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Full text of "The universal assistant and complete mechanic : containing over one million industrial facts, calculations, receipts, processes, trade secrets, rules, business forms, legal items, etc., in every occupation, from the household to the manufactory"

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Toronto 



http://www.archive.org/details/universalassistOOmoor 



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THE 

UNIVERSAL ASSISTANT, 

AND 

COMPLETE MECHANIC, 

CONTAINING OVER 

ONE MILLION INDUSTRIAL FACTS, 

CALCULATIONS, RECEIPTS, PROCESSES, TRADE SECRETS, RULES, 

BUSINESS FORMS, LEGAL ITEMS, ETC., IN EVERY 

OCCUPATION, FROM THE 

HOUSEHOLD TO THE MANUFACTORY, 

BY R. MOORE. 



Illustrated with 500 Engravings. 



'Let us have Facts, real, certain, unmistakable Facts, there can b« 
no Science without them."— ROBERT DICK. 



STANDARD EXPORT EDITION. 

PRICE, IN CLOTH BINDING, $3.00; IN LEATHER, LIBRARY STYLE, $4.00. 

^th Yorfe: 

R. MOORE, 73 13EEKMAN STREET. 

LOVELL PRINTING AND PUB. CO., MONTREAL. 

WM. DUNHAM, EDITOR OF "THE MILLER," 69 MARK LANE, 

LONDON, ENGLAND. JAMES SPIERS, 

36 F.LOOMSBURY STREET, W. C, LONDON. 

18S0. 



w 



Alaska. 7 23 a.m. 



Albany, 12 13 I'.M. 



Atlanta, n 30 ,\.M. 
Augusta. Oa .. 11 30 a.m. 
B al t i more. iMcl.. 13 C2 i- .M 
Eangor, Me.^ 12 33 I'.M. 
Bath, Me., 12 29 p.m. 



FOR MEASUREMENT OF TIME 
I SEE PAOE 773. 

jTable Showing the Time in 
i Various Parts of the Worid 
! when it is Noon at 

WASHJNGTON, D. C. 



Boston, Mass ., 12 24 f.M. 
Buffalo. N. Y., II 52 A.M. 



Camb'ge, Mass.. 12 24 P.M. 



Charlest'n, S.C., 11 4 3 a.m. 
Chicago, 111., II 17 A.M. 



Cincinnati, O., 11 30 a.m. 



Cleveland, O., 11 41 a.m. 



Columbia. S.C, 11 4+ a.m. 



Columbus. O.. II 36 A.M. 



Danville, Va., 11 50 A.M. 



IDenver, Col., 10 c3 a.m. 



Detroit, Mich., ii 36 a.m. 



Dubuque, la., n o^ a.m. 



Galveston, 'ie.\., 1049 a.m. 



Halifax, N. S., 12 54 i'.m. 



Hamil.ciL Ont.. 11 49 a.m. 
Hannibal, Mo., 11 07 a.m. 
Hartford, Ct.. 12 17 r-M- 



Havana. Cuba. 11 38 a.m. 



Houston, Tex., 10 4 4 a.m. 
Indianap's Ind.. 11 24A.M. 



Jackson v'e. 111., 11 07 a.m. 
jcff'n City, Mo., ioi;9 a.m 



Kalama, \V. T.. 8 58 a.m. 



Kansas City, Mo. 104 9 A. M 
Knoxv'e, Tenn., 11 32 a.m. 



Laramie. Wy T.. 10 12 a.m 
Louisville, Ky., 11 26 a.m. 



Lincoln, Neb., 10 41 .\.M. 
Little Rock, Ak., 10 59 a.m . 
London, Eng., 5 o3 p.m. 



Macon, Ga., 11 37 a.m. 
Memp's, 'i'cnn., 11 o3 .N.M. 



Meridi.Tn, Miss.. 11 14 A.h. 



Mexico, 10 32 a.m. 



Milwau'c, Wis., 11 16 a.m. 



Minneapolis, 10 55 A.M. 
Mobile, Ala., 11 16 a.m. 



Moncton, N. B., 12 ^i p.M . 
Montreal, Can., 12 14 p.^!. 
Nashv'e Tenn., 11 21 a.m. 
N. Haven, Ct., 12 16 p.m. 



N. London, Ct., 12 20 p.m. 



New York, 12 12 p.m. 




COPYRIGHT, 

ItL. »a:c:>o:E=LE3, 

1879, 

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. 



Vicksb'g, Miss., 11 05 a.m. 
\Vilming'n, NC, 11 58.\.M. 



Active Agents furnished with permanent and profitable employment selling 

everj'where throughout the United States and Canada. An Agent wanted in 
even" County. For Contents Pamphlet and Terms, addresLS, 

R. mOORE, 73 Beekman St., N. Y. 



PREFACE. 



This work is issued with the design of supplying very 
important omissions in the author's antecedent writings and 
compilations. His most fervid acknowledgments are due 
for the great encouragement accorded to his previous efforts, 
and the favorable opinions expressed regarding them. The 
result has been that, stimulated by the experience of the 
past, he has in the present work, made special exertions to 
present an immense array of rare and most valuable infor- 
mation relating to Commerce and the Industrial Arts. The 
vital concerns of health, home, domestic felicity, and other 
all-important interests, have also received due attention, 
and to make tlie information more comprehensive and com- 
plete, he has quoted largely from his previously published 
works, wherever he judged it necessary to do so. These 
extracts include a few items for machinists use, and the 
diagrams for saw-filing, selected from the " Boston Machin- 
ist " and Halley's work " On Saw-filing," by permission of 
the publishers, John Wiley & Son, of Xew York, together 



b PREFACE. 

with a few extracts from the '• "Watchmakers' Manual,'' by 
permission of the Publishers, Jesse Haney & Co, New York. 
In addition to the matter above alluded to, many valuable 
tables are now published for the first time, together with 
much new and most important matter specially adapted for 
the use of commercial, manufacturing, and mechanical men 
in both hemispheres. A past experience of many years 
devoted to the welcoms task of supplying technical informa- 
tion to business men, mechanics, &c., has qualified the 
author to jud^^e regarding their wants, and to act intelli- 
gently in endeavoring to supply them. His effort has been 
to act as the harbinger of mechanical improvements and 
general progress, and he can say without ostentation, that 
the present woik is the result of prolonged and continuous 
labor; the best authorities have been consulted, and endea- 
vors have been made to make it plain, easily understood, 
and commensurate with the exacting requirements of this 
progressive age. 



•t 



GENERAL INDEX. 



PAGE 

Baking, Cooking and Preserving Receipts 9 

Farmers, Stock-owners, Hoise-shoera, Liverymen's and Veteri- 
nary Receipts, iJee-keepiug, dec 31 

For Lumbermen, Builders, Contractors, Mill-owners, Ship- 
builders, iShip-owners, Navigators, Quarry-men, Stone-cutters, 

Merchants, and Business-men 74 

Natural, Mechanical, and Scientific Facts , <i'c 117 

For Dyers, Bleachers, Haiters, Clothiers, Furriers 1S4 

Medical Department, Maintenance of Health, Ac 147 

Grocers, Confectioners and Manufacturers' department 201 

Tanners, Curriers, Boot, Shoe, and Rubber Manufacturers, 

Marble and Ivory Workers, Bookbinders, &c 2-iO 

Painters, Cabinet-makers, Varnishers, Polishers, Piano and 
Organ Manufacturers, Gilders, Bronzers, Architects, Builders, 
Masons, Bricklayers, Plasterers, Kalsominers, Stucco Workers, 

China Decorators, Potters, Glass-makers, Staincrs, »tc 2" 3 

Watchmakers, Jewellers, Gilders, Colorers, Refiners, Gold and 
Silversmiths, Burnishers, Diamond cutters, Lapidaries, Sweep- 
smelters. Enamellers, &c S07 

For Engineers, Engine-drivers, Firemen, Engine Builders, 

Locomotive Shops, <tc 354 

Power required for various machines, &c 4o5-441-443 

On Water-wheels, Wheel Gearing, Hydraulics, itc 443-G2C 

Boring, Drilling, and Mining Machinery, Gold and Silver 

Mining, &c 448-581 

For Blacksmiths, Tool-makers, Cutlers, Locksmiths, Saw, 

Spring, and Safe Manufacturers, dec 457 

Machinists' Department 44G 

For Iron, Brass, Bell, Type, and Stereotype Founders, Iron 

Manufacturers, &c "^^0 

For Mill-owners, Factories, <tc 504-559 

For Plumbers, Gas, and Steam Fitters, Bronzing, Lacquering, 

Brass Finishing, Soldering, dtc -^OS 

Tinmen's Diagrams, Measurements, Receipts, djc 522 

Facts for Gas Companies and Consumers, Tables and Illustra- 
tions 535J 

Gunsmiths Engravers, Die-sinkers, Photographers, <S:c 543 

( 545 577 
For Printers and Publishers, Paper Manufacturers, dec j 57S-'')79 

Oil Manufacture, &c 553 

Calculations for Contractors, &c 131 -303-557 

Warming of BuiMings, Value of Fuel. The Compass 5fi0-5ni 

Sugar Refining, Corn Starch, Button M'frs. Ac. 565-LG6 

Iron and Brass Tube, Lead Pipe, Cutlery and Needle Manufac- 
turers 5C7-5CS-5r,9-570 

Gold and Steel Pen, and File Manufacture, &c 571 -SIS 



GENERAL INDEX, 

PAGE 

( 414-418 

Portraits and Notices of Eminent Engineers, &c •< 430-440 

( 47.J-474 

Smelting of Metals, d-c 583-5S4-586 

Useful Items for Daily Remembrance 587 

Interest Table at and 7 per cent 597 

Ready Reckoner for Coal, Hay, Ac, at any rate per ton 29S-2.)'J 

Ready Reckoner for Pounds, Yards, Bushels, &c., at sight C0O-U04 

Expectancy of Life, Weight, Stature, &c., of Man 605 

Weights of Cast Iron Pipe from 1 to 2'i ins. diam 60ti 

Weights of Brass, Copper, Steel, Lead, Plate Iron, Flat Cast 

Iron, Wrought Iron Pipe, Planting Table, &c 607 

Torsional Strength of Metals, Capacities, Size and Weight of 

Coppers, Weight of Square and Round Cast Iron 608 

Weights of Round, Square, and Flat Cast Iron, Flat Steel, 

Mculders' and Pattern Makers' Tables 009 

Strength of Iron Columns, Capacities of Cisterns, Weights of 

Cordwood, Arithmetical Signs and their Signification 610 

Ready Reckoner Table for Board, Wages, Rent, &c., Weight of 

Lead Pipe. Different Sizes, Capacities of Cribs, Boxes, tkc 595-61 1 

Diameters, Circumferences and Areas of Circles 612-615 

Diameter, ic, of Circles, Contents of Vessels in Gallons, Area 

in Feet ,.,^ «!^ 

Scantling and Timber Measurement Tables 61 (-618 

Lumber Measurement at Sight, 1 inch board measure 619 

Lumber and Log Measurement, Net Proceeds of Logs, &o 020 

Cubical Contents of Round Logs. Masts, Spars, &c (21 

Cordwood and Bark Measurement at Sight 023 

Miscellaneous Tables for Mechanics 623-034 

Rules Tables, Ac. , for Engineers and Mill-owners, Ac 085-087 

Facts, Calculations, Ac. , for Agriculturists, Ac 08S-';87 

Geological Facts, with Diagram 728-735 

A^e, Origin, and Ultimate Duration of the Earth 735-740 

Tables, Estimates, Ac. , for Printers and Publishers 740-760 

Information Concerning Patents 700-762 

Facts Relating to Human Life. Population of the Globe, High- 
est Mountains, Longest Rivers, Ac 762-773 

Measurement of Tims, the Circle, Zones, Ac 773-775 

On Telegraphy, Photography, Ac 776-784 

On Hunting and Trapping 785-791 

Directions, Tables, Ac. , for Merchants and Book-keepers 791-803 

Busin'^ss Forms for Merchants, Mechanics and Farmers 803-S;35 

Special Liws of 4.1 States, Territories and Provinces 828-9i!3 

Facts, Tables and Processes Relating to Metallurgy, Gold and 

Silver Mining, Treatment of Ores, Ac 931-95 1 

Quartz Machinery, Stamp Battery, Ac 954-955 

Metallurgy of Gold— full details, Illustrated 957-9i:0 

Mdta!la;gy of Silver — complete details, Illustrated 960-981 

Description of Fnrnaces used in Roasting Ores 982-991 

Blowp;pe Assay, Fluxes, Hydrostatic Weighing, Cupellation. .. 991-995 
To Identify and Test Metallic Ores, Chemistry, Geognostic 

Situation Ac . of Metals ..995-1008 

Dry and Humid Assay of Ores, Reduction of Photographic 

Wastes, Ac... 1009-1013 

Valuable Procesises in Various Trades 1013-1016 





BAKING AND COOKING DEPARTMENT. 



Note. — The observant tradesman will notice that the follo\ving 
forniulre may be adapted for smaller quantities, or for household use, 
ill any desired instance, by a proportionate subdivision of the ma- 
terials used. 

Hop Yeast. — Boil 9 ozs. of hops with 3 pails of water ; put 9 lbs. 
of good flour in a tub, and strain enough of the hop-water over it to 
make it into a stiff paste ; beat it up thoroughly ; strain in the rest of 
the hop-water into the paste ; let it stand until lukewarm ; then add 
4.^ qts. stock yeast. It will rise 1 to 3 inches, but do not disturb it 
until it drops. 

Stock or Malt Yeast. — Boil 12 ozs. of good hops with 4 pails of 
water for about 5 minutes; then strain off enough of the liquid 
among 8 lbs. of good sifted flour iu a tub, to render it into a stiff 
paste, working it up thoroughlj^ with a clean stick ; theu add the rest 
of the liquid to the paste; let it .'stand till lukewarm, and pulverize 
any remaioiug lumps with your fingers. Now add about 8 lbs. malt 
and G qts. stock yeast; allow it to work in a warm place till it rises 
and falls again, which will occupy from 8 to 12 hours; strain through 
a hair sieve and stand iu a cool place. In warm weather 4 gals, cold 
water might be added to the above, previous to stocking it away. 

Compressed Yeast. — This yeast, so extensively used in Europe, 
is obtained by straining the common yeast in breweries and distil- 
leries until a moist mass is obtained, which is then ])laced in hair 
bags, and the rest of the water pressed out until the mass is nearly 
dry. It is theu sewed up in strong linen bags for transportation. It 
will keep a long time, and is very highly esteemed by bakers. See 
Vienna Bread. 

Ferjient. — Boil 2 pecks of good potatoes, strain, and place them 
in a ferment tub; add 8 or 9 lbs. flour, and, with a masher, intermi.x 
all thoroughly together and turn in, say, (j or 8 gals, water, or enough 
to make it milkwarm ; add 2 gals, stock yeast, set it in a warm place, 
allowing it to rise and fall, not letting it stand very long after it falls, 
as it is liable to sour in warm weather; strain, and all is ready. 

Note. — Good yeast for the purpose of renewing your old stock 
may be made by boiling a peck of clean potatoes in 4 pails of water; 
when about done, add 12 ozs. hops, and boil the potatoes until soft: 
put 12 lbs. Hour into a clean tub; make into a stiff paste with part of 
the hop-water; next add the whole, including pofcitoes and hops, 
rubbing tlio potatoes through a coarse sieve, letting it stand till lake- 



10 BAKING AI4D COOKING RECEIPTS 

warm; then stock away. Tliis is for renewing your old malt or bop 
yeiist when tlie latter runs out, and not for general use; or it may be 
eubstituted by yeast from another shop. 

Setting Sponge. — For a quantity of, say, 3 barrels of flour, put it 
in the trough; sift it ; add4i pails of ferment, and about ik :. water 
(cold water during warm weather, and warm water during coil); iii- 
termi.t and work it up smooth, allowing it to rise and fall, whea it is 
ready. A delay in the process, for the space of 30 minutes or so, 
may be effected, if desired, by the addition of a handful of salt when 
the sponge is being set. The sponge being ready, 9 lbs. of salt, in- 
cluding the last mentioned, are now weighed, dissolved, and turned 
into the sponge, together with 9 pails of water (of 2.^ gals, to each 
pail); mix allthoroughly and knead the dough, letting it get a good 
proof, when it will be ready to mLx up into loaves. A good method 
for warm weather to work flour that is new and soft, is to make yciir 
dough right up, straining in all your ferment, salt and water, wit-i- 
out setting any sponge. When the dough rises well, work it dowi?, 
turning up the sides, and allow it to rise once more previous to 
throwing it out of the trough, adding alum if desired. With flour 
that works soft and clammy, requiring 9 lbs. of salt to the batch, 
omit 4-^ pounds, and substitute 2J lbs. alum, 1 lb. of alum being 
equivalent to 2 lbs. s;ilt. Alum assists inferior flour in making whito 
bread. The rule here laid down Ts 8 ozs. salt to each pail of water, 
but a little more might be used occasionally with benefit. 

London White Bread. — The common proportions used by the 
London bakers, are: Flour, 1 sack; common salt, 4.V lbs.; alum, 5 
ozs. ; yeast, 4 pts. ; warm water for the sponge, about 3 gals. The 
alum IS used for the purpose of lohiteniwi the bread, but Liebig has 
demonstrated that this purpose may be better subserved by the use 
of clear lime loatcr in mixing up the dough. 

It is the commendable ambition in tlie English bakers to impart 
that peculiar tint so highly prized by connoisseurs, and so success- 
fully produced at Vienna and Paris. At Vienna, it has long been 
known that if the hearth of an oven be cleaned with a moistened 
wisp of straw, the crust of bread baked in it immediately after pre- 
sents a rich yellow tint; the theory is that the aqueous vapor retained 
in the oven has a beneficial effect. 

The proper temperature of the oven is between 200° and 225» 
Centigrade, equivalent to 424° and 480° Fahr., and may be known 
by the emission of sparks from a piece of wood rubbed on the oven. 
The dougli loses about l-7th of its weight if baked in batches, but 
fully J if baked in small loaves and placed in the oven separately. 
The best breacZ contains about ll-16ths of its weight of added water, 
and common bread often much more than i. The proportion of wa- 
ter in the London bread has greatly increased of late years, owmg 
to the use of the fraudulent metliod of making the dough with rice 
jelly or moss jelly, in which Iceland moss, Irish moss, or other moss- 
es are used, by boiling 7 lbs. of moss in 10 gals, of water, and using 
the resultant jelly in making 70 lbs. of flour into dough, which is 
then fermented and baked in the usual way. It is said that flour 
treated in this way will vield fully double its weight of good bread. 
According to Heern, 100 lbs. of wheaten flour will yield at least 12a 
to 126 lbs. of bread— some say 135 lbs. ; 100 lbs. of rye meal, 131 lbs. 
of bread. A | oz. carbonate of magnesia, added to the flour for a 



BAKING AND COOKING RECEIPTS. 11 

4-lb. loaf, materially improves the quality of the bread evcu whec 
made from the very worst seconds flour. 

Paris Baker's White Bread. — On 80 lbs. of the dough left 
from the previous day's baking, as much luke-warm water is poured 
as will make 320 lbs. flour into a rather thin dough. As soon as tliig 
has risen, 80 lbs. are taken out and reserved in a warm place for next 
day's baking. One pound of dni yeast dissolved in loarm water is 
then added to the remaining portion, and the whole lightly kneaded. 
As soon as it is sufficiently " risen," it is then made it to loaves, and 
shortly afterwards baked, the loaves being placed in the oven Avith- 
oiit touching each other, so that they may be " crusted" all round. 

Thk Secrets of Vienna Bread. — The proportions of Vienna 
bread, confessedly inferior to none in the world, are: Flour 100 lbs. ; 
water and milk, 9 gals. ; salt, 6 lbs. 4 ozs. ; pressed yeast, 18 lbs. 12 
ozs. According to Prof. Uorsford, good fresh middlings flour will 
compare favorably witli the average Hungarian flour used in Vienna. 
The fresh pressed yeast is obtained by skimming the froth from beer 
masli in active fermentation. This contains the upper yeast, which 
must bo repeatedly washed with cold water until only the pure white 
yeast settles clear from the water. This soft, tenacious mass, after 
the water has been drawn o£f, is gathered into bags and subjected to 
hydraulic pressure, until there remains a semi-solid, somewhat brit- 
tle, dough-like substance, still containing considerable water. This 
is the pressed yeast, which will keep for eighty days in summer, and 
much longer on ice. For use it should be fresh and sweet. 

The mixing is commenced by emptying the flour sacks into a zinc- 
lined trough about 2.^ feet wide and 8 feet long, half round in form. 
Then with a pail holding about 5 gals., equal parts of milk and wa- 
ter are poured, and left to stand until the mixture attains the temper- 
ature of the room, between 70° and 80° Falir. It is then poured into 
one end of the trough and mixed with the bare hand with a small 
portion of the flour to form a tliin emulsion. The pressed yeast is 
next crumbled finely in the hands, and added in the proportion of 3^ 
ozs. to every 3 qts. of liquid, and then 1 oz. of salt in same propor- 
tion is intermingled through the mass. The trough is now covered 
and left undisturbed for | of an hour, and after this the rest of the 
flour is incorporated witli the mass in the above-named proportions. 
The mass of dough, being allowed to rest for 2^ hours, becomes a 
smooth, tenacious, puffed mass of yellowish color, which yields to 
indentation without rupture and is elastic. It is now weighed into 
pound masses, and each lump is cut by machinery into 12 small 
pieces, each | inch in tliickness. Of each one of these, the cornere 
are brought together in the centre and pinched to secure them. Then 
the lump is reversed and placed on a long dough board for further 
fermeutation, until the whole batch is ready for the oven. Before 
being introduced into the latter, the rolls are again reversed and re- 
stored to their original position, having considerably increased in 
volume, to be still ifarther enlarged in the oven to at least twice the 
size of the original dough. In the oven they do not touch each other, 
and the baking occupies about 1.5 minutes. To glaze the surface they 
are touched in the process of baking with a sponge dipped in milk, 
•which besides imparting to them a smooth surface, increases the 
brilliancy of the slightly reddish cinnamon color and adds to thfl 
grateful aroma of the crust. 



12 BAKING AND COOKING RECEIPTS. 

Aerated Brkad. — The -n-ater used in forming the dough is placed 
in a vessel capable of withst;iudiug a high pressure, and carbonic acid 
gas ig forced into it to the extentlO or 12 atmospheres. Tlic watei 
will absorb and retain it whatever may be its density, in quantities 
equal to its own bulk, so long as it is retained in a close vessel under 
ju-essure. The flour and salt, of which flie dough is to be formed, is 
next placed in anotlier powerful vessel of a spheroidal form, con- 
structed with a simple kneading apparatus working from without 
and operating througli a closely packed stnffhig-box. Inttj this ves- 
sel is forced a pressure equivalent to that in the aerated water vessel, 
then by means of a pipe connecting the two vessels, tlie aerated 
water is drawn into the flour and the kneading apparatus is oi)ei-ated 
at the same time, the water acting simply as limpid water among the 
flour, forming a pasty mass of tlie requisite tenacity. The pressure is 
now withdrawn, and the gas escapes from the water, and in doing so, 
raises the dough in a beautiful and rapid manner, the intermixture beiug 
thorougli and complete. The mixing vessel may have, say, an inter- 
nal capacity of 10 bushels ; to fill this with tlie "inflated bread dough 
only 3h bushels of flour are required. In the hitermixture of water 
with flour the pasty mass measures rather less than half the bulk of 
the original dry flour, or about 1^ bushels instead of 3^, the expand- 
ed dough represents nearly 5 parts gaseous to one solid". The subse- 
quent baking exi)ands it to a much greater extent, making the 
pro) )ortions of gaseous to solid in all about 10 to 1. It must be self- 
evident that this bread is very pure, nothing but flour, water, and 
salt, being used, and reliable experiments liave demonstrated that 
118 loaves can be made from the same weight of flour which by fer- 
mentation wiU make only 105 or 106, the loss in the latter beiug 
caused by tlie emission of carbonic acid gas through the dough dur- 
ing the iirocess of ferineiit;ition and manulacture. In baldng this 
bread, it has lieen found necessary to have the heat admitted through 
the bottom of the oven, with means of regulating the heat of the top, 
60 tliat the bread is coolfed through the bottom, and the heat subse- 
quently admitted above towards the last, in order to perfect the top 
crust. These precautions are taken owing to the low temperature of 
the dough when [ilaced in the oven, caused by the use, of cold v.-ater 
in the baking process, and the sudden expansion on rising inducing 
a temperature of 40° Fahr., lower than ordinaiy fermented dough. 
This in connection with its slow springing until it reaches the boiling 
point, renders it desirable to delay the formation of the top cru.st 
until the last moment. 

AxoTHER Aerated Bread. — 1. Dissolve 1 oz. of sesqni-carhon- 
ate of ammouia in water, sufficient to make 7 lbs. of flour into a dough , 
which must be formed into loaves, and baked imniediately. 2 
Divide 3 lbs. flour into two portions : mix up the first with water, 
holding in solution 2 ozs. bicarhonate of soda ; then mix the second 
portion of flour with \vater, to which 1 oz. of muriatic acid has been 
added ; knead each mass of the dough thoroughly. When this is 
done, mix both portions together as rapidly and perfectly as possible, 
form the mass into loaves and bake immediately. This bread con- 
tains no yeast, and is very wholesome. A'o^e. — Carbonate of mag- 
nesia and muriatic acid chemically combined, form common salt. 

Healthy Mixed Bread. — Boil 3 lbs. of rice to a soft pulp in 
water; pare and cook by steam 6 lbs. of your best potatoes, mash 
youi' potatoes aud rub them up with rice pulp ;. add tc the whole 6 



BAKING AND COOKING RECEirXS. 13 

lbs. flour , make all into a dough 'svith w;itor, fermeut ^ith yeast, 1st 
It stand a proper leugtli of time, and then place it in the oven to bake. 

Another excei-lent Bread. — Knead 21 lbs. flour with 'J lbs ol 
pared and mashed potatoes, from which the water has been weli 
steame<l off previous to mashing : mix together while the potatoes are 
warm, adding about 3 or 4 spoonfuls of salt. Then add about 3 
qts. milk-wann water, with 9 large spoonfuls of yeast gradually to 
tJie pofcitoes and flour ; knead and work it well into a smooth dough, 
and let it stand 4 hours before putting into the oven. 

French Bread. — T;ike nice rice, 3^ lb. ; tie it up in a thick linen 
bag, giving it enough room for it to swell : boil from three to four 
houis till it becomes a perfect paste ; mix while warm with 7 lbs. 
(lour ; adding the usual quantities of yeast, salt, and water. Allow 
the dough to work a proper time near the fire, then divide into loaves, 
dust them in, and knead \^igorously. 

DvsPEPSiA Bread. — The folio whig receipt for making bread lias 
proved highly salutary to persons afflicted with dyspepsia, viz. : — 3 
quarts unbolted wheat meal ; 1 quart soft water, warm but not hot ; 
1 gill of fresh yeast ; 1 gill molasses, or not, as may suit the taste ; 1 
teaspoonf ul of saleratus. 

l"or the sake of the industrious house-wife, and not for bakers, as 
they are supposed to know already, it may be well to state that ^0 
minutes' baking will suflice for 1 lb. loaves and cakes ; and 15 minutes 
additional for every lb. after the first for larger ones. Thus a 1 lb. 
loaf requires h hour, a 2 lb. loaf J hour, and a 4 lb. loaf 1^ hour. 

SUFERIOK IJREAD FROM BUCKAVHE.^T IMeAL. — To 2 qts. of slfted 

buckwheat meal, add hot water enough to wet the same, when suf- 
ficiently cooled, add 1 teaspoonf ul or more of salt, half a pint of 
yeast, and half a teaspoouful of molasses ; then add wlieat flour 
enough to make it into loaves (it should be kneaded well) ; and when 
risen light, bake or steam it three or more hours. If this should get 
sour wiiile rising, add a teaspoonful of sugar and a little saleratus, 
dissolved in water. For bread from Indian meal proceed in the same 
■way, using it instead of buckwheat meal. 

Corn-Meal Bread, No. 1. — Take 2 qts. of corn meal, with about 
a pint of (thin) bread sponge, and water enough to wet it ; mix in 
about a half a pint of wheat flour, and a tablespoonful of salt ; let it 
rise and then knead well the second time ; bake li hours. 

Corn-Meal Bread No. 2. — Mix 2 qts. of new corn-meal with 
three pints of warm water ; add 1 tabiespoonf ul of salt, 2 table- 
Bpoonfuls of sugar and one large tablespoonful of hop yeast: let it 
stand in a warm place five hours to rise ; then add l| teacupfuls of 
wheat flour, and a half pint of warm water. Let it rise again 1^ 
hours, then pour into a pan well greased with sweet lard, and let it 
rise a few minutes. Then bake in a moderately hot oven, 1^ hours. 

Corn-;Meal Bread, No 3. — Take 2 qts. of white corn-meal, 1 
tablespoonful of lard, 1 jiijit of hot water : mix the lard in water . 
Btir it well that it may get heated thorougldy, and add one-half pini 
of cold water. When the mi.xture is cool enough, add two well- 
beaten eggs, and two tablespoon fuls of home-made yeast. Bake 
1 hour in a moderately heated oven. If for breakfast make over 
night. 

Best Boston Brown Bread. — Take 100 lbs. of Indian meal ; 50 
lbs. rye meal ; and 10 lbs. flour ; sift and intermix together in the 
ti'ough ; strain in four gals, molasses ; 2 gals, ferment or yeast ; dissolve ] 



14 BAKING AND COOKING RECEIPTS. 

lb. soda and 4 lbs. salt in Avater and add that. Now add watel 
enough to mix all rather stiff, mixing well and breaking all lumps 
Now mix in water enough to form a batter sufficiently thin to remain. 
even on top : aUow it to stand 2 or 3 hours after mixing, before put- 
ting it mto the pans and oven, then bake from 6 to 10 hours in a 
slow oven. 

Boston, or Soft Ckackers.— First siftin4 bairels erf flour into 
the trougli, add 2 pails of stock-yeast, and about 9 pails of water ; 
mix all into a sponge and allow it to stand until it rises and falls 
twice. The sponge will require about G or 8 hours to become ready, 
if it sours a little, so much the better. Usually it is set about noon 
for the work next day, and if set warm, for using stock yeast inttead 
of ferment, it will come less rapidly. The sponge being ready, add 
to it from 8 to 10 pails more water ; mix and break the sponge up 
well, making a stiff dough, and let it stand until next morning. It is 
requisite that the dough should be sour, to ensure good crackers. 
AVhen ready, remove a sample of it sufficient for one oveuful of 
crackers ; take it to another part of the trough, and add to it from 5 
to 6 lbs. of butter or lard, the proportion to be added to be estimated 
by the dimensions of the piece so separated ; soda in solution is now 
to be added, made by dissolving soda, 1 lb. in cold water, 1 qt., and 
the detached piece of dough may be intermixed Avith 1 pt. of the 
liquid, representing 8 ozs. of soda, but the exact quantity required 
must be ascertained by the acidity or age of the dougli. and the judg- 
ment of an experienced practitioner. Mix the soda and butter 
thoroughly into the dough, and put it through the rollers repeatedly 
or until smooth. Place a sample of this dough in the oven to deter- 
mine whether or not it contains the proper quantity of soda. When 
baked, too much soda will induce a yellow appearance, and more 
dough without soda must bo added ; a deficiency of soda will be in- 
dicated by a sour smell, and in that case more soda must be added. 
When all is right, the dough is put through the machine, and the 
succeeding batch of crackers is commenced by selecting another 
piece of dough and proceeding as above, adding the butter and soda 
in the required proportion, each batcli requiring more soda on ac- 
count of the increasing acidity acquired by long exposure to the air. 
Another way. — Set the sponge on the previous night, and the 
next day instead of making dough of it, select a portion of the sponge, 
adding it to the butter and sodaas above directed, working them Avell 
into it, and adding flour enough to make a stiff dough, and it is ready 
for the break. When you detach part of tlie sponge to make the 
batcli, add water enough to the sponge, and stir it up with more 
flour, thus continuing to renew the sponge as fast as it is used. 

Soda Crackers are made bv the same process, of the same dough ; 
after using the scraps, add a little more butter, roUing them thinner 
and cutting them square. 

Oyster Crackers are made of the same dough, using the scraps 
also. Butter, Sugar, and other crackers are made the same way, 
adding respectively butter and susjar. 

Cream Cr.ackers.— Rub together 14 lbs. flour and 1 lb. butter ; 
then add 1 lb. pounded sugar, 48 eggs, and flavor ; mix tlioroughly, 
and worlc it quite stiff and smooth ; roUoutquite thin ;cutthem witha 
cutter in the form of a oak leaf ; put them into boiling water and 
boil till they float ; remove with a skimmer and dry them on cloths, 
and bake on clean pans without being buttered, in a warm oven. 



BAKING AND COOKING RECEIPTS. 15 

Cheap Lady Cake. — Brealc up 2 lbs. butter, mix in 3 lbs. sugar, 
rubbing well together for 5 or 10 minutes, add 2 pts. whites of eggs, 
a third at a time, beat all up light, then add 4 lbs. flour, and 1 oz. soda, 
dissolved in 2 pts. milk, and 2 ozs. cream tartar ; intermix all well to- 
gether, bake in pans about Ih ins. deep, in loaves that will weigh from 
2 to 3 lbs., when baked, take out of the pans and frost on the under 
side. 3Iark in slices | of an inch thick. 

Frost Caives. — Beat 2 lbs. butter and 3 lbs. sugar together until 
quite light, add 30 eggs, 10 at a time, beating after each addition, then 
a little ext. lemon, add 3 lbs. flour, stir just enough to mix ; put in flat, 
square pans, greased, and bake in a slow oven, when done, frost on 
the under side and mark in squares. 

Citron Frost Cake is made similar to the above, with the addi- 
tion of sliced citron when the flour is added , or preferably put the 
citron on the batter after it is in the pans. Bake as the last. 

Shrewsbury Cake. — Rub 2 lbs. butter, and 2 lbs. of sugar to- 
gether, add 24 eggs, G at a time, beating them in, dissolve and add 
twice as much soda as will lie on a dime in a little water, mix in 4 lbs. 
flour, roll and cut out with any plain or fancy shaped cutter, put on 
buttered tins, and bake in a moderate oven. 

Lemon C.\ke. — Paib together G lbs. of light brown sugar, and 
2 lbs. of lard or butter, add IG eggs, 12 qts. of milk with 2 ozs. of soda 
dissolved therein, 2 ozs. ammonia, a few drops extract of lemon for 
flavor, and flour sufficient to make a stiff batter; drop them either 
with the hand or with a spoon, into scalloped pans, and sprinkle a few 
currants on the top of each, and bake in a moderate ovtMi. 

Rock Cake. — Rub together 4 lbs. sugar, and 8 lbs. of flour, make a 
hollow in the middle, and add C eggs, 1^ pts. milk, 1 lb. 8 oz. of but- 
ter, and 2 oz. ammonia, mix aU together, roll out and cut out with a 
plain cutter, rather tliick, put on pans, and witii a fork scratch the top 
of each until it is quite rougli. Bake in a moderate oven. 

Cup Cake. — Break up 2 lbs. butter, add 3 lbs. sugar, and 16 eggs, 
a third at a time, beat up light, add 5 lbs. flour, 2 pts. milk, and 
ammonia 2 ozs., make all smooth by thorough mixing. Bake in 
small pans in a moderate oven. 

Wedding C.\.ke. — Rub 4 lbs. butter and 4 lbs. light brown sugar 
•well together, adding 40 eggs, one quarter at a time, beating well, then 
add 2 pts. molasses, 2 pts. good brandy, 1 oz. each of mace, nutmeg, 
cassia, and cloves, all well blended in and mixed with the mass, then 
add 5 lbs. flour, 8 lbs. currants, 9 lbs. stoned raisins, and 3 lbs. citron, 
intermix all thoroughly, put it in pans, spread smooth on top, and it is 
ready for the oven. These materials will make 4 loaves of 9 lbs. each, 
and ^vill require careful bakhig for from 4 to G hours in a cool oven, 
otherwise it will be burnt on the outside. To frost this amount of 
cake beat up the whites of 10 eggs in a bowl, with sufficient pulverized 
sugar to render the mixture stiff enough to spread on the cake, 
using a wooden spoon (probably 2^ lbs. will be required), beat all to- 
gether for 15 or 20 minutes ; spread it on the cake, after the latter 
becomes cool, and set it away until the next day, when another coat 
of the frosting composition must be applied, and the cake set away 
until the day following to await the final ornamenting. This is ef- 
fected with the assistance of oniamenting tubes, &c., togetlier with a 
frosting composition of a much stiffercon.sistence than that previously 
nsed. Note. — One-half, or even oue-quarter of the above quantity of 
cake will be found amply sufficient for most oc:asious. 



16 BAKING AXD COOKING RECEIPTS. 

Another Wedding Cake. — Use 2 IBs. sugar, 3 lbs. flour, 8 nut« 
meps, 18 eggs, 1 oz. allspice, 1 oz. cloves, 3 lbs. currants, 2 lbs. citron, 
3 lbs. sultana raisins, a little ammonia, and 1 gill brandy. Proceed 
with the mixture as directed in the foregoing, and bake in a slow oven. 

CocoAM'T Cakes. — To each lb. of grated cocoanuts add 1 lb. of 
powdered Ki'^ar and the whites of 4 eggs, put all in a kettle 
and cook on the fire for about 30 minutes, stirring well all the 
time, and avoid burning, cook to a soft and mushy consistence, turn 
it out and add to each lb. of cocoanut as previously weighed 2 ozs. of 
flour, working it well into the mixture. Now put it in well greased 
pans, selecting a small piece in your hands, rolling it round and lay- 
ing it on the pans, putting them about 1 inch apart, to allow for spread- 
ing, and bake in a cool oven. 

Queen Cake. — Rub together 2 lbs. sugar and 2 lbs. butter, next 
add IG eggs, 1 pt. milk, 1 oz. of ammonia, stir all well together, then 
add the flour ; bake in square pans with a few currants on top. 

Drop Cake. — Rub together 3 lbs. sugar and 1^ lbs. of butter, add 
13 ecgs, in 3 different lots, 3 pts. of sour milk, 1^ ozs. soda, 1^ ozs. of 
amrnouia, flavor with ext. lemon, stir all well together, add flour suffi- 
cient to make a stiff batter, drop on buttered pans, bake in a quick oven. 

Molasses Pound Cake. —Mix together 1 gal. molasses, 3 lbs. but- 
ter, 8 eggs, 2 qts. water, 8 ozs. of soda, and add sifted flour sufficient 
to make a stiff batter. Bake in small scalloped pans, in a cool oven. 

Cross Buns.— Work 24 lbs. dough, 2 lbs. sugar, 2 lbs. butter, 12 
eggs and a little cimiamon into the dough, and set away to rise; then 
pTncli them off in about 2 oz. pieces; mould them up; pin out; put 
on pans, and mark them across with a knife, or cross them with 
strips of dough. 

Gold Cake.— Rub together 2 lbs. butter, and 2^ lbs. brown sugar ; 
add the yolks of 30 egg's, a few at a time, beating all well up ; add 
1 qt. milk with 1 oz. soda dissolved in it, stir well up ; and add 4 lbs. 
flour ; 1 oz. cream tartar ; a little lemon extract ; mix all up lightly, 
and bake in small pans in a warm oven. 

New York Sponge Cake. — Beat 16 eggs and 2 lbs. sugar together 
.about 5 minutes ; next add 2 ozs. ammonia, 1 pt. milk, and flavor ; mix 
all ; add the flour, stirring carefully, but sufficient to mix. Bake in 
little round pans, in a warm oven. 

Lady Cake. — Rub 2 lbs. butter and 4 lbs. sugar together until it is 
quite light; then add the whites of 60 eggs, one-fourth at a ti)ne, 
beating well; next flavor with a little oil of almonds; stir slightly; 
then add 2 lbs. flour and 1 lb. corn starch, and stir up lightly. Bake 
in a slow oven and turn over and frost on the under side. 

Ground-rice Cakes.— Rub together 2 lbs. butter and 4 lbs. sugar; 
add 16 eggs ; beat up thoroughly ; add 2 pts. milk, 4 ozs. ammonia, 
and flavor with lemon ; stir all up ; add 4 lbs. of rice flour, and mix 
thoroughly ; drop on buttered pans about the size of an egg, and bake. 

Cream Cakes.— Take 1 qt. water, and 1 lb. dark coarse-grained 
lard; boil together in a kettle, and then stir in 17 ozs. of best quality 
flour; boil all 4 or 5 minutes, or until it is quite smooth; then turn it 
out on a board, and scrape the kettle with rfi knife; now put your 
paste in the kettle again, with 10 eggs; stir well togetlier until all is 
smooth ; then add 18 or 20 more eggs, or until the batter is of the 
right thiclniess; next dissolve i oz. soda in a little water, and mix in 
thoroughly; drop on pnns slightly greased; wash them on top witb 



Jt. 



BAKING AND COOKING RECEIPTS. 17 

egg, and l)ake in a quick oven. They will require 16 to 18 minutea 
to bake with a proper heat. When baked, remove from the fire ; split 
them through the centre and fill tliem with the following cream: 
Place on the fire 1 qt. milk in a kettle, mix 4 oz. flour, 8 oz. wliite 
BUgar, 4 eggs, and a little salt in another vessel; when the milk boils, 
turn in the mixture, stirrmg briskly; when it boils, remove from the 
fire, and flavor with lemon or vanilla as desiied. 

Rock Cakes. — Rub well together 6 lbs. flour, and 2 lbs. butter, 
making a cavity in the middle; put in 2 lbs. sugar, 2 lbs. currants, 8 
eggs, dissolved soda, 1 oz., and a little ess. lemon, with milk sufficient 
to mix up stiff ; now take a four-pronged fork and work of pieces of 
dough the size of walnuts ; place on pans, and bake in a cool oven. 

Snow Cakes. — Rub 2 lbs. butter and 2 lbs. sugar well together; 
then add the whites of 24 eggs, 3 at a time; beat up well; add 12 ozs. 
flour, 2^ lbs. of arrowroot; add the flavor and mix lightly. Make 6 
loaves of tliis quantity, either round or square; put lemon peel on 
top, and bake in a cool oven. 

Moss Cake. — Rub 6 lbs. of flour and 3 lbs. of butter well together; 
then add 2 lbs. sugar, 8 eggs, and flavor with ess. of lemon; mix well 
together until smooth and stiff. Now take a piece the size of an egg 
push it through a sieve, and form it in bunches to resemble moss, 
l)ut on buttered jians, and bake very carefully in a moderate oven to 
a delicate brown color. 

New Yokk Lunch Cake. — Rub together 14 lbs. flour, 2 lbs. but- 
ter; then add 3 qts. milk, 1 oz. soda, 1 oz. tartaric acid, and 8 ozs. ar- 
rowroot; mix all quite stiff, break it well, and snap them off about as 
big as walnuts; pin them out; dock them full of holes, and bake on 
clean pans in a warm oven. 

Tea Cake. — Rub 12 lbs. of flour and 6 lbs. of butter togetlier; add 
G lbs. sugar, 24 eggs, 2 ozs. of soda, 4 ozs. cream tartar ; flavor and 
add milk suflicient to make a nice, soft dough; mix up lightly, roll 
out, and cut with any fancy-shaped cutters, bake in. a warm oven. 

Fancy Cake. — Rub together 4 lbs. sugar and 3 lbs. butter; add 
40 eggs in 4 different lots; add 1 oz. soda dissolved in a little milk; 
mix well; then stir in 4 lbs. of flour; 1 oz. cream tatar; a little ex- 
tract of lemon; mixing all well together, bake in a moderate oven. 

Raisin Cake. — Rub together 1 lb. butter and li lbs. powdered 
BUgar; add 18 eggs, one third at a time, beating well in; add J oz. 
dissolved soda, stirring well in; add a little ext. lemon; 2 lbs. 2 ozs. of 
flour; 1 lb. 1 oz. sultana raisins; and mix all well together. Lake in 
a slow oven iu pans about 1| inclies deep. 

Pound Cake. — Break up and well mix 1 lb. of fresh butter 
with 1 lb. of powdered sugar; add 10 eggs, a few at a time, beating 
up lightly; add 1 lb. of flour ; a very little soda ; mix all so as to make 
the floursmooth ; bake in a slow oven. 

Silver Cake. — Rub together 2 lbs. butter and 4 lbs. powdered 
BUgar; add the whites of 30 eggs, in 3 lots at a time; beat up well; 
add 2 pts. milk with 1 oz. soda; (5 lbs. flour, 1 oz. cream taitar; with 
a little vanilla flavor; mix up lightly and halve as the last. 

GiNOEK Snaps. — Put 2 qts. molasses; U lbs. of lard; 3 ozs. ol 
ground ginger; 2 ozs. of soda, and 1 pt. wafer, into a bowl Mix all 
together; add flour enough to make a stiff dough: then work in 2 
lbs. sugar; roll thui; cut iu long strips iu rolls on tl e table; cut them 
off with a knife or cutter the desired size; put on buttered tins; 
flatten them down a little with the hand, and bake iu a slow oveu 

2 



18 BAKING AXD COOKING KECEIPT3. 

Ges'Ger Cake. — Put 12 eggs and 2 pts. cream on the fire in a cop- 
per or tin dish ; stir until warm; then add 2 lbs. butter; 2 lbs. sugar; 
10 ozs. ginger; allow it to stay ou a slow fire and continue stirring till 
the butter is melted; tlien set off; when cold add 8 lbs. flour; mix ur 
smooth; roll out thin, and cut with a circular cutter; place on paper, 
and bake in a hot oven. 

CiNXAMON Cakes. — Put 12 eggs and 6 dessert spoonfuls of rose 
water into a bowl ; whisk together, and add 2 lbs. fine sugar, and 1 
oz. of gromid ciunamou and flour sufficient to make a nice stiff iiaste; 
roll them out; cut into any desired shape, and bake them on paper, 
in a slow oven. 

Seed Cakes.— Rub together 1 lb. butter and 2 lbs. flour; then into 
a hollow ill the centre; put 4 lbs. sugar; 2 qts. milk; 4 ozs. caraway 
seeds, and a little ammonia; mix up, but do not work it much; roU 
out; cut with a small cutter, and bake in a warm oven. 

Spice Cake.— Mix together 3 lbs. sugar and 1^ lbs. butter; add 1^ 
pts. milk; 15 eggs, a few at a time; J oz. ammonia; one nutmeg 
and a half; | lb. currants; 5 lbs. flour. Mix up well and bake iu 
deep, square pans iu a slow oven. 

New Yokk Fanci' Cake. — Rub together 2 lbs. sugar and 1 lb. 
butter; add 12 eggs a few at a time, beat all up well; add § qt. of 
sour milk; of lbs. flour; § oz. soda; § oz. cream tartar, and extract 
of lemon for flavor. Mix up smooth and bake in scalloped pans. 

Machixe Jumbles. — Rub together 3 lbs. sugar and 2 lb. 4 ozs. 
butter: add 12 eggs a few at a time, beat all up well; | oz. of ammo- 
nia; Ih pts. milk; a little ext. lemon, and 5 lbs. 4 ozs. of flour; aud 
stir sufficiently to mix. 

Ch.vmpagne Bis(;uits. — Work up 2 lbs. butter in a basin to a 
thick cream; add 2 lbs. of sugar; 2 lbs. flour; 3G yolks of eggs; 1 oz. ' 
caraway seeds; a little salt; whisk up the whites of the 36 eggs and 
add them; get a sheet of strong paper; fold it m reversed plait-s like a 
fan, to form trenches about 1 inch deep ; fill a biscuit forcer with part 
of the batter; force out some tinger-like biscuits into the trenches 
about 3 inches long; sifting sugar over them, and bake them of a 
light-fawn color in a moderate oven. 

Cream T.4.rt.aii Biscuit. — Work m 3 lbs. sifted flour ^vith 2 ozs. 
butter ; add 2 ozs. cream tartar ; dish the middle and pour in 1 pt. 
milk and 1 pt. water, previously adding 1 oz. soda to the milk ; mix 
all up briskly, but duu't make it too stiff. Flatten it out; cut with a 
biscuit cutter; place them on buttered tins close together and bake in 
a quick oven. 

Washington Cake. — Ruh together 4 lbs. sugar and 2 lbs. 8 oza. 
of butter; 16 eggs; 2 pts. water and 2 ozs. of ammonia; with flour 
sufficient to make a suitable dough to roll; cut out with a scalloped 
cutter, and bake in a warm oven. 

Brandy Snaps. — Mix up IJ pounds flour, ^ lb. butter, h lb. sugar, 
J oz. gloves, aud h pint molasses. Mix all tog'etlier and bake. 

Washington Pie. — Rub together 1 lb. butter, and 1^ lbs. powder- 
ed sugar, add 1 pt. of eggs, a little at a time, beat up well, add ^ oz. 
soda dissolved in ^ pt. milk ; flavor with ext. lemon, stir up, and add 
2 lbs. flour and 1 oz. ci'eam tartar ; mix together, put ou pans one- 
eighth of an inch thick and bake in a quick oven. 

"Another. — Rub together 2 lbs. lard, 3 lbs. powdered sugar, aud 
add 1 qt. eggs, a little at a time, 1 oz. soda dissolved in 1 qt. milk *? 



BAKING AND COOKING RECEIPTS. 19 

ozs. cream-tartar, a little lemon extract and 4^ lbs. flour ; mix all 
together and bake as above. 

FiLLixG FOK THE ABOVE PiES. — Add to stewcd and strained dried 
apples, I lb. of sugar to each lb. of apples, boil all together for | hour 
stirring well ; fill with this, or use cranberry jelly or currant jelly or 
raspberry jam, or the latter intermixed with stewed dried apples, or 
apple filliug alone is very good. A r/ood Jilling for sliced apple pies is 
made by slicing sour apples, bottom your plates add the sliced apples 
with enough powdered sugar to sweeten, adding cinnamon, salt and 
a little butter, with water until the plate is two-thirds full, then cover 
with puff-paste, and trim it round in proper style with a knife. 

Lemon Pies. — Rub together 1 lb. butter and 1^ lbs. flour with cold 
water sufficient to make a good stiff dough to bottom your plates with, 
rimming them around with puff-paste, and fill with the following 
mixture : put into a bowl the juice of 3 lemons, the grated rind of 1 
with 1^ lbs, of finely powdered sugar and 9 eggs. Mix thorouglily, 
and fill your plates with tlie mixture ; bake in a moderate oven . 

Anoihe)' filling. — 3 lemons, C eggs, -^ lb. sugar, ^ pt. milk, with salt 
and nutmeg. Mix as the last. 

Another loithovt lemons. — 1 lb. sugar, ^ lb. flour, 10 eggs, ^ pt. milk, 
^ oz. tartaric acid, a little lemon essence and salt. 

Frosting for Lemon Pies. — lozs. pulverized sugar, whites of eggs 
beaten to a stiff froth and the sugar gradually added to it, intermix 
thoroughly, cover the pies, top theni off with this frosting, nm them 
into a moderate oven and bake them to <i nice bi'own. 

Short Puff Pa.ste for Pies. — Mix together 4 lbs. flour, IJ lbs. 
butter, add 4 eggs, a little salt and 1 pt. water or a little more, work 
all to a smooth paste, spread out with the hand, put IHbs. more 
butter in the middle, fold the dough over the butter, so as to cover it, 
let it stand 5 minutes, sift flour over the paste and on the slab, roll 
out to the length of 7 feet and 3 feet wide (for lialf this quantity one 
half of these dimensions will be required). Fold it over and turn so 
that the sides will face you, repeating the rolling twice, when the 
paste will be fit for use. 

Common Paste for Pies. — Rub together 4 lbs. flour, and 4 lbs. of 
lard with salt sufficient ; add just water enough to mix the dough ; it 
may be better to put flour on the bench, make a set of it, adding the 
salt, lard, water, and stirring together. 

Paste to cover Pies. — Mix togother 1^ lbs. of lard or butter 
with 2 lbs. flour with sufficient salt and water to mbc. Cranberry 
pies should have strips of puff paste across the top, the edges wet, and 
a strip of puff paste placed around the rim, keeping this strip ^ inch 
outside of the edge of theyilate, as it will contract while baking. 

Custard for Pies. — Put 12 eggs, h lb. sugar, ^ oz. salt, and a little 
ext. lemon into a bowl, beat well together, add 2 qts. milk and strain. 

Filling for i^quash Pies. — Thoroughly clean 5 lbs. of squash, slice 
it up and stew it ; when thoroughly cooked drain olTf the water, rub 
to a mush through a strainer, then add li lbs. sugar, 6 eggs, 2 qts. 
milk, ^ oz. ginger, a little ext. lemon, and salt sufficient. 

Filling for Mtnce Pies. — Boil 3 lbs. of chopped meat, clear of 
bones and tough x^ieces, chop fine; peel, core and chop 1) lbs. of good 
apples, add 4^ lbs. brown sugar, Sh qts. molasses, 3 ozs. each of nut- 
meg, cassia, cloves and alls]nce, 3 lbs. raisins, 1^ lbs. currants, 1^ pts. 
brandy, 1 gill cider, ;j lb. salt. Mix all the ingredients together in a 
vessel, omitting tlve apples and brandy, iutermix well together; theu 



20 BAKING AND COOKING llECKII'TS. 

add tliera and reduce to the proper consistency with water. Cover 
with a cloth, tj'ing it down tightly to prevent evaporation and set away 
in a cool place for use. 

Ice CuiiAsi Manufacture. — Beat the required quantity of ice very 
fine bi a stout bag or by any other means, and add fine salt in ratio 
of one part of salt to four parts of ice, mixing thoroughly with a stick. 
Pack the compound ueatly in the freezer around the cylinder to the 
toj), then put ui the cream {which should be cool) you wish to freeze, 
and, after covering, proceed to turn the crank back and forth alter- 
nately 10 or 12 times each way until the cream is sufficiently thick to 
bcjxt, which will be known by the opposition to the beater, then tuni 
forward quite briskly for a short space in order to impart an even and 
good appearance to the cream ; make thorough work of the beating, 
then remove the beater, fill the pail with ice and salt, and set away to 
harden. It will not do to introduce additional ice or salt, or allow it 
to grow stiff while beating, or beat it too much, or to retard the freez- 
ing process by pouring off water from the melted ice. The right time 
to beat it is when it is dense enough to rise, or about the thickness 
of light batter, if beaten when rigid the product will not be so 
satisfactory. As the cream expands in freezing, the cylinder should 
be filled j full and no more. 

Strawben-y and Raspbernj Cream Ice. — 1. Pass 3 lbs. of picked 
strawberries or raspberries through a coarse hair-sieve, add 1^ qts, 
double cream, 2^ lbs. sifted sugar, mix well together, freeze as above, 
and mould it. If a deep red is desired, it may be imparted by a few 
dro])s of cochineal. 

2. Ice ckeam. Best Quality. — Beat well together 9 eggs with 1 J 
lbs. sugar ; boil 3 qts. good cream, set it off for a short space to cook, 
then add the sugar and eggs, flavor with vanilla, etc., to suit the taste. 
Let it cool, place in the freezer and proceed as above. 

3. Srihstitiite for cream. — Boil 1 qt. of good milk with li ozs. of 
arrowroot, having first brought the milk to the boiling point and 
mixed the arrowroot smooth with a little cold milk, remove from tho 
fire; add 2 fresh eggs, 8 ozs. of powdered sugar, stir well, allow it to 
cool and flavor previous to putting in the freezer. 

4. Chocolate Cream Ice. — Grate | lb. of the best French choco- 
late into IJ qts. of lioiliug milk, allow it to boil till thick, adding | lb. 
sugar ; add when cool, li qts. cream, stirring well, and empty into 
the freezer. The addition of 8 eggs and lemon flavor to the above 
will greatly improve it. 

5. Ginger Ice Cream. — Boil together 1 qt. milk, 1 lb. sugar, 8 ozb. 
pulverized ginger, and 4 yolks of eggs, until it commences to thicken. 

6. Orange Cream Ice.— Mix together in a stew-pan, 1 qt. milk or 
cream, 1 lb. sugar, the juice of 8 oranges, the rinds of 4 oranges rub- 
bed on the sugar, and 4 yolks of eggs, imtil the compound begins to 
thicken ; stir briskly, and strain, freezing when cool, as above. 

7. Pine Apple Cream Ice. — Put on the fire in a copper or tin vessel 

1 lb. of strained pineapple palp, 12 ozs. sugar, l^ pts. milk or cream, 
and 3 yolks of eggs ; beat sufficiently to thicken, not to boil the 
cream, strain the mixture into a vessel and set aside to cool previous 
to freezing. See other formulae for ice cream under the Grocers' Dept. 

Cream Tartar Biscuit. — Use 2 qts. flour, 2 teaspoonf uls of soda, 

2 ditto cream tartar, 2 pts. milk. Mix, and follow the ditrectons foi 
cream-taitar biscuit given above, and bcike in a wirm oven. 



BA.KING AND COOKING RECEIPTS. 21 

CocoANTT Drops. — 1 lb. grated cocoanxit, h lb. Trhito sugar, the 
Trliitcs of G CiigH, cut to a stiif froth. You must have enougli wliites 
of egg to wet the whole mixture. Drop cu buttered plate.s, in pieces 
the size of an egg. 

FuENCii UoM.s. — 1 ounce of butter, 1 lb. of flonr, 1 gill of home- 
made yeast, 1 egg, niillc enough to make a dough. Rub the butter 
through the Hour, beat the egg and stir in, then add the .yea.st, milk, 
and a little salt. Knead the dough ; when it is light, mould it out 
into large biscuits, and bake them on this. 

MuFFixs. — A quart of milk, 2 eggs, 2 spoonfuls of yeast, 2 lbs. of 
flour, a lump of butter size of an egg — which is to be melted in the 
onilk — and a little salt ; the milk is to be warmed, and the ingredients 
added. Let it rise, and then turn the mixture into buttered pans, 
and bake to a light brown. 

Bath Cakes. — Mix well together, 1 lb. flour, h lb. butter, 5 eggs 
and a cupful of yeast, set the whole before the fire to rise ; after it 
rises, add J lb. wliite sugar, and 1 oimce caraway seeds well mixed 
in, and roll the paste into little cakes, bake them on tms. 

No. 1 CitACivEiis. — Butter, 1 cup ; salt, 1 teaspoon ; flour, 2 qts. 
Enb thoroughly together witli the hand, and wet up with water ; 
beat well, and beat in Hour to make quite brittle and hard ; then 
pinch off pieces and roll out each cracker by itself. 

SuGAU CiJACKEUs. — Flour, 4 lbs. ; loaf sugar and butter, of each 
J lb. ; water, 1\ pts. ; make as above. 

Naples Biscuit. — Wliite sugar, eggs, and flour, of each 4 lbs. 

Lemox Biscuit. — Take oh lbs. white sugar, 4 lbs. flour, ^ 
ounce salcratus, i lb. suet, a little milk to wet the dough, cut 
tliem out about tli'e size of marbles, put them on pans a little greased, 
and bake them in a hot oven and flavor tliem with essence of lemon. 

Abekxetiiv Biscuit. — Take 8 lbs. of flour, 1;^ lb. of butter, 1 quart 
of sweet milk, 12 ounces of sugar, 1 ounce of caraw.ay seeds, G eggs ; 
mix dough of the above, break them m jiieces of about two ounces, 
mould them off, roll them out, prick tliem and bake them in a 
moderate oven. 

Savov Biscuit. — Take of sugar the weight of 14 eggs, of flonr 
the weight of G eggs, beat the yolks and whites of 12 eggs, separate, 
grate in the rind of a lemon ; after being in the oven a few minutes 
grate on some sugar. You may add peach-water, or lemon juice, 
or any flavoring extract. 

GiXGER SxAi'S. — Take 7 lbs. of flour, 1 qt of molasses, 1 lb. of 
brown sugar, 1 lb. butter, 2 ounces ground ginger, and then 
take 1 gill of water, ^ of an ounce of saleratus ; mix them all into 
dough, and cut thonr out something larger than marbles, and bake 
them in a moderate oveu. 

York Biscuit. — 3 lbs. flour, i lb. butter, f lbs. sugar; wet up, and 
raise with sour milk and saleratus. 

Traveller's Biscuit. — 2 lbs. of flour, f of a pound of sngar, i lb. 
butter, 1 teaspoonful of dissolved saleratus, milk suflicieut to form 
a dough. Cut up the butter hi the flour, add the sugar, and put 
in the saleratus and milk together, so as to form dough. Knead 
it till it becomes ])erfectly smooth and light. Roll it in slieets about 
J of an hicli tliick, cut tlie cakes with a cutter or the top of a 
tumbler. Bake iu a moderate ovcu. 



22 BAKING AND COOKING EECEIPT3. 

Bakixg Powder for Biscuit. — Bicarbonate of soda 4 lbs., cream 
of tartar 8 lbs. These ingredients should be thoroughly dried and 
well mixed, and put up proof against dampness. Use about 3 tea- 
spooiifuls to each quart of flour, mix up with cold water or milk, 
and put it into the oven at once. 

Bkowx Bread for Biscuit.?. — Com meal 4 qts., rye flour 3 qts., 
wheat flour 1 qt., molasses 2 tablespoonfuls, yeast G tiblespoon- 
fuls, soda 2 teaspoonfuls. j^Iix during the evening for breakfast. 

Mince Pies — Meat 1 lb., suet 3^ lbs., currants, raisins and plums 
2 lbs., one glass brandy or wine, allspice, ctmiamon and cloves to 
your taste, sugar sufficient to sweeten. Baked in a slioit crust. 

Fruit Pies. — For all kinds of fruit pies have your fruit sweet- 
ened to your taste, aud then put in a short crust. Bake in a. hot 
oven. 

Pumpkin Pee. — Stew the pumpkin diy, and make it like squash 
pie, only season rather higher. In the' country, where this real 
Yankee pie is prepared in perfection, ginger is almost always used, 
with other spices. There, too, part cream, instead of milk, is mixed 
with the pumpkin, which gives a richer flavor. 

Lemox Pie. — 1 lemon grated, 2 eggs, h cup of sugar, 1 cup of mo- 
lasses, 1 of water, aud 3 tablespoonfuls of flour. This makes 3 pies. 

Lemon Pie with three crusts. — A layer of crust, a layer of le- 
mon, sliced fhie, a little sugar, layer of crust again, aud sugar aud 
lemon agam, theu the upper crust. 

Another Way. — 1 cup of sugar, 1 cup sweet milk, 1 egg, IJ 
lemon the gi-ated peel and juice, 1 tablespoonful of flour; then 
after baking, the white of an egg beaten, sweetened, and put on 
the top ; theu set in the oven and browned. 

Cru.mb Pie. — Mince any cold meat very finely, season it to taste, 
and put it into a pic-dish ; have some finely-grated bread crumbs, 
with a little salt, pepjier, and nutmeg, aud pour into the dish any 
nice gi-avy that may be at hand ; then cover it over with a thick 
layer of the bread crumbs, and i)ut small pieces of butter over the 
top. Place it in the oven till quite hot. 

Washington Pie. — 1 cup of sugar, third of a cup of butter, lialf 
a cup of sweet milk, 1 aud a third cup of flour, 1 egg, half a tea- 
spoonful of soda, 1 of cream of tartar, lemon flavor. Grease 2 
round tins, and put ui the above. Bake until done. Then put it 
on a dinner plate, spread with nice apple-sauce, or sauce of any 
kind ; then another layer of cake on top. It is nice without sauce, 
but sauce improves it. 

Fruit Pie. — 1 cup of sirgar, 1 of water, tablespoonful of flour, tea- 
spoonful of lemon essence (or lemon grated), 1 teaspoonful of cream 
of tartar, half a teaspoonful of soda^ half a cup of dried currants : 
mix and boil, stirring to prevent the flour from settling. 

Chicken Pie. — Take one pair of good young chickens, cut in small 
pieces, season -with pepper and salt and small strips of salt pork, put 
in saucepan with water to cover it, boil for half an hour, add flour 
and butter to thicken the gravy, have ready a large di.sh, served 
with paste, put all in the dish covered with a good rich paste. Bake 
for half an hour. 

Veal Pot Pie. — Take 2 pounds of best veal, cut in small 
pieces, half pound of salt pork, sliced tliiu, four quarts of cold 



B-VKIXG AND COOKING nECEIPTS. 23 

■water ; pepper and palt all, pnt on tlio fire ; after boilins for 1 
hour liave o pounds of liy;ht bread dousli, pick small pieces, say 
one ounce pieces, put in saucepan, with tlie veal and pork, and let 
it boil for twenty inuiutes. Sei've as soou as takeu from the 
tire. 

I'l.r.'M PrDDTxr.. — Pound G crackers, and soak them oven night in 
millc enough to cover tliem, tlieu add 3 jiiiits of milk, 4 or 5 eggs, 
raishis ^ lb., spice Avith luitraeg and swccteu ■with sugar and 
luolasses. Bake about 2 hours. 

T.viMOCA rt'DPiXG.— Pick and mash a coffee ctip full of tapioca, 
and pour uiwn it 1 pint boiling milk ; after standing ^ an hour, add 
anotlicr pint of cold milk, with sugar and raisin.s if you desire, 

B.\KF.D Pudding. — 5 Uiblcspoonfuls of corn starch to 1 quart of 
milk, dissolve the .starch in a part of the milk, heat tlic remainder 
of the milk to nearly boiling, having salted it a little, tlien add 
the dissolved starch to the milk, boil 3 minutes, stirring it brisklj' ; 
allow it to cool, and then thorouglily mix with it 3 eggs, ■well beat- 
en, ■with 3 tablespoonfuls of sugar ; flavor to taste and bake 
it ^ an hour. Tliis imdding ranks second to none. 

Orange Puddixg. — Take 1 lb. of butter^ 1 lb. of sugar, 10 eggs, 
the juice of 2 oranges, boil tlic peel, then pound it fine and mix it 
Avith the juice. Add the juice of 1 lemon, a ■wincgla.ssful of 
brandy, wine and rose-water. If you do not have the fi-uit add 
the extracts. 

CocoAXVT PcDDixo. To u large grated cocoanut add the ■wliitea 
of G eggs, i lb of sugar, G ounces of butter, ^ a wiueghissful of 
rose-water, and baked in or out of pa.ste. 

Rice Pcddixg. — Take 1 lb. of rice, boiled well with rich milk, 
stirring well until it is soft, and tlicn add ^ lb. butter, 12 egg-s, well 
beaten, and spice to your tiste, and bake it. 

IIjVhd Times Puddixg. — ^ pint of molasses or syrup, ^ pint water, 
2 teaspoonfuls of soda, 1 teaspoonful of salt, flour enough to 
make a batter ; boil in a bag 3 hours. Eat it with sauce. 

li.ucKD AiTLE Puddixg. — Pare and quarter four large apples, boil 
tliera tender with the rind of a lemon in so little water that Avlieu 
done no water may remain, beat tliera quite fine in a mortar, add 
the crumb of a small roll, i lb. butter melted, tlio yolks of 5 and 
whites of 3 eggs, juice of h lemon, sugar to your taste, beat all 
well together, ail in jiastc. 

Grouxd Kice, ou Sago Pudding. — Boil a large spoonful of it, 
licaped, in 1 iiint milk with lemon peel and cinnamon; ■when cold, 
add sugar, and nutmegs, and 4 eggs ■well beaten. 

Custard Pudding.— Take 1 pint milk, 4 spoonfuls flour, G eggs, 
spice to your taste and bake. 

Winter I'u'dding. — Take the crust of baker's loaf of bread, and 
fill it with ])lums, boil it in milk and water. 

B.MvED Potato Pudding. — Baked poUitoes skimmed and mashed, 
12 oz., suet 1 oz., cheese, grated iine, 1 oz., milk 1 gill. Mix the 
jxitatoes, suet, milk, cheese and all together, if not of a proper 
consistence, add a little water. Bake in an earthen pot. 

College Pudding. — J lb. of stile bread, grated ; the s.ame quan- 
tity of beef suet, cho]ippd very fine ; 1 lb. of currants, i nutmeg, a 
lew cloves, a glass of brandy, 2 or 3 eggs, 2 sxwoufulaof cream or 



24 BAlvING AND COOKIXG KECEIPTS. 

milk; mbc tlicso •well tosetlier, and make into a. pnsto in the shape 
of eggs. Fry them gently over a clc<ar fire, in h lb. of butter ; let 
tliem be of nice brown color all over. You inay add blanched 
almonds and sweetmeats. Serve them up with -wine. 

Family I^ctddixg.— 1 quart of sweet milk, 1 pint of bread crumbs 
Boaked in tlio milk, 3 eggs well beaten, 1 teacupfiU of sugar, little 
mace, 6 good tart apples, pared, cores diir/ out, and stand them 
in the pudding, and steam mitil the apples are well done. An hour 
will suffice. 

Cottage Pcddixg.— 1 egg, 1 cup of sugar, 1 of sweet milk, 
1 teaspoonful of soda, 2 of cream of fciitar, 1 pint of flour, and a 
little salt. To be eaten with milk and sugar. 

GiiEEN GoosEiiEitRiEs mako a nice pudding by stirring a pint of 
them into a pint of batter, and cither baking or boiling. 

LiiJiON PuDDixG.— Melt G oz. of butter, pour it over the samo 
quantity of powdered loaf sugar, stirring it well till cold, then 
grate the rind of a large lemon, and add it with 8 eggs well beaten 
and the juice of 2 lemons ; stir the whole till it is completely 
mixed together, and bake the pudding with a paste round toe 
dish. 

S.\UCE3 AST) Ckeams FOii TirDDiNGs. — 1. Take equal quantities 
of sugar and molasses, boil them together, and stir in a little 
flour. 2. Take tlio juice of an orange, a cup of sugar and the same 
of good cream. 3. Good sour cream made very sweet with sugar, 
with or without seasoning, makes a good saxace. 4. Beat 2 eggs 
well, then add a cup of stewed apples and a cup of sngar. 

Beef Ste.\k with Oxioxs. — Prepare a rump steak by pounding 
it till quite tender, season Avith salt, pepper and fresh butter, put 
in the steak and fry it, when brown on one side turn over, do not 
let it scorch, when nicely done take it up, put a little flour over 
the steak, then add gradually a cup of hot water, seasoned with 
more salt and pepper, if necessary ; then put the water over the 
lire and boil again, and pour over the steak. 

Peel 2 dozen onious, put them on to boil with alx)ut 2 quarts 
of water an hour before the steak is put on to fry. AVhen the stcivk 
is done, cut them up, put them in the frying pan, season well with 
salt, pepper, and butter, sprinlde with flour, stir all well together, 
place over the lire, stir often to prevent scorching ; when they are 
a little brown and soft, turn them over the steak. 

Seasoxixg for Stuffing. — 1 lb. of salt, dried and sifted ; half 
an ounce of ground white pepper ; two ounces of dried thyme ; 
1 oz. of dried marjoram ; and one oz. of nutmeg. When this 
seasoning in used, parsley only is required to be chopped in suffi- 
cient quantity to make the stufling green. The proportions are— 
^ pound of bread crumbs ; 3 eggs ; ^ lb. of suet ; ^ oz. of sea- 
Boning ; and the peel of half a lemon, grated. 

Economical Sour. — Put into a saucepan one-pound pieces of 
stale bread, tliree large onious sliced, a small cabbage cut fine, 
a Girrot and turnip, and a small head of celery (or the remains of 
any cold vegetables ), a tablespoonful of salt, a tiblespoonful of 

Iie])per, a bunch of parsley, a sprig of marjonuu and thyme. 
*iit these into two quarts of any weak stock-, (the liquor in 
which mutton has been boiled will do,) and let them boil for 



BAKIXG AND COOKLXG RECEIPTS. 25 

two hours ; rub througli a fine Lair-sieve, add a pint of new 
inilk, boil up, and servo at once. 

VEr.ETABi.ic SoiT. — Tal:o a sliiu of a beef, 3 largo carrots, 3 large 
j-ellow ouiouH, G turnips, h lb. of rice or barley; parsley, leeks, 
Buniincr savory ; put all into a soui)-kett!e, and let it boil four 
hours ; add pepper and salt to taste ; servo altogether. It makes 
a pood family soup. 

I'EA Sour. — Beef 5 lbs., water 5 qts., G large carrots, G good 
turnips, 3 large onions, salt suflicient, put it oa a good slow 
fire, let it buil 3 hours, tlien strain all the brotli from niaat and 
vegetables, and tlien add 3 lbs. of split peas to the broth; set it on 
a slow lire for 2 hours, stirring often, so th.at all the jieas will dis- 
Bolve ; take 1 lb. fresh sausage meat, fried to a crisp and fried bread 
crumbs ; put altogether, add a few fine herbs, and serve hot. 

Tkicassek Chickens. — Take 2 large young chiekens, cut in small 
pieces, put in cold water fori liour to tike all the blood out, then 
put in saucepan to ])arboil for half au hour, then take from sauce- 
pau drained well, li.ive ready 1 qt. good fresh cream, 2 oz. good 
bdtter, 1 oz. of flour, all well mix'ed together ; put in saucepan 
with the chickens ; juit on the fue to boil tender ; season with 
pepper and salt ; served with toast bread iu the bottom of the 
dish. 

Baiceb Tomatoes. — Wash the tomatoes, take out the seed, make 
a dicssing of crumbs of bread and onions chopped Cue ; add 
salt, butter nud pcpjier. Bake and serve hot. 

Stewed Tomatoes. — Scald the tom.atoes with hot water, take 
off the skins, put them in an earthen vessel, strain off tlie water, 
and add butter, salt and pepper to taste. 

JIashed TuuNirs. — Wash turnips, boil well, take them r.p in the 
colander, ])re.ss out all the water, mash very liiic ; season with salt, 
butter and sugar. Serve hot with trimmings. 

Hashed Meat. — TalvO 2 lbs. of fat coined beef, well boiled and 
cold ; 1 lb. of well boiled jwtatoes, cold ; 1 large white ouiou ; 
put in chopping tray, mince it fine, put all in saucep.an together, 
add 2 ozs. butter ; pepper and salt to tisto ; add boiling water to 
make it soft; set it on a slow fire, stirring it often. When well stewed, 
eervo hot. It makes a fine relish for breakfast. 

Lop.sTER S.VLAD. — Take inside of large lobster, mince fine, tako 
yolk of 2 eggs boiled hard and mashed fine, with four tablespoou- 
fnls of sweet oil; pepper, salt, vinegar, and mustard to fcisto; mix 
well; add celery or lettuce to taste; thcu when serving, garnish 
■with hard-boiled eggs. 

Succotash. — Take 1 doz. ears of com, cut the grains from the 
cob, add 1 qt. of Lima beans, and mi.\: with the corn; put it on to 
boil in 3 qts. of w.ater Avith 1 lb. of pork cut; add black ]>cppcr and 
salt to taste. When the water has boiled away to h the original 
quantity, servo in a tureen as soui>. 

Maocauoni Soup. — 1 lbs. of lean beef, 4 qts. of water, carrot, 
turnip, onions ; set it for 4 hours till all mix t<igether ; strain it all 
through a sieve ; have 2 lbs. of macaironi broken into pieces of one 
inch long ; ])iit all into a saucepan together, aud let it boil for 10 
minutes, and sen^e it hot. 

Boiled Custakd, ok Mock CuEAii. — ^Take 2 tablespooufuls com 



lij BAKING AXD COOKIXG RECEIPTS. 

gtarch, 1 qt. of millc, 2 or 3 eggs, h a tcaspoonful of salt and a small 
piece of butter ; heat the milk till nearly boiling and add the starch, 
previously dissolved in 1 qt. of millc, then add the eggs, \TeU beaten, 
uitli 4 tablespoonfuls of powdered sugar ; let it boil up once or 
twice, stirring it briskly, and it is done. Flavor with lemon or 
Tanilla, or raspberry, or to suit your taste. 

Lemox Cueam. — Take a, jnnt of thick cream and put to it tlio 
yolks of two egg''^ ■^^'cll beaten, 4 oz. of fine sugar and the thin 
rind of a lemon , boil it up, tlicn stir till almost cold ; put tlie juico 
of a lemon in a dish or bowl and pour the cream upon it, stiiTing 
till quite cold. 

FuLiT CuEAMS. — ^Take ^ oz. of isinglass dissolved in a little 
water, then put 1 pt. of good cream, sweetened to the taste ; boil 
it. When nearly cold lay some apricot or raspberry jam on tho 
boltoju of a glass dish and pour it over. This is most excellent. 

Kaspp.ekkv Cue am. — Put G ozs. of ra,«pbcrry jam to 1 qt. of 
cream, jmlp it through a lawn sieve, add to it the juice of a lemon 
and a little sugar, and wliisk it till thick. Serve it in a dish or 
glasses. 

To roast fowls the fire must be quick and clear. If smolcy it 
■will spoil both their ta.«te and looks. Baste frequently, and keep 
a white paper pinned on the breast till it is near done. 

Tukkey. — A good sized turkey should bo roasted 2J hours or 
3 liours — very slowlj' at first. K you wish to make plain stuffing, 
pound a cracker or crumble some bread very fine, chop some 
raw .«alt pork very fine, sift some sage, (and summer savory, or 
sweet marjoram, if you have them in tho house, and fancy 
them,) and mould them all together, seasoned with a little pepper. 
An egg worked in makes the stufling cut better. 

Boiled Ti'rkev. — Clean the tuikey, fill the crop with stuffing, 
and sew it up. Put it over tho fire in water enough to cover it, 
let it lx)il slowly — take off all the scum. AVhcn this is done, it 
should only simu'ier till it is done. Put a little salt into the water, 
and dredge the turkej- in flour before boiling. 

Roast Ducks axd Geese. — Take sage, wash and pick it, and an 
onion ; chop them fine, witli pej^pcr and salt, and put them in the 
belly ] let the goose be clean picked, and wiped dry with a clotlu 
inside and out ; put it down to the fire, and roast it brown. DacTc 
are dressed in the same way. For wild ducks, teal, piiicons, and 
other wild fowls, use only pepper mid .-jalt, with gravy in tlia dish. 

Roast Citickex. — Chickens should be managed in roasting the 
same as turkeys, only tliat they roquiie less time. From an hour 
to an hour and a half is long enough. 

Boiled Cuickex. — A chicken should be boiled the s.ame as a 
turkey, only it will fcike less time — about 35 minutes is suffi- 
cient" Use the same stufling, if any, and serve it u^) with jxirsley, 
or egg-sauce. 

BnoiLED Chickex'. — Slit them down the back and season with 
pepper and salt ; lay them on ;i clear fire of coals, the iu?ide next 
the lire till half done, then turn and broil to a fine brown color. 
Broil about :?o minutes. 

B< i[LEi) I'lcEoNs. — Boil them about 15 minutes by themselves ; then 
boil a piece of bacon ; serve with Blicea of bacou and melted butter. 



BAKIXG AND COOKING KECEIPTS. 27 

Fish CnowDKK. — Fry n, few slices of salt pork, dress and cut tho 
fish ui sraall pieces, pare aud slice the pobitoes and onions, theu 
place them in the kettle, a layer of fish, then of the fried pork, 
])otatoes, onions, &c., seasoning each layer with salt aud i^cpper. 
fcitew over a slow fire 30 minutes. 

liOAST Beicf. — The sirloin is considered the best for roasting. 
Spit the me;it, pepper tlie top, aud baste it well Avhile roastui.t; 
with its own dripping, and throw on a handful of salt. When tho 
Bmokc draws to the fire, it is near enough ; keep the fire bright 
and clear. From 15 to 20 minutes to the lb. is the rule for roast- 
ing. 

Beef Boiled. — The round is the best boilmg piece. Put the 
meat in the jjot, with water cuougli to cover it ; let it boil very 
plow at first — this is the great secret of maldng it tender — take off 
the scum as it rises. From 2 to 3 hours, according to size, is tho 
rule for boiling. 

Beef Steak. — The msido of tho sirloin makes the best steak ; 
cut about J of an inch tliick — have the gridiron hot, pat on the meat 
and set it over a good fire of coals— tuiu them often. From 8 to 10 
minutes is the rule for broiling. 

Roast Poiik. — Take a leg of pork aud wash it clean — cut tho 
skiu iu squares — make a stuffing of grated bread, sage, onion, 
pepper and salt, moistened Avith the yolk of an egg. Put this 
under the skin of the knuckle, and sprinkle a little powdered sago 
into the rind where it is cut ; rub the whole surface of tho skin 
over with a feather dipi^ed iu sweet oil. 8 lbs. will require about 
three hours to roast it. 

5;^" The Shouldee, Loin, oiiCniiTE, and Sr..VKE-RiB arcroastcd 
Iu the same manner. 

Roast Ve.\l. — Pursue about tho same course as in roasting pork. 
Roast before a brisk fire till it conies to a bro\\Ti color ; then you lay 
it down, baste it well with good butter, aud when uear doue, with a 
little Hour. 

Roast Muttox.— The loin, haunch, and saddle of mutton and 
lamb must be done the same as beef. All otlier parts must be roast- 
ed with a cruick, clear fire ; baste it when you put it down, and 
dredge it witli a little flour, just before you take it up. A leg of mut- 
ton of six pounds will require 1 hour to roast before a quick fire. 

To Boil Eggs. — In 3 minutes an e^g will boil soft, iu 4 the whito 
part is completely cooked, in 10, it is fit for a salad. Try their fresh- 
ness in cold water, those tliat sink the soonest are the freshest. 

Sausage Meat. — Take 2 lbs. lean meat, 1 lb. fat pork, chop fine, 
and mix with 2 tablespoorxfuls black peiiper, 1 of cloves, 7 of powder- 
ed sage, and 5 of salt. 

AiTLE Custakd. — Talce apples, pared, cored, and slightly stewed, 
Eufficieut to cover the dish, 8 eggs, 1 qt. of milk ; spice to your taste ; 
bake it J of au hour. 

New-Englani) ArrLE-SAUcn ok BuTTEii. — Boil 2 brls. of new 
cider down to ^ a brl. Pare, core, and slice up 3 bushels of apples 
(sweet apples are prefeiable), and put them into the cider thus re- 
duced, and still kept boiling briskly. Stir the whole mass coustautlj", to 
j)rovent btiniing, till of tlie consistence of soft butter. A small quan- 
tity of puhcrizcd all.spicc, added during tho boiling, ia an improve- 



28 BAKING AXD COOKIXG ItECICIPTS. 

ncnt. Boil in .1 brass kcttlo, .inrl, •when done, put it into .1 -vrooden 
fii-kin, or a small cask, and it will keep for je;irs. 

Apple Butter {,Penn.<<ylvanin Method). — Boil newriderdown to h. 
Pare, cut, and core equal quantities of sweet and sour apples. Piit 
the sweet apples in a lar^e kettle to soften a little fii-st. as they are 
the hardest. Add enough boiled cider to cook them. After boilin<z k 
an hour, stirring often, put in the sour apples, and add more boiled 
cider, -with molasses enough to sweeten moderately. Boil until ten- 
der, stirring to prevent burning. Tack in lirkins or stone pots for 
%dnter use. 

Irish Stett. — Take 4 lbs. good breast of fat mutton, cut in small 
pieces ; 2 large -white onions ; 10 large potatoes, Avell ]ieeled and 
sliced ; put all in saucepan together, -with fine herbs, pepper and 
salt to suit ; a little salt pork is a good addition ; h lb. of flour ; 
J lb. good fresh butter, -well rubbed together, and let' it boil for one 
Lour, and have it well cooked- 

Apple Dcmplixgs. — •! eggs, 1^ lbs. of flonr, some butter to your 
taste, and t;iblespoonful of yea.st, and sufficient milk to make a 
dough to roll out ; -when raised, cut in small pieces, put in the apples, 
and cook for J of an hour ; sei-ve with wliite sugar or wine sauce. 

Boiled Poultry. — Take large chickens, well cleaned with cold 
■water, put iu saucepan with water to co"'er, boil 1 hour ; se^^■ed 
with .sauce. 

Hashed Titrket.— Take meat from boiled fowls, chop fine, put in 
Bancepan, with seasonings to suit fciste. Sensed on toiust 

Boiled Maccaroxi. — Take 2 Ib.s., break iu small jiieces, put in 
warm water to steep 1 liour, drain off, ])ut in saucepan with 2 qta. 
Iresh cream, with grated cheese ; seasoned with red pejiper. 

SxRASBCRr, Potted Meat. — TakclHbs. of the rump of beef, cut 
into dice, put it in an eartlien jar, with J lb. of butter, tie tlie jar 
close np with pajier, and set over a pot to boil ; when nearly done, 
add cloves, mace, allspice, nutmeg, salt, and cayenne jiepper to 
taste, then boil till tender, and let it get cold, pound the meat, 
with 4 anchovies mashed and boned, add J lb. of oiled btitter, 
work it well together with the gravy, warm a little, and add 
cochineal to, color then press into snail po^5, and pour melted 
mutton suet over the top of each. 

BoLOGXA Sausages. — Take equal quantities of bacon fat and lean 
beef, veal, pork and beef suet ; chop them small, sea.son with pep- 
per, salt, &c., with sweet herbs and sage rubbed fine. Have well 
washed intestines, fill, and prick them ; boil gently for an hour, 
and lay on straw to dry. 

Rich Sausages.— take 30 lbs. of chopped meat, 8 oz. fine salt, 
2i oz. pepper, 2 teacups of sage, and \h cups of sweet marjoram, 
passed through a fine sieve, or, if preferred, thj-nie and summer 
savory can be substituted for the latter. 

How to save your Ice Bill. — Get a quantity of empty barrels or 
boxes during the coldest time in the winter, and put a few inches 
of water in each; the evening when the cold is most intense is the 
best time to do this. After the water is frozen solid, fill up again, 
re{>eat the process until the barrels are full of solid ice, then roll 
tliem into your cellar, cover them up with plenty of sawdust 
or straw, and your ice crop is safely harvested. 



BAKING AND COOKING RECEIPTS. 29 

Cn.VRLOTTE RnssE. — Take 1 pt. milk, dissolve \rith heat, 3 oz. 
isinglass and 1 lb. sugar; add, after it is cool, 1 qt. beaten cream 
and flour, suit your fcistc and line out. some mould witli sponge 
cake, and put the cream in it and cool. 

WiNi!; Jkllv. — Take 1 ])t. water and 3 oz. isinglass, IJ lb. sugar, 
the juice of 2 lemons, and dissolve that and let it come to a boil, 
tli«i add wine, brandy and spice to your taste, and strain it through 
a cotton or flannel cloth and put it in moulds to cool. 

To M.A.KE Apple Molasses. — Take new sweet cider just from the 
press, made from sweet ajiples, and boil it down as thiclv as West 
India molasses. It should be boiled in brass, and not bunied, 
as that would injure tlie flavor. It will keep in the cellar, and ia 
eaid to be as good, and for many purposes better, than West India 
molasses. 

B^~Aeid fruits should bo cooked in bright tin, brass, or bell 
metal, and poured out as soon as they are done. Bro\vn earthen 
vessels should never be used, as they are glazed with white lead, 
a poison which very readily unites with an acid. 

Jellies. — Lemon Jelly. — Isinglass, 2 oz. ; water, 1 qt. ; boil ; add 
sugar, 1 lb. ; clarify ; and, when nearly cold, add the juice of 5 
lemons, and the grated yellow rinds of 2 oranges and 2 lemons ; 
mix well, strain off the peel, and put it into glasses or bottles ; 
Hartshorn Jelly.— Ha.n?\\ovi\, 1 lb. ; water 1 gal. ; peel off 2 lemons ; 
boil over a gentle lire till sufficiently thick ; strain and add loaf 
sugar, \ lb. ; whites of 10 eggs beaten to a froth ; juice of C lemons ; 
mix well together, then bottle. Isinglass Jelly.— Vat 4 oz. isinglass 
and 2 oz. cloves into 1 gal. water ; boil it down to half a gal. ; strain it 
npon 4 lbs. of loaf sugar ; add, while cooling a little wine ; tlien bot- 
tle. Apply Jelly from Cider. — Take of apple juice, strained, 4 lbs. ; 
sugar, 2 lbs. ; boil" to a jelly, and bottle. Gooseberry Jelly.— Sugur, 
4 lbs. ; water, 2 lbs. ; boil together ; it will be nearly solid when cold; 
to this svrup, add an equal weight of gooseberry juice ; give it a short 
boil, cool, then pot it. Currant Jelly.— Take the juice of red cur- 
rants, and loaf sugar, equal quantities ; boil and stir gently for three 
hours ; put it into glasses ; and in three days it will concentrate into 
a firm jelly. Tapioca Jelly. — Wash 8 oz. of tapioca well ; then soak 
it in 1 gal.' fresh water, 5 of 6 hours ; add the peels of 8 lemons, and 
set all on to heat ; simmer till clear ; add the juice of the 8 lemons 
with wine and sugar to taste ; then bottle. 

liLACKnEKRY Jelly.— This prepaTation of the blackbeny is more 
agreeable than the jam, as the seeds, though very wholesome, arc 
not agreeable to all. It is made in the same way as currant jelly; 
but the fruit is so sweet that it only requires half the weight of the 
juice in sugar. 

Peak Marmalade.— To 6 lbs. of small pears, tike 4 lbs. of sugar ; 
put the pears into a saucepan, with a little cold water ; cover it, 
and set it over the fire until the fruit is soft, then put them into 
Cv Id water ; pare, quarter, and core them ; ynt to them three tea- 
cups of water, set them over the fire ; roll the sugar fine, mash the 
fruit fine and smooth, put the sugar to it, stir it well together until 
it is thick, like jelly, then put it in tumblers, or jars, and, when cold, 
eecurc it as jelly. 

PjiESERVED CiTEON. — Paro Rud cut opcn the citron ; clean all out 



30 



BAKIXG AND COOKING RECEIPTS. 



except the rind ; boil till soft. To 1 lb. of citron r.dd 1 lb. of sugar, 
find a lemon to each lb. ; put the sugar and lemon together, and 
boil it till it becomes a syj^up, skimming it weU ; then piit the syrup 
aud citron together, and boil it an hour. 

Scotch Marmalade. — Talve of the juice of Seville oraugcs 2 
pts., yellow honey, 2 lbs. Boil to a proper consistence. 

Kaspbekry Jaji. — Allow a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit, 
mash the raspberries and put them, with the sugar, into your 
preservmg kettle. Boil it slowly for an hour, skimming it well. 
Tie it lip" with brandy paper. All jams are made iu the same 
manner. 

French Hoxet. — White sugar. 1 lb. ; G eggs, leaving out the 
whites of 2 ; the juice of 3 or 4 lemons, and the grated nnd of 2, 
and I lb. of butter ; stir over a slow lire luitil it is of tlia consis- 
tency of honey. 

Almond Blanc Mange. — Talcc four ounce of almonds, six oz. 
sugar, boil together with a quart of water, melt in this two 
ouiices of pure isinglass, strain in a smaU tin mould to stiffen it. 
When wanted, dip the mould in hot Avater and^tum it out. 

Lemon Blanc Mange. — Pour a pint of hot water upon half an 
ounce of ismglass ; when it is dissolved, add the juice of three lemons, 
the peel of two lemons grated, sLx yolks of eggs beaten, add about a 
good wine-glass of Madeira wine to it ; sweeten to your taste ; let it 
boil ; then strain it and put it in your moulds. 

Molasses Preserves. — Boil 1 qt. of molasses about ten or fifteen 
minutes to a thickish consistencj', then add 6 eggs well beaten, and a 
ppoouful of flour. Boil a few minutes longer, stirring constantly, 
then set off the fire, and flavor with lemon or allspice as desired. 

Fruit Extracts, &c. — Good alcohol, 1 qt., oil of lemon, 2 oz. Break 
and bruise the peel of 4 lemons, and add to tliem .alcohol for a few 
days, then filter. For currants, peaches, raspberries, ]iine apples, 
etra wherries, blackberries, &c., take alcohol and water half and half 
and pour over the fruit, entirely covering it, and let it stand for a few 
daj'S. For essence of cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, vanilla, &c., pulver- 
ize either article thoroughly, and put about 2 oz. of the resulting pow- 
der to each pint of reduced alcohol, agitate the mixture frequently 
for 2 weeks, then filter aud color as desired. 

Measures for Housekeepers. 



Wheat flour 1 lb is 1 quart. 

Indian meal 1 '■ 2 oz " 1 quart. 

Butter when soft. . 1 "...." 1 " 

IvOaf sugar, broken 1 " "1 " 

White sugar, powd i " 1 oz. " 1 " 



Best brown 

sugar 1 lb. 2 oz. is 1 qt. 

"Eagti 10 eggs are 1 lb. 

Fiour 8 qts. " 1 peck. 

riour .4 pk3. " 1 bush. 



Liquids, 
'/2 r?ut 



16 large tablespoonfuls are 
8 large tablespoonf uls are 1 ' gill 
4 lar^e tablespoonf uls are V. gill. 

2 gills are Yi I'i^'' 

2piiitsaro 1 qt. 



4 qts. are 1 crnllon. 

A comuiou sized tumbler lioldri v^ a 

pint. 
A common sized wine-glass " 14 a 

gill. 
25 drops are eciual to 1 tcasi)ooiif ul 



FARMERS'- RECEIPTS. 



31 




FARMERS AND STOCK OWNERS' DEPART- 
MENT. 



Rarey's Directions for Breaking and Training of Horses. 
— In training horses you must remember that there are certain natural 
laws that govern them. For instance, it is natural for him to kick 
whenever he gets badly frightened ; it is natural for him to escape 
from whatever he thinks will do him harm. His faculties of seeing, 
hearing, and smelling, have been given him to examine everything 
new that he is brought in contact witli. And so long as you present 
him with nothing that offends his eyes, nose, or ears, j'ou can then 
handle him at will, notwithstanding, he may be frightened at first, so 
that in a sliort time he will not be afraid of anything he is brouglit in 
contact with. All of the whipping and spurring of horses for shying, 
stumbling, &c., is useless and cruel. If he shys, and you whip' him 
for it, it only adds terror, and makes the object larger than it would 
otherwise be ; give him time to examine it without punishing liim. 
He should never be hit with the wliip, under any circumstances, or 
for anything that he does. As to smelling oil, there is nothing that 
.assists the trainer to tame his horse better. It is better to approach a 
colt with the scent of honey or cinnamon upon your hand, than the 
scent of hogs, for horses naturally fear the sceiit of hogs, and will 
attempt to escape from it, while 'they like tlie scent of honey, cin- 
n.amon, or salt. To affect a horse with drugs you must give him some 
preparation of opium, and while he is under the influence of it, you 
cannot teach hinr anything more than a man when ho i.s intoxicated 



32 



FAEHEUS' RECEIPTS. 



■with liquor. Another thing, you must remember to trout him kindly, 
for tliere yon require obedience from any subject, it is better to have 
it rendered from a sense of love than fear. You should be careful 
not to chafe the lips of your colt or hurt his mouth in any way ; if 
you do he will dislike to have the bridle on. After he is taught to 
follow you, tlien put on the harness, nutting your lines through the 
shaft straps along the side, and teach him to yield to the reins, turn 
short to the riglit and left, teach him to stand still before he is ever 
hitched up ; y<:)u then have control over him. If he gets frightened, 
the lines should be used as a telegraph, to let liim know what you 
want him to do. No horse is naturally vicious, but always obeys lii3 
trainer as soon as he corapreherrds what he would have hini do ; 
you must be firm with him at the same time, and give him to under- 
stand that you are the trainer, and that he is the horse. The best bits 
to be used to hold a horse, to keep his mouth from getting sore, is a 
straight bar-bit, 4i inches long between the rings ; this operates on 
botli sides of the jaw. while the ordinary snaffle forms a clamp and 
presses the side of the jaw. The curb or bridoon hurts his under jaw so 
tliat he will stop before he will give to the rein. To throw a horse, put 
a rope 12 feet long around his body in a running noose, pass it down 
to the right fore foot through a ring in a spancil, then buckle up tho 
left or near fore foot, take a firm hold of youi rope, lead him around 




farmers' receipts. 33 

Tintil he is tired, give him a shoTO with yonr shoulder, at the same 
time drawing up tlie riglit foot which hrings liim on his Imees, liold 
liim steady, and in a few moments lie will lie down. Never attempt 
to liold him still, for the more he scuffles the better. 

Take your colt into a tight room or pen, and with a long whip com- 
mence snapping at the colt's hind leg, taking care not to hit above the 
hocks, stopping immediately when the colt turns his head towards 
you; Avhile his head is towards you, approach him with the left hand 
extended toward him, holding your whip in tlie right, ready to snap 
him as soon as he turns his head from you. In this way you can soon 
get your hands upon him. As soon as you have done this, be careful 
to caress him for his obedience, and snap him for his disobedience. 
In this way he will soon leani that he is safest in your )>resence with 
liis head towards you, and in a very short time you cannot keep him 
ftway from you. Speak kindly and firmly to him, all the time caress- 
ing him, calling by name, and saying, "Ho, boy," or " Ho, Diua," or 
Bome familiar word that he will soon learn. 

If a colt is awlcward and careless at first, you must bear with him, 
remembering that we, too, were awkward when youn^ ; allowing 
him his own way, uutil by degrees he will come in. If lie is wilful, 
you must then change your course of treatment, by confining him in 
Buch a way that he is powerless for harm until he submits. If ho 13 
disposed to run, use my pole check on him ; if to kick, fasten a ropo 
around his imdcr jaw, pass it through the collar and attach it to his 
hind feet. In this way one kick will cure him, as the force of the blow 
falls on his jaw. If he should be stubborn, lay him down and couline 
liim imtil you subdue liim, without punishing him with the whip. 

Colts should bo broke without bliud-bridles ; after tliey are well 
broke, then you may put on bUuds. Bridles without bUnds are the 
best unless you want to speed your horse, then it will be necessary to 
keep him from seeing the whip. Colts should be well handled and 
taught to give readily to the rein before they are hitched up. If yon 
hitch them up the first thmg and they become frigliteued, then you 
have no control over them ; but if you teach them to start, sto]i, and 
Btand at the word before they are hitched, then you can govern them. 

Cruelty to Horses — Besides the cruel punishment inflicted upon 
horses, by the careless and heartless driver, he is subjected to se- 
vere punishment in the winter season, by being compelled to take 
frozen bits into his mouth in cold weather, tearing the skin from tlie 
tongue and the roof of his mouth, producing a heavy inflammation in 
the mouth and throat ; he gets poor, hidebound, and tlie sympathetic 
nerves of the head take up the inflammation, carry it to the head and 
eyes, frequently producing blindness, and a hundred otlier diseases. 
The whip should be used as an instrument of pleasure instead of tor- 
ture ; and your bits should be woimd with flamiel or leather ; so tliat 
uo frozen iron will come in contact with liis mouth, lips or tongue. 

Karey's Liniment. — Sulphuric ether, 4: ozs. ; hartshorn, 4 ozs., 
oil of origanum, 4 ozs. ; alcohol, 4 ozs. ; sweet oil, 4 ozs. Slial^e 
■well before using. For sprains on horses, &c., apply by rubbing and 
cover with a tight flaimcl bandage. For headache, rub a little on the 
templesandapply a bandage wet with the liniment to the forehead. 

Rarey's Wiz.uiD Oil.— Oil of origanum, G ozs. ; alcohol, C ozs. ; 
^liiita turpentine, 1 oz, ; camphor, 1 oz. Shake well beforo using. 
3 



3i 



FARMERS RECEIPTS. 




RAREY'S DrRECTIOKS FOR SHOEING HORSES. — "ThCTC ftrc Tcry 
few blacksmiths that ever ouce think what a complicated piece of 
machinery the foot of a horse is, and by one careless blow they 
frequently stop the working of this machine. The majority of smiths, 
as soon as they pick up a horse's foot, go to work paring the heel, 
from the fact that it is the most convenient part of the foot, and there- 
by destroy the heel and braces of the foot, causing, in many instances, 
contracted lieels. The heels of a horse should be well kept up and the 
toe down. By lowering the heels you throw the entire weight of j'our 
horse upon the back tendon of the legs, and therebj' produce lameness 
from overtaxing a very important set of tendons. By keeping up the 
heel you throw the weight upon the wall of the foot. In this position 
you prevent stumbling, clickmg, &c. Next the shoer commences to 
pare away the sole, thins it down until he can feel it spring with his 
thumb. Ask him why he does this, and he gives you no reason, 
except from custom ; next comes the bars or braces of the foot, they 
are smoothed down ; next in his ruinous course, comes the frogs of 
the feet, they are subjected to the same cutting and smoothing pro- 
cess. All the cutting, paring, and smoothing of the soles, bars, or 
frogs is a decided injurj' to the horse as well as to the owner. All the 
corns in the land are produced by this process of paring. The frogs 
have been placed in the foot by nature to exjiand the wall of the foot, 
and as soon as you commence to cut it, the oily substance commences 
to leak out, it drys up, becomes hard, losing its oily substance, makes 
the wall hard and dry, inducing it to crack. The nerA'es of the feet 
are very sensitive, and smiths should be very careful not to prick the 
foot, as it requires quite a time to relieve them. The foot is a very 
complicated piece of machinerj"-, and if you keep a horse well shod 
and his foot in good condition, you can then generally manage the 
balance. The feet suffer from being kept too dry. Horses that stand 
on board floors should have their feet wet every day, or there should 
be a vat five inches deep, five feet long, and three wide, filled with 
water and clay, in which each horse can stand for one hour per week, 
unless his feet are feverish, then he should be kept in it an hour ])er 
day, or until the fever subsides. Another source of injury to horses' 
feotj is the habit of patrouiziug cheap blacksmiths. If a man can 



farmers' receipts. 35 

drive a nail, he then sets up a sign as a farrier or a veterinary surgeon, 
■when in fact he knows nothmg of tlie anatomy of the horse's foot; 
not having spent any time or money in acquiruig the necessary infor- 
mation, he can afford to shoe a few shillings cheaper than a well-in- 
formed man, but the patrons of such cheap shoeing arc generally the 
Buflereis. All horse-shoers should be well skilled veterinary surgeons, 
or there should be a skilful surgeon attached to every shop. Another 
source of poor shoeing and injury is the loss of elasticity of the frog, 
refusing to perform ite proper functions ; the heel contracts, the foot 
rolls, and you have a sore horse for ten or twelve mouths, for it re- 
quires this' long t<4 relieve a horse's suffering from beuig badly shod. 

Under the circumstances, the first thing that touches the road or 
the floor of the stall, should be the frog, and the wall of the foot 
should be kept cut so as not to prevent it from touching at every step; 
and no man that owns a horse should ever allow a blacksmith to cut 
the soles, bars, or frogs of his horse's feet. Nature has adapted the 
frogs to all description of roads, climates, and weather, without being 
pared. So many horses have been ruined by this process of paring, 
that there are now several establishments in this country that 
manufacture India rubber pads, thinking thereby to supply the wasted 
frog and the elasticity of the natural foot. The frog is insensible to 
pressure, and you may place the whole weight of your horse on the 
frog and he will suffer no inconvenience, as may be seen from shoeing 
with one of my com shoes ; besides, this is the only reliable way to 
cure contracted feet; by throwing the weight upon the frog, you force 
them up between the walls ; it acts as a wedge, and soon relieves the 
contracted feet. Smiths snould never have their shoes hot when 
fitting them, as the appUcation of hot iron extracts the oily substance 
from the hoof. The amount of cruel punishment inflicted on 
horses by cross-grain blacksmiths, is another source of poor shoeing. 
As soon as the horse does not stand the smith gets angry, and com- 
mences whipping and jerking the animal, which only adds terror to 
it, so that he soon refuses to go to the shop if he can avoid it ; it is 
natural for horses to dislike to be shod, because the hammeruig shocks 
the nerv'ous system, until they are accustomed to it. He should be 
taught to stand, and his feet well handled at home, before he is ever 
brought to the shop by the owner. You then save tlie horse pounding, 
and the smith an immense amount of labor that he never gets any pay 
for. for no man ever thinks of paying auj^hing extra for shoeing a 
tad horse. The wall of the foot should never be rasped above the 
nail holes, and as little below the clenches as possible ; all the rasping 
and filing but tends to thin and weaken the wall by cutting the fibei-p 
of the foot. The nails should be counter sunk into the shoe, so that 
there ^vill be no chance for the clenches to rise. No horse interferes 
with the heel or toe ; it is always the side of the foot. The habit of 
turning the inside of the shoe under causes a number of horses to iJi- 
terfere, that would not if they were shod straight in the inside. 
Spread the heels as ■wide as possible ; set the outside a httle under ; 
keep the toes full. For clicking horses, raise the heels high, cut the toes 
short. For speedy cuts, place your toe corks a quarter of an inch to 
the inside of the centre of your shoe; keep the heels wide ajxirt. For 
corns, put on a shoe with a prong, for the main rim, so as to cover the en- 
tiro frog, pare the wall lower tluuj tlie frog, so as liia entire weight will be 



3G FARilERS' KECEIPT8. 

thrown on the fro^. Uave the inner cork not quite so sharp as the 
outer one, so that if he steps upon the other foot it vnll not cut it ; 
make the shoes as light as possible consistent with good service, as 
they are ordinarily made just about ^ too heavj'." 

To Pkfa'ext Hokses Kickix'g in the Stall. — Fasten a short 
trace-chain about 2 feet lon^, by a strap to each hind foot. A better 
■way is to liave tlie stalls made wide enough so that the horse can turn 
iu them easily. Close them with a door or hars, and turn the animal 
loose. Alter a while lie will forget the habit, and stand tied without 
further trouble. 

To Cuke Brokex Legs. — Instead of summaiily shooting the 
horse, in tlie greater number of fractures it is ouly necessary to par- 
tially sling the horse by means of a broad piece of sail, or other 
strong cloth placed imder the animal's belly, furnished with 2 breech- 
ings and 2 breast girths, and by means of ropes and pulleys attached 
to a cross beam above, he is elevated, or lowered, as maj' be required. 
By the adoption of this plan every facUity is allowed for the satisfac- 
tory treatment of fractures. 

LA3IPAS. — This consists in a swelling of the fir.st bar of the upper 
palate. It is cured by rubbmg the swolling 2 or 3 times a day with h 
oz. of alum and the same quantity of double refined sugar mixed witli 
a little honey. 

Gravel. — Steep ^ lb. of hops in a quart of water and give it as hot 
as the horse can stand it. 

H-ALTER PcLLixG. A ncw Way to prevent horses pulling at the 
halter, is to put a very small rope uudcr tlie horse's tail bringing the 
ends forward, crossing them on the back, and tying tliem on tlic 
breast. Put the halter sti-ap through the ring, aiid tie the rope in 
front of the horse. AMien the horse'pulls, he Avill, of course, find him- 
self in rather an uncomfortable position, and discontinue the effort to 
free himself. 

Hide Bouxd. — To recruit a hide bound horse, give nitrate potossa 
(or saltpetre) 4 oz., crude antimony 1 oz., sulphur 3 oz. 2s'itr:Ue of 
potassa and antimony should be finely pulverized, then add the 
sulphur, and mix the whole well together. Dose, a tablesixjouf ul of 
this mixture in a bran mash daily. 

To Prevent Horses from JiniiPixc.. — ^Pass a good stout surcingle 
around his body ; put on his halter, and have the halter strap long 
enough to go from ms head, between Ids fore legs, then through the 
surcingle, and back to one of his hind legs. Procure a thill strap, 
and buckle around the leg between the foot and joint, fasten the 
halter strap in this — shorter or longer, as the obstinacy of the case may 
require. It Ls also useful to keep colts from running where tliere is 
likely to be danger from the result ; if the thill strap should cau.-^e any 
soreness on the leg, it may be wound with a woollen cloth, and it would 
be well to change it from one leg to another occasionally. 

Big Leg. — To cure, use the " Blistering Liniment" with regularity 
every third hour until it blisters. In 3 divys wasli tlie leg with linseed 
oil. In G days wash it clean with soap and water. Repeat every 6 
days uutU tlie swelling goes down. Ii there should bo any callous 
left, apply spavin ointment. 

Sore Breasts. — This generally occurs in the spring, at the com- 
mencement of plowing. At times the fault is iu having poor old 



farmers' receipts. 37 

collars, find not having the collar well fitted to the horse's breast; and 
often, the hames are either too tight or too loose. There is a great 
difference in horses about getting chafed or galled, and at times it has 
eeemed to be impossil^le to keep their breasts from getting sore ; but 
a thorough application of strong alum -water or white oak bark to the 
breasts of the animal, 3 days before going to work, toughen them so 
that they will not get sore. Another excellent plan i::, Avhen you let 
your team rest for a few moments during work, to raise the collar and 
pull it a little forward, and rub the breast thoroughly with your 
naked hand. m 




The Check Rkix on Horses. — We desire to register an earnest 
protest against this barbarous appendage to horses' harness. It re- 
tards the horse's progress in every position both while he is at work, 
and while travelling on a journey. It is both useless and cruel in 
every sense of the word, without any compensating qualities to recom- 
mend it. Mr. Angell, of the " Boston Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals," who has travelled over a great part of Europe 
in the interests of humanity to our dumb servants, says, that the use 
of the check rein is confined to America alone, being deservedly dis- 
carded every where both in England aiid on the Continent. The 
reason why it is so discarded, was very graphically explained by an 
extensive horse o^vner in Glasgow, as he remarked, in conversation 
Avith Mr. Angell, that " We canna get the wark oot o' the horse wi' 
the check rem." To check rein a horse, is equivalent to trussing a 
man's head backward towards his back or heels, and compelling him, 
while bound in this position, to do duty with a loaded wheelbarrow. 

Feeding Horses on the Road.— Many persons, in travelling, 
feed their horses too much, and too often, continually stuffing them, 
and not allowing them to rest and digest tlaeir food ; of course they 
suffer from over-fuhiess, and carrying unnecessary weight. Horses 
should be well fed in the evening, and must not be stuffed too full in 
the morning, and the travelling should be moderate on starting when 
the horse has a full stomach. If a horse starts in good condition, he 
can go 20 or 25 miles without feeding. The provender required by 
horses while travelluig or engaged in ordinary farm work, per day, 
may be stated thus : Hay 20 lbs., oats 3 gals., water 4 gals. Muddy 
water is the best for horses. Beeves require 20 lbs. of hay and 6 



38 farmers' receipts. 

gals, of water per day. Quantity will vary in every c^ise according to 
the size, condition, breed, &c., together with the kind of work in 
which they are employed. 

Itch. — To cure a horse affected with itch, first reduce his daily 
allowance of food, putting him on low diet and then give him a tea- 
spoonful of a mixture of equal parts of sulphur and antimony, and at 
the end of a week or 10 days tlie sores will liave disappeared and the 
liorse will be covered witli a fine coat of new hair. 

Stoppage of Ukine. — Symptoms : Frequent attempts to urinate, 
looking round at his sides, lying down, rolling ani stretching. To 
cure, take ^ lb. of hops, 3 drs. oil of camphor; grincftnd mix. Make 
this into 3 pills. Give 1 every day, witli a drench made of a small spoon- 
ful of saltpetre and 2 oz. of water. This will cure as a general thing. 

To Cuke Balky Horses. — One method to cure a balky horse 
is to take him from the carriage, whirl him rapidly around till he is 
giddy. It requires two men to accomplish this, — one at the horse's 
tail. Don't let him step out. Hold him to the smallest possible circle. 
1 dose will often cure him, 2 doses are final with the worst horse that 
ever refused to stir. Another plan is to fiU his mouth with the dirt or 
gravel from the road, and he will at once go, the philosophy of tliis 
being that it gives him something else to thhik about. 

Dk. Cole's King of Oils. — 1 oz. green copperas ; 2 oz. white 
vitriol ; 2 oz. common salt ; 2 oz. linseed oil ; 8 oz. molasses. Boil 
over a slow fire fifteen minutes in a pint of urine ; when almost 
cold, add 1 oz. of oil of vitriol and 4 oz. of spirits of turpentine. 
Apply to wounds with a feather. A very powerful liniment. 

Sloan's Horse 0int3ient.^4 oz. resin ; 4 oz. bees-wax ; lard, 
8 oz. ; honey, 2 oz. Mix slowly and gently, bring to a boil ; then 
add less than 1 pint spirits turpentine ; then remove and stir till cool. 
Unsurpassed for horse flesh, cracked hoofs, human flesh, &c. 

Mexican Mustang Linijient. — Petroleum, olive oil, and carbon- 
ate of ammonia, each equal paiis, and mix. 

Merchant's Gargling Oil. — "Take 2^ gals, linseed oil ; 2.^ gals, 
spirits turpentine ; 1 gal. western petroleum ; 8 oz. liquor potass. ; 
sap green, 1 oz. ; mix all together, and it is ready for use. 

Arabian Condition Powders. — ^Ground ginger, 1 lb ; sulphuret 
ot antimony, 1 lb. ; powdered sulphur, 1 lb ; saltpetre, 1 lb. Mix all 
together, and administer in a mash, in such quantities as may be re- 
quired. The best condition powder in existence. 

Blistering LiNasiEXT. — 1 part Spanish flies, finely powdered ; 3 
of lard ; and 1 of yellow resin. Mix the lard and resin together, 
and add the flies when the other ingredients begin to cool. To render 
it more active, add 1 pint spirits turpentine. 

Medicated Food for Horses and Cattle. — Take linseed 
cake and pulverize or grhid it up in the shape of meal, and to every 
50 lbs. of this ingredient, add 10 lbs. Indian meal ; 2 lbs. sidphuret 
of antimony ; 2 lbs. ground ginger, 1 J lbs. of saltpetre, and 2 lbs. 
powdered sulphur. Mix the whole thoroughly together, put in neat 
boxes or packages for sale or otherwise as desired, and you will have 
an article equal in value to " Thorley's Food," or almost any other 
preparation that can be got up for the purpose of fattening stock or 
curuig disease in every case when food or medicine can be of any use 
whatever. This article can be fed in any desired qiiautity, begiimiug 



FAKMEKS' RECEIPTS. 39 

with a fe^ taTjlospoonfuls at a time, for a horse, mixing it Tvith his 
grain, and in the same proportion to smaller animals, repeating the 
dose and increasing the quantity as the case may seem to require. 

Lotion for Mange. — Boil2oz. tobacco in 1 quart water ; strain ; 
add sulpliur and soft soap, eaclx 2 oz. 

For Strains and Swellings. — Strong vinegar saturated with 
common salt, used wann, is good for strains aud reducing swellings. 
1 oz. of white vitriol ; 1 oz. of green copperas ; 2 tcaspoonfuls of 
gunpowder, all pulverized togetlier, and dissolved in 1 quart of soft 
water, and used cold, rubbing in thoroughly, is one of the best appli- 
cations loiown forTeducing swelliugs. 

Hoof-Bound Wash. — Spirits tuqicntinc. 4 oz. ; tar, 4 oz. ; whale 
oil, 8 oz. Mix, and apply to the hoofs often. 

To Toughen Hoofs. — ^AVash them frequently in strong brine, and 
turn brine upon the bottoms, and soak a few minutes each time. 

Scratches. — Cut off the hair close, aud wash the legs in strong 
Boap-suds or urine, or wash with warm viuegar saturated with salt, 
and afterwards dress over with a smaU quantity of hog's lard. 

Cough. — Quit feeding musty hay, and feed roots and laxative food. 
Sprmkle human urine on his fodder, or cut up cedar bouglis aud mix 
with his grain ; or boil a small quantity of flax-seed, and mix it in a 
mash of scalded bran, adding a few ounces of sugar, molasses, or 
honey. Administer lukewarm. If there should be any appearance 
of heaves, put a spoonful of ground ginger once per day in his pro- 
vender, and allow him to driiik freely of Umo water. 

Split ob Broken Hoof. — Let the blacksmith bore two holes on 
cacli side of the crack or split ; pass long nails through the holes and 
clinch tiglit. After anointing with the hoof-bound liquid, it will 
soon grow together. 

Colic Cure. — Bleed freely at the horse's mouth ; then take ^ lb. 
raw cotton, wrap it around a coal of fire, so as to exclude the air ; 
wlien it begins to smoke, hold it under his nose tUl he becomes easy. 

To Cure Distejiper. — Take 1 J gals, of blood from the neck veia ; 
then administer sassafras oil, 1^ oz. Cure, speedy and certain. 

Founder cured in 24 Hours. — Boil or steam stout oat-straw for 
half an hour, then wrap it around the horse's leg quite hot, cover up 
with wet woollen rags to keep in the steam ; in six hours renew the 
application, take 1 gal. of blood from the neck vein, and give 1 quart 
linseed oil. He may be worked next day. 

Curb fob Staggers. — Give a mess twice a week, composed of 
bran, 1 gal. ; sulphur, 1 tablespoonful ; saltpetre, 1 spoonful ; boiling 
sassafras tea, 1 quart ; assafcetida, 1^ oz. Keep the horse from cold 
water for half a day afterwards. 

Ring-bont; and Spavin Cure. — Venice turpentine and Spanish 
flics, of each 2 oz. ; euphorbium and aqua-ammonia, of each 1 oz. ; 
r^d precipitate, ^ oz. ; corrosive sublimate, J oz. ; lard, IJ lbs. Pul- 
.erize all, and put into the lard ; simmer slowly over coals, not 
scorching or burning ; and pour off, free of sediment. For riug- 
bones, cut off the hair, and rub the ointmcTit well into tlie lumps 
once in 48 hours. For spavins, once in 24 hours for 3 mornings. 
Wash well previous to each application with suds, rubbing over the 
place with a smooth stick, to squeeze out a thick, yellow matter. 
I'his has removed very largo ring-bones. 



40 FAKMERS' KECEIPTS. 

Ajnother Cctrk. — Take s'^eet oil, 4 oz. ; spirits turpentine, 

2 oz. ; oil of stone, 1 oz. Mix, aud apply three times per day. 
If the horse is over four year old, or in any case ■when this is not sufli- 
cicut, in addition to it, you -w-ill lit a bar of leiid just above it, wiring 
the ends together, so it constantly -wears upon the enlargement ; and 
the two together ■will cure nine cases out of every ten, in six weeks. 

Cure fob Bone Spavins — §300 Rfxite. — Corrosive sublimate, . 
quiclcsilver, and iodine, of each 1 oz. Rub the quicksilver and iodine 
together ; then add the sublimate, and lastly the lard, rubbing them 
thorouglily. Shave off the hair the size of the bone enlargement ; 
grease aU around it, but not where the hair is sbaved off, this pre- 
vents the action of the medicine, except on the spavin. Then rub in 
as much of tlie paste as will lie on a 3-cent piece, each morning, for 

3 or 4 mornings. In from 7 to 8 days, the whole spavin will come 
out ; then wash the wound with suds for an liour or so, to remove 
the poisonous effects of the j)aste ; afterwards heal up the sore with 
any good healing salve, or Sloan's Horse Ointment, as per recipe 
above, keeping the sore covered while it is healing up. 

Another very Valuable Recipe Fok Ring-bone.— Pul- 
verized cantharides, oils of spilce, origanum, amber, cedar, Barba- 
does tar, and British oil, of each 2 oz. ; oil of wonnwood, 1 oz. ; 
spirits turpentine, 4 oz. ; common pota.sh, ^ oa. ; nitric acid, 6 oz. ; 
sulphuric acid, 4 oz. ; lard, 3 lbs. Melt the lard, and slowly add the 
acids ; stir well, and add the other articles, stin-ing till cold ; clip off 
the hair, and apply bj' rubbing aud heating in. fii about 3 days, or 
when it is done rimning, wash off with so.ip-suds, and apply again. 
In old cases, it may take 3 or 4 weeks ; but, in recent cases, 2 or 3 
applications have cured. 

Another. — Pulverized cantharides, oils of origanum and amber, 
and spirits turpentine, of each 1 oz. ; olive oil, ^ oz. ; sulphuric acid, 
3 drams ; put aU, except the acid, into alcohol ; stir the mixture, add 
the acid slowly, and continue to stir till the mixture ceases to smoke; 
then bottle for use. Apply to ring-bone or spavin with a sponge tied 
on the end of a stick, as long as it is absorbed into the parts ; twenty- 
four hours after, grease well witli lard ; and in twenty-four hours 
more, wash off well with soap-suds. One application is generally 
sufficient for spavins, but may need two ; ring-bones, always two or 
three applications, three or four days apart, which prevents loss of 
hair. This wUl stop all lameness, but does not remove the lump. 

Splint and SPA^^N Linisient. OU of origanum, 6 oz. ; gum 
camphor, 2 oz. ; mercurial ointment, 2 oz. ; iodme ointment, 1 oz. ; 
melt by putting all into a wide-mouthed bottle, and setting it in a 
kettle of hot water. Apply it to bone spavins or splints, twice daily, 
lor four or five days, aud a cure is guaranteed. 

Poll Evil and Fistula. — Common potash dissolved in ?j pint of 
water, 1 lb. ; add h oz. belladonna extract, and 1 oz. gum arable dis- 
solved in a little water ; work all into a paste with wheat flour, aud 
bottle up tight. Directions : wasli the sorea well with CastUe soai)- 
euds ; then apply tallow all around them. Next, press the abov* 
paste to the bottom of all the orifices ; repeat every two days till the 
caUous fibrous base around the poll evil or fistula is completely de- 
stroyed ; put a piece of oil-cloth over the sores, and after^vards heal 
up with Sloan's Horse Ointuicut. 



POINTS IN A HORSE. 
DIAGRAM OF A SOUND HORSE. 



41 




1. Forehand. 

2. Forehead. 

3. Face. 

4. Nose. 

5. Wings of the nose. 

6. Muzzle. 

7. Jaw. 

8. Throat. 

9. "Windpipe, or Throt- 

tle. 

10. Point of the Shoul- 

der. 

11. Chin. 

12. Curb of the Chin. 

13. Outer comer of the 

Eye. 

14. Inner comer of the 

Eye. 

15. Toret'- /. 



POINTS IN A HORSE. 

IG. Neck. 
IT. Breast. 

18. Shoulder. 

19. Withers. 

20. Arm. 

21. Fore-arm. 

22. Fore-legs. 

23. Knee. 

24. Cannon-bones. 

25. Nape. 

26. Crest. 

27. Middle-hand. 

28. Back. 

29. Back-hand. 

30. Loin. 

31. Hip. 

32. Croup, or Kump. 

33. Dock. 

34. Elbow. 



35. Girth. 

36. Barrel (the Ribs). 

37. Flank. 

38. Quarter. 

39. Thigh. 

40. Stifle. 

41. Hamsti'ing. 

42. Point of the Hock. 

43. Hocks. 
41. Fetlocks. 

45. Small Pasterns. 

46. Large Pasterns. 

47. Crown of the Hoot. 

48. Hoof. 

49. Heels. 

50. Head. 

51. Mane,or Mane Halt 



COMPAKATIVE VaT.UE OF FoOD FOK HORSES. — 100 Ibs. of ffood ha^ 
Is equivalent iu value to 59 lbs. of oats, 57 lbs. of com, 275 of carrots, 
54 lbs. of rye or barley, 105 lbs. of wheat bran, 400 lbs. of green 
clover, 275 lbs. of green corn, 374 lbs. of wheat straw, 442 lbs. of rye 
Btraw, 400 lbs. of dried corn stalks, 45 lbs. of wheat, 59 lbs. of corn, 
62 lbs. of sun-flower seeds, 69 lbs. of linseed cake, 195 lbs. of oaf 
straw, 105 lbs. oi wheat bran; 1 lb. of oil cake is equal to 14 lbs cab 
bage. 



42 DISEASES OF THE HORSE. 




DIAGRAM SHOWING DISEASES OF THE HORSE. 
The above diagram, copied from a circular issued by L. W. Warner 
& Co., manufacturers of Dr. Herrick's Horse Medicines at G7 Murray 
St., N. Y., is, notwithstanding its lugubrious appearance, of the ut- 
most value to owners of horses ; for, taken in connection with the 
following references descriptive of the various numbers, indications, 
&c., it will prove of great utilitj^ in identifying and locating diseases 
iu many doubtful cases. 

- r Glanders. !24. Sore Throat. 

2 3 Discharge from the Xostrils.j2o. Tumors caused by Collar. 

i' J Membrane. 26. Capped Elbow or Tumoi 

"*• (. Glandular Swellings. |27. Wind Galls. 

4. Caries and Diseases of the Jaw. '28. Mallenders and Sallenders. 

5. Fistula Parotid Duct. l29. Splint. 30. Capped Knee. 

6. Diseases of the Eye. |.31. Broken Knees and Open Joint. 

7. Scars on Forehead and over the 32. Clap of the Back Sinews. 

Eyes. j.33. Ringbone. 

8. Scars from old Fontanels and ,34. Acute and Chronic Found erer. 

Brain Diseases. 9. Poll Evil. I Ring Foot. 35. Grogginess. 

10. Prurigo, or Mane Scab. 36. Quitter. 

11. Fistulous AVithers. 137. Tread on the Coronet and 

12. Saddle Galls, Sitfasts, &c. j Overreaches. 

13. Fistulous TaiL 14. Rat Tail. 38. Sand, Toe, Cow and Quarter 

15. Falling of the Fundament. ! Cracks. 

16. Luxation of Patella, or Whirl .39. Girth Swellings. 

Bone Displaced. 40. AVind Colic, Fret, Gripes, or 

17. Hernia or Rupture. Bellv-ache. 

18. Broken Ribs. 10. Farcy. 41. Thoroiigli pi"- 

20. Sores from Constant Bleeding. 42. Capped Hocks. 

21. Bridle Swellings. [4.3. Swelled or Sprung Sinews. 

22. Fistula and inflammation of|44. Scratches. 

Parotid Gland. :45. Spavin. 

23. Phlebitis, or inflamed Jugular 46. Curb. 47- Swollen Legs. 

Vein. i 



farmers' RECEirXS. 43 

To Tajfe noRSES. — Take finely-srated horso castor, oils of rho- 
dinm and cumin ; keep them in separate bottles well corked ; put 
some of the oil of cumin on your hand, and approacli tlio lioi-so on 
tlio windy side. He ■vfLU then move toward you. Then rub some of 
the cumin on his nose, give him a little of the castor on anything 
he likes, and get eight or ten drops oil of rhodium on liis tongue. You 
can then get liim tiJ do anytliing you like, lie kiud and attentive to 
the animal, and your control is cei-taiu. 

Best Remedy for Heaves. — Balsam of fir and balsam of co- 
paiba, 4 oz. each, and mix witli calcined magnesia pufficieutly thick 
to make it into balls ; and give a middliug-sized ball night and morn- 
ing for a week or ten days. 4 

Cure for Bots in Horses. — Give the horse, first, 2 quarts of 
new milk, and 1 quart molasses ; 15 minutes afterwards, give 2 quarts 
very strong sage tea ; 30 minutes after the tea, give 3 pints (or enough 
to operate as pliysic), of curriers' oil. The molasses and milk cause 
the bots to let go their hold, the tea puckers them up, aud the oil 
carries them completely away. Cure, certain, in the worst cases. 

LiNUiEKT FOR SwEENT. — Alcohol aud Spirits turpentine, of each 
8 oz. ; camphor-gum, pulverized cautharides, and capsicum, of each 
1 oz. ; oil of spike, 3 oz. ; mix. Bathe this liniment in witlx a hot 
iron, and a cure is sure to follow. 

For Looseness oh Scouring in Horses or Cattle.— Tormen- 
til root, powdered. Dose for a horse or cow, 1 to 1^ oz. It may be 
Btirred into 1 pint of milk, and given ; or it may be steeped in IJ 
pints of milk, then given from throe to six times daily, until cured. 

Scours and Pin-Worsis in Horses and Cattle. — White ash 
bark burnt into ashes, and made into a rather strong lye ; then mix 
h pint of it with 1 pint warm water, and give all two or three times 
daily. This will certainly carry off the worms, which are the cause, 
in most instances, of scours aud looseness. 

English Stable Liniment, very strong. — Oil of spike, aqua- 
ammonia, and oil of turpentine, each 2 oz. ; sweet oil, and ■oil of 
amber, eacli, IJ oz. ; oil of origanum, 1 oz. Mix. 

Colic Cure for Horses and Persons. — Spirits turpentine, 
3 ox. ; laudanum, 1 ox. ; mix ; and for a horse give .ill for a dose, by 
putting it into a bottle with half a pint of warm water. If relief is 
not obtained in an hour, repeat the dose, adding half an ounce of the 
best powdered aloes, well dissolved. Cure, certain. 

For Persons, a dose would be from 1 to 2 teaspoonfuls in warm 
tea ; children or weak persons, less. 

Liniment for fifty cents per gallon. — Best vinegar, 2 qts. ; 

Eulverized saltpetre, ^ lb. ; mix, and set in a cool place till dissolved, 
ivaluablo for old swellings, sprains, bruisesj, &c. 
Shoeing Horses. — A smith who shod for the hunt, and who said 
that he would have to shut up shop if a shoe was lost, as it might 
cause the loss of a horse worth a thousand pounds, fastened the siioo 
as follows : — As he drove the nails, he merely bent the points down 
to the hoof, without t\vistLng them off, as the usual practice ia ; ho 
then drove the nails home, and clinched them. He then twisted off 
the nails, and filed them lightly to smooth them, thus having, as lio 
remarked, a clinch and a rivet to hold the nails. 
Horse Ail. — Make a slow fire of old shoes, rags, herbs, &c. 



44 farmers' receipts. 

Wlien firod a, little, smother so as to make a great smoke and steam, 
tlieu set a barrel without heads, over tlie fire, aud liold the horse's 
head down m the barrel, and smoke him ■well. Tliis will soon pro- 
duce a copious nimiing at the nose, aud he wiU be so well pleased 
that he will voluntarily hold his head m the smoke. Continue this 
half an hour or more daily, meanwhile give him pofaxtoes aud waru\ 
bran mashes, and gently physic if there be much costivenoss which 
the laxative food vriU. not remove. If he has fever, treat liim for it. 

Saddle a>'d Haiiness Galls, &c. — White lead and linseed oil, 
mixed as for pauit, is unrivalled for healing saddle, harness, or col- 
lar galls and bruises. Try it, applying with a brush. It soon forms 
an air-tight coatLug and sootlies the pain, powerfully assisting nature. 

GuEASE Heel. — Ley made from wood-ashes, aud boil white-oak 
bark in it till it is quite strong, both in lye and bark-ooze; when it is 
cold, it is fit for use. Wash off the horse's legs with Castile soap; 
when dry, apply the above ley with a swab fastened on a long stick 
to keep out of liis reacli, as the smart caused by the application might 
make him let fly without much warning; but it is a sure cure, only 
it brings off the hair. To restore the liair after the cure is effected, 
make aud apply a salve by stewing elder bark in old bacon ; then form 
the salve by adding a little resm, according to the amoimt of oil when 
stewed, or h lb. resin to each pound of oil. 

Valuable Ke.-medy for Heaves. — Calcined magnesia, balsam of 
fir, balsam copaiba, of each 1 oz. ; spirits turpentine, 2 oz. ; put them 
all into 1 pint best cider vinegar; give for a dose, 1 tablespoonful in 
his feed, once a day for a week; then every other day for 2 or 3 months. 
Wet his hay with brine, and also his other feed. He will cough more 
at first, but looser aud looser till cured. 

To Distinguish and Cuke Distempek. — ^Wet np bran with rather 
strong lye; if not too strong, the liorse will cat it greedily. If they 
have the distemper, a free discharge from the nostrils, aud a conse- 
quent cure, will be the result, if coutuiued a few daj's; but if only a 
cold, with swellings of tlie glands, no change will be discovered. 

Rejiedy for Founder. — Draw about 1 gal. blood froui the neck; 
then drench the horse with linseed oil, 1 qt. ; now rub the fore-legs 
long and well with water as hot as can be borne witliout scalding. 

Puysic-Ball for Houses.— Barbadoes aloes, from 4 to 5 or 6 
drams (according to size aud strength of the horse); t;vilrate of 
potassa, 1 dram; ginger and Castile soap, each 2 drams; oil of anise, 
or peppermint, 20 drops; pulverize and make all into one ball, ■with 
thick gum solution. Feed by giving scalded bran instead of oats, for 
two days before giving the physic, aud durbig its operation. 

Physic for Cattle. — Take half only of the dose above for a horse, 
and add it to glauber-salts, 8 oz. ; dissolve all in gruel, 1 quart, aud 
give as a drench. 

Hoof-ail in Sheep. — Muriatic acid and butter of antimony, of 
each 2 oz. ; white vitriol, pulverized, 1 oz. ; mbc. Lift the foot, and 
drop a little of it on the bottom, ouly once or twice a week. It killa 
tlie old hoof, and a new one soon takes its place. 

