1887 y^rr'n i (^'% ! 1^^ ■■J / CATAT,OGUE OF THK ^'^^-vici^vU WoClt %Ovtc-Q€^. ::;::::::;;;;:::;:;::;;; 1 o O O i looo ■ TWENTY-NINTH YEAR. V WASHINGTON : JUDD & DETWEILER, PRINTERS. 1888. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. CSLENDSR FOR 1888-'89. September 17, Monday, Examinations for admission. September 18, Tuesday, Fall Term begins, 8.45 A. M. Thirteen Weeks. December 19, Wednesday, Fall Term ends, at noon. January 2, Wednesday, Winter Term begins, 8.45 A. M. Twelve Weeks. March 27, Wednesday, Winter Term ends, at noon. April 3, Wednesday, Spring Term begins, 8.45 A. M. Eleven Weeks. June 19, Wednesday, Graduation Day. Spring Term ends at sunset. June 20, Thursday, Examinations for admission to the college, the following autumn. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. Board of Sru^tce^^. On behalf of the State : His Excellency E. E. JACKSON, Governor. President of the Board. Hon. GEORGE PETER, President of ihe Senate. Hon. GEORGE M. UPSHUR, Speaker of the House of Delegates. Hon. WM. PINKNEY WHYTE, Attorney General. H(JN. STEVENSON ARCHER, State Treasurer. Hon. L. victor EAUGHMAN, Comptroller. Ex Officio, under State Law : Hon. NORMAN J. COLMAN, U. S. Com' r of Agn culture. Representing the Stockholders : Hon. J. CARROLE WAESH. Hon. WILMOT JOHNSON. CHAREES B. CAEVERT, Esq. ROBERT A. DOBBIN, Esq. ALEEN DODGE, Esq. By Executive Appointment : Col. F. CARROLL GOLDSBOROUGH. JEREMIAH P. SILVER, Esq. GEORGE R. WILLIS, Esq. Dr. a. p. sharp. Dr. CHARLES A. WELLS. DAVID SEIBERT, Esq. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. Sacultu. HENRY E. ALVORD, C. E., President and Lecturer on Agriculture and History. THOMAS N. CONRAD, A. M., Professor of the Principles and Practice of Agriculture. Professor of Natural History. J. D. HIRD, A. B., Professor of Chemistry. J. A. CHAMBLISS, A. M., Professor of Language and Literature. W. H. ZIMMERMAN, A. M., Professor of Physics and German. J. B. STARR (u. s. N. A.), Professor of Mathematics and Commandant. PAUL COMBS, A. B., Assistant Professor of English and Latin, W. HORACE SOBER, Registrar. Prof. CHAMBLISS, Sccrefarv of the Faculty. Prof. COMBS, Librarian. * Vacancy to be filled soon. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. W-f iiccturcr^. F. L. KILBORNE, B. V. S., U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry, Lecturer on Comparative Anatomy of Domestic Animals and Veterinary Science and Practice. C. HART MERRIAM, M. D., Chief of Division of Ornithology, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Lecturer on the Birds and Mammals of America in their Relations to Agriculture. GEORGE P. MERRILL, M. S., Cui'ator, Dept. of Lithotomy and Physical Geography, U. S. National Museum, Lecturer on the Practical Aspects of Physical Geography and Geology. AVM. H. BISHOP, B. S., I/orticulturist, Maryland Agricultural Exper intent Station, Lecturer on Horticulture. Maj. WM. M. king, CJiief of Seed Division, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Lecturer on Agricultural Seeds. OKKICERS OF THE MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION CONNJ'XTKI) WITH THK COT.l.KGK. HENRY E. ALVORD, C. E., Director. HARRY J. PATFERSON, Chemist. WILLIAM H. BISHOP, Horticulturist. ALBERT I. HAYWARD, Agriculturist. ERNEST H. BRINKLEY, Machinist. ELMER M. DUNN, Stenographer. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLr.KClE. Catalogue of Jtudent^ FOR THE SESSION 1887-88. Amm K.N, Ulysses Grant, Ammen, Francis Dupont, Bknnett, Clarence Lee, Calvert, Richard Creagii Mackuuin, Calvert, George Henry, tr Chambliss, Samuel Mauldin, 1/ Chase, Newell Dickson, I/^Conrey, Thomas Jackson, / CoMRS, Roger Brooke Taney, i I Droop, Carl Adolph, j/buvAL, Arthur Pekry, I Frazier, James Hazeltine, y Garey, Roland Tate Keene, i Griffith, Thomas David, V Hazen, Melvin Colvin, L-' Johnson, Leonard Bartholomew, \, Keech, William Scott, i Keister, William Henry, I Kennedy, William Byron, K'NG, William Perry Moore, ! ; King, Norman Laxdox, Ammendale, Prince George's Co. Ammendale, Prince George's Co. Spencerville, jMontgomery Co. Agricultural College. Agricultural College. Agricultural College. Baltimore City. Chesapeake City, Cecil Co, Lconardtown, St. Mary's Co. Washington, D. C. Clayton, Harford Co. St. Leonard's, Calvert Co. Denton, Caroline Co. Redland. Montgomery Co. Catlett's, Fauquier Co., Va. Morganza, St. Mary's Co. Towson, Baltimore Co. Baltimore. Washington, I ). C. Washington, D. C. Washington, D. C. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. Klemroth, Edward Halstead, ^Ianning, Charles Cheney, Mauss, Theodore P'rederick, MiDDLETON, Arthur Fulton, Middleton, Edward White, -^ MiN, Chou Ho, Munroe, Benjamin Holloway, ^,,/<NiLEs, Edward Grant, Penn, Su, /PiNDELL, Robert Montgomery, ^ ^'Russell, Robert Lee, Saulsbury, Nehemiah Ridgely, Sigler, William Alfred, Smith, Robert Ernest, -''Soles, Clarence Elder, (''Somervell, Charles Sewell, Staley, John Eddie, : Stevenson, Harry Burton, i^^AYLOR, William John, 'ToLSON, Albert Carrow, Towers, Lawrence Barton, Weems, Julius Buel, \ Wilson, Robert Gordon, Wilson, John Norman, WiTMKR, Frank, ^\ Washington, D. C. Hagerstown, Montgomery Co. Washington, D. C. Branchville, Prince George's Co. Branchville, Prince George's Co. Seoul, Corea. Washington, D. C. Washington, D. C. Seoul, Corea. Pindell, Anne Arundel Co. Washington, D. C. Ridgely, Caroline Co. Ridgely, Caroline Co. Ridgely, Caroline Co. McKeesport, Penn. Solomon's Island, Calvert Co. Fairfield, Illinois. Rider's, Baltimore Co. Washington, D. C. Kent Island, Queen Anne Co. Denton, Caroline Co. Solomon's Island, Calvert Co. Denton, Caroline Co. Brightseat, Prince George's Co. Hagerstown, Montgomery Co. CraduatcA of 1888. SAMUEL M. CHAMBLISS, B, A. MELVIN C. HAZEN, B. S. LEONARD B. JOHNSON, B. A. WILLIAM A. SIGLER, B. S. ROBERT E. SMITH, B. S. ALBERT C. TOLSON, B. A. JULIUS B. WEEMS, B. S. r MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. istopv. THE MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE Was the second of its kind, still in existence, in America, to open its doors to students, and the first and only one established by the voluntary contributions of public-spirited citizens. The charter, "to establish and endow an agricultural college in the State of Maryland" -'^ * * "in which the youthful student may especially be instructed in those arts and sciences indispensa- ble to successful agricultural pursuits," was granted in March, 1856, being more than six years before the first Federal legislation for a similar purpose. As a foundation, about five hundred liberal residents of Mary- land, most of them directly interested in the agricultural property and progress of the State, together with a few non-residents, sub- scribed the amount necessary to purchase the farm and erect the first buildings. Subsequently the State made special appropria- tions to the College, which are still continued, and this institution receives the l)enefits of the Congressional land grant to Maryland, under the act of July 2d, i<S62 ; also the appro})riations under the act of Congress of March 2d, 1887. Jjoccri occrlio 9- jjHE COLLEGE is located three-fourths of a mile from