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Full text of "United States dual-use exports to Iraq and their impact on the health of the Persian Gulf war veterans : hearing before the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, United States Senate, One Hundred Third Congress, second session ... May 25, 1994"

S. Hrg. 103-900 



UNITID STATES DUALUSE EXPORTS TO IRAQ 
AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE HEALTH OF TOE 
PERSIAN GULF WAR VEIIRANS 



Y 4. B 22/3: S, HRG. 103-900 . 

United States Daul-Use Exports to I Hr 

xx^riRING 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON 

BANKING, HOUSING, AND URBAN AFFAIRS 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 

ON 

UNITED STATES CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE-RELATED 
DUAL-USE EXPORTS TO IRAQ AND THEIR POSSIBLE IMPACT ON THE 
HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF THE PERSIAN GULF WAR 



MAY 25, 1994 



Printed for the use of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs 







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S. Hrg. 103-900 



UNITED STATES DUALUSE EXPORTS TO IRAQ 

AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE HEALTH OF THE 

PERSIAN GULF WAR VETERANS 



HEARING 

BEFORE THE 

COMMITTEE ON 

BANKING, HOUSING, AND URBAN AFFAIRS 

UNITED STATES SENATE 

ONE HUNDRED THIRD CONGRESS 

SECOND SESSION 

ON 

UNITED STATES CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE -RELATED 
DUAL-USE EXPORTS TO IRAQ AND THEIR POSSIBLE IMPACT ON THE 
HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF THE PERSIAN GULF WAR 



MAY 25, 1994 



FVinted for the use of the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs 




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
86-558 CC WASHINGTON : 1994 

For sale by the U.S. Government Printing Office 
Superintendent of Documents, Congressional Sales Office, Washington, DC 20402 
ISBN 0-16-047069-2 



COMMITTEE ON BANKING, HOUSING, AND URBAN AFFAIRS 
DONALD W. RIEGLE, JR., Michigan, Chairman 



ALFONSE M. D'AMATO, New York 
PHIL GRAMM, Texas 
CHRISTOPHER S. BOND, Missouri 
CONNIE MACK, Florida 
LAUCH FAIRCLOTH, North Carolina 
ROBERT F. BENNETT, Utah 
WILLIAM V. ROTH, JR., Delaware 
PETE V. DOMENICI, New Mexico 



PAUL S. SARBANES, Maryland 
CHRISTOPHER J. DODD, Connecticut 
JIM SASSER, Tennessee 
RICHARD C. SHELBY, Alabama 
JOHN F. KERRY, Massachusette 
RICHARD H. BRYAN, Nevada 
BARBARA BOXER, California 
BEN NIGHTHORSE CAMPBELL, Colorado 
CAROL MOSELEY-BRAUN, Illinois 
PATTY MURRAY, Washington 

Steven B. Harris, Sta/f Director and Chief Counsel 

Howard A. Menell, Republican Sta/f Director 

James J. TUITE, III, Professional Staff & Special Assistant to the Chairman for 

National Security Issues and Dual-Use Export Policies 

Robin EddingTON, Senior Fellow, Women's Executive Leadership Program 

Edward M. Malan, Editor 



(II) 



CONTENTS 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 25, 1994 

Page 

Opening statement of Chairman Riegle 1 

Opening statements, comments, or prepared statements of: 

Senator D'Amato 6 

Prepared statement 87 

Senator Boxer 7 

Senator Faircloth 9 

Senator Bond 11 

Prepared statement 88 

Senator Bennett 12 

Senator Kerry 58 

Senator Moseley-Braun 90 

Senator Campbell 90 

WITNESSES 

Edwin Dom, Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, U.S. 
Department of Defense, Washington, DC; accompanied by: Dr. Theodore 
M. Prociv, Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Chemical and 
Biological Weapons, U.S. Department of Defense, Washington, DC; and 
Dr. John Kriese, Chief Officer for Ground Forces, Defense Intelligence 

Agency, Washington, DC 14 

Prepared statement 91 

Response to written questions of: 

Senator Riegle 104 

Senator D'Amato 121 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

Dr. Mitchell Wallerstein, Deputy Assistant Secretary for Counterproliferation 

Policy, U.S. Department of Defense, Washington, DC 60 

Dr. Gordon C. Oehler, Director, Nonproliferation Center, Central Intelligence 

Agency, Washington, DC 67 

Prepared statement 93 

Additional Material Supplied for the Record 

Letters concerning Persian Gulf War Health Issues 98 

Department of Veterans' Affairs Gulf War Syndrome Registry 102 

U.S. Army Medical Materiel Agency — Medical Customer Shopping Guide for 

Saudi Arabia 196 

May 25, 1994 Committee Report 225 

October 7, 1994 Committee Report 434 

(III) 



UNITED STATES DUAL-USE EXPORTS TO IRAQ 

AND THEIR IMPACT ON THE HEALTH OF THE 

PERSIAN GULF WAR VETERANS 



WEDNESDAY, MAY 25, 1994 

U.S. Senate, 
Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, 

Washington, DC. 

The Committee met at 10:10 a.m., in room SD-106 of the Dirk- 
sen Senate Office Building, Senator Donald W. Riegle, Jr. (Chair- 
man of the Committee) presiding. 

OPENING STATEMENT OF CHAIRMAN DONALD W. RIEGLE, JR. 

The Chairman. The Committee will come to order. 

Let me welcome all those in attendance this morning. 

This is a very important hearing and we'll take whatever time 
we need today to pursue all of the issues that Members want to 
raise. Of course, we have a follow-on hearing later in the afternoon. 

I'm going to give an opening statement that summarizes what 
brings us to this hearing this morning. Then I'm going to call on 
Senator D'Amato and other Members in the order in which they've 
arrived. 

I also want to acknowledge the presence in the room of some of 
our Gulf War veterans who are suffering from the Gulf War Syn- 
drome. I appreciate very much both their service to this country 
and their attendance this morning. 

Back in 1992, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
Affairs, which is the Committee which has Senate oversight for the 
Export Administration Act, held an inquiry into the United States 
export policy to Iraq prior to the Persian Gulf War. During that 
hearing it was learned that U.N. inspectors had identified many 
United States-manufactured items that had been exported from the 
United States to Iraq under licenses issued by the Department of 
Commerce, and that these items were used to further Iraq's chemi- 
cal and nuclear weapons development and missile delivery system 
development programs. 

The Committee has worked to ensure since that time that this 
will not happen again and the Export Administration Act legisla- 
tion we reported out yesterday by a 19 to nothing bipartisan vote 
is an illustration of that. 

Nearly a year ago, several Persian Gulf War veterans from 
Michigan contacted my office to complain that the Department of 
Veterans' Affairs was not adequately treating the myriad of medi- 

(1) 



cal symptoms that they were suffering from. These veterans were 
suffering from what has come to be known as Gulf War Syndrome. 

Many of them were being treated symptomatically, with no long- 
lasting, positive effects on their health. Others were being referred 
for psychiatric evaluation because personnel in the Department of 
Veterans' Affairs were at a loss to explain their physical symptoms. 

We'll come back to that later today. 

Then, in July 1993, the Czechoslovakian Minister of Defense an- 
nounced that Czechoslovak chemical decontamination units had de- 
tected the chemical warfare agent Sarin in areas of northern Saudi 
Arabia during the early phases of the Gulf War. They had attrib- 
uted the detections to fallout from coalition bombing of Iraqi chemi- 
cal warfare agent production facilities. 

In September 1993, I released a staff report on this issue and, 
in turn, issued an amendment to the fiscal year 1994 National De- 
fense Authorization Act, that provided preliminary funding for 
medical research of the illness and an investigation of reported ex- 
posures and sicknesses of our Gulf War veterans. 

When I released that report, the estimates of the number of vet- 
erans suffering from these unexplained illnesses varied from hun- 
dreds, according to the Department of Defense, to thousands, ac- 
cording to the Department of Veterans' Affairs. It is now believed 
that tens of thousands of U.S. Gulf War veterans are suffering 
from the symptoms associated with the Gulf War Syndrome. Mean- 
while, hundreds, and possibly thousands, of servicemen and women 
still on active duty are reluctant to come forward for fear of losing 
their jobs and, in turn, losing their medical care and coverage. 

These Gulf War veterans are reporting muscle and joint pain, 
memory loss, intestinal and heart problems, fatigue, nasal conges- 
tion, urinary urgency, diarrhea, twitching, rashes, sores, and a 
number of other symptoms. They began experiencing these mul- 
tiple symptoms during and after, often many months after, their 
tour of'^duty in the Gulf. 

I might say that, in virtually every case, these veterans were in 
excellent physical condition when they went over to the Gulf In 
fact, under the voluntary Army arrangements, you have to be in 
exceptionally good condition today just to qualify for service in the 
Armed Forces, and that was particularly true for many who were 
asked to serve in the Gulf War. So we're talking about people with 
exceptionally strong health profiles before their service in the Gulf. 

The Department of Defense, when first approached regarding 
this issue by the Committee staff, contended that there was no evi- 
dence that U.S. forces were exposed to chemical warfare agents. 
However, on September 7, 1993, a Defense Department medical of- 
ficial told my staff that the issue of chemical and biological warfare 
agent exposure had not been explored because it was the position 
of "military intelligence" that such exposures never occurred. 

Then, during a November 10, 1993, press briefing at the Penta- 
gon, the Department of Defense acknowledged that the Czech gov- 
ernment did detect chemical agents in the Southwest Asia theater 
of operations. After analyzing the results of the Czech report, the 
Department of Defense concluded that the detections were unre- 
lated to the "mysterious health problems that had victimized some 
of our veterans." 



The Ranking Member of this Committee, Senator D'Amato, and 
I have released today a report detailing an inquiry into this issue 
that provides important new information based upon Government 
documentation and other official reports. 

The report establishes, first of all, that, contrary to the Depart- 
ment of Defense assertions, there is clear evidence that the chemi- 
cal agents detected by the Czechs and others were at sufficient lev- 
els to harm U.S. troops. 

Second, it establishes that the chemical agent detectors used by 
U.S. forces during the Gulf War were not sufficiently sensitive to 
detect sustained low levels of chemical agent and to monitor per- 
sonnel for contamination. U.S. Army Material Safety Data Sheets, 
called MSDS, indicate that chronic exposure to levels of over 1/ 
10,000th milligram per cubic meter of Sarin is hazardous and re- 
quires the use of protective equipment. The minimum amount of 
chemical agent required to activate the automatic chemical agent 
detection alarm that was commonly used during the war was 1,000 
times greater than this amount. 

In other words, the levels for the alarms used in the war were 
set at a rate 1,000 times greater than the actual level that we 
know from other military records to be damaging and hazardous to 
people if they are exposed to them over a period of time. 

Third, the report provides detailed weather and information from 
unclassified satellite imagery which confirms that during much of 
the war, the smoke plumes from the coalition bombings were mov- 
ing directly over U.S. troop positions. 

Fourth, it explains that the United States did not have effective 
biological agent detectors deployed with the capability to confirm 
whether or not troops were being exposed to biological agents. 

During a November 1993, unclassified briefing for Members of 
the United States Senate, in response to direct questioning, a DoD 
official said that the Department of Defense was withholding clas- 
sified information on the exposure of U.S. forces to biological mate- 
rials. 

Then in a Department of Defense-sponsored Conference on 
Counterproliferation held at Los Alamos National Laboratory on 
May 6 and 7, 1994, this same official admitted that biological agent 
detection is a priority development for the Department of Defense 
since there currently is no biological agent detection system fielded 
with any U.S. forces anywhere in the world. 

Fifth, it provides evidence that the United States shipped biologi- 
cal materials to Iraq which contributed to the Iraqi biological war- 
fare program. 

The report also draws upon direct eyewitness accounts from full 
interviews of more than 600 Gulf War veterans who were directly 
interviewed by Committee staff. A representative cross-section of 
30 of these individuals is presented in full detail in the report, but 
it is very illustrative of the entire body of interviews that we have 
now taken, and we are continuing to take interviews and we will 
continue to do so. 

The information provided by the veterans indicated that expo- 
sure to chemical and possibly biological agents was widespread — 
widespread! Detections were confirmed by chemical specialists de- 
ployed in Saudi Arabia, in Kuwait, and in Iraq. 



Despite the fact that during the air war, the chemical alarms 
continued to sound frequently, and despite the fact that the Czech, 
the French, and some United States commanders were confirming 
they were sounding because of trace amounts of nerve agents in 
the air, from the coalition bombings of Iraqi chemical facilities, 
storage depots and bunkers. United States troops were often told 
that there was no danger. Some reported to the Committee that 
they turned the alarms off because they sounded so often during 
the air war. 

After the war, in addition to tens of thousands of other chemical 
munitions, U.N. inspectors — now listen carefully to this — U.N. in- 
spectors found and destroyed 28 SCUD chemical warheads contain- 
ing the chemical nerve agent Sarin. 

According to a Department of Defense official, these warheads 
had been obtained from the former Soviet Union. The report also 
cites an increasing number of cases of spouses and children who re- 
port the same symptoms as the veterans, indicating a strong possi- 
bility of the transmissibility of the syndrome. This is an extremely 
worrisome issue that now confronts those families in the country. 
The emerging pattern of information in this area in terms of family 
problems of spouses and children requires immediate additional in- 
vestigative effort. And I don't want to hear the Defense Depart- 
ment or anybody else in the Executive Branch of Government say 
that we don't have the money to do this job. We waste money on 
a million other things. 

[Applause.] 

It's time we got to the bottom of this problem. 

The report also recommends the immediate declassification and 
release of all classified or special access information relating to 
Iraqi chemical and biological warfare programs and information re- 
lated to the detection or discovery of chemical, chemical precursor, 
or biological warfare-related materials. It's time to put it all out 
into the light of day. 

It demands that a thorough and detailed epidemiological study 
be conducted on all Gulf War veterans — on all of them — to deter- 
mine the origins and causes of the illnesses and the report of trans- 
mission of the syndromes to family members. It calls for the estab- 
lishment of a comprehensive medical testing regime for all sympto- 
matic Gulf War veterans and their family members. 

We have not had a situation like this before and it's not enough 
to use a Catch-22 part of the Government military establishment 
to say that if a family member is now sick because of an exposure, 
that we don't have any procedure to provide health care for them. 
I think we have to establish a procedure to provide health care for 
them. That's part of our responsibility. That's what America is sup- 
posed to be all about — about honor and decency with respect to our 
service men and women, and certainly to their families that are 
now showing these same symptoms and these same medical prob- 
lems. 

The report also calls for the positive presumption of service con- 
nection for the purposes of receiving necessary medical treatment 
and determining disability compensation and vocational rehabilita- 
tion eligibility. 



We can't have a situation in this country where we have veterans 
that have served 10, 20, or 30 years, who went over to the Persian 
Gulf in excellent health and who have come home and who are 
sick, like some in this room today, and have the military establish- 
ment, in effect, walk away from them. And not only not provide the 
kind of adequate medical treatment and coverage, but to leave 
them in a situation that when they're out of the service, and if they 
don't have a service-connected disability adequate to support them- 
selves, they can't possibly go out and get private health insurance. 
The insurance companies don't want them, or if they do, they 
charge a premium that those veterans can't afford to pay. 

We're not going to have this in America. The Executive Branch 
had better wake up, from the Secretary of Defense up and down 
the line. It's time we give a positive presumption of service connec- 
tion for the purposes of receiving necessary medical treatment and 
determining disability compensation and vocational rehabilitation 
eligibility. It's the minimum we can do. 

Finally, it calls for Government-financed health care for the 
spouses and children determined to have contacted a service-con- 
nected illness from a Gulf War veteran. 

If the Department of Defense intended to conceal these exposures 
during the Gulf War to avoid the physical and mental disruption 
their use would have had on our tactical planning and deployment 
at the time, then there might be some way of understanding, at 
least in a battle situation, why that might be their thinking. But 
now that the war is over, hoping to avoid responsibility for the cas- 
ualties of this conflict is an entirely different matter. 

Over the last 8 months, our office has been contacted by over 
1,000 Gulf War veterans directly. In addition to veterans from the 
United States, we've also been contacted by sick veterans of the 
Canadian, British, and Australian armed services who served in 
the Persian Gulf and who also suffer from this disabling syndrome. 

This is not a mental problem with the veterans. It may be a 
mental problem over at the Defense Department. It is not a mental 
problem with the veterans. 

[Applause.] 

The veterans of the Gulf War have asked us for nothing more 
than the assistance that they have earned. I think any refusal to 
come to their full assistance and to that of their family members 
who also have these problems now, would cause any thinking per- 
son to just question the integrity of the operation that's calling the 
signals with respect to getting to the bottom of this issue. 

I want to just say one other thing before yielding to Senator 
D'Amato, and I appreciate very much his leadership and concern 
on this issue. 

I've served here now for 28 years, through seven Presidents. I've 
seen our Government lie to us before in other war situations. I saw 
how long it took for our Grovernment to understand we had a prob- 
lem with Agent Orange. We had sick veterans all across this coun- 
try trying to cope with the problems, and their family members try- 
ing to cope with the problems, but nobody could figure it out in the 
military establishment. We're not going to have that repeated in 
this situation. 



If I find anybody that comes before our Committee and who, 
under oath, gives false testimony, incomplete testimony, misleading 
testimony, or disingenuous testimony designed to create a false pic- 
ture, we're going to pursue that individual with every single piece 
of authority that we have to see to it that they don't serve in this 
Government and that whatever the truth is, that the truth come 
out. We're not going to tolerate that kind of situation. 

It has nothing to do with party. I've been in both parties in my 
service in the Congress and I've served under Presidents of both 
parties and Secretaries of Defense under both parties. It has noth- 
ing to do with that. It has to do with what the truth is, and about 
honor and integrity, and our military structure, and our respon- 
sibility to our veterans and their families. 

I care a lot more about what happens to the veterans than I do 
about our former Secretaries of Defense. In fact, at the end of the 
day, they're a lot more important because they're the ones that go 
out and get the job done, especially when the dirty work has to be 
done. 

[Applause.] 

So I'm tired of all of the circuitous, incomplete, and mental 
lapses that I'm getting out of the military establishment. I want to 
say it as bluntly as I can because we're not going to settle for that, 
and if anybody thinks so they're sadly mistaken. 

I urge everybody to read this report today. If we have to have 
a hearing where we bring the veterans in one by one and have 100, 
200, 300, or 400 and do it day after day after day to get the atten- 
tion of the people at the top of this Government, then I'm prepared 
to do it. 

This is not going to be an issue that gets swept under the rug. 
We've seen that happen before. It's not going to happen now, not 
with anything that falls under the jurisdiction of this Committee. 

Senator D'Amato. 

[Applause.] 

OPENING STATEMENT OF SENATOR ALFONSE M. D'AMATO 

Senator D'Amato. Mr. Chairman, let me begin today by express- 
ing my appreciation for your commitment to addressing the serious 
issues that are raised, whether the exposure to chemical and bio- 
logical agents during the Gulf War with Iraq are causes of what 
has come to be known as the Gulf War Syndrome. 

Whether or not the exposure to immunization from the possible 
effects of these chemicals may have played a role in bringing about 
a situation in which no one can deny, cannot be explained away by 
simply saying that these are problems that come as a result of a 
state of mind that one has, as opposed to very real illnesses that 
may have been caused by any one of these factors. 

The report is very illuminating. Pages 134 and 135 take us to the 
issue of the question of the effectiveness of the drugs and the long- 
term impact that were administered to the veterans in an attempt 
to immunize them against possible biological attacks. These drugs 
have not received the full approval of the FDA. How many and how 
often were these drugs used? Which of them were experimental in 
nature? What have we done in ascertaining the impact of the ad- 
ministration of these drugs on our veterans? Have we made or 



begun to make the kinds of studies that can lead us to the informa- 
tion and facts necessary? 

I've raised this with the Assistant Secretary just a few moments 
ago. This has been the subject of some hearings that have been 
held, not open to the public, touching on some sensitive, very sen- 
sitive areas. 

The Congress is very much concerned and the Chairman is very, 
very right. When the Defense Department is issuing orders to peo- 
ple that they should not testify or should not appear publicly in 
uniform to make known their plight, I believe they're overreaching. 
And I think it smells, then, of the kind of situation which we 
should all be contemptuous of. 

We want the facts. 

I don't know the facts. But I know one thing — it's not good 
enough to simply try to dismiss the thousands of veterans and 
their complaints from themselves and their families by saying, it's 
a mental state of mind. It is improper to attempt to turn this 
around and make people who are truly ill, where they had no ill- 
nesses before, and try to blame this, in effect, on that person, by 
making them feel that he or she somehow has a mental problem, 
and that it's not real. And that's exactly what is taking place. 

If we treat people with disdain — and that is what is happening — 
there will come the kinds of reactions that we've seen. I don't think 
we should loan ourselves to that. I don't believe that most people 
are doing that deliberately. But I think that is the manner in 
which it is being perceived. 

I believe that the Administration, the Defense Department, must 
show a greater degree of sensitivity and has to devote more of its 
resources and energies to getting the facts. It can't wait another 2 
or 3 years. It's something that we are entitled to and it's something 
that we should be letting those who are experiencing these prob- 
lems know what we're doing. 

You can have the best intentions and the best programs in the 
world in terms of trying to get the facts. But if you're not letting 
the veterans know, if you're not letting the Congress know, if 
you're saying, well, we're working diligently, why, then, it loses its 
impact. I think that it is absolutely imperative that we get these 
things out on the table. It's not going to be swept away, as the 
Chairman has indicated. 

Let me conclude by saying that I think we owe the Chairman a 
great debt of gratitude for his persistence in pushing forward and 
really trying to get the facts and the information that those who 
are afflicted are entitled to and that the American people and pub- 
lic are entitled to. 

Thank you. 

[Applause.] 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Senator D'Amato. 

Senator Boxer. 

OPENING STATEMENT OF SENATOR BARBARA BOXER 

Senator BoxER. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. 
You really have been the voice for our Gulf War veterans, not 
only inside the U.S. Senate, but in the country. 



8 

I've been here a short time. And soon after I came, you began 
to talk about Persian Gulf War Syndrome. You never gave up 
pushing for the answers and you never let this become a matter 
of statistics. You've always put a human face on it. Some of those 
faces are out here today, thanks to you and your work. 

I believe, whether from within or without the Senate, this is 
something you're not going to let die. When people say one person 
can't make a difference, they never met Don Riegle. I sincerely 
mean it, and I certainly want to be your partner in this endeavor. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Senator Boxer. Mr. Chairman, hundreds, if not thousands, of 
California veterans are now suffering from Gulf War Syndrome. 
Many of them have come into my office. They've told me of lives 
disrupted and families destroyed. Every one of them has been a 
heartbreaking story. 

The symptoms of this terrible disease are now well known: Head- 
aches, muscle and joint pain, loss of memory, shortness of breath, 
skin rashes, diarrhea, and an inability to function. 

Mr. Chairman, I had the honor of discussing the Gulf War Syn- 
drome with a woman who has it. I'm not going to put her name 
out there because I feel that I need to protect her. She's a 26-year- 
old active-duty Army mechanic. She worked out on the line repair- 
ing planes in the Gulf War. She was sent to Saudi Arabia in 1990 
and returned in May 1991. 

She started to experience terrible symptoms in late 1990. I have 
her medical report. You can tell from the symptoms, which go on 
and on, that she was completely debilitated. She experienced daily 
fevers of 102 degrees every afternoon, dry mouth, bilateral 
subcoastal stabbing pains of pressure which would last for hours, 
as long as 1 week, palpitations, chest pain, oral ulcerations, blisters 
on the lips, numbness in the hands, fatigue, severe headaches, and 
it goes on and on. 

Prior to being shipped to the Persian Gulf, she was a 100-per- 
cent, all-American, healthy young woman, with no history of any 
problems at all. 

She wrote to me: 

On May 1, 1991, I returned from Desert Storm. I did not know that the war would 
start again 3 years later. This time it is not with a foreign nation, but with my own 
Government. I do not want compensation. I only want my health back. Please help 
the sick veterans of the Gulf War. 

When we send people to face death, we owe them something 
when they come back. As a matter of fact, we owe them everything 
when they come back. And I believe that if there is in fact a cover- 
up going on, whether it's meant to be something to help our coun- 
try, not to get us down and depressed, for whatever reason, there 
is no excuse. 

We need to get to the bottom of this and, Mr. Chairman, as you 
point out, we will. It took us a long time to find out about radiation 
exposure in the 1940's and the 1950's, but we found out about it, 
and the pain of learning about the cover-up only adds to the agony 
of the original sin. 

We've also learned about the Agent Orange experience. I remem- 
ber struggling in the House of Representatives for years to get rec- 
ognition that Agent Orange exposure should have been an auto- 



matic disability. Don't you think it's time we made the same kind 
of conclusion here? We don't have one person or ten people. We 
have many, many thousands. They all have the same symptoms. 

I have a statement submitted to us by Dean Ludholm, Jr., a Gulf 
War veteran, who joined the California national guard and very 
proudly volunteered for service in the Gulf War. I just want to close 
by reading his last paragraph: 

Nine months after first accessing VA medical care, I'm still being told to be pa- 
tient. This bothers me. But it doesn't compare to the anger I feel when other veter- 
ans and their families tell me their stories of dealing with the VA and the DoD. 
They tell me that these Governmental agencies just don't care, as long as they get 
their research funding. They tell me *)f waiting many months for medical appoint- 
ments. They tell me of quick medical screenings that do not look for evidence of ill- 
ness. They tell me of the financial hardships this illness has caused their families. 
For the last 3 years, we've been more than patient with the powers that be. 

You have the ability to help us veterans and our families. 

And then he closes and says: 

These are tough times. We want nothing more than to be self-sufficient. You can't 
know the pain of asking for food stamps and handouts from the communities we 
live in, ana then being told, we're looking to take advantage of the system. Let there 
be no peace until we have justice. 

These are very strong, emotional, and important words. Mr. 
Chairman, the soldier to whom I referred earlier is now at a pri- 
vate clinic, courtesy of a very generous man. They're trying to get 
to the bottom of this. 

I hope today we will have the wherewithal to get the truth out 
on the table because it is our responsibility, not some private clinic, 
to find out what this problem is. 

Mr. Chairman, I thank you again for your leadership. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Senator Boxer. I appre- 
ciate what you've said and I appreciate your leadership on this and 
also citing those stories of those individuals from California. 

Senator Faircloth. 

OPENING STATEMENT OF SENATOR LAUGH FAIRCLOTH 

Senator Faircloth. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

I want to thank you for holding this hearing. It's necessary and 
it's going to serve an excellent purpose. 

In the wake of the Gulf War, it is time we looked back to see 
what was done wrong and what was done right. We can't change 
what was done, but we will be accountable for what we do now. 

My statement also gets to another cover-up of that conflict, not 
as touching as the sick veterans, but well worth a review. 

The Commerce Department has a lot of questions to answer 
about its role leading up to the Gulf War. It is also time that we 
in the Banking Committee revisit a current Commerce Department 
nominee — Lauri Fitz-Pegado, who played a crucial role in shaping 
public opinion toward U.S. involvement, and she did it by person- 
ally orchestrating perjured testimony before Congress. 

Mr. Chairman, in 1990, after the Iraqi invasion of their country, 
the Kuwaiti government in exile formed Citizens for a Free Ku- 
wait. They hired the lobbying firm of Hill and Knowlton to influ- 
ence public opinion in this country toward entering the conflict. 
Lauri Fitz-Pegado was in charge of the effort. 

Her strategy was to use alleged witnesses to atrocities, to tell 
stories of human rights violations in occupied Kuwait. Using their 



10 

testimony, she orchestrated what has come to be known as the 
Baby Incubator Fraud. 

She first coached a 15-year-old Kuwaiti girl, identified only at 
the time as Naira, to testify before Congress that she had seen 
Iraqi soldiers remove Kuwaiti babies from hospital respirators. 
Naira claimed to be a refugee who had been working as a volunteer 
in a Kuwaiti hospital throughout the first few weeks of the Iraqi 
occupation. She said that she had seen them take babies out of the 
incubators, take the incubators, and leave the babies "on the cold 
floor to die." 

Naira's emotional testimony riveted human rights organizations, 
the news mediums, and the Nation. That incident was cited by six 
Members of the U.S. Senate as reasons to go to war with Iraq. 

However, it was later discovered that the girl was in fact the 
daughter of the Kuwaiti ambassador to the United States. It turns 
out that Lauri Fitz-Pegado had concealed Naira's real identity. 
Since then, reputable human rights organizations and journalists 
have concluded that the baby incubator story was an outright fab- 
rication. Every study commissioned by the Kuwaiti government 
could not produce a shred of evidence that the ambassador's daugh- 
ter had been back in occupied Kuwait to do volunteer work in a 
hospital. It was a total fabrication. 

Lauri Fitz-Pegado then put on a repeat performance in front of 
the U.S. Security Council on November 27, 1990. In the testimony 
before Congress, they claimed they couldn't fully identify who the 
witness was because thev wanted to protect her family that sup- 
posedly was still trapped, in Kuwait. But, in fact, they were here 
on Embassy Row. 

In front of the United Nations, Lauri Fitz-Pegado abandoned 
that pretense and instead employed witnesses who testified using 
false names and occupations. The most important of these phony 
witnesses was a man who called himself Dr. Ebrahim. With Lauri 
Fitz-Pegado there in New York, he claimed to have personally bur- 
ied 40 babies pulled from incubators by the Iraqis. Dr. Ebrahim 
told the Security Council that he was a surgeon. But after the war, 
when the scam was exposed as a total fraud, he admitted to being 
a dentist and had never buried any babies or seen any. More lies. 

The Fitz-Pegado scam continues. Mr. Chairman, as a supporter 
of our country s involvement in the Gulf War, I am offended that 
Lauri Fitz-Pegado believes that those kinds of illegal and unethical 
activities were necessary to get this country to face the threat of 
Saddam Hussein. None of these facts and allegations were dis- 
closed to either you, Mr. Chairman, or other Members of the Bank- 
ing Committee when her nomination was voted on here. 

If confirmed, Lauri Fitz-Pegado would have control over a global 
network of 200 trade offices in 70 countries. My opposition is based 
not on party or ideology. It is based on the fact that there are few 
people in America who have less business being in charge of our 
Nation's trade secrets than Lauri Fitz-Pegado. 

Lauri Fitz-Pegado's nomination should be returned to the Bank- 
ing Committee for further review. If it is not, then facts that are 
far more embarrassing to Ms. Fitz-Pegado and to others in Govern- 
ment will be revealed in other speeches and in long, protracted de- 
bate on the Senate floor. 



11 

Mr. Chairman, the Banking Committee was hoodwinked by a 
professional scam artist. Lauri Fitz-Pegado should be asked to dis- 
close her entire past and then be prepared to defend what I believe 
is a totally indefensible past. 

I thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

Senator D'Amato. Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Senator D'Amato. 

Senator D'Amato. Mr. Chairman, I would urge the Chairman to 
consider the Senator from North Carolina, Senator Faircloth's re- 
quest. 

I know that he does not make this request in anything other 
than the spirit of honesty and fair play and not in partisanship. I 
know he feels deeply about this matter. He has conferred with me 
about it, Mr. Chairman, and I know the Senator and his staff will 
make available to you and your staff an outline of those matters 
that he has withheld and has not gone forward on, and that you 
might then reconsider this request. 

I'd urge you to consider that. I think in fairness to everyone, that 
might be the best course of action, to ask that this be sent back 
to the Committee for further consideration. I join in the request. 
I did not oppose the nominee, but I am very much concerned at this 
point in time before we go further. 

The Chairman. Let me take this request and the suggestion 
under advisement. Senator Faircloth and I have not discussed this 
previously, and so this is an issue that we do need to discuss per- 
sonally beyond what's been said here now. I will plan to do that 
with you. Then we'll see where we go from there. 

Senator Faircloth. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Thank you. I want to note that Senator Night- 
horse Campbell was here and may be able to return. He had an- 
other situation. 

He's been a very important voice on this issue in the Veterans' 
Affairs Committee as well, and feels very strongly about this issue. 
In any event, he's next in the order and I will recognize him at any 
point at which he returns. 

Senator Bond. 

OPENING STATEMENT OF SENATOR CHRISTOPHER S. BOND 

Senator Bond. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. I thank 
you for calling this important hearing to investigate the causes of 
the Persian Gulf War Syndrome because many U.S. veterans and 
their families are currently suffering. 

I think we owe it to our veterans to do everything we can to de- 
termine the causes of the Gulf War Syndrome, to develop and re- 
search cures for these veterans who are affected, and to do what- 
ever we can to better prepare and protect our service personnel 
from illnesses associated with this syndrome in any future con- 
flicts. 

Mr. Chairman, I have a lengthy statement. I am just going to 
highlight a couple of items on it because. No. 1, I have another 
commitment at 11 a.m., and. No. 2, I think it might be well if we 
could get to our witnesses before noon. 

The Chairman. Yes, indeed. 



12 

Senator Bond. So I will just summarize to sav that we have 
thousands of American servicemen and women who are suffering 
from symptoms and undiagnosable disorders. It is consistent with 
exposure to biological or chemical toxins. 

I think, collectively, the facts make it at least possible that these 
Gulf War veterans were exposed to chemical and/or biological tox- 
ins, and I support Public Law 103-210, which provides additional 
authority for the Secretary of Veterans' Affairs to provide priority 
health care to the veterans of the Persian Gulf War who have been 
exposed to these toxic substances, environmental hazards, or what- 
ever caused this syndrome. 

I think we have a duty, not only to these veterans, but to others, 
to investigate fully whether or not chemicals or biologicals were 
used on the troops and what caused the problems that they are 
now encountering. 

I do have some real concerns. First, I find it disturbing that the 
Department of Defense has not been as forthcoming on this issue 
as I feel they must. It's been almost 2V2 years since the Gulf War 
and it does not appear to have been a Defense Department priority 
to get to the bottom of the causes of Gulf War Syndrome. It may 
or may not be a result of chemical or biological warfare. But the 
odds of this syndrome affecting future units in combat is grave 
enough to warrant full and speedy investigation. 

Second, it would appear that a thorough re-evaluation of our de- 
fenses against biological and chemical warfare is in order. 

Finally, I am concerned about the possibility that these adverse 
effects on the veterans could have come from the administration of 
the nerve agent pretreatment drugs and inoculations distributed to 
our Armed Forces. A research specialist has commented that the 
drug was unproven. And I really think we have to do more re- 
search on the side effects of this drug and the advisability of ad- 
ministering it to our troops. No. 1, could it have caused some of the 
problems? No. 2, was it effective? What are its risks? I think these 
open up a tremendous number of questions that should be ad- 
dressed. 

Mr. Chairman, I would like to have my full statement made a 
part of the record. 

The Chairman. Without objection, the full statement will be 
made a part of the record. I appreciate your summary comments 
very much. 

Senator Bennett. 

OPENING STATEMENT OF SENATOR ROBERT F. BENNETT 

Senator Bennett. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

I will be brief, as I, too, want to hear from the witnesses. But 
I want to underline several themes that have been made here. 

First, with respect to the responsibility of the Government not to 
lie to its citizens. 

I come from a State where we have a group of people called the 
Downwinders, people who lived in the 1950's downwind from the 
atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons that took place in Nevada. 
The Downwinders were told that they should go out and look at the 
clouds as they went by because it would be a great experience that 
they could describe to their children. Then they were told that the 



13 

cancer rates that occurred in southern Utah as a result of people 
who were exposed to that radiation and fallout were somehow just 
coincidental. The Government clearly lied to its citizens in that cir- 
cumstance. 

So it goes back, as you say, through a lot of Presidents and a lot 
of Administrations and a lot of parties. One of my heroes, Dwight 
Eisenhower, was President when that was being done. In the name 
of national security, we lied to our citizens. We exposed them to 
health risks and then we tried to cover up after the fact. 

More to the point, recently, I toured the military installation at 
Dougway, Utah. Some people may not know about Dougway, Utah. 
It is the prime storage facility for nerve gas and other chemical and 
biological weapons in the United States, and for many years 
Dougway was the place where the testing of the efficacy of these 
weapons went on. 

Dougway is now entirely defensive, appropriately. We do not do 
any production or testing of potential American weapons in this re- 
gard, but we do a great deal of testing of ways to prevent and de- 
fend ourselves against attacks from other countries. 

The military is cutting back on its activities in Dougway, saying 
that these defensive kinds of tests are not needed anymore. I'm not 
here to debate the military budget on that issue. But I think as we 
raise these questions, we should very carefully revisit the decision 
to cut back on America's capability to develop defenses against this 
kind of thing. Having been so recently at the site where this capa- 
bility is going on, I think it — well, it comes very firmly to my own 
approach to this to say, maybe we're too hasty in cutting back some 
of that defensive activity. 

But, ultimately, the thing that will bring the greatest anger as 
far as the Junior Senator from Utah is concerned is the issue that 
the Chairman has raised, in another context, the Senator from 
North Carolina has raised, and that is the issue of lying to Con- 
gress. I think it's indefensible to consider that any member of any 
Administration, in an attempt to cover up an agency position — and 
by agency, I include Cabinet-level officers — would come before the 
Congress and attempt to mislead the Congress. 

I associate myself entirely with the Chairman's promise — and I 
think it is a promise, not a threat — to pursue any witness who at- 
tempts to mislead the Congress in an effort to protect the reputa- 
tion of his or her agency. I think that applies to the issues raised, 
as I say, by the Senator from North Carolina. But it certainly ap- 
plies to the issues here. 

If, as a result of activity on the part of our enemies in the Gulf 
War, we are sustaining belated casualties, we need to know about 
it, and we need to know as quickly and as openly and as completely 
as we can about it. And there is no better constitutional vehicle to 
find out this truth than the Congress of the United States. 

I hope those who represent the Executive Branch understand 
their constitutional responsibility, taken at the time they raised 
their hands and took an oath to uphold and defend the Constitu- 
tion, that that includes being honest and open and straightforward 
with the Congress and its constitutionally elected officers. 

Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 



14 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Senator Bennett. I appre- 
ciate your comments very much. 

Let me indicate our first panel of witnesses today includes Edwin 
Dom, who is the Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and 
Readiness. He is accompanied by Dr. Theodore Prociv — am I pro- 
nouncing that correctly? 

Dr. Prociv. It's "pro-siv," Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Prociv — the Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of 
Defense for Chemical and Biological Weapons; and by Dr. John 
Kriese, who is the Chief Officer for Ground Forces at the Defense 
Intelligence Agency. 

I want to welcome you all. Let me ask you to please stand and 
raise your right hand. Do you swear or affirm that the testimony 
you're about to give is the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but 
the truth, so help you God? 

Mr. DORN. I do. 

Dr. Prociv. I do. 

Dr. Kriese. I do. 

The Chairman. Very good. Thank you. 

We have your prepared statement, Mr. Dorn, and I'd like you to 
take whatever time you need to set forth your understanding of 
this situation and the statement that you want to make to us this 
morning. 

OPENING STATEMENT OF EDWDsT DORN, UNDER SECRETARY 
OF DEFENSE FOR PERSONNEL AND READINESS, U.S. DE- 
PARTMENT OF DEFENSE, WASHINGTON, DC; ACCOMPANIED 
BY: DR. THEODORE M. PROCIV, DEPUTY ASSISTANT TO 
THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR CHEMICAL AND BIO- 
LOGICAL WEAPONS, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, WASH- 
INGTON, DC; AND DR. JOHN KRIESE, CHIEF OFFICER FOR 
GROUND FORCES, DEFENSE INTELLIGENCE AGENCY, WASH- 
INGTON, DC 

Mr. Dorn. Thank you, Mr. Chairman and Members of the Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Chairman, in your opening statement, you used three key 
words — honor, integrity, responsibility. Those are words that I take 
very seriously and I hope, in that mshion, to work with you — in 
fact, to work with other Members of this body — to ensure that we 
do the right thing in this instance. 

I'm pleased to provide information to support the Committee's re- 
view of how materials contributing to Iraq's chemical and biological 
warfare program were exported to Iraq from the United States. 
These are significant issues as you consider measures to strength 
the Export Administration Act. 

Secretary Perry has asked me to be the focal point within the 
Defense Department for issues related to service in the Persian 
Gulf during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. I'm here 
today in that capacity. 

Senator, you and other Members of this Committee have made 
very clear your concern about the health problems that some of our 
Persian Gulf veterans have developed. -We, in the Department of 
Defense, share that concern. 



15 

In recent weeks, we've testified before the Armed Services Com- 
mittees and the Veterans' Affairs Committees of both Houses. I'll 
be pleased to share with you the same information we shared with 
them. 

Indeed, before we move on to discuss matters related to the Ex- 
port Administration Act, I'd like to offer a few points about our ef- 
forts on behalf of Persian Gulf veterans. May I begin, Senator, with 
a memorandum to Persian Gulf veterans, recently co-signed by Sec- 
retary Perry and by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 

With your indulgence, Senator, I would like to read this into the 
record: 

As you may know, there have been reports that some Persian Gulf veterans are 
experiencing health problems that may be related to their service in the Gulf. We 
want to assure each of you that your health and well-being are top priorities for 
the Department of Defense. 

There are many hazards of war, ranging from intense combat to environmental 
exposures. Anyone who has health problems resulting from those hazards is entitled 
to health care. 

If you 

And keep in mind, Mr. Chairman, this is being sent to Persian 
Gulf War veterans: 

If you are experiencing problems, please come in for medical evaluation. Active- 
duty personnel and their eligible family members should report to any military hos- 
pital and ask to be included in the Department's Persian Gulf War Health Surveil- 
lance System. 

You will receive a full medical evaluation and any medical care that you need. 
Reserve personnel may contact either a military hospital or their nearest Veterans' 
AfTairs medical center and ask to be included in the DoD Surveillance System or 
the VA's Persian Gulf Health Registry. 

You will receive a full medical examination. Depending on the results of the eval- 
uation and eligibility status, reserve personnel will receive medical care either from 
military facilities or from VA facilities. 

This memo goes on, Mr. Chairman. 

There have been reports in the press of the possibility that some of you were ex- 
posed to chemical or biological weapons agents. There is no information, classified 
or unclassified, that indicates that chemical or biological weapons were used in the 
Persian Gulf. There also have been reports that some veterans believe there are re- 
strictions on what they can say about potential exposures. 

Please be assured that you should not feel constrained in any way from discussing 
these issues. We are indebted to each one of you for your service to your country 
during the Persian Gulf War and throughout your military careers. We also want 
to be sure that you receive any medical care you need. 

Thank you for your service. 

Signed, John M. Shalikashvili, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and William 
J. Perry, Secretary of Defense. 

Mr. Chairman, we take the position that the veterans who are 
sick should receive the best care we can provide. Three years ago, 
we trusted these men and women to make life and death decisions 
in the heat of battle. Today, we should trust them if they say 
they're sick. We're committed to treating the symptoms, to fashion- 
ing appropriate compensation for those who are disabled, and to 
identifying the causes of their illnesses. 

An interagency coordinating board ensures that the Defense De- 
partment's treatment and research programs complement related 
efforts by the Department of Veterans' Aifairs and the Department 
of Health and Human Services, 

I should note here, Mr. Chairman, that Congress aided our abil- 
ity to respond last fall by authorizing the Veterans' Administration 



16 

to provide priority care to Persian Gulf veterans for conditions that 
might be related to their Gulf service. 

We're especially concerned about those Desert Shield/Desert 
Storm veterans who since the war have developed symptoms whose 
causes we cannot identify. These veterans represent a small por- 
tion of the nearly 700,000 U.S. military personnel who served in 
the Persian Gulf region during the conflict and, indeed, they rep- 
resent a small portion of those who have been treated for illnesses 
or injuries suffered during the war. 

DoD and VA doctors have treated thousands of Persian Gulf vet- 
erans for readily identifiable illnesses and injuries. We know of a 
few thousand people, however, for whom a clear diagnosis contin- 
ues to elude physicians, and this is the group that we consider to 
be experiencing the Persian Gulf Syndrome or the mystery illness. 

We're working very hard on this. There are lots of theories about 
causes. We've heard from people who are convinced that we'll find 
the answer if we only focus solely on parasitic diseases, or focus 
solely on the effects of Kuwaiti oil smoke, or on industrial pollut- 
ants, or on the effects of inoculations, or solely on stress, or on mul- 
tiple chemical sensitivity. What we are trying to do is maintain a 
program that explores all the possibilities. 

In the course of our work, of course, some possibilities begin to 
appear less plausible than others. One theory involves Iraq's chem- 
ical and biological warfare capability. It's that theory which pro- 
vides a connection between the health problems of Persian Gulf 
War veterans and the Senate Banking Committee's review of the 
Export Administration Act. 

At the time of its invasion of Kuwait in August 1990, Iraq clearly 
represented a case in which past efforts to prevent the proliferation 
of weapons of mass destruction had not been effective. 

Many American policymakers and military commanders were 
greatly concerned going into that war that Iraq would use chemical 
and/or biological weapons. They knew they had used chemical 
weapons in the past and we had evidence that they had acquired 
a biological warfare capability as well. Our concerns led us to take 
measures to protect our personnel against such weapons, through 
immunizations, through special training, equipment, and detection. 

The tension surrounding the possible use of chemical or biologi- 
cal weapons was evident to every American who watched on tele- 
vision as journalists scrambled to put on protective masks in re- 
sponse to the SCUD attack warning sirens in downtown Riyadh 
and other areas. There were many such alarms witnessed by Unit- 
ed States and other coalition military personnel and by the civilian 
populations of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Israel. 

Following the war, we confirmed through inspections conducted 
by the United Nations Special Commission that Iraq did have sig- 
nificant stocks of chemical agents and the weapons systems to de- 
liver them, as well as equipment and material suited for chemical 
agent production. 

All of these chemical agents and related equipment were found 
stored at locations a great distance from the Kuwait theater of op- 
erations. These materials have been undergoing destruction at a 
centralized location in Iraq under the supervision of the United Na- 
tions Special Commission since late 1992. 



17 

United States military personnel have been present on site in 
Iraq and involved in each of the teams overseeing these destruction 
operations. We've concluded that Iraq did not use chemical or bio- 
logical weapons during the war. This conclusion is based on analy- 
sis of large amounts of detailed data gathered in the theater and 
reviewed after the war. 

First, throughout the operation, there was only one instance of 
a soldier who was treated for chemical bums that were initially at- 
tributed to mustard agent. A subsequent test on the soldier and his 
clothing, however, did not definitely support that finding. We know 
of no other reports of any U.S. military, coalition military, or civil- 
ians in the region having symptoms caused by exposure to chemical 
or biological warfare agents. 

Mr. Chairman, the effects of chemical and biological weapons are 
acute and readily identifiable, and our personnel nad been trained 
to look for them. The effects of exposure on unprotected people are 
painful, debilitating, and often deadly. We did not see those effects 
in the Gulf. 

Second, our detectors were strategically located and, although 
many detectors alarmed, there were no confirmed detections of any 
chemical or biological agents at any time during the conflict. 

Third 

The Chairman. Let me just stop you there for a moment. 

Did we have in the field machinery or monitoring equipment to 
pick up biological agents? 

Mr. DORN. I will turn to my colleague. Dr. Kriese, to answer 
that. We can do it now or following the statement. 

The Chairman. Can you give me a yes or no now? I don't want 
to interrupt the rest of your presentation. 

Dr. Kriese. Let me just briefly say, sir, that there's a difference 
between detectors and timely detectors. We did not have real-time 
detectors present, but we did have detectors 

The Chairman. On biological weapons? 

Dr. Kriese. Yes, sir, that sampled the air and looked for traces 
of biological 

The Chairman. So to say that there was no confirmed detection 
of biological agents, when in fact we didn't have real-time devices 
there to measure that, is a little misleading, wouldn't you say? 

Dr. Kriese. Sir, I would offer that, as we're sampling air on a 
continuing basis, we would know about any BW agents shortly 
after they entered the area. 

The Chairman. Even without monitoring devices? 

Dr. Kreese. The monitoring devices take awhile to give an an- 
swer. 

The Chairman. Two years? Three years? 

Dr. Kriese. Dr. Prociv? 

The Chairman. Let me go ahead and let you finish, Mr. Dorn. 
We'll come back to that. 

Dr. Prociv. Let me just add, the collection and analysis devices, 
particularly the BIDS, the Biological Identification Systems, take 
generally in the range of 1 to 2 hours to complete their scheme. But 
once they do, they identify the species quite readily. We had no 
positives in that detection system. 

The Chairman. We'll come back to that. 



18 

Senator Bennett. Would the Chairman yield? 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Senator Bennett. I also don't want to interrupt, but I would 
hope, when you say, we have no such indication, you would address 
the reports of the Czech 

Mr. DORN. I certainly will. 

Senator Bennett. OK, Thank you. 

Mr. DoRN. I also want to emphasize the word, confirmed. As you 
know, there were lots of reports of detections. There is a protocol, 
however, a procedure which these gentlemen can describe in great- 
er detail, that we use to confirm whether an initial alarm or detec- 
tion is a valid one. 

If I may go on. 

Third, no chemical or biological weapons were found in the Ku- 
wait theater of operations. And by Kuwait theater of operations, I 
mean those portions of southern Iraq and Kuwait that constituted 
the battlefield. We did not find any chemical or biological muni- 
tions, live or spent, among the thousands of tons of munitions re- 
covered on the battlefield. 

The international community agrees with these conclusions. This 
is a complicated and contentious issue, however. To ensure that 
we've not overlooked or misinterpreted important information, 
we've asked an independent panel of experts, chaired by Nobel 
Laureate Joshua Lederberg, to review all the available evidence. 
We expect to receive the panel's report in June. 

We also remain eager to hear from Gulf War veterans who feel 
they can shed light on the sources of the undiagnosed illnesses. 

Mr. Chairman, may I say to Colonel Smith and to other veterans 
who served courageously in the Persian Gulf, the following: I un- 
derstand the fear and the frustration that many veterans are expe- 
riencing. They're sick and their doctors can't offer them definitive 
answers. To them, let me say, this Administration is committed to 
treating you fairly. You stood up for the Nation. The Nation is 
going to stand up for you. 

Now let me turn to the Defense Department's role in the export 
licensing process. 

First, it should be noted that DoD is not a licensing agency. That 
responsibility falls on the Department of Commerce for dual-use 
items. The Department of Defense, however, reviews and provides 
recommendations on export license applications when they're re- 
ferred to Defense, or to inter-agency groups in which Defense par- 
ticipates. 

Records on the ultimate disposition of dual-use biological, chemi- 
cal, nuclear, or missile technology-related licenses reside in the 
Commerce Department. 

DoD is a member of the inter-agency Subgroup on Nuclear Ex- 
port Controls, which was in operation throughout the 1980's. This 
group reviews export requests for nuclear-related dual-use tech- 
nology. 

In the missile area. Defense played a significant role in the es- 
tablishment of the missile technology control regime in 1987, and 
subsequently helped set up an interagency license review group in 
1990. 



19 

In the chemical and biological area, Defense also plays an impor- 
tant role as part of an inter-agency team in reviewing export li- 
cense requests for items controlled by the Australia Group. 

The Department has taken, and will continue to take, its respon- 
sibility here very seriously. For example, DoD made an important 
contribution in halting export of the Argentine Condor Program 
that was aiding Iraq's weapons of mass destruction program. And 
we spearheaded the effort to prevent Iraq from acquiring a more 
capable missile than the SCUD. 

Defense also played a leading role in developing the President's 
Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative and most recently, the 
Comprehensive DoD Counterproliferation Initiative. The Depart- 
ment of Defense continues to consider proliferation as a significant 
military threat. 

The growing ability to produce and use chemical weapons is a 
great concern to DoD. We fully support any measures that will pre- 
vent or control this proliferation, which includes strengthening the 
Export Administration Act. 

It is important to remember that all exports made to Iraq in the 
1980's were completely consistent with the laws in effect at that 
time, and Iraq was not considered a hostile country. Defense's role 
in reviewing exports was greatly expanded in 1991, and would be 
further expanded through measures you were considering in this 
Committee. 

I would now like to introduce other members of the panel, if I 
may. Dr. Theodore Prociv is the Deputy Assistant to the Secretary 
of Defense for Chemical and Biological Weapons. In that role, he 
oversees the Department's chemical and biological defense pro- 
gram, the Army program to destroy the U.S. stockpile of chemical 
weapons, and the implementation of bilateral and multilateral 
chemical weapons treaties, including the chemical weapons conven- 
tion, which is being considered currently by the Senate for ratifica- 
tion. 

Additionally, his office has assisted the Defense Science Board 
Task Force on Gulf War health effects, which is examining the 
issue of Gulf War health, and has assisted my staff with technical 
support in the area of chemical and biological warfare defense. 

My other associate is Dr. John Kriese, who is Chief Officer for 
Ground Forces at the Defense Intelligence Agency. He is respon- 
sible for production of intelligence on foreign ground forces and as- 
sociated weapons systems worldwide, and all aspects of foreign nu- 
clear and chemical programs. 

Dr. Prociv and Dr. Kriese are here with me this morning. Dr. 
Mitchell Wallerstein, who will testify this afternoon, is an expert 
in counterproliferation and export control for the Under Secretary 
of Defense for Policy in International Security. 

Mr. Chairman, that concludes my opening statement. But before 
we turn to questions, I wonder if I might beg your indulgence so 
that Dr. Prociv and Dr. Kriese might say a few words. 

The Chairman. Yes, I want them to do so, but I want to know 
whether they can give an assurance here, based on their expertise 
and credentials, that there are no Desert Storm veterans that were 
exposed to chemical or biological agents during the war period that 
now account for their illnesses. 



20 

Mr. DoRN. Mr. Chairman, they will not provide you that assur- 
ance because we cannot provide that assurance at this point. 

The Chairman. All right. That puts you on the record and I'm 
glad to have you on the record stating the fact that you can't give 
that assurance. I want them to make a direct professional comment 
on that question before I go any further. 

Mr. DORN. May I clarify further? 

This is a very contentious area. It is very easy to confuse use of 
chemical agents with presence of chemical agents and exposure. 

I want to distinguish between Iraq's use of chemical or biological 
agents, a matter on which we are quite confident, and a second 
question, which is whether or not there may have been chemical 
agents present at a very low level within the theater of operations. 
And on that latter matter there continues to be some concern. 

The Chairman. Well, now, wait a minute. Now you're saying 
there's a reason for some concern. You're saying, as far as you 
know now, there was no offensive use of these weapons by the 
Iraqis that you've been able to establish. But you're drawing a very 
fine line to say that there may very well have been exposures to 
chemical agents during the war period. 

Mr. DoRN. As you alluded to in your opening statement, Mr. 
Chairman, there were reports by the Czechs of the detection of 
very low levels of chemical agents. Those reports were never con- 
firmed independently. 

Nevertheless, last October, I believe it was, representatives from 
the Defense Intelligence Agency began a re-review of that Czech 
detection. You know that Senator Shelby also spent 2 or 3 days in 
the Czech Republic talking with officials who had been involved in 
that, including the commander of the unit that had made those de- 
tections in Saudi Arabia. As a result, we have accepted those detec- 
tions as likely valid detections, even though we have not found the 
independent confirmatory evidence. 

The Chairman. We're going to come back to this and I want to 
keep our respective blood pressures down to a civil level here 
today. 

We have already had testimony here before the Senate from a 
chemical detection unit officer in the field running a FOX unit who 
detected chemical agents, and he wasn't a Czech soldier. He was 
a member of our military. 

Mr. DoRN. Yes. 

The Chairman. He actually has a print-out of that. He's not the 
only one, by the way, who's done that. You must be aware of that. 
Are you erasing that? Are you discarding that as not being 

Mr. Dorn. I'm not erasing it at all, Mr. Chairman. Perhaps Dr. 
Kriese 

The Chairman. Please, unless you're here to say that these first- 
person accounts that we've been given by people who are in the 
field designed to make these measurements are wrong or inac- 
curate, I think it is misleading for you to say that the only evidence 
we have is from the Czechs. That's not an accurate statement. Do 
you want to say again that it is an accurate statement, that we 
don't have any reports up through our own military chain of com- 
mand? 



21 

Mr. DoRN, We have reports through our military chain of com- 
mand. What I am saying is that we are deaHng with a protocol 
here. As you know, there were any number of reports or alarms of 
chemical agent detection during the conflict. There was a procedure 
for verifying those initial detections. Those secondary tests did not 
verify the initial detection. That is as close as I can come to the 
technology here. But there is simply a procedure by which one con- 
firms an initial suspicion. Those initial suspicions were not con- 
firmed in hundreds of instances. 

Senator Bennett. Mr. Chainnan. 

The Chairman. Yes, Senator Bennett. After Senator Bennett 
asks his question, with all due respect, I put a question to the two 
people that you've brought here today, and I want direct, specific, 
under-oath answers, not from you on this point, but from them. 
Then if you want to elaborate, Mr. Dorn, you're free to do so. 

Senator Bennett. 

Senator Bennett. Mr. Chairman, I simply want to inject this 
thought into this conversation. 

Implicit in your answer, Mr. Secretary, is the idea that there was 
something wrong with those initial reports. That is, there was 
something that could not be confirmed. Therefore, there was some 
malfunction. There was some panic on the part of the individual. 
There was something — whatever it's attributed to. In every case, as 
I understand your testimony, you're saying that the initial reports 
which are included in detail in this report filed by the Chairman 
and the Ranking Member, Mr. D'Amato, were wrong. 

Is there a possibility, sir, that there is something technically, 
technologically wrong with the confirmation process, that in fact 
the initial reports were accurate and that the confirmation process, 
either through lack of time so that there is a half-life or what- 
ever — I'm not a scientist, so I can't really help you very much in 
trying to find out what it is. 

Isn t there a possibility that the statement you have made is 100 
percent accurate, but that the procedures used in the confirmation 
process may be faulty, so that, in fact, we end up with the cir- 
cumstance that the reports are correct and that the reports did, in- 
deed, find some kind of presence of either chemical or biological 
agents in the area and that the confirmation process is where we 
have seen this thing break down, rather than the assumption that 
the confirmation process is valid in every circumstance and there- 
fore, the reports must be disregarded. Can you comment on that? 

Mr. Dorn. It's a fascinating question. Senator Bennett, and since 
it deals with the technical capabilities of our equipment, I'd like to 
defer to Dr. Prociv to address it. 

Dr. Prociv. Let me try to take that. That's an excellent question. 

The way we detect chemical agents now, the initial detection of 
the alarm comes from an M8 detector. The M8 detector is an ion- 
ization detector that's not highly specific. It's sensitive to categories 
of compounds, so it's a good indication that we may have a problem 
in the area. 

The M8 detector generally will detect between 0.1 and 0.5 milli- 
gram minutes per cubic meter. We then follow up with an M256 
kit. Now this is a hand-held kit that basically is a little chemical 
laboratory in your pocket. The M256 kit is very specific and very, 



22 

very sensitive. It goes three orders of magnitude better than the 
M8 alarm does. So even if materials have dissipated after the ini- 
tial alarm, you should be able to pick it up with the M256 kit. I've 
worked with that kit and I have a lot of confidence in that kit. 

Senator Bennett. Are you aware of the fact that, reported in 
this document, there are those who say that their M256 kits did 
indeed test positive? 

Dr. Prociv. I haven't seen this report and I am not aware of 
those. I'm sorry, sir. 

Senator Bennett. I'll see if I can find them. Thank you, Mr. 
Chairman, and I'll call them to your attention later on. I noticed 
them as I was reading through this report. 

The Chairman. Very good. No, this is a problem that we have. 
It's like two different worlds here, two different realities. 

You folks seem to find one reality and the more we dig into this, 
a broad number of us, both parties. House and Senate, the more 
we find a starkly different reality. It's extremely troubling. And 
when I finish with the questions that we're going to go through 
today, I think it's going to be even harder for people to understand 
the position of the Defense Department, that it can't find this prob- 
lem, can't see this problem, doesn't think the problem exists. 

Senator Bennett. Mr. Chairman, I have found it, with help from 
staff. I can very quickly respond. 

Dale Glover was a Staff Sergeant with 

Mr. DoRN. Senator, can you let us know the page? As you know, 
this report was just produced. We have not had an opportunity to 
review it. 

Senator Bennett. OK It's on page 79, Event 13. Dale Glover 
was a Staff Sergeant with the 1165th Military Police Company. He 
recalled being awakened at 3:30 a.m. The Battalion NBC NCO was 
announcing that they were under chemical attack. An M256 kit 
registered a positive reading for a chemical agent. They went to 
MOP? level 4 for 4 hours. Afterward, all of them had runny noses. 

