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Full text of "A Universal alphabet, grammar, and language : comprising a scientific classification of the radical elements of discourse : and illustrative illustrations from the Holy Scriptures and the principal British classics : to which is added, a dictionary of the language"

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Ex Libris 
C. K. OGDEN 



UNIVERSAL 



ALPHABET, GRAMMAR, 



AND 



LANGUAGE 



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UNIYEESAL 

ALPHABET, GRAMMAR, AND LANGUAGE 



COMPRISING 



A SCIEKTIFIC CLASSIFICATION^ 

OF THE 

RADICAL ELEMENTS OF DISCOURSE 

AND 

ILLUSTRATIVE TRANSLATIONS 

FKOM THE 

HOLY SCRIPTURES AND THE PRINCIPAL BRITISH CLASSICS: 

TO WHICH IS ADDED, 

A DICTIOJ^ARY OF THE LANGUAGE. 



BY GEORGE EDMONDS. 



* Vov then will I tiun to the people a pure language, tliat they may all call on, the name of the Lord, to serve him witli one consent." — Zepuaniah. 
" And here I desire it may he considered and carefully examined, whether the greatest part of disputes in the world are not merely verbal, and aboul 
i meaning of words ; and whether, if the terms in which they are expressed were defined, &c. those disputes would not end of themselves, and immediately 



LONDON AND GLASGOW : 
RICHARD GRIFFIN AND COMPANY, 

PUBLISHERS TO THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW. 



Tlie AutJwr reserves the right of Translating the Work. 



THE PBEFACE. 



The Public may reasonably expect, at least, a short sketch of the origin and progress of the 
subject to which its attention is now respectfully invited : — that of a Universal Language. I am not 
aware of any practical attempt to realize a Universal Language before the year 1668, when Dr. 
Wilkins, then Dean of Eipon, and afterwards Bishop of Chester, published his justly celebrated work, 
entitled "An Essay towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language." The high honor of 
originating this grand conception is due, and most honorably is attributed, by Dr. Wilkins to Dr. 
Seth Ward, Bishop of Salisbury, respecting whom he says, " It was from this suggestion of his that I 
first had any distinct apprehension of the proper course to be observed in such an undertaking." It 
has been said by Antony a Wood, tliat " One George Dalgarno, a Scot, wrote a book entitled ' Ars 
Signorum, &c. London 1661' which, before it went to press, the author commimicated to Dr. Wilkins, 
who took from it a hint of his great work ' The Essay.' " I have not seen the " Ars Signorum^ If 
it contains the principles on which Dr. Wilkins's classification of the radical substantives of language 
is founded, the name of Dalgarno ought to be enrolled among the benefactors of mankind. 

But, after Dr. Wilkins's solemn disclamation of the honor of this invention, and his ascription of 
it to Dr. Seth Ward, there appears to me to be no justice in the imputation cast on Dr. Wilkins, 
in the " Supplement to the Encyclopedia Brittanica," vol iii. p. 466. which assails him in the following 
harsh language. "It is highhj discreditable to Wilkins, that he takes no notice whatever of the 
name of Dalgarno." It is incredible that a Bishop of the Church of England, having emphatically 
denuded himself of the honor of the invention, would state a public falsehood in favor of Dr. Ward, 
who himself must have known that it icas a falsehood. Again, Dalgarno lived many years after 
the Essay was published by Dr. Wilkins ; he could, therefore, have contradicted the latter, and have 
done himself full justice. He was absolutely silent : the inference, therefore, is plain : — Dr. Wilkins 
did not derive "the suggestion" or "hint" from Dalgarno, but from Dr. Ward. 

There is a natural curiosity to trace a great river to its source : — we feel a like curiosity with 
regard to any great achievement of mankind. In the present case, Wilkins's Essay arose, as we have 
said, out of a conversation with a college friend, — Dr. Ward. " I had frequent occasion," says Dr. 
Wilkins, " of confen-ing with him concerning the various desiderata proposed by learned men," &c. 
" (among which, this of the Universal Character was one of the principal), most of which he had more 
deeply considered than any other person that I hiew. And in reference to this particular, he would say, 
—that as it was one of the most useful, so he judged it to be one of the most feasible among all the 
rest, if prosecuted in a regular toay. But for all such attempts for this purpose, which he had either 
seen or heard of, the authors of them did generally mistake in their first foundations, whilst they did 
propose to themselves the framing of such a character fi-om a dictionary of words, according to some 
particular language, without reference to the nature of things, and that common notion of them wherein 
mankind does agree." 



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ii. PREFACE. 

Here are several important truths, originating with Dr. '\^'ard :^first, his opmion that a Philo- 
sophic Lano-nage, to accompUsh its main purpose^ must consist of words not derived from any particular 
language, but formed, and framed, and classified, according to the nature of things : just that scheme 
which, with immense ability, has been carried out bv Dr. Wilkin>, in his tables of all the Elemental 
Substantives of language. 

Another opinion of Dr. Ward's, was, that such a language would be •' 7nost feasible" " if prosecuted 
in a regular" (by which I suppose he means a right and systematic) " way." 

And lastly, he expressed a third most important truth, that such a language would be one of the 
"»ios< useful" of the "thmgs wanting to the advancement of the several parts of learning." 

Liebnitz expressed a similar opinion : — he thought none of the great men who had preceded him in 
the prosecution of a similar experiment, had got into the right track. The event proved that he was 
equally imfortunate, for he devoted a life to this, among other great objects, but died without leaving 
even a fragment of the results of his speculations on this most mteresting subject. 

With regai-d to the Essay, although it has, for nearly two hundred years, lain on the dusty shelves 
of public and private libraries, not only unread, but, as to many copies, uncut, yet it has not been 
unknown or unadmired by men of high reputation, as Philosophers. TIius speaks Dr. Thomas Reid. 
" It was a grand and noble project of Bishop Wilkins, to invent a Philosophical Language which should 
be free from the imperfections of vulgar language. Whether this attempt will ever succeed so far as to 
be generally useful, I shall not pretend to determine. The great pains taken by that excellent man, in 
this design, have hitherto produced no effect. Very few have entered minutely into his views ; far 
less iiave his Philosophical Language and his Real Character been brought into use." Dr. Reid further 
says, — " It were even to be wished, that the general terms which we find in common language, as well 
as those of the arts and sciences, could be reduced to a systematic arrangement, and defined so as 
that they might be free from ambiguity ; but perhaps the obstacles to this are insurniountahle. I know 
no man who has attempted it but Bishop Wilkins in liis 'Essay towards a Real Character and a 
Philosophic Language.' The attempt was grand, and worthy of a man of genius."* 

From each of these extracts, it is clear, that Dr. Reid considered the obstacles in the way of a 
Philosophic Language as probably insuperable. Sir William Hamilton, from the following observations, 
seems to be equally hopeless. "The length to which these observations have run on the Philo- 
cophus would preclude our entering on the subject of the other treatise — the Ars Signorum, were this 
not otherivise impossible within the present notice. But, indeed, tlie most general statement of the 
problem of a Universal Character and of tlie various attempts made for its solution, could hardly be 
compressed in the longest article. At the same time, regarding^ as tee do, the jjlan of a Philosophic 
Language as a curious theoretical idea, but one which can never be practically realized, our interest in 
the several essays is principally limited to the ingenuity manifested by the authors, and to the minor 
philosophical truths incidentally developed in the course of these discussions. Of such, the treatise of 
Dalgarno is not barren. But that which principally struck us, is, his remarkable anticipation, on specu- 
lative grounds, a priori, of what has been now articulately proved, a posteriori, by the Dutch 
Philologers and Home Tooke, (to say nothing of the ancients) that the parts of speech are all reducible 
to the noun and verb, or to the noun, only." 

The following extract from Rogers's contributions to the Edinburgh Review, re-echo the previous 
opinions as to the impracticability of a Universal Language. " A communication from Bouvet on the 



on the Intellectual Power of Man, page 667. 



PREFACE. Hi. 

Chinese Characters, suggested to Leibnitz another of his life-long projects, doomed, like so many- 
others, to be left incomplete — that of a Universal Language. On this project, more than one able 
man had toiled before Leibnitz, and more than one has toiled since, but all fruitlessly. It seems, in 
truth, to he otie of the most hopeless of human schema. But its veiy difficulty had charms for Leibnitz ; 
and he expresses himself, in many parts of his writings, with a confidence of success, which is amu- 
singly characteristic. He did not think that the great men, who had preceded him, had been on the right 
track. He contemplated the invention of a totally novel system, of which the characters should 
resemble, as much as possible, those of algebra. He appears to have expended immense thought upon 
this subject ; yet nothing was found in his papers, after his death, except some trifling hmts. 

He had, it is true, directed a young man to devise and arrange exact definitions of all sorts of 
ideas: in itself not one of the least formidable difficulties of the projected enterprise j and which Leibnitz 
had better have reserved for his own shoulders. ' Though he applied himself,' says M. Jaucourt ' to 
this investigation as early as 1703, his life, dissipated by a hundred different occupations, was not long 
enough for the execution of this design.' That man would assuredly have an autidiluvian lease of life, 
who should live till he had invented a Universal Language." ^;. Kjo. 

The following extract, from the memoirs of Francis Uorner, exliibits the right feeling on a grand 
subject, and expresses more hope of success, than either of the preceding writers : — 

"Dec. 3. 1799. 

" Lord Webb Seymour has communicated to me a plan, which his brother the Duke has for some 
time past been attending to, of forming a Philological Society, ultimately with a view to the invention 
of a Real Character. Marsden, Layton, Boucher, and some other philologists, have akeady been 
spoken to. I this day read some letters which Seymour put into my bauds, and which he has received 
from his brother, containing a development of his plan. The perusal of them exceed the expectations 
I had conceived with respect to the metaphysical speculations of the Duke, and he seems to have formed 
a pretty correct, as well as comprehensive idea of the object to be attended to in the composition of a 
Real Character. The project is a grand one ; and though it may not, for a long course of time he com- 
pletely successful, much suhordinate advantage may, in the mean time, result from the prosecution of it. 
It has awakened — (why do I suffer myself to be distracted?) — some of those speculations in which I 
indulged myself about five or six years ago, on the subject of a Philosophical Grammar; and I should 
like to prosecute some of the interesting topics, which, at that time, I started to myself. The meta- 
physics of grammar and the philosophical investigation of the instrumentality of language, are subjects 
which 1 shall keep floating within sight ; in case a line of enquiry sliould present itself, I shall most 
probably attempt to follow it out." 

Horner seems to have given mankind more credit for invention tlian either Dr. Reid, Sir AVm. 
Hamilton, or Rogers. He merely postpones success to a distant period : they are either hopeless, or 
express a very confident opinion, that an Artificial Language is beyond the accumulated knowledge 
and skill of the whole species. 

The following extract from Dr. Peter Mark Roget's most elaborate classification of the words of 
our language, " arranged, not in alphabetical order, as they are in a dictionary, but according to the 
ideas which they express," contains sentiments, more congenial with sound philosophy, and more 
hopeful of the destiny of our race. See Book II. page 28, where this extract is translated into the 
Philosophic : — 

" The failures of great men, in expei'iments conducted without any of the lights of previously well 
ascertained truths, and on a subject of vast natural difficulty, is always followed by great discourage- 



iv. PREFACE. 

ment ; and, as in this case, frequently for a long time deter others from similar attempts : and especi- 
ally when such attempts cannot be effectually made without immense preliminary toil, self-denial, and 
personal sacrifice; with the broad fact, like a stumbling block lying at the very threshold, that this 
great man or the other learned society, have done their best, and done it in vain. 

It cannot be wondered, therefore, that the wreck of Wilkins's Essay, the joint production of three 
enhghtened Bishops, aided by other learned men, and published under the fostering sanction of the 
Royal Society of that day, should, for nearly 200 years, have prevented every individual from entering 
upon so unpromising, and, at the same time, so laborious an enquiry as that of a Universal Language. 

It is not difficult to account for this long neglect of a noble subject : the failure of the Essay was 
imputed to natural and insuperable difficulties, and not to the errors and defects of its authors. Their 
intellectual rank saved them from reproach. They had done all that was possible : a Universal Lan- 
guage was therefore impossible : — such was, in fact, the general conclusion. And, as if to settle the 
question for ever, some writers, who seem to imagine they have " an unction, and know all things," 
and especially the limits of human discovery, have declared the problem of a L^niversal Language 
insoluble. 

I may, however, venture to affirm, that the failure of Dr. Wilkins's Essay may be easily accoimted 
for, without coming to any conclusion mifavorable to the great object which he had proposed. 

That part of the Essay which will always be considered by posterity as constituting its chief and 
almost exclusive value, is the tables of Elemental Substantives. They remain unimpeached, and 
generally unimpeachable. But it was not sufficient, philosophically to classify the ukas of discourse : — 
it was indispensable that those ideas should be represented by audible and even by pleasant soimds, if 
the world was ever to be induced to acquire and use a language consisting of such signs. Now — 

First, — His scheme of a Real Character, like Robinson Crusoe's celebrated boat, was a truly 
wonderful piece of work ; but when finished, one thing, the certain effect of which was unforeseen, 
entirely defeated its utility: it was fquid rides?) an absolutely s(7en< language. It consisted entirely 
of merely visible signs, like the letters in printed books, correctly denoting ideas, but with this capital 
defect — the letters denoted no alphabetic somids whatever. 

The consequence was, that any two persons, who had perfectly acquired the Real Character, 
might sit side by side, in the dark, without the slightest medium of social intercourse ; and even by 
daylight, they had no means of discoursing except by the silent and slow process of alternately handing 
backwards and forwards their written thoughts. Could any thing be more absurd, or more imprac- 
ticable as a scheme to be exchanged, even by savages, for their own barbarous jargon ? 

So much for the '^ Eeal Character^' which, if perfect as to its visible signs, was nevertheless 
utterly useless as a medium of conversation. 

Secondly: — Then as to the failure of the '■'Philosophic Language,'" which was an attempt to cure 
the obvious defect of the Real Character ; and which proposed to represent its silent, inaudible signs, 
by others denoting alphabetic sounds. Here was a step in the right direction ; and had the execution 
been equal to the original conception, I have no hesitation in expressing my firm conviction, that at 
this time, whether as a refined instrument for teaching the doctrines of the Philosophy of Language, or 
as constituting a more perfect language, and for the purpose of universal intercourse throughout the 
world, the Philosophic Language of Wilkins, would have been universally made an essential branch 
of every decent education; or would have given place only to a superior language, founded on the same 
general principles. 



PREFACE. V. 

But alas ! the Doctor appears to me to have been as unfortimate in the secontl, as in the first part 
of his great imdertaking ; for, althoiigh the only language which had the slightest chance of general 
adoption must be not only colloquial, but alphabetic, (God having obviously prepared the human organs 
for the purpose of discourse) yet it was almost as necessaiy that, to say the least, the words should not 
be oiFensive in sound. Indeed, unless the words were fluent and pleasant to the ear, the intellectual 
benefits of such a language would not furnish to mankind a sufficient motive to devote the time and 
toil necessary for its acquisition. Now Wilkins's words, if we take the only two specimens of the 
language which he has furnished, namely, " Tlie Lm-cVs Prayer'' and " The Creed" are not only not 
agreeable, but to my ears are intolerable, and utterly destitute of those qualities, which, even in vulgar 
languages, are sometimes pleasant. 

Admirable, therefore, as is his theory of the classification of the roots of language, and even his 
theory of grammatical modification of those roots, yet, the inability to make euphonic words, was alone 
sufficient to defeat his grand experiment. 

Having, I trust, shewn that the failures of the great harbingers of a Philosophic Language are 
not imputable to any insuperable difficulties essential to the subject, I proceed now to give a brief 
history of my own work, which I start, by avowing, is based on Dr. Wilkins's tables ; which, the more 
I study, the more I admire. 

It Is now nearly forty years since I came into possession of a copy of Dr. Wilkins's Essay. Since 
that time, the subject has, more or less, engaged my serious attention ; and has cost me much anxiety, 
toil, and money; and sometimes, for years together, I have experienced that sickness of the heart 
which springs from hope deferred. Many schemes were adopted; and, after years of empirical 
exertion, were abandoned, as increasing light led to improvements. For many years after I had 
felt convinced that Dr. Wilkins's Philosophic Language was essentially objectionable, I was engaged in 
inventing and perfecting an Alphabet of Characters, which should, by their very forms, indicate the 
natural relation and circumstances of the organs of speech, in the production of the sounds they 
denoted. I thought, and still think it, theoretically, a near approach to perfection. Into this 
character, I translated the whole of St. Matthew's Gospel, to say nothing of various extracts from 
the Psalms, and from other books. 

With great reluctance, and not without much pain, I came to the conclusion, that however excel- 
lent in itself, yet mankind would never enter on a Philosophic Language through that portal. Mankind 
must lelieve the language excellent before they will labor to acquire it. They could know nothing 
of its excellence till they had read it; and they could not read it until they had learned the 
alphabet. I therefore gave up the idea, altogether, of tliat character, and looked about for some 
other. In a happy moment, it occurred to me, that our Roman and Italic alphabet might be 
supplimented by certain marks, so as to represent all the elemental sounds of language. Ou 
reference to the Alphabet, at page 1, the reader will see, how, by a horizontal or vertical mark 
placed under certaui letters, we are enabled, by nieans of the same letter, to denote several of its 
sounds. Thus, the letter A, has three different sounds ; which are distinguished as follows : a, a, a ; 
and so, by these means, the twenti/ six elemental letters of our English language, are made to denote 
forty different elemental sounds. This was a vast step, — and an essential step towards my great 
object. Our Roman and Italic letters are known and read by the inhabitants of the most enligh- 
tened and the most important portion of the earth. It will requu-e but little motive or time to learn 
this alphabet; and then the Philosophic Language may be read with perfoct ease. Certainly, this 
step was essential to my success. 

A c 



^j, PREFACE. 

The next step, also, was essential to success. I mean, the discovery of the true principle on 
which alone the sounds of a Philosophic Language could be founded. The want of this necessary 
knowledge was fatal to Dr. Wilkins's scheme, and for more than thirty years was also fatal to many 
schemes adopted, cherished, and afterwards necessarily rejected by myself. 

The principle upon which the formation of words is founded, is so simple, and has, on experiment, 
proved so beautifully perfect, that, to my mind, it is the most extraordinary part of this history— for 
I cannot tell how it xoas hrourjlit into my mind. When I say the success of the Philosophic turned 
upon the proper use of two short vowels and three nasal consonants,* It will excite equal sm-prise and 
incredulity. These are the short voioels u and i; that Is, the u in faithful, and the i in pin; and the con- 
sonants, m, n, and n. (See Alphabet). The importance of these three consonants will fully appear when 
I state that one of them is to be found In the centre of every root of the language, as will be seen, 
on Inspection of the tables, from page 5 to page 47, inclusive. Then with regard to the two 
shortest vowels of language, h and i, they are employed In the short, unaccented syllables which precede 
and follow the accented syllable of every tabidar word in the Philosophic Language. See part 31, 
Euphony, page 130. The three nasal consonants resemble the reed In the hautboy, they give a 
metallic ringing and musical sound to the words In which they occur. Without these three letters, 
langua.c^e would be intolerably dull, and unmusical. These nasal letters may be compared to the trumpet 
in the concert ; the other consonants are the sounds of the drum : — rub a dub, dub. 

I am far from superstitious, perhaps too much inclined to doubt, yet I must confess, that with 
regard to this last discovery, I have long felt as though I had been no more than a mere Instrument, 
accomplishing the will of another ; and that the direction of my thoughts, and my ultimate convictions, 
were only a part of the development of my mind, enforced and controlled by some mternal law, 
which ensured its own effects without any original exercise of my own reason. One thing is certain, 
I have now no recollection of the process which ultimately revealed to me a knowledge of the power 
and essential Importance of these nasal and vocal letters. 

Before this last discovery, T had made and abandoned many systems of words, feeling convinced, 
that society would never consent to use such discordant and barbarous sounds. Since then, the manu- 
facture of words has been most simple and easy ; and I venture to affirm my own conviction, that this 
Philosophic Language far surpasses any other language in the world, in beauty and simplicity, in 
euphony and dignity. 

I cannot conclude these prefatory observations, without inviting attention especially to the discovery 
of the division of sentences Into six simple species, and the not less important analysis of every 
simple sentence Into two integral parts, the Characteristic and the Matter. See the Introduction, from 
page 2 to 10, &c. This discovery of the Characteristic and the Matter, appears to me, after many 
years consideration, to get rid of all that supposed mystery of language, which, to the present day, 
has been considered impenetrable : and which has contributed to many of those metaphysical controver- 
sies which spring more fi-om the differences of signs, than from those of the things signified. 

Some apology is perhaps necessary for the desultory character of too much of the following work, 
as also for some unconscious repetitions. Those who believe the Invention of a Philosophic Language 
next to impossible, will readily concede, that the natural difficulties of the subject constitute no very 
insufficient excuse for these impei-fectlons. 



Or rather, three quantities of the same sound. 



PREFACE. vH. 

Although tlie great principles of the Philosophic Language have, for years, been fixed m my mind, 
it was only in the year 1854 I first took steps for the composition and publication of this work. My 
first step was the cutting and casting a fount of types for my Philosophic Alphabet. These were 
executed by Messrs. Furgusons, Brothers, of Edinburgh, and, in my judgment, with great ability. 
I afterwards fortunately obtained the valuable assistance of Mr. Thomas Dean, in bringing this 
work out. I could not have found a more efficient coadjutor, I believe, in the whole circle of 
the trade. He is entitled to my public thanks. Since then, my labors have been great : I have 
been habitually employed from five in the morning till ten at night. Much ^has been written and 
re-written; and all within fifteen months. The whole work has been subject to various alterations, 
and consequent cancellations. 

I grieve greatly that it is so far inferior to my own conceptions of what it might have been under 
more favorable circumstances, and especially at the multitude of errata; aud can only say, if it ever 
comes to a second edition, and my life is spared, I will take care that it makes its second appearance 
in a form more confoimable to the magnificence of its great object, — a Universal Language. 

Many objections may be justly made to the style and composition of the work. I am not a book 
maker; and the work is not a compilation: if it had been, no doubt it would have been vastly superior; 
as moderate taste would have led to the selection of matter which was at least unobjectionable in manner 
and style. But every sentence of this work, not in quotations, good, bad, or indifierent, is my own ; 
and my mind has, throughout, been more fixed upon accurately representmg my thoughts, than in 
exhibiting the graces of composition ; which I have had no time, and perhaps not much inclination, to 
study. I can say, in conclusion, that my object has been, throughout the whole of my forty years 
journey through the wilderness of words with which I have been surrounded, to ascertain facts, and 
to record and generalize them ; and that one of the things, which, above all others, I have aimed at, 
has been to eschew, mere sonorous words: to see clearly, and express myself simply. Nevertheless, 
I fear, I have not been absolutely free from the occasional practice of what, in principle, I have 
heartily condemned. 

Birmingham, 18.55. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

PART I. 

Of the Constituents of Discourse. Page 

CHAPTER I. Of Sentences 2 

Section 1. Of Simple Sentences 2 

Assertives ....... .3 

Interrogatives • 3 

Directives . • 3 

Optatives 3 

Exclamatives 4 

Vocatives .......... 4 

Section II. Compound Sentences 5 

CHAPTER II. Of the Characteristic 5 

Section 1. Of the Signs of the Characteristic 5 

Assertive Characteristic 5 

Interrogative Characteristic 6 

Directive Characteristic 6 

Optative Characteristic 6 

Exclamative Characteristic ...... 6 

Vocative Characteristic ....... 7 

Section 2. The Characteristic is subjective, and the Matter objective . 7 

„ 3. The relation of the Characteristic to the speaker ... 8 

„ 4. The Characteristic relates to every part of the sentence . 8 

„ 5. The Assertive Characteristic alone essential to discourse . 8 

„ 6. The Characteristic is of the present tense ... 9 
„ 7. Words are of three kinds in relation to the Characteristic and 

Matter 9 

CHAPTER III. Of the Matter 10 

Section 1. The Matter is divisible into two parts, the subject and predicate 10 

„ 2. There are eight kinds of Substantives in discourse . 10 

(1.) Of Proper Substantives 10 

(2.) Of Common Substantives 10 

(3.) Of Abstract Substantives 10 

(4.) Of Pronouns 11 

(5.) Of Declarative Substantives . . . . . . 12 

(6.) Of Infinitive Substantives 12 

(7.) Of Participial Substantives 12 

(8.) Of Material Substantives 13 

Remarks on Simple and Compound Substantives . . 13 
a 



CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Section 3. Of Predicates 13 

Definitions of the Verb 14 

Of the tense of Verbs . . . . . . . 15 

Of the modes of Verbs 15 

Of the Mnds of Verbs 15 

Section 4. Of Adjectives 15 

Of Principal and Subordinate Predicates . . . 1(> 

Section 5, Of Adverbs KJ 

6. Of Prepositions ....... 17 

7. Of Conjunctions ..... . . 17 

8. Of Articles 17 

9. The Interjection ........ 18 

10. Of Adjuncts It) 

11. Relative Pronouns . . . . . . . 19 

12. Cancellation of the Characteristic . . . . . 19 

13. Subjectives, Objectives, and Snbjectives-Objective . . 21 



PART II. 

Of the Advantcujes of the. Philosophic hamjmuj,'. 

First. Furnishes a perfect Alphabet 22 

Secondly. Every word univocal . ....... 22 

Thirdly. Roots all literal 22 

Fourthly. Total meaning of words and sentences exactly distributable into their 

visible elements. 22 

Fifthly. Words all classified according to the nature of the things they represent 23 
Sixthly. The forty Tabulars, at page 4, give some portion of the meaning of every 

tabular Noun, Adjective, Verb, and Adverb of the language 23 

Seventhly. How to form the Species 24 

Eighthly. The logical importance of a scientific language .... 24 

Ninthly. General effects of a scientific language 24 

PART III. 
General Directions and 0/jser rations. 

GENERA arranged according to their structure 25 

SIX DIFFERENCES arranged according to their structure . . . 2(5 

Of Anterior Modes 29 

Of Demonstratives 29 

Of Subjunctives ... 29 

Of Interrogative Substantives 30 

Of Prepositions 30 

Of Underived Adverbs 31 

Of Copulatives conclusive ........... 31 

Of Duplicates potential 31 

Of Numbers . 32 

Tables of Substantives converted into Adjectives, \'crbs, and Adverbs . . 32 



CONTENTS. 



PHILOSOPHIC LANGUAGE 

FOR THE NATIONS. 

BOOK I. 

THE ALPHABET, CLASSIFICATION OF RADICALS, AND GRAMMAR. 



PART I. Pag 

The Philosophic ALPHABET .1 

PART II. 

Classification of the Substantives of Language ...... 3 

Of the FORTY GENERA 4 

Tables of Genera, Differences, and Species 5 to 47 

PART III. 

Generic Forms — Simple 48 

Generic Forms — Comparative .49 

Generic Forms — Causal 50 

PART IV. 

Dlfftrcntial Forms. 

Chapter I. Derivation of the Diff'erential Forms from the Forty Genera . 51 

Chap. II. Derivation of Differential Adverbs, Verbs, and Adjectives . 52 

Chap. III. The Sis Differences — Neutral, Active, and Passive ... 53 

Chap. IV. The Six Differences Comparative ...... 56 

Chap. V. The Six Differences— Causal 59 

Chap. VI. Supplemental Differences 62 

PART V. 

Special Forms and Supplemental Species 62 

PART VI. 

Sub-special Forms 63 

b 



CONTENTS. 
PART VII. 



Collateral Tabulai-f 



Anterior Modes:— with Table 



Concrete and Abstract Substantives 



PAET VIIT. 



PART IX. 



PART X. 



Gender and Number of Substantives 



Page 
6.5 



67 



68 



CHAPTER I. 
CHAP. II. 



CHAPTER 1. 
CHAP. II. 



PART XI. 

Of the Nominative and Genitive Case 
Of Accusative or Dependent Substantives 



PART XII. 
The Indefinite Article 
The Definite Article 



PART XIII. 



Of Demonstratives 



PART XIV. 

Personal Pronnuu.i. 
CHAPTER I. Substantive Pronouns 73 



CHAP. II. Adjective Pronouns 
Prepositional Pronouns . 



74 



CHAPTER I. 
CHAP. II. 



CHAPTER I. 
CHAP. II. 
CHAP. III. 
CHAP. IV. 
CHAP. V. 



CHAPTER I. 
CHAP. II. 



PART XV. 

Interrogative and Suhjiuictwc Substantives 
Interrogative ..... 

Subjunctive ...... 



PART XVI. 
Of Prejwsitions. 
Taljle of Prepositions 
Tabulars with Prepositions 
Plural Tabulars and Prepositions 
Prepositions with Adjectives 
Prepositions with Accusative Pronouns 



PART XVII. 

Adverbs Underived- 
Demonstrative Adverbs 
Adverbs of Quantity 



86 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 


III. 




CHAP. 


IV. 




.Section 


L 




» 


■> 




" 


4. 

5. 


CHAP. 


V. 




CHAP. 


VI. 




CHAP. 


VII. 





Adverbs of Number 

Adverbs of Negation . . . . 

Negatives Tabular . . . . 

Negatives Copulative Entitive 
Negatives Copulative Active 
Negatives Copulative Directive Entitive 
Negatives Copulative Directive Active 
Negatives Potential . . . . 

Adverbs of Comparison . . . . 

Adverbs Prepositional . . . . 

Adverbs Anomalous 



PART XVIII. 



Conjunctions — Table 



Transcendentals 



PART XIX. 



94 



9G 



PART XX. 

Copulatives Conclusive 101 

PART XXI. 
Copulatives Entitive. 

CHAPTER I. Assertive 102 

CHAP. 11. Interrogative 102 

CHAP. III. Directive 102 

CHAP. IV. Optative lO;^ 

CHAP. V. Infinitive 104 

CHAP. VI. Participial 104 

PART XXII. 
Copulatives Active. 

CHAPTER I. Assertive 105 

CH:AP. II. Interrogative lOo 

CHAP. III. Directive 105 

CHAP. IV. Optative 105 

CHAP. V. Infinitive 106 

CHAP. VI. Active Adjectives or Participles 106 

PART XXIII. 
Tabulars. 

CHAPTER I. Assertive 106 

CHAP. II. Interrogative 107 

CHAP. III. Directive lOS 

CHAP. IV. Optative . . 109 



CONTENTS. 



CHAP. 



CHAPTER I. 


CHAP. 


n. 


CHAP. 


ni. 


CHAP. 


IV. 


CHAP. 


V. 


CHAP. 


YI. 


CHAP. 


YII. 


CHAP. 


VIII. 


Interrogative 



Infinitives 



(5) Vai'u, shall (Authoritative) 

((i) Ki'u, ought 

(7) Bi'u, must. 

(8) Di'u, woulrl 



Page 
110 



PART XXIV. 

Duplicates Potential. 

(1) Pi'u, can 113 

(2) Fi'u, may lU 

(3) Ti'u, will (Predictive) , lU 

(4) Vi'ii, will (Promissive) . . . . . . . 1L5 

115 

116 

IKi 

117 

117 



Active 
Passive 



Active 
Neutral 



Pro-Verbs 



PART XXV. 

Duplicates Causal. 



PART XXVI. 

Copulatives Eventual. 



PART XXVIL 



117 

lis 



119 

119 



PART XXVllI. 
Nmnhi'in. 
CHAPTER I. Cardinal Numbers 
CHAP. II. Ordinal Numbers 
CHAP. III. Multiplicative Numbers 
CHAP. IV. Fractions .... 

CHAP. V. Proportional Numbers 

CHAP. VI. Algebraic Signs 



121 
123 
\2i 
125 
126 
12B 



Tabulars Causal 



PART XXIX. 



PART XXX. 



Characteristic, " There" 
Euphony 



PART XXXI. 



CONTENTS. 

PART XXXII. 
Comparative Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs 



131 



PART XXXIII. 
Syllabic Aggregates 132 



PART XXXIV. 



Transcendental Supplemental 



PART XXXV. 



PART XXXVI. 
Grammaticals, English and Philosophical 



PART XXXVII. 

Grammaticals, Philosophic and English 



PART XXXVIII. 



Concrete and Abstract Numbers 



135 



138 



145 



152 



BOOK II. 



TRANSLATIONS ILLUSTRATIVE OB' THE PHILOSOPHIC LANGUAGE. 



Genesis: c. xlv. v. 1 1 

II. Samuel : c. i. v. 20 3 

Job: c. iii. v. 1 4 

Psalm I. v. 1 6 

Psalm II. v. 1 6 

Psalm XI. V. 1 7 

Psalm LXXXIV. v. 1 8 

Psalm XCI. V. 1 8 

Gospel according to St. John; c- i. v. 1. 9 

I.Corinthians: c. xv. v. 1 10 

Revelations: c. iv. v. 1 14 

Milton : bk. vi. line 824 15 

Rogers :— Eclipse of Faith : p. 68. . . 17 



Lord Bacon 19 

Dr. Thomas Reld 20 

Sii" Isaac Newton 21 

Balder 21 

Shakespeare 22 

Dr. Peter Mark Roget 28 

John Locke 29 

Dr. Whateley 34 

John Foster 35 

George GilfiUan 37 

Creasy 38 

The Litany 39 



BOOK III 



The Dictionary and 



Dictionary Addenda. 



INTEODUCTION. 



Before we enter on tlie great subject of a Universal Language, there are some preliminary matters 
which demand attention. These we shall take consecutively, beginning with the Constituents of 
Discourse. 



PART I. 



OF THE CONSTITUENTS OF DISCOUESE. 

It is unaccountable that mankhid should, so long, have remained in ignorance of the principles 
of language, though continually before their attention, and in hourly use as an instrument of conversa- 
tion. Even young childi-en familiarly use it, and with great skill and readiness. To this age, however, 
a dark cloud seems to have enveloped the subject ; so that great and most learned men of the present 
day have pronounced an Artificial Language simply impossible. Although the verb remained undefined, 
yet children used verbs with great precision. Although the essential difference of sentences was 
undefined, yet there was no species of simple sentence which was not as intelligible to a child as a 
man, — to a semi-idiot as a philosopher: and yet Leibnitz spent a life in vainly endeavouring to originate 
an Artificial Language ; and Home Tooke, as ambitious and as arrogant a writer as ever took pen in 
hand, even after holding out expectations of defining the verb, and scornfidly denominating all tlie 
learned definitions of the verb which had been furnished to his day as " trash," nevertheless died aiid 
" made no sign :" — the Verb remained undefined. 

How is this ? What has been the cause of so extraordinary an effect ? We ask in reply, why liad 
millions, for ages, seen the expansive force of steam in lifting the tea-kettle lid, without discovering 
a mode of applying it to its present great purposes'? 

So we may say with regard to Language ; glimpses of the truth have been had from the days of 
Aristotle to those of Leibnitz : the facts of Language were seen in a state of insulation, but not in 
their scientific relation and combination. Almost all the metaphysical and logical, not to omit the 
theological jargon with which the world has been afflicted, has been caused chiefly by divorcing words, 
as signs, from the things they signified — and by assuming that there are as many kinds of things as 
there are forms of words : whereas, as an ultimate fact, all the various forms of words are resolvable 
into one or more Substantives. All Discourse, if intelligible, consists of defined conceptions. Now 
the very word defined denotes the setting a houndary to over thoughts, and describing what is contained 
within that boundary : and whatever is thus severed by the mind from all other things, and is contem- 
plated alone, denotes, and merelj"^ denotes, one thing, whose sign will be a Substantive. As a familiar 
proof of the tiiith of these assertions, just look Into Dr Jolmson's definition of the parts of speech; and 
you will at once see, that, although he assumes an essential difference among the parts of speech, 
the terms of the definitions are all Substantives. 
1 A 



2 IXTRODUCTION. 

Thus a Noun " Is the name of a thing f — " A Substantive is a Noun." " An Adjective is a word 
added to a Noun to signify the addition of some quality, circumstance, or rnanner, &c." " An Article 
is a part of speech :" — (very instructive !) Of Pronouns, he says, " I, thou, he, we, ye, are names 
of persons." " A Verb, signifies existence or some modification thereof, as action or passion," &c. "An 
Adverb is a word joined to a Verb or Adjective, &c. to restrain the latitude of their signification by the 
intimation of some circumstance thereof, as of quality, manner, degree." " A Preposition signifies some 
relation, &c." "A Conjunction is a word made use of, &c. to signify then- relation, &c." "A Participle 
is a word partaking at once the qualities of a Noun and Verb, &c. and with its signification of action, 
passion, or some other manner of existence;, signifying the time thereof." '' An Interjection is a part of 
speech which discovers the mind to be seized or affected with some passion." Here all the definitions 
shew that the word defined is a Substantive. Indeed, to define, whether appHed to things, or to signs 
denoting things, is, ipso facto, by the act of definition, necessarily to create units, individualities, single 
things, objects of the mind; and this is equally true of sentences, chapters, books, and the most complex 
notions of Discourse : — as it is true of thmgs, of atoms, or systems ; — of a star or a constellation. The 
mind can think only in units, either singly or in combination. 



CHAPTEE I. 



OF SENTENCES. 

The smallest instance, — perfect instance — of discourse, is a simple speech or Sentence. We 
cannot communicate a single fact without uttering a Perfect Sentence. Less than a Sentence has no 
meaning, — i. e. conveys no meaniag of the speaker, which is the essential quality of discourse: — without 
which it cannot exist. — Sentences are either Simple or Compound. 

SECTION I. OF SBIPLE SENTENCES. 

Harris (see Hermes, page 140) observes, very truly, that " All speech or discourse is a publishing 
or exhibiting some part of our soul," and " either a certain perception or a certain volition." Any 
discourse, therefore, which perfectly publishes something which the speahtr thinks, jxrceives, or feels, 
is a Sentence. 

It is a curious question, considering how many public speeches have been made, how many private 
commimications by letter and by word of mouth: — we say it is a curious question, whether all the 
inteUiglble speeches, uttered by mankind, during all past ages, are reducible to certain definitions, and 
to certain denominations or heads, which are capable of being perfectly understood- 

Our answer Is, — that all discourse may be reduced to six general kinds or denomitiations of simple 
speeches; each of which is familiar even to yoimg chlldi'en. 

These are, fii'st, Assertlves ; second, Interrogatlves ; third. Directives ; fourth, Optatives ; fifth, 
Exclamatives ; and sixth, Vocatives. 

This classification of Simple Sentences is tlie result of most laborious and multifarious reading, 
duiing a period of many years ; and we feel no dlificidty in confidently asserting, that it exhausts 
discourse; and that all possible Sentences come under one or other of these six denominations. 
Moreover, the same observation doubtless applies to all languages which have attained the perfection 
of our own. We shall content oui'selves with giving from the Latin, the EugUsh, and the Philo- 
sophic, examples of each of the above six kmds of Simple Sentences. 



INTRODUCTION. 3 

ASSERTIVES. 
Examples. 
Solon furere se simulavlt. Solon made himself appear mad. So'lun //•o'n<«}ja?tu"rkweii pru'm- 

pini. Qui facile wedit, fg,clle decipltur. He who easily believes, is easily deceived, (jwai ko'ndu 

ko'nsifo ko'ndu gdntivasL Erant qui me culparent. There were some who blamed me. Kwa 

pontipil gri'u gronsike'leos. Negari non potest quia turpius sit fallere, quam falli It cannot 

be denied that it is more disgraceful to deceive, than to be deceived. P^un fri'ntisoi tu'mees 
kra'mpufou ge'ntivrast kyoo ge'ntivrast. Vere sapiens nunquam duhitalit quin immortalis sit ani- 
mus. The truly wise man ivill never doubt that the soul is immortal. Po'ndi fampai'rq tri'ndur 
hro/nsifen tinzoo'tum kadrane'supo. 

INTERROGATIVES. 

Eveiy child knows what is a question. 

Examples. 
Num turpius est decipi quam decipere? Is it more disgraceful to be deceived than to deceive? 

U'tneai kra'mpufou ge'ntivrast kyoo ge'ntivrast? Quis dubitat quin consilio mundus factus sit? 

Who doubts that the world was made by design? Byoo hro'nsifen dinzoi'kwin po'ntifool pendo'ti ? '■ — 

Quid obstat quominus hoc faciamus? What prevents us from doing this? Sloo frontifelol pindipo'ni 

o'ri? Unde venis? From what place do you come? Kyoo'ni i'mea pe'ntisai? Quid interest 

utrum vinum an aquam bibas? What does it matter whether you drink wine or water? Sl'umeu 

po'nda swl'fin a fra'nsifo ve'nzoi unzo'twi? Utrum somnus sempiternus, an vitee alterlus inltium, 

est mors? Is death an eternal sleep, or the beginning of another life? JJmeu dra'nzoo u ti'ntur 
tra'nzoi tildg'twi roi'tu da'nzoo? 

DIRECTIVES. 

This is so easy a form of speech that childi-en, and. Indeed, the inferior animals understand it. 
Come hither: — Go away: — Kiss me: — Let It alone: — are really iufantme phrases. 

Examples. 

Ut fortitur moriaris, vive honeste. That you may die courageously, live virtuously. Du'lkwin 

a fi'u de'mbur dra'nsipai, e'mbur dalnsipqz. Hoc quotidie mediteris, ut vitam, sequo animo, 

rellnquas. Meditate on this daily, that you may relinquish life with a quiet mind, Pro'nsifyz o'rifi 

bu'ndus, a'kwin fi'u fre'ntifai da'nzoo yoo'pu ge'nti i'nzoo. Ne mentiaris. Do not lie, Prem^pinoz 

or premepindza, or no prelmpinqz. Desine esse timidus. Cease to be timid. Vro'nsinoz dwem- 

pu'rtmn. Ut me juves, enitere. Strive to assist me. Ke/ntivgz bontifai'os. Ne multa discas, 

sed^multum. Do not learn many things, but much. Trdnedto'za pa'ntiz basi'bel. Beneficiorum 

ne obllvis carls. Be not forgetful of benefits. Nu'sa gatro'mpufo gonsi'riz. 

OPTATIVES. 

These are sentences which express, but do not assert, a wish. They, in no case, involve 
the veracity of the speaker. They generally begin with the two words "oh that; or " oh may;" 
or " may ;" or " would that ;" or " would to God that." 

Exa7nples. 

Utinam tu consul esses! Oh that you were consul! Ho'kwun tu'meas ko'nsul! Utinam 

illo proelio iuterfuissem ! Oh that I had been engaged in that battle! Hdkxoun ai'ntrlpoi'leos ro'tu 

ge'mbroo ! Utinam epistola scripta non esset! Oh that the letter had not been written 1 Ho'kwun 

fri'ndi doune'sitool ! Utinam ipso Varro incumbat in causam! Oh that Varro himself would 

vigorously prosecute my cause ! Hrjkwun Va'ro wal'kwen di'u gi"a'ndur vo'nsinai ambroi'tos ! 



4 INTRODUCTION. 

EXCLAMATIVES. 
The exclamatory words are commonly called Interjections, such as oh! ah! alas! &c. If we 
except the Optative sentence, which denotes specifically a wish, all other signs of passion which charac- 
terize a sentence, are called Exclamatives. Such words as what ! how !, how much ! oh ! &c. usually 

take the lead in such sentences. 

Examj)les. 
Ecu dementiam existimantium I Oh the folly of those who believe ! Ho fla'mbis grg'utu konsifo. 

Heu me miserum! Oh wretched man that I am! Eq pra'mpuro tyau po'ntoo! qualis 

facies! Oh what a face is there ! Ho sloo u pa'ndo kwa pontoo ! lepidemdiem! Oh the 

joyful day! Ho ko'nsu bu'ndis! temporal mores! Oh the times! Oh the manners! 

Er> yi'ndooz! Eq ye'mbiz ! Proh dedecus ! Proh pudor ! Oh infamy! Oh shame! Eq 

kramboi ! Eo fro'nzis ! Ah me miserum ! Ah wretch that I am ! En pra'mpuro tyau po'ntoo ! 

VOCATIVES. 
When the sole object of a speech or sentence is to attract the attention of some person, it is usually 
done by calling out fhe name of that person so loudly and emphatically as to ensure that attention: — 
sometimes the same eifect is produced by the use of the word holloa — or some similar word. A sentence 
having that sole object in view is called a Vocative. 

Examples. 

felix anne! happy year! Eo fa'mpur pu'ndis! Pater! homiuum rerumque 

eterna potestas ! Father ! eternal ruler of men and things ! Eq fo'nzipur ! Eq ti'ntur po'ndroo 
binze'tuz kwi fo'ndooz! 

It must be remarked that it is only when the Vocative constitutes au Independent speech that it is 
called a sentence. 

When, therefore, "the Vocative name is Lq apposition with some other name, which constitutes a 
member of one of the other sorts of Sunple Sentences, though it is still called a Vocative, it is not a 
sentence, but merely a member of that other sentence in which it occm-s, and of which it is a part. For 
it must not be forgotten, that there is always a Vocative m every sort of sentence ; as every sort of 
sentence is supposed to be addi-essed to sonie one; and even in soliloquy, the speaker addresses himself. 
No observation is necessary to shew that each of the foregoing six kinds of Simple Sentences is 
essentially distinct from the others. The names by which they are so familiarly knowm will probably 
be sufficient for that purpose. The Assertive cannot be confounded with the Interrogative : the former 
avouches what is assmned to be known ; the latter enquires after what is assumed to be unknown ; and 
they both exhibit the state of the intellect or rational faculty. On the other hand, the Directives and 
Vocatives denote the state of the loill; while the Optatives and Exclamatives are signs of the pcuisions 
and feelings. 

Now, although a Simple Sentence consists of an indefinite number of words, yet, when properly 
finished, it is but one thiwj, one artificial unit. 

It is not the number of the parts of any thing which makes it more or less plural : a tree and a 
grove; a star and a constellation; an atom and a world, are equally units ; for miity is the pure artifi- 
cial creation of the mind, denoted by signs ; but in no case denoting a quality of the thing signified : 
for, as all things which exist, must be indefinitely divisible, all must be equally plural, in themselves. 
So it is with sentences : — they are the arbitary assemblages of words wiilch become one, purely by their 
having one Characteristic applied to them, to which they (the parts) stand equally related, and by which 
they are bomid together, and beheld as one by the mind, and then denoted by one sign. 



INTRODUCTION. 5 

A Simple Sentence, then, as a whole, is one sign held up by the speaker within the notice of the 
party addressed : and that one sign is employed by him to publish some perception or volition : i. e. 
something which ha means, which lie. perceives, which he knows, or which he feels: and as many distinct 
perceptions or volitions as he enounces, just so many distinct Sentences will there be, the objects of his 
notice, or passions, or feelings. 

SECTION 2. OF COMPOUND SENTENCES. 

We have said that every simple sentence is one thing. It follows that there may be Compound 
Sentences, which consist of two, three, or more of these simple sentences. Thus, there may be several 
Assertives united by certain relative words called conjunctions: as, "The fear of the Lord is the 
beginning of wisdom; but fools despise wisdom and instruction." Here are two simple Assertives 
joined by the word hut. 

Two or more Interrogatives may be united by similar conjunctions : as, " How long, ye simple 
ones, will ye love simplicity? and ye scomers, delight in scorning? and ye fools, hate knowledge?" 
Two or more Directives — " Forget not my law ; hut let thine heart keep my commandments." Two 
Optatives — " May you soon meet your friends ! and may they be satisfied of your fidelity !" Three 
Exclamatlves — " How unfortunate ! how inexplicable ! and what a deception !" These examples are 
sufficient to shew the nature of Compoimd Sentences. 



CHAPTER II. 



OF THE CHAEACTERISTIC. 

Having furnished examples of every kind of Simple Sentences, we now proceed to analyze them 
into their constituent parts. These are denominated their Characteristic and Matter. The former is so 
called, because it characterizes each of the Simple Sentences, and constitutes it what it is, as Assertive, 
Interrogative, Directive, Optative, Exclamatlve, and Vocative. 

As a general Definition of the Characteristic, we should say, that in Assertives, it is the sign of 
Assertion, ; in Interrogatives, the sign of Interrogation ; in Directives, the sign of Direction ; in Opta- 
tives, the sign of a Wish ; and in Exclamatlves, the sign of the Passion pxcited by the mind's immedi- 
ate object ; and lastly, in Vocatives, the sign of Invocation, 

As a general definition of the Matter of a sentence we should say, that, in Assertives, it is the 
thing asserted; in Interrogatives, it is the thing enquired ; in Directives, the thing directed; in Opta- 
tives, the thing wished ; in Exclamatlves, the immediate cause of the exclamation ; and in Vocatives, 
the person or thing invoiced. 

SECTION I. OF THE SIGNS OF THE CHARACTERISTIC. 
Under this section we shall give examples of the six kinds of Characteristics, each printed in 
Italics, which separately or jointly constitutes the Characteristic. 

Tlie Assertive Characteristic. 
The Assertive Characteristic Is sometimes, indeed generally, denoted by the proper union of a 
Substantive with a subsequent Indicative Verb : as, ^^ Heaven, from all creatures, hides the book of fate." 
Characteristic, — '^Heaven hides." " T/ie nation, worn out with cruelty, oppression, and maladministra- 
tion, turned suddenly upon the impopular minister." Characteristic, " The nation turned." 
2 B 



6 INTEODUCTION. 

Assertion is also denoted by putting the word '■'there" or some adverbial phrase, before an Indicative 
Neutral Verb; as, " There are some; there were few; there will be more." " Upon this refusal, assembled 
a great multitude." 

In each of the above sentences, the Verb is necessary to the completion of the assertive Sign : 
but it is also employed to express Interrogation, when properly associated with its subject ; for the same 
verb and substantive united will express either Assertion when the subject precedes the verb, or Inter- 
rogation, when it follows it; as, "Thou lovest me not:" — Assertion. "Lovest thou me?" — Interrogation. 

The Interrogative Characteristic. 

Tlie Interrogative Characteristic is sometimes expressed, as in the last example, by placing the 
Subject after the Verb; as, "Lovest thou me?" "Art thou my friend?" " Oare you deceive me?" 
'' Will you refuse me?" 

There is also a small class of words beginning with 7vh, no doubt coeval with the first efforts of 
speech. These, alone, when they take the lead in the sentence, express Interrogation. 

Examples. 

What is your name ? Which do you prefer ? Who gave you that name ? Whose house is that ? 
Whom seekest thou ? Whence came wars ? Whither shall I fly ? Where do you reside ? Why will 
ye die? and lastly, perhaps, how; as. How did he do it? which seems to have the same origin. 
Although the subjects and verbs are here placed in the interrogative order, yet that is merely for 
conformity; as the question is founded on the initial words, what, &c. 

The Interrogative Characteristic is sometimes expressed by the tone of voice merely, in uttering 
what is usually the assertive form of the Characteristic; as, "Oh/ you will? will you?" "You dare 
me? do you?" 

The Directive Characteristic. 

The Directive Characteristic is denoted by the word let; as, "Let him alone." "Let me depart 
in peace." " Let them know my intentions." 

Secondly, — The naked Indicative Verb, when taking the lead in the sentence, is directive ; as, " Oo 
to the Ant, thou sluggard." " Deny thyself, and take up thy cross." '' Beware of flattery." " Obey 
your parents." 

Sometimes the mere tone of the voice is sufiicient; as, "Away to the mountains; away." '■'Down, 
sir, down." (i. e. go away : Zie'down.) 

Tloe Optative Characteristic. 

The Optative Characteristic is expressed by the word may, placed at the commencement of the 
sentence, and uttered with the proper tone ; as, " May you be happy !" " May the King live for ever !" 

The word Oh^ when prefixed to may, from its superior intensity supersedes the latter, and expresses 
the wish still more emphatically ; as, " Oh may you be happy !" " Oh may the King live for ever !" 

The third, and most emphatical form of a wish, is signified by the two word.?. Oh that at the 
commencement of the Optative: as, " Oh that they were wise!" " Oh that Ishmacl may live before 
thee!" 

Sometimes the directive form is so modified by the context and the tone of the voice, as to 
express the Optative Characteristic ; as, " Thy kingdom come ! Thy will be done ! Hallowed be 
thy name !" 

The Exclamative Cliaracteristic. 

The Exclamative Characteristic is expressed by words commonly called Interjections; such as, Oil! 
What ! How ! Alas ! Alack ! and denotes some passion, as of wonder, pleasure, &c. 



INTRODUCTION. 7 

The word Oh ! expresses no particular passion or emotion ; but depends for its specific meaning 
partly on the tone of the voice, and partly on the context. It will express joy and grief; pain and 
pleasure, diffidence and confidence ; boldness and timidity, &c. &c. 

Examples. 

How fair is the I'ose! wJiat a beautiful flower! Oh the pain! the bliss of dying! 

What happuiess I what triumph ! How I pitied him ! Alas ! and did the Saviour bleed ! 

Sometimes the emphatical utterance of an adjective, or other part of the matter of the sentence, 
will express some passion or emotion ; as, " Beautiful creature !" " Ungrateful monster !" 

Even the Assertive Characteristic may to some extent be superseded, by prefixing the Verb to the 
subject, and laying an emphasis on the former ; as, " Blessed is the man who walketh not according to 
the counsel of the ungodly." This importantly differs from the mere assertion that — " The man who 
walketh, &c. is blessed." In the first example, the truth of the assertion is in some degree secondary 
to the emotion excited by the object before the mind's eye. Where, however, the sole object is to express 
passion without any recognition of the truth of the fact itself, the sentence should be considered, as in 
truth it is, exclamative ; as, " How amiable are thy tabernacles, oh ! Lord of hosts !" 

The Vocative Characteristic. 

The Vocative Characteristic, as we have said, is to be considered a sentence only when it stands 
unconnected with either of the other kinds of sentences. Its Characteristic consists in the word used 
to rouse the attention of the party addressed. This may be either the mere name of the party 
addressed; as, "■Son! son! give me thy heart:" '■'■Samuel! Samuel.'" or it may be denoted by the 
word oh ! which has been supposed to be derived from the French impei-ative, Oyez ! as, " Oh genera- 
tion of vipers !" " Oh my friend !" or it may be any other word whose sole object is to awaken 
attention. 

Having thus exhibited, imder this first section, the various modes of expressing the Characteristic, 
we proceed to observe, — 

SECTION II.— THAT THE CHARACTERISTIC IS SUBJECTIVE, AND 
THE MATTER OBJECTIVE. 

There are various meanings in the English language now attached to the words subjective and 
objective. First, the word subjective denotes the thinking part or principle — the Ego, the Self, as 
distinguished from, and contrasted with, every other thing. This, in the Philosophic, is called Ponsufo'ri, 
the thinking thing; and the objective, Ponsufoo'ri, is the thought thing or object about which tlic 
mind is thinking. Now the grammatical sign in any given sentence which denotes this ponsufjri, is 
called the Characteristic — I'lidis, and that which denotes the ponsifoo'ri — Ei'ndis, is called the Matter 
of the sentence : while the words ponsufo'ri and ponsufoo'ri denote the things signified, the subjective 
and objective. 

Again, in Grammar, the antecedent substantive immediately related to some dependent expression 
is called the subject or nominative ; and that expression is called the predicate ; and in the Philosophic 
they are respectively called Bindoi, and Bri'ndoi. 

There is a third meaning attached to the word subject, in English, when speaking of any material 
thing, as a loatch. Considered as one thing, by its severance from all others, and Its representation by 
one singular sign, it is as a whole called the subject when considered as related to, or compared with, 
any of the things called Its qualities contained within it. Thus the watch is round, white, bright, 
metallic, and hard ; it is thei-efore, in English, called the subject of these qualities of roundness, white- 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

ness, brightness, mctallicity, and hardness ; and in the Philosophic Po'ndis. It is so called, merely 
because it contains those qualities: and although each quality is as much a subject or thing as the watch 
itself, when considered alone, yet, merely because it is one of things contained within the boundary of 
another thing, it is, therefore, called a quality : and as all tilings are equally containers and ccmtained, 
they are all equally subjects or qualities, according as they are considered units or parts of units 

The Characteristic, then, always refers to the thinking subject, the ponstifJri; and the Matter, the 
jionsufoo'ri, is the immediate object of the mind. Take the sentence, " God is love." Considered mate- 
rially, it represents three substantive thbgs. First, God; second, love; and third, the relation betwixt 
these two thmgs, that of identity. These three constitute a picture of thmgs. 

But in addition to these material things or objects of the mind, there is the conventional sign of 
assertion, signified by the imion of the two words, " God is." Assertion is the act of the speaker — the 
vohmtary sign and pledge of his veracity ; — this sign refers to the thinking suhject. 

But reverting again to the above thi-ee material thmgs, — God, love, and identity. God is called 
the grammatical suhject; love, the predicate; and is, the verb expressing the relation betwixt the 
subject and predicate. 

SECTION III. 

In the cndeavom- to explain the natm'e of the Characteristic, (the most important subject of lan- 
guage), we may fm-ther observe, that it always expresses the relation in which the speaker, the Ego, 
stands to his speech, either as an asserter, enquu-er, directer, wisher, or mvoker. 

SECTION IV. 
We may also remark, that the relation so expressed always exists betwixt the Characteristic and 
every part of the speech in which it occurs: and, therefore, where thei'e is but one Characteristic, there 
can be but one sentence. Thus, "he came, saw, conquered," is one simple Assertive. But the same 
Matter may be divided into parts, and each part may have a separate Characteristic applied to it; 
as, He came; he saw; he conquered; or, Did he come? did he see? did he conquer? Another 
principle, however, comes here Into operation, namely the convenient leaving out, what, fi-om the 
context, may be fairly Implied: so that even the Characteristic may be implied: in which case the 
sentence may be considered singular or plural according to the evident mtentlon of the speaker. 

SECTION V. THE ASSERTIVE CHARACTERISTIC IS ALONE ABSOLUTELY 
NECESSARY TO DISCOURSE. 

All the simple sentences are publications of a fact; namely, what the speaker thinks, or feels. 
Every fact may be asserted: — thus, I may say, Where do you reside? or I may affirm that / wish to 
know where you reside." So I may sa}-. Depart in peace ; or, / require you to depart in peace. So 
I may say, Oh that you were sincere; or, / wish you were sincere. Again, I may say, What a brilliant 
speech ! or, / greatly admire the brilliance of that speech. So I may directly call a person by his 
name to awaken his attention ; or, I may say, / loish you would listen to my discourse. Here each 
sort of sentence Is converted into an Assertive. 

But although Interrogatives, Directives, Optatives, Exclamatives, and Vocatives, are not essential 
to the bare affirmation of an existing fact, language would be a very dull affair, with none but 
assertive sentences. 

Home Tooke speaks with his usual arrogance respecting Interjections ; which almost always express 
.some Characteristic, not assertive. He calls It " the brutish inarticulate Interjection; which has nothing 
to do with speech, and is only the miserable refuge of the speechless." And yet, he absurdly says, " it 



INTRODUCTION. 9 

has been permitted, because beautiful and gaudi/, to usurp a place among words, &c." He justifies his 
bitterness against the Interjection, because, he says, " the dominion of speech is erected on the downfall 
of Interjections ;" that, "without the artificial contrivances of language, mankind would have nothing 
but Interjections with which to communicate, orally, any of their feehngs." He further says, "Volun- 
tary Inteijections are only employed when the suddenness or vehemence of some affection or passion 
returns men their natural state^ and makes them, for a moment, forget the use of speech :" and that, 
" In books, they are used only for emhelltshment, and to mark strongly the above situations." But he 
further says, "where speech can be employed, i\i&j axe. totally useless ; and are absr&js insufficient for 
the purpose of communicating our thoughts." What an absm-d and contradictory attack upon this part 
of speech I 

He calls it " beautiful :" — he admits that prior to " the artful contrivances of language, mankind 
had nothing but Interjections with which to commimicate any of their feelings ;" — he admits that they 
are employed when the suddenness or vehemence of some affection or passion returns men to a state of 
Tiature (the state most deeply uiterestmg to mankind) and that they are used in books for " embellish- 
ment^'' and strongly to mark situations." 

He might as well condemn the natural accompaniment of tears and groans, of sighs and sorrowful 
looks, when narrating some of those facts in which both the speaker and the auditor are profoundly 
Interested. Those parts of speech which most effectually return us to " a state of nature" are certainly 
most precious, and indeed, essential to the noblest efforts of oratory and poetry, although it Is true 
that by Assertives, we might aflSrm, instead of directly shewing, how much we feel. 

SECTION VI. THE CHARACTERISTIC IS ALWAYS OF THE PRESENT TENSE, 
FOR IT IS THE ONLY FIXED AND ABSOLUTE TIME IN THE SENTENCE. 

In truth, as In expressing the longitude of any given city, we are first obhged to assume a first 
meridian, so in sentences, we are obliged to fix a temporal meridian. And If we just reflect that all 
sentences express some perception, cognition, or volition of the speaker, the time when that perception, 
&c. exists, is the only time which can be fixed as the jiresent; and to which the Characteristic alone 
appUes ; that Is to say, when he perceives, knows, or wishes : — when he utters the sentence. But more 
of this hereafter, when treating of the tenses. 

SECTION VII. WORDS MAY BE DIVIDED INTO THREE GENERAL KINDS 
IN RELATION TO THE CHARACTERISTIC AND THE MATTER. 

They may denote, First, the pure Characteristic ; — or, Secondly, the pure Matter / or, Thirdly, 
Mixed Words, which may express something of both: — and this mixture has created most of the 
difficulties which have so long defeated the attempts to define some of the forms of speech. Thus, such 
words as, ! Oh ! Oh that, Oh for, Ah 1 Alas ! &c. may be considered pure, as they denote no part 
of the matter, which usually represents their cause. 

In the Latin language, the word ne Is the sign of inten-ogation, and denotes no part of the 
matter; as, "O mene Incepto deslstere victam ?" "Me«e istud potulsse facere putas?" So the words 
utinam and si are the pure signs of a wish, and express no part of the matter or thing wished. 

With regard to Mixed Words, we may generally observe, that aU Indicative Verbs are of this 
kind, while Infinitives are purely material, and are no more a part of the general definition of a Verb, 
than any Noun, Adjective, or Participle : — but more of this hereafter. 
3 C 



10 INTRODUCTION. 



CHAPTER III. 



OF THE MATTER. 
We now proceed to the analysis of the Matter of Sentences : and first, we have seen that every 
sentence is divisible into Characteristic and ^Matter: now the Matter itself, of every simple sentence, 
is also divisible into two general correlative pai-ts, namely, the Subject and the Predicate — Bi'ndoi, 
Brindoi'kwi. 

SECTION I. 

The Subject is a mere Substantive, and in the order of relations, is always the first antecedent of 
every sunple sentence; moreover, it has no relative dependence upon any other substantive: as, 
1. Lazarus is dead. 2. Beauty is fleeting. 3. The day is far spent. 4. We refused, &c. 5. That 
he has arrived, is time, 6. For you to be present, is necessary. 

The first sentence aflu-ms the relation betwixt Lazarus and death : the second between beauty and 
transitoriness: the third, bet^nxt the day and its expiration: the fourth, betwixt us and refusal: the fifth, 
betwixt his arrival and truth : and sixth, betwixt your presence and necessity. Each of the correlatives 
has its name ; that which is first, is called the Subject, and that which is dependent upon it, the Predi- 
cate: — Subject and Predicate bemg the two parts into which the whole Matter is divided. With 
regard, however, to such relatives as fonn subordinate parts or members of the Subject or Predicate, 
their correlatives are respectively called Antecedent and Object, to denote their subordination. 

SECTION II. OF THE KINDS OF SUBJECTS. 
The units of language, whether denoted by words or phi'ases, are single things, of various forms; 
and therefore, to distinguish them, they have various names. All subjects, then, are arranged under 
the following heads: — 1. Proper Substantives. 2. Common Substantives. 3. Abstract Substantives. 
4. Pronouns. 5. Declarative Substantives. G. Infinitive Substantives. 7. Participial Substantives. 
8. Material Substantives. 

1. Proper Substantives. These are such single terms as permanently apply to Individuals, and not 
classes: as, ''■John is my brother:" '■'London is my native place." John and London are proper names. 

2. Common Substantives. These merely denote one or more things of a certain genus, dlSerence, 
species, sub-species or class, to which any person or thing belongs : as, " A horse is an animal." " The 
sun has risen.",? A horse means one of that class of beings called horses: and the sim denotes one of 
the class of stars each of which Is caUed a sun. So, " the sea ;" or, " the mountain y" denotes a 
particiUar object, but which is denoted by a term common to all seas and all mountains. 

This form of Substantive must have been of the earliest Invention. It consists of an Article and 
what is very improperly called a Common Substantive. Whereas, in fact, the Article itself is -the chief 
Substantive, and tlie subjoined word is an Adjective denoting the essence of a kind; and the two 
together signify one thing. Thus a house signifies one thing of that class : a horse signifies one thing 
of the horse kmd. Indeed, without the Article, neither house nor horse (being incomplete) can be made 
the subject of an assertion. We cannot grammatically say " House was built long ago," or, " Horse 
was bought long ago," and therefore they cannot be complete Substantives. The absence of the sign 
of unity, leaves only the sign of a part of something not particularised. 

It was, for the purpose of assertion, one of the earliest and happiest inventions of mankind, to fix 
upon some siyn of most generic and abstract natm-e like that of being, and then to subjoin any of the 



INTRODUCTION. 11 

species or special forms of being which would be comprehended under that sign as a genus. Thus, the 
verb "w" probably denoted existence originally ; and " / am," made an afEnnation ; and to this genus, 
if any less general term was subjoined, then, by virtue of its connection with the previous assertion, it 
became affirmed as one of the species of existence. So that " I am happy," originally meant " I exist 
happy. " The sun is shining," was " The sun exists shining." But as every sjjecies necessarily includes 
t/ie whole of its genus, the notion of existence would thus be tioice affirmed; first, in the Verb "«?«" 
and then in the subjoined woi-ds "happy" and "shining." A little use, however, would shew the 
superfluous i-epetition of the idea of existence, and that idea would soon be altogether dropped in the 
Verb; and the affirmation would then apply solely to the subjoined species or form of being. 

A similar invention was made of the genus of action. ^' I do" originally meant "/ act" and any 
unassertive term denoting some species of action might be subjoined to this formula ; and that term 
would be affirmed by virtue of that connection. But, as in the former case of being, the notion of action 
would be twice affirmed, first in the genus, and again in the species, mankind would soon drop the idea 
of action out of the genus " do" and would use it merely for its power to assert the species ; for " I do 
walk," conveys no more than "/ walk," except emphasis; and this very emphasis shews the abstraction 
of all notion of action, and the confining it to .the assertion when in doubt or denial. 

So, here above, the Article denotes that some one object is before the mind, and the imperfect sign 
called a Common Substantive, being subjoined, the whole expression is understood to be one thing of 
the kind denoted by the Common Substantive. It is clear, therefore, that the Article with its subjoined 
special term, constitutes but one Common Substantive. 

3. Abstract Substantives. These words, such as blackness, whiteness, &c. denote the part of 
some other unit or individuality. The syllable ness, is, in truth, the sign of unity, suffixed, instead of 
being prefixed to the concrete Adjective. Thus whiteness comes from white; and the syllable ness 
severs it from all other objects, and denotes, that what was part of some other thing, is here to be 
considered alone, as one object of the mind. Still, whiteness itself, means the whiteness of some other 
thing which contains it. "Whiteness and blackness denote a perfect contrast." "White is a color," 
really means the same as " Whiteness is a colour," and therefore is an Abstract Substantive. 

4. Pronouns. Every one is familiar with this kind of Substantive ; for Pronouns arc always the 
direct, though temporary names of things, and never, as their name imports, substitutes for Substantives. 
They are a species of temporary and relative names. 

Thus "/" denotes directly the speaker, but not his usual or common name ; and " Thou" tlie 
hearer, but not his common name. The name may be unknown. These words express also, the 
relation in which the parties to any speech stand to each other as speaker and auditor. 

As Subjects, Pronouns are more used than any other kind of Substantives ; as, "I am ; thou art ; 
he is; she is; it is; we are, ye are; they are." 

But some are of a form which is called the Accusative Case, i. e. the dependent form. These, sucii 
as me and us, thee, him, her and them, cannot be used as Subjects or Nominatives ; their form indicating 
their dependence on some prior word. The words, it and you, may be employed either as Subjects or 
Objects. This is a defect in our language. In the Philosophic, every Personal Pronoun is susceptible 
of ge'nder, if required ; as. 

Neuter, Masculine, Feminine. Neuter, Masculine, Feminine. 

Au, /.• Wau, /.• Yau, /.• Aur, ive : Waur, we : Yaur, we : 

A, thou: Wa, thou: Ya, thou: Ar, ye: War, ye: Yar, ye: 

Ai, it: Wai, he: Yai, she: Ar, they: War, they: Y.a; they. 



12 INTEODUCTION. 

So that a lady, in the dark, if she chose, might indicate her sex, merely by prefixing to the 
neuter Pronoun aw, the letter y; and a gentleman, his sex, by prefixing the letter xo. Thus, Wmk 
pompito'as, would signify — I, a male^ see you ; and yau pompito'as, I, a female^ see you. 

5. Declarative Substantives. First, Any expressson which will gramatically admit the words — 
"I assert" before it, will be a Declarative Substantive; as, I assert (1) — that the sun shmes : (2) — that 
life is short ; (3) — that honesty is the best policy. Here are thi-ee Declarative Substantives. 

Second, Any simple assertion may be converted into a Declarative Substantive, merely by prefixing 
the word that before it. 



Assertive. — The clock strikes one: Declarative. — That the clock strikes one. 

Assertive. — My sheep hear my voice. Declarative. — That my sheep hear my voice. 

Assertive. — My way is hidden. Declarative. — That my way is hidden. 

These Declarative Substantives may be Subjects or Objects : they may follow Verbs and Preposi- 
tions in the Accusative Case, and they may be represented by the Personal Pronoun It, or by the 
Relative Pronoun Which : — in fine, they may perform all the fimctions of Substantives, which in fact, 
they are. 

6. Infinitive Substantives. Where one Verb is immediately dependent upon another, the depen- 
dent Verb is called Infinitive. 

The expressions of this class are precisely of the nature of Declarative Substantives as to their 
funfition in any sentence. The difierence betwixt them consists in this ; that in Declarative Substantives, 
the chief Verb is of the form called Indicative, i. e. is capable, properly associated, of expressing 
assertion; and imaccompanied with the word that, would be an assei'tive sentence; but the Infinitive 
originally can form no part of the Assertive Characteristic. 

The Declarative is a make shift Substantive, produced by the cancellation of the Characteristic 
of an assertive : the Infinitive is, ab origine, a substantive. It is for this reason, perhaps, that where 
the Infinitive can be used. It is, as our grammars tell us, the more elegant, of the two forms, as, 
" Gaudeo gUod tu vales : — gaudeo te valere." 

First. There are two kinds of Infinitives, namely, complete and incomplete; the former is 
accompanied with its subject in the Accusative or Dependent form ; as, 

English. — For me to do it. For thee to do it. For it to do it. For him to do it. For her to 
do it. For us to do It. For you to do It. For them to do it. 

Philosophic. — Pi'ntipaiaM''zes. Pi'ntipaia'zes. Pl'ntipaiat'zes. Pi'ntipaiwVzcs. Pi'ntipaiM'nzes. 
PI'ntipaiajt''>-zes. Pl'ntipaia'Vzes. Pl'ntipaia'Vzes. 

Here we see the absurdity of the reason for calling this class of words Infinitives, — namely, that 
they are not capable, like Indicative V^erbs, of the variety of Subjects or what are caUed Person and 
Number. (See Harris's "Hermes.") 

Second. When the Antecedent and its Dependent Verb have the same Subject, the dependent 
Subject is not expressed, but is understood, by reflection, from the antecedent Subject ; as, 

I wish to go : i. e. I wish [for myself] to go. Thou wishest to go : I. e. Thou wishest [for thyself] 
to go. He wishes to go : I. e. he wishes [for himself] to go. She wishes to go : i. e. She wishes [for 
herself] to go. And so with all the other persons. 

, 7. Participial Substantives. Declarative Substantives have, for their chief Predicate, Indicative 
Predicates; — Infinitive Substantives, as their name Imports, have Infinitive Predicates; — and Participial 
Substantives, have Adjective and Participial Predicates. 



INTEODUCTION. 13 

Like Declarative and Infinitive Predicates, they admit of the same variety of Subjects : but it is 
a, curious fact, that while Assertlves have Nominative Subjects, — and Infinitives, Accusative Subjects, — 
Participials have Adjective Subjects ; as, 

Examjfles. 

My v^ishlng you to go, — Thy wishing him to go, — Its wishing him to go, — His wishing him to 
go, — fler wishing him to go, — Owr wishuig them to go, — Your wishing them to go, — I%ei> wishing 
you to go, — gave great offence. 

8. Material Substantives. Where any word or mark is being spoken of as such, and without any 
regard to its absolute meaning, it is called a Material Substantive ; as, 

"'iibneo,' in the Latin Language, signifies, I advise." "'Upon this rock' Is certainly part of 
the text." " 'A ' is called The Indefinite Article." 

This mode of using words, phrases, and sentences, is, by grammarians, denominated suj/jmsitio 
materialis. 



The above eight kinds of Substantives constitute the entire class of logical Subjects, which, with 
their Predicates, constitute the entire Matter of any given sentence. 

REMARKS ON SIMPLE AND COMPOUND SUBSTANTIVES. 

These are single words, which consist of one uncompounded sign, such as flagellation, appro- 
priation, sight, smell, taste ; or Include another sign, [ing]^ denoting the relation in which that single 
sign stands to some subsequent part of the sentence; as, Qogging the horse: — appropriatiw^ the 
money : — seeing the danger : — smellw*^ the flowers : — tasting the food. 

The words of this latter kind ai-e the exact equivalents of the fonner, with only the addition to 
each of the substantive sense of the preposition of/ as, flagellation of the horse : — appropriation of the 
money : — sight of the danger : — smell of the flowers : — taste of the food. 

As every Participial Substantive evidently contains the meaning of the preposition of, there Is 
something approaching to absurdity in such forms of language as LIndley Murray recommends ; such 
as, " These are the rules of grammar, by the observing of which you may avoid mistakes." The 
participle ^'observing" is alone exactly equivalent to the "observation of," and to add a second "of" 
is clearly redundant. 

The use of the article is no justification for using two prepositions. In very few cases, ought tiie 
Article itself be used before a participle; but its use, right or wrong, in no degree necessitates or 
justifies the use of two signs of relation, betwixt the participle and its object. 

SECTION TIL OF PREDICATES. 

These usually consist of Verbsj Active, Passive or Neutral — with their adjuncts. 

We are now arrived at a very interesting part of our subject, one which has vainly engaged the 
attention of many grammarians of high repute. 

The chief difficulty, of defining the Indicative Verb, has been Its double office : — first, as a part of 
the Matter or thing asserted or enquired; and secondly, as part of the Characteristic, I. e. the complex 
sign of assertion or interrogation. These two functions are essentially different, indeed, opposed to 
each other ; for, considered as part of the Characteristic, the Verb, with Its nominative, refers directly 
to the thinking subject — the assertor ; — and is Subjective: and, as part of the Matter, it refers to the 
thought object — the thing asserted ;-3,i\A Is Objective. As part of the complex sign of assertion, it 
4 D 



14 mTRODUCTION; 

might be called the Compkment of the Characteristic; while apart from that function, it would, Kke 
Substantives, Adjectives, Participles, &c. &c. merely denote some relative pai-t of the Matter or thing 
asserted. 

Eminent Grammarians have defined the Verb as follows: 

1. Dictio variabihs, quae significat actionem aut passionem. 

But surely action and passion are Substantives. What then is the essential difference betwixt the 
Verb and the Substantive ? As mere parts of the Matter, all the words of speech are simple Substan- 
tives, or aggregates of Substantives. 

2. Quod ad significat temptis sine casu. 

But time is a Substantive, and " quod'"- denotes a thing. Surely then the word time or the whole 
definition cannot denote a Substantive only, and a Verb only. 

3. Quod agere, pati, vel esse, significat. 

Here, again, "quod" denotes a thing, the name of which is a Substantive, and not a Verb. 

4. Nota rei sub tempore. 

Here we have another Substantive as the defiuition of a Verb. 

5. An Assertion. 

This is never true: — at least In the EngUsh Language. In the Learned languages, the words 
called Verbs have the power of expressing assertion ; but the etymological history of Latin and Greek 
Verbs, carried back far enough, would probably shew that originally they consisted of a Verb and Its 
Subject, coalescing Into one word before the mventlon of letters. Li our language, most certainly, 
neither the Subject nor the Verb has the power separately to express assertion ; It Is the act of imiting 
these two important members of a sentence which expresses assertion. 

6. Un mot qui presente h I'esprlt un etre iudetermlne, design^ seulment par Videe 
generale de Vexistence, &c. 

Surely, "un etre" and "VidSe de V existence" are Substantives only, and not Verbs only. 

All these definitions describe the Verb only as part of the Matter ; and as a Substantive. Thus, 
" A boy, who was smitten with the colours of a butterfly, pm-sued It from flower to flower." Here 
"■was" does not express asser<to«, and, indeed, may be entirely omitted, with Its relative pronoun; as, 
A boy smitten, &c. So, A virtuous woman, or, a woman who is virtuous, or, a woman of virtue, are 
exactly equivalent and the words in italics all equally perform the office of Adjectives. And in 
the above example, the words, " who was smitten" express no assertion, although the verb "was" is 
used: for the verb "pursued," subjoined to the subject, *^boy" completes the sign of assertion. 

Thus, whether grammarians have defined one or other of the functions of the verb, they have 
necessarily affirmed too much or too little. The verb Is not always part of the Characteristic; and as 
denoting any of the qualities in the above six definitions, it Is a mere substantive. 

To brmg the definition of the English Verb iuto as small a compass as possible, wc may say, that 
as part of the Characteristic, It Is capable of expressing Assertion, when subjoined, and Interrogation, 
when prefixed to a proper Subject : and secondly, as part of the Matter, it expresses the chief predicate 
of its own clause; — while Adjectives, Participles, Adverbs, Prepositions, &c. are subordinate to the 
Verb, considered as part of the Matter. 

The Philosophic Verb, in the thu-d person, even where its subject is not expressed, is always 
assertive; as, kla'ntoo, it is vile; fra'mpoo. It is unfortunate; timpoo. it is bright; bezi'mpo, i is 
loud ; pu'nsis. It is clear ; po'nto, it is true ; proiito, It is false. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

OF THE TENSE OF VERBS. 

There are but three tenses of Verbs, the Present, or comcldent ; the Past, or anterior ; and the 
Future, or posterior. (See page 117.) 

There is but one absolute Present in discourse ; that is here called the Temporal Meridian ; which 
means, the time when the speaker utters, or is supposed to utter, his sentence. This Temporal Meridian 
constitutes the time from which all other times are reckoned ; just as the Meridian of London is the line 
from which all longitudinal distance is calculated. 

All the words of a sentence, except where they themselves express some particular time, coincide 
with the Temporal Meridian. Where, by their form, they denote anteriority or posteriority in relation 
to this first Meridian, they are respectively called Past or Future. Thus, " I love," is Present, and 
coincides with the Temporal Meridian:^" I loved," is Past, and prior to that time: — and, "I shall love," 
is Future, or posterior to the Temporal Meridian. 

OF THE MODES OF VERBS. 

Some Verbs denote an action which is fixed to no precise point of time present, past, or future ; 
as, I walk — walked — or shall walk out — many times every day. This is called the Indefinite Mode- 
Again, I have written — I had written — I shall have written — the letter. These Verbs denote a com- 
plete action, whether present, past, or future. This is called the Conclusive Mode. Again, I am 
writing — I was writing — I shall be writing — the letter — ji:Jie7i he arrives. Here, whether present, past, 
or future, the action is in a progressive and unfinished state. 

Verbs, then, are of three Modes, Indefinite, Conclusive, or Progressive; and each Mode is Present, 
Past, or Future. ( See pages 65 and 66.) 

THE KINDS OF VERBS. 

These are Active, Passive, or Neutral. Strictly speaking, Active and Passive Verbs equally denote 
action. Their difference merely indicates the order and kind of their Subject and Object. Whether we 
say, John hves Mary, or, Mary is loved by John, the same fact is stated ; the difference is that, in the 
first case, the agent precedes the action and the patient follows it, while in the second case, the patient 
precedes the action, and the agent follows it : and as it is a mere chance, In discourse, which shall come 
first, agent or patient, we are obliged to have two forms of all Relative Verbs to meet this contlngence. 

There is also a large class of Verbs which do not express action, but mere state or relation. These 
are called Neutral. They are subject to the same variation as Verbs Active and Passive as to their 
tense, mode, and kind. Thus they are Indefinite Present, Past, or Future : first, denoting state ; as, 
He is happpy, he was happy, he will be happy : second, denoting relation ; as, he is in London, %oas 
in London, will be in London. 

Again, they are Conclusive Present, Past, or Future ; as, I have been happy, I had been happy, 
I shall have been happy. 

Again, (in the Philosophic) they are Progressive Present, Past, and Future ; as, I continue happy, 
I continued happy, I shall continue happy: i. e. au pa'mpoo, au pa'mplvll, au pa'mpivln. (See page 66.) 

SECTION IV. OF ADJECTIVES. 

Adjectives are words involving, at least, two simple Substantives, one, denoting the Object of a 
Relation: the other, the Relation itself. 

One essential Ingredient in the definition of an Adjective, is, that it fonns part of the essence of 
some complex logical Substantive ; as, A white horse. A sincere friend. A faithful wife. 



16 INTRODUCTION. 

Tlie distinction betwixt an Adjective and a true Participle, is, that the former is a logical part of 
the Subject, while the Participle is subjoined to a Subject already complete without it; as, A sincere 
friend may be candid. A friend, who is sincere, may be candid. Here we cannot remove the Adjec- 
tive, without aflfecting the truth of the sentence, as the predicate applies only to a sincere friend and 
no other. Again — " My friend, grieved at the suspicion, solicited an explanation." Here the words in 
Italics are not an essential part of the logical subject, but may be removed without affecting either the 
truth or tlie integrity of the sentence. 

Adjectives and Participles are exactly of the same form in the Philosophic Language, and their 
difference depends entirely in their application. Thus, in — A loving friend, or — a beloved friend, ^'loving" 
and ^'beloved" are both Adjectives, because logical parts of the Subject '■'friend/' but in this phrase, 
" My friend, loving his child, naturally protected it," or, " My friend, beloved by all, was naturally 
very content." Here " foyjw/' and '^beloved" are Participles. In these last cases, they are added to 
Substantives already complete : in the former they formed j?arf of the subject spoken of. 

Some Adjectives may be reduced to theu' elements and exhibited in a state of analysis; as, a 
virtuous woman — a woman of virtue — a woman who is virtuous, 

PRINCIPAL AND SUBORDINATE PREDICATES. 

Considered materially, Verbs always express the chief Predicate in their own clause ; but, on the 
contrary, Participles are always subordinate or secondary to Verbs, and may be omitted witliout inter- 
fering with the truth or integrity of the sentence. And this distinction of the Verb, as principal, 
applies to it when it Is the chief Verb in the sentence ; i. e. is part of the Characteristic ; or, when the 
Predicate of some dependent clause, being only part of the Matter. 

Thus, " The judge, struck with the reply, immediately interposed." " When I saw him prostrate 
and bleeding, I said, confused and terrified, what now appears inconsistent." Here the words in 
itahcs might be abstracted without interfermg with the truth of the sentence ; as, " I said what now 
appears inconsistent." 

Participles are generally parenthetical. 

We have said, Adjectives are logical parts of Substantives ; now Adverbs are secondary to, and 
parts of Verbs, Adjectives, and Participles, and sometimes of other Adverbs ; as, " He sincerely loved 
her." " He Is a truly good man." " He was very diligently employed." Here the love Is sincere, the 
goodness is genuine, the diligence is great. 

SECTION V. OF ADVERBS. 

Adverbs, like Adjectives, consist of a sitnjyle Substantive with some sign of relation, both compre- 
hended in one word. In this, both Adjectives and Adverbs agree. The difference Is this, the sign of 
Relation comprehended in Adjectives, relates or refers to some Substantive, while In Adverbs, the sign 
of Relation refers to some Adjective, Verb, or Participle ; or, lastly, to some other Adverb. 

By means of these signs of relation, a train of consecutive Substantives may be formed, com- 
mencing with a common Substantive. Thus, we may speak of^A most extremely brilliantly illumi- 
nated palace. Here illuminated applies to palace, brUUantly to Illuminated, extremely to brilliantly, 
most to extremely. The simple Nouns Involved In this expression, are, palace, Illumination, brilliance, 
greatness, and highest degree. To make illumination part of the Noun, we call It "an Illumluatcd 
palace;" to make brilliance a part of the Adjective "illuminated^'' we call It a "brilliantly Illuminated 
palace ;" to express the degree of the brilliance, we say, " an extremely brilliantly illuminated palace ;" 
and to denote the highest degree, we say, "a most extremely brilliantly Ilkunlnated palace." Words 
so connected are called concatenated ; I. c. like the links of a chain. These forms arc for Illustratiori 
only, not for imitation. 



INTRODUCTION. 17 

Where each of a train of words lias the same coiumoii antecedent or object, they are called 
coordinate; as, ''I saw the Queen, the Prince Albert, the Prince of Wales, and attendants." Here 
each member of the train was seeti. These Substantives have the same common dependence, the verb, 
"saw." "The Queen, the Prince Albert, the Prince of Wales, and attendants, were umversally 
greeted." Here each one belongs equally to the same predicate, " greeted." They are therefore 
called coordinate. 

SECTION VI. OF PREPOSITIONS. 

These are words expressing certain relations betwixt the Substantives of Language; but, by 
convention, their form denotes that they are not coordinate with the nouns between which they appear, 
but that they are short duplicates of certain tabular Substantives, denotmg the relation in which the 
concomitant substantives stand to each other: as, "He writes icith a pen." Here the word "with'' 
denotes, parenthetically, that "the pen" is the instrument used in writing, which expresses the relation 
in which the " pen" stands to the operation of writing ; " he" being the agent. Thus, " He writes 
[with i.e. instrument) a pen;" but as the signs of this class are parenthetical^ the prepositional abridg- 
ment is always adopted to express that fact. Otherwise there would appear to be three coordinate 
Substantives instead of two; as, "he writes instrument a pen." 

These prepositions frequently express some modification of the Verb ; they are then Adverbs : as, 
to ascend. Is to go up : — to descend, to go down. 

In general. Prepositions denote the relation In which their Objective Substantive stands to some 
anterior member of the sentence ; as, " he rode from Salisbury to Winchester." 

Prepositions are generally small and imemphatic, but by no means imlmportant words. In the 
Philosophic, therefore, they are usually suffixed to their objects ; as, U'ndi, God ; Unde'«i', from God. 
Yondiro&pu, with the King ; Fombroo^i, without the Prince. So pondo'^w, for truth ; pondo'Si, against 
truth. All the Prepositions of the Philosophic are capable of this elegant mode of expression. 

SECTION VII. OF CONJUNCTIONS. 
Apart from the forms of language. Prepositions and Conjunctions are of the same nature, and 
express, precisely, the same relation. Thus, " he retired after their arrival, but returned before their 
departure." Here, "after" and '■'before" are called Prepositions. Agam, " He retired q/i!er they had 
arrived, but returned before they departed." Here, "before" and "after" are called Conjunctions: 
and yet, the two sentences are exobcthj synoniinous. This distinction Is founded on Ignorance of 
the fact, that the Object of any relative word must be a Substantive ; whether one word, or several 
united to express one thing. When " after" and " before' are called Prepositions, they refer poste- 
riorly to a common Substantive ; but when called Conjunctions, they refer to a Declarative Substantive. 
Men have been lost In the fog of verbal forms for the want of a philosophic analysis ; so that the real 
relations of the things signified are overlooked; while signs, merely grammatical, have been treated 
and classified as If they denoted real substantive conceptions of things. A permanent relation betwixt 
signs and realities will be ultimately established : but posterity has yet much to do. 

SECTION VIII. OF ARTICLES. 

There are two Articles, a and tlie. In the English, and especially In the French language, they 
are very frequently used, while In the Latin language, both are usually omitted. Where, however, 
the Article is emphatlcal, some one of the Demonstratives, such as hic^ hcec, hoc ; tile, ilia, illud ; iste, 
ista, {stud, are used In Its stead ; as, " Alexander i7fe Magnus;" — " Alexander <Ae Great." "Ego, ille 
ipse ;"— " I, the self-same person." " Tu'm Iste vir optimus ;" " Then the same excellent man." 
5 E 



18 IXTRODUCTIOX. 

In the Philosopliic, the article "</(c" is alwai/s to be understood as comprehended in the significa- 
tion of every Substantive: for though it impUes a reference to something preceding, or afterwards 
described, there is no obscm-ity arises from its omission; as the context fully settles the alternative. 
Thus, "Au po'mpitel bi'nzi gyau'su pra'ntisel gloo da'nzoi." Here "bi'nzl" man; has no Article, either 
definite or indefinite. Now the ride is, that the article " the" is to be understood. It woidd then 
be, prima facie, " I saw the man when I was going along the street." Now, if no man had been 
previously noticed, the article ^^ the" would imply what the auditor knew was not correct; and therefore 
he would necessarily understand that the indefinite and not the definite article was the proper one for 
this case ; and he would then construe It, " I saw a man when I was walking along the street." 

Condillac says, veiy truly, " II seroit a souhaiter qu'on supprimat I'Article toutes les fots, que les 
noms sont suffisament determines par la nature de la chose ou par les circmnstances ; le discourse en 
seroit plus vif. Mais la grand habitude que nous nous en souunes fait, ue le permet pas: et ce n'est que 
dans des proverbes, plus anciens, que cette habitude que nous nous faisons ime loi de la suppiimer. On 
dit 'Pauvi-ete nes pas vice:' au lieu de dire, ' La pauvrete n'est pas un vice: &c. &c.' " 

" It is to be wished, that the Article should be suppressed every time the nouns are sufficiently 
defined by the nature of the thing, or by the context : discoiu-se would be more lively, &c." 

It is on the groimds here laid down, that, in the Philosophic, we omit the Article as a separate 
word, always imderstanding that the Definite Article is comprehended within the meaning of the noun, 
unless the context contradicts that implication; and then understanding, the Indefinite, if concrete; and 
no Article at all, if abstract. 

As Home Tooke con-ectly observes, " without any injiu-y to the meanmg of the aljove extract, the 
Article might have been omitted twelve or thirteen times." 

Still, in the Philosophic, we have a greater variety of Articles than, perhaps, any other language ; 
and in eveiy case of doubt, the Article ought to be used. 

SECTION IX. THE INTERJECTION. 
Notwithstanding Home Tooke's obsei-vations, (see page 9), the Interjections are important as parts 
of discourse; for they are all Subjective, like tears, and groans, and sighs, and smiles, or a serious or 
vivacious expression of countenance, which naturally and involimtary indicate, but do not assert, the 
state of the speaker's feelings and emotions. And if these signs are simulated, as when any one 
says, " How beautiful !" or when affecting to be hurt, cries out " Oh," or indicating grief, sheds 
tears, or sighs, or cries " Alas ! Alas !" no one charges him with lying, but with dissimulation. 

The external sign seems to be forced by some irresistible cause. Wilkins has given a very full 
hst of these important words, at page 308, to which we refer the reader. 

Uxamplcs. 

1. Expressing Admiration. Heiyh Sirs I Z/bio beautifid ! TtVia^ a beauty ! Philosoj)hic, — Hai ! 
Jyoo'tu ! Sloo ! 

2. Doubt, Hesitation, and Private Reasoning. Hm! pronounced hum, with the lips closed; the 
soimd passing out at the nose. Philosophic, — the same sound. 

3. Contempt. Pish! Tysh ! Tush! Bah! Philosophic,— Fhl Tis! Tug, Bha! 

4. Laughter. Ha ! ah ! ah ! Philosophic,-Rar- ! ha ! ha ! 

5. Sorrow. Oh dear ! Oh ! Alas ! Lack a day ! Ah ! P/»7o«oy;«c, Ho ! Ula's ! Ulak ! 

6. ■ Hatred. Van! Hau ! Avaunt! Philosophic,— the same sounds. 

7. Wishing, Desire. Oh that ! Oh for! osi.' (See the Optatives, page 109). 

8. Disgust or Shame. Fie ! ile ! Philosophic, — Fi!fi! 



INTRODUCTION. 19 

The preceding are not necessarily addi-essed to any other person : expressing only what passes in 
the breast of the speaker. The following are more social, being designed to aflfect the party addressed. 

9. Vocative. ; as, O my friend ! Soho there ! Holloa ! FhihsophiG, — Ho ! Soho ! Hollo ! 

10. Imperative. Hush ! Ish ! St ! i. e. Be silent ! Philosophic, — Hus ! Is ! St ! 

11. Bespeaking Attention. Oh: as, Oh Sir! Philosophic, — Ho! 

12. Expressing Attention. Well! Ah! Yes! Philosophic, — Fo'ndi! Zim! Zil! Ham! Gel! &c. 

13. Insinuation or Blandishment. Now, my child! Well, my dear! Now then, dont fear! 
Philosophic, — Gel ! Fo'ndi ! 

14. Threatening. Woe! woe! Ffevictis! Philosojjhic, — Oh fra'mboo, pemprufoo'ruz ! Woe, 
to the vanquished! 

SECTION X. OF ADJUNCTS. 

It is convenient to have a name for every kind of member of sentences ; and the word Adjunct, is 
here employed to denote a word or phrase, consisting of some Preposition or Conjimction together with 
its Object; as, "After much delay." '■^Before he came." " (9?z this rock." "Jm such circumstances." 
" Against advice." " Froin the enemy." Here " after," a Preposition, and " much delay," its Object, 
together constitute an Adjunct; and so the relative words, "before," "on," "in," "against," and "from," 
with their respective Objects, constitute together an Adjunct. 

What are called Adverbs, generally comprehend the force of an Adjunct, and are then resolvable 
into a Preposition and its Object. 

When a Verb is relative, then, imited with its Object, the expression is also called an Adjunct. 
" They love their country." " She refused his offer." " We complain of ill treatment." " He rebuked 
the toind." The expressions in italics are called Adjuncts. 

SECTION XI. RELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

Relative Pronouns, no doubt, originated from Interrogatives : (see page 76.) Interrogatives appear 
to have been formed from the following very general names ; thing, person, time, place, mode, and 
reason or cause. Now, the sign of Interrogation, added to these words, would perfectly suggest enquiry 
about a thing, or person ; about the time, place, manner, and cause of something. Some such sign was 
invented, which has come dowia to us in the form of wh ; no doubt much modified since its first inven- 
tion. Let us then suppose wh (a guttei'al aspiration) equivalent to our usual interrogative sign, ?, to be 
added to the above names, and they will constitute Interrogative Nouns; i. e. Relative Pronouns: as 
follows : 

Thing ? will siguify wha,i ? or what thing ? Person ? will signify who ? or what person ? Time ? 
will sigalfy when? or what time? Place? will signify where? or what place? Mode? will signify 
how ? or what manner ? Cause ? will signify why ? or what cause ? 

The Relative Pronouns, tohom, whose, whence, and whither, obviously have the same origin, 
as well as the word how, although disfigured by use. 

SECTION XII. OF THE CANCELLATION OF THE CHARACTERISTIC. 
Relative Pronouns, i. e. Subjunctive Substantives, (see page 76) are formed from Interrogatives 
by cancelling the Characteristic Interrogative. This may be done by prefixing to the question another 
and different Characteristic ; which has the effect of converting the sentence from a question into an 
directive, or some other kind of sentence, corresponding with the Characteristic, prefixed. 
The following examples arc transformed from Interrogatives by prefixing Assertives. 



20 INTRODUCTION. 

Examples. 
Interrogatives. Assertives. Interrogatives. 

What do you want ? / know what you want. Which do you prefer ? / know which you prefer. 

Who sold it ? / know toko sold it. Whom did you see ? / know whom you saw. 

Whose house is that? / know ivhose house that is. When will they come? I know when they will come. 

Where does he live? / know where he hves. Whence do they come? I know whence they come, 

ir/ijif^er shall you go ? I know whither jon wA qo. iJow far is he gone ? /A:«oto Aow far he is gone, 

i/i.xr much will it cost? I know how much it will cost. Why do they refuse? I know why they refuse. 

Look at the first example. " What" is interrogative at the beginning of a sentence : but if the 
words, "I know" are prefixed to the word " what?" the word loses its interrogative force and becomes a 
mere substantive, denoting the thing known. All the other interrogative words are converted from 
interrogatives (i. e. Characteristics) into substantives (i. e. mere Matter) ; and the sentence becomes 
wholly an assertive sentence. 

By prefixing the Directive Characteristic (Tell me) to each of the same twelve interrogative 
examples, the interrogatives are all cancelled, and thereby become directive sentences and parts of the 
m'rre mutter: as, Interrogative Sentence — What do you want? Directive Sentence — Tell me what you 
want. Interrogative Ssn'ence — Whicli do you prefer? Directive Sentence, Tell me which you prefer. 

The sam>! effect is produced by an Optative Characteristic. What do you want ? Oh that I knew 
what you want ! Which do you prefer ? Oh that I knew which you prefer ! Who sold it ? Oh that T 
knew who sold it ! 

It should be observed, that the cancellation of interrogatives such as what ? which ? who ? where ? 
&c. is effected not only by prefixing another kind of Characteristic, but if placed in any dependent 
situation, the same effect is produced. Examples: — 

After what he saw. With which he left. From whom they departed. Tlie man whose wish and 
care. Tlie place where. Tlie time when : &c. &c. &c. 

It should also be observed, that as the Interrogative Characteristic may be cancelled by prefixing 
an assertive; so an assertive may be converted into a mere substantive by inserting a relative pronoun 
betwixt the nominative or subject and its predicate; as. Assertive — Life is short. Sibstantive — Life, 
which is short. Assertive — The soldiers came too late. Substantive — The soldiers who came too late. 
Assertive — The universe indicates design. S.cbstantive — The universe zohich indicates design. 

All the clauses dependent on Relative Pronouns are of the natm-e of Adjectives or Participles ; and 
are indispensable to enable us to express the tenser of Adjectives, which in the English Language cannot 
be expressed by the simple Adjectives themselves. We ought to be able to say, — A good man, i. e. a 
man who is good; or a man who iom good; or who will ba good; &c. In the PliIlo5<)|ih:c, the 
Adjective has the pow;ir to express all the tenses of the Verb, without the aid of the Relative Pronoun. 

Examples. 
A good man, — U font! bl'nzikur : A man who was good, — U fo'ntuvil bi'nzlkur : A man who 
will be good, — U fo'utuvin bl'nzikm-. A man who has been good, — \J folnti bl'nzikur. A man 
who had been good, — U foi'ntuvil bl'nzikur. A man who will have been good, — U foi'utuvin binzikur. 
A man who continues good, — U fo'nti bl'nzikur. A man who continued good, — U fo'ntuvil binzikur. 
A man who will continue good, — U fo'ntuvin binzikur. 

Every tabular Adjective, in the Philosophic, when the sense requu-es it, is capable of expressing 
these tenses with equal ease and elegance ; and the same may be said, also, of Adverbs tabular. 

These various uses of the Relative Pronouns originate entirely with and from interrogatives, by 
their transposition and consequent privation of their interrogative force. 



INTRODUCTION. 21 

SECTION XIII. OF SUBJECTIVES ABSOLUTE AND EELxiTIVE: 
OF OBJECTIVES: AND SUBJECTIVES OBJECTIVE. 
There are thi"ee general kinds of words, which may be called, 

First, Suhjectives Absolute. These alone, purely and perfectly, denote the Characteristic of some 
sentence. They are such as, O ! Oh ! Oh that! Oh for! 6 si/ utinam! and the pure interrogative 
Characteristic ne. These are vocative, exclamative, optative, or interrogative. 

Second, Suhjectives Relative. These express the Characteristic only by relation to some other 
word, with which they are united; as, " God is just." "The war still rages." "The razor cuts 
beautifully." "The French fight bravely." 

These are of two kinds. (1.) Copulative; and (2.) Predicative. 

1. The Copulative; such as, am, are, is, do, does, did, &c. have the power, associated with a 
proper subject, of expressing assertion or interrogation, which makes them Subjective: but they express 
no part of the matter of the predicate; as, 

Examples. 
We are happy. We were absent. We do exist. We do love. We do feel. We did see. 
Do and did, express no part of the thing affirmed, which is happiness, absence, existence, love, 
feeling, and seeing. 

2. The Predicatives, however, do, in one word, compreliend and express part of the matter of the 
predicate, as well as being the complement to the Characteristic. 

Examples. 
We exist. We love. We feel. We see. 
These comprehend the force of the previous examples ; namely, we do exist ; we do love ; we do 
feel, we do see. 

Third, Objectives— jjurely Material. Articles, Substantives Dependent, Adjectives, Participles, 
Adverbs, (except the word there). Prepositions and Conjunctions, are Objective: they never form 
part of the Characteristic of a simple sentence. 

Even Indicative Verbs, when dependent, as, when following Relative Pronouns, are pure objective 
words or mere matter ; that is to say, are not signs of assertion, interrogation, &c. but are parts of the 
thing asserted, enquired, wished, &c. Thus, " This is my friend" — " m" is Subjective, being part of 
the Characteristic ; but, — " The man who is my friend will defend me." Here " is" is Objective, and 
forms no part of the Assertive Characteristic, which is, " The man will." 

Fourth, Subjectives Objective. Such words as partly or wholly constitute the Characteristic and 
also denote some part of the Matter, are called by this compound name. All Indicative Verbs used to 
express assertion, interrogation, or direction, have this double office. Take the following mere picture 
of unappropriated ideas. "The sun's shining:" an expression, which, taken as a v.'hole, is a mere 
Substantive, and purely material. Then Ave have — 

First, Matter:— The sun's rising. Second, Ass&-tive: — The sun rises. Third, Interrogative: — 
Rises the Sun ? Fourth, Directive : — Rise, O sun ! 

The second, third, and fourth examples, denote part of the Characteristic, as well as the Matter. 

The limits which we have prescribed to ourselves, compel ns here to conclude these very general 
and imperfect observations on the Constituents of Discourse. 
6 F 



22 INTRODUCTION. 



PART II. 



ON THE ADVANTAGES OF THE PHILOSOPHIC LANGUAGE. 

We are obliged to limit our observations on this subject within very narrow boimds indeed. We 
cannot pretend even to touch all the pomts ; and what we touch must be passed over very shghtly. 
We would observe then : — 

First: — It furnishes a perfect Alphabet easily acquired; and one which would convey, even to 
ehildi-eu, an adequate knowledge of the elementary sounds of language, both vocal and consonantal. It 
would, also, enable them clearly to understand the relation betwixt these sounds and the organs 
employed iu their production. The power of spelling and reading perfectli/ would follow the acquisition 
of the Philosophic Alphabet, in a very few weeks at farthest. We had almost said — days.* 

Secondly : — One grand principle of the Philosophic Language is, that every word shall be strictly 
univocal: — rigidly confined to one meaning only. The consequence is, that when the roots of the 
Philosophic are perfectly imderstood ; mcluding a knowledge of the meaning of the genera, differences, 
species and subspecies ; all perplexity and doubt as to the meaning of any given sentence would be 
at an end : every word, however compound, being immediately resolvable into its elements, with which 
the auditor or speaker had been previously made perfectly familiar. 

The cm-se of existing language is, that one word is used to represent many different, and in some 
cases, opposite meanings. In our own, the following eighteen words represent no less than one thousand 
one himdred and fifty seven meanings: namely, break, bring, cast, clear, come, cut, draw, fall, hand, 
keejJ, lay, make, pass, put, run, set, stand, and take. 

There ai-e no less than one hundred and thirty foiu* meanings to the word take ; and one great 
mischief, is, that the mind is left all abroad to guess which of the hundi'ed and thirty four meanings 
is to be selected. Not one of the above words has so few as a score different meanings. How valuable, 
then, must a language be in which one sign invariably refers the mind to one thing, and one thing only. 

Tliirdly : — The roots of the Philosophic are aU intended to be literal. WTien, therefore, they are 
used in a figm-ative sense, the sign of a metaphor is prefixed to the word. Thus pdnti signifies lite- 
rally, straight ; and pre/nti, crooked ; but when employed metaphorically to denote a moral idea, the 
syllable 2)2", is prefixed to the word straight or crooked. Thus piperiti signifies straight forward, honest, 
upright ; and piprenti, metaphorically crooked, perverse, disengeuuous. 

Fourthly: — In this language, the whole sense of eveiy compoimd word, phrase, or sentence, is 
resolvable and exactly distributable into its visible elements: each element contributing its exact 
meaning towards that of the whole compound. Thus, the letter </, in a certam combination, signifies 
time; ro, signifies that; ri, signifies after; and kwi, signifies and: and these compoimded uito the 
word grr/cikwi, signify, and after that time. This is one specimen of the aggi-egation of four significant 
syllables mto one word ; which, as the elements never vary then- meaning, is quite as inteUigible as 
if the significant syllables were all converted mto distmct, independent words. In what Dr. Wilkins 
calls ^'•instituted languages,'^ an idiom ft-equently consists of some phrase or sentence, the whole of which 
has a meaning, but wliich cannot be distributed among its parts or elements. Thus, the sentence, 



See Alphabet, page 1. 



INTEODUCTION. 23 

" How do you do ?" and the corresponding sentence in the French language, " Comment vous portez- 
vous?" elementally signify, — In what manner do you act? But, as a whole, these sentences constitute. 
an enquiry after your health. So, in the latter language, the phrase "t7 a," it has or he has, is exactly 
distributable betwixt the two words il and a; but "ilya," it there has; elementally considered, is 
perfect nonsense. Considered, however, as one conventional sign, it is synonimous with our phrase 
'"'■ there is," and is found very convenient. Idioms are no doubt the invention of barbarous ages, which, 
being once, as a whole, fixed to one very useful and frequently recurring meaning, have become 
established as irremovable and unchangeable parts of the language. 

Fifthly: — It is an important feature of the Philosophic, that all the words of it are arranged 
according to the natm-e of the things which those words represent. Thus, all the words denoting 
insects, fishes, birds, and beasts, have this universal similitude, — that the sign denotmg insect, fish, &c. 
is to be seen in the centre of its name. In composition, when several things of the same genus are 
connected together and have some common dependence, the signs, and sounds, and the things they 
represent, have a beautiful correspondence, which is not only pleasing but materially assists the memory. 
Thus, in the Litany, we have the ecclesiastical terms, " Bishops, Priests, and Deacons" (words which 
have no similarity of form) expressed in the Philosophic by " Vu'mhroiz, Fu!ndroiz, Dvimbroi'hwizr 
So, we have, " Glory be to the Father^ to the Son, and to the Rohj Ghost,''' which in the Philosophic, 
is, " Suk timo'raboo po'ntipi Undoo'nu, Undoinu, Und(^nukwi" Again, " From all sedition^ privy con- 
spiracy, and rehellion, &c." i. e. " Lou'ni talmbrq^ bra'ntu falnihro, tandrq'kioi^ &c." 

These alliterations are not devised for ornament : they are very useful as well as beautiful by their 
constant suggestion of their connnon genus, difference, or species; while, at the same time, the 
expressions acquire strength from the shape of the materials. 

Sixthly: — Another result of the classification of things into genera, differences, and species, is, 
that as soon as the forty genera are learned, some portion of the meaning of every tabular substantive, 
adjective, verb, and adverb of the language is thereby Icnown. To those who have observed the effect 
of suggesting the smallest portion of something which is for the moment forgotten, the value of the 
generic sign in every tabular word of the language, will be apparent. 

Take an instance. All Insects, Fishes, Birds, and Beasts, have, in the centre of their names, 
respectively, onj, anj, enj, inj ; as, Fo'ryoo, leech; 'Pa'njoo, whale; Ten'joo, eagle; 'Pi'njoo, horse. 
So, the three classes of Herbs have in their centre, omv, amv, emv ; the Shrubs, imv ; and the Trees, 
umv; as, Po'mvoo, mushroom; 'Ba'mvoo, hemp; Vre'mvoo, columbine; Vi'mvoo, raspberry; and 
Pm'jmuoo, apple. Thus the whole heap of words in the Dictionary is divided into forty heaps, called 
genera, having a distinct mark to each of them ; then each of these smaller heaps is further divided 
into about six heaps, called diffci'ences, and each of these heaps, called differences, is further subdivided 
into a certain number of still smaller heaps called species ; and the sign of the genus, difference, and 
species, has a certain perfectly intelligible meaning, which on bare inspection, tells the total meaning 
of any tabular word in the language. 

From these examples, we sec how the genera are denoted ; namely, by a central syllable. Now, 
each of these is divided into six classes, called differences; and this is done by a peculiar termination, 
suffixed to the generic words above given. Thus, beasts are divided into six sorts. The first, are tchole 
footed; which is denoted by oo. Thus, i'njoo divided into its visible elements, will consist of itij, beast; 
and 00, whole footed; which joined, becomes injoo, whole footed beast. Again, oi, signifies cloven 
footed ; which joined to inJ, becomes i'njoi, and signifies cloven footed beast. Again, q, signifies chived 
but not rapacious ; which joined to inj, signifies clawed but not rapacious beast. So, n, signifies In this 



24 INTRODUCTION. 

connection, rapacious of the cat kind ; and t?, rapacP"^ ^^ ^^^ '^''5' kind; while «s, signifies oviparous. 
These joined to inj, become i'njq^ Unjil, and i'njis ; beasts of those three kinds. 

Seventhly: — Eacli of these differences is fiu-ther subdivisible into species, by prefixing to each of 
them, the following letters; p, f, t, k, h, v, d, g, tord; as, pi'njoo, fi'njoo, tinjoo, ki'njoo, bi'njoo, 
vi'njoo, di'njoo, gi'njoo, tl'njoo, and di'njoo. 

Read over the tables at page 5, and so on ; where the mode of forming the species will be under- 
stood on bare inspection. 

Eighthly : — In treating of the advantages of a scientific language, it is impossible to overlook that 
which would result from its influence upon Logic. Dr. Whately and other logicians, lay it down, that 
Logic is '■'■wholly concerned in the use of language." It seems, therefore, to follow, that a perfect 
theory of language ought to comprehend within it, the whole of the science of Logic. Indeed, but 
for that essential part of language, general terms^ Logic could have no existence. The sole object of 
the syllogism is to shew what particulars are contained within the general term. Now a Philosophic 
Language has for its chief object, the exact definition of general tenns : its tables are nearly all general 
terms : — so defined, as to be well known to every one who has acquired the language. The syllogism, 
therefore, becomes unnecessary; its sole object being to supply infonnation ah-eady possessed by him 
who understands the general term. Take the following syllogism. "AU tyrants deserve death: — 
Csesar was a tyrant: — therefore Csesar deserved death." Where is the necessity for the formal 
conclusion? The man who knows that " All tyrants deserve death," and knows also, that " Caesar was 
a tyrant," is in possession of the conclusion already. 

It is admitted that the syllogism is merely explicative : but if a language were accurately con- 
stnicted and thoroughly leai'ued, it would i-equu-e no explanation. Logic suppUes no new facts. It is 
purely critical. 

Lastly: — K we might suppose a generation of mankind educated from infancy in the exclusive 
use of a Philosophic Language, we may affirm, with high probability, that, as an exhibition of beautifid 
order, both as to signs and things, — such a perfect medium of thought, the same elemental signs always 
denoting, in all possible combinations, the same exact elements of things, — such an instrument, studied 
and practised before prejudices of any kind had been infused into the mind ; compelling talkers to be 
quite acciurate, or, the next best thing, modest and taciturn, — we say, with confidence, tliat such a 
language would have a most powerful influence upon the mental and moral habits, — would train up 
children to a love of truth and exact order, and a hatred of nonsense, of falsehood, of hypocrisy, 
double-entendre, cant, and grandiloquence, whether in common convei-sation, in lecturing, or preaching. 



PART III, 



GENERAL DIRECTIONS AND OBSERVATIONS. 

First, — Perfectly learn the Alphabet at page 1. Do not attempt to proceed till this is accomplished. 
This done, proceed to the tables of genera at page 4; o'ndi, a'ndi, &c. Then proceed to read the 
columns of words at page o, taking care after d, l>, and d, and before oo, to sound the letter y, thus, 
o'ndoo, o'mboo, and o'ndoo, are to be pronounced as if written o'ndyoo, o'mbyoo, and o'ndyoo. The 
same letter is to be pronounced after t, p, and t ; as if written ©"ntyoo, o'mpyoo, and o'ntyoo. 



INTRODUCTION. 2.5 

Read all the tables through, from page 4 to page 47, as an exercise on the alphabet ; and the 
reader will then pretty well understand what follows. Mind, also, to interpose the sound of the letter 
2, betwixt any two words, the one ending, the next beginning, with a vowel ; as, au urn, pronounced 
au'aum; au im, pronounced au'zim; ke'ntino o, pronounced kentino'zo. 

Secondly, — The next step is to learn to repeat, consecutively, the tables, in English, of Genera, 
Differences, Species, and Sub-species, betwixt page 4 and 47. Observe: — learn the English words first. 
We, ourselves, have heretofore written out lists from the tables, and have united the exercise of walking 
with rejjeating, till the whole of the tables were learned, except the imusual names of herbs, insects, &c. 
which may be learned afterwards, when required. Next, learn the Philosophic ivvrds corresponding 
with the English, and in the same order. This may be done by covering the column of English words 
and from the Philosophic repeating each word ; and then, looking at the corresponding English, to test 
the memory. Thus, conceal the word genus, and, from the opposite word o'ndoo, endeavour to remem- 
ber it ; and so proceed with all the other words consecutively. 

Thirdly, — With regard to Herbs, Shrubs, Trees, Insects,' Fishes, Birds, and Beasts, beginning 
at page 11, read them over, and learn those in common use. 

Fourthly, Having learned the tables, as heretofore directed, it must be remembered that they are 
all Substantives. These Substantives are, by certain rules, to be converted into Adverbs neutral,'^ ^\^rbs 
neutral, and Adjectives neutral. 

The Genera, at page 4, are all arranged according to their meaning, in a scientific order. But it 
is desirable, here, to shew the mechanical structure of the roots, and also of their derivatives, the 
adverbs, verbs, and adjectives. For it is a grand principle of the Philosophic, that all adverbs, verbs, 
and adjectives, are derived from substantives. The following table consists of the forty generic substan- 
tives; but, instead of bemg arranged according to their meaning and to the natural order of the things 
they represent, they are arranged according to their mechanical structure, as signs or sounds. 





I. ALL 


THE 

THE GEN] 


I FORTY Gmm 


A. 

NEUTRAL. 






5RIG SUBSTANTIVES 




o'ndi, 


o'ndri. 


o'mbi. 


o'ndi. 


o'nzi, 


o'nzi, 


o'mvi, 


o'nji, 


a'ndi. 


a'ndi-i. 


a'mbi. 


a'ndi, 


a'nzi, 


a'nzi. 


a'mvi, 


a'nji. 


e'ndi, 


e'ndi'i, 


e'mbi. 


e'ndi. 


c'nzi. 


e'nzi. 


e'mvi. 


e'nji, 


i'ndi. 


i'ndri. 


i'mbi. 


i'ndi, 


i'nzi. 


i'nzi, 


i'mvi. 


i'nji, 


u'ndi. 


u'ndri. 


u'mbi, 


u'ndi. 


u'nzi. 


u'nzi, 


u'mvi. 


u'nji. 



Observe: — Five initial vowels, and eight single or double consonants, with w or ■;« between them, 
constitute the forty generic Substantives of the language. These are converted into generic Adverbs, 
merely by changing the final vowel * into u. 

II. ALL THE GENERIC ADVERBS NEUTRAL. 



o'ndn, 


o'udru. 


o'mbu. 


o'ndu. 


o'nzu, 


o'nzu, 


o'mvu. 


o'nju. 


a'udu, 


a'ndru, 


a'mbu. 


a'ndu. 


a'nzu, 


a'nzu. 


a'mvu, 


a'nju. 


e'ndu. 


e'ndru. 


e'mbu. 


e'ndu. 


e'nzu, 


e'nzu. 


e'mvu, 


e'njn. 


i'ndu, 


i'ndru, 


i'mbu. 


i'ndu. 


i'nzu. 


i'nzu, 


i'mvu. 


i'nju. 


u'ndu, 


u'ndru. 


u'mbu, 


u'ndu, 


u'nzu. 


u'nzu. 


u'mvu. 


u'nju, 



* Neutral as distinguished from xVctive and Passive. 
7. G 



26 



INTRODUCTION. 



The generic Substantives neutral are converted into Verbs neutral, by merely changing the grave 
consonants into their con-esponding acute ones: that is to say, by changing d into (; dr into tr ; mb 
into mp ; nd into nt ; nz into ns ; and, lastly, nj into nc ; as follows : 

III. ALL THE GENERIC VERBS NEUTRAL. 



onti, 


o'ntri, 


o'mpi, 


o'nti, 


o'nsi, 


o'nsi. 


o'mfi, 


o'nci. 


a'nti, 


a'ntri, 


a'mpi, 


anti, 


a'nsi, 


a'nsi, 


amn, 


a'nci, 


e'nti, 


e'ntri, 


e'mpi, 


e'nti, 


e'nsi, 


e'nsi, 


e'mfi. 


e'nci. 


i'nti, 


i'ntri, 


i'mpi, 


i'nti, 


insi. 


i'nsi, 


i'mfi, ■ 


i'nci, 


u'nti. 


u'ntri, 


u'mpi, 


u'nti. 


u'nsi. 


u'nsi, 


u'mfi. 


u'nci. 




IV. 


ALL THE 


GENERIC 


ADJECTIVES NEUTRAL. 




o'ntu, 


on'tru, 


o'mpn, 


o'ntu, 


o'nsu, 


o'nsu, 


o'mfu, 


o'ncu. 


a'ntu, 


a'ntru, 


a'mpu, 


a'ntu. 


a'nsu. 


a'nsu. 


a'mfu. 


a'ncu, 


e'ntu, 


e'ntru, 


e'mpu, 


e'ntu, 


e'nsu. 


e'nsu. 


e'mfu, 


e'ncu, 


i'ntu, 


i'ntru, 


i'mpu, 


i'ntu, 


i'nsu, 


i'nsu. 


i'mfii. 


i'ncu, 


uintu, 


u'ntru, 


ntapu, 


u'ntu. 


u'nsu, 


u'nsu, 


u'mfu.. 


u'ncu, 



The above foiu- tables contam the roots of all the generic neutral Substantives, Adverbs, Verbs, 
and Adjectives of the language, of the present tense. 

THE SIX DIFFERENCES. 

NEUTRAL PRESENT. 



Each word of the preceding table of generic tabulars, varies its termination to express the sis 
differences of the neutral present tense. Take the four words o'ndi, o'ndu, o'nti, o'ntu, as follows : 

I. DIFFERENTIAL SUBSTANTIVES, NEUTRAL, PRESENT. 



Differences 


















1. 


o'ndoo. 


o'ndroo. 


o'mboo. 


o'ndoo. 


o'nzoo, 


o'nzoo, 


o'mvoo, 


o'njoo. 


2. 


o'ndoi. 


o'ndroi. 


o'mboi, 


o'ndoi, 


o'uzoi, 


o'nzoi. 


o'mvoi, 


o'njoi, 


3. 


o'ndo. 


o'ndro. 


o'mbo. 


o'ndo, 


o'nzo, 


o'nzo. 


o'mvo, 


o'njo. 


4. 


onda, 


o'ndra, 


o'mba. 


o'nda. 


o'nza, 


o'nza. 


o'mva, 


o'nja. 


5. 


o'ndil. 


o'ndril. 


o'mbil. 


o'ndil, 


o'nzil. 


o'nzil. 


o'mvil. 


o'njil. 


6. 


o'ndis, 


o'ndris, 


o'mbis, 


o'ndis. 


o'nzis. 


o'nzis, 


o'mvis, 


o'njis, 




II. 


DIFFERENTIAL 


ADVERBS, 


NEUTRAL, PRESENT. 




Dfferences 


















1. 


o'ndur. 


o'ndrur,* 


ombur. 


o'ndur, 


o'nzui-. 


o'nzur, 


o'mvur, 


o'njur, 


2. 


o'ndou, 


o'ndrou, 


o'mbou. 


o'ndou. 


o'nzou. 


o'nzou. 


o'mvou, 


o'njou. 


3. 


o'ndi. 


o'ndri, 


o'mbi. 


o'ndi. 


o'nzi, 


o'nzi. 


o'mvl, 


o'nji, 


4. 


o'ndun, 


o'ndrmi. 


o'mbun. 


o'ndun. 


o'nzun, 


o'nzun. 


o'mvun, 


o'njun. 


5. 


o'ndid. 


o'ndrul, 


o'mbul, 


o'ndul, 


o'nzul. 


o'nzul. 


o'mvul. 


o'njul, 


6. 


o'ndus, 


o'ndrus, 


o'mbus. 


o'ndus. 


o'nzus. 


on'zus. 


o'mvus, 


o'njus. 



If two rez com'e together, the first is sounded like le. 



INTRODUCTION. 



27 



III. DIFFERENTIAL VERBS, NEUTRAL, PRESENT. 



1. 


o'ntoo, 


o'ntroo, 


o'mpoo. 


o'ntoo, 


o'nsoo, 


o'nsoo, 


o'mfoo, 


o'ncoo. 


2. 


o'ntoi, 


o'ntroi, 


o'mpoi. 


o'ntoi, 


o'nsoi, 


o'nsoi, 


o'mfoi, 


o'ncoi. 


3. 


o'nto. 


o'ntro, 


o'mpo, 


o'nto, 


o'nso, 


o'nso, 


o'mfo. 


o'nco, 


4. 


o'ntin, 


o'ntrin, 


o'mpin, 


o'ntin. 


o'nsin. 


o'nsin, 


o'mfin. 


o'ncin. 


5. 


o'ntil, 


o'ntril. 


o'mpil, 


o'ntil. 


o'nsil, 


o'nsil. 


o'mfil. 


o'ncil. 


6. 


o'ntis, 


o'ntris, 


o'mpis. 


o'ntis, 


o'nsis, 


o'nsis, 


o'mfis, 


o'ncis, 




IV. 


DIFFERENTIAL ADJECTIVES, NEUTRAL, PRESENT. 




1. 


o'ntur, 


o'ntrur. 


o'mpur, 


o'ntur. 


o'nsur, 


o'nsur, 


o'mfur. 


o'ncur, 


2. 


o'ntou, 


o'ntrou. 


o'mpou. 


o'ntou, 


o'nsou. 


o'nsou, 


o'mfou, 


o'ncou. 


3. 


o'nti, 


o'ntri, 


o'mpi, 


o'nti. 


o'nsi. 


o'nsi. 


o'mfi, 


o'nci. 


4. 


o'nta, 


o'ntra, 


o'mpa, 


o'nta, 


o'nsa, 


o'nsa, 


o'mfa. 


o'nca, 


5. 


o'ntul, 


o'ntrul. 


o'mpul. 


o'ntul. 


o'nsul, 


o'nsul, 


o'mful, 


o'ncul, 


6. 


o'ntus, 


o'ntrus, 


o'mpus, 


o'ntus, 


o'usus. 


o'nsus, 


o'mfus, 


o'ncus. 



Observe. — The third table, at page 25, consists of generic verbs neutral. 
Now except the above tables, of the neutral present tense, all the Verbs of the language are fonued 
from the table of Verbs at page 25 ; — we say all the Assertive Verbs of the language, whether neutral, 
active, or passive, whether indefinite, conclusive, or progressive, according to the following table. 





VERBS DIFFERENTIAL. 








Generic Verbs. 


Neutral. 


Active. 1 


Passive 




Differential 




Pres. Past. Put. 


Pres. Past. Put. 


Pres. 


Past. 


Put. 


'verbs. 


1. O'nti- 


-* -pil, -pin. 


-po, -pel, -pen. 


-poo, 


-pool, 


-poon. 


No. 1. 


2. I'nsi- 


-* -fil, -fin. 


-fo, -fel, -fen. 


-foo. 


-fool, 


-foon. 


No. 2. 


3. Unci- 


-* -til, -tin. 


-to, -tel, -ten. 


-too. 


-tool. 


-toon. 


No. 3. 


4. O'mfi- 


-* -nil, -nin. 


-no, -nel, -nen. 


-noo. 


-nool. 


-noon. 


No. 4. 


5. O'nti- 


-* -lil, -lin. 


-lo, -lei, -len. 


-loo. 


-lool, 


-loon. 


No. 5. 


6. O'mpi- 


-* -sil, -sin. 


-so, -sel, -sen. 


-soo, 


-sool. 


-soon. 


No. 6. 



Observations on the above Table. 
First. The six Difiierences are distinguished from each other by the following consonants : pe, fe, 
fe, «e, fe,t and se ; so that, throughout the language, ^f , denotes the first difference ; fe_, the second ; te, 
the third ; «f , the fourth ; fc, the fifth ; and se, the sixth. Fix this, beyond doubt or hesitation, in the 
memory. 

Second. The above letters, jKi f'ii ^'li ne, le, and se, are always found in words of three syllables, 
and always in the last. 

Third. The only dissyllabic tabulars (i. e. such as arc to be found in the tables) are neutral presen 
verbs, substantives, adjectives, or adverbs. 



* The asterisk denotes the absence of the terminations of the Present tense, which are to be 
found in the immediately preceding Table, III. 
t We here except a class of words, called Causah and Comjmratives. See pages 56 to 60 inclusive. 



INTRODUCTION. 



VERBS SPECIAL. 



Roots of 




Neutral., 


Active. 




Passive. 


Differences of 


Special Verbs. 


Pres. Past. 


Fut. 


Pres. Past. Fut. 


Pres. Past. Fut. 


Special Verbs. 


1. Po'nti- 


-* -pil, 


-pin. 


-PO) -pel, -pen. 


-poo, -pool, -poon. 




No. 1. 


2. Pi'nsi- 


-* -fil. 


-fin. 


-fo, -fel, -fen. 


-foo, -fool, -foon. 




No. 2. 


3. Pu'nci- 


-* -tU, 


-tm. 


-to, -tel, -ten. 


-too, -tool, -toon. 




No. 3. 


4. Po'mfi- 


-* -nil, 


-nin. 


-no, -nel, -nen. 


-noo, -nool, -noon. 




No. 4. 


.5. Po'nti- 


-* -kU, 


-kin. 


-ko, -kel, -ken. 


-koo, -kool, -koon. 




No. 5. 


6. Po'mpi- 


-* -sU, 


-sin. 


-so, -sel, -sen. 


-soo, -sool, -soon. 




No. 6. 




VERBS CAUSAL. 








Differential and Special* 






Generic Neutro-active. Activo-active. Passivo-active. 




Differences 


Verbs. 


Pres. Past. 


Fut. 


Pres. Past. Fut. 


Pres. Past. Fut. 






1. O'nti - 


-post, -polt, 


-pont. 


-past, -palt, -pant. 


-pest, -pelt, -pent 




No. 1. 


2. I'nsi - 


-fost, -folt, 


-font. 


-fast, -fait, -fant. 


-fest, -felt, -fent 




No. 2. 


3. U'ncl- 


-tost, -tolt, 


-tont. 


-tast, -talt, -tant. 


-test, -telt, -tent 




No. 3. 




f -nost, -nolt, 
"l-most,t -mot, 


-nont. 


-nast, -nalt, -nant. 


-nest, -nelt, -neni 


•1 


No. 4. 


4. O'mfi- 


-mont. 


-mast, -mat, -mant. 


-mest, -met, -ment f 


5. O'nti - 


-host, -bolt, 


-bont. 


-bast, -bait, -bant. 


-best, -belt, -bent 




No. 5. 


6. O'mpi- 




-gost, -golt, 


-gont. 


-gast, -gait, -gant. 


-gest, -gelt, -geni 




No. 6. 



VERBS COMPARATIVE:— NEUTRAL. 

Differential and Special. 



Generic 
Verbs. 


Pres. 


Past. 


Fut. 


Pres. 


Past. 


Fat. 


Pres. 


Past. 


Fut. 


Differenc 


1. O'nti - 

2. I'nsi - 


-pa. 
-fa, 


-pal, 
-fal, 


-pan. 
-fan. 


-pou, 
-fou, 


-poiil, 
-foul, 


-poim. 
-foun. 


-pau, 
-fau, 


-paul, 
-faul, 


-paun. 
-faun. 


No. 1. 
No. 2 


3. U'nci- 


-ta. 


-tal. 


-tan. 


-tou, 


-toul, 


-toun. 


-tau, 


-taul, 


-taun. 


No. 3 


4. O'mfi- 


f-na, 
t-ma, 


-nal, 
-mal, 


-nan. 
-man. 


-non, 
-moil, 


-iioul, 
-moul, 


-noun, 
-moun. 


-nau, 
-mau, 


-naul, 
-maul, 


-naun. "» 
-maun. J 


No. 4 


5. O^Dti - 


-ba. 


-bal, 


-ban. 


-bou, 


-boul. 


-boun. 


-bau. 


-bad, 


-baun. 


No. 5 


6. O'mpi- 


-ga, 


-gal, 


-gan. 


-gou. 


-goul. 


-goun. 


-gau. 


-gaul. 


-gauu. 


No. 6 



Observe. — The differential consonants, 2K) fti 'f , ««<^ *?, are liable to be exchanged for jv, accord- 
ing to the following 

BuU 1. — Whenever two pez.^ fez., tez, or sez, occur in the same final syllable, the latter is trans- 
formed into ve. Thus, o'mpipil becomes o'mpij;il ; o'mfifil becomes o'mfiyll ; o'ntitil becomes o'ntivil ; 
and onsisil becomes o'nsivil ; and so also o'mpipiu becomes o'mpiviu ; o'mfifin becomes o'mfivin ; o'ntitiu 
becomes o'ntivin ; and o'nsisin becomes o'nsivln. 

Bule 2. — TVTieu two lez occur in the same final syllable, the frst of the two is trausformed into rr. 
Thus, o'mpilil is o'mpiril ; o'mfilil is omfiril ; o'ntilil is o'ntlril ; o'nsilil is onsiril. 

Rule 3. — When two rez come together in the same final syllable, the frst re is changed into If, as 
tu'ntrur, Jewish ; pronounced tu'ntlur. 



* The DiflTerential become Special by prefixing the special consonant. 
\ The me is used instead of we when the Dependent form is expressed. 



INTRODUCTION. 29 

OF ANTERIOR MODES. 
See page 65. 



Learn the following Table. 
Indefinite. 
Po'ntoo, it is. Pra'ntoo, it is great. Pe'ntoo, it is put. Vi'ntoo, it is literal. U'utoo, it is divine. 

Conclusive. 
Poi'ntoo, it has been. Prou'ntoo, it has been great. Pai'ntoo, it has been put. Ve'ntoo, it has been 
literal. Oo'ntoo, it has been divine. 

Progressive. 
Po'ntoo, it is being. Prantoo, it continues great. Pa'ntoo, it is being put. Vi'ntoo, it continues 
literal. U'ntoo, it continues divine. 

If me were substituted for ne, in the foregomg examples, the rule would be the same. 



DEMONSTRATIVES. 
Obs. Learn the tables of Demonstratives at page 72, remembering that Rous, all, should have 
Lou. Then read the examples at page 133. 



SUBJUNCTIVES. 
See page 134. 
Examjjles I. 
You know what I said: A bo'nsifo slos ga'nsltel. 

I know what thou saidst: Au bo'nsifo slas ga'nsitel. 

You know what it said: A bo'nsifo sks ga'nsitel. 

You know what he said: A bo'nsifo slur ga'nsitel. 

You know what she said: A bo'nsifo slun ga'nsitel. 

You know what we said: A bo'nsifo slaur ga'nsitel. 

We know what ye said: Aur bo'nsifo slnr ga'nsitel. 

You know what they said : A bo'nsifo slnr ga'nsitel. 

Examples II. 

You know what my father said: A bo'nsifo slot fo'nzipur ga'nsitel. 

I know lohat thy father said : Au bo'nsifo slat fo'nzipur ga'nsitel. 

You know what its father said : A bo'nsifo slet fo'nzipur ga'nsitel. 

You know what his father said : A bo'nsifu slu'rt fo'nzipur ga'nsitel. 

You know what her father said: A bo'nsifo slunt fo'nzipur ga'nsitel. 

You know what our father said: A bo'nsifo sfowi* fo'nzipm- ga'nsitel. 

You know what your father said : A bo'nsifo slant* fo'nzipur ga'nsitel. 

You know what their father said : A bo'nsifo sfewi* fo'nzipur ga'nsitel. 

Exa7nples of other Words : — See page 134. 
TWOS and TWOT:— DWOS and DWOT. 
1. This is the tree which I planted: — O urn u'mvi twos vi'nsitel. 2. This was the advice which 



Slawt, slrt/-t, and slart, for variety, may be used instead of these, for the sake of euphony. 
8 h" 



30 INTRODUCTION. 

my father gave : — O po'ntipil ko'nzl twot fo'nzipur ke'ntinel. 3. This is the friend whom I trust : — O 
urn po'nza dwos ko'nsito, 4. This is the friend whom my father trusts: — O um po'nza dwot ko'ttzip^urtos 
ko'nsito. 



Examples of SLQS, TWOS, and DWOS, with Prepositions. 
1. In what I said, there was much to be censm-ed: — Slo'fu ga'nsitel kwa po'ntipil bevo'ndoo gro'n- 
sikoi. Sla'tu ga'nsitel : — sytu ga'nsitel : — slu'rtu ga'nsitel : &c. i. e. what thou saidst, &c. 2. This is 
the house iti which I live : — O um pa'nzoi two'tu da'nsipo. 



Study the Personal Pronoims at page 73, § 145, and put them consecutively before the following 
Verbs — present, past, and future: namely, po'nsiko, po'nsikel, po'usiken; pra'ntoo, pra'ntipil, pra'nti- 
pin ; po'ntifo, po'ntifel, po'ntifen ; um, ul, im. Examjjle : — Au po'nsiko, I command. A po'nsiko, thou 
commandest. Po'nsiko, — or, — Ai po'nsiko, it cmnmands. W^ai po'nsiko, he commands. Yai po'nsiko, 
she commands. Aur po'nsiko, we command. Ar po'nsiko, ye command. Ax po'nsiko, they command. 
And so on with the other Verbs. 



INTEREOGATIVE SUBSTANTIVES. 
See page 76. 

1. The tree whose leaves, &c: — U'mvi pyoo bro'ndoiz, &c. 2. The friend whose kindness, &c: — 
Po'nza hyoo fo'nzi, &c. 3. The enemy loho did it : — Po'nza dyoo pintipe'lees. 4. The friend whom 
you met, &c: — Po'nza dwas de'ntisel, &c. 5. I knew how you did it: — Au bo'nsifel vyatu pintipe'lees. 



PREPOSITIONS. 

See page 79. 

Read over the table of Prepositions; notice that the first column are all long vowels, and the 
second column short. The short are suffixed to tabular nouns, when not emphatical ; thus, tu, of; is 
placed at the end of any tabular; as, — Pondo'<M, of truth. Unde'iw, of God. Binze'tu, of man. 
Tonze'<M, of love. Vombe'to, of beauty. The same law applies to the other short Prepositions. 

Observe. We cannot suffix Prepositions to foreign or proper names. Thus we cannot say, 
John*)*, Peteriit, Solomon^M, or Parish!*. To promote the euphony of the language, we suffix the 
Preposition which relates to the proper name, to any tabular word which comes before that name. Thus, 
" Sarah walked or wiU walk with William :" — Saru pc'nsive"/>«l twi pensive"2Jiai Wi'lyum. Here, 
"walked with," is denoted by one word in the Philosophic, the Preposition beuig put in the final 
syllable of the verbs, "pe'nsivel" and pe'nsiven;" that is, before the le and the we. 

Examples: He lived in Paris: — Wai da'nsipe"<Ml Pa'ris. He fought with Sir Peter: — Wai 
dentripe'l;??*! Sur Peter. They entered St. Paul's :— Ar pre'ntise'jnwl Sunt Paulz ; i. e. went into. We 
passed through London : — Aur entise"(7wl Lu'ndun. This is much more euphonic than — da'nsipel too 
Paris : de'utripcl poo Sur Pe'tur ; or pre'ntisel mao Sunt Paulz. 



INTRODUCTION. 31 

UNDERIVED ADVERBS, CONJUNCTIONS, &c. 

Adverbs and Conjunctions are usually denoted by monosyllables which cannot euphonically succeed 
one another. In such cases, the vowel i is placed betwixt the two monosyllabic words, and then they 
sound pleasantly. 

Thus kel signifies therefore, and gil, now. To express the words, "wow therefore," we say, keli'gil, 
and not gil kel. So now, "for behold,'' is denoted by pooli'vru, and not by pool vru. So tuli'gil 
consists of gil, now; and tul, if; and the i unites them into one pleasant word, much pleasanter than 
sounding them as separate words, such as, gil kel, or vroo pool, or gil tul. 



COPULATIVES CONCLUSIVES. 
See page 101. 
Where the emphasis is upon have, use the Copulatives Possessive, as follows: 

Examples. 
1. I have been there : — au o"m ut kro'tu. 2. I had finished it: — au o'l d'entivai"es. 3. I shall 
have written the letter : — au o'n da'nsutoo fri'ndi. 4. Have I been there ? — owieau" ut kro'tu ? 5. Had 
you been assaulted? — oZea" ut te'ntrupoo? Zo"m, yes, I had. 6. To have spoken so rashly, was 
wrong: — Tdm pa'nsutoo pra'mbunas ge'ntivi. 7. To have formerly been so rich, and now so poor: — 
Tol' ut fa'mpufas go'sukwi fra'mpufas, &c. 



DUPLICATES POTENTIAL. 
See page 113. 
Able. 
1. I can write : — au pi'u da'nsitai. 2. I could speak : — au pU'u pa'nsitai. 3. To-morrow I can 
go: — ca'pil au pri'u pre'ntisai. 

Free. 
1. I Tnay not come: — nau Ji'u pe'ntisai. 2. I might do it: — au fli'u pintipai"es. I mai/ 
hereafter do it: — au fri'u pintipai"es. 

Predictive. 
1. I shall go to day : — au ti'u pre'ntisai ca'seo. 2. You will go to-morrow : — a tri'u pre'ntisai 
ca'pin. 



1. I vdll go to day : — au vri'u pre'ntisai ca'seo. 2. I will do it to-morrow : — au vri'u pre'ntisai 
ca'pm. 

Authoritative. 
1. You shall obey my commands: — a vai'u go'su de'mpikai ponze'toz. 2. You shall do it to- 
morrow: — a vrai'u pintipai"es ca'pin. 

Duty : — ObUgatory . 
1. You ought to speak immediately : — a Jci'u pa'nsitai fa'ndun. 2. You ought to have spoken 
yesterday : — a kli'u pa'nsitai ca'pil. 3. You ought to work to morrow : — a hfu i'nsikai ca'pin. 

Conditional. 
1. I would nov) go, if I could: — au di!u go'su pre'ntisai, tul au pli'u. 2. 1 would see you to- 
morrow, if I could: — au driu pompitai"as ca'pin, tul au pri'u. 

Necessary. 
1. I must go now: — au b^u pre'ntisai. 2. I must have gone yesterday: — au bUu pre'ntisai 
ja'piL 3. I must go tomorrow: — au hriu pre'ntisai ca'pin. 



32 INTRODUCTION. 

NUMBERS. 
We particularly invite attention to our mode of expressing Numbers, in words, as contrasted with 
any language in the world. Its simplicity brmgs it withm the capacity of young childi-en. It is an 
immense improvement upon Dr. Wilkins's scheme: — (see his work page 420). He translates the year 
1666, into — Poba'um, po'boor, po'bool, pob'oo. Our translation is — Au'peo veva'vin. 



Lastly : — We are compelled to finish this third part for want of space, and therefore only invite 
attention to the column of Nouns, beginning with po'ndo, truth. We shall give at one view, the whole 
of this table, with its Verbs, Adjectives, and Adverbs, all neutral; i. e. neither active nor 
And, as our last act, shall give another table of actives and passives. 









TABLE— 


NEUTRALS. 










See page 5. 




Substantives. 


Adjectives. 


Verbs. 


Po'ndo, 


truth. 


Po'nti, 


true. 


Po'nto, 


it is true. 




Pro'ndo, 


falsity 


Pro'nti, 


false. 


Pro'nto, 


it is false. 




Fo'ndo, 


goodness. 


Fo'nti, 


good. 


Fo'nto, 


it is good. 




Fro'ndo, 


badness. 


Fro'nti, 


bad. 


Fro'nto, 


it is bad. 




To'ndo, 


positiveness. 


To'nti, 


positive. 


To'nto, 


it is positive. 




Tro'ndo, 


privativeness. 


Tro'nti, 


privative. 


Tro'nto, 


it is privative.* 




Ko'ndo, 


genuineness. 


Ko'nti, 


genuine. 


Ko'nto, 


it Is genume. 




Kro'ndo, 


spuriousness. 


Ki-o'nti, 


spm'ious. 


Kro'nto, 


It Is spurious. 




Bo'nd(2, 


actuakess. 


Bo'nti, 


actual. 


Bo'nto, 


It is actual. 




Bro'ndo, 


potentialness. 


Bro'nti, 


potential. 


Bro'nto, 


It Is potential. 




Vo'ndo, 


finiteness. 


Vo'nti, 


finite. 


Vo'nto, 


It is finite. 




Vro'ndo, 


infiniteness. 


Vro'nti, 


infinite. 


Vro'nto, 


it Is Infinite. 




Do'ndo, 


naturalness. 


Do'nti, 


natural. 


Do'nto, 


it Is natural. 




Dro'ndo, 


artihcialness. 


Dro'nti, 


artificial. 


Dro'nto, 


it is artificial. 




Go'ndo, 


simplicity. 


Go'nti, 


simple. 


Go'nto, 


It Is simple. 




Gro'ndo, 


mixedncss. 


Gro'nti, 


mixed. 


Gro'nto, 


it Is mixed. 




To'ndc.; 


perfection. 


To'nti, 


perfect. 


To'nto, 


It is perfect. 




Tro'ndo, 


imperfection. 


Tro'nti, 


imperfect. 


Tro'nto, 


It is imperfect. 










TABLE :— ACTIVES. 








See page 35. 




Substantives. 


Adjectives. 


Verbs. 


Po'nzoi, 


thought. 


Po'nsufo, 


thinkmg. 


Po'nsifg 


It thmks. 


Pro'nzoi 


meditation. 


Pro'nsufo 


, meditating. 


Pro'nsiff 


., It meditates. 




Fo'nzoi, 


inquisition. 


Fo'nsufo, 


inquiring. 


Fo'nsifo 


it enquires. 




Fro'nzoi 


discovery. 


Fro'nsufg 


, discovering. 


Fro'nsifo, it discovers. 




Tonzoi, 


assent. 


To'nsufo, 


assenting. 


To'nsifo 


It assents. 




Tro'nzoi 


, dissent. 


Tro'nsufc 


, dissenting. 


Tro'nsifo, it dissents. 




Ko'nzoi, 


belief 


Ko'nsufo' 


believing. 


Ko'nsifo 


, it believes. 





Adverbs. 
Po'ndi, truly. 
Pro'ndi, untruly. 
Fo'ndi, well. 
Fro'ndi, 111, badly. 
To'ndi, positively. 
Tro'ndi, privatively. 
Ko'ndi, genuinely. 
Kro'ndi, spiu-Iously. 
Bo'ndi, actually. 
Bro'ndi, potentially. 
Vo'ndi, finitely. 
Vro'ndi, Infinitely. 
Do'ndi, naturally. 
Dro'ndi, artificially. 
Go'ndi, simply. 
Gro'ndi, mixedly. 
To'ndi, perfectly. 
Tro'ndi, imperfectly. 



Adverbs. 
Po'nzufo, thoughtfully. 
Pro'nzufo, meditatively. 
Fo'nzufo, enquiringly. 
Fro'nzufo, disco veringly. 
To'nzufo, assentingly. 
Tro'nzufo, dissentingly. 
Ko'nzufo, bellevingly. 



* In a state of privation. 



INTRODUCTION. 



33 



Suhstayitive. 
Kro'nzoi, disbelief. 
Bo'nzoi, knowledge. 
Bro'nzoi, doubt. 
Vo'nzoi, certainty. 
Vro'nzoi, opinion. 



TABLE:— ACTIVES. 

Continued. 
Afljective. 
Kro'nsufo, disbelieving, 
Bo'nsufo, knowing. 
Bro'nsufo, doubting. 
Vo'nsufo, certifying. 
Vro'usufo, thinking so. 



Do'nzoi, argumentation, i Do'nsufo, reasoning. 
Dro'nzoi, conjecture. \ Dro'nsufo, conjecturing. 
Go'nzoi, esteem. | Go'nsufo, esteeming. 



Gro'nzoi, contempt. 



Gro'nsufo, despising. 



Verb. 
Kro'nsifo, disbelieve 
Bo'nsifo, knows. 
Bro'nsifo, doubts. 
Vo'nsifo, certifies. 
Vro'nsifo, thinks so. 



Do'nsifo, reasons. 

Dro'nsifo, conjectures. 

Go'nslfi), esteems. 

Gro'nsifo, despises. 



Adverh. 

Kro'nzufo, disbelievlnglj. 
I Bo'nzufo, knowingly. 
I Bro'nzufo, doubtingly. 

Vo'nzufo, assuringly. 

■ Vro'nzufo, like one wJio 

has an opinion. 

■ Do'nzufo, argumentatively. 
I Dro'nzufo, conjecturingly. 

Go'nzufo, esteemingly, re- 
! spectfully. 

Gro'nzufo, contemptuously. 



Suhstaiitlves. 
Pe'ndipoo, the being put. 
Prcndipoo, the being altered. 



TABLE— PASSIVES, 
See page 7. 

Adjeclii-es. 
Pe'ntupoo, put. 
Pre'ntupoo, altered. 



Ee'ndipoo, the being appropriated^ Fe'ntupoo, appropriated. 



Fre'iidipoo, the being alienated. 
Te'ndipoo, tjic being claimed. 
Tre'ndipoo, the being abdicated. 
Ke'ndipoo, the being taken. 
Krendipoo, the being left. 
Be'ndipoo, the being had. 
Bre'ndipoo, the being wanted. 
Ve'ndipoo, the being held. 
Vre'ndipoo, the being let go. 
Dc'udipoo, the being sought. 
Dre'ndipoo, the being found. 
(Je'ndipoo, the being shewn. 
Te'ndipoo, the being manifested. 



Fre'ntupoo, alienated. 
Te'ntupoo, claimed. 
Tre'ntupoo, abdicated. 
Kc'ntupoo, taken. 
Kre'ntupoo, left. 
Be'ntupoo, had. 
Bre'ntupoo, wanted. 
j Ve'ntupoo, held. 
Vre'ntupoo, let go. 
De'ntupoo, sought. 
Drc'ntupoo, found. 
Ge'ntupoo, shewn. 
Te'ntupoo, manifest. 



Verls. 
Pe'ntipoo, it is put. 
Pre'ntipoo, it is altered. 
Fe'ntipoo, it is appropriated. 
Fre'ntipoo, it is alienated. 
Te'ntipoo, it is claimed. 
Tr'entipoo, it is abdicated. 
Ke'ntipoo, it is taken. 
Kre'ntipoo, it is left. 
Be'ntlpoo, it is had. 
Bre'ntipoo, it is wanted. 
Ve'ntipoo, it is held. 
Vre'ntipoo, it is let go. 
De'ntipoo, it is sought. 
Dre'ntipoo, it is found. 
Ge'ntipoo, it is shewn. 
Te'ntipoo, it is nianife>;t. 



Advei-bs. 
Pe'ndupoo, 
Pre'ndupoo, 
Fe'ndupoo, 
Fre'ndupoo 
Te'ndupoo, 
Tre'ndupoo, 
Kc'ndupoo, 
Krc'ndiipjo, 
Be'ndupoo, 
Bre'ndupuo, 
Vc'ndupoo, 
Vrc'ndupoo, 
De'ndnpoo, 
Dre'ndiipoo, 
Ge'ndupoo, 
Te'ndujiiiii, 



Po'nto, it is 
Fro'nto, it i.^ 



true. 
bad. 



Po'ntiviii, 
Fro'ntivin, 



it will be true, 
it will be bad. 



FURTHER EXAMPLES OF NEUTRALS, ACTIVES, AND PASSIVES. 
Neutrals. 
Po'ntivil, it was true. 
Fro'ntivil, It was bad. 

Actives. 
A po'nsifel, you thought. 
An poi'nsifel, I had thought. 
An po'nsifel, I was thinking. 

Passives. 
An fro'nsitool, I was discovered. 
Prai'ntipool, it had been altered 



Au po'nsifo, I think. 

Au poi'nsifo, I have thought 

Au po'nsifg, I am thinking. 



Au fro'nsltoo, I am discovered. 
Pral'ntipoo, it has been altered 
Pra'ntipoo, it is being altered, 
I 9 



Ar po'nsifen, they will think. 

Au poi'nsifen, I shall have thought. 

Au po'nsifen, I shall be thinking. 

Fro'nsitoon, I shnll be di,<covered. 
Praintlpoon; It will have been altered. 



Pra'ntipool, it was being altered. Pra'ntipoon, It will be being allere.. 



34 INTRODUCTION. 

MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES. 

1. Slau'tu or slo'tu; Sla'tu or sla'tu; Slai'tu or sle'tu ; Slu'rtu ; Slu'ntu; Slau'rtu ; SlarUi ; Sla'rtu; 
i. c. iu what — I ; thou ; it ; he ; she ; we ; ye ; they. 

2. Twau'tu or tWtu ; Tw.a'tu or tvva'tu; Twai'tu or twe'hi; Tvvivrtu; Twu'ntii; Twau'rtu; Twa'rtu; 
Twa'rtii, i. e. in which — I; thou; it; he; she; we; yc ; tlicy. 

3. Dwautu or dwo'tu; Dwa'tu or dwa'tu; Dwai'tu or dwe'tn; Dwu'ftu; Dwu'ntu; Dwau'rtu; Dwa'rtu; 
Dwa'rtu ; of whom I ; of whom thou ; &c. &c. 

4. Kyau'su or kyo'sii ; Kya'su or kya'su; Kyal'su or kye'su : Kyu'rsii; Kyu'nsu; Kya'ursu ; Kya'rsu; 
Ka'rsu ; i. e. in which place — I ; thou ; it ; he ; she ; we ; ye ; they. 

5. Gyau'su or gyo'su ; Gya'su or gya'su ; Gyai'su or gyc'su ; Gyu'rsu; Gyu'usu; Gyau'rsu; Gya'rsu; 
Gva'rsu; i. e. when I ; when thou ; when it ; when he ; when she ; when we ; when ye ; when they. 

0. Kwau; Kwa ; Kwai ; Kwur; Kwun; Kwaur; Kwy; Kv.ar ; i. e. how much I ; how much 
thou ; how much it ; liow much he ; how much she ; how much we ; how much ye ; how much they. 

7. How do you write? — Vyoo'tu da'nsitca? How beautiful she is! — Jyoo'm yai vu'mpi ! What 
effect followed? — Dyoo ve'ntiseleu? How far did she walk? — Cyoo'nu ileait pe'nslfai?. When will he 
return? — Gyoo'su ti'iaid di-oope'ntisai ? Where is your friend ? — Kyoo'su i'meu ponza'tas? Whither shall 
I fly? — Kyoo'nu ti'iau fe'nsipai? What kind of man do you expect? — Fyoo biuze'tu imou dro'nsltai? 
What do you want ? — Sloe i'mea bre'ntipai ? or SI' i'mea bre'ntipai ? 



BOOK 1. 

THE 

ALPHABET, 
CLASSinCATION OF RADICALS, 

AND 

GRAMMAR, 

OF THE 

PHILOSOPHIC LANGUAGE. 



PART I. 

THE PHIL OSOPHIC ALPHABET. 
The Philosophic as well as the English language consists of forty clementarr sounds. In the 
latter, these forty sounds are most absurdly represented by twenty six characters ; in the former, each 
sound has a distinct character by which, and by which alone, it is always represented. 

Observe. — The attention should be chiefly directed to acquiring the true sounds of those lottci-s 
which have the horizontal stroke under them ; for the other letters are to be somided exactly according 
to their usual English Alphabetic somid. 

Tlie PhilosopMc Alphabet. 

A, a is sounded like a in An, at, as, apple, ant, act. 

A, a a in Art, ask, after, dark, lark. 

A, a ... ... a in Area, pare, care, dare, stare. 

Ai, ai aiin Pain, rain, stain, gain, main. 

An, au auin ... Author, autocrat, laiid, automaton. 

B, b b in Baby, bat, rob, bubble, bore, bet. 

Q> c ch in . . . Church, child, cheap, lurch, teach. 

I>, d din Do, dead, dear, led, bed, sad. 

Dj d th in ... That, those, their, they, then, thee. 

E, e ein Let, fret, get, set, bet, wet, 

E, e ... ... ein Me, we, ye, be, he. 

E, f fin File, fee, four, five, fate. 

G, g g in ... Give, go, gape, great, goose. 

H,_h h in Horse, hound, harp, hand. 

I) i ' i in Pin, fin, tin, siji, wm, lip. 

Li • • • .. • • i in ItUe, wife, life, time, fine. 

Ji j j in Jest, jeer, jut, just, join. 

K, k kin Keep, key, kind, kine, like. 

L, 1 1 in Love, leave, less, let, peel. 

M, m m in ... Me, my, more, men, meet. 

N, n n in ... No, not, net, nest, pen. 

^) !i ••• ••• ngin ... Kuig, sing, wrong, long, sang. 

^h ^^ o in On, not, got, dot, offer, pot. 

^l '•I _ oil! Over, open, told, gold, sold. 

^-'i) oi ••• ••• oi in ... (Jintment, anoint, appoint. 

t>u, ou ou in . . . Out, pout, lout, snout, ti-out. 

Oo, 00 ... ... 00, in ... Loon, moon, noon, loop. 

P> P pin Pole, lip, pain, rape, rap. 

K, r r in Read, ring, road, pare, tear. 

*^> s ... ... sin Set, seek, less, safe, pass, guess. 

^, s shin ... Sheet, shot, she, rash, lash. 

T, t tin Take, too, toe, at, let, bet. 

T, t th in ... thief, think, thought, pith. 

U, u ... ... u in Under, pun, smi, gun, tun. 

U, u u in Awful, fearful, grateful. 

V, V v in ... Vile, vine, van I, vice. 

", w ... ... w in ... Wine, we, why, way, woe. 

Y, y yin You, ye, yet, yes, youth. 

2> z ... ... z in zeal, zest, zero, zealous. 

^) ? ••• ••• sin measiu-e, ti-easure, jileasure. 

Observe.— The simple vowel sounds are sometimes denoted by two distinct characters, such as ai, au 
oi, ou, and oo;_they are, however, to be taken together as denoting only one alphabetic sound; 'and 
therefore, as bemg together but one character. All that is important to observe is, that such combinations 
of vowels always denote the sound exemplified in the opposite words in the foregoing table. So also the 
horizontal marks vmder certain letters, such as t, d, c, s, z, n, a, e, i, and o. are intended to fix them 
respectively to the sounds, which occur ui the opposite examples : this should be remembered. 



Of the Names of the PlrilosopMc Consonants. 

^Ve cannot conveniently sound the consonants alone ; as tliej reqiiii-e a vowel after or before tlieiu, 
to give their full and pleasant soiuid. The names of oiu- English consonants sometimes have a vowel 
hifore and sometimes after, the particular consonant named. Thus pe, be, te, de, and ve are followed by 
a vowel, but ef el, em, en, ar, and es, are preceded by it. Kow iu the Philosophic, the vowel always 
fo Hows the consonant, as in the following examples ; be, de, fe, ge, [sounded hard,] je, ke, le, me ne, pe, 
re. se, te, ve, we, ye, ze, ze. 

Observe, — Ne is more difficult to soimd when followed by a vowel, merely because in English, we 
have no instance of a word m which it is followed by a vowel. Still it is not naturally more difficult 
than the other consonants. The student has but to prolong the soimd of ng in king, song, &c. through 
the nose, takmg care not to soimd the hard g after it, and then to sound the letter e uumediately after it, 
while so prolonged, and the name of ne is then perfectly pronomiced. It is very important that the 
■names of the letters, whether consonants or vowels, shoidd be perfectly/ acquired. 

Of the Names of the Vowels. 

The vowels differ from the consonants in this great point : they are effiible alone : so that the names 
of the vowels and the sounds of the vowels, are one and the same thing. 

Any of the long vowels such as a, e, i, o, ou, ai, oo, &c. are easih/ jyrrnio^mced. But with regard to 
the short vowels, such as o, a, e, i, u, and u, it requires experience and attention, to pronounce them cor- 
rectly and easily. Like consonants they require to be followed by another letter, to utter them in perfec- 
tion. Wepronoimce the syllables, on, an, en, in, im, and un, with perfect ease: but let the student begin 
to utter each of these syllables, taking care to stop short before the n begins to be heard, and the diffi- 
cultv will be apparent ; still it may and indeed must be done, so set about it. 

Of Sjxlling Words. 
Spelling is merely repeating consecutively the name of each of the letters of any given word ; so 
that, assmnmg the student has perfectly learned the names of the letters of the alplialiet. vowels as well 
as consonants, or in other words has learned his A. B. C. the art of spelling is perfectly achieved. In 
the English language, the difficulty of spelling is so great, that no length of practice and experience are 
sufficient to ensiu'e perfection m orthography : in the Philosophic, the end of the A. B. C. is, not only 
the begiiming, but the end of spelling. 

Examples. 

1. O'mbi. Here are fom* letters: o, m, b, i. The name of the vowel o is the sound of o in net. 
The second is called me ; the third be ; the foiu-th the very sound of i in pAi. 

2. Oimbi. Here are foiu- alphabetic letters, namely, oi, m, b, i. The first is the sound of oi in 
o/ster ; the second is called me ; the third be ; the fom"th, the ver}' sound of i in pm. 

3. O'mbi. Here are four alphabetic letters, namely, o, m, b, i. The first is the sound of o in open ; 
the others are the same as before. 

4. A'mbi. Here the first letter is a in «nd ; the others as before. 

5. Embi. Here the first letter is e in end ; the others as before. 

6. I'nibi. Here the first letter is * in p/n ; the others as before. 

7. U'mbi. Here the first letter is the u in g^m ; the others as before. 

8. Poo'ntipo. Here are seven alphabetic letters, namely, pe oo ne, te i, po. 

9. Poi'ntipai. Here also are seven alphabetic letters, namely, Pe oi no, te i, pe ai. 

10. Pa'ntripai. Pe a ne, te re i, pe ai. 

11. Pou'ntripel. Pe ou ne, te re i, pe e le. 

12. Pa'ntripo'os.. Pe a ne, te re i, pe o, o se. 

18. Pe'ntripoo'skwl. Pe e ne, te re i, pe o, o se. ke we i. 

14. Pai'ntifo. Pe ai ne, te i, fe o. 

15. Pa'ntipel. Pe a ne, te i, pe e le 

16. Gi'ntilo. Ge i ne, te i, fe o. 

17. Ge'ntifo. Ge e ne, te i, fe o. 

18. Pu'ntrino. Pe u ne, te re i, ne o 

19. Poo'ntrino. Pe oo ne, te re i, ne o 

20. Puiitrino. Pe u ne, te re i, ne o. 



3 

The student must remember that the vowel e which forms part of the name of the consonant, is no 
part of the sound denoted by the consonant ; no more than in the Enghsh Alphabet, the same vowel is 
part of the soimd of b, v, d, p, or t, whose names are be, ve, de, pe, and te. 

Lastly, the student must learn to sound the following five short vowels perfectly, namely, o, a, e, i, 
u, and u. See the Alphabet. 

After the above observations are fully digested, long words are just as easy to spell and pronounce 
as short ones. 

Of Accents. 

Where a word consists of more than one syllable,' one of the vowels is followed by an accentual 
mark, which is a vertical stroke placed immediately after the accented vowel. 

,^ Examples. 

O'mbi, a'mbi, e'mbi, i'mbi, u'mbi; po'utipel, po'ntipin ; pe'ntipe'leos, pe'ntipeneo"skwi, pentipe'lkwl. 

Of Em2)hasis. 
The character called an emphasis consists of two accents used in the same position as the accent 
itself would be. 

Examples. 
Poo"o&, with me, not^je"os without me. 0"bi, against me, not ^"bi, against thee. 
The accent and emphasis too, may be considered, in more tlian a figurative sense, as denoting the 
centre of gravity of the word in which it occiu-s ; and the euphony of the word will depend upon the 
pi'oportional balancing of the word, by not loading it either before or after with too ponderous syllables. 

Of Acute and Grave Consonants. 

The consonants of language are mostly m pairs, such as p and b; f and v; t and d ; c and j ; s ami 
z ; and s and z. It requires but little attention to the sounds of these pairs, to perceive that they are 
uttered while the lips, the teeth, the tongue, and the palate, are in the same state of contact. 

Thus p and b, are uttered by the lijjs ; only that there is a sort of gnnnble or vibration which at- 
tends the utterance of the b, v^hich is not heard in pronomicing the p. Similar remarks may be made 
upon the other pairs. 

Observe. — The student must carefully fix in his memory each of these pairs ; and must not forget 
which of the twins is grave, and which acute. Let him then learn that p and b are twins ; that p is 
the acute b ; and that b is the grave p : that f is the acute v; and v is the grave f : that t is acute d; 
and d grave t : that k is acute g ; and g grave k : that t is the acute d ; and d the grave t : that c is 
the acute j ; and j the grave e : that s is the acute z ; and z the grave s : and lastly, that s is the acute 
z ; and z is grave s. 

PART II. 

A Classification of the Substantives of Language. 

The following tables contain " an emmieration and description of all such things and notions as fall 
under discourse." So says Bishop WSkius.* He proceeds, "I shall first lay down a scheme or analysis 
of the (jcncra or more common heads of things belonging to this design, and then shew how each of 
these may be subdivided by its peculiar differences, &c.; which I take leave to determine [for the most 
part] to the number six," [with certain exceptions:] "after which I shall proceed to enumerate the several 
species, belonging to each of these differences, and according .to such an order and dependence amongst 
them, as may contribute to the definmg of them, and detenninmg their primary significations." 

"These species are commonly joined together by^Mw, for the better helping of the memory; so 
likewise are some of the genmr and iliff< ri-nces. Those thliit;^ wliich naturally have opposites' [such as 
sight, blindness,] " are joined with tlieni according to such ci'imsitiuiu dc. Those things which have no 
opposites are paired together with respect to some affinity, which they have the one to another ;" [as put- 
ting, altering; i-epresenting, imitating]. Now the following table exhibits at one view the forty genera, 
or the forty substantive roots from which the whole Philosophic Language proceeds. 

* See Essay towards a Keal Character, &c. page 22. 



THE FORTY GENERA. 



ssigned, may be distributed iiito such 



r^ ^ ... 1 r STONE. YIII. 

I Imperfect, as Jlmerals, 



Perfect, as Plant, 



All kinds of things and notions, to which names are to be 
as are either more 

r General • namely, those Universal notions, whether belonging more properly to 

I r TRANSCENDENTAL GEXEUAL. I 

Things called ^ TRANSGEXDENTAL RELATION MIXED. II 

[TRANSCENDENTAL RELATION OF ACTION. III. 

Words, DISCOURSE. lY 

Special, denoting either 

(CREATOR. V. ... ... ■•• ••• ^ ••• 

i Creature, viz. such thmgs as were either created or concreated by God, not excludmg sev 
of those notions, which are framed by the minds of men, considered either 

fCoUectively, WORLD. YI ... 

i Distributively, according to the several kinds of Beings, whether such as do belong to . 

f Substance, 

'Inanimate, ELEMENT. VIL 
Animate, considered according to their several 
"Species, whether 
^ Yegetative 

iSiETAL. IX, 

(LEAF. X 

fHERB, according to the^ FLOWER. XI 

I (seed YESSEL. XII. 

] SHRUB. XIII 

I TREE. XIY 

fEXANGUIOUS. XY 

Sensitive, <^ TFISH. XYL 

Sanguineous, -^ BIRD. X^aL 

(beast. XYIII 

^ , fPECULIAR. XIX 

Parts, ^QEj^ERAL. XX 

Accident, 

(-MAGNITUDE. XXI 

Quantitv,-< SPACE. XXIL 

' (measure. XXIII 

f NATURAL POWER. XXIY 

HABIT. XXY. 

Quality ; whether ^ MANNERS. XXYT 

SENSIBLE QUALITY. XXYII. " 

[sickness. XXYIII 

f SPIRITUAL. XXIX 

, ,. I CORPOREAL. XXX 

Action KjoTION. XXXI 

OPERATION. XXXII 

"ECONOMICAL. XXXIII. 
Private. -^ P( )SSESS1( )NS. XXXIV. 

PROVISIONS. XXXY 

'CIVIL. NXXVI. 

JUDICIAL. XXXYTT 

Public, i MILITARY. XXXYIII 

NAYAL. XXXIX 

ECCLESIASTICAL. XL. 



eral 



O'NDI 
A'NDI 
E'NDI 
I'NDI 

U'NDI 



Relation ; whether more 



INZI 
UNZI 



U'NJI 
U'NZI 
O'MYI 
A'MVI 
E'MYI 
I'MYI 
UMYI 
O'NJI 
A'NJI 
E'NJI 
I'NJI 
O'NDI 
A'NDI 

E'NDI 

I'NDI 

U'NDI 

O'MBI 

A'MBI 

E'MBI 

I'MBI 

U'MBI 

O'NZI 

A'NZI 

E'NZI 

I'NZI 

O'NZI 

A'NZI 

E'NZI 

ONDRI 

A'NDRI 

E'NDRI 

I'NDRI 

U'NDRI 



The Bishop proceeds—" The several thhigs belonging to metaphysical or transcendental notions,"' 
or those "most universal conceptions of things, are styled Transcendental." — ONDI. 

To tliese " may be annexed, by way of atfinity, that general name which denotes those highest and 
most common heads under which the several kinds of things may be reduced in an orderly series ; viz. 
Predicament, Category," R'ONDI. 

Now tliis first genus O'NDI, is divided by certain terminations into Six Classes, as follows: 

GENUS I. O'NDI. GENUS I. O'NDI. GENUS L O'NDL 



cyNDL L 

The six differetwes under this 
Germs. 
ONDOO, genus.* 
0'ND( )I, cause. 
( >'NDO, diversity. 
( >'NDAZ, differences of the end. 
O'NDILZ, differences of means. 
ONDAIZ, differences of modes. 



Tlie first differences. 
(VNDOO, genus, 
KO'XDOO, difference, 
LO'N I )(>(). species, 
LI )()(>, kind in general. 

The ei(]ht .ipecies under it. 
Po'ndoo, being, 
pro'ndoo, mixed theme, 
plo.'ndoo, existence, 
po'ldoo, nothing. 
Fo'ndoo, thing, 
fro'ndoo, appearance. 
To'ndoo, notion, idea, 
tro'ndoo, fiction. 
Ko'ndoo, name, 
kro'ndoo, person, 
klo'ndoo, individual, one. 
Bo'ndoo, substance, 
bro'ndoo, accident. 
Vo'ndoo, quantity, 
vro'ndoo, quality. 
Do'ndoo, action, 
dro'ndoo, passion. 
Go'ndoo, relation, 
gro'ndoo, absoluteness. 



TJie second differences. 
ONDOI, cause, 
EO'NDOI, effect. 



The seven species under it. 
Po'ndoi, the maker, 
pro'ndoi, the instrument. 
Fo'ndoi, the impulsive, 
fro'ndoi, the cohibitive. 
To'ndoi, the precedent, 
tro'ndoi, the pattern. 
Ko'ndoi, the condition of (*, f 
kro'ndoi, the occasion ot <;. 
Bo'ndoi, adjuvant, 
bro'ndoi, impedient. 
A'o'ndoi, the end, 
vro'ndoi, the means. 
Do'ndoi, the matter of 9, 
dro'ndoi, the essence or essential 
qualities of 9. 

The third difference. 
O'NDO, diversity, 
RONDO, identity. 

The nine sjiecies under it. 
Po'ndo, truth, 
pro'ndo, falsity. 
Fo'ndo, goodness or good, 
fro'ndo, evihiess or evil. 
To'ndo, positiveness, 
tro'ndo, privativeness. 
Ko'ndo, genuineness, 
kro'ndo, spuriousness. 
Bo'ndo, actualness, 
bi'o'ndij, potentiabiess. 
Vo'ndo, finiteness, 
vro'ndo, infiniteness. 
Do'ndo, naturalness, 
dro'ndo, artificialness. 
Go'ndo, simplicity, 
gro'ndo, mixedness. 
To'ndo, perfection, 
tro'ndo, imperfection. 



The fourth difference. 
O'NDA, suitableness, 
RO'NDA, unsuitableness. 

The six species under it. 
Po'nda, profitableness, 
pro'nda, hurtfulness. 
Fo'nda, pleasantness, 
fro'nda, unpleasantness. 
To'nda, dueness. 
tro'nda, undueness, 
Ko'nda, possibility, 
kro'uda, impossibility. 
Bo'nda, importance, 
bro'nda, vanity. 
Vo'uda, worthiness, 
vro'nda, unworthiness. 



The fifth difference. 
O'NDILZ,^: different means. 

The eight Species under it. 
Po'ndi, lawfulness, 
pro'ndi, imlawfulness. 
Fo'ndi, decency, 
fro'ndi, indecency. 
To'ndi, safety, 
tro'ndi, danger. 
Ko'ndi, easiness, 
kro'ndi, difficulty. 
Bo'ndi, gentleness, 
bro'ndi, violence. 
Vo'ndi, congruity, 
vro'ndi, incongraity. 
Do'ndi, expedience, 
dro'ndi, inexpedicnce. 
Go'ndi, necessity, 
gro'ndi, contingeiice. 



* Note. Before the 00 of all the first differences throughout the language, tiie letter y is to be 
somidcd as if written yoo ; a'ndyoo, pa'ndyoo, pon'dyoo, &c. ; except after c, j, s, z, and s, z. 
t 9 This mark is a substitute for the word somethinrj. 
J Z is the sign of plurality, as the sound of it is in English. 



GENUS II. AXDL 



GENUS n. A'NDI 



GENUS IL A'NDL 



TJie sixth difference. 
0-NDAIZ, the different modes. 