College '^ Station, Prince George's Co., Md., on the Washington Branch of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Numerous trains daily afford easy communication with all points. College Hill, on which stand the principal college buildings, is a beautiful eminence, overlooking wide stretches of country. The surrounding farm em- braces two hundred and eighty-six acres, forty of which are wood- lO IVIARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. land, and a large part of the remainder is under cultivation. The conformation of the farm and diversity of its soil offer excellent opportunities for varied agricultural operations, and this, together with the beauty and healthfulness of the site, admirably adapts the location to the purposes of an educational institution of this character. The city of Washington is only eight miles distant; this proximity to the National Capital gives the College excep- tional advantages in the valuable aid which it derives from the libraries and scientific collections of the different Departments of the Government. ^®st ©f 6 to 1 ice. i^HE post-office address is Agricultural College, Prince George's "^-^ Co., Md. Telegrams and express matter should be sent to College Station (B. and O. R. R.). J^uiIgIi 9S s. (^I^HPj main building, standing in the midst of a fine grove of (^ lorest trees, is a massive brick structure, oi six stories, one hundred and twenty feet long and fifty-four feet wide. It pos- sesses accommodations for one hundred and fifty students, apart- ments for professors, class-rooms, chapel, museum, library, reading room, armory, parlors, dining room, and the necessary offices. The dormitories are spacious, well ventilated, and heated by steam. Well-water forced to tanks in the attic, is supplied to the several floors by a system of pipes. Careful provision is made for the main- tenance of the proper sanitary condition of the building. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLI^EGE. II The Chemical Laboratory, a separate brick structure close to the main building, has been recently thoroughly refitted. It is fur- nished with water, steam, and gas, and with all the apparatus of a well-appointed laboratory. The Gymnasium, another detached building, erected for the pur- pose, affords opportunity for healthful exercise and muscular devel- opment. The President's residence occupies a fine site a few hundred yards from the college. The barns, stables, and other farm build- ings are adequate and convenient. The Agricultural Experiment Station has its offices and working quarters in the substantial brick structures formerly known as " Ross- burg," now completely renovated, and situated about a hundred rods from the college buildings, in the midst of the fields especially as- signed to experiment purposes. 12 MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. J<Jep(a pimento ud J' pvpftHE Act of Congress creating the endowment of State Agri. G^ cultural Colleges was passed July 2, 1862, and is entitled "An act granting public lands to the several States and Territories which may provide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts." The aims of a college thus originated are defined as follows : " Its leading object shall be, without excluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts, in such manner as the Legislatures of the States may respect- ively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal and practical educa- tion of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life." In accordance with this "act" and corresponding legislation of the State of Maryland, the trustees of this College recognize their obligation to provide here, first of all, for thorough instruction in " those branches of learning which are related to agriculture and the mechanic arts." They have not yet been able fully to realize their ho])es and purposes, but they are assured that the plans they have now devised will effect a steady advance in this direction. The members of the Faculty are men chosen with special reference to their fitness for duties in an institution of the character above indi- cated. The course of study has been changed in certain important particulars to adapt it more perfectly to the "leading object" of the College, and so far as means are available all appliances which are correspondingly called for will be provided. It is not intended that the time of the students shall be occupied with the ordinary MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 13 labors of the farm and workshop, but that, accomi)anied by their instructors, they shall spend certain fixed ])ortions of the day, at suitable seasons, in the fields or stables, observing and performing such operations as may illustrate the teachings of the class-room in the department of agriculture and instruct in their proper execution. But while these branches of learning will be thus strongly em- })hasized, "other scientific and classical studies" will be included in the course as heretofore, so that a "liberal" as well as a " practical education " may be within the reach of the " industrial classes " to fit them for " the several pursuits and professions in life." Instruc- tion in military tactics also will be given, as l)y law required. /lanculfuFe. Instruction in agriculture, scientific in principle and practical in ai)plication, claims the greatest possible attention and should ; command the highest intelligence. In all its varied features, the cultivation of the soil interests the million ; not only those whose efforts are solely directed towards obtaining a livelihood by farming ^ and gardening, but the retired merchant and professional man, the ' inheritor of large estates that have been impoverished by undue usage, and the enthusiastic lover of nature from every pursuit of life. Enlightened agriculture, pursued with the purpose of economical pro- duction, and illustrating the benefits derived from experiments in the field and in the laboratory, must result in improvement, must direct the novice or the fogy to more remunerative methods, must I enlarge the return while it lessens the area and expenditure, and must exemplify the adage of making "two blades of grass grow where one grew before." To the end, therefore, of preparing the youth of to-day for the 1 improvement of what may be their patrimony to-morrow, or the : management of lands committed to their care, agricultural instruc- [ tion, combining theory and jjractice, will henceforth be the first 14 MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. consideration in the work of this College. The origin, composi- tion, and characteristics of soils, their management and improve- ment ; the nature and growth of agricultural plants, cultivation which is beneficial or hurtful, protection from vegetable diseases and injurious insects; manures and their application; the construc- tion, purpose, and proper use of the mechanical appliances for the farm ; the selection, care, and breeding of domestic animals and the treatment of animal products ; the problem of farm labor ; all these, as well as others, are studies which lead to success and the attainment of a