So here is the case where the kit you have described registered 
positive, unless you have information that Mr. Glover is somehow 
mistaken about what happened. But this appears to me to be an 
eyewitness account contemporary with the event, reporting that 
the kit that you have described as being very, very accurate, pro- 
duced a result contrary to that which you just told the Committee 
occurred. 

Dr. Prociv. Let me take a second to review this, Senator. 

[Pause.] 

OK The commentary — ^by the way, I have Col. Merriman here. 
She was the NBC officer at the Gulf and worked with the staff 
there. So all of the NBC reports, NBC events, went through her. 
This is a document that she prepared for me. It says, Mr. Glover 
sent out an M43 detector, but not connected to the M42 alarm. 
When notified they were under attack, Mr. Glover went out to 
check the M43. The visual signal was blinking on one detector. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Glover, there were several possible causes for the 
detector alarm, like a sonic bomb that occurred shortly before the 
chemical alert. Pesticides or vehicle exhaust could have set it off. 

Mr. Glover and the Battalion NBC NCO conducted a 256 A-1 
kit. Both received a positive pale red color on the nerve agent test 



23 

spot, but the accuracy of this reading is suspect. Both men were 
using a red lens in their flashlights. This is a defensive measure. 
Mr. Glover stated one test kit nerve agent spot was a deeper red 
than the other test kit. Correct colors for nerve agent tests are blue 
for safe and clear or peach for nerve. That's the explanation that 
we've been given. 

Senator Bennett. Can you go back — I don't mean to interfere. 

The Chairman. No, please do, Senator Bennett. This is very im- 
portant. 

Senator Bennett. Go back to page 66 on this document, Witness 
No. 04. I have not gone through this that carefully. I was just 
thumbing through it while we were going on. This kind of sprung 
out at me. 

Witness No. 04, Mr. Harold Jerome Edwards, the chemical NCO 
in charge of the Nuclear/Biological/Chemical Team for the Naval 
Mobile Construction Battalion 24 Air Detachment at the King 
Abdul Aziz Naval Air Station was interviewed by the U.S. Senate 
staff on January 13, 1994. During that interview, Mr. Edwards 
said he conducted three M256 tests for chemical agents on the 
evening of this event. 

Mr. DoRN. Can we get a date, Senator? We have not looked at 
this, and so we're not quite certain what time period we're talking 
about here. 

Senator Bennett. I don't have that here. 

The Chairman. Apparently, January 19 or January 20. 

Senator Bennett. Two of the three tests he conducted were posi- 
tive for chemical blister agents. He said that the negative test was 
conducted in an area in between a number of rows of tents. He also 
said that he reported this information to his unit commander. 

Mr. Edwards said that a member of the unit, Tom Muse, blis- 
tered in the area under his watch during the event. The all-clear 
was given from a higher command. Mr. Edwards was called out to 
serve on a chemical decontamination team that day, and so on and 
so forth. 

But here is another report of an M256 test that was positive, in 
this case, two positive tests. 

We'll keep looking for some more. 

The Chairman. Let me just say for the record, every single one 
of these documents that are now being produced that are designed 
to rebut these things, which apparently, nobody knew about, but 
everybody's prepared to respond to, I want it made part of the 
record. And can I be assured that well have any and all of that 
information, Mr. Dom? 

Mr. Dorn. Yes, you certainly can. Senator. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Mr. Dorn. We appreciate seeing your report so that we have an 
opportunity to respond to it. 

The Chairman. I'm reminded by staff, and it's important that we 
add this to the record. Prior to our release of this report, this infor- 
mation was delivered to the Defense Department. This is not new 
information. You didn't get this last night. 

Mr. Dorn. That may be right. That's probably 



24 

The Chairman. Well, find out if it's right. I'm saying to you it's 
right. So don't leave the inference that you've just had it for a few 
hours. 

Mr. DORN. No, clearly, we knew about this particular informa- 
tion. I'm referring to the broad report. 

The Chairman. Do you know how you knew about it? Because 
you got it from us. 

Mr. Dorn. That may be. And let me point out. Senator, I do not 
see this as an adversary process. As you and other Members of this 
Committee had pointed out, people occasionally will come to you 
with information that they do not share with us. They come to you 
because you are their Senator and they see you as accessible. 

We hope we can develop a sharing relationship. A member of 
your staff, Mr. Tuite, was kind enough to testify and provide infor- 
mation to our defense science board. That may be the source of 
some of this information. We also have gotten a great deal of useful 
information through our exchanges with the House and Senate 
Armed Services Committees and with the Veterans' Affairs Com- 
mittees. So this should be a constructive process. 

I can assure you that my job here is to find out what happened, 
to ensure that treatment is provided, and ultimately, to get at 
what's behind the illnesses that some Persian Gulf veterans are ex- 
periencing. 

I have seen no information which suggests that anyone with 
whom I've worked in the Defense Department, or in the Congress, 
has any other mission than to get to the truth. 

The Chairman. Well, you're certainly welcome to put that state- 
ment on the record. 

The fact of the matter is that it's taking a very long time to get 
to the truth here. What I would like to do now — Senator Bennett, 
did you want to pursue any further that one issue, because I want 
to go back to the outstanding question raised earlier and I want 
a direct answer from the two experts that are here. 

Senator Bennett. I simply want to summarize what I said ear- 
lier, which is the statement that there was no confirmation at all 
runs contrary to what the Czechs said. You've addressed that by 
saying, in your opinion, the Czech monitoring was insignificant. 

Mr. Dorn. No. I said the concentration of agent they detected at 
the incident that I recall, which was north of King Khalid Military 
City at Hafir Al Batin on January 19, was a very low concentration 
of agent. I did not say that the finding was insignificant in a 
judgmental sense. 

Senator Bennett. OK 

Mr. Dorn. We're talking about the level of agent that they re- 
ported detecting. 

Senator Bennett. Good. I'm glad to get that clarified. 

Mr. Dorn. OK. 

Senator Bennett. Then you said there was no confirmation. And 
my point is there appears to have been some confirmation, for 
which there may be explanations. But there have been confirma- 
tions reported to the Congress. 

The question I raise with you has to do with whether or not the 
confirmation procedure is viable, given the fact that we have what 
we have — that is, a number, a significant number of people suffer- 



25 

ing from something that they apparently picked up in the Gulf, at 
least there is that common thread, just as there were with the le- 
gionnaires who attended their convention, that took us a couple of 
years to figure out what it was. 

There is the possibility that I hope you're hanging onto that your 
confirmation procedures are flawed and that the existence of these 
people who have these problems is a prima facie case for the fact 
that they may be flawed. I don't think that we can just automati- 
cally say, well, the confirmation didn't find it. Therefore, there's 
nothing to worry about. 

Mr. DORN. Senator Bennett, this gives me an opportunity to talk 
about the process and to amplify, if I may, Mr. Chairman, this give 
and take. 

We have received large amounts of information and large num- 
bers of questions from Members of Congress, from veterans organi- 
zations, and from others. It is our task when we receive those to 
track them down, to identify the units and the people involved, to 
conduct interviews, where necessary. 

Ltc. Vicki Merriman, who was introduced earlier, has been in- 
volved in a great deal of that tracking down, and we are talking 
about, in some instances, hundreds of leads that have to be teased 
out. All of this information then gets resifted through the 
Lederberg panel or through other ways, so that we can come for- 
ward to you. In some instances, we cannot get a direct answer 
quickly. 

The Chairman. Yes. Well, let me just say at this point, and you'll 
find this interesting too, I think, Senator Bennett. 

In February, the Defense Science Advisory Board contacted the 
Banking Committee and asked for a list of witnesses who may 
have — of what may have been direct Iraqi attacks in the context of 
this discussion. We gave a list of at least one person from each 
event to the Department of Defense. These persons were then 
called by the Department of Defense. And I'm going to describe to 
you what happened. 

It's been reported back to us by a number of those interviewed 
by DoD that, rather than being asked substantive questions about 
the events and to locate other witnesses that might have been at 
the events, high-ranking military officers — and we can talk about 
who they are — said to these individuals that they were mistaken. 
They were told that the Iraqis did not have the ability to initiate 
these types of attacks, which we know to be false because we got 
the stockpiles after the war, if nothing else. And you should know 
that. 

Now, I don't know whether that comes as news to you or not, but 
I can arrange for you to talk to those people 

Mr. DoRN. I will do it. Senator. 

The Chairman. — Who, hopefully, will say to you what they said 
to us, that they got a phone call saying, tell us everything you 
know. Lay it all out. It was a scripted phone call where they were 
presented with an approach that said, it couldn't be a certain thing 
because that was off the table as a possibility. 

I think any time you're using people to do this kind of investiga- 
tive work that may have some stake in what was done previously, 



26 

as well as the decisionmaking chain leading up to these events 
can — I don't say does, but can — cause a problem. 

I've been very troubled by that. I think whoever is making the 
phone calls, whether it's Ltc. Merriman or anybody else, can't be 
calling with a scripted approach that tries to tailor the answer that 
presumably is being asked for from the person that they're calling. 
And we've had a problem in that area, just for your information. 

Mr. DORN. Mr. Chairman, if I can get particulars, I will be more 
than happy to follow up. 

The Chairman. You'll get them. You'll get them because, again, 
we're not going to let any assertions be made on the record here 
where we have contrary information. And I appreciate very much 
Senator Bennett raising the issue with respect to these testing kits. 

Now let me come back to my question to your two colleagues. 
Can you give us here today your professional certification that 
there were no exposures of Gulf War veterans to either chemical 
agents or biological agents out there in that war zone? 

Dr. Prociv. Since I've taken this position, Mr. Chairman, I have 
reviewed a lot of data and a lot of cases. My statement that I do 
not believe that any chemical agents were used by the Iraqis 

The Chairman. No, that's not what I said. I understand double- 
talk when I hear it. That's not what I asked you. 

[Laughter.] 

That's not what I asked you. And with all due respect, let me re- 
peat it again because I'd like an answer to my question, and then 
if you want to elaborate, you can. 

I realize everybody's designed here to veer off into the question 
as to whether there was an attack, a verifiable attack by the Iraqis 
to use these weapons. I did not pose that question. I asked you 
under oath for your professional opinion to give me a certification 
of your belief and confidence that no Gulf War veterans had any 
exposure to chemical agents or biological agents while they were in 
the war zone. Now can you give us that certification, regardless of 
the source? 

Dr. Prociv. Again, Mr. Chairman, I'm not a medical doctor. I 
don't understand a lot of the medical symptomology. What I do un- 
derstand is that when chemical agents are used, and I understand 
how they are dispersed, I understand how they're detected, in all 
of the evidence that I have seen that I can say in my own profes- 
sional certification, I can say that I do not believe that any chemi- 
cal agents entered the theater of operations and exposed any of our 
soldiers. That I can say. 

The Chairman. Well, I've got to make sure that I understand 
every single word in your sentence here. I want to make sure be- 
cause you're putting your professional reputation on the line, and 
you're doing it under oath. Meanwhile, I've got a lot of sick veter- 
ans all across the country, some in the room today, who heard the 
chemical alarms going off all the time, even though the chemical 
alarms were set at a much higher level than we know can cause 
a problem if there's extended exposure. You know that as well. 

But you're telling us, in your testimony today, that it is your best 
professional belief that we don't have a single veteran coming back 
from the Gulf War who had an exposure to chemical agents or bio- 



27 

logical agents in that war zone. And you're here today under oath 
with your professional reputation on the line. 

Dr. Prociv. Sir, again, I'm here to say that, knowing what I 
know and what I've reviewed, I do not understand how any of our 
veterans could have been exposed 

The Chairman. I didn't ask 

Dr. Prociv. I have to say it this way because I'm not a medical 
doctor, sir. 

The Chairman. Maybe we need a medical doctor to answer the 
question. 

Let me ask the same question of you. Dr. Kriese. 

Dr. Kriese. Sir, in the intelligence community, one of our, if you 
will, reminders is that absence of evidence is not evidence of ab- 
sence. So I cannot say absolutely, categorically, that there was no 
chemical or biological use and nobody was affected. I can tell you 
that, based on all the evidence I've seen, my judgment is that it 
was not used. But as a professional, I cannot tell you 

The Chairman. Now when you say, not used, you mean — by not 
used, you mean, what? That there was an offensive use of these 
weapons? 

Dr. Kriese. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You've not been able to validate in your own 
mind an incident or instances where they would have been used in 
an offensive way. 

Dr. Kriese. That's correct, sir. 

The Chairman. But you also make the point that you're not pre- 
pared to rule out the possibility that these agents got loose in some 
way and may in fact have had an effect on some people. You can't 
comment one way or the other on that. 

Dr. Kriese. I think it's impossible to prove a negative. I don't 
mean that lightly, sir. This is a very difficult issue, with low levels, 
many people involved. 

The Chairman. You see, it's difficult, when you have hundreds, 
and now thousands, of eyewitness accounts of people who are in 
the theater of operations and the chemical alarms go off. The chem- 
ical alarms sound. 

Now the chemical alarms were not just sitting out there waiting. 
We designed them. We sent them out there. We put them there be- 
cause we were worried that this might happen. That's why the 
chemical alarms were there in the first place. That's why all the 
gear was there in the first place. 

That's why we have job titles that some of you carry that talk 
about biological and chemical warfare, because this is a real issue 
and it's not somebody's invention. Saddam Hussein has done this 
in the past, killed his own people with these kinds of weapons. This 
isn't science fiction or fantasy. 

So we understood that there might very well be a problem. We 
put all the monitors out there and then the monitors kept sounding 
and people keep taking their MOP? gear on and off. There's no 
question in your mind about that having happened, is there? 

Dr. Kriese. No. 

The Chairman. OK. How many times, to your knowledge, would 
you say the chemical alarms went off throughout the whole theater 
of operation where they were placed to try to detect the chemicals? 



28 

Dr. Kriese. I think Dr. Prociv probably has a better estimate 
than I do. 

Dr. Prociv. I can't quote an exact number, but there are times 
when those alarms are deliberately set off. For instance, in the 
regiment, the NBC platoons are required to, in fact, test those 
alarms. What may have fallen apart is that they may not have no- 
tified the soldiers they were testing the alarms. So, as a minimum, 
twice a day, they would have tested. 

[Applause.] 

No, please. 

The Chairman. Let's have order. 

Dr. Prociv. I also will admit that they are prone to false alarms. 
They are prone 

The Chairman. But you can see all the possibilities. It's amazing 
to me how clear your mind is on all the reasons why the alarms 
could go off — how it could be an accident or mistake or faulty 
equipment. 

So now we have a new question — why are we buying faulty 
equipment? Why are we putting faulty alarms out there? In fact, 
I don't understand whv we're putting alarms out there that detect 
a level 1,000 times higher than what we know can cause a problem 
over a period of time. 

Dr. Prociv. I could quote some numbers there, also. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you this question. I'm going to ask 
you for the record. Again, I would urge you to measure your an- 
swer. Was the M8AI automatic chemical agent detection alarm 
which was deployed during the war sufficiently sensitive to detect 
harmful exposure levels of chemical nerve agents? 

Dr. Prociv. The MS — ^yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Are you saying, then, that there could be an ex- 
posure level harmful to somebody that could come in beneath the 
level that device was scheduled to measure? If there were chronic 
exposures that went on for a period of time below those levels, 
couldn't those cause medical problems in people? 

Dr. Prociv. I believe that there is data that shows that chronic 
levels at very low levels do cause problems. But I believe it's only 
with 

The Chairman. But the machines weren't designed to pick that 
up, were they? 

Dr. Prociv. It was only with mustard, is my understanding. 

The Chairman. Well, we'll get to that. But the machines were 
not designed to pick up low levels on a chronic level, were they? 

Dr. Prociv. No. The MS detection, the range of 0.1 to 0.5. You 
can get myosis, which are the initial symptoms, at 0.005. But the 
first time that you get a runny nose is at 0.5. That's the second 
symptom. And 0.5 is well within the detection range of the MS. 

The Chairman. We can go back and forth on this. The fact is 

Mr. DORN. Senator. 

The Chairman. Let me just finish. He and I are having a discus- 
sion. I'd be happy to call on you in a minute. 

I'm distressed about the fact that we've got a million reasons 
why we can't find the problem. We can't get to the root of this 
thing. We have all these sick veterans out there, wives and kids 
getting sick, and we just can't find out what's causing it. 



29 

Now, we're going to stay on this trail because I think it's quite 
clear what is causing part of it, and it falls into this zone. Not just 
the exposure to chemical items. I'm convinced that's part oi it. 
You're not convinced that's part of it. We have a difference of opin- 
ion on that issue. 

When you talk to the sick veterans who were in the theater of 
operation where the alarms were going off, the ones who are now 
sick are overwhelmingly convinced that there is a relationship. 
Now maybe you're smarter than they are and maybe they're smart- 
er than you are. The consequences for them are a lot higher than 
they are for you because you're not sitting here sick, with all due 
respect. 

[Applause.] 

Dr. Prociv. Sir, if I can just go on the record. I don't disagree 
that there are sick veterans. I was a veteran myself. I'm very sym- 
pathetic toward the veterans. I wouldn't be working for the Depart- 
ment of Defense — I just left a 20-year career in industry to work 
for the Department of Defense because I believe in this cause. 

The Chairman. Let me give you another example of how power- 
fully real it is in the lives of real people. 

Col. Smith over here who's sitting in the wheelchair spent 30 
years in the military himself He was in excellent health when he 
went over to the Persian Gulf, actually had prior training as a vet- 
erinarian, so he knows something about what causes people to get 
sick and die, and animals to get sick and die. 

He's no longer in the service. I'm doing this from memory, but 
after a long struggle, he finally received a 20 percent, I think it is, 
service disability related to his problems, although he can hardly 
get up out of the wheelchair and walk. 

When he was invited to go on the Phil Donahue Show to talk 
about this problem, as a guy with a background in this area who 
is very, very sick, he was told by somebody in the military, it would 
be a good idea for him not to wear his uniform and all those rib- 
bons on his chest. 

I've got to tell you, I'm much more concerned right now with sick 
veterans than I am with veterans like yourself who I respect very 
much who are not sick. I think if you were sick, if you were sitting 
in his wheelchair, your feeling about this would be dramatically 
different. 

I think part of the problem here is that the people who ran the 
operation during the Gulf War are not sick because they were not 
the ones out into the area of exposure and who have not come back 
with these problems. And so, I think it's very hard sometimes for 
us to put ourselves in the other person's shoes. That's why it would 
be very healthy for some of these interviews to be conducted di- 
rectly. I'm going to ask, and we're going to bring the witnesses in 
here, if I have to bring in 500 witnesses and we have to do this 
hour by hour by hour, we're going to get the Defense Department 
to pay sufficient attention to this problem. 

I don't think that's happened yet, with all due respect. As Sen- 
ator Bennett points out, with the atomic exposure problem years 
ago, and as I mentioned with the Agent Orange exposure, I think 
there's an enormous institutional difficulty for a bureaucracy, 
whether it's the Defense Department or some other agency of the 



30 

Government, to ever come "to terms with perhaps some grievance 
decision errors about equipment, about exposure, about things that 
maybe weren't properly planned for that happened after the fact. 
We have some of that here, and we're going to have to deal with 
it because you have a problem here that's a lot bigger than you un- 
derstand right now. 

You have wives and children that are sick. I don't know how 
many of them you've talked to. I'm going to give you some names 
of spouses that are sick, whose reproductive situation has been 
knocked completely haywire since their husbands have come back 
from the Persian Gulf, and some women veterans who have come 
back and whose reproductive situation is completely haywire. 

They think, and I believe that they're right in thinking it, that 
they were exposed to agents out there that have caused this to hap- 
pen. They had a perfect health profile before they went. In fact, 
they couldn't have gone without a good health profile. 

You need to talk to them, not through intermediaries and the 
chain of command where everybody understands that if there's a 
line that we're going to follow here that there were no exposures 
and we're all going to hue to that point of view, it gets very easy 
to start to tailor v^at's being heard into that sort of channel. I've 
seen it too many times and I think it's happening here. 

I want you to talk to some of these people. I want you to sit down 
and get right up close to them because if there is a problem where 
this thing is moving through families, as we now have enough an- 
ecdotal evidence for me to believe that it is, you ought to get up 
close to it. You ought to look at it. You ought to look at the sick 
kids, not just Col. Smith and the others that are here right now 
who have given as much or more time in uniform as you have and 
who are now sick and are being tossed out the side door, quite 
frankly. 

That's what's happening because, in effect, there's a problem but 
we don't know what caused the problem. It couldn't be chemical. 
It couldn't be biological because we can't find any evidence of that. 
Therefore, we're not going to aim our treatment regime down that 
track because if it never happened, then that can't oe the cause of 
the problem. So let's look for other things. Let's look for mental 
problems. Let's look for this. Let's look for that. 

This is not a mental problem. It is a mental problem, I think, in 
the Defense Department. I think it's fair to say that because the 
defense establishment has decided that this problem has to be out- 
side certain boundaries. Yet, all of the evidence is accumulating, 
and we're going to go through it here today. We've gotten side- 
tracked here, which is a little bit regrettable because I want to nail 
down specific things here and we're going to do that. 

But I think what is happening here is that the Defense Depart- 
ment almost cannot allow itself to come to any conclusion that 
there could have been or was any significant amount of chemical 
or biological exposure. I can see a lot of reasons why that could be 
the conclusion that the Department would find itself backed into 
thinking that it had to reach. 

I would like an assurance — and I don't know if you can give it. 
Secretary Dom, or not — I'd like an assurance today, an iron-clad 
assurance that every active-duty military service person who 



31 

served in the Gulf who now is sick and who is afraid to come for- 
ward, as many are because they're afraid that they're going to get 
drummed out of the service. It's tough to find jobs on the outside, 
especially if you're sick, if you're leaving the military because 
you've got a health problem. And it's very tough to remain in the 
military if you've got a health problem, and especially if it's in this 
area that the Defense Department I don't think is very comfortable 
with. 

We've got to have an assurance, and I'd like it stated explicitly 
by the Secretary, that no active-duty person will be sent out of the 
military if they come forward and indicate that they have these 
problems and that they won't be off-loaded for some other reason 
that's a fake reason. And that, in fact, if they have to leave the 
service because they are so sick coming off the service in the Gulf 
War, that they will get service-connected disability and so they're 
not just going to go out and land on the scrap heap and find they 
can't get a job and they're uninsurable. 

I think we have to have that assurance, or you're never going to 
know how many people you have in the active-duty force that are 
sick. Can you give me that today or can you within the next few 
days give me a commitment that you'll get that from the Secretary? 

Mr. DORN. I certainly can. Senator. I can say that we want peo- 
ple to come forward. We recently fashioned a new program, as you 
may know, for encouraging people to come forward and for giving 
them a systematic treatment protocol so that we can ensure that 
we are searching for everything we possibly can search for and so 
that we can assure that they're being given the best treatment. We 
also are working on the appropriate disability compensation rules. 

There was an earlier mention by a Member of your Committee 
that the legislation needs to be changed so that we do not insist 
on proof of a service connection. That legislation has been proposed 
by Mr. Montgomery, the Chairman of the House Veterans' Affairs 
Committee. We have been given an opportunity to comment on it. 

But let me say further. Senator, if I can broaden this a little, we 
are trying not to close our eyes to things. This is one of the reasons 
we have asked the Lederberg group to look at the possible long- 
term effects of low levels of exposure to chemical agent. And this 
is why we have a range of research programs that look at a variety 
of possibilities from infectious agents to the possibility of environ- 
mental exposures. 

Senator Bennett. Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. I might just say that there already has been re- 
search done on that, as a matter of record, we've included it in our 
report. It's toward the end in an appendix, having to do with infor- 
mation developed by the U.S. Army Chemical Research Develop- 
ment Engineering Center, indicating the problems that do exist 
with prolonged low-level exposure. So 

Mr. Dorn. I believe Mr. Tuite shared that information with the 
Lederberg panel. 

He did not? OK. 

The Chairman. Presumably, they would know about this. 

Mr. Dorn. They'll find it. 

The Chairman. It's all the same operation. You see, if this is an 
issue that everybody really wants to understand, work that's al- 



32 

ready been done within the apparatus of the defense establishment 
ought to be the first thing that comes to the surface. 

I would think that if the Defense Secretary turned around and 
said to the next person in command, I want every scrap of informa- 
tion that we have, anything that we've done. I want to know every- 
thing that there is to know that's in our files, records, research on 
chemical and biological testing, information of any and all sorts. I 
would assume that within a matter of days, if not hours, people 
could ^0 like this and all the information ne asked for would sur- 
face. Or am I wrong in that assumption? 

Mr. DoRN. We thought so, too. And you may recall that last No- 
vember, in response to a request from another Senate Committee, 
we tried in the course of a week or two to produce definitive an- 
swers to questions such as those we are discussing today. We think 
we got pretty close, but it turned out that there was simply more 
information out there than we could reasonably digest in the course 
of a few days. 

This is one of the reasons the Lederberg group has spent several 
months looking at this matter. On that panel are people who have 
spent many years studying a variety of issues that may be related 
to these illnesses and to possible exposures to a variety of environ- 
mental or chemical or biological agents in the Gulf They are still 
hard at work producing their findings. But there is a lot of lit- 
erature here. 

The Chairman. I really don't want anybody else sent out into the 
field of battle where we're likely to run into chemical and biological 
weapons, where we know we've got a bad guy on the other side 
who has been developing these weapons, been using these weapons 
on his own people, and we say to our service men and women, look, 
suit up. We're going to send you in there. But we're not quite sure 
what we're likely to run into. We don't necessarily have the kind 
of gear we might like to have. We're not necessarily able to meas- 
ure effectively biological exposures, even though we know this guy's 
been working on that. But we'd like you, in the name of the Amer- 
ican Government and Uncle Sam, to get right on in there. 

Here we are facing a situation with the North Koreans. In my 
mind, the North Koreans may be as entirely capable of diabolical 
activities of any and all kinds as Saddam Hussein. 

I can see why, if you were concerned about biological and chemi- 
cal weapons activity on the part of the North Koreans, why there 
might be a reluctance to even want to talk about the issue, so you 
dicm't have a panic with our troops who are up on the front line 
who might be concerned that 3 years from now, if they're engaged 
in a fracas over there, they might end up like Col. Smith in a 
wheelchair. 

And so, I would hope that we would never get to the point where 
the thinking is, let's get the mission done and then we'll treat the 
walking wounded, maybe, later on down the line or we'll figure out 
what that problem is at a later time. 

I would hope that we would never get into a frame of mind 
where the objective in the immediate military sense puts the 
health and safety of our own forces in a secondary situation. Even 
though that's happened before in your lifetime and mine. It hap- 
pened in Vietnam, in my opinion, and I think the evidence bears 



33 

it out and the Vietnam veterans clearly feel that way. So you don't 
have to stretch your imagination to imagine scenarios like that be- 
cause we're living with the after-effects of that right now. 

Mr. DoRN. May I, Mr. Chairman, associate myself with some- 
thing Senator Bond said earlier? 

The Chairman. Then I want to call on Senator Bennett, who has 
been waiting patiently to get in here. 

Mr. DoRN. Our effort here is, first and foremost, of course, to 
treat the sick veterans. That we are trying to do. Second, to find 
out what the underlying causes are and to deal with those. 

The Chairman. But 

Mr. DoRN. Senator Bond said something else. He said we have 
to prepare for the future. 

The Chairman. Well, just one second. Just one second, Mr. Dom. 
I think the problem, and the reason you got a murmur out of the 
veterans who are here, is that so many of them feel that their prob- 
lem is in the chemical/biological exposure zone. And if the Depart- 
ment feels that that can't be the cause of their problem and there- 
fore, the research efforts are really directed down other channels 
in any serious way, they feel like they're likely to continue to stay 
sick and get sicker and die in the meantime because you're going 
down divergent tracks. 

Mr. Dorn. If that is the impression I left, please give me an op- 
portunity to clarify it. 

One of the reasons we focused in my opening statement on chem- 
ical and biological weapons is, it was our understanding that that 
was this Committee's concern, how those weapons got into the 
hands of the Iraqis and whether they were used. 

However, I want to make absolutely clear that we are exploring 
every possible or every plausible cause for these illnesses, including 
the possibility of exposure to some type of chemical agent, the pos- 
sibility of exposure to various environmental pollutants, the pos- 
sible long-term health effects of the Kuwaiti oil fires, infectious dis- 
eases such as leishmaniasis. There may be others. We are looking 
at a full range of possibilities. 

One of the frustrations for some of the people who are vitally 
concerned with this is that there are strong proponents of each of 
those theories. We spend a lot of time explaining why we are trying 
to develop a program that looks at all of the possibilities rather 
than honing in solely on multiple chemical sensitivity or the Ku- 
waiti oil fires. We are examining a full range of possibilities here. 
Now, how soon will the results come out? This is difficult. This is 
research. We are not confident how soon the results will 

The Chairman. How much are we spending at the present time? 
Do you know offhand? 

Mr. Dorn. I'll have to get back to you on that because I cannot 
give you a total. Keep in mind that this research is being done 
under a lot of auspices. DoD is sponsoring some of it. VA is spon- 
soring some of it. Some of it is being done through Health and 
Human Services, their Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 
I will try to put together some numbers for you. 

The Chairman. Senator Bennett. 

Senator Bennett. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 



34 

I'll spare the editorial comment that I was about to make. Let 
me go back to the issue. 

The Chairman asked a specific question to which he did not get 
an answer. I'm interested in the answer. The question was how 
many times did the alarms go off? The answer was, well, we don't 
really know, and so on. 

All right. I used to give that kind of an answer to a boss that 
was not sympathetic to that kind of an answer and he would al- 
ways say to me when I'd say, well, I can't give you an exact num- 
ber. He'd say, how many would you be surprised if it were more 
than? Can you give us a ballpark figure? How many would you be 
surprised if it were more than or less than, and give us kind of a 
bracket? 

Then as you investigate this, and you probably can't answer it 
here, and I would be surprised if you could, I would like an answer 
for the record, how many times was the gear replaced after the 
alarms went off. And to focus exactly on what I'm talking about, 
I'll direct you to page 65 of the report provided by the Chairman 
and the Ranking Member. 

There, by coincidence, seems to be two occasions here where the 
alarms went off and the gear was replaced. 

The first one, quoting a Mr. Fred Willoughby of Columbus, Geor- 
gia, who was with the Naval Mobile Construction Battalion. He has 
reported that on January 20, 1991, at about 3:00 to 4:00 a.m., he 
was hanging out outside his tent when he heard a long, loud explo- 
sion. Shortly thereafter, a siren sounded and he went inside the 
tent to get his gas mask. By the time he came out, people were 
yelling, MOPP 4, MOPP 4, not a drill. Immediately, his mouth, 
lips, and face became numb all over, a sensation he likened to no- 
vocaine at the dentist's office. He was in the bunker for about an 
hour or an hour and a half. When he came out of the bunker, he 
and others in his unit were told bv the officers and chiefs that what 
they had heard was just a sonic boom. The next day, the unit was 
told not to talk about it. 

Here's the operative sentence — but the unit's MOPP gear was 
collected and replaced the next morning. I want to know how many 
times that happened, where an alarm went off and subsequently to 
the alarm going off, someone had the MOPP gear collected and re- 
placed. 

Go down to the next one just below it. Roy Morrow of Phenix 
City, Alabama, assigned to the Air Detachment, King Abdul Aziz 
Stadium. 

On January 20, 1991, he heard two explosions between 3:00 and 
3:30 a.m. He was awakened, went to the bunker. The unit went to 
MOPP 2 level for 25 to 30 minutes. The all-clear was then given. 
When he exited the bunker, Mr. Morrow noticed the Marines run- 
ning and screaming, MOPP level 4. The siren sounded again. He 
began to feel a burning sensation on his arms, legs, the back of his 
neck, his ears, and his face, his lips felt numb. His unit went to 
full MOPP level 4. Right before he went to the bunker the second 
time, Mr. Morrow saw a flash in the commercial port of Al-Jubayl. 
He had a radio in the bunker, so on and so forth. 

When they began to discuss it, down in the next paragraph, he's 
talking with the head of the decontamination team in his unit. And 



35 

when they began to discuss it, according to Mr. Morrow, the unit 
was told that the two explosions were a sonic boom and they were 
ordered not to talk about it any more. The next day, all of their 
chemical gear was collected and replaced with new equipment. 

I am sure in the logs of those units, the sounding of the alarms, 
the going to MOPP 4 level, and the collecting and replacing of the 
equipment is recorded. If there's one thing our military does well, 
it is multiply paper and record things that went on, and people 
keep logs. 

I would like to know how many times the alarms went off, and 
after the alarms going off, regardless of the explanation as to why, 
someone felt it necessary to collect and replace all of the MOPP 
equipment, because, certainly on its face, it would appear that 
somebody on the scene at the time was convinced that the gear was 
contaminated or would not have had it replaced. 

Finally, just as another footnote, as I browsed through this 

The Chairman. I'm wondering, do you have a response? 

[No response provided.] 

Senator Bennett. Do you have a response on that? I'm assuming 
that you don't have that statistic. But if you do, I'd be glad to 

The Chairman. There ought to be somebody here that knows. 
There are a lot of people here that are experts in this area. Who 
can get the closest to an answer? 

Dr. Prociv. I guess the difficulty of coming up with a number, 
and we will try. We will try to provide one for the record. The only 
time that a record is made of an alarm is if it's a verified alarm. 
An NBC 1 report is prepared and that's sent upstairs. 

The Chairman. Now what is a verified alarm? 

Dr. Prociv. An alarm goes off and the M256 kit is used to verify 
it. 

The Chairman. So when the alarm goes off, if there isn't that 
kind of a verification, you wouldn't count it, anyway. 

Dr. Prociv. No. 

The Chairman. Would you then kind of switch back to the other 
point, that maybe it was a faulty alarm or 

Dr. Prociv. I'm trying to be open-minded here. 

We probably wouldn't hear about it, but it may be that the com- 
pany would keep records, that Central Command would keep 
records. And so, we will try to get the number. 

Senator Bennett. I find it inconceivable that the alarm would go 
off and the unit would be on alert, and in their MOPP gear for 
hours, and then the gear would be collected and disposed of and 
there would be no record of the incident on the ground that it 
wasn't verified. That's incredible to me. 

Dr. Prociv. Let me try to explain that, also. Typically, the gear 
is not changed after an alarm. 

Senator Bennett. I understand that. 

Dr. Prociv. Typically, the gear is changed after a certain number 
of days of wear life. For instance, the British suit has a 5-day wear 
life. On the fifth day, everybody changes out of the suit and gets 
a new one. I'd have to look into each of these cases and see why 
those change-outs were made. I'm not sure I understand that, other 
than by coincidence, it may have hit that fifth day. 



36 

Senator Bennett. I can understand that it would be by coinci- 
dence. But the Chairman asked the question, how many times did 
the alarms go off, because the testimony here has said that every 
single time that the alarm went off, it was because of some 
nonchemical reason. It was a false alarm. It was in reaction to die- 
sel fuel in the air. It was testing. In every single instance, the testi- 
mony is the alarm was not an alarm of actual chemical presence. 
His question was, how many times did we have those nonchemical 
stimuli creating an alarm going off? I think that's an answer we 
ought to get an approximation for. 

The second question that I'm asking is, how many times was 
there a replacement of the gear following the alarm going off? If 
you say it only happened twice and in both cases, the 5 days were 
up, I'll accept that. But I want to know how many times it actually 
happened, whether or not we can put it down to coincidence of the 
5 days being up, or if somebody on the ground came to the conclu- 
sion that there was in fact contamination there and the gear had 
to be replaced as a safety measure for his troops. I can see a con- 
scientious commander making that decision and having a record of 
it somewhere. I want to know if, indeed, that happened. 

Finally, just as I was browsing through here, I'd point out to you 
on page 77, there is another case of an M256 giving a positive read- 
ing. William Brady, Battalion Logistics NCO with the 217th Main- 
tenance Battalion. 

Deafening sound, a flash of light, everything shook. That does 
not sound like a sonic boom to me. He remembered the chemical 
litmus paper turning red and a positive reading from an M256 kit. 
His nose began to run. He smelled and tasted sulfur and he began 
coughing up blood a couple of days after the attack. 

Once again, you may have an explanation for the M256 working, 
but I come back to the earlier statement that there is never a veri- 
fied case. 

We do have a pattern here of alarms going off and now individ- 
ual reports of even the M256 being activated. I don't think there's 
a lot of credibility, unless you've got an answer for every one of 
these, for the statement that there was no presence of these things. 
To a layman, it just seems overwhelming that there's got to be a 
presumption of presence if these kinds of things kept happening. 

Dr. Prociv. Our conclusions are also based on not just the 
alarms. It's also the absence of the types of symptoms that we ex- 
pect to see from nerve agents. We talked to our allies. We have not 
seen the symptoms there. 

Typically, an attack will cause a lot of people to get exposed. So 
I will take these questions for the record, however, sir, and I will 
provide you the answers to those. 

Senator Bennett. Let me pursue what you just said because it 
fits with the line that I was on earlier. 

You say, typically, we can expect. Let's hold the possibility that 
these particular agents were not typical. Let's hold the possibility 
that, indeed, something happened out there that doesn't meet the 
typical norm. Back to my earlier question to the Secretary — isn't 
there a possibility that the confirmation pattern is flawed? 

You say, we can't get confirmation of it. Maybe we're dealing 
with something new here that we weren't previously thinking 



37 

about that can produce a different kind of reaction than we were 
expecting. With that thought in mind, go back and review every- 
thing we ve talked about. Our confirmation pattern doesn't confirm. 

I'm willing to accept that. I don't think you're sitting here lying 
to me on that issue. I'll accept that you've done the confirmation 
and the confirmation doesn't confirm. But how do I explain all of 
the people with Gulf War Syndrome. Just because it doesn't fit the 
tvpical pattern does not mean it didn't happen. Start thinking in 
those terms and maybe this whole thing will be a little different. 

I thank the Chair. 

The Chairman. I think, Senator Bennett, that that's an enor- 
mously constructive point you've just made. 

We know that Saddam Hussein was experimenting with mixing 
up these cocktails, these so-called chemical cocktails and maybe 
mixing biologicals in with the chemical cocktails. We don't know 
what he was finally doing. We just know at the end of the war, 
even though we bombed the daylights out of every storage place we 
knew about, and I think in the process threw a lot of this stuff up 
in the air, which then blew down over our troops, that even after 
all the bombing, the massive bombing, he still had a huge stockpile 
of this stuff. That's what the U.N. inspectors found. And we're still 
destroying it, still getting rid of it. It's not easy to get rid of 

One of the great ironies is that we helped put it together because 
we sent him the materials in the beginning to get him going, with 
these licenses that were approved by our own Government to send 
the biological specimens and so forth. 

But I think Senator Bennett is onto something. I think we may 
in fact be dealing with something here where, when he was threat- 
ening us with these kinds of doomsday weapons and other things, 
that ne may have been experimenting with weapons that were dif- 
ferent and outside the norm, and that we were not necessarily 
ready to deal with that. 

I tnink, quite frankly, it's a stunning statement. I know you may 
not think about it that way, when you say that when these alarms 
were going off all the time, it's probably because the alarms were 
faulty or that they were registering the wrong things. 

To the people out in the real world that go to work everyday and 
pay the bills for the defense establishment and everything else, 
that will have them marching on Washington, if they think that 
what we were doing is buying alarm systems to protect their sons 
and daughters that basically weren't any good. 

And so, yes, they kept going off all the time, but they were going 
off for the wrong reasons. 

That's like asking people to believe something that's just so un- 
believable, that to say it, makes a person sound like a fool, I think 
to a citizen. 

Senator Bennett. Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. Yes. 

Senator Bennett. Could I comment on that because you've trig- 
gered a thought here that I'd like to share with the Department of 
Defense. 

We're in a Catch-22. If we say, on the one hand, the alarms 
going off in every instance was due to malfunction or misreading 
or diesel oil, or whatever, and then we turn around and say, on the 



38 

other hand, we have absolutely no confirmation from anywhere 
that these agents were present. 

It's the second conclusion that's driving the first. If you say, just 
one alarm functioned properly, and what are the statistical chances 
that that's true, just one of these M256 readings was accurate, 
then we do have confirmation. 

You've got yourself into a logic box here. If you say they all 
failed, the M256 all came from people who didn't understand what 
they were doing. We've checked everyone of them. You then can 
validate, no, there's no confirmation. 

But the overwhelming inference on the part, again, of somebody 
looking at it from the outside who's not involved, is that it is the 
second conclusion that is driving the first and it becomes a self-ful- 
filling prophecy once you get there. 

You can't prove a negative, but just think about it for just a 
minute logically and use the phrase, fuzzy logic, that allows you to 
go with probabilities, even if you can't pin it down. Is it really log- 
ical to assume that every single one of those events was faulty? 

Mr. DORN. Senator, let me — perhaps Dr. Prociv can address an- 
other dilemma here which has to do with the way one designs the 
systems and the way one sets them so that one has the maximum 
possible warning. 

It is a system which, unfortunately, is likely to yield some false 
alarms. But perhaps we can discuss that technology because it does 
raise an interesting question about how much advanced warning 
we want in these circumstances and it may guide the way in which 
this technology is refined in the future. 

The Chairman. Well, before we get off into a long, technical dis- 
course that eats up more time, I want to stay on the point that he's 
just raised. If you can invent a better system, I'll all for it. Go and 
do it. If you want the money, I'll vote for the money to do it. 

I'm concerned about a lot of sick people right now because the 
last system didn't work right and we're having a very hard time, 
I still think, getting an honest understanding of what happened. 

I think Senator Bennett is exactly right, that it's the second con- 
clusion that in a sense is driving the first conclusion, that backs 
you into the notion that you've come in here with a truly unbeliev- 
able assertion that every single one of these alarms going off was 
faulty and didn't mean anything. 

I think that that's clearly not the case and I would hope at the 
end of the day, not iust today, but at the end of this, you wouldn't 
force yourself into believing something that is patently unbeliev- 
able. 

But there's a more serious and sinister part of it. And that is 
that that kind of logic also drives the effort to get to the bottom 
of the medical problems because if you're working off the premise 
that it can't be chemical exposure or biological weapons exposure, 
then you don't aim the bulk of your medical research effort with 
real urgency into that area of exposure. 

You look at other things. You can spend a long time looking at 
everything else that it might be. Meanwhile, you've got very sick 
people that in many instances, are getting sicker. In other words, 
their sickness isn't standing still. Their sickness in many cases is 
progressive. 



39 

The thing that alarms me the most right now is that by, in a 
sense, ruling out the notion that it could be chemical and biological 
exposure causing a lot of this difficulty, maybe in a mixture with 
the pretreatment pills and so forth, we are losing very valuable 
time and causing perhaps an immense amount of grief. 

If you've got a biological issue working in all of this, you may 
have even a bigger threat on your hands than we're accustomed to 
even thinking about. And so, that kind of logic or illogic, in this 
case, I think is what people can't accept who look at this. 

And to your question, how many times did the alarms go off, I 
can assert to you right now, based on just the first person accounts 
that we have nad, with discussions with people who have come for- 
ward, for whom we have names, places, times, and so forth, that 
there would be thousands of events of alarms going off. Would any 
of you dispute that? 

You would not dispute that. 

Dr. Prociv. We have no data. 

Senator Bennett. That goes back to my question — what would 
you be surprised if it were fewer than? Does 1,000 strike you as 
much too high? You say you have no data, but you obviously 

Dr. Prociv. I think tnat I would agree to per-alarm, perhaps 2 
to 3 a day. I could see that happening. 

The CHAffiMAN. How many alarms were out there? 

Dr. Prociv. We had 14,000 alarms out there. 

The Chairman. So 14,000 alarms going off 3 times a day. 

Dr. Prociv. Big number. 

The Chairman. That's a pretty big number. 

Senator Bennett. Yes. Let me pursue another aspect of the 
thought that I'm laying down here, that just because it doesn't fit 
the norm doesn't mean that it didn't happen. 

As I understood, Mr. Secretary, your comments were that you 
found no evidence of the presence of these weapons, let alone the 
trace of the gases or agents, but no evidence of the presence of 
these weapons in the theater. Is that correct? 

Mr. DORN. That is correct. 

Senator Bennett. OK I beheve, from the first-person reports 
contained in this document, that most of the instances reported 
were not in the theater. They were behind the lines back in the 
maintenance area, subject to SCUD attacks that were later dis- 
missed as sonic booms and not, in fact, SCUD attacks in some 
cases, but not necessarily in the theater where the tank battle and 
those other things took place. Is that correct? 

Mr. DoRN. Those portions of southern Iraq and Kuwait that con- 
stituted the battlefield. So you are correct in the way we've defined 
the Kuwait theater of operations. However, I believe that state- 
ment is intended to cover, and I will verify it, but I believe that 
is intended to cover everything that we found on the battlefields, 
short of a certain parallel into Iraq. 

Now I will confirm that. 

Senator Bennett. You see where I'm going. 

Mr. DoRN. It obviously would be very important 

Senator Bennett. Yes. 

Mr. DoRN. — If this were cleverly worded to obscure that point. 
It is my sincere hope that it has not obscured that important point. 



40 

The Chairman. We have more than a hope, though. 

Senator Bennett. I don't accuse anybody of cleverly wording it 
to obscure it. But I have had enough dealings with some military 
minds, I won't say all, by any means, to suggest that it would 
never occur to them to go beyond the battlefield as to what the the- 
ater would be. 

We are dealing now, if we accept these first-person witnesses at 
face value, with people who are behind the lines, who are subjected 
to SCUD attacks launched from areas we know not where. That is 
prima facie obvious because if we knew where the SCUD's were, 
we would have destroyed them. We were out looking for them. That 
was the number-one priority of the war, as far as our relationship 
with the Israelis was concerned. 

These are attacks being launched from some area that we may 
very well have never reconnoitered that took place in an area out- 
side of the theater. So that the information that you gave us here, 
very conceivably, could be exactly correct and still have missed the 
point. 

Mr. DORN. I will double check the information. However, as you 
know, a number of these SCUD's landed in populated areas or were 
destroyed over populated areas. We know that when they were de- 
stroyed, they sometimes spewed forth rocket fiiel and lots of other 
debris. I have seen no information suggesting that the debris con- 
tained evidence of a chemical or a biological agent. 

I will double check that information for you, sir. 

Senator Bennett. I think it would be a useful exercise. 

The other comment I would make 

Mr. Dorn. Dr. Kriese has a comment on that. 

Dr. Kriese. May I comment, sir? 

Senator Bennett. Surely. 

Dr. Kriese. My understanding is that, after every SCUD attack, 
we checked for CW and none was found. That was of great concern 
to our forces. 

I think you brought up a very important point as you talk about 
delivery of agents. You referred to an incident on January 19, or 
perhaps January 20, this is event 3 on page 64. 

This area, we believe, was outside the range of any Iraqi delivery 
systems, except for SCUD's. And on January 20, there were four 
SCUD's that landed near Al-Jubayl, two of them about 35 miles 
away and two about 58 miles away. 

I think as we discuss chemical agents, and I don't want to give 
any appearance that I'm trying to rule something out or in circular 
logic, but, in my mind, one of the issues is the question of how 
those agents were inplaced, how they got there. 

As we look at the installations that were deep behind the lines, 
like Al-Jubayl, SCUD is the only way to get there. I'm not saying 
that they're not there because I don't know how else to explain 
them. But I think delivery is a very important issue that we've 
looked at as we've tried to make an assessment of the use of CW 
and BW weapons. 

We've also asked ourselves questions about if there are low levels 
of CW or BW, why do we never find high levels? Distribution of 
material is a very difficult problem. Usually, you start from a small 
canister and release it. Close to the canister, you have high levels 



41 

of CW or BW agents. Further away, you find low levels. So this is, 
again, a puzzle to us. And I don't want to say that I'm ruling any- 
thing out. 

Senator Bennett. Yes. 

Dr. Kreese. But as we try to understand how the Iraqis may 
have used CW or BW agents, these are things that we try to ad- 
dress. 

Senator Bennett. And I think it's appropriate that you try to ad- 
dress them. I think that that's a legitimate question. 

I go back to my earlier comment that maybe we're dealing with 
something here that does not fit our expectations because we're 
dealing with an individual who has pursued this weaponry far be- 
yond the levels that we have, I think, in our own arsenal. We've 
decided to pull back from this a long time ago and he has decided 
to go forward. 

Dr. Kreese. Yes, sir, and I would add that, certainly, one of the 
things that the intelligence community worries about a lot is the 
question of technological surprise. So, across the board, we look at 
unexpected developments in technologies that may be a threat to 
U.S. forces or the forces of our allies. 

This is something that we've looked for and, again, I can't say 
that it's not there because we haven't seen it, but we certainly pur- 
sue those leads whenever we have them. 

Senator Bennett. I have to leave. I just want to conclude with 
an experience totally unrelated in specifics, but I think quite in- 
structive in its overall message that I had in my formative years 
as a very young man. 

It had nothing to do with war, fortunately. But we were trying 
to sell tickets to a concert. The public relations firm hired to help 
us to do this sent their expert into the area where I was operating. 
He was appalled to find out that I was doing all kinds of things 
he didn't want me to do. 

This happened in the British Isles. 

He called his superior in London and he reported to his superior 
all of the things that I was doing that were contrary to the wishes 
of this internationally known PR firm. The conversation is still 
burned in my mind and the lesson that I learned is the one that 
I want to share with you. 

He said, "Yes, dear, I told him that." His superior was a woman, 
so he could use that terminology in the days before political cor- 
rectness. 

He said, "Yes, dear, we covered that. Yes, dear, we have handled 
that. Yes, we have done that. That's right. Yes, we've covered all 
those bases. Everything is fine. There's just one problem — no tick- 
ets have been sold." 

OK, we can get all of the explanations. We can get all of the ex- 
amination. There's just one problem — we have a batch of people for 
whom we cannot give any explanations in terms of their medical 
circumstance. Maybe the old pattern he was describing in that cir- 
cumstance and as you are describing in here, has got to be aban- 
doned and we've got to do something different. 

That's what I was trying to do when I was trying to sell tickets 
to the concert and offending people because I was doing things dif- 



42 

ferently than they thought they should be done by the classic pat- 
tern. 

My only defense for my actions was but no tickets are being sold 
doing it your way. My only comment here is no answers are being 
found as to where this body of people with serious medical prob- 
lems came from. And that's what keeps driving me and I know 
keeps driving the Chairman and will keep driving this issue until 
we either fill the hall, as I can say proudly we did on the occasion 
of the concert, by solving the problem, or come up with an expla- 
nation that is so scientifically iron-clad, that everybody can buy it. 

Saying that the explosions were all sonic booms and the alarms 
went off, all in malfunction or testing, and that all of the illness 
comes from some other source is simply not going to cut it in the 
reality of what we've got here, what we have to deal with. There 
is the reality of the people who have these problems and that re- 
ality is not going to go away. 

Mr. DoRN. Senator Bennett, I want to emphasize again that we 
are considering all the plausible possibilities, including the possibil- 
ity of exposure to some type of chemical or biological agent. 

Senator Bennett. I'm delighted to have you say that last sen- 
tence because I had not heard it before now and I may have missed 
it. But I'm glad to hear it before I have to leave and I congratulate 
you for making that clear commitment, to consider this as a real 
possibility, in spite of the fact that there are no confirmations, in 
spite of the fact, et cetera. 

That, I think, is a major commitment on behalf of the Defense 
Department. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. Senator Bennett. 

I think logic, which is what Senator Bennett is trying to apply 
here, and properly so, is maybe the quickest way to an answer be- 
cause of the problems that we've been discussing this morning. 

I want to read into the record the chemical warfare agents which 
survived the Allied bombing — these are the chemical weapons that 
Saddam Hussein had squirrelled away and then they were picked 
up to be destroyed after the war by the inspectors that went in. 

Now listen to this. This is just what we got after all the bombing. 
We went in and, as a priority target, tried to knock out a lot of 
these weapons storage places and weapons production places. So, 
presumably, we got rid of most of it in the bombing runs. But this 
was what was left after all the bombing. 

Now just think about this and think about it logically — 13,000 
155-millimeter shells loaded with mustard gas; 6,200 rockets load- 
ed with nerve agent; 800 nerve agent aerial bombs; 28 SCUD war- 
heads loaded with Sarin; 75 tons of nerve agent Sarin; 60 to 70 
tons of the nerve agent Tabun; and 250 tons of mustard gas and 
stocks of thiodiglycol, a precursor chemical for mustard gas. 

Again, just think about this, we went in with these saturation 
bombing raids. We tried to hit their weapons production facilities 
and knock them out. Presumably, we did knock a lot of them out. 
A lot of what they had to start with presumably went up in smoke 
and, unfortunately, I think a lot of it drifted down over our people 
and that's part of why these alarms were going off. 



43 

According to the testimony here, if there were 14,000 going off 
3 times a dav, there's an awful lot of something going on. But this 
is what was left after the war that we managed to find. 

Knowing Saddam Hussein, he may have more than this 
squirrelled away some other place we haven't even found. But leav- 
ing that aside, this is a tremendous stockpile of these kinds of 
weapons to have at the end of the war. 

Now you have to say to yourself, and especially when we're deal- 
ing with sick veterans and so forth, who feel that they were ex- 
posed to these items, is it conceivable that Saddam Hussein, with 
all of this stockpile — I mean, he didn't have these things by acci- 
dent, he built these with a very deliberate design to have all of 
these things — is it conceivable that in the course of the war, he or 
his field commanders, and I understand some of his front-line field 
commanders had authority to do certain things in the war, depend- 
ing upon how the war went. Is it conceivable that not a single one 
of these shells or weapons was ever fired? Is that conceivable? 
Maybe it's conceivable. I think it's very, very unlikely. That leaves 
apart the question of blowing these things up with our own bomb- 
ing raids and dispersing it in that fashion. And the fact that he 
had a history of doing it in the past. 

But what's even more powerful, I think, when you apply the 
logic, if you take the symptoms, the health symptoms that would 
come, and this runs counter to something that was said earlier by 
one of the witnesses, we spent a lot of time overlaying symptoms 
to exposure to what kind of items could create these kinds of symp- 
toms and what kinds of biological items and chemical weapons do 
we know that he had and was developing that could create, if a 
service person was exposed to them, a pattern of medical difficulty 
that would fit that kind of exposure. 

We find a very high correlation between the kinds of sickness 
and medical symptoms and exposure to chemical and/or biological 
weapons. In fact, we can't find anything else that correlates highly. 
This is the one thing that fits. 

And so, after a while, the pattern is so strong, that you look at 
it and you say, why is it that everybody else that's looking at this, 
including a lot of outside medical people who are trying to deal 
with sick veterans, can see these patterns and the Defense Depart- 
ment has this mental attitude that says, it couldn't be in this area 
and therefore, we don't really believe that's the problem because we 
can't verify it, so we're assuming the problem is somewhere outside 
those parameters. 

Now, granted, you've just said in response to Senator Bennett at 
the end of a long morning that you're locking at the chemical and 
biological issues as well. But your whole statement is built around 
a central supposition and belief that there was no chemical and bi- 
ological problem here. 

Mr. DoRN. No, sir. 

The Chairman. It is not? 

Mr. DoRN. You asked what I thought was the Committee's inter- 
est in the Export Administration Act and the possibly related ques- 
tion of whether or not Saddam Hussein used materials provided 
under the old Export Administration Act against us. And my state- 
ment was that we find no evidence that the weapons were used. 



44 

I've said several times during this hearing that we are consider- 
ing a wide range, all the possible explanations, including the possi- 
bility of some type of exposure to chemical agents. There are two 
issues here. One is what our adversary may have used. The other 
question is what may have been available or what may have been 
present in the theater for other reasons. 

The Chairman. Isn't there a third category? Isn't there a poten- 
tial, unintentional way in which it could be used if we went in and 
bombed these facilities and these got up into the air 

Mr. DoRN. That has been looked at. 

The Chairman. — ^At different levels of air currents and it came 
down over our troops. That would be a way in which he would not 
have made an offensive strike. We would clearly not have intended 
for that to happen. But isn't that another possibility? 

Mr. Dorn. That is clearly a possibility. May we speak briefly to 
that? 

The Chairman. Yes, please. We have an extensive aspect of that 
in our report, as I'm sure you know. Gro ahead. 

Dr. Kriese. I think one of the questions that comes up when you 
look at this as a potential cause for the illnesses is the question of 
where are the very sick people? 

The high concentrations that would have resulted locally from at- 
tacking facilities, I think possibly could have caused very serious 
injuries near the places that were bombed. 

The Chairman. You're talking now about the Iraqis themselves? 

Dr. Kriese. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Do you trust their data? 

Dr. Kriese. We saw no evidence as we were reviewing all the im- 
agery that we had available for bomb damage assessment of any 
local fatalities that we could attribute to release of chemicals or bi- 
ological agents. 

As we attacked facilities, sir, we went back and very carefully 
evaluated the amount of damage that we achieved with our attacks 
and have extensive imagery from gun cameras and other resources 
that we had in the area and we found no evidence of the deaths 
that you might anticipate from local releases of large amounts of 
material. 

As the U.N. has inspected some of the areas that we bombed 
after the war and, again, this does not provide data on what was 
there at the time we bombed, but certainly later, some of the facili- 
ties turned out to be empty. The Iraqis dispersed a lot of their mu- 
nitions. That's why it was recovered after the war. They were not 
necessarily in the places that we attacked. 

As part of our planning, we did studies of impact of releases. 
We've gone back afterwards taking weather data from the Air 
Force and other meteorological conditions and have made estimates 
about how far plumes from released material might have impacted 
people. For the southern most facilities that we attacked, I believe 
that the plume extends out, at most, 10 or 12 kilometers for inca- 
pacitating roughly 5 percent of unprotected people. 

And again 

The Chairman. See, the problem with that is when you say inca- 
pacitating unprotected people, first of all, we're talking about some- 
thing that we don't have a lot of good research on, obviously. 



46 

But if you're getting these low-level exposures — let's say you're 
an American service person out there and you're getting these re- 
peated low-level exposures and the alarms keep going on, going off 
all the time. And we're sajdng, well, that's just because they're 
faulty alarms. 

It's even an embarrassing assertion because I think it's so incred- 
ible and unbelievable. But this stuff is wafting down through there 
and that's why the alarms are going off, and people are getting ex- 
posed to it. 

Now, I don't know that we know enough today as to what kinds 
of exposure levels at lower levels, but on a chronic basis and over 
a period of time, are going to make somebody sick, make you sick, 
make your son sick. Maybe some person in the unit is going to get 
sicker a lot faster and more seriously than the next person in the 
unit who either has a different kind of a system or the exposure, 
for one reason or another, isn't quite as severe for that person. 

But, again, I find this remarkable blind spot that's right in the 
center of the screen here where you've got all of the surrounding 
information, most significantly being all the sick veterans who keep 
coming forward. 

I think until somebody — and maybe you've done this, I hope so 
and if you haven't, we're going to help you do it. You need to talk 
to some of the sick spouses, whose hair is falling out, who can't 
sleep, whose reproductive cycle is not working properly. They're 
showing a lot of the same physical symptoms that their husbands 
are showing, who were the veterans, although we have women vet- 
erans, too, who have these problems. 

I don't know where the breakdown is coming from because we 
have this enlarging body of sick people out there who something 
happened to. They weren't sick before they went to the Gulf. Some- 
thing happened to them there and now they're back and now 
they're sick. Can anybody tell me what happened to them? You're 
convinced, by and large, at least that's the testimony and that's the 
official Defense Department line, that it was not exposure to chemi- 
cal and biological weapons. 

I think part of it is due to that and we're putting a much strong- 
er case on the table than you are. But if it isn't that, after all this 
period of time, and as important as this issue is, what is causing 
it? 

Dr. Kriese. Sir, if I can just comment for a minute? 

I don't think the Defense Department is saying that it was not, 
the Gulf War Syndrome was not due to CW and BW. 

The Chairman. Chemical Warfare and Biological Warfare agents. 

Dr. Kriese. Yes, sir. I think the Defense Department is not tak- 
ing that stance. 

The Chairman So you're not saying that that's not the cause. 

Dr. Kriese. That's right. 

The Chairman. That could be the cause. 

Dr. Kriese. Yes, sir. I think Dr. Dom said that very, I hope, 
clearly earlier. 

