heart of a father shall awake again 

do sot forget that it is the Marehoiness you will come sad a^ bm for yunr 

lie Vitlen^gre who is henceJbrlh com- daoghler back." 

milted to your paternal care '." " Never 1 never '." cried the old man. 

The lieutenBnt of police bowed, and ina*Oiceoflhander,ajidraisiBghimseIf 

wished to conduct Hosetle away, but erect and extending hia hand towards 

she resisted with all her strength. her, " May t^l the dames of hell " 

" Never I never 1" she cried, in pierc- But he did not finish the cone, for 

ing accents. he fell senseless the taoinent his be- 

"Ahl ah! she will not be a mac- loved child disappeared from bis sight. 

Eni tf Ptrl Firtt.—Ptrt Sitond, iki ctmlntint, in mr mi. 



CROWNED RHYMES. 

(WsuH *■■ lbs ruhkni, in IHennire, lo imtuliB ID verbal uJ IllerKl *nute(9.i«ch u icroiiiriuid 
■at tttfities limti riict) Uio criBKJ rtiMt vis wlUi niDo ■ fsvorile. T'i» niii B reprlltioii. u 
Ibcend of thellPA. of one ot mora tyllabfc^ hi d^fterfnl worcU. m CAdfrivi'd u tnlrrtpap IbDHiuv 
(^OwpouBfe. ToRcronrplMi ihlfl. annie tnvcrvkiA tad <[qslDlBHB, la Uie conatrucUoa sod IsifBife, 
><insni. In I niTiirr 1 rry Tliii wvi,liiil(cil, lii«uy irllliDC iKiinoi norjciluui thelkl4llDn- 
a^*coqcci1■l>r(he1t^Jr xich u 

" Ukm Wdark llfh:. kaeslti loiif iMba Ud." 



five below i brief ipcclmcn of neta croirncd rhynn. The fabjnl nrflklnnry IndlrMw 

Mora now on orient bills made fair her light alight ; 

Of fresh and dew-brigbt Bcenea 'gsn bouateaus store restore; 
The hanter-youth then pat his arrowy flight in fliglil, 

When tow'rd him, wild wiih rage, right onward bore a hoar. 

Him could nor strength nor arms against that fiend defend, 

Nor skill the rushing brute, with spear at rest, arrest. 
Then to him flew hia love, quick to befriend her friend i 

In death he struggling lay, ifaoogh lo her prest, opprest. 

His blood Sowed from his woand, and thence arose a rose i 

A sweet bird sweetly aung, ber grief to allay, a lay ; 
The flower yields to the wind, and as it blows, it blowa ; ^-^ j 

The soDg Btealt OR the wind, ita airy way, away. ),iitiz^d -y vjOOQIC 



7*« Wut, the Paro&M o/tht P«r. 



THE WEST, THE PARADISE OF THE POOR. 



" In listening to a WeaUrn speaker," hia neighbor hu iwioe aa much. Theae 

says some newspaper historian with poor men are out of out limit. Th^ 

great apparent graTit;, " every one are beyond our horiion ; in taot, wa 

has felt that the orator wss Btrnggling have left them behind. Their convea- 

to impart some inpreasionB too mightj tional porerty is, no doubt, very trying, 

or too unique to be traaBferied by one and it is in our heart to console ibem, 

speech to a a Eastern audience." This if we knew how. LesTiag their sor* 

idea has in it somethiag ludicroua — rows untooohad, therefore, we torn to 

that the grandeur of our lakea and the man whose poverty is not coiiv«i- 

forests should bo affect our mode of tional — whose capital lies in his hands, 

speech as to make ub unintelligible to and whose income is juat what thooa 

common mortals who have seen no hands can procure him, employed in 

tiver longer than the Connecticut, and the roughest service which mothat 

sailed on none more majestic than the Earth exacts of her tudeet bodb. For 

Hudson. Perhaps the writer ioieaded such a man the Westcin wilderness is 

to convey a covert satire (not wholly a blooming field, and though there may 

nndeserved,) on a certaiu grandilo- be poetry, there is no fiction, in calling 

qoeace to which we are a little prone, the West his Home. 

and to leeommend a less ambitious The lirat aim of a poor man of. this 

mode of communicaliag oui thoughts, claaa inuat of course be (henecesBaries 

This censure, if censure be meant, we of life. Here he finda Ibem at first 

ahall try to avoid, by limiting ourselves cost. He pays, for roost of them, a 

to a single branch of those coosidera- profit to nobody ; not to the fanner, for 

tions which naturally spring np before if he chooses, he may dig for himaelf 

the mind of one who makes the West, and plough for himself, since he oma 

in its various aapeots and relations, the hire both ground and oxen if be has 

subject of hia thoughts. Still further not money to buy them, paying the 

warned by the remarks of the critic, hire in a portion of the fruits raised, 

whether friendly or otherwise, we shall He pays nothing to the carrier, for ar- 

not say one word about our lakes and ticlea of the first necessity are at hand ; 

livers, — oar boandless territory — oar nor to the wholeaale or retail dsaJet, 

politieial importance — out exoberant for what his own hands do not procua 

schI and oar swelling popiflation. We directly he obtains by barter for their 

know, and we conclnde that all the labor. In the new country the earth 

ends of the earth know hy this time, giants a fiee supply to all those who 

tiiat " Westward the star of Empire have Btrength and courage to take it 

takes its way." We feel it, and with from hei bosom. 

all due pride ; but at present we have Our poor man knows no ezactiig 

nothing to do with the alar of Empire. landlord. There are for him no caJen- 

An humbler theme — a plaie, practical (to triitet — no heavy quarter-days 

theme, though a Wertern one, employs when his rent moBt be forthcoming, 

onr pen, ana we shall endeavor to treat If he needs a house he builds one, fiad- 

it in a true Western — which we shall ing the materials in the forest. He 

beg leave to interpret a plain, practical cuts into proper lengths the ancient 

manner, without " atruggling to im- trunks which stand ready at his haml, 

part some impression, too mighty or shapes them at the ends, and gets ready 

too nnique for words." the beams and rafters, all witli his own 

The impresBion we wish to convey trusty axe. When these are drawn or 

respects the poor man — the really poor rolled together, he is reedy for thfl 

man ; not him who with fiAy thousand raising, which is accomplished in one 

dollars is poor because he luks not five anernoon by the willing aid of a domi 

hundred thousand ; nor even him who or a boom of neighbors, each of whom 

with a thonssml a year is poor because has known what, it was to need tho 



8l = 



1844.] Tlie Welt, the Paradite of Ike Poor. 183 

mnne seiriee. Here ii ■ house half much respect hen, where the tne^na 
finiabEd, and for cninpletiDg it little of Mj'uig are «a euil^ secured, for the 
is required beyond the owner's own niftn nho allows himself to " come 
labor — and behold our poor man a upon the town." Ow poor man is 
householder. almost too laij to taik ; 1>ut even he 

Fael, the supply of which (bmishes would hare found a war to lire if his 
elsewhere so painful a eoolraat be- wife had not been bedridden, 
tween the comfnrta of lbs laboring Not only do the cow and pigs of 
claiBS and their employers, is here to the so-oalled poor man lire on the 
he had for the catting. Oar poor man public, but all our cows and pigs do 
does not sit cowering otot a handfal of the same for most of the year, and if 
coals or a conple of brands, forced to ihey are godi foragers they pick iq> a 
see his half dozen little ones changing pretty good living too. Instead, there- 

f laces to get scantily warm by turn*, fore, of wondering that the poor nan 
lis cabin ts rude, but there is no freei- should keep these nscful animals,'the 
iog spot in it. That luxury of luxu- wonder would be should he do withoat 
lies ift our northern winters — a blszing them. Only the rich man can aSoTd 
wood-Gre — gites him no cause to foar that. And the wide meadows tomiah 
lest the current <ff life should turn to not only the summflr'* grass but the 
ice in the Tcins of those he loves, winter's hay — bountifiil profisum for 
Whsterer other evils beset hibi, he the new settler, and eqaally open to 
IcDOwa not the cold hearthstone. thepoor and t&e rich. 

Shelter and fael being tho* readily The poor man in the new countr; 
provided, let us consider what farther has one aid not dreamed of in the oMet 
adranttige car poor man finds in a new setllementa — his children. These are 
«otratrT- Is it none to have at his elsewhere a sabjeot of dread to those 
very dour large anenclosed tracts — who depend on the dsy's labor for the 
pasture-land which, whether owned by day's food, and not always as weleooie 
Government, by the non-resident, or as they shoald be to some pei^le who 
by die settler who has not found means have plenty to eat. Here-, " the more 
1o fence in tfae whole territory which the merrier," and the better off, too. 
«dls him master, forms an important For six iDenths of the year hats and 
part of his available means 1 His oow shoes are oat of fashion, and drapery of 
and pig have unlimited privilege in an almost classical simplicity is quite 
-these broad savannas, and their ap- safficieni for the youn^r children. So 
pesrsDCe shows that wild ^rasa and the " outward " is easily provided for ; 
acorns make excellent living- But while the inner man is solaced with 
the reader may say that we promised bread and m&k half a dozen dmes 
bim a notice of the absalutely poor a-day, and asks tor little else. At 
roan, and that we have no right to seven or eight years old these bread 
bUow him a cow and pig. If this and milk urchins begin to be osefal ; to 
be an error, it is on the other side, "do chores," to run on errands, and 
Vfe were led into it by thinking of the even to drive oxen and feed calves. I 
poorest man we know, and he has not hare seen one of these fanotionariea. 



but two — not one pig, but hatjess and shoeless, harrowing, with 
:en. He owns, too, a frame a great pair of oxen, and issumg his 
house, filled in with brick and wanned haws and gees with all the authority 



by a stove. He has a small chest of of three-soore, while his head reached 

carpenter's tools, and calls himself a scarcely half way ap the sidea of the 

carpenter, but we allow him the title team he was driving. From tiaa thejr 

only by conrtesy ; and this is the poor- become more and more useful, nnUl 

est man we know or have known dur- they reach their teens, when he mast 

ing six years' residence in the woods, be a poor block indeed who does not 

Be is the only man in the town who pay t«ok into the common treasury 

has received public charity in that more than he takes from it. "A son 

time, and wc are not likely to epeak and daughter are the rich man's Ucss- 

too favorably of him, for the man who ing," saith ibe proverb, 'framed, no 

askspublic aid is not likely to be very doubt, hy some one who valued the 

popular among us. We eive freely riches more than son aiKl' daoektei 

enongh sometimes, but we do not like both ; bn( out poor dmd i* nwre ArtOr— > 

to give on compulsion. There isnot aate,fot bevoaatseachoMDfhishBt^^iOOQ IC 



J64 Tie West, iht Paradiie cfihe P*or. [Aog- 

d«uit, or half-score, » bleseiof . In- ecoaomj ; cay, it ia even Mchened 1^ 

Btekd of populatioD prcBsbg on ihe thrifty managers olsenlicrc, but ber« 
meutBofsubEieteiice, our granaries are too generally praclUed lo be omitted 
ful] to overflowing, and stout hands in our budget of naya and iDeaiu. It 
and aclire heads are the very ibings is the system — we speak adrisedly — 
we need to tarn our abundance to ihe we maau Byateoi, not practice — of bor> 
best ace ouDt. rowing, lis importance to the welU 

JBut aickaeBs '. what is lu be done in doing of him who comes into the woods i 

BJckness! No doctor near — no nurse with nothing, is seen at a glance. I 

to be hired — no rich people at hand to Every neigfaliorhood is, by ihia plaOt 
aid, with heart and purse, the suffering turned into a. joint-stock association, 
poor. Spsre thy fears, amiable in- the goods of eacli and every mender 
quirer \ My life on it, in your crowded being, in some sense, eommoa pro- 
thoroughfare s, hired nurses are scarce perty. It differs from oiher joiut-stoek 
eoongh where there is no money, and companies in this : that the less any 
medica] aid is acarcely mote plenty one puts in the more he takes om. No 
when fees are wanting ; and as for fee is required for adnussian into this 
(jiaxity, the rich do nothing for the general loan compeny ; mere residenee 

rr in coropariaon with what the poor coiLfers its privileges, as it does thaw 
Ebr each other in estreinity. For of citixen^ip. The new-comer isoc- I 

true charier there must be sympathy, castonally troabled with a little bash- 
and for eSeclive sympathy there must fulness aaoat losing his freedom, but he 
be some similaiily of coiiditioa. Ac- soon shsiiea it off, and becomes se per- 
eordingly, we find the aid furnished by feci is the art of borrowing as thoae t» 
■he wealthy on these occasions is, for whom it has become second nature. It 
(he moet part, cold and stinted, wbiic requires but a short tioie to get the nut | 

the poor give more freely of what they of needful articlea, so as lo know pretty 
luve, more uoderstandingly as respects nearly where to find them when want- 
tbe wants of the suffer? rs, and with a ed, and then the work is done. EIm- 
wanadtandheartinessof manner which where the rich give — sometimes, but 
doubles the value of the gitl. "Wo do they never lend. The poor cannot 
> gMat deal more for each Dlhcr than give much, hut' they are boiinteoiw 
UiB rich do for ns," said a shrewd mem- leudGrs of all that they pMseas. W« 
ber of the fraternity to me once, and find it convenient to consider all u 
added, driiy enough, " and we don't poor, and, consequently, all as lenders, 
think nothing of it iteilhci." Pree- Or, if there be degrees among us, the 
will nursing is universal, and unpaid rich man is he who has most lo lend, 
medical aid is as often accorded as in Horace says, of Ihe rich tnen of bia 
the older aeulemenis, and "infallible" day, protunt furihut, they are a re< 
remedies, not found in any maleria source to pilferers, i. e., can be plun- 
tntdica, are as pleatj, loo. dered without feeling it. Our rich 

Bat, then, thne it the ague season '. man ia rather a lesotitce for borrowers 
True; and when you hare determined — one who can lend and never flinch. 
hew ntany ootnplaintB kuiwholesome Now, borrowing is more respectable 
air, sp«re diet and stiiverLig limbs bring than begging j it is leas trouble, and it 
on the poor who live in eities, we sball saves Uie feelings, loo. As the benefit i 

be enabted to strike the balance under- received is to be repaid only by a eon- J 

•landiOfly. It ma^ be against the tra loan, and as, by the principles of 
ane, but I doubt it. And, then, as a our company, one la required unly lo 
fheud ODce consolingly remarked to. lend what he has, it is plain that the 
■Be, " the agne does not last always ;'' utterly poor maci is doing a good busi- 
and Ihia ia to be put in the other side ness. 

of the scale. Perpetuity goes much Scarcely any articjo is more fre- 
towarda aggravation, in ihe estimate of queully borrowed thui a pair of haede, i 

fanman ills, even after making all doe and sometimes a doien pair at oaee. J 

allowanee for ibe power of habit. Von pass by a euck of whcnt, near 

The chief and last rosource of the which a threshing machine is planted, 
pots man amosg us whieh we shall around which you will sea some twelve 
mention at present, is one which we or twenty men and boys busily employ- 
have not sees laid down in any work cd. The owner would seem to 00,% . 
on poliueal, nor oven on doneetio, sort of rural nabob, to be able to et^K^QQQ | ^ 



1fl<4.1 



Tht WtU, tht ParadUt 0/ tie Poor. 



vani the eerrices of ao laany ftctire 
people ; but eo for from this tteinc the 
ftot, he nuy be the poorest of the 
group, since porertj is no obstacle to 
the esrly threshing of the whe&t. He 
is topfty each of hiaco-liborersada]''! 
mirk when e&llednpon ; and, so far as 
retting out his grain is concerned, he 
IS BO worse off than the richest man in 
the neighborhood. This artaogement 
-telle plainly for the benefit of him whose 
hands are his a!|. 

And these hands well used, will soon 
plaoe him above even this creditable 
resource of poverty, or enable him to 
exchange at par. Nowhere within 
the limits of oar observatioo, does so 
large a share of the returns of labor go 
to the pay* of the laborer. The em- 
ployed has nearly as much command of 
■the necessaries and conveniences of 
life as the employer. Improved land, 
hones, cattle, farming implements, 
have a much smaller relative value 
IhsD the labor which makesthemavail- 
ablv to the owner. Aside from the 
cost of getting produce to market, the 
owner of an hundred acres of improved 
land, with everything to correspond, 
is much less rich ibao one who owns 
an equally large, well slocked and fer- 
tile fiiin in Western New York, 
Wages, nominally higher here, are, re- 
latively, very much higher. The ser- 
-vieea which a bushel of wheat would 
toy anywhere east of Lake Krie, 
eottld not here be procured for less 
-th&n a bnshel and a half, and as to 
eveiy other article of domeatis pro- 
-dnction, tiie ratio would be atiit higher. 
This is owing, in part, to the extreme 
«hea|inesa of land, and in part to the 
eeantinesa of our working population 
-eompaved vrith the quantity of lend 
under cultivation- The hired laborer 
is then essentially on a par with hia 
employer, which is the case nowhere 
«lse that we know of. 

A constant approximation ia accord- 
ingly obBervable in the condition of 
'tiloae who dwell long together, The 
relativety poor get rich (that ia com' 
parativety) maeh fhaier than the rela- 
tively rich get richer. In the great 
▼aloe of labor as compared with tlot of 
-th6 pToducta of labor, property tends 
vapidly to equalization. Mere bodily 
vigor oommands a competence — an am- 
ple, well-Koeked farm gives scarcely 



IBS 

our remarks apply, but to those who 
undertake the lower grades of mecha- 
nical labor. Nowhere is the third m 
fourth -rale carpenter or blacksmith 
better paid, cslimaliDg his pay by what 
it will buy of the necessaries of life. 
A saw and plane, with a few etceteras, 
in addition to ihe line and plummet, 
which are far from bringing about a 
perpendicular always, secure to their 
owner a pretty good liviog. Many a 
son of Vulcan fattens here, whoae 
bungling awkwardness wnuld not be 
tolerated in any iespp'':i'Li!e smithy 
elsewhere. In fact, no mechanic U 
any grade, nor hia wife, nor Ids chil- 



obliged, in some easos, to teach the 
trade, and at his own proper coat too. 

The plenty enjoyed by this elase ia 
of coarse limited mostly to articles of 
home growth. Foreign prod actions pay 
quite too heavy a tax into the nationd 
exchequer, besides the cost of long and 
expensive transportation, to be obtained 
quite ao easily. 

Nevertheless, nowhere can the real- 
ly inferior mechanic make hitnself a 
comfortable home with so liltle'diffl- 

Nor is our workingman or mecfaanio' 
pained with any violent contrast be- 
tween the fruit of his own labor, and 
that of those whose work ia more 
nearly, thongh not altogether, that of 
the head. We do not approve of puf- 
fing up the pride of these laet by extra- 
vagant pay. Why should a man be 






bnrningsutl Accordingly, the Justice 
who aits fVom morning till midnight 
listening to the (vos and cons of a tiro 
some lawsnit, gets but bis fifty cents . 
and the schoolmaster spends his day 
in a still more tiresome employment, 
for even Jeas money. The clergrmaa 
is rather worse ofi' than either, being 
oflen expected to " work for nothing 
and find faimaelf." This levelling 
principle operates to the sole advantage 
of those whoae means {^ee them at 
the bottom of the scale. If they oan- 
not work up with each oircnmstanBee 
in their favor, it most be their own 

What we have here said of the de- 
mand fill cheap meefaaoietJ labor, aiid 
of large pay for poor woA, has ■• 



Google 



IM TheWe*t,thtFaraditeqfthtPi>«r. [^i^. 

towna ud rilUgea, wbere eRective busy, or in caaea wher« tbe jobiasaeh 
skill in any speciea of haadicrftA ia as aume are noi willLng lo undertake, 
duly appreciated and well rewarded. Jack ia occaaiamlly called on. He 
Tbe pecdiarttiea of teal Weetern life Boderstauds hia advaota^, aad drives 
are acarcely seen in these minor foci a abatp bargain. Not bebg hired 
ofneiTCiwniryiiitelligenceaDdactivily. often, he has no lixed ptice for hi* 
They are but eopieB, of which the work, but makea hia demands, to bor- 
EaM Atmifihes the prouilypes, and we tow an expresaion of hia own, just as 
must say, they show aometimeii an im- he " can light o' cbapa." If tbe 
proreineDt od the original. Here is " chap" mast hare hia work done, and 
■o lack of lewud, in the substantial has anything in pay with, Jack gets 
HDSe, for skill and merit of aimoat any perhaps what will allow him to smoke 
kind, leait of all for that displayed in hia pi^ io the corner for a week, whils 
the mechanic arts. Tbe advaaiage lo bis Wife fries pork and makes hot 
akilful nueehanicB ia, not that they rise bread three times every day. Tbtii 
Itigher than they would in [be older to our loafer of the woods, is el^sium. 
settlementa — for such people are sure But it is abort, after all. The gane 
to tiae ftDTwhere — but that they rise is not all his own. " Ch^" are not 
sooner. We were merely showing, in always lo be found, and Jack not do- 
eonnectioD with our mam subject, ^at frequently gets what he calls " down in 
be whose skill was too small to com- ihemoulh. This happens only when he 
' the ordinary comforts of life any- cannot by any cool rivaQce find enonffk 



vhere else might be aure of Ending to eal without having r 
them in the new counlry. desperate expedient of looking for work. 
We hate presented tbe case of the Now the tables are turned. If he 
common elase of laborers — of those seeks employment, the thing is under- 
who, laboring with their hands only, stood at unce, and the employer gets 
n8|>rd work as their business, well- him at half price. It is not, however, 
mtufied if they have enough of it to without due niggling, for one of Jack^s 
do, and are well paid for U when maxima is, "If vou don't ask it, you 
done. This is, of course, our most won't get it." So he aaks the very { 
pnmBrone class \ but there are, even highest possible price, and contest* 
in this sober phalanx, some erratic every inch of the descent. We have 
members — inegulars, we may call known him begin with demanding 
them — who, far from regarding work twelve shilling for a particular set- 
as their proper huainees, are never lo vice ; fall to all — he was looking for a 
well satisfied as when they can aup- job ; then come down to four — he mnat 
port life without working at all. Thifi have it. A looker-on — a kindred 
taste ia not peculiar to them, we know; apirit, by the bye — obaetved, "Why, 
bat the desire for a certain degree of Jack, such another fall would break 
Leasehold comfort operates, — in moat your neck 1" Jack probably consoled 
caws, among civilised people, to over- himaelf with the thought ibat hia tarn 
come the idleness which seems but too would come again. 
nalQial to us all. Theae persons have But work, however well paid, is not 
a settled antipathy to cantbuous labor, the thing for Jack. It is only an aeei- 
and if they were obliged to spend ten dent of life. The true busineas is 
hoars each day in regular exertion, aoraeihing tliat stira the Wood— some- ^ 
would as soon do it in prison as out. thing that smacks of " chance" and 
Theycanwork onlywhenthefitcames "luck" {Jack's household gods—) to 
on and while it lasts ; and it must put him on hia mettle. If such offer, 
be after their own faahion too. They he guhera himself op, ahakes off his- 
are of the genus loafer— tt race not lethargy, and assumes aucb a port and 
entirely unknown in the older settle- bearing that he seems hardly tne same 
menta; bw oois hare the disiiactive being. How eagerly he joins a fishing 
inaiks, owing to difference of position, parly for a night on one of our clear, 

Oui forest loafer is a very independ- tranquil lakes, where, with a flaming | 

ent and bigh-minded personage. Hia lorch lUumioaiing the transparent t 

■ervieu ue well known not to be tegu- depths, and reflected far on tbe gUaay 1 

Urly io the market, and no one thinks surface— a sight full of beauty— ha 

of applying to him on ordinary occa- passes the hours which the tired labor- I 

■iou. In ft homed time when sll are ei must devote to aleeg. SliU tovra ^^ Vn 



1844.] Tht West, th» ParadUe of Iht Poor. 1S7 

MgBtlj does he mftke one at the wolf tradea, &nd for him too, the wiid ■wooia 

hunt, and ten to one Jack fires the sue- bate bodib advantages. The first ia 

eeBsful (hot. the absence of competition, which in 

But " busioesB before pleasuie !" closer qnartera he finds so bitter an eiM- 

Miys he, BO he wMcbes, daj after day, my. Competition drives him to de- 

ftit deer. Tliis ia " loafing" to parfee- spair, for who goes to the cobbler when 

tioD. Hiirty deer in half a jear ! It he can hare a shoemaker ^ But in Iha 

ia almost enough to tfmpt □• all from woods the oDiTersal genius has do ri- 

regnlar indoBtry, Bot we could not es- ral in several of his vocations. H« 

pect Jack's luck. He was born to the neir-flags old chairs — pate new handles 

' DDBiaess. Withnhata swelling air he into maimed hoaiehold orfanningnteD- 

brings home his game, his hat cocked sils — coaxes into activity superannn- 

on one side, aod bis bands in his pock- ated wooden-clocks — cares all horsea 

ets, though one holds the bridle of the and cows that have nothing particular 

aluLggy pony that bears the carcase, the matter with them — mends, when ha 

At tniagforiouB moment how heartily ho does not mar, more things than can b« 

despises the dall fellows whom be sees named — and is, in ^t, a very aseM 

aoberiy at work. To provide for to- person — or would be if he did any one 

morrow seems to him lO be a work of thing well. As it is, we hardly know 

supererogation. what we shoold do without him, ao 

As may ba supposed, our forest many are the calls that we make apon 

loafer, like his more refined prototype, him in default of somebody belter to 

Is generally out at elbows and out at call upon. 

pocket too. The latter ia of little mo- The universal genius has one pecu- 

mect, fbr it is only when his pooket is liarity. He is «ver shifting his place, 

empty that he is of the least use to but without going further than the next 

himself or anybody else. He is none town, or at the otmosl, (he adjoining 

the richer a month after for any good conniy. There is good reason ftn 

job or lucky hit. His thirty deer are both — tlie migrations and the incon- 

all gone but a few skins which he is sidsnble distance to which they ez- 

Iiretendiog to dress, and not a luim is tend. In counting his chances he has 

ud op in salt or amoke for a hungry full faith that almost sny change wonld 

day. While it lasted, everything atwut better his lot, since it could scarcely be 

him fkred well, eren to his dog and cat. worse ; and, as lo going far, that is ont 

Hia wife has a gay new dress too, of the question, 8ince,though his moVe- 

Ihoush she generally ^oei barefoot, ments are few and light, his pocket ia 

and uways without stockings. He has lighter still. He Aits oHen, therefore, 

" awapped" away his rifle, giving a and we hardly know whether to be 

laige proportion of his deer dollars to glad or sorry. 

boot; not that the new one Is any bel- But these two classes form but aa 
ter, but it has more brass inlaying inconsiderable fraction of our popnlft- 
abont the stock, and besides, "any- tion. They are among ua, bat bardlj 
tiling for a trade!" The wood-pile is of us. If we own them it is with a 
no larger, and the polatoe-bin is empty, difference — a kind of saving clause — 
Bat Jack looks to "lack," and in tact that we are not to be held responsible 
neuhboT A.'b well has just caved in, for their short-comings or their overt 
and Jack is in request to take out the acts. Out cammanity is chiefly made 
stone and relay it. up of workers, who handle the axe and 
The wild West is evidently the place the plough much better than Ihey do 
for Jack. Where could he so well the rifle or the fishing-rod, and whoso 
practise his favorite maxim, " Lire to- principal holidays are those prescribed 
day and die to-morrow V Where so by law or irrefragable custom — Inde- 
freel|r indnlge his unconquerable pro- pendence, Election, Thanksgiving anA 
penalty for reversing the natnial order New Year. In the backwoods, there- 
of things — taming day into night, eat- fore, where work is everything anA 
ing now six meals a-day, now one in everything is work, though loafers and 
twenty-fonr honrs — making his work a universal geniuses need not starve, yet 
play er else working not at all t no one who is not a worker must eipeot 
Thoogh Jack deserves the first place to stand very high in the public recvd. 
in our corps of irregulars, he does not We see so much that is the fmit of labor 
stand alone. We have our jack-at-alU —bodily labor—that weare prone tothink .-, . 

Coogle 



198 The WetC, the ParaJiie of the Poor. [Aog. 

it can accompliBh eveiythirg desirable, are nearly all ibe good things in life ! If 
and, by a natural inference, to cunclude superiorilj tn mind and manners com- 
thatnhateverit cannoiaccoinjili&hisnot mand no respect; if no reverence be 
desirable. This inference, though not felt for iiilellectual atlainmenta or the 
exactly logical, has a very importaot higher moral endowments, can any 
(jewing on the condition of the wotting improTement in these he expected T 
man. It throws eterylhing into the And in BysIematicaJly placing out of 
back ground but manual labor, nhich sight nut of mind the (hings on which, 
occnpies, in fact, nearly the whole field if al all, Iho inner man must thrive, 
of Tiew. One man may be a better do we not pay a high price for 
scholar than anollier — that is, may strict social equality — so strict u to 
have pushed his literary ambition be~ interfere even with private domestic 
Tond the spelling-book, writing legi- arrangements, based on a wide difier- 
bly, and the first four rules of ariihrae- encein habits and feelings 1 The eon- 
tic — but accomplishments beyond these sequence of the actual state of things, 
modest flights hare very litilt! influence even in regions where much advance 
in procuring honor, office or income, has been made in the means of life, is 
The score or two of To«ti offices fall what might be eipeeled. Of the half- 
as oAeo to the roan whose two hands dozen families within the circle of out 
are his all, as to him who has a head observation who came to the wilds with 
on his shoulders and knows how (o use a larger share of intelligence and re- 
it. The working man will find a home, finemenl than is possessed by Ibo set- 
with or witboul a heid. If he be am- tiers generally, there is not one that is 
bitious, he need not despair of reach- not degenerating tn manners and men- 
jng a seat on the justice -bench, or per- tal habits ; not one [we say it with BOr- 
haps the stand of occrseer of highways, mw) where the children are not inferior 
or, at the very least, Ibe Inspectorship to the parents, or in fact, wbeie they 
of Schools. arc materially above the noinstmcted 
That interpretation of the levelling mass around them. The very almo- 
prineiple which reduces all to the sphere of society is averse to mental 
standard of work or its products, must culture, and all refinement is so syste- 
be considered as prescribing a very nulically as well as practically decried, 
narrow limit for the efforts of any class as to have fallen into abbolute discredit, 
of people. The promotion of physical To account for this is no part of out 
comfort and advantage — the mullipli- present purpose. It is enough to state 
cation, ad infinilum, of the means of it as the obvious result of the principle 
■absistence ; the mere solicitude about which recognizes none but physical 
things that " perish in the using," are distinctions, and is actually opposed to 
certainly poor matters to fill the souls the habits and pcacticea which arise 
and satisfy the wishes of rational crea- from a different view of mental and 
tnres, even in these beginnings of 8o- moral culture. There is nothing in 
eiety. It would seem that something the fact to deter the poor man from 
more should be accomplished or at least making the West his home. It is so 
attempted: that the seeds of mental gratifying to feel ourselves "as good 
culdvation, elevated moral feeling and aa_ the best," and to aland on a U*el 
correct taste, should be sown, even with the highest— supposing that better 
unraltaneoosly with ths first grain, by and higher had place in on r vocabulary 
• people who boast so loudly of general — that fei# will be frightened by the 
intelligence as we do. Can tiiia be reReotion thattherei8no"lowerplace" 
expected, where no other standard of for them to occupy. 
excellence or superiority is admitted However problematical this advan- 
■ave that which Tefers to manual labor ! tage may be, no one can doubt the real 
Wai not the young admire and prize benefit and satisfaction of living where, 
that which they see admired and prized externally at least, all around is rapidly 
by their natnral guardians and direct- improving. Thegtinof every seseon 
ors 1 If they see farms and stock and manifests itself to the eye, and every 
bams the chief objects of interest, and person makes a part of the improTft- 
thepoKerof acqauingtIiesethiDgBcon- ment which he witnesses. The im- 
■idered the proper aim of every eETort, pulse of progress communicates itsdf 
will they not be apt to eo&clade that to all. Every additioaal piece of 
good ImniiB, good bstiw, and good atook, groond that is broken op for dlling, 11 1 ^ 

O " 



1844-1 The Wtit, th« Pamdue of tlu Poor. |S9 

ef«fj good fence, «verT oem bam, ia a t'lTUe far himself, either at once, or 

^enw of conversation and intere«t, and atler a short period shall have pot him 

not nafrequently of emulation, to a in poueoiiOD ofthe means of doingBO. 

whole neighborhood. So atrong is the The bleeaedaeas of him 
impulse from thia aonrce, that these 

traprovementa seem to be made in con* " Who (eiveth not ana|her*i will," 

cert ; and, among twenty or thirty 

ftrmeis who hate made oat to dispense is nonhete more keenly appreciated ; 

■ with barns for four or Sre years, half and hard labor, poor accommodations, 

vill perhaps bnild them in one seaaon. and plain fare, are always preferred, if 

If A. has a nice large barti, B., though accompanied with entire independence, 

not half so able to build one aa A., will to far more luxurious quarters as the 

not be easy nntil he has a barn too, hireling of another. 
though it may be necessarily fat infe- A second cause of the high price of 

riot to the former. labor, is the great proportionate amount 

Theregalar,01dWorldagTiculinraltst of labor required. In an old settled 

may wonder how an; farmer can do country, labor is chiefly in demand foi 

wiUiont a ham ; but it is one of the con- continuing cultivation ; in the eompar- 

BoTations of oar poor man that he soon ative wildernees, on the other hand, it 

learns how, at the West. is required for subduing the earth, aa 

Notwit^tandingmany hardshipsand well aa for cult it all ng tracts alrMdy 
diaaonrtgementa, this featora of new- brought under the plough. Thisforma 
country existanee — perpetual and mani- a great additional source of employ- 
f«M Egress — is very animating. It ment for [he laborer. In a new coun- 
■aturally inspires hope and confidence, try the surplus which is created by la- 
Hard labor, poor crops, meager fare, bor ia from year to year invested in im- 
and unaccustomed and tedious illness, provementa, which create further de- 
may oTcrcloud the whole face of the mand for labor. In this way, every 
present, but the future is ever bright new improvement furnishes the meana 
with promiset The elastic feeling, iu- for new outlay, by which the laborer ia 
cident to a new and growing country, the first to profit. For a series of years 
communicates itself to all ; and no- the course is to break up more land to 
where does the tiller of the ediI so raise wheat in order to break np mora 
speedily recover himself from the effect land. Labor can never have so great 
m untoward cirenmsiances. The pow- comparative value as when the country 
ei of self-adaptation aeems inherent in is in its transition atate from wild to 
the aettler. He learns even to make cultivated. 

pTttaent diffieultiea conduce to fntnre This condition of things, which, 

proepnity, by means of the habits of afler allowing for all the hardship and 

economy and management which would disadvantages connected with it, we 

have been learned with far less rapidity may traly call blessed, in reference to 

and eerlainty nnder easier circnmstan- the masses who are benefited by it, 

eee. has its ultimate origin in the fact that 

We hare mentioned the high price of the Government transfers the right of 

labor as one of the poor man's advanta- property in the soil for a cunsidccalion 

SB. It may not he amiss to advert to scarce greater than the price of iho 

e causes of this. The scantiness of title-deeds. The nation virtnally be- 

the population has been alluded to as stowe upon each of its poor citizens aa 

the main eanse, but this needs esplan- mnch land as he can cultivate. What 

's evident that a scattered other nation has the power of confer- 



popolation is far from being always a ring such a boon upon the poor t We 

faToratde eircamstanee to the laboring aay npon the poor, for experience baa 

olaMea. On the contrary, nowhere is shown that none others oan profit by 

their condition worse than ra some it. Only to the poor man, who wisbu 

widely-extended and thinly peopled to occupy and improre the land, ia it « 

ooBBlries, anch as Turkey and Itnssia. benefit ; and to nim it is invsloable. 