Superphosphate of Lime, the greatest Agricultural Dis- 
covery of the Age. — Talce a large puncheon, large tub, or barrel, 
aud put into it200 lbs. water; add, very slowly and cautiously, 100 lbs. 
of pure Bulphmic acid; you must bo very careful, wliilo kiudling thia 



FAEilERS'iRECEIPTSr 45 

article^not to let it touch your skin or clothing, as it mil instantly 
blacken the skin, and destroy the clothing, -wherever it comes in con- 
tact; and, Avhen mixed with water, it engenders a very intense heatJ 
Into this mixture throw 200 lbs. of bones, no matter how old or use- 
less they may bo. Tlie sulphuric acid instantly attacks and enters 
into combiuation with the bones, reducLug them to a pasty consistence, 
and completely dissolving them. Keep under cover, and turn them 
over occasionally, while the process is going on ; and, when com- 
pleted, dump out the whole contents on the bam floor or on a plat- 
form of boards, and tlioroughly work into the mass four times its 
bulk of dry bog-earth or dry road-dust; mix and pulverize completely 
with a wooden shovel. The bog-earth acts as an absorbent or drier, 
retaining the fertilizing properties of the compound, and rendering it 
easy of imiform distribution. If whole bones are used, it will take 
six or eight weeks to dissolve them ; if they are broken with an axe, 
they will dissolve in about three weeks ; if they are ground in a bone 
piill, four days ■will be sufliciout. ' This manure is tlie most powerful 
fertilizer in existence; and, wlien made by these directions, it is the 
cheapest,' as one ton is equal to thirty-two tons of bam-yard manure. 
For top-dressing grass lauds, use 300 lbs. per acre; for com, potatoes, 
beans, turnips, &c., apply 450 lbs. per acre in the drill, mixing with 
the soil ; for wheat, rye, oats, or barley, 400 lbs. per acre, harrow in 
with the seed ; for buckwheat, 300 lbs. per acre. 
^ SuPEKPHOsrnATE IX TwENTY-Fouii HouEs. — Any farmer who 
has got an apparatus for steaming food for cattle can make super- 

Ehosphatc in quick stylo by admitting steam from the boiler into the 
arrcl contaimng the water, acid, and ground bones. The heat thus 
generated quickens the dissolution of tiic bones Ln a wonderful man- 
ner; and, if tlie process is properly conducted, it will not talce over 
,twenty-four hours in any case. It is indispensable that the barrel be 
tightly covered to retain the steam. 

Fektilizer for Tobacco. — Add 40 lbs. of the best Peruvian 
(juano to each 100 lbs. of the superphosphate made by the above 
receipt, and you will have one of the most powerful fertilizers for 
tobacco that can be made. If you do not have Peruvian guano, use in- 
stead 30 lbs. of hen manure to each 100 lbs. of super})hosphate. 

Home-made Poudkette. — Few fertilizers are wasted with the 
prodigality of extravagance which attends the use of night soil, while 
the exercise of a httle care and attention is all that is required to 
secure one of tlie most powerful fertilizers m existence. Night soil 
contains phosphate of lime, which is essential to tlie growth of 
animals' bones, and which is not supplied from the atmosphere like 
carbonic acid and ammonia. In order to receive the droppings in a 
manageable and inoffensive state, the vault should be provided with 
a large, tight box made of matched plank, placed to slide on scantling, 
so tiiat it can be drawn out, by attaching a horse, whenever required. 
Provide plenty of dry, black loam from the woods or swamps; refuse 
charcoal, dry i^eat, or alluvial deposits answer first-rate. Keep them 
dry, in barrels or boxes on the spot, under cover; spread a thick layer 
on the bottom of the receiving box, and at intervals of a few days 
throw in a liberal supply of these absorbents on the accumulating de- 
posit. If a few handfuls of phistcr are thrown in occasionall^y, it will 
suppress unpleasant odors and incrcaso the value of the manura 



46 farmers' .receipts. 

Tho emptying of slops and dish water in the box shoTild be strictly 
prohibited. When the box is filled, you can remove it, and convert 
it into ijoudrette. For this purpose it must be ■worked over "svith an 
additional quantity of muck, or other absorbent, in such proportions 
that it will form, witli what has been previously added, about three- 
quarters of tho entire compound. The worlcing should be done imder 
a shed, and tho whole kept perfectly dry. It should be shovelled over 
and mixed several times at iuten^als, and finally screened, and made 
as uniform tliroughout as possible; the finer it is pulverized, and tho 
drier it is kept, the better. 

IIOME-jiADU Guano of Unequalled Excellence. — Save all 
your fowl manure from sun and rain. To prepare it for use, spread a 
layer of dry swamp muck (tlie blacker it is the better) on your bam 
floor, and dump on it the whole of your fowl manure; beat it into a 
fine powder with the back of your spade; this done, add hard wood 
ashes and plaster of Paris, so tliat the compoimd shall be composed of 
the f oUowmg proportions : dried muck, 4 bushels ; fowl manure, 2 
bushels; ashes, 1 bushel; plaster, 1 4 bushels. Mix thoroughly, and 
spare no labor; for, in this matter, the elbow -greaso expended will bo 
weU paid for. A little before planting, moisten tlie heap with water, 
or, better stiU with urine ; cover well over with old mats, and let it lie 
till wanted for use. Apply it to beans, com, or potatoes, at the rate 
of a handful to a hill; and mix with the soil before dropping the seed. 
This will be found the best substitute for guano ever invented, and 
may bo depended on for bringing great crops of turnips, com, 
potatoes, &c. 

To Dissolve Large Bones for Manure tvtthout Expense. — 
Take any old flour barrel, and put into the bottom a layer of hard- 
wood ashes ; put a layer of bones on the top of the ashes, and add 
another layer of ashes, filling the space between the bones with them ; 
then add bones and ashes alternately, finishing off witli a thick layer 
of ashes. When your barrel is filled, pour on water (urine is better.) 
just sufficient to keep them wet, but do not on any account suffer it 
to leach one drop ; for that would be like leaching your dungheap. 
In the course of time they will heat, and eventually soften down so 
that you can crumble them with your finger. "\Vhen sufficiently 
softened, dump them out of tho barrel on a heap of dry loam, and 
pulverize and crumble them up tiU they are completely amalgamated 
into one homogeneous mass with the loam, so that it can be easily 
handled and distributed when required. You may rely on it, this 
manure will leave its mark, and show good results wherever used. 

Substitute for Superphosphate. — If you have inch bono 
ground in a bone-mill, and cannot afford to purchase sulphuric acid 
to work it up into supeqihosphate of lime, you can reduce j'our bones 
into a fine impalpable powder by simply using three barrels of loamy 
soil to every barrel of inch bones ; mix them together. The bones 
wiU soon begin to heat and ferment, and continue so for some time : 
they will tlicn cool off. You will then proceed to chop down and 
pulverize and work the mass thoroughly ; it will begin to reheat and 
ferment and cool do^vn again ; and you will continue working it over 
till the contents are brought to the proper state of fineness, wlien you 
■will have a fertilizer of astonishing power. It is only a j"ear or two 
since a statement appeared tu tho " Country Gentleman," of the 



farmers' receipts. 47 

exi')eriment3 of a Mr. Haskell with a manure prepared after this 
method, who found it even superior to superpliosphate of lime. 

lioW TO DOUBLE THE USUAL QUANTITY OF MANURE ON A 

Farm. — Provide a good supply of black swamp mould or loam from 
the woods, within easy reach of your stiible, and place a layer of this, 
one foot thick, under each horse, with litter as usual, on the t<3p of 
tlie loam or mould. Kemove the droppings of the animals every 
day, but let the loam remain for two weeks ; then remove it, mixing 
it with the other manure, and replace with fresh mould. By this 
simple means, any farmer can double not only the quantity but also 
the quality of his manure, and never feel himself one penny tho 
poorer by the trouble or expense incurred, while the fertilizing value 
of the ingredients absorbed and saved by the loam can scarcely be 
estimated. 

Josiah Quincy, jun., has been very snccessfxil in keeping cattle in 
stables the year through, and feeding tliem by means of soiling. 
The amomit of manure thus made had enabled him to improve the 
fertility of a poor farm of 100 acres, so that in twenty years the hay 
crop had increased from 20 to 300 tons. The cattle are kept in a well- 
arranged stable, and are let out into the yard an hour or two morning 
and afternoon ; but they generally appear glad to return to theii 
quarters. By this process, one acre enables him to support three oi 
four cows. They are fed on grass, green oats, corn fodder, barley, 
&c., which are sown at intervals through the spring and summei 
months, to be cut as required ; but he remarks that his most valuable 
crop is his manure crop. Each cow produces S^ cords of solid, and 
3 cords of liquid manure, or 6i cords ui all. Five to eight miles from 
Boston, such manure is worth" five to eight dollars a cord. From this 
estimate, he has come to the conclusion tliat a cow's manure may be 
made as valuable as her milk. 

Twenty Dollars' Worth of Manure for almost Nothino. — 
If you have any dead animal, — say, for instance, the body of a 
horse, — do not suiTer it to pollute the atmosphere by drawing it away 
to the woods or any other out of the way place, but remove it a short 
distance only, from your premises, and put down four or five loads 
of muck or sods, place the carcass thereon, and sprinkle it over with 
quick-lime, and cover over immediately with sods or mould sufHcient 
to make, with what had been previously added, 20 good wagon- 
loads ; and you will have within twelve months a pile of manure 
worth $20 for auy crop you choose to put it u\io\i. Use a propor- 
tionate quantity of mould for smaller animals, but never less than 
twenty good wagon-loads for a horse ; and, if any dogs manifest 
too great a regard for the enclosed carcass, shoot them on the spot. 

Fish Compost, Suhstitute for Bone-Dust, Manuiie from 
Fish Refuse, &c. — The fish owes its fertilizing value to the animal 
matter and bone-earth which it contains. The fonner is precisely 
similar to flesh or blood, consisting of 25 per cent, of fibrin, the rest 
beiiig water ; and their bones are similar in composition to those of 
terrestrial animals. As fertilizing agents, therefore, the bodies of 
fishes will act nearly in the same way as the bodies and blood of 
animals ; 100 lbs., in decaying, produce 2^ lbs. of ammonia. Hence 
400 lbs. of fish rotted in compost are enough for an acre. The great 
effect is due to the aiumoniacal portion ; for it readers the herbage 



48 FAKilERS' RECEIPTS. 

dark-grcen, and starts it very rapidly. One of the best composts is 
made as iollows : Dried bog-earth, loam, or peat, seven barrels ; 
hardwood ashes, two barrels ; fish, one barrel ; slaked lime, one 
bushel. Place a thick layer of the bog-earth on the bottom ; on tho 
top of this put a layer of the fish, then a sprinkling of lime, then a 
a layer of ashes ; on top of tho ashes put a thick layer of bog-earth, 
loam, or peat ; then anotlier thin layer of fish, lime, and ashes, and 
go on till your materials are worked in ; then top off with a thick 
layer of the absorbents, to retain the fertilizing gases. Tlie decompo- 
sition of the fish will ijroceed very rapidly, and a very rich compost 
^^dll be the result. It should be shovelled over and over and thor- 
oughly intermixed and pulverized. Put this on so as to have 400 lbs. 
of fish to the acre. It may be applied Avith the greatest benefit to corn, 
tuniips, potatoes, beans, &c., in the drill, and broad cast on the grass. 

Superphosphate can be made from pogy-chum, or the refuse of other 
fish, after the oil is expressed, by dissolving in sulphuric acid, and 
afterwards mixing with dry loam, precisely as directed for making 
superphosphate with bones. Whale-oil or the oil of any fish, when 
made into a compost with loam, and a little lime or wood ashes, 
yields a very powerful manure, merely mixed with absorbent earth 
and applied at the end of tlie month. Impure whale-oil, at tho rate 
of 40 gallons per acre, lias produced a crop of 23:^ tons of tuniips per 
acre ; while on the same soil, and during the same season, it took 40 
bushels of bone-dust to produce only 22 tons per acre. 

Ashes fkom Soil by Spontaneous Combustion. — ^Mako your 
mound 21 feet long by lOi feet wide. To fire, use 72 bushels of limo. 
Fii-st a layer of dry sods^or parings on which a quantity of lime is 
spread, mixing sods with it; then a covering of eight inches of sods, 
on which the other half of the lime is spread, and covered a foot thick, 
the height of the moimd being about a yard. In twenty-four hours 
it win take fire. The lime shoidd be fresh from the lain. It is 
better to suiter it to ignite itself than to effect it by the operation 
of water. When the fire is fairly Idndled, fresh sods must be aj)- 
plied ; but get a good body of ashes in the first place. I thinlc it 
may be fairly supposed that the lime adds fuU its worth to tho 
quality of the ashes, and, when limestone can be got, I would ad- 
vise the burning a small quantity in the mounds, which would bo 
a great improvement to the ashes, and would hel^) to keep the fire in. 

Substitute fou Barn-manuue. — Dissolve a bushel of salt in 
water enough to slack 5 or 6 bushels of lime. The best rule for pre- 
paring the compost heap is, 1 bushel of this lime to 1 load of 
swamp-muck, intimately mixed ; though 3 bushels to 5 loads makes 
a very good manure. In laying up the heap, let the layer of muck 
and lime be thin, so that decomposition may be more rapid and 
complete. When lime cauuot be got, use unleached ashes, — 3 or 4 
bushels to a cord of muck. In a mouth or six weeks, overhaul and 
work over the heap, when it will be ready for use. Sprinkle the 
salt water on the lime as the heap goes up. 

Sheep-Dipping Composition. — Water, 1 gal. ; benzine, 8 ounces ; 
cayeime pepper, 2 oimces. Mix ; make what quantity you require, 
using these propoitions. Dip your sheep and lambs in the composi- 
tion, and it will make short work of the vermin. 

Oat or Wheat Straw made equal to Hat. — Bring 10 gallons 



FAR3IERS' RECEIPTS. 49 

water to a boiling heat ; tako it off tlio fire, and add to it at on.'o 
3 gallons of linseed imgroiuid ; let it remain till it gets cold ; theii 
empty the whole into a cask containmg 44 gallons of cold water, 
and let it remain for forty-eight hours. At the end of that time, 
it will be reduced into a thiu jelly, like arrowroot. Spread out ^ 
ton sti-aw, and sprinkle it over regularly with the whole of the 
liquid from the cask. The stock will eat it up as clean, and keep 
as fat on it, quantity for quantity, as they would do on hay. 

Death fok Vermin on Plants or Anijials. — Pour a gallon of 
boiling water on one pound tobacco leaves, strahi it iu twenty minutes; 
for vermin, on animals or x;)lants, this decoction is certain death. 

Remedy for Curculio in Fruit Trees. — Sawdust saturatea m 
coal oil, and placed at the roots of the tree, will be a sure prevent- 
ive ; or, clear a circle around the tree from all rubbish ; fill up all 
little holes and smooth off the groimd for a distance of at least 3 
feet each way from the tree, then place chips or small pieces of 
wood on the ground within the circle ; the curculio will take refuge 
in large numbers below the chips, and you can piass aroimd in the 
Kiornings and kill them off. 

Grafting Wax. — Kesui, 1 lb.; bees-wax, 1 lb.; with tallow or mrd 
Bufflcient to soften until it can be readily applied with thehand ; melt. 

To Cci.tivate Tobacco. — To raise tobacco, select a sheltered 
situation, where the young plants can receive the full force of the 
sun ; burn over the surface of the ground early in spring (new laud is 
best), rake it well, and sow the seeds : have a dry, mellow, rich soil, 
and after a shower, Avhen the plants have got leaves the size of a 
quarter-dollar, transplant as j'ou would cabbage plants, 3J feet apart, 
and weed out carefully afterwards. Break off the suckers from the 
foot-sUilks, as they appear ; also the tops of the plants when thej'^ are 
well advanced, — say, about three feet high, — except those designed 
for seed, which should bo the largest and best plants. The ripeness 
of tobacco is Iniowai by small dusky spots appearing on the leaves. 
The j)lants should then be cut near the roots, on the morning of a day 
of siuishine, and should lie singly to wither. When sufiicieutly 
withered, gather them carefully together, and hang them up imder 
cover to cure and prepare for market. 

To Preserve Potatoes froji Hot. — Dust over the floor of tho 
bin with lime, and put in about 6 or 7 inches of potatoes, and dust 
with lime as before, then more potatoes, using about 1 bushel of limo 
to 40 bushels of potatoes. The lime improves the flavor of the pota- 
toes, and effectually kills the fungi which causes the rot. 

An old veteran farmer, with G3 years' experience, has successfully 
fought the potato rot inihe ground, as follows: Ho plants them in 
the latter ]iart of April, or beginnuig of May, and in the old of the 
moon. When six inches higli they are plastered and dressed out 
nicely. Now for the secret. When blossoming, tiike 2 parts plaster, 
and 1 part fine salt, mLx well together, and ]Kit 1 largo spoonful of 
tills compound as near the centre of each hill as possible. "When 
ripe, take them out of the ground, have them dry when put in the 
cellar, and keep them in a dry, cool place. 

Packing Fruits for Long Distances. — T.ake a box of the propei, 
size, soft paper, and sweet bran. Place a layer of bran on tho 
bottom, then each bunch of grapes is held by the hand over a 

4 



30 farmers' receipts. 

sheet of the paper ; the four comers of the pajx^r are brought np 
to tlie stalk and nicely secured ; theu laid ou its side in the box, 
aud so on until the first layer is finished. Theu dust on a layer of 
bran, giving the box a gentle shake as yon proceed. Begin the 
second layer as the first, and so on imtil the whole is full. The 
bloom of tlie fruit is thus preserved as fresh, at the end of a 
journey of 500 miles, as if they were newly taken from the tree. 
Kcver fails to preserve grapes, peaches, apricots, and other fruit. 

Thokley's Condimextal Food.— The following is a formula to 
iruike 1 ton of the food : take of Indian meal 900 lbs. , locust beaus finely 
ground GOO lbs., best linseed calvC 300 lbs., powdered turmeric and 
sulphur of each 40 lbs., salti^etre 20 lbs., licorice 27 lbs., ginger 3 lbs., 
anise-seed, 4 lbs., corLander and gentian of each 10 lbs., cream of tartar 
2 lbs., carbonate of soda and levigated antimony each 6 lbs., common 
salt 30 lbs., Pen;vian bark 4 lbs., fenugreek 22 lbs., mix thoroughly. 

Cure for Swelled Bags in Cows. — An excellent remedy for 
swelled bags in cows, caused by cold, etc., is gimi camphor i oz., to 
sweet oil 2 ozs. ; pulverize the gum, and dissolve over a slow fire. 

To Increase the Flow of Milk in Cows. — Give your cows 
three times a day, water slightly warm, slightly salted, in which bran 
has been stirred at the rate of 1 qt. to 2 gals, of water. Yon wiU find 
if you have not tried this daily practice, that the cow will give 25 per 
cent, more milk, and she will become so much attached to the diet 
that she will refuse to drink clear water miless very thirsty, but this 
mess she will drink at almost any time, and ask for raore. The 
amount of tliis drink necessary is an ordinary water-pail full each 
time, morning, noon, and night. Avoid giving cows " slops," as they 
are no more fit for the animal than the human. 

Home-made Stump Machine. — Take 3 pieces of common joints, 
put them together in form like a common harrow, letting the tapering 
ends lap by each other some 6 inches, makmg a place for the chaui to 
rest in. Cut off the roots at any distance you please from tlie stump, 
place the machine at one side of the stump, tapering end up ; hitch the 
chain on the opiwsite side and pass it over the machuie ; then hitch a 
good j'oke of oxen thereto, and you will see the stump rise. Another 
method is as follows: in the fall of the year bore a 1-inch hole 18 
inches deep into the centre of the stump, and put in 1 oz., of saltpetre, 
filling up with water, and plugging the hole up. In the spring take 
out the plug, put in half a gill of kerosene and set fire to it. It will bum 
out the stump, to the farthest root. Here is another plan : in tlie fall, 
with an inch auger, bore a hole in the centre of the stump 10 inches 
deep, and put into it a i lb. of vitriol, and cork the hole up very tight. 
In the spring the whole" stump and roots extending all through their 
ramifications will be found so rotten that they can be easily eradic^"cted. 

To Sprout Onions. — Pour hot water ou the seed, let it remain 2 
or 3 seconds, and they will immediately sprout, and come up 
much earlier. 

To Renew Old Orchards. —Early in the spring, plough tlie 
entire orchard, aud enrich the whole soil vrith a good dressing of 
compost of manure, swamp-muck, and lime ; scrape off the old 
bark with a deck-scraper, or a sharp hoe ; apply half a bushel of 
Ume, and the same of ground charcoal roimd each tree. Tlien 
apply diluted soft soap, or strong soap-suds, on the tnmks and 



farmers' receipts. 51 

limbs, as high as a man can reach. Wlieu tlie trees are in full 
bloom, throw over tliem a good proportion of fine slaked lime, 
and you will reap abundant fruits from your labors. 

To Desthov the MothokMillek.— Dr. Waterman says, "I took 
two white dishes (because white attracts tlieir attentiuu in the 
night) or deep plates, and phvced them on the top of the hives, 
and filled them about half-fidl of sweetened vinegar. The next 

oniing I had about 5C miUers caught ; the second night I caught 
50 more ; the third night, being cold, I did not get any, the fourth 
light, bemg very warm, I caught about 400; the filth night I got 
about 200." 

To Keep Milk Sweet, anb Sweeten Sour Milk.— Put into the 
milk a small quantity of carbonate of magnesia. 

To Make Cheap and Good Vinegar. — To eight gallons of clear 
rain-water, add 6 quarts of molasses ; turn tlie mixture into a 
clean, tight cask, shake it well two or three times, and add 1 i)t. 
of good yeast. Place the cask in a warm place, and in ten or 
fifteen days add a sheet of common wrapping-paper, smeared with 
molasses, and torn into narrow strips; and you will have good vmegar. 
The paper is necessary to form the " mother," or life of the liquor. 

Mb. Culley's Red Salve, to cure the Rot in Sheep. — Mix 4 
oa. of the best honey, 2 oz. of burnt ahma reduced to powder, and 
J a poimd of Armenian bole, with as much train or fish oil as mU. 
convert these ingredients into the consistence of a salve. The honey 
must first be gradually dissolved, when the Annenian bole must bo 
etirred in ; afterwards the alum and train-oil are to bo added. 

To Improve the Wool of Sheep, by Sjlearing. — Immediately 
after tlio sheep are shorn, soak the roots of the wool that remains ail 
over with oil, or butter, and brimstone ; and, 3 or 4 days afterward, 
wash them Avitli salt and water. The wool of next sen.sou will not be 
much finer, but tlie quantity will be in greater abundance. It may 
be depended upon, tliat the sheep will not be troubled with the scab 
or vermin that year. Salt water is a safe and effectual remedy 
against maggots. 

To Mark Sheep without Injury to the Wool. — To 30 spoonfuls 
of linseed oil, add 2 oz. of litharge, 1 oz. of lampblack ; boil 
all together, and mark the sheep therewith. 

To Prevent the Fly in Turnips. — From experiments lately 
made, it has been ascertained that lime sown by hand, or dis- 
tributed by a machine, is an infallible protection to turnips agamst 
the ravages of this destructive insect. It should be applied as 
eoon as tlie turnips come up, and in the same daily rotation in 
which they were sown. The limo should bo slaked immediately 
before it is used, if the air bo not sufficiently moist to render that 
operation umiecessary. 

Coloring for Cheese. — The coloring for cheese is, or at least 
should bo, Spanish aunatto ; but, as soon as coloruig became 
general in this coimtry, a color of an adulterated kind was exposed 
for sale in ahnost eveiy shop. Tlie weight of a guinea and a half 
of real Spanish annatto is sufficient for a cheese of fifty pounds' 
weight. If a considerable imrt of the cream of tho night's milk 
be taken for butter, more coloring will be requisite. The lenner 
the cheese is, the more coloring it requires. Tho manner of using 



52 FARJIKKS' KECEIPTS. 

annatto is to tic up in a linen rag the quantity deemed sufficient, 
and put it into h pt. of ■\\arm water over night. This infusion is 
put into the tub'of milli in the morning witli the rennet infusion ; 
aippuig tlie rag into the milk, and rubbing it agamst the palm of 
the liaud as long as any color runs out. The yolk of egg will 
color butter. 

The Gkeat Secrets for TB^vprixG FbXES and other Game. — 
JInsk-rat musk and skunk musk mLxed. Can be procured at the 
dniggisls, or from the animals themselves. To be spread on the bait 
of any trap. This receipt has been sold as high as $75. Another, 
costing $50, for minks, &c. — Unslaked lime, ^ lb. ; sal-ammoniac, 
3oz., or muriate of anunonia, 3 oz. Mix, and pulverize. Keep in 
a covered vessel a few days until a thorough admixture fcikes 
place. Sprinkle on the bait, or on the groimd around the trap, 
keep in a corked bottle. 

Food for Sixgixg r>mr>s. — Blanched sweet almonds, pulverized, 
i lb. ; pea meal, 1 lb. ; saffron, 3 grs. ; yoLks of 2 hard boiled egg?- 
Kcduce all to a powder by rubbmg through a sieve. Place the m:\- 
tare in a frying pan over a fire, and add 2 oz. butter and 2 oz. 
honey. Slightly cook for a few mmutes, stirring well, then set off 
to cool, and i)reserve in a closely corked bottle. 

Much Butter from Little Milk. — Take 4 ozs. pnlverized alnm, 
^ oz. pulverized gum-arabic, 50 grs. of pepsin ; place it in a bottle for 
use as required. A tea,spoonfiil of tliis mixture added to 1 \)t. of 
new millc will, upon churning, make 1 U"> of butter. Agents arc sell- 
ing this secret for $5. 

Composition for Driving out Rats, etc. — Keep on hand a 
quantity of chloride of lime. The whole secret consists in scattering 
it dry all around t-heir haunts and into their holes, and they will leave 
at once, or a I'iberal decoction of coal tar placed in the entrance of 
their holes will do as well. 

How to form Springs. — The finest springs can be made by boring, 
which is performed by forcing an iron rod into the earth by its own 
weiglit, taming it round, and forcing it up and down by a spring- 
pole contrivance. The water will sometimes spout up several feet 
above the surface. Iron pipes are put down in the hole after the 
water is found. Depressed situations, having a southern exposure, 
with rising ground towards the north, are the best situations in the 
United States or the Canadas to find water. 

To Burn Lime without a Kiln. — ilakc a pyramidal pile of large 
limestones, with an arched furnace next the grouiid for putting in 
the fuel, leaving a narrow vent or f imnel at the top ; now cover the 
whole pUe with earth or turf, in the way that charcoal heaps are 
covered, and put in the fire. The heat will be more completely 
diffused through the pile, if the aperture in the top is partially closed. 
Produces a superior article of lime. 

Eye Water for Horses and Cattle. — Alcohol, 1 tablespoonful ; 
extract of lead, 1 teaspoonful ; rain water, h pmt. 

To Destroy Moss on Trees. — Paint them with white-wash made 
of quick bme and wood ashes. 

To Protect Fruit-trees from attack op Mice, etc. — Tar, 1 
part ; tallow, 3 parts ; mix. Apply hot to the bark of the tree with a 
paint brush. 



farmers' recehts. 53 

Points of a Good Hoese. — ^He should be about 15^ hands high ; 
the head light and clean made, wide between the nostrils, and the 
nostrils themselves large, transparent and open ; broad in the fore- 
head, eyes prominent, clear and sparkling ; ears small and neatly set 
on ; neck rather short and well set up ; large arm or shoulder, well 
thrown back, and high ; withers arched and high ; legs fine, flat, 
thin and small-boned ; body round and rather light, though suffi- 
ciently large to afford substance when it is needed ; full chest, afford- 
ing play for the lungs ; back short, with the hind-quarters set on 
rather obliquelj'. A good drmic/ht horse should have a rather large, 
well-shaped head, a clean, long car, full eye, neck rather long, but 
not too much arched ; strong withers, lying well forward to catch 
the collar at the proper angle for draught, and broad shoulders, well 
spread into the back, back very straight, ribs long and well rounded, 
hind-legs bent at the hock, fore-legs forward, hind-quarters some- 
what round, but not sufficiently to make them look short ; the mane 
and tail of short, but not coarse hair, and with a fetlock about two 
inches long, broad knees, long hocks, short shanks, and hard ankles 
or fetlock joints, and round hoofs, well opened behind, and the 
nearer you approach this description the nearer the hoise will be to 
perfection. 

The Epizootic. — The early symptoms of the disease are a light, 
hacking cough, with a general dulness, and an indisposition to move ; 
cold legs, with a watery discharge from the nostrils. At first, the 
nasal membrane is pale, but, as the disease advances, becomes highly 
colored, and the mucous discharge changes to a greenish yellow 
color, and the pulse becomes more rapid. As soon as the symptoms 
appear, the animal should be kept warm in the stable, by blanketing. 
The following prescriptions are recommended : No. 1 — Linseed oil, 
1^ ozs. ; turpentine, 1^ ozs. ; liquor ammonia fort., 1 oz. Mix all 
together, and apply to the throat. No. 2 — Nitrate potash, li ozs.; 
tartarized antimony, 1^ ozs.; digitalis, 1^ ozs. Pulverize all to- 
gether, and give one night and morning. If not very bad, the digi- 
talis may be omitted. The disease consists of an inflammation of 
the raucous membrane lining the throat, which gradually extends 
from the epiglottis downwards till it reaches the lungs, when if 
assumes a decidedly dangerous character. The following will arre»8 
the disease at once, if taken in time : Boil a handful of smart-weed till 
all the strength is obtained, and pour the liquid boiling-hot over thv 
usual mess of oats, and, when all is cold, feed them to the horso 
Repeat till all symptoms disappear. Cure certain. Ground gingej 
mixed with the oats, has also proved effectual. 

Age of Horses. — ii?/ Teeth. — A horse has 40 teeth, 24 double 
teeth, or grinders, 4 tushes, or single file teeth, and 12 front teeth, 
called gatherers. As a general thing, mares have no tushes. Be- 
tween 2 and 3 years old, the colt sheds his four middle teeth, 2 above 
and 2 below. After 3 years old, 2 other teeth are shed, 1 on each 
side of those formerly changed ; he now has 8 colt's teeth and 8 
horse's teeth ; when 4 years of age he cuts 4 new teeth. At 5 years 
of age, the horse sheds his remaining colt's teeth 4 in number, when 
his tushes appear. At 6 years of age his tushes are up, appeai-ing 
white, small and sharp, while a small circle of yoiuig growing teeth 



54 farmers' receipts. 

are otservable. Tlie month is now complete. At 8 j-^ears of a^e tht 
teeth have filled up, the horse is aged and his mouth is said tobefulL 

Bj/ Eyelid. — After a horse is years old, a wrinkle comes on the 
eyelid at the npper comer of the lower lid, and every year thereafter 
he has one well defined wrinkle for each year over 9. If, for instance, 
a horse has three of these wrinkles, he is 12 ; if 4, he is 13. Add the 
number of wrinkles to 9, and you will invariably judge correctly of a 
horse's age. 

Those who manage horses should be careful never to inflict any 
unnecessary pain, for it is only by the law of kindness that a horse 
can be trained and managed. No man ever yet struck a horse, but 
he made the horse the worse for it. Patience and kindness will ac- 
complish in every instance what whipping will fail to do. Horses 
having a vicious disposition are invariably made so from cruel treat- 
ment. Horses are designed to work, and daily labor for them is aa 
much a necessity to their existence as to that of man's. It is not tlie 
hard drawing and ponderous loads that wear out horses and make 
them poor, balky and worthless; but it is the hard driving, the worry 
by rough and inhuman drivers, that uses up more horse flesh, fat and 
muscle than all the labor a team performs. Another great reason 
why there are so few really somid animals is because of their being 
put to work too soon. Horses are not developed until they are 5, 6 or 
7 years old, and they should do very little work until they reach that 
period. When a horse is worked hard its food should chiefly be oats; 
if not worked hard its food should chiefly be hay; because oats supply 
more nourishment and flesh, making material than any other food; 
hay not so much. 

Aetificial Rubber FKOMMrLKWEED. — The juice or sap is express- 
ed from the milk-weed by running it between iron rollers and then 
allowing it to ferment or evaporate to the consistency of thin molasses. 
It may tlien be slowly boiled to reduce it to a thick mass which may 
be treated in the usual way of manufacturing the genuine rubber. 
See Boot, Shoe and Rubber Manufr' s Dep't. 

To Pickle Meat in One Day. — Get a tub nearly full of rain or 
river water, and put two pieces of thin wood across it and set the beef 
on them at about the distance of 1 inch from the water. Heap aa 
much salt as will stand on the beef and let it remain 24 hours, then 
take off the beef and boil it, and you will find it is completely impreg- 
nated by the salt, the water having drawn it through the meat. 

Baron Liebig's Great Fertilizer. — Dry peat, 20 bushels, un- 
leached ashes, 3 bushels, fine bone dust, 3 bushels, calcined plaster, 
S bushels, nitrate of soda, 40 lbs., sulpliate of ammonia, 33 lbs., sul- 
phate of soda, 40 lbs. Mix numbers 1, 2 and 3 together, then mix 
numbers 5, 6 and 7 in 5 buckets of water. When dissolved, add the 
liquid to the first, second, and third articles. When mixed, add the 
fourth article. This is a cheap and efficient fertilizer, and this quan- 
tity applied to one or two acres of turnips, beets, oats, corn, wneat, 
grapes, &c., will bring abundant returns. 

Another Cheap Fertilizer. — Ammonia, 60 lbs. ; nitrate of soda, 
40 lbs. ; ground bone, 250 lbs. ; plaster, 250 lbs. ; salt ^ bushel; wood 
ashes, 3 bushels; stable manure, 20 bushels. Use the above quantity 
on 6 acres. Labor uicluded, it will cost about $15, in some placea 
less, and is equivalent in value to some fertilizers which cost .^5() oi 
£10 sterling per ton. 



farmers' receipts. 55 

To Protect Sheep from the Gad Fly. — In August anJ Sep- 
tember this fly lays its eggs in the nostrils of sheep, where they are 
hatched and the worms crawl mto the head, and very frequently eaS 
through the brain. In this way many sheep are destroyed. As a 
protection, smirch their noses with tar. Lay some tar in a trough or 
on a board, and strew fine salt on it. The sheep will finish the opera- 
tion. The tar will protect them, and what they eat will promote theii 
health. 




PORTABLE STEAM ENGINE. 
Thrashing by Steam Power. — A 4 horse power Portable Engine 
with 6 inch cylinder ; pressure of steam 45 lbs. per square inch, revo- 
lutions 140 per minute, has threshed, under favorable surroundings, 
320 bushels per day of 10 hours, coal consumed 3 cwt. Another engine 
of 5 horse power tlireshed 400 bushels, coal consumed, 4 cwt. Ano- 
ther of 6 horse power, threshed 480 bushels, coal consumed 5 cwt. 
Another of 7 horse power, threshed 560 bushels, coal consumed G cwt 
Another of 8 horse power, threshed (340 bushels, coal consumed 7 cwt. 
Another of 10 horse power threslied 800 bushelsp<?rdaY, coal consumed 
9 cwt. The economy of these performances is evident at a gUiuca^ 



56 



farmers' receipts. 



and even it iniicli less work than the above -were effected, it is evident 
that such au engine as the one represented above, would, if mounted 
on -wheels, prove a most valuable acquisition to any neighborhood 
composed of thrifty farmers, who might, by an equitable arrangen.ent, 
become both the ovniers and beneficiaries of the same. Many porta<- 







ble engines are known to be performing excellent service, not only in 
threshing grain, but in chaffing straw, hay, &c., food for cattle, cutting 
wood for fuel, and sawing logs into boards. Among other late inventions, 
•\re have one as novel as it is meritorious, consisting of a self-propell- 
ing engine, capable of moving itself from one locality or farm to 



farmers' receipts. 



57 



another, together with the necessary fuel and -vrater, without the aid 
of horses. An excellent view of this most useful invention is pre- 
sented iu the cut. 

Excelsior Axle Grease.— Tallow, 8 lbs. ; palm oil, 10 lbs. ; plum- 
bago, 1 lb. ; heat and mix well. 
Ploughing Table. — Showing the distance travelled by a 

Horse in Plowing an Acre of Land; and the quantitt 

OF Land Cultivated per Day, Computed at the rate of 16 

AND IS Miles per Day of 9 Hours. 



Is uui o£ 

funow 

slice. 


Space travel- 
led iu Plough- 
ing an Acre. 


Extent Ploughed 
per Day. 


ii'dtli ot 

Furrow 

slice. 


Space travel- 
led in Plough- 
ing an Acre. 


Extent Ploughed 
per Day. 


Inches. 


Miles. 


IS mies. 1 16 3tiles 


Inches. 


Miles. 


18 Miles. 


IG Miles. 


8 

10 
11 
12 
13 


14 1-2 
12 1-2 
11 

9 9-10 

9 

8 1-4 

7 1-2 


1 1-4 
1 1-2 
1 3-5 

1 4-5 
2 

2 1-5 
2 1-3 


1 1-8 
1 1-1 
1 1-2 
1 3-5 
1 3-4 

1 9-l( 

2 1-11 


14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 


6 1-2 
6 1-6 
5 3-4 

5 1-2 
5 1-4 
4 9-10 


2 1-2 
2 3^ 

2 9-10 

3 1-10 
3 1-4 
3 1-2 
3 1-5 


2 1-4 
2 2-5 
2 3-5 
2 3-i 

2 9-10 

3 1-10 
3 1-4 



Rapid Rule to Reckon Cost of Hay, Coal, &c. — Multiply tha 
number of pounds by half the price per ton, and remove the decimal 
point three places to the left. Example : What is the cost of 764 lbs. 
Df coal at $14 per ton ? Ans. : $5,348. 



Process : 



764 
14^2= 7 

5.348 



To Measure Grain. — Rule. — Levelthe grain; ascerfciin the space 
it occupies in cubic feet; multiply the number of cubic feet by 8, and 
point off one place to the left. 

Example : A box level full of grain 20 ft. long, 10 ft. wide, and 
6 ft. deep, how many bushels does the box coutain ? Ans. : 800 
bushels. 

Process: 20x10x5=1000x8-^-10=800 



Or, 



1000 ft. 
8 



800.0 

Ni, '.e. — Correctness requires the addition to every 300 bushels of 1 
extra bushel. 

Quantity, of Seed required for a Given Number of Hills, 
OR LENGTH OP Drill. — Asparagus, 1 oz. to 60 feet drill; beet, 1 oz. to 
50 ft. drill; carrot, 1 oz. to 180 ft. drill; endive, 1 oz. to 150 ft. drill; 
onion, 1 oz. to 100 ft. drill; parslev, 1 oz. to 150 ft. drill ; parsnip, 1 oz, 
to 200 ft. drill ; radish 1 oz. to 100 ft. drill ; spinach, 1 oz. to 100 ft. drill , 
turnip,! oz. to 150 ft, driU; peas, 1 qt. to 100 ft. drill; dwarf bears, 1 qt. 
to 150 hiUs ; corn, 1 qt. to 200 hills ; cucumber, 1 oz. to 50 hiUs ; water- 
melon, 1 oz. to 30 hills ; muskmelon, 1 oz. to 60 hills; pumpkin,l oz. to 



58 farmers' receipts. 

40 liills ; early squash, 1 oz. to 50 hills ; marrow squash, I c z. to 16 hilla 
cabbage, 1 oz. to 3000 plants; cauliflower, 1 oz. to 3000 plants; celery, 
1 oz. to 4000 plants ; egg plant, 1 oz. to 2000 plants ; lettuce, 1 oz. to 
4000 plants, pepper, 1 oz. to 2000 plants ; tomato, 1 oz. to 200C plants. 

QuA>'TiTY OF Seed kequiked per Acre, axd Actual ■weight 
OF EACH TO THE BcsHEL. — Wheat, broadcast, 1^ to 2 bushels; ditto, 
in drills, 1^ bushels, weight per bushel, 60 lbs; rye, broadcast, l| 
bushels, -weight 56 lbs. ; oats, broadcast, 2 bushels, weight S3 lbs. ; 
timothy, broadcast, 2 gals., 45 lbs. per bushel; red clover, broadcast, 
S to 4 gals., GO lbs. per bushel; white clover, broadcast, 8 lbs., 50 lbs. 
per bushel; lucerne, broadcast, 10 lbs., 54 lbs. per bushel; herd or red 
top, broadcast, 1 to 1^ bushels, 14 lbs. per bushel ; bluegrass, broad- 
cast, 1 to li bushels, 14 lbs. per bushel; millet, broadcast, J to 1 
bushel, 45 lbs. per bushel; Hungarian, broadcast, | to 1 bushel, 50 
lbs. per bushel; com in hills, 1 to l^gals., 56 lbs. per bushel; tur- 
nips and ruta baga, 1 lb., 50 lbs. per bushel; onion sets, 28 lbs. pet 
bushel. 

The ViTALirr of Seeds may be tested by placing almost any of 
the larger seeds or grains on a hot pan or griddle; when the vitaUty 
is perfect the grain will pop, or crack open with more or less noise. 
Where tlie vitality is defective, or lost, it remains immovable in the 
votisel. A celebrated botanist's recipe for improving and fertilizing 
all kinds of seed, consists in the preparation of a solution of lime, 
nitre, and pigeon's dung in water, and therein steeping the seed. 
Tested on wheat, the produce of some of these grains was reported at 
CO, 70 and 80 stems, many of the ears 5 inches long, and 50 corns 
each, and none less than 40. The same botanist (Millar) produced 
500 plants fi'om 1 grain, and 576,840 grains, weighing 47 lbs. Grams 
of wheat in different coimtries yield from 6, 10, 16, and even SO to 1 : 
Cape wheat 80 to 1. Barley yields from 50 to 120. Oats increase 
from 100 to 1000. Wheat and millet seed germinate in one day, bar- 
ley in 7, cabbage in 10, almond and chestnut and peaches require 12 
mouths, and rose and filbert 24. A field of wheat buried under au 
avalanche for 25 years, proceeded on its growth, &c. , as soon as tha 
enow had melted. A bulbous root found in the hand of a mummy, 
above 2000 years old, lately produced a plant. Potatoes planted be- 
low 3 feet do not vegetate; at ^ foot they grow quickest, and at 2, are 
retarded 2 or 3 months . 

CojtPOUXD FOR RE^^vrN■G Exhausted Orchards — Sulphate of 
potash, 30 lbs. ; sulphate of magnesia, 15 lbs. ; salt, 35 lbs. ; plaster of 
Paris, 15 lbs. ; chloride of magnesia, 5 lbs. All to be well powdered 
and mingled with barn manure, and then dug in around the roots at 
the rate of 10 to 20 lbs. to a tree. This compound is assumed to re- 
store those elements to the soil of which it has been exliausted during 
many years of fruit bearing, and the secret has been sold to hundreds 
at extortionate prices. 

Artificial JiIaxure. — The composition of Dr. Jeannel's artificial 
manure for pot plants, as detailed to the Central Horticultural 
Society of France, is as follows : — Nitrate of ammonia, 400 grammes 
(a gramme == 15 .grains); pho.sphate of ammonia, 200 grammes ; ni- 
trate of potash, 250 grammes; hydrochlorate of ammonia, 50 gram- 
mes; sulphate of lime, 60 grammes ; and sulphate of iron, 40 gram- 
mes. One gramme or 15 grains of this mixture is dissolved in a litre 
of water, aud used once or twice a week. 



FARMERS RECEIPTS /)9 

Equivalent Fertilizing PitorERTiES of Various Manures.- 
1 lb. guauo equals 08 lbs. cow manure, 33 farm yard do., 22 swiue do. 
21 horse, 14 human. 

Seed Oats. — Place your oats iu a heap at the leeward end of the 
threshing floor on a day when a gentle breeze is blowing through th« 
barn. Take a common wooden flour-scoop and throw the oats against 
the wind, towards the other end of the floor. A few minutes' experi- 
ence will enable you to throw them so that they will fall iu a semi- 
circle at a nearly uniform distance from where you stand, the oata 
which fall farthest are the best for seed, and are to be carefully swept 
together as fast as they accumulate iu sufficient quantities. 

Seed Wheat should not only be thoroughly cleaned from the 
seeds of weeds, but small grains should be taken out with a separator 
or suitable fanning mill, leaving only the largest, plumpest, and ear- 
liest ripened kernels. To prevent smut, soak the seed wheat in brine, 
and then dust it with unslacked lime; this will prove a perfect preven- 
tive. 

To Produce the Peak in Perfection. — Pears are liable to crack 
when the trees stand in soil deficient in lime and potash. These es- 
Bcntial elements are restored to exhausted soil by the application of 
wood ashes at the rate of 400 bushels to the acre, which ensures the 
renewal of the proi^er proportions necessary to supply the require- 
ments, viz., 40 per cent, of potash and 30 per cent, of lime. This will 
check the cracking of the fruit. Tested. Applied to the roots of the 
trees and vegetables, 12 qts. of soot mixed with 1 hogshead of water, 
is a most powerful stimulant of growth and production. A paint of 
Boot and sweet milk applied to fruit trees will keep rabbits off. 

Salt and its Uses. — Salt appears to be as necessary for vegetable 
life as it is to animal life. Applied in combination with other manures 
at the rate of 2 cwt. to the acre, it never fails to produce wonderful 
results on all kinds of grain and vegetable productions, and the vor- 
acity shown by animals for salted hay is well known. 

To Kill the Potato Bug. — Mix 1 lb. Paris green with 10 lbs. 
poor flour or fine whituig. To use, take a circular piece of wood 4 or 
5 inches iu diameter (it may be cut out of a 2 inch plank), uisert a mop 
handle in the centre, tack on an old tin can with one end removed for 
the reception of the block, punch the other end with holes through 
which to sift the compound on the hills as you pass along the rows, 
and bore a hole in the wooden end for the reception of the mLxture, 
and fit a plug to secure it. The compound should be sifted on the 
hills while the vines are wet with dew or rain. 

The Striped Bug on Cucumhers and Melons may be destroyed, 1st, 
By sifting charcoal dust over the plants 3 or 4 times in succession. 
2nd. Use a solution of 1 peck of henhouse manure to 1^ gals, water, 
and sprinkle the plants freely with it after sunset. Chinch-bugs. — 
Place any old rags in the crotches of the trees. The worms will taka 
refuge and spin in the old rugs, when the latter may be thrown in boil- 
ing water. Vaterpillars. — Use a solution of 1 part in 500 of sulphide ol 
potassium, sprinkle on the tree by means of a hand syringe. Vurcidio. 
—Make a very strong solution of water and gas Uir, so that after 
standing 48 hours it wUl be powerful and dark colored like creosote 
On the appearance of the curculio, drench the tree thoroughly with & 
hand-forcing pmnp, repeating it every 3 days for 2 weeks, and da 
Btroy all fallen fruit. 



60 farmers' receipts. 

To Relievk Ciiokkd Cattle.— Iu choldng, the accum.ilation of 
gas (chietiy sulpliuretted hydrogen) is the cnuse of the animal'ii 
death. Tliis gas ciiu be decomposed by forciug a strong solution of 
ealt and water do\vii the animal's throat ; or, force the beast to jump 
over the bars of a gate or fence. When she touches the ground on 
the opposite side, the obstruction -n ill be ejected. Another way is to 
nse four or five feet of ^-iuch rubber hose, and push the obstruction 
down. 

Farrow Coav.s. — Feed them liberally, and they will give rich milk, 
though perhaps but little of it. Let thera have three or four quart* 
of meal per day through the winter and spring, and do not stop giv- 
ing it when the grass comes. As soon as it dries them up, they will 
be fit for the butcher. 

To Cook Food for Cattle.— To Coolc Hay.— Cat it, wet it well, 
put it iu an upright tank or cask, with a false bottom and tight 
cover, press it down firmly, and pass the steam in under the false 
cover. To Cook Corn. — Soak as many barrels, half full, as you wish 
to cook from 15 to 24 hours ; turn on steam and cook until done, 
and the barrels will be full. To Make Mush. — Fill as many barrels, 
half full of water, as you wish to make barrels of mush; bring the 
water nearly to a boil by passing the steam to the bottom ; stir into 
each barrel from li to l.| bushels of meal until well mixed ; then cook 
until doue, when the barrels should be full. To Cook yer/etahles.-~ 
Fill the barrels full, and, if no other cover is at hand, chop the top 
fine with a shovel ; then cover them up with meal or proven- 
der, and cook until done ; have holes in the bottom of the barrels 
to carry off condensed steam. 

To Fatten Sheep. — Sheep will fatten readily on good clover-hay 
alone, if the hay has been cut in full bloom, so as to retain all its 
juices before they are turned into woody fibre, and of a good green 
color. A sheep of, say 120 lbs. live-weight, will consume 21 lbs. of 
clover-hay per week, and increase in weight 2 lbs. Allowing that it 
would ordinarily take 14 lbs. to keep it in good stationary condi- 
tion, an expenditure of 7 lbs. of hay extra will produce 1^ lbs. of 
mutton, worth in the spring 10 cents, — perhaps more, — so that the 
hay is literally realizing to the farmer at the rate of $30 or 
more to the ton. No other stock, we think, will give a return for 
the trouble of fattening Uke this. To fatten sheep more rapidly, 
the daily addition of a small quantity of oafs to their feed will pro- 
duce good effects. Keep their quarters dry, well-ventilated, and 
abundantly littered with clean straw, with freedom of access to good 
water, and an occasional taste of salt. The health of sheep during 
the grazing season will be promoted by giving the sheep tar at the 
rate of a gill a day for every 20 sheep ; and, if given pine boughs 
once or twice a week, thej' will create appetite, prevent disease, and 
uicrease their health. The best sheep to keep, both for wool and mut- 
ton, is the American Merino. 

Hay Racks for Sheep. — The cheapest and best rack for sheep 
can be made of 8 boards, 4 long and 4 short ones, nailed to 4 
posts, forming an enclosure 12 or more feet long, as the case may 
be, and 32 inches wide. The bottom board should be at least 10 
inches wide, and the top one need not be over 4, with a space be- 
tween of from 6 to 8 inches, depending somewhat, upon the size of 
the sheen that are to eat, with their heads through this aperture. 



ON BEE KEEPING. 



61 



Construction of Bee Hives. — 
Few departments of economy and 
use are more productive of utilitj^, 
profit, and real pleasure than the 
intelligent management of the hon- 
ey bee, but perhaps no other sub- 
ject is less understood by the enor- 
mous masses of the vast populatiou 
who in every grade of societj% 
might be benefited by a correct 
knowledge of the subject. In order 
to manage bees with jjrofit it is ne- 
cessary to discard the old method of 
euffocation with sulphur, the old 
barrels, hollow logs, straw hives, 
boxes, &c., of the past, and keep 
abreast with the new discoveries of 
the age. All that is required for 
success is to plan well, and always 
work iu harmony with, and never 
against, the heaven derived 
instincts which guide tho 
marvellous operation of thia 
wonderful insect. Fore- 
most among the appliances 
which benefit man and fa- 
cilitate the labors of the 
bees we would mention the 
American Movable Comb 
Hive, cuts of which are pre- 
sented herewith. 

Directions for making the 
American Jlivc. — The bot- 
tom board is 13;^ inches 
wide, 13 inches long and IJ 
inches thick. The front and 
back are 14^ inches wide 
and VJh inches long. Tho 
8x10 observation door in 
the back, is cut out with a 
buzz-saw, 3 inches from the bottom, .ind thin strips ^ in. wide arc 
tacked on the sides and top of tho opening even with the outer edgo 
to leave an ^ iu. rabbet on tho inside for the glass. The door is fin- 
ished by nailing an inch clamp on end and side, beveled and hung to 
the clamp above. Both front and bade have a ralibet for the frames 
on tlie inside, across the top 4^ in. wide and § in. deep, and tho samo 
extend down the edge i in. wide, against which the movealjlc side is 
to fit. The clamp i.s nailed on the front 7h in. up from the bottom, 
and the IJ in. fly holes are bored 3 ins. from centre to centre just 
above it. 

The stationary side with the 1.^ in. clamp on the upper end is 19^ 
ins. long and 15 ins. wide. A part of the front is cut off 3 ins. from 




62 ON BEE KEEPING. 

the bottom, to -within 1§ iu. of the edge next to the movable side, and 
the last surface is leit beveling out to make the entrance block C, 
easy of removal, which is 12^ ins. long, to the beveled point, and 
2 ins. wide, and beveled each side and between the 1^ pillars, 1^ ins. 
up on the outside, and | in. upon the inside, and the edges rounded 
off to leave a bee passage g of an in. high. — (See entrance block in tho 
iiist cut.) 

Tlio block is held in place by tho base of the same button that 
holds the entrance slide, B. The entrance slide B is !§ ins. wide, 15 
ins. long, and f in. thick, having 2 notches fin. high and lin. long, 
cut to fit the pillars, C, when closing the hive. 

A movable side to fit over the open part of the hive, (as shown 
wide open in cut) secured by clamps, is IGiins. long, and 14 ins. wide 
at the top and J less at the bottom to make it easy to remove. 

Before nailing the body of the hive together, nail a clamp 3 ins. 
wide and 12§ ins. long on the under side of the bottom board, cross- 
wise to prevent it from warijing. Use wrought nails and drive them 
through upon a heav^f^ iron to clinch them, and nail the clamps en 
the front and back in the same manner. Fasten tho bottom board in 
a vice and nail the back on the bevelled end just even with tho 
lower part of the observation door, and use two or three long brad 
nails near the edge next to the moveable side. Next nail on tho 
stationary side firmly to the back and bottom board, especially at tho 
front edge, then to the front having the movable side in place. Nail 
the clamp on the upper end of the stationary side, nailing through tho 
ends into the front and back. Next, nail the strip under tho 
bottom board next the moveable side, which is 14 ins. longbv 2^ ius. 
wide at the back end, and runs to a point at the other end. Nail tho 
IJ in. clamps on the ends of the movable side, when tho two hooks 
and metallic buttons are screwed on tho edge of the front and back 
after painting. When finished the movable side is J in. shorter than 
the front and back, to avoid killmg bees that may be on tho stand 
when closing tho hive. Tho adjustable bevelled strips rest upon tho 
frame rabbets next the stationary side, and holds the frames over 
against the movable side. -^ _ 

p There are nine of the movable comb' frames, and all are mado 
alike. The bees pass up into the honey boxes through slots or mor- 
tises. Each of the two slots in the projecting edge of the top bars, i.1 
\ in. wide and 2 ins. long. The side bars are7-lCth of an inch thick, 13 
in. long and J widebemg sawed from lumber that thickness. The top 
bars lack \ in. of 14in. in length, and lack 1-lGth of an inch of l\inn. ta 
width. They are sawed 7-ICth of an inch thick from a plank Avhich 
should be exactly the right thickness for their width. 
!* The Improved Comb Guide, which the bees invariably follow, ia 
'constructed in a manner that secures straight combs. A groove is 
made in the centre of the lower side of tlie top bar, into which is in- 
serted a thin strip of wood having its lower edge coated with bees- 
wax. The projecting nails iu the side bars to keep the frames apart 
should have large heads and be driven throxigh a. hole in an iron or 
hard piece of wood, 9-lGth of an inch thick. The frames are held from 
the walls of the hive by a triangular strip across the front, 5-16th 
in thick, and the one on the back is not nailed on uutil the glass is in, 
when it is dressed to give the frames J in. play between the trian"» 
gularstrips. ~~ - - 



ON BEE KEEPING. 63 

The to^DS and 'bottoms of the 12 small honey boxes are 4J x CJ ins. 
and about | in. thick. A slot 1 J x S ins. is cut across the tops and 
bottoms of all except the tops of six of the first set of boxes. The 
lour comer posts are § in. square and 5 ins. long. The end glass 4 x 
5 and side glass 5 x G ins. are held in place by a two prong narro'w 
etrip of tin through the corner of the posts and the prongs bent each 
"way over the glass. 

The end pieces of the caps are 15^ ins long, 8^ ins. wide at the ends 
and 102 "^s. wide in the centre, each having a 1:^^ i'l- hole, covered ■with 
•wire cloth on the inside. Tlie side pieces arc 17 ins. long and 8^ wide 
the upper edge sawed beveling to fit the roof boards. 

The roof boards are 20^ ins." long, and each 11 ins. wide, with the 
Tipper edge beveled to fit, and the lower edge leveled to ctand plumb. 
X 1.^ inch half round is nailed on the top to cover the joint. 

In painting, give the hives one coat of white and when dry, putty 
and paint the second coat ; and while the paint is fresh, cloud, with 
the liive hanging upon a board projecting from the shop wall, G feet 
Irom the floor, i>j passmg beneath it a lighted coal oil lamp with a 
email round wick. When the paint is dry screw on the hooks and 
buttons, giving each, a tap that it may fit the movable side moro 
closely. 

Cy consulting the Painfcrs Department, beginning at page 1C2, tlio 
reader will find an immense number of formula for compounding 
paints of every description at the lowest cost. Many of these will bo 
admirably adapted for painting bee-hives in a beautiful and inex- 
pensive style. 

I The lumber xised should be thoroughly seasoned, and, after both 
sides are dressed, it should be, for the body of the liivc, g in. thick. 
In the cut, the bottom board, projects in front of the hive, making a 
convenient alighting board, and being inclined, is kept clean by "the 
bees during the working season, By removing the entranco block, 
C, a large opening is made for brushing out litter in the winter or 
early spring, and for hiving new swarms. By the use of tlio wnalL 
elide, B. held in place by the eame button, the entrance can be con- 
tracted, if necessary, to the admission of a single bee, thus effectual- 
ly guarding a wcalc swarm from robbery, and tlic entrance may bo 
closed entirely by making notches d, d, in the slide correspond with 
the pillars. By means cf the movable side and the observation door 
at the back of the hive every facility is furnished for obtaining ho- 
ney, observing progress, removing *or adding frames to strengthen 
"weak stock, transferring, &c., &c., without injuring the combs or irri- 
tating the'bees, and the honey boxes oa the top may be removed or 
added at will.^, 

|r Another hivo of intrinsic excellence Is called the Climax, and still 
another, the American, with Climax improvements, see cuts. TIio 
Climaxes made in two part;;. The upper part, which contains tho 
boxes (or frame) is provided with conmion trunk rollers, and rents 
on cleats, secured to the lower parts of tho hive. These cleats extend 
far enough beyond tho hive to allow tho upper to roll off from t];o 
lower without crushing, disturhing or in any way interfering with 
tho labors of tho bees. Tho strips forming the track, have drop legs 
at their outer ends, and are hinged just outside the body of theliivo, 
and when not in use, fold up snugly against tho hive. Tlio bottom 
boaxd of tho upper part answers every purpose of a bonsy beard. 



64 



ON BEE KEEPING. 



It is provided -with two slots to admit the bees ; each slot is ])rovided 
with, a zinc strip on the under-side, connected by a wire with a han- 




THE CLIM.tX BEE HIVB 




AMEniCAN BEE HITE "WITH CUMAX IMPROTEITEXT. 

die on the outside. By this simple contrivance, all communication 
between tlie two parts of the hive may be instantly cut off, and divi- 
din<? or any other operation performed without difficulty. 

The bottom board of the lower part is made of plank Ij ins. thick; 
and is beveled from the centre to each end, and projects far enough in 
front and rear to form nhghting boards. Along the summit of 
the bottom board is nailed a triangular strip notched on 'the upper 
edge. Con-esponding notches are made in the centre of the lower 
edges of the bottom bars of the frames. Then notches are cut bevel- 
ling, so that the frames are easily inserted or withdrawn, but when 
in place, are im7no cable, and will not shake or jostle, no matter how 
the hive is turned. Then there is a central rest for the frames, which 
renders thera entirely independent of each other, and of the walls of 
the hive. The well known propensity of bees to shve every thing to- 



ON BEE KEEPING. 



65 



getlier that they can is thus anticipated and prevented, while at the 
same time a free passage all around, between, above and below tho 
frames, is afforded. The lower part has two entrances on opposito 
Bides, and the bottom board slantmg each way is easily kept clean. By 
removing the entrance block, complete ventilation is eii'ected, and for 
Burplus lioney in the comb, twenty-four small frames above, each 5x6 
and 2 ins. wide are used. Six of these frames are placed together, top 
and sides close fitting, and a pane of glass, 5x6 inches, placed at 
each end. A strip of tough paper, about 2 ius. wide, is then glued to 
each side and turned around on the glass, which holds them firmly in 
place. Twelve frames thus made into ticosur2:>hts boxes, just cover the 
top, and another tier, above this, furnish room for 50 lbs of honey, in 
the best shape for market or home use, the cost of these tram* boxes 
being less than lialf that of the common glass boxes. 

Another important auxiliary to the apiculturist will be found in 
the Honey Extractor, represented lierewith. Tliis is a geared ma- 
chine made of metal, or other suitable material, fitted with an 




HONET EXTRACTORS. 

interior arrangement for receiving the movable frames containing 
the comb and honey from the hive. The centrifugal force generat- 
ed by the raind rotary motion of the frame causes the honey to fly 




In every direction against the inner side of the machine, and flow 
down into the vessel beneath. The frame and perfect comb, minus 
the honey, is then returned to the hive to be again filled with lioney. 
This operation may be repeated with tho same comb for twelve o2 
fifteen years, if required and the value of the device may bp imma" 

5 



66 



ON BEE KEEPING. 



gined -when it is known that each poiind of the comb, bo far as the 
labor of the bees is concenicd, is equivalent or equal to the collec- 
tion of twenty pounds of honey. The knife represented herewith is 
used for uncappuig liouey for extracting. 

As the utiUty of tlie preceding remarks Avill be greatly enhanced 
by additional information regarding bees, we Iierewith append the fol- 
lowuig excellent representations of the tenants of the hive, together 
with practical instructions for profitable management. 




QUEEN. 



BLACK WORKER. ITAL. WORKER. 



The Italian bees are becoming great favorites wherever they have 
been introduced, and are rapidly supplanting tlie blaclc bees. They 
are credited witli being very industrious workers, making three 
fliglits for every two made by the black beesj and storing much more 
than double the honej', besides l^eing more prolific, as is evidenced 
by tlicir more frequent swarming. Besides, tlie Italian bee is very 
hardy, worlcing earlier and later in the season and gathermg honey 
from sources not frequented by the common bee. 

Useful Hints for Beginnees. — 1. '\^'ork quietly; r.vcid sudden 
jars ; never fight your bees, and always keep cool. 2. If you get 
stung, remove the sting, squeeze out all the poison you can, and ap- 
ply hartshorn. 3. Use plenty of smoke ; a roll of dry rags or decay- 
ed wood makes the best ; blow in tlie entrance and at tlio top of 
frames. If you are timid, use rubber gloves on your hands, and, a 
veil over the face and head ; the veil must be long enough to allow 
the vest or coat to be put on over it. 4. When i)asture first becomes 
plenty in the spring is a good time to transfer bees. Always work 
among the liives during the middle of the day, when the bees aro 
busy. 5. Stocks without eggs or young brood in June, must bo 
qucenless and should be supplied with a queen or queen cell, or they 
will dwindle away and perish cither by robbers or moth. G. When 
symptoms of robbing occur, use the utmost caution. Contract the 
entrance of weak hives, and allow no comb, honey, sugar or syrup 
to be around. Avoid opening hives as much as possible. 7. Avoid an 
excess of drone comb by the presence of a queen in swarms wliero 
combs are to be constructed. As swarms having young queens sel- 
dom swarm that year, less drone comb is built in swarms having 
youn^ queens. 8. Quiet is essentially necessary to the well-being of 
an apiary. Do not place it near Mills, Steam Works, or Mantifac- 
tories of any kind. If possible have it iu view from the ■windows of 



ON BEE KEEPING. 



67 



the family room, as much extra trouble may "be avoided. 9. As 
natural ta'leut or business tact, is requisite, with education to success 
in business, so a careful turn of mind and a love for the business, 
■n-ith an understandins? of the subject, is necessary to success in bee- 
keepin"-. 10. Put en honey boxes partly filled with comb as soon as 
the lower part of the hive is well filled with honey and bees, and 
when they are gathering honey plentifully ; commence with only one 
or two boxes at a time on the most populous stocks. 11. In transfer- 
rin"" combs always give those the preference that conf.ain worker 




DKONE AKD WOKKEB C03IB. 

"brood. Put brood comb near the centre of the hive in the order in 
which they were in the box hive. Do your transferring where rob- 
bers cannot possibly be attracted. 12. Avoid weak swarms, as they 
Sather but little honey, breed slowly, and are in danger of destruc- 
tion by robbers, the 'moth, or severity of winter. Weak swarms 
should always be united in the fall, and should never be made by 
dividmg early in the season. 13. Whenever you notice the bees rim- 
ning about the entrance in the evening in a disturbed condition, mark 
that hive and notice it the next evening. If the bees run about 
smelling each other, it is a sign they have lost their queen and 
should receive attention. 14. In establishing an apiary, select a 
gentle slope to the south-east; face the hives in the same direction, if 
possible have running water near ; shade and protection from wind* 
and the heat of the sun are important Set every hive as perpendi- 
cular as a clock — for a stand, take tAVO short pieces of 4 x 6 scantling 
and lay or nail on a board. 15. To make queen cages, cut wire cloth 



68 



ON BEE KEEPING. 



5x4 mclies ; pull out two or three transverse wires from ono of the 3 
inch edges, aud insert the projectmg ends thus leit in t.ie cories- 
pondiug meshes of the other three inch edge, and fasten them ; sto^) 
cue end with a cork or wood. "When yoa wish to introduce a 
queen, put her in the cage and stop the other cud with wax. I'J. A 
few inches of drone comlj is amply abundant for any hive, 
as drones consume a great deal of houey and gather none. Tho 
movable frame hive renders any preventive operation very easy : tho 
cut Avill enable the beginner to identify the drone by tlie largo 
cells. 17. In the North eru States and British Provinces, experiments 
demonstrated that bees wintered in tho open air have cousamed 
about 45 lbs. of honey i^er hive, while bees wintered ia the cellar 




COMB SHOWING BEOOD AXD QUEEN CELL. 

during the same period consumed on an average only 5 lbs each In 
another case 6 hives wintered out of doors lost an average of 29^ lbs, 
in weight each, during 3 months, while 20 hives in the cellar lost 
onlyo| lbs, each, during tlie same time. Do not place them in the 
cellar until the severe weather begins : give them plenty of upward 
ventilation in order to pass off the vp.i'or generated from the bees ; 
place the hives in rows on shelves, keep them in a clean dark place, 



ON BEE KEEPING. 69 

but uot in a damp or badly ventilated cellar, lor that is certain death 
t(j bees, and Iveep wire cloth tacked over the entrance to each hive ; 
if a dry absorbent material such as cut straw or shavings, can be 

E laced in the upper part of the hive to receive and absorb the vm- 
ealthy emanations from the bees, all the better ; in out door ■wintering 
especially, this is a most desirable plan, as it retains the heat while 
it absorbs the effluvia. 18. Bees wintered on their summer stands, 
should always be allowed from SO to 50 lbs, of honey to each colony 
and extra protection around the hive if the cold is very intense. 19. 
When eggs are deposited by the queen in the cells prepared by the 
workers, in 3 days they hatch into small worms which are nurtured 
and fed , until about the eighth day the larvae become nymphs, and 
are sealed up in their cells to reappear as perfect bees. The queen 
bee emerges in from 10 to 17 days, the drone in 24, and the woikerB 
in 21 days from the egg. The cut illustrates a comb showing brood 
and queen'cell but the artist has not succeeded very well in representing 
the royal form with which nature has endowed her majesty. In from '6 
to 5 days after emerging, the queen leaves the hive to meet the drones in 
the air, for fertilization. She never leaves the hive at any other times 
except when she goes with asAvarm, and one copulation is all sufllcient 
to ensure fertility for life. Under favorable circumstances she will 
deposit 3000 egg.s per day. 20. In introducing an Italian queen to a 
colony of common bees, enclose her in a wire cloth cage and insert 
the cage in the centre of a comb where the bees will cluster upon it. 
In 36 hours release the queen, smear her with honey, and allow her 
to crawl down among the bees. 21. "When bees are short of honey 
a good and cheap food may be provided by using good coffee sugar, 
4 lbs, added to water, 1 qt., bring to a boil, skim and allow it to cool. 
22. Another. Take of the best quality of brown sugar, two parts by 
measure, to one part of pure soft water ; boil and skim it ; then ta 
«veiy quart of the mixture, add one even tcaspoonfulof thebest creara- 
tartar ; dissolve the cream tartar before putting it in. Remove the 
empty comb with the frame from the hive fill them by allowing the 
syrup to drain through a proper strainer into the cells, and then 
return the frames to the hive. With box hives, use some good feeder 
or a dish of proper size to set under the cap on the top of the hive ; 
fill the dish v/ith the syrup, and throw on fine shavings or cut straw, 
to prevent the bees from falling into it. 23. The best substitute for 
bee bread or natural pollen is rye flour unbolted. In the absence of 
rye, use other flour. 24. The damp air may be drawn from a cellar 
in which bees are being whitered by connecting the cellar and your 
stove pipe by means of a 2 inch tin pipe p.issing up through the floor. 
25. In hiving bees, use diluted lioncy or white sugar syrup, damp the 
inside of your hive and gently sprinkle the bees with the liquid ; it 
will render them so happy that you may handle them as you please. 
Surplus Honey Stored in Boxes. — "Thope having bees in 
common hives, and who v.'ish their surplus honey stored in boxes, 
will obtain the greatest amount and avoid many disappointments by 
attending to the following conditions : 1. The boxes should be tight 
and large, but not over four or five inches high, and protected from 
the changes of the weather by an outer cap. 2. The bees should be 
induced to commence in them by attaching pieces of clean empty 
combs to the under side of the top, (Ln4 placing the boxes directly 



70 ON BEE KEEPING. 

over the 1)100(11115 apfirtmcnt, -with large openings under each box to 
admit the bees. 3. Earlj' in the season select a lew populous stocks, 
giving a box to each, and when the bees have commenced in them, 
give boxes to the next strongest, being careful not to give too much 
room until a start has been made. 4. Keep the hives cool by shad- 
ing from tlie sun, and if the bees cluster outside, -when flowers are 
plenty, ventilate by enlarging the entrances and giving more room in 
the boxes if needed. After a populous stock has nearly filled its 
boxes it will often take long enough time to finish them, to have 
half filled empty ones, besides the difficulty so often experienced in 
getting the bees' to commence in the boxes after those first filled aro 
removed, wliich objections arc both overcome in the American hive, 
described in the article ou hives." JDee-Kcepers' Text Book. 

Hatching a>-d Fertiliz.vtion- of Ql-eexs. — "In about eight 
days after the old queen leaves with the first swarm, the most ad van" 
ced sealed queen is ready to emerge. During this time the old stock 
is without a hatched queen, the young queen immediately upon leav- 
ing her cell, if not restrained by the workers, commences the work of 
destruction upon her yet imprisoned sisters. She accomplishes this 
by biting open the side of each cellnejir its base, and dispatching the 
unfortunate inmate with her sting. She is yet hicompeteut for tho 
maternal duty, and must leave the hive to meet the drones in the air 
for the purpose of fertilization. This once accomplished, the work- 
ers, awaiting her safe return, greet her with a reverence and affec- 
tion never shown before. They hasten to prepare the cells to receive 
her tiny eggs, and seem to realize that ou lier existence the perpetua- 
tion of the family depends. There is also a perceptible change in tho 
queen's form, her abdomen being a little swollen and sojncwhat 
lengthened, but not as much as at the height of the breeding sea- 
son. She now remains the fruitful mother of the i^rosperous and 
happy colony." Buc-Keepers' Text Book. 

To' Pkevext >'ew Swarms from lea^ixg titeir Hives. — 
" Natural swarms occasionally refuse to stay after having been liived, 
usually m consequence of heat or strong odor about the hive. In 
nucleus swarming this seldom or never happens, because the bees 
are never Avithout a comb containing brood and honey ; and they 
will not leave voluntarily. Therefore when hiving a swarm in a 
moveable comb hive, go to any stock that can spare a comb contain- 
ing brood and honey. Brush back the bees, being careful not to 
remove the queen or any queen-cells with comb, and place it in tho 
hive that is to receive the new swarm. It will not only prevent tho 
bees from decamping but will greatly encourage them, and should 
bad weather confine them to the hive' they will be secure from star- 
Tation. If the swarm is put in a common hive, place over them a 
box of honey taken from the parent stock." Bee-Keepers' Text Book. 

The Nucleus System of Sw.^kmixg. — " TJie introduction of a 
mature fertile queen to a colony two weeks sooner than ivhen they 
swarm naturally is an advantarje sufficient to pay for the extra 
trouble. The time fjained in breeding is equivalent to a swarm. M. 
QrxxBV. 

In swarming bees on this system, we first rear a queen in a small 
cluster nucleus of bees, allowing the nucleus hive to remain in ita 
;!lacc until the puecn becomes fei-tile, v.heu yvQ swarm the bees by 



ON BEE KEEPING. 



71 



simply causing tlio two hives to exchange places. Unlike natural 
swarming, the old queen remains in the parent stock and its labors 
go on scarcely interrupted. The system is based upon the well known 
law, that bees, after luxuriating upon the flowers, will return to tho 
exact spot of their old habitation. Form a nucleus from an Italian or 
other populous stock by blowing a few whiffs of smoke into the en- 
trance and opening the hive ; select a frame of comb containing cap' 
ped brood, but especially plenty of eggs and young larvaj. After 
lookmg tills over carefullj^, lest the old queen be removed, place it 
•with its adhering bees in the empty hive, and next to it another comb 
containing honey, which will afford protection to the brood and food 
for the bees. As many of the old bees 
will return to the parent stock, give tho 
nucleus hive at least a quart of bees 
and set it on a new stand two or three 
rods distant. Contract the entrance so 
that but one or two bees can pass at the 
same time, and set a feed pan on the 
frames, or a sponge filled with sweet- 
ened "water will su])ply their wants until 
the yoimg bees go to M'ork in their new 
location. In place of the combs removed 
from the parent-stock, set in empty 
frames with a full one between. If tho 
frames are put near the centre, the old 
stock will increase all the faster, as tho 
queen will fill the new comb with eggs as 
fast as it is built. The removal of the 
two combs stimulates the bees to great 
/M^^^^'f^^^'-s^'J^t^^W/ ^'^''^^'ty ^y gi^'ing them room to work, 
's!^mimLwS^k!&^^^ and detaches just bees enough to prevent 
^^^MBl^;<^»«^y their clustering idly about the entrance. 

The nucleus will construct queen-cells 
and rear a queen as -well as a whole 
swarm. Besides, the qtieen is easily found among so few bees. Wo 
now wait until the tenth or eleventh day, from the time the nucleus 
was formed, when we open it, and witk a shari:) thin bladed knife, cut 
out all the queen-cells but one and use them immediately in forming 
other nucleus, by attaching one of them to a frame of comb and bees 
taken from an old stock, as before described, and placed in an empty 
hive. In transferring queen-cells great care must be taken not to 
press or dent them, or expose them long to the hot sun or cool air for 
fear of destroying the royal occupants. The beginners should re- 
move but one at a time, returning the frame from which it is fcikcn 
to its place in the hive imtil the royal cell is adjusted in its new loca- 
tion. When practicable have about an inch square of comb attached 
to the cell, and upon taking the comb or brood from the old stock, 
make an opening among the eggs and larvaj where bees will be 
sure to cluster upon it and keep it -warm, and carefully in- 
sert it as shown in figure, leaving an open space below it. 
If the first nucleus was formed from the only Italian stock 
in the yard, and more queen-cells are wanted, remove every queen- 
cell from it, and add another comb of eggs and brood from it's parent 




72 ON BEE-KEEPING. 

Btock. Bu'i when no more queen-cells are needed, leave one to hatch, 
and as by tbis time tbe brood will all be capped over, the, bees -will be 
liable to follow the young queen on her excursions to meet the drones. 
To prevent this, exchange one of the combs for one containing egga 
and young lar\'oe. When forming the other nucleus, young queens 
will return unless lost by birds or otlier casualties, to which all queens 
are once exposed. Such loss is easily ascertained among so few bees, < 
and we have only to insert another queen-cell, adding a comb contain- 
ing eggs and brood and repeat the trial. Should the parent stock bo 
very populous it may be swarmed by taking a queen from the nucleus 
belonging to a less populous stock, and another queen reared there. 

When and how to Swarm the Bees. — Every populous stock, from 
which a nucleus has been formed, should be swarmed, if the weather 
is favorable, as soon as the queen in the nucleus has become fertile. 
This is, usually, in from six to ten days after inserting the queen-cell, 
and is readily determined by examining the combs for eggs. We now, 
unless the yield of honey is very abundant, confine the young queen 
in a gauze wire cage. Havmg tilled up the nucleus hives vdia empty 
frames, exchange the places of the two hives, bringing the entrance 
of the nucleus hive where the old stock has stood, and where the mass 
of the old bees will return from the fields, thus throwing out of the 
old stock swarms of workers into the nucleus hive while the old bees 
from the nucleus will enter the old hive and minister to the wants of 
the numerous brood of the parent stock. The bees must not be swarm- 
ed between the hatching and the feitilization of the queen, and should 
they be swarmed when the honey harvest has received a check from 
a storm or drought, the bees thus empty ot honey and consequently 
more quarrelsome, being suddenly thrown into the presence of a 
strange queen (although of the same scent) are inclined to sting her. 
To prevent this she is caged for thirty-six hours, when the bees from 
the old stock will mostly have joined the uucleus colony and she may 
be safely liberated. But, if she was taken from another nucleus, we 
sometimes let her remain caged a day longer, or smear her well with 
warm honey, and drop her in among the bees. They immediately 
commence licking up the honey, and forget to sting her. If from any 
cause the stocks are swarmed wlien the bees are working but little, 
and after three or four days the nucleus swarm be found deficient in 
bees, it may be strengthened by exchanging some of its empty frames 
for frames of capped brood from the parent stock, or should the flowers 
yield bountifully within a week, the location of the two hives may 
again be exchanged. Tlie bees will not quarrel as they are of the 
eame scent. Unless a nucleus has been formed several weeks, orwlieu 
honey is scarce, it is sometimes necessary to treat both stocks, especi- 
ally the old one, to tobacco smoke. This precaution, however, is only 
for the inexperienced, since, in the midst of the swarming season, 
when the flowers are ui profusion, little protection is needed either for 
the queen or the operator. 

Hens Made to Protect Bees. — A bee raiser has patented an in- 
vention for the protection of bees from the attacks of the honey moth, 
which enters the hives at night, and rifles the stores. The idea arose 
out of his familiarity with the daily routine, not of bees only, but of 
hens. Hens, he observed, retire to rest early ; but bees seek repose 
earlier still; no sooner are they sunk into slumber, than the moth 
steals into their abode and devours the produce of their toil. He has 



ON BEE-KEEPING. 7»J 

now built a stand of Lives witk a hen house connected. Tlie bees first 
betake themselves to their dwelling and settle themselves for the 
night. The hens then come home to roost on their perch, and as they 
take their places upon it, their weiglit sets some simple mechanicism 
to work, which at once shuts down the doors of all the hives. When 
the day dawnsf however, the hens leave their roost, and tlie removal 
of their -weight from the perch raises the hive doors, and gives egresa 
to the bees in time for their morning's work. 




Explanation of the abo\t3 Cuts.— The cut A represents brood 
in various stages from eggs and larvae in the lower part of the comb to 
brood capped at e, and just emerging at/; 71, is a queen-cell just 
commenced at from larvre ; b, a perfect queen-cell capped over ; a, 
a cell from which the queen has just emerged. B represents queen- 
cells destroyed ; C unimpregnated queen; D fertile queen; E malo 
moth or miller; F female miller. 

To Kill Bee Moths. — Bee moths can easily be killed by setting & 

Ean of grease on wliicli is placed a floating lighted wick, near the 
ives after dark : the light will attract the moths in large numbers, 
when they will be destroyed by falling into the grease. 

Many jjcrsons are deriving substantial yearly incom'Ss amounting 
to thousands of dollars from bee-keeping, and it is credibly reported 
that the late Mr. Quimby left property valued at $100,000, all derived 
from this source alone. Mr. Quimby wrote that the honey gathered 
by bees compared with what was lost for the lack of bees to gather it, 
was but as 1 compared witli 1,000, so that it seems as if a careful per- 
son, engaged in bee-keeping, and thoroughly equipped witli all mod- 
em appliances for the business, possesses, as old honest Sam Johnson 



74 BEE-KEEPING, &C. 

once expressed himself regarding a different subject, "The potential, 
ity of growing rich beyond the dreams of avarice," and what is ol 
still greater importance, the pleasure derived from the business is ai 
most ineffable in comparison with the satisfaction of being rich. 

Limited space forbids the further consideration of this attractive 
subject in this place, and the author would concludd^ by expressmg 
his sincere obligations to the editor of the " Bee-Keeper's Magazine " 
for according permission to make extracts from the varied contents of 
an excellent little manual called the "Bee-Keeper's Text Book," and 
other reliable sources of information. For the benefit of parties de- 
siring further light on this fascinating topic, he would state that the 
" Bee-Keeper's Magazine " will fill the entire bill of their require- 
ments. It is a. first rate illustrated monthly journal of 32 octavo pages, 
devoted exclusively to Bee-Culture, edited by Albert J. King, con- 
taining monthly contributions from Mrs. E. S. Tupper, and other 
eminent writers and bee-keepers in both Europe aud America. A 
large space is devoted to Beginners, giving useful information, just 
when it is needed, throughout the year. Terms §1.50 per year. The 
proprietors will send the Magazine four months on trial, and include 
a 64 page pamphlet (price 50 cents), containing a beautiful life-like 
chrome of Honey-Plants and Italian Bees in their natural colors ; 
Prize Essay by Mrs. Tupper ; Queen Rearing by M. Quimby; instruc- 
tions for beginners, &c., all for 50 cents. Address, King & Slocum, 
61 Hudson street, New York. 

Food fob Mocking Birds. — Mix well together com meal, pea 
meal (made by drying split peas in an oven and then grinding them 
in a mill), each one part, moss meal, prepared from the moss seed 
imported from Germany, ^ part, add sufflcieut melted lard not to make 
it too fat or greasy, and sweeten with molasses . Fry the mixture in 
a frying-pan for ^ an hour, stirring it all the time, to avoid burning. 
Mocking, and other birds of like nature, will leave all other food for 
tMs. 



FOR LUMBERMEN, BUILDERS, CONTRACTORS, 
]\nLL OWNERS, SfflP BUILDERS, SHIP OWNERS, 
NAVIGATORS, QUARRY^IEN, STONE CUTTERS, 
MERCHANTS, AND BUSINESS MEN GENERALLY. 

To Pkevext wood fkom Cracking. — Place the wood in a bath 
of fused paraffine heated to 212° Fahr. and allow it to remain as long 
as bubbles of air are given off. Then allow the paraffine to cool down 
to its point of congelation, and remove the wood and wipe off the 
adhering wax : wood treated in this way is not likely to crack. 

To Bend Wood. — Wood enclosed in a close chamber and submitted 
to the action of steam for a limited time ^vill be rendered so pliant 
that it may be bent in almost any direction. The same process will 
also eliminate the sap from the wood and promote rapid seasoning. 

Fire Proofing for Wood. — Alum, 3 parts; green vitriol, 1 part; 
make a strong hot solution with water, make another weak solutioa 
with green vitriol in wliich pipe clay has been mixed to the consis- 
tence of a paint. Apply two coats of the first, dry, and then finish witli 
one coat of the last. 



LUMBERMEN S CAMP. 



7S 




LUMBERMAN'S SHANTY OR CAMP. 

Many of the honest farmers and sturdy lumbermen of tlic North- 
ern States, Canada and New Brunswick, will be at no loss to under- 
stand the uses of the humble mansion represented in the cut, and 
many a forest wanderer and weary hunter will identify the modest 
habitation as the counterpart of another where he has been refreshed 
by the substantial raeal, and invigorated by the peaceful slumber en- 
joyed under the hospitable roof. However poor the lumberman may 
be, however numerous his trials and privations, and we are sorry to 
say they are not few in number, this we will say, that whether you are 
known or unknown, rich or poor, whether you are bent on business 
or pleasure, in the lumber camp you are always made to feel at home; 



76 



CUTTING LOGS, AC. 



the " best iu the house" is at your service, and hospitality is (li*- 
pensed with a princely generosity. Under such circumstances it ie 
wisdom to accept and folly to refuse the proffered beneficence, and 
many can attest that they "have enjoyed these kind offices to exhaust- 
ed humanity with a relish (thanks to the pure oxygen so bountifully 
Bupplied to "their lungs by a forest atmosphere), known to but few in 
the dwellings of the wealthy, or in the sumptuous and costly hotels 
of tlie crowded city, with their bountiful and costly bills of fare, ein-< 
bracing the best in the market. 




CUTTING LOGS IN THE WESrF:KN FINE FORESTS. 

The usnal time for commencing lumbering operations in New' 
BrunsVivk and raanj' paits of Canada, is iu the fall, boou after tha 



CDTTINCr LOGS. &G. 



71 







LOADING PINE LOGS IN THE WESTERN FORESTS, 
operators, many of whom are farmers, have safely housed their crops, 
consisting of hay, oats, buckwheat, potatoes, &c., and the woric con- 
tinues with very little intermission until towards spring. It must be 
confessed that lumbering pursuits are not well calculated to produce, 
iu the minds of those who follow them, a very strong bias towards 
Bcientific agriculture, the tendency being rather to produce derange- 
ment in that respect, but there seems to be a fascination iu the busi- 
ness which very few who euter upon it seem able to resist, and much 
of the farming work is considered by many as only of secondary con- 
sequence compared with lumbering, being stimulated principally by 
the necessity arising for agricultural j)roduct3 in the lumber camps, 
and for family uses at home. 

In selecting the site for a camp, the principal object is to obtain a 
central position within easy reach of water, and an ample supply of 
timber adapted to the wants of the market. It is also of great con- 
sequence that it should be easily accessible for the purpose of trans- 
porting, or "portaging," as it is termed, the substantial supplies re- 



78 



BREAKING A JAM. 




BREAKING A JAM. 

quired by the men and horses engaged in the work, and convenient to 
a suitable " landing," usually on or near a stream, where the logs are 
unloaded to await the breaking up of the ice, and the spring floods, 
which are to convey them to their destination. The work is systemati- 
cally conducted, every man from the boss to the cook having his post, 
but the labor is very severe, and taxes the utmost energies of both 
man and beast, some of the loads drawn by the latter being of enorm- 
ous bulk and weight. This kind of toil continues during the fall and 
■winter months, only to give place in the spring to another form of 
labor, which is, if possible, still more arduous, and is certainly more 
dangerous; that of "driving" the lumber down stream. The driv- 
ing operations are commenced by rolling the logs into the stream on 
the brealdng up of the ice and guiding them down the current, the 
poor fellows being often up to the waist in cold water, and when a 
''jam," or lock of the timber takes place in the stream, owing to ob- 
structions or barriers of any kind, the danger of "breaking" it is 
positively fearful, many having been killed outright, by the sudden 
^' shoot " taken by the liberated timber as it rushes forward, impelled 
by the surging floods in tlie rear. 



ON LUMBERING. 79 

In lumbering districts the season of active worlc for cutting timbei 
ranges from November until towards the middle of Maroli ; in New 
Brunswick much of the work performed in gettino out, or hewing 
birch timber, is done during the summer months, but the cutting and 
hauling of spruce logs is the principal object of winter operations. 
In getting out birch timber, the tree is felled and hewn square to the 
largest available dimensions, and allowed to remain till sleighing sets 
in before being hauled to the stream for transportation. Owing to 
the density of birch timber much of it is lost by submergence in the 
water, and for the purpose of rendering it move buoyant it is usual to 
induce floatation by forming connections with spruce logs or other tim- 
ber of light specific gravity. The rigorous climate of the Northern 
States and Canada is most favorable for the growth of liardy mer- 
chantable timber, such as piue, spruce, &c., but is inimical to mahog- 
any, box, lignumvitie and other dense tropical woods which require 
a warm climate. 

Timber grown in humid, swampy or wet localities, with the excep- 
tion of cedar, willow, poplar, &c., is not so firm, sound, and durable 
as that grown on dry and elevated situations, wheie the soil is largely 
composed of loam interspersed with sand, gravel and stones. Trees 
selected from the midst of the forest possess greater elegance of form 
and are usually straighter, less knotty, and more merchantable every 
way, than timber exjiosed to the ravages of storms, &c., on the con- 
fines adjacent to the clearings, or on hill sides and exposed places, 
sheltered situations being the most favorable for the growth of timber, 
but not so promotive of hardness as unprotected localities. A dense, 
dark, green color in the leaves of trees dui-ing June and July indicates 
a sound, healthy growth, while the sere and yellow leaves, scanty in 
aumber, decaying branches, with spotted, streaked, loosened and dis- 
eased bark, indicates defective timber. To secure timber in its best 
condition for long endurance, it should be cut during mid-winter, say 
in January or February, and during July in summer, and should be 
worked up as soon as possible by sawing, splitting or hewing, into the 
desired dimensions. 

The nature of the various departments of the work is very well 
illustrated in the cuts presented herewith, Avhich are engraved in the 
best style from exceedingly fine photogi-aphs of actual scenes in the 
Western forests, and therefore truthfully depict the various stages of 
getting out lumber, from the cutting down of the great trees, sawing 
them into lengths, hauling them out, and fiually " landing " the logs 
on or near the stream, ui readiness for the spring freshet to drive 
them to market. Though many of these streams are too shallow in 
summer to float an Indian in the hghtest bark canoe, yet, when 
swollen by spring freshets, each one becomes a wide and deep 
river. 

Many ingenious contrivances have been constructed to procure tim- 
ber from mountains. A novel locomotive has been made in Califor- 
nia to run on the long flumes that are used to float lumber down 
from high elevations. The wheels fit on the edge of the sides ot 
the flume, and at the ends of the car are paddle wheels dipping into 
the water, and which are turned by the swilt current. By a simple 
arrangement, this power is made to propel the locomotive up the 
flume, and it runs back itself. Alpnach, in Switzerland, as is well 
known, was, during war time widely noted for its famous slide, oi 



80 



ON LUilBERING. 




UNLOADIXG LOGS ON THE LAXDIXG. 

■wooden trough, containing a, stream of -water, in -which the timber 
was launched -with terrific velocity from the forests on Moimt Pilatus 
into Lake Lucerne, a distance of 8 miles. 

Spruce forests possess a -wonderful recuperative power, it heing 
•well kno-wn that they may be stripped of merchantable timber dur- 
ing any given year, and ten years subsequently, if nothing happens, 
another har\-est ^viil be ready for the axe. The great bane of all for- 
ests is fire, and the loss resulting from this one cause is simply incal- 
culable. WhUe it is true that many forest fires are accidental, it can- 
not be denied that the majority are purposely set ; and, -while such 
atrocious -wickedness cannot be too severely denounced, it is equally 
true that o-wing to the privacy of the act, and consequent -want of 
proof, the offender too frequently escapes the retribution -which liia 
enormities deserve. The recent forest fires in Michigan, Wisconsin, 
and other places, proved terriblj' destructive, and the so-called "great 
Miramichi fire " -will be memorable for generations to come, on ac- 
count of the terrible destruction of human life and property of every 
land effected by it. Many of the old settlers on the Miramichi have 
a vivid remembrance of that a-wful calamity, and can recount many 



SEASONING OF TIMBEK. 81 

Iiarrowiug narratives of sufferiii.sf, consternation, death and hair- 
breadth escapes during that terrible time, when the skj'- appeared aa 
one sheet of flame, emitting a universal rain of tire, which de- 
stroyed everything in its course, even burning the soil from the 
eaiith, rendering thousands of acres a ban-en desert to this day. 

A most singular case of forest-destruction occurred many years 
ago, as related by the Allemuine Zeitinif/, in which a subten-anean 
fire, undoubtedly of volcanic origin, burnt the roots of 250 acres of 
forest trees at Slagland, in Switzerland, which, falling, were also cou» 
sumed ; flames also, issued near Lausanne. 

Seasoning/ and Preserving Timber. — This may be effected — 1st. 
By piling and completely ventilating under cover for a period 
of from two to five years, for thorough seasoning. 2nd. By immer- 
sion in water for a few weeks. This improves all kinds of timber, 
both flat, square and round. If a man wishes to season green boards 
quickly, let him throw them into water, — all the better if it is run- 
ning water, — and the sap will be withdrawn very rapidly : a short 
subsequent exi^osure to the air will be all that is necessary. 3rd. 
Fell your trees during .June and July, while in full leaf, and allow 
them to lie until every leaf has fallen ; it is said the leaves will ex- 
haust nearly all the sap from the tree, leaving it dry in from one 
month to six weeks, according to the dryness or wetness of the 
weather. 4th. Small pieces of non-resinoiis wood can be seasoned 
perfectly by boiling four or five liours ; the process taking the sap 
out of the wood, which shrinks nearly one-tenth in the operation. 
5th. Kiln-drying, is adapted only for boards and small timber ; it is lia- 
ble to check, crack, and otherwise injure the wood, unless the process is 
cautiously conducted. Black walnut camiot be seasoned in this way 
at all : for this wood use Process No. 1. Gth. Steaming. — This pro- 
cess has been adopted by some, and has proved successful in elimin- 
ating tlie sap from the wood. 7th. Kyanizing consists in the satura- 
ration of the wood with corrosive sublimate, — solution, 1 lb. of ciilo- 
ride of mercury in 4 gals, water. 8th. Burnettizing. — By this process, 
impregnation of the wood is effected by submitting it to an end-ways 
pressure of 150 lbs. to the square inch, — solution, 1 lb. of the chlo- 
ride to 10 gals, water. 9th. Boucheri's Process. — Impregnation is 
effected as in the last instance, using a pressure of 15 lbs. to tlie 
square inch, — solution, 1 lb. sulphate of copper to 12i gals, of 
water. 10th. BethoV s Process. — As above, by submitting "the wood 
to an end-ways pressure of 150 to 200 lbs. per square inch, with creo- 
sote oil intermixed with bituminous matter. 11th. Rabbins' Process. — 
See full description of this i^rocess in the Mechanical Department of 
tJiis work. 12th. Samuel Wood's Process, consists in vaporizing and 
witlidrawmg the sap from the wood, as described in liobbius' Pro(!ess, 
and forcing in a solution of sulphate of iron at a ijressure of 175 lbs. 
per square inch for thirty minutes ; then finishing with another solu- 
tion of carbonate of lime. 

In preserving and seasoning wood by impregnation witli coal tar, 
creosote, etc., it is essential that the juices of the wood should be com- 
pletely withdrawn and the albumen coagulated, otherwise decay ^vill 
ensue. Wood treated in this way repels decay, the attacks of worms, 
etc., and is greatly increased in strength and resilience. 
Dr. Feuchtwangei's process for preser\-ing wood consists in steam* 



62 SEASONING OF TIMBER. 

Lng the timber, and injecting a solution of silicate of soda for eight 
aours ; afterwards, soak wood for the same period m lime-water. 

George Woods, the celebrated organ manufacturer, in Cambridge- 
port, near Boston, has also discovered and patented a very valuable 
method of seasoning timber. 

Lumber is improved by repUing, and the shifting of its position at 
proper iutei-vals. Violent currents of heated air cause cracks, etc., in 
the lumber during natural seasoning ; a moderate temperature ie the 
best in every respect The proportion of water in different •snoods 
varies from 26 to 50 per cent. A beam of green oak weighing 972 lbs. 
lost 342 lbs. by seasoning. 

The best results are attained by piling the lumber under shelter in 
properly arranged piles, elevated' on blocks at least 2 feet from the 
ground, each kind of timber by itself, with 1 inch slats interposed be- 
tween the boards at short distances, to keep them straight, and permit 
the air to circiUate freely, while square and round logs should be 
Btiuijped of bark and raised from the ground. 

The best timber, is that which has been allowed to attain full ma- 
tin-ity previous to being felled. The ar/e of a tree is easily determined 
by the number of concentric rings displayed on the stump. Spruce 
and fir matures very rapidly, pine more slowly, and oak matures in 
from 75 to 200 years. White oak is said to be favorably influenced 
by the vicinity of sea water; the growth of many other trees is re- 
pressed by it. In Nova Scotia the great valley extending from Com- 
wallis to Digby, is noted for the enormous quantity and excellent 
quality of the fruit produced, while on the other side of the mountain 
fronting the Bay of Fundy, the propagation of fruit trees has proved 
an entire failure, and no man could form any conception of the pro- 
digious extent of the New Brunswick forests from a steamer's deck, 
while sailing along the treeless, rock-bound coast of that Province. 

The best timber in a tree is always the part near the ground. The 
quality of the wood may be frequently determined by a healthy, 
fresh, and uniform appearance, free from white or yellow spots, 
blending to a deeper shade near the heart. Yellow stains indicate 
the existence of dry rot, caused by the fermentation of the albumen 
in the wood ; and the sapwood, being liable to early decay on account 
of the putrefactive decomposition of the vegetable juices, should be 
removed. The loss to lumbermen from this cause, when they are 
obliged to " hang up," or abandon their drives, owing to the insuflS- 
ciency of water in the stream to float them to their destination, is very 
great, and in the event of failure to drive them down with the ensuing 
fall or spring floods, often proves ruinous. 

The excellence of timber is liable to be impaired by many causes, 
among others, 1. Wind-shakes or circular chinks, or rents, involving 
the separation of the annular layers of wood from each other; a very 
bad imperfection. 2. Brash-wood, caused by deterioration or decay 
in the timber.induced by age, imparting a brittle crumbling grain to the 
wood, together with a reddish and porous appearance. 3. Twisted wood 
is very unsafe for long stretches, on account of its liability to break 
suddenly, owing to the screw like formation of the grain. 4. Splits, 
ch&zks, and cracks, if greatly expanded and enlarged, almost ruin 
the timber for any useful purpose except the most common kind; 
the same is true concerning, 5. Knotty timber, which though it ma-y 



SEASONING OF TIMBER. 



83 



be Bubstantial is not well adapted for fine work, but subserves many 
important uses, such as roofing, fencing, &c. 6. Belted timber, con- 
sists of trees which were dead and partially decayed previous to being 
felled ; usually very bad. 7. Common rot. — Timber and lumber of 
various kinds, are liable to be affected in this way, whenever exposed 
to alternate humidity and dryness. It may also be induced by im- 
perfect ventilation in sheds, and manifests itself by yellow decaying 
Bpots, and a sulphur colored dust in the apertures and crevices of the 
timber. 8. Perforated timber. — This mischief is caused by worma 
and insects which infest timber and exist on the albumen, sugar, &c 
contained in it. Submerged timber is affected in a similar manner by 
the ravages of the Teredo navilis, a genus of testaceous moUusks. 
NuMBEB OP Cubic Feet of Timber in a Ton (Avoirdupois), to- 
gether WITH THE Weight in lbs. per Cubic Foot. 





T^ 


Cubic 




TnST 


Cubic 


Woodfl. 


per 
Cubic 


Feet 
per 
Ton. 


"Woods. 


per 
Cubic 


Feet 
per 




Foot. 




Foot. 


Ton. 


Alder, dry. 

Ash, " { 


50. 
52.812 


44.80 
42.414 


Larch, dry. | 


34. 
35. 


65.8 


43.125 




Lignum Vitse. 


83.312 


26.866 


Apple, " 


49.562 


45.18 


Logwood. 


57.062 


39.225 


Bay, ^^ 


43.601 
51.375 


43.601 


Mahogany. | 


.35. 
66.4.37 


64. 
33.714 


Beech. 


43.8 




Maple, dry. 


4C.876 


47.66 


" " 


53.25 




Oak, Canadian. 


51.5 


41.101 


Birch, common. 


43.8 




" English. 


58.25 


38.455 


" American black. 


46.9 




" live, seasoned. 


66.75 


33.558 


Box. 


62.5 


39.40 


" " green. 


78.75 




Bullet-wood. 


58. 




" white upland. 


43. 


52.00 


Butternut, dry. 


23.5 




Pear, dry. 
Plum, ''^ 


41.312 




Cedar, " 


35.62 


63.866 


49.062 


47.47 


Cork, " 


15. 


149.333 


Poplar. 


26.31 




Cherry, " 


44.687 




Pine, pitch, dry. 


41.25 


51.303 


Chestnut, " 


38.125 




" red, " 


36.875 


60.745 


Ebony, mean of 2 sets. 


79.4 




" white, " 


34.625 


64.693 


Elm, dry. 1 


41.937 


53.25 


" well seasoned. 


29.562:75.773 


35.625 


62.97 


" yellow. 


33.812 06.248 


Fir, white. 


35.57 




" " diT. 


28.812 




Fir, New England, dry. 
Fir, Norway Spruce " 


34.4 




Poplar, mean of 2 sorts 


28.5 




32. 




Rosewood, dry. 


45.5 




Fir, Riga. 
Gun), blue, dry. 


4G.9 




Satin wood, " 


55.312 




£2.687 




Spruce, " 


31.25 


71.68 


Hackmatack, " 


37.10 


60.37 


Tamarack, " 


23:937 




Hazel, 


53.75 




Teak, African oak. 


46.9 




Hemlock, " 


23. 




Walnut, dry. 


41.9 


53.42 


Hickory, pig nut. 


49.5 


45.252 


" black, dry. 


31.25 


71.68 


•' shell bark. 


43.125 


51.942 


Willow. 


36.562 


61.266 


Holly, dry. 


47.5 




14 <• 


30.375 


73.744 


Juniper, " 


35.375 










Lance wood, dry. 


45. 











COMPARATIVE VALUE OF DIFFERENT WOODS, EXHIBITING 
THEIR CRUSHING STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS. 



Teak 


6555 


Beech 


3079 


Walnut 


2374 


EngUah Oak 


4074 


Quebec Oak 


2927 


Yellow pine 


2193 


Ash 


3571 


Mahogany 


2571 


Sycamore 


1833 


Elm 


3468 


Spruce 


2522 


Cedar 


70C 



84 AGE, &C., OF TREES. 

LOGS 02s THE l^AXDIKG AWAITIXG THE SPHING FKESHET8. 




Age, &c., of Trees. — An oak tree in 3 years grows 2 ft. 10^ ins. 
A larch 3 ft. 7i ins. ; at 70 years it is full grown : and a tree of 79 yeara 
was 102 ft high, and 12 ft.' girth, containing 253 cubic ft. Another of 
80 years was 90 ft. and 17 ft., and 300 cubic feet. An elm tree in 3 
years grows 8 ft. 3 in. A beech, 1 ft. 8 in. A poplar, (3 ft. A willow, 
y ft. 3 in. An elm is full grown in 150 years and it lives 500 or 600. 
Ash is full grown in 100, and oak in 200 The mahogany is full 
grown ui 200 years to a vast size. A Polish oak, 40 ft. round had 600 
circles. Au oak in Dorsetshire in 1755, was 08 ft. roimd; 2 near Cran- 
borne Lodge are .38 and 36 ft. There are yews from 10 to 20 ft. diam., 
whose age is from 1000 to 2000 years. A "lime in the Crisous is 51 ft. 
round, and about GOO years old.' An elm in the Pays de Vaud is 18 ft. 
diam. and 360 years old. The African baobab is the patriarch of liv- 
ing organizations; oue specimen by its circles is estimated at 5700 
years old by Adamson and Humboldt. The trunk is but 12 or 15 ft. to 
the branches, and often 75 ft. round. A cypress in I^Iexico is 120 ft 
round and is estimated by De CandoUe to be older than Adamson' a 
baobab. The c^i)ress of Montezuma is 41 feet round. Strabo wrote 
of a cypress in Persia, as being 2500 years old. The largest tree in 
Mexico is 127 ft round, and 120 high, with branches of 30 ft A chest- 
nut tree on Mount Etna is 196 ft round close to the ground, and 5 of 
its branches resemble great trees. De Candolle savs there are oaks in 



BUYING AND SELLING TIMBER. 85 

France 1500 years old. The Wallace oak, near Paisley, is nearly 800 
rears old. The yew trees at Fountain's Abbey are about 1200 vears 
old. That at Crowhurst, 1500. That at Fortingal, above 2000. That 
at Braburn, 2500 to 3000. Ivys reach 500 or 600 years. The larch 
the same. The lime 600 or 700 years. The trunk of a walnut tree, 12 
ft. in diam., hollowed out, and furnished as a sitting- room, was im- 
ported from America and exhibited in London. The trunk was 80 ft, 
high, without a branch, and the entire height 150 ft., the bark 12 ins. 
thick and the branches from 3 to 4 ft. in diam. The California pine is 
from 150 to 200 ft. high and from 20 to 60 ft. in diam. The forests in 
watered tropical countries are formed of trees from 100 to 200 ft. high, 
which grow to the water's edge of rivers, presenting a solid and im- 
penetrable barrier of trunks 10 or 12 ft. in diam. The dragon tree is 
in girth from 40 to 100 ft. and 50 or 60 feet high ; and a misosa in South 
America is described, whose head is 600 ft. romid. 

Tensile Steexgth of different kinds of "Wood, showing the 
Weight ok Poweb bequieed to teas, asunder 1 Square Inch. 



Lt)8. 

Lance 23,000 

Locust 25,000 

Maliogany 21,000 

Box 20,000 

African Oak 14,500 

Bay 14,500 

Teak 14,000 

Cedar 14,000 

Ash 14,000 

Oak, seasoned 13,600 

Elm 13,400 

Sycamore 13,000 

Willow 13,000 

Christiana Deal 12,400 

Spanish Mahogany 12,000 



Lbs. 

Pitch Pine 12,000 

White Pine, (American) ll,s'00 

White Oak, " 11,500 

Lignum Vitse 11,800 

Beech 11 ,500 

Chestnut, sweet 10,500 

Maple 10,500 

White Spruce 10,290 

English Oak 10,000 

Pear 9,800 

Larch 9,50o 

Mahogany, Spanish 8,000 

Walnut 7,800 

Poplar 7,000 

Cypress 6,000 

Buying and Selling TrMBER.— Inch boards, plank, joists and 
scantling are generally sold by board measure, the dimensions of one 
foot of board measure being 1 ft. long, 1 ft. wide and 1 in. thick. 
Round timber is sold by the cubic foot, and when squared by hewiug 
or sawing is estimated to lose one-fifth, hence a ton of round timber 
is estimated to coutiiin only 40 cubic feet. Square timber, hewn or 
sawn, is also sold by the cubic foot and rated at 50 cubic feet to the 
ton, but as usually suireyed, a ton of timber contams 50 y2-100th8 
cubic feet. 

Pine and spruce spars, from 10 to 4J in. diam. are estimated by 
taking the diameter, minus the bark, at ^ of their length at the large 
end ; they are generally bought and sold by the inch diameter, all 
ander 4 ins. being considered poles. 

The soundness of timber may be tested by applying the ear to the 
middle of one of the ends, while another party strikes the other end. 
The blow will be clearly and distinctly heard, however long the beam 
may be, if the wood is sound and of good quality, but if decay has 
set in, the sound will be muffled and indistinct. The toughest part ol 
a tree will always be found on the side next the north. 

Bf iTisH Carpkntky. — The fir timber in general use is imported 
fiom Memel, Kiga, Dantzic, and Sweden. Memel timber is the most 
corYe*iient for size, Riga the best in quality, Dantzic the strongest, 



86 BRITJSH CARPENTRY, AC. 

and Swedish the toughest. Riga timber can always be depended 
upon ; red pine may be used whenever durability and strength are 
objects ; and Quebec yellow pine for light dry purposes. Deals are 
from Norway, Sweden, Prussia, Russia and New Brunswick. For 
framing, the best deals are the Norway, particularly the Christiana 
battens; for panuelling, the Christiana white deals; for ground floors, 
Stockholm and Gefle yellows ; for upper floors, Dram and Christiana 
wliites; Archangel and Onega plants for warehouse floors and stair- 
cases, and for best floors, &c-, Petersburg, Onega and Christiana battens. 

100 Superficial ft. make 1 square of boarding, flooring, &c. 

120 deals are denominated one hundred. 
50 cubic ft. of timber equal 1 load. Also, 

600 superficial ft. of inch boards equal 1 load. 

Battens are from 6^ to 7 ins. in breadth, deals, 8^ to 10 Ins., and 
planks 11 to 12 ins. 

12i 12-f eet boards to 1 square of rough boardmg or flooring. 

12i " edges shot. 

13 " wrought and laid folding. 

13^ " " " straight joint. 

14 " " " ploughed and tongued. 

17 12-ft. battens to 1 square of wrought folding door. 

18 " yellow to a straight joint floor. 

The duration of well seasoned wood, when kept dry, is very great, as 
beams still exist which are laiown to be nearly 1100 years" old. Piles 
driven by the Romans, and used in the formation of bridges prior to 
tlie Christian era, have been examined of late, and found to be per- 
fectly sound after an immersion of nearly 2000 years. 
< Russian Way of Stopping Holes in Ships. — In that country, 
there has lately been invented and successfully applied, a ready 
means for stopping holes made in ships by collision or otherwise, ft 
consists of a plaster made of two rectangular sheets of canvas sewed 
together, bordered with a rope, and containing a water-proof material. 
A sounding-line has to be passed under the keel, and brought up on 
the other side : then the plaster can be lowered to the hole, and made 
fast. Several cases are Qited in which this invention has been em- 
ployed with advantage ; and a large number of Russian ships are 
now furnished with such plasters. It is proposed that men be spe- 
cially trained and ready for the manoeuvring of the apparatus. 

To Raise the Body of a Dkowxed Person. — In a recent fail- 
ure to recover the body of a drowned person in New Jersey, a French- 
Canadian undertook the job, and proceeded as follows : Having sup- 
plied liimself with some glass gallon-jars, and a quantity of un- 
slaked lime, be went in a boat to the place where the man was seen 
to go down. One of the jars was filled half full of lime, then filled 
up with water, and tightly corked. It was then dropped into the 
water, and soon after exploded at the bottom of the river, with a 
loud report. After the third trial , each time at a different place, the 
body rose to the surface, and was secured. 

To Get Rid of Rats, &c. — Get a piece of lead pipe and vi?e it as a 
funnel to introduce about 1^ ozs. of sulphide of potassium into any 
outside holes tenanted by rats ; not to be used in dwellings. To get 
rid of Mice, use tartar emetic mingled with any favorite food ; they 
will eat, sicken, and take their leave. 



MACHINISTS, ENGINEEBS', &C., RECEIPTS. 87 

nrDKATTLTO CEME^•T. — Powdcred clay, 3 lbs. ; oxide of iron, 1 lb. ; 
and boiled oil to form n stiff paste. 

Engineers' Cement. — Equal parts of red and -white lead, with dry- 
ing oil, spread on tow or canvas. An admirable composition for uniting 
large stones in cisterns. 

^TONE Cement River. — Sand, 20 parts; litharge, 2 parts; quick- 
lime, 1 part: mix with linseed oil. 

Glue. — Powdered chalk added to common glue strengtliens it. A 
glue which will resist the action of water is made by boiling 1 lb. of 
glue in 2 qts. of skimmed milk. 

Cheap Waterpkoof Glue. — Melt common glue with the smallest 
possible quantity of water; add, by degrees, linseed oil, rendered 
drying by boiling it with litharge. While the oil is being added, the 
ingredients must bo well stirred, to incorporate them thorouo;hly. 

Fire and Waterproof Glue. — Mix a handful of quick-lime with 
4 oz. of linseed oil ; thoroughly lixiviate the mixture ; boil it to a good 
thickness, and spread it on thin plates in the shade : it will become 
very hard, but can be dissolved over a fire, like common glue, and is 
then fit for use. 

Prepared Liquid Glue. — Take of best white glue, IG oz. ; white- 
lead, dry, 4 oz. ; rain-water, 2 pts. ; alcohol, 4 oz. With constant stir- 
ring dissolve the glue and lead in the water, by means of a water- 
bath. Add the alcohol, and continue the heat for a few minutes. 
Lastly, pour into bottles, while it is still hot. 

To Make Grindstones from Common Sant). — River sand 32 lbs. ; 
shellac, 10 parts; powdered glass, 2 parts; melt in an iron pot, and 
cast into moulds. 

Polishing Powder for Specula. — Precipitate a dilute solution 
of sulphate of iron by ammonia in excess ; washt]icj)recipitate; press 
it in a screw press till nearly dry ; tlieu expose it to heat until it 
appears of a dull red color in the darlc. 

On Saw-]Mills. — To Get the Most Lumber feo^i Saw-Logs. 
— Experience has abundantly proved to our satisfaction that this can 
be done only by the use of the circular saw. Some parties are in 
favor of the mulay saw. Human ingenuity has been so prolific in the 
invention and construction of this kind of machinery, that the prin- 
cipal difficulty with the intending purchaser seems to be an inability 
to decide whose machine is really the best. Every builder or inventor 
appears to claim for his machine such a perfect constellation of val u- 
able features, that a certain amount of hesitation in coming to a de- 
cision seems to be inevitable. In the stationary form of saw mills, 
the saws are arranged either single or in gangs. Some of the port- 
able kmd (circular saw mills) have an upper saw to complete the cut 
made but partially through large logs by the lower saw. See 
diagram. By the single movement of a lever, the head-blocks on 
which the log rests, are siraulbvneously moved up, moving the log a 
distance nearer the saw, adequate to the thickness of board desired, 
with an overplus the width of the cut made by the saw. By moving 
another lever, a pinion meshing into a rack beneath the log-carriage is 
made to impel the log against the saw, and run the log backwards 
alter the board is cut. These movements, on tlie best constructed 
machines, are made with surprising velocity, some of them being ac- 
credited with havmg cut over G0,000 feet of lumber in one day. 



88 



OLD FASUIOXED SAW-MILL, AC. 




Tlie performance of a 36 liorse-power steam engine attached to a 
modern saw-mill, is equivalent to that of 75 saw-pits requiring the 
labor of 150 men. 

CosiPARATiVE Resilience of Various Kinds of Timbek, Ash 
BEING 1, Fir -4, Elm "54, Pitch Pine '57, Teak -59, Oak -63, Spruce -64, 
YeUowPine -(Ji, Cedar -66, Chestnut "73 Larch -84, Beech -80. By resi- 
lience is understood the quality of springing back, or tougliness. 

Pkecentage of Increase in Strength of Different Woods 

BY Seasoning. — White pine, 9 per ccut., Elml2'3 per cent., Oak 26 '6 

per cent., Ash 447 per cent, Beech 61'9 per cent. 

TRANSVERSE STRENGTH OF WOODS, SHOWING THEIR 

BREAKING WEIGHT FOR A THICKNESS OF ONE INCH 

SQUARE AND ONE FOOT IN LENGTH, WITH WEIGHT 

SUSPENDED FROM ONE END. 



Breaking Value 
weight, foe use. 



Lbs. 

Locust 295 80 

Hickory 250 55 

Oak, live American. . . 245 55 

" white " ..230 50 

" African 208 60 

Teak 206 60 

Maple 202 

Oak, English, best. ..188 45 

Ash 168 65 

Pine, American CO .'K) 

Birch 160 40 

Chestnut ICO 53 



Breaking Value 
weight, for use. 



Lbs. 

Oak, Canadian 1-16 36 

" live American... 245 55 

•« English 140 35 

Deal Christiana 13T 45 

Pinepitch 136 45 

Beech ; 130 32 

Pine whiteAmerican.130 45 

Elm 125 SO 

Pine Norway 123 40 

Oak Dantzic 122 ?0 

White wood 116 o8 

KigaFir ftl 30 

Pine, white 92 30 



MACHINISTS, engineers', AC, RECEIPTS. 



89 



Occasionally •we listen to a great deal of rant regarding the beati- 
tudes of "the good old times," during the lives of our forefathers. 
These times proved very disastrous to the enterprising Dutchman, 
■who, in 1663 started the first saw-mill in England, which he was 
finally obliged to abandon, and fly to save his life. In 1767 another 
saw-mill, at Lime-house, near London, was demolished by a mob of 
sawyers, who considered that their business would be ruined to a 
dead certainty if things were allowed to go ou. 




2 <* 
am 



.3, 




ooooo2< 

t(000000< 



o c 



o o o o o < 



T-ll^^c^c^co«' 



o>aoioo W» 



MACHINISTS, ENGmEERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 91 

The old method of manufacturing lumber and dimension stuff by 
ripping logs lengthways on the sawpit, is still fresh in the remem% 
brance of many. One man mounted the log and pushed the saw 
do^^lwards and pulled it upwards, assisted by another man in the 
pit below, with a veil over his face to keep the sawdust out of his 
eyes. We hail with gratitude the modern improvementa which en- 
able us to dispense with every such form of labor. 

Having tried the up and down saw and the circular saw also, wo 
would again repeat our conviction that the last mentioned is the best 
for niauiifacturing lumber, and should any person act on this expression 
of opinion, let them in the first place be very careful to get, if po.ssiblc, 
the best machine, bring it to the mill, and set it jierfectly level and 
true. "When you get it in operation, see that you liandle it carefully. 
If you have been used to running the up and down saw only, you will 
Koou find out that your former experience avails almost nothing iu 
-the management of the rotary machine ; but when you get the hang 
of rimuing it, the compensation in the way of convenience, r.apidity, 
and quantity of work, is immense. Some prefer to use the inserted 
tooth saws, and wiU use no other. They seem to possess many ad- 
vantages, and are entirely safe. A late invention of spreading the 
vpperj)art of the tooth toicards the point durmg the process of manu- 
facture, spreading it out so as to make the point of the tooth tho 
thickest ^mt oi tiie circumference of the saw, enables the sa^vjerto 
dispense iu a great measure with the use of the swage. Those inseii- 
ed tooth saws which do not possess this improvement must be care- 
fully swaged and filed at least twice per day, and sometimes as often 
as six or seven times per day, depending upon the kind of lumber 
being cut. In filing or swagmg the saw, be careful to form the point 
of the teeth absolutely square, and even across, the slightest deviation 
from perfect trutli iu tliis respect being apt to cause the saw to run, as 
it is termed, or vary from its i^roper course while passing through the 
log. Some prefer to form the point of the tooth a little hooking, just 
enough so as to be barely perceptible, and in swaging to use that part 
of the die belonging to the swage, which gives the tooth of .the saw a 
slightly cur\'ed or rainbow form, something in this shape '^, or 
scarcely so much curved. One sawyer of 20 years' ex]:ierience in 
running machinery, informed us that he never did better or more 
rapid work with his mill than when he kept his saw exactly right on 
these <i6'0 2wmi.s just stated. If you can run a No. 7 gauge saw on 
your mill, the loss resulting from sawdust will be very slight, and as 
large saws arc generally thickest at the centre, tapering off towards 
the circumference, this size or No. G will, as a general rule, be found 
sufficiently strong for most puri:)0ses. Make sure at all times, es- 
pecially during frosty weather, that the dogs have a secure hold of 
the log before the saw enters it. It is only a few days ago that a 
case came to my knowledge of a firm near Fredericton, N.B., having 
sustained a severe loss by a log (insufficiently secured of course) 
canting over on the saw as it was passing through it. The effect was 
to break off the saw from the mandril, twist off the nut at tho end 
near the saw, and break away tho two iron pins used for securing the 
saw iu the collar, causing a stoppage of the mill, and the consequent 
expense of repair and delay. When you get the mill in operation,' see 
that you handle it carefully, and maintain unceasing watchfulness 



92 MACHINISTS, EXGINEERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

over It -while in operation. Gixe it plenfij of power; if jon ctnn't, 
you may as well shut up shop at once ; (jood attendance, and with a 
good machine, tlie attendants will not have much time to play them- 
Eclves, I can assure you. Keep all the parts weU oiled — that has a 
great deal to do with the smooth and successful running of the 
machine ; and, by the way, I would remark that saw-mills are not 
the only things in tliis world that run all the better for being oiled. 
If that kind, loving, gentle, and affectionate spirit of which oil is the 
symbol, pervaded the hearts and tlie minds of oar race, and found 
imiversal expression in every thought, word, and deed during our 
daily intercourse with each other, it would be .1 very different 
world from what it is — better for ourselves, and better for our ueigli- 
bors. Let us all carry on this branch of the oil h^(siness as extensively 
ns possible, and we shall soon see a brotherhood " dwelling together 
in unity." In order to facilitite calculations regarding the velocity 
of saws, herewith is appended a reliable table to sei"ve as a guide in 
ascertaining the proper speed for runuuig : — 

TABLE OF SrEED FOK CIRCCULR S.\WS. 

3G inches hi diameter, 1000 revolutions per minute 



38 






950 


40 






900 


42 






870 


4-1 






840 


4G 






800 


48 






760 


50 






725 


52 






700 


5i 






G75 


6G 






f)50 


58 






G25 


GO 






COO 


G3. 






575 


G4 






560 


GG 






545 


G8 






530 


70 






515 


72 






500 


71 






4S5 


76 






475 


Shingle machine 


saws 


1400 



The march of improvement in the manufacture of shmglo macliincs 
has been truly wonderful, and they can now be procured from the 
manufacturer, of almost any capacity and power, at very reasonable 
rates. Shingle machines are now in use, which cut out over 30,000 
Bliingles per day, carrying two or more bolts. Some of them possess 
very complex machinery and are positively dangerous to operate unless 
continual vigilance is 'mamtained. One gentleman well known to 
the writer, was crippled for life by having his hand terribly lacer- 
ated during an unguarded moment by one of these machines. As a 
rule the less gearing and the more simplicity there is about the mc- 



MACHINISTS, engineers', &C., KECEirTS. 93 

clacanisin of a sliingle macliino the more satisfactiou •will be derived 
from it 

In the manufacture of shingles, as ■well as in anything else, it is the 
\rir5est policy to use the best materi.als. Got good rift, free from 
knots, sand, bark, &c., and you will inevitably get good merchant- 
able stuff, -with less waste and more i:)leasure every way, botli with 
the macliiuery in the first place, and the satisfactory state of your 
cxciiequer in the last. It is all the better if you can lay in a good 
gtock one year ahead, as it cuts much easier when jiroperly seasoned, 
to say nothing of the saving in weight during transportation. In 
edging shingles, many prefer the saw to the revolving knives, as it 
enables the operator in many cases to get a shingle of extra quality 
by trimming a poor shingle down, and selecting the best part. This 
can be done by a smart hand with marvellous rapidity, but still, to 
use a modem phrase, many persons can't see it, and so they use the 
knives, giving what they conceive to be good reasons for so doing. 

Velocities of Wood Wokking M.\ciiinery. — Circular Smcs Rt 
periphery, GOOO to 7000 ft. per minute, Band Saics, 2500 feet ; Ganr/ 
i<cncs, 20 iuch stroke, 120 strokes per minute ; Scroll Sates, SCO 
strokes permuiutc ; Planinfi Machine Cutters at periphery, 4000 to 
GOOO feet. Work under plaimng machine l-20th of an inch for each 
cut. Mouldinfi Machine Cutters, 3500 to 4000 feet; Squarin'j-xip 
Machine Cutters, 7000 to 8000 feet; Wood Carvinr/ Drills, 5000 revo- 
lutions; Machine Auf/crs, 1^ in. diam., 000 revolutions; ditto, | in. 
diam., 1200 revolutions; Gang Saics, require for 45 superficial feet of 
pine per hour, 1 horse-power. Circxdar Saics require 75 superficial 
feet per hour, 1 horse-power. In oak or hard wood ^'ths of the above 
quantity require 1 horse-power; Sharpcninr/ Angles of Machine Cutters. 
Adzing soft wood across tlie grain, 30°; Planing Machines, ordinary 
softwood. 35°; Gauges and Ploughing Machines, 40°; Hardwood 
Tool Cutters, 50° to 55°. 

Filing Saws. — The grand secret ~ of putting any saw in the best 
possible order, consists in filing the teeth at a given angle to cut 
rapidly, and of a unifonn length so that the points will aU touch 
.a straight edged rule without showing a A-ariation of the hundredth 
part of an inch. Besides this, there should be just set enough in the 
teeth to cut a l<^rf as narrow as it can be made, and at the same time 
allow the blade to work freely without pinching. On the contraiy, 
the kerf must not be so wide as to permit the blade to rattle wlien in 
motion. The very points of the teeth do the cutting. If one tooth 
is a twentieth of an inch longer than two or three on each side of it, 
the long tooth wUl be required to do so much more cutting than it 
should, that tlio sawing cannot be done well, hence the saw goes 
jumping along, working hard and cutting slowly; if one tooth ia 
longer than those on either side of it, the short teeth do not cut 
although their poiuts may be sharp. Wlien ])utting a cross-cut saw 
in order, it Avill pay well to dress the points with an old file, and af- 
terwards sharpen them with a fine whetstone; much mcclsan- 
ical skill is necessarj"^ to jmt a saw iu prime order; one careless tlirust 
with a file will shorten the point of a tooth so much that it will bo 
utterly useless, so far as cutting is concerned; the teeth should be 
set with much care, and the filing done with the greatest accuracy. 
If the teeth are micven at the poiuts, a largo Hat file should bo secnred 



94 



MACHINISTS, engineers', &C., RECEIPTS, 



to a block of wood in such a manner that the very points only may 
be jointed, so that the catting edge of the same may be in a straight 
line, or circle, if it is a circular saw; every tooth should cut a little as 
the saw is worked. The teeth of a hand saw for aU kinds of work 
should be filed fleamiug, or at an angle on the front edge, while the 
back edges may be filed fleaming or square across the blade. The 
best way to file a circular saw for cuttuig wood across the grain, is to 
dregs every fifth tooth square across, and apart one twentieth of an 
inch shorter than the others, which should be filed fleaming at an 
angle of about forty degrees. 

As regards such saws as are used for cutting up large logs into lum- 
ber it is of the utmost impoitance to have them filed at such an angle 
as will ensure the largest amount of work with the least expendituit! 
of power. The following diagrams will help to illustrate our mean- 
ing. Fig. 1 shows the shape of teeth which nearly all experienced 




Fig. 1. 

mill-men consider as that standard form which combines the greatest 
amount of strength and capacity for rapid work, with the minimum 
of driving power while doing the work. 

Figure No. 2 represents a passable form of teeth which are capable 
of doing a good deal of work, but their great weakness lies in their 
slender points. Look out for "breakers" when teeth of thid 
description are passing through dry spruce or hemlock knots. 




Fio. 2. 



MACHINISTS, ENGINEERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 95 

Fi.i. No. 3 innstrates tho appearance of one of tliose intolerable 
V'ood rasps Trhich are altogether too common in saw-milis. Only 
think -what an appalling waste of valuable power is required to drive 
a " jigger" like this through a largo log! 




Fig. 3. 

Fig. i, at a, is intended to show tlic method of ascertaining the 
proper-angle, that of sixty degrees, at which such saws should bo 
filed. The diagram being self-explanatory requires but little further 
elucidation liere. A quarter circle with lines radiating from the centre 
towards the circumference is represented near the verge of the segment 
of a circular saw. The lower part corresponds with the level of tho 
horizon, and the higher part at 90° corresponds with the zenith or 
meridian, where the sun appears at noon-day. Exactly half-way up 
is 45° ; look up a little higher and you will find 00°, indicated by tho 
radiating line which runs parallel with the angle of the tooth of the saw 
and thisis the guide you must follow in filing. The same rule is sesr 
applied to a straight mill saw at 5. 

Many good authorities contend that mill saws sliould in no case bo 
set with the instrument commonly used for that purpose, but that in 
lieu thereof the teeth should be spread out at the points with tho 
swage or upset to a sufficient extent to permit the body of the saw to 
operate without binding. Both instruments require to be skilfully 
handled, and the swage, when used in this way, has proved itself equal 
to every emergency without the risk of breaking the teeth. It would 
be quite safe to say that the saw-set should only be iised on saws of 
this description with the most extrems caution and care. Every man- 
ufacturer, however, has his own opinion, and consequent practice on 
the subject, some contending that one way is right and. the other di- 
rectly the reverse. < 

To Repair Fractured Circttlar Saws. — ^The best way to do 
this is to drill a small round hole at the termination of the crack, which 
effectually prevents its further extensiou. I have seen some circular 
saws very neatly repaired by riveting thin clamps to each side of tho 
fracture, both clamps and rivets being countersunk so they will bo 
level with the surface of the saw, and placed in such a position across 
the crack as to impart the greatest possible strength to the weakest place. 

To Mexd Broken Cross-cut Saws. — In the first place .scarf off 
the broken edges in such a maimer that wheu lapped over each other 



96 



MACHINISTS, EXGIXEERS , &C., RECEIPTS. 



they will be about the same thickness as the rest of the plate, and 
rivet theln together loosely -with irou rivets inserted through holes 
wMch must be pimched for that purpose ; the ends must be united 




^th great accuracy so that the teeth, &c., of the saw may range 
truly. Now place the saw in the fire, then a flux of powdered borax 
and sal ammoniac is flowed all over it after ha\iug it raised to the 
proper heat. See page 270 for preparing and using the composition. 
Keturn the saw to the fire and when it is raised to the proper welding 



MACnmiSTS, engineers', &C., RECEirTS. 97 

heat, place it on the anril and nnite the joint sg rapidly as possible 
■with the hammer ; be careful not to heat so hot as to iu jure the steel. 
When the job is ■well done, and the pait properly tempered, it vcill be 
foimd as strong as the rest of the plate. I kno'w one blacksmith in 
Canada ■who told mo that this class of ■work ■was the best paying part 
of his business. 

Quantity and Cost of SupptiES for Hoeses and LuBiBERiNa 
Crkws in the ■woods. — The follo^wing figures have been kuidly 
furnished for this ■work by the obliging manager of [Messrs. Gilraour's 
mill on the Gatineau, near Otta^wa, Canada, and are most valuable as 
affording a basis for calculating the quantity and quality of the sup- 
plies required for men and horses engaged iu this branch of industry. 
These calculations are the result of long experience ia the business, 
and are based on actual consumption. 

Quantity of Oats for each span of horses, 51 lbs. per day. 
" Hay " " 40 ,'^.- - 



Flour used by each man 


1.80 


Pork 




1.22 


Beef 




0.85 


Beans 




0.33 


Fish 




0.12 


Onions 




0.13 


Potatoes 


e. 


0.47 



Total daily consumption per man 4.92 ^ 

Quantity of Tea used " 1^ lbs. per month. 

The daily allo-wance of oats for each span of horses may appear 
largo, bl^t it must be remembered that the labor is extremely severe, 
and more hay ■will be required if any part of the oats is ■withheld. On 
making inquiry ■with reference to the item of molasses, so largely 
nsed by our lumbering friends in Ne^w Brunswick aud Maine, the 
answer returned was that owing to the hea-vy cost of the commoditj-, 
it was entirely omitted from the list of supplies. The following 
exhibits the comparative value of Mess and Prime Pork, calculated 
fromactualcoKumption :- 



Mess Fork ; Frime Mess. 

§26 !.K^...-.. $18 80 

25 .-.-:. ■...■' 18 08 

24....: :... 17 35 

23 16 C2 

22 15 89 

21 15 IG 

20 14 43 

19.. 13 70 

18 12 97 



3fess Fork. Prime 3fess. 

$17 $12 24 

16 11 51 

15 10 78 

14 10 05 

13 9 32 

12 8 59 

11 7 8G 

10 7 13 

9 6 40 



1 Barrel Mess averages 37 lbs. grease, lbs bones, when cooked. 
1 " Prime Me.s3 24 " 13 " " 

To Mend Broken Saws. — Pure silver, 19 parts ; pure copper, 1 
part ; pure brass, 2 parts ; all to be filed into powder, and thor- 
oughly mixed ; place the saw level on the anvil, broken edges in 
contact, and hold them so ; now put a small lino of the mixture 
along tho scam, covering it with a larger bulk of powdered char- 

7 



98 MACHINISTS, engineers', AC, RECEIPTS. 

coal ; now -vrith a spirit lamp and a jewellers' blow-pipe hold the 
coal dust in place, and blow sufficient to melt the solder mixture ; 
then with a hammer set the joint smooth, and file away any su- 
perfluous solder, and yon wiU be surprised at its strength -^ the 
teat will not injure the temper of the saw. 

Velocity of Wheels, Pulleys, Drums, &c. — ^When wheels are 
applied to communicate motion from one part of a machine to an- 
other, their teeth act alternately on each other ; consequently, if one 
-wheel contains 60 teeth, and another 20 teeth, the one containing 20 
teeth will make 3 revolutions while tlie other makes but 1 ; and it 
drums or puUeys are taken in place of wheels, the effect will be the 
same ; because their circumferences, describing equal spaces, ren- 
der their revolutions imequal ; from this the rule is derived, namely :— 

Multiply the velocity of the driver by the number of teeth it con- 
tains, and divide by tlie velocity of the driven. Tlie quotient will be 
the number of teeth it ought to contain ; or, multiply the velocity 
of the driver by its diameter, and divide by the velocity of the 
driven. 

Example 1. If a wheel that contains 75 teeth makes IG revolutions 
per minute, required the number of teeth in another, to work into and 
make 24 revolutions in the same time. According to rule, you mul- 
tiply 16 by 75, and divide the product, which is 1200, by 24, and you 
have the answer, 50 teeth. 

Example 2. Suppose a drum, 30 inches in diameter, to make 20 
revolutions per muiute, required the diameter of another to make 60 
revolutions per minute. According to rule, you multiply 20 by 30, 
and divide the product, which is 600, by 60, and you have the answer, 
10 inches. 