I think he came to people for advice on what might be causes as 
he ran down the list of the possibilities. He asked the Defense In- 
telligence Agency for our assessment of use of CW and BW. 

As I heard him say, thank you very much, it's still on my hst. 



46 

The Chairman. What do you think is causing it? What's causing 
all these veterans and their families to get sick? What's your best 
judgment? 

Dr. Kriese. Speaking totally as a nonexpert, I think that 

The Chairman. I hope you're an expert because the Defense De- 
partment shouldn't bring you up here if you're not something of an 
expert. 

Mr. DORN. But not in health. 

Dr. Kriese. Sir, I'm not an expert on the whole range of medical 
issues that might be involved in this question. 

The Chairman. Well, take us as far as your expertise can take 
us, then. 

Dr. Kriese. I think we're learning about dangers of a whole 
range of chemicals that exist in our environment. I think there's 
a lot that we have to learn. 

The Chairman. You think this is part of the problem here? Ev- 
erything you've seen, your own wisdom, logic, and common sense. 
Do you think that chemical and biological exposure may in fact be 
part of what's making these veterans sick? 

Dr. Kriese. I think there were a lot of chemicals that were in 
the atmosphere in the Gulf from a range of sources, whether oil 
fires, chemical weapons. You can make a list of things that I think 
that there's a real possibility that low-level chemicals, or a com- 
bination of low-level chemicals may be one of the contributors to 
this disease. 

The Chairman. Do you believe that, too. Dr. Prociv? 

Dr. Prociv. I wouldn't discount it. Again, I'm not a medical type. 
My biggest dilemma is I don't understand how the chemicals would 
get there in sufficient quantity. If I understood that, I would be- 
lieve that. 

The Chairman. What do you believe, Mr. Dom? 

Mr. DoRN. Senator, as I said, we're exploring a large range of 
possibilities, including the one that we've discussed extensively 
here today. 

However, let me go back to something that I said in my state- 
ment. There are a large number of theories out there, each with 
a strong proponent, for multiple chemical sensitivity, for parasitic 
infections, for chemical agents, for other possible causes. We are 
trying to explore all the possibilities. I think it would be a mistake 
for us to focus on one possibility to the exclusion of all others. 

I could get a great headline here if I were to point to a single 
cause. But that would be a disservice to this Committee and it cer- 
tainly would be a disservice to the veterans to try to speculate 
about matters that we are still trying to study. 

We do not understand it. 

Senator, I have had the experience of being shuffled from physi- 
cian to physician, trying to find the answer to a simple question. 
So I empathize with the frustration being experience by Col. Smith 
and other veterans. 

I was not in the Persian Gulf, but I think many of us in this 
room have gone through that type of frustration. And as one goes 
from specialist to specialist, not getting answers, the fear and the 
frustration build. There were many, many times when I would 
have loved for someone to say, aha, I know exactly what the prob- 



47 

lem is. I will not try tx) offer veterans speculation when I think we 
need to 

The Chairman. They don't want speculation. I'm with you up to 
that point. 

Mr. DORN. — Support clear research. 

The Chairman, Now I think — respectfully, that veers off into 
something, that doesn't really have a lot of relevance here. 

The question is what can we offer them? Let me give you some 
specifics. 

No. 1, to ones that are sick and can't work, they ought to have 
100 percent disability. That you can offer them. That you can fight 
for and that you should get and we shouldn't wait another day to 
do it. 

No. 2, if you've got family members that are sick, showing the 
same syndrome, they ought to get care from the Grovemment. The 
Defense Department ought to be fighting to get the money for it. 
If vou have to not build another battleship or something else in 
orcier to get the money to take care of the sick family members, you 
ought to stand up and say it. And so should the Secretary of De- 
fense, because the veterans are a lot more important than the 
equipment. 

[Applause.] 

I think there should be an epidemiological study of every single 
Gulf War veteran to find out what's going on out tnere and if some 
are being affected now, there might be some that are going to be 
affected 3 or 4 years from now. We could learn something and do 
something about helping them at the present time. 

I'm also concerned that there are a lot of other things that we 
haven't done here that we could have done with respect to getting 
to the bottom of these pretreatment items. I think we've got to 
streamline the appeals process within the Veterans' Administra- 
tion. There are a whole host of things. I've spelled them out. 

It would be very helpful that in the recommendations area, 
which is not designed to go to a single-cause issue, to go to the 
question of what do we do now to deal with the damage? It's very 
specific and it's very clear and I think it's sound. I think it's good 
national policy and I think the Defense Department today, the best 
thing it could do for itself as it's trying to fi^re out what happened 
is to go on an all points effort to deal witn the aftermath of this 
problem and see to it that these veterans and their families are 
getting the full scope of care immediately that they need and not 
wait to find out exactly what happened in each and every instance 
but to get that job done. 

I'll tell you very bluntly, that is not happening. And you can say 
this is way up on the priority list of the Secretary of Defense. But 
I've listened to the Secretary of Defense. I've listened to him on the 
radio. I've watched him on television. I've been waiting for him to 
talk about this problem. He can get a mike any time he wants it. 
He can step outside his office door and say, get the networks in 
here. I've got something to say on the Gulf War Syndrome issue. 
And you know what? They'll be there. They'll be happy to come. He 
can talk about this and he can deliver a message that's so powerful 
and so clear that shows where the priority is in treating these sick 
veterans and their famihes, that it's unmistakable. 



48 

The silence is deafening. That hasn't happened. And there's no 
excuse for it. I wouldn't have a Secretary of Defense that didn't do 
that, quite frankly, if I were running the show. It's not enough to 
do all the other things. 

I'm making my statement, Mr. Dom. You can make yours in a 
minute. I know you've got to defend the Department. That's your 
job. It doesn't happen to be my job. That's why we've got a balance 
of power difference in this Government of ours. 

I think he's got an obligation to speak out and give some leader- 
ship on this issue. I think he's got to address Col. Smith's problem 
and these other veterans who are here in this room and there are 
thousands more that aren't here. And especially these spouses and 
these sick kids. 

I've seen the sick kids. You ought to go see some of them. You 
ought to go talk with them. It will change your thinking about this 
problem, I guarantee it. It will make you a lot more passionate 
about it and a lot more determined to get to the bottom of it in 
terms of at least treatment for people, because we're not treating 
people today. Where does the spouse and the child go today? Can 
they go to the VA hospital? No, the VA hospital isn't geared to take 
them. It doesn't want them. 

Mr. DoRN. Senator, the law can be changed if you introduce the 
appropriate legislation. 

The Chairman. That's exactly right. The law can be changed and 
there are a lot of ways that can change it. 

It would certainly help if the Secretary of Defense, representing 
a continuum of decisionmakers, who organized this whole effort 
and sent everybody off to this war, would step up to the plate and 
sav, look, we've got a problem that's a fall-out of this war. We don't 
fully understand it. Maybe we didn't do some things right. Maybe 
we had the wrong sensors. Maybe we didn't anticipate the problem. 
Maybe when we get to the bottom, somebody's reputation is going 
to get nailed. Maybe it turns out somebody somewhere along the 
line said, we don't have to worry about this problem. It turns out 
we did have to worry about the problem. 

I've seen that happen before, too, and I'm sure you have. 

We give you a very good-sized budget. I had to fight to get $5 
million in the appropriation to do some medical research, which I 
did last fall on the Senate floor. It's been hard to get the money 
even spent, I might say, to hire the people to go out and do the 
work. That's another whole story. We won't get into that here 
today. 

But it would be very refreshing if the Defense Secretary said, 
we've got a very tight budget and I know it's hard to pay for the 
medical care here, but we're going to set aside a half-billion dollars 
out of the Defense Department. That's like pocket change in terms 
of the totals, but it's significant pocket change to say, I want to 
make sure that those problems are taken care of. And I don't want 
any bureaucratic mumbo-jumbo that the Veterans' Affairs Depart- 
ment doesn't have the money that it needs or somebody else doesn't 
have the money that it needs. 

This is a Defense Department operation. These people went to 
fight because we asked them to go. We're responsible for what hap- 
pens to them at the end of the day. They're sick and this is an 



49 

anomaly and we want to get to the bottom of it. And while we're 
trying to do that, we want them treated. We'll pay the bill. 

You know something? The people of the country would like to 
hear that because that's an acceptance of responsibility. That isn't 
to say that somebody did anything deliberately or anything of that 
sort. It's an acceptance of the responsibility after the fact of the 
human need that's there. That would be a wonderful gesture and 
it's what ought to be done. 

Now I'll bet you that nobody's even thought about that at the De- 
fense Department. Or if they have, they sure kept it a secret. 

Mr. DORN. Mr. Chairman, I began my testimony by reading a let- 
ter to all Persian Gulf veterans from Chairman Shalikashvili and 
jointly signed by the Secretary of Defense. I will be pleased to read 
it again into the record. 

I should point out, however, that that letter, which promises 
treatment, which encourages people to come forward, which tells 
people that there are no classification restrictions against what 
they may wish to say about their experiences, is the last of about 
a dozen messages that various people in the Defense Department 
have sent out within the past 8 to 10 months. 

Now it is true that when we send out a message to veterans 
which says, we're treating you, we do not get quite the same 
amount of attention as we can get with a more sensational story. 

However, we can discuss the resources being dedicated to this ef- 
fort. I can assure you that a soldier who comes forward, or a family 
member who comes forward to a military medical facility will re- 
ceive care. This information is often missed because it seems to be 
a positive reassurance which some people are not interested in 
hearing. 

Let me say it again loudly. If a soldier comes to a military treat- 
ment facility, he or she will be treated. If that soldier brings a 
member of his family in, he or she will be treated. If there is any- 
one in this audience who feels that has not happened, I will take 
the names, I will make the calls, and it will happen. 

The Chairman. Let's have order in the room. 

You have some people here that feel that way who are standing. 
They feel that they have been given the brush-off in that area. So 
we'll see to it that you have their names. 

Let me ask you this. When was this letter put out? 

Mr. DoRN. It's dated today. 

The Chairman. So, in other words, the letter was put out today. 

Mr. Dorn. That is the last, as I said, of about a dozen messages 
coming out of DoD on this matter. 

The Chairman. But this is the one you're citing because this is 
the one that's obviously directed to the veterans with the kind of 
focus that you've just described. 

But again let's be honest with each other. There's no coincidence, 
is there, in timing, that the fact this letter is coming out today and 
we're having this hearing today. 

Mr. Dorn. Yes, Senator, it absolutely is a coincidence because 
that letter has been working its way through the system for some 
time. 

I should mention that a week or so ago, a message came out from 
the Assistant Secretary of Health focusing on this. I will be glad 



50 

to provide you the list of a couple of dozen things that have gone 
out — either briefings or memoranda or messages — since the end of 
the Persian Gulf conflict. 

I should also point out something else, Senator, because there is 
a great deal of discussion about delay and attention. 

I am grateful that sometime late last spring or last summer, sev- 
eral Members of Congress, including Senator Shelby and Mr. Mont- 
gomery, began approaching the Defense Department, saying, "Hey, 
I keep getting groups of veterans from my constituency coming for- 
ward and they think they have a problem." Most of these veterans 
are in the reserves or National Guard units. 

It is not fair to say that this is a problem that everyone has been 
aware of since the end of the Persian Gulf War and that we are 
only beginning to attend to. It is fair to say that it is a problem 
that has become apparent over time, it did not crystallize either in 
the Congress or in the Defense Department until less than a year 
ago. 

We have, I believe, tried to attend to it since then. I think we 
can be faulted in any number of ways. You may be correct that, in 
spite of this letter and in spite of dozens of other attempts to com- 
municate, we have not done as good a job of getting the word out 
as we should have. 

I think you probably are also right that we had doctors in our 
military facilities and in VA facilities who, not having identified a 
pattern or syndrome, were not as sensitive to the matter as they 
might have been. There were also, as you know, up until just a few 
months ago, restrictions on treatment. 

The Chairman. I don't want to stop you. If you'll permit me to 
interrupt just for a minute because I want to hear your full state- 
ment. 

We have a vote that's on. The lights back there are on and I've 
got about 8 minutes to get to the floor. I want to make the vote. 
It's a cloture vote and my vote may decide the issue. I hesitate to 
interrupt this to do that. 

I want to recess the Committee for that purpose and then I'll 
come back and I'll let you finish. 

As nearly as I know, there has been no letter like this before 
today signed by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs and the Sec- 
retary of Defense sent to all Gulf War veterans. Now, am I right 
in believing that? 

Mr. DORN. That is correct. 

The Chairman. Isn't this the first letter like this? 

Mr. Dorn. I think the previous correspondence has gone to peo- 
ple in the military chain of command for treatment instructions 
and to commanders. 

The Chairman. OK. Let me let you check that while I'm gone. 

Let me also ask you to do something else. You offered to talk to 
the veterans here who feel that they're not getting the response to 
their medical problems. That's not an unlikely situation. There are 
a lot of veterans who feel that way. 

Mr. Dorn. Absolutely. 

The Chairman. You had some stand up over here. You've had 
three in uniform stand up over here. While I'm gone, I would ap- 



51 

predate it because I'm going to come back and resume the hearing, 
if you could chat with some of them. 

Mr. DoRN. Absolutely. 

The Chairman. I'd like it to be a civil conversation. I know every- 
body feels strongly about this. I'd ask everybody to conduct the dis- 
cussion in an orcferly manner here because I know this arouses a 
lot of tensions and feelings. But talk to Secretary Dom while I'm 
out of the room. 111 vote. I'll come back and then we'll finish up 
this session. 

The Committee stands in recess for a short period. 

[Recess.] 

The Chairman. Let me ask that everyone take a seat. 

Secretary Dorn has to step out for a minute. Kelly, would you ac- 
company Secretary Dom just for a minute. 

In any event, let us resume then, if you're ready to go. 

I want to just make a clarification on the memorandum today 
from the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs and Secretary Perry that's 
gone out to the Persian Gulf veterans. Does the statement cover 
Reservists and their families, including those both still in the Re- 
serves and those that may have left the Reserves since the War? 

Mr. Dorn. I think to the extent that the law permits, it does. I've 
got to check. 

If you're saying does it allow Reservists and their families to re- 
ceive medical care in regular military facilities, the answer is no, 
and that is a legal problem which we need to discuss with you and 
certainly need to discuss with the Committees on Armed Services 
and the Committees on Veterans' Affairs. 

The Chairman. Let's get a clarification on that as quickly as pos- 
sible. I would hope they would be included because obviously if 
they are out there part of the walking wounded, their problem is 
precisely the same as someone else. 

Mr. Dorn. Clearly, nothing in this changes existing law, and the 
existing law says active-duty personnel and their families get treat- 
ed in military treatment facilities, that Reservists, under normal 
circumstances, would go into the VA system. 

Now the law can be changed, but 

The Chairman. Here's what I'd like you to do. I'd like you to get 
together with the VA and let's resolve that we're covering every- 
body here. I don't want somebody that was out there and who's 
sick, operating side by side with somebody else who was out there 
and sick, and one person gets one kind of treatment and the other 
person either doesn't get treatment or gets a lesser kind of treat- 
ment. 

We obviously don't want that, so I just want to make sure that 
that gets reconciled within 24 hours in some way so that the mes- 
sage that's going out is that anybody that suited up and went is 
going to get the same response that's being pledged here within 
this Tetter. 

Mr. Dorn. Again, within the constraints of the law. We need to 
work, as I said, on the law. We may need to work on those changes, 
to make that happen. 

The Chairman. Ill tell you something. If we need to do that, I 
think I can make you a guarantee. If the Defense Department de- 
termines we need a change in the law in that area, let's get it 



52 

drafted. I'll offer it on the floor to the next bill through. I'll bet I 
can get close to 100 co-sponsors and we'll get it passed. There'll be 
no barrier, I don't believe, to getting that done if we need that, but 
I don't want that to become a Catch-22 either. 

So 

Mr. DORN. And it clearly is a limitation because, under current 
law, Reservists' families cannot be treated, either by the regular 
military facilities or in VA facilities. 

The Chairman. See, I don't know that we've had a situation 
quite like this one where we pressed so many Reservists into action 
quickly and so many of them are now sick. They were operating 
under color of the U.S. Government obviously in a war zone. So the 
last thing they deserve is an answer that says, sorry, we can't get 
to you because the law's that way. 

Mr. DoRN. I understand. 

The Chairman. You know, we've got to fix that problem. 

Mr. DORN. Mr. Chairman, may I say further in response to that, 
the discussions while you were voting were helpful. A couple of 
things are clear. 

One is that we need to send a clearer, stronger message to the 
physicians who are responsible for treating folks regarding the 
need to take these illnesses very seriously and regarding the need 
to lay out a very strict protocol for them. Our expressions of good 
intention must be reflected where it matters, and that's in individ- 
ual clinics around the Nation. We need to make sure it happens. 

The Chairman. Let me cover another item with you right up 
front. 

We have some service personnel in the room here other than the 
group that's accompanying you, and some have roles in the intel- 
ligence area and may have very important information, firsthand 
information that they gathered as part of their official duties, that 
they feel and know to be highly relevant to the inquiry we're doing. 
They've identified themselves. They want to convey that informa- 
tion, and they've been told by superiors not to do that. That they're 
not to give us classified information. 

I mean, my blood pressure goes to 5000 when that happens be- 
cause precisely what we need to have is all the information, and 
I would like an assurance fi'om you now, provided you have the au- 
thority to give it, and if not, then I want you to go and get it fi*om 
whoever you have to get it from, that present and former military 
personnel and Defense Department personnel are fully free and au- 
thorized to give us what information they have and not be in the 
situation where they're having a gun put to their head by the De- 
fense Department that says, no, you can't tell what you know. 

Mr. Dorn. The Secretary and the Chairman say that people 
should be free to talk about their experiences, but let me clarify it 
further, addressing specifically that clause which says that this in- 
formation is not classified. 

The Chairman. See, I think all this information related to this 
topic should now be declassified. I think everybody in the public do- 
main ought to have a right to see it, including the medical re- 
searchers and others. But very specifically, I don't want any of us 
who have proper congressional roles to play here to be denied ac- 



53 

cess tx) any of this information. That is absolutely unacceptable and 
I want to get that cleared up today. 

Mr. DORN, Let me clarify further. 

The Chairman. Now, earlier, you made a statement or a state- 
ment was made by one of the three of you that all of the chemical 
agents and related equipment that was discovered was found 
stored far from the Kuwait field of operations. 

At An Nasiriyah, and we've got a map over here where bombings 
occurred and many chemical weapons were found, that area is only 
125 miles from the Kuwait/Saudi border and it's well within SCUD 
missile range of most coalition deployments. Weren't U.S. forces lo- 
cated around this area? 

Dr. Prociv. Yes, they were. 

I'll say frankly the word, far, got in the last draft of Dr. Dom's 
testimony this morning. I thought we had that fixed to be stricken 
from the draft testimony that he was given. 

It is not correct to say that all munitions were found far from the 
KTL, sir. 

The Chairman. Well, that's an important clarification. So there 
were instances then where some of these munitions were found 
close to where we had troop deployments? 

Dr. Prociv. That's correct. 

The Chairman. This would be one. Can you cite others? 

Dr. Prociv. Not off the top of my head. Just a second. 

[Pause.] 

I think the answer, sir, is that we attacked Talil but U.N. inspec- 
tions show nothing in that after the War. 

That's it. 

The Chairman. But in terms of An Nasiriyah here, we did find 
them there. Do I assume that we continued to use our forces to se- 
cure that area as the War went along? We would not have just 
been in that area and then left, would we? 

Dr. Prociv. I don't know those details of how long we were in 
that area. My understanding is that munitions were found not at 
the site we bombed, but some 15 nautical miles away from where 
we attacked. 

The Chairman. How close would U.S. forces have been stationed 
to that? 

Dr. Prociv. I think they were across the river. Not stationed but 
during the ground force phase of the campaign, that's as close as 
we got. 

The Chairman. The river would be how wide, roughly? What are 
we talking about? 

Dr. Prociv. It's a desert area so I expect it's not very wide there. 

The Chairman. So it's a pretty narrow river? 

Dr. Prociv. Right. 

The Chairman. Our troops were right across this narrow river 
from where we found these things. Is that right? 

Dr. Prociv. They got that close but I don't know how long they 
were there. 

The Chairman. We've got a lot of questions here. We've covered 
a lot of ground earlier with Senator Bennett, and I'm going to give 
vou a number of questions for the record to ask you to respond to. 



54 

and to respond to fiilly. I know you will. I know it'll be your inten- 
tion to do that. 

I don't want to call you back to pick up the loose ends. I will do 
that if necessary, so I want to make sure that some staff aid 
doesn't put a lot of doubletalk in the answers. I want good, 
straight, pointed answers to the questions I'm going to give you for 
the record. I would ask to have them answered that way. 

I want to make another suggestion to you, because when we 
started out on this way back when, it was to try to understand 
what the control regimes were that we had within our own Govern- 
ment that would have prevented Saddam Hussein from getting the 
things that he needed to make biological weapons or the things he 
needed to make chemical weapons. 

It was really astonishing to find that our own Government had 
licensed a shipment of those very things to Saddam Hussein and 
many of them going directly to military units. There was no subter- 
fuge, they were going to go right into his war production system. 
Then, of course, when we decided the necessity of going to war with 
Iraq, we had our own troops suddenly facing weapons that we had 
helped develop by providing critical items to them. 

You're nodding in the affirmative. I don't want to put words in 
your mouth, but that's correct, is it not? 

Mr. DORN. As my opening statement says, it appears that our ex- 
port control regime was not effective. 

The Chairman. Right. We helped him create these diabolical 
weapons by supplying a lot of the critical things he needed for 
them. We also knew that he had a history of using these weapons. 
He used them on his own people. He used them on the Kurds years 
earlier, gassed and killed a lot of people. 

So when we went into the War, we must have anticipated a real 
problem here. I mean we just didn't send these chemical alarms 
out just to have something to do in all these MOPP 4 outfits. We 
sent them out there because we anticipated that there was a real 
threat, did we not? 

Mr. DoRN. That is true, sir. 

The Chairman. We understood that he had this capability and 
that it posed a threat to our people and we took various steps. We 
had the pretreatment pills, we had training, we had chemical mon- 
itors out in the field, we had teams designed to do this. All of that 
certainly creates a very strong supposition that we were worried 
about what he might do. I don't think the Defense Department did 
this for an exercise. There was a real worry that he might use 
these chemical weapons or biological weapons, wasn't there? 

Mr. DoRN. There was. 

The Chairman. There was that worry. So these precautions were 
taken. 

Now, as it turns out, and this is where the firsthand statements 
of veterans I think are so important because they're the ones that 
were out there, we weren't, and they're the ones, in many cases, 
who are sick. 

When these alarms go off, I must say to you, it's incredible and 
unbelievable and unsustainable and shouldn't, I don't think, be of- 
fered to come here today, any of you and say, look we had all these 
chemical alarms and they kept going off in various areas through 



55 

the War zone, but they were all misfires. It was all accidental 
alarms. It doesn't mean there were any chemicals in the area. 
There are no chemical incidents, and so forth and so on. 

Even as Senator Bennett pointed out, going back to some of our 
firsthand accounts, that in many cases the gear was picked up 
afterward and who knows what happened to it. We've had lots and 
lots of other accounts on that. 

These alarms went off for a reason, and I think it's clear, it's 
clear in my mind they went off because the things they were de- 
signed to detect came into that zone and set them off. I mean, they 
didn't ^0 off ahead of time, they didn't go off afterward; they went 
off during the time that things were going on in the War zone that 
they were designed to detect. 

I think it's very important that the Defense Department bring it- 
self to face the reality that a lot of veterans were exposed to chemi- 
cal agents during this war period. And whether they were fired in 
an offensive capacity in some instances, or delivered that way, as 
I also think they were, is really incidental here. 

The question is, did people come into contact with these agents, 
and in all likelihood some biological agents as well, and in some 
mixture that we don't yet fully understand, is this the foundation 
for the sickness that a lot of tnem have? I think the facts now are 
essentially inescapable that that is a significant part of this prob- 
lem. 

If the Defense Department can't believe that or won't believe 
that, or if there are institutional reasons, or numerous other rea- 
sons that prevent that kind of acknowledgement, I think this prob- 
lem's going to get a lot worse. In the end, the main losers are going 
to be the veterans and their families. 

The second loser is going to be the Defense Department because 
you're going to end up with your reputation in ruins. I'm not exag- 
gerating and so I don't want to be misunderstood when I say I'll 
bring veterans in here and have them, one after the other, and 
their family members, for days on end, I will do that if I have to, 
because I want this problem paid attention to. They don't want to 
come. I don't want to ask them, but we will ask them and they will 
come. That's not the way to solve this problem, but if there is no 
other way, then that's the way we will do it. 

This is not a shot across the bow. This is about as direct as the 
communications get between the Legislative Branch and the Exec- 
utive Branch. 

I will fight to get you what you need. You want money to treat 
sick veterans and their families? I'll go to the floor. I'll get a coali- 
tion of Republicans and Democrats. I think you saw that here 
today. This is a bipartisan concern. If we need to change the laws, 
we'll get the laws changed. 

What we won't do is allow this thing to be swept under the rug 
or covered up or fuzzed off in some way to say that it's not a big 
deal or it's not very serious, or something else. 

So to the extent that there's a willingness to acknowledge this 
problem and deal with it directly and solve it, then you're going to 
find you've got a lot of friends here that will help you get that done. 

Every additional minute that there's foot dragging, or Catch-22 
logic or fine-shaving of statements and so forth, for whatever the 



56 

reasons, then you're going to have a war, and it won't be a war you 
win in the end, and it's one you shouldn't wage. 

I'd Hke to have an understanding here that we solve this prob- 
lem. These veterans, I've talked to hundreds of them now directly. 
These are not malingerers, these are not malcontents, these are not 
people who are having fantasies. These are sick people who, in 
every case, were well when they went to the War or they could not 
have even gone to the War. In many cases, they are people who 
were among the most fit. People that have gone through survival 
school, paratroop training, run marathons, and various other 
things. The fact that their health has been turned upside down is 
a genuine national tragedy. We can't hold back anything that they 
need to get to the bottom of this and fix their problems as best we 
can. I do want you to talk to some of these spouses and children 
because you're not going to appreciate this problem until you do. 

When you talk to a veteran's wife whose hair is falling out and 
whose reproductive cycle has been knocked completely haywire who 
was healthy before ner husband came back from the Gulf War, 
you're going to understand this problem in a way you can't under- 
stand it before that. You've got to put a real face, lots of real faces 
on this thing to understand tne severity of it. 

I think the Defense Secretary himself needs to do some of this, 
to make it real and tangible in terms of the urgency of this prob- 
lem. 

I'm going to expect a good faith response from everybody here. 
What we can't tolerate and what I won't tolerate is a situation 
where anybody's intimidated, anybody's called up and it is sug- 
gested to them that they give a programmed answer. Anybody told, 
don't come forward, or in some oblique way is urged not to come 
forward, I mean that's not tolerable. 

I don't believe you would do that or countenance that and so I 
would ask you, as an agent for this Committee on this issue, pursu- 
ant to this discussion, to please go back to the hierarchy up and 
down the line and make sure the message is delivered as clearly 
as you are capable of doing it — and you are a very good commu- 
nicator — that we've got to get to the bottom of this and we've got 
to do it as fast as we possibly can. And whatever it takes to do it, 
has to be done. 

The old suppositions and the old ways of analyzing the problem 
I think have to be put aside to see if there isn't some new way to 
look at it. 

Senator Bennett, whose father was a Senator before him, has a 
long record of support of defense issues. I think he gave you some 
very wise counsel and advice, and that is that this is a problem 
that may have to be looked at. You're not going to find the answer 
until you escape from a preconditioned way of looking at it, to look 
at it in a new way and in a fresh way. 

I'm going to expect that done and I'd like to end on that kind of 
a note of constructive agreement that we will cooperate in achiev- 
ing those goals. But I don't want there to be any illusion or mis- 
understanding. We have to get to the bottom of this, and if I'm not 
satisfied within a short period of time that we're really moving at 
top speed, and that we're escaping from all of the kind of double- 
talk that's been associated with many cases up until now, I'm going 



57 

to start holding the hearings, and you know, I don't want to have 
to do it that way. 

Mr. DoRN. Mr. Chairman, I hear you clearly. I will try to re- 
spond. 

Thank you. 

The Chairman. We're going to give you questions for the record 
and we would appreciate, as I say, full responses to those and we'll 
look forward to getting those back. 

The Committee stands in recess until our next hearing, which 
will start at 2:45 p.m. 

[Whereupon, at 2:01 p.m., the Committee was recessed, to recon- 
vene the same day, Wednesday, May 25, 1994, at 2:45 p.m., in the 
same place.] 



58 

AFTERNOON SESSION 

The Chairman. [2:57 p.m.] The Committee will come to order. 

Let me welcome all those in attendance. We're starting a little 
late because we ran so long this morning. 

We're joined by Senator Kerry who has a very important interest 
in this matter and who's been out into this area. Let me call on 
Senator Kerry. 

OPENING STATEMENT OF SENATOR JOHN F. KERRY 

Senator Kerry. Mr. Chairman, thank you very much. First of all, 
I want to apologize to you. I had wanted to be here earlier, but un- 
fortunately, the way the Senate works, as you well know, some- 
times that's impossible. But I wanted to come here now to thank 
you for your tremendous leadership on this. I have really been im- 
pressed, as a veteran, particularly given my long involvement in 
the effort to get an Agent Orange presumption and a bill through 
here finally, I'm particularly sensitized to the stonewalling and re- 
actions people will put in the path of those who put on the uniform. 

I was quite surprised to find it, and I am personally extraor- 
dinarily gratified and impressed by your pursuit of this. You've 
been passionate on the floor, you've been dogged in the Committee 
and in private, and a lot of veterans around the country I think are 
deeply indebted to you for your concern that regrettably has not 
been as forthcoming as it should have been given the lessons we've 
learned from other entities that are responsible for behavior toward 
those who put on the uniform in this country. 

There always ought to be a presumption, I believe, and that's 
something we argued about very hard on the Agent Orange issue, 
a presumption in favor of the veteran. 

You shouldn't have to beat down the doors to get people to level 
with you and explain to you what may or may not be factual. You 
have a done a brilliant job of forcing some information out on this 
that lends a much clearer view about what the possibilities are and 
what may or may not have happened. So I want to thank you. 

I also want to thank those who have suffered because of this ex- 
posure, whatever it may be, yet to be fully explained, but I really 
want to thank them for their pursuit of this and for their willing- 
ness to endure. 

I always thought that after we won the Agent Orange victory, we 
had learned a lesson and there would not have to be another gen- 
eration coming along and enduring. So I'm here expressing per- 
sonal anger and frustration with the fact that it's been a real tug 
of war to get at this. I cannot underscore enough my own personal 
admiration and respect for your efforts to try to get at it, and I 
think a lot of veterans just feel gratified that this Committee is 
doing it, and I support you in those efforts. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much, Senator Kerry. Those 
words mean something special to me, coming from you, given your 
history years ago as a Vietnam War veteran and since that time. 

I think we've made some important progress with this work, with 
your help and the help of others, to get to the bottom of what has 
happened here and why we have so many sick veterans and in- 
creasingly so many sick veteran family members. 



59 

Spouses whose reproductive cycle is not working properly or suf- 
fering hair loss, a lot of the symptoms that the veterans themselves 
are experiencing and now increasingly their children. This was an 
unanticipated finding by us, as we got more deeply into this, but 
the numbers are growing in this area, and we're now pursuing that 
aspect of it. 

But the question of exposure to chemical agents and to biological 
agents in this war zone and the implications for veterans and also 
a lot of active-duty personnel, there are a lot of active-duty person- 
nel who are afraid now to come forward because there's a down- 
sizing going on and they don't want to be invited to leave because 
they've been identified as having a medical problem. 

Many of the veterans who were already out of the service tell us 
that if you don't get any real help out of the VA or in terms of a 
disability rating, and you're too sick to work, you're absolutely un- 
insurable, the insurance companies don't want to see you because 
you need the help and you need the coverage. 

So there's a diabolical end-game situation facing more and more 
Desert Storm veterans. And when you think back to the parades, 
the deserved parades at the time as the war was ending and people 
were coming back, they don't mean much now if a veteran is sick 
or his family members are sick, and they need a response, they 
need a proper diagnosis, and they need proper care. 

Even today with respect to the family members, we were able to 
get from the Defense Department this very day, coincidentally, a 
statement to all Gulf War veterans, signed by the Chairman of the 
Joint Chiefs and the Defense Secretary indicating that they are 
now being urged to come forward, and they will be given help. That 
is a constructive statement. Now we've got to see that statement 
fully implemented, and there are questions as to how it affects Re- 
servists and others. 

I've also made the pledge today, just for your own information, 
that if we don't get the response that is needed here, I'm quite pre- 
pared to conduct hearings where we have veterans come in endless 
numbers. I hate to go through the process of asking people to make 
that effort, but if it's needed in order to really force this issue to 
a proper conclusion, we'll do that, and we'll have hearings that go 
on as long as they need to go on, until the powers that be under- 
stand that this is not going to be an issue that's swept under the 
rug. We're not going to have a 20-year hiatus as we had with Agent 
Orange. We've had a lot of veterans from Desert Storm already die, 
who went over in perfect health. 

Senator Kerry. Well, it's very curious, I must say. I mentioned 
a moment ago to the staff that I was in Kuwait about 2 days after 
the liberation as part of the observer group from the Senate, and 
apart from biological or chemical, I found that the acridity of the 
air and the thickness of the air just from the oil fires. I remember 
turning to one of the soldiers there in Kuwait and asking him 
whether the air he was breathing bothered him, and how he felt 
about being outdoors. In fact, several people there who were from 
Reserve units out of Massachusetts mentioned to me that they 
were very concerned about breathing the air. 

I've got to tell you, for the 24 hours or whatever that I was there, 
I found a significant impact and discomfort from the air I was 



60 

breathing, not unlike Bangkok where you can go out and you can't 
run. In 15 minutes, you feel your lungs searing. 

I certainly felt the effect of those fires and wnthin miles around, 
when it rained buildings were covered, cars were covered. I mean, 
you had, as far away as in Rihad, you had buildings that turned 
black by virtue of the rain. You had black rain. So that means you 
have particles in the air, and if you have particles in the air, you 
are clearly breathing those particles. I don't know what the air 
quality was, I don't even know if we measured that air quality, but 
I remember distinctly feeling it and having concern expressed to 
me by people. 

Now I'm told that that has not yet showed up or there isn't some 
indication of that, but I would personally be surprised if, for those 
who were there for some period of time, there isn't some kind of 
impact or potential for it. 

Anyway, I think you're doing very important work here. I apolo- 
gize to those who wish more of us were here and able to stay, but 
the Senate doesn't always allow that. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much again, Senator Kerry. 

Let me introduce our first witness this afternoon. Dr. Mitchell 
Wallerstein, who is the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Counterpro- 
liferation Policy, Department of Defense, and we're pleased to have 
you. 

You've come in the trail of an earlier discussion this morning, as 
you know. Why don't you proceed and give us your statement at 
this point, and then we'll go from there. 

OPENING STATEMENT OF DR. MITCHELL WALLERSTEIN, DEP- 
UTY ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COUNTERPROLIFERATION 
POLICY, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE, WASfflNGTON, DC 

Dr. Wallerstein. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. 

My prepared remarks are really not so much a statement as a 
comment that is supplementary to the testimony given this morn- 
ing by Under Secretary Dorn. And so I simply wanted to say that 
I'm pleased to be here this afternoon to answer any questions that 
you might have regarding export controls and DoD's counterpro- 
liferation policies, particularly in the areas of chemical and biologi- 
cal weapons proliferation. We obviously wish to be fully cooperative 
with your hearing, your investigation, and are prepared to do so. 

As Under Secretary Dorn explained, the Department of Defense 
was a major contributor, in 1990, to the development of the En- 
hanced Proliferation Control Initiative, which expanded DoD's role 
in the review of export requests, and which promoted greater inter- 
agency cooperation through the establishment of interagency sub- 
groups on export controls. 

Let me underscore once again, however, the fact that DoD has 
never been in the business of export control licensing, either for 
dual-use items or for munitions. 

We do, however, continue to be an active participant in the li- 
cense review process, particularly and increasingly, in areas involv- 
ing chemical and biological materials. These are coordinated multi- 
laterally through the Australia group. 



61 

We will continue to play a leading role in the U.S. Government's 
efforts to counter the proliferation of chemical and biological weap- 
ons, but we do not license. We are simply a reviewer of licenses. 

As you know, in the period immediately prior to the conflict in 
the Persian Gulf, DoD's role in the review of chemical and biologi- 
cal related dual-use export licenses for non-communist countries, 
such as Iraq, focused only on the assessment of risk of diversion 
of these dual-use items to the Soviet Union or to other CoCom pro- 
scribed destinations. 

We had, at that time, no authority to review licenses destined for 
Iraq, per se, in terms of their risk of proliferation. Additionally, of 
the export licenses that we did review for Iraq, we are aware of 
none that supported Iraq's chemical or biological weapons efforts. 

Since the revelations of the Persian Gulf War, law and regula- 
tions have been modified to permit us to be more aggressive with 
regard to the review of dual-use export licenses to proliferant states 
per se. 

As you know, the Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative was 
passed in November 1990, and, of course, Iraq today is subject to 
a total embargo on such items. We weigh in heavily now with rec- 
ommendations against approval of cases where the end user is 
questionable, or where the items appear to have no legitimate de- 
fense or peaceful purpose. 

As you also know, Mr. Chairman, the Administration's bill for 
the renewal of the Export Administration Act, which is now before 
your Committee, would give us the latitude to further review a 
large number of cases, and we could designate the categories that 
we wish to review. 

In addition to these initiatives, we have now in prospect the mul- 
tilateral support of 157 states, which have signed the Chemical 
Weapons Convention. When it is ratified, these states will under- 
take not to acquire, retain, or transfer chemical weapons or their 
precursors for the purposes prohibited under the CWC. 

Finally, the President has directed that we pursue measures to 
strengthen the 1975 Biological Weapons Convention in order to en- 
hance transparency and to promote increased verifiability of the 
use of these biological agents for peaceful and civilian activities. 

Mr. Chairman, that concludes my comment. I'd be very happy to 
take your questions. 

The Chairman. How long have you been in your present job? 

Dr. Wallerstein. Since July 1993, sir. 

The Chairman. What did you do before that? 

Dr. Wallerstein. Before that, I was the Deputy Executive Offi- 
cer of the National Academy of Sciences. 

The Chairman. Did you have a position at any time in the De- 
fense Department or anything related to it prior to that last assign- 
ment? 

Dr. Wallerstein. No, sir. 

The Chairman. So you were not, in a sense, in the Government, 
you were not in the loop when the request was made for these ex- 
port licenses on, say, the biological items that were sent over to 
Iraq? 

Dr. Wallerstein. That's correct, sir. 



86-55R n - oc. _ -3 



62 

The Chairman. You've reviewed all that carefully, however, in 
terms of what happened on somebody else's watch? 

Dr. Wallerstein. I have, yes. 

The Chairman. Now, and I want you to think very carefully 
about this because I'm prepared to challenge your statement, and 
that doesn't mean your statement might not be right, but did I un- 
derstand you to say that none of the items that were shipped over 
to Saddam Hussein ended up being used in his biological or chemi- 
cal weapons capability, things that were licensed and shipped from 
the United States? 

Dr. Wallerstein. No, sir. What I said was that in none of the 
cases that DoD reviewed are we aware that those items wound up 
being used in chemical or biological weapons programs. 

The Chairman. OK 

Dr. Wallerstein. But again, let me repeat that we had only 
very limited review authority, because it was only the retransfer 
issue at that time. It was only the potential for retransfer of items 
to the Soviet Union or to other communist countries at that time 
were we authorized to review. 

The Chairman. Then you would not have reviewed the requests 
that were made directly by the Iraqis that came into the research 
labs here for some of these very dangerous biological specimens 
which we, in fact, shipped to them. You would not have reviewed 
those? 

Dr. Wallerstein. Only if the case was referred to us by the 
Commerce Department and, again, they would not have been refer- 
ring those cases unless they anticipated the possibility of 
retransfer. 

The Chairman. In other words, those would not have been with- 
in the scope of your review? 

Dr. Wallerstein. Not as a general practice, that's right. 

The Chairman. OK, so you can't assert, one way or the other, as 
to whether those items ended up in Saddam Hussein's war ma- 
chine, the stuff that we know we sent him, not for transshipment 
to somebody else, but the end shipment to him. 

Dr. Wallerstein. That's correct. 

The Chairman. OK. Because it's clear, when you go back and fol- 
low the pattern of what was being done here, that when they were 
requesting these biological specimens, they were being shipped over 
to, in some cases, the front operations within the Iraqi government, 
that were in fact part of their military apparatus. You are aware 
of that? 

Dr. Wallerstein. I have read information to that effect, yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Did vou happen by chance to see the letter, 
which had a little bit of*^a frantic tone to it, from Secretary Baker 
in the Bush Administration, as the war was getting ready to start, 
that we suddenly stopped the shipments to Iraq of these kinds of 
items, things that could be either used in chemical weapons or bio- 
logical weapons or nuclear weapons. Are you aware of that letter 
that was sent around? 

Dr. Wallerstein. No, sir, I am not. 

The Chairman. We ought to give you a copy of it, because it was 
a case of suddenly it dawned on people that we were going to have 
a real problem facing off against weapons that we had inadvert- 



63 

ently, one presumes, helped create. And that's part of our problem 
here, but your testimony is that you only looked at the things that 
were going to be transshipped to the so-called rogue regimes that 
were on the bad guy list at the time. Is that right? 

Dr. Wallerstein. To the countries that were proscribed by 
CoCom, which were the Soviet Union, China, and the other com- 
munist countries of the Warsaw Treaty Organization. 

I might also mention, Mr. Chairman, that of course, these tech- 
nologies are classically dual use in nature. They have both commer- 
cial and military applications. And so, in the period prior to the 
outbreak of the war, there was a legitimate comm.ercial trade 
which may have contributed to the problem, but that is beyond the 
purview of the Department of Defense. 

The Chairman. Are you in a position to tell us whether Iraq's bi- 
ological warfare program was offensive in nature? 

Dr. Wallerstein. The indications certainly after the war were 
that, from the evidence obtained, they were making strong efforts 
to obtain an offensive capability. Whether they had actually 
achieved that or not, I do not know, personally. 

The Chairman. Were they capable of incorporating those items 
into weapons systems? 

Dr. Wallerstein. In my judgment, they would have been capa- 
ble of doing that, yes, sir. 

The Chairman. You know, after the war, after even the bombing 
destroyed a lot of the weapons, we had taken into possession, very 
large quantities of chemical weapons. You are aware of that? 

Dr. Wallerstein. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. And in a deliverable form, a variety of deliver- 
able forms. 

What initiatives has the United States undertaken now to ensure 
an effective successor regime to CoCom? 

Dr. Wallerstein. That process is now fairly well advanced, and 
I am a major player in that process representing my Department. 
We are, as you know, negotiating not just with the original 17 
CoCom member states, but with a larger group that includes many 
of the other advanced industrialized countries of Europe, such as 
Switzerland, Sweden, and Austria. 

Agreement has been reached in principle for a regime that will 
have two pillars; a dual-use pillar similar to the old CoCom, as well 
as an armaments pillar. We hope very much that the arms pillar 
will focus particularly on these countries of greatest proliferation 
concern. 

The final details of the regime are still being negotiated, but it 
is our expectation, and we have preliminary agreement among the 
participating states, that the new regime will begin operation in 
the latter part of this year, after October. 

The Chairman. What kind of controls would you recommend that 
we have in place to prevent chemical and biological, and for that 
matter, nuclear materials getting to countries in situations such as 
we've now seen where Iraq exploited our openness to their advan- 
tage and then ultimately as a threat to us and to others? What 
kind of controls do we need to have in this area to avoid having 
another one of these situations arise? 



64 

Dr. Wallerstein. Well, we do have in place the Enhanced Pro- 
liferation Control Initiative, which provides us with a safety net. 
Thus, in situations where an end user is considered to be question- 
able, where a company knows or has reason to know that an end 
user may not be intending to use the item in question for civilian 
application, it should be applying for an export license and the 
Government has the means to insist that they apply for such a 
validated license. 

In addition, as I said, the new Export Administration Act will 
provide the necessary framework for the Department of Defense 
and for other national security-related agencies to request to re- 
view all broad categories of licenses related to chemical and biologi- 
cal precursors and other related items. 

On the multilateral front, we have the Australia g^oup operating 
today. As I noted in my comment, we hope very much that perhaps 
by early 1995, we will have a ratified Chemical Weapons Conven- 
tion, which will then obligate the 157 signatory countries. This will 
include most, but I should say not "all" of the countries of concern, 
to a transparency regime where we and the multilateral authority, 
more importantly, would have the ability to inspect and to ensure 
that items were not being turned to military use. 

I will add that the biological weapons problem is somewhat more 
difficult. It is, as I'm sure you know, much easier to conceal and 
it therefore presents us with a much greater challenge. 

President Clinton, as part of his announcements last fall, has 
called for enhanced transparency measures to be developed in the 
Biological Weapons Convention. We are pursuing that and hope to 
be working with the other countries that are signatories to the Bio- 
lo^cal Weapons Convention to promote greater transparency there. 

The Chairman. You know, as we started down the track of trying 
to determine what was causing the sickness of the Gulf War veter- 
ans and their family members, and taking the symptoms and try- 
ing to overlay on the symptoms what kinds of exposures could have 
caused those health effects and health symptoms, that by the proc- 
ess of elimination, we worked our way back to biological exposures. 

It was out of that that we continued to work back on an inves- 
tigative trail to fmd that the United States had authorized, at the 
highest levels of our Government, the shipment of these very kinds 
of biological items to Saddam Hussein going into his war-making 
machine. And so there's a very powerful case and logic and se- 
quence of factual activity that would suggest that we had a big 
hand, presumably unwittingly, in helping him develop his biologi- 
cal warfare capability. 

It's led me to believe that we ought to be very careful about who 
we're shipping these biological items to, and the fact that they are 
easier to conceal also should raise our alarm levels because I think 
you've got more and more of these regimes that are willing to go 
to any lengths in using these diabolical weapons even against their 
own people, which Saddam Hussein has a history of doing. 

It seems to me we ought to be trving to strengthen the Biological 
Warfare Convention. I'm just wond.ering what you think we can do 
in that area, given the fact that it's in a sense more difficult to do 
the monitoring. How do we tighten this thing down so we don't end 
up having another situation like this arise in the future? 



65 

Dr. Wallerstein. I think that the key, Senator, Hes in trans- 
parency. Where countries are not prepared to be fully transparent 
in their dealings, which involves intrusive inspections. 

I might note that that raises, in turn, the problem of proprietary 
information, because we have to bear in mind that it's the same 
technology that's used in pharmaceutical manufacturing, for exam- 
ple. And so just as we would have to prevail upon our pharma- 
ceutical companies to be open to this kind of inspection, so would 
other countries. But it is only through intrusive inspection, and by 
countries agreeing to be open, that we can have any kind of con- 
fidence that these things are not being hidden. 

I might also note, in response to your earlier comment, that the 
Defense Technology Security Administration, which is a part of the 
program elements that I am responsible for, has had an on-going 
program to identify the linkages between the front companies and 
the cutouts and the third party purchasers that are used, not just 
by Iraq, but by other proliferant countries, and we are pursuing 
this very aggressively. And, again, as we now assert the right to 
review these cases, we will be looking very carefully for these kinds 
of practices to prevent their recurrence in the future. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you what role, if any, have you 
played in the Department of Defense's investigation into the Iraqi 
chemical and biological warfare programs and into the discovery of 
or use of unconventional weapons during the Persian Gulf War? 

Dr. Wallerstein. My office, which is newly reorganized as part 
of the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, does play 
a direct role in support of UNSCOM and the IAEA. Indeed, one of 
my staff participated as the chief inspector on a recent mission to 
Iraq, where he directed the emplacement of chemical air samplers 
at strategic points around the country, to ensure that the Iraqi 
chemical capability is not reconstructed. 

We have also been active in other aspects of ensuring that the 
thorough-going inspections that have been undertaken since the 
end of the war are completed. That is, we've been marshalling the 
capabilities of the laboratories and of other U.S. Government tech- 
nical agencies to provide UNSCOM with the necessary technology 
that it needs to monitor on a long-term basis. And the same appHes 
to the IAEA in the nuclear area. 

The Chairman. How much knowledge do you have, as you sit 
here today, on the chemical and biological capability that Saddam 
Hussein had crafted for himself prior to the war? 

Dr. Wallerstein. Sir, I only know what I have read in the brief- 
ing papers. As we discussed earlier, I was not part of the U.S. Gov- 
ernment at that time. 

The Chairman. You have access to any and all records of that 
kind if you seek that access? 

Dr. Wallerstein. I believe I do, ves, sir. 

The Chairman. I think it would probably be a smart thing for 
you to do. If you're going to figure out a way to make sure that we 
don't have a problem like this in the future, it's very important to 
do a careful reconstruction of what happened because I think the 
evidence now is so powerful, from so many different directions. 

I don't know if you were here earlier, but we heard some infor- 
mation presented by the witnesses from the Defense Department, 



66 

an estimate of some 14,000 sensors, chemical agent sensors put out 
into the field, that might have been going off on the average 3 
times a day, but they were all false alarms. 

Dr. Wallerstein. Yes, sir. I unfortunately was not present this 
morning for the testimony, but I have read that assertion. 

I might just add that one of the other responsibilities of my office 
is to work with the Services and with the acquisition part of the 
Pentagon to develop new sensor capabilities. We are actively pursu- 
ing as a top priority the procurement of new battlefield sensors in 
both the biological and the chemical area. We very much hope that, 
when and if we have to put soldiers in harm's way again, we will 
have more accurate and more rapidly responsive capabilities. 

The Chairman. Does that also include the development of new 
chemical agent detection alarms? 

Dr. Wallerstein. Yes, sir. 

The Chairman. Are we still using the ones that we used in the 
Persian Gulf War? Are those still a standard issue item? 

Dr. Wallerstein. There has been no new technology introduced 
in that area to my knowledge, sir, at this point. But, there is sub- 
stantial research going on. 

The Chairman. You know, the amazing thing about that, I mean, 
it's so incredible that it's unbelievable but if you put those two ar- 

faments together, it would be that the alarms that we had that 
ept going off when they shouldn't have and therefore were not 
useful to us, we're still using. 

I mean, it just 

Dr. Wallerstein. It takes time to come up with a better techno- 
logical solution, but as I said, it is one of the top priorities that 
have been identified. We've had a series of groups that have been 
working under the Under Secretary for Acquisition. That was for- 
merly Dr. Deutch. Dr. Deutch is still overseeing this process. He 
is now the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and the chemical and bio- 
logical sensor issue is one of the top priorities that have been iden- 
tified for further work, and to field as rapidly as possible. 

The Chairman. Do we have biological sensor capabilities that are 
now able to be deployed and give us real-time readings on biologi- 
cal exposures and biological weapons being used? 

Dr. Wallerstein. No, sir. There is no fielded biological sensor. 

The Chairman. How close are we to having something in that 
area? 

Dr. Wallerstein. I believe that we expect that we may have 
something before the turn of the century. We would be able to have 
something fielded by then, sir. 

The Chairman. Does North Korea have a chemical weapons ca- 
pability? 

Dr. Wallerstein, I would defer that question if I may, please, 
to my colleague from the Central Intelligence Agency, who will be 
appearing as your next witness. 

The Chairman. Do you know one way or the other? 

Dr. Wallerstein. I have seen some information, but I'm not in 
a position to reach a net judgment on that. 

The Chairman. My understanding is that they apparently have 
both, chemical and biological. It's a very important question, as vou 
know, because things are tense there and you've just indicated that 



67 

we do not have a biological weapon sensing capability that we can 
deploy at the present time. And we're still using the chemical sen- 
sors that the earlier witnesses told us don't work properly. 

So it would seem to me that if you put all that together and if, 
in fact, the North Koreans have that kind of a capability, somebody 
would have to think an awfully long time before they order Amer- 
ican troops into a combat situation where we can't be assured that 
they're going to have adequate protection against those two kinds 
of weapons systems. Isn't that right? 

Dr. Wallersteen. I know that Greneral Luck, the Commander of 
U.S. Forces Korea, has given substantial attention to this problem. 
He has indicated that he is satisfied with the readiness of his 
forces to anticipate any scenario that might involve the use of 
weapons of mass destruction. 

The Chairman. Well, I hope that's right. 

When I went back, in an earlier staff review I asked the question 
of how many of the senior military officers that were directing the 
war were up in the area where the chemical alarms were going off. 
I found that very few, if any, were. They were much further back, 
and it didn't give me a very good feeling. 

These folks think there are adequate protections, I kind of like 
the picture of the Civil War generals that got on the horses and 
got out in front, and I'd feel a little more comfortable and a little 
more confident in the judgments if I saw some of the major signal 
callers in the strategy right up in the front areas breathing the 
same air, working with the same chemical detectors, relying on 
their own advice in terms of putting their own health at risk. I 
have a bit of bitter feeling about it because I've seen so many sick 
veterans. 

So I would hope that the people who have this level of confidence 
would, you know, we'd see them right up there, right up in the 
front when the going is unpleasant, and not back in some protected 
base area working out of a bunker. 

I think that's all I have for you right now. I appreciate your com- 
ing. I'd urge you to stay with this. I think it's very important that 
we catch up to what the events are that are actually taking place 
in the world. I think we're behind in these areas. 

Dr. Wallerstein. Thank you. Senator. 

The Chairman. Thank you. 

Dr. Gordon Oehler, we'd like to invite you to come forward. You 
serve as the Director of the Nonproliferation Center at the Central 
Intelligence Agency. 

We're pleased to have you here. I'd like to have you give us your 
statement at this time, and then we'll go to questions. 

OPENING STATEMENT OF DR. GORDON C. OEHLER, DIREC- 
TOR, NONPROLIFERATION CENTER, CENTRAL INTELLI- 
GENCE AGENCY, WASHINGTON, DC 

Dr. Oehler. Thank you very much, Mr. Chairman. 

I'm pleased to appear before you this afternoon to address our 
concerns about the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. 
I'm specifically going to address Iraq's efforts to obtain critical tech- 
nologies for its' weapons program in the years preceding the Per- 



68 

sian Gulf War. Finally, HI close with some observations regarding 
the Export Administration Act. 

First let me tell you briefly what we knew about Iraq's weapons 
of mass destruction programs prior to Desert Storm. 

As we reported extensively, Iraq had aggressive CW and BW pro- 
grams prior to Desert Storm. The Iraqis used nerve and blister 
agents during the war with Iran, and as you will recall, they also 
targeted their own Kurdish population witn chemical weapons. 

In mid-1990, Iraq had one primary site for chemical weapons 
production, Al Muthanna, located in Smarra, about 80 kilometers 
northwest of Baghdad. 

By early 1990, we calculated that the Al Muthanna facility was 
capable of producing more than 2,000 tons annually of the blister 
agent mustard and the nerve agent Sarin. Iraq also had begun to 
build a complex of chemical production plants near Al Habbania, 
as well as additional CW storage sites. 

U.N. inspectors have found more than 46,000 filled munitions, 
including 30 warheads for ballistic missiles, bombs filled with mus- 
tard gas, and nerve gas containers. Additional munitions remain 
buried today in bunkers attacked and damaged by coalition forces. 
The U.N. cannot remove them safely. The inspections have also re- 
vealed 5,000 tons of stockpiled chemical agents. The U.N. is only 
now completing the task of dismantling this massive program. 

With regard to biological weapons, we estimated, prior to the 
start of the war, that Iraq had a stockpile of at least 1 metric ton 
of biological warfare agents, including anthrax and botulinum 
toxin. 

Research reports released by the Iraqis to the first U.N. Biologi- 
cal Weapons Inspection Team showed highly focused research at 
Salman Pak on anthrax, botulinum toxin, and Clostridium 
perfringens. U.N. inspectors believe that there was an advanced 
military biological research program which concentrated on these 
agents. 

The Department of Defense reports that no chemical or biological 
warfare munitions were found stored or used in the areas occupied 
by coalition forces during Desert Storm. We do not have any intel- 
ligence information that would lead us to conclude otherwise. 

The Chairman. Now let me just stop you right there. 

First of all, everything you've said so far has been very helpful 
to us, and much of this is new information on the record in a de- 
classified form for the first time, and I'm grateful for that. I think 
it advances the level of knowledge, and in the end, it will help us 
get to the bottom of some of the«e sickness problems with our vet- 
erans. 

In the paragraph you've just read, that no chemical or biological 
warfare munitions were found stored or used in areas occupied by 
coalition forces during Desert Storm. Now that's a very carefully 
worded sentence. As I read that sentence and heard you speak that 
sentence, that does not cover, as I read it and that's why I want 
the clarification, a situation where chemical or biological agents 
might have gotten loose in some way and gotten into these zones. 
In other words, you're saying you found no evidence that they 
were stored or used. Used to me conveys some effort to aim at our 
people and trigger their use in some fashion, but that sentence, as 



69 

it's written, would not, unless you specifically tell me otherwise, in- 
dicate that there were no occasions on which either chemical 
agents or biological agents, by one means or another, would have 
gotten into areas occupied by coalition forces. 

Dr. Oehler. What I'm saying very carefully here is that the De- 
partment of Defense reports that no chemical or biological warfare 
munitions were stored or used in areas occupied by coalition forces. 
This is a Department of Defense statement, because they had peo- 
ple on the ground and we didn't, for the most part. 

The Chairman. Right. 

Dr. Oehler. What I'm trying to say is that we do not have any 
intelligence information that would lead us to conclude otherwise. 

The Chairman. Yes. I understand the marriage of the two sen- 
tences and that we're working off a predicate of a Defense Depart- 
ment report. But I want to come back now to the chemical alarms 
that kept going off in various areas of the war zone, where we have 
all these firsthand accounts and we also have these descriptive ac- 
counts of people who were there who described symptoms, physical 
symptoms, blistering and other things that would correlate to an 
exposure to a chemical agent, say, at the very time the alarm was 
going off saying there was a chemical agent in the area. 

The CIA is not saying here that there were not exposures of 
American service personnel. You're not making a categorical state- 
ment that there were not exposures of American service personnel 
to either chemical agents or biological agents? I take it you have 
no way of knowing on a firsthand fashion? 

Dr. Oehler. That's correct. The intelligence information we have 
does not suggest that they were exposed to chemical or biological 
agents. 

The Chairman. But didn't I just hear you say that, for the most 
part, you didn't have your own people there? 

Dr. Oehler. That's right. 

The Chairman. So you're relying on the Defense Department? 

Dr. Oehler. In terms of on-the-ground surveys. 

We, of course, have intelligence sources that talked to people be- 
fore and after the Gulf War about what they knew was happening, 
and we're basing our intelligence judgment on that plus technical, 
national technical means, et cetera. 

The Chairman. Would the CIA have a theory on why these 
chemical alarms kept going off? 

Dr. Oehler. I'm certainly not an expert in these systems. 

The Chairman. But don't you find it a little, I mean, we're all 
logical people and if these attacks were coming and explosions were 
taking place and the alarms were going off and people were told 
to put on their gear and so forth, and yet, after the fact, we say, 
well there were never any chemical agents in the area, how does 
one mesh these two things? 

I understand you're saying you're relying essentially on Defense 
Department reports, but I'm looking for something different here. 
I'm looking for a categorical denial that American forces were ex- 
posed to chemical agents or biological agents. As nearly as I read 
this, the CIA is not able to come in here and give that categorical 
denial as you sit here at this moment. Now am I wrong in that? 



,70 

Dr. Oehler. What we're sajdng is that we have no evidence that 
they were, and it cannot be any stronger than that. 

The Chairman. Do you have a theory as to what was going on 
then? 

Dr. Oehler. I don't know if my theory counts much. As a sci- 
entist, I know that trying to design sensors to detect specific chemi- 
cals and not others is a rather difficult job and false alarms are a 
way of business. 

1 11 also note that the battlefield is a pretty messy place with in- 
coming rockets, which when they impact have unexpended rocket 
fuel that vaporizes, you have explosives that go off, vou have solid 
fuel missiles going with pollutants in the air. There s an awful lot 
of what would be hard-to-identify chemicals in the atmosphere at 
any time. 