Boi the smalt araonnt of labor in the It forms a practical corrective of the 

market, which is the canse of its com- evils caosad by the tendency of pro- 

manding ao high a price, ia owing to periy to accumulate in large masaea. ^ 

the extreme cheapness of the land. It ia the aim of a good government to (^~'/-\i-vi-\[p 

TUe theapneaa leads every nan to enl- lessen these evils without enorouhing vj KJ (J^ I C 



ItO The Wtst, tht ParadUt oflbt Poor. [ABf. 

apoti the rights of individuda. Oai tara no desire to follow lh«in. Oar 

htppj position enables ns to strike nt simple judgment is, that Frofidenee 

tbe root of the difficultj, and b; the d'eailj poiola to the nn restricted totei- 

rirtaal giit of a freehold to ever; poor cooiae of man with man, the world 

man who is disposed io take possesaiixi orer, aa a good to which 01 



. to prevent that excesaife ine- hamanity has sn indiapatable 'right ; 

qnality of prnpertTwhich, in the ooqd- but we tmst that the manifold adtan- 

tries of the Old Worljj is the worst tagea enjojed hy the Western ssttler, 

enemy akke of individual happiness will enable him to overcome this diffi- 

and national prosperity. It is sorely cclty, great though it ^. One conse- 

no inconsiderable step towards main- qaence is natural and evident — anen- 

tainiog something like an equilibrium, forced aimplicitr of living, which, 

to bestow on the poor % poMeaaion perhaps, aiui all, will prove a beiiefit 

which (he labor of nia own hands will inateiJl of an injary to the farmer aod 

render ample for his support. We, in his rising family. 
Act, secure independence to all who We insist, as we have before hinted, 

are able and willing to woik. No man that the real lack of the Western far- 

here need continaeloDg in the service of mer concerns tlie inner and not the 

oAtere ; and therefore, those who de- outer man. 
airesBch BsrviceB are obliged to bid «i^ ■ r u 

high for them, in order to induce the „ ,. . .,...•"."? «*"™ 

^fn.,_ .w.,.^ .n .).<!o. 6>- . ..i.;i_ tk^ Visits no fredilier the nch man's browi 

rtreng-armed to defer for a while the He has hi. portion of ewh silver alar 

aausfaclion of working for themselves g^, ^^ ^i, iTe as freely | and the Usbt 

*» masters, with that feeling of inde- Qf the West sun poors on his bo^as 
pendence which is to the American as [j^ar 

the breath of his nostrils. As on the golden missal of a king." 

In order to be impartial, we ought, 

perhaps, to set forth on the other side And wo hope yet to be able to borrow 

the complaints of the Western settler still further the words of the poet — 
that what the Government gives him 

'■'"'' ... - " Nert to the WM-ks of God, 



which he may wish to barter the fruits In lavish folness, when and where he 
of the Boil. The agricultariBt within *""• 

reach of mamifactoring establishments, ™ *"• '» W» w**" dwelling, and c(«A- 

has a compensation for the extra prices „.,, -"""f* . ™ . , ,. . . 

he is comVelied to pay, in the icrre- ^'^ ff^^ «"" ^^ ^•^^ ■*?*■ 

««nJm,r nri,.- ^w,.n. ««.iv« B«- Of all great men aod hrfji Md Ihe 



his (^"■^^on-- To the Western written in fire by Milton, and (he king 

farmer the burthen "without an eqni- of Israel, and the troop of glorion. b^H 

valent, and he feels it to be most op- ^^-^^ ^^ ^^^^ tis soul op to the Ai : 

pressive. But to touch tipon this And what is 't to him, if these eooM in 

would lead OS to the vexed question And visit him, that at his hambte door 

of the Tariff, in which wise heads There are no pillars and rich capitals, 

labor aa in a treadmill, to which we Or walla of curious workmanship wlth^t" 



lizcdbyGooi^le 



A WtO-htawn Doaumtnt, vtry tligktij fartf^raut. 



A WELL-KNOWN DOCUMENT, VERY SLIOHTLT 
PARAPHRASED. 

BT WILLIAM TOCNS. 

Whim, in Iheir eonne, human sTents compel 
One people to diBSolve the soei&l baodi. 
That linked them with another, and to take 
Among the powers of the Earth that staEion, 
Equal, and eeparate, to trhieh the lawi 
Of Nature and of Niture'a God, by right, 
Entitle them — reapect to the opinionB 
Of fellow men calls on them to declare 
■Rie eansea, which have rendered necessary 
Snch separation. 

We, then, hold these traths 
To be •olf-BTident— That all mankind 
Are eqaal, and endowed, by their Creator 
With certain nnalienable rights — 
That amongst these are Li^, and Liberty, 
And the Pursuit of Haj^iness — That men, 
To make these rights arailahle and safe, 
HaTo instituted GoTemmenta, deriving 
Their lawful power from the free consent 
Oftboae they govern — That when any fotm 
Of Gornrnmenl is proved to be destnicJiTe 
Of these their ends, it is the Pea[de's right 
To alter, or abolish il, and fotind 
A GoTemment anew, with principles 
So laid for its foundation, and with powers 
In such form orsanized, as shall to them 
Seem moat eonductte to their happiness 
And aafbty. 

Pmdence will, indeed, dictate. 
That long-established Goremments should not 
Be changed for any light or transient caose ; 
And all experience, accordingly, 
Hath diown that men are more disposed to snSer, 
So long as evils are endurable, 
Than to asaert their rights, and throw aside 
Their customary forma. But, when abases, 
And nsnrpatiouH, in a lengthened train, 
Pureae one object steadfastly, evincing 
A firm design to bow them down beneath 
Absolute despotism, it is their right, 
It is their bounden duty, to throw oS' 
Snch Government, and to provide new guards 
For their aecnritf in future. 

Such 
Has been the patient sufferaoee of these 
Oar Colonies, and such is now the need, 
That forces them to change their present avstems 
Of Government. Great Britain's present King 
Hath made his history the hixtory 
OfusDrpstiona, and of injuries. 
Often repeated, and directly tending 
To tlte establishment of Tyranny 
Over these Stat«B — to prove this, let the World 
In candiir liit«i to mkdoobtfld taoto. - '^it 



syGoogJe 



A WitO-inowa DtcumaU, vtry ihghliy Pan^ArMud. 

e usent to Ikwi, 
I for the public fioi ~ 
He b*B denied bie GoTernOTB iha power 
To MDotion liwB of pressiog uigeoc;, 
Unlet* Rispended in their aperaiion, 
Till bis uaeni should be obtained ; and when 
Saspended thus, he has failed wilfully 
To give them furtber thought. He b»« refused 
To sKDctioD other laws, deemed advantageous 
To districtB thickly peopled, unlets they, 
Who dwelt therein, would baselj throw away 
Tbeir right to lopresentatiTes — a right 
Inestitnable to themeehee, and only 
To Tyrants formidable. In the hope 
To weary them into a weak compliance 
With his obnoxious nieasurea, he has sumraoned 
The Legisktire Bodies to asBemble 
At places inconvenient, and an usual, 
And whence their public records were remote. 
He has repeatedly dissolved the Hoosea 
Of Representatives for interfering 
With manly linnness, when ho has invaded 
The People's ri^rhts. Long time he has iefuce<], 
After each dissolutions, to eonvene 
Others in lieu of them ; whereby, the powers 

Of Legislation, since they might not be . 

Annihilated, have for exercise 

Been forced npon the body of the people ; | 

Leaving, meanwhile, the unprotected Stale I 

To dangers of invasion from without, 
Ai»d inward anarchy. He has endeavored 

To check the population of these States, I 

Thwarting the laws for natural isatiiHi 
Of foreisners, withholding his assent 
From other laws, that might enconrage them 
In incaigrating hither, and enhancing 
The price of new allotments of the soi]. 
He has obstructed the administration 
Of Justice, by his veto on the laws 
Establishing judiciary powers. ' 

Be has made Judges on bis will alone 
Dependent, for the tenure of their office, 
For the amount, and for (he proper payment 
Of tbeir emoluments. Ue has erected 
New offices in multiliides, and sent 
Swarms of his officers to harsss us, 
And to eat out our substance. He has kept, 
In times of peace, among us, standing armies, 
Without the sanction of onr Lef^slalurei. 
Hi> aim baa been to place the military 
Above the civil power, and bevond 
It* just control. He has combined with others 
To make ns subject to a jurisdiction, 
Id nirit foreign to our Constitulion, 
Aim unacknowledged by our laws ; assenting 
To acts, that they hare passed with semblance oidy 
Of legidatioD — acts — For quartering 
Amimg OS bodies of armed troops— For sfaieUii^,. 
By a mook trial, these their instrnmenta 
Fron pvnishment for any murders done 

Oo oar inhabitanta— For cutting off ^ i (-\j^nli^ 

* Digitized by V^tUO^ IL. 



A WcU-jbiMm Doewuent, very tligAlly Parefhrated. 

Oar tndo with ererjr qaajtei of the vorld' — 

For laying on ns taxes not approved 

By ODT coDMDt— For oft-timGB rubbing ua 

Of aDV beoefit thiit might attend 

Trial by jury — For Iransporiiog na 

BeyHn the mm, to answer for offences 

Imputed to ua — Pot aboliahing, 

Within a neighboring province, the free ayatero 

Of English laws ; establishing therein 

An arbitrary power ; and enlarging 

Its bonndaries, to render it at once 

The fit example, and the iaatniment 

For bringing into these our Colonica 

The same dcapotic role — For taking from ns 

Oar Charters ; and aboliahtng our laws 

Most valn«d ; changing thus, in principle. 

Our forma of Government — And for suspending 

Our Legislatures, with the declaration 

That they, ihemselres, in each and every case, 

Were rested with supreme authority 

To legislate for us. 

He has laid down 
His sway, by holding us without the pale 
Of his protection, and by waging war 
Against as — Ho has plundered on our seas — 
Ravaged our coasts — our citiea burnt — and taken 
Our people's liree. He is transporting hither 
Annies composed of foreign mercenaries, 
To end the works of deatb^ and desolation, 
And tyranny, begun with circumstances 
Of cruelty and perfidy unequalled 
In the most barbarous ages, and unworthy 
The Ruler of a nation ciriliied. 
Ha has eonalrained out fellow- citiiens. 
On the high eeas made eaptiTes, to bear arms 
Against their country, and of friends and brethere 
To be the executioners, or fall 
Beneath his creatures' bands. He hac excited 
Amongst ourselves domestic insurrectioD ; 
And sought to bring on the inhabitants 
Of our fitmlier the savage Indian, 
Whoee code of warfare, merciless, and core, 
Spares not, in undistinguished massacre, 
A^e, sex, condition. 

We, in every stage 
Of these oppressions, hare in humblest terms 
Petitioned for redress. To our petitions, 
Tboagh oft repeated, there has been one answer — 
Repeated injury. 

A Prince, whoee life 
And condnct thns are marked by every act 
That may de£ne a Tyrant, is nnfit 
To nile o'er Freemen. 

Neither hare we &iled 
lo doe attenlion to our British brethren. 
From time to time, we have admonished them 
Of elTnrta, by their Legislature made, 
ITDWarrantaUy to extend to na 
Their Jnrisdiottoa. How we emigrated, 
Ad)) aettled here, we have reminded them. 



And aettled here, we have reminded them. /"■ ^-. ^ -, [^ 

We to their uiive jnsilce hare appealed l) gitizod sy V^jOOQ IC 



And nia^ftniniit7 ; and hare conjured tbem, 

Br oomoion kindied tiea, to dtMTow 

llMM nsnrpationa, nhich, Lnefitablj, 

Would mar ooi iatercourBe and ftieadthip. They 

Hmre oIm tarned & deaf ear to the Toica 

Of Jurtice and of Conouiguinity. 

So must we yield to the neceieilT, ' 

Which forces us to sepatate — and hold them, 

A« WB do hold the teal of human-kind, — 

Our enemies in War — in Peace, our^iandt. 

We, therefore , who are here to represent 
The States United of America, 
In Geneml Congress met, for rectitude 
Of onr iDtentions to the Judge Supreme 
Of ^l things here in confidence appealing, 
Do, in the name, and by authority 
Of the good people of these colonies, 
Solemnly publish and declare, that these 
Unit«d CoIoDies are, and of right 
Ought to be. Free and Independent Scales. 
That from allegiance to the British Crown 
They are abBoWed— That all connecting ties 
Of Policy between thenu and Great Britain 
Are, as they should be, totally disaolTcd : — 
And, that as Free and Independent Statet. 
They hare full power to lery war, conclude 
Peace, and contract alliances — establiah 
Comtnerce, and do til other acts and thinga 
Which Independent States of right may do. 

Tbie is our tleclaration — to support it. 
With firtn reliance on Divine protection, 
We to each other mutually pledge 
Oqt liTea, onr fortunes, and our Sacred Honor. 



INSUFFICIENCY. 

BV BUZtBBTH B. BiaaKTT. 

Whbm I attain to utter forth in Terse 

Some iaward thought, my aoul throbs audibly 

Along my tnlsea, yearning to be free, 

And something farther, fuUer, higher, rehearae. 

To the lodiTidual, ttue, and the universe. 

Id eoiwuwmation of right harmony! 

But, like a dreary wind against a trM, 

We are Umsn against for ever by the ouree 

Which braathes through nature. Oh, the world ia wuk— 

The flfllaenoe of eaoh is false to all ; 

And what we best conceive, we fail to apeak. 

Wait, aool, nntil thine ashen garments fall ! 

And then Msome thy broken strains, and arak 

Fit poiontioD, widioat let oi thTsU. 



lizcdbyGoOglt 



1844.] The Imb of Progrttt of the Race. 

THE LAW OF PROGRESS OF THE RACE.' 



Alumni of WiUiuus' College, Maasa- old commonwealth, t 

cfaoietti, utembled >t WiSwnistown, among her orniinienta, and which haa 

to eommemonle the fiftieth j^ear from been alw&vs fruitful of great mea, haa 

the foundation of the inatitutlon. On few who do her more hooor. 

that day, one of the moat beautiful of On this occasion hia mind was oatu- 

flie last beautiful summer, in as charm- rallf eiertad to do the honors of tha 

ing a valley as Hasaacbusetts can college to the Alumni who had gatb- 

boagt, under the eye of the vast pile of ersd ai her festiral, and to apeak to 

mountains which orerlook the apol, them of a aabject utd in a mUDn 

MToral hundreds of the giadnates of worthy of himself and tliem, and the 

the eoUese met en the old grmrnds, to time, the place, and its assooiations. 

take each other by the band, to com- The performance was worthy of all 

memorate their former sojonm there, these, and was equal (o the repatation 

and to cheer their Alma Mater, in her of the speaker and the expectations of 

career now so prosperous and honora- his audience. 

ble. They had come from all parts The leading idea rosy be beat ex- 

«f the laud. Par and wide had they plained in the speaker's own words, 

been scattered in their variooa pilgrim- After welcoming the Alumai, and allnd' 

ages. Some had been unfortunate, and ing in fit and touching temia to the piin- 

fewer prosperous. All had found life eipal incidents of the college history, he 

adifierent thing from what they dreamed proceeds thus : 
of it when thaj were students in that 

valley of seclusion (■ The simple qaettion is whether there 

These reunions of the graduates of u, inwroaght into the eonitilntiaii of 

colleges serre many oseful pnrpoaes. ihiags, a law of progress of the race, era 

They bring together, after long ab- tendency towards it, which we may hope 

aencea, thoae who began life together, u> see realiaol. 

and whomeeito compare accounts of "ThoideaofMChalawhaiansea.aM 

their eobseqoent wanderings. Theykeep f^J n™" """ """ »htcb I haw mn- 

alive the love of study and respect for t««>ed hot m connection '•Ik • J«»^ 

..t.»i._ Tk^^T.^j .;! ««f_.r...,;ij.- able ehanire la the views and hahtis « 

scholars Theyleadw greater familiar- ,^,^1 c?the ew«nonitT rcspectiaf the 

ity with literary institutions, bet er j^nf to which th.y were W took ftr im- 

knowledge of literary pursaits, greaier Jl^^e^eof Theii was a time when tte 

sympathy with hUrary men, and more antiquity rf the world was associated wi* 

IplBTeat in the progress and diffusion of xbe wisdom of old age, and when it was 

knowledge. It is but a few years since supposed that all wisdom was to be fond 



they were begun, and they have al- in '^the records, and all exceUence in the 

ready become frequent. From a little models of de past. Bat when the hn- 

varkhas a flrebwn kindled that ■emns man miad was aroDsedaa It was by tba 

likely to bora on and to give much Reformation and the inventkHi tt the art 



light. 

On the particotar oeoasion of which . 

we apeak, the Alumni were greeted "«» worlds in the heavcnsi wktaUum 

with ^Taddreaa from Dr. Honkina. the mtrodnced hw_ new method, and NowW. 



with ui address from Dr. Hopkini 



weighed the planets and deeompoaodtta 



. President of the college and "one of its ^S""" ^^ ^'""^^■^T^^,^ 

•*i _ - Tko ...J -;™i . k'.-t ..... aunbcam. It waiimpossible that taesaiBB 

The principal subject was „„^^ fo, .miqiiiT should coatinao j 



,THa WW or PROOHEse or tbb SAca. ,nd,aswBj natural, an opposite ft™.o 
Any person acquainted with Dr. tookltsidaee. Instead of supposing Itot 
Hopkins would have foretold, that his Biankiad had already attained all tba par- 
address would be original and able. He i^ton of which they were capaUe, and 
was never an otterer of other men's that nothing remained bat to cany no- 
dionghta- StroHtby nature, disciplined dent d egen era cy np to the heights of a»> 
by UnKnioaa stoar, Beeaatomed to pa- dent aehieveiDenI, it was said th at Vu 
tiantandperaeTenngUtaation, his mind aneieBt world was really the inftat wmU, 



of WillluH' CEtl^a M the etUantkm 



leletT of Aluaai Of WillluH' CEtMfa at i 
■^IMSibr IUdiB(ipkiH,IU>.,rrMld(nt< 



,:Goog Ic 



IM TV Law ofProgreta of the Race. [Aag. 

oad that to as modernii belonged the ho- as there now ii, and hu lanf been ia 

nor or the hDar; head in the UTe of the maoT paru of Atoertea, eiettemcDl, agt- 

raee. Heoce aroie an inipreiiian that all tation, confusion ; aocielj maT be brofccn 

the arta, and tcieace, aod phikKOphr, and into rragoients, there may be colhsion* of 

insliiations of the sacients veie imper- local ii^ individual interests, bet all ma^ 

feet, from the simple fact that they nere be chaotic ) tbe moTanent may be witlh- 

ancienl, and theiFfore the product of an oat dLfeclton,thea^Itali(in viLhont resnU. 

immatDje age of the world ; and tbe e;ea In such a kUIc of thines there can be no 

□f men were turned from the past to Ibe pn^ress till racietj becames organized, 

Tutwe, and to those ideal models, dim and and begins to move fortrard (awards 

shadowy, which were sketched qnite as some definite ohiect. Let this take place, 

' often by the imagination as by the jndg- let any idea become the pronineat aiid 

ncnt. Then, as literary, and seientiSe, governing ides in the commnnitr, and it 

and commercial intercourse increaaed, will be supposed there i# progress whra 

Ihe great idea ajose that Ihere was ■ men are in the ihykcss of realizing that 

commaaity, instead of an opposition of klea. Is war and eontineel, as it hat oftea- 

intenst among nations, till at length, been, the promiDent idenf Then there 

when the hgure and extent of the earth, is progrcus when the science, the inMra- 

aod the condition of its inhabitants be- mentj and the art sf war are becoming 

came known, and facilities of interconne more perfect. Is loxory and Mnnuil gn- 

were increased, there was originated tbe tifictLtiou the leading idea } Then there 

''idea of a reciprocal influence, a common is progress when a new dish is inrcntedr 

bond of intereBl,aDd H law of progress for sod when, as in ancient Corcjra, the 

all) till now, there is scarcely a periodi- cocks are prevented from crowing in the 

ca], or a lecture, or a literary addrew, in morning. Is wealth (he leading idea T 

which this law is not spoken of as famili- There is progress when the eonntiy ia be- 

arly and as conSdeotly as the law of eomiag rich. Is it the power of man 

gTavitation iuelf. oyer eztemal nalnre} or liberty? or 

" Aiwas to he expected, an idea soei- equality! or tbe perfection ofthe fine arts T 

eiliDg to Ibe imagination has been carried There will be supposed to be progreas 

loolar, and has given rJAe to something what there is an appnniinatioQ to tbe 

of extravagance, and to something of a((ainment of these. Wonld (here then 

cant. With this for their walchwt»d, be ■ tme progress in the advancement 

and probably honestly believing thstn- of society towards any or all of these 

aflves nnder its inflnence, egotiatieal and ends? Yes, on couditton, and only on, 

nnqiiiet and ambitions men, and men of condition that society would thus attain o. 

one idea, have altacked without scruple true end and not a means. 
ot discrimination, everything that was "The true idea of progress, then, is not 

old; have eagerly adopted new systems thai of aiovement, or simply of frogra- 

of ihoaght, or those sapposed to be new ; rion towards the realisation o( an idea ;: 

have eriginaled impracticable schemes, bat it involves a recognition of tbe true 

•Bd have been lealoua in introdneing end of man as a social being, and an np* 

them, little regarding their eongmily witb proaeh towards that. This end I ruip~ 

the existing state of tbii^s. When all pose to be, the npboitding and perfeetioD 

Uiii bM ^oduced its natural eonse- of the individaal man in everythii^ thai 

fueBces, dirision nod confnsion, they miUfes him truly man. I haM, that thv 

haveeriedoat— progrui; ihns niataking germ of all political and Mciat wril-beiag' 

tkt MnuDOtion caased in the vitals of is to be fonnd in the progretc of the indi* 

■oeiety by the eniditie* with which they vidaol towards the true and highest end 

Ime dragged it, for the excitement oif for which he wot made. And here we 

iMallhyMtim. Eten the Bible hot been have an instance of that incidental ac- 

HVfMid to have grown obaelete, and to eomplishmeut of subordinate ends in the 

iH«d to be adapted to the progreu of the attainment of one that is bigher, that ia 

•ge. everywhere BO conspicD on B in the wodu^ 

"What then is tbe true idea of pro- of God. U it the end of the processes oT^ 

gMtal And her« T observe, that the vegetation to perfect the seedT It is^ 

idea of pregieos pretnpposea a d^aite on^ when those processes move on to the 

okJMt to fa« attained, and n movement laeeeisrul aecomptiahmenl of that, that 

MwardallMtobjecL It is not Ibe tossing of we can have the beanty and frafianee oT 

• Tendon the waves without a rudder or the flower, or the shade and ftMbnetsof 

koiHDpHa; i( implies that there is a pMt, the green leaves. So here, we' find that 

imi that the ahip is lending towards it. Mciol good con be wrongbl out, an) no> 

UidaMthereisM>aiedefinileidea,towarda eial ends be attained, only at individai^ 

the realisation of which society is moving, nre perfected in their character; and that 

•tkcceesB be DO progress. There may he, the beauty and Irogiune* and broad abadc 



oogle 



18«.] The Lav of Pregrtit of ike Ract. IW 

of a perfect socictr would arrow, without sad (lien presume il lo be wise, nth«r 
eSartor coDlriv&nee, from the pro^res!! of than fir&l to assert wbal would be wise 
Ibe indiriduol* of eoeieiT lowsrils itieir and (hen presume (hat Divine Frovi- 
true pecft'cliun and end. Thus, arrd thus dence has done it. It may be K>. I[ 
only, can we have that state of ideal per- would be in accordance wilb Ibe analogy 
feclion in wfaicli pe[rec( liberty would be of Gcd's worLs in which we so oflen find, 
combined will) perfect security, aod with at in Ibe vision of the Prophet, a wheel 
all the advanlages of the social slate. If within a wheel. But it nay also be, that 
this be (0, then political organization i, this nortd holds in the plans of God, the 
which are merely means lo an end, are same relation that the nursery bolds lo 
most perfect when (hey so CDmbiae pro. the fields of transplanted trees, and ihet 
tection with freedom as Id give (he moat its end lies entirely beyond itself. If so- 
favorable theatre for Ibe growth, and en- ciety had always remsinBd in a patriarchal 
joyment, and perfection of (be individual or nomadic slate, wilhoul anything of 
man; and that society itself is most per- what we call progress, nnd there had sim- 
feci, whatever its form may be, in which ply come up such men as Abiabam, and 
the greatest number of Individuals recog- Isiac, and Jacob, to spend here ' the days 
Bite and pursue this end. It cannol be of the years of their pilgrimage * and then 
too oflen repealed, thai (he ends of society go up higher, who would say (hat Ihe 
are not realized when there are grcal ag- world had been a fuilnref This question 
gregate results, magniEc cut public works, man cannot decide without a wider sur- 
great accumulations of wealth and of the rey of Ihe plans of God than falls within 
means of scncualand sensitireenjoyment, ODr preseDl vision, and hence we cannot 
with the degradation, or without (he rely upon any argument for Buch a law, 
growth of individuals) and that all drawn from Ibis souicc. 
changes in the forms of institutions and " The second ground on which the ei- 
Uie direction of active industry, must be istence of this law has been argued, is to 
futile, which do nut originate iu, or draw be fbund in Ihe fact (hat the product of 
alter them an improvement in the cha- the hnman mind is not mere sensations 
racter of individuals. But it is self-evi- that perish as they arise, but that we in- 
dent (hat society can fumtsh a free arena herit (be experience and knowledge of all 
Ibr individual grnwih, only as the princi. who have gone before us. This u a great 
plec ofjustice and benevolence are lecog- fact, and on it the capacity of (he race 
niz^d — only as (he spirit of that great far improvement is based. It give* a 
precept of doing to others as we would tendency to improvement, and [ba( teo- 
thal they should da unto us, pervades the dency would became a law if there were 
mass. The fundamental condition, then, nothing to counteract it. Former genc- 
of any progress that can be permanent, rations hare labored, and we have entered 
and solid, and aniversal, is a moral con- into (heir labors. They were as (he pro- 
ditioQ. Let tbis exist, and there will phettofold, 'unlo whom It was revealed 
come in at accessories, progress in sci- that not un(o themselves did (hey tninister, 
«oee and in arts and in wealth ; but with- but unto us upon whom these ends of (he 
Mit this, whalever progress may be made world are come.' Ours are all their con- 
iu physical improvements, (here will be ques(s over physical nature, all their ac> 
constant agitatiau and reslleganess \ and cnnalatioas of wealth, all (heir macbine* 
through eveiy <;hangeof form, society will and iaTentioas in the arts, all (heir litent- 
continue to be like that stick of which tnre and science, and all the political and 
most of ns have heard, which was lo social experience of Ihe world. Oura are 
crooked that it coald not lie atill. their obtervaliona on individual facts and 
'■ If then (here be a law of progresi for beings, oars their arrangement of those 
the face, it must be one by which society facts and their generalizations, and our* 
advances towards a state of things such those grand ideas and methods which have 
as has just been described. And that come to the scientific seers of the race, 
there is such a law, is affirmed on Ibrea not so much from what is called indue- 
distinct grounds : The first is, thai such a tion, as suddenly, and like a direct reve- 
law is required for the vindicatioa of (he lation from the sumstjonof asinglefaet. 
wiadon) of Divine Providence. It is sup- And rich as are these golden saoda that 
posed that the world wonld be a failure have been brought down by the rirer oT 
nnleis it should manifest the evolution of time, (here is every reason to believe 
a regnUr plan, whose parts shoold sue- that (hose will be richer yet which ijiall 
eeed each other like the five acts of a be borne itilinirlheron. In (he pn^reM 
drama, and form by tbenuelves, when of the race, not lest than of the individu- 
lime wa> over, a complated whole. Bat a], the great principle applies, (hat lo bin 
-it il ftr tafer aad aore becoming, to as- that bath, ^11 be given. Every dt^ .^ . 
eeit*ia what Divine ProTiience luu done, ibowi Ibat tkert ii opea before n« the C 1 O Q C 



198 TAe Laie of Progrtu of tht Rant. [An*. 

p&tb of a limitless progrenioD, and tbat raised themKlTM npoa the shonldcn oT 
Mieoce ba» bn( jnsl begnn to be applied their predecraKin, aad perirtied Ihroagh- 
to the parpose of sabjagating natare to ont all ibe iilaDdi of the Pacific r How 
man, and of causing the eleneat* to min- has It been wlih ATrica ? Hat Egrpt, 
later to bis happiness. No one, for ei- once so mightT, bat nov so Ions tbe faat«>t 
ample, naacquaialed vilh wbal has been oTkingdWDS, made progms T Has Car- 
done by the applicalion of cbemiilrj to Ibage ? Or Namidia 1 Or hare the an- 
' agriculture, by an invesligatioa of (he nnmbered millioni in iu central and sonth- 
laws of vegetable life, and of the nntri- ern regions J Has Ajia ro»de progress T 
ment and stimalanti of regetables, can Has there been any pn^ress for a thon- 
eonceive what prospeeu are openJag in «aad years in India, or in China? Has 
respect to the cheapness and abundance tbeie in Tarlary, or Persia, or Arabia, or 
of theprodaclsof the earth, the multitade Tnrlcej f Do not the Chinese and the ' 
of inhabitants il may consequently sup- Hindoo* now nie astronomical tables, Of 
port, and the leisnre they may have for the principles of whose conitruetion they 
rational eattnre and enjoyment. And know nothing t So far hare the priaei- I 
what is thns tme of the products of the pal nations of Asia been from maldng 
earth, is also tr^e of the means of trans- pn^rese within (he last thousand years, 
porting them, and not only so, Irat of eom- that il would be hazarding nothing to as- | 
mnnicating to the whole race any inven- sert that ihey have deterjorated. Their i 
tion or discovery, and of binding then to- movement has spent its force, (heir civi- I 
gether as one in the bcoids of interest and liiation has become effete. And if this is 
of sympathy. to, what beeomesofthelaw of progressof 