The 
Po'ndai, 
pro'ndai, 
Fon'dai, 
To'ndai, 
tro'ndai, 
Ko'ndal, 
Bo'ndai, 
Vo'ndai, 
vvo'udai, 
Doiidai, 
drondai, 
Go'ndai, 
grondai, 
To'ndai, 
tro'ndai, 



nim species under it. 
the subject, 
the adjunct, 
the object. 



caxumstance, 
soleumitv. 



sign. 

room, 

stead. 

turn, 

reciprocation. 

degree, 
impetus, 
cognation, 
opposition. 



Va'ndoo, equivalence, 
vra'ndoo, betteniess, 
vla'ndoo, -woi-scness. 
Da'udoo, stationary quantity, 
di'a'ndoo, increase, 
dwa'ndoo, decrease. 
Ga'ndoo, ordinary temper, 
gra'ndoo, intensity, 
glaiuloo, remission. 
'randoo, stationary goodness, 
tra'ndoo, mending, 
twa'ndoo, marring. 



A'NDIZ. IL 

Tlie six differences under this 
Genus, are, 
ANDOO, quantity general. 
A'NDOI, continued quantity. 
AXDO, discontinued quantity. 
A'NDA, quahty more largely. 
A'NDI L, quality more strictly. 
A'NDAI, whole. 



The first difference. 
A'NDOO, quantity general. 

The nine sjieci<'s under it. 
Pa'ndoo, ordmary size, 
pra'ndoo, greatness, 
pla'ndoo, littleness. 
Fandoo, ordinary quantity, 
frandoo, abundance, 
flandoo, scarcity. 
Ta'ndoo, ordinary proportion, 
tra'ndoo, excess, 
twa'ndoo, deficiency. 
Ka'ndoo, ordinary goodness, 
kraudoo, excellence, 
kla'ndoo, son-iness. 
B'andoo, equality, 
ba'ldoo, inequality, 
bra'ndoo, superiority, 
bla'udoo, inferiority. 



The second difference. 

ANDOI, contmued quantity. 
Thcjice sjiecies under it. 

Pa'ndoi, length, 

pra'udoi, shortness. 

Fa'ndoi, breadth, 

fra'ndoi, narrowness. 

Ta'udoi, depth, 
! tra'ndoi, shallowness. 
1 Ka'ndoi, licighth, 
j kra'ndoi, lowness. 

Ba'ndoi, thickness, 

brandoi, thiimess. 
I I 

j Tlie third difference. j 

Ail\ DO, discontmued quantity. i 
Tlie eiffht species under it. \ 

Pa'ndo, multitude, many-ness. 

prando, paucity, fewness. 

Fanda, individuality, i. c. singu- 
larity, 

fra'ndo, plurality. 

Ta'ndo, particularity, the being 
some, 

tra'ndo, miiversality, the being all. 

Ka'ndo, speeialness, the being one 
of several kinds, 

ki'a'ndo, generalness, comprehend- 
ing sevei'al essences. 

Ba'ndo, evenness, 

bra'udo, oddness. 

Va'ndo, segrcgateness, 

vra'ndo, aggregateness. 

Da'ndg, scries, the order oi things, 

di-a'ndo, catalogue, order of words. 

Ga'udo, suit. 



Tlie fourth difference. 
A'XDAZ, relations of quality 
more largely. 

The six species under it. 
Pa'nda, primitiveness, 
pra'nda, derivativeness. 
Fa'nda, immediateness, 
franda, mediatcne.-;s. 
Ta'nda, absoluteness, 
tra'nda, dependence. 
Ka'nda, principalness, 
kra'nda, accessoriness. 
B'anda, pertinence, 
bra'nda, irrelevance. 
Ya'nda, propcrness, 
vranda, commonness. 

Theffflh difference. 
A'NDILZ, qualities more strictly. 

The seven species under it. 
Pandi, likeness, 
prandi, milikcness. 
Fa'ndi, order, 
fra'udi, confusion. 
Ta'ndi, ordinariness, 
traudi, extraordinarincss. 
Ka'ndi, regidai'ness, 
kra'ndi, irregularncss. 
Ba'ndi, publieness, 
brandi, privatcncss. 
Va'ndi, adornedness, 
vrandi, homeliness. 
Da'ndi, purity, 
di'andi, defilement. 



The sixth difference. 
A'XDAI, whole, 
E'AXDAI, part. 

The nine species under it. 
Pa'ndai, quintessence, best part, 
pra'ndai, woi-st part, refuse. 
Fa'ndai, sample, say, 
frandai, surplus, vantage. 
Ta'ndai, scum, 
tra'ndai, sediment. 
Ka'ndai, lump, greater parts, 
kraudai, powder, very small parts 



0ENU8 III. E'NDI. 



GENUS III. E'NDL 



GENUS in. E'NDL 



Ba'ndai, cliip, CM<-obloiig, 
bra'iidai, fragment, broken. 
Va'ndai, adiVitum, i. e. \i^m, part, 
vra'iidai, sura, the whole. 
Da'iidai, ablatum, part deducted, 
dra'iidai, rcsidiu!, part left. 
Ga'iidai, multiplier, 
gra'ndai, product. 
Ta'iidai, divisor, 
tra'udai, quotient. 

ENDL IIL 

The six dlffarences under this 
Genus. 

E'XDOOZ, actions simple. 
E'XDOIZ, actions comparate. 
E'NDO, business. 
E'NDA, commerce. 
E'NDILZ, events. 
E'NDAI, itlon. 



The first differences. 
E'XDOOZ, actions simple. 

The nine species under it. 
Pe'ndoo, putting, 
prc'ndoo, altering. 
Fc'ndoo, appropriating, 
fre'ndoo, alienating. 
Tc'ndoo, claiming, 
tre'ndoo, abdicating. 
Ke'ndoo, taking, 
krc'ndoo, leaving. 
Bc'ndoo, having, 
brc'ndoo, wanting. 
Ve'ndoo, holding, 
vre'ndoo, letting go. 
De'ndoo seeking, 
dre'ndoo, finding. 
Gc'ndoo, shewnig, 
gre'ndoo, concealing. 
Tc'ndoo, manifesting, 
tre'ndoo, seeming. 



The second difference. 
E'NDOIZ, actions comparate. 
Tlie nine species under it. 
Pinidoi, john'ng, 
])re'ndoi, separating. 



Fe'ndoi, 
fre'ndoi, 
Te'ndoi, 
tre'udoi, 
Ke'ndoi, 
kre'ndoi 
Be'niloi, 
bre'ndoi, 
Ve'ndoi, 
vre'ndoi, 
Dc'ndoi, 
dre'ndoi, 
Ge'ndoi, 
gre'ndoi, 
Te'ndoi, 
tre'udoi, 



adhering, 
abandoning, 
applying, 
abstracting, 
comprehending, 
, exempting, 
comparing, 
trying, 
repeating, 
changing, 
restoring, 
compensating. 
I'eprescnting, 
imitating, 
repairing, 
spoiling. 



The third difference. 
E'NDO, business. 
RE'NDO, leisure. 

The nine sj)ecics under it. 
Pe'ndo, designing, 
pre'ndo, undertaking. 
Fe'ndo, preparing, 
fre'ndo, furnishing. 
Te'ndo beginning, 
tre'ndo, offering. 
Ke'ndo, endeavouring, 
kre'ndo, essaying. 
Be'ndo, dispatching, 
bre'ndo, protracting. 
Ve'ndo, pei"forming, 
vre'ndo, violating. 
De'ndo, finishing, 
dre'ndo. miscarrying. 
Ge'ndo, erring, 
gre'ndo, omitting. 
Te'ndo, preventing, 
tre'ndo, remedying. 



j Ke'nda, giving, 

I kre'nda, accepting. 
Be'nda, disbursing, 
lin'iKJa, refunding. 
\'i'nda, reckoning, 
\ i( uila, ballancing. 
Di'iida, being creditor, 

i dre'ndii, being debtor. 

j Ge'nda, paying, 

j gre'nda, failhig. 

! Te'nda, acquitting, 

I tre'nda, forgiving. 



The fourth difference. 
E'NDA, commerce. 

The nine species under it. 
Pe'nda, yielding to 9, 
pre'nda, submitting to 9. 
Fe'nda, offering, 
fre'nda, demanding. 
Te'nda, delivering, 
tre'nda, receiving. 



The fifth difference. 

E'NDILZ, events. 

The nine sjKcies under it. 

Pc'ndi, obtaining, 

pre'ndi, frustrating. 

Fc'ndi, gaining, 

fre'ndi, loosing. 

Te'ndi, saving, 

tre'ndi, spending. 

Ke'ndi, laying up, 

kre'ndi, squandering. 

Be'ndi, keeping, 

brc'ndi, loosing. 

Wndi, using, 

vr(ui(li, abstaining, 
i De'ndi, enjoying, 
I dre'ndi, being sick of 
i Gc'ndi, refreshing, 
I gre'ndi, wearying. 
i Te'ndi, quieting, 
I tre'ndi, troubling. 

The sixth difference. 
\ E'NDAI, ition. 
RENDAI, staying. 

77ie seven sjiccies under it. 
Pe'ndai, coming, 
pre'ndai, going. 
Fe'ndal, proceeding, 
fre'ndai, turning. 
Te'ndai, travailing, 
tre'ndai, wandering. 
Kc'ndai, sending, 
kre'ndai, fetching. 
Bc'ndai, leading, 
brcnJai, driving. 



GENUS IV. TNDI. 



GENUS IV. I'NDI. 



GENUS IV. I'NDI. 



Ve'ndai, following, 
Tre'ndai. overtaking. 
De'ndai, meeting, 
drendai, avoiding. 



INDI. IV. Discourse. 

Thf six difference's tinder tliis 
Genus. 
I NDOOZ, elements. 
rND(3IZ, words. 
rXDOZ, complex grammatical 

notions. 
TNDAZ. complex logical notions. 
INDILZ, mixed notions of dis- 
course. 
I NDAIZ, modes of discourse. 



The first difference. 
I NDOOZ, elements. 

The nine .tpecies under it. 
Pindoo, letter, 
prindoo, character. 
Fi'ndoo, vowel, 
fri'ndoo, consonant. 
Tindoo, syllable, 
trindoo, dipthong. 
Ki'ndoo, intei-punctlon, point, 
krl'ndoo, hyphen. 
Bi'ndoo, comma, 
bri'ndoo, semicolon. 
Vi'ndoo, colon, 
■vTindoo, period. 
Di ndoo, parenthesis, 
drindoo, parathesis. 
Gindoo, emphasis, 
gri'ndoo, irony. 

Ti'ndoo, accent of prolongation, 
tri'ndoo, accent of elevation. 



The second difference. 
I XDOI, word, 
RIXDOI, meaning. 

The nine sjKcies under it. 
Pindoi, integral, nucleus, 
prindoi, particle. 
Fi'ndoi, abstract, 
frindoi, concrete. 
Ti'ndoi, substantive, 
tri'ndoi, adjective. 
Kindoi, verb, 
krindoi, adverb derived. 



Bi'ndoi, subject, 
bri'ndoi, predicate. 
Vi'ndoi, copula, entitive, 
vrindoi, copula, active. 
Di'ndoi, pronoun, 
din'ndoi, interjection. 
Gi'ndoi, preposition, 
gri'ndoi, article. 
Ti'ndoi, adverb underived, 
tri'ndoi, conjunction. 



The third difference. 
I'XDO, grammatical phrase. 

The nine sjyecies under it. 
Pi'ndo, clause, 
prindo, sentence. 
Fi'ndo, verse, 
fri'ndo, section. 
Ti'nd(2, chapter, 
tri'ndo, book. 
Ki'ndo, prose, 
kri'ndo, verse. 
Bi'ndo, metre, 
brindo, rhyme. 
Vi'ndo, literal, 
vri'ndo, metaphorical. 
Di'ndo, simple, 
dri'ndo, figurative. 
Giiido, express, 
gri'ndo, vmderstood. 
Ti'ndo, plain, 
tri'ndo, obscure. 



The fourth difference. 
I'XDAZ, logical phrases. 

The nine sjyecies under it. 
Pi'nda, distinction, 
pri'nda, equivocation. 
Fi'nda, limitation, 
fri'nda, amphfication. 
Ti'nda, definition, 
tri'nda, description. 
Ki'nda, division, 
kri'nda-, partition. 
Bi'nda, rule, 
bri'nda, exception. 
Vi'nda, argumentation, 
vri'nd.a, inference, illation. 
S 



Di'nda, syllogism, 
dri'nda, enthymem. 
Gi'nda, induction, 
gri'nda, example. 
Tiiida, quotation, 
tri'nda, allusion. 



The fifth difference. 
I'XDILZ, granuiiatical and logical 

phrases. 

The eight species under it. 
Pi'ndi, proposition, 
pri'ndi, adage. 
Fi'ndi, oration, 
fri'ndi, epistle. 
Ti'ndi, naiTation, 
tri'ndi, rumour. 
Ki'ndi, intei-pretation. 
Bindi. translation, 
bri'ndi, paraphrase. 
Vi'ndi, commentary, 
vri'ndi, epitome. 
Dl'ndi, prologue, 
dri'ndl, epilogue. 
Ti'ndi, transition, 
tri'ndi, digi-ession. 



TJie sirth difference. 
I'NDAIZ. modes of discourse. 
The nine sjiecies under it. 
P'indai, question, 
pri'ndai, answer. 
Findai, affinnation, 
fri'ndai, negation. 
Ti'ndai, supposition, 
tii'ndai, concession. 
Ki'ndai, opposition, 
kri'ndai. contradiction. 
Bi'ndai, objection, 
bri'ndai, solution. 
Ti'ndai, probation, proving, 
vri'ndai, confirmation. 
Di'ndai, confutation, 
dri'ndai, retortion. 
Gi'ndai, posing, 
gi'i'ndai, conviction. 
Ti'ndai, confession, 
tri'ndai, recantation. 



GENUS V. U'NDI. 



GENUS YI. TNZI. 



GENUS VII. U'NZL 



UNDI. V. 

U'NDI, God. 
R'UNDI, idol. 
The three differences under this 
Genus. 
U'NDOO, God, the Father. 
U'NUOI, God, the Son, Christ. 
RU'NDOI, Anti-Christ. 
U'NDO, God, the Holy Ghost. 



I'NZI. VI., Universe. 
The six differences under this 
Genus. 
I'NZOO, spirit or immaterial sub- 
stance. 
I'NZOI, heaven. 
I'NZO, land. 
INZA, water. 
I'NZILZ, animate parts of the 

world. 
I'NZAIZ, imaginary circles. 
E'INZAI, orb. 



The first difference. 
I'NZOO, spirit, immaterial sul 

EI'NZOO, body, matter. 

The six species under it. 
Pi'nzoo, angel. 
Fi'nzoo, good angel, 
fri'nzoo, devil. 
Ti'nzoo, soul. 
Ki'nzoo, vegetation. 
Bi'nzoo, sensation. 
Vi'nzoo, reason. 



Vi'nzoi, Mercury. 
Di'nzoi, tlio earth. 
Gi'nzoi, the moon, 
gri'nzoi, satellite. 



The second difference. 
I'NZOI, heaven. 
RI'NZOI, hell. 

Tlie eight species under it. 
Pi'nzoi, star, 
Fi'nzoi, fixed star, 
fri'nzoi, the sun. 
Ti'nzoi, planet, 
tri'nzoi, comet. 
Ki'nzoi, Saturn, 
kri'nzoi, Jupiter. 
Bi'nzoi, Mars, 
bri'nzoi, Venus. 



The third difference. 
I'NZO, land, 
RI'NZO, country. 

TJie seven species under it. 
Pi'nzo, plain, 
pri'nzo, mountain, 
pli'nzo, valley. 
Fi'nzo, continent, 
fri'nzo, island. 
Ti'nzo, rock, 
tri'nzo, cliff. 
Ki'nzo, promontory, 
kri'nzo, pene-isle. 
Bi'nzo, isthmus, 
bri'uzo, bank. 
Vi'nz(2, shore, 
vri'uzo, washes. 
Di'nzo, quicksands, 
dri'nzo, oaz. 



The fourth difference. 
I'NZA, water, 
III'NZA, sea. 

The seven species under it. 
Pi'nza, smooth sea, 
pri'nza, wave, 
pli'nza, whirlpool. 
Fi'nza, ocean, 
fri'nza, lake. 
Ti'nza, well, 
tri'nza, spring. 
Ki'uza, bay, 
kri'nza, penc-lake. 
Bi'nza, fretum, 
bri'nza, channel. 
Vi'nza, shore, 
vri'nza, tide. 
Di'nza, stream, 
dri'nza, stagnum. 



The fifth difference. 
I'NZILZ, the animate parts of tlie 
earth. 

9 



The five species under it. 
Pi'nzi, mineral. 
Fi'nzi, plant. 
Ti'nzi, herb, 
tri'nzi, grass. 
Ki'nzi, animal. 
Bi'nzi, man. 



TJie sixth difference. 
I'NZAIZ, imaginary circles. 
RI'NZAI, orb. 

The seven species under it. 
Pi'nzai, horizon. 
Fi'nzai, equator. 
Ti'nzai, ecliptic, 
tri'nzai, zodiac. 
Ki'nzai, meridian, 
kri'nzai, azimuth. 
Bi'nzai, arctic, 
bri'nzai, antarctic. 
Vi'nzai, tropic of cancer, 
vri'nzai, tropic of capricurn. 
Di'nzai, parallel, 
dri'nzai, almacantar. 



UNZI. VII. 

TJie six differences under thi 
Genus. 

U'NZOO, fire. 

U'NZOI, air. 

U'NZO, water. 

U'NZA, earth. 

U'NZILZ, appearing meteors. 

U'NZAI, weather. 



The first difference. 
U'NZOO, fire. 

Tlie seven sjiecies under it. 
Pu'nzoo, flame, 
pru'nzoo, spark. 
Fu'nzoo, comet, 
fru'nzoo, falling star. 
Tu'nzoo, lightning, 
tru'nzoo, thunder. 
Ku'nzoo, beam, 
kru'nzoo, dart. 
Bu'nzoo, capra saltans, 
bru'nzoo, scintilla; volantes. 



GENUS VII. U'NZL 



GENUS VIII. U'NJI. 



GENUS VIIL UNJL 



Yuiizoo, ignis fatiuis, 
vruuzoo, ignis lambens. 
Dimzoo, fire-damp. 



The second difference. 
UNZOI, ail-. 

The five sjjecie^ under it. 
Pu'nzoi, aether, 
pru'nzoi, atmosphere. 
Fu'nzoi, exhalation, 
fru'nzoi, vapoiu*. 
Tu'nzoi, fume, 
trimzoi, smoke. 
Ku'nzoi, wind, 
kru'nzoi, whirlwind. 
Bu'nzoi, eartliquake, 
bru'nzoi, damp. 

T/ie third difference. 
UXZO, water. 

Tlie seven species under it. 
Pu'nzo, drop, 
pni'iizo, bubble. 
Fu'nzo, cloud, 
truiizo, mist. 
Tu'nzo, rain, 
ti'u'nzo, dew. 
Ku'nzo, frost, 
kru'nzo, snow. 
Bu'nzo, hail, 
bni'nzo, rime. 
Yu'nzo, manna, 
Tiii'nzo, laudanmn. 
Du'nzo, honey, 
diu'nzo, was. 



The fourth difference. 
U'NZA, earth. 

Tliefive species widir it. 
Pu'nza, dust. 
Fu'nza, dirt. 
Tu'nza, ashes, 
tru'nza, soot. 
Ku'nza, clay, 
kru'nza, mortar. 
Bu'nza, lime, 
bru'nza, plaster. 



T/ie fifth diff'ermce. 
U'NZILZ, appearing meteors. 

The five species under it. 
Pu'nzi, rainbow. 
Fu'nzi, halo. 
Tu'nzi, parelius, 
tru'nzi, paraselene. 
Ku'nzi, virgfB. 
Bu'nzi, chasm. 



The sixth difference. 
U'NZAI, weather. 

The seven species under it. 
Pu'nzai, clearness, 
pni'zai, hazmess. 
Fu'nzai, mizzling, 
frn'nzai, shower. 
Tu'nzai, spout. 
Ku'nzai, storm, 
ki'u'nzai, sleet. 
Bu'nzai, blasting. 
Vu'nzai, gentle gale, 
vru'nzai, calm. 
Du'nzai, stiff gale, 
dru'nzai, tempest. 



UNJL nil. 

The six differences under this 
Genus. 
I'N.TOOZ. vidgar stones. 
U X.l< )1Z, middle-prized stones. 
j UXJOZ, precious stones, less 
i transparent. 

U'X.IAZ. more transparent gems. 
U'XJILZ, earthy concretions, dis- 
solvable. 
U'NJAIZ, earthy concretions, liot 
dissolvable. 



Ku'njoo, pebble. 
Bu'njoo, slate, 
bru'njoo, tile. 
Vu'njoo, whet-stone, 
vru'njoo, touch-stone. 
Du'njoo, puramice, 
diii'njoo, emery. 
Gu'njoo, sand, 
gru'njoo, gravel. 



The first difference. 
U'NJOOZ, vulgar stones. 

The eight species under it. 
Pu'njoo, fi-ee-stone, 
pru'njoo, brick. 
Fu'njoo, ragg. 
Tunjoo, flint, 
trunjoo, marchasite. 
10 



The second difference. 
trXJOI, middle-prized stones. 
Tlie eiyht species under it. 
Pu'njoi, alabaster. 
Fu'njoi, marble, 
fru'njoi, agate. 
Tu'njoi, jaspis, 
tru'njol, lazuli. 
Ku'njoi, crystal, 
ki'unjoi, glass. 
Bu'njoi, selenite, 
brunjoi, talc. 
Vu'njoi. loadstone, 
viiiiijoi, calaminarls. 
Dubjoi, amianthus. 
Gu'njoi, coral, 
gni'njoi, amber. 

The third difference. 
j U'XJOZ, precious stones, less 
1 transparent. 

I Tlie six spjecies under it. 

Pu'njo, opal, 

pru'njo, cats eyes. 

Fu'njo, pearl. 

Tu'njo, cornelian. 

Ku'njo, onyx. 

Bu'njo, turcois. 

Vu'njo, chalcedony. 

The fourth difference. 
U'NJAZ, more transparent gems. 

The six sjyecies uiuler it. 
Pu'nja, diamond, 
pru'nja, white saphire. 
Fu nja, ruby, 
fruUja, garnet. 



GENUS IX. U'NZL 



GENUS X. OMVI. 



GENUS X. OMVI 



Tu'uja, chiysollte, 
tni'nja, topaz. 
Ku'nja, emerald, 
kru'nja, beryl. 
Bu'nja, sapliire. 
Vu'nja, amethyst, 
viai'nja, hyaciuth. 



Theffth difference. 
U'NJILZ, earthy coiicretious dis- 
solvable. 

Tlie nine, species under it. 
Pu'nji, salt, 
pru'nji, nitre. 
Fu'nji, alum, 
fi-u'nji, sal gemmae. 
Tu'nji, vitriol. 
Ku'nji, tartar, 
krunji, alcali. 
Bu'nji, urinous salt. 
Vu'nji, sal ammoniac, 
vru'nji, borax. 
Du'nji, sulphur. 
Gu'nji, bitumen. 
grunji, naptha. 
Tu'nji, ambergris. 



The sijcth difference. 
U'NJAIZ, earthy concretions not 
dissolvable. 

Thefioe .ijiecic.s under if. 
Pu'njai, chalk, 
pru'njai, marie. 
Fu'njai, ochre, 
fru'njai, red ochre. 
Tu'njai, jet, 
trmijai, coal. 
Ku'njai, orpiment, 
kru'njai, arsenic. 
Bu'njai, sandarach. 



U'NZL IX. 

T/iefour differences under this 
Genus. 
U'NZOOZ, natural metals. 
U'NZOIZ, factitious metals. 
U'NZOZ, imperfect kindsof metals 
U'NZAZ, recrcmcntitious parts of 
metals. 



The first difference. 
U'NZOOZ, natural metals. 

The six species under it. 
Pu'nzoo, gold. 
Fu'nzoo, silver. 
Tu'nzoo, tin. 
Ku'nzoo, copper. 
Bu'nzoo, lead. 
Vu'nzoo, iron. 



The second difference. 
U'NZOIZ, factitious metals. 

The three species under it. 
Pu'nzoi, brass. 
Fu'nzoi. pewter. 
Tu'nzoi, steel. 



The third difference. 
U'NZOZ, imperfect kinds of metah 

The six species under it. 
Pu'nzo, mercury. 
Fu'nzo, antimony. 
Tu'nzo, bismuth. 
Ku'nzo, spelter. 
Bu'nzo, cinnabar, 
bru'nzo, vcrmillion. 
Vu'nzo, black-lead. 



The fourth difference. 
U'NZAZ, recrementitious parts of 

metals. 
The five sjyecies under it. 
Pu'nza, litharge. 
Fu'nzii, spodiura. 
frunza, pompholyx. 
Tu'nza, scoria. 
Ku'nza, rust. 
Bu'nza, verdigris, 
bru'nza, white lead. 



aMVI. X. 

The nine differences under this 

Genus. 

O'MYOOZ, herbs deficient of cither 

i-oot, stalk, or seed. 

11 



O'MVOIZ, frumentaceous herbs, 

whose seed is used by men 

for food. 
O'MVOZ, not frumentaceous. 
OMVAZ, herbs of bulbous roots. 
O'MVILZ, herbs with aflBnity to 

bulbous roots. 
O'MVAIZ, round leaved herbs. 
O'MVINOOZ, nervous leaved 

herbs. 
O'MVINOIZ succulent herl>s. 
O'MVINOZ, herbs distinguislied 

by the supei-ficies of the leaf. 



The first difference. 

0'3IV00Z, herbs deficient of 
either root, stalk, or seed. 
The fifteen species tinder it. 

Po'mvoo, mushroom, 
pro'mvoo, mould. 
F'omvoo, truffle, 
fro'mvoo, fuz-ball. 
To'mvoo, moss, 
tro'mvoo, liver-wort. 
Ko'mvoo, fern, 
kro'mvoo, oak-feni. 
Bo'mvoo, white maiden-hair, 
bro'mvoo, black maiden-hair. 
Vo'mvoo, polypodi, 
vro'mvoo, rough spleen-wort. 
Do'mvoo, English black maiden- 
hair, 
dro'mvoo, spleen-wort. 
Gro'mvoo, mule fern, 
gro'mvoo, harts-tongue. 
To'mvoo, moon-wort, 
tro'mvoo, adders'-tongne. 
Do'mvoo, duck-weed, 
dro'mvoo, hairy river-wccd 

Po'nvoo, sponge, 

pi'o'nvoo, sea navel-wort. 

Fo'nvoo, sea lettuce, 

To'nvoo, sea ear, 

tro'nvoo, roimd leaved oyster- weed. 

Ko'nvoo, wrack. 

Bo'nvoo, sea fan. 



GENUS X. OMVL 



GENUS X. OMVI. 



GENUS X. OMVI. 



Tlie second diffcrena'. 
O'MVOIZ, gramineous fi-uiueutf 
ceous herbs. 
The six sjiecies under it. 

Po'mvoi, wheat, 
pro'mvoi, rye. 
Fo'mvoi, maize, 
To'mvoi, barley, 
tro'mvoi, rice. 
Ko'mvoi, oat. 
Bo'mvoi, panic. 
To'mvoi, Indian millet, 
vro'mvoi, millet. 



Tlie third difference. 

O'il VOZ, herbs not frumentaceous. 

Tlie sixteen S2)ecies under it. 

Po'mvo, canary-grass, 
pro'mvo, panic-grass. 
Fo'mvo, fox-tail, 
fro'mvo, cats'-tail. 
To'mvo, wheat-grass. 
Ko'mvo, mat-weed, 
kro'mvo, wild barley. 
Bo'mvo, daniell, tare, 
bro'mvo, dogs'-grass. 
Vo'mvo, crested-gi-ass. 
Do'mvo, reed, 
dro'mvo, job's-tears. 
Go'mvo, oat-grass, 
gro'mvo finger-grass. 
To'mvo, pearl-grass, 
tro'mvo, hairy-grass. 
Do'mvo, meadow-grass. 

Po'nvo, sweet smelling reed, 
pro'nvo, camels'-hay. 
Fo'nvo, galingale, 
fro'nvo, rush. 
To'nvo, cane. 
Ko'nvo, feather-grass, 
kro'nvo, cotton-grass. 
Bo'nvo, reed mace, 
bro'nvo, bmi- reed. 
Vo'nvo, mouse-tail. 



The fourth difference. 
O'JIVAZ, herbs of bulbous roots. 

The thirteen species U7ider it. 
Po'mva, cro^vu imperial. 
Fo'mva, lily, 
fro'mva, martagon. 
To'mva, tulip, 
tro'mva, fritillary. 
Ko'mva, daffodill, 
kro'mva, hyacinth. 
Bo'mva, star of Bethlehem, 
bro'mva, bulbous violet, snow-di'op. 
Vo'mva, bulbous iris, 
vi'o'mva, com flag. 
Do'mva, meadow saffron, 
di-o'mva, crocus. 
Go'mva, orchis. 
To'mva, onion, 
tro'mva, leek. 
Do'mva, shalot, 
dr'omva, chives. 

Po'nva, garlic, 
pro'nva, moly. 
Fo'nva, rarason, 
fro'nva, mountain ramson. 
To'nva, squill. 



Theffth difference. 

O'MVILZ, herbs of affinity to bul- 
bous roots. 
The ten species under it. 

P'omvi, kings'-spear, 

pro'mvoi, spider-wort. 

Fo'mvi, dogs'-tooth. 

To'mvi, day lily, 

tro'mvi, tuberous fleur-de-lis. 

Ko'mvi, flowering reed, 

kro'mvi, jucca. 

Bo'mvi, Indian hyacinth, 

Vo'mvi, flowering rush. 

Do'mvi, birds'-nest. 

Go'mvi, broom-rape, 

gro'mvi, tooth-wort. 

To'mvi, dragon, 

tro'mvi, wake-robin. 

Do'mvi, broad leaved friars'-cowl, 

dro'mvi, naiTOw leavedfriars'-cowl 
12 



The sixth difference. 
O'MVAIZ, round leaved herbs. 
The thirteen species under it. 
Po'mvai, colts-foot, 
pro'mvai, butter-burr. 
Fo'mvai, great burdock, 
fro'mvai, little biu-dock. 
To'ravai, horse-foot. 
Ko'mvai, water lily, 
kro'mvai, marsh marigold. 
Bo'mvai, violet, 
bro'mvai, pansy. 
Vo'mvai, asarabacca, 
vro'mvai, sow bread. 
Do'mvai, butter-wort, 
dro'mvai, grass of Parnassus. 
Go'mvai, winter-green, 
gi-o'mvai, sun-dew. 
To'ravai, sanicle, 
tro'mvai, ladies' -mantle. 
Do'mvai, white saxifrage, 
drom'vai, golden saxifrage. 

Po'nvai, ground ivy, 
pro'nvai, money-wort. 
Fo'nvai, Indian eress. 
To'nvai, scurvy-gi-ass, 
tro'nvai, sea bind-weed. 



The seventh difference. 
O'MVIXOOZ, herbs of nervous 

leaves. 

The eight species under it. 
Po'mvinoo, white hellebore, 
pro'mvinoo, helleborine. 
Fo'mvinoo, plantain, 
fro'mvinoo, bucks-horn. 
To'mvinoo, snake-weed, 
tro'mvinoo, soap-wort. 
Ko'mvinoo, sea plantain, 
kro'mvinoo, flea-wort. 
Bo'mvinoo, one-blade, 
bro'mvinoo, twa-blade. 
Vo'mvinoo, gentian, 
vro'mvlnoo, dwarf gentian. 
Do'mvinoo, solomon's-seal, 
dro'mvmoo, lily of the valley. 
Go'mvinoo, pond-weed, 
gro'mvmoo, water caltropc. 



GENUS X. (ymvi. 



GENUS XL A'MVI. 



GENUS XL A'MVL 



The eighth difference. 
O'MVINOI, succulent herbs. 
The seven species under it. 
Po'mvinoi, house-leek, 
pro'mviuoi, aloe. 
Fo'mvinoi, orpine, 
f'ro'mvinoi, rose-wort. 
To'mvinoi, piu-slain, 
tro'mvinoi, garden brook -lime. 
Ko'mvinoi, spotted sanicle, 
kro'mvinoi, indented sengreen. 
Bo'mvinoi, stone-crop, 
bro'mvinoi, wall-pepper. 
Vo'mvinoi, navel-wort, 
Do'mvinoi, glass-wort. 



The ninth difference. 

O'MVINOZ, herbs distinguished 
by the supei-ficies of the leaf. 

The ten species under it. 
Po'nivino, burrage, 
pro'mvino, bugloss. 
Fo'mvino, alkanet, 
fro'mvino, viper's bugloss. 
To'mvino, sage of Jerusalem, 
tro'mvino, honey-wort. 
Ko'mvino, comfrey, 
kro'mvino, dog's-tongue. 
Bo'mvino, grummel, 
bro'mvino, heliotrope. 
Vo'mvino, asparagrass, 
vro'mvino, ladies'-bed-straw. 
Do'mvino, horse-tail, 
dro'mvino, horned water-milfoil. 
Go'mvino, madder, 
gro'mvino, cross-wort. 
To'mvino, bastard madder, 
tro'mvino, goose-grass. 
Do'mvino, woodrof, 
(lro'mvin(2, spurry. 



A'MVL XL 

The nine differences under this 
Genus. 

A'^IVOOZ, herbs of stamineous 
flowers. 

E 



A'MVOIZ, herbs having a com- 
pound flower, not pappous. 

A'MVOZ, pappous herbs. 

A'MVAZ, mnbelliferous-flowered 
herbs with broad leaves. 

A'MVILZ, umbelliferous-flowered 
herbs with leaves finely cut 
into narrow segments. 

A'MVAIZ, verticillate-flowercd 
fruticose herbs. 

A'MVINOOZ, verticillate-flowered 
not fruiticose herbs. 

A'MVINOIZ, spicate-flowered 
herbs. 

A'MVINOZ, clustered or button- 
herbs. 



Ttie first difference. 

A'MVOOZ, herbs of stamineous 
flowers. 

The seventeen species under it. 
Pa'mvoo, rhubarb, 
pra'mvoo, dock. 
Fa'mvoo, sorrel, 
fra'mvoo, french son-el. 
Ta'mvoo, buck-wheat, 
tra'mvoo, black bind- weed. 
Ka'mvoo, knot-grass. 
Ba'mvoo, hemp, 
bra'mvoo, hop. 
Va'mvoo, merciu'v, 
vra'mvoo, chllding mercury. 
Da'mvoo, dog's mercm-y. 
Ga'mvoo, spinage, 
gra'mvoo, English mercury. 
Ta'mvoo, orrage, 
tra'mvoo, goose-foot. 
Da'mvoo, beet. 

Pa'nvoo, dyers'-weed, 
pra'nvoo, base rocket. 
Fa'nvoo, meadow rue. 
Ta'nvoo, oak of Jerusalem, 
tra'uvoo, oak of Cappadocia. 
Ka'nvoo, nettle. 
Ba'nvoo, blite, 
bra'nvoo, princes' -feathers. 
Va'nvoo, pellitory of the wall. 
13 



Ga'nvoo, rupture-wort, 
gra'nvoo, stinking gi-ound-pine. 

T]ie second difference. 

A'MVOIZ, herbs having a com- 
pound flower, not pappous. 

27*6 sixteen species under it. 

Pa'mvoi, sun-flower, 
pra'mvoi, Jerusalem artichoke. 
Fa'mvoi, marigold. 
Ta'mvoi, great daisy, 
tra'mvoi, daisy. 
Ka'mvoi, alecost, 
kra'mvoi, maudlm tansy. 
Ba'mvoi, golden stsechas, 
bra'mvoi, cud-weed. 
Va'mvoi, corn marigold, 
vra'mvoi, ox-eye. 
Da'mvoi, African marigold. 
Ga'mvoi, chamomile, 
gra'mvoi, stinking may-weed. 
Ta'mvoi, fever-few. 
Da'mvoi, sneeze- wort, 
di-am'voi, tarragon. 



Pa'nvoi, 


southern-wood, 


pra'uvoi 


lavender cotton. 


Fa'nvoi 


worm-wood, 


fra'nvoi 


mug-wort. 


Ta'nvoi 


tansy, 


tra'uvoi. 


milfoil. 


Ka'nvoi 


scabious. 


kra'nvoi 


devils'-bit. 


Ba'nvoi, 


blue daisy. 


bra'nvoi 


thrift. 


Va'nvoi, 


endive, 


vra'nvoi 


succory. 


The third difference. 


A'MVOZ, flowering pappous herbs 


Tlie fourteen species under it. 


Pa'iuvo, 


thistle, 


pra'mvg 


artichoke. 


Fa'mvo, 


blue-bottle, 


fra'mvo, 


Austrian sneeze-wort. 


Ta'ravo 


saw-wort. 


tra'mvo 


great centory. 



GENUS XL A'MVI. 



GENUS XL A'MVL 



GENUS XL A'MVL-Ti 1 



Kivnnn, 
kraiiiv... 

bra'iuvo, 
Va'mvo, 
vra'mvo, 
Da'mvo, 
dra'mvo, 
Ga'mvo, 
gra'mvo, 
Ta'mvo, 
tra'mvo, 
Dam'vo, 
dra'mvo, 

Pa'nvo, 
pra'nvo, 
Fa'nvo, 
fra'nvo, 
Ta'nvo, 
tra'uvo, 
Ka'nvo, 
kra'nvo, 



knap-weed, 

silver knap-weed. 

bastard saffron, 

bearded creeper. 

leopards'-baue, 

elecampane. 

groundsil, 

rag-wort. 

Dutch agrimony, 
, golden rod. 

star-wort, 

flea-bane. 

sea star-wort, 
, golden flowered samphire 

lettuce, 

gum succoiy. 
hawk-weed, 
dandelion, 
goats'-beard, 
mouse-ear. 

sow thistle, 

nipple-wort. 



The fourth difference. 
A'MVAZ, imibelliferous-flowered 
herbs with broad leaves. 
The jif teen species under it. 

Pa'mva, annis, 

pra'mva, coriander. 

Fa'mva, bastard stone-parsley. 

Ta'mva, sweet cicely, 

tra'mva, wild cicely. 

Ka'mva, alexanders, 

kra'mva, lovage. 

Ba'mva, angelica, 

bra'mva, master-wort. 

Va'mva, lasser-wort, 

vra'mva, frankincense of Theo- 

phrastus. 
Da'mva, sir-mountain. 
Ga'mva, valerian, 
gra'mva, meadow-sweet. 
Ta'mva, parsley, 
tra'mva, small-age. 
Da'mva, Hercules iical-all. 

Pa'nva, parsnip, 
pra'nva, skirret. 



Fa'nva, thorough-wax, 
fra'nva, hares'-ear. 
Ta'nva, burnt saxifrage, 
tra'nva, umbelliferous eringo. 
Ka'nva, candy-Alexander. 
Ba'nva, cow parsnip, 
bra'nva, water parsnip. 



The fifth difference. 

A'MVILZ, umbilliferous-flowered 
herbs with leaves finely cut 
into narrow segments. 

The fourteen sjxcies under it. 

Pa'ravi, fennel, 

pra'mvi, dill. 

Fa'mvi, hogs' fennel, 

fra'mvi, samphire. 

Ta'mvi, giant fennel, 

tra'mvi, frankincense of Galen. 

Ka'mvi, spignel, 

kra'mvi, bishops'-weed. 

Ba'mvi, hart-wort. 

Va'mvi, carrot, 

vra'mvi, wild carrot. 

Da'mvi, carroway, 

di-a'mvi, ciunmin. 

Ga'mvi, all-heal, 

gra'mvi, chervil. 

Ta'mvi, hemlock, 

tra'mvi, water hemlock. 

Da'mvi, earth-nut, 

di-a'mvi, di'op-wort. 

Pa'nvi, pellitory of Spain, 
pra'nvi, scortchuig fennel. 
Fa'nvi, Spanish pick-tooth, 
tra'nvi, bastard parsley. 
Ta'nvi, water milfoil, 
tra'nvi, milky parsley. 
Ka'nvi, water drop-woi-t. 



The sixth difference. 

A'MVAIZ, verticiUate-flowered 
fruiticose herbs. 

The seven species under it. 
Pa'mvai, sage, 
Fa'mvai, germander, 
fra'mvai, tree gcrniander. 
14 



Ta'mvai, mastic, 
tra'mvai, goats'-marj oram. 
Ka'mvai, thyme. 
Ba'mvai, lavender, 
bra'mvai, cassidony. 
Va'mvai, polimountain. 
Da'mvai, hyssop, 
di'a'mvai, winter-savory. 



The seventh difference. 

A'MVINOOZ, verticillate-flower'd 
not fruiticose herbs. 

The seventeen species under it. 

Pa'mvinoo, 
pra'mvmoo, 
Fa'mvinoo, 
fra'mvinoo, 
Ta'mvinoo, 
Ka'mvinoo, 
kra'mvinoo, 
Ba'mvinoo, 
bra'mvinoo, 
Va'mvinoo, 
vra'mvinoo, 
Da'mvinoo, 
Ga'mvinoo, 
Ta'mvinoo, 
tra'mvinoo, 
Da'mvinoo, 
dra'mvinoo, 



mmt, 
cat-mint, 
bahn, 
calamint. 
assyrian balm, 
marjoram, 
wild marjoram, 
basil, 

stone-basil, 
dittany, 

white horehound. 
ground-pine, 
pennyroyal, 
water germander, 
wood-sage, 
clary, 
wild clary. 



Pa'nvinoo, 
pra'nvinoo, 
Fa'nvinoo, 
fra'nvinoo, 
Ta'nvinoo, 
Ka'n\-iBoo, 
kra'nvinoo, 
Ba'nvinoo, 
bra'nvinoo, 
Va'nvinoo, 
vra'nvinoo, 
Da'nvinoo, 



dead-nettle, 
black horeliound. 
base horehoimd, 
ironwort. 
mother-wort, 
hedge hyssop, 
hooded loose strife, 
betony, 

purple loose strife, 
self-heal, 
bugle, 
dodder. 



GENUS XII. E'MVI. 



GENUS XII. E'MVI. 



GENUS XII. E'MVI. 



The 


eighth difference. 


A'MVINOIZ, spicate-flowered 


herbs 




The six specks under it. 


Pa'mvinoi, 


teasel, 


pra'mvinoi 
Fa'mvinoi, 
fra'mvinoi, 


ermgo. 
globe thistle, 
shepherds'-rod. 


Ta'mvinoi, 
tra'mvmoi, 


agrimony, 
enchanters' night-shade 


Ka'mviiioi 


burnet. 


Ba'mvinoi, 
bra'mviuoi 


hare's-foot, 
star-headed trefoil. 


Va'mvinoi, 
vra'mvinoi 


arsmart, 
naiTOW-leaved pond- 


weed 




Tlie ninth difference. 


A'MVINOZ, clustered or button- 


seeded herbs. 



The eight species under it. 

Pa'mvino, wild tansey, 
pra'mvino, avens. 
Fa'mvino, cinque-foil, 
fra'mvino, tormentil. 
Ta'mvino, anemone, 
tra'mveno, pasch flower. 
Ka'mvino, ranimculus, 
kra'mvino, pilewort. 
Ba'mvino, adonis flower. 
Va'mvino, mallow, 
vra'mvmo, hollyock. 
Da'mvino, marsh mallows, 
dra'mvino, tree mallow. 
Ga'mvmo, vervain mallow. 



EMVL XIL 

The nim differences under this 
Genus. 

E'MVOOZ, herbs with corniculate 

seed vessels. 
E'MVOIZ, long-podded climliing 

papilionaceous-flowered herbs. 



E'MVOZ, long-podded papiliona- 
ceous herbs, not climbers. 

E'MVAZ, long-podded herbs, not 
papilionaceous-flowered. 

E'MVILZ, capsulate seeded herbs, 
with five leaved flowers. 

E'MVAIZ, capsulate seeded herbs, 
with 3 or 4 leaved flowers. 

E'MVINOOZ, capsulate seeded 
campanulate-flowered herbs. 

E'MVINOIZ, capsulate seeded 
segmented-flowered herbs. 

E'MVINOZ, bacciferous herbs. 



The first difference. 
E'MVOOZ, herbs with corniculate 
seed vessels. 

The five species under it. 

Pe'mvoo, peony, 

pre'mvoo, fraxinella. 

Fe'mvoo, lark's-heel, 

fre'mvoo, cohunbine. 

Te'mvoo, wolves'-bane, 

tre'mvoo, wholesome wolves'-bane. 

Ke'mvoo, winter wolves'-bane, 

kre'mvoo, staves-acre. 

Be'mvoo, cranes'-bill, 

bre'mvoo, venus'-comb. 



The secoivl difference. 
E'MVOIZ, long-podded climbing 
papilionaccous-flower'd herbs. 



Tlie seven sjiecies under it. 


Pe'mvoi, 


kidney bean. 


Fe'mvoi, 


bean of the ancients, 


fre'mvoi. 


pea. 


Te'mvoi, 


vetch. 


tre'mvoi 


lentil. 


Ke'nivoi 


bitter vetch. 


Be'mvoi 


chickhng, 


bre'mvoi 


winged wild pea. 


Ve'mvoi 


yellow wild vetch. 


De'mvoi 


under-ground chickling 


dre'mvoi 


, pea earth-nut. 




15 



The third difference. 

E'MVOZ, long-podded papilion- 
aceous-flowered herbs not 
climbers. 



Tlie 

Pe'mvo, 
pre'mvo, 
Fe'mvo, 
Te'mvo, 
tre'mvo, 
Ke'mvo, 
kre'mvo, 
Be'mvo, 
bre'mvo, 
Ve'mvo, 
vi-e'mvo, 
De'nivo, 
Ge'mvo, 
gi-e'mvo 
Te'mvo, 
tremvo, 
D'emvo, 
ili-e'mvo, 



fifteen species tender it. 

bean, 
, lupui. 

chick pea. 

wild liquorice, 

milk vetch. 

lady's-finger, 

fumitory. 

fi-ench honey-suckle, 

cock's-head. 

hatchet-vetch, 

horse-shoe. 

crunson grass vetch. 

goat's-rue. 
, sensitive plant. 

bird's-foot, 

land caltrops. 

melilot, 

trefoil honev-suckle. 



Pe'nvo, milk-wort. 
Fe'nvo, scorpion-grass, 
fre'nvo, caterpillar. 
Te'nvo, lotus, 
tre'nvo, foen-greek. 
Ke'nvo, camock. 
Be'nvo, snail trefoil, 
bre'nvo, hedge-hog trefoil. 



Tlie fourth difference. 

E'MVAZ, long-podded herbs, 
papilionaceo us-flo wered . 

The fifteen species under it. 

Pe'mva, stock gilly-flower, 
pre'mva, wall-flower. 
Fe'mva, dames' violet, 
fre'mva, tooth-wort. 
Te'mva, codded willow hei-b, 
tre'mva, upright dogs'-bane. 
Ke'mva, turnip, 
kre'mva, navew. 
Be'mva, radish. 



GENUS XII. E'MVI. 



GEXUS XII. E'MVL 



GENUS XII EMVI 



Ve'iuva, 
vremva, 
De'mva, 
dre'mva. 
Ge'mva, 
gre'mva 
Te'mva, 
tremva, 
De'mva, 
di-e'mva 



cabbage, 

codded thorough-wi 

rocket, 

winter cress. 

sauce alone, 
, capsicum. 

mustard, 

charlock. 
, homed poppv, 
, gi-eat cclendine. 



Pe'nva, flix-wced. 
Fe'nva, tower nuistard, 
fi-enva, codded mouse-ear. 
Te'nva, treacle worm-seed, 
tre'nva, yellow arabian mustard. 
Ke'nva, dogs' -bane, 
kre'nva, swallow-wort. 
Be'nva, water cress, 
bre'nva, cuckoo flower. 



Te'nvi, rue, 
tre'uvi, fenel flower. 



Tlie fifth difference. 

E'MVILZ, capsulate seeded herbs, 
with five leaved flowers. 

The thirteen species under it. 

P'emvi, gilly-flower, 
premvi, pink. 
Femvi, campion, 
fre'mvi, catch-fly. 
Te'mvi, venus' looking-glass. 
Ke'mvi, sweet-william, 
kre'mvi, bristow nonsuch. 
Be'mvi, lesser centamy. 
Ye'mvi, cow-basil, 
vre'mvi, cockle. 
De'mvi, St. John's-wort, 
dre'mvi, St. Peter's wort, 
(ie'mvi, tutsan. 
Te'mvi, stitch-wort, 
tre'mvi, common chickweed. 
De'mvi, bastard chickweed, 
dremvi, pimpernel. 

Pe'nvi, spurge. 

Fe'nvi, flax, 

frenvi, yellow loose strife. 



The sixth difference. 
E'^rVAIZ, capsulate seeded herbs 
with 3 or 4 leaved flowers. 
The eleven species under it. 

Pe'mvai, fresh water soldier, 
pre'mvai, an-ow-head. 
Fe'mvai, bulbonach, 
fre'mvai, mad-wort of Discorides. 
Te'mvai, thlaspi, 
tre'mvai, shepherd's piu'se. 
Ke'mvai, poppy, 
ki-e'mvai, bastard poppy. 

Be'mvai, garden cress, 
bi-emvai, sciatica cress. 
Ve'mvai, pepper-wort, 
vre'mvai, swine's cress. 
De'mvai, barren-wort. 
Ge'mvai, woad, ' 

gre'mvai, gold of pleasiu'e. 
Te'mvai, vervain, 
tre'mvai, sea-lavender. 
De'mvai, brook-lime. 

Pe'nvai, speed-weed, 
pre'uvai, wild gennauder. 



Ge'mvinoo, mervail of Peru, 
gi-e'mviuoo, thoni apple. 
Te'mvinoo, rampion, 
tre'mvmoo, bell-flower. 
De'mvinoo, fox-glove, 
dre'mviuoo, oily purging puis 

Pe'nvinoo, tobacco, 
pre'nvinoo, hen-bane. 



The seventh difference. 
E'lIVINOOZ, capsulate seeded 

campanulate-flowered herbs. 

TJie eleven sjxcies tinder it. 
Pe'mvinoo, pompeon. 



premvmoo, 



melon. 



Fe'mvinoo, gourd, 
fre'mvinoo, citron. 
Te'mvinoo, cuciunber. 
Ke'ra^nnoo, coloquintida, 
kre'mvinoo, wild cucumber. 
Be'm^^inoo, male balsam. 
Ye'mvinoo, convolvidus, 
vre'ravuioo, scammony. 
De'mvinoo, Coventrj' bells, 
di-e'mvinoo, thi'oat-wort. 
16 



The eighth difference. 
E'MVIXOIZ, capsulate seeded 
segmented-flowered herbs. 
The ten s])ecies under it. 
Pe'mvinoi, piimrose, 
pre'mvinoi, cowslip. 
Felnvmoi, bear's-ear, 
fre'mvinoi, bu'd's-eye. 
Te'mvinoi, bear's-ear sanicle. 
Ke'mvinoi, mulllen, 
kre'mvinoi, moth uuillien. 
Be'mviiioi, birth-wort, 
bre'mvinoi, fig-wort. 
Ve'mvinoi, snap-di-agon, 
vre'mvinoi, toad-flax. 
De'mvlnoi, cocks" -comb, 
cb-emviuoi, eye-bright. 
Ge'mvinoi, bears' -breech, 
gre'mvinoi, cow wheat. 
Te'mvinoi, codded arsmart, 
tre'mvinoi, female fluellln. 
De'mvinoi, periwinkle. 



The ninth difference. 
E'iR^INOZ, bacciferous herbs. 

The nine species under it. 
Pe'mvino, strawbeny. 
Fe'mvino, love-apple, 
fre'mvino, mad-apple. 
Te'mvino, potato of Virginia. 
Ke'mvino, night-shade, 
krenivino, man-di-akc. 
Bemvino,beny bearing wolfsbane 
bre'mvino, tiiie-love. 
Ve'mvino, white briony, 
vremviuo, black briony. 



GENUS XIII. I'MVL 



GENUS XIIL I'MVL 



GENUS XIIL I'MVL 



De'mvino, prickly bind-weed. 
Ge'ravino, winter cherry, 
gre'mvino, berry bearing chickweed 
Te'mvino, dane-wort. 



I'MVL XIIL 

The six differences -under this 
' Genus. 

I'ilVOOZ, bacciferous, thoiiiy, 

deciduous slirubs. 
I'MVOIZ, bacciferous, deciduous 

shi-ubs, not thorny. 
I'MVOZ, bacciferous, evergreen 



I'MVAZ, podded-seeded shrubs. 
I'MVILZ, graniferous, deciduous 

slu'ubs. 
I'MVAIZ, graniferous, evergreen 

shi-iibs. 



The first difference. 
I'MVOOZ, bacciferous, thorny, de 
ciduous shrubs. 
Tlie seven species under it. 

Pi'mvoo, 
pri'mvoo, 
Fi'mvoo, 
fri'mvoo, 
Ti'mvoo, 
tri'mvoo, 
Ki'mvoo, 
kri'mvoo, 
Bi'mvoo, 
Vi'mvoo, 
vri'mvoo, 
Di'mvoo, 



raspbeny, 
bramble, 
rose, 
brier. 

gooseberry, 
white thorn, 
sloe-tree, 
barberry, 
purging thorn. 
Christ's thom, 
box thom. 
buck's thom. 



The second difference. 
I'MVOIZ, bacciferous, deciduous 
shrubs, not thorny. 

The fourteen species under it 

Pi'nivoi, vine, 
pri'mvoi, currant. 



Fi'mvoi, 
Ti'mvoi, 
tri'mvoi, 
Ki'mvoi, 
Bi'mvoi, 
bri'mvol, 
Vi'mvoi, 
vri'mvoi, 
Di'mvoi, 
Gi'mvoi, 
gri'mvoi, 
Ti'mvoi, 
Di'mvoi, 
dri'mvoi. 



bilberry. 

way-faring tree, 

white beam tree. 

dogberry tree. 

birds' cherry, 

wild rock cherry of Austria 

dwarf medlar, 

sweet-wort. 

berry bearing alder. 

woodbine, 

upright woodbine. 

pepper. 

mezeron, 

spindle tree. 



Pi'nvoi, privet, 
pri'nvoi, cassia. 
Fi'nvoi, gelder rose, 
fri'nvoi, water elder. 
Ti'nvoi, yellow jessamine. 
Ki'nvoi, sea grape. 



The third difference. 
I'MVOZ, bacciferous evergreen 
shrubs. 
77(6 twelve species under it. 
Pi'mvo, true balsam, 
pri'mvo, thorny bumet. 
Fi'mvo, dwarf palm. 
Ti'mvo, mock privet, 
tri'mvo, privet. 
Ki'mvo, strawberry tree, 
kri'mvo, evergreen thorn. 
Bi'mvo, spurge laurel. 
Vi'mvo, spurge olive, 
vri'nivo, widow-wail. 
Di'mvo, laurel of Alexandria, 
dri'mvo, horse-tongue. 
Gi'mvo, butchers' broom. 
Ti'mvo, wild bay. 
Di'mvo, juniper, 
dri'mvo, savin. 

Pi'nvo, myrtle, 
pri'nvo, myrtle sumach. 
Fi'nvo, ivy, 
fri'nvo, misseltoe. 



TJie fourth difference. 
I'MVAZ, podded-seeded slirubs. 

The nine species under it. 
Pi'mva, lilac. 
Fi'mva, capar, 
fri'mva, thorny broom. 
Ti'mva, bean trefoil, 
tri'mva, shnib-trefoil. 
Ki'mva, senna, 
kri'mva, bastard senna. 
Bi'mva, Hcquorice. 
Vi'mva, binding bean tree, 
vriniva, locust tree. 
Di'mva, humble plant. 
Gi'mva, broom, 
gri'mva, furze. 
Ti'mva, goats'-thom, 
tri'mva, dorycnium. 



The fifth difference. 

I'MVILZ, graniferous deciduous 
shi-ubs. 

The eight species under it. 

Pi'mvi, chaste tree, 

pri'mvi, spiked willow of Theo- 

phrastus. 
Fi'mvi, tamarisk. 
Ti'mvi, jessamine, 
tri'mvi, white pipe tree. 
Ki'mvi, shrub mallow. 
Bi'mvi, galls, 
bri'mvi, red sumach. 
Vi'mvi, tree spurge. 
Di'mvi, clematis, 
di-i'mvi, travellers'-joy, 
Gi'mvi, Virginian chmbers. 



The sixth difference. 

I'MVAIZ, graniferous evergreen 
shi-ubs. 

Tlie eight species under it. 
Pi'mvai, holy rose, 
pri'mvai, oleander. 
Fi'mvai, sana muuda, 
fri'mvai, gut-wort. 



GENUS XIV. U'MVI. 



GENUS XIV. U'MVI 



GENUS XIV. U'MVI 



Ti'mvai, herb-terrible. 
Ki'mvai, rosemary, 
krl'mvai, sage-mulleiu. 
Bi'mvai, hart-wort, 
bri'mvai, sweet mountain rose. 
Vi'mvai, sea purslain, 
vri'mvai, silver bush. 
Di'mvai, heath. 
Gi'mvai, rose of Jerico. 



Um'I XIV. 

The eight differences under this 

Genus. 

U'lIVOOZ, pomiferous trees. 

U'MVOIZ, pnmiferous trees. 

U'MVOZ, bacciferous trees. 

U'MVAZ, miciferous trees. 

U'MVILS, glandiferous and coni- 
ferous trees. 

U'ilVAIZ, trees whose seeds are 
contained in a single 
tegument. 

U':M^aXOOZ, trees celebrated for 
their woods or barks. 

U'MVLS'OIZ, trees celebrated for 
then- gums or resins. 



The first difference. 
U'MVOOZ, pomiferous trees. 
The nine species under it. 
Putevoo, apple. 
Fu'mvoo, ,pear, 
fru'mvoo, quince. 
Tu mvoo, medlar, 
tru'mvoo, lazarole. 
Ku'mvoo, true service, 
kru'mvoo, common service. 
Bu'mvoo, fig. 
Vu'mvoo, pomegranate. 
Du'mvoo, orange, 
druiuvoo, Adam's apple. 
Gu'mvoo, citron, 
gnimvoo, lemon. 
Tu'mvoo, plantain tree, 
trumvoo, Indian lig. 



The second difference. 
U'JIVOLZ, pnmiferous trees. 
The six species under it. 

Pu'mvoi, peach, 
pru'mvoi, nectarine. 
Fu'mvoi, apricot, 
fru'mvoi, plum. 
Tu'mvoi, cherry, 
tru'mvoi, comelion. 
Ku'mvoi, olive, 
kru'mvoi, date. 
Bu'mvoi, mirobalane, 
bru'mvoi, sebesten. 
Vu'mvoi, white jujubs, 
vi-u'mvoi, common jujubs. 



The third difference. 
U'JIVOZ, bacciferous trees. 
The ten species under it. 
Pu'mvo, mulbeiTj. % 

Fu'mvo, elder, 
fru'mvo, sumach. 
Tu'mvo, quicken tree, 
tru'mvo, tiu-pentme tree. 
Ku'mvg, nettle tree. 
Bu'mvo, bay, 
bru'mvo, laurel. 
Vu'mvo, yew, 
vru'mvo, holly. 
Du'mvo, box. 
Gu'mvg, mastic tree, 
gru'mvo, di-agon tree. 
Tu'mvo, clove tree, 
tru'mvo, bead tree. 
Du'mvo, sassafras, 
dru'mvo, Indian molle. 



The fourth difference. 
U']\IVAZ, nuciferous trees. 

The eight species under it. 
Pu'mva, walnut, 
pru'mva, almond. 
Fu'mva, pistachio, 
fru'niva, storax. 

18 



Tu'mva, filbert, 
tru'mva, hazel. 
Ku'mva, chesnut, 
kru'mva, beech. 
Bu'mva, bladder-nut. 
Vu'mva, coco-nut, 
vru'mva, nutmeg. 
Du'mva, chocolate nut, 
dru'mva, coffee, 
dwu'mva, tea. 
Gu'mva, cotton-tree, 
gi-u'mva, anacardimn. 



The fifth difference. 
U'MYILZ. glandiferous and coni- 
ferous trees. 
TJie six species under it. 

Pu'mvi, oak, 

pni'mvi, bitter oak. 
Fu'mvi, hobn oak, 
fru'mvi, cork tree. 
Tu'mvi, alder, 
tru'mvi, larch tree. 
Ku'mvi, cedar, 
kru'mvi, pine. 
Bu'mvi, male fir, 
bru'mvi, female fir. 
Vu'mvi, cypress, 
vi-u'mvi, tree of life. 



The sixth difference. 
U'MVAIZ, trees bearing their 
seeds in single teguments. 
TJie ten species under it. 
Pu'mvai, carob. 
Fu'mvai, cassia, 
fru'mvai, tamarind. 
Tu'mvai, Judas tree. 
Ku'mvai, elm, 
kru'mvai, hornbeam. 
Bu'mvai, ash. 
Vu'mvai, maple, 
vru'mvai, sycamore. 
Du'mvai, birch, 
dru'mvai, aspin. 



GENUS XIV. U'MVI. 



GENUS Xr. ONJI 



GENUS XV. ami. 



Gu'mvai, black poplar, 
gru'invai, white poplar. 
Tumvai, willow, 
tru'mvai, sallow. 
Du'mvai, lime tree, 
dru'mvai, plane tree. 



The seventh differe.-)ice. 
U'MVINOOZ, trees celebrated for 
their woods or resins. 

TJie nine species under it. 
Pu'mvinoo, aloe tree. 
Fu'mvinoo, guaiacum, 
fru'mvinoo, snakewood. 
Tu'mvinoo, red saunders, 
tru'uivinoo, yellow saunders. 
Ku'mvinoo, lignixm nephriticum, 
kru'mvinoo, rosewood. 
Bu'mvinoo, brasil wood, 
bru'mvinoo, log-wood. 
Vti'mvinoo, ebony, 
vrumvinoo, princes' wood. 
Du'ravinoo, cabbage tree. 
Gu'mvinoo, cinnamon. 
Tu'mvinoo, cortex febrifugus Pe- 

ruvianus, 
tru'mvinoo, cortex winteranns. 



ITie 


eighth difference. 


U'MVINOIZ, trees celebrated for 




their gums or resins. 


The nine species under it. 


Pu'mvinoi, 
Fu'mvinoi, 
fru'mvinoi, 


myrrh, 
gmn arable, 
sarcocolla. 


Tu'mvinoi, 
ti-u'mvinoi, 


frankincense, 
gum elemi. 


Ku'mvinoi 


gum anune, 


kru'mvinoi 


, copal. 


Bu'mvinoi, 
bru'mvuioi 


caranna, 
, benjamin. 


Vu'mvinoi 


camphor. 


Du'mvinoi 
di-u'mvinoi 


bdellium, 
, taca inahaca. 



Gu'mvinoi, lac. 
Tu'mvinoi, liquid ambra, 
tru'ravinoi, Peruvian balsam. 



ONJI. XV. 

The nine differences under this 
Genus. 

O'NJOOZ, unwinged insects hav- 
ing six feet or none. 
O'NJOIZ, winged insects with six 
feet, and insects with 
more than six feet. 
O'NJOZ, soft transition-insects. 
O'NJAZ, unsheathed winged in- 
sects. 
O'NJILZ, sheathed winged insects. 
O'NJAIZ, cinistaceous animals. 
O'NJINOOZ, testaceous turbmated 

animals. 
O'NJINOIZ, testaceous animals 

not turbinated. 
O'NJINOZ, soft non-transition 
animals and zoophytes. 



Tlie first difference. 

O'NJOOZ, unwinged insects hav- 
ing six feet, or none. 

Tlie nine species under it. 

Po'njoo, earth wonn, 
pro'njoo, belly worm. 
Fo'njoo, leech, 
fro'njoo, snail. 
To'njoo, ascarides, 
tro'njoo, botts. 
Ko'njoo, fluke, 
kro'njoo, asilus. 
Bo'njoo, glow-womi, 
bro'njoo, meal worm. 
Vo'njoo, proscarab. 
Do'njoo, field cricket, 
dro'njoo, cockroach. 
Go'njoo, louse, 
gro'njoo, flea. 
To'njoo, water scorpion. 
19 



The second difference. 

ONJOIZ, winged insects with six 
feet, and insects with 
more than six feet. 

Tlie eleven species under it. 

Po'njoi, locust, • 
pro'njoi, mantis. 
Fo'njoi, cricket, 
fro'njoi, fen cricket. 
Tonjoi, climex silvestris, 
tro'njoi, winged cockroach. 
Ko'njoi, water spider, 
kro'njoi, cicada aquatica. 
Bo'njoi. spider, 
bro'njoi, scorpion. 
Vo'njoi, tick, 
vronjoi, punice. 
Do'njoi, mite, 
dro'njoi, wheal worm. 
Go'njoi, moth. 
To'njoi, wood-louse. 
Do'njoi, scolopender, 
dro'njoi, julus. 

Po'njinoi, sea louse, 
pro'njinoi, sea flea. 



The third difference. 
O'NJOZ, soft transition-insects. 

The eight species under it. 
Po'njo, maggot. 
Fo'njo, bee maggot, 
fro'njo, shining fly maggot. 
To'njo, gentile, 
tronjo, wasp-like-fly maggot. 
Ko'nj(2, libella worm, 
kro'njo, cadew. 
Bo'nj(2, straight-beetle producing 

hexapod, 
bro'njo, whirl worm. 
Vo'njo, caterpillar, 
vronjo, silk worm. 
Do'njo, g'eometra, 
di-onjo, skipping worm. 
Go'njo, smooth caterpillar, 
gro'njo, palmer worm. 



GENUS XV. (ymi. 



GENUS XV. ONJI. 



GENUS XVI. A'NJL 



The fourth difference. 

NJA, unsheathed winged insects. 

The ten species under it. 

Po'nja, bee, 

pro'nja, humble bee. 

Fo'njaf wasp, 

fro'nja, hornet. 

To'nja, bee-like fly, 

tro'nja, wasp-like fly. 

Ko'nja, flesh flv, 

kro'nja, dung fly. 

Bo'nja, ant, 

bro'nja, gnat. 

Vo'nja, cicada, 

vro'nja, papihonaceous fly. 

Bo'nja, dragon fly, 

dro'nja, may fly. 

Go'nja, crane fly. 

To'nja, buttei-fly, 

tro'nja, moth. 

Do'nja, hawk butterfly. 



The fifth difference. 
O'NJILZ, sheathed winged insects. 



The nine species under it. 



Po'nji, 
pro'nji, 
Fo'nji, 
fro'nji, 
To'nji, 
tro'nji, 
Ko'nji, 
kro'nji, 
Bo'nji, 
bro'nji. 
Vo'nji, 
vro'nji. 
Do'nji, 
dro'nji. 
Go'nji, 
gro'iij 
To'nji, 
tro'nji. 



rhinoceros beetle, 

weevil. 

stag beetle, 

bull-fly beetle. 

goat chafer, 

knobbed honied beetle. 
, common beetle, 
, dung beetle. 

gi-ey beetle, 
, gi-een chafer. 

death watch, 
, lady-cow. 
, staphilinus, 
, ear-wig. 

, great water-scarab, 
, less water-scarab. 

cantharides, 

glow-worm fly. 



The sixth difference. 
O'NJAIZ, crustaceous animals. 

The nine species under it. 
Po'njai, lobster, 
pro'ujai, long oyster. 
Fo'njai, sea bear. 
To'njai, cray-fish. 
Ko'njai, shrimp, 
kro'njai, squilla mantis. 
Bo'njai, hennit fish. 
Vo'njai, common crab, 
VTo'njai, sea cock. 
Do'njai, cancer majus, 
dro'njai, molucca crab. 
Go'njal, little crab. 
To'njai, sea spider, 
tro'njai, crustaceous spider. 



Tlie seventh difference. 
O'NJINOOZ, testaceous turbinated 
animals. 
Tlie eight species under it. 
Po'njiuoo, nautilus, 
pro'njmoo, water snail. 
Fo'njinoo, mm^ex, 
fi-o'ujinoo, pm-pura. 
To'njinoo, cylindroides, 
tro'njinoo, aporrhais. 
Ko'njinoo, sea snail, 
ki-o'ujiuoo, nerites. 
Bo'njinoo, buccinmn, 
bro'njinoo, turbo. 
Yo'njinoo, trochus, 
yro'njinoo, periwinkle. 
Do'njinoo, venus shell, 
di'o'njinoo, persian shell. 
Go'njinoo, sea ear. 



The eighth difference. 
O'XJIXOIZ, testaceous animals 
not turbinated. 
77(6 nine species under it. 
Po'njinoi, limpet, 
pro'njinoi, centre-fish. 
'•20 



Fo'njinoi, 


button-fish. 


fro'njmoi, 


mermaid s head. 


To'njinoi, 


mother of pearl, 


tro'njinoi, 


galades. 


Ko'njinoi, oyster, 
kro'njinoi, spondyl. 


Bo'njinoi, 
bro'njinoi 


scollop, 
cockle. 


Vo'njinoi 


chama. 


VTo'ujinoi 


tellma. 


Do'njinoi 
dro'njinoi 


pmna, 
muscle. 


Go'njinoi 
gro'ujinoi 


pholas, 
sheath-fish. 


To'njinoi 


bamicle. 



T/ie ninth difference. 
O'XJLXOZ, soft non-transition 
animals and zoophytes. 
The six species under it. 
Po'njino, polypus, 
pro'njino, sweet polypus. 
Fo'njino, cuttle fish, 
fro'njino, lesser cuttle. 
To'njino, sieve, 
tro'njino, reddish sieve. 
Ko'njiuo, sea hare, 
kro'njino, holothiuius. 
Bo'njino, blubber. 
Vo'njino, tethya, 
vi-o'njino, sea nettle. 

A'NJI. XVI. 

The nine differences under this 

Genus. 

A'NJOOZ, viviparous oblong fish. 

A'NJOIZ, viviparous fish not long 

and romid. 
A'XJOZ, oviparous fish with soft 
and flexible back fins. 
A'XJAZ, o\-iparous fish having 
two back fins, one spi- 
nous and one flexible. 
A'NJILZ, oviparous fish of one 
back fin, partly stift" 
and partly soft. 



GENUS XVI. A'XJI. 



GENUS XVI. A'XJI. 



GENUS XVL ANJI 



A'NJAIZ, oviparous ccl-sliaped 

tisli. 
A'NJINOOZ, oviparous flat fish. 
A'NJINOIZ, fishes of a hard crus- 

taceous skin. 
A'NJINOZ, scaly river fish. 



The first (Hfference. 
A'NJOOZ, viviparous oblong fish. 



The 


eight species under it. 


Pa'njoo, 


whale, 


pra'njoo 


porpoise. 


Fa'njoo, 


saw-fish. 


fi-a'ajoo, 


sword-fish. 


Ta'njoo, shark, 
tra'njoo, glauciis. 


Ka'njoo, hound-fish, 
kra'njoo, spotted hound-fish. 


Ba'njoo, 
bra'njoo 


thornback dog, 
hog-fish. 


Va'njoo, greater dog-fish, 
vra'njoo, lesser dog-fish. 


Da'njoo, 
dra'ujoo 


zyga^na, 
fox. 


Ga'njoo, 
gra'njoo 


sturgeon, 
huso. 



The second difference. 

A'NJOIZ, viviparous fish not long 
and round. 

The six sjjecies under it. 

Pa'njoi, pastinaca, 
pra'njoi, aquila. 
Fa'njoi, flare, 
fra'njoi, thorn-back. 
Ta'njoi, maid, 
tra'njoi, squatino-raia. 
Ka'njoi, toi-pedo, 
kra'njoi, sea-devil. 
Ba'njoi. skate. 



/a'njoi, mole, 
a'a'njoi, lump. 



The third difference. 

A'NJOZ, oviparous fish with soft 
and flexible back fins. 



T/w^ 
Pa'njo, 
pra'njo, 
Fa'njo, 
fra'njo, 
Ta'njo, 
tra'njo, 
Ka'njg, 
kra'njo, 
Ba'njo, 
Va'njo, 
vra'njo, 
Da'njo, 
dra'iijo, 
Ga'njo, 
gra'nj(2, 
Ta'njo, 
Da'njo, 
di-a'njo, 



species under it. 



coal-fish, 
haddock, 
whiting, 
ling, 
liaak. 
tunny, 
pelamis. 
mackerel, 
kite fish, 
swallow fish, 
sea-gudgeon, 
paganellus. 
joto, 

dracunculus. 
gobites. 
herring, 
pilchard. 



Pa'mljo, shad. 

Fa'mijo, anchovy, 

fra'mijo, chalcis. 

Ta'inijo, ncedle-fisli, 

tra'mijo, tobacco-pipe-fish. 

Ka'mijo, blennus, 

kra'mijo, scorpioides. 

Ba'mijo, stromateus, 

bra'mijo, novacula. 

Va'mijo, lupus marinus schonfeldii 

Da'mijc), paru, 

dra'mijo, guapeiiia. 



The fourth difference. 

A'NJAZ, oviparous fish having 
two back fins, one spi- 
noul and one flexible. 

The twelve sjjecies under it. 
Pa'nja, amia, 
pra'nja, glaucus. 
Fa'nja, coracinus, 
fra'nja, umbra. 
Ta'nja, lupus, 
tra'nja, English mullet. 
21 



Ka'nja, red gurnet, 

kra'nja, grey gurnet. 

Ba'nja, tub-fish, 

bra'nja, lyra altera rondeletii. 

Va'nja, true mullet, 

vra'nja, lesser mullet. 

Da'nja, sphyraena, 

dra'nja, saurus. 

Ga'nja, weaver, 

gra'nja, trachurus. 

Ta'nja, capriscus, 

tra'nja, aper. 

Da'nja, trumpet-fish. 

dra'nja, monoccros clush. 

Pa'mija, uranoscopus, 
pra'mija, scorpajua. 
Ta'mija, dory. 



The fifth difference. 

A'NJILZ, oviparous fish of one 
back fin, partly stiif 
and partly soft. 

The twelve sjKcies under it. 

PaiUJi, gilt-head, 

pra'nji, parus. 

Fa'nji, cantharus, 

fra'nji, salpa. 

Ta'nji, sargus, 

tra'nji, rnormylus. 

Ka'nji, pagrus, 

kra'nji, rubellii). 

Ba'nji, mcilaiiurus, 

bra'nji, deiitex. 

Va'nji, greater scorpion-fish, 

vra'nji, lesser scorpion-fish. 

Da'nji, chromis. 

Ga'nji, jaguraca, 

gra'nji, acara. 

Ta'nji, sea-thrush, 

ti'a'nji, julis. 

Da'nji, sea-perch, 

dra'nji, sachettus. 

Pa'miji, phycis, 
pra'miji, chauna. 
Fa'miji, niiBnas, 
tra'miji, boops. 



GENUS XVI. A'NJI. 



GENUS XVII. E'NJI 



GENUS XVIL ENJI 



The sixth difference. 

A'NJAIZ, oviparous eel-shaped 
fish. 

Tlie eight sj)ecies under it. 

Pa'njai, conger, 
pra'njai, iniu'ajna. 
Fa'njai, sea seiiient, 
fra'njal, ophidion pHnii. 
Ta'njai, tsenia major, 
tra'njai, tajnia lumor. 
Ka'njai, tinea marina, 
kra'njai, sand-eel. 
Ba'njai, lamprev, 
bra'njai, lampem. 
Ya'njai, sheet-fish, 
■vra'njai, eel-pout. 
Da'njai, eel. 
Ga'njai, spada marina, 
gra'njai, remora Imperati. 



The seventh difference. 

A'NJIXOOZ, oviparous flat fish. 

The Jive sjiecies under it. 

Pa'njinoo, common sole, 
pra'njinoo, spotted sole. 
Fa'njinoo, pole. 
Ta'njinoo, turbot, 
ti-a'ujlnoo, halibut. 
Ka'njinoo, brett. 
Ba'njinoo, plaice, 
bra'njinoo, flounder. 



Tlie eifjht]! diffin-ence. 

A'NJIXOIZ, fishes of a hardcrus- 
taceous skin. 

The six species mider it. 

Pa'njinoi, orbis scutatis, 
pra'ujlnoi, orbis hirsutus. 
Fa'njinoi, orbis muricatus, 
tra'njinoi, orbis echinatus. 
Ta'njinoi, triangular fish, 
tra'njinoi, horned triangular fish. 
Ka'njinoi, holostcus. 



Ba'njinoi, acus aristotelis, 
bra'ujinoi, hippocampus. 
Va'njinoi, star-fish. 

The ninth difference. 
A'NJINOZ, scaly river fish. 
The thirteen species under 
Pa'njino, pike. 
Fa'njino, salmon, 
fra'njino, smelt. 
Ta'njino, trout, 
tra'njino, char. 
Ka'njino, grayling, 
kra'njino, umber. 
Ba'njino, faiTa, 
bra'njino, lavarettus. 
Va'njino, perch, 
vi-a'njLno, iiifile. 
Da'njino, carp, 
di'a'njino, tench. 
Ga'njino, barbel, 
gra'njino, chub. 
Ta'njino, bream, 
tra'njino, roach. 
Da'njino, dace, 
di'a'njino, bleak. 

Pamijino, gudgeon, 
pramijino, loach. 
Famijini), bull-head. 
Tamijino, minnow, 
trainijino, stickle-back. 



E'NJINOOZ, aquatic, amphibious 

birds. 
E'NJINOIZ, aquatic fissipedes. 
E'NJINOZ, aquatic palmipedes. 



ENJL XVIL 

The nine differences under this 
Genus. 
E'NJOOZ, carnivorous birds. 
E'NJOIZ, pliytivorous birds of 

short wings. 
E'NJOZ, phytiverous birds of long 
wings and slender bills. 
E'NJAZ, phytiverous birds of 

short, thick, bills. 
E'NJILZ, insectivorous birds of 

the greater kind. 
E'NJAIZ, lesser insectivorous 
birds. 
22 



The first difference. 
E'NJOOZ, carnivorous birds. 
The nine species under it. 

Pe'njoo, eagle, 

pre'njoo, \iilturc. 

Fe'njoo, hawk, 

fre'njoo, kite. 

Te'njoo, cuckoo, 

tr'enjoo, butcher bird. 

Ke'njoo, honied owl 

kre'njoo, unliorned owl. 

Be'njoo, raven, 

bre'njoo, crow. 

Ve'njoo, daw, 

vre'njoo, chough. 

De'njoo, parrot, 

dre'njoo, paroquet. 

Ge'njoo, magpie, 

gre'njoo, jay. 

Te'njoo, longtongued wood-pecker, 

trenjoo, short tongued wood-pecker. 



Suh-species under the \st difference. 

Of the Kigk. 
pcn'onjoo, chrysaetos, 
pen'anjoo, melanaetus, 
pcnc'njoo, pygargus, 
peui'njoo, osprey. 

Of the Vulture. 
preno'njoo, bald vulture, 
pren'anjoo, chcsnut colored vulture, 
prene'njoo, golden %^ilture. 

Of the Hawk. 
feno'njoo, tarcell or goss-hawk, 
fcno'njipm-, tarcell, [male,] 
feno'njipun, goss-hawk, [female.] 
fena'njoo, musket or sparrow-hawk, 
fena'njipivr, musket, [male,] 
fena'njipun, sparrow-hawk, [female, 
fene'njoo, kestrel. 



GENUS XYIL E'NJI. 



GENUS XVIT. E'NJI. 



GENUS XYIL E'NJI 



feni'njoo, jerkin or gerfalcon, 
feni'njipur, jerkin, [male,] 
fenl'njipun, gerfalcon, [female.] 
fenu'njoo, mountain falcon, 
feno'ljoo, tarcel or falcon, 
feno'ljipur, tarcel, male, 
fen'o'ljipun, falcon, female, 
fena'ljoo, lanneret or lanner, 
fena'ljipur, lanneret, male, 
fena'ljipun, lanner, female, 
fen'e'ljoo, hobby, 
feni'ljoo, jack-merlin or merlin, 
feni'ljipur, jack-merlin, male, 
feni'ljipim, merlin, female. 

Of ihe lute. 
freno'njoo, bnzzard, 
fren'anjoo, bald buzzai'd, 
frene'njoo, ring tail. 

Of the Bufcher-hird. 
ti'cno'njoo, particolom-ed butcher- 

'bird, 
tren'anjoo, great butcher-bird. 

Of the Horned Owl 
keno'njoo, bubo, 
kena'njoo, otus, 
kene'njoo, scops. 

Of the Unhomed Owl. 
krcno'njoo, common white barn-owl, 
krena'njoo, common field owl, 
krene'njoo, goat sucker, 
kreni'njoo, noctua. 

Of the Crow. 
bren'onjoo, rook, 
brena'njoo, Roiston crow. 

Of the Fi'es. 
geno'njoo, roller argentoratensis, 
gena'njoo, caryocatastes, 
gene'njoo, garrulus Bohemicus, 
geni'njoo, toucan, 
genu'njoo, rhinoceros bird, 
geno'ljoo, bird of Paradise. 
Of the Lon(j-tongued Wood-pecker. 
teno'njoo, wood-spite, 
tena'njoo, hick-wall, 
tenenjoo, wit-wall, 
teni'njoo, wry neck. 
Of the Shorf-tongued Woodjyecker. 
treno'njoo, nut-hatch, 
t ren a'nj oo . wall-creeper, 
trene'njoo, ox-eye-creepcr. 



treni'nj oo, recd-sparrow, 
trenu'njoo, lesser reed-span-ow. 



The second difference. 

E'NJOIZ, phytivoi-ous birds of 
short wings. 

The nine .ij)er,ifs under it. 

Pe'njoi, cock or hen, a fowl, 

pe'njifur, cock, 

pe'njifun, hen. 
Fe'njoi, pea-cock or pea-hen, 

fenjifur, pea-cock, 

fe'njifnn, pea-hen. 
fre'njoi, turkey. 
Te'njoi, pheasant, 
tre'njoi, attageu. 
Ke'njoi, bustard, 

kre'njoi, anas campestris bellonii. 
Be'njoi, cock of the wood, 
bre'njoi, grouse. 
Ve'njoi, partridge, 
vre'njoi, red partridge. 
De'njoi, hazle-hen, 
dre'njoi, lagopus. 
Ge'njoi, quaile, 
gre'njoi, raile. 
Te'njoi, ostrich, 
tre'njoi, cassowary. 

The third difference. 

E'NJOZ, phytivorous birds of long 
wings^nd slender bills. 

The nine species under it. 
Pe'njo, pidgeon, 
pre'njo, ring-dove. 
Fe'nj(2, stock-dove, 
fre'njo, turtle-dove. 
Te'njo, missle-bird, 
tre'njo, thrush. 
Ke'njo, starling, 
kre'njo, morula saxatilis. 
Be'njo, fieldfare, 
bre'njo, redwing. 
Ve'njo, blackbird, 
vre'njo, passer solitarus. 
De'njo, mcrula toi-quata, 
dre'iiio, mcrula montaiia. 



Ge'njo, galliula, 
gre'njo, hoop. 
Te'njo, bcc-eater, 
tre'njo, king-fisher. 



Thefimrth difference. 
E'NJAZ, phytivorous birds of 
short, thick bills. 

TI)e eight sjwcies under it. 
Pe'nja, bunting. 
Fe'nja, yellow hammer, 
fre'nja, liortidane. 
Te'nja, sparrow, 
tre'nja, mountain-sparrow. 
Ke'nja, cocothraustes, 
krc'nja, cocothraustes cristatus in- 

dicus. 
Be'nja, bullfinch, 
bre'nja, crossbill. 
Ve'nja, greenfinch, 
vre'nja, canary bii-d. 
De'nja. chaffinch, 
dre'nja, brambling. 
Ge'nja, linnet, 
gre'nja, red linnet. 



The fifth difference. 

E'NJILZ, insectivorous birds of 
the greater kind. 
77/1? eight species under it. 

Pe'nji, swallow, 
pre'nji, swift. 
Fe'nji, martin, 
fre'nji, sand-martin. 
Te'nji, nightingale. 
Ke'nji, lark, 
kre'nji, tit-lark. 
Be'nji, robin redbreast, 
bre'nji, redstart. 
Yc'nji, beccafigo, 
vre'nji, wheat-ear. 
De'nji, wagtail, 
dre'ilji, yellow wagtail. 
Ge'nji. stone-smich, 
gre'nj i , hedge-sparrow. 



GENUS XVII. E'NJL 



GENUS XVIL E'NJL 



GENUS XVIIL INJL 



Tlie sixth difference. 

EXJAIZ, lesser insectivorous 
birds. 

The eight species under it. 
Pe'njai, ligiirinus, 
pre'njai, serinus. 
Fe'njai, citriuella. 
Te'njai, wieii. 
Kc'njai, reg-ulus cristatiis, 
ki-e'njai, regulus non cristatus. 
Be'njai, liumming-bird. 
Ve'njai, great titmouse. 
De'njai, titmouse, 
dre'njai, colemouse. 
Ge'njai, long tailed tit. 
gre'njai, crested tit. 



Te'iijinoi, 
tre'njinoi, 
Ke'njinoi, 
krenjmoi, 
Benjiuoi, 
bre'ujtaoi, 
Vc'njinoi, 
De'njinoi, 
dre'njinoi, 
Ge'njinoi, 
Te'nitnoi, 
trenjinoi, 



hearu, 

ardea cinerea minor. 

greater -wbite beam, 

lesser white beam. 

bittour, 

Brazilian bittour. 

spoonbill. 

great didapper, 

little didapper. 

coot. 

water-hen, 

gallinula serica. 



Tlie seventh difference. 

E'NJIXOOZ, aipiatic amphibious i 
birds. I 

ITie nine species under it. . 
Pe'njinoo, lapwing. 
Fe'njinoo, gi-een plover, 
fre'njinoo, gi-ey plover. 
Te'njinoo, dotterel, 
tre'njinoo, sea lark. 
Ke'njinoo, redshank, 
kre'njinoo, ruffle. 
Be'njinoo, tringer major, 
bre'njinoo, tringa minor. 
Ve'njinoo, knot, 
vi-e-njinoo, stint. 
De'njinoo, woodcock, 
di-e'ujinoo, snipe. 
Ge'njinoo, sea pyc, 
gre'njinoo, godwit. 
Te'njinoo, curlew, 
tre'njinoo, guara Brasiliana. 



T/ie eighth difference. 
E'NJINOIZ, aquatic fissipedcs. 

TJie nine species under it. 
Pe'njinoi, crane, 
preiijinoi, stork. 
Fc'njinoi, phsenicoptcr, 
fre'njinoi, grus balearica. 



TJie ninth difference. 

E'NJINOZ, aquatic palmipedes. 

TJie nine species under if. 

Pe'njino, swan, 

pre njino, goose or gander, 

prenji'nipiu-, gander, 

prenji'nipvm, goose. 
Fe'njino, sheldrake, 
frenjino, di-ake or duck, 

frenji'nipur, drake, 

frenji'nipun, duck. 
Te'njino, widgeon, 
tre'njino, teale. 

Ke'njino, solan-goose or gander, 
kre'njiuo, pelican. 
Be'njino, cormorant, 
bre'ujino, shagg. 
Ve'njino, pufBn, 
^Te'njino, penguin. 
De'njino, razor-bill, 
dre'njino, guillam. 
Ge'njino, diver, 
gre'ngino. dun diver. 
Te'njino, gull, 
tre njino, scray. 



Sub-species tinder the 9th difference. 

Of the Swan. 
pcno'njino, hooper. 

Of the Goose. 
preno'njino, brant-goose or gander. 

Of the Pheasant. 
teno'njinn, sca-phcasant. 
24 



Of the Teal. 
treno'njino, gargane. 

Of the Gtdl. 
teno'njino, avogetta rccurvi rostra. 



INJL XVIIL 
The six differences under this 
Genus. 
I'NJOOZ, whole footed beasts. 
I'NJOIZ, cloven footed beasts. 
I'XJOZ, clawed beasts, not rapa- 
cious. 
I'XJAZ, rapacious beasts of the 

cat kind. 
I'XJILZ, rapacious beasts of the 

dog kind. 
I'XJAIZ, oviparous beasts. 



The first difference. 
I'XJOOZ, whole footed beasts. 

The four species under it. 
Pe'njoo, hoi'se or mare. 
Fenjoo, ass, 
fre'njoo, mule. 
Te'njoo, camel, 
tre'njoo, dromedaiy. 
Ke'njoo, elephant. 

The second difference. 
I'XJOIZ, cloven footed beasts. 
TJie eigJit species under it. 
Pinjoi, kine. 
Fi'njoi, sheep, 
fri'njoi, goat. 
Ti'njoi, elk, 
tri'njoi, stag. 
Ki'njoi, fallow deer, 
kri'njoi, reiji-deer. 
Bi'njoi, roe. 
Y'injoi, rhinoceros. 
Di'njoi, giraffe. 
G'injoi, hog. 



GENUS XVIII. I'NJL 



GENUS XVIII I'NJI 



GENUS XIX. O'NDI 



Sub-sjjecies under the 2nd difference. 

Of the Kiiie. 

Pin'onjoi, miis, 
pma'njoi, bison, 
piiie'njoi, bonasiis, 
piui'njoi, buffalo. 

Of the S/ieep. 

Fino'njoi, ovis stepsiceros, 
fiiia'iijoi, bi'oad tailed sheep. 

Of the Goat. 

frino'njoi, stone buck, 
triiia'iijoi, ehamois, 
frine'njoi, antelope. 



The third difference. 

I'NJOZ, clawed beasts, not rapa- 
cious. 

The eight species under it. 

Pi'njo, baboon, 
pri'njo, ape. 
Fi'njo, monkey, 
fn'njo, sloth. 
Ti'njo, hare. 
Ki'njo, rabbit, 
kri'njo, marmotto. 
Bi'njo, porcupine, 
bri'njo, hedgehog. 
Vi'njo, squirrel, 
vri'njo, guinea-pig. 
Di'njo, rat, 
dri'njo, mouse. 
Gi'njo, mole. 



Suh-sjiecies under the Srd difference. 

Of the Bat. 

Dino'njo, water rat, 
dina'njo, lemuig. 

Of the Mouse. 
drino'njo, field mouse, 
drina'njg, dormouse, 
drine'njo, bat. 

H 



The fourth difference. 

I'NJAZ, rapacious beasts of the 
cat kind. 
The nine species under it. 
Pi'nja, lion or lioness, 
pri'nja, bear. 
Fi'nja, tiger, 
fri'nja, panther. 
Ti'nja, ounce. 
Ki'nja, cat, 
kri'nja, civet-cat. 
Bi'nja, ferret, 
bri'nja, pole-cat. 
Vi'nja, martin. 
Di'nja, stoat, 
dri'nja, weasel. 
Gi'nja, beaver, 
gri'nja, otter. 
Ti'nja, leopard, 
tri'nja, hyena. 



TJie fifth difference. 
I'NJILZ, rapacious beasts of the 
dog kind. 
T}ie six species under it. 
Pi'nji, dog or bitch, 
pri'nji, wolf. 
Fi'nji, fox, 
fri'nji, badger. 
Ti'nji, morse, 
tri'uji, seal. 
Ki'nji, jackall. 
Bi'nji, ant-bear, 
bri'nji, armadillo. 
Vi'nji, caraguya. 



Sub-sjjecies under the 5th difference. 

Of Dogs. 
Pino'nji, lap-dog, 
pina'nji, cur, 
pine'nji, mastiff, 
pini'nji, gaze-hound, 
pinu'nji, spaniels, 
pino'lji, land spaniels, 
pina'lji, water spaniels, 
pine'lji, hounds, 
pini'lji, beagles, 

25 



piuu'lji, greyhound, 
pino'riji, lurchers, 
piua'riji, tumblers. 



The sixth difference. 
I'NJAIZ, oviparous beasts. 

The eight sjiecie.t under it. 
Pi'njai, tortoise, 
pri'njai, turtle. 
Fi'njai, frog, 
fri'njai, toad. 
Ti'njai, crocodile, 
tri'njai, iguana. 
Ki'njai, lizard, 
kri'njai, chamelion. 
Bi'njai, land salamander, 
bri'njai, water salaniauder. 
Vi'njai, serpent. 
Di'njai, snake, 
dri'njai, viper. 
Gi'njai, slow wonn. 

Sub-species mider the Gth difference. 

Of the Frog. 
Frino'njai, green frog. 

Of the Lizard. 
Kino'njai, green lizard, 
kina'njai, facetane lizard, 
kine'njai, cordylus, 
kini'njai, chalcidica lizard, 
kinu'njai, skinke. 



ON'BI XIX. 

The six differences under this 
Gcnu.s. 
O'NDOOZ, lasting parts. 
E'ONDOO, wood. 
O'NDOIZ, annual parts. 
O'NDOZ, fruits. 
RO'NDOZ, excresences. 
O'NDAZ, parts f)f swimming ani- 
mals. 
O'NDILZ, parts of flying animals. 
O'NDAIZ, parts of going animals. 



GENUS XIX. O'NDI. 



GENUS XIX. O'NDL 



GENUS XX. ANDL 



The first difference. 

O'NDOOZ, lasting parts. 
K'ONDOO, wood. 

The seven sjjecies under it. 

Po'ndoo, root, 

pro'udoo, knot. 

Fo'ndoo, stock, 

fro'ndoo, sucker. 

To'udoo, branch, 

tro'ndoo, thorn. 

Ko'ndoo, stick, (cylindrical,) 

kro'ndoo, wand, (taper.) 

Bo'ndoo, rind, 

bro'ndoo, pith. 

Vo'ndoo, giun, 

vi-o'ndoo, resin. 

Do'ndoo, juice, 

dro'ndoo, balsam. 



The second difference. 
O'NDOIZ, annual parts of pla 
The eight species under it. 
Po'ndoi, flower, 
pro'ndoi, catkin. 
Fo'ndoi, pulp, 
fro'ndoi, stone. 
To'ndoi, husk, 
tro'ndoi, beard. 
Ko'ndoi, cluster, 
ki-o'ndoi, ear. 
Bo'ndoi, sprout, 
bro'ndoi, leaf. 
Vo'ndoi, stile, 
vro'ndoi, stamen. 
Do'ndoi, stalk, 
di-o'ndoi, tendril. 
Go'ndoi, cup, 
gro'ndoi, pericarpium. 



T}ie third difference. 
OXDOZ, fridts. 
R'ONDOZ, excrescences. 

The si.e species under it. 
Po'ndo, ap])le. 



Fo'ndo, plum, 
ii-o'ndo, berry. 
To'ndo, nut. 
Ko'ndo, mast, 
kro'ndo, key. 
Bo'ndo, cone, 
bro'ndo, cod. 
Vo'ndo, grain, 
vro'ndo, kernel. 



The fourth difference. 

O'NPAZ, parts of swimming ani- 
mals. 

77(6 eiglit species under it. 
Po'nda, scale. 
Fo'nda, shell, 
fro'nda, crust. 
To'nda, gill. 
Ko'nda, feeler. 
Bo'nda, swimming bladder. 
Yo'nda, fin, 
vro'nda, ray. 
Do'nda, claw. 
Gobida, milt, 
gro'nda, spa^vn. 



The fifth difference. 

O'NDILZ, parts of flying animals. 

TJie eight species under it. 

Po'ndi, feather, 
pro'ndi, quill. 
Fo'ndi, wing, 
fi-o'ndi, train. 
To'ndi, talon, 
tro'ndi,'flat foot. 
Ko'udi, beak, 
lu-o'ndi, trmik. 
Bo'ndi, spur, 
bro'ndi, sting. 
Vo'ndi, egg, 
vi-o'ndi, chi-ysalis. 
Do'ndi, wattle, 
di'o'ndi, comb. 
Go'ndi, iiimp, 
grondi, oil-box. 

26 



Tlie sixth difference. 
O'XDAIZ, parts of going animals 

The seven species under it. 
Po'ndai, hair, 
pro'ndai, wool. 
Fo'ndai, bristle, 
fi-o'ndai, down. 
To'ndai, fur, 
tro'ndai, fleece. 
Ko'ndai, beard, 
kro'ndai, mane. 
Bo'ndai, hoof, 
bro'ndai, nail. 
Vo'ndai, hom, 
vi-o'udal, tail. 
Do'ndai, embryo, 
di'o'ndai, after-birth. 

A'NDL XX. 

Tlie six differences under this 
Genus. 

A'NDOOZ, contained parts. 
A'NDOIZ, containing parts. 
A'NDO, head. 
EA'NDO, body. 
A'NDA, trunk. 
A'NDIL, hmb. 
KA'NDIL, joint. 
A'NDAIZ, mward parts. 

TJie first difference. 
A'NDOOZ, contained parts. 

The nine species under it. 
Pa'ndoo, spirit. 
Fa'ndoo, serum, 
fra'udoo, succus nutritious. 
Ta'ndoo, chyle, 
tra'ndoo, milk. 
Ka'ndoo, sperm, 
kra'ndoo, menstrua. 
Ba'ndoo, blood, 
bra'ndoo, gall. 

Va'ndoo, sanguineous humour, 
vra'ndoo, choleric humour. 



GENUS XX. A'NDL 



GENUS XX. A'NDL 



GENUS XXI. E'NDL 



Da'ndoo, phlegmatic humour, 
di-a'ndoo, melancholy. 
Ga'ndoo, brain, 
gra'ndoo, marrow. 
Ta'ndoo, tear, 
tra'udoo, urine. 



77(6 second difference. 
A'NDOIZ, containing parts. 

The seven species under it. 
Pa'ndoi, bone, 
pra'ndoi, gristle. 
Fa'ndoi, ligament, 
fra'ndoi, tendon. 
Ta'ndoi, skin, 
tra'ndoi, membrane. 
Ka'ndoi, vein, 
kra'ndoi, artery. 
Ba'ndoi, nerve, 
bra'ndoi, fibre. 
Va'ndoi, flesh, 
vra'ndoi, muscle. 
Da'ndoi, fat, 
dra'ndoi, glandule. 



The third difference. 
A'NDO, head. 
EA'NDO, body. 

The nine species under it. 
Pa'ndo, face, 
pra'ndo, pate. 
Fa'ndo, eye, 
fra'ndo, ear. 
Ta'ndo, mouth, 
tra'ndo, nose. 
Ka'ndo, tongue, 
kra'nd(2, tooth. 
Ba'nd(2, palate. 
Va'ndo, forehead, 
vra'ndo, eye-brow. 
Da'ndo, cheek, 
dra'ndo, temple. 
Ga'ndo, lip, 
gra'ndo, chin. 
Ta'ndo, jaw, 
tra'ndo, place of the tonsils. 



The fourth difference. 
ANDA, trunk. 

Tire nine species under it. 

Pa'nda, neck, 
pra'nda, shoulder. 
Fa'nda, breast, 
fra'nda, dugg. 
Ta'nda, back, 
tra'nda, vertebra. 
Ka'nda, loin, 
kra'nda, rib. 
Ba'nda, side, 
bra'nda, flank. 
Va'nda, belly, 
vra'nda, navel. 
Da'nda, groin, 
dra'nda, share. 
Ga'nda, buttock, 
gra'nda, fundament. 



The fifth difference. 

A'NDIL, limb. 
RA'NDIL, joint. 

The nine sjjecies under it. 

Pa'ndi, arm, 
pra'ndi, shoulder. 
Fa'ndi, cubit, 
fra'ndi, elbow. 
Ta'ndi, hand, 
tra'ndi, wrist. 
Ka'ndi, thigh, 
kra'ndi, buckle. 
Ba'ndi, shank, 
bra'ndi, knee. 
Va'ndi, foot, 
vra'ndi, heel. 
Da'ndi, finger, 
dra'ndi, toe. 
Ga'ndi, knuckle. 
Ta'ndi, viscus, 
tra'ndi, lobe. 



T/ie sixth difference. 
A'NDAIZ, inward parts. 



ITie nine species under it. 

Pa'ndai, gullet, 
pra'ndai, wmd-pipe. 
Fa'ndai, heart, 
fra'ndai, lungs. 
Ta'ndai, diaphragm, 
tra'ndai, mediastine. 
Ka'ndai, stomach, 
kra'ndai, gut. 
Ba'ndai, liver, 
bra'ndai, spleen. 
Va'ndai, mesentary, 
vra'ndai, caul. 
Da'ndai, kidney, 
di-a'ndai, bladder. 
Ga'ndai, privity, 
gra'ndai, testicle. 
Ta'ndai, womb. 



ENBI. XXL, Magnitude. 
EE'NDL, Extension. 

The six differences under this 
Genus. 

E'NDOOZ, dunensions. 

RE'NDOO, division. 

E'NDOIZ, mutual relatives of 
dimension. 

E'NDO, simple figure. 

R'ENDO, configuration. 

E'NDAZ, compoimd lineary fi- 
gures, (findooz.) 

E'NDILZ, compound planarv fi- 
gures, ftefndooz.j 

E'NDAIZ, solid figures, (ke'ndooz.) 

The first difference. 

E'NDOO, dimension. 
E'ENDOO, division. 

The four species under it. 
Pe'ndoo, point. 
Fe'ndoo, line. 
Te'ndoo, surface. 
Ke'udoo, solid. 



GENUS XXL E'NDL 



GENUS XXI. E'NDL 



GENUS XXIL TNBL 



The second difference. 

E'NDOIZ, miitual relations of 
dimension. 

The nine sjiecies imd^r it. 

Pe'ndoi, centre, 
pre'ndoi, pole. 
Fe'ndoi, vertex, 
frdndoi, intersection. 
Te'ndoi, diagonal, 
tre'ndoi, side. 
Ke'ndoi, tangent, 
kre'ndoi, section. 
Be'ndoi, diameter, 
bre'ndoi, axis. 
Ye'ndoi, sine, 
vre'ndoi, chord. 
De'ndoi, parrallel, 
dre'udoi, diverging, 
dwe'ndoi, converging. 
Ge'ndoi, oblique, 



Ge'ndo, parabola, 
gre'ndo, hyperbola 
gle'ndo elhpsis. 
Te'ndo, spiral, 
tre'ndo, helix. 



gre' 



udoi, direct, 



gle'ndoi, transverse. 

Te'ndoi, reflected, 

tre'ndoi, retracted. 



The third difference. 
E'NDO, affections of simple figure 
RE'NDO, figiu-e. 

The nine .tpecies under it. 

Pe'ndo, straightness, 
pre'ndo, crookedness. 
Fe'ndo, circle, 
ti-e'ndo, angle. 
Te'ndo, right-angle, 
trendo, obtuse angle, 
twe'ndo, acute angle. 
Ke'ndo, plain, 
kre'ndo, convex, 
kleudo, concave. 
Be'ndo, sphere, 
bre'ndo, cube. 
Ye'ndo, cylinder, 
vre'ndo, prism. 
Dc'udo, cone, 
di'e'ndo, pyiamid. 



TJie fourth difference. 

E'NDAZ, compoimd liueary i 
gm-es, (fe'nchoz.) 

The nine species under it. 

Pe'nda, pin, 
pre'nda, hole. 
Fe'nda, tooth, 
fi-e'nda, notch. 
Te'nda, protuberance, 
tre'nda, dent. 
Ke'nda, T figure, 
! kre'nda, cross. 
I Be'nda, staple, 
I bre'nda, windle. 
i Ye'nda, tuft, 
vre'nda, asterisk. 
De'nda, whip, 
di-e'nda, flag. 
Ge'ada, hook, 
gre'nda, fork. 
Te'nda, imdulated, 
tre'nda, crenatcd. 



The fifth difference. 
E'NDILZ, compound planary 1 
gm-es, (tdndooz.) 
The nine species under it. 

Pe'ndi, triangle, 
pre'ndi, square. 
Fe'udi, ring, 
fre'ndi, loop. 
Te'ndi, bow, 
tre'ndi, wheel. 

Ke'ndi, laminae, 

kre'ndl, chmk. 

Bc'ndi, tressel, 

brCiudi, pinion. 

Vc'ndi, edge, 

vrendi, giiltcr. 

28 



De'ndi, ridge, 

di'e'ndi, fm-row. 

Ge'ndi, form, 

gre'udi, step. 

Te'ndi, tube, general fonn, 

tre'ndi, square tube, 

twe'ndi, roimd tube. 



• ' TJie sixth difference. 

E'NDAIZ, solidfigiires, (kdndooz.) 
I The seven species under it. 

Pe'ndai, poi-ousness, 
pre'ndai, hoUowness, 
ple'ndai, massiveness. 
Fe'ndai, bottle, 
fre'ndai, pin. 
Te'ndai, pedestal, 
tre'ndai, tm-ret. 
Ke'ndai, gudgeon, 
ki-e'ndai, mallet. 
Be'ndai, buoy figm-e. 
' bre'ndai, hoiu--glass figure. 
1 Ye'ndai, oval, 

vre'ndai, bowl. 

De'ndai, bottom, 

di-e'ndai, skein. 



FNDL XXIL 

The three differences under this 
Genus. 



I'NDOO, time. 
R'INUOO, mstant. 
I'NDOI, place. 
I'NDO, siUiation, 
RI'NDO, vergency. 



The first difference. 

I'NDOO, time. 
R'INUOO, instant. 

The nine species under it. 

Pi'ndoo, present, 
prindoo, past, 
pli'ndoo, future. 



GENUS XXII. I'NDI. 



GENUS XXIII. U'NBI. 



GENUS XXIII. U'NDI. 



Fi'ndoo, simultaneousness, 
fri'ndoo, distance, 
fli'ndoo, preceding, 
fi'ldoo, succeeding. 
Ti'ndoo, newness, 
tri'ndoo, oldness. 
Ki'ndoo, earliness, 
kri'ndoo, lateness. 
Bi'ndoo, date, 
bri'udoo, epoch. 
Vi'ndoo, permanancy, 
vri'ndoo, transitoriness. 
Di'ndoo, frequency, 
di'i'ndoo, seldomness. 
Gi'ndoo, perpetuity, 
gri'ndoo, occasioualuess. 
Ti'ndoo, everness, eternity, 
tri'ndoo, neverness. 



The second difference. 
INDOI, place. 

The eight species under it. 
Pi'ndoi, presence, 
pri'ndoi, absence. 
Fi'ndoi, contact, 
fri'ndoi, distance, 
Ti'ndoi, nearness, 
tri'ndoi, remoteness. 
Ki'ndoi, home, 
kri'ndoi, rise. 
Bi'ndoi, ampleness, 
bri'ndoi, naiTOwness. 
Vi'iidoi, obviousness, 
vri'ndoi, rareness. 
Di'ndoi, continuance, 
dri'ndoi, discontinuance. 
Gi'ndoi, ubiquity, the being every 

where, 
gri'ndoi, nulHbiety, the being no 
where. 



The third difference. 
I'NDO, situation. 
RI'NDO, direction, vergency. 
TJie nine species under it. 
Pi'ndo, east, 
pri'ndg, west. 
Fi'ndo, north, 
frin'di), south. 



Ti'ndo, middle, 
tri'ndo, either extreme, 
twi'ndo, extreme end, 
ti'ldci, extreme beginning. 
Ki'n<l(j, side, 
kri'iido, margin. 
Bi'ndo, upper side, 
bri'ndo, under side. 
Vi'nd(2, inside, 
vri'iido, outside. 
Di'ndu, top, 
dri'ndo, bottom. 
Gi'ndo, fore part, 
gri'nd(2, hind part. 
Ti'ndo, either side, 
tri'ndo, right side, 
twi'ndo, left side. 



UNDI, XXIII. 

Tim seven differences under this 
Genus. 
U'NT)OOZ, measures of nmltitude. 
U'XDOIZ, measures of magnitude. 
U'NDOZ, measures of capacity. 
U'NDAZ. measures of gravity. 
U'NDILZ, measures of value. 
U'NDAIZ, measures of time. 
* U'NDINOOZ, measures of ani- 
mal life. 



The first difference. 
U'NDOOZ, measures of multitude. 
EU'NDOO, number. 

The ten species under it. 
Poou'ndoo, a unit, or u pu'ndoo. 
Foou'ndoo, a million. 
Toou'ndoo, a billion, =: a million^ 
Koou'ndoo, a trillion. = a million' 
Boou'udoo, a quad-) .„. . 

- riUion,j-=^'^^ll^°° 

Voou'ndoo, a (iuhi-~| .„. ^ 

■ •iV >= a mi lion 
tillion, j 

Doou'ndoo,asectillion,= a million" 

Goou'ndoo,aseptIlliou,= a million' 

Toou'ndoo, an octillion = a million" 

I)oou'ndoo,anounillion:= a million" 



The second difference. 
U'NDOIZ, measures of magnitude. 

The nine species under it. 
Poou'ndoi, a twelfth of an inch, 
pooru'ndoi, a tenth of an inch, 
pooUvndoi, an eighth of an inch, 
poou'ldoi, half an inch. 
Foou'ndoi, an inch. 
Toou'ndoi, a foot. 
Koou'ndoi, a yard. 
Boou'ndoi, a perch. 
Voou'ndoi, a furlong. 
Doou'ndoi, a mile. 
Gooundoi, a league. 
Toou'ndoi, a degree. 

The third difference. 
U'NDOZ, measures of capacity. 

The nine species under it. 
Poou'nd(2, a gill, or u pundo. 
Foou'ndo, a pint. 
Toon'ndi), a quart. 
Koou'iido, a gallon. 
Boou'udo, a firkin. 
Voou'ndo, a kilderkin. 
Doou'ndo, a barrel. 
Goou'ndo, a liogshead. 
Toou'nd(2, a puncheon, 
toor'undo, a butt. 



The fourth difference. 

No. 1. 

U'NDAZ, measures of gravitv : — 

A imrdupoise Weiyh t. 

The eight species under it. 

Poou'nda, a dram, or u punda, 
Foou'nda, an ounce. 
Toou'nda, a pound. 
Koou'nda, a clove. 
Boou'nda, a stone. 
Voou'nda, a quarter. 
Doou'nda, a hundredweight. 
Goou'nda, a ton. 



See Herbs, page 11. 
29 



GENUS XXIII. U'NDL 



GENUS XXIII UNDL 



GENUS XXIV. OMBL 



No. 2. 
RU'NDAZ, measures of gravity :- 
Troy Weiffht. 

The Jive species under it. 
Pooru'nda, a grain, or u pru'nda. 
Fooru'nda, a carat. 
Tooru'nda, a pennyweight. 
Kooiii'nda, an oimce. 
Booru'nda, a pound. 

No. 3. 
L'UNDAZ, measures of gravity :- 
Apothecaries' Weight. 

The Jive species under it. 
Poolu'nda, a gi-ain, or u plu'nda. 
Foolu'ncla, a scruple. 
Toolu'nda, a di-am. 
Koolu'nda, an ounce. 
Boolu'nda, a pound. 



Thejtfth difference. 
U'NDILZ, measures of value. 
RU'NDIL, money. 

Tlie six species under it. 
Poou'ndi, a farthing, or u pu'ndl. 
Foou'ndi, a penny, 
fooru'ndi, a threepenny piece, 
foolu'ndi, a fourpenny piece, 
foou'ldi, a sixpenny piece. 
Toou'ndi, a shilling, 
tooni'ndi, a two shilling piece. 
Koou'ndi, a half crown, 
kooni'ndi, a crown. 
Boou'ndi, a half sovereign, 
booru'ndi, a sovereign. 
Voou'ndi, a five sovereign piece.' 



The sixth difference. 

U'NPATZ, measures of time. 
RU'NDAI, duration. 

The eight species under it. 
Pu'ndai, year, 
pru'ndai, season. 



Fu'ndai, spring, 

fru'ndal, summer. 

Tu'ndai, autumn, 

tru'ndai, winter. 

Ku'ndai, calendar month, 

kru'ndai, lunar month, 

klu'ndai, week. 

Bu'ndai, day and night of 24 hours, 

bra'ndai, mid-day, noon, 

blu'ndai, midnight. 

Vu'ndai, day, (daylight.) 

vru'ndai, night, (darkness.) 

Du'ndai, forenoon, 

di-u'ndai, afternoon. 

Gu'ndai, hour, 

gni'ndai, minute. 



O'MBI XXIV. 

TJie six differences tinder this 
Genus. 
O'ilBOOZ, rational faculties. -» 
RO'^IBOO, in-ationahty. J 

O'MBOIZ, mtenial senses. 
O'MBOZ, external senses. 
O'MBA, temper. 

O'MBILZ, corporeal habitudes re- 
stricted to individuals. 
O'MBAIZ, generative faculties. 



The seventh difference. 

U'NDFNOO, age; or measure of 

animal life, chiefly hum 
EU'NDINOO, generation. 

The six species under it. 
Pu'ndinoo, infancy: — the first and 
comparatively speech- 
less period of life: — 
say about two years. 
Fu'ndinoo, childhood : — the period 
from the expiration 
of infancy to com- 
mencement of pu- 
berty: — say till about 
fifteen. 
Tu'ndinoo, adolescence: — the period 
from childhood to fidl 
corporeal develope- 
ment. 
Ku'ndinoo, manhood: — the period 
from adolescence to 
the commencement 
of declinmg corpo- 
real powers. 
Bu'ndiuoo, old age:— the period 
from manhood to the 
commencement of 
decrepitude. 
Yu'ndlnoo, decrepitude : — the peri- 
od from the commence- 
ment of decrepitude to 
the end of life. 



Thefrst difference. 
O'MBOOZ, rational faculties. 
RO'MBOO, iiTationality. 

The four species under it. 
Po'mboo, understanding, 
pro'mboo, idioticalness. 
Fo'mboo, judgment, 
fro'mboo, iujudiciousness. 
To'mboo, conscience, 
tro'mboo, unconscionableness. 
Ko'mboo, will, 
kro'mboo, listlessness. 

The second difference. 
O'MBOIZ, internal senses. 

TJiefour species under it. 
Po'mboi, common sense, perception, 
pro'mboi, stupor. 
Fo'mboi, fancy, conception, 
fro'mboi, dotage. 
To'mboi, memory, 
tro'mboi, forgetfulness. 
Ko'mboi, appetite, 
kro'mboi, loathing. 



The third difference. 
O'MBOZ, external senses. 

The Jive species under it. 
Po'mbo, sight, 
pro'mbo, blindness. 



* Five of the diflferences 
of inserting oo after the initial 



under this genus U'NDI, may be preceded by the vowel m, instead 
consonant: — thus u pimdoo, a imit; instead of poou'ndoo, &c. &c. 
30 



GENUS XXir. OMBL 



GENUS XXV. A'MBI. 



GENUS XXV. A'MBI. 



Fo'mbo, hearing, 

fro'mbo, deaftiess. 

To'mbo, smell, 

tro'mbo, want of that faculty. 

Ko'mbo, taste, 

kro'mbo, want of that faculty. 

Bo'mbo, touch, 

bro'mbo, numbness. 



The fourth difference. 
O'MBA, temper. 

The seven sjwcies under it. 

Po'mba, ingenuousness, 
pro'mba, disengenuous. 
Fo'mba, sprightliness, 
fro'mba, dulness. 
To'mba, seriousness, 
tro'mba, wantonness. 
Ko'mba, gentleness, 
kro'mba, fierceness. 
Bo'mba, opposite to rapacity, 
bro'mba, rapacity. 
Vo'mba, stoutness, 
vro'mba, sluggishn 
Do'mba, hardiness, 
dro'mba, delicacy. 



Thejftk difference. 

O'MBILZ, corporeal habitudes re- 
stricted to individuals. 
The nine species under it. 
Po'mbi, intireness, 
pro'mbi, mutilousness. 
Fo'mbi, soundness, 
fro'mbi, rottenness. 
To'mbi, indolence or ease, 
tro'mbi, pain. 
Ko'mbi, vigor, 
kro'mbi, decay. 
Bo'mbi, fatness, 
bro'mbi, leanness. 
Vo'mbi, beauty, 
vro'mbi, deformity. 
Do'mbi, strength, 
dro'mbi, weakness. 



Go'mbi, agility, 
gro'mbi, lumpishness. 
To'mbi, swiftness, 
tr'ombi, slowness. 



The sixth difference. 
O'MBAIZ, generative faculties. 

The four species under it. 
Po'mbai, sex, 
pro'mbai, absence of sex, 
plo'mbai, double sex. 
Fo'mbai, male, 
fro'mbai, female. 
To'mbai, fruitfulness, 
tro'mbai, barrenness. 
Ko'mbai, ripeness, 
kro'mbai, over ripeness, 
klo'mbai, unripeness. 



AMBI. XXV. 

The six differences under this 
Genus. 
A'MBOO, reward. i 

KA'MBOO, punishment. j 

A'MBOIZ, instruments of virtue. 
A'MBOZ, affections of intellectual 

virtue. 
A'MBAZ, moral and social virtues. 
A'MBIL, divine grace. 1 

R'AMBIL, ungodliness. j 

A'MBAIZ, acquired intellectual 
habits. 



The first difference. 

A'MBOO, reward. 
EA'MBOO, punishment. 

Tliefour species under it. 
Pa'mboo, happiness, 
pra'mboo, misery. 
Fa'mboo, prosperity, 
fra'mboo, adversity. 
Ta'mboo, contentment, 
tra'mboo, anxiety. 
Ka'mboo, the state of salvation, 
kra'mboo, the state of damnation. 
31 



The second diffei 
O'MBOIZ, instruments of virtue. 

The six species under it. 
Po'mboi, liberty, 
pro'mboi, restraint. 
Fo'mboi, riches, 
fro'mboi, povei-ty. 
T, 
tn 

Kii'iiiliiii, reputation, 
kro'mboi, infamy. 
Bo'mboi, dignity, 
bro'mboi, meanness. 
Vo'mboi, social power, 
vro'mboi, social impotence. 



I, pleasure, 

i, iiiiiileasantness. 



The third difference. 

A'MBOZ, affections of intellectual 
virtue. 

The four species under it. 
Pa'mbo, sagacity, 
pra'mbo, dulness. 
Fa'mbo, rational faith, 
fra'mbo, credulity, 
fla'mbo, incredulity. 
Ta'mbo, sobriety, (mental,) 
ti-a'mbo, whimsicalness. 
Ka'mbo, proper zeal for tnith, 
kra'mbo, indifference for truth, 
kla'mbo, fierceness, fanaticism. 



The fourth difference. 
A'MBAZ, moral and social virtues. 

The seven species under it. 
Pa'mba, consideration, 
pra'mba, procrastination, 
pla'mba, precipitation. 
Fa'mba, heedfulness, 
fra'mba, excessive solicitude, 
fla'mba, heedlessness. 
Ta'mba, alacrity, 
traimba, reluctancy. 
Ka'mba, sincerity, 
kra'mba, hypocrisy. 
Ba'mba, diligence, 
bra'mba, over-doing, 
bla'mba, sloth. 



GENUS XXVI. EM'BL 



GENUS XXVI. E'MBL 



GENUS XXVL E'MBL 



Ya'niba, impai-tiality, 
vra'mba, partiality. 
Da'niba, constancy, 
drainba, pertinacity, 
dwa'uiba, Inconstancy. 



TU fifth difference. 
A'MBIL, divine grace. 
EA'MBIL, ungodliness. 

The SIX sjyecies under it. 
Pa'mbi, repentance, 
pra'mbi, impenitence. 
Fa'mbi, holiness, 
fra'mbi, nnholiness. 
Ta'mbi, self-denial, 
tra'nibi, selfishness. 
Ka'mbi. faith, 
knmiVii, infidelity. 
l?:iinl)i. hope, 
bra'nibi, dispair. 
Va'mbi, charity, 
vra'mbl, uncharitableness. 

The sixth difference. 
A'ilBAIZ, acquired intellectual 
habits. 

The five sjjecies raider it. 
Pa'mbai, science, 
pra'mbai, passion for knowledge, 
pla'mbai, ignorance. 
Fa'mbai, wisdom, 
fra'mbai, craft, abuse of wisdom, 
fla'mbai, folly. 
Ta'mbai, art, 
tra'mbai, unskilftdness. 
Ka'mbai, experience, 
kra'mbai, inexperience. 
Ba'mbai, learning, 
bra'mbai, imlearnedness. 



E'MBOIZ, virtues relating toy I 

the body. \. 

RE'MBOI, enjoyment. ) 

E'MBOZ, virtues belonging to our 

estates and dignities. 
E'MBAZ, common social virtues. 
E'MBILZ, virtues relating to om- 

superiors. 
EMBAIZ, virtues relating to 

inferiors. 



E'MBIZ, XXVL, Morah. 
R'EMBI, Intercourse. 

The six differences under this 
Genus. • 

E'MBOO, virtue. ■» 

EE'MBOO, vice. J 



Tlie first difference. 
E'MBOO, virtue. 
IIEMBOO, vice. 

The nine sjjecies under it. 
Pe'mboo, justice, 
pre'mboo, injustice, 
ple'mboo, rigor, 
pe'lboo, mitigation. 
Fe'mboo, equity, 
fre'mboo, summiun jus. 
Te'mboo, candor, 
trc'mboo, ceusoriousness. 
Ke'mboo, goodness, 
kre'mboo, mischievousness. 
Be'mboo, mercy, 
bre'mboo, crueity. 
Ve'mboo, gratitude, 
vre'mboo, ingratitude. 
De'mboo, courage, 
drc'niboo, rashness, 
dwe'mboo, cowardice. 

(JcuibiHi, jiaticnce, 
o-i-ciiil»Mi, stulibornness, 
glc'iiibod, inipatience. 
Te'mboo, meekness, _ 
tre'mboo, insensibiUty ' to provo- 
cation, 
twc'mboo, rash anger. 



Fe'mboi, due abstemiousness, 
fre'mboi, maceration, 
fle'mboi, gluttony. 
Te'niboi, sobriety, 
tre'mboi, drunkenness. 
Ke'raboi, vigilance, 
kre'mboi, miwatchfulness. 
Be'mboi,moderatenessinrecreation 
bre'mboi, immoderateness in ditto. 
Ve'mboi, cleanliness, 
\Te'mboi, over-niceness, 
vle'mboi, slovenliness. 
De'mboi, chastity, 
dre'mboi, unchastity. 



The third difference. 



E'MBOZ, 



rtues relating to our 
estates and dignities. 



TJie second, difference. 

E'JIBOIZ, virtues relating to the 

body. 
RE'MBOI, enjoyment. 

TJie seven species under it. 
Pe'mboi, temperance, 
pre'mboi, sensuality. 
32 



TJie nine species under it. 

Pe'mbo, liberality in getting, 
keeping, or spending, 
pre'mbo, prodigality, 
pic nil HI, covetousncss. 
FciiiIm-. |iniviilt'ncc, (in getting,) 
frcHil.Mj, scraping, 
fle'mbo, improvidence. 
Te'mbo, frugality, (in keeping,) 
tre'mbo, close-fistedness, 
twe'nibo, squandering. 
Kc'mbo, generosity, (in spending,) 
krembo, profuseness, 
klc'nibo, sordidness. 
Be'mbo, almsgiving, 
bre'nibo, chm-lisluiess. 
Ye'mbo, hospitality, 
vre'mbo, inhospitableness. 

De'mbo, due modesty, 

dre'mbo, shecpishncss, 

dwe'mbo, impudence. 

Gc'mbo, magnanimity, 
respect, 

gi-e'mbo, insolence, 

gle'mbo, pusillanimity. 

Te'mbo, imambitiousness, 

tre'mbo, abjectncss, 

twe'mbo, ambitiousness. 



due selt- 



GENUS XXVI. E'MBI. 



GENUS XXVII. TMBL 



GENUS XXVIL IMBI 



The fourth difference. 

E'MBAZ, common social virtues. 

The nim species under it. 
Pe'mba, veracity, 
pre'mba, lying, 
ple'mba, hyperbole, 
pe'lba, detraction. 
Fe'mba, fidelity, 
fre'mba, unfaithfulness, 
fle'mba, ofSciousuess, 
fe'lba, treachery. 
Te'mba, peaceableness, 
tre'mba, unpeaceableness, 
tw'emba, tameness, 
te'lba, contentiousness. 
Ke'mba, frankness, 
kre'mba, too much openness, 
kle'mba, reserveduess. 
Be'mba, taciturnity, 
bre'mba, loquacity. 
Ve'mlia, gravity of manner, 
vre'mba, vanity, 
vle'mba, formality, 
ve'lba, levity. 

De'mba, courtesy of manner, 
dre'mba, fawning, 
dwe'mba, moroseness. 
(xe'mba, courteous concurrence, 
gre'mba, excessive assentation, 
gle'mba, magisterialness. 
Te'mba, urbanity, 
tremba, scurrility, 
twe'mba, rusticity. 



The fifth difference. 
E'JIBILZ, virtues relating to our 
superiors. 
The eight species under it. 
Pe'mbi, dutifulness, 
pre'mbi, undutifulness. 
Fe'mbi, humility, 
fre'mbi, pride. 

Te'mbi, reverence to those in place, 
tre'mbi, irreverence. 
Ke'mbi, respect to gifted persons, 
kre'mbi, disrespect. 
Be'mbi, subjection, 
bre'mbi, rebellion. 
K 



Ve'mbi, loyalty, 
vre'mbi, disloyalty. 
De'mbi, obedience, 
drembi, disobedience. 
Ge'mbi, submission, 
gre'mbi, contumacy. 



Ihe sixth difference. 

E'MBAIZ, virtues relating to 
inferiors. 

The eight species under it. 

Pe'mbai, graciousness, 
pre'mbai, harshness. 
Fe'mbai, condescension, 
fre'mbai, imperiousness. 
Te'mbai, affability, 
tre'mbai, superciliousness. 
Ke'mbai, protection, 
kre'mbai, tyranny. 
Be'rnbai, good governance, 
bre'mbai, mal-administration. 
Ve'mbai, reasonableness, 
vre'mbai, imreasonableness. 
De'mbai, severity, 
dre'mbai, fondness. 
Ge'mbai, clemency, 
gre'mbai, austerity. 



I'MBL XXVIL 

The six differences under this 
Genus. 

I'MBOO, light. 
IMBOIZ, colors. 
I'MBO, soimd, "» 

RIMBO, silence. j 

I'MBA, taste. "i 

RI'MBA, smell. J 

I'MBILZ, active tactile qualities. 
I'jMBAIZ, passive tactile qualities. 



Tfie first difference. 
I'MBOO, hght. 

33 



TJie five species under it. 
Pi'mboo, twilight, (dawn,) 
Pri'mboo, twilight, (evening,) 
pli'mboo, light, 
pi'lboo, darkness. 
Fi'mboo, light, 
fri'mboo, shadow. 
Ti'mboo, brightness, 
tri'mboo, dimness. 
Ki'mboo, transparency, 
kri'mboo, opacity. 
Bi'mboo, clearness, 
bri'mboo, spottedness. 



77(6 second difference. 
I'MBOIZ, colom-s. 

The eight species under it. 
Pi'raboi, gre}Tiess, 
pri'mboi, whiteness, 
pli'mboi, blackness. 
Fi'mboi, redness, 
frl'mboi, yellowness, 
fli'mboi, scarlet, 
fi'lboi, orange color. 
Ti'mboi, greenness, 
tri'mboi, blueness. 
Ki'mboi, purple, 
kri'mboi, crimson. 
Bi'mboi, brown. 
Vi'mboi, variegatedness, 
vri'mboi, changeableness. 
Di'mboi, speckledness, 
dri'mboi, striatedness. 
Gi'mboi, dappledness, 
gri'mboi, checqueredness. 

Tlie third difference. 

I']\IBO, sound. 
RI'MBO, silence. 

The nine spiecies under it. 
Pi'nibo, treble, (most acute,) 
pri'mbo, coimter tenor, (more acute) 
pli'mbo, tenor, (less acute,) 
pi'lbo, base, (most grave.) 
Fi'mbo, ringing, 
fri'mbo, jarring. 
Ti'mbo, voice, 
tri'mbo, articulate. 



OENUS XXVII. I'MBL 



GENUS XXVIII. U'MBL 



GENUS XXVIII. UMBL 



Ki'iiibo, hissinp^, 

kriinbn, wliistling, 

kliinb^, buzzing. 

Bi'mbo, note, key, 

brl'mbo, sbai-p, 

bli'mbo, flat. 

Vi'mbg, tune, 
vri'mbo, concert. 
Di'rabo, clearness, 
dri'mbo, hoarseness. 
Gi'mbo, concord, 
gri'mbo, discord. 
Ti'mbo, harmony, 
tri'mbo, jangling. 



TJie fourth difference. 

I'MBAZ, taste. 
EI'MBAZ, smell. 

The seven species under it. 
Pi'mba, sweetness of flavour, 
pri'mba, unsavouriness of flavour, 
pll'mba, sweetness of odour, 
pil'ba, offensive odour. 
Fi'mba, fattiness, 
fri'mba, acrimoniousness. 
Ti'mba, austereness, 
tri'mba, acerbity. 
Ki'mba, acidity, 
kri'mba, bitterness. 
Bi'mba, saltishness, 
bri'mba, freshness. 
Vi'mba, briskness, 
vri'mba, deadness. 
Di'mba, mustiness, 
dri'mba, rottenness. 



Tlie fifth difference. 
I'MBILZ, active tactile qualities. 

Tlie six species under it. 
Pi'mbi, temperateness, 
pri'mbi, heat, 
pli'mbi, cold. 
Fi'mbi, moistness, 
fri'mbi, wetness, 
fli'mbi, dryness. 
Ti'mbi, closeness, 
tri'mbi, density, 
twi'rabi. raritv. 



Ki'mbi, 
kri'mbi, 
kli'mbi, 
Bi'mbi, 
bri'mbi, 
bli'mbi, 
Vi;mbi, 
vri'mbi, 
vli'mbi, 



weightiness, 

gravity, 

levity. 

consistency, 

hardness, 

fluidity. 

flexibleness, 

limbemess, 

stiffness. 



The sixth difference. 
I'MBAIZ, passive tactile qualities. 

Tlie'six spiecies under it. 
Pi'mbai, yieldingness, 
pri'mbai, softness, 
pli'mbai, hardness. 
Fi'mbai, ev 



fri'mbai, smoothness, 
fli'mbai, roughness. 
Ti'mbai, ordinariness, 
tri'mbai, coarseness, 
twi'mbai, fineness. 
Ki'mbai, sliminess, 
kri'mbai, clamminess, 
kli'mbai, unctuousness. 
Bi'mbai, firmness, 
bri'mbai, toughness, 
bli'mbai, brittleness. 
Vi'mbai, steadiness, 
vri'nibai, fastness, 
vli'mbai. 



U'MBL XXVIII., Sickness. 
BU'MBI, Health. 

Tlie s\x differences tinder this 
Genus. 

U'MBOOZ, general causes of dis- 
ease. 

U'MBOI, distemper. 

U'MBOZ, tumours. 

U'MBAZ, diseases of the head 
and nerves. 

U'MBILZ, diseases of the middle 
region. 

U'MBAIZ, diseases of the lower 
belly. 
34 



The first difference. 

U'MBOOZ, general causes of dis- 
ease. 

The eifjht species under it. 
Pu'mboo, contagion, 
pni'mboo, poison. 
Fu'niboo, womid, 
fru'mboo, bniise. 
Tu'mboo, plethora, 
tru'mboo, cacochjTuia, 
Ku'mboo, distemper, 
kru'mboo, inflamation. 



Bu'mboo, 
bru'mboo 


obstruction, 
inflation. 


Yu'mboo 


abscess. 


Du'mboo 
dru'mboo 


ulcer, 
fistula. 


Gu'mboo 
gru'mboo 


gangrene, 
, spacelus. 


The second difference. 


U'MBOI 


, distemper. 


TJie 
Pu'mboi, 


eicfht species undtr it. 
fever, 


pru'mboi 
Fu'mboi, 
fru'mboi, 
Tu'mboi, 
tni'mboi, 
Ku'mboi 
kni'mboi 


ague. 

hectic, 

consumption. 

malignant fever, 

plague. 

pox, 

measles. 


Bu'mboi, 
bru'mboi 


itch, 
tetter. 


Vu'mboi, 
vni'mboi 


leprosy, 
scurf. 


Du'mboi 


lues venerea. 


Gu'raboi 
gru'mboi 


gout, 
erysipelas. 


The third difference. 


U'MBOZ, tumours. 


The 
Pu'mbo, 
pru'mbo, 


eight species under it. 

pustule, 

scab. 


Fu'mbo, 


king's evil, 



fru'mbo, boil. 



GENtJS XXVIII. U'MBL 



GENUS XXIX. O'NZL 



GENUS XXIX. O'NZI. 



Tu'mbo, cancer, 
tru'mbo, carbuncle. 
Ku'uibo, wen, 
kru'mbo, scirrhus. 
Bu'mbo, wart, 
bru'mbo, corn. 
Vu'mbo, chilblain. 
Du'mbo, varix, 
dru'mbo, aneurism. 
Gu'mbo, ganglion. 



The fourth difference. 
U'MBAZ, diseases of the head 
and nerves. 
The nine species under it. 
Pu'mba, delirium, 
pru'mba, madness. 
Fu'mba, veterans, 
fru'mba, ephialtes. 
Tu'mba, lethargy, 
tru'mba, apoplexy. 
Ku'mba, catarrh, 
kru'mba, rheumatism. 
Bu'mba, vertigo, 
bru'mba, epilepsy. 
Vu'mba, palsy, 
vru'mba, numbness. 
Du'mba, convulsion, 
dr'umba, cramp. 
Gu'mva, rickets. 
Tu'mba, quinsey. 



The fifth difference. 
U'MBILZ, diseases of the middle 
region. 
The six species under it. 
Pu'mbi, shortness of breath. 
Fu'mbi, asthma, 
fru'mbi, orthopnoea. 
T'umbi, consumption, 
tru'mbi, empyema. 
Ku'mbi, palpitation. 
B'umbi, fainting, 
bru'mbi, swooning. 
Vu'mbi, pleurisy. 



The sixth difference. 

U'MBAIZ, diseases of the lower 
belly. 
Tlie nine species under it. 
Pu'mbai, heart-bum. 
Fumbai, green-sickness, 
fru'mbai, jaundice. 
Tu'mbai, dropsy, 
tru'mbai, tympany. 
Ku'mbai, scurvy, 

kru'mbai, hypochondriacal vapours. 
Bu'mbai, colic, 
bru'mbai, iliac passion, 
Vu'mbal, diarrhsea, 
vru'mbai, disentery. 
Du'mbai, stone, 
dr'umbai, strangury. 
Gu'mbai, rupture, 
gru'mbai, hajmorrolds. 
Tu'mbai, hysterical passion, 
tru'mbai, suffocation. 



O'NZL XXIX. 

The six differences under this 
Genus. 

O'NZOOZ, actions of God. -> 

EO'NZOO, miracle. J 

O'NZOIZ, speculative actions of 
the understanding 
and judgment. 

O'NZOZ, practical actions of the 
understanding and 
judgment. 

O'NZAZ, actions of the will. 

O'NZILZ, simple passions. 

O'NZAIZ, mixed passions. 



The first difference. 
O'NZOOZ, actions of God. 
RO'NZOO, miracle. 

T]ie seven species under it. 
Po'nzoo, creation, 
pro'nzoo, anihilation. 
35 



Fo'nzoo, providence, 
fro'nzoo, predestination, 
flo'nzoo, fate, destination, 
fo'lzoo, fortune. 
To'nzoo, blessing, 
tro'nzoo, cursing. 
Ko'nzoo, preservation, 
kro'nzoo, destruction. 
Bo'nzoo, deliverance, 
bro'nzoo, dereliction. 
Vo'nzoo, revelation, 
vro'nzoo, inspiration. 
Do'nzoo, redemption. 



Tlie second difference. 

O'NZOIZ, speculative actions of 
the understanding 
and judgment. 

Tlie eight species under it. 
Po'nzoi, thinking, 
pro'nzoi, meditating. 
Fo'nzoi, inquisition, 
fro'nzoi, discovery. 
To'nzoi, assent, 
tro'nzoi, dissent. 
Ko'nzoi, believing, 
kro'nzoi, disbelieving. 
Bo'nzoi, knowing, 
bro'nzoi, doubting. 
Vo'nzoi, certainty, 
vro'nzoi, opinion. 
Do'nzoi, reasoning, 
dro'nzoi, conjecturing. 
Go'nzoi, esteeming, 
gro'nzol, contemning. 



Tlie third difference. 

O'NZOZ, practical actions of the 
understanding and 
judgment. 

TJie seven species under it. 
Po'nzo, deliberating, 
pro'nzo, observing. 
Fo'nzo, consideration, 
fro'nzo, invention. 
To'nzo, approving, 
tro'nzo, disajiproving. 



GENUS XXIX. O'NZI. 



GEXUS XXX. A'XZI. 



GENUS XXX. A'NZI. 



Ko'nzo, trust, 
kro'ozo, distrust. 
Bo'nzo, satisfaction, 
bro'nzo, scruple. 
Vo'nzo, assm-ance, 
vro'nzo, persuasion. 
Do'nzo, contriving, 
dro'nzo, expecting. 



The fourth difference. 
O'NZAZ, actions of the will. 
The nine species under it. 
Pon'za, inclination, 
pro'nza, aversion. 
Fo'nza, conditionally willing, 
fron'za, conditionally unwilling. 
To'nza, pin-posing, 
tro'nza, demiuTing. 
Ko'nza, resolution, 
kro'nza, wavering. 
Bo'nza, election, 
bro'nza, rejection. 
Vo'nza, prosecuting, 
vro'nza, desisting. 
Do'nza, delectation, 
dro'nza, displicence. 
Go'nza, liberty, (may,) 
gro'nza, necessity, (must.) 
To'nza, spontaneity, 
tro'nza, co-action. 



The fifth difference. 
O'NZILZ, simple passions. 

The nine species under it. 
Po'nzi, admiration, 
pro'nzi, tasdium with loathing. 
Fo'nzi, favour, 
fro'uzi, malignity. 
To'nzi, love, 
tro'uzi, liutred. 
Ko'uzi, mirth, 
kro'nzi, grief. 
Bo'nzi, desire, 
bro'nzi, antipathy, 
blo'nzi , tenderness, desu'e not to hiu't 
Vo'nzi, hope, 
vro'nzi, fear. 



Do'nzi, confidence, 
di-o'nzi, diffidence. 
Go'nzi, boldness, 
gronzi, despair. 
To'nzi, anger, 
tro'nzi, revenge. 



The sixth difference. 
O'NZAIZ, mixed passions. 

The eight species under it. 
Po'nzai, zeal, 

pro'nzai, glorying, (exidtation.) 
Fo'nzai, scorn, 
fro'uzai, shame. 
To'nzai, emulation, 
tro'nzai, jealousy. 
Ko'nzai, remorse, 
ki-o'nzai, repentance. 
Bo'nzai, indignation, 
bro'nzai, disdain. 

Von'zai, joy for the good of others, 
vronzai, envy. 

Do'nzai, joy for the evil of others, 
dro'nzai, pity. 
Go'nzai, agony, 
gro'nzai, extacy. 



A'NZI. XXX. 

The six differences uyider this 
Genus. 
A'NZOOZ, vegetative actions. 
A'NZOIZ, sensitive actions. 
A'NZOZ , hiunan actions expressing 

mental conceptions. 
A'NZAZ, signs of passion. 
A'NZIL, demeanor, deportment. 
A'NZAI, gesture. ■» 
RA'NZAI, postiu-e. j 



The first difference. 
A'NZOOZ, vegetative actions. 
The seven species under it. 
Pa'nzoo, generation, 
pranzoo, con'uption. 



Fa'nzoo, impregnation, 
fra'nzoo, conception. 
Ta'nzoo, parturition, 
tra'nzoo, abortion. 
Ka'nzoo, fotion, 
kra'nzoo, lactation. 
Ba'nzoo, feeding, 
bra'nzoo, digesting. 
Va'nzoo, nourishing, 
vra'nzoo, growing. 
Da'nzoo, livmg, 
di-a'nzoo, dying. 



The second difference. 
A'NZOI, sensitive actions. 

Tlie nine species under it. 
Pa'nzoi, hunger, 
pra'nzoi, eating. 
Fa'nzoi, thirst, 
franzoi, drinking. 
Ta'nzoi, drowsiness, 
tra'nzoi, sleeping. 
Kanzoi, waking, 
krahzoi, dreaming. 
Ba'nzoi, lust, 
bra'nzoi, coition. 
Va'nzoi, itching, 
vi-a'nzoi, scratching. 
Da'nzoi, aching, 
di-a'nzoi, pricking. 
Ga'nzoi, tickling, 
gi-a'nzoi, smarting. 
Ta'nzoi, twitching, 
tra'nzoi, tingling. 



Hie third difference. 

A'XZOZjhimian actions expressing 
mental conceptions. 

Tlie eight species under it. 
Pa'nzo, speaking, 
pra'uzo, muteness. 
Fa'nzo, stuttering, 
fra'nzo, lisping, 
Ta'uzo, whispering, 
tra'nzo, loud exclamation. 



GENUS XXX. A'NZI. 



GENUS XXXI. E'NZI. 



GENUS XXXI. E'NZI. 



Ka'nzo, reading, 
kra'uzo, spelling. 
Ba'nzo, singing, 
bra'nzo, chirping. 
Va'nzo, dictating, 
vra'nzn, inditing. 
Da'nzo, writing, 
dra'nzo, prmting. 
Ga'nzo, saying words, 
gra'nzg, saying things. 



The fourth difference. 
A'NZAZ, signs of passion. 
Tlie nine species under it. 

Pa'nza, staring, 

pra'nza, moving the brows. 

Fa'nza, smiling, 

fra'nza, lowring. 

Ta'nza, Faughing, 

tra'nza, weeping. 

Ka'nza, wrigling, 

kra'nza, movingthehead, (nodding) 

Ba'nza, starting, 

bra'nza, trembling, 

bla'nza, rigor. 

Va'nza, huffing, 

vra'nza, sighing, 

vla'nza, sucking. 

Da'nza, kimboing, 

dranza, Spanish shmg. 

Ga'nza, groaning, 

gra'nza, grumbling. 

Ta'nza, blushing, 



Tlie fifth difference. 
A'NZIL, demeanor, deportment. 

The nine species under it. 
Pa'nzi, inviting, 
pra'nzi, visiting, 
pla'nzi, waiting. 
Fa'nzi, addressing, 
fra'nzi, entertaining. 
Ta'nzi, salutation. 
Ka'nzi, congeeing, 
kra'nzi, curtseying. 
L 



Ba'nzi, clapping, 
bra'nzi, shaking hands. 

Va'nzi, embracing, 
vra'nzi, kissing. 
Da'nzi, complimenting, 
dra'nzi, contermg, 
Ga'nzi, salvediction, 
gra'nzi, valediction. 
Ta'nzi, invitation. 



The sixth difference. 
A'NZAI, gesture. 
RA'NZAI, posture. 

The nine species under it. 
Pa'nzai, rising, 
pra'uzai, standing. 
Fa'nzai, stretching, 
tVa'nzai, spread. 
Tan'zai, shrinking, 
tra'nzai, crmnpled. 
Ka'nzai, stooping, 
kra'nzai, leaning. 
Ba'nzai, sitting, . 
bra'nzai, sate. 
Va'nzai, loiecling, 
vra'nzai, on knees. 
Da'nzai, falling, 
dra'uzai, lying. 
Ga'nzai, turning, 
gra'nzai, reverse. 
Ta'rzai. clinging, 
tra'nzai, hanging. 



The first difference. 
E'NZOO, Animal progression. 

The six species under it. 
Pe'nzoo, going, 
pre'nzoo, halting. 
Fe'nzoo, flying, 
fre'nzoo, hovering. 
Te'nzoo, floating, 
tre'nzoo, diving. 
Ke'nzoo, swimming, 
kre'nzoo, sinking. 
Be'nzoo, leaping, 
bre'nzoo, hopping. 
Ve'nzoo, creeping, 
vi-e'nzoo, wrigling. 



The second difference. 
E'NZOIZ, modes of action. 



E'NZI. XXXI., Motion. 
R'ENZI, Best. 

The six differences under this 
Genus. 
E'NZOO, animal progression. 
E'NZOIZ, modes of action. 
E'NZOZ, animal motions of the 

parts. 
E'NZA, purgation. -^ 

EE'NZA, constipation, j 
E'NZIL, recreation. "^ 

EE'NZIL, game. f 

E'NZAI, violent motion. 
37 



The 


seven s])icies under it. 


Pe'nzoi, 


walking. 


pre'nzoi 


ninnmg. 


Fe'uzoi, 


ambling, 


fre'nzoi. 


trotting. 


Te'nzoi 


stalking, 


tre'nzoi, 


stradling. 


Ke'nzoi 


steady-going. 


kre'nzoi 


, staggerrag. 


Be'nzoi 


sliding. 


bre'nzoi 


stumbling. 


Ve'nzoi 


clindDing, 


\Te'nzoi 


tumbling. 


De'nzoi 


riding. 


dre'nzoi 


sailing. 




77(6 third difference. 


E'NZOZ. animal motions of th 




parts. 


The 


seven species under it 


Pe'nzo, 


pulse. 


prc'nzo, 


peristaltic. 


Fe'nzo, 


respiration, 


fre'nzo. 


snorting. 


Te'nzo, 


blowing, 


tvo'nzo, 


suction 



GENUS XXXI. E'NZI. 



GENUS XXXII. I'NZI. 



GENUS XXXII. INZL 



Ke'nzo, sobbing, 


Ye'nzi, wi-esthng. 


Fi'nzoo, librating, 
fri'nzoo, biassing. 


kre'nzo, hiccough. 


vre'uzi, fencing. 


Be'nzo, mastication, 


D'enzi, specta'cle. 
dre'uzi, music. 


Ti'nzoo, cleaving, 


bre'nzo, rumination. 


tri'nzoo, compressing. 


Ve'nzo, yawning, 
vre'nzo, pandiculation. 




Ki'nzoo, pulling, 
kri'nzoo, thrusting. 




De'nzo, licking, 


The sixth difference. 


Bi'nzoo, vertiginating. 


dre'nzo, swallowing. 


E'XZAI, violent motion. 


bri'nzoo, volutation. 




Tlie seven species under it. 


Vi'nzoo, screwing, 




vri'nzoo, syringmg. 


The fourth difference. 


Pe'nzai, carrying, 
pre'nzai, bearing. 


Di'nzoo, springing, 
dri'nzoo, bending. 


E'NZA, purgation. 


Fe'nzai, casting, 
fre'nzai, catching. 




EE'NZA, constipation. 






Te'nzai, swinging. 


Tlie second differetice. 


Tlie nine species under it. 


tre'nzai, shaking. 




Pe'nza, sneezing. 


Ke'nzai, striking, 


I'lSTZOIZ, mixed mechanical ope- 


Fe'nza, belching, 


kre'nzai, knocking. 


rations. 


fre'nza, farting. 


Be'nzai, pounding, 


The nine sjiecies under it. 


Te'nza, sweating, _ 


bre'nzai, pecking. 


tre'nza, transpiration. 


Ve'nzai, breaking, 


Pi'nzoi, binding, 
pri'nzoi, loosening. 


Ke'nza, spitting, 
kre'nza, blowing the nose. 


vre'nzai, tearing, 


De'nzai, cutting, 


Fi'nzoi, tying, 
fri'nzoi, tangling. 


Be'nza, coughing. 


dre'nzai, pricking. 


bre'nza, excreation. 




Ti'nzoi, covering, 


A^e'nza, bleeding, 




tri'nzoi, uncovering. 


vre'nza, scarifying. 


TNZL XXXII., Ojieration. 


Ki'nzoi, shutting, 


De'nza, blistering, 
di-e'nza, cupping. 


li'INZI, Play. 


kri'nzoi, opening. 
Bi'nzoi, gathering, 


Ge'nza, m-ining. 
Te'nza, vomiting, 
tre'nza, dunging. 


The six differences under this 
Genus. 
I'NZOOZ, mechanical faculties. 
I'NZOIZ, mixed mechanical ope- 


bri'nzoi, scattering. 
Vi'nzoi, heaping, 
vri'nzoi, spreading. 
Di'nzoi, filling, 
dri'nzoi, emptying. 




The fifth difference.. 


rations. 
I'NZOZ, agricultural operations. 


Gi'nzoi, pouring, 
gri'nzoi, spilling. 


E'NZIL recreation, 


I'NZAZ, fabrile operations. "> 
EI'NZAZ, figulatory operations, j 


Ti'nzoi, dipping into. 


E'ENZIL, game. 


ti'nzoi. dipping under. 


The seven sjjecies wider it. 
Pe'nzi, lot, 
pre'nzi, dice. 


I'NZILZ, sartorian operations. 
I'NZAIZ, chemical operations. -\ 


I7ie third difference. 


EI'NZAIZ, pharmaceutical ope->- 
rations. ) 


I'NZOZ, agi'icultural operations. 


Fe'nzi, cards. 




Tlie eight sjyecies under it. 


fre'nzi, tables. 




Te'nzi, chess, 


The first difference. 


Pi'nzo, digging. 


tre'nzi, draughts. 


I'NZOOZ, mechanical fivculties. 


pri'nzo, ploughing. 
Fi'nzo, ban-owing, 


Ke'nzi, bowling, 




kre'nzi, balling. 


TJie seven species under if. 


fri'nzo, rolling. 


Ec'nzi, dancing. 


Pi'nzoo, lifting, 


Ti'nzo, manuring, 


bre'nzi, vaultmg. 


pri'nzoo, depressing. 


tri'uzo, weeding, 



GENUS XXXII. I'NZI 



GENUS XXXIIL ONZI 



GENUS XXXIIL ONZL 



Ki'nzo, 
kri'nzo, 
Bi'nzo, 
bri'nzo, 
Vi'nzo, 
vri'nzo, 
Di'nzo, 
dri'nzo, 
Gi'nzo, 
gri'nzo, 



sowing, 

reaping. 

threshing, 

winnowing. 

planting, 

setting. 

grafting, 

inoculating. 

pruning, 

felling. 



The fourth difference. 
I'NZAZ, fabrile operations. 
RI'NZ AZ, figulatory operations. 

The eight species under it. 
Pi'nza, shaving, 
pri'nza, contusion. 
Fi'nza, grinding, 
fri'nza, filing. 
Ti'nza, boring, 
tri'nza, sawing. 
Ki'nza, soldering, 
kri'nza, gluing. 
Bi'nza, forging, 
bri'nza, casting. 
Vi'nza, carving, 
vrl'nza, graving. 
Di'nza, kneading, 
dri'uza, turning. 
Gi'nza, painting, 
gri'nza, varnishing, 
gli'nza, glaze, enamel. 

The fifth difference. 
I'NZILZ, sartorian operations. 

The ten sjyecies under it. 
Pi'nzi, twisting, 
pri'nzi, spinning. 
Fi'nzi, weaving, 
fri'nzi, knittng. 
Ti'nzi, fulling, 
tri'nzi, dying. 
Ki'nzi, sewing, 
kri'nzi, clipping. 
Bi'nzi, folding, 
bri'nzi, curling. 



Vi'nzi, washing, 
vri'nzi, smearing. 
Di'nzi, soaking, 
dri'nzi, infusion. 
Gi'nzi, rubbing, 
gri'nzi, wiping. 
Ti'nzi, brushing, 
tri'nzi, combing. 
Di'nzi, plaiting. 



The sixth difference. 

I'NZAIZ, chemical operations. 
R'INZAIZ, pharmaceutical ope- 
rations. 

The eight sjjecies under it. 
Pi'nzai, grinding, 
pri'nzai, sifting. 
Finzai, dissolution, 
fi-i'nzai, coagulation. 
Ti'nzai, corrosion, 
tri'nzai. precipitation. 
Ki'nzai, straining, 
kri'nzai, filtration. 
Bi'nzai, digestion, 
bri'nzai, fermentation. 
Vi'nzai, distillation, 
vri'nzai, rectifying. 
Di'nzai, charring, 
dri'nzai, subliming. 
Gi'nzai, calcination, 
gri'nzai, lixiviation. 



aNZI, XXXIIL 

The six differences under this 
Genus. 
O'NZOO, consanguinity. 
O'NZOI, affinity. 
O'NZOZ, superiors and inferiors. 
O'NZ AZ, relations among equals. 
ONZIL, education relating to 

words. 
O'NZAI, education relating to 

deeds. 



The first difference. 
O'NZOO, consanguinity. 



The five species under it. 
Po'nzoo, ancestor or ancestress,* 
pro nzoo, descendantmale orfemale. 
Fo'nzoo, parent, father or mother, 
fro'nzoo, child, son or daughter. 
To'nzoo, uncle or aunt, 
tro'nzoo, nephew or niece. 
Ko'nzoo, brother or sister, 
kro'nzoo, half brother or half sister. 
Bo'nzoo,firstcousin, male orfemale, 
bro'nzoo, cousin, male or female. 



The second difference. 
O'NZOI, aflSnity. 

The five sjjecies under it. 
Po'nzoi, unmarried person, 
pro'nzoi, pure bachelor or virgin. 
Fo'nzoi, suitor, male or female, 
fro'nzoi, rival, male or female. 
To'nzoi, betrothed person. 
Ko'nzoi, married person. 
Bo'nzoi, widower or widow. 



TJie third difference. 
O'NZOZ, superiors and inferiors. 

The nine S2)ecie^ under it. 
Po'nzo, godfather or mother, 
pro'nzo, godchild. 
Fo'nzo, fosterer or nurse, 
fro'nzo, nursling. 
To'nzo, teacher, 
tro'nzo, learner. 
Ko'nzo, guardian, 
kro'nzo, ward, pupil. 
Bo'nzo, master or mistress of tin 

family. 
Vo'nzo, host or hostess, 
vro'nzo, guest. 

Do'nzo, master, male or female, 
dro'nzo, servant. 

Go'nzo, benefa(!tor or benefactress 
gro'nzo, beneficiary. 
To'nzo, patron or patroness, 
tro'nzo, dependant. 



Po'nzoo, (neuter); po'nzipur, (masculine); po'nzipmi, (feminine); and so on. 
39 



GENUS XXXIII. O'XZL 



GENUS XXXIV. A'NZI. 



GENUS XXXIV. A'NZL 



The fourth difference. 
O'NZAZ, relations among equals. 

The six species under it. 
Po'nza, friend, 
pro'nza, enemy. 
Fo'nza, companion, 
fro'nza, solitaiy. 

To'nza, neighbom-, (same vicinity,) 
ti'o'nza, foreigner, (another vicinity 

in the same country,) 
two'nza,foreigner(anothercouutry) 

Ko'nza, acquaintance, 
kro'nza, stranger. 
Bo'nza, partner. 
Vo'nza, customer. 



The fifth difference. 
O'NZIL, education relating to 
words. 
Tlie eifjht species under it. 
Po'nzi, command, 
pro'nzi, forbid. 
Fo'nzi, persuade, 
fro'nzi, dissuade. 
To'nzi, intreat, 
tro'nzi, deprecate. 
Ko'nzi, advise, 
kro'nzi, warn. 
Bo'nzi, allure, 
bro'nzi, deter. 
Vo'nzi, promise, 
vro'nzi, threaten. 
Do'nzi, commend, 
dro'nzi, reprehend. 
Go'nzi, praise, 
gro'nzi, blame. 



The sixth difference. 

O'XZAI, education relating to 
deeds. 

The seven species under it. 
Po'nzai, direct, 
pro'nzai, seduce. 
Fo'nzai, encourage, 
fro'nzai, discourage. 
To'nzai, comfort, 
tro'uzai, discomfort. 



Ko'uzai, 


maintain, 


kro'nzai 


stipcndate. 


Bo'nzai, 


defending, 


bro'nzai 


deserting. 


Vo'nzai, 


correctiug, 


vro'nzai 


givmg over 


Do'nzai 


reform. 


di-o'nzai 


harden. 



Ta'nzoo, moor, 
tra'nzoo, bog. 



ANZI. XXXIV..I Possessions. 
R'ANZI, Revenue. 

The six differences under this 
Genus. 

A'NZOO, land. "> 

R'ANZOO, dwelling, j 
A'NZOIZ, buildhigs. ■> 
RA'NZOIZ, ruins. J 
A'NZOZ, greater partsofbuildmgs. 
A'NZ AZ, lesser parts of buildings. 
A'NZIL, carriage. ~» 
EA'XZIL, burden. j 
A'NZAI, furniture. 



The first difference. 
A'NZOO, land, 
R'ANZOO, dwelling. 
LA'NZOO, wilderness. 

The nine species under it. 
Pa'nzoo, farm, 
pra'nzoo, manor. 
Fa'nzoo, field, 
fra'uzoo, forest. 
Ta'nzoo, garden, 
tra'nzoo, orchard. 
Ka'nzoo, arable, 
kra'nzoo, meadow. 
Ba'uzoo, pasture, 
bra'nzoo, park. 
Va'nzoo, pond, 
vra'nzoo, decoy. 
Da'nzoo, wood, 
di-a'nzoo, heath. 
Ga'nzoo, fen, 
gra'nzoo, marsh. 



The second difference. 
A'NZOIZ, buildings. 
RA'NZOIZ, ruins. 

The nine species under it. 
Pa'nzoi, house, 
pra'nzoi, tent. 
Fa'nzoi, palace, 
fra'nzoi, castle. 
Ta'nzoi, tower, 
tra'nzoi, steeple. 
Ka'nzoi, temple, 
kra'nzoi, altar. 
Ba'nzoi, stove, 
branzoi, bath. 
Va'nzoi, bridge, 
vi-a'nzoi, scaffold. 
Da'nzoi, street, 
dra'nzoi, way. 
Ga'nzoi, vault. 
Ta'nzoi, aquaduct, 
tra'nzoi, sink. 



Tlie third difference. 
A'NZOZ, greaterpartsof buildings. 

The nine species under it. 
Pa'nzo, frame, 
pra'nzo, partition. 
Fa'nzo, room, 

fra'nzo, apartments, suite of rooms. 
Ta'nzo, court, 
tra'nzo, entry. 
Ka'nzo, foundation, 
kra'nzo, floor. 
Ba'nzo, pillar, 
bra'nzo, beam. 
Va'nzg, wall, 
vra'nzo, arch. 
Da'nzo, prop, 
dra'nzo, buttress. 
Ga'nzo, roof, 
gra'nzo, ceiling. 
Ta'nzo, hearth, 
tra'nzo, chimney. 



0ENU8 XXXIV. A'NZI. 



GENUS XXXV. E'NZI. 



GENUS XXXV. E'NZI. 



The fourth difference. 


Fa'nzai, knife. 


De'nzoo, ale. 


' 


fra'nzai, hammer, 


dre'nzoo, beer. 


A'NZ AZ, lesser parts of buildings. 


fla'nzai, axe. 


dwe'nzoo, porter. 


TJie Six species under it. 


Ta'nzai, jugament, (instrument jess 






Pa'nza, stairs, 


simple,) 


Suh-species under the 1st difference. 


pra'nza, ladder. 


tra'nzai, pimip. 


Peno'nizoo, first meal, breakfast. 


Fa'nza, door. 


Ka'nzai, table, 


preno'nizoo, bever after breakfast. 


fra'nza, gate, 


kra'nzai, shelf. 


pena'nizoo, second meal, dinner, 


fla'nza, window. 


Ba'nzai, stool, 


prena'nizoo, bever after dinner, tea, 


Tanza, threshold, 


bra'nzai, cushion. 


pene'nizoo, third meal, supper. 


tra'nza, Imtel. 


Va'nzai, chair. 


prene'nizoo, bever after supper. 


Ka'nza, lock. 


vra'nzai, couch. 
Da'nzai, bedstead. 




kra'nza, key. 




Ba'nza, bolt. 


"dra'nzai, bed. 


ne second difference. 


bra'nza, latch. 


Ga'nzai, machine. 


E'NZOI, extraordinary food. 


Va'nza, hinge, 
vra'nza, staple. 


gra'nzai, trap. 
Ta'nzai, mill, 


The seven species under it. 


tra'nzai, clock, 


Pe'nzoi, feast, 
pre'nzoi, banquet. 




twa'nzai, pocket clock, watch. 






Fe'nzoi, sauce 


The fifth difference. 
A'NZIL, can-Iage. 


E'NZI, XXXV. 


fre'nzoi, confection. 
Te'nzoi, sugar, 


KA'NZIL, burden. 


The six differences under this 


tre'nzoi, syrup. 


The nine species under it. 


Genus. 


Kre'nzoi, spice. 


Pa'nzi, coach. 


E'NZOO, ordinary food. 


Be'nzoi, vinegar. 


pra'nzi, wain. 


E'NZOI, extraordinary food. 


bre'nzoi, verjuice. 


Fa'nzi, chariot. 


E'NZO, preparation of food. 
E'NZA, clothing, "i 
RE'NZA, tackle. j 


Ve'nzoi, wine, 


fra'nzi, cart. 
Ta'nzi, sedan, 
tra'nzi, yoke, 
twa'nzi, barrow. 


vre'nzoi, beverage. 
De'nzoi, spirits, 
dre'nzoi, brandy. 


E'NZILZ, vessels. 

E'NZAIZ, common mixed mate- 




Ka'nzi, sledge, 
kra'nzi, welsh cart. 




rials. 


The third difference. 


Ba'nzi, shaft. 




E'NZO, preparation of food. 


bra'nzi, pole. 
Va'nzi, wheel, 
vra'nzi, axis. 


The first difference. 
E'NZOO, ordinary food. 


Tlie nine species under it. 
Pe'nzo, butchering. 


Da'nzi, nave, 


The seven species under it. 


pre'nzo, cooking. 


dra'nzi, spoke. 


Pe'nzoo, meal, 


Fe'nzo, boiling. 


Ga'nzi, saddle, 


pre'nzoo, refection. 


fre'nzo, stewing. 


gra'nzi, stirrup. 


Fe'nzoo, bread. 


Te'nzo, roasting. 


Ta'nzi, bridle. 


fre'nzoo, pudding. 


tre'nzo, baking. 


tra'nzi, trace. 


Te'nzoo, butter, 


Ke'nzo, frying, 
kre'nzo, broiling. 




tre'nzoo, cheese. 
Ke'nzoo, flesh. 




Be'nzg, pinking, 


The sixth difference. 


kre'nzoo, pie. 


bre'nzo, slashing. 


A'NZAI, furniture. 


Be'nzoo, broth. 


Ve'nzo, slicing, 


The nine species under it. 
Pa'nzai, instrument, (more simple,) 


bre'nzoo, jelly. 
Ve'nzoo, oil, 
vre'nzoo, gravy. 


vro'nz(2, mincing. 
Den'zo, basting, 
dre'nzo, flowering. 



GENUS XXXV. E'NZL 



GENUS XXXVI. O'NDRI. 



GENUS XXXVI. ONDRL 



Ge'nzo, stratify. 


Ge'nzi, spoon, 




The first difference. 


gre'nzo, lard. 


gre'nzi, scoop, 






Te'nzo, pickling, 


Te'nzi, trencher. 




O'NDROOZ, degrees, 


tre'nzo, coudltiug. 


trenzi, cup. 




O'MBROO, parity, equality. 








The nine species under it. 


The fourth difference. 


The sixth difference. 


Po'ndroo, magistrate, 


E'NZA, clothing. 


E'NZAIZ, common mixed mate- 


po'mbroo, subject. 


EE'NZA, tackle. 


rials. 




Fo'ndi-oo, king, 








fo'mbroo, prince. 


The ten species under it. 


The nine species under it. 


To'ndroo, lord, 


Pe'nza, woollen, 


Pe'nzai, hay, 
pre'nzai, straw. 
Fe'nzai, fiiel. 




to'mbroo, gentleman. 


pre'uza, hairy. 




Ko'ndroo, graduate, 


Fe'nza, leather. 




ko'mbroo, candidate. 


Te'nza, silk. 


Te'nzai, candle, 




Bo'udroo, people. 


Ke'nza, linen, 


tre'nzai, lamp, 




Yo'ndroo, citizen, 
vo'mbroo, yeoman. 


kre'nza, cotton. 


twe'nzai, gas-light. 




Be'nza, lace, 


Ke'nzai, salve. 




Do'ndroo, rabble. 


bre'nza, pm-1. 
Ve'nza, ribband, 


kre'nzai, plaister. 




Go'ndroo, villain, 


Be'nzai, soap, 




go'mbroo, beggar. 


vre'nza, scarf. 


brenzai, starch. 




To'ndroo, freeman, 


De'nza, thread. 


Ve'nzai, pen. 




to'mbroo, slave. 


di-e'nza, cord. 


\Te'nzai, ink. 
De'nzai, paper, 
di-e'nzai, book. 






Ge'nza, thong, 
gre'nza, buckle. 






The second difference. 


Te'nza, facing, 


Ge'nzai, picture. 






tre'nza, lining. 


gr'cnzai, image. 




O'NDROI, profession. 


De'nza, net-work. 


Te'nzai, looking glass 


, min-or. 


O'MBROI, practice. 








Tlie nine spiecies under it. 


The ffth difference. 


ONDBI. XXXVI. Civil Relation. 


Po'ndi-oi, divine. 


E'NZILZ, vessels. 


OMBRI, Anarchy. 


po'mbroi, philosopher. 








Fo'ndroi, law}-er. 


The nine species under it. 


Tlie six differences 


mder this 


fo'mbroi, civil lawyer, 


Pe'nzi, bag. 


Genus. 




flo'ndroi, common lawyer. 


pre'nzi, case. 






To'ndroi, physician, 


Fe'nzi, box. 


O'NDROOZ, degi-ees 


} 


to'mbroi, surgeon. 


fre'nzi, basket. 


O'MBEOO, parity. 


Ko'ndroi, philologer, 


Te'nzi, baiTcl, 


O'NDROI, profession 


■} 


ko'nibroi, poet. 


tre'nzi, tub. 


O'MBROI, practice. 


Bo'ndroi, merchant. 


Ke'nzi, dish. 


O'NDRO, convention 


■> 


bo'mbroi, mechanic. 


kre'nzi, tray. 
Be'nzi, pot, 
bre'nzi, bottle. 


O'MBRO, society. j 
O'NDRAZ, rights and liberties. 


Yo'ndi-oi, husbandman, 
vo'mbroi, herdsman. 
Do'ndroi, huntsman. 


Ve'nzi, kettle, 


O'NDRIL, contract. 


} 


Go'ndroi, mariner, 


vi-e'nzi, skillet. 


O'JIBRIL, exchange. 


go'mbroi, carrier. 


De'nzi, faucet. 


ON'DRAI, obligation 


■} 


To'ndroi, player, 


dre'nzi, tap. 


OMBRAI, paction. 


to'mbroi, prestigiator. 



42 



0ENU8 XXXVI. O'NDRI. GENUS XXXVII. A'NDBL GENUS XXXVII ANDRI. 



The third difference. 
O'NDEO, convention. 
O'MBRO, society. 

Tlie eight species wider it. 
Po'ndro, nation, 
po'mbi-o, colony. 
Fo'ndi'o, country, 
fo'mbro, town. 
To'ndi'o, province, 
to'mbro, city. 
Ko'ndrg, shire, 
ko'mbro, parish. 
Bo'ndro, court, 
bo'nibro, council. 
Vo'ndrg, university, 
vo'mbro, school. 
Do'ndro, corporation, 



oro, corpi 
bro, colle 



do'm 

Go'ndro, league, 

eo'mbro, faction. 



The fourth difference. 
O'NDRAZ, rights and liberties. 

The nine species under it. 
Po'ndra, nature, 
po'mbra, custom. 
Fo'ndra, election, 
fo'mbra, succession. 
To'ndra, law, 
to'mbra, edict. 
Ko'ndra, patent, 
ko'mbra, commission. 
Bo'ndra, proprietary, 
bo'mbra, usus-fructus. 
Vo'ndra, authority, 
vo'mbra, office. 
Do'ndra, prerogative, 
do'mbra, privilege. 
Go'ndra, dispensation, 
go'mbra, licence. 
To'ndra, toleration, 
to'mbra, immunity. 



The fifth diffen 

O'NDRIL, contract. 
O'MBRIL, exchange. 



27(6 nine species under it. 

Po'ndri, assigning, 
po'mbri, depositing. 
Fo'ndri, bequeathing, 
fo'mbri, inheriting. 
To'ndri, selling, 
to'mbri, buying. 
Ko'ndri, lending, 
ko'rabri, borrowing. 
Bo'ndi-i, demising, 
bo'mbri, hireing. 
Vo'ndi'i, earning, 
vo'mbri, wages. 
Do'ndri, price, 
do'mbri, earnest. 
Go'ndri, bargain, 
go'mbri, seisin, 
To'ndri, tribute, 
to'mbri, tax. 



Tlie sixth difference. 
O'NDRAI, obligation. 
O'MBRAI, paction. 

The 
Po'ndrai, 
po'mbrai. 
Fo'ndrai, 
tb'rabral, 
To'ndrai, 
to'mbrai, 
Ko'ndi-ai. 
ko'mbrai. 
Bo'ndrai, 
bo'mbrai, 
Vo'ndrai, 
vo'mbrai, 
Do'ndrai, 
do'mbrai, 
Go'ndrai, 
go'mbral, 



eight species under it. 
bespeaking, 
treating, 
bid, 

demand, 
promise, 
protestation, 
swearing, 
imprecation, 
signing, 
sealing, 
sponsion, 
intercession, 
pawn, 
mortgage, 
wager, 
bet. 



ANDRI. XXXVIL 

The six dfferences under (his 

Genus. 

A'XDROOZ, persons. 



A'NDROIZ, proceedbgs. ■> 
A'MBROI, suit. j 

A'NDROZ, offences generally. "> 
A'MBROZ, capital offences. J 
A'NDRAZ, offences not capital. 
A'NDRILZ, punishments, (cap-") 
ital.) I 

A'MBRIL, forfeiture. J 

A'NDRAIZ, punislunents not cap- 
ital. 



The first difference. 
A'NDROOZ, persons. 

The seven species under it. 
Pa'ndroo, judge, 
pa'mbroo, assessor. 
Fa'ndroo, arbitrator, 
fa'mbroo, mediator. 
Ta'ndroo, accuser, 
ta'mbroo, prisoner. 
Ka'ndroo, plaintiff, 
ka'mbroo, defendant. 
Ba'ndroo, notary, 
ba'mbroo, crier. 
Va'ndroo, catch-pole, 
va'mbroo, marshal. 
Da'ndroo, advocate, 
da'mbroo, witness. 



The second difference. 
A'NDROIZ, proceedings. 
A'MBOI, suit. 