The Chairman. So much of the Department of Defense reports 
now rest on the fact that the chemical alarms that they put out 
there that kept going off did not work right. Maybe they are right 
that they did not work, and they bought a lot of equipment that 
did not work right. But I do not find your answer satisfactory, 
quite frankly, and let me just be blunt about it. If you have got 
some information, classified or other, that will bear out what you 
are saying, I would like to see it. I would like to see it all. 

Dr. Oehler. I have no information to suggest, that leads us to 
the conclusion that any BW or CW agents were used against coali- 
tion forces. 

The Chairman. Well, you see, again, that is a very — that is what 
we call in the business the use of a very carefully structured 
phrase. Let me give you an example. Suppose a bombing run hits 
a munitions facility and blows up into the air some of these agents, 
either gas agents or biological agents, and they are carried by the 
windstream down over our troops, and they are impacted by it. Is 
that a use? 

Dr. Oehler. Let me address those two specifically. 

The Chairman. First of all, I would like a yes or a no — in terms 
of the way you are using the word "use." Is that a use or not a use? 

Dr. Oehler. I would call that exposure, certainly. 

The Chairman. But is that a use within the way you are using 
it here? 

Dr. Oehler. No, but I would not sit here and try to use some 
legal definition to get around a problem like that. I do not have any 
intelligence information to suggest that coalition forces were ex- 
posed, whether it be by intentional use or by accidental discharge 
to BW/CW agents. 

Let me address these two separately, because I think this is sig- 
nificant. The coalition forces did not nnd any CW agents stored in 
the Kuwaiti theater of operations, with the exception of some the 
U.N. found near An Nasiriyah. 

The Chairman. Right. We talked about that earlier. 

Dr. Oehler. And, if in fact a munition blows up a chemical war- 
head storage site and chemical agents are released into the atmos- 
phere, the modeling that has been done on this suggests that noth- 
ing is going to go further than maybe 10 miles. So if your American 
troops, if the coalition troops are much farther than that, they are 
not going to be exposed to chemical warfare. 



71 

Biological is a very different situation, because particularly if it 
is dispersed at a high altitude the biological agents can go very 
long distances. But there is no evidence that any of that was ever 
released. 

The CHAraMAN. Let me just read you one item here, because 
there are obviously some strong differences of opinion on this. 

U.S. military doctrine warns that, according to its calculations, the use of a nerve 
agent against a target area of no more than a dozen hectares can, under certain 
weather conditions, create a hazard zone downwind of up to 100 kilometers in 
length. Within this downwind area, friendly military units would have to take pro- 
tective measures. 

That is from the United States Department of the Army Field 
Manual, 100-5. 

Dr. Oehler. Yes. The difference here is, I was speaking of a mu- 
nitions storage facility on the ground, and what that refers to is a 
chemical attack where the release is at an optimal height to burst. 

The Chairman. We were asking about An Nasiriyah earlier 
today and how close these were. The description we were finally 
given was that it was the width of a narrow river. Does that ring 
a bell with you? 

Dr. Oehler. The distance between? 

The Chairman. The distance between where our troops were and 
where these items were stored was the distance of a narrow river. 

Dr. Oehler. The troops came into the Tahji Airfield area, which 
is, to my recollection, 10 to 15 kilometers from An Nasiriyah. The 
storage site that was declared to the U.N., where the U.N. found 
chemical weapons stored, is just slightly south of the 31st Parallel, 
which is a little bit south of An Nasiriyah and a little bit north of 
Tahji Airfield. 

The Chairman. Well, you have just given us a different descrip- 
tion than we got this morning, in terms of what the proximity was 
here. 

I guess then what you are saying here is — I want to understand 
this right, because you know, the CIA has a little bit of a credibility 
problem itself these days related to other matters. So I want to 
make sure that I understand precisely what it is you are saying 
and not saying. 

According to Central Intelligence information, the detections 
these chemical monitors that kept going off, were not going off for 
reasons of the fact that they were detecting gas agents, chemical 
agents, during the war. It was something else. 

Dr. Oehler. I am not making any such statement. What I am 
saying is 

The Chairman. You are not saying that? 

Dr. Oehler. No. What I am saying is- 



The Chairman. So it could have been? It could have been? 

Dr. Oehler. We were not on the ground. We are taking the De- 
partment of Defense's word for that. We have no reason not to. 

The Chairman. So we are back to the Department of Defense. 

Dr. Oehler. On the operation of the ground sensors, absolutely. 
The only thing I am competent to talk about 

The Chairman. I think you have just given me my answer. You 
are not in a position to give us an independent answer one way or 
the other. 



72 

Dr. Oehler. The only part I can give you an answer on is, what 
is there in intelHgence information that might suggest an exposure 
to these agents by coaHtion forces? I am telling you, in our intel- 
ligence holdings, we do not see anything. 

There is some evidence that some chemical weapons were moved 
into the Kuwaiti theater of operations, but then withdrawn prior 
to the beginning of the air attacks, with the exception of the ones 
that were found still in An Nasiriyah. 

The Chairman. They were moved in and taken out? 

Dr. Oehler. That is what some intelligence suggests. 

The Chairman. Just one instance? Several instances? 

Dr. Oehler. No. There were a couple of instances in intelligence 
that suggest that. We do not know moved where or what. 

The Chairman. What would be the caliber of the intelligence 
source that would give you that information? 

Dr. Oehler. That was a generally reliable source. 

The Chairman. More reliable than these sensors? 

[Laughter.] 

Dr. Oehler. But according to this fragmentary reporting, these 
were withdrawn prior to the start of the air attack. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you a little different question. In 
terms of the qualitative ability of the CIA to do its own independ- 
ent assessments, to really be cheek to jowl with this problem, on 
a scale of 1 to 10 in terms of a CIA presence in the area to really 
be able to monitor this and not have much of anything slip 
through, if a 10 were the complete ability to have that kind of a 
capability, and a 1 was the least that you could have, where would 
you say the CIA's capability was across this war theater at that 
time? 

Dr. Oehler. We were not in a position on the ground, nor 
tasked, to provide monitoring for BW/CW, because that was the re- 
sponsibility of the Department of Defense. We had other things 
that we were trying to do at the time. 

The Chairman. So it would have been where, at the level of 
maybe a 2? 

Dr. Oehler. We were not there basically at all. That was not our 
mission. 

The Chairman. It was less than 2? 

Dr. Oehler. That is right. 

The Chairman. Maybe 1 or between and 1? 

Dr. Oehler. Now, I do not want to imply that the intelligence 
community does not have the capability to detect CW/BW agents. 

The Chairman. But you were not tasked to do that in this situa- 
tion? 

Dr. Oehler. That is correct. That is correct. 

The Chairman. But that is what is so important, and it has 
taken us awhile to get to that, because in a sense you did not have 
your own ability to do that, you are relying in a sense on the De- 
fense Department who did have that task of doing it. 

Also, you are saying that, by the absence of anv contradictory in- 
formation to what they are saying, even though you had a very 
minor way of doing your own independent measurement, you are 
not in a position to, in effect, challenge their finding. That is what 
I hear you saying. 



73 

Dr. Oehler. That is right. We have a lot of intelligence on the 
build-up of the chemical warfare capabilities, pipes, munitions, and 
so forth. 

The Chairman. I can see that. I am impressed by what you have 
said up here in that area. 

Dr. Oehler. I am not trying to say that there was no informa- 
tion that the intelligence community was collecting at all. What I 
am trying to say is, out of all this stuff that we have gotten, there 
is not anything to suggest that coalition forces were exposed. 

The Chairman. But, the big "but" that has to go with it was, the 
CIA was not in there doing the monitoring job on the ground. 

Dr. Oehler. Absolutely. That is correct. 

The Chairman. If we were to try to measure that on a scale of 
1 to 10, it was less than a 1. So, I mean, that is an honest answer. 

Dr. Oehler. Yes. That is right. 

The Chairman. But what it does is, it cuts the guts right out of 
that paragraph that you just read. 

Dr. Oehler. Oh, I think it is 

The Chairman. Well, I know. It is a matter of opinion. You have 
an opinion you are bringing. I am just telling you what my opinion 
is after getting to that bottom line in laying that fact against that 
paragraph. 

Dr. Oehler. Fine. 

The Chairman. Let us agree to disagree on that, and go on to 
the next paragraph. 

Dr. Oehler. OK 

At the same time Iraq was developing CW and BW agents, it was 
also developing the missile delivery capabilities. By the time of the 
invasion of Kuwait, Saddam could field up to 450 SCUD type sur- 
face-to-surface missiles. The Soviet-origin SCUD's originally had a 
range of 300 kilometers, but Iraq reconfigured them into a series 
of other missiles with ranges of up to 750 kilometers. Prior to the 
war, Saddam claimed to have developed and tested a missile with 
a range of 950 kilometers, which he called the Al-Abbas, but dis- 
continued the system because of in-flight stability problems. With 
regard to Iraq's nuclear program, the bombing of those Iraq nuclear 
research reactors 

The Chairman. May I stop you one more time because you are 
going to go to another subject and it is almost better to take these 
as we go. 

Dr. Oehler. Sure. OK 

The Chairman. If you take the fact that he was lengthening the 
delivery capability of these SCUD's and had them apparently with 
some accuracy up to a range of 750 kilometers, I do not know if 
you have had a chance to review some of the first-person accounts 
that we have had of people, veterans out there who feel that they 
were in an area where a SCUD exploded where there were chemi- 
cal agents, in their opinion, as part of that SCUD attack. I do not 
know if you have had a chance to read those. 

Dr. Oehler. I saw the press reports of that, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. Jim, I am just wondering if you can tell 
us where those locations were. Whether the SCUD's would have 
come, could have come, and likely did come from a launching site 



74 

that would have been vsdthin that distance of 950 kilometers. I as- 
sume it would have. 

Mr. TuiTE. My understanding is that there were SCUD sites up 
in the area near the Euphrates north of Kuwait. 

Dr. Oehler. There were SCUD sites all the way into Baghdad. 

Mr. TuiTE. OK But there were southerly deployed 

Dr. Oehler, Southern launches as well, and western. 

Mr. TuiTE. — ^And those with 750-kilometers range would have 
reached well down into the Saudi peninsula, correct? 

Dr. Oehler. That is right. They had to launch them from fairly 
far south to reach down to coalition forces in Saudi Arabia. They 
had to launch them from pretty far west to reach Tel Aviv. 

Mr. TuiTE. To reach the border area where the disputed terri- 
tories were, they could have actually been launched from quite a 
bit north? 

Dr. Oehler. From Baghdad. 

Mr. TuiTE. Yes. 

The Chairman. Now, Jim, let me just ask here, with respect to 
the first-person accounts that we were discussing with Senator 
Bennett earlier today, with the belief on the part of some of the 
people in the area where the explosion happened, that a SCUD 
came in with this kind of a warhead, do you recall from memory 
where that location was where that SCUD attack occurred? 

Mr. TuiTE. There were a number of SCUD attacks in the report. 
But each and every attack, each and every event that is listed in 
the report is within SCUD range. 

The Chairman. It is within the 750 in terms of the extended 
range. 

Mr. TuiTE. Yes. 

The Chairman. Would it be within the 300 range which was the 
original range? 

Dr. Oehler. No. No, it would not. 

The Chairman. OK. So the extended range that he was working 
on would have put him in a position, if somebody fired one of these, 
to at least get it to that site? 

Dr. Oehler. Yes. 

The Chairman. All right. Why don't you go ahead then with the 
next part here? 

Dr. Oehler. OK 

With regard to Iraq's nuclear program, the bombing of this Iraq 
nuclear research reactor by the Israelis in 1981 drove Saddam to 
extreme lengths to cover diversity, and disperse his nuclear activi- 
ties. IAEA inspection of declared nuclear materials continued on a 
regular basis, but the IAEA did not inspect any of the undeclared 
facilities associated with a weapons program. 

We reported extensively on the existence of the nuclear weapons 
program, but post-war inspections added quite a number of details 
to our knowledge on that program. 

I would like to now g^ve you a sense of Iraq's procurement efforts 
and patterns. The Iraqi program was developed gradually over the 
course of the 1980's. By the time of the invasion it had become 
deeply entrenched, flexible, and well orchestrated. 

Project managers for the weapons of mass destruction programs 
went directly to vended European suppliers for the majority of 



75 

their needs. Throughout the 1980's, German companies headed the 
list of preferred suppliers for machinery, technology, and chemical 
precursors. 

German construction companies usually won the contracts to 
build the CW facilities in Iraq, and Iraqi procurement agents were 
sophisticated in exploiting inconsistencies in local export laws by 
targeting countries for substances and technologies that were not 
locally controlled. 

In the pre-war years, the dual-use nature of many of these facili- 
ties made it easier for Iraq to claim that the chemical precursors, 
for example, were intended for agricultural industries. European 
firms, arguing that the facilities in Iraq were for production of pes- 
ticides, built a Sumara chemical plant, including six separate 
chemical weapons manufacturing lines between 1983 and 1986. 

European middlemen brokered 

The Chairman. Now, may I ask just a question here? 

Dr. Oehler. Sure. 

The Chairman. This is all extraordinarily important and valu- 
able information. Am I to understand that the CIA would have had 
the knowledge of this going on contemporaneous when it was actu- 
ally happening? In other words, this was not learned later, and this 
is not a retrospective construction? We were tracking this, or we 
had knowledge of this, and knowledge of this would have been at 
the other high levels of Government at the time it was occurring? 

Dr. Oehler. That is right. What I am running through here is 
what we knew at the time, and what we had reported to our cus- 
tomers at the time. We had been quite aware of Iraq's chemical 
weapons development program from its very early inception. 

The Chairman. I take it the CIA must have had a concern about 
it to have kind of zeroed in on it to that degree? 

Dr. Oehler. Very much so. And that was reported to our cus- 
tomers, and our customers attempted to take actions. 

The Chairman. It would have been reported also to the Presi- 
dent, to the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of State, I assume, 
as a matter of course? 

Dr. Oehler. Yes, sir. Those are our customers, sir. 

The Chairman. All right. 

Dr. Oehler. Continuing on that: European middlemen brokered 
chemical precursor deals for Iraq under the pretext that the mate- 
rials were intended for pesticide plants. A Dutch firm purchased 
supplies from major chemical firms around the world, supplying 
the Chemical Importation and Distribution State Enterprise in 
Baghdad in the 1970's, and in the 1980's supplying the Iraqi State 
Establishment for Pesticide Production, both cover names for the 
CW program. 

The middlemen supplied dual-use chemical precursors including 
monochlorobenzine, ethyl alcohol, and thiodiclocol. When the Iraqis 
requested phosphorous oxychloride, a nerve agent precursor 
banned for export under Dutch law without explicit permission, the 
supplier balked, and drew this request to the attention of Dutch 
authorities. Subsequent Dutch investigations found that two other 
Dutch firms were involved in brokering purchases of chemical pre- 
cursors. 



76 

Iraq exploited businessmen and consortia willing to violate the 
export laws of their own countries. As has been indicated in the 
press and television reports, the Consen Group, a consortium of 
European missile designers, engineers, and businessmen, estab- 
lished a network of front companies to cover its role as project di- 
rector of an Argentine, Egyptian, Iraqi sponsored Condor II ballis- 
tic missile program. 

Iraqi procurement officers, knowing full well the licensing 
thresholds, requested items that fell just under the denial thresh- 
olds, but nevertheless would suffice. Prior to Desert Storm, U.S. 
regulations on the export of these technologies were drafted to 
meet U.S. technical specifications and standards. Technologies of a 
lower standard worked just as well, and permitted Iraq to obtain 
the goods and technology consistent with Commerce Department 
regulations. 

The Chairman. Let me just stop you again. This is again very 
valuable, and I appreciate your presenting it for us so we can have 
it on the record. Before we get too far past it, you made a reference 
to phosphorous oxychloride. What agent is this a precursor for? 

Dr. Oehler. Sarin [GF]. 

The Chairman. Also, well I have interrupted you here. This 
backs up even further, but when you acknowledged that Saddam 
Hussein had SCUD chemical warheads, where did he get those? 

Dr. Oehler. They made them themselves. 

The Chairman. They made their own. 

Dr. Oehler. They had quite a missile refurbishment extension 
plant where they took the SCUD's and added in extra lengths and 
the fuel tanks, changed the warheads, and had a capability to 
make their own warheads. 

The Chairman. Were the Russians helping them with this? 

Dr. Oehler. No. There is no evidence of any Russian involve- 
ment at all in this. 

The Chairman. You see, part of the picture that emerges here — 
this is really an extraordinary story that you are sharing with us, 
because, according to your testimony, the CIA was tracking this in 
real time as it was happening, and had a great concern about it, 
and had figured out that this robust program on chemical weapons 
and these other areas was going forward. 

Yet, as we get down further in time, we are going to find out 
that, as Saddam Hussein needed other items to go into his war ma- 
chine, that he actually came and got some from us, particularly in 
the biological warfare area, that required licensing. 

So you wonder how anybody in the licensing regime who was 
reading the CIA reports at the time and who could see this buildup 
of this kind of weapons potential, you would think that people 
would have been very, very reluctant to approve anything that 
could go into a weapons production system of this kind. You would 
think that this would have had everybody on full alert to be ex- 
tremely careful about what is or is not licensed for shipment into 
this kind of a regime. Is not that the logic of learning this? 

Dr. Oehler. Well, what I would like to point out in the next sec- 
tion of this is that there really was not much involvement of U.S. 
firms, as we have seen. If I could go through that a little bit, and 
then we can stop and talk about the whole thing. 



77 

The Chairman. Right, right, right. 

Dr. Oehler. Continuing on: Regarding the involvement of United 
States firms, we were watching Iraq's programs very carefully, and 
it was clear that the major players assisting Saddam were not 
American firms. They were principally Europeans. We saw little in- 
volvement of U.S. firms in Saddam's weapons of mass destruction 
program. 

In discussing this issue, we should remember that by law the 
CIA as a foreign intelligence agency, does not focus on U.S. per- 
sons, to include U.S. companies. By this definition, companies 
founded by foreign nationals and incorporated in the United States 
are treated as U.S. companies. 

This is not to say that we did not occasionally come across infor- 
mation on a U.S. person that was collected incidentally to our for- 
eign intelligence target overseas; we did. But when we did, and 
when there was a possibility of a violation of U.S. law, we were ob- 
ligated to turn our information over to the Justice Department. 

The Chairman. Now, does that mean then, going back to the 
prior paragraph, that there would have been companies founded by 
foreign nationals incorporated in the U.S. supplying some of these 
materials, but they would be outside the scope of what you could 
properly zero in on? 

Dr. Oehler. We are not permitted by law to target the domestic 
activities of those companies or individuals in those companies. 

The Chairman. Right. So if you stumbled upon it some other 
way, that did not mean you were not entitled to know that fact, 
but you could not as a matter of investigative focus go after these 
foreign firms incorporated in the United States to really find out 
the degree to which they might be doing business with Saddam 
Hussein? 

Dr. Oehler. That is right to the extent that we cannot engage 
in law enforcement or target their activities in the United States. 

The Chairman. Do we have any reason to believe or know that 
there were such firms founded by foreign nationals incorporated in 
the United States that, in fact, did ship items like this to Saddam 
Hussein? 

Dr. Oehler. As I say here, we did provide what we call alert 
memos to Commerce, Justice, Treasury, and the FBI on a number 
of possible questionable instances. It is not up to us to make the 
legal judgment, but to point out that there is information that they 
need to look at. 

The Chairman. I see. 

Dr. Oehler. These memos resulted whenever this incidentally 
collected information indicated that U.S. firms had been targeted 
by foreign governments of concern, or were involved in possible vio- 
lations of U.S. law. 

Between 1984 and 1990, CIA's Office of Scientific and Weapons 
Research provided 5 memos covering Iraqis' dealings with United 
States firms on purchases, discussions, or visits that appear to be 
related to weapons of mass destruction programs. 

The Chairman. Are those classified documents? 

Dr. Oehler. Yes, they are. 

Can we go on to export controls? 

The Chairman. Yes, please. 



78 

Dr. Oehler. Continuing: Turning to export controls, the intel- 
ligence community was asked by the Department of Commerce dur- 
ing the 1980's to review export license applications primarily when 
the licenses had significance to intelligence collection equities. 

Here the concern was not so much Iraq, but whether there was 
a possibility the equipment would be diverted to the Soviet Union 
or other communist countries, as you heard from Dr. Wallerstein 
a little earlier. 

Prior to 1991, there were four instances in which the Department 
of Commerce sought information on Iraqi export license applica- 
tions, all dated in 1986. These applications involved computer tech- 
nologies and image processors. 

For some of these, we reported no derogatory information on the 
end user. In one case, we referred the Department of Commerce to 
a classified intelligence report. 

After evidence mounted in the mid-1980's about the use of chemi- 
cal warfare in the Iran-Iraq war, the United States began to put 
into effect unilateral controls on exports of chemical precursors to 
Iraq and other countries suspected of having chemical warfare pro- 
grams. 

The United States and several other industrialized nations joined 
what is called the Australia Group to establish more uniform li- 
censing controls for the export of several chemical weapons precur- 
sors. Since then, more nations have been brought into the Aus- 
tralia Group, and recently controls have been added for chemical 
equipment, certain pathogens, and biological equipment. 

The Chairman. Let me again just stop you here because you are 
about to go to the next paragraph. You go "since the war," and you 
go on with some observations there. 

My sense for it at this point is that the CIA had a pretty good 
fix on the biological, chemical, and nuclear weapons capability of 
Saddam Hussein. You were tracking it. You were watching these 
international firms. You had seen Saddam Hussein in a sense go 
underground with some of his activities after the Israelis came over 
and bombed some of his facilities in the early 1980's. And you were 
paying serious attention to it. You obviously saw it as a real prob- 
lem, and you were on top of it. 

Would it be fair for me to say that, before the outbreak of the 
war, the CIA was convinced, and had well-documented the fact, 
that Saddam Hussein had an advanced and dangerous chemical 
warfare, biological warfare capability underway? 

Dr. Oehler. Yes, sir. I do not think anyone will doubt that. 

The Chairman. I think the record is clear on that. I think it is 
to the credit of the CIA that it saw that and knew that and was 
reporting that in real time. 

It is my understand — and you may or may not know the answer 
to this, but if you do, I would like you to give it — that the Defense 
Intelligence Agency did not have either that assessment or the 
same assessment in terms of the capabilities of the Iraqis in that 
area? 

Dr. Oehler. No. The Defense Intelligence Agency was part of the 
intelligence community. I, at the time of the beginning of the Gulf 
War, was the National Intelligence Officer for Science, Technology, 
and Proliferation. So my job there was to pull together common 



79 

community positions on these matters. The Defense Intelligence 
Agency did not have any alternative views on this. Their estimate 
was that these programs were dangerous as well. 

The Chairman. So from your knowledge, you are saying the DIA 
also felt this was a real threat. Was their level of knowledge up to 
yours, the CIA's? 

Dr. Oehler. Yes, sir. We do not hold any information from each 
other. 

The Chairman. Now, in terms of war planning, if somebody is 
anticipating going in and shutting down Iraq, moving them out of 
Kuwait after they had moved into Kuwait, and then backing them 
up and shutting down most of their military capability in Iraq, 
would the Defense planning of that come off this combined assess- 
ment, your assessment, the CIA's, and the DIA's assessment? 

Where would the Defense planners go to get the picture of what 
the troops might face to the extent we had to go in and liberate 
first Kuwait and then go into Iraq, in the way of biological and 
chemical weapons risk? 

Dr. Oehler. Of course, the planning is done by the Military Op- 
erations Forces. What information do they have? They have all of 
this information. Now, whether they are ooligated to weigh the De- 
fense Intelligence Agency's estimates over someone else's, I do not 
know. You will have to ask them. But I did not see any significance 
difference it would have made, any kind of a difference in the cam- 
paign. 

The Chairman. So I guess you are saying to us then that the De- 
fense planners that would have had to put together a war strategy 
had quite complete knowledge as to the biological and chemical 
weapons capability that he had been working on over a period of 
time and refining? 

Dr. Oehler. I do not think any Defense planner or any policy- 
maker will say they have complete enough knowledge. 

The Chairman. I understand. 

Dr. Oehler. There are certainly pieces of our knowledge that 
were missing. What was clear was the existence of the program 
and the extent. 

The Chairman. Let me ask you this. Did the CIA for its part 
know ahead of the war that there were going to be the volume of 
these particular kinds of weapons systems tnat were found after 
the war that you cite in the early part of your testimony? 

Was there a CIA estimate that would have said that, "Our expec- 
tation is that there would be at least 40,000 field munitions, in- 
cluding 30 warheads for ballistic missiles, bombs?" How discreet 
would your assessment of his capability have been before the war? 
Is there that kind of a document? 

Dr. Oehler. Our assessments were based primarily on the pro- 
duction capability, and on how much — as I mentioned, they could 
be producing 2,000 tons a year. And then, what would you do with 
that? We did not have it broken down by so many artillery shells 
and so forth. 

The Chairman. Do you know if anybody would have had a mock- 
up, if you will, of this kind of a deliverable weapons system capabil- 
ity that was found after the war, before the war? 

Dr. Oehler. A mockup? 



80 

The Chairman. In other words, some very smart person Hke 
yourself had been tracking this for a decade and looking at all the 
stuff that they were buying from the European suppliers, and with 
aerial photographs, surveillance, and onsite sources or whatever 
else we had, would have said, "They have been cranking out this 
kind of a warhead now over a period of time, and we think they 
do 3 a week, or 3 a month, and we now think they have in their 
stockpile the following." 

So when a Defense planner turns to you and says, "Wait a 
minute. We are going to send all these troops in here. What are 
we likely to face in terms of their stockpile of chemical weapons 
and biological weapons?" How refined would the internal estimate 
have been based on all this other work, that would have said, 'This 
is what we think he has. got." 

Dr. Oehler, It was pretty good in terms of the capability. The 
reason was we watched Iraq use CW in its war with Iran. In the 
latter part of that war, in the Majnoon Islands at the very end of 
the campaign, they used a tremendous amount of agent. We could 
track that and we could see then how they could use that against 
coalition forces if they chose to do so. 

The Chairman. Did they use biological weapons? 

Dr. Oehler. No, they did not. Let me put my same caveat on 
here. We have no evidence that they did. We have a lot of evidence 
on what they used, and we did not see any use of BW. 

The Chairman. Is there any information to indicate that Iraq 
was coordinating research on genetically altered microorganisms? 
There is a concern because of the U.S. export of E-coli and other 
genetic materials. 

Dr. Oehler. We have not seen that as part of their BW research 
program. At least if they looked at it, it did not get very far along 
to our knowledge. They did those three agents that we talked 
about, and most of the production was — all the production we know 
of was in botulinum toxin and anthrax, which is bad enough, by 
the way. 

The Chairman. No, I understand. 

We are trying to push this envelope out as far as we can in terms 
of what was going on here, recognizing that our own Government 
is compartmentalized. You know a certain amount and you go up 
to a certain point. Then somebody else, in a sense, has a respon- 
sibility that bridges on from that point and goes on into another 
direction. For example, the CIA did not design the chemical sensors 
that did not work. Hopefully, the CIA, if it was designing a chemi- 
cal sensor, would have designed one that, when it went off it was 
not a false alarm, but it was a real alarm. 

Dr. Oehler. I would just mention that we in the intelligence 
community have needs for CW and BW sensors as well, and have 
been a bit frustrated by our — I will include ourselves here — inabil- 
ity to develop the technology rapidly enough to satisfy our needs. 
That is the same as the Department of Defense has. 

The Chairman. I think generally offensive weapons capability 
can move faster than defensive weapons capability, and especially 
if you have somebody that is diabolically minded enough, like Sad- 
dam Hussein, and who is organizing this very well-developed weap- 
ons development system. 



81 

You have described here already, in what you have said, a very 
sophisticated operation, where they knew what they were doing. 
They were working through these European suppHers. They were 
staying under the thresholds. They were figuring out how to put 
together what they wanted. They certainly were field-testing the 
weapons. They field-tested them on the Kurds, and apparently on 
some Iranians as well. They were lengthening their missile range. 

This is a very sophisticated operation in this area. They had gone 
underground to do a certain amount of it through these front oper- 
ations because they had gotten punished by the Israelis. 

So if you again just apply the logic, you would imagine that any 
operation as sophisticated as this, doing this many things, probably 
mixing chemical and biological cocktails as well — this is my own 
theory — was probably out on the forefront of what they could de- 
velop with respect to their offensive capability. 

I mean, I cannot imagine somebody this creative suddenly loses 
the creative spark when it comes to figuring out, how do we get 
more bang for the buck? Or how do we find a more powerful weap- 
on, or a less expensive weapon, or one that is easier to deliver, or 
one that we can somehow disseminate in a way that maybe they 
will not even find out? 

Dr. Oehler. No. These are centrally-directed programs with the 
highest authority behind them. 

The Chairman. But they seem to be very cleverly designed as 
well. I am not saying that they are as sophisticated as we might 
be, but I am struck by the sophistication of the system. 

Dr. Oehler. They learned this over a period of years in the 
1980's, but they became masters at the procurement networks. Of 
course, there are companies that try to help them with that, too, 
because the profits were pretty large. 

The Chairman. Well, you know I really get a bad case of heart- 
burn when I find out that these export licenses, not long before we 
actually find ourselves in a war with these people, were being ap- 
proved by our own Commerce Department. 

We had a situation — I do not know if you are aware of this or 
not — but we had a hearing in the late fall of 1992. We were at that 
time looking at the shipment of devices that were incorporated into 
Iraq's nuclear weapons capability. We found that some licenses had 
been granted by our own Commerce Department to ship certain 
dual-use items over there. In fact, some of them had been shipped 
directly to Iraqi military installations, which should have been a 
warning sign that they were not designed for peaceful use by some- 
body who is a professor in agriculture over in a university some- 
where. 

When that document, because it is a written document, was 
sought by the Congress — the Senate, and the House — that particu- 
lar document was altered. The exact text of the words on the docu- 
ment, which indicated that it was to be shipped to an Iraqi military 
unit, those words were deleted, and something else was put in its 
place to create a false picture. That document was sent up to the 
Congress as a deliberately misleading document. 

Now, the person who was in charge of that area in the Commerce 
Department — this was late in 1992, there was a Presidential race 



82 

going on, so that heightened the sensitivity of all of this — was con- 
veniently out of the country. 

We tried to get hold of tnis person to bring them in as a witness 
to explain how this document had gotten altered to give a false ap- 
pearance and impression. We could never get this person because 
the person was outside the country and hiding out somewhere. So 
the election came and went, and the Bush people departed town, 
so we never did talk to that particular witness. 

I only cite that because we have had experiences, direct experi- 
ences, where official Government records were doctored and given 
to us to mislead us on shipments that were going into the center 
structure of Saddam Hussein's military operation. 

I am not talking about distant history. I am talking about some- 
thing that happened directly within the scope of what we are here 
talking about. 

This was a pretty sophisticated operation. It seems to me that, 
if the CIA knew as much as it did, and everybody else did, it is 
hard for me to understand why we were aiding and abetting this 
guy and authorizing these shipments. Doesn't that seem a little 
strange? 

Dr. Oehler. Well, the only thing I can say is that, since the Gulf 
War there have been a lot of enhancements in the licensing process 
and in the export controls. I think everyone realizes the signifi- 
cance of the problem. 

The Chairman. Why don't you go ahead? We are getting down 
near the end of your statement. Why don't I let you finish it? 

Dr. Oehler. All right. As I was saying: Since the Gulf War, U.S. 
export controls on CW/BW have been considerably strengthened. 
Enforcement mechanisms involving several Federal agencies have 
been put into place. The scope of the regulations have been broad- 
ened considerably. 

In 1991, export controls were tightened to require validated li- 
censes for all dual-use equipment being exported to end users of 
proliferation concern. Intelligence information is often the basis for 
this determination. This catch-all provision has served as a model 
for other countries interested in joining the U.S. Government's non- 
proliferation efforts. 

The intelligence community has an expanded role in this 
strength and export control regime. We work with the Department 
of State-led interagency forums to control sensitive technologies 
and equipment. 

Our analysis of international trade mechanisms used to transfer 
technologies from suppliers to consumers is provided to the U.S. 
policy, enforcement, and intelligence communities. 

The Department of Commerce now brings the intelligence com- 
munity into a large percentage of its license reviews. 

Let me say a brief word about the control of missile and nuclear 
technologies. The Missile Technology Control Regime, the MTCR, 
went into effect in April 1987, with the participation of the United 
States, United Kingdom, Canada, Italy, France, Japan, and West 
Germany, all the leading suppliers of missile-related technologies. 

Initially the MTCR controlled ballistic missiles and their compo- 
nents that are capable of delivering a 500-kilogram warhead to a 
range of 300 or more kilometers. In recent years, the scope of the 



83 

MTCR has been expanded to include any unmanned system, with 
any range or payload, if it is beUeved to be intended for use with 
weapons of mass destruction. 

As you know, the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, most often 
known by its initials, the NPT, provides the global framework to 
control the spread of nuclear weapons. Nations that have joined the 
NPT pledge not to transfer, seek access to, or assist the spread of 
nuclear weapons. The transfer of nuclear materials is covered by 
safeguards enforced by the International Atomic Energy Agency. 
Over the years, members of the NPT have developed lists of re- 
stricted items and technologies. 

The United States adheres to these controls, and has introduced 
its own restrictions on the spread of fissile materials necessary for 
nuclear weapons: plutonium and enriched uranium. 

The final issue I would like to address is the legislation affecting 
the export controls and other nonproliferation measures, specifi- 
cally the provisions the intelligence community needs in such legis- 
lation. 

The first thing I would say, Mr. Chairman, is that the bill you 
introduced at the request of the Administration incorporates provi- 
sions which address the intelligence community's concerns in the 
area of chemical, biological, and missile nonproliferation measures. 
We worked closely with the other agencies that developed this bill, 
and have endorsed the final result. 

Accordingly, I would strongly urge that these provisions be re- 
tained in the final bill passed by the Senate. To aid the Commit- 
tee's deliberations, I would like to outline the community's equities 
in this area. 

In disseminating our intelligence, one of our primary responsibil- 
ities and duties is to protect the sources of the intelligence, wheth- 
er human or technical, and the methods by which it was collected. 
Sources and methods are most at risk when intelligence informa- 
tion is directly or indirectly made public. The compromise of 
sources and methods inevitably results in a diminished capacity to 
collect intelligence for the future. 

The most dramatic consequences of a compromise of intelligence 
information is the threat of the life of an asset, but there are other 
significant consequences. For example, if we have intelligence indi- 
cating that a particular overseas company is actually, say a Libyan 
front company, we can often watch that company to learn more 
about Libya's programs and its acquisition network. 

The U.S. Government action that pubHcly identifies the company 
will often result in the company shutting down and reopening else- 
where under a different name. Identifying this new company can 
be difficult. But meanwhile, we have lost a window into the broad- 
er proliferation activity. 

This is not to say that intelligence should never form the basis 
for overt U.S. Grovernment action. To the contrary, it quite often 
does, and I feel strongly that providing this actionable intelligence 
is of the highest priority for the intelligence community. 

What is needed, however, is the flexibility to take the action that 
will best achieve our nonproliferation objectives, which in some 
cases may mean holding off on overt U.S. Government actions to 
protect the nonproliferation sources and methods. 



84 

The first goal is to ensure the sanctions, regimes established to 
punish proliferators, permit the President sufficient discretion in 
the imposition of sanctions to protect intelligence sources and 
methods. The second goal is to ensure that the Executive Branch 
not be statutorily limited or required to publish lists of end users 
to whom exports of technologies and commodities are controlled. 
The third goal is to ensure that the Grovernment maintains export 
control sufficient to ensure that exports of critical technologies are 
compatible with U.S. interests. 

The Administration's proposals achieve the first goal by explicitly 
permitting the President to delay the imposition of sanctions where 
it is necessary to protect intelligence sources and methods. Let me 
emphasize that the intelligence community views this as an excep- 
tional remedy that would have limited but critical application, and 
is necessary for further nonproliferation goals in the long run. 

The second goal is met by not requiring the intelligence commu- 
nity to create lists or databases of end users to which exports of 
goods or technologies are controlled, but still ensuring that intel- 
ligence is appropriately made available to other agencies for the 
purpose of analyzing export license applications. 

Finally, the Administration's bill would not relax or eliminate 
controls on key technologies, particularly encryption devices, which 
could be damaging to U.S. intelligence interests. 

This is the basic outline of the issues we face. I would offer my 
center, the Nonproliferation Center, any assistance to you if they 
are helpful in your deliberations on these important issues. 

Thank you. 

The Chairman. Thank you very much. 

I want to say, as we have gone back and forth here, I trust it 
has been constructive. I have meant for it to be, and I appreciate 
the professionalism and the work. 

I want to say to you and through you to the CIA that I appre- 
ciate the detail in this testimony today. You have declassified a lot 
of information today at our request, and made it a matter of public 
record. It is very helpful to us to do that, in terms of both recon- 
structing what happened and laying the right predicate for getting 
the Export Control Act reauthorization through here. 

Your recommendation on this one item that you mentioned at the 
end was not lost on me in terms of what we may be able to do be- 
tween now and the time we act on it in the Senate as a whole. 

We have just, as you know, reported that bill out of the Commit- 
tee by unanimous vote of 19 to 0. We have achieved a good strong 
bipartisan consensus, a regime that we think deals with some of 
these problems. So I appreciate the fact that you have validated 
these concerns and given us very important historical reconstruc- 
tion here today that is useful. 

I will say at the same time that I think that there is this prob- 
lem of where is the health difficulty coming from and how do we 
track it to its source so we have got a better way of knowing how 
to treat the veterans and try to heal them and protect their fami- 
lies — that I still see in the various Executive Branch participants, 
a problem where information leaves off at 1 point, and then it picks 
up at the next point. Things do not ever quite fully tie together. 



85 

I do not just put that on you when I say that. I am just saying 
I see that problem. It is not the first time I have seen it. I have 
seen it other times in my 28 years here on other problems and I 
am seeing it again here on this problem. 

I would give you this message to take back if you would. That 
we have got to do some more work to find out why these veterans 
are sick. If we had half of the top tier of the CIA professionals sick 
today themselves from the same problem, we would have a much 
more ambitious effort underway to get to the answer, just as we 
would if we had the high command of the military sick today from 
these problems. It is just the nature of what gets the priority and 
what does not. 

We have got to find out what happened here. We have got to find 
out because we have got a lot of sick veterans, many of whom are 
getting sicker, and their family members are getting sick in in- 
creasing numbers. We were not prepared for that finding. That 
finding presented itself to us as we were tracking back through this 
problem. 

I have talked to enough wives of returning male Gulf War veter- 
ans, who are now quite sick, that I am deeply concerned about 
what is going on here. Something happened out there, or some 
combination of things happened. The degree to which it comes out 
of this military or biological weapons capability, hopefully time will 
give us all those answers if we are aggressive about pursuing it. 

What is beyond dispute is the fact that we have got a lot of sick 
people who put on the uniform of this country, and on the basis of 
our best intelligence assessments and the belief that somebody in 
the command position was making wise decisions with their safety 
and well-being in mind, that they could go into a battle situation 
with the confidence that they were not going to be subjected to 
something that we did not anticipate, were not protecting them 
adequately against, or were not prepared to get to the bottom of 
if they came back with a health problem. 

Many of them are deeply discouraged right now, because they 
really feel like the Government has walked away from them, and 
despite all the talk, which is cheap and by itself does not mean 
anything, that not enough has been done to really ratchet their 
problems up on the priority scale and get at them. 

I agree with them. I think they are exactly right. I think it is 
shameful, the fact that we are in that situation. There is no excuse 
for it. I think every operational officer in the area of the Govern- 
ment that relates to these things, from the Director of the CIA to 
the Secretary of Defense, to the head of the DIA, to the President 
himself, to the head of the Veterans' Administration have an ur- 
gent task here to marshal the resources, marshal the knowledge, 
the professional focused effort, and figure out what happened here, 
and to try to get as much medical help to these veterans and their 
families as we can do, and not hold anything back. 

And by the same token, learn from that before we suddenly find 
we have got a situation where the same thing happens again in 
some other theater of war. We have a terrible problem in this coun- 
try — and I have seen it before — where, once somebody leaves active 
military service and becomes a veteran, they are in a different im- 
portance status as it relates to the Defense Department. 



86 

The Defense Department is looking ahead to the next war. The 
Veterans' Affairs Department is looking back at the veterans of the 
past wars, in effect. There is this dividing line. 

Some of that may be necessary, but I think in this situation, the 
precautions taken were not adequate. I think there were some seri- 
ous strategic errors made in putting people in harm's way. I think 
people are having a very hard time now who may have been part 
of that decision structure, facing it, acknowledging it, and dealing 
with it. 

The body of information that we have, the number of veterans 
who keep coming forward, many still on active duty, manv holding 
officer rank, who give us more and more information, tell me that 
we have got a problem here that the rest of the Government at the 
top is still reluctant, or unable, to fully see and deal with. That has 
got to change. 

You have helped us today with respect to the report that you 
have given us from the CIA. We will give you some questions for 
the record and we will look forward to having you respond to those 
fully. 

Thank you. 

Dr. Oehler. Thank you, Mr. Chairman. 

The Chairman. The Committee stands in recess. 

[Whereupon, at 4:32 p.m., the hearing was adjourned, subject to 
the call of the Chair.] 

[Prepared statements, response to written questions, and addi- 
tional material supplied for the record follow:] 



87 

PREPARED STATEMENT OF SENATOR ALFONSE M. D'AMATO 

Mr. Chairman, let me begin today by expressing my gratitude and appreciation 
for your commitment to addressing the serious issue before us — that of whether ex- 
posure to chemical and biological agents during the Gulf War with Iraq are causes 
of what has come to be known as the Gulf War Syndrome. 

Saddam Hussein has once again been talking about Kuwait "as the 19th province 
of Iraq." Thus, this hearing and our inquiries are not limited to just a historical 
focus and it is not limited to only the ailments of veterans of the Gulf War and their 
families. Pursuing necessary questions and getting good answers may prove vital to 
the safety and success of future U.S. military operations. 

Today, thousands of Gulf War veterans across this country are experiencing ill- 
nesses that began after they returned from the Gulf War. Alarmingly, there appears 
to be growing evidence that the illness is spreading to the spouses and chiloren of 
the affected veterans. 

I believe, as you do, that it is the responsibility of all Government agencies, insti- 
tutions, and the U.S. Congress to follow every available lead which might assist 
medical researchers in finding the answers to the causes of illnesses faced by our 
veterans. 

Mr. Chairman, I know that you have been tireless in your efforts to get the De- 
partment of Defense and other Federal Government agencies to be forthcoming on 
this issue. Most, if not all, of the responses have been inadequate and sometimes 
even contradictory. 

It is my understanding that the Department of Defense contends that it has no 
evidence that U.S. forces were exposed to chemical and biological agents while serv- 
ing in the Persian Gulf. But, according to the Pentagon's official report to Congress 
on the Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, written in 1992: "By the time of the inva- 
sion of Kuwait, Iraq had developed biological weapons. Its advanced and aggressive 
biological warfare program was the most advanced in the Arab world. Large scale 
production of these agents began in 1989 in four facilities near Baghdad. Delivery 
means for biological agents ranged from simple aerial bombs and artillery rockets 
to surface to surface missiles." 

With this report in hand, an acknowledgement that Saddam Hussein had the 
means to use such weapons, it is inconceivable that the Defense Department has 
no other information on the actual use or impact of such weapons on our veterans. 
Such information could prove vital to assisting medical research efforts necessary 
to define and treat Gulf War illnesses. The work of the Chairman alone on this 
issue, as indicated in the report released today, shows a growing link between the 
symptoms of the syndrome and the exposure of Gulf War veterans to chemical and 
biological warfare agents, pre-treatment drugs and other hazardous materials and 
substances. 

It is outrageous and unjustifiable that this Nation's own Defense Department not 
cooperate. I believe it is their duty and responsibility to provide information that 
could help treat the illnesses being sufTered by the very individuals who served their 
country bravely. These individuals survived the horrors of the battlefield only to re- 
turn home and face the horrors of war on another front. 

There is a critical need for immediate advanced medical research. A thorou^ and 
systematic review of all information and data from all sources, including our own 
Defense Department, could be critical to identifying the causes and treating the ill- 
nesses. I hope that the representatives of the Department here today are going to 
provide us with worthy information and not just more stonewalling. 

Mr. Chairman, thank you again for your complete commitment to this critical 
issue. I join you in continuing the fight against what is probably considered the sec- 
ond war by many of our veterans. 



88 



CHRISTOPHER S. BONO 
MISSOURI 
COMMrmu; 

APPBOPSUTIONS 

■ANKING. HOUSING ANO 

UPBAM AHAJRS 

SMAU. BUSINESS 

Buocrr 



Bnitd <^tatt8 Senate 

WASHINGTON, DC 20610-2603 



May 25, 1994 



Hearing on the Impact on the Health of Gulf War Veterans 
Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs 
SD 106 Dirksen 



Opening remarks: 

Mr. Chairman, I thank you for calling this important hearin 
to investigate further the causes of the Persian Gulf War 
Syndrome from which so many U.S. veterans and their families are 
currently suffering. We owe it to our veterans to do everything 
we can to determine the causes of the Gulf War Syndrome, to 
develop and research cures for those veterans now affected, and 
to do whatever we can to prepare and protect our service 
personnel from illnesses associated with this syndrome in any 
future conflicts. 

Thousands of American servicemen and women are reportedly 
suffering from symptoms and undiagnosable disorders consistent 
with exposure to biological or chemical toxins. Allied bombings 
of Iraqi nuclear, chemical, and biological facilities were 
reported to trigger daily chemical "false alarms" on the front 
lines. Reports were made by U.S. service personnel of direct 
biological or chemical weapons attack on the 17th and 20th of 
January, 1991 and that as many as five gas attack alerts in one 
day were issued. Iraq not only had a vast biological weapons 
capability, including artillery shells loaded with mustard gas, 
rockets loaded with nerve agent, nerve agent aerial bombs, and 
SCUD warheads loaded with Sarin, but Iraqi official radio 
addresses on the 17th and 20th of January, 1991, indicated that 
Iraqi forces had and would use all means at their disposal to 
fight the U.S. and that they would soon unleash a secret weapon 
that would release "an unusual force." Lastly, the report of a 
Czech chemical decontamination unit detected the chemical nerve 
agent Sarin in the air during the opening days of the war and 
some of its members are believed to be suffering illnesses 
similar to those of our veterans. 

Collectively, these facts make it, at least, possible that 
Gulf War Veterans were e.xposed to chemical and/or biological 
toxins. I, therefore, fully support Public Law 103-210 which 
provides additional authority for the Secretary of Veterans 



89 

Affairs to provide priority health care to veterans of the 
Persian Gulf War who may have been exposed to toxic substances "or 
environmental hazards during the Gulf War. However, in light of 
the above evidence, it is apparent that we must investigate fully 
whether or not biological or chemical weapons were used on our 
troops. 

In the staff report to this committee on September 9, 1993 
on the Gulf War Syndrome, it is stated that only the use of 
highly sophisticated, computer-enhanced electroencephalograms 
(EEGs) would be able to detect neurological disorders resulting 
from direct chemical or biological warfare, or chronic exposure 
to low levels of hazardous nerve agents. I believe it is 
imperative that we make such technology available to those 
veterans suffering from the Gulf War Syndrome to determine 
without a doubt whether biological and chemical toxins played a 
role in the health conditions of our veterans. 

The top priority of this committee, I believe, must be to 
ensure that the veterans who, have been affected are treated, not 
just adequately or minimally, but to the highest extent possible, 
and to support research for cures of the Gulf War Syndrome. 

I do, however, have several other concerns that I feel must 
be addressed. First of all, I find it very disturbing that the 
Department of Defense has not been as forthcoming en this issue 
as I feel they must. It has been almost two and a half years 
since the Gulf War, and the Department of Defense has still not 
made it a priority to get to the bottom of the causes of the Gulf 
War Syndrome. While the Gulf War Syndrome may not be the result 
of chemical or biological warfare, the odds of this syndrome 
affecting future units in combat is grave enough to warrant full 
and speedy investigation. 

Second, by not investigating the effects that possible 
biological attacks have had on our troops, the security of U.S. 
forces against such future attacks would be compromised. Data 
suggests that the M8A1 chemical agent detection alarm deployed 
during the war might not have been sensitive enough to detect 
consistent low levels of chemical agents. It would appear that a 
reevaluation of our defenses against biological and chemical 
warfare would be in order, especially as relations with North 
Korea continue to sour. 

Lastly, I am concerned about the adverse side effects that 
veterans have suffered from the administration of nerve agent 
pre-treatment drugs and inoculations distributed to our armed 
forces. Patricia Axelrod, a research specialist whose study of 
the drug pyridostigmine, which our troops were ordered to take 
prior to the commencement of the ground war, stated that the drug 
was "unproven." I think more research on the side effects of 
this drug and the advisability of administering it to our troops 
in the future is warranted. 

I thank the Chairman for this opportunity to address my 
concerns and look forward to reviewing the testimony of 
witnesses. 



90 

PREPARED STATEMENT OF SENATOR CAROL MOSELEY-BRAUN 

I ampleased to submit this testimony for the record regarding those who have 
been afTiicted with the Persian Gulf War Syndrome. While stories of mysterious ail- 
ments connected to service in the Persian Gulf have been around for the last several 
years it is only recently that the symptoms plaguing some of our Gulf War veterans 
and their families have been taken seriously. 

Those who were forced to fight another battle with their health upon their return 
from the Gulf have been vindicated by an NIH technical panel held in April, that 
validated the service related claims of many of the victims. The panel found that 
the Desert Storm environment — biological, chemical, physical, and psychological — 
produced a range of illnesses for Desert Storm vets. 

Today I met with a twenty-four year old Illinois constituent who came to my office 
with his stoiy. I would like to share it with you, because it is representative of the 
experience of many of our Gulf veterans. My constituent, Tim Striley, left the Per- 
sian Gulf even before the war began due to unexplained symptoms including a rash, 
nausea, and fevers. Upon his return he completed his service commitment and 
began a private sector job. As his symptoms continued and worsened he received 
care from his local VA hospital. As is the custom of the VA, his bills were forwarded 
to his private insurer for payment. With no diagnosis, no treatments, and no cure, 
his medical bills soared and he missed time from work. He lost his job and was told 
by his insurer that they did not insure Gulf War vets. 

To add to Tim's problems, not only is he the victim of this amorphous syndrome, 
but as we are hearing more often, his wife and young daughter appear to also be 
affected. 

His illness has advanced to the point that he is now disabled and unable to work. 
Though he continues to receive care through the VA, he has been unable to access 
Social Security Disability Income because there is no diagnosis for his illness. His 
wife's employment provides the sole income for the family. 

My understanding is that the story of Tim's family is far from uncommon. It is 
very clear that we must do more to aid those who fought in the Gulf War and are 
experiencing severe health problems because of it. 

I support the NIH's recommendations to study the issue further, conduct a survey 
of Gulf War veterans, and to create a uniform protocol for evaluating Gulf War vet- 
erans in different treatment settings. In the meantime, however, we must assure 
that veterans suffering from Gulf related illnesses receive proper treatment and 
care not only for themselves but for their families. 

It is important that we move forward to determine a cause for this illness because 
it is real and very much a public health problem. We are now hearing about mys- 
terious bacterias and high incidence of cancer among Gulf War vets in their 
twenties. 

These claims and other claims that families of vets are also somehow experiencing 
related health problems must be thoroughly examined as expeditiously as possible. 
We must ensure that these families receive adequate care and we must ensure that 
we take additional measures to protect the public health. 

I plan to contact the Secretary of Health and Human Services to determine if 
there is a role for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention regarding inves- 
tigation of the syndrome or measures to protect the public health. I also plan to 
work with Senator Riegle to continue to bring attention to the plight of our vets who 
served their country heroically in the Gulf. 



PREPARED STATEMENT OF SENATOR BEN NIGHTHORSE CAMPBELL 

Mr. Chairman, I appreciate your work and your persistence in trying to answer 
questions about the Persian Gulf Syndrome. 

Like most people, I don't have the answers about why so many veterans of the 
Gulf War face chronic and often disabling illnesses, many of them from my home 
State of Colorado. 

My office has helped many Persian Gulf War veterans, but I want to tell you 
about one young man whose family lives close to my ranch in Colorado. I remember 
him as a strapping young high school student. He also served honorably in the Gulf 
War. 

Since returning from the Gulf, he has lost 40 pounds, he has trouble remembering 
things, and he has to fight bouts of dizziness and depression. The situation got so 
bad that he couldn't even make line-up. Yet the doctors at his base couldn't find 
anything wrong with him. He needed medical treatment, but they told him that his 



91 

problem was mental, and refused to treat him. When will the United States Grovern- 
ment believe them? At the funeral? 

Only after I called the commander of Ft. Carson Armv Base was he admitted to 
Walter Reed Army Medical Center for treatment. It shouldn't take a phone call from 
a Senator to help a veteran in need. 

Currently, the Federal Ckjvemment is engaged in at least 20 Persian Gulf related 
studies. They are investigating every possible cause or causes: multiple chemical ex- 
posures, leishmaniasis, oil well fires, microwave exposures, chemical and biological 
agents, vaccines and medications, and depleted uranium. 

Last month the National Institutes oi Health (NEH), along with the DoD, VA, 
HHS, and EPA, held the "NLH Technology Assessment Workshop on the Persian 
Gulf Experience and Health." After 2 days of presentations, the NIH adopted a writ- 
ten report which determined, among other things, that: 

• There is "no single disease or syndrome apparent, but rather multiple illnesses 
with overlapping symptoms and causes." 

• A "collaborative Government sponsored program has not been established" to 
evaluate undiagnosed illnesses. 

Of course, we don't need to wait for studies to know that these veterans are sick. 
The question shouldn't be: "Are these veterans sick?" It should be: "How can we 
take care of these veterans ouickly and equitably?" 

Last year Congress passed authority for the VA to provide health care for all Per- 
sian Gulf veterans on a priority basis. I thought this would mean veterans would 
be taken care of, but today we find out that care is meted out stingily, with sus- 
picion and reservation. 

Without question, eligibility for benefits, access to health care and compensation 
have to be provided sooner, with less red tape. I will be working with Veterans' Af- 
fairs Committee Chairmen Rockefeller and Montgomery to provide a presumption 
of service-connection for sick Persian Gulf War veterans. 

I hope that after these hearings, nobody argues with the need to carefully control 
potentially dangerous exports. Frankly, I m a little tired of hearing U.S. companies 
complain about export controls in the name of profits, and then not wanting to take 
responsibility for the uses of these products. 

This weekend, 50-75,000 veterans will visit the Wall — I would like to tell them 
that we are doing something, and that the U.S. is not dragging its feet. 

As a Member of both this Committee and the Senate Veterans' Affairs Committee, 
I look forward to working with you and Chairman Rockefeller on these issues. 



PREPARED STATEMENT OF HONORABLE EDWIN DORN 

Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness 

U.S. Department of Defensk 

Mr. Chairman and Members of the Committee, I am pleased to provide informa- 
tion to support the Committee's review of how materials contributing to Iraq's chem- 
ical and biological warfare program were exported to Iraq from the United States. 
These are significant issues as you consider measures to strengthen the Export Ad- 
ministration Act. 

Secretary Perry has asked me to be the focal point within DoD for issues related 
to service in the Persian Gulf during Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm. 
I am here today in that capacity. 

Senator, I know that you and your colleagues are very concerned about Persian 
Gulf veterans who have developed health problems. So are we in the Department 
of Defense. In recent weeks we nave testified before the Armed Services Committees 
and the Veterans' Affairs Committees in both Houses, and I will be pleased to share 
with you the same information we have shared with them. Indeed, before we move 
on to discuss matters related to the Export Administration Act, I would like to offer 
a few points about our efforts on behalf of Persian Gulf veterans. 

We take the position that the veterans who say they are sick should receive the 
best care we can provide. Three years ago, we trusted these men and women to 
make life-and-death decisions in the heat of battle. Today, we should believe them 
if they're sick. We are committed to treating the symptoms, to fashioning appro- 
priate compensation for those who are disabled, and to identifying the causes of 
their illnesses. An interagency coordinating board ensures that the Defense Depart- 
ment's treatment and research programs complement related efforts by the Depart- 
ment of Veterans' Affairs and the Department of Health and Human Services. I 
should note here that Congress aided our ability to respond by authorizing VA to 



92 

provide priority care to Persian Gulf veterans for conditions that might possibly be 
related to their Gulf service. 

We are especially concerned about those Desert Shield/Desert Storm veterans 
who, since the war, have developed symptoms whose causes we cannot identify. 
These veterans represent a small proportion of the nearly 700,000 U.S. military per- 
sonnel who served in the Persian Gulf region during the conflict, and indeed ttiey 
represent a small proportion of those who have been treated for illnesses or injuries 
suiTered during the war. DoD and VA doctors have treated thousands of Persian 
Gulf veterans for readily identifiable illnesses and injuries; but we know of about 
2,000 people for whom a clear diagnosis continues to elude physicians. 

We are working very hard on this. There are lots of theories about causes. We 
have heard from people who are convinced that we will find the answer if we focus 
solely on parasitic diseases, or Kuwaiti oil fire smoke, or industrial pollutants, or 
the effects of inoculations, or stress, or multiple chemical sensitivity. We are trying 
to maintain a program that explores all the possibilities. In the course of our work, 
some possibilities nave begun to appear less plausible than others. 

One theory involves Iraq's chemical and biological warfare capability. That theory 
provides a connection between the health problems of Gulf War veterans and the 
Senate Banking Committee's review of the Export Administration Act. 

At the time of its invasion of Kuwait in August of 1990, Iraq clearly represented 
a case in which past efforts to prevent the proliferation of weapons of mass destruc- 
tion had not been effective. Many American policymakers and military commanders 
were greatly concerned, going into the war, that Iraq would use chemical and/or bio- 
logical weapons. We knew they had used chemical weapons in the past and we had 
evidence that they had acquired a biological warfare capability as well. 

Our concerns led us to take measures to protect our personnel against such weap- 
ons, through immunizations, special training, equipment, and detection. The tension 
surrounding the possible use of chemical or oiological weapons was evident to every 
American who watched on television as journalists scrambled to put on protective 
masks in response to the SCUD-attack warning sirens in downtown Riyadh and 
other areas. There were many alarms, witnessed by U.S. and other coalition mili- 
tary personnel and by the civilian populations of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Israel. 

Following the war, we confirmed through the inspections conducted by the United 
Nations Special Commission that Iraa did have significant stocks of chemical agents 
and the weapons systems to deliver tnem, as well as equipment and materials suit- 
ed for chemical agent production. All of these chemical agents and related equip- 
ment were found stored at locations a great distance from the Kuwait Theater of 
Operations. These materials have been undergoing destruction at a centralized loca- 
tion in Iraq under the supervision of the United Nations Special Commission since 
late 1992. U.S. military personnel have been present, on site in Iraq, and involved 
in each of the teams overseeing these destruction operations. 

We have concluded that Iraq did not use chemical or biological weapons during 
the war. This conclusion is based on analysis of large amounts of detailed data gath- 
ered in the theater and reviewed after the war. First, throughout the operation, 
there was only one instance of a soldier who was treated for chemical bums that 
were initially attributed to mustard agent; but subsequent tests on the soldier and 
his clothing did not definitively support the initial finding. We know of no other re- 
ports of any U.S. military, coalition military, or civilians in the region having symp- 
toms caused by exposure to chemical or oiological warfare agents. The effects of 
chemical and biological weapons are acute and readily identifiable, and our person- 
nel had been trained to look for the symptoms. 

Second, our detectors were strategically located, and although many detectors 
alarmed, there were no confirmed detections of any chemical or biological agents at 
any time during the entire conflict. Third, no chemical or biological weapons were 
found in the Kuwait Theater of Operations — those portions of Southern Iraq and 
Kuwait that constituted the battlefield — among the tons of live and spent munitions 
recovered following the war. The international community agrees witn these conclu- 
sions. 

This is a complicated and contentious issue, however. To ensure that we have not 
overlooked or misinterpreted important information, we have asked an independent 
panel of experts, chaired by Nobel Laureate Joshua Lederberg, to review all the 
available evidence. We expect to receive the panel's report in June. We also remain 
eager to hear from Gulf War veterans who feel that they can shed light on the 
sources of the undiagnosed illnesses. 