Example 3. A wheel 64 inches in diameter, and makuig 42 revo- 
lutions per minute, is to give motion to a shaft at the rate of 77 revo- 
lutions in the same time ; find the diameter of a wheel suitable for 
that purpose. According to rule, multiply 42 by 64, and divide the 
product, which is 2G88, by 77, and you will have for the answer 35 
inches nearly. 

77)2688(34 10-12 
231 

378 
308 70 

Example 4. Suppose .i pulley 32 inches diameter to make 26 revo- 
lutions ; find the diameter of another to make 12 revolutions in the 
same time. 

According to rule, 26 x 32 -^ 12 = 69^ 

26 and 12) 832. This will be seen to be 69J 

32 

— 694-12=1 

832 

Example 5. Find the number of revolutions per minute made by 
a wheel or pulley 20 inches in db-raeter, when driven by another 48 
inches in diameter, and making 45 revolutions in the same time. Ac- 
cording to rule, 48 x 45-^20 = 108. That is, 48 multiplied by 45 = 
2160, divided by 20, gives the answer, 108 revolutions. 



MACHINISTS, ENGINEERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 99 

Construction 'of "Trussed Roofs.— In roofs of tho ordinary 
construction, tlie roof covering is laid upon rafters supported by 
liovizoixtaX purlins, whicli rest on upright trusses or frames of timber, 
placed on the walls at regular distances from each other. Upon the 
framing of the trusses depends the stability of the roof, the arrange- 
ment ol the rafters and purlins being subordinate matters of detail! 
In Trussed Roofs, exerting no side t/inist on the walls, each truss 
consists essentially of a pair of principal rafters ot principals, and a 
horizontal tie beam, and in large roofs these are connected and 
strengthened by kiiig and queen jjosts and stmts. (See figs. 2. and 3.) 
Fig. 1. sbows a very simple truss in which the tie is above tho 
bottom of the feet of the principal, which is often done in small roofs 
for the sake of obtaining height. Tho tie in this case is called a 
collar beam. The feet of both common and principal rafters rest on 

a wall plate. The purlins rest 
on the collar, and the common 
rafters but against a ridge run- 
ning along the top of the roof. 
This kind of truss is only suited 
to very Small spans, as there is 
a cross strain on that part of the 
principal below the collar, which 
—^-^^^^^——-—-^ IS rendered harmless in a small 
j<j„ J span by the extra strength of 

"* ' the principal, but which in a 

large one would be very likely to throw out the walls. 

In roofs of larger span the "tie beam is placed below the feet of the 
principal, which are tenoned into and bolted to it To keep the beam 
from saf/ging, or bending by its own weight, it is suspended from 
the head of the principals by a king post of wood or iron. The lower 
part of the kin"; post affords abutments for sturta supporting the 
principal immediately under the purlins, 60 that no cross stram ia 





Fig. 2. 

exerted on any of the timbers in the truss, but they all act in tho 
direction of their length, the principal and struts being subjected to 
compression, and the king post and the tie beam to tension. Fig. 2 
shows a sketch of a king truss. The common rafters but on a pole 
plate, the tie beams resting either on a coutmuous plate, or on short 
templates of wood and stone. 
Where the si>an is considerable, the beam is supported at additional 



100 MACHINISTS,' engineers', itC, RECEIPTS. 

points ty suspension pieces called queen posts (fig 3), from the bot- 
tom of wiiicli spring additional struts ; and, by extending tliis 




Fig. 3. 

principle ad infinitum, we might constrnct a roof of any span -were it 
not tliat a practical limit is imposed by the nature of the materials. 
Sometimes roofs are constructed without king posts, the queen posts 
being kept apart by a straining piece. Tbis construction is shown in 




Fig. 4. 



'fig. 4, which shows the design of the old roof (now destroyed) of the 
church of St. Paul, outside the M'alls. at Rome. This truss" is interest- 
ing from its early date, having been erected about 400 years ago : 
the trusses are in pairs, a king post being keyed in_betweeu each 
pair to support t-ie beams in the centre. - _ 

Of late years iron has been much used as a inaterial for the tmsEe.-j 
of roofs, tho tie bcam.s and suspending pieces being formed of light 
rods, and the principals and struts of rolled T or angle iron, to which 
sockets are riveted to receive the pixrlins. 
-DuRAny.E IxsuLATiox FOR Electkic Wiees. — Tin the wires and 
then cover with pure nibber. 



STRENGTH OF WOODS. 



101 



The following tabulated form shows the results of Mi. Hodgkin- 
son's experiments on -the crushing strengths of different woods per 
square inch of section. The samples crushed were short cylinders 1 
inch diameter, and 2 inches long, flat at the ends. The results given 
iu the first column are those obtained when the wood was moderately 
dry. The samples noted in the second column were kept seasoning 
2 months longer than the first. The third column is appended by the 
author, to illustrate the resilience or toughness of certain woods. 



Kind of Wood. 


Crushing strength per 
square inch of section. 


Len.gth in feet of a rod 1 
incli square that would 
break by its own weight. 


Alder, 

Ash, 

Bay, 

Box, 

Beech, 

Birch, 

English Birch, 

Cedar, 

Deal, Christiana, 

Red Deal, 

White Deal, 

Hornbeam, 

Elder, 

Elm, 

Fir (Memel), 


6831 to 6960 
8683 to 9363 
7518 to 7518 

10300 
7733 to 7363 

10300 
3297 to 6402 
6674 to 5863 

5748 to 0586' 
6781 to 7293 
7300 
7451 to 9973 
7451 to 10331 


42,0y0 
38,940 

55,500 

39,050 
40 500 


Fir (Spruce), 
Larch, 




6499 to 6819 


42 100 


]\Iahogany, 
Lignum Yitse, 
Oak (Quebec), 
Oak (English), 
Pine (Pitch), 
Pine (Red), 
Poplar, 
Plum (Dry), 
Sycamore, 


8198 to 8198 
9f)00 
4231 to 5982 
6484 to 10058 
6790 to 6790 
5395 to 7518 
3107 to 5142 
8241 to 10493 


32,900 
35 800 


Teak', 

Walnut, 

Willow, 


8241 to 12101 
6063 to 7227 
2898 to 6128 


36,049 



It was also found that in pillars of the same dimensions, but oi 
different materials, taking the strength of cast iron at 1,000, that cl 
wrought iron was 1,745, cast steel 2,518, Dantzic Oak 108.8, and Red 
Deal 78.5. 

Beams of timber, when laid with their concentric layers vertical, 
are stronger than when laid horizontal, iu the in-oportiou of 8 to 7. 

J\nti-Fouling Composition roit Ships. — Melt, mix and grind to- 
gether into an impalpable powder, 1 part copper, 4 of zinc, and 1 of 
tin : m\x thoroughly with red lead or Torbay mineral red, and ap- 
ply to the ship's bottom. (See "JLarine P'amt for Metals iu Salt 
Water," under Painters' Department.) 



102 TONNAGE OF SHIPS. 

Measueemext and Calcclations of the Toxnage of Vesskl* 
AND Ships of the United States, under the Act of Conobess 
OF May 6, 1S64. 

The tonnage deck, in vessels having 3 or more decks to the hull, sh&L 
be the second deck from below, in all other cases the upper deck of the hull 
is to be the tonnage-deck. The length from the forepart of the outer 
planking, on the side of the stem, to the after part of the main stem post oj 
screw steamers, and to the after part of the rudder-post of all other vessels, 
measured on the top of the tonnage deck, shall be accounted the vessel's 
length. The breadth of the broadest part on the outside of the vessel is ac- 
counted the vessel's breadth of beam. A measure from the under side of 
tonnage deck plank, amidships, to t!ie ceiling of the hold (average thick- 
ness), shall be accounted the depth of hold. If the vessel h.is a third 
deck, then the height from the top of the tonnage deck plank to the under 
side of the upper deck plank shall be accounted as the height under the 
spar-deck. All measurements to be taken in feet and fractions of feet ; 
and all fractions of feet shall be expressed in decimals. The Register ton- 
nage of a vessel is her entire internal cubical capacity in tons of 100 cubic 
feet each, to be determined as follows : Lengths. Measure the length of 
the vessel in a straight line along the upper side of the tonnage deck from 
the inside of the inner plank (average thickness) at the side of the stem 
to the inside of the plank on the stern timbers (average thickness), de- 
ducting from this length what is due to the rake of the bow in the thick- 
ness of the deck, and what is due to the rake of the stern timber in one- 
third of the round of the beam ; divide the length so taken into the num- 
ber of equal parts required by the following table, according to the class 
in such table to which the vessel belongs : 

Table of Classes. 

Class 1. Vessels of which the tonnage length according to the abova 
measurement is 50 feet or under, into 6 equal parts. 

2. Over 50 feet and not over 100, feet into 8 equal parts. 

3. Over 100 feet and not over 150 feet, into 10 equal parts. 

4. Over 150 feet and not over 200 feet, into 12 equal parts. 

5. Over 200 feet and not over 250 feet, into 14 equal parts. 

6. Over 250 feet, into 16 equal parts. 

The extent of the areas is found by measurement and calculation, and 
if there be a break or poop or any other permanent closed in space on the 
upper decks, or on the spar deck, available for cargo, or stores, or for the 
berthing or accomodation of passengers or crew, the tonnage of such 
space shall be computed. If a vessel has a third deck, or spar deck, the 
tonnage between it and the tonnage deck is also computed. 

In .iscertaining the tonnage of open vessels, the upper edge of the upper 
Btrake is to form the boundary line of measurement, and the depth shall 
be taken from an athwart shipline, extending from the upper edge of said 
Btrake at each division of the length. 

TTie register of the vessel must express the number of the decks, the 
tonnage under the tonnage deck, that of the between decks, above the 
tonnage deck ; also that of the poop or other enclosed spaces above the 
deck, each separately. In every registered U. S. ship or vessel the num- 
ber denoting the total registered tonnage shall be deeply carved or other- 
wise permanently marked on her main beam, and shall be so continued, 
and if at any time cease to be so continued such vessel shall no longer be 
recognized as a registered U. S. vessel. 

By a subsequent Act, approved Feby. 28, 1865, the preceding Act was so 
construed that " no part of any ship or vessel shall be admeasured or reg- 
istered for tonnage that is used for cabins or state-rooms, and constructr 
ed entirely above the first deck which is not a deck to the hull." 

Carpentees' Measurement for a Single-Deck Vessel.— 7?«/e. 
Multiply the lenj^th of keel, the breadth of beam and the depth of hold 
together, and divide by 95. 



TONNAGE OF SHIPS. 103 

For a Double Deck Vessei.— ^M?e. Multiply as above, taking half 
the breadth of beam for the depth of the hold, and divide by 95. 
British Measurement. 

The British mode for measuring vessels, authorized by Act of Parli* 
meat in 1854, has been substantially copied into the above noted Act te 
regulate the admeasurement of tonnage in the United States, the mail; 
difference being a reduced number of areas or sections by the Britisli 
method, which stands as follows. 

1. Vessels of which the tonnage length is 50 feet or under are divided 
Into 4 equal parts. 

2. Over 50 and not over 120 feet, into 6 " " 

3. " 120 " " '< 180 " " 8 " " 

4. " 180 " " " 225 " " 10 " " 

5. " 225 ft. into 12 " " 
Divide the length of the upper deck between the after part of the stem 

and the forepart of the stern-post into 6 equal parts, and note the fore- 
most, middle, and aftermost points of division. Measure the depths at 
these three points in feet and tenths of a foot, also the depths from the 
under side of the upper deck to the ceiling at the timber strake ; or, in 
case of a break in the upper deck, from a line stretched in continuation 
of the deck. For the breadth, divide each depth into 5 equal parts, and 
measure the inside breadths at the following points, viz. : at 2 and 8 from 
the upper deck of the foremost and aftermost depths, and at 4 and 8 from 
the upper deck of the midship depth. Take the length, at half the mid- 
ship depth, from the afterpart of stem to the forepart of the stem-post. 
Then, to twice the midship depth, add the foremost and aftermost depths 
for the sum of the depths ; and add together the foremost upper and 
lower breadths, 3 times the upper breadth with the lower breadth at the 
midship, and the upper, and twice the lower breadth at the after division 
for sunt of the breadths. 

Multiply together the sum of the depths, the sum of the breadths, and 
the length, and divide the product by 3500, which will give the number of 
tons or register. If the vessel has a poop or half deck, or a break in the 
upper deck, measure the inside mean length, breadth and height of 
such part thereof as may be included within the bulkhead ; multiply these 
three measurements together, and divide the product by 92.4. The quotient 
will be the number of tons to be added to the result, as above ascertained- 

For Open Vesselx. — The depths are to be taken from the upper edge of 
the lower strake. 

For Steam Vessels. — The tonnage due to the engine room is deducted 
from the total tonnage computed by the above rule. 

To determine this, measure the inside length of the engine-room from 
the foremost to the aftermost bulkhead ; then multiply this length by the 
midship depth of the vessel and the product by the inside midship 
breadth at .4 of the depth from the deck, and divide the final product by 
92-4. 

Self- Acting Nautical Pump. — Captain Leslie, in a voyage from 
North America to Stockholm, adopted an excellent mode of empty- 
ing water from his ship's hold when the crew were disabled from 
performing that duty. About ten or twelve feet above the pump, he 
rigged out a spar, one end of which projected overboard, while the 
other was fastened as a lever to the machinery of the pump. To the 
end which projected overboard was suspended a water-butt half f uU, 
but corked down, so that when the coming wave raised the water- 
butt, the other end depressed the piston of the pump ; but, at the 
retiring of the wave, this was reversed ; for, by the weight of the 
butt, the piston came up again, and with it the water. Thus, without 
tie aid of the crew, the ship's hold was cleared of witer in a few hoursw 



104 



ENGLISH FEEIGHT TABLE. 

GOODS PKOPORTIOlSrED IN STOWAGE. 

The following Table is tTom " Earrison'' s Freighters' &uide," Loid<m 
Edition, 18-18. The 1st column shows the Quantities, in Numbers and 
Decimal parts ; the 2d column the character, or kind of Goods ; tho 
3d column the Gross Weight of the Goods in Tons and Decimal parti 
of a ton ; and the 4th column the number of Cubic Feet required fojr 
Stowing the same. [850 Cubic Feet equal 21.2 Tons, or 1 Keel.] 



Quantities in 

Numbers & 

Decimals. 



•97. 
88. 
105. 
108. 
114. 
125. 
10. 
9.107 
7.760 
5.825 
4.444 
5.257 
7.2727 
17. 
17. 
17. 
17. 
17. 
17. 
14.923 

6.1515 
4.857 
f 1.275 



1.300 
1.200 
0.840 



t-{ 0.708 

1.05i 

3.885 

80. 
8. 
12. 
16. 



Articles of Freight. 



Tons 
Weight 



.|do. 



Quarters of Wheat, 61.2 lbs. per Bushel, equal 
do. Tares, Beans, & Peas 63 do. do. 

do. Eye, 57 do. do. 

do. Seed, 52 do. do- 

do. Barley, 52 do. do. 

do. Oats, 37 do. do- 

Tons Clean Hemp and Flax, do. 

do. Outshot do. do do, 

do. Half-clean do. do do. 

do. Cedilla do. do do. 

do. Wool, do. 

do. Wool, compressed, do. 

do. Dried Skins, do. 

do. Tallow, ) 

do. Ashes, > do. 

do. Hides (Salted) ) 

Loads of Timber (Baltic squared Fir), 
do. do (N. American do.),.. 

do. do (Birch do-), 

do. Masts (round), do- 

Pieces. Ft. In. In. 
Stand. Hund. Deals, 120 12 11 1% 
do. do Battens, 120 12 7 2i^ 

Jlille Baltic Staves reduced 

Viz. 1200 pieces, 66 in. long by V-/<^ thick, 

do. Odessa do. do 

do. Quebec do. do 

do. Baltic Stares rough 

1200 pieces 72 inches by 3',/^.. 
do. Odessa do. do 

1200 pieces 76 inches by 314., 
do. Quebec do. do 

1200 pieces 66 inches by 2%.. 
do. West India do. do 

1200 pieces 42 inches by ly^.. 

Casks Pot and Pearl Ashes, do. 

Tons Bones (calcined), in Bulk, do 

do. do. (manure, &c.), do do 

do. do. (best quality), do do 



!-do. 



Cub, 
Feet 



21.2 

20. 

21. 

20. 

21. 

16.5 

10. 
9.107 
7.76 
5.825 
4.444 
5.257 
7.2727 

17. 

18.5 
13.5 
22. 
17.5 

17. 
17.75 



15.25 



850 
do 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 

do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 
do. 



do. 



* Wheat is the standard, 8 imperial bushels of Wheat equal 1 Quarter, 
and 1 English Quarter equal 8V4 United States bushel. 
t Tho Staves average inches in breadth. 



105 

ENGLISH FREIGHT TABLE. 



Quantities in 
Numbers & 
Decimals. 



9ii4 

loa. 

100. 
100. 
136. 
140. 
160. 

8.333 

9.166 
4.75 



9.7 
5. 

17. 

20. 

40. 
230, 

17. 

17. 



4.500 

10. 
8. 
110. 
166. 
120. 
535. 
180. 
144- 

20. 

20. 
120. 

16. 

21. 
160. 

40. 

60. 

«0. 
100. 



Articles of Freight. 



do, 



MO. 



Tons Mats of 400 pieces (Archangel), equal 

Barrels Tar do do. 

do. Pitch do do 

do. Tar (Stockholm), do, 

do. TarandKosin (American), do. 

do. Flour 220 lbs. each (19G nett), do 

Sacks do. 280 do do 

ON COTTON. 

Tons New Orleans and Mobile, all ccm- ) 
pressed, ) 

do. best carrying ships, do do 

do. Charleston aud Savannah, not com- 1 ^ 

pressed, ) 

•do. Pernambuco and Mara nham[I^"Ves-^ 
sels from thesq, ports generally stow 1 ■, 
10 per cent, more than Vi the register ton- j 
nage, part compressed, say 7 tons as above j 

do. Alexandria, all compressed do. 

do. do, not compressed, do. 

Hogsheads Tobacco, do. 

do. Sugar loy, cwt. average, do. 

Tierces Coffee, 7" cwt. do do. 

Bags do. 11/2 cwt, do do. 

Tuns of Oil of 252 gals, each, do. 

do. Wine, Brandy, or any other Spirit ) 

reckoning the full gauge of the Casks, ( 

Tons Oranges and Lemons of 10 Chest ) 

or 20 Boxes per Ton, j 

do. ("ork, (Faro), do. 

do. Bark, (Tree), do. 

do, do, (Coppice) do. 

Tierces Beef, 3 cwt. each, do. 

Barrels Pork, 2 cwt. each, do. 

Bags Bread, 1 cwt. each, do. 

Firkins Butter, 70 lbs. each, do. 

Barrels Red Herrings, do. 

do. White do do. 

Hogsheads Copperas, do, 

do. Lamp Black, do. 

Bags do do. 

Tons Soda & other Alkalies, in Casks, do, 

do, do, in Bulk, do. 

Carboy, Oil Vitriol do. 

Crates G lass, 18 Tables, do, 

do. do, 15 do do. 

Crates Glass, 12 Tables, do. 

Gross of Bottles = G per Gallon = 19 lbs, ) .„ 

Weight per dozen, in Bulk, (Glass), ( ""■ 

do, i/o Bottles = 12 per Gallon = 11 lbs. j , 
weight per Dozen, in Bulk, ) '*"• 



do. 
do. 



Tons 


Cnb, 


Weight 


Feet 


8.5 


850 


IC. 


do. 


20, 


do. 


16, 


do, 


17, 


do, 


13.75 


do 


20, 


do. 


8,333 


do. 


9,160 


do. 


4,75 


do. 



9,7 


do 


5. 


do 


10. 


do 


LG.5 


do 


L4. 


do 


17.23 


do 


18.5 


do 



4.5 


do 


10. 


d.. 


8. 


do 


16.5 


do 


15.5 


do 


6, 


do 


16,5 


do. 


n. 


do. 


21,5 


do. 


17. 


do. 


7. 


do. 


a. 


do. 


16. 


do. 


21. 


do. 


8, 


do 


4,5 


do. 


5, 


do. 


5.5 


do. 


10. 


do 


11,75, 


do. 



do. 



106 

ENGLISH FREIGHT TABLE, 



Quantities in 

Numbers & 

Decimals. 



80. 

28. 

22. 

16. 
7000. 
8000. 

26. 

17. 

20. 

21. 
300. 



Articles of Freight. 



Crts. Bottles (Glass) 10% cubic ft. each, equal 

do. Earthenware, small size, do. 

do. do. mixed sorts or middling size, . do. 

do. do. largest size do. 

Fire Bricks, in Bull£, 

Common do., also Tiles, do. 

Chaldrons Grindstones, do. 

Tons Potatoes, do. 

do. Oil Cake, do. 

do. Slates do. 

Pigs of Lead do. 

Wagons of Coal, 53 cwt. each, do. 



I. 
do. 



Tons 
Weight. 



Cub. 
Feet 



850 
do. 
do. 
do. 
638 
do. 
425 
do. 
do. 
5GT 
283 
850 



* The Contents of each Wagon of Coals is 126 Cubic Feet, 8 Wagons 1008 
Feet, but when stowed in bulk on board a ship, from the spreading out 
and pressure, become closer packed, and are proved, from practice, tc 
Btow in the space of 850 Cubic Feet. 

Note. —As wheat is the standard equally for weight and measurement, 
it will be necessary to explain how it is so. The imperial corn bushel ia 
2218.192 cubic inches : this multiplied by 776 (the number of bushels in 9T 
qrs. of wheat), and divided by 1728 (the cubic inches in one foot), gives 
996 cubic feet ; but, when stowed in bulk on board a ship, is reduced in 
measurement nearly 15 per cent., \'iz., to 850 cubic feet ; 1st, about 8 per 
cent, by the ship stowing itin spaces where no measurement goods can be 
stowed, and the immense pressure on the lower parts of the cargo ; and 
2d, about 7 per cent, diiierence between the bushel being filled in the 
customary way. and what it can be made actually to hold ; this, by sev- 
eral trials of wheat, 61 lbs. to the bushel, .average nearly 5 pints, or 5-64ths, 
making, in all, about 15 per cent, as above. This seeming paradox, which 
I have taken some pains to clear up, although well known to exist iu 
practice, by me and every one acquainted vnth the stowage of goods, 
applies to every sort of grain, and in fact, to eveiy thing in bulk, according 
to its weight and elasticity ; and 97 qrs. of wheat, is equal to 850 cubic feet. 

TREENAILS.— 5333 pieces of 9 inches equal 1 load of timber ; 4000 do. 
12 do. do.; 3200 do. 15 do. do. ; 2666 do. do. 18 do. do. ; 2285 do. 21 do. do,; 
iOOO do. 24 do. do. ; 1777 do. 27 do. do.; 1600 do. 30 do. do. ; 1451 do. 33 do 
do. ; 1333 do. 36 do. do.; 1142 do. 42 do. do. 

FIR AND OAK PLANK.— 1200 pieces of i/^inch equal 1 load of timber; 
600 do. 1 do. do. ; 400 do. ly, do. do.; 300 do. 2 do. do. ; 240 do. 21/2 do. do.; 
200 do. 3 do. do. ; 150 do. 4 do. do. ; 120 do. 5 do. do. ; 100 do. 6 do. do. 

Freight Table.— The foregoing Table gives about 100 different do- 
Bcriptions of goods, proportioned in stowage. 

Rule.— If 97 Quarters of wheat equal a keel (21.2 tons or 850 cubic ft.) 
then how many quarters of Barley, or how many tons of Hemp, Wool, or 
Cotton, or barrels of Flour can be stowed in a vessel whose carrying capa- 
city is 294 tons ? 

Ex AMPLE.— 294 tons multiplied by 40 (the number of cubic feet in a ton) 
equals 11.760 cubic feet, which divided by 850 and the quotient multiplied 
by 140 (the number of barrels which can be stowed in 850 cubic feet, as 
Stated in the table) gives 1936 barrels of Flour, as the quantity which sucli 
yossei can carry. 



LIGHTNING CALCULATOR. 



107 



LIGHTOTNG CALCULATOR FOR MERCHANTS, SEAMEN, Con- 
tractors, &c., showing the Solid Contents or Cubic Feet of Timber, 
Stones, Boxes, Bales, Barrels, Casks, Hogsheads, &c., according to their 
several lengths, breadths and thicknesses. Condensed from JUunl's Ex' 
peditious Measurer. 

Example.— Required the cubic contents of a Box, Stone, Bale or 
Package, 6 feet long, 36 ins. tliiek or deep, and 46 ins- broad : turn to Z9 
Indies thick, among the running titles over the tables, and opposite 6 ft. 
and under 46 ins. (indicated by B, denoting breadth), you will find the au' 
Bwer 69, the number of cubic feet. 

If there should be a package exceeding the extent of the tables in length, 
breadth or thickness, its solid contents may, liowever, easily be found by 
halving the dimension so exceeding, and doubling the solid content ; or, 
double any suitable number, add any two together, or subtract, as may be 
required. 

Sizes in feet and inches may be determined by applying the scale for in- 
ches under each table, adding or deductiug as may be required. 

In measuring casks and hogsheads, it is customary to deduct one-fifth on 
account of the bulge. Thus supposing the square or solid contents of 
a cask should be by the table 20 cubic ft, the 5th olf would leave it but 16 ft. 



Length i 


5 Inches Thick.— 


T5r" 









ft. 


tn. 


5B 
2 


6 Bi 


7 B 


8 B| 9B 


10 B 
4 


11 B 


12 B 


13 B 


14 B 


15 B 


1 


3 


3 


3 


4 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


2 





4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


8 


9 


10 


11 


1 


1 1 


3 





6 


8 


9 


10 


11 


1 1 


1 2 


1 3 


1 4 


1 6 


1 7 


4 


— 


8 


10 


1 


1 1 


1 3 


1 f) 


1 6 


1 8 


1 10 


1 11 


2 1 


5 


— 


10 


1 1 


1 3 


1 5 


1 7 


1 9 


1 11 


2 1 


2 3 


2 5 


2 7 


6 


— 


1 1 


1 3 


1 6 


1 8 


1 11 


2 1 


2 4 


2 6 


2 9 


2 11 


3 2 





1 



































■ 


2 











1 


1 


1 


1 


-1 


1 


1 


1 





3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


— 


6 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


4 


K'ngth 




6 Inches Thick,— B 


y 






' 


ft. 


xn. 


6B 


7B 

4 


8B 
4 


9B 

5 


10 B 
.5 


UB 


12 B 


13 B 


14 B 


15 B 


16 B 


1 


3 


6 


6 


7 


7 


8 


8 


2 


— 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


1 


1 1 


1 2 


1 3 


1 4 


3 


— 


9 


11 


1 


1 2 


1 3 


1 .5 


1 6 


1 8 


1 9 


1 11 


2 


4 


— 


1 


1 2 


1 4 


1 G 


1 8 


1 10 


2 


2 2 


2 4 


2 6 


2 8 


5 





1 3 


1 6 


1 8 


1 11 


2 1 


2 4 


2 6 


2 9 


2 11 


3 2 


3 4 


6 


1 


1 6 



1 9 



2 



2 3 



2 6 2 9 


3 


3 3 


3 6 


3 9 


4 


_ 








1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


— 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


— 


3 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


— 


6 


2 


2 


2 


2l 3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


Length 




7 Inches m.ick 


-T^v"" 






■ilUllMlI. 


ft. 


xn. 


7B 


8B 


OB 


10 B 


UB 


12 B 


13 B 


14 B 


15 B 


16 B 


17 B 


1 


_ 


4 


5 


."> 


6 


6 


7 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


2 


— 


8 


9 


11 


1 ( 


1 ] 


1 2 


1 3 


1 4 


1 6 


1 7 


1 8 


i 


— 


1 


1 2 


1 4 


1 6 


1 7 


1 9 


1 11 


2 1 


2 2 


2 4 


2 6 


4 


— 


1 4 


1 7 


1 9 


1 11 


2 2 


2 A 


2 6 


2 9 


2 11 


3 1 


3 4 


6 


— 


1 8 


1 11 


2 2 


2 5 


2 8 


2 11 


3 2 


3 5 


3 8 


3 11 


4 2 


6 


— 


2 1 


2 4 


2 8 


2 11 


3 3 


3 6 


3 10 


4 1 


4 6 


4 8 


5 


_ 


1 














1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


— 


2 


1 


1 


] 


10 1 


] 


1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


— 


3 


1 


1 


1 


10 10 2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


^ 


6 


2 


2 


: 3 


! 3 3 


4 


4 


4 


."S 


5 


5 



108 



LIGHTNIXG CALCULATOR. 



Lengthy 8 Inches Thick, — By 

/V. iii. I 8B I 9B lOB ;11B 12B |13B 1 14B 15 B 16 B [ IT B 18 B 




Length 


9 Inches Thick,- 


-Bv 






ft- 


in. 


9B 


10 B 


11 B 


12 B jl3B 14 B 


15 B 


16 B 


17 B 


18 B 


19 B 


1 





7 


8 


8 


9 10 11 


11 


1 


1 1 


1 2 


1 3 


2 





1 2 


1 3 


1 5 


1 G 1 8i 1 9 


1 11 


2 


2 2 


2 3 


2 5 


3 


— 


1 8l 1 11 


2 1 


2 3 2 5i 2 8 


2 10 


3 


3 2 


3 f. 


3 7 


4 





2 3| 2 6 


2 9 


3 3 3 3 (; 


3 9 


4 


4 3 


4 6 


4 9 


5 





2 10 3 2 


3 5 


3 9 4 14 5 


4 8 


5 


5 4 


5 8 


5 11 


6 


— 


3 5 3 9 


4 2 


4 6 4 11 5 3 


5 8 


6 


6 5 


G 9 


7 2 





1 


ll 1 


Ij ll ij 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 





2 


10 1 


10 2| 2 2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 





3 


L' 2 2 2! 2; 3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


— 


6 


.", 4 4 r. n 5 o r. 


G 


C 


G 


7 7 



Length 


10 B 






Inches 


fhick,- 


-Bv 








n.\in. 


11 B |12B |13B |14B [15 B 


1GB 


17 B 


18 B 


19 B 


20 B 


1 





8 


9 10 


11 


1 Oi 1 1 


1 1 


1 2 


1 3 


1 4 


1 5 


o 





1 5 


16 18 


1 10 


1 11 


2 1 


2 3 


2 4 


2 6 


2 8 


2 9 


3 





2 1 


2 4! 2 C 


2 9 


2 11 


3 2 


3 4 


3 7 


3 9 


4 


4 2 


4 





2 9 


3 i; 3 4 


3 7 


3 11 


4 2 


4 5 


4 9 


5 


5 3 


5 7 


5 





3 6 


3 101 4 2 


4 C 


4 10 


5 3 


5 7 


5 11 


6 3 


6 7 


6 11 


6 


— 


4 2| 4 71 5 Oi 5 5 


6 10 


6 3 


G 8 


7 1 


7 6 


7 11 


8 4 





1 


1 


i! i; 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 







1 


21 2 2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 





3 


2 


2 3 3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


— 


6 


4 


5l 5 5 6! 


7 


7 


8 


s! 9 



Lergth 11 Inches Thick,— By 

ft. in. IIB [12B jlSB :14B 15B 1GB 17 B 18 B 19 B 




OB 21 B 



LIGHTNING CALCULATOR. 



109 



Lengtli 




_=.» 






1 


2 inches Thick, 


-By 




■"■•°" 


ft. 


in. 


12 


iJ 


13 


B 


14 B 


15 


B 16 B il7B 


18 B 


19 B 


20 B 


21 B 


22 B 


1 





1 





1 


1 


1 2 


1 


3 


1 4 


1 5 


1 G 


1 7 


1 8 


1 9 


1 10 


2 


— 


2 





2 


2 


2 4 


2 


6 


2 8 


2 10 


3 


3 2 


3 4 


3 G 


3 8 


3 


— 


3 





3 


3 


3 6 


3 





4 


4 3 


4 6 


4 9 


5 


5 3 


5 6 


4 


— 


4 





4 


4 


4 8 


5 





5 4 


5 8 


6 


G 4 


C 8 


7 


7 4 


5 


— 


5 





5 


6 


5 10 


6 


3 


6 8 


7 1 


7 6 


7 11 


8 4 


8 9 


9 2 


6 


— 


6 


t 





6 


7 


7 


6 


8 


8 6 


9 


9 6 


10 


10 6 


n 


_ 


1 





1 





1 


1 





1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


1 


— 


2 





2 





;.' 


2 


3 


3: 3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


2 


— 


3 





3 





3 


4 


4 


4j 4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


4 


— 


6 


6 





7 


7 


8 8! 11 





10 


10 


11 


15 


Le'j 


^Ktir 














1 


J liic 


lies 


rhi^k"; 


-By 









1 

2 6 

3 10 

5 1 

6 4 

7 7 



11 1 1 1 

2| 030303 

4] 4| 4| 4 

7, 8' 81 n 9 



1 5 

2 11 

4 4 

5 

7 3 

8 8 



9 3 



1 9 
3 5 
5 2 
C 10 

8 7 
10 4 



2 2 2 

3| 3| 3 

r>j r.j r> 

9i 1(1' 10 



1 10 

3 7 
5 5 
7 3 
9 
10 10 



1 11 
3 10 
5 8 

7 7 
9 gI 



2 
4 
G 
7 11 
9 11 



11 5' 11 11 



2 
4 

r. 
11 






2 





4 





G 





11 



2 

4 

G 

1 



8 4 
10 5 
12 C 



3 

4 

6 

1 



Length 








14 Iiu 


lies Thick,- 


-By 








ft. 


'^- 


14 B 


15 B 


16 B 
1 7 


17 B 
1 8 


18 B 
1 9 


19 B 
1 10 


20 B [ 21 B 


22 B 


23 B 1 24 B 


1 




1 4 


1 G 


1 11 


2 1 


2 2 


2 3 


2 4 








2 9 


2 11 


3 1 


3 4 


3 G 


3 8 


3 11 


4 1 


4 3 


4 6 


5 10 


3 





4 1 


4 5 


4 8 


5 


5 3 


5 7 


5 10 


6 2 


C 5 


G P 


7 


4 


— 


5 5 


5 10 


G 3 


6 7 


7 


7 5 


7 9 


8 2 


8 7 


8 11 


9 4 


r> 


— 


G 10 


7 4 


7 9 


8 3 


8 9 


9 3 


9 9 


10 3 


10 8 


11 2 


11 8 


6 


— 82 


8 9 


9 4 


9 11 


10 6 U 11 


11 8 


12 3 


12 10 


13 6 


14 





1 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 2 


2 


2 


2 2 


2 


— 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 4 


4 


4 


4 4 


5 


— 


3 


4 


4 


5 





5 


G 


G 


7 


7 


r^ 


6 


8 9I 9I 10 


Hi 1 


10 10 


1111 


1 1 



Length' 



15 Inches Tliiek, — By 



ft. 


ill. 


815 B 


1GB 


17 B 


18 B 


19 B 


20 B 


21 B 


22 B 


23 B 


21 B 


25 B 


1 





1 7 


1 8 


1 9 


1 11 2 


2 1 


2 2 


2 4 2 5 


2 6 


2 T 


2 





3 2 


3 4 


3- 7 


3 9 4 


4 2 


4 5 


4 7 4 10 


5 


5 3 


3 





4 8 


5 


5 4 


5 8 5 11 


6 3 


6 7 


C 11 7 2 


7 6 


7 10 


4 


— 


G 3 


G 8 


7 1 


7 G 7 11 


8 4 


8 9 


9 2 9 7 


10 


10 5 


5 





7 10 8 41 8 10 


9 5 9 11 


10 5 


10 11 


11 G 12 


12 6 


13 


6 


— 


9 5|10 


10 8 11 3 


11 11 


12 G 


13 2 


13 9 


14 5 


15 


15 8 


_ 


1 


1 2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 





2 


i " 3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


— 


3 


S 5 


5 


5 


G 


G 


6 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


^^ 


6 


[i 91 10 


11 


11 


1 Ol 1 11 1 2 


12 12 


1 3 


1 3 



110 



LIGHTNING CALCULATOR. 



Length 


16 Inches Thick, 


=^r- 




ft- 


in. 


16 B 


17 B 


18 B 


19 B 


20 B 


21 B 


22 B 


23 B 


24 B 


25 B 


26 B 


1 





1 9 


1 11 


2 


2 1 


2 3 


2 4 


2 5 


2 7 


2 8 


2 9 


2 10 


2 


— 


3 7 


3 9 


4 


4 3 


4 5 


4 8 


4 11 


5 1 


5 4 


5 7 


5 10 


3 





5 4 


.") 8 


G 


6 4 


G 8 


7 C 


7 4 


7 8 


8 


8 4 


8 8 


4 


— 


7 1 


7 7 


8 


8 .'> 


8 11 


9 4 


9 9 


10 3 


10 8 


11 1 


11 7 


5 





8 11 


9 5 


10 


10 7 


11 1 


11 8 


12 3 


12 9 


13 41 13 11 


14 5 


6 


— 


10 8 


11 4 


12 


12 8 


13 4 


14 


14 8 


15 4 


16 


16 8 


17 4 





1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


3 


3 


3 


_ 


2 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


— 


3 


5 


6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


— 


6 


11 


11 


1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 2 


1 3 


1 3 


1 4 


1 5 


1 6 


Length 1 


17 Indies Thick, 


-tr 




ft- 


xn. 


17 B 


18 B 


19 B 


20 B 21 B 


22 B 


23 B 


24 B 


25 B 


26 B 


27 B 


1 


2 


2 2 


2 3 


2 4 


2 G 


2 7 


2 9 


2 10 


2 11 


3 1 


3 2 


2 





4 


4 3 


4 6 


4 9 


5 


5 2 


5 5 


5 8 


5 11 


G 2 


6 5 


3 


— 


6 


6 5 


6 9 


7 1 


7 5 


7 10 


8 2 


8 6 


8 10 


9 3 


9 7 


4 


— 


8 


8 6 


9 


9 5 


9 11 


10 5 


10 10 


11 4 


11 10 


12 3 


12 9 


6 





10 


10 8 


11 3 


11 10 


12 5 


13 


13 7 


14 2 


14 9 


15 4 


15 11 


6 


— 


12 1 


12 9 


13 6 


14 2 


14 11 15 7 


16 4 


17 


17 9 


18 5 


19 2 





1 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


— 


2 


4 


4 


4 


.5 


5 5 


5 


6 


G 


6 6 


— 


3 


f) 


6 


7 


7 7| 8 


8 


9 


9 


9 10 


— 


6 


1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 2 1 3I 1 4 


1 4 


1 5 


1 6 


16 17 


LenEtb 


18 Inches Thick", 


-Bv" 




ft. 


171. 


18 B 


19 B 


20 B 21 B 


22 B 


23 B 


24 B 


25 B 


26 B 


27 B 


28 B 


1 





2 3 


2 5 


2 f. 


2 8 


2 9 


2 11 


3 


3 2 


3 3 


3 5 


3 6 


2 





4 6 


4 9 


5 


5 3 


5 6 


5 9 


6 


6 3 


6 G 


6 9 


7 


3 





G 9 


7 2 


7 6 


7 11 


8 3 


8 8 


9 


9 5 


9 9 


10 2 


10 6 


4 





9 


9 6 


10 


10 G 


11 


11 G 


12 


12 G 


13 


13 6 


14 


5 


— 


11 3 


11 11 


12 6 


13 2 


13 9 


14 5 


15 


15 8 


16 3 


16 11 


17 6 


6 


— 


13 6 
2 


14 3 


15 


15 9 


16 6 


17 3 


18 


18 9 


19 6 


20 3 


21 





1 


2 


3 


3 3 


3 3 


3 


3 


3 


4 





2 


5 


-5 


5 


5 6 


C 6 


C 


7 


7 


7 


— 


3 


7 


7 


81 8| 8 


9 9 


9 


10 


10 


1: 


— 


6 


1 2 


1 2 


1 3I 1 4' 1 5' 1 .11 1 6 


1 7 


1 8 


1 8 


1 9 


Eength 


19 Inches Tliick, 


-Bv 




ft- 


xn. 


19 B 


20 B 


21 B 


22B 


23 B 


24 B 


25 B 


26 B 


27B 


28 B 


29B 


1 





2 f. 


2 8 


2 9 


2 11 


3 


3 2 


3 4 


3 5 


3 7 


3 8 


3 10 


2 





5 


5 3 


5 7 


5 10 


6 1 


6 4 


6 7 


6 ip 


7 2 


7 5 


7 8 


3 





7 C 


7 11 


8 4 


8 9 


9 1 


9 G 


9 11 


10 4 


10 8 


11 1 


11 6 


4 





10 


10 7 


11 1 


11 7 


12 2 


12 8 


13 2 


13 9 


14 3 


14 9 


15 4 


n 





12 6 


13 2il3 10 


14 C15 2115 10 


16 6 


17 2 


17 10 


18 6 


19 2 


6 


— 


15 1 


15 10 


16 8 


17 518 319 


19 10 


20 7 


21 5 


22 2 


23 





1 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 





2 


5 


5 


6 


G 


6 6 


7 


7 


7 


7 


8 





3 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 10 


10 


10 


11 


11 


1 C 


— 


6 


1 3 


1 4 


1 5 


1 5 


16 17 


1 8 


2 9 


19 1 lOl 1 11 



LIGnrNING CALCULATOR. 



Ill 



Length 1 20 Indies Thick,— Bv 




ft 


m 


20 B 


21 B |22 B 


23 B 


24 B 


25 B 


26 B 


27 B 


28 B 


29 B 


SOB 


1 


_ 


2 9 


2 11 


3 1 


3 2 


3 4 


3 6 


3 7 


3 9 


3 11 


4 


4 2 


2 


— 


5 1 


5 IC 


6 1 


6 5 


6 8 


6 11 


7 2 


7 6 


7 £ 


8 1 


8 S 


3 


— 


8 ^ 


8 f 


9 2 


9 7 


10 


10 5 


10 IC 


11 I 


11 8 


12 I 


12 e 


4 


— 


11 ] 


11 8 


12 S 


12 t 


13 4 


13 11 


14 5 


15 C 


15 7 


16 1 


16 8 


6 


— 


13 11 


14 7 


15 2 


16 C 


16 8 


17 4 


18 1 


18 £ 


19 5 


20 2 


20 W 


6 


— 


16 8 


17 6 


18 4 


19 2 


20 


20 10 


21 8 


22 6 


23 4 


24 2 


25 t 




1 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


< 




2 


6 


6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


e t 


— 


3 


8 


9 


9 


K 


n If 


IC 


11 


11 


1 


1 


1 J 




6 


1 5 


1 6 


1 6 


1 7 


1 s 


1 91 1 10 


1 11 


1 111 2 


2 1 


Length 


21 Inches Thick— By 




fUi.n. 


21 B 


22 B 


23 B 24 B 


25 B 


26 B 


27 B 


28 B 


29 B 


SOB 


31 B 


1 





3 1 


3 3 


3 4 3 6 


3 8 


3 10 


3 11 


4 1 


4 3 


4 5 


4 7 


2 


— 


6 2 


6 5 


6 9 7 


7 4 


7 7 


7 11 


8 2 


8 6 


8 9 


9 


3 





9 2 


9 8 


10 1 10 6 


10 11 


11 5 


11 IC 


12 3 


12 8 


13 2 


13 7 


4 


— 


12 3 


12 10 


13 5 14 


14 7 


15 2 


15 9 


16 4 


16 11 


17 6 


18 1 


5 


— 


15 4 


16 1 


16 9 


17 6 


18 3 


19 


19 8 


20 5 


21 2 


21 11 


22 7 


6 


— 


18 5 


19 3 


20 2 


21 


21 11 


22 9 


23 8 


24 6 


25 5 


26 3 


27 2 





1 


3 


3 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


— 


2 


6 


f. 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 





3 


9 


10 


10 11 


11, 11 


1 


•1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 2 


— 


6 


1 6 


1 7! 1 8l 1 9 


1 lOl 1 11' 2 


2 1 


2 1 


2 2 


2 3 


Length 


22 Inches Thick,— Bv 




ft. 


xn. 


22B 


23 B 
3 6 


24 B 


25 B 26 B 


27 B 


28 B 


29 B 


SOB 


31 B 


32 B 


1 





3 4 


3 8 


3 10 


4 


4 2 


4 3 


4 5 


4 7 


4 9 


4 11 


2 





6 9 


7 


7 4 


7 8 


7 11 


8 3 


8 7 


8 10 


9 2 


9 6 


10 


3 


— 


10 1 


10 7 


11 


11 6 


11 11 


12 5 


12 10 


13 4 


13 9 


14 3 


17 1 


4 





13 5 


14 1 


14 8 


15 3 


15 11 


16 C 


17 1 


17 9 


18 4 


18 11 


19 7 


6 





16 10 


17 7 


18 4 


10 1 


19 10 


20 8 


21 5 


22 2 


22 11 


23 8 


24 5 


6 


— 


20 2 


21 1 


22 
4 


22 11 23 10 


24 9 


25 8 


20 7 


27 6 28 5j 29 4 





1 


3 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 


5 5 





2 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 10 





3 


10 


11 


11 


11 


1 


1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 2 


12 12 


— 


6 


1 8 


1 9 


1 10 


1 11 


2 


2 1 


2 2 


2 3 


2 4 


2 4l 2 5 


Length! 


23 Inches Thick,— By 




Ji- 


i/i. 


23 B 


24 B 25 B 26 B 27 B 


28 B 1 29 B 


SOB 


31 B 1 32 B 


S3B 


1 





3 8 


3 10 4 ft 4 2 


4 4 


4 6 4 8| 


4 10 


4 11 


6 1 


5 2 


2 


— 


7 4 


7 8 8 8 4 


8 8 


8 11 


9 3 


9 7 


9 11 


10 3 


10 7 


3 





11 


W 0112 12 6 


12 11 


13 15 


13 11 


14 5 


14 10 


15 4 


15 10 


4 


— 


14 8 


15 4ll6 16 7 


17 3 


17 11 


18 6 


19 2 


19 10 


20 5 


21 1 


5 


— 


18 4 


19 2,20 20 9 


21 7 


22 4 


23 2 


24 


24 9 


25 7 


26 K.^ 


6 


— 


22 1 23 0,24 0l24 llj 


25 11 


26 10 27 10 1 28 9l 

1 1 1 


29 9 


30 8 


31 8 





1 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


4 


5 5 


5 


5 


5 





2 


7 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 10 


10 


10 


11 


— 


3 


11 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 


1 1 


12 12 


1 3 


1 3 


1 4 


-- 


6 


1 10 


1 11 


2 2 ll 


2 2 


2 3 2 4| 2 5l 


2 


2 7 


2 8 



112 



LIGHTNING CALCULATOR. 



ft- 




igtn 

in. 241! 


25 B 


26 B 


27 B 


28 B 


20 B 30 B 


31 B 


32 B 


33 B 


34B 


1 


— 40 


4 2 


4 4 


4 6 


4 8 


4 10 5 


5 2 


5 4 


5 6 


5 8 


2 


— 8 


8 4 


8 8 


9 C 


9 4 


9 8 10 


10 4 


10 8 


11 


11 4 


3 


— 12 0!12 C 


13 0il3 6 


14 


14 6 15 


15 6 


16 ( 


16 C 


17 


4 


— 16 10 8 


17 4I18 


18 8 


19 4 20 ( 


20 8 


21 4 


22 


22 8 


5 


— 20 0,20 10i21 8[22 6 


23 4 


24 2 25 ( 


25 IC 


26 8 


27 6 


28 4 


6 


— |24 


25 0|26 


27 


28 


29 30 


31 


32 


33 


34 


_ 


1 1 4 


4 4 


5 


5 


5 5 


5 


5 


61 6 


— 


2 


8 


8 £ 


9| 9 


10 OK 


IC 


11 


11 11 


— 


3 


1 


111] 


12 12 


13 1c 


1 4 


1 4 


15 15 


— 





2 


2 1 2 2l 2 3l 2 4 


2 5I 2 6! 2 7 


2 8l 2 9l 2 10 


Lenaitli 


25 Indies Thick, — I5v 


ft. 


III. 


25 B 
4 4 


26 B 27 B 28 B 
4 6 4 8 4 10 


29 B 


30 B 


31 B 


32 B 


33 B 


34 B 


35 B 


1 





5 


5 3 


5 5 


5 7 


5 9 


5 11 


6 1 


2 





8 8 


9 9 5 9 9 


10 1 


10 5 


10 9 


11 1 


11 6 


11 10 


12 2 


3 


— 


13 13 7 14 1 14 7115 1 


15 8 


16 2 


16 8 


17 2 


17 i 


18 3 


4 





17 4 18 1 18 19 5;20 2 


20 10 


21 G 


22 3 


22 11 


23 7 


24 4 


5 





21 8 22 7 23 5 24 4 


25 2 26 1 


26 11 


27 9 


28 8 


29 C 


30 5 


G 


— 


26 1 


27 1 


28 2|29 2 


30 3 


31 3 


32 4 


33 4 


34 6 


35 5 


36 6 





1 


4 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6 


6 


— 


2 


9 


9 


9 


10 


10 


10 


11 


11 


11 


1 


1 





3 


1 1 


1 2 


12 13 


1 3 


1 4 


1 4 


1 5 


1 5 


1 6 


1 7 


— 


6 


2 2 


2 3 


3 4 2 5 


2 6 


2 7 


2 8l 2 f)| 2 10 


2 111 3 


Leiigtli 


26 Inches Thick.— Bv 


ft.\in. 


20 B 


27 B 


28 B 


29 B 


SOB 


31 B 1 32 B 


33 B 


34 B 


35 B 1 36 B 


1 





4 8 


4 11 


5 1 


5 3 


5 5 


5 7 5 9 


C 


6 2 


6 4 


6 6 


2 





9 5 


9 9il0 1 


10 6 


10 10 


11 2 


11 7 


11 11 


12 3 


12 8 


13 


3 





14 lil4 8jl5 2 


15 9 


16 3 


16 10 


17 4 


17 11 


18 5 


19 


19 6 


4 





18 919 620 3 


20 11 


21 8 22 5 


23 1 


23 10 


24 7 


25 3 


26 


5 





23 6124 5,25 3 


20 2 


27 li28 


28 11 


29 10 


30 8 


31 7 


32 6 


6 


— 


28 2 


29 330 4 


31 5 


32 6 


33 7 


34 8 


35 9 36 10 


37 11 


39 





1 


5 


5I 5 


5 


5 


6 


6 


6 6 


6 


7 





2 


9 


10 10 


10 11 


11 


1 


10 10 


1 1 


1 1 




3 


1 2 


13 13 


14 14 


1 5 


1 5 


16 16 


1 7 


1 8 


z^. 


1 4' 2 5' 2 6' 2 T! 2 91 2 lOl 2 111 3 01 3 1 


3 2 


3 3 


LenctJij 


"" 27 inches Thick,-By 


ft- 


in. 


27 B 128 B 29 B 


30 B 


31 B 


32 B 


33 B 


34 B 


33 B 


36 B 


37 B 


1 





5 15 3 5 5 


5 8 


5 10 


6 


6 5 


6 5 


6 7 


6 9 


6 n 


o, 





10 2 10 6:10 11 


11 3 


11 8 


12 


12 5 


12 9 


13 2 


13 6 


13 10 


3 





15 2|15 9116 4 


16 11 


17 5 


18 


18 7 


19 2 


19 8 


20 3 


20 10 


4 





20 3121 0121 9 


22 6 


23 3 24 


24 9 


25 6 


26 3 


27 


27 9 


n 





25 426 3:27 2 


28 2 29 II30 


30 11 


31 11 


32 19 


33 9 


34 8 


6 


1 


30 531 6j 


32 8 


33 931 11:38 


37 2 


38 3 


39 5 40 6 


41 8 


_ 


5 


5 


5! 


61 


6 6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 





o 


10 


11 


11 11 


10 10 


1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 2 


1 2 





3 


1 3 


1 4 


14 15 


15 16 


1 7 


1 7 


1 8 


1 8 


1 9 


— 


6 


2 ol 2 S' 2 9 2 10^ 2 111 3 0^ 3 ll 3 2l 3 31 


3 5 3 7 



LIGHTNING CALCULATOR. 



113 



Leiigili 


28 Iiuhes 'nuck.— By 




ft- 


in. 


28 B 


29 B 


30 B 131 B |32B 

1 


33 B 


31B 


35 B 


36 B 


37 B 


38 B 


1 





5 5 


5 8 


5 10 


6 6 3 


6 5 


6 7 


6 10 


7 


7 2 


7 4 


o 


— 


10 11 


11 3 


11 8 


12 112 5 


12 IC 


13 3 


13 7 


14 C 


14 5 


14 10 


3 





16 4 


Ifi 11 


17 6 


18 1|18 8 


19 3 


19 10 


20 5 


21 


21 7 


21 11 


4 


— 


21 9 


22 7 


23 4 


24 1|24 11 


25 8 


26 5 


27 3 


28 


28 9 


29 7 


5 





27 3 


28 2 


29 2 


30 2 


31 1 


32 1 


33 1 


34 


35 


36 C 


36 11 


6 


— 


32 8 


33 10 


35 


36 2 


37 4 


38 6 


39 8 


40 10 


42 


43 2 


44 4 





1 


5 


6 





6 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 





2 


11 


n 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 2 


1 2 


1 2 


1 2 





3 


1 4 


1 5 


1 n 


1 r, 


1 7 


1 7 


1 8 


1 8 


1 9 


1 10 


1 11 


— 


6 


2 9 


2 10 


2 11 


3 


3 1 


3 3 


3 4 3 4 


3 6 


3 7 


3 8 


Ijfl 


iptff 


29 Inches TLick,— By 




ft- 


111. 


29 B 


SOB 


31 B 


32 B 


33 B 


34 B 35 B 


3GB 


37 B 


38 B 


SOB 


1 


_ 


5 10 


6 1 


6 3 


G 5 


6 8 


6 10 


7 1 


7 3 


7 5 


7 8 


7 11 


2 


— 


11 8 


12 1 


12 6 12 11 


13 4 


13 8 


14 1 


14 6 


14 11 


15 4 


15 9 


3 





17 6 


IS 2 


18 9il9 4 


19 11 


20 7 


21 2 


21 9 


22 4 


23 


23 8 


4 


— 


23 4 


24 2 


25 0125 9 


26 7 


27 5 


28 2 


29 


29 10 


30 7 


31 5 


5 





29 2 


30 3 


31 3 32 3 


33 3 


34 3 


35 3 


36 3 


37 3 


38 3 


39 3 


6 


— 


35 1 


36 3 


37 6 


38 8 


39 11 


41 1 


42 4 


43 C 


44 9 


45 11 


47 2 





1 


6 


(> 


6 


6 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


— 


2 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 


1 1 


1 2 


1 2 


1 3 


1 3 


1 3 


1 4 





3 


1 G 


1 f. 


1 7 


1 7 


1 8 


1 9 


1 9 


1 10 


1 10 


1 11 


1 11 


— 


6 2 11 


3 


3 1 


3 3 


3 4 3 5| 3 Gl 3 8 


3 9 3 lol 


3 n 



LeiiEtli 






30 Inches Thick,— By 


ft- 


m. 


SOB 


31 B 


32 


B 


33 B 134 B 


35 B 


36 B 


37 B 


38B 


39 B 


40 B 


1 


6 


3 


6 6 


6 


8 


6 11 


7 1 


7 4 


7 6 


7 9 


7 11 


8 2 


8 4 


2 


— 


12 


6 12 11 


13 


4 


13 9 


14 2 


14 7 


15 


15 5 


15 10 


16 ? 


16 8 


3 


— 


18 


9 19 5 


20 





20 8 


21 3 


21 11 


22 G 


23 2 


23 9 


24 5 


25 1 


4 


— 


25 


0i25 10 


26 


8 


27 6 


28 4 


29 2 


30 C 


30 10 


31 8 


32 G 


33 4 


5 


— 


:{1 


3 32 4 


33 


4 


34 5 


35 5 


36 6 


37 C 


38 7 


39 7 


40 8 


41 8 


C 


— 


37 


6,38 9 


40 


0j41 3 


42 6 


43 9 


45 


4G 3 


47 G 


48 9 


50 





1 





6 


6 





7 


7 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


5 





2 


1 


1 


1 1 


1 


1 


1 2 


1 2 


1 3 


1 3 


1 3 


1 4 


1 4 


1 1 





3 


1 


7 


1 7 


1 


8 


1 9 


1 


1 10 


1 11 


1 11 


2 


2 


2 2 


— 


6 


3 


2| 3 3 


3 


41 3 5 


3 7 


3 8 


3 9 


3 10 


4 


4 1 


4 9 


i,t;ngtli| 






31 Inches Thick,— By 


ft- 


in. 


31 B 132 B 


33 B iS4 B 


35 B 


3GB 


S7B 


38 B 39 B 


40 B 


41 B 


1 





6 


8 6 11 


7 


17 4 


7 6 


7 9 


8 


8 2 8 5 


8 7 


8 8 


2 


— 


13 


4 13 9 


14 


314 8 


15 1 


15 G 


15 11 


16 4 


16 10 


17 3 


17 8 


3 


— 


20 


20 8 


21 


4 22 


22 7 


23 3 


23 11 


21 7 


25 2 


25 10 


26 6 


4 


— 


■26 


8 27 7 


28 


5'29 3 


30 2 


31 


31 10 


32 £ 


33 7 


34 5 


do 4 


5 


— 


33 


4 34 5 35 


6:36 7 


37 8 


38 9 


39 10 40 11 


42 


43 1 


44 2 


6 


- 


40 


141 4 


42 


8^43 11 


45 3 


46 6 


47 10 


49 1 


50 5 


51 8 


53 





1 





7 7 





7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


— 


9 


1 


1 1 2 


1 


2 


1 3 


1 S 


1 4 


1 4 


1 4 


1 5 


1 5 


1 5 


— 


3 


1 


8 1 9 


1 


IS 


1 10 


1 11 


1 11 


2 


2 1 


2 1 


2 2 


2 2 


— 


6 3 


4 


,LJ. 


3 80 


3 S 


S 9 


S 11 4 01 4 1 


4 2 


4 4 4 4 



114 



LIGHTNING CALCULATOK. 



],eijgth 


32 Inches Thick,— 'By 


^^" 


ft- 


in. 


32B 
7 1 


33 B 


34 B 135 B 


36 B 


37 B 


38 B 


39 B 


40 B 


41 B 


42 B 


1 





7 71 7 9 


8 


8 3 


8 5 


8 8 


8 11 


9 1 


9 4 


2 


— 


14 3'14 8 


15 l!l5 7 


16 


16 5 


IC 11 


17 4 


17 9 


18 3 


18 9 


3 


— 


21 4|22 


22 823 4 


24 


24 8 


25 4 


26 


26 8 


27 4 


28 


4 


— 


28 529 4 


30 3=31 1 


32 


32 11 


33 9 


34 8 


35 7 


36 5 


37 4 


5 


— 


35 736 8 


37 9 


38 11 


40 


41 1 


42 3 


43 4 


44 5 


45 7 


46 8 


6 


— 


12 8|44 


45 4 


46 8 


48 


49 4 


50 8 


52 


53 4 


54 8 


6G 





1 


7 


7 


8 


8 


8 


8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 


— 


2 


1 2 


1 3 


1 3 


1 4 


1 4 


1 4 


1 5 


1 5 


1 6 


1 6 


1 7 


— 


3 


1 9 


1 10 


1 11 


1 11 


2 


2 1 


2 1 


2 2 


2 3 


2 3 


2 4 


— 


G 


3 7 


3 8 


3 9 


3 11 


4 


4 1 


4 3 


4 4 


4 5 


4 7 


4 8 



lieii^tb. 






33 Inches Thick,— By 




/^ 


111. 


33 B 


34B 


35 


B 




36 B 37 B 

8 3| 8 6 


38 B 1 39 B 


40 B 


41 B 


42B 43B 


1 





7 7 


7 10 


8 


8 9 


8 11 


9 2 


9 5 


9 8 9 11 


2 


— 


15 2 


15 7 


16 


1 


16 


6 17 


17 5 


17 11 


18 4 


18 10 


19 3 


19 9 


3 


— 


22 8 


23 5 


24 


1 


24 


923 5 


26 2 


26 10 


27 6 


28 2 


28 11 


29 7 


4 


— 


30 3 


31 232 


1 


33 


33 11134 10 


35 9 


36 8 


37 7 


38 6 


39 5 


5 


— 


37 10 


39 040 


1 


41 


342 543 7 


44 8 


45 10 


47 


48 2 


49 3 


6 


~ 


15 5 


46 9:48 


2 


49 


e'so 11 


52 3 


53 8 


55 


56 5 


57 9 59 2 





1 


8 


8 


8 





8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 lo| 10 


— 


2 


1 3 


14 1 


4 


1 


5 


1 5 


1 5 


1 6 


1 6 


1 7 


17 18 





3 


1 11 


1 11 2 





2 


1 


2 1 


2 2 


2 3 


2 4 


2 4 


2 5 2 5 


— 


6 


3 9 


3 11 


4 





4 


2 


4 3 


4 4 


4 6 


4 7 


4 8 


4 10 


5 



Length 


^ 




34 Inches Thick,— By 


ft. in. 


34B |35B |36B 


37 B 


38 B ,39 B 


40 B , 41 B 


42B 


43 B 


44 B 


1 





8 


8 3! 8 


6 


8 9 


9 Oi 9 3 


9 5 


9 8 


9 11 


10 2 


10 4 


o 





16 


1,16 617 





17 6 


17 11; IS 5 


18 11 


19 4 


19 10 


20 4 


20 10 


3 





24 


li24 10 25 


6 


26 3 


26 11 27 8 


28 4 


29 1 


29 9 


30 6 


31 2 


4 


— 


32 


133 134 





34 11 


35 11,36 10 


37 9 


38 9 


39 8 


40 7 


41 7 


5 





10 


2 


41 4'42 


6 


43 8 


44 10; 46 1 


47 3 


48 5 


49 7 


60 9 


51 11 


6 


— 


18 


2 


49 7 51 





52 5 


53 10J55 3 


56 8| 58 1 


59 6 


60 11 62 4 





1 





8 


8 


9 


9 


9 


9 


9 


10 


10 


10 


10 





o 


1 


4 


1 5 1 


5 


1 5 


1 6 


1 6 


1 7 


1 7 


1 8 


1 8 


1 9 





3 


2 





2 12 


2 


2 2 


2 3 


2 4 


2 4 


2 5 


2 6 


2 6 


2 7 


— 


6 


4 





4 2; 4 


3 


4 4 


4 6 


4 7 


4 9 


4 10 


5 


5 1 


6 2 





35] 






"■ 




35 Inc 


r?T^ 


i'liick, 


42B 









ft- 


in 


B 136 B |37 B 


38 B ,39 B i40 B 


41 B 


43 B 1 44 B 


45 B 


1 





8 


6 8 


9 9 


9 3! 9 6i 9 9 


10 


10 3 


10 5( 10 8 


10 10 


2 





17 


0|l7 


6 18 


18 919 0119 5 


19 11 


20 5 


20 111 21 5 


21 11 


3 





25 


f,i26 


3 27 


27 9,2s 529 2 


29 11 


30 8 


31 4 32 1 


32 9 


4 





34 


0j35 


0|36 


36 11 37 11J38 11 


39 10 


40 10 


41 10 42 9 


43 9 


5 





42 


6.43 


9 


45 


40 247 548 7 


49 10 


51 1 


52 3 53 C 


54 8 


6 


1 


51 



1 


52 


6 


54 0]55 5,56 llj58 4 


59 10 


61 3 


62 9; 64 2 


C5 8 


_ 


9 





9 


9! 9 9 


10 


10 


10 


10 


11 


11 





2 


1 


5 


1 


6 


16 16 17 


1 7 


1 8 


1 8 


1 9 


1 9 


1 10 





3 


2 


2 


2 


2 


2 3 2 4i 2 4 


2 5 


2 6 


2 7 


2 7 


2 8 


2 8 




G 


4 


3 4 


5! 4 C| 4 7! 4 9 


4 IQl 5 01 5 1 


5 3 5 4 


5 6 



LIGHTNING CALCULATOR. 



115 



Length 


36 Inches Thick/ By 


ft. 


m. 


36 B 
9 


37 B 


38 B 
9 6 


39 B 


40 B 


41 B 


42 B 


43 B 


44B 


45 B 


46 B 


1 


9 3 


9 9 


10 


10 3 


10 6 


10 9 


11 


n 3 


11 6 


2 


— 


18 


18 6 


19 


19 6 


20 


20 6 


21 


21 6 22 0' 22 6 


23 


3 


— 


127 


27 9 


28 6 


29 3 


30 0!30 9 


31 6 


32 3 33 


33 9 


34 6 


4 


— 


36 
45 


37 


38 0!39 


40 0^41 


42 


43 44 


45 


46 


5 


— 


46 3 


47 6 


48 9 


50 


51 3 


52 C 


53 9 55 


56 3 


57 6 


6 


— 


54 


55 6 


57 


58 6;60 


61 6 


63 


64 6 


66 


67 6 


69 





1 


9 


9 


10 


10 


10 


10 


11 


11 


11 


11 


1 


— 


■2 


1 6 


1 7 


1 7 


1 8 


1 8 


1 9 


1 9 


1 10 


1 10 


1 11 


1 11 


— 


3 


2 3 


2 4 


2 5 


2 5 


2 6 


2 7 


2 8 


2 8 


2 9 


2 10 


2 11 


— 


6 


4 6 


4 8 


4 9 


4 11 


5 


5 2 


5 3 


5 6 


5 


5 8 


5 9 



Length 


37 luciies Thick,— By 




ft- 


in. 


37 B 38B |39B 

1 i 


40 B 41 B 


42 B 


43 B 


41B 


45 B 


46 B 


47 B 


1 





9 6 


9 9 10 


10 3 10 6 


10 10 


11 1 


11 4 


11 7 


11 10 


12 1 


2 


— 


19 


19 6 20 1 


20 7|21 1 


21 7 


22 1 


22 7 


23 2 


23 8 


24 2 


3 


— 


28 6 


29 4 30 1 


30 10 31 7 


32 5 


33 2 


33 11 


34 8 


35 6 


36 3 


4 


— 


38 


39 1 40 1 


41 l|42 2 


43 2 


44 2 


45 3 


46 3 


47 3 


48 4 


5 


— 


17 6 


48 10 50 1 


51 5!52 8 


54 


65 3 


56 6 


57 10 


59 1 


60 5 


6 


1 


57 1 
10 


58 7 


60 261 8 


63 3 


64 9 


66 4 67 10 


69 5 


70 11 


72 6 





10 


10 10 


11 


11 


11 


11 


1 


1 


1 


— 


2 


1 7 


1 8 


18 19 


1 9 


1 10 


1 10 


1 11 


1 11 


2 


2 


— 


3 


2 5 


2 5 


2 6 2 7 


2 8 


2 8 


2 9 


2 10 


2 11 


2 11 


3 


— 


6 


4 y 


4 11 


5 


5 2 


5 3 


5 5 


5 6 


5 8 


5 9 


5 U 


6 



Ltnigtir 


38 Inches Thick,— By 


ft. 


in. 


38 B 


39 B 


40 B 


41 B 42 B 


43 B 


44 B 


45 B 


,46 B 


47 B 


48 B 


1 





10 


10 4 


10 7 


10 10 U 1 


11 4 


H 7 


11 11 


12 2 


12 5 


12 8 


2 


— 


20 1 


20 7 


21 1 


21 8|22 2 


22 8 


23 3 


23 9 


24 3 


24 10 


25 5 


3 


— 


30 1 


30 11 


31 8 


32 6133 3 


34 1 


34 10 


35 8 


36 5 


37 3 


38 


4 


— 


40 1 


41 2 


42 3143 3 44 4 


45 5 


46 5 


47 6 


48 7! 49 7 


50 8 


5 


— 


50 2 
60 2 


51 6 


52 9'54 1 55 5 


56 9 


C8 1 


59 5 60 8 


62 


63 4 


6 


— 


61 9 


63 4 


64 11 66 6 


68 1 


69 8 


71 3 


72 10 


74 5 


76 





1 


10 


10 


11 


11 


11 


11 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 


— 


2 


1 8 


1 9 


1 9 


1 10 


1 10 


1 11 


1 11 


2 


2 


2 1 


2 2 


— 


3 


2 6 


2 7 


2 8 


2 8 


2 9 


2 10 


2 11 


3 


3 


3 1 


3 1 


— 


6 


5 


5 2 


5 3 


5 5 


5 7 


5 8 


6 10 


5 11 


6 1 


6 2 


6 3 



Len£;th| 


39 Inches Thick, —By 




Ji. 


ill. 


39 B 


40 B 


41 B 


42B 


43 B 


44 B 


45 B 


J6 B 47 B 48 B 


49 B 


1 





10 1 


10 10 


11 1 


12 5 


11 8 


11 11 


12 2 


12 5 12 9 13 





13 3 


2 


— 


21 2 


21 9 


22 3 


22 9 


23 4 


23 10 


24 6 


24 11 25 fi 26 





26 7 


3 


— 


31 8 


32 6 


;« 5 


.!4 2 


34 11 


36 9 


36 7 


37 5 


37 2 


39 





39 10 


4 


— 


12 3 


43 4 


44 5 


45 6 


46 7 


47 8 


47 9 


49 10 


50 11 


52 





52 


6 


— 


52 10 


54 2 


o5 6 


56 11 


58 3 


59 7 


60 11 


62 4 


63 8 


6,-> 





66 4 


6 


— 


03 5 


65 


66 8 


68 3 


69 11 


71 6 


S3 2 


74 9 76 6 


78 





78 8 


_ 


1 


) 11 


11 


11 


11 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 1 


1 


1 


1 1 


— 


2 


I 6 


1 10 


1 10 


1 11 


1 11 


2 


2 


2 1 


2 1 


2 


2 


2 2 


— 


3 


2 K 


2 9 


2 9 


2 10 


2 11 


3 


3 1 


3 1 


3 2 


3 


3 


3 4 


^ 


6 


5 3 


5 5 


5 7 


5 8 


5 10 6 Ol 6 1 


6 3 6 4 


6 


6 


6 7 



116 SIZE AND COST OF VESSELS, ETC. 

Mr. Moorsoji's Formttla to Approxijiate Register Toxnaob 
TJNDER ANY PROPOSED DiMEXSlONS.— To shipbuilders who may wish to 
know, before the construction of an intended design, the approximate 
register tonnage under any proposed principal dimensions, the following 
formula (which has received the approbation of Messrs. Martin and Eit- 
chie, the two chief surveyors at Lloyd's, -who, from their great experience 
and intelligence, are authorities on the subject) will be found useful, as it 
gives the tonnage, ou an average, generally speakLng, within about 2% 
per cent. 
Let L represent the inside length on upper deck from plank at bow to 

plank at stern. 
" B represent the inside mnin breadth from ceiling to ceiling. 
" D represent the inside midjship depth from upper deck to ceiling at 
timber strake. 

Then the register tonnage of any ship will be equal to ^ '^ in i '^ °" 
multiplied by the decimal factor opposite the class in the following table 
to which she belongs : 

Saillna Ships •! *^'otton and Sugar Ships, old form 8 

•^ ' ■' ' ( Ships of the present usual form 7 

Steam Vessels ( Ships of two Decks 65 

and Clippers. | Ships of three Decks 68 

Yachts I Vessels above CO tons 5 

( Vessels, small 45 

Cost of English Merchantmen' per ton. — 1. Tonnage, GoO. 
3Iaterial, vfood; diite, 1865. Wood in hull, masts and spars, $41; 
yellow metal, iron-bolts and labor, $10.30 ; joiner work and labor. 
$5.15 ; labor on hull, .'i);20 ; boats, etc.— outlit, $12.30 ; rope and 
sails, $8 ; anchors, chains and tanks, $4.25 ; vellow metal sheathing, 
$4. Total, $105. 2. Ivan Merchantman, of 500 Tons : Cost, $88 per 
ton. 3. Iron-Passenycr Ship, or Steamer, 800 Tons : Cost, $125 per 
ton. 4. Another Iron-Steamer, or Ship, of 1500 Tons : Cost, $147 
per ton. 5. Another Iron-Passenqer Steamer, of 1500 Tons : Cost, 
^122perton, as follows: Material lor hull, $29.50; labor, $14.50 ; rent, 
machinery, tools, etc., $14.50 ; fittings and launching, $14.25 ; wood, 
work, $12.25 ; equipment, $17 ; cabins and fitting, $20. Total, as 
above, $122. 

In the case of steam vessels, the vessel built of iron is more buoy- 
ant than the vessel built of wood by about 10 per cent, of the weight 
of the wood hull, or nearly 9 per cent, of the weight of the cargo. 
In the case of sailinr/ vessels, the iron liuU is still more buoyant than 
the wood hull by about 14.9-1-8.33 per cent. =23.2 percent., or 
about 23 per cent, of the weight of the wood hull, or 13 per cent, of 
the weight of the cargo. 

To Find the Merldian. — Take a piece of board, or any similar 
material, and describe ou it a number of concentric circles. Place 
this in tlie sun, over the centre of a plummet. Observe the short- 
est shadow from the plummet ; the sun will then be on the merid- 
ian ; draw a line to the centre of the circle, and that will bo the true 
meridian line. This will do to mark the apparent time, or to correct 
the compass for variation. 

Captain Boyton's New Devices to Save Life from the 
Piers, and to Throw a Line from a Ship. — The following are 
Captain Boyton's statements, as extracted from the New York Sicn : 
" My invention is simply this : Here is a wooden bobbin, to which 60 
feet of the strongest Manilla line is attached by one end, and a 
four-nronged steel grappling iron fits in the hollow part of the 



SCIENTIFIC FACTS, ETC. 



117 



wood. The -svhole is enclosed iu a leather case, and does not Tveigli 
a pound. If every policeman on duty had one of these, the saving 
of persons from drowuin:? iu the rivers would be lessened 80 per 
cent. If the person in the water accidentally fell in, the oflicet 
could hold the grappling iron in his hand, and throw the bobbin, 
which floats, out to the struggling person. If the case was one of 
attempted suicide, or where the person was too drunk to make any 
effort to save himself, he could throw out the grapple, and haul him 
in. I ppopose to give the police force of this city and Philadelphia 
the right to manufacture these for themselves ; and, I suppose, they 
can make them for fifty cents a piece. 

"My other invention is equally simple : "WTien a ship is driven on 
a lee-shore, and her back is being broken by the sea beating against 
her, the efforts of the coast-guard to throw a rope on board by 
means of a rocket or mortar frequently fail, owing either to the 
wind coming into the shore blowing the rocket back or to one side. 
Now, here is a box, four feet bj^ three, which can be easily placed 
nnder the table in the cabin of any vessel. It contains a long, line, 
strong line attached to a rocket, of peculiar construction. Tlie 
ship is driven on shore, and the coast-guard men are there, un- 
able to establish communication between the ycssgI and the land. 
The captain brings this box on deck, opens it, and adjusts the 
rocket to the angle of the box-cover, and fires it off. The rocket, 
by its own force, and that of the wind blowing in shore, is carried 
to land. Ill addition to the tail of fire shown by it passing through 
the air, the rocket on falling on the ground bursts, and bums a 
brilliant red liglit for ten minute.s. This is seen by the coast-guard 
men, who fix the cable to the line, and it is thus hauled aboard, 
and the crew saved." A common felt-hat may be made use of as a 
life-preserver. Place the hat upon the water rim downwards, and 
with the arm around it, pressing it slightly to the breast, the com- 
pressed air within Avill sustain a man for hours. 

Natural, Mechanical, axd Scientific Facts. 



CoiiPAKATm; Yield of Vakious Vegetables. 
Pounds "Weight Per Acre. 



Productions in 



Hopa... 
Wheat. 
Barley. 
Oats..., 
Peas ... 
Beans . 
Plums. 



Lbs. I 
per ac. 

442]Cherries 

1 260 Onious 

1 600 Hay 

1 840 Pears 

1 920 Grass 

2 000, Carrots 

2 000 i Potatoes .... 



Lbs. 


per ac. 


2 000 


2 800 


4 000 


5 000 


7 000 


6 800 


7 500 



Apples 

Turnips 

Cinque-foil grass 
Vetches, Groen.. 

Cabbages 

Par.'inips 

Mangel Wurzel 



Lbs. 
per ac. 

8 000 

8 420 

9 600 
9 800 

10 900 

11 200 
22 000 



One acre will produce 22-i lbs. mutton, 186 lbs. beef, 2900 lbs. 
milk, 300 lbs. butter, and 200 lbs. cheese. A fair crop of potatoes, 
from 16 bushels of seed, is 340 bushels. 

Paris Green, for potato bugs, and other enemies of the farmer, may 
be made as follows: Dissolve 2 lbs. sulphate of copper in 1 gal. hot 
water, in a stone jar. In another jar put 1 lb of white arsenic and 2 
lbs. pearlash in ii lbs. hot water, and stir till dissolved. Mix wheu 
required in the proportion of 1 part of tlie former to 5 of the latter, and 
use with a sprinkler. It is certain death to vermin. 



118 SCIENTIFIC FACTS, ETC. 

The average growth of trees during 12 years, as determined by a 
committee of the Illinois Horticultural Society, when planted in belts 
and groves, is as follows : White maple, 1 ft. diam. and 30 ft. high ; 
Ash-leaf maple, 1 ft. diam. and 20 ft. high ; White willow, VA ft. diam. 
and 40 ft. high ; Yellow willow, 1^ ft diam. and 35 ft. high ; Lom- 
bardy poplar, 10 ins. diam. and 40 ft. high; Blue and White Ash, 10 ins. 
diiim. and 20 ft. high; Chestnut, 10 ins. diam. and 20 ft. high; Black 
Walnut and Butternut, 10 ins. diam. and 20 ft. high; Elm, 10 ins. diam. 
and 20 ft. high; Birch (varieties), 10 ins. diam. and 25 ft. high; Larch, 
8 ins. diam. and 24 ft. high. The different varieties of evergreens will 
make an average growth of 18 to 20 ins. in height annually. The long- 
evity of various trees, as estimated by Mr. Don, Secretary and Li- 
brarian of the Linusean Society, are as follows: The Dragon's blood 
tree, 4,000 years; Baobab tree, of Senegal, 5,150 years; Decidious 
Cypress, 6,000; Ash, 400; Yew, 3,000; Oak, 1,600; Cedar of Lebanon, 
3,000 ; Juniper, 380 ; Lime, 583 ; Olive, 2,500 ; Apple tree, 80 to 175 ; Pear 
tree, 260; Orange, 1,500; Oriental plane, 1,200; Scotch fir, 90 to 12«; 
Larch, 270; olive, 2,500; Ivy, 600; Balm of Gilead, 30 to 50; Brazil vine 
palm, 150; Brazil cabbage palm, 600 to 700; Date palm, 200 to 300; 
Cocoa nut palm, 330; Oriental plane, 1,200. 1 lb. of catechu is equiva- 
lent for tanning purposes to 7 to 8 lbs. of oak bark. Terra japonica is 
mimosa catechu. 

Relative Hardness of Woods. — Taking shell bark hickory as 
the highest standard of our forest trees, and calling that 100, other 
trees will compare with it for hardness as follows: — 



Shell bark Hickory 


100 


Red Oak, 


69 


Wild Cherry, 


55 


Pignut Hickory, 


96 


White Beech, 


65 


Yellow Pine, 


54 


White Oak, 


84 


Black Walnut, 


65 


Chestnut, 


52 


White Ash, 


77 


Black Birch, 


62 


Yellow Poplar, 


51 


Dogwood, 


75 


Yellow Oak, 


60 


Butternut, 


43 


Scrub Oak, 


73 


Hard Maple, 


56 


White Birch, 


43 


White Hazel, 


72 


White Elm, 


58 


White Pine, 


30 


Apple Tree, 


70 


Red Cedar, 


56 







Timber intended for posts, is rendered almost proof agauist rot by 
thorough seasoning, charring, and immersion in hot coal tar. 

The slide of Alpnach, extending from Mount Pilatus to Lake 
Lucerne, a distance of 8 miles, is composed of 25,000 trees, stripped of 
their bark, and laid at an inclination of 10° to 18°. Trees placed in 
the slide rush from the mountain into the lake in 6 minutes. 

The Alps comprise about 180 mountains, from 4000 to 15,732 feet 
high, the latter being the height of Mont Blanc, the highest spot in 
Europe. The summit is a sharp ridge, like the roof of a house, con- 
sisting of nearly vertical granite rocks. The ascent requires 2 days, 
G or 8 guides are required, and each guide is paid 100 francs (£4). It 
was ascended by 2 natives, Jacques Belmat and Dr. Packard, Aug. 
8, 1786, at 6 a.m. They staid up 30 miuutes, with the thermometer 
at 14° below the freezing point. The provisions froze in their pockets ; 
their faces were frostbitten, lips swollen, and their sight much weak- 
ened, but they soon recovered on their descent. De Saussure records 
in his ascent, August 2, 1760, that the color of the sky was deep blue ; 
the stars were visible in the shade ; the barometer sunk to 16.08 inches 
(being 27.08 in Geneva); the thermometer was 26% °, in the sun, 29" 
(being 87° at Geneva). The thin air works the blood into a high fever 



SCIENTIFIC FACTS, ETC. 119 

you feel as if you hardly touched the ground, and you can scarcely 
make yourself heard. A Frenchwoman, Mademoiselle d'Angeville, 
ascended in September, 1840, being dragged up the last 1200 feet by 
the guides, and crying out, " If I die, carry me to the top." When 
there, she made them lift her up, that she might boast she had been 
higher than any man in Europe. The ascent of these awful solitudea 
is most perilous, owing to the narrow paths, tremendous ravines, icy 
barriers, precipices, etc. In many places every step has to be cut in 
the ice, the party being tied to each other by ropes, so that if one slips 
he may be held up by the rest, and silence is enforced, lest the noise 
of talking should dislodge the avalanches of the Aiguille du Midi. 
The view from the mountain is inexpressibly grand. On the Alps, 
the limit of the vine is an elevation of IGOO feet; below 1000 feet, figs, 
oranges, and olives, are produced. The limit of the oak is 3800 ft. , of 
the chestnut 2800 ft., of the pine 6500 feet, of heaths and furze to 8700 
and 9700 ft. ; and perpetual snow exists at an elevation of 8200 feet. 

On the Andes, in lat. 2°, the limit of perpetual snow is 14,760 ft. In 
Mexico, lat. 19°, the limit is 13,800 ft. ; on the peak of Teneriffe, 11,454 
ft. ; on Mount Etna, 9000 ft. ; on Caucasus, 9900 ft. ; on the Pyre- 
nees, 8400 ft. ; in Lapland, 3100 ft. ; in Iceland, 2890 ft. The walnut 
ceases to grow at an elevation of 3000 ft. ; the yellow pine at 0200 
ft. ; the Ash at 4800 ft. ; and the Fir at 6700 ft. The loftiest inhabited 
spot on the globe is the Port House of Aucomarca, on the Andes, in 
Peru, 16,000 feet above the level of the sea. The 14tli peak of the 
Himalayas, in Asia, 25,659 feet high, is the loftiest mountain in tlip 
world. 

Lauterbrunnen is a deep part of an Alpine pass, where the sun 
hardly shines in winter. It abounds with falls, the most remarkable 
of which is the Staubbach, which falls over the Balm precipice in a 
drizzling spray from a height of 925 feet; best viewed in the morning 
sun or by moonlight. In general it is like a gauze veil, with rain- 
bows dancing up and down it, and when clouds hide the top of tho 
mountain, it seems as if poured out of the sky. 

In Canada, the falls of Montmorenci are 250 feet high, the falls of 
Niagara (the Horse Shoe Falls) are 158 feet high and 2000 feet wide, 
the American Falls are 164 feet high and 900 feet wide. The Yose- 
mite Valley Falls are 2600 feet high, and the Ribbon Falls of the 
Yosemite are 3300 feet high. The water-fall of the Arve, in Bavaria, 
is 2000 feet. • 

The Pekiods of Gestation are the same in the horse and ass, 
or 11 months each ; camel, 12 months ; elephant, 2 years ; lion, 5 
months ; buffalo, 12 months ; in the human female, 9 months ; cow, 

9 month*; sheep, 5 months ; dog, 9 weeks ; cat, 8 weeks ; sow, lU 
weeks ; she wolf, from 90 to 95 days. The goose sits 30 days, swans 
42, hens 21, ducks 30, peahens and turkeys 28, canaries 14, pigeons 
14, parrots 40. 

Ages of Animals, &c. — ^Elephant, 100 years and upwards ; 
Rhinoceros, 20 ; Camel, 100 ; Lion, 25 to 70 ; Tigers, Leopards, 
Jaguars, and Hyenas (in confinement), about 25 years ; Beaver, 50 
years ; Deer, 20 ; Wolf, 20 ; Fox, 14 to 16 ; Llamas, 15 ; Chamois, 25 ; 
Monkeys and Baboons, 16 to 18 years ; Hare, 8 ; Squirrel, 7 ; Rab- 
bit, 7 ; Swine, 25 ; Stag, under 50 ; Horse, 30 ; Ass, 30 ; Sheep, under 

10 ; Cow, 20 ; Ox, 30 ;''Swans, Parrots and Ravens, 200 ; Eagle, 100 ; 
Geese, 80 ; Hens and Pigeons, 10 to 16 ; Hawks, 30 to 40 ; Crane, 24 ; 



120 SCIENTIFIC FACTS, ETC 

Blackbird, 10 to 12 ; Teacock, 20 ; Pelican, 40 to 50 ; Thrush, 8 to 10 ; 
Wren, 2 to 3 ; Nightingale, 15 ; Blackcap, 15 ; Linnet, li to 23 ; Gold- 
finch, 20 to 24 ; Redbreast, 10 to 12 ; Slrylark, 10 to 30 ; Titlark, 5 to 
6 ; Chaffinch, 20 to 24 ; .Starling, 10 to 12 ; Carp, 70 to 150 ; Pike, 30 
to 40 ; Salmon, lU ; Codiish, 14 to 17 ; Eel, 10 ; Crocodile, 100 ; Tor- 
toise, 100 to 200 ; Whale, estimated, 1,000 ; Queen Bees live 4 years ; 
Drones, 4 months ; Worker Bees, 6 mouths. 

The melody of singing birds ranks as follows : The nightingale 
first, then the linnet, titlark, sky lark, and wood lark. Tlie jnockiug 
bird has the greatest powers of imitation ; the robin and goldfinch 
are superior in vigorous notes. Gardner's notation of the music of 
birds affords conclusive proof that most of the best ideas of the great 
comjjosers were derived from these melodious warblers. One well 
known bird in the Canadian woods takes great delight in calling out, 
Whip poor Will, Whip poor Will ; the red-eyed fly-catcher seems to 
say, Tom Kelly ! Whip ! Tom Kellij ! 

" The condor of Peru has spread wings 40 feet, feathers 20 feet, 
quills 8 inches round. 

In England, a quarter of wheat, comprising 8 bushels, jields 14 
bushels 2^ pecks, divided into seven distinct kinds of flour, as fol- 
lows : Fiue flour, 5 bushels 3 pecks ; bran, 3 bushels ; twenty-penny, 
3 bushels ; seconds, 2 pecks ; pollard, 2 bushels ; fine middlings, 1 
peck ; coarse ditto, 1 peck. 

Fourteen pounds of oats j^roduce 8 lbs. of oatmeal. 
In America, 1 bushel of buckwheat, or 50 lbs., wUl produce 25 
lbs. of buckwheat meal ; more may be obtained, but the quality will 
be impaired. 

A 20-inch Harrison light vertical burr-mill will grind 54 bushels 
of corn per hour. Revolutions per minute, 1300 ; 20 horse ijower 
will drive two such run of stones. 

In England, 2 bushels of seed will produce 18 of wheat in fair 
crops. 

The ancient Greek phalanx comprised 8000 men, formmg a square 
battalion, with spears crossing each other, and shields united. 

Tlie Ptoman legion was composed of 6000 men, comprising 10 
cohorts of 600 men each, with 300 horsemen. 

The ancient battering ram was of massive timber, 60 to 100 feet 
long, fitted with an iron head. It was erected under shelter to pro- 
tect the 60 or 100 men required to work it. The largest was equal in 
force to a 36-lb. shot from a cannon. 

Pile Drivixg on Sandy Soils.— The greatest force will not 
effect a penetration exceeding 15 feet. 

Various Sizes of Type.— It requires 205 lines of Diamond typQ 
to make 12 inches ; of Pearl, 178 ; of Paiby, 166 ; of Nonpareil, 143 ; 
of Minion, 128 ; of Brevier, 112i ; of Bourgeois, 102h ; of Long 
Primer, 89 ; of Small Pica, 83 ; of 'Pica, 71^ ; of English, 64. 

To supply a population estimated at over 40,000,000, there were in 
existence in'the United States and Territories during July, 1876, the 
enormous number of 8129 newspapers and periodicals, embracing 
738 daily, 70 tri-weeklv, 121 semi-weekly, 6235 weekly, 33 bi-weeldy, 
105 semi-monthly, 714 monthly, 13 bi-monthly, and 67 quarterly pub- 
lications. Of tliese, the New" York Sun has the largest circulation, 
having circulated 46,799,769 copies during the year ending March, 
1876 ; weight of white paper consumed, 3,426,610 pounds. Its daily 



SCIENTIFIC FACTS, ETC. 121 

circulation is over 138,000, -weekly 85,000. To supply this demaud 
it requires the combined results of the labor and brains of 249 men, 
a weekly expenditure of about $16,000, and the services of seven 
ponderous Bullock printing presses, having a capacity of 1400 copies 
per minute. Anotlier press, of double size, with a capacity of 50,000 
copies per hour, has been ordered. Each press prints two complete 
copies at one impression, not from type, but from cylindrical stereo- 
type plates which revolve with the press cylinder. 

Wire ropes for the transmission of jiower vary in size from § to | 
inch diam. for from 3 to 300 horse power ; to promote flexibility, the 
rope, made of iron, steel, or copper wire, as may be preferred, is 
provided with a core of hemp, and the speed is 1 mile per minute, 
more or less, as desired. The rope should run on a well-balanced, 
grooved, cast iron wheel, of from 4 to 15 feet diam., according as the 
transmitted power ranges from 3 to 300 horse ; the groove should be 
well cushioned with soft material, as leather or rubber, for the forma- 
tion of a durable bed for the rope. With good care the rope will 
last from 3 to 5 years. 

In paper making, 10 cylinders for preparing the pulp, making 200 
revolutions per minute, 1 jjaper makmg machine, cutting machines, 
pump and accessories, consumed 50 horse power. The machine made 
13 yards of paper per minute, and the ijroduce was 1 ton of paper 
per day of iM hours. In another instance, 28 pulping cylinders and 3 
paper malring machines produced 2 to 3 tons of paper per day of 24 
hours, and consumed 113 horse-power. A Leffel Turbine Wheel, 10 
ins. in diameter, strongly built of fine brass and steel, with German 
silver buckets, is now performing the work of a 120 horse ijower 
engme which it superseded ; it has a head of 228 feet. 

The St. Gothard Tunnel, under the Helvitic Alps, will be, when 
fijiished, 9.3 miles long, and will cost 289,000,000 francs. 

CoATHUPES RuT.E FOR LENGTH OF GuN Bakrels. For the bcst 
shooting, the len.gth of the barrel, measured from the vent hole, should 
be not less than 43 times the diameter of its bore, nor more than 47. 

Proportions of Gunpowder as made by the English Government, is, 
nitre, 75 ; charcoal, 15 ; sulphur, 10. That of the French, nitre, 77 ; 
charcoal, 14, sulphur, 9. A 13 inch Armstrong gun, with a charge of 
90 lbs., ball 344.5 lbs., velocity 1760 ft. per second, penetrated 11 inches 
of solid iron plates at a range of 200 ft. No field piece should be load- 
ed with more powder than a fifth or sixth of the weight of its ball- 
A 32 pounder with a charge of 8 lbs. will penetrate 15.25 ins. of hard 
brick, or 12 ins. of hard freestone, or 35 ins. of granite, at a range of 
200 feet. 

Cannon balls go furthest at an elevation of 30°, and less as the balls 
are less ; the range is furthest when fired from west to east in the 
direction of the earth's motion, which for the diurnal rotation on its 
axis, is at the rate of 1037 miles per hour, and in its orbit, 66,092 miles. 

The air's resistiince is such, than a cannon ball of 3 lbs. weight, 
diameter, 2.78 ins. moving with a velocity of 1800 ft. per second, is 
resisted by a force equal to 156 lbs. 

Estimated Thrust of Screw Propeller with engines of 
1000 Horse Power, 20,000 lbs. 

Brick-layers ascend ladders with loads o^90 lbs., 1 foot per seoDnd. 
There are 484 bricks in a cubic yard, and 4356 in a rod. 

A powsr of 250 tons is necessary to start a vestel weighing 30C0 tons 



122 SCIENTIFIC FACTS, ETC. 

over greased slides on a marine railway, when in motion, 150 tons only 
is required. 

A modem dredging machine, 123 ft. long, beam 26 ft., breadth ever 
all, 11 ft, will raise 180 tons of mud and clay per hour, 11 feet from 
water-line. 

In tanning, 4 lbs. of oak bark make 1 lb. of leather. 

Flame is quenched in air containing 3 per cent, of carbonic acid ; the 
eame per ceutage is fatal to animal life. 

100 parts of oak make nearly 23 of charcoal; beech, 21; deal, 19; 
apple, 23.7; elm 23; ash, 25; birch, 24; maple, 22.8; wUlow, 18; pop- 
lar, 20 ; red pine, 22.10 ; white pine, 23. The charcoal used in gun- 
powder is made from willow, alder, and a few other woods. Th(» 
charred timber found in the ruins of Herculaneum has under- 
gone no change in 1800 years. 

Four volumes of nitrogen, and one of oxygen compose atmospheric 
air in all localities on the globe. 

Air extracted from pure water, under an air pump, contains 34.8 
per cent, of oxygen. Fish breathe this air, respiiing about 35 times 
per minute. The oxyhydrogen lime light may be seen from moun- 
tains at the distance of 200 miles round. 

Lightning is reflected 150 to 200 miles. 

1000 cubic feet of 13 candle gas is equivalent to over 7 gals, of sperm 
oil; 52.9 lbs. of tallow candles; and over 44 lbs. of sperm candles. 

The time occupied by gas in travelling from a gas well (in Penn- 
sylvania) through 32 miles of pipe was 22 minutes, pressure at tlie 
well was 55 lbs. per inch, pressure at discharge 49 lbs. 

The flight of wild ducks is estimated at 90 miles per hour, that of 
theswift^at 200 miles, carrier pigeons 38 miles, swallows 60 miles, 
migratory birds have crossed the Mediterranean at a speed of 120 
miles per hour. 

Were it not for dry rot, ships would last on the average about 30 
years, as it is their average duration, when built of ordinary timber, 
is 7, 8 and 9 years. 

Calomel is composed of 50 grs. of mercury and 10^ of chlorine 
gas. 

Carbon is the base of organic structures, and Silica of mmeral. 

At birth, the beats of the pulse are from 165 to 104, and the inspira- 
tions of breath, from 70 to 23. From 15 to 20, the pulsations are from 
90 to 57, the inspirations, from 24 to 16, from 29 to 50, the pulsations 
are 112 to 56, the inspirations, 23 to 11. In usual states it is 4 to 1. 
The action of the heart distributes 2 ozs. of blood from 70 to 80 times 
in a minute. 

Daniell makes the heat in a common parlor fire 1141°. Solids be- 
come incandescent in the dark, at 600° or 700°, but not in daylight 
till 800° or 1000°. 

Sea water is seldom below 40°, springs about 45° ; and pools and 
small rivers are as the atmosphere. The lowest heat for fermenta- 
tion Is 57.5, the highest 77°. The lowest for drying herbs, etc., 77° 
and the highest 122°. 

The mean heat of the human body is 98° and of the skin 90° 
Tea and coffee are usually drank at 110°. 

The explosion of nitro-glycerine is so sudden that it acts against 
the air as against a solid body, thus forming a deep chasm in the 
earth. 



SCIENTIFIC FACTS, ETC 



123 



Decuial Notation, &c.— The^rsifignreto the right of the point is 
always tenths, tlie second figure from the point is always hundredths, th« 
third is thouaaiidtlis, &c., thus 4.5, is 4 uuits and 5 tenths; 9.24 is 9 uiiita 
and 24 huiidreths ; or 8.610 is 8 units and 610 thousandths. Again, .1 io 
1-10, .01 is 1-100, and .001 is 1-1000. The Arithmetical Signs and their 
signification can be formed by consulting the Tabular part of this work. 

Value of Metals. — The following table, transcribed from the 
Iron Af/e, may be considered as showing the value of M different 
kinds of metal daring July, 1876. The prices of the rarer metals hav" 
been taken from TrommsdorfE's and Schneliardt's last price list, and 
the initials indicate the authorities consulted. The avordapois lb. is 
assumed as being equal to 453 grammes, and the mark to 24c. gold :— 



Metal. 



Value in 


Price 


in 


Au- 


gold per lb. 


gold per 


thor- 


Avord. 


gramme. 


ity. 


$4,792.40 


§10.80 


S 


3,261.60 


7.20 


S 


2,466.20 


5.40 


S 


2,446.20 


5.40 


S 


2,446.20 


6.40 


s 


2,228.76 


4.92 


s 


2,935.44 


6.48 


s 


1,671.57 


3.96 


s 


1,630.08 


3.60 


s 


1,576.44 


3.48 


s 


l,.'->22.08 


3.36 


T 


1,304.61 


2.88 


T 


1,250.28 


2.76 


S 


1,032.84 


2.28 


T 


924.12 


2.04 


S 


738.39 


1.63 


T 


652.32 


1.44 


T 


498.30 


1.10 


T 


46G.59 


1.03 


T 


434.88 


96 


T 


299.72 




,^ 


239.80 


52 




196.20 


43 




196.20 


43 




122.31 


27 


,^ 


108.72 


24 


T 


54..34 


12 


T 


45.30 


10 


T 


22.65 


05 


T 


18.60 






16.30 


036 


S 


12.68 


028 


s 


3-80 


008 


T 


3.26 


007 


T 


3.26 


007 


T 


1.95 


0043 


S 


1.00 




.. 


36 






T 


25 








22 






Prioct 


15 






taken 


10 






from 


6 
1*^ 






recent 






quota- 
Uoni 



Vanadium, cryst. fused. . . 

Kubidium, wire 

Calcium, electrolytic 

Tantalum, pure 

Cerium, fused globules. . . . 

Lithium globules 

Lithium, wire 

Erbium, fused 

Didgmium, fused 

Strontium, electrolytic — 

Indium, pure 

Kuthenium, pure 

Columbium, fused 

Rhodium 

Barium, electrolytic 

Thallium 

Osmium 

Palladium 

Iridium 

Urariura 

Gold 

Titanium, fused 

Tellurium, fused 

Chromium, fused 

Platinum, fused 

Manganese, fused 

Molybdenum ....... 

Magnesium, wire and tape 

Potassium, globules 

Silver 

Aluminum, bar 

Cobalt, cubes 

Nickel, cubes 

Cadmium 

Sodium 

Bismuth, crude 

Mercury 

Antimony 

Tin. 

Copper 

Arsenic 

Zinc 

Lead 

Iron 



124 SCIENTIFIC FACTS, ETC. 

Aksexical Soap for tptr Skins of ^yILD Animals. — The skim 
must be well scraped and divested of all fat, aud well rubbed with the 
follo%viu£c soap. Lime, 1 oz. ; camphor, 1 oz. ; arsenic, 1 oz. ; alum, 1 oz. 
Mix all thoroughly with 1 lb. of yellow soap. This will prove a. good 
preservative. 

Positive Curb for Foot Rot in Sheep. — This is caused by 
exposure to bad weather, more especially to wet pasturage, etc. When 
lame, pass them througli a trough containing a warm solution of 
arsenic, of nearly the following strength: 4 ozs. arsenic, 4 ozs. of 
soda ash or pcrtash, 1 gal. of water. Boil till dissolved; keep it 
about three inches deep, so as to cover the foot as the sheep walk 
through; the trough should be about 20 feet long, and just wide 
enough to admit one sheep walking after the other. 

A 74 gun ship consumes 2000 tons or trees, the produce of 57 acres 
for a century. 

The deepest coal mine in England is, or was, at Killingworth, 
near Newcastle, and the mean annual temperature, at 400 yards be- 
low the surface, is 77°, and at 300 yards, 70°, while at the surface it 
is but 48°, being 1° of increase for every l.") yards. This explains 
the origin of hot springs, for, at .3300 yard's, the heat would be equal 
to boiling water, taking 20 yards to a degree. Tlie heat of the Bath 
waters is 110°, hence they Avould appear to rise 1,.320 yards. 

Perou relates, that at the depth of 2144 feet in the sea, the ther- 
mometer falls to 45°, when it is 86° at the surface. 

Swemberg and Fourier calculate the temperature of the celestial 
spaces at 50 deg. centigrade below freezing. 

In Northern Siberia, the ground is frozen permanently to the 
depth of (J60 feet, aud only thaws to the extent of 3 or 4 feet in sum- 
mer. Below 600 feet uiterua! heat begins. 

River water contains about 30 grs. of solid matter in every cub-ic 
foot. Fresli water springs of great size abound under the sea. Per- 
haps the mo.st remarkable springs exist in California, where they are 
noted for producmg sulphuric acid, ink, and other remarkable pro- 
ducts. 

St. Winifred's Well, in England, evolves 120 tons of water per 
mhiute, furnishing abimdaut water power to drive 11 mills within 
little more than a mile. 

The Nile has a fall of 6 ins. in 1000 miles. Tlie rise of the river 
commences in June, continuing until the middle of August, attiiiuiijg 
an elevation of from 24 to 26 ft. and dowing the valley of Egypt, 13 
miles wide. In 1829 it rose to 26 cubits, by which 30.000 persons 
were drowned. It is a terrible climate to live in, owing to the fester- 
ing heat, and detestable exhalations from the mud, etc., left on the 
retiring of the Nile, whicli adds about 4 inches to the soil in a cen- 
tury, and enroaches on the sea 16 feet every year. Bricks have been 
foond at a depth of 60 feet, showing the vast antiquity of the coun- 
try. In productiveness of soil it is excelled by no ctaer in the world. 

Belzoni considered the tract between the first and second cata- 
racts of the Nile, as the hottest on the globe, owing to there being no 
rain. The natives do not credit the phenomenon of water falling 
from above. Hence it is, that all monuments are so nicely preserved 
Buckingham found a building left unfinished about 4000 years ago 
and the chalk marks on the stones were still perfect. 

Porapey's Pillar is \)2 ft. high, and 27^ round at the base. 



SCIENTIFIC FACTS, ETC 125 

The Freucli removed a red granite columu 95 ft. hioh, weighing 
210 tons, from Thebes and carried it to Paris. The display of costly 
architectural rnius at Thebes is one of the most astonishing to be 
seen anywhere iu the world. The ruins and costly buildings, iu old 
Eastern countries, are so vast in their proportions and so many in 
number, that it would require volumes to describe them. 

Babel, now called Birs Nimroud, built at Babylon by Belus, was 
used as an observatory, and as a temple of the Sun. It was com- 
posed of 8 square towers, one over the other, in all 070 ft. high, and 
the same dimensions on eacli side, on the ground . 

The Coliseum at Rome, built by Vespasian for 100,000 spectators, 
was in its longest diameter 615.5 feet, and in the shortest 510, em- 
braced 5^ acres, and was 120 feet high. 

Eight'aqueducts supplied ancient liome with water, delivering 40 
millions of cubic feet daily. That of Claudia was 47 miles long, and 
100 feet high, so as to furnish the hills. Martia was 41 miles, of 
which 37 were on 7000 arches, 70 feet high. These vast erections would 
never have been built had the Romans known that water always rises 
to its own level. 

The Temple of Diana, at Ephesus, was 425 feet long, and 225 
broad, with 127 columns, GO feet high, to suijport the roof. It was 
220 years in building. 

Solomon's Temple, built B. C. 1014, was 60 cubits, or 107 feet in 
length, the breadth, 20 cubits, or 36 feet, and the height, 30 cubits, 
or 54 feet. The porch was 36 feet long and 18 feet wide. 

The largest of the Egyptian pyramids is 543 feet high, 693 feet on 
the sides, and its base covers 11 acres. The layers of stones are 208 
in number ; many stones are over 30 feet long, 4 broad, and 3 thick. 
The Temple of Ypsambal, in Nubia, is enormously massive, and 
cutout of the solid rock. Belzoni found in it 4 immense figures 65 ft. 
high, 25 ft. over the shoulders, with a face of 7 ft. and the ears over 
3 ft. 

Sesostris erected in the temple in Memphis, immense statues of him- 
self and his wife, 50 ft. high, and of his children, 28 ft. 

In the Temple of the Sun, at Baalbec, are stones more than GO ft. 
long, 24 ft. thick, and 16 broad, each embracing 23,000 cubic feet, cut, 
sqi^ared, sculptured, and transported from neigh boring quarries. Six 
enormous columns are each 72 ft. high, composed of 3 stones, 7 ft. in 
diameter. Sesostris is credited with having transported from the 
mountains of Arabia, a rock 32 feet wide, and 240 ft. long. 

The engineering appliances used by the ancients in the movement 
of these immense masses are but imperfectly understood at the 
present day. 

During modem times, a block of granite weighing 1217 tons, now 
used as the pedestal of the equestrian statute of Peter the Great, at 
St. Petersburg, was transported 4 miles by land over a railway and 13 
miles in a vast caisson by water. The railway consisted of two lines 
of timber furnished with hard metal grooves ; between these grooves 
were placed spheres of hard brass about 6 ins. diametei". On tliese 
spheres the frame with its massive load was easily moved by 60 men 
working at cajistans with treble-purchase block. 

Ii\ 1716, while yet but 28, the illustrious Swedenborg contrived to 
transport (on rolling machines of his own invention), over valleys and 
mountains, 2 galleys, 5 large boats, and 1 sloop, from Stromstadt to 



126 FRENCH MEASURES, ETC. 

Iderf jol (whicli divides Sweden from Norway on the South), a distanc* 
of 14 miles ; by which means, Charles XII. was able to carry on hia 
plans, and, under cover of the galleys and boats, to transport on pon- 
toons, his heavy artillery to the very waUs of Frederickshall. 

As an expouout of the laws of friction, it may be stated that a square 
stone, weighing 1080 lbs. which required a force of 758 lbs. to drag it 
along the floor of a quarry, roughly chiselled, required only a fcrce of 
22 lbs. to mov e it when mounted on a platform and rollers over & plank 
floor. 

Water is the absolute master, former, and secondary agent of tho 
power of motion in every thing terrestrial. It is the irresistible power 
which elaborates everything, and the waters contain more organized 
beings than the land. 

Rivei-s hold in suspension 100th of their volume (more or less) of 
mud, so that if 36 cubic miles of water (the estimated quantity) flow 
daily into the sea, 0. 30 cubic miles of soil are daily displaced. The 
Rhine carries to the sea every day 145.9S0 cubic feet of mud. The 
Po carries out the land 228 ft. per annum, consequently Adria, which 
2500 years ago, was on the sea, is now over 20 miles from it. 

The enormous amount of alluvium deposited by the Mississippi is 
almost incalculable, and renders necessary the extensive engineering 
operations, which are now (1876) being prosecuted in order to remove 
tiie impediments to navigation. 

French Measures with the English Equivalents. Measures 
OF Length. — Myrimeter, equivalent to 10,000 meters, or to 6 miles, 1 fur- 
long, 28% poles. Kilometer, 1,000 meters, or to 3,280 ft. and 10 ins. 
Hectometer, 100 meters, 328 ft. and 1 inch. Decameter, 10 meters, equal 
to 33 and 4-5tli3 ft. Meter, the unit of the French measure of length, 
equal to 39.36 inches. Decimeter, 1-10 of a meter, equal to 3.97 inches. 
Centimeter, 1-100 of a meter, or .39371 inch (nearly 2-5 ths inch). Millimeter, 
1-lOOOth of a meter, or .0391 inch. 

Surface Measures. — Myriare, 100,000 square meters, equal to 246 
acres, 3 roods, and 20 poles. Hectare, 10,000 square metera, equal to 
11.960 English squara yards, or to 2.171 acres. Are, 100 square meters, or 
119.6 square yards. Centare, 1 square meter, or 1550 square inches. 

Measures of Volume. — KUoliteror Steere, the unit of measure for solid 
bodies, 1,000 liters, or 1 cubic meter, equal to 35.3171 cubic ft., or to 1-308 cubio 
yards, or to 264.17 gallons. Hectoliter, 100 liters, orl-lOth cubic meter, equal 
to 2 bush., and 3.35 pecks, or 26.417 gals. Decaliter, 10 liters, or 10 cubic deci- 
meters, equal to 610.28 cubic inches, or to 9.08 qts., or to 2 and 1-5 Imperial 
gals. Liter. 1 cubic decimeter, a unit of capacity, equal to a little less than 
an English quart, or precisely .908 qt. Deciliter, 1-lOth liter, or 1 cubic deci- 
meter, 6.1022 cubic inches, equal to 0.176 pint, or .845 gill. CentUliter, 
1-lOOth liter, or 10 cubic decimeters, equal to .6102 cubic inch, or .338 fluid 
oz. Milliliter, 1-lOOOth liter, or 1 cubic centimeter, equal to .061 cubio 
Inch, or .27 fluid drm. 

Measures of Weight.— iWiZZier or Tonneau, 1,000,000 grains, or 1 
cubic meter of water at its maximum density, equal to 2204.6 lbs. 
avoirdupois. Quintal, 100,000 grains, or 1 hectoliter of water, equal to 
220.46 lbs. avoirdupois. Myrigram, or 10,000 grains, or 10 liters of water, 
equal to 22.046 lbs. avoirdupois. Kilogram or Kilo, 1000 grains, or 1 liter of 
water, equal to 2 lbs. 3 ozs. 65 drs. (2.206 lbs.) avoirdupois. Hectogram, 
100 grains, or 1 deciliter of water, equal to 3.5277 ozs. avoirdupois. 
Oram, the unit of weight, being the weight of 1 cubic centimeter of 
water, or about I514 grains troy. Decigram, 1-10 grain, or 1-10 of a cubio 
centimeter of water, equal to 1.&132 grains troy. Centigram, 100th gram, 
or 10 cubic millimeters of water, or equal to 1.543 grains troy. Milligram, 
I- 1000 gram, or 1 cubic millimeter of water, equal to .0151 grains troy. 



.V' 



■WEIGHTS OF METALS, ETC 127 

For surface measurement, the square dekameter is used under the term ot 
Abe. 

Number op Ccbic Feet in a Tox (Avoirdupois) of Ditferent 
Materials.— Cast Iron, 4-98 ; Wrought Iron, 4.59 ; Bar Iron, 4-69 ; Steel, 
tjoft, 4-57 ; Steel, Hard, 4-59 ; Copper, Sheet, 4-62 ; Copper, Cast, 404 ; Brass, 
4.17 ; Lead, 3-15 ; Tin, Cast, 4-91 ; Zinc, Cast, 49-8 ; Granite, 13-514 ; Marble, 
13-343; Paving Stone, 14-83; Millstone. 14-42; Grindstones, 17 ; Common 
Stone, 14-22; Fire Brick, 16.284 ; Brick, Mean, 21-961; Anthracite Coal, 
21-284 and 24-958 ; Cannel Coal, 23-609 ; Cotton Bale, Mean, 154-48 ; Pressed 
ditto, from 89-0 to 1-14 ; Hay, Bale, 23-517 ; Bale, Mean, 154-48 ; Hay,PresB6d 
89-G ; Clay, 158-69; Common Soil, 16-335 ; Mud, 21-987 ; Loose Sand, 23-893 ; 
Eai-th \vith Gravel, 16-742 ; India Rubber, 39.69 ; Plaster of Paris, 21-3 ; Glass 
12-44 ; Ice, 38-58 ; Chalk (British), 17-92 ; Tallow, 38 ; Oil, 39 ; Fresh Water, 
35-84 ; Salt Water, 34-931. 

Weight of Various Materials in Lbs. (Avoirdupois) per Cubic 
Toot.— Pure Gold, 1-203-6 ; Standard Gold, 1102-9 ; Hammered Grold, 1210-11 ; 
Pure Silver, 654-6 ; Hammered Silver, 6569 ; Standard Silver, C58-4 ; Cast 
Brass, 524-8 ; Brass Wire, 534; Bismuth, Cast, 613-9; Antimony, 418-9; 
Bronze, 513-4 ,- Cobalt, Cast, 488-2 ; Copper, Cast, 549-3 ; Copper, Sheet, .557-2; 
Copper, Wire, 554-9; Wrought Iron, 486-75: Iron P'atcs, 481-5 ; Cast lion, 
450-4; Gun Metal, 543-75 ; Cast Lead. 709-5 ; Rolled do., 711-75; Red Lead. 
658-75 ; Tin, 455-7 ; Platinum, Pure, 1218-8 ; Hammered do., 1271, Men-uiy. 
eo'', Fluid, 848 ; mercury, Solid, 977 ; Nickel, Cast, 487-9; Steel, Plates, 480-75; 
Steel, Soft, 489-6; Type Metal, 653-1; Zinc, Cast, 4.39; Granite, 1G5-75; Mill- 
stone, 155-3; Marble, Mean, of nineteen Kinds. 180; Grindstones, 133-9; 
Firebrick, 137*5; Tile, 114-44; Brick, Mean, 102; Clav, 120; Limestone, Mean, 
of seven sorts, 184-1; Loose Earth or Sand, 95; Coarse Sand, 112-5,- Ordi- 
nary Soil, 124; Mud, 102; CLay and Stones, 160; Slate, 167 to 181-25; Plaster 
of Paris, 73-5; Plumbago, 131-35; Anthracite Coal, from 89-75 to 102-5; Can- 
nel Coal, from 77-33 to 82-33; Charcoal from Hard Wood, 18-5; ditto from 
Soft Wood, 18; Port Wine, 62-31 ; Fresh Water, 62-5; Sea Water, 64-3; Dead 
Sea Water, 77-5; Vinegar, 67-5 ;Alum, 107-10; Asbestos, Starry, 192-1; Ice at 
32^57-5; Sulphur, 127-1; Peat^ 375 to 83-1; Marl, Mean, 109-33; Hydraulic 
Lime, 171-60; quartz, 16625 ; Rock Crystal, 17004; Salt, Common, 133.12 ; 
Lard, -59-20; Whale Oil, 57-70; Olive Oil, 57-19. 

Weight of a Cubic Inch of Various Metals in Pounds.— 
Hammered Gold, .701 lbs ; Cast do. (pure), .608 ; 20 Carats Fine do., .567'; 
Hammered Silver, .382 ; Pure do., .378 ; Cast Steel, -287 ; Cast Iron, .263 ; 
Sheet Iron, .279 ; Rolled Platinum, .797; Wire do., .762; Hammered do, .735;; 
Sheet Copper, .323 ; Sheet Brass, .304 ; Lead, .410 ; Cast Tin, .264 ; Cast 
Zinc, .245. 

Sundry Commercial Weights.— A ton of wool is 2 stones of 14 lbs. 
each. A pack of wool is 240 lbs. A sack of wool is 22 stone of 14 lbs., or 
308 lbs. In Scotland, it is 24 of 16 lbs. A keel of 8 Newcastle chaldrons 
is 15^^ London chaldrons. 56 or 60 lbs. is a truss of hay, 40 lbs. a truss 
of straw ; 36 trusses a load. A bushel of rock salt is 65 lbs. ; of crushed 
salt, 56 lbs.; of foreign salt, 84 lbs. A tierce of beef, in Ireland, is 304 lbs.; 
and of pork, 320 lbs. A fodder of lead is 191/2 cwt. in London and 21 cwt. 
in the North. A man's load is 5 bushels, a market load 40, or 5 quarters. 
A last is 10 quarters of com, or 2 cart loads, 12 sacks of wool, 24 barrels 
of gunpowder, 12 barrels of ashes, herring, soap, &c., aud 18 barrels of 
salt. A hundred of salt is 126 barrels. 

Sundry Measures of Length — The hair's breadth Is the smallest, 
of which 48 are an inch. Four barley-oorna laid breadthways, are % of 
&n inch, called a digit, and 3 barley-corns lengthways are an inch. An 
Inch is divided into 12 lines and by mechanics into Sths. A nail used in 
cloth measure, is 2Vi ins. or the 10th of a yard. A palm is 3 ins. and a 
span 9 ins. (See Talue of Measures of length, for other designations.) An 
English Statute mile is 1760 yds. or 5280 ft., an Irish mile 2340 yds., a 
Scotch mile 1984 yds. ; 80 Scotch miles being equivalent to 91 English, 
and 11 Iiish to 14 English. 



128 WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



IMEASUEES OF LENGTH. 



4 In. make 1 Hand. 

r.92 In. " ILink. 

18 In. "1 Cubit. 

12 In, " 1 Foot. 

6 Ft. " 1 Fathom 



3 Feet make 1 Yard. 

5% Yds. " 1 Rod or Pol*. 
40 Poles " 1 Furlong, 

8 Fur. " 1 Mile. 
69 1-12 Miles make 1 Begres. 
60 Geographical Miles makes 1 Degree. 



MEASURES OF SURFACE. 
144 Square Inches make 1 Square Foot. 
9 Square Feet " 1 Square Yard. 
SOVi Square Yards " 1 Rod, Perch or Pole, 
40 Square Rods " 1 Square Rood. 
4 Square Roods " 1 Square Acre, or 43,560 sq. ft. 
10 Square Chains " 1 Square Acre. 
640 Square Acres " 1 Square Mile. 

Gunter's Chain equal to 2'Z Yards or 100 Links. 



MEASURES OF SOLIDITY. 
1728 Cubic Inches make 1 Cubic Foot. 
27 Cubic Feet " 1 Cubic Yard. 



AVOIRDUPOIS "WEIGHT. 

27^^ Grains make 1 Drachm (dr.) or 27-3^ Grains. 

16 Drachms " 1 Ounce (oz.) or 437V2 " 

16 Ounces " 1 Pound (lb.) or 7000 " 

28 Pouiids " 1 Quarter (qr.) 

4 Quarters " 1 Hundred- \V^ eight (cwt.) 

20 Cwts. " ITon. 



TROY WEIGHT. 

24 Grains make 1 Pennyweight, or 24 Graiua. 
20 Penny wts " 1 Ounce, or 480 " 

12 Ounces " 1 Pound, or 5760 " 

APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT. 

SO Grains make 1 Scruple. I 8 Drachms make 1 Ounce. 

3 Scruples " 1 Drachm. | 12 Ounces " 1 Pound. 

45 Drops=l teaspoonf ul or a fluid Drachm; 2 tablespoonfuls=l os. 

DIAMOND WEIGHT. 
16 Parts make 1 Grain (S-lOths Grain, Troy). 
14 Grains " 1 Carat (3 l-5th Grains, Troy). 



LIQUID MEASURE. 

2 Gallons make 1 Peck. 
311^ Gallons " 1 Barrel. 
54 Gallons " 1 Hhd. 



4 Gills make 1 Pint. 
a Pints " 1 Quart. 
4 Quarts " 1 (gallon. 

DRY MEASURE. 
8 Quarts make 1 Peck. I 8 Bushels make 1 Quarter. 

4 Pecks " 1 Bushel. | 36 Bushels " 1 Chaldron. 

1 Bushel equal to 2815i/i cubic in. nearly. 
A bushel of Wheat is on an average 60 lbs.; Barley or Buck-wheat, 
46 lbs. ; Indian Corn or Rye, 56 lbs. ; Oats, 30 lbs. ; Salt, 70 lbs. 14 lbs. of 
Lead or Iron make 1 Stone ; 21% Stone, 1 Pig. 1 Bbl. of Flour contains 
196 lbs. ; Beef or Pork, 200 lbs. The Imperial Gallon is 10 lbs. avoirdu- 
pois of pure water ; the Pint 1 1-4 lbs. 1 Gal. Sperm Oil weighs, 71/4 
lbs. ; 1 do. of Whale Oil, 7 lbs. 11 ozs. ; 1 do. of Linseed. 7% lbs. ; 1 do. of 
Olive, 71/2 lbs. ; 1 do. Spts. c< Turpentine, 7 lbs. 5 ozs. ' Proof Spirits 
7 lbs. 15 ozs. ; 1 do. of Ale, 10.5 lbs. 



SCRIPTURE MEASURES, ETC 



129 



ScRiPTCRE Measup.es OF LENQTn.— The great Cubit was 21-888 ins. 
=1.824 ft. and the less 18 ius. A Span the longer=% a cubit=10.944 in8.= 
.911; ft. A epau the less=y3 of a cubit=7.296 ins.=.608 ft. A hand's 
breadtli«=>g of a cubit=3.68} in8.=.304 ft. A finger's breath=1.2-l of a 
Cubit=.912 ins.=.076 ft. A fathom=4 cubits=7.29G ft. Ezeldel's Keed= 
6 cubit8=10.9W ft. The mile=4000 cubits=729G ft. The Stadium, 1-10 of 
their mile=400 cubit8=729.6 ft. The Parasang, 3 of their miles=12,000 
cubits, or 4 English miles and 580 ft. 33.164 miles was a day's journey — 
•ome say 24 miles; and 3500 ft. a Sabbath day's journey; some authorities 
•ay 3W8'ft. 

Script CEE Measures of Capacity. — The Chomer or Homer in King 
Jtmes' translation was 75.625 gals, liquid, and 32-125 pecks dry. The 
Ephah or Bath was 7 gals. 4 pts., 15 ins. sol. The Seah, Ys of Ephah,2 
gals. 4 pts., 3 in. sol. The IIin=;^ of Ephah, 1 gal., 2 pts., 1 in. sol. The 
Omor=l-10 of Ephah, 5 pts., 0.5 ins- sol. The Cab=l-18 of Ephah, 3 pts-, 
10 ins. sol. The Log=7-^ of Ephah, 1/2 pt-j 10 ius. sol. The metretes of 
Syria (John ii. 6)=Cong. Rom. 71/3 Pt^- The Cotyla Eastem=l-100 of 
Ephah, V2 pt. 3 in. sol. This Cotyla contains just 10 ozs. Avordupoia of 
rain water. Omer, 100 ; Ephah, 1000 ; Chomer or Homer, 10,000. 

Scripture "Weight.s and Coins.— The following are the Hebrew 
weights and their equivalents in Troy weight; also their value in pure 
Gold and Silver: — 



Pure 
Gold. 



Pure 

Silver. 



English 
Money. 



The Gerah=-3l7r of a 

Shekel. ...2.°.... 
The Bekah = ^2 

Shekel 

The Shekel 

The Maneh, or 

Mini=00 Shekels 
The Talent = 3000 

Shekels 



lbs. ozs. dwt. gr. 
11 



131/4 

2»/, 



lOVd 



502 



cts. 
47 



84 



cts. 
03 



£ 8. d. f. 

l>/2+ 



1 

2 



2V,+ 
41 



1 10% 28,142 25 



35 32 
1,7GC 23 



7 1 5 

353,1110 ob. 



s. d. 


far. 


$ 


cts. 





0.75 





00 .34.'? 





1.50 





00.687 


r 


2. 





13.75 


2 6 


0. 


13 


75. 



Roman money mentioned in tlie New Testament reduced to English 
and American Standard: — 

£ 
AMite 

A Farthing, about 

A Penny, or Denarius 

APound, or INIiiia 3 

Note — The above determinations of Scripture Measures, Weights, 
&c., are principally by the Rt. Rev. Richard, Bishop of Peterborough. 

GuNTER's Chain, Land jNIeasurement, &-c. — 792 inches constitute 
1 link ; 100 links 1 chain, 4 rods or poles, or GO feet, and SO chains 1 mile. 
A square chain is 16 square poles, ami 10 square chains are 1 acre. Four 
roods are an acre, each containing 1210 square yards, or 34.785 yards, or 
W yards 28 inches e.acli side. 

Forty poles of 30.25 square yards each is a rood, and a pole is 5l^ yards 
each way. 

An acre is 4840 square yards, or 6D yds- 1 ft., 8^,4 Ins. each way ; and 2 
acres, or 9C80 square yds. are 98 yds. 1 ft., 2 ins. each way ; and 3 acres are 
120',4 yds. each way. A square mile, or a U. S. section of Land, is 640 
acres; being 1060 yds. each way ; half a mile, or 880 yds. each way, is 160 
acres ; a quarter of a mile or 4-iO yds. each way, is a, park or farm of 40 
acres ; and a furlong, or 220 yds. each way, is 10 acres. 

Any length or breadth in yds, which multiplied make 4840 is an aero ; 
any which makes 12-10 is a rood, .and 30.25 is a polo. 

An English aero is a square of nearly 70 yds. each way, a Scotch, of 77% 
yds. and an Irish of SSii. yds- 

9 



130 



STRENGTH OF MATERIALS, ETC. 



Nautical DISTA^-CES, Log Lixes.— A nautical mile, the 60tli of a 
degree, is 2026.5 yards ; a marine league, or 20 to a degree, is 6079.5 yard*. 
Lo^r-liues are divided into spaces of 50 feet, and the way measured by a 
halt" minute sand-glass, which bears nearly the same proportion to an 
hour, which 50 feet bears to a mile, the number of knots which run off 
the reel in half a minute showing the number of miles the vessel sails ia 
an hour. The line should be about 150 fathoms long, having 10 fathoms 
between the ship and first knot for stray line. Estimating a mile at 
6139.75 feet, and using a 30" glass, 1 knot=51 ft. 1.95 ins. and 1 fathom, 5 
ft. 1.395 ins. Or if a 28''' glass is used, and 8 divisions, the result will b« 
tlms ; 1 knot =47 ft, 9.024 ins. and 1 fathom=5ft. 11.627 ins. 

Bowditch's Navigatok computes 6120 ft. to a sea mile, which if 
taken as the length with a 28-'' glass, will make the divisionB 47.6 ft. and 
5.95 ft. 
Tensile Stkength of Materials, Sho^wtn-g the Stke>'gth ob 

FOKCE KEQUIEED TO TEAK ASUXDEE 1 SQUAEE IKCH. 

Iron Wire, wrought, 
Swedish bar Iron, 
Russian ■' " 
Mean of English Iron, 
Gun Metal, mean of Iron, 
Clyde, No. 1, " 

« (I 2 " 

Stirling, mean of " 

American, mean of " 
Low Moor, No. 2, cast " 
Crank Shaft " 

American boiler, 

plates. Iron, 
EngUsh plates, mean, 
" " lengthwise, 

" " crosswise, 

German piano steel Wire, 
Cast Steel, maxiiuum, 

" " mean. 
Steel, 100,000 t-c 

Chromo Steel, mean. 
Shear " 
American Tool Co., 

Blistered Steel, soft, j 

Razor " 

Steel pl.ates, lengthwise, 

" " crosswise, 
Yellow metal, 
Cast Copper, 
American Copper, 
Bra«!S Wire, 50,000 

Remakk.s. — Owing to the damage inflicted by the hot tar, tarred rope« 
are 25 per cent, weaker than white ropes. Hemp rope is stronger than 
Manilla, but taiTed hemp and manilla are nearly of equal strength. 
MairiUa ropes are from 25 to 30 per cent, weaker than white ropea. 
Twisted hempen cords will sustain the following weights per pquare 
inch of their section : i/. inch to 1 inch tliick, 8746 lbs. ; 1 to 3 ins. thick. 
6860 lbs. ; 3 to 5 ins. thick, 5345 lbs. ; 5 to 7 ins. thick, 4,860 lbs. Ropes of 
4 strands up to 8 ins. are about 17 per cent, stronger than those having 
hut 3 strands. One-eighth of an inch in diameter of iron will sustain 
more than 1 inch in circumference of hemp rope. In Tredgold's and 
Duleau's experiments, a piece of the best bar iron, 1 inch square, bore a 
weight of 77.373 lbs., while a similar piece of cast iron would be torn 



Lbs. 




Lbs. 


103,000 


Copper Bolts, 


38,000 


72,000 


'• AVire, 


60,000 


69,500 


Brass, 


42,000 


53,900 


Gold, 


20,499 


37,232 


Gold, 5 pts., copper 


1 pt., 60,000 


16,125 


Silver cast, 


40,997 


23,468 


Bronze, 


17,698 to 56,788 


25,764 


Tin cast, block, 


6,000 


45,970 


" Banca, 


2,122 


14,076 


Platijium "Wire, 


6,300 


44,7,'iO 


Zinc, 


7,000 


( 48,000 
t 62,000 


Sheet Lead, 


S,000 


Antimony, 


1,060 


51,000 


Bismuth, cast, 


3,120 


53.800 


Ivory, 


16,070 


48,800 


Manilla Rope, 


9,300 


268,800 


Tarred Hemp Rope 


15,000 


142,000 


AVire, Rope, 


37,000 


88,000 


AVhalebone, 


7,600 


) 130,000 


Leather Belting, 


333 


170.980 


Gutta-percha, 


3,500 


124,000 


Slate, 


12,000 


179,980 


"Well-burned Brick, 


750 


(133,000 


Inferior " 


100 to 290 


104,000 


Portland Stone, 


657 to 1,000 


15,000 


Crown Glass, 


42,346 


96,300 


Limestone, 
Hydraulic Lime, 


670 to 2,800 


93,700 


140 


48,700 


" Cement, 


234 


19,000 


Portland " 


6 mos. 414 


24,2.50 


Plaster of Paris, 


72 



STRENGTH OF MATERIALS, ETC. 



131 



wnnder by a weight of from 16,243 to 19,4&4 lbs. , and 1 square incli of iron 
wire would sustain a mean weight of 126,340 lbs. In sixteen experiment! 
by Mr. Fairbairu and Mr. Hodgkinson, on cast iron, the average strain 
that one square inch sustained was "Vi tons, the weakest bearing 6 tons, and 
the strongest 9% tons. Telford's and Brown's experiments show that mal- 
leable iron will bear, on an average, 27 tons, the weakest being 24 and the 
strongest 29 tons. 

Hodgkinson's and Fairbairn's experiments piftyve that cast iron can 
Bustain a compression of from 3G'^ to 60 tons to the square inch. In this 
respect malleable iron is inferior to cast. With 12 tons to the squaie 
inch it yields, contracts in length, and expands laterally, though it will 
bear 27 tons, or more, without actual fracture. Kennie crushed cast irou 
with a weight of 93,000 lbs. 

Strength of Shafts. — 44 lbs., acting at a foot radius, will twist off 
the neck of a shaft of lead 1 inch diara., and the relative strengths of other 
materials, lead being 1, is as follows :— Tin, 1-4 , copper, 4-3 ; yellow brass, 
4'6 ; gun metal, 5 ; cast iron, 9 ; Swedish iron, 9-5 ; English iron, 10-1 ; 
blistered steel, 16-16 ; shear steel, 17 ; cast steel, 19-5. The strength of a 
Bhaft increase-! as the cube of its diameter. 

A weight of 36,000 lbs. attached to a bar of iron 1 inch square and 1,008 
inches in length, will draw it out 1 inch ; 45,000 will stretch it 2 inches ; 
54,000 lbs., 4 inches ; 63,000, 8 inches ; and 72,000, IC inches, where it will 
finally break. — Prof. Leslie. 

Strrngtii of Cast Irox Beams. — Rule. Multiply the sectional area 
of the bottom flanges in square inches by the depth of the beam in inches, 
and divide the product by the length between the support also iu inches. 
Then 514 times the quotient will be the breaking weight in pounds. 
Tablis suowing the Crushing Strength of various materials 

ON A BASIS of 1 square INCH. 



Materials. 



Crushing 
Weight. 



Materials. 



Crushing 
Weight. 



Quincy Granite, 
Aberdeen " 
Arbroath " 
Portland Cement, 

" Mean, 
Stourbridge Firebrick, 

Hard Brick, 

Common " 

" " Masonry, 

Marblo, Lee, Mass., 

" Italian, 

" Baltimore, small. 



Lbs. 

15,300 

10,360 

7,884 

15,000 

8,300 

1,717 

( 4,368 

( 2,000 

j 4,000 

{ 800 

/KOO 

(500 

22,702 

12,624 

18,061 



Lbs. 

Marble, Baltimore, small, 8,037 

Stock Brick, 2,167 

Portland Cement, 1 sand 1, 1,280 

" " 1 sand 4, 1,244 

Gneiss, 19,600 

Good Mortar, 240 

Common " 120 

Roman Cement, 342 

Sandstone, Seneca, 10,762 

" Acquia Creek, 5,340 

" Adelaide, 2,800 

Brick, Sydney, 2,228 

Clay fine, roiled and baked, 400 

Portland Oolite, 3,850 



Nearly all granites commence to crumble under a superstructure of 
200 feet elevation. 

1 cask of lime (240 lbs.), will make from 7-8 to 8-15 cubic ft. of stiff paste. 
Bricks should be thoroughly wet previous to use. Brick walls should ba 
washed down with diluted sulphuric acid when finished. 