high position in enlightened agriculture. In the effort to realize these aims and purposes, the laboratory, museum, library, stable, and fields are used to supplement work in the class and lecture room. Practical illustration or object lessons will go hand in hand with theory and the teachings of science. The Agricultural Experiment Station provided for this State by the act of Congress approved March 2d, 1887, has been established upon the college farm, and although a distinct branch of the institution, it adds greatly to the facilities for agricultural instruction. Finely equipped, with a corps of scientific workers, the operations of the station, in original investigations and practi- cal tests and experiments, will prove interesting and instructive alike to the students of the college and to all engaged in the progress of agricultural and horticultural affairs. In short, the Maryland Agricultural College will be conducted in accordance with its name and original object, as described in its comprehensive charter, and the subsequent legislation, both State and National, which so clearly defines its special purpose. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 1 5 'r/afuretl rlisfopy. The various branches of study which are embraced in this gen- eral title are of the first importance to one who is constantly subjected to the laws of nature in the operations of farm and garden. Among these branches are climatology, geology, miner- alogy, botany, zoology and comparative anatomy, and entomology. It is the purpose to teach these according to the latest researches of modern science and by the most approved and practical methods. The unsurpassed collections in Washington, at the Smithsonian Institution, the National Museum, and the Department of Agri- culture, all easily accessible, are of the highest value in connection with the instruction in this department. vfir)err)isfpv. The Chemical Department has been thoroughly reorganized, and equipped as never before in its history. Its new quarters afford excellent facilities for practical work. Each student is pro- vided with a laboratory bench, together with all needful apparatus and re-agents, for the condition of Avhich he is held responsible. Inorganic Chemistry. — The facts and principles of general chem- istry must be mainly acquired in the study of the non-metallic ele- ments ; hence special attention is paid to this introductory work before proceeding with the no less important study of the metals and their application in art and industry. Daily experiments illus- trate the subjects under discussion. Analysis. — Qualitative analysis of both simple and mixed sub- stances is taken up during the Sophomore year, and blow-pipe analysis with determination of minerals and ores at the beginning of the Junior year. Quantitative analysis, both gravimetric and 1 6 MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. volumetric, is also included in the Junior year. Agricultural chemical analysis is made an important feature of the course," and comprises the analysis of commercial fertilizers, fodders, feed-stuffs, water, milk ; also the detection of adulteration in farm and manu- factured products, and the examination of soils. Orgajiic Chemistry. — A few series are studied exhaustively, a gen- eral survey of the field following, special attention being paid to compounds of interest on the farm. The laboratory work of the Senior year consists of the practical application of chemistry to agriculture. lTJctlr)crr)(afics. The study of Mathematics is pursued only so far as the distinctive aims of this institution require, the course conforming in general to that adopted in the most approved Agricultural Colleges. The Freshman year begins with a review of Arithmetic, special atten- tion being given to its application to the daily affairs of life. This is accompanied by a brief course in single-entry book-keeping. Algebra is then taken up and completed by the middle of the Sophomore year. Geometry, Mensuration, Trigonometry, and Surveying follow in the Sophomore and Junior years. The field work in surveying will afford much practice in chain and compass surveying, transit and theodolite surveying, and leveling. This practice is continued in the Senior year with application in run- ning old farm lines, mapping farms, dividing lands, highway sur- veying and road-making, with cuts and fills, draining and water works. Drawing is, for the present, assigned to this department, and ex- tends through three years, being taught in its practical rather than merely artistic aspects. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 1 7 sics crr)a lTJecr)ai)ics5 The course of instruction in Physics and Mechanics aims to make clearly understood the principles of the different mechanical powers and the physical forces of nature and their industrial applications. The method of instruction is by means of recitations and lectures accompanied by experimental demonstrations. The students of the senior class are required to take notes of the lectures and experiments and illustrate them by suitable drawings. These notes are examined at intervals and marked according to their value. The course embraces the general properties of matter; laws of falling bodies; hydrostatics, hydro-dynamics, and pneumatics; also the principles of sound, light, heat, electricity, magnetism, and electro-magnetism. Great care is taken throughout the course to array the various branches of science in natural groupings, in order to emphasize their intimate relations. lJerr)qu(aae (ar)a llifcr>afuFe. English and Latin. An accurate and a refined use of the mother-tongue is the chief aim of the course in the department of P2nglish. In the earlier stages there is persistent drill in analysis of sentences, in word-build- ing and derivation, and in the elements of style, with constant prac- tice in expression, oral and written. The history of the language is then taken up, with respect to its vocabulary, grammar, and dif- ferent periods. This is followed by the historical and critical study of English literature. To this department have been assigned the related subjects of Logic, Mental Science, Constitutional History, and Political Econ- omy ; most of these in the Senior year. i8 MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. Throughout the course the text-books used are supplemented by conversational lectures and parallel readings. The study of Latin, which has hitherto been optional, will be required in the Freshman year at least, and may be required a sec- ond year. This change has been judged necessary to facilitate the use of the Latin nomenclature of sciences directly tributary to agri- culture and the industrial arts. Further pursuit of this language is not provided for in the course, but students who have time and the disposition to continue the study will be encouraged and assisted to do so. Or errrjar). Of modern languages German only is taught and required. This study will be pursued by daily recitations through the Sophomore and Junior years. While the ability to read the language will be sought as the end of main importance, the course will be sufficiently