I understand the fear and the frustration many Persian Gulf veterans are experi- 
encing: They are sick and their doctors can't offer definitive answers. To them, let 
me say: This Administration is committed to treating you fairly. You stood up for 
the Nation; the Nation will now stand up for you. 



93 

Now, let me turn to the Defense Department's role in the export licensing process. 
First, it should be noted that DoD is not a licensing agency. That responsibihty falls 
on the Department of Commerce for dual-use items. Trie Department of Defense re- 
views and provides recommendations on export license applications when they are 
referred to Defense or to interagency groups in which Defense participates. Records 
on the ultimate disposition of dual-use, biological, chemical, nuclear, or missile tech- 
nology-related licenses reside in the Commerce Department. 

DoD is a member of the interagency Subgroup on Nuclear Export Controls which 
was in operation throughout the 1980's. This group reviews export requests for nu- 
clear-related dual-use technology. In the missile area, Defense played a significant 
role in the establishment of the Missile Technology Control Regime in 1987, and 
subsequently helped set up an interagency license review group in 1990. In the 
chemical and biological area. Defense also plays an important role, as part of an 
interagency team, in reviewing export license requests for items controlled by the 
Australia Group. 

The Department has taken and will continue to take its responsibility here very 
seriously. For example, DoD made an important contribution in halting export of 
the Argentine Condor Program that was aiding Iraq's Weapons of Mass IJestruction 
Program and we spearheaded the effort to prevent Iraq from acquiring a more capa- 
ble missile than the SCUD. Defense also played a leading role in developing the 
President's Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative and most recently the com- 
prehensive DoD Counterpro lifer at ion initiative. The Department of Defense contin- 
ues to consider proliferation as a significant military threat. 

The growing ability to produce and use chemical weapons is a great concern to 
DoD. We fully support any measures that will prevent or control this proliferation, 
which include strengthening the Export Administration Act. It is important to re- 
member that all exports made to Iraq in the 1980's were completely consistent with 
the laws in effect at the time, and Iraq was not considered a hostile country. De- 
fense's role in reviewing exports was greatly expanded in 1991 — and would be fur- 
ther expanded through measures you are considering in this Conmiittee. 

I would now like to introduce the other members of the panel. Dr. Theodore Prociv 
is the Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Chemical and Biological 
Matters. In that role, he oversees the Department's Chemical and Biological Defense 
Program; the Army program to destroy the U.S. stockpile of chemical weapons; and 
the implementation of bilateral and multilateral chemical weapons treaties, includ- 
ing the Chemical Weapons Convention which is being considered currently by the 
Senate for ratification. Additionally, his office has assisted the Defense Science 
Board Task Force examining the issue of Gulf War health, and has assisted my staff 
with technical support in the area of chemical and biological warfare defense. Dr. 
John T. Kriese is the Chief of the Office for Ground Forces at the Defense Intel- 
ligence Agency. He is responsible for the production of intelligence on foreign ground 
forces and associated weapons systems worldwide; and all aspects of foreign nuclear 
and chemical programs. Dr. Prociv and Dr. Kriese are with me here this morning. 
Dr. Mitchell Wallerstein, who will testify this afternoon, is an expert m 
Counterproliferation and Export Control for the Under Secretary of Defense for Pol- 
icy in International Security Policy. He is the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense 
for Counterproliferation Policy. 

Mr. Chairman, that concludes my opening statement. Before we turn to questions, 
I ask the Committee's indulgence while Dr. Prociv and Dr. Kriese describe their 
areas of expertise. 



PREPARED STATEMENT OF DR. GORDON C. OEHLER 
Director, Nonproliferation Center, Central Intelligence Agency 

Mr. Chairman, Members of the Committee, I am pleased to appear before you this 
afternoon to address your concerns about the proliferation of weapons of mass de- 
struction. I am specifically going to address three aspects of Iraq's efforts to obtain 
critical technologies for its weapons programs in the years preceding the Persian 
Gulf War. 

• First, I wOl present a brief overview of the Intelligence Community's assessments 
of Iraqi chemical and biological warfare (that is CW and BW) capabilities prior 
to Desert Storm and subsequent discoveries based on post-war inspections. 1 will 
also touch lightly on our assessments of Iraq's missile and nuclear weapons pro- 
grams. 

• Second, my remarks will detail the means by which Iraq sought to procure items 
for its weapons of mass destruction programs. 



86-558 0-95-4 



94 

• Third, I will address the role that U.S. intelligence agencies played in support of 
efforts to restrict transfers to Iraq that would have been of use in its CW and BW 
programs. 

Finally, I will close with some observations regarding the Export Administration 
Act. I will be as candid as possible in this of)en testimony. I'm sure you understand 
that further details could be addressed in closed session. 

First, what did we know about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction programs. As 
we reported extensively, Iraq had aggressive CW and BW programs prior to Desert 
Storm, as well as programs for ballistic missile delivery systems. The Iraqis used 
nerve and blister agents during the war with Iran and, in 1988, increased their 
usage of nerve agent dramatically during their final offensive campaign. As you wiU 
recall, they also targeted their own Kurdish population with chemical weapons. 

In mid-1990, Iraq's primary site for the production of chemical weapons was the 
Al Muthanna State Establishment located in Samarra, about 80 km northwest of 
Baghdad. In addition to that complex, the Iraqis had begun to build a complex of 
precursor production plants near Al Habbaniygih, as well as additional chemical 
weapon storage sites. By early 1990, we calculated that the Al Muthanna facility 
was capable oT producing more than 2,000 tons annually of blister agents and nerve 
agents. 

Although the Iraais claimed after the war that their chemical weapons production 
was inept and poorly organized, U.N. inspections showed otherwise. Iraq originally 
declared only about 10,000 CW munitions and less than 1,000 tons of chemical 
agents. U.N. inspectors have found and destroyed more than 46,000 filled munitions 
including 30 warheads for ballistic missiles, bombs filled with mustard gas, and 
nerve gas containers. Additional munitions remain buried in bunkers attacked and 
damaged by coalition forces — the U.N. cannot remove them safely. The inspections 
have also revealed 5,000 tons of stockpiled chemical agents. The U.N. is only now 
completing the task of dismantling this massive program. 

With regard to biological weapons, we estimated, prior to the start of the war, 
that Iraq had a stockpile of at least one metric ton of biological warfare agents, in- 
cluding anthrax and botulinum toxin. We reported that Salman Pak was the pri- 
mary biological weapons facility. U.N. inspectors did not find any evidence of large- 
scale production or weaponization during post-war inspections, suggesting that the 
materials and equipment were removed and hidden prior to inspections. Research 
reports released by the Iraqis to the first U.N. biological weapons inspection team 
showed highly focused research at Salman Pak on anthrax, Botulinum toxin, and 
Clostridium perfringens. The Iraais insisted, however, that their program did not 
proceed beyond basic research. U.N. inspectors believed that, contrary to Iraqi 
claims, there was an advanced miUtary oiological research program which con- 
centrated on these agents. 

The Department of Defense reports that no chemical or biological warfare muni- 
tions were found stored — or used — in areas occupied by Coalition forces during 
Desert Storm. We do not have any intelligence information that would lead us to 
conclude otherwise. 

At the same time it was developing CW and BW agents, Iraq was also developing 
missile delivery capabilities. By the time of the invasion of Kuwait, Saddam could 
field up to 450 Scua-tvpe surface-to-surface missiles. These Soviet-origin Scuds origi- 
nally nad a range of 300 kilometers, but Iraq reconfigured them into a series of 
other missiles with ranges up to 750 kilometers. Prior to the war, Saddam claimed 
to have developed and tested a missile with a range of 950 kilometers — which he 
called the Al-Aobas — but discontinued the system because of in-flight stability prob- 
lems. 

With regard to Iraq's nuclear program, the bombing of the Osirak nuclear re- 
search reactor by the Israelis in 1981 drove Saddam to extreme lengths to cover, 
diversify, and disperse his nuclear activities. IAEA inspections of declared nuclear 
materials continued on a regular bsisis, but the IAEA did not inspect any of the 
undeclared facilities associated with the weapons program. We reported extensively 
on the existence of the nuclear weapons program. Post-war inspections added a 
number of details. 

I would like to give you a sense of Iraq's procurement efforts and patterns. The 
Iraai program was developed gradually over the course of the 1980's. By the time 
of the invasion of Kuwait, it had become deeply entrenched, flexible, and well-or- 
chestrated. Project managers for the weapons of mass destruction programs went 
directly to vetted European suppliers for the majority of their needs. Throughout the 
1980's, German companies headed the list of preferred suppliers for machinery, 
technology, and chemical precursors. German construction companies usually won 
the contracts to build the CW facilities in Iraq. And Iraqi procurement agents were 



95 

sophisticated in exploiting inconsistencies in local export control laws by targeting 
countries for substances and technologies that were not locally controlled. 

In the pre-war years, the dual-use nature of many of these facilities made it easi- 
er for Iraq to claim that chemical precursors, for example, were intended for agricul- 
tural industries. European firms, arguing that the facilities in Iraq were for the pro- 
duction of insecticides, built the Samarra chemical plant, including six separate 
chemical weapons manufacturing lines, between 1983-86. 

European middlemen broke red chemical precursor deals for Iraq under the pre- 
text that the materials were intended for pesticide plants. A Dutch firm purchased 
supplies from major chemical firms around the world, supplying the Chemical Im- 
portation and Distribution State Enterprise in Baghdad in the late 1970's, and in 
the 1980's supplying the Iraqi State Establishment for Pesticide Production — cover 
names for the CW program. The middleman supplied dual-use chemical precursors 
including monochlorobenzene, ethyl alcohol, and thiodiglycol. When the Iraqis re- 
quested phosphorus oxychloride — a nerve agent precursor banned for export under 
Dutch law without explicit permission — the supplier balked and drew this request 
to the attention of Dutch authorities. Subsequent Dutch investigations found that 
two other Dutch firms were involved in brokering purchases of chemical precursors. 

Iraq exploited businessmen and consortia willing to violate the export laws of 
their own countries. As has been indicated in press and television reports. The 
Consen Group — a consortium of European missile engineers and businessmen estab- 
lished a network of front companies to cover its role as project director of an Argen- 
tine-Egyptian-Iraqi sponsored Condor II ballistic missile program. 

Iraqi procurement officers, knowing full well the licensing thresholds, requested 
items that fell just under the denial thresholds — but nonetheless would suffice. 
Prior to Desert Storm, U.S. regulations on the export of these technologies were 
drafted to meet U.S. technical specifications and standards. Technologies of a lower 
standard worked just as well, and permitted Iraq to obtain the goods and technology 
consistent with Commerce Department regulations. 

Let me turn to the question of the involvement of U.S. firms in Iraq's proliferation 
programs. We were watching these programs very careftilly, and it was clear that 
the major players assisting Saddam's effort were not American firms — they were 
principally European. We saw little involvement of U.S. firms in Iraq's weapons of 
mass destruction programs. 

In discussing this issue, we should remember that, by law, the CIA, as a foreign 
intelligence agency, does not focus on U.S. persons, to include U.S. companies. By 
this definition, companies founded by foreign nationals and incorporated in the U.S. 
are treated as U.S. companies. 

This is not to say that we did not occasionally come across information on a U.S. 
person that was collected incidentally to our foreign intelligence target overseas — 
we did. But, when we did, and when there was a possibility of a violation of U.S. 
law, we were obligated to turn our information over to the Justice Department. 

We provided what we called "alert memos" to the Departments of Commerce, Jus- 
tice, Treasury, and to the FBI. These memos resulted whenever this incidentally- 
collected information indicated that U.S. firms had been targeted by foreign govern- 
ments of concern, or were involved in possible violations of U.S. law. Between 1984 
and 1990, CIA's Office of Scientific and Weapons Research provided five memos cov- 
ering Iraqi dealings with U.S. firms on purchases, discussions, or visits that ap- 
peared to be related to weapons of mass destruction programs. 

Turning now to export controls, the Intelligence Conmiunity was asked by the De- 
partment of Commerce during the 1980's to review export license applications pri- 
marily when the licenses had significance to Intelligence Collection equities. And 
here the concern was not so much Iraq, but whether there was a possibility the 
equipment would be diverted to the Soviet Union or other Communist countries. 

Prior to 1991, there were four instances in which the Department of Commerce 
sought information on Iraqi export license applications — all dated in 1986. These ap- 
plications involved computer technologies and image processors. For some of these, 
we reported no derogatory information on the end user. In one case, we referred 
Commerce to a classified intelligence report. 

After evidence mounted in the mid-1980's about the use of chemical warfare in 
the Iran-Iraq war, the United States began to put into effect unilateral controls on 
exports of chemical precursors to Iraq and other countries suspected of having 
chemical warfare programs. The U.S. and several other industrialized nations joined 
what is called the Australia Group to establish more uniform licensing controls for 
the export of several chemical weapons precursors. Since then, more nations have 
been brought into the Australia Group, and recently, controls have been added for 
chemical equipment, certain pathogens, and biological equipment. 



96 

Since the Gulf War, U.S. export controls on CW/BW have been considerably 
strengthened. Enforcement mechanisms involving several Federal agencies have 
been put into place. The scope of the regulations has also been broadened consider- 
ably. In 1991, export controls were tightened to require validated licenses for all 
dual-use equipment being exported to end users of proliferation concern. Intelligence 
information is often the basis for this determination. This catch-all provision has 
served as a model for other countries interested in joining the U.S. Government's 
non-proliferation efforts. 

The Intelligence Community has an expanded role in this strengthened export 
control regime. We work with Department of State-led interagency forums to control 
sensitive technologies and equipment. Our analysis of international trade mecha- 
nisms used to transfer technolo^es from suppliers to consumers is provided to the 
U.S. policy, enforcement, and intelligence communities. And the Department of 
Commerce now brings the Intelligence Community into a large percentage of its li- 
cense reviews. 

Let me say a brief word about the control of missile and nuclear technologies. The 
Missile Technology Control Regime (the MTCR) went into effect in April 1987, with 
the participation of the U.S., the UK, Canada, Italy, France, Japan, and West Ger- 
many, the leading suppliers of, missile-related technologies. Initially, the MTCR 
controlled ballistic missiles and their components that are capable of delivering a 
500-kilogram warhead to a range of 300 or more kilometers. In recent years, the 
scope of the MTCR has been expanded to include any unmanned system, with any 
range or payload, if it is believed to be intended for use with weapons of mass de- 
struction. 

As you know, the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty — most often known by its ini- 
tials — NPT — provides the global framework to control the spread of nuclear weap- 
ons. Nations that have joined the NPT pledge not to transfer, seek access to, or as- 
sist the spread of nuclear weapons. The transfer of nuclear materials is covered by 
safeguar(fe enforced by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Over the years, 
mernbers of the NPT have developed lists of restricted items ana technologies. The 
U.S. adheres to all these controls and has introduced its own restrictions on the 
spread of the fissile materials necessary for weapons production — plutonium and 
uranium. 

The final issue I would like to address is legislation affecting export controls and 
other nonproliferation measures, specifically the provisions the Intelligence Commu- 
nity needs in such legislation. 

The first thing I would say, Mr. Chairman, is that the bill vou introduced at the 
request of the Administration incorporates provisions which address the Intelligence 
Community's concerns in the area of chemical, biological, and missile nonprohfera- 
tion measures. We woriced closely with the other agencies that developed this bill, 
and have endorsed the final result. Accordingly, I would strongly urge that these 
provisions be retained in the final bill passed by the Senate. 

To aid the Committee's deliberations, I would like to outline the Community's eq- 
uities in this area. In disseminating our intelligence, one of our primary responsibil- 
ities and duties is to protect the sources of the intelligence, whether human or tech- 
nical, and the methods by which it was collected. Sources and methods are most at 
risk when Intelligence information is, directly or indirectly, made public. The com- 
promise of sources and methods inevitably results in a diminished capacity to collect 
intelligence in the future. 

The most dramatic consequence of a compromise of intelligence information is the 
threat of the life of an asset. But there are other significant consequences. For ex- 
ample, if we have intelligence indicating a particular overseas company is actually 
a Libyan front company, we can often watch that company to learn more about 
Libya s program and its acquisition network. U.S. Government action that publicly 
identifies the company will often result in the company shutting down and reopen- 
ing elsewhere under a different name. Identifying this new company can be very dif- 
ficult, and meanwhile we have lost our window mto the broader proliferation activ- 
ity. This is not to say intelligence should never form the basis for overt U.S. Govern- 
ment action. On the contrary, it qruite often does and I feel strongly that providing 
"actionable intelligence" is of the highest priority. What is needed, however, is the 
flexibility to take the action that will best achieve our nonproliferation objectives — 
which in some cases may mean holding off on overt U.S. Government actions to pro- 
tect nonproliferation sources and methods. 

The first is to ensure that sanctions regimes established to punish proliferators 
permit the President sufiicient discretion in the imposition of sanctions to protect 
intelligence sources and methods. The second goal is to ensure that the Executive 
Branch not be statutorily required to publish lists of all end-users to whom exports 
of technologies or commodities are controlled. The third goal is to ensure that the 



97 

Government maintains export controls sufficient to ensure that exports of critical 
technologies are compatible with U.S. interests. 

The Administration proposals achieve the first goal by explicitly permitting the 
President to delay the imposition of sanctions where it is necessary to protect intel- 
ligence sources and methods. Let me emphasize that the Intelligence Community 
views this as an exceptional remedy that would have limited but critical application 
and is necessary to further non proliferation goals in the long term. The second goal 
is met by not requiring the Intelligence Community to create lists or databases of 
end-users to which exports of goods or technologies are controlled, but still ensuring 
that intelligence is appropriately made available to other agencies for purposes oi 
analyzing export license applications. Finally, the Administration's bill would not 
relax or eliminate controls on key technologies, particularly encryption devices, 
which could be damaging to U.S. interests. 

This is the basic outline of the issues we face. I would offer any Nonproliferation 
Center assistance or resources which you or your staff would find helpful as you pro- 
ceed in your deliberations on these important issues. 



98 




THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 
WASHINGTON. THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 




I S MAY 1994 



MEMORANDUM FOR PERSIAN GULF WAR VETERANS 
SUBJECT: Persian Gulf War Health Issues 



As you may know, there have been reports that some Persian Gulf War veterans are 
experiencing health problems that may be related to their service in the Gulf. We want to assure 
each of you that your health and well-being are top priorities for the Department of Defense. 

There are many hazards of war, ranging from intense combat to environmental exposures. 
Anyone who has health problems resulting from those hazards is entitled to health care. If you 
are experiencing problems, please come in for a medical evaluation. Active duty personnel and 
their eligible family members should report to any military hospital and ask to be included in the 
Depanment's Persian Gulf War Veterans Health Surveillance System. You will receive a full 
medical evaluation and any medical care that you need. Reserve personnel may contact either a 
military hospital or their nearest Veterans Affairs Medical Center and ask to be included in the 
DoD Surveillance System or the VA's Persian Gulf War Health Registry. You will receive a full 
medical examination. Depending on the results of the evaluation and eligibility status, reserve 
personnel will receive tnedicai care either from military facilities or from VA facilities. 

There have been reports in the press of the possibility that some of you were exposed to 
chemical or biological weapons agents. There is no information, classified or unclassified, that 
indicates that chemical or biological weapons were used in the Persian Gulf There have also 
been reports that some veterans believe there are restrictions on what they can say about potential 
exposures. Please be assured that you should not feel constrained in any way from discussing 
these issues. 

We are indebted to each one of you for your service to your country during the Persian 
Gulf War and throughout your military careers. We also want to be sure that you receive any 
medical care you need. 

Thaitk you for your service. 

y John M. Shalikashvili ^^ WiUia^. Pen? /V 

A Chairman Secretary of Defense^' 

V |>f the Joint Chiefs of Staff 



99 




THC SECRETARY OF DEFENSE 
WASHINGTON'. THC DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 




1 5 NAY 1934 



MEMORANDUM FOR SECRETARIES OF THE MILITARY DEPARTMENTS 
SUBJECT: Persian GulfWar Health Issues 



Chainnan Shalikashvili and I want to ensure that sick Persian Gulf veterans receive the 
best care available. The attached memorandum provides essential reassurances about thaL 

The memorandum makes the following points: veterans who believe they have health 
problems resulting from service in the Gulf should come forward for examination and treatment; 
our forces were not aitacked by chemical or biological weapons: and. military personnel are not 
barred, by any classification restrictions, from discussing issues related to their health. 

Please ensure that this memorandum is distributed through all the channels n eces sary 
to reach the men and women who served in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. 
Edwin Dora. Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness, is coordinating the 
Depanment's efforts to deal with the health effects of Persian Gulf service. 



Attachment: 
As stated 



^JU^C^- ^^ 




100 



in«TED STATES CENTRAL COMMAND 

7J 13 SOUTH BOUNDARY BOULEVARD 
MACDILL AIR FORCE BASE. FLORIDA 33621-3101 

13 NOV '1394 



CCJl 



Subject: Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Request 94-41 

Mr. James Tulte 

Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs 

Washington, DC 20510-6075 

Dear Mr. Tuite: 

This is in reply to a FOIA request from Senator Riegle dated 
16 Meurch 1994 and received within the US Central Command 5 
October 1994, as a referral from the Defense Intelligence Agency 
(DIA) . The DIA searched and forwarded nine docximents responsive 
to your request for our review amd release determination. 

These documents were reviewed and determined to be properly 
classified and should not be reclassified at this time. They 
will be returned to the Secretary of the Senate, Office of 
Secxirity, U.S. Capitol S-407, Washington, DC to Mr. Michael 
OiSilvestro's attention. 

If you have additional questions regarding your request, 
Major Blaisdell or Senior Master Sergeant Skinner are the 
command's FOIA Officers and stand ready to assist you. You may 
reach them at (813) 828-6679/6685. When calling, please refer to 
FOIA number 94-41. 



Sincerely, 





irt J. Itarti'nelli 
lonel, United States Air Force 
rector of Manpower, Personnel 
and Administration 



Enclosures 



101 




UNDER SECRETARY OF DEFENSE H^^ 

4000 DEFENSE PENTAGON \, irA T 

WASHINGTON. DC. 20301-4000 O* ' ' '' 



PCmONMCL AMO 

MOOINCSS 




r- :. 2 1994 



Honorable Donald W. Riegle, Jr. 

Chainnan 

Conunictee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs 

United States Senate 

Washington, DC 20510 

Dear Mr. Chaiiman: 

Thank you for your letter of July 29, requesting information to questions from the May 
25 Hearing on U.S. Dual Use Exports to Iraq and their Impaa on the Health of Gulf War 
Veterans. An interim response was sent on August 31. The unclassified responses are enclosed. 
They also are being provided to Ms. Kelly Cordes as requested. The classified responses have 
been forwarded under separate correspondence in accordance with the appropriate security 
procedures. 

I want to thank you for your concern and interest. Please be assured tiiat we are deeply 
committed to the health and well being of our current and former Service members and it remains 
a top priority within the Department. 



Sincerely, 




Enclosure: 
As stated 

cc: 

Honorable Alfonse D'Amato 

Ranking Republican 

Ms. Kelly Cordes 
Chief Clerk 



W 



102 



3.4 



Department of Veterans' Affairs 
Gulf War Syndrome Registry 



BREAKDOWN BY STATE OF RESIDENCE OF THE 12,774 
VETERANS WHO HAVE TAKEN THE GULF WAR REGISTRY 
EXAM THROUGH MARCH 1994. 

State of Residence Frequency Percent of Total 

Alabama 979 7.7 

Arizona 258 2.0 

Arkansas 253 

California 439 

Colorado 161 1,3 

Connecticut 37 0.3 

Delaware 88 0.7 

District of Columbia 62 0.5 

Florida 612 4.8 

Georgia 923 7.2 

Hawaii 35 0.3 

Idaho 26 0.2 

Illinois 317 2.5 

Indiana 356 2.8 

Iowa 196 1.5 

Kansas 152 1.2 

Kentucky 352 2.8 

Louisiana 184 1.4 

Maine 146 1.1 

Maryland 145 1.1 

Massachusetts 149 1.2 

Michigan 277 2.2 

Minnesota 205 1.6 

Mississippi 233 1.8 

Missouri 319 2.5 

Montana 76 0.6 

Nebraska 140 1.1 

Nevada 27 0.2 

New Hampshire 162 1.3 



103 

State of Residence Frequency Percent of Total 

New Jersey 119 0.9 

New Mexico 150 1.2 

New York 509 4*0 

North Carolina 827 6.5 

North Dakota 82 0.6 



Ohio 269 2.1 

Oklahoma 191 1.5 

Oregon 185 1.4 

Pennsylvania 589 4.G 

Puerto Rico 48 0.4 

Rhode Island 34 oT 

South Carolina 238 1.9 

South Dakota 61 0.5 

Tennessee 410 3.2 

Texas 630 4.9 

Utah 10 OT 

Vermont 85 0.7 

Virginia 248 1.9 

Washington 66 0.5 

West Virginia 69 0.5 

Wisconsin 630 4.9 

Wyoming 13 0.1 



104 



QUESTIONS SUBMITTED BY 

HONORABLE DONALD W. RIEGLE, Jr^ CHAIRMAN 

COMMITTEE ON BANKING, HOUSING, AND URBAN AFFAIRS 

VS. DUAL USE EXPORTS TO IRAQ AND THEIR IMPACT 
ON THE HEALTH OF GULF WAR VETERANS 

MAY 25, 1994 



QUESTIONS FOR HONORABLE EDWIN DORN, 

UNDERSECRETARY OF DEFENSE FOR 

PERSONNEL AND READINESS 

[Senator Riegle letter of July 29, 1994] 



Questions from Chairman Riegle 

0.1. Was the Department of Etefense intelligence apparatus aware of the items exported 
to Iraq by the United States which were converted to use in the Iraqi chemical, biological. 
and nuclear programs prior to the Pereian Gulf W ar? Provi de specific details. 

A.l. During the earlier years associated with Iraq's build-up of its scientific, industrial 
and military capabilities, Iraq was neither a proscribed nation to be denied military 
critical technology, nor an enemy. The U.S. intelligence community is forbidden from 
monitoring the activities of U.S. citizens and U.S. companies. Consequently, very little 
was known by the Intelligence Community about U.S. exports of technology with 
military potential, particularly to a non-proscribed non-enemy nation, unless it was 
informed of such exports by the Department of Commerce. During 1980-1994, the 
Department of Commerce requested that DoD review only 16 dual-use export cases. Of 
these, only two were forwarded to the DIA for technical review. They involved 
computers and signal processing equipment. DIA recommended denial in both cases. 
DIA was aware of the illegal export of thiodiglycol to Iraq by the Baltimore company 
Alcolac. DIA assisted customs and the FBI in their investigation and successful 
prosecution of that company. 



0.2. Were Iraqi chemical and biological facilities among the priority targets hit bv 
Coalition bombers during the first davs of the air war? 

A.2. Yes. Some Iraqi chemical and biological (CB) facilities were priority targets and 
were among the first attacked on and around the first days of the air war. However, not 
every CB target was attacked during the first days. CB targets were themselves 
prioritized, generally by the intelligence community, then more specifically by the 



105 

CENTCOM operators and were attacked accordingly. Generally speaking, CB Urgels 
were attacked at the very beginning of the air war and throughout the air campaign. 



O.3. Were U.S. national laboratories contacted prior to the war and requested to assess 
the danper from the fallout of bombing Iraqi chemical, biological, and nuclear facilities? 
What was their advice? 

A.3. Yes. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) was tasked to assess the danger of fallout 
from bombed Iraqi facilities. An example of the analysis conducted by the DNA to 
assess the effects of bombing Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) facilities is at 
Attachment A. DNA developed the Army's Automated NBC Information System 
(ANBACIS n) to analyze the impact of NBC contamination on military operations. 
Downwind hazard modeling of the southem-most storage facilities showed that chemical 
contamination would not occur beyond 11.1 kilometers downwind from the target The 
closest U.S. or coalition forces to the Ash Shuyabah chemical storage area, the southern- 
most storage facility, was 150 kilometers. It is for this reason that reports of detections 
associated with downwind drift from bombed chemical facilities are discounted. 

The ability to quickly communicate with DNA analysts was available to 
commanders in the Gulf theater. Twenty-one sets of ANBACIS II equipment, which 
provided direct conimunications between the units and DNA stateside, were distributed in 
theater. Over 600 plots were run by DNA at the request of deployed units conducting 
vulnerability analysis. A complete description of the ANBACIS system and how it 
functioned during the war is at Attachment A. 



O.4. Did the automatic chemical agent detection alarms begin to sound more often with 
the initiation of the Coalition bom bings? If so. whv? 

A.4 . Yes, because more alarms (M8A1 and M43A1) were placed into operation after the 
bombing started to prepare for any Iraqi retaliation. The M8A1 alarm is activated during 
normal preventive maintenance checks and services (see Attachment B). The M43A1 
(the detector component of the M8A1 system) will alarm when exposed to heavy 
concentrations of rocket propellant smoke, screening smoke, signaling smoke, when 
engine exhaust is present or when a nuclear explosion occurs. Additionally, the alarm 
will sound in response to a heavy concentration of tobacco smoke, burning rubber, 
insecticides, low battery indicator, or strong percussion such as proximity to heavy 
vehicles or incoming artillery. There were approximately 13,200 M8A1 deteaors in 
theater. 



106 

0.5. Was the M8A1 automatic chemical agent detection alarm deployed during the 
Persian Gulf War suFricientIv sensitive to detect chronic harmful exposure levels of 
chemical nerve agents? 

A. 5. Yes, for levels known to be hannful. The M8A1 G and VX agent sensitivity of 0.1- 
0.2 mg-min/m3 is more than adequate to warn ground troops against known effects of 
chemical warfare nerve agents. The only known effect of nerve agents at this level of 
concentration is pinpointed pupils. 



0.6. Was the M256 or M256A 1 chemical agent kit sufficiently sensitive to detect 
harmful e xposure levels of chemical blister agents that could pose a chronic exposure 
hazard to U.S. troops? 

A.6. The M256A1 sensitivity to blister agents is as follows, and is more than adequate 
to warn ground troops against blister agent vapors: H - 2mg-min/m3; L - 9mg-min/nn3; 
and CX - 3mg-min/m3. Normally, the first indication of exposure to blister agent vapors 
is eye injury, which occurs at concentrations of 100-200 Ct(mg-min/m3). Incapacitating 
blisters occur at 2,000 Ct(mg-min/m3), death through respiratory inhalation at 1,500 
Ct(mg-min/m3). 



O.7. Were positive readings ever obtained with the M256 or M256A1 test kits? Include 
in your answer positive results obtained even though another tests may have been 
conducted with negative results? How long does it take to conduct an M256A1 kit 
reading? 

A. 7. The records reviewed to date have not revealed any positive readings. M256A1 
response time for G.V.H.L.CX, and CK is 15 minutes and 25 minutes for AC. 

G - non-persistent nerve agent 

V - persistent nerve agent 

H - mustard or blister agent 

L - lewisite or blister agent 

CX - choking agent 

CK - blood agent 

AC - blood agent 

O.8. Does the M 17 gas mask provide sufficient protection against chronic exposures to 
chemical n erve agents? If so. why is it not recommended for use in chronic exposures in 
U.S. Army material safety data sheets? 

A. 8. Yes. Material safety data sheets provide infonnation on safe storage, handling, and 
disposal of all types of chemical and hazardous materials throughout the civilian, 
military, and industrial communities. The particular material safety data sheets (;ontained 
in the Senate Banking Committee Report of May 25, 1994, for example, refer to 



107 



protective measures required by personnel working in production, depot storage, and 
transportation of chemical material. The possible exposure to very high concentrations of 
chemicals and hazardous materials in these circumstances requires levels of protection 
that far exceed tactical military requirements. Soldiers require protection from fiefd 
concentrations of chemical agents and therefore, soldier protective equipment must be 
more rugged, have greater wear time, require less logistic support, and be light weight 
equipment available for non-tactical applications. For example, the soldier's field mask 
must allow for weapons sighting, be worn in extreme hot and extreme cold, and be strong 
enough to survive infantry operations. 



O.9. Did the U.S. have field automatic biological d etection monitors deployed durine the 
Persian Gulf War? What type? Are they currently d eployed with U.S. field units? 

A.9. Automatic biological detection nronitors did not exist during the Gulf War. All 
biological detectors were manually operated. Biological agent detection units are 
deployed based upon theater requirements. If a biological detection requirement is 
identified in the force structure, a chemical corps units will be deployed for that purpose. 
See response to Question #14 for additional information. 



O.IO. Are all biological agents lethal? Isn't it true that one biological warfare strategy is 
to debilitate vour adversary's capabilities and another is to overload his medical facilities? 

A.IO. No. Not all biological warfare agents arc lethal; some are only lethal if untreated, 
while others are almost always lethal, even with medical treatment. Incapacitating BW 
agents could be used to debilitate an adversary's capabilities and to overload his medical 
facilities. Bacillus anthracis, botulinum toxin, francisella, tularensis, and yersinia pestis 
are examples of lethal agents; VEE virus, Q fever, and staph enterotoxin B are examples 
of incapacitating agents. The BW strategy statentent is true for chemical, biological, 
nuclear, unconventional and conventional warfare strategy. 



0. 1 1 . Are the presence of sick or dead animals and birds one of the indicators U.S. 
forees are trained to look for as a warning of biological warfare agent use? 

All. Yes. The BW usage indicators are: 

o Occurrence of acutely ill military and civilian patients 

o Illness reflects an unusual or impossible agent for the geographical 

area 
o Unusual distribution of disease 
o Unexplained number of dead aninuils 
o Direct evidence • discovery of munitions with BW agents. 



108 

Q.12. Might widespread flu-like symptoms also be an indicator of biological warfare 
use? 

A. 12. Possibly. Some infectious agents known to be potential biological warfare agents 
can have flu-like symptoms as part of an early infection. Examples would be Q-fever, 
anthrax, tularemia, and plague. Ru-like symptoms including fever, sore throat, cough, 
loss of appetite, and muscle and joint aches are very non-specific and are generally the 
first signs of any infectious disease, many of which are not known to be biological 
warfare threats. 



0.13. Were there outbreaks of antibiotic resistant strains of E. Coli and Shigella among 
U.S. forces during Operations Desert Shield or Desert Storm? H ow were the bacteria 
identified? Given the nature of the U.S. exports t o the Iraq Atomic Energy Commission- 
were full DNA polymera se chain rea ction studies conducted on these bacteria to 
determine if they were genetically modified? 

^■13. Approximately 40-60% of enterotoxigenic E. Coli and 20-80% of Shigella spp. 
isolated from cases of acute diarrhea among Desert Shield troops were resistant to 
standard antibiotics used to treat diarrhea (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, 
and ampicillin). Resistance was determined using standard laboratory methods. It was 
also found that no single strain of bacterial eoteropathogen was Che cause of antibiotic 
resistant diarrhea. Enteric bacterial pathogens resistance to commonly used antibiotics 
were expected at the beginning of Operation Desert Shield because resistant organisms 
are now found throughout the worid. particuiariy in developing and tropical countries. 
Antibiotic resistant enteric disease pathogens can be obtained easily in nearly all 
tropical/developing countries by using simple, standard laboratory techniques; genetic 
modification is not necessary. Full DNA PCR analysis was not performed because there 
was nothing unusual or unexpected about the resistant, bacterial, enteropathogens 
identified in the Gulf. 



0.i4. What procedures did the U.S. follow to det ermine whether U.S. forces were 
exposed to biological agents? What was tested for? What were th e results of those tests? 

A.M. Several years before the Gulf War, U.S. Aitay scientists a.id engineers crafted a 
contingency plan to address the threat of biological agents. A monoclonal antibody 
technology detector test was developed. When intelligence sources assessed Iraq as 
having a potential anthrax and botulinum toxin oRensive capability, ten thousand anthrax 
and ten thousand botulinum toxin test kits were distributed throughout the Desert Storm 
theater of action. No biological warfare agents were identified during Operation Desert 
Shield/Storm. 



109 

Fifteen teams from the 9th Chemical Company were deployed by the U.S. Army 
to collect and analyze samples using the XM-2, a high volume air sampler, which 
operates by collecting aerosolized material into a liquid solution. That solution can be 
analyzed to determine the presence of biological warfare materials. 

The Naval Medical Research and Development Command deployed the Navy 
Forward Laboratory (NFL) to perform the biological warfare (BW) analysis mission. 
Other NFL missions during Operation Desert Shield/Storm were: 

o Laboratory diagnosis of clinical cases of infectious diseases 

o Threat assessment of infectious diseases of military importance 

o Detection capabUity for potential BW agents 

Public health assistance to the local population and to the Coalition Forces. 

The NFL consisted of four microbiologists, two infectious disease specialists, and 
two advanced lab technologists. The laboratory had the capability to test for the 
following agents: salmonella, shigella, vibrio cholera, V. parhemonlyticus, escherichia 
coli, salmonella typi, s. partyphi, yersinia enterocolitica, Cryptosporidium, rotavirus, 
legionella pneumophila, yersina pestis, francisilla tularensis, neiserra meningitidis, N. 
gonorrhoeae, straphylococcus, streptococcus, hepatitis A,B, hantaan viriis, chlamydia, 
intestinal ova and parasites, malaria parasites, sandfly fever (Naples and Sicilian), West 
Nile fever. Rift Valley Fever, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever, sindbis, dengue, Q 
fever, murine typhus, Mediterranean spotted fever, mycoplasma pneumoniae, adenovirus, 
parainfluenza virus 1,2,3, influenza vims A&B, respiratory syncitial virus, steptococcus 
pyogenes, neisseria meningitidis, and streptococcus pneumoniae. 

The NFL could perform specific BW agent identification by performing bacterial 
culture and antibiotic sensitivities, indirect fluorescent antibody assay, antigen capture 
ELISA, IgM and IgG capture ELISA, and polymerase chain reaction assay. The labs 
conducted analysis of dead animals, verified air samples collected by the biological 
sampling teams, tested water and soil for agents and toxins, and analyzed the rapid field 
assays. 

In addition, U.S. Army specialists provided B W consultation and hands-on 
assistance to allies in the British, Canadian, and French armies. Great Britain and 
Canada developed and deployed reconnaissance vehicles, each of which included an air 
sampler, a particle sizer and various antibody-based tests (immunoassays). The French 
also deployed antibody-based tests for BW agents with assistance from U.S. Array 
specialists from Fort Detrick and Edgewood Arsenal. 



0.15. Were any biological agents or materials capable of being used to cause disease or 
other illnesses di.scovered by the U.S. or any other Coalition forces in Iraq. Kuwait, or 
Saudi Arabia? What were tho;;e materials? 



110 

A. 15. No such materials were found by U.S. or Coalition forces. 



0.16. Were any Iraqi vaccines discovered or did interviews of enemy prisoners of war. 
or others, reveal what biological warfare-related materials the Iraqis had defended 
a gainst? 

A.16. No. 



Q17. Did Iraq have a biological warfare program that appeared to be offensive in nature? 

A17. Yes. The classified package provides additional information and is being addressed 
by separate correspondence. 



0.18. In the spring of 1993. the United Nations Special Commission on Iraq sent a 
biological warfare inspection team to Iraq und er the leadership of U.S. Armv Colonel 
David Franz (USAMRIID). One of the sites visited was a facility of the Iraqi Atomic 
Energy Commission which also does biological research. Was Colonel Franz briefed on 
the nature of the materials shipped bv the United States to Iraq prior to the war to alert 
him that genetic research may have been being conducted. 

A.I8 . Prior to his leading the UNSCOM BW inspection team in March 1993, COL 
Franz was briefed on the major microbial strains which the Iraqis had obtained from the 
ATCC before the war. Observation and questions regarding genetic research are part of 
the biological inspection modus operandi, with or without a prebrief on the subject. Mr. 
Jim Tuite showed COL Franz a list in the spring of 1994 that included genetic constructs 
and vectors. During COL Franz's visits to Tuwaitha in March 1993 and M-.y/June 1994, 
he found no evidence of prohibited research, genetic or classical, ongoing, planned or 
having been conducted at Tuwaitha. 



Ill 

Q.19. Were chemical munitions or binary precvirsor materials capable of being 
used in chemical warfare discovered in any area of Iraq. Kuwait, or Saudi 
Arabia before, during, or after the war by U.S. forces. U.S. civilian personnel, 
or other coalition participants? 

A. 19. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
Affairs files. 

Q.20. What evidence, if any, is there concerning the forward deployment of 
chemical and biological warfare agents or weapons prior to or during the 
Persian Gulf conflict? What evedence. if any, is there of Iraqi attempts to 
avoid destruction of chemical or biological warfare agents or weapons by 
coalition bombings? For example, transshipment activity just prior to the 
initiation of the air war from chemical production facilities such as Samarra. 
Al Muthanna. Habbanivah. or others? 

A.20. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
Affairs files. 



112 

0.21 . What evidence, if any, exists of Iraqi chemical and biological warfare defensive 
measures during or prior to the Persian Gulf War? 

A. 21. Iraq claims it did not have a dedicated BW defensive progrant Iraq distributed 
drugs for the treatment of nerve and mustard exposure to at least some of its Republican 
Guard Divisions. There was an effort to outfit their troops with chemical protective gear; 
this usually consisted of a gas mask, gloves, boots, simple poncho, and individual 
chemical agent antidote kits. Additionally, decontamination stations were established 
throughout Iraq. 

Q.22. What evidence, if any, exists of Iraqi command instructions to use 
chemical weapons prior to or during the war? 

A.22. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
Affairs files. 

Q.23. Were any Iraqi chemical units in Iraq or Kuwait located or reported on 
by U.S. or coalition sources during Operation Desert Shield or Desert Storm? 
Explain? 

A.23. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted], 
response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
Affairs files. 



113 

0.24. In the Department of Defense's final report to Congress on the Conduct of the 
Persian Gulf War, it was reported that 88 Scud launches were detected. Saddam Hussein 
has claimed to have launched at least 93 Scuds. Can vou explain the discrepancy? Were 
any Scud missiles launched bv Iraq against Turkey or any other location other than Israel 
or Saudi Arabia? Were U.S. forces and dependent personnel in Turkey ever ordered into 
MOPP g ear? 

A.24. The Department records indicate a total of 88 SCUD launches against Israeli and 
Saudi Arabian targets only. Iraq only launched SCUD missiles against Israel and Saudi 
Arabia. We cannot explain the discrepancy between Saddam's claim to have launched at 
least 93 SCUDs. All units, which were in a SCUD missile threat area, responded with 
chemical defense standard operating procedures. Commanders at the lowest level of 
command determined the appropriate level of chemical defense for their units. No 
specific records were maintained at the unit level to indicate the use of MOPP gear. The 
Department is not aware of any personnel in Turkey being ordered into MOPP gear. 



0.25. What targets were Spirit 1. Spirit 2. and Spirit 3 fU.S. Air Force AC-1 30 Spectre 
gunships) directed against on January 31. 1991? Were any of the targets of their mission 
- in which one of these aircraft was shot down in the battle for Khafji - suspected of 
bein g chemical, biological, or nuclear weapons? What were the results of those 
missions? 

A.25. Spirits 01. 02, and 03 (three AC-130H aircraft) were launched sequentially to 
provide close air support to U.S. ground forces engaged in and around the town of Khafji. 
Spirits 01 and 02 attacked the following targets: a tnick park, a border post, a radio 
station and antenna, and a radar site with associated Armored Personnel Carriers (APCs) 
and personnel. Spirit 03 attacked similar targets; however, the specific targets cannot be 
determined because the aircraft was shot down during the mission. Spirit 03 was 
attacking a free rocket over ground (FROG) missile site just before it was shot down. 
None of the targets were NBC. The results of the attacks indicate minimal damage 
inflicted on the truck park, border post, and radio station. Three APCs were destroyed 
around and near the radar site. 



114 

Q.26. Did Iraq conduct test firings of Scuds or other short or medium range 
ballistic missiles during Operation Desert Shield? What was the assessed 
purpose for these tests since Iraq already had extensive knowledge of the 
capabilities of Scud missiles? 

A.26. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
Affairs files. 

Q.27. Did Iraq have the capability to deliver biological weapons via ground- 
based aerosol generators, aircraft, helicopters, or FAW missiles? Do they have 
any other means of delivering biological weapons? 

A.27. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
Affairs files. 

Q.28. What was the Defense Intelligence Agency evaluation of Iraq's chemical 
and biological weapons programs and delivery means prior to. during, and 
after the Persian Gulf War? What delivery means were within range of 
coalition forces at the beginning of the air war and by the end of the ground 
war? 

A.28. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
Affairs files. 



0.28. Did any Iraqi aircraft, helicopter, or FAW ground-to-ground missile ever penetrate 
Saudi airspace or areas over U.S. naval forces in the Persian Gulf? Include in vour 
answer any areas where chemical and biological materials could have been distributed to 
contaminate U.S. forces even if not directly over Saudi Arabia. 

A.28. The Iraqi Scud attacks on Saudi Arabia, Bahrain and Israel were highly publicized. 
The Iraqi offensive air capability was destroyed the first day of the ground war. There 
was no release of chemical or biological materials. 



115 



Q.30. Describe the evolution of Iraq's battlefield employment of chemical 
weapons during the Iran-Iraq war, did Iraq's ability to use these weapons 
improve over the course of the war? 

A.30. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
Affairs files. 

Q.31. What chemical and biological agents were assessed to be in the Iraqi 
operational inventories and test inventories prior to the Persian Gulf War? 

A.31. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban 
Affairs files. 



0.:^2. Were I IS. or NATO chemical protective overganr v-niLs or masks vulnerable to 
specific tvix^s of chemical or biological agents in the Iraqi inven tory? 

A. 32. There were no equipment vulnerabilities specific to the Iraqi chennical agent 
inventory. No biological warfare agents were identified during Operation Desert 
Shield/Storm. 



O. 33. Was IIS, and NATO detection equipment ca pable of detecting Iraqi biological 
agenLs? Explain. 

A.33. Yes, although U.S. Forces did not deploy any NATO biological detection 
equipment to Southwest Asia . See Response to Question #14 for information on U.S. 
equipment 

0.34. What evidence exists, if anv. to indicate that Iraq de ployed chemical mines in tlK 
Kuwaiti theater of operations? 

A.34. There is no evidence that Iraq deployed chemical mines in the KTO. In fact, over 
350.000 Iraqi mines have been found and removed from Kuwait, none of which were 
chemical mines. 



116 

Q.35. Did Iraq deploy any chemical units or establish any chemical 
decontamination sites in the Kuwaiti or Iraqi theater of operations - or in the 
disputed territories? 

A.35. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Affairs 
files. 

Q.36. Which country provided the chemical Scud warheads to Iraq that were 
later located by the UN inspections? If by another country, how many of these 
warheads were initially provided? Did Iraq also manufacture its own? 

A.36. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Affairs 
files. 

Q.37. Was the former Soviet Union ever suspected of providing chemical or 
biological warfare training to Iraqi officers either in Iraq, the Soviet Union, or 
any other country? Explain. 

A.37. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Affairs 
files]. 

Q.38. Is the Department of Defense aware of any Soviet assistance to the 
Iraqis in setting up any chemical training center or production facility in Iraq? 
Explain. 

A.38. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Affairs 
files. 

0.39. Did the United States ever provide chemical or biological warfare training to Iraqi 
officers either in Iraq, the United States, or any other cou ntry. Explain. 

A.39. At one tinie the United States and Iraq had friendly relationships, to include 
niiUtary exchange programs. Iraqi officers attended the U.S Army Chemical School until 
the 1978-1979 timeframe. 



117 

O . 40, Is (h^re ^V classified or uncla-ssified inform a tion that would indicate anv 
g;^P Q$Mres (0 or detections of chemical or biological aoentj;? 

AJQ. Other than the Czech detections in January of 1991 , which have been discussed at 
length during testimony and other questions for the record, there is no information, 
classified or unclassified, which would indicate any exposures to or valid confirmed 
detections of chemical or biological agents. There were many, probably thousands, of 
false chemical alarms experienced by the Coalition; however, no alarm ever was verified 
using follow-up confirmation procedures. This includes the French reports, the FOX 
vehicle moving into Kuwait, and the bunker incident after Uie war. 

As with the alleged CW detections, there are some unsubstantiated reports that 
allege exposure to BW agents. However, despite concerted efforts, Coalition assets were 
not able to confirm any of these reports. 



118 



0.41. Is there any classified or unclassified information that would indicate the 
discovery of any chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear warfare related materials by 
U.S. or Coalition forces before, during, or after the Persian Gulf War? 

A.41. There is no information, classified or unclassified, that would indicate the 
discovery of any chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear warfare related materials by 
the IIS or Coalition forces before, during or after the Persian Gulf War. After the war, 
Iraq declared and turned over nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) related material to 
the UN inspection teams. None of the material which Iraq turned over to the UN teams 
originated within the KTO. The Departnient is not aware of any information derived 
from the UN inspections that supports any allegation that Iraqi NBC programs are 
responsible for the Gulf War Syndrome, either directly or indirectly. See classified 
package for additional information. 



0.42. In February 1994. the Defense Science Advisory Board contacted the Banking 
Comnfuttee and asked for a list of witnesses to what may have been direct Iraqi attacks. A 
representative list of at least one person from each event noted was sent to the 
Department of Defense. It has been reported back to mv office bv a number of those 
interviewed bv the DoD that rather than ask substantive questions about the events and to 
locate other witnesses, high-ranking military officers called these individuals to inform 
them that thev were mistaken and to tell them that Iraq had did not have the ability to 
initiate these types of attacks -- which, of course, is false. 

Under whose personal direction are these officers operating -- and if operating 
without direction, what corrective or disciplinary steps will DoD take to ensure that in the 
future. Department representatives ask for information, rather than try to convince these 
veterans that they didn't see what they reported? 

A.42 . In suppc rt of the Defense Science Board on Gulf War Health Effects charter, the 
Department interviewed several Persian Gulf veterans, including witnesses who related 
their Persian Gulf experiences to the staff members for the Committee on Banking, 
Housing, and Urban Affairs. The majority of the individuals, who were interviewed, 
expressed their appreciation that the DoD was taking an interest in them and answering 
their questions concerning Operation Desert Storm chemical and biological issues. No 
disciplinary action is planned. 



119 



0.43. What is the role of your office in the investigation into the exposure of U.S. forces 
to chemical and/or biological materials during Operation Desert Shield and Desert 
Storm? 

A. 43 . The Office of the Secretary of Defense (Health Affairs), OASD(HA) is 
responsible for all Persian Gulf health-related issues. The Office of the Assistant to the 
Secretary of Defense (Atomic Energy), OASTD(AE), provided administrative support 
and researched material for the Defense Science Board Task on Gulf War Health Effects. 
OATSD(AE) has also reviewed records, collected information and interviewed personnel 
with knowledge of chemicalA>iological operations related to the Gulf War and provided 
information to a variety of individuals and agencies. OATSD(AE) is assisting 
OASD(HA) in implementing a Desert Storm records research and declassification effort. 



0.44. What role, if any did the Defense Nuclear Agency plav in the destruction of 
hazardous materials during or after the Persian Gulf War? 

A.44. DNA did not have a role in the destruction of hazardous materials during or after 
the Persian Gulf War. DNA persotuiel did participate in identification of stocks and their 
location, and identification of nuclear production facilities. 



Follow Up (0.45). Did anv personnel from the Defense Nuclear Agencv or working 
under the direction of the Defense Nuclear Agency or any other Department of Defense 
element participate in the destruction of chemical, biological or nuclear materials before. 
during, or after the war. If so. what materials were destroved? 

A. 45 . No DNA personnel or anyone working under the direction of DNA participated in 
the destruction of chemical, biological or nuclear nmterials before, d'jring or after the 
war. 

In June 1991, a Destruction Advisory Panel was established to assist and advise 
the United Nations Special Conrunission (UNSCOM) on the safe destruction of Iraq's 
chemical weapons. The multi-national Chemical Destruction Group, which supports 
UNSCOM missions, oversees the chemical warfare munitions destruction in Iraq. 
Members of the U.S. Army Chemical Material Destruction Agency and the U.S. Army 
Technical Escort Unit have provided support to UNSCOM in this munitions destruction. 



120 

0.46. What is the role of the Defense Iniellipence Agency in the investigation into the 
exposure of U.S. forces to chemical, biological or radiological materials during Operation 
Desert Shield and Desert Storm? 

A.46. DIA's role, as always, has been to provide intelligence to the Department of 
Defense. DIA has been deeply involved with the investigation into alleged exposure of 
U.S. forces to chemical, biological or radiological materials during Operation Desert 
Shield and Desert Storm since the investigation began in early summer 1993. DIA has 
reviewed every aspect of its assessment of Iraqi chemical, biological and nuclear 
weapons programs, the possibility of their use against Coalition troops, and the 
possibiUty of accidental release from bombed Iraqi targets. DIA has spearheaded the 
investigation into the alleged Czech detections, making the assessment that the Czech 
detections were likely valid but that they are unable to confirm the detections. DIA 
traveled to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Israel. Czech Republic, France and England to further 
investigate the issue. Through the Defense Attache system, DIA requested information 
and assessments regarding the issue from other Coalition members and allies. To date, all 
of DIAs efforts and contacts point to the unanimous conclusion that Coalition troops 
were not exposed to chemical or biological agents, either accidently (as a result of 
downwind exposure from bombed Iraqi facilities) or purposely (from direct Iraqi use). 



Q.47. Is it true that North Korea is reported to possess both chemical and 
biological weapons capabihtv? 

A.47. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Affairs 
files. 

Follovy Up (Q.48.): There has been much discussion of the possibility that the 
crisis over the North Korean nuclear weapons program could develop into a 
major war involving a Desert Storm-sized force on the Korean Peninsula. If 
such a conflict were to occur, are you concerned that the North Koreans might 
use chemical and biological weapons agadnst U.S. forces? 

A.48. Classified response received from the Department of Defense [deleted]. 
Response archived in U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Affairs 
files. 



121 



Questions from Senator D'Amato 



Follow Up (0.49'i. What steps are you taking to ensure that the medical capabilities of 
U.S. forces are improved so that they could deal with mass casualty events involving 
chemical and biological weapons? Since the Korean crisis could come to a head in the 
very near future, measures that will take more than a year to be effective will be too late 
to do any good. 



A. 49. The Department is aggressively pursuing full FDA approval and licensure of all 
drugs and vaccines used as prophylaxsis or treatment against chemical/biological warfare 
agents wherever possible. The Department is assuring that training in the prevention and 
treatment of chenucal/bioiogical warfare casualties is a priority and will be a pan of the 
Department's Medical Readiness Strategic Plan. 



O.50. Hvpotheticallv. assume that the thesis of the report that is being issued today is 
correct, that U.S. forces in Southwest Asia during Desert Storm were exposed to a 
mixture of chemical and biological warfare agents. Isn't it strongly in the Department's 
interest to understand the nature and effects of such exposure, in orde^ to protect U.S. 
forces better in the future? Why has the Department seemed so resistant to a full, 
comprehensive review of this issue? 

A. 50. Under the auspices of the Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition 
and Technology, a Defense Science Board Task Force on Persian Gulf War Health 
Effects conducted a comprehensive review of the use of chemical and biological weapons 
in the Gulf War. Their report was published June 1994 and concluded, "The Task Force 
found no evidence that either chemical or biological warfare was deployed at any level 
against us, or that there were any exposures of US service members to chemical or 
biological warfare agents in Kuwait or Saudi Arabia. We are aware of one soldier who 
was blistered, plausibly from mustard gas, after entering a bunker in Iraq during the post- 
war period." 

The suggestion that US forces were exposed to a mixtarc of chemical and 
biological warfare agents is, indeed, a hypothetical thesis. The illnesses suffered by some 
of our veterans at this time are not hypothetical, the illnesses are real. Time, resources, 
and effort should be expended towards identifying the causative factors of our veterans' 
illnesses. Scientific evidence, operational analysis and common sense have eliminated 
chemical and biological warfare agents as a causative factor of the illnesses. U.S. forces 
can best be protected in the future by identifying the causes of the Gulf War veterans' 
illnesses and identifying methods to neutralize and/or eliminate these causative factors. 



122 

0.5 1 . There are extensive published reports that Saddam Hussein has not abandoned his 
ambitions to conquer Kuwait and make it the "19th Province of Iraq". Indeed, he appears 
to be able to maintain his military power and his political base in Iraq, and appears to be 
working hard to undermine both the sanctions regime against him and the United Nations 
inspection regime. This leads me to conclude that we may again face Iraq on the 
battlefield. Do vou agree that Iraq remains a threat to Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, among 
others in the Middle East? 

A.Sl. Yes, the Department agrees that Iraq remains a threat to Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, 
among others in the Middle East. Iraq is still reeling from its thrashing at the hands of the 
Coalition, as well as UN inspections and sanctions. However, Iraq remains a viable 
regional force which no Persian Gulf ally could defeat, much less defend against, without 
US assistance. 



Follow Up (0.52). If Iraq remains a threat, and there is a possibility that our defense 
arrangements with our Desert Storm allies may again become the basis for direct U.S. 
involvement in armed conflict with Iraq, doesn't it make very good sense to press ahead 
with all possible speed to unravel and understand the causes and treatments of Persian 
Gulf Syndrome? Do you agree that this is not merely an illness affecting veterans of the 
past wars, but a threat to U.S. forces who may be eng a ged in a future war against the 
same enemy in much the same place. 

A. 52. We agree that we must proceed with our efforts to uiu-avel and understand the 
causes and treatments of these illnesses. 



053. Can vou assure this Committee that all drugs and vaccines used on U.S. troops 
deployed to Southwest Asia had successfully completed the full FDA review and 
a pproval process? 

A. 53. Two drugs. Pyridostigmine and Butulinum toxoid, were used under an 
Investigational New Drug (IND) authorization from the FDA. With the exception of 
Pyridostigmine and Botulinum toxoid, any drug or vaccine administered to U.S. 
personnel would have been fully approved and licensed by the FDA, and listed within 
DOD medical formularies. 



Follow Up (O 54). Please list all drugs and vaccines used on U.S. troops and their FDA 
a pproval dates. If a drug or Vaccine did not receive FDA approval, please list its status in 
the approval process when it was administered to U.S. troops. And, its status today. 



123 



A. 54. With the exception of Pyridostigmine and Botulinum toxoid, any drug or vaccine 
administered to U.S personnel would have been fully approved and licensed by the FDA, 
and listed within DOD medical formularies. Pyridostigmine is a drug approved by the 
FDA since 1955 for use in the treatment of myasthenia gravis (MG), a neuromuscular 
disease. Botulinum toxoid has been in use more than 20 years, and has been sponsored 
by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for important public health 
situations. During the Gulf War both drugs were considered "investigational" in 
accordance with FDA regulations and used only after careful review by the FDA under 
the auspices of a treatment protocol against biological and chemical warfare agents. The 
Department is pursuing action to have both drugs licensed and approved by the FDA for 
their intended military purpose. Attachment C is a list of all FDA approved drugs that 
were available for use in the "Medical Customer Shopping Guide for Saudi Arabia" and 
also those drugs which were taken to the field by medical units as noted in the "Defense 
Medical Standardization Board". 



0.55. Did the development process for the medical procedures involving these drugs and 
vaccines fullv take into account possible synergistic reactions with other chemical and 
biological warfare agents? 

A. 55. No, not fully. The synergistic interaction of multiple drugs, vaccines, chemicals, 
thermal stressors and other environmental exposures with chemical and biological 
warfare agents is not a well defined area of medical knowledge. As a result of the Gulf 
War experience, the Department recognizes the need to increase its understanding of the 
physiologic effects of preventive measures within the context of co-existing exposures to 
environmental hazards and chemical and biological threats. 

Follow Up fO.56). What level of risk did you determine was acceptable in administering 
the drugs and vaccines? 

A. 56. Both Pyridostigmine and Botulinum toxoid have been used for many years by the 
medical profession without any evidence of adverse long term health effects. DoD and 
FDA shared the opinion that the risks from potential exposure to Iraqi biological or 
chemical warfare agents and the lack of any alternative therapy was significantly greater 
than any risks associated with the administration of these drugs to protect U.S. forces. 