" We fully admit, then, the great fact the race, whe* sueh vast masses are not 
on irtiich the possibility of this law is acted upon by thai law T Does not the 
baled ; we admit the tendency to progresi law become a law of deterioration, and 
under certain conditioos; bnt how far pn^reea the exception T I do nol under- 
this compels us to admit the law, vrill be stand by what righ( il is, (hat in consider- 
best seen by passing on as we DOW do (o ingthe history of the race, tte larger por- 
the history of (he race — (he third ground tion of it is accounted by the advocate* of 
on which (he existence of soch a law is this law as nothing. 
asserted. The ndTOcate* of this law do "But tracing the line of movement aid 
not permit thenuelves to donbt, as in- of civilisation fVom its reputed origin, | 
deed they cannot consistently, that every whether in India or in Egypt, first to | 
snceeeding generatiott has, on the whole, Gr e e c e, then to Rome, and then to modem 
been wiser and happier than the preeed- times, do we Und any indication* of ■ 
ing. Bnt can this view be sustained by law of progress T 

the history of the pastT Or does not this "It is doubled by some whether we are 

history rkthei show that while there is a really in advance of (he ancient civilisa- 

tcodency to progress is the race, yet that tion. It cannot l>e pretended that we 

this tendency can take effect and become have greater Individual men. Grander 

■ law only on certain conditions, both specimensof man wilt probably neverex- 

physical and moral 1 1st than are to be fonnd among those ^ 

" On the physical obstacle* to progress, old lime. Many of their arts, it is weQ 

I need not enlarge, beonsc they have not known, are lost, and many others, at one 

in (kcl been Ou obnacles to man. It it time sapposed to be solely of modem dis- 

obvious, hotrerer, that life may be, and covery, are now known to have been in 

sometimes tuu been, such a mere straggle use among them t and any one who will 

to existence, as to preclude all idea or read attentively the twenty-serenth diap- 

hope of iodi^ual or general caltnre. But terof Eiekiel, may doubt whether we are 

is it a Iket that tribes, thai nations, that before them in what pertains to the hixn- 

eontinents, in which no physical eondi- ries and refinements of life, 

tionof progreBswaswanliBg,havealways " But if we are in sdvance of them, is 

made such progress ! How was it with our civilisation a continuation of theirs T 

the tribes of this country, when they were Is the course of civilisatioa and improve- 

diseovered r Were (hey making progress 1 ment properly represented by a river 

Or were (hey going on towards extinc- flowing on and expaoding 1 Or may we 

tion ) How was it with (he race, com- not rather compare what has been done, 

paralivelj eiviliied, that preceded them? to the formation in the stream of separate 

What voice do the ruined cities and the islands of sand, where we ma; see ono 

remains of aaeient art and civilisation, now aeeumnlatinr, and enlarginjr, and i 

scattered over this continent, utter re- giving promise of permanence, tmt at \ 

gpecting (he progress of man ? To what length undermined and washej away bf 

point of elevation have those many gene- the water*, and Ut material* dispersed, or 

rations attained, who have li*M, and floated down till tlKTraaeb anew polstoC > 

Lioogic 



IBM.] Th* Lav ef Progwi vf tht Raet. 1S0 

tggnKktifflif The latter acems to ne to gation. No iattance ii known in whirh, 
be tlie man aKoratc reprHrntation, and without tbis, ciTilisatian has rekindled itg 
if tDauy, and perkipi the mort! valaable, fires npoa sltsn where they have once 
nwlcritJ* haTe been faVed in the general ^neont. That portion of the race which 
eoalttHon eoaneeted trith th« tranafer of u the most hopelew, which it is moil dif- 
tb« fMt* of power and ofciTiliHitioa, mncb fieolt to inprt^nale with intelleclaal and 
■1k> haa been ion. Indeed, till modern moral vilalit;, i» the reiiduam of an u- 
eiTiiintion began to extend ita anna, Knd to tinct ciTitiaation. There ii no evidenee 
gne indieatioB* that it wonM nitimalely tbst anytbini; except Chriitianilr conld 
emlvaee the globe, this altemalioo of have annlgsmated materiala to diieoid- 
growth and decay wa« mppased to be the ant aa the norihera bubarian and the 
kwafthe race. Thai Peter the Great effemiiiBte Roman, nor any rca«oa to 
•ay8,iiit'i*^'l'> 'Hookapon the invasion suppose that wilhont it Europe could have 
oftheeonntries of the East and West by been freed frxim the cnise of doioeatic 
the North, *s periodical tooTemenli deter- slavery, and of fFnilal instil ntiont. Bar- 
mined by the deeigns of Providence, who barians, have, indeed, been said to re- 
thai regenerated the Roman empire by generate decayed civiiii&lion, bill it was 
flte invasion of barbarian*. The emi^ra- became (here wbe at work an element 
tiou of ihe Polar races are tike tbe llow mightier than that of civilisation, amal- 
«rAe Nile, which, al certain periods, ia punating and faaing masaea that would 
•cnt M fertUise the nnporeriahed land of nerer hare become one by any other 
SgTpt.' This u the lesaon which history power. There haa act been upon the 
•kne, separated from the movements and earth for the Inrt IhonMod yean, there it 
praapeeU of modem eivilisation, teaches, not oow, aay tme protresa exeept in eoik- 
"What then ia this dvitiMition wbich neetion with CbrittJaiiity. On the coft- 
thna erects itaelf lo the anrrey of Ihe trary, all other systems of religion, vui 
whole earth t It ii Christian civilisation bU other types of civilisation, are Iklling 
— one whoae roots arc WBtereit by the life- lo decay, and man i* delerioraling indi- 

Iiving springs, and npon whose leaves vidaaily and socially onder their inAa- 
eteendthedews of the religion of Christ ence. Itis then for Christendom, if at 
— a civiliaatitHi preserTed, and kepi from all, and for tbe race only as it may be 
mtreftetion by that saltof the earth. It embraced within the expanding liioita of 
la a ctrDitatuw, not like tfaoae of oM, in Chrialendom, that history indicates a law 
one great mkts, bnt perradiDg all Chris- of pro g re s a." 
•-■— s, and erer y w h ere manifesting 



tbe aanc great eharactcriatict. Itapringa Our readera will not regret Iba 
foxn the priacqile of indiTidnal growth, leoKth of thia extract. We preferred 
nanifiettJDgltaelf in accordMce with the giviog tbe whole to any abridgfrnent at 



Act that tbe tme growth and onr own, thinking that the orator'e 

weU-beingofoneianotoppoaedtothMof ,iew» would be McplainDd beat in hia 

any other, but miMt be coincident with <,^ ^^^g. i„ ,^6 „»!„ ^^ ,-,^ 

^V '^"^^J^-A =?™P»"'^ wiihthedoctriDeaof thediaronraeTal- 

Sii'trsfo'i^^t-'^rnVdn;: »^-f i"- ra.::r«.''x": ■' 

ceiue of gravity, aa to expect society to which we cannot taaent to. Bat « « 

be at rest fill this great prinViple is r«08- plw«?t 10 meet an original thinker, 

Diced and acted upon. In connection with even if yoo do urn always agree with 

thia rdigion end with this principle there •"""■ The aobject is intereBUng and 

haa been progreas , and nowhere else. In we will ptinae it a little further. 
enuieetioo with this, we can trace an Bat let ob first explain what he 

•Spandiag stream from the fonuiam head means by the Progreea of tbe Race, 

of l&e race. We aee it at flrsi, winding Borne persona talk flippantly aboot it, 

iU soUlarj and threadlike way in Ihe and of the law which Uiey suppose gt»- 

palriarahal and Jewish diapeoaattoiia, till veros it, who, we dare say, have no very 

at length it boUt forth from the hills of diatinct notions of either. Progresa u 

Jodaa and became a mighty river, whose Bomething different from movemrat. 

current istojday flowing on and bec<«ninR j^ ,^1 may be fast drifting with the 

deeper and broader. The ancie»t forma tide, arf apjeartothe unknowing i* be 

^S^^"^^:LV;e;™ertwTh: '^^y^'^^JTf^n^.'f^' 

fta^mtsoftheirwreAwouIdhavebcen maM"'"'?" "5 ""* i""" *'"''* " 

eaoght and preserved, if Christianity had dnvmg bard on the sanda. 
not eome in with the inftoence of ita pnre Change la not necewanly a good ; 

precepta, and the weight of its etenal noria motion always in the right direo- 

andlbnned new points of afgr*. tion. The only frogreaa worth thmb-^ i 



aOO The Lata of Progrest of the Race. [Aii£. 

log of IB progTFSs towards aome good, has generallj been examined. Most 
Out of all the Blir and motion thiit the persons, overlooking the general view, 
world hasaeen, has there been a move- have taken a partial one &om&pu- 
raent towards a good end 1 tic;ulat point of obMrvation. For ex- 
Bat there may be particular ends ample, some have taken the haraio 
more or leas good. Any one of ^ent Tirluea, as ^e tests of eiceltenee, and 
may be good, when connected with the then have answered the question bj 
real, and qnite uaeless, or a positire companog the ancient and modem 
evil, by itself. Wealth, for instance, is ciiilisalion in the cultivatiDo of these 
a good, if in proper hands and well ap- vtrtuea. Others have taken the me- 
phed -, in bad hands, or ill applied, it chanic arta, and seeing the great eupe- 
bitd better not have been given. la- riority of modern actence, have pro- 
creaaed wealth, therefore, is not ne- nonnced the modern world far in ad- 
ceEsarily a better condition. The con- Tsnce of the old. Now, as we have 
ditioD of society is (he result of numer- already mentioned, it is quite necessary 
ous elements. The advance towards to disiiDgitiah between the particular 
the realization of one idea may or may ends, however good in Ihemeelves, uid 
not be sD advance towards a better the general end, which we have oob- 
condition. Thai depends on the value sidered the true eod of life. This di»- 
of the idea. Indeed, it ia not the leali- tioction will enable ua to clear tiwaj 
xation of any simple ides that satisfies moat of the difficulties which hang 
our notions of aptogess, hut rather the around the subject. For if you take 
aomplex idea of the great end for which the imperfeot tests, which we hB*e 
nian was created and society establish- been speaking of, you may receive as 
ed. Progress towards that or, in other many different answers as there are 
words, towahdb teb true end or testa. Will you take literature! 
LIFE, is the only true progress. muiners T tbe fine arts 1 heroic 
The question then arises, what is achievements! knowledge 1 power 
tbe true end of life 1 Mr. Hopkins over external nature ! If you take 
explains, that the true end of man, literature, we deny that there has been 
as s social beiug, is " tbe up-huild- any progress. The literature of the 
log and perfection of the individual best AtheoiaD age was better thao tbe 
man, in everything that makes him literature of the nineteen^ ceetury. 
truly man." This definition does not Will you take manners! Are out 
satisfy us. It strikes ns SB too in- manners mwe graceful than tha 
exact for a philosophieal writer. Wa Homan * Or the fine arts ! There 
should prefer to say that (A« frus cnrfo/ the ancients were our masters. Or 
lift 13 the cuiHealionof tnan'i moral heroic aohievementB ! Where have 
nature. Everything appears to us to they been seen as they were in the 
point to that. The reason and all the ancient commonwealths! But if you 
Acuities of the mind ; the body and its mean power over the external world, 
TariouB faactions ; the frame of society, n-e have outstripped everything that 
&milies, states, governments ; aU so- the world has known before us. Or, if 
cibI and political iuBtitutions, laws and you speak of knowledge, certainly iw 
constitutiona, are all but puis of a vast previous age has amassed so much. 
scheme tending to develope and exer- It will not do, therefore, to take a 
ciae the moral Acuities, with which view narrower than tbe one we be^as 
the Al mitt hty hath endowed the human with; and with that before as, we thiak 
iBce. Without this key to its royete- the question capable of estisfactoiy ta- 
ries, life is an inezplicable enigma. swer. Has there been a progTMa of 
FiMU this position we are able to stir- the race in the sense in which we have 
vsy the ground, and perhaps to answer explained it! In other worde, is the 
saiiBfaclotiiy the qnestions whether race nownearer the true end, to whicb 
there has been progresB, and, if so, it should ever tend, than it has been in 



I 



whether tbe phenomena attending it anyprev 

indicate a law. Tfaeae two things are The progress of the race ; this is 

qatte distinct, and require a separate one thing ; that of the iodividnal is 

examination. another. The latter is very much d»- 

First. Has there bean a progress of pendent on the former ; but they mnat 

the rue! Before tuuwering this not be conbnnded. The race ia mtie^ 

qnesUon, let na look at the subject from op of individnala. Their lives am l~)OOl 

eeitain potnta of tlsw, from whieh i( M«t. Their qnalitiei are ponHBtl tr-^ ^ ^-^Q ' 



I 



M44.| The Lme of Progrtia of the Itaet. SDI 

themMWes, ineftpable of tnnsrer. It worid < There may be a nanifstt 

ia the agEregatioa of all these indi- pragreaB in one nalion, but a retro- 

Tida«!e. If the Tieible prn^rees of the gteMton in olhera more oameronB, 

indlridnal slops with his Ufe, in what so that, in f&ct, the race has gone 

aeuse can iheie be a pregreee of the backward. Look, for instance, at 

nee f modern Earope. Italy has retro^ad- 

The lace never dies. All the itidi- ed during Che last five centaries. S» 

Tidoali that oempnee it do net die at has Spain. Germany, on the othsr 

the earae time. When one dies, the hand, has advanced — France has ad- 
dced fiirti 

Perhaps, however, the resalt nill bo 

toms, the wealth, the learning that be- tbe moat eatiefactoiy if we confin« 

longed to the race whilst he lived, onreelves to the moat civilized por- 

The ocquisirioira ef one generation do lions of the earth, and compare the 

net die with them ; they are commit- highest civilisation at one period with 

t«d to language and preaerved. While the highest at another. No other 

the indiridaals perish like leaves, the comparison will furniah reanlla ao 1ike> 

raee ef man, that nyateriMis aggrego- ly to be usefni. None, indeed, will 

tion of persona, flourishea, aa if it telt approximate so near to absolnte truth, 

no loss. The great heman tide awella (or the more civilised porliona of the 

and reeedea, aa if there had been no world always act moat efficiently on 

eliaage in the paitictes whieh compose the rest, dragging the more harbaroaa 

it. after them, and a omparieon of the 

There is a settae in whiieh an indi- highest civilisation will serve aa a 

vidual may be said to posseas what parrallel to the lower. 

Others have left, who have died before Taking then the highest dvilisation 

bim, and to start from the point where as the only subject of comparison at 

they stopped. A peraon bom into the different perioda of the world, what is 

world eoDiea into a coramaaity more or the resnit of a dispassionate inquiry ( 

less educated. Their eiviliulion af- Is the civiliaation of the most eulti- 

fects him. He inherits the writings nf vated portion of Chriatendom at this 

previooa generations, and the wealth, moment, considered in relation to the 

the arts, &b eontrivaacea te inorease troe enda of man'a life aa we have 

man'a power, which hia predecesaora explained them, superior to that of any 

had maide. With the aid of these he other part of the world at any previooa 

Btaits in life. Thas the progress of time * We think it is, and we will ex- 

the race afFects the progreaa of the ht- plain in few worde wherein we think it 

dividual. eo. 

At this moment, there is a oenain ft is not the ntaas of knowledge 

■moant of intelligence and virtue in the treasured up in boohs that inHuenees 

worM. Comparing it with the amount our judgment, although the libraries of 

in rtiy iermer period, is there mom or the wnrid now contain more knowledge 

lean than there was then 1 Tothiaques- than was ever before amaaaed. It is not 

tien we seek an anawer. this, became we know that knowledge 

But here again it ia necessary to dia- may be bnried ia books, doing nothing 

criminate. Suppose a greater amount lor the living world. The Chinese 

in the aggregate, while at the same have the philosophy of Zoroaster. The 

time the population of the world has Hindoos the philoinphy of the Bra- 

inoreased in a atitl greater prnportion, mins. To the people they are aealed 

ao that ia fact the aroonnt relative to books. In the middle ages, there were 

population ia less. Would there then eopiee of the best worka of the an- 

have been a progress 1 eiente, lying in the libraries ef the 

liie comparison to be Just should monasteries unread and almost nn- 

inolnde tbe two elements, amooat and knowtr. For any influence on the 

nambeta. The qneation then woold world then, they might almost as well 

emce to this. Is tbe nm of intalli- not have been written. Nor is it the 
^oee and vinne, c 
popnlation, greater 

been. Perhaps, indeed, yet another in them. Such existed in the corrDpt 

element shonld be added. Will yon ages of Rome, and in the datkest^^ 

take a single nation > or the whole nights of the world. They exist 
TOl. IT. — so. LXZir. 14 



LtOOJjIc 



toss Tie Lav sf Pr^gntt tf tke Raer, t^^V' 

ia coBDtriH thftt are flu from tbe over mxaet ia a tbooBUd-firfll aialti' 

cenlis of citiliutioD i id \\tiy ; in plied. There eeema no limjt to ths- 

Ruuis \ in the Eut ; men, vbo could pown h« hu now taken xm bis aid. 

Btand nde bj aide with the best and He miiea ihe eleMeeU do Ma work, 

greateit of aay age or land. Modem tad eew eembioMiena of elemente, 

civiJiaaLioii is aol ia advanee of the There has been ■ethisg' like it in thff 

ancient, in the prodsctioii of noble world before. 

nee ; noi in literature ; nor ia the fine Now, alihongh erS ha* act been 

arts; sor Id taate ; nor ia heroism, diifen out from atnosget ee ; although 

But itia in adTuwe of il in knowledge the criine and tbe wretobedaau of toe- 

diffused ; in eelarged philantbrop]' ; in woild are fiigktful still, wa bold that 

naleriBl comforts, arising cliiefly from these are real Binclistatia>a. We 

the eqaslisatioB of property and condi' have Dndoubllas trust that tbey are- ' 

lioDi ; in control oier eitereaJ nature ; alt (aeasures far geod to man. Thej 

in forni* of goTeromeDt; and in the are adva-noea, not towards an object of 

knowledge and nainlcDsnce of human uDSMbstmlial good, but towards a real 

TJgbte. In these respects, do previous good ; a true eud. Tbejr are the proof 

age of tbe wwld baa seen what we aad the effect of a real piogrcs* of the 

Now, these are thinga which enter It is aot oar pnrfwae at Ibe present 

into the fotmation ef nan's noral life ; time to go into any disoasHoa of tbe 

which either fashioa it, or leaxe it free causes oftbie progrees. Oar «bJeot i» 

to be Ikshioned by good influences. It acoomplished, when we have satisfied 

is in this that Ibe progress of tbe race odt readers of tbe finl. 
towards the tine end, we have spoken Nor, indeed, hare we toached oi» 

•f, is manifest. The points of aupe- what we regard as a most imiKirtanl 

rioritj of the aneienta, related lees to elemenloftfaeqaeatkeB — theaenl pre- 



le moral, and more to the beautiful and 



iMiraiion for ftU»r« progress dsTolopvd 
by the past, and its most eacearagtng 



Take a single example. Until mo- aign. Who can cast a single glance , 

dem ^T^i '^ lightB of nan aa man over even the sarlaoe of society with- | 

bare been little nndersteod. In tbe oat perceiving, in erery direction, the 

old oofuBi on wealths, man was nothiog ; evidence of tbi« trath ! Who oan look 

the slate was eieivthiiig. He bad no upon tbe fermentatioB of tbe spirit 

lights-, that had all. It might do what of reform and reorganintien, viatUe 

itlihed. He was its instromenl and everywhere, in one mode of aciion or 

Tictim. In oar days man is inTest- another, withoat petceiviag that the . 

ed with a ceiuin sanctity. His right* age is dready nader tbe impulse ef » 

are Mdet than tbe lawa, eider than the force aach aa »e period ef the whM'b 

state. He ia the equal of any other history baa befne knewn T More er 

man, and of all other men, and he is less wisely, mora or less ainoarety, 

hedged aboat wiib a divinity, better mote <w less earnestly, almoat every 

than Ibat of kinga. He baa rights too man appears to fed bimaelf under the 

•acted for man t* toeeb, bora with him, inspiration and sway of some one ides 

and inalieoaUe. This great truth ia oiotber ofimprevement lobetoiledfer, 

the distinotio* of the modern world, ila spoken for, written for — if need be, 

patent of pracedeaee. died for— foe ibe good of bu kiad and 

In tbe other respects that we have of the wwld. 

meotioaed, tbe anperiority of ibe pre- This apirk ia that a( CTbristiaaily j 

sent will, we have no doubt, be readily a»d, divine in it* origin, divine in ita 

admitted. The bealtbi comforts and power, divine in its aims and teodeaetes, 

noraiity of the masses, were never so who shall presome to eel limila to its 

great as Ibey are now. He who work of regeneration T 

doubts it moat h&ve read the past with Oar article has expanded itaelf s» 

eonvieiions different from our own. far, that we mast reserve to anothet 

So the general diSuaion of knowledge Dumber what we have written upon the 

surpasses all former example. Books lemainiog hrancb ef the inquiry — the 

are malti|)lied by milliona of presses, question of the ezisteDce of alaw, •»• 

with a rapidity thai mocka all counting, eordiug to which the progress of ifae 

and are offered to the poorest at a ^ce laea t^«e plaoe. D. D. F. 

within his means, Man's domnioa (~^OOoIp 



NATURE'S LYRE. 

■T tAMMa •■ nmoiTAL. 

" Ib there no hand to nka mj ktieient lyre t" 

So, throDgh the eolemn hmh of midnkght, eima 

Late to mj eoni % Uhm, that Memed, like Ore, 
WiUuBiny heart to light ila eailj flame. 

Far from on high it flowed, and to mj ear 

Bon throogh the dark profbaod Um aong ofhidieet a^iere. 

** le there no hand la tune mT harp again, 

Ae miee it rang on Ziuo a Mered hilla, 
Whenee borne by aire from heaven o'er vale and plain, 

The deant eniilml, the aea «ru smMiifa and itai — 
fa there no Toiee to awetl Uwt loftj lay 
Up to the golden gate* of never-ending day ! 

" Will Done awahe again the heroio rtiing, 

Sneh aa Olympna hoaid 'mid aky-crowned anowa 1 
The bonnding mccenta leap ; TeBponsive ring 

StToek eworda on brasen ahield that barniahed glom. 
Will DO protid yoDth take np the epio aong. 
And 'mid trinmphal halla ita wondroaa eharm prolongi 

" la there no lip oan fill the paatnral data, 
And pour iia aweetneea on the vernal air ; 
To the EileM linie of lorea and bioBsoma eoit 

The atrain that breathaa alone the eoft and fair 1 
Is there no joyous heart to give once more 
The featal hyma that roae by myttle-tnfted ahoie % 



That to the Joy of fight, like heme, they flew, 
Whether on Ilinm^'e glory-lighted ooaat, 
Or where the Baltie roUa 'mid ValhaU'a raalme of fioat 1 

" And who ia there ean laad the faii^ daiw«. 
To ever-ohaDgefol notae, from eitteroa hsme 
Throng^ the wiU tangled riiadowa of Rmnaoce, 

Oft atartM by the elaag of elfio hors— 
la there a voiee ean render, foil and free, 
That aoi^ (rftendereat lore, and gayeat revelry 1 

"And dan one toneh the lyre of many tonee. 

That apake the all-meaiuDg laagoa^ of a worid, 
So^etear and tnie, the aong each paaaton omw, 

Hope'a awaUing Up, and pride'a in anger earle^- 
Will Mme that fnlleat hamnny display. 
And lead it with atroag hand oareering on ite way T 



oi^a 



I, then, all foi^t my ancient lyre, 
latore'a pure and aimple mnaie atran 



Tnie art ia perfect nature — wake, and give ^.~, J 

NcwmotioB to ila chorda, and kniwr, thy aevg abaD livf,|" ,^^^ „ LjOOQ IC 



Ode d&y — perhaps the Tety same — devutalioo and death. During three 
roM, aide bj aide, two iaiaoda rrom the centuries thej lenewed ihemaelves 
boaom of tbe ocean. Both gifled by upon the land, dlactaimiiig to establiah 
h«aTen with the oame verdant dreaa, themselvee persianently, and quitting 
(he BamQ natural reaourcee, the same it loaded with apoila. When they ea* 
rich and fertile aoil ; aeparated by a tablished themselTea, not content with 
channel a few leagues wide, inhabited claiming all the aoil, they attributed to j 
by populationa of difierent origins and theraselTes all the right, laiaing eternal I 
manners, Btrangeis to each other for and inaurmoun table barriers hetweea . 
ceotories, these two islands lived hap- them and tbe Tanquiehed, whom the^ | 
pilVi till Norman adrentureTS, having trampled under foot, despising then 
seized the firtt, cane to take posses- language, violating ibeir cuatoms, and 
sion of the second, and the countries degrading their life. When, in tbe 1 
were soon united under one aceptre. sixteenth century, the mother country 
Dating from this moment, their desii- ch^inged its religion, they changed with 
nies offer only an odioaa contrast. hei, and were astonished that a people 
Here the conquering race mingled who bad nothing bat tbe faith of theii 
gradually with the conquered. An falheis refused to abandon the aole pro- 
aristocracy, powerful, enlightened, and perty they had Isft. Then commenced 
benevolent, arose, who opposed them-' against the native race an atrocious 
selves to royalty, consUtnted them- perseoutioo. The nether country sent 
selves patrons of the people, and united soldiers, cannon and executioners. The , 
themselves with them in a strict com- saints of Cromwell lighted like vultures 
munily of langnage, religion, intereats, on this unhappy laud ; blood flowed for 
ideas and prejudices. Placed at the more than a century, and when, at last, 
bead of a commercial and indueirioua the conquerors were tired of a war that 
Bociety, this aristocracy comprehended only gave birth to martyrs, peraeention 
its wants, and soon, from its impulsion, resolved iteetf into a vast system of 
a secondary aristocracy, born of labor helotiem and legal oppression, which 
and wealth, came to place itself beneath luted yet a hundred years. Two 
it, and form an uninterrupted chain great revolutions, those of America 
which connected and harmonized alt and France, struck the first blows at 
parts of the social ediGce from the base this system, and Providence has raised 
to the summit. Thus organized, thus np a powerful man who will now 
Merarchiztd, this i^nd, in apite of schieve its deslructiou. 
the impetuous storm of democraoy Still, if the instruments of s tyranny 
which roars ronnd it, preaenta, even of seven centuries are nearly destroyed, 
yet, to tbe world tbe spectacle of a na- the effects of this tyranny still sut«ut, 
lion, powerful and compaiuively free, and the contrast presents itself still 
in the midst of tbe most complete ine- under its moat hideous aspect. Of 
qoality. these two islands, hem with equal rights 
What if now from tiiis island we pass to the same destinies, the one. Great 
to the other ^ What a difference 1 Britain, displays itself happy, opn- 
Tbere the conqnerois, far from uniting lent, proud of its veasels which cover 
themselves with the natives, labor in- the sea — of the gold it seeks in all parts 
eeasantly to perpetnste the violences of of the world — of its old, decrepid inati- 
the conqnest. Recruited by bands of tutions, for they hare, for a long lime, 
pillagers which the mother oeuntry been the cause of its prosperity and 
sends each day, they cany every where glety. The other, Ireland, complaint^ ~'^i-v0|p 



1644.] (yCannell. 905 

■gtt«t««, maliiiJiea, — oalied, misenble, er, preMiving one fiom the contaet aad 

•UTTod, — without commerce, without iggresBion of the other ; one huodced 

maun foe turea, without otber reaoarcea piilacea to a thousand hute of mud ; a 

than the aoU whioh it ooveta with its milliuu of beggara to one hundred like 

awest, that s ael&ati and abhorred Lucdlu* — such is Ireland. It can be 

irislocno^ may reap the fruite and conceived thu reduced to these Bimple 

squander it abroad ; Ireland, now poli- terms, the question would have been 

ticalljr free but aocialty eoclaTed, esa- laog sinoe settled, if the Irish aristo- 

oratiog the inslitutioBs, which have cracy had not at ita service the artille' 

■ever been bat murderous weapons in r;, lae red coats, and the policemen of 

the hands of ita oppretaora, and ciaini' its siaier, the English aristocracy. Thia 

ing (he first, the moat iniperions, of all l&tler better inspired at boma, but puah- 

Tighta, that of living by labor. Such ed here by religious fanaticism and by 

are the two countries which are oalt- an inexplicable antipathy uf race, which 

ed (no doubt in derision) tha United aeems innate between those two people; 



Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ire- h^ a love badly uaderatood of c 
^nd. cial gain, and by the charm of tl 

It isopoa thia Ireland, aofiivoted by mon benefits of a common oppression, 



nature and so maltreated by man, that and finally by that spirit of coheaion 

a great drama ia developing itself in the which unites all aristocracies, has for 

face of the world 1 looked npon with a seven centuries ordered, directed, au- 

fbarful eye by the English aristocracy, thorized or sanctioned all the measures 

and the deaonemeac of which will be which have brought Ireland to the state 

terrible, fur it wilt loosen from lis base la which we now see her. 
the old edifice of the British ConstitH- The loss of their American colonies, 

tion. In this dnma thaie are four prin- in opening their eyes, brought them 

cipal actors— Protestant Ireland, Ca- better sentiments. The great demo- 

tholic Ireland, the English GorernmenI, era lie movement in Europe that com- 

and O'Connell. Let ua briefly establish menced with France frightened iheoi. 

the position and part of each of these. Thevcommeacedbycoacedlngwithone 

The Irish population is divided into two han^ and punishing and chaining with 

parties, well separated without any in- theoiher. Theabolitiouofseveralpenal 

termediate parties, which form two na- laws, the merciless suppression of the 

tions intoooe. There are the Anglo- insurrection of'fiSand the actofUniou, 

Irish, Orangemen, aristocrats and rich, 1800, are almost simaltaueouB. Since 

who are a)[ the same : a race planted by then, the English aristocracy has been 

the Conquest, secured by violence, and forced to alleviate more and more the 

enriched by spoliation. According to' tyranny that weighed upon Ireland, 

the statistics of 1B34, this fraction of the Now, it is at the end of iu ooncessions ; 

population a mon Qted to only 800/)00. from being political, the question tends 

Then comes the Milesian Irish, race day by day to become social. It is 

indigenous, Catholio, democratic and not only pulilioal liberty that Ireland 

poor — a race cenquered and despoiled, wishes — it is bread and fee simple 

This national party, to which are now in the soil — it is the abolition of tbe 

Joined the Presbyterians of the North ruinous lithe it pays to ministers of a 

and other Protestant dissenters opposed religion it detests ; of those munioi- 

10 the aristocracy, amount to nearly pal corporations which crush and of 

7,000,000. that ftrmit^ tvilem which exhausts 

In the Ant party, the fortunes vary it : it is, in fact, the possibility of 

from jC50,000 to j^^SOOayear ; in the acquiring that soil of which she has 

second, with the exception of some few been despoiled, which it fertilises with 

individuals engaged in commerce and its hands, and upon which it dies with 

manufactures, same privileged ones hunger. In a word, the English aris- 

eat potatoes three times a day ; others, tocracy cannot free itself from this phan- 

less favored, twice, and those in a state torn, which constantly risee before it, 

of indigence only once ; and, finally, but by reforming the Irish aristocracy, 

some still more destitale, remain one the municipalities and ihe church — that 

and Bmnetimes even two days withoat is to say, by strikingat the constitutional 

any nouri^ment. Here then there is principles of its own extsience. How- 

nn middling class forming a graduated ever different n ' ' ' ' '*" ' 

scale from Ihe nultiooaiie to uie labor- tvo coontriea, ' 



IU) own ouflieuce. Jiuw- 

It may be tbe state of th»^ I , 

M, would not BuchameaV^jVJU^It 



MS ffComtO. [Aug. 

nre be a Mit ormicid« fm tba Engliah wbollj iiwBni«ted in the atnogs, gnnd 

arutocnoj, tnd will they be gaoeraaB and complex oigknisuioa thai u oalled 

•noagbtoaecompIUh it ! DaoiBl O'Coutiell. 