The nine species under it. 
Pa'ndroi, citation, 
pa'mbroi, arrest. 
Fa'ndroi, bail, 
fa'mbroi, appearance. 
Ta'ndroi, action, 
fa'mbroi, plea. 
Ka'ndroi, cognizance, 
ka'mbroi, examination. 
Ba'ndrol, joining issue, 
ba'mbroi, sentencing, 
Va'ndroi, innocent, 
va'mbroi, guilty. 



GENUS XXXVII. A'NDRI. GENUS XXXVIL A'NDRI. GENUS XXXVIIl. E'NDRI. 



Da'ndroi, acquitting, 


Ta'ndi-a, reviling, 


E'NDRI. XXXVIIL 


da'mbroi, condemning. 


ta'mbra, mocking. 




Ga'ndroi, protesting, 




The six differences under this 


gambroi, appealing. 




Genus. 


Ta'ndi-oi, executing, 


The fifth difference. 


E'NDEOOZ, actions. ] 


ta'mbroi, pardonmg. 


A'NDEILZ, capital pimishments. 
A'MBRIL, forfeiture. | 


E'NDROIZ, events. 1 | 




E'NDROZ, persons segregate. ^ 


The third difference. 


The nine species under it. 


E'XDRAZ, ditto aggi-egate. J ' 


A'NDROZ ofifences generally. 
A'MBROZ, capital offences. 


Pa'ndri, beheading, 
pa'mbri, quartering. 


E'NDRIL, ammimition. "» 
E'MBRIL, baggage. j 




Fa'ndi-i, stoning. 


E'NDRAIZ, military places. > 
E'MBRAI, sepiment. j 


The eight species under it. 


fa'mbri, shooting. 


Pa'ndro, witchcraft, 


Ta'ndri, pressing, 




pa'mbro, wizarding. 


ta'mbri, precipitating. 




Fa'ndi-o, treason, 


Ka'ndri, stabbing, 


TJie first difference. 


fa'mbro, conspiracy. 


ka'mbri, impaling. 




Ta'ndi-o, rebellion, 


Ba'ndri, starving. 


E'NDROOZ, military actions. 


ta'mbro. sedition. 


ba'mbri, poisoning. 


T/w nine species under it. 


Ka'ndi-o, felony. 
Bandro, murder. 


Ya'ncb-i, stifling, 
va'mbri, biu-ying alive. 


Pe'ndroo, offending, 
pe'mbroo, defending. 


Va'ndro, beastiality, 


Ga'ndi-i, drowning, 


Fe'ndroo, provoking, 


va'mbro, sodomy. 


ga'mbri, burning alive. 


fe'mbroo, defying. 


Da'ndro, robbery, 


Da'ndi-i, hanging. 


Te'ndi-oo, assaulting, 


da'mbrg, theft. 


da'mbri, strangling. 


te'mbroo, resistmg. 


Ga'ndro, house bimiing. 


Ta'udi-i, crucifying. 


Ke'ndi-oo, beseiging. 


ga'mbro, burglary. 


ta'mbri, breaking on the wheel. 


ke'mbroo, relievmg. 
Be'ndroo, mining, 
be'mbroo, counteiTnining. 
Ve'ndroo, stomiing. 


Tlie fourth difference. 


Ihe sixth difference. 


A'NDRAZ, offences not capital. 


A'NDRAIZ, pimishments not cap- 


ve'mbroo, sallying. 




ital. 


De'ndi-oo, fighting, 


The nine species under it. 




de'mbroo, duelling. 


Pa'ndra, injiu-y. 


The eiyht species under it. 


Ge'ndroo, skirmishing, 


pa'mbra, affront. 


Pa'ndi-ai, torture. 


ge'mbroo, battling. 


Fa'ndi-a, fornication, 


Fa'ndrai, whipping, 


Te'ndi-oo, stratagem, 


fa'mbra, adultery. 


fa'mbrai, cudgelling. 


te'mbroo, ambush. 


Ta'ndra, usm-pation, 
ta'mbra, detention. 
Ka'ndi-a, fraud, 


Ta'ndi-ai, rack, 
ta'mbrai, strappado. 
Ka'ndi-ai, imprisonment, 




The second difference. 


ka'mbra, forgery. 


ka'mbrai, bonds. 


E'NDROIZ, military events. 


Ba'ndr.a, oppression, 


Ba'ndi"ai, exile, 


The eight species under it. 


ba'mbra, extortion. 


ba'mbrai, relegation , transportation. 


Pendi'oi, coming off upon equal 


Va'ndra, bribery, 


Ya'ndrai, infamation, 


tei-ms. 


va'mbra, subornation. 


vambrai, stigmatization. 


pembroi, victor, 


Da'ndra, calumny. 


Da'ndi-ai, mulct. 


ple'mbroi, overthrown. 


damTjr , backbiting. 


da'mbrai, confiscation. 


Feiidi'oi, stand his gi'ound. 


Ga'ndra, reproaching. 


Ga'ndrai, degrading, 


fe'mbroi, advance, 


ga'mbra, upbraiding. 


ga'mbrai, incapacitating. 
44 


fle'mbroi, retire. 



GENUS XXXVIII. E'NDRL GENUS XXXVIIL ENDRI GENUS XXXIX. I'NDRL 



Te'ndroi, keep the field, 
te'mbroi, pursue, 
twe'ndroi, fly. 
Ke'ndroi, hold out, 
ke'mbroi, take, 
kle'ndroi, lose. 
Be'ndroi, save ones own. 
be'mbroi, booty, 
ble'udi-oi, spoil. 
Ve'ndroi, escape, 
ve'mbroi, captivity, 
vle'ndroi, yield. 
De'ndroi, save, 
de'mbroi, conquer, 
dwe'ndroi, submit. 
Ge'ndroi, triumph, 
ge'mbroi, trophy. 



The third difference. 
E'NDRO, soldier. 
E'MBRO, commander in chief. 
LE'NDRO, general. 
LE'MBE.0, lieutenant general. 

The nine species under it. 

Pe'ndro, footman, 
pe'mbro, horseman. 
Fe'ndro, ensign, 
fe'mbro, cornet. 
Te'ndro, drummer, 
te'mbro, trumpeter. 
Ke'ndi-o, sergeant, 
ke'mbro, adjutant. 

Be'ndro, scout, 
be'mbro, spy. 
Ve'ndro, guard, 
ve'mbro, watch. 
De'ndro, sentinel, 
de'mbro, perdue. 
Ge'ndro, pioneer, 
ge'mbro, calo. 
Te'ndro, champion, 
te'mbro, duellist. 

TJie fourth difference. 

E'NDRAZ, military persons ag- 
gregate. 

N 



The seven species under it. 
Pe'ndra, army. 
Fe'ndra, brigade, 
fe'mbra, regiment. 
Te'ndra, company, 
te'mbra, squadron. 
Ke'ndra, rank, 
ke'mbra, file. 
Be'ndra, vancourier, 
be'mbra, reserve. 
Ve'ndra, forlorn hope, 
ve'mbra, commanded party. 
De'ndra, train. 



The fifth difference. 
E'NDRIL, ammunition. 
E'MBRIL, baggage. 

The nine species under it. 



Pe'ndr 



weapon, 



pe'mbri, armour. 
Fe'ndri, club, 
fe'mbri, sword. 
Te'ndri, pike, 
te'mbri, halbert. 
Ke'ndri, bow, 
ke'mbri, cross bow. 
Be'ndri, dart, 
be'mbri, arrow. 
Ve'ndri, gun, 
ve'mbri, ordnance. 
De'ndri, match, 
dc'niliri, |ii)\vder. 
ficii.lri. l,ull,.t, 
g'eiub]'i, gniiiado. 
Te'ndri, buckler. 



The sixth difference. 
E'NDRAIZ, military places. 
E'MBRAI, sepiment. 

The nine sjiecies under it. 

Po'ndrai, camp, 

pe'nibrai, t;.iri-isun. 
I'Vn,lr.-n, .-...Mv. 
tc'inlirai, iilwck-liousc. 
4.3 



Te'ndrai 
te'mbrai, 
Ke'ndrai 
ke'mbrai 
Be'ndi-ai, 
be'mbrai, 
Ve'ndrai, 
ve'mbrai, 
De'ndi'ai, 
de'mbrai, 
Ge'ndrai, 
ge'mbrai, 
Te'ndrai, 
te'mbrai, 



rampart, 
ditcli. 
vaumure, 
, lining, 
half-moon, 
horn-work, 
redoubt, 
flanker, 
pallisado, 
furnace-hole, 
turnpike, 
portcullis, 
parapet, 
gabion. 



TNDRI XXXIX. 

Tim six differences under this 
Genus. 
I'NDROOZ, kinds of vessels. 
I'NDROI, hull. 

I'NDROZ, parts for progressive 
motion or staying. 
I'NDRA, rigging. 
I'NDRILZ, naval persons. 
I'NDRAIZ, naval actions. 



The first difference. 
I'NDROOZ, kinds of vessels. 
TJie nine species under it. 
Pi'ndroo, boat, 
pi'mbroo, bai-ge. 

Fi'ndroo, ship, (sails, not steam.) 
Ti'ndroo, galley. 
Ki'ndroo, carrack, (for burden.) 
Bi'ndroo, merchantman, (fortraflic.) 
Vi'ndroo,man of war, (for fighting.) 
Di'ndroo, packet, (for passage.) 

Steam, tvith sails. 
Gi'ndroo, steam vessel, 
gi'mbroo, steam ship, 
gw'indroo, steam boat. 

Steam, without sail.i. 
Ti'ndroo, steam vessel, 
ti'mbroo, steam ship, 
twi'ndroo, steam boat. 



GENIS XXXIX. I'NDBI. 



GENUS XXXIX. I'NBRL 



GENUS XL. U'NDRL 



The second difference. 
I'NDEOI, hull. 

Tlie nine species under it. 

Pi'ndroi, keel, 
pi'mbroi, rung. 
Findroi, stem, 
fi'mbroi, stem. 
Ti'ndroi, capstain, 
ti'mbroi, rudder. 
Ki'ndroi, forcaatle, 
ki'mbroi, round-house. 
Bi'ndroi, waist, 
bi'mbroi, half-deck, 

Vi'ndroi, hatch, 
vi'mbroi, scuttle. 
Di'ndroi, port-hole, 
di'mbroi, scupper. 
Gi'ndroi, seam, 
gi'mbroi, spurket. 
Ti'ndroi, rake of post, 
timbroi, rake of stem. 



The third difference. 

I'XDKOZ, parts for progressive 
motion or staying. 

The nine species under it. 

Pi'ndro, mast, 
pi'mbro, top. 
Fi'ndro, yard, 
ti'nibro, boom. 
Ti'ndro, oar, 
ti'mbro, pole. 
Ki'ndi-o, bowsprit, 
ki'mbro, fore-mast. 
Bi'ndro, main-mast, 
bi'mbro, mizzen-mast. 
Vi'ndro, sail, 
vi'mbro, bonnet. 
Di'ndi-o, flag, 
di'mbro, ancient. 
Gi'ndro, streamer, 
gi'mbro, jack. 
Ti'ndro, anchor, 
ti'mbro, grapple. 



The fourth difference. 
I'NDE A, rigging. 

The eii/ht species nnder it. 

Pi'ndra, shroud, 
pi'mbra, stay. 
Fi'ndra, ratling. 
Ti'ndra, parrel, 
ti'mbra, jear. 
Ki'ndra, brace, 
ki'mbra, lift. 
Bi'ndra, robin, 
bi'mbra, sheet. 
Vi'ndra, brale, 
vi'mbra, buntline. 
Gi'ndraz, tacks, 
gi'mbra, bowline. 
Ti'ndra, cable, 
ti'mbra, hawser. 



The ffth difference. 
I'NDEILZ, naval persons. 
Tlie nine species under it. 

Pi'ndri, lord high admiral, 
pi'mbri, admiral of the fleet, 
pli'ndri, vice-admiral, 
pi'lbri, rear admiral. 
Fi'ndri, captain, 
fi'mbri, lieutenant. 
Ti'ndri, quarter-master, 
timbri, corporal. 
Ki'ndi-i, gunner. 
Bi'ndri, master, 
bi'mbri, pilot. 
Vi'ndri, cape-merchant, 
vi'mbri, purser. 
D'indri, boatswain, 
di'mbri, cockswain. 
Gi'ndri, swabber. 
Ti'ndriz, sailors, 
ti'mbriz, yonkers. 
Di'ndriz, marines. 

The sixth difference. 

I'NDRAIZ, naval actions. 
40 



77(6 seven species under 


it. 


Pi'ndrai, 


calking, 




pi'mbrai, 


parshng. 




Findrai, 


brooming, 




fi'rabrai, 


gravnig. 




Ti'ndrai, 


sheathing, 




ti'mbrai, 


fun'ing. 




Ki'ndrai 


careening. 




ki'mbrai 


trimming. 




Bi'ndrai 


riding at anchor, 




bi'mbrai 


hulling. 




A'i'ndrai 


keeping-a-wind. 




vi'mbrai 
vli'ndi-ai 


gi-ipmg, 

falling to the leeward. 


Di'ndrai 


heeling. 




di'mbrai 


rolling. 






UNDBI. XL. 




The six differences undo 


this 




Genus. 





U'NDROO, religion. -» 
U'MBROO, atheism. | 

U'XDROIZ, ecclesiastical per-"^ 

sons. L 

U'MBEOI, laity. j 

U'NDEOZ, persons according to 
their religous states. 

U'NDEA, worship. 
U'MBEA, superstition. 
LU'NDEA, profaneness. 
U'NDEIL, ecclesiastical discipline. 
U'NDEAIZ, institutions. 



3SS. J 



The first difference. 

U'NDROO, religion. 
U'MBEOO, atheism. 

The five species under it. 
Pu'ndroo, Natural religion. 
Fu'ndroo, Paganism. 
Tu'ndroo, Judaism. 
Ku'ndroo, Christianity. 
Bu'ndroo, IMoha'mraedajiism. 



GENUS XL. U'NDRI. 



GENUS XL. U'NDRL 



GENUS XL. U'NDRL 



The second difference. 
U'NDROIZ, ecclesiastical persons. 
U'MBROI, laity. 

The seven species wider it. 
Pii'ndroi, pati-iarch, (Jewish,) 
pu'mbroi, prophet. 
Fu'ndi'oi, priest, 
fii'mbroi, levite. 
Tu'ndroi, apostle, 
tu'mbroi, evangehst. 
Ku'iidroi, pope, 
ku'mbroi, cardinal. 
Bu'ndi'oi, patriarch, (of Constanti- 
nople, &c.) 
Vu'ndroi, primate, 
vu'mbroi, bishop. 
Dn'ndroi, presbyter, 
du'mbroi, deacon. 
Gu'ndroi, regular, 
gu'inbroi, penitent. 
Tu'ndroi, monk or nun, 
tu'mbroi, hermit. 

The third difference. 
U'NDROZ, persons according to 
their religious states. 
The six sjiecies under it. 
Pu'ndro, orthodox, 
pn'mbro, heretic. 
Fu'ndro, catholic, 
fu'mbro, schismatic. 



Tu'ndro, confessor. 
Ku'ndro, martyr, 
ku'mbro, persecutor. 
Bu'ndro, sahit, 
bu'mbro, scandalous person. 
Vu'ndro, convert, 
vu'mbro, apostate. 



The fourth difference. 
U'NDRA, worship. 
U'MBRA, superstition. 
LU'jS'DRA, profaneness. 

77^6 nine species under it. 
Pu'ndra, prayer, 
pu'mbra, vow. 
Fu'ndra, confession, 
fu'mbra, petition. 
Tu'ndra, thanksgiving, 
tu'mbra, psalm. 
Ku'ndra, preaching, 
ku'mbra, catechising. 
Bu'ndra, festivity, 
bu'mbra, fasting. 
Vu'ndra, marriage, 
vu'mbra, divorce. 
Du'ndra, churching. 
Gu'ndra, confirmation. 
Tu'ndra, burial, 
tu'mbra, burial in the earth, 
twu'ndra, entombing, 
twu'mbra, embalmiu;;'. 



The Jifth diffen-e)ice. 

U'NDRIL, ecclesiastical discipline 

The five species under it. 

Pu'ndri, consecration, 
pu'mbri, profanation. 
Fu'ndri, ordination, 
fu'mbri, deprivation. 
Tu'ndri, censure. 
Ku'ndri, suspension. 
Bu'n dri , excommunication, 
bu'nibri, absolution. 



Tlte sixth difference. 
U'NDRAIZ, institutions. 

The six species under it. 

Pu'ndrai, scripture, 
pu'mbrai, tradition. 
Fu'ndrai, oblation. 
Tu'ndrai, sacrifice, 
tu'mbrai, incense. 
Ku'ndrai, sacrament. 
Bu'ndrai, circumcision, 
bu'mbrai, passover. 
Vu'ndi-ai, baptism, 
vu'mbrai, eucharist. 



47 



GRAMMAR. 



Part two, commencing at page 3 and ending at page 47, exhibits all the Elementary Substantives* of 
the Philosophic Language, whether generic, diiFerential, or special. These are the Roots from which all 
the other parts of speech spring. Now there are forty generic noims at page 4, namely, I. O'NDI, 
II. A'NDI, &c. Each of these forty words, is subject to variation in its form, to express number, gender, 
case, and many other accidents of words ; and the student will now, once for all obsei've, that every one of 
the forty Genera is subject to the same law of vicissitude as every other; so that if he carefully considers 
the model of the first genus, O'NDI, he may, with ease, apply the law to every other genus. 

The small figures which rise above the text, ( such as "and'," " now"," &c, ) refer always to the sec- 
tional niunbers between brackets. See below : [ § 1 ] [ § 2 ]. 



PART III. 

GENERIC FORMS. 
We now propose, to conjugate the fii'st generic noun, O'NDI: that is, to exhibit the changes of 
termination to which this word is subject, in forming from it, adverbs, verbs, and adjectives; and in express- 
ing tense, uiunber, gender, &c., &c. 

CHAPTER I. 



THE GENEEIC FORMS. 







ABSOLUTE. 




Genus I.— O'NDI. 


[§1] 

Now 


The Four Parts of 
, Adverb, 


Speech :— 
Verb, 


O'udi 


Oi 

Present, 


idu. 


O'nti, 




Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndi, 
o'ndu, 
o'nti, 
o'ntu, 


o'ndikil, 
o'ndukil, 
o'ntikil, 
o'ntukil, 


o'ndikin, 
o'ndukin. 
o'ntikin. 
o'ntukin.; 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndiko 
o'nduko, 
o'ntiko, 
o'ntuko, 


o'ndikel, 
o'ndukel, 
o'ntikel, 
o'ntukel. 


o'ndiken, 
o'nduken, 
o'ntiken, 
o'ntuken. 




Pr&ient, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndikoo, 
o'ndukoo 
o'ntikoo, 
o'ntukoo. 


o'ndikool, 
o'ndukoo: 
o'ntikool, 
o'ntukool 


o'ndikoon, 

, o'ndulcoon, 

o'ntikoon, 

o'ntukoon. 



O'ntu. 



■ Neutral. 



Active. 



Passive. 



DEPENDENT. 
Genus I.— O'NDIKI. 
[ § 2 ] The Four Parts of Speech :— 

Noun. Adverb. Verb. Adjective. 

O'ndiki, O'nduki, O'ntiki, O'ntuki. 



Noun, 

Adverb, 

Verb, 



Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, _ 
Adjective. 



Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 



Present, 

o'ndiki, 

o'nduki, 

o'ntiki, 

o'ntuki, 

Present, 
o'ndikai, 
o'ndukai, 
o'ntikai, 
o'ntukai, 

Present, 
o'ndikoi, 
o'ndukoi, 
o'ntikoi, 
o'ntukoi, 



Past, 
o'ndikil, 
o'ndukil, 
o'ntikil, 
o'ntukil. 

Past, 
o'ndikail, 
o'ndukail, 
o'ntikail, 
o'ntukail, 

PaM, Future. 

o'ndikoil, o'ndikoin, "1 
o'ndukoil, o'ndukoin, „ 
o'utikoil, o'ntikoin, K«««^^- 
o'ntukoil, o'ntukoin. 



Future. 
o'ndikin, 
o'ndukin, 
o'ntikin, 
o'utuldn. 

Future. 
o'ndikain, 
o'ndukain, 
o'ntikain, 
o'ntukain. 



■ Neutral. 



■ Active. 



* See Note A. 

48 



CHAPTER 11. 



GENERIC FORMS.— COMPARA TIVE .-—Neutral. 





ABSOLUTE. 






DEPENDENT. 






Gem 
Comparath 


s I.-0'x\DI. 


—As, &c. 


[§4] 


Genus I.— O'NDIKI. 

Comparatives of Equality: 




[§3] 


es of Equality : 


—As, die. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Prese7it, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 


o'udika, 


ondlkal, 


o'ndikan, 


Noun, 


o'lidlkra, 


o'ndikral, 


o'ndlkran, 


Adverb., 


o'ndiika, 


o'udukld, 


o'ndukau, 


Adverb, 


o'ndukra, 


o'udukrai, 


o'ndukran, 


Verb, 


o'ntlka, 


o'ntikiil, 


o'liilkau, 


Verb, 


o'ntikra, 


o'nlikral, 


o'ntlkrau, 


Adjective. 


o'nluka, 


o'utukal, 


o'ntidian. 


Adjective. 


o'ntukra, 


o'lUukral, 


o'ntukran. 


[§5] 


Comparatives of Equality 


-6'o, (£'c. 


[§6] 


Comparatives 


of Equality: 


—So, &c. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 


o'liflika'?, 


ondikn'lls, 


oiidika'nis, 


Noun, 


o'ndikras, 


ondlkra'lis, 


ondikra'nis. 


Adverb, 


o'liildkas, 


ondidca'lls, 


ondidca'uls, 


Adverb, 


o'ndukras, 


ondukra'lis, 


ondukra'nls, . 


Verb, 


oullkas, 


ontika'lls, 


outika'nls, 


Verb, 


o'ntikras, 


ontlkra'lls, 


ontikra'nis. 


Adjective. 


o'ntukas, 


outuka'lls, 


ontidvu'nis. 


Adjective. 


o'ntukras, 


ontukra'lls, 


ontukra'nis. 


[§7] C 


ompanitlves 


of Superiority 


■.—More, &c. 


[§8] 


Comparative 


of Supcriori 


iy.—More, <fcc. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Preseyit, 


Past, 


Future, 


Noun, 


o'liflikou, 


o'ndik.,ul, 


o'ndlkoun, 


Noun, 


o'ndikrou, 


o'ndikroul, 


o'ndikroun, 


Adverb, 


o'ndukou, 


o'ndukoul, 


o'lidnkiiun, 


Adverb, 


o'n<lukrou, 


o'lidukroul, 


o'ndukroun, 


Verb, 


o'ntikou, 


.,'ntlkoul, 


o'mikoun, 


Verb, 


o'niikrou, 


o'nllkroul, 


o'ntlkroun. 


Adjective. 


o'ntukiju, 


outukoul, 


o'ntukoun. 


Adjective. 


o'ntukrou, 


o'ntukroui, 


o'ntukroun. 


[§9] 


Comparatives of Supcrioi 


ity -.—Most, &c. 


[§10] 


Comparatives of Superior! 


ij:—Most, &c. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 


o'lifllkoits, 


ondik.ui'lls 


ondikou'nis, 


Noun, 


o'ndikrous, 


ondikrou'lis, 


ondlkrou'nls, 


Adverb, 


o'ndukoiis, 


ondukou'Iis, 


ondukou'nis, 


Adverb, 


o'lulukrous, 


ondukrou'lis 


ondukrnu'iils, 


Verb, 


o'ntikou s, 


ontikou'lis, 


ontlkou'nls, 


Verb, 


o'ntlkrous, 


oulikrou'lls, 


ontlkrou'nls. 


Adjective. 


o'ntukous, 


ontukou'lls, 


ontukon'nis. 


Adjective. 


o'ntukrous, 


ontukrou'lls, 


ontukrou'nis. 


[§11] 


Comparatives of Infcriorl 


y : — Less, &c. 


[§12] 


Comparatives of Inferiority:— if ss, d'r. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 


o'ndlkau, 


o'ndlkaul, 


o'ndikaun, 


A'oun, 


o'ndikrau, 


o'ndikraul, 


o'ndikrauii, 


Adverb, 


o'ndukau, 


o'ndukaul, 


o'ndukaun, 


Adverb, 


o'ndnkrau, 


o'ndukraul, 


(iiidukrauu, 


Verb, ^ 


o'litikau, 


o'nlikaul, 


o'ntlkaim, 


V,rb, ' 


o'ntlkrau, 


o'ntlkraul, 


(I'utikraiui, 


Adjective. 


o'ntukau, 


o'utukaul, 


o'ntukaun. 


Adjective. 


o'ntukrau, 


o'ntukraul, 


o'nuikraun. 


[§13] 


Comparatives of Inferiority: — Least, &c. 


[§14] 


Comparatives of Inferiority: — Least, dx 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 


o'ndlkaus, 


ondikau'lis, 


ondlkau'nis, 


Noun, 


o'ndikraus, 


ondikrau'lis, 


ondikrau'nis, 


Adverb, 


o'ndukaus, 


ondukau'lis, 


(indukau'uls, 


1 Adverb, 


o'ndukraus, 


„ndukraur.s 


ondukrau'nis 


Verb, 


o'ntlkaus, 


- ontlkau'lis, 


ontlkau'nis, 


Verb, 


o'ullkraus, 


ontikrau'lls, 


ontlkrau'nis. 


Adjective. 


o'ntukaus, 


ontukau'lis, 


outukau'nis. 


Adjective 


o'ntukraus, 


ontukraulls, 


ontukrau'nis. 



49 



CHAPTER III. 







GENERIC FORMS.— CAUSAL. 








ABSOLUTE. 






DEPENDENT. 






Genus I.— O'NDI. 






Genus I 


— O'XDIKI. 




[§15] 


Xeutro-actlve. 




[§16] 


Neutro-active. 






Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Fast, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
V^b, 
Adjective. 


ondikost, 
o'ndukost, 
o'ntikost, 
o'ntiikost, 


o'ndikolt, 
o'ndukolt, 
o'ntikolt, 
o'ntukolt, 


o'ndikont, 
o'ndukont, 
o'ntikont, 
o'ntukont. j 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndikrost, 
o'ndukrost, 
o'ntikrost, 
o'ntukrost, 


o'ndilvrot, 
o'udukrot, 
o'ntikrot, 
o'ntukrot, 


o'ndikront. 
o'ndukront, 
o'utikront, 
o'ntukront. 


[§17] 


Xeutro-passive. 




[§18] 


Neutro-passive. 






Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndikaust, 
o'ndukaust, 
o'ntikaust, 
o'ntukaust, 


o'ndikault, 
o'ndukaiilt, 
o'ntikaiilt, 
o'ntukault, 


o'ndLkaimt, 
o'ndukaimt, 
o'ntikaunt, 
o'ntukaunt. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'udikraust, 
o'ndiikraust, 
o'ntikraiist, 
o'ntukraust, 


o'ndikraut, 
o'ndukraut, 
o'ntikraut, 
o'ntukraut, 


o'ndikraunt. 
o'ndukraunt, 
o'ntikraunt, 
o'ntukrauut. 


[§19] 


Activo-active. 




[§20] 


Activo-active. 






Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


oindikast, 
o'ndukast, 
o'ntikast, 
o'ntiikast, 


o'ndikalt, 
o'ndukalt, 
o'ntikalt, 
o'ntukalt, 


o'ndikant, 
o'udnkant, 
o'ntikant, 
o'ntukaut. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndikrast, 
o'ndukrast, 
o'ntikrast, 
o'ntukrast. 


o'ndikrat, 
o'ndukrat, 
o'ntikrat, 
o'ntukrat. 


o'Ddikrant, 

o'ndukrant, 
o'ntikrant, 
o'ntukrant. 


[§21] 


Act 


vo-passive. 




[§22] 


Activo-passive. 






Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective 


o'ndikast, 
o'ndukast, 
o'ntikast, 
o'utukast. 


o'ndikalt, 
o'ndukalt, 
o'ntikalt, 
o'ntukalt, 


o'ndikant, 
o'ndukant, 
o'ntikant, 
ontukant. 


Notm, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndikrast, 
o'ndukrast, 
o'ntikrast, 
o'ntukrast, 


o'ndikrat, 
o'ndukrat, 
o'ntikrat, 
o'ntukrat. 


o'ndikrant, 
o'ndukrant, 
o'ntikrant, 
o'ntukrant. 


[§23] 


Passivo-active. 




[§24] 


Pass 


ivo-active. 






Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective 


o'udikest, 
o'ndukest, 
o'ntikest, 
o'ntiikest, 


o'ndikelt, 
o'ndukelt, 
o'ntikelt, 
o'ntukelt, 


o'ndikent, 
o'ndukent, 
o'ntikont, 
o'utukent. 


Noun, 

Adverb, 

Verb, 

\ Adjective 


o'ndikrest, 
o'nduki-cst, 
o'ntikrest, 
o'utukrcst, 


o'ndikret, 
o'ndukret, 
ontikret, 
outuki-et, 


o'ndikront. 
o'ndukront, 
(I'ntikront, 
o'ntukrent. 


[§25] 


Passive-passive. 




l![§26] 


Passivo-passive. 






Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


! 


Present, 


Pa.it, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective 


o'ndikaist, 
o'ndukaist, 
o'ntikaist, 
ontiikaist, 


o'ndikailt, 
o'ndukailt, 
o'ntikailt, 
o'ntukailt, 


o'ndlkaint, 
o'ndukaint, 
o'ntikaint, 
o'utidiaint. 


Norm, 

Adverb, 

Verb, 

\\Adjectice. 


o'ndikraist, 
o'ndukraist, 
o'ntikraist, 
ontukraist, 


o'ndikrait, 
o'udukrait, 
o'ntikrait, 
o'ntukrait, 


o'ndikraint, 
ondukraint, 
o'ntikraint, 
o'ntukraint. 



50 



PART lY. 



DIFFEBENTIAL FORMS. 

At present, we have had to treat only of Generic forms ; we now proceed to lay down the laws by 
wliich the Differential forms are derived from the Generic, as well as the laws by which they are varied to 
express other grammatical objects and relations. 



CHAPTER I. 

Derivation of DIFFERENTIAL Nouns from GENERIC. 



[§27] 

The first column of the Table under this head exhibits, at one view, the forty generic nomis which are 
to be found at page 4. 

Opposite each of these genera, in one line, will be seen the six Differential Nouns derived from tlioir 
genus. 

It will be observed, that the terminations of each six Differential Nouns exactly correspond with every 
other six in the table ; and that they are formed fi-om their particular genus, by cutting off the vowel /, 
from that genus, and suffixing respectively, oo, oi, g, a, il, and ai, in its place. 



[28§] 



TABLE. 



Generic Nouns. 




The 


Six Differential Nouns. 




1. O'NDI, 


O'ndoo, 


O'ndoi, 


O'ndo, 


O'nda, 


O'udil, 


O'ndai. 


2. A'NDI, 


A'ndoo, 


A'ndoi, 


A'ndo, 


A'nda, 


A'ndil, 


A'ndai. 


3. ENDI, 


E'ndoo, 


E'ndoi, 


E'ndo, 


E'nda, 


E'ndil, 


E'ndai. 


4. INDI, 


Ibdoo, 


I'udoi, 


I'ndo, 


I'nda, 


I'ndil, 


I'ndai. 


5. U'NDI, 


U'ndoo, 


U'ndoi, 


U'ndo, 


U'nda, 


U'udil, 


U'ndai. 


6. INZI, 


I'nzoo, 


I'nzoi, 


I'nzo, 


I'nza, 


I'nzil, 


I'nzai. 


7. UNZI, 


U'nzoo, 


U'nzoi, 


U'nzo, 


U'nza, 


U'nzil, 


U'nzai. 


S. U'NJI, 


U'njoo, 


U'njoi, 


U'njo, 


U'nja, 


U'njil, 


U'njai. 


9. U'NZI, 


U'nzoo, 


U'nzoi, 


U'nzo, 


U'nza, 


Unzil, 


U'nzai. 


10. O'MVI, 


O'mvoo, 


Oiuvoi, 


O'mvo, 


O'mva, 


O'mvil, 


O'mvai. 


11. A'MVI, 


A'mvoo, 


A'mvoi, 


A'mvo, 


A'mva, 


A'mvil, 


A'mvai. 


12. E'MVI, 


E'mvoo, 


E'mvoi, 


E'mvo, 


E'mva, 


E'mvil, 


E'mvai. 


13. I'MVI, 


Imvoo, 


I'mvoi, 


I'mvo, 


I'mva, 


I'mvil, 


I'mvai. 


14. U'MVI, 


U'mvoo, 


U'mvoi, 


U'mvo, 


U'mva, 


U'mvil, 


U'mvai. 


15. O'NJI, 


O'njoo, 


O'njoi, 


O'BJO, 


O'nja, 


O'njil, 


O'njai. 


16. A'NJI, 


A'njoo, 


A'njoi, 


A'njo, 
51 


A'nja, 


A'njil, 


A'njai. 



Germ-ic Nouns. 




The Six Differential Nmins. 




17. E'NJI, 


E'njoo, 


E'njoi, 


E'njo, 


E'nja, 


E'njll, 


E'njai. 


IS. IN.TI, 


I'njoo, 


I'njoi, 


I'njo; 


ini-i' 


I'njil, 


Injai. 


19. O'NDI, 


O'ntloo, 


O'ndoi, 


O'ndo, 


Onda, 


O'ndll, 


O'ndai. 


20. A'NDI, 


Abidoo, 


A'ndoi, 


A'ndo, 


A'nda, 


A'ndil, 


Andai. 


21. E'XDI, 


E'ndoo, 


E'ndoi, 


E'ndo, 


E'nda, 


Endil, 


E'ndai. 


22. I'XDI, 


Itdoo, 


I'ndoi, 


I'ndo, 


I'nda, 


I'ndil, 


I'ndai. 


23. U'NDI, 


U^doo, 


U'ndoi, 


U'udo, 


U'nda, 


U'ndil, 


Undai. 


24. O'MBI, 


O'mboo, 


O'mboi, 


O'mbo, 


Omba, 


O'mbil, 


Ombai. 


25. A'MBI, 


A'mboo, 


A'mboi, 


A'mbo, 


A'mba, 


A'mbil, 


A'mbai. 


26. E'MBI, 


E'mboo, 


E'mboi, 


E'mbo, 


Emba, 


E'mbil, 


Embai. 


27. I'MBI, 


I'mboo, 


I'mboi, 


I'mbo, 


I'mba, 


I'mbil, 


I'mbai. 


28. U'MBI, 


U'mboo, 


U'mboi, 


U'mbo, 


U'mba, 


Uinbll, 


U'mbai. 


29. OXZI, 


O'nzoo, 


Oiizoi, 


O'uzo, 


O'nza, 


O'nzil, 


O'nzai. 


30. ANZI, 


A'nzoo, 


A'lizoi, 


A'uzo, 


A'liza, 


Anzd, 


A'nzai. 


31. EXZI, 


E'nzoo, 


E'lizoi, 


E'nzo, 


E'nza, 


E'nzil, 


E'nzai. 


32. rxzi, 


I'nzoo, 


I'nzoi, 


I'llZO, 


I'nza, 


I'nzil, 


I'nzai. 


33. OXZI, 


O'nzoo, 


O'uzoi, 


O'llZO, 


O'nza, 


O'nzil, 


O'nzai. 


34. A'XZI, 


A'nzoo, 


A'lizoi, 


A'lizo, 


A'nza, 


A'nzil, 


Anzai. 


35. EXZI, 


E'nzoo, 


E'nzoi, 


E'nzo, 


Enza, 


E'nzil, 


E'nzai. 


36. OXDEI, 


O'ndroo, 


O'udroi, 


O'ndro, 


O'ndra, 


O'ndril, 


O'ndiai. 


37. AXDRI, 


A'ndroo, 


A'ndi-oi, 


A'ndi-o, 


Aiidra, 


A'ndril, 


Andrai. 


38. E'XDRI, 


E'udi-oo, 


E'ndroi, 


E'udro, 


E'ndra, 


E'udril, 


E'ndrai. 


39. I'XDRI, 


I'udroo, 


I'ndroi, 


I'ndro, 


I'lidra, 


I'ndril, 


I'ndrai. 


40. U'XDRI, 


U'ndi-oo, 


U'ndroi, 


U'ndro, 


Undi-a, 


U'ndi-il, 


U'udrai. 



CHAPTEE 11. 

Derivation of DIFFERENTIAL Adverbs, Verbs, and Adjectives, from DIFFEEENTIAL Noum. 



Tbc preceding Chapter shows how the Differential Nouns are derived from the Gmeric. Having 
thus obtained the Differential Nouns, we, in the following table, shew how those Xouns are converted 
into Differential Adverbs, Verbs, and Adjectives. The terminations of the following table are confined to 
derivations from the first genus, ONDI; but the same analogy, -Nvithout exception, applies to the other 
39 Genera. 



29] 






TABLE. 


Differences. 


Differential Nouns. 


Differential Adverbs. 


'First 


O'ndoo, 




O'lidm-, 


Second 


O'ndoi, 




O'ndou, 


Third 


Ondo, 




O'ndi, 


Fourth 


O^di, 




O'ndmi, 


Fifth 


O^dil, 




O'ndul, 


Sixth 


O'ndai, 




O'ndus, 



Differential Verbs. Differential Adjectives. 

O'ntoo, I O'ntur. 

O'ntoi, O'ntou. 

O'nto, Onti. 

Ontin, ' Onta. 

Ontil, Ontul. 

O'ntis, O'ntai. 



52 



[ § 30 ] All the Differential parts of speech, whether nouns, adverhs, vei-hs, or adjectives, oftlie Present 
tense, have one or other of the above terminations ; and it would be well, if the student would read over 
the Dijferences which appear in the printed tables from page 5 to 47 inclusive, and which he will easily 
distinguish by observing that they are all printed in Eoman Capitals. 

We now proceed to furnish models of the conjugation of the six Differences, whether absolute or 
dependent. 



CHAPTER III. 



[§31] 



Tlie 





ABSOLUTE. 






DEPENDENT. 






Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndoo, 
o'ndur, 
o'ntoo, 
o'ntur, 


o'ndipil, 
o'ndiipil, 
o'ntipil, 
o'ntupll, 


o'ndipin, 
o'ndupin, 
o'ntipin, 
o'ntupin. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndipi, 
o'ndupi, 
o'ntipi, 
o'ntupi, 


o'ndipil, 
o'ndupil, 
o'ntipil, 
o'ntupil, 


o'ndipin, 
o'ndupin, 
o'ntipin, 
o'ntupin. 


[§32] 






First Difference:— Active. 








Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndipo, 
o'ndupo, 
o'ntipo 
o'ntupo, 


o'ndipel, 
o'ndnp-ol, 
o'ntipel, 
o'ntupel. 


o'ndipen, 
o'ndupen, 
o'ntipen, 
o'ntupen. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndipai, 
o'ndupai, 
o'ntipai, 
o'ntupai, 


o'ndipail, 
o'ndupail, 
o'ntipail, 
o'ntupail, 


o'ndipain, 
o'ndupain, 
o'ntipain, 
o'utupain. 


[§33] 






First Difference : — Passive. 








Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndipoo, 
o'ndupoo, 
o'ntipoo, 
o'ntupoo. 


o'ndipool, 
o'ndupool, 
o'ntipool, 
o'ntupool. 


o'ndipoon, 
o'ndupoou, 
o'ntipoon, 
o'ntupoon. 


Noun. 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndipoi, 
o'ndupoi, 
o'ntipoi, 
o'ntupoi. 


o'ndipoil, 
o'ndupoil, 
o'ntipoil, 
o'ntupoil. 


o'ndipoin, 
o'ndupoin, 
o'ntipoin, 
o'ntupoin, 


[§34] 




The 


SECOND DIFI 


^ERENCE 


\- — Neutral. 








ABSOLUTE. 






DEPENDENT. 






Preseiit, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


O'ndoi, 
o'ndou, 
o'ntoi, 
o'ntou, 


o'ndlfil, 
o'ndufil, 
o'ntitil, 
o'ntutil. 


o'ndifin, 
o'ndufin, 
o'ntifin, 
o'ntulin. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndifi, 
o'ndufi, 
o'ntifi, 
o'utuii. 


o'ndlfil, 
o'ndufil, 
o'ntifij, 
o'ntufil, 


o'nditi.n, 
o'ndufin, 
o'ntifin, 
o'ntufin. 


[§35] 






Second Differ 


ence : — Active. 








Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndifo, 
o'ndufo, 
o'ntifo, 
o'ntufo, 


o'ndifel, 
o'ndufcl, 
o'ntifel, 
o'ntufel, 


o'ndifen, 
o'ndufen, 
o'ntifen, 
o'ntufen. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndifai, 
o'ndufai, 
o'ntifai, 
o'ntufai, 


o'ndifail, 
o'ndufail, 
o'ntifail, 
o'ntufail, 


o'ndifain, 
o'ndufain, 
o'ntifiiiu, 
o'ntufai n. 


[§36] 






Second Differ 


ence : — Passive. 








Present, 


PaM, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndifoo, 
o'ndufoo, 
o'ntifoo, 
o'ntufoo, 
P 


o'ndifool, 
o'ndufool, 
o'ntifool, 
o'ntufool, 


o'ndifoon, 
o'ndufoon, 
o'ntifoon, 
o'ntufoon. 

5 


Noun, 

Adverb, 

Verb, 

Adjective. 

3 


o'ndifoi, 
o'ndufoi, 
o'ntlfoi, 
o'ntufoi, 


o'ndifoij, 
o'ndufoil, 
o'ntifoil, 
o'ntufoil, 


o'ndifoin, 
o'ndufoin, 
o'ntifoin, 
o'ntufoin. 



[§37] 



The THIRD DIFFERENCE:— Neutral. 





ABSOLUTE. 






DEPEXDENT. 






Present, 


Past, _ 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'mbo* 
o'mbi, 
o'mp2, 
o'mpi, 


o'mbitil, 
o'mbutil, 
o'mpitil, 
o'mputil, 


o'mbitin, 
o'liibutin, 
o'liipitin, 
o'mputin. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'mbiti, 
o'mbutj, 
o'mpiti, 
o'mputi. 


o'mbitil, 
ombutil, 
o'mpitil, 
o'mputil, 


o'mbitin, 
o'mbutin, 
o'mpitin, 
o'mputin. 


[§38] 






Tltird Difference : — Active. 








Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'mbito, 
o'mbuto, 
o'mpito, 
o'mputo, 


o'mbitel, 
o'mbutel, 
o'mpitel, 
o'mputel, 


o'mbiten, 
o'mbuten, 
o'mpiten, 
o'mputen. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, _ 
Adjective. 


o'mbitai, 
o'mbutai, 
o'mpitai, 
o'mputai, 


o'mbitail, 
o'mbutail, 
o'mpitail, 
o'mputail, 


o'mbitain, 
o'mbutain, 
o'mpitain, 
o'mputain. 


[§39] 






Third Difference : — Passive. 








Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'mbitoo, 
o'mbutoo, 
o'mpitoo, 
o'mputoo, 


o'mbltool, 
o'mbutool, 
o'mpltool, 
o'mputool, 


o'mbitoon, 
o'mbutoon, 
o'mpitoon, 
o'mputoon. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'mbitoi, 
o'mbutoi, 
o'mpitoi, 
o'mputoi, 


o'mbitoil, 
o'mbutoil, 
o'mpitoil, 
o'mputoil, 


o'mbitoin, 
o'mbutoin, 
o'mpitoin, 
o'mputoin. 



[§40] 



The FOURTH DIFFERENCE .—Neutral. 





ABSOLUTE. 






DEPENDENT. 






Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'nda, 
o'ndun, 
o'ntin, 
o'nta, 


o'ndinil, 
o'ndunil, 
o'ntinil, 
o'ntimil, 


o'ndinin, 
ondimin, 
o'ntinin, 
o'ntuuin. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndini, 
o'nduni, 
o'utini, 
o'ntuni, 


o'ndinil, 
o'ndunil, 
o'ntinif, 
outuuil. 


o'ndinin, 
o'nd'unin, 
o'ntinin, 
ontimin. 


[§41] 






Fourth Differ 


ence : — Act 


ive. 






Noun, 
Adverb, 
lerb, 
Adjective. 


Present, 
o'ndino, 
o'ndimo, 
o'ntino, 
o'ntimo, 


Past, 
o'ndinel, 
o'ndunel, 
o'ntinel, 
ontuiiel, 


Future. 

o'udinen, 

o'ndunen, 

o'ntineu, 

o'utimen. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


Present, 
o'ndinai, 
o'udunai, 
o'ntinai, 
o'ntunai, 


Past, 
o'ndinail, 
o'ndunail, 
o'ntinail, 
ontuuail, 


Future. 

o'lidinain, 
o'ndunaiii, 
o'ntinain, 
o'ntimain. 


[§42] 






Fourth Differ 


ence : — Passive. 








Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ndinoo, 
o'ndimoo, 
o'ntinoo, 
o'ntimoo, 


o'ndinool, 
o'ndimool, 
o'ntinool, 
o'ntunool. 


o'ndinoon, 
o'ndunoon, 
o'ntinoon, 
o'ntunoon. 


Noun, 
Adverb, 
Verb, _ 
Adjective. 


o'ndinoi, 
o'ndunoi, 
ontinoi, 
o'ntimoi, 


o'ndmoil, 
o'ndimoil, 
ontinoil, 
o'ntimoil, 


o'ndinoin, 
o'ndimoin, 
o'ntinoin, 
o'ntimoin. 



* OMBI, is the 24th Genus, and not the 1st. It is here used to avoid a departure from the 
law which regulates the terminations of the words. ONDI, would have required the introduction of the 
letter v, where tn-o tez came together, as in O'ntitil, O'ntutil, &c; which, for the sake of euphony, would 
have been rendered O'ntit-il, Ontuiil, &c. 

54 



[§43] 




T/ie FIFTH DIFFERENCE 


: — Neutral 








ABSOLUTE. 






DEPENDENT. 






Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 


o'ndil, 


o'ndibil,t 


o'lidibin, 


Noun, 


o'ndibi, 


o'ndibil, 


o'ndibin, 


Adverb. 


o'ndul, 


o'ndubil, 


o'ndubin, 


Adverb, 


o'ndiibi, 


o'ndubil, 


o'ndubin, 


Verb, 


o'ntil, 


o'ntibil, 


o'ntibiii, 


Verb, _ 


o'ntibi, 


o'ntibil, 


o'ntibin, 


Adjective. 


o'utul, 


o'utubil, 


o'ntubm. 


Adjective. 


o'ntubi, 


o'utubil, 


o'utubiu. 


[§44] 






Fifth Difference:— Active. 








Frese7>f, 


Past, 


Future, 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 


o'ndibo, 


o'ndibel, 


o'ndiben, 


Noun, 


o'ndibai, 


o'ndibail, 


o'ndibain, 


Adverb, 


o'ndubo, 


o'ndnbel, 


o'nduben, 


Adverb, 


o'ndubai, 


o'ndiibail, 


o'ndiibain, 


Verb, 


o'ntlbo, 


o'ntibel, 


o'ntiben, 


Verb, _ 


o'utibai, 


o'ntibail, 


o'ntibabi. 


Adjective. 


o'ntubo, 


o'ntubel, 


o'ntuben. 


Adjective. 


o'utubai, 


o'ntubail, 


o'ntubain. 


[§45] 






Fifth Difference : — Passive. 








Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 


o'ndiboo, 


o'ndibool, 


o'udiboon, 


Noun, 


o'lidiboi, 


o'udiboil, 


o'ndiboin, 


Adverb, 


o'nduboo, 


o'ndubool, 


o'nduboon, 


Adverb, 


o'nduboi, 


o'nduboil. 


o'nduboin, 


Verb, ' 


o'ntiboo, 


o'ntibool, 


o'ntiboon, 


Verb, _ 


o'ntiboi. 


o'ntiboil. 


o'utiboin, 


Adjective. 


o'ntuboo, 


o'ntubooi, 


o'ntuboon. 


Adjective. 


o'ntuboi, 


o'utuboil, 


o'ntuboin. 


[§46] 




The 


SIXTH DIFF 


EPiENCE 


—Neutral. 








ABSOLUTE. 






DEPENDENT. 






Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 


o'udai* 


o'ndigil, 


o'lidigin, 


Noun, 


o'ndigi, 


o'ndigil, 


o'ndigin, 


Adverb, 


o'ndus, 


o'ndugii, 


o'ndvigiu, 


Adverb, 


o'ndugi, 


o'ndugii, 


o'ndiigin, 


Verb, 


o'ntis, 


o'ntigil, 


o'litigin, 


Verb, 


o'ntigi, 


o'ntigil, 


o'ntigin, 


Adjective. 


o'ntai, 


o'utugil, 


o'litiigm. 


Adjective. 


o'utugi, 


o'ntugil, 


o'utugin. 


[§47] 






Sixth Differe 


nee : — Active. 








Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 


o'ndigo, 


o'ndigel, 


o'ndigen, 


Noun, 


o'ndigai, 


o'ndigail, 


o'ndigain, 


Adverb, 


o'ndugo, 


o'ndugel, 


o'ndugen, 


Adverb, 


o'lidugai, 


o'ndugail. 


o'udugain, 


Verb, 


o'ntigo, 


o'ntigel, 


o'ntigen, 


Verb, 


o'ntigai, 


o'ntigail, 


o'utigain, 


Adjective. 


o'ntugo, 


o'ntugel, 


o'ntugen. 


Adjective. 


o'ntugai, 


o'ntugail, 


o'ntugaiu. 


[§48] 






Sixth Differe 


nee: — Passive. 








Present, 


Past, 


Future. 




Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Noun, 


o'ndigoo, 


o'udigool, 


o'ndigoon, 


Noun, 


o'ndigoi, 


o'ndigoil, 


o'ndigoin, 


Adverb, 


o'udugoo, 


o'ndugool, 


o'udugoon, 


Adverb, 


o'lulugoi, 


o'ndugoil, 


o'ndugoin. 


Verb, 


o'ntigoo, 


o'ntigool, 


o'ntigoon, 


Verb, _ 


o'ntigoi, 


o'ntigoil. 


o'ntigoin, 


Adjective. 


o'ntugoo, 


o'ntugool, 


o'ntugoon. 


Adjective. 


o'ntugoi, 


o'litugoil, 


o'ntugoin. 



* This form admits of the substitution of s mstead of ^ throughout; the g being chiefly required in the 
Causal and Comjmrative fonns dependent. This Is purely a matter of taste. When O'ndai or O'ntai termi- 
nates a clause or sentence, the form is changed from O'ndai or O'ntai, to O'ndis or O'ntis. O'ndai and 
O'ntai are usually followed by some additional syllable, as Ondai'kyu, Oadai'kwi, ondai'twi; ontai'kyu, 
ontai'kwi, ontai'twi. 

t -S is used only when the difference, per se, is used; but when converted into a sjtecies, the letter I- is 
inserted and not b, as pondiAIl, not pondiJil, itc. 

55 



CHAPTER lY. 

DIFFERENTIAL FORMS.— COMPARA TIVE •.—Neutral. 



[§49] 


ABSOLUTE. 
Present, Past, 


FIRST DIFFEEEXCE* 

DEPENDENT. 
Comparatives of Equality. 
Future. Present, Past, Future. 




Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntipa, 
o'ntupa, 


o'ntipal, 
o'ntupal, 


o'litipan, 
o'utupan, 


o'ntipra, o'ntipral, 
o'ntupra, o'utiipral, 


o'utipran, 
o'ntupran. 


\As, d-c. 


Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntipas, 
o'ntupas, 


ontlpa'lis, 
ontupalis, 


ontipa'nis, i 
ontupa'iiis, j 


o'ntipras, ontlpra'lis, 
ontupras, ontupra'lis, 


ontipra'nis, 
ontupra'uis. 


XSo, &c. 


[§50] 


Present, 


Past, 


Comparatives 
Future. 


of Superiority. 
Present, Past, 


Future. 




Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntipou, 
oiitiipou, 


o'ntipoul, 
o'litupoul, 


o'ntipoun, 
o'ntupoim, 


o'ntiprou, o'ntiproul, 
o'utuprou, o'utuproul, 


o'utiproun, 
o'ntuproun, 


XMore, dec. 


Verb, _ 
Adjective. 


o'ntipous, 
o'ntupous, 


ontipoivlis, 
outupou'lis, 


ontipoii'nis, i 
ontupou'nis, | 


o'ntiprous, ontiprou'lis, 
o'ntuprous, ontuproulis, 


ontiprounis, 
ontuprounis. 


yMost, d:c. 


[§51] 


Present, 


Past, 


Comparatives of Inferiority. 
Future. Present, Past, 


Future. 




Vm-b, _ 
Adjective. 


o'ntipau, 
o'litupau, 


o'ntipaul, 
o'utiipaul, 


o'utipaim, 
o'utupaun, 


o'ntiprau, o'ntipraul, 
o'ntuprau, o'ntupraul, 


o'ntipraun, 
o'ntiipraun. 


>Less, cfcc. 


Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntipaus, 
o'utupaus, 


ontipaii'lis, 
ontupaulis, 


ontipau'nis, 1 
ontupauiiis, ] 


o'ntipraus, ontiprau'lis, 
o'ntupraus, ontuprau'lis, 


ontiprau'nis, 
ontuprauuis. 


I- Least, &c. 


[§52] 


ABSOLUTE. 
Present, Past, 


SECOND DIFFEEEXCE * 

DEPENDENT 
Comparatives of Equality. 
Future. Present, Past, Future. 




Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntii'a, 
o'ntufa, 


o'ntifal, 
o'ntufal, 


o'ntifan, 
o'ntiifan, 


o'ntifra, o'ntifral, 
o'ntufra, o'ntufral, 


o'ntifran, 
o'utufran. 


Xas, d-c. 


Verb, _ 
Adjective. 


o'ntifas, 
o'utufas, 


oiitifa'lis, 
ontuta'lis, 


o'litifa'nis, 
ontufa'ais, 


o'ntifras, ontifra'lis, 
o'ntufras, outufraiis, 


ontifi-a'nis, 
ontufra'uis. 


I So, dr. 


[§53]_ 


Present, 


Past, 


Comparatives of Superiority. 
Future. Present, Past, 


Future. 




Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntifou, 
o'ntufou, 


o'ntifoul, 
o'ntiifoiil, 


o'ntifoun, 
o'ntufoun, 


o'ntifrou, o'ntifroul, 
o'ntufrou, o'ntufroul, 


o'ntifroun, 
o'utufromi. 


> More, &c. 


Verb, _ 
Adjective. 


o'ntifous, 
o'ntufous, 


ontifou'lis, 
ontufou'lis, 


ontifou'nis, 1 
ontufou'uis, 


1 o'ntifrous, ontifrou'lis, 
o'ntufrous, o'ntufrou'lis, 


ontifrou'nis, 
ontufi-ou'nis. 


>Most, dr. 


[§54] 


Present, 


Past, 


Comparatives 
Future. 


1 of Inferiority. 

Present, Past, 


Future. 




Adjective. 


o'ntifau, 
o'litiifau, 


o'ntifaul, 
o'utufaul, 


o'ntifaun, 
o'ntufaun, 


o'ntifrau, o'ntifi'aul, 
o'ntufrau, o'ntiifraul, 


o'ntifraun, 
o'ntufraun. 


I Less, dr. 


Verb, _ 
Adjective. 


o'ntifaus, 
o'ntufaus, 


ontifau'lis, 
ontufau'lis, 


ontifau'nis, i 
ontufau'nis, 


1 o'ntifi-aus, ontifrau'lis, 
o'ntufraus, onUifrau'lis, 


ontifrau'nis, 
ontufrau'nis. 


I- Least, dr. 



* We have here given examples of Verbs and Adjectives onli/. 
56 



[§•55 [ 

Adjective. 

Verb, 
Adjective. 



ABSOLUTE. 



Present, 
o'mpita,* 
o'mputa, 

o'lnpltas, 
o'mputas, 



o'mpital, 
o'mputal, 

omplta'lis, 
omputaiis, 



THIRD DIFFERENCE. 

DEPENDENT. 
Comparatives of Equality. 
Future. Present, Past, Future. 



ompitan,. 
o'mpiitaii, 

ompita'iiis, 
omputa'iiis, 



o'mpitra, 
o'mputra, 



o'mpitral, 
o'lnputral, 



o'mpltras, ompitra'lis, 
o'mpiitras, oniputra'lis, 



oinpitran, 
o^mputran. 

ompitra'uis, 
omputra'nis. 



■As, d-c. 



}s. 



dc. 



[§56] 

Verb, 
Adjective. 

Verb, 

Adjective. 



Present, 
o'lnpltou, 
o'mputuu, 

o'uipltous, 
o'mputous, 



Past, 
o'mpitoul, 
o'mputoiil, 

ompitoii'lis, 
oiiiputou'lis, 



Comparatives of Superiority. 



Future. 
o'mpitoun, 
o'luputoun, 

ompitou'ais, 
omputou'nis, 



Present, 

o'mpitrou, 

o'mputrou, 



Past, 

o'mpitroul, 
o'mputroul, 



Future. 

o'mpitroun, 

o'mputrouu. 



\More, 



o'mpltrous, ompitrou'lis. oiiipitrou'nis, ") , 
o'mputrous, omputrou'lis, omputrou'nis. j 



Most, dc. 



[§57] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 

Verb, _ 
Adjective. 



Comparatives of Inferiority. 



Present, 
o'mpitau, 
o'mputau, 

o'mpitaus, 
o'mputaus, 



Past, 
o'mpitaul, 
o'mputaul, 

ompitau'lis, 
omputau'lis, 



Future. 



ompitaun, 
o'mputaun, 



ompitau'iiis, 
omputau'nis, 



Present^ 

o'mpitrau, 

o'mputrau, 

o'mpitraus, 
o'mputrau s, 



Past, 
o'mpitraul, 
o'mputrau!,' 

ompitrau'lis, 
omputrau'lis, 



Future. 
o'mpitraun, } 



o'mputraun. 



Less, cC-c. 



ompiti-au'nis, \^ ^^^ 
omputrau'ms. J 









FOURTH 


DIFFERENCE. 






[§58] 


ABSOLUTE. 

Present, Past, 


DEPENDENT. 
Comparatives of Equality. 
Future. Present, Past, Future. 




Verb, _ 
Adjective. 


o'ntina, 
o'ntima, 


o'ntinal, 
o'utuaal, 


o'ntiuan, 
o'ntmian, 


o'ntima, o'ntimal, 
o'ntuma, o'ntumal, 


o'ntiraan, 
o'utuman. 


}-"■- 


Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntinas, 
o'ntunas, 


ontina'lis, 
ontuna'lis, 


ontina'nis, 
ontmia'nis, 


o'ntimas, ontima'lis, 
1 o'ntumas, ontuma'lis, 


ontiraa'nis, 
ontuma'nis. 


\So, cCr. 


[§59] 


Prese/it, 


Past, 


Comparative 

Future. 


es of Superiority. 

Present, Past, 


Future. 




Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntinou, 
o'ntuuou, 


o'ntiuoul, 
o'utunoul, 


o'ntinoun, 
o'atunoun, 


o'ntimou, o'ritimoul, . 
o'utumou, o'ntumoul, 


o'ntimouu, 
o'utumoun. 


X-More, &c. 


Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntinous, 
o'litunous, 


ontiiiou'lis, 
outuuou'lis, 


ontinou'uis, 
o'ntunou'nis, 


1 o'utimous, ontimou'lis, 
1 o'ntmnous, ontumou'lis, 


ontimou'nis, 
outiuuou'nis. 


ijilost, &c. 


[§60] 


Present, 


Past, 


Comparati\ 
Future. 


•es of Inferiority. 

Present, Past, 


Future. 




Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntinau, 
o'ntunau, 


o'ntinaul, 
o'ntmiaul, 


o'ntinaun, 
o'ntunaun, 


o'ntimau, o'ntimaul, 
o'utumau, o'utumaul, 


o'utimaun, 
o'ntumaun. 


XLcss, &c. 


Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntinaus, 
o'ntunaus, 


ontiuau'lis, 
ontunau'lis, 


ontinau'nis, 
ontunau'nis, 


o'utimaus, ontimau'lis, 
o'ntumaus, ontumau'lis, 


ontimau'nis, 
ontumau'nis. 


'^ Least, &c.. 



See Note, page 54. 



FIFTH DIFFEEEXCE. 



[§61] 


AB, 

Present, 


SOLUTE. 
Past, 


DEPEXDEXT. 
Comparatives of Equality. 
Future. Present, Past, Future. 




Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntiba, 
o'ntuba, 


o'ntibal, 
o'ntubal. 


o'ntiban, 
o'ntuban, 


o'ntibi'a, o'ntibral, 
o'utubra, o'ntubral. 


o'ntibran, 
o'ntubran. 


^As, (tr. 


Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntibas, 
o'ntubas, 


ontlba'lis, 
outubalis. 


ontiba'nis, 1 
ontuba'nis, 1 


o'ntibras, ontibra'lis, 
o'utubras, outubralis, 


ontibra'nis, 
ontubra'nis. 


\ So, d-c. 


[§62] 


Present, 


Past, 


Comparatives 
Future. 


of Superiority. 
Present, Past, 


Future. 




Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntibou, 
o'ntubou, 


o'ntiboiil, 
o'ntuboul, 


o'ntiboim, 
o'ntubomi. 


o'ntibrou, o'ntibroul, 
o'ntubrou, o'utubroul. 


o'ntibroun, 
o'ntubroim. 


1 More, d-c. 


Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntibous, 
o'utubous. 


ontlbou'lis, 
ontubou'lis, 


ontibou'uis, 
outubou'nis, 


o'ntibrous, ontibrou'lis, 
1 o'ntubrous, ontubrou'li:?, 


outibrou'nis, 
ontubrou'uis. 


Most, d-c. 


[§63] 


Present, 


Past, 


Comparatives of Inferiority. 
Future. Present, Past, 


Future. 




Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'utibau, 
o'ntubau, 


o'ntibaul, 
o'utubaul. 


o'ntibaim, 
o'ntubaim. 


o'ntibrau, o'ntibraul, 
o'ntubrau, o'ntubraul. 


o'ntibraun, 
o'ntubraim. 


i Less, d-c. 


Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntibaiis, 
o'utubaus. 


outiban'lis, 
ontubaulis. 


ontibau'nis, 
outubau'uis. 


1 o'ntibraus, ontibrau'Hs, 
o'utubraus, ontubraulis, 


ontibrau'nis, 
ontubrau'nis. 


I Least, dc. 



[§64] 

Verb, 
Adjective. 

Verb, _ 
Adjective. 

[§65] 

Verb, 
Adjective. 

Verb, _ 
Adjective. 

[§66] 

Verb, 
Adjective. 

Verb, 
Adjective. 



ABSOLUTE. 



o'ntiga, 
o'ntuga, 

o'ntigas, 
o'ntugas, 



Present, 
o'ntigou, 
o'ntugou, 

o'ntigous, 
o'ntugous, 



Present, 
o'ntigau, 
o'ntugau, 

o'ntigaus, 
o'ntugaus. 



Past, 
o'litigal, 
o'ntugal, 

ontiga'lis, 
outuga'lis, 



Ptisi, 
o'ntigoul, 
ontugoul, 

ontigou'lis, 
ontugou'lis, 



Past, 
o'ntigaul, 
oiitugaul, 

ontigauiis, 
ontugau'lis, 



SIXTH DIFFEEEXCE. 

DEPEXDEXT. 

Comparatives of Equality. 
Future. Present, Past, Future. 

o'utigan, o'ntigra, o'ntigral 



ontiga'nis, 
ontuga'nis, 



ontugra, 

o'ntigras, 
o'ntugras. 



o'utugral, 

ontigra'lis, 
ontugra'lis. 



Comparatives of Superiority. 
Future. Present, Post, 

o'utigoun, I o'ntigrou, o'ntigroiil, 
o'ntugoim, I o'ntugrou, o'ntugroul. 



o'ntigran, 
o'ntugran. 

ontigra'uis, 
outugra'nis. 



Future. 



ontigroun, 
o'ntuG-roun. 



ontigou'nis, 
ontugou'uis, 



o'ntigrous, ontigrou'lis, ontigrou'nis, 
o'ntugrous, outugroulis, ontugi-ou'uis. 



Comparatives of Inferiority. 

Future. Present, Past, Future. 

o'ntigaun, I o'utigrau, o'ntigi-aul, o'ntigraun. 

o'utugaun, ] o'ntugrau, o'ntugi-aul, o'utugraun, 

ontigau'nis, j o'ntigraus, ontigrau'lis, ontigi'au'nis, 

ontugau'nis, 1 o'litiigraus, ontiigrau'lis, ontugrauuis. 
58 



As, d-c. 
So, dc. 



1 3Iosf, 



.■-Less, ctr. 



CHAPTER V. 

DIFFERENTIAL FORMS:— C A USAL. 

Tlie six Differences vary their terminations not only to express comparison, as in tlie preceding 
chapter, but also to express causation. 



ABSOLUTE. 



[§67] 

Verb, 
Adjective. 
[§68] 
Verb, _ 
Adjective. 

[§69] 

Verb, _ 

Adjective. 

[§70] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 

[§71] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 

[§72] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 



Present, 
o'ntipost, 
o'ntupost, 

o'ntipaust, 
o'ntnpaust. 

Present, 
o'ntipast, 
o'ntupast, 

o'ntipast, 
o'ntupast. 

Present, 
o'ntipest, 
o'ntupest, 

o'ntipaist, 
o'ntupaist, 



Past, 
o'ntipolt, 
o'utupolt, 

o'ntipault, 
o'utupault. 

Past, 
o'utipalt, 
o'utupalt, 

o'ntipalt, 
o'utupalt, 

Past, 
o'ntipelt, 
o'ntupelt, 

o'ntipailt, 
o'utupailt. 



page 50. 
FIRST DIFFERENCE. 

rr , Neutro-active. 

ruture. 

o'ntipont, | Verb, 

o'utupont. I Adjective. 

Neutro-passive. 
o'ntipannt, I Verb. 
o'ntupaunt. \ Adjective. 



DEPENDENT. 

Present, Past, 



o'ntiprost, 
o'ntuprost, 



o'ntiprot,* 
o'ntuprot, 



o'ntipraust, o'ntipraut, 
o'ntupraust, o'ntupraut. 



rr , xictivo-active. 

o'ntipaut, 1 Verb, 

o'ntupant. | Adjective. 

Activo-passivc. 
o'utipant, | Vei-b, 

o'ntupant. | Adjective. 

jp , Passivo-active. 
Mature. 

o'ntipent, 1 Verb, 

o'ntupent. ! Adjective. 

Passivo-passive. 

o'ntipaint, I Verb, 

o'ntupaiut. | Adjective. 



Present, 

o'ntiprast, 

o'utuprast, 

o'ntiprast, 
o'utuprast, 

Present, 

o'ntiprest, 

o'ntuprest, 

o'utipraist, 
o'utupraist, 



Past, 
o'ntitprat, 
o'ntuprat, 

o'ntiprat, 
o'ntuprat. 

Past, 
o'ntipret, 
o'utupret, 

o'utiprait, 
o'ntuprait. 



Future.. 

o'ntipront, 

o'ntupront. 

o'ntipraunt, 
o'ntupraunt. 

Future. 
o'utiprant, 
o'ntuprant. 

o'ntiprant, 
o'ntuprant. 

Future. 
o'ntiprent, 
o'ntuprent. 

o'utipraint, 
o'ntupramt. 



[§73] 

Verb, 
Adjective. 


ABSOLUTE. 

Present, Past, 
o'ntifost, o'utitblt, 
o'utufost, o'ntufolt. 


SECOND DIFFERENCE 
Future. Neutro-active. 
o'ntifont, 1 Verb, 
o'ntufont. 1 Adjective. 


DEPENDENT. 
Present, Past, 
o'utifrost, o'ntifrot, 
o'ntufrost, o'ntufrot, 


Future. 
o'ntifrout, 
o'ntufrout. 


[§74] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 


o'ntifaust, 
o'ntufaust, 


o'ntifault, 
o'ntufault, 


Neutro-passive. 
o'ntifaunt, Verb, 
o'utufaimt. Adjective. 


o'ntifraust, 
o'ntufraust, 


o'ntifraut, 
o'utufraut, 


o'ntifraunt, 
o'utufraimt. 


[§75] 

Verb, _ 
Adjective. 


Prese/it, 
o'ntifast, 
o'ntui'ait, 


Past, 
o'ntifalt, 
o'ntufiilt, 


j^ Activo-active. 

o'ntifont. Verb, 
o'ntufaut. Adjective. 


Present, 
o'ntifrast, 
o'ntufrast, 


Past, 
o'utifrat, 
o'ntufrat, 


Future. 
o'ntifrant, 
o'ntufrant. 


[§76] 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntifast, 
o'ututast, 


o'ntifalt, 
o'ntufalt, 


Activo-passive. 
o'ntlfant. Verb, 
o'ntufaut. Adjective. 


o'ntifrast, 
o'ntufrast, 


o'ntifrat, 
o'ntufrat. 


o'ntifrant, 
o'ntufrant. 


[§77] 

Verb, _ 
Adjective. 


Present, 
o'ntifost, 
o'ntufest. 


Past, 
o'ntifolt, 
o'ntufclt, 


„ Passivo-active. 

Jbiiture. 

o'ntifent, Verb, 
o'utufeut. Adjective. 


Present, 
o'ntifrest, 
o'utufrest, 


Past, 
o'ntifret, 
o'ntufret. 


Future. 
o'ntifreut, 
o'utufreiit. 


[§78] 
Verb, ^ 
Adjective. 


o'ntifaist, 
o'ntufaist. 


o'ntifailt, 
o'ntufailt. 


Passivo-passive. 
o'utifaint, Verb, 
o'ntufaint. Adjective. 


o'ntifraist, 
o'ntufraist, 


o'ntifrait, 
o'ntufrait, 


o'ntifraint, 
o'ntufraint. 



* All the past tenses dependent omit the I, the sign of past time, unless followed by another syllable, when 
the I must be inserted before the t; as ontipro'ltos, &c. This rule applies to all the past tenses causal dependent. 

59 



[§79] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 

[§80] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 



ABSOLUTE. 
Present, Fast, 
o'mpitost*, o'mpitolt, 
o'lnputost, o'mputolt, 

o'mpitaiist, o'mpitault, 
o'mputaust, o'mputaixlt, 



THIRD DIFFEREXCE. 
T-, ^ Neutro-active. 

o'mpitont, Verb, 

o'mputont. I Adjective. 

Neutro-passive. 
o'mpitamit, i Verb, 
o'mputauiit. I Adjective. 



DEPENDENT. 
Present, Past, 

o'mpitrost, o'mpItrot,t 
o'mputrost, o'uiputrot, 

o'mpitraust, o'nipitrant, 
o'mputraust, o'mputraut, 



Future. 

o'mpitront, 

o'mputront. 



o'mpitraimt, 
o'mputraunt. 



[§81] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 

[§82] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 



' Present, Fast, 

o'mpitast, o'mpitalt, 

o'mputast, o'mputalt, 

o'mpitast, o'mpitalt, 

o'mputast, o'mputalt, 



Future. 
o'mpitant, 
o'mputant. | 
Active 
o'mpitant, I 
o'mputaut. I 



Activo-active. 



Verb, 
Adjective, 



Verb, _ 
Adjective. 



Present, Fast, 

o'mpitrast, o'mpitrat, 
o'mputrast, o'mputrat, 



ompitrast, orapitrat, 
o'mputrast, o'mputrat. 



Future. 
o'mpitrant, 
o' mputrant. 



o'mpitrant, 
o'mputrant. 



[§83] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 

[§84] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 



Present, 



Post, 



o'mpitest, o'mpitelt, 

o'mputcst, o'mputelt, 

o'mpitaist, o'mpitailt, 

o'mputaist, o'mputailt, 



rr , . Passivo-active. 

o'mpiteut, Verb, 

o'mputent. 1 Adjective. 

Passivo-passlve. 
o'mpitaint, I Verb, 
o'mputaint. | Adjective. 



Present, 
o'mpltrest, 
o'mputrest, 

o'mpitraist, 
o'mputraist, 



Fast, 
o'mpitret, 
o'mputret, 



o'mpitrait, 
o'mputrait. 



Future. 

o'mpitrent, 

oiuputrent. 



o'mpitraint, 
o'mputraint. 









FOURTH DIFFERENCE. 








ABSOLUTE. 




DEPENDENT. 




[§85] 


Present, 


Past, 


Future. Neutro-active. 


Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Verb, _ 


o'ntinost, 


o'ntinolt. 


o'ntinont. Verb, 


o'utimost, 


o'ntimot. 


o'ntimont, 


Adjective. 


o'utimost, 


o'ntimolt. 


o'ntimont. Adjective. 


o'ntumost, 


o'utumiit. 


o'ntiunont. 


[§86] 






Neutro-passive. 








Verb, 


o'ntlnaust, 


o'ntinault, 


o'ntinaunt, Verb, 


o'ntlmaust, 


o'ntimaut, 


o'ntimaunt, 


Adjective. 


o'ntuuaust, 


o'ntuuault, 


o'ntunaimt. Adjective. 


o'ntumaust. 


o'utiuuaut. 


o'ntmuaunt. 


[§87] 


Present, 


Past, 


jp Activo-active. 


Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Verb, 


o'utinast, 


o'ntiualt, 


o'ntinant, Verb, 


o'ntimast, 


o'utimat, 


o'ntimant. 


Adjective. 


o'ntunast, 


o'utimalt. 


o'utunant. Adjective. 


o'utumast. 


o'ntumat. 


o'ntiunant. 


[§88] 






Activo-passive. 








Verb, 


o'ntinast, 


o'ntinalt, 


o'ntinant, 1 Verb, 


o'ntimast, 


o'ntimat, 


o'ntimant, 


Adjective. 


o'ntuuast, 


o'ntuiialt, 


o'ntunaut. | Adjective. 


o'ntmuast. 


o'ntumat. 


o'ntumant. 


[§89] 


Present, 


Past, 


Future. Passivo-active. 


Present, 


Bast, 


Future. 


Verb, 


o'utincst. 


o'ntinolt. 


o'ntinent. Verb, 


o'ntimest. 


o'ntimet, 


o'ntiment. 


Adjective. 


o'utimest, 


o'ntunclt, 


o'ntunent. Adjective. 


o'utumest. 


o'utumct. 


o'ntumcnt. 


[§90] 






Passivo-passivc. 








Verb, 


o'ntinaist, 


o'ntinailt. 


o'ntinaint, 1 Verb, 


o'ntimaist. 


o'ntimait. 


o'ntimaint, 


Adjective. 


o'ntunaist. 


o'ntunailt. 


o'ntunaint. 1 Adjective. 


o'ntumaist, 


o'ntumait, 


o'ntumaint. 



* See Note, page 54. 



t iSce Note, page 



59. 





ABSOLUTE. 


FIFTH DIFFEEENCE. 

DEPENDENT. 




[§91] 


Present, 


Past, 


T-, , Neutro-activc. 
Future. 


Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Verb, _ 
Adjective. 


o'ntibost,* 
o'ntubost, 


o'ntibolt,t 
o'ntubolt, 


o'ntibont. Verb, 
o'ntubont. Adjective. 


e'utibrost, 
o'ntubrest, 


o'ntibrot,t 
o'utubret, 


o'ntibront, 
o'ntubrent. 


[§92] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 


o'litibaiist, 
o'ntubaust, 


o'utibault, 
o'utubault, 


Neutro-passive. 
o'ntibaiint. Verb, 
o'ntubaunt. Adjective. 


o'ntibraust, 
o'ntubraust, 


e'ntibraut, 
o'ntubraut, 


o'ntibraunt, 
o'ntubraunt. 


[§93] 


Fr&se)it, 


Past, 


Future. Activo-actlve. 


Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntibast, 
o'otubast, 


o'ntibalt, 
o'utubalt. 


o'ntibant. Verb, 
o'ntubant. Adjective. 


e'ntibrast, 
o'utubrast, 


o'ntibrat, 
e'ntubrat, 


o'ntibrant, 
o'ntubrant. 


[§94] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 


o'ntibast, 
o'ntubast, 


o'ntibalt, 
o'ntubult, 


Active-passive, 
o'ntibant, Verb, 
o'ntnbant. Adjective. 


o'ntibrast, 
o'ntubrast, 


o'ntibrat, 
e'ntubrat, 


o'ntibrant, 
o'ntubrant. 


[§95] 


Present, 


Past, 


„ , Passive-active. 
Future. 


Premnt, 


Past, 


Future. 


Verb, 

Adjective. 


o'litibest, 
o'litubest, 


o'ntibelt, 
o'ntubelt, 


o'ntibant, 1 Verb, 
o'ntubent. 1 Adjective. 


o'ntibrest, 
o'ntubrest, 


o'ntibret, 
o'ntubret. 


o'ntibrent, 
o'ntubrent. 


[§96] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 


o'ntibaist, 
o'ntubaist, 


o'ntibailt, 
o'utubailt, 


Passive-passive, 
o'ntibaint, Verb, 
o'ntubaint. Adjective. 


e'ntibraist, 
o'ntubraist. 


o'ntibrait, 
o'ntubrait. 


o'ntibraint, 
o'ntubraint. 


[§97] 


ABSOLUTE. 
Present, Past, 


SIXTH DIFFERENCE. ^^p^^.^^^y. 
Fzcture. Neutre-actlve. p^^^^^^^^ p^,^^ 


Future. 


Verb, 

Adjective. 

[§98] 

Verb, 

Adjective. 


o'ntigost, 
o'utiigost, 

o'ntigaust, 
o'ntugaust, 


o'ntigolt, 
o'ntugolt, 

o'ntigaolt, 
o'ntugault, 


o'ntigont, Verb, 
o'ntugont. Adjective. 

Neutre-passive. 
e'ntigaunt. Verb, 
e'ntugaunt. Adjective. 


e'ntigrest, 
o'ntugrest, 

o'ntigraust, 
o'ntugraust, 


o'ntigret, 
o'ntugrot, 

o'ntigraut, 
o'ntugraut. 


o'ntigront, 
o'ntugrout. 

o'ntigraunt, 
o'ntugraunt. 


[§99] 


Present, 


Past, 


p Active-active. 


Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


Verb, 
Adjective. 
[ § 100 ] 
Verb, 
Adjective. 


o'ntigast, 
o'ntugast, 

o'ntigast, 
o'ntugast, 


o'ntigalt, 
o'ntngalt, 

o'ntigalt, 
o'ntugalt, 


o'ntigant, Verb, 
e'ntugant. Adjective. 

Neutro-passive. 
o'ntigant, Verb, 
e'ntugant. Adjective. 


o'ntigrast, 
o'ntugrast, 

o'ntigrast, 
o'ntugrast, 


o'ntigrat, 
o'ntugrat, 

o'ntigi-at, 
o'ntugrat. 


o'ntigraut. 
e'ntugrant. 

o'utigrant, 
o'ntugraut. 


[§101] 


Present, 


Past, 


Future. Passive-active. 


Present, 


Past, 


Future. 


nrb, _ 

Adjective. 
[§102] 

Adjective. 


o'ntigest, 
o'ntugest, 

o'ntigaist, 
o'ntugaist, 


o'ntigelt, 
o'ntugelt, 

o'ntigailt, 
o'ntugailt, 


o'ntigent, 1 Verb, 
o'utugent. 1 Adjective. 

Passive-passive, 
o'ntigaint, Verb, 
o'ntugaint. Adjective. 


e'ntigrest, 
o'ntugrest, 

o'ntigraist, 
o'ntugraist. 


o'ntigret, 
o'ntugrot, 

o'ntigrait, 
o'ntugrait. 


o'ntigrent, 
o'ntugrent. 

e'ntigraint, 
o'ntugraint. 



* The letter k is used tbrougliout the Generic forms: and these same generic forms arc used to denote 
all the Species under the ffth Diference:— tor as all the species have an initial consonant, they cannot be 
mistaken for genera, which begin with a vowel ; although the generic part of the word is the same in the 
genus as in the species. But when the fifth difference is to be expressed, we are compelled to change the 
consonant from k to /), to distinguish it from the genus. 

t The I may be emitted where no pronoun fellows in these past tenses. \ See Note, page 59. 

R 61 



CHAPTER YL 

SUPPLEMENTAL DIFFEREXCES. 

The Pliilosopliic generally consists of only six differences ; but in the classification of Herbs, Insects, 
&c, there are as many as nine cUfferenccs. It therefore became necessary, though these are exceptional 
cases, to provide for them by suitable and euphonous verbal forms. 

[ § 103 ] Now the rule for the formation of Supplemental Differences is, to insert, immediately after 
the posterior consonant, the syllable in. 

1st. Six Differences. o'mvoo, o'mvoi, o'mvo, o'mva, o'mvil, o'mvai, 
2nd Six Differences. omv('«oo, omv/;«oi, omv«'«o, o'mv('«a, oimvZ/al, o'mvjMal. 

It will be -well here just to remark, that these Supplemental Differences, as well as Species, (hereafter 
to be noticed) only occur among the names of herbs, insects, &c. ; which are rare!}' required to be varied 
for any granmiatical pui"poses, except to be converted occasionally into adjectives; which would be done 
according to the general rule. 



PART y. 



SPECIAL FORMS, and SUPPLEMEXTAL SPECIES. 



SPECIAL FORMS. 

We have seen how adverbs, verbs, and adjectives, generic and differential, are derived from generic 
and differential nouns; we have also seen how the tenses of tabulai-s, generic as well as differential, are 
foi-med by certain changes in the termination of tabulars of the present tense : but it must have been noticed, 
tliat none of the generic or differential tabulars are preceded by any of the followmg special consonants; 
namely,^, 1; /, 2; ^,3; I-, 4; 5, 5; v, 6; d,7; g,8; or f, 9. They all begin witli vowels. 

Now, by prefixing to any one genus or difference seriatim, these nine consonants, we form nine distinct 
species; and with this great advantage; that all the variations which are made in the genus or difference to 
express grammatical tense, or any other relation, become subservient, for the same purposes, to the species, 
as well as the genus. 

Take the verb e'ntivai, to transact busmess. This is the third difference of the third genus : (see 
Wilkins, 40). We will now, to the tenses of this difference, prefix each of the above nine consonants, and 
thereby we shall obtain the nine species imder this difference. 

[ § 104 ] DIFFERENCE III 

au e'ntivo,* I transact business: au e'ntivel, / transacted business: au entivcn, I shull transact business. 



1st. Species, axipe'ntivo, I design: aujj^entivel, I designed: au pe'ntiyen, I shall design. 

2nd. Species, au /e'ntivo, I prepare: au /e'ntivel, I jjrepared: au/e'ntiven, I shall prepare, 

'drd. Species. hu te'nt'ivq, I begin: au te'ntivel, I began: a.u te^ntiv en, I shall begin. 

* These two words 'au e'ntivo,' must be pronounced and read as if the letter z were placed betwixt them; 
thus as if written au-z-c'ntivo. In all cases z comes betwixt two vowels, if necessary to pleasant pronunciation. 

G2 



Ath. Species. au Z;e'ntivo, I endeavour: au A'e'utivel, I endeavoured: au A:e'ntiven, I shall endeavour, 

bth. SjJecies. au Je'ntlvo, I dispatch: au Z-e'Dtivel, I dispatched: au Je'ntiven, I shall dispatch. 

Gth. Species. au t-e'ntivo, I perform: au ve'ntivel, I performed: au ve'ntiven, I shall perform. 

7 th. Species. au «?e'ntivo, I finish: a\i de'ntiv^, I finished: au c/e'ntlven, I shall finish. 

Sth. Species. au gehitivq, I err: au^e'ntivel, I erred: au (/e'ntivon, I shall err. 

dth. SjKcies. au /e'ntivo, I prevent: au fe'ntivel, I prevented: au te'ntiven, I shall preveiit. 

[ § 105 ] One remark only is necessary here: — that, throughout the language, the species are formed 
by these nine initial consonants^ which, (as will more particularly appear when we come to treat of niune- 
rlcal words) have not only the function of denoting the order and number of species, but are also employed 
to denote the nine digits, \, 2, 3, &c. 

SUPPLEMENTAL SPECIES. 

[ § 106 ] As above laid down, the language generally consists of nine species or less; but rarely of 
mare than nine. There ai'e, however, among the three genera of Herbs, Insects, &c. some differences that 
are subdivided into mare than nine species. In that case, the tenth species always begins with the consonant 
(1; asd'omvo, meadow grass, (seepages 11 and 12); do'mva, sAaZoi/ dro'mva, ci'vas ; do'mvoo, duckweed; &c. 

[ § 107 ] After the tenth species, a new series commences which begins with p, f, t, &c. the same as the 
first nme species; and the sign of its being a second series of species is, that, if the trumpet* of the word 
in the first ten species is m, then, in the second species, it will be n, and vice versa; if the first trumpet of 
the first ten is m, then in the second it will be m. 

[ § 108 ] The student will not fail to remember, that all the following letters, viz. m, n, n and I, when 
forming part of any generic radix, have the same meaning, (except only with regard to these supplemental 
species), and, indeed, vary their forms, merely to promote the euphony of the tabular word: thus before 
J} and h, f and v, m ought to be used; and before Ic and <7, n ought always to be used; but n is appli- 
cable to any of the other lingual or palatal consonants. 



PART VI. 



SUB-SPECIAL FORMS. 

The previous tables consist, almost entirely, of Genera, Differences, and Species. These are made by 
Dr. Wilkms (but very lamely) to meet the demands of discourse in expressing still more complex ideas : — 
I say lamely, because, although he very successfully expresses those more complex ideas, it is necessarily 
accomplished by such long, clumsy, and complicate expressions, as would hardly be tolerated in daily dis- 
course. Thus a duke would be called by Dr. Wilkins (using om- alphabet) u tlondroo tu ky'^antufous o'ndroo^ 
i. e. a nobleman of the highest rank or degree. 

This expression contains five words to denote the same thing as the word duhe. 

Now if we take the dissyllabic word t'ondroo, which signifies nobleman, of any rank, and insert on 
after the syllable t'on (in t'ondroo,) we obtain the trissyllabic word tono'ndi-oo, duke; then tyono'ndroo will 
signify the duke, and twono'ndroo, a duke. 

So we can insert the syllables an, en, in, djc. in the same word to'ndroo, and obtain tona'ndroo, 
tone'ndroo, &c. 

* The trumpet is one of these letters:— m, n, n or 1. 
63 



[ § 109 ] Now we have invented the suh-species to enable us to abridge speech, and yet to superin- 
duce these sub-special notions upon some common general idea. Here tondi-oo signifies nobleman. On, 
an, en, in, and un, &c. denote, in their due order, the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth kinds or degrees 
of noblemen. 



Thus to'ndi-oo, is nobleman (generally): 

1. tono'ndroo, is Duke: 

2. tona'ndi-oo, is Marquess : 



3. tone'ndroo, is Earl : 

4. toni'ndroo, is Viscoimt : 

5. tonu'ndroo, is Baron. 

Now tono'ndroo signifies duke, i. e. a nobleman of the first degree ; ton'androo, marquess, a nobleman 
of the second degree; tone'ndi-oo, an earl, or nobleman of the third'degree ; toni'ndi'oo, viscount, or nobleman 
of the fomih degree; and lastly, tonu'ndi'oo, baron, or a nobleman of the fifth and lowest degree. 

Each of the species is subdivisible by the successive insertion of the folio-wing syllables (called iffixes), 
into as many sub-species as there are different syllables; indeed they are indefinite, not to say infinite; 
altliough the following table contams only the fonn and order of these iffixes up to a sufficiently higli 
number. Earely will these be required in actual use; still, it is desirable that we should shew an almsot 
illimitable expansibility in the language, to meet any more pei-fect classification of elementary substantives 
as science advances. 



Column 1 1 


1 


on 


2 


an 


3 


en 


4 


m 


5 


im 


6 


ol 


7 


al 


8 


el 


9 


il 


10 


ul 


11 


opi 


i-1 


api 


13 


epi 


14 


ipi 


ly 


upi 


16 


oti 


17 


ati 


18 


eti 


19 


iti 


20 


Utl 



Column 2 

po'ndoo 
po'ndoo 
po'nldoo 
po'n|doo 
po'n|doo 
po'n doo 
po'n doo 
po'n'doo 
po'ndoo 
po'nldoo 
po'ndoo 
po'n doo 
po'n doo 
po'n'doo 
po'n'doo 
po'n doo 
po'n'doo 
po'nldoo 
po'ndoo 
po'n, doo 



Column 3 

pon-o'n-doo 

pon-a'n-doo 

pon-e'n-doo 

pon-i'n-doo 

pon-u'n-doo 

pon-ol-doo 

pon-al-doo 

pon-e'1-doo 

pon-i'1-doo 

pon-u'1-doo 

pon-o'pi-doo 

pon-a'pi-doo 

pon-c'pi-doo 

pon-i'pi-doo 

pon-'upi-doo. 

po'n-o'ti-doo 

pon-a'ti-doo 

pon-e'ti-doo 

pon-i'ti-doo 

pon-u'ti-doo 



Column 4 


Column 1 


Column 2 


pono'ndoo. 


21 obi 


po'nldoo 
po'ndoo 


pona'ndoo. 


22 abi 


pone'ndoo. 


23 ebi 


po'ndoo 


poni'ndoo. 


24 ibi 


po'ndoo 


ponu'udoo. 


25 ubi 


po'ndoo 


pono'ldoo. 


26 odi 


po'ndoo 


pona'ldoo. 


27 adi 


po'ndoo 


pone'ldoo. 


28 ede 


po'n doo 


ponildoo, 


29 idi 


poh doo 


ponu'Idoo. 


30 udi 


po'n doo 


pono'pidoo. 


31 oki 


po'n doo 


pona'pidoo. 


32 aki 


po'ndoo 


pone'pidoo. 


33 eki 


po'ndoo 


poni'pidoo. 


34 iki 


po'ndoo 


ponu'pidoo. 


35 uki 


po'ndoo 


ponot'idoo. 


36 ogi 


po'njdoo 


pona'tidoo. 


37agi 


po'n'doo 


pone'tidoo. 


38 egi 


po'ndoo 


poni'tidoo. 


39 igi 


po'Ujdoo 


ponu'tidoo. 


40 ugi 


po'ndoo 



Column 3 

pon-o'bi-doo 
pon-a'bi-doo 
pon-e'bi-doo 
pon-i'bi-doo 
pon-u'bi-doo 
pon-o'di-doo 
pe'n-a'di-doo 
pen-e'di-doo 
pen-i'di-doo 
pen-u'di-doo 
pen-o'ki-doo 
pcn-a'ki-doo 
pen-e'ki-doo 
pen-iki-doo 
pen-u'ki-doo 
pen-o'gi-doo 
pen-a'gi-doo 
pen-e'gi-doo 
pen-i'gi-doo 
pcn-u'gi-doo 



Column 4 

ponobi'doo. 

pona'bidoo. 

pone'bidoo. 

poni'bidoo. 

ponu'bidoo. 

pono'didoo.* 

pena'didoo. 

pene'didoo. 

peni'didoo. 

penu'didoo. 

peno'kidoo. 

pena'kidoo. 

pene'kidoo. 

peni'kidoo. 

penu'kidoo. 

peno'gidoo. 

pena'gidoo. 

pene'gidoo. 

peni'gidoo. 

pcnu'gidoo. 



Let us now di-aw the student's attention to the foregoing table, consisting of four columns. The first 
contains forty syllables to be inserted in the centre of the species, immediately after the trumpet of the 
word. The second column consists of a tabular word divided into two parts: — the third cohunn consists of 
those two parts, placed at such a distance as to admit betwixt them one of the syllables of the first column: — 
and the fom-th column shews the thi-ee parts, of colunni tlu-ee, united into entire words. 



* When two consonants of the same name (as two dez, two tez &c.) are m immediate succession, the 
letter v is substituted for the second of the two ; as o'mpiril for o'mpipil, o'ndiril for o'ndidil, &c. 

64 



PART yii. 



COLLATERAL TABULARS. 

[§110] There are not unfrequently several fonns dei-ived from the same genus, difference^ species^ 
and suh-sjjecies. Thus we have, (Genus 21,) E'ndi, magnitude, and Ke'ndi, extent; so of the first difference, 
(Genus 1, Ondi) we have four forms, viz. o'ndoo, ro'ndoo, lo'ndoo, and o'ldoo; and lastly, almost every 
species has two foims, and sometimes four; as pe'mboo, pre'mboo, ple'mboo, and pelboo. 

The additional forms are called Collateral; but the first of the said forms is, ^ar eminence, called the 
direct genus, difference, species, or sub-species. The direct are those which form an essential part of the 
system of classification, consisting of genera, differences, species, and sub-species. 

These collateral forms are not a direct logical part of the system, but are a sort of convenient digres- 
sion from the direct tabulars. They are formed from the latter by means of the consonants, r, Z, or w. 

When the letter r is prefixed to a genus or difference, it denotes either an opposite idea, as e'nzi, 
motion; re'nzi, rest: a'mboo, reward; ra'mboo, punishment: pi'ndoi, presence; pri'ndoi, absence. Or, it 
denotes an idea which is \e,rjnearlu related to the direct tabular; as a'ndo, head; ra'ndo, body: a'ndil, limb; 
ra'ndil, joint: &c. 

Whether conjoined as opposite or as cognate, the letters r and w always occupy a position iimnediately 
before the generic portion of any tabular, as in the above examples. A reference to the previous tables will 
fully illustrate this rule. (See tables.) 

Dr. Wilkins distinguishes betwixt opposite and cognate tabulars. We do not; for in many cases it is 
difficult to say which most prevails, opposition or cognation: and as every word must be individually acquired 
and remembered, there is not so much gained in mauitaining the distinction, as lost by the supei-fluous 
use and permanent obtrusion of a distinct sign. 

[§111 ] Where the special consonant is p^ b, f, v, k, or g, the following collateral model may be 

•""'^'•^'^- MODEL. 

Pe'mboo, Pre'mboo, Ple'mboo, Pe'lboo. 

If the special consonant is t or d; t or d; the following is the collateral model. 
T'ondoo, Tro'ndoo, Two'ndoo, To'ldoo. 



PART VIII. 



ANTERIOR MODES. 

Turn to page 4, — the forty genera. Each of the forty genera begins with a vowel. As these vowels 
iihmediately precede n or m, which is the fii'st radical consonant of each genus, they are called Anterior 
Vowels. This should be remembered: — Anterior Vowels. 

[§112] Now there" are fifteen Anterior Vowels: five are called Indefinite; five are called Conclusive; 
and five others are called Progressive. 

[§113] TABLE of ANTERIORS. 

Indefinite Vowels: o; a; c; i; u. 

Conclusive Vowels: oi; ou; ai; e; oo, 

, Progressive Vowels o; a; a; i; u. 

S 65 " '■ ' ' 



[§114] Now whenever a tabular, whether generic, differential, special, or sub-special, has for its 
anterior vowel any one of the five following vowels, o, a, e, i, or m, such tabular is to be considered 
INDEFINITE. 

[§115] \Micnever a tabular has for its anterior any one of the five following vowels, oi', ou, ai, e, 
or 00, such tabular Is always to be considered CONCLUSIVE. 

[§116] Lastly, whenever a tabular has for its anterior any one of the following five vowels, o, n, a, 
i, or n, it is always to be considered PROGRESSIVE. 

[§117] All the forty genera, from page 4 to 48, are Indefinite Modes: — and when converted into 
adverhs, verbs, or adjectives, they are still itidefinite throughout the language. 

[§118] We give the following Tables as specimens of Nouns, Adverhs, Verls, and Adjectives, 
CONCLUSIVE and PROGRESSIVE. Observe.— All the previous tables are indefinite. 





CONCLUSIVES.* 






PROGRESSIVES.t 






'Jiave,'" as " I have loved.' 






"««^,' as " I am loving." 




Nouns. 


Adverbs. 


Verbs. 


Adjectives. 


Nouns. 


Adverbs. 


Verbs. 


Adjectives. 


oi'ndi, 


oi'ndu, 


oi'nti. 


oi'ntu. 


o'ndi, 


o'ndu. 


o'nti, 


o'ntu. 


ou'ndi. 


ou'ndu. 


ou'nti, 


o'untu. 


a'udi. 


a'ndu, 


a'nti. 


a'ntu. t 


ai'ndi. 


ai'ndu, 


ai'nti, 


ai'ntu. 


a'ndi. 


a'ndu. 


a'nti, 


a'ntu. X 


c'ndi. 


e'ndu. 


e'nti, 


e'ntu. 


i'ndi, 


i'ndu, 


i'uti. 


i'ntu. 


oo'ndi. 


oo'ndu. 


oo'nti. 


oo'ntu, 


u'ndi. 


u'udu, 


u'nti. 


u'ntu. 



[ § 119 ] The above anterior vowels apply equally to genera, differences, species, or sub-species; for 
as the sjtecies are denoted by a consonant prefixed to the difference, and the differences are denoted by the 
syllable suffixed to them, no changes in the beginning or end of the word can affect the anterior vowel, 
which is neither at the beginning nor end of the genera, differences, species, or sub-species. 

Specimen of cm Emjlish VERB carried through all the Verbal Forms of INDEFINITE, 
CONCLUSIVE, and PROGRESSIVE. 



Pres, 



Pres. 
Past, 
Fut. 

Pres. 
Past, 
Fut. 



INDEFINITE— Neutral. 
Di'nsoi, it is full: 
Di'nsifil, it was full: 
Di'nsifin, it will he full: 
Indefinite — Active. 
Di'nsifo, it fills: 
Di'nsifel, it filled:] 
Di'nsifen, it ivill fill. 

Indefinite— Passive. 
Di'nsifoo, it is filled hj 
Di'nsifool, it was filled by 
Dl'nsifoon, it will be filled by 



CONCLUSIVE— Neutral. 

de'nsoi, it has been full: 
de'nsifil, it had been full : 
de'nslfin, it will have been full: 

Conclusive — Active, 
dc'nsifo, it has filled: 
do'nsifel, it had filled: 
de'nsifen, it will have filled. 
C onclusive — Passive. 
de'nsifoo, it has been filled hy 
de'nsifool, it had been filled by 
de'nsifoon, it will have been filled by 



PROGRESSIVE- Neutral, 
di'nsoi, it continues full. 
di'nsifil, it contiuiwd fuU. 
di'nsifin, it will continue full. 

Progressive— Active, 
di'nsifo, it is filling. 
di'nsifel, it was filling. 
di'nsifen, it will be filling. 

Progi-esslve — Passive, 
di'nsifoo, it is being filled by ' 
di'nsifool, it ivas being filled hy 
di'nslfoon, it will be being filled by 



* Commonly called perfect tenses. 

t These are characterized by what Is called the present particijjle, (in English) ending In ^'ing." 

t After the vowel a, or a, the letter r is to be slightly sounded, for the sake of avoidmg a hiatus. 



PART IX. 



CONCRETE and ABSTRA CT SUBSTANTIVES. 

A Concrete Suhstantive Is one which denotes a thing which occupies some place in the universe, with 
nil its qualities, Vflmxkcr hnown or unknown: as angel, man; a tree; a house; water, salt, sponge, stone, 
insect. 

An Abstract Suhstantive is a name given to one quality, or to one aggregate of qualities, of some Mnd 
of thing; or that collectively which distinguishes it from all other things, and makes it what it is called. 

Thus divinity is the abstract of God; hmnanity, of man; aqueousness, of water; saltiiess, of salt; 
sponginess of sponge; and stonyness of stone. 

[ § 120 ] Where a Concrete Substantive ends in the short vowel i or u, these vowels are lengthened 
juto e or 00 ; and then the syllable rit is added to denote the Abstract of such Concrete. 

EXAMPLES. 

GENERIC. 



Concrete. 
o'ndi, 
a'ndi, 
e'ndi, 
i'ndi, 
u'ndi, 



Abstract. 
o'nderit, 
a'nderit, 
e'nderit, 
i'nderit, 
u'nderit. 



Concrete. 
o'ndu, 
a'ndu, 
e'ndu, 
i'ndu, 
u'ndu, 



Abstract. 
o'ndoorit. 
a'ndoorit. 
e'ndoorit. 
i'ndoorit. 
u'udoorit. 



DIFFERENTIAL. 

Concrete. Abstract. 



o'ndoo, 

o'ndoi, 

o'ndo, 

o'nda, 

o'ndil, 

o'ndai, 



ondyoo'rit.' 

ondoi'rit. 

ondo'rit. 

onda'rit. 

ondile'rit. 

ondai'rit. 



ENGLISH EXAMPLES. 
Tunjoo'rit tunjoo'tu : — tlie flintiness of flint. 
Krunjoo'rit krunjoo'tu : — the glassiness of glass. 
Funjo'rit fimjo'tu: — the pearliness of pearl. 
Punjai'rit punjai'tu: — the chalkiness of chalk. 
Punzoi'i'it punzol'tu: — the brassiness of brass. 
Kunza'rit kunza'tu : — the rustiness of rust. 



[§121 ] All these Abstracts may be found in other Concrete Substantives. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Timjoor'it tyal'tu fa'ndis: — the flintiness of her heart. 

2. Krunjoo'rit twai'tu fa'ndo: — the glassiness of his eye. 

3. Funjo'rit tyai'tu kran'doz: — the pearliness of her teeth. 

4. Punjai'rit twai'tu ra'ndilz: — the chalkiness of his joints. 

5. Pimzoi'rit twai'tu pa'ndo: — the brassiness of his face. 

6. Kunza'rit vunzoo'tu :—the rustiness of the iron. 

* Observe. — When Cndu. is converted into an abstract, the u becomes oo, and is so sounded; but 
O'ndoo, concrete, becomes O'ndi/oo, the letter y being used to distinguish the genus Ondoo'rit, from the 
difference Ondyoo'rit. 

67 



PART X. 



OF THE GENDER AND NmiBER OF NOUNS. 



CHAPTER I. 



[§122 
to neuter'^ tabulars as follows, 



GEXDEE. 

There are four termiuations to denote sex, namely, ed and et; ur and iin. 



Tliese are suffixed 



po'nzoo, ancestor, male or female, 
po'nzipnr, ancestor, male, 
po'nzipim, ancestress, 
pro'nzoo, descendant, male or female, 
pro'nzipiir, male descendant, 
pro'nzipun, female descendant. 



fo'nzoo, parent, male or female, 
fo'nzipur, father, 
fo'nzipim, mother, 
to'nzoo, imcle or aimt, 
to'nzipur, uncle, 
to'nzipun, amit. 



ko'nzoo, brother or sister, 
ko'nzipur, brother, 
ko'nzipim, sister, 
bo'nzoo, cousin, 
bo'nzipur, male cousui, 
bo'nzipun, female cousin. 



Obsei-ve. — The above form is used where the sign of sex is followed by another syllable, as kwi, or tici. 
I bus we can say ponzoo'kwi, ponzipurkwi, ponzipu'nt^s-i, ponzipn'nkwi, &c. 



Observe.— Ed and et are used when they are ihefnal syllable of the word. 

Neuter, Masculine, Feminine. Neuter, Masculine, 

po'nziped, po'nzipet, I 4. To'nzoo, to'nziped, 

fonziped, fo'nzipet, 5. Ko'nzoo, ko'nziped, 

bo'nziped, bo'nzipet. I 6. Pi'njoo, pi'njiped, 

Obseiwe.— We cannot conveniently say pouzipedkwi or pet'kwi,; pe'dtwi or pe'ttwi. 



1. Po'nzoo, 

2. Fo'nzoo. 

3. Bo'nzoo, 



Feminine. 
to'nzipet. 
ko'nzipet. 
pi'njipet. 



CHAPTER 11. 



[ § 123 ] Uo not forget that the lettei 
language. 

Singular. 
Po'nzipur, ancestor 
Pi'njoo, horse, 
Tu'ndroi, apostle, 
Po'ndi-o, nation, 



NmiBER. 

is the imiversal sign of plurality of nouns throughout the 



Plural. 
Po'nzipurz, ancestors. 
Pi'njooz, horses. 
Tundroiz, apostles. 
Po'n<.li-oz, nations. 



Singular. 
I'ndoi, word, 
Pi'nzoo, angel, 
Go'nzi, praise, 
Fr'inzoo, devil. 



Plural. 
I'ndoiz, words. 
Pi'nzooz, angels. 
Go'nziz, praises. 
Fri'nzooz, devils. 



* Where we are speaking of the absence of sex we use the word neuter, but neutral to denote that a 
word IS neither active or passive. 

68 



CHAPTER III. 



OF MASCULINE AND FEMININE TEEMINATIONS. 
[ § 124 ] The differential consonants are p, /, t, n, k, and s; so that Sex is denoted by each difference, 
as follows: by the final syllable ur for the masculine, and un for the feminine gender; these syllables being 
immediately preceded by p, for the first difference ; f, for the second ; t, for the third ; n, for the fourth ; 
Jc, for the fifth ; and s for the sixth : — namely, pur, fur, tur, nur, kur, sur. See the differential consonants 
from page 52 to 56, and the note at page 55. 

Examples of Masculine and Feminine Terminations. 



First Difference. 
Second Difference. 
TJiird Difference. 
Fourth Difference. 
Fifth Difference. 
Sixth Difference. 



Po'nzoo, ancestor or ancestress, 
Pr'onzol, ha<ihehr or virgin, 
Po'nzo, godfather or godmother, 
Po'nza, friend, 
Pi'nji, dog or bitch, 
Te'nja;, wren, 



po'nzipM?", ancestor, 
pr'onzi/«r, haclielor, 
po'nzifer, godfather, 



po'nzi^?<«, ancestress. 
pro'nzi/M>i, virgin. 
po'nzi<«K, godmother. 



po'nziwMr, male friend, po'nziwwn, femaU friend. 
pi'nji^'ur, dog, jA^njihun, hitch. 

te'njlswr, each wren, te'njisi(«, hen wren. 



PART XI. 

CASES OF NOUNS 



CHAPTER I. 



OF THE NOMINATIVE CASE. 
[ § 125 ] All the tabular nouns of the language contamed betwixt page 4 and page 48, are in what 
grammarians commonly call the Nominative Case, but what is here called the Absolute Case of the noun; 
that is to say, which nomi has no antecedent to which it is grammatically refered by some relative verb or 
preposition: therefore absolute and nominative as, applied to nouns, mean the same thing; — as, God created 
the world. Here, in the chain of words, " God" is the first, and "world" the last; and the word "world" 
is, as it were, tied to the antecedent noun by the relative verb " created." 
OF THE GENITIVE CASE. 
[ § 126 ] The Genitive Case is fonned from the nominative or absolute, ending in a vowel, by suffixing 
s to express the singular, and zis to express the plural genitive. In the plural, the accent is advanced one 
syllable. 

Genitives, Singular, Genitives, Plural. 

po'ndroos,* of the magistrate; pondi-oo'zis, of tlie magistrates. 



Absolute Nouns, 
Po'ndroo, the magistrate; 
To'mbro, the city; 
Fo'nzoo, the parent; 
Pro'nza, the enemy; 
Po'mbroo, the subject; 
Fo'ndroo, the Icing; 



to'mbros, of the city; 

fo'nzoos, of the parent; 

pro'nzas, of the enemy ; 

po'mbroos, of the suiject; 

fo'ndroos, of the king; 
7. To'ndroo, the lord; to'ndroos, of the lord; 

[ § 127 ] . The foregoing personal examples, are neither masculine nor femmme, but may denote eith 
they are therefore called neuter.f 



tombro'zis, of the cities. 
fonzoo'zis, of the parents. 
pronza'zis, of the enemies. 
pombroo'zis, of the subjects. 
fondi-oo'zis, of the kings. 
tondroo'zis, of the lords. 



* Give the hissing sound to , 
T 



t Say, — Neuter, Masculiue, Feminine : — Neutral, Active, Passive. 



[ § 128 ] The followTJig examples are all masculine. 

1. Po'ndripiir, the magistrate; po'ndi-ipurs,* of the magistrate; pondi-ipu'rzis, of the magistrates. 

2. Fo'nzipur, the father; fo'nzipiu-s, of the father, fonzipii'rzis, of the fathers. 

H. Po'nzmiir, the male friend; po'nzinm-s, of the male friend; ponzinu'rzis, of the male friends. 

4. To'uzipur, the uncle; to'nzipui-s, of the uncle; toiizipu'rzis, of the uncles. 

5. Ko'nzipur, the brother; ko'nzipurs, of the brother; konzipu'rzis, of the brothers. 

[ § 129 ] Examples Feminine. 

1. Fo'ndripun, the queen; fo'ndi-ipuns,* of the queen; fondripu'nzis, of the qtieens. 

2. Fo'nzipun, the mother; fo'nzipims, of the mother; fonzipu'nzis, of the mothers. 
8. Ko'nzipun, the sister; ko'nzipims, of the sister; konzipu'nzis, of the sisters. 

4. Po'nzinun, the female friend, po'nzmims, of the female friend; ponziiiu'nzis, of the female friends. 

The above English Genitive ^Arases might have been rendered as single words, thus: po'ndi'oos, magis- 
trate's ; pondi-oo'zis, magistrates'; but the sounds are the same, and the meaning ambiguous. 



CHAPTER 11. 



OF DEPENDENT OR ACCUSATIVE NOUNS. 
[ § 130 ] All the Absolute Substantives are converted into Dependent or Accusative Substantives, merely 
by attending to the Table at page 48. There we see that the Absolute Substantives or Nouns in the pre- 
sent tense are, — O'ndi, o'ndiko, o'ndikoo ; and the Dependent or Accusative — O'ndiki, o'ndikai, o'ndikoi. 

[ § 131 ] The Accusative is rarely used ; because, as it follows its regimen, the mere order of subse- 
quence indicates that very dependence which, in the learned languages, is denoted by the foiin called a 
Case. 

[ § 132 ] Prepositions are usually connected, as suffixes, with the substantive they govern, so that the 
relation betwixt them is simple and obvious; as po'ndo, truth; poudo'pi, without truth; ko'ndi, facility; 
konde'pu, with facility : vo'nzi, hope; vonze'pi, icithout hojx : U'ndi, God; Unde'pikwi, and without God : 
di'nzoi, world; dinzoi'tu, in the icorld. 

We have, in the learned languages, six cases; in the Philosophic we have ffiy cases: for we have a 
distinct case for every s,&^&ra.i<i preposition ; and as these prepositions are suffixed to the noims they govern, 
they really become terminations denoting the same kind of relations as those of the Genitive, Dative, and 
Ablative, &c. 

Thus we have — 

Dra'nzoi, the way, (Nominative) via, Dra'nzifi, the way, ...(Accusative) viam. 

Dralnzpii,^ of the way, ...(Genitive) vise, Ho! Dra'nzoi, Oh! icay, (Vocative) via. 

Drauzoi'nu, to the way, (Dative) via;, T)Y3inzo\^n\, froni the icay, (Ablative) via. 

But besides this paltry shew of cases there are fifty others, equally useful, with only this important 
difference, that, whereas the Latin and Greek terminations have an uncertain signification, every one of our 
terminational prepositions is as intelligible as the noim to which it refers. 

* Mind and give the hissing sound to s. 

t Or Dranzoi'tu, i. e. with the preposition tu, of the way. 

70 



PART XII. 



ARTICLES. 
[ § 133 ] The EnglLsli Articles are a and the : the first is called the Indefinite, the second the Definite 
Article. Each of these words is represented in the Philosophic Language, in five diflferent ways. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE. 
[ § 134 ] 1. A, when unemphatical, is denoted by w before a noun beginning with a vowel; as u'nzi, 
element; or wu'nzi, an element: o'mbro, society, or wo'mbro, a society. 

2. A, also, when unemphatical, is denoted by w after the initial consonant of its own noim ; as bi'nzi, 
man ; bwi'nzi, a man : pa'ndi'oo, judge ; pwa'ndroo, a judge. 

3. A is, also, sometimes denoted by u before a noun having an initial consonant ; as, pi'njoo, horse : 
u pi'njoo, a horse : po'ndro, nation ; u po'ndi'o, a nation. The second and third forms are used for the sake 
of euphony, but, in other respects, are indiflferently employed. 

A is denoted by t/oo before its noun, whether that noun begins with a vowel or a consonant, but 
only where it is emphatical ; as, au ga'nsitel yoo" po'nza, no'kwi we" po'nza : — I said a friend, and not the 
friend. 

5. A, lastly, when emphatical, is denoted by oo, and follows the initial consonant of its own noun ; 
as, ]^o>nza,, friend ; poo'onza, a friend: ki'njoo, elephant; koo'injoo, an elephant: fi'njoo, ass; foo'injoo, 
an ass: fri'njoo, mule; fi'oo'injoo, a mule: ti'njoo, camel; too'injoo, a camel: tri'njoo, dromedary; troo'injoo, 



CHAPTER XL 



THE DEFINITE ARTICLE. 

[ § 135 ] As a general rule, if no article is prefixed to an appellative, the Definite Article is to be 
understood, and need not, therefore, be expressed; as vo'mbi fambe'tu, the beauty of holiness; bi'nzikur 
bondroo'tu, the man of the people: or, bo'ndroos binzi'kur, the peoples man. Still, in these cases, the 
article may be used at the discretion of the speaker. The following Rules are perfectly analogous to 
those of the Definite Article. 

[§136] 1. 27«e, when unemphatical ., is denoted by y before a noun begiuulug with a vowel; as, 
u'nzi, element; or yu'nzi, the element: o'mbro, society; yo'mbro, the society. 

2. The, when unemphatical, is denoted by y after the initial consonant of its own noim; as, binzl, 
man; byi'nzi, the man: pa'udroo, judge; pya'ndi-oo, the judge. 
U 71 



3. Tlte is, also, sometimes denoted by i before a noim having an initial consonant; as, pi'njoo, horse; 
i pi'njoo, the horse: po'ndi'o, nation; i po'ndi-o, the nation. 

4. TJie is denoted by we before its noun, whether that noun begins with a vowel or a consonant, but 
only where it is emphatical; as, Au gatsitel w^ po'nza, no'kwi i/oo' po'nza: — I said the friend, and not a 
friend. 

5. T/ie, lastly, when emphatical, is denoted by e, and follows the initial consonant of its own noun; 
as po'nza, friend; peo'nza, the friend: ki'njoo, elephant; kei'njoo, tJie elephant. 

Why do you express these two Articles in so many different ways? Because it adds to the beaut v 
and convenience of the language; and as the use of these articles is really a matter of no difficulty or 
labom-, the end justifies the variety. 



PART XIII. 



DEMONSTRA TIVES. 
[§137] These are of the same general nature as Articles. They are employed to express various 
relations among the different things named in a sentence. 
They are singidar or plural. 



[§138] TABLE I. Singular 

O, this ; as, pa'nzoi, this house. 6. 

Ro, that; as. Bo pa'nzoi, that house. 7. 

Oi, the same; as, Oi pa'nzoi, the same house. 8. 



Ei, some; as, Ri pa'nzoi, some house. 

Ou, every; as, Ou pa'nzoi, every house. 

Eou, each; as, Rou pa'nzoi, each house. 

Rai, any; as, Rai pa'nzoi, any house. 



Plural. 
6. Ei'u, , 



I (ones) as, R. 



Eou'u, all; 
Eai'u, any; 



nzoiz, some houses, 
710 plural. 
as, Rou'u pa'nzoiz, all houses. 
as, Rai'u pa'nzoiz, any houses. 



4; Roi, the other ; as, Roi pa'nzoi, the other house. 

0. 1, a certain; as, 7 panzoi, a certow house. 
With the exception of Ou, every; all the above singulars are converted into plm-als by suffixing u to 

the singular munber. 

[§139] TABLE IL 

1. O'u, these; as, O'm pa'nzoiz, these houses. 

2. Eo'u, those; as, Rq'u pa'nzoiz, those houses. 

3. Oi'u, the same; as, Oi'u pa'nzoiz, the same houses. 

4. Roi'u, other; as, Roiu pa'nzoiz, other houses. 

5. I u, certain [ones) as, 7'm pa'nzoiz, certain houses. 

[ § 140 ] The above Demonstratives are combined with certain significant letters, which are prefijced 
to them, and which respectively denote as follows: viz. End., (p);— Means, fbJ;—Kmd, (f);— Manner^ (v);— 
Tiling, (tj;— Person, (dj;— Place, (k);—Time, (g);— Cause, (tj;— scaSi Effect, (d). 

[§141 ] These are respectively called Demonstratives— Final, (1) ; — Instrumental, {2);— Special, (3); 

—Modal, (4); Real, (5); — Personal, (6); — Local, (7); Temporal, (8); — Causal, (9); and — 

Consequential, (10). 

[ § 142 ] When combined with a preposition, the compound constitutes what is commonly called an 
Adverb; as po'nu, to this end; bo'ti, by this means; fo'tu, of this kind; vo'tu, {thus,) in this manner; 
to'nu, to this thing; dq'ni, from this person ; ko'tu, {here,) in this place; go'su, {now,) at this time; to'di, 
for this cause ; do'nu, to this effect. 

These fonns will be treated more at large under the head of Adverbs. 



PART xiy. 



FEB SON AL PRONOUNS. 
[ § 143 ] These are either Sulstantive or Adjective. 



CHAPTBH I. 



OF SUBSTANTIVE PRONOUNS. 

[ § 144 ] These are Absolute or Dependent. 



SECTION I. ABSOLUTE PRONOUNS. 
[145] These are, au, // a, iliou; ai, it; wai, lie; aid, lie;* yai, she; ait, slie ; aur, we; ar, ye; 
.•jr, they; war, tliey ; yar, they; and sometimes, wr and «w, in composition, are used as Absolutes, and 
then signify lie or she. 

Absohites Emphatical. 
[§146] Aukwe'n, myself; akwe'n, thyself; aikwc'n, itself; waikwe'n, himself; yaikwe'n, herself; 
aurkwe'n, ourselves; arkwe!n, yourselves ; arkwc'n, themselves; warkwe'n, themselves; yarkwe'n, themselves. 

Absolutes More Emphatical. 
[ § 147 ] Au, taukwe'n, /, myself; a, takwe'u, thou, thyself; ai, taikwc'n, it, itself; wai, twaikwe'u, 
he, himself; yai, tyaikwe'n, she, herself; aur, taurkwe'n, we, ourselves; ax, tarkwe'n, ye, yourselves; ar, 
tiirkwe'n, they, themselves; war, twarkwe'n, they themselves; y;ir, tyarkwe'n, they, themselves. 

Absolutes Most Emphatical. 

[ § 148 ] These are formed from the preceding table by inserting the word //wen, own or very, before 
the final word kicen. 

Au, taugwe'nkwen, /, 7uy own self: a, tagwe'nkwen, thou, thine own self: ai, taigw'enkwen, it, its own 
self: wai, twaigwe'nkwen, he, his own self: yai, tyaigwe'nkwen, she, her own self: aur, taurgwe'nkwen, we, 
our own selves : ar, targwe'nkwen, ye your own selves : ar, targwe'nkwen, they, their own selves. 



SECTION II. DEPENDENT PRONOUNS. 

[§149] These are os, me: as, thee: es, it: ed, him: ur, him: et, her: un, her: on, us: an, you: 
en, them. 

as, Tonsikai'os, to love me. 
as, Tousikai'as, to love thee. 
as, Tonsikai'es, to love it. 
as, Tonsikai'et?, to love him. 
as, Tonsikai'Mr, to love him. 

^i(^ and at« are used. only after Interrogative Verbs, as u'meaic?, u'leaiV, u'neaic?, n'ueait. 

73 



1. 


Os, 


me: 


2. 


As, 


thee . 


3. 


Es, 


it: 


4. 


Ed, 


him 


5. 


Ur, 


him . 



6. 


Et, her: 


as. 


Tonsikai'f^, 


to love her. 


7. 


Un, her: 


as, 


Tonsikai'iO!, 


to love her. 


8. 


On, us: 


as. 


Tonsikai'on, 


to love us. 


9. 


An, you. 


as. 


Tonsikai'an 


, to love you. 


10. 


En, them: 


as. 


Tonsikai'm, 


to love them. 



Dependents Emphatical. 
[ § 150 ] The pronoun, self^ -n-hetlier for emphasis or distinction, is denoted by the word hcen, M-hich 
is fixed to the pronouns, both ahsohite and de])endent. 

Oskwen, myself: askwen, thyself: eskwen, itself: iirkwcn, liimself: uiikwcu, herself: onkweu, our- 
selves: ankwen, yourselves: enkwen, themselves. 

Dependents More Emphatical. 
[§151] Os, toskwen, me, myself: as, taskwen, thee, thyself: es, teskwen, it, itself: ur, turkwen, 
Mm, himself: un, tunkwen, her, herself: on, tonkwen, iis, ourselves : an, tankwen, you, yourselves : en, 
tenkwen, them, themselves. There are no accents placed on these words because they var}- according to the 

Dependents Most Emphatical^ 
[152] Os, tosgwe'nkwen, m£, mine own self: as, tasgwe'ukwen, thee, thine own self : es, tesgwe'u- 
kwen, it, it's own self: vx, turgwe'nkwen, him, his own self: im, tuugwe'ukwen, her, her own self: on, 
tongwe'nkwen, ns, our own selves: an, tangwe'ukwen, you, your oivn selves: en, tengvve'nkwen, them, 
their own selves. 

EMPHATICAL8 DISTINCTIVE. 

[ § 153 ] There are four Pronouns which are used not only for emphasis, but for distinction. Two 
are substantives, kicen and kwon ; and two are adjectives, gwen and gwon. 

[ § 154 ] Kwen, and given are sometimes applied to pronoims of the third person, to prevent ambi- 
guity ; and these two always refer to the chief subject, or nominative. 

[ § 155 ] Kwon or gwon is sometunes applied to a Pronoun, to shew that it does not refer to the chiei 
subject, but to some other person or thing. 

EXAMPLES. 

The father was angiy, because his son was idle ; and he said to him, that he ought to be punished. 

Fo'nzipm-, to'nsildl, kool twai^(ce'/i fro'nzipur bra'ntinil ; wai'kwi niur ga'nsitel, wal/i-ico'?j ki'u ra'mpivoi. 

Here gwen applies to the father, and Tcwon to the son. 

Gajus contemnebat divitias quod sefeXicem reddere non possenl.'^ 

Gajus gro'nsifel fa'mboiz ; hool nnr plfu pa'mpivrostu'rkwen. Here u'rhwen refers to Ga'jus. 

Gajus contemnebat divitias quod eum felicem reddere non possent. 

Kool nnr plUu palmpivrostu'rhwon, Here ur'icwon refers not to the chief subject, Gajus, but to some 
other person who had previously been spoken of. 



CHAPTER 11. 



ADJECTIVE PKONOUNS. 
[ 156 ] These are fonned by adding t to the Substantive Absolute Pronovms. 

1. Au, /.- tau, my: 4. Wai, /<e.- twai, his. 7. \Jn,she: tim, her. 10. Ax, they: tar, their. 

2. A, thou: to, thy. 5. Ur, he: tax, his. 8. Aur, we .• taur, our. 11. 'VVar,?A<'^.- twar, their.\ 

3. Ai, it: tai, its. 6. Y?ii, she: tyai, her. 9. Ar, ye: tor, your. 12. Y at, they: tyar, their. 1i 

* See Zumpt's Latin Grammar. 

t Twar is masculine, and tyar feminine. 

74 



[ § 157 ] Thefse Adjectives are empliatical, more emphatical, and most empliatical. 

Empliatlcal. 
[ § 158 ] Suffix gwen to the Adjective Pronouns and they become emphatical. 

Taugwen, my own: tagwen, thy own: talgwen, its own: twaigwen, his own: tyaigwen, her oicn: 
taurgwcn, our own: targwen, your own: targwen, their own: twargweu, their own: tyargwen, their own. 

More Emphatical. 

[ 159 ] Taugwe'ngwen, my very oion : tagwe'ngwen, thy very own : taigwe'ngwen, its very own : 

twaigwe'ngwen, his very own: tyaigwe'ngwen, her very oicn: taurgwe'ngwen, our very own: targwe'ngwen, 

your very own: targwe'ngwen, their very own: twargwe'ugwen, tlieir very own: tyargwe'ngwen, their very own. 

[ § 160 ] Observe. — Most-Emphaticals dependent, may analogically be formed ; and the words being 

longer, would add proportionally to the emphasis ; nevertheless, they appear to us to be rather too cumbrous. 

[§161] There are three kinds of Adjective Pronoims. 1st. Disjunctive ; 2nd. Anterior ; and 3rd. 

Posterior. 

The first usually follow their noun apart from it ; the second precede it ; and the third, form part of the 

noun which they qualify, as a termination. 

Disjunctive Pronouns. 

[ § 162 ] These are separated from their nomis by an interval of one or more words; and are as follows. 

Tost, mine : tast, thine : test, its : twest, his : tyest, hers . 

theirs : and tyent, theirs. 

Examples. 

1. This is thy friend, and that is mine. 

2. This is my friend, and that is thine. 

3. This is its friend, and that is yours. 

4. This is her friend, and that is his. 

5. This is our friend, and that is hers. 

6. This is your friend, and that is ours. 

7. This is my friend, and that is yours. 

8. This is thy friend, and that is theirs. 

Examples.— Anteriors and Posteriors. 

1. Ji^ friend: ^aM po'nza, or, ponzaW. 5. 7/er deformity: ^j/a* vro'mbi, or, vrombeV(/n. 

2. Thy life : ta da'nzoo, or, danzoo'tos. 6. Our hopes : tjutr vo'nziz, or, vouzv'fonz. 

3. Its beauty : fai vo'mbi, or, vombeVes. 7. Your rejection : t^^r bro'nza, or, bronzaVa;;. 

4. His ignorance : tjcai pla'mbai, or^ plambai'<«/-. 8. Their reply : tar pri'ndai, or, prindai'/^'w. 



ton 


t, ours: tant, yours: tent, theirs: tw 


1. 


0" urn ponza'tas. 


kwi ro'um tost. 


2. 


0" um ponza'tos. 


kwi ro"um fast. 


3. 


0" um ponza'tes. 


kwi ro"um tant. 


4. 


0" um ponza'tun. 


kwi ro"um Ucest. 


5. 


0" um ponza'ton. 


kwi r"oum tyest. 


6. 


0" um ponza'tan. 


kwi ro"um font. 


7. 


0" um ponza'tos, 


kwi ro"um tant. 


8. 


0" um ponza'tas. 


kwi ro"um tent. 



PBEPOSITIONAL PEONOUNS. 



[ § 163 ] If we turn back to [ § 149 ] we shall find a table of dependent pronouns which arc suffixed to 
verbs: this table corresponds with the first of the following two tables. Now Table No. 1. are such 
pronouns as are suffixed to prepositions containing oo or u, and Table No. 2. such as are suffixed to 
prepositions containing e or ('. 

TABLE No. 1. 

Os, me; as, thee; es, it; ed, him; ur, him; et, her ; uii, her; on, us; an, you; cu, them. 

X 75 



TABLE No. 2. 
Aus, me; as, thee; ais, (V, urs, him; uns, her ; aiu-s, «s; axs, you ; ars, ^/iem. 

EXAMPLES. 
Poo'os or pos, poo'as or po^, poo'es or pes, poo'e(^ o?* pec?, poo'«r or pwr, poo'ef or pe/, poo'«/! or piui, 
poo'o7i or pon, poo'an or paw, poo'ew or pe«. 

Pe'aas or paw^, pe'ws or pas, pe'ai's or pa;*, peWrs or pi»-s, pe((«s or p!(«s, pe'rt;»-s or \iaurs, pe'a/w or 
prjrs, pe'ars or pars. 

[ § 164 ] T^Tien the emphasis tails on the pronoun, we put the pronoun fr.sf, and place an emphasis 
over it, as in the following Table : the pronouns being of the absolute form, although really dependent in 
signification upon the suffixed preposition. 

EXAMPLES. 
Aiilai, against me; a'di, for thee; ai'fii, with it; wai'ci, after him ; yai'cii, before her; a«r'pi, with- 
out us ; n/pi, without you ; a/pu, wa/pu, yrt»-"pu, with them. 0"bi and a^hi, at page 3, should have 
been auVi and n'lii. 



ADDENDA TO DEPEXDEXT PBONOUNS. 



[ § 165 ] On, an, and en, are exchanged for ol, al, and el, where the soimd would be improved. The 
atter have the same meaning as the former : namely, us, you, and them. 



PART XY. 



INTERROGATIVE AND SUBJUNCTIVE SUBSTANTIVES. 
[§166] There are certam words, such as what, which, who, whom, whose, why, where, when, (all 
begmnmg with ich ) which, at the commencement of a sentence, have the power of asking questions. They 
are indeed Interrogative Nouns ; and these same words, when placed in a situation which deprives them of 
the power of expressing interrogation, become merely material and. •pictorial, like prepositions, conjunctions, 
&c. In the former case, they are called Interrogative Substantives, and in the latter. Subjunctive. 



CHAPTER I. 



OF IXTERROGATIVE SUBSTANTIVES. 

1. Sloo? ivhat? ov tchich of all? 11. Skyoo.? how much? (superficial) 

2. Tyoo? which? fabsolutej rchich of certain ones? 12. Hkwoo? how mucJi? (solid) 

3. Twoo? which? (dependent.) 13. Gyoo.? what time? 

4. Pyoo ? whose ? refeiTing to things. 14. Fyoo ? what kind? 

5. Djoo? who? ov what person? (absolute.) 15. Njoo? what mode or manner ? 

6. Dwoo.? whom? or what person? (dependent) 16. Tyoo'.? what cause or reason ? 

7. Byoo.? wAose.? referring to persons. 17. Dyoo'.? what effect? 

8. Kyoo.? ichat place? 18. Cyoo? ichat distance? 

9. IL^rf 00? how much? what quantity? (general) Id. J yoo? what degree? 

10. Kloo ? how much ? {lineal) 



[§167 ] Except 2'>yoo and lyoo, all the words of the above table are mere nouns; but our English 
words, how, why, lohen, where, &c. include not only the sense of a substantive but also of a preposition ; 
where, therefore, we express the compound, we are compelled to suffix a preposition to the noun. 



How ? i. e. in what manner ? ... Vyoo'tu ? 

How ? i. e. in what degree ? ... Jyoo'tu ? 

Why? i.e. for what rmso?* .? ... Tijoodi? 

With what effect ? Dyoo'pu? 

How far? i. e. to what distance? Cyoo'nu? 

When ? i. e. at what time ? ... Oyoo'su ? 
f Where ? i. e. at what jjhce f ... Kyodsu f 
(.Where? i.e. in what p/ace .? ... Kyodtu? 



Whence? i. e. from -whAt place?... Kyodm? 
Whither V i. e. to what place ? ... Kyodnu ? 

Ofwhat/aW.? Fyodtu? 

How long.? i. e. through what time? Gyoddu? 
How? i. e. bvwhat«!ea«s.? {singular) SlodtVi 
How ? i. e. by what means.? (plural) Sloduti? 



[§168] The above Interrogatives, as well as Subjunctives, are rendered emphatically unlver.sal by 
suffixing to each of them, the syllable tw. 

TABLE. 
Sloo'un,* whatsoever. Dwoo'un, whomsoever. Skyoo'un, ditto (superficial.) Tyoo'uii, whatsoever cause. 

Tyoo'un, whichsoever. Byoo'uu, whose'soever. Skwoo'un, ditto solid. Dyoo'un, ivhatsoever effect. 

Twoo'un, whichsoever. Kyoo'un, whatsoever place. Gyoo'un, whatsoever time. Cyoo'un, ichatsoever distance. 
Pyoo'un, whose/soever. Kwoo'un, how much soever. Fyoo'un, whatsoever hind. Jyoo'un, whatsoever degree. 
Dyoo'un, whd soever. Kloo'un, ditto (lineal.) Vyoo'un, whatsoever mode. 

[ § 169 ] When Nouns Interrogative and Subjunctive are governed by prepositions, those preposi- 
tions are inserted immediately before the final syllable un, and betwixt that syllable and the preceding 
Inten-ogative or Subjimctive. 

EXAMPLES. 

— Sloo'tuun, ill whatever. 

— Twoo'puun, with whichever. 

— Pyoo'nuim, to tohoseever. 



Sloo, what; tu, in; un, ever; 

Twoo, which ; pu, with ; un, ever ; 

Pyoo, whose; nu, to ; un, ever ; 

Dwoo, whom ; pu, with; un, ever ; 

Byoo, vihose ; nu, to ; tin, ever ; 

Kyoo, what place; nu, to; un, ever ; 
Kwoo, how much ; un, ever ; (generally) 
Kloo, what length ; nu, to ; un, ever ; 
Skyoo, what area; tu, of; un, ever;... 
Skwoo, what content ; tu, of ; un, ever ; 
Gyoo, what time ; ci, after ; un, ever ;... 
Fyoo, what hind ; ni, from ; un, ever ;... 
Vyoo, what mode; tu, in; un, ever ; ... 
Tyoo, what cause ; ni, from ; un, ever ; 
Pyoo, what effect ; pu, with ; un, ever ; 
Cyoo, what distance ; nu, to ; un, ever ; 
Jyoo, what degree ; nu, to ; un, ever ; ... 



— Dwoo'puun, icith whomsoever. 

— Byoo'nuun, to whoseever. 

— Kyoo'nuun, to whatever place. 

— Kwoo'puun dre'mba, with how much soever flattery. 

— Kloo'nuun, to whatever length. 

— Skyoo'tuun, of whatever area, 

— Skwoo'tuun, of whatever content. 

— Gyoo'ciun, after whatsoever time. 

— Fyoo'tuun, of whatever kind. 

— Vyoo'tuun, in whatever manner. 

— Tyoo'niun, from whatever cause. 

— Dyoo'puuu, tvith whatever effect. 

— Cyoo'nuun, to whatever distance. 
-^ Jyoo'nuun, to whatever degree. 



* Sound z before un, as, Kyoosu'sun, Tyoo'sun, Swoo'sun, &c. 

77 



[§170] The personal pronouns, m/, a, ai, w\* un, aur, nr, and nr, are combined with preceding 
Interrogatives and Subjunctives ; and, when practicable, these pronouns are inserted in the place of the 
vowel 00, as follows: 



Separated. 


Unikd. 


Separated. 


United. 




Sloo, au 


slau 


ichat I 


Gyoo ar 


gjar 


lohat time ye. 


Twooa 


twa 


u-h'ch tJiou, 


Fyoo ar 


fyar 


what kind they 


Dwoo ai 


dwai 


whom it 


Yyoo au 


vyau 


what manner I 


Kyoo aur 


kyaur 


what place we 


Tyooa 


tya 


why thou 


Kwooun 


kwun 


how rmich she (general) 


Dyoo ar 


dyar 


what effect you 


Kloo ur 


klur 


ditto he (linen!) 


Cyoo ar 


Cyar 


how far they 


Skyoo ai 


skyai 


ditto it (superficial) 


Jyoo un 


jyim 


what degree she 


Skwoo ar 


skwar 


ditto they (solid) 








[§171 ] A\Tien the Subjunctive is governed by a 


preposition, that 


preposition follows the personal 


pronoim. 














EXAMPLES. 







Sloit'hi pa'nsitel, in what I spohe. 
Twalji pa'nsitel, against lokich thou . 
DwaiTju de'ntripel, for whom it fought. 
KyawVtu po'ntoo, where, (in what place) we are. 
KwuVpu ve'nsikel, with how much he struggled. 
KlwVdu prentisel, through what length he icent. 
Sky«(''tu re'ntrlsool, within what area it icas enclosed. 



SkwnVtu pa'nsitel, of what cubical quantity you spoke. 
GyaVsu pe'ntisel, when, (at ichat time) you came. 
FyaVtu pa'nsitel, of tchat kind they spoke. 
VynVtu do'ntipel, in ichat manner they acted. 
Tya'di pintlpe'lees,t ichy thou didst it. 
CyaVsu po'ntipil, at ichat distance they were. 
Jyjt'ntu vo'mpikil ! hoio beautiful she was ! 



[§172 ] The Interrogative Nouns are usually abridged before a word commeucing with a vowel, by 
cutting off the final syllable, co. 

EXAMPLES. 

>S'A?/i'leu fya'nzooz ke'ntlfai? what area did 

the fields contain ? 
Skwi'meu ro te'nzis ke'ntifai? what (cubical) 

quantity does that barrel contain ? 
Cyhie&r prentisai'nu ? what distance will they 
go to ? 
(better) Cyoo'nw. prentlse'near"? or inoijr pre'ntisai. 



/SWmeu kondoo'tas ? tchat is your name ? 
T^u'meu ponza'tiu-? which is his friend ? 
TMji'leaid nas ke'ntinai? ichich did he give to you? 
Z>?/i'neu kentinai'nu punti'nupir kondoo'tes? 
Who will give to the infant its name ? 
Dw\[g&v pa'mprlnai? whom did they insuWi 
^tt'I'mea fre'ntinai? how much dost thou demand?- 
A7ulra di'enza? what length was the coi-d?. 



CHAPTER 11. 



SUBJUNCTIVE SUBSTANTIVES. 
[ § 173 ] The Interrogatives are converted into Subjunctives by depriving them of their interrogative 
power ; and that is done by making them parts of the matter of a sentence which has its own prei 
governing characteristic : % as, 



' This is the man who did it. 



xunis 
The whole sentence is an assertion, — and no 



* Ur and Un are both absolute and dependent in form; the context determining the fact. 
t The f following the I, is introduced merely for the sake of euphony, by a universal rule, to be 
hereafter furnlslied. \ See Charatcrlstlc. 



part of It is interrogatwe. But the word " who ," when taking the lead in a sentence, becomes the charac- 
teristic interrogative, and makes the sentence a question. Here the sentence is pre-occupied with the charac- 
teristic asse/-<«ye, which thereby reduces '■' loho" to a mere part of the thiyig asserted, and deprives it of its 
interrogative power. 

EXAMPLES OF SUBJUNCTIVE KOUNS. 

1. (SWmeal? Au bo'nsifo sJai po'ntoo, or (slalum.) What is it? I know what it is. 

2. y^oineait dre'ntipal? Au bo'nsifo twun dre'ntipen. Which will she find? I know which she will find. 

3. r^u'meu fonzipu'rtos ? A bo'nsifo ti/'um fonzipu'rtos. Which is my father? You know which is 

my father. 

4. i)^i'neu nur kentlnai'es ? Au bo'nsifo dwu'mu kentine'nees. Who will to him give it ? I know to 
whom he will give it. 

5. Di/nn^u panzoi'tu? Au bo'nsifo di/\xa panzoi'tu. Who will be in the house? I know who will 

be in the house. 



PART XYI. 

PBEPOSITIONS. 

[§174] The following Table contains a list of the Prepositions. These are of two denominations: 
long and short. The first column contains all long; the second, short. The long and short have the same 
absolute meaning, and express the same relation. Thus the single word of is denoted by too, and also by 
tu : the former being used chiefly for emphasis ; the latter always unemphatical, and most frequently 
incorporated with, and suffixed to, the noun which governs it. While the long prepositions are constructed 
to receive the continued force of the emphasis, the short, (being only small links in the catenation of words,) 
are passed over lightly, and almost disappear as parts of more important substantive words. 

It must not be forgotten, that whenever the whole of the preposition is expressed, the Table of Pi-o- 
noims, No. 1. at page 75 must always be used, and never No. 2 : the latter table being only employed 
where the preposition is a mere single consonant. 



CHAPTER I. 



1. 


Too, 


tu, 


2. 


Te, 


ti. 


3. 


Doo,* 


du, 



TABLE OF PREPOSITIONS. 
Of: as, Toc/os, of me. Binziku'riw, of the man. 

With; bi/ means of : as, Te'os,bgmeansofmQ. Yemhre ti, ivith or hgmean.^ of a. svrori. 
Bg ; before the agent : as, Boo'os, by me. Dwoo'c?m rou'u fo'udooz po'nsipool, % whom 
all things were created. Tyoo'du, by which. 
De, di, For ; on account of: as, De Jon, for John. Dr Saru, for Sarah. Tau'c^i ko'nzipur, 

for my brother. 
Foo, fu. Out of: as, Au pointifo'es rundoo'/w, I have made it out of wood. 
Fe, fi. Of; concerning; about: as, Fondrlpu^r, nau trai gra'nsito, concerning the King, I 

say not any thing (nothing). Sloo^ u'lear pa'nsuto? what were they speaking 
about? i. e. concerning what were they speaking? 



This word, doo or du, is never used except for emphatical distinction. 
79 



7. Too, vu, Accordi)>g to : as, Tumprour'i roo Jon, or, tumprou'?/Mri John, the go%^(\ according 

to John. Twai'iw to'ndi-is, according to his promise. 

8. ^0, vi, Instead of: as, Fonzipivrri'z vri'a tnis \Ta'nsipai fro'nzooz, instead of the fathers shall 

upwards grow the children. 

9. Poo, pn, With; in compani/ icith : as, Wai pre'ntiselj;oo'en, bel drus pe'ntisel^e'en, he went 

7citli, but came back without them. Poo'os or ^os, with me ; ^'f'os or paws, 
icithout thee. 

10. Pe, pi, Without; not with: as, Twai}// ko'nzipet, ?(vV/(0(/Miis sister. Yonzc^j?', ?«V/io;/^ hope. 

Pondo^M, with tnith, — Uude^i', icithout God. 

11. Boo, bii, For; on the j^crt of: as, Wai de'ntripel twai'ti« po'ndi-o, he fought for his nation. 

Boo'os, no'kwi Je'os, for, and not against me. 

12. Be, bi, Against: as, Pronza'J/, o^ai'/i.s^ the enemy. Pondo'ii, against the tnith. 

13. Noo, nu, To: as, Tombro'^w, fo the city. Prinzo'nwz, to the mountains. Koo'os or 7iOs; noo'as. 

or was ; nodes or «es ; to me, to thee, to it, &c. 

14. Ne, ui. From : as, ^Vos or waus ; ne'ns or j^as ; nc^on or jiaurs, &c ; from me ; from thee ; 

/Vo/H us, &c. 

15. Soo, su, At: as, Soo'os, at me. Soo'es-^ at it. Sodon, at us. Au pontipi'sid Pa'ris, I was 

at Paris. Tau'sif po'uzas, at my fiiend's. Panzoi,s« tau'tu po'nza, at the house 
of my friend. 

16. So, si, Off; not on; (denoting rest :) as, Wai po'ntipil sf' pi'njoi, no'kwi jWes, he was q^ 

the horse, and not vpon it. Wai pra'nsivel pinjoo's/, he stood off the horse. 

17. Seni, sini, From off; (denoting motion:) as, Wai pe'ntisel twai'*/?;;' pi'njoo, he came from of 

his horse. 
Over ; across : as, Diuzasu, across the river. Zoo Jam-'dim, over Jordan. 
About; (icandering:) as, Wai pre'ntisel tombro's;', he went ahout the city. 
Into; (motion:) as, Ar pre'ntisel tombro'wH/, they went into the City. Modes, into it. 
Out of; (motion:) as, Wai pe'ntisel tombro'«»', he came out of the city, il/^'es, out 

of it. 
Within; (rest:) as, Tbo'os, within mc ; f^'os, outside of me. Tauf « panzoi, within 

my house. 
Outside of: as, Panzoi'/2', outside of the house. Fanzoi^;', out of the palace. ?Vos, 

outside of me. Tdas, outside of thee. 
24. Doo, du, TJirough ; throughout ; during : as, Fe'mbri e'ntisel twai'r/« randcj, the sword passed 

through his body, '\^'ai ba'nsivel kro'tu yantaiV/« bu'ndis, he sat there during 

the whole day. 
-•"'• E?'J) d') Beside; hy the side of: as, Dinsuno'A' u'nzoz, heside the running waters, ^^f'os, 

f/(-as, ddeB ; beside me, beside thee, beside it ; i. e. by the side of me, &c. 
I J) : as, Pi'inzo'fj'M, vp the moimtaln. Panza'^rw, up the stairs. 
Dou-n : as, Prinzo'^rt, down the moimtain, panza'/n, (Zozt'w the stau's. 
Above : as, Tam-'o?r« a'ndoz, above our heads. Brodos or (/ros ; droo'as or (7)-as ; 

rf/-oo'on or «7ron : above me ; aJow thee ; above It. 



18. 


Zoo, 


zu, 


19. 


Ze, 


zi. 


20. 


Moo, 


mu, 


21. 


Me, 


mi, 


22. 


Too, 


tu, 


23. 


Te, 


tj, 



26. 


Troo, 


till, 


27. 


Tre, 


tri, 


28. 


Droo, 


di-u, 



29. Dre, dri, Beneath ; below : as, Wai pra'nfsivel taiiV/r?' ponza, lie stood iefo?« my friend. Dre'on 

or c^raus ; dre'as or dras ; dre'es or Jrais ; beneath me, beneath thee, beneath it. 

30. (Joo, cu. Before: in front of: as, A'bruham ka'nsikel bondroo'oM fondrotu, Abraham bowed 

before the people of the country. Coo'os or cos ; roo'as or cas ; roo'es or res ; 
before me ; before thee ; before it. 
•^1- QPj £1) After; behind: as, Bi'nzikurz i'ntifool yooju f'endoo, ya'pin roi'c?' too'cl, the men 
were placed xipon a line, the one after the other of them. 

32. Joo, ju. Upon: as, kanzaiyw or _/oo kan'zis, wpow the table. 

33. Je, ji, Underneath; under: as, Wai pra'nsivel yoo';V u'mvi, he stood imderncath a trci\ 

Ya'uzil po'ntoo yoq'/j kinsufo'ri, the carriage is U7ider cover, i. e. a covering thing. 

34. Goo, gu, On this side of: as, Prinzo'^j*, on this side of the mountain. Au pr'ansivel kan- 

^oi[rju, no'kwi kanzoi'y/, I was standing on this side of the temple, and not be- 
yond, (or on the other side of) the temple. 

Beyond; on the other side of: as, Gef <je/ pymsou Lnzoiz, beyond/ beyond/ tlie 
starry skies. G'e'os, ^r'an, y/en, beyond me, beyond you, beyond them. 

Betwixt: as, Au Jcoo'um Si'lu kwi Kyurib'dis, I am betwixt Scylla and Charybdis. 
A'oo'en, betwixt them. Au'^-m a'Aw«, betwixt me and thee. Pondo'/oi* prondo'- 
kwi, kwa'um u pra'ntur ki'nza, betwixt truth and falsehood there is a great gulf. 

Among: as, BondrooWLW, «>?;o«y the people. 

Over-against ; (op;posite in place^ face to face^ vis a vis): as, Fo'ndroo Carlz, pantri- 
koo'/jil Withau'l ; King Charles was beheaded over-against Whitehall. 

Near to : as, Kanzoi|prM, near to the church. Wai pra'nsivel proo'os, ^jroo'as, jjroo'ca; 
he stood 7iear to me, near to thee, near to it. 

Far from: as, JJniefpri, far from Goi. Use's p?-^'os j:)?va'skwi, let it be /ar /i-ow 

me, and far from thee. 
Like : as, Unde'JrM, Wee God. Twai'Jrw fo'nzipur. Wee his father. 
Unlike : as, Tau'Sn ponza', unlike my friend. Bre^os or bra,us, unlike me. 
At the beginning of: as, Dcndroo'.s/jrM, at the beginning of the fight. Sjiroo'iis, at the 

beginning of it. 
In the midst of : as, Dendroo'sirw, zn ^AeTw/cZsio/" the fight. Stroo' es, in the midst of it. 
At the end of: as, Dcndi-oo'sfn'^ at the end of the fight. Slrf/cs, at the end of it. 
kru, Excejit: (exclusive): as, Kou'u tau'/cre konzipu'ntos, all excej^t my sister. Kroo'oii, 

except me. Kroo'en, except them. 
Besides; (inclusive): as, /uvos'kwi, kwa po'ntipil ko'nzipurtos; and besides mc there 

was my brother. 

Li favor of: as, Wai pa'nsitel twaiVrw po'nza, he spoke w_/J«fo«ro/ his friend. Troo'- 

os or ^/■'os, m favour of me. 
/« 5/«'te of: as, Ar dampinel anta?/ri ko'nzi, ye persisted in spite o/all advice. Trc'o^ 

or ^raus, in spite of me. 

81 



3.5. 


Ge, 


gi, 


36. 


Koo, 


ku. 


37. 


Skoo, 


skii. 


38. 


Ke, 


ki. 


39. 


Proo, 


pru, 


40. 


Pre, 


pri, 


41. 


Broo, 


bru. 


42. 


Bre, 


bri. 


43. 


Sproo, 


spru 


44. 


Stroo, 


stru, 


45. 


8tre, 


stri, 


46. 


Kroo, 


kru, 


47. 


Kre, 


kri. 


48. 


Troo, 


tru. 


49. 


Tre, 


tri, 



50. Gloo, 



51. 


Gle, 


gli, 


52. 


Snoo, 


snu, 


53. 


Sne, 


sni, 


54. 


Spoo, 


spu 


55. 


Spe, 


spi, 



glu, Along ; through the length of : as, Ye'ndroz te'ntisel ^?oo di'a'nzoi or dranzoiyi^, the 

soldiers travelled along the road. 
Round about : as, Tombro'^?*, round about the city. 
Until: as, ^snu gu'ndi ; until this hour. EoVwit bim'Jis, xmlil that day. 

Observe. The preposition noo applied to time has the same meaning ; as, 

Onu gu'ndis, to ( i. e. until) this hour. O'nu pu'ndis, to tliis year. 
Since ; (both preposition and conjunction.) : as, ros'wt bu'ndis, since that day. 
Toioards: as, Spoo'os, towards me. Tombro'spw, toioar^^s the city. 
Fromwards; in a direction from : as, Aur te'ntisel tombro's^jj tu Bristul, we travelled 

in a direction from the city of Bristol. 



CHAPTER 11. 



TABULAES WITH PREPOSITIONS. 

[§175] All the Tabulars which end in a vowel, admit of the suffixing of any one of the short 
Prepositions: with this only remark, that the previous accent upon the Tabular must be advanced one 
syllable. 

EXAMPLES. 



First Difi 


erences. 




Second Differences. 




Tliird Differences. 


1. Do'ndoo, 


dondoo'<«. 


13. 


Po'ndoi, 


pondoi'w/. 


25. 


Po'ndo, 


pondo'^rw. 


2. Do'ndoo, 


dondoo'ii. 


14. 


Po'ndoi, 


pondoi'n?'. 


26. 


Po'ndo, 


pondo'i/-;', 


3. Do'ndoo, 


dondoo'(?(<. 


15. 


Po'ndoi, 


pondoi'sM. 


27. 


Po'ndo, 


T^onAodru. 


4. Do'ndoo, 


dondoo'c?/. 


16. 


Po'ndoi, 


pondoi'sz 


28. 


Po'ndo, 


pondo'rfr/. 


5. Do'ndoo, 


doudooy"«. 


17. 


Po'ndoi, 


pondoi'sw, 


29. 


Po'ndo, 


pondo'cM. 


6. Do'ndoo, 


doondooyi', 


18. 


Po'ndoi, 


pondoi'st 


30. 


Po'ndo, 


pondo'f?'. 


7. Do'ndoo, 


dondoo'i-i<. 


19. 


Po'ndoi, 


pondoi'w!*. 


31. 


Po'ndo, 


pondo'jM, 


8. Do'ndoo, 


dondoo't)}'. 


20. 


Po'ndoi, 


pondoi'»it*. 


32. 


Po'ndo, 


pondo|/?'. 


9. Do'ndoo, 


dondoo'/j?<, 


21. 


Po'ndoi, 


pondoi'^M. 


33. 


Po'ndo, 


pondo'^w. 


10. Do'ndoo, 


dondoo^?'^ 


22. 


Po'ndoi, 


pondoi'ij. 


34. 


Po'ndo, 


pond(2'^t'. 


11. Do'ndoo, 


dondoo'Jii. 


23. 


Po'ndoi, 


pondoi'(7?t. 


35. 


Po'ndo, 


pondo^M. 


12. Do'ndoo, 


dondoo'ii. 


24. 


Po'ndoi, 


pondoi'Ji". 


36. 


Po'ndo, 


pondo^re'. 


Fourth Differences. 




Fifth Differences. 




Sixth Differences. 


37. Po'nda, 


ponda'JrM. 


44 


Po'ndi, 


ponde'/cM. 


51. 


Po'ndai, 


pondai'swM. 


38. Po'nda, 


ponda'?>rj. 


45 


Po'ndi, 


ponde'^r?'. 


55. 


Po'ndai, 


pondai'snj. 


39. Po'nda, 


ponda'«2^/-M, 


46 


Po'ndi, 


ponde'^Zw. 


56. 


Po^dai, 


poiidai'*jO!<. 


40. Po'nda, 


ponda'/r(«. 


47 


Po'ndi, 


ponde'^//. 


57. 


Po'ndai, 


pondai'.9^/('. 


41. Po'nda, 


ponda's/^ri'. 


48 


Po'ndi, 


ponde'fo-M. 


58. 


Po'ndai, 


pondai'wM. 


42. Po'nda, 


ponda'A;r«, 


49 


Po'ndi, 


pondeiri". 


59. 


Po'ndai, 


pondaiwi'. 


43. Po'nda, 


ponda'A,Tj. 


50 


Po'ndi, 


ponde^r«. 


60. 


Po'ndai, 


pondai^^ri'. 



CHAPTER III. 



PLURAL TABULAES AND PREPOSITIONS. 

[ § 176 ] When a Preposition is applied to a plural Tabular, (of course ending In z), the short prepo- 
sition must be iffixed immediately before the plural s. The Prepositions are In Italics. 











EXAMPLES. 










First Differences. 




Second Differences. 




Third Differences. 


1. 


Do'iidooz, 


AonAooHuz. 


11. 


Do'ndoiz, 


dondoi'Jwz. 


21. 


Po'ndoz, 


pondo'<«tz. 


2. 


Do'ndooz, 


dondoo'<«z. 


12. 


Do'ndolz, 


dondoI'Jiz. 


22. 


Po'ndoz, 


pondo'^iz. 


3. 


Do'ndooz, 


dondoo'(?t«z. 


13. 


Do'ndoiz, 


dondoi'wMz. 


23. 


Po'ndoz, 


pondo'rfwz. 


4. 


Do'ndooz, 


dondoo'(?iz. 


14. 


Do'ndoiz, 


dondoi'm'z. 


24. 


Po'nd(2z, 


pondo'c?('z. 


5. 


Do'ndooz, 


dondoo/MZ. 


15. 


Do'ndoiz, 


dondoI'si«z. 


25. 


Po'ndoz, 


pondo'^rMZ. 


6. 


Do'ndooz, 


dondoo^z. 


16. 


Do'ndoiz, 


dondoi'stz. 


26. 


Po'ndoz, 


pondo'<rtz. 


7. 


Do'ndooz, 


dondoo'i'Mz. 


17. 


Do'ndoiz, 


dondoi'sMz. 


27. 


Po'ndoz, 


poDdo'«?rMZ. 


8. 


Do'ndooz, 


dondoo'yjz. 


18. 


Do'ndoiz, 


dondol'gj'z. 


28. 


Po'ndoz, 


pondo'(?riz. 


9. 


Do'ndooz, 


dondoo)^«z. 


19. 


Do'ndoiz, 


dondoI'jWMZ. 


29. 


Po'ndoz, 


pondo'cMz. 


10. 


Do'ndooz, 


dondoo|^j«'z. 


20. 


Do'ndoiz, 


dondol'wjiz. 


30. 


Po'ndoz, 


pondo'czz. 




Fourth Differences. 




Fifth Differences. 




Sixth Differences. 


31. 


Po'ndaz, 


ponda'/wz. 


39. 


Po'ndiz, 


ponde'spn«z. 


47. 


Po'ndalz, 


pondal'^^KZ. 


32. 


Po'ndaz, 


ponda^Vz. 


40. 


Po'ndiz, 


ponde's^^rtz. 


48. 


Po'ndalz, 


pondai'^?<z. 


33. 


Po'ndaz, 


ponda'^i«z. 


41. 


Po'ndiz, 


ponde'siTOZ. 


49. 


Po'ndaiz, 


pondai's»?iz. 


34. 


Po'ndaz, 


pooda'^jz. 


42. 


Po'ndiz, 


ponde'sir-iz 


50. 


Po'ndalz, 


pondal'sniz. 


35. 


Po'ndaz, 


ponda'^jrMZ. 


43. 


Po'ndiz, 


ponde'Z;rMZ. 


51. 


Po'ndaiz, 


pondai's^MZ. 


36. 


Po'ndaz, 


ponda'pm. 


44. 


Po'ndiz, 


ponde'^riz. 


52. 


Po'ndaiz, 


pondai'spiz. 


37. 


Po'ndaz, 


ponda'Jrwz. 


45. 


Po'ndiz, 


ponde'«i-MZ. 


53. 


Po'ndaiz, 


pondaI'^-i<z. 


38. 


Po'ndaz, 


ponda'Srjz. 


46. 


Po'ndiz, 


ponde'fri'z. 


54. 


Po'ndaiz, 


pondal'Arjz. 



CHAPTER IV. 



PREPOSITIONS WITH ADJECTIVES. 

[§177] Prepositions may be united with the Adjectives exactly according to the analogy of the 
previous noims. The Prepositions are In Italics. 



EXAMPLES. 

1. Do'ntur, dontu'r^tt fo'ndooz, of active things. 7. Do'ntou, 

2. Do'ntur, dontu'r^' fo'ndooz, with active things. 8. Do'ntou, 

3. Do'ntm-, dontu'r^;« fo'ndooz, by active things. 9. Do'ntou, 

4. Do'ntur, dontu'rJj fo'ndooz, for active things. 10. Do'ntou, 

5. Do'ntur, dontu'iyk fondooz, out of active things. 11. Do'ntou, 

6. Do'ntur, A.Qni\xh-fiif}\vloQZ, concerning active things. 12. Do'ntou, 

Z 83 



dontou'^M fo'ndooz, of material things. 
dontou'f/i'fo'ndooz, besidematerial things. 
dontov!mu fo'ndooz, into material things. 
do'ntou^M fo'ndooz, with material things. 
dontou'Jrw fondooz, like material things. 
dontou'tZj fo'ndooz, for material things. 



13. 


Donti 


donti';? M. 


19. 


Donta, 


donta'wu. 


14. 


Donti 


donti'?i«'. 


20. 


Donta, 


donta'?/;?". 


15. 


Donti 


donti'««. 


21. 


Donta, 


donta'^M. 


16. 


Donti 


donti's/. 


22. 


Donta, 


donta'fi. 


17. 


Donti 


donti'sM. 


23. 


Donta, 


donta'^M. 


18. 


Donti 


donti'st. 


24. 


Donta, 


iontMt. 



25. Dontu,* d(2ntoo'(7/v<. 31. Dontai, dontay«. 

26. Dontu, dontoo'dri. 32. Dontai, dontai'yV. 

27. Doutu, dontoo'cM. 33. Dontai, dontai'^?;. 

28. Dontu, dontoo'cj*. 34. Dontai, dontai|^t. 

29. Dontu, dontoo'^r?<. 35. Dontai, dontai'pr«. 

30. Dontu, dontoo'<>7'. 36. Dontai, dontai^j. 



CHAPTER Y. 



Too, 



Te, 



PEEPOSITIONS WITH ACCUSATIVE PRONOUNS. 
[§178] On inspection of the previous Table of Prepositions, it will be seen, that one half of them 
end with oo or ?;, and the other half with e or i. Now all those ending in oo or w, (fii-st cutting off 
their vowels) are joined to the Accusative Pronouns of TahJe No 1, (page 15) , and all the Prepositions 
ending in e or z", (also ciittmg off their vowels), are joined to the Pronouns, Table No 2, (page IQ), 
according to the following models. 

TABLE OF PEEPOSITIONS AND PRONOUNS. 
Of: as, Tos, of ma; tes, ^i/" thee ; <es, of it; tw, of him; t\m, of her; ton, of us: 

iaUj of jou ; ten, of them. 
With: as, Taus, with me; tas, with thee; tais, icith it; ^lu-s, ^i•ith him; funs, with her; 

faui's, with us ; tars, icith jou ; tars, icith them. 
By: as, Z>os, by me; rfas, %thee; des, hg'it; duv, % him ; t^un, Z>_yher; dou, bgxis; 

den, hy them. 
For : as, Dzms, for me ; (7as, for thee ; rfais, for it ; (Zurs, for him ; c/uus, for her ; t/aurs, 

for us ; <7ars, for jou ; (Zars, for them. 
Out of: as, i^os, out of me ; /as, out of thee ; /es, out of it; /ur, oi(< of him ; /un, oi<< of 

her ; /on, om< qfus ; /an, owi of you ; fen, out of them. 
Concerning: as, i^aus, concerning me; ^s, concerning thee; /ais, concerning it; /ui-s, 

concerning him ; /uns, concerning her ; /aurs, concerning ns ; yars, concerning 

you ; /ars, concerning them. 
According to : as, T os, according to me ; ras, according to thee ; res, according to it ; &c. 
Instead of: as, Faus, instead of me ; t-as, instead of thee ; i-ais, instead of it ; rurs, &c. 
TlYfA .• as, Pos, zct'^A me; pas, tc2V/« thee ; pes, ?«'</* it ; pur icith him; pun, wjM her; &c. 
Without : as. Pans, without me ; ;jas, without thee ; pais, purs, puns, paurs, pars, & pars. 
For ; (on the part of:) as, Pos, /or me ; tas, ^/br thee ; tes, for it ; Jur, for him ; &c. 
Against : as, Jaus, against me ; 6as, against thee ; &ais, against it ; turs, against him ; &c. 
7b.- as, A'os, to me; «as, to thee; «es, to it; nur, to him; ?am, to her; won, to us; wen, to them. 
i'>«« .• as, Aaus, from me ; ?«as, from thee ; «ais, /;o»i it ; «urs, from him ; jams, &c. 
.4<.- as, (Sos, a< me ; sas, at thee ; ses, ai it ; swr, at him; sim, «< her ; son, at us ; san, &c. 



Dl>, 


di, 


Foo, 


fu. 


Fe, 


fi, 


\ 00, 


vu, 


Ve 


vi. 


Poo, 


pu, 


re, 


P', 


Boo, 


hu, 


Be, 


bi, 


Noo, 


nu. 


^■e, 


ni. 


Soo, 


su, 



* The Fifth Differences of the Adjective always end in ul; but when these Differences are converted 
into Species, the ? is omitted: as, o'ntul, dontu: a'ntil, da'ntu; &c. 



Off: as, saus, off me ; sas, off thee ; sals, off it ; sUrs, off him ; smis, off her ; saurs, &c. 

i^/-wH off': as, */Swaus, q^ me ; swas, off thee ; snais, off it ; sntirs, off her ; &c. 

Oy«-; (across:) as, ^os, across me; sas, across thee; ges, across it; sur, across him ; &c. 

Alout^ (wandering:) as, Zaus, a5oi<<me; saurs, a5oM< us; sars, ahoitt you; sijrs, aJo!<< them. 

Into: as, J/es, j;«to it; mm, into him; 7?2un, iHto her; mon, into us; ??au, into you; &c. 

Oiti of; as, J/aus, oi<< o/ me ; »«ais, out of it ; Miaurs, out of us ; Miars, out of them ; &c. 

Within : as, 2'os, loitJiin me ; ^as, toithin thee ; /es, mi</u« it ; t\\v, within him ; ftm, <£'C. 

Outside of: as, ^aus, outside of me ; <as, outside of thee ; ^ais, outside of it ; <urs, &c. 

Through:'\ as, ^ur, through liim; fZmi, through her; ^on, through us; rZan, through you; &c. 

^esic^e / 5^ </je sj'c^e o/".- as, ffas, Jcsi't^e thee ; fZars, heside you ; ffurs, Jesjc/e him ; fZiirs, &c. 

C'}^ .• as, <ros, iq) me ; ?ras, iip thee ; ires, up it ; iren, up them ; «ran, mj> you ; <ron, &c. 

Down: as, iraus, f7ow« me; trxars, doicn \xs; irars, Joion them; <rars, c?ow?t you ; fras, «S:c. 

Above: as, i>ren, aJoye them ; drxa^ above yow; dron, above us; c^run, aJoue her ; &c. 
dii, Below: as, Bmiii, below it ; Jrurs, Je?o;o him; cZruns, JcZow her; <?raurs, &c?ow us ; &c. 

Before : as, Cos, before me. ; ras, before thee ; c es, before it ; cur, before him ; rim, con, &c. 

After: as, C'aus, after me; ras, q/?er thee; cais, after it; curs, afier him; cuns, caurs; &fi. 

Ipon: as, /en, m/wb them; yan, tqjon you; jon, j/^onus, jim, wjjowher; jur, ?/^onhim; &c. 

Underneath : as, Jaus; underneath me; ^as, underneath thee; ./ais, underneath It; ^urs, &c. 

Oft f^zs sjitZe o/"; as, (ros, on this side of me ; <7as, on this side of thee ; ^es, &c. 

On the other side ; beyond: as, (?aus, beyond me ; ^as, beyond thee ; f^ais, beyond it ; &c. 

Betwixt: as, 7vos a'skwi, 5c<ioi'a;i me and thee ; Z;on e'nkwi, Jeii4'2>i us and them ; &c. 

Among: as, ^/lOU s/.aiikwi, among us and «h!0»j you; s/i-an s/i'eiikwi, aHiow^r you and 

among them. 
Over-against : as, /vos, over-agaitist me ; ies, over-against it ; l-en, over-against them. 

Near to: as, pres, HC«r to it; prur, wear to him; jwun, near to her; pron, wear to us; Ac. 

Far from: as, Praus, /«■ from me; ^jrars, /«• //-oh them; ^;rais, fir from it; ^^'as, &c. 

i//i-c.- as, Jros, ?t7i;cme; iras, like thee; ires, like it; trur, ?«7iC him; ?>run, like her; &c. 

Unlike: as, Praus, unlike me ; Sras, unlike thee ; irais, unlike it ; Jrm-s, unlike him ; &c. 
Sproo, spill, ^< <7ie beginning of: as-, Spros, at the beginning of me ; s^res, a< <Ae beginning of it ; &c. 
Stroo, stru. In the midst of: as, ^Sfren, in the midst of them ; s«ron, in the midst of us ; sf»-an, &c. 
Stro, stri. At the end of : as, Str&vs, at the end of ihem; strsms, at the end of us; str&rs, &e. 
Kroo, kru, Excejyt ; (exclusive :) as, Jvros, except me ; ^•ra3, except thee ; /i-res, ca;cc/j< it ; irur, &c. 
Kre, kri. Besides; (inclusive:) as, A'raus, JesicZes me; Z;ras, Jesic?es thee; ^.-rais, Jesilies it; &c. 
Troo, tru. In favor of: as Tan, in favor of you; ten, in favour of them; ton, in favour of us; &c. 

* Sn, of SndMS,, swars, &c. consists of s signifying so, off; and n signifying ne, from; and together, from off. 

t Through time as well as place and thing, as, through or during the week. 

85 



Se, 


si, 


Se'ni, 


si'ui, 


Zoo, 


zu, 


Ze, 


zi. 


Moo, 


mu, 


Me, 


mi, 


Too, 


tu, 


Te, 


ti, 


Doo, 


du. 


I2e. 


^i, 


Troo, 


tri, 


Tre, 


tru. 


Droo, 


dru, 


Dre, 


di-i, 


Coo, 


£") 


Ce, 


ei, 


Joo, 


ju. 


Je, 


ji- 


Goo, 


gu. 


Ge, 


gi. 


Koo, 


ku. 


Skoo, 


sku. 


Kt;, 


ki. 


Proo, 


pru, 


Pre, 


pri, 


Broo, 


bru. 


Bre, 


bri. 



Tre, tri, In spite of: as, Traxs^ in spite of you; <rars, in spite of them ; ^raurs, in spite of us; &c. 

Gloo, gU, Aloug ; (through the length of:) as, Glos^ along me.; ghs, along \i; ghva^ along 'h^v; &c. 

Gle, gli, Roundabout: as, Ghws, round about me^; gMs, round alout'iX; glmii, round alout\\ev; &.c. 

Skroo, skru, Until: as, Eo'sirw i'ndoo, until tliat time. 

Skre, skri, Since : as, Eo'slri indoo, si«ce tliat time. 

Spoo, spu, Towards: as, Nsls., towards \h&&; nvo:, towards Mnu; nxm, toicards x\s; ne%, tou-ard$\i; &fi. 

Spe, spi, Fromicards ; fin a direction from :J as, noMS, in a direction from vae; was, ?iais, ji.ii-s, &c. 



PART XYII. 



ADVERBS UNDERIVED. 

By reference to the tables of genera, differences, species, and sub-species, it -will be seen that fi'oin 
every tabular substantive a tabular adverb is derived, by a certain rule of formation. Our present subject 
regards such adverbs as are not derived from tabular substantives ; but such as are formed on principles 
pecidiar to themselves. 

[ § 179 ] Now it may be laid down as a general rule, that an adverb comprehends witliin it the sense 
of a preposition and its object ; wliich object is either a substantive, or, phrase having all the force and effect 
of a substantive, considered logically. 



CHAPTER I. 



DEIIOXSTRATIVE ADVERBS. 

These are divided into ten classes, according to their initial consonant as follows: 1. Final, 2. Instramental, 

3. Special, 4. llodal, 5. Keal, 6. Personal, 7. Local, 8. Temporal, 9. Causal, 10. Consequential. 

[ § 180 ] I. DE:M0NSTEATI\T:S,— FINAL : beginnbg with P. signifying end. 
(With the Preposition Nu, to.) 
Singular, Plural. Singular, Plural. 

Po'nu, to this end: Po'unu, to these ends. Pri'nu, to some end: Pri'unu, to some ends. 

Pro'nu, to that end: Pro'imu, to those ends. Pou'nu, to every end : No plural. 

¥oi'mi, to the same end : Vohmn, to the same ends. Prou'nu, to each end: Frovimm, to all the ends. 

'ProVnu, to the other end : Troi'ium, to other ends. 'Pra.i'nu, to ang end : Vrnhmu, to ang ends. 
Pi'nu, to a certain end: Pi'imu, to certain ends. 



[ § 181 ] II. DEMONSTRATIVES,— AFFIRMATIVE : beginning with B. signifying fact or truth. 
(With the Preposition Tu, of.) 
Singular, Plural. Singular, Plural. 

Bo'tu, of this fact: Bo'utu, of these facts. Bri'tu, of some fact: Bri'utu, of some facts. 

Bro'tu, of that fact: Bro'utu, of those facts. Bou'tu, of every fact: No plural. 