124 







125 



'•■l'|'!''"!'!v.'i' "I'l^ i' 

Mr - 




ftfi-«i'^A O - 95 - 5 



126 



An Icproved CSiaaiol and Biological 
Downwind KazArd Pradiction Syatea 



Colooel Joseph P. Phillip, USA 

LieutenAnt Colaa«l Ben Z. Moberley, DSA 

Captain David L. Da Vrias, DSA 

Oefonse Noclaar Agmacj 

17 July 1991 

ABSISACT 

It is ctaential that coabat commandari have elaar, tiaely, and 
definitive information and advice on the potential effects of cheaical and 
biological (CB) wespona for decisions affecting troop safety and operational 
Bobility. However, current prediction ae t hods generate broad outlines of 
total expected areas of pocenti&l hazards. Even where autoaatcd and enhanced, 
because of necessary allowances for statistical variability of weather, these 
aethods show hazard areas encoop&ssing even larger portions of terrain without 
any better appreciation for the significance of the true hazard. Capitalizing 
on expertise in nuclear effects modeling, the Defense Huclear Agency in 
January 1991 rapidly conducted wor)c to provide an isproved CS downwind hazard 
prediction systea for Operation Desert Stora. 

The project was undertaken in direct response to concerns over the CB 
warfare threat in the Persian Gulf conflict. The Brsttm, called ANBACIS XI 
for beneficial association with the Aroy's Automated Nuclear, Biological And 
Cheaical Information Systea, provides for greater definition of potential 
hazard areas by drawing aap overlay contours of different dosage intensity 
according to specific, detailed weapons Intelligvnc* inforaation. AHBAdS ZI . 
paclcages detailed weapons effects models together vitb real-tiae veather input 
and digital raster aaps; all within a user fri«ndly< iataractive graphical 
interface. The result is dramatic visualization capability coupled with 
substantial coaputer power, nie benefit to the eoobat rrwiiander Is a aore 
discrete prediction of the probable aztant of aarloui coQtaalaatloa froa cloud 
travel, greatly enhancing the understanding of < apart on alasloa . .. 
accooplishaent . (See Output Coaparlson, Figure 1). 

The concept for the A.SEACIS ZI aystea was developed and coordinated in -- 
Noveaber and Oeceaber, 1990. Kork effectively started th« first of January, 
■ 1991-and was co&pleted within 45 days. Xbe systaa becaae fully -oparatlonai on 



30 January and served the United States Central C o aaind iCBXTCCM) throuohout- 
Desert Store. As finally configured, strike and aza rc iae raptt^ froa field 
conainds were telephoned into t.^e Defense !luclaar Agency's Operations Canter. 
There, systea operators used t.^e interactive AHBAdS II systaa to access a— - 
pre-coaputed database of over 11,OCO contour "footprints" for various weapons, 
agents, and weather conditions. The aystea and Its operators were challenged 
by over 600 test exercise ard strike aeasage requests called into the 
Continental United States (COKUS) operations canter froa O.S. forces elaacnta 
within the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations. Xasponses %ferc provided within 10 
Binutes by facsimile transaission over secure telephone lines . The replies, 
in the fors cf asp contour overlays of different cheaical and biological 
dosage li=:t5 rC sicr.if ;c:.r.Ci, illowed for Ecenaris ar.elysis arji better advice 
to cszr^r.zezz- . 

UtBfiCZS II shows great crosise as a sodular iaproveaent to autoaated NBC 
warning and reporting sysceos. Additionally, the graphical interface proves 



127 

that coaaon handling and display of various affects basa modals ia poaalbla, 
not only in warfare but alao in evaporation aodels for accidents and apilla. 
Kapid development and iaprovement in weather and terrain accoaaodation are 
also posaible, to include three dimensional resolution. The software ia 
readily adaptable to coaaon user type equipaent and saall, notebook-size 
coaaercial personal computer platforms. In synergy with detection capability, 
ANBACIS II la • significant advance la contasination avoidance capability, 
thereby proaotlng success on the contaalnated battlefield. 

1. ZmiOOOCTZOR 

1.1 Purpoae 

The Automated Nuclear, Biological and CSieaical ZnforBation Syatea XZ (ANBACIS 
II) was developed to provide a «ore realistic, real-tine chemical and 
biological (CB) downwind hazard prediction capability for Onlted States and 
coalition forces to aval\:ate potential hazards to forces and availability of 
terrain for maneuver. The effort focused on improving the existing Alliad 
Technical Publication No. 45 (ATP-45) system which provides a very large, 
safe-sided hazard area estimate containing more than 99% of cheaical and/or 
biological agents. The final user products are prediction contour plots that 
are of tactical significance. (See Output Comparison, figure 1) 

1.2 Current Service Capabilities 

Throughout the services, there Is United capability for CB hazard prediction. 
The doctrinal standard. Vol II, ATF-45, allows for changing wind directions, 
but this only eakes a larger, mora conservative fan. It also is not an 
automated process. Tlie Air force continues to rely on existing aanual aethod 
of ATP-45. 

The Any ANBACIS I systea autoaates AT7-45 od DOS personal cooputers. 
It provides significantly faster computations, but still gives a large fan and 
has Halted biological capability. The Cbeaical Kesearch, Oevelopaant and 
Bigineering Center (CROZC) developed the basic defensive resear^ iieapons 
aodels (called NUSSE-4 and FARACOKFT) which have been incorporated into 
ANBACIS II. 

The U.S. Marines acquired a handheld ZZNBC lystea recently developed by 
the Onlted Kingdoa. It also automates ATT-45 and is ruggedized and iwrtsble 
but provides less capability than ANBACIS I. It has no biological hazard 
prediction capability. 

Tfae-OrST-Navy developed .V LSTRACK for chealcal hazard. prediction. Zt has_ 

a siailar capability as the basic wespons aodels Incorporated into -ANBACIS. II 
but is able to use varying winds. It was not fully developed sor evaluated 
before Desert Storm. The Naval Surface Narfare Center (NSWC) developed a 
biological "Plume" model which provides more intuitive, realistic looking- - 
plota using varying weather conditions. Pluae is now incorporated into 
ANBACIS II. 

2. BACKQIOUNZ) 

2.1 Concept Initiation 

During the buildup of Operation Desert Shield, there was great concern over 
the CE warfare threat in the Persian Gulf. In Novecber 1990, the Director of 
DNA, Ha^or General Gerald C. Watson, viewed a computer visualization 
demonstration of a three dimensional transport and diffusion model 
incorporating local wind and terrain data. Prom this, he conceived the idea 



128 

of Including such a oodel in the Any ANBACIS program which was already 
deployed to Aray cooimands in Saudi Axabia. Ha than foraed a teas of chemical 
experts to review and survey existing models that could be used to develop an 
improved CB hazard prediction visualization product for COrzcoH comaanders. 

2.2 Model Evaluation 

At the time, there were no operational models svallable which incorporated 
both weather and terrain data. Several research and developoent models were 
reviewed for feasibility and operational tisa. The team evaluated a model by 
the U.S. Army Atmospheric Sciences Laboratories (ASL) which incorporated 
weather and terrain Inputs but was not sufficiently developed for iBaedlste 
y operational use. The United States Army Huclear and CSieaical Agency (USANCA)- 
v^ funded Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) model - HOTMAC/RAPTAO - was also 
/reviewed but it was not able to handle bursting munition data. Therefore, the 

• , team initially settled on using NUSSE-4/PARACOKPT for chaalcsl prediction and 

• GAPCAP/VAMTZCAF for biological. Tbese models, developed by CRDEC for single 
and multiple munitions scenarios respectively, contain essential munitions 
data but only basic single vector winds for weather input. 

2.3 Justification for ONA Lead 

DNA's past work on nuclear, dust and smoke transport modeling provided the 
necessary technical and eieperience base to develop and integrate such an 
ambitious project. DNA also supported the Army's development of the ANBACIS I 
program which automated the safe-sided prediction of ATP-45. Beeatise of its 
mission, DNA also had a core of chemical officers already assigned who became 
the nucleus of the modeling and validation. 

2.4 Coordination 

Coordination in initiating the project and to kacp it on track was 
constant and very thorough. Technical experts from within OKK initially 
visited the U.S. Army Chemical School, Ft MeClellan. AL and ASL «t Mhlt* Sands . 
Missile Range, MM. As the initial concept came to life, scvaral dlaeusclons 
pertaining to modeling, and its various factors, war* dlBCUSSod with ASL, LAML 
and CIU>EC. The operational concept was coordinated with Offices of the 
Secretory of Defense (OSD), Joint Staff, Department of the Arav Deputy Chief 
of Staff for Operations (DCSOPS), the Defense and Central Zateillgenoe 
Agencies, CROEC, the U.S. Arsy Chemical School, and CBtTOON. 

2.5 Schedule 

From the onset and throughout the active project, a schedule was developed and 
continually modified according tc the circumstances. As_work_transpired£the 
actual acconplishments were: ~ "; — 

Zta Git* 

Initiated Project 1 November 1990 

Concept Briefings November 1990 - January 1991 

Support Contract Awarded 24 December 1990 

Concept Message (J-3 CZNTCOM) 28 '*«~->^'- 1990 

System runctional 11 January 1991 

Install EcJipaent in Theater 22 - 30 January 1991 

System Operational 30 Jantiary 1991 



129 

24 Hour Operations Stopped 4 March 1991 

Operations Terminated '1 March 1991 

3. ACnORS PRKEDIHC COWFLICT (Desert Shield) 
3.1 Project Teas 

AS the v«rious input Bodels were being gathered and asslinilated, Applied 
computing SyBtemsT Inc. was contracted to Integrate the models into an 
operational system and provide for an enhanced visual output. Selected 
oereonnel from Other government and contractor organirations (Air force 
SvstMrcommand, LANl; CRDEC, SAIC, MITRZ, JAYCOR) were also brought in to 
firther develop, evaluate, and operate the worJcing models. A representative 
from Air Force Global Heather Center (ATCWC) also joined the project and 
assisted in establishing on-line *#eather support and an operational weather 
analysis cell. He Installed the Automated Weather Network (AWN) in the DMA 
Operations Center which provided the hotirly surface weather observations used 
tocontinually update weather forecasts for the Kuwaiti Theater of Operations. 
The ATCWC also provided three military weather forecasters which gave a round- 
the-clock weather analysis capability. 

v^3.2 Model Selection 

«ie CRDTC-developed mJSSE-4 and PARACOMPT models were selected for chemical 
predictions and the CAPCAP and VAMTICAP models were initially used for 
biological predictions. A limitation of these models was that they only 
accepted single vector winds in their calculations. This was not considered a 
serious deficiency for the chemical predictions since the significant level of 
contamination from haxardous clouds usually lasted only 1 to 3 hours and 
traveled only a relatively few tens of kilometers downwind. The larg* numbers 
of fielded chemical detectors able to alarm on actual co nt am in ation offset 
micro-climate capabilities. Biological agents, however, could drift downwind 
e to 12 hours and possibly extend several hundred kilometers irtiile still 
ytemaining virulent, for this reason, the NSKC biological Plume aodel, which 
\/ accounted for varying meteorological conditions (wind speed, direction, and 
stability category) and varying biological decay rates (in the night/day 
transition), was finally selected to be the primary biological prediction 
model. 

The NUSSE-4 and Plume models were written in a combination of fORTRAR 
and C programming language, for \ise-ln-a-Unlx operating environmestj These 
models did not have user friendly input interfaces nor operating routines.- -- 
Consequently, operstors made numerous errors and spent much time entering data 
and calculating responses to messsge reports because lengthy path and file 
names were required. To correct this, ACS developed a user friendly,, menu. _ ; 
driven interface so anyone with minimal training co\ild perform special 
chemical or biological calculations. This interface proved invaluable and 
allowed for continued use of these models by non-modeling or computer experts. 

3.3 Operation and Methodology 

The Sun SPARC 2 workstation was the primary operational platform used to do 
the hazar:! predictions. As fast as this computer is, it still often took 15- 
20 minutes to perform some calculations and was not sufficient to meet the 
operational turn around time goal of 10 minutes (from receipt of a strike 
report from the field to faxing back a contour prediction plot). This 



130 

prompted • deciclon to crcat* a database of pre-computad chealcal footprints 
based on sucpectad Iraqi sunitions and agents and various preselected 
oeteoroiogical conditions. The ANBACIS II systeo has the capability to 
interact directly with supporting technical Bodels for special computations, 
or to access a precoaputed chemical database in normal use. (See the System 
Design, Figure 2) To help create the database rapidly, modelers and operators 
ran the various prediction probleos reaotely on the DNA Cray computer located 
at LANL. In the end, nore than 11,000 pre-cooputed footprints were 
established for the database.' At one tine, four Cray computers were linked 
together to perform spray tystea calculations qxilckly. While the Crays were 
neccMary, the reason was solely to accospllsb a large volume of calculations 
in a short tlae. Kith a lass atrcMful schedule, lesser platfoma can 
adequately perfora all neccssarr calculations. On the workstations, 
biological footprints reoaln processed on subordinate windows using 
interactive screens which drive the aodel and allow input of forecast and 
changes in weather data. The Pluae andel within AMBACIS II runs quickly (only 
about 5 more ainutes for a IS ainute turn arotmd time). Biological requests 
can be updated with weather changes until actual weather reports signify s 
cofflpleted pattern. (See Exaeples of Znput Screen and Overlay Output, Figure 
3) 

3.4 Product for the Field 

The team also decided that rather than deploy computer equipment to CENTCOM 
for a centralized in-theater hazard prediction focal point, it would be less 
burdensome and more efficient to have all the calculations and analyses 
performed in the United States. To get the necessary information back and 
forth quickly (strike reports from CZHTCOM units and haxard prediction plots 
returned to CENTCOM) , the Director, DNA offered to provide and install 
classified facsimile machines and STU-ZZZ secure telephones. Zn all, 21 sets 
of equipment were deployed according to a CQRCOM distribution plan. There 
were several factors Influencing the numbers of systems - overall cost and 
ayailabillty as well as the number of reasonable comasnd nodes requiring 
assistance, yet able to collate and manage the NBC Naming and Reporting 
System (MBCHRS). 

4. ACTIONS DORZNG COHFLICT (Oasert Stoim: Air t Ground Campaign) 

4.1 Deployment and System Operation 

Shortly after the air war of Desert Storm began, DNA sent four officers to 
Saudi Arabia with secure facsimile machines and STU-IZI telephones. The 
equipment was Installed at IS locations as directed by CENTCOM. By 30 
January, all the equipment was in place, many pre-cooputed footprints were 
already developed, and the operating craws Jiera trained.. The DNA_^eratlona^_ 
Center became fully operational en a 24 hour basis. Three shifts, each with 
an operations call (military personnel from within ONA), a modeling cell, and 
a weather cell conducted round-the-clock operations. 

The modeling cell consisted of computer snd chemical experts from LUil, 
SAIC, MITRZ, and JATCOR. This cell, via a hl^ispeed computer network link to 
the 0NA Cray computer at LANL, created the footprint database and ran special 
calculations as requested by CZNTCOM units. The Central Intelligence Agency 
(CZA) also used the ANBACIS ZI products for their own aitalysis. Once 
completed, all footprints a..d other calculation results were stored on a local 
computer at ONA. This information was then available for all operators to use 
as an immediate response to a chemical or biological strike or test exercise 
report. 

The weather cell consisted of trained military weather analysts and 
forecasters from the V.S. Air rorce Air Heather Service. Normally, one non- 



131 

coaaissioned officer was assigned to a particular shift. He was responsible 
for validating the significant weather entries on the NBC-2 reports or 
predicting weather forecasts for special exercise aissions. 

4.2 Scheme of Operations 

The general scheme of operations was: 

1) Units would telephone in NBC-2 reports to the Operations Center. The 
NBC-2 report would be completed lAW standard doctrine; each report would 
have a unique strike serial nuober and the local weather data. 

2) Concurrent with a weather check, one of the coaputer operators would 
input the KBC-2 report data into the Sun workstation and call up the 
correct pre-computed footprint. He would than scale It to the user 
re<7uested map scale and print it. 

3) The printed hazard prediction, containing remarks blocks with the 
original NBC-2 report and essential text data supporting the contour 
plots, was reviewed for accuracy by the Qieaical and Shift Offlcer-in- 
Chargc. 

4) Once approved, the Coaaunications Officer dispatched the prediction 
plot to the originating unit via secure facsiaile. 

All of this was accomplished within 10 minutes. To allow for receipt of 
multiple strike reports from different units at the saae time, six coaputer 
operators were always available to conduct slaultaneous , aulti-tasking 
calculatioiis froa any of the six networked workstatioiis if necessary. 

4.3 System Usage 

(then Desert Stora first began, a series of bunker problems were calculated to 
estimate the effects of coalition bombing of suspected CB production and 
storage facilities in Iraq. Heapoiis storage quantities were based on 
estimates provided by personnel froa the United States Army Armament Munitions 
and Chemical Coaaand (AMCCOM) . The resultant downwind hazard prediction plots 
were provided to Joint and Service staffs and to the National Military Cotmiisnd 
Center (NMCC) to assist in overall battle damage assessment. Special 
calculations were conducted at the request of several agencies. These 
included assessing potential hazards resulting froa intercepts of Scud 
missiles and the extent of effects of possible chemical or biological attacks 
on population centers. 

An important part of the ANBACZS ZI system was the integration of 
Defense Happing Agency (DMA) ARC Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG) maps on 
compact disc rcad-only-meaory (CD-ROM) optical disks. DMA provided CD-ROM 
maps in scales -of 1:250,000, -1:900, X>O0_U1,000,Ji0Q^aad_Lr2, 000, 000 for each - 
area of interest in a most timely manner. Since CD-ROM maps were not 
available in 1:50,000 scale, DMA provided paper aaps for those areas 
surrounding the major CZNTCOM air bases of interests. These were then 
digitally scanned at DNA, logically linked together and added to the map 
database on the systea server. All hazard prediction plots could then be 
printed (in black and white or in color) with a aap background if requested. 
Usually, the map background was not provided because of the additional time in 
printing the coaplete aap and plot, and in transmitting that detail of 
information over a 2400 bits per second, analog voice circuit with the 
facsimile. Hap backgrounds were routinely provided in CONUS when the plots 
were to be presented during coanand and staff briefings. Overlay plots were 
routinely sent for CT2TTC0K for posting on operations maps. 

4.4 Coordination and Briefings 

Continuous coordination was made with the Aray Cheaical School, CRDZC, Surgeon 



132 

C«n«ral'a Office <for a9ent toxicolo^ical data), and nuaeroua Intalllgence 
aganciaa to refine the weapons and cheaical/bioloqical agant databaaa to 
ensure that the footprints produced would be according to the bast. Boat . 
accurate data available. At one point, whan new and additional weapons and 
fuzing information was received, an entirely new footprint database was 
generated and each entry was Individually validated. 

Throughout the operation, nuaeroua briefings and deaonstntioas were 
given to high level officials to acquaint thea with this new, significant 
contrltetion to the war effort and need for continued work. 

NMle there were no actual chemical or biological atrikes during the 
war, contlnxious exercise strikes were generated to ensure that CZNTCOK units 
and DNA operations personnel reaained proficient. Za all, aore than €00 plots 
were calculated and dispatched to units in Saudi Arabia. Tbe Axsy Oivisioo 
and Corps NBC staffs requested nuaerous. specific plots so they could perfora 
vulnerability analysis to visually show coaaanders the results of potential 
eneay CB attacks. These plots were used in daily briefings as Coaaanders 
planned their defensive and offensive operations. A tabula r B\iBaar7 is 
Included in figure 4. 

5. ACTIONS ATTBl CUNFLZCT 

Since the cessation of conflict, the aajority of the effort has centered 
on cleaning up the software code, writing the docuaentatlon, and developing a 
transition plan to ensure that this landaark con tri buti o n is properly carried 
forth for continued developacnt by the Services. 

Several briefings and deaonstrations have also been co nduc ted to create 
a greater understanding and awareness of the enhincerf aad iaproved hazard 
prediction capabilities that are possible aow. As a rasult of deaonstratlog 
the systea at the various coofereaces, there has been a graat deaaad for a DOS 
version of a database of pre-coaputed fo otp r i nts. Ttiis cspability has been 
developed using a notebook size PC. An effort is oademay to deaoostrate a 
full systea capability on either a coaaon user er other cooBMrcial platforu. 
ANBACZS ZI fulfilled an iaaediate requireaeat for «a iaproved pradictioa 
capability, better training tools, iaproved advice to cnmaenders aad systea 
adaptability to saaller coaputers. figure 5 details future systea 
enhaaceaents and goals. 

6. Z,ESSOeiS LEAMtZS 

Iaproved prediction capabilities are available now with existing 
technology; aore is needed to aake the systea faster, aore accurate, aad aore 
tuer frieaodly. . . -__ _^_ ■__. ^ 

As aodels are enhanced to allow for changing aeteorologieal conditions, 
tiaely and accurate weather iaforaatioo be c o a a i critical. Autoaatlc infusion 
of weather data, such as froa the Arsy's lategrated Meteorological Systea 
(IKETS), is needed to drive the aodels. Coabiaatioos of weather sensors and 
reporting stations proliferated throughout the area of operation, or by 
satellite with lookdown capability for aicro-aeteorologieal eooditioos, will 
provide real-tlae data feed for systems such as AMBAdS ZZ. 

Sufficient intelligence data aust be aade aore available. A coaa o n , 
standardized dztabase of threat weapons, agents, fill weights and other weapon 
paraaeters, as well as weather paraaetric data, is required to establish 
footprints fcr various recional threat sceneries. 

Connercial coomunications systems proved adequate and practical for this 
particular situation for training and wargaaing. Large scale use of CB would 



133 

hava ov«rlo«d*d th« ability to report or raapond isaadiataly. Tbmf la an 
uryent nocd either to conatruct data diatributlon ayatasa that apan both 
atratagxc and tactical cosaunicatlona natworka and ia capabla of tranaaittlng 
larga aaounta of data (Iffiagec, filea or pac^ta), or to downaisa and 
dlatributa a diract ANBACIS II ayatea capability within unlta. 

Thar* haa baan no centralized DoD level focua on aodel developsent or 
NBC battlefield autoaation techniquea. Each aarvice haa aatabllahed their own 
separate sethoda of perforaing hazard calculationa and tranaalttln? NBC 
reporta. In a Joint Taak rorce Operation, auch aa Operation Dcaart Stors and 
aa will alwaya be in future confllcta, all ahould be operating froa a 
standardized aystes. A OoO level agency shoxild be dealgnated to enaure a 
standardized capability Is established. 

7. BXCOHKSOiATIOHS 

The ANBACIS II effort proved the utility of a coaaon, user friendly Interface 
for aany purposes. Developaant ahould continue with syataa tranaition aa a 
joint Service project. Specifically, davelopoent s h o u ld; 

1. provide for a DOO level focus for NBC battlefield autooiation. 

2. aatablish a DoO standardized NBC hazard prediction sodal interface 
incorporating autoaated real-tiae weather and digital terrain data on cosunon 
user equipaent. 

3. add a nuclear fallout and saoke asses sa ent aystaa and 
accident/incidcnt/environaantal aodules to sake iaprovcd downwind hazard 
prediction aystaoa for all nuclear, biological, cfaaaieal, and othar hasaxdoua 
■ateriala aituations. ^ /i>r/4*<./;?ipi>.i> 

4. incorporate ANBACIS ZI into the D.S. ANBACZS and NATO ATP-45 as an 

iaprovaacnt to the current NBC-3 report. 

5. downsize and proliferate ANBACZS ZI softwar* to operate on cooBon 
user platforma. 

6. aasign developaent and operations centers to build and use general 
and theater specific databaaea of footprints. 

7. create unclaaaified databaaea for use in classrooa training and 
field exerciae- situations. 

e. aaintain a network for exchange of data and to conduct regular teat 

•JMreises. aaong all elaaenta. - . . . _ __; ■ - ■- 



134 



ARMYTM3-6665-312-12&P ■ 
AIR FORCE TO 11H2-1 7-1 | 



Table 2-1. Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services 
B - Before Operation - During Operation 



Item 
No. 



Interval 
8 



Hem to be Inspected/Procedure 



Equipment is Not 
Ready/Available H: 



M43A1 DETECTOR 



Operational Check. 

NOTE 

jif alarm sounds when battery is J 

/ connected, allow the alarm to sound I 
I at least five times. Then press BAT- I 
I TERY TEST AND RESET PRESS I 
I button. The above procedure may / 
I ha ve to be repeated several times^ J 




Press and hold BAHERY TEST AND RESET 
PRESS button (23). Read detector 
meter (24). Detector meter should read in black 
band. Release BAHERY TEST AND RESET 
PRESS button. 



Detector meter does not 
read in black band. 



Chann«? 



9.19 



135 



Table 2-1. Preventive Maintenance Checks and Services 
B • Before Operation 0- During Operation 



nam 
No. 



Interval 
B 



Item to be Inspected/Procedure 



Equipment is Not 
Ready/Available it: 



I M43A1 DETECTOR 



Operational Check. 

Press and release BAHERY TEST AND 

E:SET PRESS button (23). Within 2 .~1 
inutes alarm should sound. — 1 

NOTE 



1? alarm does not sound within 7 
2 minutes repeat test once more / 
with a new test paddle. Discard j 
old. test paddle. i 




Detector does not/ 
alarm within two / 
minutes. I 



2-25 



136 



AIR FORCE TO tlH2-1M | 



f MO^QggaATING PROCEDURES. I 
bt^ Fixed Emplacen^nt. 

(1) M43A1 Deteclof and BA3517/U Batlery . 



NOTE 

Notify personnel within audible range that an alann may sound. If alarm sounds when power is 
connected, allow the alarm to sound at least five times. Then press BATTERY TEST AND RESET PRESS 
bunon. The above procedure may have to be repeated several times. 




(d) Connect bat'.ery cable (5) into 24 VOC INPUT on detector. 

(e) Press BAHERY TEST & RESET PRESS button (6). Detector meter (7) indicates batlery 
voltage and should be in black band (8). Release. 

(f) Observe meter (!) until needle returns to green band (9). 

NOTE 

If detector has not bc«n in tat lor a long time, it may take 15 minutes lor meter 
to reach green band. 

Your equipment is now operating. 



Change2 



2-71 



137 

Section IV. OPERATION UNDER UNUSUAL CONDITIONS 



2-13 OPERATION UNDER UNUSUAL OR SEVERE CONDITIONS. 



This section tells you how to use the detector under unusual or severe operating conditions. Unusual 
operating conditions are: 

a. Operational Alert. 

b. Air temperature below 20''F (-7'C). 

c. Blowing dust or sand. 

d. Rain, sleet, or snow. 

e. Fording. 

f. Emergency operation with broken controls or indicators. 

; 2-14 OPERATIONAL ALERf~ 



NOTE 
The M43A1 Detector will sound the alarm when heavy concentrations of rocket 
propeilant smoke, screening smoke, signaling smoke, or engine exhaust ire 
present or when a nuclear explosion occurs. 

a. When the alarm system signals that chemical agents are present, perform steps (b) through (k) 
below. 

b. Immediately take the protective measures described In FM 3-100. 

c. Give local alert according to local Standard Operating Procedures (SOP). 




2-109 



138 



I M o-oooa-d «• i£«r 




•16 OPERATION IN BLOWING SAND 



l/f-16 OPERATION 
lfWM43Alilst 



tactor is to Im us 



sand or dust the air filter must be replaced at mori 



frequent intervals than normal. Refer to table 2-2. 

Table 2-2. Air HIter Replacement Interval 



Sand or Dust 
Concentration 


Typical 
Conditions 


Air Filter 
Replacemint 
Interval (hrs| 


Minimum 




Light or medium vehicle traffic on paved surface. 

Planes taking off from clean runway. 

Infantry movement on grassy or paved surface. 


24 


Moderate 




Light or medium truck traffic on sandy surface. 

Heavy tank traffic on paved surface. 

Heavy infantry movement on sandy or dusty surface. 


12 


High 




Light truck traffic on dusty surface on windy day. 
Medium or heavy truck traffic on dusty surface. 
Light lank traffic on dusty surface on calm day. 


6 


Extreme 




Heavy truck traffic on dusty surface on windy day. 
Light tank traffic on dusty surface on windy day. 
Medium or heavy tank traffic on dusty surface. 
Follow 2 1/2 ton truck on dusty surface. 


1 



2-116 



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197 



MEDICAL CUSTOMER SHOPPING GUIDE (ALL SUPPLY CLASSES) AND THEATER 
ARMY MEDICAL MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM (TAMMIS) INSTRUCTIONS 

FOR SAUDI ARABIA 



1. In order to ensure more responsive medical supply 
support for units participating in Desert Shield, the Army 
Surgeon General's Office and the U.S. Army Medical Materiel 
Agency (USAMMA) have developed a Customer Shopping Guide 
for medical supplies. The shopping guide informs customers 
where current stocks are located and the levels of 
stockage. With this data, customers will be able to 
determine where they can obtain supplies in the time frames 
they need the supplies. 

2. The TAMMIS Customer Guide (TAB A). 

a. This document is a guide to customers to understand 
TAMMIS and products that TAMMIS provides to customers. 

b. The TAMMIS Customer Reorder List (Page A-3 of the 
Customer Guide) is the key document for customers to 
manually communicate their recjuest to the U.S. Army Medical 
Materiel Center Saudi Arabia (USAMMCSA) or to their 
supporting Medical Supply, Optical and Maintenance Unit 
(MEDSOM). For items on the reorder list, the customer only 
needs to write in the quantity needed for an item. The 
USAMMCSA currently has four Customer Reorder Lists 
available that can be used by any customer. 

(1) Army sick call list 

(2) Army trauma treatment list 

(3) All stocked drugs (6505) 

(4) All stocked bandages and surgical supplies 
(6510-6515) 

These lists are available in either stock number or 
nomenclature sequence. 

c. Customers can receive a tailored Customer Reorder 
List for items they use. 

d. Customers will automatically have items added to 
their reorder list each month as they order items that were 
not on their original list. 

3. For your convenience the Customer Shopping Guide-Saudi 
Arabia Is published in two sequences: 

a. Nomenclature/alphabetical (TAB B) . 

b. National Stock number (TAB C) . 



198 



4. How to read the Customer Shopping Guide: 

a. If an item has a quantity in the USAMMCSA column, 
it is stocked at the USAMMCSA and the delivery time should 
be seven days or less. 

b. If an item has a quantity in the U.S. Army Medical 
Materiel Center, Europe (USAMMCE) column, it is available 
in Europe and will have a routine delivery time of 14 to 24 
days. All items stocked at USAMMCE are medical items 
frequently used by medical activities In Europe. 

c. All items with a quantity in the Defense Personnel 
Support Center/USAMKA column will have a routine delivery 
time of between 21 and 32 days for normal requests. 




Colonel, MS 
Commanding 



3 Ends 



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225 



Ts^D SENATE { 



U.S. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE-RELATED 
DUAL USE EXPORTS TO IRAQ AND THEIR POSSIBLE 
IMPACT ON THE HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF THE 

PERSIAN GULF WAR 



A REPORT 

OF 

CHAIRMAN DONALD W. RIEGLE, JR. 

and 
RANKING MEMBER ALFONSE M. D'AMATO 

OF THE 

COMMITTEE ON BANKING, HOUSING 
AND URBAN AFFAIRS 

WITH RESPECT TO 

EXPORT ADMINISTRATION 
UNITED STATES SENATE 




May 25, 1994 



226 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION 1 

FlfsTDINGS " ] 

RECOMMENDATIONS 14 

Chapter I. Iraqi Chemical and Biological Warfare Capability 16 

Status of Iraqi Readiness to Use Chemical Weapons Against Coalition Force 18 

Destruction of Iraq's Chemicals and Chemical Weapons by the United Nations 21 

Chemical Warfare Doctrine and the Use of Combined Agent Warfare 23 

Chemical Nerve Agents 25 

Sarin (GB) 28 

Soman (GD) 28 

Tabun (GA) 29 

VX 29 

Vesicants and Blood Agents 29 

Lewisite 29 

Cyanogen Chloride 30 

Hydrogen Cyanide 30 

Blister Agents 31 

Mustard Gas 31 

Related Chemical Agent Information 32 

Biotoxins V 32 

Biological Warfare Capability 33 

U.S. Exports of Biological Materials to Iraq 36 

UNSCOM Biological Warfare Inspections 48 

Biological Warfare Defense 48 

Types of Biological Agents 49 

Dissemination of Biological Agents 51 

Defensive Measures 52 

Iraq's Experience in the Use of Chemical Warfare Agents 53 

Gulf War Syndrome: The Case for Chemical/Biological Agent Exposure 57 

Chapter 2. Group I Exposures: Reported Direct Exposure Events 58 

Reports by Coalition Forces of Iraqi Chemical Mines Located During 

Breaching Operations 81 

Other Combat-Related Reports 83 

Conclusions 84 

Map; Approximate Locations of Direct Exposure Events 86 



227 

Chapter 3. Reports of Exposure of Coalition Forces Resulting from the Fallout of the 

Bombings of Iraqi Chemical, Biological, and Nuclear Facilities (Croup II) 87 

The Czechoslovak Chemical Defense Unit in the Persian Gulf and the Results 

of the Investigations of the Military Use of Poisonous Gases 89 

Other Related Information: 93 

US Unofficial Reports of Downwind Exposure Due to Coalition Bombings of 

Iraqi Chemical and Biological Facilities 96 

Weather Reports, Climatic Information, and Imagery Smoke Plume Data 98 

Gulf War Weather 99 

Conclusions 132 

Chapter 4. Other Identifiable Exposures 134 

Chemical/BioIogical Warfare Pre-Treatment Drug Reaction 134 

Anthrax and Botulinum Toxoid Vaccines 135 

Pyridostigmine Bromide (Group III) 136 

Reported Contact with Iraqi Enemy Prisoners of War 138 

Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) 139 

Depleted Uranium Ammunition 140 

Environmental Expiosures 142 

Decontamination of Equipment Returned from the Persian Gulf Theater 

Operations 142 

Transmission 143 

Conclusions 145 

Chemical /Biological Warfare Agent Exposure: Why Wasn't Everyone Affected'' 145 
Chemical /Biological Warfare Agent Exposure Did the Military Know or 

Suspect that Individuals Were Exposed to these Hazardous Substances'' 146 
The Need for Immediate Primary Scientific Research and Advanced Medical 

Research 147 

Conclusions 150 

Appendix A - Material Safety Data Sheets 152 

Chemical Nerve Agents 

Tabun (GA) 

Sarin (GB) 

Soman (GD) 

VX 
Blister Agents 

Sulfur Mustard (HD), (HDT) 

Sulfur Mustard (HT) 



228 



THIS REPORT IS DERIVED ENTIRELY FROM UNCLASSIFIED SOURCES 

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASED 
UNLIMITED DISTRIBUTION IS AUTHORIZED 



111 



229 
U.S. Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs 

Staff Report on U.S. Chemical and Biological Warfare-Related Dual-Use 
Exports to Iraq and Their Possible impact on the Health Consequences of the 
Persian Gulf War 

INTRODUCTION 

In October 1992, the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, 
which has Senate oversight responsibility for the Export Administration Act 
(EAA), held an inquiry into the U.S. export policy to Iraq prior to the Persian 
Gulf War During that hearing it was learned that U.N inspectors identified 
many U.S.- manufactured items exported pursuant to licenses issued by the U.S. 
Department of Commerce that were used to further Iraq's chemical and nuclear 
weapons development and missile delivery system development programs. 

On June 30, 1993, several veterans testified at a hearing of the Senate 
Committee on Armed Services. There, they related details of unexplained 
events that took place during the Persian Gulf War which they believed to be 
chemical Varfare agent attacks. After these unexplained events, many of the 
veterans present reported symptoms consistent with exposure to a mixed agent 
attack. Then, on July 29, 1993, the Czech Minister of Defense announced that a 
Czechoslovak chemical decontamination unit had detected the chemical warfare 
agent Sarin in areas of northern Saudi Arabia during the early phases of the 
Gulf War They had attributed the detections to fallout from coalition bombing 
of Iraqi chemical warfare agent production facilities. 

In August 1993, Senate Banking Committee Chairman Donald W Riegle 
Jr. began to research the possibility that there may be a connection between the 
Iraqi chemical, biological, and radiological warfare research and development 
programs and a mysterious illness which was then being reported by thousands 
of returning Gulf War veterans. In September 1993, Senator Riegle released a 
staff report on this issue and introduced an amendment to the Fiscal Year 1994 
National Defense Authorization Act that provided preliminary funding for 
research of the illnesses and investigation of reported exposures. 

When this first staff report was released by Senator Riegle, the estimates 
of the number of veterans suffering from these unexplained illnesses varied from 



230 

hundreds, according to the Department of Defense, to thousands, according to 
the Department of Veterans Affairs. It is now believed that tens of thousands of 
U.S. Gulf War veterans are suffering from a myriad of symptoms collectively 
labelled either Gulf War Syndrome, Persian Gulf Syndrome, or Desert War 
Syndrome. Hundreds and possibly thousands of servicemen and women still on 
active duty are reluctant to come forward for fear of losing their jobs and 
medical care These Gulf War veterans are reporting muscle and joint pain, 
memory loss, intestinal and heart problems, fatigue, nasal congestion, urinar>' 
urgency, diarrhea, twitching, rashes, sores, and a number of other symptoms. 

They began experiencing these multiple symptoms during and after - 
often many montlis after -- their tour of duty in tlie Gulf A number of the 
veterans who initially exhibited these symptoms have died since returning from 
the Gulf Perhaps most disturbingly, members of veteran's families are now 
suffering these symptoms to a debilitating degree. The scope and urgency of 
this crisis demands an appropriate response. 

This investigation into Gulf War Syndrome, which was initiated by the 
Banking Committee under the direction of Chairman Riegle, has uncovered a 
large body of evidence linking the symptoms of the syndrome to the exposure of 
Gulf War participants to chemical and biological warfare agents, chemical and 
biological warfare pre-treatment drugs, and other hazardous materials and 
substances. Since the release of the first staff report on September 9, 1993, this 
inquiry has continued. Thousands of government officials, scientists, and 
veterans have been interviewed or consulted, and additional evidence has been 
compiled. This report will detail the findings of tJiis ongoing investigation. 

Since the Banking Committee began its inquiry, tlie position of the 
Department of Defense regarding the possible causes of Gulf War Syndrome has 
altered only when challenged with evidence that is difficult to dispute. Yet, 
despite the vast resources of the Department of Defense, several independent 
and congressional inquiries with limited resources continue to uncover additional 
evidence of hazardous exposures and suspicious events. 

The Department of Defense, when first approached regarding this issue by 
Committee staff, contended that there was no evidence that U.S. forces were 
exposed to chemical warfare agents. However, during a telephone interview on 
September 7, 1993 with Walter Reed Army Medical Center commander Major 



231 

General Ronald Blanck, Committee staff was informed that the issue of 
chemical and biological warfare agent exposure had not been explored because 
it was the position of "military intelligence" that such exposures never occurred. 

Then, during a November 10, 1993 press briefing at the Pentagon, the 
Department of Defense acknowledged that the Czech government did detect 
chemical agents in the Southwest Asia theater of operations. After analyzing 
the results of the Czech report, the Department of Defense concluded that the 
detections were unrelated to the "mysterious health problems that have 
victimized some of our veterans." According to former Secretary of Defense 
Les Aspin, in some cases the wind was wrong and the distances too great to 
suggest a link. For instance, Seabees serving to the south and east of the 
detection site have complained of persistent health problems; but according to 
the Pentagon, the wind was blowing in the other direction at the time of the 
detections and the concentrations were too low to do harm over that kind of a 
distance. 

The fact is, no one has ever suggested that there was a link between the 
Czech detections and what occurred during the early morning hours of January 
19, 1991 near the Port of Jubayl. (These two events will be described in detail 
in Chapter 2.) Former Defense Secretary Aspin said at the briefing that this 
incident could not have been fi-om the Coalition bombings of the Iraqi chemical 
weapons facilities because the winds were blowing to the northwest. Yet 
according to available Soviet documents, the dispersal of chemical agents and 
other hazardous substances is controlled by other factors in addition to surface 
wind direction and velocity, such as topography, temperature, precipitation, 
vertical temperature gradient, and atmospheric humidit>'. These factors all 
contribute to the size and type of dispersal that will be observed ' Unclassified 
visual and thermal satellite imagery confirms that the fallout fi-om the bombings 
of Iraqi targets during the air and ground war moved to the southeast, with the 
weather patterns and upper atmospheric wind currents, towards Coalition force 
positions. (See Chapter 3.) 



United States, Department of the Army, Field Manual 100-5, Operations (Washmgton, 
DC U.S Army, August 1982), 7- 13, Joachim Krause and Charles K Mallory, Chemical 
Weapons in Soviet Military Doctnne Military and Historical Experience. 1915-1991 . 
(Boulder, Co : Westview Press, 1992), 142-143 



232 

According to a knowledgeable source who has requested confidentiality, 
the Czechs believed that the detections were caused by the weather inversion 
which occurred that day (January 19, 1991) as the weather fi"ont moved 
southward. The Czechoslovak chemical detection unit reported this information 
to U.S. command officials immediately, but the responding units were unable to 
confirm their findings when they arrived, according to the Pentagon. 
Nonetheless, at the November 10, 1993 briefing, the Department of Defense 
admitted that the Czech detections were believed to be valid. The Department 
of Defense failed to disclose that the Czechoslovak chemical detection team also 
detected yperite (HD) that morning. The presence of both of these agents in 
such close proximity could only reasonably be the result of one of two 
possibilities: (1) direct Iraqi mixed agent attack, or (2) fallout fi-om the Coalition 
bombings of Iraqi weapons facilities and storage bunkers. 

Defense Department officials, having had possession of the Czech report 
for over a month, were at a loss to explain the chemical mustard agent detected 
by the Czechoslovak chemical detection team in the Saudi desert near King 
Khalid Military City on January 24, 1991. This despite the fact that both the 
Czechs and French claim that this detection was reported to U.S. command 
authonties dunng the Persian Gulf War. ^ Additionally, during the Gulf War, 
the Czechs claimed that they detected chemical nerve agent after a Scud missile 
attack . These statements, heretofore only reported in the press, have been 
confirmed by a member of the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division and by an entire 
platoon of a U.S. Army chemical detection unit who trained with the 
Czechoslovak chemical detection unit near King Khalid Military City. These 
reports have not been addressed publicly by the Department of Defense and will 
be addressed in this report in Chapter 3. 

The contents of this report supports the conclusion that U.S. forces were 
exposed to some level of chemical and possibly biological warfare agents during 
their service in the Gulf War. Any review conducted by the Pentagon must 
extend far beyond the information being reported by the Czech Ministry of 
Defense. The Czech information, while important, represents just a small 



^ Congressional Record. 103d Congress, Second Session, 
Vol. 140, No 30, "Senator Shelby's Conclusions on the Persian Gulf Syndrome (March 17, 
1994), S3098-S3106, 



233 

fraction of the evidence currently available, only some of which will be detailed 
in this report. 

It is now the position of the Department of Defense that it has no other 
evidence that U.S. forces were exposed to chemical agents. Yet this report 
contains descriptions and direct eyewitness accounts that provide evidence which 
suggests that gas was detected, along with many other events which may have 
been actual attacks on U.S. forces. 

This report supports the conclusion that U.S. forces were exposed to 
chemical agents. The assertion that the levels of nerve agent detected by the 
Czechs and others were not harmful is flawed. In subsequent requirements for 
chemical detection equipment, the Department of the Army acknowledges that 
the principal chemical agent detection alarm deployed during the war, the M8A1 
was not sufficiently sensitive to detect sustained low levels of chemical agent 
and to monitor personnel for contamination.^ Further, U.S. Anny Material 
Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) indicate that chronic exposures to levels of over 
.0001 mg/ni3 for Sarin (GB) is hazanlous and requires the use of protective 
equipment (See appendix A.) The minimum level of chemical agent required to 
activate the automatic chemical agent detection alaim M8A1, commonly in use 
during the war, exceeds this threshold by a factor of 1,000.'* (See appendix A.) 



^DAAA15-90-R-0020, Appendix 2, "Revised Joint Service Operational Requirement 
(JSOR) for an Advanced Chemical Agent Detector/Alarm (ACADA), 85. 

'According to the manufacturer of the M8A1 Automatic Chemical Detection Alarm 
"the G-Agent sensitivity requirement is that the alarm must sound within 2 minutes when 
exposed to 1 milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3)." The M8A1 alarm does not detect 
chemical blister agents 

This information was confirmed by the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense 
Command, Edgewood, Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010. According to the 
U.S. Army the sensitivity capacity for the M43A1 detector unit (detection component of the 
M8A1 alarm) is; GA, GB, GD - 0.1 - 0.2 mg/m3 

VX - 0.4 mg/m3 

The required response time for these levels is 10 minutes, however actual performance 
is a response time of approximately 2 minutes to detect at these levels The capability and 
specifications of this unit are not classified. 



234 

As the chemical agent alarms began to sound during the "air war," French, 
Czech, and many U.S. commanders confirmed that they were sounding from the 
fallout from the bombings. Over time, even at these levels, after repeatedly 
being told that there was no danger, many U.S. forces failed to take 
precautionary measures. Others report that the alarms were sounding so 
frequently that they were turned off. M8A1 alarms do not detect blister agents. 

The findings of this report prepared at the request of Chairman Riegle 
detail many other events reported by U.S. servicemen and women that in some 
cases confirm the detection of chemical agents by U.S. forces. In other cases 
these reports indicate the need for fiirther detailed investigation. But still the 
question remains: Is exposure to these and other chemical agents the cause of 
Gulf War Syndrome? We have received hundreds of reports that many of these 
symptoms are being experienced by family members. Numerous developments 
have taken place over the last several months which suggest that, while 
chemical agents and other environmental hazards may have contributed to the 
Gulf War illnesses, bacteriological, fungal, and possibly other biological 
ilbesses may be the fundamental cause. This position is supported by the 
following: 

First, Dr. Edward S. Hyman, a New Orieans bacteriologist, has treated a 
small mmiber of the sick veterans and several of their wives for bacteriological 
infections, and has developed a protocol of treatment that has resulted in 
symptom abatement in many of his patients. 

Second, during the November 10, 1993 unclassified briefing for Members 
of the U.S. Senate, in response to direct questioning, then Undersecretary of 
Defense John Deutch said that the Department of Defense was withholding 
classified information on the exposure of U.S. forces to biological materials. In 
a Department of Defense-sponsored conference on counter-proliferation, held at 
Los Alamos National Laboratory on 6-7 May, 1994, Dr. Deutch admitted that 
biological agent detection is a priority development area for the Department of 
Defense, since there currently is no biological agent detection system fielded 
with any U.S. forces anywhere in the world. 



235 

Third, the Department of Defense has named Dr. Joshua Lederberg to 
head its research team into the causes of Gulf War illnesses. Dr. Lederberg, 
among his other credits, is a Nobel Laureate and an expert in the fields of 
bactenoiogy, genetics, and biological warfare defenses. 

Fourth, in detailed informational interviews conducted of 400 Gulf War 
veterans, it has been learned that over 3/4 of their spouses complain that they 
have begun to suffer from many of the same debilitating symptoms. (See 
Chapter 4.) 

This report, like the one which preceded it, will discuss the relationship 
between the high rate of Gulf War illnesses among Group I individuals (those 
possibly exposed to a direct mixed agent event), and the lower rates among 
those in Group 11 (individuals exposed to the indirect fallout from coalition 
bombings of Iraqi chemical, biological, and nuclear targets) and Group 111 
(individuals who suffered severe adverse reactions to the nerve agent pre- 
treatment pills). Despite the varying rates of illness between the groups, 
however, the symptoms are similar. While other possible causes of the Gulf 
War Syndrome such as petrochemical poisoning, depleted uranium exposure, 
and regionally prevalent diseases, have been discussed elsewhere and must be 
pursued, there is a great deal of compelling evidence which indicates that aU of 
these possibilities must now be seriously considered. We believe, however, that 
no other explanations prove as compelling as the ones which will be presented 
in this report. 

This report includes a great number of first-hand accounts and other 
documentary evidence in addition to the anecdotal information that appeared in 
the print and electronic media during the Gulf War. It establishes convincingly 
that the Department of Defense assertions are inaccurate. We believe there is 
reliable evidence that US forces were exposed to chemical and possibly 
biological agents. But regardless of whether U.S. forces were exposed or not, 
the entire official body of information, including all classified or heretofore 
unpublished information, available research data sets, case histories, and 
diagnostic breakdown information must be made available to independent 
civilian medical researchers in order to further the research into the causes of 
and treatments for these illnesses. Absent a release of information by the 



236 

Department of Defense of the science which forms the bases for their theories, 
the Department of Defense position must be viewed bv quaUfied scientists as 
anecdotal and unsubstantiated. 

Given that there is also a growing body of evidence indicating that 
spouses and children of Gulf War veterans are vulnerable to similar illnesses, 
the Department of Defense must now share all of its information with civilian, 
non-governmental researchers. These family members are civilians who may be 
at risk. This illness was first reported over three years ago. 

On February 9, 1994, Chairman Rjegle sent a letter to Secretary of 
Defense William Peny asking that he release all U.S. military personnel from 
any oath of secrecy they may have taken regarding classified information 
specifically pertaining to chemical or biological warfare agent exposure in the 
Persian Gulf theater This request was based on a recormnendation of the 
National Academy of Sciences, National Institute of Medicine in their 1993 
publication Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. ' 
On May 4, 1994, the Secretaries of Defense, Health and Human Services, and 
Veterans Affairs responded to the Chairman's letter stating that there was no 
classified information on chemical or biological detections or exposures. This 
directly contradicts the statement of Deputy Secretary Deutch in his November 
10, 1993 imclassified briefing to Members and staff. 

Why isn't the Department of Defense aggressively pursuing the answers to 
the questions surrounding of the events which may have caused illnesses being 
suffered by many Gulf War veterans? One possible explanation lies in a 1982 
article.' Then Senate Armed Services Committee Chairman John Tower wrote, 
"Chemical training in the United States armed forces is, at best, perfunctory. It 
is rarely conducted in a simulated contaminated environment and stocks of 
individual protective equipment are too limited, and therefore too valuable, to 
risk them in the numbers necessary to allow troops to operate in them for 
realistic training. As a result, most U.S. personnel are relegated to a minimal 
and highly artificial exposure to the problems and hardships entailed in 



^Constance M. Pechura and David P. Rail, eds., Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects 
of Mustard Gas and Lewisite . (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1993), 8 

^Senator John G. Tower, "The Politics of Chemical Deterrence," The Washington 
Quarterly . Vol. 5, No. 2, (Spring 1982). 

8 



237 

performing their respective combat missions should they have to 'button up'." 
As nimierous U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO) reports have noted, the 
U.S. was not much better prepared prior to the Gulf War than it was when 
Senator Tower wrote his article.^ 

According to Senator Tower, "Our greatest casualties will not be caused 
by direct exposure to chemical agents, but by the physical and mental disruption 
their use will cause our tactical planning and deployment. Certainly, physical 
on-the-ground contamination and casualties will exist, but their most decisive 
effect will be their mental intimidation and our unwillingness to operate in the 
chemical environment. This lack of confidence in our ability to operate in such 
conditions could be rapidly exploited by Soviet units having no such qualms." 
This lack of confidence could also have been exploited by the Soviet-trained 



'For further information see the following General Accounting Office (GAO) reports: 

Chemical Warfare: Soldiers Inadequately Equipped and Trained to Conduct Chemical 
Operations. GAO/NSIAD-91-197 (Washington, DC: Government Pnnting Office, May 1991). 

Operation Desert Storm: POD Met Need for Chemical Suits and Masks, but Longer Term 
Action Needed. GAO/NSIAD-92-116 (Washington, DC : Government Printing Office, April 
7, 1992) 

Operation Desert Storm: Army Not Adequately Prepared to Deal with Depleted Uranium 
Contamination. GAO/NSIAD-93-90 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, January 
29, 1993) 

Operation Desert Storm: Problems with Air Force Medical Readiness. GAO/NSIAD-94-58, 
(Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, December 30, 1993). 

Operation Desert Storm: Army Medical Supply Issues . GAO/NSIAD-93-206, 
(Washington.D.C: Government Pnnting Office, August 11, 1993). 

Operation Desert Storm: Improvements Required in the Navy's Wartime Medical Care 
Program. GAO/NSIAD-93-189 (Washington, DC: Government PnnUng Office, July 28, 
1993). 

Operation Desert Storm: Full Army Medical Capability not Achieved. GAO/NSIAD-92-175 
(Washington, DC: Government Pnnting Office, August 18, 1992,GAO/NSIAD-92-8 
(Washington, DC: Government Pnnting Office, February 5, 1992 



238 

Iraqi forces, who have an extensive history in the use of chemical and biological 
warfare. 

If the Department of Defense intended to conceal these exposures during 
the Gulf War to avoid the physical and mental disruption their use would have 
had on our tactical planning and deployment, their actions would have been 
understandable. Hoping to avoid responsibility for the casualties of this conflict, 
however, is quite another matter. Our afflicted veterans are sick and suffering, 
and some have died. Others are now destitute, having spent tens of thousands 
of dollars, depleting their life savings, in an unsuccessful search for an 
explanation for their ailments. Our enemies surely know the extent of our 
vulnerabilities. They would not hesitate to exploit them, nor would they hesitate 
to reveal them to others. The veterans of the Gulf War have asked us for 
nothing more than the assistance they have earned. Our refusal to come to their 
immediate assistance can only lead others to question the integrity of the nation 
they serve. 

The following is a summary of the findings and recommendations of this 
report: 

FINDINGS: 

1. Iraq had a highly-developed chemical warfare program with: 

* numerous large production facilities; 

* binary (precursor cherrrical/solvent) capabilities; 

* stockpiled agents and weapons; 

* multifrie and varied delivery systems; and, 

* a docirmented history of chemical warfare agent irse. 

2. Iraq had an ofTensive biological weapons program with: 

* multiple research/production facilities; 

* evidence of weaponization experimentation; and, 

* a history of reported but imconfirmed use. 



10 



239 

The United States provided the Government of Iraq with "dual use" 
licensed materials which assisted in the development of Iraqi 
chemical, biological, and missile-system programs, including:^ 

• chemical warfare agent precuisors; 

• chemical warfare agent production facility plans and technical 
drawings (provided as pesticide production facility plans); 

• chemical waiiiead filling equipment; 

• biological warfare related materials; 

• missile fabrication equipment; and, 

• missile-system guidance equipment 

The United States military plaiued for the use of chemical and 
biological weapons by Iraq by: 

• discussing the chemical/biological tfaneat in pre-war threat 
assessments; 

• designating chemical/biological production facilities priority 
bombing targets; 

• assigning a very high priority to SCUD missile units; and, 

• conferring with the U.S. national laboratories about the hazards 
associated with the bombings of the chemical, biological, nuclear 
weapons facilities. 

The United States military made preparations for the expected use of 
chemical/biological weapons by Iraq, including: 

• acquiring German-made FOX NBC detection surveillance vehicles 
shortly before the war; 

• deploying as part of standard operating procedure, automatic 
chemical agent alarms, chemical agent detection equipment, 
chemical decontamination equipment, and chemical agent protection 
suits, gloves, boots, and masks; 

• administering anthrax vaccines, an experimental botulinum toxin 
vaccine, and pyridostigmine bromide as a nerve agent prctreatment 
pill; and. 



^See "United States Export Policy Toward Iraq Prior to Iraq's Invasion of Kuwait," 
Senate Report 102-996, Senate Committee on Banlcmg Housmg and Urban Affairs, 102d 
Congress, Second Session (October 27, 1992) 

11 



240 

• preparing and using peisonnel medical questionnaires asking 
soldieis departing the ttieater about tfieir healtti and whether or not 
they believed they were exposed to chemical or germ warfare. 

U.S. General Accounting Office reports issued after the war noted 
deficiencies in U.S. militaiy medical preparations for 
chemical/biological warfare, including potential shortages of vaccines, 
NBC equipment, and NBC capability. 

6. United States and Coalition Forces did detect chemical warfare agents 
in conjunction with definable events, including: 

• multiple chemical alarms sounding repeatedly with the onset of 
the air war, and directiy attributed by multiple official and 
unofficial sources to the fallout fn>m the bombings of Iraqi 
chemical facilities; 

• multiple chemical agent alarm soundings and chemical detections 
after both missile attacks or otherwise UDex{)lained explosions; 

• Czechoslovak, French, and British unit detections and reporting of 
chemical/biological agents in the air, in puddles on the ground, after 
SCUD attacks, and from artilleiy or chemical mine exfriosions; 

• U.S. units detected and/or reported chemical agents in the air, as a 
result of SCUD missile attacks, after artillery or mine explosions, 
and from Iraqi munitions bunkeis; 

• multiple eyewitness reporting and coiroboration of a number of 
direct attacks as well as ongoing alaims due to fallout from the 
Coalition bombings; and, 

• news reports during the war confiiming that U.S. units made 
detections of chemical agents which they believed were the result of 
Coalition bombings. 

7. U.S. and Coalition Forces were exposed to fallout from Coalition 
bombings of Iraqi chemical, tNological, and nuclear facilities, as 
evidenced by: 

• pre-war concerns requiring consultations with the U.S. national 
laboratories regaiding the fallout expected from the bombings; 

• post-war assessments of the degree of damage to these facilities and 
the quantities of agents which survived the Coalition attacks; 



12 



241 

• official weather documents showing a continual movement from 
Iraq of weather patterns down across Coalition troop emplacements 
throughout the air and ground wais; 

• chemical alarms that began sounding neariy contemporaneous with 
the initiation of the air war, and actual chemical detections 
confirming the reasons for the alarm soundings; and, 

• then Secretaiy of Defense Asian's December 1993 comments that 
the U.S. needed to develop bombs that could taiget chemical and 
biological warfare facilities without releasing laige amounts of 
agent into the aic 

Wartime and post-war discoveries support the conclusion that Iraq 
had chemical and possibly biological weapons deployed with front line 
units and was prepared to use them, as evidenced b>': 

UNSCOM findings of large and well-financed chemical and 
biological warfare programs, including large stocks of missiles, 
artillery, aerial bombs, rockets, and mines; 
U.S. military unit reports of finding chemical munitions in the 
forward area, including artillery, mines, and bulk agents; 
captured Iraqi documents purportedly containing orders to use 
chemical weapons (documents currendy being independendy 
verified); 

reported British intercepts of Iraqi conmiunications giving orders to 
use chemical weapons at the onset of the ground war; and, 
UNSCOM reports of the discovery and subsequent destruction 
of 28 Scuds with chemical agent warheads — obtained from the 
Soviet UnioiL 

Use of biological weapons during the war can only be inferred at this 
time because: 

• no biological agent detectors are available for or fielded with 
any U.S. or Coalition forces; 

• no samples are known to have been collected in situ or from 
sick military personnel or animals for testing for the presence of 
biological agents; and, 

• current test results from sick veterans and contaminated 
equipment are not yet publicly available. 



13 



242 

10. The symptomology of the Gulf War veterans is consistent with 

exposure to a chemical/biological exposure explanation, illustrated by: 

• large body of common symptoms; and, 

• distribution of illness that appear related to source of exposures, 
whether by proximity to an explosion, fallout, reaction to pills, 
contact with EPWs, contact with contaminated vehicles and 
equipment, or prolonged exposure to sick veterans. 

RECOMMENDATIONS: 

1. All classified information regarding events before, during, and after 
the war relating to: 

• the nature of Iraqi chemical and biological warfare development 
programs, 

• the deployment of these materials, the location of Iraqi 
chemical/biological forces, equipment and weapons; 

• the intentional use of, inadvertent dispersal of, and destruction 
of Iraqi chemical and biological warfare agents; and, 

• the detection or confirmation of chemical or biological agents 
should be immediately reviewed for declassification and released 
by the Department of Defense. 

2. The massive amounts of testing data already collected by the 
Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs 
relating to the complaints of Persian Gulf War veterans should be 
made available to medical researchers and physicians treating these 
veterans and their family members. 

3. A thorough and detailed epidemiological study involving all Gulf War 
veterans should be conducted by the Department of Defense to 
determine the origins and causes of the illnesses and the reported 
transmission of the symptoms to family members. 

4. Independent testing of samples is needed from: 

• ground sites in Iraq and Kuwait; 

• sick veterans and affected family members; and, 

• contaminated equipment 



14 



243 

5. A post-conflict assessment of die impact of administration of 
choiinesterase inhibitors in a nerve agent pre-treatment program 
should be conducted. Particular attention should be focused on the 
potential synergistic or even potentiation effects administration of 
these drugs might produce when combined with other hazardous 
exposures. 