A good Mastic is burnt clav, 93 parts, litharge, 7 parts, all ground very 
fine, and thoroughly dried by artificial heat, mix with linseed oil and 
apply, after giving the surface to wliicli it is to be applied 2 or 3 coats of oil. 

Soot will not adhere to chimneys coated witli mortar to which salt has 
been added in the proportion of 1 peck of salt to 3 of mortar while tem- 
pering. 



132 



FACTS FOR BUILDERS, ETC. 



Table to fi>"d the number of Brick required to construct 
AXY Building, EMBRACING walls, from 4 inches to '^0 inches 

THICK, RECKONING 7 BRICKS TO EACH SUPERFICIAL FOOT. 

Example.— Ueqaired the number of bricks in 100 superficial feet of wall 
12 inches thick. Under 12 inch, and opposite 100, you will find the answer, 
2250, the number of bricks required. 



Superficial 
feet of 
WaU, 


Number of Bricks to Thickness of 


4-inch. 


8-inch. 


12-inch. 


IG-inch. 


20-inch. | 


24-inch. 


1 


7 


15 


23 


30 


as 


45 


2 


15 


30 


45 


60 


75 


90 


3 


23 


45 


68 


90 


113 


135 


4 


80 


60 


90 


120 


150 


ISO 


5 


38 


75 


113 


150 


188 


225 


6 


45 


90 


135 


180 


225 


270 


7 


53 


105 


158 


210 


263 


315 


8 


CO 


120 


ISO 


240 


300 


360 


9 


68 


135 


203 


270 


338 


405 


10 


75 


150 


225 


300 


375 


450 


20 


150 


300 


450 


600 


750 


900 


30 


225 


450 


675 


900 


1125 


1350 


40 


300 


600 


900 


1200 


1500 


1800 


50 


375 


750 


1125 


1500 


1875 


2250 


60 


450 


900 


1350 


1800 


2250 


2700 


70 


525 


1050 


1575 


2100 


2625 


3150 


80 


600 


1200 


1800 


2400 


3000 


3600 


90 


675 


1350 


2025 


2700 


3375 


4050 


100 


750 


1500 


2250 


3000 


3750 


4.500 


200 


1500 


2000 


4500 


6000 


7500 


9000 


300 


2250 


4500 


0750 


9000 


11250 


13500 


400 


3000 


6000 


9000 


12000 


15000 


ISOOO 


600 


3750 


7500 


11250 


15000 


18750 


22500 


600 


4500 


9000 


13500 


18000 


22500 


27000 


700 


5250 


10500 


1.5750 


21000 


26250 


31500 


800 


6000 


12000 


ISOOO 


24000 


30000 


36000 


900 


6750 


1.3500 


20250 


27000 


33750 


45000 


1000 


7500 


15000 


22500 


30000 


37500 


45000 



Facts for Builders. — lOOO shingles, laid 4 ins. to the weather, will 
cover 100 sq. ft. of surface, and 5 lbs. of shingle nails will fasten them on. 

One-:ifth more siding and flooring is needed than the number of sq. ft. 
of surface to be covered, because of the lap in the siding and matching. 

1000 laths will cover 70 yards of sui-face, and 11 lbs. of lath nails will nail 
them on. 8 bushels of good lime, 16 bushels of sand, and 1 bushel of hair, 
■will make enough good mortar to plaster 100 sq. yds. 

A cord of stone, 3 bushels of lime, and a cubic yai'dof sand, will lay 100 
cubic ft. of wall. 

5 courses of brick will lay 1 ft. in height on a chimney, IG bricks in a 
coui-se will make a flue 4 ins. ^vidc and 12 ins. long, and 8 bricks in a 
course will make a flue 8 ins. wide and 16 ins. long. 

Cement, 1 bush., and sand, 2 bush., will cover 3% sq. yds. 1 in. thick, 4V4 
eq. vds. s^ inch thick, and e% sq. yds. y, inch thick. 1 bush, cement ana 
1 of" sand will cover 214 sq. yds. 1 in. thick, 3 sq. yds. % inch thick, and4i^ 
sq. vds. Vo inch thick. 

8 lbs. of Asphalte Flooring composition will cover 1 superiicial ft. % inch 
thick. 308 pounds of finely ground cement will make from3"7 to 3'8 cubic 
feet of stiil paste. 1 cwt. of mastic and 1 gal. of oil will cover li^ yds. at 
84, or 2' 2 at ^'2 inch in thickness. Pointing Mortar consists, by weight, o( 
finely ground cement, 1 T>art to from 3 to 3*^ parts of fine silicious sand, 
mix "under cover, in small quantities at a time. 



EXPANSION OF BODIES, ETC 



133 



Expansion and Contraction of Bodies.— The following table 
exhibits the linear dilatation of various bodies from 32° to 212°, ac- 
ording to Laplace, Smeaton, Roy, etc. 



Flint glass 

Glass (barometer tubes)... . 

" solid rod 

" cast, prism of 

Platinum, per Borda 

Palladium, per Wollaston , 
Gold (French standard) . . , 
Silver (French standard). , 

Copper 8 parts, tin 1 

Copper 

Copper 



Brass 16, tin 1 

Brass wire 

Brass cast. . . 

Solder, tin 1, lead 2.. 

Bismuth 

Speculum metal 

Iron 

Steel (yellow temper ) . 

Tin, Falmouth 

Lead 

Zinc 

Mercury, in volume . . 

Water 

Alcohol 

All the gases , 



1 ofiTr 



ttVt 

T24 



"sii 



JLS-"- 

rtso 
¥ 



to 



tIt 

TFT 

rh 
1 

Tl7 



>V 



iiW 



rtS"i 



w 



TTTff 



J'^T 



Mercury freezes at 40° below zero, and melts at 39°. Kther freezes 
at 47° below zero; wine freezes at 20°; sea water freezes at 2S°3. 
Alcohol has been exposed to 110° and 120° below zero without freez- 
ing]:. Granite decomposes at a red heat. The second's pendulum, of 
39.13D ins., is lengthened by 30° of temperature 128th of an inch, or 8 
vibrations in 24 lionrs. 

Tlie heat conducting powers of metals, etc., are as follows: Gold, 
1000°; platinum, 981°; silver. 973; copper, 898.2; iron, 374.3; zinc, 
363; tin, 303-9; lead, 179.6; marble, 23.6; porcelain, 12.2; fine clay. 11.4. 

1 lb. of coke melts 94 lbs. of ice; 1 lb. of coal, 90 lbs.; 1 lb. of 
vrood, 52 lbs. ; 1 lb. of charcoal, 95 lbs. ; 1 lb. of peat, 19 lbs. The 
capacity of the solar heat all over the globe is the ability to melt an 
icy covering 46 feet in thickness. 

G lbs. white lead added to 1 gal. tar varnish, and .ipplied as paint, will 
prevent damp coining through walls. 



134 DTEnS AND ELEACHERS' RECEIPTS. 

To rKEVi;>T Decay of Yakm IM^I,E3IE^-TS. — "\Ylien not iu uso 
have them sheltered from the sun, -vyiud, ram, and snow. By this 
means, sleighs, Avagons, cart?, ploughs, threshing-machines," har- 
rows, and the like, Avould last twice as long as they would ii left in 
the open air, swelling from moisture one week, and shrinlung tho 
next from the influence of the sun and wind. 

Oiling or Cleaxixg old Caeriage-tops. — Enamel Icathcr-topg 
should be first washed with Castile soap and warm water, then 
oiled with neat's-foot oil ; or sweet oil and a coat of enamel vamish 
put on, the leather will look lilce new. Dashes may be cleaned in tlie 
same maimer, but vamish color is not very beneficial to patent 
leather ; however, wlieu old and cracked, it may bo colored to 
improve the appeartmoe. 

DYERS, BLEACHERS, AND CLOTHIERS' 
DEPARX3IENT. 

In accommodation to the requirements of dyers, many of tlio 
following receipts describe dyes for large quantities of goods, 
but to make them equally adapted for the use of private fam- 
ilies they are usually gircu in even quantities, so that if is quite 
an easy matter to ascertain the quantity of materials required for 
dyeing, when once the weight of the goods is Iniown ; the quantity 
of materials used being reduced in proportion to the smaller quantity 
of goods. 

Use soft "water for all dyeing purposes, if it can be procured, 
using 4 gals, water to 1 lb. of goods ; for larger quantities, a little less 
water will do. Let all the implements used in dyeing bo kept 
perfectly clean. Prepare the goods by scouring well with soap 
and water, washing the soap well out and dipping m 
warm water, previous to immersion in the dye or mordant. Goods 
ehould be well aired, rmsed, and properly himg up after dyeing. 
Silks, and fine goods should be tenderly handled, otherwise injury to 
the fabric will result. 

Saxon Blue. — For 100 lbs. thibet or comb yam, use alum, 20 lbs., 
cream of tartar 3 lbs., mordant 2 lbs. ; extract of indigo 3 lbs., or 
carmine 1 lb., makes a better color. "When aU is dissolved cool the 
kettle to 180° I'ahr. ; enter and handle quickly at first, then let it boil 
\ hour, or until even. Long boiling dims the color. Zephyr worsted 
yam ought to be prepared, first by boiling it in a solution of alum 
and sulphuric acid, then the indigo is added afterwards. 

Green Fustic Dye. — For 50 lbs. of goods use 50 lbs. of fustic with 
alum 11 lbs. Soak iu water until the strength is extracted, put in tlio 
goods until of a good yellow color, remove the chips, and add extract 
of indigo in small quantities at a time, imtil tlie color is satisfactory. 

Purple Blue on Wool. — 100 lbs. of wool are first dipped in the 
blue vat to a light shade, then boiled in a solution of 15 lbs. of alum, 
and 3 lbs. of half refined tartar, for 1^ hours, the wool taken oul, 
cooled, and let stand 24 hours. Then boil in fresh water 8 lbs. of 
powdered cochineal for a few minutes, cool tlio kettle to 170° Fahr. ; 
liandle the prepared wool in this for 1 hour, when it is ready to cool, 
riu;ie, and dry. By coloring first Avith cochineal, as aforesaid, and 



DTEKS AND BLEACHERS' KECEIPTS. 135 

finishing in the blue vat, the fast purple or dahlia, so much admired 
iu German broadcloths, Avill be produced. Tin acids must not bo used 
in this color. 

Blue Dye for IIosiekt.— 100 Ibg. of wool are colored with 4 lbs. 
Guatemala or 3 lbs. Bengal indigo, in the soda or wood vat ; then 
toil in a kettle a few minutes, 5 lbs. of cudbear or 8 lbs. of orchil 
paste ; add 1 lb. of soda, or better, 1 pail of urine, then cool the dye 
to about 170° Fahr. ; and enter the wool. Handle well for about 20 
minutes, tlien take it out, cool, rinse, and dry. It is all the same if 
the cudbear is put in before or after the indigo. 3 ozs. of 
analine purple dissolved in alcohol, ^ pt, can be used instead of 
the cudbear. (Wood spirit is cheaper than alcohol, and is much used 
now by dyers for the purpose of dissolving analiuo colors). It pro- 
duces a very pretty shade, but should never be used on mixed goods 
which have to be bleached. 

Logwood and Indigo Blue Dve for Clotil — 100 lbs. of cloth, 
■color the cloth first by one or two dips in the vat of indigo blue, and 
rinse it well, then boil it in a solutiou of 20 lbs. of alum, 2 lbs. of half 
refined taitar, and 5 lbs. of mordant, for 2 hours, then take it out and 
cool. In fresh water boil 10 lbs. of good lo.irwood for half an hour 
in a bag or otherwise ; cool off to 170° Fahr. before entering ; 
handle well over a reel, let it boil for half an hour, then take it out, 
cool, and rinse. This is a very firm blue. 

Dye for Wool or Silk. — Color betioecn Purple and Blue. For 
40 lbs. of goods, take bi-chroniato of potash 8 ozs., alum 1 lb., dissolve 
all and bring the water to a boil, and put in the goods ; boil 1 hour ; 
then empty the dye, and make a new dye Avith logwood 8 lbs., or cx- 
tiact of logwood 1 lb. 4 ozs., and boil in this 1 hour longer. Grade 
the color by using more or less logwood, as you wish it dark or light 
iu the color. 

New Bleach for Wool, Silk, or Straw. — Mbc together 4 lbs. 
oxalic acid, 4 lbs. table salt, water 50 gals. The goods arc laid iuthis 
]nixture for 1 hour, they are then generally well bleached, and only 
require to be thoroughly rinsed and worlced. For bleaching straw it 
is best to soak the goods in caustic soda, and aftenvards to make uso 
of chloride of lime or Javelle water. The excess of clilorine is after-' 
wards removed by hyposulphite of soda. 

To Fix Dyes. — New Process. Mr. Kipiiing, of Manchester, England, 
Las a new process of fixing dyes. He dissolves 20 ozs. of gelatine in 
water, and adds 3 ozs. of bichromate of potash. This is done in a dark 
room. The coloring matter is then added and the goods submitted 
thereto ; after whicn they are exposed to the action of light ; the 
pigment thus becomes insoluble in water and the color is fast. 

Scarlet with Lac Dye. — For 100 lbs. of flannel or yarn, take 25 
Ibc. of ground lac dye, 15 lbs. of scarlet spirit (made as per directions 
below), 5 lbs. of tai-tar, 1 lb. of flavine, or according to shade, 1 lb. of tin 
crystals, 5 lbs. of muriatic acid. Boil all for 15 minutes, then cool the 
dye to 170° Fahr. ; enter the goods, and handle them quicldy at first. 
Let them boil 1 hour, rinse them while yet hot, before the gum and 
impurities harden. This color stands scouring with soap better than 
cochineal scarlet. To this dye, a small quantity of sulphuric acid may 
be used, as it dissolves the gum. 

Muriate of Tix or Scvelet Spirit.— Take IG lbs. muriatic 



136 DTEES AXD ELEACnERS* RECEIPTS. 

acid. 22° B., 1 lb. featliered tin, -svater 2 Vos. The acid sliould bo put 
in a stono ware pot, and the tin atlded, and allow to dissolve ; tlio 
mixture should be kept a few days before using. The tin is featliered 
or granulated by melting in a suitable vessel, and pouring it from a 
height of about 5 feet into a pailful of water. This is a most power- 
ful agent in ccitain colors, such as scarlets, oranges, pinks, &c. 

Scarlet Di'e with Cociiineal. — For 50 lbs. of wool, yam, or 
doth, use cream of tartar 1 lb. 9 ozs. ; cochineal pulverized, 12^ ozs., 
muriate of tin or scarlet spirit 8 lbs. ; after boiling the dye, enter the 
goods, work them well for 15 minutes, tlien boil them 1^ hours, slowly 
agitating the goods while boiling, wash m clean water, and dry out of 
the sun. 

PtJKPLE Dye. — For 40 lbs. of goods, use alum 3 lbs., muriate of tin 
4 tea cups, pulverized cochineal 1 lb., cream of tartar 2 lbs. Boil the 
alum, tin, and cream of tartar, for 20 minutes, add the cochineal and 
boil 5 minutes, immerse the goods 2 hours, remove and enter them in 
a new dye composed of Brazil wood 3 \hn., logwood 7 lbs., alum 4 lbs., 
muriate'of tin 8 cupfuls, adding a little extract of indigo, made as 
follows : 

Chejiic Blueing or Extract of Ixdigo. — Take oil of vitriol 2 lbs., 
and stir into it finely, pulverized indigo 8 ozs., stirrmg briskly for tho 
first J hour, then cover it up, and stir 4 or 5 times daily for a few days, 
tlien add a little pulverized chalk, stirring it up, and keep addhig it 
as long as it foams ; it will neutralize the acid. Keep it closely corked. 

Light Silver Drab. — For 50 lbs. of goods use logwood ^ lb., 
alum, about tho same quantity ; boil well, enter tlie goods, and dip 
them for 1 hour. Grade the color to any desired shade, by using 
equal parts of logwood and alum. 

Chrome Black for Wool. — For 40 lbs. of goods, use blue vitriol 
3 lbs., boil it a short time, then dip the wool or fabric ^ of an liour, 
airing frequently ; take out the goods, and make a dye with logwood 
24 lbs. ; boil J hour, dip 2 of an liour, air the goods, and dip ^ of an 
hour longer, wash in strong soap suds. A good fast color. 

Black Dvb on Wool, for Mixturf-s. — For 50 lbs. of wool talco 
bi-chromate of potash 1 lb. 4 ozs., ground argal 15 ozs., boil together 
and put in the fabric, stirring well, and let it remain in the dye 5 
hours ; take it out, rinse shghtly in clean water, then make a new dye, 
into which put logwood 17$ lbs. Boil IJ hours, adding chamber lye .5 
pts. Let the fabric remain in all night, and wash out in clean water. 

Ked Madder. — This color is mostly used for army uniforms, &c. 
To 100 lbs. of fabric use 20 lbs. of alum, 5 lbs. of tartar, and 5 lbs. of 
muriate of tin. When these are dissolved, enter the goods, and let 
them boil for 2 hours, tlien take them out, let cool, and lay over night 
Into fresh water, stir 75 lbs. of good madder, and enter the fabric at 120<' 
Fahr. and biing it up to 200° in the course of an hour, handle well to 
secure evenness, then rinse and drj'. 

Dark S>'Uff Brown on Wool. — For 50 lbs. of goods, take cam- 
wood 10 lbs., boil for 20 minutes, then dip the goods for § of an hoar, 
then take them out, and add to the dye, fustic 25 lbs. ; boil 12 minutes 
and dip the goods J of an hour, then add blue vitriol 10 ozs., copperas 
2 lbs. 8 ozs., dip agaui 40 minutes; add more copperas if the shade is 
required darker. 

Wine Color Dye.— For 50 lbs. of goods use camwood 10 lbs., boil 



DYERS AND BLEACHEKS' RECEIPTS. 137 

20 minutes, dip the goods i hour, boll again, and dip 40 minutes,' 
then darken Avith blue vitriol 15 ozs., and should you wish it darker, 
iidd 5 lbs. of copperas. 

Pink Dye for Wool.— For GO lbs. of goods, take alum 5 lbs. 12 
ozs., boil and immerse the goods 50 minutes, then add to the dj-e 
cochineal well pulverized, 1 lb. 4 ozs., crean. of tartar, 5 lbs., boil and 
enter the goods while boiling, until the color is satisfactory. 

Dakk Blue Dye, — Suitable for Thibets and Lastings. Boil IOC 
lbs. of the fabric for Ih hours in a solution of alum 25 lbs., tartar 4 
lbs., mordant G lbs., extract of indigo G lbs. ; cool them as usual. Boil 
in fresh Avater from 8 to 10 lbs. of -logwood, in abagorotherwi.se, then 
cool the dye to 170° Fahr. ; reel the fabric quickly at first, then let it 
boil strongly for 1 hour. This is a very good imitation of indigo blue. 

OuANGE Dye. — For 50 lbs. of goods, use argal 3 lbs., muriate of tin 
1 qt, boD and dip 1 hour; then jfdd to the dye, fustic 25 lbs., madder 
2^ qts., and dip again 40 minutes. If preferred, cochineal 1 lb. 4 ozs. 
may be used instead of the madder, as a better color is induced by it, 

Sky Blue on Cotton. — GO lbs. of goods, blue vitriol 5 lbs. Boil 
a short time, then enter the goods, dip 3 hours, and transfer to a bath 
of strong lime water. A fine brown color will be imparted to the goods 
if they are then put through a solution of prussiate of potash. 

A BiiowN Dye on Wool may be induced by a decoction of oak 
bark, with variety of shade according to the quantity employed. K 
tlie goods be first passed through a mordant of alum the color will be 
brightened. 

BjtowN ON Cotton. — Catechu or terra japonica gives cotton a 
brown color, blue vitriol turns it on tlie bronze, green copperas darkens 
it, when applied as a mordant and tlie stuff boiled in the batli boiling 
hot. Acetate of alumina as a mordant, brightness it. The French 
color named " Carmelite " is given with catechu 1 lb., verdigris 4 ozs., 
and sal-ammoniac 5 ozs. 

Brown on Wool ant) Silk. — Infusion or decoction of walnut 
peels dyes wool and silk brown color, whicli is brightened by alunu 
Horse-chestnut peels also impart a brown color; a mordant of muriate 
of tin turns it on the bronze, and sugar of lead the reddish broivn. 

Solitaire. — Sul])hate or muriate of manganese dissolved in water 
with a little tartaric acid imparts this beautiful bronze tint. The 
stuff after being put through the solution must be turned through a 
weak lye of potash, and afteiT\'ards through another of chloride of 
lime, to brighten and lix it. Frussiate of copper gives a bronze or 
yellmvish brown color to silk. The ]5ieco well mordanted with blue 
vitriol, may be passed through a solution ot lyrussiate of potash. 

Fuller's Purifier for Cloths. — Dry, pulverize, and sift the 
following ingredients : Fuller's earth G llw., French chalk 4 ozs., pipe 
clay 1 lb. ; make into a paste witli rectified oil of turpentine 1 oz., 
alcohol 2 ozs., melted oil soap 1^ lbs. Compound the mixture into 
cakes of any desired size, for sale if required, keeping them in water, 
or small wooden boxes. 

Green on Cotton.— For 40 lbs. of goods, use fustic 10 lbs., blue 
vitriol 10 ozs., soft soap 2^ qts., and logwood chips 1 lb. 4 ozs. Soak 
the logwood over uiglit in a bniss vessel, put it on tlio fire in the 
morning adding the other ingredients. When quite hot it is ready for 
dyeing ; enter the goods at once, and handle well. Different shadea 



138 DYERS AXD DLEACHERS' RECEIPTS. 

may be obtained by lettrng part of the goods remain longer in tlie 
dye. 

'PiNK Dye for Cotton. — For 40 lb.=?. of Roods, use redwood 20 
lbs., muriate of tin '2^ lbs. ; boil the redwood 1 hour, tuni off into a 
large vessel, add the muriate of tin, and put in the goods, let it stind 
a few minutes (5 or 10), and a nice i)ink will bo produced. It is quite 
a fast color. 

Ppkple Dye for Silk.— For 10 lbs. of goods, enter your goods in 
blue dye bath, and secure a light blue color, dry, and dip iu a warm 
solution containing alum 2h lbs. Should a deeper color be required, 
add a little extract of indigo. 

Yellow on Silk. — For 10 lbs. goods, use sugar of lead 7^ ozs., 
alum 2 lbs., enter the goods and let them remain 12 hours, remove 
them, drain, and make a new dye with fustic 10 lbs. Immerse imtil 
the color suits. 

Purple on Cotton. — Get up a tub of hot logwood liquor, enter 3 
pieces, give them 5 ends, hedge out ; enter them into a clean alum 
tab, give them 5 ends, hedge out; get up another tub of logwood 
liquor, enter, give them 5 ends, hedge out ; renew your alum tub, 
give them 5 ends in that, and finish. 

Black on Cotton.— For 40 lbs. goods, use sumac 30 lbs., boil | 
hour, let the goods steep over night, and immerse tliem in lime water 
40 minutes, remove, and allow them to drip £ liour, now add coppei-a-s 
4 lbs. to the sumac liquor, and dip 1 hour more ; next work them 
through lime water for 20 minutes, next make a new dye of log^vood 
20 lbs., boil 2^ hours, and enter the goods 3 hours, then add bi-chro- 
mate of potash 1 lb. to the new dye, and dip 1 hour more. Work in 
clean cold water and dry out of the smi. 

Ked Dye for Wool. — For 40 lbs. of goods, make a tolerably thick 
paste of lac dye and sulphuric acid, and allow it to stand for a day. 
Now take tartar 4 lbs., tin liquor 2 lbs, 8 ozs., and 3 lbs. of the above 
paste, make a hot bath with suflicient water, and enter the goods for 
I hour, afterwards carefully rinse and diy. 

Yellow on Cotton. — For 40 lbs. goods, use sugar of lead 3 lbs. 
8 ozs., dip the goods 2 hours. Make a new dye with bi-chromato of 
potash 2 lbs., dip until the color suits, wriug out and dry, if not yellow 
enough repeat the operation. 

Violet Dye on Silk or Wool. — A good violet dye may be given 
by passing the goods first through a solution of verdijjris, then through 
a decoction of logwood, and lastly alum water. Ajast violet may be 
given by dyeing the goods crimson with cochineal, without alum or 
tartar, and after rinsing, passing them through the indigo vat. 
Linens or Cottons are first galled with 18°lo of gall nuts, next passed 
through a mordant of alum, iron liquor, and sulphate of copper, 
working them well, then worked in a madder bath made with an 
equal weight of root, and lastly brightened with soap or soda. 

Slate Dye on Silk. — For a small quantity, fcxke a pan of warm 
water, and about a teacupf ul of logwood liquor, pretty strong, and a 
piece of pearlash tlie size of a nut ; take gray colored goods and 
liandle a little in this liquid, and it is finished. If too much logwood 
is used, the color will be too dark. A Strata color on silk. — Use 
gmartweed, boil in a brass vessel, and set with alum. 

Lilac Dye on Silk. — For 5 lbs. of silk, use archil 7^ lbs., mix it 



DYEKS AND BLEACHERS' liECEIPTS. 139 

■well with the liqnor ; make it boil J hour, dip tlie silk quickly, then 
let it cool, and -wash it in river water, and a fine half violet, or lilac, 
more or less full, will be obtained. 

Gkehn Dve on Silk. — Take green ebony, boil it in water, and 
lot it settle ; take the clear liquor as hot as you can bear your hands 
in it and handle your goods in it until of a bright yellow ; then take 
water and put in a little sulphate of indigo ; handle your goods in this 
till of the shade desired. The ebony may previously be boiled in a 
bag to prevent it sticking to the silk. 

Brown on Silk. — Dissolve annatto 1 lb., pearlash 4 lbs., in boUing 
water, and pass the silk through it for 2 hours, then take it out, 
squeeze it well and dry ; next give it a mordant of alum, and pass it 
fii-st through a bath of Brazil-wood, and afterwards through a bath 
of logwood to which a little green copperas has been added, wring it 
out and dry, afterwards rinse well. 

Brown Dve on Cotton or Linen.— Give the pieces a mixed 
mordant of acetate of alumina and acetate of iron, and then dye them 
in a bath of madder, or madder and fustic, when the acetate of 
alumina predominates the dye has an amaranth tint. A cinnamon 
tint is obtained by first giving a mordant of alum, then a madder 
bath, then a bath of fustic, to which a little green copperas has been 
added. 

Mulberry on Silk. — For 5 lbs. of silk, use alum 1 lb. 4 ozs., din 
BO mmutes, wash out, and make a dve with Brazil-wood 5 ozs., and 
logwood IJ ozs. by boiling together; dip in this ^ hour, then add more 
Brazil-wood and logwood, equal parts, mitil the color suits. 

Green Dye on Wool and Silk. — Equal quantities of yellow oak 
and hickory bark, make a btrong yellow bath by boiling, shade to tlie 
desired tint by adding a small quantity of extract of indigo. 

Orange Dye. — For 40 lbs of goods, use sugar of lead 2 lbs., boil 
15 minutes, when a little cool, enter the goods, and dip for 2 hours, 
wruig them out, make a fresh dye with bi-chromate of potash, 4 lbs., 
madder 1 lb., immerse until of the desired color. The shade may be 
varied by dipping in lime water. 

Blue on Cotton. — For 40 lbs. of goods, use copperas 2 lbs., boil 
and dip 20 minutes, then dip in soap suds, and return to the dye 3 or 
4 times ; then make a new bath with prussiato of potash ^ lb., oil of 
vitriol l| pts. ; boil h hour, rinse out and dry. 

Solfebino and Magenta Dyes on White Woollen, Silk, or 
Cotton and Woollen Mixtures.— For 1 lb. of woollen goods, 
Mar/cnta shade, 96 grs. apothecaries' weight, of anilme red, will bo 
required; dissolve in a little warm alcohol; using say 6 fluid ozs. of 
alcohol, or about G gills alcohol per oz. of aniline. Many dyers use 
wood spirit because of its cheapness. For a Solferino sJiade, use 64 
grg. aniline red, dissolved in 4 ozs. alcohol, to each 1 lb. of good.s. 
Cold water 1 eft. will dissolve these small quantities of aniline red, 
but the cleanest and quickest way will be found by using the alcohol, 
or wood spirit. Clean the cloth and goods by steeping at a gentle 
heat in weak soap suds, rinse in several mosses of clean water and lay 
aside moist. The alcoholic solution of aniline is to be added from time 
to time to the warm or hot dye bath, till the color on the goods is of 
tho desired shade. The goods are to bo removed from the dye bath 
before each addition of tho alcoholic solution, and tho bath is to bo 



/lO DYERS AND BLEACHEKS' RECEIPTS. 

well stirred before the goods are returned. Tlio alcoliolic solution 
should be firet dropped iuto a little -svater, and ■well mixed, aud the 
mixture should theu be strained into the dye bath. If the color is 
not dark enough after -working from 20 to 30 miuutes, repeat the re- 
moval of the goods from the bath, and the addition of the solution, 
and the re-immersion of the goods from 15 to oO minutes more, or un- 
til suited, then remove from the bath, and rinse in several messes of 
clean vrater, and dry in the shade. Use about 4 gals, water for dye- 
bath for 1 lb. of goods ; less watei; for larger quantities. 

Liquid Dye Coloks. — 1. Blue. DUute Saxon blue or sulphate of 
indigo with water. If required for delicate -work, neutralize -with 
chalk. 2. Purple. Add a little alum to a strained decoction of log- 
wood. 3. Green. Dissolve sap green in water and add a little alum. 
4. Yellow. Dissolve aunatto in a weak lye of subcarbouate of soda or 
potash. 5. Golden color. Steej) French berries in hot water, strain, 
and add a little gum and alum. 6. lied. Dissolve carmine in am- 
monia, or in weak carbonate of potash water, or infuse powdered 
cochineal iu water, strain, aud add a little gum in water. The pre- 
ceding colors, thickened with a little gum, may be used as iuks in 
writing, or as colors to tint maps, foils, artificial flowers, &c., or to 
paint on velvet. 

To Cleaxse "Wool. — Slake a hot bath composed of water 4 parts, 
urine 1 part, enter the wool, teasing and opening it out to admit the 
full action of the liquid ; after 20 minutes' immersion, remove from 
the liquid and allow it to drain, then rinso it in clean mnning water, 
and spread out to dry. The liquid is good for subsequent operations, 
only keep up the proportions, and use no soap. 

Staecii Lustke. — A portion of stearine, the size of an old-fashioned 
cent, added to starch ^ half lb., and boiled with it for 2 or 3 minutes 
will add greatly to the beauty of linen, to which it may be applied. 
See also iSlarch Polish under'the Grocers' Department. 

To Dye IIats. — The hats should be at first strongly galled by 
boiling them a long time in a decoction of galls with a little logwood, 
that the dye may penetrate the better into their substance ; after 
which a proper quantity of vitriol and decoction of log^vood, with a 
little verdigris, are added, and the hats continued in this mixture for 
a considerable time. They are afterwards put into a fresh liquor of 
logwood, galls, vitriol, and verdigris, and, when the hats are of great 
price, or of a hair which with difficulty takes the dye, the same pro- 
cess is repeated a third time. For obtaining the most perfect color, 
the hiiir or wool is dyed blue previously to its being formed into 
hats. 

Chestnut Brown on Straw Bonnet.s. — For 23 hats, rise gronnd 
Sanders 1^ lbs., ground curcuma 2 lbs., powdered gall nuts, or sumac J 
lb., rasped logwood ^\j- lb. Boil aU together with the hats iu a large 
kettle (so as not to crowd), for 2 hours, then withdraw the hats, rinse, 
and let them remain over night in a bath of nitrate of 4° Baume, when 
they are washed. A darker brown may be obtamed by increasing the 
quantity of sanders. To give the hats the desired lustre, they are 
brushed with a brush of dog's (couch) grass, when dry. 

Violet Dye on Straw Bonnets. — Take alum 4 lbs., tartaric 
acid 1 lb., chloride of tin 1 lb. Dissolve and boil, allow the liats to 



DYERS AND BLEACnERS' RECEIPTS. 14i 

reinain in the boiling solution 2 hours, then add as mucli of a decoction 
of logwood and camiiue of indigo as is requisite to induce the desired 
Bhade, and lastly, rinse finally in water in which some alum has been 
dissolved. 

Silver Grey Dye on Straw. — For 25 hats, select vour lohilest hats 
and soften them in a bath of crystallized soda to wliich some clean 
lime water has been added. See " Lime water" below. Boil for 2 
hours in a large vessel, using for a bath a decoction of the following, 
viz. : alum 4 lbs., tartaric acid g lb., some ammoniacal cochineal, and 
carmine of indigo ; a little sulphuric acid may be necessary in order to 
neutralize the alkali of tlie cochineal dye. If the last-mentioned. 
Ingredients are used, let the hats remain for an hour longer in the 
boiling bath, then rinse in slightly acidulated water. 

LniE Water For Dyers' Use. — Put stone lime 1 lb., and strong 
lime water 1^ lbs. into a pail of water ; rummage well for Tore 
minutes, thenlet it rest until the lime is precipitated and the water 
clear ; add this quantity to a tul)f ul of clear water. 

Dark Steel Color. — Mix black and white wool together in the 
proportion of 50 lbs. of black wool to 7^ lbs. of white. For large or 
small quantities keep the same proportion, mixing carefully and 
thoronghlj\ 

To Rexder Aniline Colors Soluble in "Water. — A solution of 
gelatine m acetic acid of almost the consistence of syrups is first made, 
and the aniline in fine powder is gradually added, stirring all the time 
so as to make a homogeneous paste. The mixture is tlien to be heated 
over a water bath to the temperature of boiling water and kept at 
that heat for some time. 

Aniline Green on Silk. — Iodine green or night green dissolves 
easily in warm Avater. For a liquid dye, 1 lb. may bo dissolved ia 1 
gal. alcohol, and mixed with 2 gala, water, containing 1 oz. sulphuris 
acid. 

To Dye Aniline Scaklet. — For every 40 lbs. of goods, dissolve 
5 lbs. white vitriol (sulphate of zinc) at 180° Fah., place the goods 
into this bath for 10 minutes, then add the color, prepared by boiling 
for a few minutes, 1 lb. aniline scarlet in 3 gals, water, stirring the 
same contuiually. This solution has to be filtered before being add- 
ed to the bath. The goods remain in the latter for 15 minutes, when 
they have become browned and must be boiled for another half hour 
in the same bath after the addition of sal-ammoniac. The more of 
this is added the deeper will be the shade. 

Bismarck Brown for dyeing. — ISIix together 1 lb. Bismarck, 5 
gals, water, and | lb. sulphuric acid. Tliis paste dissolves easily in 
not water and may be used directly for dyeing. A liquid dye may 
be prepared by making the bulk of the above niixture, to 2 gals, with 
alcohol. To dye with the above mixture, sour with sulphuric acid ; 
add a quantity of sulphate of soda, immerse the wool, and add the 
color by small portions, keeping the temperature under 212° Fah. 
Very interesting shades may be developed by combining the color 
with indigo paste or picric acid. 

To Dye Wool with Aniline Green. — For wool, prepare two 
baths, one contaimng tlie dissolved dye and a quantity of carbonate 
of soda or borax. In this the wool is placed, and the temperature is 
raised to 212° Fall. A greyish green is produced, which must be 



142 DYEPvS AKD bleachers' RECErPTS. 

brightened and fixed in a second bath of -n-atcr 100" F.ah., to -whlrh 
EoiuG acetic acid has been added. Cotton requires i^reparation by 
Bumac. 

Anilixb Bltje. — To 100 Iba. of fabric dissolve IJ Iba. aniline 
blue in 3 qts. hot alcohol ; strain through a filter and add -it to a 
bath of 130° Fah. ; also 10 lbs. glauber salts, and 5 lbs. acetic acid. 
Enter the goods and handle them well for 20 niiuutes ; next heat it 
slowly to 200° Fah. ; then add 5 lbs. sulphuric acid diluted with water. 
Let the whole boil 20 minutes longer ; then rinse and dry. If the 
anilme be added in two or three proportions during the process of 
coloring, it will facilitate the evenness of the color. 

Aniline Red. — Enclose the aniline in a small muslin bag ; have a 
kettle (tin or brass) filled with moderately hot water and rub the sub- 
stince out. Then immerse the goods to be colored, and in a short 
tiuie they are done. It improves the color to ^vring the goods out of 
strong soap suds before putting them in the dye. This is a permanent 
color on wool or silk. 

Aniline Violet and Pukple. — Acidulate the bath by sulphuric 
acid, or use sulphate of soda ; both these substances render the shade 
bluish. Dye at 212° Fah. To give a fair middle shade to 10 lbs. of 
wool, a quantity of solution equal to J to | ozs. of the sohd dye will be 
reqmred. The color of the dyed fabric is improved by washing in soap 
and water, and then passing through a bath soured by sulphuric acid. 

Aniline Black fok I)veing. — ^AVater 20 to 30 parts, chlorate of 
potassa 1 pfvrt ; Eal-amraoni;ic 1 part ; chloride of copper 1 part ; 
anilme hydrochloric acid, of each 1 jiart, previously mixed together. 
It is essential that the preparation should be acid, and the more acid 
it is the more rapid will bo the production of the blacks; if too much 
so, it may injure the fabric. 

New Mordant for Aniline Colors. — Immerse the goods for 
some hours in a bath of cold water in which chloride or acetate of 
zinc has been dissolved until the solution shows 2° Baume ; for the 
wool tlie mordanting bath should be at a boiling heat, and the goods 
should also be placed in a warm bath of tannin, 90° Fah., for half an 
hour. In dyeing, a hot solution of the color must be used to which 
should be added, in the case of the cotton, some chloride of zinc, 
and, in the case of the wool, a certain amount of tannin solution. 

To Dve Aniline Yellow. — This color is slightly soluble in 
water, and for dyers' nse may be used directly for the preparation of 
the bath dve, but is best used by dissolving 1 lb. of dye in 2 gals, 
alcohol. Temperature of bath should be mider 200° Fah. The color 
is much improved and brightened by a trace of sulphuric acid. 

To Dve with Alkali Blue and NicnoLSON's Blue. — Dissolve 1 
lb. of the dye in 10 gals, boiling water, add this by small portions to 
the dye balh, which should be rendered alkaline by borax. The 
fabric should be well worked about between each addition of the 
color. The temperature must be kept under 212° Fah. To develop 
the color, wash with water and pass through a bath containing sul- 
phuric acid. 

Aniline Brown Dte. — Dissolve 1 lb. of the brown in 2 gals, of 
spirit, specific gravity 8200, add a sufficient quantity to the dye bath, 
and immerse the fabric. Wool possesses a very strong affinity fot 
this color and no mordant is rcc[uired. 



DTERS AND BLEACHERS' RECEIPTS. 14o 

To Extract Oil Spots FKOsi FuasHED Goods. — Saturate tne spot 
Tvith henz'mc, then place two pieces of very soft blotting paper uudcr 
and two upon it, press well with a, hot iron, and the grease will bo 
absorbed. 

To Preserve Goods and CLOTinxG from Mildew. — Alum, 2 lbs., 
dissolved in GO lbs. water; blue vitriol, 2 lbs., dissolved in 8 lbs. of 
water ; to which is added gelatine 1 lb., dissolved in 30 lbs. of water ; 
acetate of lead, ^ lb. dissolved iji 30 lbs. of water. The solutions are 
all hot, and separately mixed, with the exception of the vitriol, which 
is added. 

To BLEAcn Feathers. — Place the feathers from 3 to 4 honrs in a 
tepid dilute solution of bi-chromate of potassa, to whicli, cautiously, 
some nitric acid has been added (a small quantity only). To remove 
a greenish hue induced by this solution, place them in a dilute so- 
lution of sulphuric acid, in water, whereby the feathers become 
perfectly white and bleached. 

To Clean Straw Bonnets. — First, brush them with soap and 
water, then with a solution of oxalic acid. 

Crimson. — For 1 lb. of silk, alum, 3 oz. ; dip at liand-hcat, 1 liour; 
take out and drain, while making a new dye, by boiling, 10 minutes, 
cochineal, 3 oz. ; brused nut-galls, 2 oz. ; and cream of tartir, h oz., in 
one pail of water; when a little cool, begin to diji, raising thoheat to 
a boil, continuing, to dip 1 hour ; wash, and dry. 

CiNNAiiON OB Brown on Cotton andSiijc. — Give the goods as 
much color, from a solution of blue vitriol, 2 oz., to water, one gal., as 
it will take up in dipping 15 minutes; then run it through lime-water; 
tliis will make a beautiful sky-blue of much durability; it has now 
to bo run through a solution of i^russiate of jjotash, 1 oz. , to water, 
1 gal. 

Aniline Black on Silk or Cotton. — Water, 20 to 30 parts, 
chlorate of potassa, 1 jiart; sal-ammoniac, Ipart; chloride of cojjper, 
1 part; anilLne, 1 part; and hydrocloric, 1 part; previously mixed 
together. The fabric or yarn is dried in ageing rooms at a low tem- 
perature for 24 hours, and washed afterwards. 

To Color Straw Hats or Bonnets a Beautiful Slate. — 
Fii-st, soak the bonnet in rather strong warm suds for 15 minutes to 
remove sizing or stiffening ; then rinse in wami water, to get out the 
soap; now scald cudbear, 1 oz., in sufficient water to cover the hat or 
bonnet; work the bonnet in this dye, at 180° of heat, until you get a 
Ji"ht-purple, now have a bucket of cold-water, blued witli the extract 
of indigo, ^ oz., and work or stir the bonnet in this, untU the tint 
pleases; dry, then riuse out with cold water, and dry again in the 
shade. If you get the purple too deep in shade the final slate will bo 
too dark. 

To Clean Ostrich Feathers. — Cut some white curd soap in J 
pmall pieces, pour boiling water on tltem and add a little pearl ash. 
AVhen tlie .-ioap is quite dissolved, and the mixture cool enougli for 
the hand to l)ear, plunge the feathers into it, and draw them tlirough 
the liaud till the dirt ajipears squeezed out of tliom, pass tlieni through 
a clean lather with some blue iu it, then linse tbeniin cold water with 
blue to give them a good color. Beat them against the hand to shako 
off the water, and dry by shaking them near a lire. When perfectly 
di-y, con each fibre separately -with a blunt kuLfe, or ivory folder. 



144 DTEI13 AND BLEACnEBS' EECEIPTS. 

To Clean Fuks. — For dark furs; -warm fi quantity of new bran in 
a pan, taking care tliat it does not burn, to prevent wliicli it must be 
briskly stirred. Wlien Tvell warmed rub it thorouglily into tlie fur 
■with the liand. Repeat this two or three times, then shako the fur, 
and give it another sharp brushing until free from dust. For white 
furs; lay them on a table, and rub well with bran made moist Avith 
warm water, rub until quite dry, and afterwards with dry bran. The 
wet bran should be put on with flannel, then dry with book muslin. 
Light furs, in addition to the above, should be well rubbed with mag- 
nesia or a piece of book muslin, after the bran process, against the 
way of the fur. 

Washing FLtrn). — Take 1 lb. sal soda, \ lb. good stone lime, and 5 
qts. of water; boil a short time, let it settle, and pour off tlie clear 
lluid into a stone jug, and cork for use; soak j^our white clothes over 
night in simple water, wring out and soap wristbands, collars, and 
dirty or stained places ; have your boiler half filled with water just 
beginning to boil, then put in one common teacupf ul of fluid, stir and 
put in your clothes, and boil for half an hour, then rub lightly through 
one suds only, and all is complete. 

Chip or Straw Hats or Bonnets may be dyed black by boiling 
them three or four hours in a strong liquor of logwood, adding a little 
copperas occasionally. Let the bonnets remam iu the liquor all night; 
then take out to dry in the air. If the black is not satisfactory, dyo 
again after drying. Rub inside and out with a sponge moistened iu 
fine oil; then block. Red Dye. — BoU ground Brazil-wood in a ley of 
jwtash, and boil your straw hats, &c., in it. Bluo Dye. — Takeasufii- 
cient quantity of potiish ley, 1 lb. of litmus or lacmus, ground ; make 
a decoction and then put in the straw, and boil it. 

DvES FOR Hats. — The ordinary bath for dyeing hats, employed by 
the London manufactures, consists, for twelve dozen, of 144 lbs. of 
logwood ; 12 lbs. of green sulphate of iron or copperas ; 7^ lbs. verdi- 
gris. The logwood having been introduced into the copper, and 
digested for some time, the copperas and verdigris are added iu suc- 
cessive quantities, and in the above proportions, along with every 
successive two or three dozens of hats suspended upon the dripping 
machine. Each set of hats, after being exposed to the bath with 
occasional airings during forty miuutes, is talien off the pegs, and laid 
out upon the ground to bo more completely blackened by the peroxy- 
dizement of the iron with the atmospheric oxygen. In three or four 
hours, the dyeing is completed. When fuUy dyed, the hats are well 
washed in running water. 

WATEKrROOF STIFFENING FOR Hats. — Mix 18 Ibs. of shcllac witli 
1^ lb. of salt of tartiir (ciirbonato of potash), and 5i gals, water. These 
materials are to be put in a kettle, and made to boil gradually till 
the lac is dissolved, when the liquid will become as clear as water, 
without any scum upon the top, and if left to cool, will have !x thin 
crust upon the surface, of whitish cast, mixed with the light impuri- 
ties of the gum. When this skin is taken off, the hat body is to bo 
dipped into the mixture in a cold state, so as to absorb as much as 
possible of it; or it may be applied with a brush or spouge. The hat 
body ,bemg thus stiff ened, may stand till it becomes dry, or nearlyso ; and 
after it has been brushed, it must be immersed in very dilute sulphuric 
or acetic acid, in order to neutralize the potash, and cause the shellac 



DTERS AND BLEACHEKS' RECEIPTS 145 

to set. If the hats are'iiot to he napped immediately, they may he 
thrown into a cistern of pure Avater, and taken out as wanted. 

Method of Bleaching Stkaw. — Dip the straw in a solution of 
oxygenated muriatic acid, saturated with potash. (Oxygenated 
muriate of lime is much cheaper). The straw is thus rendered very 
white, and its flexibUity is increased. 

Bleaching Stkaw Goods. — Straw is bleached by simply exposing 
it in a closed chamber to the fumes of burning sulphur, an old flour 
barrel is the apparatus most used for the purpose by milliners, a flat 
stone being laid on the ground, the sulphur ignited thereon, and the 
baiTel contoining the goods to be bleached turned over it. The goods 
should be previously washed in pure water. 

Varnish for faded Rubber Goods. — Black Japan varnish dilu- 
ted with a little Ihiseed oil. 

To Bleach Linen. — Mix common bleaching-powder, hi the pro- 
portion of 1 lb. to a gallon of water; stir it occasionally for three days, 
let it settle, and pour it off clear. Then make a ley of 1 lb. of soda to 
1 gallon of boiling soft water, in which soak the linen for 12 hours, 
and boil it half au hour ; next soak it in the bleaching liquor, made as 
above; and lastly, wasli it in the usual manner. Discolored linen or 
muslin may be restored by puttmg a portion of bleaching liquor into 
the tub wherein the articles are soaking. 

Dye for Feathers. — Black : Immerse for 2 or 3 days in a bath, 
at first hot, of logwood, 8 iiai-ts, and copperas or acetate of iron, 
1 part. Blue : with the indigo vat. Broion : by using any of the 
brown dyes for silk or woollen. Crimson : a mordant of alum, fol- 
lowed by a hot bath of Brazil wood, afterwards by a weak dye of 
cudbear. Pink or Rose: with saf-flower or lemon juice. Plum: 
■with the red dye, followed by an allcaline bath. Red : a mordant of 
alum, followed by a bath of Brazil-wood. Yelloio : a mordant of 
alum, followed by a bath of turmeric or weld. Green Dye. Take of 
verdigris and verditer, of each 1 oz. ; gum water, 1 pt. ; mix them 
weU and dip the feathers, they havmg been first soaked in hot water, 
into the said mixture. For Purple, use lake and indigo. For CVo-- 
na^/oji, vermilion and smalt, v Thin gum or starch water should be 
used in dying feathers. 

Colors foe Artificial Flowers.— The French employ velvet, 
fine cambric and Md for the petals, and taffeta for the leaves. Very 
recently thin plates of bleached whalebone have been used for some 
portions of the artificial flowers. Colors and Stains. Blue. — Indigo 
dissolved in oil of vitriol, and the acid partly neutralized with salt of 
tartar or whiting. Green. — A solution of distilled verdigi-is. Lilac. — '■ 
Liquid archil. Red. — Carmine dissolved in a solution of salt of tar- 
tar, or in s];irits of hartshorn. Violet. — Liquid archil mixed with a 
little salt of tartar. Yclloiv. — Tincture of turmeric. - '^he colors are 
generally applied with the fingers. 

Black Varnish for Chip and Straw Hats. — Best alcohol, 
4 oz. ; pulverized black sealing-wax, 1 oz. ; put them into a phial, 
and put the phial into a warm place, stirring or shaking occ^asionally 
imtil the wax is dissolved. Apply it when warm before the fiire or 
in the sim. This makes a beautiful gloss. 

Easy Method of treventino Moths in Furs or Woollens. 
—Sprinkle the furs or woollen stuffs, as well as tho drawers or boxes 



14C DYEUS AXD ELEACHERS' KECEIPTSi 

in "which they are kept, ^vith spirits of turpentine, the unpleasant 
scent of vrhich will speedily evaporate on exposure of tlic stuffs to 
the air. Some persons place sheets of paper moistened -with spirits 
of turpentine, over, under, or between pieces of cloth, &c., and find 
it a very effectual method. Many woollen drapers put bits of cam- 
phor, the size of a imtmeg, in jiapers, on different parts of the shelves 
m their shops, and as they brush their cloths every two, three or four 
months, this keeps them free from moths : and this should be done 
m boxes where tlie furs, &c., arc i)ut. A tallow candle is frequently 
jjut within eacli muff when laid by. Snuff or pepper is very good. 

Clothing Eexovator. — Soft water, 1 gal. ; make a strong decoc- 
tion of logwood by boiling the extract with the water. Strain, when 
cool, add 2 02. gum arable in powder ; bottle, cork well, and set aside 
for use ; clean the coat well from grease and dirt, and apply the 
above liquid with a sponge evenly. Dilute to sidt the color, and 
Imng in the shade to dry ; afterwards brush the nap smooth, and it 
will look like new. 

Wateephoof for Porous Cloth. — ^Dissolve 2^ lbs. alum in 
4 gals, water ; dissolve also in a separate vessel the same weight of 
acetate of lead in the same quantity of water. "Wlien both are well 
dissolved, mix the solutions together ; and, when the sulpliate of lead 
resulting from this mixture has been precipitated to the bottom of 
the vessel in the fonn of a powder, pour off the solution, and phmge 
into it the fabric to be rendered waterin-oof. Wash and rub it well 
during a few minutes, and hang it in the air to dry. 

To Remove Grease. — Aqua ammonia, 2 oz. ; soft water, 1 quart ; 
saltpetre, 1 teaspoonful ; shaving soap in shavings, 1 oz. ; mix 
altogether ; dissolve the soap well, and any grease or dirt that caimot 
be removed with this preparation, nothing else need be tried for it. 

■\VATEnrROOFiXG for Clotuixg. — Coiled oil, 15 lbs. ; bees-wax, 

1 lb. ; ground litharge, 13 lbs. ; niLx and apply with a brush to the 
article, previously stretched against a wall or a table, previously well 
wa.shiug and drying each article before applyui;^ the composition. 

To ItENEW Old Silks. — Unravel and put them in a tub, cover 
thctn with cold water, let them remaui one liour ; dip them up and 
doAvn, but do not wilng ; hang up to draui, and iron while very 
dump, and they will look beautiful. 

DvES FOR Furs. — For black, use the tiair dye described in these 
receipts. Brmcn, use tincture of logwood. Ecd, ground Brazil- 
wood, h lb. ; water, 1^ quarts ; cochineal, ^ oz. ; boil the Brazil-wood 
in the water one hour ; strain and add the cocliineal ; boil fifteen 
minutes. Scarlet color, boil h oz. saffron in ^ pint of Avater, and pass 
over the work before applying the red. Blue, logwood, 7 oz. ; blue 
vitriol, 1 oz. ; water, 22 oz. ; boil. Purple, logwood, 11 oz. ; alum, 
G oz. ; water, 29 oz. Green, strong vinegar, 1^ pints ; best verdigris, 

2 oz. ; ground fine ; sap green, ^ oz. ; mix all together and boil. 
Pottf:r's In-visible AVaterproofing. — Imbue the cloth on tlie 

•wrong side with a solution of isinglass, alum, and soap dissolved in 
water, forming an emulsion of a milky thickness ; applj' with a 
brush, rubbing in well. When dry, it is bruslied on the wrong side 
against the grain, and then gone oVer with a brush dipped in water • 
afterwards brushed dovra smooth. 
To RAISE A Nat on Cloth. — Clean the article well ; soak it in 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 147 

cold -vrater for half an hour ; put it on a board, and rub the thread- 
bare parts witli a half-worn liatter's card filled with flocks, or with a 
teazle or a prickly thistle until a nap is raised ; then lay the nap the 
ri^ht way with a hatter's brush, and hang up to drJ^ 

Black Revivku fok Cloth. — Bruised galls, 1 lb. ; logwood, 
2 lbs. ; green vitriol, ^ lb. j water, 5 quarts ; boil two hours ; strain, 
and it is ready for use. 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, «S:c. 

m 

Rules for Actiox, vert Short but vEKr S.-vfe. — In health 
and disease endeavor always to live on the sunny side. Sir James 
Wylie, late physician to the Emperor of Russia, remarked during 
long observation in the hospitals of that country, that the cases of death 
occurring m rooms averted from the light of tlie sun, were four times 
more numerous than the fatal cases in the rooms exposed to the di- 
rect action of the solar rays. When poison is swallowed, a good off- 
hand remedy is to mix salt and mustard, 1 heaped teaspoon ful of 
each, ui a glass of water and drink immediately. It is quick in its 
operation. Then give the Avhites of 2 eggs in a cup of coffee, or the 
eggs alone if coffee cannot be had. For acid poisons give acids. In 
cases of opium poisoning, give strong coffee and keep moving. 
For light bums or scalds, dip the part in cold water or in flour, if the 
skin is destroyed, cover with varnish. If you fall into the water, float 
on the back, Avith the nose and mouth projecting. For apoplexy, 
raise the head and body ; for fainting, lay the person flat. Suck pois- 
oned wounds, unless your mouth is sore, Enlarge the woiuid, or better 
cut out the part without delay, cauterize it with caustic, the end of a 
cigar or a hot coal. If an artery is cut, compress above the wound ; if 
a vein is cut, compress below. If choked, get upon all-fours and 
cough. Before passing through smoke take a full breath, stoop low, 
then go ahead ; but if you fear carbonic acid gas, walk erect and be 
careful. Smother a fire with blankets or carpets ; water tends to spread 
burning oil and increase the danger. Remove dust from the eyes 
by dashing water into them, and avoid rubbmg. Remove cinders, &c., 
■with a soft, smooth wooden point. Preserve health and avoid catching 
cold, by regular diet, healthy food and cleanliness. Sir Astley Cooper 
Baid: The methods by which I have preserved my own health, are 
temperance, early rising, and sponging the body every morning with 
cold water, immediately after getting out of bed ; a practice which I 
have adopted for 30 years without ever catching cold." Water di- 
luted with 5 per cent, of carbolic acid ^vill disinfect any room or build- 
ing, if liberally used as a sprinkle. Diphtheria can bo cured by a gar- 
gle of lemon juice, swallowing a little so as to reach all the affected 
]>arts. To avert cold from the feet, wear two pairs of stockings made 
from different fabrics, one pair of cotton or silk, the other of wool, and 
the natural heat of the feet will be prcserA'ed if the feet are kept clean. 
In arranging sleeping rooms the soundest and most refreshing slum- 
ber will be enjoyed when the head is towards the north. Late hours 



148 MEDICAL DErAKTMENT, ETC. 

and anxious pursuits cxhaiif t vitality, produciug disease and prem- 
ature death, tlierel'oro the liours of labour and study should be short. 
Take abundant exercise and recre;ition. Be moderate in eating and 
drinking, using simple and plain diet avoiding strong drink, tobacco, 
snuff, opium and every excess. Keep the body warm, the temper 
calm, serene and placid ; shun idleness ; if your hands cannot bo use- 
fully employed, attend to the cultivation of your minds. For puro 
liealth giving fresh air, go to the country. Dr. Stockton Hough as- 
serts that if all the iidiabitants of the world were living in cities of tho 
magnitude of London, the human race would become extinct in a 
century or two. Tlie mean average of human life in the United States 
is 3^}^ years, while in New York and Philadelphia it is only 23 years ; 
about 50 per cent, of tho deaths in these cities being of children un- 
der five years of age. A great percentage of this excessive mortality 
is ciiused by bad air and bad food. 

To ASCERTAIN THE State OF THE LuxGS. — Draw iu as much 
breath as you conveniently can, then count as long as possible in a 
slow and audible voice without drawing in more breath. The number 
of seconds must be carefully noted. In a consumptive the time does 
not exceed 10, and is frequently less than secoucls ; iu pleurisy and 
pneumonia it ranges from 9 to 4 seconds. When the lungs are sound 
the time will range as high as from 20 to 35 seconds. To expand 
the lungs, go into the air, stand erect, throw bade the head and 
shoulders, and draw in tlie air through the nostrUs as much as possible. 

After having then filled the lungs, raise your anns, still extended, 
and suck in the air. AVhen you have thus forced the arms backward, 
with the chest open, change the process by which you draw in your 
breath, till the lungs are emptied. Go through the process several 
times a day, and it will eiJarge the chest, give the limgs better play, 
and serve very much to ward off consumption. 

Remedy for Neuralgia. — Ilyiiophosphite of soda taken in 1 
dram doses 3 times per day iu beef tea is a good remedy for this 
painful affection. So is the application of bruised horse-radish, or 
the application of oil of peppemunt applied lightly with a camel iiair 
pencil 

Remedy for Headache. — A Parisian xihysician has jjublished a 
new remedy for headaches. He uses a mixture of ice and salt, in 
proportion of one to one-half, as a cold mixture, and this he applies 
by means of a little purse of silk gauze, with a rim of gutta percha, to 
limited spots on the head, when rheumatic headaches are felt. It 
gives iastantaneous relief. The application is from ^ minute to 1.^ 
minutes, and the sldn is rendered white and hard by tho applications" 

To Cure a Cold. — Before retiring soak the feet in mustard water 
as hot as can be endured, the feet shoudd at first be plunged iu a pail 
half full of lukewarm water, adding by degrees very hot water until 
the desired heat is attained, protectmg the body and knees witli 
blankets so to direct the vapor from the water as to induce a good 
sweat. Next, to 2 table spoonfuls of boiling water, add 1 table spoonful 
of white sugar and 14 drops of strong spirits of camphor. Drink tho 
whole and cuddle in bed under plenty of bedclothes and sleep it off. 

Remedy for COnsuiniption. — Tho following is said to be an effectual 
remedy, and will in time completely cure the disorder. Live temper- 
ately, avoid spirituous liquors, wear flannel next the skin, and take, 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 149 

every morning, htilf a pint of new milk, mixed with a wine glassful 
of the expressed juice of green horehound. One who has tried it says, 
" Four weeks' use of the horehound and milk relieved tiie pains of my 
hrcast, gave me ability to breathe deep, long and free, strengthened 
and harmonized my voice and restored iue to a better state of health 
than I had enjoyed for years." 

Tl^ICHI^*A is the term applied to a minute, slender, and transparent 
worm, scarcely l-20tli of an inch m length, which has recently been 
discovered to exist naturally in the muscles of swuie, and is frequently 
transferred to the human stomach when porlc is used as food. Enougli 
of these filthy parasites have been detected in half a pound of pork 
to engender 30,000,000 more, the females being very prolific, each giv- 
ing buih to from CO to 100 yoimg, and dying soon after. The j^oung 
thread-like worm at first ranges freely through the stomach and in- 
testines, remainhig for a short time within the lining membrane of the 
intestmes, causing irritation, diarrhcea, and sometimes death, if 
present in sufficient luunbers. As tliey become stronger, they begin 
to penetrate the walls of tlie intestines in order to effect a lodgment in 
tlie voluntary muscles, causing intense muscular pain and severe en- 
during cramps, and sometimes tetanic symptons. After 4 weeks migra- 
tion they encyst themselves permanently on the muscular fibre, and 
begin to secrete a delicate sac which gradually becomes calcareous. 
lu tliis toi^iid state they remain during the person's lifetime. 

Remedy for Ditiitiieria. — The treatment consists in thoroughly 
swabbmg the back of the mouth and throat with a wash made thus : 
Table salt, 2 drams ; black pepper, golden seal, nitrate of potash, 
alum, 1 dram each ; mix and piilverize ; put into a teacup half full of 
water ; stir well, and tlien fill up with good vinegar. -Use every half 
liour, one, two, and four hours, as recovery progresses. The patient 
may swallow a httle each time. Apply 1 oz. each of spirits turi^eutine, 
sweet oil, and aqua-ammonia, mixed, every hour to the whole of the 
throat, and to the breast bone every four hours, keeping flannel to 
the part. 

IIollowat's OiNTJiEifT AXD PrLLS. — Butter, 22 oz. ; beeswax, 3 
oz. ; yellow rosui, 3 oz. ; melt ; add vinegar of cantharides, 1 oz. ; 
evaporate ; aud add Canada balsam, 1 oz. ; oil of mace, ^ dram ; 
balsam of Peru, 15 drops. Pills : AJoes, 4 parts ; myrrh, jalap, and 
ginger, of each 2 parts ; mucilage to mix. 

Abernetuy's Pills. — Each pill contains 2 grains of blue pill and 
3 grains compound extract of colocynth. 

WoRJi Lozenges. — Powdered lump sugar, 10 oz. ; starcn 5 oz. ; 
jnix with mucilage ; and to every ounce add 12 grains calomel : 
divide in 20 grain lozenges. Dose, two to six. 

Soothing Sykup. — Alcohol, oil of peppermint, castor oil, of each, 
1 oz. ; mix ; add oil of anise, ^ dram ; magnesia, CO grains ; pulve- 
rized ginger, 40 grains ; water, 2 oz. ; white sugar to form a syrup. 

Soothing Syrup. — Take 1 lb. of honey ; add 2 tablespoonfuls of 
paregoric, and the same of oil of anise seed ; add enough water to 
make a thick syrup, and bottle. For children teetlung, dose, tea- 
spoonful occasionallj''. 

Infant's Syeup.— The sj^rup is made thus : 1 lb. best box raisins ; 
^ ounce of anise seed ; two sticks licorice ; split the raisins, pound the 
anise seed, and cut the licorice fine ; add to it 3 quarts of rain water, 



150 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC 

and boil (lawn to 2 qn.irta. Feed three or four times a day, as mucli 
as tUe cliild will willingly drink. The raisins strengthen, the anise 
expels the wind, and the licorice is a physic. 

Bkandueth's Pills. — Take 2 lbs. of aloes, 1 lb. of gamboge, 4 oz. 
of extract of colocynth, ^ lb. of Castile soap, 3 fluid drams of oil of 
peppermint, and 1 fluid dram of cinnamon. Mix, and form into 
pills. 

Davis' Pain Kixleb Improved. — Powdered guaiac 20 lbs. ; cam- 
phor, 2 lbs. ; powdered cayenne pepper, 6 lbs. ; caustic liquor of 
ammonia, 1 lb. ; powdered opium, ^ \h. ; digest these ingredients in 
32 gals, alcohol for two weeks, and filter. 

CojiPOUND Sykup of Hypophosphites and Iron. — Dissolve 25(5 
grs. each of hypophosphites of soda, lime and potassa, aud 126 grs. 
h^^pophosphite of iron, in 12 oz. water, by a water bath. Filter and 
add sufHcient water to make up for the evaporation. Add 18 ozs. 
sugar by gentle heat, to make 21 fluid ozs. syrup. Each fluid oz. con- 
tains 12 grs. each of the hypophosphites of soda, lime and potassa, and 
six grs. hypophosphite of iron. 

Cdp.b tou Drunkenness. — Warranted a certain Remedy. Confine 
the patient to his room, furnish him with his favorite liquor of dis- 
cretion, diluted with § of water, as much wine, beer, coilee and tea as 
l;e desires, but containing J of spirit ; all tlie food — tlie bread, meat 
and vegetables steeped in spirit aud water. On the fifth day of this 
treatment he has an extreme disgust for spirit, being contmually 
drunk. Keep up this treatment till he uo longer desires to eat or 
drink, and the cure is certain. 

Fahnestock's Vermifuge. — Castor oil, oil of worm seed, each 1 
oz. ; oil anise, ^ oz. ; tlncturo myrrh, ^ dram ; oil turpentine, 10 
minims. Jlix. 

Swaim's Vermifuge. — Wormseed, 2 oz. ; valerian, rhubarb, pink- 
root, wliite agaric, of each Ih oz. ; boil in sufiicient water to yield 3 
quarts of decoction ; and add to it 10 drops of oil of tansy and 45 
drops of oil of cloves, dissolved in a quart of rectified spirits. Dose, 

1 tablespoonful at night. 

Ayer's Cherry Pectoral. — ^Take 4 grains of acetate of moqAia ; 

2 fluid drams of tincture of bloodroot ; 3 fluid drams each of anti- 
monial wine and wine of ipecacuanlia, and 3 fluid oz. of syrup of 
wild cherry. Mix. 

Spasms. — Acetate of morphia, 1 gr. spirit of sal volatile, 1 oz. sul- 
phuric ether, 1 oz. camphor julep, 4 ozs. Mix. Dose, 1 teaspoonful 
in a glass of cold water, or wine, as required. Keep closely corked, 
and shake well before using. 

Radway's Ready Relief. — According to Peckolt, is an ethereal 
tincture of capsicum, with alcohol and camphor. 

Radway's Renovating Resolvent. — A vinous tincture of ginger 
and cardamon, sweetened witli sugar. 

Ayer's Sarsaparllla.— Take 3 fluid ozs. each of alcohol, fluid 
extracts of sarsparilla and of stillingia ; 2 fluid ozs. each, extract of 
yellow-dock and of podophyllin, 1 oz. sugar, 00 grs. iodide of 
potassium, and 10 grs. iodide of iron. 

Brown's Bronchial Troches. — Take 1 lb. of pulverized extract 
of licorice ; 1^ lb. of pulverized sugar ; 4 oz. of pulverized cubebs ; 
4 oz. pulverized gum arable ; 1 oz, of pulverized extract conium. Mix. 



MEDICAL DEPAKTMENT, ETC. 151 

Russia Sai,ve. — Take equal parts of yellow wax and sweet oil ; 
melt slowly, carefully stirring ; when cooling, stir in a small quantity 
of glycerine. Good for all kinds of wounds, &c. 

Dentists' Composition fob Filling Decayed Teeth. — Gold, 1 
part ; mercury, 8 parts ; incorporated by lieatuig together ; when 
mixed pour them into cold water. Or, tinfoil aud quicksilver ; melt 
together in a convenient vessel, take a small qnautity, knead it in the 
palm of the hand, aud apply quick. Or, mi.^ n little finely-powdered 
glass -with some mineral succedaneum ; apply as usual. Or, take 
some mineral succedaneum, and add some steel dust. Or, mineral 
succedaneum mixed with levigated porcelain or china. Or, gypsum, 
1 part ; levigated porcelain, 1 jmrt ; levigated iron filings, i part ; 
make into a paste with equal parts of quick-drying copal and mastic 
varnish. Or, quicksilver, 40 grains ; steel filings, 2G grains. Or, sil- 
ver, 72 parts ; tin, 20 parts ; zinc, G parts. Better than any, pure 
gold, 1 part ; silver, 3 parts ; tin, 2 jmits ; melt the first two, add the 
tin, reduce all to a fine powder, use with an equal quantity of pure 
mercury. 

Gutta-percha, softened by heat, is recommended. Dr. RoUfs ad- 
vi.ses meltuig a piece of caoutchouc at the end of a wire, and intro- 
(^itcing it while warm. 

Amalgams for the teeth are made with gold or silver, and quick- 
silver, the excess of the latter being squeezed out, and the stiff amal- 
gam used warm. Inferior kinds are made with quicksilver and tin, 
or zmc. A popular nostrum of this kind consists of 40 grains of 
quicksilver aud 20 of fine zinc filings, mixed at the time of using. 
The following is said to be the most lasting and least objectionable 
amalgam : Melt 2 parts of tin with 1 of cadmium, run it into an in- 
got, and reduce it to filings. Form these into a fluid amalgam with 
mercury, and squeeze out the excess of mercury through leather. 
Work up the solid residue in the hand, and press it into the tooth. 
Another cement consists of about 73 parts of silver, 21 of tin, aud 6 
of zinc, amalgamated with quicksilver. Beyond all doubt, gold foil 
is the best filling in use. 

PouDKE Metallique. — The article sold under this name in Paris 
appears to be an amalgam of silver, me-'cuiy, aud ammonium, A\ith 
an excess of mercury, which is pressed out before using it. 

To Extract Teeth with little ob no Pain. — Tincture of aco- 
nite, chloroform, and alcohol, of each 1 oz. ; mix; moisten two pled- 
gets of cotton with the liquid, and apply to the gums on each side of 
the tooth to be extracted, holding them in their place with pliers or 
other instruments for from five to ten minutes, rubbing the gum free- 
ly inside and out. 

Tooth Wash— To Remove Blackness. — Pure muriatic acid, 1 oz. ; 
•water, 1 oz. ; honey, 2 oz. ; mix. Take a tooth-brush, and wet it 
freely with this preparation, and briskly rub the black teeth, and in 
a moment's time they will be perfectly white ; then immediately 
wash out the mouth with water, that the acid may not act upon the 
enamel of the teeth. 

Dentists' Neuve Paste. — Arsenic, 1 jmrt; rose pink, 2 parts. To 
destroy the nerve, ajjply this preparation on a pledget of cotton, pre- 
viously moistened with creosote, to the cavity of the tooth, let it re- 
main 4 hours, then wash out thoroughly vdth water. Aiwther.^' 



152 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 

Arsenons .acid, 30 grs. ; acetate of morphia, 20 grs. ; creosote, q. s. for 
paste. Mix. 

Alloys for Dentist's Mottlds and Dies. — 1. Tin, very hard. — Tin, 
IC parts; antimony, 1 part; zinc, 1 part; 2. Tin, softer than the last. 
Tin, S parts; zinc, 1 part; antimony, 1 part; 3. Copper Alloy, very 
hard. — Tin, 12 parts; antimony, 2 parts; copper, 1 part; 4. Cadmium 
Alloy, about the hardness of zinc. — Tin, 10 parts; antimony, 1 part; 
cadmium, 1 part. 

Dentists' Emert Wheels. — Emery, 4 lbs. ; shellac, \ lb. ; melt 
the shellac over a slow fire ; stir in the emery, and poui- into a mould 
of plaster of Paris. When cold it is ready for use. 

Base for Artificial Teeth.— Proportions. — India-rubber, 1 
lb. ; sulphur, h, lb. ; vermillion, 1 lb. 4 oz. 

Nitrous O^ide, or Laughing Gas. — Take two or three ounces of 
nitrate of ammonia in crystals and put it into a retort, taking care 
that the heat does not exceed 500'' ; when the ci-ystals begin to melt, 
the gas will be produced in considerable quantities. The gas may 
also be procured, though not so pure, by pouring nitric acid, diluted 
with five or six times its weight of water, on copper filings or small 
pieces of tin. The gas is given out till the acid begins to turn brow^ ; 
the process must then be stopped 

To Inhale the Laughing Gas. — Procure an oiled or varnished 
silk bag, or a bladder, furnished with a stop-cock, into the mouth, and 
at the same time hold the nostrils, and the sensation produced will be 
of a highly pleasing nature ; a great propensity to laughter, a rapid 
flow of vivid ideas, and an unusual fitness for muscular exertion, are 
the ordinary feelings which it produces. The sensations, produced by 
breathing this gas, are not the same in all persons, but they are of an 
agreeable nature, and not followed by any depression of spirits like 
those occasioned by fermented liquors. 

Magnetic Pain'Killer, for Toothache and Acute Pain. — Lau- 
dnum 1 dr. gum camphor 4 drs. oil of cloves i dr. oil of lavender 1 dr. 
add then to 1 oz. alcohol, G drs. sulphuric "ether, and 5 fluid drs. 
chloroform. Apply with liut, or for toothache rub on the gums, and 
upon the face against the teeth. 

Cure for Lock Jaw, said to be positive. — ^Let any one who has 
an attack of lock jaw take a small quantity of spirits of turpentine, 
warm it, and pour it on the wound — no matter where the wound is, or 
wliat its nature is — and relief will follow in less than one muiute. 
Turpentine is also a sovereign remedy for croup. Saturate a piece of 
flannel with it, and place the flannel on the throat and chest — and in 
very severe cases three to five drops on a lump of sugar may be 
tak'en internal! J^ 

New lilETHOD of Embalming. — ^Mix together 5 pounds dry sul- 
phate of alumine, 1 quart of warm water, and 100 grains of arsenious 
acid. Inject 3 or 4 quarts of this mixture into all the vessels of the 
human body. This applies as well to all animals, birds, fishes, &c. 
This process supersedes the old and revolting mode, and has been in- 
troduced into the great anatomical schools of Paris. 

Nitrate of Silver. — Pure silver, 1^ oz. ; nitric acid, 1 oz. diluted 
with water, 2 oz. ; heat hj a sand-bath until ebullition ceases, and 
the water is expelled then pour into moulds. This eubstanae must 
be kept from the light. 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC 153 

Clifford's Shajipoo Compound. — Mix borax | lb. with salts tar- 
tar 4 lb. aud dissolve 1 oz. of the mixture in 1 pt. water. 

Clifford's Hair Dye. — No 1. Pyrogallic acid 1 oz. ; water 1 qt- 
No 2. Nitrate of silver 1 oz. ; water 4 ozs. ; ammonia 1 oz. Keep 
your materials free from grease, cool, and in the dark. Apply each 
No. alternately to the hair, first cleaning the hair well. 

Bay Rum. — French proof spirit 1 gal. est. Bay 6 ozs. Mix and color 
with caramel, needs no filtering. 

Hair Invigokatoii. — Bay rum, 2 pinte ; alcohol, 1 pint ; castoi 
oil, 1 oz. ; carb. ammonia, J oz. ; tincture of cautharides, 1 oz. Mij 
them well. This compound will promote the growth of the hair, 
and prevent it from falling out. 

Razor-Strop Paste.— Wet the strop with a little sweet oil, and 
apply a little flour of emery evenly over the surface. 

Oil of Roses.— Olive oil, 1 lb. ; otto of roses, 50 drops ; oil of 
rosemary, 25 drops; mix. Another, roses (hardly opened) 12 oz. ; 
olive oil, 10 oz., beat them together in a mortar ; let them remain 
for a few days, then express the oil. 

Balm of Beauty. — Pure soft water, 1 qt ; pulverized Castile 
soap, 4 oz. ; emulsion of bitter almonds, 6 oz. ; rose and orange 
flower water, of each, 8 oz. ; tincture of benzoin, 2 drs. ; borax, 1 
dr. ; add 5 grs. bichloride of mercury to every 8 oz. of the mix- 
ture. To use, apply on a cotton or linen cloth to the face, &c. 

Oriental Cold Cream. — Oil of almonds, 4 oz. ; white wax and 
spermaceti, of each, 'S drs. ; melt, and add rose water, 4 oz. ; orange 
flower water, 1 oz. ; used to soften the skin, apply as the last. 

Shaving Cream. — White wax, spermaceti, almond aud oil, of 
each ^ oz. : melt, and while warm, beat in 2 squares of Windsor 
soap previously reduced to a paste with rose water. 

Circassian Cream. — Take 2 ounces of perfectly fresh suet, either 
mutton or venison ; 3 ounces of olive oil ; 1 oz. gum benzoine in 
powder, and ^ oz. of alkanet root. Put the whole into a jam jar, 
which, if without a lid, must be tied over with a bladder, and place 
the jar in a sauce pan containing boiling water, at the side of the 
fire. Digest for a whole day, then strain away all that is fluid 
through fine muslin, and stir till nearly cold. Add, say 1 dr.-im of 
essence of almonds, roses, bergamot or any other perfume desired. 

Freckle Cure. — Take 2 oz. lemon juice, or half a dram of 
powdered borax, and one dram of sugar ; mix together, and let 
them stand in a glass bottle for a few days, then rub on the face 
occasionally. 

Yankee Shaving Soap. — Take 3 lbs. white bar soap; 1 lb. Castile 
soap; 1 quart rain water; ^ pt. beef's gall; 1 gill spirits of turpen- 
tine. Cut the soap into thin slices, and boil five minutes after the 
soap is dissolved; stir while boiling ; scent with oil of rose or 
almonds. If wished to color it, use ^ oz vermilion. 

Bloom of Youth. — Boil 1 ounce of Brazil wood in 3 pints of 
water for 15 miuutes ; strain. Add j oz. isinglass, J oz. cochi- 
neal, 1 oz. alum, ^ oz. borax. Dissolve by heat, and slrain. 

Cologne Water. — Oils of rosemary and lemon, of each ^ oz. ; 
oils of bergamot and lavender, each § oz. ; oil cimiamon, 8 drops ; 
oils of cloves and rose, each 15 drops ; best deodorized alcohol, 2 qts. ; 
shake two or three times per day for a week. 



154 MEDICAL DEPAKTMEXT, ETC. 

We propose to give the formula for the foUowing preparations, 
aud shall commence with ^vhat is said to bo 

Bogle's HrPERiox Fluid. — To 8 oz. of 90 or 95 per cent, alcohol, 
colored red with allcanet, add 1 oz. of castor oil : perfume with 
geranium and verbena. 

Lyox's Kathaikox. — To 8 oz. of 80 per cent, alcohol, colored 
j-ellow by a few drops extract of anuatto, add 2 oz. castor oil, and 
jierfume with a little bergamot. 

Phalon's Hair Restorative. — To 8 oz. of 90 per cent, alcohol, 
colored by a few drops tincture of alkanet root, add 1 oz. of cas- 
tor oil, and perfume with a compound of bergamot, neroli, verbena, 
and orange. 

jMrs. Allen's. — To 16 oz. of rose water, diluted with an equal 
part of salt water, add h oz. of sulphur and i oz. of sugar of lead ; 
let the compound stand" five days before using. 

Batciielor'sIIair-Dye. — No. 1. Tol oz. of pyro-gaUic acid, dis- 
solved in 1 oz. alcohol, add 1 qt. of soft water. No. 2. To 1 oz. nitrate 
of silver, dissolved in 1 oz. of concentrated ammonia, add 4 oz. of 
Foft water. Apply each No. alternately, with separate brushes, to tho 
Lair. 

Citristadoro's nAiR-DYE. — No. 1. To 1 oz. of pyro-gaUic acid, dis- 
solved in 1 oz. alcohol, add 1 qt. soft water. No. 2. To 1 oz. crys- 
tallized nitrate of silver, dissolved in 1 oz. concentrated aqua- 
ammonia and 1 oz. soft water, add i oz. gum arable and 3 oz. soft 
water. Keep covered from the light. 

rnALOx's Instantaneous Hair-Dye. — No. 1. To 1. oz. pyro- 
gallic acid, and i oz. of taimia, dissolved in 2 oz. of alcohol, add i qt. 
of soft water. No. 2. To 1 oz. crystallized nitrate of silver, dissolved 
in 1 oz. concentrated aqua-ammonia, add 1 oz. gum arable, aud 14 
oz. soft water. Keep in the dark. 

ILvrrison's. — No. 1. To 1 oz. pyro-gallic acid, 1 oz. of tannia dis- 
solved in 2 oz. alcohol, add 1 qt. soft water. No. 2. To 1 oz. crys- 
tallized nitrate of silver, dissolved in 1 oz. of concentrated aqua- 
ammonia, add 5 oz. soft water and ^ oz. gum arable. No. 3. 1 oz. 
liydro-sulphate of potassa, dissolved in 1 qt. of soft water. This 
last ingredient is intended to produce a deep black color if the 
others should fail. Keep away from the light. 

Phaxon's (One Prei-aration. ) — To 1 oz. crystallized nitrate of 
silver, dissolved in 2 oz. of a((ua-ammonia, add 5 oz. soft water. 
This is not an instantaneous dye ; but after exposure to the light 
itnd air, a dark color is jjrodnced upon the surface to which it 
is applied. Kemember to remove all grease, &c., from the hair before 
applying these dyes. 

Professor Wood's. — To 8 oz. vinegar, diluted with an equal 
l^art of soft water, add 2 drs. sulphur, and 2 drs. sugar of lead. 

Alpine IIair-Balm. — To 16 oz. of soft water add 8 oz. of alcohol 
and i oz. spirits turpentine, J oz. sulphur, and i oz. sugar of lead. 

Glycerine Preparation. — New rum, 1 qt. ; concentrated spirits 
of ammonia, 15 drops ; glycerine oil, 1 oz. ; lac sulphur, 5^ drs. ; 
sugar of lead, 5^ drs. ; put the liquor into a bottle, add the ammonia, 
tlieu the other components. Shake the compound occasionally for 
four or live da3-s. 

Crystalline Cril.'lm. — Oil of almonds, 8 oz. ; spermaceti, 1 oz. ; 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 155 

melt togctlicr. When a little cooled, add ^ oz. or less of essence of 
bergamot or other perfume ; put into wide-mouthed bottles, and lot 
it stand till cold. Camphorated crystalline cream may be made by 
using camphorated oil {L. Camphoroi) instead of oil of almonds. 

Mac.\ssar Oil.— Olive oil, 1 qt. ; alcohol, 2^ oz. ; rose oil, 1| oz. ; 
then tie 1 oz. of chipped alkanet root in a muslui bag, and put it in 
the oil, let it alone for some davs till it turns the color of a pretty 
red, then remove to other oils. t)o not press it. 

Ox ItlAKRow.— Melt 4 oz. ox tallow ; white wax, 1 oz. ; fresh lard, 
C oz. ; when cold, add 1^ oz. oil of bergamot. 
Beaks' Oil. — Use good sweet lard oil, 1 qt. ; oil bergamot, li oz. 
Extract of Patchouli. — MLxlioz. ottarof Patchouli, and^oz. 
•otto of rose, with 1 gal. rectified spirits. 

Se.v Foam for Barbers. — Alcohol, 4 oz. ; castor oil, 1 oz. ; am- 
monia, h oz. ; water, 1 pt. Dissolve the castor oil and ammonia in 
the alcohol, then add the alcohol mixture to tlie water. 

FvKOGALLic Hair Dye.— Pyrogallic acid, i oz. ; dissolve it in hot 
distilled water 1^ oz. ; when the solution cools add gradually rectified 
spirit, ^ fluid oz. 

Fixe Shajipoo Liquid. — Dissolve J oz. carb. of ammonia and 1 oz, 
of borax in 1 qt. water, then add 2 oz. glycerine, 3 qts. of New Eng- 
land rum, and 1 qt. of bay rum; moisten the hair with this liquor, 
shampoo with the hands until a slight lather is formed, then wash 
off with clean water. 

Barber's Sh.uipoo IMixtcre. — Soft water, 1 pt. ; sal soda, 1 oz. ; 
cream tartar, J oz. Apply thoroughly to the hair. 

Cheap Bay Ruai. — Saturate a i lb. block of carb. of mamesia 
with oil of Bay ; pulverize the magnesia, place it in a filter, and pour 
water through it mitil the desired quantity is obtamed, then add 
alcohol. Tlie quantity of water and alcohol employed depends on 
the desired strength and quantity of the Bay rum. Another — Oil of 
Bay, 10 fluid drs. ; oil of pimeuto, 1 fluid dr. ; acetic ether, 2 fluid 
drs. ; alcohol 3 gals. ; water, 2^ gals, ilix, and after 2 weeks' repose, 
filter. 

Liquid forForcixg thf: Beard. — Cologne, 2 oz. ; liquid hartshorn, 
1 dr. ; tinct. cantharides, 2 drs. ; oil rosemary, 12 drops ; Lavender, 
12 drops. Apply to the face daily and await results. Said to bo 
reliable. 

Court Plaster. — Brush silk over with a solution of isinglass, in 
spirits or warm water, dry and repeat several times. For the last 
application apply several coats of balsam of Peru. Used to close 
cuts or wounds, by warming it and applying. It does not wash 
off until the skin partially heals. 

B,VLM of a Thousand Flowers. — Deodorized alcohol, 1 pt. ; nice 
white bar soap, 4 oz. ; shave the soap when put in, stand in a wann 
place till dissolved ; then add oil of citroneUa, 1 dr., and oils of 
neroli and rosemary, of each ^ dr. 

New York Barbers' Star Hair Oil. — Caster oil 6^ pts.; alcohol, 

Ih pts. ; citronella and lavender oil, each h oz. . 

'FkaisGipaxxi. — Spirits, 1 gal. ; oil bergiimot, 1 oz." : oil of lemon, 

1 oz. ; macerate for 4 days, trequeutly shaking ; then add water, 1 

gal. ; orange-flower water, 1 pint, essence of vanilla, 2 oz. Mix. 

Jockey Club. — Spirits of wine, 5 gal. ; orange-llower water, 1 



15 G MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 

gal. ; balsam of Peru, 4 oz. ; essence of bergamot, 8 oz. ; essence 
of musk, 8 oz. ; essence of cloves, 4 oz. ; essence of neroll, 2 oz. 

Ladies' Own. — Spirits of wine, 1 gal.; otto of roses, 20 dropa ; 
essence of thyme, ^ oz. ; essence of neroli, J oz. ; essence of vanilla, 
^ oz. ; essence of bergamot, ^ oz. ; orange-flower water, 6 oz. 

Kiss sie Quick. — Spirit, 1 gal. ; essence of thyme, ^ oz. ; essence 
of orange-flowers, 2 oz. ; essence neroli, ^ oz. ; otto of roses, SO drops; 
essence of jasmine, 1 oz. ; essence of balm mint ^ oz. ; petals of roses. 
4 oz. ; oil lemon, 20 drops ; calorus aromaticus, ^ oz. ; essence neroli, i 
oz. Mix and strain. 

UrPER Ten. — Spirits of wine, 4 qts. ; essence of cedrat, 2 drs. ; 
essence of violets, ^ oz. ; essence of neroli, h oz. ; otto of roses, 20 
drops ; orange-flower essence, 1 oz. ; oil of rosemary, 30 drops ; oils 
bergamot and neroli, each h oz. 

India Cholagogue. — Quinine, 20 grs. ; Pei-uvian bark, pulverized, 

1 oz. ; sulphuric acid, 15 drops, or 1 scruple of tartaric acid is best ; 
brandy, 1 gill ; water to make one pint ; dose, 5 teaspoonfuls every 

2 hours, in the absence of fever ; an excellent remedy. 
Febrifuge Winei — Quinine, 25 grs. ; water, 1 pint ; sulphuric 

acid, 15 drops ; epsom salts, 2 oz. ; color with tincture of red sanders. 
Dose, a wine glass 3 times per day. This is a world-renowned med- 
icine. 

Bakrell's Indian Liniment. — Alcohol, 1 qt. ; tincture of cai> 
sicum, 1 oz. ; oil of origanum, sassafras, pennyroyal, and hemlock, of 
each h oz. ilix. 

Cod Liver Oil, as usually prepared, is nothing more or lessthan cod 
oil cLarified, by wliich process it is in fact deprived in a great measure 
of its virture. Cod oil can be purchased from any wholesale oil deal- 
er for one tliirtieth part of the price of cod liver oil as usually sold, 
and it is easy to clarify it. Dealers might turn this information to 
good accomit. To make it more palatable and digestible, put 1 oz. of 
fine table salt to each quart bottle. 

Cod Liver Oil. — Tlie first livers are placed in a jacketed pan 
heated by steam, and when the oil is separated from the scraps it is 
passed through felt bags until it is perfectly clear. To remove a por- 
tion of the stearine, it'is subjected to refrigerating mixtures in the 
summer, and the incongealable portion is drawn off and placed in 
bottles. 

Paregoric. — Best opium, ^ dr. ; dissolve in about 2 tablespoonfula 
of boiluig water ; then add benzoic acid ^ dr. ; oil of anise, h a fluid dr. ; 
clarified honey, 1 oz. ; camphor gum, 1 scruple; alcohol, 70 i)er cent., 
11 fluid oz. ; distilled water, 4 fluid oz. ; macerate (keep warm) for 
two weeks. Dose for children, 5 to 20 drops; adults ; 1 to 2 tea- 
spoonfuls. 

Cough Syrup. — ^?ut 1 qt. horehound tea, 1 qt. of water, and boil 
it dDwn to 1 pt. ; add 2 or 3 sticks licorice ; 2 oz. syrup of squills, and 
a tablespoonf nl essence of lemon. Take a tablespooulul 3 times a day 
or as the cough requires. 

Cough Syrup.— Syrup of squills, 2 oz. ; tartarixed antimony, 8 
grs. ; sulphate of morphine, 5 grs. ; pulverized araljic, ^ oz. ; honey, 
1 oz. ; water, 1 oz. ; mix. Dose for an adult, 1 small teaspoonful; re- 
peat in half an hour if it does not relieve : child in proiwrtion. 

VEGETiUJLE Substitute foe Calomel. — Jalap, 1 oz. senna, 2 oz. ; 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 157 

peppermint, 1 oz. (a little cinuamon if desired), all pulverized and sif- 
ted through gauze. Dose, 1 teaspoonful put in a cup -with 2 or 3 
spoonfuls of hot water, and a good lump of white sugar ; when cool, 
drink all ; to be taken fasting in the morning ; drink freely ; if it does 
not operate in 3 hours, repeat ;j the quautitj- ; use instead of calomel. 

Dynamic Powek of vakiou.s kinds of Food. — One lb., of oat- 
meal will furnish as much power as 2 lbs. of bread and more than 
o lbs of lean veaJ. One lb., butter gives a working force equal to 
that of 9 lbs. of potatoes, 12 lbs. of milk and more than 5 lbs. of 
lean beef. One lb. of lump sugar is equal in force to 2 lbs., of ham, 
or iS lbs. of cabbage. The habitual use of spirituous liquors is inimical 
to health, and inevitably tends to shorten life. A mechanic or laboring 
man of average size, requires, according to Moleschott, 23ozs., of dry 
solid matter, daily, one fifth nitrogenous. Food, as usually prepared, 
contains 50 per cent, of water, which would increase the quantity to 46 
ozs. , or 3 lbs. 14 ozs. , with at least an equal weight of water in addition 
daily. The same authority indicates as healthy proportions, of albumi- 
nous matter 4.587 ozs., fatty matter 2. 9(J4, carbo-hydrate 14.250, salts 
1.058, total 22.859 ozs., for daily use. Tliis quantity of food will 
vary greatly in the requirements of individuals engaged in sedentary 
employments, or of persons with weak constitutions or impaired 
digestion, as also whether employed in the open air or within doors 
much also, depending on the temperature. Preference should be 
given to the food which most readily yields the materials required by 
nature in the formation of the human frame. Beef contains about4 
lbs. of such minerals in every 100 lbs. Dried extract of beef con- 
tains 21 lbs. in each 100 lbs. Bread made from unbolted wheat 
fltiur is also very rich in such elements, much more so than superfine 
flour ; hence the common use of Graham bread for dyspepsia and 
other ailments. The analysis of Liebig, Johnston, and others give in 
100 parts, the following proportions of nutritious elements, viz., 
Indian corn, 12.30 barley 14.00, wheat 14,0G, oats 19.91. A fish diet 
is well adapted to sustain intellectual, or brain labor. What is 
required may be best known from the fact that a human body 
weighing 154 lbs., contains, on a rough estimate, of water 14 gals, 
(consisting of oxygen 111 lb.s., of hydrogen 14 lbs.), carbon 21 lbs., 
nitrogen 3 lbs. 8 ozs., calcicum 2 lbs., sodium 2^ ozs., phosphorus 1^ 
lbs., jxjtassium ^ oz. sulphur 2 ozs. 219 grs., fluorine 2 ozs., chlorine 
2 ozs. 47 grs., iron 100 grs., magnesium 12 grs., silicon 2 grs. After 
death, the human body is by gradual decay, slowly resolved into 
these its component jiarts, which elements are again used in the 
complex and wonderful laboratory of nature, to vivify the countless 
forms of vegetable life. These in their turn fulfil their appointed 
law by yielding up their substance for the formation of other bodies. 
What a suggestive comment on mortal ambition to witness the 
present inhabitants of Egypt engaged in what they consider the 
lucrative commerce of quarrying out the bones of the ancient inhab- 
itants from the catacombs where they have been entombed for thou- 
sands of years and transporting them by the ship-load to England, in 
order to fertilize the crops which are destined to assist in fonning 
the bone and sinew of the British nation! 

CuRK FOR Snake Bites. — Tlie Inspector of Police in the Bengal 
Government reports that of 939 cases in which ammonia was freely 



158 MEDICAL DEPAETilEXT, ETC. 

administered 207 victims have recovered, and in the cnrcd instances 
the remedy -Nvas not administered till about 3^ hours after the attack, 
on the average of the fatal cases the corresponding duration of timo 
was 4^ hom-s. 

Remedy For Small Tox. — Sulphate of zinc, 1 gr., foxglove 
[didtalis,] 1 gr., sugar J teaspoonf ul, mixwitli 2teaspoonfuls of water, 
add 4 oz. of ■« ater, Dose 1 spoonful every hour, child in proportion. 
From experience it is known that nothing will break up this friglitf ul 
disease sooner tlian conthiued and persevering bathing, with the water 
at a comfortable temperature. 

Reliable Sjiall Pox Remedy. — Tested. — A child 9 years old was 
effectually cured of small pox by administering 15 grs. sod;e sulphico 
dissolved in milk, sweeteued, every 3 hours. The entire body was 
oiled with crude potroleum applied by hand. Next morning the erup- 
tion was killed and dry ; and the disease broken up. To prevent pit- 
ting with small pox, as soon as the disease is distuiguished, apply au 
ointment made of lard and charcoal to the face, neck, hands, &c., 
tind continue until all signs of supperativc fever has ceased. One 
case is worthy of notice, being that of a gentleman who suffered 
terribly for many days with this dreadful disease. Everything was 
done for him that medical skill could suggest, without giving tho 
slightest relief. Final! j', as a last resort, he was removed from tho 
bed and placed in a warm bath' the transition was so sootliing and 
delightful that he exclaimed, ''Oh, my God, I thank Thee for this 
great relief! " In a short time he fell soimd asleep in the bath, and 
continued in this position for many hours, the water being renewed 
from time to time to keep up the temperature. The cure proved to 
be immediate and permanent. Nothing is so conducive to health of 
body, and tlie eradiciition of disease therefrom, as the intelligent use 
of pure water. Sir Astlcy Cooper, being complimented on one 
occasion for his great skill, remarked, that he had "made mistakes 
enough to fiU a graveyard," but it is scarcely possible to make a mis- 
take with water, as no diseased person can fail to derive benefit from 
its use. 

Portable Bath. — Make a small circular boiler of copper or tin, and 
fit the same into an upright tin stand, in which, directly imder the 
boiler, you must leave au aperture to contain a small spirit lamp. Tho 
boiler lid must fit tightly and be provided with three small tubes 
pointing upwards. The boiler being filled with water and the lamp 
lighted, as soon as the steam gets up, it rushes througli tliese tubes, 
and the patient, seated on a cane chair, with his or her feet in a pan 
of wann water, with a suitable cloak tightly fastened around the 
neck, is speedily enveloped in a cloud of steam. Ten minutes is tho 
time recommended for the duration of the first few baths. It may bo 
afterwards mcreased, but not beyond half an hour. On getting out 
of tlie cloak, plunge into a cold bath for a few minutes, then rub tlio 
skin till it is quite dry and glowing with a coarse towel and a pair of 
good liair-gloves. Persons in health or disease will experience a 
wonderful recuperative power in the frequent use of this bath, and all 
will find it incomparably superior to tho use of drugs in any form 
wliatever. In tliis connection a new and very ingenious invention 
called Spongio Piline, is deservuig of favorable mention. It con- 
eists of wool and smaU particles of sponge felted together, and attached 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC 159 

to a Bkin of India-nibber, the Trliole being about half an inch in thick- 
ness, and of inestimable value as a means of appljdng cold or tepid 
•water, &c., to such exterior parts of the human frame as may bo 
nearest to tlie seat of pain or disease. The water is sponged over the 
Icltcd surface, the suii)lus, if any, wiped off; it is then placed on the 
Bkiu, and covered over with several folds of bandages, which assist in 
rctaiuiug the heat and moisture, tlius attracting healthy blood to the 
part, from which nature selects such food as is most conducive to ex- 
pel disease and build up healthy tissue. 

Fly Paper. — Coat paper with turi^entine varnish, and oil it to keep 
the varnish from drying. 

Sweating Drops. — Ipecac., saffron, boneset, and camphor gum, 
of each, 3 oz. ; opium, 1 oz. ; alcohol, 2 qts. Let stand 2 weeks and 
filter. A teaspoonful in a cup of hot sage or catnip tea every hour 
until free perspiration is induced; good in colds, fevers, inflamma- 
tions, &c. Bathe the feet in hot water at the same time. 

Syrup for CoNSOJiPTnT.s. — Oftamaracbark, take from the tree, 
without rossing, 1 peck ; spikenard root, h lb. ; dandelion root, ^ lb. ; 
hops, 2 oz. Boil these sutBcient to get the strength in 2 or 3 gals, 
water; strain, and Ijoil down to 1 gal. ; when blood warm, add 3 lbs. 
best honey, and 3 pints best brandy; bottle and keep in a cool place. 
Dose, drink freely of it 3 times per day before meals, at least a gill or 
more ; cure very ceitain. 

COMiiON Castor Oil. — Pale vegetable oil, 1 gal. ; castor oil, 3 gals. ; 
mix. 

PiTLMOXic Wafers. — Lump sugar, licorice, and starch, of each 2 
pirts; gum, 10 parts; squills and ipecacuanha, of each 5 parts; lactu- 
carium, 2 parts. Mix, and divide into 8 grain lozenges. 

Sir James Clarke's Diarrhcea and Cholera Mixture. — 
Tinct. of opium, tinct. of camphor, and spirits of turpentine, of each 3 
drams; oil of i>eppemiint, 30 drops; mix. Dose, 1 teaspoonful for 
cholera. 

Vegetable or Co^rrosiTiON Powder. — Fine bayberry bark, 1 lb ; 
ginger 8 oz., common cayenne, 3 oz., mbc. Dose, 1 teaspoonful in a 
cup of boiling water, sweeten and add milk. 

Tinctures are made with 1 oz. of gum, root, or bark, &c., dried, 
to each pmt of proof spirits ; let it stand one week, and filter. 

Essences are made with 1 oz. of any given oO, added to 1 pint 
alcohol. Peppermints are colored witli tinct. turmeric; cinnamon 
with tinct. of red sanders ; wintergreen with tmct. kino. 

Substitute for Arrowroot. — Finest pofcito starch, 75 lbs. ; 
lump sugar, 4 lbs. ; finely-ground rice, 21 lbs. Mix, and sift through 
lawn ; yields 100 lbs. excellent arrowroot. 

Certain Cure for Croup. — Goose oil and urine equal parts. 
Dose, 1 teaspoonful. A certain cure if taken in time. 

Corns and Warts. — Take a smaU quantity of the potash paste 
recommended for Poll Evil, and apply to the corn or wart. 

Druggist's Colors. — Yellow, tJike iron filings, hydrochloric acid 
to dissolve, dilute with cold water. Red, solution of sal ammoniac, 
cochineal, to color. Blue, indigo, 1 part, oil of vitriol, 2 parts, dis- 
solve, then dilute with water. Green, verdigris, 1 part, acetic acid, 
3 parts, dilute with water, Furple, cochineal, 25 grs., sugar of lejid 
1 oz., dissolve. 



160 MEDICAL DEPAIiTMEXT, ETC. 

Sjiellixg Salts. — Sub-carbonate of am-monia, 8 parts ; put it ia 
coarse powder in a bottle, and pour on it oil of lavendar, 1 pait. 

TuNEHiDGE Wells Watek. — Chloride of sodium, 5 grains ; 
tinct. steel, 20 drops ; distilled water, 1^ pints. 

IMlneral Wateb. — Epsom salts, 1 oz. ; cream tartar, ^ oz. ; tar- 
tiiric acid, i oz. ; loaf sugar, 1 lb. ; oil of birch, 20 drops ; put 1 qt. 
cold water on 2 tablespoonfuls yeast (whiter green oil will do), let it 
■work 2 hours and tlieu bottle. 

Congress Water for Fountains. — Common salt, 72 ozs. ; 
hydrate of soda, 20 grs. ; bicarbonate of soda, 20 grs. ; calcined 
magnesia, 1 oz. Add to 10 gal. of wat-er, and then charge witli gas. 

Kissingen Water for Fountains. — Bicarbonate of soda, 1 dr. ; 
carbonate of lime, 2 drs., and 2 scr. ; precipitate carbonate of lime, 
2 scr. ; common salt, 8 ozs. ; muriate of ammonia, 4 grs ; sulphate 
of soda, 2 drs. and 2 scr. ; sidphate of magnesia, 2 ozs. ; itliosphate 
of soda, 13 gr.=!. ; jihosphate of lime 2 drs. and 2 scr. Mix. Add 
water ^ of a gal. Let it stand lor G hours, filter, add carbonate of 
magnesLa, 3 drs. and 1 scr. , and charge with 10 gals, of water. 

VicuY Water for Fountains. — Sulphate of potass, 2 drs.; 
sulphate of soda, 2D gis. ; common salt, 6 drs. ; bicarbonate of am- 
monia, 10 grs. Jlix. Add water, 1 gal. Let it stand 1 day, filter 
and then charge with 10 gal. of water. 

Gentjine Seidlitz Fu\\t)ers. — Rochcllc salts, 2 drs. ; bicarb. 
soda, 2 scr. ; put these into a blue paper, and 35 grains tartaric acid 
into a white paper. To use, put each into different tumblers, fill ^ 
with water, adding a little loaf sugar to the acid, then jjour together 
and drink quick. 

Bottled Seidlitz Watee. — Fill soda-water bottles Tvith clear 
water ; add to each as below ; cork and Avire immediately : Rochelle 
salts, 3 drops ; bicarbonate of soda, 35 grs ; sulphuric acid, 11 drops. 

Excellent Tootk Powder. — Suds of castile soap and spirits of 
camphor, of each an equal quantity ; thicken with equal quantities 
of pulverizctl chalk and charcoal to a thick paste. Apply with the 
finger or brush. 

ilAT ExTERJiiNATon. — Warm water, 1 qt. ; lard, 2 lbs ; phospho- 
rus, 1 oz. ; mix, and thicken with fiour ; to be spread on bread and 
covered with sugar. 

Bug Poison.— Alcohol, ^ pint; turpentine, h pint ; crude sal am- 
moniac, 1 oz. ; mLx all together, and let it digest in a warm place lor 
a few days, and it is ready for use. 

JIedicated Cough Candy. — To 5 lbs. candy just ready to pour 
on the slab, add the foUowuig mixture, and form it into sticks to 
corresi^oud with the price asked for them : Tmct. squills, 2 oz. ; cam- 
phorated tinct. of opium and tinct. of tolu, of each ^ oz. ; wine of 
ipecac, ^ oz. ; oils of gaultheria, 4 drops ; sassafras, 3 drops ; and 
of anise'seed oil, 2 drops, and use this freely in common coughs. 

Ague Pill. — Quuiine, 20 grs. ; Dover's powders, 10 grs. ; sub- 
carbonate of iron, 10 grs. ; ruLx -with mucilage of gum arable and 
foi-m mto 20 jiUls. Dose, 2 eacli hour, commencing 5 hours before 
the chiU. should set in. Then take 1 night and morning until all are 
talcen. 

Age at WTncn Menstruation Commences. — Dr. Walter Rigden 
gives the sul^"ouied st;itistic3 obtained from females who were con- 



MEDICAL DEPAKTMENT, ETC. 1*»1 

fined nt Unirersity College Hospital. In 2,G9G cases menstruation 
occured for the first time : 



At the age of 


At the age of 


9 in 3 cases. 


18 in 


150 casea 


10 " 14 " 


19 " 


76 " 


11 " GO " 


20 " 


20 " 


12 " 170 " 


21 *' 


7 " 


13 " 353 " 


22 " 


3 " 


14 " 5G0 " 


23 " 


2 " 


15 " 540 " 


24 " 


" 


16 " 455 " 


25 " 


" 


17 " 272 " 


26 " 


2 " 



It thus appears that it is most common at 14 years of age, and 
great care should be taken of the health on the occurrence of these 
important periods. 

Atkinson's Infant's Pkeservative. — Carbonate of magnosiA, 
6 drs. ; sugar, 2 oz. ; oil of anise seed, 20 drops ; sal-volatile, 2i drs. ; 
laudanum, 1 dr. ; syrup of saffron, 1 oz. Make up 1 pint with 
caraway water. 

Pills to teomote Menstrual Secretion. — ^Take pills of aloes 
and myrrh, 4 drs. ; compound iron pills, 280 grs. ; mix and form 
into 100 pUls. Dose, 2 twice a day. 

For Obstructed Menstruation. — Make a strong tea of smart 
weed, covering it to retain the strength, or use the extract of smart 
weed instead, taking 1 tcaspoonfid of the latter once every 3 houi-s, 
(or about 10 teaspoonfuls of the tea) in warm water, sweetened, 
making free use of hot baths for the feet and the lower parts of the 
body. It wUl give great relief. 

Injection for Obstructed Menstruation. — Mix 1 to 2 fluid 
drs. liquor of ammouia with 1 pint milk. Use thrice daily. 

For Obstructed Menstruation.-— Sulphate of iron, 60 gi-s. ; 
potassa (sub. carb.) GO grs. ; myrrh, 2 drs. ; make them into 3^ gr. 
pills ; 2 to be taken three times a day, in tlie absence of fever. For 
JPawful Menstruation, take pulv. rhei., 2 drs. ; pulv. jalap, 2 drs.; 
syrup of poppies to mix. Divide into 200 pills, and take night and 
morning. 2b check Immoderate Floio — Tinrt. of ergot, 1 oz., liquor of 
ammonia, 3 drs. ; mix. Dose, teaspoonf ul in water 3 times a day. 

Stimulant. — In Low Fevers, and after Uterine Hemor- 
EHAGES. — Best brandy and cinnamon water, of each, 4 lluid oz. ; the 
yolks of 2 eggs, well beaten ; loaf sugar ioz. ; oil of cimiamon, 2 
droi>s ; mix. Dose, from h to 1 (fluid) oz., as often as required. 
This makes both meat and drink. Of course, any other flavoring oils 
can be used, if preferred, in place of the cinnamon. 

For Female CoaiPLAiNTs. — One of the best laxative pills for 
female complaints is macrotin and rhubarb, each 10 grs. ; extr.ict of 
liyoscyamus 10 grs. ; Castile soap, 40 grs. ; scrape the soap, and mix 
well together, foi-ming into common sized pills with gum solution. 
Do8e,l pUl at bed time, or suflaciently often to keep the bowels in a 
laxative state. 

For Disease of the Kidnets. — Boil 1 oz. of parcira brava in 3 
pinta of water down to 1 pint. Dose, a wuieglassf ul 3 timed per day. 
11 



lo2 MEDICAL DEPARTHENT, ETC. 

To CTRB VOMITING IN PuEGNANCT. — Wix 1 dr. cai innate of 
magnesia; ^ oz. tinct. of Colombo; 5^ oz. i>eppenimit water. Dose, 
1 tablespoonful 3 times a day. 

IIaklaxd's Venereal Cure. — "Mix together po-n-dered cnbeb.<«, 
1\ oz. ; balsam capaiba, ^oz. ; powdered gum arabic, ^ oz. ; ciima- 
iiTon water, 3 ozs. A tablespoonful of the mixture to be taken at 
iutenals 8 times a day. 

Incontinence of Urine of Old People. — The continued uso 
of 1 to C drops tinct. of iodine has proved a successful remedy. For 
other persons, put 4 drops tincture of aconite root in a tumbler of 
water, and use a teaspoonf ul everj- hall hour until relieved. 

CojtrouND Extract Buchu. — Buchu, in coarse powder, 12 ozs. ; 
alcohol, 3 pts. ; water, G pts. are sufficient. Treat the leaves by 
maceration and displacement, first with a portion of the alcohol and 
then with the remainder mixed with the water, evaporate the result- 
ing liquid with a gentle heat to tliree pints, and add 2^ lbs. sugar, 
continue the heat tUl it is dis.solved, and after removing from the fire, 
add oil of cubebs, oil of juniper; of each 1 fluid dr.; spL-ita of 
nitric ether, 12 fluid ozs., previously mixed, stir together. 

Anodyne for Painful Menstruation. — Extract of stramo- 
nium and sulphate of quinine, each IG grs. ; macrotin, 8 gra. ; mor- 
crotin, 8 grs. ; morphine, 1 gr. ; make into 8 pills. Dose, 1 pill re- 
peating once or twice only, 40 to 50 minutes apart, if the pain does 
not subside before tliis time. Pain mnst subside under the use of 
this pill, and costiveness is not increased. 

Powder for Excesslve Flooding. — Gnmg kino and catechu, 
each 1 gr. ; sugar of lead and alum, each ^ dr. ; pulverize all and 
thoroughly mix, t'hen divide into 7 to 10 grain powders. Dose, one 
every 2 or 3 hours until checked, then less often merely to control the 
flow. 

Injection for Leucorrhcea. — "When the glairy mucus discharge 
is present, prepare a tea of hemlock imier bark and witeli hazel (often 
called spotted alder) leaves and bark, have a female syringe largo 
enough to fill the vagina, and inject the tea, twice daily ; and occa- 
sionally in bad cases, say twice a week, inject a syringe of the fol- 
lowing composition : For Chronic Female Complaints. White vitriol 
and sugar of lead, each, ^ oz. ; common salt, pulverized alum, and 
loaf sugar, each, h dr. ; soft water, 1 pt. Inject as above. 

For Prolapsus" Uteri, or Falling of the Wo>ie.— Not only 
the cheapest but the best support will be found to be a piece of fine 
finn sponge, cut to a proper size, to admit when damp of being 
pressed up the vagina to hold the womb in its place. The sponge 
should have a stout piece of small cord sewed 2 or 3 times through 
its centre, up and down, and left sufficiently long to allow its being 
taken hold of to remove the sponge, once a day, or every other day 
r.t the farthest, for the purpose of washing, cleaning, and using the 
necessary injections ; and this must be done while the patient is 
lying do\vn, to prevent the womb from again falling or prolapsing. 
After having injected some of the above tea, wet the sponge in tho 
same, and introduce it sufficiently high to hold the womb m its place. 
If pain is felt about the head, back, or loins for a few days before tho 
menses appear, prepare and use the following : Emmenar/orfne Tinc- 
ture. Alcohol, 1 pt, ; red oxide of iron, 1 oz. ; oils of juniper and 



MEDICAL DEPARTilEXT, ETC. 163 

•aviii, each J oz. ; oil of tanscy, 1 dr. ; tincture of ergot, 3 dra. ; 
tincture Spimisli flies, ^ oz. : mix all, and shake when taken. Dose, 
1 tcasix)on 3 timee daily, to be takeu in mucilage of slippery elm or 
gum arable, and drink freely of the mucilago also through the day, 
or use the following : 

Em-menagogue Pill. — Precipitated carbonate of iron and gum 
myrrh, of each 2 drs. ; aloes and tincture of Spanish flies, of each 
1 dr. ; and oil of savin, 1 dr. ; all to be pulverized, and made ijito 
100 pills by using thick gum solution. Dose, 1 pill, from 1 to 3 times 
daily, but not to move the bowels too much. 

Utekhne Hemokrhage. — Unfailing cure. Sugar of lead, 10 grs. ; 
ci^ot, 10 grs. ; opium, 3 grs.; ipecac, 1 gr. ; all pulverized, and 
■well mixed. Dose, 10 to 12 grs. ; given in a little honey or syrup. 

Li very bad cases after chilbbirth, it might be repeated in 30 
minutes, or the dose increased to 15 or 18 grs. ; but in cases of rather 
profuse wasting, repeat it once at the end of 3 hours, or as the 
urgency of the case may require. 

In every case of female debility make a liberal use of iron, as the 
want of iron hi the system is often the cause of the trouble. Wix 
fine iron filings witli as much ground guiger. Dose, half of a tea- 
spoon 3 times daily in a little honey or molasses, increasing or lessen- 
ing the dose to produce a blacknesjs of the stools. Continue this 
course until well. 

Lmperial Drops fob Gu.wel axd Kidney Co5iplai>-t3.— Oil 
of origanum, 1 oz., oil of hemlock, J oz., oil of sassafras, J oz., oil of 
anise, ^oz., alcohol, 1 pmt: mix. Dose, from ^ to 1 teaspoonful 3 
times a day, in sweetened water, will soon give relief when con- 
stant weakness is felt across the small of the back, as well as gravelly 
affections causing pain about the kidneys. ' 

Positive Cure for Gonoruhcea. — Liquor of potass, ^ oz., bitter 
apple, i oz., spirits of sweet nitre, ^ oz., balsam of copaiba, ^ oz., best 
gum i oz. To use, mix with peppermint water; take ^ teasiwonfid 3 
times per day: cure certain in 9 days. 

Celebrated Pile Ointjient. — Take carbonate of lead, ^oz., sul- 
phate of morphia, 15 grs. ; stramonium ointment, 1 oz. ; olive oil, 20 
dffops. Mix and apply 3 times per day, or as the pain may require. 

Another — Powdered nut gall, 2 drs., camphor, 1 dr., melted wax, 
10 oz., tincture of opium, 2 drs., mix. 

Stammering. — Impediments in the speech may bo cured, where 
there is no malformation of the organs of articulatiou, by presevcrance, 
for three or four mouths, in the simple remedy of reading aloud, with 
the teeth closed, for at least 2 hours each day. 

Cold in the Head, — Dr. PoUion, of France, says that cold in tho 
head can bo cured by inhaling hartshorn. The "inhalation by the 
nose should be seven or eight times in five minutes. 

Camphor Ice. — Spermaceti, li oz., gum camphor, | oz., oil sweet 
almonds, 4 teaspoonf uls ; set on the stove in an earthen dish till dis- 
solved; heat just enough to dissolve it. "While warm pour into small 
moulds, if desired to sell; then paper, and put into tinfoil; used for 
chains on hands or lips. 

Simple Rejiedies for Scarlet Fevt^r. — Open the bowels regu- 
larly every day with some mild aperient medicine, such as castor oil, 
senna, etc ; and keep tho patient at rest, and comfortably warm ; 



164 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, KTC. 

Pixinge the surface ■with tepid water, two or three times a day ; while 
it is hotter than natural, admit fresh air ; live on a bland diet, such 
as a cupful of arrowroot, several times a day ; toast-water for com- 
mon drmk. Gargle made of strong sage tea, honey and alum, or bor- 
ax, may be used from tlie commencement, if the throat is affected. 

Nerve akd Bone Linuiext.— Beef's gall. 1 qt. ; alcohol, 1 pt. ; 
Tolatile liniment, 1 lb. ; sirita of turpeutme, 1 lb. ; oil orgamim, 
4 oz. ; aqua ammonia, 4 oz. ; tincture of cayenne, i pt. ; oil of 
nmber, 3 oz. ; tincture Spanish flies, G oz. ; mix well. 

Cephalic Sxtjff. — Take asarbacca leaves, marjoram, light Scotch 
snuff, equal parts ; grind and sift, use like common snuff. 

Downer's Salve. — Beeswax, 4 oz. ; opium, i oz. ; sugar of lead, 
1 oz. ; melt the beeswax, and rub the lead up in the wax, then tlio 
opium, then 1 gill of sweet oil, incorporate all thoroughly together, 
spread lightly on cloth ; good for bums, piles, &c. 

Another Salve. — Burgundy pitch, beeswax, white pine pitch, 
and resin, 1 oz. each, mutton tallow, 8 oz. ; goose oil, 1 gill ; tar, 1 
gill ; melt and mix thoroughly. A first-rate salve. 

"WnooriNG Cough Syrlt.— Best rum, 1 pt. ; anise oil, 2 ozs. ; 
hoaey, 1 pt. ; lemon juice, 4 oz. ; mix. Dose for adults, 1 tablespoon- 
ful, 3 or 4 times per day ; children 1 teaspoon, with sugar aud water. 

Liquid Opodeldoc. — ^SVarra brandy, 1 qt. ; add to it gum camphor, 
1 oz. ; sal ammoniac, J oz. ; oils of origanum and rosemary, each h 
oz. ; oil wormwood, j oz. ; when the oils are dissolved, add G oz. soft 
soap. 

Green Mountain Salve. — For rheumatism, bums, pains in the 
back or side, &c., take 2 lbs. resin, burgundy pitch, ^ lb. ; beeswax ^ 
lb. ; mutton tallow, ^ lb. ; melt slowly ; when not too warm, add oil 
hemlock, 1 oz. ; balsam fir, 1 oz. ; oil of origanum, 1 oz. oil of red 
cedar, 1 oz. ; Venice turpentine, 1 oz. ; oil of wormwood, 1 oz. ; ver- 
digris, ^ oz. The verdigi-is must bo finely pulverized and mLxed witli 
tlie oils"; then add as alx)ve, and work in cold water like wax till cold 
enough to roll ; rolls 5 inches long, 1 inch duimeter, sell for 25 cents. 

English Resiedy for Cancfji. — Take chloride of zinc, blood- 
root pulverized, and flour, equal quantities of each, worked into a 
paste and appUed. First spread a common sticking-plaster much 
larger than the cancer, cutting a circular piece from the centre of it a 
little Larger than the cancer, applying it, which exposes a narrow rim 
of healthy skin ; then apply the cancer plaster, and keep it on 24 
Lours. On removmg it, the cancer will be found to be burned into, 
and appears the color of an old shoe-sole, and the rim outside will 
appear white and parboiled, as if burned by steam. Dress with 
slippery elm poultice until suppuration takes place, then heal with 
any common salve. 

Chronic Gout — To Cuee. — Take hot vinegar, and put into it all 
the table salt which it will dissolve, and bathe the parts affected with 
a soft piece of flannel. Rub in with the hand and dry the foot, &c., 
by the fire. Repeat this operation four times in 24 hours, 15 minutes 
each time, for four days ; then t\\'ice a day for the same period ; then 
once, and follow this rule whenever the symptoms show tiiemselves at 
auv future time. 

Gout Tincture. — Veratrum viride (swamp hellebore), ^ oz.j 
opium, J oz, ; wine, ^ pt. ; let them stand for several days. Dose, 15 



MEDICAL DErARTMEXT, ETC. 1G5 

to 30 drops, according to the robustness of the patient, at inteirals of 
2 to 4 hours. 

Paralytic Lindient. — Sulphuric ether, G oz. ; alcoliol, 2 oz. ; 
laudanum, 1 oz. ; oil of lavender, 1 oz. ; mix, and cork tightlj-. In a 
recent case of paralysis let the whole extent of the numb surface bo 
thoroughly bathed and rubbed -with this preparation, for several 
minutes, using the hand, at least three times daily ; at the same time 
tiike uitenially, 20 drops of the same, in a little sweetened water. 

Charcoal, a cure for Sick Headache.— It is stated that 2 tea- 
spoons of finely ]50wdered charcoal, drank in ^ a tumbler of water 
^rill, in less tlian fifteen muuites, give relief to the sick headache, 
when caused, as in most cases it is, bj- sui)erabundance of acid on 
the stomach. We have frequently tried this luiiiody, and its efficacy 
ill every instance has been signally satisfactory. 

Catiimitic Syrup. — Best senna leaf, 1 oz. ; butternut, the i;;!icr 
bark of the root, dried and bruised, 2oz. ; peppermuit leaf, i uz. ; 
feunel seed, h oz. ; alcohol, h pt. ; water, 1^ pts. ; sugar, 2 lbs.'; put 
all into the spirit and water" except the sugar, and let it stand two 
weeks, then strain, pressing out from the dregs, adding tlie sugar and 
simmering a few minutes only, to form the syrup. If it should cause 
griping in any case, increase the feimel secil and i-eppeiniiut leaf. 
Dose, 1 tablespoon, once a day, or less often if tlio bowels become too 
loose, up to the next period' wlien the headache might have been 
expected, and it will not be forthcoming. 

Chilblains. — To Cure. — Mutton tillow and lard, of each | lb. •, 
melt in an iron vessel, and add hydrated oxyde of iron, 2 oz. ; stirring 
cont'nually with an iron spoon, until the mass is of a uniform black 
color ; then let it cool, and add Venice turpentine, 2 oz. ; Armenian 
bole, 1 oz. ; oil of bergamot, 1 dr. ; rub ui) the bole with a little olive 
oil before putting it in. 

Felons.— If recent, to Cvtre in Six Hours. — Venice turpentuie, 

1 oz. ; and put into it half a teaspoon of water, and stir Avith a rough 
stick until the mass looks like candied honey ; then spread a good 
coat on a cloth, and wrap around the finger. If the case is only 
recent, it will remove the pain in six hours. 

Felon Salve. — A salve made by burning one tablespoon of copper- 
as, then pulverizing it and mixing it with the yolk of an e":g, is said 
to relieve the pain, and euro the felon in 24 liours : then heal with 
cream two parts, and soft soap one part. Apply tlie healing salve 
daily after soaking the part in warm water. 

Felon Ointment. — Take sweet oil, ^ pt., and stew a 3-cent plug 
of tobacco in it imtil the tobacco is crisped ; then squeeze it out, and 
add red lead, 1 oz., and boil until black ; when a little cool, add pul- 
verized camphor gum, 1 oz. 

Warts and Corns.— To Cure in Ten Minutes.— Take a small 
piece of potash, and let it stand in the open air imtil it slacks, then • 
thicken it to a paste with pulverized gum arable, which prevents it 
from spreading where it is not wanted. 

Inflammatory liriEUMATisii. — Sulpliur and saltpetre, of each 1 
oz. ; gum guftiac, | oz. ; colchicum root, or seed, and nutmegs, of each 
i oz ; all to bo pulverized and mixed with simple syrup, or molasses, 

2 oz. Dose, one teas^ioon every 2 hours until it moves the bowela 
rather freely ; thcu 3 or 4 times daily until cured. 



166 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 

The Coxservatiox of Health.— This important object, so neces- 
sary to the enjoyment of life, can only be secured by conforminjj to 
an orderly state of existence. Every man is in duty bound to dis- 
charge with fidelity the debt which he owes to that frame, .so " fear- 
fully and wonderfully made," and so well adapted by the Divine 
contriver to fulfil the uses of life, by living with regularity and mod- 
eration, abstaining from every excess calculated to induce disease or 
inflict injury either on body or mind. Excessive intellectual labor is 
just as fatal in its degree as violent physical exertion. We have a 
lamentable proof of the truth of this remark in the sudden termination 
of a most useful life, that of tlielate Dr. Hall, Editor of Hall' s Journal 
of Health. As is well known, the fatal stroke was induced by an 
overworked brain, it being his habit to apply himself ardently to study, 
writing, &c., from 5 in the morning to 10 in the evening, an impru- 
dence all the more reprehensible as it was one which he was continu- 
ally denouncing in others. 

Business men are particularly liable to affections of the heart result- 
ing from trade anxieties, &c., and in the male, the number of deaths 
from enlargement of the heart are as seven compared with five in the 
female. This phase of mortality is caused not only by intranquillity 
and worry of mind occasioned by lack of success in the grand 
struggles of life, but is too frequently brought on by conjugal infe- 
licities and disturbances, which seldom fail to accelerate a crisis which 
terminates in death. Many a well meaning man lays plans which he 
fondly anticipates will result in securing to him and to those depend- 
ent on him, an honestly obtained competence, and confident of pros- 
perity, does his best endeavors, and often risks a great deal, to ensure 
success, little dreaming of the poetic ajKithegm, that " the best laid 
schemes o' mice and men, gang aft aglee." The result too often is, as 
many know to their sorrow, entire failure, and subsequent reproaches, 
opprobrium, asperities, ascriptions of incapacity, &c., are showered on 
his head, and continued to the end of life, with more frequency and 
greater regularity than the dispensation of his daily bread, by the very 
one who should be all gentleness, all love, and her husband's chief com- 
forter and consoler under misfortune. This is the most fatal kind of 
mental trouble, inasmuch as it involves a grinding grief of mmd, which 
dissipates happiness, induces gloom, and tends to destroy life ; whatever 
affects the love, which is the real man, or spirit, reacts upon, and 
affects in an equal degree the body which contains that spirit. That 
this is so, results from the correspondence existing between the soul 
and body, as may be palpably manifest to every one capable of inte- 
rior reflection, and this to such a degree that toobtjiin convincing proof 
it is not necessary to extend his observations beyond his own experi- 
ence. 

Grief caused by financial loss and the reaction which sets in on re- 
tiring from business, after spending an active life in amassing a for- 
tune, are also pregnant with evil results to health. Xo man has a 
right to retire from the duty of making himself useful to society, even 
if he has a fortune, and can afford to do so. If he does, this evil, 
like every other, is sure to work out its own retribution with a full 
harvest of unexpected misery. 

Many of the influences which are patent for evil, and evil only, are 
self inflicted, such as the habitual indulgence in alcoholic drinks, wine, 
beer, &c., the use of tobacco, opium, and other narcotics. Eighty-seven 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 167 

per cent, of all kidney diseases are induced by alcohol. Its contimied 
use curtails vitality, destroys the membranes, generates disease in tlie 
brain, heart, spinal cord, lungs, liver, muscles and blood vessels ; it 
•wrecks the system, impedes the circulation, paralyzes manhood, and 
precipitates premature decay. Tobacco, also, in every form, exercises 
a most baneful effect on the health and mind. 

A distinguished French savant, the Abbe Moigno, increased his 
daily allowance of snuff until in 1861 it was over 20 grammes, and he 
observed a rapid decay of the faculty of memory. He had learned 
some 1500 root words in each of several languages, but found them 
gradually dropping out of his mind, so as to necessitate frequent re- 
ference to dictionaries. At last he summoned resolution to abandon 
its -ise, and after 6 years of abstinence writes as follows: 

'•It was for us the commencement of a veritable resurrection of 
health, mind, and memory; our ideas have [become more lucid, our 
imagination more vivid, our work easier, our pen quicker, and we 
have seen gradually return that army of words. Our memory, in a 
word, lias recovered all its riclies, all its sensibility. That tobacco, 
especially in the form of snuff, is a powerful enemy of memory, 
which it has destroyed little by little, and sometimes very promptly, 
cannot be doubted." With these known pernicious effects resulting 
from the use of alcholic drinks and tobacco, abstinence from both 
becomes an imperious necessity. 

Other most imjxirtant au:ciliaries to the maintenance of health, are 
pure air, perfe-;t ventilation in dwellings, and absolute cleanliness of 
person (See Bathinr/). Keill estimates the surface of the lungs at 
150 cubic feet, or ten times that of the external body. During ordi- 
nary respiration, 16 or 17 cubic inches of atmospheric air pass into 
Uie lungs 20 times in a minute, or a cubic foot every 5.25 minutes ; 
274 cubic feet in 24 hours, or a cube of 6h feet each way. The lungs 
generate 10.7 cubic feet of deadly carbonic acid gas, and remove 
from the atmosphere the same amount of oxygen, every 24 hours. 
The cause of nearly all the headaches in crowded factories, schools 
and work shops, as well as all the sleeping and snoring in churches, 
is due more to vitiated air than to any other cause. To the same 
cause is owing the fearful moi-tality so prevalent in badly ventilated 
city tenements, boarding houses, cellars, &c., as well as in houses built 
on low levels, and boggy land near stagnant pools, inoperative sewers, 
imjirisoned springs, &c. Bad air, imperfect ventilation, uncleanness 
flnd ill health must ever go hand in hand. It is worthy of note that 
while the death rate in the filthy eastern districts of London is nearly 
60 per 1000 of the population, in White Chapel it is 41, in Limehouse it 
rises to 48, in part of the Aldgate district of the White Chapel union, 
it ranges between 58 and 59, or more than double what may be called 
the fair allowance of 25 per cent. Yet it api>ears from the recent 
statistics of the same city, that in the Peabody Modkl Buildings the 
mortality has fallen to 17 per 1000, very near the minimum of the most 
salubrious parts of England. Decaying vegetable and animal matter 
yields various noxious gases, also expired breath, all enter the lungs, 
poison the blood and permeate the system ; therefore all impurities 
should be kept away from our abodes, and every precaution taken to 
secure pure air. Temperature of rooms should be about 60° Fahr. 

As the solar rays exercise a benignant influence on health and 
purify the air in dwellings, therefore admit the blessed sunlight 
without stint, for good health cannot exist without it. 



168 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 

As dishifectants, the followiug may be used -with gooA- effect 
1. Quicklime, to absorb moisture aud putrid fluids. Use fresh lime, 
scattering it about, finely powdered, and whitewash with lime. 2. 
Charcoal powder, to absord putrid gases. The coal should be drs', and 
fresh, mixed with lime. 3. Chloride of lime, to gi*e ofE chloride to 
absorb putrid effluvia and to stop putrefaction. 4. Sulphate of iron 
(copperas ) 1 lb. dissolved iii 1 qt. water and poured down a wat«r closet , 
will destroy the foule.'^t smells. A quantity in an open pan will purify 
the air in rooms. 5. Fluid carbolic acid dissolved at the rate of 1 part 
to 100 or 150 parts of water is also very good. 

Among diseases liable to be spread by the distribution of organic, 
poisons, may be mentioned scarlet fever,' typhus fever, typhoid fever, 
yellow fever, measles, small-pox, diphtheria, infectious ophthalmia, 
hydrophobia, erysipelas, cholera and glanders. The poisonous par- 
ticles which effect contagion, are in every instance of organic origin, 
and are evolved from matter composing living bodies. They float iu 
the atmosphere, are inhaled by the breath, and are absorbed by the 
walls of dwellings, hospitals, etc., and are liable at any time to enter 
on a career of baneful activity. The walls of hospitals should be 
glass lined, the better to prevent contamination, and means should 
be used to destroy the contagious matter by means of chemical 
agents, such as powerful heat, nitrous acid gas, bromine, chlorine, 
iodine, sulphurous acid, etc. Solar light is another powerful disin- 
fectant, and as a means of health has been ranked by Lavolser as 
superior to pure air. 

Dust is highly inimical to health, and it is everj-where present iu 
the air we breathe. Its presence is made manifest in a manner per- 
fectly startling, by admitting a beam of sun-light througli an orifice 
into a dark room. It has a most pernicious effect on the health iu 
cities, and indeed everywhere, but the air may be filtered fi-om the 
noxious particles pre%ious to entering the lungs, by the use of a cot- 
ton-wool respirator. This contrivance possesses the further merit of 
being an effectual barrier to the admission to the lungs of those 
germs or poisonous particles whereby contagious disease is propa- 
gated. 

Good health is impossible without pure water. The amount of or- 
ganic and mineral impurities held in solution or suspension by water, 
is perfectly astonishing, and wherever suspicion of such impurities 
exists the water should be filtered. Good reliable filters may be pur- 
chased ready for immediate use, but wherever they cannot be ob- 
tained, an excellent substitute may be made from an oak tub made 
to liold from half to a barrel of water, according to the needs of the 
family. Let it stand on end, with a faucet near the lx)ttom, or pre- 
ferably, a hole through the bottom, near the front side, with a tube 
hiserted to prevent the water from rotting the outside of the tub; 
then put clean pebbles 3 or 4 inches in thickness over the bottom of 
the tub. Spread a piece of clean white flannel over the pebbles ; 
now have charcoal, pulverized to the size of small peas (that made 
from hard maple is best), and put in half a bushel or so at a time ; 
pound it down quite firmly, then put in more and pound again until 
the tub is filled to within S inches of the top, and again put in 2 
inches more of pebbles, then put a piece of clean white flannel over 
the whole top as a strainer. The flannel may be washed occasion' 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 169 

ally, to remove the impurities collected from the water, mid it mi^ht 
be well to replenish the tub with fresh ch;ircoal once a year at least. 
The result will be wholesome water. 

Reckless exposure to cold, especially by aged and sensitive per- 
sons, should be carefully guarded against. From returns published 
by tlie Registrar General in England, it was found that during the 
winter months the body wastes, the loss of weight varying in an in- 
creasing ratio ; that during summer the body gains, the gain varyiu" 
in an increasing ratio, and that the changes from gain to loss, and 
from loss to gain, are sudden, and take place, the first at the begin- 
ning of September, and the second at the beginning of April. Deaths 
from pneumonia and bronchitis attain their maximum in the months 
of January, February, and March ; in the succeeding 3 months they 
decline, and in the next quarter reach their minimum, re-commenc- 
ing to increase in October, November, and Decembei*. Air saturated 
with moisture tends to develop rheumatic disease, and oi'gauic dis- 
eases of tlie heart which spring from rheumatism. 