This brif^ D«, at iMt, after Mrsral The Agitafr, as he ia dettominated 

diffTMaiOM which appeared iBdiapen- by the whiga ; the Beggar King ac- 

•tSle fat eleav Dnderataedinz of what eerdiug to the toriea ; or, the lAbtrgtor, 

fbllom, to aranoacb eertBinry not the a* he ia oalled hj the Iriah, waa bora 

moat elevated, bat the moat extnoTdi- at Caahen, in the aoothneat of Irelud, 

nary Uatarioal type of oui times. Ima- in the Coanty of Kerry, a wild and 

gine a man who is neither sotdier, ROODDtainoaa part of the proTioca of 

magiatiate dot priest, and wboae ao- MeoiteT, in 1774, oae of the wont 

tionaaAd eoairtenaiice partake of all of jeaia for Ireland ttua haa never had 

them; a mas poaaeasing no other power any which were ^ood. The lenl 

tbao hie eloqaenoe, who hae atteeeeded tyranny was then in fnll force. The 

—^ an organised eooieiy, amid a htby- penal laws eaeloaed the Catholics ia a 

linth of represeite laws — in founding band of iron. Misery forced men to 

an extm-Jej^ govenmeat of which he brigandage: armed baada ander the 

ia the supreme and abeolute bead; a nameofwhiieboya,orblaekboTs,akind 

power which, seated on the fragile base of outlaw* bearing some resemblaoee to 

of popularity, baa endured twenty those of Ivanhoe, ravaged the conntry 

yeara and iocreasea every day ; a pow> and avenged themselvea by crioie on 

er Buch aa never exiBted, which extends the deapotism of the laws. Two yeara 

everywhere tboagh ita lawe are no- later the American revolaUoD gave the 

wfaere written, which ia exercised in first and moat vigoroua ahock to Ire- 

ibe light of day without other meana of land. 

aetion than praiae and blame, which has Daniel's fkmily, of Hileaian origin, 

its civil list paid before tbe legal had taken a great part in the bloody 

impost, eolleols taxes, gives with the contestfl of the Anglo-Nocman inva- 

finger and eye advice that is more pow- aitm. The Agitator haa inherited the 

eriml than laws — so to speak — to seven energies and bates of his forereibers, 

miltioae of people. Enter for an in- chiefs of the clan of Iverrarah, who, 

slaiit into the positionofthisioterested to avail myself of tbe expression of 

mediator between England and Ireland, Hanmer, the old ehroniclei of the Con- 

— that is to say, between the slave im- queac, " received the gallant chevaliers 

pUient of the yoke and always ready oi Britain sword in hand, valiant men, 

to revolt, and the master weary of brave on foot and horaeback." The 

S 'elding, pushed by Irritation to vio- last descendant of this race, the father 

nee. Between these two opposing of Daniel, Morgan O'Coonell, cnlti- 

paasioriB, of which one is more im- vated the lands of his ancestora onder 

petuous than powerful, and the other the title of fanner to the Protestant 

more powerful than impetooug, obaerve Cidlege of Dublin \ be has not the lose 

this man, who leaches the slave how he lefl hia aon, the oldest of the family, a 

ahonid supply force by cunning, threat- handsome fortune, which, joined to that 

en alwava, hot never attack, agitate of an uncle still more rich, placed 

paeificalfy, and keep upon tbe extreme O'Connell from the first in a. fine poai- 

limit whieh separatee legal resistance lion for a Catholic. Tbe early educa- 

fh)m insnrreclion ; who at one time tion of the young Daniel was confided 

frighteas the master with the thunder te the care of those enthusiastic, ana- 

ef bis vmca, at another ehigs his lere priests, ardent patriota, with whom 

pnisBS, gesticulates like a madman in Ireland abounds, and whose type Shell 

the pubtio square, then dressed like a has so well reproduced in the portrait 

eonrtier goes to pay his court, chicanes of Father Murphy of Carofin. It ap- 

like a lawyer and ihonders like the peara that he was first destined for the 

paUio orator, allies ia enormoue pro- Chnreh. The Anglican intolerance 

portions the moat opposite qualiiiee and was then in full vi^or. The Catholic 

failinge — eraA and (rankness — pro- eolleges were prohibited in the ihreft 

dence and vitdence — energy and eub- kingdoma, and all tbe yooths of Ireland 

tiltty— dignilv and eoareeness — the were placed between ignorance, Bh[u- 

most elevated ideas and the roost vul- ration, or a voyage beyond the sea. 

gu declamation, and all this mixed. The father of O'Connell cbose the lat- ~' -~\ -i] 

onited.fiised into a sentiment that never ter. He sent him first to tbe Doraioi- -^lOOQ I 

ehucw— hn« f« hia nativa land — eaa filheta at Loovain, ud &om tbeia ^ 



iSU.j CCmndL «9 

to the J««uil« U SL Oinei"*, vbero he the Act of Umon, ■ yeang nua who 
|>aued two ya&im, and showed himeeU' Bpoke se*erml times, and wu distin- 
tsote lif^rooe with the fi«t ihka the ^shed by therough fehemenee nf hi* 
pen, and msdo but middling prat^tosa ulliea uainit the new rigorg of Eng- 
IB his stulieB. " I do not kaow," ssje }&nd and the legal destniclion ef the 
Sheil, "whu efaaaged the destinatiaa indepeiiitencearhiaeoanttj', wm Dttn- 
*>i O'Cennelt ; probabl; he felt that he iel O'Cunnell. 

hAd too Bnch fleah and blood in faim te Pram 179Hta ISIO theKfe of O'Con- 
become a mook, and the DOT«ltr of the doU vaa pasted in the eiereiee of hie 
legal easeei templed him. The bar profession, snd bood, in spite of the ob- 
had jaet then beea opened to CBih»- B(aol«8 which were au«ehed to hia 
lies. He. left St. Omer'a, ita musea, qaaiity of Caiiiotic, he raUed himielf 
ita veaper* and ila faata ; and having to the first raak at the bar, coneentrat- 
«wallawed the neeeaeary aDmber of ed upon himself the eyes ef hia eo-rO' 
lega of mBtton at the middle temple, ligioiiate, and laid the roaadaliofl ofhia 
was leceived in the Irish bar at the politieat power. Declared unworthy of 
Eaater tern of IT9i." Anather faul all eiril, adtainiBlratire ar military 
and bloodT year for IreJand, where the funotion, depriTOd of all rights aave 
yoang aJvacate, ia ateppiag on the that af paying enormous impoata, the 
«hoiea of hie nalire country, (sand it Cathalica, eo te speak, did not exist aa 
rebellioua, conquered, chutited with- eitizena. O'Conaell reaalred to break, 
«ut mercy nader the blows or an atro- one by one, these fetters with the sola 
ciout martial law, aad jostled fran tha inalcament that had bee* left bin, elo- 
fiiei agaioM English bayoaeta, gibbeta qosace ; b<a repat&lion at the bar ia 
and corpaaa. making him the born defeader af all 

The bistery of the great repabliean Catholies, in ciril aa well as eriniinal 
raoTemeat led by the association of pracessea, served him narrelloaBly in 
United Irishmen, is pretty generally hi* ambition aa liheratsr. 
fcnown 1 bow, under the influence of the We may here say a few words npea 
French reTelution of '89, the plebeian the ehangiag aad busy pfaysio^noray of 
Proleaianu and Catholics of Ireland lawyer and political leader, which 
united themselves, for a moment, to marked O'Conaell daring IhiHy yeara, 
break the English deminion ; how the and which he has despoiled of one of 
faorrora csramitled ia Paris in 'DSdiau- its distinctive traita, now that he baa 
aited and weakened iheir aseociation ; left the hat. Shell has punted thia 
how the French eipeditioa, conducted periad of his Ufe in a portrait wherft 
fay Gen. Hoche at the close ef 'B&. re- English humor is mingled with a fancy 
(nrned without having effected a land- entirely French, which retainda us <^ 
ing ; how a second Freach army, under the best pages of Timon ; it is there 
Gen. Humbert, came too late to sustaia we must tee the barriateriahisfashion- 
it,and yetaooe enough to liad itMlfsur- able house, Merrion square, Dublin; 
rounded by anperlor forces aad obliged at first a serere reclnae, tif before the 
to surrender ; haw England, h&ving sun, absorbed in the study of anmeraaa 
Ireland under her feet con que red and briefs which liearound him ; then, some 
eibansted, repented sfthe coneeaaions hours later, arriving at ibePonrCoaita, 
taade before the struggle and profited the Dublin hall of justice, brilliant 
by its weakness to faalen open it an ab- with life and health and carrying press- 
solute yoke : how, in spite of the elo- ed against hia breast a bag so hllel 
quent adjurations af Grattan, the De- that hit robuat arm oan scarcely Sus- 
nioBthenes of the Irish parliament, tain it ; a living palisade of elienu sor- 
one hundred and eighleen nen were lound hire with out-stretehed neck, eara 
found base enough to sell, for valuable and mouth open, endeavoring to catch 
conaiderations, their poljiieal existence; flying some opinion which they may 
how, finally, the Irish Partiameat com- chance to extort gratia frera the Coan- 
tnitted suicido by the aid of a vote seller by wheedling him ; buraling with 
which cost Pitt a million aad a half laughter at the copiousnesa of his joy- 
sterling ; all theM facts belong to Irish ous and familiar pleasantries, or trein> 
history, and we will not dwell upan bling when in a more severe and high- 
then. Let ns be euntented is saying er tine he stands aa a prophet to an- 
(hai at an aaseraUy of the lawyers oC noaaee lo them that the redemption of.^ . 

PaUin, coBToked to prateat agaiaat Ireland uitear. Sui the Court openi(^^QQn |q 



MB O'CwnOI. [A19. 

the CDDBMlIor mnB fiom h&]l to hall, grief end preja^ice of the Proteetant 

perfoimt >loTie the work of twenty law- pedeBlriana. 

yen, inlPrUTds every cidm in the Tbia sketch tafficee lo give an ide» 
AfsneCourtorCourt of Seseione with of (he Miange u)d deionring Ufe of 
ao oralioa upon the ect of Union ot O'Conuell until the C}ire eleetiuni. 
the English tyranny, peisoi>i£eB entire One incideai, howefei, menu partion- 
Ireland in the most oDscure of bis c)i- lar mention, the more »d as ma/iy ac- 
ents, and pockets the lees wilh the air connls hare falaified it to the relation. 
of a nan who devotes himself to his In 1S15, at a meeting in Dublin, 
country. At three the Court adjonna ; CConnell, iu attacking wilh hia ordina- I 
0'Connell,coTeTed with Bneat. nastens ry violeace the mueicipal corporauoB 
to a meeting aseembled in the nest of that city, called it a if«orif corjw- 1 
tavern, where he directs the storm of ratiott ; a lawyer, Kamed B'Esierte, 
popular deba.le with such force of lungs, descended from a family ef FrolealaDi ^ 
ao much energy, thai one would say he ^French refugees, regarded it as a per>- 
had juit commenced the labors of the sunal iasult and sent a challenge la 
day. At seven a banquet waits, where O'Connell, who refused to accept it, 1 
he is a joyoHS guest, delivers half a denying at the same tine all imention 
itaen diaconrees in praise of Ireland, of peraonal isBnlt ; hia adversary 
retires at a late hour, and gathers threatened him with a blow. The I 
strength from a short sleep to re-com- friends of O'Connell decided that the 
mence on the morrow. In another duel ahonld take place : the weapon I 
place, Sheil has drawa the counsellor at chosen was the pistol and the aggresaoi 1 
the levee of the Lord Lieutenant, awnrd was killed. O'Connell, Btiuck with 
on tfaigk in the ranksof the opptcsBors, horror at his victory, repaired with ' 
like them haogbiy and servile ; or at bis owb and D'Etteire'a aecosda 10 
anoiher time going wilh great cere- church, swore solemnly that he wouM 
mony, a branch of laorel in his hand, never fight again, and offered lh» 
to receive with bended knee bia majes- widow of his adversary a pension 
ty George IV. upon the shore of Dun- equal to the annual income earned by 
lesry. And that nothing should be her husband, ^be corporation of Dub- 
wanting to the iooongruons celora of lb decided that the offer should not be 
this portrait, here is now O'Connell, aoceptad, and voted from its awn funds 
whom a Ditblio jury, thiifuUy chotta, the Sam promised by O'Connell. 
would condemn at sight, aa gniltv of The Agitator has since been often 
conatntclive high treason — m much all reproached with entrenching biiQaelf 
his geBtnrea and appearance are im- behind this vow, tu insult with impu- 
preased with this national aenliment, nily. The reproach ta not well found- 
the indepeodenee c^ Ireland, ot the ed. The personal courage of the im- 
combuslioo of the world. His figure [leluDus Irishman cannot be doubled ; 
is athletic, his couDtenaace happy and but it ia certain that he has oflen want- 
pleasing, hia featiirea both soft and ed dignity, and has not well understood 
manly, the ruddy lint of health and a thai in the exceptional position in 
MOguine teraperameDC glows in his which he has placed himaelfr decency 
countenance, which radiates with pa- in attack was the most imperions of 
triotic emotions. In his aimnlation af duties. We even believe that latterly 
SpariacuB he shoulders his umbrella some of his sons oraephews baveheen 
like a pike, throws one seditious foot obliged to tight for him. 
before another, as if, already breaking We finally arrive at the noal hril' 
hia chains, be drove before him the lianC period in the life of O'Connellr 
protestanl supremacy, while from time and aa it is better known than the , 
to time the movement of bis large bust others, we shall be mote brief. 
and democratic shoulders eeema an To the Association of United Irish- 
aflbrt to throw to a distance the op- men had sacceeded the Catholio Com- 
pteaaion of aeven hundred years. Now mittee. A eilk nen^ant of Dublio, 
turn the page ; and here is the democrat named John Keogh, a man of capacity 
who passes like lightning in his bril- superior to his birth and education, had 
liant and revolulionary equipage, hia formed, Buslained and directed ila op»- 
^reen carriage and liveries, his foam- rations. At hie death the Association 
log popish coursera, galloping gaily lost nearly all its power and farce, and 
ever the proteetant pavement to the the liberal ptomisea of King ^^'Sf ^,^i-\|-\|/ti 



18U.] CCMut^. mi 

■nooeeded in diwDMng it. These ttf. It anerwaTd* took the name of 
promiaes were ekdcHJ, end io 1B33 the J'fational AuoeioHon. To onumente 
Catholics fotind tbemselTeB deatitiite of the ecle of thia nnpultr goTernmenl, 
all prioeiple of anily end centre of «e- is to write the history of O'Connell ; 
tioa, when O'Coanelt end Shei), ud- fur the AseociatioD led Ireland, end he 
til then etr«nger« to one another and led the AMOcittcion. 
evBD eoemiee, met at the bonea of a The firet election of O'Connell was, 
common friend io the mountaiDs of without coDtraiiictioD, one of tiK moet 
Wicklow, Hid formed the project of audacious attempts of this power. The 
taiaiog the Catholic party from the law, in impoeing on all Cathdics the 
abject state to which it was reduced, obligation of swearing to uptioM tlie 
Sonne nMintha after, twenty iDdi*iduals Protfstant eupremacy, wa« by the act 
aseembled at the Dempsey tavern in itself a. genuine law of proecription, and 
Dnblin, and formed the nucleoe of that no Catholic had ever cmbred himseif as 
immenae Catholic Aesociation which, a candidate, when the aeHOciatinn re- 
six years laur, in 1S3U, embraced all solved to brave the law. The member 
Ireland, supported its deorees with the Irom Ennie, Mr. Veeey Fitzgerald, of 
voices of sevea* millions of meo, aitd the Protestaiit religion, but Catholic in 
forced from the Wellington and Peel politics — that is ' ■ -. 



adminiatratioo, the tnemoraUe act of language of tlie Iridi — having accepted 

EmanciptUion. a place in the miniatry, waa ofaliped to 

A word on the organization of the anhmit to a new election; and it was 



Cat/utlie Ajtociation; the tilraJegal then, in ISS6, the Aeeoeiatioa decided 
government of which we spoke in the that O'Connell should be his competitxir, 
comoMiD cement, which liad its budget, and tbsX he, a Catholic, ehould present 
ila treasury, its lawyers, its proctors, himself for the eufflagea of the electuia 
its joarnalisu, which in one day could ofClare. O'Connell accepted this great 
raise all Ireland, which constituted mii^sion, and an elective contest waa 
iceclf the defender of the people, and opened wliich wiU be long remembered 
the indefatigable controller of the acta in Ireland, for it waa there that it ac- 
of the English governmeDl, and which, quired the eentiment of its power, 
by the influence of an entirely moral au- On one side,Mr.VeBey Fitzgerald, ac< 
thority — and therefore the more power- companied by all the orietocracy of the 
iiil — sooceeded in bringing order from country, — on the other, the Agitator, 
disorder itself. A Central Commit- followed by an immense crowd of free- 
tee silting at Dublin, and compoeed holders, preceded by priests, banners, 
of members whose mode of election and ba^ipes, and making the air re- 
varies according to circumstances, le- soundwith its shouts: upon the husUnga 
presented the Society and took all the two rivals addressed the populace, 
measures judged useful for the common Mr. Vesey Fitzgerald spoke of all tlie 
cause. This Cammitlee was regularly services renders by his ancestors, of 
aasembled, examined all the laws pro- his own services, and ofthose of hisold 
posed to Parliament, diaeussed ihem, father, venerated in the connty, and at 
censured the sots of power and ita that moment on the bed of d^tfa, and 
agents, made resolutions, published witose su&rings rendered the remem- 
Ihem by means of its Journals ; in a brance more touching. The crowd re- 
word, acted as a regular Parliament of sponded to the tears of the orator with 
which it only wanted the power to make tears of sympathy ; but eoon the vdce 
laws obligatory for all. The mode of of O'Connell was heard — that great 
raising the lax, which in 1835 was one voice which penetrates to the hearts of 
penny, bad undergone eevenJ trans- the masses, b^ turns, solt, vibrating, 
formsiions to escape the action of the Hiergetic, ironic, pathetic, coarse, and 
English Parliament. Dissolved time pitiless. Huzzas for O'Connell were 
and again as oncoastitutional, the As- oeard Irom all sides, and the eucceesof 
itself, re- bis election was certain. It is related, 



forms itself ander another name and in reference Io this subject — as an e.. 

wiih other forms, but the foundation is ample of the power of the Aesociation 

always the aams. Thus in 1830, it upcm Ireland — that the Committee for- 

was called iho Catholic A»*oeialioni bad this immense multitude to drink 



in 1837, the Otnerat Aisocialioa of whwkey during the election, and dwt ^ ~- i 

Ireland; in 1839, the PrecwsorSoci- not a single man rebelled against the ^^jOOQIC 



«f (rCameO. [Asg. 

Inpined oblintioii ; a remirkable fiu^ npm tbeir gatji ; to tha mijori^ of 

wben we tjU£ into cooaidention the the foieiKn ndicak O'ConneU is luuv 

pnqieiiaitr to drankenneoB, which, be- inw-caiiimd, witbout «c<^, fumi^ied 

fofe tbe adrest of Father Malhew, to with munificent organs, a liead im- 

emineotlf diatiagniehed the Irish pea»- boed wiUi old sectariui prejudieee, a 

ant. eoit of Circe, half lawyer half priest. 

Six mootha after, the English govern' the worst species of aJliance and saao- 
raenl, &igbtened \n ra much audacity, ciatioa ; to the Irish, OX^onneU is more 
determined lo yield, and the emancipa- than a man \ he is ahnoat & god. 
tku) bill was passed; and O'ConneU did All these distent modes of eatinul- 
DOt fearto present himaelf at Westmitt- tioo are conceivable and eiplained by 
Iter to claim his seat as deputy bom O'Cotmell's mt^Hlity, a mcrtiility tlie 
Clare, invoking the benefit of a law cause and juetification of which must 
passed after his electioo. On be llith be sonffbt in the mixed position he has 
May, 1 829, he made his first appearance iiksa between legality and iosunection. 
in Paiiiament. England had already O'ConneU ia neither a man of pnre par- 
seen the AeitatoT, when, in lS3d, he liamentarroppoeitiun, Dortrfrevolatioii ; 
came at the head of a deputation charged he is both by turns according to the 
to expose the wrongs of the Irish peo{de. case, for with him everything consists in 
He had been received with applause bv (dteving and reeiating with ^cenunenL 
the people; and these same people, ciin- O'ConneU iHOOtahumaiutafiaii philoao- 
OQB to see agaio the man who Lad filled pher, becaase above aU he is the man of 
Ireland with the sound of his name,lbed his country, and Ireland has toomayiHa 
the avenues which ted to the houses of of its own to think of dissertating 
Parliament O'ComwU entered ; the syntheticaUy upon the iOs of the ha> 
haU was crowded, and upon his refusal man species. O'ConneU is a Catb<iie 
totake the <dd oath, the Speaker slated first because he is an Irishman, and 
that the law of emancipaticHi conld not then beoanse he speaks to Irishmen 
have an &r pod /ado action, and desired and for Irishmen. O'Cotmeil has not 
him to retire. He did so ; and bis elec- caused bis coutitiy_ to revolt, and thoufjh 
tion, after being snbjected to a lively dia- he could do so with a gesture be will 
cnesion, was finally annulled. After not do it, for he does not thuik England 
some dajra consecmled to festivities, sufficiently divided nor Ireland suf- | 
oivenlolumbytbeRadicateintheLon- fldently strong to risk the initiative. -. 
don Tavran, 0*001111611 started to de- Think of all the previous attempts 
mand again the enffiagea of the electors where God bss sufibred the Uood of the 
«f Clare. His pn^ress through Ireland oppnisaed to flow in vain, think of the 
was one long, immense triumph ; forty frightful responsibility wbidi weighs 
dtoasand persona constantlv surrounded npon the h^ of a single man, see 
the open carriage, &om which the Agi- this man who feels that t&e time draws 
tator addressed Uiem. At last he arrived near, hut who rec<8ls before tbe sacri- 
at Clara, at one o'clock in the day, fice of a whole genetstioo, who hopes 
where be made a solemn entry, followed to die -before the hour of battle, and 
jiy tbe whole population of the county, comprehend the secret anguish oi 
intbemidstoffiowers, wreaths, torches, OX^onneU. 

to the sound of noisy huzzas and the ac- If O'ConneU has not givm happiness 

clamations of the women, who waved and aoeiel life to Ireland, he has ai least 

their handkerchiefs and threw him bo- given it the sentiment of »trej\ffk in 

quets. Such trinmphi worthily recobi- union, and whatever may be the issne in 

pense great orators, and great defenders the strugrie to come, this sentiment wiU 

(^nations. not penan. But O'ConneU has done 

The ptriitical pbTaiognomT of O'Con- yet more, be has carried to England 

neU ia rarely calody appreciated. To that which we unheaitadngly call tbe i 

tite tories be is a sbamda* tmyuntebatA, eonii^ion of Irtland. The English 

^a impudent be^ar,A tttarling di^ that ariatocracy wiU be punished where i 

de$enei the rope, &o. Sic. ; to the whigi thev have sinned. They have tiad two 

Iw is a venal and dangeroos man weights and two measures ; they have | 

whom it ia neceasarf to endearw to governed Gn^and in a good spirit a)- 

pitrchase ; to the radicals a friend not UHmgh it was selfish, but thev have 

very sincere, of whom they should be reduced aU Ireland to the aaine lent-of > 

Google 



1844.] JUm(% Pbmtdat and CamoMrttM ArHtk. 911 

mueiy, and by tint means have erected piaft'tmimd Retiar^ion ;" if it ie naXlj 

9i their aide tAe most redoubtable of nil true that the Crimea of castes, like 

democneies, thkt of ragt, and demo- tboee of nUiraia and individuals, are 

cntey is an epkleniic by natme and &ee ; but that the puniahment of these 

ra^i are not wanted even in Englaod. crimes be it erer bo slow, ie &tU ; if it 

If It is really true, that genemtiona are ia reaJIv true that for seven hundred 

accountable in Hood for one another ; years the English aristocracy have sent 

if it is reatly trne as a noble aiul bar- tyranny to Ireland, will they then have 

monioUB thinker has said, that homati' a right to complain when Ireland in 

i^ always marches on a road placarded excbnge shall nave sent them a Revo- 

with theee three worda, " Foifmture, Ez- lution i 



MONTHLY FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL ABTICLE. 

Trb markets eontinue to preaent the ing injurynpon another and so anloeo- 
anomalnoa appearances eonseqaent a poD nist set. iSib, in fact, is the declared 
the artificial influence of gOTerntnent object of the tariff now io operation. 
euactmenls on the course of trade. It is ezpresaly declared that ils tnten- 
For the first time in the hiatory of oom- tion is to "protect and encouriige " 
merce money seems to have lost its mannfaelurera as a body. The mean- 
power. It continuea very abundant, ing of "encouragement" ia, undoubc* 
and ia eagerly loaned at cheap ratea ; edly, to give them, by the operaiion of 
notwithstanding which, the great staple law, beoefita and profits which they 
products of the country rot only are could not derive through the exercise 
heavy at prices lower than erer before, of their own skill and industry, ll fol- 
but evince a conataaC tendency to fall lows that the benefits and profits so 
still lower. Cheap as money is, tt conferred npon them are derived at the 
cannot be ohtained for the labor of the expense of iboea who have onlv their 
farmer or the agriculturalist. On the own iaduslry and skill to depend upon, 
other hand, all other descriptions of in- and a part of the jn-oceeds of their 
dustry are receiving a remuneration energy and enlerpnse ia thus taken 
far beyond what they have been accns- from them to enconnge a more for- 
tomcd to in the last four years. Stocks Innate branch of industry. When the 
and domestic and unported goods com- tariff first went into operatiun, and for 
mand very high prices, and evince a the ail sneoeeding montha, thia effect 
disposition atill further lo riae. The was not very apparent in the range of 
uniform operation of a full currency ia pricea. The only visible eOecl or the 
to cause a general advance in the tariff was the great fallinR-off in trade, 
money prices of exchangeable values ; and the decline in the government re- 
in fact, that advance in values is only venues. Money continued to accumu- 
another indicatien that the currency la late in great abundance, causing, gradu' 
full. When, however, we find the ally, an advance in the taxed ariiclea; 
nniforroity of that actinn broken in and, the exports remaining at a low 
upon, and that a great number of arti- figure, allowed slocks of produce to 
cles, conatitDtlng a class, are lower tccomuhue on the Atlantic border, 
and falling in value, while another large thereby aiuking prieea. In our numbet 
collection, forming aaotber olasa, are for July, 1843, wenvea table of prlceB 
high and rising, we have before as the of produce in the New York market ; 
proof that the natural action of trade we will now add to that table the pre- 
and commerce is interfered with, and sent prices of the same articles, and 
its operations deranged, through the the comparison will evince in bow 
agency of an arbitrary and artificial great a degree Uie agricultural intereeta 
cause, which, seeking to benefit one set have suffered. 
ofi)wn,n0CMsarityuiflictsaeorrespand- .. . iiir .1 .' 



Google 



MotdUi/ Finaaeial and CooMtraal Arlielr, [J^"C- 

raiCBB or AWUcoLTORAL ^odvcb la tbi mw tork mauct. 





Jl»,IS18. 


Ow.. 1841. 


Jnif.ieia. 


Jiue,180. 


Jmris, UM. 


a. — 

£»»u. perb. 

WUu, 

«a«B,8hlpplB|. 

^iKCSoft. 
OtfloB, Upland, ralr. 

% ■""■ 

BbMC, 

,»« 

Prime DaliT, 
OtdtaitlT. 

Cluii, Aider., rnev] 
.H.«7™ok«l, 
Kmb-. pet bbl. 

/B^i» JVcaA 
ir*«l. perboah. 


,1=1, i 

- •!-"« 

14 - a 14 as 

- 10 a - lOi 
■ - 15 

z'tlz"f 

45aa 401 

Eslit 

-53a-95 


— 50a — 5S 
-a8a-30 

iiaia sas 

IS 15 a ja 5* 

iieit t Ml 

ElEz" 

730a 815 

- •'■-■• 

oasa 

I'ilis 


SSOa-: 

laeT-so 

11 50 a la - 
450* 475 

ISs! 137 

aSOa Sfll 

- *-- 

7-a 750 
150a 350 

- 10 a - 11 

- flia- 71 

3 7j! 5S 

Is! 12 

115a 1 as 
-07a-fl3 

bgrs 


59Ba-- 

~ 38 a — 40 
-90a-30 

5-'-- 

-7al-87 

- 7ll- 7i 

ElEE 

IS-.'.z 

B ss a 10 50 
7S0a 70! 

- 5ia- 

EliEl 

475. 4 81 

46S a 4«I 

375a 3 — 
-»B — BS 
-S8a — 60 

-53a-S5 


ii.-.'-t 

a — 48 

--a — SH 

9 50 a »7I 

5 37ia 

144^ ISO 

3X1. 340 

4»; — 

Se^ 
eHeI 

!?;■!« 

asoa SM 
-85a — BO 
--,-61 

-Wa-SO 


Wbale. 


-oaa-ss 

- 30 a — 31 

-BSa 


-si-s 


-B3a-88 
-WU-OS 


'BOB — 83 


- 74 . - 75 


;!::*S,*.'«: 

J.,...K,.,,.<. 

£..... ro-s 

Sarar, N. O., per lb. 


Ei:Ei 

— Bga — so 

-IBa-BO 

z',i"i' 


-3S« — 38 

- 3aa — 33 

- aSa- 37 

- Sa- B 

- 10 a -11 

sasB 337 

-aoa — as 

- 4ia- 7 


— SRa- 37 

-as. -33 

— Ka- 3S 
-IHb-13 

- 3«- Oi 

- 3b- 3 


-STa — St 
-ala- 90 

- 18 a - S» 

" 18 a - 30 

- Ha - ^B 

- tia- SJ 


Ei:Ei 

-nl-as 

3 yi a 3 37* 

- *l"a - 7 



An index to the laig^ qnuitiliea of Th« tolls of ibe Obin, New York Mtd 

pradiMe which come this jmi to inaT- PeDnsrlrMift candB, tbio year and last, 

Irat ia found in the toUs oolleBied on fromtheopeninff of nsfigationto Jul; J, 

the large cbaanel* of iatoTtial trade, hare been as followa : — 



Hew TotIi caoali, 
PennsTlTsoia " 
Ohio « 



158,309 
131^47 
90,618 



«1^2t,I01 11,704,178 



Google 



tSM.] MmMy FiMMia mi Cmmenid AriieU. SI3 

The ntM of tolls thia jvxe hsre Ohio, Keoliicky, TeonMsee, ind iha 

faoerallf been ledneed, beoes tbe rs- diTidenda of corponle oompuiifa ; 

venue deMTibm « Urgec proportion io also the payment on ihe p&rt of Nen 

qnkotitj, uid it is obwiTkble iliu the York of ilie loftn due in Julj, 1846. 

lugest proportion is deriTable fiom The monej for this puxpOM tna been 

pTMBce comiog to the market, ruher for oome tioM on hand, and the comp* 

th»D on merchandise going into the in- ttollei, in conseqnaoce, Kdrertiied to 

tericir. redeem the KoeL b; paying 2 per cent. 

The rata for money continues low, preminm on the 6 per cent*, and 3 per 

and may be qnoted at 4 a 4} per cent. cent, on the 6'b, until after 1st Jalj, 

for re^lar diseoants, or on mocIm " at 1S44, when the premium would be di- 

can," The state of bnsineaa in the mlniehed in proportion to the time to 

eitf i* generally p>ad, and the amoont elapee between the offer for ledemp- 

of mercuitile paper created by do tion and the matority of the stock, 

means so lai^ as formerly for the This offer, by moat holders, wa* ac- 

ssme amount of busineea done. There- cepted. Ktora these aouroes the 

fore the demand for discoanta from amount of money on the market has 

that sonrce is small. The rate of for- been sensibly increased, caasin^ a (ail 

eign bills has declined to some extent, detpand fur the sonnd stocks at firm 

cosseqaBnt upon the increased sapplj pricas. In the "fancy" ornon-diyi- 

and the limited demand for remitt>aoe« dead-Daying etoclcs, the specnlalion has 

by the packet. Ths stocks of ootlon subsided, accamp«inted by a considers- 

hare also greatly diminished within ble fall in thpjr Talaes. The nonej 

three or four weeks, and a large sum coming upon the market, mostly from 

of money has been reallied from that stock inTeitmenis, in the six months . 

source, as well as from Ihe payment of aoceeeding Jnlj, 1844, may be summed 

the July dividends by the Federal up as follows : 
Oorernment, the States of New York, 

New York Bute debt of 184S $1,600,000 

" •• Slate interest, Bcmi-annnnl 600,000 | 

Federal Government « " 650,000 | 

ScTeral WeMem States " " 900/)00 

Banks and Compaoiea, Ntw York a»d neighborhood 600,000 

Total »4,2BO,000 

Shipment 360,000 bales eoUon 14,000,000 

Debt of Federal Government, doe Jan. Ib44 6,!i62,000 

Total snpply $23,812,000 

The Slock of cotton on hand in the patBlively inuU amonnt of trade, hare 

enmmsT months of this year, has been drawn from the merohants large euma, 

much in excess of last year, and baa whioh lie idle in the banks or are em- 

required an unusual sum of money to ployed by them io fostering slock 

hold it. That cotton is now going for- speculations to their own profit. The 

ward with great rapidity. Another amount of money thus lying idle on 

means of absorbing large sums of the 4th June, was, according to the 

money frnm commerce, has bean the Treasurer'a report, as follows : 
enormous duties, which, upon a com- 

ONrTED BT.tTES TDBLIC [1SF03ITES, JDItE 24, IS44. 

Od depoilL drsfti oataiiiuIlii{. bednnnfar. 

Hetehants' Bank, Boston, ],6ie,58& II 64,600 61 1,451,984 M 

Bank of Commerce, New York, 1,870,472 23 448,194 24 1,423,278 09 

Bank of America, ■■ 1,327,619 06 70,372 66 1,248,146 39 

Amar. Bichange Bank, « 119,280 52 119,280 52 

Merchaatt' Bank, <■ lJim,SOO 02 43^46 M 1,023,643 48 

FhiladelpbiA Bulk, 688,843 09 122,164 S3 566,678 86 



Total tbcee ciliei, 0,589,590 02 767,678 18 5,831,71184 

Elsewhere, 2,167,853 9S 310,374 S9 1,882,618 40 

Total dcposites, $8,747,443 97 I,0«6,052 47 7,714,330 24 



Google 




Vmmi» «f llMae wpiWliMii wha anb- beW n&dcM to Boat tke Tiewi 
«enb«t U, ud it «riU prabaMy Ead rs- Ik Udbw. Od the 14lk Jdm. a n 



emploriMM, fiiMPtiwly, ia mmt of iMka wm nbaiiud ta iIm cffftct, that 

the beat Stale nr— i*^ UHteid of; aa after the lOih Notnibar, 1B44, ifaa 

K»w, ICMpara i ily at call on baer dolj oa aagai of firitkh pt—easi— ■ 

•loeluL, It 11 M *mIM Moatly la be aho^ bs 90a. or 94 U per cwL, and 

aaerib«dl« ike iMialyBa^ iafloeBeaa of 30*. m9' iS pet ewL «a fiiteigB &«e 

liieaa b rn iJ E aaoaw la«a apo* coia- hboi Mgar. Oa llM dmuM tm tUs 

■•no that BO gnam aterpriae ia prapaoilion 4GS tous wmc eaat ; Ml 

mamfen ia ibe A^iaeM of prodaca at lor it aad 381 agaiMt it, beiag a IH- 

Ibeir preaent lofr prieea. Of the ca^ jwitj at Ht agaiaet tbe BOTeraineat, 

Ul mnptored ia eoamarce, 3S per whiefa bad pi o pw a td a daly of 34s. or 

eeat. ia cooataotif adraaecd lo Got- 98 SO per ewt. oa Ttec labor aogar, 

tmnteal Tor Ibe e u at uu w dniies. Where inatead of the eld dot^ of OSs. oi 

9SOjOOOfiOO of impotla are made, SIS 32 per cwt. Ilu teaoh was 

tI8,000,000 of actual cost are iminoli- most QDexpected, and tiie KiaiBter 

ately drawn (max the capital emplojed very distinellj tbreateaod to reaigo if 

and todied Bp by the GoTeTameat ia ita the vote was pmsiated m. On the fol> 

d«p«nlfl baoka, nntil giadoaH; paid lowing Hondaj, the Premier proposed 

OM io all aeetiona of the coaottT for an amCDdroeoi to the reeohtion itf Hr. 