6. Presumption of service-connection for the purposes of medical 
treatment and determining disability, compensation and vocational 
rehabilitation eligibility (until a diagnostic protocol can be 
established). 

7. The Department of Veterans Affairs claims and appeals process must 
be streamlined. 

8. Government financed health care (when no other medical insurance is 
available) for spouses and children determined to have contracted a 
service-connected illness from a Gulf War veteran. 

9. Development of appropriate diagnostic and treatment protocols both 
on the battlefield and in identifying post-conflict casualties. 

10. Greater efforts to develop NBC detectors, vaccines, personnel 
protective equipment, and decontamination equipment 



15 



244 

Chapter 1. Iraqi Chemical and Biological Warfare Capability 

Over the last ten years, Iraq, a signatory to both the Geneva Protocols of 
1925 (prohibiting the use of poisoned gas) and the Biological Warfare 
Convention of 1972 (banning biological weapons), has expended an enormous 
amount of research and energy in developing these and other prohibited 
weapons. 

Iraq was believed to have been manufacturing mustard gas at a production 
facility in Samarra since the early 1980s. It also began an extensive program to 
produce nerve agent precursor chemicals, taking advantage of its own natural 
resources. Phosphate mmes/industries are at Akashat, Al Qaim, and Rutbah.' 
The Iraqi Al Fallujah gas warfare complex was believed to be capable of 
producing up to 1,000 tons per month of Sarin, as well as the nerve agent VX.^ 
In addition, with the assistance of foreign firms, Iraq developed the capability to 
experiment with hydrogen cyanide, cyanogen chloride, and lewisite.^ By the 
start of the Gulf War, Iraqi forces had developed chemical delivery capabilities 



'Task Force on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare, "Chemical Weapons In The Third 
World," 2, "Iraq's Expanding Chemical Arsenal," House Republican Research Committee, 
U.S House of Representatives (May 29, 1990), 9-10, Anthony H. Cordesman, After the 
Storm: The Changing Military Balance in the Middle East (Boulder and San Francisco: 
Westview Press, 1993), 497-498. 

^Anthony H Cordesman, After the Storm: The Changing Military Balance in the Middle 
East (Boulder and San Francisco: Westview Press, 1993), 498, 546. According to Cordesman, 
some of these reports may be exaggerated. "There is no question that Falluja had large scale 
facilities, but some of these facilities seem to produce nothing but the precursor chemicals for 
sarin, like phosphorous oxychlonde and phosphorous trichloride Falluja had been 
concentrating on the production of precursors." For additional views, see Task Force on 
Terronsm and Unconventional Warfare, "Chemical Weapons In The Third World," 2; "Iraq's 
Expanding Chemical Arsenal," House Republican Research Committee, US House of 
Representatives (May 29, 1990), 8. 

'Peter Dunn, "The Chemical War: Journey to Iran," NBC Defense and Technology 
International, pp. 28-37; W.Seth Carus, The Genie Unleashed: Iraq's Chemical and Biological 
Weapons Production. (Washington: Washington Institute Policy Papers, No 14) 22-23, 
Foreign Report (March 31, 1988), 12; Jane's Defence Weekly (January 9, 1998), 3; Jane's 
Defence Weekly (February 27, 1988), 336; Anthony H Cordesman, After the Storm: The 
Changing Military Balance in the Middle East (Boulder and San Francisco: Westview Press, 
1993) 498, 546. 

16 



245 

for rifle grenades, 81 mm mortars. 152mm, 130mm, and 122mm artillery rounds; 
bombs; 90mm air-to-ground rockets; 216 kilogram FROG and 555 kilogram 
SCUD warheads; and possibly land mines and cruise missiles'* 

On July 30, 1991, Ambassador Rolf Ekeus, director of the United Nations 
Special Commission on Iraq (UNSCOM), charged with overseeing the 
elimination of Iraq's chemical and nuclear arsenals, told the Security Council 
that U.N. inspectors had found chemical warheads armed with nerve gas. Mr. 
Ekeus claimed that some warheads found were already fitted onto the SCUD 
missiles.^ 

Iraq's chemical warfare capability was known to the U.S. government 
before the war A month before the war began, then Central Intelligence 
Agency (CIA) Director William Webster estimated that Iraq possessed 1,000 
tons of poisonous chemical agents, much of it capable of being loaded into two 
types of missiles: the FROG (Free Rocket Over Ground) and the SCUD B (SS- 
1 ).* Jane's Strategic Weapons Systems lists warhead capabilities for the FROG- 
7 as high explosive (HE), chemical, or nuclear, and for the Iraqi versions of the 
SCUD as probably HE or chemical.^ 



'Michael Eisenstadt, The Sword of the Arabs: Iraq's Strategic Weapons (Washington: 
Washington Institute Policy Papers, No. 21, September 1990), 7, Seth Carus, "Chemical 
Weapons in the Middle East," Policy Focus. No. 9. Washington Institute for Near East Policy 
(December 1988), 4; "Iraq's Scare Tactic," Newsweek (August 2, 1982);"In Mideast, Warfare 
of a New Nature: Chemical Arms, Ballistic Missiles Mark New Nature of Mideast Warfare," 
Washington Post (Apnl 5, 1988), Al; Dick Palowski, Changes in Threat Air Combat Doctrine 
and Force Structure. 24th Edition (Fort Worth: General Dynamics DWIC-91, February 1992), 
11-325, 11-334, Jane's Soviet Intelligence Review (June 1989), 256; Foreign Report (March 31, 
1988), 1, New York Times (November 12, 1991; as cited in Anthony H. Cordesman, After 
the Storm: The Changing Military Balance in the Middle East (Boulder and San Francisco: 
Westview Press, 1993), 499. 547; 

* Frank J Pnal, "UN Team Finds Chemical Arms Four Times Greater Than Iraq 
Claims," New York Times (July 31, 1991). Al. 

*Duncan Lennox. Janes: Strategic Weapons Systems (Surrey, U.K.: Janes Information 
Group, 1990); George Lardner, Jr., "No Iraq Move Seen Until Attack Near: CIA Expects 
Saddam to Extend Cnsis," Washington Post (December 15, 1990), Al. 

'Ibid. 

17 



246 

Status of Iraqi Readiness to Use Chemical Weapons Against Coalition Forces 

In March 1991, Molly Moore reported from Jubayl, Saudi Arabia that 
Marine Commanders found no indications of chemical weapons stockpiles on 
the battlefields of Kuwait. According to a Washington Post report that day, 
(March 7, 1991), U.S. intelligence analysts claimed that these weapons "never 
got distributed down to the battlefield" from storage sites north of the Euphrates 
River. * A U.S. military intelligence source stated in March 1991 that "it was a 
matter of not deploying chemical weapons, rather than not having them, ... my 
guess ... is they never managed to get it down to division level."' 

Regarding the presence of chemical weapons and Iraqi readiness to use 
them against Coalition forces. Committee staff has received the following 
information: 

Dale Glover, of the 1165th Military Police Company, was with the 7th 
Corps, approximately 75 miles inside Iraq, when they came upon a destroyed 
artillery site. They entered a bunker that was half uncovered by the bombing. 
Inside there was a very sfrong ammonia smell. They discovered leaking 
chemical munitions inserts packed inside aluminum casings. A test confirmed a 
blister agent. They went back to their unit and reported what they had found. 
Mr. Glover recalled that "they didn't get back to us for 2-3 hours, then told us it 
was a false positive, nothing to be concerned about." However, he said, within 
hours they were ordered to move from the location where they were camped, 
about three miles from the bunker. Mr. Glover recalled that they had been at 
that position only a couple of weeks and had not expected to move that soon. 
When questioned if the site they discovered was south of the Euphrates, he 
confirmed that it was.'" 



'Rick Atkinson, "No Chemical Arms Found on Battlefield: U.S. Says Iraqi Logistics 
Failed," Washington Post (March 7, 1991), Al. 

'"No Iraqi Chemical Munitions Have Turned Up So Far." United Press International 
(March 2, 1991), BC Cycle. 

'"Staff Interviews. 



18 



I 



247 

Another source who identified himself to the Committee but wishes to 
remain anonymous has informed Committee staff that he also was with the 7th 
Corps in southern Iraq. Somewhere between As Salman and Bashra (in a 
position south of the Euphrates River), his unit came upon bunkers containing 
crates of substances that "made you choke, made you want to throw up, burned 
your eyes. It smelled like ammonia, only a lot stronger." He could not 
approach the crates without experiencing immediate breathing problems. He 
said these crates were leaking." 

Chris Alan Komkven was a Staff Sergeant with the 340th Combat 
Support Company during the Persian Gulf War. He reported to Committee staff 
that a U.S. military doctor at the 312th Evacuation Hospital told him that 
doctors at the hospital had been speaking with Iraqi officers. According to these 
doctors, the Iraqi ofBcers said that they had chemical weapons at the fi-ont, and 
had authorization to use them, but that the winds in their area were blowing the 
wrong way.'^ 

Several press sources carried reports of encounters with chemical mines 
by the 2nd Marine Division during the initial mine field breaching operation 
early on February 24, 1991. According to the Chicago Tribune, which 
interviewed officers and enlisted Marines involved in the operation, a FOX 
vehicle confirmed positive readings for a nerve agent and for a mustard gas. A 
second detecting device gave the same positive reading. General Keys, the 2nd 
Division commander, and Colonel Livingston, commander of the 6th Marine 
Regiment, told reporters they beheved it was possible that a chemical mine was 
blown up or hit.'^ General Schwarzkopf told reporters he considered the reports 
"bogus."" 



"Staff Interviews. 
'^Staff interview. 

"Colin Nickerson, "War Diaiy: From Chaos and Fear, A Victoiy," The Boston Globe. 
(March 3. 1991), I. 

'^The Associated Press. (Febniaiy 24. 1991), Sunday, BC cycle; David Evans. William 
Neikirk. David Eisner. Linnet Myers, "U.S. Tanks vs. Desert Sand First Priority: Breach Iraqi 
Minefields," Chicago Tribune (December 15. 1991). A3. 

19 



248 

British trcx)ps also discovered Iraqi chemical mines on the Gulf battlefield, 
according to Gannett News Service. A British official (not ftirther identified) 
said that the incident was reported to Prime Minister John Major's war cabinet; 
no details were given. '^ 

Press reports indicate Iraqi readiness to use these weapons against 
Coalition forces. The British Sunday Times reported on January 27, 1991, that 
American intelligence detected greatly increased activity at Iraq's main chemical 
plant at Samarra in the last week of December, and the Bntish Mmistry of 
Defence said that the Allies believe that Iraq "may have as many as 100,000 
artillery shells filled with chemicals and several tons [of bulk agent] stored near 
the fi"ont line." According to the Times report, a Bntish Ministry of Defence 
official said: "The plant was at peak activity and the chemicals were distributed 
to the troops in Kuwait and elsewhere in theatre." The Times reported that an 
unnamed Pentagon source said that Hussein had given fi-ont-line commanders 
permission to use these weapons at their discretion, and that "it was no longer a 
question of if, but when."'* 

Iraqi soldiers captured by the British units also informed the allies that 
before the war started, Iraq distributed substantial supplies of chemical weapons 
along the fi-ont lines to be held for the ground war.'^ According to Newsweek, 
U.S. intelligence sources had reported that Saddam Hussein had ordered his 
commanders to fire chemical weapons as soon as the allies launched a ground 
offensive. '* A British signals officer was reported to have said that "we were 
tuned into the Iraqi command radio net. We heard them give the release 



'' USA TODAY. (March 1, 1991), 3A; "War Log," Gannett Company, Inc., International 
Edition (March 1, 1991), A3 

"James Adams and Andrew Alderson. Strategic View from the Saddam Bunker. The 
Times Newspapers, Ltd , (February 2, 1991); "British Paper Says Saddam Hussein Approved 
the Use of Chemical Weapons," Reuters. (February 2, 1991), AM Cycle . 

"Jesse Birabaum, "The Pnsoners," Time Magazine. (March 4, 1991). 

"Tom Masiand and Douglas Walker, "Are We Ready for Chemical War." Newsweek . 
(March 4, 1991). 

20 



249 

order to their front-line troops to use chemical weapons against Rhino Force if it 
crossed the border."" 

Destruction of Iraq's Chemicals and Chemical Weapons by the United Nations 

In April 1993, weapons inspectors from the United Nations charged with 
locating all of Iraq's nuclear, chemical and biological weapons by U.N. 
Resolution 687, confirmed that in Muthanna, 65 miles northwest of Baghdad, 
Iraq manufactured a form of mustard gas as well as Sarin and Tabun, both nerve 
agents. This vast desert complex was the nucleus of Iraq's chemical weapons 
program. During the allied bombing in the earlv davs of the Gulf War. 
Muthanna was a priority target. It was repeatedly attacked and production sites 
were destroyed. As United Nations inspectors attempted to destroy Iraq's 
chemical weapons arsenal, they discovered bombs, missiles, and chemical 
weapons of mass destruction spread out across this immense complex. Of 
particular concern were the chemical warheads of Al-Hussein modified SCUD 
missiles, each filled with five gallons of Sarin. Twenty-eight of these warheads 
have been drained and desfroyed by the U.N. inspectors. These weapons were 
not destroyed during the bombings at Muthanna because they had been removed 
to other locations before the Gulf War started. Their relocation and transfer 
back to Muthaima was described by U.N. inspectors as a painstaking process.^ 
According to Brigadier General Walter Busbee, U.S. Army Chemical and 
Materiel Destruction Agency, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, these warheads were 
exported to Iraq from the former Soviet Union. ^' 



" John FuUerton, "Britian's Phantom Army Helped Defeat Iraq, Reuters. (March 2, 
1991). 

^° "New Method Found to Destroy Iraqi Poison Gas Shells," Xinhua News Service. Item 
No. 0320210. Cairo, Egypt (March 20, 1993); Brent Sadler, "U.N. and Iraqi Teams Work to 
Destroy Chemical Weapons," Cable News Network Transcript #133-5 (October 8, 1992) 

Note: A Scud warhead should be able to hold much more than 5 gallons of agent. Additional 
information is being sought regarding the configuration of these warheads. 

^•B.Gen Walter Busbee, in oral remarks at The Chemical Weapons Convention 
Seminar Senes, hosted by The Henry L Stimson Center (May 12, 1994) 

21 



250 

Chemical warfare agents which either survived the allied bombing or were 
inventoried and returned to the Muthanna facility for destruction include: ^^ 

13,000 155-mm artillery shells loaded with mustard gas; 
6,200 rockets loaded with nerve agent; 
800 nerve agent aerial bombs; 
28 SCUD warheads loaded with Sarin; 
75 tons of the nerve agent Sarin; 
60-70 tons of the nerve agent Tabun; and, 

250 tons of mustard gas and stocks of thiodiglycol, a preciffsor chemical 
for mustard gas. 

U.N inspectors have concluded that the Muthanna plant was capable of 
producing two tons of Sarin and five tons of mustard gas daily. The plant was 
also capable of manufacturing VX, a nerve gas and one of the most toxic 
chemicals ever produced." 

In addition to Muthanna, chemical agents were destroyed at two airbases: 
one located 40 miles west of Baghdad and the other located near An Nassiriyah, 
where a number of 122mm rockets loaded with Sarin (GB) were blown in place. 
According to UNSCOM sources, many of these weapons were hastily deployed 
prior to the air war and later returned for destruction. The U.N. has destroyed 
hundreds of tons of bulk chemical agents and tens of thousands of chemical 
munitions. In addition, hundreds of thousands of liters of key chemical 
precursors which have been identified and destroyed include: 14,600 liters of 
DF; 121,000 liters of D4 and 153,983 liters of thiodiglycol. According to 
UNSCOM, the Iraqis were capable of employing both binary and mixed agent 
weapons. Binary weapons identified used DF. When combined with 
appropriate chemicals, GB and GF are produced. ■^'' 



^ "New Method Found to Destroy Iraqi Poison Gas Shells," Xinhua News Agency 
(March 20, 1993); "United Nations Destroying Iraqi Nerve Gas Stockpiles," Associated Press 
(September 24, 1992); Judith Perera, "Iraq: Chemical Weapons Program Disabled, Say U.N 
Inspectors," Inter Press Service (September 29, 1992). 

"Victoria Graham, "Chemical Weapons Destruction Team Resumes Work," Associated 
Press (January 23, 1993) AM Cycle. 

^"Staff interview, February 22, 1994 

22 



251 

UNSCOM also discovered, at various locations, evidence of research into 
certain biological agents, including botulinus toxin, anthrax, an organism 
responsible for gas gangrene (Clostridium perfiringens) and others as identified 
below. The evidence discovered by the group suggested that this was primarily 
an offensive biological warfare program.^ 

On February 13, 1994, a clandestine radio service in Iraq, the Voice of 
the Iraqi People, reported that Saddam Hussein's government was still 
attempting to hide chemical and biological weapons fi-om international 
inspectors by repeatedly relocating them. Citing unidentified individuals, the 
radio reported that the banned weapons were being hidden in the oil pipelines 
that have been "out of operation because of the international embargo."^ 



II 26 



Chemical Warfare Doctrine and the Use of Combined Agent Warfare 

There is substantial evidence to suggest that in the use of chemical 
weapons, as in other military areas, the Iraqi military adhered, at least in part, to 
Soviet military doctrme. Soviet mihtaiy doctrine suggested that chemical 
warfare should be conducted with mixed agents.^'' Mixed agents, often referred 
to as "cocktails," are intended to enhance the capabihties of nerve agents and 
defeat the precautions taken by the enemy.^ Use of mixed agents could account 
for the wide variety of symptoms displayed by the Gulf War veterans. Mixed 
agents can be made by combining a variety of biotoxins, nerve agents, vesicants, 



"Bill Gertz, "Biological Arms Elude Inspectors," WashingtonTimes (April 21, 1992), Al; 
Staff interviews, UNSCOM. 

'-JPRS-TAC-94-003 CMarch 7, 1994), Citing the (Clandestine) Voice of the Iraqi 
People in Arabic, 1400 GMT, 13 Feb 94 

" Interview with Dr Sanford LefFingwell, Center for Disease Control on September 3, 
1993 Dr LefFingwell advised that Soviet Chemical Warfare Doctnne recommends the use of 
mixed agents in chemical warfare attacks (using several canisters of agents), Anthony H. 
Cordesman, After the S torm: The Changing Military Balance in the Middle East (Boulder and 
San Francisco Westview Press, 1993), 499. 547, Jane's Defence Weekly (January 9, 1988), 
Jane's Defense Weekly (January 28, 1989), Task Force on Terronsm and Unconventional 
Warfare, "Chemical Weapons In The Third World," 2; "Iraq's Expanding Chemical Arsenal," 
House Republican Research Committee, U.S. House of Representatives (May 29, 1990),10. 

^Ibid. 

23 



252 

blister agents and some biological agents - such as bacteria and fungi, and 
others described briefly below. 

According to some sources, Iraq used mixed agent weapons combining 
cyanogen, mustard gas, and tabun against the Kurds. Saddam Hussein stated on 
April 2, 1990, that Iraq had "double combined chemical" weapons since the last 
year of the Iran-Iraq War^ It was also believed that in 1984 Iraq may have 
used mixed agent weapons with biological tricothecenes and mycotoxins against 
Majnoon Island during the Iran-Iraq War.^° 

The utility of chemical weapons and the possibility of exposing one's own 
troops to indirect chemical weapons effects is an issue which has been seriously 
debated by both U.S. and Soviet military planners. Soviet doctrine questions the 
utility of initiating chemical warfare, since chemical weapons produce secondary 
effects that could obstruct troop advances. U.S. military doctrine warns that, 
according to its calculations, the use of a nerve agent against a target area of no 
more than a dozen hectares (a hectare is about 2.47 acres) can, under certain 
weather conditions, create a hazard zone downwind of up to 100 kilometers in 
length. Within this downwind area, friendly military units would have to take 
protective measures .^' 

According to the ofBcial military announcements made in the last half of 
January 1991 and based on the quantity of chemical agents observed by UN 
inspectors after the war, the scope of coalition bombing against these facilities 
involved hundreds - if not thousands ~ of tons of bulk chemical nerve agents, 
mustard gas, as well as tens of thousands of pieces of chemical munitions. This 



-Ibid. 

'°H. Kadivar and S C. Adams, "Treatment of Chemical and Biological Warfare Injuries; 
Insights Derived From the 1984 Attack on Majnoon Island," Military Medicine. (Apnl 1991), 
171-7. 

^^ United States, Department of the Army, Field Manual 100-5, Operations 
(Washington, D.C.: U.S Army, August 1982), 7-13;Joachim Krause and Charles K. Mallory, 
Chemical Weapons in Soviet Military Doctrine: Military and Histoncal Expenence. 1915- 
1991. (Boulder, Co : Westview Press, 1992), 142-143. 



24 



253 

quantity of chemical warfare agents vastly exceeds the amounts that might be 
expected to be deployed by a military force in a single chemical attack. 

The dispersal of the chemical agents and other hazardous substances is 
controlled by factors such as topography, wind velocity, direction, temperature, 
precipitation, vertical temperature gradient and atmospheric humidity. These 
factors all contribute to the size and type of dispersal pattern which will be 
observed." In addition, as confirmed by unclassified U.S. satellite imagery, 
debris fi"om the Coalition bombings were upwardly dispersed, rather than 
downwardly dispersed as would occur in offensive use. causing chemical agents 
to be carried by upper atmospheric currents and distributed as "traces" of 
chemical fallout over "down weather" positions. Czech and French officials 
confirmed the detections of these chemicals during the war. (See Chapter 3.) 

In considering the consequences of the placement of troops in areas 
downwind (where non-lethal exposure to chemical warfare agents might be 
expected), it must be remembered that chemical nerve agents, such as Sann and 
Soman and odier agents, have cumulative effects - often explained as slow rates 
of detoxification." 

Chemical Nerve Agents 

Nerve agents kill by disrupting the metabolic processes, causing a buildup 
of a chemical messenger (acetylcholine) by inhibiting the production of 
acetylcholine-esterase, a key regulator of neurotransmission. Lethal exposure to 
chemical nerve agents is generally charactenzed by drooling, sweatmg. 



"Ibid. 

" Joachim Krause and Charles K Mallory, ChemicaJ Weapons in Soviet Military 
Doctrine: Military and Historical Experience. 1915-1991. (Boulder, Co Westview Press, 
1992), 208-9, V V Miasnikov, Defense Against Weapons of Mass-Destruction: A Guide 
(Moscow: Voyenizdat, 1984), 78, James Compton, Military Chemical and Biological Agents: 
Chemical and Toxicoiogical Properties (Caldwell, N.J : The Telford Press, September 1987), 
146, 153 

25 



254 

cramping, vomiting, confusion, irregular heart beat, convulsions, loss of 
consciousness and coma.^^ 

According to a material safety data sheet (MSDS) for Soman (GD), and 
VX prepared by the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and 
Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland, "the inhibition of 
cholinesterase enzymes throughout the body by nerve agents is more or less 
irreversible so that their effects are prolonged. Until the tissue cholinesterase 
enzymes are restored to normal activity, probably by very slow regeneration 
over a period of weeks or 2 to 3 months if damage is severe, there is a period 
of increased susceptibility to the effects of another exposure to any nerve agent 
During this period the effects of repeated exposures are cumulative; after a 
single exposure, daily exposure to concentrations of nerve agent insufficient to 
produce symptoms may result in the onset of symptoms after several days. 
Continued daily exposure may be followed by increasingly severe effects. After 
symptoms subside, increased susceptibility persists for one to several days. The 
degree of exposure required to produce recurrence of symptoms, and the 
severity of these symptoms depend on duration of exposure and time required to 
produce recurrence of symptoms, and the severity of these symptoms depend on 
the duration of exposure and the time intervals between exposures. Increased 
susceptibility is not specific to the particular nerve agent initially absorbed. " 
(See appendix A for MSDS on Soman, Sarin, Tabun, and VX.). 

Some of the symptoms commonly associated with acute exposure to 
chemical nerve agents include myosis, frontal headaches, eye pain on focusing, 
slight dimness of vision, occasional nausea and vomiting, runny nose, tightness 
in chest, sometimes with prolonged wheezing, expiration suggestive of broncho- 
constriction or increased secretion and coughing. Following systemic 
absorption, these symptoms are identified as typical: tightness in chest, 
wheezing, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, epigastric and 
substernal tightness, heartburn, diarrhea, involuntary defecation, increased 
sweating, increased salivation, increased tearing, slight bradycardia, myosis, 
blurring vision, urinary urgency and frequency, fatigue, mild weakness, 
muscular twitching, cramps, generalized weakness, including muscles of 
respiration, with dyspnea and cyanosis, pallor and occasional elevation of blood 



'^William Booth, "Gas Masks, Antidote Cause Three Deaths and Illness in Israel," 
Washington Post (January 19, 1991) A20 

26 



255 

pressure; giddiness, tension, anxiety, jitteriness, restlessness, emotional lability, 
excessive dreaming, insomnia, nightmares, headaches, tremors, withdrawal and 
depression; bursts of slow waves of elevated voltage in EEG (especially on over 
ventilation), drowsiness, difficulty concentrating, slowness on recall, confusion, 
slurred speech, ataxia, coma (with absence of reflexes), Cheyne-Stokes 
respirations, convulsions, depression of the respiratory and circulatory centers, 
with dyspnea, cyanosis and fall in blood pressure.^* 

The majority of automatic chemical agent detection alarms (M8A1) 
deployed during the war were not sufficiently sensitive for detecting sustained 
low levels of chemical agent and monitonng personnel for contamination/* 
U.S. Army Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) indicate that chronic exposure 
to levels of over .0001 mg/m3 for Sarin (GB) is hazardous and required the use 
of protective equipment. (See appendix A). The minimum level of chemical 
agent required to activate the automatic chemical agent detection alarm M8A1, 
commonly in use during the war, exceeds this threshold by a factor of 1,000. " 
As the chemical agent alarms began to sound during the "air war," French, 
Czech, and many US commanders confirmed that they were sounding from the 
fallout from the bombings. Over time, even at these levels, after repeatedly 



^-MatenaJ Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) for Soman (GD), Sarin (GB) and VX, prepared 
by the US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineenng Center, Aberdeen 
Provmg Grounds, Mar>'land (See appendix A). 

^"DAAAI5-90-R-0020. Appendix 2, "Revised Joint Service Operational Requirement 
(JSOR) for an Advanced Chemical Agent Detector/Alarm (ACADA), 85 

According to the manufacturer of the M8A1 Automatic Chemical Detection Alarm 
"the G-Agent sensitivity requirement is that the alarm must sound within 2 minutes when 
exposed to 0.1 milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3) " The MSA I alarm does not detect 
chemical blister agents 

This information was confirmed by the U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense 
Command, Edgewood, Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010. According to the 
US Army the sensitivity capacity for the M43A1 detector unit (detection component of the 
M8A1 alarm) is GA, GB. GD - I - 0.2 mg/m3 

VX - 0.4 mg/m3 

The required response time for these levels is 10 minutes, however actual performance 
is a response time of approximately 2 minutes to detect at these levels. The capability and 
specifications of this unit are not classified. 

27 



256 

being told that there was no danger, U.S. forces failed to take precautionary 
measures. Others report that the alarms were sounding so frequently that they 
were turned off. 

This increased susceptibility associated with prolonged exposures to non- 
lethal dosages of nerve gases, suggests that the synergistic effects of the fallout 
from the bombings of the chemical warfare agent facilities and the 
administration of the cholinesterase inhibitmg drug, pyridostigmine bromide, 
should be further researched as factors contributing to the symptoms being 
described by the Gulf War veterans. 

The following is a listing of a number of agents which the Iraqi 
government could have combined or which could have been combined in the 
atmosphere as a result of Coalition bombings: 

Sarin (GB) - A colorless and practically odorless liquid. Sarin dissolves 
well in water and organic solvents. The basic military use of Sarin is as a gas 
and a persistent aerosol. A highly toxic agent with a clearly defined myopic 
effect, symptoms of intoxication appear quickly without any period of latent 
effect. Sann has cumulative effects -- that is. a slow rate of detoxification 
independent of its method of entry into the body. According to Joachim Krause 
and Charles K. Mallory in Chemical Weapons in Soviet Military Doctrine: 
Military and Historical Experience, 1915-1991 , the progressive signs of initial 
Sarin intoxication include myosis (contraction of the pupil), photophobia, 
difficulty breathing and chest pain.^" 

Soman (GD)- A neuro-paralytic toxic agent. Soman is a transparent, 
colorless, involatile liquid smelling of camphor. Soluble in water to a limited 
degree, Soman is absorbed into porous and painted surfaces. Soman is similar 



Joachim Krause and Charles K MaJlory, Chemical Weapons in Soviet Mihtarv 
Doctnne Military and Historical Experience. 1915-1991. (Boulder, Co : Westview Press, 
1992), 208), James A F Compton, Military Chemical and Biological Agents: Chemical and 
Toxicological Properties (Caldwell, NJ The Telford Press, September 1987), Matenal Safety 
Data Sheet (MSDS) for Soman (GD), Sann (GB) and VX, prepared by the US Army 
Chemical Research, Development and Engineenng Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, 
Maryland (See appendix A) 

28 



257 

to Sarin in its injurious effects, but more toxic. When it acts on the skin in 
either droplet or vapor form, it causes a general poisoning of the organism/'^ 

Tabun (GA) - A neuro-paralytic toxic agent. Tabun is a transparent, 
colorless liquid. The mdustnal product is a brown liquid with a weak sweetish 
smell; in small concentrations, it smells of fruit, but in large concentrations, it 
smells of fish. Tabun dissolves poorly in water but well in organic solvents; it is 
easily absorbed mto rubber products and painted surfaces. Injury occurs upon 
skin contact with Tabun vapor and droplets. The symptoms of injury appear 
almost immediately. Marked myosis occurs.'^ 

VX - This colorless, odorless, liquid has a low volatility and is poorly 
soluble in water, but dissolves well in organic solvents. The danger of 
pulmonary VX intoxication is determined by meteorological conditions and the 
delivery method used. VX is thought to be very effective against respiratory 
organs when m the form of a thinly dispersed aerosol. The symptoms of VX 
intoxication are analogous to those of other nerve agents, but their development 
is markedly slower. As with other nerve agents. VX has a cumulative effect. "' 

Vesicants and Blood Agents 

Lewisite - A vesicant toxic agent, industrial lewisite is a dark-brown 
liquid with a strong smell. Lewisite is a contact poison with practically no 
period of latent effect. Lewisite vapors cause imtation to the eyes and upper 
respiratory tract."" According to the Center for Disease Control, lewisite would 
cause stinging and burning Its smell, generally characterized as the strong 
smell of geraniums, could be confiised with the smell of ammonia (the reaction 



" Joachim Krause and Charles K Mallory, Chemical Weapons in Soviet Military 
Doctrine Military and Historical Experience. 1915-1991. (Boulder, Co : Westview Press, 
1992), 209. 

*^bid, 209. 

"'Ibid, 210. 

"= Ibid, 205 

29 



86-558 95-10 



258 

to which is regulated by pain fibers rather than smell)."' Iraqi stores of lewisite 
were not located after the war according to the Department of Defense. 

Cyanogen Chloride - The French first suggested the use of cyanogen 
chlonde as a toxic agent. U.S. analysts have reported that it is capable of 
penetrating gas mask filters. Partially soluble in water, it dissolves well in 
organic solvents. It is absorbed easily into porous materials; its military state is 
a gas. Cyanogen chloride is a quick acting toxic agent. Upon contact with the 
eyes or respiratory organs, it injures immediately. Lethal exposures result in loss 
of consciousness, convulsions and paralysis.'" 

Hydrogen Cyanide - A colorless liquid smelling of bitter almonds, 
hydrogen cyanide is a very strong, quick-acting poison. Hydrogen cyanide 
affects unprotected humans through the respiratory organs and during the 
ingestion of contaminated food and water. It inhibits the en2ymes which 
regulate the intra-cell oxidant-restorative process. As a result, the cells of the 
nervous system, especially those affecting breathing - are injured, which in turn 
leads to quick death. An important feature of hydrogen cyanide is the absence o 
a period of latent effect. The military state of hydrogen cyanide is a gas. The 
toxic and physiologic properties of hydrogen cyanide permit it to be used 
effectively in munitions ~ predominantly in rocket-launched artillery. Death 
occurs after intoxication due to paralysis of the heart. Non-lethal doses do not 
cause intoxication."^ 



^^Interview with Dr. Sanford Leffingwell, Center for Disease Control on September 3, 
1993 

"Joachim Krause and Charles K Mallory, Chemical Weapons m Soviet Military 
Doctrine Military and Histoncal Experience. 1915-1991 . (Boulder, Co : Westview Press, 
1992), 202, V V. Miasnikov, Defense Against Weapons of Mass-Destruction: A Guide 
(Moscow: Voyenizdat, 1984, 82-83) 

^^Joachim Krause and Charles K. Mallory, Chemical Weapons in Soviet Military 
Doctnne: Military and Historical Experience. 1915-1991. (Boulder, Co : Westview Press, 
1992), 205, V V Miasnikov, Defense Against Weapons of Mass-Destruction: A Guide 
(Moscow: Voyenizdat, 1984, 82, Vladimir K Pikalov, "Toxic Agents," The Soviet Military 
EncNciopedia. Volume 6 (Moscow: Voyenizdat, 1978). 

30 



259 



Blister Agents 



According to the matenal safetv data sheet (MSDS) for sulfur mustard gas 
(HD) prepared by the U.S. Army Chemical Research. Development and 
Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland, "chronic exposure to 
HD can cause skin sensitization, chronic lung impairment, cough, shortness of 
breath, chest pain, and cancer of the mouth, throat, respiratory tract, skm. and 
leukemia It may also cause birth defects. (See appendix A for the MSDS 
sheets on sulfur mustard agents HD and T.) The U.S. Army Chemical and 
Biological Defense Command lists the current detector sensitivity threshold for 
the M256A1 kits, a commonly used piece of chemical agent detection 
equipment in the Gulf War, as 2 mg/m3 **" According to the Material Data 
Safety Sheets for sulfur mustard, total weight average exposures of greater than 
.003mg/m3 over an 8-hr period requires the use of protective equipment. (See 
appendix A.) Therefore, the detection kit would not detect the agent until the 
amount of agent present exceeded the safety threshold by a factor of over 660. 
The M8A1 automatic alarms do not detect blister agent. 

Mustard Gas - This is a colorless, oily liquid which dissolves poorly in 
water, but relatively well in organic solvents, petroleum, lubncant products, and 
other toxic agents The injurious effect of mustard gas is associated with its 
ability to inhibit many enzyme systems of the body This, in turn, prevents the 
intra-cell exchange of chemicals and leads to necrosis of the tissue. Death is 
associated mainly with necrosis of the tissue of the central nervous svstem. 
Mustard gas has a penod of latent effect (the first signs of injury appear after 2- 
12 hours), but does not act cumulatively. It does not have anv known antidotes. 
In military use it can come in gas, aerosol, and droplet form It therefore acts 
through inhalation, cutaneously, perorally and directly through the blood stream. 



'This information was provided by the US Army Chemical and Biological Defense 
Command, Edgewood, Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010 According to the 
L' S Army the sensitivity capacity for the M256A1 detector kit is; 

Mustard 2 mg/m3 

VX 0020 mg/m3 

G-Agents 005 mg/m3 

The required response time for these levels is 15 minutes The capability and 
specifications of this unit are not classified 

31 



260 

The toxic and physico-chemical properties of mustard gas allow it to be used in 
all t>'pes of munitions. ■" 

Related Chemical Agent Information 

Committee staff has learned that Iraq may have acquired any one of a 
number of the Soviet binary novachok ("newcomer") series of chemical warfare 
agent compounds or mformation relevant to the development of those 
compounds. This series of chemical warfare agents reportedly contains both 
lethal and debilitating agents. According to a confidential Committee source, if 
the Iraqis had obtained samples of these compounds they could be easily 
analyzed and produced with readily available matenals. Several of these 
compounds are descnbed as agents that even in microdoses can have long 
lasting effects. These agents are described as inducing myosis, vomiting, 
memory loss, involuntary motions and internal organ dysfiinction. Many of 
these matenals are also described as having mutagenic effects. These materials 
are, according to the source, stored in the lipids (body fats) and have no known 
antidotes. In addition, according to the Committee source, the Soviets were 
believed to have conducted research in a number of dioxin-based chemical 
warfare agents, and on at least one agent that could be used to contaminate 
dnnking water supplies. Committee staff is conducting further inquiries to 
determine if Iraq may have had access to any of these compounds.''* 

Biotoxins 

Biotoxins are natural poisons, chiefly of cellular structure. A distinction 
is made between exotoxins which are given off by an organism while it is alive, 
and endotoxins which are given off after a cell's death. The exotoxins cause the 
injurious effects of biological weapons, but endotoxins guarantee the effects of 
chemical weapons and do not cause the widespread disease outbreaks associated 



"Vladimir K Pikalov, "Toxic Agents," The Soviet Military Encyclopedia. Volume 6 
(Moscow; Voyenizdat, 1978); Joachim Krause and Charles K Mallory, Chemical Weapons in 
Soviet Military Doctrine: Military and Histoncal Experience. 1915-1991. (Boulder, Co : 
Westview Press, 1992), 206-7. 

* 'Staff Interviews, April 19. 1994. 

32 



261 

with biological warfare. Some examples of biotoxins include botulinus toxin 
and staphylococcic enterotoxin.''* 

Biological Warfare Capability 

According to the U.N., the Iraqi biological warfare program was initiated 
in mid- 1986 at Salman Pak. UNSCOM inspectors discovered evidence of 
research mto certain biological agents includmg botulinus toxin and anthrax ~ as 
well as organisms responsible for gas gangrene, tetanus and brucellosis, 
components of a biological weapons program which was not defensive in nature. 
In four years of work pnor to the war, only 10 papers were published These 
research programs focused on Iraqi efforts to isolate the most pathogenic spores. 
They also did research on the aerosolization and on the environmental 
survivability of some of these biological materials according to the United 
Nations. ^"^ 

While the Department of Defense maintains that the Iraqi militaiy did not 
weaponize its biological warfare program, UNSCOM is less certain, reporting 
that their degree of confidence that weaponlzation did not occur is low. In fact, 
readily available high performance agricultural aerosol generators could easily 
be converted to both decontaminate areas in which chemicals are used and to 
aerosolize biological and chemical warfare agents. 

Other ways in which biological materials could have been weaponized 
include the use of Iraqi 250 and 5001b bombs, aerial rockets, unmanned aerial 
vehicles, FAW ground-to-ground missiles, helicopters and Iraqi aircraft. The 
Committee has received several reports of Iraqi helicopters penetrating Saudi 
airspace dunng the war by flying at low levels through the wadis and of Iraqi 
aircraft penetrating the area over the northern Persian Gulf 



^'Joachim Krause and Charles K Mallory, Chemical Weapons in Soviet Military 
Doctnne Military and Histoncal Experience. 1915-1991. (Boulder, Co.: Westview Press, 

1992), 162, 209 

-"Staff interyiew, February 22, 1994. 

33 



262 

According to UNSCOM, indications that suggested that the program was 
offensive in nature include: 

• No declared links between the BW defense program and medical 
corps research. 

• No links between aerosolization research and research on 
defensive filters. 

The United Nations said that the first Biological Inspection was initiated 
on August 8, 1991 at Salman Pak. The inspection was delayed because of the 
need to extensivel>' immunize the members of the inspection team. The Salman 
Pak facility' was razed one week prior to the arrival of the inspection team.^' 

The United States is aware of the Iraqi potential for using biological 
weapons. The employment of biological agents in a "cocktail" mix with 
chemical warfare agents is consistent with Soviet military doctrine. It is clear 
that biological weapons are much more difficuh than chemical weapons to 
detect and defend against. Some of the symptoms experienced by veterans 
suffering fi^om Persian Gulf Syndrome are consistent with biological warfare 
agent use. Verification will require sophisticated medical diagnosis, which to 
date has not been publicly undertaken. 

The question of whether U.S. forces were attacked with a biological agent 
is problematic. According to Chemical/Biological Program: A Department of 
Defense Perspective. "It has been recognized that our biological defense 
program was inadequate. Credible analysis indicated that optimal employment 
of biological agents could result in a significantly large hazard area." It further 
cites a memo fi-om the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the SECDEF 
(Secretary of Defense) noting: "inadequate ability to counter BW (biological 
warfare) attack/BW defense is a priority requirement."" The inadequacy of the 



^'Ibid. 

"Bill Richardson, John Carrico, Col. Frank J. Cox, LTC Jeffery Thomas, and Richard 
Sanders, Chemical/Biological Program: A Department of Defense Perspective. Office of the 
Assistant Secretary of Defense for Atomic Energy, presented as a paper to the Nuclear, 
Biological, and Chemical Symposium of the American Defense Preparedness Association, 
Camp Lejeune, North Carolina (May 12-14, 1993), 10. 

34 



263 

current biological defense and detection program was also supported by Deputy 
Secretary of Defense John Deutch in an unclassified May 6, 1994 address 
delivered at a Department of Defense-sponsored counterproliferation conference 
at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. According to Deputy Secretary Deutch, 
the United States has "no biological detection capability deployed with any 
forces, anywhere." 

Novel BW agents created by altering DNA plasmids and vectors are 
specifically intended to avoid detection. As noted below, several shipments of 
biological materials that might have been used to carry out such a program were 
licensed for export fi"om the United States to the Iraq Atomic Energy 
Commission. In such a program, common intestinal flora such as e. coli could 
be altered to produce viral, bactenal, or other toxins and would be difficult to 
treat. If Iraq was successfiil in developing such agents, diagnosis will continue 
to elude physicians testing for traditional illnesses. Novel BW agents would 
certainly elude biological detection devices. There is evidence, based on the 
nature of the materials imported, that this type of research was being conducted.. 
Since the Iraqi government managed to dismantle much of its biological warfare 
program prior to the UNSCOM inspections, we can only speculate on how 
advanced this program might have been." 

It has been suggested that if these problems the veterans are experiencing 
are Gulf War-related, then we should be seeing even more serious problems 
among the Iraqis. Since begiiming this investigation we have learned that many 
Iraqi enemy prisoners of war (EPW) suffered skin rashes, sores, nausea, 
vomiting, coughing and other medical problems while they were being detained 
in Saudi Arabia. Many members of units who had close contact with these 
individuals are now reporting to the Committee symptoms consistent with those 
being suffered by other Gulf War veterans. In addition, Iraq has claimed a 
dramatic rise in reported cases of communicable diseases since the end of the 
Gulf War including typhoid, brucellosis, hepatitis and cholera. ^^ 



--Staff Interview, UNSCOM, February 22, 1994. 

^'"Iraq Launches Drive to Combat Increasing Communicable Diseases," Xinhua News 
Agency (June 8, 1993), Item No; 0608002, "Iraq Faces Health Cnsis," The Guardian 
(September 13, 1993), 7. 



35 



264 

Further, reports of Gulf War illnesses being reported are no longer limited 
to military veterans of the Gulf War. Others reporting manifestation of these 
symptoms include: 

- Department of Defense civilians who served in the Persian Gulf War. 

- Department of Defense civilians working at the Anniston (AL) Army 
Depot and the Sharpsite (CA) Army Depot decontaminating equipment which 
was returned from the Persian Gulf 

- Spouses, particularly the spouses of male veterans, are reporting the 
following symptoms: chronic or recurring vaginal yeast infections, menstrual 
irregularities (excessive bleeding and severe cramping), rashes, fatigue, joint and 
muscle pain, and memory loss. 

- Children bom to veterans prior to the Gulf War. In many cases both 
male and female children bom prior to the war have experienced symptoms 
similar to those of the veterans and their spouses. 

- Children bom following the Gulf War. Some reports have been 
published which suggest a high rate of miscarriages in the families of Gulf War 
veterans. Further, several reports have surfaced which suggest that there has 
been a high rate of physical abnormalities in children bora to Gulf War veterans 
since the war 

U.S. Exports of Biological Materials to Iraq 

The Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs has 
oversight responsibility for the Export Administration Act. Pursuant to the Act, 
Committee staff contacted the U.S. Department of Commerce and requested 
information on the export of biological materials during the years prior to the 
Gulf War. After receiving this information, we contacted a principal supplier of 
these materials to determine what, if any, materials were exported to Iraq which 
might have contributed to an offensive or defensive biological warfare program. 
Records available from the supplier for the period from 1985 until the present 
show that during this time, pathogenic (meaning "disease producing"), toxigenic 
(meaning "poisonous"), and other biological research materials were exported to 
Iraq pursuant to application and licensing by the U.S. Department of 
Commerce. Records prior to 1985 were not available, according to the supplier 



36 



265 

These exported biological materials were not attenuated or weakened and were 
capable of reproduction. According to the Department of Defense's own Report 
to Congress on the Conduct of the Persian Gulf War , released in April 1992: 
"By the time of the invasion of Kuwait, Iraq had developed biological weapons. 
It's advanced and aggressive biological warfare program was the most advanced 
in the Arab world... The program probably began late in the 1970's and 
concentrated on the development of two agents, botulinum toxin and anthrax 
bacteria.. Large scale production of these agents began in 1989 at four 
facilities near Baghdad. Delivery means for biological agents ranged from 
simple aerial bombs and artillery rockets to surface-to-surface missiles." " 

Included in the approved sales are the following biological materials 
(which have been considered by various nations for use in war), with their 
associated disease symptoms:^' 

Bacillus Antiiracis: anthrax is a disease-producing bacteria identified by the 
Department of Defense in The Conduct of the Persian Gulf War: Final Report 
to Congress , as being a major component in the Iraqi biological warfare 
program. 

Anthrax is an often-fatal infectious disease due to ingestion of spores. It 
begins abruptly with high fever, difficulty in breathing, and chest pain. The 
disease eventually results in septicemia (blood poisoning), and the mortality is 
high. Once septicemia is advanced, antibiotic therapy may prove useless, 
probably because the exotoxins remain, despite the death of the bacteria. 

Qostridium Botulinum: a bacterial source of botulinum toxin, which causes 
vomitmg, constipation, thirst, general weakness, headache, fever, dizziness, 
double vision, dilation of the pupils and paralysis of the muscles involving 
swallowing. It is often fatal. 



-^Department of Defense. Conduct of the Persian Gulf War: Final Report to Congress 
(April 1992) 

^'Terr>- J. Gander, ed , Jane's NBC Protection Equipment 1991-92. (Surrey, U.K.: 
Jane's Information Group, 1992), 3-12: Dorland's Pocket Medical Dictionary . 24th Edition 
(Philadelphia W B Saunders Co , 1989), James A F Compton, Military Chemical and 
Biological Agents Chemical and Toxicological Properties (Caldwell, NJ The Telford Press, 
September 1987). 

37 



266 

Histoplasma Capsulatum: causes a disease superficially resembling 
tuberculosis that may cause pneumonia, enlargement of the liver and spleen, 
anemia, an mfluenza-like illness and an acute inflammatory skin disease marked 
by tender red nodules, usually on the shins. Reactivated infection usually 
involves the lungs, the brain, spinal membranes, heart, pentoneum, and the 
adrenals. 

Brucella Melitensis: a bacteria which can cause chronic fatigue, loss of 
appetite, profuse sweating when at rest, pain in jomts and muscles, insomnia, 
nausea, and damage to major organs. 

Clostridium Perfringens: a highly toxic bacteria which causes gas gangrene. 
The bacteria produce toxins that move along muscle bundles in the body killing 
cells and producing necrotic tissue that is then favorable for fiirther growth of 
the bacteria itself Eventually, these toxins and bacteria enter the bloodstream 
and cause a systemic illness. 

In addition, several shipments of Escherichia Coli (E.CoIi) and genetic 
materials, as well as human and bacterial DNA, were shipped directly to the 
Iraq Atomic Energy Commission. 

The following is a detailed hsting of biological materials, provided by the 
American Type Culture Collection, which were exported to agencies of the 
government of Iraq pursuant to the issuance of an export licensed by the U.S. 
Commerce Department:" 

Date : February 8, 1985 

Sent to : Iraq Atomic Energy Agency 

Materials Shipped; 

Ustilago nuda (Jensen) Rostrup 



'American Type Culture Collection, Rockville, Maryland (January 21, 1994). 

38 



Date 
Sent to 
Matenals Shipped 



267 

February 22, 1985 

Ministry of Higher Education 



Date 
Sent to 
Matenals Shipped 



Histoplasma capsulatum var. farciminosum (ATCC 32136) 
Oass in pathogen 

July 11, 1985 

Middle and Near East Regional A 



Date 
Sent to 
Matenals Shipped 



Histoplasma capsulatiun var. farciminosum (ATCC 32136) 
Class 111 pathogen 

May 2, 1986 

Ministry of Higher Education 



1. Bacillus Anthracis Cohn (ATCC 10) 
Batch * 08-20-82 (2 each) 

Class 111 pathogen. 

2. Bacillus Subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn (ATCC 82) 
Batch # 06-20-84 (2 each) 

3. Clostridium botulinum Type A (ATCC 3502) 
Batch? 07-07-81 (3 each) 

Class ni Pathogen 

4. Clostndium perfringens (Weillon and Zuber) Hauduroy, et 
al (ATCC 3624) Batch# 10-85SV (2 each) 

5. Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051) 
Batch# 12-06-84 (2 each) 



39 



268 

6. Francisella tularensis var. tularensis Olsufiev (ATCC 
6223)Batch# 05-14-79 (2 each) 

Avinilent, suitable for preparations of diagnostic 
antigens. 

7. Clostridium tetani (ATCC 9441) 
Batch# 03-84 (3 each) 

Highly toxigenic. 

8. Clostridium botulinum Type E (ATCC 9564) 
Batch# 03-02-79 (2 each) 

Oass HI pathogen 

9. Clostridium tetani (ATCC 10779) 
Batch# 04-24-84S (3 each) 

10. Clostridium perfiingens (ATCC 12916) 
Batch# 08-14-80 (2 each) 
Agglutinating type 2. 

11. Clostridium perfiingens (ATCC 13124) 
Batch# 07-84SV (3 each) 

Type A, alpha-toxigenic, produces lecithinase C.J. Appl. 

12. Bacillus Anthracis (ATCC 14185) 
Batch# 01-14-80 (3 each) 

G.G. Wright (Fort Detnck) V770-NP1-R. Bovine anthrax, 
Qass QI pathogen 

13. Bacillus Anthracis (ATCC 14578) 
Batch# 01-06-78 (2 each) 

Qass m pathogen. 

14. Bacillus megaterium (ATCC 14581) 
Batch# 04-18-85 (2 each) 

15. Bacillus megaterium (ATCC 14945) 
Batch# 06-21-81 (2 each) 



40 



269 

16. Clostridium botulinum Type E (ATCC 17855) 
Batch# 06-21-71 

Class in patbogen. 

17. Bacillus megaterium (ATCC 19213) 
Batch# 3-84 (2 each) 

18. Clostridium botulinum Type A (ATCC 19397) 
Batchff 08-18-81 (2 each) 

Oass in pathogen 

19. Brucella abortus Biotype 3 (ATCC 23450) 
Batch? 08-02-84 (3 each) 

Class ni pathogen 

20. Brucella abortus Biotype 9 (ATCC 23455) 
Batchff 02-05-68 (3 each) 

Class m pathogen 

21. Brucella melitensis Biotype 1 (ATCC 23456) 
Batch* 03-08-78 (2 each) 

Class m pathogen 

22. Brucella melitensis Biotype 3 (ATCC 23458) 
Batch« 01-29-68 (2 each) 

Class m pathogen 

23. Clostridium botulinum Type A (ATCC 25763) 
Batch? 8-83 (2 each) 

Class in pathogen 

24. Clostridium botulinum Type F (ATCC 35415) 
Batch# 02-02-84 (2 each) 

Qass m pathogen 



41 



270 

Date : August 31, 1987 

Sent to : State Company for Drug Industries 

Materials Shipped: 

1 . Saccharoniyces cerevesiae (ATCC 260 1 ) 
Batch# 08-28-08 (1 each) 

2. Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis Serotype typhi 
(ATCC 6539) Batch# 06-86S (1 each) 

3. Bacillus subtillus (ATCC 6633) 
Batch# 10-85 (2 each) 

4. Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae (ATCC 10031) 
Batch# 08-13-80 (1 each) 

5. Escherichia coli (ATCC 10536) 
Batch# 04-09-80 (1 each) 

6. Bacillus cereus (11778) 
Batch# 05-85SV (2 each) 

7. Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228) 
Batch# ll-86s(l each) 

8. Bacillus pumilus (ATCC 14884) 
Batch# 09-08-80 (2each) 

Date : July 11, 1988 

Sent to : Iraq Atomic Energy Commission 

Materials Shipped: 

1 . Escherichia coli (ATCC 1 1 303) 
Batch# 04-87S 
Phage host 



42 



Date 
Sent to 



271 

Cauliflower Mosaic Caulimovirus (ATCC45031) 
Batch# 06-14-85 
Plant virus 

Plasmid in Agrobacterium Tumefaciens (ATCC37349) 

(Ti plasmid for co-cultivation with plant integration vectors in E. 

Coli) Batch# 05-28-85 

Apnl 26, 1988 

Iraq Atomic Energy Commission 



Materials Shipped 
1. 



Date 

Sent to 



Hulambda4x-8, clone: human hypoxanthine 
phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s) X q26.1 (ATCC 
57236) Phage vector; Suggested host: E.coli 

Hulambdal4-8, clone: human hypoxanthine 
phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s): X q26.1 
(ATCC 57240) Phage vector; Suggested host: E.coli 

Hulambdal5, clone: human hypoxanthine 
phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s) X q26.1 
(ATCC 57242) Phage vector; Suggested host: E.coli 

August 31, 1987 

Iraq Atomic Energy Commission 



Matenals Shipped 



1. Escherichia coli (ATCC 23846) 
Batch# 07-29-83 (1 each) 

2. Escherichia coli (ATCC 33694) 
Batch# 05-87 (1 each) 



43 



272 

Date : September 29, 1988 

Sent to : Ministry of Trade 

Materials Shipped: 

1. Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 240) 
Batch#05- 14-63 (3 each) 
Class QI pathogen 

2. Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 938) 
Batch#1963 (3 each) 

Class IQ pathogen 

3. Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 3629) 
Batch# 10-23-85 (3 each) 

4. Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 8009) 
Batch#03-30-84 (3 each) 

5. Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 8705) 
Batch# 06-27-62 (3 each) 
Class in pathogen 

6. Brucella abortus (ATCC 9014) 
Batch# 05-11-66 (3 each) 
Class ni pathogen 

7. Clostridium perfringens (ATCC 10388) 
Batch# 06-01-73 (3 each) 

8. Bacillus anthracis (ATCC 11966) 
Batch# 05-05-70 (3 each) 
Oass m pathogen 

9. Clostridium botulinum Type A 
Batch# 07-86 (3 each) 

Class in pathogen 



44 



273 

10. Bacillus cereus (ATCC 33018) 
Batch# 04-83 (3 each) 

1 1 . Bacillus ceres (ATCC 33019) 
Batch# 03-88 (3 each) 

Date : January 31, 1989 

Sent to : Iraq Atomic Energy Commission 

Materials Shipped: 

1. PHPT31, clone: human hypoxanthine 
phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s) X q26.1 
(ATCC 57057) 

2. plambdaSOO, clone: human hypoxanthine 
phosphoribosyltransferase pseudogene (HPRT) 
Chromosome(s): 5 pl4-pl3 (ATCC 57212) 



Date 
Sent to 



January 17, 1989 

Iraq Atomic Energy Commission 



Materials Shipped: 

1. Hulambda4x-8, clone: human hypoxanthine 
phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s) X q26.1 
(ATCC 57237) Phage vector; Suggested host: E.coli 

2. Hulambdal4, clone: human hypoxanthine 
phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s): X q26.1 
(ATCC 57240) Cloned from human lymphoblast 

Phage vector; Suggested host: E.coli 

3. HulambdalS, clone: human hypoxanthine 
phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) Chromosome(s) X q26.1 
(ATCC 57241) Phage vector; Suggested host: E.coli 

Additionally, the Centers for Disease Control has compiled a listing of 
biological materials shipped to Iraq prior to the Gulf War. The listing covers the 
period from October 1, 1984 (when the CDC began keeping records) through 



45 



274 

October 13, 1993. The following materials with biological warfare significance 
were shipped to Iraq during this period:^* 

Date : November 28, 1989 

Sent to : Universit)' of Basrah, College of Science, Department of Biology 

Materials Shipped: 

1. Enterococcus faecalis 

2. Enterococcus faecium 

3. Enterococcus avium 

4. Enterococcus raffinosus 

5. Enterococcus gallinarium 

6. Enterococcus durans 

7. Enterococcus hirae 

8. Streptococcus bovis 
(etiologic) 

Date : April 21, 1986 

Sent to : Ofificers City Al-Muthanna, Quartret 710, Street 13, Close 69 

House 28/1, Baghdad, Iraq 
Materials Shipped: 

1. 1 vial botulinum toxoid 
(non-infectious) 



^^Memorandum from Director of the Centers for Disease Control to Chairman Riegle. 

46 



275 

Date : March 10, 1986 

Sent to : Officers City Al-Muthanna, Quartret 710, Street 13, Close 69 

House 28/1. Baghdad, Iraq 
N4aterials Shipped: 

1 . 1 vial botulinum toxoid #A2 
(non-infectious) 

Date ; June 25, 1985 

Sent to : University of Baghdad, College of Medicine , Department of 

Microbiology 
Matenals Shipped: 

1 . 3 yeast cultures 
(etiologic) 
Candida sp. 



Date 
Sent to 



May 21, 1985 
Basrah, Iraq 



Materials Shipped 



1. Lyophilized arbovirus seed 
(etiologic) 



Date 
Sent to 



West Nile Fever Virus 

April 26, 1985 

Minister of Health, Ministry of Health, Baghdad, Iraq 



Materials Shipped 



1. 8 vials antigen and antisera 
(r. rickettsii and r. typhi) 
to diagnose rickettsial 
infections (non-infectious) 



47 



276 
UNSCOM Biological Warfare Inspections 

UNSCOM inspections uncovered evidence that the govemment of Iraq 
was conducting research on pathogen enhancement on the following biological 
warfare-related materials:'^ 

bacillus anthracis 
Clostridium botulinum 
Clostridium perfringens 
brucella abortis 
brucella melentensis 
francisella tularensis 
Clostridium tetani 

In addition, the UNSCOM inspections revealed that biological warfare- 
related stimulant research was being conducted on the following materials: 

• bacillus subtillus 

• bacillus ceres 

• bacillus megatillus 

UNSCOM reported to Committee staff that a biological warfare inspection 
(BW3) was conducted at the Iraq Atomic Energy Commission in 1993. This 
suggests that the Iraqi govemment may have been experimenting with the 
materials cited above (E.Coli and rDNA) in an effort to create genetically 
altered microorganisms (novel biological warfare agents). 

Biological Warfare Defense 

The following section, describing the types, dissemination, and defensive 
measures against biological agents, is quoted verbatim from a United States 
Marine Corps Institute document. Nuclear and Chemical Operations . MCI 
77 1 IB, used in the Command and Staff College's nonresident program. It is 
clear from this document that the Department of Defense recognizes both the 
threat and U.S. vulnerability to biological weapons. This document also outlines 



-*Staff interview, UNSCOM, February 22, 1994. 

48 



277 

the Department's understanding of what actions should be taken in the event that 
a biological weapon has been or is suspected to have been employed. 

"Biological agents camot be detected by the human senses. A person 
could become a casualty before he is aware he has been exposed to a biological 
agent. A n aerosol or mist of biological agent is borne in the air These agents 
can silently and effectively attack man. animals, plants, and in some cases, 
materiel. Agents can be tailored for a specific type of target.^ 

Methods of tisirtg aitipersonnel agents undoubtedly vary so that no 
uniform pattern of employment or operation is evident. It is likely that agents 
will be used in combinations so that the disease symptoms will confuse 
diagnosis and interfere with proper treatment. It is also probable that biological 
agents would be used in heavy concentrations to insure a high percentage of 
infection in the target area The use of such concentrations could result in the 
breakdown of individual immunity because the large number of micro-organisms 
entering the body could overwhelm the natural body defenses. 