extended to admit of attention being paid to pronunciation and ordinary conversation. ^ilif^r 7- The act of Congress which contributed the greater part of the endowment of the College was accepted by the State under conditions which make instruction in military tactics imperative. The students are, therefore, organized as a corps of cadets, under the commandant, who is a member of the faculty, are uniformed, and every one, unless physically debarred, is required to attend such exercises as are prescribed and subjected to military discipline to a certain degree. These exercises are believed to be decidedly beneficial and the tactical instruction is thoroughly given. The drills, which occupy three or four hours a week, furnish excellent physical culture, MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 1 9 insuring regular and healthful exercise at all seasons and out of doors whenever possible. Neatness in dress, graceful carriage of the body, and dignified bearing, are secured by the drill, and habits are acquired of prompt obedience and self-control and the power to command. ' The excellence of the instruction in this department was shown in May, 1886, when, at the National Drill at Washington, , the Corps of Maryland Agricultural Cadets received the second cadet prize in the competitive drill. The members of the upper classes who show attention to duty and proficiency in drill are detailed in rotation to perform the duties of commissioned and non-commissioned officers of the com- pany and battalion. Every student is required to provide himself with the full uni- form adopted for this department before the close of the term in which he enters the college, and thereafter to keep the same in order and wear it upon all drills and stated military exercises. The uniform is a neat suit of cadet gray, suitable for all occasions, and, at the reasonable prices which the institution is able to obtain by contract, it forms an extremely economical dress. The military system is also applied to the discipline of the students while in and about the buildings, and where deemed necessary this discipline may be extended to apply to individuals or the entire body of students at all times and i)laces. The dormitories, as well as the arms, equipments, and clothing of the cadets, are regularly inspected, and neatness and order are en- forced. While this department is administered to honestly meet the requirements of law and to benefit the individual and the College, it is not permitted to interfere with other educational interests and duties, or encroach upon reasonable periods of recreation. 20 MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. vf^ouFSG of G)Tjud.Y. Agriculture. — History, breeding and care of farm stock; Dairying. Natural History . — Climatology and Botany. Language. — English, analysis and construction; History. Latin begun and continued through the year.' Mathematics. — Arithmetic reviewed ; Algebra begun. Book-keeping. — Single Entry, with practice in farm accounts and business forms. Agriculture. — Anatomy and Physiology of Animals and Plants. Natural History. — Geology and Mineralogy. Chemistry. — Begun and continued through the year. Lajiguage. — English, History of Language, Expression and Style. I>atin continued; Cierman begun. Mathcjuaiics. — Algebra completed; Geometry. Drawing. — Freehand and Geometrical. "^ii- JuQiop ^ car. Agriculture. — Study of the Atmosphere, Soils, and Plant Growth, with lectures and field notes. Natural History. — Zoology and Entomology. Chemistry. — Laboratory work through the year. Language. — English Literature and Logic; German, second year. Mathematics. — Trigonometry, Mensuration, and Surveying. Physics. — Mechanics and Physics through the year. Drawing — Mechanical and Topographical. V MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 21 )cr)ior ^car. Agricultia-c. — Crops, general and special; Manures and Fertil- izers ; Forage and Feeding ; Farm Mechanics ; Lectures and Field Notes. Chcmistr\\ — Laboratory Practice in Agricultural Analyses. Latiguagc. — Mental and Moral Science ; Debates; Political Econ- omy and Constitutional History. Mathematics. — Practice in Surveying, Road-Making, Drainage, and Ma}) Work. Physics. — Lectures, with notes and examinations. Lectures. — On Comparative Anatomy, Veterinary Science and practice, and other topics. Military drill and exercises in Composition and Elocution through- out the course, as directed. "VCl—K" — ^ ^ — .H. — ^ 22 MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. ^d rr)issi0r). Candidates for admission to the Freshman class are examined orally and in writing upon the common English branches, namely, i reading, spelling, elements of English grammar, geography, com- mon-school arithmetic, and history of the United States. These examinations must be satisfactorily passed in order to entitle one to full standing in the Freshman class, and give assurance of subsequent I progress. I The public educational facilities are believed to be such, in all I parts of the State, as to render it unnecessary for this College to : maintain a preparatory department, but if students present them- selves who, for lack of proper opportunities, are imperfectly pre- pared, yet show willingness and ability to do extra work, they will be admitted, conditionally, upon passing a reasonable part of the entrance examinations, and an instructor will be assigned to assist them in meeting the conditions and acquiring a full standing in their class. ! Ai)plicants for admission to the higher classes must pass the en- trance examinations and also be successfully examined on all of the ' studies pursued by the classes they wish to enter or on branches j equivalent thereto. No one is advised to apply until fifteen years of age, although physical and intellectual development are regarded as more impor- tant and will be considered rather than age. Every ai)plicant must furnish a certificate of good character satisfactory to the Faculty. Candidates are advised to provide themselves, in all cases, with cer- tificates of their standing in the school last attended and present these certificates to the examiners. Previous good scholarship will MARYLAND AfJRICULTL'RAL COLLEGE. • 23 be considered and given due weight at entrance examinations, and a certificate of proficiency in any subject will be accepted instead of an examination, if granted by a college authorized to confer degrees or by a high school in Maryland or Washington, D. C. As stated in the Calendar, the regular examinations for admission are held at the College on the day following the annual Graduation Day, in June, and in September on the day next preceding that for the opening of the fall term of the institution, beginning at nine o'clock A. M. on these days; but candidates may be examined and admitted at any other time in the year. 13 eqrees. Those who complete the prescribed course of study and main- tain the required standard of scholarship will receive the degree of Bachelor of Science, the diploma being signed by the Governor of Maryland, who is cx-officio president of the corporation. M^uilior) etr)a Oxperjses. Tuition is free to all