Boi'tu, of the same fact : Boi'utu, of the same facts. Brou'tu, of each fact : Brou'utu, of all the facts. 

Broi'tu, of another fact : Broi'utu, of other facts. Brai'tu, of any fact : Brai'utu, of any facts. 
Bi'tu, of a certain fact : Bi'utu, of certain facts. 

86 



[ § 182 ] III. DEMONSTRATIVES —SPECIAL : beghining with F. signifying kind. 
(With the Preposition Tu, of.) 



Singular, 
Fo'tu, of this kind; 
Fro'tu, of that kind; 
Foi'tii, of the same kind; 
Frol'tu, of another kind ; 



Plural. 
Fo'utu, of these kinds. 
Fro'utu, of those kinds. 
Fol'utu, of the same kinds. 
Froi'utu, of other kinds. 



Singidar, 
Fri'tu, of some kind; 
Fou'tu, of every kind; 
Frou'tu, of each kind ; 
Frai'tu, of ani/ kind ; 



Plural. 
Fri'utu, of some kinds. 

No 2>lural. 
Frou'utu, of all the kinds. 
Frai'utu, of any kinds. 



Fl'tu, of a certain kind; Fi'utu, of certain kinds. 



[ § 183 ] IV. DEMONSTRATIVES —MODAL : beginning with V. signifying mode. 
(With the Preposition Tu, in.) 



Plural. ■ 
Vriu'tu, in some manners. 

No plural. 
Vrou'utu, in all the modes. 



Sinffular, Plural. 

Vo'tu, in this manner ; Vo'utu, in these modes. 
Vro'tu, in that manner ; Vro'utu, in those modes. 
Voi'tii, in the same mode; Voi'utu, in the same modes. 

Yroi'tu, in another mode ; YroVnta, in other modes. Vrai'tu, in any way; Vrai'utu, in any ways. 

Vi'tu, in a certain mode; Vi'iitu, in certain modes. 

English Adverbs Modal Translated. 
Thus, vo'tu. So, vro'tu. Not at all, vral'tuno or vi-ale'tu. Just so, tevro'tu. Unlformlj, voi'tu. 
Otherwise, vroi'tu. Like, in the same manner as, voi'tukyu. In what manner, vyootu. 



Sinijular, 
Vri'tu, in some manner; 
Vou'tu, in every mode; 
Vrou'tu, in each way ; 
Vrai'tu, in any way ; 



[ § 184 ] V. DEMONSTRATIVES,— REAL : beginning with T. signifying thing. 



Singular, 
To, this thing ; 
Tro, that thing; 
Toi, the same thing ; 
Troi, another thing ; 
Ti, a certain thing ; 



Plural. 
To'u, these things. 
Tro'u, those things. 
Toi'u, tlie same things. 
Trol'u, other things. 
Ti'u, certain things. 



Singular^ 
Tri, so7ne thing; 
Tou, every thing; 
Trou, each thing, 
Tral, any thing ; 



Plural. 

Tri'u, some things. 

No plural. 

Trou'u, all things. 

Trai'u, any things. 



[§185] VI. DEMONSTRATIVES,— PERSONAL: 



Singular, 
Do, {his person; 
Dro, that person ; ■ 
Doi, the same jxrson . 
Droi, another person, 



Plural. 
Do'u, these persons. 
Dro'u, those p>ersons. 
Dol'u, the same persons. 
Droi'u, otlier persons. 



Singular, 
Dri, some pier son ; 
Dou, every person , 
Drou, each person . 



D. signifying jierson. 
Plural. 
Dri'u, some persons. 
No plural. 



Drou'u, all 



Drai. 



any person; 



Drai'u, 



, all persons, 
any persons. 



Di, a certain person. ; Di'u, certain persons. 



[§ 186 ] VII. DEMONSTRATIVES,— LOCAL: beginning with K. signifying place. 
(With the Preposition Tu, in.) 
Singular, Plural. Singular, Plural. 

Ko'tu, in this place ; Ko'utu, in these places. KrI'tu, in some place ; Kri'utu, in some j^lares. 

Kro'tu, in that place ; Kro'utu, in those 2^l(ices. Kcu'tu, in every place ; No 2)lura.l. 

Koi'tu, in the same place; 'Koiuta, in the sajne places. Krou'tu, in each jdace; Krou'utu, in all the places. 

Kro'i'tu, in another place ; Kroi'utu, in other places. Kral'tu, in any place ; Kra,i'ulu, in any places. 
Ki'tu, in a certain 2>lace ; Ki'utu, in certain jjlaces. 

2 A 87 



English Adverbs Local Translated. 
Any where, kraitu. Some where, kritu. No where, ka-aie'tu or ki'aino'tu. Thence, kroni. There, at 
that place, kro'su. There, m that place, ki-o'tu. Hence, from this place, koni. Elsewhere, ki-oi tii. To- 
wards this place, ko'spu. WTiere, in what place, kjoo'tu. Where, at what place, kyoo'su. Whither, 
kyoo'nu. "WTience, kyoo'ni. Together, koi'tu. Together, i. e. joined, tyool. 



[§187] VIII. DEMONSTEATm:S,— TEMPOEAL: bcgimiing with G. signifying time. 
(With the Preposition Sii, at.) 



Sintjular, 
Go'su, at this time; 
Gro'su, at that tinie; 
Goi'su, at the same time , 
Groi'su, at another time , 



Plural. 
Go'usu, at these times. 
Gro'usu, at those times. 
Goi'usu, at the same times. 
Groi'usu, at other times. 



Gi'su, at a certain time; Gi'usu, at certain times. 



Singular, 
Gri'su, at some time ; 
Gou'su, at every time , 
Grou'sii, at each time; 
Grai'su, at any time ; 



Plural. 
Gii'usu at some times. 

No plural. 
Grou'iisu, at all the times. 
Grai'usu, at any times. 



EngUsh Adverbs Temporal Translated. 
Ever, always, at all times, grou'usu. Yet, still, even now, gosubool, go'nubool. Henceforth, gonibool. 
Even then, gro'subool. In a short time, pegwi'tu. After a long time, begwi'ci. During a long time, be- 
gwi'du. For a short time, pegwi'du. From what time, gyooW. Ati this very time, tego'su. At that very 
time, tegro'su. Long after that time, begro'ci. Lately, a Uttle before this time, pego'cu. No longer, 
yingrai'no. Previously, gocu. After this time, go'ci. Soon after this time, peg'oei. 



[ § 188 ] IX. DEMONSTEATIVES,— CAUSAL : beginnhig with T. signifying cause. 
(With the Preposition Di, for.) 

Plural. Singular, Plural. 

To'ndi, for these causes. Trl'di, for some cause ; Tii'udi, for some causes. 
Tro'udi, for those causes. Toii'di, for every cause ; Ao j^lural. 

Toi^u^, for the same causes. Trou'di, for each cause ; Trou'udi, for all causes. 

Troi'udi, for other causes. Trai'di, for any cause ; Trai udi, for any causes. 
Ti'udi, for certain causes. 



To'di, for this cause ; 
Tro'di, for that cause ; 
Toi'di, for the same cause 
Troi'di, for another cause 
Ti'di, for a certain cause 



de'ed. 



For the reason or cause that, tj-idikwm. 'NATiy, for what cause or reason? tyoodi. Because of him, 



[ § 189 ] X. DEMONSTEATIVES,— CONSEQUENTIAL : beginning with B. signifying effect. 



Singular, 
Do, this effect: 
Dro, that effect : 
Doi, the same effect 
Droi, another effect: 
T}i, a certain effect : 



Plural. 
Do'u, these effects. 
Dro'u, those effects. 
Doi'u, the same effects. 
Droi'u, other effects. 
Di'u, certain effects. 



Singular, 
Dri, some effect : 
Dou, every effect: 
Drou, each effect: 
Drai, any effect: 



Plural. 
Dri'u. some effects. 

No 2>lii^'(il. 
Drou'u, all the effec 
Drai'u, any effects. 



f § 190 ] To any of the above Demonstratives, each of the prepositions may be sufExed, as follows : 
End or object. Pro'nu, proi'tu, pi'pu, prai'utu, prai'utu, pou'di, &c. 
Bi'du, broii'upu, brai'pu, bo'du, bri'uti, &c. 
Fo'tu, fro'tu foit'n, frou'utu, frai'pu. &c. 
V(2'tu, vi'oi'tu, vrai'tu, vou'tu, vg'bi, &c. 
To'tu, tg'ti, to'pu, to'bi, to'mu, to'su, &c. 
Don'u, dro'bi, doi'ti. dou'bi, drai'bi, &c. 
Ko'su, ko'di, kroi'sii, krou'usu, krai'di, &c. 
Go'su, go'tu, go'pW) groi'di, gou'pu, &c. 
Tutu, trotu, toi'tu, titu, tro'mu, tro'nu, &c. 
Do'su, Di'su, Drou'uni, Drou'utu, Drai'tu, &c. 



1. 


(P) 


End 


2. 


(b) 


Fact. 


3. 


(f) 


Kind. 


4. 


(v) 


Mode. 


5. 


(t) 


Thing. 


6. 


(d) 


Person 


7. 


(k) 


Place. 


8. 


fe) 


Time. 


9. 


(t) 


Cause. 


10. 


(d) 


Effect. 



CHAPTER 11. 



ADVERBS OF QUANTITY. 
A great quantity, has. A small quantity, pas. As much, ba. As little, pa. As much as, ba'kyu. 
As little as, pa'kyu. So much that, ba'skwin. So little that, pa'skwin. How much ? kwoo. At least, 
su pla'ntupous. At most, su pra'ntupous. Not at all, jirai'tuno, i. e. not in any degree. In a certain degree, 
jui'tu or ju^itu. In some degree, ju'ritu. 



CHAPTER III. 



ADVERBS OF NUMBER 
This will more properly come under the head of Numbers. 

give a small space to a few examples in anticipation. 

[§ 191 ] C and ci, &9i prefixes, severally signify day ; j and ji signify locck ; 

and lastly, z and zi signify year. They are combined with numbers as follows : 

TABLE. 



20th past day, cita'sil, 

21st past day, cita'pil, 

22nd past day, cita'fil, 

23rd past day, cita'til, 

24th past day, cita'kil, 

25th past day, cita'bil, 

26th past day, cita'vil, 

27th past day, cita'dil, 

28th past day, eita'gil, 

29th past day, cita'til. 



Numbers. We shall, however, 









Present 


Tense. 








Ca'sco, 


to day. 








Past. 


ca'pil. 


yesterday, i. e. 1st 


; cipa'sil, 


10th past day, 


cifa'sil. 




past day. 


cipa'pil, 


11th past day, 


cifa'pil, 


ea'fil. 


2nd past day, 


cipa'fil, 


12th past day, 


cifa'fil, 


ca'til, 


3rd past day, 


cipa'til, 


13th past day. 


cifa'til. 


ca'kil, 


4th past day, 


cipa'kil. 


14th past day. 


cifa'kil, 


ca'bil. 


5th past day, 


cipa'bil. 


15th past day, 


cifa'bil, 


ca'vil, 


6th past day. 


cipa'vil. 


16th past day, 


cifa'vil. 


ca'dil, 


7th past day. 


cipa'dil, 


17th past day. 


cifa'dil, 


ea'gil. 


8th past day. 


cipa'gll. 


18th past day, 


cifa'gil. 


ca'til. 


9th past day. 


cipa'til. 


19th past day. 


cif^til, 



Si signify 



30th past day, 
31st past day, 
32nd past day, 
33rd past day, 
34th past day, 



35th 
36th 
37th 
38th 
39th 



dav, 



dav, 



89 



cika'sil, 
cika'pil, 
cikaiil, 
cika'til, 
clka'kil, 
cika'bil, 
cika'vil, 
cika'dil, 
clka'gil, 
cika'til, 
ciba'sil, 
eiba'pil, 
ciba'fil, 
ciba'til, 
ciba'kil, 
ciba'bil, 
ciba'vil, 



40th past day, 
41st past day, 
42nd past day, 
43rd past day, 
44th past day, 
45th past day, 
46th past day, 
47th past day, 
48th past day, 
49th past day, 
50th past day, 
51st past day, 
52nd past day, 
53rd past day, 
54th past day, 
55th past day, 
56th past day, 



ciba'dil, 
ciba'gil, 
ciba'til, 
civa'sil, 
civa'pil, 
civa'fil, 
civa'til, 
civa'kil, 
civa'bll 
civaVil, 
civa'dil, 
civa'gll, 
civa'til, 
cida'sil, 
cida'pil, 
cida'fil, 
cida'til. 



57th past day, 
58th past day, 
59th past day, 
60th past day, 
61st past day, 
62nd. past day, 
63rd past day, 
64th past day, 
65th past day, 
66th past day, 
67th past day, 
68th past day, 
69th past day, 
70th past day, 
71st past day, 
72nd past day, 
73rd past day, 



cida'kil, 
cida'bil, 
cida'vil, 
cida'dil, 
cida'gil, 
cida'til, 
ciga'sil, 
ciga'pil, 
ciga'Sl, 
ci'ga'til, 
ciga'kil, 
ciga'bil, 
cigaVil, 
ciga'dil, 
ciga'gil, 
ciga'til, 
cita'sil,, 



74th past day, 
75th past day, 
76th past day, 
77th past day, 
87th past day, 
79th past day, 
80th past day, 
81st past day, 
82nd past day, 
83rd past day, 
84th past day, 
85th past day, 
86th past day, 
87th past day, 
8Sth past day, 
89th past day, 
90th. past day, 



Futiur. 

tomorrow, i. e. ca'din. 7tli future day, cipa'kin, 14tb future day, 

1st. future day, ca'gin, 8th future day, cipa'bm, 15th future day, 

2nd future day, ca'tin, 9th future day, cipa'vm, 16th future day, 

3rd future day, cipa'sin, 10th future day, cipa'din, 17th future daj', 

4th future day, cipa'pin, 11th future day, cipa'gin, 18th future day, 

ca'bm, 5th future day, \ cipa'fin, 12th future day, cipa'tin, 19th future day, 

ca'vin, 6th future day, cipa'tin, 13th future day, cifa'sin, 20th future day 



capin, 

ca'fin, 
ca'tin, 
ca'kin. 



cita'pil, 91st past day, 
cita'fil, 92nd past day, 
cita'til, 93rd past day, 
citakil, 94th past day, 
cita'bil, 95th past day, 
cita'vil, 96th past day, 
citadil, 97th past day, 
cita'gil, 9Sth past day, 
citatil, 99th past day, 
cipe'sll, 100th past day, 
cipea'pil, 101st past day, 
cipepa'sil, 110th past day, 
cipepa'pil, 111th past day, 
cife'sil, 200th past day, 
cau'po pe'sil, 1100th p. day 
cipoopau'sg pcpa'pil, 
110,llldipast day. 



cifa'pin, 21st future day, 

cifa'fin, 22nd futiu-e day, 

cifa'tin, 23rd future day, 

cifa'kin, 24th futiu-e day, 

cifa'bin, 25th future day, 

cifa'vin, 26th future day. 









TABI 
Present 


.E II. 
Tense. 










Ja'seo, 


this week. 




Pa'seo, this mon1 


:h. 




Past, 




Future. 




Past, 




Future. 


.mi'ii, 


last week. 


.iapi", 


next week. 


sa'pil, 


last month. 


sa'pin, 


next month. 


ja'fil, 


2nd. week past. 


ja'fin. 


2nd. week future. 


sa'fil. 


2nd month past. 


sa'fin,1 


2nd month future. 


ja'tll. 


3rd week past, , 


ja'tin, 


3rd week future. 


sa'til, 


3rd month past. 


sa'tiu. 


3rd month future. 


ja'kil 


4th past week. 


jakin. 


4th fiiturc day. 


sa'kil. 


4th month past. 


sa'kin. 


4th month future. 


jabil, 


5th week past. 


jabin. 


5th week future. 


sa'bil, 


5th month past, 


sa'bin, 


5th month future. 








TABLE in. 














Presc7it 


; Tense. 














Za'seo, this year. 










Past, 






Fului-p. 




za'pil. 


last year. 


Zcitil, 


3rd. year past. 


za'pin. 


next year. 


zatin. 


3rd. year future. 


za'fil, 


2nd. year past. 


zakil, 


4th. year past, 


za'fin, 


2nd. year future. 


zakin, 


4th. year future. 



90 



CHAPTER lY. 



ADVERBS OF NEGATION. 
[ § 192 ] These are certain letters, words, or syllables, wliicli are used in sentences, for the purpose 
of denial. They are divided into Tabular, Copulative, and Potential. 



SECTION I. NEGATIVES TABULAR. 

[ § 193 ] These are universally iffixed in the middle of Tabulars, immediately after the trumpet, 
after m, n, or n, according to the following Tables. 



Positives J 
Po'nsifai, to think, 
Pro'nsifai, to meditate, 
Fo'nsifai, to enquire, 
Fro'nslfai, to discover, 
To'nslfai, to assent, 
Tro'nslfai, to dissent, 
Ko'nsifai, to believe, 



Negatives. 
Pone'sifai, not to think. 
Prone'sifai, not to meditate. 
Fone'sifai, not to enquire. 
Frone'sifai, not to discover. 
Tone'sifai, not to assent. 
Trone'sifai, not to dissent. 
Kone'sifai, not to believe. 



Positives, Negatives. 

Kro'nsifai, to disbelieve, Krone'sifai, not to disbelieve. 

Bo'nslfai, to know, Bone'sifai, not to know. 

Bro'nsifai, to doubt, Brone'sifai, not to doubt. 

Do'nsifai, to reason, Done'sifai, not to reason. 

Dro'nsifai, to conjecture, Drone'sifai, not to conjecture. 

Go'nsifai, to esteem, Gone'sifai, not to esteem. 

Gro'nsifai, to despise, Grone'sifai, not to despise. 



SECTION II. NEGATIVES COPULATIVE -.—ENTITIVE. 
[ § 194 ] These are formed by prefixmg to the Pronouns, the letter n. 

Indefinite. 
Positive, Negative. Positive, Negative. Positive, Negative. 

Au um,.* I am; Nau mn, I am not. Au ul, I was; Nau ul, I was not. Au un, I shall be; Nau im, I shall not be. 

Conclusives — Synthetic. Concluslves — Analytic. 

Positive, Negative. Positive, Negative. 

Au oom, I have been; Nau oom, I have not been. Au om ut, I have been; Nau om ut, I have not been. 

Au ool, I had been; Nau ool, I had not been. Au ol ut, I had been; Nau ol ut, I had not been. 

Auoon, Ishallhavebeen; Nauoon, I shall not have been. Auonut, I shall have been; Nauonut, I shall not have been. 

Progressives. 

Positive, Negative. 

Au ump, I am being ; Nau ump, I am not being. 

Au ult, I was beiug ; Nau ult, I was not being. 

Au imt, I shall be being ; Nau imt, I shall not be being. 



Au oomp, I have been being ; 

Au oolt, I had been being ; 

Au oont, I shall have been being ; 



Nau oomp, I have not been being. 
Nau oolt, I had not been being. 
Nau oont, I shall not have been beiag 



2 B 



* Put z betwixt the vowels; as, Au-s-um, Nau-s-um, &c. 
91 



SECTION III. NEGATR^ES COPULATIVE :—^ CT/T'X 
Indefinite. 
Positive, Negative. Positive, Negative. Positive, Negative. 

Au im, I do; Nau iin, I do not. An il, I did; Xau il, I did not. Au in, I shall do; Nau in, I shall not do. 

Conclusives — Synthetic. Conclusives — Analytic. 

Positive, Negative. Positive, Negative. 

Au em, I have done; Nau em, I have not done. Au om it, I have done; Nau om it, I have not done. 

Au el, I had done; Nau el, I had not done. Au ol it, I had done; Nau ol it I had not done. 

Auen, I shall have done; Nau en, I shall not have done. Auouit,Ishallhavedone;Nauonit, Ishall not havedone 

Progressives. 
Positive, Negative. 

Au imp, I am doing; Nau imp, I am not doing. 

Au ilt, I was doing; Nau ilt, I was not doing. 

Auint, I shall be doing; Nau int, I shall not be doing. 
Au emp, I have been doing; Nau emp, I have not been doing. 

Au elt, I had been doing; Nau elt, I had not been doing. 

Au ent, I shall have been doing; Nau ent, I shall not have been doing. 



SECTION IV. NEGATI^HES COPULATR^E -DIREGTIYE -.—ENTITIVK 
[§195] Here Negation is denoted by n and ». The accents of these verbs vary according to the 
sense. 

Positive, Negative. Positive, Negative. 

Sut, let; Sunt, let not. Suk, let; Simk, let not. 

Positive, Negative. Positive, Negative. 

Uso's, let me be ; Nuso's, let me not be ; Usu'n, let her be ; Nusu'n, let her not be. 

Usa', be thou; Nusa', be not thou; Uso'n, let us be; Nuso'n, let us not be. 

Use's, be it; Nuse's, let it not be; Usar, be ye; Nusa'r, be ye not. 

Usu'r, let him be; Nusu'r, let him not be; Use'n, let them be; Nuse'n, let them not be. 



SECTION V. NEGATIVES COPULATIVE BlRECTIVi::— ACTIVE. 

Positive, Negative. Positive, Negative. 

Sit, let; Smt, let not. Sik, let; Sink, let not. 

Positive, Negative. Positive, Negative. 

I'sos, let me do; Ni'sos, let me not do. Isun, let her do; N'isun, let her not do. 

I'sa, do thou; N'isa, do not thou. I'son, let us do; N'ison, let us not do. 

I'ses, let it do; N'ises, let it not do. I'sar, do ye; N'isar, do not ye. 

Tsm-, let him do; Ni'sur, let him not do. I'sen, let them do; N'isen, let them not do. 



SECTION VI. NEGATIVES POTENTIAL. 
[ § 196 ] These all end in i'u, and the Negative is expressed by n prefixed to the Pronoun or suffixed 
to the Verb; as, pi'u, pi'u7i; fi'u, &an; ti'u, ti'uH; ki'u, ki'un; bi'u, bi'un; &c. See Potentials; as, «au pi'u, 
/ cannot ; jia.n fiu, I may not ; &c. 

92 



CHAPTER Y. 



ADVEEBS OF COMPARISON. 

As, {initial) Yun, as, Yun pampur, as happy. More, Yin, as, Yin pa'mpiir, more liappy. 

As, {final) Kyu, as, Pampuva'tyw, as happy as. Most, Win, as, Win pa'rapiir, most happy. 

So, Yul, as, Yul pa'mpur, so happy. Less, Yil, as, Yil pa'mpur, less happy. 

Hon;, Gul, -^ {?MZfa'mpus, ^j'Zbe'mpur, Least, Wil, as, TTY^ pa'mpur, ?eas< happy. 

So, Gil, \ ' how wise ! so merciful ! 



CHAPTER YI. 



ADVERBS PREPOSITIONAL. 

[ § 198 ] Some Prepositions are convertible into Adverbs :— this is the case where the Preposition 
has no expressed Accusative Case: as, he walked about for some time; — he over slept himself: — he is under 
valued: — she vjj lifted her voice. 

[§199 ] Now all the Prepositions are turned into Adverbs merely by suffixing to the short Preposi- 
tions the letter s. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Wai kis pe'nsifel, he walked aiouf. 2. Wai gis tra'nsifel, he over slept. 

3. Wai dris u'ntibool, he was under valued. 



CHAPTER YIL 



ANOMALOUS ADVERBS. 
[ § 197 ] These are not capable of classification with any advantage, not being divisible into classes 
of sufficient numbers. 

Vool, again. Vel, as if. Sool, ahnost. Sel, scarcely. Sul, exactly. Tyool, only. Tol, alone. 
Sprus, at the beginning. Strus, in the midst. Stris, at last. Glus, along, away. Dool, iiamely. Del, 
for instance. Kyimt, as far. Kyult, so far. Kwel, likewise, Kyel, and so forth. Droo, backwards. 
Dre, forioards. No'tul, otherwise. Pul, perhaps. Pil, truly. Spin, now. Spen, then, past. Span, then, 
future. Stul, thereabouts. Yint, too. [Adjectives: — Y'^ink, too ?«mc^.-— Yilk, too little.] Brooz, at most. 
Brez, at least. Krooz, at first. Krez, at last, ^-mkin, as follows. Plus, then, consequently. Wis, forth, 
fromwards. Qas, forth, forwards. Mis, forth, out. Vl\is^ke\, therefore, consequently. Mool, in the course. 
No, not. 



93 



PART XYIII. 



CONJUNCTIONS. 
Conjunctions and Prepositions are of the same general natm-e: they both express the relation betwixt 
certain members or parts of a sentence. \Vhere the object of a given relation appears in the form of a 
tabular noun, the word expressing that relation is called a Preposition : — where the object of the relation 
is a simple sentence, or an expression consisting of a subject and its predicate, the word is called a Con- 
jimction; although intrinsically and essentially, the Preposition and its object, may be perfectly identical 
with the Conjimction and its object. Thus the word '■'after" is a Conjimction in ihe first, and a Preposition 
in the second of the following examples. 

1. I saw him after he came. 2. I saw him after his anival or coming. 

The diflFerence betmxt the two words is pm-ely formal or grammatical: essentialhj the two sentences 
are identical. 

TABLE OF CONJUNCTIONS. 

1. Kw, And: before a proper name beguiing with a vowel; as, Ai'bruham /jeo I'zuk, Abraham anrf 

Isaac. 

2. Kwi, And: before a consonant; or, suffixed to another word; as, KwiisLvkab, and S^icoh. 

3. Kwil, ^n(?.- before a vowel or consonant, when more or less cnipAaiico?, as, JTioi'^ wai'kwen kwel; 

and himself also. 

4. No'kwi, And not; nor : as, Pe'ter nq'kwi Jai'mz, Peter and not James. 

5. Tool, tul. If: as, Tul wai tonsiko'os, if he loves me. 

6. Tel, til. Unless : as, Tel wai pe'ntiso, aur bi'u pre'ntisai, %inless he comes, we must go. 

7. Bel, But : as, Pu'ntrmoz ; kweli'Jf ?* i'nsikoz, pray, hut work also. 

8. Kroo'kwin, Except that: as. Nan ti-al bo'nsifo, hroo'kicin wai um fronzipu'rtas, I luiow not any reason, 

except that he is your son. 

9. Tyel, But; only: as, A be'ntipai tyel pa'nsitai, you have only to speak. 

10. Nool, nul. Although: as, A"boZ wai fa'mpifil, oMo^y* he was rich. 

11. Nel, nil, Yet: as, ^>;il wai oTcel fra'mpou, 3/e< he became poor. 

12. Tw Or: before a proper name beginning with a vowel; as Jon tic Edwm-d, John or Edward. 

13. Twi, Or: before a consonant, or as a suffix; as, Twi dra'nzoo, or dranzooVicj/ i. e. or death, 
l-l. Twil, Or : before a vowel or emphatical word beginning with a consonant; as, wai twil konzi- 

pu'ntur, he or his sister. 

15. No'twi, Nor: as, Twl'fino E'dwurd, no'twi Jon ki'o'tu po'ntipil, neither Edward n<yr John were 

there. 

1 6. Twi fin, Either : as, Twt'fiii twai fo'nzipiu- fonzipu'ntwi, as, either his father or mother. 

17. Twi'fino, Neither: as, TiM/iVio ko'nzipm- konzipu'ntwi po'ntipil kro'tu, KefV/icr brother or sister were 

in that place. 
IS. Kwin, 77iat: as, Au bo'nsifo tav^hoin fo'nzipiir kro'tuul, I know that my father was in that place. 

* The i betwixt bel and kwel is merely euphonic. 
94 



Du'lkwiu 

No'kwin, 

Nodu'lkwin, 

Vroo, vrii, 

Vre, vri, 

Gro'ci, 

Kel, 

Ste'lkwiii, 

Gool, 

Ge'lkwin, 

Kwel, 

Kwe'lkwl, 

Kye'l, 

Ful, 
Fil, 
Voi'tiikyu, 



34. Voi'tukwin, 
35. 



Voitu, 

Joo'tukwin, 

Jol'tu, 

Yi'nkya, 

Yi'lkyu, 

Cu'lkyu, 

Cu'lkwin, 

Go'nu, 

Skroo'kwin, 

Skre'kwiu, 

Vel, 

Fi'lkwin, 



47. Fi'lkyu, 



In order tliat: as, Didlkwin wai fli'u bonsipo'ol; in order that lie might deliver us. 
S J , f.\^^j Au pintipe'lees, noJcwin wai fli'u fa'mpivai; I did it lest he might prosper, or, 
(- J in. order that he might not prosper. 

For: as, De'ntipoz fa'mbis, yai'wrM vri'u bampifro'stas: seek wisdom, ybr she shall exalt thee. 
Because: as, Au'kwi tonsipe'leet, yai'm il dronslvai'el, I loved her because she did pity them. 
Then : as, OrocUkMi ti'mpitoz Joo'pitur, and after that call on Jupiter. 
Tlierefore: as, Kd ho! ko'nzooz, ta'mpoz {or tampito'zar, or u'sar ta'mpi), be therefore, 

bretheren, sober minded, or, be ye sober minded. 
Seeing that : as, Stellkwin bundai'turz ru'ntipoo, secinfj that his days are numbered. 
Whereas^ as Gool au pro'mpltll, whereas I was blind, 

Noio observe that : as, G^lhwin au, go'su pi'u po'mpitai, observe now I can see. 
Likewise; also: as, Ar, kwel, po'mpito; they, also, see. 
Moreover ; likewise : as, Kw^lkwi ko'nzooz, &c. moreover brethren, &c. 
And so forth; &c. as, Wai gi'ntivel ko'ndooz twai'tu ko'nzipur, ko'nzipun, kyd, he men- 
tioned the names of his brother, sister, &c. 
As : as, Fid'kw'i Kri'st pa'nsipel, as Christ rose, 

So: as, i^t7ibool kwel, vri'u twai tro'nzoz, even so also, shall his disciples. 
In the same manner as : as, Wai pintipe'lees voi'tuhiju konzipu'rtur, he did it in the same 

manner as his brother. 
In the same manner that : as, Wai pintipe'lees, voitu'kwin yai ponsike'leed, he did it in 

the same manner that she commanded him. 
So^ i. e. in the same manner: as, Voi'tukwin Krist pa'nsivel; voi'/u kwel, vi'i'u twai tro'nzo?;; 

as Clu-ist rose, so, also, shall his disciples. 
In lohat degree that: as, Joo'tukwin wai {or ju'rtukwin). ompi, in what degree he is powerful. 
In the same degree : as, Joi'tu wai be'mpoo, in the same degree he is merciful. 
More than : as, Au tonsiko'et yinkyu au pi'u gi'ntivai, I love her mo?-e than I can express. 
Less than: as, Vombe'tun po'ntipil yillkyu au dro'nsitel, her beauty was less than I expected. 
Rather than : as, Cullkyu pintipai'es, au di'u dra'nsipai, rather than do it, I would die. 
Rather that: as, Au di'u cullkwin wai pintipe'lees, I would rather that he did it. 
Hitherto : as, Go'nu U'ndi bointifo'on, hitherto God has helped us. 
Until that : as, A bi'u pla'nsikai skrodkwin wai pe'ntiso, you must wait till lie comes. 
Since that: as, Skrdkwin au pe'ntisel, since I came. 

As if; as though : as, Wai do'ntipel vel wai fro'nsivil, he acted as if he was ashamed. 
»S'o that : as, Wai bro'nslnel fenda'tos, filTkwin au pi'un donsipai'ed, he rejected my offer, 

so that I cannot save him. 
So as: as, Po'mpitai kanom^oi'tos Ji'lkyu au poimpito'es ta'tu ka'nzoi, to see thy glory so 

as I have seen it in thy temple. 



2 C 



95 



PART XIX. 









TRANSCENDENTALS. 








1. Pis, 


Metaphor. 


1. Pas, 


Hahit. 


1. Pus, 


Sejnmenf. 


1. Bcs, 


Augmentivi 


2. Bis, 


Like. 


2. Bas, 


Art. 


2. Bus, 


Armament. 


2. Pes, 


Diminutive 


3. Fis, 


Kind. 


3. Fas, 


Officer. 


3. Fus, 


Vest. 


3. Ves, 


Excessive. 


4. Vis, 


Manner. 


4. Vas, 


Artist. 


4. Vus, 


Armour. 


4. Fes, 


Defective. 


5. Tis, 


Thiny. 


5. Tas, 


Mechanic. 


5. Tus, 


House. 


5. Tes, 


Perfective. 


6. Dis, 


Person. 


6. Das, 


Merchant. 


6. Dus, 


Boom. 


6. Des, 


Corruptive. 


7. Kis, 


Place. 


7. Kas, 


Power. 


7. Kus, 


Lam in. 


7. Kes, 


Voice. 


8. Gis, 


Time. 


8. Gas, 


Aptitude. 


8. Gus, 


Pin. 


8. Ges, 


Language. 


9. Tis, 


Cause. 


9. Tas, 


Inceptive. 


9. Tus, 


Instrument. 


9. Tes, 


Male. 


10. Dis, 


Sign. 


10. Das, 


Frequentive. 


10. Dus, 


Vessel. 


10. Des, 


Female. 


11. Twis, 


Segregate. 


11. Twaa 


, Endeavour. 


11. Twus^ 


, Jugament. 


11. Twes, 


, Young. 


12. Dwis, 


Aggregate. 


12. Dwas 


, Impetus. 


12. Dwixs, 


, Machine. 


12. Dwes, 


, Part. 


%, 


flemental to . 


Bishop WiUcinss.— 13. Tras, 


Contimiative. 14. 


Dras, Disconiimiative 



We shall now shew the student how these syllables ai-e incorporated with the Tabulars. 

[§200] Rule 1. When used as Substantives, transcendentals are always suffixed to the tabulai 
exactly in the same manner as they appear in the above table; and 
is advanced one syllable. 

Kind: — Fis. 
O'mvi, herb; O'mve'/s, herbage. Pe'ndro, foot-soldier; 

Bo'ndroo, peojjle; Bondroo'^, populace. Pe'mbro, horse-soldier; 

Fo'nzoo, parent; Fonzoo^, parentage. Gi'njoi, hog; 

Fro'nzoo, child; Fronzoo[^s, issue, brood. Ve'ndri, fire-arms; 



this case, the accent on the tabular 



Pendro'^, infantry. 
Pembro|/!S, cavalry. 
Ginjoi'j^s, swine. 
Vendi'e'_;?s, artillery. 



Manner: — Vis. 
Pi'nji, dog; Vm]^vis, the dog manner; canine. Pa'nzo, speech; Vax\z(^vis,pronunciation,modeof speech. 

Gi'njoi, hog ; Ginjol'm, the sioine manner; hoggish. O'ndi'a, right; Ondra'yi's, tenure; manner of holding. 
Bi'nzi, man; Binze't'ij?, after the manner of men. Jia!nzoo, feeding; iianzoo'vis, diet; mode of feeding. 



Place: — Kis. 



U'nzi, metal; Unze'its, mine; metal place. 

Tu'nzoo, tin; Timzoo'iiJs, stannary; tin place. 

U'nji, stone; Unje'A;is, quarry; stone place. 

Ki'njoi, deer; Kinjoi'^js, park; deer place. 

TJ'mvi, tree; Umve'A-w, teood; trees' place. 



I'mvi, shrub; Imve'iis, shrubbery. 

'K.Q'vdbsA, protection; Kembai'i/s, sanctuary; protection , 

place. 
Vu'ndroi, primate; Vundroi'^-Js,^roy«nce/ arch-i 

authority place. 



[ § 201 ] The Abstract Noun usually tenninates in rit ; but when followed by another syllable, rit is 
changed into rejn; as in the following instances. 

Sign: — Dis. 
Ti'ndro, anchor; Tindro'efw, buoy; anchor sign. Pondi'oo'reo, magistracy; PondrooreoWs, the mace. 

Ya'ndi, foot; VandeWii, footstep; track. 



Agyrc.gate : — Dviis. 

Pa'mbroo, cwsfsso?'; Vaxahvoo^dwis ; bench. Pi'njifun, cow, 'P'm}[iv!ndw{s, herd or droveof cows. 

E'ndro, soldier; EndroWtois, j)arti/. Ki'njoi, deer^ KmpMwi's, herd of deer. 

Pi'njoi, sheep; Ym]o^dwis, floch of sheep. Gi'njoi, hog; GinjoiWwis, herd of swine. 

Sejnment, (enclosure): — Pus. 
Ko'ndoo, staff; stick; Kondoo^iMS, a railing. U'nza, earth; JJnz^pus, hank. 

Imvi, shrub; Imv^pus, a hedge. U'nji, stone; Uiije|pM«, storn. enclosure. 

Vest: — Fus. 
Gra'nd(2, chin; Graudo'/iW, muffler; chin vest. Pa'nd(2, face; PandnyMS, mask; face vest. 

Armour: — Vus. 
A'ndo, head; Ando'tJ«.9, helmet; liead armour. Pa'nda, iieck; Panda'j^i^s, gorget; neck armour. 

House: — Tus. 
Gi'njoi, hog; Ginjoi'^MS, stye; hogs' home. P'Injoo, Jiorse; Pinjoo'iws, stable; horses' house. 

Boom: — Dv^. 
Pra'nzoi, eating; Pranzol'tZus, dining room. I'ndi, discourse; Inde^dus, parlour ; discoursing room. 

Lamin or Sheet: — Kus. 
Eo'ndoo, wood; 'Ronioo^kus, aboard; a sheet of toood. De'nzai, paper; Denzai'tas, a sheet of paper.- 
Kru'njoi, glass; Krunjoi'&«5, a pane; a sheet of glass. U'nzoo, metal; Vnzoo'kus, a plate; a sheet of m£tal. 

Instrument : — Tus. 
Pi'nzo, digging; Vmz(^tus, spade ;diggi7ig instrument. Fi'nzoo, librating; ¥'mzooltus, balance; weighing ditto. 
Pi'nzoo, lifting; Pinzoo'(i«, lever; lifting ditto. Ti'nzoo, cleaving, 'Y'mzooHus, loedge; cleaving ditto. 

Vessel: — Dus. 
U'nzo, water; UnzoWiw, cistern; water vessel. Fi'Qzai,dissolving; FinzaiWus, crucible; melting vessel. 

'Kdazo, frying ; ^<inzc^dus;frying pan; frying vessel. 'Br'mza, casting; Bi-iiizaWi<s, mould; casting vessel. 

Jug anient : — Twns. 

Pri'nzo ploughing; Pri'nzo'fwi^s, plough; ploughing Bri'nzo, winnowing; Briiizo'fiwMS, fan; winnowing 

jugament. jugament. 

Fi'nzo, harrowing; Fi'nzotoiw, Jiarrow ; harrowing Bl'nzo, threshing; B'mzvltwus, Jlail; threshing ju- 

jugament. gament. 

Machine : — Dwus. 
Yi'tizai, grinding; Vmzax'dwuSjmill; grindingmachtne. Hr'^nzoo, compressing ; Trmzoofdwus, press; compressing m. 
Te'nzo, roasting; Tcnzcldwus, jack; roastingmacJnne. Kri'nzo, reaping; Kr'mzc^dwus, rea^^ing machine. 

Habit:— Fus. 
Dre'mbi, disobedience; Dremhe^pas, contumacy; habit- De'mbi, obedience; Dembe^as, the halit of obeying. 

luil disobedience. Ko'nzi, joy; 'Konz^pas, the habit of cheerfulness. 

V^ndva,^ worshipping; TJn^-^pas, devotion; the habit Pu'ndra, ^jra?/e»-/ Pundra^je<s, habitual prayer, 
of worshipping. 
97 



Vondoo'te, 

Yonioo'bras, 

Ende'ias, 

Ende'&ras, 

Rundoo'Jas, 

Eundoo'&r««, 

Pinzoi'Jas, 

Vmzoilbras, 

Inzo'Sos, 

Inzo'Jras, 



A)-f:—Bas. 

ike quantity art: ■» 

^, ,., . > Mathematics. 

the quantity science: J 

the viagnitude art: 

the magnitude science : 

the numher art: 

the number science. 

the star art: 

the star science: 

the land art: 

the land science: 



_ > Geometry. 
V Arithmetic. 

> Astronomy. 

> Geography. 



Science: — Bras. 
Indoo'Jos, 
Indoo'Jws, 
Timbo'Jas, 
Timbo'&j-as, 
Pombo'6ff«, 
Pombo'5r«.9, 
Kimbe'Jfls, the weighing art: 
Kimbe'5/-((s, the weighing science 



the time art: 
the time science: 
the haiinony art: 
the harmony science : 
the vision art: 
the vision science: 



> Chron, 

} 

} Op. 



Music. 



■■} 



Statics. 



Iiidi-ooy"(irs, Naval Officer. 
Fendi-a^ws; Major General. 



Vondoo'wos, 

Vo'ndoo'vro* 

EndeV-rts, 

Ende't-ras, 

Rundoo'ras. 

Eundoo'rr 



Xjfath 
} 

•OS, / 



Geometrician. 



Arithmetician. 



Officer:— Fas. 
Fembraj^<A-, Colonel. 
Tendi"aya«, CajMin. 

Artist: — Vas. 
Pinzoi'ros, 
Pinzoi'rras, 
Inzo'i-'«.s, 

Indoo't;a5, 
Indoo'rras, 



Vondi'oyjw, Cliancellor of University. 



> Astronomer. 

> Geographer. 

> Chrmiologi.tt 



TImbo'ws, 

Timbo'rras. 

Pombo'ra^ 

Pombi 

Kimbe' 

Kem 



>• Musician. 



o'vas, } n J- • 

r Optician. 
o'rras, J 

, I >- Statician. 

beiras. J 



Rondoo'tos, cmpenter, 
Unje'to^, 



Keiizoo'<?«5, butcher. Kenzol'tfos, grocer. 

FenzaWas, leather-seller. Venzoi'rfas, wine-merchant. 



Mechanic: — Tas. 
Unzoo'tos, smith; metal Vunzoo'tas, 

VunzooVa*, 

Merchant: — Das. 

Enzoo'tZos, 
Tenza'ffes, 



goldsmith. Bunzoo'ta,?, 2>^umher. 

blaclcsmith. Punzoi'ta*, brazier. 



victualler^ Inpi^das, grazier, 

silh-mer chant. BeuzaWas, laceman. 



PiiijaX-cs, roaring. 
Pmjoo'A;e«, neighing 
Finjoofe, braying. 
Pinjifu'rfes, bellowing. 



Voice: 
Pinjifu'iiA-es, lowing. 
Finjoi'A:e«, bleating. 

'^howling. 

j yelling. 



Prinje'ies, 



Penjifii'nfes, cackling. 
Penje'fes, chattering 
Tenje'te, chirping. 
Ginjoifes, grunting. 



Vm]^kes, barking, 
Pino'njii-es, snarling. 
Kronze'fo 



YmpoHwes. 
Pcnjifii'uto-cs, chicken 



Young: — Twes. 
colt; foal ; Pinjifii'niifcs, calf young Ginjifu'n/ife*, 
:young of cow. Vrvajs^twes, 

Finjifii'niwes, lamb. PInje'iwes, 

Frinjlfii'iitoes, kid. Kinja^twes, 

Part: — Dwes. 
KinzoMices, lid; part for covering. 



-) colt; , 
J of a h 



P>9- 
cub. 
puppy, 
kitten. 



Finje'^^oes, young fox. 
KiujoHwes, young rabbit. 
Tinjo'^ires, leveret. • 

Finjai'^wes, tadpole. 



From the foregoing examples, it will be easily imderstood, how Transcendental Substantives are suffixed 
to tabulars ; we have now to lay down the rules for Adjective and Adverbial Transcendentals. 

98 



[ § 202 I If the Tabular is a Suhstantive,- all Adjectives will be prefixed to it; but the s (which termi- 
nates all the Transcendentals in the foregoing Table) is first to be cut oiF, before a word beginning with a 

consonant. ^„ . ,,„^ „ 

EXAMPLES. 

Metaphorical. Pis, — -pi. 

Ptpo'ndoo, original; i. e. metaphorical root. Pj'dra'nzoi, means; metaphorical way. 

iYfi'o'nzoi, competitor; metajiliorical rival. P/fo'nzoi, candidate; metaphorical suitor. 

Diminutive. Pes — pe. 

Pc'dra'ndis, vesicle; smn.ll bladder. Peta'nzoi, turret; small tower. 

Peto'ndoo, sprig; small branch. Pefo'mbri, dagger; small sword. 

Pegre'nzis, puppet; small image. Pefe'ndri, pistol; small gun. 

Pefa'nzo, cell; cabin; small room. Pedi'nza, streamlet; small stream 



Pcpi'njoo, nag; little horse. 

Pedra'nzis, pallet; small bed. 

Pefa'nza, wicket; little door. 

Pcta'ndoi, cuticle: small skin. 



Pepri'nza, ocean; great sea. 
Peko'ndoo, stake; great stick. 



Greatness. Pes — be. 
Pekro'ndoo, a pole; a great wand. Pedre'nza, cable ; great rope. 
Peto'ndoo, bough; great branch. Pege'nzi, ladle; great spioon. 

Excessive. Ves — ve. 

T eba'mba, double diligence. Fedro'nzo, over-value; excessive value. 

Fepa'mba, delay. Feva'nda, gaudiness; excessive 

Fefa'mba, carking care; excessive heedfulness. P'ebe'ndo, precipitation; excessive 
Fete'mbo, abjectness; excessive modesty. 

Defective. Fes—^fe. 

Peba'mba, idleness; deficient diligence. Pcfa'mba, carelessness; deficient heedfulness. 
Pepa'mba, rashness; deficient consideration. 

[ § 203 ] If the Tabular is an Adjective, Participle, or Indicative Verb, the Transcendental, if an 
Adverb, will be prefixed, and, if prefixed, will be an Adverb. 



Tabular Adjectives and Adverbs Transcendental. 
Metaphorically. Pis — pi. 



Piba'ntou, 

Ptbra'ntou, 

Pi'pe'nti, 

Pi'pre'nti, 

Pitre'nti, 

Pe'twe'nti, 

Piko'mpus, 

i)wibi'nzu, 
Pwi'fa'nzu, 



gross; metaphorically thick, 
subtle; metaphorically thin, 
upright; metaphorically straight, 
perverse; metaphorically crooked, 
dull; metaphorically obtuse, 
quick; Tnetaphorically acute, 
perfect; metaphorically ripe. 



PHvro'mpus, imperfect; metaphorically immature. 



Pito'mpus, 

Pjvo'mpu, 

pjvro'mpu, 

Pt'va'ntu, 

Pivra'ntu, 



inventive; metaphorically fruitful, 
decent; or morally beautiful, 
absurd; indecent; morally disgusting, 
elegant; metaphorically adorned, 
rude; meti 



man by man. 
door by door. 



Segregately: — distrilmtively. Dwis — dwi. 

Pwipla'ndur, by little and little. Pw«Va'ndu, foot by foot. 

Pwibo'ndus, by degrees. Pifit'da'ndi, seriatim. 



[ § 203 ] Transcendental Adverb icith Tabular Verb. 

Habitually. Pas — -^^o. 
Pako'nsikai, habitually to rejoice; to be cheerful. Padre'mpikai, habitually to disobey; to be contumacious. 

Pade'mpikai, habitually to obey; to be obedient. 

2D 99 



^apa'nsitai, to speak poioerfully. 



■Powerfully. Kas — Tea. 
A'avi'ntmai, to reason poioerfulli/. 7u(do'ntipai, to act jiowerfully. 



Frequently. Das — da. 
Z'afra'nsifai, to tipple; frequently to drink. i*ape'utisai, to haunt; frequently to come. 

i'apa'iisitai, to hobble; frequently to talk. i?apre'ntisai, to resort to; frequently to go. 

Metaphorically. Pis — pi. 



PjTja'iitrlsai, to expel; metaphorically banish. 
Ptfo'nsiiiai, heiny in company; met. companioning. 
Pido'mpikai, to fortify; metaphorically strengthen. 
Pive'nsipai, to insinuate; metaphorically to \origgle. 
P/pii'mprifai, to predict; m.etaphoricaUy prophesy. 



P/pu'ntrisai, to dedicate; metaphorically to consecrate. 

Pz'fo'nsifai, to canvass; metaphorically to woo. 

P/ko'nsipai, metaphorically to preserve. 

Pikro'iisipai, Tnetajjhorically to destroy. 

Piko'nsifai, metaphorically to believe. 



Cause. Tis — t_i. 

Tjbo'nsifai, acquaint; cause to Icnoio. P«vi-o'nsikal, to terrify; to cause to fear. 

y«po'nsikai, to astonish; to cause to wonder. Tj'to'nsikai, to enamour; to cause to love. 

?Vto'nsikai, to provoke; to cause to be angry. Tjfo'nsivai, to shame; to cause to be ashamed. 

[ § 204 ] Tliei'e Is another mode of incorporating the idea of cause with a Tabular : — by a peculiar 
termmation. (See pages 59, 60, &c.) 

Exam2)les. 
Bonsifi-a'stos, to cause me to know. Vronsiki-o'stiu", to cause him to be afraid. 

Ponsikra'stas, to cause thee to wonder. Tonsikra'stun, to cause her to love. 

Tonsiskro'stes, to cause it to be angry. Fonsivi-o'ston, to cause us to be ashamed. 

Vronsikra'stur, to cause him tofear. Fonsivra'ston, to cause us to feel shame. 

[§205 ] When the Transcendental is a Verb, it precedes the Tabular like the advei-bs; but to distin- 
guish verbs from adverbs, the former require the letter y to precede the vowel of the Transcendental. 

Power. Kas — ka. To be able : — hya. 
JTj/apa'nsitai, to be able to speak. A!?/avi'ntLaai, to l>e able to reason, iu/ndo'ntipai, to be ahle to act. 
iT^abo'nsifai, to be able to know. ^ato'nsikai, to he able to love. ^apo'mpitoi, to be able to be seen. 

Au A;yabo'nsifg, / am able to know. Au 7i;?/apo'mpitoo, I am able to be seen. 

Au %a'tonsiko, I am able to love. Au ^?/apo'mpito, / atn able to see. 

[ § 206 ] If the Tabular be of the indicative or absolute form, then the Transceodental will be con- 
strued as an Assertive^ and the tabular as an Infinitive; as in the above examples. 



[ § 207 ] If the Tabular is in the dependent or infinitive form, the prefixed Transcendental will be 
Infinitive., and the Tabular also will be constraed as an Infinitive. 



Ajititude: — gas, 
(?yavro'nsikai, to he apt tofear. 
^?/afo'nsikai, to be apt to feel shame. 
Gj/ato'nsiki, to be apt to be angry; to be hasty. 
(??/agro'nsifi, to he apt to 



Apt: — ga. To be apt: — gya. 

G^afro'nsifai, to he volatile; apt to evaporate. 
Gi/ada'ntinai, to he apt to cleanse; abstersive. 
6^?/«tra'nsinai, to he apt to sleep. 
(r^adra'usipai, to be apt to die; mortal. 

100 



Begin. Tas — ta. To hegin: — tya. 

Au ^?/ave'nsIvo, Ilegintohreak; I crach. Tj/abe'ntipai, to take seisin; to begin to have. 

l^ave'nsivai, to begin to breah; to crack. T2/avo'nsikai, to begin to hope. 

J^ata'ntriuai, to encroach; to begin to usurp. T^apa'mpikai, to relent; to begin to repent. 

Au <3/ata'ntrmo, I encroach. T^/abo'ntrifai, to set up; to begin to trade. 

Tyate'ntisai, to set forth; to begin to proceed. T?/ave'ntipai, to seise ; to begin to hold. 

Endeavour : — twas. To endeavour: — twas.* 
Jwasfo'mpitai, listen; try to hear. yjwtsbo'mpitai, grope; try to feel. 

rwaspo'mpitai, peep; pry; try to see. r«)aspi'nsipai, heave; try to lift. 

[ § 208 ] The above Tabulars begin with a consonant^ but sometimes the Transcendental vowel pre- 
cedes a vowel: in this case the letter z is interposed betwixt the^Transcendental and the Tabular vowel. 

Twaae'ntisai, to endeavour to pass. Twasi'ntikai, to try to discourse. 

Twasu'nsipai, to try to burn. Twasu'nsifai, to try to blow. 



PART XX. 



COPULATIVES CONCLUSIVE OR POSSESSIVE. 
[§209 ] We have seen how the Tahulars denote the completeness, or conclusion of any state or action; 
but in all these cases of Tabulars there can be but one emphasis upon the lohole word. Now it not imfre- 
quently happens, that this particular element of a Tabular is emphatical; it is therefore necessary that we 
should have the means of exhibiting the total sense of the Tabulars as distributed among several different 
forms, in a state of visible analysis. 

One of these elements is expressed by the foUowiug forms, namely, om. have; o?, had; and ok, shall 
have. 

These are 1, Assertive, 2, Interrogative, 3, Adjective, and 4, Infinitive. 

ASSERTIVES. INTERKOGATIVES. 

Au om, I have; Au ol, I had; Au ou, I shall have. O'meau, have I? O'leau, had I? O'neau, shall I have? 

ADJECTIVES.— On, having; ot, had. 

INFINITIVES. 

Tom, to have; Tol, to have had formerly ; Ton, to have hereafter. 

To'mut, to have now been; To'lut, formerly to have been; To'uut, hereafter to have been. 



PART XXI. 



COPULATIVES ENTITIVE. 
These forms are duplicates of the Tabidar Pondoo. They are Invented for their brevity, being words 
of frequent occurrence In discourse, but more especially for their power of exhibiting the very elements of 
which ^oMc?oo Is the aggregate, and of expressuig Interrogation, &c. as auxiliaries to the tabulai-s generally. 

* When w pre-occuples the transcendental noun, the v|rb is of the same fonn; as y cannot be associated 
with w. 

101 



These words form no part of any of the things mentioned in a sentence; they simply superadd to the 
tei"ms of what is called simple apprehension, the sign of the relation in which the subject of the proposition, 
in which it is used, stands to its predicate. In this respect, they are precisely of the nature of prepositions, 
and are frequently interchangeable with prepositions. Thus, "a man o/" piety," and "a man who is pious," 
are identical, and express precisely the same relation betwixt the man and piety, the only difference being, 
that is may indicate assertion, and of is always part of the thing asserted, but never the sign of assertion, 
interrogation, &c. 

[§210] Copulatives Entitiye are divided into five classes : namely, 1, Assertive; 2, Interrogative; 
3, Du-ective; 4, Optative; 5, Infinitive; and 6, Adjective. 



CHAPTER I. 



Indefinife, 
Conclusive. "j 





ENTITIES ASSERTIVE. 






Au um. 


I am; 


Auul, 


I was; 


Au vm, 


I shall be. 


Au oom. 


I have been ; 


Au ool, 


I had been ; 


Au oon. 


I shall have been. 


Au omut, 


I have been; 


Au o'lut, 


I had been ; 


Au o'nut, 


I shall have been. 


Auump, 


I am bemg; 


Au ult, 


I was being; 


Au imt, 


I shall be being. 


Au u'raun. 


I am being; 


Au u'liui 


I was being; 


Au u'nun. 


I shall be being. 



CHAPTER 11. 







ENTITIVES INTEEROGATR'E. 






Indefinite. 


U'meau, 


am I? 


U'leau, was I? 


U'ncau, 


shall I be? 


Conclusive. 


Oo'meau, 
. O'meau ut, 


have I been? 
have I been? 


Oo'leau, had I been? 
O'leauut, ^W I been? 


Oo'neau, 
O'neau ut. 


shaU I have been? 
shall I have been? 


Progressive. 


fU'mpeau, 
C U'meau un, 


am I bemg? 
am I being? 


U'lteau, was I being? 
U'leau un, was I being.? 


U'nteau, 
U'neau un, 


shall I be being? 
shall I be being? 



CHAPTER III. 



Singular. 



riural. 



ENTITIVES DIRECTIVE. 
r Uso's, c Usa', t Use's, 

\ let me be ; I be thou ; c let it be; ? let him 

{Uso'n, or Uso'l, fUsa'r fUse'n, or Use'l, 

let us be ; 1 be ye ; \ let them be. 



5 Use'd < Usu'r 

be; (let him be; 



C Use't, f Usu'n, 

Uetherbe; > let her be. 



102 



CHAPTER lY. 

ENTITIVES OPTATIVE DUPLICATE. 

Tahle. 
Present Tense. A wish for jjresetit icisdom. Ho'kwun tu'meos fa'mpus ! Oh that I icere loise! 
Past Tense. A. -wish for 2Mst wisdom. Ho'kwun tu'leos fa'mpus I Oh that I had formerly been wise! 

Future Tense. A wish (or future wisdom. Ho'kwim tu'neos fa'mpus! Oh that I may Jiereafter he wise! 

[§211 ] Ho'kwun expresses the wish of the speaker, the Ego : and the infinitive verb, folJoioed by 
its subject, expresses \lm object of the wish; i. e. the matter of the sentence, or thing unshed. 

[ § 212 ] The above Table is confined to the first person /. The following Table exhibits the Optative 
Verb in connexion with all the personal pronovms, which invariably follow and are affixed to their verb. 
Ho'kwun, oh! that — Present. 

Tu'meos, I were ; Tu'meas, thou wert ; Tu'mees, it were ; Tu'meed, he were ; Tu'meur, he were \ 
Tu'meet, she were; Tu'meim, she wei-e; Tu'meon, we were; Tu'mean, ye were; Tu'meen, they were. 
Ho'kwun, oh! that — Past: f heretofore). 

Tu'leos, I had been; Tu'leas, thou hadst been; Tu'lees, it had been; Tu'leed, he had been; 

Tu'leur, he had been ; Tu'Ieet, she had been ; Tu'leun, she had been ; Tu'leon, we had been ; 
Tu'lean, you had been ; Tu'leen, they had been. 
Ho'kwun, oh! that — Future: ('hereafter). 

Tu'neos, I may be ; Tu'ueas, thou majst be ; Tu'nees, it may be ; Tu'need, he may be ; 

Tu'neur, he may be ; Tu'neet, she may be ; Tu'neun, she may be ; Tu'neon, we may be ; 

Tu'nean, ye may be ; Tu'neen, they may be. 

[ 213 ] When the subject of the Optative Verb is a tabular substantive, it p^-ecedes its verb, as in 
assertives: but, instead of an assertive, a dependent Entitivc verb follows it. The verb will be one of 
the following forms, namely: turn, tul, tun; toom, tool, toon ; tump, tult, tunt : either used absolutely, or 
conveniently suffixed to its own predicate. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Oh that my son were wise! Ho'kwun fronzipu'rtos fampu's<i/wj! 

2. Oh that my son had heretofore been wise! Ho'kwun fronzipu'rtos fampu'siw/! 

3. Oh that my daughter may he virtuous! Ho'kwmi fronzipu'ntos cmpu'riuw! 

4. Oh that the chUd -may be hajjpy! Ho'kwun pyu'ntinur pampu'rizm! 

5. And I said, oh that my mother were present! Au'kwi ga'nsitel, ho'kwim fonzipu'ntos ko'tu?(»;; ! 

6. Oh that my father had then been alive! Ho'kwun gro'su fonzipu'rtos da'nsur^uZ! 

7. Oh that the priests may he full of grace! Ho'kwim fu'ndroiz dinso'iUaw ambe'tu! 

[ § 214 ] Ho'kwun, oh that! signifies the same fact as the assertive phrase I wish; but being exclam- 
atory, the wish, like any expression of pain or pleasure, appears to be an involuntary cry; and therefore 
the speaker simulates but does not assert a wish. An assertion is a perfectly voluntary pledge to society (or 
lying would be no offence) that the fact, to which it relates, is true and real; but no man is called a liar 
because he cries out as if in pain when in fact he is not : — ^but a hypocrite. 

[§215] Kemember that imn, were noio ; tul, were formerly ; and tun, may hereafter he ; sometimes 
follow the noun which is their subject, and sometimes the predicate. 

[ § 216 ] All the forms of Optatives Entitive may be reduced to one or other of the preceding forms; as, 
May you be wise ! Ho'kwim tu'neas fa'mpus. 
Oh! may is only a more emphatlcal form of the expression, from the use of the cxclamative Oh! 
2 E 103 



CHAPTEE y. 



ENTITIVEti DEPENDENT OR INFINITIVE. 

Indefinite. Turn, to he; Tul, formerhj to he; Tim, hereafter to he. 

") Toom, to have now been; Tool, foi-merly to have been; Toon, hereafter to have been. 

' } TdmvtX, to /iai-e now been; Tofut formerly to Aare been ; To'nni, hereafter to /(rttv been. 

■» Tmnp, to 5e being now; Tult, heretofore to be being ; Timt, hereafter to be being. 

13 ■ j TM'mun, to 5e being now; Tw'Zun, heretofore to Je being; Tu'nwn., hereafter to ie being. 



CHAPTER VI. 



ENTITIVE ADJECTIVES OR PARTICIPLES. 
[§217] These are un, bemg; and tit, been. They never perform the chief office of adjectives; 
which is to add to the essence of some substantive: the use of participles is to subjoin to a substantive already 
perfect some additional, but subordinate, predicate: adjectives sx& parts of some logical subject, which would 
be imperfect without them. 

EX.VMPLES: Xiu— Being. 

1, The army, being victoi-ious, vigorously pursued Po'ndi'O, pemprou'ww, ko')nbu te'mprifel pro'uza. 

the enemy. 

2. The robbers, heing quickly pm'sued, were soon Da'ntruvorz, to'mbui/« vc'ntusoo, ki'ndur dre'utisool. 

overtaken. 

[§218] The participle un is subjoined to another word; and ut usually follows om, ol, .and on. 

EXAMPLES: JJt,— Been, 
Au o'mut, I have been: Au o'1m< I had been: Au o'nut, I shall have been. 

[ § 219 ] Ut is also subjoined to the Infinitives torn, tol, ton. 

EXAilPLES. 

Toraut, to have been: ToUut, heretofore to have been: To'nw* hereafter to have been. 



PART XXII. 



COPULATIVES ACTIVE. 
The observations made at the commencement of PART XIX might be repeated here, with only one 
difference, the entitives denote some mere state of being or relation: — these denote action. 

Like Copulatives Entitive, these Actives denote no part either of the subject or predicate ; but merely 
the relation in which they stand to each other. 

[§220] Like entitives, they arc divided into 1, Assertive; 2, Interrogative; J5, Directive; 4, Opta- 
tive; 5, Infinitive; and 6, Participial. 

10-4 



CHAPTER I. 



ACTIVES ASSERTIVE. 



Indefinite. Au im, 

(• Au em, 

Conclusive. 



r Au imp, 
^'■"^^'^^^''^^^•tAuu'mm, 



I do: 

I have done: 

\ Au o'mit, I Jtave done : 

Au imp, I am doing: 

I am doing: 



Au il, 
Au el, 
Au o'lit, 
Au ilt, 
Au u'lin. 



I did: 

I bad done: 
I had done : 
I was doing: 
I was doing: 



CHAPTER IL 



ACTIVES INTERROGATIVE. 



Indefinite. 
Conclusive. 



^ 



I'meau? 
E'meau? 
Omeau' it? 



? I'mpeau ? 
Progressive. ^ ^^;^^, -^^ ^ 



do I? 

have I done? 
have I done? 
Am I doing? 
I doing? 



I'leau? 
E'leau? 
Oleau' it? 
I'lteau? 
Uleau' in? 



did I? 

had I done? 
had I done? 
was I doing? 
was I doing.? 



x\u in, I shall do. 

Au en, I shall have done. 

Au o'nit, I shall have done. 

Au int, I shall be doing. 

Au u'nin, I shall be doing. 



I'neau? shall I do? 

E'neau ? shall I have done? 

Oneau' it? shall I have done.? 

I'nteau? shall I be doing? 

Uneau' in? shall I be doing? 



CHAPTER III. 



{I'sos, r I'sa, 

let me do; Ido'thou; 



Plural. 



I'son, or I'sol, 
let us do ; 



( I'sjli') 
Ido'ye 



ACTIVES DIRECTIVE.* 
^I'ses, fl'sed, rl'sur, rl'set, rl'sun, 

\ let it do ; \ let hmi do ; ( let him do ; ( let her do ; {let 

r I'sen, or I'sel, 
; 1 let them do. 



her do. 



CHAPTER lY. 



Ho'kwun, ok/ that, — 

Ti'meos, I did now; 

Ti'meiu', he did now; 

Ti'mean, ye did now; 
Ho'kwim, oh/ that — 

Ti'leos, I had formerly done 

Ti'leur he had, &c. 

Ti'lean, ye had, &c. 
Ho'kwun, oh/ that, — 

Ti'neos, I may do; 

Ti'neur, he may do; 

Ti'nean, ye may do 



ACTIVES OPTATIVE DUPLICATE. 

Present Tense. 
Ti'meas, thou didst now; Ti'mees; it did now; 

Ti'meet, she did now; Ti'meuu, she did now 

Ti'meen, they did now. 

Past Tense. 
Ti'leas, thou hadst, &c, 
Ti'leet, she had, &c. 
Ti'leen, they had, &c. 

Future Tense. 
Ti'neas, thou mayst do; Ti'nees, it may do; 
Ti'neet, she may do; TIn'eun, she may do 

Tine'en, they may do. 



Ti'mced, he did now; 
Ti'meon, we did now; 



Ti'lees, it had, &c. 
Ti'leun, she had, &c. 



Ti'leed, he had, &c. 
Ti'leon, we had, &c. 



Ti'need, he may do; 
Ti'neon, we may do; 



* The accent is here placed on the Verb: in the previous table of entitives it is placed on the Pronoun: 
the truth is, the emphasis is to be applied as the sense requires. 

105 



[ 221 ] In optative sentences, a pronominal subject follows and is suffixed to its verb, as in the foi-e- 
going examples; but where the subject is a noun substantive, it precedes its pi-edicate as in assertive verbs. 

EXAMPLES. 
( )li that the King did now feel the danger of his position ! 
llo'kwim fjondi-oo'ft'wj bo'mpitai tro'ndi twai'tu r'indo! 
Oh that the king had then felt the danger of his position! 
Ho'kwun FyondrooVt7 bo'mpitai tro'ndi twai'tu ri'ndo ! 
Oh that the King may hereafter feel the danger of his position ! 
Ho'kwun Fjondroo'<«w bo'mpitai tro'ndi twai'tu ri'ndo ! 



Present. 



Past. 



Future 






CHAPTER V, 



ACTIVES DEPENDENT OK INFINITIVE. 



Indefinite. 


Tim, 


to do; 


Til, 


formerly to do; 


Tin, 


hereafter to do. 


Conclusive. 


j-Tem, 
t To'mit, 


to have done; 
to liave done; 


Tel, 

ToYIt, 


formerly to have done; 
formerly to have done; 


Ten, 
Tdnii, 


hereafter to have done, 
hereafter to have done. 




JTimp, 
t Tv'mm, 


to be doing; 


Tilt, 


formerly to be doing; 


Tint, 


hereafter to be doing. 




, to he doing; 


Tu'Vm 


, formerly to he doing; 


T^l'nm, 


, hereafter to he doing. 



CHAPTER YL 



[222] 
suffixed to other words. 



ACTIVE ADJECTIVES OR PARTICIPLES. 
These are two, iv, doing; ?V, doue. They are generally used as auxiliaries, and are 



PART XXIII. 



TABULABS. 
[§22;^] Tabulars, like Duplicates, are divided into \, 1 
Optative; 5, Dependent, i. e. Infinitive; and 6, Adjective. 



ftive; 2, Interrogative; ;^, Directive; 4, 



CHAPTEE I. 



Presei 
Past. 



Indefinite^ 
Di'nsoi, it is full : 
Di'nsifil, it was full: 



TABULARS ASSERTIVE 

Section 1. Simple Tabulars. 
NEUTRAL. 
Conclusive, 



Future. Di'nsifin, it will he full: 



De'nsoi, it has heenfull: 
De'nsifil, it had been full: 



Progressive. 
Di'nsoi, it continues full: 
Di'nsifil, it continued full: 



Di'nsifin, it will have been full: Di'nsifin, it will continue full. 



106 



Lidefinite, 
Preseni. Di'nsifo, it fills: 
Past. Di'usifel, it filled: 
Future. Di'nsifen, it will fill : 



iTidefinite, 
Present. Di'nsifoo, it is filled hy: 
Past. Di'nsifool, it vjos filled by: 
Future. Dlnsifoon, it will be filled by. 



ACTIVE. 

Conclusive, 
De'nsifo, it lias filled: 
De'nsifel, it Jiad filled: 
De'nsifen, it zoill have filled: 

PASSIVE. 

Conclusive, 

Dc'nslfoo, it has been filled by: 

De'usifool, it had been filled by: 

De'nsifoon, iti 



Progressive. 
Di'usifo, it is filling: 
Di'nsifel, it teas filling: 
Di'nsifen, it ivill be filling. 



Di'nsifoo, it is being filled by: 
Di'nsifool, it was being filled by: 
: Di'nsifoon it will be being filled hy. 



CHAPTER 11. 



Indefinite, 
Pres. Dinsoi'ai? is it full? 
Past. Dinsifi'leai? was it full? 
Fut. Dinsifi'neai? v)ill it be full? 



Indefinite, 
Pres. Dinsi'feai? does it fill? 
Past. Dinsife'leai, did it fill? 
Fut. Dinsife'neai? will it fill? 



TABULARS INTEEROGATIVE. 
Section I. Tabulars 



NEUTRAL. 

Conclusive, Progressive. 

Densol'ai? has it been full? Dinsoi'ai? is it continuing full? 

Densifi'leai? had it been full? Dinsifi'leai? was it continuing full? 

Densiii'neai? will it ham been full? Dinsifi'neai? will it be continuing full? 



ACTIVE. 

Conclusive, 
Densit'eai? lias it filled? 
Densife'leai? had it filled? 
Densife'ueai? will it have filled? 



Progressive. 
Dinsife'ai? is it filling? 
Dinsife'leai? was it filling? 
Dinsife'neai? loill it be filling? 



PASSIVE. 

Indffvnitti, Conclusive, Progressive. 

Pre*. Dinsifoo'ai? is it filled by? Denslfoo'ai? has it been filled by? Dinsifoo'ai? is it being filled by? 

Past. Dinsifool'eai? was it filled by? Densifoo'leai? had it been filled by? DinsLfoo'leai? loas it being filled by? 
Fut. Jimsiho'neai'^ will it be filled by? J)enaikon^a^.? will it havebeenfilMby?I>'msiho^ne^£i^ 



Section II. Tabulars mixed loith Du^dicates. 

NEUTRAL. 

Indefinite, Conclusive, Progressive. 

Pres. U'meai di'nsou? is it full? Oo^xaepii Xi^nfiO\iT has it been full? U'mpeaidi'nsou? is it continuing full? 
Past. U'leai di'nsou? v}as it full? Oo'leai dl'nsou? had it been full? U'lteai di'nsou? was it continuing full ? 
Fut. U'neai di'nsou? viill itbe full? Oo'neai di'nsou? w;i?h'</jaye&e<;re/M?^.^U'nteai diUnsou? will it be continuing fid I? 
2 F 107 



Indefinite, 
Pres. I'meai di'nsifai? does it fill? 
Past. I'leai di'nsifai? did it fill? 
Flit. I'ueai di'nsifai? icill it fill? 



ACTIVE. 

Conclusive, 
E'meai di'nsifai'.' has it filled? 
E'leai di'nsifai? had it filled? 
E'neai di'nsifai'-' %cill it have filled? 



Progressive. 
I'mpeai di'nsifai? is it filling ? 
riteal di'nsifai? was it filling? 
I'nteai di'nsifai^ toill it he filling? 



PASSIVE. 

Indefinite, Conclusive, Progressive. 

Pres. LPmeai di'nsufoo.? is it filled? Oo'meai dl'nsufoo? has it been filled? U'mppai di'nsufoo? is itheing filled hj? 
Past. Uleai di'nsufoo? was it filled? Oo'leai di'nsiifoo? had it been filled? U'lteai di'nsufoo, was it being filledhy? 
Flit. Vn'e?L\d\'nsii£oo?willitbefilM?Oo^neaidhis\iioo?willithavebeenfilled?Un\e?ii^i!nsu£oo,wi^ 



CHAPTER III. 



TABULAKS DIEECTIVE. 



Section I. Tabulars Simple. 



NEUTRAL, 


ACTIVE, 


PASSIVE. 


Dinsoi'zos, 


let me be full: 


Dinsifo'zos, 


let me fill- 


Dinsifoo'zos, 


let me be filled by: 


Dinsoi'za, 


be thou full: 


Dinsifo'za, 


do thou fill- 


Dinsifoo'za, 


do thou be filled hy: 


Dinsoi'zes, 


let it U full- 


DInsifo'zes, 


let it fill: 


Dinsifoo'zes, 


let it bejlled by: 


Dinsoi'zed, 


let Mm be f un- 


Dinsifo'zed, 


let him fill- 


Dinslfoo'zed, 


let him he filled hy : 


Uiusoi'zet, 


let her be full: 


Dinsifo'zet, 


let her fill: 


Dinsifoo'zet, 


let Jm- he filled by: 


Dinsoi'zon, 


let us be full: 


Dbsifo'zon, 


let us fill: 


Dinsifoo'zon, 


let w« be filled hj: 


Dinsoi'zar, 


do ye be full: 


Dinsifo'zar, 


do ye fill- 


Dinsifoo'zar, 


do ye he filledhy: 


Dinsoi'zen, 


let them be full 


Dinsifo'zen, 


let them fill. 


Dinsifoo'zen, 


It them be filled hy. 



Section II. Tabulars mixed icith Duplicates. 



XEUTEAL, 
U'sos di'nsou, let me be full: 



U'sa di'nsou, 
U'ses di'nsou, 
U'sur di'nsou, 
TJ'sun di'nsou, 
U'son di'nsou, 
U'sar di'nsou, 
U'sen di'nsou, 



be tlwu full- 
let it be full- 
let him be full: 
let her be full: 
let us be full- 
be ye full- 
let them be full: 



ACTIVE, 
I'sos di'nsifai, let me fill: 
I'sa di'nsifai, do thou fill: 
Ises dinsifai, let it fill: 
I'sur di'nsifai, let him fill: 



Isun di'nsifai, 
I son di'nsifai, 
I'sar dinsifai, 
I'sen dinsifai, 



let her fill : 
let us fill- 
do ye fill: 
let them fill: 



PASSIVE. 
U'sos di'nsifoi, let me be filled by: 
U'sa dinsifoi, be thou filled hy : 
U'ses di'nsifoi, lei it be filled by: 
U'sur di'nsifoi, let him be filled by: 
U'sun di'nsifoi, let her be filled hy: 
U'son di'nsifoi, let us be filled h/ : 
U'sai' di'nsifoi, l>€ ye filled by: 
U'scn di'nsifoi, let them be filled by. 



lOS 



I 



CHAPTER lY. 

TABULARS OPTATIVE. 

The Optative characteristic is "Ho'kwiui!" which, like the two Enghsh words "Oh that!" expresses 
an apparently intense wish, but does not assert It. 

[ § 224 ] The matter of the Optative, i. e. the thing wished, is expressed by an Infinitive complete, 
tliat is, a subject with its Infinitive verb. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. Ho'kwim dro'nzotos lu'mpiki ! Oh that my servant were healed ! 

2. Ho'kwmi dro'nzotos lu'mpikil! Oh that my servant had before been healed! 

3. Ho'kwun dro'nzotos lumpikin ! Oh that my servant may hereafter be healed ! 

[ § 225 ] Here the characteristic is of the ^?resf ?>< tense .'^the thing wished in the first example 
coincides with it; in the second, precedes it; and in the third, succeeds it. 

Further Examples, 

1. Ho'kwun ra'mbi tu ra'mpukroz pe'ntisaln Oh that the wickedness of the wicked may come 

yoo'nu tri'nilo ! to an end ! 

2. Ho'kwun dyo'nzoo twi'zraielpe'ntisi mi Zl'un! Oh that the salvation of Izrael were now come 

out of Zion ! 

3. Ho'kwun U'ndi fompitai'neas ro'tu bu'ndis! Oh that God may hear thee in that day! 

4. Ho'kwim to'meos fo'ndiz yoo'broo pe'njo ! Oh that I had wings like a dove ! 

5. Ho'kwun kanzai'ten o'kain goora'nzis ! Oh that their table may become a trap ! 

6. Ho'kwun kindoi'ten o'kain unra'nsupoo ! Oh that their home may become desolate ! 

[ § 226 ] The subjects of the above Optatives arc all substantives. In the following examples tliey 
ai"e all pro7iouns. 

[§227 ] It is a rule that where a pronomi is the subject of an infinitive, it shall be suffixed to the 
infinitive; and not, as is usual in English, precede it. 

EXAMPLES. 

Present. Past. 

Oh that I were now wise ! Ho'kwun fampisi'os! Oh that I had before been wise ! Ho'kwun fampisi'leos ! 

Oh that thou wert now wise ! Ho'kwun fampisi'as ! Oh that thou hadst before been wise ! Ho'kwim fampisi'leas 

Oh that it were now wise! Ho'kwun fampisies! Oh that it had before been wise! Ho'kwun fampisi'lees 

Oh that he were now wise ! Ho'kwun fampisi'ed! Oh that he had before been wise! Ho'kwun fampisi'leed 

Oh that she were now wise! Ho'kwun fampisi'et! Oh that she had before been wise! Ho'kwmi fampisi'leet 

Oh that we were now wise! Hokwun fampisi'on! Oh that we had before been wise! Hokwun fa'mpisi'leon 

Oh that ye were now wise! Ho'kwun famplsl'an! Oh that ye had before been wise! Ho'kwun fampisi'leau 

Oh that they were nojv wise ! Ho'kwun farapisi'en ! Oh that they had before been wise ! Ho'kwun fampisi'lcen 

Futtire. 

Oh that I may hereafter be wise ! Ho'kwun fampisi'neos ! 

Oh that thou mayest hereafter be wise! Ho'kwum fampisi'neas ! 

Oh that he may hereafter be wise ! Ho'kwun fampisi'neen ! 

109 



CHAPTER Y. 



TABULAES DEPENDENT OR INFES'ITIYE. 

[ § 228 ] These are so denominated because tliey depend upon some prior verb, adjective, or other 
word : and from the tense of which theu* own time is to be calculated. 

[ § 229 ] The following Table exhibits, at one view, all the terminations of the Dependent Verbs, 
wliether Neutral, Active, or Passive. 

NEUTRAL. 

Iiukjinite, Conclusive, Progressive. 

D'insifi, to be full; De'nsLfi, to have now been full; Di'nslfi, to continue full ; 

Di'nsifil, heretofore to have been fill; De'nsifil, to have been formerly full; Di'nsifil, to have continued full heretofore; 

Di'nsitin, hereafter to be full; Densifin, to have been hereafter full; Dl'nsifin, to continue hereafter to be full; 

ACTIVE. 
Lvdeftnite, Conclusive, Progressive. 

Di'nsifai, to fill now; De'usifai, to have now filled ; Di'nsifai, to be now filling ; 

Di'nsifail, to have heretofore filled; De'nsifall, to have heretofore filled; Di'nslfail, to have been formerly filling; 

Dl^nsiiaxajtofilUiereafter; De'nsifain, to have filled hereafter; Dhis]£a.m, to be hereafier filling ; 

PASSIVE. 

Indefinite, Conclusive, Progressive. 

Di'nsifoi, to be now filled by; De'nslfoi, to have now been filled by; Di'nslfoi, to be noiv being filled by; 

1 )l'nsifoiI, to be lieretof ore filled by; De'nsifoil, to have heretofore been filled Jy/Di'nsifoil, to be heretofore being filled by; 

Di'nsifoin, to be hereafter filled, by. De'nsifoin, to have been hereafter filled by. T>h\9\£oin, to be hereafter being filled by. 

[ § 230 1 The subject of an Infinitive or Dependent verb is either a pronomi, a tabular, or proper noun. 
[ § 231 ] If the subject is a personal pronoim, it is suffixed to the verb, accordmg to the following 
21 D E L. 
NEUTRAL. ACTIVE. PASSIVE. 

Indefinite. 
PreMnt, Past, Future. Present, Past, Future. P)-esenf, Past, Future. 

Dinsifi'os, dinsifileos, dinsifi'neos, Dinsifai'os, dinsifai'leos, dinsifai'neos, Dinsifoi'os, dinsifoi'leos, dinsifoi'neos, 

Conclusive. 
Densifijos, densili'leos, densifi>eos, Densifai'os, deusifai'leos, densifai'neos, Donsifoi'os, deusifoi'leos, densif bi'neos, 

Progressive. 
Dinsiti'os, dinsifi'leos, dinsifi'neos, Dinsifai'os, dinsifai'leos, dinsifai'neos, Dinsifoi'os, dinsifoi'leos, dinsifoi neos, 

[ § 232 ] If the subject is a tabular or proper name, it precedes the Infinitive verb. 

MODEL. 
Neutral. Active. Passive. 

Pi'njoo di'nsifi, di'nsifil, di'nsilin, di'nsifai, di'nsifail, dl'nsifain, di'nsifoi, di'nsifoil, di'nsifoin, 

Pi'njoo de'nsifi, de'nsifil, de'nsifin, de'usifai, de'nsifail, de'nsifan, de'nsifoi, de'nsifoil, de'nsifoin, 

Pi'njoo di'nsifi, di'nsifil, di'nsifin, d'uisifai, di'nsifail, di'nsifain, di'nsifoi, di'nsifoil, di'nsifoin. 

110 



[ § 233 ] We have seen tliat Optatives depend on the two words, " Ho kwiui," and except that Infini- 
tives have a different dependence, they follow exactly the same law as optatives; and so do their tenses. 

Observe. We shall now take the same examples as are given in the previous chapter, to shew their 
perfect analogy with optatives, only altering the term of dependence from "Ho'kwun" to some other 
expression. 

EXjVMPLES. 

Ho says that my servant is in a state of health. 



1. Wai ga'nsito dronzo'tos lu'mpiki; 

2. Wai fi'ntiso dro'nzotos lumpikil; 

3. Ar to'ntrisn dronzo'tos lu'rapikin; 

4. Wai ga'nsito ra'mbi tu ra'mpukroz pe'ntisain 

yoo'nu tri'ndo ; 

5. Wai ga'nsito dyo'nzoo tw I'zralel pe'ntisi ; 

6. Wai ga'nsito dyo'nzoo tw I'zraiel pe'ntisil ; 

7. Wai ga'nsito dyo'nzoo tw I'zraiel pe'ntisin ; 

8. Wai ga'nsito to'meos fo'ndiz yoo'bru pe'njo ; 

9. Wai ga'nsito to'leos fo'ndiz yoo'biai pe'njo ; 

10. Wai ga'nsito to'neos fo'ndiz yoo'bru pe'njo ; 

11. Wai ga'nsito kanzai'ten o'kain goora'nzis ; 

12. Wai ga'nsito kindoi'ten o'kain imra'nsupoo ; 



He says my servant was before in a state of health. 
They promise that my servant shall be in a state 

of health. 
He says the wickechiess of the wicked will come 

to an end. 
He says that the salvation of Israel is come. 
He says that the salvation of Israel was come. 
He says that the salvation of Israel will be come. 
He says that I have wings like a dove. 
He says that I had wings like a dove. 
He says that I shall have wings like a dove. 
He says that their table will become a trap. 
He says that their home will become desolate. 



[§234] At page 109, Sec. 227, the law is laid down for suffixing pronominal subjects to Infinitive 
or Dependent Verbs : — the law prevails here. 

EXAMPLES. 
Absolute Present with Dependent Present. 
Au fi'ntiso pampivi'os ; I affinn that I am happy. Au fi'ntiso pampivi'et ; I affirm that she is happy. 

Au fi'ntiso pampivi'as ; I affirm that thou art happy. Au fi'ntiso pampivi'on; I affirm that we are happy. 
Au fi'ntiso pampivi'es ; I affirm that it is happy. Au fi'ntiso pampivi'an ; I affirm that ye are happy. 

Au fi'ntiso pampivi'ed ; I affirm that he is happy. Au fi'ntiso pampivi'en ; I affirm that they are happy. 

[ § 235 ] This is the model for all Neuter Vei-bs which have pronominal subjects : — there being but 
one substantive connected with the Neuter Verb, there can be no doubt as to that one being the suhject 
of the Verb. 

Absolute Present with Dependent Past. 
Au fi'ntiso pampivi'leos; I affirm that I was happy. Au fi'ntiso pampivi'leet; I affii-m that she was happy. 
Au fi'ntiso pampivi'leas, I affirm that thou wcrt happy. Au fi'ntiso pampivi'leon ; I affirm that we were happy. 
Au fi'ntiso pampivilees; I affirm that it was happy. Au fi'ntiso pampivilean; I affirm that ye were happy 
Au fi'ntiso pampivileed; I affirm that he was happy. Au fi'ntiso pampivileen; I affirm that they were happy. 



Absolute Present loith Dependent Future. 
Au fi'ntiso pampivi'ncos; I affirm that I shall 1 c- Au fi'ntiso pampi'vlueet; I affirm that she will 
Au fi'ntiso pampivi'neas; I affirm that thou wilt I j_, Au fi'ntiso pampivi'neon; I affinn that we shall 
Au fi'ntiso pampivi'nees; I affirm that it will {>% Au fi'utis<2 pampivi'nean ; I affirm that ye will 
Au fi'ntiso parapivi'need ; I affirm that he will J 'r^ Au fi'ntiso pampivi'neen ; I affirm that they will 

2 G 111 



IS 



Absolute Past im'th Dependent Present. 
An fi'ntisel parapivi'os; I affirmed that I was then Au fi'ntisel pampivi'as; I affirmed that thou wast 
happy then happy, &c. 

Absolute Past with Dependent Past. 
Au fi'ntisel pampivi'Ieos ; I aflSnned that I had Au fi'ntisel pampivi'leas ; I affirmed that thou hadst 
before then been happy. before then been happy, &c. 

Absolute Past with Dependent Future. 
Au fi'ntisel pampivi'neos, I aflinned that I should Au fi'ntisel pampivi'neas ; I affirmed that thou 
after then be happy. wouldst after then be happy, &c. 



Absolute Future loitJi Dependent Present. 
Au fi'ntisen pampivi'os; I shall affixra that I am then Au fi'ntisen pampivi'as; I shall affirm that thou art 
happy. then happy, &c. 

Absolute Future with De2}endent Past. 
Au fi'ntisen pampivi'Ieos ; I shall affirm that before Au fi'ntisen pampivi'leas ; I shall affii-m that before 
that time I had been happy. that time thou hadst been happy, t^c. 

Absolute Future with Dependent Future. 
Au fi'ntisen pampivi'neos; I shall affirm that aftei'- Au fi'ntisen pampivi'neas; I shall affirm that after- 
wards I shall be happy. wards thou wilt be happy, &c. 

[ § 236 ] The above examples sufficiently shew the relation in which the Absolute and Dependent 
Verbs stand to each other. 

Observe. This is a most important branch of grammar, but our limits prevent our discussing it at large. 



Section II. ACTIVE Verbs Dependent with Personal Pronouns: — f Subject and Object.J 

Indefinite. 
Present, To'nsikalau"2!os, i sow, zes, zed, r That I love myself, -i thee, it, him. 



Past, To'nsikailau"sos, |-se<, zon, zan, < That I loved myself, l-her, ourselves, you, 

Future. To'nsikainau"sos, J zen. I That I shall love myself, J them. 

Conclusive. 
Present, Toi'nsikaiau"3os, -i zas, zes, zed, rThat I have loved myself, -i thee, it, him. 
Past, Toi'naikailau"2os, Vzet, zon, zan, J. That I had loved myself, [-her, ourselves, you, 

Future, Toi'nsikainau"30A-, J zen. L That I shall have loved myself) J them. 



Preseni, To'nsikaiau"3os, -^ zas, zes, zed, rThat I am loving myself, t thee, it, him, 
Past, To'nsikailau"zos, \-zet, zon, zan, i That I was lovmg myself, j-ber, ourselves, you, 
Future. To'nsikainau"zos, J zen. I That I shall be loving myself, J them. 



112 



Section III. PASSIVE Verbs Dependent with Personal Pronouns. 



Present, To'usikoiau"sos, -^ zas, zes. 

Past, To'nsikoilau"zos, izet, zon. 

Future. To'nsikoinau"so.s, J zen. 

Present, Toi'n3ikoiau"2os, t zas, ses, 

Past, Toi'nsikoIlau"zos, }■ zei, zon. 

Future. Toi'nsikoinau"sos, J zen. 

Present, To'iisikoiau'sw, t zas, zes, 

Past, To'nsikoilau"sos, }> zet, zon, 

Future. To'nsikoinau"sos, J zen. 



Indefinite, 

zed, j-Tliat I am loved by myself, -i thee, it, him, 

, zan,\ That I was loved by myself, j>her, ourselves, yo 

LThat I shall be loved by myself, J them. 
Conclusive. 

zed, r That I have been loved by myself, -i thee, it, liim, 

s«)i, -! That I had been loved by myself, j>her, om-sclves, yci 

l That I shall have been loved by myself, J them. 
Progressive, 

zed, r That I am being loved by myself,* -i thee, it, him, 

zan, \ That I was bemg loved by myself, I her, ourselves, yoi. 

L That I shall be being loved by myself, J them. 



PART XXIV. 



D UPLIGA TES PO TENTIAL. 
[ § 237 ] The following Verbs are called Potentials Duplicate, namely, 1, Pi'u, can; 2, Fi'u, may; £, 
Ti'u, (predictive) shall or will; 4, Vi'u, (promissive) will or wilt; 5, Vai'u, (authoritative) shall or shalt; C, 
Ki'u, oxght; 7, Bi'u, must; 8, Di'u, would rather. 



CHAPTER I. 



ABSOLUTE:— VW, fcanj. DEPENDENT :— VI, (to he able). 



SECTION I. ABSOLUTES. 
Au pi'u, I can. An pli'u, I could. Au pri'u, I can hereafter. 



SECTION II. DEPENDENTS. 

1. Dependents on the Present. 

Wai ga'usito pi'os pre'ntisai, He says that I can now go. 

Wai ga'nsito pli'os pre'ntisai, He says that I could then go. 

Wai ga'nsito pri'os pre'ntisai, He says that I can hereafter go. 

2. Dependent on the Past. 



Wai ga'nsitel pi'os pre'ntisai, 

Wai ga'nsitel pli'os pre'ntisai, 

Wai ga'nsitel pri'os pre'ntisai, 

3. Dependent < 

Wai ga'nsiteu pi'os pre'ntisai, 

Wai ga'nsiteu pli'os pre'ntisai, 

Wai ga'nsiten prios pre'ntisai. 



He said that I could go then. 
He said that I could go before then. 
He said that I could hereafter go. 
n the Future. 

He will say that I can then go. 
He will say that I could go before then. 
He will say that I can afterwards go. 



* That I continue to be loved by myself 
113 



CHAPTER 11. 



ABSOLUTE.— FW, fmmjj. DEPENDENT .-—Fl, (to he free to). 



SECTION I. ABSOLUTES. 
Au fi'u, I may now. Au fli'u, I might then. Au fri'u, I may hereafter. 



SECTION II. DEPENDENTS. 

1. Dependent on the Present. 
Wai ga'nsito fi'os prebitisai, He says that I may now go. 

Wai ga'nsito fli'os pre'ntisai, He says that I might then go. 

Wai ga'nsito frios pre'ntisai, He says that I may hereafter go. 

2, Dependent on the Past. 
Wai ga'nsitel fi'os pre'ntisai, He said that I might then go. 

Wai ga'nsitel flios pre'ntisai, He said that I might before then go. 

Wai ga'nsitel frios pre'ntisai. He said that I may after tlien go. 

3. Dependent on the Future. 
Wai ga'nsiten fi'os pre'ntisai, He will say that I may then go. 

Wai ga'nsiten flios pre'ntisai, He will say that I might have gone hefo}-e then. 

AVai ga'nsiten frios pre'ntisai, He will say that I may go aft^ then. 



CHAPTER III. 



ABSOLUTE:— Tm, r-ihall or wUIJ. DEPENDENT .—Tl, (futurehjj. 

Predictive. 

SECTION I. ABSOLUTES. 
Au ti'u pre'ntisai, I shall now go: Au tri'u pre'ntisai, I shall go hereafter. 



SECTION II. DEPENDENTS. 
L Dependent on the Present. 
Au ga'nsito ti'os pre'ntisai, I say that I shall noio go. 

No past. 
Au ga'nsito tri'os pre'ntisai, I say tliat I shall hereafter go. 

2. Dependent on the Past. 
\Vai ga'nsitel ti'os pre'ntisai. He said I should go then. 

No jyast. 
Wai ga'nsitel tri'os pre'ntisai, He said that I should go after then. 

3. Dependent on the Future. 
^^'ai ga'nsiten ti'os pre'ntisai, He will say that I shall then go. 

No past. 
Wai ga'nsiten tri'os pre'ntisai, He will say that I shall go after then. 



CHAPTER lY. 



ABSOLUTE:— YW. DEPENDENT: VI. 

Promissive. 



SECTION I. ABSOLUTES. 
Au vi'u prc'iitisa!, I will go now: Au vli'u pre'ntisai, I would go then: Au vri'u pre'ntisai, I will go Jwreafte 



SECTION II. DEPENDENTS. 

] . Dependent on tlie Present. 

Au Ga'nsito vi'os pre'ntisai, I say I will go noio. 

jVu ga'nsito vri'os pre'ntisai, I say I will go thereaftsr: i. e. after that time. 

2. Dependent on the Past. 

Au ga'nsitel vi'os pre'ntisai, I said I would go tlieii: 

Au ga'nsitel vn'os pre'ntisai, I said I would go thereafter: i. e. after that time. 

3. Dependent on the Future. 

Au ga'nsiten vios pre'ntisai, I shall say that I will go then. 

Au ga'nsiten vri'os pre'ntisai, I shall say that I will go thereafter : i. e. after that time. 



CHAPTER V. 



ABSOL UTE. —YAV\J. DEPENDENT:— YAI. 

Authoritative. 



SECTION [I. ABSOLUTES. 
A vai'u pre'ntisai, thou shalt go now. A vrai'u pre'ntisai, thou shalt go hermfc 



SECTION 2. DEPENDENTS. 

1. Dependent on the Present. 
Au ga'nsito vai'as pre'ntisai, I say thou shalt go now. 

Au ga'nsito vrai'as pre'ntisai, I say thou shalt go hereafter. 

2. Dependent on tlie Past. 
Au ga'nsitel vai'as pre'ntisai, I said thou shouldst go then. 

Au ga'nsitel vrai'as pre'ntisai, I said thou shouldst go ihereafter. 

3. Dependent on the Future. 

Au ga'nsiten vai'as pre'ntisai, I shall say that thou shalt then go. 

Au ga'nsiten vrai'as pre'ntisai, I shall say that thou slialt go afterwards 

2 H " .115 



CHAPTER VI. 



ABSOL UTE:—Km. DEPENDENT:— Kl. 



SECTION I. ABSOLUTES. 
Au ki'u, I ought: Au kli'u, I ouglited: Au kri'u, I ought hereafter. 



SECTION 2. DEPENDENTS. 

1. Dependent on the Present. 

Au ga'nsito ki'os prc'ntisai, I say that 1 ought nmo to go. 

Au ga'nsito kli'os pre'ntisai, I say that I oughted then to go. 

Au ga'nsito kri'os pre'ntisai, I say that I ought hereafter to go. 

2. Dependent on tlie Past. 

Au ga'nsitel ki'os pre'ntisai, I said that I ought to go. 

Au ga'nsitel kli'os pre'ntisai, I said that I oughted before then to go. 

Au ga'nsitel kri'os pre'ntisai, I said I ought thereafter to go. 

3. Dependent on the Future. 

Au ga'nsiten ki'os pre'ntisai, I shall say that I ought to go. 

Au ga'nsiten kli'os pre'ntisai, I shall say that I ought before to go, 

Au ga'nsiten kri'os pre'ntisai, I shall say that I ought thereafter to go. 



CHAPTER VII. 

ABSOLUTE:— mXl, fmustj. DEPENDENT.— BL 



SECTION T. ABSOLUTES. 
Au bi'u, I must 7iow: Au bli'u, I must heretofore: Au hri'u, I must hereafter. 



SECTION II. DEPENDENTS. 
1. Dependent on the Present. 
Au ga'nsito bi'os prc'ntisai, I say tiiat I must vow go. 

Au ga'nsito bli'os pre'ntisai. I say that I must then have gone. 

Au ga'nsito bri'os pre'ntisai, I say that I must hereafter go. 

2. Dependent on the Past. 
Au ga'nsitel bi'os pre'ntisai, I said that I must then go. 

Au gansitel bli'os pre'ntisai, I said that I nmst before have gone. 

Au ga'nsitel bri'os pre'ntisai, I said that I must hereafter go. 

3. Dependent on tlic Future. 
Au ga'nsiten bi'os pre'ntisai, I shall say that I must then go. 

Au ga'nsiten blios pre'ntisai, I shall say that I must before have gone. 

Au ga'nsiten bri'os pre'ntisai, I shall say that I must thereafter go. 

IIG 



CHAPTER VIII. 

[ § 238 ] Obs. In this Table the absolute time is noon, ('-) ;— the ;;as<, (") ;— and the future, ('). 

ABSOL UTE .— DI'U. DEPENDENT . -—Til. 

Conditionah 

SECTION I. ABSOLUTES. 
Au di'u, I would nov): Au dwi'u, I would then: Au dri'u, I would hereafter. 

SECTION 2. DEPENDENTS. 

1. Dependent on the Present. 

Au ga'nsito'^ di'os'" pre'ntisai, I say (at 12 o'clock) that I would noxo (at 12 o'clock) go. 

Au ga'nsito'^ dwi'os" pre'ntisai, I say (at 12 o'clock) that I would then (at 11 o'clock) go. 

Au ga'nsito'^ dri'os' pre'ntisai, I say (at 12 o'clock) that I would hereafter (at 1 o'clock) go. 

2. Dependent on the Past. 
Au ga'nsiteP" di'os'^ pre'ntisai, I said (at 12 o'clock) I would then (at 12 o'clock) go, 
Au ga'nsitel'^ dwi'os" pre'ntisai, I said (at 12 o'clock) I would before (at 11 o'clock) have gone. 
Au ga'nsitel'^ di'i'os' pre'ntisai, I said (at 12 oclock) I would afterwards (at 1 o'clock) go. 

3. Dependent on the Future. 
Au ga'nsiten'" di'os'^ pre'ntisai, I shall say (at 12 o'clock) that I would then (at 12 o'clock) go. 
Au ga'nsiten'^ dwi'os" pre'ntisai, I shall say (at 12 o'clock) that I would before (at 11 o'clock) have gone. 
Au ga'nsiten"' dri'os' pre'ntisai, I shall say (at 12 o'clock) that I would thereafter (at 1 o'clock) go. 



CHAPTER IX. 

INTEEEOGATIVES. 

[ § 239 ] All the above Potentials end in m, and are Assertive. Now these are made Interrogative 
merely by changing this u into i ; as, pi'i, fi'i, ti'i, vi'i, val'i, di'i, &c. &c. 

EXAMPLES. 

Pi'iau?* cani? Fi'ia? mayest thou? Ti'iaid? will he? Bi'iaur ? must wo ? Di'iar? would they? 
Ki'iait? ought she? &c. &c. 



PART xxy. 

DUPLICATES CAUSAL. 
[ § 240 ] These are Active or Passive. 

CHAPTER L 

CAUSALS ACTIVE. 
[ § 241 ] These are Absolute or Dependent. 



Sound z before each of the pronouns: as if written Pi'isau, Fi'isa, Ti'i.caid, &c. 
117 





SECTION 


I. ABSOLUTE 


OR : 


INDICATIVE. 


Present. 

Fast. 

Future. 


E'os pa'mplvi, 

Le'os or Eleos pa'mplvi, 

Ne'os or E'neos pa'mpivi, 


It 
It 

It 


makes me happy, 
made me happy, 
■will make me ha 




SECTIOX 


2. DEPEXDEXT 


OR 


IXFINITIYE. 



Present. O'os pa'mpivi, To make me happy now. 

Past. Lo'os or Oleos pa'mpivi, Heretofore to make me happy, 

Future. No'os or O'neos pa'mpivi, Hereafter to make me happy. 



CHAPTER li 



CAUSALS PASSIVE. 



SECTION I. ABSOLUTE OR INT)ICATIYE. 

Present. Oo'os pa'mpivi, It is made happy by me. 

Past. Loo'os or Oo'leos pa'mpivi, It was made happy by me. 

Future. Noo'os or Oo'neos pa'mpivi, It will be made happy by me. 

SECTION II. DEPENDENT OR INFINITIVE. 
Present. Oi'os pa'mpivi To be made happy by me now. 

Past. Loi'os or Oi'leos pa'mpivi, Heretofore to be made happy by me. 

Future. Noi'os or Oi'neos pa'mpivi, Hereafter to be made happy by me. 

[ 242 ] The above Tables are applied only to the pronoun os, me : but, as the following 
Table shews, they may be applied to all the other dependent pronouns. 

EXAMPLES. 

Eos, e'as, e'es, e'ur, e'ed, e'un, e'et, e'on, e'an and e'en. Le'os, le'as, le'es, Ic^'ur, l«'cd, le'un, le'ct, 
le'on, and le'en. Ne'os, ne'as, ne'es, ne'ur, ne'ed, ne'un, ne'et, ne'on, ne'an, and ne'en. 

E'leos, e'leas, glees, eleur, eleed, eleun, eleet, eleon, elean, and e'leen. E'neos, e'neas, e'noes, 
e'neur, e'need. e'neun, e'neet, e'neon, e'nean, e'neen. 

[§243] The same law applies to Dependents. 



PART XXYI. 



COP ULA TI VES E VEXT UA L. 

[§244] These are contractions to denote the transition from one form of existence to another 
and, in the English language, are usually expressed by the word hecome. 

[§24.5] They are Active or Neutral. They are also, like the Copulatives, divided into A.ssti 
live, Interrogative, Directive, Optative, Dependent, Adjective, or Participial. 

lis 



CHAPTER I. 



Future. 
Au o'ken, / shall hecome. 
Au oi'ken, / shall have become. 
Au o'ken, / shall be becoming. 



EVENTVAL8 ACTIVE. 
SECTION I. EVENTUALS ASSERTIVE. 
Present, Past, 

Indefinite. Au oko, I become : Au o'kel, / became : 

Conclusive. Au oi'ko, I have become: Au oi'kel, / had become: 

Progressive. Am ^'ko, I am becoming : Au o'kel, I was becoming: 

SECTION II. EVENTUALS INTERROGATIVE. 
Present, Past, Future. 

Indefinite. Ok^an'? do I become? Ok^haM? did I become? Gk^ca.n'i shall I become? 

Conclusive. Oike'au, have I become ? Olke'leau ? had I becmne ? Oike'neau '? shall I ham become ? 

Progressive. Okcau':" am I becoming ? Okc'leau? was I becoming? Oke'neau? shall I be becoming? 
Interrogatives with all the accusative Pronouns. 
Oke'au? oke'a? oke'ai? oke'aid? oke'ait? oke'aur? oke'ar, oke'ar? i. e. do I become? dost thou become? 9 
does it become? &c. &c. 

SECTION III. EVENTUALS DIRECTIVE. 

Singular : — Iso's o'kai, let me become. Isa' o'kai, do thou become. Ise's o'kai, let it become. Ise'd o'kai, 
let him become. Ise't o'kai, let her become. 

Plural: — Iso'n o'kai, let us become. Isa'r o'kai, do ye become. Ise'u o'kai, ht them become. 

SECTION IV. EVENTUALS OPTATIVE. 
Present: — Ilo'kwun okai'os! oh that I may now become! Past: — Ho'kwun okai'lcos! oh that I might' 
heretofore have become/ Future: — Ho'kwun okai'neos! oh that I may hereafter become! 

Optatives with all the Personal Pronouns. 
Ho'kwun okai'os, okai'ks, okai'es, okai'ed, okai'et, okai'on, akai'aii, okai'cn, oh that I may becoine ; that 
thou mayest become ; that it may become, &c. &c. 



CHAPTER 11. 



EVENTUALS NEUTRAL. 
SECTION I. NEUTRALS ASSERTIVE. 
Present, Past, Future. 

Indefinite. Au o'ki, I am become : Au o'kil, / was become : Au o'kin, / shall be become. 

Conclusive. Au oi'ki, I have become : Au oi'kil, / had become : Au oi'kin, / shall have become. 

Progressive. Au o'ki, / am becoming : Au o'kil, I was becoming : Au o'kin, I shall be becoming. 
SECTION II. NEUTRALS INTERROGATIVE. 
Present, Past, Future. 

*Okyau? am I become? Okileau? was I become? Oki'npau, shall I be become? 

SECTION in. NEUTRALS INFINITIVE. 
Present, Past, Future. 

O'ki, to be become: O'kil, heretofore to be become: O'kin, to be hereafter become. 



Oke'au is Active and trissjUabic : o'kyau is Neutral and dissyllabic. 
119 



PART XXVII. 



PROVERBS. 

[ § 246 ] There are verbs which merely denote generic action ; and the particular kind of action 
is denoted by some part of the context. 

In such cases, the essence of the verb consists in the activity of the noun : thus, to blow is to put toind 
into action; to stream, Is to put boater into action; to bum, is to put fire into action; to lick, is to put the 
tongue into action'; to bite, to put the teeth into action; to swallow, to put the throat into action; to trample, 
to put the/ee< into action; to kick, to put the heels into action; and to shoot, is to put the gun into action.* 

So that the active verb of toind, would signify to blow; of water, to stream ; and so on with the other 
words. But to say the wind winds; the water waters, is clearly redundant. Wc therefore have the 
verb e'ko, e'kel, e'ken; ai'ko, ai'kel, ai'ken, which assume the special meaning of any antecedent word; and, 
like pronouns, represent that special meaning. 

EX.VMPLES. 
' 1. Ku'nzoi e'ko, e'kel, e'ken; {. e. the loind bloios, bleio, icill bloio. 

2. Dl'nza ai'ko, ai'kel, ai'ken; the water has streamed, had streamed, will have streamed. 

3. U'nzoo e'ko, ekel, e'ken; the fire hums, burned, will burn. 

The absolute meaning of the verb e'kai, is to act or move ; and it might be said, why not use the verb 
e'nsikal, to move; or do'ntipal, to act. The reason is, that e'kai is limited to the owe act which society 
has generally associated with such agent or Instrument; and, which is Its chief and most natural action, as 
in the above examples. 

Another advantage of such verbs Is, that being, as it were, like pronouns, vacant forms, they are 
significant only by relation to their antecedent, whose meaning they adopt. 

TABLE. 
E'KAI, to act or move SPECIALLY. 



Indefinite. 

Conclusive. 

Progressive. 



[§247] 
not used. 



INDICATIVE :— ACTIVE. 

E'ko, it moves: E'kel, it moved: 

Ai'ko, it has moved: Ai'kel, it had moved: 
A'ko, it is moving: A'kel, it w 



When the verb Is 



Eke'n, it will move. 
Ai'ken, it will have moved. 
A'ken, it toill be moving. 

INDICATIVE— PASSIVE. 

it is Immediately derived from the cognate noun, and the Proverb 

EXAMPLES. 

INDICATIVE :— PASSIVE. 
Indefinite. 
Wal nis ku'nslfool, he was blown away. 
AVal tro'ndi u'nslpool, he was dangerously burned. 
Wai vra'ntlkool panza'triz, he was kicked douni stairs. 
Wal kra'ntitool pi'nji, he was bitten by the dog. 



* See Wilkms, page 300. 
120 



PART XXYIII. 



NUMBERS. 
[ § 248 ] These are divided into Cardinal, Ordinal, Multiplicative, and Proportional. 
[§249] They are, also, divisible, according to their form or their grammatical application, into 
Nouns, Adjectives, Verbs, and Adverbs. 



CHAPTER I. 



CARDINAL NUMBERS. 
[§250] The Arabic numerals are the only portion of existing languages, which, as a whole, conform 
to a perfect theory. If, insted of ten, the theory had been based upon sixteen, it would certainly have 
been vastly more convenient ; and, we think, there would have been no general or insuperable difficulty 
in acquiring the multiplication table which would result from it. However, we need not multiply impedi- 
ments to the progress of our own great object, already sufficiently impeded by the vis inertia of ignorance 
and prejudice. We have, therefore, adopted the Arabic numeration, to which we have applied, what 
appears to us, a series of more scientific names. 

[ § 251 ] The Arabic numerals are denoted by the following letters and figures. 

TABLE. 

English. 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. 

Philosophic. s, p, f, t, k, b, v, d, g, t. 

Carefully learn this Table, and then attend to the following observations. 

1. Obs. The following Table gives you the names of the Uiiits of this language. 

TABLE, 

A'pin, one ; A'kin, four ; A'din, seven ; 

A'fin, two ; A'bin, five ; A'gin, eight ; 

A'tin, three ; A'vin, six ; A'tin, nine. 

Notice : — The vowel a, (sounded ar) denotes that the numerical consonant which immediately 

follows it, represents one or more units. 

2. Obs. The following Table furnishes all the Tens of the language. 

TABLE. 

Pa'sin, ten; Ka'sin, forty; Da'sin, seventy; 

Fa'sm, twenty; Ba'sin, fifty; Ga'sin, eighty; 

Ta'sm, thirty; Va'sm, sixty; Ta'sin, ninety. 

[ § 252 ] A comes betwixt the units and tens. In relation to the number lefore it, it signifies tens ; 

but in relation to the number which follows It, It signifies units. Thus p'apin, signifies eleven; I. e. p 

before a signifies one ten; after it, one unit or one: fa'fin would signify twenty-two ; ta'tin, thirty-three; 

ka'kin, forty-four; ba'bin, fifty-five; va'vln, sixty-six; da'din, seventy-seven; ga'gm, eighty-eight; and 

ta'tin, ninety-nine. 

121 



3. Obs. The following Table fumlslies all the Hundreds of this language, 

TABLE. 
Pe'sin, one hundred; Ke'sin, four hundred; 

Fe'sin, two hundred; Be'sin, five hundi'ed; 

Te'sin, three hundred; Ve'sin, six hundi-ed; 



De'sln, seven hundred; 
Ge'sin, eight luuidred; 
Te'sin, nine hundred. 



[ § 253 ] The vowel e gives to every numerical consonant which precedes it, the value of hundreds. 

4. Obs. The following Table gives all the TImisands of the language. 

TABLE. 

Au'peo, one thousand; Au'keo, four thousand; Au'deo, seven thousand; 

Au'feo, two thousand ; Au'beo, five thousand ; Au'geo eight thousand ; 

Au'teo, three thousand; Au'veo, six thousand; Au'teo, nine thousand. 
[§254] All before a numerical consonant indicates thousands. 

Observe: — ITie letter r must be slightly sounded after au, to prevent a disagreeable hiatus. 

5. Obs. The following Table gives the Ten-thousands of the language. 

TABLE. 

Pau'seo, ten thousand ; Kau'seo, forty thousand ; Dau'seo, seventy thousand. 

Fau'seo, twenty thousand; Bau'seo, fifty thousand ; Gau'seo, eighty thousand ; 

Tau'seo, thirty thousand ; Vau'sco, sixty thousand ; Tau'soo, ninety thousand. 



Poo'seo, one hundi-ed thousand ; 
Foo'seo, two hundi-ed thousand; 
Too'seo, thi'ee hundred thousand: 



Doo'seo, seven hundred thousand ; 
Goo'seo, eight hundred thousand ; 
Too'seo, nine hundred thousand. 



6. Obs. The following Table gives the Hundred-thousands of this language. 

TABLE. 

Koo'seo, four himdred thousand; 

Boo'seo, five hundred thousand; 

Yoo'seo, six himdi'cd thousand; 

[§255] AU numbers not exceeding 999,999, (i. e. within six places), are, with respect to the higher 

numbers, called Pu'ndooz, i. e. Units: — the second six, Fu'ndooz, millions: — the third six, Tu'ndooz, 

billions: — next, Kii'ndooz, trillions: — next, Bu'ndooz, quadrillions: — next, Vu'ndooz, qiilntllllons : — next, 

Du'ndooz, sectillions: — next, Gu'ndooz, septillions: — Tu'ndooz, octlUIons: — and Du'ndooz, nonnillions. 

[§25fi] The following Table gives the value, in words, of all numbers from 1 to 999,999. 
TABLE. 



All the Values of 1. 
„ 2. 



Poopau'peo pepa'pin, 111,111. 
Foofau'feo fefa'fin, ... 222,222. 
Tootau'teo teta'tin, . . 333,333. 
Kookau'keo keka'kin, 444,44-1. 
Boobau'bco beba'bln, 555,555. 



All the Values of fi. 



Voovau'veo veva'vin, 666,666. 
Doodau'deo deda'din. 777,777. 
Googau'geo gega'gin, 888,888. 
Tootau'teo teta'tin, .. 999,999. 



FINAL EXAMPLE. 

Trillions : hillicms : millions : ttnits. 
713,276 : 416,519 : 812,546 : 347,112- 

The same, expressed in words, at length, according to the above Table. 
Doopau'teo, feda'vin ku'ndooz : goopau'feo, beka'vin fu'ndooz : koopau'veo, bopatiu tu'ndooz 
tookau'dco, pepa'fin ku'ndooz. 

122 



CHAPTER 11. 



ORDINAL NUMBERS. 
[ § 257 ] These are General or Special. 



SECTION I. ORDINALS GENERAL. 
[§258] These are either Adjectives or Adverbs; and they are formed, as will appear from the 
followmg Table, from the Cardinal numbers, by inserting r after the numerical consonants, for Adjectives- 
and I or w after d or t for the Adverbs ; according to the following 

TABLE :— UNITS. 



Cardinal. Ordinal Numbers. Ordinal Nmnhers. 



Adverbs. 
A'plin, firstly. 
A'flin, secondly. 
A'twin, thirdly. 
A'klin, fourthly. 
A'blin, fifthly. 



or Adjectives. Adjectives. 

A'pin, one. A'prin, first. 

A'fiin, two. A'frin, second. 

A|tin, three. A'trin, third. 
A'kin, four. 
A'bin, five. 



A'krin, 
A'brin, 



fourth, 
fifth. 



Cardinal. 
Substantives 
or Adjectives. 

A'vin, six. 

A'din, seven. 

A'gin, eight. 

A'tin, nine. 



Ordinal Numbers. 

Adjectives. 
A'vrin, sixth. 
A'drin, seventh. 
A'grin, eighth. 
A'trin, ninth. 



Ordinal Numbers. 

Adverbs. 
A'vlin, sixthly, 
A'dwin, seventhly. 
A'glin, eighthly. 
A'twin, ninthly. 



TABLE :— TENS. 



Cardinal, Ordinal. Ordinal. 

Pa'sin, ten. Pa'riu, tenth. Pa'lin, tenthly. 

Fa'sin, twenty. Fa'rin, twentieth. Fa'lin, twentiethly. 

Ta'sm, thirty. Ta'rin, thirtieth. Ta'lin, thirtiethly. 

Ka'stn, forty. Ka'rin, fortieth. Ka'lin, fortiethly. 

Ba'sin, fifty. Ba'rin, fiftieth. Ba'lin, fiftiethly. 



Cardinal. Ordinal. Ordinal. 

Va'sin, sixty. Va'rin, sixtieth. Va'lin, sixtiethly. 

Da'sin, seventy. Da'rin, seventieth. Da'lin, seventiethly. 

Ga'sin, eighty. Ga'rin, eightieth. Ga'lin, cightiethly. 

Ta'sin, ninety. Ta'rin, ninetieth. Ta'lin, ninetiethly. 



Cardinal Numbers. 
Pe'sin, one hundred. 
Fe'sin, two hundred. 
Te'sin, three hundi'ed. 



Cardinal Numbers. 
Au'peo, one thousand. 
Au'feo, two thousand. 
Au'teo, three thousand. 



Cardinal Numbers. 
Paus'oo, ten thousand. 
Fau'seo, twenty thousand. 

2 K 



TABLE :— HUNDREDS. 

Ordinal Numbers. 

Pe'rin, one hundredth. 

Fe'rin, two hundredth. 

Tc'rin, three hundredth. 

&c. &c. 

TABLE :— THOUSANDS. 

Ordinal Nmyibers. 
Au'prin, one thousandth. 
Au'frin, two thousandth. 
Au'trin, three thousandth. 
&c. (fee. 
TABLE :— TEN-THOUSANDS. 
Ordinal Numbers. 
Pau'rin, ten thousandth, 
Fau'rin, twenty thousandth. 
&c. &c. &c. 
123 



Ordinal Numbers. 
Pe'lin, one himdi-edthly. 
Fe'lin, two hundi-edthly. 
Te'lin, three huudredthly. 



Ordinal Numbers. 
Au'plin, one thousandthly. 
Au'flin, two thousandthly. 
Au'twin, three thousandthly. 



Ordinal Numbers. 
Pau'lin, ten thousandthly. 
Fau'lin, twenty thousandthly. 



TABLE :— HUNDRED-THOUSANDS. 

Cardinal Numlers. Ordinal Numbers. 

Poo'seo, one hundi-ed thousand. Poo'rin, one himdred thousandth. Poo'lm, 
Foo'seo, two hundred thousand. 



Foo'rin two hundred thousandth. Foo'lin, 



Ordinal Numbers. 
one hundred thousandthly. 
two hundred thousandthly. 



Final examples. Pa'plin, eleventhly. Fepa'plm, two hundred and eleventhly. Au'peo defa'flin, one 
thousand seven hundred and twenty secondly. Poodau'klln, one hiindi-ed and seventy foiu- thousandthly. 
Vepa'flm, six himdi'ed and twelfthly. 

SECTION II. SPECIAL ORDINALS. 
[ § 259 ] These express the kind, class, legion, company, or aggi-egate, to which any one belongs. 
Adjectives. — A'pnm, of the first aggregate; a'friin, of the second aggregate; a'trim, of the third; 
a'krun, of the foui-th; a'bruu, of the fifth; a'vruu, of the sixth; a'diim, of the seventh; a'gran, of the 
eighth; a'trun, of the ninth; pa'run, of the tenth; fa'run, of the twentieth; pepa'piiin, of the one hundred 
and eleventh; and Fepa'fi-un, of the two himdred and twelfth aggregate, &c. &c. 

Adverbs. — A'plun, after the manner of the first class; a'flun, after the manner of the second; a'twun, 
of the third; and a'klim, after the manner of the fourth class, &c. 

N. B. Although these forms are made part of the system, they are capable of expression in their 
simple elements, only more cumbrously. 



CHAPTER III. 



MULTIPLICATIVE NUMBERS. 
[ § 260 J These answer to the question, — how many fold? Answer: two-fold; thi-ee-fold ; fom--fold; 
&c. These also are Whole Niunbers, or Fractions. They are also either Nouns, Adjectives, Adverbs, 
or Verbs. 



SECTION I. WHOLE NUMBERS. 

NOUNS. 
Afi'ugi, the double. Aki'ngi, the quadruple. Avi'ngi, the sectuple. Agi'ngi, the octuple. 

Ati'ngi, the triple. Abingi, the quintuple. Adi'ngi, the septuple. Ati'ngi, the ninefold. 

Tens. 
Pa'si'ngi, tenfold. Kasi'iigi, fortyfold. Vasi'ngi, sixtyfold. Ga'singi, eightyfold. 

Fasi'ngi, twentyfold. Basi'ngi, fiftyfold. Dasi'ngi, seventyfold, Tasi'ugi, ninetyfold. 

The higher numbers obey the same law. 



Afi'nkur va'nzo, a double wall. 
Ati'nkui- va'nzo, a triple wall. 



ADJECTIVES. 
Aki'nkur va'nzo, a quadruple wall. Avi'nkur va'nzo, a sectuple wall. 
Abi'nkur va'nzo, a quintuple wall. Adi'nkur va'nzo, a septuple wall. 
&c. &e. 
124 



ADVEEBS. 

Afi'ngur to'nsukoo, doubly dear. Akl'ngiir to'nsukoo, four times as dear. Avi'ngur to'nsukoo, six tunes as dear. 
Ati'ngur to'nsukoo, trebly dear. Abl'ngur to'nsukoo, five times as dear. Adi'ugur to'nsukoo, seven times &c. 

VERBS. ABSOLUTE OR INDICATIVE. 

Present- 

Au afi'nko, I double: Au ati'nko, I treble: Au aki'nko, I quadraple: Au abl'nko, I fivefold: Au 

avi'nko, I sixfold. 

~ Past. 

Au afi'nkel, I doubled : Au ati'ukel, I trebled : Au a'kinkel, I foiu--folded : &c. 

Future. 
Au a'fi'nken, I shall double: Au a'ti'nken, I shall treble : &c. &c. 

VERBS. DEPENDENT OR INFINITIVE. 

Afi'nkai, to double: Ati'nkai, to treble: Aki'nkai, to quadi-uple : &c. 



CHAPTER lY. 

FRA CTIONS. 

These Numbers are either Numerators or Denominators. In each case, the Fractions are fundamen- 
tally formed, like all others, from the Cardinal Numbers. 

[ § 261 ] There are three Cases of Fractions. First, where the Numerator is miderstood in the 
Philosophic, but jiever expressed, being unity. The second case, is, where the Denominator begins with a 
voicel. The third, where it begins with a consonant. 

FIRST CASE. 

Examples. 
A'fins, i; a'tins, |; a'kins, |; a'bins, |; a'vins, \; a'dms, ^; a'gins, |; a'tms, -J; pa'sins, tpJ pa'pins, iV; 
pa'fins, A ; pefa'kins, -,4^ J poopau'feo peta'kins, t-tt^tt 5 &c. 

SECOND CASE. 
[ § 262 ] Where the Denominator begins with a vowel^ the letter r is prefixed, to separate it from its 
2yreceding Numerator. 

Exam2:)les. 
Apra'po, 4; apra'fo, 4; apra'to, |; &c. Apre'po, t^; apre'fo, ,%; apre'to, ^; &c. Aprau'po, -nsTre; 
ajprau'fo, ^■i^^] a'prau'to, i,-i^^] &e, Aproo'po, t-s.^tstj ; aproo'fo, tc,W^ ; aproo'to, 3-5,^,^^ ; &c. 

THIRD CASE. 

[ § 263 ] Wlierc the Denominator begins with a consonant.^ the syllaljle ri is prefixed to it, to separate 
it from its Numerator. 

Examples. 
A'p/jpa'so, -h ; apnfa'so, ^ ; aprita'so, -5% ; &c. Apn'peso, -r^ ; aprtfe'so, ^33 ; a'prtteso, -^ j .nprt- 
ke'so, -^ ; &c. Apripau'so, ~ns,h^ ; aprifau'so, ttt,-^ ; apritau'so, -sts^-b-b ; &c. 

125 



[§264] General nile. To express a Fraction, write down to the left hand, the Cardinal number 
denoting the Numerator, only taking care to cut oiF the final syllable in. Secondly, allowing a small space, 
write down the Denominator on the right hand of same, ending the word in the vowel o, instead of in, the 
Cardinal termination. Thirdly, if the denominator begins with a vowel, put r betwixt the Numerator and 
Denominator; but if the Numerator begins with a consonant, put ri betwixt the Numerator and Denominator. 

Examjyhs. 
f ths. is a'kra'bo ; fr ths. is paf/7'pa'to ; ^ tlis. is adrato ; fj ths is padr/ta'to ; \^ ths. is pef a're'kepa'po ; 
TT^Miraths. is pafz-ipoofauko. 



CHAPTER Y. 



PROPORTIONAL NUMBERS. 
Proportional Numbers express the number of times that one thing is more or less than another. 
[§265] This is done by means of Midtiplicative Verbs, Adjectives, &c. 

EXAMPLES :— VEEBS. 

1. This field is ten times larger than that. O fa'nzoo pa'smki pra'ntupou rokyu. 

2. And that field is ten times less than this. RoTcwi fa'nzoo ^'"'•s"*^''^' pla'ntupou o'kyu. 

3. There was one man who was ten times more Kwa'ul i BInzikur dyoo pasi'nkll ba'mpusou antai'kyu 

learned than the whole college. do'mbro. 

4. The King was thrice as rich as his rival. Fo'ndroo ati'nkil pa'mpufa twaikyu fro'nzoi. 

ADJECTIVES. 
1. I would prefer a man twice as rich, and thrice Au di'u bo'nsinai u binzikur afi'iikur fa'mpufa kwil 

as modest. ati'nkm- de'mputa. 

1. He possesses a house ten times as large as Wai be'ntlpo u pa'nzoi pasi'nkur prantupa'kyu tast. 

yours. 



CHAPTER YL 



ALGEBRAIC SIGNS. 
Figures or niunbers are luiited by the signs of addition, subtraction, &c. Thus 6+4=10, is read — 
six, plus four, equals ten. So, 6 — 4=2, is read, — six, minus four, equals two. Now instead of putting 
the sign of addition before a word denoting a number, we suffix to it the syllable it ; (in the place of the 

PLUS, IT. 

A't/K, signifies + ,3. A'k('<, signifies + 4. 
A'diV, „ -f 7. A'gz;, „ -}- S. 



isual numeral termination in). 




[§266] 


TABLE L 


A'piV, signifies + 1. AfjV, 
A'bzV, „ + 5. A'v/<, 
A'tjV, „ + 9. A's«'<, 


signifies -j" 2. 
„ + 6. 
„ +0. 









TABLE II. 


A'ptZ, 


signifies 


— 1. 


Mil, signifies — 2. 


A}hil, 


)' 


— 5. 


Mil, „ - 6 


Mil, 


„ 


— 9. 


Mil, „ — 



A'pri^, signifies X !• 

Mrit, „ X 5. 

Mrii, „ X 9. 

A'priV, signifies -^ 1. 

Mril, „ -r- 5. 

Mril, „ -i- 9. 



MINUS, IL. 
Mil, signifies — 3. 
Mil, „ — 7. 



TABLE III. MULTIPLIED BY, BIT. 

Mrit, signifies X 2. Mrit, signifies X 3. 
Mrii, „ X 6. Mrit, ,, X 7. 

Mif, „ X 0. 

TABLE IV. DIVIDED BY, MIL. 

Mril, signifies -7- 2. Mril, signifies -i- 3. 

AV/-J7, „ -i- 6. Mril, „ H- 7. 

A'r«7, „ H- 0. 



A'lcj?, signifies — 4. 
A'giV, „ - 8. 



A'kri<, signifies X 4. 
Agr?V, „ X 8. 



A'kr«7, signifies -=- 4. 
A'g«7, „ H- 8. 



TABLE V. EQUALS, OR IS EQUAL TO, BINT. 
Sprint, signifies ^ 1. Mrint, signifies ^ 2. Mrint, signfies = 3. Marint, signifies = 4. 
Mirint. „ = 5. Mrint, [„ = 6. A;drinf, „ = 7. A^griiit, „ = 8. 

Mrint, „ = 9. M-int, ,, = 0. 



A'kin a'vi'j paV-zni, i. e. 4-|-6::=10, 
A'kin a'fi7 a'frm<, i. e. 4—2=2. 
Pafi'n a'f«< fa'krin^ i. e. 12X2=24. 



EXAMPLES. 

TaVin ^gril pa'frin^, L e. 



96-^8=12. 



Fa'kin pa'fnY viirird. 



Pa'kin a'fi< a'kri7 a'krj'ni, i. e. 
Te'sin b'a?-j7 siirit pa'fr»(<, i. e. 



14-1-2^-4=4. 

300-^50X2=12. 







TABLE VI. 


POWERS AND ROOTS. 




Poivers : 






Correspond 


ing Roots. 




4^ a'kuf, 


= 16 




... ^fe 


paVef, 


= 4. 


5', a'but, 


= 125 




... J^i^ 


Pefi^'bet, 


=: .5. 


0', pa'suk. 


= 10,000 




... ^\(),mQ 


pau'sek, 


= 10. 


7", a'dub, 


= 16,807 





... yi6,807 


pau'veo grsa'deb, 


— 7_ 


2' a'fuv, 


= 64 





... l/M' 


pa'kcv, 


— 2. 


[§267] 


Uf signifies 


the second Powar , 


ut, the third Power ; nk, ""the fourth Power • 


ub, the fifth 



Power ; uv, the sixth Power; ud, the seventh Power; ug, the eighth Power; ut, the ninth Power ■ &c. 
[§268] The Roots take e before them instead of ij; as, ef, the square root; et, tJie cube root; rk 
the fourth root ; &c. &c. 

[ § 269 ] Where the function of the number or quantity is denoted by a Fraction, it is reducible into 
words, according to the following model. 

4^, = a'kopraf, = 2, root. 8^, = a'gnprat, = 2, root. 16% = pa'voprak, = 2, root. 

32^, = ta'fnprab, = 2, root. 64^, = v'akoprav, = 2, root. 128^, = pcfa'goprad, = 2 root. 

256^ = feba'voprag, = 2, root. 512^', = bcpa'fgprat, = 2, root. 

There are other modes of expressing Mathematical Numbers and Quantities, but these must be 
suiBclent. 

2 L. 127 



PART XXIX. 



TABULARS CAUSAL. 

[§270] All nouns, verbs, &c. that is to say, all tabular words, are either neutral, active or passive ; 
and each of these tlu-ee kinds, may be combined with the notion of Cause. At page 59, (see § 67 to 72) 
is a specimen of the forms into which these compounds are thrown. 

We propose here to give some Examples illustrating the nature and use of these valuable classes of 

words : — 

jS eutro-Active. 

I humble him or cause him to be humble; caused him to be himible; and will cause him to be humble; 
au femjnkc/'stur ; fempiko'ltur ; fempiko'ntur. 

Neutro-Passive. 
She is caused to be (i. e. made) contemptible by him; was caused to be contemptible by him; tcill he 
caused to be contemptible by him ; yai gronsifau" stur ; gronsifau'ltur ; gronsifaul'ntur. 

Activo-Active. 
"\Ye make him walk; did make him walk; shall make him walk; aur p-entigd stcr ; prentiga'ltur ; pren- 
iiga'ntur. 

Aetivo-Passlvc. 
He, for our sakes, is made poor; was made poor; icill he made poor; loai, don, fa'mjnfqst; fampifat; 
fa'mpifant. 

Passivo-Active. 
He makes himself, made himself, icill make himself, universally beloved; icai tra'ndi to'nsikestu'rhcen; 
to'nsiJceltu'rkwen; to'nsHcentu'rkioen. 

Passivo-Passive. 
He is caused (i. e. made) to be universally obeyed; was caused to be imiversally obeyed; will he caused 
to be universally obeyed; wai tra'ndi ddmpikaist ; ddmpikait; de!mpik.aint. 

[§271] The following Table exhibits, at one view, the whole of the Causal terminations, whether 
Neutral, Active, or Passive. 

TABLE. 

Ost, causes to be; Ot, caused to he; Out, vnll cause to he. 

Aust, is caused to he; Aiilt, was cause^Z to he; Auut, will he caneed to he. 

Ast, causes to do; At, causerZ to do; Ant, icill cause to do. 

Ast, is causefZ to do; At, was caused to do; Ant, will he cause<? to do; 

Est, causes to he done; Et, caused to he done; Ent, will cause to he done. 

Aist, is causecZ to he done; Ait, ivas caused to he done; Aint, will he caused to he done. 



PART XXX. 



CHARACTEBISTIC " THERE." 
Tlie word " there" in the English language, is employed before neutral verbs, chiefly as a substitute 
for the subject or nominative, in connection with which it possesses the same power of assertion, interro- 
gation, direction, &c. as a substantive would in the same constniction. 

This word "there" performs important duties in Assertivcs, Interrogatives, Directives, Optatives 
Adjectives, and Participles. 



CHAPTER I. 



Kwa'iim, there is; 

Kwa'oom, there has been; 

Kwa'ump, there is heing ; 
Sound z after Kwa. 



ASSEETIVES. 
Indefinite. 
Kwa'ul, there ivas; 

Conclusive. 
Kwa'ool, there had been; 

Progressive. 
Kwa'ul t, there was being j 



Kwa'un, there loill be. 
Kwa'oon, there icill have been. 
Kwa'mit, there will be being. 



CHAPTER II. 



Kwe'um, is there? 

Kwe'oom? has there been? 

Kwe'umpF is there being? 
Sound 3 after Kwc. 



INTEEROGATIVES. 

Indefinite. 
Kwe'ul, ims there? 

Conclusive. 
Kwo'ool, had there been? 

Progressive. 
Kwe'ult, ivas there being? 



Kwe'un, will there be? 
Kwe'oon, will there have been? 
Kwc'unt? will there be being? 



CHAPTER III. 



DIRECTIVES. 
Kwi'tum! let there be mow/ Kwi'tun! let there be /«ereq/i!er/ Kwi pe'ntisal ! let there come ! 

Kwi'tum i'mboo! let there be light! 



CHAPTER lY. 



OPTATIVES. 

Kwo'tum! oh that there were! Kwo'tul! oh that there hai formerli/ been ! Kwo'tun! oh that there 
may hereafter be. 

Kwo pe'ntisi! oh that there were now come! Kwo pe'ntisil! oh that there had come! Kwo pe'n- 
tisin! oh that there may come! 



CHAPTER y. 



Kwai'tum, there to be 



DEPENDENTS. 
Kwai'tul, there formerly to be; Kwai'tim, there to be hereafter. 

129 



CHAPTER YI. 



ADJECTIVES K^J) PAETICIPLES. 

1. With CopuIcB. 

Kwou'un, there being ; Kwou'omut, there having now been ; Kwouolut, there having formerly been ; 

Kwouo'nut, there having hereafter been. 

2. With Tahuhrs. 

Kwou pe'ntuso, there coming ; Kwou pe'utusel, there formerly coming ; Kwou pe'ntusen, there 
coming 



PART XXXI. 



EUPHONY. 

Certain rules are necessary to insure the pleasant sound of words: for although this may, by some, be 
thought unimportant, it will be found to be a sine qua non. Wilkins's scheme did, in fact, split on this 
rock; although there were other fatal ones ahead. 

There are two short vowels, the shortest and easiest of language, and found, no doubt, in every tongue 
deserving the name. They are, first, the vowel n in bwll, pwU, and faitlif;/!, as these words are unemphati- 
cally uttered in educated society; and secondly, the vowel i in sin, pm, tVn, pill, fill, sep, and h'p. 

Of these two, the vowel, m, is the easier : — faithf«l Is more easily pronounced than faithftl. 

In all perfect words, though consisting of thi-ee, four, and even five syllables, there is such a uynty and 
balancing of the parts, as presents them to the ear perfectly distinct from the context, In a state of unmis- 
takable integrity and msulation. To accomplish this object In sufficient perfection, there must be one 
pvUable In every word, which Is accented; as, dinzoi, (accent on dinj and dinzoi'tu, (accent on zoij. 

The force of this accent Is sufiicleut, without Interfering with the mtegrlty of the word, to express any 
two additional syllables, conslstmg of either u or i. In the English words, ha'pinis, ko'luru, De'bm-n, pau'- 
siti, sivl'liti, su'rtinti, po'vurti, all the short vowels are either u or i. This kind of words admits of every 
variety of vowel, If placed imder the accent; as, hapl, ha'rti, nai'sun, au'tur, fre'ttnl, fc'rsnis, sl'nfull, impi'iti, 
po'zltlvli, so'sull, bol'sturas, foo'lisli, bou'ntlful, tu'ndui-ur. These words are perfect; for every word of more 
than one syllable Is accented; and all the luiaccented vowels, by theli- very brevity and levity. Indicate 
that they are mere appendages to some principal syllabic, which Is tinder the accent, and which forms, as it 
were, the centre of gravity about which these lighter syllables are suspended. 

The accented vowel varies In Its force according to the number and difficulty of the miacceuted vowels. 

The number of unaccented syllables which may succeed the one accented, as a rule, are but two: 
where, however, the short syllables are i or u, It may sometimes admit of a third final syllable; as, po"zitIvli, 
cmpha'tickuli, inko'ntinunth. 

With regard to the number of unaccented syllables which may precede the accent, the law admits of 
two, where the vowels are i or u, and without any exception ; as, /ndM'zIble, imdiVi'dId, unprovided, mid*- 
si'did, impliTial'sun, titdal'sun. 

But as the accented syllable may, at the plcasiu-c of the speaker, be uttered more or less forcibly, we 
may use before it vowels of greater force and difficulty of utterance than either n or i, by merely taking 

1.30 



care to utter the accented syllable with still greater force than any of those before it. . And although such 
words are ixr se less elegant and therefore less perfect when other vowels are employed, yet, as they pro-, 
duce a greater variety, like discords in music, they serve to qualify the cloying sweetness of everlasting 
recurrence to a perfect principle. Indeed, perhaps we ought not to condemn such unaccented syllables, 
as the extra force of the chief accent is quite sufficient to keep up the insulation and integrity of the word. 

Take the following examples of English words : 

Kontrove"rsul, aplikai"s\m, incande"sent, professo"real, tu'nnome"trikuh. 

Where the accented syllable is followed by more than two, three, or four syllables, the word becomes 
necessarily a bad one; as, to"lm-ublnis, di'liturinis, ko'ntrudi"kturmess. The vowels followmg the accent arc 
u or i in such instances, or they would become unutterable. 

Where there are two accents in one word, one must be more forcibly uttered than the other, to 
indicate that the lighter portion of the word still is but an appendage to the heavier; as, o'mnipreze"n.sul, 
o'umipursi'peuns. Were the two accents equal, the expression would become two words, in sound at 
least; as, o'mni preze'nsul, o'mni pursi'peuns; and would, to the ear, sound as verbally independent as 
strainjli kunte'nsus, pyoo'rli mistaiken. The sense, then, requires a minor and a major accent. 

For many years we toiled in vain to produce a system of euphonic words. It was easy to find indi- 
vidual words ; existing languages furnished them in abundance. But the great difficulty was to find a 
whole system of radical substantives, all of which, without exception, should be subject to the same law of 
vicissitude, in converting them into verbs, adjectives, and adverbs; and also in expressing modes tenses &c. 

Now the sole principle on which this system turns, consists in the application of the four consonants 
m, n, n and 1; and the two short vowels u and i. 

These consonants give to every generic syllable, a ringing musical sound; as, o'wbi, aWbi; o'wdi, a'??di- 
o'«go, a'wgo; o'Mi, a'Mi, which without them, would be o'bi, a'bi; o'di, a'di, o'go, a'go. 

The same consonants fiirnish, in every tabular word, a fulcram or fixed point on which the other sylla- 
bles commonly depend, and from which the relation of the other parts of the word may be seen at once. 

To instance only one advantage, — the letter e immediately following the nasal letter of any tabular 
word throughout the language, expresses negation] as to'nsikai, to love; tonc'sikai, not to love: (see page 
yi). This is a universal law, applicable to every one of the thousands of tabular substantives, verbs 
adjectives, and adverbs. So pa'ntur is pane'tur; pran'tur, prane'tur; pla'ntur plane'tur; &c, &c. This 
is a much more simple and elegant mode of negation than the French ne pas : indeed, the existence of 
two signs for one simple object, shews its barbarous origin; like il y a, thei-e is; &c. 



PART XXXII. 



COMPARATIVE NOUNS, VERBS, ADJECTIVES, AND ADVERBS. 
Read over the forms at page 49. We propose to furnish examples of each kmd. 

CHAPTER I. 



COMPAEATIVE NOUNS. 

1. He is as great a philosopher as 'Newton. Wai'um u prombifa'kyu Nyoo'tun. 

2. This is not so great a philosopher as 'Newton. O num u prombifihkyu Nyoo'tun. 
'6. That will be a larger tree than yours. Ro un u umvikou'kyu tast. 

2 M 131 



4. I will give you the largest cucumber in the garden. Au vri'u nas ke'ntinai temvinipous itu ta'nzoo. 

5. She has the smallest foot I ever saw. Yai be'ntipo va!ndikaus au'kwm gral'su po'mpltel. 

6. She has, also, a smaller hand than her sister. Yai be'ntipo, kwel, u ta'ndikau tyai'kyu ko'nzipim. 



CHAPTER 11. 



COMPAKATIYE YEKBS. 



This is as hard as that. 

This ig not so great as that. 

This tree will be larger than that. 



O plUmpisa ro'kju. 

O jyralnetipqs ro'kyn. 

O u'mvi •prdntifoun ro'kyn. 



CHAPTER III. 



COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES. 



Wai'ura prdntupa u pro'mboi kyu Nyoo'tun. 
O num prc^ntupas u pro'mboi kyu Nyoo'tim. 
Ro un u pra'ntupou um'vi kyu tast. 
Au vri'u nas ke'ntinai p/ralntupous te'mvinoo itu 

ta'nzoo. 
Yai be'ntipo pla'ntupous va'ndi au'kyu grai'su 

po'mpltel. 



He is as great a philosopher as Newton. 
This is not so great a philosopher as Newton. 
That will be a larger tree than yours. 
I will give you the largest cucumber 

garden. 
She has the smallest foot I ever saw. 



the 



CHAPTER lY. 



COMPARATIVE ADVERBS. 



The park was 



brilliantly 
as brilliantly 
so brilliantly 
more brilliantly 
most brilliantly 
less brilliantly 
least brilhantly 
too brilliantly 



illumitiated. 



Branzoo'ul 



ti'mbur 

ti'mbuva 

ti'mbuvas 

ti'mbuvou 

ti'mbuvous 

ti'mbuvau 

ti'mbuvaus 

ti'mbuvya 



The above examples are sufficient to shew the imiversality of the principles on which the Philosophic 



PART XXXIII. 



S YLLABIC A G GREG A TES. 
The Tabulars are supposed to denote all the necessary elements of a Phllosopliic language; but were 
we always to use tabulars to express certam grammatical notions of frequent occuiTence, discourse would 
drag heavily. We have therefore selected certain single letters which have the essential meaning of a 

132 



tabuLar; thus i-, (j, t, d, &c. have, in composition with other letters or syllables, respeetively the meaning 
of the words ivhioh, who, thine/, and person; and so with other letters having a specific meaning. So syl- 
lables have the force of words, and indeed are words when used alone; as o, this ; ro, that, &c. 

As brevity and speed are of the gi-eatest importance, syllabic aggregates have been invented to enable 
the speaker to include in one word of two, three, four, or more letters or syllables, the effect of so many 
distinct tabular words. By this contrivance, instead of several distinct words, each having its own accent, 
we have an amalgamation of these short elements into one word, having only one accent or emphasis; and 
as only one of these elements, out of several, is emphatical, the accent is placed on that element, and the 
other significant letters or syllables, like the unaccented syllables of any other word, are passed over swiftly 
and lightly, whereby discourse is greatly abridged of its tediousness, without the slightest ohsctirity. 

EXAMPLES. 

1. DEMONSTRATIVES, combined with Prepositions, and with the Conjunctions Kwi or Tici. 
Singulars. 

O'tukwi, and in this. Kntukwi, and in that. Oi'tutwi, or in the same. Koi'tutwi, or in the other. 

I'tukwi, and in a certain one. Ritukwi, and in some one. Ou'tukwi, and in every one. Rou'tukwi, and 

in each one. Rai'tukwi, and in any one. 

' •' Plurals. 

Ou'tukwi, and in these. Ro'utukwi, and in those. Oiu'tukwi, and in the same (ones). Roiu'tutwi, 
or in others. lu'tutwi, or in certain (ones). Riu'tutwi, or in some (ones). Eaiu'tutwi, and in any (ones). 

Observe. The above Philosophic words are in the inverse order of the English; so you translate 
them from right to left; thus Ro'«««kwi, must be read in English, thus; and, (kwi); in, (tu); (ro), that. 

Kwi and twi may be suffixed to each of the following examples. 

2. PERSONAL PRONOUNS combined with Subjunctives and Demonstratives. (Seepages 78 & Id). 
Examples. (Read backioards) . 
Au'ko, this which I; au'kro, that which I; a'ko, this which thou; a'kro, that which thou; ai'ko, this 
which it; wai'ko, this which he; wai'kro, that which he; yai'ko, this which she; yai'kro, that which she; 
au'rko, this which we; au'rkro, that which we; a'rko, this which ye; a'rkro, that which ye; a'rko, this 
which they; a'rkro, that which they. 

.3. IF G, SIGNIFYING WHOM, be inserted in the place of K, in the above examples, another useful 
class of Syllabic Aggregates will be formed. (In these examples, the word Person should be vsed, in English, 
after the Demonstratives, this, that, these, those, &c.) 

EXAMPLES. 

Au'go, this person whom I. Au'grg, that person whom I. A'go, this person whom thou. A'gro, that 
person whom thou. So, ai'go, ai'gro, wai'go, wai'gro, yai'go, yai'gro, au'rgo, au'rgro, a'rgo, a'rgro, a'rgo, 
and lastly, a'rgro, i. e. this person whom they ; &c. &c. 

By advancing the accent one syllable, the conjunctions Icwi or twi may be subjoined to each of the 
above Aggregates; as, augo'kwi, and this person whom I; augro'kwi, and that person whom L Here are 
four words aggregated into one. 

4. G SIGNIFIES WHO OR WHOM, lohen it is prefixed to the Personal Pronouns, au, n, ai, 
wai, yai, &c. Examples: — 

Gau, I who or whom. Ga, thou who or whom. Gwai, he who or whom. Gyai, she who or whom. 
Gam-, we who or whom. Gar, ye who or whom. Gar, they who or whom. Garkwi, and they who or 
whom. 

133 



5. SUBJUNCTIVE SUBSTANTIVES comlined loith Prepositions, Pronouns, &c. (See page 76). 

Slos, what I. Slas, wiat thou. Sles, what it. Slur, what he. Sluii, what she. Slaur, what we- 
Slar, what ye. Slar, what they. 

Slot, what my. Slat, what thy. Slet, what Its. Slui't, what his. Slunt, what her. Slaurt, what 
our. Slart, what your. Slart, what their. 

Twos, which I. Twas, which thou. Twes, which it. Twur, which he. Twun, which she. Twaur, 
which we. Twar, which ye. Twar, which they. 

Twot, which my. Twat, which thy. Twet, which its. Twurt, which his. Twuiit, which her. 
Twaurt, which our. Twart, which your. Twart, which their. 

Dwos, whom I. Dwas, whom thou. Dwes, whom it. Dwur, whom he Dwun, whom she. 
Dwaur, whom we. Dwar, whom ye. Dwar, whom they. 

Dwot, whom my. Dwat, whom thy. Dwet, whom its. Dwurt, whom his. Dwuut, whom her. 
Dwaurt, whom our. Dwart, whom your. Dvvart, whom theu-. 

[§272 ] Observe. Prepositions are suffixed to Slot, Twot, and Dwot, by interposing i betwixt the 
latter and the foi-mer; as, Slotita, of what my; Twoti'tu, of which my; Bicoti'tu, of whom my. Kwi or 
twi may be suffixed to these expressions; as, Sloti'tukwi, and of what my; &c. 

[ § 273 ] To unite Prepositions with slos, twos, and dwos, cut off the s, and then suffix the Preposi- 
tion, as follows : — 

EXAMPLES. 

Slo'tu, in what I. Sla'tu, in what thou. Sle'tu, in what it. Slu'rtu, in what he. Slu'ntu, in what 
she. Slau'rtu, in what we. Sla'rtu, in what ye. Sla'rtu, in what they. 

Two'tu, in which I. Twa'tu, in which thou. Twe'tu, in which it. Twu'rtu, in which he. Twu'utu, 
in which she. Twau'rtu, in which we. Twa'rtu, in which ye. Twa'rtu, in which they. 

Dwo'tu, in whom I. Dwa'tu, in whom thou. Dwe'tu, Ln whom it. Dwu'rtu, in whom he. Dwu'ntu, 
in whom she. Dwau'rtu, in whom we. Dwa'rtu, in whom ye. Dwa'rtu, in whom they. 

The above examples all admit kwi or tioi to be suffixed ; as, dw'otukwi, and in whom I ; &c. 

JIany other examples might here be adduced, but these must suffice. 

6. SUBJUNCTIVES with DEMONSTRATIVES. 
Singular. 
Slo, what this. Slo'ru, what that. Sloi, what the same. Sloi'ru, what another. Sli, what a certain 
one. Sli'ru, what some one. Slou, what every one. Slou'ru, what each one, Slai, what any one. 

Plural. 
Slo'u, what these. Slo'uru, what those. Sloi'u, what the same. Sloi'uru, what the other. Sli'ur, 
what certain ones. Sli'uru, what some ones. Slai'u, what any. Slou'uru, what all. 

EXAMPLES. 
A bo'nsifo slg kro'ndoo ga'nsitel, you know what this person said. A bo'nsifo slo'ru kro'ndoo ga'nsitel, 
you know ichat that person said. A bo'nsifo sloi kro'ndoo ga'nsitel, you know what the same person said. 
A bo'nsifo slo'u kro'ndooz ga'nsitel, you know what these persons said. A bo'nsifo slou'uru kro'ndooz ga'nsi- 
tel, you know what those persons said. A bo'nsifo sloi'u kro'ndooz ga'nsitel, you know what the same pcreons 
said. &c. &c. 

134 



PART xxxiy. 



TRANSCENDENTALS. (SUPPLEMENTAL). 

At page 96, (which see) there is a rule for the formation of Transcendental Substantives when they are 
suffixed to a Tabular. This rule is correct, as far as it goes. As, however, Transcendentals are usually 
prefixed, the following rules wiU be observed instead. 

[ § 274 ] Rule 1. Transcendental Substantives prefixed, (that is to say, the first Table at page 76) 
all terminate in n, m, or «, according to the consonant immediately following them, instead of the letter s. 

EXAMPLE,S. 

O'ravi, herb; fino'mvi, herbage; i. e. the kinds of herb. Bo'ndroo, people; fimbo'ndroo, populace; 
i. e. the kinds of people. Fo'nzoo, parent; fimfo'nzoo, parentage; i. e. the kinds of parents. So, u'uzi, 
metal; kinu'nzi, the mine; i. e. the metal place. 

[ § 275 ] Rule 2. Transcendental Y erhB jjrefixed, are of the form of those in the Table, at page 96, 
ending in s. 

EXAMPLES. 

Ba'utoi, it is thick; tisba'ntoi, It thickens; i. e. causes to be thick. Pe'nto, it is straight; tispe'nto, it 
straiglitens, makes straight. Ve'nsivo, it breaks; tasve'nsivo, it cracks; i. e. begins to break. Ta'ntrino, 
it usurps; tasta'ntrino, it encroaches; i. e. begms to usurp. Fo'mpito, it hears; twasfo'mpito, it listens; i. e. 
endeavoiu-s to hear. Po'mpito, it sees; twaspo'mpito, it peeps; i. e. endeavours to see. U'nsipo, it burns; 
twasu'nsipo, it endeavoui's to burn; and drasu'nsipo, it ceases to burn. 

[§276] Rule 3. Transcendental Adjectives and Adverbs are of the same form; which exactly 
agree with the Table at the beginning of page 96, only cutting off the final s. It may excite surprise, 
that these two different parts of speech are of the same form: that surprise will end when we observe, 
that Transcendental Adjectives are always necessarily joined to tabular substantives; while Adverbs are 
always joined to tabular verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. 

EXAMPLES :— ADJECTIVES. 
Ko'nzi, joy; pako'nzl, cheerfulness; i. e. habitual joy. De'mbi, obedience; pade'mbi, habitual obedi- 
ence. Dre'mbi, disobedience; padre'mbi, habitual disobedience; i. e. contumacy. 

EXAMPLES :— ADVERBS. 

Ko'nsi, it is joyful; pako'nsi, it is habitually joyful; i. e. cheerful. De'mpi, it is obedient; padc'mpi, 
it is habitually obedient. Dre'mpi, it is disobedient; padre'mpi, it is habitually disobedient; i. e. it is 
contumaceous. 

[ § 277 ] Observe : — All the examples of Transcendentals at pages 96, 97, and 98, may be used as 
there laid down : we would, however, suggest, that instead of suffixing the Transcendental, as in all those 
examples, it should be prefixed, according to the rules here laid down. 

[§278] Observe: — At page 100, §207, the letter y is used to denote the infinitive or dependent 
Verb Transcendental; experience has proved that the y is superfluous; and that if the tabular be in the 
form of the infinitive, the context will shew whether the Transcendental is indicative or infinitive, just as 
the Adjective and Adverb Transcendental, though of the same form, arc distinguished by the fonii of the 
tabular with which they are connected. 

2 N 135 



PART XXXV. 



BESPONSIVES. 

Questions and answers constitute an important part of discourse: but as the question is the speech of 
one person, and the answer that of another; and as the answer only implies, but does not express, a cei-tain 
part of the previous question, these assertive answers are elevated into a distinct class, denominated 
Responsives. Indeed, the peculiar form of the Responsives, and the rules arising from their relation to 
antecedent questions, fully justify ns in giving them this special name ; just as a syllogism is denominated 
an Enthymeme, from a similar eUipses : — still, it should not be forgotten, that Responsives are but peculiar 
forms of the Assertive Sentence. 

Now one of the great advantages of pronouns, is, not that they stand for nouns, (which is rarely the 
case.) but because they refer the mind back to the thing which has been before mentioned, and resume that 
thing, and shew that the same thing is stiU before the mind; and thus keep up the connection of all the 
parts of the sentence. So it is with Responsives; and the following rules are framed expressly to keep the 
mind aware of the relations in which questions and answers stand to each other. 

[§279 ] Rule 1. Where the answer is yes or no, those two words are denoted by Ham, yes; Nam, 
no; as,— Are you my friend? Ham, yes; i. e. I am. Did you speak? Ham, yes; i. e. I did. Is the 
letter written? Ham, yes; i. e. it is. Ham and Nam are used for general objects; but the following 
Responsives have more special forms, according as they are Neutral, Active, or Passive. 

RESPONSIVES NEUTRAL. 
[ § 280 ] Rule 2. Where the principal Verb in the Question is Ura, Ul, or Un, i. e. am, was, m- 
shall be; the answer, if yes, will be Zum, Zu\, or Zun; as, — U'mea. ponza'tos? are you my friend? Ans. 
Zum, yes, I am; or, Niww, no, I am not. U'lea. ponza'tos? were you my friend? Ans. Ziil, I was; or, 
N?i?, I was not. f/'noa ponza'tos.? shall you be my friend? Am. Zun, yes; or, Nim, no; i. e. I shall or 
shall not. 

[ 281 ] Rule 3. Oom, Ool, Oon, have for their Responsives, Zoom, Zool, Zoon; Noom, Nool, Noon; 
as, Oo'mea ponza'tos? have you been my friend? Ans. Zoom, yes, I have been; or, Noc»«, no, I have not 
been. Ooo'lea ponza'tos? had you been my friend? Ans. Zool, yes, I had been; or, NooZ, no, I had not 
been. Oo'nea ponza'tos? shall you have been my friend.? Ans. Zoon, yes, I shall have been; or, Now<, 
no, I shall not have been. 

[§282] Rule 4. U'mpea, U'ltea, U'ntea, have for their answers,— Zmot^, yes, I am being; or, 
'Nump, no, I am not being: — Zult, yes, I was bemg; or, 'Nult, no, I was not being. — Zunf, yes, I shall 
be being ; or, N«k<, no, I shall not be being. 

RESPONSIVES ACTIVE. 
[§283] Rule 5. These are perfectly analagous to the foregoing; only signify doing, instead of 
being. 

I'meau? I'leau? I'neau.? have for their Responsives,,— Zm, yes; or, 'Nim, no: — Zil, yes; or, N«7, no: 
Zin, yes; or, Nih, no. 

136 



[§284] Rule 6. E'mea? E'lea? E'nea? have for their Eesponslves, — Ze)«, yes; or, Nm, no: — 
Z^'/, yes; or, Ne?, no; — Zew, yes; or, 'Nen, no. 

[§285] Rule 7. I'mpga? I'ltea, I'ntea? have for their Responsives, Zimj) or 'Ntmj>; Zilt ox nilt; 
Tiint or '^int. 

[ § 286 ] Rule 7. The Passive Responsives agree with the Neutral. 

RESPONSIVES TABULAR— NEUTRAL. 
[ § 287 ] Rule 8. The Responsives tabular follow the same law as the above Copulatives. 

Examples: — Indefinite. 
Interrogatives- Pampoo'a? Pampoo'lea? Pampoo'nca? Eesjwnsives. Zum,jes; 'Num, no: — Ztil, 
yes; 'Nul, no: — Zun, yes; Nm«, no. 

Exampiles : — Conclusive. 
Interrogatives. Poumpoo'a? Poumpoo'lea? Poumpoo'nea? Responsives. Zoom, yes; Noow, no: — 
Zool, yes; 'Nool, no: — Zoon, yes; Noo?i, no. 

Examples : — Progressive. 
Interrogatives. Pampoo'aid ? Pampoo'leald '? Pampoo'neaid '? Responsives. Zump, yes; Nm??^;, 

no: — Zult, yes; 'NuU, no: — Zunt, yes: 'Nunt, no. 

[ § 288 ] Rule. 9. The Passives follow the same rule as the Neutrals. 

RESPONSIVES TABULAR:— ACTIVE. 

Examples : — Indefinite. 
Interrogatives. To'nsikea"zos ? To'nsikelea"zos ? To'nsikenca"zos? Lovest thou me? Lovedst thou me? 
Shalt thou love me? Responsives. Zim, yes; i.e. I do: or, N«h, no, I do not. Zi7, yes, I did; N*?, 
uo, I did not. Zin, yes, I shall ; Niw, no, I shall not. 

Examples : — Conclusive. 
Interrogative-'^. Toi'nsikea"zos ? Tol'nsikelea"zos? Toi'nsikenea"zos ? Hast thou loved me? Hadst thou 
loved me ? Shalt thou have loved me ? Responsives. Zem or Nf/«. Zel or Ne?. Zen or 'Nen. 

Examples — Progressive. 
Interrogatives. To'nsikenea"zo8,? To'nsikelea"zos ? To'nsikenea"zos ? Art thou continuing to love me? 
Wert thou continuing to hve me ? Shalt thou be continuing to love me ? Responsives. Zimp or 'Simp. 
Zilt or N^7^ Zint or Nint. 

A question may be raised upon any material member of the sentence, respecting which the speaker 
demands information. Thus, the speaker may not know 

1. The Suhject or Nominative. 
Who occupies that house? Ans. I; i. e, I occupy that house. 

2. The Accusative or Object. 
What house do I occupy? Ans. That house ; i. e. I occupy that house. 



3. The Preposition and its 
Where do you live? Ans, In London; i. e. I live in London. 

137 



4. The Means. 
How did he do it? Ans. By means of an iron har ; i. e. lie did it hy means of an iron bar. 

5. The Cause or Reason. 
Why did he I'efuse? Ans. Because he was unable to ;pay ; i. e. he refused because he was unable 

to pay. 

6. Noun Subjxmctive. 

TF^ai did you afSrm ? Ans. That the fool said there was no God; i. e. I affinned that the fool 

said there was no God. 

7. The Noun Infinitive. 

What did you say was too late? Ans. For them to com2')lete their tasks ; i. e. I said it was too 

late for them, to complete their tasks. 

Obs. In all these cases the Interrogative word denotes the absence of some necessary infonnation: — 
the Answer supphes that information. 



PART XXXVI. 



GRAMMATICALS, ENGLISH AND PHILOSOPHICAL. 



A, article; U, yu, yoo, oo, w. 
Adding that., conj. Sto'lkwin. 
After., prep. Ce, Ci. 
Against, prep. Be, bi. 
Again, adv. Vool, 
Alo7ig, prep. Gloo, glu. 
Already, adv. Sprai: tro'su, at 

that time; to'su, at this time; 

to'cu, before this time. 
Alone, adv. Tel : fro'nzun. 
Although, conj. Nool. 
Almost, adv. Sool. 
Am, copulative, Um. 
Am being, copul. Ump. 
Am doing, copul. Imp. 
Among, prep. Skoo, sku. 
An, article, U, yu, yoo, oo, w. 
And, conj. Kwi, kwil, kw. 
And not, conj. No'kwi. 
And so forth, &c., adv. Kyel. 
Any, demonstrative sing. Eai. 
Any one, demon. Drai, i. e. any 
person. 



Any, demon, plural, Eai'u. 

Anywhere, adv. Krai'tu, in any 
place : krai'su, at any place. 

Anywhere else, adv. Kroirai'tu : 
kroirai'su, at any other place. 

Art, copul. Um. 

As, conj. Ful, opposed to fil, so. 

As little as, conj. Pa'kyu. 

As much as, conj. Ba'kyu. 

As much, adv. Ba. 

As, comparative adverb yun (pre- 
ceding) ; as, yun pa'mpur, as 
happy. 

As, (a suffix), Kyu. 

As, (suffixed) A; as, pra'ntupa, 
as great. 

As being, conj. Fre. 

As well as, conj. Zoo'kyn . Ton- 
duva'kyu, as perfectly as: 
fambusa'kyu, as wisely as: 
fonduva'kyu, as properly as ; 
as good as. 

As follows, adv. Kwi'siii; i. c. all 
that follow. 

As if, conj. Vel. 

138 



At, prep. Soo, su. 

At first, adv. Krooz. 

At last, adv. Krez. 

At most, adv. Brooz. 

At least, adv. Brez. 

At this very time, adv. Tego'su. 

At that very time, adv. Tegro'su. 

At this time, adv. Go'su. 

At that time, adv. Gro'su. 

Away, adv. Ko'ni, from this place : 

ki-oni, from that place. 
Away! exclam. Nis pre'ntisoz; 

i. e. go away. 
Aye, adv. Zum, yes, &c: Zim, 

yes, &c. 
Aye, adv. Ti'ndur, i. e. everly. 
At the beginning of, prep. Sproo, 

spru. 
At the end of, prep. Stre, stri; as. 

Vumjai'stri, at the close of 

the day. 

B. 

Backwards, adv. Droo, dru. 
Being, part. Un. 



Been, part. Ut. 
Because, conj. Vre. 
Because of, prep, de, di ; i. e. for. 
''Before, prep. Coo, cu. 
Before, conj. Coo'kwin. 
Behind, (i. e. after), prep. Ce, ci. 
Behold/ V. Pool! 
Beside, prep. De, di; as, de'os or 

dans, beside me. 
Below, prep. Dre. di-i. 
Besides, prep. Kre, ki'i, (inclusive); 

as, Kre'os or Az-aiis, besides 

me. 
Between or letwixt, prep. Koo, 

kii. 
Beyond, prep. Ge, gi. 
Both, conj. Kwi'fin: kwi'tin, all 

three : kwi'kin, all four: kwi'b- 

in, all five, &c. 
But, conj. Bel, bil. 
By, prep. Doc, du; as, doo'os, or 

Jos, by me. 
By means of, prep. Te, ti; as, 

te'es or <ais, with or by means 

of it; (as a sword). 

c. 

Can, V. Pi'u, pll'u, pri'u. 
Cannot, v. Pi'im, pl'iun, pri'un. 
Cause, n. O'ndoi. 

(7a«se,v.E,le, &c. (Seepage 117). 
Cause, V. tabular. (Sec page 59). 
Cause, transcendental, tin, tis, ti. 
Certain one, (a) adj. I; as, d/, a 

certain person: t/, a certain 

thing. 
Cause, (for the cause that) conj. 

Twi'dikwin : de'kwin, for that. 
Concerniny, prep. Fe, fi; as, fe'os 

or/aus, concerning me. 
Course of, (in the) prep. Mool, 

mul; as mool bu'ndis, in the 

course of the day, or bundai'- 

mul. 
Consequently, adv. Plus, then. 
2 



D. 



B, duplicate noim, signifying per- 
son; as, do, this person; ffro 
that person; «S:c, 

Degree, (not in any) agg. Jii-ai'- 
tuno. 

Degree, (in some) agg. Juzi'tu. 

Degree, (in the same) agg. Jizoi'tu. 

Degree, fin lohat I, thou, it, &c.) 
Ja'utu, ja'tu, jai'tu, &c. (See 
page 170). 

Do, does, doest, copulative, Im; 
as, au im, I do; a im, thou 
doest; ai im, it does; &c. 

Did, didst, cop. II; as, au il, I did; 
a il, thou didst; ai il, it did; 
&c. 

Do, (to) V. dependent. Tim; as, 
au pi'u ti'mees, I can do it. 

Dojie, part. It. 

Down, prep. Tre, tri; as, wai 
pe'nsifel panza'^/v', he walked 
down stairs. 

E. 

Each, adj. Kou. (See page 72.) 

Each other, agg. Rou'roi. 

Effect, dup. D; as, Do'nu, to this 

effect. 
Either, (of two) adj. Twl'fin: so 

twi'tin, either of three : twi'k- 

in, either of foixr: twi'biu 

either of five : &c. 
Else, i. e. other thing, dup. n. Troi; 

as, sloo troi i'mea bo'nsikai? 

what else do you desire? 
Else, adv. Tu'lino : i. e. if not. 
End, agg. P; as, ^o'nu, to this 

end; ^jro'nu, to that end; &c. 
Even, adv. Bool; as, U'ndi, bool 

Fo'nzipur, God, even the 

Father. 
Even then, agg. Plusi'bool. 
139 



Even as, agg. Fuli'bool. 
Even so, agg. Fili'bool. 
Even until, agg. Snoo'bool or 

booli'snu. 
Ever since, agg. TIndu'rs«2 or 

s«^ti'ndur. 
Every, demon. Ou; as, ou bi'nzi- 

kur, every man: dou, every 

one, every person : ton, every 

thing. 
Every otlier, agg. Ou'roi : c^ou'roi, 

each other person: tou'roi, 

each other thing. 
Exactly, adv. Sul: as, po'ntipil, 

sul a'vin, it was exactly six. 
Exact time, (at this) agg. Tego'su : 

tegro'su, at that exact time. 

Obs. Te is the transcendental 

adverb of perfection. 
Except, conj. Kroo; as, kroo'os 

or hros, except mc. 
Elsewhere, agg. Kroiritu, in some 

other place : kroi'utu, in other 

places. 

F. 

Fact, dup. n. B; as, Ixjtn, of this 
fact; iro'tu, of that fact; &c. 

For, conj. Vroo, vru. 

For, on account of, prep. De, di; 
as, de'oB or daMS, on account 
of or for me. 

For, (op2Wsed to against) prep. 
Boo, bu; as, Boo'os or bos, 
for me: so, be'os or ba.us, 
against me. 

For, during, prep. Doo, du; as, 
gro'du, during that time. 

Forth, agg. Krnni, from that 
place : ko'ni, from this place : 
kyi'ni, from the place. 

Forth, adv. Spe, in a direction 
from, fromwards ; as, wai 
prc'utisel pinjoo'spi, he went 
ill a dii'ection from his horse. 



Forwards, adv. Dre, dri. 

For a long time, agg. Begyudu. 

Forth, adv. Nis ; as, nis pre'ntlsai, 

to go from ; i. e. away from. 
Formerly, adv. Vul; as, wai viil 

o'litrisool, yoo'ful bo'mbroi, he 

was formerly employed as a 

mechanic. 
From, prep. Ne, ni; as, n'eos or 

wans, from me. 
From off, prep. Se'ni, si'ni ; se'neos, 

si'neos, or «naus, from off me. 

H. 

Have.) kastf has, copul. Om; as, 
Au om, I have; a om, thou 
hast; ai om, it has, &c. &c. 
Rad, hadst, copu. 01; as, au ol. 
I had; a ol, thou hadst, &c, 
He, pron. Wai; as, wai pe'ntisel, 
he came. Aid, (in questions); 
as, pentise'leaid? did he come? 
Her, pron. Un, un, or imi, a suffix ; 
as, au tonsiko'un, I love her: 
et; as, au tonslko'cl, I love 
her. 
Herself, pron. Unkwen; as, yal 
tonsikounkwen, she loves 
herself. 
Her, adj. pron. Tyai; as, Tyai 
fo'nzipur, her father. Tun ; as, 
fonzipu'rtttJi, her father. 
Hers, adj. pron. Tyest; as, au 
po'ntoo tyest, I am hers. 
(See page 75). 
Hence, adv. Ko'ni, from this place. 
Henceforth, adv. Go'ni, from this 

time. 
Here, adv. Ko'tu, in this place: 
Ko'su, at this place: Pel, 
here. 
Him, pron. Ur; as, U'rkwen, him- 
self: ed; as, au tonsiko'ed, I 
love him; wai tonsikow'rk wen- 
he loves himself. 



Hitherto, adv. Go'nu, to the pre- 
sent time. 
Him, pron. Urs, (preceded by a 
preposition) ; as, nm's, from 
him; purs, without him; furs, 
concerninghlm. (See page 84). 

Himself, pron. Urkwen. Twai'- 
kwen. 

His, adj. pron. Twai; as, twai 
pa'nzoi. Tur; as, panzoi'tur, 
his house. 

His, adj. pron. disjunctive. (See 
page 75). Twest; as, pa'n- 
zoi po'ntoo twest, this house 
is his. 

His own, pron. Twai'gwen. Tur- 
gwen. 

How? inten-ogative n. Jyoo'tu; 
as, joo'tu vo'mpeai? how 
beautiful is it ? i. e. in what 
degree is it beautiful ? 

How! exclamative, Jyoo'tu; as, 
jyoo'tu vo'mpu timpu'rkwi? 
how beautiful and bright ! 

How far ? fi. e. what distance ?J 
iutcrrog. n. Coo'nu; as, cyoo- 
nu prantise'a? how far are 
you going? 

How much f inter sub. Kwoo ; as, 
Kwoo i'lca ke'utiiiai? how 
much did you give ? 

How many? inter, sub. Kwoou; 
as, kwoo'u tau'tu fra'mpufous 
po'mbrooz o'su gu'ndi, tra'n- 
soi'u? how many of my poor- 
est subjects, at this hour, arc 
asleep? 

/, pron. Au; as, au pa'nsito, I 

speak. 
/ myself, emphatical pron. Au- 

kwcn. 
If, conj. Tul; as, tul a pe'ntiso, 

au pre'utisen ; if you come, I 

go- 

140 



In, prep. Too, tu. 

In favor of, adv Troo, tru. 

If not, conj. No'tul; as, no'tul wai 
pe'ntiso, au ti'u pre'ntisai; if 
he does not come, I shall go. 

In spite of, adv. Tre, tri. 

In order to, adv. Dul. 

In order that, adv. Du'lliwin. 

Instance, (for) adv. Del. 

Into, prep. Moo, mu; as, moo'os 
or ;»os, into me. 

In the midst of, prep. Stroo, stru ; 
as, stroo'es or sires, m the 
midst of it. 

In the meantime, or meantime, adv. 
Spur. 

Instead of prep. Ve, vi; ve'as or 
vara, instead of thee. 