OoremieiM espeoaea and tlra pajaeat Uilea, rja : that the dot j be raised to 

of b» debts. The oallay of the mei^ Ma. or «& 3S per ewt. uMaad «f SOa. 

chanta is only stowly retiuMd to tkam od Britiah aaEar, beiof a eonoessioii on 

from the ■ Je of their goods at ad- the part of the govemiiwDt. The vote 

▼■need price*. The operation b this being tj" 

eonntry where aetaal capital is inade- peared 

quale to the wattle of btisiiieaa, is to and the oirisiaa stood Ubi lor the tmn- 

testraiB opeiUiMis ia prodaee w^hia iaUr aad 333 agaiost hiai. Thus tbera 

the aeioal ord«rs fnim abroad, or to were M tnore members present than 

the demand fin lemitlaaee in retara oa the prenoos Tote, and eight meni' 

for the goodt iuponed. On the other bera oolf changed their vote, after so 

kstid, if the lerel «f dmies was low large a coneesBion on the part of the 

■nd commerce enjoyed pririle^es of govcrnoieat Tbe most extraordinary 

warehoasiog, not only would the cipi- eiertions -were lued to snstaia the 

tal employed ia comoieroe be onim- miniBtry, and the resalt showed ibat 

paired by ihe exaotiotu of Gorero' special priTile^ and close mooopoliea 

raenl. bot tbe latter wouM receive cash haTe hiul Iheir day, or, aa e^qireased 

doiiea for the good* admitted to con- by Mr. Goulbura, tbe obaaceUor of 

Mmptioa withoot the merchant coming tna exchequer, in his remarks on ttM 

Boder aoy adranoe tot that pnrpwe. resolution of Mr. Miles : 

Tbe emetpriaing merehaot would then - " The reeling of Great Britain ia too 

hare the meaos for Dorchasing United strong to be resisted, and tbe tine had ar- 

Rtatss prodaee for ■hipments abroad to rired when priTale intoKits mmuI gist 

■a extent much greater than is now- the «'<tt^l^tgt»tralbemjUo/lhtconuniuul}f." 

caM.aetateofanairs which must neces-- This ia a moat extraordinary admia- 

aarilyhareagreatinflDeneeapon prices, sion tor an Ennlieh minister, aod evin- 

In our last nnmber ne remarked cei the fact that Britain will now set 

BiMO tiM Dew Bank U11 of the Britiah on tbe one prittcipJeB of coauMieial 



aben on this pn^NieitK 
that 4B8 meoibera wve 



s¥ 



UU.] S6nakfy JFfc— riflf and CmmurvM Arlide. tl9 

fremloiD] iiWI inaore the bardeM upon *oga to Gnglftod, via thi> coaDtry, u 

bet own eititens, Tegvdleas <rf' ihe tho pruduet of tbe Uohed State*. In 

oppression which other gorennWDt* lbs United SlUn, a dot; of S3 B9| 

impoM npon tbeira. Il ia bumiliaiing per cwt. hu been laid upon forei^ 

to know, tbmt, irhile iDaD&nshie*I Eng- u^r Tor Ihe protaetion of the Luma- 

Und is thaa npidly ftdvanoinK ths iaua planter. Theprodnction of angu 

nnae of popriar freedom, republican in that State ia near 196,000,000 lb*., 

Amerioft ia taStciiag ondet batdand and ahoiH aa equkl qoantii; ia imported 

Biore griefoua than tboae of any gor- from other aouoiriea, moMly Cuba, 

eroment of Europe. The sew law of Kn^aitd would open 

The baais of the new aa^ar bill ia to the Southern ]danier a market for 

of a aingular cfaaracter, inaamoeh aa it hia whole produce at high prices, were 

striTea la make a diaiinotioD between it not for the bar, tnterpuaed by thi* 

aogar the growth of slave labor and of supposed protection, to the inirodnc- 

froe labor. The elisling trealiei, tbn of foreign sugar for coDsumptioa 

howcTer, bwiween England and the here. The English dat; on Braiil 

United States forbid aor dbtiaciion of sod Cuba sugar is OSa. or Cl5 37 per 

thia nature. Sugar, tne growth of cwt. : on Louiaiana sugar it is 34a. or 

Louisiana, the produce of ^ave labor, W S4 per cwt. — a diaoriminalion in 

haa the right of admission en terras as favor of this country of 97 03 per 

low as the produce of the moat " b- ewt. Tbe United Statea duty «f 

Tared nation," and with the Empire of $3 63 per owt. operate* as a bw to 

the Branis a airailaT treaty exists, the siibstinition of foreign sugu for 

which, however, will expire before tbe that of home nowth, which might 

new bill goes into operation. To meet otherwise go lo England, to sn amount 

the difficulty in regard fo the United equal to 96,000,000 per annDin, while 

Stales, tbe new bill provides that sugar, the import of a corresponding amount 

the growth of any foreign conntry be- would be paid fur in domestic manufae- 

tween which and Great Britain there turea. An arrangement to that eSect 

esists a treaty eoibiaciDg the favored could easily be eulered into with Cuba 

nation clause, shall be admitted at the and the Brazils ; whichcauntrieqcould 

duty of 34e. per cwt., instead of the the more readily be induced to dia- 

former duty of G3s., only upon the criminate agai oat English goods, inas- 

prodnetion of the sworn certi&oate of much as that country haa cut off their 

tbe shipper of the sugar, that it is the produce from going into England. 

bond fid* prodnetion of this eoootry, The import of cotton goods into Cuba 

This is intended fin a guard against and the Biazila.for 1819, was aa fel- 

ttie export of Caba and West India lows : 

V. BUIn. Pnnce. Enflaiiii Other pluo. Totil. 

Cuba, »S0,905 349,046 631,944 bilJiQS lfia!i,i\li 

Brazils, &58,300 94I,1M 9,614,668 614,435 ]I,728,»9 



Total, 839,203 l,IB6,2oa 10,246,612 1,161,964 113,233,974 
Tbe export of oolton goods from the a most hvorable opportnnitr for the 
tToited States to the Brasils baa nearly strengthening of the commercial inter* 
doubled in the last ten years. This is course between that country and this, 
the effect of the descending scale of widening the market for domestie 
the compromise act in this conntry up manufactures as well aa for floor and 
to t84S, affording to mBDufactiuers the other agricultural prodnce, but nnfor- 
Mnind eacouragement of improved tunatelj for all partiea, by the imposi- 
trade, and the atrenglbening of Ihe lion of sn exocbiiatit duty oa augar, 
cbauDel of inlercouree between the the United Stales had pUced thein- 
two countries throngh the fiee.admis- selves in a hoatile position to the Bra- 
sion of coffee into this country. This lits, and the new tariff there haa raised 
latter oircumslance has powerfully tbe duties as well upon American 
contributed to the supplanting of Brit- goods as upon those of all other conn- 
ish goods in the Brazilian Empire with tries. Thus this ceaseless and seuse- 
tboae of American prodnetion. Tbe less war of material intereata is kept 
new moreraent of the English gorern- np between nations whose welfare de- 
ment simultaneously with the re-sd- pends npun tbe harmony of theii ma* 
juauteu of tha BruiJiao tariff, «fforda twil iutoreoutM. 



Google 



UnaUg Uttrwf BMttM. 



MONTHLY UTEBART BULLETIN. 



Ot;^ gleaflhisi tn the fields oT lilcnrr 
CBlerpriie tbe preteBl monlh will ba 
fooDd ruber iDCOBiidnable t ineh «i 
the? are, bowerer, we prMmt Uem to 
our reailen. Mr, Baoeroft'i fourth 
volone of lus " Hiilorj of liie UoUcd 
Stale*," eompritio; the AnericaD Re- 

. volaLioB, based apna origiul) and vai»- 



'i.U ■» 



r before 



eluding some hilhlf jnlerenioK Stale 
documenlf, tic., is, we learn, pcepBting 
for ipeeJy poblicstioB : b]», " The 
Chronicles of ihe Coloay of Ma<sa- 
ehusFiu Bar," ^ Alei. Younir, in one 
Tf^ame Sto., nnllbrai witb the authoi'i 
Hiiloi? of ihe Colony of Plymoulh. 

An inlemtiag Totune bta jod appeared 
from the pren of Wiley and Pataam, 
by Professor Fowaet of London, enti- 
tiei " Cbnnlstry aa eiempliryinx the 
wisdom and beneSccDee of God." 
Tfaii admirable esaay received the priza 
of one hundred guineas fhtm the AeU>- 
nian bequest by ibe hands of Ibe Royal 
Inslilutlon of Great BriLain. 

H. G. Lsagley is about to publish in one 
elegant valunM, the eiqnisite Poems of 
Mrs. Banetl — limatuneously with the 
London edition. A certain critic de- 
scribes Ihe poetical writings of this 
Bothor as being of empyrean order — 
eminently ethereal and beaaliful. 

A new tale, iltaMrative of Wesietn }ift, 
js on the ere of appearing, e&titled 
" Ellen Woodville i" it danbUcM will 
find its way to Dumerons renders whose 
knottledge of domestic life in the far- 
west isBlmost as limitrd in the Atlantic 
ciiies of our own land, as it is in En- 
rope itself. It is written in a I>llcJtoas 
style, and few works will prove more 
generally acceptable at the summer 
wateHn; places, wbere our reading se- 
lections are speciall]' made with refer- 
ence to amuienient. 

Hr. Simmii's long promised lift of Gene- 
mi Marion is now printed ; tbe illus- 
trations, which will render the volume 
Tery ornate nnd nttractive, are nearly 
Aniahed, so that the work will cerlaialy 
be published daring lbs present month. 
Few chaneters have stood out more 
boUly oD one RevolntionarT Annalt, 



who hare supplied mi 
cieitiag material* for the historiu. 
than that of Geaeral Marion : ai^ ii 
i* not saying loo much to dain ibr (t< 
work bHore as, ao las tbe meiii' 
accredited historical Imtfa, than it 
moat stirring and abBcnbtBg alUibaUt 
of faigh-wronghl &ctioB. 

The first edition— a i««e- ooe, too— ku 
been alrenly sold of " Corinne ."— » 
rrbijf of the still existing favaiiii«> 
with which the reading |inblie r^iri 
this exqnisite romance of Hadame it 
Stael. 

H, W. Dodd has jnxt ismcd ■ very beai- 
tifnlly executed edition in 8to. of it< 
collected works of Charlotte Elisabeth i 
the bat volume com prisca halfadosn 
of her papular books, and is prrttdti 
by a critical introduction by Mrs. H. 
B. Stowe, and aetampaDied )9 an ea- 
graved likeness of the anthor. T>< 
marked iadications of favor with whick 
the volomioous productions of ttiii 
nseful writei have been received, foim 
a Bare gnarautee for the permancsi 
success and value of tbia new and a>^ 
lectcd edition by Mr. Qodd, 

Wiley k Pnlnun have the foltowinc 
works in prest : " Lectnres on Agn- 
eallural Chemistry and GcQlf^." Bj 
James F. W, Johnston, M.A., F.R-S, 
tU. Part IV., completing the wort:, 
wUlbepobUsbedinafewday*. "On- 
cles fVoni the Poets." By Mi*- Caro- 
liae Gilman. A fandful divertioa fsi 
Ibe Drawing-room. I vol. I2nM. 
" Prayers for Children. » 1 vol. fiitb 
engravings, prinlcd In a laige d^' 
type. Will be ready shortly. B^^- 
Mr. Cheever's " Leetores on ibe Pil- 
grim's Prof resB, and on the Life *"' 
Times of John Snnyan." Nos. XI- W 
XIV., which will complete the wrk. 
" Water-Cure for Ladies i" a popolnr 
work on the health, diet, and trgif"" 
of Females and Children, and the f" 
ventioQ and care of diseases; with a 
full Bccountnf Ihe processes of Water- 
Cnrej illnstrated with various Cast*- 
By Mn. M. I.. Shew, revised by Jo^ 
Shew, M.D., Practitioner of W»I«- 
Cure. 1 vat.'I2Bw, 



dbvGooi^Ic 



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PEK'Sice's £'ffia.sjiSBDS 



M ftV tl,/ f/'"^'""'' /!>«"- irJIif^^-' 



u.omzori.vCTOOgIc 



THE 

PNITED STATES MAGAZINE, 

AND 

DEMOCRATIC REVIEW. 



SEPTEMBER, 1844. 



diattibution of power, between the dif- States a 

feient bnnche* of erery regulsrlj or- many at the time beliexed to be expe- 

ganised goTernment, bare always been dient; and thus tbe verj bulwarks 

amoneat the most eiiiitins, important, whicb are iDdiapesaable for the presei- 

aod dangetous. The tubility, efiici- Tation of popular ■apremacy io out sva- 

encT, and benefiaenco of eveiy well- tem of govenimeat,haTebeeD tooouen 

ordered Koveroment, depend upon the mistaken for iriistaclefl to the popolai 

proper distribution of its powers ; and will. The importance of dcrfending the 

the wise regulation of this question is inheritance from waste ban beea orer* 

the highest task of the statesman. In looked when the limitationa in the deed 

each country there are peculiar circom- necesBary for that purpose hare stood 

stances which modify the qnestion io in the way of satne temporary desir?, 

that particular case, and its difficulty which conid only be gratified by n^k- 

increaaes with the extent of country ing important saoriliees of popular 

and the diversity in interest of the peo* rights and power. It is, howsTer, 

pie for whom a goTenment is to be cheering to pereeiTe, that the impoit- 

conatiiuted. In our complicated eys- auee of the constitutioital diTisioo of 

tern, which nmbraces so man^ great power in our own aystem, to the 

and various interesis, thia question pre- whole confaderacy, ia beginning Io be 

senta increaaed difficulties, and aaaumea more genetallj appreciated. The day, 

magnitude and importance to a degree perhaps, has passed, when any man, 

perhaps unknown to any people who pretending to thectiaiaoter of an Ame- 

b&Te preceded us. Whether we look rican statesman, can hope by a sneer 

at the actual Tequiiemeota of the in- to excuse or cover bis ignorance of the 

Btrument under which we are aasoei- first and moat important stagea in the 

ated, or to the wants of onr peopls, in inquiry, which are necessary to acom- 

whatevsr bearing we may view it, this plete understanding of onr system. He 

subject preseuta itself as the most im- would be considered as a little more 

portant which can engage the attention than arrogant, who ahould now seek to 

of the American statesman; and yet direct the machinery, when he p 

it has never commanded that degree of ed i '' ' '' ' 

general consideration which its import- wbic 

ance merited. It haa been too much amoi . . . ._ 

the habit to consider the qnealion aa daily becomingmoreprevalentamongat 

entirely theoretic, and to overlook its the friends of popolar supremacy in 

general importance to the whole cod- our government, that the democratic 

ledeiacy, under the idea that the inter- atrongholds lie behind those very bnl- 



est in it was confined to a small and warks which onr Others reared tojiro- 

ST-' . . . . - 

diviaioD of power between the General from the many to the few, seema, from 



peculiar political school. Unfortunate- tect the rights of the States. That 
It, the practical issues in relation to the party which seeks to transfer power 



and Stata Govennneota, have for the the first, to bare perceived that U 

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3S0 Tna Theory and Philotophy of our Ss/stem of Goetrttmenl. [Sept. 

fsDcea of the right* of the Slatea iiDd to tiDlimilef power. Foi tbe teat, it 

tbe peopla wete, lo a ^eai extent, the would be woaaerful, if the even iiece»- 

B&me ; and Ihej have eier scted as if mij ainbiguiliea uf every written in- 

tbey believed that thej could nut de< itrument would not enable them to 

Btroj the deiQocratic principle which make toine show of claiming under the 

EBr*sdea our inslitatioos, until they eonalilulion powers which were leally 
id robbed tbe States of their sove- uBurped, when there existed no pat- 
Teignty, and of the powers reposed in ties on the other side who were com- 
them under Our Bystem of Dovemment. petent to tefer the dispute fur adjust- 
Why it is that those who desire to de- meet lo an; tribunal, oilier than lt»e 
itro^ the democratic tendency of out very government which was accused of 
Inatttuiions, should seek their object usarpatioo. These firat steps in their 
through the consolidation *>f alt power progress are to them the objects of tbe 
in one General Government, we shall most real and practical iropoitanc«, 
hereafter endeavor to explain ; but for and, accordingly, it is upon (his debate- 
tiib evidences of the fact, we refer to able land, that most of the battles be- 
the history of all the great questioua tween the St&tea Rights party aad 
which have divided the Republican aad themselvea liave been fought. It u 
Federal partiea, from the adoption of here, then, as to the origin and source 
the constitution up to this time. Upon of the powers o( the State sod Federal 
kli these occasions, we have seea thai GoTernments, that our iDveaugstion 
the Federal pany, in order to attain should ciKnmeiice. 
their ends, found it necessary to in- For ourselves, we maintalQ tb>t 
crease the powers of the General (xot- there has existed before and since tb« 
ernment at the expense of Iho just adoption of the present ctHistitatian, a 
rights of the States, by constructions separate sovereignty in the people of 
of the constitution which (as we be- each of the States ; that this oonstito- 
lieve) were lalse, atkd calculated to por- tiou was established by a compMt be- 
Tert the true objects of that instrument, tween these distinct sovereignties, irbo 
Their whole theory of our government ratified and adopted it in separat« eon~ 
has been conformed, not to the oonstitu- veniions, nhioh represented their seve- 
tion,but the secret objects of their pur- ral sovereignties i tbst the States am 
suit. They maintain that there is one the only parties to this emnpaot, who 
consolidated American people, whose agreed each with the others to exercise 
sovereignty is represented by the Gen- jointly with them certain specified 
eral Government, which, as thej assert, powers, through a eommon agency, or 
is oonstituted, through some or all of its General Government, without preja- 
departments, the supreme and final dioa lo their rights to use their other 
Judge of its own rights aitd powers, powers of sovereignty through their 
To secure this poiition, ihej deny that own special and separate agents; that 
oor constitution is a compact, or that Uiis General GoTernmenl was thna 
there now exist separate partiee to it. made by the adoption of each distinct 
They deny that there is any separate sovereignty the government of that 
sovereignty in the people of the difier- State to the extent ot' its express an- 
ent States, or that there exists any ihority, and no further, to which it 
right of resistance, or coonterrailing stands in the relation of a joint agent, 
legislation, in the States, no matter and not as a party ot judge andet the 
how palpable might be the Tioiatione of eompact ; and that it is the government 
the constitution ,- bnt each individual is of all, because it is the govemmeitt of 
remitted for relief lo the General Gov- each, and not the government of each 
ernment against its own aggressims, or because it is a part of the whole ; at 
else to his original right of rebellion (if other words, that it derives its powers 
light it can be called), and such seps- not from an aggregate, but from ssps- 
nte meana of resistance as his own rate and distinct eouteea. The anthor- 
Ingennity mav devise. If they can ity of the General Government (as we 
thus mure the Federal Government, hold) over the oitisens of the States, 
through some or all of its departments, rests upon two foundations. First, (o 
the supreme judge of its own rights the extent of the granted powers, it has 
and acts, and sweep from its path the within the State the authority of the 
«n]f patties able and competent to re- simple social cam{>act which binds the 
mst it, they accomplish their main oh- members of a particular society, for it 
jeet in seeoring its undisputed approach was adopted by a convention rr ' 



Google 



1844.] Tmt Theory a^ FhilMophy of our Sgitem of Government. 231 

log Ihe entire Bovereigntj or the Slate, taioa its aovereignty, freedom and inde- 
Next, and Uixhe same extent, its bu- pendence, and ever; power, Juiisdictiiui 
thorilj haa the additional aanction of aa and right, which is not bj this Gonfed' 
international treatj between the aepa- eralian expressly delected to the Ud- 
rate States, which agreed lo exercise a ted States in Congress assembled" — 
portion of their sovereign powers jolnl- and, indeed, the general nature of these 
ty and through its agency. Should a articles would aeem to place the ques- 
eiliien of any State resist, in his indi- tion beyond a doubt. Should any re- 
Tldual capacity, any authorized act of main incredulous ailer such proofs, tho 
the General Government, he violates mode of ratifying the present Conatilui 
Dot only the obligation of hia social tion ought to be conclusive, for it was 
contract to the people of his own Slate adopted, not by a Convention from tho 
who adopted this Kovernment, but he whole Ameiicao people, but by sepa- 
also violates the obligations of a treaty rate Conventions from the people of 
between his own and other St3tes,which each poriiculai: State ; nor is out con- 
is binding upon him. Should a State, elusion from this fact to be avoided, by 
through a coDventjoa, and in ita Bove- aupposing that the sense of the people 
Teign capacity, resist an authorized act was thus token for convenience, as 
of Ihe General Government, it violates parts of one whole. If that had been 
its obligations to the co-States, with the case, a majority of the States, or of 
whom it entered into a compact lo sua- the people counted by States.could hare 
tain such acts, and a case is raised lo eatabUahed the Conatitution for the 
be deiermined by the principles of na- whole; and yet we know thatnodis- 
tionat and natural law. But to the aenling State was bound by it, and that 
General Government it is not responai- the Constitution espressly declared, 
ble for this violation, for that govern- that if nine Slates ratified the Conali- 
menc was no party to ihe compact, but, tution, it should be binding between 
on the contrary, its creature, and might Ihoae Statea, from which the inference 
be rightfully destroyed by the State its is clear, that those dissenting were not 
creator, if it were not for the obligation considered as bound. If the States 
to the co-Statea to maintain it, accord- then were aeparate, and the only sove- 
ing to the terms of ihe constitution, reign parlies existing, at the time of 
But. in that case, the individual respon- the adoption of the Constitution, hoir 
eibility of the citizen to the General was that instrument established, except 
Government has ceased, for he has by acompact,whasetermsit describes} 
been absolved by his sovereign from Ail governments are est^lished either 
the social obligation to obey it, and the by force oi compact, and ours was, no< 
violation of Ihe obligation between the toriously ) not established by force, 
States is a qoestion between those it nual then owe ita origin to a corn- 
States, and not between him and any pact, Co which the separate people of 
State but his own. ihe several States were the only pos- 
That there was a separate snvereign- eible and competent parties. That 
ty in the people of each of the States, these were the views of the Conven- 
liefore the adoption of Ihe present con- tlons in the Slates, at the time, is evi- 
■lituiiun, ought never to have been dent from the acts of ratlRcation. Mas- 
doubted. The separate aettlemenl of sachnsetls and New Hampshire eX' 
the colonies under diflerent and dis- preasly declare, that by their raliSca- 
tinoi charlais — Ihe separate colonial tion of the Conatitution, the States en- 
goveTBmeniB — their separate action du- lered into a solemn compact wuh each 
ring the revolution until the first act of other, and nearly all the States assented 
confederation — the character of that to the Constitution " in the name and 
confederated government itself, which on behalf" of their own separate peo- 
was a mere agent of the Slate govern- pie. The State of Virginia, in particn- 
ments upon whom it acted, and not up- lar, declares that she assents, in the 
on individuals — the address of Con- name and behalf of the people of Vir- 
greas to the States, when the plan for cinia, and by that asaent, makes the 
a confederacy was agreed upon, Conatitution binding upon " the said 
which asserts that our continent was people." She thus makes it, not the 
" divided into so man^ sovereign and government of the whole, but of her 
independent communiliea" — and above ovrn particular people. It is clear, then, 
all the 9d Article of Confaderation, that tha Conatitnlion waa established' Z^" I 
which declares that "eaoh Slate re- by a compact between the States, skV^jOO^IL 



SS3 True Theoiy and PhUotopiy of our SytlertMf Ooeemment. {Sept. 

Bepante And soTereign parties. Wu authority io the State, for noveTeignty 
there anjlhing ia that compact, which implies supremacy, and there cannot 
merged their sovereignties, and coa- be two who are supreme ; for if there 
Bolidated their BSTeral commnnities, in- were two eqaal authorities, neithet 
to one American people, for all, or a oould b« supreme, and there could be 
part eren, of the parposes of gOTern- no single people who were soTsreign, 
ment! We think not. The sovereign and competent to the establishment of 
is the supreme power in the State, a complete goTemment — which wonld 
The American idea on this anhjeet, be contrary to the long eGtablished 
which lies at the fonndation of all oor Ajnerican ideas upon the subject. So 
bslitutions, ia, that this supreme pow' evident is the imposaibilitj of dividiag' 
et reals not in any government, but ia sovereignty, that Burlanutqui, and oth- 
Ihe ^ople. This is too notorious to er eminent authorilies upon national 
require demonstration, allhongh the l&w, have pot the case of asovereigntj 
evidence is at hand, and easily aecessi- which agreed to exercise a ponton of its 
Ue. It fellows also, as a necessarT powera,jointly with otherB,snddecided 
consequence, that this supreme anthori- that its aovereigntv was neither des- 
ty must be competent to the establish- troyed nor impaitej, by snch an agree- 
ment of a complete government. Now ment. But this theory of our Anieri- 
tbe State Rights Ibeoiy conforms not can people, which is a people for some 
only to these ideas, which are consi- purposes, and not for others, of a peo- 
dered OB fondamentai truths by every pie in effect without sovereignty, repre- 
American mind, hut also to the Consti- seated by a Government, which it did 
tstion, and the history of the times, not create, and cannot amend or change. 
According to that theory, the people of is as much opposed to the spirit and 
each Slate are sovereign within its lettei of the Constitution, as it ia lo the 
limits, and they have divided, not their American sentiment in relation to tha 
sovereignty (which is impoasible), but legitimate basis of government. The 
the exercise of its powers, between fundamental conception, upon which 
the joint agent of all the States, and this instrument was based, ecems to be, 
its own special ^nt, or separate State that ours is a( uoion, not of individuals, 

Kvemmeot. From this sovereignty but of States, who are sabslBtlng and 
B emanated a system of complete sovereign parlies to a compact, de- 
Sovernment for the State, each branch scribed therein, which ia to be jointly ex- 
eriving ils anlhority within the State, eeuted by them, for their common bene- 
from the same source, and each being fit. The very preamble, which baa 
paramount within its own sphere. been relied on, as evidence of the con- 
But the Federal theorjof one Ameri- trary theory, seems to us to support the 
can people, when taken in all its parts, foregoing supposition. It does not 
ia inconsistent with truth, and with all oountenance the idea of a union ofpeo- 
OUT American ideas in relation to popu- pie, but of Slates; it does not say, we 
Jar power, The rights of this one con- the united people of the Stala, as 
Bolidated American people, if they ei- would have been the accurate mode of 
ist, are limited to the powers of the eipreasing the Erst idea, but "we the 
General Government. Now, if there people of the United States," is the 
was no other government id the State phrase, which clearly contemplatea the 
of New York, for example, it would be anion of Slates. To make this clear, 
Bianifestly incomplete for the wants of it has described the people whom it 
the people. The civil and criminal ju- oonlemplated as those who " do ordain 
liadiclionB would be so defective, that and establisb this Constitution for the 
they would suffer under the worst evils United States of America." Now it ia 
of anarchy. How is the want to be known, that the people who eetablisbed 
supplied* Not from the one Ameri- it, were the separate people of the seve- 
can people, for all admit that they ral Slates, lepresenled in distinct Con- 
wonld have no atithoiity upon these ventiona, and it ia remarkaUe that this 
subjects. The necessary government very preamble declares il to be a Con- 
conld onlv he supplied by the people slttution, not for ihe united people, 
of New York thenuelves, which is ad- or even the people, bnt simply for the 
mitting, that tn this extent at least Vniled Slates. The word people, waa 
they constitute the supreme and sove- probably used in (his ~~ '~~ 



uthority in the State. If this mark the difference between the ^^;OOq|c 



be tnie,'theD they eonstimte the ooljr stitution, which waa sanationed b 



1844.] Tn$e Ttery artd PKUoBophy of mr Sytttm of Qottmatmt. 933 

paople at tfaa Slatei, *nd ihe old artidea fenred froin the 7th ■rtiels, whioli de- 
vi Conr«der«lion, which ware ontj cUiea that " Ihe nufiouian of the eon- 
MDctioned b^ the Govemment of ths ventionB of nine States ahiJl be suffi- 
StEUes, — ft distinction which the fnm- cient for the establiahment of this con- 
era of that inatrument were libel; to etitu^n between the States, as ntifj- 
DOte. Nor ia this theory of the aailed ing the same." The nine Stabiaweie 
people to be iDatained in oppoution to thaa bound to each other, aa States, to 
the general apirit, and espieaa terma of mainlaii) tbo eonstitntion, aod no aaoh 
the Constitution, because the Federal obligatioo on the part of any State to 
Government operatea npon individuaJs, the geaerU gOTetnment, or of any indi- 
— afoandationmuchtooaleDderfarstiali vidual to any State bat his own, ia re- 
a supers! rac tare, even were it a fuA, ferred to, nor can it be imptied. The 
which the Stale Righta theory ooald obhguion to maintain the constitution, 
not explain. But in truth, it is per- on the part of the indiTidual citiaen, is 
fectty consistent with that theory, and to his own State, which bound bim in 
a result to which it would naturally ita conTention ; most of ths States so 
hare led. ezpreased it, in the lery act by which 
Thegeneial government, >a we hare they ratified die canstitotion. There 
before explained, iaaa much the gvvero' are also certain proviaiona in the cod- 
roent of a particular State, New York atitution which must be regarded aa 
for example, as the State ^vemment treaty siipulationa between the States, 
itself; the authority ofeaohm that State whoae obligationa can only beperform- 
ia derived from the same aonrce, and ed by their separate action, aod cannot 
each is a pan of a complete govern- possibly be enforced or redeemed by the 
mont for ilB people. The general gov- genenl governiDent,— such as the l<Mi 
ernmeut is as much the government of section of the Ist article, and the 3d 
the people of New York, to the extent section of the 4th, which contain aorae 
of its powere, aa the State go*emment proviaiona ^at mnat be conatmed is 
itself, and there is an equal consisteocy this light, and readily present to the 
and propriety in ita operating upon' its mind caaea in which the remedy can 
individual citiiens. Take away theao only be found, in the faithfnl perform' 
slender foundations for the doctrine of anoe of their matnal obligations, by the 
a united people, and nothing remaina in aeparate Slatea Ihemaeives. The ex- 
ihe eonstitntion to give it plausibility, istence of such a class of atipulations 
On the contrary, the separate, and, as would seem to be enough to prove the 
we think, the sovereign existence of snbaiating and aeparate sovereigaty of 
the people of the different States is the States, who are thus bound to each 
everywhere recognized by the eonati- other. We ought to be still more 
tntion. From them as sovereignties, strongly oonfirmed in this view, if wo 
it derived ita being ; by them atone it ahall find, upon further investigation, 
can be changed ; upon them, as States, that Ihe general government oau only 
its obligationa are eipresaly imposed ; maintain ita eiiatence through the ae- 
and for theit benefit and satisfaction it paiaie action of theStatea in their cor- 
ta to be executed. That the constitu- porate capacities, and that the provi- 
tion was establiahed by the aeveral aions of the itanstitation are auch as 
States in their sovereign capaeitiea, seem to look exclnsirely to the Slatea 
most candid minds muei admit. That aa tbe parties to the oompaot, for whose 
it can only be amended by Ihe States, benefit it ia to be executed. And yet, 
aa separate ci.-nrauntties, is so clearly such must inevitably be the reaulta of 
expressed in the conatitution that none that investigation. Without State !e- 
have denied it. The constitution thus gislaturea there could be no federal aen- 
elearty recognizes its creating power, ate, for it ia by those bodies that ita 
not only for the past but the fuiure, aa members must he elected. The rega- 
residing in the people of the separate lation of the manner of electing tbe 
States ; and by attributing to them the President ia also exclusively confided to 
highest postibie political power, admits the State goremments. In the dislri- 
in the most satisfactory manner their hution of power,the States are Ihe par- 
supremacy or sovereignty. That the ties guarded against the encroachments 
obiigBtions of (he conatitution are im- of tbe general government. All pow- 
posed npon the States, as Statea, and era not expreaaly granted to that gov- 
■ot upon individuals, or upon any one ernmeut, are resetted to the separata 
consolidated people, is clearly to be in* States, and UMaa leaerved powers an 



Goog(e 



tS4 TVtw T^oty md Phihtophy of our Sy»Uin of GMtnmMa. [Se^ 

HnongBt die bishest nbioh perUin to is dntribaled amongit iha Sutvs, as 
■OT«teJgnl]r. Ibey include the right Sttttes^od accoidiogUibataadarij&iad 
orpreBerTifigpobhemnralaaDdpTotect- bj coaipiMniM and contract. The M- 
ing private property within tha State, mdI of all theae three deparlmeuta \a 
and ta a graat extent the power of de- aeceaaarf to a law of ihe United Stale*, 
relnping iti phyaical and intelleciua] re- and in thia ptoeesa. the aeoM of the 
Bources. Now, the reaenation of rigfata Statea aa eueh is at leoat once diatinct- 
aa agsinat the grantee in the deed, and Ij Uken, and the coocurrence of a mtr- 
the annihilatinn uf the sepatats partiea jority of them made necessary fur the 
who were to enjoy ihem, ta an ahauidi- actioo of the federal goTetnment. In 
ty hardly to be imputed to the wise men majiiiig treaties and appoiDtmeots, thej 
who framed our constitution. Eape- have also a ahare of power, through th* 
ciaJiy when we see that the compromi- aeiiate,in which they are equUlj r«pre- 
•ea of which it ia fell all relate to Staia aeoted. Now thia whole diotribuliea i» 
intereaiB, and not to thoseof indiTiduala mauifeatly irreooneilahle with the idea 
or olaaaea. " The duties, impoata and of a consolidated people, who stand 
ezciaea are to be nnifornt throaghont towarda the general goTernment aa a 
the United States ;" and " no prefer- principaJ lo an agent ; bat it harmoni- 
enee ahaJl be given by any regulalian of see precisely with Uial theory which wa 
eommerceor reiennetotheportsof one bare been auppotting. The power of 
State over those of another." The selecting and ihua controlling the ac- 
power, too, of oontrolling thejoint agent tion of Ihe federal goTernment ia clear- 
er federal govenment, ia alsn dtslribut- ly diatribuled amongat the Slalea, which 
ed in reference to the States as par- is the highest poasible proof that there 
ties, and wilbonC any regard lo the idea esiata between ihem the relatloH of 
ofa consolidated American people. The principal and agent, 
oonstitution declares that " Reprcsen- If we have been sncccaaftil in onz 
talires and direct taxes shall be appor- previoua efibrta, we have proved : that 
tioeed amongst" — wbnm 1 The whole the States were aeparate and suvereigm 
people 1 No -, but " amongst the seve- parties, who framed this conetitution bf 
ral Slatea." Thia apportionment ia [hue compact; that there is nothing in that 
made according to a certain arbitrary instrument to annihilate, but much to 
Btandard, agreed epon as a just maasure conGrm their character as sovereigns ; 
of the strength of the several Slates in that the obligation of a Stale to main- 
the federal government. This stand- tain it, ia not lo the Geeeral Govem- 
ard assumes neither wealth nor abso- ment, but to the co-States with which it 
late numbera as the test, but a mixed eontraoied; that the only parlies to the 
mle, which the States esreed upon as compact oontemplated throniihout th« 
the meaaore of their relative federal coDstilution, are the separate States in 
atrength. In aaaigniag to each State their corporate oapaoities; and that 
ita portion of representatives, an nnre- the General Governmeot haa almost 
presented fraction isalmost always leit, every feature which could character- 
and the sum of these fracliona would iie it aa the joint agent of the States, aa 
always constitute a mass too eonaidera- principals. Jo sustaining these poai- 
ble lo be led without representation, if tions we have not relied upon the con- 
onr goverement bad, in truth, been es- temporaneous expositions of the conetj- 
tablished to repreaent a consolidated tulion made by high anihority, although 
American people. In the senate, the many such were readily aocessible. 
distribution of power is still more clear- Amongst these, the celebrated resoln- 
ly made between the States, as the tions of the Virginia and Kentuchy 
principals for >whom the joint afenoy legisiatutee in 1798~QS, are perhaps 
la establiehed. In that body the Slates the most celebrated To have enteied 
are represented eqoally, upon the prin- fully upon this branch of oor proo( 
oiple of a simple coo led oration. The would have extended this essay too Ux 
mode of electing a Preaident evidently beyond its proper limits. -We ha»o 
refera to the same partieaaa principals, chosen rather to prove the troth of out 
"Each Stale thaUappoinI, in such man- theory, b; ahowing that it harmonised 
oer as the legialature thereof shall di- our position, not only with the leading 
a number of electors equal to the American cooeeption aa to Ihe sover- 



whole number of senators to which the eigni; of the people, and ibeonly legi- 

"Sooglc 



Sialt may bi entitled in congrees," timate basis of government, but 
The power of oonuoliiiig this election with ^a whole caaetitulioa,ia its gena."' 