Daring cold raw wcatlier, aged persons should keep close to the 
house in apartments warmed by a cheerful, open, blazing fire, which 
is much preferable to the oppressive heat from a hot air register, 
steam pipes, or close stoves. If called out by business during a cold 
morning, do not go out too early, nor until after a good warm break- 
fast, and be sure to return before the chill of the evening. Add to 
the clothing early in the fall, diminish it very gradually in the 
spring, eat witli groat moderation and regularity of nourishing diet, 
and take a daily nap on a lounge, or in an armchair for 15 or 20 
minutes after dinner, or during the forenoon. If rest is broken dur- 
ing the night, make it up with prolonged rest during the morning, 
for as .a rule, those aged persons will live the longest who take the 
most rest and worlc the least, except in a very calm, placid, and un- 
excited way. Daring old age guard against haste, hurry, and excite- 
ment of body and mind, for nothing can be more dangerous to life. 

Autliors, clergymen and all others engaged in intense mental 
study, should, whenever they become exhausted by severe brain 
labor, at once cease from further effort, and recuperate their ex- 
pended energies by taking as much .sleep as nature requires. Nothing 
soothes, strengthens and invigorates the brain like refreshing sleep. 

Clothing should not be worn in quantity to induce oppression or 
unnecessary smothering, but only enough to repel every feeling re- 
sembling chilliness. Keep a clean skin at all times, and .as a safe pre- 
caution wear flannel next to it, as it possesses a powerful influence in 
modifying dangerous extremes of temperature. Dr. Pettenkofer 
states that equal surfaces of various materials are permeated by the 
air as follows, flannel being taken as 100 : Linen of medium fineness, 
68; silk, 40; buckskin, 58; chamois leather, 51; tanned leather, 1. 

The dress should fit loosely, should be warm and light throughout, 
and frequently changed to remove the impurities exhaled through the 
skin. Clothing contaminated with excretory matter is highly inimi- 
cal to health if worn too long. In cases of infectious disease, the suf- 
ferer should be isolated, and the infected clotliing and bedding either 
destroyed or purified. 

Sleeping apartments sliould be elevated, roomy, well ventilated, 
and kept at a temperature of about G0°. Tliey should be free from direct 
draughts on the sleeper. The mattress, should be hard, but may bo 



170 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 

easy and springy if so desired. Feathers should not be used, the 
emanations from them are most unhealthy, and thej' generate an ex- 
cess of heat which is very enfeebling and unwholesome. Tlie sweet- 
est repose is obtained with the head towards the north, — with the bed 
insulated by means of glass interposed between the feet and the 
floor, to bar the passage of the electric currents, "which are liable to 
leave the body depleted of strength unless they are retained. Guard 
against sleeping in new dwellings before the plaster and paint have 
become fully dry. Thousands of deaths, seenungly very mysterious 
and principally of aged persons, have taken place from neglect of this 
precaution. The natural allowance for sleep is tight hours out of the 
twenty-four, and the most favorable time is from 10 o'clock until 6. 
Intellectual labor is more exhaustive than physical, consequently per- 
sons thus employed require more rest than working men. The most 
favorable position for sleep is on the right side; the worst is to lie ou 
the back, as it generates a perilous heat over the region of the kid- 
neys and spinal cord. Solitarj'^ repose is the most beneficial every 
way; when two parties sleep together, each one inhales a deleterious 
effluvia thrown off by his neighbor, and the weakest is always the 
greatest sutYerer, more especially is this the case with children who 
sleep with aged persons. Add to this, electric changes are continual- 
ly taking place, which frequently cause uurest, disquiet, and exhaus- 
tion, when two sleep togetlier. Refreshing sleep gives rest to the 
brain and the nervous system. The retina is inert, the tympanum is 
placid, the nerves of taste, smell, and feeling, are dormant, and all 
the powers of the cerebrum and cerebellum are quiescent. Children 
require more sleep than adults, and they should get all they will take 
of it, with a benediction and kind words to begin with. It is atro- 
cious to think of the hard language, maledictions, and downright lies 
addressed to tender hearted children by many parents on putting tliem 
to bed. Tliey certainlj"^ are not aware of the grievous injuiy they in- 
flict by such iiTational conduct. Sleep is an absolute necessity to all 
animal existence, and when we think of its inestimable benefits, and 
wonderful surroundings, we can only stand mute, and with emotions 
inexpre.ssible, refer their origin to that Infinite Love which " neith- 
er slumbers nor sleeps." 

In dressing children, use care to keep them warm, keeping flannel 
to their skin during the entire year, especially covering the extremi- 
ties well. There is a peculiar fashion mo.st deadly in its effects, which 
lets children runabout with bare legs, arms, and necks, with the low- 
er part of the dress expanded away from the person, thus admitting 
the chilling cold to do its worst. Such exposure would prove certain 
death to its parents in less than a month. Keep the extremities warm 
by keeping them well clothed, and thus keep up a free circulation, for 
cold feet and hands prevent health, and are the certain precursors of 
disease and death. Add to this plenty of good food, ripe fruit, and 
out-door exercise ad libitum, and you will have rosy, blooming chil- 
dren, as the result. In the matter of out-door exercise, it might not 
be amiss to use a little wholesome oversight and restraint, let them 
have their full swing in the enjoyment of exercise calculated to de- 
velop the frame, such as running, jumping, playing ball, driving 
hoops, &c., but when it comes to every day sport in the line of firing 
pistols, exploding fire crackers, cracking whips, and an everlasting 
battering of toy drums, &c., then I say, stop ix at okce, uolesa 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 171 

yon wish to raise a dangerous boy aud a dangerous man, for that is 
just the way to do it. 

Children, or others who may be afflicted with impediments of 
speech, may be cured, if the remedy is not organic, by reading aloud 
for an hour or two every day, taking care to inhale a"ir, and well fill 
the lungs, before readiug each paragraph, as the cause of stammering 
in nine cases out of ten, is the endeavor to speak when the lungs are 
empty. Dr. Hunt, of Regent street, London, a celebrated aud suc- 
cessful stammerers' doctor, charged fifty guineas for effecting cures 
by the method just noted. 

It is only in civilized life that we find the most favorable conditions 
for health aud longevity. The poets have expended much rapturous 
sentiment and romance about "the noble red man" in his native 
forest, but a personal investigation of the object of their effusions is 
very apt to cause a sudden revulsion of feeling. A filthy person, 
greasy blankets, rank skins, and other unsavory surroundings, are 
apt to make short work of high-strung ideas in the shape of poetry, 
romance, or sentiment. Of a verity, "cleanliness is next to godli- 
ness," aud it is indeed a most auspicious token that the old mediieval 
ideas regarding the necessary connection between filth, poverty, aud 
pietj% are notions belonging to the past. Human life has been abso- 
lutely lengthened by the addition of several years to a generation, 
compared with Avhat it was a hundred years ago, all owing to the 
observance of sanitary laws, and it will continue to lengthen, just in 
the proportion that these laws are respected. 

Dr. Jarvis intimates that in ancient Rome, in the period of 200 to 
500 years after the Christian era, the average duration of life in the 
most favored class was 30 years, while in the present century the 
average longevity of persons of the same class is 50 years. In the 
16th century, the average longevity in Geneva was 21.'21 years; be- 
tween 1814 and 1833 it was 40.(58, and as large a proportion now live to 
70 as lived to 43 300 years ago. In 1000, only 228 medical men live 
from 63 to 72, and 328 theologians. In the last 50 years the mean 
term of life seems to have increased from 33 to 41. lu professions, of 
those who attain the age of 66, there are found to be 43 Theologians, 
40 Agriculturists, 35 Men in office. 32 Military, 32 Clerks, 29 Advo- 
cates, 28 Artists, 27 Professors, and 24 Medical practitioners. 

When man, by an orderly life, passes through the various stages 
of a healthy existence, from childhood to yoiith, from youth to man- 
hood, and from manhood to old age ; during the decline of life he grad- 
ually approaches the verge of natural decay, and death takes place 
from the gradual effluxion of vitality. Few lives, comimratively 
epeaking, terminate in this way, but when this consummation is 
attained, and death, purely natural, takes place, it must be regarded 
as much in the light of a blessing as is natural birth, for it is an orderly 
working out of a most wise and beneficent law, aud the nearer advance 
we make to this natural limit of existence the better. Death is usually 
regarded as a curse, aud as something very dreadful; there is a death 
wliich is indeed terrible beyond all powers of human conception, but 
natural death is not so, and is in no sense a calamity, but a wise pro- 
vision of Infinite Mercy for man's highest good. 

Harassing thoughts, mental anxiety, late hours, aud worriment. 
are fruitful causes of disease in healthy persons, and of death in cases 
of illness. Use every possible means to get rid of such feelings, aud 



172 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 

do not scruple to make use of such diversions or amusements as will 
effectually divert an invalid's thoughts from being too much en- 
grossed with self. "When nature calls for rest and recreation, do not 
neglect the warning. Guard against extreme fatigue of either body 
or mind, especially a complication of both together. Keep the pas- 
sions under thorough control; in doing this the good old Quaker's 
rule will be found of great assistance, viz., Never to allow himself to 
speak in a loud tone of voice. Nothing preserves health better than 
a placid temper. Exercise and physical traming should not be neg- 
lected ; persons engaged in sedentary emplojTnents should resort to 
exercise, or rest on finding their thoughts become confused, and labor- 
ers should not carry their efforts to the verge of exhaustion; the 
heart's action is greatly injured thereby, and the bad effects will 
become permanent. 

Of all peoples, the Jews are notably the longest lived race ; tho 
reason is because they live orderly lives, they take care of themselves, 
so to speak, use proper food, and abstain from pork, which, from its 
liability to promote diseased conditions of the blood, and thence of the 
whole system, is decidedly injurious as an article of diet The use of 
immoderate quantities of me;U has an unhealthy influence on the 
body, and induces ferocity of the mind, as in Indians and others who 
subsist on it. Plutarch was astonished to think what appetite first 
induced man to taste of a dead carcase, and Pope said that the horrid 
and shocking sight of one of our modern kitchens gives one the image 
of a giant's den in romance, bestrewed with scattered heads and man- 
gled limbs. Vegetable food is not liable to distend the vessels, load 
the system, or becloud the mind, but the heat, fulness, and weight 
of animal food is unfavorable to its efforts. Cor/iarof the dietetic, 
allowanced himself to 12 ozs. of dry food and 14 ozs. of liquids per 
day, from the age of 40 to 100. See Dijnamic Power of Food. 

In eating, select good nourishing diet, so as to insure variety with- 
out excess, eat with regularity, without long intervals of abstinence, 
and eat leisurely. In drinking, avoid taking large draughts of cold 
water, drink with extreme moderation during meals, and avoid drink- 
ing water which has stood long in rooms or in lead pipes. Impure 
■water is liable to produce malarial affections. Tea and coffee, if used 
strong, and in large quantities, are certain to produce nervous irrita- 
bility and brain excitement, but if used in moderation and of mild 
strength, they are most refreshing and pleasant. Ner^•ous persons 
will find coffee more soothing than tea, while persons of a different 
temperament will be better suited with the latter. Beyond all doubt, 
and for almost every purpose, in health and disease, pure water is the 
healthiest beverage, and it certainly is the natural drink of man. 
According to Hoffman, "If there be any universal medicine it is 
water; for, by its assistimce, all distempers are alleviated or cured, 
and the body'preser^-ed sound and free from corruption, that enemy 
to life." As Dr. Gall said of another subject, so the writer would say 
here, that " This is Tbuth, though at enmity with the philosophy of 
ages." 

On Bathing. — Nothing is of more transcendant importance to 
the maintenance of health than cleanliness, and this can only be 
obtained by the free use of water, in washing, sponging, and bathing. 
The modes' of bathing are various, and, when rightly used, f^re most 
powerful for good. The rule is, the more robust the constitution ol 



I 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 173 

the patient, and higher his exterior temperature, the colder should 
be the water. In bathing it is always well to avoid taking a full bath 
within two hours after a meal, or when exhausted by fatigue, or when 
cooling after pers))iration, or when feeling chilly. JDo not drink cold 
water" before bathing, nor eat soon after it. Females, during the 
menstrual period, should never take cold baths. Never take a cold 
bath while the feet are cold. Never chill the body by standing or sit- 
ting on the banks during out-door bathing ; enter the water while the 
body is warm, and avoid remaining too long in the water, leaving it 
on the first feeling of chilliness. Exercise before and after bathing is 
highly beneficial. Feeble and nervous persons should guard against 
powerful chilling shocks from cold water. The young and vigorous 
may bathe early in the morning on an empty stomach. Persons sub- 
jected to giddiness, faintness, palpitation, or other affections of the 
heart, should use a cold bath with extreme caution. 

The Cold Bath, usually taken in the sea or in a river, tempera- 
ture from 35° to 65° Fahr., has a most powerful, exhilarating and 
tonic effect on the frame, and imparts a vigorous glow and stimulus 
to the sj'stem. It should not be continued longer than two or three 
minutes. 

The Temperate Bath, ranging from 65° to 80° Fahr., is much 
preferable to the last for the use of invalids. Duration of bath should 
not be extended over three minutes, and the whole body should be 
thoroughly rubbed dry witli a coarse towel, to induce a glow. 

The Full Warm Bath, taken in the ordinary long bath tubs, 
as arranged by plumbers in dwellings, hotels, &c., are in the highest 
degree promotive of health and comfort. Fitted with hot and cold 
water connections, any desired temperature may be obtained, but for 
the best effect it should range from 90° to 98° ; better under that 
than over it. The benefits will be increased by the use of carbonate 
of soda, 4 ozs. to 30 gals, water. This rids the system of much effete 
matter, promotes the cure of disease, and thoroughly cleanses the 
emunctories. After bathing, rub thoroughly dry. 

The Hot Bath, ranging from 98° to 112°, thoroughly stimulates 
the nervous system, but immersion cannot be prolonged over two or 
three minutes without permanent injury. Water scalds at 150°, but 
air heated to 260° is not painful. It is not safe to tamper much with 
such high temperatures, although Berger remained seven minutes in 
an oven, heated to 230°. Blagden exceeded this, remaining eight 
minutes in a temperature of from 240° to 260°. Delaroche could not re- 
main more than 10 minutes in a vapor bath at 100°. Berger was obliged 
to get out of a vapor bath at a temperature of 122° in twelve and a 
half minutes . The sensation in hot vapor resembles that of contact 
with boiling water. Fish actually live in hot baths up to 150°. Trees 
also grow in a bath at 170° ; flowers near a volcano, at 210° ; and 
water-plants are found in boiling springs. The king's bath at Bath 
Is 116°, the hot bath is 117°, at Vichy 120°. at Aix la Chapelle 140°. 
In the hot springs at Leuk, in Switzerland, the temperabire of twenty 
springs varies from 95° to 125° ; the baths are given at 98°, and, to 
make it as agreeable as possible, the patients bathe together, both 
men and women, dressed for the occasion. In the Hermbad, you 
may see the curious spectacle of people seated up to tlieir necks in 
the bath, with coffee, books, cards, newspapers, work, &c., before 
them on little floating tables, or gossiping together or with their 



174 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 



friends, who look on from the ■wooden gallery which runs around 
the wall. The waters are both drank and bathed in, being considered 
excellent for weak nerves, palsy, diseases of the skin, and many 
chronic complaints. Elevation, 4«75 feet above the sea. 

Poor Man's Vapor Bath. Heat two or tliree bricks and place 
them under the patient's chair, sprinkle some water over the bricks, 
and cover the patient to keep in the steam, or, a large lump of quick 
lime placed in a ])an or old iron pot and .sprinkled with water, or 
wrapped up in a wet, coarse towel. Neither of these methods, however, 
are at all comparable to the efficiency of a properly administered va- 
por batli, either pnre or medicated, in which the temperature of the 
steam, &c., can be regulated as follows: Temperature of tepid rapor 
bath, to be breathed, 90° to 100°, warm ditto 100° to 110°, hot ditto 
110° to 130°; not to be breathed, tepid bath, 96° to 106°, warm 106° 
to 120°, hot 120° to 130°. These baths have performed wonders in 
cases of chronic rheumatism, stiffness of joints, indurations, diarrhoea, 
suppressions, &c. 

"The Sponge Bath is a means of health of such transcendant im- 
portance, tliat in the absence of other bathing facilities, it should never 
be neglected for a single day. It is a powerful conserver of health, 
and affords positive relief in almost every phase of disease. The 
water may be used of any desired temperature. Apply with a towel 
or sponge, and when througli polish off with a regular hard finish 
with a coarse towel, or still better, two of them, well laid on, the last 
one dry, to induce a glow on the skin by friction. 




Fig. 1. Fig. 2. 

The Sitting or Sitz Bath, Fig. 1, should be arranged to admit 
of the complete immersion of the lower part of the back and abdo- 
minal regions, the thighs, &c., with ample room for laving the water 
and kneading the parts. The cold tonic bath given in this way is ex- 
cellent for diseases of the kidneys, bladder, urino-genital organs, 
piles, constipation, &c. In cases of colic, spasm, griping pains, 
gravel, suppressed or painful menstruation, inflammation, &c., it 
should be given warm in order to prove effective. Cover the patient, 
if need be, to prevent catchin? cold. The cuts are borrowed from an 
excellent little work by Dr. Trail, entitled, "The Bath : its History 
and Uses in Health and Disease ;" published by S. R. Wells, New 
York. 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 175 

The Head Bath, Fig. 2, is takeu by placing the iir.tient on his 
back, on a mattress, with his head in a shallow basin (made with a 
depression in the rim to accommodate the neck) with about 3 inches 
of water, warm or cold, as may be desired. A most excellent cooling 
application for affections of the head, brain, &c. 




Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

The Douche Bath, Fig. 3, consists of a jet of water used as a 
stimulant in lethargic states of the system; also as a remedy for swel- 
lings, sprains, stiff joints, rheumatic affections, &c., applied directly 
to the parts, as shown above. A jet from a hose may be used as a 
substitute for the douche bath in certain cases. 

The Shallow Bath, Fig. 4, may be used with immense advan- 
tage both by invalids and persons in health ; the water may be used 
at any desired temperature, not more than G inches deep, contained in 
a spacious tub. The water should be thorouglily applied over the 
breast, abdomen, sides, thighs, and extremities; the head should be 
wet, and water, cold, or otherwise, as desii-ed, poured over the neck 
and shoulders bj' an assistant. This bath is excellent for brain affec- 
tions, headache, &c. The bath may be used for from 5 to 15 minutes ; 
rub thoroughly to dry and induce a healthy glow on the skin. 

The Wet Sheet Pack, Fig. 5. This is a most powerful remedial 
agent for invalids. Immerse a cotton or linen sheet in a pail of cold 
water, remove tliebed clothes from the mattress, and on the mattress 
spread a coverlet; then two or three blankets, next, wrmg out the 
wet slieet in the bucket of water, and spread it over the blankets. The 
patient will now warm his feet, divest himself of clothing, and place ^ 
himself at full length on the cold wet sheet, with his hands placed over 
his breast. The .sheet, blankets and coverlets are now tucked in close- 
ly all around his body by an attendant, the head is elevated on pil- 
lows, and covered with a wet cloth. The first sensation is that of a 
chill, which gives place almost immediately to a comfortable glow, 
gradually increasing to a sweat. The patient should remain in the 
pack from 25 minutes to an hour or more. Some have been known 



17G 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 



to fall asleep iu it. To receive the fullest benefit, it should be followed 
at once by a plunge bath (See Fig. 6), or thorough ablution in cold 
water previous to dressing. Then rub with friction by means of a 
coarse towel. In cases of severe disease, the benefit of this treat- 
ment is manifest from the very offensive odor imparted by the per- 




FiG. 5. 



Fig. 6. 



spirations to the sheet. Jlercury, also, which had lodged in the sys- 
tem for years, having been taken under the guise of calomel, has 
been withdrawn through the pores by the wet sheet, and detected in 
its woven fabric. Tlie wet sheet pack is of great value in fevers, colds 
chronic diseases, and general derangement of the system. 

Spirit Vapor Bath. The patient divested of aU clothing except 
a night shirt, is seated on a wooden bottomed chair, and well covered 
before and behind with blankets or coverlets reaching from his 
shoulders to the floor. A saucer containing a few spoonfuls of alcho- 
hol, whiskey or any spirit that wiU bum, is now placed on the floor 
under the chair and ignited. The vapor ascends, and, confined by the 
blankets, it will soon induce a copious perspiration from every pore of 
the body subject to its action. The spirit maybe replenished when it 
bums out, but not while burning or while under the patient, owing 
to the possible resulting danger. The operation is highly beneficial to 
the system, and may last from 10 to 15 minutes, or until a free per- 
spiration is induced. Be careful that no damage results to the patient 
or his clothing from the burning spirit. 

For Spongio Piline, see Portable Bath. 

Sulphur and Medicated B.vths. — The former is compounded by 
mixing sulphuret of potassium 4 ozs. and sulphuric acid 1 oz. in 30 
gals, of water. The latter are decoctions of vegetable or other mate- 
rials iu water, in which the patient is immersed ; or, it can be applied 
with a sponge if so desired, and may be tepid, warm, or hot, as pre- 
ferred. 

The Air Bath, taken by exposing the naked body to the air in a 
cool room, is very salutary and beneficial. When not carried too far, 
it is very soothing in its effects, and, in wakeful states, is promotive 
of Bleep. The good effects are greatly enhanced by friction with a 
towel during exposure. The same remarks are eminently true when 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 177 

understood of svn-hathinf/, or exposure of the nude body to the sun, 
which, in certain diseased conditions, has a most vivifying and in- 
vigorating effect. 

Galvanic, Electric, and Magnktic Baths. — The first is taken 
by placing tlie patient in a wooden bath tub (or in a painted metallic 
tub), tilled with water impregnated with any desired drug. The nega- 
tive pole of the battery is suspended in the water, and a wire con- 
nected with the positive pole, with a sponge attached, communicates 
with the bodj'. The electric current from the positive pole enters the 
body and escapes through the pores. The effect is beneficial in the 
highest degree. An electro-positive bath is given while the patient is 
seated on a chair, insulated by placing glass under the feet. While 
the glass plate of the electric machine is being revolved, the patient 
holds the prime conductor, and his body becomes charged with posi- 
tive electricity. The effect is very stimulating to deficient vitality. 

The Acid Bath is highly beneficial in liver and other complaints, 
and may be compounded with water acidified with vinegar, or witli 
water, 30 gals., muriatic acid, 14 ozs. Use the latter in a wooden tub 
or non-metallic vessel, as the acid is inimical to metals. 

The Shower Bath, with cold water, never fails to produce a 
shock which nen'ous and weak patients find it very hard to with- 
stand ; but, to persons of strong constitution, it cannot fail to prove 
beneficial, for the shock is usually succeeded by a most agreeable re- 
action. This bath may, however, be rendered agreeable, even to the 
feeble, by the use of tepid or warm water, applied in the form of a 
delicate spray, passed through minute perforations in a tin vessel 
placed overhead, and fitted with a proper apparatus for regulating the 
descent. 

The Foot Bath is calculated to produce the most decided benefit 
in correcting cold feet, induced by liver complaint, etc.; also, to relieve 
heat in the head, caused by fullness of blood on the brain, with cold 
extremities. In such cases, use Avarra or hot water, with the addition 
of mustard or cayenne pepper. In cases of swelled limbs, ulcers, 
rheumatic pains, etc., great relief will be obtained by extending the 
treatment to the legs, knees, limbs, etc., thorouglily washing and lav- 
ing the parts. 

The Mud Bath, equivocal as it may appear, is nevertheless one 
of the most powerful remedial agents. On the principle that charcoal 
purifies foul water, absorbing its impurities, so mud acts on the body, 
opening the pores, withdrawing effete matter, cooling the skin, and 
curing disease. If any diseased person doubts this, let him put it to 
the test. 

The Iodine Bath, for adults, is compounded of iodine, 1 dr. ; 
iodide of potassium, 2 drs. ; water, 20 gals. For children's use, it 
should be weaker. It is not adapted for indiscriminate use, but for 
diseases affecting the glands, tubercular troubles, scrofula, etc. The 
iodine vapor bath may be used as described under spirit vapor bath. 

The Turkish Bath, by means of dry heated air, is one which 
may be, and often is, productive of much benefit in diseased con- 
ditions of the body, but is most inimical to health when used with 
regularity as a social enjoyment or luxury. Wherever it has become 
a national custom, this bath has always proved the principal agency 
in sealing the doom of that nation, as witness the collapsed Rome of 
the past, and the reeling Turkey of the present. In reference to this, 

12 



178 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 

one of the most prominent medical practitioners of the day, Dr. 
Richardson, of London, writes to the British Medical Revieio, as fol- 
lows: " I predict it will be the same here, under the same principles. 
I predict that whenever Enrlishmen give up the active occupations I 
have named (he had been .urging healthy men to spend the time re- 
quired for the bath in digging, walking, rowing, rifle drill, cricketing, 
etc.), and, in slippered pantaloons, luxuriate daily in a bath, to rid 
themselves of the products of excretion, then this country will have 
passed its zenith. Then there will be no great hero to bid every man 
do his duty, no man to do the duty, and no England for which the 
dutv should be done." 

The fore.going, presenting a choice of between 20 and 30 different 
methods of bathing, is of great utility to all, but especially so in the 
prevention and cure of the complex and delicate affections to which 
females are liable, and which call for such careful treatment from 
medical practitioners. There is room for deep regret that this class 
of diseases has opened a wide field for the operations of numerous 
rapacious and incompetent men, who are a disgrace to the profession, 
and whose ravenous proclivities and infamous ])ractices blind them to 
everything but the acquisition of plunder. The medical profession, as 
a class, have always been held in high estimation ; so much so, that, 
during the reign of the Emperor Augustus, they were exempted from 
the payment of taxes ; and that there should be so many cormorants 
in their ranks, is regretted by none more sincerely than by the respect- 
able members of tlie profession. The real impostor is generally 
known by his resonant puffs, in the shape of advertisements, in 
which, while uttering the most savage maledictions against quacks 
and quackery, he almost lays personal claim to the powers of omnipo- 
tence in the cure of disease. These incorrigible rascals generally 
parade a dazzling list of fictitious certificates of cures performed by 
them where every other doctor had failed; but they will not hesitate 
to act the thief as nearly as the law allows, and strip their victim of 
his or lier last dollar, exacted for services fifty times worse than use- 
less. 

Grateful, indeed, should he be who escapes with nothing worse 
than the loss of his money. The advertising quack is generally a 
dead shot, something of the Dr. Hornbook genus, as immortalized by 
Burns, very profuse in his promises to cure disease and conceal in- 
firmities, but like his illustrious prototype, very uncanny, and alto- 
gether too ready to send his patients " aff to their lang hame, to hide 
them there." 

In England, previous to the advent of the modern newspaper, the 
quack used to transform himself into a living advertisement, by itin- 
erating through the provincial towns in a blazing uniform, dressed 
like a mountebank, with cocked hat and wig. Accompanied by an 
assistant, he would mount a platform, gather an immense crowd, and 
proceed to deliver an extravagant eulogium on his profound skill, pro- 
digious wealth, and the wonderful virtues of his pills, panaceas and 
elixirs, as he offered them for sale. The assistant, who seemed to an- 
swer to the character of a modern clown in a circus, would aid with 
the sales, and keep up the farce by making witty remarks on the doc- 
tor's' wild averments. For example, after listening to the doctor's 
statements regarding his boundless wealth, and great condescension 
in consenting to travel for the purpose of healing the sick, as he was 



MEDICAL DEPAETMEKT. 179 

not obliged to do so for want, the clown would annonnce to the aa- 
dience that " The doctor tells the truth, wc doant need to travel for 
want, lor we have enoof of that at hoani." The result is a loud 
laugh, the crowd is in good humor, the pills, elixirs, etc., are sold, 
and the buyers are sold at the same time. 

Practical Dietetic Economies. — The following table, com- 
piled from various authorities, is eminentlj' and practically useful, 
presenting as it does at a glance the available percentage of nutritive 
elements contained in the leading staples used as human food. 

Eaw Cucumbers .. . 2 Broiled Yenison .. . 22 Boiled Beans 87 

" Melons 3 Potatoes "ilM Boiled Kice 88 

Boiled Turnips i}i Fried Veal 24 Barley Bread 8S 

MUk 7 Koast Pork 24 Wheat Bread 90 

Cabbage 7^ Koast Poultry 26 Baked Corn Bread .. 91 

Currants 10 Raw Beef 26 Boiled Barley 92 

Whipped Eggs 13 " Grapes 27 Butter 92 

Beets 14 " Plums 29 Boiled Peas 93 

Apples U Broiled Mutton.... 30 Raw Oils 95 

Peaches 2o Oatmeal Porridge. 75 

Boiled Codfish .... 21 Rye Bread 79 

For further details on this subject see tables on pp. 623 and 76.5. 
The figures present a diversity, but the general results are fixed and 
invariable, presenting to the economist the relative amount of nutri- 
ment supplied by each kind of food. From the evidence presented 
it will be seen that the most wholesome and nutritious articles, as 
oatmeal, flour, peas, beans, rice, crushed wheat, corn bread, etc., are 
vastly superior to beef in supplying eflfective ability to labor, besides 
being, in the leading markets of tbe world, obtainable at about one- 
third the price of the latter. It will be seen that the nutriment sup- 
plied by beef is 26 per cent., while the cereals yield from 75 to 95 per 
cent. ; while there is no room for dispute as to the comparative 
healthiness of the different kinds of diet. The bounding circulation, 
good digestion, and mental activity enjoyed by day, together with 
the sound sleep accorded by night, to the man who prefers plain to 
luxurious living, and vegetable to animal food, are certainly well 
worth striving for. If a fair percentage of wholesome ripe fruit be 
used with the above noted diet, its value and the enjoyment of using 
it will be greatly enhanced. After all that can be said, pro and con, 
touching a vegetable diet, certain are we that the average man who 
limits himself to a well-selected regimen of vegetable food will, ac- 
cidents aside, go through life with a clear mind in a healthy body, 
will sleep sounder, and come nearer the alloted age of threescore 
and ten, have a better digestion, and have fewer headaches, than the 
man who indulges in roast beef with the usual variations ad libitum. 

Effects of the Solar Light on Lunatics. — Dr. Ponza, di- 
rector of the Lunatic Asylum at Alessandria, Piedmont, having con- 
ceived the idea that the solar rays might have some curative power 
in diseases of the brain, the experiment was tried in rooms lighted 
by stained glass, the walls being painted the same color as the win- 
dows. The patients passed the night in rooms oriented to the east 
and south, and painted and glazed as above. One of them, affected 
with morbid taciturnity, became gay and affable after 3 hours' stay in 
a red chamber; another, a maniac who refused all food, asked for 
some breakfast after having stayed 2i hours in the same red cbam- 



180 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 

ber. In a blue one, a highly excited madman with a straight waist- 
coat on, was kept all day, an hour after he appeared much calmer. 
The action of blue light is very intense on the optic nerve, and seema 
to cause a sort of oppreseion. ' A patient was made to pass the night 
in a violet chamber : on the following day he begged Dr. Pouza to 
send him home, because he felt himself cured, and indeed he has 
been well ever since. Dr. Ponza's conclusions from his experiments, 
are these: " The violet rays, are, of all others, those that possess 
the most intense electro-chemical power. The red light is also very 
rich in calorific rays : blue light, on tlie contrary, is quite devoid of 
them, as well as of chemiciil and electric ones. Its beneficent influ- 
ence is hard to explain ; as it is the absolute negation of all excite- 
ment, it succeeds admirably in calming the furious excitement of 
maniacs." 

Weak Back.— Take a beef's gall, pour into it 1 pint alcohol, and 
bathe frequently. It acts like a charm. 

Sprained Antcle.— Wash the ankle frequently with cold salt 
and water, which is far better than warm vinegar or decoctions of 
herbs. Keep your foot as cold as possible to prevent inflammation, 
and sit with it elevated on a cushion. 

Spitting of blood.— Two spoonfuls of sage juice in a little 
honey, will speedily stop either spittmg or vomiting blood, or, take 
20 grains in water every two liours. 

Apoplexy. — Occurs only in the corpulent or among high livers. 
To treat — raise the head in a nearly upright position ; unloose all 
tight clothes, strings, etc., and apply cold water to the head, and 
warm water and warm cloths to the feet. Have the apartment cool 
and well ventilated. Give nothing by the moutli until the breathing 
is relieved, and then only draughts of cold water. 

IJright's Disease. — Dr. Arthur Scott Doukin, extols a skim 
milk diet in this disease. "The first appreciable action," he says, 
" of skim milk taken to the extent of (5 or 7 pts. daily, is that of a 
most energetic diuretic, a profuse flow of urine being rapidly pro- 
duced. The effect of this in Blight's disease, is to flush tlie urinifer- 
ous tubules, and to dislodge and wash out the concrete casts of dis- 
eased epithelial cells by which they are blocked up and distended. 
The emptyhig of the tubules relieves their pressure on the surround- 
ing secondary capillaries, the blood begins to flow more freely through 
them, the distension of the primary malpighian capillaries, is re- 
lieved ; less and less albumen escapes through their walls, until the 
renal circulation is gradually restored, when it finally disappears 
from tlie urine. While this beneficial change is progressing, healthy 
epithelium is developed in the tubules, and the urinary excrement is 
withdrawn from the blood. In short, a healthy nutrition becomes 
re-established in the kidneys through the agency of milk, which, 
above all other substances, seems to exercise a controlling influence 
over this process. 

Remedy for Gout and Rheumatism.— Gum guaiacura, 1 oz. ; 
rhubarb in powder, 2 drs. ; flour of sulphur, 2 ozs. ; cream of tartar, 
loz., ginger powder 1 oz.; make into an electuary with molasses. 
Dose : 2 teaspoonfuls, night and morning. FihewncUic Plaster, resin i 
lb., sulphur i lb., melt them by a slow fire ; then add caj-enne pepper 
1 oz., camphor gum J oz. Stir well till mixed, and temper with neats- 
foot oil. To guard agamst rheumatism, adhere to a regular diet, 
breath pure air, and avoid exposure. 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 



181 




INDUSTRY PROMOTES BODILY HEALTH AND MENTAL ACTIVITY. 

Every true man will most willingly concur in the royal assevera- 
tion of old king Solomon, that the price of a wise, virtuous, and 
good woman, "is far above rabies." Poets of every age and racS; 
have simg her praises, and many a man lias had abundant reason to 



182 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 

thank his Maker for an inestimable blessing in the companionship of 
a virtuous, loving, devoted and affectionate wife. Wliat earthly 
Ijrize can for a moment be compared with this. In her person we see 
the perfection of lovelines.s— modesty, grace, and beauty ; in her 
voice we hear the sweetest music ; in her mind we see a fragrant 
blending of the most attractive attributes, and the nearest created 
approximation to that Love which is Infinite. Slierlock avers that 
" The perception of woman is as quick as lightning. Her penetra- 
tion is intuition: almost instinct. By a glance she will draw a deep 
and just conclusion. Ask her how she formed it, and she cannot 
answer the question. While she trusts her instinct she is scarcely 
ever deceived, but she is generally lost when she commences to rea- 
son." 

Every one knows that this is true, but very few know the reason 
why it is so. This we find unfolded in the following quotation from 
the illumined Swedenborg : " The man is born to be intellectual 
thus to think from tlie understanding, but the woman is born to bo 
voluntary, thus to think from the will; which also is evident from the 
inclination or connate disposition of each, as also from their form. 
From the disposition, in that the man acts from reason, but the 
woman from affection. From the fonn, in that the man has a 
rougher and less beautiful face, a heavier speecli, and a harder body, 
but the woman has a smoother and more beautiful face, a more teii- 
der speech, and a softer body. Similar is the distinction between 
the understanding and the will, or between thought and affection." 
Again, "Tlie male is born into the affection of knowing, of under- 
standing, and of being wise, and the female is bom into the love of 
conjoining herself with that affection in the male." The special at- 
tributes of the will principle are perception, affection, and every re- 
sultant feminine grace, or in one word — Love. 

The question which eclipses all others in importance is, How shall 
this most precious quality be trained and cultivated ? Or, into what 
chamiels should its course be guided and directed ? On this subject, 
hear Swedenborg once more : "Love truly conjugal, considered in 
its origin, and its correspondence, is heavenly, spiritual, pure, and 
clean, above every love Avhich is with the angels of heaven and tlio 
men of the church." Again, "I know that few Avill acknowledge, 
that all joys and delights, from first to last, are gathered into conju- 
gal love, because that love truly conjugal, is at this day so rare, that 
what it is is not known, and scarcely that it is." We may learn 
from this, that love is of heavenly origin, and was given that ft might 
be used for heavenly ends and purposes. It follows from this there- 
fore, that in order to attain to a full and healthy mental and physical 
development, it is imperiously necessary that immorality and un- 
cha.stity in every form, should be discountenanced and shuimed, for 
it is only in total abstinence from impurity and illicit pleasures, that 
we can find immunity from ruin, degradation, and death. Tins is 
true in the case of man, and it is still more so in the case of woman, 
for in almost every case after the first false step, she is led on to 
swift destruction by the ascendancy of her affections, without being 
arrested in her career by the wholesome restraint of the refiective or 
reasoning faculties which operate so powerfully in man. Every 
means should be employed that will oj^erate to prevent such a baleful 
consummation. All obscene, immoral, and impure books, everything 



^J^ 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 183 

in the Sbnpe of literature which tends to inflame the passions, pro- 
mote licentiousness, and corrode purity of mind, should be at once 
deposited iu the only place where they will prove inocuous — in the 
lire. Labor to elevate and train the laeulties'of the soul in the love 
and practice of what is good and true; rule the propensities, and 
hold them in abeyance, remembering that no victory is at all com- 
parable with that obtained over self. 

Perhaps the intensest longing of which a good woman's heart is 
susceptible, is after union and intimate conjunction with a worthy 
husband. It may be no news to inform such women that nothing 
attracts the opposite sex to them compared with a tender and win- 
ning manner, blended with feminine sweetness of temper. The 
sweet temper is a crowning charm, together with the female grace 
which seems to solicit aud invite, while at the same time it modestly 
repels. Men never respect boldness or audacity in women. What 
they most desire to see in them is something in which they are de- 
cidedly deflcient themselves. Prof. Tyndall, the scientist, a man of 
great scientitic attainments, is now hfty-six years of age, and but 
lately married. On being interrogated by a friend previous to his 
marriage, as to what attractions he saw in his intended which drew 
forth his preference for her more than for others, the characteristic 
reply was: "Less dynamic force." It has been so in all ages, and 
will so continue. * 

In every possible way try to act in a natural and becoming man- 
ner, without nfiectation. Dress according to your means and sta- 
tion, if you will, but always in a modest, unassuming style, and dis- 
card at once and forever all those wretched shams and miserable 
appliances in the ehape of padding, painting, perfuming, curling, 
tight lacing, etc., which are calculated to ruin the health and deceive 
the observer. Cultivate kindness, cheerfulness, an even quiet 
temper, and repress asperities of every kind. 

If the mother be endowed with physical vigor, a pure moral char- 
acter, and is, in her domestic relations, a becoming model of all that 
is orderly, clean, prompt, dignified, kind and loving, she is certain in 
the very nature of things, to transmit these beneflcient qualities to 
her offspring, and through them a blessing to society. Let all parents 
know that, by a law from which there is no appeal, those very quali- 
ties and endowments of mind which they cultivate in themselves, be 
they good or evil, they by that very act implant in their posterity. 

The most powerful means for the repression of evil and the elimi- 
nation of good, is constancy in some useful employment of body or 
mind. Useful industry promotes bodily health, enhances every 
female grace, sweetens the temper, and beautifies the countenance. 
It is the great safety-valve which, by Divine appointment, is designed 
to absorb and utilize the surplus energy dispensed to every healthy 
human being during the prime of life, and which, if spent in idle- 
ness, frivolity, dissipation, or senseless gossiping, is certain to pro- 
duce the most malignant evils. 

Ladies should never neglect pure air, and abundant out-door ex- 
ercise, either in walking, carriage, or horseback riding. Confinement 
in close rooms, with stove or furnace heat, is most unfavorable to 
robust health. It is all important, in considei-ation of the perform- 
ance of those high and holy functions entrusted to woman, that the 
beautiful, delicate, and exquisitely constructed body by which those 
functions are accomplished, should be kept attuned to the most per- 



184 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 

feet state of health. The mind should be kept free from moral con- 
tamiiiatiou of every kind, and trained to habits of pure thought, 
sobriety and stability. Nothing can be of greater importance to 
humanity than the proper adjustment of the physical and mental 
equilibrium of woman. The weal or woe of the human race seem to 
turn on this primary essential as on a pivot. What our children are, 
is in a great measure what their mother's have made them, for in the 
turn on this primary essential as on a pivot. What our children are 
is in a great measure what tlieir mothers have made them, for in the 
very nature of things, children are in the mother's hand, like plas- 
tic wax under the seal, and the impression is generally in harmony 
either with what she has taught them or neglected to teach. 

Equally important is the duty iucaiubent on every female to vigi- 
lantly guard against forming matrimonial engagements with men of 
defective health or vitLited morals. The neglect of this wise precau- 
tion has caused an extent of misery and wretcliedness beyond all 
human conception. On this subject, one of the ablest living medical 
men. Dr. B. W. Richardson, of London, England, remarks as fol- 
lows: "The first step towards the reduction of diseases is, beginning 
at the beginnmg, to provide for the health of the unborn, if the 
intermarriage of disease were considered m the same light as the 
intermarriage of poverty, the hereditary transmission of disease 
would be at an end m three, or at most, four generations." He re- 
marks in another place, " Greater care than is at present manifested, 
ought to be tiUcen witli women who are about to become mothers." 

As many estimable ladies are pardonably anxious about their 
chances fo/marriage, the following curious J-tatemeut, by Dr. Gran- 
ville, is dra^Ti up from the registered cases of 87G married women in 
France. It is the first table ever constructed to exhibit to ladies their 
chances of marriages at various ages. Of the 876 tabulated, there 
■were married : — 

Years of age. Years of age. Years of age. Years of age. 

3 at 13 118 at 20 28 at 27 5 at 34 

11 at 14 86 at 21 22 at 28 3 at 35 

16 at 15 85 at 22 17 at 29 at 36 

43 at 16 59 at 23 at 30 2 at 37 

45 at 17 53 at 24 7 at 31 at 38 

77 at 18 36 at 25 5 at 32 1 at 39 

115 at 19 24 at 26 7 at 33 at 40 

It should not be forgotten that women, and men, too, in England, 

Canada, and the Northern States, are no nearer maturity at 20, than 

the French at 18. This is owing to the wann climate, which in 

France accelerates maturity with greater rapidity than in more 

northern climes. From salutary experience, it would be safe to say 

that the best results would f olloV, did our girls not marry until after 

20, and our men till after 22, or even 24. 

Women married at 25, live four years longer than unmarried 
ones; 72 married women live to 45, for 52 unmarried. Among mar- 
ried men, 41 attain 45, for 18 unmarried. At 60, there are 48 married men 
for 11 unmarried. At 80. the numbers are 9 married for 3 unmarried. 
Cerebko-Spixal Meningitis, ok Spotted Fevek. is fre- 
quently ciiused by bad diet, malaria, cold, repression of the secre- 
tions, changeable weather, etc. It is a most malignant trouble, con- 
sisting of inflammation of tlie brain and spinal marrow. There is 
fever, pain in the he?.d, rigidity of the muscles, intense thirst, ter- 
rible iJaiu, and an abundance of purple spots. The head is forced 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. ^ 185 

backward with fearful agony, the intense suffering induces prostra- 
tions, stupidity, deafness, — in some cases blindness, and if the dis- 
ease is not restrained by skilful treatment, insensibility and death. 
In treating this disease, keep the bowels open, and the body warm: 
immersion in a hot bath, made strong with salt and mustard, is good 
to bring the blood to the surface. Another way is to wrap the body 
in a woollen blanket wrung out of hot water, and place outside of the 
blanket bottles filled with hot water, and cover over close, as de- 
scribed under the wet sheet pack ; this will induce a copious perspir- 
ation and afford relief. Warm ginger tea is useful to generate inter- 
nal heat, and tincture of pepper for outward application, with fric- 
tion on the skin. If the pulse is high, give two to three drops ex- 
tract of Vcratrum viride (American Hellebore), every hour, diluted 
by adding 1 teaspoouful of water to each drop of the extract. Guard 
against constip.ition, retention of urine, convulsions, etc., and if the 
head is severely pained, relieve by dry cupping over the neck and spine. 

Croup Sykui*. — Crushed blood root, 2 teaspoonfuls ; vinegar, 2 
gills ; white sugar, 8 tablespoonf uls ; boil all together and strain. 
l)ose, from ^ to 1 teaspoouful every hour or half hour, (warm) accord- 
ing to the severity of the case. Sponge the body with strong salera- 
tus water, and if mflammatiou exists, give, for a child of 1 year, a 
teaspoouful (every hour) of a mixture of 5 drops of veratrum in 20 
teaspoonfuls of water. 

Sulphuric Ether.— Rectified spirit, 3 lbs. ; sulphuric acid, 2 lbs. 
carbonate of potassa (previously ignited), 1 oz. ; jiour 2 lbs. of the 
spirit into a glass retort, add the acid, place the vessel on a sand 
bath, so that the liquor may boil as soon as possible, and the ether as 
it forms, pass over into a well cooled receiver; continue the distilla- 
tion until a heavier fluid begins to pass over, then lower the heat, 
add the remainder of the spirit, and distil as before; pour off the 
supematent portion, add the carbonate of potassa for one hour; 
finally, distil the ether from a large retort, and keep it in a well- 
stoppered bottle. 

Chloroform. — Take chloride of lime (in jjowder), 4 lbs. ; water, 
12 lbs. ; mix in a capacious retort or still, add, of rectified spirit, 12 
fluid ozs., and cautiously distil, as long as a dense liquid, which sinks 
in the water it passes over with, is produced ; separate this from the 
water, agitate it with a little sulphuric acid, and, lastly, rectify from 
carbonate of baryta. The only safe way known of purifying chloro- 
form, consists in agitation with pure water and redistillation. 

Prof. Nussbaum has succeeded in prolonging the ansesthesia in- 
duced by chloroform, by the sub-cutaneous injection of a solution 
containing 1 gr. of acetate of morphia. In one case the patient slept 
12 hours and underwent a painful operation, without any sensation 
whatever. The injection performed without the previous inhalation 
of chloroform, produced no such effect. 

Carbonic Oxide Gas, is inflammable, but arrests animal life. 
Carbonic Acid Gas may be liquefied as follows : — Get a strong iron 
bottle, strong enough to resist a pressure of 40 atmospheres, or 600 
lbs. to the square inch ; put into it about 4 ozs. of sodic bicarbonate, 
and a small pot containing about the same quantity of oil of vitriol. 
Insert the latter carefully, so as not to spill any : close the bottle with 
an airtight cap, surround by a mixture of ice and salt, and upset the 
inner pot. The gas becomes condensed and liquified in the bottle, 
and on opening the bottle, by means of a stop-cock in tlie lid, will 
rush out, and part will fall down in a frozen sti\te like suow. A jet 



18G 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 



of the liquid carbonic acid, directed on the bulb of a spirit thermom- 
eter, made it fall to 194° below zero. A jet passed into a phial is ex- 
panded 400 times, and the cold solidifies it as a white powder. Then, 
if the fiuger is placed on the powder, the expansion repels the finger, 
the cold being 231° below zero I It is too dangerously cold for medi- 
cal applications, but a mixture of salt and finely broken ice, have 
been used to promote immunity from pain during amputation, and in 
cases of severe headache. Anaesthesia may also be produced by 
projecting a spray of sulphuric ether and rhigoline, which produces a 
temporary freezing, during which time an operation may be per- 
formed without pain to the patient, after which the parts thaw, and 
sensibility returns. 

Rules to be Followed by the By-staxders ix case of in- 
jury by Machinery &c., ■where Surgical Assistance ca>>-ot 
be obtaixed,~Iu cases of severe shock, inducing paleness, chilliness, 
and prostration, jJace the sufferer on a bed with the head but slight- 
Ij" raised, keep up warmth by wrapping him in blankets and coverlets, 
assisted by bottles containing hot water, or by warm bricks, wrap- 
ped m cloths, and applied to the armpits, sides, feet, &c., stimulate 
with table spoonful doses of whiskey or brandy every 15 or 20 minutes, 
until partial recovery, and nourish by giving strong souji occasionally. 
If the patient is not bleeding, do not' bind the limb tight, but cover 
the bruised part lightlj- with rags. 

If bleeding results, do not try to stop it by binding up the wound, 
but find the artery by its beating, and place a firm and smooth wad 
made of cloth or rags rolled up, or any round smooth article of proper 
size, wrapped up and place over the artei-y as shown in the figures, 
tie 3 handkerchief aroimd the limb and tighten up ; put a stick through 
under the handkerchief as shown in Fig. B, giving it just enough of 
twist to stop the bleeding, then enter one end of the stick under the 
handkerchief as shown in Fig. C, to secure the bind. AVhen the leg 
is bleeding below the knee, apply the jiad over the artery at the back 
of the thigh, as shown at (J, on Fig. A, and secure in front as above 
described. 




The artery in the thigh runs along the inner side of the muscle in 
front near the bone. A little above the knee, it passes to the back of 
the bone. In injuries at or above the knee, apply the compress high 
up on the inner side of the thigh, at the point where two thumbs meet 
at C ,on Fig. D, with the knot on the outer side of the thigh. 

The artery in tlie arm runs down the inner side of thelarge muscle 
in front, quite close to the bone ; low down it gets further forward 
towards the bend of the elbow. It is most easily found and com- 
pressed :i little above the middle at C, as shown on Fig. E. 

Examine the limb from time to time, and relax the compression if 
it becomes very cold or purple, but tighten the handkerchief again in 
case of bleeding. 

To transport an injured person, make a soft bed for the injured 
l^art, of straAV, folded coverlets, &c., laid on a board, with side-pieces 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 187 

of board nailed on, -when this can be done. If possible let, the patient 
be laid on a door, shutter, settee, or other firm support comfortably 
covered, and carry him steadily. Send for a physician vi all cases. 
For BuKNsand Scalds, consult the Engmeers' Department under that 

For Bruis'-s, use tepid applications at first. After inflammation sub- 
sides, use stimulating applications, as vinegar and water, or camphor- 
ated liniment. . , , . . ^ i 4. -j 

Yor Sprains, elevate the limb; keep the jomt easy; apply tepid 
lotions or fomentations. Wlien inflammation subsides, ai)ply stimulat- 
ing liniments, and shower the part alternately with cold and tepid 

FoK NuaiBNESS FROM COLD.— Restore warmth r/radualhj, in pro- 
portion as circulation in tlie parts or body increases. 

For a Frozen Loib.— Rub with snow, and place ni cold water 
for a short time. When sensation returns, place again in cold water ; 
add heat venj r/radualhj, by adding warm water. If apparently dead 
or insensible, strip entirely of clothes, and cover body, with exception 
of mouth and nostrils, with snow o'- ice-cold water. When the body 
is thawed, dry it, place it in a cold bed; rub with warm hands under 
the cover; continue this for hours. If life appears, give small injec- 
tions of camphor and water; put a drop of spts. camphor on the 
tongue; then rub body with spirits and water, finally with spirits; 
tlien give tea, coffee, or brandy and water. 

In Apparent Death from Breathing Noxious Vapors.— Ex- 
pose the person to the air; sprinkle cold water on face and head; rub 
strong vinegar about nostrils ; give drink of vinegar and water. If 
suffocated by breathing charcoal fumes, treat in the same manner, and 
excite breathing as directed ui cases of drowning. 

Dr. M. Hall's Directions for Restoring the Apparently 
Drowned. — 1. Send for a physician in all cases. 2. Treat the patient 
instantly on the spot, iu the open aik, freely exposing the face, 
neck, and chest to the breeze, except in cold weather. 3. In order 
to CLEAR the throat, placc the patient gently on the face with one 
wrist under the forehead, that all fluid, and the tongue itself may fall 
forward, and leave the entrance into the windpipe free. 4. To ex- 
cite respiration, turn the patient slightly on his side, and apply 
some irritating or stimulating agent to the nostrils, as veratrine, 
DILUTE AJNisiONiA, &c., ov snuff, or apply a feather to the throat. 5. 
JIake tlie face warm by brisk friction ; then dash cold water upon it. 
6. If not successful, lose no time, but, to imitate respiration, 
place the patient on his side, and a little beyond; then again on 
the face, and so on alternately. Repeat these movements deliberately 
and perseveringly 15 times only in a minute. (Wlien the patient 
lies on the breast, this cavity iis compressed by the weight of the 
body, and expiration takes place. When he is turned on the side this 
pressure is removed, and iiispiration occurs). 7. AVhen the prone 
position is resumed, make a uniform and efficient pressure along 
the spine, removing the pressure immediately, before rotation on the 
side. (The pressure augments the expiration ; the rotation commences 
tJispiration). Continue these measures. 8. Rub the limbs upward 
WITH firm pressure, and with energy. (The object being to aid the 
return of venous blood to the heart). '9. Substitute for the patient's 
Avet clothing, if possible, such other covering as can be uistautly prO' 



188 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT. 

cured, each by-stander supplying a coat or vest, &c. Meantime, and 
from time to time, to excite inspiration, let the surface of tne body 
be SLAPPED briskly with the hand. 10. Rub the bodj' briskly till it 
is warm and drj', then dash cold water upon it, and repeat the 
rubbing. 

Avoid the immediate removal of the patient, as it involves a dan- 
gerous loss or time; also, the use of BELLOWS, or any forcing in- 
strument, and ALL ROUGH treatment. 

Rules for Accidents on Water. — When upset in a boat or 
thrown into the water and uuable to swim, draw the breath in well; 
keep the mouth tight shut; do not struggle and tlirow the arms up, 
but yield quietly to tlie water ; hold the head well up, and stretch out 
the hands only beloio the water ; to throw the hands or feet vp will 
pitch the body beloiv the water, hands or feet vp will pitch the body 
head down, and cause the whole person to go immediately under 
water. Keep the head above, and every thmg else under water. 

Everj-one should learn to swim ; no animal, aquatic fowl, or reptile 
requires to be taught tliis, for they do it naturally. Few persons 
exist wlio have not some time or other, seen a bullfrog perform his 
masterly movements in the water, and it would detract from no one's 
dignity to take a few lessons from him. In learning, the beginner 
might sustain himself by a plank, a block, of wood, an attachment 
composed of cork, an initiated bladder, a fljing kite, or a stout cord 
attached to a long rod held by an assistant on the land. Learn to 
swim cost irliat it tcill. 

An officer of the New York police force wears three medals, and 
receives $50 per month from the Life Saving Benevolent Association. 
He has saved 12 lives from death by drowning, but he says that when 
a boy he received a thrashing every night from his father forgoing in 
swimming. 

Oxygen Gas. — 1. Use red oxide of mercury; heat over a spirit 
lamp, or ignited charcoal in a gi-een glass retort, or in a short tube of 
Bohemian glass, closed with a perforated cork furnished with a piece 
of bent glass tube of small bore to convey the liberated gas to the 
vessel arranged to receive it. Pure. 1 oz. yields about 100 cubic 
inches. 2. treat chlorate of potassa as above. Pure. Product 100 
cubic inches of gas from 100 grains. 3. Bicliromate of potassa, 3 
parts; oil of vitriol, 4 parts; heat gently as before ; yields pure oxy- 
gen verj- freely and rapidly. 4. Binoxide of manganese and oil of 
vitriol, equal parts: treat as the last. Product, 256 cubic inches from 
1 oz. binoxide. 5. On the larr/e scale ; expose nitre to a dull red heat 
in an iron retort or gun barrel. Product, 1200 cubic inches of gas 
(from 1 lb. nitre), contaminated more or less with nitrogen. 6. Trent 
good commercial binoxide of manganese, as the last. Product, 1500 
to 1600 cubic inches, or from 5 to'^G gals, from 1 lb. of binoxide. 7. 
Chlorate of potassa 1.^ lbs. ; binoxide of manganese, f lb. ; treat as 
the last. Gas procured from manganese or nitre, may be purified by 
passing it through lime water. When required for nice experiments, 
the first gas should be allowed to pass away, or else be gathered 
separately, as it is apt to be impure. Oxygen gas is the supporter of 
vitality and fire, and is often used as a remedial agent in asphyxia, 
arising from the inhalation of carbonic acid or carbonic oxide. It 
was first discriminated as a distinct gas, by Priestly, in 1774. 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC 189 

GERStAN Rheumatic Flttid.— Oils of hemlock and cedar, of each 
Joz., oils of origanum and sassafras, each 1 oz. ; aqua ammonia, 1 
oz. ; capsicum pulverized, 1 oz. ; spirits of turpeutine and gum 
camphor, each £oz. ; put all mto a quart bottle, and fill with 95 per 
cent, alcohol. Dose, for colic, for man, half a tcaspoonful ; for a 
horse, i to 1 oz., in a little warm water, every 15 minutes, tiU relieved. 

LiNisLENT FOR OLD SoKES. — Alcohol, 1 qt. ; aqua ammouia, 4oz. ; 
oil of origanum, 2 oz. ; camphor gum, 2 oz. ; opium, 2 oz. ; gum 
myrrh, 2 oz. ; common salt, two tablespoons. Mix, and shake occa- 
eioually for a week. 

Liniment.— Good Samaritan.— Take 98 per cent, alcohol, 2 qts. ; 
and add to it the following articles : Oils of sassafras, hemlock, 
spirits of turpentine, tincture of cayenne, catechu, guaiac (guac), and 
laudanum, of each, 1 oz. ; tincture of myrrh, 4 oz. ; oil of origanum, 
2 oz. ; oil of wintergreeu, ^ oz. ; gum camphor, 2 oz. ; and chloro- 
form, li oz. This is one of" the best applications for internal pains 
Jmown : it is superior to any other enumerated in this work. 

Inhalation of Tab for Consumptiqn.— Mix together 16 ozs. of 
liquid tar and one fluid oz. liquor of potassa, boil them for a few 
■inmutes in the open air, then let it simmer in an iron vessel over a 
spirit or other lamp in the chamber of the patient. This may at first 
excite a disposition to cough, but in a short time it allays it, and re- 
moves any tendency to it. 

Cancer cuke. — Druik a tea made from the tops of red clover ; 
about 1 qt. per day should be taken intenially, and the tea should be 
used as a wash twice per day, ; very stronglj' recommended. 

Taylor's Uemedv for Deafness. — Digest 2 ozs. bruised garlic in 
1 lb. oil of almonds for a week, and strain. A drop poured into the ear 
is effective in temporary deafuess. 

Cure for Earache. — Take equal parts of chloroform and lauda- 
num, dip a piece of cotton into the mixture and introduce into the ear, 
and cover up and get to sleep as soon as possible. 

Ottawa Koot Beer — Take 1 oz. each of sassafras, allspice, yellow- 
dock, and winter green ; ^- oz. each wild cherry bark and coriander ; 
J oz. hops and 3 qts. molasses. Pour sufficient boilhig water on the 
uigredients and let them stiud 24 hours, filter the Uquor and add ^pt. 
yeast, and it is ready for use in 24 hours. 

To Extract Essential Oil from Wood, Barks, Roots, Herbs, 
&c. — Take balm, mint, sage, or any other herb, &c., put it into a bot- 
tle, and pour upon it a spoonful of ether ; keep in a cool place a few 
hours, and then fill the bottle with cold water ; the essential oil will 
swim upon the surface and may be easily separated. 

Fumigating Paper. — Dip light paper in a solution of alum ; strength 
of alum 1 oz., water 1 pt. Dry thoroughly, and on one side spread a 
mixture of equal parts of gum benzoin, galbanum, or Peruvian balsam ; 
melt the gums in an earthenware disli and spread with a hot spatula ; 
slips of the paper are held over a light, when the odorous matter will 
be evaporated, the alum preventing the paper from igniting. 

Transparent Cement for Glass. — Dissolve 1 part India-rubber 
in chloroform, and add IG parts by measure of gum mastic in powder. 
Digest for 2 days, shaking the bottle frequently ; apply with a fine 
camel's hair brush. 

Mouth Wash. — ^Troof spirits, 1 qt. ; borax and honey, of each 1 oz. , 



190 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 

gum myrrh, 1 oz. ; red sanders wood, 1 oz. Rub the honey and borax 
well together in a mortar, then gradually add the spirit, the myrrh and 
Banders wood, and macerate 14 days. 

Wash fok removing Particles of Zinc ob Iron from the 
Ete. — Muriatic acid, 20 drops ; mucilage, Idr. ; mix with 2 fluid ozg, 
rose water. Iron or steel particles may bo extracted by holding near 
them a powerful magnet. 

To Remove Tumors. — Dr. Simpson of Edinburgh introduces a 
hollow acupiuicture needle, or very fine trocar (a surgical instrument 
in tlie form of a fimo hollow needle) into their tissue, and injects a 
few drops of some irritant liquid, such as a solution of chloride of 
zinc, percholorde of iron, or creosote. The effect is to destroy the 
•vitality of the tumors so treated, and admit of separating them. 

CojiPOCKD SvRUP OF UvropHOSPniTEs.— Take of hj^pophosphite 
of lime, 1^ oz. ; hj-pophosphite of soda ^ oz ; hj-pophosphite of pot- 
assa, h oz. ; cane sugar, 1 lb. troy ; hot water, 20 fluid ozs. ; orange 
water,'! fluid oz. ftlix a solution of the mixed salts in the hot water, 
filter through paper, dissolve the sugar in tlie solution by heat, and 
strain, and add the orange flower water. Dose, a teaspoonftd, cou- 
tainiug nearly five grains of the mixed salts. 

Cook's Electro-Magnetic LiNniENT.— Best alcohol, 1 gal. ; oil 
of amber, 8 oz. ; gum camphor, 8 oz. ; Castile soap, shaved fine, 2 
oz. ; beef's gall, 4 oz. ; ammonia, 3 F.'s strong, 12 oz.; mix, and 
Bhake occasionally for 12 hours, and it is fit for use. This will bo 
found a strong and valuable liuiment. 

London Liniment. — Take chloroform, olive oil, and aqua ammo- 
nia, of each 1 oz. ; acetate of morphia, 10 grs. Mix and use as otlicr 
liniments. A'cry valuable. 

Ointments.— For Old Sores. — Red precipitite, i oz. ; sugar of 
lead, i^ oz. ; bunitaluni, 1 oz. ; white vitriol, i oz., or a little less : 
.nil to be verj' finely pulverized ; have mutton tallow made warm, J 
lb. ; stir all in, and stir until cool. 

Judkin's Ointment. — Linseed oil, 1 V't. ; sweet oil, 1 oz. ; and boil 
them in a kettle on coals for nearly 4 hours, as warm as you can ; 
then liave pulverized and mixed borax, ^ oz. ; red lead, 4 oz. ; and 
sugar of lead, 1-^ oz. ; remove the kettle from the fire, and thicken 
in the powder ; continue the stirring until cooled t(> blood heat, then 
stir in 1 oz. of spirits of turpentine ; and now take out a little, let- 
ting it get cold, and if not then sufficiently thick to spread upon thiu 
soft linen as a salve, you will boil again until this point is reached. 
It is good for all kinds of wounds, bruisesj sores, bums, white swell- 
ings, rheumatisms, ulcers, sore breasts ; and eveo where there are 
wounds on the inside, it has been used with advantage, by applying 
a ])laster over the part. 

Magnetic Ointment. — Said to be Trask's.— Ilard raisins cut 
in pieces, and fine-cut tobacco, equal weights ; simmer well together, 
then strain, and press out all from the dregs. 

Mead's Salt-Rheum Ointment. — Aquafortis, 1 oz. ; quicksilver, 
1 oz. ; good hard soap, dissolved so as to mix readily, 1 oz. ; prepared 
chalk, 1 oz. ; mixed with 1 lb. of lard ; mLx the above by putting the 
aquafortis and quicksilver into an earthen vessel, and when done 
eff'».rvcscing, mix with the other ingredients, putting the chalk m last ; 
add a little spirits of turpentine^ say i tablesixjou. 



BIEDICAL DErARTMENT, ETC. 191 

Green Ofntment. — Iloncy and beeswax, each ^ lb. ; spirits of 
turpentine, 1 oz. ; wintcrsreen oil and laudanum, each 2 oz. ; ver- 
digris, finely pulverized, ^ oz. ; lard, 1^ lb. ; mix by a stove fire, in 
a copper kettle, heating slowly. 

Itch Ointment. — Unsalted butter, 1 lb. ; burgundy ptch, 2 oz. , 
spirits of turjientino, 2 oz. ; red ])recipitate, pulverized, 1^ oz. ; melt 
the pitch and add the butter, stirring well together ; then remove 
Irom the fire, and when a little cool add the spirits of turjjeutine, and 
lastly the precipitate, and stir until cold. 

Jaundice.— In its Worst Fokms. — Red iodide of mercury, 7 gra. ; 
5odide of potassium, 9 grs. ; aqua dis. (distilled water), 1 oz. ; mix. 
Commence by giving G arops 3 or 4 times a day, increasing 1 drop a 
day until 12 or 15 drops are given at a dose. Give in a little water, 
immediately after meals. If it causes a griping sensation in the bowels, 
and fulness in the head, when you get up to 12 or 15 djops, go back 
to 6 drops, and up again as before. 

Remedy fok KuEtTMATisM and Stiff Joints. — Strong camphor 
spirits, 1 pt. ; neat's-foot, coon, bear's, or skunk's oil, 1 pt. ; spirits of 
tuqientine, h pt. Shake tho bottle when used, and apply 3 times 
daily, by pouring on a little at a time, and rubbing in all you can for 
20 or 30 muuites. 

Asthma Remedies. — Elecampane, angelica, comfrcy, and spike- 
nard roots with hoarhound tops, of each 1 oz. ; bruise and steep in 
honey, 1 pt. Dose, a tablespoon, taken hot evei-y few minutes, imtil 
relief is obtained, then several times daily imtil a cure is effected. 

Another. — Oil of tar, 1 dr. ; tincture of veratrura viride, 2 drs. ; 
simple syrup, 2 drs. ; mix. Dose, for adults, 15 drops 3 or 4 times 
daily. Iodide of potassium has cured a bad case of astlima, by taking 
5 gr. doses 3 times daily. Take ^ oz. and put it in a phial, and add 32 
teaspoons of water; then 1 teaspoon of it will contain the 5 grs., 
which put into ^ gill more water, and drink before meals. 

Comtosition" Powder. — THoairsoN's. — Bayberry bark, 2 lbs. ; 
Iiemlock bark, 1 lb. ; ginger root, 1 lb. ; cayenne pepper, 2 oz. ; cloves, 
2 oz. ; all finely pulverized and well mixed. Dose, \ a teaspoon of it, 
and a spoon of sugar ; put them into a tea-cup, and pour it lialf full of 
boiling v,ater ; let it stand a few minutes, and fill the cup AvitJi milk, 
and drink freely. If no milk is to be obtained, fill up tho cup with 
hot water. ** 

TuENcn Remedy for Chronic Rheuji.^tism. — Dr. Bonnet, of 
Graulbet, France, states, in a letter to the " AbeilleMedicale," that ho 
lias been long in the habit of prescribing " tlie essential oil of turpen- 
tine by friction for rheumatism ; and that he has used it himself with 
perfect success, h.aving almost instantaneously got rid of rheumatic 
pains in both knees and in the left shoulder." 

Diuretics — Pilt-s, Drops, Decoction, &c . — Solidified copaiba, 2 
parts ; alcoholic extract of cubebs, 1 part ; foi-med into pills with a 
little oil of juniper. Dose, 1 or 2 pills 3 or 4 times daily. This pill 
lias been found very valuable in affections of the kidneys, bladder, 
and urethra, as inflammation from gravel, gonorrhoea, gleet, whites, 
leucorrhcca, common inflammations, &c. For giving tliem a sugar 
coat, see that heading, if desired. 

Diuretic Drops. — Oil of cubebs, | oz. ; sweet spirits of nitre, ^ 
oz. ; balsam of copaiba, 1 oz. ; Harlem oil, 1 bottle ; oil of lavender, 



192 MEDICAL DEPARTMEXT, ETC. 

20 drops ; spirits of turpentine, 20 drops ; mbc. Dose, 10 to 25 drops, 
as the stomach will bear, three times daily. It may be used iu any of 
the above diseases witli great satisfaction. 

Diuretic Tincture. — Green or growing spearmint mashed, put 
into a bottle, and covered with gm, is an cxcclleut diuretic. 

Diuretic for Children. — Spirits of nitre — a few drops in a littlo 
spearmint tea — is all sufHcient. For very young children, pumpkin- 
Bced, or water-melon-seed tea is perliaps the best. 

Dropsy. — Syrup and Pills. — Quccn-of-thc-meadow root, dwarf- 
elder flowers, berries, or inner bark, juniper berries, horse-radish 
root, pod milkweed, or silkweed, often called, root of each, 4 oz. ; 
prickly-ash bark of berries, mandrake root, bittersweet bark, of tho 
root of each, 2 oz. ; white-mustard-seed, 1 oz. ; Holland gin, 1 i)t. 
Pour boiling water on all except the gin, and keep hot for 12 hours ; 
then boil and pour off twice, and boil down to 3 qts., and strain, add- 
hig 3 lbs. of sugar, and lastly tho gin. Dose, take all the stomach 
will bear, say a wine glass a day, or more. 

Dropsy Pills.— Jalap, 50 grs. ; gamboge, 30 grs. ; jwdophyllin, 
20 grs. ; elatarium, 12 grs. ; aloes, 30 grs. ; ciiyemie, 35 grs. ; Castilo 
Boap, shaved and pulverized, 20 grs. ; cro ton oil, DO drops ; powder all 
finely, and mix tlioroughly ; then form into pill mass, by usuig a thick 
mucilage made of equal parts of gum arable andgumtragacautli, and 
divide in three-grain pills. Dose, 1 jiill every 2 days for tho first 
week ; then every 3 or 4 days, until the water is evacuated by tho 
combined aid of the pill with tlie alum syrup. This is a iKJWcrful 
medicine, and will well accomplish its work. 

Liver Pill. — Leptandrin, 40 grs. ; jiodophyllin and cayenne, 30 
grs. each ; sanguinarin, iridin, and ipecac, 15 grs. cacli ; sec that all 
are pulverized and well mixed ; then form into pill mass by using ^ 
dr. of the soft extract of mandrake aud a few drops of anise "oil ; then 
roll out into three-gram pills. Dose, 2 pills taken at bed-timo will 
generally operate by morning ; but some persons require 3, 

Irritating Plaster. — Extensively Used v.y Eclectics. — Tar, 1 
lb. ; burgundy pitch, h oz. ; white-pine turpentine, 1 oz. ; resin, 2 oz. 
Boil the tir, resin, aud gimi together a short time, remove from tlio 
fire, suid stir in finely pulverized mandrake root, blood root, poke 
root, and Indian turnip, of each, 1 oz. 

Pills. — To Sugar Coat. — ^Pills to be sugar coated must bo very 
dry, otherwise they will shrink awr»y from tlie coating, and leave it a 
shell easily crushed off. When they are dry, you will take starch, 
gum arable, and white sugar, equal parts, rubbing them very fine iu 
a marble mortar, and if damp, they must be dried before rubbing 
together ; tlien put the powder into a suitable pan, or box, for shak- 
ing ; now put a few pills into a small tui box having a cover, and 
pour on to them just a little simple syrup, shaking well to moisten 
the surface only ; then throw into the box of powder, and keep in 
motion until completely coated, dry, and smooth. If you aro not 
very careful, you will get too much syrup upon the pills ; if you do, 
put in more, and be quick about it to prevent moistening the pill too 
much, getting them into the powder as soon as possible. 

Positia-e Cure for Hydrophobia. — The dried root of elecampane, 
pulverize it, and measure out 9 heaping teblespoonfuls, and mix it 
with 2 or 3 teaspoouf uls of inilverizcd gum arable ; then divide into 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 193 

9 eqnal x>ortions. When a person is bitten by a rabid animal, t<alc« 
one of these portions and steep it in 1 pt. of new millc, until nearly 
half the quantity of milk is evaporated ; then strain, and drink it in 
the morning, fasting for 4 or 5 hours after. The same dose is to be 
repeated 3 mornings in succession, then skip 3, and so on, until the 9 
doses are taken. 

The patient must avoid getting wet, or the heat of the sun, and 
abstain from high-seasoned diet, or hard exercise, and, if costive, take 
& dose of salts. The above quantity is for an adult ; children will 
take less according to age. 

Eye Prepakations. — Ete Water. — Table salt and white vitriol, 
of each 1 tablespoon ; heat them upon copper plates or in earthen- 
ware until dry ; the heating drives off the acrid water, called the 
"water of crystallization, making them much niilder in their action ; 
now add to them soft water ^ pt. ; putting in white sugar, 1 table- 
spoon ; blue vitriol, a piece the size of a common pea. If it should 
prove too strong in any case, add a little more soft water to a phial 
of it. Apply it to the eyes 3 or 4 times daily. 

India Prescription for Sore Eyes. — Sulphate of zinc, 3 grs. ; 
tincture of opium (laudanum), 1 dr. ; rose water, 2 oz. ; mix. Put a 
drop or two in the eye, 2 or 3 times daily. 

Another. — Sulphate of zinc, acetate of lead, .and rock salt, of 
each ^ oz. ; loaf sugar, 1 oz. ; soft water, 12 oz. ; mix without heat, 
and use as other eye waters. If sore eyes shed much water, put a 
little of the oxide of zinc into a phial of water, and use it rather free- 
ly. This will soon effect a cure. Copperas and Avater has cured soro 
eyes of lon§ stauding ; and used quite strong, it makes an excellent 
application m erysipelas. Allum and the white of an egg is good. 

Indian Eye Water. — Soft water, 1 pt. ; gum arable, 1 oz. ; white 
vitriol, 1 oz. ; fine salt, ^ teaspoon ; put all into a bottle, and shako 
until dissolved. Put into the eye just as you retire to bed. 

Black Oil. — Best alcohol, tincture of arnica, British oil, and oil 
of tar, of each 2 oz. ; and slowly add sulphuric acid, J oz. Thcso 
black oils are getting into extensive use as a liuiment, and are indeed 
valuable, especially in cases attended with much mflammation. 

Vermifuge Lozenges.— Santonin, 60 grs. ; pulverized sugar, 5 
oz. ; mucilage of gum tragacanth, sufficient to make into a thick 
paste, worked carefully together, that the santonin shall be evenly 
mixed throughout the whole mass ; then if not in too great a hurry, 
cover up the mortar m which you have rubbed them, and let stand 
from 12 to 24 hours to temper ; at which time they will roll out 
better than if done immediately ; divide into 120 lozenges. Dose, 
for a child 1 year old, 1 lozenge, night and morning ; of 2 years, 2 
lozenges ; of 4 years, 3 ; of 8 years, 4 ; of 10 years or more, 5 to 7 
lozenges ; in all cases to be taken twice daily, and continuing imtil 
the worms start on a voyage of discovery. 

Harlem Oil or Welsh Medicajientum. — Sublimed or flowers of 
sulphur and oil of amber, of each 2 oz. ; linseed oil, 1 lb. ; spirits of 
turpentine sufficient to reduce all to the consistence of thm molasses. 
BoU the sulphur in the liuseed oil imtil it is dissolved, then add the 
oil of amber and turpentine. Dose, from 15 to 25 drops, morning 
and evening. Amongst the Welsh and Germans it is extensively 
used for etreagthening the stomach, kidneys liver, and lungs ; lor 

13 



194 MEDICAL DEPAnXMENT, ETC. >•* 

asthma, ghortness of breath, congh, inward or outward sorea, drojv 
BV, worms, gravel, fevers, palpitiition of the heart, giddiness, head- 
ache, &c. , by taking it internally ; and for ulcers, malignant sores, 
cankers, &c., anointing externally, and wettiug hnen with it, and 
applying to bums. 

toYTTiAX CcKE TOR Cholkka. — Bcst Jamaica ginger root, bruis- 
ed, 1 oz. ; cayemic, 2 teaspoons ; boil all iu 1 qt. of Avater to ipt, and 
add loaf sugar to form a thick s^Tup. Dose, 1 tablespoon every 15 
minutes, imtil vomiting and purguig ceases ; them follow up with a 
blackberry tea. ' 

Indian PRESciiiTTiox FOR Cnoi,ERA. — First dissolve gum camphor, 
^ oz., in Ih oz. of alcohol ; second, give a teaspoon of spirits of 
hartshorn in a wine glass of water, and follow it everj' 5 minutes 
•with 15 drops of the camphor iu a teaspoon of water, for 3 doses ; 
then wait 15 minutes, and commence again as before ; and continue 
the camphor for 30 minutes, unless there is returning heat. Should 
this be the case, give one more dose, and the cure is effected ; let 
them perspire freely (wliich the medicine is designed to cause), as 
upon this the life depends, but add no additional clothing. 

Isthmus Cholera Tincture. — Tincture of rhubarb, cayenne, 
opium, and spirits of camphor, with es.sence of peppemiuit, equal 
parts of each, and each <as strong as can be made. Dose, from 5 to 30 
drops, or even to 60, and repeat, \mtil relief is obtauied, every 5 to 30 
minutes. -^ 

Kjng of Otls, for Xettr.axgia and Rheumatism. — Burning fluid, 
1 pt. ; oils of cedar, hemlock, sassafras, and origanum, of each 2 oz. ; 
carbonate of ammonLi, pulverized, 1 oz. ; mix. Directions. — Apply 
freely to the nerve and gums aroimd the tooth ; and to the face, in 
neuralgic pains, by wetting brown paper and laying on the parts, not 
too long, for fear of blistering, — to the nerves of teeth by Imt. 

Neuralgia. — Intern.vl Rkmedt. — Sal-ammoniac, h dr., dissolve 
in water 1 oz. Dose, one tablespoon every 3 minutes, for 20 minutes, 
at the end of which time, if not before, the pain will have disappeared. 

Artificial Skin.— For Burns, Bruises, Ap.rasions, &c.— Proof 
AGAINST Water. — Take gun cotton and Venice turpentuie, equal 
parts of each, and dissolve them in 20 times as much sulphuric ether, 
dissolving the cotton first, then adding the turpentine ; keep it corked 
tightly. Water does not affect it, hence its value for cracked nipples, 
chapped hands, surface bruises, &c., &c. 

Indian Bals.\3i.— Clear, pale resin, 3 lbs., and melt it, adding 
spirits of turpentine, 1 qt. ; balsam of tola, 1 oz. ; balsam of fir, 4 oz. ; 
oil of hemlock, origanum, with Venice turj^entine, of each, 1 oz. ; 
strained honey, 4 oz. ; mix well, aud bottle. Dose, 6 to 12 drops ; 
for a child of' six, 3 to 5 drops, on a little sugar. The dose can bo 
varied according to the ability of the stomach to bear it, aud the 
necessity of the case. It is a valuable preparation for coughs, inter- 
nal pains, or strams, and works benignly uivjn the kidneys. 

Wens — To Cure. — Dissolve copperas iu water to make it very 
strong ; now take a pin, needle, or sharp knife, and prick or cut tho 
wen in about a dozen places, just sufficient to cause it to bleed ; tlieu 
■wet it well with the copperas water, once daily. 

Bronchocele. — Enlarged Neck. — To Cure.— Iodide of iwtas- 
fiium (often called hydriodate of potash), 3 drs. ; ioduie, 1 dr. ; M-ater 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC 19i» 

2i oz. ; mix and shake a few minutes, find poiir a little into a jiliial 
lor internal use. Dose, 5 to 10 drops before each meal, to be taken iu 
a little water. External Atplicatiox. — "With a feather, wet the 
enlarged neck, from the other bottle, night and morning, until well. 
It will cause the scarf skin to peel off several times before the cure 
is perfect, leaving it tender; but do not omit the application more than 
one day at most, and j-ou may rest assured of a cure, if a cure can be 
performed by any means whatever. 

Daley's Cakminative. — Magnesia, 2 drs. ; oil peppermint, 3 drops ; 
oil nutmeg, 7 drops ; oil anise, 9 drops ; tinct. of castor, 1^ drs. ; tiuct. 
ofa-ssafcctida, 45 drops ; tiuct. of opium, 18 drops ; essence pennyroyal, 
CO drops ; tinct. of cardamons, 95 drops ; peppermint water, 7 oz. ; mix. 

Positive Cure fob Diakkhcea. — Take 2 wine glasses of vinegar, 
and one tablespoonful of salt. Mix the whole thoroughly to dissolve 
the salt ; add 7 to 10 drops of laudanum, according, to the age or 
strength of the patient, and give the whole at one dose. 

Cuke for Ac.ue. — Cut three lemons into thin slices and pound 
them with a mallet, then take enough coffee to make a quart, boil it 
down to a pint and pour it while quite hot over the lemons. Let it 
Bt;ind till cold, then strain through a cloth, and take the whole at one 
dose, immediately after the chill is over, and before the fever comes on. 

To Imtkove the Voice. — Beeswax, 2 drs. ; copaiba balsam, Sdr.**. ; 
powder of liquorice root, 4 drs. ; melt the copaiba balsam with tlio 
wax in a new earthen pipkin ; when melted, remove them from the 
fire, and mix in the powder ; make the pills of 3 grs. each. Two of 
these pills to be taken occasionally, 3 or 4 times a day. Very best laio wu. 

Cure fob Tape Worm. — ^Take at one dose, ether § oz. 2 hours 
after this take castor oil, 1 oz. The worm is discharged entire or al- 
most so, and always with the head intact. 

Necessary Rules for Sleep.— There is no fact more clearly 
established in the physiology of man than this, that the brain expends 
its energies and itself during the hours of walief ulness and that these 
are recuperated during sleep. If the recuperation does not equal the 
expenditure, the brain withers ; this is insanity. Tlius it is in early 
English history, persons who were condemned to death by beiug pre- 
vented from sleeping always died raving maniacs, and those who arc 
starved to death become insane ; the brain is not nourished and they 
can not sleep. The practical inferences are three; 1st. Those who 
think most, who do the most brain work, require the most sleep. 2d. 
The time "saved" from necessary sleep is infallibly destructive to 
mind, body and estate. 3d. Give yourself, your children, your servants, 
give all that are mider you, the fullest amount of sleep they will take, 
by compelling them to go to bed at some regular early hour, and to 
rise in the inorninrj at the moment they aicake ; and, within a fort- 
night. Nature, with almost the regularity of the rising sun, will un- 
loose the bonds of sleep the moment enough repose has been secured 
lor the wants of the system. This is the only safe and efficient rule. 

Signs of Disease in Children. — In the case of a baby not yet 
able to talk, it must cry when it is ill. The colic makes a baby cry 
loud, long, and passionately, and shed tears — stopping for a moment 
and beginning again. 

If the chest is affected, it gives ona shai-p cry, breaking off imme- 
diately, as if crying hurt it. 



196 MEDICAL DErARTMENT, ETC. 

If the head is affected, it cries, in sJiarp, piercing shrieks, "vrith loio 
moaiis and wails between. Or there may be quiet dozing, and start- 
ings between. 

It is easy enough to perceive, where a child is attacked by disease 
tliat there is some change talking pLace ; for either its slviu -will be dry 
and hot, its appetite gone ; it is stupidly sleepy, or fretful and crying ; 
it is thirsty, or pale and languid, or in some way betrays that some- 
thing is wrong. AVhen a child vomits, or has a diarrhoea, or is cos- 
tive f.nd feverish, it is owing to some derangement, and needs atten- 
tion. But these various symptoms may continue for a day or two 
before the nature of the disease can be determined. A warm bath, 
warm drinks, etc., can do no hann, and may help to determine tho 
case. On coming out of the bath, and being well rubbed with tho 
hand, the slun will show symptoms of rash, if it is a skin disease 
which has commenced. By the appearance of the rash, the natuio 
of the disease can be learned. Measles are in patches, dark red, and 
come out first about the face. If scarlet fever is impending, the skin 
will look a deep pink all over the body, though mostly so about tlie 
neck and face. Chicken-pox shows fever, but not so mucl) running 
at the nose, and appearance of cold, as in measles, nor is there a.s 
much of a cough. Besides, the spots are smaller, and do not run 
much together, and are more diffused over the whole surface of tlio 
skin, and enlarge into little blisters in a day or two. 

Let the room where tlie child is sick be shady, quiet, and cool. Bo 
careful not to speak so suddenly as to startle the lialf-sleeping patient 
and handle it with the greatest tenderness when it is necessary to 
move it. If it is the lungs that suffer, have the little patient some- 
■what elevated upon the pillows for easier breathing, and do everthing 
to sooth and make it comfortable, so as not to have it cry, and to tli as 
distress its inflamed lungs. If the child is very weak, do not move it 
too suddenly, as it may be startled into convulsions. In administering 
a bath, the greatest pains must be taken not to frighten the child. 
It should be put in so gradually, and so amused by something placed 
in the water on purpose as to forget its fear ; Iveep up a good supply 
cf fresh air, at a temperature of about C0° Fall. If a hired nurse 
TTiust be had, select if possible a woman of intelligence, gentle and 
loving disposition, kind and amiable manners, and of a most pacific 
imruffled, and even temper. If a being can be got possessed of theso 
angelic quahties, and we believe there are many such, you will bo 
quite safe in intrusting to her care the management of your sick child 
or yourself either, in case of sickness. She should not be under 
twenty-five or over fifty-five, as between these two ages she will, if 
healthy, be in her full strength and capacity. 

Whooping Cough. — To empty the child's stomach by a lobelia 
emetic, is the first step. After this make a sjTup of sugar, ginger- 
root, a little water, and enough lobelia tincture to produce a sliglit 
nausea. This, given two or three times a day, will loosen the cough 
veiy much. See " Whooping Cough Syrup."" 

DiAKRHOEA. — Nothing is better for looseness of the bowels than 
tea made of ground bayberry. Sweeten it well, and give a half- 
teacupful once in two hours, until the child is better. Bathing must 
not be neglected. For Croup Remedy see " Cure for Lockjaw." 

Colic. — This can be cur^ with warm injections of simple eoai)- 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC-' 197 

stids, or warm water with a warming tincture in it."'' A littlo warm 
tea may be given at the same time, and the bowels nibbed. Every 
family shoiSd have a small and lar^e syringe. Nothing is oftencr 
needed, particularly in the care of children. 

Fever. — Where a child has a simple fever from teething or anyi 
other cause not connected with acute disease, give a teaspoouf ul of; 
syrup of rhubarb, a warm injection, and sponge-batha.,-v These will 
generally be all that is needed. 

Rickets and Scrofula. — If children have either of these, or both 
these diseases, a good, nutritive diet is a great essential. Then the 
alkaline-bath, a little lime-water, say a teaspoonful three times a day,' 
and out-door exercise, are the chief remedies. 

Fits — Spasms — When these are brought on by indi.crcption, place the 
child in a warm bath immediately, give warm water, or aI;ibolia 
emetic, rub the skin briskly, etc., to gctiip an action. In brain disease 
the warm water is equally useful. In fact, unless the lit is constitu- 
tional, the warm bath wiU relieve the patient by drawing the blood to 
the surface. 

Enlargement of the Bkain. — Tliis chiefly effects children, and 
consists in an unnatural growth of the brain. The skull may grow 
with it, and there be no symtoms of disease, though children with this 
largo brain are apt to die of some brain disease. The symptoms of 
enlargement of the brain are, dullness of intellect, indifference to ex- 
ternal objects, irritable temper, inordinate appetite, giddiness, and 
habitual headache. Sometimes there are convulsions, epileptic fits, 
and idiocy. There is also a pecular projection of the parietal bones 
in this disease. 

Treatment. — As mnch as possible, repress all exercise of the mind. 
Do not suffer the child to go to school ; but put it to the most active 
and muscular exercise in the open air. The moment there is any heat 
in the top of the head, apply cold water, ice, or cold evaporating lo- 
tions. The diet should be very simple, bread and milk only, if, as the 
child grows up, the signs of the disease mcrease. 

Water in the Head. — Another disease of children, and especiallj. 
of scrofulous children. It is inflammatory, and should be early no- 
ticed. 

Symptoms. — Capricious appetite, a foul tongue, offensive breath en- 
larged, and some times tender belly, torpid bowels, stools light-colored 
from having no bile, or dark from vitiated bile, fetid, sour-smelling, 
slimy and lumpy. The child grows pale and thin ; and is heavy, lan- 
guid, dejected ; it is fretful, irritable, imeasy, and apt to be totteruig 
in its gait. 

The disease may begin, after these symptoms, by pains in the head, 
becoming more severe and frequent, shari> and shooting, causing tho 
child to waken and shriek out. As the drowsy state advances, the 
shriekmg gives place to moaning. There is great stiffness in the back 
of the neck, pain in the limbs, tenderness in the scalp, vomiting, sigh- 
ing, intolerance of light, knitting of the brows, and increased disturb- 
ance of the stomach and bowels. This may last from ten to four- 
teen days, the patient growing more weak and peevish. Another 
lorm of attack is marked by acute pain in the head, high fever, con- 
vulsions, flushed face, brilliant eyes, iatolerance of light and sound, 
pain, tenderness in the belly, Btup©r, gi-eat i'rrit;tbility of stomach, 



198 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 

causing retching and vomiting on every attempt t© sit up. Tlie third 
mode of attack is very insidious — the early symptoms being so mild 
as hardly to be noticed. li\ this case, the convulsions or palsy como 
suddenly, without notice, briugmg swift and imexpected de.struc- 
tion. In tlie first stage of the disease there is increased sensibility ; 
in the second decreased sensibility ; in the tliird, palsy, convulsions, 
{squinting of the eyes, rolling of the head, stupor, and a' rapid, thread- 
like pulse. 

Treatment— In the first stage, purging is very important, and 
must be continued for three or four days. An excellent purgativo 
is this : pulverised scammony, six grains ; croton oil, four drops ; 
prdverized loaf sugar, sixteen teaspoonfuls. Rub well together in a 
mortar. Give one teaspoouful every hour or two, till it operates. 
Apply cold water or ice to the head. In the second stage put blisters 
upon the back of the neck, and one on the bowels, if very tender. 
In the third stage use tlie warm bath, also alteratives and diuretics. 
For an alterative, use iodide of potassium, one dram ; water, half an 
ounce ; mix. Thirty drops to a child seven years old every hour. 
For a diuretic, use tincture of digitalis, one ounce ; syrup of squills, 
one ounce ; mix. Ten drops for a child seven years old every four 
hours. The patient should be kept in a dark room, away from all 
noise and excitement, and should lie upon a hair mattress, with his 
head somewhat elevated. The diet in the first stage snould be noth- 
ing more tlian gruel ; after that, more nourishing, but easy of diges- 
tion, such as beef-tea, plain chicken-broth, animal -jellies, etc. At 
the same time the patient should be supiwrted by tlie cautious use of 
Tvine-whey, valerian, or ten drojis of aromatic spirits of ammonia 
every four hours. 

Mumps. — This disease, most common among cnildren, begins witn 
soreness and stiffness in the side of the neck. Soon a swelling of the 
paratoid gland takes place, which is painful and continues to increase 
for four or five days, sometimes making it difficult to swallow, or 
open tlie mouth. The swelling sometimes comes on one side at a 
time, but commonly upon both. There is often heat and sometimes 
^ever, with a diy sldn, quick pulse, furred tongue, constipated bowels, 
and scanty and high-colored urine. The disease is contagious. 

Treatment. — Keep the face and neck warm, and avoid taking cold, 
Drink warm herb teas, and if the sjTnptoms are severe, 4 to G grs. 
of Dover's jwwder ; or if there is costiveness, a slight physic, aud 
observe a very simple diet. If the disease is aggravated by taking 
cold, and is very severe, or is translated to other glands, physic must 
be used freely, leeches applied to the sweUiug, or cooling poultices. 
Sweating must be resorted to in this case. " 

Scarlet Fever is an acute inflammation of the sKin, both exter- 
nal and internal, and connected with an infectious fever. 

SumDtoms. — The fever shows itself between two and ten days after 
exposure. On the second day of the fever the eruption comes out ia 
minute pimples, which are either clustered together, or spread over 
the surface in a general bright scarlet color. The disease begins with 
languor, pains in the head, back, and limbs, drowsiness, nausea and 
chills, followed by heat and tliirst. When the redness appears the 
pulse is quick, and the patient is restless, anxious and often delirious. 
The eyes are red, the face swollen, and the tongue covered in the 



MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 199 

Buddle ■vrith wliite mucus, through -which are seen elevated points of 
extreme redness. The tonsils are swollen, and the throat is red. 
By the evening of the tliird or fourth day the redness has reached its 
height, and the skin becomes moist, when the scarf-skin begins to 
come off in scales. 

In this fever the flesh puffs up so as to distend the fingers, and 
disfigure the face. As it progresses the coating suddenly comes off 
the tongue, leaving it and tlie whole mouth raw and tender. Tho 
throat is very much swollen and inflamed, and ulcers form on the 
tonsils. Tlie eustachian tube which extends up to the ear, the glands 
under the ear and jaw, sometimes inflame and break ; and the ab- 
scesses formed in the ear frequently occasion deafness, more or less 
difllcult to cure. The symptoms of this disease mav be known from 
that of measles by the absence of cough ; by the finer rash ; by its 
scarlet color ; by tlie rash appearing on the second instead of tho 
fourth day ; and by the ulceration of the throat. 

Treatment. — Inordinary cases the treatment required is very simple. 
The room where the patient lies should be kept cool, and the bed- 
covering light. The whole body should be sponged with cool water as 
often as it becomes hot and dry, and cooling drmks should be admin- 
istered. A few drops of belladonna, night and morning, is all that is 
needed. 

If there is much fever and soreness of throat, give the following 
tincture of hellebore often enough to keep down the pulse : — 

Tincture of American hellebore, 1 dr. ; tincture of black cohosh, 2 
oz. ; mix. Take 1 teaspoonf ul 3 to G times a day. 

It would also be useful to commence treatment with an emetic • 
and to soak the feet and hands in hot water containing a littlo 
mustard or cayeime pepper ; continuing this bath 20 minutes, twice 
a day, for 2 or 3 days. The cold stage being passed, and the fever 
having set in, warm water may be used without the mustard or 
pepper. If the head is affected, put drafts upon tlie feet ; and if the 
bowels be costive, give a mild physic. Solid food should not bo 
allowed ; but when the fever sets in, cooling drinks, such as lemonade, 
tamarind-water, rice-water, flaxseed tea, then gruel, or cold water 
may be given in reasonable quantities. To stimulate tho skin, 
muriatic acid, 45 drops in a tumbler filled with water and sweetened, 
and given in doses of a teaspoonful, is a good remedy. 

Where the disease is very violent, and the patient inclines to sinlc 
immediately ; where typhoid symptoms appear and there is great 
prostration ; the eruption strikes in ; the skm changes to a mahogany 
color ; the tongue is a deep red, or has on it a dark brown fur, and 
the ulcers in the throat become putrid, the treatment must be differ- 
ent from the above. In this case it must be tonic. Quinia must bo 
given freely ; and wuie whey, niised with toast-water, will be useful. 
Quinia is made as follows : — Sulphate of quinine, 1 scruple ; alcohol, 
4 ozs. ; sulphuric acid, 5 drops ; Madeira wine, 1 quart ; mix. Two 
wine-glassfuls a day. Tiucturc of cayenne, in sweetened water, may 
be given in small doses. Gargles are also necessary. A good one is 
made of pulverized cayenne, 1 dram ; salt, one dram ; boiling water, 
1 gill. ^lix, and let them stiind 15 minutes. Then add 1 gill vinegar. 
Let it stand an hour and strain. Put a teaspoonful in t-lie child's 
mouth once in an hour. A warm batli should be used daily as soow 



200 MEDICAL DEPARTMENT, ETC. 

as the skin begins to peel off, to prevent dropsy. If dropsy sets in, 
the bath once in 3 days is suflicient, and sweating should Ije promoted 
by giving the tincture of Virginia snake-root and similar articles ; a 
generous diet should be allowed at the same time, to bring up the 
child's strength 

Measles is an acute inflammation of the skin, internal and exter- 
nal, combined with an infectious fever. 

Symptoms. — Chills succeeded bj' great heat, languor, and drowsi- 
ness, pains in the head, back, and limbs, quick pulse, soreness of 
throat, thirst, nausea and vomiting, a dry cough, and high-colored 
lu-iue. These symptoms increase in violence for fotir days. The eyes 
are inflamed and weak, and the nose pours forth a watery secretion, 
with frequent sneezing. There is considerable inflammation in the 
larynx, windpipe, and bronchial tubes, with soreness of the breast and 
hoarseness. About the fourth day the skin is covered with a breaking 
out which produces heat and itching, and is red in spots, upon the 
face first, gradually spreading over the whole body. It goes off in 
the same way, from the face first and then from the body, and the 
hoarseness and other symptoms decline with it; at last the outside 
skin peels off in scales. 

Treatment. — In a mild form, nothing is required but a light diet, 
slightly acid drinks, and flax seed or slippery elm tea. Warm herb 
teas, and frequent sponge baths with tepid water, sen-e to allay the 
fever; care should be taken not to let the patient take cold. If the 
fever is very high, and prevents the rash coming out, a shght dose of 
Baits, or a nauseating dose of ipecac., lobelia, or hive-syrup should bo 
given, and followed by teasponful doses of compoimd tincture of 
V irgiuia snake-root imtil the fever is allayed. If the patient from any 
derangement takes on a low ty]ihoid type of fever, and the rash does 
not come out imtil the seventh day, arid is then of a dark and livid 
color, tonics and stimulants must be given, and expectoration promo- 
ted by some suitable remedy. There is always danger of the lungs 
being left in an inflamed state after the measles, unless the greatest 
care is taken not to suffer the patient to take cold. Should there bo 
much pain, and a severe cough, this must be treated as a separate 
disease, with other remedies. t .. • 

TvPHOiD Feyer. — Symptoms. — ^Is generally preceded by several days 
of languor, low spirits, and indisposition to exertion. There is also, 
usually, some pain in the back and head, loss of appetite, and 
drowsiness, though not rest. The disease shows itself by a chill. 
During the first week there is increased heat of the surface, frequent 
pulse, furred tongue, restlessness, sleeplessness, headache, and pain in 
the back ; sometimes diarrhoea and swelling of the belly, and some- 
times nausea and vomiting. 

The second week is often distinguished by small, rose-colored spots 
on the belly, and a crop of little watery pimples on the neck and chest, 
having the appearance of minute drops of sweat; the tongue is dry 
and black, or red and sore ; the teeth are foul ; there may be delirium 
and dullness of hearing; and the symptoms every way are more 
serious than during the first week. Occasionally, the bowels are at 
this period perforated or ate through by ulceration, and the patient 
suddenly sinks. If the disease proceeds imfavorably into the third 
•week, there is low, muttering delirium; great c^diaustion; sliding 



GROCEKS AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 201 

down of the patient toward the foot of the bed; twitching of tho 
mnscles, bleeding from the bowels; and red or puiiDle spots upon tho 
skin. If, on the other hand, the patient improves, the coimtenance 
brightens up, the pulse moderates, the tongue cleans, and the dis- 
charges look healthy. 

Treatment. — Give the patient good air, and frequent spongings with 
water, cold or tepid, as most agreeable. Keep the bowels in order 
and be more afraid of diarrhoeiv than costiveness. Diarrhoja should 
be restrained by a little brandy, or by repeated doses of Dover's 
powder. For costiveness, give mild injections, made slightly loosen- 
ing by castor oil, or common molasses. To keep down the fever, and 
produce perspiration, give tincture of veratrum viride, 10 drops every 
hour. If the bowels are swelled, relieve them by hot fomentations of 
liops and vinegar. If the pain in the head is very severe and constant, 
let the hair be cut short, and the head bathed frequently with cold 
water. Give light nourishment, and if the debility is great, broth and 
^vine will be needed. Cleanse the mouth with very weak tea — old 
hyson. If the fever runs a low course, and the patient is very weak, 
quinine may be given from the beginning. Constant care and good 
nursing are very important. 

Typhus fever is distinguished from typhoid by there being no marked 
disease of the bowels in tyi^hus. 



GROCERS AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 

Cheap Vinegar, — Mix 25 gals, of warm rain water, with 4 gals, 
molasses and 1 gal. yeast, and let it ferment ; you will soon have tho 
best of vinegar; keep adding these articles in these proportions as the 
stock is sold. 

For Gkocers' Sales — Take three barrels ; let one of them bo 
your vinegar barrel ; fill this last up before it is quite empty, with 
molasses, 2 gals. ; soft water, 11 gals ; yeast. 1 qt. ; keeping these pro- 
iwrtions in filling up the whole three barrels; sell the vinegar out of 
your old vinegar barrel as soon as it is ready, which will be in a short 
time ; when nearly empty, fill it up with tho fluid as before, and pass 
on to sell out of the next barrel; by the time it is disposed of go on to 
the last ; then go back to the first, filling up your barrels in every 
case when nearly empty, and you will always keep a stock of good 
vinegar on hand unless your sales are very large ; in which case, fol- 
low the next process. Have the bung-holes open in the barrels to 
admit air. The free admission of warm air hastens the process. 

Vinegar in Three Days. — Get a quantity of maple, beech, or 
basswood chips or shavings, and soak these in good vinegar, for two or 
three days. With these chips you will fill a barrel, which has been 
pierced with a large number of inch noles all around the sides for tho 
free admission of air among the chips (the more holes in tho barrel 
the better, for the more air the sooner the vinegar will be made) cut 
another barrel in two halves, place one half below the barrel with th« 



202 GuocERs AKD confectioners' receipts. 

chips and the other half above it. The top tab must have its bottom 
pierced with a number of gimlet holes, in which are placed several 
threads of twine, to conduct the vinegar evenly over the chips. The 
liquid di-ams down slowly through the chips and out of a faucet near 
the bottom of the barrel into the lower tub. It should run through 
every four hours, and then be baled or pumped back. Directions to 
make vinegar from sugar : Use 1^ lb. to each gal. of water ; of tho 
dregs of molasses barrels, use 2 lb. to each gal. of water ; small beer, 
lager beer, ale, &c., which have become sour, make good vinegar by- 
being reduced with watfer ; small beer needs but little water, lager beer 
as much water as beer ; to 2 gals, cider, add i gal. of water ; you caa 
also make excellent vinegar out of the artificial cider mentioned below. 
Use, in every case, soft water to make vinegar, and use 2 qts, yejist 
to every barrel It makes much quicker if the fluid is slightly 
lukewarm. Leach either of these preparations through the shavings. 
This process should be attended to during warm weather, or iu 
a room where a pretty high temperature is kept up, as it wiU not 
Tvork otherwise. 

Excellent Vinegar, CnE.-vp. — Acetic acid, 5 lbs. ; molasses, 2 
gal. ; yeast, 2 qts, ; put them into a forty -gal. cask, and fill it up vrHh 
rain water ; stir it up, and let it stand one to three weeks, letting it 
have all the air ix)ssible, and you will have good viuegar, K wanted 
etronger, add more molasses. Should you at any time have weak 
vmegar on hand, put molasses into it to set it working. This wiU 
soon correct it. Make in a warm place. 

White Wine Vinegar. — Mash up 20 lbs. raisins, and add 10 gals, 
■water ; let it stand in a warm place for one month, and you will have 
pure white wine vinegar. The i-aisius may be used a second tune tho 
same way. 

To Preserve Eggs. — To each patent pailful of water, add 2 pts. 
of fresli slacked lime, and 1 pt. of common salt ; mix well. Fill your 
barrel half full with this fluid, put your eggs down in it any time af- 
ter June, and they will keep two years if desired. 

Liquid Mccilage.— Fuie clear glue 1 lb. ; gum ai-abic, 10 oz. ; 
water, 1 qt. ; melt by heat in a glue kettle or water bath ; wlien en- 
tirely melted, add slowly 10 ozs. strong nitric acid, set off to cool. 
Theu bottle, adding in a couple of cloves to each bottle. 

Candied Lemon Peel. — Take lemon peels and boil them in syrup ; 
then take them out, and dry. 

E.A.KING Powder. — Tartaric acid, 5 lbs. ; pure sesquicarbonate of 
soda. 8 lbs. ; potato farina, or other Hour or starch, 16 lbs. Dry 
Bcparately by gentle heat. Mix this perfectly in a dry room, pass 
the mixture through a sieve and put up at once into damp proof 
hard pressed packages. To use, 1 or 2 teaspoonfuls are mixed with 
dry flour, which i.-< then mixed with cold water, and baked imme- 
diately. Anothei: — Tartaric acid, 1 lb. ; pure bicarbonate of soda 2 
lbs. ; ])otato farma, 3 lb. Treat the same as the last. 

To Make an Ice Citest.— Take 2 drygoods boxes, one of which is 
enough smaller than the other to leave a space of about 3 inches all 
around when it is placed inside. Fill the space between the two -with 
sawdust packed closely, and cover with a hea-ry lid made to fit neat- 
ly inside the larger box. Insert a small pijie in tho bottom of tho 
chest to cany oli' tho Avater from the meltiug ice. For family use or 



GROCERS AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 203 

pfTOcers, Tiso this -will prove as serviceable as refrigerators that cost 
twenty times as much. 

So.\p Manttfacture. — When wood ashes cannot conveniently be 
had it is usual for soap manufacturers to use equal quantities of re- 
ceutlj'^ slacked lime, and sal soda, soda ash or caustic soda, using water 
enough to give the ley sufficieut strength to support a fresh egg. It 
mustbe very strong. The solution cjin be effected by heat, or stir- 
ring, or by both methods, finally drawing off, or bailing out the liquid 
clear of sediment, previously throwing in salt and giving time for the 
sediment to settle ; 1 ton of yellow soap will require about 1000 lbs. 
tallow and 350 lbs. resin, with ley sufficient. The same quantity of 
white soap will require nearly 1300 lbs. tallow, boiling in every case 
with the proper quantity of ley, until it foi-ms a perfectly homoge- 
neous mass by a perfect blending of the component parts all togetlier, 
when it is poured out into suitable frames to harden and cool. It is 
afterwards cut up into proper sized bars by means of wires to which 
liandles are attached and then piled up to dry. 

Tkansparent Soap. — Slice G lbs. nice yellow bar-soap into shav- 
ings ; put into a brass, tin or copper kettle, with alcohol, * gal., heat- 
ing gradually over a slow fire, stirring till all is dissolved ; then add 
1 oz. sassafras essence, and stir until all is mixed ; now pour into 
pans about 1^ inches deep, and when cold cut into square bars the 
length or width of the pan, as desired. 

English Bak-Soap. — Six gals, soft water ; G lbs. good stone lime; 
20 lbs. sal-soda ; 4 oz. borax ; 15 lbs. fat (tallow is best) ; 10 lbs. pul- 
verized resin, and 4 oz. beeswax ; put the water in a kettle on the 
fire, and when nearly boiling add tlielime and soda ; when these aro 
dissolved, add the borax ; boil gently, and stir until all is dissolved ; 
then add the fat, resin, and bees-wax : boil all gently imtil it shows 
flaky on the stick, then pour into moulds. 

Best Soft Soap. — Mix 10 lbs. pofcish in 10 gals, warm soft water 
over night ; in the morning boil it, adding G lbs. grease ; then put all 
in a barrel, adding 15 gals, soft water. 

Soap WITHOUT Lye or Grease. Li a clean pot put ^ lb. home- 
made hard or mush soap, and h lb. sal-soda, and 5 pts. of "soft water. 
Boil the mixture 15 mmutes, and j-ou will have 5 lbs. good soap for 
7i cents. Uard Soap. — ^Take 5 lbs. hard soap, or 7 lbs. soft soap, and 
4lb8. sal-soda, and 2 oz. borax, and 1 oz. hartshorn ; boil one quarter 
hour with 22 qts. Avatcr ; add, to harden, h lb. resin. 

German Yellow Soap. — Tallow and'sal-soda, of each 112 lbs., 
resin, 56 lbs. ; stone lime, 28 lbs. ; palm oil, 8 oz. ; soft water, 28 gals. 
Put soda, lime, and water into a kettle and boil, stirring well ; then 
let it settle, and pour off the lye. In another kettle, melt the tallow, 
resin, and palm oil ; ha-sing it'hot, the lye being also boiling hot, mix 
all together, stirring well and the work is done. For small qttantilies. 
— ^Tallow and sal-soda each, 1 lb. ; resin, 7 oz. ; stone lime, 4 oz. ; 
palm oil, 1 oz. ; soft water, 1 qt. 

IIari> Soap with Laud. — Sal-soda and lard, each G lbs. ; stono 
lime, 3 lbs. ; soft water, 4 gals. ; dissolve the lime and soda in the 
water by boiling, stirring, settling, and pouring off ; then return to 
the kettle (bra.ss or copper), and add tliolard, and boil ittill it becomes 
eoap ; tlicn pour into a dish or moulds ; and, when cold, cut into bars, 
and dry it 



204 GR0CEK3 AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 

"VThite Hard Soap Tvirn Tallow. — Fresh slacked lime, sal-soda, 
and tallow, of each, 2 lbs. ; dissolve the soda in 1 gal. boiliug soft 
water ; now mix in the lime, stirring occasionally for a few hoars ; 
after which, let it settle, pouring off the clear liquor, and boiling the 
tillow therein until it is aU dissolved ; cool it in a flat box or pan, cut 
into bars or cakes as desired. It may be perfumed with sassafras oil 
or any other perfume desired, stirring it in when cool. One hundred 
voiinds soap, very cheap. — Potash, G lbs. ; lard, 4 lbs. ; resin, J lb. 
Eeat up the resin, mix all together, and set aside for five days ; then 
put the whole into a 10-gal. cask of water, and stir twice a day for 
ten days, when it is ready for use. 

Variegated Soaps. — Soft water 3qts., nice white bar soap 31bs., 
sal-soda 2 ozs. ; Chinese vermilion and Chinese blue, of each about 
7 grs., oil sas.safras ^oz. ; shave the soap into thin slices and add it to 
the water as it begins to boil, when dissolved set it off the fire, take 
out a cup of soap and stir in the vermillion, take out another cup of 
soap and stir in the blue ; then pour in the contents of the first cup, 
giving two or three turns only with a stirring stick, then add the other 
cupful in the same way, then pour into moulds, or into a proper box, 
and when cold it can be cut into bars ; it will present a beautiful 
streaked appearance. 

Camphor Soap. — Curd soap 28 lbs., otto of rosemary l|lbs. Reduce 
the camphor to powder, add one oimce almond oil, then sift it, when 
the soap is melted and ready to turn out, add the camphor and rose- 
mary. White Windsor Soap. — Curd soap 1 cwt., marine soap 21 lbs. 
oil soap 14 lbs., oil caraway, l^lbs., oil thyme and rosemary of eacli ^ 
lb. oils of cassia and cloves of each | lb. Brown Windsor Soap. 
Curd soap '^ cwt., marine soap ^ cwt., yeUow soap J cwt., oil soap J cwt. 
Brown coloring (caramel) ^ pt. oils caraway, cloves, thyme, cassia, petit 
grain and French lavender of each 2 oz. Sayid Soap.—Gnid soap 7 lbs. 
marine soap Tibs., sifted silver sand 28 lbs., oils thyme, cassia, cara- 
■\vay, and French lavender of each 2 oz. 

Solid Candles from lard. — Dissolve ^ lb. alum and i lb. salt- 
petre in ^ pt. water on a slow fire ; then take 3 lbs. of lard cut into 
small pieces, and put into the pot with this solution, stirring it con- 
stantly over a very moderate fire until the lard is all dissolved ; then 
let it simmer until all steam ceases to rise and remove it at once from 
the fire. If you leave it too long it will get discolored. These cau- 
dles are harder and better than tiillow. 

Tallow — To Cleanse and Bleach. — Dissolve alum, 5 lbs., in 
■water, 10 gals. , by boiling ; and when it is all dissolved, add tallow, 
20 lbs. ; continue the boiling for an hour, constantly stirring and 
skimming ; when sufficiently cool to allow it, strain through thick 
muslin ; then set aside to harden ; when taken from the water, lay 
it by for a short time to drip. 

Imitation Wax Candles. — Purify melted tallow by throwing in 
powdered quick lime, then add two parts wax to one of tallow, and 
a most beautiful article of candle, resemblmg wax, wiU be tlie result. 
Dip the wicks in lime water and saltpetre on making. To a gallon of 
water add 2 oz. saltpetre and ^ lb. of lime ; it improves the light, 
and prevents the tallow from running. 

Adamantine Cantjles from Tallow. — Melt together 10 oz. mut- 
ton tixllow ; camphor, i oz. ; bees-wax, 4 oz. ; alum, 2 oz. 



TABLES, AC, FOR MERCHANTS. 



205 



Table of Miscellaneous "NVeights and Measures, 



Apples, dried, bush, about 25 lbs. 
Almonds, sei'on of, 1 to 2 cwt. 
Beef, firkin, loO lbs. 

•' or Pork, barrel, 200 lbs. 
Buckwheat, bush, usually 50 lbs. 
Beans, white, bushel, 60 lbs. 
Butter, barrel, 2i:4 lbs. 

" lirkin, 50 lbs. 

'< tub, 84 lbs. 
Coffee, tierce of, 5 to 7 cwt. 

" bags of Kio, about 162 Iba. 

" " St. Domingo, about 130 
lbs. 

" pocket of Java, about 50 lbs. 

" bale of ;Mocha, 2 to 2i'i cwt. 
Clover seed, cask, 7 to 9 cwt. 

" " bushel, usually 60 lbs. 

Corn, per bushel, in most places, 56 

lbs. 
Cement, barrel, 300 lbs- 
Cotton, bale, N. Orleans and Alaba^ 
ma, 400 to 300 lbs. 

" " East Indies, 320 to 380 

lbs. 

" " Carolina, Georgia & "West 
Indies, 300 to 312 lbs. 

" " Brazilian 160 to 200 lbs. 

Dried Peaches, bush, usu.ally 33 lbs. 
n.ax, bale, Russian, 5 to Gcwt. 
Fish, quintal, 112 lbs. 

" barrel, pickled, 200 lbs. 
Flaxseed, bush, in most places, 55 

lbs. 
Flour, bbl, net, 196 lbs, 

" including bbl., 216 lbs. 

'' sack, 5 bushels, 280 lbs. 
Figs, drum, 24 lbs. 
Ginger, ground, box, 24 lbs. 
Honey, gal., 12 lbs. 
Hops, bag of, about 214 cwt. 
Hempseed, bush, in m'ost places 44 

lbs. 
Indian Meal, hogshead, 800 lbs. 
Lime, bbl., 225 lbs. 
Lemons, box, Sicily, about 350 lbs. 
Mace, case, about 1^4 cwt. 



Jlolasses, hhd. from 130 to 150 gals. 
Oats, per bush., 32 lbs. 
Oranges, box, double O, 300 to 350 
lbs. 
" '« single O, 175 to 350 

lbs. 
Rye, bush, in most places, 5G lbs. 
S.ilmon, box. 120 to 130 lbs. 
Salt, hlid., 3 bush. » 

" bbl., 31/2 bush, 

" bushel of, fine ground, 70 lbs. 
Sugar, bbl,, 200 to 250 lbs. 

" box, 400 to 500 lbs. 
Soap, bbl, 256 lbs, 

" box, 75 lbs. 
Tea, chest, Congou, 75 lbs, 

" " Hyson, 60 to 84 lbs. 

" Vj, about 40 lbs. net. 
Timothy Seed, bushel, 45 lbs. 
"Wheat, bushel, 60 Us, 

Beer, hhd., 54 gals. 

Butt of Sheri-y, 108 gals. 

Brandy, puncheon of, 110 to 120 gals. 

" hhd., f.5 to 60 gals. 
Claret, hhd., 46 gals. 
Puncheon of Scotch Whiskey, 110 to 
130 gals, 
" Rum, 100 to 110 gals. 
Pipe of Port, 115 gals. 
" Maderia, 92 gals, 
" Tenoriffe, 100 pals, 
A hogshead is one-half, a quarter 
cask is one-fourth, and an oc- 
tiive is one-eighth of a pipe, butt, 
or puncheon, 

British Measuhes of Volume. 

The Imperial gallon measures 277- 
274 cubic inches, and contains 10 
lbs avoirdupois of distilled 
■water at 32° Fahr, 

The Ale gallon is 282 cubic inches, 
and contains 10.2 lbs. avoirdupois 
of distilled water. 



The wine gallon of 231 cubic ins. containing 8.355 lbs. avoirdupois of dis- 
tilled water, is the government or customs gallon of the United States, 
and the legal gallon of each State in which no law exists fixing a State or 
statute gallon, and the Standard U.S. bushel is the If'inchenter, contain- 
ing 2150.42 cubic inches, or 77.627413 lbs. avoirdupois of distilled water. 

The Imperial t;w/ie/=2218. 192 cubic ins. The heaped bushel=19.5 ins. 
diameter, cone 6 ins. higli=2815.4872 cubic ins. For Orain—S bushel8=. 
1 quarter, 1 quarter= 10.2694 cubic feet. Coal or Heaped vieasure—Z 
bushels=l sack, 12 sackB=l chaldron ; 1 chaldron=58.656 cubic feet and 
weighs 3136 lbs. 1 stone=14 lbs. 1 Quarter is equal to 8i/i U. S. bushels 
1 sack flour=:5 bushs.=2S0 lbs. Anthracite coal per cubic ft. weighs 90 to 
102 lbs. Bituminous coal, per cubic ft- 79 to 82 lbs. Coal as conventional' 



206 TABLES, AC, FOR MERCHANTS. 

ly purcha8ed=43.56 cubic ft. to a ton (or about 28 bushels and 5 pecks), in 
the U. S., and is bought wholesale by the dealer at 2240 lbs. per ton, and 
retailed at 2000 lbs. In commerce, 1 ton of flour is 8 sacks, and 1 ton of 
potatoes 10 bushels. The weight and measures in the Dominion of Can- 
ada are the same as those of Great Britain, but the United States bushel 
and gallon are most in use. The dimensions of a barrel should be, diam. 
of head, 17 ins., do. at bung, 19 ins.'; length, 28 ins- ; volume 7689 cub. ins. 
A tun is 2 pipes, 4 hogsheads, 3 puncheons, 8 barrels, or 252 gals. 

Quantity of Goods estimated to compose a Ton in calcula- 
ting Freights by Water. — Lemons, 20 boxes ; Raisins, 20 casks; do., 
80 boxes ; do., 160 half boxes ; do., 320 quarter boxes ; Almonds, 16 frails ; 
Grapes, 40 kegs ; Wine, Malaga, 8 quarter casks ; ditto, 14 Indian barrels ; 
Cassia, 25 piculs ; Jute, 4 bales ; Linseed, 1600 lbs., or sy^ bags per ton; 
Ginger, 110 lbs.; Twine, 890 lbs.; Matting, 4-4, 8% rolls of 40 yds. ; do., 5-4, 

7 rolls of 40 yds. ; do., 6-4, 5% rolls of 40 yards ; Gunny bags, large, 425 ; 
medium do., 500 ; small do., 625 ; Saltpetre, 11 to 12 bags per ton of 2240 lbs. 

^;E^Y York Freights.— Quantity of Goods avhich compose a 
Ton. — Extract from the Bye-Laxca of the New York Chamber of Commerce. 
In freighting vessels by the ton, in the absence of a definite agreement 
between the owner of the vessel and freighter of the goods, ihe following 
regulations shall be the standard of computation : That the articles the 
InUk ofu-hick shall compose a Ton, to equal a Ton oflieavy materials, shall 
be in weight as follows. Coffee in casks, 1568 lbs. ; Cotfee in bags, 1830 
lbs. ; Cocoa in casks, 1120 lbs. ; Cocoa in b.igs, 1307 lbs. ; Pimento in casks, 
952 lbs. ; Pimento in bags, 1110 lbs. ; I>rj' hides, 10 cwt. ; Chinese raw silk, 

8 cwt. ; Bohea tea, net, 10 cwt. ; Green teas, 8 cwt. ; Ship-bread, bulk, 8 
cwt. ; Ship-bread, bags, 7 cwt. ; Ship-bread, casks, 6 cwt. ; Grain, Peas, or 
Beans in casks, 22 bushels ; Grain, in bulk, 36 bushels ; European salt, 31 
bushels ; West India salt, 31 bushels ; Sea coal, 29 bushels ; Tobacco, 9 
hhds. ; Pig and Bar iron, Potashes, Sugar, Logwood, Fustic, Jsicaragu? 
wood and Heavy Dye-woods, Rice, Honey, Copper ore, and all otlief 
heavy goods, 20 "cwt.:=l ton ; Coffee, cocoa, and dried codfish in bulk, 11 
cwt.=l ton ; Dried Codfish, in casks of any size, 12 cwt.=l ton ; Oil, Wine, 
Brandy, or any kind of liquor, reckoning the full contents of tlie cask, wine 
measures 200 gals.=l ton. Mahogany, Square timber. Oak Plank, Pine and 
other boards. Beavers, Furs, Peltry, Beeswax, Cotton. AVool, and ale 
of all kinds, 40 cubic ft.=l ton. Flour, in bbls. of 196 lbs. each 8 bbls.= 
1 ton; Beef, Tallow, Pickled fish, Pitch, Tar, and Turpentine, 6 bbls. = 1 ton. 

A Car-load. — As a general rule the following quantities constitute 
a car-load tlirouijhout Canada and the United States, viz. : 20,000 lbs. 
or 70 bbls. of salt, 70 of lime, 70 of flour, GO of whiskey, 200 .sacks of 
flour, 6 cords of hard wood, 7 of soft wood, 16 liead of horses, 18 to 20 
head'of cattle, 50 to (iO head of hogs, 80 to 100 head of sheep, 9,000 
feet of solid boards, 17,000 feet of siding, 13,000 feet of flooring, 40,000 
Bhiugles, one-half less of hard lumber, one-fourth less of RTcen lum- 
ber, one-tenth less of joists, scantling and all other large timber, 340 
bushels of wheat, 360 of corn, G80 of oats, 400 of barley, SCO of flax-seed, 
360 of apples 430 of Irish potatoes, 356 of sweet potatoes, 1,000 bushels 
of bran. 

Exchange on England. 

Exchange is the method of adjusting accounts or paying debts, when 
the debtor and creditor are distant from each other, by means of an order 
or draft called a hill of exchange, so as to avoid the transmission of either 
money or goods ; for example, A of New York wishing to pay a debt to B, 
of London, pays an equivalent amount to C, of New York, who has a 
debtor, D, in London ; and A receives from C an order, addressed to D, 
requesting him to pay the amount to B. This is sent in a letter to B, who 
presents it to D for acceptance or payment. Thus the debtor in one place 
16 substituted for the debtor in another, and two accounts may be adjust- 
ed at the same time by the simple transmission of a letter. Par of ex' 



TABLES, &C., FOR MERCHANTS. 



207 



change, is the equivalency of a certain amount of tlie currency of one 
country to the cunency of another, the currencies of both being of the 
precise weight and purity fixed by their respective mints. Thus accord- 
ing to the mint regulations of England and France, £1 sterling is equal 
to 25 francs, I'O centimes, which is consequently said to be the par between 
London and Paris. Exchange is made to diverge from par, either by de- 
preciation of the currency in either country below the mint standard, or 
by the difference in the amounts of indebtedness between one country 
and another, called tlie balance of trade, which effects the relative de- 
mand for bills of exchange. Thus in the following table, the present 
standard value of £1 stg. in the United States, being $4.84.4, when ex- 
change is at 9 per cent., it is then at par ; if higher than 9, it is above par, 
if less than 9, it is below, as shown by the table. 

EXCHANGE TABLE. 



$4.66.7 
4.68.0 
4.70.0 
4.71.1 
4.72.2 
4.73.3 
4.74.4 
4.75.6 
4.76.7 
4.77.8 



5 per cent. 
5% •' 
5% " 

6 " 

6V4 " 

ey, " 

6% " 

7 " 

71/4 " 



7% per cent. 


$4.78.9 


8 " 


4.80.0 


8V4 " 


4.81.1 


8V2 " 


4.82.2 


8% « 


4.i?.3.3 


9 


4.84.4 


9V4 " 


4.85.6 


91/2 " 


4. 80. 7 


9% " 


4.87.8 



10 per cent. 
IOV4 " 
IOV2 " 
103^ " 

11 " 

nV4 " 

11V2 " 

1134 " 

12 " 



88.9 

90.0 
91.1 
92.2 
93.3 
94.4 
95.6 
96.7 
97.8 



The following Table exhibits the Legal EQUivALE>rs of 
BinTisH Money in American Dollars and Cents. 



s. 


i c. m. 


S. 
11 


$ c. m. 


£ 

1 


$ c. 


£ 


$ c. 


£ 
21 


$ c. 


£ 


$ c. 


£ 
41 


$ c. 


1 


24.2 


2.66.2 


4 84 


11 


53 24 


101 64 


31 


150 04 


198 44 


2 


48.4 


12 


2.90.4 


2 


9 68 


12 


58 08 


22 


106 48 


.32 


1.'54 88 


42 


203 28 


3 


72.6 


13 


3.14.6 


3 


14 52 


13 


62 92 


23 


ill 32 


.33 


159 72 


43 


208 12 


4 


96.8 


14 


3.38.8 


4 


19 36 


14 


67 76 


24 


116 16 


.34 


164 56 


14 


212 96 


5 


1.21.0 


15 


3.63.0 


5 


24 20 


15 


72 60 


25 


121 00 


35 


169 40 


45 


217 80 


6 


1.45.2 


16 


3.87.2 


6 


29 04 


16 


77 44 


26 


125 84 


30 


174 24 


50 


242 00 


V 


1.69.4 


17 


4.11.4 


7 


33 88 


17 


82 28 


27 


130 68 


37 


179 08 


60 


290 40 


8 


1.93.6 


18 


4.35.6 


8 


38 72 


18 


87 12 


2X 


135 52 


38 


183 92 


70 


338 80 


9 


2.17.8 


19 


4.59.8 


9 


43 56 


19 


91 96 


29 


140 36 


3fl 


188 76 


80 


387 20 


10 


2.42.0 


20 


4.84.0 


10 


48 40 


20 96 80 


30 


145 20 


40 


193 60 


90 


436 00 



Flavokino Extracts, Vanilla, Ginger, &c. — Vanilla beans, 
4 ozs. ; sugar, 2 ozs. ; alcohol, 4 fluid ozs. ; simple syrup, 4 ozs. ; brandy, 
1 pt. Cut the beans finely, and rub thoroughly with the sugar, piit 
all into a strong stone bottle, secure the coric with twine, and boil in 
a water bath for h hour, then traiisfer to a filter and allow it to per- 
colate through, then add brandy sufficient to make 4 pts. Other 
extracts, as ginger, &c., cau be made in a similar manner, by using 
the respective ingredients. 

Essential oils of aniseed, lavender, peppermint, cloves, cinnamon, 
&c., are obtained by submitting parts of the plants, previously ground 
to a coarse powder, to distillation with water, Avhen the oils are carried 
over in a minute state of division with the aqueous vapor. The 
essential oils enclosed in the skins of lemons, oranges, bergamots, 
&c., are obtained by pressing the rinds of these fruits. 

To Preserve Apples.— Pack in boxes cr barrels elevated from the 
cellar floor, with a layer of dry sawdust at the bottom of each box or 
barrel, then a layer of apples placed out of contact with each otlier, 
then a layer of sawdu.st, and so on till all are full. Sound apples 
packed in this way will keep fresh a long time. 



208 GROCERS AND CONFECTIONER'S RECEIPTS; &C. 
■Weights, rv Pouxds, of VARiors Articles, as Rated by Railway 

COHPAXIES, WHEX their WEIGHTS CAXKOT OTHERWISE BE ASCER- 
TAIJi'ED. 

POUNDS. 

Ashes, pot or pearl Barrel 450 

Apples, and barrelled fruits Barrel 200 

Apples : Bushel .... 50 

Barley Bushel .... 45 

Beef, pork, bacon Per hhd 1,000 

Butter, tallow, lard Per bbl 333 

Salt lish and meat Per firkin 100 

Bran, feed, shipstuffs, oats ..Bushel 35 

Buckwheat Bushel. . . . 48 

Bricks, common Each. . . 5 

Bark Cord .... 2,000 

Charcoal Bushel .... 22 

Coke, and cake meal Bushel 40 

Clover seed Bushel. ... 62 

Eggs Barrel.... 200 

Fish and salt meat Per firkin .... 100 

Flourandmeal Per bushel, 56 lbs, Barrel 216 

Grain and seeds, not stated Bushel ... 60 

Hides (green) Each.... 85 

Hides (dry), salted or Spanish Each 33 

Ice, coal, lime Bushel 80 

Liquors, malt and distilled Barrel 350 

Liquors Per gallon 10 

Lumber — pine, poplar, hemlock Ft. b. m 4 

Lumber — oak, walnut, cherrj-, ash Ft. b. m 5 

Kails and spikes Keg 106 

Onions, wheat, potatoes Bushel 60 

Oysters Per bushel, 100 lbs,, per 1,000 350 

Plastering lath Per 1,000 .... 60o 

Eesiii, tar, turpentine Barrel 300 

Sand, gravel, etc Per cubic ft 150 

Shingles Per M., short, 900 lbs.. Long 1 400 

Salt Per bushel .... 70 

Stone, undressed Perch . . . .4,000 

Stone, dressed Cubic ft. . . . 180 

Timothv and light grass seed Bushel 40 

Wood— hickory Cord. . . .4,500 

Wood— oak Cord 3,500 

1 ton (2240 Ibs.l cured hay is 425 cubic ft.; 1 ton of hay in mow, 414.37 
lbs., or a cube of 7V, ft. Hay, as usually delivered, weighs 5 lbs. per cubic 
ft.; do., well pressed, 8 lbs. Straw, loose, weighs sy, lbs. per cubic ft.; 
do., well pressed, 534 lbs. U. S. gallon of water weiglis 8.33 lbs. ; do., of 
molasses, 1123; do., of turpentine, 7.31; do., of alcohol, 6.96. 

Belfast Ginger Ale.— Double refined sugar, powdered,! lb.; 
bicarbonate of .soda, 3^ ozs. ; citric acid, 4| ozs. ; concentrated ess. of 
ginger, Ih ozs. ; ess. of'cayenne, 2 drs. ; ess. of lemon, 40 drops. The 
soda, acid and sugar must be carefully dried separately at a tempera- 
ture not exceeding 120" : and the sugar before drjing must be thor- 
oughly incorporated with the essences, to which a small quantity of 
caramel, as color, may be added. The whole forms a powder, a des- 
sertspoonful of which will make a tumblerful of the drink. 

Unfermexted AVixe. — To make tliis, boil grapes of any kind over 
a slow fire till the pulp has tlioroughly separated from the skin, add- 
ing just enough water to prevent burning at the bottom of the vessel, 
then press the juice through a fine cloth and add J its weight of sugar, 



GROCERS AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS, &C. 209 

mix well, bring the juice to tlie boiling point once more, and can it 
in air-tight jars. This wine will keep sweet for years, and has the 
color of port. 

To Impkove Spoiled Butter. — The cut represents an excellent 
arrangement for the restoration of bad butter by means of the well- 
known absorbent and deodorizing qual- 
ities of charcoal. The tainted butter is 
removed from the firkin or other ves- 
sel by removing the stjives and hoops 
surrounding it. It is then placed in a 
clean bag and buried in granulated 
charcoal in a suitable barrel or box. In 
a short time, the offensive odor and 
bad smell will disappear, and a fine, 
fresh, marketable appearance will be 
imparted to the butter by the conserv- 
ing operation of the charcoal. 

Another way, melt the butter in twice 
its weight of boiling water, shake well 
and pt)ur the melted butter into cold 
water to regain a proper consistence. 
Or, wash in good new milk, in which the butyric acid, which causes 
the rancidity, is freely soluble. Wash afterwards in cold spring 
water. Another good way is to wash the butter in strong lime water, 
previously permitting the iime ample time to settle, and using the clear 
portion. 

To Can Fruit. — The following instructions for boiling and can- 
ning fruit will prove useful to many. The first number after the 
name of the fruit has reference to the number of minutes required for 
boiling, and the second to the ounces of sugar required to each quart. 
Currants, 0, 8 ; cherries, 5, 6 ; crab-apples, 25, 8 ; blackberries, 6, 6 ; 
gooseberries, 8, 8 ; grapes, 10,8; plums, 10, 8; peaches (whole), 15, 
4; peaches (halves), 8, 4 ; pears (whole), 30, 8 ; quinces (sliced), 15, 
10 ; tomatoes, 30, (no sugar) ; beans and peas, 3 to 4 hours, no sugar. 

To Can Green Corn. — Dissolve 2^ ozs. tartaric acid in 1 pt. water, 
and use 1 teaspoonful to every pint of corn while the corn is at boiling 
heat. When opened for use, add one teaspoonful of soda to every 3 
cans of com. 

Percentage of Alcohol in 100 Parts of the following 
Liquors. — Prof. Brande. 