7s, am, art, copul. Urn; as, au 
um, I am; a um, thou art; 
ai um, it is. 

Is, V. tabular, Po'ntoo; as, po'n- 
too, it is. 

It, pron. Ai; as, ai nos ke'ntino 
ta'mboi, it to me gives plea- 
sure. Es, (a suffix) ; as, au 
po'nsiko'es, I admii-e it. Ais, 
(with a preposition prefixed) ; 
as, ^)ais, without it; teis, 
with it; Jais, against it. 
Itself, pron. emph. Ai'kwen. Tai'- 

kwen. 
Its own, pron. emph. Tai'gwen. 
Its, adj. pron. Tai; as, tai vo'mbi, 
its beauty. Tur; as, vo'mbe- 
tur, its beauty. 
Its, adj. pron. disjunctive, Test. 

( See page 75.) 
Its very own self, most emph. pron. 
Taigwe"iikwen. 



K. 

Hind, prefix, F; as, ,/o'tu, of this 
kmd; ^'o'tu, of that kind; &c. 



L. . 

Last, adj. Pel. 

Lastly, adv. Pen. 

Least, adv. Wil; as, wil pa'mpur, 
least happy. 

Less, adv. Yil; as, yil pra'mpur, 
less miserable. 

Lest, (lest tJiatJ conj. Notu'lkwin; 
as, notu'lkwin wai tri'u tro'm- 
pifai, lest that he should 
forget : no'tul, fif not) ; as, 
no'tul wai tri'u pe'ntisai, if he 
should not come. 

Length, (at) adv. Vloo; as, vloo 
wai pe'ntisel, at length he 
came. 

Let be! directive, Sut, suk; as, 
sut konzipu'rtos pa'mpivi! let 
my brother be happy! suk 
tonzipu'rtos ta'mpivi! let my 
uncle be content ! 

Let not he! directive, Sunt, sunk; 
as, sunt konzipu'rtos pra'm- 
pivi, let not my brother be 
miserable ! sunk tonzipu'rtos 
tra'mpivi! let not my uncle 
be discontent ! 

Obs. K never comes before 
h, nor t before t. 

Let do! directive. Sit, sik; as, 
sit konza'to3 pe'ntisai! let my 
acquaintance come ! sik ton- 
zoo'tos pre'ntisai ! let my un- 
cle go ! 

Let not do ! du-ective, Sint, sink ; 
as, sint konzipu'rtos fro'nti- 
pai ! let not my brother ap- 
pear ! Sink tonzoo'tos pre'n- 
tisai ! let not my uncle go. 

Like, prep. Broo, bru ; as, broo'- 
os or Jros, like me. 

Little, (as) adj. Pa; as, po'ntoo 
pa ai'kyu piu'tim; it Is as 
little as it can be. 



Little, (a) n. Pas ; as, pas bonsi- 
to'os, a little satisfies me. 

Little, (so) adj. Pas; as, pone'too 
pas ai'kyu pi'utim ; it is not 
so little as it can be. 

Little that, (so,) conj. Pa'skwin; 
as, pone'too pa'skwin wai 
pi'un pompitai'es; it not so 
little that he cannot see it. 

Long after that time, agg. Begro'ci. 
as, wai pe'ntisel begro'ci, he 
came long after that time. 

M. 

Manner, n. V; as, «o'tu, thus, in 

this manner: wo'tu, so, in 

that manner. 
Manner, (in what ?) Vyoo'tu ; as, 

vyau'tu, vya'tu, vyai'tu, &c. 

in what manner I, in what 

manner thou, in what man- 
ner he, &c. 
Me, pron. Os; as, poo'os, with me: 

tonsiko'os, loves me : &c. 
Myself, empliat. pron. O'skwen. 

Tau'kwen, myself. 
My own, emph. pron. Tau'gwen. 
My, adj. pron. Tau; as, faw'kwen, 

myself. Tos; as, konzipu'r/os, 

my brother. 
My own self, emph. pron. Tau- 

gwe'nkwen. 
Monih, (this) n. Sa'seo : sa|pin, 

next month : &c. ( See page 

90.) 
More, adv. Yin ; as, yin pa'mpur, 

more happy ; or, pa'mpuvou. 
More than, adv. Yi'nkyu ta'mpur, 

more than content. 
Moreover, conj. Kwe'lkwi. 



Most, adv. W 



m; as, wm pampur. 



most happy; or, pa'mpuvous. 
Much, n. Bas; as, has vrai'u ke'n- 

tinoi, much shall be given. 
Must, dup. poten. B'iu, bli'u, bri'u. 
141 



Must, (to he obliged,) v. dependent, 
Bi, bli, bri. (See page 113). 

Mere, adj. Go'nti, simple; as, 
go'nti n'nzo, simple water, 
unmixed. Da'ntu, clean; as, 
da'ntu u'nzo, pure water. 

N. 

Namely, adv. Dool. 

Near to, prep. Proo, pru; as, kan- 
zoi'pru, near to the temple: 
proo'os or pros, near to me. 

Neither, adv. conj. Twi'fino, nei- 
ther (of two) ; twi'tino, nei- 
ther of three; twi'king, neither 
offour;&c. through all num- 
bers. 

No longer, agg. Yingrai'no ; i. e. 
not any time more. 

Nor, conj. No'twi. 

Not, adv. No; '(in aggregates) as, 
au'no, not I: no'twi, not or, 
i. e. nor. E ; inserted in tabu- 
lars, after the generic conso- 
nants, n, m, n, or 1. (Sec 
page 91, Negation.) 

Not at all, agg. Vrai'tuno; i. e- 
no, not; tu, in; rai, any; 
V, manner. ( See page 87). 

Now or now observe, adv. Gel; 
as, gyoo'sugel konzipu'rtur, 
i. e. now when his brother, &c. 

Now, adv. Spin; as Nan pi'u spin 
pre'ntisai; I cannot go now. 
Go'su, at this time. 

Nevertheless, yet, conj. Ncl, nil. 

0. 

Of, prep. Too, tu; as, too'os or 

tos, of me. 
^/) P''cp- So, si; as, se'os or saus, 

off me. 
Oh ! characteristic. Ho ! 
Oh that ! Hg'kwira ! 
Only, adv. Tyool. . 



One, adj. A'pin. 

One person, n. D; as, drsX, any 
one ; «^ou, every one. 

One, (suffixed to a tabular) Kik ; 
(pliu-al), rigz; as, au nur 
ke'ntinel plimpou'rick, I gave 
him the black one. Plural: — 
au nur ke'ntinel plimpou'rigz, 
I gave him the white ones. 

One another, adv. Dro'ndus, mutu- 
ally. Dou'roi, every one, eve- 
ry other. 

One another s, agg. Dou'rois. 

Ones, (suffixed to tabular) Kigz ; 
as, Pimpou'rigz, the grey 
ones. 

One's, adj. Eais; as, pa'nsital"nu 
rais po'nza, to speak to any 
one's friend. 

Ones own, agg. Gwe'nrais; as, 
pa'nsitai"nu gwe'nrais po'nza, 
to speak to one's own friend. 

Ones self, agg. Kwe'nrais; as, 
pa'nsitai"nu kwe'nrais, to 
speak to one's self. 

On, prep. Joo, ju; as, joo'os or 
/os, on me. 

On this side of, prep. Goo, gu; 
as, goo'os or ^os, on this side 
of me. 

Out of, prep. Foo, fu ; as, pun- 
zoo'fu, out of gold. 

Or, conj. Twi, twis, twil. 

Other, adj. Roi; as, kentino'es 
o'nu no'kwi roi'nurik, give it 
to this, not the other one. 

Other, adj. Eoi'u, (plural) ; as, 
rol'uda'mbrooz pe'ntisel, other 
witnesses came. 

Others, (genitive) KoI'tis ; as, 
roi'us a'nzooz, other's lands. 
S is the sign of the genitive. 
( See page 69) 

Over, (across) Zoo, zu ; as, zoo'os 
or zos, across me. 

Over-against or opjjosite, prep. Ke, 



ki ; as, Ke'os or ^-aus, over- 
against me, opposite me. 

Ought, V. Ki'u, kli'u, kri'u. Infi- 
nitive, — Ki, kli kri. 

Our, adj. pron. Taur; as, taur 
po'nza, our friend. Ton, as, 
ponza'ton, our friend. 

Our own, adj. pron. Tau'rgwen. 

Ourselves, adj. pron. Taui'kwen. 

Out of, prep. Te, ti ; as, te'os or 
^ais, out of it ; i. e. not in it. 

Out of, active prep. Me, mi; as, 
me'es or ;?«ais, out of it. 

Out of, prep. Foo, fu; as, foo'es 
or /es, out of it; (denoting 
the matter out of which a 
thing is made). 

P. 

Perhaps, adv. Pul ; as, pul wai 
fi'u pe'ntisai ; perhaps he may 
come. 

Proportion, (in) adv. Fal; as, 
fa'lkyu a'pin pa'nsivo troi 
da'usivo, as one rises, the 
other falls. 

Proportion, (so in) adv. Fa'lgyu ; 
as, falkyu a'pin pa'nsivo, fal- 
gyu troi da'nsivo, in propor- 
tion as one rises, so in pro- 
portion the other falls. 

R. 

Rather, adv. Cul; as, au di'u cul 
pre'ntisai, I would rather go. 

Rather than, adv. Cu'lkyu, as, 
cu'lkyu dwe'ntrifai au di'u 
dra'nsipai, rather than submit, 
I would die. 

Rather that, conj. Cu'lkwin; as, 
au di'u cu'lkwin wai ti'u 
dwe'ntrifai, I would rather 
that he should submit. 

Reason or cause, prefix, T; as, 
To'di au pintipe'lees, for this 
cause I did it. 
142 



Round about, prep. Gle, gli ; 
as, Tombro'gli, round about 
the city ; gle'os or glaus, 
round about me. 

s. 

Same, adj. Oi ; as oi bi'nzi, the 

same man. 
Same, pron. Oi ; as, oi pentise'nw^ 

Je'zus vrandai'su, i. e. the 

same came to Jesus at night. 
Seeing that, conj. Ste'lkwin; as, 

stelkwin aur pi'im fa'mpivai, 

i. e. seeing that we cannot 

succeed. 
Self, n. Kwen ; as, Tau'ivcen, 

myself. 
Since, or since that, conj. Skre'- 

kwin. 
Since, prep. Skre, skri ; as, gro's- 

kri, since that time. 
She, pron. Yai; as, yai pe'ntisel, 

she came. 
She, pron. (in questions) Ait; as, 

u'meait ? is she ? n'leait ? was 

she? &c. 
She herself, pron. Yai'kwen ; as, 

yai'kwen pintipe'lees, she her- 
self did it. 
Shall, predictive v. Ti'u ; as, aur 

ti'u pre'ntisai, we shall go. 
Shall, authoritative v. Vai'u; as, 

A vai'u pre'ntisai, thou shalt 

go. 
So, adv. Fil ; (opposed to ful,) as, 

Ful a'pin pa'nsivo, fil roi 

da'nsivo ; as one rises, so the 

other falls. 
So, adv. comparative, yul ; as, 

yul pam'pur, so happy. 
So, adv. Vro'tu ; i. e. in that 

manner; as, wai pintipo'lees 

vi'o'tu, he did it in that man- 
ner. 
Such, adj. Zo ; as, zo u bi'nzi ; 

such a man. Plural: — Zo'u. 



Some, adj. (singular,) Ri; as, au 

kro'tu po'mpltel ri kro'nza, I 

there saw some stranger. 
Some, (plural,) Ri'u; as, au po'm- 

pitel ri'u fi'njoiz prinzo'ju, I 

saw some sheep on the 

mountain. 
Such, n. Zo; as, zo po'ntipeleaid, 

such was he; i. e. one of 

that kind. 
Such, plural n. Zo'u ; as, zo'ukwi 

tel po'ntipil ri'u; such were 

some of you. 
Shortly, adv. Ki'ndur; as, aur 

ki'ndur pompite'leed, we shall 

soon see him. 

T. 

The, article, I, wi, we, e, and y. 
( See page 71.) 

Thee, prou. As; as, au tonsiko'as, 
I love ihee. 

Then, therefore, conj. Kel ; as, 
aur kel ponsiko'an, we there- 
fore command you. 

Then, as a consequence, Plus ; as, 
tuli'vru dra'nsuroz pane'sivo, 
plusKristpane'sis. I Cor 15-16 

TJien, adv. past tense, Spen ; as, 
spen pe'ntisel tro'nzoz, then 
came the disciples. Gro'su, 
i. e. at that time. 

This, demon, singular, O. ( See 
page 72). 

These, demon, plural, O'u. . 

That, demon, sing. Ro. 

Those, demon, plur. Ro'u. 

Thence, adv. local, Kro'ni, i. e. 
from that place. 

Thenceforth, adv. temporal, Gro'- 
ni; i. e. from that time. 

Their, adj. pron. Tar; as, tar 
ko'ndooz po'ntoo fo'mhro, their 
names are legion. 

TJteir own, emph. pron. Ta'rgwen. 
2 P 



TJieir, (a sufEx) Ten; as, kon- 

doo'tenz, their names. 
Their oion selves, emph. pron. Tar- 

gwenkwen. 
7%ej>s, disj. pron. Tent. (Seepage 

75). 
Theirs, disjunc. pron. masculine, 
Twent, (speaking of males). 
Theirs, disj. pron. feminine, Tyent, 

(speaking oi females). 
That, conj. Kwin; as, au bo'n- 
sifo isiv^kivin do'nsupor da'nsl- 
po, I know that my Redeemer 
liveth. 
There, complement to the Charac- 
teristic) Kwa ; as, kion pe'n- 
tipool kro'tu, a'vin u'nsi e'n- 
zils, there were set there six 
water vessels. 
There, directive, Kwi; as, kwi- 
tum i'mboo ; let there be light ! 
There, interrog. Kwe; as, Kwe'- 
um dyai'ru vri'u piutipai'es? 
Is there anyone who will do it? 
There to be, infinitive, Kwai'tum. 
There, optative, Kwo ; as, Kwo- 

tum ! may there be ! 
There, adv. Pen. Kro'tu. 
Therefore, conj. Kel. 
Thereabouts, adv. Stul. 
Tliere being, part. Kwou'un. 
Them, pron. (suffixed,) En; as, 
aur tonsiko'en, we love them. 
El; as, aur tonsiko'el, we 
love them. Ars ; as, be'ars, 
against them; pe'ars, without 
them; fc'ars, concerning them. 
Themselves, emphat. pron. En'k- 

wen. El'kwen. 
Thing, tabular -n. Fo'ndoo. Ri, 
(suffixed,) as, u ponsupoo'rt, 
a created thing. 
Tliou, pron. A; as, a po'ntoo, 

thou ai-t. 
Though, conj. Nool. 
143 



Tliy, adj. pron. Ta ; as, ta flo'n- 

droo, thy kingdom. 
Tliy, adj. pron. (suffixed,) Tas; 
as, flondroo'to, thy kingdom. 
Thy own, emph. pron. Ta'gwen. 
Thyself, emph. pron. Ta'kwen. 
Thine, disjunc. pron. Tast. 
Through, prep. Doo, du; as, doo'- 

es or (7es, through it. 
Together, adv. Tyel. 
To, prep. Noo, nu; as, Unde'nu, 
to God; noo'os or wos, to me. 
Too, adv. Zai; as, zai pla'mpa, 

too rash. 
Too much, adv. Bra ; as, wai bra 
po'usinoo tra'nsifai, he is too 
much inclined to sleep. 
Too little, adv. Pra; as, wai ul 
pra po'nsunoo fo'ntivai ; he 
was too little inclined to do 
good. 
To-day, adv. bu'ndis; as, gju 
bundis, on this day. Ca'seo. 
To-morrow, adv. Ca'pin, i. e. the 

first future day. 
Towards, prep. Spoo, spu; as, 

spoo'os or spos, towards me. 
Truly, adv. Pil; as, wai, pil, 
po'ntipil fro'nzoo Undetu ; he 
truly was the son of God. 
Po'ndi, (the tabidar adverb 
of po'ndo, truth). 
Time, n. G ; (prefixed, ) as, ^o'su, 
at this time ; gro'su, at that 
time. 

u. 

Under, prep. Je, ji ; as, je'os or 

jaus, imder me. 
Unlike, prep. Bre, bri; as, bre'os 

or Sraus, unlike me. 
Until, prep. Snoo, snu ; as, an 

pla'nsiken bunendai'.5rtw tin- 

tufous, I shall wait until 

Monday next. 



Until that, conj. Skroo'kwin ; as, 
au pla'nsiken skroo'kwin 
konzipur'tos pe'ntisen, I shall 
wait until my brother comes. 

Upon, prep- Joo, ju; as, joo'os 
or Jos, upon me. 

Uniformly, adv. Voi'tu, I. e. in 
the same manner. 

w. 

Itas, least, copul. v. LI; as, au 

ul, I was. 
We, pron. Aur; as, aur biu pra'n- 

sifai, dansipai'dul, we must 

eat, in order to live. 
We, ourselves, emph. pron. Au'r- 

kwen. 
With, prep. Poo, pu; as, poo'os 

or 2>os, with me. 
Without, prep. Pe, pi; as, pe'os 

or^aus. 
With, (hy means of J Te, ti; as, 

te'es or tsds, with it. 
Within, prep. Too, tu; as, too'os 

or tos, witliui me. 
Without, (outside of) prep. Te, ti; 

as, Te'os or ^aus, outside of 

me. 
Will, predictive v. Tiii; as, yai 

tru pre'ntisai, she will go. 
Will, promissive v. Vi'u; as, au 

vi'u pre'ntisai, I will go. 
Week, (this) n. Ja'soo. (See page 

90). 
Week, (last) Ja'pil; &c. 
Week, (next) n. Ja'pin ; &c. 
Would, potential v. Di'u; as, au 

di'u pre'ntisai au'tul pli'u, I 

would go if I could. 
Would not, poten. v. D'iun ; as, 

au diuu pre'ntisai, I would 

not go. 
Whatever or whatsoever, inter, or 

subj. subs. Sloo'im. ( See 

page 77). 



What, inteiTOg. &c. Sloo? — See 
page 78 : — as, Sl'oke'leu 
twai'tu kransufoo'riz ? what 
became of his dreams? 

When, inter or subj. subs. Gyoo'- 
su; as, gyoo'su bu'ndis tas- 
pi'mplvo, when the day began 
to dawn. 

Where, inter, or subj. n. Kyoo'su ;. 
at what place: kyoo'tu, iu 
what place. 

Wherever, inter, or subj. n. Kyoo'- 
suun; or, kyoo'tuun; i. e. 
at whatever place; or, in 
whatever place. 

Whence, inter, or subj. n. Kyoo'ni; 
i. e. fi'om what place. 

Whither, inter or subj. n. Kyoo'nu, 
i. e. to what place. 

Whereas, conj. Gool. 

Whether, inter or subj. n. Swi'fin, 
which of the two. Swi'tin, 
which of the three : swi'kLn, 
which of the four: as, nau 
bo'nsifo swi'bin pintipe'lees, I 
knew not which of the five 
did it. 

Which, (nominative,) inter, or 
subj. n. Tyoo; as, tyoo fro'n- 
tipeu vo'mpukous ? which ap- 
pears the most beautiful ? 

much, (accusative,) inter, or subj. 
n. Twoo ; as, Twoo nas kenti- 
ne'lees? which to you gave it? 

MHiichever, int. or subj. n. (nomin.) 
Tyoo'un: (accus.) Twoo'un. 

Wlio, (nominative,) inter, or subj. 
n. Dyoo ; as, dyoo nos ke'nti- 
ne'leas ? 

WJiomsoever, (accusative,) inter, or 
subj. n. Dwoo'un. 

Whose, (real,) inter, or subj. n. 
Pyoo ; as, yu'mvi pyoo to'n- 
doozvo'mpikas; thetreewhose 
branches are so beautiful. 



Whom, (accusative,) inter, or subj. 

n. Dwoo; as, Dwoo'nu i'lea 

kentine'lees ? to whom did 

you give if? 
Whoever, ( nominative,) inter, or 

subj. n. Dyoo'un. 
Wliose, (personal,) inter .or subj. n. 

Byoo ; as, Byoo pa'nzoi u'meu 

TO? whose house is that? 
Whosever, (real,) inter, or subj. n. 

Pyoo'un. 
Tlliosever, (personal,) inter, or subj. 

n. Byoo'un. 
Why, (for what reason or cause) 

inter, or siibj. n. Tyoo'di. 

Y. 

Ye, pron. Ar; as, ar po'ntoo po'n- 
za'toz, ye are my friends. 

Yea, (yes) adv. Zum, zul, zun, &c. 
(See page 136, Eesponsives.) 

Yes, (general affirmative,) Hani; 
opposed to the general nega- 
tive, Nam, no. 

Yesterday, adv. Ca'pil. 

Yet, conj. Nel. 

You, (nommative, singular,) pron. 
A ; as, a um konzipu'rtos, you 
are my brother. 

You, (nominative, plural,) pron. 
Ar ; as, ar po'ntoo ponza'toz, 
you or ye are my friends. 

You, (accusative, singular,) pron. 
As ; as, au tonsiko'as, ho ! 
ponzinu'rtos ! I love you, oh ! 
my friend ! 

You, (accusative, plural,) pron. 
An ; as, au tousiko'aw ponzi- 
nur'toz, I love you, mv friends. 
Al ; as, au tonsiko'al, I love 
you. 

You yourselves, pron. Ar a'rkwen, 

You, pron. (suffixed to a preposi- 
tion,) Ars; as, i^e'ars or^ars, 
without you. 



Your, adj. pron. Tar; as, ta'rkwen, 
yourselves; tar ko'nzipur, 
your brother. 



Your, adj. pron. (plural,) Tan; as, 

kundra'tan, your preaching. 
Yourselves^ pron. A'rkwen. 



Yours, pron. disj. Tant; as, O 
pa'nzoi po'ntoo tant, this house 
is yours. 



PART XXXVII. 



GRAMMATIGALS PHILOSOPHIC AND ENGLISH. 



A. a. 

Al, pron. You ; as, au to'nsiko'al, 
I love you. 

A'lkwen, pron. Yourselves; as, ar 
to'nsikoal" kwen, you love your- 
selves. 

An, pron. You; as, au tonsiko'an. 
Obs. It is used exactly in the 
same manner as the above pro- 
noun al, and exists only for the 
sake of euphony. 

An'kwen, signifies the same as 
Al'hwen : — see above. 

As, pron. Thee; as, au tonsiko'as, 
I love thee. 

A'skwen, pron. Thyself; as, a to'n- 
sikoa"skwen, thou lovest thyself. 

vis, ta'skwen; pron. Thou, thyself; 
as, a tonsiko'as, ta'skwen. 

As, tasgwelnkwen ; emphat. pron. 
Thy very own self; as, vo'uzou, 
a fi'u konsitai'as, tasgwe'nkwen ; 
surely thou mayest trust thy 
very own self. 

A. a. 
A, pron. Thou; as, a po'ntoo, 

thou art. 
Akvoe.n, pron. Thyself; as, a'kwen 

vrai'u pintipai'es; thyself shalt 

do it. 
Agwe'vkwen, emphat. pron. Thy 

own self; as, agwe'nlvwcn, vrai'u 

pintipai'es, thou, thy own self, 

shalt do it. 
Ar, pron. (plural,) Ye. 
A'rkwen, pron. Yourselves. 



As, pron. (suffixed to a preposi- 
tion,) Thee; as, pe'as or pas, 
without thee; be'as or bas, 
against thee. 

Argwe'iikwen, your own selves. 
Obs. AU follow the same rule 
as the above pronouns. 

Ars, pron. (suffixed to preposition,) 
You; as, pe'an or pars, without 
you; fe'au or fars, concerning 
you. 

A. a. 

Ar, pron. They ; as, ar go'nsiko 
banzoo'ten ; they praise their 
pastm-e. 

Ar'kwen, pron. Themselves. 

Argwe'nkwen, Their own selves, 

Ars, pron. (suffixed to a preposi- 
tion) Them ; as, pe'en or pars, 
without them ; no'en or nars, 
from them. 

Ai. ai. 

Ai, pron. It ; as, ai nur ke'ntinel 
betro'mbi, it gave him great 
pain. 

Ai'kwen, pron. Itself. 

Aigwe'nkwen, pron. Its own self. 

Ats, pron. It; as, pe'es or pais, 
without it; ce'es or cais, after it. 

Aid, pron. He ; (suffixed to verbs 
interrogative,) as, U'meaid? is 
he? u'leaid? was he? u'ncaid? 
will he be ? 

Ait, pron. used exactly like aid. 

Au. au. 
Au, pron. I; as, au po'ntoo, I am. 
Au'kwen, pron. I myself. 
145 



Augic^nkwen, pron. I, my own self. 

Aivr, pron. We; as, Aur fumpri- 
no'as, fompitai'on, we pray thee 
to hear us. 

Aus, pron. Me; (suffixed to a 
preposition,) as, pe'os or pans, 
without me ; de'os or daus, forme. 

Aurs, pron. (suffixed to a prepo- 
sition,) Us ; as, pc'on or paurs, 
without us. 

B. b. 

B, (prefixed,) n. Fact; as, bo'tu, of 
this fact; bro'tu, of that fact, &c: 
see page 86. 

Bas, n. Much; as, dwoo'nu bas 
kc'ntinoo, basi'nurs dro'nsitoo, 
to whom much is given, from 
him much is expected. 

Ba, adj. As much ; as, kwa'ul ba 
jw a'pin ki'ndo, roijukyu; there 
was as much on one side, as on 
the other. 

Bdkyu, agg. As much as. 

Bas, agg. So much; (followed by 
that,) as, wai kro'nsikel ba'skwin 
au dro'nsiveleur, he was grieved 
so much that I pitied him. 

Baus, agg. Against me. 

Begyv!ci, agg. After a long time. 
Obs. Yu, in composition, is the 
article a, and yi, the article the; 
so that cij is after; yu, is a; g, 
is time; and be, is the transcen- 
dental, and signifies greatly. 

Be.gyu'du, agg. During, or through 
a long time; and is resolvable 
in the same manner. 



Be hi, prep. Against ; as, be'os or 

iau3, against me. 
Begrdci, agg. long or gi-eatly after 

that time. 
Bi, infinitive of Must; as, wai gan- 
sito bi'os pre'ntisai; lie says I 
must go; i. e. me to be obliged 
to go. 
jB/'m, potential V. ilust; as, aubi'u, 
I must now ; au bli'u, I hereto- 
fore must; au bri'u, I must 
hereafter. 
Boo or hu, prep. Fot ; as, boo'os or 
bos, forme: fondroo'tu, for the 
kmg. 
Bool, adv. Even. 
Bos, agg. For me; and bans, 



Bra, adv. Too much; as, wai bra 
kro'nsikool; or, vrai kro'nsLkyal ; 
he was too much grieved. 
Broo, bru, prep. Like; as, broo'os 

or bros, like me. 
Bijoo, int. or subj. n. ^^^lOse; 

(referring to person). 
Byodun, int. or subj. u. Whoseso- 
ever. 
Bre, bri, prep. Unlike ; as, bre'os 
or braus, unlike me. 
I C. c. 
C<^seo, n. To-day. 
O/pil, n. Yesterday; &c. : see 

Table, page 89. 
CWpin, n. To-morrow ; page 89. 
C'ul, adv. Eather. 
Cu'lhyu, adv. Rather than. 
Cu'lkwin, conj. Rather that. 
Cyoo, int. or sub. n. What distance ; 
as, cyoo'nu ti'ia pre'ntisai? to 
what distance (i. e. how far?) 
skall you go? 

D. d. 
D, n. Person.; as, Do, this person; 
efro, that person. 



Daxis, agg. For me. 
Dou, agg. Every one. 
Drou, agg. Each one. 
Boo, du, prep. By: sometimes 
used to denote the agent; as, 
Dwoo'Jm fo'ndrooz e'ko; by 
whom kingsreign: see pagel20. 
Bos, agg. By me; as, doo'os ordos. 
Droo, dru, prep. Above; as, di'oo'os 

or di-os, above me. 
Dre, dri, prep. Below ; as, dre'os 

or draus, below me. 
Bovlroi, agg. Every other. 
Drouroi, agg. Each other. 
Bou'rois, agg. One another's; as, 
ar bo'ntifel dou'roi; they assisted 
one another; i. e. every one 
the other. 
Bwoo, int. or subj. n. ^Mioni; as, 
Dwoo bentipeau inzoi'tu kroo'- 
as? whom have I in heaven 
but thee? 

2- d- 

D, (prefixed) n. Effect; as, Do'nu, 
to this effect; doi'nu, to the 
same effect. 
Bo, agg. This effect ; see page 88. 
Brn, agg. That effect. 
Boo, du, prep. Through or during; 
as, wai ba'nsivel gundai'du koi'tu, 
he sat for an hour in the same 
place. 
Be, di, prep. Beside ; as, wai ban- 
sivel di-anzoi'(7i, as he sat beside 
the road; i. e. by the side of 
the road. 
Broo, dru, prep. Backwards ; as, 
wai e'nsikel droo dre'kwi, he 
moved backwards and forwards. 
Bool, adv. Namely, to wit, viz. 
Byoo, int or subj. n- What effect? 
as, dyoo'pu i'lcaid pintipaies? 
I with what effect did he do Itf 
146 



Bel, adv. For instance. 
Bulkwin, conj. In order that. 

E. e. 
En, pron. accus. Them; as, au 

ton'siko'en, I love them. 
El, pron. accus. Them: the same 
use as en. Eitner may be used 
in preference, where the sound 
woidd be improved. 
Ed, pron. accus. Him; as, Yai 

tonsike'leerf, she loved him. 
Et, pron. accus. Her; as, wai tou- 

sike'lee?, he loved her. 
Eskwen, pron. euiph. Itself. 
Enktcen or e'lkicen, pron. (plural,) 

themselves. 
Es, pron. accus. It ; as, au piuti- 

pelee*, I did it. 
Es teskwen, pron. emph. It, itself. 
Es tesgive'nkwen. It, its own or 
veiy self. 

E. e. 
E, article, The ; when inserted in 
tabulars: as, bi'nzikur, man; 
bei'nzikur, the man; ke'injoo, 
the elephant. 
E, adv. (iffixed after the generic 
consonant, that is to say, n, m, 
n, or 1 ) signifying Not or no : 
as, poBtoo, is; pone'too, is not; 
do'ntoo, is active; done'too, is 
not active. So bi'nzi, man; bi'n- 
ezi, no man ; kro'ndoo, person ; 
krone'doo, no person; fo'nzo, 
consideration; fone'zo, no con- 
sideration. 
E, V. (prefixed to an accus. pron.,) 
Cause or make; as, e'os, it 
makes me; le'os, it made me: 
see page 118. 
Em, V. cop. Have done; as, au 

eme'es, I have done it. 
El, V. cop. Had done ; as, au elees, 
I had done it. 



En, V. cop. Shall have; as, au 

e'nees, I shall have done it. 
Emp, V. cop. Have been doing; 

as, au e'mpees, I have been 
- doing it. 
Eh, V. cop. Had been doing; as, 

au elte'es, I had been doing it. 
Ent, V. cop. Shall have been doing; 

as, au e'utees, I shall have been 

doing it. 

F. f. 

F, n. Kind ; as, /o'tu, of this kind ; 

/ro'tu, of that kind, &c. 
Fi^u, potential v. May. 
Fi, poten. v. inf. To be free to. 
/'>, fi, prep. Concerning; as, fe'os 

or/aus, concerning me: taJ^kwi 

po'nzoz, and concerning your 

observations. 
Fans, agg. Concerning me. 
Fil, adv. So ; as, fi'lkyu, so as. 
Fillkwin, agg. so that. 
Foo, fa, prep. Out of ; as, po'nti- 

fool punzoiy«, it was made out 

of brass. 
Ful, adv. (opposed to fil,) as, fa'l- 

kwi a'pin pa'nsivo, fil roida'nsivo; 

as one rises, so the other falls. 

G. g. 

G, n. (prefixed,) Time ; as, go'su, 

at this time : see page 88. 
Goo, gu, prep. On this side ; as, 
prinzo'^M, on this side of the 
mountain : goo'os or ^os, on this 
side of me. 
Ge, gi, prep. Beyond; as, ge, ge 
yi pi'nsou pi'nzoiz, beyond ! be- 
yond! the starry heavens: gc'os 
or ^aus, beyond me. 
Goal, adv. Whereas; as, goolwai 
fa'mpifil, nel de'on wai o'kel 
fra'mpou, whereas he was rich, 
yet for us he became poor. 
Gdci, agg. Hereafter. 
Gilru, agg. Heretofore. 
2 Q 



Grl, adv. Now; now observe; as, 
gel au bi'u tc'utipai fonzo'tas, 
now, I must claim your atten- 
tion : i. e. consideration. 

Gloo, glu, prep. Along; as, wai 
pra'ntisel dranzoi'^?M, be was 
going along the road. 

Gas, agg. On this side of me. 

Gq'su, agg. Now ; at this time. 

Grq'su, Then, at that time. 

Go'subool, agg. Even now- 

Gc/nu, agg. Hitherto. 

Gq'nibool, agg. Even henceforth. 

Goi, agg. The same person who. 

Gwen, adj. Own; as, twai'gwen 
pa'uzoi, his own house — refer- 
ring to the subject of the pro- 
position. 

Gwon, adj. Own; as, twai'gwon 
pa'nzoi: referring not to the 
subject of the proposition, but 
to some other person. 
Gyoo, int. or subj. n. What time ; 
as, at what time, gyoo'su; gyoo- 
ni, from what time. 
Gyoo'du, agg. During or through 
what time; as, gyoo'du i'mea 
to'nsinai pla'nsinai? how long 
do you propose to wait ! 

H. h. 

H, emphatical sign, as; konzo'tos 
too'um /fu'ndi, no'kwi binze'tu, 
my trust is in God, and not in 
man. 

Ho'kioun, optative characteristic, 
Oh that ! see page 109. 

Hq! exclam. Oh! as, ho! yi tro'm- 
bi — yi ka'mboodra'nzipo'tu! oh! 
the pain— the bliss of dying. 

I. i. 

7, definite art. The ; as, i pra'ntu- 
pous rou'utu vambe'um, the 
greatest of all, is charity. 
147 



Ln, cop. V. Do; as, au im tonsi- 
kai'et ; I do love her. 

Imp, cop. V. Am doing; as, au imp 
da'nsitai tyi'ndi, I am writing 
the letter. Obs. Here imp sig- 
nifies am doing, and da'nsitai 
subjoins the special act, writing. 

II, cop. V. Did; as, au il gonsifai'ed 
I did esteem him. 

In, cop. V. Shall do ; or. Shall, 
before an active verb; as, au 
t'nees, I shall do it: au in pe'n- 
tisai ki'ndur, I shall come soon. 

Imp, cop. V. Am doing ; or, Am, 
before an active verb; as, au 
imjjces, I am doing it : au imp 
pre'ntisai, I am going. 

It, participle. Done; as, wai omz'J- 
ees; or, wai pentipo'es, he has 
done it. 

I- i- 

J, demon, (sing.) A certain; or, A 
certain one; as, i bi'nzikur pen- 
tise'nil Jiroo'sulum, a certain 
man came from Jerusalem. 

lu, demon. ( plural, ) as, i'u bi'n- 
zikurz i'tu viufro'ntuvou, certain 
men of the baser sort. 

J.j. 

Jq'seq, n. or adv. This week ; as, 
au, ja'seo, te'ntivel tan ka'rin 
pu'ndis, I, this week, began my 
fortieth year : see page 89. 

Je, ji, prep. Under ; as, jc'os or 
/aus, under me. 

Juhu, ( pronounced jusi'tu, ) In 
some degree; as, wai po'ntoo, 
jui'tu, gro'nsUcoi, he is in some 
degree to be blamed. 

Jyoo, int. or subj. n. What degree; 
as, jyoo famboo'tu paintiko'aid;^ 
what degree of prosperity- has 
he obtained? 



Jirai'tung, agg. Not in any degree. 
Joo, Ju, prep. Upon ; as, joo'os 

or JOS, upon me. 
Jyoo'tu! agg. How! as, jyoo'tu 

vo'mpu yal po'atoo! how beau- 
tiful she is ! 

K. k. 
A', n. (prefixed,) Place; as, ko'tu, 

here ; in this place : kro'tu, there ; 

in that place. 
Kaxis^ prep. Over-against me. 
Kd, conj. Therefore; as, kel, ho! 

tonsukoo'tos ko'nzooz, therefore, 

oh! my beloved brethi'en. 
K^, hi, prep. Over against; as, 

ke'os or /caus, over agamst me. 
A7zi, poten. v. Ought; as, au ki'u 

pre'ntisai ; I ought to go. 
KUu, poten. verb. Oughted ; i, e. 

heretofore ought ; as, spen au 

kli'u gentinai'ed, then I oughtetZ 

to pay him. 
A7/'(/, poten. V. Ought hereafter ; 

as, ca'pin au kri'u pre'ntisai ; to- 
morrow I ought (i. e. it will be 

my duty) to go. 
Koo, ku, prep. Betwixt; as, wai 

kel ba'nsivel, he sat betwixt 

them: koo'os or /cos, betwixt me. 
Kroo, kru, prep. Except ; as, rou'u 

tel kro'tuul kroo'os, all of them 

were there except me. 
AV^, kri, Besides; as, rou'u tel 

kro'tuul krc'os, all of them were 

there besides me. 
Kraituno, agg. Nowhere. 
Krooz, adv. At first. 
Krez, adv. At last ; as, krcz wai 

pe'ntisel, at last he came. 
Kwa, adv. assertive. There; as, 

Kwa po'ntoo, there is. 
Ai/Jfi, adv. int. There; as, kwc'um? 

or, kwe po'ntoo.? is there? 
Kwi^ adv. duective, There; as, 

kwi'tum, let there be. 



KoHtu, agg. In the same place. 

Kioo, adv. optative, There; as, 
kwo'tum, oh that there were ! 

Kicai, adv. dependent, There; as, 
kwaitu'm, kwaitu'l, kwaitu'n, 
there to be now, there to be 
heretofore, there to be hereafter. 

Kicou, adv. adj. or part. There; 
as, kwou'un, there being; kwou- 
o'mut, there having been ; kwou- 
o'lut. there havingformerlybeen; 
kwouo'nut, there having here- 
after been. 

Kwen, n. Self; as, taukwen, my- 
self; ta'kwen, thyself ; (referring 
to the nominative). 
I Kwon, n. Self; as, waikwon, him- 
self; yai'kwon, herself; (refei- 
ring not to the subject but to 
some oljectj. 

Kwi, conj. And. 

Kicil, conj. And. 

Kw, conj. And ; (before a vowel,) 
as, kw I'zuk, and Isaac. 

Kiooo? int. How much ? 

KiDOo'u? int. How many? 

Kwifin, n. Both. 

Kwi'tm, n. All three. 

Kwi'kt'n, XX. All foiu-. 

Kwibin, n. All five; and through- 
out all numbers: as, kwi'tin 
gya'su pa'nslvo ; gya'su ka'ntou 
bru'ndis pai'ntlpo, gya'sukwi 
da'nsivo, &c; both when thou 
riscst, when high noon hast 
gained, and when thou fallest, 
&c. Obs. Kwitin denotes thi-ee 
periods : — Milton, fi-om the de- 
fect of our language, was obliged 
. to use hoth in i-efen-ing to these 
three periods. 

Kwin, conj. That ; as, au bo'nsifo 
tau'kwin Do'nsupor da'nsipo, I 
know that my Eedeemer liveth. 

Kw^Ucwi, conj. Moreover. 
148. 



Kt/oo, int. or subj. n. What place. 
K2/o(/tu, int. or subj. n. Where? 

i. e. in what place ? 
Ki/d, adv. And so forth. 
Kyu, conj. ('suffixed,^ As; as, wai'- 

ki/ti pre'ntisel, as he went. 
Kyoo'ni, agg. Whence. 
Kyoo'nu^ agg. Whither. 

L. 1. 
ip, verb. dup. causal, past tens« ; 

as, le'os, it caused me. 
Loo, v. dup. causal ; as, loo'os, it 

was caused by me. 

M. m. 
Maus, agg. Out of me. 
Me, prep. Out of. 
Mi, prep. Out of. 
Mis, prepositional adv. Out. 
Mos or viooos, agg. Into me. 
J/oo, mu, prep. Into ; as panzoi'- 

»iM, into the house. 
Moot, prep. In tlie course of. 

N. n. 

X, adverb, (prefixed to the copu- 
latives) as, Um, is, num, is not ; 
TJl, was, nul, was not; Tin, will 
be, nun, will not be. (Prefixed 
to the personal pronouns); as, 
nau, I not ; na, thou not, &c. 

A>, ni, prep. From; as, ne'os or 
nans, from me : tombrg'/w* from 
the city. 

Nis, adv. In a direction from. 

Noo, 7iu, prep. To; as, noo'os or 
nos, to me: tonibroww, to tlir 
city. 

N'J, conj. Yet; as, nol de'on (or 
daurs) wai okel fra'iupou; yet, 
for our sakes, he became poor. 

Xool, conj. Altliough ; as, nool 
wai fa'mpifil, although he was 
rich. 

Nos, agg. To me. 



Xi'sos, agg. Let me not; (active,) 
as, nisos p're'ntisai, let me not 
see go ! Table, page 92. 

No, adv. Not; as, au no tonsiko'et, 
(emphatically,) I do not love her. 

Kr/kwi, agg. And not ; as, John, 
no'iiwi Edward, John, and not 
Edward. 

No'lcwin, conj. Not that; as, no- 
kwin wai fa'mpinel frarapouWj- 
roz, not that he cared for the 
poor. 

Ng'tivt, conj. Nor ; i. e. not or. 

Noftul, con. If not ; as, notu'lkwi, 
tyoo'dino? and if not, why not? 

Nuso's, agg. Let me not be ; nusa', 
be not thou ; nuse's, let it not be ; 
nuse'd, let him not be ; nusc't, let 
her not be ; nuso'n, let us not 
be; nusa'r, he not ye, nuse'n, 
let them not be. 

0. o. 
01, pron. accus. Us; as, wai tro'n- 

siko'ol, he hates us. 
01, V. Had ; (past tense of Om,) 

as, au ol, I had; au o'lut, I had 

been. 
On, V. Shall have ; as, au on, I 

shall have. 
On, pron. accus. Us. It has the 

same force and meaning as ol ; 

but sometimes sounds more 

euphonically. 
Om, V. Have; as, au o'm, I have. 
CnJcwen or o'lhwen, agg. Ourselves. 
Os, pron. accusative. Me; as, yai 

ponsiko'os, she admires me. 
O'skwen, agg. Thyself. 
Os, tosguxinkwen, agg. Me, my 

very own self. 

O. o. 
0, demon. This; as, O bu'ndis, 

this day. 
(Jri, agg. This thing. 



OVo, agg. This person. 
Om, agg. This one; whether 
person or thing. 

Oi. 

Oi, demon. The same; as, oi'ro 
pcntise'jiwZ Je'zus vru'ndai'su, the 
same came to Jesus at night. 
Ou, 
Ou, demon. Every; as, Ou bi'nzi 
do'ntipel twai'vugwen o'nza, 
every man acted according to 
his own will. 

Oo. 

00, art. indefinite, A; as, au po'm- 
pitel booi'nzi i'su fa'nza, I saw 
a man at the door. 

Oom, V. cop. Have been ; as, au 
oom kro'tu, I have been there. 

001, V. cop. Had been; as, au ool 
kro'tu, I had been there. 

Oon, V. cop. Shall have been ; as, 
au oon kro'tu, ne'lkwi di'u pre'n- 
tisai, I have been there, and 
still would go. 

Oomp, V. cop. Have been being; 
as, tul nau gro'nsikoo, au oomp, 
if I am not being blamed, I have 
been (i. e. being blamed). 

Ooll, V. cop. Had been being; as, 
tul nau gro'nsikool, au oolt, if 
I was not being blamed, I had 
been (being blamed). 

Oont, V. cop. Shall have been being; 
as, au oont gro'nsikoo, I shall 
have been (being blamed). 

Oomp, oolt, oont, are rarely used. 

P. p. 

Pa, adv. As little ; as, wai pa do'n- 
sinoo kwentau'kyu, he is as little 
pleased as myself. 

Pas, adv. So little; as, wai pas 
donsinoo, no'kyu fro'utipai, he 
is so little pleased as not to 
appear. 

149 



Pa'shvin, conj. So little that ; as, 
wai pas do'nsinoo wai'i-jcm fron- 
e'tipo, he is so little pleased that 
he does not appear. 

Pe, p)i, prep, without ; as, pe'os or 
^aus, without me : wai pre'nti- 
sel frinde'pi, he went without 
the letter. 

Pegyu'tu, agg. In a time short; 
i. e. soon; as, tu, in; yu, a; g, 
time; pe., diminutive-transcen- 
dental. Ki'ndur, the adverb of 
earliness, is a better word. 

Pel^ adv. Here; a monosyllabic 
synonyme of ko'tu, in this place. 

Pen, adv. There ; a monosyllabic 
synouyme of kro'tu, in that place. 

Pi'u, plhi, privL, poten. v. Can ; 
as, au pi'u, I can now; au pli'u, 
I could then; au pri'u, I can 
then, i. e. hereafter. 

Pi7, adv. Truly. 

Plus, adv. Then, consequently. 

Pq, n. This end ; as, po'nu, to this 
end; po'di, for this end; popu 
coo'ol, with this object before us. 

Poo, pu, prep. With ; as, poo'os or 
pos, with me: wai pa'nsitel 
vronze'^it branza'kwi, he spake 
with fear and trembling. 

Pool ! exclam. Behold ! 

Pd, adv. Perhaps; as, pul wai 
pe'ntisen, perhaps he will come. 

P/-oo,ji5>-M, prep. Near to; (opposed 
to pre, far from). 

Pre., pri, prep. Far from; as, 
kanzoi'^jrw JJnie'prikw'i, near to 
the church, and far from God. 

Pros or prod OS, agg. Near to me. 

Praus or prejos, agg. Far from me. 

Pra, adv. Too little. 

Ptjoo, Int. or subj. n. Whose; 
(applicable only to things, and 
not persons); as, u'mvi pyoo 
po'udoiz, the tree wJiose roots. 



K. r. 

Bik, pron. (siiffixed to adjectives,) 
One ; as, a vral'u nur ke'utinai 
u plimpou'rik, aukwi, u prlm- 
pou'rik, jou shall give liim a 
black one, and I, a white one. 

Btgz, pron. (plural of rik,) Ones ; 
as, au nas vi-i'u ke'ntinai plim- 
pou'rigz, wal'kwi primpou'rigz, 
or pri'mpouz, I will give you the 
black ones, and he the white 
ones. 

Eai, demon, (sing.) Any; as, rai 
pro'ndoi fli'u bo'usinoi, any in- 
strument might be selected. 

Bai'u, demon, (plural,) Any; as, 
nau pli'u to'nsitai rai'u dro'nzoiz 
tyur po'ntifel, I could not ap- 
prove any suggestions which 
he made. 

i?«', n. Thing; as, u ponsupoo'ri, 
a creature, i. e. a created thing. 

i?2, n. Person; as, Ponsupo'ro, 
the Creator ; i. e. the creating 
person, or person who creates. 

Hi, demon, (sing.) Some; as, au 
kai'ntino gri fonzonu too'es, or 
tes fonzo'nu, I have given 
some time to the consideration 
of it. 

Bi'u, demon, (plural,) Some; as, 
ri'uroz pi'un to'nsikai u ki'nja; 
some persons cannot like a cat. 

lio, demon, (sing.) That ; as, ro 
ka'nzoi pu'ntrikoo Unde'nu, that 
temple is consecrated to God. 

liij'u^ demon, (plural,) Those; as, 
ro'u pa'nzoiz, those houses. 

Bou, demon, (sing.) Each. 

Bous, All; (sing.) 

Bot, demon, (sing.) Other. 

Boi'u, demon, (plural,) Other. 

Bou'roi, demon, (smg.) Each other ; 
as, ar pra'ndur to'nsiko rou'roi, 
they love each other greatly. 



Bu, n. (suffixed,) Person or thing ; 
i. e. One; as, u yin vo'mpurw 
pi'un po'nsufoo, a more beautiful 
one camiot be thought, i. e. con- 
ceived : u ke'ntusoo'r!<, a sent 
one, (whether person or thing). 
Obs- Kentusoo'ro, a messenger ; 
i. e. a sent person : kentusoo'ri, 
a sent thing ; (as, a present) : 
see Boj and ri. 

S. s. 

Se, si, prep. Off; as, sc'os or saus, 
off me : wai pontipil pinjoo'st, 
he was off the horse. 

Se'ni, si'ni, prep.jFrom off, (denot- 
ing motion,) as, wai pe'ntisel 
twaHstni pi'ujoo, he came from 
off his horse. 

Sel, adv. Scarcely ; as, Tul pe'm- 
puroz, sel do'nsipoo, &c., if the 
righteous scarcely be saved, &c. 

Skoo, shu, prep. Among ; as, wai 
bansivel To'nondroo"skuz, he sat 
among the Doctors ; skoo'ol or 
skol, skoo'on or skon, among us. 

Skwoo, int. or subj. u. How much? 
what quantity? (of solid quan- 
tity) ; as, skwoo fenzoo'tu be'n- 
tipe'a panzoi'tu? how much 
bread have you in the house? 

Sul, adv. Exactly; as, po'ntipil sul 
a'vin ; or, sul a'vrin gu'ncl i, it was 
exactly six ; or, the sixth hour. 

Ski/oo, int. or subj. n. How much? 
(generally) as, skyoo trindoi'tu 
u'raeu ka'nzoi ko'ni? what dis- 
tance is the church from this 
place ? 

Skyau, agg. How much I. 

Spin, adv. Now; i. e. at this time; 
synonyme of go'su. 

Sjioo, spu, prep. Towards ; as, wai 

pra'ntiscl twai'spw pa'nzoi, he 

was going towards his Iiouse : 

spoo'os or spos, towards me. 

150 



8pen, adv. Then; (past time). 

Span, prep. Then ; at a future time ; 
as, span pe'ntiso tri'ndo, then 
cometh the end. 

Span, the same word as span be- 
fore A- ; as, spankwi, and then. 

Sp)roo, spru, prep. At the begin- 
ning of; as, endo'spru, at the 
beginning of the business: 
sproo'es or spres, at the begin- 
ning of it. 

Stroo, stru, prep. In the midst of; 
as, wai dwapre'nsifel stroo'en ; 
he impetuously ran into the 
midst of them. 

Sire, stri, prep. At the end of; as, 
bundai'stri, twal'ci di'oope'ndis, 
ar de'ntisel, at the end of the 
day, after his retinn, they met. 

Strais, agg. At the end of it. 

Sn(:'kicin, conj. Smce that; as, 
sne'kwin wai pe'ntisel aur bain- 
e'tipo rai tende'rit, since (that) 
he came, we have not had any 
quietness. 

Snoo'hwin, conj. Until that; as, 
snoo'kwin wai pe'ntisel aur be'n- 
tipel tende'rit, until (that) he 
came, we had peace. 

Slau, int or subj. n. What I ; as, 
na pi'u ga'nsitai slau to'nsinji, 
you cannot tell what I intend. 
So sla, slai, &c. : see page 78. 

Sno, sni, prep. Since ; as, as, ro'sni 
bun'dis, since that day. 

Sn^Jcwin, conj. Since that; as, sno'- 
kwLn au fre'ntifel ar di-oopai'n- 
tiso, since I left, they have re- 
turned. 

Stttl, prep. About; i. e. thereabout, 
more or less; as, yai po'ntoo stul 
ka'sin, she is about forty. 

Stuls, adv. Thereabout. 

Sool, adv. Almost. 

Soo, su, prep. At. 



Sut, (never to precede t,) impera- 
tive V. Let; (neutral,) as, sut 
ponza'tos to'ntiki, let nij friend 
be safe. 

Sunt, (never to precede t,) imper. 
neg. v. Let not; as, sunt fan- 
dai'tonz tre'ntikoi. 

Suk, imper. v. (never to precede k,) 
Let; as, suktu'ndi'oizgonsikai'as, 
let the apostles praise thee- 

Sunk, imper. neg. v. (never to pre- 
cede k,) as, sunk timbo'tas fo'm- 
pitoi, let not your voice be 
heard. 

Sit, imper. v. (never to precede t,) 
Let; (active,) as, sit vande'turz 
fi'nsifoi, let his feet be tied. 

Sint, imper. neg. v. (never to pre- 
cede t,) Let not; as, siut van- 
de'turz fi'nsifoi. 

Sik, imper. v. (never to precede k,) 
Let; as, silc tande'turz fi'nsifoi. 

Sink, imper. v. neg. (never to pre- 
cede k,) Let not; as, sink tan- 
de'turz fi'nsifoi, let not his hands 
be tied. 

Ste'lkwin, conj. Seeing that; as, 
ste'lkwin aur glis fe'ntitoo pra'n- 
tupa^MS u fii'nzo dambroo'tuz, 
&c., 'seeing that we are encom- 
passed with so great a cloud of 
witnesses, &c. 

S. s. 
Sglseq, This month. 
Sq'j)il, last month : see page 89. 

T. t. 
T, n. (prefixed,) Thing; as, to, 

this thing ; fro, that thing. 
Tegc/su, adv. Precisely now. 
Tel, adv. Alone. 
Te, ti, prep. With ; or, by means 

of; as, fembre'ti, with a sword. 
Till, V. predictive, Shall; as, aur 

ti'u pre'ntisai, we shall go now. 
2 R 



Trfu, V. predictive, Shall; as, aur 
tri'u pre'ntisai, we shall hereafter 
go. 
Toia, (neffntive, Trom.J the infini- 
tive of om, Have; i. e. to have; 
as, au bo'nsikel tom'ees, I desired 
to have it. 
Tol, (negative, Trol,) v. inf. Pre- 
viously to have. 

Ton, (negative, Tron) v. inf. Here- 
after to have. 

Troo, tru, prep. Up; as, troo'os or 
tros, up me: panza'tru, up stairs. 

Tre, tri, prep. Down ; as, tre'os or 
traus : panza'<ri, down stau's. 

Turn, V. inf. To be. 

Trum, V. inf. Not to be. 

Tul, V. inf. Hei-etofore to be. 

Trul, V. inf. Heretofore not to be. 

Tan, V. inf. To be hereafter. 

Trun, V. inf Not to be hereafter. 

Toom, V. inf To have been. 

Trooin, v. inf. Not to have been. 

Tool, V. inf. Heretofore to have 
been. 

Trool, V. inf Heretofore not to 
have been. 

Toon, V. inf. Hereafter to have 
been. 

Troon, v. inf Hereafter not to have 
been. 

Tyco, int. or subj. n. Which. 

Tyool, adv. Only. 

Tyel, adv. Together. 

Tw, iwi, twil, conj. Or. 

Twoo, int. or subj. n. Which; (ac- 
cusative,) as au bo'nsifo twa 
bo'nsinen, I know which you 
will choose. 

Twi'finq, conj. Neither; i. e. not 
either of the two. 



T, n. (prefixed,) Cause; as, to'di, 

for this cause; &c.: see page 88. 

151 



Tmi, adj.-pron. My. 

Taur, adj.-pron. Our. 

Tn, adj.-pron. Thy. 

Tar, adj.-pron. Your. 

Tai, adj.-pron. Its. 

Twai, adj.-pron. His. 

Twar, adj.-pron. Their. 

Tyai, adj.-pron. Her. 

Tyar, adj.-pron. Their; (feminine). 

Pronouns suffixed. 
Tos, My; as, ponza'tos, my friend; 
see page 75. 

Disjunctives. 
Tost, my; tast, thy: see page 75. 

Too, 111, prep. Within; as, wai 

po'utipil panzoi'tu, he was in tke 

house : too'os or tos, within me. 
Te, ti, prep. Outside of; as, wai 

po'ntipil pauzoi'ti, he was outside 

of — or out of — the house. 
Tool, tul, conj. If. 
Troo, tru, prep. In favor of; as, 

danzoo'tru, in favor of life. 
Tre, tri, prep. In spite of; as, wai 

ba'mbun trasi'nsiko kindai'tri, 

he diligently toils on in spite of 

opposition. 
Tyoo, n. int. or subj. What cause. 
Tyoo'di, int. or subj. n. Why; i. e. 

for what cause. 
Tel, til, conj. Unless. 

U. u. 
Um, ul, un, cop. v. Am, was, shall 

be. 
Ump, ult, tint, cop. v. Am being. 

was being ; shall be being. 
Uh, pron. (suffixed,) her; as, au 

tonsiko'un, I love her. 
Ur, pron. (suffixed,) Him; as, yai 

tonsiko'ur, she loves him. 
Urs, pron. (suffixed,) Him; (after 

a prep.,) as, Tpurs, without him. 
Uns, pron. (suffixed,) Her; as, 

puns, without her. 



Un, adv. (prefixed,) the same as 
in English, as, C/wtinsifai, to 
uncover. 

Urn, signifies the same as un, but 
comes before p, b, f, or v ; as, 
umpi'nsifai, to unbind; umfi'n- 
sifai, to imtie. 

,Un, before k or g, signifies the 
same; as, unki'nsikai, to unsew. 



y, n. (prefixed,) Manner; as, vo'tu, 
thus, in this manner; vro'tu, so; 
in that manner. 

Ve, vi, prep. Instead of; as, ve'os 
or vans, instead of me. 

Vd, conj. As if; as though; as, 
wai do'ntipel vel wai pru'mpinilj 
he acted as if he was mad. 

Vi'u, V. poten. present, promissive, 
Shall or will ; as, au vi'u pre'n- 
tisai, I will go now. 

Vrl'u, V. poten. future, promissive. 
Shall or will ; as, au vri'u pre'n- 
tisai, I will go hereafter. 

Vli'u, V. poten. past, Would. 

Vool, adv. Agam. 



Voo, vu, prep. According to; as, 

voo'os or vos, according to me. 
Vai'ii, V. poten. pres. authoritative, 

Shall; as, a vai'u pre'ntisai, you 

shall go. 
Vrai'u, V. poten. future. Shall; as, 

a vrai'u pre'ntisai, you shall gg 

hereafter. 
Vroo, vru, conj. For. 
Vre, vri, conj. Because. 

W. w. 

W. article indef. A; or an, before 
a vowel ; as, u'nzoo, fire ; wu'n- 
zoo, a fire; i'nzi, operation, 
wi'nzi, an operation : see Arti- 
cles, page 71. 

Wa!., pron. He : see page 73. 

Waikwen., pron. Himself; see page 
73, §146. 

War, pron. (masculine,) They. 

TF»«, comp. adv. Most; as, win 
pa'mpur, most happy. 

Wil, comp. adv. Least; as, wil 
pa'mpur, least happy. 

Y. y. 

Frt/, proa. She. 



Y, art. definite, The; as, u'mvi. 
Tree, yu'mvi, the tree. 

Yaikwen, pron. Herself. 

Far, pron. Their. 

Yarlcioen, pron. Themselves. 

Yin, comp. adv. More. 

Yil, comp. adv. Less. 

Yingrahw, agg. No more; i. e. 
not any more. 

Yi'nnoj agg. Not more. 

Yi'Ucyu, agg. Less than. 

Yillkwin, agg. Less, that. 

Yun, comp. adv. As; as, yun 
pa'mpur, as happy. 

Tm/, comp. adv. So; as, yul pa'm- 
pur, so happy. 

Z. z. 

Zai, adv. Too ; as, zai pa'mpur, 

too happy. 
Ze, zi, prep. About. 
Zoj adv. Such. 
Zoo, zu, prep. Over, across. 
Zi/oo, adv. As well as. 

Z. z. 
Za'seo, This year. 
Za'pil, Last year : sec page 8!). 



PART XXXYIII. 

(SUPPLEMENTAL.) 



CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT NUMBERS. 
At page 67, we see how Tabular Concrete Nouns are converted into Abstract, 
capable of this modification by suffixing iti to the niunber ; as follows : 

CARDINALS. 



Now all Numbers arc 



Concrete. 




Abstract. 




Concrete. 


A'pin, one; 


Api'niti, 


unity, one-ness. 




A'prin, first; 


Afin, two; 


A'finiti, 


duality, two-ness. 




A'frin, second; 


A'tui, three; 


Ati'niti, 


trinity, three-ness. 




A'trin, third ; 


A'km, four; 


AkI'niti, 


fom--ness. 




Akrin, fourth; 


A'bin, five; 


Abi'niti, 


five-ness. 




Abrm, fifth; 






And so on with all other Numbers 








152 





ORDINALS. 

Abstract. 
Apri'niti, fii'stness. 
Afri'niti, the being second. 
Atri'niti, the being third. 
Akri'niti, the being fourth. 
Abri'niti, the bemg fifth. 



BOOK II. 



TRANSLATIONS, 
ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE PRINCIPLES 

OF THE 

PHILOSOPHIC LANGUAGE. 



'' It were even to be wished, that the general terms which are found In common language, as well 
as those of the arts and sciences, could be reduced to a systematical arrangement, and defined so as 
that they may be free from ambiguity ; but, perhaps, the obstacles to this are msurmountable. I know 
no man who has attempted It but Bishop Wilkms, In his Essay towards a Real Character and a 
Philosophic Language. The attempt was grand, and worthy a man of genius." — Extract from Dr. Reid's 
Essays on the Intellectual Poicers of Man; page 470. 



TRANSLATIONS, 

PHILOSOPHIC A^D ENGLISH. 



Uach word of the Philosophic has its English signification alternately in Roman and Italic type. 
The Superior Figures ^ ' '■= ^ * ^c. ) refer to Notes at the end of these Translations. 



GENESIS. 



TI'NDO XLV. 



QPEN Jo'zif pli'un fro'ntifaiM'Vkwen pindoi'tu gro'u- 
tu glurs pi-a'nsivel; wai'kwi po'nsikel ou'ro nurs 
mispre'ntisai, kwa'kwi pur prane'sivel rai'ro, gyii'rdu 
leu'rkwen bo'usifoi twai'nu ko'nzipurz. 

2. Wai'kwi tra'nsinel bezo'mbi': I'kwi Ij'ipsunz 
panzoi'kwi tu Fa'ru fo'mpitel. 

3. Kwi Jo'ziP ga'nsitel twai'nu ko'nzipurz, au po'u- 
too Jo'zif: u'meu fonzipu'rtos da'nsupo? T wai'kwi 
ko'nzipurz pli'un printisai'ed ; a'rvru tre'ntikool twai'su 
pi'ndoi. 

4. Kwi Jo'zif ga'nsitel twai'nu ko'nzipurz, Nos 
tintifo'zar, au fumprino'an ; a'rkwinur ti'ntifelee"nkwen. 
Wai'kwi ga'nsitel, au po'ntoo Jo'zif, konzipu'rtan, 
dwar tontrike'mwZ* Ejipt. 

5. Keli'gil" nu'sar kro'nsukoo, no'twi to'nsuki poo- 
a'nkwen a'rkwin ko'nu tontrike'leos : Unde'vru can 
kentise'leos konsipal'dul da'nzoo. 

6. I'du a'fin pu'ndisilz'', i fe'nsur fla'ndoo ploi'ntlpo 
rlnzo'tu: ne'lkwi kwa po'ntipin a'bin fa'nta pu'ndisinz'', 
twoo'du kwa'nun twi'fin ko'mbis krinzo'twi. 

7. Unde'kwi can kentise'leos ko'nsipai de'an* 
pr'onzipinz dinzoiju; vintipai'kwi danzoo'tanz pran- 
tu'rti bo'nzoo. 



CHAPTER XLV. 



T^HEN Joseph could not refrain himself In the pre- 
sence of those who round about him stood ; and 
he commanded every one from him to go out ; and 
there with him stood not any one while he caused him- 
self to he hioion to his brethren. 

2. And he wept very loud, and the Egyptians and 
the house of Pharoah heard. 

3. iVnd Joseph said to his brethren / am Joseph; 
is my father living? and his brethren could not answer 
him; for they were troubled at his presence. 

4. And Joseph said to his brethren. To ?«c, do ye 
approach, / beseech you; and they to him did ap- 
proach. And he said, I am Joseph, your brother, 
whom ye sold into Egypt. 

5. Now, therefore, be not grieved, nor angry with 
yourselves, that ye hither sold rac,:for God, before you, 
sent me, in order to preserve life. 

6. During the two past years, the famine ( bread- 
scarcity) hath existed in the land : and yet there will 
be five immediate future years, during which there loiV. 
not be either ripeness (earing) or reaping (harvest). 

7. And God before you sent me to preserve for 
you a posterity on the earth; and to contmue your 
lives by means of a great deliverance. 



* Pronouns, Prepositions, Couj unctions, &c. arc sometimes put in Italics, for the convenience of the 
uninitiated. 

A a 



TRANSLATIONS. 



8. Kpli'gil no pontipi'lea?!^ dyoo ko'nii kentise'leos, 
bel U'ndi ; Wai'kwi poi'ntipo"sto/ u fonzipu"r«nu' Fara, 
bonzo'kwi &nia.i'dru twai'tu pa'nzoi yoo'kwl po'ndi'oo 
andai'du tu ri'nzo tw Ejipt. 

9. Bentivo"zar, tru'skwi pre'ntisoz tau'nu fon'zipur; 
nu'rkwi ga'nsitoz ; Vo'tu ga'nsito fronzipu'rtas Jo'zif : 
U'ndi pointipo'stos po'ndroo andai'tu tw Ejipt : nos 
pe'ntisoz, no'kwi pra'mpinoz. 

10. A'kwl vrai'u ra'nsipai rinzo'tu tu' Go'sun ; a'kwi 
vrai'u nos ti'utifi, a, ta'kwi fro'nzooz, fronzoo'kwiz ta'tu 
fro'nzooz, ta'kwi dwiinfi'njoiz^ ta'kwi dwimpi'njoiz^, 
krou'skwi" a be'ntipo : 

11. Aukwi, kro'tu, vri'u vansipai'as ; vroo, go'nibool 
kwa po'ntipin a'bin pu'ndaiz fensu'rtu fla'ndoo; du'l- 
kwin a, ta'kwi o'nzi, krou'skwi a be'ntipo pene'tiso 
framboi'nu. 

12. Poo'lkwi! tarfa'ndoz po'mpito, fando'kwiz tan'tu 
ko'nzipur Be'njumin, pontoo'kwin tau ta'ndo tjoo nan 
pa'naito. 

13. A'rkwi vrai'u ti'ntikai tau'nu fo'nzipur a'ndai 
tau'tu timo'mboo tw Ejipt ; krou'skwi'" ar poi'mpito ; 
a'rkwi vrai'u be'ntivai; vrai'ukwi ko'nu fo'nsinai fon- 
zipu'rtos. 

14. Wai'kwi da'nsivel pandaju twai'tu ko'nzipur 
T5e'njumin transine'lkwi ; kwi Be'njumin tra'usinel 
twaiju pa'nda. 

15. Kwe'lkwi wai vra'nsikel rou'u twai'tu ko'nzipurz, 
transine'lkwi joo'en; ro'cikwi" ko'nzipu'rturz pur'" 
i'ntlkel. 

IG. Trinde'kwi to'fi, fo'mpitool panzoi'tu tu Faru; 
dyoo ga'nsitel, Yi ko'nzipurz tu Jo'zif pe'ntis: be- 
donsine'lkwi Fa'ru, twai'kwi dro'nzoz. 

17. Kwi Fa'ru gansite'nul Jo'zif, Ga'nsitoz ta'nu 
ko'nzipurz, Pi'ntipoz o'ri ; ra'nsiloz inje'tanz ; prenti- 
so'zkwi ; tentiso'zar rinzo'nu tu' Kunai'un. 

18. Kentipo'zkwi fonzipu'rtan", ta'rkwi o'nziz; 
no'skwi pe'ntisoz ; au'kwi vri'u nan ke'ntinai fonti'riz 
rinzo'tu tw Ejipt, a'rkwi vrai'u pra'nslfai gra'ndoo 
rinzo'tu. 

19. Gel a po'nslkoo; pi'ntipoz o'rl'^; ke'ntipoz 
pra'nziz rinso'ml tw" Ejipt ta'rdi puntl'nuroz, ta'r- 



8. Now therefore not it was you who hither sent 
me, but Ood; and he Jiath caused me to be a father to 
Pharaoh, and the master over the whole of his house, 
and a govei'nor (magistrate) throughout the whole of 
the land of Egypt. 

9. Haste ye ; and up go to my father ; and to him 
say ; TJius (in this manner) salth thy son Joseph : 
God hath caused me to be governor of the whole of 
Egypt : to me come, and not tarry. 

10. And thou shalt dwell »« the land of Goshen ; 
and thou shalt to me be near, — thou, and thy children, 
and the children of thy children ; and thy flacks, and 
thy herds, and all which thou hast. 

11. And I, there, will nowris/i thee; for even from 
this time there will be five years of famine ; (bread 
scarcity) ; in order that thou, and thy family and all 
which thou hast, come not to poverty. 

12. And behold! your eyes see, and the eyes of my 
brother Benjamin, that it Is my mouth which to you 
speaketh. 

13. And ye shall tell to my father of the ichole of 
my glory in Egypt ; and all which ye have seen ; and 
ye shall hasten; and shall liither SLCCom^any my father. 

14. And he fell on the neck of his brother Benja- 
min, and wept ; and Benjamin wept upon his neck. 

15. Moreover he kissed all of his brethren, and 
wept upon them; and after that his brethren with him 
discoursed. 

16. And the rumour concerning this thing was heard 
in the house of Fharaah ; who said. The brethren of 
Joseph are come : and it greatly pleased Pharaoh, and 
his servants. 

17. And Pharaoh said to Joseph, Say to thy brethren. 
Do this thing ; lade your beasts ; and go ; and travel 
ye, to the land of Canaan. 

18. And take your father, and your families; and 
to me co7ne ; and I will to you give the good things 
of the land of Egypt; and yc shall eat the marrow of 
the land. 

19. Now thou art commanded; do this thing; take 
waggons out of the land of Egypt for your little ones, 



TRANSLATIONS. 



dikwl ko'nzifunz'^ ; fonsino'zkwi fonzipu'rtan; penti- 
so'zkwi. 

20. Fa'mepini'zkwi" ta'rfi e'nziz; vroo fonti'riz an- 
dai'tu tu ri'nzo tw'^ Ejipt po'ntoo tant. 

21. Fronzoo'zkwi tw I'zraiel vo'tu do'ntipel: kwi 
Jo'zif nen ke'ntinel pra'nziz, ponze'vu tu Faru; ne'n-'* 
kwi kwel ke'ntinel e'nziz ta'rdi te'ndis. 

22. Dou'nii" tel, brinda'pi, wai ke'ntinel ga'ndoz en- 
za'tu; beK'nu"" Be'njumin, wai ke'ntinel te'sin ru'nturiz 
funzoo'tu, kwil a'bin ga'ndoz enza'tu. 

23. Twai'nukwi"fo'nzipur, wai ke'ntisel vo'tu: pa'sin 
fi'njipurz ra'nsukoo fonti'puz tw" Ejipt, pasi'nkwi fi'n- 
jipunz ra'nsukoo fensu'rpu vo'ndo, fenzoo'kwi, vandoi'- 
kwi; twai'di fo'nzipur tendai'du. 

24. Fil wai nurs ke'ntisel konzipu'riMrz"* ; a'rkwi nurs 
pre'ntisel: wai'kwi nen ga'nsitel, Fa'mpinoz" na'rkwin 
te'lpino tendai'du. 

25. A'rkwi trus'°prentise'TOi7 Ejipt, pentise'lkwi rin- 
zo'nu tu Kunai'un, noo Jai'kub, fonzipu'rten" ; 

26. Nu'rkwi ga'nsitel, Jo'zif po'ntoo bool go'su 
da'nsupo''"' ; wai'kwi po'ntoo po'ndroo rinzo'du twEjipt. 
Fandai'kwi^' tu Jai'kub bu'mpikel; wai'vru kone'sife"- 
leen". 

27. A'rkwi nur ve'ntifel rou'u i'udoiz tu Jo'zif, 
twur^ nen gou'nsitel : gyu'rkwi po'mpitel pra'nziz twoo 
Jo'zif kai'ntisel pensivai'ur, ti'nzoo tu Jai'kub rcda'n- 
sipel : 

28. Kw" I'zraiel ga'nsitel, Ta'ntoo^' : Jo'zif, fonzi- 
pu'rtos", bool gosu, da'nsipo: au vri'u pre'ntisai, po'm- 
pitaiu'rkwi coo'kwin au dra'nsipen. 



(infants) and for your toives ; and accompauv your 
father, and come. 

20. And be not heedful concerning your provisions; 
for tlie good things of the whole of the land of Egypt 
are yours. 

21. And the children of Israel thus acted: and 
Joseph to them gave ivaggons according to the com- 
mand of Pharoah ; and to them, also, gave provisions 

for their journey. 

22. To every one of them, without exception, he 
gave suits of apparel; but to Be'njamin, he gave three 
hundred pieces (money things) of silver and five suits 
of apparel. 

23. And to his father he sent after this manner : 
ten he-asses laden with good things of Egypt, and 
ten she-asses laden with bread-seec/, and bread, and 

flesh ; for his father during the journey. 

24. So he from him sent his brethren; and they 
from him went; and he to them said, Take heed that 
ye not quarrel during the journey. 

25. And they up went out of Egyp>t, and came to 
the land of Canaan, to Jacob, their father ; 

26. And to him said, Joseph is even at this time 
living; a^id he is governor through the land of Egypt. 
And the heart of Jacob fainted ; for he believed them 
not. 

27. And they to him repeated all the words of 
Joseph, which he to them had said: and when he 
saw the waggons which Joseph had sent to carry him, 
the soul of Jacob revived : 

28. And Israel said, It is enough: Joseph, my son, 
even at this time is Hving; /will go and see him 
before that I shall die. 



II. SAMUEL. 

TI'NDO I. 
"V7"0'MBI tw Izrai'el dra'nsipast'^* taju kantou'kinz ; 
vyoo'tuum vampou'roz da'nsuvi ! 
20. No tintiko'zes too Gat! no bantiko'zcs dan- 
zoi'tuz tw A'skilon, no'kwin i fro'nzipunz i'tu Fili'stinz 
ko'nsiko, nn'kwin i fro'nzipunz i'tu umbu'ntrusoo^* 
gentrlfo. 



CHAPTER I. 
nrilE beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high places: 
how are the mighty fallen ! 
20. Not tell it in Oath; not publish it in the streets 
of A'skelon ; lest the daughters of the Philistines re- 
joice, lest the daughters of the uncircumcised triumpli. 



TRANSLATIONS. 



21. Ho pri'nzoz tu Gi'lbou! no kwitiim^ rai 
tru'nzo, no'twi kwi'tum" rai tii'nzo jooau, no'twi 
fanzoojuz tu fundrai'riz :^ vroo krg'tu te'ndri i'tu 
vampou'ro kambou'ul nisfe'nsuvoo ; zum! te'ndi-i tu 
Saul! Tel wai vloome'sool venzoo'ti. 

22. Bandoo'ni tu <irou'nsupa"stroz; dantloi'ni va'm- 
pou'ii(roz, ke'udii tu Jo'nutim droo frene'tisel ; fem- 
bre'kwi tu Saul, di'oo prene'tisel di-I'nsou. 

23. Saul kwi Jo'nutun vo'mpikil fontini'lkwi ta'rtu 
da'nzooz, ta'rtukwl dra'nzooz nar pre'utifool: ar to'm- 
pikou peujoo'kjuz ; ar do'mpikou pinja'kyuz. 

24. Ho fro'nzipunz tw I'zraiel, tra'nsino(^«z Saul! 
dyoo ensinele'an flimpou'pui-iz roi'ukwi do'nsuiio"riz, 
dyoo pe'ntipel vantuko'riz punzoo'tu ta'rju e'nza. 

25. Vyoo'tuu'm vampou'roz da'nsuvoo gembroo- 
stru, lio Jo'uutuu! a di-a'nsipat ta'tu kantou'kinz. 

26. Au bekro'asikoo de'as, konzipu'rtos Jo'nutun: 
A nos poi'ntoo befo'nta: nos tonze'tas po'ntipil yi'n- 
kyu to'nzi b'inziku"ntuz. 

27. Vyoo'tuum vampou'roz da'nsuvoo! pendrekwiz 
endre'tu kro'nsupoo ! 



21. Ye mountains of Gilhoa! not let there he any 
deiv, nor let tliere he any rain upon you, nor upon the 
fields of tkings for oblation, for there the shield of 
the mighty is disgracefully cast away ; yea, the shield 
of Saul! as though he had not been anointed with oil. 

22. From the blood of the slain, from the fat of 
the mighty, the how of Jonathan back turned not; 
and the sword of Saul, hach went not empty. 

23. Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant in 
their lives, and in their deaths they not were divided: 
they were swifter than eagles; they were stronger than 
lions. 

24. Oh daughters of Israel! weep for Saul! who 
clothed you with scarlet things, and other pleasing 
things (delights), icho did put ornaments, (i. e. orna- 
menting things) of gold upon your apparel. 

25. How are the mighty fallen, in the midst of the 
battle, Oh Jonathan! thou wast slain in ihjhtgh places. 

26. I aw greatly grieved for thee, my brother Jona- 
than. TJtou to me hast been very pleasant: to me thy 
love icas more than the love of women. 

27. How are the mighty fallen ! and the weapons of 
war destroyed! 



THE BOOK OF JOB. 



Ti'ndo III. 



r\'CI, Job ki-i'nsifel tan(lu'/«r, tronsipe'R-iCi; twai 
" ta'usiu: bu'ndis. 

2. Kwi Job pa'nsitel, gansite'liioi ; 

3. Sit vu'udai pro'nsipoi two'^u ta'nsipool, vrun- 
iaOUcwi twe'^w ga'nsitool: u fro'nzipur fra'nsipoo. 

4. Sit ro vu'ndis pli'mpivraust ; sint U'ndi fantitai'&s 
droo'nj; si'nt/jioj i'mboo je* ti'mpival. 



fai 
bevronsikro 



Sit plim'boo fr'imhoo'kwi tu dra'nzoo, Jezimpi- 
sit u fii'nzo jes re'ntisai; sit i pli'mboi bundai'/it 



6. Rol^ vru'ndis, sit pli'mboo (fakentipai'es; nus'e* 
pen'tifoi bu'n(lai««z pimdai'^w; niis'es pe'utisai rundoo'- 
mu kundai'tuz. 



Chapter III. 

A FTER this, Job opened his mouth, and cursed /»w 
birth d'jy. 

2. And Job spake, and said; 

3. Let the day be annihilated in which /was boni, 
and the night in which it was said: A son is conceived. 

4. Let that day he caused to he dark; let not Qod 
eye it (look upon it) from above; and let not the light 
upon it, shine. 

5. Let darkness and the shadow of death corrup- 
tively colour it {stain it) ; let a cloud upon it 7-est; let 
the blackness of the day cause it to be greatly afraid. 

6. Concemuig that night, let darkness suddenly 
take it ; let it not be joined to the days of the year ; 
let it not come into the number of the months. 



TRANSLATIONS. 



7. Ho! sit ro vu'ndis fro'nsini; sint rai ko'nsu 
ti'mbo mes pe'ntisai. 

8. JJae'n tronsipai'es dyoo tro'nsipai bu'ndis, djoo 
fe'nto beti'mbi r/islu-o'nsikai. 

9. Sit pi'nzoiz pimboo'^M too'es, pli'mpivi; use's 
dro'nsitai i'mboo, bel do pompitai'es ; nuse'skwi po'm- 
pitai pi'mboo rota bu'ndis : 

10. Kool nai' tekiii'si/|Z fa'nzaz tauVw fo'uzipuns 
Ja'ndis, no^kwi gre'ntipel kro'nzi tau'«i fa'ndoz. 

11. TyooWt ni'lea;* dra'nslpai tandaii/it? Tyoo'c/i 
nile'au te'ntinai tinzoo'/os gyau'sw pe'ntlsel va'ndajwj? 

12. TyooWt u'leau tre'ntunoi brandoyi/z? tyooWi 
kra'nsupoo fanda'si^z? 

13. Vroo, go'sii, au tri'u drou'nsival une'nsz<, te'ntu- 
kw{; au tri'u trou'nsifai : gi-n'su au tri'u tool to'mpuki : 

14. Fondroo'^MZ kono'nziiwj'z dinzoi'iw, dyoo a'n- 
sifel fro'nsa i'ndoiz a'rdi^wen: 

15. Twil fombroo^^jiz dyoo be'utipel pu'uzoo, dyoo'- 
kwi di'usifel panzoi'tenz fuuzoo'ti. 

16. Twil yoo'bru gre'ntupoo tra'nzoo, nau tri'u plo'in. 
tipi; broo punti'nuros dyoo tri'ndur pom'pitel i'mboo. 

17. Kro'/i« ra'mpuloz vro'nsino tre'ntikai; kro'tul-wi 
gre'ntu?oz re'nsi. 

18. Kro'^w ta'mbrooz re'nsilo tyool: ng.r fo'mpito 
ti'mbo tu ba'ntruiKjr. 

19. Pla'nturz pra'ntu'r/cwjz po'ntoo kro'^w: dronzo'- 
kwi pa'mpoi twai'ji* do'nzo. 

20. Tyoo'f^i u'meu i'mboo ke'ntunoo gu'rnw pra'm- 
poo? danzoo'kwi gu'rnu po'ntoo krimba'/w tu ti'nzoo? 

21. Dyoo St'bo'nsiko dra'nzoo; bel pene'tiso"; dyoo 
dais pi'nsito jhjki/u grentupoo'c?t fa'mboi; 

22. Dyoo teko'nsiko ko'ns'ikwi, gya'rsM pi'u dre'ntl- 
pai A;?Vitu'mpruno. 

23. Tyoo'di u'meu i'mboo ke'ntimoo yoo'nu bi'nzi 
bloo dra'nzoi gre'ntipoo; dwoo^kwi U'udi to'ndi glis- 
ai'mpriso rou'iyw ki'ndoz. 



7. Oh! let. that daT/ be solitary; let not an?/ joyful 
voice into it come. 

8. Let them curse it who curse the day, who are 
in a state of preparation (i. e. ready) verT/ loudly/ {unth 
a loud voice) to shew or signify grief 

9. Let the stars of the dawn of it be dark; let it 
expect light, but not see it ; and let it not see the daicn 
of that day. 

10. Because it not did perfectly shut the doors of 
my mother s womb, nor concealed grief from my eyes. 

11. Why did I not die in the womb? Why did I 
not yield up (surrender) mi/ soul when I came out of 
the belly. 

12. Why tvas I received uj>on the knees? why 
suckled at the breasts. 

13. For, now I shoidd have lain motionless and 
quiet; I should have slept; then / should have been 
quiet, i. e. free from pain: 

14. With kings and counsellors of the earth, wlio 
build solitary places for themselves. 

15. Or with princes who had gold, and who filled 
their houses with silver. 

16. Or like a concealed abortion I not should have 
existed (have been in a state of existence) ; like infanta 
who never saw the light. 

17. There (in that place) the wicked desist (cease) 
to trouble; and there the weary {o7ies) are at rest (are 
in a state of rest). 

18. There the prisoners rest together: they not hear 
the voice of the oppressor (oppressing person). 

19. The small and the great are there: and the ser- 
vant is free from his master. 

20. Why is light given to him who is miserable f 
and life to him who is in bitterness of soul? 

21. Who greatly desireth death; but it cometh not; 
who for it diggeth more than /or concealed riches; 

22. Who greatly rejoice, and are glad %chcn tlicy 
can find the grave. 

23. Why is light given to a man whose loay is hid- 
den ; and whom God perfectly ( completely ) hath 
circled (sepimeuted) on a?? sides. 



B b 



24. Tau'wM vra'nza pe'ntiso coo'kwin 
tau'yttoj tino'mboz mis gi'nsifoo unzn'ij-uz. 

25. Ro'yrM twau bevro'nsikel, jos pe'ntis; jo'skwi 
pe'ntis tro tvfdji vi-o'nsikil. 

26. Naw to'ntikil; nav}kwi be'ntipel re'nzi; uau'i-u-« 
ten'tikil : nel fra'mboo pe'ntisel. 



TRANSLATIONS, 

pra'nsifo ; 



24. For my sighing cometb before that I eat ; arid 
my roaringa out, are poured lilce waters. 

25. For that which I gi'eatly feared vj)on me is 
come; and upon me is come concerning which I was 
afraid. 

26. I not was safe; and I not had rest: and I not 
was quiet : yet trouble came. 



PSALM I. 



■pA'MPOO bi'nzi dyoo paine'sifo konze'vu tu ra'm- 
puloz, no'kwi prou'nsivo di-anzoi'tu tu fro'ntuvorz, 
no'kwi bou'nsivo venzai'tu tu fo'usuvorz. 

2. Bel donza'tur po'ntoo tondi-a'tu tw U'ndi; 
twai'tukwi to'ndi-a, wai vri'u pro'nsifai Aru'ndus, 
vrundu'skwi. 

3. Kwe'lkwi wai vn'utum, yoo'bru u'mri, viiisu- 
too dinsimo'di u'nzoz dyoo vrai'u ta'nsipai ondo'tur 
tonta'su i'ndoo. Twai'kwi bro'ndoi vri'imJii-o'mpikai; 
sluru'nkwi pi'ntipen vi-ai'u fa'mpivai. 

4. Kel, ra'mpuloz pone'too u'rbru, bel pimzaTiru 
tyoo ku'nzoi bre'ntiso tendoo'ni dinzoi'tu. 

5. Kel ra'mpuloz vi-ai'un pra'nsivai bambroi'su; 
no'kwi frontuvo'rz ondi-o'tu pempu'rtuz. 

6. TJnde'vru bo'nsifo dra'nzoi pempu'rtuz; dran- 
zoi'kwi tu ra'mpuloz vrai'u kro'nsipoi. 



XJAPPY is the human being who hath not walked 
according to the coimsel of the imgodly, and not 
(nor) hath stood in the way of evil doers, nor hath sat 
in the chair of the scomers (scorning persons). 

2. But his delight is in the law of God ; and in 
his law, he shall meditate daily and nightly. 

3. And also he shall be lihe a tree, planted beside 
the rimning waters who shall bring forth his fruit at 
the due time. And his leaf shall not loither; and 
whatsoever he shall do shall prosper. 

4. Therefore, the ungodly are not lil-e him, but 
like the dust which the toind driveth from the surface 
of the earth, 

5. Therefore the ungodly shall not stand at the 
sentence ; and not (nor) evil doers in the assembly of 
the just. 

6. For God knoioeth the way of the just; and 
the way of the ungodly shall be destroyed. 



PSALM 11. 



T^YOO'DI i'meu fu'ntnu-z" beto'nsikai ; bondi-oo'kwi 
fo'mpifai u bront'ari? 

2. Fo'ndrooz dinzoi'tu tnis pra'nsivo, pondroo'kwiz 
do'ndus ko'nsiko Undebi, twai'bikwi vri'nsukoor: 
ga'nsuto, 

3. Usol ve'nsivai tar pi'nsufoz randai'miiz, nau'rs- 
kwi fe'nsivai drenza'tenz. 

4. Gwai ba'nsivo inzoi'tuz vrai'u sen ta'nsinai; 
Un'di vrai'u tamprinai'en. 



■yX/'HY (for what reason) do the heathen rage (act 
very angrily); and the people imagine a vain 
thing? 

2. The kings of the earth up stand, and the rulers 
mutually advise against God, and against his anointed 
one: saying, 

3. Let us break their bonds (binding things) into 
parts, and from us cast their cords. 

4. He, who sitteth in the heavens shall at them 
laugh!; God shall mock them. 



TEANSLATIONS. 



5. Gro'su, wal vrai'u nen pa'nsital twai'tu to'uzi, 
bc'kwi trentikai'en twai'tu bedi-o'nza. 

6. Nel au e'ntlfo fondi-oo'tos tau|ju fa'mpu pri'nzo 
tu Zi'un. 

7. Au vri'u ba'ntikai to'mbra; U'ndi nos go'unsito, 
A um fronzipu'rtos; o^u bu'uclls, au pounsipai'as. 

8. ToDsiko'zos; auTswi nas vri'u ke'ntinai fu'ntrurz" 
ta'tum fomprukoo'ri ; triutufou'skwi ra'ndaiz dinzoi'tu 
ta'tiim a'nzi. 

9. A vrai'u vensival'en yoo'ti vu'nsur biko'ndoo; a 
vrai'u kro'ndu vensivai'en randai'muz yoo'bru ri'asa 
e'nzi. 

10. Kelispin, usa'r fa'mpus, ho fo'ndrooz ! usar 
to'nsutoo, ho pa'ndi-ooz dinzoi'tu! 

11. Dro'nsitoz U'ndi vronze'pu; konsikoza'rkwi 
branza'pu. 

12. Vra'nsikoz fro'nzipur; ne'kwin wai trl'u to'n- 
siki; a'rkwi tri'u kro'nsipoi dranzoi'tu, gyoo'su ton- 
ze'tur sel u'nsipo. Pa'mpoo rou'u dyoo tur i'ntifo 
konzo'ten. 



5. Then (at that time) he shall to them speak in 
his anger, and greatly trouble them in his intense 
displeasure. 

6. Yet / have placed my Icing upon my holy 
mountain of Zion. 

7. I will publish the decre^; God to me hath said, 
TJiou art my son: on this day, I have begotten thee. 

8. Entreat me ; and I to thee will give the heathen 
to be thy inheritance (inherited thing); and the remot- 
est 2}arts of the earth to be thy possession. 

9. Thou shalt break them loith an iron rod-lilM 
thing; thou shalt violently break them into parts like 
a pottery vessel. 

10. Now, therefore, be ye wise, Kings! be ye 
instructed, judges of the earth ! 

11. Serve Ood with fear; and rejoice ye with 
trembling. 

12. Kiss the son; lest that he should be angry; and 
ye should be destroyed in the way when (at what time) 
his anger scarcely burns. Happy are all who in him 
place their trust. 



PSALM XI. 

TJNDETU, au pe'ntipo konzo'tos: tyoo'di, kel, 
gansite'ar tau'nu ti'nzoo, Fe'nsipo yoo'bru en|ji 
ta'nu pri'nzo? 

2. Pooli'vi-u! ra'mpuloz dri'nsipo kendre'tenz; ar 
fen'tivo bembre'tenz di-enza'ju, a'rkwin fi'u gre'udur 
ke'ntrikai va'mpraro fandai'tu. 

3. Tul ka'nzoz kro'nsipoi, sloo pi'i pe'mpurz pi'nti- 
pai? 

4. U'ndeum twai'tu fa'mpu ka'nzoi; U'ndes fon- 
a'ndi'oo po'ntoo inzoi'tu: fando'turz e'ko, — twai fan- 
e'ndoz bre'utifo fro'nzooz binze'tuz. 

5. U'ndi bre'ntifo pe'mpuloz: bel ra'mpuloz gu'r- 
kwi to'nsLko bro'ndi, tinzoo'tur tro'nsiko. 



6. Joo ra'mpuloz, wai vr'iu tu'nsinai gra'nziz, u'n- 
zoo dunje'kwi, yoo'kwi blano'nsu dru'nzis: o vri'utmn 
ra'ndis ta'rtu tre'nzi. 

7. Pempu'rvru Un'di to'usik(2 pe'mboo: twai vi- 
pa'ndo fa'ntito pc'mpuroz. 



JN God / put my trust; why, therefore, say ye to 
my so ul, fy like a bird to thy mountain. 



2. For behold! the wicked bendeth their bows, 
they jyrepare their arrows upon the string, that they 
may secretly shoot the upright in heart. 

3. If the foundations are destroyed, lohat can the 
righteous do ? 

4. God is in his holy temple ; God's throne is in 
heaven: his eyes see, his eylids try the children of 
men. 

5. God trieth the just; but the wicked and he who 
loveth violence, his soul hateth. 

6. Upon the wicked he will rain snares, fire and 
brimstone, and a horrible tempest: this shall be the 
portion of their cup. 

7. For the just God, \onq\\\ justice ; his counten- 
ance beholds the righteous. 



TKANSLATIONS. 



PSALM LXXXIY. 



TYOO'TTJ ^ato'nsukoo u'meu pranzoi'taz, ho U'udi 
penib-aV«z ! 

2. TinzooVos Jebo'nsiko, booli'zim ! bu'mpiko tan- 
zo'iiiz Uud^tu: fandai'tos ta.u!kwi va'ndoi ko'uslko i'di 
da'nsupo U'ndi. 

3. Zim! te'nja drai'ntipo u pa'nzoi, penje'ivot wen- 
j^d'js kwenti/ai'ii kyu'ntn fi'u pe'ntipai tyai pefro'n- 
zooz, bool kranzoiVaz, bo U'ndi pendra'iwz! Fo'ndroo- 
tos tau'^-wi U'ndi ! 

4. Pa'mpoo gar ra'nsipo t^fu pa'nzoi, ho U'ndi I 
ar vrai'u tra's^onst'/ia/as ti'ndur. 

5. Pa'mpoo i hi'nzikur bloo do'mbi po'ntoo too'as 
bloo'tu fa'ndis pontoo dra'nzoiz too'e/, 

6. Dyoo, e'ntuso pUnzo'{7« tu Bai'ku, pontipo'stes 
u ti'nza; tu'nzo, kwel, dl'nsifo dri'nzaz. 

7. Ar pre'ntiso dombe'wi noo do'mbi ; dou too'e/ 
too Zi'un fro'ntipo Unde'cu. 

8. Ho Fo'ndroo! U'ndi pendra'^Mz! fo'mpitgz 
pundra'^os : iwasfo'mpitoz, bo ! U'ndi tu Jai'kub. 

9. Fa'ntitoz, ho U'ndi tendre'^os; fantito'zkwi i 
pa'ndo ta'<M vrinsukoo"ro. 

10. Vroo a'pin bu'ndis ta'^w ta'nzoz fontivou"/!.-!/!* 
au'peo ^Toirai'tu: au di'u to'nzunou po'ntipi u fanzu'- 

fas panzoi'^w tau'^u U'ndi, ransipai'^-^/M pranzoi'/e^z 
VAUihvtu- 

11. Vroo Fo'ndroo U'udi po'ntoo u fri'nzi tendre'- 
hci: Undi ti'u ke'ntinai a'mbi tinomboo'^-wiV rai fon- 
ti'ri wai ti'un nars vre'ntipai dyoo pe'nsifo pe'mbur. 

12. Ho U'ndi pendi'a'fuz! pa'mpoo i bi'nzi dyoo 
konsito'as ! 



TJOW amiable are tJiT/ tabernacles, O God of hosts ! 

2. My soul longeth, (greatly desirethj yea, even 
fainteth for the courts of God: my heart and my 

flesh rejoice for the living God. 

3. Yea! the sparrow bath found a house, and the 
swallow a nest for herself, -where she may put her 
young (little offspring) even thy altars, God of 
hosts ! my King and my God ! 

4. Happy are they who dwell in thy bouse, 
God! they ^sW. continue to praise thee for ever. 

5. Happy is the man whose strength is in thee; 
in whose heart are the ways of them, 

6. Who, passing through the valley of Baca, 
cause it to he (make it) a u-ell; the rain, also, fillcth 
the pools. 

7. They _(70 from strength to strength; every one 
of them in Zion appeareth before God. 

8. O King! God of hosts/ hear my prayer/ Lis- 
ten (endeavour to hear) God of Jacob ! 

9. Look upon, God, jny shield/ and look icpon 
the face of thine anointed. 

10. For one day in thy courts is better than a 
thousand in any other place: I icould rather (i. e. 
more willingly) be a porter in the bouse of my God, 
than dwell in the tents of wickedness. 

11. For the Lord God is a sun and shield: God 
will give grace and glory: any good thing he will not 
from them hold who walk justly. 

12. O God of hosts! happy is the man who 
trusteth in thee/ 



f^ WAI ra'nsipo grentur"<)/kin tu kantufou'ros, vrai'u 
vi'ntipai frimboo'/j \Ha vro'ndi o'nipui'o. 

2. Au vri'u ga'nsltai i^fl Ti'ntur, Wai um flenzai'^os 
taxikwi /ctndo'mpu Unde'/osy tur au vri'u ko'nsitai. 

3. Vo'nzou, wai vrai'u bonsipal'as glanzai'wt don- 
droi'/M, nikwi pro'nta tru'mboi. 



PSALM XCL 

XJE who dwclleth in the secret place of the most 
high, shall continue under the shadow of the 
infinitely powerful one. 

2. I will say of the Eternal, He is my refuge, and 
my fortress: my God, in him I will trust. 

3. Surely he shall deliver thee from the snare of 
the fowler^ and from the noisome pestilence. 



I 



TEANSLATIONS. 



4. Wai vrai'u tinsitai'as twai'^t po'ndiz; twai'/tkwl 
fo'ndiz, a vrai'u ko'nsitai: poudo'tur vrsii'ntimn tendre- 
tqs t&mhr^kwt. 

5. Na vrai'u vi-o'nsiiii tronde'Jiz vrundaiVw; nc^twi 
hemhr^di tyoo fe'nsipo vundai'^w ; 

6. No'^wi trumho'Mi tyoo pe'nsifo plimboo'^w : no- 
twi kronzoo'fZi tyoo pra'nsipo brundal'set. 

7. Au'pin vrai'u da'nsivai ta'sw ki'ndo ; pausi'ii^wt 
ta'sM tl'ndo ; bel nai vrai'u pe'ntisai ti'ntou noo'as. 

8. Tyool ta^M fa'ndoz a vrai'u fa'ntitai, pompitai'- 
kwi ra'mboo tu ra'mpuZtiz. 

9. A}vr{ oi'ntifg Ti'ntuj-o dyoo tau'w??! kempu's^iw 
bool kantufou'ros, t^Uim ii«ra'usupoo. 

10. Kwa vi-ai'iMi e'ntibai noo'as rai fronti'ri/ ncitwi 
rai tru'mboi ti'ntifai ta /cinra'usupoo. 

11. Wai'urM vrai'u fa's kentmai twai'mw pi'nzooz 
ponze'^wrz konsipai'as rou'u^w dranzoi'te. 

12. Ar vrai'u trus prensivai'as talrtu ta'ndiz n'ai^cm 
tri'u ke'nsivai vande'tos yoo'bi u'nji. 

13. A vrai'u va'ntiA:a« pinja^yw vinji's^-wj; pu'ntinur 
pinja di'injis'kwi, a vrai'u va'ntikai ta^V ta'ndiz. 

14. Wai'vri jos pai'ntipo tonze'tur; kel au vri'u 
bonsipai'ecZ: au vri'u intifai'et? ieka'ntou, w&Vvri boi'n- 
sifo kondoo'tos. 

15. Wai vrai'u nos pu'utrinai ; au'iwe vri'u printi- 
sai'e<^/ au ipur vri'u<M?rt trende'tu ; au vri'u bonsipai'ec?/ 
kempikaiziVkwi. 

16. Pantou'pu da'nzoo, au vi-i'u bonsitai'ec^, vrhxkim 
uur ge'ntipai douzoo'/o.9. 



4. He shall cover tliec iotth Ms feathers ; and un- 
der his wings, thou shalt trust: his truth shall be tliy 
shield and buckler. 

5. Thou not shalt be afraid for the dangers of the 
night ; nor for the arrow which flieth in the day ; 

6. 'Nor for the pestilence which walketh In darkness : 
nor for the destruction xuhich wasteth at noon. 

7. A thousand shall fall at thy side ; and ten thou- 
sand at thy right hand; but it not shall come near to 
thee. 

8. Only with thy eyes, thou shalt behold and see 
the punishment of the ungodly ones. 

9. Because thou hast caused the Eternal one who 
is iriy place of protection, even the most high one to be 
thy habitation (dwelt place). 

10. Thei'e shall not happen to thee any evil thing ; 
nor any pestilence approach thy habitation. 

11. For he shall concerning thee give to his angels 
his commands to preserve thee in all thy ways. 

12. They shall upwards bear thee in their hands, 
lest thou shouldst strike thy foot against a stone. 

13. Thou shalt tread wpow the lion, and the adder, 
the young lion and dragon thou shalt tread luuler thy 
feet. 

14. Because he upon me hath put his love; there- 
fore / will deliver him: / will set (place) him very 
high ; because he hath known my name. 

15. He will to me pray ; and I vnll answer him: 
/ with him will be in trouble ; I will deliver him ; 
and honor him. 

16. With long life, I will satisfy him, aiid will 
to him shew my salvation. 



THE GOSPEL ACCORDING TO SAINT JOHN. 



TI'NDO I. 
'I^ILDO'TU po'ntipil i'ndoi; indoi'kwi po'ntipil Un- 
de'pu; indoi'kwi po'ntipil U'ndi. 

2. Oi'ru po'ntipil tildo'tu Undc'pu. 

3. Trou'u pontifoo'leed; peu'rkwi, trai pone'tifool 
tyoo po'ntlfool. 

C c 



CHAPTER I. 
TN the beginning was the word ; a7id the word was 
with God; and the word was God. 

2. The same was in the beginnmg with God.. 

3. All things toere made by him! and without 
him any thing was not made which was made. 



10 



TRANSLATIONS. 



4. Tur po'utipll da'nzoo; ro'kwi da'nzoo po'ntipil 
yi'mboo binze'tuz. 

5. I'kwi i'mboo ti'mpivo plimboo'tu; plimboo'kwi 
kene'tlfe'lees. 

6. Kwa po'ntipil u bi'uzikur, ke'ntusoo Uude'ni, 
bloo ko'ndoo po'ntipil Jon. 

7. Oi'ro pe'ntisel yoo'tum da'mbroo, da'mprivai 
imboo'fi, du'lkwin drou'u te'ed pli'u ko'nsifai. 

8. Wai pone'tipil ro imboo, bel ke'ntisool da'm- 
prifai ro'fi i'mboo. 

9. Ro po'ntipil ko'nti i'mboo, tyoo i'mpivost 
gou'u pe'ntiso dinzoi'mu. 

10. Wai po'ntipil dinzoi'tu; dinzoikwl pontifoo'l- 
eed; dinzoi'kwi po'ncsife"leed. 

11. Wai pe'ntisel gwentwai'nu, gwentwaikwi 
tre'netine"leed. 

12. Bel pantuva'kyu tre'ntlne"leed, noo'en, wai 
kentinel o'mbi o'kai fro'nzipm-z Unde'tu, bool noo'en 
dyoo ko'nsifo twai'tu ko'ndoo: 

13. Dyoo tane'sipool bandoo'tn, no'twi komboo'tu 
tu bi'nzi; bel Unde'tu. 

14. Indoi'kwi po'ntifool va'ndoi, ransipe'lkwi skoo'- 
on ( au'rkwi po'mpitel tinomboo'tur, tino'mboo 
tyooli'tu pra'nsnpoo fonzipu"rtu) di'nsou ambe'tii 
pondo'kwi. 



4. In him, was life ; a7id that life was the light 
of men. 

5. And the light shineth I'yi darkness; and the 
darkness comprehended it not. 

6. There loas a man sent from God, whose nama 
was John. 

7. The same came to be a witness, to witness am- 
cerning the light, in oi'der that all persons by means 
of him might believe. 

8. He %oas not that light, but loas sent to testify 
concerning that light. 

9. That was the genuine light, which enlightenetk 
every person who cometh into the world. 

10. He was in the world ; and the world was made 
by him ; and the world knew him not. 

11. He came to his own, and his own received 
him not. 

12. But as many as received him, to them, he gave 
power to hecom,e childi-en of God, even to them who 
ielieve in his name : 

1.3. Who tvere not born of blood, nor of the will 
of man, but of God. 

14. And the word was made flesh, and dwelt 
among us {and we saw his glory, the glory of the 
only begotten of the father) fuU of grace and truth. 



I. CORINTHIANS. 



TI'NT)0 XV. 
"IZ"WE'L^IF7 ho ko'nzipM/z! an nan bo'nsife*^ tum- 
prou'rt twos nan ku'ntrinel; twar, kwel, trai'n- 
tino; i-wqrivJiwi pra'nsivo : 

2. Twn'rti, kwel, do'nsipoo, tul ar to'mpifo slos 
nan ku'ntrinel; tel ar koi'nsifo bro'ndun. 

3. Au'iTw nan te'ntinel a'prin rou'uifw, au'A,TO, kwel 
tre'ntinel: kwini' r/ooZ Krist di-a'usipel ta'uc^j fro'udltoz, 
pundrai'^M.- 

4. Kwi'n^-M)i wai tu'ntrinool; kwi'n/^-icj wai rc- 
pa'nsivel joo a'trm bu'ndis, pmidrai'yw .• 



CHAPTER XV. 
"jV/TOREOVER, oh ! brethi-en, I to you cause to he 
known the gospel which I to you preached; which 
ye, also, have received ; and in which ye stand : 

2. By which ye, also, arc saved, if ye are remem- 
bering, (conlinuing to remember) what I to you preach- 
ed ; unless yc have believed in vain. 

3. For I to you delivered, ^/-sJ of all, that ichich I 
also received: namely, that Christ died for our sins, 
according to the scriptures. 

4. And that he was buried, and that ho rose again 
upon the third day, according to the scriptures. 



TRANSLATIONS. 



11 



5. Kwi'nA,-i«i; wai po'mpitool Se'fus; roW'kwi pa'pin 
tu'ndi-oiz. 

6. Ro'ff'kwi wai po'mpitool Jinj(i/u be'sin ko'nzi- 
purz sw a'pin i'ndoo, dwoo'iw i pra'ntupou ru'ndoo, 
vi'ntipo go'nu; bel ri'u tel, pitra'nsoi. 

7. Jiq'ci wai po'mpitool Jai'mz ; STpslnJcwi rou'u 
tundrol'^MZ. 

8. Kri'ntupou's^wi; rou'iif?*, wai pompitoo'leos, 
kwel, yoo%ru dezi'ntar ta'nzoo. 

9. Av!vru, pla'ntipous tundroi'^wz, nf^hwi vo'ntin 
ko'ntipoi twu'ndi-oi ; w^vri ku'mpritel imo'ndro 
Unde'^M. 

10. Bel ambe'ti tw U'ndi, au po'ntoo ^au po'utoo: 
twai'Z;iOT ambi tyoo nos ke'ntinool, bronc'tiuil ; bel au 
i'nsibel fra'ndupoii rsklcyu tel: nel au'no bel a'mbi 
Unde'tu tyoo po'sul. 

11. Kel swi'fin au" i'nsikel aVtwi, fil au"r ku'ntriBcl 
fi'lfcwt ar" ko'nsifel. 

12. TvX^gil ku'ntrinoo, kwin Krist pa'nsivel dran- 
su'rwiroz, tyoo'rfi ga'nsiten dri'u skan, kwa'trum rai 
pa'nzis di-ansu'i7j«roz. 

13. Tuli'JeZ kwa'wfMK rai pa'nzis dransu'r^Kroz, plus 
Krist pane'sis. 

14. Tu'li^«^ Krist pane'sis, plus kuudra'ton bro'n- 
tin : ta'kwi ka'mbi, kwel, bro'ntin. 

15. Zum, au'r/i'wj di'e'ntipoo pronti'<M»?^ da'mbrooz 
Unde'fi* ; au'rurt dou'mprivo Unde];?, -waA^kicin pa'nsi- 
Tat Kri'st : dwwr pane'sivat, tul po'nto, kwin di'a'nsu- 
roz pane'sivo. 

16. Tuli'wrei dra'nsm-oz pau^^'sivo, plus Krist pane'sis. 

17. TvAkwi Krist pane'sis kambe'tan bro'ntin: ar 
po'ntoo ta'rtM fro'nditoz. 

18. Plu's/cwi, kwel, gar pidou'nsivo tranzol'/nw too 
Krist, kro'nsipoi. 

19. Tul o'tu da'nzoo, tyool, aur be'ntipo vonzo'^Vit 
Krist, aur pra'mpivous rou'uiw bi'nziz. 

20. SpIni'Jt? Krist pa'nsis dransu'rwiVoz, oiko'/v-wi 
fa'ndis gro'wtu pitra'nsifel. 

21. Vroo sne'kwin jooHi bi'nzikur dra'nzoo pe'ntisel; 
yoo'it bi'nzikur, kwel, pe'ntisel pa'nzis dransu'riwroz. 



5. And that he was seen by Ceplias, and after 
that by the eleven apostles. 

6. And after that he was seen by more than five 
hundred brethren at one time, of whom the greater 
number remain to this time ; hut some of them are 
asleep, (metaphorically). 

7. After that, he was seen by James ; and then 
hy all of the apostles. 

8. And last of all he loas seen hy me also, as an 
untimely birth. 

9. For I am the least of the apostles, and not am 
worthy to be called an apostle; because I persecuted 
the church of God. 

10. But, hy the grace of God, I am, what I am: 
and his grace which to me was given, toas not in vain, 
but / labored more abundantly than any of them: yet 
not /, but the grace of God which was with me. 

11. Therefore whether I laboured or they, so we 
preached, and so ye believed. 

12. Now if it is preached that Christ rose from the 
dead, why say some persons among you, there not to 
be (i. e. that there is not) any resurrection from the 
dead. 

13. But if there is not any resitrrection of the dead, 
then Christ is not risen. 

14. And if Christ be not risen, then yom- preaching 
is vain ; and your faith also is vain. 

15. Yea, and we are found to he false witnesses of 
God; for we have testified concerning God, that he 
raised Christ ; whom he raised not, if it is true that 
the dead rise not. 

16. For a the dead rise not, then Christ is not risen. 

17. And if Christ is not risen, your faith is vain : 
ye continue to be in your sins. 

18. And then, also, they who have fallen (metapho- 
rically) into sleep, in Christ, are destroyed. 

19. If in this life, only, we have hope in Christ 
we fl?'e the most miserable of all men (human heings). 

20. But now Christ is risen from the dead, and has 
become the sample (first fruits) of those who slept 
(metaphorically) . 

21. For since by a man, death came ; by a man, 
also, came the resurrection of the dead. 



TRANSLATIONS. 



22. Vroo ioo^ful A'diim,' cbou'u dra'nsipo; fili'JooZ 
ckou'u, too Krist, vrai'u da'nsiprast 

23. Dow'bel gwentwai'tu o'ndi-oo, Ejist po'ntur 
ya'pi-in o'udoz, rocikwi gar po'ntoo Krist' s'^, twai'sw 
pe'ndis. 

24. Span pe'ntisen tri'ndo, gywVsu vrai'u tai'ntinai 
flondroo Unde'nu, bool Fo'nzipur; gyw'rsu proi'nsipen 
reus pondroo'rit, ^ou'siw^ vo'ndra, vamboi'Ajwj. 

25. Wai'wTM bi'u fo'ntripai, snyVkwin pai'ntipo 
rou'u pronzaz twai';V vandiz. 

26. Kri'ntupous pro'nza dyoo kro'nsipoon dran- 

27. Wai'vrw pai'ntipo rou'u fo'ndooz twaiyi va'ndiz : 
bel gju'rsa ga'nsito, Trou'u jwrs pe'ntipoo, te'ntoo 
wai'/tiuift kre'ntifoo dyoo jurs pe'utipel irou'u. 

28. Gyoo'swkwi trovlu nur fo'mprivoon, span i 
fro'nzipur kwel, fo'mprivin gu'rnu pe'ntipel irovlu 
joo'ed; AxMioin U'ndi fi'u^wm rous, ioohous. 

29. Xo'^wZkwi, sli'near fe'ntlkai dyoo voo'ntrisoo 
dransu'rt/iroz, po'nditul dra'nsuroz pane'sivo ? Tyoo'- 
di plus umea'r vu'ntrusoo di-ansu'rc?iroz ? 

30. Tyoo'(/ikwi '^meaur bu'ndus pra'nsivai tron- 
do'/M.2 

31. Au tro'ndus fi'ntiso ta'uA' di-o'ntus ko'nziz too 
Krist Je'zus donzo'ton, au dra'nsipo bu'ndus. 

32. Tul ondai'ej binze'fuz au dai'ntripo inje^juz 
sw E'usus, sloo po'nda bentipe'aw, tid di-a'nsuroz 
pane'sivo? Uso'Z pra'nsifai fransifai'kwi; vroo ca'pin 
aur dra'nslpen. 

33. NmaV pro'nsusoo; fro'nti re'mbiz, fro'ntivosi 
fo'nti e'mbiz. 

34. Ka'nsifoz pemboo'nw ; no'/jioi fro'ntlvoz ; vi-oo 
dri'u benfi'tipo pa'mbis Uude'<i<: au to ga'nsito tan 
o'ntifai fro'nzis. 

35. Dri'bel ga'nsiten Vyoo'^w u'meu dra'nsuroz pa'n- 
suvast? sloo'pukwi rl'nzoo u'near pc'ntisai? 

36- Ho pro'mpuro! a'Z,TO kinsito danesipast tel 
drou'nsipo: 

37. Eo]^kwi twa ki'nsito, na ki'nsito ro ro'nzoi tyoo 



22. For as in Adam, all persons die ; even so, all 
persons in Chi-ist shall be caused to live (be made 
alive). 

23. But every person in his own degree (order) ; 
Christ being the first fruits, and after that, they who 
are Christ's at his advent (commg). 

24. Then shall come the end, when he shall deliver 
the kingdom to God, even the Father; when he 
shall have annihilated all magistracy/, (rule) and all 
authority and power. 

25. For he must reign until that he hath put all 
enemies under his feet. 

26. The last enemy who shall he destroyed, is death. 

27. For he hath put all things under his feet; but 
ichen he saith, All things under him are put ; it is 
manifest, that he is excepted, ivho imdcr him init all 
things. 

28. And when all things to him shall be subdued, 
then the Son, also, shall be subject to him who put all 
things under him ; that God may be all in all. 

29. Else (and if not) what shall they obtain who 
are baptized for the dead, if, truly, the dead rise not V 
Why then are ye baptised for the dead? 

30. And why do we daily stand in danger ? 

31. I solemnly affirm, by our mutual Joys in Christ 
Jesus, our masiei; I die daily. 

32. If, after the manner of men, / have fought 
2i)ith beasts at Ephesus, what advantage have I, if the 
dead rise not ? Let us eat and drink ; for to-morrow 
we die (shall die). 

33. Be not ye seduced; evil intercourse, cornipts 
(causes to be bad) good morals (manners). 

34. Awake to righteousness (justice); and not sin 
(do evil;) for some f2^^''^c^^) have not the knowledge 
of God ; / this thing say, in you to cause shame. 

35. But some person will say : How are the dead 
raised? and with what body do they come? 

36. Thou fool/ that which thou sowest is not 
quickened (i. e. caused to hve) U7dess it die. 

37. And concerning that zchich thou sowest. than 



TRANSLATIONS. 



13 



plo'ntlpen, tjooWbel go'nti vo'ndo, tyoo fiaiitm oldoo'^i* 
tu po'mvoi, r'^tuiwl o'nti vo'ntlo : 

38. Bel U'ndi nes ke'ntino u ri'nzoo, ful doinsinoW; 
ounw'kwi vo'ndo tai'gwen ri'nzoo. 

39. Ecus va'ndoi pone'too oi^tu o'ldoo ; bel kwa'um 
a'pin o'ldoo vandoi'fw tu bi'nziz; roi o'ldoo vandoi'fM 
tw i'njiz; roi, anje^Mz; Toi'kwt, enje^az. 

40. Kwa po'ntoo, kwel, ri'nzooz i'nsou, rinzoo'z- 
kwi di'nsou; bel timo'mboo insou'^az, po'ntoo tw 
a'pin o'ldoo ; timomboo'ii«t dinsou'^w, po'ntoo roI'^M 
o'ldoo. 

41. Kwa'ttw a pin timo'mboo frinzoi'^w; roi'kwi, 
timo'mboo giuzoi'^My roi'kwi timo'mboo pinzoi'toz: 
vroo a'pin pi'uzoi o'ntivo ro'i'ni pi'nzoi timomboo'^w. 

42. Vo'tu kwel, pon'too pa'nzis dra.nsi\'rtiirqz; ki'n- 
sitoo frombe'tu, pa'nsivast, iafrome'pukoo : 

43. Ki'nsitoo krembe'ft^, pansivrts^ timomboo'/w.- 
ki'nsitoo romhe'tu, pansiva'si ombe'^M. 

44. Ki'nsitoo u ri'nsur bo'udoo, pa'nsivast wi'nsur 
bo'ndoo: hw^kwi po'ntoo u ri'usiu' bo'ndoo, kwi^kwi 
po'ntoo wi'nsur bo'ndoo. 

45. Fi'R-wj da'nsitoo, ya'prin bi'nzikur A'dum po'n- 
tifool u da'nsiipo tinzoo ; kri'ntupous A'dmn po'ntlfool 
u dansupasf i'nzoo. 

46. Nel ro'niil a'prin tyoo i'nsoo, be'l kro ri'nsoo; 
v^cikwi, kro i'nsoo. 

47. Ya'prin bi'nzikur po'ntoo, dinzoiy^, di'nsou: 
ya'frin bi'nzikur Fondroo'ww inzoi'ni. 

48. Ti^kyu po'ntoo di'nsou, zo, kwel, ar po'ntoo, 
dyoo dl'nsoi; kwil, z^Jcyu po'ntoo i'nsou, zo kwel, 
ar po'ntoo, dyoo i'nsoi. 

49. YxiXkwi aur prai'nsivo i gre'nzis diusou'^w, fil 
aur, kwel, pi-e'nsiven i gre'nzis insou'^M. 

.50. Gil au fi'ntiso o'ri, konzoo'toz, kwin va'ndoi 
bandoo'7«w« pi'un fo'mprikai flo'ndroo Unde'ila; nc^twi 
i"m fro'mbi fo'mprikai fo'mbi. 

51. Pool au nan ge'ntipo u tri'nti?-?'.- Rou'u to? 
tri'uw tra'nsifai, bel rou'u tol triu vrc'utifai, 

J) d 



not so west tJiat body ivJiich shall be (exist), but only 
simple grain, which may be of the kind of wheat or 
of some different grain. 

38. But God to it giveth a body, as it hath jJ^eased 
him; and to every seed its own body. 

39. All flesh is not of the same kiad : but there is 
one kind of flesh, of men (human beings) ; another 
kind of flesh, of beasts ; another, of fishes ; a7id ano- 
ther, of birds. 

40. There are, also, bodies celestial, and bodies ter- 
restial ; but the glory of the celestial is of one kind ; 
and the glory of the terrestial is of another kind. 

41. There is one glory of the sun; and another 
glory of the moon ; and another glory of the stars : 
for one star differeth fi-om another star in glory. 

42. So, also, is the resurrection of the dead : it is 
sown in corruption, it is raised in incorruption : 

43. It is sown in dishonor, it is raised (caused to 
rise) in glory : it is sown in weaknes (impotence), it is 
raised in power- 

44. It is sown a material (natural) body (substance), 
it is raised a spiritual body (substance) : there is a 
material substance; and there is a spiritual substance. 

45. And so it is written: the first man, Adam, 
was made a living soul ; the last Adam was made a 
quickening (causing to live) spirit. 

46. Yet that loas not first lohich is spiritual, but 
that which is material; and after that, that lohich is 
spiritual. 

47. The first man is out of the earth, earthy ; the 
second man is the Lord from heaven. 

48. Such as is the earthy, such, also, they are who 
are earthy ; and, such as is the heavenly, such, also, 
they are who are heavenly. 

49. And as we have borne the image of the earthy^ 
so we, also, shall bear the image of the heavenly. 

50. Now, / affii-m this (thing), brethren, that flesh 
and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God, nor 
doth corruption inherit Lacorruption. 

51. Behold, 1 to you shew a mystery {obscure thing): 
M\ of us will not sleep; but all of us loill be changed, 



14 



TRANSLATIONS. 



52. Yoo'tu ri'ndoo i'tu fana'ndito fando'iii, soo 
kri'ntupous te'mbrito: vroo tempruto'ri vrai'u i'mpital; 
drSLUsnrq'kwiz vrai'u pa'nsivrast u'nkafro"mpukoo ; 
au'rkwi ti'ii vre'ntifoi. 

53 O'urM ga'rifro"mpukoo bi'u e'nsuiioi"«pu u'nkan- 
fro'inpukoo; o'kwi ga'ridra"nsipai, bi'u ensinoi'i^w u'n- 
kaiiJra"nsipai. 

54. Gjoo'sM, kel o garifro'mpukoo ainsinoo'^jMn 
u'ukanfro"mpikoo, o'kwi ga'ridi'a'nsipai ainsinoo^Mn 
u'iikandra"iisipai, span vrai'u plo'utiprast o da'nsutoo"- 
rtl, — Dra'nzoo a'ndus dre'nsitoo pembro'^w. 

55. Ho Dra'nzoo! kyoo'tuwwi bronde'tas? Ho 
Tuntra'kin! kyoo'tuwj/i pembro'^as? 

56. Bro'ndi di-anzoo'^u po'ntoo frondito'ri< ; dombe'- 
kwi frondito"t«rit tondra'Mm. 

57. Bel sik tu'ndraz ke'ntinoi Unde'/w, dyoo now 
ke'ntino pe'mbro, tau'rij do'nzo Je'zus Krist. 

58. Kel, ho tonsukoo'tos konzooz! usa'r vri'mpus, 
kazenc'sukoo, grou'usw fra'ntur inze'tu donzo'A'; aJrvri 
bo'nsifo talrkwin i'nziz brone'tin donzo'^u. 



52. In a monunt, in the twinkling of the eye, at 
the last trump : for the trumpet shall sound ; and the 
dead shall be raised incorruptible; and we shall be 
changed. 

53. For this corruptible, must be clothed with incor- 
niption; and this mortal must be clothed with immor- 
tality. 

54. \\Tien, tlierefore, this corruptible shall have put 
on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on 
immortality, then shall be brought to pass, this for- 
merly written thing, — Death wholly is sicallowed in 
victory. 

55. Oh Death ! wliere is thy sting ? Oh Grave ! 
where is thy victory ? 

5G. The sting of death, is sin; and the strength of 
sin, is the law. 

57. But let thanks be given to God, who to us giveth 
the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ. 

58. Therefore, oh my beloved brethren/ be yc 
steadfast, immovable, always abounding ifi the work 
of the Lord; because ye know that your work not is 
in vain in the Lord. 



REYALATIONS IV. 



TI'NDO IV. 



QCI, au fa'ntitel, poo'lkwi u fa'nza kri'nsifool 
' inzoi'tu; i'kwi a'prin ti'mbo tyau fo'mpitel, 
bezo'mpital ro'kyu yoo'tu tempruto'ri, i'ntuko poo'os; 
tyoo ga'nsitel, Trus pe'ntisoz ko'nu; au'kwi vri'u 
nas gcntipai fon'dooz tyoo bri'u plo'ntipai pli'ndur. 

2. Fandu'nkwi, au po'ntipil yoo'tu gro'nzis: 
poolkv.'i! u fona'ndroo intifool inzoi'tu, di'kwi ba'n- 
sivol iju fona'ndroo. 

a. Gwai'kwi jes ba'nsivcl pa'ntivil u tu'njoi yoo- 
kwi tu'njo: kwa'ul u pu'nzi i'gli fona'ndi-oo fron- 
doo'tu yoo'bru ku'nja. 

4. Gle'kwi fona'ndroo kwa po'ntipil fakin ban- 
zaiz : joo'kwi ba'nzaiz, au po'mpitel fa'kin kunti'n- 
upurz", ba'nsuvo, e'nsunoo primpou'tu e'nza; a'rkwi 
be'ntipel tarju a'ndoz fono'ndrooz punzoo'lu. 



CHAPTER IV. 
A FTER this, / saw, and behold/ a door was 
opened in heaven; and the frst voice which 
I heard was as loud as that of a trumpet talking 
(discoursing) with me; ichich said, Up come hither ; 
and I will to thee sheio things which must exist 
hereafter. 

2. And immediately / was in an extasy : and 
behold/ a throne was placed in heaven, and a certain 
person sat upon the throne. 

3. .And he who upon it sat, was like a jasper 
and a sardine stone: there was a rainbow round 
about the throne, in appearance like an emerald. 

4. And romid about the throne there was four 
and twenty seats: and upon the seats I saw four 
and twenty elders, sitting, clothed in white clothing; 
and they had upon their heads crowns of gold. 



TRANSLATIONS. 



5. Me'kwl fona'ndroo fe'ntisel tu'nzooz trunzoo'- 
kwiz kwi ti'mboz : kwa'kwi po'ntipil a'din tre'nzaiz 
unzoo'tu unsupo'icu fona'ndroo tyoo'u'" po'ntoo ya'din 
i'nxooz Unde'tu. 

6. Coo'kwi fona'ndroo, kwa'ul u ri'nza tu kru'n- 
joi, kunjoi'bru: stroo'kwi fona'ndroo, gle'kwi fon- 
a'ndroo, kwa'ul a'kin i'njiz, di'nsou fando'tuz, coo 
ce'kwi. 

7. I'kwi a'prin i'nji pa'ntikil u pi'nja; i'kwi a'frin 
i'nji pa'ntikil u twenfi'njoi; i'kwi a'trin i'nji be'ntipel 
u pa'ndo yoo'bru bi'nzikurs; i'kwi a'krin i'nji pa'n- 
tikil u fe'nsupo pe'njoo. 

8. I'kwi a'kin i'njiz, rou too'el be'ntipel a'vin 
fo'ndiz gle'en; a'rkwi tus di'nsifil fando'tuz: na'rkwi 
re'ntiso vundai'tu urundai'tvvi, ga'nsuto, Fa'mpu, 
fa'mpu, fa'mpu, Fo'ndroo Undi Vro'ndi-O'mpu, dyoo 
plo'ntipil, plontoo'kwi, plontipi'nkwi. 

9. Gyoo'sukwi ro'u i'njiz ke'ntino timo'mboo 
kembe'kwi, kwi tu'ndraz gyu'rnu ba'nsivel iju fon- 
a'ndroo, dyoo da'nsipo teti'ndur, 

10. I fa'kin kunti"nupurz tris da'nsivo gu'rcu ba'n- 
sivel iju fona'ndroo, u'ntrinou"rkwi dyoo da'nsipo 
teti'ntur, fensivo'kwi tar fono'ndrooz i'cu fona'ndroo, 
ga'nsuto, 

11. A vo'ntin. Ho Fo'ndroo, tre'ntinai timo'mboo 
kembe'kwi, vamboi'kwi ; a'vru poi'nsipo trou'u, ta- 
dikwi ta'mboi, ar po'ntoo, pontipi"lkwi po'nsupoo. 



5. And out of the throne proceeded lightnmgs, 
and thunders, and voices: and there were seven 
lamps of fire burning before th^ throne which are 
the seven spirits of God. 

6. And before the throne there was a sea of 
glass, like chrystal: and in the midst of the throne^ 
and round about the throne^ there were four beasts, 
full of eyes before and behind. 

7. And the first beast was like a lion ; and the 
second beast was like a calf; and the third beast 
had a face like a mans ; and the fourth beast was 
like z. flying eagle. 

8. And the four beasts, each of them, had six 
wings, round about them; and they, within, were 

full of eyes: and they not rest through the day 
or the niglit, saying, Holy, holy, holy. Lard God 
All-mighty, (infinitely powerful) who wert (did exist), 
and art (does exist), and wilt be (wilt exist). 

9. And when those beasts give glory and honor, 
and thanks to him who sat on the throne, who 
livetli for ever and ever (i. e. perfectly everly). 

10. The twenty four elders down fall before him 
who sat on the throne ; and worship him who liveth 
for ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, 

saying, 

11. Thou art worthy, Lord (i. e. king), to 
receive glory, and honour, and power ; for thou 
hast created all things, and for thy ])leasure, they 
are, and were created. 



MILTOK 



PA'RUDIS FRE'NTUKOO. 

Tri'ndo VI. Fe'ndoo 824. 

"U'RO'TU pa'nsitel i fro'nzipur, moo'kwi vro'nzlkost 

vre'ntifel twai vipa'ndo, yint de'mpus fa'ntitoi 
iiinsou'kwi tonze'tu dri'nsupoo twaiju pro'nzaz. 

Tw a'pin ri'ndoo ya'kin misfra'nsivel pinsou'ten 
fo'ndiz; poo vro'nsukast fri'mboo fi'ntou: ikwi ri'n- 
zaiz twai'tu kro'mpa fa'nzi bi'nsipel, poo'kyu yi'mbo 
dwa'dinza"tuz, too'twi u pa'nti pe'ndra. Wai, twaiju 
ra'mpu pro'nzaz tegi'ndi bre'ntisel, pli'mpuva vrun- 



PARADISE LOST. 
Book VI. Line 824. 
CO spake the Son, and into terror changed his 
countenance, too severe to be beheld, and full 
of wrath, bent on his enemies. 

In one moment, the four outspread their starry 
wings, with dreadful (fear-causing) shade contiguous: 
and the orbs of his fierce chariot rolled, as with 
the sound of torrent floods or of a numerous host. 
He on his impious foes right onward drove, as 



16 



TRANSLATIONS. 



dai'kyu; twalji ii'nsupo vanziz i bi'mpiis iino'nzoo 
a'ndus-tre'nsivool; andi'skru fona'ndi-oo tai'kwen 
Unde'tu. 

Tekl'ndur skoo'en wai pe'ntisel, twai'tu ti'uti 
ta'ndl glis-ta'ntuko pau'seo tru'nzooz, tyur ke'ntisel 
coo'ed, zotyu ta'rtu ti'nzooz vi'mpivot betro'mbiz : 
ar begro'nsuvoo, rons te'mbroo fre'ntikel, rous de'm- 
boo : trisda'usivel vene'tukoo'ten pe'ndriz ; tendi-c'- 
zuz, kwil ando'vims, pe'mpnikoo'kwi a'ndoz, wai 
de'nsifel fona'ntrupoo"turoz bezo'mpukwi se'rufim 
dra'nsus, dyoo go'su bo'nsikel prinzo'kwinz pli'u 
refe'nsivol joo'el, yoo'tum pe'mbi'oo twai'ni to'nzi. 
No'twi pla'ndupou joo twi'fin ki'ndo dru'nzus da'n- 
sivel bembrc'turz ini a'kiiigiir pa'ntutoo a'kin pi'nta 
fando'puz, nekwi I da'nsupo va'nziz pi'nta ba'ndiu- 
pando'pu fando'tuz : a'pin i'nzoo tel fo'utripel ; ou'- 
kwi fa'udo misfe'nsivel tu'nzoo kronsu'rkwi u'nzoo 
tronsupoo'zuruz, tyoo kro'mpikel rous dombe'tcn, 
too'kwi pompra'ten ko'mbi troutive'lcen — di-i'nsiifoo — 
unti'nsur — fra'mpuvoo — da'nsuvoo. 



Nel a'fins doinbe'tutur wai mi'spene'tipel, bel 
fre'ntife'lees stroo ve'mbi'Lko"dwinz ; wai'vi'u to'nsinel 
krone'sipai, bel pontipe'leen inzoi'mi: i plc'mpiiifoo, 
wai pa'nsivat, yoo'brukwi ti'nsupoo vra'ndo frinjoi'- 
tuz dwempu'rtwi fi'njoiz ciir brentiseleen ke'nsuvoo 
tunzoo'ti, te'mprufoo bevro'nziz fri'rizipu"nkwiz finda'- 
nuz kimcou'kwi va'nzo unzoi'tu ; tyoo kri'usufo 
fa'ndou, tusbri'nsipel, yoo'kwi bi'ntou fre'uda ge'a- 
tipel kronsu'rmu ta'ndoi : betra'ntu po'mputoo'ri droo 
kensive'leen blano'nzipu ; bel befi-o'utuvou fontife'leen 
grindo'ni: a'ndo-gi'nti a'rkwen ar fe'nsivel tris krin- 
doW inzoi'tu : ti'ntur to'nzi u'nsipel ce'el i'nu undri'nti 
tre'nda. 



Ri'nzoi fo'mpitel kadi'one'tupoo bezi'mbo: ri'nzoi 
po'mpitel i'nzoi ra'nsifai inzoi'ni, dwi'ukwi fai'nsipal 
vro'nsukat: bel ple'mpur Fro'nzoo ve'mpisot ta'n- 
tufya tyai pli'mpur ka'nzoz, vi'mbusya'kwi pe'nsifel. 
At'in bu'ndalz, ar dansivol: fra'ntidiait Ino'nzi tim- 
o'mpitel, bompite'lkwi pa'sinkiir fra'ndi ta'rtu da'nzis 
twal'du twa'nsiu- o'mbri; bepr'antupas u fra'ntu- 
twe'mbroi bera'nslke"leed ranzoi'pu: rin'zoi kri'ndu- 



gloomy (black) as night: under his hurnirtg 

the steadfast empyrean shook-throughout (i. e. wholly 

shook) all hut the throne itself of God. 

Full soon among them he arrived (came) in his 
right hand grasping ten thousand thunders: which 
he sent before him, such as in their souls fixed 
jjlagues (intense pains): they, astonished, all resis- 
tance lost, all coui-age; down fell their idle (unused) 
weapions ; over shields, and helms, and helmed 
(armoured) heads he rode, of thrones (enthroned 
persons) and mighy seraphim prostrate, who now 
icished that the moimtains might be again thrown 
on them, as (to be) a shelter from his ire. Nor less 
on either side tempestuous fell his arroics from the 
fourfold visaged (faced) four distinct icith eyes, and 
from the living wheels distinct alike {equally) with 
multitude of eyes: one spirit in them ruled; and 
every eye glared (out cast) lightening and pernicious 
(desti-uctive) fre among the accursed (ones) which 
withered all their strength, and of their wonted 
(customary) vigor deprived them — exhattsted—ST^mt- 
less — afflicted — fallen ! 

Yet, half of his strength he forth put not, but 
checked it in the midst of the volleys ; for he meant 
not to destroy, but to root them out of heaven: the 
overthrown he raised, and like a thronged (com- 
pressed) aggregate of goats or timorous sheep before 
him di-ove them struck with thunder, pursued by 
terrors and furies (female devils) to the bounds 
(limits) a7id crystal wall of heaven; which opening 
wide rolled inward and a spacious gap disclosed 
(shewed) into the wasteful (destructive) deep: the 
monstrous, (extraordinary) sight (seen thing) back- 
ward struck them with horror; but far worse urged 
them from behiad: headlong (headforward) them- 
selves they threw down from the verge of heaven: 
eternal lorath biu-ned after them from iha-botlomless pit. 

Hell heard the insufferable noise: hell saui 
heaven ruining from heaven and would have fled 
affrighted: but strict Fate had fixed too deep her 
dark foundations, and too fast (firmly) had bound. 
Nine days they fell: confoimded Chaos roared, 
and felt tenfold confusion in their fall, through his 
wild (wiMerness-li/ce) anarchy ; so huge (very great) 
a rout (confused fight) encumbered him zcith ruin : 



TRANSLATIONS. 



17 



pous ve'nsnto trentine'leen a'ntus, je'nkwi ti'nsifel — 
ri'nzoi tar vo'ntu ra'nzoo, ra'nsunoo unzoo'pu kariin- 
e'sukoo, i pa'nzoi krouze'tu kwi tro'mbi: unra'nsimoo 
inzoi ko'nsikel, kindu'rkwi tra'ntipel tyai ve'nsuvoo 
va'nzo droopre'ntuso kye'ni bl'nsipel. 



HENRY 

FEIMO'MBOO KAMBETU. 
Kino'ndo 68. 
" ' K^4'RPI di'em,' vo'nzou di'untum fronsa'tos 
po'nzis ' ga'nsitel Fe'loz ; '' go'nu, na nos 
gou'nsito, sla bre'ntipo." 
" Nom, bel au vri'u." 

" Pi'ndaiz tyofi bre'ntipo vo'nzoi, pondi'um pi'n- 
daiz, tyoo'ufi pomprou'roz dl'ndur vi'u vi'ntinai, tyool 
ge'ntipai bronda'ten; ful bi'nsiu- bro'nda vi'u vi'ntinai 
trai'fi; bel ar bo'mpitoo ta'rtu po'nti pra'ndoo, kine'- 
dupou a'rkyu a'ndus tus-dre'nsito ti'nzoo." 

" Bel spini'bool slume'es tya bre'ntipo ?" 
" Au bre'ntipo bo'nsifai— kyau'ni pe'ntisel ? — 
kyau'nu pra'ntiso? — swi'fin kwa po'ntoo, po'ndi, ful 
pa'ntuvas ga'nsito kwa po'ntoo, W U'ndi— u vron- 
o'nsu krondoo'rit, bloo'nu vro'nti o'mbiz, i pra'ntur 
i'kwi pla'ntur (au'rkyu ko'ntipai"en) ba'ndur umfro'n- 
tipoz, bloo gi'ntou pi'ndoi di'nsifo roua i'ndi, rai'tu 
pe'ndoo tyoo'tu, wai plo'ntipo a'ntus bindoi'tu rous'tu 
vro'ntitur brintufoo'riz— bloo gi'ntou pondroo'rit fa'n- 
sivo booli'nos, tau'kwi fo'nsa flo'ndooz, ko'ntupoo 
bi'nziz ; bloo'tu ke'mpuso va'nzi, au, tau'kwen, 
brame'pifya kembai'di; — swi'fin tul kwa po'ntoo zo 
u plontupo'ru, wai'um tevro'nti ; swifi'ntwi o vron'ti 
ga'nzis inze'tu, fi'un umbe'nsikai ri'ndoz kaintifai'twi 
ro'ndoiz, tyoo'u ve'ntrifel twai cuspo'nzoi, tyoo'ukwi 
po'ntoo go'subool twai'gi fro'ndoi ; — 



Swi'fin, o'di oindoi, twil ri'di roi go'ndi, zo 

vro'nti kro'nziz broIne'tifoo"uni tcnondripo'es ; — 

swi'fin, rou'udru, Wai ga'zumpro"nsinoo, pc'ntru- 

poo"twi yoo'pu dinzoi tyo'tu bo'mpito ylnt vo'nzou 

E e 



hell, at last, (lastly) yawning received them whole, 
and on them closed — hell their fit (congruous) habi- 
tation, fraught floadedj with fire unquenchable, 
the house of woe and pain: disburdened heaven 
rejoiced, and soon repaired her broken wall, returning 
whence it rolled. 



ROGERS. 

ECLIPSE OF FAITH. 
Page 68. 
" ' /^ARPE diem^ certainly not would be my sole 
prescription" said Fellows ; yet you not to 
me have told what you want." 

"No, (i. e. I have not), hut I will." 
"The questions concerning which I want cer- 
tainty, truly are questions, concerning which 2^hilo- 
sophers often will argue, only to display their vanify: 
as human vanity will argue concerning anyth ing ; 
but they are felt in their true greatness no sooner 
than they wholly absorb (in-swallow) the soul." 
"Still (but even now) what is it which you want?"' 
" I want to know — whence I came ? — whither I 
am going? — whether there is truly, as so many say 
there is, a God — a tremendous personality to whose 
infinite faculties, the great and the little, (as we call 
them) equally disappear, '^ho&Q universal (ubiquitous) 
presence fills all space, in any point of which he 
exists entire (wltole) in the amplitude of all his 
infinite attributes (predicated things) — whose univer- 
sal government (magisti-acy) stretches even to me 
and my fellow (companion) atoms, called men ; 
within whose protecting embrace, / myself am not 
too mean for protection ; — whether if there is such a 
being {existing thing) he is perfectly infinite; or" 
whether this infinite machine of the imlverse, may 
not have developed (unfolded) tendencies or mvolved 
(comprehended) consequences, which escaped his 
forethought and which are now even beyond his 
control (cohibitlon) ; — 

Whether, for this cause, or for some other neces- 
sity, such infinite sorroios have been permitted (have 
not been hindered from) invading it; — whether, ahoi-f 
all, He is propitious (apt to be unenemied), or offend- 



18 



TRANSLATIONS. 



i'tu beta'ntou, onti'kwl pramboo'itu vlmbl'nziz rou'u- 
kwin twai'tu fandi'toz keme'poo; — vyoo'tu, wai'tul 
pe'ntripoo, wai pi'u po'nsimaust ; — swi'fin wai jjoo- 
rai'tu kati'ntlfoo, yoo'twi klo'ndoo dwoo'nu ta'mboiz 
trombe'kwiz i'tu gadro'DSUvoo fro'nzoo punza'tu po'n- 
tooz^^ ba'ndur po'ndaiz vrono"nsutu kro'mboo; swi'fin 
voo'tul zo VTo'ndi o'mpu klo'ndoo po'nsipel i'nzi, wai 
brolnsipo'es i'tum e'nzil flonzoo'tu ; au'kwi, vo'tu, 
wu'mfonsupoo"ni inze'tu; — swi'fin o tra'nti vra'ndo pon- 
di'um yoo'pi o'mboo; au'rkwi po'ntoo, fo'ndur, tyool 
re ndoz bonsou'tu plo'ndoo ; — swi'fin i'fiil Pu'mpruroz* 
fi'ntiso, yi'nzi tai'kwen Unde'um — ti'ndur po'ntufo, 
tri'ndur po'ntufoo — ro'ndoi yoo'tu umbi'nziko u'tu 
vro'nti da'ndo flintu'r<Mriz filtu'rkwiz; — w U'ndi twoo'- 
tu, au'vru pi'un ga'usitai dwoo'tu — a, au'kwi po'ntoo 
pera'ndaiz; gakro'mpuko bra'ndaiz yoo'tu U'nturi, 
taikwen kakrome'puko kooli'tyool kwa ti'ndur 
tes po'ntipin pera'ndaiz kro'mpikai; — swi'fin booliju 
ri zo ti'ndis, o bo'nsou plo'ndoo, too'ton po'ntoo replo'n- 
tiprast; tu'lkwi ziun, sloo|ji ko'ndoiz ; — swifi'ntwi 
gvau'rsu dai'ntivo taur pla'ntur bu'ndis, rai rol pi'm- 
boo twine'titen vrundai'ton ; — swi'fin i " vale, vale 
ill etemum vale," fo'ndur pontoo i vo'ntu tri'mbo 
Yootu ve'nsuvo fa'ndis gyoo'du ki'nsifo duntu'mpruno 
fondaiju tai'tu to'nzi." 



"Timbo'tur di-e'ntivel; aukwl do'mpikool tau'tu 
dro'nzoiz, ri'kwin ta'ntou gre'ntur kro'nzi pe'ntifool 
twai'pu u'mpukoo ko'ndis omboo'tu." 

"O'u po'ntoo i pi'ndaiz roi'ukwi broo'en, tyau 
bioudun bezc'nsiko bri'ntisai." 

"Au, broo'as, brai'ntisoo pre'mbus tau'mi tri'n- 
tur ko'nzoiz; i pla'ntur pepa'nzoi kindoju prinzo'tu, 
ty'otu dronsitel ra'nsipai tus fino'ncou da'ndi, bre'n- 
sifoo drunzainu, au'kwi misbre'ntisoo brunzai'nu 
yoo'pi kempuso'kin." 



ed with a world in which I feel, too certainly, in the 
profound (very deep) and various misery of man 
f mankind), that all of his aspects are not benignant — 
how, if he is offended he is to be (can be) recon- 
ciled; (caused to be friendly) ; — whether he in 
any degree is accessible (able to be neared), or one 
(i. e. or a person) to whom the pleasures and suffer- 
ings (pains) of the pitiable child of dust are equally 
subjects of hoiTible indifference : — whether if a such 
infinitely powerful individual created the universe, 
he has abandoned it to be the sport of chance; and 
/, thus, an orphan in the imiverse; — whether this 
universal fi-ame (aggregate) is truly without a mind ; 
and we are, in fact (really), only forms of conscious 
(^cognitive) existence; — whether, as the Pantheist 
declares, the universe itself is God — ever making, 
never made, the product, (effect) of an evolution 
(vmfolding) of an infinite series of antecedents 
(preceding things) and consequents, (and succeeding); 
a God of which, for I cannot say of whom, you and 
I are little parts ; perishable (apt to decay) fragments 
of a Divinity (divine thing\ itself imperishable only 
because there ever of it loill be little parts to perish 
(decay) ; — whether even upon some sv/ih supposition, 
this conscious (cognitive) existence of us is to be 
renew-ed (to be caused to re-exist); and if so {if yes) 
under what conditions; — or tchether when we have 
finished our little day, a7iy other dawn is not to 
break (terminate) our night ; — whether the ' vale, vale 
in etemum vale,' really is the proper (congruous) 
utterance of a breaking heart lohile closes the sepulchre 
(eyitombing room) upon the object of its love." 

" His voice faltered (miscarried), and I was 
confirmed in my suspicions that some deep secret 
sorrow had had to do with his diseased state of 
mind." 

"These are the questions and others like them, 
which I vainly toiled to solve." 

" I, like you, have been driven ruddy (harshly), 
out of my old beliefs ; the Httle hut upon the side 
of the mountain, in which I thought (expected) to 
dwell in pastoral (shepherd-hke) simjjlicity, lias 
been scattered to the tempest, and I out have been 
driven to the blast without a shelter (protecting 
place)." 1 



Pu'mpruroz, pronounced pu'mpluroz. 



TRANSLATIONS. 



LORD BACON. 



'' 'p'AMBOO" Klf to'nzoo pu'nondrai"tu; fra'mboo 
to'nzoo pu'nandrai"tu, tyoo pe'nsivo pra'ntupou 
to'nzoo tintuvou'kwl damprupoVi tw U'ndes fo'nzi. 

Nel, booli'tu puno'ndrai tul a twasfo'mpito 
dreno'nzitus tu Dai'vid, a vrai'u fo'mpitai pa'ntuva 
tu'ntra.-de'nzifinz konsu'kyu de'nzi; ginsa'kwitus i'tu 
U'ndo yin e'nsilco trindino'tu fra'mbooz tu Job, 
pampu'rkyuz tu So'lumun, 

Fa'mboo pone'too panti'pi vronziz fronta'rikwiz ; 
framboo'kwi pone'too tonsusopiriz vonze'kwiz. 

Aur po'mpito plenta'tu insukoo'riz va'ntukoo"- 
kwiriz, do'nsinou be'ntipai u fo'mpa re'ndo yoo|ju 
kro'nsu tuntra'kwi ka'nzo, bentipai'kyu u pli'mpur 
drantu'rkwi msukoo"ri yoo^u impur kanzo. 



Pa'ntrivoz, kel, donza'tu fandai'tu douza'tl fan- 
do'tu. Vo'nzou e'mboo pa'nti bedo'ntru i'mbaz, pli'm- 
punous gya'rsu tu'mprisaust trinsupoo'twi; vroo fa'm- 
boo fo'nduvous fro'nslfo re'mboo; framboo'bel Ib'ndu- 
V0U3 fro'nsifo e'mboo." 



" Xj^RAMPUSO'ROZ gro'nsifo o'nzoi ; plampuso'roz 
po'nsikai'el ; kwi fampai'roz ventikai'el; a'rvru 
tonesito ta'rgwen ve'ndi: ro'um u fa'mbis te'el, 
kemprufoo'kwi pronzo'tl. Ka'nsitoz, krine'tisai, kon- 
e'sifai, bel pifi'nslpai, fonsitai'kwi. 

Ri'u dre'nzaiz ki'u ko'mpitoo ; roi'u dre'nsitoo ; 
ri'ukwl pra'nti be'nsitoo, bransipoo'kwi. Ka'nzo 
po'ntifo u dinsou'ro; dra'nzi, u fe'ntuvoo"ro j danzo'- 
kwi, u teve'nti"ro : ke'lkwi, tul u bi'nzi da'nsito 
plandu''rtyool, wai ki'u be'ntipai u pra'ntur to'mboi; 
tul wai dra'nsiko pla'ndu"rtyool, be'ntipai u pi'ntur 
fo'mboi ; tu'lkwi wai da'nsito pla'ndur, be'ntipai 
befra'mbis tre'ntipai b'onsifai slur bone'sifo. Ti'ndiz 
po'ntipost bi'nziz fa'mpisi, ko'mbroiz, fo'mpou; von- 
doo'bras pa'mpi; do'nti prompou'ri, ta'ntou; e'mbiz, 
ta'mpi; vintmio'bras kwi tano'nzo o'mpuki twem- 
plnai." 



«' PROSPERITY is tbe blessing of the oU testa, 
merit; adversity, the hhssinj of the nev.- 
testament, loMch carries greater blessing and the 
clearer evidence of God's favor. 

Yet, even in the old testament, if you listen 
the harp of David, you shall hear as many hearse- 
like-airs (funeral-like music) as joyful music; and 
the pencil of the Holy Ghost more hath labored 
in describing the afflictions of Job, than the felicities 
of Solomon. 

Prosperity is not without manj/ fears and dis- 
tastes (disagreeables); and adversity is not without 
comforts and hopes. 

We see in needle worlis (worked things) and 
ornamented things, it is more phasing to have a 
lively ivorh (figure) upon a sad (sorrowful) and 
solemn (i. e. funeral) ground (foundation)^ than to 
have a black and melancholy work upon a light 
ground. 

Judge, therefore., of the pleasure of the heart 
by the pleasure of the eye. Certainly, virtue is like 
precious odours, most fragrant when they are 
incensed (i. e. caused to be incense) or crushed ; far 
prosperity best discovers vice; but adversity best 
discovers virtue." 



"/^RAFTY men contemn studies, (i. e. speculation); 

simple men admire them; a7id wise men use 
them; for they teach not their own use: that is a 
wisdom ivithout them, and won by observation. 
Read, not to contradict, not to believe, but to weigh 
and consider. 

Some books are (ought) to be tasted; some 
stoallowed; and some few to be chewed and digested. 
Reading, makes a full man ; conference, a readj"^ 
man; and writing, an exact (perfectly performing) 
man; and therefore if a man writs but little, he 
ought to have a great memory; if he confer but 
little, to have a present wit (fancy) ; and if he wrote 
littie, to have great cunning to seem to know what he 
does not know. Histories (narratives) make meti 
wise, poets witty; mathematics subtle; natural phi- 
losophy deep; morals, grave; logic and rhetoric able 
to contend." 



20 



TRAXSLATIOXS. 



<t"pENDITOTU bi'nsur dwma'mbi," ga'nsito 
Bai'kn, yoo'tu fri'ndo tvoo to'mbroo Bo'linbi-nk 
fe'ntiso"tum apin itu vo'mpukous tantufou'skwl twai- 
tu indiz "naur bi'u fe'ntisai voi'tii yookyu vangre'iizai 
pi'ntipo, rendito'tu u gre'nzis; djoo i'nsiko, gn"u 
pando'ju, gi"i'u andejuz, gri'ukwl bmsukoq'/uz itu 
tise'nza; bel aur bi'u fe'ntisai (pontoo'kwi tau'tu o'mbi 
fe'ntisai) voi'tukyu U'ndi pi'ntipo rendito'tu u 
po'ndoi, roirai'twi twai'tu tansupoo'riz ; wai misfe'n- 
sivai a'ndus, sw apri'nkwi, pivi-i'ndi fondoo'tu, i'kwl 
u'nziz rou'utu randai'tez." 



TN forming the human character (aggregate of 
habits) says Bacon, in a passage which Lord 
Bolinglroke has pronounced (affirmed to be) one of 
the most beautiful and deepest of his writings (dis- 
courses) ^^ we not must proceed as (i.e. in the same 
manner as) a statuary (image-artist) does in forming 
a statue; who works, sometimes upon the face, sowie- 
times upon the limbs, and sometimes upon the folds 
of the drapery (i. e- outside clothing) ; hut we must 
proceed (and it is in our power to proceed) in the same 
manner as natm'e ( i. e. God ) does, in forming 
a flower or any other of his productions; (i. «. brought 
forth things;) he out-casts wholly, and at once, the 
epitome (metaphorical) of the thing and the elements 
of all its parts. 



""RI'NZI dronzoi;kwi ki'ntukor inze'tu pi'u 
po'mpivai dontipai'kwi tyool wai'kyu pro'nsito 
fa'ndi donti'turiz ; yi'nkyu o'ri, wai twifino pi'u 
bo'nsifai pintipaitwi." 



« IVT-^-^) '^6 servant and interpreter of nature, ft. e. 
of the universe) can understand and act only 
as he observes the order of nature; more than this 
thing, he neither can know or do." 



D^- THOMAS KEID. 



"DOI oma'mboo tri'ntunoo Ko'ndroo Bed, po'ntoo, 
taur ko'nzoi vindoo'tu pintu'i-tu fa'ndi inze'tu. 



Rous tau'rtu pa'mbis inze'tu (wai pro'nsito) 
tau'rgi kri'ntou po'mbifoz pe'ntikoo kambai'ti, ken- 
tifo'kwi ki'ndi dontitu bo'ndaiz. 

Fro'ndoo bondai'tu vciitisoo ko'nzoi fondoo'tu 
bo'ntusoo. 

Oju bi'nda tau'rtu plo'ndoo tyooll'no pe'ntukoo 
pomboi, kweli'bel rous vi'nda ne pano'ndi ka'nsikoo. 

Ke'lkwi brendoo'di u'tu fo'ntuvou ko'ndoo, aur 
ti'u ve'ntikai pa'mboi kontipai'es gi'nta vi'nda. 

Po'ntoo ombe'ni o'tu bi'nda aurkwin fa'ndun 
to'nsifo ro'nu vontru'noo-pri'ndo tyoo'ju rous tau'rtu 



/i NOTHER instinctive principle ft. e. instinct) 
mentioned by Doctor Reid, is, our belief in the 
continuance of the present order of nature (i. e. of 
the universe.) 

All our (i. e. of our) knowledge of nature ( he 
observes) beyond our original perceptions, is gotten 
by experience, and consists in (and comprehends) 
the interpretation of natural signs. 

The appearance of the sign is followed by 
the knowledge of the thing signified. 

Upon this principle of our existence (consti- 
tution) not only acquired perception, but also all 
reasoning from analogy is founded. 

And therefore for want of a better name, we 
shall take (use) the liberty to call it the mductivc 
principle. 

It is from tlie force of this principle, that we 
immediately assent to that axiom ("authorised sen- 



TKANSLATIONS. 



21 



pa'mbis inze'tu kansitoo, randal'kwinz oi'tu o'ldoo 
bi'u be'ntipai oi o'ndoi. 

Niske'ntipoz i'mboo o'tu gi'nta vi'nda kambal'- 
kwi pro'mpita yoo'kyu gi'njo. Yai fi'u po'ndi, bo'm- 
pitai sloo pi'ntoi sloo'kwi fa'ndun fintifo'et bel yai 
pome'pito trai tyoo'um twifin coo, ce'twi, trmdo|ju 
joo'twi twi'ndo, pli'ntui- pintu'rtwi. 



tence) upon which all our (i. e. of our J knowledge 
of the universe is founded, — that, effects of tbe same 
hind must have the same cause. 

Take away the light of this indxvctive principle 
and experience is blind as a bat. She may, truly, 
feel what is present, and what immediately touches 
her, but she sees not any thing which is either before, 
or behind, upon the right hand, or upon the left (left 
hand), future or present 



SIR ISAAC NEWTON. 

jEternus est et infinitus ; omni^wtens et omnisciens ; id est, durat ah externo in externum, et adest ah 
infinito in infinitum. Non est ceternitas et infinitus; sed wternas et infinitus ; non est duratio et spatiam, 
sed durat et adest. 

TRANSLATED INTO PHILOSOPHIC AND ENGLISH. 



UNDE'FI. 
T\^AI ti'ntoo vronto'kwi, vro'ndi o'mpu vrondi'kwi 
bo'nsou; ro'um, wai plo'ntipo tindoo'ni noo 
ti'ndoo, pintoi'kwi vrondo'ni noo vro'ndo. Wai num 
ti'ndoo vrondo'kwi; bel tintur vronti'kwi; wai num 
ru'ndai inde'kwi, bel wai ru'ntiso pintoi'kwi. 



OF THE DEITY. 
TTE is eternal and infinite, infinitely powerful and 
infinitely cognitive; that is, he exists from 
eternity to eternity, and is present from infinity to 
infinity. He is not eternity and mfinity ; but 
eternal and infinite j he is not duration and space, 
but he endures and is present. 



BALDER. 



'TKO'NSITOZ g'ri ponza'tos! grentupoo'ri tyoo 

po'ntifo pwo'ndoi pwondoi'tum ; fil pontifo'es, 
kwin po'ntifai pimpini'um trentinai'kwi ke'ntinai. 

Po'ndoi pi'u dra'nsipai; bel no pi'u pre'utipai 
drondoi'tes. 

Nool di'nzoi bantriko'es ; frousa'kwi u'nzoi, 
ka'ntrino; rai u'nza trome'pisas, rai'kwi dansupo'ri, 
frame'pifas benetipo'kwin tri ti-e'ntikai pempi'tu 
ri'mbaz. 

Pe'mpo ar! dyoo nool bendipo'ten fi'utum yin 
yi'ltwi; fil be'ntipo, plantnpou'kwin yi'num bren- 
tipoo'kyu, prantupou'kwi yi'lum prantu'rkyu fa'ndais 
pe'mbo. 

F f 



T EARN this, my friend! the secret wlxich doth 

make a flower to be a flower ; so makes it, 
that to bloom is to be sweet, and to receive is to give. 

The flower can die, but cannot (not can) alter 
its essence. 

Although the earth starve it, and the reluctant 
air defraud ; any soil is not so barren, or any livuig 
thing so poor, that it has not something to spend 
in liberal odours. 

Liberal they ! who although their having may 
he more or less ; so have, that less is more than is 
wanted, and more is less than the great heart's 
liberalily. 



22 



TRAXSLATIOXS. 

SHAKSPEARE. 



BO'KDEOI TU VE'XIS. 

Ti'ndo IV. 

Kenpo'mputoo I. — Ve'nis, U La'ndri. 

Tono'ndroo, Antdneo, Bassglneq, Graisedmi, &€. &c. 

« * * » * 

Tm. A fo'mpito i ba'mpus Bela'reo, slur da'nsito : 

Ko'tuk-wi, au tlntiso'es, pe'ntis i ko'ndroo. — 
Tus pdntis Po'rseu, einsunoo yoo'hru ko'ndroo 
tondrdtuz. 
Nos ke'ntlnoz tande'tas: Pentise'lea kuiiti'nurni 
Bela'reo? 
Pov. Au ileesk, to'nondroo"tos. 
Ton. Au ta'nsiko'as: ke'ntipoz Indol'tas. 

Bonsife'a telpa'ri tyoo ve'ntlpo o pi'ntur pi'ndis 
ambre'tu ? 
Fcyr. Au teto'nsatoo ambroi'fi. 
Dyoo u'meu bo'ndi-oi ko'tu, dyoo'kwi i tu'ntruro?' 

Ton. Anto'neo kuntinu'rkwi Si'lok kwi'fin dris 

pra'nsivoz. 
P(yr. U'meu kondoo'tas Si'lok? 
SL Si'lok po'ntoo kondoo'tos. 

For. Yoo'tu tra'ntu o'ldoo ambroi'um a ve'ntiso 

Nel zo'vu bi'nda, ikwin Vene'sun to'ndra 

Pi'un pronsikai'as, vya'tu fe'ntiso. 

A, (noo Anto'neo) pra'nslvo twai'tu tro'ndi, nimea? 
Ant. Zim, -wai gansito'esk. 

For. I'mea ti'ntisai i o'ndi-is? 

Ant. Au iin. 

For. Plus bi'u tu'ntruro be'mpiTJ. 

Si. Sloo^ju tro'nza biiau? nos ro ga'usitoz. 

For. Vro'ndoo bemboo'tu trone'sinoo; 
Pu'nsito i'bru bo'ntu tu'nzo inzoi'ni 
Yindoiju dre'es; po'ntoo a'frin to'nsupoo: 
To'nsipo gur ke'ntino, gu'rkwi kre'ntino: 
O'mpikous i'tu om'pukous: fo'nti 
I'tu fona'ntrupoo fo'ndroo yi'nkyu fo'nondroo''tur; 

Fo'nendi-oo' tur ge'ntipo gra'ndoo intu'rtu va'mboi, 



MERCHANT OF VENICE. 
Act IV. 

Scene I. — Venice. A Court of Justice. 
F)vke^ Antoneo, Bassaneo, Gratiano, Shyloclc, &c. d;c. 
***** 
Duke. You hear the learned Bellario, what he 
writes : 
And here, I take it, is come the doctor. — 
Eater (into come) Fortia dressed like a Doctor 
of Laws. 
To me give your hand: Didst thou come from old 
Bellario ? 
For. I did J (did so) my Lord. 
Duke. I salute you: take your place. 

Are you acquainted with the difference which holds 
this present question in the courl? 
For. I am informed thoroughly concerning the cause. 
Who (which person) is the merchant here, and who 
the jew? 
Duke. Antoneo and old Shylock, loth forth 

stand. 
For. Is your name Shylock? 
Shy. Shylock is my name. 

For. Of a strange (extraordinary) nature (kind ) 
is the suit you follow ; 
Yet in such (according to such) rale, that the 

Venetian law 
Cannot impugn you (forbid you) as you (i. e. in 

what manner you) proceed. 
You {to Antonio) stand in his danger^ do you not '? 
Anto. Yes, he says so (says it.) 
For. Do you confess the bond? 

Ant. I do. 

For. Then must the jew be merciful. 

Shy. Upon what compulsion must I ? Tell me that 

(i. e. To me that say). 
For. The quality of mercy is not strained; 
It droppeth like the gentle rain from heaven 
Upon the place beneath (below it); it is twice blessed: 
It blesses him who gii}es, and him who receives: 
It is mightiest in the mightiest: it becomes (it is decent) 
In the throned monarch, better than (more than) his 

crown: 
His sceptre shews the force (intensity) of temporal 
piower, 



TRANSLATIONS. 



23 



Vr'ondoo tembe'tu kwil fondi'oo'rit, 

Twoo'tu ba'nsivo, pavro'nzikoo fondroo'tuz : 

Bemboo'bil po'ntoo o'dru fone'ntrupoo vo'ndra, 
Po'ntoo fona'ntnipoo faudal'tuz fondroo'tuz, 
Po'ntoo u vro'ndoo Unde'tu twai'kwen; 
Binsu'rkwi va'mboi ge'ntipo pa'ntukous Unde'nus 



Gyoo'su 



gla'ntipo pe'mboo. Kel tu'ntruro, 



Nool pe'mboo po'ntoo kambroi'tas, fo'nsitoz o'ri, — 

Too'kwin fe'ndis pemboo'tu, drai too'on 

Di'un po'mepitai do'nzoo: aur fu'mprino bemboo'di; 

Ro'kwi oi fu'mbra, to'nsito rou'u too'on ve'ntivai 

Do'ndooz bemboo'tu. Au pon'nsito bas, 

Gla'ntipai i pe'mboo ta'tu ka'mbroi; 

Tyoo a'tul vo'nsinen, g pre'mpur la'ndri tu Ve'nis 

Bi'u go'ndu ke'ntinai ba'mbroi ro'bi bo'ndroi kro^tu 

Si. Dondoo'toz tauju a'ndo! au fu'mprino i to'ndi-a, 
Da'ndi-is dambri'skwi tau'tu o'ndris. 

For. Nu'meaid o'mpu ge'utinai i ru'ndil? 

Bass. Zum, ko'tu au durs fentinai'es ambre'tu . 
Zim! a'frin ro va'mbris: ro'tul ta'ntipin, 
Au vri'u o'ntrisoi gentinai'es pasi'ngur, 
Damprisai'twi tande'toz, ando'tos, fandai'tos: 
O'tul tan'etipin, bi'u frontipai, 
Kremboo'kwin ple'mprifo po'ndo. Au'kwi fumpri- 

n'gas, 
Pinsikoz a'prin i to'ndi'a ta'nu vo'ndra: 
Pi'ntipai u pra'ntur fonti'ri; pi'ntipoz u pla'ntur 

fronti'ri ; 
Prentiko'zkwi ko'mboo g'tu bre'mpur fri'nza. 

For. Biu'ntum; kwa'num rai vamboi'itu Ve'nis 

Tyoo pi'u pi-e'ntipai u to'ndra 'to'ndun po'ntufoo : 

Dri'u ba'ntrlpoi yoo'tum to'ndoi; 

Panti'kwi u gen'do, olt'i to'ndoi 

Dri'u tonsinai"eskwen ondi-e'mu: piu'ntum. 

Si. U Da'nyil pe'ntiaoo bambroi'nu : — zum ! u 

Da'nyll ! 
Ho fa'mpus, tu'ntinur pandi-oo ! jyau'tu im kem- 

pikai'as ! 
For. Au fumprinn'as, i'sos fa'ntitai o'ndris. 
Si. Ko'tu po'ntoo ke'mpukous to'ndroo ! ko'tu 

po'ntoo. 



The attribute (quality) of awe (reverence) and 

majesty^ 
In wbich It sits, the dread and fear (i. e. habitual 

fearedness) of kings: 
But mercy is above this sceptered sway (authority), 
It is enthroned in the hearts of kings, 
It is an attribute (quality) of God himself; 
And earthly (human) power shews inost like to 

God's 
When mercy seasons (mitigates) justice. Therefore 

Jew, 
Although justice is thy plea, consider this, — 
That in the course of justice, any of us 
Would not see salvation: we do pray for mercy; 
And that same prayer teaches all of tis to perform 
The deeds of mercy. I have spoke thus much, 
To mitigate the justice of thy plea; 
Which, if thou follow, this strict Court of Venice 
Must needs give sentence against that merchant there. 

Shy. My deeds tipon my head ! / crave the laa; 
The penalty and forfeit of my bond. 

For. Is he not able to pay the money? 

Bass. Yes, here I for him offer it in Court; 
Yea, twice that sum: if that will not be sufficient 
I will be bound to pay it, tenfold 
Or forfeit my hands, my head, my heart: 
If this wiU not suffice, it must appear, 
Tliat malice overthrows truth. And I beseech you, 

Wrest once the laio to your authority : 
To do a great good, do a little torong; 

And cm'b (fi'ustrate) the will of this cruel devil. 

For. It must not be; there is not any 2}0wer in 
Venice 
Which can alter a law duly m,ade: 
It would be recorded to be a precedent; 
And many an error by the same precedent, 
Would rush (force itself) into the state : it cannot be. 

Shy. A Daniel come (is come) to judgment: — yes! 
a Daniel ! 
wise young Judge ! how I do honor thee ! 

For. I beseech thee, let me see the bond. 
Shy. Here it is, most reverend doctor ! here it is. 



24 



TEANSLATIONS. 



Piw. Si'lok, kotu'uin a'trin imdi'ltas, nas fe'ntunoo 

Si. U ko'ndi-is ! u ko'ndris ! au be'ntipo u ko'ndi-Is 
inzoi'tu : 
Vrai'iau te'ntifai klo'mbrls tauju ti'rizoo? 
Nam! nau dri'u di Ve'nis. 

For. Po'nto, o o'ndi'is da'mprisoo, 

Toiulra'nkwi, g'ti, tu'nrui-o fi'u te'ntipai 
U tu'nda vandoi'tu, nisde'nsuvooitVtum, 
Ti'ndufoiis i'nu bo'ndi'ois fa'ndis: — us'a be'mpur; 
Ke'ntlpoz a'trin ta ni'ndil; ponsiko'os vre'nsivai 
yo'ndris. 

Si. Gye'su gentinoo rindoi'vii; — 
Fro'ntipo, a po'ntoo u vo'nta pa'ndroo; 
A bo'nsifo to'udi-a, a ti'ndivostes 
Foi'ntivous: au nas fre'ntino tondi-a'di, 

Tya'tu po'ntoo u vo'nta ba'nzo, 
Fe'ntisoz bambroi'nu: tinzoo'ti, au ko'ntriso, 
Kwa'num rai o'mbi kando'tu tu bi'nzi 
Prentipai'os : Au re'ntiso ko'tu tauju o'ndris. 

Ant. Pifa'ndusous, au im fu'mprinai la'ndrl, 
Ke'ntinai i ba'mbrol. 

For. Po'ndi, kel, vo'tu po'ntoo. 

A bi'u fe'ntlvai fanda'tas twai'di fa'nzis: 

Si. Ho to'ntnu- pa'ndroo ! Ho kra'ntur tu'ntinur 
bi'nzikur ! 

For. Vroo ri'ndoi tonza'kwi tondi-a'tu, 
Bentipo tego'ndoo daudrai'nu, 
Tyoo ko'tu fro'ntipo to'nta ondi-aiju. 

Si_. Bepo'nto: ho fa'mpus pempu'rkwi pa'ndroo! 

Kwoo kunti"nupou u'mea ta'kyu fla'nditoz ! 

For. Kel unti'nsifoz fanda'tas 

Si. Ham ! flanda'tur : 

Vo'tu ga'nsito o'ndris; — ni'meai to'ntrur pa'ndroo? — 
Ti'ntufous fandal'tur! ro'u po'ntoo tezi'ndoiz. 

Far. Pontoo'esk. Kwt:'umfinsupo"twimz ko'tu, e'kai 
I v'andoi ' 

Si. Au bentipo'en fe'ntuvoo. 

For. Be'ntipoz ti'ntou ri to'mbroi, Si'Iock, ta'su 
tre'udi, 
K'insifai fumboo'tur, waino'kwin ba'ntipo dranzoo'nu. 

Si. Kontipoo'ai vro'tu ondi'ai'tu? 



For. Shylock, there is tliricc tliy money to thee 

offered. 
Shy. An oath! an oath! I have an oath m 



Shall I lay perjury to my soul? 
No! / not would for Venice. 

For. Why (i. e. true), this bond is forfeit ; 

And lawfully, hy this^ the Jew may claim 
A poimd of flesh to be by him cut ofiF 
Nearest to the Merchant's heart: — Be mercifid; 
Take thrice thy money; bid me tear the bond. 

Shy. When it is paid according to the tenour : 
It appears, you are a worthy judge; 
You know the laio, your exposition 
Has been most soimd (has been the best): / you 
(from you) charge (demand) by the law, 
Of which you are a well deserving (worthy) pillar. 
Proceed to judgment (sentence): by my soul, I swear, 
There is not any power in the tongue of man 
To alter me: I stay here on my bond. 

Ant. Most heartily / do beseech the Court, 
To give the judgment. 

For. Wliy (truly) then thus it is. 

You must prepare your bosom for his knife: 

Shy. O noble judge! excellent yoimg man! 

For. For the intent and purpose of the laio 
Hath full relation to the penalty, 
Tihick here appeareth due tipon the bond. 

Shy. Tis very tiiie : wise and upright (just) 
judge ! 
Hoio much older art thou than thy looks! 

For. Therefore lay hare (uncover) your bosom 

Shy. Ay! his breast! 