1644.] Tnit TJkeory and PMloiophy of our System of Gooetwiunt. 9S6 

t»l spirit aod istentioos. Bud in M ile bean leioked, and whose sxiatence sad 
pruiisiuDS. We eodeairored lo demon- uithoriiy &re in dispute. If its aullioi- 
Slrate the obeurdily of the opposite iiy exists tvitliin tiie Slate nhich has 
theory, by showins that it was grosslj revoked it, ihece is an end lo the quea- 
ioDonsistenl with the fteneia) spirit and tioa, fur upua that very fact was the 
paiticulai proTisions uf ihecunstiiutiuD, issue to be tried Fron) the very na- 
iad that, in effect, it annihiluted the tute of the controreray it migbt, aod 
idea of aovereigniy in the people. For, often would he iuelf a party to ibe caae. 
according lo this tlieory, there exiata We know that tbia view has been 
BO one people who are supreme, and stnutl; contested, and that there are 
Ibetebre sovereign, within the hounds many who maintaia that the Federal 
of aoy State, and aonaequeutly, that Judiciary is the aupreme judge of the 
there ia no one people to whom a powers of the Federal ana Slate Got- 
citiien of a Slate ean look as aupreme ernmenla, upon the authority of the 
and sovereign, in relation to ajl the clauses of the conslilution creating 
powers of ■ compleie government. that department, and upon the 9d eeo. 
If our positions have been truly of the Sth article, which declares that 
taken, it follows, as a oonseqaeuce, " this conBiitution, and the tawa of the 
that the authority cf the General Got- United State*, which sbal) be made in 
ernmeot within a particular State, is pursuance thereof, and all treaties 
wholly derived from the separate act made, or which shall be made, undei 
of its sovereigo people, whuae agent it the authority of the United States, 
ia' to the eUent of its delegated pnwers. shall be the aupreme law of the land." 
To thai extent, it is the Gaiernmenior But these proviaione are tu be construed 
the Slate of New York, made BO by ihe ia reference to the whole spirit and 
bighauihorityorihepeopleofNewYork, meaning of the conatituiion, and not to 
Should that people interpose through the destruction of that general spirit, 
a conveniiiin, in their sovereign caps- for the attsinment of a particular pur- 
city, to revoke that agency, the revoca- poee. Nor is it to be supposed that 
lion of that power is cuniplete, so far these clauses could have designed to 
aa the individual ciiicen of ihe Stale ia give it jurisilictiun, in cases in which it 
concerned; for a principal may, at any was itself Ihe author, or at leaal a par- 
time, revoke a naked power, and the ty in the wrong complained of. We 
atseoC is now withheld, through which may readily admit, that the conaiitulion 
alone the individual was originally and laws made in puriuance iherrof, 
bonnd. So far aa the agent i« con- are the supreme law of the land, and 
cemed, there ia no obligation involved yet assert, that laws made in opposition 
by the Slate i for a naked power may, thereto are actually void. The laws 
al any time, he revoked ; aod it i* the made in pursuance of the ecnstitulion 
precise case of a State Government, al- are supieme within the State of New 
tered or changed hy a conveniinn of the York, foe example, because, in relation 
people of that Slate ; nor is there any to the granted powers, that governraent 
obligation to that agent, violated by the is the only gnvernment of the people of 
individual citizen, who vras only bound New York, aud was made so by their 
through the Slate. But in the revoca- own act. But it ia equally true, that 
tion ofthia joint agency by ihe Stale, its the laws of the Slate GoverniDent 
obligations to the co-Siales may be vio- made in pursuance of the reserved 
lated, and for iheir violation it may be- powers, are also the aupreme law of 
coroe responsilile to them, not aa unit- that Slate. Each is supreme in its 
•d, but several Slates. There are own sphere, in part, but not in the 
cases between Slates to be settled upon whole. Bui to assert that either is au> 
the principles of national taw, aod the preme, in a dispute aa to the boundary 
usages of nations ; uolesa, indeed, there of their powers and juriadiciioo, ia to 
be aome common arbiter, mutually enable one lo overwhelm tbe other, 
agreed upon between them. Now, for and to deetroy all the land-marks be- 
fuch oases as these, no auch arbiter tweec them. Accordingly, ibis oon- 
bas been appointed by Ihe constitution; atruclion was long ago repudiated by 
for, although the contrary haa been the Republican parly, anci Mr. Madi- 
aaaerted, there ia nothing which consti- son's argumeni on this aubject, in bis 
tutea the Supreme Court the arbiter celebrated report of 1790, may perhaps 
in such controversies. That court is a be considered unanswerable. It baa 
part of tbia lery agency which has been justly argued, that such a **''f'~'^.^,-vli(T» 



SS6 True Theory and Plulotophf of eur Si/item of Oo verwMnt. [Sept. 

stTDCtion would destroy the very ea- diciary. Now, these ue eue* ofTio- 
sence and Bpiril of ibe constitution, lation of the constitntion of the moet 
which was founded on the idea of (t important and exciting character, which 
divisiun of power between the Slate are cnnrescedly withoat the reach ot 
and Federal Government*, that oould the Federal jnriBdiciiDD. It is not 
not be raainlained, if a branch of the therefore to be suppused, that the frain- 
htler were the sopreme judge between ersof the conatilution designed to make 
the two, It has been shown, too, that this judiciary supreme aa against ths 
the powers uf thia judiciary itself were sotereigncy of a State, for if sach had 
limited, and that the reeerrations to the been their design, they would not hare 
States of powers not granted, were left the mnal dan^roos cases in which 
reBervations against the General Got- the rights of a Slate might be invaded 
ernment, in all its departments, legisla- beyond the sphere of its jurisdiction. 
live, ezeoutiTe, and judicial. It has Neither is itto be supposed that this in- 
been pointed out as a cleat result stitution was so paramount aa to induce 
that this constitution would nullity all them to risk or aacrifice for it, the great 
the limitations upon the power of the object of a division of power between 
Supreme Court itself, as it was thus tha State and Federal governinents, fur, 
made the supreme and final judge of its in that case, the; cool d not have left 
own rights and jurisdiction. In this the means for attaining thia parpoie, 
way, we dhould erect a tribunal, per- so incnnplsie. 

haps as despotic as any people have The most that ean be claimed for tho 
ever known, and defeat the highest FederalCourt, with any degree of plaii- 
ends of the constitution itself. sibility, is its supreme right to judge ao 
The only plausible mode of account- for as the parlies to the case are con- 
ing for so immense and improvident a cerned, so long as its jurisdiction is not 
grant of power, was the supposed de- contested by a rival judiciary, deriving 
sire to provide an arbiter for the peace- its authority from the same sonrce, or 
ful adjustment of disputes between the whilst il is not contested by a Slate in 
Stales orindividuals, which mightarise iis sovereign capacity. The framere 
under the constitutioa. But it has been of the conslilution did not make the 
repeatedly shown, that most important absurd attempt to settle disputes be- 
cftses of violations of constitutional ob- tween equals by giving to one of them 
ligations might occur, which could not supreme authority to adjust the dif- 
be reached by the Federal Courts, ac- ferenee. Those wiae men well know, 
cording to the opinions of all, even of thai between equal and coOrdinoie au- 
some of its own judges. A case mast Ifaorities, and especially between con- 
be presented in some judicial form, be- federated sovereignties, coses would oo- 
fbre that oourt can take cognizance of casionally arise, in which a spirit of 
it, and yet there may be many eases of compromise, if made necessary, woold 
important violations of the constitution, prove the true conservator of peace and 
which cannot be made to assume such justice. Nor did they contemplate ihe 
a form. The constitution forbids the idea of a government or a single branch 
States to enter into agreementaor com- of that goverament which should have 
pacts with eaoh other, to grant titles of more authority within a State, than the 
nobility, to keep standing armies, to lay sovereign people who created il ; such 
impost duties, &e., without the consent an idea would have been as inconsistent 
ef Congress. " The citizens of each with their svstem, as il is with the true 
Slate shall be entitled to all privileges conoepiinn of popular sovereignty, 
and immunities of citizens in the sev- The whole authority of the Federal ju- 
eral Stales." Now it is easy to con- diciary, within a Stale, is derived from 
eeive of violations by the States of all the asssnt of its people in their sove- 
tbese obligations, in modes which would reign capacity, and when Itiat is with- 
not present a jadicial case for the Fed- held, the individual citizen is absolved 
era! conrts. The general government from the obligation to obey it To have 
is prohibited from the exercise of any attempted to arm ^lat judiciary with 
power not granted by the oonstiiation, tbe power to conSne its decrees 
and yet it might expend money in an in such cases, would have inveated it 
nnconsiituiional mode, to the manireat wi^i thepowerof war,confided to Cod- 
lees and injury ef acme of the States, gress in the case of foreign nations, oik) 
and yet present no case which could not coalemplaiedosbetweeniheSlates. 
pMsjUf be reached by the Federal Jn- This attempt wonld have led to fi^^ 



oogic 



1844.] True Theory and Philotophy of our Syitem of QovenmitnL M7 

more ctH, than it would h»Te cured, to ihia common i^nt, which wu bo 

and sccordinplj, it hu not been mide. eonstituted and liniled u to aBbrd 

Should dilierence unhBppiljr occnr eTeir practicable guaranty that it 
between the aoTereiEntieB which are would diitribute the burthen necessary 
too deep or bitter to be healed by that for its objects, equitably among iho 
spirit of compromise in which our con- Slates. As we said before, the whole 
stiiuiion had its being, it ie not by the end of this class of pcwEia was, to sn- 
Federat tourl that they can be settled, sure our lyttem of SioUm the adeanta- 
Wbat their ultimate remedies ought lo get of Iheir combined ttrengtk in their 
be, it is nol our piorince now to inquire, foreign relatioju, and to place them 
We dismiss that unpleasant subject, be- upon equal terms in sharing the const- 
cause its fuilher InTesligation is unne- quencea of that intercourse. 
ceasary here, and we trust that il can But there was also aaoiher object, 
neveragain assume theshape ofaprac- of perhaps as much importance, and 
tical question. It is enough for us lo ex- sought with nearly equal care hy tha 
cite the vigilance of thoie who stand to proviaions of the constitution. Espe- 
guard the sanctuaries of popolsr power lieoce had shown that the Slates, id 
from profane intrusion, for m them will their separate legislation upon the sub- 
be found the chief elements of strength iect of commerce, might often be 
■nd aecuTity for our system. brought into errors and dangerous col- 

Haiing investigated lo some extent lisions. The selfish attempts of some 
the origin of the constitution, and the to secure indirectly an nndue share of 
obligations which it imposes between the benefits of mutual intercourse, or to 
the States, we turn now to the instrn- tas the commerce of others, might lead 
menl itself, to ascertain the nature of to a war of restrictions or unjust dis- 
the government which it creates, and criminations, which would be alike 
the leading ends which it proposes. destructiTC to all. The interior States 
It is founded, as is manifest to all, upon openly expressed their fears, ihai those 
the idea of a diTision of the powers, on the Atlantic border would endeavor 
necessary for a complete government, to tax oi regulate (heir foreign trade; 
between the State and Federal aulhori- and it was apprehended that lb<!se col- 
ties. The powers of the latter govern- lisions might result in opposing serious 
ment are expressly confined lo those obstacles to the free exchanges of com- 
granled in the constitution, and it pre- merce. To remove these dangers the 
eents every feature of a limited agency, power of regulating commerce, not only 
To it are confided the relations of Ihe with foreign nations, but between the 
States with foreign nations. The States, was given to the General Gov- 
powers of peace and war, of conclodiag emment. The States were prohibited 
treaties, and of regulating commerce from laying duties eiiher upon exports 
with foreign nations, are exclusively or imports, without the consent of 
entrusted to it. Congreas ; from impairing the obliga- 

Tbe States are expressly prohibited lions of contracts, or from making any- 

from making treaties with foreign na- thing but specie a legal tender ; and it 

tions, or indeed with each other. Each was especially provided Ihal the cilj- 

enjoys the protection of Ihe combined zens of every State shall have in each 

strength of all in its foreign relations, Slate the privileges of jta own cilixens. 

and each shares equally in the benefits Trade was thus made perfectly free 

or mischiefs of common treaties, and throughout the Confederacy, and Ihe 

common regulations, which are imposed Slates were placed upon equal terms 

upon their intercourse with foreign both ai to Foreign and Domeetic com- 

nalions, by their common government merce. To secure this object still , 

or agent. The dangers to the peace more effectually, the general govern- 

and welfare of Ihe Stales, which would ment or joint agent was invested with 

invariably arise out of their separate power over the subject of bankruptcy, | 

aclion with Foreign powers, are thus and the power to coin money, regulate j 

removed, by all the meana within the the value thereof, and of foreign coin, I 

reach of human wisdom, and this per- and fix (he standard of weights and 

haps formed the highest and leading meaSDres. A common standard of 

inducement to the adoption of the pre- weight and common measure of quan- 

sent conslitution. For this purpose, tily and value were thus provided for, 

the power of raising armies and navies, regulating the commerce which was to^ -~. > 

uid of imposing taxes, was confided be free, and common lo all within ^C^jOO^ IC 



SS8 Tnte Theory and PkHotophy of oar Syilem of Govtrnrnent. (Sept 

CoDrederecjr. There is ECMcely in to limit and explain Ihe en<)s of lh« 
express graol of power to the (ccuBd taxing puwer, wu conatrned as sn ab- 
goretnmeni which does Dot relate im- eoluie grant of power. It was esMly 
ipediately to one or the other of iha shown that such a construction would 
two leading objects which we have annihilate the ^real ends of the conati- 
aacribed to the coostitution. tution itself, and defeat its avowed 
Foreign intrigues and interfprence, purpose of restricting thepowera of the 
which bad proved so baneful lo all general goverfimeDt, and of reeerTioE 
forruBi confederacies, were thus debar- to the Stales all that waa not granted. 
red an entrance into ours, ao far, at The result of the issue thus presented 
least, as human wisdom could effect to the people, was such ae to drive tbo 
that purpose. Still more haneful, if part; from that ground, and since then 
possible, had been the consequences of they have relied mainly upon the clause 
the allempls made by individual States which provides that Congresa ahall 
to build up their own prosperity, at the " make all laws which shall be neces* 
expenae of their confederates. This, s«r^ and proper, for carrying into oXB- 
too, was prevented by thoae wise pro- cution the foregoing powers, and all 
visions, which, if faithfully observed, other powerevested by this constitutian 
will rei^uire each Stale so to use its in Ihegovernmentuf the United Slates, 
owo rights as not to injure the equal orin any department orofficei thereof." 
Tights of another. A jomi gnveroment The powers intended to be granted by 
aod compact which attains iheae ends, this clauae were unfortunately incapa- 
wi) I secure ihe States against foreign ble ofa precise enumeration, and any 
aggression, and maintain peace and general desoription, however apily ex- 
justice in their relatious with each preaaed.mual have afforded room for 
other, as far as it ia posaible to effect wide differences of opinion. The fede- 
tbese objects. Under all the circum- ralists, who believe it politic and ex- 
stances of their eoudition, it is difficult pedieut to qnnsolidsle as far as pcmsible, 
. to conceive any objects but these for all the powers of government in the 
which it would have been wise in the general branch, have endeavored to 
Stales lo have agreed lo exercise their effect their object by ao enlarged and 
ttowera through a joint agent. To latiludinous conatraction of thia clause, 
have gone beyond the neceaaary objects which grants what are called the im- 
of the confederacy would have haxard- plied powers. By seizing upon all 
ed the whole, and the fewer sacrifioea the powera which were even remotely 
of local feeling and interest which connected with those expressly granted, 
were required lo maintain it, the more they would be able in the end to atrip 
likely it was to endure. But this ar- the States of tbelr most important at- 
rangement, which lefi important powera tributes, and conaummate their most 
W the separate Slates, and reposed in cherished purpose of conaolidaling all 
tbem the trust of developing their own power in a great central government. 



resources according to the particular To trace some connection between a 

oircumsiances of their owq people, did power which they desired to exercise, 

not satisfy the federalists then, or since, and some other expressly granted 

They clearly perceived that each State power, and then to use that power for 

government was lefi a sort of citadel of other ends than those contemplated 

popular power, and would increase the in the grant of the specified power, has 

difficulties of supplanting it. They long been a favorite device. On the 

accordingly sought all the opporluni- other baud, the republican party have 

ties of construction which every writ- always maintained that no power can 

ten inslrumenl affords, to enlarge the be fairly implied, if such a mode of 

powers of the general government be- construction would have the effect of 

yond their true liniiie. They first destroying what were manifestly the 

seized the Isl clause 8th section of leadingobjectsof the constitution itself. 

the 1st article of the eonstitutiou for An implication of power that would 

that porpose, and maintained that it enable the general government by sirai- i 

endowed Congress with the substantive lar reasoning just as well to exercise all ! 

and specific power of providing for the the important functions reserved by the 

common defence and general welfare Stales, or which would destroy iis cha- 

of the United States, by all the means raoter as a limited agent, must mani- 

which could condncB to such ends. A festly beafaiseoonstmcliou, asit would 

pluase, whicb vras obiionsly designed defeat the very plan of the constltutioiu ~- ^-. ^ -, 11^ 



1H4.] TViM Theoty and Philotophy of our Sytlem of Omwrtunmf . SW 

■nd make Dug^fttory the great maw of aelf. If this strict ooiiBtraolioa shoaM 

its profisioDS. So w« nwy, peThaps, be roand t4i srm the Geoenl Gorern- 

■dd that DO power ie to be implied a> ment with all the msaDa necesMry to 

Ma incideat when it is as important or accomplish the ends of the Confedera- 

more important in its character llian oy, it must be admitted to add to the 

its euppueed prinoipeJ, fur then it ia to stability of the Union, ae it requires 

be supposed that it would have been es- fewer sacrifices of local sentiment and 

preaaed, aa there was aa much or more inieresta to maintain it. But, unl'orta- 

reaaun for specifying the former than nately, these differeDces of opinion in 

the latter, if it was intended that it relation to the powers of the General 

ehoald be exercised by the federal go*- Government are not to be settled bj 

emmeni. But all admit that powers the eatabliahment of lair and rational 

which are necesaary or proper fur the rules for the conatructioD of the conali- 

use of a specified power, may be im- tntion. If the objects of inquiry with 

plied, if that conatrjclion harmoniiee both parties wers confined to the dis- 

with the great and acknowledged oh- corery of these rules, their differerieM 

Jecta of the' conitituiion. Tbe limits- might be easily adjusted, but, nnhappi- 

tion, therefore, which is imposed by the ly, the real grounds of sepsraiion be- 

Republican creed upon the implied tween them have a much deeper faun- 

ewers is, that this conatnietion luuat dation. They differ in their views ta 

rmoniae with the whole instrument to the nature of the gOTcmment which 

aitd its general inteolion. The power, it would be most proper to establish, 

when Ihua lairly implied, must be used And as a msn inclinea to tbe gor- 

boikfc fide, for the aingle purpoaeof ex- eroment of the few or the many, 

erciaing the priocipal of wtuch it ia an he is perhaps too apt to lean to a 

ineideiit,aDd notfurolherobjects, which broad or strict construction of the 

are foreign to that purpose, however constitution, in relation to the pow- 

dsairable in themselTes. era of the General GoTsrnment, for 

The powera thus derived by implies- in this, as in other cases, the wish 

^OD must be both necessary and proper; is often father to the thought. That 

and '* proper" here ia manifestly award those who distrust popular guTcmment 

of Umitaiion. The esereise of this have always inclined to this lalitudina- 

imptied power must he proper in view rian construotion is a fact folly proved 

of all the conaidsraliona of the consti- by our past political history, and that 

tution, its clearly expressed grants and the limitations upon the trust confided 

limitations, and its general spirit and to this joiot agent were designed for 

intention. It must be "proper," too, the very purposes of rendering this 

in reference to all the parties to the form of governmeatcoQsistent with the 

compact, and their constitutional poei- rights of the people, and the protectiun, 

tioQ in relatioa to each other. To peace and harmony ofthe States, may 

theseconsiderations this word "proper" be easily msde obvious. 
points as the boundaries within whioh Any attempt, when our constitution 

Congress must exercisa iu sound dia- waa formed, to have embraced so many 

crelion, in the selection of the means vaiioua intoresta, and so great a popu- 

wbieh shall give the Federal Govern- latiou and extent of territory, under one 

ment the full nae of its own specified popular government, concentrating 

powera, without impairing the rights within itself all the powers of a com- 

olearly reserved to tbe States. To plete government, would have been 

ehow that this strict mode (aa it has manifestly absurd. There was nothing 

been termed) of construing ths clause in past experience, or in soood politieu 

S'ving the implied powera, would ena- tiieory, to have warranted such an ex- 

» the General Government to attain periment. The first condition of a 

'Ailly its two leading objects, as hereto- popular government is, that thoas who 

fore explained, would take us beyond are to be afieoted by a law shall con- 

the proper limita of this essay, and into tiol it either mediately or immediately, 

the history of the practical issnes be- Now in anoh a government as that 

tween the parties of the past and pre- supposed, it is manifest that laws would 

aent time. But although that inquiry ofien be enacted whioh would affect a 

is impossible here, we willingly trust part only, whilst tfaey were controlled 

to the sentenoe which any itnpartial by tbe whole, moat of whom had do 

ud accurate examiner will pronounce, knowledge of the circumatances which 

t&K ha has made thaeomtin; for bin* ahonld have governed, and coold ''*t<^~'^i-vi-\[/ti 



S30 Tntt Theory and PhiloiopAy a/ our SytUm of Oovitimunl. jSept. 

no ahkre ia tbe Bafferiaga vhioh they Sute*, wboae people were hoiiiog«>»- 

migbt ocGEiuon. The only idea npon ous ia relation to them, and nhen aep- 

which popular goTernmenta are fouod- irate and eicliuive maoagemeat of 

ed would thuB be TiolGUed. To attain Ihem was libel]' to be the beat, at titt 

thia end it is also necessary that those tame lime that it was rendered compatir 

who enact a law should be reBponsible ble with the just rights of the other 

onlj to the people whom that law States, hj certain limitationB upon the 

affects, which is impossible when the separate governmeuts, imposed on the 

whole controls what affects only a part, coastiiution itself. To the extent that 

To maintain popular sovereignty in a our syslem of gorernment classified 

government it is essential that the the joint action of the people accordiog 

people shonld exercise bd intelligeat to their bomogeneoos ioteresta, the 

and superintending care over their principle of self-interest was made to 

lepresentalivea, for without such vlgi- enforce the rule of doing as they would 

lance they are ooastantly liable to de- be done by, in their relaliiHis with eseli 

cepiion, aad the laws are not emani^ other, which is the highest aehieveoient 

tione from their will. Now this speeiee in practical gorernmenL By this con- 

of superintendeaee would have been trivance, the people of New York, 

manifestly impossible in a gOTernment whilst they shared, Ibroogh the geoeial 

embracing interests so vast and com- goTemmeat, in the just control of inter- 

pl'oaied as that just supposed. The est oummon to all the States, which 

peopleof all theStates would oflen pajs were simple and few, would find it nft* 

upon subjects which affected only one, eessary to consider only the separate 

and they woald either act carelesdy inierestsofiheirparticularState, which 

and ignorantly on that regard, or else, they alone could direct and of whioh 

to discharge their duties property, Ihey Lhey had a peculiar knowledge; with 

would be forced to study as many sul^ the separate interests of the olhst 

jects as would afford ample oceupation Stales, (hey were not embaTraased, as 

for the entire attanlion of a statesman, they would have lieea under one great 

wholly devoted to such pursuits. The oonsolidated government. The ditri- 

esseniial limitation upon (he capacity sios of tibot was thus made to accom- 

uf a people for self-government is, that plish as much in the political as in (ha 

they should be hom(%eneoue,ar nearly material workshop. The whole direc- 

so, ia relation to all the national inter- tion of all the functions of a complete 

esta confided to the government which government could in this mode be ia- 

the; are about to direct, — a oonsidera- telligibly submitted to the people, and 

tion which effectually forbade the ex- acting by parts, they promoted all the 

periment of a single consolidated interests of the whole. A svstem of 

gOTernment for the confederated States, government was thus formed, whioh 

To make popular government praedca- was capable of exteeding with (he pro- 

ble, under such cireomstancea, and to gress of the Anglo-American popula- 

oonform the varioos interests of our lion, without jar or injury to the ma- 

social system to the cousiderations ohioery, and with an increase of iti 

just mentioned, was the arduous under- strength, without the least dlminutioa 

taking of our forefathers. of its efficiency. 

