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> 



HARVARD COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




FROM THE LIBRARY OF 

WILLIAM LAMBERT RICHARDSON 

A.B. 1864, M J>. 1867 
OF BOSTON 




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THE UNIVERSAL CYCLOP/EDIA 

VOLUME XII 



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THE 



UNIVERSAL CYCLOPAEDIA 



H "Hew EMtion 

PREPARED BY A LARGE CORPS OF EDITORS, ASSISTED 
BY EMINENT EUROPEAN AND AMERICAN SPECIALISTS 



UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

CHARLES KENDALL ADAMS, LL D. 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN 

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF 



ILLUSTRATED WITH MAPS, PLANS, COLORED PLATES, AND ENGRAVINGS 



COMPLETE IN TWELVE VOLUMES 

Vol. XII 



NEW YORK 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 



A. J. JOHNSON COMPANY 
1900 



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&f c H J- ^ 



HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY 

BEQUEST OF 

DR. WILLIAM L RICHARDSON 

FEBRUARY 24, 1S33 



Coptrioht, 1877, 
By A. J. JOHNSON. 

Copyright, 1877, 
By ALVIN J. JOHNSON. 

Copyright, 1886, 1889, 
By A. J. JOHNSON AND COMPANY. 

Copyright, 1895, 1896, 1897, 1899, 
By A. J. JOHNSON COMPANY. 



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ORGANIZATION OF THE STAFF. 



EDITOR- IS- CHIEF. 
CHARLES KENDALL ADAMS, LL. D., 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN, 

History, Polities, and Education. 

MAXAGISG EDITOR, 
ROBERT LILLEY, D.C.L., M.R.A.S., 

ONE Or THE EDITORS Or THE CENTURY DICTIONARY. 



ASSOCIATE EDITORS. 



Liberty H. Bailey, M.S., 

Professor of Horticulture, Cornell University. 
Agriculture, Horticulture, Forestry, etc. 

Willis J. Beecher. D. D m 

Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature, 
Auburn Theolo* ical Seminary. 
Presbyterian Church History, Doctrine, etc 

Henry A. Beers, A. M., 

Professor of English Literature, Yale University. 
"English Literature, etc 

Charles E. Bessey. Ph. D., 

Professor of Botany. State University of Nebraska. 
Botany, Vegetable Physiology, etc. 

Dudley Buck, 

Composer and Organist. Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Music, Theory of Harmony, Musical Terms, etc. 

Francis M. Burdick, A. M., LL. D., 

Dwight Professor of Law, Columbia College, New 
York. 
Municipal, Civil, and Constitutional Law. 

George P. Fisher, I). D., LL. D., 

Professor of Church History, Yale University. 
Congregational Church History, Doctrine, etc 

Grove K. Gilbert, A. M„ 

Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey. 
Physical Geography, Geology, and Palaeontology. 

Basil L. Gildersleeve, LL. D„ 

Professor of Greek, Johns Hopkins University. 
Grecian and Roman Literature. 

Arthur T. Hadley, A. M., 

"Professor of Political Economy, Yale University. 
Political Economy, Finance, and Transportation. 

Mark W. Harrington, A. M., F. L. S., 

Ex-Chief of the U. S. Weather Bureau. 
Geography, Meteorology, Climatology, etc 

William T. Harris, LL. D., D. Sc., 

U. S. Commissioner of Education, and 

J. Mark Baldwin, Ph. D., 

Professor of Experimental Psychology, Princeton 
University. 
Philosophy, Psychology, Ethics, etc. 

John F. Hurst, D. D., LL. D., Bishop (M. E.), 

Chancellor American University. Washington. 
Methodist Church History, Doctrine, etc 

Samuel Macauley Jackson, D. D„ LL. D., 

Professor of Church History. New York University, 
and associate editor of the Schaff-Herzog Encyclo- 
pedia. New York. 
General Church History and Biblical Literature. 

Henry E. Jacobs. D. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Systematic Theology. Evangelical Lu- 
theran Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa 
Lutheran Church History, Doctrine, etc 

David S. Jordan, LL. D., 

President Leland Stanford Junior University. 
Zoology, Comparative Anatomy, and Animal Physi- 
ology. 



John J. Keane. D. D., LL. D., Bishop (R. C), 

Kx- Rector of the Catholic University of America. 
Roman Catholic Church History, Doctrine, etc 

Charles Kirchhoff, M. E., 

Editor of the Iron Age, New York. 
Mining Engineering, Mineralogy, and Metallurgy. 

Stephen B. Luce, 

Rear Admiral, U. 8. Navy. 
Naval Affairs, Naval Construction, Navigation, etc 

Arthur R. Marsh, A. M., 

Professor of Comparative Literature, Harvard Uni- 
versity. 
Foreign Literature, etc 

James Mercur, 

Professor of Military Engineering, West Point Mili- 
tary Academy. 
Military Engineering, Science and Munitions of War, 
etc 

Mansfield Merriman. 0. E.. Ph. D.. 

Professor of Civil Engineering, Lehigh University. 
Civil Engineering, etc 

Simon Newcomb. LL. D.. M. X. A. S., 

Editor of the U. S. Nautical Almanac. 
Astronomy and Mathematics. 

Edward L. Nichols, Ph. D., 

Professor of Physics. Cornell University. 
Physics, Electricity and its Applications. 

William Pepper, M. D., LL. I)., 

Ex-Provost of the University of Pennsylvania. 
Medicine, Surgery, and Collateral Sciences. 

William S. Perry, D. D. Oxon., LL. D., Bishop (P. E.), 
Davenport, Iowa. 
Episcopal Church History, Doctrine, etc 

John W. Powell, 

Director of the U. S. Bureau of Ethnology. 
American Archaeology and Ethnology. 