So says the bond — doth it not, noble judge? 
Nearest his heart! those are the very words (perfect 
words). 

For. It is so. Are there balances here, to weigli 
TJie flesh ? 

Shy. I Jtave them ready. 

For. Have by (near) some surgeon, Shylock, on 

your charge (at your expense) 

To stop his wounds, lest he (that he not) bleed to death. 

Shy. Is it nominated so In the bond? 



TRANSLATIONS. 



25 



For. Vro'tu gine'tivoo; Bel sloo ro'fi? 
Di'utum fo'nti a'kwin pi'ntipo bas vambo'di. 

Si. Nau pi'u drentipai"e3 ; pone'too ondrai'tu. 
For. Pe'ntisoz bo'ndroi be'ntipe'a rai'ri ga'nsitai? 
Ant. Tyool u pla'uturi! au pe'mpri te'fentuvoo"kwi! 



Nos ke'ntinoz tande'1 



sa'neo, au gransiko'as ! 



Kronesiko'za au'kwin da'nsis o'nu de'as; 
Vroo o'tu, flo'nzoo gentipou'nkwen fo'usukou 
Pontoo'kju pombrat'nn : po'ntoo tyai po'mbra, 
Brone'tifai pra'mpur bi'nzi da'nsipai twai'gl fa'mboi, 

Po'mpitai tantou'pu fa'ndo, drentukoo'kwi va'ndo, 
U u'ndinoo frambol'tu; tyoo'ni pra'mpa ra'mboo 
Zo'tu u pya'mboo yai nis densito'os 
Donsiko'zos ta'nu ka'mpou ko'nzifet; 
Nuu ga'nsitoz o'adis tw' Antoneo'z twi'udo, 

Ga'nsitoz jyo'tu tonslke'leas ; faus pa'nsitoz fo'nzu 

dranzoo'tu ; 
Kwil, gyoo'su, ti'ndi tri'mpitoo, tonsito'zim pan- 

di-oo'tum, 
Swifin Basa'neo bene'tipel a'prin u to'nsuto'ro 
Painepiko"za, a'kwin fre'ntiken pronza'tas, 
Wai'kwi pame'piko wai'kwin ge'ntino drenta'ritas ; 
Vroo tid tu'ntruro tyool de'nsivo ta'ndui- ta'ndou, 
Au vri'u gcntiBai'es po'orous fandai'tos. 

Bass. Anto'neo, au vu'ntrinoo yoo'nu ko'nzifet 
Dyoo nos do'ntrika da'uzoo'kyu tai'kwen; 

Bel da'nzoo tai'kwen, konzifu'ntos, rou'skwi i di'nzoi, 
Gonesifbo"os ta'dru da'nzoo ; 

Au di'u fre'ntikai rou'u, zim ! tu'ntrisai rou'u tel, 
Ko'tu, o'nu fri'nzoo, bonsipai'as. 

Far. Konzifu'ntas ro'di di'u nas ke'utinai bepla'utur 
vemboo, 
Yal po'ntur pi'ntou fompitai'as fentinai'esk. 

Gra. Au be'ntipo u ko'nzifet dwau to'mpriso 
au'kwen to'nsiko; 
Ho'kwun tume'et inzoi'tu fi'lkwin yal pli'u 
To'nsikai ri o'mbi vre'ntifai o bipi'nji tu'ntruro. 

Nerissa. Fo'nto a'kwin fentino'esk tyai'ci ta'nda; 
Tuli'no bo'nzi di'i o'ntifai u tre'mpa pa'nzoi. 
Gg 



For. So it is not expressed. But whut of (hat? 
'Twere (it would be) good you (i. e. that you] do so 
much for charity. 
Shy. I not can find it; it is not in the bond. 
For. Come, merchant, ha.st thou anything to say ? 
Ant. Only a little ! / am armed (armoured) and 
well prepared. — 
To mo give thy hands, Bassnneo ; fare you well (I 

bid you farewell! ) 
Grieve not thou, that I am fallen to this for thee ; 
For in ihisfortum shews herself 7«ore kind (favoring) 
Than is her custom: still it is her use, 
To lei (not to prevent) the wretched man to live 

beyond his wealth, 
To view with hollow (deep) eye, and wrinkled brow, 
An age of poverty; from which lingering punishment 
Of such a misery she oif doth cut me. 
Commend me to your honorable wife ; 
To her tell the process Ci. e. the manner) of Anto'neo's 

end, 
Say hoio I loved you ; concerning me speak favorahh/ 

in death ; 
And, when the tale is told, entreat her to be the 

judge, 
Whether Basa'neo had not once a lover (loving friend): 
Repent not thou, that thou wilt loose thy friend, 
And he repents not that he pays thy debt; 
For, if the jew only cuts deep enough 
/ will pay it with all my heart. 

Bass. Antoneo, I am married to a wife 
Which (who) to me is as dear (precious) as 

life itself; 
But life itself, my icife, and all the world 
Are not esteemed by me above thy life; 
I would lose all, ay ! sacrifice them all (all of them), 
Here, to this devil, to deliver you. 

For. Your wife, fm- that, would to you give little 

thanks (gratitude) 

She hemg present to hear you make the offer (offer it). 

Gra. I have a loife, whom I protest that I love ; 

I would (oh that) she were in heaven so that she 

could 
Entreat some power to change this currish Jew. 

Ner. 'Tis well that you offer it behind her back ; 
Eke (if not) the wish would cause an unpeaceable 
house. 



TRANSLATIONS. 



Si. O'u po'ntoo i kn'ntrur ko'nzifurz : au be'ntipo 
u fro'uzipet, 
Ho'kwim drai i'tu fondoo'itu Ba'rubus 
Poine'tipai konzifu'rtun cu'lkyu u ku'ntruro. 
Aur kre'ntiko i'ndoo ; au fumprino'as ke'ntinai 
ba'iubroi. 
Foi: U tu'nila ro'tu ro'nti bo'ndrois va'ndoi po'ntoo 
tan ; 
La'ndri bamprlfo'es ; tondra'kwi kentino'es. 
Si. Ho pe'mpuvous pa'ndroo! 
For. A'kwi bi'u de'ntisai o va'ndoi twai'sini fla'nda; 

To'ndi'a gomprino'es, landre'kwi ba'mprlfo"es. • 
Si. Ho ba'mpusous pa'ndroo ! u ba'mbroi ; pe'n- 

tlsoz, fe'ntivoz. 
For. Pepra'mpinoz ; — kwa po'ntoo ri rol'ri. — 

O o'ndris nas ke'netinn a'pin ra'ndisous bandoo'tu; 

YL'ndoiz gi'ndi po'ntoo, a'pin tu'nda vandoi'tu: 
Ke'ntipoz, plus, ondrai'tas; kentipoza tunda'tas van- 
doi'tu ; 
Bel too dendiso'es, tul a i"m gri'nsifai 
A'pin pu'nzo kuntru'rtu ba'ndoo, anzoo'taz anzai'kwiz 
Po'ntoo, tondra'tiz tu Ve'nis da'mprus ondre'nu tu 
Ve'uis. 
Gra. Ho pe'mpur pa'ndroo ! Pro'naitoz Tu'ntruro; 

Ho ba'mpus pa'ndroo! 
Si- U'meu ro" i to'ndra? 

P(»r. A, ta'kwen vi-ai'u po'mpitai i tondra : 

Vroo, ful a bcfo'ntlfo pe'mboo u'sa vo'nsou, 
A vrai'u be'ntipai pe'mboo yi'nkyu a bo'nsiko. 
Gra. Ho ba'mpus pa'ndroo ! 

^Y. Au kre'ntino,o fe'nda, plus: ge'ntinoz o'ndris 
a'trin 
Si'kwi ku'utruro pre'ntisai. 
Fas. Ko'tu po'ntoo i ru'ndil. 

Far. Pri'rapus ! 

I Tu'ntruro vrai'u be'ntipai rous pe'mboo ; pri'mpus ; 

bcbenc'do ; 
Wai vrai'un be'ntipo rai'ri i'kru ra'mboo. 

Gra. Ho Tu'ntruro ! u pe'mpur pa'ncb-oo ! u ba'm- 
pus pandi-oo! 
For. Kel, fe'ntivoa"skwen si'nis de'nsivai i va'ndoi; 

Grinesifo"za rai ba'ndoo ; no'twi dcnsivo"za pla'ntupou 
no'twi pra'ntupou 



Shi/. These are the Christian husbands : / have 
a daughter: 
Would (oh that) an// one, of the stock of Barrabas, 
Had been her husband rather than a Christian. 
We trijle (i. e. squander) time; / pray thee to give 
the sentence. 
For. A pound of that same merchant's Jlesh is 
thine ; 
The Court awards it; and the law doth give it. 
Shy. Most rightful Judge 1 

For. And you must cut this flesh from off his 
breast ; 
The law allows it ; and the Court awards it. 
Shy. Most learned Judge! a sentence! come 

prepare. 
For. Tarry a little; — there is something else (i. e. 
some other thing). — 
This bond to thee gives not one jot (smallest part) of 

blood ; 
The words expressly are, a pound of flesh : 
Take, then, thy bond; take thou thy pound of flesh ; 

But in cutting it, if thou dost shed 
One di'op of Christian blood, thy lands and goods 
Are, by the laws of Venice, confiscate to the state 
of Venice. 

Gra. Oh upright judge ! Mark, Jew ; Oh learned 
Judge ! 

Shy. Is that the law? 

For. Thou, thyself shalt see the Act: 
For, as thou urgest justice, be thou assured (certain), 
Thou slialt have justice more than thou desirest. 

Gra. O learned judge ! 

Shy. I take tills offer, then : pay the bond thrice, 

And let the Christian go. 

Bass. Here is the money. 

For. Soft! 
The Jew shall have all justice ; soft ; no haste ; 

He shall not have anything but the penalty. 
Gra. O Jew! a.n upright jixigcl a learned jW^e .' 

For. Therefore prepare thee (thyself) to cut off 
the flesh; 
Shed not thou any blood ; nor cut thou less nor 
more 



TRANSLATIONS. 



Yoo'kyu tetu'nda vandoi'tu, — u'ses tyool bas 

Ontifoe"skyu ki'mpuki, krimpuki'twi i'tu bo'ndoo, 

I'twi ta'ndis i'tu fa'sins ra'ndai, 

Tw a'pin deflu'nda; pili'tul finsupo'ri fre'ntiso 

Tyool i'tu go'ndis yoo'tu po'ndai, 

A dra'nsipo, rou'ukwi ta'tu a'nzaiz da'mpris. 

Gra. W a'frin Da'nyil, u Da'nyil. Tu'ntrui'o ! 
Gel, krampuko'ro, au bentipo'as kaiide|ju. 

Por. Tyoo'di i'meu Tu'ntniro re'nsitai? Ke'nti- 
poz dambrai'tas. 

Si. Nos ke'ntinoz ru'nondi"ltos Iso'skwi pre'ntisai. 

Bas. Au bentipo'es das fe'ntuvoo ; ko'tu po'ntoo. 

Por. Wai broinsino'es i'tu ba'ntu la'ndi-i ; 
Wai vral'u be'ntipai tyool pe'mboo twai'kwi o'ndris ! 

Gra. U Da'nyil, vool au ga'nsito; w a'frin Da'nyil! 
Au vempivo'as, Tu'ntruro, tonzitg'di noo'os ro i'ndoi. 

Si. Ni'neau be'ntipai tyool ru'nondi"ltos ? 

Por. Na vrai'u be'ntipai trai ta'kru da'mbris, 

Vro'tu ke'ntipoi ta'su tro'ndi, Tu'ntruro. 

Si Tyoo'di plus i fri'nzoi nur ke'ntinoz tes po'nda: 

Nau vri'u re'ntisai yi'ntum pi'ntisoi. 

Por. Re'ntisoz Tu'ntruro ! 

To'ndra be'ntipo roi vre'ndoo joo'as. 
Po'ntoo to'ntrumaust too Ve'nis, 
Tul vi'ntison yoo'bi tro'nza 
Kwin pe'ntiti, prenti'twi vro'ndoiz, 
Wai te'ntripai da'nzoo rait'u vo'ndroo 
Zo'ro, dwoo'bi wai do'nsite'n 

Vrai'u pa'mprifai a'fins twai'tu anzai'z : roi'kwi a'fius, 

Pe'ntiso lanondre'nu ; 

Kwil pentrupo'ros dan'zoo dra'nsivo bemboo'tu 
Tonondi'oo"tu tyool, ou'bi roi ti'mbo. 
Twoo'tu ro'ndi, au ga'nsito, a pra'nsivo : 
Vroo, fro'ntoo tentu'rti fe'ndis, 
Kwin, pre'ndi, pendi'kwi kwel, 
A doi'nslto i'bi da'nzoo taikwen 
Kambroo'tu; a'kwi poi'ntisoa"skwen 

Tronde'nu, pri'ndur tintul<oo"os. 

Keli'tris! gomprivo"zkwi be'mboo tonondroo"ui. 



Than an exact pound of flesh, — be it ( let it be) 

hut (only) bo much 
As causes it to be light or heavy in the substance, 
Or the division of the twentieth part 
Of one poor scruple ; nay, if the scale do turn 
But (only) in the estimation (degree) of a hair, 
Thou diest, and all thy (of thy) goods are confiscate. 

Ora- A second Daniel ! a Daniel, Jew ! 
Now infidel, I have thee on the hip. 

Por. Why does the Jew pause? take thy forfeiture. 

Shy. To me give my principal, and let me go. 

Bass. I have it for thee ready (prepared) ; here 
it is. 

Por. He hath refused it in the open (public) Court : 
He shall have merely (only) justice and his bond- 

Gra. A Daniel, again / say; a second Daniel/ 
I thank thee, Jew, for teaching me (to me) that word 

Shy. Shall not I have merely (only) my bond? 

Por. Thou not shalt have anything but thy 
forfeiture. 
So to be taken, at thy peril, Jew. 

Shy. Why then the Devil to him give, of it, the 
good (profit) ! 
/ not will stay to be more questioned. 

Por. Stay, Jew! 

The law hath yet another hold on thee. 
It is enacted (caused to he law), in Venice, 
If it is (shall he) proved against an alieii, 
That by direct, or indirect, attempts (means), 
He seek (assail) the life of any citizen. 
The party (such person) against whom he shall 

contrive. 
Shall seize (arrest) one half of his goods: and the 

other half. 
Comes to the privy cxtffer of the state (eaxhequer) 
And the offenders life lies ui the mercy 
Of the Duke, only, against every other voice: 
In which predicament, I say thou standst: 
For it appeal's, by ma'nifest proceeding, 
That indirectly and directly too. 
Thou hast contrived against the hfe itself 
Of the defendant; and thou hast incurred (subjected 

thyself), 
To the danger formerly by me rehearsed. 
Therefore down! and beg mercy of the Duke. 



28 



TKANSLATIONS. 



jyn. PETER MARK ROGET. 



VANDO'ITU I'NGLIS I'NDOIZ 
. INDO'KWIZ. 
" QN TUROZ e'nti i'tii ta'ntufou fo'nzoi i'tu 
pomprou'ri rlndoi'tu po'ntipLu po'ndou bo'n- 
tufoi bendipo'ti pia'nzoo dars vo'tu fe'ntuvoo yoo'tu 
flhitur ki'nda kwil o'ldipost tau'tu to'ndooz zoo'vru 
oldipost tondoo'tuz ponti'um ka'nzo tyooju i'ndoiz, 
tyoo'um bondai'tenz, ki'u o'ltipraust. 



Zum o'ti ki'nda tyool au'rkwin pi'u pe'ntisai yoo'su 
ti'nti po'mboi I'tu go'udoo twoo (j'u bo'udaiz be'ntipo 
ta'rnu vo'ntu to'ndooz, pi'utwi pe'ntikai u po'nti 
pa'mbis i'tu u'nziz tyoo o'ko gro'nti to'ndooz, i'tukwi 
kre'ndoiz twau'rti pe'ntiso findoi'suz gi'ndupas nus 
pre'ntusoo fendai'tu vindlno'tu, too'kwi bo'nzifest 
tau'rtu po'azoiz. 



Kri'ndupous, zo ki'nda tyool, pi'u vi'mpisai 

pi'ndiz twoo|ju u ple'mbur po'mprou rl'ndoi li'u 
rannifoi. 

Gavrintusoo ro'ndoi i'tu a'nzoi z'otu ju ri'ndoi 
dri'utum ye'ntu fo'nzipest ou e'mpa po'ndi-o ; vo'tu 

fo'ntupost ro ti'mpur bonze'itu tono'nsuroz, vi'mbigost 
yoo'tu kra'nti ri'ndoi 



Vyoo'tuun Yooto'pean ( kaveno'tuvoo) zo u 
pe'ndo fi'u fro'ntipai i'nu pi'ntur ru'ndis, vyootuu'nkwi 
tL-a'ii9ur fi'u poi'ntipo i fri'ntur ke'ndoz vumbroi'tu 
Wi'lkinz roi'ukwi, plontipro'stes, tai plo'ndipast 
vonzou'um brone'tifoo pra'ntupou kro'ndiz brointi- 
fo'kyu i fc'ndis panti'nu roi'u po'nta fo'ndaiz tyoo'u 
pli'ndur fro'ntipcl ponii'pi plane'tupou kavenetuvoo 
tyoo'ukwi nel fa'mbur ve'ntlvool kri'ntupou''tu u'ndaiz 
vi'iitupoo'ti dainpa'kwi ke'ndoz blngu'rtu o'inboo. 



THESAURUS OF ENGLISH WORDS 
AND PHRASES. 
" ]y/[ETAPHYSICIANS engaged in the more 
profound investigation of the Philosophy of 
language, will be materially (efficiently) assisted ly 
having the ground for them, thus prepared in a 
previous analysis and classification of our ideas; for 
such classification of ideas is the true basis on which 
words, which are their symbols (signs), should be 
(ought to be) classified (i. e. caused to be a class). 

It is by such analysis only that we can arrive 
(come) at a clear (perfect) perception of the relation 
which these (symbols) signs bear (have) to their 
corresponding (congruous) ideas, or can obtain a 
correct (true) knowledge of the elements which enter 
into the formation of (i. e. become compound) ideas, 
and of the exclusions by which we arrive (come) at 
abstracts so perpetually resorted to (gone to) In the 
process of reasoning (arguing), and in the commri- 
nication (i. e. causing to be known) of our thoughts. 

Lastly, such analysis alone can determine the 
principles (propositions) on which a strictly philoso- 
phical language might be constructed (be built). 

The probable (apt to be Inferred) result of the 
construction of such a language would be the even- 
tual adoption by (i. e. causing to be fathered by) every 
civilized nation ; thus realizing that splendid (bright) 
aspiration of (desire of) phllantrophists — the estab- 
lishment of a universal language. 

However Utopian (unable to be performed) such 
a project (design) may appear to the present gene- 
ration, and however abortive may have been the 
former endeavours of Bishop Wilkins and others to 
realize it (cause it to exist), its accomplishment 
(being caused to exist) is surely not beset by (I. e. 
not obstructed by) greater difficulties than have 
impeded the jyrogress to many other beneficial (pro- 
fitable) objects which in former times (formerly) 
appeared to be not less visionary (unable to be 
performed) , and which yet prosperously were achieved 
in later ages, by the coutmucd and jiersevering (con- 
stant) exertions (eudeavours) of the human intellect 
(mind). 



TRANSLATIONS. 



Kwe'um, plus pintu'rsu I'ndoo, ral o'ndoi gron- 
Bg'di, kwin ri'su bi'ndipin ro'tu ka'ntufou e'mba 
twau'mu ko'nsito dl'nzoi go'ndus ri'ntlto, ri ti'ntur 
go'nsukou"kwi kc'ndo viiio'mbivou"stu i'spu bri'ndai 
o'tu pra'ntur ve'ntuvooVitum, fi'u fono'ntripoo fam- 
boo'pu pentlkai'kwi u fo'ndis zo'tu bl'ntou ka'ntu- 
fou'skwi ve'ndi? 

Raino'ri, po'udi di'u bo'ntifai gre'ndufou plo'n- 
tiprast u pu'nsur ru'ndis pendoi'tu timbo'kwi, i'sku 
o'nti po'ndroz oldoo'kwiz binsu'rtuvin, i'kyu nis 
pe'nzis ro'tu bro'ndoi i'nu di-o'ntus o'mbril ponzol'tu 
ponzakwirit binze'ku binze'kwi tyoo pmdur kus- 
i'ntifoo i'ti o'ndo ta'rtu ta'nti ri'ndoi." 



Is there, then, at the present time, any ground 
(came) for despair, that at some future stage (date) 
of that higher civilization to which we trust the world 
gradually is tending, some neiv and bolder effort of 
genius (the highest kmd of intellect) towards the 
solution of this great 'prohlem (thing to he perfornxed)^ 
may he crowned with success, and obtain an object 
of such vast and paramount (highest) utility? 

Nothing, indeed^ would conduce (aid) more 
directly to bring about (cause to exist) a golden age 
of union and harmony among the several nations 
and races (kinds) of mankind, than the removal of 
that harrier (obstruction) to the interchange (mutual 
exchange) of thought and mutual good understanding 
(and friendship) betwixt man and man^ which now 
is interposed by the diversity of their respective (par- 
ticular) language. 



JOHN LOCKE. 



ESSAY CONCERNING THE 
Book III. Chap. 

(« CITE'LKWIN fo'mba fomboi'kwi dre'ntipo ko'n- 
tukou tre'nda dinzoi'tu fli'mpukyu po'ndo 
fontu'rkwi pa'mbis, vri'nti pa'nzoiz trinda'kwi rin- 
doi'tu, tiu, kro'ndu, tri'ntisoi yoo'tum tro'ndo, 
deve"ndikwi too'es. 

Au tri'ntiso, indo'tuz, kyau'rsu cul de'ntipo 
ta'mboi be'kwi ta'mboi tintu'rkyu pa'mbis trandoo'- 
kwi, zo vantuko'riz komprikoo'kyu ne'en, pi'u 
ko'ndu fo'nsitoi fronti'riz. 



Neli'bel, tul aur di'u pa'nsitai fondoo'fiz oi'kyu 
po'ntooz, am- bi'u tri'ntisai, rou'skwin pano'nzo 
fandokri tondo'kwi, rou'skwi dro'nti vrinti'kwi 
tendoi Indoi'tuz tyoo pano'nzo fii'oi'nsito, plondoo'im 
yi'ukyu musvre'nsipai ge'nti to'ndooz, e'nsikai yo'n- 
ziz, ro'tikwi pi'o'nsisai i fo'mboo; vro'tukwi, po'ndi, 
po'ntooz tckantra"ruz ; ke'lkwi jyoo'diun gago'nsukoo 
gapronc'sukoo"twi fi'ndiko, fi'u pontipro'stel finde'tuz 
bontru''rtukwi fa'uziz, ar po'ntooz vo'nzou, rou'utu 
i'ndiz tyoo'u tre'utipas bo'nsifrest tonsitai'twi, a'ndus 
H h 



HUMAN UNDERSTANDING. 
X. Sec. XXXIV. 

" ClINCE wit and fancy find easier reception 
(entertainment) in the world than dry truth 
and real knowledge, figurative speeches, and allu- 
sion in language will scarcely (with difficulty) 
he admitted as an (to be an) imperfection or abuse 
(corruptive use) of it. 

I confess (concede), In discourses lohere we rather 
seek pleasure and delight (and great pleasure) than 
new knowledge (Information) and improvement (em- 
endation_) such ornaments as are boiTOwed from, 
them, can hardly (with difficulty) be considered 
(pass for) faults (had things). 

But yet, if we looidd speak of things as (the 
same as) they are, we must allow, (concede) that all 
rhetoric except order and clearness, and all artificial 
and figurative application of words which ehqxwnce 
(rhetm'ic) hath invented, does nothing more than 
insinuate (into wriggle) wrong (erroneous) ideas, 
move the passions, and thereby (by that means) 
mislead (seduce) the judgment; and so indeed (and 
therefore truly) are perfect cheats (defrauding indi- 
viduals) ; and therefore however laudable (apt to 



TEANSLATIONS. 



dre'ntisoi; kyoo'sukwi po'ndo pambi'skwi ba'ntin, 
pi'u tyool fo'nsitoi u pra'ntur ge'ndo, twi'fin rin- 
doi'tu krondoo'twi dyoo ventiko'el. 



Sloo, jyoo'tukwi o'nti ar po'ntooz, tra'ntipin 
ko'tu, pro'nsitai; di-e'nzaiz pa'nonzg"tu tyoo'u fra'ntoo 
i'tu di'nzoi to'nsiten go'u bre'ntipai to'nsitoo. Tyool 
au bi'u pro'nsitai, jyoo'tu pla'ntur ko'uzoo traiidoo- 
kwi pondo'tu pambi'skwi po'ntoo fa'mba tramboo'kwi 
binze'turit; skre'kwiii ta'mbaiz kandra'tu vro'ntipaist 
cu'lkwi bo'nsinoo. 



To'nto binze'kwinz beto'nsiko ka'ntimai kan- 
trinoi'kwi; skre'kwin pano'nzo, ro o'mpu pro'udoi 
gendo'tu kaudra'kwi bo'ntipo tai to'nsunoo tonsu- 
to'roz, ba'ndu to'nsitoo kwil grou'usu; bekou'mpifoo 
nau'kwi bro'nsifo ti'ukwin po'nsifoi yoo'tum tos u 
pra'ntur go'nzi, tu'lino bizi'ncuri gou'nsitai ba be'es. 



Pano'nzo, i'bru vo'mpu po'mbis, be'ntipg tes 
pe'mprufya vo'mbiz drontipaie'skwen ti'ndur bispa'n- 
sitoi. Bronti'nkwi tre'mpivai ro'u tambaiz kandra'tu 
tyoo'utu bi'nziz dre'ntipo ta'mboi ka'ndi-inoo"tH." 



be praised) ar allowable (apt not to he forbidden) 
oratory (orationing) may render them (cause them 
to be) in harangues (orations) and in popular 
addresses, they are certainly in all discourses which 
pretend (are made to seem) to inform (cause to 
know) or to teach, wholly to be avoided ; and where 
truth and knowledge are concerned, (are pertinent) 
can only be thought (considered) a great fault, either 
in the language or the person who uses them. 

"What and how various they are, it loill he 
superfluous (excessive) here to take notice; the books 
of rhetoric which abound in the world will instruct 
(teach) those who want to be informed (taught). 
Only / cannot but (must) observe, how little the 
preservation and improvement of truth and know- 
ledge is the care and concern (anxiety) of mankind ; 
since (that) the arts of fraud are endowed (caused 
to be qualified) and prefer ed (and rather hnovm). 

It is evident (plain) how much \that'\ men 
greatly love to defraud and to be defrauded, since 
(since that) rhetoric, that powerful instrument of 
error and deceit, (fraud) has its established (ap- 
pointed) professors, (teachers), publicly is taught, 
and at all times has been had in great reputation 
(has been greatly reputed) ; and I not doubt that 
it will be thought to be ia me a great boldness, 
if not a brutal thing (brute- like) to have said so 
much against it. 

Ehetoric (eloquence) like the fair (beautiful) 
se.r has in it too prevalent beauties to suffer itself 
ever to be spoken against. And it is vain to 
find fault with (to censure) those arts of fraud in 
which (wherein) men BnA pleasure of being deceived." 



" "pANZO'UN pra'ntur pinsufo'ri tyoo tyol ve'n- 
tipg o'ndi-i, i'kwi vra'nta te'ndi tyoo'ti tra'ndooz 
pambi'stu be'ntisoo ne a'pin bi'nzi rundai'kwi roi'nu, 
diutum bepra'ndur vo'uta tau'rtu ta'mputous po'nzoiz 
fonsitai sloo tre'ndoz pi'u di-e'ntipoi o'udi dro'udiz. 



2. Nau bro'ntina ponsifaikyii grai'kwin piu 
ke'ntivai to'ndi do'nsisai ri'ndoiz i'tu di'nzoi, nam 
no ba'skyu twai'gweu pondi-o pe po'ndipostu"rkwcn 
sus ta'nsunoo. 



" OPEECH being the great bond lehich together 
holds society, and the common conduit Cpipc) 
by which the improvements of knowledge are con- 
veyed (conducted) from one man and generation 
to another, it would be very well tcorthy of our 
most serious (sober) thoughts to consider what reme- 
dies can he found for these inconveniences. 

2. I not am so vain as to think that any one 
can endeavour perfectly to reform the languages 
of the world, no, not so much as his own country, 
without rendering himself (causing himself to be) 
at-Iaughed. 



TKANSLATIONS. 



31 



3. Nuli'bel kimbo'ntrufo bonondroi'kwl bi'u fre'n- 
tifoo gwenta'rnu dra'nzoiz iudiko'tu brembino'kwiz, 
nul vo'mbroz biuze'kwiz vinda'tu di'u, pul, pe'utripoo 
be'ntipai trai fe'ntinoi pra'ntifai dwantipai'twi ru'ndoo 
ta'rtu vi'ndaz; nel, au po'nsifo, go'ukwin tre'ntipas- 
te'nkwen ta'mbi disde'ntipai konsisai'twi po'udo, ki'u 
ponsifaie'nkwen tro'nslnoi fo'nsitai vya'rtu pl'iu gin- 



tivaie 



nkwen trindo'pi, bro'nzoi, prindatwi, &c. 



4. Gwai t'iu befo'nslto g'endoz trindo'kwi, dre'n- 
doz frande'kwi, tyoo'u fra'nsivoo dinzoi'tu yoo'ti 
deve'ndi Indoi'tuz, ti'u dre'ntipai ri o'ndoiz bro'nsifai; 
swi'fin ri'ndoi voo'kyu vai'ntikoo, boi'ntifo yin i tra'n- 
doo brondoi'twi pambi'stu binze'skuz. 



5. Rindoi'un i pra'ntur te'ndi tyoo'ti bi'nziz 
be'ntiso tar fro'nsutooViz, vi'ndaz, pambl'skwi, ne a'pin 
roi'nu, gwai deventivo'es, nul wai frome'piko tri'nzaz 
pambi'stu tyoo'uum fondoo'tuz tai'kwen, nel wai 
i'ln [ba'kyu wai pi'u] ve'nsivai rentigre"skwi te'ndiz 
tyoo'udu ke'ntisoo idi ba'ntu ve'ndi ponda'kwi 
binze'tuz. Gwai ve'ntikg i'ndoiz rai'pl ti'uti vim- 
pu'skwi ri'ndoi, sli'meaid, bentisai"kru twai'kwen 
di'oi'ukwi gendo'muz? Gwai'kwi po'ndi pintipo'esk, 
ki'u fo'nsitoi yoo'tum pro'nza pondo'nu pambi'skwi. 



6. Uso'l fa'ntitai drenzai'muz vinda'tu rai'tu 
oldoo ; kro'tu aur ti'u po'mpitai i'kwin ro'ndoi trinti'tu 
vimepu'skwi printa'twi i'ndoz, poue'too trai bezimbo"- 
kru intou'kwi te'lba imbo'fiz, grindiso"pi vrandipo"twi 
>i bi'nzes po'mboo. Vroo, tul to'udoo pone'too 
dro'ntus nus to'nsufoo we'ku pa'nsuto'ro fomputo"- 
kwlro twoo'di i'ndoiz pra'nsivo, vi'nda pone'too 
fondoo'fiz, bel kondoo'fiz. 



7. Ko'tukwi au bo'nsino fi'u fo'nsitoi fambu'nkwi 
fo'nsifoi, swi'fin i pra'ntupoufs rundoo vinda'tuz din- 



3. But although the rmrlxt and exchange 
must be left (abandoned) to their own ways of 
talking [dhcoursing) and gossipings, (loquacity) al- 
though the schools and the men of argument would, 
perhaps, take it amiss (he offended J to have anythivg 
offered to abate the length (shorten) or lessen the 
number of their arguments- yet, methinks (/think), 
that those who pretend (make themselves seem) seri- 
ously to search for or maintain truth, should (ought 
to) think themselves obliged to study (consider) how 
they might deliver (express) themselves without obscu- 
rity, doubffuhiess, or equivocation, &c. 

4. He who shall well consider the errors and 
obscurity, mistaken (miscarriages J and confusion, 
which are spread in the world by an ill use (abuse) 
of words, will find some reasons (causes) to doubt, 
whether language, as (according as) it has been 
employed (used), has assisted more the improvement 
or the hinderalice of knowledge among men. 

5. Language being the great conduit whereby 
men convey their discoveries, reasonings, and know- 
ledge, from, one to another, he who abuses it (makes 
an ill use of it), although he does not corrupt the 
fountains of knowledge v)hich are in things them- 
selves, yet he does as much as in him lies [cis mucli 
as he ca'n\ to break and stop (cause to be stopped) 
the pipes whereby (through which) It is distributed 
(sent) for the public use and advantage of mankind 
(men). He who uses words without any clear (plain) 
and steady meaning, what does he, except lead 
himself and others into errors ? He who designedly 
does it, ought to be considered as an (to be an) 
enemy to truth and knowledge. 

6. Let us look Into the books of controversy 
of any kind; there loe shall see that the effect of 
obscure or unsteady or equivocal terms (phrases) 
is not anything but (except) noise and verbal dispute 
concerning sounds, without convincing or bettering 
a man's understanding. Far, if the idea is not 
mutually assented to betwixt the speaker and the 
hearer for which the icords stand, the argument is 
not about things, but about names. 

* * * « 

7. And here I desire it may be considered and 
carefully examined, tvhether the greatest part (num- 



TRANSLATIONS. 



zoi'tu pone'too tyool i'ntou, fe'kwi ri'ndoi indol'tuz; 
swifinkwi, tul yl'ndoz tyar'tu gi'ntivoo, tintinool, &c. 
ro'u vi'ndaz di'un twi'ntitai kwenta'rtu, fandu'nkwi 
umfro'utipai." 



ber) of disputes in the world are not merely (only} 
verbal, and about (concerning) the meaning of 
words; and whether, if the terms (phi-ases) in which 
they are expressed, were defined^ &c. — those disputes 
would not end of themselves, and immediately 
vanish (disappear)." 



The Remedies suggested by Loche for the Imperfections of Language are as follows: — 



8. Aplin, vene'tikal rai itdoi yoo'pi to'ndoo. 
U bi'nzi ki'u fa'mpini vene'tikai rai I'ndoi yoo'pi u 
ri'ndoi, no'kwi rai ko'ndoo yoo'pi to'ndoo tyu'rdi 
pransiva'stes. 

9. A'fliu, Taue'too yoo'kwin bi'nzi ve'ntiko in- 
doi'turz bondai'friz ri'utu to'ndooz, ro'u tyiu" nen 
pe'ntifo. tid ar go'ntoz bi'u, ti'ntivi pinta'kwi ; tul 
gro'ntoz, bi'u teti'ntmi; ro'um, bi'u ri'ntifai, to'ndi, 
i vra'ndo gonti'tu to'ndooz plo'ntupo omboo'tu, ro'pu 
i'mbo nen pe'utufoo, i'fri bo'ndis ro'tu teti'ntimoo 



O bego'nti kondoo'tuz ondaikwiz, ka'ndimou 

e'mper i'ndoiz, tyoo, bene'tupo rai vi'mpus fo'ndaiz 

iuze'tu kyoo'ni tondoo'tenz ke'ntipoo tarfri, kri'ndoi 

ra'mpi befra'ntiki. 



Pe'mboo yoo'um i|ndoI oii'tu bi'nzes ta'ndo, bel 
win vra'udim yoo'pu tra'ntur umpi'uta kwil umvi'm- 
pus rindoi. 

10. I'tu ko'ndooz bondoo'tuz, yoo'di fonti ve'ndi 
too'el, tri yin fre'ntinoo flandu'rkyu pi'nta to'ndooz: 
o'utu, i ko'ndooz bi'u, kwel, vo'ntiki fondoo'puz 
ful ar plo'ntipo. O te'vondi a'ndus go'nti fonzoi'tuz 
pumprou'fi pa'mbis too'kwi vi'ndaz pondo'fi. 



Bo'ndroiz fonzoi'kwiz, pre'nsutoroz tanenza"- 
kwiz, be'utipo i'ndoiz ve'ntikai ta'rtu vi'a'nta e'ndoz; 
voitukwi, au po'nsifo, pli'u pomprou'roz vi'ntunoro"- 
kwiz, kwel, tul ar po'nsinil po'mpivai pomplvoo'kwi 
ti'ndi. 



8. Firstly, Not to use any word without an idea. 
A Tnan should (ought to) take care (be careful) not 
to use any word without a meaning, nor any narne 
without an idea for which he makes it (causes it) 
to stand. 

9. Secondly, It is not sufficient that a Tnan use 
his words as signs of some ideas; those which he 
to them joins, if they are simple^ must he clear 
(plain) and distinct; if they are complex, must 
be perfectly determinate (definite) ; that is, must 
signify, perfectly, the aggregate of simple ideas 
existing in the mind, toith that soimd to them joined, 
as being the sign of that perfectly defined aggregate. 

This is very necessary in names and modes, 
especially (more principally) moral words, which 
not having any steady ohjects in nature (ia the 
universe) whence (from which place) their ideas are 
taken as their original, are apt (disposed) to be very 
confused. 

Justice is a word in every man's mouth, but 
7nost commonly with a very indefinite and loose 
(unsteady) meaning. 

10. In the names of substances, fjr a right 
(good) use of them, something more is required 
(demanded) than barely (scarcely) determined (defi- 
nite) ideas; in these the names must also, he conform- 
able (congruous) with things as they exist. This 
exactness (perfect congruity) absolutely (wholly) is 
necessary in enquiries coTiceming philosophic know- 
ledge and in arguments concer7iing truth. 

^lerchants and lovers, cooks and tailors, have 
words wherewithal to dispatch (i. e. use) in tJteir 
common businesses ; and so (and in the same manner) 
I think, might philosophers and disputants, (and 
arguing persons) also, if they had a mind (i. e. were 
inclined) to understand and to be understood clearly. 



TKANSLATIONS. 



11. Tane'too binze'kwiuz be'ntipo to'ndooz, tya'rdi 
o'ntifo o'u bo'ndaiz pra'nsivai; bgl ar bi'u (or bi'uz), 
kwel, fa'mpini te'ntifal indoi'tenz tiiidufa"kyu fi'utum, 
zo'nu to'ndooz vranta'kyu ve'ndl nen pai'ntifo. 

13. Nul, ti'ndino fi'u po'nsifoi ponti'tum 
o'ndis bo'nsifrest i po'nti ri'ndoi indoi'tuz, nel, kwa 
po'ntooz ri'u i'ndoiz tyoo vri'un ti'ntinoi, ful kwa 
po'ntoo roi'u ploo to'nti ri'ndoi pi'un bo'nsifi-alst 
kroo tinda'tij pu'lkwi u a'trin tyoo bo'nsiuo 
kwifi'ntu roi'utu." 



page 378. 
« « * * 

E'mbi pi'u tevi'ntisoi ponduva'kyu vondoo'bas: 
sne'kwin i to'nti fo'ntur dro'ndoi fondoo'tuz tyoo 
e'mper i'ndoiz ge'ntifo, fi'u tebo'nsiloi ; voi'tukwi i 
vo'ndi, vronde'twi i'tu fo'ndooz ta'rkwen fi'u tefro'n- 
isifoi tyoo'tu plo'ntipo tepa'mbis. 



page 344. 
* * * * 

Indoi'kriz tyoo'u po'ntoo ko'ndooz tondoo'tuz 
pomboo'tu, kwa po'ntooz," bepa'nti roi'u tyoou ve'n- 
tikoo ri'ntifai pe'ndoi tyoo po'mboo po'ntifo tondoo'- 
tuz pinde'twiz. 

Po'mboo tendino'tu ponzoi'tez roi'unu, tyooli'no 
bre'ntipo bo'ndaiz i'tu to'ndooz tyoo'u ai be'ntipo 
gro'su, coo'es, bel roi'u bo'ndaiz kwel ge'ntipsi 
dronsifai'twi ri ta'nti do'ndoo gwentai'tu, gro'su go'n- 
tupo ro'unu to'ndooz. 

Pi'ntipo o'ri onti'tu o'ndaiz ; zo'kyu, fdntoo 
;;»>ifWkwi, tyoo'uum kra'nti bo'ndaiz i'tu o'mboos 
fi'ndiso frindiso'kwi. 

Bel findai'kri friudai'twi, tyoo'upi kwa pone'too 
indoi'tuz ral po'ndo prondo'twi, po'mboo i"m findiso'tu 
roi'unu ponzoi'tes tyooli'no pe'ntifo ra'ndaiz pin- 
de'tuz, bel a'ntus pi-i'ndoz rouroi'nu, ta'rpu o'nti 
go'ndooz trand'akwiz, po'ntifai u vo'ntu i'ndi. 



I i 



11. It is not sufficient that men have ideas for 
which they cause, these sigris to stand; hut they 
must,, also, tahe care, (he careful) to apply their 
words as nearly as may he to such ideas as common 
use to them has annexed (joined). 

13. TJiough defining may he thought to he the 
proper (true) way (mode) to make known the proper 
signification of words; yet there are some words 
which will not be defined, as there are others whose 
exact (perfect) meaning cannot be made known 
except by definition; and, perhaps, a third which 
partakes of both the others. 

page 378. 
* « « * 

Morality can be perfectly demonstrated as well 
as mathematics: since the eocact (perfect) real essence 
of things which moral words represent, may be 
perfectly known ; and so the congruity or incongruity 
of the things themselves may be certainly discovered 
in which exists perfect knowledge. 

page 344. 
» * * * 

Except the words which are names of ideas in 
the mind there are very many others which are 
made use of (used) to signify the connexion which 
the mind makes of ideas or propositions. 

The mind in communicating (delivering) its 
thoughts to others, not only requires signs of the 
ideas which it has at that time hefore it, but other 
signs also, to shew or intimate (suggest) some par- 
ticular action of its own at that time relating to 
those itJ^eas. 

It does this in difierent ways; such as, it is 
and it is not, which are the general signs of the 
mind's aflirming and denying. 

But besides affirmation or negation without 
which there is not in words any truth or falsehood, 
the mind does in declaring its sentiments to others 
not only connect the parts of propositions, but whole 
sentences to one another (i. e. mutually), icith their 
several relations and dependences, to make a coherent 
(congruous) discourse. 



34 



TRANSLATIONS. 



RICHARD WHATELEY, D. D. 



ESSAY on 

" A PIN kanta'tu bro'ndoiz pende'nu yoo'tu to'nti 
bo'nzoi vrondoo'tuz foudai'kwi Vinta'fjibas 
po'ntoo tepo'mebivo no'twi ta'ndur to'mbifo i 
rdndq i'tu Vi'ntimo i'nzi rou'uju ki'o'ndoiz. Tul, 
twoo ta'ntu o'ndis panzito'tu di'u tre'utipai ge'ntipai, 
Vinda'kwin VondooVubras, Unde'vubras, Onde'vu- 
bras, Ondre'vubra'skwi, kyel, po'ntipilz dro'ndou 
o'nti roiiroi'ni, ro'um, o'nti o'ldooz vindino'tu, di'u 
ve'ntisai, kwin tintuso kwa pli'u turn jyoorai'tu rai 
zo pa'inbis au'rkju tre'ntino Vinta'bas, kwa bi'utum 
pa'ntuvas o'nti lo'ndooz, soo'twi pla'ntupous o'nti 
to'ndooz Vinta'tubas. Zo'kwi, po'ntoo, pul, vra'ntu- 
nous to'ndoo. No'twi po'ntoo o'ri pra'ndur [ondoi'tum 
ponze'tu] ; sne'kwin tl'nto drou'unu dri'nkwin re'm- 
plko dansito'kwi yoo'tu vi'ntuno o'ndis beto'ndi fe 
a'pin po'ndis, begendi'kwi roi'fi twoo'tu tel droi'u 
kra'ntoo, dyoo dre'ntivai fli'ntupou"tu. 



O ge'ndo fi'utum tw a'pin ri'ndoo ti'utivraust 
niskwike'ntipoi, fonzito"ti i de'ntou to'ndoi Eu'n- 
tupo"tubas, twoo'tu drou bo'nsifo fendai'kwin yoo'tu 
ve'nda prene'tipoo vi-o'ndooz fondai'tuz ploo ru'ndooz 
cooo'lum: kwini'bel i ga'ndis yoo'tu ru'ndoo pontoo 
tero'nti i'nzi, swi'fin po'ntoo u ru'ndoo binzik"urtuz, 
dundoiz, tunda'twiz ; nool kro'ndooz fiu, pul, dre'n- 
tipoi dyoo to'nto venda'tuz go'ntur Dondo'wwbras 
gentikwi ro'utu Ronze'tu, ta'rni o'nti go'ndaiz tam- 
bai'tu i'tu po'ndaiz o'utu a'fin Pa'mbaiz ; vone'zou 
kool kwa po'ntoo o'ntu ta'mbaiz Ilu'ntupo"tubas 
kate'ntufoo rou'nu o'utu pre'ndou. Di-oi'u, vool, dyoo 
pro'nsito gonti'kwin vri'ndi vinta'«(tbas fi'u te'ntifoi 
rou'unu pondaiz sloo'un, nel po'nsin fonsitaies yoo- 
tum va'nta o'ndis vinda'tu, no'kwi (tyoo po'ntoo) u 
o'ndifs tw umbiuziko kinJino'kwi taur Viuda : twoo'ni, 
pa'nti oi'ntllbi iutikai bendifo'fi di'nta Viuda pa'me- 



LOGIC, Page 8. 

" /~\NE of the chief impediments to the attainment of 
a perfect knowledge of the nature^ (qualities) 
and object of Logic (i. e. of the arguing art), is the 
not perfectly understanding, or not sufficiently keeping 
in mind (remembering), the sameness of the Season- 
ing process (operation) upon all occasions. If, as 
(which) the ordinary mode of speaking would seem 
to shew that the Seasoning according to Mathematics, 
Theology, Metaphysics, and Politics, &c., were 
essentially different from each other, that is, different 
kinds of reasoning (arguing) it would follow, that, 
supposing there could be at all fin any degree) any 
such science as we have described. Logic, there must 
be so many different species, or at the least, different 
branches of Logic. And such is, perhaps, the most 
prevailing (common) notion. Nor is this much 
(greatly) [to be wondered at] (i. e. to be the 
cause of wonder) ; since [that] it is evident (jdain) 
to all persons that some (men, omitted) converse and 
write In an argumentative (arguing) wa.j (mode) very 
justly (perfectly) on (concerning) one subject, and 
very eroneously upon (concerning) another, in which 
again others (other persons) excel (are excellent), who 
fail (miscarry) in the former. 

This error may be in one Instant illustrated 
(caused to be plain) and removed, (and from taken) 
by considering the parallel instance (precedent) of 
Arithmetic, in which every one is aware (foreknows) 
that the process of a calculation is not aifected by 
(altered by) the nature (qualities) of the objects tchose 
uiunbers are before us : but that the multiplication of 
a number is the very same operation, whether it be 
a number of men, miles, or pounds; although men 
(persons) may, perhaps, be found who are accurate 
(perfect) In calculations relative to Natural Philosophy, 
and incorrect (erroneous) hi those of Political Econo- 
my, from their different degrees of skill in the subjects 
of these two Sciences ; not surely because there are 
different arts of Arithmetic (i. e. the Numbering Art) 
ajjplicable (able to be ajjpUed) to each of these res- 
pectively (severally). Others, again, u-ho are aware 



TRANSLATIONS. 



35 



pai"pu Vliida, ke'ntipale"skwi trintusoo'fri kwin ko'n- 
tin vi'ntinai fo'ndi vmd'mo'pi Vinda'vnbas; tyoo po'n- 
too, po'ndi, pra'ntupa u ge'ndo vel di-ai deke'utipel 
Rinde'bas yoo'di va'nta ri'ndi detintise'lkwi ki-o'ntini 
tepa'nsitai panzito'pi Rinde'tJitbas. 



Ar, pra'ntlfi, foi'nsito Vinda'bas yoo'in ta'mbis 
Vinda'tubas, gool, pa'ntufas ai'kyu po'ntoo u Ta'mbis, 
pontoo y^' Ta'mbis yinda'tu; fo'ndis i'tu Vinta"van 
pontur, fine'tisai bi'ndaz twoo'ti aur j^'u vi'ntLaai, 
twoo'tibel drou'u bi'u vi'ntiiiai, nooli'bool nar pi'ndun 
bonsifo'el: no ponti'fai bi'ndaz, tyoo'u fi'u ve'ntisoi 
ponda'pu, tyoo'ubel no pi'u nis prene'tisol ponti'tu 
vi'nda." 



(i. e. observe) that the simple system (epitome) of 
Logic may he applied to all subjects wliatever, yet 
are disposed to view it (consider it) as a (to be a) 
peculiar metliod (order) of reasoning, and not, as it 
is fi. e. tohich it is), a method (order) of unfolding 
and analysing our Reasoning: lohence many have 
been led (been caused) to talk of comparing syllogistic 
Reasoning with unscientific Reasoning, and to take it 
as being granted that it is possible to reason well 
(correctly), without reasoning Logically (according to 
Logic) ; which is in fact (truly) as great an error 
as if any one were to mistake (take badly) Grrammar 
for a peculiar language, and supposed (eiToneously 
supposed) it to be possible to speak coiTectly (perfectly 
to speak) without speaking Grammatically (according 
to Grammar). 

They, in short (to he short), have considered 
Logic as being an Art of Reasoning, whereas, so far 
(so long) as it is an Art, it is the Art of Reasoning : 
the object of the Logician being not to lay down 
(affirm) principles by which we may reason, but by 
which all must reason, even although they not dis. 
tinctly know them ; not to lay down (i. e. to make) 
rules which may be followed with advantage, (profit) 
hut which not can be departed (gone) fi"om in sound 
(i. e. true) reasoning (argument)." 



JOHN FOSTER. 

Essays, (Thu-teenth Edition), Page 35. 



" A U vri'u fo'mpifai tyool a'pin kondai'ro va'ntus 

twa'fi di'u gl'ndur gi'ntivo dronzai'tas, nool dis 

a'rpin wi'ntu de'rapuroz inze'tu, u gronsufo'ro Unde'tu, 

dyoo misbre'ntiso tondra'turz frindisn'ti plondoo'tur. 



Tri'ntisoz tu'meas pla'mpusas too binsu'vin zo'- 
kwin u klo'ndoo fli'u b'onsifraist noo'as yoo'fri 
vri'ntou tra'ntutwi fro'ndoo, di-onzoi'taz, snoo'kwin a 
po'mpitel fompite'lkwi i bi'nzikur, dn'u be'ntisoi 
tri'nu tra'ntu: kwil a fli'u po'nsifai indoo'kwin ro'tu 
o'nzil bi'u toora bepa'ntou ; sne'kwin u to'mpu da'ndo 
porapu'rtu i'nziz, — u pra'ntou da'ndo po'mpurtu gon- 
'Jaiz, i'tu prantou i'ndoo yoo'tu pva'nti ku'ndalz 



" T will imagine only one case (state of a person) 
more (i. e. additional) on which you (concerning 
which you) would emphatically express your com- 
passion, though for one of the most daring beuigs 
of the universe, a contemner of God ; who explodes 
(drives out) Ms laivs by denying his existence. 

If (i. e. concede) you were (i. e. you to he) so 
imacquainted with (so ignorant of ) mankind (of 
human kind) that such an individual might be 
announced to you as being a rai'e or extraordinary 
phenomenon, your conjectures, until you saw and 
heard the man, would be lead to something extra- 
ordinary: and you might think, that the time of 
that discipline (education) must have been very long ; 



36 



TKANSLATIONS. 



punJaikwiz di'iin tre'ntipai ta'atiu- koi'mpisai u 
pinonda'rit cusbo'ntusas. 



Vo'nzou ponsupoo'ii tyoo vij'tu pi'nslpo timbn'- 
tes femprivo'kwi rous kapome'putoo o'mbi finda'tiiz 
vrondo'tu, fe'utnipo sloo'un u'mbonsufoo"ni fi'u fo'm- 
pitai"ed, li'ukwi fe'ntipai ro kondoo'itu Omo'mpm-o 
tyoo tri'mpitoo fro'nzus, ge'ntipai plondoo'tur, tul 
wai vri'u, twai'ti tro'nzi, pone'tipil tyool ca'pil u 
pla'ntur puiitmupi"ru tyoo di'u bra'nsinai tindifo'su 
yoo'tu pla'ntui- vensupo'ri. 

Bel, po'ndi, pone'too gemboo'rit pli'ndur rai'tu 
go'ndis, tul wai bc/risifo kwa'kwin pone'too rai 
U'ndi. I po'nzi, plus, pive'nsino iju pra'ntur fe'ndis 
twoo'tl u bi'nzikur pli"u vra'nsipai i'nu vi-o'nti po'm- 
boo tyoo pi'u bo'nsitai kwa'kwin pone'too rai U'ndi. 
Sloo'u ru'ndaiz sloo'iikwi primbooz brentipoo c/di 
pe'ndi ! O po'mboo ke'ntifo i ko'nti bri'ntufoo"riz tw 
Unde'rit gyoo'du Wu'ndi fri'ntisoo. 



Vroo tel q bi'nzikur po'ntoo o'su ri'ndoo kou'tu 
inze'tu, wai [«(/ pi'u] bo'nslfai kwa'kwin fiu'utum 
te'ndooz yoo'tu U'ndi tw^Vti bool di-i"u ple'mprifoi. 

Tul wai [no tebo'nsifo] ou do'ntupo"ro inze'tu 
ro a'pin tyur pone'too, fi'utum U'ndi. 

Tul wai pone'too twai'kwen ka'nta do'ntrupo"ni 
inze'tu, [no'kwi bo'nsifo] sloo pontoo, sloo pontoo 
fi'utum U'ndi. 

Tul wai pone'too te'tu be'ndoo rou'utu i pi'ndiz 
tyoo'u ke'ntifo tra'nti po'ndo, ro a'pin twur bre'ntipo 
fi'utum, hoai'tum Wu'ndi. 

Tul wai pi'un vo'nzou fintisai o'ndoi rou'utu 
twur po'mpifai plo'ntipai, ro' o"ndoi fi'utum Wu'ndi. 

Tul, wai nim bo'nsifai tou tyoo doi'ntipoo i'tu 
[kazunc'tukoo ruudis'ilz] tri'u fi'u doi'nsipoi Wu'ndi. 



Keli'tel wai bo'nsifo trouu, — i-o'um, misbre'ntiso 



since (that) a quick series of intellectual ojjeratioTis^ — 
a short series of intellectual gradations, in the short 
time of a few months and years, would not seem 
enough to have matured a heroism so portentous. 

Surely the creature which thiis lifts its voice 
and defies all invisible (imable to be seen) poioer 
within the lunits of infinity^ challenging whatever 
unknown being may hear him, and may appropriate 
that name of Almighty lohich is uttered in scorn 
to shew his existence, if he will, ly his vengence 
was not, only yesterday, a little child, which would 
tremble at the approach of a diminutive reptile. 

But, indeed, it is not heroism any longer, 
(fiiturely in any degree), if he knows that there is 
not any God. The wonder, then, turns (hinges) 
upon the great process by zchich a man could grow 
to the infinite inteUigence which can know that there 
is not any God. What ages and what lights are 
requisite (wanted) for this attainment (obtainment) ! 
This inteUigence involves (comprehends) the very 
(genuine) attributes (predicated things) of Deity, 
while a God is denied. 

For, unless this man is at this moment in every 
place in the universe, he cannot know that there may 
not be in some place manifestations of a God, by 
which he even would be overpowered. 

If he [does not perfectly know] every agent 
in the universe, that one which he does not know, 
may be God. 

If he is not himself the chief agent in the 
universe \and does not lcnoto\ what is, what is, may 
be God. 

If he is not in perfect possession of all the 
propositions which compreliend universal truth, that 
one which he wants, may be, that there is (there to be) 
a God. 

If he cannot with certainty assign (declare) the 
cause of all which he perceives to exist, that cause 
may be a God. 

If he does not know every thing which has 
been done in the immeasurable [ages which are past] 
[i. e. past ages] some things may have been done by 
a God. 

Thus, unless he knows all things, — that is. 



TRANSLATIONS. 



37 



roi U'ndi, pondipi'ti Wu'ndi twai'kwen, wai pi'un 
bo'nsifai kwin klo'ndoo ploo plo'ndoo wai fri'ntiso, 
nim plo'ntipai. 

Bel wai bi'u bo'nsifai, yoo'kwin U'ndi nim 
plo'ntipai; ncjtu'ltwi, wai vo'ntin bantu'rtu gro'uzoi 
dronzai'kwi i'di pla'mba, twu'i-pu vi'mbus fintiso 
fri'nda"itur dontipo'kwi vo'ndu. 

Ne'lkwi u binziku"ritu ta'ntu u'ndis pambai'kwi 
fi'u nas fe'ntinaiu"rkwen i'pu fi'ndis pondipi'tu vo'tu 
pi'ntunoo i'ni panti'roz; tu'lkwi wai dri'u tri'ntlnai 
vyu'rtu pai'ntiso o'nu kantou'kin, a dri'u bo'mpitai 
u kro'nsu tra'mboo pronzifo'tu ro'fi fe'ndis twoo'tu 
twi'ndo bono"ntisas." 



precludes (drives out) another God, by being a God 
himself, he cannot knoio that the being whose 
existence he rejects, (denies) does not exist. 

But he must knoio that a God does not exist; 
else (or if not) he deserves (is worthy) of eriual 
contempt and compassion for the temerity with whicli 
he firmly avows (affirms) his rejection (denial) and 
acts accordingly (congruously). 

And yet, a man of ordinary age and intelligence, 
may to you present (offer) himself, loith the avowal 
(declaration) of being thus distinguished from the 
crowd, (multitude) ; and if he would describe how 
he (i. e. in what manner he) has attained (has come 
to) this eminence ( high place), you would feel 
a melancholy (sorrowful) interest (anxiety) in con- 
templating (meditating) concerning that process, of 
which the result (the end) is so portentous." 



GEORGE GILFILLAN. 



TI'NDI I'JU PRI'NZO. 
<t T fa'ndis ko'tu, i fo'nzipur krci'tu, inze'kwi tu 
bi'nzl rinzoo'kwi, ki'ndentuso"fri koo'el, antai'um 
fondis antai'kwi komprou'ri i'tu i'ndi iju pri'nzo. 
Kuntruno"ro niskrl'nsiko rou'u tVantai'riz vi-intikwiriz 
undra'tu dondoo'tukwi, wai'kwin fi'u ge'ntipai, tal'tu 
une'nsunoo go'ndo re'mbi tyoo plontipast fandai'ku, fre 
untrunfj'ro Unde'kwi fo'mputoro"fri. Pe'mboo tyur 
to'nsito bi'u tra'ntipai ro" " itu Skribz i'kwi Fa'risiz." 
Gwai tro'nsiko konzipu'rtur ko'ntipou"rtwi "Eaiku," 
po'ntoo, ka'ndur, u ba'ntruto"ro. Fa'ndra a'plm tc'm- 
pripo be'zunsipo"kwi fandal'tu. Ko'ndraiz tyooli'um 
bezi'mboz ; i vi'nti bo'mboz ge'ntifooz po'ndutou te 
" Ham, ham ; nam, nam." Ko to'nzi tyoo [tus 
ra'nsipo] pe'nsifen dinzoi'du klondoo'kyuz pe'usifo 
yoo'du du'mpenzifo"di genzai'tuz, to'nsukci ponsuko'- 
kwi, di-onesuto'kwl rai dro'ndis. Be'mbc) bi'utum 
gre'ntur. Pi'mpunous pu'ndra po'ntipin fro'nsa pran- 
tou'kwi. Ou'ro bi'u fe'mpifai, kwel, vel wai feme'pifel. 
I ru'ntuso fa'mboiz bi'u ke'ntikoi vi'ndu. Pe'mboo 
bi'u de'ntipoi coo, ve'Ikwi ke'ntufo, ti'ou'u; da'nzoo 
do'ntrikou rou'ukyu vrondoi'tuz t'es. I fo'nzoi 
donzi'skwi frondito'tuz bi'u te'ntivai kindoi'su. Pu'n- 
dra tul misdi'nsuno fandai'ni, po'ntoo Omo'nipu. 
K k ' 



THE SERMON ON THE MOUNT. 
« 'T'HE heart here, the father yonder, and the 

universe of man and matter, as the meeting- 
place betwixt them, is the whole scope (object) and 
the whole poetry of the Sermon (Discourse) on tlic 
Mount. The preacher shears off (clips) all the super- 
fluities (surplus things) and externals (exterior 
things) of worship and of action, that he may shew, 
in its naked (unclotJiedJ simplicity, the communion 
(intercourse) which takes place (is caused to exist) 
betwixt the heart, as worshipper, and God as auditor. 
The righteousness (justice) which he teaches must 
exceed that " of the Scribes and the Pharisees.'' 
The man who (he who) hates his brother, or calls him 
"Raca" is, in seed (seminally), a murderer. Adul- 
tery first (firstly) lurks (ambushes) and swelters 
(intensely bums) in the heart. Oaths are only big 
sounds; the inner feelings are represented better 
(moi-e truly) by (i. e. by means of)" Yea, yea; nay, 
nay." That love, tohich resides within, will walk 
[through the world] as men (as persons) walk through 
a gallery (a room for walking) of pictures, loving 
and admiring, and not expecting any return (reci- 
procation). TJie giving of alms must he secret. The 



TRANSLATIONS. 



Dro'iidoi tondra'tu pumbroi'kwiz kentifoo'itu do'ndipo 
di-oi'imu oi'kyu aiir dri'u be'ntipai roi'roz do'ntipai 
noo'oii. Tele'suto vi'nti da'nzoo ru'ndipou praintiso 
kronzoo'nu, gyardubool va'ntisel to'ndi pumbru'ukwi 
vri'nti re'ndoz kambe'tu imdra'kwi. Fa'ndis bi'u, 
goi'su, bo'nsifoo tai'ti o'ndoz. Po'ntoo, tyool, i fo'nti 
pontupo'ro djoo vrai'u tus-pre'ntisai yi'nsou flo'ndroo. 
O'u po'ndoz twi'ndi, (von'du pi'ntupoo), — ro'u po'nziz 
prinzo'ni fo'mputoo ventuvoo'kwi — o'ko u pri'nzo 
teto'nditu, gyoo'du trou'u kre'en, po'ntooz gu'njoo 
go'su, rinza'kwi ti'ndupin." 



5t prayer will be solitary and short. One 
(every person) must fast also, as if lie fasted not. 
The enduring treasures (riches) must be laid up within 
(internally). Righteousness must be sought before, 
and as if inclusive of fcomprekendirwj all tilings: 
life is more precious than all of the means of it. 
The examination and correction (reformation) of 
faults (evil actions) must begin at home. Tiie prayer 
if issuing (out streaming) from the heart, is all 
(infinitely) powerful. The essence of the law and 
the prophets lies (is comprehended) in the doing 
(acting) to others as (the same as) we would have 
others do (act) to us. Having neglected (I. e. not 
having cultivated) the inner life, the majority (greater 
number) have gone to ruin (destruction) even while 
they were following, fully and devotedly, external 
forms of faith and worship. Tlie heart must, at the 
same time, be known by its fruits. It is, only, the 
good doer who shall enter (In-go) the heavenly king- 
dom. These truths, in fine (finally) [acted upon], 
{i. e. congruously done) — those precepts from the 
Mount, heard and performed — become a rock of 
absolute (perfect) safety, while all (i. e. all things) 
besides (i. e. besides them) are sand now, and sea 
hereafter (ever futurely).'' 



CRE 

HISTORY OF THE 

" J^YA'NTA bebi'nzi pembroo'tu po'ntipil Kon- 
stu'ntin twai'kwen. Wai bo'nsifel gundai'tur 
pe'ntisi, fentive'lkwi dra'nsipai vendo'tu tonda'tu, 
grantu'rpu undroo, konti'tu ku'ntruro, vrunzi'skwi 
dempu'rtu e'ndro. 

Vrundaiju tendi-oo'tu, wai tre'ntinel vu'mbris 
kanzoitu Buiitri'lu Sofi'u. 

WsLi spen fc'ntisel prantu'rnu fa'nzoi prampinel- 
kwi, yoo'du pra'ntou i'ndoo, dunzkanta'tu kyoo'tu twai 
fli'nturoz fointripel doo pa'ntuvas pe'sin pu'ndaiz; 
tyoo'bel twi'fino wai", n'gtwi rai" fo'mbroo twai'tu o'nzi 
ponti'pil ti'ndur re'po'mpitai. 

Gju'rsn dris ai'ntisel twai'ni fa'nzoi pentipaiu"rkwen 
prantusu cmo'mbrai, kro'tukwi pla'nsikai kondi-itoo'- 
tur, rou'u po'nzoiz dinsou'fi pra'ndoo, tro'mpifool ; 
frentuso'kwi ro'unu glc'ed dwoo'tu pa'ntiz poi'ntipel 



ASY. 

OTTOJIAN TURKS. 

" T'HE chief hero of the defence ?m« Constantine 
himself. He knew his hour to be come, and 
prepared to die in the discharge (performance^ of 
duty, with the earnest piety of a true christian and 
the calmness of the brave soldier. 

On the night of the assault, he received the holy 
sacrament in the church of Saint Sophia. 

He then proceeded to the great palace, and lin- 
gered, for some short time, in the halls (chief rooms) 
where his predecessors had reigned through so many 
hundred years ; but which neither he nor any prince 
of his race (family) was ever to see again. 

"SMien he forth passed from his palace to put 
himself at the great breach, and there to await his 
martyrdom; all thoughts of towldly greatness werA 
f<yrgotten ; and turning to those aroimd him, of whom 



TRANSLATIONS. 



fonza'turz twai'ni fu'ndinoo, Ko'nstuntin ten fu'mpri- 
nel ku'ntrurfri^ ko'nzooz, tambrol'ten rai'di pe'ndroo 
tyur ti'ndur ai'kel be'en. 

Stroo twa'nzaz pundra'kwiz grou'utu fantlte'leed, 
kri'ntupous i'ta Se'zars, spen di-is pre'ntisel dra'n- 
sipai." 



many liad been his companions from his youth, Con- 
stantine of them lesouglit, as Christian brethren, 
(i. e. fellow Christians) their forgiveness for any 
offence which he ever had committed against them. 

Amidst the fears and prayers of all who beheld 
him, the last of the Caesars, then forth went to die." 



THE LITANY. 



TTO U'ndoo, inzoi'tu: be'mpivoz noo'on pra'mpur 
frontuvo'roz. 

Ho Undoo, inzoi'tu: be'mpivoz noo'on pra'mjmr 
frontuvc/'rqz. ' ♦ 

Ho U'ndoi, Donsupo'ro dinzoi'tu: be'mpivoz noo'on 
pra'mpur frontuvo"roz. 

Ho U'ndoi, Donsupdrq dinzoitu: belmpivqz nod on 
pralmpur frontuvdroz. 

Ho U'ndo, fe'ntuso Undoo'ni Undoi'kwi: be'm- 
pivoz noo'on pra'mpur frontuvo"roz. 

Ho Undo, fdntusq Undodni, Undoi'kwi: be'm- 
pivoz nodon pralmpur frontuvd'roz. 

Ho fa'mpu, to'nsupoo, ti'mompu"rkwi Ati'uity, 
a'tin kro'ndooz api'nkwi U'ndi: be'mpivoz noo'on 
pra'mpur frontuvo"roz. 

Ho falmpu, t^nsupoo, timompvl'rkwi Ati'nity, a! tin 
hrdndooz apHnkwi U'ndi: bdmpivoz nodon praJmpur 
forvtuv(frqz. 

Tome'pifoz, Ho U'ndi, fronditg"tonz, no'twi fro'n- 
ditoz tau'rtu po'nzipurz; trone'sikoz tau'rdi fro'nditoz: 
ra'mepivo"zon, fo'nti U'ndi, ramepivo bondroo'tas, 
ga doi'nsipo ta'pu do'ntrukous ba'ndoo; nusa'kwi 
pon to'nsu ti'ndur ; 

Ra!mepivq"z(m, fdnti Undi. 

Lou'ni fro'ndo kremboo'kwi; lou'ni firo'ndlto, 
frambai'niz tendi-oo'kwiz frinzoo'tu; ta'ni to'nzi, ti'n- 
tu"rnikwi kra'mboo ; 

Fdnti U'ndi, bonsipq'zon. 

Lou'ni pro'mbo fandai'tu; frembe'ni, bro'nta pro'n- 
zis, kramba'kwi; vronzai'ni, tro'nzi, fronze'kwi, 
lou'kwi bre'mbo, 

Fdnti U'ndi, bdnsipd'zon. 



C\ Ood the Father, of heaven: act mercifully to us 
miserable sinners. 

God the Father, of heaven : act mercifully to 
us miserable sinners. 

God the Son, Redeemer of the tvorld; act mer- 
cifully to us miserable sinners. 

God the Son, Redeemer of the world: act 
mercifully to us miserable sinners. 

God the Holy Ghost, proceeding from the 
Father and the Son: act mercifully to us miserable 
sinners. 

God the Holy Ghost, proceeding from the 
Father and ike Son: act mercifully to us miserable 
sinners. 

holy, blessed, and glorious Trinity, three Persons 
and one God : act mercifully to us miserable sinners. 

holy, blessed, and glorious Trinity, three 
Persons and one God: act mercifully to us miserable 
sinners. 

Remember not, God, our sins, nor the sins 
of our ancestors ; and take not thou vengeance for our 
sins : punish us not, good God, spare thy people ; 
whom thou hast saved with thy most precious blood, 
and be not thou angry with us for ever. 

Spare us (punish us not), good God. 

From all evil and mischief; fi-om all sin; from 
the crafts and assaults of the devil ; from thy wrath ; 
and from eternal damnation, 

Good God, delivrr us. 

From all blindness of heart, from pride, vain 
glory, and hypocrisy; from envy, hatred and malice, 
and all uncharitableness, 

Good God, deliver us. 



40 



TRANSLATIONS. 



Fandra'ni louroi'kwi dra'usiipast fro'ndito; lou- 
nikwi ka'ndi'az diBzoi'tu, va'udoi, friBzoo'kwi, 

Fo'nti U'ndi, honsipo'zon. 
Timzoo'ni drunzl'skwi ; tnxmboi'ni, tu'mboi, ensu"i-- 
kwi fla'ndoo; gembroo'ni, bandro'kwi, ne'kwi to'mpu 
dra'nzoo, 

Fo'nti U'ndi, honsipo'zon 
Lou'ni ta'mbro, bra'ntu fa'mbro, tandro'kwi; 
lou'ni pro'nti [u'ntmr pi'ndiz], pumbro'rit, fiimbro'- 
kwikrit; plimbal'ni fandai'tu gronzoi'kwi ta'tu pun- 
dris ponze'kwiz, 

Fo'nti U'ndi, honsipdzon. 
Trlnti'diri ta'tu fa'mpu va'ndifost; ta'di fa'mpii 
ta'nzoo bimdrai'kwi ; ta'di vu'ndris, bu'mbra, debren- 
doikwi, 

Fo'nti U'ndi, tonsipihcm. 
Ta'di go'nzis bantu'rkwi tensimol'ri; ta'di kre'nda 
di-ondoo'kwi ; ta'di do'ntru dra'nzoo timdrakwi ; 
ta'di timo'mpur pano'nzis inonzoi'kwi; de'kwi pe'ndis 
Undo'tu, 

Fo'nti U'ndi, honsipxjzon. 
Lou'tii i'ndoo tau'rtu fi-a'mboo ; lou'tu i'ndoo 
tau'rtu fa'mboi ; gundai'tu tu dra'nzoo ; too'kwi 
bu'udis twinti'tu ba'mbroi, 

Fo'nti U'ndi, honsipo'zon. 
Aur frontuvo"roz 'i"m fumprinai"as fompitai'on, 
Ho Fo'ndroo U'ndi ; kwi'nkwi fi'u donsinai'as ka'n- 
tikai fo'ntripai"kwi fa'mputas tra'nti imo'ndri ponti'tu 
dra'nzoi ; 

Aur fulmprinq"as fdmpitai'on, fdnti U'ndi. 

Fi'ukwin do'nsinai"as, ko'uslpai, dompikai"kwi 

ponti'tu u'ndra too'as, pemboo'tu fambe'kwi tu 

da'nzoo, dronzo'tos Vikto'reu, taur pe'mpusous Fo'n- 

dripet Fo'ntruporo"kwi ; 

Aur fu!in]}rin(fa.i fdmpitai"on, fo'nti U'ndi. 
Fi'ukwin donsinai'as fo'ntripai fandai'tun ta'tu 
ka'mbi, vro'nzi, tonzc'kwi; kwi'nkwi yai fi'u ti'ndur 
be'ntipai do'nzi too'as, tindu'rk\vi de'ntipai ta te'mbi 
timomboo"kwi ; 

Aur fu'mprin(/as fdmpitai'on., fdnti U'ndi. 
Fi'ukwin donsinai'as po'ntipi tyai pe'mprupo"ro 
ko'nsup(2ro"kwi; nun ke'utuno pe'mbroi rou'udru 
pronza'tunz. 

Aur fvlmprind'as fdmpitai'on, fdnti U'ndi. 



From fornication and all other deadly sin ; and 
from all the deceits of the world, the flesh, and the 
devil. 

Good God, deliver us. 
From lightning and temp>est ; from plague, pesti- 
lence, and famine; from battle, and murder, and 
from swift death, 

Good God, deliver us. 
From all sedition, privy co^ispiracy, and rebellion ; 
from all false doctrine., heresy, and schism; from 
hardness of heart, and contempt of thj word and 
commands, 

Good God, deliver us. 
By the mystery of thy holy incarnation ; by thy 
holy nativity and circumcision; by thy baptism, 
fasting, and temptation; 

Good God, deliver us. 
By thy agony and bloody sweat; by thy Cross 
and Passion ; by thy pi'ccious Death and Burial ; by 
thy glorious Resurrection and Ascension ; and by the 
coming of the Holy Ghost, 

Good God, deliver us. 
Li all time of our tribulation; in all time of our 
wealth ; in the hour of death ; and in the day of 
Judgment (of final sentence); 

Good God, deliver us. 
We sinners do beseech thee to hear us, Lord 
God ; and that it may please thee to rule and govern 
thy holy universal Church, in the right (the true) 
ivay ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to preserve and strengthen 
in the tnie loorshtp of thee, in justice and holiness 
of life, thy servant, VICTORIA, our most gracious 
Queen and Governor ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to rule her lieart in thy 
faith, fear, and love; and that she may evermore 
have affiance (confidence) in thee ; and evermore seek 
thy honor and glory ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may pilease thee to be her defender and 
jn'eserver, to her giving tlic victory over all her 
enemies ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 



TRANSLATIONS. 



41 



Fiukwiu do'nsmai"as to'nsipai konsipai'lvwi, i 
FO'MBROO A'LBURT, A'lbm-t, Fombroo'itu Wallz, 
lou'kwi Fontrur'tu* O'nzi; 

Aur fu'mpriwfas fo'mpitai"on^ fontl Undi. 

Fi'ukwiii donsiuai'as i'mpivrest rou'u Vu'mbrolz, 
Fu'ndroiz, Dumbroi'kwiz ponti'ti pa'mbis pomboo'kwi 
ta'tu pu'ndris; kwi'nkwi kwi'fin ta'rti ku'ndra rembe- 
kwi, ar fi'u vo'ndu ba'ntikai'es ge'ntipaie"skwl ; 

Aur fu'rHpriw/as fo'mpitai'on, fo'nti U'ndi. 
Fi'ukwin do'nsinai"as o'ntifai To'ndrooz Bombro'tu, 
rou'ukwi to'ndrooz, be'utipai ambi fa'mbis, pom- 
boo'kwi ; 

Aur fulmprim/as fo'mpitai'on, fo'nti Undi. 
Fi'ukwin do'nsinai'as to'nsipai konsipai'kwi Pon- 
drooz, nen ke'ntuno a'mbi, fpe'mbur ba'mprifai], 
konsisal'kwi po'ndo , 

Aur fulmprinfj'as fd mfitai' on, fo'nti U'ndi. 
Fi'ukwin do'nsinai"as to'nsipai konsipai'kwi rou'u 
bondroo'tas ; 

Aur fu!mprin<fas fd mpitai!' on, fo'nti U'ndi. 
Fi'ukwin do'nsinai'as ke'ntinai rou'unu po'ndi-oz 
api'niti, e'mbri, gimbo'kwi, 

Aur fulmpi-ind'as fo'mpitai"on, fo'nti U'ndi. 
Fi'ukwin don8inai"as non ke'ntinai u fa'ndis to'nsi- 
kai vi-o'nsikaia"skwi, bambu'nkwi do'nsipai ta'vu 
po'nziz ; 

Aur fiimprind'as fo'mpitai'on, fo'nti U'ndi. 
Fi'ukwin do'nsinai"as ke'ntinai rou'unu bondroo'tas 
dra'ndoo ambe'tu fo'mpitai tc'mbur pundrai'tas, tre'n- 
tinaie"skwi gonti'pu to'nzi, tausipai'kwi o'ndoz 
Undo'tu ; 

Aur fiilmprind'as fdmpitai'on, fdnti Undi. 
Fi'ukwin do'nsinai"as kle'ntisai dranzoi'mu pondo'tu 
grou'u gai'ntlvo pronsisoo'kwi ; 

Aur fiiimprind'as fdmpitai'on, fdnti U'ndi. 
Fi'ukwin do'nsiiiai"as do'mpikai gro'u pra'nsivai; 
toiiiisaI"Icwi bontifiii'kwi fro'nKUsoo"ruz ; tra'skwi 
pi'nsipai gen da'nsivo ; twindi'kwi tris ke'nsivai 
frinzoo taii'rji va'ndiz; 

Aur fa'mprind'as fdmpitai'on, fdnti Undi. 
Kwin fi'u do'nsinai"as do'nsipai, bo'ntifai, tonsisai"- 
kwi grou'uura tro'ndetu, bre'ndoo, framboo'kwi ; 
Aur fulmpriwj' as fdmpitai'on, fdnti Undi. 



That it may please thee to bless and pireserve, 
the PRINCE ALBERT, Albert, Prince of Wales, 
and all tlie Royal Family; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to illuminate all Bishops, 
Priests, and Deacons, witli true knowledge and 
understanding of thy scriptures; and that both in 
their preaching and living (conversation) tliey may 
congruously publish it and shew it; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may jylea^e thee to endue (to cause to 
be subject) the Lords of the Council, a7id all Lords, 
toith grace, wisdom, and understanding; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to bless and preserve the 
Magistrates, to them giving grace [to execute justice, 
i. e. justly to adjudicate] and to maintam truth ; 
We beseech thee to hear tcs, good God. 
That it may please tliee to bless and jfeserve all 
thy people; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it m&j please thee to give to all nations unity, 
peace, and concord ; ' 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to us to give a heart to love 
and fear thee, and diligently to live after thy (acord- 
ing to thy) commandments ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to give to all thy people 
increase of grace to hear meekly thy Word, (the 
Scriptures), and to receive it with pure love, and to 
bring forth the fruits of the Spirit; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may ptl^ase thee to bring into the loay of 
truth all who have erred and are deceived (seduced) ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to strengthen those icho 
stand ; and to comfort and help the iceah liearted (the 
discouraged) ; and to lift up them who fall ; and 
finally, down to strilce the devil under our feet ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to save, help, and comfort, 
all loho are in danger, icant, and tribulation ; 
We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 



Pronoimced Fontlu'rtu. 



L I 



42 



TRANSLATIONS. 



Fi'ukwin do'nsiuai'as ko'nsipai grou'u te'ntiso 
rinzo|ju twi ri'nza, rou'u fa'nsur bi'uzikunz, rou'u 
u'mpuroz, pu'ntinupro"kwiz ; gentipai'kwi dro'nzis 
rou'imu ta'mbrooz v'emprou"kwii-oz ; 

Attr fu'mpring'as fo'mpitai'on, fo'nti JJ'ndi. 
Fi'ukwin do'nsinai"as pe'mprivai konsisai'kwi um- 
fo'nsupoo fro'nzooz, bonzifu'nkwiz ; grou'ukwi um- 
po'nsini ba'iitriiioo"kwi ; 

Aur fu'mpring'as fo'mpitai'on, fo'ndi JJ'ndi. 
Fi'ukwin do'nsinai"as be'mpivi rou'imu bi'nziz ; 

Axir fvlmprindas fo'm])itai''on, fo'nti U^ndi. 
Fi'ukwin do'nsinai"as ta'mprlfai pronza'tons, ku'm- 
broz, da'nti'unoro"kwiz, vu'ntrinai"kwi fandai'tenz ; 

Aur fulmpriniJ'as fo'mpitai"on, fdnti U'ndi. 
Fi'ukwia do'nsinai"as ke'ntiaai konsipai'kwi tau'mu 
ve'ndi, to'nti o'ndoz dinzoi'tu, vro'tukwin tonta'su 
indoo, aur fi'u dentikai"en; 

Aur fvimprino'as fd mpitaH' on, fo'nti U'ndi. 
Fi'ukwin do'nsinai"as non ke'ntuiai ko'nti pa'mbi ; 
non ta'mprifai a'udis tau'rtu fro'nditoz, gro'ndoz, 
plarabai'kwiz ; be'ntiprasto"iikwi a'mbi Undo'tu 
tra'ntipai danzoo'tonz ta'vu fa'mpu pu'ndris. 



Aur fu'mprino"as fJinpitaH'on, fo'nti U'ndi. 

Ho Fro'nzipiu- Undc'tu : am* fu'mprlnn"as fompi- 
tai'on. 

Ho Frdnzipur Und^tu: aur fu!mprinq"as fompi- 
taion. 

Ho Fino'njoi Unde'tu : dyoo da'ntiso fro'nditoz 
dinzoi'tu ; 

Non kdntinqz tawhoo'tas. 
Ho Fino'njoi Unde'tu: djoo da'ntiso fro'nditoz 
dinzoi'tu ; 

Non lelmpivgz. 
Ho Krist, fompito'zon. 

Ho Krist, fompitdzon. 
Ho U'ndi, non be'mpivoz. 

H(> U'ndi, non hdmpivgz. 
Ho Ki-ist, non be'mpivoz. 

H) Krist, non helmpivgz. 
Ho U'ndi, non be'mpivoz. 

Hg U'ndi, wn hdmpivgz. 



Tiiat it may please tliee to preserve all wJio travel 
upon land or sea, all pregnant women, all sick 
persons, and young childrmi ; and shew pity to all 
prisoners and captives; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to defend and maintain, 
fatherless children and widows ; and all loho are 
desolate (friendless) and oppressed; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to be merciful to all men. 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to forgive our enemies, 
persecutors, and slanderers, and to turn (convert) 
their hearts; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to give and preserve to our 
use, the perfect fruits of the earth, so that at the due 
time we may eujoy them; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 
That it may please thee to us to give true (genuine) 
repentance; to us to pardon all (of) our sins, 
neglects, (omissions), and ignorances; and to endue 
us (cause us to have) the grace of the Holy Spirit 
to amend our lives according to thy holy Word 
(Scriptures) ; 

We beseech thee to hear us, good God. 

Son of God : we beseech thee to hear us. 

Son of God : we beseech thee to hear us. 

Ho Lamb of God; who takest away the sins of 
the world; 

To 7ts give thy ^)ca;c«. 
O Lamb of God: who takest away the sins of 
the world ; 

To us, act mercifully. 
O Christ, hear us. 

Christ, hear tts. 
O Lord, to us act mercifully. 

Lord, to us act mercifully, 
Christ, to us act mercifully. 

Christ, to us act mercifully. 
O Lord, to us act mercifully. 

Lord, to us act mercifuUv. 



TRANSLATIONS. 



43 



% Span fu'ndroi londroo'kwi poo'ed^ vrai'u ga'nsitai 

Dc/nzqs Pu'ndra. 
TTO Fo'nzipuVton dyoo po'ntoo inzoi'tu, pu'utrikooz 
kondoo'tas. Pe'ntisoz flondroo'tas. Sut kom- 
boo'tas ven'tivoi joo dinzoi, ai'ful ve'ntivoo inzoi'tu. 
Non ke'ntinoz oju bu'ndis taur do'ntu fe'nzoo ; 
no'nkwi ta'mprifoz pandra'tonz, au'rful ta'mprifo gi-o'u 
pantrino'on. No'kwi bentiso'zon dcbrendoi'mu ; bel 
bonsipo'zon frondo'm. A"ine'n. 

Fu'ndroi. Ho U'ndi rame'pivoz tau'rvu fro'nditoz. 

Pri'ndis. Ho U'ndi rame'pivoz tau'rvu fro'nditoz. 

Uso'n pu'ntrinai. 
TTO U'ndi, be'mpur Fo'nzipur, dyoo grone'sifo 
vranzaz yoo'tu pa'rapu fan'dis, no'twi bo'nzi 
gro'utu kro'nsi; be'mbur bo'ntifoz pundi-a'tons tyaui- 
tri'mpito eoo'as rou'utu tramboo'tonz framboo'kwiz, 
gya'rsuuu ba'ntrin{2"on ; pembu'skwi fo'mpit()"zon, 
ro'ukwin fro'ndoz tyoo fra'mbis pambo'kwi frinzoo'tu 
binze'twiz i'nsiko be'on, fi'u pro'nsipoi; kwi'nkwi 
ta'ti ke'mpur fo'nzoo ar fi'u bri'nsifol; fi'lkwin 
aur, dronzo'taz, prone'tunoo rai'ti ku'mprutoz fi'u, 
ti'ndur, tu'ntrinai"as ta'tu fa'mpu u'i]ondi'e"uti Je'zus 
Kri'st, Donzo'ton. 

Ho U'ndi, 2}a'nsivoz, bo'ntifq"zon^ ho'nsipozohiliwi 
taldi 



TTO U'ndi, aur foi'mpito tau'rti fra'udoz, tau'rkwi 
fo'nzipurz non boi'nsifest, timo'mpur i'nziz tya 
ve'ntivel ta'rtu bu'ndaiz, too'kwi bezi'ndipil coo'en. 

H(2 U'ndi., pa'nsivoz, bontif/zon, ho'nsipqzd'nkivi 
tnldi lidmhi. 

Sut go'nzi ke'ntlnoi Undoo'nu, Undoi'nu, Undo'- 
niikwi ; 

Prindis. Voi'tukyu po'ntipil tendo'tu, po'ntoo 
go'su, tindu'rkwi po'ntipin, twindo'nu dinzoi'tu. 
A"me'n. 

Tau'rni pronzuz, pe'mprivo"zon Ho Krist. 

P^mhus falntjtqz framhoo'tonz. 

Dro'nzus fa'utitoz kro'nziz tau'rtu fa'ndaiz. 

Bdmhur {almprifoz fro"nditqz fa'tu ho'ndroo. 



li Then the Priest, and the people with him, shall 

say the Lord's Prayer. 
C\ our Father who art In heaven, he consecrated 
thy name. Let come thy kingdom. Let thy 
will be done (performed) mi earth, as it is done in 
heaven. To us give on this day our expedient bread ; 
and to us forgive our trespiasses (injuring s) as we 
forgive those who injure us. And not had us into 
temptation; but dehver us from evil. Amen. 

Priest. O Lord, deal not with us ( i. e. punish 
us not) according to our sins. 

Answer. Lord, punish us not according to our 
sins. 

Let us jjra?/. 
r\ God, merciful Father, who despisest not the sighs 
of a penitent heart, nor the desire of those who 
are sorroiofid ; mercifully assist our prayers that toe 
utter before thee in all of our troubles and adversities, 
ivhenever they oppress us; and graciously hear us, 
that those evUs which the craft and subtilty of the 
devil or man work (operate) against us, may he 
brought to nought (annihilated) ; and that by thy 
good providence they may be dispersed (scattered) ; 
so that we, thy servants, not hurt by any persecutions, 
may, evermore, give thanks to thee in thy holy 
Church, by Jesus Christ, our Lord (master). 

God, arise, help us and deliver us, for thy 
names sake. 

f\ God, we have heard with our ears, and onr 
fathers to us have made knoivn, the noble 
(glorious) works which thou performedst In their 
days, and m the long past time before them. 

God, arise, help us and deliver us for thy 
honor. 

Let glory be to God the Father ; to God the Son ; 
and to the Holy Ghost; 

Answer. As (in the same manner as) it was in 
the beginning, is now and ever will be, to the end 
of the world. Amen. 

From our enemies defend us, Christ. 
Graciously look upon our afflictions. 
Pitifully behold the sorrows of our hearts. 
Mercifully forgive the sins of thy people. 



44 



TRANSLATIONS. 



Fouzu, bemboo'pu fo'mpitoz pundi'a'tonz. 

Ho Fi-dnzvpur^itu Daivid non h^mpivoz. 

Kwi'fiB go'su tindu'rkwi fe'mpisoz fompitai'on, Ho 
Krist. 

Pii'mhus fompitq'zcm, Ho Krist; pelmbus fom-piuj- 
zo)i, Ho Fo'ndroo Krist. 

Fa'ndroi. Ho U'ndi, suk bemboo'tas ge'ntipoi 
joo'on. 

Pri'ndis. Au'rful t'as, pe'ntipo konzo'ton 

Uso'a pu'ntrinai. 
A UR fe'inbu fu'mprmo"as, Ho Fo'nzipur, be'mbur 
fa'ntitai drombe'tonz ; de'kwi kamboi'tas naurs 
fre'ntigast rou'u ro'utu fi-o'ndoz twau'mu pe'mbuvous 
poiDtigosto"n!vwen; boutifo'zoiikwi kwin, rou'utu 
tau'rtu fi-a'mbooz, aur fi'u i'ntifai antai'ton ko'nzo don- 
ze kwi ta'tu be'mboo ; grou'sukwiz dronsito'as fam- 
bt; ti dande'kwi rembe'tu, ta'nu go'nzi timomboo kwi ; 
tau'rti tjool Vo'inpruso"ro Dandroo'kwi, Je'ziis Kvist, 
Donzo'tos. A"me'n. 

U Pnndra Bvmdro'tu, Kriso'stum. 
XJO Omo'mpu U'ndi, dyoo non kai'ntino a'mbi 
go'su ti'mbi nas po'ntifai taur vi-a'nta pu'ndraz; 
'i inkwi to'ntrisai gyoo'sukwin a'fin ati'ntwi o'ntrlsoo 
ta'tu ko'ndoo, a vri'u nen ke'ntinai tar fu'mprunoo"riz ; 
go'su Ho U'ndi, nen ke'ntinoz ro'u fo'ndooz bo'n- 
sukoo"on fu'mprunooo"nkwi di-onzo'taz, oi'kyu ti'utum 
do'ntukous de'en ; nen ke'ntuno g'tu di'nzoi, bo'nzoi 
ta'tu po'ndo, too'kwi di'nzifin, ti'ntur da'nzoo. 
A'me'n. 

II. Kuri'nteunz, xiii. v. 
TJO'KWUN a'mbi tau'rtu Do'nzo Je'zus Krist, 
kwi to'nzi Unde'tu, kwi fonza'rit Undo'tu, 
po'ntipi rou'upu too'on ti'ndur. A'me'n. 

Ko'tu twi'nfito Fundmlro. 



Favorably, v:ith mercy, bear our j^dyers. 

Son of David, to us act mercifully. 

Both now and at all times voucJisafe to hear us, 
Christ. 

Graciously bear us, Christ ; graciously hear us, 
Lord Christ. 

Priest. O Lord, let thy mercy be shewn upon us. 

Ansicer. As we put our trust in thee. 

Let us 2)ray. 
T^E humbly beseech thee, Father, mercifully to 
look upon our infirmities; and for thy honor from 
us turn all those evils to which we Tnost righteously 
have subjected ourselves; and help U3, that in all 
our (of our) troubles, we may place our whole trust 
and confidence //( thy mercy ; at all times serve thee 
with holi)iess and purity of life (conversation) , to thy 
praise and glory; through our only Mediator and 
Advocate, Jesus Christ, our Lord. Ameu. 

A pi-ayer of Saint Chrysostom. 
r\ Almighty God, who to us hast given grace at 
this time with one accord (harmoniously) to th>c 
to make our common supplications; and dost prom is, 
[that when] two or three are assembled in thy ««/«<, 
thou wilt to them grant their requests ; now, God, 
to us give those things desired by us, and prayed for 
by us, thy servants, as (the same as) may be most 
expedient for them; to us giving in this world 
knowledge of thy truth, and in the world to come, 
(the futm-e world) eternal life. Amen. 

II. Corinthians, xiii. v. 
f\h may the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, ami 
the love of God; and the fellowship (companion- 
ship) o_f the Holy Ghost, be vnth all of us evermore. 
xYmcn. 

Here eudeth the Litany. 



Dinzifin, the future tense of the noun world ; i. e. future woi-ld. 



NOTES 



TRANSLATIONS 



00. Beli'nu, i. e. hut to. The vowel i is frequently interposed betwixt monosyllabic conjunctions and 
prepositions, for the sake of euphony. Beli'nu is much better than bel nu. So, keli'gil, twio^ tlierefore ; tuli- 
bel, hut if ; geli'bel, iut now ; puli'tul, if perhaps ; &c. &c. &c. 

1. Adverbs. Bezo'mbi: — The adverb o'mbi comes from o'mbo, sound; and he signifies augmen- 
tation ; the compound signifies with a great sound, or very loudly. The z is inserted betwixt two vowels 
merely for the sake of euphony. 

2. Nouns. We do not affix hvi or twi to Foreign or Proper Names: we cannot say Jozifkwi without 
altering the soimd of the Proper Name, which ought never to be done. 

3. Nouns. Here is an instance of the Tense of Nouns :'^pu'ndai, year; pu'ndisil, past year ; pu'n- 
disin, future year. 

4. Preposition and Pronoun. De'an or dan, for you : — dan comes before, and de^an, after the verb. 

5. Pronouns, (accusative) . These include all the Personal Pronouns ; as, pontipi'leos, — pil'ecw, — pi'lecs, 

pi'lewr, — pi'leim, — pi'leore, — pi'leaw, — pi'leew .• i. e. it was not /, thou, it, he, she, we, ye, they. This is good 
English, but bad Philosophic, and also, bad French; in as much as the above pronouns stand related only 
secondarily to the principal verb: the primary subject, being it (understood). 

6. When two rez follow each other consecutively, with merely a vowel between them, the first of the 
two rez is to be sounded as if it were le. 

7. Prepositions, — 1. Simply affixed to nouns, govern them; as, binzeV?*, of the man ; fambe^i', with- 
out holiness; pronza'Ji', against the enemy. 2. But for the sake of euphony, before Proper Names, the 
Preposition, which governs the Proper Name, is suffixed to the immediately preceding tabular noun ; but 
the vowel u or i intervenes betwixt such preposition and the noun to which it ia so suffixed, to distinguish it: — 
^, when the Preposition ends in u; and u, when it ends in i: as, "u fro'nzipu"rtnu Faru," a father to Pharaoh. 
In the above cases, the accent is advanced one syllable ; but these forms are used to avoid a cacophony, 

8. Here the first tu governs ri'nzo, and the second tu governs Go'sun. This form is good. 

9. Transcendentals. Here dwim signifies aggregate ; fi'njoiz, sheep ; and pi'njoiz, kine : so that dioim- 
fi'njoiz, is flocks ; and dwim^i'a]oiz, herds: aggregates of sheep, aggregates of kine. 

M m 



ii. NOTES TO THE TRANSLATIONS. 

10. Demonstratives. K?-ou'skwi* signifies and all which: see page 72, Gi'ammar. We can say, k'okwi, 
kra'kwi, koi'kwi, kroi'kwi, koM'kwi, krow'kwi. kmi'kwi, and klou'kwi, i. e. and this which, and that which, 
and the same ichich, and the other which, and every one which, and each one ivhich, and any one lohich, and 
all ichich (singular). 

11. Syllahic aggregates. Ko'cikwi, translate backwards: Kwi — ci — ro; i.e. and — after — that. So, 
tbe word twai'«2<kwi, and to his. 

12. Prepositions and Pronouns. See page 80, Grammar. Poo, with; andpe, without : — ^ur signifies, 
with Mm, pxxvs,, without him. Thus we have pos, with me ; pas, with thee; pes, with it; "pur, with him; 
pwn, w/th her; pon, with us; pa?i, with you; and pew,* with them. But paus, pw, paw, purs, ^um, pawrs, 
pars, and pars, signify, icithout me, thee, it, him, her, us, you, them. 

13. Prepositions. Before Vowels, all the Prepositions may be absorbed in succeeding Proper Noims by 
changing their final vowels into ic or y, which are not vowels, havmg dimension, but marks of the position 
of M and i, from which the voice runs into the subsequent vowel. By this contrivance, we get rid of one 
syllable, as in the foUowmg examples. 

Of Israel, tw Tzraiel. Through England, dy I'nglund. 

Before Enoch, cw Enoh. After Elijah, cy Hi'ju. 

With Ormond, ;jm; Au'rmund. Instead of Esther, vy E'stur. 

For the English, hw Tnglish. Against the Irish, hy I'ris. 

To Edmonton, mo Edmuntnn, From Enfield, ny E'nfeld. 

Eegard, however, must be had to the quality of the resulting sound. Thus, cio Enoch, and hw 

Inglis, might, perhaps, be better sounded coo-s-Enoch, and boo-s-Inglis. N. B. Kwi and twi must 
be distinguished, as Conjunctions, from the abridgement of the two Prepositions, Koo, beticixt; and Too, of. 

14. Adjective Pronouns, are suffixed as well as prefixed to their nouns : as, fonzipu'rtos, tas, tes, tur, 
ted, fun, tet, ion, tan, and ten ; i. e. my father, thy, its, his, &c. 

1.5. Ri, (a suffix), signifies thing; — as, o'ri, ro'ri, oi'ri, roi'ri, i'ri, ri'ri, ou'ri, rou'ri, rai'ri, lou'ri, i. e. 
this thing, that thing, d:c. See Demonstratives, page 72. 

16. This is always the plural form for the feminine gender. You cannot use the plural z after et 
and say ko'nzifetz, but ko'nzifanz. 

1 7. Tlie Directive or Imperative Verb is denoted by z, at the end of the neutral, the active, or the pas- 
sive. In the case of Neutrals, z is suffixed either to the Infinitive or Indicative ; as, famptni'za, pampivi'za, 
dempivi'za, i. e. be heedful, be happy, be brave; (Infinitive): — Or, fampi'nsa, pampoo'sa, dempoo'za; (Indicative). 

18. The letter N. When the letter n comes before g or k, it must be changed to «; as, nu'nkwi, non'- 
kwi, na'nkwi, and ne'nkwi, i. e- and from her, us, you, and them. So, nu'ngwen, no'ngwen, na'ngwen, and 
ne'ngwen, i. e. from her own, from our own, from your own, from their own. 

19. Prepositional Adverb, Trus. All the Prepositions which precede a verb, are converted into Adverbs 
merely by suffixing the letter s / as, trus ba'nsuno, itp starting ; tris dra'nsuvo, down lying. 

20. Participles. Da'nsupo, living, (progi'essive): — so, da'nsuto, writing; tr^nsuno, weeping / &c. 

* This word, Krou'skwi, should have been, Kiou'kwi. 



NOTES TO THE TRANSLATIONS. iii. 

21. ^cc«sai!<'tie PronoMHs, with the past tense of the verb, take e before the final pronoun ; as, konsi- 
feleos, — as, — es, — ur, — un, — on, — an, — en. Here the second vowel e is inserted merely for the sake of 
euphony. 

22. Twur is one of the Subjunctive forms ; viz, twos, twas, twes, twur, twun, twaur, twar, twar. 

23. Tantoo, it is enough. Obs. The Pronoun it is not used before a Tabular Verb, but is always 
understood, imless it be emp^aiicoi; as, po'nto, it is true; pro'nto, it is false; po'ntm, it is profitable ; pro'n- 
tin, it is hurtful; ko'ntg, it is genuine; kr'onto, it is spurious; po'nti, it is lawful; fo'nti, it is decent; to'nti, 
it is safe ; &c. &c. So, Actives and Passives; as, tre'ntipo, it seems ; fe'nslpo, it flies ; pe'nslvo, it walks ; 
ga'nsitoo, it is said; pa'nsitoo, it is spoken; po'mpitool, it was seen. 

24. Dra'nsipast ( see page 3 ) consists of the Tabular " dra'nzoo" and ast, ( is caused ), which is always 
suffixed to an Active Tabular ; so that the compound signifies, is caused to die ; i. e. is slain. Umbu'ntrusoo 
is derived fi-om " bundris" circumcision ; and um, signifying privation. 

25. See page 129, Kwi'tum, let there be., &c. 

26. The Tabular '■'■fvlndrai' signifies oblation ; ri., thing ; and s, plural, — two noons united by a pre- 
position understood. 

27. See Negatives Tabular, page 91. 

28. "Krist's :" — this is the Enghsh genitive case of Christ. Proper names should always be imported 
entire unaltered into this language, as their form usually imfits them for modification by the gi-ammatical 
rules of it. 

29. This word is a sub-special adjective with the letters rz as a suffix, to denote persons; and signifies 
old persons. The syllable in, inserted in the adjective ku'ntupurz, after the letter /, deno'tes the seventh 
Difference, kuntl'nupur. The eighth, ninth, and tenth, &c. Differences would be, kunti'nufurz, ku'ntin'u- 
turz, kimti'nukurz, kunti'nuvurz, &c. 

30. The relative pronouns form their plurals by suffixing u to the singular number: thus, tyoo, 
which, (singular), is tyoo'u, which, (plural); dyoo, who, (singular), is dyoo'u, who, (plural); dwoo, whom, 
singular, is dwoo'n, whom, (plural), &c. &c. 

32. " Pontooz." The verbs are not varied to denote plurality : nor is it generally necessary. Still, 
there are cases where it would more distinctly point to its antecedent subject. To meet such rare occasions, 
the usual sign of plurality (zj., may be suffixed to the verbs, whether copulative or tabular. 



ADDENDA 



AND 



COERICtENDA 



Yy 



ADDENDA. 



Book I. Page 8. The following Table ought to have appeared at the end of the page. 
Differences .-—niNmS, Characteristic: Ll'NDIS, Matter. 

Species : — Pli'ndis, Assertive Characteristic. Pi'ldis, Matter of an Assertive. Fli'ndis, 
Interrogative Characteristic. Fi'ldis, Matter of Interrogative. Ti'ldis, Directive Characteristic. 
Twi'ldis, Matter of Directive. Kli'ndis, Optative Characteristic. Kil'dis, Matter of Optative. 
Bl'indis, Exclamative Characteristic. BiTdis, Matter of Exclamative. 

Book I. Page 5. First Difference of O'ndi. After Fro'ndoo, appearance; insert, — Flo'ndoo, 
atom. 

First Difference of Un'zi. After U'NZO 0, fire; msert— RU'NZOO, extinction. 

First Difference of U'nzi. After Tru'nzoo, thunder; insert, — Twu'nzoo, electricity. 

Third Difference of U'nzi. After Prulnzq, bubble ; insert, — Plu'nzo, froth. 

Second Difference of U'nji. After Kr'unjoi, glass; insert, — Klu'njoi, crystal, 
(chemical). 

Sixth Difference of U'nji. After Tru'njai, coal; insert, — Twu'njai, charcoal. 

First Difference of O'nji. After Gro'njoo, flea; insert, — Glo'njoo, domestic bug. 

Seventh Difference of E'nji. After Pe'rj/twoo, lajjwing; insert, — Ple'njinoo, avocetta. 

First Difference of A'ndi. After Tra'ndoo, milk; insert, — Ta'ldoo, butter-milk. 

Sixth Difference of A'ndi. After Kra'ndai, gut; insert, — Kla'ndai, cud. 

Third Difference of E'ndi. After Frefndg, angle; add, — (internal). Also insert, — 
Flendo, angle, (external). Fe'ldo, arch. 

Third Difference of E'ndi. After Bre'ndo, cube; insert, — Blc'ndo, bead. 

Third Difference E'ndo. After Prdndq, crookedness; insert, — Ple'ndo, curvedness. 

Second Difference of E'ndi. After br^ndoi, axis; insert,— Ble'ndoi, radius. 

Fourth Difference of En'di. After Prc/nda, hole; insert, — Pe'lda, rivet, double- 
headed pin. 

Fourth Difference of E'ndi. After Prelnda, hole; insert, — Ple'nda, murtice. 

Third Difference of I'ndi. After Twi'ndo, left side; insert, — T'ildo, opposite 
side. 
Book I. Page 30. Second Difference of Oinbi. After O'MBOIZ, internal senses ; insert, — RO'M- 
BOI, conception; (remaining internal effect on the consciousness when the exter- 
nal cause is absent. Also insert, — Blo'mboi, exquisite feeling or sensibility. 

Third Difference of O'mbi. After, OMBO, external senses; insert,— llO'MBO, 
perception ; immediate effect of external objects on the senses. 

Third Difference of I'mbi. After Trimhq, jangling; insert, — Ti'lbo, melody: 
Twi'mbo, melody or harmony. 

Fifth Difference of O'nzi. After Vr'onzi, fear ; insert, — Vlo'nzi, horror. 

First Difference of E'nzi. After Fre'nzoo, hovering; insert, — Fle'nzoo, refuge. 

Fourth Difference of E'nzi. After Krelma, hloioing the nose; insert, — Klc'nza, 
drivelling. 
Book I. Page 39. First Difference of O'nzl. After Pro'nzoo, descendant; insert,— Plo'nzoo, lateral 
descendant. 



Book I. 


Page 9. 


Book I. 


Page 9. 


Book I. 


Page 10. 


Book. I. 


Page 10. 


Book I. 


Page 11. 


Book I. 


Page 19. 


Book I. 


Page 24. 


Book I. 


Page 26. 


Book I. 


Page 27. 


Book I. 


Page 28. 


Book I. 


Page 28. 


Book I. 


Page 28. 


Book I. 


Page 28. 


Book I. 


Page 28. 


Book I. 


Page 28. 


Book I. 


Page 29. 



Book I. 


Page 30. 


Book I. 


Page 34. 


Book I. 
Book I. 
Book I. 


Page 36. 
Page 37. 
Page 38. 



Book 1. 
Book I. 


Page 40. 
Page 40. 


Book I. 
Book I. 
Book I. 


Page 41. 
Page 41. 
Page 42. 



Book I. 


Page 42. 


Book I. 


Page 42. 


Book I. 


Page 42. 



ii. ADDENDA. 

Book!. Page i59. Genus, O'nzi. Aher O'NZT, Economical Belation ; insert,— RO'NZl, Political 
EcoBoniy. 
Second Difference of A'nzi. After Kra'nzoi^ altar; insert, — Kla'nzoi, cathedral. 
Third Difference of A'nzi- After Fra'nzq, apartments; insert, — Fla'nzo, sleeping 

apartment. 
Fourth Difference of A'uzi. After Kralnza^ hey; insert, — Kla'nza, ward of lock. 
Sixth Difference of A'nzi. After Gralnzai, trap; insert, — Gla'nzai, snare. 
First Difference of O'ndri. After OMBROO, parity; insert,— EO'MBROO, 
subordination. 
Book I. Page 42. First Difference of O'ndri. After OMBROO, parity ; insert,— LO'MBROO, 
equality of rank : O'LDROO, inferiority of rank. 
Fourth Difference of E'nzi. After Drelnza. cord ; insert, — Dwe'nza, chain. 
Sixth Difference of E'nzi. After Felnzni, fuel ; insert, — Fre'nzai, match. 
Sixth Difference of E'nzi. After V^nzai, ijen; insert, — Ve'lzai, pencil, (inflexi- 
ble) : Vle'nzai, hair pencil. 
Book I. Page 43. Genus, A'ndi-i. After A'NDRI, insert Judicial Relation : also A'MBRI, Court, 

(place) : and L A'MBRI, Court, (persons). 
Book I. Page 43. First Difference of A'ndri. After Dalmhroo, witness; insert, — Ga'ndroo, grand 

jury: Ga'mbroo, petit jury : Gla'ndroo, jury (generally). 
Book I. Page 43. Second Difference of A'ndri. After Pn'mhroi, arrest ; add, — (the person). Also 
insert, — Pla'mbroi, arrest; (the goods). 
Fifth Difference of A'ndri. After Talmhri, precipitatiiig ; insert, — Tw'ambri, 

precipitating on liooks. 
Genus, E'ndri. After ENDRI, add— Military Relation; then insert,— E'MBRI, 

peace: RE'MBRI, war. 
Fifth Difference of E'ndri. After Ti/ndrt, I udder ; insert, — Te'nibri, shield. 
Fifth Difference of E'ndri. After Pe'ndri, weapon ; add, — offensive or defensive : 
and insert, — Ple'ndrl, offensive weapon: Pe'ldri, defensive weapon. 
Book I. Page 45. Sixth Difference of E'ndri. After ENDRAIZ, military places ; insert,- LE'N- 

DRAI, stile. 
Book I. Page 46- First Difference of U'ndri. After Pu'ndroo, Natural Religion; insert, — Pu'mbroo, 

Pantheism. 
Book I. Page 47. Third Difference of U'ndri. After Tundrq, confessor ; insert, — Twu'udro, con- 
fessor; (sufferer for opinion generally). 
Sixth Difference of U'ndi'i. After Vu'mhrai, cucliarist ; insert, — Ylu'mbrai, 

anointing. 
Section 184. The whole Table of To, this thing ; Tro, that thing ; &c. 
should have been repeated with S prefixed : — thus, Sto, this thing which ; 
Stro, that thing which; and so throughout the Table. 
Section 187. Insert — Spur, mean time; at the end of the Table. 
Between Nos. 14 and 15 insert, — Twis, or ; (explicative). 
No. 36. After In ivhat degree that, insert, — How- 
Section 138. Insert, — 10. Lou, all; (singular) 

S, suffixed to the Concrete Ordinals, forms a Class of Adverbs, of Time ; — 
namely, a'prlus, the first time; .a'frins, the second time; (See. &c. 



Book I. 


Page 44. 


Book I. 


Page 44. 


Book I. 


Page 45. 


Book I. 


Page 45. 



Book I. 


Page 47. 


Book I. 


Page 87. 


Book I. 


Page 88. 


Book I. 


Page 94. 


Book I. 


Page 95. 


Book I. 


Page 72. 


Book I. 


Page 155. 



ADDENDA. iH. 

Book I. Page 4.5. Sixth Diflference of E'mbri. After E'mhrai, sepimmt; insert, — Le'mbrai, breech. 

Book I. Page 68. Section 123. After sign of plurality of Noutis, add, — and Verbs. 

Book I. Page 82. After number 55, insert — No. 56, Mool, in the course of. 

Book I. Page 95. After number 47, insert, — 48, Sto'lkwin, adding that. 

Book I. Page 103. Section 213. After famjm' stum/ insert, — or fa'mpisi! aiter fampu'stul/ insert, — 
orfampisi'l! after emjm'r tun / insert, — orempuvi'n! after pampu'rtunf insert — 
or pa'mpivin! after hdtutum! insert, — or po'ntipi ko'tu! after dansii'rtulf 
insert, — or dansipil ! after dinsou'tun, insert,— or di'nsifi. 

Book I. Page 104. Chapter V. At foot of the chapter, insert, — Negatives : — Trum, trul, trun, (tc. 



Book II. Page 6. Verse 25. After is come, insert, — that thing. 
Book II. Page 13. Verse 50. Before brethren, insert, — my. 



Book III. Letter C. Insert Cataract, n. Dino'nza. 

Book III. Letter T. Tide flowing, (towards land) n. Dina'nza. 2, Dine'uza, (towards the 



ADDENDA TO GRAMMAR. 



INTERROGATIVES TABULAR BEFORE SUBSTANTIVES. 

The Tabulars Interrogative, at page 107, are made to tenninate m the pronoun az', (it). These 
forms are used only where the pronoun it is eraphatical. Instead of the pronoun ai, all these forms 
ought to terminate in the vowel u, ; thus, — Dinsoi'w, dinsifi'lew, dinsifi'uew,' — Dinsife'«, dinsife'lew, 
dinsife'ue;/ .• — Dinsifoo'w, duisifoole't<, dinsifoo'new. These are the forms which are to be employed 
before SuhstantiiK Subjects. 

Examples. 

Is the well full? Dinsoi'w tri'nza? i. e. Is it full — the well? or. Is the well full? 

Dinsifi'lejt tri'nza? Was it full — the well? or, Was the well full 

Dinsifi'neu tri'nza? Will it be full ?— the well ? or, Will the well be tull? 



Z z 



CORRIGENDA. 



INTRODUCTION. 

Page 8 line 15 from the bottom, instead of g'enti i'nzoo^ •m.-ite {dntu i'nzoo. 

3 „ 1 „ ,, instead of di'u, write dri'u. 

8 „ 17 „ top, insert exclaimer, after directer. 

9 „ 5 „ bottom, dele mene^ and insert Mene. 

12 „ 2 „ ,, instead of infinitwe substantives^ insert accusatice substantives. 

„ 19 „ 13 „ „ instead of gutteral, insert guttural. 

•5 30 „ 14 „ top, instead of Interrogative, insert Subjunctive. 



BOOK I. 

RADICAL SUBSTANTIVES OF LANGUAGE AND GRAMMAR. 
Page 9 Genus U'ndi, for A'nti- Christ, read Anti- Christ. 

„ 24 First DiiFerence under I'nji, for Pelnjoo, Felnjoo, Fre'iy'oo, Telnjoo, and Kt'njoo, insert 

Pi'njoo, Fi'njoOf Fri'njoo, Ti'njoo, and Ki'njoo. 
„ 28 Second Difference of E'ndi, instead of section., write secant. 
„ 33 Second Difference of I'mbi, instead of FMBOIZ, insert FMBOIZ. 
„ 43 Second Difference of Andi-i, instead of A'mboi, write A'mbroi. 
., 43 Fourth Difference of O'ndri, instead of Cndiaz, rights and liberties; insert O'ndraz, 

rights; and O'mbrnz, liberties. 
„ 55 line 5 from the bottom, instead of Cntis, insert Cntus. 

„ 67 Section 120, No. 2, instead oiMvrunJoo'rit krunjoo'tu, insert Kriwjoi'rit krunjoi'tu. 

;, 67 Sec. 120. cancel all the words after — [§ 120], as far as — such concrete. 

Also cancel all the middle column of Concrete and 
Abstract ending in u, there being no such substan- 
tives in the language. Cancel also the observation 
at the foot of the page. 
„ 69 Chapter III. read Chapter III. after Chapter II.; and read Chapter II. 

after Chapter III. 
instead of Oh! way, insert 0! way. 
instead of tpngwdnkwen., tangw(/nkwm, and tengwc/nkwen, 
insert fongwe'nkwen, tangwenkwen, & fengivenkwen. 
instead of adding., put prefixing. 



70 


hne 


5 from the bottom, 


74 


Sec. 


152. 


74 


Sec. 


156, first Ibe, 



CORRIGENDA. v, 

74 Examples, line 2, instead of hra'nfiuil, insert hlampinil 

76 line 4 from the top, instead of Pe'aus or pans, insert Fe^os or pans. 

78 Section 171, instead of rdntrisool, insert rdnvprisool. 

7<S Section 172 instead of kentinai'nu, insert hentniai'inu. 

78 Sec. 172, instead of punti'nujnr^ insert punti'nupro. 

79 Part XVI, line 5, instead of wliich yoverns it, insert which it governs. 
Id line 3 from the bottom, instead of Fondripu'fir^ insert Fondripu'rfi. 

81 „ 8 „ „ instead of konzipu'ntps, insert Jco'nzipun. 

84 No. 25. instead of dontoo'dru^ insert, dontoo'dru. 

85 line 2 from the top, instead of snurs, off her, insert snuns, off her. 
85 line 1 from the bottom, instead of Tan, ten, ton, insert Tran, fren, iron. 

85 „ 11 „ „ instead of ^os write ^aws.- instead of ies write iats." instead 

of ken, write kan. 
85 )j 11 J) top, instead of Iroo, tri, insert Troo, tru. 

85 „ 12 „ „ instead of Tre, tru, insert Tre, tri. 

86 „ 2 ,, „ instead of Gloo, gli, insert Gloo, rjlu. 
86 „ 4 „ „ instead of Skroo, skru, insert Snoo, snu, 

86 „ 6 „ „ instead of Nas, towards thee; mir, towards him; nun, 

towards us; nes, towards it; insert spas, toivards 

thee; spur, towards him; spun, towards her ; spes, 

towards it. 
86 „ 7 „ „ instead of Nans, nas, nais, nurs, cCc, insert Spaus, sjms, 

spais, spars, &c. 
instead of Together, i. e. joined, tyool, insert Together, i. e. 

joined, tyd. 
instead of pegwiltu, insert pcgyu'tu Instead of hegwi'Ju, 

insert hegyuldu. 
instead of pegwUdu insert pegyvldu. 
instead of tyidikwin, insert twi'dikwin. 
instead of in the course, insert in the course of. 
instead of Tyel, insert Tyool: instead of hdntipai, insert 

hdntipo. 
instead of konzipu'nfur insert konzipu'nfur. 
instead of bonsipdol, insert honsipaiol. 
instead of tonsipdleet insert tonsikdieet. 
instead of ti'mpitoz, insert ti'mpitoz. 
instead of hretheren, iaisert brethren. 
instead of hundai'turz, insert lundai'turz. 
instead of pintipeTejs, insert pintipdlrfis. 
instead of yilnkyu, insert yinkyu. 
instead of Skroo'kwin, insert Snoo'kioin. 
instead of Skr'ekwin, insert Snfjkwtn. 
instead of PART XIX, insert PART XXI. 
instead of ra'mpukrqz, insert rdmpukr(^r.. 
instead of aikai'an, insert okai'an. 



88 


„ 5 „ 


88 


Sec. 187, line 7, 


88 


„ 8, • 


88 


Sec. 188, line G, 


93 


line 2 from the bottom 


94 


No. 9, 


94 


No. 14, 


95 


No. 19, 


95 


No. 22, 


95 


No. 23, 


95 


No. 24, 


95 


No. 25, 


95 


No. 33, 


95 


No. 38, 


95 


No. 43. 


95 


No. 44, 


104 


lino 6 from the bottom. 


111 


line 9 from the top 


119 


Sec. 4. 



CORRIGENDA. 



120 


Sec. 246, fii-st word, 


122 


line 1 from the bottom, 


122 


bottom line, 


133 


Sec. 1, Plurals, 


140 


(Its) 


142 


(Out of J 


142 


(Rather that) 


143 


(Such) 


143 


(Shortly) 


143 


(Their) 


147 


(Im) 


147 


(II) 


147 


(In) 


147 


(It) 


147 


(JuifUy 



150 



(Rom) 



instead of TJiere, insert These, 

Transpose Jcoojmu'ven bepa'tin tu'ndooz: to follow Doopauli-jj 

feddvin hulndooz. 
instead of hu'ndooz, insert pulndooz. 
instead of Ro'utukwi^ insert Rgu'tukwi. 
instead of vo'mhetur, insert vombt^tjtr. 
instead of tejos, insert te^es. 
instead of thi, insert tr^u. 
instead of feZ, insert tal. 
instead of pompit^leed, insert pomijitejneed. 
instead of fo'mbrq^ insert fo'mbra, 
instead of mi im, alter to au, im' 
instead of au il, alter to au il'. 
instead of au in pe'ntisai, alter to au in' iitntisai. 
instead of oinitf'es, insert om i'tees. 
instead of in some degree, insert in a certain degree ; instead 

of he is in some degree to be blamed, insert he is in 

a certain degree to be blamed. 
instead of Rous^ insert Lou. 



Page 



1 Verse 

2 Verse 
2 Verse 

2 Verse 

3 Verse 

3 Vei-se 

4 Verse 

4 Verse 

5 Verse 
5 Verse 
Psalm II. V 
7 Psalm 
7 Psalm 

7 Psalm 

8 Psalm 
8 Psalm 
8 Psalm 
8 



line 4 
line £ 
line S 



4, 
10, 

11, 
1.3, 
21, 

24, 
21, 
21, 
11, 
18, 

crse 4, 
II. verse 7, 
XI. verse 6, line 1 
XI. verse G, 



line 2 



BOOK II. 

TRANSLATIONS. 

instead of tintifelee'' nkicen, insert tintifel. 
instead of krou'skwi, insert klou'hci. 
instead of kro'uskwi, insert klou'kwi. 
instead of krou'skivi, insert klou'kici. 
instead of iq'rdi, insert tn'rdi. 
instead of Koniijm'rturs^ insert konzipu'rfurs. 
Instead of vloornesool^ insert vloom^prisooh 
instead of zum, insert zul. 
instead of ggau'su, insert gyo'su. 



line 1, from top, instead of tyool^ insert tyel. 



instead of who (in italic), insert who, (in roman letters)- 

instead of pounsi2)ai'as, insert pounsipoas. 

instead of tu'nsinai, insert tu'nsitai. 

instead of vri'u, insert ti'u; instead of o vriutum, ins-ert 
n vrai'utum. 
LXXXIV. verse 2, instead of da'nsupo, insert da'nsupo. 
LXXXIV. verse 9, instead of vrinsukoo'rg, insert vlumpusoo' rq. 
LXXXIV. V. 10, 1. 2, instead of to'nzunou, insert fo'nzunou. 
„ verse 11, instead of frinzi, insert fri'nzoi : instead of tinomboo kwi, 

insert timomboo'kioi,: for vre'ntipai, put vcntfpai 



CORRIGE^^DA. 



PaftN 



10 
11 
11 

X2 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 

12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 
13 

14 
14 
14 
14 
14 
15 



Psalm LXXXIV. verse 12, 

Psalm XCI. verse 2, Hue 1, 

Psalm XCI. verse 3, 

Verse 13, 

Verse 4, line 2, 

Verses 9 and 10, lines 2, 

Verse 15, line 1, 

Verse 9, 

Verse 10, line 2, 

Verse 14, line 2, 



I. Corinthians, verse 3, 
Verse 11, 
Verse 12, 

Verse 24, 
Verse 24, 
Verse 24, 
Verse 26, 
Verse 27, 
Verse 28, 

Verse 28, line 3, 

Verse 29, 

Verse 31, 

Verse 35, line 2, 

Verse 37, 

Verse 39, 

Verse 43, 

Verse 44, 

Verse 45, 

Verse 46, 

Verse 47, lines 1 and 2, 

Verse 51, 

Verse 53, line 1, 
Revelations IV. 
Verse 1, line 2, 
Verse 2, 
Verse 3, 
Verse 8, 



15 
Z z 2 



Verse 10, 



instead of hilnzi, insert binzi. 

instead of jlenzai'tos, insert Jlenzoo'tos. 

instead of glanzai'ni^ insert glanzaini. 

instead of ta'ndiz, insert va'ndiz. 

instead of ponddtur, insert pondq'lw: 

instead of kinralnmpoo, insert ralnzoo. 

instead of vraHu, insert ti'u. 

instead of gou'u, insert gou. 

instead of ponesifdeed, insert bonesif^leed. 

instead of tinomhoo'tur^ insert timomhoo'tur ; instead of tin- 

dmhoo^ insert timomboo; instead of pra'nsupoo, 

insert palnsupjoo; 
instead of a'prin, insert (t!prins: instead of tau'di, put tau'rdi. 
instead of (Irtvoi^ insert alrtwi ; instead of ar, insert nr. 
instead of hwa'trum, insert kwaitrum; instead of ga'nsiten, 

gansitdu. 
instead of Rous, insert lou. 
instead of trinlch, insert twimh. 
instead of rous and rouskwi, insert lou and loukwi. 
instead of dranzoo'um, insert dran^odum. 
instead of rou'u fo'ndooz read trou'u. 
instead of pdrnprivoon, insert po'mprivin; instead of fo'm- 

privin, insert po'mprivin. 
instead of rous, too'rous, insert loxi lou'iji. 
instead of u'mmr, insert u'mmr. 
instead of tau'di^ insert tau'rdi. 
instead of u'near, insert {'near: 
instead of rdnzoi, insert ri'nzoo. 
instead of Rous, insert Lou. 
instead of rombdtu, insert dronibe'tu. 
instead of Jcwa'hvi, insert kwq. 
instead of ya'prin, insert yalprins. 
instead of olprin, insert dprins. 

instead of ya'prin and yglfrin, insert y^prins and ya'frins. 
instead of fri'ntiri, insert tri'ntiri; instead of vrefntifai, 

insert vre'ntifoo. 
instead of ensurwiipu, insert emitioi'ipu. 
instead of Revalations, insert Revelations. 
instead of tyau, insert twos. 
instead of pdntipil, insert pdntipU. 
instead of palntivil. insert palntikil. 
instead of vundai'tu, insert vundai'du ; instead of j'ldntipif, 

insert pldntipil ; instead of uriindai'lwi, insert 

vrundai'tvn. 
instead of tcH'nfur, insert teijndur. 



CORRIGENDA. 



gc 16 


top l-ne, 


„ 16 


line 2, from the top, 


,, 16 


line 5 from the top, 


„ 16 


line 7 „ „ 


„ 16 


line 18 „ „ 


„ 16 


line 6 from the bottom. 


„ 16 


line 10 „ „ 


„ 16 


line 11 from the top, 


,. 17 


line 2 „ top. 


„ 17 


line 5 -, „ 


,, 17 


lines 13 and 14, from bottom, 


„ IS 


top line. 


„ 18 


line 19 from the top, 


„ IS. 


line 3 „ bottom 


„ 19 


line 5 „ top, 


„ 19 


line 15 „ top. 


„ 19 


line 2 from the bottom, 


„ 19 


line 4 ,, „ 


„ 19 


line 5 ,, „ 


„ 20 


line 2 „ top, 


:, 20 


line 4 ,, „ 


„ 20 


lines 1, 5, ?nd 11, fra. bottom 


), 21 


top line, 


„ 22 


line 8 from the top, 


„ 22 


line 5 from the bottom 


„ 22 


line 6 


„ 23 


l-'ne 10 „ top, 


V 22 


line 22 from the top, 


„ 23 


line 17 „ „ 


„ 23 


line 18 


„ 23 


line 20 


„ 23 


line 22 „ ^ 


„ 23 


line 26 „ 


„ 23 


line 7 from the bottom, 


„ 24 


lines 1 and 10 top, 


,, 24 


line 14 „ „ 


„ 25 


line 13 „ „ 


„ 25 


bottom line, 


„ ^25 


line 13 from the bottom, 


,, 25 


line 16 


„ 26 


line 20 from the top. 


n 26 


line 6 from the bottom, 


„ 26 


line 7 „ 


» 26 


line 12 



instead of Mnipus and uno'nzoo, insert vilmpus and indnzoi. 

instead of a!ndus-tre!nsivool, insert a'ndtis-trefiisiv^l. 

instead of tyur, insert twur. 

instead of rous and rous, insert lou and lou. 

instead of tronsujMo'suruz and rous, insert tronsupoozuroz 

and hu. 
instead of hel, insert lei. 
instead of ■Unu, insert i'ni. 
instead of mighy, insert mighty. 
instead of karun(fsukoo, insert karuyvfmpoo. 
instead of va'nzn, insert vdnzo. 
instead of rous'tu and rous, insert iou'tu and lou. 
instead of vimbUnziz, insert vimbinzi. 
instead of too' ton, insert too' on. 
instead of dcindi, insert do'ndo. 
insert after Iviten, the word to. 
'nstead of Pa'ntrivoz, insert Pa'ntri'j)<tz. 
instead of vintimo'bras, insert vintmi<Jbas. 
instead of vondodhras, insert vondoo'bas. 
instead of little, read little. 
instead of tdmbroo, insert tdndroo. 
instead of t_u, insert tu. 
, instead of rous, insert lou. 
instead of randai'kwinz, insert rondaikwinz. 
instead of Tus pefntis Pdrsm, tfcc, insert Mus pdntis, cCc. 
instead of n'frin, insert i^frins. 
instead of tnzoi'ni, insert inzoilni- 
instead of pom/_2ntai, insert po'mpitat. 
instead of a, insert twq. 
instead of dambri'shoi, insert dambri'skwi. 
instead of dmpu, insert dmpuka. 

instead of alfrin ro va'mbris, insert c^frins r<j vra'ndis. 
instead of DamprisaHtwi, insert Bamprisai'tici. 
instead of a'prin, insert a'prins, 
instead of pe'ntisoo, insert pelnttisoo. 
instead of a'trin, insert a'trins. 
i'lstead of a Hndivo'stes, Insert fa tindicastes. 
instead of densitdos, insert densitdos. 
instead of di'i, Insert dri'u. 
instead of rou'skwi, Insert lou'kwi. 
instead ot podrous, insert lovljm. 
instead of dendisdes, Insert densivdes. 
Instead of helntipo, Insert be/ntipai. 
instead of rous, Insert lou. 
instead of a'trin, insert a'trins. 



COREIGENDA. 



top, 
bottom. 



top, 



line 9 

line 15 

Head line, 

line 3 

line 4 „ „ 

line 11 „ „ 

John Locke, line 3 „ 

line 5, from the bottom, 

lines 8 and 9 „ 

line 15, „ top, 

No. 2, 

No. 3. line 3, 

No. 6. line 6, 

No. 8. line 2, 

No. 9, line 12, 

line 12 from the top, 

line 3 from the bottom, 

line 11 „ „ 

line 2 from the top, 

line 4 „ „ 

line 11 „ „ 

line 19 „ „ 

line 12 from the bottom, 



instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 

instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 
dele u. 
instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 
instead 



line 12 from the top, instead 



of rdnsitai, insert refntisai. 

of vi'ntison, insert vi'niisoon. 

of VANDOITU, insert VRANDOITU. 

of picdiizoo, insert halnzoo. 

of zoo'vru, insert zq'vru 

of 'pdnzis^ insert dnzis. 

of pa!nzois^ insert pa'nzqz. 

of pdndi, insert po'ndi. 

of rou'skwi and rou'shwin, insert lovlkwi and 

lovlkioin. 
of yoo'tum fos, insert tos/tum. 
of Iro'ntina, insert hrontinas. 
of nul, insert nul. 
of dro'ntus, insert dro 



of Mazes, insert hi'nzes. 

of pren^tisoi, insert pre'ntisoi. 

of o'nzil, insert o'nzil. 

of gUntivq, inseit gi^ntival. 

of pinondq'rit, insert hedelmhoo. 

of rozis, insert ?om. 

of gimhoo'rit, insert hede'mboo. 

of fe?, insert /^eZ/ instead of Ico'utu-, insert Z;om'<«. 

of dvonzq'tos, insert dronzq'tas ; instead of Fo'ndripet, 

insert Fo'ndripun. 
of pronzqilons, insert pronzdtonz. 



ADDENDA. 



No'gwin, hy no means ; i. e. emphatically not. Gwin, emphatically. Kwint, emphatical. 



BOOK III. 

A 

DICTIONARY 

OF THE 

PHILOSOPHIC LANGUAGE. 



THE 

DICTIONARY. 



ABO 

A, article indefinite, w before a 
vowel, as wu'mvi, a tree. 2, W, 
after an initial consonant, as 
bwi'nzi, a man. 3, U, before a 
consonant, as u bi'nzi, a man. 
4, Yoo, before either a vowel 
or consonant, as yoo bi'nzi, a 
man; yoo e'ndl a7i event. 5, Uo, 
after the initial consonant, as 
boo'inzi, a man. 

Abandon, v. Fre'ntifai. 2, Bro'n- 
sipai, i. e. by God. 

Abase, v. a. Kra'ntifrost. 2, Bra'm- 
pifrost. 3, Fe'mpikrost. 

Abash^ V. a. Fro'nsivrost. 

Abate, v. a. Pla'ntlprost, to make 
little. 2, Dvva'ntipai, to make 
less. 3, Gla'utiprost, to mitigate. 
4, Da'ntisai, i. e. to deduct. 

Abbot, n. Donombro'fas. 

Abbey, n. Dono'mbro 

Abbreviate, v. a. Pra'ntifrost, to 
shorten. 2, Vi'ntikrost, to epito- 
mise. 

Abridge, v. a. (see abreviate.) 

Abdicate, v. a. Tr'entipai. 

Abed, V. Tou'nsupo. 

Abet, V. a. Kra'ntinai. 2, Fo'n- 
sisai. 3, Bo'ntifai. 

Abhor, V. a. Betro'nsikai. 2, Bebro'n- 
sinai, i. e. to feel great aversion. 

Abide, v. Ku'ntisai. 2, Vi'ntipi. 3, 
Da'mpinai. 4, Ke'ntisai. 5, lia'n- 
sipai. 6, Dro'ntipai. 7, Ge'mpivai. 

Abject, adj. Bebra'mpou. 2, Be- 
gi-o'nsou. 3, Trempi. 

Ability, n. Bro'ndo. 2, O'mbi. 3, 
A'nzi, as a man of property. 

Abjure, V. a. Frino'ntisai, to deny 
on oath. 2, Bis ko'ntrisai. 

Ablatum, n. Da'ndis. 

Able, adj. Bro'nti. 2, O'mpu. 

Abode, (see abide, past tense.) 

Abolish, V. a. Plo'ntiprost. 2, Pro'n- 
sipai. 3, Ki-o'nsipai. 4, Unto'n- 
trinai, i. e. to unlaw. 5, Um'pin- 
tipai, to undo. 6, Umve'ntivai. 

Abominate, v. a. Betro'nsikai. 2, 
Bebro'nsikai. 

Aboard, adv. (active) Indroo'mn. 
2, (entitive) Indrootu. 



A C C 

Abortion, n. Tra'nzoo. 

Above, prep. Droo or dru. 2, 
adv. Bi'ndi. 3, Yi'iikjni, i. e. more 
than, as more than six, yi'nkyu 
avin. 

Abound, V. Fra'ntipi. 2, Tra'ntipi. 

About, prep. Gle or gli, round 
about. 2, Ze or zi, i. e. not di- 
rect. 3, Stul, more or less. 4, 
Fe or fi, i. e. concerning. 

Abroad, adv. Mis : as, he went 
abroad, wai mis pre'ntlsel. 2, Tis, 
out of: as he was out of thehouse, 
i.e. tis po'ntipil. 3, Ba'ndu, 
publicly. 

Abrogate, v. a. Unto'ntrinai. 

Alirnpt, adj. Deno'ntuvoo, finished 
suddenly or confusedly. 2, Diu- 
o'ntifai, to discontinue con- 
fiisedly. 

Absence, n. Pri'ndoi. 

Absolving, v. Da'ntrifai. 2, Umbu'n- 
trikai, to uu-excommunicate. 

Absolute, adj. To'nti. 2, Ta'ntn. 
3, Gro'ntur. 

Abstain, v. Vre'ntikai. 2, Fcmpifi, 
to be abstinent. 

Abstemious, adj. Fe'mpou. 

Abstersive, adj. Peze'nsuno. 2, Da'n- 
tukrost. 

Abstinence, n. Vre'ndi. 2, Fe'mboi. 

Abstract, n. Fi'ndoi. 2, Di'ndi. 

Abstruse,a,A). Tri'nti. 2, Gre'ntupoo. 

Absurd, adj. Fia'mpus. 2, Vr'ontii, 
i. e. incongruous. 

Abundance, n. Fra'ndoo. 

Abuse, V. a. Deve'ntivai. 2, Pa'u- 
trinai. 

Ahusiveness, n. Gapa'ntrlnai 2. 
Gatre'mpinai. 

Abut, V. 1. Kri'ntini. 

Abyss, n. Beta'ndoi. 

Academy, n. Vo'ndnj. 

Acara, n. Gra'nji. 

Accelerate, v. a. To'mpikrost. 2, 
Yinto'mpikrost.3,Yinki'ntiprost. 

Accent, n. T'indoo. 

Accept, V. a. Kre'ntinai. 

Acceptable, adj. Gakre'ntunoo. 2, 
2, Do'nsuno. 

Acceptation, n. Ki'ndoi. 



ACQ 

Access, n. Pe'ndis. 2, O'mbi pue- 

tisai. 3, Kro'ndoi pe'ntisai. 
Accessary, n. Kranta'ro. 
Accident, n. Bro'ndoo. 2, Gro'nturi. 

3, Flonsu'rtis. 4, n. E'ndi. 
Acclamation, n. Tra'nzo. 2, Tra'nzo 

kon'zetu. 3, Tra'nzo gonze'tu. 
Accommodate, v. a. Vo'ntikrost. 2, 

^'o'ntifai. 
Accompany, v. a. Fo'nsinai. 2, 

Pus pontipi, to be with. 3, Tyool 

prc'ntisai or pe'ntisai. 
Accomplish, v. a. To'nti^Tost. 2, 

Ye'ntivai, 3, De'ntivai. 
Accord, V. To'nsifai. 2, Vo'ntiki. 

3, adv. Fintu'rpu to'nza. 4, adv. 

To'uzun. 5, Vo'ndu. 
Accordingly, adv. Vo'ndu. 2, Yun, 

according as. 3, Voo or vu, prep. 

according to. 
Arxost, V. a. Tin'tlfi'ost. 2, Fa'n- 

sikrast. 3, Ta'nsikai. 
Accounting, n. Ve'nda. 2, v. Go'n- 

sifai. 
Accoutered, part. En'sunoo. 2, 

Re'nsunoo. 
Accrue'^ y. Ro'ntifi.. 2, E'ntiki. 
Accumulate, v. Vi'nsifrost. 
Accurate, adj. To'nti. 
Accurse, v. a. Tro'nsipai. 
Accuse, V. a. Ta'ntripai. 2, Ka'n- 

tripai. 3, Da'ntrinai. 
Accustom, V. Po'mprinai. 2, Dapi'n- 

tipai, i. e. frequently to do. 
Ace, n. A'pin. 2, Pe'ndoo, i. e. jot. 
Acerbity, n. Tri'mba. 
Ache, Tro'mbi. 
Achieve, v. a. To'ntivai. 2, Ven'- 

tivai. 3, Do'ntipai. 
Acid, n. Ki'niba. 
Acl-nowledge, v. a. To'nsifai. 2, 

Tri'ntisai. 3, Ti'ntisai. 
Aconite, n. To'mvoo. 
Acorn, n. Ko'ndo pumve'tu. 
Acquaint, v. Bo'nsifi-ast. 
Acquaintance, n. Ko'nza. 
Acquiesce, v. Re'nsiki. 2, Tampivi. 
Acquire, v. a. Pe'ntikai. 2, Fentikai. 
Acquit, V. a. Te'ntinai, of debt. 2, 

Da'ntrifai. 
Acre, n. Tcno'ndoo. 
A 



A D il 

Acrimoivf, n. Fri'niba. 

Act^ n. Do'ndoo. 2, Ti'rido, i. e. act 

of a plav. 3, To'ndra. 4, 

To'mbra. 5, Bo'ndo, i. c. actu- 

alness. 6, Do'ntipai. 7, Ton- 

trivai. 
Action, n. Do'ndoo. 
Action of God, n. O'nzoo. 2, O'n- 

zoi. iJ, O'nzo. 4, O'nza. 5, A'uzi. 

6, A'nzoo. 7, A'nzoi. 8, A'uzo. 

9, A'mbroi, action at law. 10, 

A'nzis, gesture. 
Active, adj. Gado'ntur. 2, Ga- 

ze'nti. 3, Go'mpu. 
Actualness, n. Bo'ndo. 
Acus Aristoteles, n. Ba'njinoi. 
Acute, adj. Gade'nsivai, apt to cut. 

2, Gra'ntur. 3, Fo'mpa, spiight- 

Ij. 4, Pa'mpi, sagacious. 
Acute ontjie, u. Tre'ndo. 
Acute smmd, n. Pri'mbo. 
Adage, n. Prindi. 
Adamant, n. Pu'nja, i. e. diamond. 
Adapt., V. a. Teni'ntikai. 2, Vo'u- 

tikrost. 
Add, V. a. Xus pe'ntipai. 2, Tol- 

pe'ntipai. 3, Vra'ntigrost. 4, 

Fro'nsifai vra'ndo. 5, Ve'ntiuai 

vi-an'do. 
Adder, n. Dri'njis. 
Adders holt, n. Do'nja. 2, Adder's 

tongue, Tro'mvoo. 
^(^5, n. U de'nsuvo fra'nzis. 2, U 

d&nsuvo pa'nzis. 
Addict., V. a. Don'di po'usinai. 2. 

A'mbu po'usidai. 
Addition., n. Va'ndis. 
Addk, adj. Fro'mpu. 
Address, v. a. Fa'nsikai. 
Adequate, adj. Teta'utur. 
Adhere, v. a. Fe'utifai. 
Adherent, adj. Fe'ntufo, which ad- 
heres. 2, Gafe'ntufo. 3, Kra'nta. 
Adjacent, adj. Nus da'nsuvo. 2, 

Nus ti'ntou. 
Adjective, n Tri'ndoi. 
Adieu, T. Gra'nsikoz, i. e. farewell. 
Adjoin, V. Nus pe'ntifai. 2, Sus 

kri'ntiti, to be at the margin. 3,. 

Ti'ntifai, to approach. 
Adjudge, v. Bainprifai. 
Adjourn, v. Pli'ntiprost, postpone. 

2, Dri'ntifai, yoo'skru, bu'ndisin. I 
Adjunct, n. Pro'ndis. I 
Adjure, v. a. Bis ko'ntrigi-ast. 2, [ 

To'nsikai imde'di. 3, Po'nsikai i 

imdedi. 1 

Adjust, V. a. Ba'ntriprost. 2, Vo'n- 

tikrost. 3, Vre'ntinai, balance. I 
Adjutant, n. Ke'mbro. 
Adjuvant, n. Bo'ndoi. 
Administer, v. a. Vo'mprinai, to 

officiate. 2, Dro'nsitai, to serve. 

3, Ke'ntinai, to give. 
Admiral, n. Intrufas. 2, Pi'ndrl, 

Lord High Admiral. 3, Pi'mbii, 
Admiral of the Fleet. 4, Plin dri , 
Vice-admiral. 5, Pi'lbri, Raar- 
admiral. 



A F F 

Admiration, n. Po'nzi. 

Admit, V. Pe'ntinai mus pre'ntisai. 

2, Prone' sikai mus pre'ntisai. 

3, Tri'ntisai. 
Admonish, v. a. Kro'nsikai. 
Adolescence, n. Tu'ndinoo. 
Adonis-jloioer, n. Ba'mvino. 
Adoo, n. Ke'ndo. 

Adopt, V. a. Frona'nsiprost. 
Adore, v. U'ntriaai. 
Adorn, v. a. Va'ntikai. 
Advance, v. a. Pre'ntisai gi'ndi. 

2. Fe'ntisai. 3. Ge'ntifrost. 4, 
Pi'nsipai, to lift. 5, Bi'ntitrost. 
6, Bra'ntiprost. 7, Ka'ntifi-ost. 8. 
Ba'mpifrost, to dignity. 

Advantage, n. Bra'udoo. 2 Fe'ndi. 

3, Kro'ndoi. 
Advent, n. Pe'ndis. 
Adventitious, adj. Tone'simoo 2. 

Drone'sutoo. 3, Kranta. 

Adventure, n. Dro'ndi. 2, Flo'nzoo. 
3, Kre'ndo. 4, Tro'ndi. 

Adventure, the,n. Eno'nda, the com- 
mercial thing sent out. 

At a venture, adv. Eno'ndu. 

Adverb, n. Ki'ndoi, adverb derived. 

2. Ti'ndoi, adverb imderived. 
Adverse, adj. To'ntus. 2, Bro'ntu. 

3, Pro'nsa, inimical. 4, Fra'mpur. 
Adversary, n. Pro'nza. 
Adversity, n. Fra'mboo. 

Advert, v. a. Pro'nsitai. 
Advertise, v. a. Bo'nsifrast. 2, 

Kro'nsikai. 
Advise, v. a. Ko'nsikai. 
Advised, part. Ko'nsukoo. 2, Pa'm- 

punoo. 3, Fa'mpunoo. 
Adulation, n. Dre'mba. 
Adult, n. Tu'ntimoor. 
Adulterate, v. a. Fro'ntivrost gron- 

do'ti. 2, Frono'ntivai. 
Adultery, n. Fa'mbra. 
Adumbrate, v. Fri'inpivai. 
Advocate, n. Da'ndroo. 2, U fa'm- 

broo. 
Advowson, n. Ono'ndi-a. 
Adust, adj. Oo'nsupoo, which has 

been bm-nt. 
Afar, adv. Tri'ndou. 
Affable, adj. Te'mpus. 2, Dc'mpa. 
Affair, n. Upi'ntupoon, a thing 

which is to be done hereafter. 

2. E'ndo. 3, Fo'ndoo. 
Affect, V. Tra'mpiti. 2, Tra'mpitai. 

to act conceitedly. 
Affected, adj. O'nsuloo, excited. 

2, Do'nsunoo. 
Affectation, n. Tra'mbo. 2, Twc'm- 

bo, an ambitious manner. 
Affection, n. O'nzil. 2, Bo'uzi. 3, 

■ To'nzi. 
Affance, n. To'nzifo. 2, Do'nzi. 
Affidavit, n. Ko'ntriisoo dampi-u- 

po'ri. 2, Kono'ntrusoo (sub-spe- 
cies) oath in writing. 
Affinity, n. O'nzoi. 
Affirmation, n. Fi'ndis. 
Affi.v, v. a. Nus vri'mpifi'ost. 2. 

Nus pe'ntipai. 



ALA 

Afflict, V. a. Fra'mpivai. 

Affluence, n. Fra'ndoo. 

Afford, V. Pre'ntinai bentipai. 2. 

Pe'ntinai. 3, Ke'ntinai. 4, To'n- 

trikai. 5, Tri'ntisai, to gi-ant. 
Afraid, adj. Vo'nsu. 
Affront, V. P'amprinai. 
Afresh, adv. Ti'ndm- ; 2, Ye'ndou. 

3, Vool. 
After, prep. Ce or ci. 2, Flin'dur. 

3, \c'ndus. 4, Vo'ndu. 
Afterbirth, n. Dro'ndis. 
Afternoon, n. Bhi'ndisil. 
Aftertiines, in ; adv. Plin'dupin. 
Again, adv. Tool. 2, Ve'ndou. 

ve'ndufo, like that which repeats. 
Against, prep. Be or bi. 2, Ke 

or ki. 
Agate, n. Pru'njoi. 
Age, n. U'ndinoo. 2, SI u'meu 

, undinoo'tas ? what is thy age ? 
Age (under) 9,A]. Kro'nsitu un'dinoo. 
Age, (of full) adj. Uukro'nsutoo 

u'ndinoo. 2. Timti'impil. 
Age-middle, n. Ku'ndinoo. 
Age-old, n. Bu'ndinoo. 
Age (declining) u. Vundinoo. 
Agent, n. Do'ntiipor. 2, Vis e'n- 

tuvor, i. e. the instead business 

person. 3, Vis entuvo'fas. 
Aggravate, v. a. Yin pra'ntiprost. 

2, Yin gra'ntiprost. 
Aggregate (an) n. Vra'ndo. 
Agility, n. Go'mbi. 2, To'mbi. 
Agitate, v. a. Daze'nsikai. Brcn- 

tisai. 3, Te'nsivai. 
Agnus casttis, n. Vri'mvoo. 
Agony, n. Go'nzis. 2, Bekro'nzi. 
^^o, adv. Pli'ndur. 2, Bepli'ndur. 
Agree, v. Vo'ntiki. 2, On'tiikai. 

3. To'nsiiiai. 4, Tri'ntisai. 5, 
Te'mpini. 

Agreeable, adj. Vo'ntu. 2, Do'ntu. 

Agriculture, n. I'nzo. 

Agrimony, n. Tamvinoi. 

Aground, adv. Dinzoiju. Fintou'tu 
dinzoi'pu. 

Ague, n. Pru'mboi. 

^lA .' Characteristic exclamative ; 
Ha ! Its meaning depends on the 
tone of the speaker's voice, signi- 
fying sometimes soitow, some- 
times pity, sometimes, &c. &c. 

Aye, adv. Tindur. 

Aid, n. Bo'ndoi. 

Ail, v. Fo'utifai, to move, excite. 

Aim, n. Fo'ndis. 2. Ve'ndoi. 

Air, n. U'nzoi. 2. Pu'nzoi, what 
fills the spaces beyond the atmos- 
phere. 3, Pru'nzoi. 4, Panti'vis, 
the countenance. 5, v. U'nsifai, 
to air, i. e. warm. 

Airy, adj. U'nsou. 2, Tro'mpa. 3. 
Tra'mpi. 

Ache, V. Da'nsifai. 

Acorn, n. Kondo pimve'tu. 

Alabaster, n. Punjoi. 

Alacrity, n. Ta'mba. 

Alarm, u. Trondo'dis. 2, Pentru- 
ko'dis. 



ALL 

'.'■is! iut. Uk's! 2, Kronze'dis. 3, 
Dronzai'dis. 
^ilaternus, n. Ki'mva. 
Albeit, ) • -vr 1 1 

Alcoran, n, Pu'udi-al tu bu'ntrupirz. 

S;;,}- 1'* 2-% !»'"!■ 

Alder, n. Tu'mvi. 2. Di'mvoi. 

Alderman, n. Do'ntri'fas. 2, Do'n- 
ontri'fas, Mayor. 3, Do'Bantri"fas, 
Recorder. 4, Do'nentri'fas, Tovvai 
Clerk. 5, Do'nintri"fas', Clerk of 
the Peace. 6, Do'nimtri'fas, Al- 
derman. 7, I)o'noltri''fas, Com- 
mon Councillor ; and 8, Do'nal- 
tri'fas, Assessor. 

Ah, n. De'nzoo, of any quality. 2, 
Deuo'nzoo, ale of the first quality. 
3, Dena'nzoo, ale of the second 
quality. 4, Dene'nzoo, ale of the 
third quality, &c. &c. 

Ale-cost, n. Ka'mvoi. 

Ale-hoof, n. Po'nvis. 

Alehouse, n. Tontroo'tus denzoo'di. 

Alembic, n. Vensai'tus. 

Alexanders, "| -n-„i™ 

,,. , ' Vn. Ka'mva. 
Altsanaer, J 

Alijebra, n. Vondoo'pas, the quan- 

tityart. 2, Vondoo'bras, the quan- 
tity science. 3, Yo'ntur bondoo'- 

bras or has. 
Alien, n. Tro'nza. 
Alienate, v. Fre'ntipai. 2, Tro'nsi- 

most, to estrange. 
Alight, V. Unde'nsifai. 2, Um- 

be'nsivai, 3, Tris pre'ntisai. 4, 

Tris pe'ntisai. 
Alike, aAv. Pa'ndu. 2 Ba'ndur. 
Aliment, adj. Vansu'rtis. 
Alimony, n. Krono'nzis, allowance 

to woman legally separated from 

her husband. 
Alive, adv. Da'nzur. 2, U'nsupoo 

fe'azis, live coal. 
Alhanet, n. Fo'mvino. 
All, n. A'ndis tri'tu, the whole of 

something. 2, Rou'u, all, plural. 
At all, adv. Frai'tu. 
All one, adj. Ba'ntur. 
Already, adv. Tro'su. 2, T.j'sii. 

3, To'cu. 
Altogether, adv. Andus. 2, Vra'ndL 

3, To'ndi. 
Always, adv. Ti'ndur. 2, Grou'usu. 

3, Grou'utu. 4, Grou'usu to'nta 
Allay, V. Gla'ntipai. 2, Yil pla'nti- 

prost. 3, Yil gla'ntiprost. 
Allege, v. a. Vi'ntinai. 2, Ti'ntinai. 
Allegiance, n, Ve'mbi. 2, Be'mbi. 
Allegory, n. Vrmo'ndo, a series of 

metaphors, or tropes. 
^Z%,n.Fran'toada'nzoi,dranzoi'twi. 
All heal, n. Ga'mvinoi. 
All heal, Hercules, Da'mva. 
Alligator, n. Ti'njis. 
Alliance, n. Go'ndro. 2, O'nzoi. 
Alloy, n. Ono'nzi, metal mixed with 

an inferior metal. 



A il E 

Allot, V. To'nsiuai Yu'ndi. 2, To'n- 

sinai ru'ndi. 3, Pe'ntinai yu'ndi, 

runde'twi.' 4, Kro'nsivai. 5, Ke'n- 

tinai. 6, Pe'ntinai. 7, Ti-i'ntisai. 

8, To'nsitai. 9, To'nsifai. 
Allowance, n. To'nsunoo u'ndi, or 

ru'ndi. 2, Pe'ntunoo u'ndi, rim- 

de'twi. 3, Ko'nzis. 
Allude, v. Tri'ntinai. 
Allure, V. Bo'nsikai. 
Allusion, n. Tri'nda. 
Almanack, n. Puno'ndis, a table of 

the days of the week, and months 

of the year. 
Almsgiving, n. (the virtue) Be'mbo. 

2, Be'mblko. 
Alms, n. Bembu'koo'ri. 
Ahnicantur, n. Dri'nzis. 
Almighty, adj. Vro'nti o'mpu. 
Almoner, n. Bempuko'fas. 
Almond, n. Pru'mva, the tree. 

Prumva'sit the fi-uit. 3, Dandoi. 

(glandule) 4, Tra'ndo, place of 

almonds of the ear. 
Almost adv. Sool. 
Aloe, u. Pro'mvinoi. 2, Pu'mvinoi. 
Aloft, adv. Ka'ndou. 
Alone, adv. Fro'nzun. 2, Tyel. * 
Along, prep. Goo or gu. 2, De or 

di.''3,Woo. 
All along, adv. Dra'nzus. 
Aloof, adv. Tri'ndou. 
Aloud, adv. Be'zimbi. 
Alphabet, n. Pino'ndoo. 
Also, conj. Kwel. 
Altar, n. Kra'nzoi. 
Alter, V. Vre'ntifai. 
Altercation, n. Twe'mba. 
Alternation, n. Do'ndis. 
Althea, n. Da'mvino. 
Altitude, n. Ka'ndoi. 
Alum, n. Fu'nji. 
Am, entitive verb, (tabular) Po'n- 

too. 2, Um; as au um, I am. 
Amain, adv. Gra'ndur. 
Amalgam, n. Una'nzi, metal mixed 

with quicksilver. 
Amaranth, n. Bra'nvoo, prince's 

feather. 
Amass, v. a. Vi'nsifrost. 
Amaze, v. Gro'nsivrost. 2, Pro'm- 

pifrost. 3, Bepo'nsikrost. 
Ambages, n.TAsT^dinzoz. 2, Fri'nda. 
ylmijew^, adj. Vrlno'nti. 2, Fe'ntitai, 

to encircle. 
Ajnbiguous, adj. Pri'nta. 2, Gabro'n- 

sufoo, apt to be doubled. 
Ambition, n. Tre'mbo. 
Ambling, n. Fe'nzoi. 
Ambidexter, n. Do'nontupo"ro, any 

one treacherously acting for op- 
posite parties, a double dealer. 
Ambulatory, adj. Krape'nsifai. 
Ambush, n. Te'mbroo. 
Amen, v. Use's vro ! or Vro use's. 
Amend, v. a. Tra'ntiprost. 
Amends, n. Dre'ndoi. 2, Dre'ntisai, 

to compensate. 
Amerce, v, a. Dantrlsal. 



A N G 

Amethyst, n. Vu'nja. 

Amia, n, Pa'nja. 

Amiable, adv. Gato'nsukoo. 

Amicable, adj. Bipo'nsa. 

Amiss, adj. Tro'ndi. 2, Ge'ndi. 3, 
Des, transcendental, signifying 
corruptive. 

Amity, n. Ponz'arit. 

Ammi, n. Bishop's weed, Kra'mvi. 

Ammunition, n. En'dril. 

Among, prep. Skoo and Sku. 

Amorous, adj. Gato'nsuko. 

Amort, adj. Dwakro'nsu, in a state 
of impetuous grief. 

Amount, n. Vrantusoo'ri. 

Amphi/iious, adj. Rano'nsur. 

Amphiboly, n. Prino'nda. 

Amphitheatre, n.U pe'nti tontrou'tus. 

Ample, adj. Bi'ntou. 2, Pra'ntur. 3, 
Fa'ntou. 

Amplification, n. Fri'nda. 

Amplify, V. Fri'ntiuai. 

Amidet, n. Rene'uza, a thing worn 
to preserve from disease, witch- 
craft, &c. 

An. article, Y. 2, I. 3, We. 4, E. 
(see Grammar §. 135.) 

Anacardium, n. Gru'rava. 

Anagram, n. Rino'nzi, a new word 
formed from another. 

Analem, n. Rino'nzis, a projection 
of the sphere. 

Analogy, n, Pa'nondi, generic like- 
ness betwixt or among things 
which differ. 2, Ru'ndi. 

Analysis, n. Preno'ndoi, the separa- 
tion of a thing into its constituent 
parts. 2, Preua'ndoi, the speaking 
of, or considering those parts. 

Anarchy, n. O'mbri. 

Anas Gampestris Bellonii, n. 
Kre'njoi. 

Amithema, n. Bundri. 

Anatomy, n Rino'nzoo, art of dis- 
secting bodies. 

Ancestor, n. Po'nzoo, 

Anchor, n. Ti'ndro. 

Anchoret, n. Du'mbrol 

Anchovy, n. Pa'mijo. 

Ancient, adj. Tri'ntur. 2, Bu'ntinur. 

3, Fe'ndro, ensign. 4, Di'mbro. 
Ankle, n. Bane'ndi. 

And, conj. kw. 2, >Kwi. 3, Kwe. 

Andiron, n. Feno'nzis. 

Anemone n. Ta'mvino. 

Aneurism, n. Gru'mbo. 

Anew, adv. Tin'dur. 2, Ve'ndou. 3, 

Vool, again. 
Angel, n. Pi'nzoo. 2, Fi'nzoo. 3, 

Fri'nzoo. 4, Ba'njoi, scate. 
Angelica, n. Ba'mva. 
Anger, n. To'nzi. 2, Twe'mboo. 
Angle, n. Fre'ndo. 2, Te'ndo, right 

angle. 3, Tre'ndo, obtuse angle. 

4, Twe'ndo, acute angle. 
Angle, v. Dono'ntrifai, to fish with 

rod and line. 
Anguish, n. Tra'mboo, anxiety. 2, 
Bctro'mbi, pain. 3, Bekro'uzi, in- 



A N T 

tense, grief. 4, Betreudi, intense 
trouble. 
Angular^ adj. Fre'nti. 
Anil, Demonstrative, Kai, sing. 2, 
ilai'u, plural. 3, Kyoo'nu, whither. 
4, Kvoo'tu. 
Animadversion, n. ProWo. 
Animal, n. Ki'nzi. 
Animate parts of the icorld, n. 

Inziz. 
Animate, v. Fo'nsisai. 
Animosity, n. Tono'nzi, old anger. 

2. Tona'nzi, perverse anger. 
Aniseed, n. Pa'mva. 
Annals, n. Puno'ndaiz, chronological 

naming of facts. 
Annats, n. To'ndro ge'utunoo fon- 

droo'nu, kundroi'kwi. 
Annex, v. Pe'ntifai nu. 
Annihilate, v. a. Pro'nsipai. 
Anniversary, n. Puna'ndai, annual 

solemnity. 
Annoy, v. a. Pro'ntinai. 2, Tre'n- 

tikai. 
Annotations, n. Vi'ndiz. 
Annual, adj. Pu'ntai or pu'ntus. 
Annuity, n. Pu'ntus ge'uda. 2, Pu'n- 
tairi. 3, Bo'mprukori, rent. 4, 
Ki'onsusoo'ri. 
Amml, V. a. Plo'ntiprost. 2, Pro'n- 
sipai. 3, Umpi'ntipai. 
Annulet, n. Pefe'ndi. 
Annunciation, n. Ti'ndi. 
Anoint, v. a. Vri'nsikai, to smear. 
Anomolous, adj. Bisbi'nta. 
Anon, adv. Plindur. 
Anonymous, adj. Unko'ntupoo. 
Another, demon. Koi, singular. 2, 

Eoi'u, plural. 
Ansu-er, n. Pri'ndis. 
Answerable, adj. Vo'ntu. 2, Ve'n- 
tunast, who will be made to 
reckon. 
Ant, n. Bo'nja. 
Ant-hear n. Bi'nji. 
Antagonist, n. Pro'nza. 2, adj. Tro'n- 

tus or tro'ntai. 
Antarctic circle, n. Bri'nzis. 
Antarctic pole, n. Pri'nti pre'ndoi. 
Antecedent, adj. Fri'ntur. 
Antedate, n. Cusbi'ntipai, or Bi'n- 

tipai cu. 
Anthem, n. Fu'mbra. 
St. Anthony s Fin', n. Dru'mboi, 

Erysipelas. 
Antichrist, n. Ru'iidoi. 
Anticipate, v. a. Tcn'tivai. 2, Kri'n- 

tipi- 

Antidote, n. Bla'mbri. 2, Bike'n- 

tunoori. 
AntUope, n. Fliujoi, goat with 

straight wreathed horns. 
Antimony, n. Fuuzo. 
Antipathy, u. Bro'nzi. 
Antipodes, n. Dri'nzoi. 
Antiquary, n. Trino'ndoo. 
Antiquated, adj. Plo'ntuprost In- 

dooti. 
Antique, adj. Twintur. 



A P P 

Antiquity, n. Twi'ndoo. 2, Bu'n- 

dinoo, old age. 
Antithesis, n. Trontai'ri. 
Antitype, n. Trontufoo'ri. 
Anvil, n. Fla'nzis. 
Anxiety, n. Tra'mboo. 
Apace, adv. To'mbu. 
Apart, adv. Yra'ndi. 
^pe, n. Pri'njo. 
^per, n. Tra'nja. 
Aphorism, n. U pra'ntou bi'nda. 
Aphua gobites, n, Ta'njo. 
Apocrapkal, adj. Bronsou'tu vo'ndra. 
Apologue, n, U tro'ntur ti'ndi. 
Apology, n. Ta'mbroi. 
Apothegne, n. U fa'mpus pri'ndo. 
Apoplexy, n. Tni'mba. 
Aporrhais, n. Tro'njinoo. 
Apostasy, n. Vumbro'rit. 
Apostane, n. Vu'mboo. 
Apostle n. Tu'iidi-oi. 
Apothecary, n. Ri'nsairo, or Eln- 

sai'dis. 
Appal, V. O'kai tra'nsa. 2, Bu'm- 

pikai, to faint. 3, Vronsikai 

vronsikl'twi. 
Apparel, n. E'nza. 
Appearance, n. Tre'ndoo. 2, Fa'm- 

broi, i. e. at law. 3, Fro'ndoo, 

ens apparens. 
Apparent, adj. Fro'ntupo, which 

appear.s, or fro'ntur. 2, Te'ntur. 
Apparition, n. Pomputoo'rl i'nsur. 

2, Pomputoo'ri. 

Apparitor, Pautrufoto, or foTas 

summoning oiEcer. 
Apartment, n. Fa'nzo. 2, Fanz'otwis. 
Aiipeal, n. Ga'mbroi. 2, v. Ga'm- 

prifai, to appeal. 
Appear, v. fro'utipai. ' 2, To'ntipai. 

3, Tro'utipai. 4, Fa'mprifai, i. e. 
at law. 

Appearing, Meteor, U'nzil. 

Appease, v. Unto'nsikai, to %m- 
auger. 

Appendage, n. Ukranta'ri, an ac- 
cessary^ thing. 

Appertain, v. Ba'ntini, to be perti- 
nent. 

Appetite, n. Ko'mboi. 

Applaud, V. Di'donsikai, to signify 
commendation. 2, Bego'nsikai, 
greatly to praise. 

Aj'ple, n. Pumvoo'sit, i. e. the fruit 
of the apple ; sit signifies fiiiit. 2, 
Po'ndo, fruit. 3, Dre'mvinoo, the 
thorn apple. 4, Fe'mvino, the 
apple of love. 5, Dm'mvoo, 
Adam's apple. 6, Fremvinoi, 
mad apple. 7, Frano'ndo, pupil 
of the eye. 

Apjdy, V. "Te'ntifai. 2, Pe'ntipai. 

Aj/point, V. ToTisinai, to intend. 2, 
Pe'ntivai, to design. 3, Po'nsikai, 
to command. 

Ajwosite, adj. Bo'ntu, congnious. 2, 
Ba'nta, pertinent. 

Apprehend, v. Po'mplvai, to under- 
stand. 2, Po'mpifai, to perceive. 



A R I 

3, Vro'nsifai, to be of opinion, 
think. 4, Pa'mprifai, to arrest. 
Apprentice, n. Tonsuto'ro, a learner. 
2, Tonansuto'ro, leamerof a trade. 
Apjjroach, v. Ti'ntivai. 
Approbatimi, n. To'nzo. 
Appropriaie, Fe'ntipai, to put to 

your own use. 
Appropriaie, adj. Va'ntimost. 
Approve, v. To'usitai. 
Appurtenance, n. Ba'nda. 2, Kra'nda. 
Apricot, n. Fu'ravoi. 
April, n. Kunc'ndis (see months). 
Apron, n. ^'ano'nda, a vest hanging 

before the belly. 
Aptitude, n. Bo'ndi, congniity. 2, 
Fa'mbo, sagacity. 3, . Ta'mba, 
alacrity. 4, TonzoWt, the essence 
of a learner. 
Apt, adj. Gas or ga, the trans, 
particle, as Gaton'gitai, apt to 
teach. 2, the tabular adj. Bo'ntu. 
3, Ea'mpukoo, disposed. 
Aquarius, n. Ukwa'reus, a proper 

name. 
Aqueduct, n. Gre'nzoi. 
Aquila, n. Pra'njoi. 
Aquosity, n. Unzo'rit, wateriness. 
Array, n. Fa'ndi, order. 
Arhalist, n. Ke'mpnro. 
Arbitrary, adj. Go'nsa, dependent 

wholly on the %yill. 
Arbitrator, n. Fa'ndroo. 
Arbitrate, v. Fa'nti-ipai. 
Arbor, n. Tuzu'mviz, house of trees. 
Arbutus, n. Ki'mvo, strawberr}' tree. 
Arch, n. Vro'nzo. 
Arch, n. Dwefe'ndo, part of circle. 
Archangel, n. Kanta pi'nzoo. 2, 

Da'mvinoi, dead nettle. 
Archbishop, n. Vu'ndroi. 
Archdeacon, n. Vu'mbrois vrontai'ro. 
Archer, n. Kentruko'ro, the bowing 

person. 
Architecture, n. Anzoi'ubas. 
Architrave, n. Ka'nta bra'nzo, chief 

beam. 
Archives, n. Keno'ntukis, store 

place for ancient writings. 
Arctic, adj. Finti, i. e. northern. 
Arctic circle, n. Bi'nzis. 
Artie pole, n. Bi'nsou pre'ndoi, north 

pole. 
Ardent, adj. U'nsur, fiery. 2, Bep- 
ri'mpu. 3, Po'nsus or po'nsai, 
zealous. 
Area, n. Te'ndoo. 

Argent, n. Funsu'rtu i'mboi, of sil- 
very color. 
Argue, v. Vi'ntiiiai. 
Argument, n. Do'ndoi, the matter. 
2, Fo'ndis, the object. 3, Vin- 
tuno'ri. 
Arid, adj. Fli'mpu. 
Aries, u. A'recz, a proper name. 
Aright, n. Fo'ndi. 2, Des, trans. 

denoting peifection. 
Arise, v. Pa'nsivai. 2, Pi'pansivai, 
to rise like the sun. 



A S 
Aristocracy, n. Tono'ndroo. 
Arithmetic, n. Runtupo'bas, the 

numbering art. 
Ark, n. Fe'nzi, box. 
Arm human, n. Pa'ndi. 
Arm of the sea, n. Ki'nza. 
Arm of tree, n. To'ndoo. 
Arm, V. Pe'ntikai pe'ndriz. 
Armada, n. Pen'dra vindi-oo'tuz. 
Armadillo n. Bri'uji. 
Armament, n. Re'oza. 
Army, n. Pe'udra. 
Armor, n. Pe'mbri. 
Armorer, n. Tape'ndiiz, i. e. me- 
chanic of arms. 
Armory, n. Kiupe'udriz. 
Arms generally, u. Pe'ndriz. 
Arms offensive, n. Pe'mbriz. 
Arm^ defensive, n. Ple'mbriz. 
Arms (man at), n. To'ndi pentru- 

kooVo. 
Arms (family arms), Ondi-oo'udis, 

i. e. the rank or degrees sign. 
Aromatic, n. Ke'nsou. 
Arquebus, n. Beve'ndi'i. 
Araign, v. Ta'ntrifai, to indict. 
Arrant, adj. De'ka'mpou, notorious 

in a bad sense. 
Arras, n. Fla'nzo. 
Arrogance, n. Fre'mbi, pride. 2, 

Gle'mba,magisterIalness.3,Tre'm- 

bis, superciliousness. 
Arrogate, v. Te'ntipai, to claim. 
Arrow, n. Be'mbri. 
Arrowhead, n. Pre'mvis. 
Arse, n. Va'nda. 
Arsenal, n. Kize'ndril. 
Arsenic, n. Kru'njis. 
Arsesmart, n. Va'mvinoi. 
Arsesmart (codded), n. Te'mvinoi. 
Art, n. Ta'mbis or ta'mbai. 
Artery, n. Kra'udoi. 2, Pra'ndis, 

the windpipe. 
Artichoke, n. Pra'mvo. 
Article, n. Fri'ndo, section. 2, O'm- 

bris, contract. 3, Tintra'ntur. 4, 

Gri'ndoi, the article a or ^Zse. 
Articulate, v. Tri'mpitai, to utter, 

mention, or pronounce, syllables or 

words. 
Artificer, n. Bo'mbroi. 
Artificial, adj. Ta'mpus, pertaining 

to art. 2, Dro'nti, factitious, i. e. 

made. 
Artillery, n. Dwinve'mbri. 
Artist, n. Tampai'ro. 
Artizan, u. Bo'mbroi. 
-4s, adv. of equality, Ymi : as, yun 

pa'mpur, as happy ; yun fa'mpus, 

as wise, &c. 
As, conj. Ful, (as followed by so); as 

-F«Z fri'nzoo pansivo,_yi^ pri'mboo 

dra'nsipo. 
As, conj. incorporated with the ta- 
bular, as follows: — Tri'ntifa, as 

far; tri'ntifas, so far: pra'ntupa, 

as great ; pra'ntupas, so great ; 

fa'mpusa, as wise; fa'mpusas, so 

wise, &c. &c. 
B 



ASS 
As for, prep. Fe'os, as for me, fe'as; 

as for thee ; pondro'fi, as for 

truth : i. e. concerning me, thee ; 

concerning truth. 
As for example, conj. Del. 
Asif, ) . , 

Asihou9h,r''''i-'''^l 
Asarabaca, n. Vo'mvis. 
Ascarides, n. To'njoo. 
Ascend, v. Trus E'utisai. 
Ascertain, v. Vo'nsifrost, make cer- 
tain. 
Ascribe, v. Brintifai. 
Ash, n. Bu'mvis or bu'mvai. 
Ash-color, n. Bitu'nsa. 2, Tu'nsa 

i'mboi. , 

Ashamed, adj. Fro'usus, in a state of 

shame. 2,Fro'nsivai,tofeel shame. 
Ashes, n. Tu'nza. 
Ashore, adv. Vindoju. 
Aside, adv. Pre'ndufoo, in a sepa- 
rated state. 2, Fro'nzun, alone. 
Aside, as lay aside, v. Vro'nsinai, 

i. e. to desist from. 2, Di'utifrest, 

to cause to be discontinued. 
Asilus, n. Kro'njoo. 
Ask, V. Pi'ntisai, to enquire. 2, Fu'm- 

prinai, to petition, 'i, Fre'ntinai, 

to demand. 4, Go'ntikrost. 5, 

Do'ntikrost. 6, To'nsikai. 7, 

Go'mpripai, to beg. 
Askew, adv. Ge'ndou. 
Asleep, adv. Tranz'ou, in a state of 

sleep. 2, Pro'mpou, benumbed. 
Aslope, adj. Ge'ntou. 2, adv. Ge'ndou. 
Asp, n. Dri'njis, viper. 2, Dru'mvis, 

white poplar tree. 
Asparagus, n. Vo'mvino. 
Aspect, n. Pa'ndovis, countenance ; 

face-mamier. 
Asperity, n. Fli'mbis, roughness. 2, 

Gre'mbis, austereness. 
As2mrsion, n. Da'ndra, caliunny. 
Asphodel, n. Po'mvi, king's-spear. 
Asjriration, n. Dwafe'nzo, violent 

breathing. 
Asjnre, V. Tre'mpiti, to be ambitious. 
Asquint, adj. Geno'nti, in a state of 

oblique vision. 
Ass, n. Fi'njoo. 
Assay, V. Kre'ntivai, to essay. 2, 

Ke'ntivai, to endeavour. 
Assail, V. Te'ntrinai, to assault. 
Assassin, n. Ka'ndi-o, murderer. 2, 

Ka'ndro undroo'di, murderer for 

religion. 
Assault, n. Te'ndroo. 
Assemble, v. O'ntrivai. 
Assent, v. To'nsifai. 
Assentation, n. Gre'mba, fawning. 
Assertion, n. Fi'ndis. 
Assess, V. To'mprikai, to tax. 2, 

Ru'ndu to'mprikai. 
Assessor, n. Pa'mbroo, assistant 

judge. 2, Tompurko'fas, taxing 

officer. 
Assevern.tion, n. Befi'ndis, solemn 

assertion. 
Assiduity, n. Ba'mba, diligence. 