Scotch Whiskey 54.53 

Irish do 5.3.9 

Rum 53.68 

Gin 51.6 

Brandy 53 . 39 

Burgundy 14.57 

Cape Muscat 18 . 25 

Champagne (still) 13. 80 

Do. (sparkling) 12.61 

Cider 5.2 to 9.8 

Constantia 19.75 

GooBeberiy Wine 11.48 



Currant Wine 20. .50 

Port 22.90 

Maderia 22. 2T 

Teneriffe 19.79 

Sherry 19. IT 

Claret 15.1 

Elder 8.79 

Ale 6.87 

Porter 4.2 

Malaga 17.26 

Bheiilah 12.8 

Small Beer 1.28 



210 GROCERS AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 

KaPID PnOCESS OF 5IARKIXG GoODS AT AXY DESIRED TEB CE>'T. 

Pr.OFiT. — Ketiiil merchants, in buying goods by wliolesale, buy a great 
many articles by the dozen, such as boots and shoes, hats and caps, 
and notions of various kinds ; now, the merchant, in bujing, for in- 
stance, a dozen hats, knows exactly what one of these liats will retail 
for in the marlcet where he deals ; and, unless he is a good accountint 
it will often take him some time to determine whether he can afford 
to purchase the dozen liats and make a liN-ing profit by selling them by 
the single hat ; and in buying his goods by auction, as the merchant 
often does, he has not time to make the calculation before the goods are 
bid off. He therefore loses the chance of making good bargams by be- 
ing afraid to bid at random, or if he bids, and the goods are cried off, 
he may liave made a poor bargain, by bidding thus at a venture. It then 
becomes a useful and practical problem to determine instantly wliat 
per cent, he would gain if he retailed the hat at a cerfciin price, to- 
tell what an article should retail for to make a profit of 20 per cent. 

Rule. — Divide wluit tlie articles cost per dozen hy 10, which is done 
hy removing tJie decimal point one place to (he left. 

For instance, if hats cost .$17.50 per dozen, remove the decimal point 
one place to the left, making §1.75, what they should be sold for 
apiece to gain 20 per cent on the cost. If they cost .S31.00 per dozen, 
they should be sold at S3. 10 apiece, etc. \\'e'take 20 per cent, as tho 
basis for the following reasons, viz : because we can determine instant- 
ly, by simply removhig the decimal point, without changing a figure, 
and, if the goods would not bring at least 20 per cent, profit in tho 
home market, the merchant could not afford to purchase, and would 
look for cheaper goods. 

The reason for the alx)ve rule is obvious, for if we divide the cost 
of a dozen by 12, we have the cost of a single article ; then if we wish 
to make 20 i)er cent, on the cost (cost being 1-1 or 5-5), we add the 
percent, which is 1-5, to the 5-5, making 0-5 or 12-10 ; then as we 
multiply the cost, divided by 12, by the 12-10 to find at what price one 
must be sold to gain 20 per cent, it is evident that the 123 will cancel 
and leave the cost of a dozen to be divided by 10, to do this remove the 
decimal point one place to the left 

Example 1. — If I buy 2 do.'.eu caps at S7.50 per dozen, what shall I 
retail them at to make 20 per cent ? Ans. 75 cent.^. 

ExAJiPLE 2.— When a merchant retails a vest at $4.50 and makes 
20 per cent, what did he pay per doz. ? Ans. §45. 

F.XA3IPLE 3. — At what price should I retail a pair of boots that cost 
$85.00 per doz. to make 20 per cent ? Ans. S8.50. 

Now, as removing the decimal point one place to the left, on the cost 
of a dozen articles, gives the selling price of a single one Avitli 20 per 
cent, added to the cost, and, as the cost of any article is 100 per cent, 
it is obvious that the selling ]irice would be 20 per cent more, or 120 
per cent. ; hence, to find 50 per. cent profit which would 
make the selling price 150 per cent, we would first find 120 
per cent then add 30 per cent by increasing it one-fourth itself ; 
lor 35 per cent, increase it one-eight itself, etc. Ileuce to mark aa 
article at any per cent, profit we find the following: 

-General Rulk.— First find 20 per cent, profit by removing the dec- 
imal point one place to the left on the price Vie articles cost per doz.; 
then, as 20 per cent profit is 120 per cent, add to or subtract from this 



GROCERS AKD CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 211 

cmoitnt the fractional 2)art that the rcquircdpcr cent, added to 100 fa 
more or less than 120. 

Merchants, in marking goods, generally take a per cent, that is an ali- 
quot part of 100, as 25, 33 1-3, 50, &c. The reason they do this is be- 
canse it makes it nnich easier to add snch a per cent, to the cost ; for 
instance, a merchant could mark almost a dozen articles at 50 per cent, 
profit in the time it livonld take him to mark one at 40 per cent. 
The following is arran";cd for the convenience of business men in 
marking tlie prices of all articles bought by the dozen. 
To make 20 per cent, remove the point ono place to the left. 
" " " and add ^ itself. 

(( CI (( (1 ■»_•) l( 

(( (( << (( -1^ (( 

« U .< U J^ u 

<l CI CC 11 -tn It 

II 11 C< 11 ^ T t( 

IC CI CC CC J Q C( 

CC CC CC CC t n CC 

IC CI CC CC 1.10 " 

CI IC CC CC 1.1'> " 

CC CI II II 1-15 '* 

CC CI II II l.'>0 " 

II CI IC II l-^i " 

" " " subtract 1-lG " 

CC II » U 1.3Q IC 

CC II CI It i-fx; " 

If I buy a" doz. shirts for S28.00, what shall I retail thcra for to 
make 50 per cent. ? Ans. S3.50 

Explanation. — Remove the point one place to the left, and add J 
itself. 

Aliquot Parts of 100 and 1000.— Merchants in selling goods gen- 
erally make the iirice of an article some aliquot part of 100, as in sell- 
ing sugar at 12^ cents per lb., or 8 lbs. for $!1.00, or in sell- 
ing calico for IG 2-3 cents per yard, or 6 yds. for $1.00, etc. The 
following table will be found valuble for all such calculations. 
12^ is 1-8 part of 100. Sf^ is 1-12 part of 100. 

25 is 1-4 part of 100. 162-3 is 2-12 or 1-6 of 100 

37i is 3-8 part of 100. 33 1-3 is 4-12 or 1-3 of 100. 

.. 50 is 4-8 or ^ of 100. GG 2-3 is 8-12 or 2-3 of 100 

62^ 5-8 part of 100. 83 1-3 is 10-12 or 5-G of 100 

75 is G-8 or 3-4 part of 100. 135 is 1-8 part of 1000. 
S7h is 7-8 part of 100. 250 is 2-8 or i of 1000. 

G| is 1-lG part of 100. 375 is 3-8 part of 1000. 

18| is 3-lG part of 100. G25 is 5-8 part of 1000. 

aij is 5-16 part of 100. 875 is 7-8 part of 1000. 

To multiply by an aliquot part of 100. 

KuLE. — Add two cjT)hers to the multiplicand, then take such part 
of it as the multiplier is part of 100. 

N. B. If the multiplicand is a mixed number reduce the fraction to 
a decimal of two places before dividing. 

N. IJ. For the sake of imiformitv, it has been thought best to 
classify the Coal, Interest and Keady Reckoner Tables at the end ol 
the Engineers' Department. 



GO 




50 




44 




40 




37 




35 




331-3 




32 




30 




28 




2G 




25 




12i 




1G2-3 




i&2^ 





212 GKOCERS AKD CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 

Teas. — The names of the different kinds of tea relate to the time 
of their being gathered, or to some peculiarity in their manufacture. 
It is a general rule, that all tea is fine in proportion to the tendemesg 
and immaturity of the leaves. The quality and value of the differ- 
ent kinds diminish as they are gathered later in the season. 

Black Teas.— As soon as the leaf-bud begins to expand, it is 
gathered to make Pekoe. A few days' later ^owth produces black- 
leaved Pekoe. The next picking is called Souchong ; as the leaves 
firow larger and more mature, they form Congou ; and the last pick- 
ing is Boliea. Bohea is called by the Chinese, Ta-cha (large tea), on 
account of the maturity and size of the leaves ; it contains a larger 
proportion of woody fibre than other teas, and its infusion is of a 
darker color and coarser flavor. Congou, the next higher kind, is 
named from a corruption of the Chinese Koong-foa (great care, or 
assiduity). This fonns the bulk of the black tea imported, and is 
mostly valued for its strength. 

Souchong — Seaoa-choong (small scarce sort), is the finest of the 
Btrongcst black tea, with a leaf that is generally entire and curly. It 
is much esteemed for its fragrance and fine flavor. Pekoe is a corrup- 
tion of the Canton name, Pak-ho (white down), being the first sprouts 
of the leaf-buds ; tliey are covered with a white silky down. It is a 
delicate tea, rather deficient in strength, and is principally used for 
flavoring other teas. 

Green Teas. — The following are the principal kinds. Ixcankaij, 
Jlyson-Skin, Hijson,Gunpoicder, and Young Ilyson. 

Young Ilyson is a delicate young leaf, called in the original lan- 
guage i'u-tsien (before the rains), because gathered in the early 
spring. Ilyson, from the Chinese word Ile-tchune, which means, 
flourishing spring. This fine tea is gathered early in the season, and 
prepared with great care and labor. Each leaf is i^icked separately, 
and nipped off above the footstalks ; and every separate leaf is 
rolled in the hand. It is much esteemed for its flavor. Gunpowder 
Tea is only Ilyson rolled and rounded to give it the granular appear- 
ance whence it derives its name. The Chinese call it Choo-cha (peal 
tea). Ilyson-Skin is so named from the Chinese term, in which 
connection skin means the refuse, or inferior portion. In preparing 
Ilyson, all leaves that are of a coarse j-ellow, or imperfectly twisted 
appearance, are separated, and sold as skin-tea, at an inferior price. 

Twankay is the last picking of green tea, and the leaf is not rolled 
or twisted as much as the dearer descriptions. There is altogether 
less trouble bestowed on the preparation. 

Coffees. — J.^va Coffee. — Use of the imported article, 20 lbs. ; 
dried dandelion root, 7 lbs. ; chiccory, 13 lbs. Roast and grind 
■well together. 

For West I>'dia, use rye roasted with a little butter, and ground 
very fine. 

For Turkey Coffee, nse rice or wheat roasted with a little 
butter, 7 lbs. ; chiccory, 3 lbs. ; grind. 

Essence of Coffee is made by boiling down molasses till 
hard ; grind to a powder ; add \ lb. of good Java coffee to every 4 
lbs. of the mixture. Put up for sale in roimd tin cans or air-tight' 
paper packages. 

Coffee fob Poi;>t> Packages, — Best Java coffee, 1 lb. ; rye, 3i 



GKOCEnS AND CONFECTIONEns' EECEIPTS. 213 

lbs. ; carefully clean the rye from all bad grains, -wash to remove 
dust, drain off tlie Avater, and put the grain into your roaster, 
carefully stirring to brown it evenly. Brown the rye and coffee 
separately, grind and put up in tight packages to preserve the 
aroma. 

To Flavor Tobacco. — This is done by means of a mixtureof 1 part 
each of lemon peel, orange peel, figs, coriander seed and sassafras ; 
i part each of elderflowers, elderberries, and cinnamon ; 2 parts of 
Saltpetre, 3 of salt, and 4 of sugar. This mixture must be digested in 
50 parts of water, and, before applying it flavored witli an alcoholic 
solution of gum benzion, mastic, and myrrh. It is said that this 
decoction gives a flavor to common leaves resembling Porto Rico, but 
to this end the leaves must be well dried, about a year old, well per- 
meated with the preparation, kept in a pile for 8 days, turned daily, 
and finally dried. 

Flavor for Cigar Makers. — Take 2 ozs. tonqua beans and 1 
oz. cinnamon ; bruise and pidverize them to a powder, and put 
them into 1 pint of Santa Cruz rum ; let it stand for a few days to 
macerate ; stir all together, and with this liquid spruikle your 
common or inferior tobacco. Dry out of the sim, and the flavor 
■will be im equalled. 

Tabac Perfumee aux Fleurs is made by putting orange flowers, 
jasmines, tube roses, musk roses, or common roses, to snuff in a close 
chestor jar, sifting them out after 24 hours, and repeating if necessary. 

Maccaboy Snuff is imitated by moistening the tobacco with a 
mixture of treacle and water, and aUowmg it to ferment. 

Spanish Snuff is made, from imsifted Havana snuff, reduced by 
adduig ground Spanish nutshells, spruikling the mixture with treacle 
water, and allowing it to sweat for some days before packing. 

Yellow Snuff is prepared from ordinary pale snvff, moistened 
■with a mixture of yellow ochre diffused in water, to which a fe^ 
spoonfuls of thin mucilage has been added. 

Perfumes for Sntjff. — Tonqua beans, essence of ditto, ambergria 
musk civet, leaves of orchis fusca, and essence of orris root, essence 
or oils of bergamot, cedar, cloves, lavender, petit grain, ncroli and 
roses, as well as several others, either alone or compounded. 

Unerring Tests for good Flour. — Good flour is white, vntn a 
yellowish or straw-colored tint. Squeeze some of the flour in 
vour hand ; if good, it Avill retain the shape given by pressure, 
knead a little between your fingers; if it works soft and sticky, it is 
poor. Throw a little ac^ainst a dry perpendicular surface; if it fall 
like powder, it is bad. -« 

To Correct JIusty Flour.— Carbonate of magnesia, o lbs. ; flour,' 
7G5 lbs. ; mix. This improves bad flour, causing it to become more 
wholesome, producing lighter and better bread than when alum is 
used, and absorbs and dissipates tho musty smell. 

iElRATED Bread. — 1 lb. flour, 100 grs. carb. of soda ; GO grs. com- 
mon salt; 1 teaspoon powdered sugar; 120 grs. niuriatic acid, more or 
less, according to its strength ; 1 wine pt. of water, inferior flour ■will 
require less. Well mix the flour, soda, salt, and sugar in an earthen 
vessel, then add the acid mixed with the water, stir Avith a wooden 
tpoou. Bake in one loaf about 1 hour. ' Bake in tin or iron pans,.buli 
iivoid the use of metallic vessels or spoons while mixing.'' 



214 CROCErwS AND COXFECTIONEKS' RECEIPTS. 

Pate>'t Set.f-Raisixg Floue. — Kiln-dried flour, 1 cirt. ; tartaric 
acid, 10^ oz. ; mix thorouglily. After 2 or 3 days, add, of bicarb, 
soda, 12 oz. ; lump sugar h lb. ; common salt, Ih lb. Mix, and pass 
througlithe " dressing machine." Have all the articles perfectly dry, 
and separately reduced to fine powder before adding to the flour. Mix 
with cold water, and bake at once. It produces light and porous 
bread. 

To Cure Butter. — Take 2 parts of fine salt ; 1 part loaf sugar ; 
1 jiart saltpetre ; mix completely. Use 1 oz. of this mixture to 
each pound of butter ; work well. Bury your butter firkins in tho 
earth in your cellar bottom, tops nearly level with the ground, or 
store away in a very cool place, covering the butter with a clean 
cloth and a strong brino on the top, and it will keep two years 
if desired. 

To Keep Butter dutiing Hot Weather. — A simple mode of 
keeping butter in warm weather is to invert a largo crock of earthen, 
or a flower pot if need be, (varying with the size of the vessel con- 
taining the butter, ) over the dish or firkin in which the butter is held. 
The porousness of the earthenware vrill keep tho butter cool, and all 
the more so if the pot be wrapped in a wet cloth, with a little water in 
the dish with the butter. ISot the porosity of tho earthenware, but 
the rapid absorption of heat by external evaporation causes the butter 
to become hard. 

To restore Rancid Butter. — Use 1 pt. water to each lb. of but- 
ter, previously adding 20 grs. chloride of hme to each pt. of water ; 
■wash well the butter in this mixture, afterward re-wash in cold 
■water and salt ; or melt the butter in a water bath with animal 
charcoal, coarsely powdered and previously well sifted to freo 
it from dust ; skim, remove, and strain through flannel ; then salt 

Tomato Catsup. — Boil 1 bushel of tomatoes till they are soft; 
squeeze them through a fine wire sieve; add 1^ pts. salt, 2 oz. cayenne 
pepper, and 5 heads of onions, skinned and separated ; mix together, 
and boil till reduced one half; then bottle. 

T'he NoRTnERN-LiGHT BuRXiNG Fluib. — Get good deodorized 
Lenzine, GO to 65 gravity, and to each brl. of 42 gals, add 2 lbs. pidver- 
ized alum, 3^ oz. gum camphor, and 3^ oz. oil of sassafras, or 2 oz. oil 
■faergamot; stir up and mix thoroughly together, and it will soon be 
ready for use. N. B. — As this fluid creates a much larger volume of 
light and flame than carbon oil, it is necessary to use eithor a high 
l)urner, such as the sun burner, to elevate the flame away from the 
lamp, in order to keep it cool, or instead thereof, to use a burner pro- 
vided with a tube for the escape of the gas generated from the fluid, 
such, for instance, as the Meriden burner. 

Test for Burning Oil. — Heat water in a pot on tho fire to 120° 
Fahr. Take a tin and put in it a tablespoonf ul of the oil you wish to 
test, place the tui containing the oil in the hot water, let it cool do-wn 
to 112° Fahr. ; when at this point, approach a light very cautiously to- 
wards the oil, and if it takes fire before the light touches it you will 
be safe in rejecting it. 

Preserved or Solidified Milk. — 1. Fresh-skimmed milk, 1 gal. ; 
BCsguicarbonate of soda (in powder), 1^ dr. Mix; evajwrate to J part 
by neat of steam or waterbath, with constant agitation ; then add of 
powdered sugar 6^ lbs. and complcto tho evaporation at a reduced 



OROCERS AND CONFECTIONERS* RECEIPTS. 215 

temperature. Reduce the dry mass to po'wder, add the cream well 
drained, which was takeu from the milk. After thorougli admixture, 
put the whole into weU stopped bottles or tins, and hermetically seal. 
2. Carbonate of soda, ^ dr.; water, 1 fluid oz.; dissolve; add of fresh 
milk, one qt. ; sugar, 1 lb. ; reduce by heat to the consistency of a syrup, 
and finish the evaporation on plates by exposure, in an oven. 
Obsei've — About 1 oz. of the powder agitated with 1 pt. of water forms 
a good substitute for milk. 

Sealing-wax, Red. — Shellac (very pale), 4 oz. ; cautiously melt in 
a bright copper pan over a clear cliarcoal fire ; when fused, add 
Venice tuipentuie, IJ oz. Mix, and further add vermilion, 3 oz. ; 
remove the pan from tlio fire, and pour into a inould. For a black 
color, use ivory black, or lampblack, instead of the vermilion ; for a 
blue color, use Prussian blue, instead of the vermilion, same quantity. 
Each color must be well mixed with the composition ; of the lampblack, 
use only sufficient to color. 

IIoKTicuLTURAii Ink. — Coppcr, 1 part ; dissolve in nitric acid, 10 
parts, and add water, 10 parts ; used to write on zinc, or tin labels. 

ijoTTLE AV^A.x — Black. — Black resin, G^ lbs. ; beeswax, i lb. ; finely 
powdered ivory black, Ih lbs. Jlelt together. Red, as tfio last, but 
substitute Venetian red,"or red lead, for the ivory black. 

GoLD-coLOHEi> SE.A.LING-WAX. — Bleached shellac, 3 lbs. ; Venice 
turpentine 1 lb. ; Dutch leaf ground fine, 1 lb., or less. The leaf should 
be ground, or jiowdercd sufficiently fine, without being reduced to 
dust. Mix with a gentle heat, and pour into moulds. 

LiTnoGRArmc Ink. — Venice turpentine 1 part, lampblack 2 parts, 
hard tallow soap G parts, mastic in tears, 8 parts, shellac 12 parts, 
wax IG parts; melt, stir, and pour it out on a slab. 

Inks. — 1. Fine Black ivritinr/ Ink. — To 2 gals, of a strong decoc- 
tion of logwood, well strained, add 1^ lbs. blue galls in coarse powder, 
G ozs. sulphate of iron, 1 oz. acetate of copper, G ozs. of well ground 
sugar, and 8 oz. gum arable. Set the above on the fire until itbegins 
to boil; strain, and then set it away until it has acquired the desired 
black. 2. Green Ink. Cream of tartar 1 part, verdigris 2 parts, 
water 8 parts. Boil till reduced to the proper color. 3. Blue Ink. 
Take sulphate of indigo, dilute it with Avater till it produces the re- 
quired color. 4. Violet Ink. Is made by dissolving some violet 
aniline in water to which some alcohol has been added : it takes very 
little aniline to make a large quantity of the ink. 5. Gold Ink. 
Mosaic gold, two parts, gum arable, one part, rubbed up to a proper 
condition. G. Silcer Ink. Triturate in a mortar equal parts of silver 
foil and sulphate of potixssa, imtil reduced to a fine powder, then wash 
the salt out, and mix the residue with a mucilage of equal parts of 
gum arable water. 7. FuUam's Recipe for Indelible Stencil-plata 
Ink. 1 lb. precipitate carbonate of iron; 1 lb. sulphate of iron; 1^ 
lbs. acetic acid. Stir over a fire until they combine ; then add 3 lbs. 
prmter's varnish and 2 lbs. fine book ink, and stir until Avell mixed. 
Add 1 lb. of Ethiop's mineral. 8 Exchequer Ink. Br-iised galls, 40 
lbs. ; gum, 10 lbs. ; green sulphate of iron, 9 lbs. ; soft water, 45 gals. 
Macerate for 3 weeks with frequent agitation and strain. This inlc 
will endure for ages. 9. Asiatic Ink. Bruised gaUs, 14 lbs. ; gum, 5 
lbs. Put them in a small cask, and add of boiling soft water, 15 gals. 
Allow the whole to macerate, with frequent agitation, for two weeks, 



216 GROCERS AXD CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 

then further add green copperas, 5 lbs., dissolved in 7 pts. water. 
Again mix well, and agitate the whole daily for two or three weeks 
10. Extra good Black Ink. Bruised gaUs, 2 lbs., log^vood chips, 
green copperas and gum, of each, 1 lb. ; water, 7 gals. Boil 2 hours 
and strain. Product. 5 gals. 11. Broicn Ink. A strong decoction of 
catechu. The shade may be varied by the cautious addition of a little 
weak solution of bichromate of piotash. 12. Indelible Ink. Nitrate 
of silver, i oz. ; water, | oz. Dissolve, add as much of the strongest 
liquor of ammonia as will dissolve the precipitate formed on its first 
addition; then add of mucilage 1^ dr., and a little sap green, syrup of 
buckthorn, or finely powdered indigo, to color. Turns black on being 
held near the fire, or touched with a hot iron. 13. Indelible Ink for 
Glass or Metal. Borax, 1 oz; shellac, 2 oz. ; water, 18 fluid oz. ; boil 
in a covered vessel, add of thick mucilage, 1 oz. ; triturate it with 
levigated indigo and lampblack q. s., to give it a good color. After 2 
Lours' repose, decant from the dregs and bottle for use. It may be 
bronzed after being applied. Resists moisture, chlorine, and acids. 
14. Common Ink. To 1 gal. boiling soft water, add f oz. extract log- 
wood; boil two minutes; remove from the fire, and stir in 48 grains 
bichromate of potash, and 8 grains prussiate of potash ; for 10 gals, use 
6^ oz. logwood extract; 1 oz. bichromate of potash, and 80 grains 
prussiate of potash ; strain. 15. Black Copyinf/ Ink, or Writing fluid 
Take 2 gals, rain water and put into it gum arable, ^ lb. ; brown sugar, 
J lb. ; clean copperas, ^ lb. ; powdered nutgalls, | lb. ; mix, and shako 
occasionally for ten days and strain; if needed sooner, let it stand in 
an iron kettle until the' strength is obtained. This ink will stand the 
action of the atmosphere for centuries, if required. IG. Bed Ink. 
In an ounce phial put 1 teaspoonful of aqua-ammonia; gum arable 
size of two or three peas ; and G grains of No. 40 carmine ; fill up with 
soft water, and it is soon ready for use. 

Liquid Blackikg. — Ivory black, 2 lbs. ; molasses, 2 lbs. ; sweet oil, 
1 lb. ; rub together till well mixed ; then add oil vitrol, ^ lb. ; add 
coarse sugar, ^ lb.; and dilute with. beer bottoms; this cannot bo 
excelled. „,__ 

TiCKETiXG I>Tv FOR Ge6cees,<S:c. — Dlssolvc 1 OZ. of gum arabic in 
6 or. water, and strain ; this is the mucilage ; for black color, use 
drop black, powdered, and groimd with the mucilage to extreme fine- 
ness ; for blue, ultra-marine is used in the same manner ; for green, 
emerald green ; for xchite, flake white ; for red, vermilion, ^ke, or 
carmine ; for yellow, chrome yellow. When ground too thick they are 
thinned with a little water. Apply to the cards with a small brush. The 
cards may be sized with a thin glue, and afterwards varnished, if it is 
desired to preserve them. ^^ 

Bltjutg for Clothes. — Take 1 oz. of soft Prussian blue, powder it, 
and put in a bottle with 1 quart of clear rain water, and add \ oz. of 
pulverized oxalic acid.> A tablesiwonful is sufficient for a large wash- 
ing 

Peemixtm Method of KEEPrKO Ha3is, &c. — To 4 gals, water, add 8 
lbs. coarse salt ; ^ oz. potash ; 2 oz. saltpetre ; 2 lbs. bro\ATi sugar. 
Boil together, skim when cold, put on the above quantity to 100 lbs. 
meat ; hams to remain in eight weeks, beef, three weeks. Let the 
hams dry several days before smoking. * Meat of all kinds, s-almon 
.and other fish, lobsters, &c., may be preserved for years by a light ap- 



GROCERS AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 217 

plication of pyroligneous acid applied with a briisli, sealing up in cans 
as usual. It imparts a splendid liavor to the meat, is very cheap, and 
au effectual preservative against loss. 

To PRESERVE Meats, Salmon, Lobsters, &:c., HER>rETicAi>i.Y 
6EAi/ED.~The meat to be preserved is first parboiled or somewhat more 
and freed from bones. It is then put into tin cases or canisters, whicli 
are quite filled up with a ricli gravy. A tin cover, with a small aper- 
ture, is then carefully fixed on by solder ; and, whUetlio vessel is per- 
fectly fall, it is placed in boiling water, and midergoes the remainder of 
the cooking. Tlie small hole in the cover is completely closed up by 
Boldering while the whole is yet hot. The canister, with its ingredients, 
is now allowed to cool, iu consequence of whicli tliese contract, and 
the sides of the vessel are slightly forced inward by atmospheric pres- 
sure, and become a little concave. The vessel beuig thus hermet- 
ically sealed, and all access of the air prevented, it may be sent into 
any climate without fear of putrefaction ; and the most delicate 
food of one country may bo used in another in all its original perfec- 
tion, mouths and years after its preparation. Lobsters should be boil- 
ed longer than meats, and the scales removed previous to putting into 
the canisters. Salmon put up by this process is most delicious. By the 
French process the meat is boiled till it is tluee-quarters done, when 
two-thirds of it are taken out, the remaining one-tliird is boiled into a 
concentrated soup, and the meat previously taken out is put into the 
canisters, which are then filled up -with the soup ; the tin cover with 
aperture is soldered on, and the canister with its contents sub- 
mitted to farther boiling in hot water, when the aperture is closed, as 
above stated, and the canisters laid away iu store. 

To PRESERVE Fruits without Sugar. — Fill some stone wide- 
mouthed bottles with the fruit carefully picked, and set them ui 
a copper or large kettle ; then fill the kettle with cold water nearly 
up to the mouths of the bottles. Corks should be prepared to fit 
the bottles, and a cloth should be put mider the bottoms of the 
bottles to prevent their cracking with the heat. Light the fire un- 
der the kettle, and heat the water to 1G0° or 170°. This heat should 
be continued for half an hour, when the fruit will bo sufficiently 
scalded ; after that, fill up the bottles with boiling water to within 
an inch of the cork, and cork them tightly. Lay the bottles on 
their eides ; cliange the position of the bottles once or twice a 
week during the first two months, turning them round to prevent 
any fermentation that miglit take place. Fruits could also bo 
kept by the process mentioned above for meats, remembering that 
they are to be scalded only, not boiled, as in the case with meats. 

Another Method. — After paring and coring, put among them 
sufficient sugar to make them palatable for present eating, about 
3 or 4 lbs. only to each bushel ; let them stand awhile to dissolve 
the sugar, not using any water ; then lieat to a boil, and continue 
the boiling with care for 20 to 30 minutes, or sufficiently long to 
licat them through, which expels the air. Have ready a Icettle of 
hot water, into which dip the can or bottle long enough to heat it ; 
then fill in the fruit while hot, corking it immediately, dipping the 
end of the cork into the bottle-wax preparation described else- 
where. ^ 

Worcestershire Sauce. — ^Whitc vinegar 15 gals.; walnut catsup 



218 GEOCEKS AND CONFECTIONERS* RECEIPTS. 

10 gals. ; Maderia vrino 5 gals. ; mushroom catsup 10 gals. ; table 
salt 25 lbs. ; Cauton soy, 4 gals. ; powdered capsicum 2 lbs. ; i)Owdcred 
allspice 1 lb. ; powdered coriander, seeds 1 lb. ; cloves, mace, and cin- 
namon, of each, ^ lb. ; asafcetida ^ lb. ; dissolved in brandy 1 gal. Boil 
20 lbs. hogs livers in 10 gals, of water for 12 hours, renewing the water 
from time to time. Take out the liver, chop it, mix with water, work 
through a sieve, and mix -with the sauce. 

Gherkins. — Take small cucumbers (not young), steep for a week 
iu veri/ stronfj brine ; it is then poured off, lieftted to the boiling 
point, and again poured on the fruit. The next day the gherkins 
are drained on a sieve, wiped dry, put into bottles or jars, with 
some spice, ginger, pepper, or cayenne, and at once covered with 
strong pickling vinegar. 

Mixed tickles from cauliflowers, white cabbage, French beans, 
onions, cucumbers, &c., are treated zs f/herkins, with raw ginger, 
capsicum, mustard-seed and long pepper, added to each bottle. 
A little bruised turmeric improves botli the color and flavor. 

Indian pickle. — Piccalilli. — Take one hard white cabbag© 
(sliced), 2 cauliflowers, pulled to pieces, 20 French beans, 1 stick 
of horse-radish, sliced fine, 2 doz. small white onions, and 1 doz. 
gherkins. Cover these with boiling brine ; next day, drain the 
whole on a sieve, put it into a jar, add of curry powder, or tur- 
meric, 2 oz. ; garlic, ginger, and mustard-seed, of each 1 oz. ; cap- 
sicum i oz. Fill up the vessel with hot pickling A-iuegar ; bunrj 
it up close, and let it stand for a month, with occasional agitation. 

To Preserve Fruit Juice without Heat. — Ingredients : 10 lbs. 
of fresh-gathered, picked, red-ripe currants, or other fruit, 2 qts. 
cold water, 5 oz. tartaric acid, G lbs. of coarse sifted sugar. Put 
the fruit into a large earthen pan, pour the water with the tartaric 
acid dissolved in it over the fruit, cover the pan with some kind of 
lid, and allow the whole to steep for 24 hours in a cold place, and 
it would be all the better if the pan containing the fruit coidd bo 
immersed in rough ice. Next, pour tlie steeped fruit into a sus- 
pended stout flamiel bag, and when all the juice has run through, 
tie up the open end of ^he bag, and place it on a large eartheu 
dish, with another dish upon it ; place a half-hundred weight upon 
this, to press out all the remaining juice, and then mix it with tho 
other juice. You now put the sifted sugar into the juice, aud stir 
both together occasionally, imtil the sugar is dissolved, and then 
bottle up the syrup, cork, and tie down the bottles with wire, aud 
keep them in the ice well or in a cold cellar, in a recUning position. 

To RESTORE Injured Meat. — When the brine sours and tiinta 
the meat, jwur it off ; boil it, skim it well, then pour it back again 
on the meat boiling hot ; this will restore it, even when much 
injured. If tainted meat is injured, dip it in the solution of chlo- 
ride of lime prescribed for rancid butter ; it will restore it. Fly- 
blown meat can be completely restored by immersing it for a few 
hours in a vessel containing a small quantity of beer ; but it will 
tiiint and impart a putrid smell to the liquor. Fresh meat, hams, 
fish, &c, can be preserved for an indefinite length of time without 
salt, by a light application of pyroligneous acid applied witli a 
brush ; it imparts a fine smoky flavor to tho meat, and is an effect- 
ual preservative. But pure acetic acid may be used instead. 



CKOCEnS AND CONFECTIONERS' KECEIPTS. 219 

FRF.sn Mf.at — TO KKEP A WEEK ou Two i^' ScuiJiEK.— Farmers 
or others liviug at a distance from butchers cau keep fresh meat 
very nicely for a week or two, by putting it into sour milk, or but- 
ter millc, placing it iu a cool cellar. The bone or fat need not bo 
removed. Rinse well when used. 

MiLKJiAx's Process. — To Rive a body to diluted milk use tho 
following nutritive and healthy compound at tlie rate of 8 oz. to 
every 5 gals., stirring it up in the milk, till all is dissolved: arrow- 
root, G oz. ; magnesia, G oz. ; starch, 1 lb. ; flour, h lb. ; white sugar 
in powder, 1 lb. ; mix all intimately together, and keep in a dry 
place for use. 

Custard Powders. — Sago meal and flour, 1 lb. each ; color with 
turmeric to a cream color. Flavor with essential oil of almonds, 1 
dr. ; ess. of lemon, 2 drs. Uso witli sweetened milk to form ex- 
temporaneous custards. 

CURUY PowDKii. — Turmeric, and coriander seeds, of each, 4 oz. ; 
IJack pepper, 2^ oz. ; ginger 14 drs. ; cinnamon, mace, and cloves, each, 
i oz. ; cardaraou seeds, 1 oz. ; cummin seeds, 2 drs. ; cayemie pepper, 
1 oz. ; powder and rai.x. 

N-vroLEOx's Cajip Sauce.-OUI strong beer, 2 qts., white wine, 1 qt., 
anchovies, 4 ounces ; mix ; boil for ten minutes ; remove it from tho 
fire, und add peeled Bhallots, 3 ounces ; macerate for 14 days, 
and bottle. ^ 

Pickled Oxioxs. — Choose small romid onions, remove tho skins, 
steep them in strong bruie for a week in a stone vessel, pour it off, 
and heat till it boils ; then pour on tho onions, boilmg liot ; after 
24 hours, drain on a seive, then put them in bottles, fill up over them 
with strong spiced vinegar, boiling hot, cork down immediately, and 
wax over the cork. In a similar manner are pickled mushroons, 
cauliflowers, samphires, peas, beans, green gooseberries, walnuts, 
red cabbages (without .salt, with cold vinegar). Observe that the soft 
and more delicate do not require so much soaking in brine as the harder 
and coarser kinds, and may be often kept by simply jwuring very 
strong pickling vinegar on them without tlie application of heat. For 
peaches, select ripe but not soft ones ; rub with a dry clotli ; put four 
cloves, free from their heads, in each large peach, and two in small 
ones ; to 1 gallon vinegar, put 6 lbs. brown sugar ; put the peaches in 
a jar and -put the vinegar (diluted with water, if too strong), and 
sugar in a preserving kettle over tho fire ; boil and skim it ; pour it 
boiling hot over the peaches, covering them closely ; repeat tho 
operation three times ; then seal them tightly iu cans or bottles. 

Fkexch Patent Mustard. — Flour of mustard, 8 lbs. ; wheat flour, 
.8 lbs. ; bay salt, 2 lbs. ; cayenne pepper, 4 oz. ; vinegar to mLx. 

Cojraox JIusTARD.— Flour of mustard 28 lbs. ; wheat flour, 28 ids. , 
cayenne pepper, 12 oz., or as required ; common salt 10 lbs. ; rape 
oil 3 lbs. ; turmeric to color ; mix well, and pass through a fine seivc. 

Starch Polish. — White wax, 1 oz. ; spermaceti, 2 oz. ; melt them 
together with a gentle heat. When j'ou have prepared a sufTicient 
amount of starch, in tho usual way, for a dozen pieces, put into it a 
piece of the polish about the size of a large peji ; more or less, accord- 
ing to large or small washings. Or thick gum soiutiou (made by pour- 
tag boiling water upon gum ai-abic), ono tablespoon to a pint of starcli, 
^vcs clothes a beautiful gloss. 



220 cnocERS and confectioners' keceipts. 

Fire Ejxdlers. — ^To make very nice fire kincUcrg, take resin, any 
quantity, and melt it, putting in for each poimd being used, from 2 to 
3 oz. of t;illo"Mr, and -when all is hot, stir in pine sawdust to raalie 
very thick; and, while yet hot, spread it out about 1 inch thick, 
upon boards which have fine sawdust sprinkled upon them, to prevent 
it from sticking. When cold, break up into lumps about 1 iuch square. 
But if for sale, take a thin board and press ujxju it, while yet \'':\rm, 
to lay it oil into inch squares ; this makes it break regularlj', if yon 
press the crease sufficicutly deep, greasing the marked board to jirevent 
it from sticking. 

To Keep Cider swtet, axd Sweeten Sour Cider.— To keep 
cider perfect, take a keg and bore holes in the bottom of it ; spread a 
piece of woollen cloth at the bottom ; then fill with clean sand closely 
packed ; draw your cider from a barrel just as fast as it will run 
through the sand ; after this, put in clean barrels which have had a 
piece of cotton or linen cloth 2 by 7 inches dipped in melted sulphur 
and burned inside of them, therebj- absorbing the sulphur fumes 
(this process will also sweeteu sour cider) ; then keep it in a cellar or 
room where there is no fire, and add h lb. white mustard seed to each 
barrel. If cider is long made, or souring when you get it, about 1 qt. 
of hickory ashes (or a little more of other liard wood ashes) stirred 
into each barrel will sweeten and clarify it nearly equal to rectifying it 
as above ; but if it is not rectified, it must be racked off to get clear of 
the pomace, as with this in it, it will sour. Oil or whisky barrels arc 
best to put cider in, or ^ pint sweet oil to a barrel, or a gallon of 
whisky to a barrel, or both, may be added with decidedly good 
effects ; isinglass, 4 oz. to each barrel, helps to clarify and settle ci- 
der that is not to be rectified. 

Gixger "Wine. — Water, 10 gals., lump sugar, 20 lbs., bruised gin- 
ger, 8 oz. ; 3 or 4 eggs. Boil well and skim ; then jKJur hot on six or 
seven lemons cut in slices, macerate for 2 hours ; then rack aud fer- 
ment ; next add spirit 2 qts., aud afterwards finmgs, 1 pint ; rum- 
mage well. To make the color, boil h oz. s;ileratus and ^ oz. alum in 
1 pint of water till you get a bright red color. 

Ice Creasi. — Have rich, sweet cream, and a half-pound of loaf 
sugar to each quart of cream or milk. If you cannot get cream, the 
best imitation is to boil a soft custard, G eggs to each quart of milk (eggs 
well beat). Or another is made as follows: boil 1 quart of-milk, and 
stir into it, while boiling, 1 tablespoouf ul of arrowroot wet ■with cold 
milk ; when cool stir into it the yolk of 1 egg to give it a rich color. 
Five minutes' boUing is enough for either plan. Put the sugar in af- 
ter they cool ; keep the same proportions for any amoimt desired. 
Or thus : to 6 quarts of milk add | lb. Oswego starch, first dissolved ; 
put the starch in 1 quart of the milk ; then mix altogether, and sim- 
mer a little (not boil) ; sweeten and flavor to your taste ; excellent 
The juice of strawberries or raspberries gives a beautiful color and 
flavor to ice creams, or about ^ oz. essence or extract to 1 gallon, or 
to suit the taste. Have your ice well broken, 1 qt. salt to a bucket of 
ice. About one hour's constant stirring, -with occasional scraping 
down and beating together, will freeze it. 

Chicago Ice Cream. — Irish moss soaked in warm water one hour, 
and rinsed well to cleanse it of sand and a certain foreign taste ; then 
steep it in milk, keeping it just at tho point of boiling or Bimmering 



GROCERS AND confectioners' RECEIPTS. 221 

for one hour, or until a rich yellow color is given to the milk ; with- 
out cream or eggs, from 1 to IJ oz. to a gal. only is necessary, and 
this will do to steep twice. Sweeten and flavor like other creams. 

SaBSTiTUTE FOK Cbeaji. — Take 2 or 3 whole eggs, beat them well 
up in a basin ; then pour boiling hot tea over them ; pour gradually 
to prevent curdling. It is difficult for the taste to distinguish it from 
rich cream. 

GiNGKB Beer. — Take 5^ gals, water, 2 1^- ginger root braised, 
tartaric acid, ^ oz., white sugar, 2^ lbs., whites of 3 eggs well 
beaten, 10 small teaspoonfuls of lemon ess. ; yeast, 1 gill ; boil tho 
root for 30 minutes in 1 gal. of the water; strain off, and put the ess. 
in while hot; mix, make over night; in the morning, skim and bottle, 
keeping out the sedimeuts. 

PxtiLADELrniA Beeu. — ^Take 30 gals, water, brown sugar, 20 lbs 
ginger root bruised, i lb., cream of tarfcir, 1^ lbs., carbonate of soda, 
3 oz., oil of lemon, cut in a little alcohol, 1 teaspoonful, the white of 

10 eggs well beaten, hops, 2 oz., yeast, 1 qt. The ginger root and hops 
should be boiled for twenty or thirty minutes in enough of the water 
to make all milk- warm ; then strained into the rest and the yeast added 
and allowed to work itself clear; then bottle. 

Cider without Apples. — Water, 1 gallon ; common sugar, 1 lb. ; 
tartaric acid, h oz. ; yeast, 1 tablespoonf uI ; shake well, make in the 
evening, and ft will be fit to use next day. 

For Bottling. — Put in a barrel, 5 gals, hot water; 30 lbs. common 
sugar ; 5^ lb. tertiric acid ; 25 gallons cold water ; 3 pints of hop or brew- 
ers' yeast, worked into paste with 1 pint of water and 1 lb. flour. Let 
it work in tho barrel forty-eight hours, the yeast rmining out of the 
bunghole all the time, putting in a little sweetened water occasionally 
to keep it full; then bottle, putting in two or three broken raisins to 
each bottle; and it will nearly equal champagne. 

Cheap Cider. — Putinacask 5 gals, hot water; 15 lbs. brown sugar; 
1 gal. molasses ; ^ gal. hop or brewers' j'east ; good vinegar, G qts. ; stir 
■well, add 25 gals, cold water, ferment as the last. 

Another Cider.— Cold water, 20 gals., brown sugar, 15 lbs., tar- 
taric acid, i lb. ; rummage well togetlier, and add, if you have tliem, 
3 or 4 lbs. of dried sour apples, or boil them and pour in the express- 
ed juice. This cider will keep longer than the others. 

Spruc? and Ginger Beer. — Cold water, 10 gals. ; boilmg water, 

11 gals. ; mix in a barrel; add molasses, 30 lbs., or brown sugai", 24 
lbs. ; oil of spruce or any oil of which you wish the flavor, 1 oz. ; add 1 
pint yeast, ferment, bottle in two or three days. If you wish white 
spruce beer, use lump sugar; for ginger flavor, use 17 oz. ginger root 
bruised, and a few hops; boil for thirty minutes in three gals, of the 
water, strain and mix well ; let it stand two hours and bottle, using 
yeast, of course, as before. 

Hop Beer, very fine. — MLx 14 Ibs.of molasses and 11 gals, water 
well togetlier, and boil them for 2 hours with G oz. hops. When quite 
cool, add a cupful of yeast, and stir it well by a gallon or two at a 
time. Let it ferment for 16 hours, in a tub covered with a sack, then 
put it in a 9-gallon cask, and keep it filled up; bung it down m 2 davs, 
and in 7 days it will be fit to drink, and will be stronger tlian Loudon 
porter 

Edinburgh Ale.— Employ tho best palo malt— 1st, mash 2 barrels 



h: 



222 GKOCEUS AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 

Er. quarter, at 183°, mash three-quarters of an hour, let it stand 1 
our, aud aUow half au hour to run off the -wort; 2d, mash 1 barrel 
j)er quarter. 180°, mash three-fourths of an hour, let it stand about 
three-fourths, and tap as before; 3d, mash 1 barrel per quarter, 
at 170°, mash half au hour, let it stand half au hour, and tap as 
before. The first and second wort may be mixed together, boiling 
them about an hour or an hour, and a quarter, with a quantity of 
hops proportioned to the time the ale is required to be kept. Tho 
first two may be mixed at the heat of G0°, m the glyetun, and the 
second should be fermented separately for small beer. The best 
hops should be used in the proportion of about 4 lbs. for every 
quarter of malt employed. 

Bottling Porter.— ^13 kg wx Stout. Pale malt, 2 quarters ; amber 
and brown malt, of each 1^ do. ; mash at 3 times, with 12, 7, and 
G barrels of water ; boil with hops, 50 lbs ; set with yeast, 29 lbs. 
Product, 17 barrels, or Ih times the malt. 

Lesion Beer. — To make 20 gals, boil G oz. of ginger root bruised, 
i lb. cream of tartar, for 20 or 30 minutes, in 2 or 3 gals, water ; 
this will be strained in 13 lbs. coffee sugar, on which you have 

ut i oz. oil of lemon, and six good lemons squeezed up together, 

aving warm water enough to make the whole 20 gals, just so 
hot that you can hold your hand in it without burning, or about 
70 degrees of heat ; put in IJ pints of hop or brewers' yeast, worked 
into paste with 5 or G oz. flour. Let it work over night, then strain 
and bottle for use. 

Taule Beer.— Malt, 8 bushels ; hops, 7 lbs ; molasses, 25 lbs. ; brew 
for 10 barrels ; smaller quantity in proportion. 

Hop Beer. — Hops, G ounces ; molasses, 5 quarts ; boil the lions till 
the strength is out, strain them into a 30-gallon barrel ; add tho 
molasses and one teacupful of yeast, and fill up with water ; shake it 
well, and leave tlie bun^ out till fermented, which will be in about 
24 hours. Bung up, and it will be fit for use in about three days. 

Molasses Beeu. — Hops, 1 oz. ; water, 1 gal. ; boil for ten miuutca, 
strain, add molasses, 1 lb. ; and when lulce-wann, yeast, 1 spoonful. 
Ferment. 

Root Beer. — Water 10 gals, heat to C0° Fah. then add 3 gals, mo- 
lasses ; let it stand 2 hours, pour it into a bowl and add powdered or 
bruised sassafras and wintergreen bark of each ^ lb. ; yeast 1 pt. ; 
bruised sarsaparilla root, ^ lb. ; add water enough to make 25 gals, iu 
all. Ferment for 12 hours, then bottle. 

Ottawa Beer and Ginger Ale. — Ottawa beer is made by using 
8 ozs. of a fluid extract which contiiins the concentrated strength of 4 
lbs. of 13 different roots and barks, added to 1 gal. syrup which is mixed 
with 14 gals, water, into which carbonic acid gas is forced at a pressure 
of 80 lbs. to the square inch. Ginger Ale is made in the same way 
except that 4 ozs. of extract is sufficient. "When the ginger is really 
used, an extract deprived of resinous impurities is made use of, 
which gives a clear amber colored drink. 

Cheai- Beer. — Water, 15 gals. ; boil half the water with \ lb. 
hops ; then add to the other half in the tun, aud mix well with 1 
gal. molasses and a little yeast. 

To restore Sour Beer. — Good hops, \ lb., powdered chalk, 2 lbs. 
Put ii\ the hole of tho cask, aoad bung close for a few days ; for frosted 



GROCERS AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 223 

beer, add some finings, a tev: handfuls of flour, and some scaldod 
hops ; for ropy beer, use a handful or two of flour, the same of hops, 
■with a httle ijowdered aUim to each barrel. Rummage well. 

To Ibipkove the Flavou of Beek. — Bruised ginger, 1 oz. ; bruised 
cloves, i oz. ; a few scalded hops and a doz. brolieu coarse biscuits 
to every two barrels. Rummage well. 

LEiMOKADE. — White sugar, 1 lb., tartaric acid, J oimce, essence of 
lemon, 30 drops, water 3 qts. Mix. 

Ckeam Soda. — Loaf sugar, ten lbs., water, 3 gals. ; warm gradu- 
ally so as not to bum ; good ricli cream, 2 guarts ; extract vanilla, 
1^ ounces ; extract nutmeg, ^ ounce ; tartaric acid, 4 ounces. Just 
bring to a boiling heat ; for if you cook it any length of time, it will 
crystallize ; use 4 or 5 spoonfuls of this syrup instead of three, as in 
other syrups ; i)Ut h teaspoonf nl of soda to a glass, if used witliout a 
lountaiu. For charged fountains no acid is used. 

Fkeezing I'kepauation. — Common sal-ammoniac, well pulverized, 
1 part ; saltpetre, 2 parts ; mix well together. Then take common 
soda, well pulverized. To use take equal quantities of these prepa- 
rations (which must be kept separate and well covered previous to 
using) and put them in the freezing pot ; add of water ji proper 
quantitv, and put in the article to be frozen in a proper vessel ; cover 
up, and your wants will soon be supplied. For freezing cream or 
■wines this cannot be beat. 

Sarsaparilla Mead. — 1 lb. of Spanish Sarsaparilla, boil 5 hour.s 
and strain off 2 gals : add sugar IG lbs. and tartiiric acid 10 ozs., half 
a wine glass of syrup to half jnut tumbler of water, and half teaspoon- 
f ul of soda is a fair proportion for a drinlc. 

Portable Lemonade. — Tartaric acid, 1 ounce, white sugar, 2 lbs., 
essence of lemon, quarter ounce ; powder and keep dry for use. One 
dessert spoonful will make a glass of lemonade. 

Iiii'ERiAt. Creasi Nectar. — Part 1st, bvke 1 gallon water, loaf 
sugar, (i lbs., tartaric acid, 6 ounces, gum arable, 1 oimce. Part 2d, 
flour, 4 teaspoonfuls, the whites of 5 eggs ; beat fuiely together ; 
then add ^ pint water ; when the first part is blood warm, i)ut in the 
Bccond ; boil 3 minutes, and it is done. Directions : 3 tiblespoonfuls 
of syrup to two-thirds of a glass of water ; add one-third teaspoonf nl 
of carbonate of soda, made fine ; stir well, and drink at your leisure. 

Peppermint Cordial. — Good whisky, 10 gals., water 10 gals., 
■white sugar, 10 lbs. , oil peppermint, 1 ounce, m 1 pint alcohol, 1 Ib.flour 
■well worked in tlie fluid, \ lb. bunied sugar to color. Mix, and let it 
stand one week before using. Other oil in place of peppermint, and 
you have any flavor desired. 

Silver-top Drintc. — Water, 3 qts. , white sugar, 4 lbs. , ess. of lemon, 
4 teaspoonfuls, white of 5 eggs, beat with 1 tablespoonful of flour ; 
boil to a syrup ; then divide into equal parts, and to one add 3 ounces 
taitaric acid, to the other 4 ounces of carbonate of soda ; put in a 
teaspoonful of each of the syrups, more or less (according to the size 
of the glass), to two-thirds of a glass of water ; drink quick. 

Sangaree. — Wine, ale, or porter, or two-thirds water, hot or cold, 
according to the season of the year, loaf sugar to taste, with nutmeg. 

Soda Syrups. — Loaf or crushed sugar, 8 lbs., pure water, 1 gallon, 
gum arabic, 2 oz. ; mix in a brass or copper kettle. Boil until the 
gum is dissolved, then skim and strain through white flannel, after 



224 GKOCERS AND CONFECTIOXEKS* RECEIPTS. 

which add tartaric acid, CJ oz. ; dissolve in liot water ; to flavor, use 
extract of leinou, orange, vanilla, rose, sarsaparilla, strawberry, &c., 
&c., i oz. or to your taste. If you use juice of lemon, add 2^ lbs. of 
sugar to a pint, you do not need any tartaric acid witlv it ; now use 
two tablespoonfuls of syrup to | of a tumbler of water, and J tea- 
spoonful of super-carbonate of soda, made fine ; drink quick. For 
Boda fountains, loz. of super-carbonate of soda is used to Igallou of 
water. For charged fountains no acids are needed in the syrups. 

STotJGnTON Bitters. — Gentian, 4 ounces, orange peel, 4 ounces, 
Columbo, 4 ounces, camomile flowers, 4 ounces, quassia, 4 ounces, 
burned sugar, 1 lb., whiskey, 2^ galls. Mix and let it stand 1 week. 
Bottle the clear liquor. 

Common Small Beer. — A handful of hops to a pail of water, a 
pint of bran, add half a pint of molasses, a cup of yeast, and a 81k>ou- 
f ul of guiger. 

EoYAL Per. — Cream tartar, 1 lb., ginger, l^oz., white sugar, 7 
lbs., essence of lemon, 1 drachm, water, 6 galls., yeast Ipiut Tie 
the corks do%vn. 

Raspberry Svrup without Raspberries. — First make a synxp 
with 36 lbs. of white sugar, and 10 gallons of water, and put it into 
a clean mixing barrel. Then dissolve ^ lb. of tartaric acid in 1 qt. 
of cold water, and add to the syrup. Next take i lb. orris root 
and pour over it half a gallon of hoilinrj water ; let It infuse iiutU 
cold, then filter, and put t\ into the mixing barrel, stirring it well. 

To Color. — Boil ^ oz. of cochineal ; £ oz. cream taitar; \ oz. 
Baleratus ; and i oz. alum in 1 qt. of water imtil you get a bright red 
color, and add tliis to tlie sjrup tUl tlie color suits. The above is a 
very valuable receipt, and will make IG gals. sjTup at a very low cost 
per gallon. If it is desirable to produce a richer synip, add more 
sugar. Colors should be made in a brass or copper kettle. 

Bottled Soda Water without a Machine. — In each gallon of 
water to be used, carefully dissolve J lb. crushed sugar, and one ounce 
of super-carbonate of soda ; then fill pint bottles with this water, have 
your corks ready ; now drop uito each bottle \ dram of inilverized 
citric acid, and immediately coric, and tie down. Handle the bottles 
carefully, and keep cool imtil needed. More sugar may be added if 
desired. 

Oyster Soup. — To each dozen or dish of oysters, put ^ pint of 
water ; milk, 1 gill ; butter ^ oz. ; ]X)wdered crackers to thicken ; 
"bring the oysters and water to a boil, tlien add the other ingredients 
previously mixed together, and boil from three to five minutes only 
Season with jiepper and salt to fciste. 

Mock Terrapin. — A supper dish. Ilalf a calf's liver ; seasoned, 
fry brown. Hash it, not very fine, dust thickly witli flour, a teas])oon- 
Ju'l mixed mustard, as much cayenne pepperas wiUlie on a half dime; 
2 hard eggs, chopped fine, a lump of butter as large as an egg, a teacup 
of water. Let it boil a minute or two ; cold veal wUl do, if liver is not 
liked. 

Blackberry Wine. — Wush the berries, and pour 1 qt. of boil- 
ing water to each gal. Let the mixture stand 24 hours, stirring occa- 
sionally ; tlien strain and measure into a keg, addmg 2 lbs. sugar, 
and good rye whiskey 1 pint, or best alcohol, ^ pint to each gaL 
Cork tight, and put away for use. The best W'lc that can be made 



GROCERS AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 225 

MnxTOK IIakiiicot. — Take n, loin of mutton, cut it into small chops, 
eoason it with ground pepper, allspice, and salt, let it stind a night, 
and then fry it. Have good gravy well seasoned with flour, butter, 
catsup and pepper, if necessary. Boil turnips and carrots, cut tliem 
small, and add to the mutton stewed in the gravy, with the yolka of 
hard boiled eggs, and forced meat balls. 

biiTATiON Apple Buttek. — Vinegar, 1 qt. ; cheap molasses 1 qt. ; 
mbc together, set over the fire till it commences to cook ; take it off, 
add 10 tablespoonfuls of wheat flour, and cold water to make a bat- 
ter, then add 1 qt. scalding water, stir and cook for fifteen minutes. 

Lemon Syrup. — Havana sugar, 1 lb. , boil in water down to a quart, 
drop in tlie white of 1 egg, and strain it. Add i oz. tartaric acid ; let 
it stjind 2 days ; shako often ; 12 drops essence of lemon will much 
improve it 

SuTEKiOR Raisin "Wine. — ^Take 30 lbs. of chopped raisins free from 
stems and dust; put them in a large keg, add to them 10 gals, soft 
water; let them stand two weeks unbunged, shaking occasionally 
(warm place in whiter), then strain through woollen, or filter; color 
with burnt sugar ; bottle and cork well for use. The mo'^e raisins the 
better the wine, not exceeding 5 lbs. to each gallon. 

Kaisin Wine equal to SnEKitv. — Boil the proper quantity of 
water and let it stand till cold. To each gal. of this add 4 lbs. of 
chopped raisins, i)reviously well washed, and freed from stalks ; let 
■Jio whole stand for 1 month, stirring frequently; then remove the 
raisins, and biuig up closely for 1 month more ; then rack into another 
vessel, leaving all sediment behind, and repeat till it becomes fine: 
then to every 10 gals. addG lbs. of fine sugar, and 1 doz. of good 
oranges, the rinds being pared very thin, and infused in 2 qts. of 
brandy, which should be added to the liquor at its last racking. Let 
the whole stand three months in the cask, then bottle. It should re- 
main bottled twelve months. To give it the flavor of Madeira, when 
it is in the cask, put in a couple of green citrous, and let them remain 
till the wme is bottled. 

PoKT WINE. — Worked cider, 42 gals. ; good port wine, 12 gals : 
good brandy, 3 gals. ; pure spirits, G gals ; mbc. Elderberries and 
aloes, and the fruit of the black haws, make a fine jiurple color for 
wines, or use burnt sugar. 

Ajierican CiLon-AGNE. — Good cider (crab-apple cider is the best), 
7 gals. ; best fourth-proof brandy, 1 qt. ; genuine champagne wine, 5 
pts. ; milk, 1 gal. ; bitartrato of potassa, 2 oz. ]Mix, let stand a short 
time ; bottle while fermenting. An excellent imitation. 

British Chajipagne. — Loaf sugar, 5G lbs. ; brown sugar (pale), 48 
Ibe. ; water (warm), 45 gals. ; white tartar, 4 oz. ; mix, and at a proper 
temperature add yeast, 1 qt. ; and afterwards sweet cider, 5 gals. ; 
bruised wild cherries, 14 or 15 oz. ; pale spirits 1 gaL ; orris-powder, ^ 
oz. Bottle while fermenting. 

British ]\Iadeira. — Pale malt, 1 bushel; boiling water, 12 gals.; 
mash and strain ; then add white sugar, 4 lbs. ; yeast 1 lb. Fer- 
ment, next add raisui or Cape wine, 3 qts. ; brandy, 3 qts. ; sherry, 2 
qts. ; port, 2 qts. ; bung do\vii. The malt may be' mashed again for 
bottle beer 

Currant and otheu Fruit WrNES. — ^To every gallon of expressed 
juice, add 2 gals, soft water, G lbs. bro'wn sugar, cream tartar, Ih oz. ; 
15 



226 GROCERS AXD COXFECTIOKEKS' KECEirTS. 

and qt. brandy to every G gals. ; some prefer it without Drandy. After 
fermeutition, fcike 4 oz. isinglass dissolved in 1 pt. of the -R-ine, and 
put to each barrel, wliich will fine and clear it: -when it must be 
drawn into clean casks, or bottled, wliich is jirefcrable. 

Blackberuy and STRAwnERur "WiXES are made by taldng the 
above wine when made with jxjrt wine, and for every 10 gals, from 4 
to 6 qts. of the fresh fruit, bruised and strained, are added, and let 
stand four days till the flavor is extracted; when bottUng, add 3 or 
four broken raisins to each bottle. 

MoRELLA WixE. — To cacli quart of the expressed juice of thcmor- 
ella, or tame cherries, add 3 qts. water and 4 lbs. of coarse brown su- 
gar; let them ferment, and skim till worked clear; then draw ofT, 
avoiding the sediment at the bottom. Bimg up, or bottle, which is 
best for all wines, letting the bottles lie always on the side, either for 
wines or beers. 

LoN'DOX Sherry. — Chopped raisins, 400 lbs. ; soft water, 100 gals. ; 
sugar, 45 lbs. ; white tartar, 1 lb. ; cider, IG gals. Let them stand to- 
gether in a close vessel one month ; stir frequently. Tlien add of spirits, 
8 gals. ; wild cherries bruised, 8 lbs. Let them stand one month longer, 
and fine with isinglass. 

English Patent Wintj yuosi RiirBAitB. — To each gai. of juice, 
add 1 gal. soft water, in which 7 lbs. brown sugar have been dissolved; 
fill a keg or barrel with this proportion, leaving the bung out, and keep 
it filled with sweetened water as it works off, until clear. Any other 
vegetable extract may be used if this is not liked ; then bimg down or 
bottle as you please. The stalks will j-ield 2 their weight in juice; 
fine and settle with isinglass as above. This ■\vine will not lead to 
intemperance. 

Various AVixes. — To 28 gals, clarified cider add good brandy 1 gal. ; 
crude fcirtar (this is what is deposited by grape wines), mUJc to settle 
it, 1 pt. ; draw off 3G hours after thorough Ij' mi.xing. 

Ginger AVint:. — Put one oz. of good ginger-root bruised in l qt. 95 
per. cent, alcohol; let it stand nine days, and strain; add 4 cjts. water, 
and 1 lb. white sugar dissolved iu hot water, color with tmctorc of 
ganders to suit. 

Another. — To 1 qt. 95 per cent, alcohol add 1 oz. best ginger-root 
(bruised but not ground), 5 grs. ciipsicum and 1 dr. tartaric-acid. Let 
it stand one week and filter ; now add 1 gal. water in ^^•hich 1 lb. of 
crushed sugar has been boiled. Mix when cold. To make the color, 
boil J oz. cochineal, i oz. cresim tiit;ir, h oz. salcratns, and ^ oz. alum, 
iu 1 pt. of water till yon get a bright-red color. 

To restore Flat Wine. — Add 4 or 5 g;ils. of sugar, honey, or 
.bruised raisins to everj- 100 gals., and bung close; a little spirits may 
be added, to roughen; tike bruised aloes, or powdered catechu, and 
p.dd to the wine in suitable proportions, or add a small quantity of 
l)riiised berries of the mountain ash, to allay inordinate flatness. Let 
it sfcmd 2 hours and bottle, using yea.^t, of course, as before. 

■\Vhite AVrxES are generally fined by isinglass in the proiwrtion of 
1 \ oz. (dissolved in H pts. of water, and thinned with some of the wine) 
t<5 the hogshead. Ii':d Whies are generally fined with the whites of 
eggs, in the proiwrtion of 12 to 18 to each pipe; they must be well 
beaten, to a froth with about 1 pt. of water, and afterwards mixed with 
a little of the wino before addins them to the liquor. Kumniage well 



GROCERS AXD CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 2f27 

CnAiiTAGXE Cider. — Good palo cider, Ihhd. ; spirits, 3 gals. ; sngnr, 
20 lbs.; mix, and let it stand cue fortuight; tlicu line with skimmed 
millc, ^ gal. ; this will be very pale, and a similar article, when pro- 
perly bottled and labelled, opens so brisk, that even good judges 
nave misUvkeu it for geniiino champagne. 

Berlin Cakraavayuokdial. — TakeSgals. spirit, 50 per cent. ;lpz. 
oil of carraway, which you dissolve in spirit 95 per cent. ; 8 lbs. sugar; 
8 lbs. water. Dissolve your sugar in tlio water ; mix, stir and filter. 

Stojiacu Bitters Equal to Hostetters'. — European gentian 
root, li oz. ; orange peel, 2^ oz. ; cimiamon, ^ oz. ; anise seed, ^ oz. ; 
coriander seed, ^ oz. ; cafdamon seed, ^ oz. ; nnground Peruvian 
bark, ^ oz. ; guui kino, i oz. ; bruise all these articles, and put them 
into the best alcohol, 1 pt. ; let it st;ind a week, and pour off the 
clear tincture ; then boil the dregs a few minutes iu 1 qt. of water, 
strain, and press out all the strength ; now dissolve loaf sugar, 1 lb. 
in the hot liquid, adding 6 qts. cold water, and mix with the spirit 
tincture first poured ofJ, or you can add these, and let it stand on 
the dregs if preferred. 

Borer's Bitters. — Riisped quassia, Ih oz. ; calamus, IJ oz. ; pow- 
dered catechu, l]j oz. ; caidamou, 1 oz. ; dried orange peel, 2 oz. ; 
macerate tho above ten days in ^ gal. strong whiskey, and then fil- 
ter, and add 2 gals, water ; color with mallow or malva flowers. 

Cltracoa Cordial, 40 G aes. — Essence of bitter oranges, 2 oz. ; ess. 
of ueroli, 2 oz. ; ess. of cimiamon, ^ oz. ; 3 drs. mace, infused iu alco- 
hol. Dissolve the above essence iu 1 gal. alcohol, 95 per cent. ; 
then put in a clean barrel 13 gals, alcohol, 85 per cent. ; 2G gals, 
sugar syrup, 30 degrees Baume ; and add 1 g:U. perfumed spirit as 
above. Color with saffron or turmeric. 

CuRACOA d'IIollande, 20 Gals. — Curacoa orange-peel, 2 lbs ; ^ lb. 
Ceylon cinnamon. Let them soak in Avater ; l>oil them for five 
minutes Avith tho niice of 32 oranges and 14 gals, of ^ilaiu white 
syrnp ; then add G' gals, alcoliol, 95 jjer cent. ; titraiu, filter ; color 
dark yellow with sugar coloring. 

Anisette Cordial, 40 Gals. — Put iu a barrel 13 gaLs. alcohol, 75 
jjer cent. Dissolve 3^ oz. essence of green anise-seed iu 1 gal. 95 
per cent, alcohol, and add J gal. orange-flower water : 8 or teu drops 
lufusion of mace, and 5 drops essence of ciuuamon. Then put iu the 
barrel 2G gals, sugar syrup, 25 degrees Baume ; stir fifteen minutes, 
and let it rest four orfive days ; then filter. Add 2 or 3 sheets of 
filtering paper. 

Ratafia. — Ratafia may be made with the juice of any fruit. Take 
3 gals, cherry juice, and 4 lbs. sugar, which you dissolve in the juice ; 
steep in 2^ gals, brandy ten days ; 2 drs. cinuamon, 24 closes ; 16 
oz. peach-leaves ; 8 oz. bruised cherry kernels. Filter, mix both 
liquids, aud filter again. 

Arrack Punch Svrut. — 53J lbs. sugar ; 3J gals, water. Boil up 
well ; then add 1§ gals, lemon-juice to tlio boiling sugar, and stir 
till the liquid is clear ; pour it in a clean tub, and when nearly cool, 
add 5 gals. Batavia arrack, then filter. 

SvRurs for Soda Fountains, &c — 1. Simple sirnip. Wliite sugar, 
10 lbs ; water, 1 gal ; best isinglass, J oz. Dissolve the isinglass in 
hot water, and add it to the hot syrup. The syrup is to bo made with 
gentle heat and tlicu strained. 2. Lemon — a — Grate of£ tho yellow rind 



228 GROCEKS AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 

of lemons and beat it up witli a sufficient quantity of granulated 
sugar. Express tho lemon juice, add to eacii pt. of juice 1 pt. of 
water, and 3 lbs. of granulated sugar, including that rubbed with tho 
rind ; warm until the sugar is dissolved and strain. 3. Lemon — h — 
Simple sjTup 1 gal., oU of lemon 25 drops, citric acid 10 drams. Kub 
the oil of lemon with the acid, add a small ix)rtion of syrup, and 
mix. 4. Strawberry — a — Strawberry juice Ipt., simple syrup 3 pints, 
solution of citric acid 2 drams. 5. Strawbenij — b — Fresh strawber- 
ries 5 nts. white sugar 121bs., water, 1 pt. Sprinkle some of the sugar 
over tlie fruit in layers, and allow the whole to stand for several 
hours ; express the juice and strain, washing out the pulp with water ; 
add the remainder of the sugar and water, bring the fluid to the poiut 
of boiling, and then strain. This will keep for a long time. 6. liasp- 
berry. Kaspben-y juice 1 pt., simple sj-rup 3 pts., citric acid 2 drams. 
Raspberry syrup may also be made ni a way similar to No. 5 for 
strawberry. ' 7. Vanilla. — Fluid extract of vanilla 1 oz., citric acid, ^ oz., 
simple syrup 1 gal. Rub the acid with some of the syrup, add tho 
extract of vanilla, and mix. 8. Vanilla Cream. — Fluid extract of 
vanilla 1 oz., simple syruiJ 3 pts., cream or condensed milk 1 pt. ; may 
be colored with carmine. 9. Cream. — Fresh cream 1 pt., fresh milk 1 
pt, powdered sugar 1 lb. ; mix by shaking, and keep in a cool place. 
The addition of a few grains of bicarbonate of soda will for some 
time retard souring. 10. Ginger. — Tincture of ginger 2 fluid ozs. 
simple syrup 4 pts. 11. Oranr/e. — Oil of orange 30 drops, tart:iric acid 
4 drams, simple syrup 1 gal. Rub the oil with the acid, and muc. 12. 
Pineapple. — Oil of pineapple 1 dram, tartaric acid 1 dram, simple 
syrup6pts. 13. Orgeat. — Cream syrup Ipt., vanilla syrup Ipt., oil of 
bitter almonds 4 drops. 14. Nectar. — Vanilla syrup 5 pts., jiineapplo 
syrup Ipt., strawberry, raspberry or lemon 2 pts. 15. Sherbet. — 
Vanilla syrup 3 pts., ])ineapplo 1 pt., lemon syrup 1 pt. IG. Grape.—^ 
Brandy | of a pt, spirits of lemon J oz., tincture of red sanders 2 ozs., 
simple syrup 1 gal. 17. Banana. — Oil of banana 2 drams, tartaric acid 
1 dram, simi^lo syrup G pts. 18. Coffee. — Coffee roasted i lbs., boiling 
water 1 gal. Enougli is filtered to make about ^gal. of the infusion, 
to which add granulated sugar 7 lbs. 19. M'ild Cherry. — Wild cherry 
bark coarse powder, 5 ozs. Moisten the bark with Mater, and let it 
stand for 24 hours in a close vessel. Then pack it firmly in a per- 
colator, and pour water upon it until 1 pt. of fluid is obtained. To 
this add 28 ozs. of sugar, 20. Wintergreen. — Oil of wintergreen 25 
drops, simijle syrup 5 pts., and a sufficient quantity of bui-nt sugar to 
color. 21. Sarsaparilla — a — Oil wintergreen 10 drops, oil of anise 10 
drops, oil of sassafras 10 drops, fluid extract of sarsaparilla 2 ozs. 
simple syrup 5 pts. , powdered extract of licorice 1 oz. 22. Sarsaparilla 
— J*— -Simple syrup 4 pts., compound syrup of sarsaparilla 4 fluid ozs., 
caramel 1^ ozs., oil of wintergreen G drops, oil of sassafras 6 drops. 
23. Maple. — Maple sugar 4 lbs., water 2 pts. 24. Chocolate. — Best 
chocolate 8 ozs., water 2 pts., white sugar 4 lbs. Mix the chocolate 
in water, and stir thoroughly over a slow fire. Strain, and add the 
sugar. 25. Coffee Cream. — Coffee sjTup 2 pts., cream 1 pt. 2G. ^»i- 
brosia. — ^Raspberry syrup 2 pts., vanilla 2 pts., hock Avino 4 ozs. 27. 
Hock and Claret. — Hock or claret wme 1 pt, simple syrup 2 pts. 28. 
Solferino. — Brandy 1 pt., simple syrup 2 pts. 29. Fruit Acid. — (Used 
is some of tlio synips). Citric acid 4 ozg., water, 8 ozs. Most of the 



CnOCEKS AND CONFECTIONEKS' RECEIPTS. 229 

pyrups not made from fruits may have a littlo gam arable added in 
order to produce a rich froth. 

BuTYKic Ether is much used to impart a pine anple flavor to 
rum. Dissolved in 8 or 10 parts of alcohol, it forms the pine apple 
essence. From 20 to 25 drops of this essence, added to 1 lb. 8uj,'ar, 
contiimng a littlo citric acid, imi>arta to the mixture a strong taste of 
pine apple. 

Amylo- Acetic Ethek is a preparation of fruit-oil and other ingre- 
dients, and when diluted with alcohol, it is sold as essence of Jargonelle 
pear, and is used for flavoring different liquors. Fifteen parts amylo- 
acetic ether, with half a part of acetic etlier, dissolved in 100 parts of 
alcohol, form what may be called the Bcrf/amot-pcar essence, which, 
when employed to flavor sugar, acidulated with a little citric acid, im- 
parts the odor of the Bergamot pear, and a fruity, tefreshing taste. 

rELARGOXATE OR Etuylio Ether (pelargouic ether), has llio 
agreeable odor of the quince, and, when dissolved in alcohol in duo 
proiwrtion, forms the quince essence. 

Acetate of Amylic Ether (same as amylo ether), mixed with 
hulyric ether, forms in alcoholic solution the banana essence. 

Valerianate of Ajiylic Ether. — An alcoholic solution of this 
ether in the proportion of 1 part to G or 8 of alcohol, forms a flavoring 
liquid under the name of apple essence. 

Milk Poxch. — Oue tablespoonful of fine white sugar, 2 ditto of 
water, 1 wine glass of Cognac brandy, i ditto Santa Cruz rum, J tum- 
blerful of shaved ice; fill with milk. Shako the ingredients well to- 
gether, and grate a little nutmeg on top. To make it hot, use hot milk 
and no ice. 

Glasgow Puxch. — Ifelt lump-sn^jar in cold water, with the juice 
of a couple of lemons, passed through a fine Avire strainer; this is sher- 
bet, and most be well muigled. Then add old Jamaica rum, one part 
of rum to five of sherbet. Cut a couple of lemons in two, and run 
each section rapidly around the ed";o of the jug or bowl, gently 
squeezing in some of the delicate acid, when all is ready. 

Mint Julep. — One tablespoonful of white pulverized sugar, 2J ditto 
water ; mix well with a spoon. Take 3 or 4 sprigs of fresh mint, press 
them well in the sugar and water, add 1^ wine glasses of Cognac 
brandy, and fill the glass ^vith shaved ice, then draw out the sprigs of 
mint, and insert them in the ice with tlie stems downwards, so that 
the leaves will be above in the shape of a bouquet; arrange berries and 
small pieces of sbced orange on top in a tasty manner, dash Avith 
Jamaica rum, and sprinkle sugar on top. Sip with a glass tube 
or straw. 

Cider Nectar. — One qt. cider, 1 bottle soda water, 1 glass sherry, 
1 small glass brandy, juice of half a lemon, peelof Jof a lemon, sugar 
and nutmeg to taste. Flavor it with extract of pine apple, strain, and 
ice it all well. 

Half and Half. — In London, this drink is made by mixing half 

Eorter and half ale ; in America, it is made by mixing half new and 
alf old ale. 

Apple Toddt. — One tablespoonful of fine white sugar, 1 wine- 
glass of cider brandy, A of a baked apple. Fill the glass two-thirds 
full of boiling water, and grate a little nutmeg on top. 
Applb Punch. — Lay La a china bowl slices of apples and lemons 



230 GROCERS AXD CONFECTIONERS' RECEirXS. 

alternately, each layer being thicldy strewed •with powdered sugar. 
Pour over the fruit, when the bowl is half filled, a bottle of claret; 
cover, and let it sfcind for 6 hours. Then pour it through a musliu 
bag, and it is all ready. 

Old Man's Milk. — One wme-glass of port wine, 1 teaspoonful of 
Bugar. Fill the tumbler one third full of hot milk. 

rKRFECT Love. — One tablespoonful sugar, 1 piece each of orango 
and lemon peel. Fill the tumbler one-third full of shaved ice, and 
fill balance with wine ; ornament in a tasty manner "with berries in 
season ; sip through a straw. 

Molasses Candy. — West-Indian molasses, 1 gallon ; brown sugar, 
2 lbs. ; boil the molasses and sugar in a preservmg kettle over a 
slow fire ; when done enough it will cease boiling ; stir frequently, 
and when nearly done, stir in the juice of four lemons or two tea- 
spoonfuls of essence of lemon • afterwards butter a pan, and ix)ur 
out. 

Confectioners' Colors.— iiet?, cochineal, 1 oz. ; boil 5 ramutes 
in half puit water ; then add cream tartar, 1 oz. ; pounded alum, i 
oz. ; boil 10 minutes longer, add sugar, 2 oz. ; and bottle for use" 
Jiliie, put a little warm water on a plate, and rub in indigo till the 
required color is got. Yelloio, rub with some water a little yellow 
gamboge on a plate, or infuse the heart of a j^ellow-lily flower with 
milk-warm water. Green, boil the leaves of spinach about 1 minute 
in a little water, and. wlien strained, bottle for use. 

To Candy Sugar. — Dissolve 2 parts of double refined sugar iu 1 
of water. Great care must be taken that tlie svrup does not boil 
over, and that the sugar is not burnt. Tlie first degree is called the. 
thread, which is subdivided into the liUle and great thread ; if you 
dip your finger in the syrup, and apply it to the thumb, tlie tenacity 
of the syrup will, on separating the finger and thumb, afford a thread 
"which shortly breaks, this is the little tliread ; if the thread admits of 
a greater extension of finger and thumb, it is called the great thread; 
by longer boiling you obtain the pearl, which admits of being drawn 
"without breaking by tlie utmost extension of finger and thumb ; 
this makes candied sugar: by further boiling you obtain the bloio,- 
whicli is known by dipping a skimmer with holes in the syrup, and 
blowing through them ; if bubbles are perceived, you have got the 
blow. The fcailie}- implies more numerous bubbles, and then the sugar 
"Will fly off like flakes while the skimmer is being tossed. By boil- 
ing longer, you obtain the crack ; it will crack when broken, and does 
not stick to the teeth ; dip a teaspoon into the sugar, and let it drop to 
tlie bottom of a pan of cold water. If the sugar remains hard, it has 
attiined the degree termed crack. 

Fig Candy, — Take 1 lb. of sugar and 1 pint of water ; set over a 
slow fire. When done add a few drops of vinegar and a lump of but- 
ter, and pour into pans in wliich split figs are laid. 

Raisin Candy can be made in the same manner, substituting 
stoned raisins for the figs. Common molasses candy is very nice 
with all kinds of nuts added. 

Scotch Butter Candy. — Take 1 lb. of sugar and 1 pint of water; 
dissolve and boil. When done, add one tablesix>oiiful of butter, 
and enough lemon juice and oil of lemon to fLavor. 

CoiuioN LE3ION Can^dy.— Take 3 lbs. coarse bro"mi sugar : add to 



GUOCEKS AND COXFECTIONERS' IlECEIPTS. 231 

it three teacupfuls of water, and set over a slo-w fire lor half 
auhour; put to it a littlt gum arable dissolved in hot water; this is 
to clear it. Coutiuue to take off the scum as long as any rises. When 
l^erfectly clear, try it by dipping a pipe-stem first into it and then into 
cold water, or by taking a spoonful of it into a saucer; if done, it will 
snap like glass. Flavor with essence of lemon and cut it into sticks. 

PEPrEii.^iiNT, Rose, or Horkuounb Candy. — They may be made 
as lemon candy. Flavor with essence of rose or peppermint or finely 
powdered horehound. Pour it out in a buttered paper, placed in a 
square tin pan. 

Popped Conx, dipped in boiling molasses, and stuck together, forms 
an excellent candy. 

Rock Cakdy. — To make fine rock candy, clarify double refined 
white sugar, filter it, and boil it till it is ready to crystallize, or 
Lolled to a blister. The boiling sugar must measure 35° on the syrui> 
weight, a degree more or less p^e^•ents its crystallization. Then tako 
a brass kettle, of about 16 or 18 inches diameter and from G to 8 inches 
deep, smooth and polished on the inside. Make 8 or 10 small holes at 
equal distances from each other in a circle around the sides of tho 
kettle, about 2 inches from the bottom ; pass threads through theso 
from one side to the other, and stop the holes on the outside with pasto 
or paper to prevent the syrup from running out. Having thus pre- 
pared the kettle, pour in the syrup, till it rises about an "inch above 
the threads; then place it in a stove moderately heated, and leave it 
to crystallize, agitating it from time to time. The crystallization will 
take place in six or seven days. As soon as the crystals are formed, 
pour off the remaining syrup, and throw in a little water to wash tho 
crystals that are left at the bottom of the vessel. So soon as the mas» 
is thoroughly draiend set it in a very hot stove, leave it for two days, 
when it is fit for use. Straic-colored rock candy is made by sub- 
stituting brown for loaf su^ar. Tho syrup must bo boiled over a veiy 
hot fire in order to render the candy perfectly Avhite. The sides of tho 
kettle should be sponged repeatedly during tho boUing process, to 
prevent the sugar from adhering and. burning. 

Orange Rock Candy is made by flavoring the syrup with a couplo 
of . teaspoonf uls of orange flower water, and coloring with saffron, 
just as the syrup is about to be taken from the fire. Jlose Rock Candy 
is flavored with rose water, and colored with clarified carmine lake. 
Vanilla Rock Candy is perfumed with vanilla, and colored with liquid 
violet. The degree of coloring may be tested by dropping a little of 
the colored syrup on a sheet of white paper. 

Ginger Candy. — Dissolve 1 lb. double-refined sugar in ^ pint of 
spring water; set it over a clear fire, and let it boU to a thin syrup. 
Ilave ready a teaspoonful of powdered ginger, mix it smootlily with 
2 or 3 spoonfuls of the syrup, then stir it gradually into the whole. 
Boll the mixture into a flake, watching it carefully, that it may not 
exceed this point ; then add the freshly grated rind of a large lemon, 
and stir the sugar constantly and rapidly until it fall in a mass from 
the spoon, without sinking when dropped upon a plate. If boiled 
for a moment beyond the point, it will fall into a powder. Should 
tills happen by nustake, add a little water, and boil to the proper con- 
sistency. Dip the candy from the kettle, and drop it in small cakea 
ui>ou buttered pans, then set it away to cooL 



i532 GKOCERS AND CONFECTIONERS' nECEIPTS. 

CnEAJt Cakdt. — To 3 lbs. of loaf sngar add ^ pt. vater, and set it 
over a slow fire for half an hour; then add a teaspoonfiil of gum 
arable dissolved, and a tablespoonful of Tinegar. Boil it till it is brit- 
tle, then take it off, and flavor witli vanilla, rose, or orange. Rub tlio 
hands with sweet butter, and pull the candy till it is white; then twist 
or break it, or stretch it out into thin white strips, and cut it off. 

liiiD Vekditk Sugared Almonds. — Dry the almonds in a stove by , 
n blow fire. "Wlien drj^ enough to snap between the teeth, put them 
into a swinging basin and gnm them by throwing over them a little 
gum arable solution, cold ; swing them constantly till dry ; then give 
them another coating of gum arabic mixed with 4 oz. sugar, and 
swing them again till dry, using no fire. When they are thoroughly 
dry, set them over a moderate fire. Dissolve some sngar in orange 
or rose water, not too thin, set it over the fire 2 or 3 minutes, strain it 
through a sieve, and pour it over the almonds in the basin. Swing 
them till they are thoroughly coated and dried; then add another 
coatmg, composed of 2 parts of carmine, one part of gum, and one part 
of sugar, and proceed as before. If the almonds are not perfectly 
covered, give them a coating in which there is considerable gum; and 
when thoroughly moistened, throw on them some sifted sugar, stir 
till the mixture is all absorbed, then add successive coatings of sngar 
till they are large enough, and put them into the stove to remain till 
the next day, wlien m order to ivhiten them, you will proceed to boil 
6 or 7 lbs. of fine clarified sugar to a blister, add 1 lb. of starch after 
taking it from the fire, stiring it constantly till a paste is formed a 
little thicker than that used for pastilles ; a few drops of blue lake 
may be adde<l to produce a pearl white. Put the almonds, wann, in- 
to the swinging basin, add enough of the prepared sugar to coat them, 
swing the basin till they are nearly dry, then set on the fire to finish 
the drying, then take the basin off the fire, heap them up in the mid- 
dle, so as to allow the bottom of the vessel to cool ; then add the coat- 
ing of sugar, swing and dry them as before, and continue the process 
until 4 successive coatuigs of equal thickness have been given; then 
heat them well in the basin, put them into pans, and set them iji the 
stove to remain over night. You will then proceed to polish them by 
giving them a coat of the prepared sugar and starch, and shake them 
violently until they are quite dry ; give them another coating and pro- 
ceed as before, and continue the ])roces3 until they have received 4 
successive coatings, when they will generally be found sufficiently 
polished. "WTien the polishuig is finished, put the almonds over a fire 
and stir gently till all are thoroughly heated, then place ia a stove till 
the next day in a wicker basket lined with paper. 

Spanish Sugared Almonds. — JIake verdun sugared almonds 
about the size of pigeon's eggs, whiten and polish them by the pre- 
vious directions, and paint different designs on them when completed. 

Superfine Vanilla Sugared Almonds. — Proceed m the samo 
manner as in the manufacture of verdun sugared almonds, make 
the solution of sugar in pure water ; crush the essence of vanilla 
with a little sugar, and put in the solution. 

CoJoiON Sugared Almonds. — Common almonds, 20 lbs., sugar 8 
lbs., farina, 20 lbs., starch, 2 lbs. Heat the almonds m the swinging 
bnsm, when they boil, make them into a pulp with diluted starch ; 
give first a warm then a cold coating, cover them with farina, shaking 



GROCERS AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 233 

tbc basin violently ; then, when the almonds have been coated to the 
requisite size, spread them out on sieves ; after a fortnight put them 
in a stove to finish drying : vrliiten them, and finish by the process 
described for tlie fine sugared almonds. 

SuPEKFLNE Chocolate Sugaked Almonds. — Caniccasa cacao nuts, 
shelled and roasted, 20 lbs., Martinique sugar, 16 lbs., vanilla 4 drs., 
starch 10 oz. The same method is required as for the superfine 
vauiUa sugar plums, but care must be taken in adding the coatings 
of gum, to touch the cacao nuts lightly, as they are very easily broken. 

SuPEKFiNE SuGAKED FiLBEKTS.— FUbcrts, 50 Ibs., sugar, 4 lbs., 
starch, 4 oz. Employ the same process as for sugared almonds and 
flavor to taste. Kose water is generally preferred on account of its 
color and fragrance. 

CoKLANDER SuGAK Plujis. — Coriander, 2 lbs., farina, 30 lbs., sugar, 
14 lbs. The washings of the basin are added to the coriander and 
farina without making a paste, and the method is followed that has 
been prescribed for the common sugared almonds ; 8 lbs. of sugar 
are used to whiten them, and 6 to polish them ; color after bemg 
polished with carmine, Prussian blue, and saffron. 

CoKiAXDEit IN Bottles. — Coriander, 10 lbs., farina, 10 lbs., sugar 
for the whitening, 3 lbs., starch, 1 lb. These are simply colored, and 
do not require brilliancy. They are made of the size of small peas, 
and are put into little bottles. In making these foUow the receipt for 
common sugared almonds. 

Anise-seed Sugab Plixms. — Dry 2 lbs. of green anise-seed in the 
stove ; rub it in the hands to break off the stems, winnow to rid of 
dust, then put it in a swinging basin, and coat it with sugar boiled to 
a thread, so as to render the candies hard and brittle. \Vlien coated 
sufficiently, whiten and polish them, like the verdun sugared almonds. 
They vary in size, being generally as large as a pea. 

Mint Sugab Plums. — Dry some peppermint seed ip a stove and 
coat it in the same manner as anise seed (it must not, however, be 
whiter than rape seed), whiten and finish like anise seed. The first 
coating is sometimes composed of equal parts of peppermint and 
sugar. 

Common Twist Candy. — Clarify 3 lbs. of common brown sugar, 
and boil it till it is brittle, take it from" the fire, pour it in buttered 
pans ; rub the hands with a little butter, and as soon as it is cooled, 
pull it as you would molasses candy imtil it is perfectly white ; then 
twist and braid it, and cut it into sticks. 

CAiiAMEL is made by boiling clarified sugar till it is very brittle, 
then pouring it on an oUed slab or sheet of tin, and, as soon as it 
is cool enough to receive an impression with tho finger, stamijing 
it in small squares, about an inch in size, with a caramel mould ; 
then turning over the mass, wiping the bottom to remove any oil 
that may have adhered from the slab, and putting it in a dry place to 
harden. If you have no caramel mould, you may score it on tho 
slab with a common case knife, after which they are glazed with an- 
other coating with sugar. Keep them tightly closed from the air af- 
ter they are made. 

Lemon Cabamel is made by grating tho yellow rind of a lemon 
with a lump of sugar ; add to this a few drops of lemon juice with 
water enough to dissolve the sugar completely and stir the whole in- 



234 GROCEKS AND COKFECTIONEIIS EECEirTS. 

to the boiled syrup a few minutes before it is taken from tlic fire. 
Oranfje and Lime caramels are prepared in the same manner from 
these respective fruits. Coffee caramel, coffee, 2 02., sugar 1 lb. Mako 
an infusion of the coiTee, lising as little water as possible ; strain it 
through a cloth, and stir it gradually into the boiled syrup a few 
minutes before taking it from the tire. Chocolate caramel, choco- 
late, 4 oz., sugar 1 lb. Dissolve the chocolate in as little water as pos- 
Bible, and add it to the boiled sngiir, as in the coffee caramels. Van- 
illa and Orange cream caramels are made by using the respective es- 
sences of these fruits. 

Cocoa Nut Caxdy.— Pare and cut cocoa-nut into slips, or grato 
on a coarse grater the white meat of cocoa-nuts luitil you Lave h a 
ix)und ; dissolve h lb. of loaf sugar in 2 tablespoonfuls of water ; put 
it over tlie fire, and, as soon as it boils, stir in the cocoa-nut. Con- 
tmue to stir it imtil it is boiled to a flake, then pour it on a buttered 
pan or marble slab, and cut in whatever forms you wish, when it is 
nearly cold. Lemon or other flavors may be added. 

Caxdy Drops or Pastillks.— Pound and sift donblo-refined su- 
gar, first through a coai-se, and then through a fine sieve. Put the 
sugar into an earthen vessel, and dilute it with the flavoring extract, 
mixed with a little water. If too liquid, the syrup will be too thin, 
and the drops will run together ; while, if too thick, the syrup will bo 
too compact, and cannot be poured out easily. AVhen the sugar is 
mixed in a ratlier stiff paste, put it in a small saucepan with a spout 
and set it over the fire. As soon as it begius to bubble up the sides 
of the saucepan, stir it once in the middle, take it from tlie fire, and 
drop it in small lumps, of the size and shape required, u|X)u sheets of 
thi, to stand for 2 hours, then put tliem in the stove to Imisli drying. 
As soon as they are perfectly hard and brilliant, take them from tho 
fire, otherwise they will lose their aroma. Color thesyiup just be- 
fore taking it from the fire. 

Orakgk, jAssirN"E, AXD Clo^TlS Drops are made by mixing the 
above iwste with these respective cxtmcts : 

FoK Salad Drops. — Water distilled from lettuce is used. 

Saffrox Drops. — Make an infusion of saffron, strain it, let it 
cool, use it to mix the jjaste, and proceed as before. 

Heliotrope Drops. — Proceed in the same manner, flavoring tho 
paste with a few drops of oil of neroli, or oil of orange, jasmine and 
tube-rose, and color -violet. 

PiXK Drops. — Flavor the taste with tincture of red pinks, and 
color with carmine lake. 

CiXNAJiox Drops. — Mix 5 drs. powdered cinnamon and 8 oz. of 
engar with mucilage enough to make it into a jiaste, and proceed 
as above. 

Chewixo GtTM. — Take of prepared balsam of tnln. 2 oz. ; white 
sugar loz., oatmeal 3 oz., soften the gum in water bath and mix in 
the ingredients ; then roll in finely powdered sugar or flour to form 
sticks to suit 

Marshji-ullow axd Licorice drops arc made tlic same way. 

Rose Drops. — ilix the jmstc with rose water, and color with 
carmine lake. Proceed as above. 

Lemox axd Or.vkge Drops. — Rasp off tlie yellow rind of an orange 
or lemon; mix the raspings with double-refined sugar; add 5 gra. of 



GKOCERS AKD CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 235 

tartaric acid to every ponnd of sugar, color with yedow lake or saffron, 
luid proceed as before. If t<')0 much tartaric acid is ^scd, the candies 
will adhere to the sheets of tin. 

Violet Drops. — Flavor the paste with tmcture of Florence iris, 
and color with blue and carmmo lakes. A few drops of tartiiric acid 
may be added to Kusfciin the bine. 

Coffee Dkops. — Substitute a strong, filtered hifusion of coffee 
for water, in mixing tlie jiaste. 

CnocoLATK Drops. — For every ponnd of sugar, take 5 pts. good 
chocolate, pulverize it, and mix it into a paste, as already directed, 
talking care not to boil the paste too long, lest it granulate, and become 
unfit for use. 

Vanilla Drops. — Wix the paste with extract of van.xia, or finely- 
ground vanilla bean ; to which add 2 oz. 3 grs. of tartaric acid, dis- 
eolved in water, to sustain the blue, Avithout which it would disappear. 

Ijiit.\tion Currant Drops. — 3Iix the paste with water, adding a 
little essence of raspberry and of violet, or Florence iris, with a little 
tai-taric acid dissolved in water; color with carmine, and proceed as 
above. 

Peppkrjiixt Drops — Dissolve finely-powdered sugar with a iittio 
strong peppermint- water in a saucepan with a spout. As soon as it is 
thoroughly dissolved, add an equal quantity of coarse-grained sugar 
with a few drops more of the peppermint, stir the whole for a few 
moments, then drop the mixture on paper, and dry it in the open air. 
In the same way are made lemon, rose, vanilla, and other drops. 
Citric and tiirtaric acid may be used to increase the acidity of lemon 
drops. 

Extempouaneous Pastilles. — Make the paste as usual, without 
flavoring the water, drop the pastilles upon paper, leave them for two 
Lours, then take them off and put tliem into the stove to dry. When 
wanted for use, put the quantity required into a large-raouthcd jar. 
and flavor as desired. For instance, to make 2 lbs. of peppermint 
drops, take 5 pts. of sulphuric ether in which are diluted a few drops 
of essence of peppermint, and pour it over the candies, then cover 
the jar, and shake it until they are thoroughly moistened ; then place 
them on a sieve, and set them in the stove for 5 minutes, evaporate 
the ether. In this manner rose, orange, lemon, jonquil, tube-rose, 
mignonette, clove, cimiamon, or any other drops may be made, dis- 
Bolviug their essential oils in sulphuric ether. 

GtNGEK Candy Tablets. — Take 1 lb. loaf sugar, a few drops of 
acetic acid or the juice of half a lemon, a dessert-spoonful of essence 
of Jamaica ginger. Boil the sugar with just water cnoiigh to 
dissolve it to the ball degree, then add the acid and the essence, 
and rub the sugar with the back part of the bowl of a silver spoon 
up against the sides of the sugar-boiler to whiten or grain it sufTi- 
cientiy to give to the whole an opalized appearance; then iwur it 
into very small-sized moulds, measuring half an inch or an inch 
oblong square, or else into a tin pan, the bottom part of which is 
marked out in small tablets, so that the cnndy may be easily broken 
into squares when diy. Smear the moulds slightly with oil of al- 
monds. When the sugar is poured into the moulds, place in the screen 
for half an hour or more, to dry them hard. 
• OiSuVNGE Floweii CtVNDV Tablets.— Ingredient : 1 lb. loaf sugar, 



236 GROCERS AND CONFECTIONERS' RECEIPTS. 

a tiblGspoonfnl of oranjje-flo-wer water, and a few drops of acetic 
acid. Proceed as directed iu the preceding. No color. 

Vanilla C/\ja)Y Tablets. — Ingredients ; ] lb. loaf sugar, a few 
drops of essence of vanilla, sugar, and a few drops of acetic acid. 
Proceed as for ornaments in grained sugar. 

Peppermint Candy Tablets. — Ingredients : 1 lb. of loaf sugar, 
a few drops of essence of peppermint, and a few drops of acetic acid. 
Proceed as above. No color. 

Liquor Candy Tablets. — Ingredients : 1 lb. of loaf sugar, and 
a gill of any kind of liquor. Boil the sugar to the crack, then in- 
corporate the liquor, and finish as in the preceding. No color. 

Cinnamon Candy Drops. — Use 1 lb. loaf sugar, and a few drops 
essence of ciimamon. I'rocced as in the last. This may be colored 
rose pink, the color is to be added while the sugar is boiling. 

Clove C^vndy Tablets are prepared in the same way as the fore- 
going, essence of cloves being used instead of cinnamon. 

liosE Candy Tablets. — Use 1 lb. loaf sugar, a few drops of es- 
sence of roses, a few drops of acetic acid, and a few drops of prepared 
cochineal. Proceed as in the preceding. 

Fruit Candy Tablets. — Use 1 lb. of loaf sugar, J pint of the juice 
of any kind of fruit, either currants, cherries, strawberries, rasp- 
berries &c., extracted by pressing with a spoon through a clean hair 
sieve. Boil the sugar to the crack, then incorporate the fruit juice 
by rubbing it with the sugar, as directed in the preceding, and finish 
the candies as therein indicated. 

To free Molasses from its Sharp Taste, and to render 
IT FIT to be used INSTEAD OF SuGAR. — Take 24 lbs. molasses, 2i 
lbs. water, and G lbs. of charcoal, coarsely pulverized ; mix them in a 
kettle, and boU the whole over a slow wood fire. When the mixture 
lias boiled half an hour, pour it into a flat vessel, in order that the char- 
coal may subside to the bottom ; then pour off the liquid, and place it 
over the fire once more, that the superfluous water may evaporate 
and the molasses be brought to its former consistence. 24 lbs. of 
molasses will produce 24 lbs. of syrup. 

Pepper:«int Lozenges. — Ingredients : 1 oz. of picked gum traga- 
canth soaked with 5 oz. of tepid water in a gallipot (this takes some 6 
hours), and afterwards squeezed and wrung through a cloth, about 1;^ 
lbs. of fine icmg sugar, and a teaspoonful of essence of pejipermint. 
Work the prepared gum with the flattened fist on a very clean slab 
until it becomes perfectly white and elastic, then gradually work in 
the sugar, addiug the peppermint when the paste has become a com- 
pact, smooth, elastic substance ; a few drops of thick, wet, cobalt 
blue should also be added while working the paste, to give a brilliant 
whiteness. The paste thus prepared is to be rolled out with fine su- 
gar dredged over the slab to the thicluiess of two penny pieces, then if 
you possess a ribbed rolling-pin, use to roll the paste again in cross 
directions, so as to imprint on its whole surface a small lozenge or 
diamond pattern. You now use your tin cutter to stamp out the loz- 
enges ; as you do so place them on sugar powdered baking sheets to 
dry in the screen. 

Ginger Lozenges. — Proceed as in the last; use a tablespoonful of 
essence of ginger, or 1 oz. of ground ginger to flavor, and a few drops 
of thick wet gamboge to color the paste. Jlorehouml Lozenf/ct. In- 



GROCEKS AND COKFECTIOXERS' RECEIPTS. 237 

prcdicnts : 1 oz. of gnra dragon soaked in a gill of very strong extract 
of hoiehoimd, 1^ lbs of fine icing sugar. Proceed as for the pepi^er- 
miiit lozenges. Cinnamon Lozenges arc prepared in the same 
manner as ginger or peppermint, with this difference only; a dessert- 
spoonful of essence of cinnamon is to be used in the flavoring of them, 
a few drops of thick, ground, -wet-burnt umber should be used with a 
pinch of carmine to give the paste the tinge of cinnamon color Clova 
Lozenges. The same as peppermint lozenges, using essence of cloves 
for flavoring, and burnt umber to color the paste. Orange Lozenges. 
Ingredients: 1 oz. prepared gum, 1^ lbs. sugar, 2 oz. of orange-sugar, 
the gum to be soaked in 2 oz. of orange flower water. Proceed as for 
peppermint lozenges. Lemon Lozenges. Ingredients : 1 oz. prepared 
gum, 1^ lbs. of icing sugar, 2 oz. of lemon sugar, and a few drops of 
acetic acid. Colt' s foot Lozenges. Ingredients : 1 oz. of gum dragon 
soaked in 2 oz. of orange flower water, \\ lb. of fine icing sugar, and 
i oz. of essence of colt's foot. Proceed as for peppermint lozenges. 
Vaycnne and Catechu lozenges. Ingredients : 1 oz. of gum dragon 
soaked in 2 oz. of water, 2 lbs. fine icing sugar, ^ oz. essence of 
cayenne, and ^ oz. of pre^iared catechu. Proceed as for ijeijpermint 
lozenges. 

Gum Pastilles, or Jpjubes. — Ingredients: 1 lb. of picked gum 
arable, 14 oz. of the finest sugar pounded and sifted, \ gill of double 
orange flower water, and 1 \>t. tejnd \sater to soak the gum in, Avhich 
is afterwards to be strained off clean. Put the soaked and strained 
gum into a sugar boiler with the sugar, and use a clean spoon to stir 
it over a very moderate fire, while it boils and reduces to the small 
pearl degree; then add the orange flower water, stir all together oa 
the fire, remove the preparation from the stove, skim off the froth, 
and use the mixture to cast the jujubes in levelled layers of starch 
powder contained in a flat box. 

Spanish Licorice Jujubes. — Ingredients : 1 lb. picked gum arable, 
14 oz. of sugar, and 2 oz. of Spanisli licorice dissolved in a gill of hot 
water, and afterwards strained clean. First prepare tlie gum and 
boil it with sugar as directed in the preceding article, and when 
reduced by boiling to the small pearl degree, incorporate the prepared 
Spanish licorice with it, remove the scum from the surface, and finish 
the jujubes in the maimer indicated above. Rasphemj Jujubes. 
Ingredients : 1 lb. picked gum arable soaked in 1 pint of hot water 
and afterwards strained, 14 oz. of sugar, 1 gill of filtered raspberry 
juice, and a few drops of cochineal. Proceed as directed in the 
foregoing case, adding the raspberry and coloring last. Black Cur- 
rant Jujubes. Proceed in all respects as indicated for raspberry 
jujubes, omitting the cochineal, black currant juice being used. Red 
Currant Jujubes. — The same as black currant jujubes, red currant 
juice being used and a few drops of cochineal. Ordinary Jujubes. 
Ingredients : 1 lb. gum arable soaked m 1 pt. of hot water and after- 
wards strained, 14 oz. sugar, h oz. essence of roses, and a few drops 
of prepared cochineal. Let the mixture be prepared as for other 
jujubes, but instead of ca.sting thcni in impressions made m starch- 
powder, when the preparation is ready, pour it into a very clean 
smooth tinned baking sheet to the depth of a quarter of an inch, and 
set it to dry in the screen, or hot closet (moderate heat) ; when suffi- 
ciently dried, so that on pressing the surface it proves soracAvhat 



238 GROCERS AND CONFECTIONEES' KECEIPTS. 

elastic to the toucli, remove it from tlie heat, and allow it to become 
cold ; the sheet of jujube may then be easily detached, and i:j to bo 
cut up Avith scissors iii the shape of diamonds. 

Stick Apple Sugar. —Boil the sugar to caramel, flavor with apple 
juice together with tartaric or otlicr acid, pour it on a marble slab, 
draw it into sticks, cut them of equal length, tlien roll them en a slab 
till they are perfectly cold ; when finished, wrap them in tissue-paper 
and put them in fancy envelopes. 

CuKR^VNT AXD Raspeekky Paste Drops, — Ingredients : 1 lb. of 
pulp (the currants and raspberries in. equ.al proportions boiled, and 
afterwards rubbed through a sieve), 1 lb. of sifted sugar. Stir both 
together in a copper sugar-boiler or preservmg pan over a brisk fire, 
nntU the paste becomes sufhcieutlj^ reduced to show the bottom of 
the preserving pan as you draw the spoon across it ; then proceed to 
lay out the drops about the size of a florin, using a sixjuted sugar boiler 
for the purjwse. The drops should then be placed in the screen to 
dry, at a low heat for an hour or so. When the drops are dry, use a 
thhi knife to remove them from the tin sheet on which yon laid tliem 
out, and put them away between sheets of paper in closed boxes, in a 
dry place. Damson Paste Drops. — Ingredients: 1 lb. of dam.son thick 
pulp, 1 lb. bruised sugar. Stir the pulp and sugar on the fire until 
reduced to a thick paste, then proceed to lay out the drops on square 
gheets of poli.slied tin ; dry them in the screen (moderate heat), and 
remove them in the manner aforesaid. These drops may be prepared 
with all kinds of plums and also with gooseben-ies. Pear Paste 
Drops. — Use 1 lb. pear pulp (made by peeling the pears, and boiling 
them to a pulp with h pt. of cider or perry, and rubbing this through 
a coarse sieve), 1 lb. of bruised sugar. Proceed as for damson 
paste. Apple Paste Drops. — Use 1 lb. of apple ]>ulp (made by peel- 
ing, slicing and boihng the apples with ^ pt. cider), 1 lb. of bruised 
sugar. Proceed as in the foregoing cases, adding a few drops of 
cochineal to half of the paste for the sake of variety. Pine Apple 
Paste Drops. — Use 1 lb. of pine-apple pulp (made by first peeUng, 
and then grating the pine-apple on a dish, using a clean coarse tin 
grater for the puqiose), 1 lb. of bruised sugar. Proceed as in tho 
former cases. 

Vases, Baskets, Fir.i-REs, iV>-iMAi,s, &c., ix Cr.ajxed Scgar. — 
Tlie sugar being boiled to the ball degree, add a few drops of acetic 
acid, and work the sugar with the back part of the bowl of a silver 
tablespoon up against the side of the sugar boiler, fetching up the 
whole in turns, so th.at every portion niaj'- acquire an opalized or 
whitish color. As soon as the sugar has been worked up to this 
stite, which constitutes "graining," ])our it immediately into tho 
ready prepared mould ; and when it has become perfectly set iirm in 
the centre, you may turn the vase, basket, animal, or whatever tho 
object may' be, out of its mould, and place it in tlie screen or hot 
closet to dry. at a very moderate heat. Afterwards they may be 
painted in colors to imitate nature. 

Eveutox Taffy. — To make this favorite and wholesome candy, 
take Ih pounds of moist sugar, 3 ounces, of butter, a teacup and a 
half of water, and one lemon. Boil tlie sugar, butter, water, and 
half the rind of the lemon together; and, when done, — wliich will 
be known by dropping into cold water, when it should be qtiito 



GROCERS AND CONFBCTIOXERS' RECEIPTS. 239 

crisp, — let it stand aside till the boiling hag ceased, and then stir in 
the juice of tlie lemon. Butter a dish, and pour it in about a quarter 
of an inch iu thicliuess. The fire must be quick, aud the taffy 
stirred all the time. 

C.VXDY Fkuit. — Take one ixtnnd of the best loaf sugar; dip each 
lump iuto a bowl of water, and put tlie sugar into your i^rcserving 
kettle. Boil it do^vn, and skim it until perfectly clear, and iu a 
candying state. When sufficiently boiled, have ready the fruits you 
■wish to preserve. Large white grapes, oranges separated into small 
pieces, or preserved fruits, taken out of their syrup and dried, are 
very nice. Dip the fruits into the prepared sugar while it is hot; put 
them in a cold place ; they will soon become hard. 

Jellies wituout Fki'it. — To 1 pint of water put J oz. alum; boil 
a minute or two; then add 4 lbs. white sugar; continue the boiling a 
little; sti-ain while liot; and, when cold, put in half a twenty-five 
cent bottle of extract of vanilla, strawberry, lemon, or any other 
flavor you desire for jelly. 

PnizE Honey. — Good common sugar, 5 lbs.; water, 2 lbs. bring 
jrradually to a boil, skimming when cool; add 1 lb. bees' honey and 4 
drops essence of pepperinuit. If you de.-<ire a better article, use wliite 
sugar, and ^ lb. less water, ^ lb more honey. 

Anotheu. — Coffee sugar, 10 lbs. ; water 3 lbs. ; cream tarfcar, 2ozg. : 
strong vuicgar, 2 tablespoons; white of an egg well beaten; bees 
honey, ^Ib; Lubiu's extract of honeysuckle, 16 drops. Put on tliO' 
sugar and water in a snifcible kettle on the fire; when lukewarm stir 
in the cream tailar and vinegar; add tlio egg; when the sugar is 
nearly melted put in the honey, and stir till it comes to a boil ; take it 
off, let it stand a few minutes; strain, then add tlie extract of honey- 
suclde last; stand over night, aud it is ready for use. Another. — . 
Common sugar, 4 lbs. ; water, 1 pt. ; let them come to a boil, and 
Bkim. Then add pulverized alum, i oz. remove from the fire, and 
etir in cream of tartar, ^ oz. and water, or extract of rose, 1 table- 
spoonful, and it is fit for use. 

To Keep Furixs FiiEsir. — Tlosin 2 lbs. ; tallow, 2 oz. ; bees' -wax, 
2 oz. Melt slowly over the fire iu an iron pot, but don't boil. Take 
the fruit separately, and rub it over with pulverized chalk or whiting 
(to prevent the coating from adhering to the fruit), then dip it into 
the solution once, and hold it up a moment to set the coating, then 
pack away carefully in barrels, boxes, or ovi shelves, iu a cool iilacc. 
Unequalled for preserving apples, pears, lemons, &c. 

Acid Drops. — Pound and sift into a clean jjan 8 ozs. of double 
refined sugar, add slowly as much water as ^viil render the sugar 
sufficiently moist not to stick to the stirring spoon, place the pan 
on a small stove or slow fire, and stir till it nearly boils, remove 
from the fire and stir in i oz. tartaric acid. Place it on the fire for., 
lialf a minute, then dip out small quantities from the pan, and let 
it fall in small drops on a clean tin i)late; remove the drops iu 2 
hours witli a knife. Ready for sale in 24 hours. 

Chocol.\te Cbeam Candy. — Chncolnte scraped fine, J oz., thick 
Cream, 1 pt, best sugar, 3 ozs., lieat it nearly boiling, then remove it 
from the fire and mill it well; when cold, add the whites of 4 or 5 
eggs; whisk rapidly and take up the froth on a sieve. Servo the 
cream iu glasses and pile up tliO froth on to^) of them. 



240 LEATHER WORKERS', &C., RECEITTS. 



TANNERS, CURRIERS, BOOT, SHOE AND RUB- 
BER M'FRS, MARBLE WORKERS, BOOK- 
, BINDERS, &c. 

Best Color for Shoe akd ITARS^sa Edge. — Alcohol, 1 pint ; 
tincture of iron, 1^ ozs. ; extract logwood, 1 oz. ; pulverized nutgalls, 
1 oz. ; soft -water, ^ pint ; sweet oil, ^ oz. ; put tliLs last into tlie alco- 
hol before adding the water. Nothing can exceed the beautiful finish 
imparted to the leather by this preparation. 

Cheap Color for the Edge. — Soft -water, 1 gallon ; extract 
logwood, 1 oz. ; boil tiU the extract is dissolved ; remove from the 
fire, add copperas, 2 oz., bichromate of potash, and gum arable, of 
each ^ oz. , all to be pulverized. 

Beautiful Broxze for Le.vther. — Dis.solve a little of the so-call- 
ed insoluble aniline violet in a little water, and brush the solution over 
the leather : after it dries repeat the process. 

Superior Edge Blackixg. — Soft water 5 gallons; brmg to a boil, 
and add 8 oz. logwood extract, pulverized ; boil 3 minutes, remove 
from the fire, ana stir in 2^ oz. gum arabic, 1 oz. bichromate of potash, 
and 80 grains prussiate of potash. 

For a small quantity of this, use water, 2 quarts ; extract of log- 
-wood, 3 oz. ; gum arabic, 96 grains ; bichromate of potjish, 48 grains; 
prussiate of potash ; 8 grains. Boil the extract in the water 2 minutes; 
remove from the fire and stir in the others, and it is ready for use. 

For tanners' surface blacking, which is not required to take on a 
high poUsh, the gum arabic may be omitted. 

Sizing for Boots a'sv Shoes in Treeing Out. — "Water, 1 quart; 
dissolve in it, by heat, isinglass, 1 oz. ; adding more water to rephice 
loss by evaporation ; when dissolved, add starch, 6 oz. ; extract 
of logwood, beeswax, and tallow, of each, 2 oz. Rub the starch up 
first by pouring on sufficient boiling water for that puqxjse. It 
makes boots and shoes soft and pliable, and gives a splendid appear- 
ance to old stock on the shelves. 

Black Varnish for the Edge. — Take 98 per. cent alcohol, 1 
pint ; shellac, 3 oz. ; rosm, 2 oz. ; pine tuq^eutine, loz. ; lauipblaclc, ^ 
oz. ; mix : and when the gums are all cut, it is ready for use. This 
preparation makes a most splendid appearance when applied to boot, 
shoe, or harness edge, and is equally applicable to cloth or wood, 
■where a gloss is required after being painted. 

"\7aterproof Varnish for Harness. — India-rubb«r, h lb. ; spts. 
tui-pcntiue 1 gal. ; dissolve to a jelly, then take hot linseed oil equal 
parts with the mass, and incorporate them well over a slow fire. 

Blacking for Harness. — Beeswax. ^ lb. ; ivory black, 2 ozs. ; spts. 
of turpentine, 1 oz. Prussian blue, ground in oil 1 oz. ; copal varnish, 
^ oz. ; melt the wax and stir mto it the other ingredients, before tho 
mixture is quite cold ; make it into balls, rub a little upon a brush, 
apply it upon the harness, and polish lightly wit!) silk. 

Best Harness Varnish Extant.— Alcohol, 1 gallon; white tur- 
pentine, 1^ lbs. ; gum shellac, 1^ lbs. ; Venice turpentine, 1 gill. Let 
them stand by the stove till the gums arc dissolved, then add sweet 



LEATHER WORKERS', &C., RECEirTS. 241 

oil, 1 gill; and color it if yoii wisli ■with lampblack, 2 oz. Tliis •will 
not crack like the old varnish. 
IlAKJfESS OIL. — Neat' s-foot oil, 1 gal. ; lampblack, 4 oz. Mix ^veU. 
BRtLLiANT French Vaiinish fouLeathek. — Spiritof wine, ipiut; 
vinegar, 5 pints; gum Senegal in powder, ^ lb.; loaf sugar, G oz.: 
jiowdered galls, 2 oz. ; green copperas, 4 oz. Dissolve the gum and 
sugar in the water; strain, and put on a slow fire, but don't boil; now 
l)ut in the galls, copperas, and the alcohol; stir well for five minutes; 
set off; and when nearly cool, strain through flamiel, and bottle for 
use. It is applied with a pencil brush. Most superior. 

Liquid Japan for Leather. — Molasses, 8 lbs. ; lampblack, 1 lb. ; 
sweet oil, 1 lb. ; gum arable, 1 lb. ; isinglass, 1 lb. Mix well in 32 lb.s. 
Avater; apply heat; when cool, add 1 quart alcohol; an ox's gall will 
improve it. 

Waterproof OrL-BLACKiNG. Gamphene, 1 pint; add all tho 
India-rubber it will dissolve; curriers* oil, 1 pint; tallow, 7 lbs.; 
lampblack, 2 oz. Mix thoroughly by heat. 

Shoemakers' Heel Balls. — Beeswax, 8 oz.; tallow, loz. ; melt, 
and add powdered gum arable, 1 oz., and lampblack to color. 

Best IIeel BALL.-r-Melt together beeswax, 2 lbs. ; suet, 3 ozs. ; stir 
in ivory black, 4 ozs., lampblack, 3 oz., powdered gum arable, 2 oz., 
powdered rock candy, 2 oz., mix and when i)artly cold pour into tin 
or leaden moulds. 

Cuannellers axd Shoemakers' Cement. — ^India-rubber dis- 
solved to a proper consistence in sulphuric ether. 

Cement for Leather or RuniiER Soles and Leather Belting. — 
Gutta percha, 1 lb.; India-rubber, 4 oz.; pitch, 2 oz.; shellac, 1 oz.; 
oil, 2 oz. ; melt, and use hot. 

Gerjian Blacking. — Ivory-black, 1 part; molasses, § part; sweet 
oil, i part; mix, as before; then stir in a mixture of hydrocliloric actd, 
i part; oil of vitriol, J part; each separately diluted with twice its 
weight of water before mixing them. Tliis forms tho ordinary paste 
blacking^f Germany, according to Liebig. 

Oil Paste Blacking. Ivory-black, 4 lbs. ; molasses, 2 lbs.; sweet 
oil, 1 lb. ; oil of vitrei 3 lbs. ; mix and put in tins. 

Gold Varnish. — Turmeric, 1 dram ; gamboge, 1 dram ; turpen- 
tine, 2 pints ; shellac, 5 oz. ; sandarach, 5 oz. ; dragon's blood, 8 
drams ; thin mastic varnish, 8 oz. ; digest with occasional agitation 
lor fourteen days ; then set aside to line ; and pour off the clear. 

Grain Black for Harness Leather. — First stam in tallow ; 
then take spirits turpentine, 1 pint ; cream of tartar, 1 oz. ; soda 1 oz.; 
gum shellac, A oz. ; thick paste, reduced thin, 2 quarts. Mix well. 
This will finish 12 sides. 

Beautiful Stains for Boots, Shoes and Leather Goods. — 
Soft water 1 pt. ; oxalic acid, 2 tablespoon fuls or more; if required 
stronger, dissolve, and for a red color, add finely pulverized rose-pink, 
veiTOilion or drop lake. Blue, add finely pulverized Prussian bhie, 
or indigo. Yellow, king's yellow, yellow ochre, &c. White, flake 
white. Green, blue and yellow mixed. Orange, red and yellow 
mixed. Pui-ple, red and blue mixed. Pulverize the ingredients well 
before mixing with tho water and acid. Any other shade desired 
can be selected from the " Compound colors" in the next department 
Bridle Stain. — Skimmed milk, 1 pt. ; ppiiits of salts, ^ oz. ; spts. 
16 



242 LEATUEK \70KKEUS', AC, IlECEIPTS. 

of red lavender, i-oz. ; giim .irnbic, 1 oz. ; and the juice of 2 lemons ; 
mix well together, and cork for use ; apply -n-itli a sponge ; when 
dry, polisli with a brush or a piece of llamieL If wished x)aler, put 
in less red lavender. ^ 

On Rubber Goods. — As many parties require to use rubber goods 
who are entirely ignorant of the cheap mixtures which are vended 
in lar";e quantities, at enormous profits by manufacturers, I havo 
thought proper in this place to irradiate the subject with a little 
"light" for the benefit of those whom "it may concern," and ac- 
cordingly present the formulae for conipoundmg the different mix- 
tures wliich enter into the composition of many articles sold quite 
extensively as pure rubber goods, but wliicli, owing to large adulter- 
ations, in many cases cost 75 per cent, less than the prices charged 
for them. The first I shall iiresent is for 

Light Buffeu Spklngs. — Grind together clear Java rubber, 25 
lbs.; Para rubber, 5 lbs. ; common magnesia, 10 lbs. ; pure sulphur, 25 
ozs. This is brown at fii-st, but in a few days turns grey or white, 
and ju.st siuks in water. Springs made from tliis compound, 4^ x 2^ 
X 1, pressed to li.alf an inch, showed 3^ tons on tlie dial. 

Gkey Pacicixq Foit ^Iarike ExGixEs, &c.—Gi-uk1 together clean- 
ed Java rubber, 5 lbs. ; Para rubber, 25 lbs. ; oxide of zinc, IG lbs. ; 
carbonate of magnesia, G lbs. ; Porcelain or Cornwall clay, 3 lbs. ; red 
lead, 2 lbs.; pine sulphur, 30 ozs. It may be proper "to sfcite th.it 
good purified Java rubber might be substituted by engineers wjth 
good effect for Para rubber "in the above and some other com- 
positions. 

Rag Packing for Vala*f.s, Be,\ri>'G Sbrixgs, &c. — This is made 
principally from the useless cuttings in the manufacture of India- 
rubber coats, when the gum is run or spread on calico foundations. 
Proportions as follows : grind together iiselcss scraps, 35 lbs. ; black- 
lead 18 lbs. ; Java guKi, 16 lbs. ; yellow sulphur, 1 lb. 

CosirosiTiON FOR Suction' IIosE for Fire Engines, &c. — 
Grind together Java rubber, 20 lbs. ; Para do. 10 lbs. ; white load, 14 
lbs. ; red lead, 14 lbs. ; yellow sulphur, 1^ lbs. This is sprea*upou flax 
cloth, which weighs 10, IG, and 32 ozs. to the square yard. 

CosniON Black Packing. — Grind togetlier, Java rubber, 15 lbs. ; 
Para do., 15 lbs. ; oxide of zinc, 15 lbs. ; China or Cornwall clay, 15 
lbs. ; yellow sulphur, 28 oza. 

Common White Buffer Rings, &c. — Grind together Java rub- 
ber, 30 lbs.; oxide of zinc, 18 lbs. carbonate of magnesia, G lbs.; 
clean chalk or whiting, G lbs. ; flour of sulphur, 2 lbs. 

Vulcanite, or Ebonite. — If the amount of sulphur added to th» 
prepared rubber amoimts to 10 per cent and the operations of vul- 
canizing is performed in close vessels, at a temperature exceeding 
300, or the heat required for Vulcanizing Ixdia-Rubber as de- 
cril^ed under tliat head, which see, an article will be produced known 
as vulcanite, or ebonite. It is a black, hard, elastic substance, re- 
sembling horn in its texture and appearance, and capable of taking a 
very high polish. It is of great use in the arts, and is largely man- 
ufactured for making combs, door handles, and hundreds of articles 
liitherto made iu ivory or bone. Its electrical properties also aro 
verv great 
Best Pube Spring, or Wasiiers.— Grind together Para gum, 30 



LEATHER WORKERS', AC, RECEIPTS. 243 

lbs. ; oxide of zinc, 5 lbs. ; caTb. m.agncsin,, 2 lbs. ; common chalk, 3 
lbs.; Porcelain or Cornwall clay, 2 lbs.; pure sulphur, 30 oz. 

CoiMPAJfiox Quality to ahove. — Para rubber, 30 lbs.; oxide of 
zinc, 5 lb.«.; Porcelain or Coniwall clay, 5 lbs.; pure sulphur, 32 o;^. 

"lIvTO" Clotii for Waterproof Coats. — Grind together clean 
Java gum, 30 lbs. ; lampblack, 5 lbs.; dry chalk or -whiting, 11 lbs.; 
Eulphuret of lead, 5 lbs. Thia composition is applied to Avaterproof 
garments. 

To VuLCA>azE IxoT.A. KuTiBER. — Tlio vulcaniziug process p.itent- 
cd by the late Charles Goodyear consists in incoriiorating ■with tho 
rubber from 3 to 10 per cent, of sulphur, together Avith various me- 
tallic oxides, chietly lead and zinc, the quantity of the latter articles 
being regulated by the degree of elasticity &c, required in the desired 
•article. The goods of one large estiiblishraent are vulcanized in 
cylindrical wrought iron steam heaters, over 50 feet long and from 
i5 to (i feet in diameter. These heaters have door.s opening on lunges 
at one end, and through these doors the goods to be vulcanized arc 
introduced on a sort of railway carriage, then, after the door is shut, 
steam is let on, and a temperature of from 250° to 300° of heat is 
kept up for several hours, the degree of heat beuig ascertained by 
means of thermometers attached to the heaters. The value, solidity, 
and quality of the goods is mucli increased by keeping tlie articles 
under the pressure of metalic moulds or sheets while undergoing this 
process. The whole process requii'es careful manipulation and great 
cxjierience to conduct it properly. 

To Deodorize Ruebek. — Cover the articles of rubber with char- 
coal dust, place them in an enclosed vessel, and raise the tempera- 
ture to Qi° Fahr., and let it remain thus for several hours. Remove 
and clean the articles from the charcoal dust, and they will be found 
free from all odor. 

Gutta-Pekcha and Eurber Waste. — The waste i.s cut into 
small pieces, and 100 lbs. of the same are placed in a well-closed 
boiler with 10 lbs. of bisulphide of carbon and 4 ozs. absolute al- 
'cohol, well stirred; then the boiler is closed, and loft a few hours to 
soak. After this time it is found to be changed into a soft dough 
mass, which, after being ground or kneaded, is fit to bo formed into 
any shape, when the solvent -will evaporate. If too much of tho 
latter has been used, a thick unmanageable liquid is obtained. 

To Utii.ize Leather Scr.'U's. — First clean the scraps, then soak 
them in water containing 1 per cent, of sulphuric acid mitil tho 
material becomes solt aud plastic, then compress into blocks and dry 
by .cteam. In order to soften the blocks, 1 lb. of glycerine is added 
to 100 lbs. of the material; they are then passed "through rollers, 
mid brought to the proi^er thickness to be used as imier soles of boots 
and shoe.-*. 

Dker Skins. — Tannixo ant) Buffing for Gloves. — For each 
skin, talio a bucket of water, and put it into 1 qt. of lime ; let tho 
skin or skins lie in from 3 to 4 days ; tlien rinse in clean water hair, 
and grain ; then soak them in cold water to get out the glue ; now 
scour or pound in good soap-suds for half an liour ; after which taka 
white vitriol, alum, and salt, 1 tablespoonf ul of each to a skin ; theso 
•will be dissolved in sufficient water to cover the skin, and remain in it 
for 24 hours ; wring out as dry as convenient, and spread on with a 



244 LEATHER -WORKERS', &C., RECEirTS. 

brush ^ pijit of curriers' oil, and hang in the sun about 2 days ; aftei 
which you -will scour out the oil -with soap-suds, and hang but again 
until perfectly drj' ; then pull and work them until they are soft ; 
and if a reasonable time does not make them soft, scour out in suds 
again as before, until complete. The oil may be saved by pouring or 
taking it from the top of the suds, if left standing a snort time. 
The buff color is given by spreading yellow ochre evenly over tho 
eurface of the skin when finished, rubbing it well with a brush. 

TAN>'rN'G WITH Aero. — After having removed the hair, scouring, 
soaking and pounding in the suds, &c., as in the last recipe, in place 
of the white vitriol, alum, and salt as there mentioned, take oil of 
vitriol (sulphuric acid), aud water, equal parts of each, and thoroughly 
wet the flesh-side of the skin with it, by means of a sponge or cloth 
upon a stick ; then folding up the skin, letting it stand for 20 minutes 
only, having ready a solution of sal-soda and water, say 1 lb. to a 
bucket of water, aud soak the skin or skins in that for two hours, 
when you will wash in clean water, and apply a little dry salt, letting 
lie in the salt over night, or that length of time ; then remove the 
flesh with a blunt knife, or, if doing business on a large scale, by 
means of the regular beam aud flesh-knife ; when dry, or nearly so, 
Boften by pulling and rubbing with the hands, and also with a piece, 
of pumice-stone. This of course is the quickest way of tanning, 
and by ouly wetting the skins with tho acid, and soaking out in 20 
muiutes, they are not rotted. 

Anotiiek Method. —Oil of vitriol, ^ oz. ; salt, 1 teacup ; milk 
sufficient to handsomely cover the skin, not exceeding 3 qts. ; warm 
the milk, then add the salt and vitriol ; stir the skin in the liquid 40 
minutes, keeping it warm ; then dry, and work it as directed in 
the above. 

Ca:nadiax Process. — The Canadians make four liquors in using 
the japonica. The first liquor is made by dissolving, for 20 sides of 
upper, 15 lbs. of terra japonica in sufficient water to cover the upper 
bcmg tanned. The secoxd liquor contains the same amount of ja- 
ponica, and 8 lbs. of saltpetre also. The thtrd contains 20 lbs. of ja- 
ponica and ih lbs. of alum. The fourth liquor contains only 15 lbs. 
of japonica, 'and 1^ lbs. of sulphuric acid ; and the leather remains 4 
days in each liquor for upper ; and for sole the quantities and time 
are both doubled. They count 50 calf-skins in place of 20 sides of 
upper, but let them lie in each liquor only 3 days. 

To Tax Fl'r Skins, &c. — To remove the legs and useless parts, 
Boak the skin soft, and then remove the fleshy substances, and soak 
it in warm water 1 hour. Now take for each skin, borax, saltpetre, 
and Glauber-salt, of each ^ oz., aud dissolve or wet with soft water 
sufficient to allow it to be spread ou the flesh-side of the skin. Put 
it on with a brush thicke.st in the centre or thickest part of the skin, 
and double the skin together, flesh side in ; keeping it in a cool place 
for 24 hours, not allowing it to freeze. Then wash the skin clean, 
and take sal-soda 1 oz. ; torax h oz, ; refined soap 2 oz. ; melt them 
slowly together, beuig careful not to allow them to boil, aud apply 
the mixture to the flesh side at first. Boil up again and keep in a 
warm place for 24 hours ; then wash the skin cleau again, as above, 
and have saleratus 2 oz., dissolved in hot rain water sufficient to well 
saturate the skin ; take alum 4 oz. ; salt 8 oz. ; and dissolve also in hot 



LEATUEK ■VVORKEKS', AC, RECEIPTS. 245 

min ^ater ; when sufficiently cool to allow the handling of it -with- 
out scalding, put in the skin for 12 hours ; then wring out tho water 
mid hang up for 12 hours more to dry. Repeat this last soaking and 
drying 2 or 3 times, according to tho desired softness of the skin when 
finished. Lastly iinish, by puUiug and working, and finally by rub- 
bing with a piece of pumice-stone and fine sand-paper. This works 
like a charm on sheep-skins, fur skins, dog, wolf, bear-skius, &c. 

TnocESS OF Tanking Calf, Kip, and Harness Leatheu ix 
FROM 6 TO 30 Days. — For a 12-lb calf-skm, take 3 lbs. of terra ja- 
ponica, common salt, 2 lbs. ; alum, 1 lb. ; put them in a copper kcttlo 
\vith sufficient water to dissolve tho whole without boiling. The skiu 
will be limed, haired, and treated every way as for the old process, 
when it will be put into a vessel with water to cover it, at which time 
you will put in 1 pint of the composition, stirring it well, addiug tho 
eame night and morning for three days, when you will add the whole, 
handlmg 2 or 3 times daily all the time tanumg ; you can continue 
to nsc the tanning liquid by adding half tho quantity each time, by 
keeping these proportions for any amount. If you desire to give a 
dark color to the leather, j-ou will put in 1 lb. of Sicily sumac ; kip 
ekins will require about 20 days, light horse hides for harness 30 days, 
calf-skins from G to 10 days at most. 

To Tan Raw Hide. — When taken from tho animal, spread it flesh 
fiido up; then put 2 i>arts of salt, 2 parts of saltpetre and alum com- 
bined, make it fine, sprinkle it evenly over the surface, roll it up, let 
it alone a few days till dissolved; then t;ike off what flesh remains, 
and nail the skhi to the side of a bam in the smi, stretch tight, to 
make it soft like harness leather, put neat's-foot oil on it, fasten it up 
in the sun again; then rub out all tho oil you can with a wedge- 
Khaped stick, and it is tamied with the hair on. 

To Tan Muskrat Skins with the Fun on. — First, for soaking, 
to 10 gals, cold soft water, add 8 parts of wheat bran, old soap, ^ i)t. ; 
pulverized borax, 1 oz. ; sulphuric acid, 2 ozs. If the skins have not 
been salted, add salt, 1 pt. Green skins should not be soaked more 
than 8 to 10 hours. Dry ones should soak till very soft. The sul- 
phuric acid hastens the soaking process. For tan liquor, to 10 gals, 
warm soft water, add bran, | bushel; stir well, and let it ferment in a 
warm room. Then add slowly, sulphuric acid, 2^ lbs. ; stir all tho 
time. Musk rat skins should remain iu about 4 hours; then take out 
and rub with a fleshing knife; an old chopping knife with the edge 
taken off will do. Then work it over a beam until entirely dry. 

To Dye Furs. — Any dye that will color wool will also color furs, 
and an immense number of such dyes can be found under the dyers 
department. In buying furs, examine the density and length of the 
down next the skin,' tliis can easily be done by blowing briskly against 
the set of the fur, if it is very close and dense it is all right, but if it 
opens easily and oxaloses much of the skin, reject it. 

French Finish for Leather. — Take a common wooden pailful of 
Bcraps (the legs and pates of calf-skuis are best), and put a handful 
each of salt and alum upon them, and let stand three days ; then boil 
until they get a thick paste ; in using, you will warm it, and in the 
first application put a little tallow with it, and for a second time a 
little soft soap, and use it in the regular way of finishing, and your 
leather vnU. be soft and plLiblo, like French leather. 