Types of Biological Agents 

Different antipersonnel agents require varying periods of time before they 
take effect, and the periods of time for which they will incapacitate a person 
also vary. Most of the diseases having antipersonnel employment potential are 
found among a group of diseases that are naturally transmitted between animals 
and man. Mankind is highly vulnerable to them since he has little contact with 
animals in today's urban society. The micro-organisms of possible use in 
warfare are found in four naturally occurring groups - the fungi, bacteria 
rickettsiae, and viruses. ^^ 



*** Nuclear and Chemical Operations. MCI 771 IB, Marine Corps Institute, Command and 
Staff College's nonresident program (Manne Barracks, Washmgton, DC, 1983), 
p. 8, section 1501. 



*'lbid. 

" Ibid. p. 9, section 1 502. 



49 



278 

a. Fungi . Fungi occur in many forms and are found almost everywhere. 
They range in size from a single cell, such as yeast, to multicellular forms, such 
as mushrooms and puffballs. Their greatest employment potential is against 
plants, although some forms cause disease m man. A fungus causes the disease 
coccidioidomycosis in man. Other common infections caused by Fungi include 
ringworm and "athletes foot. " " 

b. Bacteria. Bacteria comprise a large and varied group of organisms. 
They occur in varying shapes, such as rods, spheres, and spirals, but they are all 
one-celled plants. Some bacteria can assume a resistant structure called a spore, 
which enables them to resist adverse environmental conditions. Others may- 
produce poisonous substances called toxins. Examples of human disease 
caused by bacteria are anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, staphylococcus, and 
Streptococcus. 

c. Rickettsiae . Rickettsiae organisms have the physical appearance of 
bacteria and the growth characteristics of viruses. Members of this group must 
have living tissue for grow th and reproduction, whereas most fungi and bacteria 
can be grown on artificial material. A not her characteristic of rickettsiae is that 
most diseases caused by this group are transmitted by the bite of an insect, such 
as the mosquito, mite, or tick. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, O fever, and 
typhus are diseases of mankind caused by rickettsiae.''^ 

d. Virus . The smallest living things known to mankind are viruses. 
Viruses are so small than an electron microscope is required to see them. 
Viruses cannot be grown in the absence of living tissue. Diseases which are 
caused by viruses cannot normally be treated with antibiotics. Viruses cause 
yellow fever, rabies, and poliomyelitis.'^ 



"Ibid, p 9, section 1502a. 
"Ibid, p. 9, Section 1502b. 
" Ibid, p 9, Section 1 502c. 
"Ibid, p 9, Section 1502d. 



50 



279 

Dissemination of Biological Agents 

a. A ervsol . Biological agents may be disseminated on, or over, the target 
by many means, such as aircraft, missiles, and explosive munitions. These 
devices produce a biological aerosol, and, f antipersonnel biological agents are 
ever used, they will probably be disseminated in the form of biological mists or 
aerosols. This method of dissemination would be extremely effective because 
the micro-organisms would be drawn into the lungs as a person breathes, and 
there they would be rapidly absorbed into the blood stream. The hours from 
dusk until dawn appear to be the best time for dissemination of biological 
agents. The weather conditions are most favorable for tfiese agents at night, 
since sunlight will destroy many of them. Infield trials, using harmless 
biological aerosols, area coverages of thousands of square miles have been 
accomplished. The aerosol particles were carried for long distances by air 
currents ^^ (emphasis added) 

b. Livins Hosts. Personnel may be infected by disease carrying vectors, 
such as insects, rats, or other animals. Mosquitos may spread malaria yellow 
fever, or encephalitis: rats spread plague (any mammal may carry rabies). 
Militarily, specific vectors may be selected, infected as required, and then 
released in the target area to seek out their human victims and pass on the 
disease. Since infection is transmitted through a bite m the skin, protective 
masks offer no protection. A vectorbome agent may remain in the target area 
for as long as there are live hosts: thus, a major disadvantage results. The 
vectorbome agent can become a permanent hazard in the area as the host infects 
others of his species.^' 

c. Food and Water Contamination. Biological agents could also be 
delivered to target personnel by placing the agent m food and water supplies 
(sabotage). This type of attack would probably be directed against small targets, 
such as industrial complexes, headquarters, or specific individuals. The methods 
of delivering the attack are many and varied. *' 



"Ibid, p 9. Section 1503a. 
"Ibid, p 9, Section 1503b 
''Ibid, p 9. Section 1503c. 

51 



280 

Defensive Measures 

The United States carries out research aimed at improved means of 
detection of biological agents and treatment and immunization of personnel. 
Both of these are essential to biological defense.^'' 

a Before an A ttack: The inability of the individual to detect a biological 
attack is perhaps the greatest problem. Contributing factors are the delay 
experienced before the onset of symptoms and the time required to identify 
specific agents. Without an adequate means of detection, complete defensive 
measures may not be taken since an attack must first be detected before you can 
defend against it. Diseases caused by biological agents do not appear until a 
few days to weeks after contact with the agent. Personnel are protected against 
biological agents in aerosol form by the protective mask. Ordinary clothing 
protects the skin from contamination by biological agents. Other means of 
protection include immunizations; quarantining contaminated areas; cleanliness 
of the body, clothing, and living quarters; stringent rodent and pest control; 
proper care of cuts and wounds; and education of troops to eat and drink only 
from approved sources.^^ 

b. A fter an A ttack: After a biological agent attack has occurred, it will 
be necessary to identify the agent used in the attack so that proper medical 
treatment may be given to exposed personnel To perform this identification, it 
is necessary to collect samples or objects from the contaminated area and send 
them to a laboratory or suitable facility for processing. Samples may by taken 
from the air, from contanunated surfaces, or from contaminated water After the 
sample is taken, laboratory time will be required to identify the suspected 
biological agent The length of time for identification is being significantly 
shortened through the use of new medical and laboratory techniques. Proper 
defensive actions taken during a biological attack depend upon the rapid 
detection of the attack. Biological defense is continuous. You must always be 
prepared for the employment of these weapons.^^ (emphasis added) 



'Ibid, p. 10, Section 1504. 
"Ibid, p 10, Section 1504a 
"Ibid, p 10, Section 1504b. 

52 



281 

Iraq's Experience in Ihe Use of Chemical Warfare Agents 

The fears and the precautions taken prior to the Gulf War were not tlie 
product of excessive hysteria. Five United Nations reports have confirmed the 
use of chemical warfare agents in the Iran-Iraq War." Use of chemical weapons 
against both the Kurds and Shiite Moslems within Iraq is well documented. 
Press reports also document Iraqi readiness to use these weapons against 
Coalition forces during the Persian Gulf War. 

In April 1993, two U.S.-based human rights organizations confirmed that 
they had found residues of chemical weapons used by the Iraqi government of 
Saddam Hussein against a Kurdish village in northern Iraq in 1988. These 
groups. Physicians for Human Rights and Human Rights Watch, said they had 
used advanced analytical techniques to discover the presence of mustard gas and 
the nerve gas Sann. Those chemical weapons reportedly were dropped by 
aircraft on August 25, 1988 and killed four people in the Kurdish village of 
Biijinni.'" Testimony fi-om survivors of the Biijinni bombing, who said victims 
of the raids died writhing and coughing blood, led to accusations that Iraq had 
gassed its own citizens as part of a campaign against rebellious Kurds that killed 
tens of thousands." This was the first time that scientists had been able to 
prove the use of chemical weapons, and especially a nerve gas, through 
the analysis of enviroimiental residue acquired years after such an attack 
occurred.'* 

Soil samples were gathered fi-om the 1988 bombing sites and then 
delivered to a British laboratory. Chemists at Porton Down found traces of 
mustard gas and Sarin. Dr. Graham Pearson, director of the British Chemical 
and Biological Defence Establishment, verified these results and confirmed the 



"Steven R Bowman, Congressional Research Service Issue Brief: Chemical Weapons 
Proliferation: Issues for Congress. 1B90084 (Washmgton, DC: Congressional Research 
Service, Foreign Affairs and Defense Division. Updated August 17, 1993) 2. 

" "Washington Dateline: Group Offers Evidence Iraq Used Poison Gas Against Own 
People," Associated Press (April 29, 1993), PM Cycle; Deborah Zabarenko, "Scientists: Lab 
Shows Iraq Used Poison Gas on Kurds," Reuters (April 29. 1993). EC Cycle. 

" Ibid. 

'° Ibid. 

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samples were taken from bomb craters near the northern Iraqi village of Biijinni 
in June 1992. The byproducts of the breakdown of these poisons are so specific 
that they provide a "unique fingerprint" in chemical analysis that points directly 
to a poison gas attack." 

An earlier attack had been reported on March 17, 1988 on the village of 
Halabja. Amnesty International reported that chemical weapons were used in an 
attack by Iraq, in which "some 5,000 Kurds were killed within an hour."'* 
A U.N. team sent to investigate the attack found evidence of chemical weapons, 
although they did not rule on who carried out the attack on the town, which had 
been occupied by Iran since mid-March. '^ 

On September 26, 1993, Shiite rebels living in the southern Iraqi 
marshlands reported an early morning shelling attack by Iraqi forces. The 
eyewitnesses, who spoke with a New York Times reporter, mentioned that the 
shells landed with a thud "and not the usual explosion" sending up white 
clouds. The artillery attack was followed by a ground assault by Iraqi troops 
who were equipped with gas masks. *° 

A Shiite rebel claimed that upon entering one of the Iraqi armored 
personnel carriers they found battle orders calling for a chemical attack. Rebel 
leaders provided a copy of the captured orders. Written in Arabic on the 
twenty-sixth of September, the orders, numbered 1-15, instructed the Iraqi 
soldiers to use chemical weapons to "retake the village" and that "each soldier 
must be instructed on how to respond during the chemical attack."*' 



""Bntish Lab Shows Iraq Used Poison Gas on Kurds," Associated Press. Press Newsfile 
(April 29, 1993). 

" Patricia Dibsie, "Kurds Demonstrate in Memory of 5,000 Killed by Iraqi Weapons," 
San Diego Union Tnbune. (March 18, 1994). 

""Iraq Says it Has Launched a New Offensive Against Iran," Reuters. (May 28, 1988), 
P M Cycle 

Chris Hedges, "In a Remote Southern Marsh, Iraq is Strangling the Shiites," New York 
Times (November 16, 1993), A 1 

*'lb.d. 

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After the attack, some villagers returned for their belongings, but there 
was nothing left. They discovered that trees and plants had withered and 
yellowed. Furthermore, "the cats, the dogs, the birds and even the water snakes 
had died. But for some reason the victims had been removed by the troops. 
We saw no bodies."*^ 

In November 1993, a nine-member U.N. inspection team arrived to take 
samples from the area of the alleged chemical attack. The results of the 
inspection were inconclusive. 

It is also suspected that Iraq may have used biological agents 
(mycotoxins) during the 1984 attack on Majnoon Island, during the Iran-Iraq 
War, and in 1988 against the Kurds (cholera and typhus). However, no medical 
verification of Iraqi use of biological warfare agents yet exists." 

The above docimiented instances of chemical weapons use (and suspected 
use) against Iranians, Kurds, and Shiites undermine Department of Defense 
assertions that Iraq may not have used these weapons against Coalition forces 
because they "feared contamination of their own men."*' Marine Brigadier 
General Richard Neil said that prisoner debriefings of Persian Gulf War EPWs 
had "yielded the impression that the Iraqis were not comfortable operating in a 
chemical environment,... and... Iraqi soldiers had poor chemical protection 
equipment of their own." *^ Lt. General Thomas Kelly stated in a press briefing 
that "the Iraqi Army was very uncomfortable, we are finding out from the 
POWs, about the use of chemical weapons because they are not familiar with 



«^rb.d. 

Thomas Hargrove, "Doctors Say Gulf War Vets Gasses: Biological Weapons Believed 
Responsible for Mysterious Ailments of Returned US Troops," San Francisco Examiner 
(November 17, 1993), A7;H. Kadivar and S.C. Adams, "Treatment of Chemical and 
Biological Warfare Injuries; Insights Derived From the 1984 Attack on Majnoon Island," 
Military Medicme. (Apnl 1991). I7I-7. A. Heyndnckx, "Chemical Warfare Injuries," The 
Lancet. Vol. 337 (February 16. 1991).. 

"Tony Walker, "The Gulf Ceasefire; Formal Ceasefire Talks to Begin Soon ~ Victors 
Will Meet Vanquished Amid Claims of Truce Violations, Financial Times. (March 2, 1991) 

'"Ann Deuroy and Gtiy Gugliotta, "Bush to Move Fast on Mideast Peace, Ceasefire Talks 
Delayed by Technical Details'." Washington Post. (March 2, 1991), Al. 

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it." *^ However, as the preceding paragraphs make clear, the Iraqi 

Army had operational experience with the use of these weapons, unHke their 

American counterparts. 



" Federal News Service. Department of Defense Regular Briefing (March 4, 1991). 

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285 

Gulf War Syndrome: The Case for CHEMiCAiyBiOLOGiCAL Agent 
Exposure 

As the preceding sections of this report make clear, the Government of 
Iraq possessed a large and sophisticated chemical and biological weapons 
production complex. Iraq's army, organized and equipped along Soviet lines, 
also appeared to employ Soviet chemical warfare doctrine, which advocated the 
use of mixed agent warfare. Iraq used these weapons against its own people in 
the 1980's, and possibly again in 1993. It should not be surprising that Baghdad 
would also use every weapon in its arsenal against the much more serious threat 
to its own survival posed by the massed Coalition forces. Additionally, the 
release of chemical and biological agents as a result of Coalition bombing 
should have been expected by the Allied forces, based upon their own doctrine 
regarding the dispersal of chemical agents. 

Several theories have been put forward to explain the cause(s) of Gulf 
War Syndrome. Most of them lack credibility because they do not explain 
transmission of similar symptoms across a broad and dissimilar population 
whose only commonality was the service of a family member in the Persian 
Gulf theater of operations or contact with materiel returned from that venue. 
Meanwhile, the passage of over three years since the appearance of the first 
symptoms, and the inability of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs 
to find a cause, suggests that the illnesses may be caused by something that 
these institutions have not examined. Further, the absence of credible and 
verifiable published scientific research on the syndrome by these agencies, 
providing specifics of the types of laboratory research that have been conducted, 
case histories, and methodologies used, leaves each interested scientist in the 
dark as to what diagnostic processes have been attempted and which have failed. 

There is a growing body of evidence, outlined in detail below, which 
supports the claims of Gulf War veterans that exposure to chemical and/or 
biological warfare agents may be the cause of the complex of illnesses they 
currentiy suffer. There appear to be four primary sources of exposure: 

1) as a result of direct attack, via missile, rocket, artillery, or aircraft munitions; 

2) as a result of intermittent low-level exposure to fallout from Coalition 
bombing of Iraqi chemical and biological warfare plants and munitions bunkers; 

3) as a result of administration of a nerve agent pre-treatment drug that acts in a 
manner similar to actual nerve agent; and, 4) as a result of continuing contact 



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with the Iraqi enemy prisoners of war (EPWs). In addition, there appear to be 
two secondary sources of exposure; 1) exposure to occupational/environmental 
hazards in Southwest Asia and to contaminated materiel returned from the 
theater of operations, and 2) transmission among family members. Exposure to 
endemic diseases and illnesses and diseases must also be thoroughly researched. 

Himdreds of Gulf War veterans have been interviewed by the Committee 
staff. The events cited below are included because the veterans reporting them 
could remember approximately when they occurred, or because there were 
multiple independent confirming sources. A map showing the location of these 
events appears at the end of this section. 

Chapter 2. Group I Exposures: Reported Direct Exposure Events 

A number of direct exposure events are described below as reported by 
members of the U.S. Armed Forces who served in the Gulf War. Not every 
detail can be verified by multiple sources to date, but additional data from 
unofficial and imrelated sources continue to bolster initial accoimts of events 
best explained as missile and rocket attacks or aerial explosions. Units located 
in areas where these events occurred are reporting high rates of illnesses. The 
areas in which these events occurred were key logistic and staging areas, as well 
as those areas which were breached diuing the liberation of Kuwait. Many 
veterans of these units have reported seeing large numbers of dead or dying 
animals in the area after the attacks; one veteran noted that "all the insects were 
dead too." 

Department of Defense conclusions that no chemical or biological attacks 
occurred seem to be based on the assumption that there was no significant 
evidence of immediate chemical and biological casualties. However, since one 
of the primary goals of a biological attack is to debilitate your adversary's 
forces, while retaining a high degree of deniability, and since many of those 
interviewed describe both immediate physical reactions and long-term 
debilitating effects, the issue of what these individuals may have been exposed 
to becomes highly critical. 



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Event 1: 

Januai> 17, 1991, eariy moniing hoim 
Cement City 

Mr. Willie Hicks, then with the 644th Ordinance Company, was serving 
as the non-commissioned officer in charge of arms and ammunitions shipments. 
Staff Sergeant Hicks has testified before the Senate Committee on Armed 
Services' Subcommittee for Force Structure and Personnel that, at about 2:30a.m. 
on January 17, 1991, he heard a loud explosion, which was followed by a 
sounding of alarms. As Hicks was running to the bunker, his face began to 
bum. One member of the unit "just dropped." About ten minutes later, 
according to Hicks, the unit's first sergeant came by and told members of the 
unit to go to the highest level of alert. The unit remamed at that level for 24 
hours. 

Two or three days later. Hicks began feeling ill and noticed blood in his 
urine. Several other members of the unit began experiencing "problems" with 
their rectums. Hicks testified that when members of the unit began to question 
what had happened, they were ordered by their commanding officer not to 
discuss it. Of the unit's 110 soldiers, 85 now suffer fi"om medical problems, and 
one, Staff Sergeant Bayle, who Hicks described as having been in good physical 
shape, has inexplicably died. Hicks described another member of the unit. Staff 
Sergeant Heal, as being seriously incapacitated. 

Hicks, a former teacher and Vietnam veteran, carries a notebook with him 
everywhere. He claims to have a severe problem with memory loss. He quit his 
job because he kept passmg out and getting lost on the way to work. Other 
symptoms being suffered by Mr. Hicks include headaches, blood in his urine, 
insomnia, joint and muscle pain, deteriorating vision, loss of mobility in his left 
arm, night sweats, and diarrhea (sometimes bloody). His illness has been 
classified by the Veterans Administration as post traumatic stress disorder. 



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288 
Event 2: 

January 19, 1991, eariy morning hours. 

Camp 13, 6-7 miles west of Port of Jubayl, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 
(Although some individuals reported this event as taking place on Januatv' 20, 
documentary evidence indicates that it took place on the 19th.) 

^Vitness 01: Petty Officer Sterling Symms, then assigned to the Naval Reserve 
Construction Battalion 24, in an area south of the Kuwaiti border, testified 
before the Senate Armed Services Committee that between 2:00a.m. and 
3:00a.m. on January 20, 1991, there was a "real bad explosion" overhead. The 
alarms went off and everybody started running towards their bunkers. Petty 
Officer Symms said there was a sharp odor of ammonia in the air. His eyes 
burned and his skin stung His unit donned full chemical gear for nearly two 
hours until the "all clear" was given.' 

Later, according to Symms, members of the unit were advised that what 
they heard was a sonic boom. Petty Officer Symms said that he did not believe 
that it was a sonic boom because there was also a "fireball" associated with the 
explosion. Members of the unit were ordered not to discuss the incident. Petty 
Officer Symms says he has since experienced fatigue, sore joints, running nose, 
a chronic severe rash, and open sores which have been diagnosed as an "itching 
problem." He has also been treated for streptococcus infections. In his 
testimony, Symms stated that 4 or 5 other members of his unit and two of their 
wives have been treated for similar infections.^ 

Witness 02: Mike Moore, assigned to the same unit as Symms, also reported 
that on January 20, 1991, at about 3a.m., he was awakened by a double 
explosion. As the sound of the explosion faded the alarms went off. The unit 
intercom aimounced "Go to MOPP level 4." Everyone in the tent put on their 
gas gear and went to the bunker. They stayed at MOPP level 4 until about 
7a.m.. Later that day or the next, everyone's chemical suits and masks were 
collected and replaced. According to Mr. Moore, he was told the explosion was 



Testimony before the Senate Committee on Armed Services, Subcommittee on Force 
Structure and Personnel (June 30, 1993) 

^Ibid. 



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289 

a sonic boom, to quit worrying about it, and to get back to work. Mr. Moore 
said that he later heard that what he heard was an incoming SCUD, but he also 
heard rumors that a Iraqi MIG was shot down in the area that night. 

Mr. Moore said that he did not feel a spray or smell ammonia. He had no 
stinging or numb lips. Since returning home from the Gulf, he has suffered a 
severe thyroid problem, a heart attack, memory loss, tired and aching joints, 
rashes on his feet, nervousness, and muscle cramps, although he reported no 
bleeding. According to Mr. Moore, he has had about ten blood tests and two 
sets of x-rays performed at the Tuskeegee, Alabama, Veterans Affairs Medical 
Center. In past calls to the Tuskeegee, Alabama, VAMC, however, he had been 
told that there is no information in his record. 

In February 1992, Mr. Moore's daughter began developing a thyroid 
problem and has been suffering from nervousness, headaches, and fatigue. 
Over the last year, his wife has begun to develop these symptoms as well. 
There is no history of thyroid problems in family. 

Witness 03: Mr. William Larry Kay was an electrician assigned to Naval 
Mobile Construction Battalion 24. He was also assigned to Camp 13. On 
January 20, 1991, Mr. Kay heard two "booms", shaking the whole building. 
Sirens began going off. The camp intercom aimounced "confirmed mustard gas - 
- go to MOPP level 4." Mr. Kay was at the Recreation Center when the blasts 
occurred. He had fallen asleep. He went outside and put his gas mask on. It 
immediately filled with fiimes. He recalls that it smelled like ammonia. Mr. 
Kay has been a member of a Hazmat (Hazardous Materials) team of the fire 
department in Columbus, Georgia; he said the strong smell of ammonia is 
unusual in an open area. There was an ammonia plant nearby, but he had never 
smelled such a strong odor of ammonia in the area. He reported to his 
assigned bunker. Each member of the unit had a duty during these attacks ~ 
Mr. Kay was assigned to a decontamination team. There were other people 
assigned to test for chemical contamination. A radio call came in for these 
people to check for gas. Then, almost immediately, the intercom announced "all 
clear." 

Mr. Kay said that after the incident, in response to questions from the unit 
as to what had occurred, the unit Commanding Officer said "Have you ever 
heard of a sonic boom?" When members of the unit continued to question the 



61 



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unit commanders about what had occurred, they were ordered not to discuss the 
incident. 

Witness 04: Mr. Terry Avery of Salem, Alabama worked on utilities for Naval 
Mobile Construction Battalion 24, and was also assigned to Camp 13. During 
the night of January 20, 1991, Mr. Avery said that he heard a double explosion. 
The alert siren went off. He put on his gas mask and went to the bunker. While 
in the bunker, his unit received the command to go to MOPP level 4 over the 
camp loudspeaker. He put on his chemical suit. Mr. Avery said he was almost 
completely dressed when they announced "all clear." He left the bunker and 
returned to his tent. 

Mr. Avery was later told by his Master Chief that the noise he heard was 
just a sonic boom. A veteran of Vietnam who had heard sonic booms before, 
Mr. Avery felt that it was not a sonic boom, but he never got a good answer 
about the explosion. He reported that the rumor going around the camp was 
that an enemy plane had been shot down over the desert. 

Late in the summer of 1991, Mr. Avery began feeling tired and having 
headaches. He saw a private doctor, who said he was probably working too 
hard in the sun. He says he does not think he is as ill as the rest of the men in 
his unit (NMCB24). He feels that he has leveled out, but he still has good days 
and bad days. He currently suffers from fatigue, headaches, weight gain, 
itching, muscle and joint pains, and memory loss (inability to concentrate). 

His wife is also ill. Mr. Avery feels that she is more ill than he is. She 
has an enlarged spleen, an enlarged liver and abnormal liver fimctions, joint 
pains, night sweats, fatigue, stomach problems, itching, and rashes, but has not 
complained of memory loss. Two of his children are also complaining of 
headaches, joint pain, and abdominal pains. His 13-year-old daughter was 
diagnosed as having mononucleosis. She also has sinus infections, and throat 
pains from the sinus drainage. His 11 -year-old son has had rashes, headaches, 
joint pain, itching, sinus and throat infections, and fevers. 

Witness 05: The following are excerpts from one of two letters written by a 
U.S. serviceman present at Camp 13 during the Januaiy 19, 1991 incident. This 
individual has been interviewed by U.S. Senate professional staff . These 



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original letters confimi the actual events of that morning. This individual has 
requested confidentiality. The original letters have been retained as evidence. 

"8:00 pm 
19 Jan 91 
Dear Mom, 

I just talked to you on the phone. I really didn't want to call you and tell 
you about the SCUD missile/gas attack so you wouldn't worry, but 1 really 
needed to hear a familiar voice. .I'm trying like hell to keep my mind off the 
fact that It's night time again, and we could get hit again. 

Mom, I can deal with getting shot at, because I can fight back and even if 
I got hit, 1 can be put back together, a missile, on the other hand, doesn't work 
like that, but I can even accept that. But gas scares the hell out of me. I know 
how to put on the protective suits and gear, but it's the thought. Once the 
missile hit (without warning!) we were so busy getting dressed in our chemical 
suits we never had time for it to sink in and be scared. I was proud of all of us 
because no one fi-oze up - we all responded like we'd been trained to, but after 
we got suited up, we had to sit there and force ourselves to breath slow and try 
and cool down - the suits are very hot. It's hard to slow your breathing when 
your heart's beating a million times a minute... [a] fire team [went] out 
and... patrolled the camp and checked all of the towers. The rest of the camp 
were in their bunkers except security and the chemical detection teams. 1 know 
they detected a cloud of dusty mustard gas because 1 was there with them, but 
today everyone denies it. I was there when they radioed the other camps north 
of us and warned them of the cloud... I talked to the look-outs that saw the air 
burst and cloud and had to stay with them for a few minutes to try and calm 
them down even though 1 was just as scared (probably more!). Jubail is South 
East of us, and that's where the Scud hit that was confirmed, but the air burst 
my guys saw was only 200+ yards west of us. I don't know what that was, but 
that's where most of the gas came from 1 think. But the wind was almost 
blowing due North. I probably won't sleep much tonight, but at least I'll be able 
to respond faster..." 

In the interview with Senate staff, the individual said that during patrols 
around Camp 13 in the days just after the mcident he wrote about, he observed 



63 



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many animals that were either sick or dead. He also confirmed that after the 
attack, their chemical protective gear was replaced. 

Witness 06: Mr. Mike Tidd was assigned to perform security duties with Naval 
Mobile Construction Battalion 24. He currently suffers from jomt aches and 
pains, sinus infections, diarrhea, urinary urgency and frequency, rashes, small 
mosquito bite-like sores, heartburn, dizziness, occasional low temperatures, 
occasional night sweats, and chronic fatigue. Mr. Tidd kept a log while in Saudi 
Arabia. 

According to his log, on January 19, a little past 0330hrs, Mr. Tidd was 
sitting on Tower 6 when all of a sudden, there was a double boom off to the 
northwest of the camp, accompanied by a bright flash of light. Within minutes, 
the general quarters alarm sounded. Mr. Tidd's unit first donned their gas masks 
and ponchos, and then, minutes later, the call came to go to MOPP level 4. At 
about 0600hrs, the "all clear" was sounded. 

While Mr. Tidd heard the bang and saw the flash, which he described as 
being fairly close, he does not recall seeing a cloud. He said that he did not 
experience any symptoms, but attributes that to having been in a covered guard 
tower about 20 feet off the ground with a 3' visibility area. 

Event 3: 

Januaiy 19, 1991, eariy moniing hoim (possibly Januaiy 20). 

King Abdul Aziz Naval Air Station (NMCB24-Air Det), 3 miles south of Port 

of ^bayl, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 

Witness 01: Mr. Larry Perry, of North Carolina, was a naval construction 
worker stationed near the port city of Al-Jubayl, at King Abdul Aziz Naval Air 
Station. He says the explosion on Januaiy 20, 1991 sent his entire unit running 
for the bomb shelter. When they emerged in their gas masks, they were 
enveloped by a mist. 

Witness 02: Mr. Fred Willoughby of Columbus, Georgia was with Naval 
Mobile Construction Battalion 24 - Air Det. He currently suffers from 
headaches, diarrhea, aching joints, blood shot eyes, bloat, intestinal problems. 



64 



293 

and chronic fatigue. He has had a polyp removed from his colon, and suffered 
from rectal bleedmg in 1992. 

Mr. Willoughby has reported that on January 20, 1991, at about 3-4a.m., 
he was "hanging out" outside his tent when he heard a long, loud explosion. 
Shortly thereafter, a siren sounded and he went inside the tent to get his gas 
mask. By the time he came out, people were yelling 'MOPP 4, MOPP 4, not a 
drill'. Immediately, his mouth, lips, and face became numb all over, a sensation 
he likened to novocaine at the dentist's office. He was in the bunker for about 
an hour or an hour and a half When he came out of the bunker, he and the 
others in the unit were told by the officers and chiefs that what they had heard 
was just a sonic boom. The next day, the imit was told not to talk about it. But 
the unit's MOPP gear was collected and replaced the next morning. Mr. 
Willoughby also heard that an enemy aircraft was shot down in the Gulf, not far 
from the base. 

His wife has begun exhibiting similar symptoms, including fatigue, 
diarrhea, and aching joints. 

Witness 03: Roy Morrow of Phenix City, Alabama was a builder with 
NMCB24 and was assigned to the Air Detachment at King Abdul Aziz Stadium. 
On January 20, 1991, he heard two explosions between 3:00-3;30a.m.. He was 
awakened and went to the bunker. The unit went to MOPP level 2 for 25-30 
minutes. The "all clear" was then given. When he exited the bunker, Mr. 
Morrow noticed the Marines running and screaming "MOPP level 4." The siren 
sounded again. He began to feel a burning sensation on his arms, legs, the back 
of his neck, and on his ears and face. His lips felt numb. His unit went to ftill 
MOPP level 4. Right before he went to the bunker the second time, Mr. 
Morrow saw a flash at the commercial port of Al-Jubayl. He had a radio in the 
bunker, and heard a call for the decontamination teams to respond. 

BU2 Edwards was the head of the decontamination team in Mr. 
Morrow's unit. According to Mr. Morrow, BU2 Edwards said the next day that 
mustard gas and lewisite had been detected. When they began to discuss it, 
according to Mr. Morrow, the unit was told that the two explosions were a sonic 
boom, and they were ordered not to talk about it any more. The next day, all of 
their chemical gear was collected and replaced with new equipment. 



65 



294 

The numbness experienced by Mr. Morrow remained for at least a week. 
Within two to three days after the incident, imit members began to suffer from 
rashes, diarrhea, and fatigue. The aching joints began a couple of weeks later 
Mr Morrow's symptoms have been getting progressively worse until the present 
time. He cuirently suffers from swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, diarrhea, night 
sweats, low grade temperature, weight loss, aching joints, muscle cramps, rashes 
(transient) blisters, welts (2-3 times a month), permanent hand rash, and short- 
term memory loss. 

Witness 04: Mr. Harold Jerome Edwards, the chemical NCO in charge of the 
Nuclear/Biological/Chemical team for the Naval Mobile Construction Battalion 
24 Air Detachment at the King Abdul Aziz Naval Air Station was interviewed 
by U.S. Senate staff on January 13, 1994. During that interview Mr. Edwards 
said that he conducted three M-256 tests for chemical agents on the evening of 
this event. According to Edwards, two of the three tests he conducted were 
positive for chemical blister agent. He said that the negative test was conducted 
in an area in between a number of rows of tents. He also said that he reported 
this information to his unit commander. In addition, Mr. Edwards said that a 
member of the unit, Tom Muse, blistered in the area under his watch during this 
event. The "all clear" was given from a higher command. Mr. Edwards was 
called out to serve on a chemical decontamination team that day. He said that 
the Mark 12 decontamination unit assigned to the team was inoperative and that 
he was assigned to take out a 500 gallon water truck and stand by to 
decontaminate incoming personnel. According to Mr. Edwards, no one was 
decontaminated by his team. He said that this was the only time he was called 
out on this type of mission throughout the entire war. 

Other Information Regaiding the Detection of Chemical Agents at Jubayl. 

Ken Allison, then a Lance Corporal with the 174th Marine Wing Support 
Squadron, Group 37, was deUvering supplies to Jubayl Airfield. During an 
interview with Senate staff, he reported that sometime during his deployment 
there, possibly in January 1991, he saw a sign posted on a guard shack at the 
airfield's southern gate. The sign warned: that the area had tested positive for 
chemicals; make sure your MOPP gear was ready; and that when the alarms go 
off it is for real. Although he did not recall the exact wording on the sign, he 
remembered the content clearly. 



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295 

In addition, a number of British military' personnel suffering from Gulf 
War S>Tidrome who were stationed near the Port of Jubayl have come forward 
and have described similar events. 

Event 4: 

Late Febnian 1991 

"Lx)g Base Chailie", 7 miles from the Iraqi bonder near Rafha 

Wtness 01: Ms. Valerie Sweatman from Columbia, South Carolina, was 
serving as a telecommimications specialist with the U.S. Army, assigned to the 
2nd MASH Hospital. Ms. Sweatman recalls that pnor to moving to "Log Base 
Orange" in Iraq during the ground war, her unit packed up their equipment at 
"Log Base Charlie." "Log Base Charlie" was located about 7 miles from the 
Iraqi border, near Rafha. One night in late Febmarv' 1991, she was awakened 
by a sergeant and was told there was a chemical alert and to go to MOPP level 
4. She put on her MOPP suit and mask and began going outside while she was 
still puttmg on her gloves. Her unit stayed at MOPP level 4 for 1-2 hours. That 
night, she heard that at least one soldier had come into the hospital showing 
symptoms of nerve agent exposure. She was told that there was a SCUD alert 
that night. She did not, however, hear any explosion. The morning after this 
incident, Ms. Sweatman's hands were itching from the wnsts on down. She had 
developed little blisters which went away about a week later She was treated 
with omtments and benadryl for a "skin condition." 

Ms. Sweatman had heard the chemical alarms go off on other occasions 
prior to the incident reported above. She was the night telecoimnunications 
NCO for her unit, and heard alarms sounding during the first nights of the air 
war, when her unit was assigned to King Khalid Military City (KKMC). On 
one occasion during this period, she heard a blast and felt a mist in the same 
area. After this incident she experienced nausea, diarrhea, and bloody stools. 
Her unit began taking the nerve agent pre-treatment pills (NAPP) after these 
earlier alarms. Although the alarms sounded, the NBC NCO claimed that they 
were soundmg because the alarm equipment had bad batteries and not because 
of chemicals. 

Ms. Sweatman currently suffers from headaches, exhaustion, fatigue, 
memory loss, nausea, muscle and joint pains, rectal and vaginal bleeding, and 



67 



296 

rashes. She has been diagnosed as having arthritis, headaches, and post 
traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). 

Event 5: 

Eariy Febniaiy 1991 

In the Desert Between Hafir Al Batin and King Khalid Militaiy City, Northern 

Saudi Arabia 

Witness 01: Ms. Michelle Hanlon of Killeen, Texas was assigned to the 1st 
Cavalry Division as a communications specialist. On February 14, 1991, during 
lunch, she heard an explosion overhead. She thought at the time that it was a 
Scud being intercepted by a Patriot missile and thought nothing more of it. 

On another occasion, when her unit was assigned to a field base near 
Hafir Al Batin, she recalled that one night, the night air breeze made her eyes 
begin to water. She immediately put on her gas mask and thought nothing more 
of the incident. She also reported that on a number of days, she could actually 
smell sulfiu- from the Coalition bombings of Iraqi chemical plants during the air 
war. 

She is currentiy suffering from intestinal problems, hemorrhoids, 
occasional fatigue, a rash on her finger (like littie water blisters under the skin), 
cervical infections which coincide with intestinal problems, and some memory 
loss. She feels that she is becoming progressively more ill. Her rash has been 
diagnosed as eczema and has been treated with antibiotics. She is 23 years old. 
Her child, now 16 months old, has been getting fevers, yeast infections, rectal 
and penile discolorations. 

Witness 02: Mr. Richard Voss was with the 207th Military Intelligence Brigade 
assigned to the 1st Infantry Division. Mr. Voss recalled witoessing what 
appeared to be a missile attack while stuck in slow-moving traffic heading west 
toward Hafir Al Batin on Tapline Road in early February 1991. Mr. Voss 
reports that sometime between noon and 4:00 p.m., he watched the missile, 
coming in from the north-northeast, impact to the east of Hafir Al Batin, about 
one mile away from his vehicle. He saw a large daric brown cloud rise up. 
Within two or three minutes, MPs came by giving the gas alert signal. He 
recalled that the wind was blowing from the north or northeast at the time of the 



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incident. He continued to drive in traffic in MOPP gear for about 

1-1/2 - 2 hours past Hafir Al Batin toward an assembly area. He got the "all 

clear" when he got near Log Base Echo. 

Currently, Mr. Voss suffers from headaches, occasional fatigue, joint and 
muscle pain, memory loss/inability to concentrate, urinary urgency, dizziness, 
photosensitivity, shortness of breath, rashes, recurring walking pneumonia, chest 
pains, numbness, and severe joint pains in both wrists and hands. His wife 
suffers from recurring yeast infections, menstrual irregularities, rashes, fatigue, 
muscle pain, and severe joint pain in her wrists. 

Witness 03: Ms. Patricia Williams of Nolanville, Texas was assigned to the 1st 
Calvary Division, near Hafir Al Batin, as a civilian mechanic. One late 
afternoon in mid-February, she recalled an explosion somewhere in the desert. 
She described it as a very powerful explosion that she both heard and felt. To 
her knowledge, no chemical alarms had been set up. Coincidentally, her unit 
was told that they were going to have a chemical practice; they were told to put 
on their chemical gear. They were kept at MOPP level 4 for about twenty 
minutes, but told that this was just a practice. They were also told that the 
sound they had just heard was a sonic boom. Five civilians were so fiightened 
that they departed that night. She reports that of the forty people originally in 
her unit, only half are left. She said the rest were so scared that they went 
home. Ms. Williams said that she did not get sick in the Persian Gulf until this 
incident. After this incident, she experienced headaches, diarrhea, and 
photosensitivity. 

Ms. Williams currently suffers from headaches, fatigue, joint and muscle 
pain, memory loss, lumps on her arms and neck, night sweats, insomnia, urinary 
urgency, diarrhea, photosensitivity, gastrointestinal problems, deteriorating 
vision, shortness of breath, coughing, thyroid problems, abnormal hair loss, 
swollen lymph nodes, sinusitis, and chest pains. She is forty-four years old. 

Witness 04; A confidential source told Senate staff that, on February 14, he 
was in traffic between KKMC and Hafir Al Batin, near KKMC. Although he 
did not see or hear this event himself. Military Police with whom he spoke 
while in traffic told him that a Scud had been shot down near Hafir Al Batin. 
He was told that it was nothing to worry about. No one around him went to 
MOPP. 



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Event 6: 

Febnian 22, 1991, late afternoon oreaiiy evening. 

Near King Khalid Militai> City (KKMC), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 

Witness 01: Charlene Harmon Davis was a medical secretary with the 34th 
Aeromedical Patient Staging Station at KKMC. She reported that, on 
February 22, she was getting ready for work (her shift began at 7:00 p.m.) when 
three of what she believed to be Scud missiles were intercepted over KKMC by 
Patnot missiles. Ms. Davis recalls that the chemical alarms went off. After 
these explosions, her face, eyes, and throat began to bum, her nose began to 
run, and she began to feel nauseous. There was a fiumy taste in her mouth. 
These immediate symptoms lasted for about twenty minutes, but she has gotten 
progressively more ill since that incident. When she sought medical attention 
after this event, the doctor told her that she might have had a contaminated gas 
mask, that the mask might have been contaminated by a previous user Ms. 
Davis, however, said that she knew she was the first user of the mask because 
she broke the seal on it. 

Ms. Davis currently suffers fi^om migraine headaches, patellar syndrome, 
seborrheic dermatitis, hip pain, hair loss, insomnia, nightsweats, nightmares, 
numbness in toes, fatigue, joint and muscle pain, gastrointestinal problems, and 
dizziness. She also suffers recurring rashes which she says began after the first 
explosion, believed to be a Scud missile attack, occurred near her location a few 
days after the beginning of the air war. Ms. Davis reports that these rashes 
continue to be a problem to this day. She has advised Senate staff that she is 
extremely concerned about her health as well as her prognosis. She is twenty- 
eight years old. 

Witness 02: David Pena was a mechanic with the 63 Army Reserve Command 
(ARCOM), attached to the 3rd Armor Division. He was stationed at Camp 
Texas, near KKMC. He reports that on approximately February 22, 1991, he 
was leaving a meeting at about 5:30 p.m. when he heard an explosion, and saw 
a cloud. His imit went to MOP? level 4 for 1.5 - 2 hours. Mr. Pena recalls that 
he became nauseous and had blurry vision. He felt very tired for the rest of the 
night. He recalled that several others in his unit also became nauseous and 
three or four others also became very tired. Two weeks later, at his 



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redeployment examination in Kuwait, he was told that he had developed 
hypertension. 

Mr. Pena currently suffers from rashes over 80% of his body, respiratory 
problems, severe headaches, hypertension, vision problems, memory loss, muscle 
and joint pain, diarrhea, hair loss, insomnia, and chronic fatigue. He has been 
diagnosed with nerve damage to the back of the head, blurred vision, lung 
disease, and skin problems. 

Event 7: 

Approximately January- 20, 1991, eariy morning (pre-dawn houre). 
Vicinit> of King Fahd Intemational Aiiport 

Mr. Rocky Gallegos was a Lance Corporal with Bravo Battery, 2nd Light 
Anti-Aircraft Missile Battalion. He observed what he believed to be a Scud 
missile shot out of the sky almost directly overhead by a Patriot missile while 
on the midnight-5:00 a.m. guard duty shift on approximately January 20. He 
reported that the explosion "blossomed like a flower." According to Mr. 
Gallegos, it exploded again when it hit the ground. Mr. Gallegos said that after 
the explosion he experienced a "very strong raunchy taste, like very bitter burnt 
toast" in his mouth. He also began experiencing headaches, nausea, diarrhea, 
and sensitivity to bright lights almost immediately after the attack. He did not 
hear the chemical alarms go off immediately. Approximately 10 minutes later, 
however, the alert alarms sounded and they were ordered to put on their masks. 

Mr. Gallegos remained at his post until approximately 4:00 a.m., when he 
along with a lieutenant, a staff sergeant, and three other enlisted personnel, went 
on a patrol to investigate the incident. They drove in the general direction of 
the explosion, but were not able to find evidence of impact. 

Mr. Gallegos remained outside until daylight, when he noticed that his 
hands were tingling and looked as though they were sunburned. During the 
events of the early morning, his hands had been the only exposed area; his face 
was covered by a hood, scarf, and glasses, but he removed his gloves to smoke 
a cigarette. 



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Later that morning, about a half hour after they returned from the patrol, 
Mr. Gallegos was assigned to drive the NBC NCO to check all of the chemical 
detection units. At the fourth or fifth unit, the NBC NCO came back with 
something written on a piece of paper. He shoved the piece of paper in his 
pocket and told Mr. Gallegos: "get me back to camp -- Now!" Mr. Gallegos 
described him as "very excited about something," but when questioned, the NBC 
NCO told Mr. Gallegos that it was none of his business. 

Two days later, they again went out to patrol the area where the explosion 
occurred. According to Mr. Gallegos, they saw at least half a dozen dead sheep 
and a couple of camels that appeared to be very sick. 

Unit officials would not tell Mr. Gallegos what had happened. He said 
that they told him that if it was of concern to him they would tell him. 
According to Mr. Gallegos, the wind was blowing from the northeast 
(soutiiwesterly wind) at the time of the explosions. 

Mr. Gallegos continued to suffer headaches, nausea, diarrhea, and 
photosensitivity during his tour of duty in the Saudi Arabia. He became more 
seriously ill about two weeks before leaving Saudi Arabia. He also suffers from 
sinus infections (bleeding), narcolepsy, blackouts, dizziness, rashes, hair loss, 
joint pain in his knees, elbows, and hands, dental problems, muscle pains and 
spasms, fatigue, night sweats, insomnia, nightmares, and blurred vision. Since 
his return from the Persian Gulf, his wife Laurie has had bladder surgery, mitral 
valve prolapse, disrupted menstruation, headaches, yeast infections, and a 
swollen thyroid. Her physician recently refiised to continue treating her, 
according to Mr. Gallegos, telling her that she was so sick that he did not 
believe he could help her. 

Event 8: 

Eariy in the "Air War" -Approximately Januaiy 20, 1991 
Dhahran, IGngdom of Saudi Arabia 

Witness 01 : Ms. Patrecia Browning of New London, North Carolina, then a 
Staff Sergeant assigned to the 227th Transportation Company, was at Khobar 
Towers in Dhahran when a Patriot missile intercepted what she believed to be a 
Scud missile directly overhead. Her unit went to MOPP level 4 for 3-1/2 - 4 



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hours. Ms. Browning said that her eyes began to bum, and she smelled a strong 
odor that reminded her of ammonia. Shortly afterwards she broke out in a rash 
and began experiencing headaches, nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to bright 
lights. 

Ms. Browning also reports that she received the anthrax vaccine and the 
pyridostigmine bromide anti-nerve agent pretreatment pills. She reported that 
when the latter caused her to have episodes of bloody vomiting, she was told to 
cut the pills in half The vomiting did not stop, however, until she stopped 
taking the pill. 

Ms. Browning, who is thirty-seven years old, currently suffers from 
memory loss, severe recumng headaches, fatigue, joint and muscle pain, 
recurring rashes, night sweats, sleepiness, diarrhea, gastrointestinal problems, 
dizziness, blurry vision and photosensitivity, coughing and shortness of breath, 
two duodenal ulcers, chest pains, heart arrhythmia, and erratic blood pressure. 
She said that many of these symptoms originated while she was still in Saudi 
Arabia. 

Witness 02: Mr. Randall Vallee, a Sergeant with the 1113th Transportation 
Company, was at the "Expo," just north of Dhahran on January 20. He said that 
he remembers this incident well because it was the first time he came under 
attack. He heard two or three explosions and felt the concussion. He was 
outside at the time, with approximately fifteen others, getting ready to move to 
Tent City. It was nighttime, although he did not remember the exact time. 
They ran for cover in school buses parked nearby, but then officers began 
yelling at everyone to get back into the Expo center and go to MOPP level 4 
immediately. While running back to the building, he recalled that the air raid 
sirens were not going off, but there were other alarms going off in the distance. 
He stated that he "did not think the alarms he heard were chemical alarms 
because he had been told that the chemical alarms didn't work; that they were 
just set up because it was standard operating procedure to have them." The air 
raid sirens went off after he got into the building. Once in the building, he put 
his chemical gear on and sat down. He recalled becoming nauseous, weak, 
dizzy, sweating profiisely, his head throbbing, and becoming very, very thirsty, 
as though he were dehydrated. He stated that his vision became blurry, but at 
the time he thought it was either because of his mask or his sweating. The 
blurry vision didn't last long; the headache and nausea lasted about twenty 



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minutes, and he continued to feel weak and dizzy for about forty-five minutes. 
When he went outside, after the all clear was given, he immediately noticed a 
"very suffocating smell, as though there wasn't enough air to breath," "kind of 
like ammonia, but very strong." He recalled others commenting on the smell, 
which dissipated soon. 

Afterwards, he took the nerve agent pre-treatment pill and boarded his bus 
for Tent City. Mr. Vallee recalled several attacks and the smell of ammonia 
several times while at Tent City. He said that the missiles were shot out of the 
sky so close to them that the Augments would land between the tents. Although 
his unit's chemical suits were used fi'equently, they were never replaced. He 
noticed as the days progressed that his chest "started getting tight," and he was 
getting "flu symptoms." The nausea, fatigue headaches and respiratory problems 
continued off and on. Finally he became "so dizzy that he couldn't walk." He 
was diagnosed with an ear infection, and sent home on January 28. 

Mr. Vallee currently suffers very severe recurring headaches, fatigue, 
respiratory problems, joint pain, memory loss, recurring rashes, depression and 
irritability, night sweats, insomnia, blood in his urine, constipation, nausea, 
dizziness, shortness of breath and coughing, thyroid problems, flu symptoms, 
sinus problems and sensitivity to smells. He always feels cold, and takes 
medication for pain. His wife suffers from fatigue, yeast infections and 
menstrual irregularities. Mr. Vallee is twenty-seven years old, his wife is 
twenty-six. 

Event 9: 

During ground wai; Task Force Ripper 

In September 1993, a copy of an excerpt from "NBC Survivability from a 
User's Perspective," by Brigadier General Carlton W. Fulford, Jr., USMC, 
Director, Training and Education Division, Marine Corps Combat Development 
Command, Quantico, Virginia was received by the Committee. It states: "The 
most significant piece of detection equipment was the FOX NBC reconnaissance 
system. It demonstrated great detection and analysis capability and quickly 
moved. Its only disadvantage is that it looks like the Warsaw Pact BTR-60. To 
protect it from fiiendly fire, multiple U.S. markings were placed on the vehicle. 
The FOX was used primarily in mine field breaching operations. After the mine 



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field was cleared, the FOX was sent through as the lead vehicle. Within 
minutes, the FOX could confirm or deny the presence of chemical contamination 
in the area. If a CAM alarm sounded while a unit was moving, the FOX was 
sent to that location to confirm or deny the CAM'S reading. False CAM alarms 
were attributed to the massive numbers of burning oil wells. In the three-day 
offensive operation in Kuwait, the CAM alarm sounded four times. In three 
cases, the FOX confirmed a false alarm. In the fourth case, the FOX indicated a 
lewisite agent. In the opinion of the chemical experts, according to General 
Fulford, the lewisite reading was attributed to the burning oil wells. " (emphasis 
added) 

Based on this report, research was done on the method with which the 
FOX vehicle detects chemicals. It uses some of the same techniques that field 
alarms might employ to detect chemical agents. In addition, however, it takes 
multiple air and ground samples and analyzes them using mass spectrometry. 

Witness 01: On November 12, 1993, a Committee staff member interviewed 
CW03 Joseph Cottrel, the chemical detection supervisor assigned to this vehicle 
- a U.S. Marine Corps NBC warrant officer. During the interview, Mr. Cottrel 
said that he detected chemical agents on three occasions during the Gulf War. 
According to a memorandum written by Mr. Cottrel, "The first detection 
occurred near N. 28 degrees, 32 minutes latitude, and E. 47 degrees, 52 minutes 
longitude. The FOX vehicle detected blister agents at levels below 
IMMEDIATE threat to personnel (levels below ICt50). It was determined at the 
time that the rapid movement through the breach sites would not pose a threat to 
continued combat operations or require decontamination. Exposure time for 
individuals was not tracked or limited." 

"The next detection happened the evening of the first day of the ground 
attack." (Note: Since the groimd war began at night, this would have been the 
second evening of the ground war.) "As Task Force Ripper held positions 
around the Ahmed Al Jaber Airbase (N. 28 degrees, 56 minutes latitude, and E. 
47 degrees, 50 minutes longitude), the FOX vehicle detected Lewisite blister 
vapors. This report was produced by the vehicle operator and given to myself 
I reported the findings to division headquarters and requested directions in 
regards to the chemical agent printout. I was told to forward the tape up the 
chain of command which I did. A report came back that the FOX had alerted 
on the oil smoke. That was checked against the FOX. The computer had 



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separated the petroleum compound from the chemical agent The computer tape 
has been lost." 

The only other detection CW03 Cottrel was aware of occurred around a 
bunker complex in the vicinity of N. 29 degrees, 14 minutes latitude, and E. 47 
degrees, 54 minutes longitude. The FOX crew was directed to check the area 
for chemical mimitions. A report that some chemical vapors were foimd was 
reported. Shortly thereafter. Task Force Ripper was ordered back to the division 
support area and further detection operations were not carried out by the Task 
Force Ripper NBC unit. 

Witness 02: According to Sergeant Robert A. Maison, Task Force Ripper 
detected chemical agents on the second night of the ground war. Sergeant 
Maison reported that as a nuclear, biological, and chemical recon team member, 
"our team observed an artillery attack to our northwest, at a distance of 
approximately four kilometers. About five to six minutes later an alarm was 
sounded by our detection equipment (a mass spectrometer) which is used 
specifically for that purpose. Taking into accoimt the wind speeds that we were 
encountering (approximately 40 to 50 knots steady) the reading was not 
expected to last for a long duration, as it did not (approx. three minutes). The 
specific agent detected was lewisite in a concentration considered to produce 
casualties but not death." 

"A second [detection] occurred while performing an area recon of an 
orchard. The second agent type was benzyl-bromide. No liquid contamination 
was located but the vapor concentration was of casualty strength and 
documented by the specific ion concentration and identity being printed out by 
molecular weight on the spectrum analysis printout." 

Witness 03: A source who requested confidentiality reported to Senate staff 
that, on the second night of the ground war, mustard gas was detected by three 
FOX vehicles at Ahmed Al Jaber Airfield. 

He stated that, about 4:30 or 5:00 p.m., "gas, gas, gas" came in over the 
radio. His unit went to MOPP level 4 for two hours before they were given the 
"all clear." About a half hour later, they were told that three FOX vehicles had 
detected mustard agent. After that, he recalled, they were in and out of MOPP 
gear all night. 



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Event 10: 

Riyadh, date unknown. 

Mr. Michael Kingsbury was a driver/mechanic with the 601st 
Transportation Company during the Gulf War. He was interviewed by 
Committee staff for this report. Mr. Kingsbury was in Riyadh for six hours rest 
and relaxation when the first Scud missile attack took place. Although he does 
not remember the date of the attack, he was certain that it was the first Scud 
attack on Riyadh. Mr. Kingsbury reported that three Scuds came in, the alarms 
went off, and they went to MOPP level 4. He immediately began to experience 
nausea and a sore throat. His nose began to run and his eyes burned a little. 
He reported seeing a rainbow in the sky after the attack. 

The symptoms that began with the attack never went away. In addition, 
he began to suffer skin irritation after the attack. He began having stomach 
problems when he returned fi-om the Gulf and currently suffers fi"om memory 
loss, rashes, aching joints, headaches, rectal bleeding, nausea, sensitivity to light, 
abnormal hair loss, high fevers, clammy skin, lumps, bloody oral/nasal mucous, 
night sweats, sore muscles, and fatigue. 

Event 11: 

Januaiy 18, 1991, around midnight (poss. veiy eariy on Januai>' 19) 
Log Base Alpha 

Mr. William Brady was the Battalion Logistics NCO with the 217th 
Maintenance Battalion. Around midnight on January 18, or possibly very early 
on the 19th, Mr. Brady was awakened by what he believed to be a Scud 
intercepted by a Patriot directly over his unit's position. He said there was a 
deafening sound, a flash of light, and everything shook. Chemical alarms were 
going off everywhere, and there was sheer panic. He remembered the chemical 
litmus paper turning red, and a positive reading fi'om an M-256 kit. Mr. Brady 
said that his nose began to run, and he smelled and tasted sulftu". He began 
coughing up blood a couple of days after the attack, and continued to do so "the 
whole time we were there after the attack." They remained at MOPP level 4 for 
five or six hours. They radioed the 16th Support Group, but did not get a 
response for a couple of hours. Eventually they were told to come to Group 



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Headquarters (Hq.) for a message that Hq. didn't want to radio over. The 
message said that what they heard was a sonic boom, and instructed them to 
perform another test. The second test, performed several hours after the initial 
test , was negative. Members of the unit were told that the M9 paper had turned 
red as a result of exposure to diesel ftunes. The message also gave the "all 
clear" for people to come out of MOPP level 4, but, Mr. Brady recalled, 
everyone was afraid to unmask. 

After they got out of MOPP level 4, Mr Brady went with Lt. Bryant to 
deliver gas masks and nerve agent pre-treatment pills to the 344th Maintenance 
Company. When they amved back at their unit, everyone was dressed in their 
full chemical suits at MOPP level 4. They were told that while they were out 
riding around (without a radio), there had been another attack. 

Beginning on January 22, Mr. Brady began gettmg too sick to work. He 
had been taking the nerve agent pre-treatment pills since about January 17, and 
had been getting severe headaches from them. Approximately three days after 
the attack, his eyes began to bum, he developed a high fever, and "taking a 
breath of air made his limgs feel like they were burning up." He also had 
diarrhea, sores, nausea, and a runny nose. On January 24, he went to the 13th 
Evacuation Hospital, which had no beds available for him. He described the 
hospital as completely filled with people that seemed to have the same illness 
that he had. His January 26 diary entry said: "I'd rather die than feel like this." 

Mr. Brady stated during the interview that he "is convinced that there was 
a chemical attack." He reported that "everyone started getting pneumonia- or 
flu-like symptoms after the attack,". ..that the nerve agent pre-treatment pills 
"were useless,"... and that he is convinced that the PB tabs gave people 
headaches, but that they also "got hit with a nerve agent." 

Mr. Brady currently suffers from severe recurring headaches, chronic 
fatigue, joint and muscle pain, rashes, depression, night sweats, insomnia, 
urinary urgency, diarrhea, gastrointestinal problems, lightheadedness, 
photosensitivity, shortness of breath, coughing, abnormal hair loss, sensitivity in 
his teeth, burning and itching everywhere, arthritis, worsening leg cramps, "flu 
symptoms all of the time," a tingling in his arms, and a "bulging disc" in his 
neck. He had a heart attack in May 1993. His wife is suffering from fatigue, 
yeast infections, a rash, sinus headaches, aching in her right arm and a loss of 



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feeling in her thumb, and two ruptured discs in her neck. Mr. Brady is forty- 
seven years old, his wife is thirty-seven years old. 

Event 12: 

Januaiy 1991 (4-5 Days into the AirWai) 
Near Ras Al Khafji 

Mr. Norman Camp is a Staff Sergeant with the U.S. Marine Corps. He 
told Senate staff during an interview that he was near Ras Al Khafji several 
days into the air war when the chemical alarms went off, not only at their 
position, but also at their Division Supply Area, which was about 20 miles to 
their east. They went on 100% alert, but word was passed down from division 
not to go to MOPP. Sergeant Camp recalled that his whole platoon began 
falling ill the following night. He got headaches, nausea, and diarrhea for a day. 
Most others were sick for about a day and a half 

Sergeant Camp currently suffers from headaches, joint pain in knees and 
elbows, memory loss, night sweats, occasional insomnia, urinary urgency, 
dizziness, photosensitivity, shortness of breath, coughing, and heart problems. 
His wife suffers from fatigue, yeast infections, menstrual irregularities, joint 
and muscle pain, and chest pain. Sergeant Camp is thirty-six years old, his wife 
is thirty-two years old. 

Event 13: 

January 19 or 20, 1991, 3 JO a.nL 

3-4 Kilometeis West of Log Base Echo 

Mr. Dale Glover was a Staff Sergeant with the 1165th Military Police 
Company. He recalled being awakened at 3:30 a.m.. The Battalion NBC NCO 
was announcing that they were under chemical attack. An M-256 kit registered 
a positive reading for a chemical agent. They went to MOPP level 4 for four 
hours. Afterward, all of them had runny noses. 

When asked if people were made sick from the attack, Mr. Glover 
responded that most people were already sick from the pyridostigmide bromide 
pills. He said that they had been taking them for two or three days before the 



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attack and that "a lot of people got sick and three or four had to be medevaced 
out." 

Mr. Glover currently suffers from headaches, fatigue, joint and muscle 
pain, an inability to concentrate, recurring rashes, irritability, night sweats, 
insomnia, diarrhea, gastrointestinal problems, dizziness, blackouts, excessive 
photosensitivity, sore gums, swollen lymph nodes, and a spot on his brain. His 
wife is suffering from fatigue, menstrual irregularities, yeast infections, joint 
pain, some memory loss, and hair loss. Mr. Glover is thirty years old, his wife 
is 28 years old. 

Event 14: 

Februaiy 25, 1991 

In Iraq, near the Kuwait Bonier 

Mr. John Jacob, a mechanic with the 1st Infantry Division, was on a road 
march with Task Force 216. He was sitting in the drive