ATT 

Assign, v. Po'ntrikai, to transfer a 
right. 

Assimilate, v. Pa'ntikrost, to cause 
to be like. 

Assist, V. Bo'ntifai. 2, Pa'mprivai, 
to act as assessor. 

Assizes, n. Kono'ndi'o, the Coimty 
Court; specially the Court of As- 
sizes — a law term. 2, To'ntra 
u'ndi, a legal measure. 3, Vo'n- 
trunoo u'ndi, authorised mea- 
sure. 

Associate, v. Fo'nsimost, to cause to 
be a companion. 

Assoil, V. Da'ntrifai, to acquit. 

Assume, v. Ke'ntipai. 2, Be'ntiprast, 
to cause to possess or have. 

Assure, v. Vo'nsifrost, to make cer- 
tain. 2, Vo'nsitai, to assure. 

Assuage, v. Gla'ntipai. 

Asterisk, n. Vre'nda. 

Asthma, n. Fu'mbi. 

Astonish, v. Po'nsikrast, to cause to 
wonder. 2, Gro'nsivi-ost, to cause 
to be in a state of extasy. 3, 
Pro'mpifrost ponze'ti. 4, Pro'm- 
pifrost vro'nze'ti. 

Astray, adj. Tre'ntuso. 2, Ge'ntuvo, 
erring. 

Astride, adj. Tre'nsou. 2, v. Tren- 
si'fai, to stride. 

Astringent, adj. Re'nsa, constipative. 
2, Tri'mba, harsh taste. 

Astrolabe, n. Pino'nzoi. 

Astrology, n. Drono'nzoi, from dr'on- 
zoi, conjecture. 

Astronomy, n. Ino'nzoi, from i'nzoi, 
heaven. 

Asunder, adj. Pre'ntou, in a state of 
separation. 2, adv. Pre'ndou, 
separately. 

At, prep. Soo or su. 

At all, adv. Jirai'tu, in any degree. 
2, Vrai'tu, in any manner. 3, 
Jirai'tuno, not in any degree. 4, 
Vrai'tinio, not m any manner. 

At length, adv. Vloo, at last. 

At last, adv. Kri'ndupous. 

At least, adv. Pla'ndupous. 

At most, adv. Pra'ndupous. 

At once, adv. A'pon (see numbers), 
a'fon, twice; a'ton, thi-ice; a'kon; 
four times, &c. 

Achieve, v. Do'ntipai, to act. 2, 
Ve'ntivai, to perform. 3, To'n- 
tivrost, to perfect. 

Atheism, n. Ru'mbroo. 

Attnosphere, n. Pru'nzoi. 

Atom, n. Flo'ndoo, a thing so small 
as to be indivisible. 

Atone, V. Umpro'nsinai, to reconcile, 
i. e. unenemy. 2, Po'nsimost, to 
cause to be a friend. 

Attack, V. Ke'ntripai, to besiege. 
• 2, Te'mprivai, to assault. 

Attach, V. Fa'ntrifai, to ari-est. 

Attagen, n. Tri'njoi. 

Attain, v. Pe'ntikai, to obtain. 

Attaint, v. Ta'ntripai, to 'accuse. 2, 



A U D 

Unto'ntriprest, to cause to be im- 

nobled. 
Attempt, V. Krettivai, to essay. 
Attend, v. Trasdo'nsitai, to continue 

expecting. 2, Pla'nsikai, to wait. 

3, Twasfo'mpitai. 4, Probisitai, to 

attend to, observe, &c. 
Attention, n. Fa'mba, heedfubiess. 

2, Ba'mba, diligence. 
Attenuate, v. Twi'mpikrost, to rarify. 
Attest, V. Da'mprivai. to witness. 2, 

To'mprisai, to protest. 
Attire, n. E'nza, clotliing. 2, v. 

E'nsinai, to clothe. 
Attorney, n. Dono'ndoo, one person 

appointed to act for another. 2, 

Fo'ndroi. 
Attract, V. Ki'nsipai, to di-aw, pull, &c. 
Attribute, n, Bri'udoi. 2, v. Bri'n- 

tifai, to ascribe, attribute. 
Attrition, v. Gi'nsikai. 2, Fi'nsinai, 

to grind upon a body. 3, Pi'nsi- 

vai, to grind between bodies. 4, 

Krono'mpikai, to decay, or waste, 

or wear, away, by use. 
Avail, V. Bo'ntifai, to help, aid, &c. 

2, Poiitini, to be profitable. 
Avaunt! v. imperative. Pre'ntisoz! 
Avarice, n. Ple'mbo. 
Aiulacity, n. Go'nzi, boldness. 
Audible, adj. Ga'fomputo, apt to 

hear. 
Audience, n. To'mbo, hearing. 2, 
Ono'ndro, convention for hearing. 

3, Fomputo'dwas, the hearing 
aggi'egate. 4, Fomputo'rz, the 
hearers. 

Audit, n. Ona'ndi-o. 2, v. Fe'ntinai, 
to reckon. 



A U T 

Auditor, n. Fo'mputor. 2, Ventuno'- 
fas, the reckoning officer. 

Auditory, (see audience). 

Avenge, v. Tro'nsikai, to revenge. 

Avens, v. Pra'mvino. 

Avenue, n. Dra^nzoi noo, the way to. 

Aver, V. Fi'ntisai, to affinn. 

Aversation, n. Bro'nzi. 

Aversion, n. Pro'nza, the opposite 
to inclination. 

Avert, V. Fre'ntisai ne. 

Augur, n. Betinsuno'tus, great bor- 
ing instrument. 

Augment, v. Dra'ntipai, to increase. 
2, Pra'ntiprost, to make great. 

^ 3, Gra'ntiprost, to make intense. 
4, Yin pra'ntiprost, to make 
greater. 5, Yin gra'ntiprost, to 
make more intense. 

Augury, n. Puno'mprifai, to fore- 
tell by the flight or chattering of 
birds. 

August, n. Kima'ldis, the eighth 
month. 

Aunt, n. To'zipet, or to'nzipun. 

Avocetta, n. Ple'njino. 

Avoid, V. Dre'ntisai. 2, Bro'nsinai, 
to detest. 

Avouch, V. Befi'ntisai. 2, Tro'ndus 
fi utisai. 

Aurelia, n. Vro'ndi. 

Auricular, adj. Franti, pertaining 
to the ear. 

Auspicious, adj. Fa'mpm-, pros- 
perous. 

Austerity, n. Ti'mba, harshness of 
taste. 2, Gre'mbis, stenmess. 

Authentic, adj. Vo'ntra. 

Author, n. Po'udoi. 



A Z U 

Authority, n. Vo'ndra. 2, Vlo'mbra, 
i. e. credible testimony. 

Autumn, n. Tu'ndai, 

Auxiliary, adj. Bo'ntufo, whicb 
helps. 

Awe, n. Vro'nzi. 2, Te'mbi, rever- 
ence. 3, adj. Gavro'nsikrost. 
awful. 

Away, adv. Nis, i. e. fi-on- some 
place. 2, Se'ni or si'ni, from off 
opposed to on. 3, Pri'ntou, ab- 
sent, as he is away. 4, Go, un- 
perative ; as Away to the moun- 
tains ! i. e. go to, &c. 5, Denoted 
also by off, as off with you, i. e. 
away ^vith you. 

Aioal-e, V. Ka'nsifai. 2. Untra'nsi- 
pai, to unsleep. 

Award, n. Bra'njoi fandroo'tuz. 

Aicare, adj. Cusbo'nsufo, knowing 
before. 2, Fa'mpa, heedful. 

Awkioard, adj. Tame'pus, not skll- 
fid. 2, Gi'o'mpu. 3, Pro'mpa, 
perverse. 

Aid, n. Tinsimo'tus, boiing instru- 
ment. 2, Tino'nza, a small steel 
boring instrument. 

Awry, adj. Ge'ntou. 2, Pre'nti. 

Axe, n. Keno'nzis, a carpenter's axe. 
2, Fe'noudri, battle axe. 3, Bren- 
o'nzis, a pickaxe. 

Axiom, n. Prino'ndo, a self-evident 
assertion. 2, Bi'nda, an author 
rised piinciple. 

Axis, n. Bre'ndoi. 2, Vra'nzi, axle- 
tree. 

Azimuth, n. Kri'nzis 

Azure, adj. Tri'mpou. 

Azure, n. Tru'njoi, the lazul. 



BAG 

Babble, v. Bre'mpinai. 

Babe, n. Puntinu'rdis, hifant person. 

Bauble, n. Bro'nta'ri. 

Baboon, n. Pi'njo. 

Bachelor, n. Ponsufu'rdis. 

Bachelor of Arts, n. Ko'mbroo. 

Bachelor s bulton,u.FeiaiYi, campion. 

Back, n. Gri'ndg, back part of the 
body. 2, Ta'nda, i. e. of animal. 

Back, adv. Un (a prefixed sylla- 
ble), as unpi'ntipai, to imdo. 2,' 
Droo or dru, as droo pre'ntisai, 
to go back. 

Back, prep. Ne or ni, from. 

Back, V. Kra'ntmai. 2, Fo'nsisai. 
. 3, Bo'nsifai. 

Back, V. Vre'ntikai, i. e. to abstain. 
2, Drus ve'utipai, to hold one 
back. 3, Fre'ntifai. 4, Bro'ntifai. 

Back-door, n. Fano'nza. ^ 

Back-friend, n. Ponza'des, friend in 
a bad sense. 

Backbite, v. Dra'ncinai. 

Backslide^Y. Yu'mi>rita.i to apostatise. 



B 

B A I 

Backward, adj. Bro'nsu. 2, Pepro'n- 
sa, disinclined. 

Bacon, n. Vano'ndoi, condited hogs- 
flesh. 

Bad, adj. Fro'nti. 

Badge, n. Bo'ndis, sign. 

Badger, n. Fri'nji. 2, Debo'ndi-oi, 
fengu'rtu vo'ndo. 

Bag, n. Pen'zi. 

Bagpipe, n. Peno'nzi. 

Baggage, n. E'mbril. 

Bay tree. n. Bu'mvo, laurel. 

Baif color, n. Biku'mfa. 2, Ku'mfa 
i'mboi. 

Bay n. Ki'nza. 2, Ea'nzo. 

Bay, V. Pino'ncikai, to bark at. 

Bail, n. Fa'ndi-oi. 

Bailiff, n. Po'ndroo. 2, Pandroi'^/s, 
summoning officer. 3, Pambroi^fes, 
arresting officer. 4, 1'nsi dro'nzo. 

Bait, V. Pe'nsipai, to take a meal. 

2, Ge'fitikai, to refresh (ones-self) 

3, Bongikai, cnzoo'ti. 4, Fe'n- 
tripai, to provoke. 



B A L 

Bake, n. Bre'nsitai. 

Baker, n. Brensuto]/Jw, or Bre'nsutor. 
3, Brensuto'tas. 

Ballad, n. Bo'ntmr banutoo'ri. 2, 
Buno'ndi'oo. ballad. 

Balance, n. Finsupo'twus 2, Fi'n- 
sipai. 3, Ba'ntipi, to equal. 4, 
Ba'ntiprost, to make equal. 5, 
5, Vre'ntinai, to balance ac- 
counts. 

Ballast, n. Yino'mbis, heavy matter 
in a ship to steady it. ' 

Balcony, n. Frano'nza, a projection 
before the window of a house to 
stand on. 

Bcdd, adj. Umpa'ntus, destitute of 
hair. 2, Umvantukoo, unadorned. 
3, Yone'tu, not congruous. 

Bale, n. Bino'nzoi, a heap bound 
together. 2, Vrano'ndo, an aggre- 
gate bound together. 

Balk, V. Gre'ntivai, to omit. 2, 
Fro'nsisai, to discourage. 

Ball, n. Krensuko'ri, to ball with. 



BAR 

2, Pebe'ndo, a small sphere. 3, 

O'ndro benze'di. 
Ballotiinff, n. Tono'nzoi. 2. v. 

Tono'nsifai, to vote. 
Balm, n. Fa'mvinoo, a herb. 2, 

Ta'mvinoo, Assyrian balm. 3, 

Dro'ndoo, balsam. 
Balsam, n. Dro'ndoo. 2, Remvhioo, 

male balsam. 3, Pi'mvo, true 

balsam. 4, Tru'mvluoi, balsaraum 

peruvianum. 
Ban, n. Tro'nzoo. 2, Dre'nda, ban- 
role, 1. e. flag. 
Band or bond, n. Pinsufo'ri. 2, O'n- 

dris, obligation. 3, Bo'ndris, deed. 

4, Te'ndra, a military party. 
Bandy, v. Do'ndus fe'nslvai, mutu- 
ally to cast — as bandy words. 
Bandit, n. Unto'ntrunoor, unlawed 

person. 2, Da'ntruvor, robber. 
Bandog, n. Bepi'nji. 
Bane, n. Bamprukg'ri, poison. 2, 

Kro'nzoo. 3, Kra'njis, rat's-bane. 
Bans, n. Ba'ndi vnndri'netun. 2, 

Vuno'ndra, bans of marriage. 
Bang, v. Ke'nsivai. 
Banish, v. Ba'ntrisai. 
Banh, n. Bli'nzo, high ground. 2, 

De'ndi, ridge. 3, Vi'nza, shore. 4, 

Bri'nzo, shelf. 5, Dwiru'udil, mo- 
ney aggregate. 
Banker, n. Runo'ndil. 
Banquet, n, Pre'nzoi. 
Bankrupt, n, Gre'ntunor. 2, Gren- 

o'nda, one imable to pay just debts. 
Banner, n. Fentri'ri, colours of foot 

soldiers. 2, Fempri'ri, colours of 

horse-soldiers. 
Baptism, n. Vu'ndiis. 
Bar, n. Be'nza, bolt. 2, Veno'ndo, 

bar of wood. 3, Vena'ndo, of 

iron. 4, Vrene'ndo, a prism of, &c 

6, Brontou'ri. 7, Dantru'rkis. 
Bar, V. Bro'ntifai, to nnpede- 2, 

Pro'nsikai, to forbid. 
Barh, v. Pa'nontisai, to dress the hair. 

2, Pi'nsinai, to dress the beard. 
Barbarous, adj. Re'mba. 2, Tre'mpa, 

rustic. 3, Kro'mpa, fierce. 4, 

Bre'mpvir. 
Barber, n. Pano'ndis. 
Barberry, n. Kri'mvoo. 
Barbel, n. Ga'njino. 
Bard, n. Kono'mbroi, ancient kind 

of poets and singers among the 

Celts. 
Bare, adj. Ene'smioo, not clothed. 

2, Bro'mpu, lean. 3, Fla'ntur. 
Bare, v. Une'nsinai, to miclothe. 
Bargain, v. O'ntrilai, 2, Go'ndri, 

the thing bargained for. 
Barge, n. Pi'mbroo. 
Bark, n. Bo'ndoo, rind. 2, I'ndroo, 

naval vessel. 
Bark, v. Umbo'ntipai, to unpeel. 

2, Pino'ncinai, to bark as a dog. 

3, Prino'ncinai, to bark as a fox. 
Barley, n. To'mvoi. 2, Kro'mv<2, 

wild barley. 



BAT 
Barm, n. Brinsuvo'ri, the ferment- 
ing thing. 
Barn, n. Pre'nonzai"tus, straw' house. 
Barnacle, n. To'njinoi. 2, Pre'non- 

jino, a kind of goose. 
Baron, n. Tonu'ndroo. 
Baron, n. Pa'ndroo tw eksce'kur. 
Baronet, n. Tono'mbroo, gentleman 

of the first degree. 
Barrel, n. Te'nzi, vessel- 2, Du'ndo, 

a measure. 
Barrenness, n. Tro'mbis. 
Barrenioort, n. De'mvis. 
Barrator, n. Ano'mbroi, one who 

illegally promotes suits at law. 
Barricade, u. Brono'ndoi, a fortifi- 
cation made in haste of trees, 

waggons, &c &c. 
Barricade, v. Brono'ntifai, to stop 

up any way. 
Carrier, n, Brono'ndoi (see barricade) . 
Barrister, n. Da'ndroo. 
Barrow, n. Gino'njoi, an imtesticled 

hog. 2, Tre'nzi. 
Base, n. Dri'ndo banzo'tu. 
Base, n. (in music), Pli'mbo, grave. 
Base, adj. Kra'ntou. 2, Torae'ur, not 

noble. 3, Do'ntrur, vulgar. 4, 

Go'ntrur, without dignity. 5, 

Kra'nti, spurious. 6, Re'mpur, 

vicious. 7, Gle'mpi, pusilani- 

mous. 8, Kle'mpi, sorded. 
Bashful, adj. Pafro'nsus, habitual 

shame. 2, Tre'mpi. 
Basil, n, Ba'mvinoo. 2, Bra'mvinoo^ 

stone basil. 3, Ve'mvi, cow basil. 
Basilisk, n. Vino'njis, serpent killing 

by seeing. 
Basket, n. Fre'nzi. 
Bason, n. Ke'nzi, deep dish. 
Bass, n. Dra'nzis fronvo'tuz. 
Bastard, adj. Kra'nti, s])urious. 2, 

Krano'nti, begotten of unmarried 

parents. 
Baste, V. Fa'ntrisai, to whip. 2, 

Fa'mprisai, to cudgel. 3, Vo'nsi- 

sai, to correct 4, De'nsitai, to 

baste or moisten meat. 
Baston, or Batoon, n. Ko'ndoo. 2, 

Fe'ndri, a club. 
Bastinade, n. Fa'mprisai. 
Bat, n. Fe'ndi'i. 2, Dwi'nzo, flying 

mouse- 
Batting, n. Dono'ndi'oi, hunting 

birds by night. 
Batch, n. Feno'nzoo, one baking of 

bread. 
Bath, n. Bra'nzoi. 
Bathing, n. Bri'nzi). 
Battalia, n. Fa'ndo gembroo'tu. 
Battle axe, n.Ge'mbroo. 2,Feno'ndri, 

cutting club. 3, Fla'nonzis, cuttnig 

hammer. 
Batter, v. Pri'nza kenzai'ti, bruise 

by striking. 2, Pri'nza krenzai'ti. 
Battery, n. De'ndroo verabre'tuz. 
Battledore, n. U kende'tus kenzai'di. 
Battlements, n. Tre'nda. 2, Gano'n- 

7,0, battlement of building. 



B E C 

Baiod, n. Faudra'das, fornication- 
merchant. 

Bawdy, adj. Dre'mpou. 

Bavl, V. Tra'nsitai. 

Bdellium, n. Du'mvinoi. 

Beach, Fri'mva. 

Beacon, n, Unzoo'dis, the fire^signal. 
2, Bino'ndo, bored sphere. 

Bead, n. Brino'ndo, bored cube. 

Bede-tree, n. Tra'mvo 

Beadle, n. Coope'nsufor. 2, Pa'ntru- 
for. 3, Pa'mprufor. 4, Fa'n- 
ti-us<2r. 

Beagle, n. Pina'nji, a dog hunting 
by the smell. 

Beak, n. Ko'ndi, beak of bird. 

Beaker, n. Tre'nzi, 

Bea7n, n. Bra'nzo. 2, Bre'nzi. 3, 
Fino'nzoo, beam of a balance. 4, 
Fino'nzi, weaver's beam. 5, Ku'n- 
zoo, sunbeam. 

Beam-tree, (white), n. Tri'mvoi. 

Bean, n. Te'mvo. 2, Pe'mvoi tu 
Franse. 3, Fe'mvoi, bean of the 
ancients. 4, Vi'mva, binding bean 
tree. _ _ te-...,.^j 

Bear, n. Pri'nja. 

Bears foot (sea), n. Fo'njls. 2, 
Ge'mvinoi, bcar's-breech. 3,Fe'm- 
vinoi, bear's-ear. 4, Te'mvinoi, 
bear's-ear sanicle. 

Bear, v. Pre'nsivai. 2, Pe'nsivai, 
to carry. 3, Ta'nsipai, to bring 
forth. 4, Dro'ntipai, to suflfer. 
5, Ge'mpivi, to be patient. 6, 
Trisda'nsivrost, to bear down. 7, 
Twadro'ntipai, to endeavour to 
bear. 8, To'ntikrost, to bear out. 
9, Trasdro'ntipai, to bear up 
against. 10, Traste'mprivai, to 
continue resistmg. 

Bear-with, n. Ge'mpivai, to be pa- 
tient. 2, Fe'mpisai, to condescend. 

Bear ones self, v. Ansilaiu'rkwen to 
demean. 

Beard, n. Ko'ndis, i. e. of animal. 
2, Tro'ndoi, i. e. of com. 

Bearded cree-per, n. Ba'mvo. 

Beast, n. I'nji. 

Beastly, adj. Pizi'ncu, metaphori- 
cally like a beast. 

Beat, V. Kre'nsivai, to knock. 2, 
Kre'nsivai, to strike. 3, Pe'm- 
prifai, to overcome. 4, Droo 
bre'ntisai, to beat back. .5, Droo- 
pc'ntipai. 6, Droode'ntripai. 

Beating down the price, n. Po'mbris, 
i. e. treating. 

Beatitude, n. Pa'mboo. 2, To'nzoo. 

Beaver, n. Gi'nja, castor. 

Beauty n. Vo'mbi. 

Becalm, v. Te'ntikai. 

Because, conj. Vre or vri. 

Beccafigo, n. Vi'nji. 

Be/:kon, v. Ano'ntitai, to beckon. 

Become, v. O'kai, as o'ko, it becomes, 
o'kel, it became; o'ken, it will 
become, &c. 2, Tapo'ntoo, it 
begins to be, &c. 3, Do'ntipoo, 



B E H 
it is done. 4, Po'ntifoo, it is 
made. 5, Fo'nti, it is decent. 
Bed^ n. Dra'nzi. 2, Da'uzi, bedstead. 

3, Drano'nsikai, unable to get out 
of bed. 4, Te'ndoo dinzoi'tu, bed 
of earth. 

Ladies bed-straw, n. Vro'mvino. 

Bedaub^ v. Dra'ntlkai. 

Bedding^ n. Dransutiz, i. e. bed 

things. 
Bf^dewed, v. Tni'nsitrest, to cause 

to be covered with dew. 2, Pitrun- 

sitrest, to be metap. be-dewed. 
Bedlam, n. Puno'mba, the prison 

for mad people. 
Bee, n. Po'nja. 2, Pro'nja, humble 

bee. 3, To'nja, bee-like flj. 4, 

Ti'njo. 5, Go'mva, orchis, bee- 
flower. 
Be, V. po'ntipi, to be. 
Beech, n. Kru'mva. 
Beef, n. Pino'njoi, flesh of kine. 
Being n. Po'ndoo. 2, conj. Fre or 

or fi-i, as being. 
Beer, n. Deno'nzoo, dena'nzoo, i. e. 

ale of an inferior quahtv, (see 

ale). 
Bier, n. Drano'nzoo, sedan to cany 

the dead. 
Beastings, n. Twa'ndoo, first milk 

after parturition. 
Beet, n. Uainvoo. 
Beetle, n. O'nji. 2, Ko'nji, common 

beetle. 3, Kro'nji, dung insect. 

4, Tro'nji, knobbed homed beetle. 
Beetle, n. Beki-e'ndis rondoo'tu. 
Befall, V. E'utllai, to happen. 
Befool V. Pro'mpivrost, to cause to 

be a fool. 

Before, Coo or cu, in place. 2, 
Yi'rikvu, more than ; as yi'ukyu 
ba'sin, more than fifty. 3, adv. 
Fri'ndur, preceding. 

Before /land, adj. Fc'ntukoo, gained. 
2, Fc'ntuvoo, prepared. 3, Te'ntu- 
koo, prevented. 

Be^, V. Go'mpripai. 2, Beto'nsikai, 
to entreat much. 

Beggar, n. Go'mbroo. 

Beget, v. Pa'usipai. 2, Po'ntifai, to 
make. 

Begin, v. Te'ntivai. 2, Trans, tas ; 
as toba'nsitai, to begin to sing. 

Beginning, n. Ti'ndo. 

Beguile, v. Ka'ntrinai. 

Behave, v. Re'mpikai, to converse 
with. 2, A'nsilai, to demean 
himself. 

Behead, v. Pa'ntrikai. 

Behind, prep. Cc or ci, i. c. after. 
2, adv. Gri'ndi, i. e. at the hinder 
part. 3, Urendun, i. e. in arrears. 
4, adj. Bla'ntur, inferior. 5, 
Fral'ntiikij, having lost. 6, Faine- 
tuvoo, not having prepared. 7, 
Te'ntukoo, having been prevented. 

Behold, V. Fa'ntltai, to eye. 2, Po'm- 
pitai, to see. 3, Pro'nsitai, to ob- 
serve. 



BEN 

Beholden, Groin'suto, i. e. havmg re- 
ceived benefits. 

Beholding, v. Dre'ntinai, to owe 
thanks. 

Behove, v. Vo'ntiki, to be expedient. 

Behoved, v. To'ntin, it is the duty ; 
as, tos to'ntin, it is the duty of 
me; tas to'ntin, it is the duty of 
thee ; tes to'ntin, it is the duty of 
it &c. 

Bell, n. Fimputo'tus. 

Belfry, n. Fa'nzo tu fi'mputorz. 

Belljlower, n. Tra'mvinoo. 

Belching, n. Feuza. 

Beldame, n. Vu'non(ii"nupun, i. e. a 
hag, or ugly old female. 

Beleaguer, v. Ke'ntripai, to besiege. 

Bely, V. Da'ntrinai, calunmiate. 

Believe, v. Ko'nsifai. 

Belly, n. Va'nda. 2, Pro'nja, belly 
woi-m. 

Bellis, n. Tra'mvoi, daisy. 

Bellow, V. Pina'ncifai. 

Bellows, n. kimsufo'tus, the blowing 
instrument. 

Belong, v. Ba'ntini, to pertain. 

Beloved, adj. To'nsukoo. 2, Beto'n- 
sukoo. 

Below, prep. Dre or dri. 

Below, adj. Bla'ntur, inferior. 

Belt, n. Reno'nza, a weapon belt. 
2, Pinsufo'bas, a binding arma- 
ment. 

Bemoaning, n. Ino'mbo, expressing 
intense grief with the voice. 

Bench, n. Bansuvo'twus, a seat or 
sitting jugament. 2, Pantm'rkis, 
the place of the judge. 3, Pan- 
droo'd^vis, the aggregate of judge. 

Bencher, n. Dano'ndi'oo, an inner 
barrister. 

Bend, v. Dri'nsipai. 2, Pren'titrost, 
to make crooked. 3, Ta'nsivai, to 
shrink. 4, Tra'nsivai, to crumple. 

5, Ge'ntifrost, to make oblique. 

6, Tano'ntifrost, to make a fist, 
infold the hand. 

Beneath, adj. Blantur. 2, Dre, or 

dri. 
Benediction, n. To'nzoo. 
Benefactor, n. Go'nzo. 
Benefice, n. Kidu'ndroi, place of 

presbyter. 
Beneficence, n. Ke'mboo, goodness. 

2, Go'nzito, the acting benefi- 
cently. 
Beneficial, adj. Go'nsi. 
Beneficiary, n. Gro'nzo. 
I Beriefit, n. Gonsuko'ri. 
Bincrolence, n. Fo'nzi. 
Benjamin, n. Bru'mvinoi. 
Benighted, adj. Vru'ntugrost, to be 

caused to be in the night. 
Benignity, n. Fo'nzi favor. 2, De'm- 

ba. 3, Pe'mbis, graciousness. 
Bent, adj. Dri'nsupoo. 2, Toi'nsuno, 

having pui-posed. 3, Kro'ndoi, 

trinze'tu. 
Benumb, v. Pro'mpifai. 



B E W 

Bequeath, v. Fo'ntrikai. 

Bewray, v. Dra'ntikai, to defile. 

Barberry, n. Ki'mvo. 

Berry, n. Fi-oudo, one beiTy. 2, 
Bremvino, herb, true love. 

Beseech, v. To'nsikai. 

Besiege, v. Kentripai. 

Beseem, adj. Fo'ntu, decent. 

Beset, V. Glis ve'ntiivai. 2, Ke'n- 
tripai, besiege. 

Beshreiv, v. imperative, To'nsikooz ! 
be accursed ! 

Beside, prep. De or di. 2, No'nu, 
not to. 3, No'su, not at. 

Beside the marl; adj. Ge'ntuvo, er- 
ring. 2, Tre'ntuso, wandering. 

Beside himself, adj. Pru'mpa, mad. 

Besides, conj. Kre or kri. 

Besmear, v. Dran'tikai, to defile. 

Besom, n. Tinsuko'tus, sweeping in- 
stiiiment. 

Besot, V. Fro'mpifrost. 2, Frono'm- 
pifrost, to besot with love. 2, 
Frona'mpifrost, to besot with 
drunkenness. 

Besjjawl, v. Drano'ntikai, to defile 
with spitting upon. 

Bespeul; v. Po'ntrisai. 

Besjwinlde, Puno'nsitai. 

Bespue, v. Jus te'nsinai, to vomit 
upon. 

Best, adj. sup. Fro'ntuvous. 2, n. 
Pa'ndis, best part. 

Best (to do one's) v. Win ke'ntivai. 

Bestiality, n, Va'ndro. 

Bestir, v. Beze'nsikai. 2, Ke'ntivaL 
3, Ba'mpinai, to ;act diligently. 

Bestoio, V. Ke'ntinai,. 2, Be'ntinai,, 
to disburse. 3, Tre'ntikai, to 
spend. 

Bet, V. Go'mprisai. 

Betake, v. Nus prc'ntisai, to go to; 

2, Nus e'ntisai, to pass to. 
Bethink, v. Po'nsifai. 2, Fo'nsitai, to 

consider. 

Betide, v. E'ntilai. 

Betime, adv. Ki'ndur. 2, Du'ndus. 

Betoken, v. Coobo'ntisai. 

Betony, n. Ba'nvnnoo. 

Betray, Fle'mpikai. 2, Vrempikai, 
to act pei-fidiously. 3, Fa'ntrivai, 
to act treasonably. 4, Ge'ntipai, 
to shew. 5, Te'ntipai, to manifest. 

Betroth, v. To'nsifai. 

Better, adj. Fo'ntu vou. 2, Bra'ntu- 
pou, superior. 

Betters, n. O'nzoz. 

Between, prep. Koo or ku. 

Between themselves, adv. Ba'ndu, 
privately. 2, Ti'ndotu. 

Bever, n. Pre'nzoo. 2, Gi'nja, castor. 

3, iPeno'mbri, head armour. 
Beverage, n. Vre'nzoi. 
Bevey, n. Vra'ndo. 

Bewail, v. Krono'nsikai, loudly to 

express grief. 
Beware, v. Fa'mpinai. 
Bewitch, v. Pa'ntrifrest, to cause to 

be witched. 



BIS 

7. Gentipai. 2, Tre'ntipai. 
Beyond, prep. Ge or gi. 2, Bra'ntur. 
Bezoar, n. Bisb'ambri, antidote. 
By the bye, v. Trintikai'dul, to digress. 

2, Krantini'dul, to be accessary. 

3, Kane'ta, not principal. 4, Ban- 
e'ta, not pertinent. 5, Bane'tu, not 
public. 6, Tane'tu, not ordinary. 

By, prep. Doo or du, denoting the 
efficient. 2, Te or ti, by, or by 
means of. 3, De or di, for, by 
reason of. 4, Coo, before, as by 
or before God. 5, Pe'ntikai, to 
obtain, come by. 6, Pegoci, by 
and by. 7, Gri'ndu, digressively. 
8, Vra'ndi, aggregately. 9, Va'n- 
di, segregately. 10, Fro'nzun, 
solitarily. 11, Bundai'twis, day 
by day. 12, Panzoi'twis, house by 
house. 13, Pimdai'twis, year by 
year. 

Bib, n. Fanda'fus. 2, Fransiftii'das, 
V. to drink frequently. 

Bible, n. Pu'ndris. 

Bicker, n. Peda'ndroo, a little fight, 
2, Twe'mpinai, to contend. 

Bid, V. Po'nsikai. 2, Pa'nsikai, to 
invite. 3, Vuno'ntrlnal, to publish 
the bans. 4, Buuo'utrinai, to pub- 
lish a feast, &c. 

Bid a price, v. Fo'ntrisai. 

Biennial, adj. Doo a'tin pu'ndaiz. 2, 
Droope'ntisai, ouju a'fiu pu'ndaiz. 

Big, adj. Pra'ntur. 2, Fa'nsur, preg- 
nant. 3, To'iisikai. 4, Fre'mpikai. 

Bicjamy, n. Be'ntupo a'fin ko'nzifunz. 

Bilberry, n. Fi'mvoi. 

Bile, n. Tru'mbo. 

Bill, n. Ko'ndi, bill of bird. 2, Gen- 
o'nda, cutting hook. 3, Dra'ndo, 
catalogue. 4, Ta'ndroi, bill of 
indictment. 5, Bo'ndiis ombri'ltu, 
bill of exchange. 

Billet, n. Kude'nzis, sheet of paper. 

2, Beko'ndoo fe'nzaidi. 
Billow, n. Bepri'nza. 
Bin, n. Fe'nzi. 

Bind, V. Pi'nslfai. 2, Ka'mprisai. 

3, Re'nsimost. 4, O'ntrisai. 5, 
Bo'ntrisai. 6, Dreno'nsisai, to bind 
book. 

Bindweed, n. Ve'mvinoo. 2, Tro'nvis. 
3, Tra'mvoo. 4, De'mvino. 

Biographer, n. Tlne'nturo. 

Bi2}artite, adj. Tw a'fin ra'ndalz, of 
parts. 

Birch, n. Du'mvls. 

Birdlime, n. Krirapai'ri kendoo'di 
anje'tuz. 2, Gi'mvoi, bird's cherry. 
3, Fre'mvinoi, bird's eye. 4.Te'm- 
vo, bird's foot. 5, Do'mvi, bird's 
nest. 

Birth, n. Ponsupoo'rit, extraction. 
2, Ta'nzipoo, nativity. 3,Ta'nzIpo, 
child-bearing. 4, Dro'ndls, after- 
birth. 

Birthwort, n. Be'mvlnol. 

Biscuit, n. Fena'nzoo, hard baked 
bread, for keeping. 




B L 

Bishop, n. Vu'mbrol. 

Bismuth, n. Tu'nzo. 

Bissextile, n. Puno'ndis. 

Bistai-t, n. To'mvinoo, snake weed. 

Bit, n. Pera'ndis. 

Bit, n. Pinjoo'bus frondoi'di, horse 

armament for restraining. 
Bitch, n. Pi'njitun. 
Biting, n. Kra'ndlto. 2, v. Ki-a'nti- 

tai, to bite. 3, n. FrI'mba. 
Bitter, adj. Tri'mpa. 2, Gre'nipus, 

austere. 
Bittern, n. Ba'njinol. 2, Bra'njinoi. 
Bitumen, n. Gu'nji. 
Blab, V. Bre'mpinai. 
Black, adj. Pli'mpou. 2, Pa'ndro, 

black-art. 3, Fro'ndo primvoo'tu, 

black-berry. 4, Ve'njo, blackbird. 
Black-and-blue, adj.I'mboi prinza'tu. 
Black-thorn, n. Vru'mvoo. 
Bladder, n. Dra'ndls. 2, Bo'nda, 

swimming bladder. 3, Dru'mvM, 

bladder nut. 
Blade, n. Ke'ndi. 2, Bro'ndoi, blade of 

plant. 3, Prano'ndi, shoulder blade. 
Blain, n. Tru'mbo. 
Blame, v. BrI'ntlfai, ge'ndo. 2, Brin- 

tifal gre'ndo. 3, BrI'ntlfai fro'ndlto. 
Blameless, adj. Va'ntrou. 
Blanch, v. Pri'mplfrost. 
Blandishment, adj. Dre'mbino, fawn- 
ing. 
Blank, adj. Jusdane'sutoo. 
Blanket, v. Drana'nzis. 
Blaspheme, v. Pano'nsitai, to speak 

evil of God. 
Blast, V. Kro'mpikrast. 2, Bu'nslsai, 

to blast, 3, Dwaku'nsifai. 
Blaze, V. Pu'nslpai. 
Blazing star, n. Fu'nzoo, meteor. 
Blazon, v. Ba'ntikrost. 2, Ono'ntri- 

prost, to make a coat of arms. 

3, Kl'ntinai, wono'ndroo. 
Bleak, n. Da'njljio, a small river fish. 

2, Gra'ntur pli'mbi. 
Bleared, adj. Kru'mboo fand'otuz. 
Bleat, V. Kefi'ncifai, to make the 

sheep voice. 2, Kefri'nclfai, to 

make the goat voice. 
Bleed, v. Ba'ntipai, as, he bleeds. 

2, Ve'nslnai, opening a blood ves- 
sel by cutting. 
Blemish, v. Bri'mpivrost. 
Blend, v. Gro'ntivai. 
Blenn, n. Ka'mijo, a fish. 
Blessedness, n. Pa'mboo. 
Blessing, n. To'nzoo. 
Blight, V. Bu'nslsai. 2, Kro'mpikrast. 
Blind, adj. Pr'ompl. 
Blinking, n. Bra'nza fandji'tuz. 
Bliss, n. Pa'mboo. 
Blissom, Ba'nsifal, to lust; caterwall, 

applied to sheep. 
Blister, n. De'nza. 
Blite, n. Ba'nvoo, a herb. 
Blithe, adj. Ko'nsu, in a state of joy. 
Block, n. Fo'ndoo, stock. 2, Beva'n- 

dis, rondoo'tu. 
Blockhead, n. Pramp'iro. 



BOG 

Blockhouse, n. Fe'mbris. 

Block up, v. Ke'ntripai tri'ndou. 

Bloom, n. Po'ndoi. 

Blossom, n. Po'ndoi. 

Blot, n. Brimpu'rik, a spotted thmg. 

Blot out, V. Kro'nsipal da'uzo. 2, 

Plo'ntiprost. 
Bloated, v. Tentu'nost, swelled. 
Blood, n. Ba'ndoo. 2, Va'ndoo. 
Bloodhound, n. PIno'nji, a dog which 

hunts by scent. 
Bloodshot, adj. Bri'mpur bandoo'tl. 
Bloodstone, n. Tu'njo. 
Bloodthirsty, adj. Gaba'ntrival. 2, 

Gadi-a'nslprast. 
Blood, (to let), Ve'nsinai. 
Blood, n. Fipro'nzoo, one of the 

same blood. 2, O'nzoo, a relation 

by blood. 
Blood, (one of the whole by both pa- 
rents), n. Fono'nzoo. 
Blood, (one of the half blood) n. 

Fona'nzoo. 
Bloody flux, Vru'mbis. 
Blow, n. Ke'nzis, a stroke. 2, Kre'n- 

zis, a knock. 
Blow, V. Te'nsltai, i. e. with the 



Blow, V. Ku'nsivai, as the wind. 
Blow a horn, v. I'mpikrast vooo'ndis. 
Blow the nose, v. Kre'nslnai. 
Blow, V. Po'ntlfai, i. o. to flower. 
Blubber, n. Bo'njino, fat of whale. 
Blubber, v. Fri'mpiki tra'nzapi, to 

be wet with weeping. 
Blue, n. Tri'mpou. 2, Fa'mvo, blue- 
bottle. 
Blunder, v. Tra'mpisi, 2, Datre'nsl- 

fai. 3, Fra'ntlkrost. 
Blunt, adj. Fro'mpa, dull. 2, Twe'm- 

pa, rustic. 3, Gavene'sivai, not 

apt to cut. 4, Tre'nti, obtuse. 
Blur, n. Brimpu'rik, spotted thing. 
Blur, V. Bri'mplvrest, to cause to bo 

spotted. 
Blush, V. Ta'nslnai. 
Blush, (at the first), adv. Soo a'prin 

fro'ndoo. 2, Soo a'prin po'mbitoo. 
Bluster, v. Beku'nsifai. 
Boar, n. Gi'njifur, male hog. 
Board, n. Rundoo'kus. 
Board, V. Vo'nsitai, to act as a host, 

i. e. to entertain. 
Boarder, n. Vro'nzo, guest. 
Boast, V. Pro'nslvai, to glory. 2, 

Pre'mpinai, to oversay. 
Boat, n. Pi'ndroo. 
Boatswain, n. Vi'ndri. 
Bob, V. Peke'nsivai tande'pu. 2, Pe- 

ta'mprinai. 
Bode, V. Ge'ntipai, to shew. 2, Cus- 

ge'ntlpai, to foreshew. 3, Cus- 

bo'ntlsai. 
Body, n. RInzoo. 2, Ke'ndoo, solid 

body. 3, Ra'ndo, opposite to the 

head. 4,A'nda,thetruiik. 5,Fou- 

doo, stock of tree. 
Bodkin, Tinsuno'tus. 
Bog, n. Tra'nzoo. 



B T 

Boy, n. Fundi'nipur. 

Boil, V. Fe'nsitai. 2, n. Trn'inbo. 

Boisterous^ adj . Dri'nsus. 2, Krompa. 
3, Devo'mpa. 

Boldness, n. Go'nzi. 2, A'o'mba. 3, 
De'mboo, fortitude. 

5ofe, n. Ka'ndis. 

Bolster, n. Pedra'nzis ando'di. 

i?oterMjo, v.Pre'nsival. 2, Fo'nsisai. 

Bolt, n. Ba'nza, bar. 

Bolt, (to shoot one'sJ,v. Pibe'mprikai, 
the active of bolt, to declare one's 
opinions. 

Boh upright, adj. Gre'ntou, direct. 
2, Tesre'utoii, perfectly upright. 

Bolt, V. Pri'nsivai, to sift. 

Bombast, n. Tra'mpi i'ndoiz. 

Bond, n. Bo'ndris, obligation. 

Bonds, n. Ka'mbraiz. 

Bondage, n. Tombroo'rit, slavery. 

Bondman, n. To'mbroo. 

Bone, n. Pa'ndoi. 

Bonfire, n. Uno'nzoo. 

Bonnet, n. U Icra'niou ando'fus. 

Bonnet of sail, n. Vi'mbro. 

Book, n. Di-e'nzis. 

Boole (without), adv. To'mbou. 

Bookbinder, n. Drenzai'tas. 

Bookseller, n. Drenzai'das. 

Book, n. Tri'ndo. 

Boon, n. Fumprunoo'ri, the peti- 
tioned thing. 

Boo^is, n. Fra'miji. 

Boot, n. Bano'ndi, leather vest for 
leg and foot. 

Boots it, ichat? Sli'meai po'atiuai? 
what does it profit V 

Booth, n. Pra'nzoi. 

Booty, n. Be'mbroi. 2, v. Ke'ntipal 
bembroi'di. 

Borax, n. Vru'nji. 

Bordel, n. Frantra'tus, brothel 

Border, n. Krindo, margin. 

Born, adj. Ta'usupoo. 

Borne, part. Prc'nsuvoo. 

Borough, n. Fo'mbro. 2, To'mbro. 

Borrow, v. Ko'niprikai. 

.Sore, V. Ti'nsinai. 

Bosom, n. Fa'uda, the breast. 2, 
Fano'nda, space betwixt the 
clothes and the breast. 3, Fana'n- 
da, space betwixt the dugs. 

Boss, n. Te'nda, protuberance. 

Botanic, n. Fi'nsu, of plants. 

Botany, n. Brafi'nzi, science of plants. 

Botargo, n. Tre'nsutoo gro'nda 
vanja'tn. 

Botch, n. U'mputoo du'mboo, swollen 
ulcer. 2, v. Tra'mbus te'ntifai. 3, 
Tra'mpisi, to be unskilful. 

Both, n. Kwi'fin. 

Both, adj.Kifin: as,kwifinos,a'skwi; 
both me and tliee. 

Both, adj. (all three), Kwi'tin: as, 
'' both when thou risest, when high 
noon hast gained, and when thou 
fallest,"— il/«7/ow. The Philoso- 
phic extends this principle to any 
iiunber of things, as kwi'fin, kwi'- 



B K A 

tin, kwl'kln, kwl'blvi, kwi'vin, &c. 

All the two, the three, the four, 

the five, the six, &c. 
Bots, n. Tro'njoo. 
Bottle, n. Bre'nzl. 
Bottle, V. Bre'nsikai. 2, part. Brc'u- 

sukoo. 
Bottle-form, n. Fe'ndls. 
Bottom, n. Dri'ndo, lowest part. 2, 

Ka'nzo. 3, De'udis denza'tu. 
Budget, n. U fe'nsa Pepe'nzai. 
Bough, n. To'ndoo. 
Bought, V. To'mprikel. 
Bought, part. To'mprukoo. 
Bold, n. Vre'ndis. 2, Kensuko'tus, 

a bowling Instrument. 
Bounce, v. Dwakre'nslvai.. 2, I)wa- 

zi'mpitai 
Bound, adj. Pi'nsufoo. 2, Fl'ntinal, 

to limit. 
Bounds, n. Kri'ndo. 2, Trinti'kls. 3, 

Trinti'tls. 4, Trmti'dls. 
Bound, V. Te'ntifoi, to be reflected. 
Bounty, n. Pe'mbo, liberality. 
Bourn, n. Fi'nda, limit. 
Burn, n. (Scotch), Pedi'nza. 
Bout, n. Do'ndis, turn. 
Bow, V. Dri'nslpai, to bend. 2, 

Pre'ntitrost, to crook. 
Bow, n. Ke'ndi-i. 2, Ke'mbii, cross 

bow. 
Bow-figure, n. Te'ndi. 
Bowel, n. Kra'ndis, gut. 
Bower, n. Pra'nzoi brondol'tuz, 

tondoo'kwiz. 
Boicl, n. Vren'dls, fngm'e. 
Bowl, V. Kenslkai. 
Bowl, n. U fa'ntou tre'nzi. 
Bowline, n. Di'mbra. 
Bowesjjrit, n. Ki'ndi'o. 
i?o^</■^/e/•,n.Ke'ntrutas,bowmechanic. 
Box, n. Du'mvo, tree. 2, Fe'nzi. 
Box, V. Ke'nsivai kye'ntupu ta'ndi. 
Brabble, v. Twe'mmnal, to contend. 
Brace, v. Tyool fi'nsifal. 2, Pe'ntlfal 

a'tin kro'ndooz, fondoo'twiz. 
Braces of a ship, n. Ki'ndra. 
Bracelet, n. Trano'ndi, a wrist orna- 
ment. 
Brach, n. PIna'njIkun. 
Brachygraphy,u. Pra'ntou danzo'bas. 
Bracket, n. Trusprensuvo'ri, 
Brackishness, n. Bi'mba. 
Brag, v. Pro'nsival, boast. 
Bray, v. Be'nsivai, to pound. 
Bray, v. Kefi'nclpai, as an ass. 
Braid, V. Fi'nsikai dande'tiz. 
Brail, n. Vi'ndra. 
Brain, n. Ga'ndoo. 
Brainpan, u. Gano'ndoo. 
Brainsick, n. U'mpu fo'mboi, dis- 
eased fancy. 2, Vefo'mboi. 3, 

Pru'mba, madness. 
Brake, n. Ko'mvoo. 2, Veko'ravoo, 

a great quantity of fcm. 
Bramble, n. Pri'mvoo. 
Brambling, n. Dre'njis, a bird. 
Bran, n. Tono'ndol, husk of corn. 
Branch, n. To'ndoo. 



E 11 E 

Brand,n.\lh\mi ro'ndoo, fire-woud. 

Brand, n. VambraI'dis. 

Brand, v. Va'mprisai. 

Brandy, n. Dre'nzol. 

Brandish, v. Te'nslvai. 

Brangle, n. Twemba'kes, a conten- 
tious voice. 2, Twe'mplnal. 

Bra/ik, n. Ta'mvoo. 

Brankursine, n. Ge'mvinoi, bear's 
breech. 

Brant goose, n. Preno'njino. 

Brasil, n. Bu'mvlnoo. 

Brass, n. Pu'nzol. 

Bravado, n. Prouo'nzis, boasting of 
future achievements. 

Brave, adj. Bekra'ntur, very excel- 
lent. 2, Go'nsu. 3, De'mpur. 4, 
Ke'mpi. 5, Beva'ntu, magnificent. 

Brawl, V. Twe'mplnal. 

Brawn, n. Vran'andoi, hard muscle 
part. 2, Vanu'ndol, hard flesh 
part. 3, GIno'njoi. 

Brase, V. Kl'usinal punzoi'ti. 

Brazier, n. Punzol'tas, brass me- 
chanic. 

Bread, n. Fe'nzoo. 

Breadth, n. Fa'ndol. 

Break, v. Ve'nsival. 

Break 07ie's iieck, v. Ta'mprikal. 

Break on the wheel, v. Ta'mprikal. 

Break, to tear, v. Vre'nsival. 

Break ones wind, v. Fu'mpikrost, to 
cause to be asthmatic. 

Break (the law), v. Vre'ntival (to'n- 
dra.) 

Break (a horse), v. Uiila'a'mpllcrest 
u pl'njoo, to cause to be unflerced. 

Break, (as a trader J, v. Gre'ntlual, 
fail. 

Break up (as the constitution), n. 
Kro'mpikai, decay. 2, Kro'mpikal 
undlnoo'ti, kronze'twi. 

Break up land, v. PI'nsItai, prinsi- 
tal'twl a'nzoo. 

Break out, v. Fro'ntlpal, appear. 

Break icind, v. Fre'nslnai, to fart. 

Breakfast, n. Peno'nzoo, first meal. 

Bream, n. Ta'njino. 2, Pa'njI, scu- 
bream. 

Breast, n. Fa'nda. Fi-a'ndn, dug. 

Breast plate, n. Fanda'vus. 

Breath, n. Fensutoo'ri, the breathed 
thing. 

Breech, n. Ka'nda,, the louis. 2, 
Kanda'fus, breeches. 

Breed, v. Pa'nslpai. 2, O'nsisal, to 
educate. 

Breed, n. Ol'doo. 2, Dwipro'uzoo, 
aggregate of descendants. 

Brief, adj. Pra'ntou. 2, Di'ntukoo, 
epitomized. 

Brief n. To'ndra, law. 2, To'mbra, 
edict. 3, Ko'mbra, commission. 

Brees, n. O'njI. 

Breeze, n. Vu'nzis, gentle gale. 

Bret, n. Tra'njinoo. 

Breve, n. Bino'mbo, the assumed 
musical integer of length of 
soimd, according to the following 



B li I 
scale : 2, Breve, Bino'mbo. 3, 
Semibreve, Bina'mbo. 4, Minim, 
Bine'mbo. 5, Crotchet, Bini'mbo. 
6, Quaver, Binu'mbo. 7, Semi- 
quaver, Bino'lbo. 8, Demi semi- 
quaver, Biiia'lbo. 

Breviary^ n. Dl'ndi, epitome. 

Breviature, n. Pra'ndifo, shortening. 
2, Ta'nziso, shrinking. 

Brevity^ n. Pra'ndoi. 

Breiv, V. Dc'nsiprost, to make ale 
or beer. 2, Gro'ntivai, to mingle. 

Bribe, v. Va'ntrinai. 

Brick, n. Pru'njoo. 

Bride, n. Vii'ntruno"et, the female 
now being in the course of mar- 
rying. 2, Vu'ntrunoo"et, the new 
married female. 

Bridegroom, n. Vu'ntruno"ed. 2, 
Vu'ntrunoo"ed. 

Brideinaid, n. Fro'nzinet vu'ntru- 
nou"ntu. 

Brideman, n. Fro'nzined vu'utruno- 
u"rtu. 

Bridal, n. Vu'ntra tro'ndis. 

Bridewell, n. Ba'ntu vunsai'tus. 

Bridge, n. Va'nzoi. 

Bridle, n. Ta'nzi. 

Bridle, v. Fro'ntifai. 

Brier, n. Fri'mvoo. 

Brigade, n. Fe'ndra. 

Brightness, n. Ti'mboo. 

Brim, n. Kri'ndo, margin. 

Brimstone, n. Ku'nji. 

Brine, n. Fi'nsuvoo pu'nji. 

Briny taste, n. Bi'mba. 

Bring, v. Preno'ntisai, to cause to go 
with. 2, Peno'ntlsai, to cause to 
come with. 3, Pe'nsivai, to carry. 
4, Bre'ntisai, to drive. 5, Be'n- 
tisai, to lead. 6, Po'ntiprost, to 
cause to be. 7, Pi'e'ntigrost, to 
cause to go. 8, Pe'ntigrost, to 
cause to come. 

Bring down, v..Kra'ntifrost, to abase. 

2, Ym kra'ntifrost, to make lower. 
Bring forth, v. Ta'nsipai. 

Bring to nought, v. Ra'nsifrest, to 
cause to be ruined. 2, Kro'nsl- 
pai, to cause to be destroyed. 

3, Pro'nsipal. 

Bring to pass, v. O'ntlfai. 2, Po'nti- 
fai, to make. 

Bring under, v. Pe'mprifai, to over- 
come. 2, De'mprlfai, to conquer. 

Bring up, v. O'nsisai, educate. 

Bring in the ioay, v. Fo'nsinai ten- 
dai'tu. 

Bring to led, v. Bo'ntifal tanzipo'tu. 

Bring loord, v. Pe'ntisal tinde'pu, 
to come with narration. 

Brink, n. Kri'ndo. 

Briony (white), n. Ve'mvino. 2, 
Vre'mvino, black hriony. 

Brisk, adj. Fo'mpa. 

Bristle, n. Fo'ndis. 

Bristle, v. Fono'ntigrast, to cause 
bristles to become direct. 

Bristow non-such, n. Kre'mvi. 



BUD 

Brittleness, n. Bli'mbis. 

B)-oach, (a spitj, n. U tensuto'tus. 

Broach, v. Ta'sunte"nsisai, to begin 

to unbaiTel. 
Broad, adj. Fa'ntou. 
Broad awake, adj. Teka'nsou. 
Badger, n. Fri'nji. 
Brocket, n. Tiino'njoi, a hart two 

years old. 
Broil, V. Kre'nsitai. 
Broils, n. Twe'mbaz. 2, Tre'ndiz. 
Broken-icinded, adj. Fu'mpukrost. 
Broker, n. Visbo'ndroi. 2, Bono'n- 

drol, merchant of old things. 
Brooch, n. Vano'ndi, a gemmed 

ornament. 
Brood, n. Dwlfro'nzoo. 2, Vran- 

do'twes. 
Brood, V. Juska'nsipai. 
Brook, n. Pedi'nza. 
Brooklime, n. De'mvis. 
Brook, V. Ge'mpivai. 2, Vegc'mpi- 

vai, to be excessively patient. 
Broom, n. Gi'mva. 
Butcher s broom, n. Gi'mvo. 2, 

Fri'mva, thorny broom. 3, Go'm- 

vi, broomrape. 
Broom, n. U tinsuko'tus, brush. 
Brooming, n. Fi'ndris. 
Broth, n. Be'nzoo. 
Brothel, n. Fantra'tus. 
Brother, n. Ko'nzipur. 2, Kro'nzi- 

pur, half brother. 
Brother in law, n. Ko'nzipur onzoi'ti, 

brother by affinity. 
Brotherhood, n. abstract, Konzoo'rit. 

2, Do'ndi-o, corporation. 
Broio, n. Va'ndo. 2, Pra'nza, moving 

the brows. 3, Te'nda prinzo'tu. 
Brown, adj. Pepll'mpm-. 2, Pepli'm- 

pou. 
Browzing, n. Be'nzito tondoo'tuz. 
Bruise, v. Pri'nsinai. 
Jiruise, n. Pru'mboo. 
Brunt, n. Gro'ndis, impetuosity. 
Brushwood, n. Peto'ndooz. 
Brush, n. Tinsuko'tus. 
Brush, V. Ti'nsikai. 
Brute, n. Ti'nzi. 
Bruit, n. Tri'ndi, rumour, 
Brutish, n. Bizincu, beastlike. 
Bubble, n. Pru'nzo, 
Bubble, v. Pru'nsitai. 
Buck, n. Ki'njoi. 
Buck, n. Grinzis, liquor in wliich 

clothes are washed. 2, Grino'n- 

zis, the clothes soaked or washed. 
Buckshorn, n. Fro'mvinoi. 
Buckthorn, n. Di'mvoo. 
Buckmast, n. Ko'ndo krumva'tu. 
Bucket, n. Treno'nzi, tub apt to be 

carried by the handle. 
Buckle, n. Gre'nza. 
Buckler, n. Te'ndri, shield. 
Bucksome, adj. Ko'mpu vipa'nd(2. 
Bud, n. Bo'ndoi. 

Buckram, n. Keno'nz.a vli'mpukoo. 
Budget, n. Pepc'nzis fenza'tu. 2, 

Pepe'nzis. 



BUR 

Budge, V. peze'nsikai. 

Buff', n. Ta'ndoi pine'njoitu, skin of 

buffalo. 
Buffet, V. Ke'nsivai tano'ndipu, to 

strike with the fist. 
Buffoon, n. Trempa'ro. 
Bug, n. Two'njoi. 

Bug bear, n. Trono'ndoo, a fictitious 
thing apt to tei-rify. 

Buggery, n. Bra'njo. 

Bugle, n. Kru'ncou beno'ndo. 2,Vo'n- 
dis imbito'di. 3, Vra'nvinoo. 

Bugloss, n. Pro'mvino. 2, Fro'mving. 

Buy, V. To'mprikai. 

Building, n. A'nzoi. 2, A'nzoz, 
greater parts of building. 3, A'n- 
zaz, less parts of buildings. 

Build upon, v. Dro'nsitai, expect. 2, 
Do'nsikai. 

Bidbonach, n. Fe'mvls. 

Bulbous, n. O'mva. 

Bullfinch, n. Te'nja. 

Bul(/e, V. Twe'ntifai tri'nzipodi. 

Bulk, n. Ple'nOis. 2, A'ndls. 3, 
3, Vra'ndo. 

Bull n. Pi'njifor. 

i?«y^,n.To'mbrakimdroi'tu, the edict 
of the Pope. 

Bull-fy-beetle, n. Fro'nji. 

Bullhead, n. Famijino. 

Bullrush, n. Befro'nvo. 

Bullace, n. Kumvoo'sit, fruit of 
blackthorn. 

Bullet, n. Ge'ndri. 

Bullion, n. Eunetubrost pu'nzoo, un- 
coined gold. 

Bullock, n. Pini'njoi, gelded kine. 

Bulwark, n. Te'ndris. 

Bunch, n. Te'nda. 2, Ko'ndoi. 

Bundle, n. Vranti'ri fi'nsufoo tel. 

Bung, n. Bedre'n/.i, large stopper. 

Bunghole or tap, n. Teno'nzi. 

Bungling, n. Tra'mbis. 

Buntline, n. Vi'nibra. 

Bunting, n. Pe'nja. 

Buoy, n. Be'nclis. 2, Tindro'dis. 

i?Mr, n. Ka'nta dra'ndoi fraudo'tu. 

Butter reed, n. Bro'nvo. 

Bur, (great), n. Fo'mvis. 

Bur, (little), n. Fro'mvis. 

Burden, n. Ra'nzi. 2, Ra'nsikai, to 
burden some one- 

Burgeon, n. Bo'ndoi. 

Burgess, n. Vo'ndroo. 

Burglary, n. Ga'mbro. 

i?M?7/, V. Tu'ntrinai. 2, Va'mprikai, 
to bury alive. 

Burly, adj. Bi'ntou, ample. 2, Bc- 
bo'mpu, fat. 

Burnet, n. Ka'mvinoi. 

Burnet, {thorny), n. PrI'mvo. 

Burning, n. U'nzipo. 2, Da'ndro, 
house burning. 3, Da'mbri, burn- 
ing alive. 4, Va'ndrisg tande'tu. 
5. Pu'mboi, burning fever. 6, 
Dezi'mpufoo frinze'ti. 

Burnish, v. Ti'mpivrost, to make 
bright. 2, Fri'mpigrost, to make 
smooth. 



BUS 
Barrage, n. Po'mvino. 
Burrow, n. Tre'nda dinzoi'tu. 2, 

KInjo'tus. 
Burser, n. Benda'fas. 
Burt, n. Fauji. 
Bush, n. Inive'dwis, aggregate of 

shrubs. 2, Pondaidwis. 
Bush, (silver), n. Yritavis. 
Bushell, n. Kimo'ndo. 2, A'gin ku'n- 

doz. 
Busy, adj. E'nti. 2, Bra'mpa. 
Busybody, n. De'bampa'ro. 
Business, n. Endo. 
jBiwA-, n. U ke'udi yoo'di bi'nzlkiu-s 

faiida'fus. 



BUT 

Bush'n, n. Bande'fus. 

Bustard, n. Ka'njoi. 

But, conj. Bel, bil. 

£«(, adv. Tyol: as, tjol pa'nsitai, 

only to speak. 
But, (the/ , n. Ba'ntou ti'ldo. 2, Ba'n- 

tou ti'ldo fondoo'tu. 
But, (to), V. Ki'e'nsivai krinsupo. 

2, Kre'nsivai ki-i'usupo ando'ti. 
Butcher, n. Pensuto'tas. 
Butchering, n. Pe'nzo. 
Butcher bird, n. Tre'njoo. 
Butcher s broom, n. Gi'mvo. 
Butler, n. Enzifas pransiifoo'ditis. 
Butter, n. Te'uzoo. 



BUZ 
Bitttermilk, n. Teno'nzoo, milk left 

after making butter. 
Butter-bur, n. Pro'mvis. 
Butterfiy, n. To'nja, 
Butterfly, (haivkj, n. Po'uja. 
Buttery, n. Franzoi'dus. 
Buttock, n. Ga'nda. 
Button f n. Fe'ndis. 
Button hole, n. Fre'ndi. 
Button fish, n. Fo'njinoi. 
Batchelor s-button, n Fe'mvi. 
Buttress, n. Dra'nzo. 
i?Kz, n. Ponja'kes. 2. v. Keponcinai, 

to buz. 
Buzzard, n. Fre'njoo. 



GAL 

Cabala, n. Pu'rabris. 

Cabbage, n. Ve'mva. 

Cabbage tree, n. Gu'mrinoo. 

Cabin, n. Pefa'nzo. 2, Pefanzoo in- 
droo'tu. 

Cabinet, n. Fe'nzi, box. 2, Feno'nzi, 
box for precious tilings. 

Cable, n. Gin'dra. 

Chocolate, n. Du'mva, the chocolate 
tree. 2, Dumva'sit, the cake com- 
poimd, chiefly of the groimd ker- 
nels of the cocao nut. 

Cackling, n. Enje'kes. 2, v. Keze'n- 
cikai, to cackle. 

Cacochymia, n. Tni'mboo. 

Coded, adj. Kihsupoo. 2, Kihsupoo 
finjoi'twes. 

Cadence, n. Tri'ntuto imbo, ending 
sound. 

Cadet, n. To'nzg, dependent. 

Cadew, n. Ki'o'njo. 

Cage, n. Kantruso'tus, specially for 
birds. 

Cayman, n. Ti'njis, crocodile. 

Cajole, V. Fo'nsikai frambai'ti. 2, 
Fo'nsikai dremba'ti. 

Caitiff, n. Ea'mpulor, a ■wicked per- 
son. 2, Pra'mpuvor, a miserable 
person. 

Cake, n. Ke'ntu fe'nzoo, flat bread. 

Calaminaris, n. Dr'unjoi. 

Calamtnt, n. Fra'mvinoo. 

Calamity, n, Pra'mboo. 

Calcine, v. Gihsivai. 

Calculate, v. Ve'ntinai, 

Calemlar, n. Da'nondo, almanac. 

Calender, v. Fri'mpisai, specially to 
smooth cloth. 

Calender, n. Frimpuso'tas. 

Calends, n. Ya'pirin bu'ndaiz ku'n- 
dai'tu. 

Calenture, n. Bepu'mboi, fever. 

Calf, n. Punjoi twes. 

Calfs snout, n. Veinvinoi. 

Ccilf, n. Trinjifur ya'pirin pu'ndis, 
male hart of the tu-st year. 

Calf,(sea) n. Tri'nji. 



CAN 
Calf, (ofihe^ leg), n. Bana'ndi. 
Caliph, n. Vontai'ro tu Mahomet. 
Calk, V. Pi'ntrisai. 
Call, V. I'mpitai, to Invoke. 2, 

Ko'ntipai, to call by name. 3, 

Pa'ntrifai, to summon. 4, Keto'm- 

pifai, to call to mind. 5, Da'mpi- 

vrast, to call to ^vitness. 
Call in, V. Umba'ntikai. 2, Ko'ntipai, 

call upon. 3, n. O'ndi-oi, calling, 

i. e. profession. 
Callous, adj. Ph'mpus, hard. 2, 

Bri'mpus, tough. 
Callosity, n. Pli'mbis, hardness. 2, 

Bri'mbis, toughness. 
Callow, adj.Froutus. 2, Umpo'ntus, 

uufeathered. 
Ccdm, adj. Vni'nsus. 2, Te'mpa, 

peaceable. 3, Te'mpiu", meek. 
Cnlo, n. Ge'mbro. 
Caltrops, n. Twe'mbri, a military 

instriunent consisting of four 

sharp points, to wound the feet ' 

of horses. 
Land caltrops, n. Tre'mbo. 
Water caltrops, n. Gro'mviuoo. 
Calumny, n. Dandi-a. 
Camel, n. Ti'njoo. 
CameVs hay, n. Pro'nvo. 
Camelcopard, n. Di'njoi. 
Camerade, n. Fa'nsi fo'nza. 
Cammock, n. Keuvo. 
Camomile, n. Ga'mvoi. 
Camp, n. Pe'ndi-is. 
Camp-master, n. Pcndrai'fas. 
Campaign, n. Eno'ndroo, the whole 

period of employment out of 

winter quarters. 
Camjdwr tree, n. Vu'mvinoi. 
Camphor tree, (gum of), n. Yo'ndoo 

vumvinoi'tu. 
Campion, n. Fe'mvo. 
Can, V. Au pi'u, pli'u, pri'u, I can, 

now; could, heretofore; can, here- 
after. 
Can, n. U tre'nzi yoo'pi va'ndi. 
Canary, n. Vre'nja. 



CAP 

Canary-grass, n. Po'mvo. 

Cancel, v. Pro'nsipai. 2, Tre'ndoi, 
spoiling. 

Cancer, n. Ku'mbo, ulcer. 2, Yo'njis, 
the constellation. 3, Bi'nzis, the 
tropic of Cancer. 

Candy, n. Tre'nsutoo te'nzoL 

Camlid, adj. Te'mpur. 

Candidate, n. Ko'mbroo. 

Candle, n. Te'nzis. 

Candlestick, n. Teno'nzis. 

Candor, n. Temboo. 

Cane, n. To'nvo. 

Cannel tree, n. Gu'mvinoi. 

Cannibal, n. Kron'ondoo, a man eat- 
er, i. e. eater of persons. 

Canis major, n. Pra'ntupou pi'nji. 

Canis minor, n. Pla'utupou pi'nji. 

Canker, n. Du'mboo ta'ndotu. 2, 
Bu'nza punzoitu. 

Canker worm, n. Yo'njo, caterpillar. 

Cannon, n. Bev'embri. 

Canons, n. Pa'mbrooz vumbroi'tu. 

Canons, n. Untru to'ndi'az. 

Canonize, v. Buntrivrost, to make 
a saint. 2, Ba'mprifai, di yoo'tum 
bu'ndro. 3, Ba'ntikai di yoo'timi 
bu'ndro. 

Canoe, n. U pi'ndi'oo foo a'pin u'mvi. 

Canopy, n. U frimpu'rik ando'dru. 
2, U Kinsufori a'ndo'rdru. 

Canorous, v. Gaba'nsitai. 

Cantliarides, n. To'nji. 

Cantharus, n. Fahji. 

Canticle, n. Bausutoo'ri. 2, Pebah- 
sutoo'ri, a little song. 

Cantle, n. Bra'ndis. 

Canto, n. Primbo yoo'tu bansutoo'ri. 

Cantonize, v. Ta^tisai prantu'nnu 
o'ndi"iz. 

Canvas, n. Tri'mpus te'nza. 

Canvas, v. Fo'nsifai tononzoi'di, to 
sue for a vote. 2, Twe'mpinai 
tononzoidi. 3, Befo'nsifai, dili- 
gently to examine. 

Cap, n. Andofas, head vest. 2, v. 
Une'nstnai a'ndo. 



C A E 

Cap-a-pie, adv. Ando'ni vande'nu. 

Capable, adj. Katre'ntisai, able to 
receive. 2, Kake'ntifai, able to 
contain. O'mpu, able; as, able to 
judge. 

Capacity, n. Kanke'ntifai, ability to 
contain. 2, n. Ke'ndoi, compre- 
hension. 3, n. Trentinai'kas, able 
to receive. 4, Pontipi'kas, ability 
to be or to do. 5, Drontipi'kas. 
passive ability; that is ability to 
suffer. 

Caparison, n. U kinsufo'ri ganze'di. 
2, U va'ntukoo'ri ganze'di. 

Cape of cloah, n. Pauta'fus, (see 
kinds of dress). 

Cape, n. Kin'zo, promontory. 2, 
Bi'ndri, Cape merchant. 

Caper, v. Be'nsipai, to leap. 

Caper, n. Fimva'sit, fruit of the 
caper. 

Capital, adj. A'nti. 

Capital, adj. Kara'mpivoo danzoo'ti. 

Capital, adj. Ka'nta, chief. 

Capitulate, v. Po'mprisai kondoi'fiz. 

Capon, n.Peno'njoi, untesticled cock. 

Capra saltans, n. Bu'nzoo. 

Capricious, adj Dcfo'mpou. 

Capricorn, (tropic of), n. Bi'nzis. 

Capriscus, n. Ta'nja. 

Capstain, n, Ti'ndroi. 

Captain of foot, n. Tentra'fas. 

Captain of hm-se, n. Twentrafas. 

Captain of ship, n. Introo'fas. 

Captious, adj. Tre'mpur. 2, Ga- 
twe'mpa. 3, Gadro'nsunoo. 

Captivate, v.Ve'mprifai, i. e. capture. 

Captive, n. Vemprufoo'ro. 

Ca2mt mort, n- Trano'ndis, sediment 
of distilled thing. 

Car, n. Fra'nzi, cart. 

Caraguya, n. (seniivulpcs) , Vi'nji. 

Caramosel, n. Ki'ndroo. 

Caranna, n. Bumvi'noi. 

Caravan, n. Bona'ndroi, a travel- 
ling company of merchants. 

Caravel, n. Fizi'ndroo. 

Caraway, n- Da'mvi. 

Carbine, n. Veno'ndri, a large horse- 
man's gim. 

Carbonado, adj. Kre'njutoo. 

Carbuncle, n. Kra'mbo. 2, Be'funja. 

Card, n- Deno'nzis, thick stiff" paper. 
2, Deno'nzis rinze'di, card for 

play- 

Card, V. Umfri'nsifai trinze'ti. 
Cardiulgia, n. Pa'mbis. 
Cardinal, adj. Ka'nta. 
Cardinal, n. Ku'mbroi, chief clergy 

of Rome. 
Cardinal potnU, n. Pi'ndo, pri'ndo, 

fi'ndo, frindo'kwi. 
Care, n. Bepo'nzoi. 
Carefulness, n. Fa'mba. 2, Fa'mba 

trende'pu. 3, Fa'mba framboo'pu. 

4, Ba'mba. 
Carelessness, n. Fla'mba. 2, Vro'm- 

ba. 3, Kre'mboi. 
Caressing, n. Trempuvo'dis tonze'tu. 



CAS 
Cargo, n. I'ndroos boutrufoo"ri. 
Carine, v. Ki'ntrisai. 
Carh, n. Fra'mba. 
Carkanet, n. Unjo'dwiz. 
Carcass, n. Dra'nsupi ri'nzoo. 
Carnal, adj. Va'ntou. 2, Do'nti, 

natural- 3, Di'nsur. 4, Ba'nsou. 

5, Ra'mpu. 
Carnation, adj. Va'ntou i'mboi. 2, 

Biva'ntou, fleshlike. 
Carnosity, n. Vandoi'rit, fleshiness. 

2, U va'ntou ro'ndo. 
Carob, n Pu'mvis. 
Carol, n. Ko'usu bansutoo'ri. 
Carouse, v. Befra'nsifai. 
Carp, n. Da'njino. 
Carp, V. Vepla'ntripai, to criticise 

excessively. 2, Tra'mpivi, to be 

censorious. 3, Da'ntrinai, calum- 
niate. 
Carpenter, n. Ro'ndootas. 
Carpet, n. Kranzo'fiis. 
Carraway, n. Da'mvi. 
Career, n. Dwapre'nzol, impetuous 

rumiing. 
Carrot, n. Va'mvi. 
Carrot (wild), n. Vra'mvi. 
Carry, v. Pe'nslvai. 
Carrier, n. Go'mbroi. 
Carriage, n. A'nzi. 2, Re'mbi. 3, 

Pre'nzi. 
Carrick, n. Ki'ndroo. 
Carrion, n. Dra'nsur ri'nzoo. 2, 

Fro'mpu ri'nzoo. 
Cart, n. Fra'nzi. 2, Kra'nzi. 
Cartilage, n. Pra'ndoi, gristle. 
Carve, v. Vi'nsinai e'nzoo. 2, Unra'n- 

tikai, to unjoiiat. 3, Pre'ntifai 

a'ndiz. 
Case, n.We'ndi, an event. 2, Kono'n- 

dis, the question, or state of 

facts. 3, O'mbroi, the suit in 

court. 4, Ko'ndis, state. 
Casement, n. Fa'nza franza'tu. 
Cash, n. Ru'nda be'ntupoo, money 



Cash keeper, n. Ru'nda ventupo'ro. 

2, Runda ventupo'fas. 
Cashier, v. Uno'ntrivai ra'mbur, to 

unsoldicr penally. 2, Ga'mprisai, 

specially a soldier. 
Cask, n. E'nzi, vessel. 2, specially 

Te'nzi, barrel. 
Cosfef, n. Peze'nzi. 2,Fe'nzi bcdo'u- 

trutu. 
Cassowary, n. Tre'njoi. 
Cassia, n. Fu'mvis, tree. 2, Pri'nvoi, 

slirub. 
Cassidony, n. Bra'mvis. 
Cassock, n. U bi'nti fintou'fus. 
Cast, V. Fe'nsivai, 
Cast metal, v. Bri'iisiuai. 2, Da'm- 

prifai, to condemn. 
Cast about, v. Po'nsifai, think. 2, 

Fo'nsitai, consider. 3, Do'nsitai, 

contrive. 
Cast down, adj. Ki'o'nsu, soiTowful. 

2 , Kro'nsukrost. 3, Tagro'nsikrost, 

to make despondent. 



C A V 

Cast in ones teeth, v. Ga'mprinai, 
Cast into sleep, v. Tra'nsifrast. 
Cast off, V. Bro'nsikai, reject. 2, 

Tre'ntipai, abandon, 3, Fre'ntifai, 

abandon. 4, Bro'nsipai, abandon 

by God. 
Cast up, V. Vi'nsLfi-ost, heap. 2, 

Vra'ntigrost, to sum. 
Cast clothes, n. Vene'tukoon ansim- 

o'riz. 
Cast dice, v. Pre'nsikai. 
Cast lots, V. Pe'nsikai. 
Cast the skin, v. Vre'ntipai ta'ndoi. 

2, Vre'ntifai ta'ndoi. 

Cast water, v. Ka'mprifai u'nzo. 
Cast young, v.Tra'nsipai,briug forth 

pi-ematurely. 
Castle, n. Fra'nzoo. 
Castor, n. Gi'nja. 
Castrate, v. Ungra'ntisai, to geld. 
Casual, adj. Flo'nsur. 
Casuist, n, Ubri'ntusor empu'rtu 

bro'nzoiz. 2, To'nsutor, a teacher 

of morality. 
Cat, n. Ki'nja. 2, Kri'nja, civet cat. 

3, Tro'mvoi, cat's tail. 
Catalogue, n. Dra'ndo. 
Catamite, n. Va'mpratoor. 
Cataplasm, n. Kre'nzis. 
Cataract, n. Dino'nza, direct fall of 

river. 
Cataract, n. Kuno'njoi, opacity of 

the crystaline lens. 
Catarrh, n. Ku'mba. 
Catastrophe, n. Tri'nti e'ndi, final 

event. 
Catch, V. Keno'ntipai, to take with 

the hand suddenly. 2, Fre'nsivai. 

3, Pa'mprifai, arrest. 
Catch-pole, n. Pamprufo'fas. 2, 

Va'ndroo. 
Catch fire, v. Tazu'nsipai. 
Catch infection, v. Pu'mpivoi, to be 

infected. 2, Ke'ntipai, take. 
Catch at, V. Twapc'ntikai. 2, Twa- 

ke'ntipai. 3, Twafre'nsivai. 4, 

Bo'nsikai pe'ntikai. 5, Ke'ntipai. 

G, Fi-e'nsivai"twi. 7, Fe'nsinai 

pe'ntilvai. 8, Ke'ntipai frensivai'- 

twi. 9, Vre'ntisai. 
Caies n. E'uzoiz. 
Catechizing, n. Tu'mbra. 
Category, n. Ro'ndi. 
Categorical, adj. Ro'ntu. 
Cater, (to), To'mpriko c'nziz. 
G'ltn-piUar, n. Vo'njo. 
Cutrrjiillar, n. Fre'nvo, herb. 
Cathedral, n. Kano'nzoi, temple of 

bisliop's jurisdiction. 
Gdlholic, n. Fu'ndi'o. 
(Jdtinijit, n. Pra'mvinoo. 
Collie, n. I'njiz. 2, I'lijoiz, cloven 

footed beasts. 
Cavalry, n. Pembro'fis. 2, Pcmbro'- 

dwis. 
Caudle, n. Be'nzoo u'mpuro"diz, 

broth for the sick. 
Cave, n. Pre'ndis dinzoi'tu, room 

under ground. 2, Fa'nzo dinzoiji. 



C E N 

3, Pa'nzoi dinzo'iji. 4, Tre'nrla 
dinzoyi. 

Caviare, n. Tre'nsutoo gro'nda aiije'- 
tuz. 

Caveat, n. Fampa'dis, caution sign. 

Cavern, n. (see cave). 

Caught, adj. Fre'nsnvoo. 

Cavils, n. Pebi'ndaiz, frivolous ob- 
jections. 2, Twe'mpa bi'ndaiz, 
couteutious objections. 3, Twem- 
ba'des, disputes wliich ought not 
to exist. 

Cavity, n. Prentai'kis. 

Caul, n. Vra'ndis. 

Gaul (for the head), n. Ando'fus. 

Cauldron, n. Beve'nzi, great kettle. 

Cause, n. O'ndoi. 2, Po'ndoi, the 
efficient. 3, Fo'ndoi, the impul- 
sive. 4, Kro'ndoi, the occasion. 
5, Vo'ndoi, the end or final 
cause. 

Cause or reason, n. Viutuno'ri, the 
arguing thing. 

Caitse of suit, n. A'mbroi. 

Causey or Causeway, n. Dra'nonzoi, 
a raised foot path. 

Caustic, n. U'nsupo tontroui'i, buni- 
uig medicine. 2, Ti'nsuvo ton- 
trou'ri, corroding medicine. 

Cautelousness, n. Fa'mba. 

Caution money, n. Vo'ntrusoo ru'nda 
cusge'ntunoo, stipulated money 
pre-paid. 

Cautiousness, n. Fa'mba. 

Cease, v. Dri'ntifai, to discontinue. 
2, Vro'nsinai, to desist. 

Cedar, n. Ku'mvi. 

Cell, n. Fanzo'pes. 2, Guudroi'dus, 
Regular or monk's room. 

Celandine, n. Dre'mva. 

Celebrate, v. Tro'ntisai. 

Ccelehs, n. Po'nzoi. 2, Po'nzifm-, 
bachelor. 3, Po'nzifun, virgin. 

Celerity, n. To'mbi, swiftness. 2, 
Be'ndo, despatch. 

Celestial, n. I'nsou. 

Celebate, n. Po'nzoi'rit. 

Cellar, n. E'nsudus dinzoiji, speci- 
ally for ale, wine, &c. 

Cement, u. Ki-Lnsuntyri unje'tuz. 

Censer, n. Unsupo'dus timdi-l'stu. 

Censorious, adj. Tre'mpur. 

Censor, n. Pla'ndoo, judge literaiy 
and moral. 

Censure, v. Pa'ntripai, to adjudge. 
2, Ba'mprifai, to sentence. 3, 
Pla'ntripai, to criticise. 4, Tu'n- 
trikai, ecclesiastically to censure. 

Centaur, n. Tro'ntur re'ndo, ra'ndis 
bi'nzipur randiskwi pi'ujoo. 

Centre, n. Po'ndoi. 

Center fish, n. Pro'njinoi. 

Centon, n. Vrano'ndg, an aggregate 
consisting of the parts of other 
things. 

Centory, (greater), n. Tra'mvo. 

Centory, (lesser), n. Be'mvi. 

Century, n. Pesi'ndwis. 2, Pc'sin 
pu'ndaiz. 



C H A 

Centurion, n. Tendi'a'fas. 

Cere cloth, n. Ensimo'ri krondoo'diz 

tu'ntrunoon. 
Ceremony, n. To'ndis. 2, Tro'ndis. 
Certain, adj. Vo'usou. 
Certify, v.Vo'nsifrost. 2, Bo'nsifi'ast. 
Ceruse, n. Bru'nza. 
Cess, n. To'mbri ru'ntur. 
Cessation, n. Dri'ndoi. 2, Vro'nza. 
Chaff, n. Pra'ndis brinsutoo'tu vo'n- 

do. 2, To'udoiz brmsutoo'tu 

vro'ndo. 
Chafe, v. Pri'mpikai ginze'ti. 
Chafer, (goat), u. To'nji. 2, Bro'nji, 

green goat chafer. 
Chaffer, v. Po'mprisal dondre'fi. 2, 

O'mprikai, to exchange. 
Chaffinch, n. De'nja. 
Chain, n. Udre'nza frende'tuz. 
Chair, n. Va'nzis. 
Chalcedony, n. Vu'nji. 
Chalces, n. Fa'mijo, subspecies. 
Chaldron, n. Te'viu kuno'udgz. 
Challenge, v. Te'ntipai. 2, Fe'ntri- 

pai. 3, Ta'ntripai. 
Chalice, n. Va'ntukoo fransou'dus. 
Chalk, n. Pu'njis. 
Ghama, n. Vo'njinoi. 
Chamber, n. Transimo'dus. 
Chamberlain, n. Vompra'ro tu tran- 

suno'dus, 2, To'mpri runta'fas. 
Chameleon, n. Kri'njis. 
Chamfer, n. Pevre'ndi. 
Chamomile, n. Ga'mvoi. 
Champ, V. Be'nsitai, masticate. 
CJvampaign, n. Piiizo. 
Champion, n. Vi'spentrapo'ro, an 

instead of — fighting person. 
Chance, n. Flo'nzoo. 
Chancel, n. Ka'nta duka'nzoi, chief 

room of the temple. 
Chancellor, n. Pa'ndroo femboo'tu. 
Chancery, n. La'mbri femboo'tu. 
Chandler, n. Tenzai'tas. 2, Ten- 

zai'das. 
Chanel, n. BrI'nza. 
Change, n. Pi-e'ntipai, alter. 
Change of the moon, n. Vreno'ndoi 

ginzoi'tu. 2, O'mbri, exchange. 
Changeable, adj. Gavi-e'ntufai. 2, 

Bri'mpou, of divers colors. 
Changeling, n. Yi'spentupoo"ro. 2, 

Prompu'rpro, idiotic person. 
Channa, n. Fa'miji. 
Chant, V. Ba'usitai. 
Chanter, n. Ka'nta bansuto'ro. 
Chantry, n. U'ntru bansuto'kis. 
Chaos, n. Reno'tutoo ri'nzoo. 
Chap, n. Ta'ndo, jaw. 
Chap, n. Kre'ndi. 
Chape, n. Vrentupo'ri fembrc'tu. 
Chaplain, n. O'nsu du'ndroi, family 

presbyter. 2, Bra'ntu du'ndi'oi, 

private presbyter. 
Chaplel, n. U brinsukoo'ri, a curled 

thing. 2, U pinsukoo'ri, a twisted 

thing. 
Chapman, n. Tompruko'ro, a buying 
person. 



CUE 

Chapel, n. Pcka'nzoi kra'nta. 
Chaj)ter, n. Ti'ndo, of book. L'. 

\u'mbrois pa'mbrooz, Bisliop s 

assessors. 3, Ondi-o'tu Yumbrois 

pa'mbrooz. 
Chapter-house, n. Ondro'kis tu vu'm- 

brois pa'mbrooz. 
C/inp'er (f pillar, n. Di'ndg banzo'tu. 
Chiiracter, n. Trinda, description. 
Characteristic^ Trino'ndakro tri'n- 

tinai. 2, Kro po'utifg tri'nda. 
Charcoal, n. Di'nsuvoo ro'ndoo. 
Char, n. Kro'ntou i'nzi. 
Charge, v. Ra'nsivai, to load. 2, 

E'ntrikrest, to cause to be anunii- 

nitioned. 3, O'nsikai. 4, Po'm- 

prikai, to entnist. 5, Po'mprikoi, 

to be entrusted. 
Charge, n. Trentidvoo'ri. 2, Do'nih-i. 
Charge, v. Ta'ntripai. 
Charge, n. Pe'udroo. 
Charger, n. Beke'nzi. 
Chary, adj. Pe'mpus. 2, Dre'rapus. 

3, Disfa'nipa. 4, Bo'nsu one tifai 

tro'mbi. 
Chariot, n. Fa'nzi. 
Charity, n. Va'mbi. 
Chark, V. Di'nsivai. 
Chai-les tcain, n. Pinzoi'dwis. 
Charlock, n. Tre'mva. 
Charm, n. Pa'ndi'ito, bewitching. 2, 

pa'mbrito, bewizarding. 3, Pi- 

pa'mpritai, metaphorically to 

charm. 
Charnel, adj.Kenontufo'kis, contain- 
ing dead bodies: as, kcno'ntufo 

pa'nzoi, fanzo'twi. 
Chan; n. Tra'njino. 
Charring, n. Di'uziso. 
Charter, n. Ko'ndi'a ke'ntuno o'n- 

draz. 
Chase, n. U'nomvi, a treey country 

for deer. 2, Fra'nzoo. 
Chase, V. Do'ntrifai. 2, Brc'ntisai. 

3, Te'mprifai, pursue. 
Chasm, n. Drinsufi'kis, an empty 

place. 2, Bu'nzi. 
Chaste, adj. De'mpou. 
Clmste-tree, n. Pi'mvi. 
Chastise, v. Vo'nsisai. 
Chat, n. Bre'mba. 
Chattels, n. Ano'nziz, uninliabitable 

possessions. 
Chattering, n. Panje'kes, swallow's 

voice. 2, Geujoo'kes. 3, Bra'mba. 
Cheap, adj. Pedo'ntra. 2, Pezu'nta 

3, Kla'ntur, sorry. 
Cheapen, v. Po'niprisai doncb-g'fi. 
Cheat, V. Ka'ntiiuai, to defraud. 
Chech, V. Dwadri'ntifai c'nzi. 2, 

Bro'ntifai. 3, Fro'ntifai. 4, Dro'n- 

sikai. 
Chequered, adj. Dimpou. 
Chief, adj. Kabta. 
Cheek, n. Da'ndo. 2, Ki'ndo, side. 
Cheer, n. Vo'ndoo enzoo'tu. 2, E'n- 

ziz. 
Cheer, v. Fo'ngisai. 2, Ko'nsikrost. 

3, Ta'mpimost. 



C li o 

Cheese n. Tre'nzoo. 
CheesUp, n. To'uja. 
Cheese-running, n. Vro'invmo. 
Cherish, v. Ka'nsipai. 2, Dre'mbus 

ko'nsipai. 
Cherry, n. Tu'mvoi. 2, Bi'mvoi. 3, 

Ge'mviiioo. 4, Bri'mvoi. 
Cherub, n. Pi'nzoi. 2, Bepi'nzoi. 
Chervil, u. Gra'mvi. 
Chisel, n. Vre'ndo densuvo'di. 2, 

Vre'ndo vinsuno'di. 
Chess, fttj play at) v. Tebsikai. 
Chesty u. Fe'nzl. 2, A'nda, chest of 

the human body, especially the 

cavity of it. 
Cliestnut, n. Ku'rava. 
Cheverel, u. Fe'nza tii frinjoi'twes. 
Cheveron, n. Bikra'nti fe'ndooz. 
Chevin, n. Gra'njino, chub. 
Chew, V. Be'usitai. 
Chew the cud, v. Bre'nsitai. 
ChicJcling, n. Be'mvoi. 2, De'mvoi, 

under-ground chickling. 
Chick, n. Panjoi'twes. 
Chickweed, n. Tre'ravi. 
Chickweed, (bastard), n. De'mvi. 
Chickweed, (berry bearing) , n. Gre'm- 

vlno. 
Chide, V. Bedro'nzi. 
Chill, adj. Pri'mpu. 
Chilblain, n. Du'nibo. 
Child, n. Fro'nzoo. 
Child, (to be loith), v. Fra'nsipai. 
Child, (in the womb,) n. Do'ndis. 
Childbirth, n. Ta'uzoo. 
Child, (foster), n. Fo'uzo. 
Child, (godchild,), n. Pro'nzo. 
Child, (a ward), n. Kro'nzo. 
Child, (an infant), n. Pu'ntunur. 
Child, (a lad,), n. Fu'ntunur. 
Childhood, n. Pu'ndinoo. 2, Fu'u- 

dinoo, boy's age. 
Childish, adj. Bipu'ntunur. 
Childless, adj. Frone'sur, having no 

child. 2, Umfro'nsur, unchilded. 

! Chime, n. Vi'mbo pu fimputo'tus. 2, 
Fi'mbo twi'mpi, melodious ringuig. 
Chimera, n. Trontu'rtis. 
Chemist, n. Insai'tas. 
Chimney, n. Tre'nzo. 
(7Am«, n. Gra'ndo. 
Chine, u. Pa'ndoi tanda'tu. 
Chin-cough, n. Wu'mbi. 
^///■/^^•, (chap)n. Kri'ndi. 
C7(W, n. Ba'ndis. 
Chip, V. De'nsivai ba'ndaiz. 2, De'n- 

sivai vrindo'ni. 
Chirp, V. Bra'nsitai. 2,Ti'mboanje'- 

tuz. 3, Tanca'kes. 
Chirurgeon, (surgeon), n. To'mbroi. 
Chit, n. Kinja'twes. 

IChitterling, n. Kla'ndaiz, smallest 
guts. 
Chivalry, n. Embe'pas, art of war. 
2, Embe'pas p'empri, especially of 
horsemen. 
Chocolate, n. Du'mva. 
Choice, a. Fo'ndra, election. 2,0'n- 
do. 3, Pa'nti o'ntitu o'ldooz vro'u- 



C I N 

dootuz, unda'twiz. 4, adj . kra'ntur, 

excellent. 
Choke, V. Go'ntrikai. 
Choler, n. Vra'ndoo. 
Choleric, adj. Vra'ntur. 2, v. Gato'n- 

stnai. 
Choose, V. Bo'nsinai, i. e. to choose 

to do something. 2, Fo'ntrhaai, to 

elect to an office. 
Choose, (may), v. Go'nsiu, Is free. 
Choose, (cannot but act), v. Gro'usi- 

noo do'ntipai. 
Chop, V. Vren'sitai, mince. 
Chojjjying knife, n. Vrensuto'tus. 
Chop, n. o'mbri. 
Chord, n. Vre'ndoi. 
Chorister, n. Bansuto'fas. 
Cliorus, n. Bano'nzo. 
Chough, n. Vra'njoo. 
Chrism, n. Vri'nzi. 
Christ, n. Krist, a proper name. 2, 

U'ndoi, the second person in the 

holy Trinity. 3, Vrinsukoo'ro, the 

anointed. 
Christen, v. Vu'ntrisai. 
Christendom, n. Di'nzoi tu kuntru'- 

proz. 
Christianity, n. Ku'ndroo. 
Christmas, n.Buno'ndra, the festival 

of the birth of Christ. 
Christmas day, n. Buno'ntra bu'ndis 
Chrmnis, n. Ua'nji. 
Chronicle, n. Tine'ldi, narrative of 

facts, in their natural order. 
Chronology, n. Tindi indoo'tuz. 
Chronology, n. Venda'vas indoo'tuz, 

the art of reckonuig the times of 

events. 
Chrysolite, n. Vr'andi. 
Chub, n. Gra'njino. 
Chuckle, V. Beta'nsinai. 2, Bet'an- 

sinai vi'ndi. 
Church, n. Undre'dwis. 2, Ka'nzoi, 

temple. 
Churchwarden, n. Kanzoi'fas. 
Churchyard, n. Ta'nzo kanzoi'tu. 
Churcl^ng, n. Vu'ndra. 
Churl, n. Twempa'ro, churlish per- 
son. 2, Dwempa'ro, morose person. 

3, Blempa'ro, one who is not ac- 
customed to give alms. 
Churn, V. Dare'nsikai do'ndus, fre- 
quently and alternately to move. 
Churn, V. Teno'nsipai, to agitate 

cream and produce butter. 
Chur-worm, n. Fro'njoi. 
Chyle, n. Ta'ndoo. 
Chymical operation, n. I'nzis. 
Cicada, n. Vo'nja. 
Cicada aquatica, n. Kro'njoi. 
Cicely, (sweet), n. Ta'mva. 
Cicely, (wild) n. Tra'mva. 
Cider, n. Ve'uzoi tu pumvoo'sidz, 

wine of apples. 
Ciinex, n. V ro'njoi. 
Cimex sylvestris, n. To'njoi. 
Cinders, n. U'nsa. Tu'nza. 
Cinnabar, n. Bu'nzo. 
Cinnamon, n. Gu'mvinoo. 



C L A 

Cipher, n. Gre'ntupo pri'ndooz. 2? 

2, Uniba'ntukoo, pri'ndooz. 
Cipher, n. Plondoo'dis, the sign of 

nothing. 
Cinquefoil, n. Fa'mvino. 
Cipiher, V. Bam'ntipai, to practice 

the numbering art, i. e. to cipher. 
Cypress, n. Vu'mvi. 
Circle, n. Fe'ndo. 2, Inz'is. circle by 

which the world is divided; as, 

horizon, equator, &c. 
Circuit, n. Ei'nzo. 2, Kri'ndij fen- 

d'otu, margin of circle. 
Circular, adj. Fc'nti. 
Circulate, v. Glife'ntitai, to go round 

a circle. 
Circumcision, n. Bu'ndris. 
Circumference, n. Kri'ndo fend'gtu. 
Circumlocution, n. Fri'nda, amplifi- 
cation. 2, Bri'ndi, paraphrase. 
Circumscribe, v. Tuske'utifai fi'ndaz. 
Circumspect, adj. Fa'mpa. 
Circumstance, n. To'ndis. 
Circumvent, v. Ka'ntrinai, defraud. 
Cistern, n. uno'nzo, a vessel for 

preserving water. 
Citadel, n. Fe'nzoi. 
Citation, n. Pa'ndroi. 2, Ti'nda. 
City, n. To'mbro. 
Citizen, n. Vo'ndroo. 
Citrine, n. I'mboi tu gumvoo'sit. 
Citrinella, n. Fa'njis. 
Citron, n. Gu'mvoo. 
Citrul, (pumpion), n. Fre'mvinoo. 
Cithern, n. Timpi'tus. 
Citysus, n. Vrimvoi. 
Chives, n. Dro'mva. 
Civet, n. Krino'nja perfume of the 

Civet cat. 
Civet cat, n. Kri'nja. 
Civil, adj. De'mpa. 2, Ge'rapa. 
Civil, adj. To'mpri, pertaining to 

city. 2, O'ntru, political social. 
Civil laicyer, n. Fo'ndroi. 
Civil war, n. Eno'ndri, war betwixt 

men of the same community. 
CiviUty, n. De'mba. 2, Ge'mba. 
Clack, V. I'mbo ne krinzai'das, sound 

from li-equent knocking. 
Clack, n. krinsal'd^vus. 
Clad, part. E nsimoo. 
Clay, n. Ki'nza. 
Claim, n. Te'ndoo. 
Clamber, v. Ve'nsifai kronde'pu. 2, 

Vensifai'des, to climb badly. 
Clamminess, n. Kri'mbis. 
Clamor, n. Tra'nzo. 2, Betra'nzg. 
Clandestine, adj. Gre'ntm-, secret. 
Clapping, n. Ba'nzi. 
Clap up, n. Dwade'ntivai. 2, Ka'n- 

trisai, to imprison. 3, Dwaka'n- 

trisai. 
Clap of thunder, n. Dwazi'mbo tnni- 

zoo'tu. 
Clapper, n. Kensuvo'dwes tu fim- 
puto'tus. 
Claret, n. Fi'mpou ve'uzoi tu Fraus. 
Clary, Tx. Da'mvinoo. 2, 1)ra'nivinoo, 
wild clary. 



C L I 

Clarify, v. Da'iitikrost. 

Clash, V. Bika'nsivai. 2, Dro'nJus 

bika'nsivai. 3, Twc'mpiuai. 
Clasper, n. Dro'niloi. 
Clasp, V. Ge'ntinai. 2, Ya'nsikai, to 

embrace. 
Class, n. Do'ndo, series. 2, O Idoo, 

kind. 
Classic, n. Dra'nonsutg"ro, an author 

of the first rank. 2, IJ tri'ntur, 

to'nsutoo Ro'mim twi Grek da'n- 

suto'ro. 
Clatter, n. Twi'mbo. 
Clause, n. Pi'ndo. 
Claw, n. Bro'ndis, nail. 2, To'ndi, 

claw. .3, Do'nda, claw of shell fish. 

4, Vra'nsifai, to claw or scratch. 
Clean, adj. Da'ntu. 
Ckan, adv. To'ndi. 2, Tes, the tran- 
scendental; as, Teprentu'soo, 

clean gone. 
Cleanliness, n. Ye'mboi. 
Cleanse, v. Da'ntikrost. 2, Va'ntri- 

frost. 3, Va'mpikrost. 
Clear, adj. A'ntus, whole, entire, 
Clearly, adv. A'ndus, wholly. 2, adj. 

Go'nti, clear, not mixed with 

other thmgs. 3, Da'utu, clear. 
Clear, adj. To'nti, perfect; as, te- 

po'mboo, clear muierstauding; te- 

po'mbo, clear sight. 
Clear weather, n. Pu'nzis. 
Clear, funsjwfteJ) . adj. Bi'mpur. 
Clear sound, n, Di mho. 
Clear from debt, adj. Ti'nta. 
Clear from ffuilt, adj. Da'ntrou. 
Clear, adj. Tinti, plain. 
Clear, adj. Te'ntur, manifest. 
Cleaver, n. Tinsufo'tus. 
Cleavers, n. Tro'mvino. 
Cleave, v. Fe'ntifai, to adhere. 
Cleave, (to) v. Kri'mpisi, to be 

clammy. 
Chapped, adj. Ki-c'ntikoo, to be in 

rucks or chinks. 
Chop, V. Titsipai. 
Cleft, adj. Kre'ntukoo. 
Clematis, n. Di mvi. 
Clemency, n. Ge'mbis. 
Clergy, n. U'ndi'oi. 
Clerk, n. Dansuto'fas tw unure'twis. 
Clerk, n. Untrou'ro, clerical person. 
Clerk, n. Du'ndrois blantu'ifas. 
Clew, n. De'ndis, bottom. 
Click, n. Bitwa'nsus i'mbo, watchlike 

soiiiul. 
Clicket, n. Banzoi, lust, specially of 

rabbits. 
Client, n. Tro'nzo, dependent. 
Client, n. Dantrupoo'ro. 
Cliff, n. Tri'nzo. 
Climacteric, n. Vrena'ndoi. 
Climate, n. U i-i'uzo yoo'tu ka'nti 

o'ldoo o'ntuvo roi'ni. 
Climb, V. Bc'nsifai. 
Climber of J'irijinia, n. Gi'mvi. 
Clinch, V. Rekreno'usivai. 
Clinch the fist, v. Ki'nsifai ta'ndi. 

2, Tusbinsikai, ta'udi. 



C A 

Clink, V. I'mpitai drcuon/.a'bruz, to i 

sound like chains. 
Cling, V. Ta'nsivai. 
Clip, V. Kri'nsikai, cutting cloth. 2, 

Va'nsikai. 
Clock, n. Tra'nzis. 2, Petra'nzis or 

Twa'nzis, watch. 3, Slumc'ai 

tranzai'vu, what is it according 

to the clock? 
Clod, n. Ka'ndis, lump. 
Clog, V. Bro'ntifai. 
Cloy, V. O'kal tra'ntur. 2, Pro'nsi- 

krast fra'ndooti, to cause to loathe 

fi-om abundance. 
Cloister, n. Tu'ndroi, house of monk 

or mm. 
Cloister, n. Ga'nsutoo pensufo'kis. 
Cloke, n. Fa'ntou vi-intitus. 
Cloke, V. Ki'nsLfai. 
Cloke, n. Te'ntupro"stik, the making 

to seem, pretence. 
Cloke, V. Gre'ntipai. 
Cloke bag, v. Fe'uzi fi'nsufoo ganze'ci 
Closeness, n. Ti'ndoi i-andai'tuz fon- 

doo'tuz. 2, Tyoo pi'un eno'ntisoo, 

impenetrability. 3, Kro'ndi enon- 

dai'tu, difficulty of penetration. 
Close, adj. Ti'nsufoo. 2, Fi'ntou, in 

contact. 
Closet, n. Fa'nzo di bra'ntu vendi. 
Cloth, n. E'nsunori. 2, Kre'nza, 

cotton. 3, Pre'nza, hair. 4, Ke'n- 

za, linen. 5, Pe'nvoa, woollen. G, 

Ensuno'ritas. clothworker. 
Clothe, V. E'nsinai. 
Clothing, n. E'nza. 
Clotter, V. Fri'nsivai. 
Clottered, adj. Fri'nsuvoo. 
Cloud, n. Fu'nzo. 
Clove, n. O'mva, bulb. 
Clove-tree, n. Tu'mvo. 
Clout, n. "Wenonsmio'ri, a cloth used 

for mean purposes. 2, U bra'ndis 

tu eusuno'ri. 
Clout, v. Tra'ntipai ri'ti va'ndis. 2, 

Do'mpikai ri'ti va'ndis. 
Clown, n. Twempa'ro. , 

Clownishness, n. Twe'mba. 
Gleio, n. De'ndis 
Chd), n. Fe'ndri. 2, O'mbro. 
Cluck, V. Pena'ncifai, to call as a hen. 
Cling, V. Ta'nsivai. 2, Fre'ntifai. 
Cluster,n. Ko'ndoi. 2, Yrantuvoo'ri. 
Clutch, V. To'ntikai. 2, Ta'ntikai. 

3, Ve'ntipai. 4, Tusbi'nsitai. 5, 

Ventipai'des, to hold clumsily. 
Clutter, n. Fra'ntu e'nzi. 2, Fra'ntu 

i'mbo. 
Clyster, n. Vrino'nzoo, a clyster; m- 

jection into the anus. 
Coach, n. Pa'nzi. 
Coachman, n. Panzp'fas. 
Coachbox, n. Bansuvoo'kis panzi- 

fa'stu. 
Coaction, n. Tro'nza. compulsion. 
Coadjutor, n. Pibontufo'ro. 
Coagulation, n. Fri'nzis. 
Coalition, n. Pe'ndis, junction. 2, 

Vra'ndito. 



C I 

Coarctution, n. Tyel tro'nsinai, to 

force together. 2, Ta'nzis. 
Coasi', n.Ke'nza. 2, Yi'uzo, sea-coast. 
Coat, n. Eno'nza. 

Coat of mail, n. Fi'nsukoo pe'mbri. 
Coat of arms, n. Ono'mbroo. 
Cottage, n. Pepa'nzoi. 2, U twempa 

pepa'nzoi. 
Cobble, V. Detra'ntipai, to mend 

badly. 2, Tra'mpisai, to act uu- 

skiltUUy. 
Cobbler, u. Encnza'tas. 
Cobweb, n. Bono'njoi, spider's web. 
Cock, or hen, n. Pe'njoi. 2 Pe'njifur, 

male. 3, Pe'njifim, female. 
Cock's comb, n. D'emvinoi. 
Cock's head, n. Bre'mvo. 
Cock, (heath), n. Bre'njoi. 
Cock, (sea), n. Yro'njis. 
Cockroaches, n. Dro'njooz. 
Cock, (u-ingedj, n. Tro'njoi. 
Cock of dial, n. Pe'nda tu frino'mboo. 
Cock-weather, n. Kuno'nzoi. 
Cockboat, n. Pepi'ndroo. 
Cocker, v. Kansipai, tenderly to 

nm-se. 2, Dre'mpisai. 
Cocket, n. Dansutoo'ri trendc'tu. 
Cockle, n. Bronjinoi. 2, Yremvi. 
Cocoa, n. Yu'mva. 
Cocothrausfes, n. Ka'nja. 
Cocothraitstes Cristales, n. Kra'nja. 
Cod, n. Pa'njo. 2, Bro'ndo. 
Codicil, n. ^'antusoo da'uzo. 
Coequal, adj. Bantur. 
Coerce, v. Fru'ntifai. 
Coessential, adj. Be'ntupo ro'nti 

di'o'ndoi. 
Coetaneous, adj. Eonti'tu u'udinoo. 
Coeternal, adj. Tyel ti'ntur. 
Coexiste7it, adj. lyel plo'ntur. 
Coffee, n. Drumva'sit, the fruit of 

the cofiee-tree. 
Coffin, u. Fe'uzi dansu'rdiz. 2, Kai 

treutunodus. 
Cog, n. Kra'udo ti-ende'tu. 
Cog, V .Dre'mpinai, fawn. 2, Kra'n- 

tinai, to defraud. 
Cogitation, n. Po'nzoi. 
Cognation of things, n. Tro'ndis. 
Cognizance, n. Antni pro'nzo. 2, 

A'ndi'oi. 3, Dronsi'dis, service 

sign. 
Coheir, n. Tyel fontniko'ro. 
Coherent, adj. 'i^yA frc'ntufo. 2, Tyel 

pe'ntufo. 3, Yo'ntu. 
Cause cohibitive, n. Fro'ndui. 
Cohobation, n. Kevi'nzo. 
Cohort, n. Te'ndra. 
Coy, adj. Gabro'usu. 
Coif n. U ti'utou antifiis. 
Coil, n. Fra'ntu enzi. 2, Fra'ntu 

i'mbo. 
Coil, v. Teintitai. 
Coin, n. Fle'ndo, external angle of a 

wall. 2, Fre'ntlo, internal of a 

room. 
Coin, n. Eu'nda. 
Coin, V. Ru'ntimost, to cause to be 

money. 



COM 

Coin, V. Kampri'nai, to forge. 

Coincident, adj. Penoiitiir. 2, Eiii- 
tu'to ol'nu vo'ndoi. 

Coincidence^ n. Peno'ndoo, the bill- 
ing on tlie same point or line. 2, 
Ri'ndo oi'nu vo'ndoi. 

Coit, n, Ke'ndi gafe'nsuvoo. 

Coition, n. Bra'nzoi. 

Colander, n. Kiusuvo'dus. 

Coa^jn.Tru'nzis, mineral. 2, Twu'n- 
jis, charcoal. 

Coal, (live), n. U'nsupoo tru'nzis. 

Coal-blackj adj. Bepli'mpou. 

Coalrake, n. Trmizai'dus. 

Coalmouse, n. Dra'nzis. 

Colewort, n. Ve'mva, cabbage. 

CoW, adj. Pli'mpu. 

Cold, n. U'mbi plimbe'ti. 

Coht of a ring, n. Unjo'kis, gem 
place. 2, Krindo'kis, concave 
place. 

Colic, n. Bu'mbis. 

Collar, n. Eni'nza. 

Collateral, adj. Kane'ta, not princi- 
pal. 2, Plo'nsm-, of lateral 



Ke'nda. 3, Keno'nda, 

the right to give. 3, Pre'nzoo, 

I'epast. 4, Be'ndoi, comparison. 
Collect, n. Vri'ntu pu'ndi-a. 
Collection, n. Bi'nzoi. 2, Binsufoo'ri, 
(7oZ&c<«'we,adj.Tyelbi'nsufo. 2,Vra'n- 

ti, aggregate. 
Collector, n. Binsufo'ro. 2, Binsu- 

fo'fas. 
College, n. Do'mbro, specially of 

scholar. 
Colleague, n. Fo'nza. 2, Tyel gon- 

truvoo'ro. 3, Tyel do'mpi-utoo"ro. 

4, Tyel vu'mprunoo"ro. 
Collier, n. Fenzai'das. 2, Fenzai'tas. 
Caulijlower, n. Veuo'mva, a cabbage 

having a delicate white flower. 
Collision, n. Tyel ke'nzis. 2, Dro'n- 

dus ke'nzis. 
Collogtie, V. Dre'rapinai. 
Colhp, n.Ba'ndis. 2,Vensutoo'dwes, 

sliced part. 
Colloquy, n. Tyel i'ntlkai. 
Collusion, n. To'nzoi ka'ntrinai. 
Colon, n. Gra'nta kra'ndis. 2, Vi'n- 

doo, a point. 
Colonel, n. Fembra'fas. 
Colony, n. Po'mbro. 
Coloquintida, n. Ke'mvinoo. 
Colour, n. I'mboi. 2, Trentupo'ri, 

a seeming thing. 
Colours, n. Fentri'ri, en sign- tiling. 

2, Frenti'ri, cornet-thing. 
Collosse, \ n. Begre'nzis, a great 
Colossus, f image. 
Colt, n. Pinjoo'twes. 2, Finjoo'twes. 
Coltsfoot, n. Po'mvis. 2, To'mvis, 

mountain coltsfoot. 
Columbine, n. Fro'mvoo. 
Column, n. Ba'nzo. 
Colure, n. Ki'nzis, meridian. 
Com&, n. Trinsuko'tus. 
Comb, V. Tri'nslkai. 



C O JI 

Comb, (crest), n. Do'ndi. 

Coxcomb, n. Flampai'ro. 2, Vrem- 
pa'ro. 

Comb, (honey), n. Po'njas fa'nzoz. 

Combat, V. De'ndi'oo. 

Cumber, v. Ran'sinai. 2, Tre'ntikai. 
3, Brontifai. 

Combine, v Tyel pe'ntifai. 2, Tyel 
go'ntrivai. 3, Tyel go'mprivai. 

Combustion, n. Un'zipo. 2, Twe'mba. 
3, Ta'mbro. 

Come., V. Pe'ntisai. 2, Spupe'ntisai. 
3, Nuspe'ntisai. 4, Ve'ntisai, come 
after. 5, Droope'ntisai, come 
again. 6, Pe'ntikai, come at. 7, 
Pe'ntikai, come by. 8, O'kai ka- 
po'mputoo. 9, O'kai bo'nsufoo. 10, 
Te'ntipoi. 11, Fe'ntisai, come 
foi-ward. 12,Dra'ntipoi. 13,Pre'n- 
tinai, come in. 14, E'ntikoi, come 
off. 15, Pe'ntrifai, to come off on 
equal terms. 16, Pe'mprifai, to 
come off victorious. 17, Plc'm- 
prifai, to come off loser. 18, Fe'n- 
tisai, come on. 19, Vu'ntrivai, 
come over, to be proselyted. 30, 
Kantrinai'ed, come over a person. 

21, O'kai kapo'mputoo, come out. 

22, O'kai kabo'usufoo. 23, Te'n- 
tipoi. 

Comedy, n. Tono'ndroi. 

Comely, adj. Fo'ntu. 2, Vo'mpu. 

Comet, n. Tri'nzoi. 

Comfit, n. Trensutoo'rl trenzoi'ti. 

Comfort, v. To'nsisai. 

Comfrey, n. Ko'mvino. 

Comical, adj. Tono'ntrou. 2, Ko'nsu. 

Comity, n. De'mba. 

Comma, n. Bi'ndoo. 

Command, v. Po'nsikai. 2, Do'nsitai, 

Po'ntripai. 
Commanded party, n. Ve'ndra. 
Commander, n. Ponsuko'ro. 2, Po'n- 

suko'fas. 
Commemorate, v. Reto'mpifrast, to 

cause to be remembered. 2, Tro'n- 

dus, solemnly. 
Commence, v. Te'ntivai. 2, Po'nti- 

praust kwono'ndroo, to be caused 

to be a graduate of the highest or 

first degree. 
Commence an action, v. A'mprifai- 
Commend, v. Do'nsikai. 2, Go'nsi- 

kai. 3, Po'mprikai, to entrust. 
Commensurate, adj. Tyel ru'ntukoo. 

Tanon'tus, reducible to the same 

common measure. 
Comment, n. Vi'ndi^^, 
Commentary, n. Vi'ndis. 
Commerce, n. E'nda. 
Commination, n. Vro'nzi, threat. 
Commisserate, v. Dra'nsivai. 
Commissary, n. Vompra'ro. 2, 

Vis u'ntru pa'ndroo. 3, En'tru 

e'nsufas. 
Commissioner, n. Kompra'ro. 
Commit, v. Pi'ntipai. 2, Pino'ntipai, 

to commit a fault. 3, Ka'ntri- 

grest, to cause to be imprisoned. 



C O JI 

Committee, n- Vontra'dwiroz. 2, 

Pebo'mbro. 
Commodious, adj. Vo'ntu. 2, Do'ntu. 

3, Po'nta. 
Commodity, n. O'nda, convenience. 

2, Po'nda. 3, Tontrukoo'ri. 
Common, adj. Rou, all. 2, Ou, 

every. 3, Pa'nti. 4, Vra'nta. 5, 

Ba'ntu. 6, Bu'ntrur. 
Commonwealth, n. O'ntrutis. 2, 

Vra'nta fa'mboo. 
Commonwealth, n. Pondroo'rit bon- 

droo'ti. 
Common, adj. Vi'ntou. 2, Di'ntur. 

3, Po'mpra. 4, Pune'tru, not con- 
secrated. 

Commonality, n. Fibo'ndroo. 
Commons, (House of), n. Pana'nzoi. 
Commons, (victuals), n. Ru'ntukoo 

e'nzoo. 2, Ru'ntukoo e'nziz. 
Commons, (for cattle), n. Vra'nta 

ba'nzoo. 2, Bo'ndi'oos ba'nzoo. 
Commotion, n. E'nzi. 2, Ta'mbro. 

3, Tre'ndi. 

Commune, v. Dra'nsikai, to confer. 
Communicate, v. Vra'ntimost. 2, 

Bo'uslmost. 3, Bo'nsifrest. 
Communication, n. Re'mbi. 2, Dra'n- 

zi. 3, I'udi. 
Communion, n. Tyel pe'ndoi. 2, Tyel- 

bo'nza. 
Communion, n. Vu'mbris, the Lord's 

supper. 
Community, n. Vra'nta be'ndoo. 
Commutation, n. E'nda. 2, A'mbri, 

exchange. 
Compact, adj. Bepe'ntufoo. 2, Be- 

fi'ntou, very close. 3, n. O'mbris. 

4, Tyel go'ntruvoo. 

Company, n. Tyel po'ndoo. 2, Tyel 
pre'udis. 3, Tyel te'ndis. 4, Vran- 
ti'ro. 5, O'mbrci. 6, O'ndi-o. 7, 
Do'ndro. 8, Te'ndra. 

Companion, n. Fo'nza. 2, Kranta'ro. 
4, Tempa'ro. 

Compare, v. Be'ntifai. 

Compass, V. Zispre'ntisai. 2, Glis- 
pre'ntisai. 3, Pre'ntisai ple'ndi, 
fetch a circuit. 4, Ziske'ntrisai. 5, 
Fe'ntivai. 6, Feno'ndo. 7, Dun- 
joi'twus. 8, DunjoI'dus. 

Compasses, n. Feno'ndo. 

Compass, V. Ken'tifai, comprehend. 
2, Pe'ntikai, to obtain. 

Compassion, n. Dro'nzis. 

Compatible, adj. Tyel vo'ntu. 

Compeer, n. Fo'nza. 

Compel, v. Tro'nsinai. 

Compellation, n. Ko'ndoo. 

Compendious, adj. Pra'ntou. 2, Vri'n- 
tu, of the nature of an epitome. 

Compendium, n. Vri'ndi. 

Compensate, v. Dre'ntifai. 

Competent, adj, Ta'ntur. 

Competitor, n. Fro'nzoi. 

Compile, V. Tyel pe'ntipai. 2, Dre'n- 
sigrost. 

Complacence, n. Do'nzn. 2, Gc mba, 
civility. 



CON 

Complain, v. DLskroiisikai. 2, Ta'u- 
tripai. 

Complaisance, n. Ge'mba. 

Complimenting ^ n. Da'nzi. 

Complete, adj! To'uti. 2, Te'ntuvoo. 

Complexion, n. Einoiizoo. 2, Vra'n- 
do. 3, O'nibi. 

Comply, V. Vo'ntiki. 2, Ve'ntisai. 
8, Gre'ntifai. 

Complicated, adj. Tj'cl vi-a'nhivoo. 
2, Fri'usufoo. 3, Gro'nti. 

Complices, n. Tyel go'nti-uvoo"roz. 
2, Fo'nzaz. 3, Ki-anta'roz. 

Comportment^ n. A'nzis. 2, A'nzi. 3, 
Kembe'vis, conversation manner. 

Compose^ V. Tyel pe'ntipai. 

Compose, y. I.e. n\2k.Q: as, compose 
a book, Dre'nsigrost. 2, Tefa'n- 
tikai, perfectly to aiTauge. 3, 
Umfra'ntikai, to unconfuse. 4, 
Te'mpimost, to cause to agree. 5, 
Te'ntiki-ost, to cause to be quiet. 

Compound,v.Tje\ pe'ntipai. 2,Tyel- 
pe'ntifai. 3, Klo'ntiprost onti'riz, 
to make one thing out of several. 
4, Gro'ntikai, to mix. 5, O'mpri- 
sai ge'ntinai yi'lkyu tou pe'mpvu" 
drenta'riz. 

Coinpression, n. Triiizoo. 

Comprehend, v. Ke'ntifai. 2, Po'm- 
pitai rou'u, to imderstand all. 3, 
Po'mpitai to'ndi. 4, Po'mpitai 
a'ndus. 

Comprise, v. (vide comprehend). 

Compromise, v. Pre'ntinai tandroo'- 
nurit, to submit to arbitration. 

Compulsion, n. Tro'nza. 

Compunction, n. Ko'nzis. 2,Taki'o'n- 
zls. 

Comjnirgution, n. Diva'ntrifai dam- 
broo'ti. 

Computation, n. Ve'nda. 2, Ru'ndipo. 

Con-over, v. Da'ventifai. 

Concatenation, n. Tyel dreno'nzino. 

Concave, adj. Kle'nti. 

Conceal, v. Grebitipai. 

Conceit, n. Fo'mboi, fancy. 2, Yro'n- 
zoi, opinion. 3, Fompou'ri. 

Conceitedness, n. Twa'mbo. 

Conceiving, n. Po'mboi, common 
sense. 2, Fo'mboi, fancy. 3, Po'm- 
boo, understanding. 4, Po'nzoi, 
thought. 

Conceiving, fa child), n. Fra'nzoo. 

Concentrate, v. Peno'ntifai, to put in 
the same centre. 

Conception, n. Fra'nzoo 

Concern, v. Ba'ntini, pertinent. 2, 
Va'ntini, proper. 3, Po'ntini, pro- 
fitable. 

Concerning, adj. Ba'nta. 

Concerning, prep. Fe or fi. 

Concession, n. Tri'ndis. 

Conciliator, n. U mpronsimo"ro, an 
unenemying person. 2, Ij'nti- 
vempuno'ro, an uncoutentious- 
making person. 3, U tempumo's- 
turo. 

Concise, adj. Prautou. 



CON 

Concitation, n. Fondoi'rit. 

Conclave, n. Fa'nzo gre'ntur. 2, O'u- 
dro gre'utur. 

Conclude, v. Tri'ntitai. 2, De'ntivai, 
to finish. 3, Gro'nsinai, to make 
up one's mind. 4, Vri'nthiai, to 
infer. 

Concoct, v. Bi'nsivai, to digest. 

Comcomitant, adj. Fi'nti. 2, Tyel 
po'ntur. 

Concord, n. To'nzoi. 2, Gi'mbo, 
symphony. 

Concordance, n. Drono'ndo, catalo- 
gue of words. 2, Drona'udo, cata- 
logue of things. 

Co7icorporate, v. Tyel ri'nsipai. 

Concourse, n. Tyel pe'ndis. 2, Bezo'n- 
dro, great convention. 

Concrete, adj. Fri'ntou. 

Concrete, n. Fri'ndoi. 

Concubine,^. Fe'ntupoo fantiimo'ret. 

2, Visko'nzifet. 
Concupicence, n. Ko'mboi. 2, Bo'nzi. 

3, Ba'nzoi. 4, Dedo'ndo. 5, Pa'n- 
ta fi-o'ndito, original sin. 

Concur, V. Ve'ntisai, to meet. 2, 

Tyel po'ntipi. 3, Tyel pe'ntisai. 
Concussion, n. Tre'nzis, shaking. 
Condemn, v. Da'mprifai, to sentence. 

2, Ta'ntripai. 3, Tro'nsitai. 
Condense, v. Tri'mpikrost. 
Condescemi, v. Fe'mpisai. 2, Prone'- 

sikai, not to forbid. 3, Brone'tifai, 
not to hinder. 4, Pe'ntinai, to 
yield. 5, Go'mprinai, to exempt 
fi'om doing. 

Condescension, n. Fe'mbis. 

Condign, adj. Yo'nta, worthy, de- 
sei-ving. 

Conditing, n. Tre'nzo. 

Condition, n. Ko'ndoi. 2, Vo'ndoo. 

3, Ea'mbi. 4, Ke'ndoi, capacity 
or comprehension. 5, Ko'ndis, 
state. 6, Tindis, supposition. 7, 
O'mbris, covenant. 

Condole, v. Tyel Itro'nsikai. 
Conduce, v. Bo'ntifai, to help. 
Conduct, V. Be'ntisai. 2, Vo'mprinai, 

to ofiiciate. 
Conduct, (safe), n. Ton'ondi, a safe 

conduct through an enemy's 

country. 
Conduit, n. Gra'nzoi. 
Cone, n. De'ndo. 2, Bo'ndo, fruit. 
Confection, n. Fre'nzoi. 
Confederacy, n. Go'ndi'o. 
Confer, v. Ke'ntinai. 2. Be'ntifai. 

3, Dra'usikai. 
Confess, V. Tri'ndis, conditional 

owning the tiiith. 2, Ti'ntisai, 

renimciation of error. 
Confessor, n. Funo'ndroi, the priest 

who hears the confession. 2, 

Tu'ndro. 
Confidence, n. Do'nzi. 2, Yo'nzo. 
Confident, adj. Do'usu. 
Confidetit, (ones), n. Ko'nsuko po'n- 

za. 2, Po'mprukoo po'nza. 
Confines^ n. Kri'udoz rinz(2'tuz. 



C O N 
Confine, v. Vo'ntivai, to limit. 2, 

Fro'ntifai. 3, Ka'utrisai. 
Confirm, v. Do'mpikai. 2, Ymdo'ni- 

pikai. 3, Yinvo'nsitai. 4, Da'm- 

prisai. 
Confirmation, n. Yri'ndis. 2, Gu'n- 

di-a, religious rite. 
Confiscation, n. Da'mbris. 
Conflict, V. De'ntripai. 2, Twe'mpi- 

nai, to contend. ' 
Confluence, n. Bepe'ndis tyel. 2, 

Tyel o'ndrito. 
Confor7n, v. Yo'ndu pi'ntipai. 2, 

Vrotu pi'ntipai. 3, De'mpikai. 
Confound, v. Fra'ntikrost. 2, Gro'n- 

tivai, to mix. 3, Fro'nsigresf, to 

cause to be ashamed. 4, Gi'ntisai. 

5, Kro'nsipai. 
Confraternity, n. Do'mbro, college. 

2, Do'ndro, coii)oration. 3, Giun- 
broi'dwis, aggi-egate of penitents. 

Confront, v. Pano'ntitai, to face. 

Confused, adj. Fra'ntu. 

Confusion, n. Fra'ndi. 2, Bcfro'nzis. 

3, Kro'nzoo. 
Confutation, n. Di'ndis. 
Confute, V. Di'ntisai. 

Congecd, v. Fri'nsivai, to coagulate. 

2, Bre'nsiprost, jeUity. 3, Ku'nni- 
trost, to convert into ice. 

Conjee, n. Ka'nzi. 
Conger, n. Pa'njis. 
Conglutinate, v. Tyel kri'nsimost. 2, 

Tyel pe'ntifai. 
Congratulate, v. Yo'nsivai. 
Congregation, n. O'ndro. 
Congruous, adj. Yo'ntu. 
Conic, adj. De'nti. 
Conjecture, v. Dro'nsifal. 
Conjugal, adj. Y'u'ntra, matrimonial. 
Conjugate, v. Tyel pra'ntinai. 
Conjugation, n. Tro'ndoiz kindoi'tuz, 

patteras of verbs. 
Connection, n. Yipe'ndoi, joming 

manner. 
Connive, v. Gre'ndur to'ntrinai. 2, 

Brone'tifai. 3, Eame'pivai. 
Conquer, v. De'mprifai. 
Consanguify, n. O'nzoo. 
Conscience, n. To'mboo. 2, Tr'om- 

boo, stupidity of conscience. 
Conscientious, adj. Tcto'mpur. 
Conscionahle, adj. Tomboo'vu. 2, 

F'empur, equitable. 
Conscious, adj. Bo'nsou, in a state 

of knowledge. 2, Kra'nta. 
Consecration, n. Pu'ndii. 
Consecration of Bishop, v. Vu'mbri- 

krost. 
Consecrate Bishop,v. Yu'mprikrost. 
Consectary, n. Ya'ntus vriiida. 2, 

Kra'ntii vri'nda. 
Consent, v. Tyel to'nsifai. 
Consequence, n. Yri'nda. 2, Bo'nda. 

3, Bo'ndinin, specially of future 
importance. 

Consequent, n. \ ri'nda. 
Conserve, n. Fre'nzoi. 
Conserve, v. Koinsipai. 



CON 
Comider^ v. Po'nsifai. 2, Dre'ntifai. 
Considering, n. Fo'nzo. 
Considering that, (whereas), conj. 

Gool. 
Considerable, adj. Bo'nta. 
Consider ateness, ii. Pa'mba. 
Consideration, n. Fo'ndoi. 2, Ke'm- 

bi, 3, Dre'ndoi. 
Consign, v. Po'ntrikal. 
Consist, V. Fi'ntiprost. 2, O'mprisai, 

to agree. 
Consistence, n. Bi'mbi. 
Consistory, n. Bo'mbro. 2, Bo'mbro- 

kis. 3, specially, U'ntiii bombra'- 

kis. 4, specially, Bonibro'kis 

vumbroi'tuz. 
Consolation, n. To'nzis. 
Consolidate, v. A'ntigrost. 2, Fi'nti- 

frost, to put in close contiguity. 
Consonant, adj. Vo'ntu. 
Consonant, n. Fri'ndoo. 
Consort, n. Fo'nza. 2, Ti'mbn. 3, 

Vri'mbo. 
Conspicuous, adj. Gapo'mputoo. 2, 

Bete'ntur, very manifest. 
Conspiracy, n. Go'mbro. 
Conspire, v. Gompritai. 
Constable, n. Temba'fas, a peace of- 
ficer: or, petempa'fas, a subordi- 
nate peace officer. 
Constancy, n. Da'mba. 2, v. Dam- 

piiaai, to persevere. 
Constellation, n. Pinzoi'dwi. 
Consternation, n. Bevro'nzi. 2, 

Gro'nzis. 3, specially, Gro'nzis 

vronze'ti. 
Constipation, n. Tyel kii'nzoo. 2, 

adj. Befi'ntou. 
Constitute, v. Po'ntifai. 2, O'ntifai. 
Constitution, n. Po'ndifo. 2, Tu'nzi- 

no. 3, To'ndra. 4, To'mbra. 5, 

Gro'ndo. 6, Ka'mba. 7, O'mba, 

temper of mind. 8, O'mbil, tem- 
per of body. 
Constrain, v. Tro'nsinai. 
Construction, n. Po'ndifo. 2, Ki'ndi. 
Consul, n. Pono'udroo, an officer 

commissioned in foreign parts to 

judge betwixt the merchants of 

his own nation. 
Consult, V. Tyel pa'mpinai. 2, Tyel 

ko'nsikai. 3, Fre'utinai ko'nzi. 4, 

Pe'ntikai ko'nzi. 
Consume, v. Kro'mpikrast. 2, Dwa'n- 

tipai, 3, Twa'ntipai. 4, Kro'nsi- 

pai. 5, Pra'nsipai. 
Consumption, n. Kro'mbikrost. 2, 

2, Dwa'ndipo. 3, Twa'ndipo. 4. 

Kro'nzipo. 5, Pra'nzipo. 
Consumption, n. Fru'mboi, wasting. 

Tu'mbi, disease of the lungs. 
Consummate, v. To'ntivai, to perfect. 

De'ntivai, to finish. 
C(miac<,n.Po'mbo, touch. 2, Fi'ndoi. 
Contagion, n. Pu'mboo. 
Contaminate, v. Dra'ntikai, to defile. 
Contain, v. Ke'ntifai. 2, Ko'nsipai 

de'mboi. 
Contemn, v. Gro'nsifai. 



CON 

Contempilate, v. Pronsi'fai. 

Contemjjorary, adj. Fi'ntiu'. 

Contemptible, adj. Gagro'nsufoo. 

Contend, v. Twe'mpinai. 

Content, adj. Ta'mpur. 

Content, n. Ru'ndoi. 2, Ta'mboo. 3, 
Bo'nzg, satisfaction. 

Contentiousness, n. Twe'mba. 

Contest, n. Twe'mba indoi'tuz. 

Contexture, n. Tyel fi'nziko. 2, Tyel 
pe'ndifo. 

Contignation, n. Tyel pe'ndifo kra'n- 
zo'tuz. 

Contiguity, n. F'indoi. 

Continence, n. De'mboi. 

Continent, adj. De'mpou. 2, Fi'nzo. 

Contingent, adj. Gro'ntu. 

Continue, v. Yi'ntipai. 2, Ru'ntilai, 
to endm-e. 3, lle'ntisai, to stay. 
4, A'mboi, continued quantity. 

Continual, adj. Vi'ntur 2, Gi'ntui-. 

Continuance, n. Di'ndoi, continuance 
of things in place. 2, Vindoo, 
continuance in time. 

Contraband, adj. Prono'nsukoo, for- 
bidden to be imported. 

Contract, v. Tyel ki'nsipai. 2, O'n- 
trilai, to bargain. 3, To'nsifai, 
betroth. 4, Pe'ntikai, obtain. 

Contract a disease, v. O'kai u'mpukoo. 

Contradiction, n. Kri'ndis. 

Contradictory, adj. Kri'ntus or ki-i'n- 
tai. 

Contrary, adj. Vro'ntu. 

Contribution, n. Ke'nda. 2, Ke'nda 
mndu. 3, To'nzun ke'ntiuai. 4, 
To'mprikai. 

Contrition, n. Ko'nzis, remorse. 

Contrive, v. Do'nsitai. 

Controul, V. Pro'nsitai fro'nditoz. 2, 
Ta'ntrifai fro'nditotuz, accuse of 
faults. 3,Dro'nsikai, to reprehend. 
4, Fro'utifai, cohibit. 

Controversy, n, Vi'nda, argumenta- 
tion. 2, O'mbroi, suit. 

Contumacy, n. Dra'mba, pertinacity. 
2, Gre'mbi. 

Contumely, n. Pa'mbra. 

Contusion, n. Pri'nza. 2, Pru'mba, 
bruise. 

Convey, v. Be'ntisai, lead. 2, Pe'nsi- 
vai, carry. 3, Ke'ntisai, send. 

Conveyance, n. A'nza, carriage. 2, 
Ke'ndis, sending. 3, Do'nzo. 4, 
Fre'ntur bo'ndris, deed of aliena- 
tion. 

Convene, v. Pa'ntrifai. 2, O'ntrivo, 
to convene. 

Convenience, n. Ro'nda, agreeable- 
ness. 2. Vo'ndi, congruity. 3, 
Do'ndi, expediejice. 

Convenient, adj. Vo'ntu. 2, Do'ntu. 

Conventicle, n. Degre'ntur o'ndro. 

Convention, n. O'ndro. 

Convergence, n. Dwe'ndoi. 

Conversant, adj. Re'mpu. 2, Pom- 
bravu. 3, Ka'mpus, expert. 

Conversation, n. Re'mbi. 

Convex, adj. Kre'nti. 



C O E 

Conversation, (qualification for), u. 

E'mba. 
Convert, v. Te'ntifai, apply. 2, Vu'n- 

trivrost. 3, Vu'mprifai. 4, Do'n- 

sisai. 
Conviction, Gri'ndis. 2, Va'mbrifoo, 

found guilty (at law). 
Convocation, n. U'ntru o'ndro. 
Convoy, n. Te'ntuso ve'ndro. 
Convulsion, n. Du'mba. 
Cooh, n. Pre'nsutotas. 
Coohery, n. Pre'nzo. 
Coo?, adj. Pepli'mpm", a little cold. 

2, V. Pli'mpikrost, to cool. 
Coop, V. Ka'ntrisai, imprison. 2, 

Glipo'ntipai, to be about. 3, Gli- 

pe'ntipai, to put about. 
Cooper, n. Te'nzitas, barrel mechanic. 
Cooperate, v. Tyel i'nsikai. 
Cgoi-dinate, adj. Ka'ntufa, as high. 

2, O'ntnipa, of equal rank. 
Coot, n. Ga'njinoi. 
Copal, n. Kru'mvinoi. 
Copartner, n. Bo'nza, partner. 2, 

Kra'nda, accessary. 



Co^e, n. Ando'fus, head vest. 2, 
De'ntripai, 
/, n. To'ndoi, precedent; origi- 



aai, to fight. 

G(Tyi "" ■ ' • _^ 

nal. 2, Tro'ndoi, transcript. 
Copy, V. To'ntifai, to set a copy. 
Copy out, V. Tro'ntifai. 
Copyhold, n. O'ndi-a d'anzoo"du. 2, 

Bomprukoo"ri da'nzoo"du. 
Copious, adj. Fra'ntur, abvmdant. 
Copped, adj. Twendi di'ntutoo. 2, 

Pe'ntupoo. 
Copper, n. Ku'nzoo. 2, Ve'nzi, ket- 
tle. 3, Veuo'nzi, a kettle in-built. 
Copperas, n. Fru'nji, vitriol. 
Coppice, n. Umve'kis. 
Copula, n. Vi'ndoi. 
Cojmlaiion, n. Bra'nzoi. 
Copulative, adj. Pe'ntufo. 
Cor acinus, n. Fa'nja. 
Cora?, n. Vu'njoi. 
Core?, n. Dre'nza. 
Cordage, n. Fidre'nza. 
Cordial, adj. Fa'ntus. 
Cordial, n. Fano'ndis, a medicine 

strengthening the heart. 
Cm-dial, adj. Ka'mpa, sincere. 
Cordylis, n. Kino'njis, a creature of 

the lizard kind, havmg a tail an- 

nulated with scales. 
Core, 2. n. Bifa'ntai"dwes. 2, Tinti- 

dwes. 3, Wi'nplimpai"dwes. 
Coriander, n. Pra'mv.a. 
Cork, n. Fru'mvi, a tree. 2, Tinsu- 

fo'gus frumve'tu. 3, Fru'mfutu 

ro'ndoo. 
Cormorant, n. Ba'njino, 
Corn, n. Fino'nzi. 
Com, (standing), n. Po'mvoi kriiib'- 

sutoo. 
Cornfield, n. Fa'nzoo pimvoi'tu. 
Corn-flag, n. Vro'mva. 
Corn, n. Vo'ndo, seed for bread. 
Corn, V. Kra'ntisai, to pulverize. 2, 

Dre'nsitai punje'ti. 



C u 

Corn, (on the toe), n. Vru'mbo. 

Cornel tree, n. Tra'mvoi. 

Cornelian, n. Tu'njo, sardius. 

Corner, n. Fre'ndo, internal angle. 
Fleiidij, external angle. :^, Fe'u- 
da, tooth. 4, Fre'nda, notch. 

Corner, n. Grentu'rkis. 

Cornet, n. Fe'mbro. 2 , Pli'mbi twe'ndi. 

Corollary, n. Va'ntus vi-i'nda. 

Coronation, n. Fono'ndripo'rest. 

Coroner, n. Fono'nsnfo'fas, the officer 
enquiring into the cause of death. 

Coronet, n. Tono'ndroo. 

Corporal, n. Vempri'fas. 2, Fi'mbri. 

Corporation, n. Do'ndi'o. 

Corporeal, adj. Ri'ngur. 

Corpse, n. Ri'nsur dra'nsur. 

Corps (hi gard, n. Ve'mbro'dwis. 

Corpulent, adj. Beri'nsur, having a 
great body. 2, Bo'mpu. 3, Be- 
bo'mpu. 

Correct, v. Te'ntifai, repair. 2, To'n- 
ta, due; as it ought to be. 3, 
Tra'ntipai, mend. 4, Do'nsisai, 
reform. 5, Dro'uslkai, reprehend. 
G, Ea'mpivai, pimish. 7, Vo'nglsai, 
chastise. 

Correlative, adj. Dro'ndus go'ntur. 

Correspond, v. Vo'ntiki, to be con- 
gruous. 2, DroMsi, toberecipi-o- 
cal. 3, Dro'ndus vo'ntiki. 4,Di-o'n- 
dus po'nsa. 5, Dro'ndus bo'nsifrest, 
mutually to be made knovm. 

Corrival, n. To'nzoi. 

Corroborate, v. Yi'n do'mpikrost, to 
strengthen. 2, Vo'nsitrost, make 
sure. 3, Yin vo'nsitrost, make 
more sure. 

Corrode, v. Ti'nsivai. 

Corrosive, adj. Gati'usuvo. 

Corrupt, V. Fro'ntivrost, make evil. 
2, Yin fro'ntivrost, make worse; 
or Twa'ntiprost. 3, Dra'ntikrost, 
make impure. 4, Kro'usipai, de- 
stroy. 5, Tre'ntifrost, spoil. 6, 
Pu'mpivai, infect. 7, Ki'o'mpikrost, 
to cause to decay. 

Corrupt, adj. Fra'mpu, unholy. 2, 
Pre'mpur, mijust. 3, Dre'mpou, 
imchaste. 

Corruption, n. Vahidra, bribery. 

Corslet, n. A'ntuvus. 

Corruscation, n. Punzoo'dwas. 2, 
Ti'mboo, brightness. 3, Bra'nsa 
pu'nzoo, trembling flame. 

Cosmography, n. Inze'bras, science 
of the universe. 

Cost, n. Be'nda, disbursement. 2, 
Do'ndin, price. 

Costive, adj. Bl'nsufoo. 

Costly, adj. Betre'utu, very expen- 
sive. 

Costmary, n. Ka'mvoi. 

Cottage, n. Pepa'nzoi. 2 Twc'mpa 
pa'nzoi. 

Cotton tree, n. Gu'mva. 

Cotton cloth, n. Kre'nza. 

Cotton weed, n. Bra'mvoi. 

Couch, V. Vra'nsivai, to lie. 2, Ta'n- 
sivai, shrink. 



C U 

Couch, n. Vre'nzis, 

Covenant, n. O'mbris. 

Coventry-hell, n. De'mvinoo. 

Convent, n. Timdi-oi'tus. 

Cover, V. Unto'mpitrest, cause to be 
unseen. 2, Ki'nsivai, cover. 3, 
E'nginai, clothe. 4, Bra'nsifai, 
copulate with. 5,Umpro'mpitrest, 
cause to be imseen. 6, Gre'ntipai. 

Coverlet, n. Bi'nti kinsufo'ri dranzai'- 
tu. 2, Blnti'fus di-anzai'tu. 

Covert, u. Kempuso'kis, protection 
place. 2,Grentupo'kis, concealing 
place. 3, Pemprupo'kis, defending 
place. 

Coverture, n. Pe'mbroo. 2, Ke'mbis. 

Covet, V. Bo'nslkai, desire. 

Covetuousness, n. Ple'mbo. 

Cough, V. Be'nsinai. 

Covey, n. Anje'dwis. 

Cowl, n. Tu'ndi'ifiu-s ando'fus. 

Could, V. Pi'u, can; pli'u, coidd, 
pri'u, can hereafter. 

Coulter, n. Prino'nzo, coulter of 
plough. 

Council, n. Bo'mbro. 

Counsel, n. Kro'nzi. 2, v. Be'mpini, 
keep counsel, be tacitmii. 

Count, n. Tone'ndroo, earl, 4th de- 
gree of nobility. 

Count, V. Go'nsifai, esteem. 2,Ye'n- 
tinai, reckon. 3, Yra'ntmai, simi. 

Countenance, n. Pando'pas, face 
habit. 2, Pando'vis, face manner. 

Countenance, (out of), adj. Befro'n- 
siivoo, greatly ashamed. 2, Gi'n- 
suvoo, posed. 3, Fro'nsuvoo. 

Countenance, v. Fo'nsisai. 2, Ka'm- 
pifrest, cause to be reputed. 

Counter, n. Biru'nda, unitatiou of 
money. 2, Kantniso'tus. 

Counter, adv. Vro'ndu. 

Counterfeit, v. Pa'ntikrost, to liken. 
2, Gre'ntifai, imitate. 3, Ka'n- 
drim gre'ntifai. 4, Tre'ntlprost, 
cause to seem. 5, Ti-o'ntipi-al, 
feign. 6, Ka'mprinal, forge. 7, 
Kra'mpmai, to act hvpocritlcally. 

Countermand, v. Po'nslkai tro'ndis, 
command the contrary. 

Countermine, v. Be'mprival. 

Counterpane, n. (see coverlet). 

Counterpart, n. Boi tou'doi, other 
pi-ecedent. 2, Roi tro'ndoi, other 
copy. 

Counterpoise, v, Gro'ndus ru'ntinal, 
oppositely to weigh. 

Counter tenor, n. Pri'mbo. 

Countervail, v. Dre'ntifai, compen- 
sate. 2, Tedre'ntlfai, perfectly to 
compensate. 

Countess, n. Toni'ndripun. 

County, n. Ko'ndro, shire. 

Country, n. Fo'mbro, not the town. 
2, Ri'nzo. 3, Po'ndi-o, nation. 

Countryman, n. Fompri'i-o, one re- 
siding in the country. 

Couple, n. Afi'udwis, an aggi-egate 

of two. 
Courage, n. De'mboo, fortitude. 



C R A 

Couple, V. Pe'ntifai afi'n fo'ndooz, 
to join two tilings. 2, Bra'nsifai, 
to copulate. 

Courier, n. Keno'ndis bendo'di, mes- 
senger for despatch. 

Course, n. Dra'nzol, way. 2, Di'nza, 
water course. 3, Tc'ndls, journey. 
4, Pre'nzoi, limning. 5, Do'ndroi, 
hunting. 6, Te'mbroi, pursuit. 7, 
Fa'ndi, order. 8, Da'ndo, series. 
9, Do'ndis, turn. 

Course of life, n. Danzoo'vis, man- 
ner of life. 2, Dondoo'vis, course 
of action. 

Coarse, adj. Twi'mpus. 2, Kla'nter, 
sorry. 

Courser, n. PIno'njoo, horse for 
running. 

Courses, n. Kra'ndoo. 

Court yard, n. Ta'nzg. 

Court, n. Bo'ndi-o, king's family. 2, 
Fo'ndroos pa'nzoi. 3, A'ntmkls, 
place where justice is administered. 
4, A'ntru o'ndro, judicial conven- 
tion. 

Court days, n. Bu'ndalz antru'tu 
o'ndi'o. 

Court, V. Fo'nsifai, to court. 

Courteous, adj. De'mpa. 

Courtesan, n. Fa'nti'imun vra'nta. 2, 
Yra'nta fa'ntrunun. 

Courtesy, n. De'mba. 2, Te'mbis, 
affability. 3, Gonsi'ri, act of be- 
nefactor. 4, Kra'nzl, salutation. 

Courtier, n. Fo'ndroos bro'nzo, king's 
domestic. 2, Bedempa'ro. 3, Be- 
da'nsuro, a very complimentary 

^ person. 

Courtliness, n. abs. Danzc'rit. 

Courtship, n. Fo'nsifai, to act as a 
suitor. 

Cousin, (generally), n. Bro'nzo. 

Cousin, (first), n. Bo'nzoo. 

Cozen, V. Ka'ntiinai. 

Cow, n. Pi'njifun. 

Cow, (with calf), n. Fansm- pi'njifim. 

Cowherd, n. Pinjoofas. 

Cow, V. Dwe'inpivrost. 

Cowardice, n. Dwe'mboo. 

Cucumber, n. Te'mvinoo. 

Cucumber, (wild), n. Kre'mvinoo. 

Cowring, n. Ka'nzis. 

Cowslip, n. Pre'mvinoi. 

Cow-wheat, n. Gre'mvlnoi. 

Coxcomb, n. Vrempa'ro. 

Crab fish, n. Yonjis. 

Crab, (molucca), n. Dro'iijis. 

Crab louse, n. Vono'njis. 

Crab tree, n. Puno'mvoo, sour apple 
tree. 

Crabbed, n. GrembaI'vis, austere 
mamier. 

Crabbed, adj. Dwe'mp.ii. 2, Kro'ntu, 
difficult. 

Crack, v. Tate'ntlvai, begiu to 
break. 

Crack, n. Krendl, chink. 

Crack, V. Ino'mbo, sound like 
breaking. 2, Pro'nslvai, glory, 
boast. 



CUE 
Craclc-hrained^ adj. Pcpru'mpa. 
Crackle, v. Ina'mpifai, to soumi 

like a number of little breakings. 
Cradle, n. Drano'nzis. 
Cray fish, (craw fish) , n. To'njis. 
Craft, n. Fra'nibis, cunning. 
Craft, n. Tata'mbis. 
Crag, n. U fll'mpus pri'nzo. 2, Prin- 

o'nzoz, the rugged protuberances 

of rocks. 
Cram, v. Di'nsifai, fill. 2, Bedi'n- 

sifai krinzoo'ti. 
Cramp, n. Dru'mba, a disease. 
Cramp fi^h, n. Ka'njoi. 
Cramp iroti, n. Geuo'nda, iron hooks 

for joining bodies together. 
Crane, n. Pe'njinoi, a bird. 
Crane fly, n. Go'nja. 
Cranes bill, n. Be'mvoo. 
Crane, n. Be'pinsupo"dwus, great 

lifting machine. 
Crank, adj. Ko'mpu, vigorous. 2, 

Ko'nsu, joyful. 
Cranny, n. Kre'ndi, chink. 
Crash, V. A^e'nsivai. 2, Lio'mpitai, 

sound like breaking. 
Crassitude, n. Ba'ndol, thickness. 

2, TrI'mbi. 3, Tri'mbis. 
Cratch, n. Pine'nzo, the palisaded 

frame in which hay is put for 

cattle. 
Crave, v. Bo'nsinai, desire. 2, To'n- 

sikai, entreat. 3, Fu'mprivai, 

petition. 
Craven, n. Dwempu'kro, a coward. 
Oravinaness, n. Ple'mbo, covetous- 

ness. 2, Fre'mbo, scrapingness. 
Craw, n. Ka'ndis, stomach of bird. 
Crawling, n. Ye'nzoo, creeping. 2, 

Vre'nzoo, wriggling. 
Craze, v. Pri'nsinai. 
Crazy, adj. Kro'mpu, in a state of 

decay. 2, Tre'ntufoo, spoiled. 8, 

Ea'nsou, in a state of ruin. 
Creak, v. Ine'mplfai, to make an 

acute sound like that -of solid un- 

lubricated bodies mutually rub- 
bing together. 
Cream, n. Pa'ndis, the best part of 

anything. 
Cream, n. Twa'ndoo, cream, best 

part of milk. 
Create, v. Po'usipai. 2, Po'ntifai, 

make. 
Creature, n. Ponsupoo'ri, created 

thing. 
Credence, n. Ko'nzoi. 
Gredihle, adj. Kako'nsufoo, able to 

be believed. 
Credit, v. Ko'nslfai, believe. 
Credit, n. Go'nzoi. 2, Ka'mboi, re- 
putation. 3, Ko'nzo, trust. 
Creditor, n. De'nda. 
Credulity, n. Fra'mbo. 
Credulity in religion, n. Kra'mbi. 
(- 'reed, n. Konsufoo'ri. 2, Kono'nzoi, 

epitome of what Christians ought 

to believe. 
('reck, n. Pekl'uza, a little bav. 



C R 

Creej), v. Ve'nslpai. 2, Vre'nsipai, 
wriggle. 3, Pive'nsipai, metapho- 
rically to creep like ivy. 4, 
Dre'mpinai, to fawn. 

Creep in, v. Muspre'ntisai gre'ndur, 
to get in secretly. 2, Gro'ndus, 

Crescent, adj. Dra'ntur. 

Crescent, n. Gll'nzoi, the figure of 
the moon, in her early increasmg 
state. 

Cresses, n. Be'mvis, garden cress. 
2, Fo'nvis, Indian cress. 3, 
Bre'mvis, sciatica-cress. 4, Vrem- 
vis, swine's cress. 5, Be'nva, 
water cress. (3, Dre'mva, winter 
cress. 

Grescet, n. Tano'nzoi, a great light 
set on a beacon, lighthouse, or 
watch-tower. 

Crest, n. Do'udi, comb on biid's 
head. 

Crest fallen, adj. Befro'nsusoo. 2, 
Peno'mbri, the plume of feathers 
on the top of a helmet. 3, Pena'm- 
bri, the ornament, the helmet, in 
heraldry. 4, Kro'ndis, mane. 

Crevis, n. Kra'ndi, chink. 2, To'njis. 

Crew, n. Fonza'dwis, aggregate of 
companions. 

Cruet, n. U'ncube'nzi. 

Cry, n. Kro'nzi, grief. 2, Tra'nza, 



Cry out, V. Ta'nsitai, exclaim. 2, 
Ta'ntripai ba'ndu. 3, Gro'nsikai 
ta'ndu. 

Cry mercy, v. To'nsitai barabroo'di. 

Cry, V. Ba'mpripai or ba'mprivai, to 
proclaim. 

Crib, n. Pine'nzo, (see cratch). 

Cribbed, adj. Bri'ntufoo. 

Crick, n. Da'nzoi, pricking sensa- 
tion, specially fi'om a cold. 

Cricket, n. Fo'njoi. 

Cricket, (fen), Fro'njoi. 

Crier, n. Ba'mbroo. 

Crime, n. A'ndro. 

Crime, (capital), n. A'mbro. 

Crime, (not capital), n. A'mbra. 

Crimson, adj. Biba'ntur, blood-like. 
2, Fi'mpou, red. 

Cringe, v. Beka'nsikai. 2, Daka'u- 
sikai. 3, Dre'mpinai. 

Cripple, n. Ro'rabi ande'tuz. 

Crisis, n. Giba'mbroi, the deciding 
or judgment time. 2, Diba'mbroi, 
the sign of decision or judgment. 

Crisping, n. Bri'nzi, curling. 

Critic, n. Bano'mbroo, literary 
judge. 

Critical, adj. Bano'mprur. 

Crotchet, n. Bini'mbo, one eighth of 
the time of a breve. 

Crocodile, n. Ti'njis. 

Crocus, n. Dro'mva. 

Croft, n. Pcfa'nzoo. 

Croak, V. Kefri'neisai, like a frog. 
2, Keba'ncipai, croak like a ra- 
ven. 

Crook, v. di'i'nsipai, to bend. 



C R U 

Crook, n. U pre'ntiri, crooked thing. 

2, Ge'nda, hook. 
Crooked, adj. pas. Dri'nsupoo, bent. 

2, Ge'ntumaust, hooked. 
Crookedness, n. Pre'ndo. 
Crone, n. Vimtinu'rpro, a decrepit 

person. 
Crop, n. E'njcs ka'ndis, bu'd's 

stomach. 
Crop of corn, n. Binsufoo'dwis fin- 
. o'nzitu, heaped aggregate of com. 
Crop, V. Siniki'nsipai, to pull off. 

2, Sinidi-e'nsivai, tear off. 3, Sini- 

de'nslvai, break off. 
Crosier, n. Vu'mbrois ko'ndoo, 

bishop's staff. 
Cross, across, adj. Ge'ntou, oblique. 

2, Gre'ntou, transverse. 
Cross, V. Pre'ntisai dinza'zu, to go 

over the river. 
Cross himself, v. Krentime'stm-, to 

cause himself to be crossed. 2, 

Dyikrentime'stur, to cause him- 
self to be signed with a cross. 
Cross, n. U tantruko'twus, or Tan- 

a'ndri, a crucifying jugament. 
Cross, n. Tano'ndi-i, an image of 

Christ upon the cross. 
Cross bow, n. Ke'mbri. 
Crossway, n. Kre'nta dra'nzoi. 
Cross, adj. Vro'ntu, contraiy. 2, 

Tro'ntus, opposite. 3, Twe'mpa, 

contentious. 4, Drempa, morose. 

.5, Dre'mpu, disobedient. 
Cross event, n. Fra'raboo. 
Cross, V. Pre'ntikai, frustrate. 2, 

Tre'ntifai grentou'ti fe'ndoo. 
Cross bill, n. Bra'nja. 
Cross loort, n. Gro'mvino. 
Crotchet, n. Pege'nda. 
Crotchet, n. Defo'mboi, a bad fancy ; 

whim. 
Crouch, V. Ka'nslvai, stoop. 
Crouching, n. Undra'dis, tlie attitude 

and manner of adoration. 2, 

Dre'mba, fawning. 
Crowd, n. Tyel krinsupoo'dwis. 
Crow, n. Bre'njoo. 2, Ka'mvino. 3, 

Pinsupo'tus, a lever. 
Crow, V. Kepe'ncifai, to crow like a 

cock. 2, Kege'ntrifai, to expi-ess 

triumph. 3, Depro'nsivai, to glory 

as he ought not. 
Crown, n. Fono'ndroo. 
Croionqfthe head, n. Di'ndij ando'tu. 
Crown imperial, n. Po'mva. 
Croicn, (money), A'vin glu'ndaz; or, 
• gluna'vin. 
Crucible, n. Finsuvo'tus, melting 

vessel. 2, E'nzi finsuvo'di u'nziz 

unzoo'ti. 
Crucifix, n. Grenzai'tu Krist iju 

ga'ndri. 
Crude, adj. Re'nsi, raw. 2, Fene'si, 

ixnboiled. 3, Ene'si, unprepared 

or uncooked. 4, Bine'sus or Bine'- 

sai, not digested. 
Crucify, v, Ga'ntrikai. 
Cruelty, n. Brc'mboo. 



C U M 
Cruet^ n. U pla'ntur Venzoo'dus. 
Crumb, (of bread) n. Fene'uzoo. 
Crumble^ v. Fene'nsiprast. 
Crupper, n. Go'ndi, riimp. 2, Gri'nti 

ventupo'ri ganzc'tu. 3, Gonde'bus. 
Cruise, a. Pepe'nzi u'ncu. 2, v. Be'u- 

trivai, to play the scout; specially 

for booty. 
Crushing, n. Pri'nza. 
Crust, (of shell fish), n. Fro'nJa. 
Crvtst, (of bread), Vri'ndo fenzoo'tu, 

speciailj hard. 
Crustaceous, adj. Fro'nta. 
Crutch, n. Ke'nda, (figiu-e like T). 

2, Ko'ndoo prensu'rtiiro. 
Cryptography,\i. Gre'ntur danzo'bas. 
Crystal, n. liu'njoi. 
Cue, n. Bo'ndis, sign. 2, Tendo'dis. 
Cub, n. Prinja'twes. 2, Finje'twes. 
Cube, n. Bre'ndo. 
Cubit, n Fa'udi a limb. 2, Pa'ndoi 

fra'ndeni dandenuzis di'iido. 
Cuckold, n. Ku'nzifur fampra'tu 

ku'nzifun. 
Cuckoo, n. Ta'njoo. 
Cuckoo-flower, n. Be'nva. 
Cucumber, n. Te'myinoo. 
Cud, n. Kra'ndis, first stomach. 
Cud, n. Kla'ndis, thing remasticated. 
Chew the cud, v. Kla'ntisai. 
Cudgel, n. Ko'ndoo, staff. 2, Be- 

ko'ndoo. 3, Fampruso'tus. 
Cudwort, n. Bra'myoi. 
Cuf, n. Tra'ntu yantiiko'ri. 
Cuff, V. Ke'nsiyai binsukoo'ti ta'ndi. 
Cuirass, n. Anda'vus, tnmk armour. 
Cull, V. Bo'nsinai, to choose. 
Culpable, adj. Gadro'nsukoo, apt to 

be blamed. Ta'ntrupoo, accused. 
Cultivate, v. Ti'nsitai. 
Culture, n. Tinon'zo, cultivation; 

special means and care. 
Cumber, v. Ra'usinai, to bm-den. 2, 

Tre'ntikai, to trouble. 3, Bro'nti- 

fai, to hinder. 
Cummin, n. Dra'mvi. 
Cunctation, n. Pra'mba. 



D A Y 

Dabble, v. Dazeusikai fi'mputu 

fo'ndoo. 
Dabchick^. De'njLnoi, dydapper. 
Dace, n. Ua'njinn. 
Daffodil, u. Ko'mva. 
Dagger, n. Pra'ntou fe'mbri. 
Daggle, v. a. Fu'nsimost, to cause 

to be dirty. 
Daggle, v. n. Po'ntipi fii'nzatu. 
Dag, (natural), n. Bu'ndai, 24 hours. 
Day, (holy-day), u. Bu'utra bu'ndi. 
Day, (to day), n. Ca'seg, this day. 
Day, (artificial), n. Vu'ndai, the 

period of daylight. 
Daytime, n. Bimdai'gis, time of day. 



CUE 

Cony, n. Kl'njo. 

Cunning, n. Ta'mbis, art. 2, Fra'm- 
bis, craft. 

Cuj^, n, Tre'nzi. 

Cupbearer, n. Trenze'fas. 

Cup of a flower, n. Go'ndoi. 

Cup, V. Dre'nsinai, to bleed by 
cupping. 

Cujiboard, n. Fe'nzi kranzai'pur 
trenze'diz. 

Cur, n. Pinji. 

Cuirassier, n. E'ntiiikoo pe'mbro, 
anned horseman. 

Curate, n. Bla'ntur fti'ndroi. 2, Vis- 
fu'ndroi. 3, Visdu'ndroi. 

Curb, n. Tano'nzi, the cohibiting 
part of a bridle. 2, Befro'ntufo 
ta'nzi. 

Curb, V. Fro'ntifai, to cohibit. 

Curdle, y. Fri'nsivai, to coagulate. 

Cure, y. Eu'mpikrost, to cause to be 
healthy. 

Curiosity, n. Pra'mbis. 2, Bevo'mbi, 
great beauty. 3, Beba'mba, great 
diligence. 4, Vre'mboi, niceness. 

Curlew, n. Ta'njinoi. 

Curling, n. Bri'uzi. 

Currants, n. Primvoo'sidz, fruit of 
the cm-rant tree. 

Current, n. Dl'nza, stream. 

Current, adj. Ko'nti, genuine. 2, 
To'nti, perfect. 3, To'nsutoo, ap- 
proved. 4, Po'mpra, customary. 
5, Vra'nta common. 6, Ta'utu, 
ordinary. 

Current year, n. O pu'ndis, the pre- 
sent year. 

Curry, -v. Tri'nsikai, to comb a horse. 

Curry-comb, n. Trinsuko'tus pinje'di. 

Curry, v. Fe'ndo fenza'tu, prepar- 
ing of leather. 

Curry favor, v. Dre'mplkal de. 2, 
Deke'ndo de. 

Currish, Bipi'nji. 

Curse, n. Tra'nzoo, act of God. 

Curse,v. Bu'utrikai, excommunicate. 
2, ko'mprisai, imprecate. 



D 

DAL 

Daybreak, n. Bundai'tas, beginning 
of day. 

Broad day, Tebu'ndai. 2, Te'ntur 
bu'ndai, manifest day. 

Day, (as, gained the day,) Pe'mbroi, 
victory. 

Day's man, n. Fa'ndroo, arbitrator. 

Daily, adj. Bvmtai'twis, on each se- 
parate day. 

Dainty, adj. Vre'mpou, nice. 

Dainties, n. E'nzoi, sustentation ex- 
traordinary. 

Dairy, n. Trantu'rfis, the kinds of 
milk. 2, Trandoo'tus, milk room. 

Dale, n. Pli'nzo, valley. 



C Y N 

Curchy, v. Kra'nsikai. 

Cursory, adj. To'mpu, s\vift. 2, 

Bla'mpa, rash. 3, Kra'mpi, shght, 

indifferent. 
Curst, adj. Pro'mpa, disingenuous. 

2, Kre'mpur, malignant. 3, 
Dwe'mpa, morose. 

Curtain, v. Frino'mboo, a shading 
or shadowing. 2, Ensuno'ri, spe- 
cially about a bed. 

Curtal, adj. Pra'ntou, short. 

Curtle-axe, n. Pra'ntou fe'mbri, short 
sword. 

Curve, n, Pre'nti, crooked. 

Curvet, v. Pre'ntisai be'nsupo, go 
leaping. 

Cushion, n. Bra'nzis. 

Casp, n. Fe'nda, tooth. 

Custard, n. Kre'nzoo tre'ndoo'tu, 
vobdiz, kyel, pie of milk, eggs, &c. 

Custody, n. Be'ndi, keeping. 2, Ve'n- 
drito, guarding. 3, Ka'ndi'is, im- 
prisonment. 

Custom, n. Po'mbra. 2, A'mbi, habit. 

3, E'mbi. 4, To'ndri, bontrufoo- 
juri, tribute on merchandise. 

Cut, v. De'nsivai. 

Cut off, V. Pre'ntifai, separate. 2, 

Bu'utrikai, excommimicate. 
Cuticle, n. Ta'ndoi, outward skin. 
Cutler, n. Fembre'tas. 2, Insa'tas 

dansuvo'tuz. 
Cutter, n. Da'ndro, robber. 2, Pro'n- 

suvo'ro. 
Cuttle-fish, n. Fo'njino. 2, Fro'njmo, 

lesser cuttle fish. 
Cycle (of the sun), n. Ino'ndoo, 28 

years. 
Cycle, (of the moon), n, Lia'ndoo, 

19 years. 
Cygnet, n. Penjino'twes. 
Cylinder, n. Ve'ndo. 
Cylindroides, n. To'njinoo. 
Cymbal, n. Fe'nti pu'nsou di-'cnsutus. 
Cynical, adj. Bipi'ncu, dog-like. 2, 

Dwe'mpa, morose. 



DAM 

Dally, V. Ri'nsikai, to play. 2, 

Dre'mpisai, to fondle. 3, Tro'm- 

pinai, to act wantonly. 4, Bre'n- 

tikai, to delay. 
Dam, n. Fo'nzipun, female parent. 

2, Ee'ntigrost, u dl'nza yoo ti de'n- 

di, to stop water by means of a 

ridge. 
Dame, n. To'ntrupun, a noble female. 

2, To'mprupun, a lady. 3, Dro'n- 

sutim, a master female. 
Damage, n. Fre'ndi, loss. 2, Pro'nda, 

da, hurt. 
Damask, n. Twi'mpus ke'nza tu 

Dima'skus. 



D E A 

Damson^ n. Fo'ndo tu Duma'skus. 
Damn, v. Kra'mpivai, the act of 

God. 2, Da'mprifai, to condemn. 
Dammfy, v. Pro'ntimest, to cause 

to be injured. 
Damsel, n. Po'nzifet, coelebs femi- 
nine. 
Damp, n. Du'nzoo, fire damp. 2, 

Bru'nzoi, aqueous damp. 3, Pe- 

fi'mpu, moist. 
Da-ticing, n. Be'nzi. 
Dandelion, n. Fra'nvo. 
Dandiprat, n. Pebi'uzikur. 
Dandle, v. Petre'nsivai, tri yoo'tu 

klon'doos pa'udiz. 
Dandruf, n. Vi'mbroi ando'tu, scurf 

on the head. 
Daneswort, n. Te'mvino. 
Danger, d. Tro'ndi. 
Dangle, v. Tra'nsivai te'nsuvo. 
Dank, n. Fi'mpu. 

Dapper, adj. Pegompu, a little agile. 
Dace, n. Da'njino, dace. 
Dare, v. To'ltikai, to be so bold as. 

2, Yul de'mpiki, to be so stout, 
sturdy, resolute. 3, Yul go'nsiki, 
to be so bold. 4, Yul gone'siki, 
not to be so bold; to fear. 5, Fe'n- 
tripai, to challenge. 

Darkness, n. Pli'mboo. 

Darkness, n. Tri'ndo, i. e. to the 
mind. 

Darling, adj. To'nsukous, or yin 
to'nsukoo, most beloved. 

Darn, v. Ki'nsikai bifri'nzu, to sew 
knitting-like. 

Darnel, n. Bo'mvo. 

Darf,n. Be'ndri. 2, Kra'nzoo, meteor. 

Dash, V. Dwaze'nsikai. 2, Fe'nsivai, 
to cast. 3, Ke'nsivai, to strike. 4, 
Dwada'nsitai, to write a dashing 
hand. 5, Pegro'ntivai, to mix a 
small quantity. 

Dastard, n. U dwe'mpuvro, a cow- 
ardly person. 

Date, n. Krumvoi'sit, the fniit. 2, 
Bi'ndo, date. 3, Vetri'ntur, out of 
date; excessively old. 4, Vekri'n- 
tur, excessively late. 

Daucus, n. Vr'amvi, wild carrot. 

Daughter, n. Fron'zipun. 

Daughter in law, u. Fro'nzipun on- 
zoi'ti. 2, Ko'nzipurs fro'nzipun. 

3, Ko'nzifims fro'nzipun. 4, Fro'n- 
zipurs ko'nzifun. 

Daunt, V. Vro'nsikrast, make fear. 

2, Fro'nsisai, discourage. 
Daiv, n. Va'njoo. 
Dawb, V. Bruusinai, plaster. 2, 

Vri'nsikai, smear. 3, Dra'ntikai 

vri'nze'ti. 4, Vra'utlnai, to bribe. 
Dawn, n. Tavu'utisai, to begin the 

morning. 
Daisy, n. Tra'mvoi. 2, Ta'mvo, 

great daisy. 3, Ka'nvoi, blue daisy. 
Dazzle, v. Pino'mpitai, to dull with 

excess of light. 
Deacon, n. Du'mbroi. 
Deafness, adj. Fro'mbo. 



DEC 

Dead, adj. Umpo'ntur, deprived of 
being. 2, Uno'mpu, destitute of 
power. 3, Dra'nsupi, in a state of 
death. 4, Dane'suto, not living. 

Deadly, adj. Dra'nsuprast, causing 
to die. 2, Drano'nsuprast, which 
cannot end till death; as deadly 
malice. 

Deal, (as to deal in something), v. 
Do'ntipai, to act in. 2, Ee'mpikai, 
to converse with. 3, E'ntivai, to 
deal with in business. 4, Fa'mpri- 
vai, to deal betwixt, mediate. .5, 
Twike'ntinai, to deal out, dis- 
tribute. 