students whose parents are residents of the State of Maryland or who are such residents themselves, if their parents are not living. To cover the necessary expenses of the year at College, clothing excepted, a single charge is made of one hundred and eighty dollars ($180). This includes board, furnished room, heat, lights, washing, the necessary text-books, and a fair allowance of stationery. An additional charge of sixty dollars ($60) will be made for any student a resident of another State or the District of Columbia. Students whose homes are in the neighborhood will be allowed to attend the college exercises daily upon payment of forty dollars ($40) per annum. They will be assigned rooms to occupy during study 24 - MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. hours, be supplied all necessary books, and will be on a par with other students in connection with all college duties and exercises. J^ees. — Every student at the beginning of the college year must, in addition to other payments, make a deposit of five dollars ($5) with the Registrar as a guarantee fund. This will be placed to his credit, and against it will be charged such temporary medical serv- ices as may seem necessary and, at its cost, all damage or loss of College property during the year for which the student admits his responsibility and his pro rata share of all sucn damages and losses not assumed by individuals. During the Junior and Senior years this fee will be doubled, to cover the special breakage and consump- tion of materials in the chemical laboratory. At the end of each collegiate year the balance due any student on account of fees will be refunded by the Registrar ; and if at any time this fee credit is exhausted the sum deposited at the beginning of the year must be promptly replaced. No other fees or extra charges will be made by the College, ex- cept in cases of serious sickness or under extraordinary circum- stances. All charges and fees are due and must be paid in advance. For convenience of patrons the payments are arranged as follows : On the day of entrance one-fourth of the annual charge, and all the stated fees; and one-fourth of the annual charge, respectively, on the ist day of December, the 15th day of February, and the 15th day of April. The low rates at which students are received can only be main- tained by purchasing all sui)plies at wholesale, for cash. This is only possible when «// payments are made in advance. The Reg- istrar is specially charged with the duty of making prompt col- lections, and annoyance to all parties will be avoided by a careful observance of all obligations in accordance with the terms above stated. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. - 25 U.r)i|0Frr)s, ^o. The ltniform worn by the students during all military exercises is of gray cloth of an established grade, cut according to the pattern adopted at the United States Military Academy. This consists of a dress coat, pair of pants, cap, and gloves, costing something less than twenty-five dollars ($25). Those who desire can obtain a fatigue suit, in addition, for about ten dollars ($10), but this is not required. To insure uniformity in quality and pattern and main- tain low rates, the military suits must be purchased from the con- tractor with the College and paid for in cash, on delivery. Every student must provide himself with the regulation garments before the close of the College term in which he enters, and must there- after keep uniformed to the satisfaction of the commandant. Each bed-room is furnished with two single beds, a clothes-press, a table, a washstand, with bowl, pitcher, &c., and two chairs. All articles of bedding, except the mattress, must be furnished by the student; also a study lamp, towels, table-napkins, clothes-bag, and proper toilet articles, all to be marked with the owner's name. JsJiscipliije Grrjd. li^equl(afi0r)s. It is expected that all students attending this College will have reached an age when their habits are so fixed and their characters so matured as to cause them to appreciate the value of their time and the opportunities afforded them at this institution. Without multiplying rules and regulations, they will, from the day of en- trance, be placed upon their honor to contribute to the general good order and studiousness of the College, to promptly and cheerfully obey all instructions they may receive from its officers, pay proper regard to the care of its property, refrain from all acts calculated to disturb the comfort and work of their fellow-students, and in personal habits, conversation, and conduct, at all times and places, to act as gentlemen. 26 MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE, In general, exemplary deportment, attention to duties, and the maintenance of good scholastic standing will be required of all. Should there be those who cannot be allowed full privileges be- cause of immaturity and thoughtlessness, rather than deliberate misconduct or intentional neglect, they will be assigned quarters in a special part of the building and placed more or less completely under military discipline, as circumstances may require. Such regulations as may be necessary will be promulgated from time to time so as to be fully understood, and they must be ob- served and complied with by all. Discipline, Avhen required, will be administered in a progressive manner by admonition, formal warning, notice to parents or guardians, and strict probation, but the Faculty may at any time, when such action is in the interest of the individual or the College, summarily suspend, dismiss, or expel any student for cause. [giouA iscrvice6. All students are required to attend the daily morning prayers and public worship on Sunday in the College Chapel. Arrange- ments will be made for tlie Sunday services to be conducted by clergymen of different denominations. Upon request of their parents students will l)e permitted to attend religious services else- where in the neighborhood. Brized. A prize of twenty dollars (S20} is offered by the President of the Faculty, to be awarded, in money or a medal, to that member of the Senior class who sustains throughout the year, including ex- aminations, the best record in the department of agricultural studies. Other prizes are being arranged and will be duly announced. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 27 Phc If crcer Siteraru ,§ccictu Holds weekly meetings, affording its members excellent oppor- tunities for practice in oratory and debate. The advantages of this sort of training are not to be overlooked in estimating Col- lege life. Occasional public meetings are held. The Society library, which is open to members, is especially rich in history, biography, and the works of great statesmen. Scadinq-Soom :M66ociaticn. a-E)'-^ The students, assisted by the Faculty, support a reading room, which is amply supplied with newspapers, magazines, and reviews. At present forty-seven daily, weekly, and monthly publications are regularly placed on file, including leading papers of Baltimore, Washington, New York, Touisville, Atlanta, and other cities; Harper's Monthly and Weekly, The Century, The Forum, North American Review, Scientific American and Supplement, Popular Science Monthly, Frank Leslie's Golden Days, Youth's Com- panion, etc. For the following magazines and papers the Association is in- debted to the politeness of the publishers : Breeders' Journal, Gardeners' Monthly, Industrialist, American Farmer, Maryland Farmer, Massachusetts Plowman, Anne Arundel Advertiser, Cen- terville Record, Cambridge Chronicle, Democrat and News, Denton Journal, Federalsburg Courier, Free Quill, Hartford Democrat, Marlboro Gazette, Peninsula Farmer, Prince George's Enquirer, Republican Citizen, Travelers' Record, Appleton's Bulletin, Patent Office Gazette. 