246 LEATHER -WORKERS', AC, RECEIPTS. 

French Patent Leather. — Work into the skin with appropriate 
tools 3 or 4 successive coatings of drying varnish, made by boiling 
linseed oil -with white lead and litharge, in the proportion of one 
pound of each of the latter to one gallon of the former, and adding a 
])ortion of challc or oclire, each coating being thoroughly dried beforo 
tlie application of the next. Ivory black is then substituted for tho 
chalk or ochre, tho vamish tliinned with spirits of turpentine, and 
live additional applications made in the same manner as before, except 
that it is put on thin and not worked in. The leather is rubbed down 
with pumice-stone, in powder, and then placed in a room at iX) degrees, 
out of the way of dust. The last vamish is prepared by boiling ^ lb. 
asphaltum with 10 lbs. of the drying oil used in the first stage of the 
process, and then stirring in 5 lbs. copal varnish and 10 lbs. of turpen- 
tine. It must have 1 month's age before using it. 

Cheap Tanning without Bakk or Mineral Astringents. — Tlio 
nstringent liquor is composed of water, 17 gals. ; Aleppo galls. ^ lb. ; 
Bengiil catechu, lioz. and 5 lbs. of tormentil, or septfoil root. Powder 
the ingredients, and boil in the water 1 hour ; when cool, put in tho 
skins (which must be prepared by being plunged into a preparation of 
bran and water for 2 days previously) ; handle them frequently during 
the first 3 days, let them alone the next 3 days, then handle three ot 
four times in one day ; let them lie undisturbed for 25 days more, 
when the process will be complete. 

New Tanning Cosiposition. — For harness leather, 4 lbs. catechn, 
3 pts. common ley, 3 oz. of alum. For icax leather (split leather), 3 
lbs. catechu, 3 pts. common ley, 3 oz. alum. For calf-skins 2 lbs. 
catechu, 1 pt. ley. For sheep-skins, 1 lb. catechu, 1 pt. ley, 1 oz. alum. 
The catechu by "itself will make the leather hard and brittle, the ley 
will soften it; the alum being only used for coloring, can be dispensed 
with, or other matter used in its jjlace. The mixture is in every 
case boiled, and tho leather is then immersed in it long enough to 
be thoroughly tanned, for which purpose tho harness leather should 
be steeped from 18 to 20 days, wax leather from 12 to 14 days, calf- 
skins from 7 to 9 days, and sheep-skins from 2 to 4 days. 

French Polish ok Dressing for Leather. — Mix 2 pts. best 
vinegar, with 1 pt. soft water; stir into it J lb. glue, broken up, ^ lb. 
logwood-chips, I oz. of finely powdered indigo, J oz. of the be.st soft 
soap, i oz. of isinglass; put the mixture over the fire, and let it boil 
ten minutes or more; then strain, bottle, and cork. When cold, it id 
fit for use. A])ply with a sponge. 

Tanning. — The first operation is to soak the liide, as no hide can 
be properly tanned unless it has been soaked and broken on a fleshing 
beam. If the hide has not been salted add a little salt and soak it iu 
soft water. In order to be thoroughly soaked, green hides should 
remain iu the liquor froiri 9 to 12 days; of course the time varies with 
tlie thiclaiess of the hide. The following liquor is used to remove 
hair, or wool, viz. : 10 gals, cold water (soft); 8 cits, slacked lime, and 
tlie same quantity of wood ashes. Soak until the hair or wool will 
pull off easily. As it frequently ha]>pens it is desirable to cure the 
hide and keep the hair clean, the following paste should be made, 
viz: equ.al paiis of lime and liard wood ashes (lime should be slaked) 
and made into a paste with soft water. This should be spread on the 
flesh side of the hide and tho skin rolled up flesh side iu and placed 



LEATUER WORKEKS', &C., RECEIPTS. 247 

in a tub just covering it with water. It sliould remain 10 days or 
until tlie bair will pull out easily, then scrape with a knife. The 
s-kius of animals are composed mainly of glue or gluten. This is soluble, 
aud the principle derived from the bark, tanniu or taimic acid is also 
to a cousiderable extent soluble ; when the latter is allowed to act 
upon the former, chemical combination takes place, aud leather is pro- 
duced, which is insoluble. 

CuiiKiEKs' Size. — ^Take of sizmg, Iqt. ; soft soap, 1 gill; stuffing, 
1 gill ; sweet milk, h pt. ; boil the sizing in water to a proper consistence, 
strain, and add the other ingredients ; aud wheu thoroughly mixed, it 
is ready for use. 

CuKRiEKs' Paste. — First Coat. — Take of water, 2 qts. ; flour, h 
pint; Castile soap, 1 oz. ; make iuto paste. Second Coal. — Take of 
first paste, I pt. ; gum tragacauth, 1 giU; water, 1 pt. ; mix all together. 
This will finish 18 sides of upper. 

CuEKiEKs' Skirting. — This is for finishing skirting and the flesh 
of harness leather, in imitation of oak tamiing. Take of chrome 
yellow, ^ lb. ; yellow ochre, 1 lb. ; cream of tartar, 1 oz. ; soda, \ 
oz. ; paste 5 qts. ; mix well. This will finish twelve sides. 

Skirting. — For the grain to imitate oak tan. Take of chrome 
yellow, \ lb. ; yellow ochre, \ lb. ; cream of tartar 1 oz. ; soda, 1 
oz. ; paste 2 qts. ; spirits of tui-peutine, 1 pt. ; mix w^ell. This 
will finish twelve sides. 

Dyes for Morocco axb Sheep Leather. — ( J5??«e. )— Blue is 
given by steeping the subject a day in urine and indigo, th^en boiling it 
with alinn ; or, it may be given by tempering the iudigo, with red 
wine, and washing the skm therewith. — Another. — Boil elderberries or 
dwarf-elder, then smear and wash the skins therewith and wring them 
out ; then boil the elderberries as before in a solution of alum water, 
aud wet the skins in the same manner once or twice, dry them, and 
they will be very blue. — ( Red. ) — Ked is given by washing the skin and 
laying them 2 hours in gall, then wringing them out, dippmg them 
in a hquor made with ligustrum, alum, and verdigris, in water, and 
lastly in the dye made of Brazilwood boiled with ley. {Purple. ) — Pur- 
ple is given by wetting the sldns with a solution of roche alum in 
warm water, and when dry, again rubbing them with the hand with a 
decoction of logwood in cold water. {Green.) — Green is given by 
smearing the skin with sajj-green and alum boiled. {Dark Green.) — 
Park green is given with steel-fihngs and sal-ammoniac, steeped in 
wine till soft, then smeared over the skin, which is to be dried in the 
shade. ( Yelloiu. ) — Yellow is given by smearing the skm over with aloes 
and linseed-oil dissolved and strained, or by inf usmg in weld. {LUjht 
Oranc/e.) — Orange color is given by smearing it with fustic berries 
boiled in alum water, or for deep orange, with turmeric. {Sky-color. ) 
Sky-color is given with indigo steeped in boUiug water, aud the next 
morning warmed and smeared over the skin. See Dyers' Department. 

To Marble Books or Paper. — Provide a wooden trough 2 inches 
deep and the length and width of any desired sheet ; boil in a brass 
or copper pan any quantity of linseed and water until a thick mucil- 
age is formed ; strain it into the trough, and let cool ; then gi-ind on a 
marble slab any of the following colors iia small beer. For Blue. — 
Prussian blue or indigo, lied. — Rose-pink, vermilion, or drop lake. 
Yellow. — King's yellow, yellow ochre, &c. }V7Utc. — Flake white. 



248 LEATHER WORKERS', AC, RECEIPTS. 

Black. — ^bumt ivory or lamb black. Broicn. — Umber, burnt do. ; 
terra di sienua, burnt do. Black, mixed with yellow or red, also 
make.s brown. Green. — Blue and yellow mixed. Oran^/e.— Red and 
yellow mixed. Purple. — Red and blue mixed. For each color you 
must have two cups, one for the color after grinding, the other to mix 
it -n-ith ox-gaU, which must be used to tliin the colors at discretion. 
If too much gall is used, the colors will spread ; when they keep their 
place on the surface of the trough, when moved with a quill, they aro 
fit for use. All things in readiness, the colors are successively 
Bpriukled on the surface of the mucilage in the trough with a brush, 
and are waved or dra-\vn about with a quiU or a stick, according to 
taste. When the design is just formed, the book, tied tightly between 
cutting boards of the same size is lightly pressed with its edge on the 
surface of the liquid pattern, and then withdrawn and dried. The 
covers may be marbled in the same way only letting the liquid colors 
run over them. In marbling paper the sides of the paper is gently 
applied to the colors in the trough. The Aim of color in the trougri 
may be as thin as possible, and if any remains after the marbling it 
may be taken off by applying paper to it before you prepare for 
marbling again. To diversify the effects, colors are often mixed with 
a little sweet oil before sprinkling them on, by which means a light 
halo or circle appears around each spot. 

BooKBiNDEKs' Varnish. — Shcllac, 8 parts ; gum benzoin, 3 
parts ; gum mastic, 2 parts ; bruise, and digest in alcohol, 48 parts ; 
oil of lavender, \ part. Or, digest shellac, 4 parts ; gum mastic, 
2 parts; gum dammer and white turpentine, of each, 1 part; with 
alcohol (95 per cent. ), 28 parts. 

Red Sprinkle for Bookbinders' Use.— Brazilwood (ground), 4 
parts; alum, 1 part; vinegar, 4 parts; water, 4 parts. Boil until 
reduced to 7 parts, then add a quantity of loaf sugar and gum ; bot- 
tle for use. Blue. — Strong sulphuric acid, 8 oz. ; Spanish indigo, 
powdered, 2 oz. ; mix in a bottle that will hold a quart, and place it in 
a warm bath to promote solution. For use, dilute a little to the 
required color in a tea-cup. Black. — Xo better black can be procured 
tliau that made by the receipt for edge blacking, in this work, which 
see. Oramje color. — Ground Brazilwood, 16 parts ; annatto, 4 parts, 
alum, sugar, and gum arable, each 1 part; water, 70 pails, boil, strain, 
and bottle. Pui-ple. — Logwood chips ; 4 parts, powdered alum, 1 part; 
soft water, 24 parts ; boil imtil reduced to 16 parts, and bottle for use. 
Green. — French berries, Ipart; soft water, 8 parts. Boil, and add a 
little powdered alum, then bring it to the required sliade of green, by 
adding liquid blue. Broion. — Logwood chips, 1 part; annatto, 1 part, 
boil in water, 6 parts; if too light add a piece of copperas the size 
of a pea. 

Tree-Marble. — A marble in the form of trees may be done by 
bending tlie boards a little on the centre, using the same method as 
the common marble, having the covers previously prepared. The end 
of a candle may be rubbed on different parts of the board to form 
loiots. Rice-Marble. — Color the cover with spirits of wine and tur- 
meric, then place on rice in a regular manner, tlirow on a very fine 
sprinkle of copperas water till the cover is nearly black, and let it re- 
main till dry. The cover may be spotted with the red liquid or 
potash- water, very freely, before tlio rice is thrown off tlio boards. 



LEXTIIER WORKERS V «tC., RECEIPTS? 24£ 

Spotted Marble for Books, etc. — After tbo fore-edge of the book is cut, 
let it remain in the press, and throw ou linseeds in a regular manner, 
epriiikle the edge with any dark color till the paper is covered, then 
shake oil the seeds. Various colors may he used ; the edge may ho 
colored with yellow or red before throwing on the seeds, and sprmk- 
liug with blue. The seeds will make a fine fancy edge when placed 
very thick on different parts, with a few slightly tlirown ou the spaces 
between. Japan Colonng for Leather Book-covers, etc. — After the 
book is covered and dry, color the cover with pobish-water mixed 
with a little paste: give 2 good coats of Brazil wash, and glaze it; put 
the book between the hands, allowing the boards to slope a little; 
dash on copperas-water, then with a sponge full of red liquid press 
out on the back and on different parts large drops, which will run 
down each board and make a fine shaded red ; when the cover is dry, 
wash it over 2 or 3 times with Brazil wash to give it a brighter 
color. {See the various dj/es for leather.) 

Gold Sprinkle fob Books. — Put in a marble mortar ^ oz. pure 
honey and one book of gold leaf, rub them Avell together until they 
are very fine, add ^ pint clear water, and mix well together; when the 
water clears, pour it off, and put in more till the honey is all extracted, 
and nothing remains but the gold; mix one grahi of corrosive sub- 
limate in a teaspoonful of spirits of wine, and when dissolved, put the 
same, together with a little gum water, to the gold, and bottle for use. 
The edges of the book may be spruiklcd or colored very dark, with 
green, blue, or purple, and lastly with the gold liquid in small or 
large spots, very regular, shaking the bottle before using. Burnish 
the edges when dry, and cover them with ]iaper to prevent tlie dust 
falling thereon. This sprinkle will have a most beautiful appearance 
ou extra work. 

To Gild the Edges of Books. — Armenian bole, 4 parts ; sugar can- 
dy, 1 part; white of egg to mix. A))ply this composition to the edge 
of the leaves, previously firmly screwed in the cutting-press ; when 
nearly dry, smooth the surface with the burnisher; then take a 
damp sponge and pass over it, and with a piece of cotton wool, take 
the leaf from the cushion and apply it to the work; when quite dry, 
burnish, observing to place a piece of silver or India paper between 
the gold and the agate. 

GuLNESE Edge for Books. — Color the edge with light liquid blue 
and dry; then take a sponge charged with vermilion and dab ou spots 
according to fancy ; next throw on rice, and finish the edge with dark 
liquid blue. 

To make Paper into PARcnaiENT. — To produce this transforma- 
tion, take xmsized paper and plunge it into a solution of two parts of 
concentrated sulphuric acid combined with 1 part water; withdraw 
it immediately, and wash it in clean water, and the change is com- 
plete. It is now fit for writing; for the acid suppUes the want of size, 
and it becomes so strong that a strip 2 or 3 inches wide will bear 
from 60 to 80 lbs. weight, while a like strap of parchment will bear 
only about 25 lbs. 

To Maiotfacture Glxte. — Tliis aiticle is usually made from tho 
parings and waste pieces of hides and skins, the refuse of tanneries, 
the tendons and other offal of slaughter houses. Tliey ought to bo 
obtained and kept in tho dry state, to i)revent dccomix)sitioa For 



250 LEATHEK WORKEES', <fcC., RECEIPTS. 

use, they arc first steeped for 14 or 15 days in milk of lime, and then 
drained and dried ; tliis constitutes the cleaning or the preparation. 
Before conversion into glue they are usually steeped in ■weak milk of 
lime, -well worked in -water, and exposed to the air for 24 hours. 
Tliey are then placed in a copper holler § filled with water and fur- 
nished with a perforated false bottom, to prevent them from burning, 
and as much is piled on as will till the vessel and rest on the top of 
it. Heat is next applied, and gentle boiling continued until the 
liquor on cooling becomes a gelatinous mass. The clear portion is 
then run off mto another vessel, where it is kept hot by a water bath, 
and all around to repose for some hours to deposit, when it is rim into 
the congealing boxes and placed in a cool situation. The next morn- 
ing the cold gelatinous mass is turned out upon boards wetted with 
water, and are cut horizontally in thin cakes with a stretched piece of 
brass wire, and into smaller cakes with a moistened flat knife. These 
cakes are placed upon nettings to dry, after which they are dipped 
one by one in hot water and slightly rubbed with a brusli wetted 
with boiluig water, to give them a gloss ; they are lastly stove dried 
for sale. During this time the undissolved slrins, &c., left in thccop- 
j}CT is treated with water and the Avliole operation is repeated again 
and again, as any gelatinous matter is extracted. The first ruimiugs 
produce the finest and best gUie. The refuse matter from tlio tan- 
ners and leather dressers yields on the average, when dried, 50 per 
cent of its weight in glue. 

To DvE Leatheu Yelt.ow.— Picric acid gives a good yellow 
witliout any mordant ; it must bo used in very dilute solution, and 
not warmer than 70° Falir., so as not to penetrate the leathc 

Green Dye for Leather. — Aniline blue modifies picric acid to 
a fine green. In dyeing the leather, the temperature of 85° Fahr., 
must never be exceeded. See Aniline Dyes in Dyers' Dep't. 

Dy'es for Ivorv, Horn, and Bone. — Black. — 1. Lay the articles 
for several hours in a strong solution of nitrate of silver, and exjKisc 
to the light 2. Boil the article for some time m a strained decoction 
of logwood, and then steep in a solution of per-sulphate or acctite of 
iron. 3. Immerse frequently in ink until of sufficient depth of color. 
Blue. —1. Immerse for some dilute solution of sulphate of indigo, partly 
saturated with potash, and it will be fully stained. 2. Steep in a 
strong solution of sulphate of copper. Green. — 1. Dip blue-stxiined 
articles for a short time in a nitro-hydrochlorate of tin, and then in a 
hot decoction of fustic. 2. Boil in a solution of verdigi-is in vinegar 
until the desired color is obtained. lied.—l. Dip the article first in a tin 
mordant used in dyeing, and then plunge in a hot decoction of Brazil 
wood — h lb. to a gallon of water or— cochineal. 2. Steep in red ink 
till sufifcieutly stiuued. Scarlet. — Use lack dye instead of the pre- 
ceding. Violet. — Dip in the tin mordant, and tlien immerse in a decoc- 
tion 6i logwood. Yellow. — Boil the articles in a solution of alum, 1 lb. 
to \ a gallon, then immerse for half an hour in the following mixure : 
Take Jt lb. of turmeric, and ^ lb. pearlash; boil in 1 gal. water: when 
taken "from tliis, the bone must be again dipped in the alum solution. 

Mother of Peakl Work. — This delicate substance requires great 
care in its workmanship, but it may be cut with the aid of saws, files 
and drills, with the aid of muriatic or sulphuric acid, and it is polished 
by colcothar, or the brown red oxide of iron left after the distillation 



LEATHER WORKERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 251 

of the acid from sulphate of iron. In all ornamental work, where 
pearl is said to bo used, for flat surfaces, such as inlaying, mosaic 
work, &c., it is not real pearl, but mother of pearl that is used. 

To Polish Peakl. — Take finely pulverized rotten stone and make 
into a tliick paste by adding olive oil ; then add sulphuric acid a 
sutHcieut quantitj' to make into a thhi paste, apply on a velvet cork ; 
rub quicklj' and, as soon as the pearl takes the polish, wa.sh it. 

To Polish Ivoky. — Remove any scratches or file marks that may 
be present with finely pidverized pumice-stone, moistened witli 
water. — Then wash the ivory and polish with prepared chalk, applied 
moist upon a piece of chamois leather, rubbing quickly. 

Etching Fluid for Ivorv, — Take dilute sulphuric acid, dilute 
muriatic acid, equal parts : mix. For etching varnish take white wax, 
2 paits ; tears of mastic, 2 parts : mix. 

To GILD IvouY. — Immerse it in a solution of nitro-muriate of gold, 
and then expose it to hydrogen gas while damp. Wash it afterwards 
in dean water. 

To Silver Ivory. — Pound a small piece of nitrate of silver in a 
mortar, add soft water to it, mix tliem well together, and keep in vial 
for use. When you wish to silver any article, immerse it in this 
solution, let it remam till it turns of a deep yellow ; then place it in 
clear water, and exj^ose it to the rays of the sun. If you wish to 
depicture a figure, name, or cipher, on your ivory, dip a camel's-hair 
pencil in the solution, and draw the subject on the ivory. After it has 
turned a deep yellow, wash it well with water, and place it in the 
Eunshhie, occasionally wetting it with pure water. In a short time it 
will tuni of a deep black color, which, if well rubbed, will change to 
a brilliant silver. 

To Soften Ivory. — In 3 oz. spirits of nitre and 15 oz. of spring- 
water, mLxed together, put your ivory to soak ; and in three or four 
days it will obey your fingers. 

To Whiten Ivory. — Slake some lime in water ; put your ivory in 
the water, after being decanted from the grounds, and boil it till it 
looks qiute white. To polish it afterwards, set it in the turner's wheel ; 
and, after liuvtng worked, take rushes and pumice-stones, subtilo 
]wwder, with water, rub it till it looks perfectly smooth. Next to 
that, heat it by turning it against a piece of linen or sheep-skin leather : 
and when hot, rub it over with a little dry whiting diluted in 'oil of 
olive ; then with a little dry whiting alone : finally with a piece of 
soft white rag. When all this is performed as directed, the ivory will 
look very white. 

Another way to Bleach Ivort. — Take 2 handfuls of lime, slake 
it by sprinlding it with water : then add 3 pts. of water, and stir the 
whole together ; let it settle ten minutes, aud pour the water into a 
pan for your purpose. Then take your ivory and steep it iu the lime- 
water for 24 hours, after which, boil it iu a strong alum- water 1 hour, 
and dry it in the air. 

Horn in Imitation of Tortoise-Shell. — First steam and then 
press the horn into proper shapes, and afterwards lay the following 
mixture on with a small brush, in imitation of the mottle of tortoise- 
shell ; Take equal parts of quick lime and litharge, and mix with 
strong soap-lees ; let this remain until it is thoroughly dry ; brush off, 
and repeat two or three times if necessary. Such parts as are required 



252 LEATUER WOEKERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

to be of a reddish browu should be coTercd with a mixture of whiting 
and the stain. 

To CUT AND POLISH Marble. — Tlie marble saw is a thhi plate of 
soft iron, continually supplied, during its sawing motion, witli water 
and the shai-pest sand. Tlie sawing of moderate pieces is performed 
by hand : that of large slabs is most economically done by a proper 
mill. The first substance used in the polishing process is the sharpest 
sand, which must be worlced with till the surface becomes perfectly 
flat. Then a second and even a third sand, of increasing fineness, is 
to be applied. The next substance is emery, of progressive degrees 
of fineness ; after which, tripoli is employed ; and the last polish is 
given with tin putty. The body Avith which the sand is rubbed upon 
the marble is usually a plate of iron ; but, for the subsequent process, 
a plate of lead is used, with fine sand and emery. The polishing- 
rubbers are coarse linen cloths, or bagging, wedged tight into an iron 
planing tool. In every step of the operation, a constant trickling 
supply of water is required. 

PowERFUx Cement for Broken Marble. — Take gum arabic, 1 
lb. ; make into a thick mucilage : add to it powdered plaster of I'aris, 
li lb. ; sifted quick lime, 5 oz. ; mix well ; heat the marble, and ap- 
ply the mixture. 

Seven Colors For Staining Marble. — ^It is necessary to heat 
the marble hot, but not so hot as to injure it, the proper heat being tliat 
at which the colors nearly boil. Blue ; alkaline indigo dye, or turn- 
sole with alkali. Jled ; t)ragon's blood in spirits of wine. Yellow ; 
gamboge in spirits of wine. Gold Color ; sal-ammoniac, sulphate of 
zinc, and verdigris equal parts. Green ; sap green in spirits of pot- 
ash. Brown ; tuicture of logwood. Crimson ; alkanet root in tur- 
pentine. Marble may be veined accordmg to taste. To stain marble 
well is a difficult operation. 

Terpetual Ink for Tomstones, etc. — Pitch, 11 lbs. ; lampblack, 
1 lb. ; tuqientine sufficient ; mix with heat 

To Clean Old Marble. — Take a bullock's gall, 1 gill soap leea, 
half a gill of turpentine ; make into a i^aste with pipeclay, apply it to 
the marble ; let it dry a day or two, and then rub it off, and it will 
appear equal to new ; if very dirty, repeat the application. 

To extract Oil from Marble ou Stone.— Soft soap, 1 part ; 
lulled earth, 2 parts ; ix)tash, 1 part ; boiUng water to mix. Lay it 
on the spots of grease, and let it remain for a few hours. 

To Gild Letters on Marble. — Apply first a coating of size and 
then several successive coats of size thickened with finely powdered 
whiting mitil a good face is produced. Let each coat become dry and 
rub it down with fine glass paper before applying the next. Then go 
over it thinly and evenly with gold size and apply the gold leaf, burn- 
ishing with an agate ; several coats of leaf will be required to give a 
good effect 

To Clean Marblf- — Take two parts of common soda, 1 part pum- 
ice-stone, and 1 part of finely powdered chalk ; sift it through a 
fine sieve, and mix it with water ; then rub it well all over the mar- 
ble, and the stains will be removed ; then wash tlie marble over with 
8oap and water, and it will be as clean as it was at first. 

To MAKE a Chemical Barometer. — Take a long narrow bottle, 
and put into it 2^ drs. of camphor ; spirits of wine 11 drs. When the 



CAEIXETMAKERS, TAINTERS', AC, liECEIPfS. 253 

camphor is dissolved, add to it tho follomnis; mixture : water 9 drs. , 
saltpetre, 38 grs. ; sal-ammoniac, 38 grs. Dissolve these salts hi tho 
water prior to mixing with the camphorated spirit ; then shake all 
well togetlier, cork the hottle well, Avax the top, butaftenvards make 
a vciy small aperture in the cork with a red-liot needle. By obsen-- 
ing the different appearances which the materials assume as tho 
weather changes, it becomes au excellent proguosticator of a com- 
inji storm or of a sunny sky. 

TiiAPrERs' A>D Amglkus' Skcret for Game and Fish. — A few 
drops of oil of anise, or oil rhodium, on any trapper's bait, will en- 
tice any wild animal into the snare trap. India cockle mixed with 
Hour dough, and sprinkled on the surface of still water, will intox- 
icate fish, rendering them insensible ; when coming up to the surface 
they can be lifted in a tub of fresh water to revive them, when they 
may be used without fear. Fish may also be caught in large numbers 
during the winter season by watching them through the ice and striking 
it with a mallet directly over where they happen to be. The shock 
ptiuis them, and they will rise, belly upwards towards the surface, 
when they are easily secured by breaking a hole in the ice. 



PAINTERS, CABINETKIAKERS, GILDERS, 
BRONZERS, GLASS STAINERS, &c. 

CojiroTTXi) Colors— '52 Tiyrrs—Blue.-^Gnad Prussian blno in 
turjis, other blue, very fine in linseed oil; mix with white i)aint to tlio 
color required. Straw.— A mixture of chrome yellow and white lead, 
oil and turps. Steel. — Mix ceruse, Prussian blue, fine lac, and 
vermilion, with oil and turj^s. Purple. — White lead, Prussian blue 
and vermilion, with oil and turps. French Gray. — White lead and 
Prussian blue tinged Avitli vermilion, and for the last coat substitute 
carmine or lake for vermilion. Drab. — ^Vhite lead with a little 
Prussian blue and French yellow, linseed oil and turjis. Another 
Drab. — White lead with a little Prussian blue aud lampblack, luiseed 
oil and turps. Dark Red, for eojmnon purposes. — ]^Iix English Venetian 
red, in boUed oil, with a little red lead and litharge, to give a dryhig 
quality. LUjhter Red. — ilix together equal parts of Venetian red and 
red lead iii boiled oil and turj^s. Imitation of Vermilion. — Grhid togeth- 
er, in oil, red lead and rose pink. Deep Red. — Mix in oil, vermilion with 
a dust of Venetian red, or red lead. Unfading Oranr/e — This is a mix- 
ture of orange lead (oriiiment) and French or stone yellow, oil and 
turps. Brif/ht Yelloiu, for floors. — White lead and linseed oil, mLxed 
with some French yellow, and a little chrome yellow to heighten it, 
some red lead, burnt white vitriol and litharge, added to give it a dry- 
ing quality. Tliis color mixed with equal parts of boiled oil and 
turpentine, and used very thin. Dark Yellow. — Mix French yellow iu 
boiled oil, adding to it a little red lead or litharge to give the paint a 
drying quality. LigJit Yellow. — This is a mixture of French yellow 
and white lead, with oil aud turpentine. Another. — French yellow, 



254 CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', AC, «IiECEIPTS. 

•white lead and red lead. Another. — This is a mixture of Prussian blue, 
French yellow, a email portion of Turkey umber, aud a litttle burnt 
vitrioL 'Gromid tlie same ■way. Anotlver, in oil. — ^lix Prussian blue 
and chrome yellow. Ground the same. Another Shack. — A mtxtaro 
of Prussian blue and French yellow, with a small quantity of white 
lead and Turkey umber; add burnt vitriol, groiuid the same. An- 
other, lif/ht. — "White mixed with verdigris. A variety of shades may 
be obtained by using blue and yellow with white lead. Another. 
Olive. — Black and blue mixed with yeUow, in such quantities as to 
obtain the colors or shades required. For distemper, use indigo and 
yellow pink mixed with whiting or white lead powder. Freestone 
color. — A mixture of red lead, Venetian red, French yellow and lamp- 
black, (varymg the shade according to taste,) with linseed oil and 
turiientiae. Olive Green. — Grind separately, Prussian blue and 
French yellow, in boiled oil, then mix to the tints required with a little 
burnt white vitriol to act as a dryer. A cheap aud handsome color for 
outside Avork, such as doors, caita, wagons, railings, &c. Light 
Gray is made by mixing white lead with lampblack, using more or 
less of each material, as you wish to obtain a lighter or a darker shade. 
litiff is made from yellow ochre and white lead. Silver or Pearl 
Gray. — JlLx white lead, Prussian blue, and a very slight portion of 
black, regulating the quantities you wish to obtaui. Flaxen Gray is 
obtained by a mixture of white lead and Prussian blue, with a small 
quantity of lake. Brick Color. — Yellow ochre and red lead, with a 
little white. Oak Wood Color. — 2 white lead aud J part umber and 
yellow oclire, proportions of the last two ingredients being determined 
by the desired tints. Walmd-tree Color. — § white lead, and f; red 
ochre, yellow ochre, and umber, mixed according to the shade sought. 
If veining is required, use different shades of the same mixture, and 
for the deepest places, black. Jonquil. — Yellow, pinlc, and white 
lead. Tills color is only proper for distemper. Lemon Yclloic. — 
Realgar and orpiment The same color can be obtained by mixmg 
yellow pink with Naples yellow; but it is then only fit for distemper. 
Oranr/c Color. — Red lead and yellow ochre. Violet Color. — Vermilion, 
or red lead, mixed with black or blue, aud a small portion of white. 
Vermilion is preferable to red lead in mixing this color. Purple. — 
Dark red mixed with violet color. Carnation. — Lake and white. 
Gold color. — Massicot, or Naples yellow, with a small quantity of 
realgar, aud a very little Spanish white. Olive Color may be obtained 
by black and a little blue, mixed with yellow. Y'eUoAv-pink, with a 
little verdigris and lampblack; also ochre and a small quantity of 
white will produce an olive color. For distemper, indigo aud yellow- 
pink, mixed with white lead or Spanish white, must be used. If 
veined, it must be doue with umber. Lead Color. — Prussian blue and 
white. Chestnut Color.— Ued ochre aud black, for a dark chestnut 
To make it lighter, employ a mixture of yellow ochre. Lif/ht timber 
Color. — Spruce ochre, white, and a little uiuber. Flesh Color. — Lake, 
wliite lead, and a little vermilion. Lif/ht Willoio Green. — White, 
mixed with verdigris. Grass Green. — Yellow-pink mixed with vir- 
digris. Stone Color. — White, with a little spruce ochre. Dark Lead 
Color. — Black and white, with a little Prussian blue. Faicn Color. — 
AVhitelead, stone ocnrc, witha httle vermiUon. Chocolate Color.— 
Lampblack and Spanish brown. Ou account of the fatness of lamp- 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 255 

black, mix some litharge and red lead. Portland Stone Color.— 
Umber, yellow ochre, and -white lead. Rose Color. — White lead aiid 
carmine or lake. Salmon Color. — White lead and blue, yellow, and 
red. Pearl Color. — White lead, Prussian blue, and red. ~Slate Color. 
— AVTiite lead, blaclc, red, and blue. Pea Green. — White lead and 
Oirome, or Paris green. Cream Color. — White lead, yellow and red. 
Straw Color. — White lead and yellow. Peaeh Blossom Color. — White 
lead and vermilion. Broicn. — Venetian red and lampblack. Dark 
Green. — Lampblack and chrome green. 01 ice Color. — Red, green, or 
black, yellow and red. Snr(ff Color. — Yellow, sienna, and red. 

Fresco Paixtixo. — Steep good glue over night in water to soften, 
then melt in a suitable pot or kettle, applying the heat cautiously, so 
as not to boil, as boiling will render it unfit for use. Then take as 
much Paris whiting as you tliink you will use for your first coat, beat 
it up tliick with water to a perfect pulp to get rid of lumps, &c. Now 
put in a pail as much of this whiting mL^ture as will be required for 
your work and proceed to mix in the colors required to produce the 
hesired shade. The colors, previously ground in water, should bo 
cautiously mixed with the hand, and the shade tested by dr>'ing a, 
little on a shingle or white paper; if too dark, add more whiting, i£ 
too light, more color. Now add enough of your melted glue to bind 
or fix the color very hard so as not to rise or wash up with your 
second coat, and test this on paper or wood also, otherwise you may 
ruin your worlc. For Yellow, chrome yellow of differeat tints may 
be used. Pujf or Drab can be got by a mixture of yellow ochre, red, 
blue, or black, and sometimes umber is intermixed with good effect. 
Buff or drab colors may bo produced by yellow ochre, chrome 
yellow, or raw sienna, intermixed with Turkey umber. For Green, 
mineral or Paris greens arOifirst class. Any good chrome green will 
suit very well. For Blve, use cobalt ultramarine blue, Prussian blue 
and verditer. For Gray, use composition of wliite, blue, red, and 
black. For Red, use vermilion, Lidian red, Venetian red, lake, and 
carmine. For Pink or Ro.9e tints, use a mixture of red with white, 
if not wanted bright, use Indian red, if a strong rich color is desired, 
use carmine, lake, "\^enetian red, or vermilion. For Black, use blue 
black and the Frankfort, or pure ivory black. For Brmcns for 
shading, jtc, use burnt sienna, burnt ochre, purjile brown, colcother, 
burnt umber, Vandyke brown. For other tints, see Compound 
Colors. French Size for Gilding Ornaments, Ceilings, &c. Mix 
thick glue to the proper consistence, with a little pure honey, this 
imparts a beautiful color to the gold, and gives a splendid effect to 
the work. Previous to using the distemper colors, give the walls and 
ceilings, if new and clean, a good coat of paint, which should bo 
mixed about § turpentine and ^ linseed oil, using as much Japan 
dryer as will dry it hard ; be careful of adding too much oil, as it wil] 
spoil the subsequent work. 

In preparing vestibules, halls, &c., to stand washing, go over the 
walls with oil paint for the first coat, but for the last coat no oil 
gliould be used, only spirits of turpentine. A harder surface will bo 
given to the wall by adding 1 tablespoonful of good ])aIo copal 
varnish to each 25 lbs. of paint used for the last coat. Previous to 
the waU receiving the last two coats, let the design or panelling be all 
correctly laid out. 



256 CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

To prepare old walls or ceilings ; if there are any stains or cracks 
in the plaster, repair with size patty, if small, or use plaster of Paris 
and a little putty lime if the cracks are large, damping the places 
with a brush and water, then appljdng the plaster ^v^th a small 
trowel, afterwards smoothing off ueatlj'. When all is dry and hard 
prepare the walls or ceilings with a coat of paint prepared as before 
directed, or with a preparation coat in size made of whiting with an 
extra quantity of melted glue containing a small quantity of alum. 
Give the walls a good coat of this, let it harden well, then apply 
another ; this ought to be sufficient if good flowing coats are applied. 

Now mix the colors to the proper tints (in oil), lay in the panels 
first ; then the stiles, and when dry, put on the flat or last coat (spirit 
color). "When the work is dry for paneUing, use the following for 
mixing the finishing colors: Turpentine, a little mastic varnish, a 
little white wax, and a little pale damar. Varnish, use but littlo 
Tarnish, else too much gloss will be produced, the only use being to 
cause the color to set quickly to permit rapid work. 

The fresco painter will find contmued use for a book of designs to 
illustrate the different orders of architecture, pUlars, columns, scrolls, 
borders, &c. and should make a particular study in the lino uf sketch- 
ing anything and every thing calculated to assi.st him in the business. 

House Painting. — Priminff, apply as thick as the paint will 
spread easily, rubbing out Avell with the brush. Use litharge as a 
diyer. After sandpapering and dusting, putty up all the nail heads 
and cracks with a putty-knife. Outside secoiid Coat. Jlix your 
paint with raw oil, nsuig it as thick as possible consistent with easy 
spreading. After it is applied, cross-smooth the work until it is level 
and even, then finish lengthwise with long light sweeps of the brush. 
Outside ttiird Coat, Make a Uttle thinne^han the last, rub out well, 
cross-smooth and finish very lightly with the tip of the brush. 
Inside second Coat. Mix your paint as thick as you can work it, 
nsiug equal parts of raw oU and turi^entme, rub this out well and 
carefully with the brush, cross-smooth and finish even and nice. 
Inside third Coat. Mix with 3 parts turpentine and 1 part of 
raw oil, rub out well and smooth oil vrith. great care. Fourth Coat, 
Flattim/. Mix with turpentine alone thin enough to admit of spread- 
ing before it sets. Apply quicldy without cross-smootliing, and 
finish lengthwise with light touches of the tiiJ of the brush, losing no 
time, as it sets rapidly. Brawn Flatting. Ground white lead is 
mixed with turpentine almost as thin as the last-named mixture. 
The lead will soon settle and the oil and turpentine rise to the top, 
pour it oilf, and repeat the mLxture until what rises to tlie top is clear 
turpentine. The oil being all witlidrawn by this process, the lead is 
mixed with turpentine, and applied thickly and evenly with great 
care. This is used as a fourth coat, and the room mu.st be kept shut 
and free from draught, as the color sets as fast as it is put on. See 
Porcelain Finish fob Pakloks. Plastered Walls. Give them a 
coat of glue size before painting in oil. KiUinfj Smoky Walls or 
Ceilings, "Wash over the smoky or greasy walls with nitre, soda, or 
thin lime whitewash, the last is the best. - . -.jw-^ . 

UsEFtn, HiNi's TO Painters. — Painters' ' Colic. To 2^ gals. 
spruce or table beer add 1 dram of sulphuric acid, mix well and let it 
stand 3 hours. A tumbler full 2 or 3 times per day is said to bo VC17 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS , AC, RECEIPTS. 257 

beneficial in cases of lead colic. Sweet oil and milk are also good, 
but acid, fruits, spirituous liquors, and vinegar should be avoided iu 
every illness caused by paint. Avoid inhaling the dust ■when handle- 
ing dry colors, or drinking water which has stood lon^ in a painted 
room or paint sliop. Never eat or sleep without washmg the hands 
and face, and riushig tlie mouth, cleaning Avell out imder tlie nails. 
Bathe tlie whole body every few days, avoid spattering your clothes, 
and either wear overalls or change your garments every week, well 
airing those j'ou put off. Keep your paint shop clean, weir ventilated, 
and avoid sleeping in it at any time. To Remove Paint from Cloth- 
inrj. Saturate the spots with equal parts turi^entine aiid spirits of 
ammonia until they become soft, then wash out with soapsuds. To 
dissolve Paint Skins, Cleanings of Pots, Bi'ushes, &c. Save them 
carefully, and dissolve them by boiling them iu oil. To Clean 
Brushes. Use turpentine first, then wash in warm soapsuds. To 
Clean Paint Pails, &c. Use strong ley, hot. Sandiiu/. The per- 
forated sprmklcr of a watering pot attached to the nozzle of a pair 
of bellows, is a first-rato contrivance for applymg sand to painted 
work. Apply on the fourth or fifth coat, with another coat on the 
sand. To remove old putty, apply nitric or muriatic acid. 

Prussian Blue. — Take nitric acid, any quantity, and as much 
iron shavings from the lathe as the acid will dissolve; heat the iron 
as hot as can be handled with the hand ; then add it to the acid in 
small quantities as long as the acid wiU dissolve it; then slowly add 
double the quantity of soft water that there was of acid, and put 
in iron again as long as the acid will dissolve it. 2d. Take prus- 
siate of potash, dissolve it in the hot Avater to make a,strong solution, 
and make suflicient of it with the first to give the depth of tint de- 
sired, and the blue is made. Another Method. — A very passable 
Prussian blue is made by taking sulprate of iron (copperas) and 
prussiate of potash, equal parts of each ; and dissolving each separately 
in water, then mixing the two waters. 

Chrome Yelloav. — 1st. Take sugar of lead and Paris white, of 
each 5 lbs.; dissolve them in hot water. 2d. Take bichromate of 
potash, G^ oz. : and dissolve it in hot water also ; each article to be 
dissolved separately; then mix all together, putting iu the bichro- 
niate last. Let stand twenty-four hours. 

Chrome Green. — Take Paris white, GJ lbs. ; sngar of lead, and 
blue vitriol, of each 3J lbs. ; alum, lOi oz. ; best soft Prussian blue, and 
chrome yellow, of eacli 3^ lbs. Mix thoroughly while in fine powder, 
and add water, 1 gal., stirrijig well, and let stand three or four hours, 
Another Green, durable and cheap. — Take spruce yellow, and color it 
with a solution of chrome yellow and Prussian blue, until you give it 
the shade you wish. Another Method. — Blue vitriol, 5 lbs. ; sugar of 
lead, 6J lbs.; arsenic, 2^ lbs. ; bichromate of potiish, 1^ oz.; mix them 
thoroughly in fine powder, and add water 3 parts, mixing well again 
and let stand three or four hours. 

Pea Brown. — 1st. Take sulpliato of copper any quantity, and 
dissolve it in hot water. 2d. Take prussiate of potash, dissolve it in 
liot water to make a strong solution ; mix of the two solutions, as iu 
the blue, and the color is made. 

Rose Pink. — Brazil wood 1 lb., and boil it for two hours, having 1 
gal. of water at the end ; then strain it, and boil alum, 1 lb., in the 

17 



258 CABIN ETJIAKERS, TAIXTERS', &C., RECEU'TS. 

water until dissolved; ■when sufficiently cool to admit the hand, add 
muriate of tin, ,^ 07.. Now have Paris white, 12i lb. ; moisteu up to a 
salvy cousisteiKC, and wlicn the first is cool, stir them thoroughly 
toprether. Let st;uid twenty-four hours. 

rATEXT Ykli.ow. — Com'mou salt, 100 lbs., and litharge, 400 lbs., 
are ground top;clh or witli Avater, and for some time in a gentle heat, 
water being added to supply the loss by evaporation; the carbouato 
of soda is then washed out with more water, and the white residuum 
heated till it acquires a fiue yellow color. 

Naplks Yellow. — Xo 1. Metallic antimony, 12 lbs.; red lead, 8 
lbs. ; oxide of zinc, 4 lbs. Mix, calcine, triturate well together, and 
fuse in a crucible : the fused mass must be gi'ouud and elutriated to 
a fine powder. 

Cheap Yellow Paint. — ^^Vhiting, 3 cwt. ; ochre, 2 cwt. ; ground 
\vhito lead, 25 lbs. Factitious lin.'^eed oil to grind. 

Stoxe Color Paixt. — Koad-dust sifted, 2 cwt. ; ground whito 
lead, i cwt.; whiting, 1 cwt.; ground umber, 14 lbs.; lime water, G 
gals. "Factitious linseed oil to grind. 

Glazieu's PcjTTY. — Whitiiig, 70 Ib.s. ; boiled oil, 20 lbs. Mix; if 
too thin, add more whiting; if too thick, add more oil. 

To Imitate Bkowx IIseestoxe. — First make a pretty thick oil 
])aint of tlio same color as the stone to be imitated, which may be 
done in diUerent ways, the basis is white lead or zinc white, colored 
with umber and mars red, or any other pigments which suit you; put 
it on ns usual, and while yet sticlcy throw common white sand against 
it ; tills will not affect the color and will make a rough, sandy coat 
imitating the surface of tlie stone. 

Germax Carmixe. — Cochineal, 1 lb.; water, 7 gals. ; boil for 5 
minutes, then add alum, 1 oz. Boil for 5 mimite.s more, filter and set 
aside the decoction in glass or porcelain vessels for 3 days, then decant 
the liquor and dry the carmine in the shade. The remaining liquor 
will still deposit of an inferior quality, by standing. 

St'aix for Floors. — To strong ley of wood-ashes add enough 
copperas for the required oak shade. Put this on with a moj) and 
and vaniish afterwards. 

Lead Color for Irox. — Take litharge and place it over a fire in a 
ladle ; sprinkle over it flour of brimstone to tuni it dark ; grind it in 
oil. It dries quick and stands well in any weather. 

A Good Imitatiox of Gold. — Jlix white lead, chrome yellow and 
burnt sieima until the proper shade is obtained. 

Beautiful AVhite 1\uxt. — For inside work, which ceases to 
smell, and dries in a few hours. Add 1 11). of frankhicense tij 2 qts. 
turpentine ; dissolve it over a clear fire, strain it, and bottle it for use ; 
then add 1 pt. of this mixture to 4 ])ts. bleached linseed oil, shako 
them well together, grind whito lead in spirits of turijentine, and 
strain it ; then add sufficient of the lead to make it proper for paint- 
ing ; if too thick in using, thin with turpeutine, it being suitable for 
the best internal work on account of its superiority and expense. 

For a Pure White Paint. — Nut-oil is tlie best : if linseed oil is 
used, add one-third of turpentine. 

To ^Iix Coamox- White Paixt. — Mix or grind white lead in lin- 
seed oil to the consistency of paste ; add turi^eutine in the proportion 
of one quart to the gallon of oil ; but these proportions must be va- 



CALIXKTJiAlCKKS, TAINTEKS*, &C., RECKIPTS. 259 

ried according to circumstances. Remember to strain j'our color for 
the better sorts of work. If the work is exposed to the sim, use more 
turpentine for the ground-color, to prevcjit its blistering. 

Lnvisiblb Gkeen foh Outside Wokk. — Mix lampblack and 
French yellow with burnt white vitriol. These colors mix in boiled 
oil. Burnt vitriol is the best drier for greens, as it is powerful and 
colorless, and, consequently, will not injure the color. 

BuiGiiT Vaknisii Gkeen, fou Inside blinds, Fent>ers, &c. — Tlio 
work must first bcpaiuted over with a light lead color, and, whon 
dry, grind some white lead in spirits of turpentine ; afterwards tako 
about 4 in bullc of verdigris, which has been ground stiff in linseed 
oil ; tlien mix them both together, and put into a little resin varnish, 
sufficient only to bind the color. "When tiiis is hard, which will be tho 
case in 15 minutes, pour into the color some resin to give it a good 
gloss. Then go over the work a second time and, if required, a third 
time. Thus you will have a cheap and beautiful gi-een, with a high 
polish. It possesses a very drying quality, as the work may be com- 
pleted in a few hours. The tint may be varied according to taste, by 
substituting mineral green for verdigris ; and if a bright grass-green 
is required, add a little Dutch pink to the mixture. N.B. — This color 
must be used when quite warm, to give the varnish a luiiform ex- 
tension. 

CoiirouND Greens. — This is a mixture of whiting, indigo and 
Dutch pink, the intensity of which may be increased or diminished by 
the addition of blue or yellow. These mixtures will not admit of any 
fixed rules in regard to the quantities of tlie matters used in their 
composition. They must depend on the taste of the artist and tho 
tone he is desirous of giving to the color. 

I'EA Gkeen. — Take one pound of genuine mineral green, one pound 
of the precipitate of copper, one iiound and a half of blue verditer, 
three pounds of white lead, three ounces of sugar of lead, and three 
ounces of burnt white vitriol. Jlix the wliole of these ingredients in 
Ihiseed oil, and grind them quite fine. It will produce a bright mineral 
pea-green paint, in-eserve a blue tint and keep any length of time in 
any climate, without injury, by putting water over it. To use this 
color for house or ship painting, take one pound of tlie gieen paint 
with some pale boiled oil, mix them well together, and this will pro- 
duce a strong iiea-grcen paint. The tint may be altered at pleasure, 
by adding a proportionate quantity of white lead to the green, which 
may be ground in linseed oil, and thinned with spirits of tuipentine 
for use. It may also be used for pahiting Venetian windoAV blinds, by 
adding white lead and mixing the color with bailed oil. For all the 
aforesaid preparations it -will retain a blue tint, which is very desir- 
able. 

For Knotting. — One pint of vegetable naphtha, 1 tablespoonful of 
red lead, ^ pint of japanners' gold size, 7 ozs. of orange shellac, mix 
all together, set in a warm place to dissolve, and frequently shake. 
Another. — IMLx white lead, or red lead powder, in strong glue size, 
and apply it warm. 

White Lead. — The most usual method of manufacturing white 
lead is that known as the Dutch method. It consists in exposing lead, 
cast in thin gratings, to the combuied action of acetic acid, moist air 
r.nd carbonic acid gas. The gratings are supported a little above tho 



260 CABINETMAKERS, PAlNTEltS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

bottom of earthen pots, similar to flower pots, in each of which a small 
quantity of weak acetic acid is placed. The pots are built up iu al- 
ternate layers with spent tanners' bark, until a stack is formed, each 
layer of pots being covered with a board. Fermentation soon takes 
place in the tan, and serves the double i)lace of generating heat and 
supplying carbonic acid. After the lapse of six or eight weeks, the 
metallic lead is found converted into Aviiite masses of cjirbonic mixed 
with hydrated oxide. It is then levigated, washed, dried, and ground 
with oil. 

To Cure Damp Walls. — Coil 2 ozs. of grease with 2 quarts of 
tar, for nearly twenty minutes, in an iron vessel, and liavc ready 
pounded glass, 1 lb. ; slaked lime, 2 lbs. ; well dried in an iron pot 
and sifted through a flour sieve ; add some of the lime to the tar and 
glass, to make it the thickness of thin paste, sufficient to cover a 
square foot at a time, as it hardens so quick. Apply it about an 
eighth of an inch thick. 

To Protect Wood and Brick work from Dajit Weather. 
— ^Take 3 i^ecks of lime, slalted in the air, 2 pecks of wood-ashes, 
and 1 peck of white sand. Sift them fine, and add linseed oil suffi- 
cient to use with a paint brush : thin the first coat ; use it as thick as 
it will work for the second coat, grind it fine, or beat it in a trough, 
and it is a good composition. 

Putty for Repairing Buokex Walls. — The best putty for walls 
is composed of equal parts of whiting and plaster of Paris, as it quick- 
ly hardens. The walls may be immediately colored upon it Soino 
painters use whiting with size ; but this is not good, as it rises abovo 
the surface of the walls, and shows the patches when the work is 
finished. Lime must not be used as putty to repair walls, as it will 
destroy almost every color it comes in contact with. 

Ixstructioxs for Sigx Writing, with the Colors to be 
USED for the Ground and Letters. — On an oak ground, oma- 
mental letters, in ultramarine blue, filled iu with gold and silver leaf, 
blocked up and shaded with bunit sienna. Another. — Gold letters 
on a white marble ground, blocked up and shaded with a transparent 
bro\vn or burnt sienna. On glass. — Gold letters, shaded with burnt 
sienna. Another. — Gold letters, shaded with black, on a scarlet or 
chocolate ground. On a rich blue ground, gold letters, double shaded, 
black and white. White letters on a blue ground, shaded with black, 
look very well. On a purple ground, pink letters sliaded with white. 
Mix ultramanne and vermilion for a ground color, white letters 
shaded with a light grey. Vermilion ground, chrome yellow, stained 
with vermilion and lake, for the letters, shaded black. A substitute 
for the above colors: Rose pink and red lead; and for the letters, 
stone yellow, white lead and Venetian red. A good substitute for 
gold is obtained by grinding white lead, chrome yellow, and a dust of 
vermihon togctlier. Mix your colors for writmg iu boiled oil, and 
use for drier gold size. Other good grounds for gold letters are: 
blues, venniliou, lake, and Saxon. When your sign is ready for 

filding, follow the directions given under tlio head of " To Gild 
,etters on Wood." 

To Give Lustre to a Light Blue Ground. — After the letters 
are MTitten and dry, paint the ground over again, between the letters, 
witli the same color, and while wet take pulverized I'rnssian bine and 



CAUIXETMAKEKS, I'AINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 261 

sift over tlie surface; glass, frost, or smalts may he used instead of or 
with the blue. When dry, brush oft the loose particles. 

GiLDEits' Gold Size. — Drying or boiled linseed oil, thickened 
^rith yellow ochre, or calciued red ochre, and carefully reduced to tho 
utmost smoothness by gruiding. Thin with oil of turpentine. 

To Gild Letter.s o.v Wood, &c. — When your sign is prepared as 
smooth as possible, go over it with a sizhig made by white of an eg» 
dissolved in about four times its weight of cold water; adding a small 
quantity of fuller's earth, this to prevent tho gold stickiug to any 
part but tho letters. Wlien dry, set out the letters and commenco 
^vriting, laying on tho size as thinly as possible, with a sable pencil. 
Let it stand until you can barely feel a slight stickiness, then go to 
work with your gold leaf, knife, and cushion, and gild the letters 
Take a leaf up on tho point of your knife, after giving it a slight puff 
into the back part of j'our cushion, and spread it on the front part of 
tlie cushion as straight as possible, giving it another slight puff with 
your mouth to flatten it out. Now cut it into the j^roper size, cutting 
with the heel of your knife forwards. Now rub the tip lightly on 
your hair; take up the gold on the iwint, and place it neatly on tho 
letters; when they are all covered get some very fine cottonwool, 
and gently rub the gold until it is smooth and bright. Then wash 
the sign with clean water to take off the egg size. See Qildiivj on 
Wood. 

To Use S:«alts. — For a gold lettered sign, lay out on a lead color 
or white surface the line of letters, and roughly size the shape of 
each letter with/o< oil size. This mu.st be allowed at least 12 liours 
to get tocky and ready for gildmg. After the gold leaf is laid and 
perfectly dry, mix up (for blue smalts) Prussian blue and keg lead 
with oil, adding a little dryer. Outline carefully around the letters, 
and fill up all the outside with blue paint; then with a small sieve 
sift on the smalts, allowing the sign to lay horizontally. Cover every 
part with plenty of smalts, and allow it to remain unmolested until 
tho paint is dry. Then carefully shako oil tho surplus smalts, and 
the work is done. 

StTPEKFixK Size for Gildixg.— Good drjnngoil, 1 lb. ; pure gum 
animi, powdered, 4 ozs. ; bring the oil almost to the boiling point in a 
covered metal pot, add your gum gradually and cautiously to the oil, 
stirring all the time to dissolve completely. Boil to a tarry con- 
sistency and stmin while warm through silk into a warm bottle with 
a wide mouth; keep it well corked; use as required, thinning with 
turpentine. This is the celebrated Birmingham " secret size," and is 
imequalled for tenacity and durability. Size to fix the Pearl on Glass 
Sif/ns. 1. Copal vaniish 1 part, Canada balsam 2 parts. 2. Pure 
mastic vaniish. 3. Pale, quick drying copal varnish. 

To Paint Banners, &c., on Cloth ok Silk. — Stretch the fabric 
upon a frame, and fiuisli your design and lettering. Use a size made 
of bleached shellac dissolved in alcohol, tluiuied to tho pro])er 
consistence, go over such parts as are to be gilded or painted, over- 
running the outlines sliglitly, to prevent the color from spreading. 
For inside work the white of an egg makes a good size; lay the gold 
■while the size is still wet, when dry, dust off tlie suri)lus gold, and 
proceed with tho shading, painting, &c. A little honey, combined 
with tliick gluo, is another good size. 



262 CABINETMAKERS, rAIXTEKS', &.C., RECEIPTS. 

Japanned Tin Signs. — Draw your letters on paper to suit your 
piece of tin, having first cleaned it with diluted alcohol and a piece of 
cotton. This will remove any .crease or other matter that might hold 
the gold. Then take some Avhiting and rub it over the back of tho 
paper upon which your design is made and lay it upon the Japanned 
tin. Next place a weight upon the four comers of tlie paper, or 
otherwise fix it securely to the tin ; then, with a fine pointed piece of 
hard wood, trace the design carefully, bearing upon the paper with 
the point just hard enough to cause the whiting on the under side of 
the jiaper to adhere to the tin, and after gomg carefully over the 
whole, you will have transferred the entire design in fine white out- 
line to the tin you are to finish it upon. Now size with oil size, and 
when dry enough for gilding, lay on the gold leaf and dab it down 
thoroughly, afterwards brushing off the loose gold with your flat 
camel-hair brush or cotton. 

Changeable Signs. — Make a wooden sign in the usual manner, 
and have a projecting moulding around it. Now cut thin grooves 
into the moulding, an inch apart, allowing each ci»t to reach to the 
surface of the sign. In each of these grooves insert strips of tin one 
inch wide ; and long enough to reach quite across the sign board. 
When all are fitted, take out the tin strips, and placing them edge to 
edge on a level table, paint any desired words on their imited 
surface ; when dry, reverse them and paint other words on tho 
opposite side. Now finish your lettering as usual on the wooden 
sign board, and when dry, "insert the painted tin strips in correct 
order in the grooves. Tliis will present the curious novelty of three 
s\gns in one, as viewed from diflerent jiositions. 

Transparent Cloth. — Dissolve together white rosin, pulverized, 
8 ozs., bleached linseed oil G ozs., white beeswax 1^ ozs., add tho 
turpentine while hot. Apply to both sides of the 'cloth while it 
is stretched tight. A good vehicle for mi.ving colors for painting on 
clotli or paper is gum shellac dissolved in alcohol. 

Tinselled Letter Glass Signs. — Paint the ground-work of your 
sign, on gla.«s, any desired color, but be careful to leave the lettering 
or design naked, after it is dry, take any of the fancy colored copper 
or tin foils, crumple them in your hand and ajiply them over the 
black lettering, Szc, after partiaDy straiglitening them out. 

To Incbust Window Glass with Jewels. — Dissolve dextrine 
in a concentrated solution of sulphate of magnesia, sulphate of zinc. 
suli)hate of copper or other metallic salts, strain the liquid and 
bnish a thin coat of it over the glass and dry slowly at the ordinary 
temperature, keeping tho glass level. For protection it may be 
vaniislied. The effect produced is that of an incrustation of dia- 
monds, sapphires, &c., according to the color of the salt used. 

To Paint in Imitation of Ground Glass. — Grind and mix 
white lead in three-fourths of boiled oil and one-fourth spirits of tur- 
jientuie, and to give the mixture a very drying quality, add sufficient 
quantities of burnt white vitriol and sugar of lead. The color must 
be exceedingly thin, and put on the panes of glass with a large sized 
paint brush in as even a manner as possible. Wlien a number of the 
]ianes are thus painted, take a drj- duster quite new, dab the ends of 
the bristles on the glass in quick succession, till you give it a uniform 
appearance. Repeat tliis operation till the work appears very soft. 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS*, &C., RECEIPTS. 263 

and it \rill then appear like ground glass. ^Vhcn the glass requires 
fresh painting, get the old coat oflf first by using strong pearl-ash 
water. " Another Method. — Spirits of salts, 2 ozs. ; oil of vitriol, 2oz8. ; 
sulphate of copper, 1 oz. ; gum arabic, 1 oz. ; mix all well together, 
and dab on the glass with a brush. Anotlier. — Dab your squares 
regularly over with putty; when dry, go over them again; the imita- 
tion will be complete. 

Painting on Glass. — Take clear rosin, 1 oz., melt in an iron ves- 
sel. \Vlien all is melted, let it cool a little, but not harden ; then add 
oil of turpentine sufficient to keep it in a liquid state. When cold, 
use it with colors ground in oil. 

Hard Drying Paint. — Grind Venetian red, or any other color 
you wish, in boiled oil ; then tliiu it with black japan. It will dry 
very hard for counter tops, &c. 

Paste for Paper Hangings, Books, Paper Boxes, &c. — Good 
wheat flour, sifted, 4 lbs., make it into a stiiT batter with cold water 
in a pail, beat it well to break the lumps, then add pulverized alum, 
2 ozs. Into this pour boiling water, hissing hot from the fire, stirring 
the batter thoroughly all the time. As it cooks it swells and loses its 
white color, and when cold, will make about ^ of a pail of thick paste. 
Thin with cold water to adapt it for easy use with the brush. For 
painted or varnished walls, add ^ oz., pulverized rosin to each 2 qts. 
paste, and reduce the mass witli thin gum arabic or glue water. A 
little pulverized corrosive sublimate will enhance the keeping qualitiea 
of paste, but alum used as above will do very well. 

To Remove Old Paint.— Sal soda, 2 lbs. ; lime, J lb. ; hot water, 
1 gal. ; rummage all togetlier and apply to the old paint while warm. 
It will soon loosen the paint so that you can easily remove it. Ano- 
ther simple method is to sponge over your old paint with benzine, set 
it on the fire, and you can theii flake off tlie paint as quick as you like. 
Do not attempt to go over too much surface at a time, otherwise you 
might get more to do than you can attend to. 

Refuse Paint and Paint Skins.— Dissolve sal soda, ^ lb., in 
rain water, 1 gal. ; cover the refuse paint for 2 days, then he.at it, 
adding oil to reduce it to a proper consistence for painting and strain- 
ing. 

Spirit Grainhng for Oak. — Two poiuids of whiting, quarter of 
a pound of gold size, thinned down with spirits of turpentine; then 
tuige your whiting witii Vandyke bro\vn and raw sienna, ground fine. 
Strike' out your lights with a fitch dipped in turpentine, tinged with a 
little color to show the lights. If your lights do not appear clear, add 
a little more turpentine. Turjjentine varnish is a good substitute for 
the above mentioned. Tliis kind of graining must be brushed over 
Avith beer, with a clean brush, before varnishing. Strong beer must 
be used for glazing up top-graining and shading. 

Oil for Graining Oak. — Grind Vandyke brown in turpentine, 
add as much gold size as will set, and as much soft soap as will make 
it stand the comb. Should it set too quickly, add a little boiled oil. 
Put a teaspoonful of gold size to half a pint of turpentme, and as 
much soap as will lie on a twenty-five cent piece, then take a little 
soda mixed with water and take out the veins. 

To Prepare the Ground for Oak Rollers. — Stain your white 
lead with raw sicmia and red lead, or with chrome yellow and Vene- 



264 CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

tian red ; thin it with oil and turps, and strain for use. When tho 
ground work is dry, grind in beer, Vandyke brown, -wliiting and a 
little burnt sienna, for the graiuing color; or you may use raw sienna 
with a little whiting, limbers, &c. 

To Imitate Old Oak. — To make an exceedingly rich color for tlie 
imitation of old oak, the ground is a composition of stone ochre or 
orange chrome and bunit sienna ; the graimng color is burnt umber 
or Vandyke brown, to darken it a little. Observe that tho above 
colors must be used whether the imitation is in oil or distemper. 
When dry, varnish. 

To Imitate Old Oak, ix Otl. — Grind Vandyke and whiting in 
turiientme, add a bit of common soap to make it stand the comb, and 
thiu it with boiled oil. 

To Imitate PoLLyUiD Oak. — Tlie ground color is prepared with a 
mLxture of clirorae yellow, vermiUou, and white lead, to a rich light 
buff. The graining colors are Vandyke bro^vn and small portions of 
raw and burnt sienna and lake ground in ale or beer. Fill a large 
tool with color, spread over the surface to be grained, and soften with 
the badger hair brush. Talce a moistened sponge between the th,umb 
and finger, and dapple round and roimd inkmd of kuobs, then soften 
very lightly ; then draw a sof teuer from one set of knobs to the other 
wliile wet, to form a multiplicity of grains, and fuiish the knots ■with 
a hair pencil, in some places iu thicker clusters than others. AVlieu 
dry put the top grain on in a variety of directions, and vami.sh with 
turps and gold size; then glaze up with Vandyke and strong ale. To 
finish, varnish with copal. 

To I>nTATE Mottled JlAnocAXY. — Tlic ground is ]ireparod with 
the best English Venetian red, red lead, aud a small portion of white 
lead. The graiuing colors are bunit sienna, ground in ale, with a 
small portion of Vandyke brown, sutlicieut to take away the fiery ap- 
pearance of the sienna. Cover the surface to be grained, soften with 
the badger hair brush, and while wet take a mottling-roUer and go 
over the lights a second time, in order to give a variety of shade, then 
blend the whole of the work with the badger softener. Tut the top 
graiu on with tlie same color. When dry, vaniish. 

To Ijiitate Rosewood. — Mix vermilion aud a small quantity of 
white lead for the ground. Take rose pink, tinged with a little 
lampblack, or Vandyke brown, and grind very fine in oil, then take 
a flat graining brush, with the hairs cut away at imequal distances, 
and cut do^vn the grain as if wending round a knot When nearly 
dry, take a graiuing comb that is used for oak, aud draw down the 
grain. Tliis willgive it the appearance of nature. When dry, 
vamish. Aiwiher. — The groimd color is prepared with vermilion 
and small quautities of white lead and crimson lake. When the 
ground is dry and made very smooth, take Vandyke brown, ground 
iu oil, and with a small tool spread the color over the surface in dif- 
ferent directions forming kind of knots. Before the work is dry, take 
a piece of leather, aud with great freedom strike out the Ught veins; 
having previously prepared the darkest tint of Vandyke brown, or 
gumasphaltum, immediately take the flat graining brush with few 
hairs in it, draw the grain over the work aud soften. When varnished, 
the imitation will be excellent. 
AxoTHEK Rosewood Imitation i:^ Size.— Mix Venetian red. 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 265 

white lead powder, vermilion and common size, the consistency of 
•which, when cold, must he tliat of a weak trembling jelly. "\Vith 
this composition paint the worlc twice over. When the ground is dry, 
take some lampblack, finely ground in beer, and beat the white of an 
egg into it; take the flat graining bmish, dipped in the black, and put 
on the grain. AVlieu dry, stain the first coat of varnish with rose 
pink, finely ground in turpentine, and finish the work by giving it a 
coat of clear varnish 

To biiTATE Biud's-eye JiArLE. — The ground is a light buff, pre- 
pared with white lead, chrome yellow, and a little vernulion or Eng- 
lish Venetian red, to take off the rawness of the j-ellow. The grain- 
ing color is equal parts of raw umber and sienna ground in oil to the 
proper consistency. Spread the surface of the work with this color, 
and, having some of the same prepared a little thicker, immediately 
take a sash tool or sponge, and put on the dark shades, and soften 
with the badger's-hair brush before the color is dry put on the eyes 
by dabbing the dotting machine on the work. When dry, put on the 
gi-aui with the camel's-hair pencil on the prominent parts, to imitate 
the small hearts of the wood. When dry, varnish. 

To Imitate Curled Maple. — Prepare a light yellow for the 
ground, by mixing chrome yellow and white lead, tinged with Vene- 
tian red. Tlie grauiiug color is a. mixture of equal portions of raw 
sienna and Vandyke, ground in ale ; sjiread the surface to be grained 
in an even manner; then with a piece of cork rub across the work to 
and fro, to form the grains Avhich run across the Avood. When dry, 
varnish. 

Curled jrAPLE ix Ori, fob Outside Work. — Prepare a rich 
ground by mixing chrome yellow, white lead and burnt sienna. For 
the graining color, grind equal paits of raw sienna and umber with a 
little burnt copperas in turpentine, and mix with a small quantity of 
graiuer's cream. Thin the color with boiled oil ; then fill a tool and 
spread the surface even, and rub out the lights witli the sharp edge 
of a piece of buff leather, which must now and then be wiped to keep 
it clean; soften the edges of the work very liglitly, and when dry, 
put on the top grain with burnt umber and raw sienna, ground in ale, 
with the white of an egg beat into it. When dry, vaniish. 

Satinwood. — This ground is prepared with white lead, stone ochi'c, 
and small quantities of chrome yellow and burnt sienna. The grain- 
ing color is one-third of raw sienna and whitmg, ground in pale ale, 
very thin; then spread the color over the surface to be grained. 
While wet, soften, and have ready a wet roller or mottling brush, in 
order to take out the lights; blend the wliole with the badger's-hair 
brush. When the workis dry, take the flat brush, and %vith the same 
color, put on the top again. When dry, varnish. 

To Ijiitate Yew Tree. — The ground is a reddish buff. For the 
graining color grind in ale equal portions of Vandyke brown and 
burnt sienna, with a small quantity of raw sienna. AVhen the ground 
is dry, spread the surface even with the color, and soften; then with 
a piece of cork with a sharj) edge, rub ilio work cross and cross in 
order to form the fine grain. Wlien drj% dip the tip of your fingers 
in the graining color to form the eyes or knots, and put in the small 
touches with a camel' s-hair pencil. When dry, put on the top grain, 
and when this is dry, varnish. 



266 CABIXETJIAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

To Imitate Black ant> Goi-n Maubi.e. — This description of 
marble is now iu great demand. The ground is a deep jet blacli, or a 
dead color, in gold size, drop black and turps: second coat, black 
japan. Commence veinmg ; mix white and yellow oclire witli a small 
quantity of vermilion to give a gold tinge ; dip the pencil iu this color, 
and dab on the ground with great freedom some large patches, froni 
which small threads must be drawn in various directions. In the 
deepest pails of the black, a white vein is sometimes seen running 
witli a great number of small veins attached to it; but care must be 
taken that these threads are connected with, and run in some degree 
iu the same direction with the thicker veins. If durability is not an 
object and the work is required in a short time, it may be executed 
very quick iu distemper colors, and when varnished, it will look 
well. 

Red Marble. — For the gronud, put on a white tinged with lake or 
vermilion ; then apply deep rich reds ui patches, filling np the inter- 
mediate spaces with brown and white mixed in oil; then blend them 
together; if in quick drying colors, use about half tuqis and gold 
size. AVhen drj', varnish; and while the varnish is wet, put in a 
multitude of tlic fine white threads, crossing the whole work in all 
directions, as the wet vaniish brings tlie pencil to a fine point. 

Jasi'eu Mauule. — Put on a white groimd lightly tinged with blue; 
then put on patches of rich reds or rose pink, leaving spaces of the 
white grounds ; then partly cover those spaces with various browns 
to form fossils, in places running veins; then put in a few spots of 
white in the centre of some of the red patches, and leaving in places 
masses nearly all white. When dry, use the clearest varnish. 

Blue and Gold Makble. — For the ground put on a light blue; 
then lake blue, with a small piece of white lead and some dark com- 
mon blue, and dab on tlie ground on patches, leaving portions of the 
ground to shine between; tlien blend the edges together witli duster 
or softener; afterwards draw on some white veins in every direction, 
leaving large open 8i)aces to be filled up with a pale yellow or gold- 
paint; finish with some lino white nmning threads, and a coat of 
varnish at last. 

To Imitate Graxtte. — For the ground color, stain your white 
lejid to a light lead color, Avith lam]>black and a little rose pink. 
Throw on black si)ots, witli a graniting machine, a pale red, and fill up 
with white before the ground is dry. 

Another. — A black ground, when half dry, throw iu vermilion, a 
deep yellow and white spots. 

To 'Imitate Hair Wood. — For the ground color, take white lead 
and thin it with turpentine, and slightly sfciin it witli equal quantities 
of Prussian blue and lampblack. For the graining color, grind in ale 
a mixture of Prussian blue and raw sienna; when the ground is dry, 
spreiid a transparent coat of the graining color on the surface of tlie 
work, and soften ; then with the cork, mottle by nibbing it to and 
fro across the work, to form the fine long grain or mottle. When 
this is done, soften and top,grain iu wavy but peqiendicular direc- 
tions; vaniish when dry. 

Substitute for Wuite Lead. — Sulphate of barytes ground in oil 
and applied like paint. It can also be used to reduce white lead to 
any desired extent. 



CABIXETMAKERS, PAINTERS', AC, RECEIPTS. 267 

Taint for Black Boards in Schools.— Common glue, 4 oz. ; 
flour of emerj', 3oz. ; fiud just lampblack enough to give an inky 
color to the preparation. Dissolve tlie glue in 5 qt. of Avarm water, 
put iu the lampblack and emery, stir till there are no lumps, then 
apply to the board with a woollen rag smoothly rolled. Three coats 
are amply sufficient. 

CoMTOUND IROX Paixt. — Fiucly pulverized iron filings, 1 part; 
brick dust, 1 part; and ashes, 1 part. Pour over them giue-walTer or 
size, set the whole near the fire, and, wlien Avarra, stir them well 
together. With this pauit cover all the wood Avork Avhich may be in 
danger; when dry, give a second coat, and the Avood Avill be rendered 
incombustible. 

Filling Comtositions — 12 kintis. — 1. Work finished iuoil should 
receive a substantial filling consisting of equal parts by Aveiglitof 
Avhiting, plaster of Paris, pumice-stone, and litharge, to wliich may 
be added a little Freucli yelloAV, asphaltum, Vandyke brown, and 
terra di sienna. Jlix Avitli 1 part japan, 2 of boiled oil, and 4 of tur- 
pentine. Grind fine in a mill. Lay the filling on Avith a brusli, rub 
it in Avell, let it set 20 minutes, then rub off clean. Let it harden for 
some time, rub smooth, and if required, repeat the process. When 
the filling is all right, finisli Avitli linseed oil, applying Avitli a brush, 
wipe off, and rub to a polish with fine cotton, and finisli Avith any fine 
fabric. Some fill witli rye flour, wheat Hour, corn sfairch, Paris 
wliite, &c., ground fine in oil and turiDCutine, but AAiieu Avork is to bo 
Ararnished, such filling should previously receive one or two good 
coats of shellac. 2. Boiled linseed oil, Iqt. ; turpentine: 3 qts.; corn 
starcli, 5 lbs.; japan, 1 qt. ; calcined magnesia, 2 oz. Mix thoroughly. 
3. A\'liiting, G ozs. ; Japan, ^ pt. ; boiled linseed oil, f pt. ; turpen- 
tine, ^ pt. ; com starch, 1 oz. : mix well togetlier and apply to the 
AVOod. On Avalnut wood add a little burnt umber; on cherry a little 
Venetian red, to the above mixture. 4. On furniture apply a coat of 
boiled linseed oil, then immediately sprinkle dry Avliiting upon it, and 
run it in well with your hand or a stiff brusli, alloA-erthe surface; 
the whiting absorbs the oil, and fills tlie iwres of the wood completely. 
For black walnut, add a little burned umber to the Avliiting; for 
cherry, a little Venetian red, &c., according to the color of the Avood. 
Turned work can have it applied while in motion in tlie lathe. Furni- 
ture can afterwards be finished Avith only one coat of A^arnish. 5. Ter- 
ra alba is a very good and very cheap filling. Many painters have 
been most shamefully imposed on by i)arties selling the stuff at a high 
lirice. 6. Furniture Pastes. — BeesAvax, spts. turpentine and linseed 
oil, equal parts; melt and cool. 7. Beeswax, 4 ozs.; turpentine, 10 
ozs.; alkanetroot to color; melt and strain. 8. Beeswax, 1 lb.; lin- 
seed oil, 5 ozs.; alkanet root, ^ oz., melt and add 5 ozs. turpentine, 
strain and cool. 9. Beeswax, 4 ozs. ; rosin, 1 oz. ; oil of tuqientine, 

2 oz.s. ; digest imtil sufficiently colored, then add beeswax till dissolved, 
tlien add beeswax scraped small, 4 ozs. ; put the vessel into hot Avater, 
and stir till dissolved. If Avanted j^alc the alkanet root should be 
omitted. 10. (White.) White wax, 1 lb.; liquor of pot-issa, ^ gal.; 
boil to a proper consistency. 11. BeesAvax, 1 lb. ; soap, i lb. ; pearlash, 

3 ozs., dissolved in Avater, \ gal. ; strain and boil as the last 12. Yel- 
low wax, 18 parts; rosin, 1 part; alkanet root, 1 part; turpentine, 6 
parts ; linseed oil 6 parts. First steep the alkanet in oil Avith heat, 



268 CABINET.MAKKRS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

and, -Rlicn ■well colored, ponr off tlio clear on the otlier ingredients, 
and again heat till all aie dissolved. 13. Furniture Cream. — Lccs- 
wax, 1 lb. ; soap, 4 ozs. ; pearlasli, 2 ozs. ; soft Avater, 1 gal., boil to- 
gethei' until mixed. 

To Repaiu the Sila-erixg of JIikkors.— Pour upon a sheet of 
till foil 3 drs. of quicksilver to the square foot of foil. Rub smartly 
■with a piece of biickskiu until the foil becomes brilliant. Lay the 
glass upon a flat table, face do\vii-wards, place the foil upon tlio 
damaged porti<iu of the glass, lay a sheet of paper over the foil, and 
place Upon it a block of wood or a piece of marble ■with a perfectly 
flat surface; ])ut upon it sufficient weight to press it doAvntigut; let it 
remain iu this ix)sitiou a few hours. The foil will adhere to tlic 
glass. 

Pencils fok Weitixg ok Glass.— Stearic acid, 4 pta. ; mutton- 
suet, 3 i)ts. ; wax 2 pts; melt togetlier and add G parts of red lead, and 
1 pt. purified carbonate of potassa, previously triturated together; set 
aside for an hour iu a Avarm situation, stirring frequently; then pour 
into glass tubes or hollow reeds. 

Polishes — 15 kinds. — 1. Carvers' Polish. — AVliite resin, 2 oz. ; 
seedlac, 2 oz. ; spirits of wine, 1 pt. Dissolve. It should be laid on 
warm. Avoid moisture and dampness when used. 2. French Polish. 
— Gum shellac, 1 oz. ; gum arable, i oz. ; gum copal, J oz. Powder, 
and sift through a piece of muslin; putlhem in a closely corked bot- 
tle with 1 pt. spirits of wine, in a verj' warm situation, sliaking every 
day till the gums arc dissolved; then strain through muslin, and cork 
for use. 3. Polish for Dark-colored 'Woods. — Scedlac, 1 oz. ; gum 
guaiacum, 2 drs. ; dragon's blood, 2 drs. ; gum mastic, 2 drs. ; put in 
a bottle with 1 pt. spirits of wine, cork close, exj^osc to a moderate 
heat till the gums are dissolved ; straui into a bottle for use, with ^ 
gill of linseed oil; shake together. 4. Waterproof Polish. — Gum 
benjamm, 2 ozs. ; gum saiularac, f oz. ; gum anima, ^ oz. ; spirits of 
■wine, 1 pt. ; mix in a closely stopped bottle, and i)lacc either in a s.and 
bath or iu hot water till the gums are dissolved, then strain off the 
mixture, shake it up with 4 gUl of tlio best clear poppy oil, and put it 
by for use. 5. Finishinrj Polish. — Gum shellac, 2 drs.; gum benja- 
min, 2 drs. ; put into h pt. best rectified spirits of wine in a bottle 
closely corked ; keep m warm placo, shaking frequently till the gums 
are dissolved. When cold, shake up with it twoteaspoonf uls of the best 
clear poppy oil. C. Polish for Removing Stains, Spots, and Mildcxo 
from Furniture. — Take of 98 ])er cent, alcohol, ^ pmt; pulverized 
resin and gum shellac, of eacli, |,oz. Let these cut iu the alcohol ; 
tlieu add linseed oil, \ pt. ; shake well, and apply with a sponge, 
brush, or cottou flannel, or an old newspaper, rubbing it well after 
the application, which gives a nice polish. 7. Polish for licvivinQ 
Old Furniture. — Take alcohol, 1^ oz. ; spirits of salts (muriatic acid), 
i oz. ; linseed oil, 8 oz, ; best vinegar, ^ pt. ; and butter of antimony, 
ih oz. ; mis, putting iu the vinegar last. 8. Jet or Polish for Wood 
or Leather, Black, Bed, or Blue— Alcohol (98 per cent.), 1 pt. ; sealing 
wax, the color desired, 3 sticks; dissolve by heat, and have it warm 
wlien applied. A sponge is the best to apply it with. 9. Polish for 
Turners' TFoj-A-.— Dissolve sandarac, 1 oz., in spirit of wine, ^ pt: 
next shave beeswax, 1 oz. ; and dissolve it in a sufficient quantity oi 
spirits of tuq>cntiuo to make it into a paste, add the former mixture 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS'. AC, RECEIPTS. 269 

by degrees to it, then -with a woolen cloth apply it to the work while it 
is in motion in the lathe, and with a soft linen rag polish it. It wil 
appear as if highly varnished. 10. Furniture Polish. — Beeswax, \ 
lb., and ^ of an oz. of alkauet root; melt together in a pipkin until 
the fonner is well colored. Then add Imseed oil and spirits of tnr- 
peutine, of each half a gill; strain through a piece of coarse muslin. 
11. French Polishes. — 1. Shellac, 3 lbs. ; wood naphtha, 3 pts. ; dis- 
solve. 2. Shellac, 2 lbs. ; powdered mastic and sandarac, of each 1 
oz. ; copal varnish, ^ pint; spirits of wine, 1 gal. Digest in the cold 
till dissolved. 12. lilack Walnut Polish. — Take pulverized asphal- 
tum; put it in ajar or bottle, pour over it about twice its bulk of tur- 
pentine or benzole, put in a warm place, and shake oocasionally; 
when dissolved, strain, and apply it to the wood with a cloth or stifE 
bmsh; sliould it prove too dark, dilute with turi^entine or benzole. 
If desired to bring out the grain still more, apj)ly a mixture of boiled 
oil and turpentine; this is better than oil alone When the oil is dry, 
the wood can be polished with the followmg: shellac varnish, 2 parts, 
boiled oil, 1 part ; shake it well before using Apply with a cloth, rub- 
bing briskly. 13. To PolishWood. — Take a piece of pumice-stone and 
water, and pass repeatedly over the work until the rishig of the grain 
is cut do^vn. Then take ix)wdered tripoli and boiled Imseed oil, and 
polish the worlc to a bright surface 14. Clock Case and Picture 
Frame Finish. — Copal varnish, 2 lbs. ; liuseed oil varnish, ^ oz. ; mix 
well, shake often, and place in a warm spot The wood to be var- 
nished is prepared with a thin coat of glue-water, and rubbed down 
with line pumice-stone or something equivalent In liglit-colored 
wood, a liglit pigment, such as chalk, is added to the glue-water; 
in dark wood, a dark pigment is added When ready, the articles are 
varnished with the above mixture, and, after drying, rubbed with a 
solution of wax in ether, thereby receiving a high poUsh 15 ^Vhite 
Polish for White Woods. — White bleached shellac, 3 ozs. ; white 
gum benzoin, 1 oz. ; gum sandarac, i oz. ; spirits of wine or naphtha, 
1 pt. Dissolve. 

Oil Finishes. — 1. Linseed oil, IG ozs. ; black resin, 4 ozs. ; vinegar, 
4 ozs. ; rectified spirits, 3 ozs. ; butter of antimonj', 10 ozs. ; spirit of 
salts, 2 ozs. ; melt the resin, add the oil, take it off the fire, and stir in 
the vinegar; let it boil for a few minutes, stirring it; when cool, put 
it into a bottle, add the other ingredients, shaking all together. 2. 
Linseed oil, 1 pt. ; oil of turpentuie, ^ pt. ; rectified spirits, 4 ozs. ; pow- 
dered resin, 1^ oz. ; rose pink, i oz. ;" mix. 3. Acetic acid, 2 drs. ; oil 
of Lavender, i dr. ; rectified spirits, 1 dr. ; linseed oil, 4 ozs. 4. Linseed 
oil, 1 pt. ; allianet root, 2 ozs. ; heat, strain, and add lac vaniish, 1 oz. 
5. Linseed oil, 1 pt. ; rectified spirits, 2 ozs. ; butter of antimony, 4 ozs. 
G. Linseed oil, 1 gal. ; alkauet root, 3 ozs. ; ro.se pink, 1 oz. Boil them 
together ten minutes, and strain so that the oil be quite clear. 

Fancv Figures on Wood. — Slake some lime iu stale urine. Dip 
a brush in it, and form on the wood figures to suit your fancy. When 
dry, rub it well with a rind of pork. 

Stains for Wood. — 1. Cheap Black Walnut Stain. — Burnt um- 
ber, 2 parts; rose pink, 1 part; glue, 1 part; water sufficient; heat all 
together and dissolve completely, apply to the work first with a 
sponge, then go over it with a brush, and varnish over witli sheUac, 
2. Ebony Stain. — ^Drop black, 2 parts; rose pink, Ipart; turpentine, a 



270 CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

sufficient quantity. 3. BrifiM Yelloio Stain. — 1. Brush over -n-itlitho 
tincture of turmeric. 4. Warm tlic Avork, aud brusli it over witli •weak 
aquafortis ; vaniisli or oil as usual. 5. A very small bit of aloes put 
into the varnish -will give a rich yellow color to the wood. G. EMra 
Black Stain for Wood. — Pour 2 quarts boilmg water over 1 oz. of 
powdered extract of logwood, and, wheu the solution is affected, Idr. 
of yellow chromate of potash is added, aud the whole well stirred. 
It is then ready for use as a wood-stain, or for writing ink. When 
rubbed on wood, it produces a pure black. Kepeat with 2, 3, or 4 
applications, till a deep black is produced. 7. Imilaiionof Mahorjany. 
Let the first coat of painting be white lead, the second orange, and 
the last burnt umber or sienna : imitating the veins according to your 
taste and practice. 8. To Imitate iy\tinscot. — Let the first coat bo 
white; the second, half white and yellow ochre; aud the third, yellow 
ochre only; shadow with umber or sienna. 9. To Imitate Satin 
Wood. — Take white for your first coating, light blue for the second, 
and dark bine or dark green for the third. 10. Eosewood Stain, veiij 
br if lilt shade — Used Cold. — Take alcohol, 1 gal.; camwood, 2 oz. ; 
set them in a warm place 24 hours; then add extract of logwood, 3 
oz. ; aqiuifortis, 1 oz. ; and wlicn dissolved, it is ready for use; it 
makes a very bright ground like the most beautiful rosewood; 
1, 2, or more coats as you desire. 11. Cheri-y Stain. — Rain water, 3 
qts. ; anuatto, 4 oz. ; boil in a copper kettle till the amiatto is dis- 
solved, then put in a piece of potash the size of a walnut; keep it ou 
the fire about half an hour longer, and it is ready to boitle for use. 
12. Rosewood Stain, very hriglit shade. — Equal parts of logwood and 
redwood chips, boil well in water sufficient to make a strong stain ; 
apply it to the fiu'uiture while hot; 2 or 3 coats according to the depth 
of color desired. 13. Rose Pink Stain and Varnish. — Put 1 oz. of 
potash in 1 qt. water, with red sanders, 1^ ozs.; extract the color from 
the wood and strain : then add gum shellac, h lb., dissolve it by a 
brisk fire. Used upon logwood stain for rosewood imitation. 14. 
Blue Stain for Wood. 1. Dissolve copper filuigs in aquafortis, brush 
the wood with it, and then go over the work with a hot solution of 
pearlash (2 oz. to 1 pt. of water) till it assumes a perfectly blue color. 
15. Boil 2 ozs. of indigo, 2 lbs. wood, and 1 oz. alum, in 1 gal. water, 
brush well over until thoroughly stained. IG. Imitation of Botany- 
Ban Wood. — Boil i lb. French berries (the unripe berries of tlio 
Rhamnus infectorius) in 2 qts. water till of a deep yellow, and wliile 
boiling hot, give 2 or 3 coats to the work. If a deeper color is desired, 
give a coat of logwood decoction over the yellow. AVhen nearly dry, 
form the grain with No. 8, black stain, used hot, and, when dry, rust 
and varnish. 17. Mahogany Color — Dark. — 1. I3oil \ lb. of madder 
aud 2 ozs. logwood chips in a gallon of water, and brush well over 
while hot; when dry go over the whole with pearlash solution, 2 
drs. to the quart. 2. Put 2 oz.s. dragon's blood, bruised, into a quart 
of oil of turpentine ; let the bottle stand m a warm place, shake fre- 
quently, and, when dissolved, steej) the Avork in the mixture. 18. 
Jiox-ioood Broion Stain. — Hold your work to the fire, that it may re- 
ceive a gentle warmth ; then take aquafortis, and, with a feather, 
pass it over the work till you find it change to a fine brown (always 
keeping it neiir the fire), you may then varnish or polish it. 19. 
Lirjld Red Brown. Boil -]r lb. madder aud ^ lb. fustic in 1 gal. water; 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 271 

brush over the work, when boiling hot, until properly stained. 20. 
The surface of the work being quite smooth, brusli over with a weak 
solution of aqiiafortis, ^ oz. to tlic pint ; then finish with tlie follow- 
ing : — Put 4^ ozs. dragon's blood and 1 oz. soda, both weU bruised, to 

3 pts spiiits of wine, let it stand in a Avarm place, shake frequently, 
strain and lay on with a soft brush, repcatmg until of a proper color; 
polish with linseed oil or varnisli. 21. Fxtrple. — Brusli the work 
several times witli the logwood decoction used for No. C Black ; and, 
when dry, give a coat of pearlash solution, 1 dr. to a quart; lay itou 
evenly. 22. Red. — 1. Boil 1 lb. Brazil wood and 1 oz. pearlash in a 
gal. of water; and, while hot, brush over the work until of a proper 
color. Dissolve 2 ozs. alum inlqt. water, and brush the solution 
over the worlc before it dries. 23. Take a gallon of the above stain, 
add 2 ozs. more peai'lash ; use hot, and brush over with the alum 
solution. 24. Use a cold solution of archil, and brush over with the 
pearlash solution for No. 1, Bark mahorjany. 25. Mahogany Stain on 
Wood. — Take nitric acid, dilute with 10 parts of water, and wash the 
wood with it. To produce roseivood finish, glaze the same with car- 
mine of Jlimich lake. Asphaltum, thinned with turpentine, forms an 
exceUeut mahogany color on new work. 26. Mahogany Stain on 
Maple. — Dragon's blood, ^ oz. ; alkanet, Joz. ; aloes, 1 dr.; spirits of 
wine, IG ozs. ; ai>ply it with a sponge or brush. 27. Crimson Stain 
for Musical Inmumcnts. — Groimd Brazil wood, 1 lb. ; water, 3 qts. ; 
cochineal, ^ ounce; boil the Brazil with the water fbr an hour, strain, 
add the coclmieal ; boil gently for half an hour, when it wiU be fit for 
use. If you wish a scarlet tint, boil an ounce of saffron in a quart of 
water, and pass over the work before you stain it. 28. Purple Stain. 
— Chipped logwood, 1 lb. ; water, 3 qts. ; pearlash, 4 ounces; powdered 
indigo, 2 oimces. Boil the logwood in the water lialf an hour, add 
the pearlash and indigo, and when dissolved, you will liave a beauti- 
ful purple. 29. Greoi Stain. — Strong vinegar, 3 pts. ; best verdigris, 

4 ounces, groiuid fuie; sap green, h oimce; mix together. 

Black Stains for Wood. — 1 "Drop a little sulphuric acid into a 
small quantity of water ; brush over the wood and hold it to the fire ; 
it will be a fine black and receive a good polish. 2. For a beautiful 
black, on wood, nothing can exceed tlie black Japan mentioned under 
Tinsmiths' De]xxi-tment. Apply two coats ; after which, varnish and 
polish it. 3. To 1 gal vmegar, add a quarter of a pound of iron rust ; 
let it stand for a week ; then add a pound of dry lampblack, and 
three-quarters of a pound copperas ; stir it up for a couple of days. 
Lay on five or six coats with a sponge, allowing it to dry between 
each ; polish with Uuseed-oil and a soft woollen rag, and it will look 
like ebony. Incomparable for iron work, ships' guns, shot, &c- 4. 
Vinegar, ^gal ; dry lampblack, ^Ib. ; iron-rust sifted, 31bs. : mix and 
let stand for a week. Lay three coats of this on hot, and then rub 
with linseed oil, and you will have a fine deep black. 5. Add to the 
above stain, nut-galls, 1 oz. ; logwood-chips, \ lb. ; copperas, ^ lb. ; 
lay on three coats ; oil well, and you will have a black stain that will 
stand any kind of weatlier, and is well adapted for ships' combings, 
&c. G. Logwood-chips, ^ lb. ; Brazil-wood, ^ lb. ; boil for 1^ hoursin 
1 gal. water. Brush the wood with this decoction while hot ; make a 
decoction of nut-gaUs, by gentle simmering, for three or four days, a 
quarter of a pound of the galls in 3 qts. water ; give the wood three 



272 CAEIXETilAKERS, PAINTERS^, &C., EECEIPT3. 

coata, and, while wet, lay on a solution of sulphate of iron (2 ozs. to a 
quart), and, when dry, oil or vaniish. 7. Give three coats with a 
solution of copper fiUngs in aquafortis, and repeatedly brush over 
with the logwood decoction until the greenness of the copper is 
destroyed. 8. Boil h lb. logwood-chips in 2 quaits water ; add an 
ounce of pearlash, and apply hot witli a brush. Then talce 2 qts. of 
tlie logwood decoction, and h oz. of verdigris, and tlie .same of coyt- 
peras ; strain, and throw in | lb. of iron rust lirush the work well 
with this, and oiL 

Llack WaIiXut Staix. — Spirits of turpentine, 1 gal. ; pulverized 
asphaltum, 2 lbs. ; dissolve in an iron kettle on a stove, stirruig con- 
stantly. Can be used over a red stam to imitate rosewood. To make 
a perfect black add a little lampblack. The addition of a little varnish 
with the tui-pentine improves It. 

CiiYSTAL Varxish, FOR Maps, &c.— Canada balsam, loz. ; spirits 
of turpentine, 2 oz. ; mix together. Before applying this varnish to 
a drawing or colored print, the paper should be placed on a stretcher, 
and sized with a thin solution of isinglass in water, and dried. Apply 
with a soft camel's-hair brush. 

To Eboxize ^Vood.— ilLs up a strong stain of copperas and log- 
wood, to which add powdered nut-gall. Stain your wood with this 
solution, dry, rub do\vn well, oil, then use French polish made toler- 
ably dark with indigo or finely powdered stone blue.* 

Miscellaneous "Stains.— re^/ow is produced by dUuted nitric 
acid. Red is produced by a solution of dragon's blood in spirits of 
wine. Black is produced by a strong solution of nitric acid. Green is 
produced by a solution of verdigris in nitric acid ; then, dipped in a 
not solution pearlash produces a Blue stain. Purple is produced by 
a solution of sal-ammonuic in nitric acid. 

Beautiful Varnish for Violins, &c. — Rectified .spirits of wine, 
h gal. ; add G oz. gum sandarac, 3 oz. gum mastic, and h pt turpen- 
tine vaniish ; put the above in a tin can by the stove' frequently 
shaking till well dissolved : strain and keep for use. If you find it 
Larder than you wish, thin with more turpentiue varnish. 

Another. — Heat together at a low temperature 2 qts. of alcohol, ^ 
pt turpentine varnish, and lib. clean gum mastic ; Avhen the latter is 
thoroughly dissolved, strain througli a cloth. 

Varnish for Fraiies, etc. — tay tlie frames over with tin or 
silver foil by means of plaster of Paris, glue or cement of some kind, 
that the foil may be perfectly adlierent to the wood ; then apply your 
gold lacquer varnish, which' is made as follows : Ground turmeric, 1 
lb. ; powdered gamboge, 1^ omices ; powdered sandarac, 3^ lbs. ; 
powdered shellac, | lbs. ; spirits of wine, 2 gals. ; dissolve and strain ; 
then add turpentine varnish, 1 pt. ; and it is ready for use. 

Dyes for Veneers. — A fine Black. — Put 6 lbs. of logwood chip» 
into your copper, with as many veneers as it will hold without press- 
ing too tight, fill it with water, let it boil slowly for about 3 hours, 
then add ^ lb. of powdered vcrdif/ris, ^ lb. copperas, bruised gall-nuts 
4 ozs. ; fill the copper up with vinegar as the water envaporates ; let 
it boil gently 2 hours each day till the wood is dyed through. A fine 
Blue. — Put oil of vitriol, 1 lb., and 4 ozs. of the best powdered indigo 
in a glass bottle. Set it in a glazed earthen pan, as it will ferment. 
NoAV put your veneers into a copper or stone trough ; fill it rather 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS , AC, RECEIPTS. 273 

more than one-third with water, and add as much of the vitriol and 
indigo (stirring it about) as will make fine bhic, testing it Avith a 
piece of wliite paper or wood. Let the veneers remain till the dj'e 
has struck through. Keep the solution of indigo a few weeks before 
using it ; this improves the color. Fine Yellow. — Reduce 4 lbs. of the 
root of barberry to dust by sawing, which put in a copper or brass 
trough ; add turmeric, 4 ozs. ; water, 4 gals. ; then put in as many 
white holly veneers as the liquor will cover, Boil them together 3 
hours, often turning them. When cool, add aquafortis, 2 oz., and 
the dye will strike through much sooner. Bright Green. — Proceed as 
ill the previous receipt to produce a yellow ; but, instead of aqua- 
fortis, add as much of the vitriolated indigo (see above, under blue 
dye) as will produce the desired color. JJrif/ht Bed. — Brazil dust, 2 
lbs. ; add water, 4 gals. Put in as many veneers as the liquid will 
cover ; boil them for 3 hours, then add alum, 2 oz , aquafortis, 2 oz. ; 
and keep it luke-warm until it has struck through. Purple. — ^To 2 
lbs. of chip logwood and ^ lb. Brazil dust, add 4 gals, of water ; and 
after putting in your veneers, boil for 3 hours ; then add pearlash, 9 
ozs., and alum 2 oz. ; let them boil lor 2 or 3 hours every day till the 
color has struck through. Orange. — Take the veneers out of tlie 
above yellow dye, while still wet and saturated, transfer them to the 
bright red dye till the color penetrates throughout. 

To uvEPBOVE THE CoLOR OF SxAiNS. — Nitric acid, 1 oz. ; muriatic 
acid, i teaspoonf ul ; grain tin, ^ oz. ; rain water, 2 oz. Mix it at least 
2 days before using, and keep your bottle well corked. 

Strono Glue for Inlaying or Veneering.— Select the best 
light brown glue, free from clouds and streaks. Dissolve this in wa- 
ter, and to every pint add half a gill of the best vinegar and ^ oz. of 
isinglass. For other glues see Engineers' Department. 

Inlaid Mother of Pearl Work, on sewing machines and other 
fancy work, is performed by selectmg the thin scales of the shell 
and cementing them to the surface of the material ; the rest of the 
surface is covered with successive coats of Japan varnish, generally 
black, being subjected to a baking process after each application. 
AVhcn the varnish is as thick as the shell, it is polished, the gilding 
and painting added, and a flowing coat of varnish put over the whole. 

AnotJier Method. — Prepare the job with a heavy coat of black Japan, 
then, before it is dry, procure flakes of pearl and lay them on the 
black surface, pressing them into the Japan imtil they are level with 
the surface; then Avith colors form vines and flowers, allowing the 
IDcarl to form the body of the flower leaf, and shade up all nicely. 

Transparent Painting on Window Shades. — The muslin is 
spread on a frame and secured tightly with tacks, then sized with a 
mixture of fine flour paste, white glue, and white bar soap ; the soap 
renders the muslin pliable and soft A thin coat is applied, whicli is 
nearly invisible when dry. A coat of pure Imseed oil, diluted with 
spirits of turpentine, is then applied, to the whole, or part, as desired; 
lay it on quickly and smoothly, to msure an even transparent surfaca 
The colors used are, ivory black, ultramarine, Paris green, sienna, 
nmber, verdigris, asphaltura, or other suitable colors. An outlme of 
the design is drawn with a small pencil with black or umber, after 
which the colors may be applied, more or less diluted, as more or less 
tiansparency is desired. In general, the brightest colors should be 

IS 



274 CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS'* &C., RECEIPTS. 

applied first, and the darker shades over them. These colors must bo 
laid evenly and snaoothly with soft brushes, and should any part bo 
made too "dark, the best way is to scrape off with a stick before tho 
color gets too dry. The best designs for shades consists of landscape 
views, and should always be designed to accommodate the form and 
position of tlie ground on which they are drawn. Stencils will be 
found useful on this work, in making comers or stripes for borders. 

To Paixt Magic L.a>steen Sides. — Transparent colors only are 
used for tliis work, such as lakes, sap-OTceu, ultramarine, verdigris, 
gamboge, asphaltum, &c., mixed in oil, and tempered with light 
colored vamish (white Demar). Draw on the paper the design de- 
sired, and stick it to tlie glass with water or gum; then with a fine 
pencil put the outlines on the opposite side of the glass with the proiv 
er colors; then shade or fill up with black or Vandyke brown, as you 
find best. 

JI.uuxE Taixt for Metals in Salt "Water. — ^Red lead 55 parts ; 
quicksilver, 30 parts; thick turjientine, 7 parts. Mix with boiled 
linseed oil to the proper consistency. The quicksilver must be 
thoroughly amalgamated with the thick turpentine by grinding or 
rubbing, and this mixture must be ground with red lead and more 
boiled oil. As little oil as is necessary to make the paint lay well must 
be used. To make the paint adhere more firmly, a previous coat of ox- 
ide of iron paint may be ii.sed. 

To Imitate Tortoise Shell. — Paint a ground of salmon color; 
then when dry and smoothed off, coat it over with rose pink, mixed in 
vamish and tuq^en tine; thenwitli a flat piece of glass, press on the 
Burface, and remove the glass quickly, being careful not to push it 
over the paint so as to disturb the curious figures which the pressure 
will fonn thereon. Vamish when dry, an 1 you wiU find you liave a 
beautiful imitation of tortoise shell. 

Banner Painting. — Lay out th.e letters very accurately with 
charcoal or crayon, then saturate the cloth with water to render the 
painting easj'. On large work a stencil will be found usef id. Take 
a piece of tin, lay the straight edge to the mark, brush over with a 
«ash tool, and by this means you will make a very clean-edged 
letter. Use stiff bristle pencils in painting on canvas. 

Oil Cloth Paintij^g. — To paint canvas for floors, the canvas 
should first be saturated with glue-water or flour paste, and allowed 
to dry first Then paint it with any color desired. To put in tho 
figures, cut out designs in tin plates or stiff paper, and stencil them 
on in various colors. 

To Imitate Marble. — For ichitc marble, get up a pure Tvhito 
ground, then hold a lighted candle near the surface, and allow tho 
smoke to form the shades and various tints desired. This will 
make a very handsome imitation. Black marble imitition is mado 
by streaking a black surface with colors, using a feather and penciL 
Another plan is to get up a smooth black surface ; then take tlic colors, 
green, yellow, red, Avhite, &c., ground thick in gold size, and streak 
the surface with a stick or pencil. Allow it to dry, and apply a heavy 
coat of lampblack and yellow ochre, mixed with rough stuff. When 
all is hard, rub down to a level surface with lump pumice-stoue, 
vamisli, and a beautiful varigated marble will be the result. 

Ktcuino on Glass.— Druggists' bottles, bar-tumblers, signs, and 



CAIilNETMAKEKS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 27o 

glassware of every description, can be lettered in a beautiful stylo of 
art, by simply giving the article to be engraved, or etched, a thin coat 
of the engraver's vaniish (see next receipt), and the application of 
fluoric acid. Before doing so, the glass must be thoroughly cleaned 
and heated, so that it can hardly be held. The varnish is then to bo 
applied lightly over, and made smooth by dabbing it with a small 
ball of silk, filled with cotton. "When dry and even, the Ihies may bo 
traced on it by a sharp steel, cutting clear through the varnish to the 
glass. The varnish must be removed clean from each letter, other- 
wise it will be an imiierfect job. When all is readj', pour on or apply 
the fluoric acid with a feather, filling each letter. Let it remain until 
it etches to the required dei^th, then wash off witli water, and remove 
the varnish. 

Etching VAR>nsn. — Take of virgin wax and asphaltum, cacli 2 
oz.; of black pitch and Burgundy pitch, each ^ oz.; inelt the wax and 
pitch in a new earthenware glazed pot, and add to them, by degrees, 
the asphaltum, finely powdered. Let the whole boil, simmeruig 
gradually, till such time as, takmg a drop uix)n a ] ,iate, it will break 
when it is cold, or bending it double two or three ames betwbct the 
fingers. Tlie varnish, being then boiled enough, must be taken off 
the fire, and, after it cools a little, must be pourei into ivarm water 
that it may work the more easily with the hands, so as to be formed 
into balls, which must be kneaded, and put into tt piece of taffety for 
use. The sand blast is now in extensive use for ornamenting on glass. 

Fluoric Acid to Make for Etching Purposes. — You can 
make your own fluoric (sometimes called hydro-fluoric) acid, by 
getting tlie fluor or Derbyshire spar, pulverizing it, and putting all of 
it into sulphuric acid which the acid will cut or dissolve. Inasmuch 
as fluoric acid is destructive to glass, it cannot be kept in common 
bottles, but must be kept in lead or gutta percha bottles. 

Glass-Grinding for Signs, Shades, &c. — After you have 
etched a name or other design upon uncolored glass, and wish to have 
it show off to better advantage by permitting the light to pass onlj' 
through the letters, you can do so by taking a piece of flat brass suffi- 
ciently large not to dip into the letters, but pass over them when gild- 
ing upon the surface of the glass; then, with flour of emery, and 
keeping it wet, you can grind the whole surface, very quickly, to look 
like the groimd-glass globes often seen upon lamps, except the letter, 
which is eaten below the general surface. 

To Drill and Ornament Glass. — Glass can be easily drilled 
by a steel drill, hardened but not drawn, and driven at a high velo- 
city. Holes of any size, from the 16th of an inch upwards, can bo 
drilled, by using spirits of turpentine as a drip ; and, easier still, by 
usuig camphor with the turi^entine. Do not press the glass very 
hard against the drill. If you require to ornament glass by turning 
in a lathe, use a good mill file and the turpentine and camphor drip, 
and you will find it an easy matter to produce any shajie you choose. 

Gilding Glass Signs, &c. — Cut a piece of thin paper to the size 
of your glass, draw out your design correctly in black lead-pencil on 
the paper, then prick through the outline of the letters with a fine 
needle; tie up a little dry white lead in a piece of rag; this is a 
pounce-bag. Place your design upon the glass, right side up, dust it 
with the ix)unce-bag; and, after taking the paper off, the design will 



276 CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

appear in ■white dots tapon the glass; these ■will guide you in layin.s; 
on the gold on the opposite side, which must be ivell cleaned prcpara 
tory to laymg on the gold. Preparinr/ die size. — Boil perfectly clea. 
•water in an enamelled saucepan, and while hoiluig, add 2 or 3 shreds 
of best selected isinglass, after a few minutes strain it through a 
clean linen rag; when cool, it is ready for use. Clean the f/lass per- 
fectly. — When this is done, use a flat camel' s-hair brush for laying 
on the size ; and let it drain off when you put the gold on. When the 
sold is laid on and perfectly dry, take a ball of ihe finest cotton wool 
and gently rub or polish the gold; you can then lay on another coat 
of gold if desirable, it is now ready for writing. In domg this, mix a 
little of the best vegetjible black with black japan; thin with turpen- 
tine to proper working consistency; apply this when thoroughly dry; 
■wash off the superfluous gold, and shade as in sign-writing. 

Glass Gilding, Another Method. — Clean and dry the glass 
thoroughly, then lay out the lines for letters with a piece of hard 
scented soap, then paint the letters on the right side of the glass 
with lampblack mixed with oil, in order to form a r/uide/or the work, 
then on the inside lay on a coat of the size mentioned ui the preced- 
ing receipt, using a camel' s-hair brush, covering the whole of the let- 
ters j next lay on the gold leaf with a tip, until every part of the let- 
ters IS covered well. Let the leaf remain until the size is drj-, when 
you will find that the letters on the front side can be easily seen and 
traced. This is done with quick drying black, mixed with a little 
vaniish. Paint over the whole directly over the gold ; allow it to dry ; 
then wipe off ■with soap and water* the lampblack letters from the 
front side; with pure cold water and a clean sponge, wash the su- 
lierfluous gold leaf and size from tlie back, and you will have a splen- 
did gold letter on the glass ; next, sliade your letter to suit the taste, 
always remembering to shade to the edge of the gold, for then you 
have only one edge to make straight. The other edge may be left 
rough, and when dry may be straightened by scraping with a knife. 

Oknamental Designs on Gl.\ss.— In makmg scrolls, eagles &c., 
on glass, some painters put on the outlines and shades first, and then 
lay the gold leaf over all ; another good way is to scratch the shades 
on to the gold leaf after it is dry, and put the colors on the back of the 
gold. Silver leaf may be used in the same manner as gold, but it 
will not wear as well. A very pretty letter may be made by incor- 
porating silver witli gold ; talce i)aper and cut any fancy design to 
fit the parts of the letter ; stick it on the size before laying tlie leaf, 
allowing it to dry and wash off as before ; then with a penknife raise 
the paper figure, and the exact shape or form of the figure 'will 
be foimd cut out of the gold letter ; clean off nicely, apply more size, 
and lay silver leaf to cover the vacant spots ; wash off when dry, and 
a very handsome letter will be the result. Colors may be used in- 
stead of silver, if desired, or a silver letter edged or " cut up" with 
gold, will look well. 

Glass and Porcelain Gilding. — Dissolve in linseed oil an equal 
weiglit either of copal or amber ; add as much oil of turpentine as 
wUl enable you to apply the compound or size thus formed, as thin 
as possible, to the parts of the glass intended to be gilt. The class 
is to be placed in a stove till it will almost bum the fingers when lian- 
dled ; at this temperature the size becomes adhesive, and a piece of 



CADINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', &.C., RECEIPTS. 277 

gold leaf, applied iii tlio usual way, will immediately stick. Sweep 
off the supcrnuous portions of the leaf, aud when quite cold it may bo 
burnished ; taking care to interpose a piece of India paper between 
the gold aud the burnisher. 

Diiin,i>-G China, Glass, &c. — To drill china use a copper drill 
aud emery, moistened with spirits of turpentine. To drill glass, uso 
a steel drill tempered as hard as possible and camphor and water as 
a lubricant. 

Gold Lustre for Stoneware, CrirxA, &c. — Gold, 6 parts; aqa- 
regia, 36 parts. Dissolve, then add tin, 1 part ; next add balsam of 
sulphur, 3 parts ; oil of turpentine, 1 part. MLx gradually into a 
mortar, aud rub it uaitil the mixture becomes hard ; then add oil of 
tuq>entine, 4 parts. It is then to be applied to a ground prepared for 
the purpose. 

GiLDixQ CnrxA a>t> Glass. — Powdered gold is mixed with borax 
and gum-water, and the solution applied witli a camel's-hair pencil. 
Heat is then applied by a stove until the borax fuses, when tlae gold 
is fixed and afterwards burnished. 

Useful Hints for Carriage Taixters. — It is usual to apply 
three coats of oil paint as a priming to commence with, and it is safe 
to use, say § dryuig oil and ^ tuqieutiue, with a little fine litharge 
ground in, about 2 ozs. to every 20 lbs. of paint. Tliis hardens the 
priming better tlian patent dryer, and works better imder the sand- 
paper. When the first coating is hard and dry, rub down with your 
sand-paper and be sure to make perfectly level work among the 
irregularities, deficiencies and ridges on the surface of your work. 

Next dust your work carefully, and with your putty knife go over 
the whole surface and putty up every crevice, split, crack or knot- 
hole with the hard drying putty hereafter mentioned. Be very care- 
ful not to overlook the slightest flaw, but bring every spot to a true 
and perfect level. Nowdust off the work again, preparatory to 
second coating. Thin your color with turj^entiue, if too stout or 
tliick, but do not use thin colors, for it neither covers well, nor rubs 
down well. For dark colors, use a dark lead color for the oil coats, 
but, for preparing for such a color as light green, let the color bo 
light lead color, if for a yellow, begin with white, or slightly tinted 
with chrome yellow. 

Be careful with your second coat, to lay it fair, regular, and equal, 
over each and every part of the w^ork, and when it is thoroughly dry, 
rub down with a finer quality of sand-paper tlian the last, beuig 
careful to make the surface perfectly sjjiooth and even. Now com- 
mence to give the third coat (alter dustulg off), putting on the paint, 
not lavislily, but rub it out well. 

The uext step, wheu tlie last is hard and dry, is to apply the filling 
up coats. For a good composition see receipt for " Rour/h Stuff" ior 
carriage work. Another good filling consists of dry French yeUow, 
a small quantity of white lead, the same amount of wliiting, a little 
red lead, about one-sixteenth of litharge, and of drying Japan enough 
to nearly mix it, put in a very little drying oil, and turpentine to thin 
to a suitable thickness to make it spread like a stiff coat of paint. 
Thin so that it cau be applied easily, and flow on full and free. 
Apply this composition, giving the body, shafts, wheels, springs, &c., a 
good coat Icvellius off any hollo ws, &c. , existing iu the parts, and when 



278 CABINETJIAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEirTS. 

this coat becomes perfectly hard give it another. Tlic next step, after 
this last coat dries hard, is to rub it down with lump puniice-stoue, 
first rubbing the pumice flat upon a stone before comnienciug to use 
it. In rubbing do^vn -with lump pumice use plenty of -water, freely 
supplied from the sponge in your left hand ; be very ciiutious to 
avoid cutting throu^^h, and feel the parts frequently as the work 
pro.gresses, to ascertain •when all is sufficiently smooth and hard, tlien 
with your sponge wash oif the work nicely, and with your wash 
leather wrung out, dry it off clean and smooth. 

The next step i.s to pamt the carriage. See to it that your colors 
are freshly ground, your paint mill, pots, tins, brushes, &c., per- 
fectly cleaii. Apply your color the proper thiclmess, exiieditiously 
and neatly, so that the work will present a good clean appearance. 
The following directions will be found useful in mixing the desig- 
nated colors. Dark Green, Olive Shade. Take deej) chrome yellow 
and powdered drop black, mix in a iiot with the drying Japan, and a 
little turpentine, grind all together, test to be sure that the color is 
right, if wished lighter, add more chrome yellow, if darker, more 
drop black, grade the color to the projicr thic'aiess and apply at 
once. Two coats will be required. Ultramarine blue. For your 
ground color, grind good Prussian blue in oil, and add to white lead 
as much of the blue as will make it suiricicntly dark to form a 
ground for the ultramarine blue, two coats of this" will be required. 
When hard and dry, grind some of the best ultmmarine blue on the 
stone with a quantity of vaniish, add enough of this to your body 
flowing vaniisli to impart the right color. Two good coats of this 
beautiful color will be necessary; use sugar of lead as a dryer. 
Before giving the second coat rub down with groimd pumice and 
water, using a cloth ; the next coat will flow all the better for tliis 
treatment. After a few days rub down again with gromid pumice 
and water, wash, and dry with your chamois skin, when the work 
will be all ready for picking out and strii^ing. Claret or Lake. 
Vermilion and rose pink, in oil, same as the last, for first coat. 
When hardened dry, give another light coat, pre\iously rubbing 
down with ground pumice and water, as directed for blue. Tor a 
rich light claret be sparing of your rose pink in the ground color; for 
dark claret, use more rose pinlv. For darker shades use more rose 
pink in the ground color, then use the best crimson lake, same Avay 
as for the light claret two good coats will do. For a pur^jle shade of 
claret use veiinilion, rose pink a spice of ultramarine blue, for a 
ground color. Then add th^i^ropcr quantity of ground pur^jle lake 
to body flowing A'arnish and apply two coats. Japan Brown. 
Grind drop black in Japan using enough vermilion to be visible. 
Chrome Greens. Grind your greens in Japan, or use greens com- 
posed of chrome yellow and Prussian blue. Carmine Color on Fire 
Enfiines, d-c. Cheap method. For a ground, use the best English 
vermilion, then add pure carmine, groimd in a little drying oil, to 
your body flowuig varnish, and apply two coats carefully. This 
method extends the precious color bo that an ounce will suffice for a 
carriage or machine. Oxford Broion. Use a little chrome yellow, 
India red, best ochre, white lead, burned umber, just white enough 
to be seen ; yellow is the leading color ; red to warm it, and umber 
to impart tlie bro^Ti shade. liicR Pwyle. Vermilion and Prussian 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', &.G., RECEIPTS. 279 

blue, with a little -white, a very cheap, nice color. Fawn Color. Uso 
yallow, red, a little black, a little tierra de sieiuia, or burned umber 
:nay be added to obtjiiu the right shade. Lrab Color. White and 
raw umber form a cool drab Avhich may be varied with chrome, or 
red, as may be desired. Flian Broicn. Drop black and vermiliou 
makes a very good color at a cheap rate. 

Striping or "Pickikci Out," fob Carriage "Work. — Great 
care is required in this part of the work to carry a steady hand so 
that the lines may be drawn equidistant, clean and neat. For fino 
lines, grind the color in drying oil, as it makes the best work. Japan 
color will do for broad or coarse lines, on bhte ground. If a largo 
carriage, with heavy wheels, draw lines with Frankfort-black, Japan 
mixed color from three quarter inch to one inch broad, on all parts of 
the carriage, wheels, sprmgs, spokes, hubs, &c., then draw fine lines 
of light orange or liglit primrose color about three-eighths or a quarter 
inch from the broad black line, with one fine line around the edges of 
tlie black nuts and bolt heads. On superior work, pure white, gold, 
or deep orange lines may be drawn do\vu the middle of the black 
lines, producing a very fine effect; on (/reens, pick out with black, if a 
light green, black lines wiU bo sufficient, if desired better, run up the 
centre of the black lines with white, not too fine. On dark green, 
l)iclc out with black, running A'eiy fine lines on each side of the black 
three-eightlis of an inch off the black. This also sets off a very bright 
green to good advantage. On Clarets, pick out with black, with ver- 
milion or rich orange fine side lines, or light orange side lines with 
vermilion line run up the centre of the black ; or light gold lino up 
tlie centre of one large black line. On Oxford Broion, pick out with 
black, fine line Avith vermilion or medium tint of chrome yellow with 
slight tint of red in it ; or part the black lino with white downi tho 
centre. On Fawn Colors, pick out with broad blaclf, fine line witli 
white on each edge, or brown drab shade. On Japan or Plum 
Browns, vennilion Ihie has the best appearance. On Olives or Qua- 
kers' Greens, pick out with black, Avith white for fine lines, or orange, 
or light green. On Drabs, pick out Avith black, fine line Avith verniil-' 
ion, "or high colored orange, or white centre lino for extra finish. On 
Purple, pick out Avith black, fine line with a bright tint of orange or 
vennilion. 

Varnishing of Coaches and Carriages. — In this, as well as in 
the painting dej^artment, absolute cleanliness is indispensable, as 
regards brushes, pots, freedom from dust, &c. When your Avork 
is ready, if it is the under carriage, apply a good full coat of carriage 
varnish, and when through Avitii this part of tho process, go over it 
again, tliis time usmg body varnish. After it is hard and dry proceed 
to "flat" the work by lightly remoAing the gloss Avith ground pumice, 
Avater, and a woollen cloth, being careful not to cut into the lines or 
ground ; then clean away all the iiumice, and dry off nicely Avith tho 
chamois leather slightly wet. If you have cut through in any part, 
repair with Japan color previous to second coating. Let your second 
coat be very full and Avell laid on, but be careful that it does not run. 
A very superior gloss will be obtained on tlie Avheels, if after tlio 
application of a good coat 3'ou spin them until tho varnish is nearly 
vet. 

If the second coat is not satisfactory, repeat the flattening process 



280 CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

with your pumice, clotli and water, clean off as before and Aamish 
again. 

lu more costly polished work, commence with the rery finest 
ground pumice or Tripoli, rub until you bring the work to a very 
smooth state, then wash off very clean and nice, dry and dust well. 
Use eveiy precaution against dust, by sweeping and sprinkling your 
floor in every stage of polishing and vamishuig. The next step in 
polishing is to use a fine cloth for a rubber, rotten-stone, sifted fine 
through muslin and mixed with oUve oU ; rub with this imtil the 
gloss is restored, occasionally examining the progress of the work. 
This ste]^) being finished, wipe off with a perfectly clean cotton cloth, 
with a piece of the finest flax full of fine wheat flour or putty powder 
go over the work, rubbing well to polish it still farther, and remove 
every particle of the oil and rotten-stone pre\iouslv used. Finish off 
by rubbuig the work briskly with an old silk liandkerchief, which 
will induce a beautiful fine gloss. In every instance when a polish 
and varnish finish is required, do not omit to lay on an extra coat of 
varnish, as it will greatly enhance the appearance of the work. 

GiLDrsr. AND 0RNA3iENTns-G Carkiages.— English gold size is tho 
best for this puriwse. If you cannot get it ready prepared, make a 
substitute by using English varnish and Japan in equal parts. If 
the gildmg is for striping, you should mix a little chrome yellow 
with it, to be able to see the lines the better, but for lettering no 
coloring is required. Rub your job down smoothly, take a piece of 
muslin and tie up in it a little whitening to fonn a "pounce bag ;" 
with this dust over every part of the work where the gold leaf is to 
be put, to prevent the leaf sticking to the surface not covered by 
the size, or wash the job over witli starcli water, or rub it over with 
the raw surface of a potato cut in halves ; the juice of the potato 
soon dries, and leaves a thin film to wliich the gold will not adhere. 
Either of the above methods will do, and tlie coating will wash off 
when the gilding is dry. The surface prepared, take the size and 
put on the stripes, figures, or ornaments, and allow it to dry just 
enough to enable you to pass your finger over it without sticking, 
but if it is "ticky" when you place your finger upon it, it is 
ready for the gold leaf, which is to be applied in the way directed 
for gilding letters on wood. The gold letters may be shaded with 
ultramarine, carmuie, asphaltum, lake, Paris green, verdigris, &c., to 
Buit the taste. 

Brokzing. — Gold bronze is used on carriage parts for striping and 
ornamenting, using the same size as that used for gold leaf. For 
taking up and applying the bronze, take a piece of plush or velvet 
and make a " pounce bag," by tying up a wad of cotton, rubbmg the 
bronze gently over the size. To vary the appearance, a mixture of 
copper, gold, and silver bronze maj^ be applied. For fancy work in 
bronze, cut out any desired pattern on thin sheet brass, pasteboard, 
or paper, and apply it to any nearly dry varnished surlace ; rub the 
bronze on throughthe apertures in the pattern. 

Good Colors for Business Wagons. — No. 1. Body. — Chrome 
preen ; frame or riba black striped with white or cream color. 
Runninrj r/ear. ^-Cream color striiied with red, blue or dark gi-een, or 
black, and red fine line. No. 2. Body. — Yellow; frame black, stiiped 
with blue or white. Runninfj gear. — Light vermilion, striped with 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS.' 281 

black aud -wliite. No. 3. Bod;/.— Carm'mo plazo over Indian red. 
Runninrf rjear. — ^^^ermilion. No. 4. Body. — Deep vennilioii- Run- 
ning (/car. — Light vermiliou. 

Mixture to kemove old Paint. — Dissolve i lb. potash in 3 pts. 
water over the fire, then add yellow ochre or some common dry paint 
imtil it is as thick as rough stuff ; spread this over your old paint, 
and after a little it will come oif quite easily, then wash the wood 
Tvith'soap and water to remove all the potash, dry off and sand-paper, 
then give a coat of clean raw oil. Another method is to heat alieavy 
piece of iron and apply to the paint, which will cause it to become 
loose and soft, so that it may be scraped off with a laiif e. Still another 
method is to direct the flame of a spirit lamp (which may be con- 
Btructed for the purpose) on the old paint, scraphig it off as it softens. 

To Bleach Oil. — Pour as much linseed oil into a shallow earthen 
vessel as will stand one inch deep, then pour in G inches of water,' 
cover with a line cloth, and let the whole stand in the sun for a few 
weeks until the liquid becomes thick, when it should be poured into 
a phial and submitted to a gentle heat ; after whicii the clear is to be 
poured off and strained throu.ali a flannel cloth. , 

To Copy a:n Ornament. — Wace the paper or other article 'contain- 
ing the ornament against a pane of glass ; then laying a sheet of thin 
paper over it, you can copy it exactly with a lead pencil. 

Oknaments, in the shape of decalcomino or other gilded pictures,' 
may be easily transferred to carriages or coaches by following the 
directions given in transferring pictures. See farther on. 

Vekmilion. — To prevent vermilion from fading, add to tno dry 
color, before mi.xmg, J part of flour of sulphur. Light English ver- 
milion is used for striping, ornamenting or lettering ; the deep verniil- 
ion having less body, will not cover good. English vermilion gives 
the best color on carriage work when mixed with rubbing varnish 
and oil. American vermilion should not be ground, as the process 
would change it to an orange color ; while green, Indian red, chrome 
yellow, and all heavy body colors are all the better for being ground 
as fine as possible. Rjiw oil is preferable to boiled, as it is more 
volatile, and penetrates and fills the pores of the wood better. 

rRisiiNG FOB Carriage Work. — First coat of lead. Mix white 
lead with raw oil, 2 parts, Japan, 1 part, to make it proper for a thick 
coat, adding a very little tuipentine to make it work easily. For 
carriage parts add a little Indian black, but not for bodies. — Second 
coat of lead. Mix white lead with 1 part raw oil and 2 parts Japan, 
and a little turpentine, as before, adding lampblack for carriage parts, 
but none for the body. — lliird and fourth coat. Mix white lead into a 
thick paste with tuq>entine, add a little oil, Japan and rubbing varnish 
to bind the paint well ; add, for the carriage parts, a little lampblack 
and a httle red lead. 

Hard drying Ppttt. — For carriage work. Mix dry white lead 
with Japan and rubbing varnish equal p.arts, to the proper consistency, 
beating it with a small mallet to bruise the lumps. Keep it, when 
not in use, in water, to prevent it drying. 

Rough Stuff. — For carriage work. Take 3 parts of English filling 
(gromid state), 2 parts dry white lead, 1 part white lead in oil. Mix 
with Japan, 2 parts, rubbing varnish, 1 part Mix and crush thor- 
oughly by running all through the mill together. 



282 CABINET3IAKEKS, PAINTERS', &C., KECEIPTS. 

Facing Lead for Cveriage Work. — Mix dry -^vhite lead ^ith 2 
parts Japan, 1 part rubbing raruish, and thin with spirits of turpen- 
tine, adding a little lampblack to make a clean lead color, and run all 
through tlie mill. 

Coach Pai>ting. — The panels of such -work arc generally painted 
in color, -while the pillars, top strip, quarters, deck, &c., are alwaj'S 
black ; umber colors, lakes, greens, and blues are some of the best 
colors used on this work. To prepare the body for any of these 
colors, a r/roimd color is used in the place of lampblack on black 
•work. The following are a few approved r/rounds. Lake. — Indian 
red and vermilion mixed to a dark brown, but some prefer a black 
ground for lake. Ultramarine. — Mix a medium blue with white lead 
and Prussian blue. Veitnilion. — A light pink color is generally used 
as a ground for vermilion. Greeyi. — Green and all heavy-bodied 
colors will cover well on the lead colors without any ground color. 
Victoria lake and black Japan makes a fine color for carriages. 

PiiEPAKED Oil for Carriages, &c. — To 1 gal. linseed oil add 2 
lbs. gum shellac ; litharge, ^ lb. ; red lead, J lb. ; umber, 1 oz. Boil 
slowly as usual luitil the gums are dissolve d ; grind your paints in thid 
(any color), and reduce witli turpentine. 

Porcelain Finish, verv fixe for Parlors. — To prepare the 
wood for the finish, if it be pine, give one or two coats of tnmsparent 
varnish, which prevents the pitch from oosing out, causing the finish 
to turn yellow; next, give the room at least four coats of pure zinc, 
which may be ground in only sufficient oil to enable it to grind proi)- 
erly; then mix to a proper consistence with turpentine or uaplitlia. 
Give each time to dry. When it is dry and hard, sand-paper it to a 
perfectly smooth surface, wlien it is ready to receive the finish, which 
consists of two coats of French zinc ground in, and thinned with 
Demar yaniish, until it works properly under the brush. 

Japan Drier Best Quality. — Take linseed oil, 1 gal.; put into 
it gum shellac, ^ lb. ; litharge and burned Turkey umber, each h lb. ; 
red lead, h lb. ; sugar of lead, 9 oz. Boil in the oil till all are dissolv- 
ed, which wiU require about 4 hours; remove from the fire, and stir in 
spirits of turpentine, 1 gal., and it is done. 2. Linseed oil, 5 gals.; 
add red lead and litharge, each 3i lbs. ; raw umber, 1\ lbs. ; sugar of 
lead and sulphate of zinc, each, \ lb. ; pulverize all the articles to- 
gether, and boil in the oil till dissolved ; when a little cool, thin with 
turpentine, 6 gals. 3. Linseed oil, 4 gals, red lead and umber, of each 
8 ozs. ; sulphate of zinc, 4 ozs. ; sugar of lead, 4 ozs. Boil until it will 
scorch a feather, when it is ready for use. 4. Nut or linseed oil, 1 
gaL ; litharge, 12 oz. ; sugar of lead and white vitriol, of each 1 oz. ; 
simmer and skim until a pellicle forms; cool, and, when settled, de- 
cant the clear. 5. Oil 1 gal. ; litharge, 12 to 16 oz. ; as last. 6. Old 
luit or linseed oil, Ipint; litharge, 3oz. Mix; agitate occasionally for 
10 days; then decant the clear. 7. Nut oil and water, of each 2 lbs. : 
white vitriol, 2 oz. ; boil to dryness. 8. Mix oil with powdered snow 
or ice, and keep it for 2 months without thawing. 

To Reduce Oil Paint with Water — Take 8 lbs. of pure un- 
slaked lime, add 12 qts. water, stir it and Jet it settle, turn it off gently 
and bottle it; keep it corked till used. This will mix with oil, and in 
proportion of half will render paint more durable. 

Oil Paint. — To iii;DUCE with Water. — Gum shellac, 1 lb. ; sal- 



CABIXETMAKEKS, TAINTEKS', &C., KECEIPTS. 283 

eoda, ^ lb. ; iivater, 3 parts ; boil all to;;cthcr in a kettle, stiniug till 
dissolved. If it does uot all dissolve, add a little more sal-sod.i ; when 
cool, bottle for' use; mix up 2 quarts of oil paint as usual, any color 
desired, using no turpentine; put 1 pint of the gum shellac mixture 
with th'i oil paint when if becomes thiclc ; it can then be reduced with 
■water to a proper thickness to lay on with a brush. 

AnotiieIi Method. — Soft water, 1 gal. ; dissolve it in pcarlash, 3 
oz. ; bring to a boil, and slowly add shellac, 1 lb. ; when cold, it is 
ready to be added to oil paint in equal proportions. 

FiiEXinLE I'AiNT FOK CANVAS. — ^^'cllow soap, 2.^ Ibs. ; boiling 
water, l^gals. ; dissolve; grind the solution wliilo hut with yood oil 
paint, 14 cwt. 

Painteks' Cream. — Pale nut oil, G oz. ; mastic, l*oz. ; dissolve; 
add of sugar of lead, ^ oz., previously ground in the least possible 
quantity ol oil; then add of water q. s. gradually, until it acquires the 
consistency of cream, working it well all the time. Used to cover tho 
luifinishcd work of painters. It will wash off with water. 

S.MAi,T. — Roast cob.alt ore to drive oil' the arsenic ; make tho resi- 
duum into a i:)aste with oil of vitriol, and heat it to redness for an 
hour ; powder, dissolve in water, and precipitate the oxide of iron by 
carbonate of potash, gradually added until a rose-colored powder 
begins to fall ; then decant the clear, and precipitate by a solution of 
silicate of potash, preii.ared by fusing together for 5 hours a mixture 
of 10 parts of potiish, 15 parts of finely-ground flints, and 1 part char- 
coal. The precii^itate, when dry, may be fused and powdered very 
fine. It is much the cheapest way to buy smalta ready made. 

Factitious Lixseed Oil. — Fish or vegetable oil, 100 gallons ; 
acetate of lead, 7 lbs. ; litharge, 7 lbs. • dissolved in vinegar, 2 galls. 
Well mL\ed with heat, then add boiled oil, 7 gallons ; turpentine, J 
gallon. Again well mix. 