Their mode of solving this diSioult To say that they bad My acoom- 

problem resulted from the highest con- plished all their objects, would be t« 

ceptions of the statesman, and may claim for them an entire exemption 

truly be said to belong to the diviner from the fallibility of human agency, 

part of hie art. They applied to oar But we may safely say, that they have 

political aysiem that priaciple of aaa- attained them to a wonderful and ua- 

lyais, whioh had already wrought so precedented extent, if the priooiples of 

mach in physics, and aocomplished re- the State Rights ^Jty should hereaf- 

Bultsas wonderfulasthey wereprofound. ter govern in the construction of (he 

They claasiGed the vaiious interests of Constitution. That the popular supre- 

t'le Slates. Beparating (hose Ibai were maoy in our whole system could only 

peculiar to each, from those which were have been introduoed by the division at 

general and comcnon to the whole; power betHean the Federal and State 

When the interesia were common to Governments, is obvious on the least 

all, all were jointly associated in their consideration ; and it follows of eourse^ 

direction : and when they were peculiar that it is only to be preserved by guaid- 

or separate, they were eoofided to the ing that distribution with religious eara,- 



ooglc 



.IBM.] TrtM Thtoiy and PMosefky of otir Sytttm of Oovonmmt. SSI 

Bat llMMwn* not th« only ends which goTernment, it minld «e«in to be easj 

wete tteetatuj to be atuioed bjr tbi* lo prevent the spolialionH of (he Tew. 

diatribution of power. Bat the lax-eonaumere adminwier the 

Dr. PrankliD, esrl^ in the HMion of gOTeinnieDt chiefly, enjoy greater op- 
the Federal Convention, endeavored to poKunitiee for combiaatioo, and are 
strike at an evil which he feared might sninated by a keener inlereit in Iha 
ultimately lead us to mooarcby, and object of portait. They can calculate 
which he aaid bad been the nniveiaal upon the asaistanee of that party, al- 
atlendant of all governments. " As all ways existing to some extent, wbo pre- 
hiaiory inforine oe, there hso been in fer the government of the few to that 
avery state and kingdom, a comiant of the many- They can enliit, too, one 
kind of warfsie between the governing portiooof the people to plunder another, 
and governed, the one atriving to ob- andtheyincreaaa their mercenarycarps 
lain more for its sopport, and the otber by every anequal law which conferB oo 
to pay lew. And thie has alone oecs- some favored class a pectiliar privilege, 
sioned great convulaiona, aetoal civil or more than they pay in return. Hera 
ware, endtng either in dethroning the is the great source of conflict under 
princes or enslaving the people. Gene- which all governments have inffHred, 
rally indeed, the ruling power carries and from which most of them have 
its point, the levenaea of priocea eon- decayed. Whenever the ts.x-consuia- 
Btanily increasing, and we aee that ing party acquires the supremacy in a 
tfaej are never tatiafied, but always in govervment, its period of decline coro- 
want of more. The more the people mences, and will terminate in utter 
are diacontented with the oppression of ruin, nnlesa force intervenes to prevent 
taxes, the greater need the prince has it. In popalar govemraente, these 
of money to distribute among his parti- conflicts are especially dangeroua. 
■snt, and pay the troops that are to sup- The objects of these govemmenli are 
press all leBJatance, and enable him to first defeated, and then the popular 
plunder at pleasDie." We will not here powers perish with them, either through 
attempt to decide upon the core which the direct nsarpstion of the few, or the ' 
he proposed, but there is certainly pro- anxiety of the people to take refuge, 
fiioad wisdom in his view of the evil, even in monarchy, against the evils of 
Mr. Hadiaon, in the same CoDventiun, auch an oligarchy. Our government 
often adverted to the difference in na- is particularly eipoaed to thia danger, 
tional iotereata, as the source of the from those difTerencea between its Bee- 
greatest danger to the Confedetaoy. tional interests, which excited Mr. 
Both were right in their views to a Mudison'a apprehenBiona. The tax- 
great extent, and a palliation, if not a cooauming puiy readily seize upon 
remedy for these evils, was indispensa- ^ese di&erences, to enlist whole seo- 
bly DecesaaiT as a safe-guard to our in- ticns of the confederacy under their 
stitntions. There exists in every gov- banner, by affording them a share of 
emment, no matter how constituted, the plunder, under the specious pre- 
whether representative or not, a differ- texts which are 'used to disguise une- 
ence of interests between the^oucmin; qual and nnjusl legislation. The pairo- 
Mtd the governed— oi aa a high living nage, the powers, the spoils of the 
aothiiriCy has more amply described it, apleudid govenimenl which thsy di- 
thers exists in all governments, " a tax- lect, are dispanaed to buy off the lead- 
paying and a tax-coasuming party" — era, or divide the popular party itself. 
the latter deriving more from Ibe taxes These stakes may become ao splendid 
than they contribute towards it, and the that parties will play tor them alone, 
Ibrmer paying more than they receive and divide no longer upon moral and 
io retnm in the shape of money. politiosl coDsiderations which relate 

It is the interest of the tax-consumer only to the common good. Once die- 
to increase the taxes upon which he turb the equilibrium which equal laws 
lives — it is the interest of the lax-payer maintain in a aociety, and its inslito- 
to diminish them to the sum indlspen- tiona, if popular in their form, decline 
sable fur the establishments which are from that moment ; and, although its 
neceaaary to secure the moral advan- firat atages may be easy, and nearly 
tages of government, which is the only insensihle, yet, if not arrested in the 
consideration that he receives. The beginning, they will continue to accu- 
tax-payers being the most nnmeroos, mulate velocity, ootil they are precipi- 
aiid entitled to most power in a papular tated in rains. These evile, so clearly/- ~- ^-. ^ -, [^ 



Trme Tieory and PhiiMi^ of omr SytUm tf GmwmmmU. [S^ 
bf Ike fmnsn of the coorti- tha Sun mad Fedenl gvrttameataaxu 



IntiOD, won ^uded agaiiut in tinl tliaa diridm], uid ■ 

inatrament, ud we baie ia it every ri«aJe sod aenlinelB apoa eMsK otbor; 

■ecarity agaiEwt them which faamui the chaocea for uae<|uml legislatiaa in 

wiadoED could deriae, if we will odIj 4he branch where there ia boM danger 

adhere to it faithfullj. Theae leme- of the go*erniDeal of the few, an di- 

dicB consiat ia the diotribution of powei miniahed oa far sa paaetUe by the lint- 

beiweea the States and Geoeial Gut- tatiotiB apon iia poweia ; ibe labor ef 

emment. To guard against tbeae combi- eaperintending Uie whole opentioM of 

natiDoa ia the latter, whea, alone, they go*emnieat is thne fteililaied, by di- 

eonld be extcDaifely injuiioas, the field riding it amongat the peo|te wbo not 

of operations is limited, as far as waa together or by puta, accoidiiig to the 

possible. That goreinraent was coo- extent of their iMnar^getieonB iaierests, 

fioed to a few great and leading ab- and a citadel ready garrisoned it fiuw 

jeets, in relation to which the people niabed in- each ^late fin the defence «f | 

of all the States were nearly bomoge- pt^lar rigfaia generally, and of its own j 

neous. The oppottaoities for uaequal aepstate and peculiar iotereala. It ia I 

legislation, and the chances for see- no longer aarpristng, that tboee who ' 

tional diBputea,«erelhaa diminished. A prefer the goTernment of the few, I 

Mrict reaponsibility of the repreaent*- should oppose a system which pis- 1 

tire to the people, was, in a great mea- Mrrea a popular Mrongbold in ea^ 

•are, secured by confining tiiin to oh- Stale. They cannot change the Ibrm 

}ects, in which bit own immediate or spirit of oat gOTerumeot, except 

eonstituenls bad a direct interest in hie through the tas-eoiwDiBing party, nd 

legialation, and in his legislating justly, therefore, they deaire by conaiructioa 

The work of soperTiiing the lepreaen- to remoie ^1 the obstacles to aoeqnal 

tstiies, was made easy to the pet^le legislation in the general govemDMOt, 

I7 dividing the labor, and giring to and to strengthen particular claases or 

those uf eajch State the exclnsiie guard- interests, through whom they may cany 

ianship of their own separate iatereals, on a social war with the masses. 

which they best nndersiood. To dimin- Above all, it is isdispensoble to tbeh 

ish t«mpt3tiona to a, selfish ambition, ends to destroy, as far aa possible, tho 

the General Government was stripped power and importanceoftbeStalegoT- 

of all unnecessary patronage, and as far eroraent*, of thp separate States ; for 

as was consistent with the two great they are, whilst matnuined, the im- 

ends of the asaooiation, heretofore de- pregnable funresses of popdar power, , 

scribed, the distribution of honors and ready for legal and organised resiatance ' ' 

office was left to the States, that they to ntiurpation, come from what quarter ' 

might have something with which to it may. The demooratic party, on the 

reward their own favorites and especial other hand, who deaire the gorernnieirt 

friends. Every proTision which could of the many, have the stiongeat indueo- 

be inserted in the constitution to di- ments to maintain the just and consti- 

minish the chances of unequal legisla- lutional division of power between thq 

tion, it contains ; and the organic strnc- Federal and Slate governmeula, and to 

tnre of the General Governmeat itself require both to be adminiMered upon 

is such as to distribute ita influence fair and equal principles, 
apon just tenns amongst the Siatea, It is in uneqnal legislation that the 

and to prevent the enacunent of any tax-consuming party lives, and move*, 

law whiefa does not combine a ma- andhasitsbeingisnd wbetfaerthatl^ii- 

Jority of the people, and of the Statet laiioa operates unequally upon BMIiont, 

of the confederacy. &bove all, the olasses, or individuals, its effect, al- 

people of each State are organised though diOareni in iia degree, is the 

with a separate government, to guard saoie in its nature. The man who 

its peculiar interests, and to warn chiefly desires to preserve the rights of 

its people of any breach of treat in the States, and ha whose interests are 

the jumi agency, or of any oiher dan- eunoentraied in perpetuating the rale 

ger which may threai«n them. It ia of the many, mast, under our political 

this diviMon of the Aincttons of a com- system, nse tbe same means to attain 

plete govern ment between two, which their ends. There is a necessary con- 

baseDected the wooden of our politieal nection between the two, and a house 

system. The tax-consuraiDg paniea in is divided against itself, when they a» 
[Cenduded on page Z30. In Ike pojiage of thi* Nvmber thrmgh tkt fret»t_ 

iki* ipaet wot lejl, to be fiiled in teilA lAu arlicU ; but overrumung the *p^ Of^O \c 

rtterved for tl, and not admitting of cwlaiiment, U Ad* bten deemed btitVi^^^S, 'S- 
ratu/er the coitetuding page to the end of the Nwniir.] I 



m* Bridal of Petmaeooi, 
THE BRIDAL OF PENNACOOK." 



Wa had been wftodeiiaR hi manj dajs 

ThioDgh the rough norlhera couatr;. We had aeon 

The aunMt, nitb its ban of parple clond 

Like * Dew heaiBo, shine upwaid fiom the l&ke 

Of Winnepiseogee ; and had gone, 

With Bunnse breezea, round the leafy isles 

Wbicb stoop their EnmmeT beauty to the lips 

Of the bright wateia. We had checked oar steeda, 

Silent with wonder, where the mennlain wall 

la piled 10 heaven ; and, through the narrow rift 

Of the Taat roelca, against whose rugged feat 

Beats the nud torrent with perp«tuat loar, 

Wbeie noonday is as twilight, and the wind 

Cmnea burdened vith the STei'laating moan 

Of forests snd of &r-off water-ftilia, 

We had looked upward where the summer akjr, 

ReaUng its baaea on the abutting crags, 

Sprang it« light arofa, ana-gilded and aerene, 

AcToaa the deep abysai. We had pused ' 

The high source of the Saco ; and, bewildered 

In the dwarf apruee-bella of the Crystal UiUa 

Had heard aboTe us, like a voice in tbe cloud. 

The horn of Fabyan sounding ; and atop 

Of old Agioochook had seen the mountains 

Piled to the northward, shagged wiih wood, and ihiek 

Aa meadow mole- bills— the far sea of Casco 

A while gteam on the horizon of the east; 

Fair lakes, emhoFomed in the woods and bills ; 

Mooaehiilock'a mountain -range, and Kearaarge 

Lifling hia Titan forehead u> the sun ! 

And we had rested nndemeath the oaks 

Shadowing the bank, whose grassv spires are shaken 

By the perpetual beating of tne fills 

Of the wild Ammonooaue. We had tracked 

The winding PenigewHset, o*erhnng 

By beeehen ahadowa, whitenii^ down its TO«ka, 

Or luUy gliding ibroiigh its interrala, 

From waving rye-fields sending op the gleam 

Of sunlit noteis. We had seen the moon 

Riaing behind Umbagog''s eastern pines 

Like a ^at Indian camp-fire ; aad its beams 

Al midnight spanning with a btidge of silrer 

The Merriniac by Uncanoonnc's tails. 

* Winnepnrbit, otherwise railed George, Sachem of Saugn^, married a daoghter 
of Pataaeonaway, the great Pennaeook chienaio, in ]6^2. The wpdiling look plaee 
al Pennacook (now Coneonl, N. H.), and the ceremonies closed with a great feast. 
Aecording to Ibc ugages of the ehieh, Pastaeonamiy ordered a eelecl namber of bis 
men to accomiisny the uewJy-mairied conple lo the dwelling of the hushand, whera 
is Inm tbrre was anolher great feast. Some time aOer, the wife of Winnepu^kit 
npreasiDg a deaire to visit berfktber'a bona*, was permitted to go aecompsnied by a 
hraveeacort of her hiuband's chief men. Bat when she wished to return, herfslher 
seat a messenger t« Saugns, informing her husband, and asking him lo come and lake 
her away. He returned !br answer that he had eeeorled hts wife lo her father's 
house in Ihe strle Ihet became a chief, and that aow if (he wished to relam, her 
fUha mnst seM her back in the same way. This Passaconsway refuied to do, and 
It is said that hera terminated tke (oaaeiioii of Un newly-weddcd pair.— ff Jt JVer- 
tm^t 2ftiB Camaat. 

VOL. IV. — wo. IXIT. 16 



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ThSK ware Sto aoola of aa whom t»*<4'* ehasee 

Had thiDWD logeiber in these wild north hillt :— 

A city iRwyer, foi » nioDtb escaping 

From hiB doll office, where the weary eye 

Skw only hot briok wkHb ind close thronged streeta— 

BrMteM u yet, but with an eye to see 

life's MiBnie«t aide, and with a heart to take 

ItB obuiees all a« God Bends \ and bia brother. 

Pale fVomlonK pulpit Mi)diee,yet Tetainio)^ 

The warmth and (rMhaeaa of a genial heart, 

WhoM mirror of the beaudful and true. 

Id Mu and Natare, was as yet undiramed 

By dcBt of theologie strife, or breath 

Of Beet, or oobweba of seholaetie late -. 

LiJie a clear crystal cahn of water, laUng 

The hue and image of o'er-lesniog flowers, 

Sweet haman ftccs, while cloads oFthe bouD, 

Slant Btarlight gtimpaes throagh the dewy leates. 

And tendereat mooorise. Twaa, in truth, a study. 

To mark hu apirit, alMmating between 

A dBcent and prDreBBi<»ial gravity 

And an irreferent mirthfuttieas, which ofteo 

Laughed in the face of hia diTinity, 

PlacKed off the saered ephod, quite anshrined 

The oracle, and for tbe pattern priest 

Left n* the man. A shrewd, Bagaciaus merehant. 

To whom the soiled aheet found in Crawford's inn, 

Gifiag tbe latest news of city stocks 

Aad aaJea of cotton, had a deeper meaning 

Thao the great presence of the awfal monotunB 

Glorified ^ the sunset ; — and his danghler, 

A delicate flower on whom had blown too lon^ 

Those evil winds, which, sweeping from the ice 

And wionowioK the fogs of Labrador, 

Bhed their cold bligb> loond Massachosetta' bay. 

With the saute breath which stirs Spring's opening leavei 

And lifts her half-formed flower-bell on ita stem, 

Poisoning oar eea-aide atmoaphere. 

It chaneed 
That aa we tnrDed opon our homeward nay, 
A dreat noith-eastem storm came howling np 
The Talley of the Saoo; aad that girl 
Who had stood with na npon Mount Washington, 
Her browo locks mffled by the wind which whirled 
In goata annud ita ahaip cold pinnaale. 
Who bad joioed our gay troal-fwhing in the streams 
Which lave that giant's feet ; whose laugh was heard 
like a bird's carol on the suailse breeze 
Which swelled our sail amidst the lake's ^een idaads. 
Shrank from its harsh, chtU breath, and visibly drooped 
Ijlte a flower in tbe tjost. So, in that quiet inn 
Which looks from Conway on the mouniaios piled 
HMTily against the horiaon of tbe noHh, 
like somcMr thundeT'oloiids, we made our heme ; 
And while the raiai brag over dripping hills, 
Aitd tbe cold wind-drireD raia'dr<nM ul day long 
BeM their sad moaia «|Kn roof and pane. 
We Btmie to cbsn Mr gentle invalid. 

The lawyer in the pauses of the ctorm 
Went angling down tbe Saco, and rrtaming, 



iy Google 



TA* DtmU q^ AmmmuI. 

fUoottOMd bia idTentnTe* *,vA muhsp* ; 

G*Te «■ the hiBtoiy of bis icaly clieaU 

Hio^iDS with Indicroii* ;et apt ciutionB 

Of MrfaaroBi Ibt latin, pMsagea 

From Iiuk Walum't Angler, iweet and fr«rii 

Ab the AowK-Ained Btroanw of Siaffi>rd*lure 

When under tiged ttee«, the Muth-waai viod 

Of Boft Jnne motnings fumed the thin irbit« bur 

or the Bife fiBher. And, if tnith be tM, 

Osr yonthful oadidato forsook hia wrmima, 

Hia oonuiieDtariea, artiolef and oraedi 

For the fair ftgp of hutnaa loteliBM* — 

Tbe miaul of Tounf hearta, whoae aaerad text 

la mnaie, tu iUaraiainf sweet •roiles. 

He Bang the am^a Am loved ; sad in hia low. 

Deep MiiMM Toiee, Moiced mo; » p«ge 

Of poetry— the holieU, Mnderaat tioes 

Of the lad bard of OImj— «be sweet aoags, 

Sin^ and beautiful sb TnUJi and Nature, 

Of hia wboae whitened hteke on Rvdal Hocmt 

Are ILAed yet b; tnarBing breeies blowiDg 

From the green bills, immoTtaj in bis lays. 

And fui myself, obedient to her with, 

I searched our landlord's proSered library : 

A wen-thombed Banyan, with its nice wood pifiturea 

Of Bcaly fiends and BUgela not nnliks IhsDi — 

Watts* aamelodioaa paalras — Astrology'a 

Last home, a amity file of Almanacs, 

And an old chronicle of border war* 

And Indian history. And, as I read 

A story of tbe nurtiage of the Chief 



tiagoD' 
o^yV 



OrSangHBlo tbe dosEy Weetamoo, 



Oiir &ir oas, in tiie playful ezereiae 

Of her pren^^ire — the right diviae 

Of yoalh and beauty, bads us Teraify 

His legend, and with ready peneil aketehed 

Its plan and oatlinea, laugbra^y aaslgniDg 

To each his part, and barring oor •zoueae 

With abeolnte will. So, like the oanliers 

Whose Toicea still are heard in the Rooianee 

Of silrer-tongaed Bocoaoio, on the banks 

OfAroo, with soft tatss of love beguiling 

The ear of languid beauty, plsgus-esiled 

Ft«m stately Florence, we rehearsed our rhymes 

To their fair anditor, and shared by tarns 

Her kind approral and ber ^dayfal oensnr«. 

It may be that ihsae fngmsnts owe atone 
To the fair setting of their circa metan ess— 
The associaiiont of time, tcene and audience — 
"Their place among the pictures which fill up 
Ths chambers of my memory. Tet I trust 
That some, who sigh, while wandering in thoaghl, 
Pilgrims of Romanes, o'er ths olden world, 
TiM OUT broad land — our sea-like lakes, and 
Filed to the olouds, — onr riTsrs overhung 
By forests which luve known no other change 
For agos, than the budding and the fidi 

X Talleys loTolier tbta tkoae 



Digitized by GOOI^IC 



Tie Btidtd ofPemacooi. [Sopt. 

Which the old poets aang of— ihould but figure 

On the apocrjphal chart of BpecuUtion 

Ab paMurea, wood-lots, mill-Bitea, with theprivilogMi 

Rights and appurteoaDcea which make op 

A Yankee Paradise — nDBung, nnknown, 

To beaatifal tradition ; even their names, 



Exchanged for ayllablee signiAc&at 

Of cotton- mill and Tail-ear, — will look kindly 

Upon this effort to «b1I op the ghost 

Of onr dim Paal, and listen with pleaded ear 

To the respoDBee of the qneationed Shade: 
I. — The Mebriuace. 
Oh, child of that white-etesled monntaia whose ^riogw 
Goah forth in the shade of the ciiff-eBgle's winga, 
Down whose sliqiea lo the luiriands thf wild waters shine, 
Leaping grej walla of rock, flaalung throagk Ibe dwnf piM. 
From that dond-eartained Cradle so cold and so lone. 
From the arms of that wictrr-locked mother of stone, 
Bj hills hang with foTests, through vales wide and free, . 
Thy monnlaiD-born brightneBs glanced down to the sea! 
No bridge arohed tbj waters sare that irtiere the trees 
Stretched their long aims above thee and kiised in the breese : 
No eoend save Ihe l^se of the waves on thj ehoree, 
Tlie ponging of otlern, the light dip of oars. 
Green-tnfted, oak-ahadowed, hj AmoBkeag's fUI 
Thy twin UncanooDDCS rose stately and tall, 
Tby Nashns meadows lay green and ansbora, 
And the hills of Pentacket were taaselled with com. 
Bat thy Fennaeook valley was fairer than these. 
And greener its grasses acd taller its trees. 
Ere the soend ofan axe in the forest had rang, 
Or the mower his aoythe in the msadows badswung. 
In their Weltered repose looking oat from the wood 
The hark-bailded wigwams of Pennacook stood, 
There glided the oom-danoe — tht Council fire shone, 
And against the red war-poat the hatchet was thrown. 
There the old smoked in silence their pipes, and the young 
To the pike and the white perch their bailed lines flung; 
There ths boy shaped his arrows, and there the shy maid 
Wove her many-hued baskets, and bright wampum braid. 
Oh, Stream of the Monntains! if answer of thine 
Coald rise from thy waters to qaestion of mine, 
Hetbinks through the din of thy Ihroaged hanks a moan 
Of sorrow wonid swell fo^ the days which have gone. 
Not for thee the dall jar of the loom and the wheel, 
Tbe gliding of shuttles, the ringing of steel ; 
Bat mat old voiee of waters, of bird and of breese. 
The dip of the wild-fowl, the mstling of trees ! 
II.— Tbb BASBin*.* 
litrr we the twilight curtains of the Past, 
And tnrnbg (mm familiar sight and soondi 



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The Brid^ of Petuucooi. 

SmUj and fnU of roYereiics let db cut 
A gluice opon Tnditioo'a •hadowj' ground, 

Led bj the f«w pale liKhKi which ghmmariag' rtmti, 
Thftt dim, Blr&tige laitd of Eld, aecm djing &*t ; 

And tbKt which hiatonr gives not to the eye. 

The bded coloring bf Time's tkpMtry, 

Let Fane J, with her dream-dipped brush, eapplj. 

Roof of bark and walli of pine, 

Thraugh wfaoce ehioks the soobeam* ahine, 

Tracing loanj a golden line 

On the ample floor wilhio ) 
Where npoD that earth-floor atark, 
La^ ^le gaudy roals ef bark. 
With ^e bear's hide, rough and dark, 

And the red-deer's skio. 

Winder- tracery, smaU and slight. 
Woven of the willow white, 
Sent a dioilf-ehsqaersd light. 

And the nighi-stacs glimmered down, 
Where the lodge-Gre's heavy smoke, 
Slowly through an opening broke, 
III the low roof, ribbed with oak, 

Sheathed with hemlock brown. 

Q loomed behind the cfaangeleas shade, 
Bt the solemn pine- wood made ; 
Throngh the rugged palisade. 

Id the open fore-gioand planted, 
Glimpseecame of rowers rowing. 
Stir of leaves and wild floners blowing. 
Steel-like gleams of water lowing. 

In the sanlight slanted. 



Here the mighty Basbaba, 
Held his lons-nnqtiesIioDed away, 
From the Wliite Hills, far away. 

To the great sea's soondiog shore ; 
Chief of chiefs— his regal word 
All the river Sachems heard. 
At his call the war-dance stirred. 

Or was still once more. 

There his spoils of chase and war. 
Jaw of wolf and black bear's paw. 
Panther's skin and eagle's claw, 

Lay beside his axe and bow ; 
And adown the roof-pols hung, 
Loosely on a anake-skin strung. 
In the amoke hie scalp-locks swung 

Grinly to and fro. 

PaMaeooaway seems to have been one of these chid). His residence was at PcnB»> 
tOtk.—Xvt.RiM.Col.,tol. iii., pp. 21-2. " He was regarded," lays Hahbard, "U 
a great sorcerer, and his fame was wideir spread. It was laid of him that he could 
eansa a green leaf to grow in winter, treei to dance, water to ban, be. He was, 
imdoolitedlT, ons of those shrewd and powerTnl men whose aehievementa are always 
r^arded by a barbarous people as tbc retnlt of supematural aid. The ladians gave 
to sach the names of Powahg or Panisees." 

« The PaniHei are men of great courage and wiidome, and to these the BctOI 
upeareth more familiarlv than to others."— TFiatliiif't Btlatiam, /—> I 

^^ ),,,i,zod=,Coogle 



n* Bfidai itf PtmMeUk. {Btft. 

Nightlj dD«m the rirer goii^, 
SoiAar wfts the fanntet'i rowiDg, 
Winn btt Mw that lodge-fira RMwtng 

O'er tk« mUi* nill &im1 tm ; 
And tbe sqtuw'i dark b;« bniiwd brtglitM, 
And ibe drew hex blanket tighter, 
A«, with quicker ««p and lighter. 
. From tliat door die fled. 

For that chief had mafrie ikill, 
And a Panisee'a dark will, 
Orer poweta of good and iU, 

Power* which blesa and powera which ban— 
Wisard lord of PeanaeotA, 
Chiafh upon their wai-path shook. 
When (bej met the ateadr look 

Of that wiM dark man. 

Talea of him the grev iqaaw told. 
When the winter night-wind cold 
Pierced her blanket's thickest fold, 

Aad the fire burned low and small, 
Tilt the Tery child a-bed. 
Drew its bw-akin otcc head, 
Shrinking from the pole lights abed 

On the darkening wall. 

An the sobile spirits hiding 
Under earth 01 wave, abiding 
Id the oareroed rock, or riding 

Miatj cloud or morning bteese ; 
Kver; dark intelli^nce, 
Secr«t eon], and inBuence 
Of all things whiah outward sense 

Feels, or hears or sees, — 

Tbeae the wizard's skill confessed. 
At hia Udding banned or bleaaed, 
Stormful woke or lolled to rest 

Wind and ciond, and fire and flood ; 
Bnmed for him the drilled enow. 
Bade Ihroogh ice fresh lilie* blow, 
And the leaTss of summer grow 

Otot wiotei'a wood ! 

Not untme that tale of old! 
Now, aa then, the wise and bold 
All the powers of Nature bold 

Subject to their kingly will ; 
From the wondering crowds aahore. 
Treading Life's wild waters o'er, 
Aa opon a marble floor. 

Mores the strong man atiU. 

Still, to encb, life's elements, 
With their sterner laws diapense, 
And the chain of consequence 

Broken in their pathwa; Ilea ; 
Time and change their vaaaals making, 
Flowers from icj pillowa waking, 
Trmsea of the aanrise shaking 

Otot midnigbt skies. 



lizcdbyGoOl^Ic 



StQ], to wniMt aonls, tbe awt 
It«aU on toweted Gibeoo, 
And the imoii of Ajaloa 

Li^tita the battle- gioundA of life ; 
To hia ud the (troDg tevettea 
Hidden paw«nu«i fiant forces, 
And the high elan in their coanea 

Mingle in hia atiife ! 



Tai eoot-blsck brows of men — tho jell 

OF women thronging round the bed — 
The tiohling cbatm of ring and ahell — 

The Poinh whispering o'er the dead ! — 
All thete the Sachem's bome bad known, 

When, on her jonrne; long and wild 
To the dim Wocid of Soula, alone, 
la her yeang beauty paased the mother of hie eUld. 

I%tee bew-ehota from the Sv^em'a dwelling 

The; laid her in the walnut ahade, 
Where a ^en hilloek genti; ewelliag 

Her fitting monnd of (nirid made. 
There trailed the Tine in Sumner hours — 

The Iree-perobed squirrel dropped hie ahell — 
On Tehet moss and pale-hued flowere, 
Woren with leaf aod spray, the softened snashiDe fell f 

The Indian's heart is hard and eold — 

It oloses darklr o'er itt care. 
And, fanned in Nature's sternest mould, 

Is slow to feel, and strong to bear. 
The war-paint on tbe Sachem's face, 

Unwel with tears, sbooe fierce and red, 
And, itill in battle or in chase, 
Drf leaf and snow-rime crisped beneath hia foremoat tread. 

Tet, when her name was l^rd no more, 

And when the robe her mother gave, 
And Mttall, light moccasin she wore. 

Had slowly wasted on her grave. 
Unmarked of him the dark maids sped 

Their sunset dance and moon-lit play ; 
Mo otiier shared his lonely bed, 
No other fkir young head upon hie bosom lay. 

A lone, stem man. Yei 

The tern pest- smitten 
From one small root tbe sap which climbs 

Its topmost sivay and crowDing leSTes, 
So from hie child the Sachem drew 

A life of Love and Hope, and felt 
His cold and rugged natnre through 
The softness and the warmth of hej: young being melt. 

A laugh which in the woodland rang 

Bemocking April's gladdest bird — 
A light and graceful form wfaioh sprang 

lo meet him when hia step was be^^ ,— i 

Digitized by LjOOI^IC 



The Bridal ef Pmrtocooi. [Sept. 

Ejei b; bis lodge-fire large Mi dtrk, 

Smiill fingeni stritisiiig bead and Bhell 
Oc weaving maU of oright-hued bark, — 
With Uiew the hoatehold-god* had graced his wigwam wdl. 

Child of the Foreat ! — stroag and free ; 

Slight-robed, with loosely flowing hair. 
She awam the lake or climbed the tree, 

Or struck the flying bird in air. 
O'er the heaped drifU of Winter'* Btoon 

Her snow-shoes tracked the banter's wa^y ; 
And daizling in the Summer noon ^ 

Tike blade of her light oar threw off its shower of spraj ! 

TJnkoowQ to her the rigid rule, 

The dnil restraiol, the chiding frown. 
The weary torture of the achnol. 

The taming of wild natare doWn. 
Har only lore, the legends told 

Aronnd the hunter^ Sre at nigbt ; 
Stars rose and set, and seaauns rolled. 
Flowers Uoomed and snow-flakes fell, uDqoMtioDed in faer rigiL 

Unknown to her the eabtle akill 

With which the artfst-eje can tnee 
Id rock and tree and lake and hill 

The ootliQes of dirinest graoe ; 
Unknown the fine soul's keen vnreat 

Which seea, admitee, yet yeann slway ; 
Too cloael; on her mother's breast 
To note her amiles of lo*e the child of Nature la; ! 

It ia enoagh for aach to be 

Of common, natoial things a part, 
To feel with bird and stream and tree 

The pnlses of the gaai^ great heart ; 
Bat we, from Nature long exiled 

In our cold homes of Art and Thought, 
Grieve like the stranger- tended child, 
Which seeks its mother a arma, and aeea bnt feels them not. 

The garden roee may richly bloom 

In cnltured soil and genial air. 
To cloud the light of Fashion's room 

Or droop in Beauty's midnight hair. 
In lonelier grace, to sua and dew 

The sweet-briar on the hill-side shone 
Its sinste leaf and ftioler hue. 
Untrained and wildly free, yet still a sister rose ! 

Thus o'er the heart of Weetamoo 

Their mingling shades of joy and ill 
The instinete of her natare threw, — 

The BBTage was a woman stUl. 
Midst outlines dim of maiden schemes. 

Heart-colored auguriee of life. 
Rose OD the ground of her young dreams 
The light of a new home — the lover and the wife ! 



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Criticitm m Jmaiictt. 



CRITICISM IN AMERICA. 5\.- 1 . r. . 
By W. a. JoHis.'' " 
PiMODiCAL Ittenture oetl&inly Aout- wbom more •kilfullj thu by Qm pm- 
uhflB ID this cwrntty, if no olber kiod feiMd liUrwv tasten — ths rwulu 
of miting mkj be said to be in vogue, ciitica T Ad u1« Mholai wUI ettoSeaat 
Newapspei litentare foroiB & chief, if into an attrMtire earaj, the nbject 
not the iDOM important edackti<HiftI ele- matter of atoiig,uidpn>lMUj doll, ttea- 
ment id ooi nMionat ciTiltsuion, and tiie : for the revievere, eb a genual 
fomie tbe staple readieg of out people, role, underetand the art of eompoaitton 
Mogasine titeratare iJeo attraota a much better than moat of tbe aothon 
Urge bodv of the more educated chaace, the; nndeitake to critioiae. MaeaaUy, 
u> whom It ia more partieularly addreea- for ioMaace, viU give id an riabonia 
ed ; whUe the Qnartcrl; Reviewe find article mnch more than tbe eeaeiiM of 
coaaiderably thebeat eneooragementof the book he ia reriewing. He will 
the three, from their aize, rare appear- tranJer to hie cloae, eompaot and bril- 
ancB, niperior preteaeiona, and au of Ijant pagea, the mamieTa and enaloiDa, 
echirianbip. For our own part, we tbe obaraelera and eventa, of tbe jwii- 
love each aod all of theae : from the od, and in fioe jneaent a atrikiiig if sot 
puagraph in tbe dailf joaroal up to the a IP^od biatorical picture, 
elaborate and ekhaoatire analyaia of We aav that we hare mtmf^ at po- 
the Qoarterliea. Aa the Preae is, then, etry ana tbe dnma'— we neao, of 
w powerfel an engine — one to availa- ooorae, for the pteaent, Letaamaater 
ble in ever; cauae, atid to be rendered what we tune ; how verj few bate 
ao efleotiTe on an; eide— we conaider it done that or ever will. Before o^ing 
not an oaeleaa task to mark certain of for more new plaji and poema, let u 
}ta peeoliaritiee, and not altogether to readandre-read the oldsbuiiiudwaTka 
eonceal oeitain of ita eqnallj .obrions in Ihie deputraent of writing. Of thfa 
defecta. much we maj ha anre, that we have al- 

It is too late in the day to talk after readj elaaaie modele existing ; can we 
Ae faahion of scientific discorery, of be eqnallj certain that contempotay 
the critical chsracter of tbe age. Tlie aothora will give na aa goodt We 
fact is well known, arising, loo, from a woold be far fiom nndenating true 
natoial eanse. In ita present refined genina beeaoae it happens to be me- 
period of iiteiarjr adTaocement, the denk. It cannot be debased. But 
world can afford (for a season) to re- we refer rather to the vain attempts of 
pose 00 its former glories. It is bj no clever men, who maj not be allowed to 
means neoeasary to invent, when we rival the gi«al old mastera of An sod 
have so mnch of real exoelienoe al- Letters. Yet more eapecisllj do we 
ready on onr hands. The diamatist refisr to the an]iist and qnemlnis com- 
and the poet, the writer of fiction and plaints of thoas who expect a new raea 
tiie moral theorist, may well remain of great writara in «a^ sacceediDf 
silent, unoe they cannot hope to ior- age, wbal«Terb«itaohaiacler, otwku- 
Mss their predecessors in Ihe same ever other ebunels then mt,f be opea* 
line. For nietory there is ever need, ed for eonveying ibe energies otg^ 
and no, less for criticism: tha one to nina into difiraent provinces of iBtellMl- 
record, 'ind the other to Jndge. And nal endeavor. The above we lake to 
for ihe minor kinds of literature, the be a fair argniDeiit for the enltivation 
occasion is perpetual in out Uagasine of periodicid oritieiam; wboae pecnliai 
writing, peculiarly adapted as that is to object, viewed in this light, eboaU be 
dw taste of the present day. Articles to place ths merits of old authors (many 
have, in a measure, superseded books, excellent ones are almoat obaolete), m 
aa critics bare, in a great degree, taken the beat and truest light { to give pri^m 
tbe place of book makers. There is credit to what ia genmiM in later writ- 
and muet be ever, according to Bacon, vn, Hvd not to tkil, In jpartieolar, to 
much " readinff by depuiy, and hence exercise all the severity of critioal jnst- 
tbe necessity of good Reviews. Some ice s^inst pretendara and presume 
booka most be "' tasted," according to tnona mterlopera in the realms irf' litera- 
tbe same profonnd authority, and by tnre. A certahi &lse lenieneyf that 

VOL. XT. NO. LXZV. 17 



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943 Cfitieitm tn Ameriea. [S«|*. 

ttrmtaatlj injoru more thtui it assists, write cordiallj of Donoe ud Barton, 

ia too ptef alent. Not that we can ap- Uazlitt is the best esponndei of Abik- 

proTfl of the alaabing; stjle of mere sa- ham Tucker and John Baocle, the old 

tirista, who ent to iToimd : bnt the moralists and the periodical esaayista. 