28 MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. iiibraric6. The Library of the College, which is mainly for reference in the Departments of Agriculture and General Science, contains several hundred valuable books. The library of the Literary Society has probably fifteen hundred volumes, and the private libraries of the professors as many more. All of these are accessible to students under proper conditions. The great libraries of the National Capital also are within almost as easy reach as if the College were located in Washington. guAcum. In the Museum is an excellent study collection of minerals and ores, well classified, and thus of important service as a guide in the science of mineralogy. For use in the study of crystallography there are models illus- trating all the systems of crystallization, with the most im})ortant modifications of typical forms. A small, but by no means unimportant, collection is one pre- sented to the College by the United States Department of Agricult- ure, containing specimens, labeled and indexed, of more than four hundred varieties of woods grown in the United States. AVorthy of notice is the large number of models of agricultural machinery furnished through the courtesy of the United States Patent Office. Other aids to the study of science included in the Museum are an herbarium, illustrating the flora of Maryland and the Dis- trict of Columbia ; also a good collection of physiological charts and anatomical specimens. MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 29 REPORT OF THE COLLEGE PRESIDENT AT A SPECIAL TRUSTEE MEETING, DyCJ^lT 16, 1888- To the Honorable Board of Trustees of the Afaryland Agricultural College. Gentlemen : The first of the College by-laws requires a regular quarterly meeting of the Board of Trustees, at the college, on the second Friday in June, September, December, and March. The twentieth by-law requires a report to the Board, at every quarterly meeting, by the College President, upon the general condition of the institution, witli "suggestions for promoting its welfare and usefulness." The honorable President of the Board has wisely determined to call together the gentlemen who have never met before in this ca- pacity, as a special meeting in anticipation of the regular meeting of the 8th June, and in the call makes tlie first business the con- sideration of the special report, which I now have the honor to respectfully submit. My own brief connection with the institution would hardly war- rant my going into much detail, and it is not probable that this meeting will desire to consider minor matters. 1 therefore pro- pose to ask your attention only to a few general but important points to the policy of tlie institution, with some corresponding suggestions, which it seems to me to be my duty to present for your consideration. There is no intention on my part to reflect in the least degree upon the official action of the Board of Trustees or its executive officers in the past, but however earnest and efficient their efforts, we cannot afford to ignore the fact of popular criticism and dis- satisfaction with the college and its administration, expressed pri- vately, through the public press, in legislative halls, and in other ways. It is undoubtedly true that because of these criticisms this Board assembles to-day, in its present form, to meet the responsi- bilities devolving upon it, and equally true that the intention of a reorganization, if not something of a revolution, in the affairs of the institution, accounts for my meeting with you to-day as the chief executive officer of the college and station. 3° MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. It seems to me the wisest course to squarely face these facts as we find them and seriously to consider wherein criticism has been well founded and what practical measures of improvement or change may be judiciously made to meet popular expectations, restore pub- lic confidence, and ensure the future prosperity of the institution. In considering the various criticisms which have come to my knowl- edge I. have been impressed with the very uniform approbation given the original scheme for the college, and it has only been when the college has been conducted in a manner actually, or supposed to be, inconsistent with its charter, that criticisms and complaint have arisen. No one who now examines the organic act of this institu- tion with an inate feeling favorable to education, combining theory, investigation, and practice, as essential to profitable and progressive agriculture, can fail to recognize the public spirit and far-sighted wisdom of its founders. It was conceived and brought into active life well in advance of the times, and the unhappy public disturb- ances of its earlier years and the fact that the country was not ready for its ideal for years afterwards, seems to me to sufficiently account for any failure on the part of the institution to meet public expecta- tions. Let us hope that the times are now more propitious for its successful conduct. It really appears to be only necessary that this Board and its executive officers should conform to the comprehen- sive and liberal provisions of its truly remarkable charter, to make the institution popular, prosperous, and a power for good in this State. The complaints and criticisms of the college may be conveniently grouped and considered under three heads — first, as relates to its farm, its practical and experimental work, or what we may call its visible agricultural features ; second, as relates to the form and character of its educational facilities ; and, third, as relates to its property, the conduct of its financial affairs and a proper account- ing therefor. The farm was originally well adapted by its variety of contour, exj^osure, and soil, to varied practical operations, and, although it must be admitted that it has not been systematically con- ducted and i'^ in part worn, it still retains many of its attractive features and is quite capable of recuperation, although the process may be slow. The history of the farm for the past few years has been the natural result of the reduced income and general impover- ishment of the institution, I trust the time has come when a reasonable amount may be annually set apart for the current ex- penses and gradual improvement of the estate, and the judicious administration of the farm upon a well-devised system may lead to its steady appreciation in appearance and value, and enable it to materially