Varnishes. — Common Oil Vca-nisJi. — Resm, 4 lbs. ; beeswax, 
h lb. ; boiled oil, 1 gallon ; mix with heat ; then add spirits of turpcH- 
tine, 2 quarts. Chinese Varnish. — Elastic, 2 oz. ; sandarac, 2 oz. ; 
icctified spirits, 1 pt. ; close the matrass with bladder, with a pin- 
hole for the escape of vapor ; heat to boiling in a sand or water Isatli, 
and when dissolved, stram through linen. Metallic Varnish For 
Coach Bodies. — Asphaltun, 56 lbs. ; melt, then add litharge, S) H)S., 
red lead, 7 lbs. Boil, then add boiled oil, 12 gals. ; yellow resin, 12 lbs. 
Again boil until, in cooling, the mixture may be rolled into pills ; then 
add spts. of turpentine, 30 gals. ; lampblack, 7 lbs. Mix well. 
Mastic Varnish. — Elastic, 1 lb. ; white wax, 1 oz. ; sjiirits turpen- 
tine. 1 gallon ; reduce the gums small ; then digest it with heat in a 
close vessel till dissolved. Turpentine Varnish. — Resin, lib. ; boiled 
oil, 1 lb. ; melt ; then add turpentine, 2 lbs. Mix well. Pale Var- 
nish. — Pale African copal, 1 part ; fuse. Then add hot jiale oil, 2 
parts. Boil the mixture till it is stringy ; then cool a little, and add 
spirits of turpentine, 3 parts. Lacquer Varnish. — A good lacquer is 
made by coloring lac varnish Mith turmeric and anuatto. Add a.s 
much of these two coloring substances to the varnish as will give the 
proper color; then squeeze the varnish, through a cotton cloth when it 
forms lacquer. Gold Varnish. — Digest shellac, sixteen parts, guuj 
sandarac, mastic, of each three parts ; crocus, one part ; guui gam- 
boge, two pai-ts ; all bruised, with alcohol, one hundred and forty* 



284 CA1JIXET3IAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

four parts. Or, digest seedlac, sandarac, mastic, of cacli cijlit 
parts ; gamboge, two parts ; dragon's blood, one part ; wliite turpen- 
tine, six parts ; turmeric, lour parts ; bruised -with alcohol, one 
hundred and twenty parts. Deep Gold-Colored Lacquer. — Seed lac, 
3 oz. ; turmeric, 1 oz. ; dragon's blood, one-fourth ounce ; alcohol, 1 
pt. ; digest for a week, frequently shaking : decant, and rilter. La/,, 
quers are used upon polished metals and wood to impart the appear- 
ance of gold, if yellow is required, use turmeric, aloes, saffron or 
gamboge ; for red, use annatto, or dragon's blood, to color. Turmeric, 
gamboge, and dragon's blood generally afford a sufficient range of 
colors. Gold Lacquer. — Put into a clean 4 gal. tin 1 lb. of ground 
turmeric, Ih qz. of gamboge, 3^ lbs. powdered gum saudarac, jj 
pound of shellac, and 2 gals, of spirits of wine. When shaken, dis- 
solved, and strained, add 1 pint of turpentine varnish, well raLxed. 
Varnish For Tools. — Take tallow, 2 oz. ; resin, 1 oz . ; and melt to- 
gether. Strain while hot, to get rid of specks which are in the resin ; 
apply a slight coat ou your tools with a brush, and it will keep off 
rust for aiiy length of time. Gold Varnish. — Turmeric, 1 dram ; 
gamboge, 1 dram ; turi^entine, 2 pints ; shellac, 5 oz. ; dragon's blood, 
o drams ; thin mastic varnish, 8 oz. ; digest with occasional agitation 
for 14 days ; then set aside to fine, and pour off the clear. Beautiful 
Pale Amber Varnish. — Amber, pale and transparent, G lbs. ; fuse ; 
add hot clarified linseed oil, 2 gals. ; boil till it strmgs strongly, cool a 
little, and add oil of turi>entine, 4 gals. This soon becomes very hard 
and is the most durable of oil-varnishes. When wanted to dry 
quicker, drying oil may be substituted for linseed, or " driers" maybe 
added during the cooling. Black Coach Varnish. — Amber, 1 lb. ; 
lose ; add hot drying oil, i pt. ; powdered black resui and Naples 
asphaltum, of each 3 oz. When properly incorporated and consid- 
erably cooled, add oil of turpentine, 1 pt. Bodij Varnish. — Fuicst 
African copal, 8 lbs. ; fuse carefully ; add clarified oil, 2 gals. ; boil 
gently for 4i liours, or until quite stringy ; cool a little, and thin with 
oil of tuq^eutine, 3^ gals. IJries slowbj. Carriage Varnish. — San- 
darac, 19 oz. ; pale shellac, 9^ oz. ; very pale transparent resin, 12V 
oz. ; turpentine, 18 oz. ; 85 per cent, alcohol. 5 pts. : dissolve. Used 
for the internal pails of carriage, &c. Dries in ten minutes. Cabinet- 
makers' Varnish. — Very pale shellac, 5 lbs. ; mastic, 7 oz. ; alcohol, 
90 per cent. 5 or G pts. ; dissolve in the cold with frequent stirring. 
Used for French polishing, &c. Japanners' Copal Varnish.— Yalo 
African copal, 7 lbs. ; fuse ; add clarified Imseed oil, ^ gal. ; boil five 
ininu es, remove it into the open air, add boiling oil of turpentine, 2 

als, ; mixAvell, strain it into the cistern, and cover it up immediately. 

Ised to vaniish furniture, and by japanners, coach-makers, &c. Copal 
Varnish. — Pale hard copal, 8 lbs. ; add hot and pale drying oil, 2 gals. ; 
boil till it strings strongly, cool a little, and thin with hot rectified oil 
of turpentme, 3 gals. ; and strain immediately into the store can. 
Very fine. Gold Varnish of Watin, for Gilded Articles.— Gam lac iu 
grains, gamboge, dragon's blood, and annatto, of each 12^ oz. ; saffron, 
3i oz. Each resin must be dissolved separately in 5 pts. of 90 per 
cent, alcohol, and 2 separate tinctures must be made with the dragon's 
blood and annatto in a like quantity of spirits ; and a proper propor- 
tion of each mixed together to produce the required snade. Trans- 
■parent Varnish for Floughs, &c.— Best alcohol, 1 gal. ; gum san- 



E 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 285 

d.arac, 2 lbs. ; gum mastic, h lb. ; place all in a tin can ■which admits 
of being corked ; cork tight" shake it frequently, occasionally placing 
the can in hot water. When dissolved, it is ready for use. Fine 
Black Varnish for Coaches. — Jlelt in an iron pot, amber, 32 oz. ; 
resin, 6 oz. ; asphaltum,G oz. ; drying linseed oil, 1 pt. ; when partly 
cooled, add oL of turpentine, warmed, 1 pint. Mordant Varnish.-^ 
dissolve 1 oz. mastic, 1 oz. sandarac, ^ oz. gum gamboge, and i oz. 
turpentine in G oz. spirits turpentine. One of the simplest mordants is 
that procured by dissolving a little honey in thick glue. It has tlio 
effect of greatly heightening the color of the gold, and the leaf sticks 
extremely well. Chanfjing Varnish. — To imitate Gold or Silver, &c. 
Put i oz. best gum gamboge into 32 oz. spirits of turpentine ; 4 oz. 
dragon's blood into 32 oz. spirits of turpentine ; and 1 oz. of annatto 
into 8 oz. spirits of turpentine. Make the 3 mixtures in different 
vessels. Keep them in a warm place, exposed to the smi as much as 
possible, lor about 2 weeks, when they will be fit for use. Add to- 
gether such quantities of each liquor as the nature of the color you arc 
desirous of obtaining will point out. Transparent Varnish, for 
Wood. — Best alcohol, 1 gal. ; nice gum shellac, 2^ lbs. Place the jug 
or bottle in a situation to keep it just a little warm, and it will dis- 
solve quicker than if hot, or left cold. Patent Vaniish for Wood or 
Canvas. — Take spirits of turpentine, 1 gal ; asphaltum, 2;^ lbs. ; put 
them into an iron kettle which wiU fit upon a stove, and dissolve the 
gum by heat. Wlien dissolved and a little cool add copal varnish, 1 
pt. ; aud boiled linseed oU, 1 pt ; when cold, it is ready for use. 
Perhaps a little lampblack would make it a more perfect black. 

Mosaic Gold Powdek fob Bronzing, &c. — Melt 1 lb. tin in a 
crucible, add ^ lb. of purified quicksilver to it: when tliis is cold, it 
is reduced to iwwder, and ground, with ^ lb. sal-ammoniac and 7 oz. 
flour of sulphur, till the whole is thoroughly mixed. They are then 
calcined in a matrass ; and the sublimation of the other ingredients 
leaves the tin converted into tlie mosaic gold powder wliich is foimd 
at the bottom of the glass. Remove any black or discolored particles. 
The sal-ammoniac must be very white and clear, and the mercury of 
tlie utmost purity. AVlien a deeper red is required, grind a very small 
quantity of red lead with the above materials. T)'ue Gold Poioder. — 
Put some gold leaf, with a little honey, or thick gum water made 
with gum arable, into an earthen mortar, and pound the mixture till 
the gold is reduced to vcrj- small particles; then wash out the honey 
or gum repeatedly with warm water, and the gold in powder will be 
left behind. When dry, it is fit for use. Butch Gold Powder is 
made from Dutch gold leaf, which is sold in books at a yery low 
price. Treat in the manner described above for tnie gold powder, 
when tliis inferior powder is used, cover the gildmg with a coat of 
clear varnish, otherwise it will soon lose its bright appearance. Cop- 
per Poioder is prepared by dissolving filings or slips of copper with 
nitrous acid in a receiver. When the acid is saturated, the slips are to 
be removed; or, if filmgsbe employed, the solution is to be poured 
oiT from what remains undissolved. Small bars are then put in, which 
will precipitate the copper powder from the saturated acid; and, 
the liquid being poured from the powder, this is to bo washed clean 
off the crystals by repeated waters. 

Bronze Pcwdek of a pale (/old color is produced from an alloy of 



286 CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS, &C., RECEIPTS. 

13J parts of copper and 2| parts ziuc, of a,crimson metallic lustre from 
copper, of a paler color, copper, and a \ ery little ziuc, green bronze 
with a proportion of verdigris, of a fine orange color, by 14^ parts cop- 
per and 1| parts ziuc ; another orange color, loj parts copper and 2i 
zinc Tiie alloy is laminated into very fine leaves with carelul anneal- 
ing, and these are levigated into impalpable powders, alon<T with a 
film of fine oil, to prevent oxidizement, and to favor the levi^atiou. 

Ge>ekal Dikectioxs for Bromzing.— The choice of the above 
powders is of course determined by the degree of brilliancy you wisli 
to obtain. The powder is mixed with strong gum water or isiuglass. 
and laid on with a brush or pencil ; and, not so drv as to have stoi 
certain clamminess; a piece of soft leather wrapped^ound the finger 
is dipped into the powder, and rubbed over the work. When the work 
has been all covered with the bronze, it must be left to drj', and and 
loose powder then cleared away by a hair-pencil. 

Bronzing Iron. — The subject .sliould be heated to a greater de- 
gree than the hand can bear, and German gold, mixed with a small 
quantity of spirit of Avine varnish, spread over itwitli a pencil; should 
tlie iron be already polished, you must heat it well, and moisten it 
with a linen rag dipped in vinegar. 

Gilder's Parchment Size. — The best is made from cuttings of 
fine parchment. Wash them clean, cover them with water, and al- 
low them to simmer for about 2 hours over a slow fire: when brought 
to the proper strength or tenacity, which may be tested by the trial of 
a portion between tlie thumb and finger; if it proves adhesive pour 
it into a clean vessel for use. AVlien solidified, it resembles a jelly; 
if very stiff, it Avill require dilution with water. Some gilders use a 
lactometer and a deep glass to determine the i^roper strength of size. 
When the float indicates a little higher than 1, for burnish size, and 
near 2, for matt gold size, excellent work will result. In the United 
States, some gilders substitute a xvhitc glue for parchment cuttings 
in the making of size. For On. Gold Size, consult that item. 

Matt Gold Size is usually purchased from dealers ready made; 
it is prepared for use by intermixture, (in a clean vessel) over a slow 
fire, Avith parchment size, to the density of a thickish cream, and used 
while warm. 

Burnish Gold Size is often bought ready made from the deal- 
er. Good results may be obtained by using red chalk, blade lead, 
and deer suet, of each 2 ozs., finely ground to a stiff paste, with 2 lbs. 
of pipe clay, and for use prepared lilce matt size. 

Thick SVhite for application to the parts intended to be burnish- 
ed, previous to putting on the burnish size, is a composition of parch- 
ment size and whitening, about the densitj- of cream. 

Gilder's Ormolu. — Red Sanders wood 2 drs., turmeric 1 dr., 
garnet shellac 1 oz., spirits of wine ^ pt. : mix all together thoroughly 
and strain. This is added to medium strength parchment size in or- 
der to impart a more beautiful appearance to tlie matt and oil gilding. 

Clay for Gilder's Use is usually purchased from the dealers 
and is prepared similar to burnish size. 

The Stopping Composition used for filling holes and deficiencies 
in the work is a compound of size and whitening, brought to the 
density of putty. 

To Whiten Mouldings. — On gilded work to be exposed to the 
weather, paint is used as r. foundation, and the gilding is done in oil 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS, AC, RECEIPTS. 287 

as burnished fjildiiif/ is unfit to withstand exposure. This last named 
description of work must have a good base of whitening applied to the 
moulding previous to gilding. First apply a very liot thin priming 
coat of fine whitening and parchment size; after this is di-y, fill the 
liolcs, blemishes, and irregularities Avith the stopping composition; 
then apply a good coat of thick tohite, dry, and apply another. After 
applying several coats of the thick white, which sliould be in all about 
1-lUth of an inch in tliickuess, pumice-stone should be applied to 
smooth off all irregularities and the surplus whiting. Make thorough 
work to ensure a tine smooth surface ou the moulding, paying great 
attention to the different hollows, beads, &c. 

Co.MPOsiTiox FOR ORNAMENTS. — Best glue, 9 lbs. 6 ozs. ; water 
5 pts. ; rosin (white) 4 lbs. ; raw linseed oil 4 pts. Boil the glue in the 
water until dissolved; dissolve the rosin in the oil, add the whole to 
the glue mixture. Boil the whole slowly for 25 minutes longer, and 
iwur the mixture into a large vessel among finely sifted whiting, and 
mix up to the consistency of thin putty. Set away iu a damp place, 
and cover with a wet cloth ready for use. The ornaments are made 
by selecting a portion of the mi.-sture, steaming it to a soft plastic con- 
dition (for tlie mixture becomes very hard when cold), and pressing 
with the hands into a boxwood mould, previously well lubricated or 
smeared with oil and turpentine. The composition being fitted into 
tlie mould, a board thoroughly wet, is place . against the mixture out- 
side the mould, and the whole is submitted to pressure in an iron 
screw press, which drives the mixture into the minutest parts of the 
mould. This done, the pressure is relaxed, and the mould taken from 
the press and the ornament withdrawn from it. The ornaments may be 
attached to the frame with glue or white lead; and when they com- 
pose the corners on frames, require to have the vacant space between 
backed or filled xip with composition softened in boiling water. 

Gilding in Oil. — The ornaments being properly adjusted and al- 
lowed full time to harden on the frame, the first step taken by the 
gilder is to wash and cleanse them, togetherwith the frame, from the 
adherent oil aud dust. This done, when dry, apply a uniform coat of 
thin white to the frame, and, after drying, fill all the holes and defect- 
ive parts with the stopping described above. When this becomes 
hard, go over every jiart of the work and bring it to the utmost 
smoothness with fine glass paper. This part of the work must not be 
slighted if a good job is wanted, for it cannot be dispensed with. Now 
dust off the work and apply the clay prepared as described above; al- 
low it to dry and rub smooth with fine glass paper once more. A coat 
of clear cole is now applied, consisting of parchment size diluted to a 
thiunish consistency with water. It is usual to apply 2 coats of this 
size in a warm condition. It effectually prevents the absorption of 
the succeeding coat of oil size. The gilder prepares the oil size (boiled 
linseed oil and ochre well ground togetlier) by bringing it to a creamy 
consistency, and purifies it by straining through a clean rag held un- 
der pressure, squeezing out the size. Tliis prejjaration is spread very 
evenly over the prepared surface, and allowed to stand until it be- 
comes slightly sticky or tacky, when the knife, cushion and gold leaf 
are brought into requisition, aud tlie leaf applied with the tip to the 
eiitire surface covered with the size. This process requires careful 
management ; the gilder blows the gold leaf out ou the cushion with 
his breath, divides and subdivides it with bis knife to cover the differ- 



288 CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS, &C., RECEIPTS. 

ent wants of various parts of the work. The leaf is dabhed down 
with a dabber of cottou wool or other soft material, aud finished with 
a badger. See Gilding Letters on Wood. The frame being now cov- 
ered with the leaf, is brushed off to clear it from the small gold parti- 
cles still adhering, aud is fiually finished by applying the finish, size 
evenly with a hog's-hair brush over the work. The finish consists of 
a somewhat weak, clear size, which may be tempered with a little or- 
molu if it is desired toimjjart a finer color to the gold. 

Water and Oil Gilding on Lakge, Broad Frames, &c.— Re- 
move all dust aud dirt from the frame and ornaments, by thorough 
washing and brushing with pleuty of clear water, beuig careful uot'to 
damage the ornaments while doing so, dry, and apply a coat of thiii 
white, fill all holes aud defects by stopping, and treat the parts in- 
tended to be burnished with three or four coats of thick tc/u'te, smooth- 
ing down the last coat when nearly dry, by passing the fingers over it. 
AVlieu dry, go over it with glass paper,'making a complete smooth job ; 
next apply a coat of day, and smooth down with class paper once 
more. Next, apply an even coat of size, and when dry, applv another. 
The frame is next " put in oil " as above described, aud subsequently, 
the parts intended to be burnished, which have received the coats of 
tJiick white, must be thoroughly cleaned from oil bv careful nibbing 
with a wet piece of cotton appl'ied by the finger, turning the rag at 
short intervals so as to present a cliean surface to the work. Guard 
against touching any other parts of the frame with the wet cloth, as 
the mistake will have to be corrected with the oil brush. To make 
sure thatuo trouble will result from grease, it is necessary before lay- 
ing the gold, to apply clay to all parts intended to be burnished, in 
order to prevent any of the gold leaf from sticking, as it would have 
to be removed with glass paper previous to applyiug other prepara- 
tions. The frame is then gilded as previously described, the leaf 
pressed into the cavities of the ornaments, &c., the defects corrected, 
the work brushed off, and size finished as above. The parts to be 
burnished or icater gilded, previously noted as being coated with claj', 
must now be treated to three or four coats of mat gold size, laid on 
evenlv with a camel' s-hair brush. "When dry, polish with fine glass 
paper, brush doAvn, and pass over it afterwards with a damp sponge. 
Now applv 2 even coats of bumish gold size, and apply the leaf as 
soon as the last coat becomes dry. This is appKed in a manner en- 
tirelv different from that previously described. Tlie frame being ele- 
vated at a proper angle to allow the surplus water to drain off, and 
the gold leaf, cushion, knife, tip. camel' s-hair pencils, glass of clean 
water, &c., being ready, proceed to gild the bead which passes around 
the frame between those parts which have previously been oil-gilt, by 
dipping a proper sized camel's-hair pencil into the glass of water, wipe 
It on the edge, commence at the left hand extremity of the bead, wet- 
ting it for a space of 4 or 5 inches or more down, saturating it 
thoroughly with the water, and apply the gold leaf (previously cut to 
the proper size and held in readiness on the tip) ver>' neatly and 
quickly to the spot while it is covered with water. Go over the bead, 
ornaments, and all parts intended to be burnished in this way, being 
extremely careful to allow no water to come in contact with the gilded 
part of the frame. When done, examine closely for faults, and repair 
all defects discovered, drj-, and proceed to burnish by applying the 
cur\-ed part of the burnisher to the work, passing it Hither and 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTEKS, &C., RECEIPTS. 289 

thither over the gold with the right hand, assisting the pressure and 
steadying the movement by the thumb of the left. This results in 
bringing out a splendid burnish. Go over the work with particular 
care, bring out the full lustre of the gold, cover deficiences,^"/u's/i, size 
the frame once more, carefully avoiding the burnished parts ; finally, 
tinge the edge of the frame with ochre. In burnish gilding, on 
large frames, the conspicious parts of the frame, such as the beads, 
ornaments, &c., should be selected for operation. 

Brush Poi^ish. — Shellac 4 ozs., white rosin 4 ozs., dissolve in 2 
pts. spirits of wine and apply while warm, with a brush. 

Cabinet Maker's Varnish. — Gum shellac 3 ozs., gum mastic 
1 oz., gum sandarac, 3 ozs., spirits of wine, 40 ozs. Dissolve the last 
2iutlie spirits, then dissolve the shellac and pour off the clear for 
use. 

French Polish Reviver. — Linseed oil 1 pint, vinegar 4 ozs., 
spts. camphor 2 ozs. , spts. hartshorn ^ oz., butter of antimony, 1 oz. 
Another. — Dissolve 8 ozs. shellac and 2 an oz. of oxalic acid in 2 lbs. 
naphtha, then add 3 ozs. linseed oil. 

Ebonized Black for Ebonizing Moulding Frames, &c. — 
Strong vinegar, 1 gal., ext. of logwood, 2 lbs., green copperas, i lb., 
China blue, :i lb., nut-gall, 2 ozs. Simmer over a slow fire until all is 
dissolved ; set off and cool. Add to the above i pt. iron rust obtained 
by steeping iron filings in strong vinegar. An unequalled jet black. 

Satinwood Stain for the Inside of Drawers. — Alcohol 2 
pts., powdered gamboge, 3 ozs., ground turmeric, G ozs. Steep to 
obtain full strength, and strain through muslin. Apply 2 coats with 
a fine sponge, sandpaper when dry and varnish or French polish. 

Walnut Stain on Pine or Whitewood. — Take 2 gals, of very 
thin sized shellac; add burnt sienna, 2 lbs., burnt umber, 2 lbs., lamp- 
black, h lb. ; shake all together and mix well in a stone jug. Apply 
1 coat with a brush, dry; sandpaper smootli, and apply a coat of coin- 
mon varnish or shellac. A fine imitation of walnut. 

Cheap Black Stain on Pine or Whitewood.— Water, 2 gals., 
black copperas, 1 lb., logwood cliips, 1 lb., ext. logwood, 1 lb., indigo 
blue, 1 lb., lamp-black, 2 ozs. ; simmer over a slow fire, cool off, 
strain, and add 1 oz. nut-gall. A splendid black stain for cheap 
work. 

To Gild a Wooden Flower Stand.— Rub the wood smooth, 
]n-ime with glue size, then put on 2 coats of oil paint and one of flat- 
ting. Smooth over, when dry, with wash-leather. Put on gold size, 
and when it is sticky to the touch, it is ready for the leaf, Avhich ])ut 
on carefully and dab down with cottonwool. A transparent glazing 
can be u.sed to deaden the gold in places. 

Old O.ak Imit.^tion on White Deal.— Burnt uipber, 1 part, 
brown ochre, 1 part, mix thoroughly with a very thin glue size and 
apply. A good oak stain is made by adding 1 lb. each of potash and 
pearlash to 1 gal. water, adding more water if a lighter stain is re- 
quired. 

Rosewood Imitation on White Deal. — Apply Venetian red 
and a little lamp-black in solution, with thin glue size. A good ma- 
hofjany stain is Venetian red, 1 lb., yellow lead, 2 lbs. ; niix with 
thin glue size. W''hiut stain on deal. — Burnt lunbcr and yellow 
ochre in thin size. The above may be ap))lied while warm with a 



290 CABIKETMAKERS, PAINTEKS, &C., KECEIPTS. 

soft rag or by dipping the wood into a vat containing the solution, as 
is done with cliairs, etc., in many manufactories. 

Mahogany Isutation ox Beech. — Pulverized dragon's blood, 2 
ozs., rectified spts. of wine, 1 qt. 

Filling for French Polished Work. — A creamj' paste com- 
posed of water and plaster of Pari.s, applied with a coarse rag to the 
grain of the wood forms a good filling. Apply vigorously to the wood 
to fill the pores thoroughly, and wipe oflt' the surplus. Finely sifted 
whitening, mixed with painter's drying oil, is another good filling 
composition. 

Splendid Crljison Spirit Stain. — Brazil-wood, loz., cochi- 
neal, 1 oz., dragon's-blood, 1 oz., saffron, 2 ozs. ; steep to obtain full 
strength, in 2 qt^. alcohol and strain. 

Best Mounting Material. — Good Bermuda arrow root, l^ozs; 
slieet gelatine, 80 grains: mix the arrow root to a creamy consistence 
with a spoon, in 1 oz. of water ; then add 14 ozs. of water and the 
gelatine broken into fragments. Boil for 4 or 5 minutes, set it aside 
imtil partially cool, then add 1 oz. of methylated spirit, and 6 drops 
of carbolic acid, tlie former quite slowly. This article has no superi- 
or and will keep for years. 

To Clean Engravings. — Place the engraving on a smooth board 
with a sheet of clean paper between, damp the picture on both sides 
with a six)nge and clean water ; then soak it well with the following 
solution applied with a clean sponge : Water, 1 pt, chloride of lime, 
4 ozs. ; oxalic acid, 1 oz. This imparts a fine white appearance to dis- 
colored prints, but it must not be applied to water colors in any case, 
a,s it will certainly destroy them. 

To Revive the Colors of Old Paintings. — Mix linseed oil, 2 
ozs., with methylated chloroform, 1 oz. ; and apply a little over the 
painting, previously washiiig it with clean water applied with a little 
cotton wool; wipe ofE the composition with a soft silk Iiandkerchief 
during tlie next day. The mixture possesses tlie valuable property of 
restoring the faded colors of paintings. The vapor of alcohol has a 
like effect. 

To Preserve a Scaling or Cracked Painting.— Clean the 
paintuig very carefully with pure soft water, and pour over, or gently 
apply, a mixture of equal parts of methylated chloroform and linseei 
oil. Allow it to remain a day or two ; carefully wipe off the excess of 
oil, and apply more of the fresh mixture, wiping it off as before. Re- 
peat the process until the colors become fixed, and the painting be- 
comes flexible, wlien it may be cleaned and varnished. 

Varnish for Paintings. — Xo better varnish for paintiugs can be 
luid than that made from good, ripe, clean, gum mastic and rectified 
turpentine, fully matured by an exposure of several months in a wide 
mouthed glass bottle. Cover the bottle so as to admit air, but no 
dust, and set it in the light, but out of the sun. 

To Preserve Paintings Indefinitely. — Varnish the painting 
on both sides, and hermetically seal with well fitting sheets of polished 
glass on the front, and apply a good coAt of air proof material to the 
back. According to Wagner, the real cause of the ultimate destruc- 
tion of pictures as well as of paint, is tlie gradual, but continuous, 
yet slow, oxidation of the linoxiue, resulting in the crumbling to 
powder of pulverulent matters — pigments used as ^-olors. It may uot 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS, &C., RECEIPTS. 291 

be out of place to state that oue of the best solvents of liuoxine (diied 
paiut) is a mixture of alcohol aud chloroform, which may be ad- 
vanta^-eously used to remove stains of paint, aud also of wagon and 
carria'^^e grease from silks and woollen tissues. 

To Remove Old Black Vaknish from Paintings.— Vanous 
articles as soda, naptha, spirits of wine, oil of tartar, &c., will effect 
this if carefully handled by an e.xperieuced person, or the following 
mixture may be applied to the painting with a dabber of cotton wool: 
Wood spirits, 4 ozs. ; linseed oil ^ pt. spirits of salts, 2 ozs. Go over 
the painting, imparting a spiral movement to the rubbmg wad, keep- 
m<^ the picture level and the rubber clean. Watch the progress of the 
work, taking care not to go too far, and finish by wipmg with a clean 
rag wet with spirits of turpentine. , , , . . 

To Whiten Plaster Casts, &c.— If the nncalcnied plaster is im- 
mersed for 15 minutes in water containing 8 or 10 per cent, of sul- 
phuric acid previous to burning it, it will after being calcined set 
more slowly, and make splendid casts, which will be perfectly white. 
Semi-transparent casts of fancy articles can be made of unbaked 
gvpsum, 2 parts, bleached bees- wax, 1 part; parafflne, 1 part. It is 
very tough and becomes plastic at 120°. Plaster casts will bear a nail 
driven in them without fracture if they are immersedina, hot solution 
of (jlue long enough to become saturated. To mend Plaster Models, 
use sandarac varnish, saturating the broken surfaces well, then pres- 
sing them together, tlien drying. As an application to the inside 
Plaster Moulds use glycerine, or a mixture of hird and oil. 

To Polish Pianos, FaRNiTUiiE, French Polish, &c.— The fol- 
lowing method of polishing pianos is in nse iii all first class factories. 
Tiio same process will answer for any other piece of furniture, by 
merely substituting for the scraping, where scraping is not practica- 
ble, a filling, properly colored : First, give the work three coats of 
scraping or No. 2 furniture varnish, allowing each coat to become per- 
fectly hard before applying the next ; then scrape off the varnish with 
a steel scraper, properly sharpened on an oilstone, and in scraping be 
careful not to cut into the wood, but merely remove the varnish from 
the surface, leaving the pores filled. Smooth with No. 1 sandpaper, 
and the work will be ready for the polishing varnish, four coats of 
which must be put on, allowing each coat to harden. To determine 
the proper time required for the hardening. I would say that one coat 
will not be ready for the next until it is so hard that you cannot make 
an impression on it with your thumb nail. The four coats having been 
put on, and the work having stood a few days — aud the longer the bet- 
ter — rub down with fine-ground pumice-stone and water, applied with 
a woolen rag. The work must be rubbed until all lumps and marks 
of the brush are removed ; wash off with a sponge and dry with a 
chamois-skin : let the work stand out in the open air for a day or two, 
taking it into the shop at night. The work should now receive two 
coats more of polishing vaniish and a second rubbing, after which it 
is ready for polishing. 

Furniture may be polished after the first rubbing, and in that case 
the polishing is performed with lump rotten-stone and water applied 
with a woollen rag. Put plenty of rotten-stone on your work, with 
water enough to make it work easy. Rub until all marks and 
scratches are removed. Rub the rotten-stone of? with your bare liaud 
keeping the work wet. What cannot be removed with the hand should 



292 CABINETMAKERS, PAIXTEUS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

be -n-ashed off with a sponge. After drying with a chamois-skin, bring 
up the polish with the paini of your hand, moving it lightly and 
quickly with a circular motion, over the work. Clean up the work 
■with a pitce of soft cotton, dipped into sweet oil, and lightly touch all 
the white spots and marks of the rotten-stone. Remove the oil with 
wheat flour, applied with soft cotton, and finally dust off with a soft 
rag or silk handkerchief. 

The following method is known as the Shellac or French Polish. 
In preparing for this process, add to one pint of Sliellac varnish two 
tablespoonf uls of boiled oil; the two to be thoroughly mixed. If you 
want tlie work dark, add a little burnt umber ; or you can give tho 
work any desired shade by mixing with the shellac the proper pig- 
ment in the dry state. Apply the sheUac thus prepared with a small 
bunch of rags held between your fingers. In applying it be particular 
in getting it on smooth and even, leaving no thick places or blotches. 
Repeat the process continually until the grain is filled and the work 
has received sufficient bodv. Let it stand a few hours to harden, and 
then rub vour work lightly with pumice-stone and oil, applied with a 
rag. A verv little rubbing is required, and this is to be followed by 
the cleaning of the work with rags as dry as possible. With a piece 
of musliu wet with alcohol, go over the work two or three times, for 
the piu-pose of killing the oil." Have ready i lb. of pure gum shellac 
dissolved in one pint of 95 per cent, alcohol. With this saturate a pad 
made of soft cotton, covered with white muslin, and with the pad thus 
formed go over your work two or three tiuies. To become proficient 
in this work, practice and close attention are required. 

Walmut Stain for Wood. — Water, 1 gal. ; Vandyke brown, 10 
ozs. ; bichromate of pota.sh, 1 oz. ; washing soda, G oz.s. ; boil 10 
minutes, immerse the article, or apply with a brush as desired. 

Gold Bronze for Fcrxiture. — Mix copal varnish with gold- 
colored bronze powder. This is made from bisulpliate of tin. 

To Ebonize Wood. — Mix lampblack with good French polish and 
apply in the usual way. The lampblack may be collected on a tiu held 
over a kerosene oil lamp, or lighted candle. 

Reviver for Gilt Frames. — White of eggs, 2 ozs. ; chloride of pot- 
ash or soda, 1 oz. ; mix well ; blow off the dust from the frames ; then 
go over them with a soft brush dipped in the mixture, and they will 
be equal to new. 

Bad Smell from Animal Size. — To remove bad smell pass it 
through powdered charcoal. To preserve it, dissolve one ounce of 
sulphate of ziuc, generally known as white copperas, in hot water, and 
add to every \ cwt. It will keep any length of time. lilelt your size, 
and thoroughly mix it 

Polishing Brass and Stone.— Plate-glass may be polished by 
rubbing with emery aud water, the emery being of a greater degree of 
fineness as the work progresses, until at last by employmg an impal- 
pable variety prepared by suspending emery in water for an hour or 
more. Of cour.-;e no scratches must exist in the work when the iwlish- 
ing operation begins ; such must have been removed by means of a 
coarser emery flour. Stones, such as Brighton pebbles, &c., are often 
cut and polished on a rapidly revolving leaden disc, the surface of 
which is loaded with diamond dust, emery, or tripoli, according to the 
stone under oj^eration. 

Soluble Glass.— I. Silica, 1 part, carbonate of soda, 2 parts; fuse 
together. 2. Carbonate of soda (dry) 54 parts; dry carbonate of 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS', AC, RECEIPTS. 293 

^i>tassa, 70 parts ; silica, 192 parts ; soluble in boiling "water, yielding 
a fine, transparent semi-elastic Tarnish. --S. Carbonate of potassa 
(dry), 10 parts ; powdered quartz (or sand free from iron or alumina), 
15 parts ; charcoal, 1 part ; all fused together. Soluble m 5 or (5 
times its weight of boilinf/ water. The filtered solution evaporated to 
dryness, yields a transparent glass, permanent in the air. 

Glass Staixing. — Tlie following colors after having been prepared, 
and rubbed upon a plate of groiuid-glass, with the spirits of tur]5cn- 
tine or lavender thickened in tlic air, are applied with a hair-pencil. 
Before using them, however, it is necessaiy to try them on small 
pieces of glass, and cxi^ose tliem to the fire, to ascertain if the desired 
tone of color is produced. The artist must be guided by these proof- 
pieces in usuig his colors. The glass proper for receiving these pig- 
ments must be colorless, XTuiform, and difficult of fusion. A design 
must be drawn on paper, and placed beneath the plate of glass. The 
upper side of the glass, being sponged over with gum-water, affords, 
when dry, a surface proper for receiving the colors Avithout the risk 
of runnhig irregularly, as thej^ would otherwise do on the slippery 
glass. The artist draws on the plate (usually in black), with a fine 
pencil, all the traces which mark the great outlines or shades of the 
figures. Aftenvards, when it is dry, the vitrifying colors are laid on 
by means of larger hair-pencils ; their selection being regulated by 
the burnt specimen-tints above mentioned. The following arc all 
fast coloi-s, which do not run, except the yellow, which must therefore 
be laid on the opposite side of the glass. The preparations being all 
laid on, the glass is ready for being fired in a muffle, in order to fix 
and bring out tlic proper colors. The muffle must be made of very 
refractory fire-clay, fiat at its bottom, and only five or six inches high, 
■with a strong arched roof, and close on all sides, to exclude smoke 
and flame. On the bottom, a smooth bed of sifted lime, freed from 
■water, about half an inch tliick, niust be prepared for receiving the 
glass. Sometimes, several plates of glass are laid over each other, 
with a layer of lime powder between each. The fire is now lighted, 
and very gradually raised, lest the glass should be broken ; then keep 
it at a full heat for three or four hours, more or less, according to the 
indications of the trial slips ; the yellow coloring being principally 
watched, it furnishing the best criterion of the state of the others. 
"When all is right, let the fire die out, so as to anneal the glass. 

Staixeik Glass Pigments. — No. 1. Flesh-color. — Red lead, 1 oz. ; 
red enamel (Venetian glass enamel, from alum and copperas calcined 
together) : grind them to a fine powder, and work this up with al* 
cohol upon a hard stone. When slightly baked, this produces a fine 
fiosh-color. No. 2. Black color. — Take 14^ oz. of smithy scales of 
iron ; mbc them ■with 2 oz. of white glass : antimony, 1 oz. m.anganesc, 
h oz. ; pound and grind these ingredients togetlier with strong vinegar. 
}io. 3. Brown color. — Wliite glass or enamel, 1 oz. ; good manganese. 
^ oz. ; grind together. No. 4. Bed, Rose and Broxcn colors aro 
made from peroxide of iron, j)rcpared by nitric acid. The flux in- 
sists of borax, sand, and minuim, in small quantities. Bed color may 
likewise be obtained from 1 oz. of red challc, pounded, mixed with 2 
oz. wliite, hard enamel, and a little peroxide of copper. A ird may 
also be composed of rust of iron, glass of antimony, yellow gl.vs of 
lead, such as is used by letters, or litharge, each in equal quantities. 



294 CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS*, <fcC., RECEIPTS. 

to -wliicli a little sulphuret of silver is added. This composition, -well 
prouud, produces a very fine red color ou glass. No. 5. Green. — 2 oz. 
of brass, calciued into au oxide ; 2 oz. of miniuin, and 8 oz. of -white 
sand ; reduce them to a line powder, which is to be enclosed in a 
well-luted crucible, and heated .'strongly in an air furnace for an hour. 
"When the mixture is cold, grind it iu a brass mortar. Green may, 
however, be advantageously i)roduccd, by a yellow ou one side and a 
blue on the other. Oxide of chronic has also been employed ; to 
Ftain glass green. No. 6. A fine yelloxc stain. — Take fine silver, lam- 
inated thin, dissolve in nitric <icid, dilute with abundance of water, 
and precipitate with solution of sea-salt ; mix this chloride of silver 
in a dry powder, with three times its weight of pipe-clay well burnt 
and pounded. The back of the glass pane is to be painted with 
this i)owder ; for, when painted on tlie face, it is apt to rim into 
the other colors. A pale yelloic can be made by mixing sulphuret of 
silver with glass of antimony and yellow ochre, previously calcined 
to a red brown tint. AVork all these powders together, and paint on 
the back of the glass. Or silver lamince, melted with sulphur and 
glass of antimonj', thrown into cold water and afterwards ground to 
powder, affords a yellow. A pale yellow may be made with the 
powder resulting from brass, sulphur, and glass of antimony, calcined 
together in a crucible till they cease to smoke, and then mixed with 
a little burnt ochre. The Jf/ie yelloio of il. Jleraud is ]irepared from 
chloride of silver, oxide of zinc, and rust of iron. This mixture, 
eimply gi'ound, is applied on the glass. Oramje color. — Take 1 part 
of silver powder, as precipitated from the nitrate of that metal, by 
plates of copper, and washed ; mix with 1 part of red ochre, and 1 of 
yellow, by careful trituration ; grind into a thin pap, with oil of tur- 
pentine or lavender : apply this with a brush, and bum iu. 

To Silver Looking Glasses. — A sheet of tin-foil corresponding to 
the size of the plate of glass is evenly spread on a perfectly smooth 
aivl solid marble table, and every wrinkle on its surface is carefully 
rubbed down with a brush : a portion of mercury is then poured on, 
iind rubbed over the foil with a clean piece of soft woollen stuff, after 
which, two rules are applied to the edges, and mercury poured on to 
the depth of a crown piece ; when any oxide on the surface is care- 
fully removed, and the sheet of glass, perfectly clean and dry, is slid 
along over the surface of the liquid metal, so that no air, dirt, or 
oxide can possibly either remain or get between them. AVhen the 
glass has arrived at its proper position, gentle pressure is applied, 
and the table sloped a little to carry off the waste mercury ; after 
which it is covered with liannel, aud loaded with heavy weights ; in 
twenty-four hours it is removed to anotlier table, and further slanted, 
and this position is progressively increased during a month, till it 
becomes peri^endicular. 

I'oRCELAiN Colors. — The following are some of the colors used 
iu the celebrated porcelain manufactory of Sevres, and the propor- 
tions in which they are compounded. Though intended for porcelain 
painting, nearly all are applicable to painting on glass. Flux No. 1 
minum or red lead, 3 parts ; white sand, washed, 1 part. This mixture 
is melted, by which it is converted into a greenish-colored glass. 
Flux No. 2. Gray flux.— Of No. 1, 8 paits ; fused borax in powder, 1 
part. This mixture is melted. Flux No. 3. For carmines and greeiu 



CABINETMAKERS. PAINTERS*. AC, RECEIPTS. 295 

— ^Melt together fused borax, 6 parts , calcined flints, 3 parts ; pure 
miuum, 1 part. No. 1. Indlr/o blue. — Oxide of cobalt, 1 part ; flux 
No. 3, 2 parts. Beep azure blue. — O.-ude of cobalt, 1 part; oxide of 
zinc, 2 i)arts ; flux No. 3, 5 parts. No. 2. Emerald Green. — Oxide of 
copper, 1 part ; antimonic acid, 10 parts ; flux No, 1, 30 parts. I'ul- 
veiize togetlier, and melt. No. 3. Gra.fs (/reen. — Green oxide of 
chromium, 1 part ; flux No. 3, 3 parts. Triturate and melt. No. 4- 
Yelloio. — Antimonic acid, Ipart ; subsulphate of the peroxide of iron, 
8 parts ; oxide of zinc, 4 parts ; flux No. 1, 3G parts. Rub up together 
and melt. If this color is too deep the salt of iron is diminished. No. 
5. Fixed yellow for touches. — No. 4, 1 part ; white enamel of com- 
merce, 2 parts. Melt and pour out ; if not sufficiently fixed, a little 
pand may be added. No. G. Deep Nankin yellov). — Subsulphate of 
iron, 1 part ; oxide of zinc, 2 parts ; flux No. 2, 8 parts. Triturate 
without melting. No. 7. Deep red. — Subsulphate of iron, calcined in 
a muffle imtil it becomes of a beautiful capucine red, 1 part ; flux No. 
2, 3 parts. Mix without melting. No. 8. Liver brown. — Oxide of 
iron made of a red brown, and mixed witli three times its weight of 
flux No. 2. A tenth of sienna earth is added to it, if it is not deei> 
enough. No. 9. White. — The white enamel of commerce, in cakes. 
No. 10. Deep black. — Oxide of cobalt, 2 parts ; copper, 2 parts ; oxide 
of manganese, Ipart ; flux No. 1, G parts ; fused borax, |part. Melt, 
and add oxide of manganese, 1 part ; oxide of copper, 2 parts. Trit- 
urate without melting. The Application. — Follow the general direc- 
tions given in another part of this work, in relation to staining glass. 

How TO Write on Glass in the Sun. — Dissolve chalk in aqua- 
fortis to the consistency of milk, and add to that a strong dissolution 
of silver. Keep this in a glass decanter well stopped. Then cut out 
from a paper the letters you will have appear, and paste the paper on 
the decanter or jar, which you are to place in the sun in such a man- 
ner that its rays may pass through the spaces cut out of the paper, and 
fall on the surface of the liquor. The part of the glass through which 
the rays pass will turn black, whilst that under the paper will remain 
white. Do not shako the bottle during the operation. Used in let- 
tering jars. 

To Stain or Color Gl.-vss. — For amethyst, oxide of manganese 
is nscd ; blue, oxide of cobalt ; for brown, oxide of iron ; for f/reen, 
black oxide of copper ; for purple, oxide of gold ; for i-uby 7'ed, sub- 
oxide of copper ; for tchile, oxide of tin ; for yelloio, oxide of silver, 
&c. These substances pure and well powdered, are cither added to 
the melted contents of the glass-]iot, or are applied to the surface as 
in glass staining. Fine Blue. To 10 lbs. of flint glass, previously 
melted and cast into water, add zaffer, G drs. ; calcined copper, \ oz. ; 
prepared by putting sheet copper into a crucible, and exposing it to 
the action of a fire not strong enough to melt the copper, and you will 
have the copper in scales, which you pound. — Bright Purple. Use 10 
lbs. flint glass as before ; zalTer5 drs.; precipitate of calcium. 1 dr. 
Gold Yellow. Flint glass 28 lbs., of the tartar which is found in 
nrine, J lb., purify by putting in a crucible on the fire until it ceases 
to smoke, and add manganese, 2 ozs. 

Bottle Glass. — No. 1. Dark Green. — Fused glauber-salts, lllbs.: 
soaper salts, 12 lbs. ; waste soap-ashes, ^ bush. ; silicious sand, J 
cwt. ; glass-skimmiiigs, 23 lbs. ; broken green glass, 1 cwt.to 1^ cwt. ; 



296 CABINETMAKERS, PAIXTEUS". &C., RECEIPTS. 

basalt, 25 lbs. to ^ c-wt. No. 2. Pale Greeji.— Pale sand, 100 lbs. ; 
kelp, 35 lbs. ; lixiviated ■wood-ashes, IJ cwt. ; Ircsh do., 40 lbs. ; 
pipe-clay, g cwt. ; cuUet, or broken glass, 1 cwt. No. 3. Yellow or 
white sand, 120 parts ; wood-ashes, 80 parts ; pearl-ashe^, 20 parts : 
common salt, 15 parts ; Avhite arsenic, 1 part ; very jjalc. Cnjslal 
Glass. — Xo.l. Refined iwtashes, CO lbs. ; sand, 120 lbs. ; chalk, 24 
lbs. ; nitre and white arsenic, of each, 2 lbs. ; oxide of manganese, 1 
to 2 oz. No. 2. Pure Avhite sand, 120 parts ; refined ashes, 70 parts ; 
Baltpetre, 10 parts ; white arsenic, h part ; oxide of manganese, | part. 
No. 3. Sand, 120 parts ; red-lead^ 50 parts ; purified pcarlash, 40 
parts ; nitre, 20 parts ; manganese, ^ part. Flask Glass {of St. 
Eticnne). — Pure silicious sand, 61 parts ; potash, 3| parts ; lime, 21 
parts ; heavy spar, 2 parts ; oxide of manganese, q. s. Best German 
Cry.%tal Glass. — Take 120 lbs. of calcined flints or white sand ; best 
pcarlash, 70 lbs. ; saltpetre, 10 lbs. ; arsenic, \ lb. ; and 5 oz magnesia. 
No. 2. ( CVieapc?-. )— Sand or flint, 120 lbs. ; pearlash, 4G lbs. ; nitre, 7 
lbs. ; arsenic, G lbs. ; magnesia, 5 oz. This will require a long 
continuance in the furnace, as do all others when much of the arsenic 
is used. Plate Glass.— So. 1. Pure sand, 40 parts ; dry carbonate of 
soda, 2Gi parts ; lime, 4 parts ; nitre, li parts ; broken plate glass, 25 
parts. No. 2. Ure's. — Quartz-sand, 100 parts ; calcined sulpliate of 
soda, 24 parts ; lime, 20 parts ; cullet of soda-glass, 12 parts. No. 
3. Vienna. — Sand, 100 parts ; calcined sulphate of soda, 50 parts ; 
lime, 20 parts ; charcoal, 22 parts. No. 4. French. — White quartz 
s-and and cullet, of each 300 parts ; dry carbonate of soda, 100 parts ; 
slaked lime, 43 parts. Crown Glass. — No. 1. Saud, 300 lbs. ; soda- 
ash, 200 lbs. ; lime 30 to 35 lbs. ; 200 to 300 lbs. of broken glass. No, 
2. (Bohemian.) — Pure silicious sand, G3 parts ; potasli, 22 parts ; lime, 
12 parts ; oxide of manganese, 1 part. No. 3. {Prof. Schweifjc/ers.) — 
Pure sand, 100 lbs. ; dry sulphate of soda, 50 parts "; dry quicklime iji 
powder, 17 to 20 parts ; charcoal, 4 parts. Product, white and good. 
Best Windoio-Glass. — No. 1. Take of white sand, GO lbs. ; puri- 
fied pearlashcs, 30 lbs. ; of saltpetre, 15 lbs. ; of borax, 1 lb. ; of arsenic, 
i lb. This will be very clear and colorless if the uigredients be good, 
and not be A-cry dear. No. 2. {Cheaper.) — White sand, GO lbs. ; un- 
purified ]iearl-ashes, 25 lbs. ; of common salt, 10 lbs. ; nitre, 5 lbs, ; 
arsenic, 2 lbs. ; magnesia, 1^ oz. No. 3. Common yrecn loindow- 
r/lass. — Wliitc sand, GO lbs. ; unpurified pearlashes, 30 lbs. ; common 
salt, 10 lbs. ; arsenic, 2 lbs. ; magnesia, 2 oz. Bookinf/-Glass Plate. 
— No. 1. Cleansed white saud, GO lbs. : pearlashes, purified, 25 lbs. ; 
saltpetre, 15 lbs. ; borax, 7 lbs. This composition should be contin- 
ued long in the fire, which should be sometimes strong and after- 
wards more moderate, that the glass may be entirely free from bub- 
bles before it be worked. No. 2. White sand, GO lbs. ; pearlashes, 20 lbs. ; 
common salt, 10 lbs. ; nitre, 7 lbs. ; borax, 1 lb. This glass will rmi 
"With as little heat as the former ; but it will be more brittle, and 
refract the rays of Ught in a greater degree. No. 3. Washed white 
sand, GO lbs. ; purified pearlashes, 25 lbs. ; nitre, 15 lbs. ; borax, 7 
lbs. If properly managed, this glass will be colorless. Windoio 
Glass. — No. 1. Dried sulphate of soda, 11 lbs. ; soaper salts, 10 lbs. ; 
lixiviated soai) waste, ^ bush. ; sand, 50 to GO lbs. ; glass-pot skim- 
mings, 22 lbs. ; broken pa?e green glass, lc\vt. No. 2. {Paler.) — White 
sand, GO lbs. ; pearl-ashes, 30 lbs. ; common salt 10 lbs. ; arsenic, 10 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS,' AC, RECEIPTS. 297 

lbs. ; oxide of manganese, 2 to 4 oz. No. 3. (Very Pale.) — White 
sand, 60 lbs. ; good pot ashes, 25 lbs. ; common salt 10 lbs. ; nitre, 5 
lbs. ; arsenic, 2 lbs. : manganese, 2 to 4 oz. as required ; hiokeii pale 
■window glass, 14 lbs. 

Colored PoTTEKs' Glazings. — miUe ; prepare an intimate mix- 
ture of 4 parts of massicot, 2 of tin aslies, 3 f i-agments of crystal glass, 
and h part of sea salt Tlie mixture is suffered to melt in earthen- 
ware" vessels, when the liquid flux may be used. Yelloio ; take equal 
parts of massicot, red lead and sulphuret of antimony, calcine the 
mixture, and reduce it again to powder, add then 2 parts of pure 
sand, and 1^ parts of salt ; melt the whole. Green ; 2 parts of sand, 
3 parts massicot, 1 part of salt and copper scales, according to the 
sliade to be produced : melt and use. Violet ; 1 part massicot, 3 
parts sand, 1 of smalt, ^ part of black oxide of manganese ; melt. 
Blue ; white sand and massicot, equal parts ; blue smalt, J part ; 
melt. Black ; black oxide of manganese, 2 parts ; smalt ^ i^art ; 
burned quartz, 1 part ; massicot, 1^ parts ; melt. Brown ; green 
bottle glass, 1 part ; manganese, 1 part ; lead, 2 parts, melt. 

MoRTAK, Plaster, &c.— 22 kinds. — 1. Stone Mortar. — Cement, 
8 parts; lime, 3 parts; sand, 31 parts. 2. Mortar.— JAme, 1 part; sharp, 
clean sand, 2^ parts. An excess of water in slaking the lime swells 
the mortar, wliich remains light and porous, or shrinks in drying: an 
excess of sand destroys the cohesive properties of the mass. 3. 
Bi-oion Mortar. — Lime,'l jKirt; sand, 2 parts, and a small quantity of 
hair. 4. Brick Mortar. — Cement, 3 parts; lime, 3 parts; sand, 27 
parts. Lime and sand, and cement and sand, lessen about 4, in 
volume when mixed together. 5. Turkish Mortar. — Powdered brick 
and tiles, 1 part; fine sifted lime, 2 parts; mLx to a proper consistency 
with water, and lay on layers of 5 or G inches thick between the 
courses of brick or stone. Very useful on massive or very solid 
buildings. G. Interior Plaster inr/— Coarse Stitff. — Common lime 
mortar as made for brick masonry, with a small quantity of hair ; or 
by volumes, lime paste (30 lbs. lime,) 1 part; sand, 2 to2'j parts; hair, 
J part. When full time for hardening cannot be allowed, substitute 
f rom 15 to 20 pe?- ce)U. of tlie lime by an equal portion of hydmnlic 
cement. For the second or broion coat the proportion of hair may be 
slightly diminished. 7. Fine StinJ'. — (Lime putty): Lump lime slaked 
to a paste with a moderate volume of water, and afterwards diluted to 
the consistency of cream, and then harden by evaporation to tlie re- 
quired consistency for working. In this state it is used as a slipped 
coat, and when mixed with sand or plaster of Paris, it is used for the 
finishinrj coat. 8. Gavije Stuff or Hard Finish is composed of 3 or 4 
volumes of fine stulf and 1 volume of plaster of Paris, in proportions 
regulated by the degree of rapidity required in hardening for cornices, 
&c., the proix)rtions are equal volumes of each, fine stuff and plaster. 
9. Stucco is composed of from 3 to 4 volumes of white sand to 1 
volume of fine stuff or lime putty. 10. Scratch Coat.— The first of 3 
coats when laid upon laths, and is from ^ to § of an inch in thickness. 

11. One Coat TFor^.— Plastering in 1 coat Avithout finish, either on 
masonry or laths that is rendered or laid. Work on well. 

12. Tico Coat iro?-A-.— Plastering in 2 coats is done either in a hnjinff 
eoat and set or in a screed coat and set. The Screed Coat is also termed 
a Floated Coat. Layin'j the first coat in two coat "work is resorted to 



298 CABINETMAKERS, TAINTEES', AC, UECEIPTS 

in common -work instead of screeding, -when the linislicd surface 13 
not required to be exact to a straiglit edge. It is laid in a coat of 
about I inch in thickness. The laying coat, exceiitfor very common 
■work, should be hand floated, as the tenacity and finnness of tlio 
work is much increased tlierebj'. Screeds are Btrips of mortar, 2Gto 
28 inches in width, and of tlie required thickness of the first coat, .ai>- 
plied to the angles of a room or edge of a -waU and parallelly, at in- 
ter\-als of 3 to 5 feet over the surface to be covered. When these 
have become sufficiently hard to withstand the pressure of a straight 
edge, the interspaces between the screeds should be filled out flush 
with them, so as to produce a continuous and straight, even surface. 
Slipped Coat is the smoothing off of a brown coat vrith a small 
quantity of lime putty, mixed with three per cent of wliite sand so aa 
tit make a comparatively even surface. This finisli answers when the 
surface is to be finished in distemper or pai>er. Hard Finish . Fine 
fluff applied with a trowel to the depth of about j^ of an inch. 13. 
Cement for External Use. — Ashes, 2 parts; clay, 3 parts; sand, 1 
part; mix with a little oil. Very durable. 14. Compositions for 
Streets a7ul Eoads. — Bitumen, 16.875 parts ; asplialtum, 2.25 parts; oil 
of resin, G.25; sand, 1.35 pails. Tliickness from-l| to If inches. 
Asphaltum, 55 lbs., and gravel 28.7 lbs. -will cover an area of 10.75 
square feet. 15. Asphalt Composition. — ilineral pitch, 1 part: bitu- 
men, 11 parts ; iwwdered stone or wood ashes, 7 parts. 10. Asphalt 
Mastic is composed of nearly pure carbonate of lime and about 9 or 
10 per cent, of bitumen. "When in a state of powder it is mixed with 
about 7 per cent, of bitumen or mineral i>itch. The powdered asphalt 
is mixed with the bitumen in a melted state along with clean gravel, 
and consistency is given to jjout it into moulds. The asphalt is duc- 
tUe, and has elasticity to enable it, with the small stones sifted xvpon 
it, to resist ordinary wear. Sun and .rain do not affect it, wear and 
tear do not seem to injure it. The pedestrian in many cities in tlic 
United States and Canada, can readily detect its presence on the sido- 
"walk by its peculiar yielding to the foot as he steps over it. It is also 
a most excellent roofing material when rightly applied, it being on 
record in France that a stout roof of this material withstood the ac- 
cidental fall of a stack of chimneys, with the only effect of bruising 
the mastic, readily repaired. 17. Asphalt for Walks. — ^Take 2 parts 
very dry lime rubbish, and 1 part coal ashes, also very dry, aU sifted 
fine. In a dry place, on a dry day, mix them, and leave a hole in 
the middle of the heap, as bricklayers do when making mortar. Into 
this pour boiling hot coal tar ; mLx, and when as stiff as mortar, put it 
three iuches thick where the walk is to be ; the ground should be dry 
and beaten smooth ; sprinkle over it coarse sand. When cold, pass 
a light roller over it; in a few days the Avalk will bo solid and water- 
proof. 18. Mastic Cement for Covering the Fronts of Houses. — ^Fifty 
parts, by measure, of clean dry sand, 50 of limestone (not burned) 
reduced to grains like sand, or marble dust, and 10 parts of red lead, 
mixed with as much boiled linseed oil as will make it slightly moist. 
The bricks to receive it, should be covered with three coats of boUed 
oil, laid on with a brush, and suffered to dry before the mastic is put 
on. It is laid on with a trowel like plaster, but it is not so moist. It 
becomes hard as stone in a few months. Care must be exercised not 
to use too much oU. 19. Cement for Tilc-Iioofs. — Eqxial parts of whit- 



CABINETMAKEUS, PAINTERS*, &C., RECEIPTS. 299 

fng and dry sand, and 23 per cent, of litharge, made into the consist- 
ency of putty with linseed oil. It is not liable to crack when cold, nor 
melt, lilve coal-tar and asphalt, witli the lieat of the sim. 20. Cement 
for Outside of Brick Walls. — Cement for the outside of brick walls, 
to imitate stone, is made of clean sand, 90 parts; litharge, 5 parts; 
plaster of Paris, 5 parts; moistened with boiled linseed oil. The 
bricks sliould receive two or three coats of oil before the cement is 
applied. 21. Water Lime at Fifty Cents per Barrel. — Fine clean sand, 
100 lbs. ; qnick-lime in powder, 28 lbs. ; bone ashes, 14 lbs. ; for use, 
beat up with Avater, and use as quick as possible. 22. Cement for 
Seams in Roofs. — Take equal quantities of white lead and white sand, 
and as much oil as will make it into the consistence of putty. It will 
in a few weeks become as hard as stone. 

Silver Polish Kalsomine. — Take 7 lbs. of Paris white and \ lb. 
of light colored glue. Set the glue in a tin vessel containing 3 pts. of 
water, let it stand over night to soak, then put it in a kettle of 
toiling water over the fire, stirring till it is well dissolved and quite 
thin. Then, alter putting the Paris white into a large water pail, 
pour on hot water and stir it till appears like thicic milk. Now mingle 
the glue liquid with the whiting, stir it thoroughly and apply witli a 
whitewash brush, or a large pauit brush. 

MEASUItEMENT OF STOXE OR ERATC WORK. 

1. Perch, Masons' or Quamjmens' Measure. 

IG^ feet long 

IG inches wide}- = •{ 22 cubic feet. To be >vt<isnredin-wall. 



12 " hi 
IG-i feet Ion, 
18 inches 
12 " 



wide I == < 
high) ( 



24.75 cubic feet. To \'C -tieasured in 
pile. 

1 cubic yard = 3 feet X 3 feet X 3 feet = 27 cubic f e©\ The cubic 
yard has become the standard for all contract work of .'Rte years. 
Stone walls less than IG inches thick count as if IG inches thick to 
masons; over 16 niches thick, each additional inch is counted. 

NOMBEB or BRICK REQUIRED IN WALL PER SQUAI^S TOOT FACE Ot 
WALL. 

Thiclniess o* wall. 



Thickness of wall. 


4 inches 


7i 


8 


(( 


15 


12 


K 


22i 


IG 


(< 


30 


20 


(C 


37i 



24 iucbas 


4G 


28 " 


52i 


32 " 


GO 


3G " 


n7i 


42 " 


•5 



Cubic yard = 600 bricks in wall. 
Perch (22 cubic feet) = 500 bricks in wall. 
To jmve 1 sq. yard on flat requires 48 bricloj. 
" " 1 "^ " edge " G8 " 
Best Wash for Barns and Houses. — "Water lime, 1 pRck; 
freshly slaked lime, 1 peck ; yellow ochre ia powder, 4 lbs. ; burnt 



300 CA1JINET3IAKEKS, PAINTERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 

umber, 4 lbs. To bo dissolyed in hot -water, and applied -n-ith a 
brusli. 

DCKABLE Outside Pai>t.— Take 2 parts (iu bulk) of -water lime 
ground fine; Ipart (iu biiUt) of white lead, iu oil. MLt tliem 
thoroughly, by adding best boiled linseed oil, enou-jh to prepare it to 
pass through a pamt-miU ; after which, temper -with oU tiU it can bo 
a]>plied -with a common paint brusli. Jlake any color to suit. It will 
lust 3 times a.s long as lead i)aint. It is supekior. 

Fabmeus' Paint.— rarmers will find the following profitable for 
house or fence paint : pkim milk, two quarts; fresh slaked liine 8 
oz. ; linseed oil, (joz. ; wliito Burgundy pitch, 2 oz. ; Spanish wJiitc, 
3 lbs. The lime is to be slaked in water, exiwsed to the air, and tlien 
mixed with about one-fourth of the milk; the oil in which the jiitch is 
dissolved to be added a little at a time, then the rest of the milk, and 
afterAvards the Spanish white. This is sufficient for twenty-seven 
yards, 2 coats. This is for white paint. If desirable, any other color 
may be produced; thus, if a cream color is desired, iu place of part of 
the Spanish white use the other alone. 

ESTIMATE OF MATERIALS AXD LABOR FOR 100 SQUARE YARDS OP 
I4ATII A>-D PLASTER. 



Jrateri.als 
and Labor. 


Three coats 
hard finish. 


Two Coats I JIaterials iTlirec coats 
Slipped. and Labor. -liard fini^ili. 


Two coftts 
Slipped. 


Linio . . . 
Lump Lime 
Plaster of 
Paris . . 
Laths. . . 
ILiir . . . 
Saiul . . . 


4 Casks. 

% " 

V2 " 
200(J 

4 bnshs. 
6 loads. 


SVa casks. 

2000 

3 bnshs. 
C loads. 


MTiitc Saiul 
Nails . . . 
llasoiis . . 
J.Miborer 
Cartage . . 


2\i, l)iii<hs. 
l:i lbs. 
4 days. 
3 
1 " 


13 lbs. 
31^ days. 
2 " 

y* " 



Pai>tixg in Milk. — Skimmed milk, ^ gallon ; newly slaked 
lime, G oz. ; and 4 oz. of poppy, lin.seed, or nut oil; and 3 lbs. Spanish 
white. Put the lime into an earthen vessel or clean bucket; and 
having poured ou it a sufficient quantity of milk to make it about 
the thicluicss of cream, add the oil in small quantities a little 
at a time, stirring the mixture well. Then put in the rest of 
the milk, afterwards the Spanish white fiuelj- powdered, or 
any other desired color. For out-door work add 2 oz. each more of 
oil and slaked lime, and 2 oz. of Eurgandy i)itch dissolved iu the oil 
by a gentle heat. 

'Premium Paint without Oil or Lead.— Slake stone-lirae witli 
boiling water in a tub or barrel to keep in the steam; then pass 
quarts through a fine sieve. Now to this quantity add 1 quart of 
coarse salt, and a gallon of water ; boil the mixture, and slcim it clear. 
To every five gallons of this skimmed mixture, add 1 lb. alum; ^ lb. 
copperas; and by slow degrees ^ lb. potash, and 4 quarts sifted ashes 
or tme sand ; add any coloring desired. A more durable paint wa.<j 
never made. 
Green P.unt for G.vrden Stantjs, Blinds, etc.— Take mineral 



CACIXETMAKEKS, PAINTEKS', AC, RECEIPTS. 301 

grccii, and wliito lead ground iu turpentine, mis up the quantity you 
■wish witli a small quantity of turpentine varnish. This serves for tho 
first coat. For tho second, put as much varnish in your mixture as 
will produce a good gloss. If you desire a brighter greeji, add a little 
Prussian blue, which will much improve the c«loi'. 

Milk Paint, for Bakxs, any Coloii. — MLx water lime with skim 
milk, to a proper consistence to apply with a brnsh, audit is ready to 
use. It will adliere well to wood, whether smooth or rough, to brick, 
mortar, or stone, wliere oil has not been used (in which ca.se it cleaves 
to some extent), and forms a very hard substance, as durable as tho 
best oil paint. It is too cheap to estimate, and any one can put 
it on who can use a brush. Any color may be given to it, by 
u.sing colors of the tinge desired. If a red is "preferred, mix 
Venetian red with milk, liot using any limo. It looks well for fifteen 
years. 

Paint. — To JI.vke wiTnouT Lead ok Oil. — "Whiting, 5 lbs.; 
skimmed milk, 2 qts. ; fresh slaked lime, 2 oz. Put tho lime into a 
stoneware vessel, pour upon it a sufficient quantity of the milk to 
make a mixture resembling cream; the balance of tho milk is then to 
be added; and lastly, the whiting is to be crumbled upon the surface 
of the Ikiid, in whicli it gradually sinks. At this period it must bo 
well stirred iu or ground, as you would other i^aiut. and it is fit for 
use. 

Paris Green. — Take unslaked limo of the best quality, slake it 
with hot wator; tlicn take the finest part of the powder, and add 
alum water as strong as it can lie made, sufficient to form a thick 
paste; then color it Avith bichromate of pota.sh and sulphate of copper 
until the color suits your fancy, and dr^- it for use. N.B. — The sul- 
phate of copper gives a blue tinge; the bichromate of potash, a j.'A~ 
low. Observe this, and you will get it right. 

Beautiful Green Paint for AValls. — Take 4 lbs. Roman 
vitriol, and pour on it a teakettleful of boiling water. When dis- 
solved, add 2 lbs. pearlash, and stir the mixture well with a stick un- 
til the effervescence ceases; tiien add J lb. pulverized yellow arsenic, 
aud stir the whole together. Lay it on with a pniiit brush ; and if tho 
wall has not been painted before, 2 or even 3 coats will be requisite. 
If a pea-green is required, put ui less, if an apple-green, more, of tho 
yellow arsenic. This paint does not cost the quarter of oil paint, 
and looks better. 

Blue Color for Ceilings, &c. — Boil slowly for 3 hours 1 lb. 
blue vitriol and h lb. of the best whiting in about 3 qts. Avater; stir it 
frequentlj' while'boiling, and also on taking it off the fire. When it 
has stood till quite cold, pour off the blue liquid, then mix the cako 
of color with good size, and use it with a plasterer's brush in tho 
same manner as whitewash, cither for walls or ceilings. 

To II.\rden Wuitewasii. — To ^ pail of common whitewash add 
ipint of flour. Pour on boiling water in quantity to thicken it. 
Then add Ggals. of the lime water, and stir well. 

AVniTEWASii THAT WILL NOT RuB OFF.— jMLs up lialf a pailful of 
lime and water, ready to put on the wall; theu take J pt. flour, mix it 
up with water; then pour on it boiling water, a sufficient quantity to 
thicken it; theu pour it while hot into the whitewash, stir all well 
together, and it is ready for use. 



302 



CALCULATIONS, &C., FOR BUILDERS. 



Slating.— The pitch of a slated roof should be about 1 in height to 4 
iu length; the usual lap is about 3 ins., but it is sometimes 4. Each slate 
should be fastened by 2 nails, either of copper or zinc. A square of slate 
is 100 superficial feet, allowances being made for the trouble of cutting 
the slates at the hips, eaves, round chimneys, etc. The sides and bottom 
edges of the slates should be trimmed, and the nail holes punched as near 
the head as possible; they should be sorted in sizes, when they are not 
all of one size, and the smallest size placed near the ridge. The thick- 
ness of slates varies from 3-16 to 5-lC of an inch, and their weight from 
2.(5 to 4-53 lbs. per square foot. The following table of sizes, etc., of roof- 
ing slates is very useful: 



Description . 



Doubles 

Ladies 

Countesses . . 
Duchesses . . 

Imperials — 
Hags an d 
Queens 
Westmore- 
lands, of 
va r i ou s 
sizes. 



Size. 


Length 


Bre'th. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


1 1 


6 


1 4 


8 


1 8 


10 


2 


1 


2 6 


2 


3 


2 



Av'rage 
guage 

in 
inches. 



7 
9 

10% 



No. of 
squares 
1200 will 

cover 



2 

7 
10 



Weight 
per 1200 
in tons 



1^4 



No. re- 
quired 
to cover 

one 
square 



480 
280 
17C 
127 



No. of 
nails re- 
quired 
to one 
square. 



480 
280 
352 
251 



a ton will cover 2V4 to 2Vi square?. 



The next table exhibits the comparative weight of various roof cover- 
ings. 



Plain tiles, per square of 100 sup'l feet . . . 

Pantiles 

Slating, an average 

Lead, 7 lbs. per sup'l feet...., 

Corrugated iron 

Copper, or zinc, 16 ozs. per sup'l feet 

Timber framing for slated or tiled roofs . . 

Boarding, % in. thick 

Boai'diiig, 1 V2 in. thick 

Additional load for pressure of wind 

Gothic roofs, steepest angle 



Weight. 



8 to 18 cwt. 
91/4 cwt. 
7 to 9 cwt. 
€1/2 cwt. 
3 cwt. 
1 cwt. 

560 to 672 lbs. 
21/2 cwt. 
5 cwt. 
35 cwt. 



Least 
Slope. 



261/2 to 30° 

25% to 30*0 

4° 
40 

4° 

25° 

25° 

60° 



Cement for Marble and Alabaster. — Mix 12 parts of Port- 
land cemeut, 6 parts slacked lime, 6 parts of fine sand, and 1 part of 
infusorial earth, and make np into a thick paste with silicate of soda. 
The object to be cemented does not require to be heated. It sets in 24 
hours, and the fracture can not readily be found. 

Superior Blasting Compound. — The English mining engineer, 
Mr. AV. B. Brain, lias found that one of the most available blasting 
compounds consists of equal parts of potash chlorate, potash nitrate, 
charcoal, and dry oak saw-dust; 3 parts of this mixture is made to 
about 2 parts nitroglycerine of 1.6 specific gravity. 

To Thaw Frozen Sink Pipes, &c. — Place the end of a piece of 
lead pipe against the ice to be thawed, and then tlirougli a fumiel in 



CALCULATIONS, &C., FOR BUILDERS. 



303 



the other end pour boiling water. Keep the pipe constantly against 
the ice and it will soon disappear. Or stiffen rubber tubing witli fine 
wire and introduce it iuto the pipe as far as possible, and direct a jet 
of steam from a small boiler over a portable charcoal furnace, as is 
done by plumbers in many cases. 

Extinguishing Fikes. — A solution of pearlash in water, thrown 
upon a fire, extinguishes it instantly ; the proportion is 4 ozs., dis- 
solved in hot water, and then poured into a bucket of cold water. In 
extinguishing kerosene fires, use uo water, but smother the flames 
with blankets or rugs. 

In clapboarding, 1 bundle laid 3% ins. to the weather will cover 2C 
square feet. To be laid with 5-peiiny nails. 

COMPAKATIVE "WEIGHT OF DIFFERENT WoODS IN GREEN AND 

Seasoned states in Pounds and Ounces Per Cubic Foot.— Ash, 
green, 58.3; do., seasoned, 50. Beech, green, 60: do., seasoned, 50. Amer- 
ican pine, green, 44.12; do., seasoned, 30.11. Cedar, green, 32; do., sea- 
Boned, 28.4. English oak, green, 71.10; do. seasoned, 43,8. Riga Fir, 
green, 48.12; do., seasoned, 35.8. 

Shrinicage in Dimensions of Timber by Seasoning. 
"Woods. Ins. Woods. Iiig. 



Pitch gine. South. . . 

Spruce 

White pine, America 
Yellow pine 



18% to I8V4 
8y, to 8% 
12 to 11% 
18 to IT'/g 



Cedar, Canada. 

Elm 

Oak, English . . 
Pitch pine 



14 to 131/4 

11 to 10% 

12 to 11% [93^ 
10x10 to i)% by 



Percentage of Water in Different Woods. 



Larch 48.6 

Mountain ash 28.3 

Oak 34.7 

Pine 39.7 

Red beech 39.7 



Red pine 45.2 

White oak 36.2 

White pine 37.1 

White poplar 50-6 

Willow 26.0 



Alder 41.6 

Aeh 28.7 

Birch 30.8 

Elm 44.5 

Horse chestnut 38.2 

In shingling, 1 bundle of 16-)nch shingles will cover 30 square ft.; 1 
bundle of 18-ihch shingles will lay 33 square ft., when laid 5% ins. to the 
weather; 6 lbs. 4-penny nails will lay 1000 split pine shingles. 

Plasterer's Memoranda. — 1.30 yards of lath, lay and set, require 1 
load of laths, 10,000 nails, 214 cwt. of hme, ly, doubl'j load of sand, and 7 
bushels of hair; plaster, laborers and boy, 6 days each. 

liender and Set.—ldQ yards requires V-/^ cwt. of lime, 1 double load of 
sand, and 4 bushels of hair; plasterer, laborer and boy, 3 days each. 

netting — 375 yards require ly^ cwt. of lime and5bushels'of hair. 
In lathing, 1 bundle of laths and 384 nails will cover 5 yards. In ren- 
dering, 187% yards require iy2 cwt. of lime, 2 double loads of sand and tt 
bushels of hair. Floating requires more labor, but only half as much 
material as rendering. 

1000 bricks, closely stacked, occupy 56 cubic feet ; 1000 old bricks, 
cleaned and loosely stacked, occupy 72 cubic ft. 

1 rod of brickwork requires 126 gals, water to slack the lime and mix 
the mortar. Bricks absorb 1-15 of their weight in water. No. of bricks in 
cubic yard, 384. A bricklayer's hod will hold 20 bricks, or % cubic ft. of 
mortar, or Vi bushel, nearly. 

Safe Load in Structures, Including Weight of Structure. 

In cast-iron columns V^ breaking weight. 

Wrought-iron structures 14 " " 

In east-iron girders for tanks 1/4 " " 

In cast-iron for bridges and taidts 1-6 " " 

In timber 1-10 <' « 

Stone and bricks 1^ » " 



CABINETMAKERS, PAINTERS , AC, RECEIPTS. 305 

Whitewash. — The best method of making a -whitewash lor out- 
Bide exposure is to slake ^ bushel of lime iu a banel, add 1 lb. oi 
common salt, ^ lb. of the sulphate of zinc, and a gjillon of sweet milk. 
.Any desired color may be imparted to whitewash by adding coloring 
matter to suit. See Compound Colors. 

Tekka Cotta Manufacture. — In the ten-a cotta maimfacture of 
the north of England and Scotland, the purest lumps of fire clay are 
selected by their color and texture, and used alone without any other 
clay, while the firms near London prepare more carefully a uiixture 
of clays, Avhich produce a body of better textura, One of the chief 
difliculties met iu macufacturuig terra cotta figures and ornamental 
works is the contraction the clay suffers after it has left the mould ; 
first, iu drying, afterwards in firing ; By mixing the clays, a further 
advantage is gained iu the diminished shrinkage, as fire clay teiTa 
cotta (that is, mimixed) shrinks in liueal dimensions about 12 per cent. 
from the time it leaves the mould until it leaves the kilu ; the mixed 
clay tenu cotta shrinks G per cent, or less, and red clays shrink 3 per 
cent. To enhance the durabihty of the body of terra cotta, a partial 
vitrification of the mass is aimed at by adding clays and substances 
which contain a small amomit of alkalies wliich act as a flitx to fuse 
the body harder ; also vitrifying ingredients, pure white river sand, 
Did fire brick, ground fine, pre\'iously ground clay called " grog," are 
added in various proportions, amounting even to 25 per cent. They 
counteract excessive shrinkage, act as vitrifying elements, and keep 
the color lighter. In tlie manufacture the mixture of clays is ground 
under an edge rmmer to the consistency of Hour. The mills have 
either revolvmg or stationary jiaus ; tlie former do the most work. 
In order to mix and incorporate the different clays, a subsequent care- 
ful pugging is required, for hot water is sometimes used. The mix- 
ture wheubrouglit to the proper homogeneous consistency, is placed in 
a plaster mould, dried near the kilns or otherwise, an-- baked iu a kiln 
lor five or seven days, duriu» which time it is slowly brought to a white 
heat, and is gradually cooled down again. Ij order to avoid twisting 
and Avarping durmg the firing, it is necessary, besides complete mix- 
ing of clays, that the mould be shaped so as to give a uniform thick- 
ness of material throughout, and if the temperature of the kilns be 
well graded, the homogeneous body will not warp. To cheapen terra 
cotto building blocks, they are made hollow, and filled, durmg the cou- 
etruction, with concrete or cement. Although in the kilns the pro- 
ductions are separated from the wares, it is fomid that the use of sul- 
phurous fuel darkens and tarnishes the surface, and it is to be avoid- 
ed. This material admits of being used with the greatest facility iu 
the formation of the most elaborate architectural ornaments and other 
beautiful designs which can be mixltiplied to any required extent at a 
very cheap rale. A piece of four inch column tested at the 1851 Exhibi- 
tion required a pressure of 40.J tons per square foot to crush it, or as 
much as good granite and two or three times as much as most build- 
ing stone. 

Excellent Cieeat Roofing.— Have your roof stiff, rafters made 
of stuff 1| by 8 inches, well supported and G feet apart, witli ribs 1 
inch by 2 inches, set edgeways, well nailed to the i-afters, about 18 
inches ai)art. The boards may be thin but must be well seasoned, and 
nailed close together: this done, lay dowu and cover the roof with thin 
20 



806 CABINETilAKEBS, PAINTERS', <tC., RECEIPTS. 

Bof t, Bpougy straw paper used in making paper-boxes, which comes in 
rolls aud comes very low. Lay in courses up and down the roof, and 
lap over, nailing down with common Xo. G tacks, with leather under 
the heads like Ciirpct tacks. Then spread on several coatuigs of tho 
following comix)sition, previously boiled, stirred, and mixed together: 
pood clean tar, 8 gals. ; Roman cement, 2 gals, (or in its place very 
fine, clean sand may be used) ; resiji, 5 lbs. ; tallow, 3 lbs. ; apply 
hot : and let a hand follow, aud sift on shari> grit sand, pressing it in- 
to the tar comixjsition. If wished fire-proof, go over the above with 
the following preparation ; slake stone lime under cover with hot 
water till it falls mto a fine powder, sift and mix 6 qts. of this with 
1 qt. salt ; add 2 gals, water, boil and skim. To 5 gals, of this add 1 
lb of alum, and 1^ lb. of copperas, slowly while boiling, l^lbs. potash 
and 4 qts. of clean, sharp sand, aud any color desired. Apply atliick 
coat with a brush, and you have a roof which no fire can injure from 
the outside. 

How TO BtHLD GEA^'Et, IIousEg. — Tliis is the best building ma- 
terial in the world. It is four time» cheaper than wood, six times 
chcaix;r than stone, and superior to either. Proiwrtions for mixing : 
to eight barrows of slaked lime, well deluged with water, add 15 
barrows of sand ; mix these to a creamy consistency, then add GO 
barrows of coarse gravel, which must be worked well aud completely ; 
you can then throw stoues into tliis mixture, of any shape or size, up 
to ten inches in diameter. Form moulds for the walls of the houso 
by fixing boards horizontally against upright standards, which must 
be immovably braced so that they will not yield to the immense pres- 
sure outwards as the material settles ; set the standards ui pairs 
around the building where the walls are to stand, from six to eight 
feet apart, aud so wide tliat the inner space shall form the thickness 
of the wall Into the moulds thus formed throw in the concrcto 
material as fast as you choose, aud the more promiscuously the 
better. In a short tinie the gravel will get as hard as the solid rock. 

Varxish fob Plaster Casts. — White soap and white wax, each J 
oz., water 2 pts., boil together in a clean vessel for a short time. Thia 
varnish is to be applied when cold with a soft brush. 

The Bronzing of Plaster Casts is effected by giving them a 
coat of oil or size varnish, and wh.en this is nearly dry, applying with 
a dabber of cotton or a camel-hair pencil any of the metallic bronze 
powders ; or the powder may be placed in a little bag of muslin, and 
dusted over the surface, and afterwards finished with a wad of linen. 
The surface must be afterwards varnished. 

StJESTiTCTE FOB Plasteb OP Paris. — Bcst whiting, 2 lbs. ; 
glue, 1 lb. ; linseed oil, 1 lb. Heat all together, and stir thoroughly. 
Let the compound cool, and then lay it on a stone covered with 
powdered wliiting, and heat it well till it becomes of a tough and 
firm consistence ; tlien put it by for use, covering with wet cloths to 
keq) it fresh. When wanted for use, it must be cut in pieces adapted 
to the size of the mould, into which it is forced by a screw press. 
The ornament may be fixed to the wall, picture-frame, &c., with glue 
or white lead. It becomes in time as hard as stone itself. 

Modelling Clay. — Knead dry clay with glycerine instead cf 
•water, aud a mass is obtained which remains moist aud plastic for a 
considerable time, being a great convenience to tho modeller. 



WATCHMAKERS, JEWELLERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 30? 

Roman Cemknt.— Drift sand, 94 parts ; unslaked lime, 12 lbs. f 
and 4 lbs. of the poorest cheese grated ; mix well ; add hot (not boil- 
ing) -water to reduce to a proper consistence for plastering. Work 
well and quick with a thin smooth coat. 

To Polish Plaster of Paris work.— The addition of 1 or 2 per 
cent, of many salts, such as alum, sulphate of potash, or borax, 
confers upon gypsum the property of setting slowly in a mass capable 
of receiving a very liigh polish. 

To make Plaster of Paris as hard as Marble. — The plaster 
is put in a drum, turning liorizontally on its axis, and steam admitted 
from a steam boiler : by this means the plaster is made to absorb in 
a short space of time the desired quantity of moisture, wliich can be 
regulated with great in-ecision. The plaster thus prepared is filled 
into suitable moulds ; and the whole submitted to the action of an 
hydraulic press : when taken out of the moulds, the articles arc 
ready for use, and will be foimd as hard as marble, and will take a 
polish like it. 

To take a Plaster of Paris Cast from a Person's Face. — 
The person must lie on his back, and his hair be tied behind ; into each 
nostril put a conical piece of paper, open at each end, to allow of 
breathing. The face is to be lightly oiled over, and the plaster, being 
properly prepared, is to be poured over the face, taking particular 
care that the eyes are shut, till it is a quarter of an inch thick. In a 
few minutes the plaster may be removed. In this a mould is to ba 
formed, from which a second cast is to be taken, that will furnish 
casta exactly like the original. 




WATCHMAKERS, JEWELLERS AND GILDERS' 
RECEIPTS, TABLES, &c. 

On Watch Cleaning. — The greatest care is necessary in taking 
the watch down, and separating its parts. First, remove' tlie hands 
carefully, so as not to bend the slight pivots on which they work, next, 
remove the movement from the case, and take off the dial and dial 
wlieels; next, let down the main spring by placing your bench key 
upon the arbor, or winding post, and turnuig as though you wero 



308 "WATCnMAKERS, JEWELLERS', &C., EECEIPTS. 

going to -wind the watch tmtil the click rests lightly upon the ratchet; 
then with your screw-driver press the point of the click away from 
the teeth and e^asedown the springs; next, draw the screws, or pins, 
and remove tlie bridges of the train or the upper plate, as tho 
case may Ire, next, remove the balance with tlic greatest care to avoid 
injuring the hair spring. Tlic stud or small post into which the hair 
spring is fastened may be removed from the bridge or plate of most 
modern watches without uukeying the spring, by slipping a thin in- 
strument, like the edge of a blade knife, mider the comer of it and 
prying upward, this will save much trouble, <as you will not have tho 
nair-spring to adjust when you reset the balance. If the watch uiK)n 
wliich you propose to work has an npjier plate, as an American or an 
English lever for instance, loosen the lever before you have entirely 
separated the plates, otherwise it will hang and probably be broken. 
The watch being now taken apart, brush the dust away from its dif- 
ferent parts, and subject tliem to a careful examination with your 
eye-glass. Assure yourself the teeth of the wheels and leaves of tlie 
piuions are all perfect and smooth ; that the pivots are all straight, 
round, and highly polished; that the holes through which they are to 
work are not too large, and liave not become oval in shape ; that every 
jewel is smooth and perfectly soimd ; and that none of them are loose 
in their settings. See also that tlie escapement is not too deep or too 
shallow ; that the lever or cylinder is perfect; tliat all the wheels have 
sufficient play to avoid friction, but not enough to derange their 
coming together properly; that none of them work against the pillar- 
plate; that the balance turns horizontally and does not rub: that the 
hair-spring is not bent or wrongly set so that the coils rub on each other 
on the plate, or on the balance; in short, that evers'tliing about tho 
whole movement is just as reason would teach you it should be. If 
you find it otherwise, proceed to repair in accordance with a carefully 
weighed judgment and the processes given iu this chapter, after which 
clean ; if not, the watch only needs to bo cleaned, and, therefore, you 
may go on with your worlc at once. 

To Clean. — f lie best process is to simply Wow your breath upon 
tho plate or bridge to be cleaned, and tlieu to use your brush witli a 
little prepared chalk. The wheels and bridges should be held between 
the thumb and finger in a piece of soft paper wliile luidergoiug the pro- 
cess; otherwise the oil from the skin will prevent their becoming 
clean. The piuions may be cleaned by siulong them several times 
into a piece of pith, and the holes by turning a nicely shaped piece oE 
pivot wood into them, first drj-, and afterwards oiled'a very little with 
watch oil. AMien the holes pass through jewels, you must work 
gently to avoid breaking them. 

The " Chemic.vl Puocess." — Some watchmakers employ what 
they call the " Chemical Process " to clean and remove discoloration 
from watch movements. It is as follows : — 

Remove the screws and other steel parts ; then dampen with a 
solution of oxalic acid and water. Let it remain a few minutes, after 
which immerse in a solution made of one-fourth ix)und cy.anuret pot- 
assa to one gallon rainwater. Let remain about five minutes, and 
then rinse well with clean water, after which you may dry in sawdust, 
or with a brush and prepared clialk, as suits your convenience. Tliia 
gives the work an excellent appearance. 



■\VATCUMAKERS, JEWELLERS', &C., RECEIl'TS. 309 

To pRKrARK Chaxtc for Cleaxtng. — PulvorizG your clialk tlioi- 
onglily, and thcu mLx it vitli clear jaiu Trater iu tlie proportion to 
two pounds to the gallon. Stir well, and tlicu let stand about two 
minutes. In this time the gritty matter will have settled to the bot- 
tom. Pour the water into another vessel slowly so as not to stir up 
the settlings. Let stiind until entirely settled, and then pour off as 
before. The settlings in the second vessel will be your prepared 
chalk, ready for use as soon as dried. Spanish whiting, treated in 
tlio same way, makes a very good cleaning or polishing powder. 
Some operatives add a little jeweller's rouge, and we think it an im- 
provement ; it gives the powder a nice color at least, and therefore 
adds to its importjiuce in tlie eyes of the uninitiated. In cases where 
a sharper polishing powder is required, it may bo prepared in tho 
eame way from rotten-stone. 

Pivot "Wood. — ^AVatchraakcrs usually buy this article of watch- 
material dealers. A small shrub kjiown as Indian arrow-wood, to bo 
met with in the northern and western states, makes an excellent 
pivot wood. It must be cut when the sap is down, and split into quar- 
ters so as to throw the pith outside of the rod. 

Pith for Cleaning. — The stalk of the common mullen affords 
the best pith for cleaning pinions. Winter, when tho stalk is dry, is 
the time to gather it. Some use cork instead of pith, but it is 
inferior 

To Pivot. — When you find a pivot broken, you will hardly bo at u 
loss to understand that tlie easiest mode of repairing the damage is to 
drill into the end of the pinion or staff, as the case maybe, aud^iaviug 
inserted a new pivot, turn it down to the proper proportions. This is 
by no means a difficult thing when the piece to bo drilled is not too 
hard, or when tho temper may bo slightly drawn without injury to 
the other parts of the article. 

To TELL WHEN THE LeVER IS OF PROPER LENGTH. — ^YOU may 

readily learn whether or not a lover is of proper Icugth, by measur- 
ing from the guard point to the pallet staff, and then comparing with 
the roller or ruby-pin table ; the diameter of the table should always 
be just half the length measured on the lever. Tho rule will work 
both ways, and may be useful iu cases where a new ruby-pin table 
has to bo supplied. 

To change Depth of Le\t:r Escapejient. — If you are opera- 
ting on a fine watch, the best plan is to put a new staff into the lever, 
cutting its pivots <i little to one side, just as far as you desire to 
change the escapement. Common watches will not, of course, justify 
so much trouble. The usual process in their case is to knock out the 
staff, and with a small file cut the hole oblong in a direction opposite 
to that in which you desire to move your pallets : then replace the 
staff, wedge it to the required position, and secure by soft soldering. 
In instances where the staff is put in Avith a screw, you will have to 
proceed differently. Talco out the staff, pry the ]iallcts from the 
lever, file tho pin holes to slant in the direction you would move the 
]iallets, without changing their size on the other side of the lever. 
Connect the pieces as they were before, and, with the lever resting on 
some solid substance, you may strike lightly with your hammer 
until the bending of the pins wUl allow the pallets to i^ass into posi- 
tion. 



310 "V7ATCnMAKEES, JEWELLEKS", AC, RECEIPTS. 

CojiTEifsATioK Balance of CaRONorETERS. — The balance ia a 
email piece of steel covered with a hoojj of brass. The rim, cousistiiig 
of the two metals, is divided at the two extremities, the one diamet- 
rical arm of the balance, so that the increase of tcmjierature which 
weakens the balance springs contract, iu a proportionate degree, 
the diameter of the balince, le;iving the spring less resistance to 
overcome. This occurs from tlie brass expanding much more by 
heat than steel, and it therefore curls the semicircular arcs inwards, 
an action that will be immediately understood, if we conceive tlio 
compound bar of steel to be straight, as the heat would render the 
brass side longer and convex, and in the balance it renders it more 
cur\-ed. In the compensation balance, the two metals are united as 
follows : the disk of steel when turned and pierced with a central hole 
is fixed by a little screw-bolt and nut at the bottom of a small cru- 
cible, with a central elevation smaller than the disk ; the brass is 
now melted and the whole allowed to cool. The crucible is broken, 
the excess of brass is turned off in the lathe, the arms are nojida 
with the file as usual, the rim is tapped to receive the compensation 
screws or weights, and, Lastly, the lioop is divided iu two places at 
the opposite ends of its diametrical arm. The balance springs of 
marine chronometers, which are in the form of a screw, are wound 
into the square thread of a screw of the appropriate diameter and 
coarseness ; the two ends of the spring are retained by side screws, 
and the whole is carefully enveloped iu platinum foil, and lightly 
boimd with wire. The mass is next heated in a piece of gun barrel 
closed at one end, and plunged into oil, which hardens the spruig 
almost without discoloring it, owing to the exclusion of the air by 
the close platmum covering, which is now removed, and the spring is 
let down to the blue before removal from the screwed block. The 
balance or hair spring of common watches are frequently left soft, 
those of the best watches are hardened iu the coil upon a plain 
cylinder and are then curled into the spiral form between the edge 
of a blimt knife and the thumb, the same as in curlinjj up a narrow 
ribbon or paper, or the filaments of an ostrich featlier. The soft 
springs are worth GO cents each, those hardened and tempered §1.26 
each. This raises the value of the steel ; originally less than 4 
cents, to 82000 and $8000 respectively. It takes 3200 balance springs 
to weigh an oimce. 

Watch Spring JIanufactttre. — WaLch springs are hammered 
out of round steel wire, of suitable diameter imtil they fill the gauge, 
for width, which at tlie same time insures equality of thickness. 
The holes are pmiched in their extremities, and they are trimmed 
on the edge witli a smooth file. The springs are then tied up with 
binding wire, in a loose open coil and heated over a charcoal firo 
upon a perforated revolving plate. They are hardened iu oil and 
blazed off. The spruig is now distended in a long metal frame, simi- 
lar to that used for a saw blade, and ground and polished with 
emery and oil between lead blocks. By this time its elasticity appears 
quite lost, and it may be bent in any direction ; its elasticity is, lioxv- 
ever, entirely restored by a subsequent hammering on a verj' bright 
anvil which puts the " nature into tlie spring." The coloring is done 
over a flat plate of iron, or hood, under which a small spirit lamp 
is kept burning ; the sirring is continually drawn backward and 



WATCHMAKERS, JEWELLERS', AC, RECEIPTS. 311 

forward, about two or three iuchcs at a time, rmtil it assumes tlio 
orauge or deep blue tiut tliroughout, accordiug to the taste of the 
purchaser. By mauy the coloring is considered to be a mxitter of 
omameut and" not essential. The last process is to coil the spring 
into the spiral form, that it may enter tlie barrel in which it is to bo 
contained. This is done by a tool with a small axis and winch 
handles, and does not require heat. 

To TELL, WHEN Lever Pallets akk op rnorER Size. — Tlio 
clear space between the pallets should correspond with the outside 
measure, on the pouits of three teeth of the sciipe wheel. The usual 
mode of measuring for new jxiUets is to set the wheel as close as pos- 
sible to free its self when in motion. You can arrange it hi your dei)- 
tliing tool, alter which the measurement between the pivot holes of 
the two pieces, on the jjillar plate, will show y«u exactly what is re- 
quired. 

To lengthen Levers of Anchor-escapesient ■Watciies with- 
out Hamjieking or Soldering.— Cut square across with a screw- 
head file, a little back from the point above the fork, and, when you 
have thus cut into it to a sufficient depth, bend forward the desired 
distance the piece thus partially detached. In the event of the piece 
Bnapping off while bending — which, however, rarely happens — file 
down the point level with the fork, and insert a pin English lever 
style. 

To TEJtPER Case and other Sprincs op Watches. — Draw tho 
temper from the spring, and fit it properly in its place in the watch ; 
tlien take it out aud temper it hard in rain-water (the addition of a 
Uttle table-salt to the water will be an improvement) ; after which 
place it in a small sheet-iron ladle or cup, and barely cover it with lin- 
BCed-oil ; then hold the ladle over a lighted lamp until the oil ignites, 
let it bum until the oil is nearly, not quite consumed ; then re-cover 
with oil and burn down as before ; and so a third time ; at the end of 
which, iilimge it agam into water. Main and hair springs may, iu 
lilce manner, be tempered by the same process; first draw the temper, 
and properly coil and clamp to keep it in position, and tlicu proceed 
the same as with case-springs. 

To JiAiCE Red Watch Hands.— 1 cz. cannine, 1 oz. muriate of 
silver, ^ oz. of tinner's Japan ; mix together iu an earthen vessel, and 
hold over a spirit-lamp until formed into a paste. Apply this to 
the watch hand, and then lay it on a copper plate, face side un, 
and heat the plate sufficiently to produce the color desired. 

To Drill into Hard Steel. — Make your drill oval in form, in- 
stead of the usual j)ointed shape, and temper as hard as it will bear 
without breaking; then roughen the surface where you desire to drill 
witli a little diluted muriatic acid, and, instead of oil, use turpentine 
or kerosene, in which a little gum camphor has been dissolved with 
your drUl. In operating, keep the pressure on your drill firm aud 
steady ; and if the bottom of the hole should chance to become bur- 
nished that the drill will not act, as sometimes happens, again roughen 
with dilated acid as before; then clean out the hole carefully, aud 
proceed again. 

To Put Teeth in Watch or Clock Wheels without Dove- 
tailing OR Soldering. — Drill a hole somewhat wider than tho 
tooth, square through the pkite, a little below the base of the tooth j 



312 "WATCnJIAKERS, JEWKLLEES', &C., KECEIPTS. 

cut from the edge of the •wheel square do-vni to the hole already drill- 
ed ; then flatten a piece of wire so as to fit snugly into tlie cut of tho 
saw, and with a liglit hammer form a head on it like the head of a 
pin. When thus prepared, press the wire or pin into possession in 
tlie wheel, tlie head filling the hole drilled through tlie plate, and the 
projecting out so as to form the tooth ; then with a shaii>pointed 
gi-aver cut a small groove each side of the pin from the edge of tho 
wheel down to the hole, and with a blow of your hammer spread tlie 
face of the pin so as to fill tlie grooves just cut. Repeat the same oj)- 
cratiou on the other side of the w heel, and finish off in the usual 
way. The tooth will be found perfectly riveted in on every side, and 
as strong as the original one, wliile in appearance it will be equal to 
the best dovetailing. 

To Case-harden Irox. — ^If you desire to harden to any consider- 
able depth, put the article into a crucible witli cyanide of potash, 
cover over and heat altogether, then plunge into water. This process 
will harden perfectly to the deptli of one or two inches. 

To TIGHTEN A CANXON PiXlON ON THE CENTRE ArBOR WHEK 

TOO LOOSE. — Grasp the arbor lightly -with a pair of cutting nippers, 
and, by a single turn of the nippers around the arbor, cut or raise a 
small thread tliereou. 

To Frost Watch Mo\t;3IENts. — Sink that part of the article to be 
frosted for a short time in a compound of nitric acid, muriatic acid, 
and table salt, one ounce of each. On remo%"ing from the acid, iilace 
it in a shallow vessel containing enough sour beer to merely cover it, 
then with a fine scratch brush scour tliorouglily, letting it remain 
under the beer during the operation. Next wa.sh off, liist in pure 
water and then in alcoliol. Gild or silver in accordance with any 
recipe in tlie plating department. 

KlEE for determining THE CORRECT DiAMETEB OP A PlNION 
BY MEASURING TeETH OF THE WhEEL THAT MATCHES INTO IT. — 

The tenn full, as used below, indicates full measure from outside to 
outside of the teeth named, and the term centre, the measure from 
centre of one tooth to centre of the otlier tooth named, inclusive. 

Tor diameter of a pinion of 15 leaves measure, with calipers, a 
shade less than 6 teeth of the wheel, full. 

Tor diameter of a pinion of 14 leaves measure, with calipers, a shade 
less than G teeth of the wheel, centre. 

For diameter of a pinion of 12 leaves measure, with calipers. 5 teeth 
of the wheel, centre. 

For diameter of a i)inion of 10 leaves measure, with calipers, 4 teeth 
of the wlieel, full. 

For diameter of a pinion of 9 leaves measure, with calipers, a little 
less tlian 4 teeth of the wheel, full. 

For diameter of a pinion of 8 leaves measure, with calipers, a little 
less than 4 teeth of the wheel, centre. 

For diameter of a pinion of 7 leaves measure, with calipers, a little 
less than 3 teeth of the wheel, /«//. 

For diameter of a pinion of G leaves measure, with calipers, 3 teeth 
of the wheel, centre. 

For diameter of a i^inion of 5 lejives measure, with calii^ers, Z teeth 
of the wheel, centre. 

As a general rule, i>inion6 tliat lead, as in the hour wheel, should 



■VyATCHilAKERS, JEWELLERS', &C., RliCEIPTS. 313 

bo somcTrliat larger tlian tliose that drive, and pinions of clocksi 
should generally be somewliat larger proportioually thau tliose of 
watches. 

Tor diameter of a pinion of 4 leaves measure, ■with calipers, od« 
half of one space over 2 teeth of the wheel, full. 

To Polish Wheels rERFECXLr -without ixjurv. — Take a flat 
hurnishiug file, warm it over a spirit lamp, and coat it lightly with 
lx;eswax. When cold, wipe off as much of the wax as can be readily 
removed, and with your file thus prepared, iKjlish the wheel, resting 
the wheel while polishing on a piece of cork. The finish produced 
Avill be quite eqiud to the finest buff polish, while tliere will be no 
clogghig, and the edges of the arms and teeth will remain perfectly 
square. 

SaKDOZ' JfETHOD OF PRODrCIN'G ISOCHnOXTS.-M IN FlAT AND 

Bkeguet SriiiNGs. — Isochronism, from the Greek, meaning equal 
time, is the property possessed by the pendulum and the hair spring 
to accomplish their arcs of vibratiou of different amplitudes in the 
*ame space of time. In a pendulum, the only condition required is 
that its length be such as to make the centre of gravity move accord- 
ing to the cycloid curve; but m the hair spring the means change 
with the forms effected by tlie spring. In the spherical or conical 
springs, the extreme curves constructed after the mathematical rules 
discovered by Prof. Phillipps, of the Polytechnic School of Paris, 
, wiU produce an Isochronism very nearly perfect. In the flat spring, 
these curves caimot exist, therefore other means must be resorted to. 
I shall give now the results of several years of experiment and study, 
wliich can be embodied in the two following theorems : 

1. Ill the flat sprinr/, even/ coil has theoretically a jwint where the 
vibrations are Isochronal. 2. That point of Isochronism is determined 
hy the relative position of the two jwints connecting the hair spring 
tvith the collet and stud, called Points d' attache. 

These two propositions form tlie base of Isochronism in the flat 
Fliring; therefore the idea generally accredited among watchmakers 
that the Isochronal properties of a ilat spring depend on its length m 
incorrect, since the 10th as well as the 20th coil of the spring is able 
to produce the Isochronism, the only limit being such sizes of springs 
that would prevent the perfect freedom of its action. 

Freedom of action being necessary for the Isochronal properties of 
the spring to develop themselves, the spring must be bent to the 
centre, according to Fig. II. — the first coil being too near or the curve 
too flat, so that even a minute part of the spring could touch the 
collet, would Imider the Isochronism. Next, the spring must be 
]unned perfectly tight hi the collet and stud, and move freely between 
the regulator pins. 

These conditions fulfilled, the watch is run 3, Gor 12 hours with just 
Fkenglh enough to keep it going; the result is compared witli a regu- 
lator and set down. Next, the watch is fully wound up, and after 
a space of time equal to the first trial, the result is again set down. 
Jlost generally the watch will run slower in the short vibrations than 
iu the wide ones, and consequently lose time in the pocket in the last 
twelve hours of its running. Having set down as a principle that every 
coil has an Isochronal point, we have now to determine that point, re- 
membering that as a general ride, every increase of lenjth of the 



311 WATCHMAKERS, JETTELLEKS', <tC., RECEIPTS. 

spring over iliat point, icill cause the icatch to rjain in tlie sliort vibra- 
tions, and eveiTi decrease hack oftliat point will cause it to fjain in the 
wide vibrations. This rule is correct only for certain limits, as I am 
going to explain. Supposing that a hair spring of 15 coils is per- 
fectly Isochronal vrith ihe t\ro points d' attache just opiX)site each 
other, as shoAvn in Fig. III., the Mth and tlie 16th coil, as -vveU as the 
15th, wiU x)roduce the Isochronism very nearly at the same point. 
Siipiwsing that we increase gradually the length of tliat hair spring 
of 15 coils, pLniied up so that the tvro points d' attache are primitively 
opixjsite each other — so that its length tcill now be 15^ coils — the two 
points d' attache are now in the position shown in Fi^. IV., or what is 
called pinned to the half coil. The result will be thju the hair spring 
win Cxiusc the watch to gain in the short vibrations as much as it is in 
its power to do. 

But if we go further than the half coil, we now enter the ground 
that belongs to tlie IGth coil, and every increase of length in tliat half 
coil will cause the hair spring to lose m the short vibrations, in the 
same proportion that it has beeu gaining in increasuig the length of the 
first half. That change will continue until we reach the same point 
on the 16th coil that we sUirted from on the 15th., the two pins op- 
iwsite each other; at chat jxiint we sliall have again the Isochronism. 
The same operation is applicable to the 14th coil, with the same re- 
sults. 

Now it is immaterial whether we take that half coil to the centre, or 
to the outside of the spring, because both of these operations will pro- 
duce the same results, viz. , the change of the relative places of the 
points d'aitache of the spring. Therefore the artist has his choice, 
and is guided by the size of the spring and tlie weight of the balance; 
for tiilving half a coU to the centre of the spring will not much affect 
the rate of the watch, but taken outside, the difference will be great. 
On the other hand, a very short cut to the centre will greatly affect 
the Isochronism, and at the outside, a full half-coil wiU generally 
produce from 15 to 25" difference in 24 hours. If then the watch- 
maker would produce the greatest possible changes of Isochronism in 
a watcli, the change of position of the two points d'attache of the 
spring of one coil around, will give him the two highest degrees of 
gaining and losing in the short vibrations. 

It follows from the following pa^es, that if a watch loses in the last 
nmning (short %-ibrations), the first thing to do is to increase the 
length of the hair spring from the outside; if the result is better, but 
not yet good, give still more length ; if the result is worse, it shows 
that you are too far on the coil. Take back the whole length that 
vou had given in the first operation, and draw more length, so as to 
affect the spring the other way; or if your spring is already small or 
your balance pretty heavy, cut to the centre so as to come around to 
the required positions. 

Some springs cannot produce the Isochronism ; this comes from a 
defect in making the spring, or a want of homogeniety in the metal ; 
tlie only remedy is a new spring. 

In the Bregiiet Spring, the Isochronism is produced in the same 
manner as the flat springiugs, but great care must be taken in making 
tlie curve, for if it is not made m conformity to the principle of Phil- 
lijips, the Isochronism will be disturbed. 



WATCHMAKERS, JEWELLKRS/ &C., RECEIPTS. 313 

For instance, in Fig. V., the spring being pinned in A, and the 
watch losing 7" in the last 12 hours (short vib.), I first increase tho 
length of the hair spring to the point B ; but as I am already on tho 
ground belonging to the losing action, the result will be an increased 
Joss of time in the last running. I then go back to the point A, and 
moreover pin the spring to C, and then I shall approximate Isochrou- 
ism. However, in most cases the increase of length will make tho 
watch gain in its last running. 



Pig. n. 




Fig. IV 



Adjustments to Positions.— This adjustment is Icnown to but 
few watchmakers, and they make it a regular business. It requires 
of the operator considerable manual skill and reflective powers. The 



TTATCnMAKERS, JEWELLERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 317 

great iirinciple is to equalize the frictions, so that the pivots will offer 
to the actiou of the spring the same resistance in tlie four positions 

feuerally required, viz., dial up, XII up, cock up and III up. After 
aving inspected and corrected the t)aiu so tliat the motive power is 
transmitted uniformly to the balance, the pivots and jewels of tho 
lever should he polished and shortened so as to have very little fric- 
tion; next, the lever should be poised as nearly perfect as possible, 
and the slot also in the fork where the ruby pin acts should be 

Eolished. The balance jewels ought to be made short enough to 
ave the holes square, rounded inside, and perfectly polished, tho 
balance pivots well burnished and their ends half rounded, and tlio 
balance poised very carefully. The English method of throwing the 
balance out of poise to obtain the same rate in different iiositions is 
not accepted generally, and is considered a bad practice by the most 
eminent watchmakers. The hair spring is put in its position without 
the balance, and bent so that the collet and the cock jewel will have 
the same centres. The watch beuig now in good running order, is 
put under trial for 12 or 24 hours, and the rate in each position care- 
fully noted. If there is any difference in the running with the cock 
up, or dial up, making the ends of the pivots even and equally well 
polished will remove the discrei^ancy. If the watch loses with XII 
up, winch is generally the case, and the friction on the balauce jewels 
being reduced as much as possible, the remedy is to increase tho 
friction when the watch is either dial or cock up. This is done by 
throioinrj (he hair spriiif/ a little out of the centre of the cock jcioel, 
thereby adding to the friction on the pivot end, a lateral ])ressuro 
against the balance jewels. If the watch is well regulated with XII 
up, and loses with III up, throw the spring a little toioards the fi'jure 
III ; this operation lifts up the balance when the watch is in losing 
position and diminishes the friction of the pivots in that jjarticular 
case. Making the ends of the pivots perfectly Hat has a tendency to 
make the watch gain with dial or cock up. The sound of the Avatch 
must bo clear in all positions, else it indicates a friction, as for instance 
rough jewels or pivots, safety pin rubbuig against the roller, etc. 

How TO liEGULATE A WaTCII IN a FEW MiNUTES, AND A TrACTI- 
CAL METHOr TO PUT A NEW IIAIU SpRING, OF THE RIGHT SIZE AND 

Perfectly Regulated in a Watch without Uunning It. — First, 
ascertiiiu how many vibrations the watch beats in one muiute, by 
counting every other vibration and comparing that time with a well- 
regulated watch or regulator. In general, Swiss watches beat 18,000 
in one hour, viz., 300 in one minute; American watches, either 18,000 
cither 1G,200, or 270 per minute; and tho English levers, 14,400, or 
240 per minute. If there is any doubt, it is better to count up leaves 
and teeth, and ascertain the right inimber • but these cases are scarce 
Avliere watches will beat odd numbers. 

Having found out the right number, examine tiie oalauce carefully 
for one or two minutes, counting every vibration going from rifilit to 
left, and in the mean time examining the regulator or clock, to see 
when one minute is up. If the watch is well regulated, the number 
of vibrations must be exactly half of the regular first number, viz., 
150. 135, or 120, as only every other vibration has been recorded to 
facilitate the observation. If not so, move the regulator, right or 
Ifiit, until a perfect coincidence comes. 



318 WATCHMAKERS, JEWETLERS', AC, RECEIPTS. 

To pick up a new hair sprin» after having recorded the right num- 
ber of beats — either by the old hair gpring or by the numbers of the 
train — lay first the spring with its centre well in the centre of the cock 
jewel, and having ascertained where the coil will enter between tho 
pins of the regulator, note the place. Stick to the pivot of the balance 
a small round piece of beeswax; then stick it to tlie centre of the 
spring, so as to establish a temporary but firm connection of the two 
pieces, and having pinched with tlie tweezers the liair spring to tho 
place indicated by the regulator pins, cause it to vibrato gently; tlien 
count up the vibrations for one minute, and when you liavc got a 
spring that will produce nearly the required number of bents, pin it 
to the collet, and cause it again to vibrate, moving the tweezers for- 
ward and backward, until the riglit number of beats is produced; 
with another pair of tweezers, pinch the hair spring about one-eiglitli 
of an inch back of the regulating point, so as to counterbalance tho 
gain produced by the regulator pins, and bend slightly the wire, 
which is the place where the hair spring must be pinned to the stud. 
Having tlien trued up the spring, proceed to put tlie regulator to the 
right place, by using the way indicated in the beginning of this article, 
and tlie work is done. Success is certain, when the oi^eration has 
been carefully performed. The balance must be made to vibrate on 
eome hard and Avell polished substance, so as to keep up the vibra- 
tion to about the standard of regular running. A little practice will 
soon enable the watchmaker to change a liair spruig very quick, 
and without any trouble whatever. 

Of Cojipensatiok. — A most accurate way of counterbalancing 
effects produced on the running of watches by different temperatures, 
is the csrijansion balance, formed of two concentric rings, one in- 
terior, of .steel, and one exterior, of bra.ss, joined together by hard 
soldering or smelting. The general proportion of these two metals is 
one part of steel, two of brass. Tlie stronger dilation of brass, causes 
the rim of the balance to head inwardly when the heat, increasing, 
diminishes the strength of the hair spring; the greater contraction 
bends the rim outwardly when cold comes to increase the rigidity of 
the spring's coils. Pushing forward or backward the screws of the 
rim will affect the compensating powers of the balance, by causing 
their weight to be more active as they come nearer the end of the cut 
arm. The thinner and higlier the rim, the greater the action. A few 
trials will bring the balance to compensate the effect of temperature 
from 30° to 100° Fahrenheit For extreme temperatures another 
compensation, called mixilianj, is used, but only in ship chronome- 
ters. A soft spring wUl be less affected bj' changes of temperature 
than a hardened one ; this affords a way to compensate certain bal- 
ances, wliere otherwise new ones would have to be used. A precau- 
tion to observe in compensating is to make the screws go freely on tlie 
balance, and not screw them too tight, else the action of the rim not 
bemg free, a good compensation could not be attained, iintil the com- 
bined actions of dilation and contraction of the rini have freed the 
screws. 

For watchmakers who would want to compensate a watch without 
ha-ving an expansion bahince, I give the following process, which I 
liave successfully used : After having cut off the greater part of the 
regulator's arm, another arm is to be fitted with a screw on the rim 



WATCHMAKERS, JEWELLERS*, &C., RECEIPTS. 319 

of the regulator, bo as to revolve freely around that screw as an axis. 
The pins are put in tlie same position as on the old arm. A ring, of 
two parts of brass and one of steel, is tlien fastened to one end on 
that movable arm, and tlie other end is screwed at any convenient 
place, either on the regulator itself, or on the cock. See Fig. 1. By 
placing the whole ring on the regulator, the latter may be moved as 
ui any otlier watch, the ring opening or shutting itself under the 
changes of temperature, will push backward and forward the regu- 
lator pins, and so effect the compensation which is to be regulated by 
•varjring either the proportion of brass and steel, or the size of tho 

To try the running of the watches, a common refrigerator is nsed 
to produce tlie low temperature, and tlien an apparatus, self-regula- 
ting, will produce the high temperature. It is commonly a square 
box of tin or copper, hermetically closed, under which is a gas burner. 
A compensating arm of the form of a U, made of brass and steel, is 
fastened inside the box, and is connected by a string with a lever at- 
tached to the key of the burner, and acts so that at the high temper- 
ature, say 100° Fah., the gas is nearly shut off, the compensating 
arm gradually releasing itself and consequently lettmg out more gas 
when the heat diminishes inside the box. Use steel pins to secure 
spring to collet and stud. 

To MAKE Polishing Bno aches. — These are usually made of ivory, 
and used with diamond dust, loose, instead of having been driven in. 
You oil the broach lightly, dip it into the finest diamond dust, and 
proceed to work it into the jewel tlie same as you do the brass 
broach. Unfortunately, too many watchmakers fail to attacli suffi- 
cient importance to the polishing broach. Tlie sluggish motion of 
watches now-a-days is more often attributable to rough jewels than 
to any other cause. 

To Polish Steel. — Take crocus of oxide of tin and graduate it in 
in the same way as in preparing diamond dust, and apply it to the 
steel by means of a piece of soft iron or bell metal, made jiroper form, 
and prepared with flour of emery, same as for pivot burnishers; use 
the coarsest of tho crocus first, and finish off with the finest. To iron 
or soft steel a better finish may be given by burnishing than can be 
imparted by the use of polishing powder of any kind whatever. The 
German Method of Polishing Steel is performed by tlie use of crocus 
on a buff wheel. Nothing can exceed the suqiassing beauty imparted 
to steel or even cast iron by this process. 

Crocus Powder for Polishing. — Chloride of sodium and sul- 
phate of iron are well mixed in a mortar. The mixture is then put 
into a shallow crucible aud exposed to a red heat ; vapor escapes 
and the mass fuses. When no more vapor escapes, remove the 
crucible and let it oool. The color of the oxide of iron produced, 
if the fire has been properly regulated, is a fine violet ; if the heat 
has been too high it becomes black. The mass when cold is to be 
powdered and washed, to separate the sulphate of soda. Tlie 
powder of crocus is tlien to be submitted to a process of careful 
elutriation, and the finer particles reserved for tlie more delicate 
work. An excellent powder for applying to razor strops is made 
by igniting together in a crucible, equal parts of well dried green 
vitrol and common salt. The heat must bo slowly raised and well 



320 "WATCHMAKEKS, JEWELLKRS', &C., KECEIPTS. 

regulated, otherwise the materials will boil over in a pasty state, 
and be lost. When well made, out of contact with air, it has tho 
brilliant aspect of black lead. It requires to be groimd and elutri- 
ated, after which it alTords, on dryhig, an impalpable powder, that 
may be either applied on a strop of smooth buff leather, or mixed 
up with hog's lard or tallow into a stiff cerate. 

To Remove Rust FEOM Irox OR Steel, &c.— For cleaning pur- 
poses, &c., kerosene oil or benzine are probably the best things 
known. When articles have become pitted by rust, however, ther^e 
can of course, only be removed bj' mechanical means, such as scour- 
ing with fine powder, or flour of emery and oil, or with ven,^ fine 
emery paper. To prevent steel from rusting, rub it with a mixture of 
lime and oil, or with mercurial ointment, either of which will bo 
found valuable. 

To Make Burxisiters. — Proceed the same as in making pivot files, 
■\7ith the exception that you are to use fine flour of emery on a slip of 
oiled brass or copper, instead of the emery paper. Burnishers which 
have become too smooth may be improved vastly with tho flour of 
emery as above without drawing the temper. 

To Prepare a Burxi-sher for Poli.siiixg. — Melt a little bees- 
wax on the face of your burnisher. Its effect then on brass or other 
finer metals, will be equal to the best buff. A small burnisher pre- 
pared in this way is the very thing with which to polish up watch 
wheels. Rest them on a piece of pith while polishing. 

Rules for Detekmixixg the Correct Length of the LE^^vR, 
SIZE OF Ruby-pix Table, size of the Pallets, axd depth of 
Escapement of Lever Watches. — A lever, from the guard point to 
the pallet staff, should correspond in length with twice the diameter 
of the ruby-pin table, and wlien a table is accidentiilly lost, the cor- 
rect size tlfereof may be known by measuring half the length of tho 
lever between the points above named. For correct size of pallet, tho 
clear space between tlie pallets sliould coirespond with tho outside 
measure on the points of three teeth of the esc^apement wheel. Tlie 
only rule that can be given, without the use of diagrams, for correct 
deptli of the escapements, is to set it as close as it will bear, and still 
free itself perfectly when in motion. This may be done by first 
jilaciug the escapement in your depthing tool, and then setting it to 
the correct deptn. Tlien by measuring the distance between tho 
pivots of the lever staff and escapement wheel, as now set, and the 
corresponding pivot holes in the watch, you detennine coiTCCtly how 
much the depth of the escapement requires to be altered. 

To Pre^Tint Watches losixg Tijie fro^i Action of Pendulum 
Spring. — Pin the pendulum sprmg into the stud, so that that xiart, 
the part of the eye immediately emerging from the collet, and the 
centre of the collet, are in a line; then you will have the spring pin- 
ned in, in equal tenns, as it is called by those who are versed in tlie 
liigher branches of springing. Bring the watch to time by adding to 
or'tiking from the balance, and iwise it; try the watch with the 13 
upfor 2 hours, then with the C up for 2 hours, then lying down for 
the .same time ; the trials here described will be sufficient if tho 
watch has seconds; keep the curb ]m\ close so as to allow the spring 
only a little play; the vibration of the balance should be 1.^ turn or 
li lying. 



WATCHMAKERS, JEWELLERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 321 
LIST OF TRAIXS OF WATCHES. 

BHOWIXO THE NUMBKR OP TUETH IN THE WHEELS, LEAVES IN THE 

riKIONS BEATS IN A MINUTE, AND TIME THE FOURTH 

WHEEL REVOLVES IN. 

Trains, for Seven Teetb lu the Escapement TVbeel. 



No. of 
Teeth 
in the 
Centre 
Wheel. 




Leaves 




Leaves 


Teeth 
lathe 
Escape- 
ment 
Wheel. 


Leaves 
In the 




No. ot' 


Teeth In 


in 3d 


Teeth In 


in Ml 


Escape- 


No. of Boats In 


the 4tli 


3d Wheel. 


Wheel 


1th Wheel 


Wheel 


ment 




Wheel 




rinlon. 




Pinion. 


Wheel 
Pinion. 




revol- 
ves In. 


72 


66 


6 


68 


6 


7 


6 


208— 


2/ 


66 


64 


6 


64 


6 


/ 


6 


292-U 


3L 


66 


64 


6 


63 


6 


7 


6 


287+ 


31 


66 


63 


6 


63 


6 


t 


6 


283— 


81 


66 


€3 


6 


62 


6 


1 


6 


278+ 


31 


66 


'.;-3 


6 


61 


6 


7 


6 


274- 


31 


6G 


65 


6 


60 


6 


1 


6 


269+ 


31 



Trains, for Nino Teeth In the Escapement Wheel. 



63 
66 
63 
66 
63 
66 
63 
66 
63 
66 
63 



60 


6 


57 


6 


9 


6 


60 


6 


64 


6 


9 


6 


60 


6 


56 


6 


9 


6 


60 


6 


63 


6 


9 


6 


60 


6 


55 


fi 


9 


6 


60 


6 


52 


6 


9 


6 


60 


6 


64 


6 


9 


6 


61 


6 


51 


6 


9 


6 


GO 


6 


53 


6 


9 


6 


60 


6 


50 


6 


9 


6 


60 


6 


52 


6 


9 


6 



299+ 

297 

291 

291+ 

289— 

2S6 

283+ 

280+ 

278+ 

275 

273 



31 
33 
34 
33 
34 
3^3 
34 
3J 
34 

3r 

31 



Trains, ftor Eleven Teeth In the Escapement Wheel. 



60 


60 


6 


49 


6 


11 


6 


30i>— 


36 


CO 


51 


6 


64 


6 


11 


6 


297 


40 


GO 


56 


6 


52 


6 


11 





230— 


30 


6i 


62 


6 


52 


6 


11 


6 


294— 


30 


68 


56 


6 


53 


6 


11 


6 


292+ 


40 


60 


64 


6 


53 


6 


11 


6 


291+ 


40 


62 


54 


6 


51 


6 


11 


6 


290- 


3t) 


68 


54 


6 


51 


6 


11 


6 


287+ 


41 


63 


65 


6 


53 


6 


11 


6 


287 


41 


69 


51 


6 


53 


6 


11 


6 


286+ 


41 


60 


51 


6 


52 


6 


11 


6 


280 


40 


60 


65 


6 


61 


6 


11 


G 


286- 


3.'» 


61 


55 


6 


50 


6 


11 


6 


285— 


39 


63 


65 


6 


48 


6 


11 


6 


282+ 


33 


69 


54 


6 


52 


6 


11 


6 


281+ 


41 


GO 


54 


6 


51 


6 


11 


6 


281+ 


40 


61 


51 


6 


50 


6 


11 


6 


280— 


SD 


66 


61 


6 


51 


6 


11 


6 


277- 


4.3 


60 


60 


6 


48 


6 


11 


6 


293-- 
295-- 


«•? 


62 


64 


6 


52 


6 


11 


6 


3) 


63 


64 


6 


50 


6 


n 


6 


289— 


33 


63 


48 


6 


56 


6 


11 


6 


287+ 


43 


70 


70 


7 


56 


7 


11 


1 


293+ 


m 


70 


70 


7 


48 


1 


11 


6 


293-1- 


3'3 


70 


60 


7 


48 


6 


11 


6 


2934- 


36 



21 



322 WATCnilAKERS, JEWELLEBS', AC, RECEIPTS. 



Ko. of 




Lcares 




Leares 


Teeth 
i-a the 
Escape- 


Leaves 
in the 


i 


.NlO. of 

Second* 


Teeth 


Teeth in 


in 3d 


Teothin 


in 4th 


Escape- 


So. ot Bests in 


tho 4tli 


In tho 


3d Wheel. 


Wheel 


ith Wheel 


Wheel 


ment 


one Mlnuto, 


Wheel 


Centre 
VhecL 




Pinion. 




Pinion. 


ment 
Wheel. 


■Wheel 
PiniotL 




rcTOl- 
T03in. 


60 


70 


6 


48 


7 


11 


6 


293+ 


36 


63 


50 


6 


66 


7 


11 


6 


287+ 


40 


63 


63 . 


6 


60 


7 


n 


6 


289— 


33 


80 


80 


8 


64 


8 


11 


8 


293-H 


36 


80 


80 


8 


66 


8 


11 


7 


293-h 


86 


80 


80 


8 


48 


8 


lU 


6 


293-t- 


SC 


80 


70 


8 


66 


7 


11 


7 


293-1- 


35 


80 


70 


8 


48 


7 


11 


6 


293+ 


3i 


80 


60 


•8 


48 





11 


6 


293+ 


35 


70 


*0 


7 


56 


8 


11 


7 


293+ 


aj 


70 


80 


7 


48 


8 


11 


6 


293+ 


35 


60 


80 


6 


48 


8 


11 


6 


293+ 


3i 


84 


72 


8 


60 


8 


11 


6 


289— 


38 


84 


63 


8 


50 


7 


11 


6 


289— 


33 


84 


54 


8 


60 


6 


11 


6 


289— 


33 


63 


72 


6 


60 


8 


n 


6 


289- 


33 


63 


63 


6 


50 


7 


11 


6 


289- 


38 


84 


04 


8 


50 


8 


11 


6 


287+ 


40 


81 


56 


8 


56 


7 


11 


6 


287+ 


40 


84 


48 


8 


5'3 


6 


11 


6 


287+ 


40 


C3 


64 


6 


56 


8 


11 


6 


287+ 


40 


C3 


50 


6 


53 


7 


11 


6 


287+ 


40 



Trains, for Thirteen Teeth In the Escapement "Wheel. 



64 


b^i 





52 


6 


13 


6 


298+ 


45 


65 


53 


6 


50 


6 


13 


6 


293- 


44 


59 


51 


6 


49 


6 


13 


6 


296— 


43 


6) 


51 


6 


48 


6 


13 


6 


294+ 


42 


54 


53 


6 


61 


6 


IS- 


6 


293- 


45 


60 


53 


6 


49 


6 


IS 


6 


292- 


44 


66 


54 


6 


48 


6 


13 


6 


291 + 


44 


67 


63 


6 


48 


6 


13 


6 


291— 


43 


64 


62 


6 


51 


6 


13 


6 


2874- 


46 


64 


43 


6 


50 


6 


13 


6 


2S7+ 


45 


60 


51 


6 


60 


6 


13 


6 


286+ 


45 


61 


62 


6 


60 


6 


13 


6 


282— 


46 


CQ 


61 


6 


49 


6 


13 


6 


281- 


45 


67 


51 


6 


48 


6 


13 


6 


280— 


44 


62 


52 


6 


51 





13 


6 


277- 


48 


63 


52 


6 


50 


6 


13 


6 


270+ 


4« 


f,i 


52 


6 


52 


6 


13 


6 


293- 


46 


65 


51 


6 


61 


6 


13 





287 


44 


5») 


50 


6 


61 


6 


13 


6 


233+ 


in 


M 


52 


6 


43 


6 


13 


6 


280+ 


44 


56 


52 


6 


50 


6 


13 


6 


292+ 


44 


CO 


48 


6 


48 


6 


13 


6 


277+ 


45 


CO 


50 


6 


43 


6 


13 


6 


289- 


43 


00 


54 


6 


60 


8 


13 


6 


292+ 


65 


GO 


58 


7 


56 


7 


13 


6 


287+ 


61 


60 


60 


8 


54 


6 


13 


6 


300 


44 


62 


56 


7 


66 


7 


13 


6 


2f'+ 


47 


63 


52 


7 


61 


6 


13 


6 


285 


60 


63 


00 


7 


60 


7 


13 


6 


290 


60 


64 


&) 


7 


60 


7 


13 


6 


285 


60 


72 


70 


8 


68 


8 


13 


c 


280 


60 


Tl 


-GH ■ 


-8- 


_«8- 


— ^ 


13 . 


,6_. 


_-j^a+„ 


.,. sa 



■u;4TCinrAKF.RS, jewf.llkrs', &c., keceipts. 323 



Trains, for Fifteen Teetli In the Escapement Wlieel. 


Uo.of 
Toeth 
In the 
Centre 
Wheel. 




Leaves 




LeaT9S 


Teeth 
iu the 
Escape- 
ment 
Wheel. 


Lt'ttvei 
in the 




Jio. bi 


Teeth la 


inSd 


Teelh In 


in 4th 


Escape- 


No. of Bents Iii 


tlio itll 


3d ^Vheel 


Wheel 


4th Wheel 


■Wheel 


ment 


ona Minute. 


Wheel 




Pinion. 




Pinion. 


Wheel 
Pinion. 




revcl- 
yes in. 


64 


~0 


6 


48 


6 


~T5~~ 


6 


286 


48 


58 


4S 


6 


40 


6 


15 


6 


200 


CO 


48 


45 


6 


59 


6 


15 


6 


291— 


60 


48 


45 


6 


58 


6 


15 


6 


300 


62 


43 


45 


6 


57 


6 


15 


6 


288 


62 


48 


45 


6 


56 


6 


15 


6 


288 


50 


56 


48 


6 


46 


6 


15 


6 


289— 


60 


68 


C6 


7 


56 


7 


15 


7 


288 


50 


60 


66 


8 


58 


7 


15 


6 


288 


50 


62 


00 


8 


60 


8 


15 


6 


288 


CO 


72 


64 


8 


50 


8 


15 


6 


288 


50 


72 


64 


8 


56 


8 


15 


7 


288 


60 


72 


64 


8 


64 


8 


15 


8 


288 


50 


62 


50 


6 


48 


6 


15 


6 


288 


50 


6t 


48 


6 


48 


6 


15 


6 


288 


50 


72 


64 


8 


48 


8 


16 


6 


283 


60 


7'* 


80 


8 


64 


10 


15 


8 


288 


CO 


72 


80 


8 


56 


10 


15 


7 


£88 


50 


72 


80 


8 


48 


10 


15 


6 


288 


60 


C3 


80 


7 


64 


10 


15 


8 


288 


50 


63 


80 


7 


56 


10 


15 


7 


£88 


50 


€3 


8:1 


7 


48 


10 


15 


6 


288 


CO 



Trains, for Seventeen Tcctli in the £i:Bcapeiuont Wliecl. 



64 


80 


8 


48 


10 


17 


6 


i 299+ 


1 53 


64 


48 


6 


44 


6 


17 


6 


1 299+ 


5) 


61 


48 


6 


45 


6 


n 


6 


1 295+ 


63 


64 


48 


6 


43 


6 


17 


6 


292+ 


50 


48 


43 


6 


4^ 


6 


17 





1 290+ 


53 


61 


48 


6 


45 


6 


17 


6 


1 £89 


53 


64 


43 


6 


42 


6 


17 


6 


£36- 


53 


48 


48 


6 


47 


6 


n 


6 


1 £84+ 


63 


61 


48 


6 


44 


C 


17 


6 


£83— 


53 


48 


48 


6 


45 


6 


17 


6 


278 


53 


48 


48 


6 


45 


6 


17 


6 


272 


53 


frl 


04 


8 


64 


8 


17 


8 


290+ 


50 


72 


64 


8 


56 


8 


17 


8 


2S6- 


50 


64 


64 


8 


60 


8 


17 


8 


289— 


63 


60 


56 


7 


66 


7 


17 


7 


290+ 


63 


63 


56 


7 


49 


7 


17 


7 


286- 


60 


64 


56 


8 


48 


7 


17 


6 


290+ 


53 


80 


80 


10 


64 


10 


17 


8 


290+ 


53 


80 


64 


10 


04 


8 


17 


8 


290+ 


53 


80 


64 


10 


56 


8 


17 


7 


290+ 


6J 


80 


64 


10 


43 


8 


17 


6 


290+ 1 


53 


8J 


66 


10 


53 


7 


17 


7 


290+ 


63 


80 


60 


1) 


48 


7 


17 


6 


290 + 


53 


64 


80 


8 


64 


10 


17 


8 


290+ 


53 


64 


80 


8 1 


56 


10 1 


17 


7 


290 + 


63 



To Remove Soft Solder from Gold. — Place the work iu spirits 
of salts, or remove as mucli ag possible with ihe scraper, using a 
gentle heat to enable you to get oti' the solder more easilj. ' Very 
useful to be known where Bard eoWering is required, either iu 
bright or colored work. 



324 WATCHMAKERS, JEWELLERS', &C., RECEIPTS. 





rralna 


,'for Third Wheel and Patent Seconds 




No. of 
tCeeth 




Leares 




LeaTos 


Teeth 
In the 
Escape- 
ment 
WhecL 


Loaves 
in the 




:io. of 
Second* 


Teeth In 


in 3d 


Teeth In 


in *th 


Escape- 


No, of Beats In 


the 4th 


Ccntro 
Wheel 


2i Wheel. 


Wheel 
rinion. 


4th^Vhcel 


Wheel 

Piaiou. 


ment 
Wheel 
Tinicn. 


one Uinute. 


Wheel 
revol- 
ves In. 


60 


72 


C 


CO 


12 




6 


200 


6) 


60 


60 


6 


CO 


10 




6 


300 


60 


60 


48 


6 


CO 


8 




6 


30 


CO 


48 


GO 


6 


60 


8 




G 


300 


60 


60 


72 


6 


Gl 


12 




C 


270 


60 


€0 


GO 


C 


C4 


10 




C 


270 


CO 


48 


CO 


6 


54 


8 




G 


270 


CO 


60 


72 


6 


43 


12 




G 


240 


CO 


60 


CO 


G 


48 


10 




6 


240 


CO 


48 


CO 


6 


48 


8 




6 


240 


CO 



Trains, for Fourth TVlicel Second** Avlth Eleven Teeth 
iu the Escapement AVIiecI. 



48 


46 


C 


71 


6 




C 


ijijo-r 


60 


48 


45 


6 


74 


6 




6 


271 + 


60 


48 


45 


6 


76 


6 




6 


279- 


60 


48 


45 


6 


78 


6 




G 


2813 


60 


60- 


49 


7 


74 


7 




6 


271f 


60 


60 


49 


7 


70 


7 




6 


279- 


60 


GO 


49 


7 


78 


7 




G 


280 


6J 


45 


56 


C 


74 


7 


11 





271-1- 


60 


45 


56 


6 


7G 


7 




6 


279- 


60 


45 


5G 


6 


73 


7 




6 


283 


60 


64 


GO 


8 


71 


8 




6 


271-i- 


6J 


64 


CO 


8 


76 


8 




5 


279- 


6J 


64 


CO 


8 


78 


8 




6 


236 


60 


CO 


56 


8 


74 


/ 




6 


271+ 


CO 


CO 


66 


8 


76 


1 




6 


279- 


CO