Deal, n. U vo'ndoo, a quantity. 2 
Bumve'kus, a deal. 

Dean, Pauo'mbroo, chief of the 
bishop's assessors. 2, Dombro'fas, 
college officer. 

Dear, adj. Beto'nsukoo. 2, Bedo'n- 
trukoo. 

Dearth, n. Fla'ndoo, scarcity. 

Death, n. Dra'nzoo. 

Death, (put to), v. Dra'nsiprast. 2, 
A'ntnkal, to punish capitally. 

Deathwatch, n. Vo'njl. 

Dehar, v. Bro'ntlfai. 

Debase, v. Uno'ntripai, to midegrce. 
2, Umba'mpifai, undlgnify. 3, 
Bra'mpifrost, to cause to be 
mean. 

Debate, v. Dwe'mpinai. 2, Vi'ntlnai, 
to argue. 

Debauch, v. Ee'mpivrost, make vi- 
cious. 2, Pre'mpifrost, to make 
sensual. 3, Kre'mpitrost, to make 
profuse. 

Debilitate, v. Dro'mpila'ost, to make 
weak. 

Debonair, adj. Tezo'mpa, of perfect 
temper or disposition. 2, Fo'mpa, 
sprightly. 3, Ko'nsu, merry. 

Debt, n. Dre'nda, debt, a state of 
debt. 

Decade, n. Dwipa'sin, an aggregate 
of ten, as a decade of years. 

Decalogue, n. Pono'nziz, the ten 
commandments of God. 

Decay, n. Kro'mbi. 

Decease, n. Dra'nzoo. 

Deceive, v. Ka'ntrlnai, to defraud. 
2, Ge'ntivrast, to make to err. 3, 
Pre'ntikai, to frustrate. 4, Pren- 
o'ntikai, to frustrate one's expec- 
tations. 

December, n. Kunti'ldis. 

Decent, adj. Fo'ntu. 

Deception, n. Kandra'rit. 

Decide, v. Da'mprifai, to sentence. 
2, Te'ntlvai, finish. 3, Te'ntivai 
wo'mbroi. 

Decimation, v. Bo'nsinal .I'pin ou'mi 
pa'sin. 

Decipher, v. Ki'ntikai tro'nti prl'n- 
dooz. 2, Ti'ntivrost tro'nti prl'n- 
dooz. 3, Ka'nsitai tro'nti pri'udooz. 
4, Ungi-e'ntipai tro'nti pri'ndooz. 

Deck, n. Kra'nzo findroo'tu. 



D E F 

Deck, V. Va'ntikai, to adorn. 

Declaim, v. Fi'ntikrost de. 2, Fi'n- 
tlkrost be. 

Declare, v. Ki'ntikai, to interpret. 
2, Ge'ntipai, to conceal. 3, Te'n- 
tipai, manifest. 4, Ba'ntikrost, to 
make public. 

Declension, n. Tino'ndoi, final sylla- 
bles of nouns. 

Decline, v. Tino'ntifai, as a noun. 2, 
Dre'ntifai, to diverge. 2, Dre'nti- 
sal, avoid. 3, Kro'mpikai. 

Declining age, n. Vu'ndlnoo. 

Declivity, n. Ge'ndoi. 2, Tris ge'ndoi, 
a declivity verging downwards. 

Decoction, n. Fe'nzo. 2, Fensufoo'ri, 
boiled thing, specially by infusion. 

Decoy, v. Vra'nsipai. 

Decorum, n. Fo'ndl, decency. 

Decrease, v. Dwa'ntipai. 

Decree, n. To'nza, purpose. 2, 
Dra'mboi, sentence. 3, To'mbra, 
edict. 

Decrement, n. Dwa'ndoo, dunLnition. 

2, Fre'ndi, loss. 

Decrepit, adj. Ka'nsuvo undinoo'ni, 
stooping from age. 2, Vu'ndlnoo, 
decrepitude. 

Decretal, adj. To'nsa. 2, Da'mprou. 

3, To'mpra. 

Decuple, adj. Fipas'in, tenfold- 
Decussation, n. Kre'nda, figure of 

cross. 
Dedicate, v. Pu'ndri, consecration, 
as, to God. 2, Ke'ntlnai kyamboi'- 
nu tu, give to the reputation of. 

3, or Ba'mboi, dignity. 4, or 
Tonzo'rit, patronage. 

Deduce, v. Vri'utinai, to infer. 

Deduct, V. Da'ntisai. 

Deed, n. Do'ndoo, action. 

Deed, (in very), adj. Po'ndi. 2, 

Bo'ndris, writing. 
Deem, v. Vo'nsifai. 2, Po'nsifai, 

think. 
Dee-p, adj. Ta'ntou. 
Deep, (the) n. Ri'nza, sea. 
Deer, n. Ki'njoi, (fallow). 2, Ti'njoi, 

red deer. 
Deface, v. Unre'ntitai. 2, Tre'ntifai, 

spoil. 3, Vro'rapikrost, to deform. 

4, Kro'nsipai, to destroy. 
Defalk, v. Da'ntisai, to take away. 

2, Dwa'ntipai, to diminish. 

Defame, v. Va'ntrisai, to infamize. 
2, Da'ntinai, to calumniate. 

Defaidt, n. Fame'broi, non appear- 
ance. 2, Pre'ndi, frustration. 3, 
Plc'mbroi, overthrow. 

Defecation, v. Da'ntlkrost, make 
pure. 2, Umpra'utlsai, to unworst 
something. 

Defect, n. Twa'ndoo. 

Defection, n. Yu'mbro, an apostasy. 

Defend, v. Pe'mprivai, with arms. 
2, Pe'mpisai, to protect, as a su- 
perior. 3, Bo'nslsai, defend from 
danger. 4, Kampripai, as a de- 
fendent. 5, Da'ntripai, as advocate. 



DEL 
Defendent, n. Ka'mbroo. 
Defensive, adj. Pe'inpravo, which 

defends. 
Defensive arms, n. Pa'mbriz. 
Defer, v. Kri'ntiprost, to make late. 

2, Bre'ntivai dondoo'cu, respite. 

3, Bre'ntivai dondoo'tu, protract. 
Deference, n. Ke'mbi, respect. 
Defy, V. Fe'mprivai. 

Deficient, adj. Twa'ntur. 

Defile, V. Dra'ntiki'ost, make impure. 

2, E'mpivrost, make vicious. 3, 
Dre'mpifrost, make imcbaste. 

Define, v. Ti'ntlnal. 2, Ba'mprlfai, 

sentence. 
Definite, adj. Vo'nti, bomided. 2, 

Gi'nti, express. 
Definition, n. Ti'nda. 
Definitive, adj. Gi'nti, express. 2, 

De'ntuvo, linlshhig. 
Deflower, v. Fa'ntiinal. 2, Ump'on- 

sifai, to im virgin. 
Defluxion, n. Vl'nzls, distillation. 2, 

Ku'mba, catarrh. 
Deformity, n. Vro'mbi. 
Defray, v. Be'ntinai, disburse. 2, 

Ge'ntlnai, to pay. 
Defraud, v. Ka'nti-Inal. 
Defunct, adj. Drou'nsupo, having 

died. 2, Dra'nsupi, being dead: — 

a state. 
Degenerate, adj. Bepone'sm*, imlUie 

ancestor. 2, Kro'nti, spurious. 
Degrade, v. Ga'ntrisai. 
Degree, n. Go'ndls. 
Degree, (of person), n. O'nch-oo, 

rank. 
Degree, (of University), n. Ko'n- 

tru'tis. 
Dehort, v. Tro'nsikai, dissuade. 
Deject, or dejected, adj. Ko'nsuko, 

gi-ieving. 2, Fra'mpm-, afflicted. 

3, Gro'nsuko, despairing. 
Deify, v. U'ntikrost, to cause to be 

a God. 
Deign, v. Fe'mpisai, to condescend. 
Deity, u. Unde'rit. 
Delay, (see defer.) 
Delectation, n. Do'nza. 
Delegate, n. Vrontai'rg, substitute. 

2, Kentusoo'ro, sent person. 3, 

Vontrunoo'ro, authorised person. 
Deliberate, v. Po'nsitai. 
Deliberuteness, n. Pa'mba. 2, Tro'm- 

bi, slowness. 
Delicate, adj. Gado'nslnai, apt to 

delight. 2, E'nsou. 3, Dro'mpa, 

tender. 4, Yre'mpou, over neat. 
Delicacies, n. Ensou'riz. 
Delicious, adj. Bedo'nsuno. 2, Be- 

ta'mpou. 
Delight, n. Do'nza. 
Delineate, v. Pe'ntipai, to line. 2, 

Ti'ntlnai, describe, specially by 

lines. 
Delinquent, adj. Va'mprou. 2, Tain- 

broo, prisoner. 
Delirium, n. Fro'mbol. 2, Pumba. 

frenzv. 



D E P 

Deliver, v. Te'ntinai, to pass the 
possession. 2, Po'mprikai, to de- 
posit. 3, Ge'ntlnai, to pay. 4, 
Tre'ntipai, disclaim. 5, Ti'ntikai, 
to narrate. 6, Pa'usitai, to speak. 
7, Da'nsitai, wi-Ite. 8, Pu'mprisai, 
by tradition. 9, Bro'nslpai, by 
God. 10, Pe'ntmai, yield. 11, 
Twe'mpinai, betray. 12, Bo'nsipai, 
deliver from evil. 13, Umve'm- 
prlfai, imcaptivate. 14, Uuto'm- 
prlpai, or vai, to imslave. 15, 
Unka'ntrlsai, unimprison. 16, 
I Ta'nslprast, to be put to bed. 17, 

Do'nsipai. 

Delve, V. Pi'nsltai, to dig. 

Delude, V. Ka'ntiiuai, deceive. 

Deluge, v. Zusdi'nsinai, to ovei"flow. 

Delusion, n. Kantnmo'ri. 

Demand, v. PI'ntisai, demand to 
know. 2, Fre'ntinai, demand to 
have. 3, Fo'mprisai, to demand 
the price. 

Demean, n. Pra'nzoo, manner. 

Demean, v. A'nsikai. 

Demeanor, n. A'i:izi. 

Demerit, n. Vonda'rit. 

Demigod, n. Pezu'ndi, diminutive of 
God. 

Demise, n. Bo'ndri. 

Democracy, n. Pondroo'rit bondi'oo'tl. 

Demolish, v. Ea'nsifai, rum. 

Demon, n. I'nzoo. 2, Fri'nzoo, devil. 

Demoniac, adj. Ra'nsupoo frinzoo'tiz. 

Demonstrate, v. Ge'ntlpai, shew. 2, 
Yo'nsifrost vinde'ti, make sure by 
argimient. 

Demur, V. Tro'nsinai. 2, Trono'nsi- 
Hai, to demand more time before 
answering. 

Demure, adj. Ye'mpa, gi'ave. 2, 
Yre'mpa, formal. 

Den, n. Preno'ndis, vmdergroimd 
cavity. 2, Pinja'tus, lion's house. 
3, Pinja'dus, lion's room. 

Deny, v. Fri'ntisai. 

Denial, (self), n. Ta'mbi. 

Denizen, n. To'ncb'oo. 
] Denominate, v. Kontipai. 

Denote, v. Ri'ntifai, to mean. 

Denounce, v. Ba'ntikai, publish. 2, 
Yro'nsikai, to threaten. 

Density, n. Tri'mbi. 

Dent, u. Tre'nda. 

Dentex, n. Bra'nji. 

Dentifrice, n. U dantuko'ri I'di kra'n- 
doz, specially a powder. 

Deodand, n. U kentunoo'ri Unde'nu. 

Depart, v. Pre'ntisai. 2, Nis prenti- 
sai. 3, Dra'nsipai, to die. 

Dependent, adj. Tra'nta. 2, Bro'nsi. 

Deplorable, adj. Gakro'nsuko, apt to 
grieve. 2, Bepra'mpur. 

Deplore, v. Bekro'nsikal de. 2, 
Ge'ntipai bekro'nzi de. 

Depopulate, v. Umbo'ntripai, un- 
people. 

Deportation, n. Ba'ndris, exile. 

Deportment, n. A'nzi, demeanor. 



D E S 

Depose, v. Trispe'ntlpai. 2, Fu'mpri- 
kal, deprive. 3, Ga'ntrisai, de- 
grading. 4, Ga'mprisal, to inca- 
pacitate. 5, Ko'ntrisai pondroo'cu, 
swear before a magistrate. 

Deposit, V. Po'mprikai. 

Deprave, v. Fro'ntivTost, make bad. 

Deprecate, v. Trousikai. 

Depreciate, v. YIl u'utimost. 

Depression, v. Pri'nsipai, forcing 
down. 

Deprive, v. Tro'ntikai, to deprive. 
2, Umbe'ntipai, to impossess. 3, 
Bu'ntrikai, deprive of orders. 

Depth, n. Ta'ndoi. 

Depuration, n. Da'ntlkrost. 2, Ta'n- 
tisai, scum. 3, Tra'ntisai. 

Deputy, n. Yrontai'ro, substitute 
person. 

Dereliction, Fre'ndoi. 2, Bro'nzoo. 

Deride, v. Ta'mprinai, to mock. 

Derision, n. Ta'mbra, mockery. 

Derive, v. Praiitinai. 

Derogate, v. Niske'ntipai, take from. 
2, Dwa'ntipai, diminish. 3, Ni.s- 
ke'utipai kamboi'ui. 4, Nlske'nti- 
nai, gonze'ni. 

Descant, v. Bri'ntikai, paraphi'ase. 

Descend, v. Tris pre'ntisai. 

Descendent, n. Pro'nzoo. 

Descent, n. Tris pre'ndiso. 

Descent, n. Pronzoo'iit, the essence 
of descendent. 

Descent, n. Pronsu'rfis, exti-action. 

Descry, v. Tyapo'mpital, begin to 
see. 2, Dre'ntipai pombo'ti, to 
find by sight, specially fi-om afar 

Describe, v. Trintinai. 

Desert, n. Yo'utari, worthy thing. 

2, Vonda'rit. 3, Yontrukoo'ri, 
earned thing. 

Desert, n. La'nzoo. 2, Rancsupoo'kis, 

3, Karane'supoori, miinliabitable. 
Desert, n. Pre'nzoi, banquet. 
Desert, v. Bro'nslpai. 

Deserve, v. Yo'ntini, to be worthy. 

2, Yo'nti-Ikai, earn. 
Designing, n. Pe'ndo, internal. 2, 

To'nsmai, appoint, external. 
Desire, n. Bo'uzi. 2, To'nsikai, en- 
treat. 
Desist, V. Yro'nsmal. 
Desk, n. Tano'nzis, a jugament for 

supporting a book. 2, Fe'nzi jus- 

dansitai, a box to write upon. 
Desolate, adj. Befro'nsa, solitary. 2, 

Eane'supoo. 3, Bekro'nsu, much 

grieved. 
Despair, n. Gro'nzi. 2, Bra'mbl. 
Desperate, adj. Begro'nsu. 2, Be- 

bra'mpu. 
Desperation, n. Gro'nzi, affection. 

2, Bra'mbi, despair. 
Despicable, adj. Gagro'nsufoo, apt 

to be despised. 2, Kla'ntur, poor, 

sorry, &c. 
Des^nse, v. Gro'nsifai. 
Despiondency, n. Tago'nzi. 2, Pc- 

go'nzi, a degree of despair. 



D E V 

Des]nte, n. Gro'nzoi, contempt. 2, 
Kre'mboo, malignity. 3, Kren- 
o'mboo, done (thing) to excite 
anger. 4, Pa'mbra, affront. 

Destine, v. To'nsinai, purpose. 2, 
Fro'nsipai, to fix the fate. 

Destiny, n. Fro'nzoo, fate. 

Destroy, v. Kro'nsipai. 

Destitute, adj. Bre'ntur, wanting. 2, 
Fla'ntur deficient. 3, Bro'nsur, in 
a state of abandonment. 

Destroy, v. Kro'nsipai. 

Destruction, n. Kro'nzoo. 2, Twe'n- 
doo. 

Disuetude, n. Unto'mpruuoo, un- 
customed. 

Detect, V. Fro'nslfai, discover. 2, 
Unge'ntipai, unconceal. 3, Un- 
te'ntipai, unmanifest. 

Detain, v. Ve'ntipai, hold. 2, Ta'm- 
prinai, illegally to hold. 3, E'nti- 
grast. 

Determine, v. De'ntivai, finish. 2, 
Vro'nsinai, desist. 3, Gro'nsinai, 
determine the liberty of the 
will. 4, To'nsinai, to do it one's 
self. 5, by another, Ba'mprifai, 
sentence. 

Deter, v. Bro'nsisai. 

Detest, V. Betro'nsikai. 2, Bepro'n- 
sikai, loath. 3, Bebro'nsikai, 
to feel great antipathy. 

Detract,^. Dauo'ntrinai, slander, filch 
reputation. 2, Ple'mpinai, to un- 
der speak of another's reputation. 
3, Da'ntrlnai, caliunniate. 

Detriment, n. Fre'ndi, loss. 2, 
Dwa'ndoo, decrease. 

Devastation, n. Kro'nzoo, destruc- 
tion. 2, Twe'ndoo, marring. 3, 
Tre'ndoi, spoiling. 

Devest, v. Une'nsinai, unclothe. 

Deviate, v. Tre'ntisai, wander. 2, 
Ge'ntivai, err. 

Devil, a. Fri'nzoo. 

DeviVs bit, n. Tra'nvinoi. 

DeviVs milk, n. Fe'mvi. 

Devilish, adj. Fri'nsur. 

Devise, v. Fro'nsitai. 2, Do'nsitai, 
contrive. 

Devise, (by will), v. Fo'ntrikai, be- 
queath. 

Devise, v. Tre'ntipai, seem. 2, 
Kra'mpinai, to play the hypocrite. 
3, Kra'ntinai, forge. 

Device, n. Flampai'ri. 2, Te'n- 
droo, stratagem. 3, Po'ndoidwis, 
aggregate of flowers, posey. 

Devoir, u. Ke'ndo. 2, Tronta'ri, 
duty. 

Devolve, v. Brino'nsipai, successively 
to roll from one to another. 2, 
Ena'ntisai, successively to pass 
from one to another. 
Devoted, adj. Pu'mprvmoo. 2, Pu'n- 
trukoo, consecrated. 3, Po'nsus or 
po'nsai. 
Devotion, Pazu'ndra, habitual wor- 
ship. 2, Po'nzis. 
G 



DIG 

Devour, v. Bro'mpinai. 2, Fle'mpi- 
fai, gluttonize. 3, A'ndus pra'n- 
sifai. 
Devout, adj. Pazu'ntra. 
Dew, n. Tru'nzo. 
Dew-grass, n. Tro'mvo. 
Dewlap, n. Vane'ndoi. 
Dexterity, n. Go'mbi. 2, Teta'mbis, 

perfect skill. 
Die, V. Dra'nsipai. 3, Tri'nsikai, to 

colour by dying. 
Die, (a), n. U prensuko'tus, a dicing 

instrument. 
Diabetes, n. Twu'mbis. 
Diabolical, adj. Fri'nsur. 
Diadem, n. Fono'ndroo, crown. 
Diagonal, n. Te'ndoi. 
Diagram, n. U re'ndo fendoo'tuz, a 

figure of lines. 2, Gre'nzis fcn- 

dootuz. 
Dial, n. Frino'mboo. 
Dialect, n. Rinde'vis, language 

manner. 
Dialogue, n. Do'ntus i'ndi, alternate 

discourse. 2, Do'ntus dra'nzi, 

alternate conference. 
Diameter, n. Be'ndoi. 
Diamond, n. Pu'nja. 2, Pre'ndi, 

square. 3, Preno'ndi, square not 

of right angles. 
Diaper, n. Ke'nza, linen. 
Diaphanous, adj. Ki'mpur, trans- 
parent. 
Diaphoretic, v. Pi'mpimost, sweeten. 
Diaphragm, n. Ta'ndis. 
Diary, n. Twitl'ndi bundai'tuz, se- 
gregate naiTative of days. 
Diarrhea, n. Vu'mbis. 
Dibble, n. Vrinsi'tus. 
DvMcity, n. Bre'mba, loquacity. 
Dice, n. Pre'nsutus. 2, v. Pre'nsitai, 

to play at dice. 
Dieliofomy, n. Ta'ndis moo afi'n, 

division into two. 
Dictate, V. Va'nsitai. 
Dictator, n. Ka'nta vontra'fas, chief 

authority officer. 
Dictionary, n. U dre'nzis yindoi'tuz 

u'tu ri'ndi, a book of the words 

of a language. 
Didapper, (Dab-chicle, ) n. Da'njinoi. 
Dyer, n. Trinsuko'vas, a dying-artist. 
Dyers -weed, n. Pa'nvoo. 
Diet, n. Kya'ntukoo ensu'rvis, regi;- 

lated victual manner. 2, Ba'mbrn, 

a council. 
Differ, V. O'ntivi. 
Difference, n. O'nda, relating to the 

end. 2, O'ndo, diversity. 3, 

Twe'mba, contending. 4, Pi'nda, 

distinction. .5, Vra'mba, partiality. 
Difficult, adj. Kro'utu. 
Diffident, adj. Dro'nsu. 
Diffuse, V. Fra'nsivai, to spread. 2, 

Pu'mpivrost, infect. 
Dig, V. Pi'nsitai. 
Digest, v. Bra'nsipai: (natural). 
Digest, V. Bi'nsivai: (chemical). 
Digest, V. Fa'ntikai, to arrange. 



D I S 

Dight, n. Ensxmg'ri, clothing. 

Dight, V. Va'ntikost, adorn. 

Digit, n. Tin, a'krin u'tu fu'ndoi, 

three fourths of an inch. 
Digit, n. Pin pa'frin i'tu be'ndoi frin- 

zoitu gmzoi'kwi, one twelfth of 

the diameter of the sim and moon. 
Dignify, v. Ba'mpifrost. 
Dignity, n. Vo'nda, worthiness. 2. 

Ba'mboi, high rank. 
Digression, n Tri'ndi. 
Dike, n. Dre'ndi u'nzodi, a furrow 

for water. 2, Vre'ndi, gutter. 
Dill, n. Pra'mvi, (flower.) 
Dilacerate, v. Dre'nsivai, tear. 
Dilapidate, v. Ea'nsifai, rain. 2, 

Brone'tifai krombe'ni. 
Dilate, V. Ymfa'ntifost, to widen. 2. 

Bi'ntif;ii, anrplity. 
Dilatory, adj. Pi'a'mpa. 
Dilemma, n. Vi'nonda, false on either 

positive or negative supposition. 
Diligence, n. Ba'mba. 2, Bra'mba, 

excessive diligence. 
Dilucidation, n. K'indi, interpre- 
tation. 
Dilute, V. Yilgra'ntipx'ost, to make 
• less intense. 2, Yinbli'mpikrost, 

to make more fluid, liquify. 
Dim, adj. Pepro'mpi, a little blind. 

2, Pepli'mpur, a little dark. 
Dimness, n. Pombo'des. 2, Pombo- 

pes. 3, Tri'mboo, opposite to 

brightness. 
Dimension, n. E'ndoo. 
Diminish, v. Pla'ntiprost. 2, Gla'n- 

tlprost, make less intense, .'i, 

Pla'ntivrost, make few. 4, Dwa'n- 

tlprost, dimmish. 5, Yingla'nti- 

prost. 6, YInpla'ntivrost. 
Diminutive, adj. Pla'ntur, little. 
Dimple, n. Dre'ndi, furrow. 2, Tre'n- 

da, dent. 
Din, n. BezI'mbo. great sound. 
Dine, v. Pena'usipai, to dme. 
Dinner, n. Pen'auzoo. 
Ding, v. Fe'nsival, cast. 
Dint, n. Bro'ndi, violence. 2, Gron- 

dis, impetus. 
Diocess, n. Vmnbrol'kis. 
Dip, V. Musu'nsitai, to put into 

water. 2, Jisu'nsitai, to put under 

water. 
Dipthong, n. Tri'ndoo. 
Dire, adj. Kro'mpa, fierce. 2, Breni- 

pur, cruel. 
Direct, v. Po'nsisai. 
Direct, adj. Pe'nti, straight. _. 

Gre'ntou, upright. 
Dirge, n. Pu'ndra dransupi'diroz, 

prayer for dead persons. 
Dirt, n. Fu'nza. 
Disable, v. Uno'mpikrost, to make 

iraable. 2, Ro'mpikrost, impotent. 

3, Dro'mpikrost, weaken. 4, 
Ga'mprisai, incapacitate. 

Disabuse, v. Gene'tivrost, to cause 
not to be in error. 2, Ti'ntivrost, 
to explain. 



D I S 
Disadvantage, n. Bro'udoi. 2, Fre'n- 
di. 3, Pro'nda, hurtfulness. 

Disagree, v. Tro'nsifai, dissent. 2, 
Te'lpinai, to act unpeaceably. 

Disallow, V. Tro'usitai, disapprove. 

Disannul, (a?inulj, v. Pro'nsipal, 
anniliilate. 2, Tra'ntipai, to mar. 
3, Tre'ntifai, to spoil. 

Disajrpoint, v. Unto'usLnai, unap- 
point. 2, Pre'ntikai, frustrate. 

Disapprove, v. Tro'nsitai. 

Disarm, v. Umpe'ntrikai, unann. 2, 
Umple'mprikai, to unai'mour. 

Disaster^ n. Fra'mboo. 

Disavow, V. Tro'usitai. 2, Fri'ntlsai, 
deny. 3, Tre'utipai, disclaim. 

Disband, v. (see disarm). 2, Une'n- 
trivrost, to unsoldier. 

Disbelieve^ v. Kro'nsifai. 

Disburse, v. Be'ntlnai. 

Disburden^ v. Unra'nsinai, unload. 

Discamp^ v. Umpe'ntrisai, imcamp. 

Discard, v. Umfe'nsikai, to imcard. 
2, Ga'mprisai, to incapacitate. 

Discern, v. Pono'mpitai, to see the 
difference. 2, Po'mpitai, see. 3, 
Po'mpifai, perceive. 4, O'ntimost, 
to make a difference. 

Discharge., v. Une'ntriki-ost, imload 
gun, lie. 2, Uno'ntrisai, release 
from duty. 3, To'mprinai, dis- 
charge from burden, etc. 

Disciple, n. To'nzo, learner. 

Discipline, v. To'nsitai, teach. 

Discipline, n. Be'mbis. 2, U'ndril, 
ecclesiastical discipline. 3, Vo'uzis, 
correction. 

Disclaim, v. Tre'ntipai, abdicate. 

Disclose, V. Uiigre'ntipai, unconceal. 
2, Vo'nsipai, reveal. 3, Tri'nsifai, 
uncover. 4, Kri'nsifai, open. 

Discolour, v. Dezi'mpifai. 

Discomfit, V. Ple'mpifai. 

Discomfort, n. Tro'nzis. 

Discommend,^. Gro'nsikai, dispraise. 

Discommodity, n. Dro'ndi. 2, Pro'nda. 

Disconsolate, adj. Tro'usus. 2, Be- 
kro'nsu. 

Discontent, v. Tra'nipisi, to be dis- 
content. Tame'pisi, not to be 
content. 

Discontinue, v. Di'ntifai. 2, Okai 
unto'mprunoo. 

Discontinued quantity, A'ndo. 

Discontinued, adj. Dri'ntou or di-'in- 
tufoo, here and there. 2, Di-'intur 
or dri'ntupoo, now and then. 

Discordant, adj. Vro'ntu, mcon- 
gnious. 

Discord, n. Gri'mbo, (in music.) 2, 
Tro'nzoi, dissent. 3, Te'lba. 4, 
Tw'embiuo. 

Discover, v. Tro'nsifai. 2, Ungr'en- 
tipai. 3, Vo'nsipai, reveal. 4, Ta- 
po'mpifai, Ijcgin to perceive. 5, 
Triiisifai, imcover. 6, Ge'ntipai, 
.-hew. 

Discountenance, v. Unka'mpifrost, 
to deprive of reputation. 



D I S 

Discourage, v. Fro'nsisai. 

Discourse, n. I'ndi. 2, 1'ndooz, ele- 
ments of discourse. 3, I'ndoiz, 
words. 4, I'ndoz, grammatical 
parts of discourse. 5, 1'ndaz, logi- 
cal parts of discourse. 6, 1'ndils, 
grammatical and logical parts of 
discom'se. 7, I'ndaiz, modes of 
discom-se. 

Discourtesy, n. Dre'mba. 2, Kre'm- 
boo. 

Discredit, v. Kro'nsifai, disbelieve. 

2, Va'ntrisai, mfamize. 
Discreet, adj. Fa'mpus. 2, Ve'mpa, 

grave. 3, Ta'mpi, sober minded. 
Discrepant, adj. O'nta, different. 2, 

Vro'ntu, mcongruous. 
Discretion, n. Fa'mbis. 2, Ve'mba. 

3, Ta'mbo. 

Discretion, n. Fana'mbis, the being 

at the will of any one; as, "at 

his discretion." 
Discriminate, v. Pi'ntinai, distm- 

guish. 
Discuss, V. Bri'nsifai, scatter. 2, 

Fo'nsifai, enquire, examine. 3, 

Nistre'nsivai, to shake off. 
Disdain, v. Bro'nsivai. 
Disease, n. U'mbi. 
Disease, v. U'mpikrost. 2, n. Tr'ombi, 

pain. 3, Tre'ndi. 
Disengage, v. Uno'ntrisai, release 

from obligation. 2, Untri'nsifai, 

to disentangle. 
Disentangle, v. (see disengage). 
Discsteem, v, Tego'nsifai. 
Disfavor, n. Umfo'nzi. 
Disfigure, v. Teze'ntitai. 2,Vro'm- 

pikrost. 
Disfranchise, v. Undo'mprmai, to 

imprivilege. 
Disgorge, v. Tc'nsinai. 
Disgrace, v. Va'ntrisai. 2, Ga'ntrisai, 

degrade. 
Disguise, v. Tre'ntiprast, cause to 

seem. 
Disgust, V. Kano'ntigrost, to cause 

sickness or loathing in the stomach. 
Dish, n. Ke'nzi. 
Dish-clout, n. Enza'ri dandi-iko'di 

ke'nziz, a cloth for cleansing 

dishes. 
Dish-washer, n. Gra'njo. 
Dishearten, v. Fro'nsinai. 
Disheveled, a,Ay Fra'ntukoo; (applied 

to hair). 
Dishonest, adj. Re'mpur. 2, Dre'm- 

pou, unchaste. 
Dishonor, n. Va'ndi"is, infamation. 

2, Kre'mbi, disrespect- 
Disembark, v. Umfi'ntripai, to un- 
ship. 2, Pre'ntisai findroo'mi. 3, 

Ke'ntipai findi-oo'mi. 
Disenchant, v. Umpa'ntrivai, to un- 

witchcraft. 
Disingenuity, n. Pro'mba. 
Disinherit, v. Urafro'mprikai, to 

uninherit. 
Disjoin, V. Umpc'ntifai. 2, Pre'utifai. 



D I S 
Disjoint, V. Unra'ntikai, unjoint. 
Disjunctive, adj. Pre'ntou, whiil 



Dislike, v. Tro'nsitai, disapprove. 

2, Bro'nsinai, to feel antipathy. 
Dislocate, V. Uni'ntifai, to implace. 

2, Dczimi'utifai, to unplace as 

ought not to be. 
Dislodge, v. Qnrano'ngipai, 
Disloyal, adj. Vre'mpu. 
Dismay, v. Vro'nsikrast, cause to 

fear. 
Dismal, adj. Befra'mpur. 
Dismantle, v. Une'ntrisai. 
Dismember, v. Pre'ntifai a'ndi a'ndo- 

ni. 2, Vre'nsivai, tear. 
Dismiss, v. Niske'ntisai, send from. 

2, Pre'ntinai nispre'ntisai, permit 

to depart. 
Dismount, v. Unde'nsifai, to unrido. 
Disobedience, n. Dre'mbi. 
Disobey, v. Dre'mpikai. 
Disoblige, v. Pa'mprinai, jiffront. 2, 

Umpo'nsinai, to act unfriendly. 
Disorder, n. Fra'ndi. 2, Unda'ntivai, 

to unseries ; to throw the series 

out of its proper order. 3, Kra'n- 

di, u-regularness. 
Disown, V. Tre'ntipai, disclaim, ab- 
dicate. 
Disparage, v. Va'ntrisai, infamize. 

2, Da'ntrinai, calumniate. 
Disparity, n. Ba'ldoo, inequality. 
Dispark, v. Umbra'nsipai, unpark. 
Dispatch, v. De'ntivai, finish. 2, 

lede'ntivai, peifectly to finish. 3. 

Be'ntivai, hasten. 4, Ve'ntivai, 

pei-form. 5, Dra'nsiprast, kill, (i, 

Kro'nsipai, destroy. 
Diqjcnse, v. Ke'ntinai, give. 2, 

Ru'ndu ke'ntinai. 3, Eu'ntikai, 

to proportion. 
Dispense, v. Go'ntrinai. 2, Go'm- 

prinai, to license. 
Dispensatory, n. Dre'nzis twondroi'- 

tuz. 
Dispeople, v. Umbo'ntripai, to un- 
people. 
Disperse, v. Bri'nsifai, to scatter. 
Disjilace, v. Uni'ntifai. 
Display, V. Unbi'nsikai, unfold. 2, 

Kri'nsifai, to open. 
Disjjlant, v. Umvi'nsitai, miplant. 

2, Nise'nsikai. 
Disijlease, v. Dro'nsinai. 
Displeasure, n. Pa'mbra, affront. 2, 

Pe'ndi-ipoo, the behig offended. 
Dispose, V. Fa'ntivai, to put in order. 

2, Ka'ntivai, to regulate. 3, Ke'n- 
tinai, give. 4, Po'nsinai, incline. 
Dis2)ossess, v. Una'nsiprast, to cause 

to impossess. 
Dispraise, v. Gro'nsikai. 
Disproportion, v. Deru'nf^ikai. 2, 

Ba'ldoo. 
Disprove, v. Bisvi'ntisai. 2, Di'nti- 

sai, confute. 
Disquiet, v. Tra'mbi. 2, Tre'ndi, 

trouble. 



D I S 
Dispute^ V. Vi'ntinai. 
Disquisition, i\. Befo'nzoi, elaborate 

examination. 
Disregard, v. Gone'sifai, not to 



Disrespect, n. Kre'mbi. 

Dissatisfy, v. Bon'esitai, not to 
satisfy. 2, Bro'nsitrest, cause to 
be dissatisfied. 

Dissect, V. Dcno'nsivai, to dissect 
animal bodies as a surgeon. 2, 
Prentifai denzai'ti or denzi'sti. '6, 
Twide'nsitai. 

Disseize, v. Una'ngikrest, cause to 
be unpossessed. 

Dissemble, v. Gre'ntipai, conceal. 2, 
Kra'mpinai, act hypocritically. 

Dissention, n. Twe'mba. 

Dissenting, n. Tro'nzoi. 

Dissertation, n. U vi'nta dre'nzia, 
argumentative book. 

Disservice, n. Dedro'nsitai, to serve 
improperly. 2, Pa'mprinai. 3, 
Pro'ntinaijimrt. 

Dissever, v. Pre'ntifai, separate. 2, 
Va'ntivai, to segregate. 

Dissimilar, adj. Pra'ntu, unlike. 

Dissimulation, n. Tra'mba. 

Dissipate, v. Bri'nsifai, scatter. 

Dissolve, v. Vli'mpisai, to loosen. 2, 
Bli'mpikai, to tiuidize. 3, Fi'nsi- 
vai, to melt. 4, Pre'ntifai, to sepa- 
rate. 5, Uno'ntrivai, unconvene; 
(a meeting.) 

Dissolute, adj. Pla'mpa, careless. 2, 
Pre'mpou, sensual. 

Dissonance, adj. Fri'mbo, jamng. 2, 
Dri'mbo, hoarseness, harshness. 
3, Gri'mbo, discord. 

Dissuade, v. Fro'nsikai. 

Dissyllable, n. Wi'ndoi tw a'fin ti'n- 
dooz. 

Distance, n. Fri'ndoo, distance of 
time. 2, Fri'ndoi, distance of 
place. 

Distaste, n. Deti'mba. 2, Bro'nza, 
aversion. 

Distemper, n. Kn'mboo. 2, Dezo'mba. 

Distention, n. Fa'nzis, stretching. 

Distich, n. U va'ndo tw afin fi'ndoz. 

Distillation, n. Vi'nzis. 

Distinct, adj. Tepi'ntunoo. 2, Pre'n- 
tufoo, separated. 3, Ti'nti, plain. 

Distinction, n. Pi'nda. 

Distinguish, v. Pi'ntinai. 2, Pre'n- 
tifai'. 

Distortion, n. Pi'nzi. 2, Dezi'ntifai, 
place wrong. 3, Vro'mpikai, dis- 
figure. 

Distract, v. Kino'nsipai, to pull in 
opposite directions. 2, Kri'nsi- 
mast, make to waver. 

Distribute, v. Twike'ntinai, give 
separately. 2, Twite'ntiuai. 3, 
Ta'ntisai, divide. 4, Kri'ntinai, 
division of discourse. 5. Twizo'l- 
tipai, to classify into kinds. 6, 
Twiza'ntisai, to divide into parts. 
7, Va'ntivai, to segregate. 



DOC 
Distrain, v. Pa'mpnfai, to an-est. 2, 

specially goods. 
Distress, n. Fra'mboo, adversity. 2, 

Betre'ndi, trouble. 3, Pa'nibroi, 

attaching goods. 4, E'nzis pa'm- 

prufoo, goods attached. 
District, n. Ei'nzo, region. 2, O'ndri, 

government. 
Distrust, n. Kro'nzo. 2, Dro'nzi, 

diffidence. 
Disturb, v. Tre'ntikai. 2, Bro'ntifai, 

impede. 
Disunite, v. Umpe'ntifai, unjoin. 2, 

Pre'ntifai, separate. 
Z^wiwe, V Unto'mprinai, tounciistom. 

2, Dri'ntifai i ve'ndi. 3, Dri'nsifai 

u to'mbra. 
Ditch, n. Dre'ndi, furrow. Vre'ndi, 

gutter. 
Dittany, n. Va'mvinoo. 
Dittany, (bastard), n. Pre'mvoo, 

fraxinella. 
Ditty, n. U komprou'ri ba'nsitoi. 
Divaricate, v. Tre'nsifrast, cause to 

straddle. 2, Pre'ntifai. 
Dive, V. Tre'nsipai. 
Diver, n. Ga'njino. 
Diverging, n. IDre'ndoi. 
Diverse, adj. O'nti, various. 2, Pa'n- 

tifis, manifold. 3, Pra'ntu unlike. 
Diversify, v. O'ntivrost, make dif- 
ferent. 
Divert, V. Fre'ntigrost, cause to 

turn. 2, Gri'ntikai, digress. 3, 

E'nsikai, to sport, divert one's self. 
Diversity, n. O'ndo. 
Divide, v. Ta'ntisai. 
Dividend, n. Ta'ntusoori, divided 

thing. 
Divine, adj. U'ntu, adjective of God. 
Divine, (a) U pontrou'ro. 2, U 

po'ndroi. 
Divine, (to) v. Pa'rapritai, to wizard. 

2, Do'nslfai, to conjecture. 
Divinity, n. Unde'rit, essence of 

God. 2, Pontou'bras, the science 

of religion. 
Division, u. Ki'nda, exact classifica- 
tion. 2, Kri'uda, more imperfect 

classification ; description. 
Division, v. Ra'ntisai, to divide into 

parts. 2. Va'ntivai, to segregate. 
Division, n. IJno'mbro, division into 

parties. 2, Dwembi'uiost. 
Division, n. Pre'udoi, division into 

places. 2, Tri'ntifrost, separate 

by distance. 
Divide, V. Ta'ntisai, in arithmetic. 
Divisor, n. Ta'ndis. 
Divorce, v. Vu'mprinai. 
Diuretic, adj. Ge'nsuiuast, causing 

to urine. 
Diurnal, adj. Bu'ntus or bu'ntai. 
Divulge, v. Ba'ntikrost, make public. 
Dizzy, adj, Bu'mpa, giddy. 
Do, V. Pi'ntipai. 
Doe, n. Ki'njifun, female deer. 
Docile, adj. Gatro'nsitai, apt to learn. 

2, Pa'mpi, sagacious. 



DON 

Dock, n. Tre'nda, dent. 2, Peki'nza> 
small haven for ships. 3, Ino'n- 
droo, place for building sea vessels. 
4, Vro'ndis, tail. 

Doch, V. Umvro'ntisai, untail. 2, 
Pra'ntifrost, make short. 3, Yin- 
pra'ntifrost, make shorter. 

Dock, n. Pra'mvoo. 2 Fo'mvis, gi-eat 
burdock. Fro'mvis, little burdock. 

Docket, n. Pe'dansutoo"ri, a small 
written thing. 2, Pe'dansutoo"ri 
kra'nta. 

Doctor, n. Kono'ndroo, highest 
graduate. 

Doctrine, n. Tyo'nsutoo"ri, the 
taught thing. 

Document, n. U da'nsutoo vintuso'ri. 
2, U da'nsutoo po'nsuso"ri, a 
written directing thing. 3, U 
di'nsutoo"ri pro'nsitoi, a written 
thing to be observed. 

Dodder, n, Da'nvinoo. 

Dodge, v. Dra'mpinai, to waver, act 
misteadily. 

Doings, n. Do'ndooz. 2, Fe'ndoz, 
preparations. 

Dog,n. Pi'nji. 

Dogs -banc, n. Ke'nva. 

Dog-berry, n. Ki'mvoi. 

Dogs'-grass, n. Bro'mvo. 

Dog s-tongue, n. Kro'mvino. 

Dog's-tooth, n. Fo'mvi. 

Dog, V. Ve'ntisai bra'ndu, follow 
privately. 

Dog-fish, (greater,) n. Va'njoo. 2, 
(the lesser) Vra'njoo. 

Dog-star, n. (a proper name). 

Dog-days, n. Byu'ndaiz gyoo'su 
Sire'us frino'ntlfai frina'ntifai''kwi 
frinzoi'pu, the days when Syrius 
rises and sets with the sim. 

Dogged, adj. Pre'nti, perverse. 2, 
Dwe'mpa. 3, Pro'mpa, disingen- 
uous. 

Doggrel, adj. Kla'ntur, sorry, bad. 

Dole, n. Bc'raputoo"ri, thing given 
as alms. 

Doleful, adj. Bckro'nsu, greatly 
grievous. 

Dolor, n. Kro'nzi, grief 2, Tro'mbi, 
pain. 

Dolphin, n. Pra'njoo. 

Dolt, n. Pra'mjiiro, dull person. 

Domestic, adj. Pa'nsou, adj. of house. 
2, O'nsu, relating to a family, 3, 
Bro'nzo, subordmate member ot 
the family. 

Domineer, v. Fre'mpisai, to act inso- 
lently. 

Dominion, n. Ka'mboi, 2, Vo'ndi-a, 
authority. 

Donation, n. Ke'nda, the act of 
giving. 

Donative, n. Kwentunoo"ri, a given 
thing. 

Done, part. PI'ntupoo. 2, Ve'ntuvoo, 
performed. 3, De'ntuvoo, finished. 

Donor, n. Kai'ntuno'ro, the having 
given person. 



D E A 

Dogmatical, adj. Kla'mpi. 

Doom, V. Pa'ntripai, to adjudge, 

adjudicate. 2, Da'mprifai, to 

sentence. 
Door^ n. Fa'nza. 
Door-keeper, u. Ye'ndi-o fanza'su, 

guard at the door. 
Dor-beetle., n. Ba'nji. 
Dormant^ adj. Tra'nsou. 2, Done'- 

tupo, not acting as dormant 

partner. 3,Gene'tupoo,not shewn. 

4, Bra'nzo, a sleeper or beam. 
Dormoiise, n. Di'ljoi, sleeping mouse. 
Dor2/, n. Ta'mija. 
Dorychnium, n. Tri'mva. 
Dose, n. Ru'ndi twondi'oi'tu. 
Dotage, n. Fro'mboi. 
Dotard, n. Fro'mpufo'ro, doting 

person. 
Dote, V. Fro'mpifai, to dote. 
Dotterel, n. Ta'njinoo. 
Double, adj. A'frit, midtiplied by 2: 

see Table; a'rtrit, a'krit, a'brit, (fee. 
Double-leaved, adj. On wa'frit bro'n- 

doi, having a double leaf. 
Double tongue, \^ . \ 
Double heart, ) ^ -' 

Doublet, n. U Kra'mpa u'nji, a coun- 
terfeit gem. 
Doubt, n. Bro'nzoi. 
Doidjtful, adj. Gabro'nsifoi, apt to 

be doubted. 
Doubtless, adj. Vo'nsou, certain. 
Dove,n. Pe'njo. 2, Pre'njo, ringdove. 

3, Fe'njo, stock dove. 
Doughty, adj. De'mpur. 
Dozen, n. Pafi'ndwis, aggregate of 

twelve. 
Dowager, n. Bo'nzifim, widow. 
Dough, n. Untr'ensutoo fe'nzoo. 
Dower, n. Ko'nzifuns ra'nzis, wife's 

revenue. 
Down, adj. Tris, downward. 2, v. 

Brindo'spu, towards the underside. 

3, Drindo'spu, towards the bottom. 

4, Trispri'nsipai, to bear down. 

5, Trisve'nsivai, to break down. 

6, Trispre'ntisai, to go down. 7, 
Triski'nsipai, to pull down. 8, 
Trisba'nsivai, to set dowm. 9, 
Trisfa'ntitai, to look Aovm. 10, 
Trisva'mprifai, to look guilty. 

Downright, adj. Ka'mpa, sincere. 
Down, Ba'nzoo kantouju anzoo, 

pasture on high land. 
Dmcn, n. To'mvoo pontai'twi, moss 

or ban-. 
Dowry, n. Ko'nzifuns a'nziz, the 

wife's possessions. 
Doxy, n. Fa'ntrunim, fornication 

female. 
Doxology, n. Twa'nti pri'ndo gonze'- 

tu Undc'nu, a particular sentence 

of praise to God. 
Drah, n. U ra'mpudes. 2, U drem- 

pou'des. 
Draco volans, n. Ku'nzoo, beam. 
Dracunculns, n. Gra'njo. 
Dray, n. U fratzi, a cart. 



DRY 

Draff, n. Pra'ndis, worst part. 2, 

E'nzoo ginjoi'diz or ginjoidifis, 

3, Dantuko'ri. 
Drag, v. Ki'nsipai. 
Drag-net, n. Grano'nzis, net ; an 

instrument for catching fish, fowls, 

or wild beasts, made of twine or 

thi-ead, &c. 
Draggle, v. Kmo'nsipai, to become 

wet or dirted by being drawn in 

the mire. 
Draggletail, n. ^^empou'des, slut or 

sluttish female. 
Dragonfly, n. Do'nja. 
Dragon tree, n. Giii'mvo. 
Dragon-wort, n. To'mvi. 
Dragon, (Snap-dragon), n. Ve'm- 

vinoi. 
Dragon, (Fire-dragon), n. Ku'nzoo. 
Drain, n. U vi-e'ndi unzo'di, a gutter 

for water. 2, U di-e'ndi unzo'di, a 

furrow for water. 
Drain, v. Unu'nsitai a'nzoo, to un- 

water land; that is, carry it away. 
Dral-e, n. Frenji'nitur, the male 

duck. 2, Frenji"nitun, the female 

duck. 
Drake, (Fire-drake), n. Ku'nzoo, 

beam. 
Dram, n. Pu'nda. 

Drajxr, n. Enza'das, cloth merchant. 
Draught, n. Ki'nzoo, the act of 

drawing. 2, Ki'usupoo"ri, the thing 

di-a-(vn. 3, To'ndoi, a precedent, 

(mental). 4, Tro'ndoi, a pattern, 

(material). 5, Ge'nzis, picture. 
Draught, (shijis), n. Ira'ndoi fin- 

di-oo'tu vmzojl, depth of ship under 

water. 
Draughts, u. Tre'nzi, game of 

di'aughts. 
Draw, V. E'nsikai, to move. 2, E'n- 

o'nsikai, to move towards the 

mover. 3, Twase'nsikai, to eu- 

deavom' to move towards the 

mover. 
Drawer, n. Enonsuk(2"ro. 
Drawer, d. U fe'nzi miski'nsipoi 

mus krinsipoikwi. 
Drawers, n. Vi'uti ka'ntufuz. 
Dread, n. Vro'nzi. 2, Bevro'nzi. 
Dream, n. Kla'nzoi. 
Dream, v. Ki'a'nsifai. 
Dreaminess, n. Pra'mbo, dulness. 2, 

Bla'mba, sloth. 
Dregs, n. Pra'ndis, worst part. 2, 

Tra'ndis, sediment. 
Drench, n. Two'ntrou fra'nsufoo"ri. 

medicinal drunk thing. 
Drench, (to), v. Fra'nsifrost ginzi- 

foti tande'mu, to cause to ch-iuk 

by pom-iug into the mouth. 
Dress, v. E'nsitai e'nzoo. 2, Pe'nsi- 

tai, to slaughter. 3, Pre'nsitai, to 

cook. 
Dresser, n. Pre'nsuto"ros ka'nzai, 

the cook's preparing table. 
Dry, adj. Fli'mpu, dry. 2, Fa'nsou, 

thirsty. 3, Kle'mpa, reserved. 



DUG 

Dry Jest, n. Gre'ntupoo te'mba, con- 
cealed urbanity. 
Driblet, n. Pcdi'a'ndis, small sum. 2, 

Pera'ndis, a small part. 
Drift, n. Breutusoo'ri, the driven 

thing. 
Drift ofsnoio, n. Bwi'nzoi krunzo'tu 

tyel ku'nsufoo, a heap of snow 

blown together. 
Drill, v. Ti'nsinai, to bore. 
Drill, n. U tri'nsimotus. 
Drill, n. Pi'njo, baboon. 
Drink, n. I fra'nsufoo"ri, the dnmk 

thing. 
Drinking, n. Fi-a'uzoi. 
Drip, V. Pu'nsitai, to di'op. 
Drive, V. Bre'ntisai. 2, Nisbre'ntisai, 

di-ive from. 3, Fle'mpifrast, make 

retreat. 
Drive, v. To'nsinai, force, co-act. 2, 

Bre'ntivai, drive oflf, protract. 3, 

Brinsifai, scatter. 
Drivel, V. Kle'usinai, to allow the 

saliva to escape out of the mouth. 
Drizzle, n. Pepu'nzoz tunzo'tu, 

drops of rain. 
Droll, V. Te'mpa, urbane. 
Dromedary, n Ti'njoo. 
Drone, n. ]?ronja'tes. male bee. 2, 

Blampa'ro, an idle person. 
Droop, V. Kro'mpikai, decay. 2, 

Tafro'nsisoi, to begin to be dis- 

com-aged. 
Drop, n. Pu'nzo. 
Dropsy, n. Tu'mvis or tu'mvai. 
Drop-wort, n. Dra'mvi. 2, Ka'nvi, 

water di-op-wort. 
Dross, n. Pra'ndis, worst part. 2, 

Prano'ndis, specially worst part 

of metal. 
Drove, n. PInjoi'dwis bre'ntusoo, an 

aggregate of di-iven cattle. 
Drover, n. Bre'ntuso"ro pinjoi'tuz. 
Drouth, n. Fli'mbi, dryness. 2, Flin- 

o'mbi, specially dryness of the 

weather. 
Drown, v. Da'ncinai. 2, Ti'nsifai 

vmzo'ti, cover with water. 
Drowsiness, n. Ta'nzoi. 
Drudge, n. Bezi'nsuko'ro, a very 

hard working person. 2, Bezi'n- 

suko di-o'nzo. 
Drug, n. Rinsai'ri, apothecary thing. 

2, U kla'nturik, a sorry thing. 3, 

Eino'nzai, unprepared drugs. 
Druggist, n. Bwo'ndi'oi rinsai'timz, 

merchant of di-ugs. 
Drug merchant, n. lii'nonzai"das. 
Drum, n. Tentri'tus. 
Drum of the ear, n. Bite'ntri'tus. 
Drununer, n. Te'ndro. 
Drunk, adj. Twe'mpou. 
Drunkard, n. Twempou'ro. 
Drunkenness, n. Twemboi. 
Due, adj. To'nta. 
Dub, V. Krc'nsivai, to knock. 2, 

Kre'nsivai tanondeti. 
Dubious, adj. Bro'nsou, doubtful. 
Duchy, n. To'nontru''rkis. 



D U L 

Duchess, n. Touo'ndi-ipun, female 

duke. 
Buck, n. Fra'njino, male or female. 

2, Frenji'uitnr, drake. 3, Fren- 

ji'nitim, female duck. 
Duck's-meat, n. Do'mvoo. 
Duck, V. Bifra'ncinai, to bow the 

head like a duck. 2, Beka'nsikai 

congee, (aug.) 3, Tre'nsipai, to 

dive. 
Ductil, adj. Kyabe'ntusoo, which 

can bo led. 2, Fauo'nsus, able 

to be extended by beating or 

di-awmg, as gold. 3, Gafo'nsukoo, 

apt to be persuaded. 
Dudgeon, n. Bo'nzis, indignation. 

2, To'nzi, anger. 3, Kre'mboo, 
malignity. 4, Ta'ntukoo"dwes, the 
handle or handed part. 

Duel, n. De'mbroo. 

Duff, n. Fra'nda. 

Duke, n. Tono'ndi-ipur, nobleman of 

the highest degree. 
Dull, adj. Pitre'nti, metaphorically 

obtuse. 2, Fro'mpa, unsprightly. 

3, Vro'mpa, lazy. 4, Tro'mpu, 



EAR 

£ach, demonstrative, Rou, 

£ach other, dem. Rous. 

Eager, adj. Kla'mpi. 2, Dwabo'nsu, 
very desirous. 3, Dwapa'nsou, 
very himgry. 4, Dwaki'mpa, very 
acid. 5, Gra'ntur, intense. 

Eagle, n. Pe'njoo. 

Eaglet, n. Penjoo'dwes. 

Eagret, n. Penjoo'fis, eagle kind. 

Ean, i. e. yean, Ta'usipai. 

Ear, n. Fra'ndo. 

Ear, (give ear) v. Twafo'mpitai. 2, 
Twapro'nsitai, endeavour to ob- 
serve. 

Ear of plant, n. Kra'ndoi. 

Ear, V. Kra'ntifai, to become filled 
specially, as corn. 

Ear, (Sea-ear), n. Go'njlnoo. 

Ear-wig, n. Dro'nji. 

Earl, n. Tone'ndroo. 

Early, adj. Ki'ntur. 2, Vu'ntus or 
Vu'ntai, matutine or matutinal. 

Earn, v. Vo'ntrikai. 

Earnest, adj. Ve'mpa, grave. 2, 
Gra'ntur, mtense. 3, Ba'mpa, 
diligent. 4, Po'nsus or po'nsai, 
zealous. 

Earnest, n. Do'mbri. 

Earnest, (in), adv. Gra'ndur, in- 
tensely. 2, Ka'mpa, smcere. 3, 
Va'mpa, honest. 

Earth, n. Di'nzoi, globe. 2, U'nza, 
elemental earth. 

Earth-nut, n. Da'mvi. 

Earthquake, n. Bu'nzoi. 

Earthworm, n. Po'nioo. 
H' 



DUN 

slow. 5, Gro'mpu, lumpish. 6, 
Pra'mpi, unsagacious. 7, Gaden- 
e'suvoo, not apt to cut. 8, Gla'n- 
tur, remiss. 

Dulcimer, n. U de'nsutus. 

Dumb, adj. Pra'nsi. 2, Pane'si, 
speechless, not speaking. 

Dumps, n. Bekro'nzi, Intense grief. 

2, Betra'mbi, intense anxiety. 

3, Befra'mba, intense carking 
care. 

Dun, adj. Bigri'ncou, mouse-like in 

color. 
Dun, V. Dapra'nsikai, frequently to 

visit. 2, Bafre'ntinai, frequently 

to demand. 
Dunce, n. Frampi'ro, an unsagacious 

person. 
Dung, n. Trenza'ri, excrement; the 

dunged thing. 
Dung^y, n. Kro'nja. 
Dung, V. Tre'nslnai. 
Dung, (to dung land), v. Tl'nsitai, to 

manure with dung. 
Dungeon, n. U pli'mpur kantruso'kis, 

a dark imprisoning place. 



E. 

E D G 

Earthen vessel, n. Rinsa'dus. 

Ease, n. To'mba. 2, Re'nzi, rest. 3, 

Te'ndi, quiet. 4, Re'ndo, leisure. 
Easy, adj. Ko'ntu. 
Easiness, n. Ko'ndi. 2, Ti'ndo, plain- 
ness. 3, Fra'mbo, credulity. 
East, n. Pi'ndo. 

Easter, n. Bumprai'gis, passover time. 
Eat, V. Pra'nsifai, to eat. 2, Ti'nsl- 

vai, to corrode. 
Eaves, n. Kri'ndo ga'nzotu. 
Eaves-dropper, n. U grentupoo'ro 

twafo'mputo. 
Ebb, n. Dina'nza. 
Ebony, n. Vu'mvinoi. 
EbulUtimi, n. Fe'nzo, boihng. 
Eccentric, adj. Pene'tou,'not centrical. 

2, Kra'ntu, irregular, anomolous. 
Ecclesiastical, adj. U'ntru. 
Ecclesiastic relation, n. U'ndri. 
Ecclesiastical officers, n. U'ndroiz. 
Ecclesiastical discipline, n. U'ndril. 
Ecchsiasticalinstitutions,nJ\5*nAxsi\z. 
Echo, n. Te'ntufoo i'mbo, reflected 

sound. 
Ecli2)se, V. Pli'mplvrost pendi'stikus 

or pendai'ti. 2, Frine'nzoi, eclipse 

of sun. 3, Gine'nzoi, of moon. 4, 

Tine'nzoi, of planet. 
Ecliptic, n. Ti'nzis. 
£'c?o^Me,n.Bano'nzo, a pastoral song. 

2, Bana'nzo, chorus. 
Edacity, n. Fle'mboi, gluttony. 
Edge, n. Kri'ndo, margin. 2, Vc'ndi, 

ridge. 3, adj. Gade'nsuvoo, apt 

to cut. 



D Y S 

Duplicate, n. Te'drontal"ri, a per- 
fectly reciprocal thing, as in form, 
coloiu-, design, &c. 2, Tevo'ntuz-i, 
a perfectly congruous thing. 3, 
Twetro'ndoi, a perfect pattern. 

Durable, adj, Vi'ntur. 

Durance, n. Ka'ndi-is, imprisonment. 

Duration, n. Ru'ndil. 

Duress, n. Fra'mboo rinzoo'tu. 

Dirt, n. Fu'nza. 

Dirty, adj. Fu'nsa. 

Dusk, adj. Pepli'mpur, rather dark. 

Du^t, n. Pu'nza. 2,Kra'ndis, powder. 

Duty, n. Konta'ri, due thing. 

Dutifulness, n. Pe'mbi. 

Dwarf, n. Plantu'rpro, a little person. 

Dwarf elder, n. Te'mvino. 

Dwell, V. Ra'nsipai. 

Dynasty, n. Pono'ndi-oo, series of 
governors of one kind. 2, Pon- 
a'ndi'oo, ditto of one nation. 3, 
Pone'ndroo, of one family. 

Dysentry, n. Vru'mbis. 

Dysury, n. Twuno'mbis, deficient 
discharge of urine. 



E F F 

Eddy, n. Redi'nza, reflux. 

Edgetoise, adv. Ki'ndi, sideways. 

Edible, adj. Gapra'nsufoo, apt to be 
eaten. 

Edict, n. To'mbra. 

Edify, V. Piza'nsifai, metaphorically 
to build up. 

Edifice, n. Wa'nzoi, 

Edit, V. Fe'ntivai bandiko'di, pre- 
pare for publication. 

Edition, n. Ba'ndiko, publication. 2, 
Bano'ndi, all the books published 
at once. 

Education, n. Kano'nzoo, the foster- 
ing and preparing the body, 
mind, and mamiers, for the duties 
of future life. 

Education by words, n. O'nzi. 

Education by acts, n. O'nzis. 

Eel, n. Da'njis. 

Eel, (Sand-eel,) n. Kra'njis. 

Eel-pout, n. Vra'njis. 

Effable, adj. Kapa'nsutoo, which can 
be spoken or uttered. 

Effect, n. Ro'ndoi. 

Effect, (to this), adv. Do'nu. 

Effect, (of no), adv. Draino'tu. 

Effect, (to), V. Po'ntifi, to become an 
eff'ect. 

Effect, (to take), v, Teze'ntibai. 

Effectual, adj. Gapo'ntou, apt to be 
cflicient. 2, Po'ntou, efl5cient. 

Effeminate, adj. Bifro'mpus, femi- 
nine, female-like. 2, Dro'mpa, de- 
licate, nice. 3, Vre'mpou, too 
nicely clean, finical. 



E L E 

Efficaci/, n. Pondoi'rit. 

Efficient, (maker), Po'ndoi. 

Effigies, n. Ge'uzaiz, pictures. 

Effiuvium, n. Funsufoo'ri, exhaled 
thing. 

Effort, n. Ke'ndo, endeavour. 2, 
Dwake'ndo, impetuous effort. 

Effusion, u. Misgl'nzifo, out pouring. 
2, Nisgi'nzifo, pouring from. 

Eftsoon, adv. Gri'ndm-. 

Egg, u. Vo'ndi. 

Egg, fwithj, Fa'nsupoo foTideti, 
pregnant with egg. 

Egg, (to), V. Fo'ntifai, to incite. 

Eglantine, n. Fimvoo'fis, kind of 
rose. 

Egregious^ adj. Tra'ntu extraordi- 
nary. 2, Befra'ntu, very extia- 
ordinaiy. 3, Befro'nti, very bad. 

Egress, v. Mispre'ntisai, to go out. 
2, n. Misdra'nzoi, the way out. 

Eight, n, A'gin. 

Eighteen, n. Pa'gin. 

Eighty, n. Ga'sin. 

Eight hundred, n. Ge'sin. 

Eight thousand,!!. Au'go. 

Eighty thousand, n. Gau'so. 

Eight hundred thousand, n. Goo'sin. 

Either of two, adj. Twi'fin. 

Either of three, adj. Twi'tin. 

Either of four, adj. Twi'kin. 

Either of five, n. Twi'biu, &c. &c. 

Ejaculation, n. Pepu'ndra, .short 
prayer. 2, Dwapu'ndi-a, sudden 
impetuous prayer. 

Eject, V. Misfe'nsivai, cast out. 

Eke, conj. Kwel. 

Eke out, V. Yinp'antifrost, to make 
longer by addition. 

Eke out, V. Yinpra'ntiprost, to en- 
large. 

Elaborate, v. Beba'mpinoo, to be 
done with great diligence. 2, 
Besi'nsikai, to labor, to do with 
great labor. 

Elate, adj. Gre'mpi, msolent, an-o- 
gant. 2, Bepro'nsus, very boast- 
ful. 3, Beprempa, boastful in 
words. 

Elbow, n. Fra'ndi. 2, Fre'ndo, angle. 

Elder, adj. Untiuupou, comparative 
of old. 2, n. Fu'ndroi, priest. 3, 
Po'nzoo, forefather. 

Elder tree, n. Fu'mvo. 

Elder, (Water-elder), n. Fri'nvol. 

Elecampane, n. Vra'mvo. 

Election, (todo something) ,xi. Bo'nza. 
2, Fo'ndra, election to office. 

Electn'citi/, n. Twu'nzoo, a very 
subtle and powerful fluid which 
is diffused tlirough most bodies: 
remarkable for the rapidity of its 
motion. 

Electricitij, (the science of), n. Twmi- 
zoo'brai. 

Eleemosynary, adj. Be'mpi, given 
in alms. 

Elegance, Vo'mbi, beauty. 2, Ya'ndi, 
adomedncbS. 



E M E 

Elegy, adj. Dwilcri'ndo ki'o'nsu. 
Element, n. U'nzi. 2, Pizu'nzi, prm- 
ciple. 3, I'ndooz, elements of 
discourse. 
Elephant, n. Ki'njoo. 
Elevate, v. Pi'nsipai, to lift. 
Eleven, n. Pa'piu. 

Elf, n. U tre'ntuso i'nzoo, a wander- 
ing spirit. 

Eligible, adj, Gabo'nsunoo, apt to 
be elected. 

Elucer, u. Pa'ndis, best part, quint- 
essence. 2, Yena'nzoo, wine 
containmg medicinal substances 
in solution. 3, Deno'nzoo, spii-its 
containing animal substances in 
solution. 

Elke-, n. Ti'njoi. 

Ellipsis, n. Gwe'ndo. 

Ehi, n Ku'mvis. 

Elocution, n Pla'nzo, speaking man- 
ner. 2, Twi'mbo, articiUation 
mamier. 

Eloquence, a. Planzi'tous, the most 
perfect and persuasive kind of 
discourse. 

Else, adv. Krus, besides. 2, Koi, 
other; roi'u, others. 

Elsewhere, adv. Ki-oi'tu, in another 
place. 2, Krol'su, at another place. 

Elucidate, v. Ki'ntikai, interpret. 2, 
Ti'ntivai, to express. 

Elude, V. Dre'ntisai. 2, Pre'ntikai, 
frustrate. 

Emaciate, v. Yro'mpikrost, make 
lean. 2, O'kai brompu, become 
lean. 

Emanation, n. Misdi'nslnai, out-flow. 

Emancipate, v. Unto'mprivai, im- 
slave. 

Embalm, v. Twe'nsitai. 

Embargo, n. Pa'mbroi, findi'oo'tuz. 
2, Pa'mbroi tontnikoo'turiz. 

Embark, v. Misi'ntripai, to go into 
the ship. 2, Pe'ntrisai findi'oo'nui. 

Embassador, n. Kle'ndis, a person 
commissioned and sent from one 
goveiTunent to another. 

Embellish, v. Ya'ntimost, to adorn. 

Ember-week, n. Fundre'gis, ordina- 
tion tune. 

Embers, n. U'nsupoo tu'nza. 

Embezzle, v. Da'mbro dronzo'tu 
a'nziz tentu'noo twai'di do'nzo, 
stealing, by servant, goods deli- 
vered for his master. 

Emblem, n. Bwo'ntus gi-c'nzis, a 
significant picture. 2, Two'nsuto 
gre'nzis, a teaching picture. 

Embody, v. Ki'ngiprost, cause to be 
a body. 

Embolden,v. Go'nsikrost, make bold. 

Emboss, V. Ya'ntimost tenda'tiz. 

Embowel, v. Uuki-a'ntisai. 

Embrace, v. Va'nsikai. 

Embrew, v. Di'nsikai, soak. 

Embroider, v. Bi'mpifai kinze'ti. 

Emendation, n. Tra'ndoo, 2, Te'n- 
tifai, repair. 



END 
Embryo, n. Da'ndis. 
Emergent, adj. Pa'nzis tri'mi, rising 

out of something. 2, Befo'ntou, 

very urgent. 
Emerods, n. Utaboz granda'su. 
Einew, (the Cassoivary), n. Tre'njoi. 
Eminence, n. Kra'ndoo, excellence. 
Emissary, n. Kentusoo'ro. 2, Be'm- 

bro, spy. 
Emission, n. Miske'ndis, out sending. 
Emmet, (ant), n. Bo'nja. 
Emolument, n. Pobida. 
Empale, v. Ka'mprikai. 
Empannel, v. Dra'ntivrost. 
Empeach, (impeach), v. Ta'ntripai. 
Emperor, n. Pono'ndi'oo, highest 

degree of governor. 
Emphasis, n. Gi'ndoo. 
Emjnre, n. Ponondi'oo'kis. 2. Pon- 

oudrooi-it, that which constitutes 

an Emperor. 
Empiric, n. Deto'ndi'oi. 
Emiploy, V. E'ntivai, transact busi- 
ness. 2, Ye'ntival, to use. 
Empoverish, v. Fra'mpifrost. 
Empress, n. Pono'ndiipun. 
Empty, V. Dri'nsifai. 
Emery, n. Dru'ujoo. 
Empyema, n. Tru'mbi. 
Emulation, n. To'nzis. 
Emulgent, adj. Kra'nsipai. 
Emulsion, n. Bitra'nti two'ndroi. 
Emxmctory, n. Dra'ndoi. 
Enable, v. O'mpikrost, to make able. 
Enact, V. To'ntrimost, to law make. 
Enamel, v. Gi'nsinai finsai'ti i'mboiz, 

paint -with melted colors. 
Enamoured, adj. Beto'nsikrost. 2, 

Beto'usikai. 
Encamp, v. Pe'ntrisai. 
Enchant, v. Pa'ntrivai indoi'tiz. 
Encircle, v. Glispe'ntitai. 
Enclose, v. Ki'nsifai, shut. 2, Ke'n- 

tifai. 
Enclosure, n. Kinzoi. 2, Ke'ndoi. 

3, E'mbris, sepiment. 4, E'ndris, 
fortification. 

Encomium, n. Go'nzi. 2, Go'nsuko 

fi'ndi. 
Encompass, v. Glispe'ntipai, put 

about. 2, Glise'ntisai, go about. 
Encounter, v. Dro'ndus te'ntripai. 2, 

De'ntisai. 
Encourage, v. Fo'nsisai, 
Encroach, v. Tata^trinai- 2, Pc- 

ta'ntrinai. 
Encumber, v. Bro'ntifai ranzing'ti. 

2, Tre'ntikai fra'ntuti pa'ndo. 
End, n. Tri'ndo. 
End, (final cause), n. Yo'ndoi. 
Endless, adj. Ti'ntur. 2, Vointi. 
Endamage, v. Fe'ntivrast, cause to 

lose. 2, Pro'ntinai. 
Endanger, v. Tro'ntikrcst, cause to 

be endangered. 
Endeavour, n. Ke'ndo. 
Endowment, n. Yro'ndoo, quality. 

2,0'mbi, natural power. 3, iVmbi. 

4, Ra'nzi. 



E N T 

Endive, n. Va'nvoi. 

Endue, v. Vro'ntiprest, to cause to 
be qualified with. 2, Ke'ntiuai, 
as, Ke'ntiuai fa'mbis, to endue 
with, or give wisdom. 

Endure, v. Dro'ntipai. 2, Ge'mplvi. 
3, Pro'nsinai, not to endure. 4, 
Ru'ntlsai, to last. 

Enemy, n. Pro'nza. 

Energy, n. Po'utou o'mbi. 2, Po'ntou 
do'ndoo. 

Enervate, v. Dro'mpikrost. 

Emfeeble, v. Dro'mpikrost. 

Enfeoff, V. O'ntriuai. 2, Po'mprlkai. 

Enjlame, v. Pu'nsiprast. 2, Vepri'm- 
pikrost. 

Enforce, v. Tro'nsinai. 

Enfranchise, v. Do'mprinai. 

Engage, v. O'ntrisai. 2, Vo'ntrisai. 
3, Do'ntrisai. 4, Do'mprisai. 5, 
Dre'ntimost. 6, E'ntivrest. 

Engender, v. Pa'nsipai. 

Engine, n. Ga'nzis. 

Engraft, v. Di'nsitS,i. 

Engrave, v. Vri'nslnai. 

Engross, v. Teda'nsitai. 2, To'mpri- 
kai rou'u tontrukoo'turiz, to buy 
all. 3, Fe'ntlpai, appropriate. 

Enhance, v. Gra'ntiprost, to inten- 
sify. 2, Dr'antipai, increase. 

Enigmatical, adj. Tri'uti. 2, Gabon- 
e'sutbo, unknowable; not apt to 
be known. 

Enjoying, adj.De'ntuko. 2,Be'ntupo. 

Enjoin, v. Po'nsikai. 

Enlarge, v. Yinpra'ntiprost, to 
make larger. 2, Fri'ntinai. 3, 
Pra'ntiprost. 4, Dra'ntipai. 

Enlighten, v. I'mpivrost. 

Enmity, n. Pronza'rit. 

Ennoble, v. To'ntriprost. 

Enormity, n. Twapa'ndi'a. 2, Re'm- 
boorit. 3, Beza'mbro. 

Enough, adj. Ta'ntur. 

Enough and to spare, adj. Fra'ntur. 

Enquiring, n. lo'nzifo, 

Enrage, v. To'nsikrost 

Enrich, v. Fa'mpifrost. 

Enroll V. Drantivai, to catalogue. 
2, Ba'ntripai, to register. 

^s((/?i, n. Bo'ndis. 2, Fe'ndi-o, mili- 
tary colours. 

Ensnare, v. Fri'nsiiai frambi'sti. 2, 
Ke'ntipai frambi'sti. 3, Fri'nsifai 
tendroo'ti. 4, Ke'ntipai trendoo'ti. 

Ensue, v. Vc'iitisai. 2, E'ntikai, 
eventuate, come to an end. 

Entail, v. Fo'mpikrost do'ndi, }.o 
cause to inherit serially, i. e. in 
a certain scries or order. 

Entangle, v. Fri'nsifai. 

Enter, v. Muse'ntisai. 2, Muspe'nti- 
pai. 3, Musda'nsitai, as in a book. 
4, Te'ntivai, to begin. 
Enter upon, v. Tabe'ntipai. 
Enterprize, n. Kre'ndo, essaying. 
Entertain, v. Tre'ntinai, receive. 2, 
Vo'nsitai, to act as host. 3, Fra'u- 
sikai. 



E Q U 

Enthrall, v. To'mprivrost. 
Enthrone, v. Tusfona'ntripai. 
Enthusiasm,^. Plonzis. 2,Bepo'nzis, 

intense zeal. 3, Vlo'nzis, feigned 

inspiration. 
Enthymeme, n. Dri'nda. 
Entice, v. Bo'nsikai, allure. 
Entire, adj. A'ntus. 2, Po'mpu. 3, 

Va'mpa, perfectly honest. 
Entity, n. Plondoo'rit. 
Entity, (an), n. Fwo'ndoo, thing. 
Entitle, Y. To'ntrimest, cause to be 

righted. 2, Ke'ntipai, to name. 
Entomb, v. Tu'ntrinai. 
Entrails, n. Kra'ndaiz, guts. 
Entrance, n. Muse'ndis. 
Entrap, v. Gra'nsisai. 
Entreat, v. To'nsikai. 2, Fra'nsikai, 

to entertain. 
Entrench, v. Drentikrost, make 

ditch. 2, Ta'ntriuai, usurp. 
Entry, n. Musendai'kis, entrance 

place. 2, Tra'nzo, entrance into 

house, &c. 
Entrust, v. Po'mprikai. 
Enveloj), v. Tebi'nsikai. 
Envenom, v. Ba'mprikest, cause to 

be poisoned. 
Envy, n. Vro'nzis. 
Environ, v. Glispo'ntipi. 2, Glis- 

plo'ntipi. 3, Glispe'ntipai. 
Enumerate, v. Ru'ntipai, to number. 
Enunciate, v. Pi'ntikai, to express 

in a proposition. 
Enure, v. Po'mprinai, to accustom. 
Ehiwrap, v. Tusbi'nsikai. 
Epact, n. Yo'ndo fri'nsukur, ginsu'r- 

kwi pu'ndis, the diiference betwixt 

the solar and lunar year. 
Ephem£ris, n. U bu'ntus e'nti dre'n- 

zis, a daily business book. 
Ephialtes, n. Fru'mba. 
Epicene, adj. Kwifi'ntu po'mbaiz, of 

both sexes. 2, Vra'nta, kwifi'nnu 

po'mbaiz, common to both sexes. 
Epicure, n. U prempou'ro. 
Epicycle, Feno'ndo, a small circle 

whose centre is in the circiunfer- 

ence of a larger. 
Epidemic, adj. ro'ntri, national- 2, 

U bevra'nta mnbi. 3, Bevra'nta, 

very common. 
Epigram, n. U pra'ntou pomprou'ri, 

a short poem. 
Epilepsy, n. Bru'mba. 
Epilogue, n. Dri'ndi. 
Epiphany, n. Pino'nzoi. 
Episcopal, adj. Vu'mprou- 
Epistle, n. Fri'ndi. 
Epitaph, n. Dwansutoo'ri tumpra'- 

jukis. 
Fjpithalamium, n. Vwu'ntra bansu- 

too'ri. 
Epithet, n. Tri'ndoi krindoi'twi. 
Epitomy, n. Di'ndi. 
Epoch, n. Bri'ndoo. 
Equal, adj. Ba'ntur. 
Equality, n. Ba'ndoo- 2, Fc'mboo, 
equity. 



ESS 

Equals, (among relations) , n. O'nzaz. 

Equal terms, (coming off on), n. 
Pe'nfh-oi. 

Equanimity, n. Ta'mboo, content- 
ment. 2, Vrunonzis, mental 
serenity. 

Equa7iimous, adj. Vruno'nsus. 

Equator, n. Fi'uzis. 

Equilateral, adj. Bantu'rtu ki'ndoz. 

Equinoctial time, n. Ba'ntur vubidai 
vrundai'kwi. 

Equinoctial circle, n. Fri'nzis. 

Equipollence, n. Vro'ndoo pinde'tuz 
ri'ntufo toi, the quality of propo- 
sitions which are synonymous. 

Equipollent, adj. Bantu'rtu o'mbi. 2, 
synonymous, applied to propo- 
sitions. 

Equipage, n. Rena'nzi, attendance, 
retuiue, carriages, &c. 

Equitable, adj. Fe'mpur. 

Equity, n. Fe'mboo. 

Equivalent, n. Va'ntur. 

Equivocation, n. Pri'nda. 

Equor, n. Pi'nza, (smooth sea). 

Eradicate, v. Umpo'ntipai. 

Ere, prep. Coo or cu. 

Ere long, adv. Peprindur, a httle 
future. 

Ere while, adv. Pepli'ndur, a little 
past. 

Erect, adj. Gre'ntou, perpendicular. 

2, A'nsifai, build; 
Eringo, n. Pra'mvinoi. 

Eringo, (Umbelliferous) , n. Fi'a'nva. 
Ermine, n. Di'nja, stoat. 2, To'ndis 

dinja'tu, fur of stoat. 
Erring, n. Ge'ndo. 
Errant, adj. Ko'nti. 2, Tre'ntuso. 
Errand, n. Kcntu'soori. 2, Kentu- 

soo'ri po'mprukoo. 
Erroneous, adj. Ge'nti. 2, Pro'nti. 
Eruqjtion, n. Misve'uzis. 2, Bro'ntu 

misve'ndis. 
Erysipelas, n. Gru'mbol. 
Escape, V. Ve'ntrifai. 2, E'ntisai 

prone'sutoo, pass imobserved. 
Escheat, n. Da'mbris, confiscation. 
Eschew, V. Dre'ntisai, to avoid. 2, 

Bro'nsijiai, to feel antipathy. 
Especial, adj. Ka'nta, principal, 
^sp?/, V. Be'mpritai, to spy out. 2, 

Po'mpitai, to see. 
Espouse, V. To'nsifai. 2, Ko'usifai. 

3, Vu'ntrinai. 

Esquire, n. Tona'mbro, Gentleman 
of the second dcgi-ee; thus, Pon- 
ombro. Baronet: 2, Pona'mbro, 
Esquire : 3, Pone'mbro, Gentle- 
man. 

Essay, V, Kre'ntivai. 

Essence, n. Dro'ndoi, that quaHty or 
aggregate of qualities which 
constitute a thing what it's name 
signifies. 2, Pa'ndis, best part. 

Essoign, n. Vi'nda tamprufo'di rea- 
son for pardoning. 2, Yo'ndoi- 
dis famc'broi, reason for non aj)- 
pearance. 



E Y I 

Essential, adj. Dro'ntou. 2, Bo'nta, 

important. 
Establish, v. Yi'mpigi-ost, to cause 

to be steady. 2, Do'mpikrost, &c. 

(see confii-m). 
Estate, V. Ko'udis, state. 2, Kro'n- 

doi, condition. 3, U'ndinoo, age; 

4, O'ndi-oo, degree. 5, Ba'mboi, 

dignity. 6, Ranze'dwiz, aggregate 

of revenues. 7, To'ndi-a. 8, A'nzi, 



Esteem, v. Po'nsifai, to think. 2, 
Pa'ntripai. 3, Go'usifai. 4, Ke'm- 
pikai, respect. 

Estimation, n. Go'nzoi, esteem. 

Estival, adj. Pri'ntai, adj. summer. 

Estrange, v. Fre'ntipai, to alienate. 
2, Ko'nsimost, to cause to be a 
sti'anger to some one. 

Estridge, n. Te'njoi, ostrich. 

Estuate, v. Fe'nsitai, to boil. 2, Be- 
ze'nsikai, move violently. 

Etching, n. Tino'nzis, a kmd of en- 
graving by corrosion instead of 
cutting. 

Eternal, adj. Ti'ntar. 

Eternitg, n. Ti'ndoo, evemess. 

Ethtr, n. Pu'nzoi. 

Ethics, n. To'nsutoo'riz embe'tu, the 
doctrines of morality. 

Ehic'al, }_"<^J- ^'"^P"' ^°^'^'- 

Ethnic, adj. Fu'ntnir, pagan, hea- 
thenish. 

Etymologg, n. Pra'nda indoi'tuz, de- 
rivation of words. 2, Pra'uda'bas, 
derivation art. 

Eucharist, n. Vu'mbris. 

Evacuate, v. Dri'nsifai, to empty. 2, 
E'n'sLnai, to purge. 

Evade, v. Dre'ntisai, to avoid. 2, 
Ve'ntrifai, to escape. 

Evangelist, n. Tu'udroi. 

Evaporate, v. Misfru'usifai. 

Evasion, n. Dre'ndis. 

Eve, n. Dnmo'ndai, evening before 
a festival. 

Ecechurr, n. Fro'njoi. 

Even, adj. Ba'ntur. 1, Oi'tu vo'ndoo. 

2, Oitu ru'ndoo. 3, Oi'tu do'mbi. 
Evenness, n. Ba'ndo. 

Even as, adv. Boo'lkyu. 

Even now, adv. Go'subool. 

Evening, n. Dru'ndi. 

Event, n. E'ndi. 2, Ro'ndoi, eifect. 

3, E'ndroi, event of war. 

Ever, adv. Gi'ndiu-, at all times. 

Ever since, adv. Gro'nibool. 

Everlasting, adj. Vro'ntur u'ndis. 

Ever and anon, adv. Di'ndur. 

Ever, for ever), conj. Cookwin, be- 
fore that. 

Every, demonstrative. Ou. 

Every ichere, adv. Kou'tu. 

Every tchit, adv. A'ndus. 

Evet, n. Biiijis. 

Evidence, n. Dampnipo'ii. 2, Bon- 

trusoo'Vi. 
Evil, n. Fro'ndo. 



E X C 

Evil, (King's), n. Tu'mbo. 
Evict, V. Umbe'ntipai, to 

Una'nsllai, to dispossess. 
Evident, adj. Te'ntiu", manifest. 2, 

Ti'nti. 3, Vo'nsou. 4, Vi'ntus. 
Evince, v. Vi'ntisai. 2, To'ndi vi'n- 

tisai. 
Eunuch, n. Umbi'nzikur. 2, Un- 

grantusoo'ro. 
Euphony, n. Tezi'mbo. 
£(06, n. Pi'njifun. 
Ewer, n. Vwe'nzi ginzifo'di u'nzo 

tandejuz. 
Exact, adj. Pe'mpur. 2, To'nti. 
Exact, V. Fre'ntinai pre'mbm'. 2, 
Fre'nttnai bre'mbur. 3, Ba'ntrisai, 
to oppress. 
Exaggerate, v. Pra'utiprost, make 
great. 2, Gra'ntiprost, to make 
intense. 3, Beto'nsikai. 4, Yin- 
to'nsikai. 
Exalt, V. Pi'nsipai, lift. 2, Bego'nsi- 
kai, praise. 3, Ba'mpifrost, dignify. 
Examine, v. Fo'nsifai, enquire. 2, 
Pi'ntisai, question. 3, Bre'ntifai, 
try. 4, Ka'mprifai, judicially try. 
Example, n. To'ndoi. 2, Gri'nda, 

instance. 
Example (as for example), conj. Del. 
Exanguioxts animal, n. O'nji. 
Exanimate, v. Fro'nsisai, discourage. 
Exasperate, v. Gra'ntiprost, intensify. 
2, Yinto'nsiki'ost, make more 
angry. 
Exanthorize, v. Umvo'ntrinai. 
Exceed, v. Kra'ntipi, be excellent. 
2, Fra'ntipi, to be abimdant. 3, 
Dra'ntipai, to inci'ease. 4, Gra'n- 
tiprost, intensify. 5. Tra'ntipi, to 
be excessive. 
Excel, V. Kra'ntipi. 2, Bra'ntipi, to 
be superior. 3, Pe'mprifai, to 
vanquish. 
Excellent, adj. Kra'ntur. 
Except, prep. & conj. Kroo, kru. 2, 

Tel, or til, unless. 
Exception, n. Bri'nda. 
Exception, (to take), v. Dro'nsini, to 

be displeased. 
Excess, n. Tra'ndoo. 2, Ee'mboi, 
sensuality. 3, Fle'mboi, gluttony. 
4, Tre'mboi, diimkenness. 
Exchange, n. O'mbri. 2, Bondroi'zis 
ondi-o'kis, merchants' convention 
place. 
Exchequer, n. Y Ekscekur. 
Excise, n. To'ndi-i, tribute. 
Excite, V. Fo'ntifai. 
Exclaim, v. Tra'nsitai. 
Exclude, V. Tisti'nsifai. 2, Ke'ntifai, 
exempt. 3, Bri'ntinai, except 
from the nde. 
Exclusive, adj. K'entufo ti'ldoz i. e. 

excluding the extremes. 
Excogitate, v. Fro'nsitai, invent. 
Excommunicate, v. Bu'ntrikai. 
Excoriate, v. Unta'utifai, to imskin. 
Excrement, n. Misensunoo"ri. 2, 
Trensunoo'ri, dimged thing. 



EXP 

Excreation, n. Bre'uza, hawking. 
Excressence, n. Teno'nda, growing 
out of something else preter- 
naturally. 2, llo'ndo, fruit-like 
part of plants. 
Excruciate, v. Pa'ntrisai, torture. 
Excursion, n. Tre'ndis, ramble. 2, 
Gri'ndi, digression. 3, Te'ndis 
u'nu tri'ntou i'ndoi, jom-uey to a 
distant place. 
Excuse, n. Ka'mprupro, defendant 

thing. 
Execrable, adj. Gatro'nsupoo, apt to 
be ciu"sed. 2, Gatro'nsukoo, apt 
to be hated. 3, Tyoo ki'u re'm- 
pivoi. 
Execrate, v. Tro'nsikai, curse. 2, 

Tre'ntipai tronzoo'puz. 3, Bro'nsi- 
nai tronzoo'puz. 

Execution, n. Ve'ndo, performance. 
2, Ta'ndi-oi. 3, A'ndri, capital 
punishment. 4, A'ndris, punish- 
ment, not capital. 

Executioner, n. Tandi'oi'fas. 

Executor, n. Pomprukoo'ro fontiii- 
ko'pi dansutoo'ri. 

Exemplar, n. To'ndoi. 

Exemplify, v. Ke'ntinai u tro'ndoi, 
give a copy. 2, Ke'ntinai u gri'n- 
da, give an instance. 

Exempt,^ . Kre'ntifai. 2, To'niprinai, 
to relieve from burdens. 

Exercise, n. Pado'ndoo, habitual 
action. 2, O'mbroi, practice. 3, 
Pi'ndipo, doing. 4, Po'mbra pi'n- 
tipai. 5, Ka'mbis, experience. 6, 
Ye'udi, use. 7, E'nzi, motion. 8, 
E'uzil, recreation. 

Exercitation, u. (see exercise). 

Exhalation, n. Fu'nzoi. 2, Fru'nzoi, 
vapor. 3, Tu'nzoi, fume. 

Exhaust, V. Dri'nsifai, to empty. 

Exhibit, V. Ge'ntifai, to represent. 
2, Fe'ntinai, to offer. 3, Kentiuai. 

Exhibition, n. Ge'ndoo, shewing. 2, 
Kronsusoo'ri, stipend, allowance. 

Exhilarate, Ko'nsikrost, cause to be 
joyful. 2, Ta'mpunost, make 
cheerful. 

Exhort, V. Fo'nsikai, persuade. 

Exhortation, n. Fo'nzi, persuasion. 

Exsiccate, v. Fle'mpimost, to dry. 

Exigence, n. Kro'ndoi, occasion. 2, 
Vo'ndi, expedience. 3, Go'ndi, 
necessity. 

Exile, V. Ba'ntrisai. 

Eximius, adj. Kra'ntur, excellent. 

Existence, n. Plo'ndoo. 

Exonerate, v. Unra'nsinai, to unload. 

Exorable, adj. Kato'nsukoo, able to 
be entreated. 

Exorbitance, n. Kra'rabi. 

Exorcist, n. Unfrinsupo'fas, the un- 
deviling officer. 

Exotic, adj. Tro'nsa, foreign. 

Expansion, n. Fa'nzis, stretching. 
2, Fra'nzis, spreading. 3, Kri'nzoi, 
opening. 

Expect, V. Dro'nsitai. 



EXP 

Expatiate, v. Zistre'ntisai. 2, Zispe n- 

sifai. 3, Fri'ntinai, to amplify. 
Expedient^ adj. Vo'ntu. 
Expedition^ n. Be'ndo. 2, Te'ndis, 

travel. 3, Entrut te'ndis, military 

expedition. 
Expel, V. Misbre'ntisai, to dinve out. 
Expense^ n. Trentukoo'ri, spent 

thing. 
Expend, V. Tre'ntikai. 2, Bc'ntinai, 

disburse. 
Experience, n. Ka'mbis. 2, Kre'ndo, 

essay. 
Experiment, u. Twanka'mpisai, the 

endeavour to experiei>ce. 2, 

Krentuvoo'ri, the thiug essayed. 
Expert, adj. Kra'mpusoo. 
Expiate, v. Umplo'nsinai, atone for 

sin. 2, Umva'niprifrost, to cause 

to be unguilty. 3, specially by 

sacrifice. 
Expire, V. Dra'nsipai, to die. 2, 

Tri'ntitai, to end. 2, De'ntivai, 

finish. 
Explain, v. Ti'ntivost, make j>laiu. 
Explicate, v. Gi'ntivai, express. 
Exjjlode, V. Bezi'mbi gi'ntivai tro'nzo. 

2, Bezi'mbi bro'nsinai. 
Exploit, n. Bedo'ndoo, great action. 

2, Ventuvoo'ri. 
Explore, V. Fo'nsifai, to enquire. 

2, Twasfro'nsifai, to endeavour to 



Expose, V. Tispe'ntipai, out put. 2, 
Unti'nsifai, uncover. 3, Tro'nti- 
krest, to cause to be endangered. 

Exposition, n. Ti'nditrost, explain- 
ing. 2, Kl'ndi, intei"}iretation. 

Expostulate, v. Vi'ntinai ta'ndrur, to 
argue accusingly. 2, Ta'ntripai, 
to accuse. 

Express, v. Gi'ntivai. 

Expression, n. Panzo'vis, mode of 
speaking. 

Exprobrate, v. Ga'mprinai, upbraid. 



F A C 

Fable, n. Tro'ntur tl'ndi, fictitious 

narrative. 2, Pe'lba, a lie. 
Fabric, n. A'nzoi, building. 
I Fabrile operation, I'nza. 
I Fabulous, adj. Tro'ntur, fictitious. 
Face, n. Pa'ndo. 
Faces, (make) v. Vre'ntifai pa'ndo' vis, 

change-face manner. 
Face, (to) v. Kispra'nsitai, to stand 

over against. 2, Te'nsinai, to face 

a garment. 
Face-about, Fre'ntisai, to trim. 
Facetiousness, n. Te'mba, in-banity. 
Facile, adj. Ko'nti, easy. 2, Fra'mpi, 

credulous. 3, Ta'mbis, affability. 
Facinorous, adj. A'ntri, criminal. 2, 

Bcza'nti, greatly criminal. 
I 



EXT 

' Exp)uls{on, n. Misbre'ndis, drive out. 

Expunge, v. Undi-a'nsitai, unwrite. 

Exquisite, adj. Blo'mpi, of delicate 
sensibility. 2, To'nti, perfect. 

Extant, adj. Po'ntur, being. 2, 
Plo'ntur, which exists. 3, Bo'nti, 
actual. 4, Druspra'nsuvo, stand- 
ing above. 3, Tispra'nsuvo, 
standing out. 

Extacy, u. Gro'nzis. 

Extempore, |cusfrone'sufoo, not 

Extempora,^, V- before' meditated. 

Extemporal, ) 

Extend, v. Fa'nsivai, to stretch. 

Extension, n. Re'ndi, extent. 

Extenuate, v. Bro'mpikrost, to make 
lean or thin. 2, Gla'ntlprost, to 
mitigate. 3, Pla'ntiprost, to make 
little. 3, Wynpla'ntiprost, to 
make less. 5. Ra'ndus ka'mprivai, 
or ka'mprivai, to excuse in part. 

Exterior, adj. Vri'nti, outside. 

Exterminate, v. Kro'nsipai, to de- 
stroy. 2, Ba'ntrisai, to banish, 
drive out of the bovmdary. 

External, adj. (see exterior). 

Extinguish, v. Unu'nsipai, to unfire. 

2, Pro'nsipai, to annihilate. 
Extirpate, v. Umpo'ntipai, to un- 
root. 2, Mispo'ntipai, to out root. 

3, Truspo'ntipai, uproot. 

Extol, V. Bego'nsikai, greatly to 

praise. 2, Bedo'nsikai, greatly to 

commend. 
Extort, V. Pe'ntikai bronde'tine, to 

obtain from by violence. 2, Ba'm- 

prinai, a crime. 
Extract, v. Misto'nsinai, to force oiit- 

2, Mispe'ntigrast, to cause to 

come out. 3, Nisfe'ntigrast, to 

cause to proceed from; specially 

by chemical operation. 
Extraneous, adj. Drone'tou, not 

part of the essence ; not essential. 

2, Tro'nsa, foreign. 



FAD 

Facilitate, v. Ko'ntivrost, make easy. 

Fact, n. U po'ndo, a truth. 2, U 
po'nti fi'ndis, a true assertion. 3, 
U po'ndi fintusoo'ri, a truly asser- 
ted thing. 

Factitious, adj. Dro'nti, artificial. 

Factious, adj. Gago'mpri, apt to bo 
factious. 2, Gata'mpri, apt to be 
seditious. 

Factor, n. Visbo'ndroi, agent to a 
merchant. 

Factor, n. Ga'ndis gra'ndistwi, the 
multiplier or multiplicand. 

Faction, n. Go'mbro. 

Fade, v. O'kai vri'ntur, to become 
transitory. 2, Vri'ntipi, to be tran- 
sitory. 3, Kro'mpikai, to decay. 



EYE 

Extract, (an), n. Tooro'ndoi. 2, U 

vi'i'ndi, an epitome. 
Extraction, adj. Prousu'rfis, desceu- 

dent kind. 
Extra-judicial, adj. Ane'tm, not 

judicial. 
Extraordinary, adj. Tra'ntu. 
Extravagant, adj. Kra'ntu. 2, Bra'n- 

ta, irrelevant. 3, Gri'ntu, digres- 
sive. 
Extreme, adj. Ti'lti, either end. 2, 

Fra'ntur, extreme abimdance. 

3, Tra'ntur, excessive. 4, Pra'n- 

tupous, most great. 5. Ple'mpur, 

rigorous. 
Extremity, n. Tri'ndo, end. 2, Pra'm- 

boo, misery. 3, Betre'ndi, great 

trouble. 
Extricate, v. Unfri'nsifai, untangle. 
Extrinsic, adj. Vri'nti, outer. 
Extrude, n. MIskri'nsipai, to thrust 

out. 
Extrusion, n. Miskri'nzoo, out thiiist- 

ing. 
Exuberant, adj. Frantur, abundant. 
Exudation, n. Miste'nsinai, to out- 
sweat. 
Exulcerate, v. Du'mpivraust, to be 

caused to be ulcerous. 
Exultation, n. Ge'ndrifo, triumphing. 
Eye, n. Fa'ndo. 
Eye, (blear-eyed) adj. Be'ntupj 

wu'mpurkoo fa'ndo. 
Eye, (goggle-eyed) adj. Be'ntiipo 

u te'nta fa'ndo. 
Eye, ('pink-eyed) adj. Be'ntupo 

fri'ntou fa'ndo. 
Eyebrow, n. Vra'ndo. 
Eyelid, n. Vrano'ndo. 
Eye-service, n. Twatre'ntipai di-o'n- 

sitai, endeavouring to seem to 

serve. 
Eye-bright, n. Dre'mvinoi. 
Eye, n. Fre'ndi, loop. 



F A I 

Faculty, n. O'mbi. 2, Go'mbra, 
license. 

Fagot, n. Konondoo'dwiz, aggregate 
or bundle of sticks. 

Fail, V. Pre'ntikoo, to be frustrated, 
2, Dre'ntivai, to miscarry. 3, 
Gre'ntivai, omit. 4, Twa'ntipi, to 
be deficient. 5, Bu'mpikai, to 
faint. 6, Gre'ntmai, to become 
insolvent. 

Faint-hearted, adj. Dwe'mpur, cow- 
ardly. 2, Dro'nsiki, to be diffident. 

Fair, adj. Vo'mpu, beautiful. 2. 
Da'ntu, clean. 3, Pu'nsus, clear as 
to the weather. 

Fair dealing, adj. Fa'mpur. 2, Tam- 
pur, candid. 



F A M 

Fain^ adv. Ko'nzu, gladly. 
Faint, v. Bii'mpikai. 2,'Gre'ntikai, 
to weary. 3, Dro'mpiki, to be 
weak. 4, Gla'ntlpi, to be in a state 
of remission or relaxation. 5, 
Kra'mpiti, to be slight. 
Fair demeanour, n. De'mba, courtesy. 

2, Te'mbis, affability. 
Fair weather, n. Pu'nzis, clearness. 
2, Tune'si, not rainy. 3, Fune'si, 
not cloudy. 
Fair^ n. O'ntlro enda'di, convention 

for commerce. 
Fairing, u. Two'mprukoo"rI ondro'su 

enda'di. 
Fairy, n. U tro'ntur klo'ndoo, a fic- 
titious individual. 
Faith, n. Fa'rabo, natural belief. 2, 
Ka'mbi, religious faith, an infused 
habit. 
Faithful, adj. Fe'mpa. 2, Ka'mpu, 

believing as a Christian. 
Faithless, adj. Fe'lpa, unfaithful. 2, 
Fle'mpa, treacherous. 3,Kame'pu, 
faithless. 
Falchion, n. U pra'ntou pre'nti fe'm- 

bri. 
Falcon, n. Fenjoo'fis, a bird of the 

hawk kind. 
Falconer y n. Fenjoo'fas. 
Falling doicn, n. Trisda'nzis. 2, 
Da'nzis, falling. 3, Va'nzis, falling 
on knees. 4, Vra'nzis, the being 
on the knees. 5, Dra'nzis, prostra- 
tion, the being at length. 
Falling star, n. Fru'nzoo. 
Fallacy, n. Umpro'nsutoo ge'ndo, an 
unobserved error. 2, Ge'nti vi'nda, 
eiToneous argument. 3, U pro'n- 
sus vi'nda, a seductive or mislead- 
ing argument. 
Fallible, adj. Kage'ntuko. 
Falloie, adj. Prme'sutoo,unploughed. 
Fallow deer, n. Ki'njoi, 
False^ adj. Pro'nti. 2, U pro'ntiri, a 
falsehood, a lie. 3, Fro'nti, bad, 
ill, wrong. 4, Kro'nti, spurious. 
.'), Ka'mprunoo, forged. 6, Fel'pa, 
treacherous. 
Falsehood, n. Pro'ndo. 
Falsify, V. Pro'ntivrost. 
Falter^ v. Fa'nsitai, stammer. 2, 
Bre'nsifai, to stumble. 3, Ge'n- 
tivai, to eiT. 4, Vro'nsLuai fe'lbun, 
to desist treacherously. .5, Gre'n- 
tivai fe'lbun, to omit treacher- 
ously. (5, Bro'nsipai fe'lbun, to 
forsake t reaclierously . 
Fame, n. Ka'mboi, reputation. 2, 
Vra'nta ti'ndl, common narrative. 
3, Vra'nta tri'ndi, common ru- 
mour. 4, Vra'nta bego'nzi, uni- 
versal great praise. 5, Vra'nta 
ka'mboi, common reputation. 
Family, n. O'uzi, blood relations. 

2, (J'nzooz, relations by aiRnity. 

3, Onze'dwis, household. 
Finnish, v. Ba'ntrilcai, to starve Ut 

death. 



FAS 
Famous, adj. Ka'mpufoo, reputed. 
Familiar^ adj. Ko'nsa. 2, Po'mpra, 
customary. 3, Ko'nsa fi-i'nzoo, 
familiar spirit, familiar devil. 
Famine, n. Fe'nsur twa'ndoo, bread 
deficiency. 2, Bre'ndoo enzoo'tu. 
3, Pa'nzoi, hunger. 

jp«w,n. Kunzoi'twuSjWindjugament. 
2, U brinsuto'twus, a winnowing 
jugament. ' 

Fanaticism, n. Bepri'mpukoo, fo'm- 
boi. 2, Dekla'mbo undre'tu. 

Fancy, n. Fo'mboi. 2, Fo'mpukoo 
ge'ndoiz, representations of the 
fancy. 

Fancy, n. Fo'mboi. 2, Vro'nzoi, 
opmion. 3, Defo'mboi, irrational 
fancy. 4, Po'nzoiz, thoughts. .5, 
Ba'mbi. 6, Dera'mbi, bad taste. 
7, Te'nzi, love. 

Fane, n. Bontuso'tus kimzo'tu. 2, 
Ka'nzoi, temple. 

Fang, n. Pwa'ntou Kra'nzo, long 
tooth. 

Fantasy, (see fancy). 

Fantasm, n. Fo'mpufoo'ri : (see 
phantasm) 

Fantastic, adj. Defo'mpou. 2, Dre'm- 
buso fo'mpou. 3, Ve'nduso fo'm- 
pou. 4, Tra'mpi, conceited. 

Far, adj. Fri'ntou. 2, Tri'ntou, 
remote. 

Far, adj. Trintufa'kyu, as far as. 2, 
Trintufa'skyu, so far that. 

Farce, n. U tre'mpa tontrou'ri 

Farcy, n. Wu'mboi pinjoo'tuz. 

Fard, v. Gi'nsinai, to paint. 

Fardle, n. Pino'nzoi, a bundle. 

Fare, n. E'nzoo. 2, E'ndi. 3, Ka'm- 
bis, experience. 

Fareioell, v. Gra'nsikoz, or gransi- 
ko'za, may you prosper ! 

Fare, n. Do'ndri anza'tu. 2, A'nsu- 
noo'roz, the persons canied. 

Farm, n. Pa'nzoo. 

Farm, v. Bo'mprikai, to take to 
farm. 2, Bo'ntrikai, to let a farm. 

Farra, n. Ba'njino. 

Farrier, n. To'ndroi pi'njoodiz. 

Fi(rrow,v. Ta'nsipai, specially swine. 

Farce, v. Drlno'nsifai, v. fill by in- 
thrusting. 

Fart, V. Tre'nsinai. 

Farther, adv. Tri'ndufou. 

Farthermost, adj. Tri'ntufous. 

Farthing, n. Pu'ndi. 

Fascinate, v. Pipa'ntrivai, metapho- 
rically bewitch. 2, Pa'ntrifai, be- 
witch. 

Fashion, n. Ee'ndo. 2, 0'ndis, man- 
ner. 3, Vra'nta po'mbra enza'tuz. 

Fast, adj. Vri'mpus, fixed. 2, Bi'm- 
pus, firm. 

Fast and loose, adj. Dwa'mpa. 

Fast asleep, adj. Tctra'nsou. 
Fast, {hold) V. Teve'ntipai. 
Fast, (tie) V. Tefi'nsifai. 
l''iist, V. Fc'nipifai enxoo'ni. 2, Bu'iu- 
prhiai. 



FEE 
Fast, adj. To'mpu, swift. 
Fastness, n. E'ndris, fortification. 
Fasten, v. Bi'mpigrost. 2, Vri'mpi- 

grost. 
Fastidious, adj. Gapro'nsukai. 2, 

Gagro'nsifai. 3, Gafro'nsivai. 
Fat, (of animal) n. Da'ndoi. 2, 

2, Bo'mbi, general fatness. 3, 
Fi'mba, (of taste or smell). 

Fate, n. Fro'nzoo. 

Fatal, adj. Fro'nsur; (of fate). 2, n. 
Dra'nziprost, causing death. 3, 
Kro'nziprost, causing destruction. 

Fatherly, adj. Fo'nsupur. 

Fatherless, adj. Umfo'nsupoo. 

Father-in-law, n. Fo'nzipur onzol'tu. 

i^af/ier, ^re^n.Po'nzooorpo'nzipur. 

Father, (foster) n. Fo'nzo. 

Father, (god) n. Po'nzo. 

Father, (God, the father,) n. U'ndoo. 

Fathom, n. A'vin tu'ndoiz. 

Fatigue, n. Grende'rit. 

Faucet, n. Dre'nzi. 

Faulchion, n. Fa'utou pra'ntou 
fe'mbri. 

Fault, n. Detwa'ndoo, corrupt defect. 

3, A'mbro, crime capital. 4, A'n- 
dra, crime not capital. 

Fault, (find fault) v. Tra'mpivai. 2, 
Do'nsisai, to reprehend. 3, Bri'n- 
tifai a'ndra. 

Faulter, v. Fa'nsitai, stutter. 2, 
Bre'nsivai, stumble. 3, Ge'ntivai, 
to err. 4, Gre'ntifai, to fail. 

Faulty, adj. Ge'nti. 2, Fro'nti, bad. 

Fawn, V. Dre'mpinai. 

Fawn, n. Kinjoi'twes. 

Favor, v. Fo'nsikai. 2, Pa'ndovis, 

■ countenance. 

Favorite, n. Fo'nsukoo'ro. 

Fealty, n. Fe'mba. 2, Fcmba'tis, 
loyalty sign. 

Fear, n. Vro'nzi. 

For fear that, conj. No'kwin, lest 
that. 2, Nodu'lkwln, in order that 
not: — as, Nodu'lkwin wai fliu 
pre'ntisai, in order that he might 
not go. 

Fearf Illness, n. Gavro'nsuki, apt to 
be afraid. 2, Gavro'nsukrost, apt 
to cause fear. 

Fern, n. Ko'mvoo. 

Fern, (Oak-fern) n. Kro'mvoo. 

Feast, n. Pre'nzoi. 

Feast, n. Bu'ndra. 

Feat, n. Ventuvoo'ri, achievement. 

Feather, n. Po'ndi. 2, Dwinpo'ndi 
vondlko'di, plume. 

Feature, n. Kendo'vis, figm-e man- 
ner. 2, Rendg'vis pando'tu. 

February, n. Kuna'ndis. 

Feasible, adj. Kapi'ntupoo. 2, Ko'n- 
da, possibility. 

Feculant, adj. Tra'ntus. 

Fecundity, n. To'mbis. 

Fee, n. Ea'nziz vumbra'tu, fees of 
oflice. 2, Vo'mbri, wages, 3, 
Kronsusoo'ri, stipend. 

Feebleness, n. Dro'mbi. 



F E V 

Fee-simple, n. Fo'mpruko to'ndra. 

2, Ta'nta to'ndra, absolute right. 
Feed, v. Ba'nsipai. 

Fee-farm, n. Fomprukoo'ri po'ntus 
bontruko'nuri, inheritance subject 
to rent; (the demising thing). 

Feed upon, v. Ba'nsipooti. 

Feeling, n. Bo'nibo, the sensation. 

Feelfof, V. Disde'ntipai bombo'ti. 

Fellow-feeling, u. Dro'nzis. 

Feelers, n, Ko'ndaz. 

Feign, v. Fo'mpifai, fancy. 2, Tre'n- 
tipai, seem. 3, Kra'mpinai, act 
hypocritically. 3, Bebo'nsikai. 

Fell, adj. Kro'mpa, fierce. 

Fell, (to) V. Gri'usitai, to cut down 
trees. 2, Da'nsivrast, specially 
Ke'nzaiti. 

Fellmonger, n. Tandoi'tas. 2, Tan- 
doi'das. 

Fellwort, n. VomViuoo. 

Fellow, adj. Pa'ntu. 2, Ba'ntur. 3, 
Onsa'ro, an equal in rank, &c. 

Fellow, n. Klantu'pro. 

Fellowship, n. Fonza'rit, companion- 
ship. 2, O'mbro, society. 3, Tyel- 
pe'ndoi. 4, Tvolb'onza. 

Felony, n. Ka'ndro. 

Fehni, n. Kantri'ro. 

Felt, adj. Bo'niputoo. 

Female, n. Fro'nibls. 

-?e«, n. Ga'nzoo. 

Fence, n. Kinsufo'ri. 2, Keutufu'ri. 

3, Entrusoo'ri. 4. Penipruvoo'kis. 
Fence, v. Vre'nsikai. 

Fenegreeh, n. Tre'nvo. 

Fennel, n. Pa'mvi. 

Fennel, (Hog's) n. Fa'mvi. 

Fennel, ( Giant) n. Ta'mvi. 

Fennel, (Scortching) n. Pra'nvl. 

Fennel flower, n. Pre'nvi. 

Fermenting, n. Bri'nzis. 

Ferret, ii. Bi'nja. 

Ferret, v. Dwasge'ntipai. 

Ferret out, v. Dwasbre'ntisai me. 

Ferry, n. Pi'mbroo dinza'di. 

i^er?'?/ (the place), Pinipruvoo'kls 
di'nza'zu. 

Fertility, n. To'mbis. 

Fervent, adj. Gra'ntur. 2. Po'nsus, 
zealous. 

jFesse, (in heraldry) n. Gre'ntou Ke- 
no'ndi, a band or girdle possessing 
the third part of the escutcheon. 

Fester, v. Fro'mpiki-ost. 

Festival, n. Bunti-a'gis. 

Festivity, n. Bu'ndra. 

-FefcAj V. Kre'ntisai. 

Fetch breath, v. Tuske'ntipai fensu- 
too'ri. 

Fetch out, V. Mispe'ntigrast. 

Fetch tip, V. Vre'ntisai. 

Fetch, n. Te'ndroo, stratagem. 

Fetid, adj. Pri'mpa. 

Fetter, n. Pinsufo'riz bandc'diz. 

-Pew^?, n. Tri'ntur pronza'rit, old en- 
mity. 

Fever, n. Fu'mboi. 

Fever, (Malignant) n. Tuinboi. 



FIN 

Fever-feu, n. Ta'mvoi. 

Fewness, n. Pra'ndo, paucity. 

i^«V.' charactei-istic, Fi! 

Fib, n. Pepi-e'mba, little lie. 

Fibber, n. Bra'ndoi. 

Fickleness, n. Dwa'mba. 

Fiction, n. Tro'ndoo. 

Fiddle, n. Dre'nsutus. 

Fiddlestick, n. Te'ndi de dre'nsutus. 

Fiddle, V. Dre'nsisai dis dre'nsutus. 

Fidelity, n. Fe'mba. 

Fidget, n. Bro'nta daze'ndis. 

Fiduciary, adj. Po'mpruro, entrusted 
person. 

i^«V/(/, n. Fa'nzoo. 

-f^cW, (^/i-'ee^^ <Aey) v. Te'ntrifai. 

i^iV?r/, (^MWi the) V. Pe'mprifai. 

i^j'e/rf, (quit the) v. Twe'ntrifai. 

Fieldfare, n. Be'njo. 

Fiend, n. Fri'nzoo. 

Fierce, adj. Kro'mpa. 2, Kla'mpi. 
3, Twe'mpur. 

i^^', n. Di-e'nsutus. 

Fifteen, n. Pa'vin. 

Fifty, n. Ba'sin. 

-F'^]??, n. Bu'mvoo. 

Fig, (Indian) n. Tru'mvoo. 

Fight, V. De'ntripai. 

Figment, n. Tro'ntuprii. 

Figulation, n. Rl'nza, moulding pot- 
ters' clay. 

Figure, (sliape) Rc'nd;!. 2, Fe'ntur 
re'n(l(2, lineal figure, scheme. 3, 
Gre'nsus rc'ndo, pictured figure. 

Figure, (rhetorical) n. Di'i'ndo. 

Fill, V. Dl'nsifai. 

Filament, n. Bra'ndoi. 

Filhert, n. Tu'mva. 

Filcli^ V. Peda'mpritai. 

File, V, Fri'nsinai. 

File, (a) n. Frinsuno'tus. 

File, (of soldiers) n. Ke'mbra. 

jFV7taZ, adj. Fro'nsur. 2, Fro'nsupur. 

3, Fro'nsupun. 

Fillet, n. Ve'nza. 2, Ke'nsa ve'nza. 
Filly, n. Tu'ntinur pi'njipet. 
Fillip, V. Da'nontikai, to strike with 

the nail of the finger springiiigly. 
Film, n. Bra'ntou tra'ndoi. 
Filthy, adj. Dra'ntu. 
FiltJiiness, n. Drande'rit. 2, Yle'm- 

boi, slovenliness. 
Filter, v. Kri'nsivai. 
Fin, n. Vo'nda. 
Final, adj. Tri'nti. 
Finch, n. De'nja, chaffinch. 2, Be'n- 

ja, bullfinch. 3, E'nji, goldfinch. 

4, Ve'nja, greenfinch. 

Find, V. Dre'ntipai. 2, Po'mpifai, 

perceive. 3, Fro'nslfai, discover. 

4, Fro'nsitai, invent. 5, Do'nsitai, 

contrive. 
Find, by experience, v. Fro'nsitai 

krendo'ti. 
Find a bill, v. To'nsitai twa'ndi'oi. 
Fine, adj. Go'nti, as Go'nti pu'nzoo, 

unmixed gold. 
Fine, n. Da'ndris. 
Fine, (i)i) adv. Trc'ndi. 



F A S 

Fine, adj. Umpra'ntusoo, deprived 
of its worst part. 2, Unti-a'ntusoo, 
deprived of its sediment. 3, 
Bra'ntou, thin. 4, Dro'mpa; as 
Dro'mpa bo'mboz, fine feelings, 
tender. 5, Vre'mpou, nice, over- 
clean. 6, Va'ntukoo, adorned. 

Finger, n. Da'ndi. 2, A'firin da'ndi, 
fore-fiiuger. 3, A'tirin da'ndi, mid- 
dle finger. 4, A'kirin da'ndi, ring 
finger. 5, A'birin da'ndi, little 
finger. 

Finger, (at one's fingers' ends) adv. 
Teto'mbou, memorially perfect. 

Finger, (light-fingered) adj. Ga- 
da'mpritai. 

Finger, (Ladies -finger) n. Kc'mvo. 

Finical, adj. Vre'mpou. 2, Tra'mpi, 
conceited. 

Finish, V. De'ntivai. 

Finite, adj. Vo'nti. 

Fir, (mate) n. Bu'mvi. 2, Bru'mvi, 
female fir. 

Fire, n. U'nzoo. 

Fire, (bonfire) n. Unon|oo, fire for 
joy. 2, Una'nzoo, fire fortriumph. 

Fire-drake, n. Ku'nzoo. 

Fire, (lambent) n. Vru'nzoo. 

Fire, (St Anthony's) n. Grumboi. 

Fire-stone, n. Tru'njoo, marchasite. 

Firing, n. Fe'nzis, fuel. 

Firkin, n. U'ndi. 

Finn, adj. Bi'mpus. 2, De'mpa, con- 
stant. 

Firmament, n. I'nzoi. 2, Pu'nzoo, 
ether. 

First, adj. A'prin. 2, K'anta, prin- 
cipal. 

Fiscal, adj. Ba'nsu, pertaining to 
revenue. 

Fish, n. A'nji. 

FisJi-hook, n. Ge'nda anje'tuz. 

Fishmonger, n. Anje'tas. 

Fish-pond, n. Va'nzoo. 

i^;sA, V. Do'ntrifai anje'diz. 

Fisherman, n. Do'ndroi. 

i'Tsi, n. Bi'nsukoo to'ndi. 

Fistula, n. Dru'mboo. 

Fit, adj. Vo'ntu. 2, Vo'ndu ru'ntukoo. 
3, Vo'ndu fa'ntukoo. 4, Vo'ndu 
fe'ntuvoo. 5, Vo'ndu fre'ntuvoc 
6, Fon'tu. 7, Do'ntu. 

Fit, (a) n. U gro'ndis. 

Fit, (to) V. Vo'ntikrost. 

^Vfc/(, n. Te'mvoi, (vetch). 2, Kc'm- 
voi, bitter-vetch. 3, De'mvo, (u-im- 
son grass- vetch. 4, Ve'mvo, hatch- 
ed vetch. .5, Tre'mvo, milk-vetch. 
6, Ve'mvoi, yellow wild vetch. 

Fidget, v. Twaze'nsifai. 

Fifchet, n. Bri'nja. 

Fire, adj. A'bin. 

Fire Irundred, adj. Be'sin. 

Fire thousand, adj. Au'bo. 

Five hundred thousand, adj. Bau'sin. 

Fast, adj. Vri'mpus. 2, Gazene'su- 
koo, not apt to be moved. 3, 
Dwapro'nsutoo, intensely observ- 



F L E 

Flagitious, adj. Bere'mpur. 

Flag^ n. Dre'nda, (figure.) 2 Di'n- 
dro, flag of ship. 

Flag, V. O'kai dro'mpu, become weak. 
2, Drompiki. 3, Kro'mpikai, de- 
cay. 4, Vri'mpiki, to be limber. 
f), Vri'mpiki drombe'di. 6, Vri'm- 
piki krombe'di. 7, Tra'nsivai 
vri'mbu. 

Flagon, u. Ve'nti be'nzi. 

Flagrant, adj. Gra'ntm-. 2, Te'mpur. 

Flail, n. Binsuto'tus. 

Flake, u. Ke'ndi. 

Flam, n. Pre'mba. 

Flame, n. Pu'nzoo. 

J'/rtjti, n. Ki'ndo. 2, Bra'nda, part 
of animal. 

Flank, (to) v. Kl'ntitai. 

Flanker, n. Ve'mbris. 

i^/ajj, V. Ki'nsivai. 2, Ki'nsivai yoo'ti 
vri'mpu ke'ndi. 

Flash, V. Gro'ntisai, act suddenly. 

Flash of fire, u. Dwapu'nslpai. 

Flash of loater, n. Dwadi'nza. 

Flashy, adj. Bizu'nsi, waterish. 2, 
Vle'mpa, flashy discourse. 

Flash, n. Fe'uzi dembre'di, box for 
gundowder. 2, A'nza vembre'di. 

Flasket, n. Pwa'ntou fre'nzi unti'n- 
sufoo. 

Flat, adj. Pwl'nzo. 

Flat, adj. Ke'ntu. 2, Tra'ntou. 3, 
Kra'ntou. 4, Dra'nsus. 

Flat-foot, n. Tro'ndi. 

i^fo^, adj. Te'mpur, as, te'mpur klo'm- 
bis, flat perjury. 

Flat, n. Blimbo, (in music). 

Flattery, n. Dre'mba. 2, Gre'mba. 

Flatulent, adj. Ku'nsiki. 2, Bru'm- 
pivrost, to cause to be inflated. 

Flaunt, V. Beva'ntukoo, to be exces- 
sively adorned. 

Flaw, n. Vensuvoo'dwes, broken 
part. 2, Pevensuvoo'dwes, a small 
broken part. 3, Tro'ndo, imper- 
fection. 4, U ve'nsuvoo vri'ndo, 
a broken outer part. 5, Fre'nda 
notch. 

Flaw of wind, n. Dwaki'nzoi. 

Flax, n. Fe'nvi. 

Flay, V. Unta'ntifai. 

Flea, n. Gro'njoo. 

Flea-bane, n. Pra'mvo. 

Flea-wort, n. Kro'mvinoo. 

Flea, (Sea-flea) n. Fro'njoi. 

Flay, V. Unta'ntifai. 

Fleam, n. Vensa'tus. 

Fledge, adj. Po'ntukoo. 

Flee, V. Pife'nsipai, metaphorically 
to fly. 

Fleece, n. To'ndis. 

Fleece, (to) v. Unto'ntisai, unfleecc. 

i?'to, adj. To'mpu. 

Flit, V. Nispre'ntisai. 

Fleet, n. Dwinfi'ndroo. 

i-YcsA, n. Va'ndoi. 

Fleshly, adj. Va'ntou. 2, Do'nti, 3, 
Di'nsou. 4, Frc'mpi. 5, Ra'mpu. 
6,Tra'mpu. 7,Plo'rapi. 8,Ba'nsou. 



FLO 

Fleshy, adj. Va'ntou. 2, Be'ntupo 

bas vandoi'tu. 
Flexible, adj. Vi'mpu. 2, Gafa'nsu- 



koo, apt to 
Fly, V. Fe'nsipai. 2, Twe'mprlfai, 

to fly; routed. 
i^(?/ o?<?, V. Tra'ntipai or tra'ntipi. 2, 

Ki-e'ntikai, squander. 
Fly, (let fly) v. Pre'ntinal fe'nsipai. 

2, Ve'ntrikai. 3, Suske'nsivai, 

strike at. 
Fly, (a) n. Fe'nsupo o'nji. 



Fly, (Crane-fly) n. Go'nja. 
Fly, (Dung-fly) n. Kro'nja. 
Fly, (Flesh-fly) n. Ko'nja 



Fly, ( Shepherd' s-fly) n. Go'nja. 

i^/j/, (Spanish-flyJ n. To'nji, can- 
tharides. 

Fly, (catch fly), n. Fre'mvi. 

Flicker, V. Twasfe'nslpai. 

Flight, n. Fe'nzoo. 

Flinch, V. Ba'nsinai, start. 2, Dwe'm- 
pivai, act cowardly. 3, Fle'mpinai, 
act treacherously. 4, Fre'ntifai 
dwe'mber. 5, Fre'ntifai fle'mbun. 

Fling, v. Pe'nsivai. 

Fling aioay, v. Nispre'ntisai gro'ndus. 

Flint, n. Tu'njoo. 

Flirt, V. Di'ndur Zise'nsikai, to move 
about frequently. 

Flirt, n. U fo'mpa timti'nupet, a 
sprightly young girl. 

Flit, V. Nise'nsikai. 2, Nispre'ntisai. 

Flitter, n. Vre'nsuvoo bra'ndis. 

Flitter-mouse, n. Dwi'njo, bat. 

Flix-weed, n. Pe'nva spe'nda. 

Flock, n. Vra'ndo. 

Flock together, v. O'ntrivai, 

Flook, \n. Ge'nda tindro'tu, .hook 

Fluke, j" of anchor. 

Floor, n. Kra'uzo. 

Florid, adj. Vo'mpu. 2, Ko'mpa. 3, 
Va'ntu, ornamental. 

Float, V. Te'nsipai. 

Float, n. Pino'ndroo, a boat-like 
thing consisting of timber tied 
together. 

Flood, n. Dl'nza. 2, Bezu'nzo, excess 
of water. 3, Tedi'nsinai doo, per- 
fectly to flow throughout. 4, Te- 
di'nsinai zoo, perfectly to flow 
over. 

Flood-gate, n. Fa'nza dinza'di. 2, 
Fra'nzo tiski'usifai u'nzo. 

Flounder, n. Bra'ujinoo. 

Flower, n..Pa'ndis, quintessence. 

Flower, n. Po'ndoi. 

Flower, (bulbous) n. Vo'mva. 

Flower, (tuberous) n, Tro'ravi. 

Flower, (to) v. Po'ntifiii, to blossom. 
2, Dre'nsitai, to powder. 

Flour, n. Pi'nsuvoo vo'ndo. 

Flourish, v. Po'ntlfai. 2,Ko'mpikai, 
to do vigorously. 3, Fra'mpivai, 
to prosper. 4, I'ntikai va'ndu, 
discourse adomedly. 4,Pro'nsivai, 
boast, fi, Fc'ntuvo dre'nzi, prepa- 
ratory music. 

Flout, v. Ta'mprinai. 



F O 

Flow, V. Di'nsinai. 2, Fra'ntlpai, to 
aboimd. 

Flow, n. Trus vri'nza, upward tide. 

Flue, n. Fro'ndis Kinjg'tu. 

Fluctuate, v. Pri'nsinai, to act wave- 
like. 2, Kro'nsinai, to act u-re- 
solutely. 

Fluellin, n. Tre'mvinoi. 

Fluent, adj. Di'nsuuo. 2, Fra'ntur. 

3, Gazi'ntikai, aptly to discourse. 
Fluent, n. Dinsuno'ri, the variable 

quantity in fluxions. 
Fluidness, 1 -dvi i • 
Fluidity, r-^^'"^^'- 
Fluke, n. Ko'uja. 
Flung, V. Fe'nsivel, did fling. 
Flush, adj. Fra'ntur, 2, Ko'mpus, 

mellow, ripe. 3, Bita'ntinai, to 

blush-like. 
Flute, n. Te'ndi drenze'di, pipe for 

music. 
Flutter, V. Twasfe'nsipai, to endea- 
vour to fly. 
Flux, V. Di'nsinai, stream. 2, Fi'nsi- 

vai, melt. 3, E'nsinai, purge. 
Fluxions, n. U ra'ndai vondoo'tu- 

bras. 2, Di'nzino. 3, Fi'nzivo. 

4, E'nzing-. 
Foe, n. Pro'nza. 

Fodder, Pe'nzis, gapra'nsufoo. 2, 
Pre'uzis gapra'nsufoo. 

Fog, n. Fu'nzo ba'ntou. 

Foggy, adj. Fu'nsi. 

Foil, V. Peple'mprivai. 

Foil, (a) n. Kra'nta vo'mbi. 2, 
Tono'ndls, contrast. 

Foiti, V. Kri'nsipai. 

Foist, V. Tusda'nsitai ka'mbrun. 2, 
Va'ntisai gre'ndur. 3, Va'ntisai 
ka'ndrun. 4, Va'ntisai ka'mbrun. 

Fold, n. Bwi'nzi. 2, Punpi'njoi, sheep 
fold. 

Fold, V. Ki'nsifai. 

Foal, n. Twe'nplnjoo, young ot 
horse. 

Foal, V. Ta'nsipai. 

Foliage, n. Brondoi'fis. 

Folio, n. Pra'ntupous drenzai'fis. 2, 
Keno'ndi, page of paper, &c. 

Folks, n. Kondoo'fiz, a number of 
the person kind. 2, Binze'dwis, 
aggregate of human beings. 

Folly, n. Fla'mbis. 

FollotP, V. Vc'ntisai. 2, Te'mprifai, 
pursue. 3, Do'ntrifai, to hunt. 4, 
Bro'nsitai, to follow as a defend- 
ant. 5, Pla'nsikai, wait. 6, De'm- 
pikai, obey. 7, Gre'ntifai, iitiitate. 

Foam, u. Prunzo'dwis. 

Foment, V. Ka'nsipai primbc'ti. 2, 
Fo'nsisai, to encourage. 

Fondness, n. Dwe'mpisai, indulge. 
2, Vre'mba, vanity. 3, Dwe'mbis. 

Font, n. Vuntruso'dus. 

Food, n. E'nzoo. 

Fool, n. Flempai'rg. 

Foolhardy, adj. Dre'mpur. 

Fool, (natural) n. Prompu'ro. 

Fool, V. Ka'ntrinai. 



FOR 

Fool^ (tofo^ with) V. Tro'mpmai. 

Ford, n. Tentusoo'dwes diii^a'tu. 

Foot^ n. Va'ndi. 

Football, n. Kreiisuko'tus. 

Footstep, n. Vande'dis. 

Footstool, n. Prcusuvo'ri vande'di. 

Foot^ V. Va'ntdvai, as, "foot it." 

Foot, 11. Tii'ndoi, twelve inches. 

Foot, (of a verse) n. Krindij'dwes. 

Footing^ n. Vando'kis. 

Foppery, n. Vre'mba. 2, Fla'mbis, 
folly. 

i^or, prep. De or di, for, because of. 
2, Fe or fi, concerning. 3, Ve or 
vi, instead of. 

For a tirne^ adv. Vrl'ndur, transi- 
torily. 

For ever, adv. Tri'ndnr. 

For, conj. Vroo or vrii. 

For all that, conj. Nool or mil, 
although, notwithstanding. 

For fear that, conj. No'kwin, nodu'l- 
kwiu, lest. 

For as much as, conj. Gool, whereas. 



I ^'"•~i^^«,ladv. Del. 
Iior instance, i — 

Forage, n. E'nziz pmjoo'diz. 



Be'mbroi, booty. 
Forage, v. Pe'ntinai e'nziz. 2, Be'm- 

prifai, to obtain booty. 
Forbear, v. Vre'ntivai, abstain. 2, 

Gre'ntivai. 3, Vro'nsinai. 4, Te'n- 

tikai. 5, Ge'mpivai, to act pati- 
ently. 
Forbid, v. Pro'nsikai. " Sint U'ndi 

pro'nsikai," God forbid. 2, 

" Nuse's kwin," let it not be that. 
Force, n. Tro'nza, co-action. 2, 

Bro'ndi, violence. 3, Do'mbi, 

strength. 4, O'mbi, natural force. 

5,Bondoi'rit, efficiency. 6,Bo'nda, 

importance. 
Fore, i..e. ic/we, prep. Coo or cu. 
Fore-appoint, v. Custo'nsinai. 
Fore-arm, v. Cuspe'ntrikai. 
Fore-cast, v. Cusfa'mpinai. 2, Cus- 

do'nsitai. 3, Fo'nsipai, to provide 

for. 
Fore-castle, n. Ki'ndrol. 
Fore-conceived, adj. Cuspo'mpufoo. 

2, Cusfro'nsufoo. 
Fore-deem, v. Cuspa'ntripai. 2, Te'n- 

di pa'ntripai. 
Front door, n. Gi'nti fa'nza. 
Forefather, n. Po'nzoo. 
Fore-foot, n. Gi'ntutous va'ndi. 
Fore-front, adj. Gi'ntutous, most 

front. 2, Fri'ntur, precediug. 
Forehead, n. Va'ndo. 
Forejudge, v. Cuspa'ntripai. 2, Te'n- 

di cuspa'ntripai. 
Foreknow, v. Cusbo'nsifai. 
Foreland, n. Ki'nzo, promontory- 
Foreman, n. Ya'prin kro'ndoo. 2, 
' Kanta'ro, principal person. 
Foremast, n. Ki'mbro. 
Forenoon, n. Gri'ndo bundai'tu. 
Fore-run, v. Cuspre'ntisai. 2, Cus- 

pre'usifai. 

K 



FOR 

Fore-ordain, v. Custo'nsinai. 2, 

Custo'ntrinai. 3, Custo'mprinai. 

4, Cusu'ntrikai. 
Forepart, n. Gi'ndo. 
Fore-runner, n. Be'ndra. 
Fore sail, n. Vli'mbro, mizzen sail. 
Foresee, v. Cuspo'mpltai. 2, Cus- 
bo'nsifai. 
Foreshew, v. Cusge'ntipai. 
Foresight, n. Cuspo'mbito. 2, Fo'n- 

zoo or Pifo'nzoo. 
Foreskin, n. Ga'ndis. 
Forespeak, v. Cuspa'nsitai. 2, Pa'n- 

trimest indoi'tiz, to cause to be 

witched with words. 
Forestall, v. Custo'mprilvai. 2, Te'n- 

di to'mprlkai. 
Foreteeth, n. Gi'nti kra'ndoz. 
Foretell, v. Pu'mprifai. 2, Pispu'm- 

prifai. 
Forethink, v. Cuspo'nslfai. 2, Cus- 

pro'nsifai. 
Foretoken, n. Cusbo'ndis. 
Forelock, n. Gi'nti po'ndis. 
Forewarn, v. Cuskro'nsikai. 
Forfeit,^. Unontrinoi, to be unright- 

ed; i.e. deprived of one's right to 

something. 2, Fre'ntikai o'ndra. 

3, Fre'ntikai o'ndra a'mbrur, i. e. 

penally. 4, Fre'ntikai da'mbristi 

or dambraj'ti, confiscation. 
Forge, v. Bi'usinai, fabricate. 2, 

Ka'mprinai. 3,Tro'ntipai, tofeigni, 

act fictitiously. 
Forge, (a) n. Vuno'nzoo, shop of 

iron mechanic. 
Forget, v. Tro'mpifai. 
Forgetfidriess, n. Tro'mboi. 
Forgive, (as crime) v. Ta'mprifai. 
Forgive, (as debt) v. Tre'ntlnai. 
Forego, v. Una'nsikai. 
Forego, voluntarily, v. Vre'ntipai, 

let go. 2, Bro'nsipoi, left to evil. 

3, Fre'ntifai, abandon. 4, Fre'n- 
tikai. 
Fork, (the figure) Gre'nda. 2, 

(instrument) Grenta'tus. 
Fork, (pitch) n. Grenta'tus penzi'sti. 
Forlorn, adj. Kro'nsupoo. 2, Gro'n- 

sukoo. 3, Bro'nsupoo. 
Forlorn hope, n. Va'mbra. 
Form, n. Dro'ndoi, (essence). 2, 

O'ndis, mode-manner. 
Form, n. T'injos di-a'nzis. 2, Tinjtj'- 

kis. 3, Gwe'ndi, a form, i. e. a 

a seat. 
Formal cause, n. Dro'ndoi (essence). 
Formalitg, n. Rendo'vis, form-man- 
ner. 2, Vre'mba. 
Former, adj. Fri'ntur. 
Formerly, adv. Pli'ndur. 
Formidable, adj Gavro'nsukoo, apt 

to be feared. 
Foremost, adj. A'prin. 
Formulary, n. To'iisunoo re'ndo. 

2, Vri'ndi. 
Fornication, n. Fa'ndra. 
Foreign, adj. Tro'nsa. 
Foreigner, n- Tro'nza. 



F U 

Forest, n. Fra'nzoo. 

Forsake, v. Bro'nsipai, (by God.) 2, 
Fre'ntifai, (by man). 3, Tre'nti- 
pai, abdicate, disclaim. 4, Forego, 
(see it). 5, Vu'mpritai, to apos- 
tatize. 

Forsooth, adv. Po'ndi, truly. 2, 
(interjection,) Gri'ntur. 

Forswear, v. Bisko'ntrisai, swear 
against. 2, Fri'ntisai krontusoo- 
puri, deny with an oath. 3, Tre'n- 
tipai krontusoo'puri. 4, Bro'nsinai 
krontusoo'puri. 5, Kro'ntisai 
pro'ndi. 

Fort, n. Fa'ndi-is. 

Forth, prep. Me or mi. 2, Too or 
tu. 

Forthcoming, n. Kakre'ntusoo. 2, 
Fe'ntuvoo pe'ntisai. 

Forthwith, adv. Ki'ndur. 

Forty, n. Ka'sin. 

Fortify, V. Do'mpikai. 2, E'ntrisai. 

Fortitude, n. De'mboo. 

Fortress, n. Fe'ndris. 

Fortuituous, adj. Flo'nsur, happen- 
ing by chance. 

Fortunateness, n. Teflo'nzoo, perfect 
fortune. 2, Fa'mboo. 

Fortune, n. Flo'nzoo. 

Fortune-teller, n. Cu'sgansuto"r(i en- 
de'fiz. 

Forward, adv. Gi'nti. 2, Ta'mpra. 
3, Bepo'nsa or bepo'nsunoo. 4, 
Tefe'ntuvoo. 5, Tete'ntiivoo. 

Forward, (to) v. Bo'ntifai. 2, Fcn- 
tigrast. 3, Bc'ntivai. 

Forward, (to egg forward) v. Fon- 
tifai. 

Forward, adv. Dre. 2, Droo di-e- 
kwi, backwards and forwards. 

Forward, (going) n. E'ndis gi'ndi. 

2, Fe'ndis. 
Foss, n. Dre'udi. 

Fosset, (fawcet) n. Dre'nzi. 
Foster father or mother, n. Fo'nzo. 
Foster father, n. Fo'nzitur. 
Foster mother, n. Fo'nzitun. 
Foster child, Fro'nzitur, (male). 2, 

Fro'nzitun, (female). 3, Fro'nzoo, 

(either). 
Foster brother, Tyel fro'nzo. 
Fotion, n. Ka'nzoo, education. 
Foul, adj. Dra'ntukoo. 2, Vro'mpu. 

3, Re'mpur, 4, Yle'mpou. 
Foiols, n. E'njiz. 

Foul, (to) V. Vra'ntimost. 2, Dontri- 

fai e'njiz. 
Found, V. Ka'nsitai 2, Bri'nsinai. 
Foundation, n. Ka'nzo. 
Founder, n. Kansuto'ro. 2, K;uisu- 

to'tas. 
Founder, (to) v. O'kai pre'nsur. 2, 

Gapre'nsupo. 
Foundling, n. Grentupoo'ro. 
Fountain, n. Tri'nza. 
i^OMJ-, n. A'kin. 
Fourfold, adj. A'krit, i. e. multiplied 

by four. 
Fourscore, n. Ga'sin. 



FEE 

Fox, n. Fi'nji. 

Fox-fish, n. Dra'njoo. 

Foxglove, n. De'mviiioo. 

Fox-tail^ n. Fo'mvo. 

Fraction^ n. Ve'nzis. 2, Veno'nzis, 

in arithmetic, any number divided 

by another, as ^ i. e. two divided 

by one. 
Fracture^ v. Ve'nsivai. 
Fragment, n. Bra'ndis. 
Fray, n. Ge'ndroo. 2, Pede'ndroo. 
i^/-a?/, V. Vro'nsikrast, (aflFray). 
Freight^ n. Ea'nza findroo'tu. 2, 

Vo'mbri anza'di. 
i^miY, adj. Bli'mpus, brittle. 2, Vri'n- 

tur. 
Frail, (a) n. Be'nti fre'nzi frouv(j'tuz. 
Frame, n. Pa'nzo. 
Frame, n. Ga'nzis, machine. 2, Ta'n- 

zis, jugament. 
Frame, (in a) adj. Tefa'ntukoo. 
Frame, (out of) adj, Tefra'ntukoo. 
Frame, (to) v. Po'ntifai, make. 2, 

Tro'ntlpai, act fictitiously. 3,Do'n- 

sitai, contrive. 4, A'nsifai. 5, 

Vo'ntikrost, make congruous. 
Franchise, n. Do'mbra. 
Frank, adj. Ke'mpa. 
Frankincense,n. Tu'mvinoi (the tree). 

2, Vro'ndoo tumvinoi'tu. 
Frantic, adj. Pu'mpa. 
Fraternity, n. Do'ndro. 
Fraud, n. Ka'ndra. 
Fraudulent, adj. Ka'ntra. 
Fraught, adj. Ra'nsmioo, loaded. 2, 

Dinsou, full. 
Fraxinella, n. Pre'mvoo. 
Freak, n. Trampi'ri. 2, Vlempa'ri. 
Freckle, n. Peliri'mpuri fri'mpou 

(contracted). 2, Brino'mboo, a 

little yellow spot. 
Free, adj. Pa'mpou, personally free. 

2, Go'nsa, free as to the will. 3, 
Tame'broo. 4,Tome'broo. 5,Bo'n- 
supoo. 

ft, prep, 
j. To'nsi 

Ta'mpa. 3, Undre'ntou. 4, Pe'm- 

pi. 5, Ke'mpa fra'mbi. 
Freebooter, n. Bemprou'ro. 
Freehold, n. TImbo'ntrukoo o'ndra. 
Freeman, n. Gone'droo, not a villain. 

2,'Vo'ndroo, citizen. 3, Tompra'ro. 

4, Dompra'ro. 
Freedom, n. Pa'mboi. 2, To'mbra. 

3, Do'mbra. 

Freemason, n. Uno'nji, one of the, 

fraternity of Masons. 
Freestone, n. Pu'njoo. 
Frieze, n. Pi'mboi (gray colour). 
Freeze, v. Ku'nsitai. 
Freight, n. Ra'nza findroo'tu. 
Frenzy, n. Pu'mba. 
Frequent, v. Di'ndur pe'ntisai pren- 

tisai'twi. 



Free from, prep. Pe or Pi. 

Free, adj. To'nsa, spontaneous. 2 



FEU 
Frequent, adj. Di'ntur. 
Fresh, adj. Ti'ntur. 2, Ko'mpu. 
Freshen, v. Ti'ntiprost. 
Freshman, n. Ti'ntur tro'nzo. 2, Ti'n- 

dur pentusi'ro, new comer. 3, 

U'nkampusoo"ro, an inexperienced 

person. 
Fresh taste, adj. Vi'mpa. 2, Bri'mpa. 
Fret, V. Gi'nsikal, rub. 2, Ti'nsivai, 

corrode. 3, Unta'ntifai ginziko'ti. 

4, Unta'ntifai tinzivo'ti. 5, Tro'm- 

pikai ginziko'ti. T), Tro'mpikai tm- 

zivo'ti. 7, To'nsikai. 
Freshwater soldier, n. Pe'mvis. 
Fresh, (afresh) adv. Ve'ndou, with 

repetition. 
Fretum, n. Bi'nza. 
Fry, n. Fronzoo'dwis, specially an- 

je'tuz. 
Fry, V. Ke'nsitai. 
FricassS, n. Kensutoo'ri. 
Friction, n. Gi'nzi. 
Friday, n. Bima'ldis. 
Friend, n. Po'nza. 
Friendship, n. Ponza'rit. 
Friar, n. Tu'ndroi, moidv. 
Friar s cowl, ( broad-leaved) n. Do'm- 

vi. 2, (narrow-leaved) Dro'mvi. 
Fright, n. U vro'nzikrast, a causing 

to fear. 
Frigate, n. Fwi'ndroo. 
Frigid, adj. Pli'mpu. 2, Kra'mpi. 
Fringe, n. Ve'ntunoo fe'ndoo. 
Frippery, n. Kla'nturi. 
Frisk, adj. Dabe'nsipai. 2, Go'rabu 

be'nsipai. 
Fritter, n. Ke'nsutoo bifre'nzoo. 
Frittillary, n. Tro'mva. 
Frivolousness, n. Bro'nda. 
Frizzle, v. Bri'nsitai. 
i^ro, (see from). 
Frock, n. Vrinti'fus. 
Frog, n. Fi'njis. 
Frolic, n. Ko'nzi. 2, Beko'nzi. 
From, prep. Ne or ni. 
i^/'oni henceforth, adv. go'ni. 
Front, n. Va'ndo. 2, Gi"ndo, fore- 
part. 
Frontier, n. Kri'ndo. 
Frontispiece, n. Gi'ndo, fore-part. 
Frontlet, n. Vando'fus. 
i^j-os<, n. Ku'nzo. 
Froth, n. Prunzo'dwis. 
Frowardness, n. Pro'mba, disingenu- 

ousness. 2, Dwe'mba, moroscness. 
Frown, n. Fra'nza. 
Frozen, adj. Ku'nsutoo. 
Fructify, v. To'mpigrost, to make 

fruitful. 
Frugality, n. Te'mbo. 
i^/'M/*, n. O'ndo. 2, Ron'doi, effect. 

3, E'ndi, event. 4, Po'nda, profit. 
Fruitfulness, n. Trombis. 
Fruitless, adj. Umpro'nta. 2,Bro'nta. 



F U Z 

Fruiterer, n. Oudo'das. 
Fruition, n. Tede'ndi. 
Frumenty, n. Be'nzoo pomvoi'tulit, 

pottage of wheat seed. 
Frustration, n. Pre'ndi. 
Fuddle, v. Vetre'mpifai. 
-F?«e?, n. Fe'nzis. 
Fugitive, (a) Twemprufo'ro, flying 

from danger. 2, Telprufo'ro, one 

flying from duty. 3, Frentufo'ro, 

aba'ndoning. 4, Vu'mbro. apos- 

tacy. 
Full, adj. Dl'nsou. 2, A'ntus, whole. 

3, Ta'ntur. 4, To'nti. 
Full moon, n. Gine'nzoi. 
Full, (to full cloth) Ti'nsikai. 
Fulfil, V. Vc'ntivai. 2, De'ntivai. 
Fuliginous, adj. Tru'nsa. 
Fuller, n. Tinsuko'ro. 
Fulsome, adj. Vepi'mpou. 2, Kro'm- 

pufrost. 
Fumble, v. Deta'ntitai, grope. 
Fume, n. Tu'nzoi. 2, Fu'nzoi. 3, 

Bo'nzis, indigestion. 
Fumigation, n. Tru'nzoi. 
Fumitory, n. Kre'mvo. 
Function, n. O'ndroi. calling. 2, 

Vo'ndi-a, oflSce, duty. 3, Va'ntu 

do'ndooz, as the functions of the 

brain, nerves, heart, &c. 
Fundament, n. Gr'anda. 
Fundamental, adj. Ka'nsi. 2, Kra'nta. 

3, Go'ntu. 
Funeral, n. Tu'ndra, burial. 2, Tu'n- 

tra tro'ndis. 
Fungous, adj. Ro'nti. 2, Pe'ntus. 3, 

Po'nfur, .spongy. 
Funnel, n. De'ntidus jus grinzifo'di. 
Fur, n. Tondis. 
Furring, n. TI'mbris. 
Furbish, V. Ti'mpivrost. 
Fury, n. Bct'onzi. 
Furies, (the) n. FrI'nzipunz, female 

devils. 
Furl, V. Vino'ntrivai, to wrap the 

sail close to the yard-stay or mast. 
Furnace, n. Finsuvo'kis unze'di. 
Furnace, n. Befensuto'kis unzo'di. 
Furnace-hole, n. De'mbris. 
Furnish, v. Fre'ntivai. 
Furniture, n. Frcntuvo'ri. 2, E'nziz, 

3, Re'nza, 4, A'nzaiz. 
Furrier, n. Tondal'tas. 2,Ton(lai'das, 
Furrow, n. Dre'ndi. 
Furthermiore, conj. Kwel or Kwe'l- 

kwi. 
Further, (to) v. Bo'ntifai, help. 
Furz, n. Gri'mva. 
Fusil, n. Ve'ndi-i, firelock. 
Fusty, adj. Di'mpa, musty. 
Fustian, n. Wo'ldoo krcnsa'turi. 
Fustian, n.Wi'mputoo o'ndis indc'tn. 
Future, adj. Pr'intur. 
Fuzball, n. Fro'nivoo. 



G. 



(i A P 
Gahardin, n. Klantu'rfus. 
Gabble, n. Unri'ntufoo bre'mba. 
Gable, n. To'ndri, tribute. 
Gabion, u. Te'mbris. 
Gahle end, n. Tri'ndo ganzo'tu. 
Gad, n. Pe'nda. 
Gad, V. Tre'ntisai. 
(?o(7, V. Krino'uzoo, an instrument 

thrust into the mouth to prevent 

speaking or shouting. 
Gac/e, n. Do'ndris, pledge. 
Gage, v. Kre'ntivai ta'ndoi. 2, 

Kre'ntivai ru'ndoi. 3, Fo'nsifai 

ta'ndoi rundoi'twi. - 
Gaggle, v. Keprenci'nitai 
Gay, adj. Veva'ntukoo. 
Gain, n. Fe'ndi. 
Gain, v. Pe'ntikai, obtain. 2, Dra'n- 

tipai, increase. 
Gainsay, v. Bispa'nsitai. 2, Fri'nti- 

sai. '6, Kri'ntisai. 
Galades, n. Tro'njinoi. 
Galangal, n. Fo'nvo. 
Galbula, n. Ge'njo. 
Gentle gale, n. Vu'nzis. 
Gale, (stiff) n. Du'nzis. 
Galiot, n. Ki'ndroo. 
GalingaU, n. Fo'nvo. 
<?«;?, n Vra'ndoo. 2, Dra'ndis vra'n- 

dootu. 3, Ro'ndo purave'tu. 
Gall, V. Unta'ntifai. 2, Pa'ntrinal. 

3, Pro'ntinai. 4, To'nsikai. 5, 

specially ginze'ti vende'twi. 
Gallant, adj. Veva'ntukoo. 2, Ve- 

ge'ntur, excessively shewy. 3, 

Kra'ntur. 
Galley, n. Ti'ndroo. 
Gallipot, n. Pebe'nzi kendlfo'di 

two'ndroi. 
Gallery, n. Pwensutbo'dus. 2, 

Vro'ntu gro'ndo. 
Gallinula serica, n. Tre'njinoi. 
Galliot, n. Peti'ndroo ; (sec galley). 
GalocJie, n. Vri'ntutous vande'fus. 
Gallon, n. Ku'nd(2. 
Galloping, v. Preno'nzoi, moving 

by leaps, as a horse. 
Gallows, n. Gantruko'twus. 
Galls, n. Bu'mvi. 

Gambadoes, n. Bando'bus de'nzoidi. 
Gambol, n. Dondoo'rit. 2, Dondoo- 

rit bande'puz. 3, Trompa'ri. 4, 

Bronta'ri. 
Game, n. lie'nzi. 
Gamester, n. Renza'tas. 
Gamesome, adj. Tro'mpa. 
Gammon, n. Ba'udI ginjoi'tu, speci- 
ally smoked. 
Ganck, v. Twa'mprlkai. 
Gander, n. Prenji'nitur, male goose. 
Gang, n. O'ndroo. 2, To'mbro. 
n. Tu'mbo. 
, n. Gu'mboo. 
Gap, n. Fre'nda. 



GEN 

Gap, n. Krinsou'kis po'ntufoo ve'n- 
ziso'ti. 

Gape, v. Bekri'nsifai, specially tlie 
mouth. 

Gape after, v. Bedro'nsitai. 2, Dwa- 
dro'nsitai. 3, Ve'nsitai, to yawn. 

Garb, n. O'ndis enza'tu. 2, O'ndis 
anze'tu. 

Garbage, n. Kra'ndaiz. 2, Pra'ndis. 

Garble, v. Umpra'ntisai. 2, Um- 
pra'ntisai prinzai'ti; as, Umpra'n- 
tisai ke'nzoiz. 

Garden, n. Ta'nzoo. 

Gargle, v. Pano'ntisai, to wash the 
top of the gullet or windpipe. 

Garnish, adj. Veva'ntikai. 

Garland, n. Ano'ndo, wreath of 
flowers, feathers, or other orna- 
ments, round the brows. 

Garlick, n. Po'nva. 

Garment, n. Wansa'ri, a vest thing. 

Garner, n. Bentuko'dus vondo'di. 

Garnish, v. Va'ntikai. 

Garret, n. Duka'ntufous. 

Garrison, n. Pe'mbris. 

Garrulity, n. Bre'mba. 

Garter, n. Ve'nza bande'di. 2, Piii- 
sufo'fus. 

Gash, V. Bre'nsitai. 

Gasj), V. Vle'nsitai, gape for bi-eath. 

Gastly, adj. Vro'nsukrost. 2, Be- 
tra'nsa, very pale. 

Gate, n. Fra'nza. 

Gait, n. Penzoo'vis. 

Gather, v. Bi'nsifai, collect. 2, 
Pran'tivrost. 3, 0'ntrivai. 4, Fri'n- 
slvai. 

Gaud, n. Bronta'ri. 

Gaudy, adj. Veva'ntukoo. 

Gaudy, (a) n. U pe'nzoi. 

Gauntlet, n. Tande'vus. 

Gavelkind, v. Ra'ntisai fomprukoo'ri 
ba'ndur. 

Gaunt, adj. Bebro'mpu, very lean. 

fraze, V. Dwafa'ntitai. 

Gazehound, n. Pi'nji do'ntrufo po'm- 
boti. 

Gazel, n. Wo'ldoo prinjoi'tu. 

Gazette, n. T'intur ti'nturi, new- 
narration thing. 

G^ear, n. Fentukoo'riz. 

Geese, n. Pre'njinoz. 

Gelder rose, n. Fu'nvoi. 

fre%, n. Bre'nzoo. 

Gem, n. U'njo. 

Gehider, n. Po'mbis. 

Gender, v. Pa'nslpai. 

General, adj. Kranti. 2, O'ntur, 
generic. 3, A'ntus, all, whole. 4, 
Vra'nta, common. 5, Tra'nti, 
universal. 6, U le'ndro, a general 
(of army) 7, Tu'ndrois Kanta'fas. 

Generative poioers, n. O'mbiz pan- 
zoo'tu. 



G I G 

Generation, n. Pa'nzoo. 2, Pronzoo- 

dwis. 3, Ru'ndiuoo, age. 
Genealogy, n. Dro'ndo ponzoo'tuz. 
Generosity, n. Kc'mbo. 
Genesis, (the) u. Py'anzoo. 
Genet, n. Pi'njoo tu Spain. 
Genial, adj. Bu'ntra. 
Genitals, n. Ga'ndaiz. 
Genius, n. O'mba omboo'tu 2, Ra'm- 

bi, disposition. 3, Va'nta fi'nzoo. 

4, Va'nta fri'nzoo. 
Gentian, n. Vo'mviuoo. 
Gentian, (Dwarf-gentian) n. Vro'm- 

vinoo. 
Gentile, n. Fru'ntupro. 
Gentle, n. Bro'njoo, maggot. 
Genteel, adj. To'mprm-. 
Gentle, adj. Bo'ntu. 2, Ko'mpa. 3, 

De'mpa. 4, Ge'rapus. 5, Pe'mpus. 

6,Te'mpus. 7, Ko'ntu. 8,Gla'ntur. 
Gentleman, n. To'mbroo. 
Gentlewoman, n. To'mbripun. 
Gentry, n. Tombroo'fis. 2, Tom- 

broo'dwis. 
Genuflexion, n. Va'nzis. 2, v. Vra'ii- 

sivai, to kneel. 
Genuine, adj. Ko'nti. 
Genus, w- O'ndoo. 
Geography, n. Dinzoi'bras. 
Geometra, n. Do'njo. 
Geometry, n. Ende'bras. 
Georgia, adj. In'si. 
German, (cousin) n. Bo'nzoo. 
Germander, n. Fa'mvis. 
Germander, (Tree-germander) n. 

Fra'mvis. 
Germander, (Water-germander,) n. 

Ta'mvinoo. 
Germinate, v. Bo'ntifai. 
Gerund, n. Ti'ndoi do'ntur, dron- 

tu'rkwi. 
Gesticulation, n. Beza'nziso. 2, Vez- 
I a'nziso. 

j Gesture, n. A'nzis. 
I (?e<, V. Fe'ntikai. 2. Pe'ntikai. 
Gewgaw, n. Bronta'ri. 
Ghost, n. I'nzoo. 

Glioftf, (to (fire vp the) v. Dra'nsipai. 
67/,«(', ^ //,-'//// n. U'ndo. 
! 6'/,/,/^, n. ISc'kn.'udoo. 

Gibberish, n. Unrl'ntufo pa'nzo. 

Gibbet, n. Gantrulto'twus. 

Gibbous, adj. Te'nta. 

G^i7*e, V. Ta'mprinai. 

Giblets, n. A'ndaiz. 2, Gapra'nsufoo 

a'ndaiz. 
Giddy, adj Bu'mpa. 2, Defo'mpou, 

perverted fancy. 3, Tro'mpa. 4, 

Ti-a'mpi. 5, Dra'mpa, inconstant. 
i Giddiness, n. Bu'mba. 
Gift, n. Kentunoo'ri. 
G*;"/); of God, n. A'mbil. 
Gigantic, adj. Bekro'ntur 2, Ve- 

kro'ntur. 



G L I 
Gig, n. U trampi'ri. 
G-iggle,\. Data'nsinai. 2, Beta'nsinai. 

3, Veta'nsinai. 

Gild, V. I'mpifai pimzoo'ti- 

Gill of bird, n. Dro'ndi. 

Gill offish' n. To'nda. 

Gillyflower^ n. Pe'rnvi. 

Gilty floicer, (Sea) n. Kra'nvoi. 

Gilly flower^ (Stocli) n. Pe'niva. 

Gillyflou-er, (Wall) n. Pre'mva. 

Gilt-head, n. Pa'nji. 

Gimlet, n. U pla'ntur tinsuno'tiis. 

Gin, n. Ga'nzis. 2, Gra'nzis. 

Gingerly, adv. Bo'ndu imbo'pi. 2, 

Tro'mbu imbo'pi. 
Gingle, l^ajn. Pwefi'mbo. 2,Tra'm- 

pi i'ndoiz. 
Giraffe, n. Dl'njoi. 
Girdle, n. Glis pinsufo'fus. 
Girl, n. Puuti'uupim, pet. 
Give up, V. Pe'ntiuai. 2, Prc'utiiial. 
Give hack, v. Druspre'ntisai. 
Give over, v. Vro'nsinai. 2, Vro'n- 

sisai. 
Give alms, v. Be'mpitai. 
Give ear, v. Twiifo'mpitai. 2, Pro'n- 

sitai fi-an(lo'ti. 
Give ones m,ind to, v. Bera'mpiikoo. 
Give to understand, v. Bo'nsifrast. 
Gives, n. Pinsufo'riz bande'diz. 
Gizzard, n. Kra'ndis anje'tuz. 
Glad, adj. Ko'nsu. 2, Ta'inpi cheer- 
fill. 3, Do'nsa, in a state of delight. 
Gladden, v. Ko'nsikrost. 2, Ta'm- 

pitrost. 3, Do'nsimost. 
Glade, n. U kinso'ukis yoo'du da'n- 

zoo. 
Gladiator, n. Vrensuko'ro. 
Glaive, n. Pwa'ntou fe'mbri. 
Glance, v. Dwabe'nti-ikai ge'ndou, 

i. e. suddenly to dart obliquely. 

2, Dwafa'ntitai. 3, Dwafre'ntisai. 

4, Petri'ntiuai. 
Glandule, n. Dra'ndoi. 
Glands, n. Ko'ndoz. 
Glass, n. Kru'njoi. 

Glass, (drinking) n. Fransufo tre'nzi. 
Glass, (looking) (mirror) n. Ten'on- 

doi, a reflecting surface by which 

images may be seen. 
Glaucus, n. Tra'njoo. 2, Pra'nja. 
Glave, (see glaive). 
Glavering, n. Dremba. 
Glaze, V. Kni'ncifai. 2, Ki'usifai 

knmjoi'ti. 3, Va'nsitai kruujoi'ti. 

4, Ti'mpivai.* 
Glazier, n. Krunjoi'tas. 
Glean, v. Bi'nsifai frentufoo'riz. 
tr/e/;e,n.A'nzoo. 2,Fu'ndroisan'zoo. 
Glede, n. Fre'ujoo. 
67w,n. Ko'nzi. 2, Ko'nsu bansutoo'ri. 
Glib, adj. Fri'mpus. 2, Kli'mpus, 

slippery. 
Glide, n. Fre'njoo. 
Glimmer, v. JBra'nzun i'mpivrost, 

trembhngly to enlighten. 
Glimpse, n. Gro'ntus pezi'mboo, a 

sudden little hght. 
Glistening, n. Bra'nsuno tl'mboo. 



GOB 

Glitter, v. Ti'mpivai. 

Globe, n. Di'nzoi. 2, Be'udo, sphere. 

Globe-fish, n. Pa'njinoi. 

Gloomy, adj. Fu'nsi. 2, Pepli'mpur, 
3, Tri'mboo. 

Glory, n. Ba'ntu go'nzi. 2, Ba'ntu 
ka'mboi. 3, Tra'uti go'nzi. 4, 
Tra'nti ka'mboi. 5, Tino'mboo, 
splendor, magnificence. 

Glory, (to) v. Pro'nsivai. 

Glorify, v. Tino'mprivi-ost. 

Gloss, n. Pevi'udi. 2, Peti'mboo. 

Glote, V. Fa'ntitai ge'ndou. 

Glove, adj. Tande'fus. 

Glove, (Fox-glove) n. De'mvinoo. 

G^foif, V. Pri'mpikai. 2, Ti'mpivai 
pri'mbou. 3, Ti'mpivai bizu'nzoo. 

Glow-ivorm, n. Bo'njoo. 

Glow-fiy, n. Tro'nji. 

frfosc, V. Gre'mpinai. 

Glue, V. Kri'nsinai. 

<?^!<e, n. Krinsimo'ri. 

Gluey, adj. Kri'mpus. 

(r/i<f, V. Bedi'nsifai. 2, Kro'mplfi-ast 
fra'ndooti, to make to loathe by 
abundance. 

Glutinous, adj. Kri'mpus. 

Gluttony, n. Fre'mboi. 

Glyster, (see clyster). 

Gnash, V. Krauo'ntitai, to strike the 
teeth together. 

Gnat, n. Bro'nja. 

Gnaw, V. Be'nsinai. 2, Twnkra'nti- 
tai. 3, Ti'nsivai, corrode. 

Gnomon, n. Pe'nda; specially sha- 
dowing the time upon a sun-dial. 

Go, V. E'ntisai, to pass in any direc- 
tion. 2, E'nsipai, as an animal 
generally. 3, E'nsifai, as an ani- 
mal on its legs. 

Go on toes, v. Te'nsifai, stalk. 2, 
Pe'nsifai, walk. 3, Pre'ntisai, 
depart. 

Go about a thing, v. Take'ntivai, 
begin to endeavour. 

Go, (it goes against me to do if) v. 
Au fro'nsino pintipai'es, I would 
not do it. 

Go astray, v. Ge'ntlvai. 

Go back, v. Dnis pre'ntisai. 

Go beyond, (in excellence) O'kai 
bra'ntur. 2, Ka'ntrisai, defraud. 

Go through loith it, v. Dentivai'es. 

Go to! V. Pre'ntisoz! imperative, 
depart! 2, Pre'ntisoz inze'nu! or 
.endo'nu. 

Goad, n. Pa'ntou drensai'tiis. 

Goal, n. Fontusoo'kis, "the place 
which has been fixed upon as the 
object. 2, Yo'ndoi, the end. 

Goat, n. Fri'njoi. 

Goafs-beard, n. Ta'nvo. 

Goal-chafer, n. To'nji. 

Goat-sucker, n. Klenjoo'fis. 

Goat, S^<^pi^^9 'jo^^t, I B'ensupo 
' (^capra saltans, ^ tri'njoi or 
Bu'nzoo. 

Gobbet, n. Ka'ndis, lump. 2, Bra'n- 
dis, fi-a'gment. 



GOV 

Gobble, V. Dre'nsitai bo'mbmi, swal- 
low greedily. 

Gobius marinus, n. Da'njo. 

Goblet, n. Betre'nzi. 

Goblin, n. Bifri'ngur tro'nturik. 

God, n. U'udi. 

Godhead, n. Unde'rit, abstract of 
God, divinity. 

God faction of J, O'nzoo. 

God the Father, n. U'ndoo. 

God the Son, n. U'ndoi. 

God the Holy Ghost, U'ndo. 

Godchild, n. Pro'nzo. 

Godfather, n. Ponzo. 

Godmother, n. Po'nzitun. 

Godless, adj. Ka'mpul. 2, Fra'mpu, 
unholy. 

Godliness, n. Fa'mbi. 2, U'ndroo, 
religion. 3, U'ndra, worship. 

Godwit, n. Gre'njinoo. 

Goggle-eyed, adj. Te'ndim fra'ntutoo. 

Gold of jjleasure, n. Gre'mvis. 

Gold, n. Pu'nzoo. 2, Punzoo'kis, 
gold mine. 3, Punzoofas, gold 
mechanic. 4, Punzoo'vas, gold 
merchant. 

Golden rod, n. Gra'mvo. 

Gone, adj. or part. Pre'ntusoo. 

Good, adj. Fro'nti. 2, Po'nta. 3, 
Ta'ntur. 4, Ro'nta, convenient. 
5, To'nti. 6, Pra'mpm*. 

Good luck, n. Fa'mboi. 

Good turn, n. Gonsi'ri, benefactor 
thing. 

Good will, n. Fo'nzi, favor. 

Goodly, adj. Vo'mpu. 

Goodness, n. Ke'mboo. 

Goods, n. A'nzi. 2, E'nzi, provisions, 
household stufl". 

Goose, n. Pre'njino. 2, Tu'ntus pre'n- 
jinoo. 

Goose, C Soland) n. Ke'njino. 

Gooseberry tree, n. Ti'mvoo. 

Goosefoot, n. Tra'mvoo. 

Gorbellied, adj. Te'ndim va'ntunoo. 

Gore, n. Fri'nsuvoo ba'ndoo. 2, 
Ku'nsutoo ba'ndoo. 3, Bre'nsupoo 
ba'ndoo. 

Gore, (to J v. Yre'nsivai vondi'sti or 
vondai'ti. 

Gorge, n. Pa'ndis. 2, Ka'ndis, sto- 
mach, specially enje'tu. 

Gorge, (to J v. Ba'nsipai. 2, Di'nsi- 
fai. 

Gorgeous, adj. Beva'ntukoo. 

Gorget, n. Pa'nda'vus, neck armour. 
2, Kenza'fiis prande'di. 

Gosling, n. Pepre'njmo. 

Gospel, n. Tumprou'i-i. 

Goshawk, n. I pra'ntupous fe'njoo 
vis on pa'ntou fo'ndiz. 

C'ossipjn. Fi-o'nzoos po'nzitur, child's 
godfather. 2, Fo'nza konzedi. 

Gossiping, n. Bi'nzikuns oiidro kon- 
ze'di. 

Govern, (to J v. Po'ntripai, act as 
magistrate. 2, Vo'ntrinai, to act 
authoritatively. 3, Po'nsisai, di- 
rect. 



G E A 
Governance, (good) n. Be'mbis. 
Governance, (ill) ii. Bre'mbis. 
Governor, n. Po'ndroo, magistrate. 

2, Vontra'ro. 3, Vo'mpraro. 
Gudgeon, n. Pamijino. 
Gourd, n. Fe'mvmoo. 
Gormandise, v. Fle'mplfai. 2, Pra'n- 

sifai fle'mbou. 
Gurnet, (red) n. Ka'nja. 
Gurnet, (grey) n. Kra'nja. 
Gout, n. Du'mboi. 
Gown, n. Vle'mpus pantou'fns. 
Grace, n. Fo'nzi, favoi'. 2, Ke'nibl, 

respect. 3, Pe'mbis, graciousness. 

4, Do'mbra, privilege. 
Gracefulness, n. Vo'mbi. 2, Ya'uda. 
Grace, (of God) n. A'mbil. 
Gracelessness, n. Ka'mbil. 
Grace, (before meat,) n. Tu'ndra 

penzoo'cu. 
Gracious, adj. Fo'nsn. 
Graciousness, n. Pe'mbis. 
Grain, n. Vo'ndo. 
Grain, n. Kra'ndis, powder. 
Grafting, (engrafting,) n. Di'nsitai. 
Gray, adj. Pi'mpou. 2, Pi'niboi 

undinoo'ti. 
Greyhound, n. Pi'nji dontru'fo i'nji 

to'mbe'ti, dog hunting beast by 

swiftness. 
Gradation, n. Go'ndiso, the acting 

gradually. 
Gradual, adj. Go'ntus. 
Gh-adujate, n. Ko'ndroo. 
Grain, n. Pru'nda, (Troy weight). 

2, Plunda, grain, (Apothecaries 

weight.^) 
Grammar, n. Einde'bas. , 
Grammatical parts of discourse, n. 

I'ndoz. 
Grammarian, Ei'ndevas. 
Granardo, n. Ge'ndri. 
Granary, n. Vondo'tus. 
Grand, n. Tino'mpvir. 2, Bepra'ntur. 
Grandchild, n. Fro'nzoos fro'uzoo, 

a child's child. 
Grandeur, n. Betro'ndis. 2, Ke'mbo, 

generosity. 3, Ge'mbo, magna- 
nimity. 
Grandfather or mother, n. Fo'nzoos 

fonzoo, parent's parent. 2, Fo'n- 
zoos fo'nzipur, grandfather. 3, 

Fo'nzoos fo'nzipun, grandmother. 
Grainge, n. Pa'nzoo, farm. 
Grant, v. Tri'ntisai. 2, Pa'ntinai, 

yield. 3, Ke'ntinai, to give. 
Grape, n. Pimvoi'sit. 2, Pi'mvoi the 

vme. 
Grape, (Sea-grape,) n. Ki'nvoi. 
Graphic, adj. Tere'ntuto. 2, Gi'nti. 

3, Ti'nti. 
Grapple, n. Ti'mbro. 

Grapple, (to) v. Beve'ntipai tande'- 
puz, to hold intensely with the 
hands. 2, Fre'ntisai tande'puz. 
3, Vc'nsikai, to wrestle. 

Grasp, V. Ke'ntipai, be'kwi ve'ntipai 
tande'ti, pande'tikwiz. 2, Va'usi- 
kai, embrace. 

L 



G E I 

Grasshopper, n. Po'njoi. 

Grass, n. Tri'nzi. 2, Kro'nvo, cotton 
grass. 3, Vo'mvo, crested grass. 
4, Ko'nvo, feather grass. 5, 
Gro'mvo, finger grass. 6, Tro'm- 
vino, goose grass. 7, Tro'mvo, 
hairy grass. 8, Ka'mvo, knot 
grass, y, Do'mvo, meadow grass. 
10, Go'mvo, oat grass. 11, To'm- 
vo, pearl or quaking grass. 12, 
Fe'nvo, scorpion grass. 13, To'u- 
vis, scurvy grass. 14, Tre'mva, 
silk grass. 15, Dro'mvis, grass of 
Parnassus. 

Grate, n. Winzoo'twns, a fire juga- 
meut. 2, Unzoo'kis, fire-place. 3, 
Vwu'nsur imzoo'twus. 

Grate, (to) v. Gi'nsikai, rub. 2, 
Kra'ntigrost, to powder by nib- 
bing. 3, Unta'ntitai gi'nze'ti. 4, 
Dro'nsinai, displease. 

Gratefd, adj. Ve'mpur. 

Gratify, v. Vo'ntrikai ve'mboo. 2, 
Go'nsitai, to act the benefactor. 
3,Ge'mpinai, to act complaisantly. 

Gratis, adj. Umbo'mprukoo. 2, 
Vombre'pi. 

Gratitude, n. Ve'mboo. 

Gratuity, n. Kentunoo'ri. 

Gratulate, v. Vo'nsivai, congratulate. 

Grave, adj. To'mpa, serious. 2, 
Ve'mpa, grave, (in conversation). 
3, Bitri'ntou, old-like. 4, Pli'mpi, 
grave,