contribute to the pros])erity of the institution. The ex- ])erimental feature of the farm was fully recognized as an important factor in the charter, and for a number of years experiments were systematically conducted, the records of which in detail are unfor- tunately imperfect. But experimental farming is an expensive MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLECE. 3 1 business, a constant outlay of money, with information only in return, and the always limited income of the institution precluded the possibility of development in this direction in years past. Through the wise munificence of the National Congress this im- important branch of the work of the institution is now liberally provided for, for the present. A fixed income of $15,000 a year insures the establishment and satisfactory maintenance ui)on the college estate of the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station. As the first money for this new department did not become avail- able till the second day of May, the work of the present agricult- ural year will be largely abridged and necessarily devoted in the main to preparing for future work. To this experiment station, being entirely new and requiring many details of organization and preparation, I expect to devote the greater part of my time, per- sonally, the present year. In time, I have no doubt of making it a place of very wide-spread interest and direct i)ractical value to those interested in the agriculture and horticulture of Maryland. My great fear is that too much will be expected in the way of re- sults in too short a time. In agricultural experimentation time is the most important factor. In this work I must rely upon patience on your part and that of the people you represent ; all the aid and support you can possibly give me will be required in the success- ful management of the experiment station. You will see the crude state in which it to-day appears. Work is being i)ushed as fast as practical. I earnestly solicit your advice and co-operation in the business conduct of the station and the general lines of work which should be undertaken and all possible freedom in matters of minor organization and administration. The general conduct of the col- lege farm and the operation of the ex[)eriment station, although necessarily distinct, financially, are so closely related tiiat it seems to be ])roper that they should receive the attention of this Board in conjunction. Whatever doubts may have existed on this point at times hereto- fore, I trust it is a fully established fact that as a college this is and is to be, as its name implies, and State charter and Federal en- dowment provide — a technical school of agriculture. \Vith the limited income of the college, present and prospective, it is mani- fest that we shall do well if we succeed in carrying on creditably one line of educational work — that which tends to give young men a good theoretical, scientific, and practical training for the success- ful management of country property and the conduct of aprofitable farm, herd, orchard, or garden. I do not understand it to be the business of this college to train hewers of wood and drawers of water or make skillful ditchers, teamsters, jDlowmen, herdsmen, and shepherds, but to turn out men who can judge of and judiciously direct, all farming operations and broadly imite and manage all upon sound principles of science and practice. In the language of the 2>2 MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. charter, tliis college, while not exclusively, is " to especially instruct in those arts and sciences indispensable to successful agricultural pursuits." Under the accepted national endowment "the leading object of the Maryland Agricultural College shall be, without ex- cluding other scientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach such branches of learning as are related to agricul- culture and the mechanic arts." I suppose it was intended by the gentlemen who called me to the presidency of this institution to conduct here a lfo?ia fide agricultural college, and trust it is fully understood that I have no other wish in this connection. I avail myself of this first opportunity to say that whenever it shall appear to me that any doubt exists on this point or my efforts fail to secure the cordial and substantially unanimous support of this honorable Board, I shall promptly ask to be relieved. For the present, be- lieving that we agree on this, I simply refer to the lack of confidence in the college, as an agricultural college, in times past and to its present somewhat unsatisfactory condition, as reasons why I must rely upon your Board for the most mature deliberation and the most cordial co-operation in order that the Maryland Agricultural Col- lege may meet the expectations of its founders and its subsequent friends, grow in public and private favor, become an important factor and a pride in the educational facilities of the State, and take high rank among the institutions of the land of like character. The financial management of this institution, or rather its lack of such management, seems to have fully justified the severe criti- cism which has come from every quarter. Let me hope that the present financial condition and the proper remedies may l)e one of the subjects to receive the early and earnest attention of the Board of Trustees. There appears to have been at times and for consid- erable periods a scale of expenditure permitted quite disproi)or- tioned to the known income of the institution. Thus it has re- ]3eatedly been brought into debt; has in consequence sold i)ortions of the estate, which never should have been parted with, and after having been more than once relieved from debt by State aid and otherwise, the college comes under my charge with unsettled out- standing obligations in various forms aggregating at least twelve thousand dollars. The debt itself is in a most unsatisfactorv and annoying condition, and the current finances even more so. Com- pelled to anticipate income at a heavy discount to meet the in- cessant demands of creditors by temporizing settlements, the college treasury is in a chronic state of emptiness, and while old debts are being gradually reduced, new ones rapidly accumulate. The income from the land-grant fund, sacrealy pledged by law and State cove- nants to the salaries of instructors and current educational expenses, and the payments by students for their board and clothing, are all dis- bursed according to the necessities of current demand, and mean- MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. ;^;^ time the professors, as well as the grocers, butchers, and students' clothiers, remain unpaid. I do not believe this right and do not believe it is wise. Yet until some positive action is taken by this Board towards funding the debt and providing for current expenditures, there seems to be no escape, and great credit is due to the gentlemen of the Board who, as acting College President and acting treasurer, have, during the past year, carried the college treasury through a trying period, using their personal credit largely to sustain the college