hedthful coucael of the wise chiiur- Hnnt is beat in writing on Chaucer and 

geoQ, who piobes to heal. Milton's minorpoems, Sec. An intenni- 

In the present Article, we mean to nable list of aiinilar instancea might be 

attempt a sketch of the popular organs giren, if necessary, but the point seems 

of opinion in this country, aitd with sufficientlj clear. This matter of^riti- 

brief notices of the loading writera ; in cisoi is strangely misoDderatood ; pea- 

which Mtimatet we aim at purs Justice pie have singular notions of it, ideas 

and good faith, tempered fay good feel- very false and rery foolish ; with v eiy 



Previotisly, however, we mast al- many it aignifiea ooly aerere judgmeitl, 
oarselTes tbe privile^ of pietac- and generally implies censure — a view, 
Idk a few woida, on the inexhaustible in poiat of fact, most egiegionaly oite- 



anoject of eriiicism itaelf. Now-a-daye, 

STery other peraon we meet, reader or What is public opinion ! Ia it formed 

writer, often little of either, or some- by the critica Uiemselvea, or do they 

thing of the firat, with nothing of ^le merely represent it t The reply to thw 

laat. Beta himself op as critic. In this qaestion wonld seem to diride all critics 

great conflict of contrary, ignoruit and into the two classes of repreaentatives 

prejudiced jndgments, the public at of the public opinion uid origioil 

large, unacquainted withthesuremarka judges. - Abstractedly and practically, 

of the tme judgeof Utenuyexoellence, the qnestion is a nice one: how the 

an as apt to follow the mipoatora in popular Judgment acts, and ia in turn 

letters, as the authorized teachers. It acted upon. The soundest thinkers 

hence becomes a seriooa question, how hold the maas of their ordinary senti- 

are the latter to be known and distio- ments in common with the majority of 

ffnished 1 By these several signs ; a sensible thinkers, and baaed on similar 

diorotigh knowledge of the aabjecta, gronnda. Into reSned criticism more 

periods, characters, books, npon which of indiridoal feeling moat enter, and 

they write ; a maatery of the genuine the enlightened bias of liberal aceom- 

apirit of the age — ^its needs, its aima, ita plishment. Yet even the boldest ceo- 

Suits, ita teaoencies ; by a good, if not sor or most frank eulogist, doea, after 

an elevated, standard of critieinn — all, in a measure, reSect the opinions of 

(some tO|>iaa and claasea of writing do others. Common opmioo, like the coat- 

not require a lofty standard) ; by gene- mon air, seems to color with an undis- 

tona Justice, by genuine feeling, not tinguishbg hue, die popular opinion, 

mawkishness nor aentimeDtattty, bat Like tbe atmosphere, the purest opinion 

■fawere fooling — for a critic should have ia held by the best; while vicious santi- 

a heart aa well aa a head, a fitet too meats certainly taint moat readily tjga 

often overlooked or forgotten ; by a most depraved, 

knowledge of rales, but no lack of the Happy, then, the critic, who, if he 

fit spirit to guide in the uae or adapts- represents any beside himself, reSeots 

tlonof them; Inexperience and skill the oenauie of the wise, tbe love of the 

u the art of writing. The true critic sincere, the praise of the honest ! — else 

ie aa much fitted by nature and ednea- hia work will be evidently marred by 

tiODfi(rfai8affice,aa the poet ia for his. hatred, malice, and all uncharitahle- 

With him, too, he mnst have a cordial nese. Apart from these two clasaes of 

sympathv, and a heart open to all the hn- critics, there ia a third popalar class of 

pilMS orgoodneaeaDd beauty. Truth fine writers on oritioiam, who are not 

and justice ahotdd be bis leading properly to be atyled oriuca. Writen 

gaidee,Dotpleasareorfaney; yeltoex- ofthia description prodnce agreeable 

preas the noblest tmih he mnst be much and even profound articles on the texts 

more than an exact didactic writer; a they select, rather than criticiama. 

elear eiitie of Locke will form an in- They run a race of rivalry with the 

diffsrent judge of Hilton (Locke him- original author, and generally surpass 

Mif made aad havoc when he attempt- him in hia own field. Yet, aa mere 

ed poetical critioiam). To be tmlyfiur. Judges, they prove often quite unsafe, 

the eritiemtiatbave an intimate sympa- looking too much from tiieir own point 

ibj with hie author ; Lamb'only coold of view, influenced too deeply by per- 



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IM <•] Critidm in America. SiS 

•onal feelbg, and muled by the preju- cue—* mu of vealth, of lUnding, of 
dke of educatioa or early preposaeo- retpeetabilitg, forwwth. To him, and 
sioni. Wo conolude, then, tbnt there aucb as he, this bluateriag braggart will 
ue almoU as few judicious crilioa as defer, like a hterary laoqney as he is ; 
llwre are good original writers, and we or, rathar, like a liiarary enauch— to 
agree heartily with Pope, that— borrow D'tsraoli's illustniUon— who 

eaonot eajoy the beauties (books) of 
" Tcnceunre wrong, throne who writei which he has the charge. Tbereiaalso 
»MtM." (we may as welt add, while we are 

aboat it) anodier of the same type, th« 
One olsss of eritics we hare not yet acn of a diatinguiafaed politician now 
described — the irre^olax critics (we use dead, a man who liTcs on hia father's 
the t«m in orooeittoa lo tlie phrase repatatioo sod on hia wife's money, 
"regolarcritioe") — theself-eleetederi- sneering at erBrybody who surpaaaee 
tteaefcoaTersation, without the slight- him, and we haneatly know not his 
est poseiUe pretension to (he nam*. equal in all the eharacteristios of the 
A man of lettan of the most limited mean bally ; running about town to get 
•zperieuce'eannot isillo bare metspe- certain family documents published, 
eimene of this race — amoethatera>,yet while he neglects to pay any regard to 
eommoo, deaeription of haager»«n of the enly clerer writer with whom be 
the literary re^lie. To the bonoi of baa any connection. Tbia ntltry fellow 
the profession itself, we candidlr admit, bnya erery new work (good, bad, or in- 
we hare nsTor met a tme seholsi with different), while he declares himself to 
anything of this defect about him. He be too poor to subscribe to a magazine 
m^ht be paradoxical, petnlant, nay for which an aequaintaoce write*,whose 
inde, but not palpably unjust nor igno- rivalry he dreads. Old woman (we 
tanlly Tindictive. Mnob of this false mean real elderly ladies, and not such 
criticism aprion ftom pique or personal eld women as those we have been de- 
malice. People who can do nothing scribing), who are deficient in ednoa- 
alse, can at least carp and censure, tion, are Tery'ssTage critics. We hsTO 
Those are notorioosly the loudest in heardoneofthemi«mark, that Webster 
theii abuse, who are the leaat able to was not superior to a well-known judge 
do anything of themaelTes. We hare of one of our local courts ; that Irving's 
aereral raoh oases in our eye, at pre- " Aatoria " (a delightful narrative) was 
aent, and bad drawn their portraits in imreadable ; with a number of aunilar 
the first r«n^ draeght of this Article ; crude opinions. To say nothing diwte- 
bat the fact u>, that these very sketches apectfol of really clever eduoated gen- 
wonld fit so many peo{de, tluU we ap- tlewomen, who are above the reach of 
prebend anulioieoa reader would en- rldicu1e,we must still add, that the curse 
deavonr toeoaetme plain speaking into of bluestocking- ism has done not a little 
(lownrigbt UbeL One only thing of the to hurt sound public opinion. At con- 
•art will we preserve : thin npeoimen of vertaxituut and literary toiriti, how 
tba eritiotl tribe is a functionary in one much caballing and scandal exist, every 
of onr city inatitutione, notoriona for his person who baa ever been present at an 
gnuubling and disooniteons manner, al- 'asthetic iea,'muat very wall know. At 
wava reviling merit of every kind out inch meetings, what a cockering up of 
of his own party. He profeaaea (though small repatatioos, and what a dandling 
an American eitixen) to be in heart a of infant geniuses! These small oir- 
British Tory ; and, &om a similar re- cles appear to enclose, for the evening, 
■pect for authority, pretends a vast at- a worhl of wit and elegance — a perfect 
tachmant fbt High Church principles parterre of all the choicest flowers of 
and a strong government. Bis praise eloquence and fanoy. 
iajoat the oppoaite of his hatred; and In oni last nper (Critics and Criti- 
ttis caprioious judgments, like the fickle cism of the Nineteenth Century), we 
afiitction of tyrsjits, are of a piece with glanoed at the state of oui current 
the whima of the man. This impndent newspaper criticism : a notice not to hs 
Thersitea is ever timtwing dirt apon limited to the daily press, but applioabli 



such men aa Bancroft, "Emenon, and in a great degree to the lar^r critioJ 

Webster. Who, t^en.ishis idol 1 — why, organs of the oonntn'. This is by no 

^Li. Knickerbocker, without means ao much the fault of the Editor* 

to animate his heavy oar- as of the public, who heratofore would 

Google 



m Critieitmi»AmtTiea. V^*Vt- 

not idoqiutely wnUla good oritieiBm. ProTeMon Palfrcj ud S]«rin bars 

The inattDces of tite Naw Toik Re- pnaided oror ita fc rt i i nM ud directed 

Ttew, die Coratir, tbe Plaindealer, ita eoone. Anong tbete oontribvtom, 

and the Pathfindet (b^ fai the beat Dana, HoVidwr, JjovgMlow, and a 

mditioal joimiala), Aretorna, and the Bambet ef onr derereat mm, lawTen, 

Boston Hitcellanr, onght to aatiafr statesmen, dirinea and pro faa a ed acho- 

Mny doabt on this head. All fell lara, are to be enumsrated. At pieeent 

^iTongb, oertainl]' Dot for want of escel- the Beriew is In tbe banja of Mr. 

lent tnalter and tbe puieat writing, bat fiowen, a nriter and sohtjar whoae 

aoletj for sheer want of a Joat propOT' claims to scholarship and metaphjsioal 

tion of pabUc aapport. Ha^mea aUity are weU repnaested ia a Tohime 

without a tjtba of tbeit merit, and of hia collected aiticlea paUidied Ml 

e^wciaUy devoid of tbe finer attribsiea long ainoe. — What ia the tendeacj of 

of ingenuity, delicacy or gnce (the ob- thia qnarterly, ita general chanctar! 

Ject seems to be to find how thin a To answer theae qneriea, we moat 

soil will anawer far the prodnetioD of offer a criticiam. Tha defect of the 

magaaine flovera), bj- mere dint of ez- North Ameriean (to oommeiice by atat- 

t«Bal oirctmiataDeea (the accidents of ing ita defect, ia to end rtxj bood 

the bnabaaa), platea of the fiuhiona all die oonwlaiiit wa ban to bring 

iSt only for a tailor's montUr or La against it and to allow otuaelTea Inia- 
telle AaaenitMe),ajid Ihemoeiiaalona are to praise with juatiee), haa been 
pofii^i have grown and loariabed to ita literacy toryupt, bj which we 
lankneea. Beeidea, tha pablio tast« wonld eonre^ oat imp r aaaioa of ita 
ia not jet anffieient^ edocated to ap- ap^iareDt dialike to imioTation and new 
pteciata the raiie^ of taleet raqnbite wnta^a. Ita policj ia a little too 
to fill agreeablr tbe pagea of a monthly eastioaa : it lacka the one qoalitj of 
Jonraal. NatW ia the public money boldoeaa, hardly less eaaential in rig- 
direeted as it should be, to refonn tbia. oroaa criticiam tbaa in oratory itaelf ; 
Obrionaly, there ahoald be an eqnitabla ut infiieioD of a happy aodaeity would 
diTiaion of labor, bj^ meaoa of which bring oat all ha other elemenla intiia- 
eaoh writer might binuetf peribnn his aieal^ ao * alnable, into a more pconi- 
own work weU, instead of an editof Bentlight,aoldjbythefi»ceofconttaat. 
doing it all in. It ia no credit for a ma- We are hx from meaning, by eoan- 
gaaine editor to toTn ont a monthly all aelling txddneaa, to adrocate the eoaiae 
of his own compoeition — talea, rersee, Titaperation of Gifibrd, tha indiserimi- 
criticiams, piriitica, satire, goasip, mor- nate abuae of CoUwtt, the find libels 
ality and religion. Wiiat a bodga- of anoh dieeta aa the Satiriat and the 
podge it mnat M I Socb a ftet prorea Age, or their imitatoia on thia ride of 
only that tbe magasiiM cannot vt will the water. But we would azpraaa a 
not pay proper eo nt iibotoia. A Re- aeed of aamethiag more beany and 
view may be thua written, b«t not » diieet in ita maimer. To thia genera} 
magazine— ^hieb profeaeea to be van- eritieitm, we mnai make soma exoep- 
ona enoBgh to eateh tbe desultory tiona : atiU, the tone of the Rariew haa 
taste, especially of indotent readers in been ia ^eiml too mild, anntiiiting al- 
thia hot roidsnmmer weather. most to indifferenee. Its inflneDce, for 
In cor present rapid Tiew ot eon- thia reason, ia by no meana what it 
temporary periodical American liie- ahonldbeaatheleadingqaaiterly ef the 
ratnre, we ahall eommenee with the ooontiy. nor what it deaerrea for ita 
KcTiewa and eotrelnde with the daily really great merit ; fbi the beat style ia 
papera. The North Americaii Re- to be fonnd in it ; the manner ia inraria- 
Tiew fnTDishea the commonly receiTed bly neat and elegant : tiie acholarahip 
standard of oar qnarterly critieism ; is aa aanally aoenrate asd perraded 
owEdinbergfa and Qaarterly combined, by a apirit of liberality ud a qarit 
wtthetit tbe bad qu^itiea of tbe latter, of bmnaoity. Witfaotd a Tolome of 
It ia (be oldest joumal of the kind, the Reriew by na, we atUl ]ia*e 
now eiistmg b the United Ststoa. It mai^ -o«q;>ital papera in our eye and 
has been edned by certain of our fbre- in onr miikd. To panieniaiiB« onhf 
maat^Den,and can point among ita COD- a few, tbeie are tbe Taiiona cria- 
tribntora to manjr of our aUeat echo- esl miaeeUantea and leaned digeata ef 
lara and beat wTiteia,at difibreat peri- cur vtgonmatTozaatileandaoeom^idi- 
ods in ita bistory ; the EvaiRta, od oo uiit r ytu n, Fnddant Everett : ' 



1. ,i,-:,i.,GoogIc 



1844.] OilKum in AmtricM. S4S 

dtoroQ^ uholur, Me autenun, ud tem. We bv ao meaaa attribute thia 
fine writer. Then ue, too, the fewer vacillstioa of pnrpoae to meie fickle- 
yet equally elegant, if not eaTtgoniuaiiiid dmb oT disposition, ao much ae to ex- 
oomprebeoaive, p^>era of hia toother, oeaaiTe iatetlectual aotivity, and great 
our claaaic Minister to Enslaod. Ttro fiurneas of mind, which, detecting aome 
papera of Dana'a in particmar, we recol- good in everv party and docUioe, ie 
lect, OB Moore and on Uuliu'a Leeturea feariiil of not doing ample juatiee to ali- 
en the Engliah poeta ; the latter a little We moK eoafe«s, titat we ahall be oo- 
harab, yet both nwciraena of Danlr wiae anrpriaed to hear of a hearty re- 
criticiam. Two, alao, of Longfellow^ cantation of his present opinions, strong- 
oecar to us, a meat appreciative notice Ij as thej are now adTocated. For 
of Hawthorne'* Twioe Told Talea, aod apecnlation and lumiaoua ciitioiam, we 
a very brilliant paper on Tegner, the look npon the Christian Esaminer as 
anther of t'rtthioff's Saga. E maat be truly admirable. Many aitiolea, like 
eonfeseed a bolder tone ii «iaible in the thoae on Codworth, Henry More, and 
later eriticalapecnlationaofthisperied- Spinosa, hsTe appeared in its pages; 
ical, which apfwais to progooebeate a and wh^erer we look lor a clear, pe- 
rerolatitui in its management. With netrating view on any raetuhyaioal 
a little mora fire, the elegance, the system or qaestion of tbeoretiauetliies, 
acholarehip, the integrity of this Re- we are not disappointed. Of ihepnre- 
view would be more faToiably eon- ly religions jouinala 'we cannot be ex- 
trasted. Some of our dererest pens pooled to speak for that Tery reason. 
are never to be met there, and we A. Review, partly aaeh at firM, though 
could name at least half a dosen to the from the rery first its Itteraiy obarac- 
Editor, who would add brilliancy eren tat strongly predominated, oontaiaed 
to the foimidable body of.tbe beat writ- in its earl* Tolamea a few resUy ^le 
ere for this quarterly, that are among articles, tboogh eveetuallj it fell into a 
the boast of our TO ong but growing lite- heavy and slovenly manner, losing its 
ratnre. The Boston Quarterly and original editors and its beat early coo* 
Christian Examiner, originally one in tributors, by wham it was resigned to 
spirit, though they have since diverged an tneffioient anbstitttte and mfeiior 
ao widely, have never held the aame writers. The first fooi numbeia, in 
poaitioo aa the North American, ez- particular, contained papers from the 
cept in the eonaideration of a ein^e pen of E. A. Duyckinck, Esq., on 
aecL Yet tiiey have had writera and Crabbe, Mrs. Hemans, George Herbert, 
articles that rank even with the beat Goldsmith, and Giles Fletcher, in their 
foreigu eritios and criticising. Chan- peculiar view of ^;rs«eful eentkneat and 



aing and' Brownaon, alone, are a boat in JefcrtpfiDCcritickem (rather than anaJy> 
themselves, and though unsupported, tie) of a character never aurpassed in 
would have gained a fiist.i»ie repnta- any American periodical, ana perhape 



for any periodical in which they equalled only Ln the papera before m 

chose to write. We have had no re- tioned of a •omewbat aimilar cast, by 

view artioles comparable to those of Profesaai Longfellow. The eaiy man* 

Channing, aad no writer, who, in hit ner, gracious amenitv, delicate faoc^, 

bat vluuu, surpasses Mr, Brown- ehoiee taaie and subue humur, of this 

son m vigor and eojnonsnsss. We oor most tasteful poetical critic and 

cannot say as much for the subtlety, clusical easayiat, are perfectly fresh 

fineneas and discrimination (at least m and onstndied, and hence perfectly de- 

literary criticism) of this latter writer, lightfnl. This fine writer requirea but 

He writes too mnch, always to write the atimolus of necessity, of which, un- 

wcJl, or even satisfiwtorily to himself^ fortunately for ns, though happily for 

He would not shift his ground so often, him, he is free, to put forth powers at 

did he exereise a more deliberate judg- once ele^t and manly, in the fields 

mant before making up his opinions, of periodical writing, to secure a poai- 

The ptditical and personal integrity of tion in that select list, which includes 

this gentleman, we believe to be of the the names of Hunt, Haxlitt, EUa, ajtd 

purest dye; yet from a constitntional Campbell. 

restlessDese of temperament and great Of the Sonthem Reviews, we knew 

logical aouteness (like Chillin^orth) too little to speak ef them with any 

he reasons himself oat of and into al* certainty : for which reasons we pre* _^ 

meet every conceivable creed and sys- aerve a prudent silence. • CjQQljIc 



2Mt Crilicitm tn America. [Sept. 

Our Magazine Literstore ia, baa blea, u>d u annibateatial. HuHtt 

been, and, m we snipect, ever will be, wrote od (he deepest themea for mtga- 

tnoch richer and more original than the linea, jet it is no labor, but the mort 

literature of our qaarteriy jonmala. delighuul of taaka, to read his papers. 

Hie causea far this mpeiioritv ate One thing must be ahnaned, heaviness, 

plain. Hneh greater varietj of atjle dnllneaa, pToIixiij. One dionld writa 

and eentiment, and a wider Tarietj of in magazines or papers, only on what 

claEses of writinff are reqnisile in a mis- he ia maater of : in renewa, oocasional 

cellaneooa nioDthly journal than in a cramming ia not aoblameable, and may 

purely didactic and critical qnaiterly. be necessary to eke out an article. 

Invention, wit, hnmor, fancy, imagina- Poetical quotation and long prose ex- - 

tion ; tales, sketches, characters, ciili- tracla make up some review article*, 

cism, poeirj and politics, find their sp- which stuffed up in this way always re- 

propriate niches in % Magazine ; while mind ua of tnrkeys prepared for grand 

the Review admits only of essay and dinners or suppers, withont a bone in 

criticism, historical sketches and philo:- their bodies, but filled with oysters and 

eophic diacussinn. A good Magazine, condimenta. In the space that remains, 

Ukeawellfamisbedareenal, "aUiang- oftbe present esssy, we shall attempt 

ed with order and disposed with grace" a history in miniature of oar magacine 

(the mere disposition of its contents is literature, thus {ar. 
a matter requiring no little tact and Since the daya of the " Portfolio," 

judgment), should represent almost edited by Dennie, and die " Anatectic 

every class of writing and style ; sU Magazine," which contains the elegant 

compacted together by one spirit, and sfaort biographies by Irving, the Mag^ 

pitched upon the same key. This uni- sine literature of tbe country has ad- 

ty of sentiment admits of the widest vanced wonderAilly- The earliest 

diversity of manner. A first-rate nnm- monthly journds were, in fact, jai- 

ber of the " Democratic," for instance, langes of selected literature rather than 

would have its poems by Bryant, Low- original magazinea. The reprint of 

ell and Whittier ; its romances by review articles and adversaria, with 

Hawthorne ; finished translations of occasional short lives and occasional 

German romance, or light sketches of paragraphs, made up the contents of the. 

manners from the French ; criticiam by volume. Dennie's prose papem, so 

Godwin, or Bigelow, or Dnyckinck ; highly landed at the time as models of 

and polities by Mr. Editor (to which, Addisonian prose, are now surpassed 

however, he ia bj no means restricted, daily by contributors to the penny press. 

as we have tracKBd him through the Not to go very deeply into the exact 

windiogscf fictitious narrative, the dia- chronology of a portion of onr literary 

tinctions of a critique, statistical calcn- history, that still remains not as clear 

lations, ^litical argument and enlight- as it should be, we can but deplore in 

eoed legisiatianl, or Mr. Everett, per- the end of a paragraph the ill fata of 

haps his ablest literary vizier. The so many of our clever periodicals. In 

London Magazine, in its best day, bad England similar literary talent would 

its Elia, Hood, Hazlitt, Prootor, and notbe ao sadly at a discoont. In this 

Opium Eater— without any eiirava- list we shall select only the best : as, 

.gant boast, our good Maga can ap- the joint production of Eryant and Ds- 

proech it very nearly, with its strong- ns^sofoilofsdmirableproseand verse: 

est forces. the magazine of Sands, full of his hn- 

Invariably a lighter character and mor, sfarewdnsss, and scholarship ; tbe 
vein ia exjiected in Magazine writing, " New England Magazine,^' and its 
thanin periodicals orgreaterpretension. successor (we believe), the "Anerioan 
'Even its gravest disqnisitisna should be Monthly," in which we first imp'd our 
eminently readable. This is the prime wing in Juvenile critical flights ; and 
reqnisite. Thongb the style sbould last of all, the two best m^zines that 
be quick and glancing, yet even levity have yet appeared (the " Democratic" 
is not precisely the thing ; a little of It tndy excepted), "Arctnrua" and the 
Issnfficient. Bat there should be much "Boston Miscellany," to botb of which 
oondensed force and a brilliant style, we had the gratification of being en- 
Foppishness does not hit the mark : a rolled as constant contributor, and 
mere siring of conceits is as bad. To- whose editors we rank among ovt 
pics need not be as airy as soap bub- choicest literary acquaintances. 



oogle 



18U.] Critidm m Ammea. S47 

Tbe " Amerioan MonthlT" had good ruembk Mnmj uid Mozos, Chamben 

mitera, some capital oaea, Hawthorne, and Conatable. The roolUh notion <^ 

tioi HoffmAD, and Felix Merry, and prefixio^platesorthe fkahion8,tDaltte- 

was not badly edited. We retain a rary penodical where they are enticelj 

. leeard Tot it i but " AicturoB" and the out of place, and the abortions of print* 

"Hieeetlaay" weremagazinee of a dif- in place of good engravings, tend to 

ferent stamp. The criiiciam and essay damn this class of publications siill 

writing, of the "New Toik Monthly," more effectually. It appears to as, 

the best of it, were the prodncta of the that the only fit omamant of the sort to 

aane fine mind, whose effusions in the be admitted into a monthly jooinal, is, 

" New York Review," we have already the head of a celebnted nwn of lettera 

noticed ; while the hmnonras satire of or pablio character, or occasionally, aa 

the senior editor fully sustsined his dt- a stady and by way of an education for 

partment of the magaiine. Mr. Auld the eye, a drawing from the actique. 

was much the stiongeet of the ocea- The Sonthera magaxines, like most 

sional coDliibutora, and he has faraished Southern writing, are very flashy : with 

some of the best things io the work, great pretension, they exhibit very 

A seieotioD from the three volomes, meager performsjioe. The same gene- 

wonld make an excellent octavo. Its ral criticism would apply to colleg* 

BoBtOB rival was eondocled daring its magazines and any other of the class 

short career, by a manly scholar, a fair we may have possibly omitted. Maga- 

critic, and BD honest man, Nathan Hale, sines pay much better than Reviews, 

who, assisted by Lowell, Willis, Haw- but nothing like so well as the daily 

theme, his accomplished uncles, and 1 press. It is something, however, to 

capital translator of German tales and find ^od paying literature of any sort, 

fetches, has enjoyed the felicity of in this country of starved authors and 

condoctiag the most clasaic magaiine poor scholars. In our boast of the uni- 

of New England. How happens it, versa] diffusion of knowledge, we neg- 

that thatre&nedcommunitycannot BQp- lect indiridual cases of learning and 

tort a great magazine 1 The " Dial," scholastic ^ilUy. 

y the way, bas ktely slopped, in which Of local magaiines, we have but two 

haveappesredsomeof thechoicestmor- now existing, worth the name, the 

ceauB of EmertOD and kindred minds. " Knickerbocker" and the " Demooratie 

Of theladies' magazines, we might say Review." We shall endeavor to speak 

a great deal more than we shall ; they of both of these with fsimess and 

d^rve, in fact, very slight attention, without prejudice, though we may bo 

They have bad first-rate names on the pardoned for seeioffwhat is best, in our 

covers, but the contents are hardly an- favorite monthly. The " Knickeibock- 

Bwerabte. The anthor of the " Spy" er" (if we are not misinformed) is the 

and the " Pilot," for instance, has far- oldest : one of its first editors, if not 

Dished the " Autohiogiaphv of a Hand- indeed its very first, was CbarlesHoff- 

kerchief,"whu:hiBamiracIeof prolixity man, one of the cteveiast desoriptire 

and — but let the reader try to wade writers in elegant prose we can name, 

through it, and he can easily finish the and the author of nnmerons copies of 

sentence. After a great trumpeting of lively, sparkling verse, beside. The 

Mr. Dana*s name, at last appears, what 1 original feature of this mondily was, 

Why, a trifie of a love song— the least that of a New York Magazine, as ila 

characteristic of anything of his, we name implied ; but that individuality 

have seen. And so of other writers, has since been merged in a more gene- 

The mass of the matter is inuiily it- ral and cosmopolitan character. Among 

self and the veriest nonsense. Snch its writers are to be numbered our very 

they will probably continue, until they best, Bryant, Longfellow, Irving; Elia- 

are edited by proper writers. Book- sketcheeof Mr.Carey,thewittydeBciip- 

eellers and publishers cannot be expect- tions of Prof. Sanderson, the hnmorona 

ed to have bad the literary training ' pictures of Harry Franca, and ths 

that fits a man for the offiee of editor, finished painting of Mr. Street. Manr 

They cannot be expected to place a other clever writers have contributed, 

tnst estimate on the value of literary from time to time, whose names we 

labor, to appreciate the requisite skill, cannot now recall, writbgmerely from 

or to ascertain the precise ebiims and memory. The " Knickerbocker" i* 

aUnding of a writer. Few pabliahers more truly a Miscellany than a Mogv 

Cooglc 



MS CrUieumimAmfiM. \StifL 

bob; t. e.iitaconleaUaiemoTeTaiioiu of daiogle Rhwt — canaDDdei hi* eye, 

and wpanU, sod less in •gTOsmeat Tfaea, too, evetybodj expeet«pnuae of 

with each other, while in- the "Demo- coune, and so ranch priTa[« influence ia 

emtio ReTiew," there is » prBTuting nude for a complimentuy eeaieoce, 

tone of BeDtiment and an naanimit)' of that if the plain tiulh la told bnt once in 

^tiit fltiftji^ between all the wiiteia ten timea, the poor critic niast make 

fin it. at leaat one enemj. — Unfoi1aiuUel;,too, 

The . ooDolading niche, we reaerrfl the aitoatien of parties, the biaa of par- 

for Dnr Magazine, aa the best critica, tisau feeling, can hardlj fail to infloBitco 

both in ana oot of the oonntry, of even litenrf critieiam, thon^ they fall 

bodi partiea, Ijeely allow: and na we istalhiaaintoamHchleaaeXtent istbia 

lATenU jndieioDa Mr. Editor bj our oonntTjtbaainEnglaod. There the go- 

nde, to espuof^ aoTihiug which may Teraatent preaa haa fonnd itself, jeai 

o&ud a genuine Bodeaty (the aecom- after yeai, the fooleat parlT tooL 
paniment of aa true wottb aad ability), Amerioaii Editor*, aa a ehas, fana » 

ot which we tnut he will not curtail na b«dj of direwd, aenaible, actire think- 

dioiild ba aee tbia ebollitiM of iperaon- eta and wiiiera, with a daab of homor, 

■Utr be&te it ia iRerocably in print afiindof ready pleaaantty, and inelade, 

Qaifvttbe time he can't make oat dot among the batter isnka, aome of the 

aenwl, ao we ahaU hope to eaeape bia lineat minda and moat geotlemanlr sen, 

?re this lime, aa we hare done btuore). in tbia or any other cooDtrr. Newa- 

be Demociatic can not only boaat of papera bring t^ethor all the floating 

the Btrongeat wriiera, bat alao, in many talent in the profeaaions, no laaa than 

inataaoea, of tiie best writinga from the most intelligent traders and men of 

their pena : ibe foema of Lowell and bnainBaa, aa well aa a few profeaaed 

Whittier : the criticism of the criticB schcdara. Many a writer here, mnat 

rflaoian, Shellar, and Sydney Smith ; become an editor to obtain literary 

the allegoiiaa of Hawthorne, the po- caste, ainoe odi only two diatinctly re- 

liahed paraphraatio reraions of ETerelt, cognized literary classes (not included 

with bia fceen and el^ant pen : the In- in the three learned piofeasiena) aie 

diBB reaearohea rf Mr. Seboolcraft : editors of loamals and profeeaors in 

tba antiqnariannm of Mi. Sannders : oollegea. Editors of booas, the world 

aniited tranalatioDa from French and OTer, are ^merally a acnbby race, 

Qernan ; the oeoaaional Incabntiona writing their namea and titlea on the 

' of Butler, Bancroft, and indeed, almost title page quite oonspicaonaly, and 

erery oleTar writer of the great Demo- throwing the anthor of the Tolome en- 

ontie party ; to ear notUne of the tirely in the ahade. This kind of 

Tariooa and skilful l^rs of the Pali- editor plomea himaelf on a pre&ce aod 

mma of the bark. If with thia array notes, more highly than the original 

of namea aod aitielea worthy o[ them, writer did on the body of hia work. As 

thia Monthly does not deserre (aa it a claaa, the joamal^taare cmaiderably 

indeed holda) the firat place, we know in advance of the profesaors : aniting 

not the Joomal among Anwican Maga- the opposite charactera of acbolars and 

sioes that deea. men i^ the world : both readers and 

We ahafloflfer nothing farther in eon- writers; anthers and critics; at the 

demnatioB of too much of the Qorrent aame time, men of action and specnla- 

newspuer eritieism beyond ooi etrio- tire obaervera of the great Drama of 

tnrea of laat mwith. We are, bowerer, Life going on before them. A foil 

awaie tiiat much may be koneady aaid in list of the gennine working editors of 

palliation of its defeola. The Sjditor, in the ooontry would comprise almost 

moatcaaae, haa too mnchworit put upon erery name of any note oi mark in ont 

him ; Tery seldom, is there aoytbug literature. Tory few are the American 

like a &jr diriaion of labor. Too often, - writers, who have not at some one pe- 

politJca, news, oily goasip, theatrical riod or another of their career played 



criticism, notices of new books come the part of editor, asaooiata or aub- 

bom the aame hand which indites pa- altem. To mention name> ia snper- 

ngn[As OD pietorea, the atieeta, and fluona : from onr first poets down to the 

tke health of Uia ci^. MaBeams,nia- huablest weekly theatrical critic, dw 

ne, metehaodise, mechanic's inatilntea, inetancea are abundant. The oanaea of 

medical refiitma and madieioe, chnrch ioefficientedittngorpartial critieiam or 

history — to exempli^ the motley lopKa weakneaa in discusaion, which most 



dogle 



ISM.] w»t. am 

■ometimea occur, hxn tbeir foundation t elioei<nI diapodtion enliren* lift 

in the-proper WMit of tniniog utd Id- iUelf. 

telleciual requiaiteHfor EacecBB. Hurt We hi,Te thus gUuoed &t the princ