paper, which, although not formally authorized, has necessarily been put out in all directions. The thanks of the College are certainly due to these gentlemen for assuming responsibilities which they were under no obligation to carry. The responsibility is altogether greater than I am willing to continue, and I earnestly appeal to the Board for measures ofreliefwhich I deem entirely practicable. It may be readily understood that dealing, as we do, almost entirely on credit in making our current purchases, and having heavy accounts against us in several cases, we labor under great disadvantages and are pursuing a most wasteful policy. This is particularly noticeable in connection with the domestic department. On examination we find that on certain staple articles of supplies we are paying from ten to thirty per cent, more than would be necessary if we could buy for cash. After as careful examination of this subject as cir- cumstances permit, I am brought to the rather startling conclusion that we lose by our present temporizing policy, besides the items of interest and discount, as much in every five or six months as the annual interest on a funded debt of ^15,000. In short, by funding the debt, we can contribute nearly, if not quite, a thou- sand dollars a year towards a sinking fund to liquidate it without in the least curtailing our current purchases, but on the contrary securing all the advantages of a cash system. Closely connected with the safe and businesslike conduct of the financial affairs of an institution like this is the careful examination and verification of accounts properly kept. Under the law it will be necessary to keep two distinct sets of accounts, that the affairs of the Experiment Station may not be confounded with those of the College. These books, accounts, and vouchers, should, it seems to me, be audited at least quarterly and monthly if possible, and stringent regulations enforced for keeping all disbursements within the legitimate income and the proper appropriations. It seems probable that a body so large as the present Board of Trustees will not wish to burden itself, as a committee of the whole, with the details of the many matters which must necessarily be acted upon, and that in the interest of economy of time it will be deemed expedient to divide this body into working committees for the several departments and with more or less executive functions. Accordingly I have the honor to recommend (in the place of all 5 34 MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. existing committees) the appointment of four standing commit- tees of five members each and an auditing committee of two, thus assigning special duties to every member. In detail, these recom- mendations are as follows : ist. That a standing committee of five on Agriculture be ap- pointed, to consist of the U. S. Commissioner of Agriculture, two members from the executive appointees (representing the agricultural interests of the State), and one member each on the part of the State and the private stockholders ; that to this committee be re- ferred all matters relating to the control and management of the college farm and the Agricultural Experiment Station, together with supervision of the special appropriations made for these departments. 2d. That a standing committee on Education be appointed, to consist of five members, one to be a representative of the stock- holders, two on the part of the State, and two of the executive appointees ; that to this committee be referred all matters connected with the faculty, course of study, discipline, conferring of degrees, facilities for instruction, issue of catalogues and advertisement of the college. 3d. That a standing committee on Finance be appointed, to con- sist of five members, two on the part of the State, two on the part of the stockholders, and one of the executive appointees ; that to this committee be referred all matters relating to the general in- come and disbursements of the institution, the apportionment of the available funds to the several departments, the management and liquidation of the debt, and all subjects involving considerable expenditure. 4th. That an Auditing committee of two be appointed to examine, verify, approve, and certify to, all accounts and vouchers connected with the institution, quarterly and monthly if possible ; the auditors to act singly or together. 5th. It is recommended in addition, that the Chairmen of the Committees on Agriculture, Education, and Finance, one of the auditors, and one other member, be appointed the Executive Com- mittee, to act for the Board and its stead between its full meetings and in cases of emergency with full powers of the Board, subject to approval at the next meeting of the Board. 6th. That the President of the Board be ex-offlcio a member of all committees of the Board ; that the College President, as pro- vided in the by-laws for full board meetings, shall be invited to sit with the standing committees except wlien in executive session ; thai the Registrar may be called upon to attend and keep the records of the standing committees, and that three members shall constitute a quorum for business in any standing committee. It is my hope that if the Board sees fit to appoint these com- mittees, they will be able to meet and consider matters specially MARYLAND AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE. 35 prepared for them in time to report at the quarterly meeting on the 8th day of June next, I will be prepared at any time hereafter to lay matters of im- portance before such committees. And if the full Board desires to now consider matters of detail, I will, although not fully pre- pared, endeavor to present such matters in form for action. In anticipation of the business to be considered by the Board or its committees, I have lately caused a complete inventory to be made of the movable property of the institution in all its various depart- ments. I also recommend the adoption of certain amendments to the by-laws of the corporation, which seem to be necessitated by the enlargement of the Board. These amendments will be suggested at the proper time. Furthermore, I desire, before the close of the meeting, to ask for action on certain matters of record in the pro- ceedings of previous meetings of the Board. Meeting thus assembled, for the first time, the duly authorized representatives of the public and private interests invested in this institution, organized as its regular Board of Trustees, I desire to express the full sense of responsibility I feel devolving upon me as the chief executive both of the college and the station and the need of active and earnest aid on the part of the members of this Board, individually and collectively, while assembled and while at their homes in the State and District, to sustain my administration of the institution and contribute to ultimate success, and I solicit your personal investigation and interest in the work progressing and your advice on all matters tending to advancement of what I trust may be called our common cause. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, Henry E. Alvord, President of the Faculty.