Ira Remsen, M. D., Ph. I)., LL. D., 

Professor of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University. 
Chemistry and its Applications, etc 

Russell Sturois. A.M., Ph.D., F.A.I. A., 

Ex- President Architectural League of New York. 
Archaeology and Art. 

Robert H. Thurston, Doc. Eng., LL. D„ 

Director of Sibley College, Cornell University. 
Mechanical Science 

Benjamin Ide Wheeler, Ph.D., 

Professor of Greek and Comparative Philology, Cor- 
nell University. 
Comparative Philology, Linguistics, etc 

William H. Whitsitt, D. D., 

Professor of Church History. Baptist Theological 
Seminary, Louisville. Ky. 
Baptist Church History, Doctrine, etc 

Theodore S. Woolsey, A. M., 

Professor of International Law, Yale University. 
Public Law, Intercourse of Nations. 



ASSISTAXT TO THE EDITOR-IX- CHIEF. 
CHARLES H. THURBER, A.M., 

ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR OF PEDAGOGY, CHICAGO UNIVERSITY, AND DEAN OF MORGAN PARE ACADEMY. 

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THE UNIVERSAL CYCLOPAEDIA. 

CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS. 



Abbe, Cleveland, M. A., Ph. D., LL. D., 

U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. ; author of 
Solar Spots and Terrestrial Temperature ; Atmos- 
pheric Radiation ; A Treatise on Meteorological Ap- 
paratus ; Preparatory Studies for Deductive Methods 
in Meteorology ; etc. 

Abbot, Henry Larcom, LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Colonel U. S. Engineers ; brevet brigadier-general U. S. 
army, New York. 

Abbott, Alexander C, M. D., 

First Assistant in Hygiene, University of Pennsylvania, 
Department of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Adam, Graeme Mercer, New York, 

Formerly editor Canadian Monthly ; author of Canada 
from Sea to Sea ; The Canadian Northtoest ; Toronto, 
Old and New ; etc 

Adams, Charles Kendall, LL. D., 

President of the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. ; 
author of Democracy and Monarchy in France ; 
Manual of Ilistorical Literature ; Christopher Co- 
lumbus, his Life and Work ; etc. 

Adams. Cyrus C, 

Editorial staff of New York Sun ; President of Depart- 
ment of Geography, Brooklyn Institute, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

Adams, Frederic, A. B., LL. B., 

Lawyer, Newark, N. J. 
Adams, Henry C, Ph. D., 

Professor of Political Economy and Finance, University 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Adams, Col. J. W., 

Civil and hydraulic engineer, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Alden, Edmund Kimball, A. M., 

Professor of History, Packer Collegiate Institute, Brook- 
lyn, N. Y. 

Alexander, Joseph H., 

Cashier, Union Savings-bank, St Charles, Mo. 

Alger, Philip R., 

Professor of Mathematics, Bureau of Ordnance, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Alger, Rev. William Rounseville, A. M., 

Author of A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Fu- 
ture Life, etc. ; Boston, Mass. 

Allen, Chari.es H., 

Formerly principal of State Normal School, San Jos6, 
Cal. 

Allen, Frederic Sturges, A. B., LL. B., 

Member of the New York Bar, New York ; one of the 
editors of Webstw's International Dictionary. 

Allen, Frederick De Forest, Ph. D., 

Professor of Classical Philology, Harvard University. 



Allen, Timothy Field, M. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics, New 
York Homoeopathic Medical College and Hospital, 
New York. 

Ames, James Barr, A. M., 

Bussev Professor of Law, Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Ames, Joseph S., Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Physics and sub-director of 
Physical Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Bal- 
timore, Md. 

Anderson, George H., 

Superintendent of the Chamber of Commerce, Pitts- 
burg, Pa. 

Anderson, Hon. Rasmus B., 

Formerly Professor of Scandinavian Languages and 
Literature, University of Wisconsin; ex-U. S. min- 
ister to Denmark; author of Norse Mythology ; The 
Younger Edda ; Viking Tales of the North ; Echoes 
from Mist-Land ; etc. 

Andrews, Elisha B. f D. D m LL. D., 

President of Brown University, Providence, R. I. 

Andrews, Newton Lloyd, Ph. D., LL. D., 

Professor of the Greek Language and Literature and 
Dean of the Faculty, Colgate University, Hamilton, 

Andrews, Rev. Samuel J., D.D., Hartford, Conn., 
Author of The Life of Our* Lord upon Earth, 

Angell, James B., LL. D„ 

President of Michigan University, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Anthony, Susan Brownell, 

President National American Woman Suffrage Asso- 
ciation, Rochester, N. Y. 

Armstrong, Samuel T., M. D., Ph. D., 

One of the collaborators of Foster's Encyclopaedic Med- 
ical Dictionary, and editor of an American Appendix 
to Quain's Dictionary of Medicine. 

Ashhurst. John, Jr., A. M„ M. D., 

John Rhea Barton Professor of Surgery and Professor 
of Clinical Surgery in the University of Pennsylvania 
Department of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Atherton, George W., A. M., LL. D„ 

President of Pennsylvania State College, Centre Co., Pa. 

Atterbury, William W., D. D., 

Secretary of the New York Sabbath Committee, New 
York. 

Atwood, Isaac M m D. D., 

President of the Canton Theological School, St. Law- 
rence University, Canton, N. \ . 



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CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



Babcook, Stephen M., Ph. D., 

Professor of Agricultural Chemistry and chief chemist 
to the Experiment Station, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison t Wis. 

Bacon, Edwin M., A. M., 

Journalist, Boston, Mass, 
Bacone, A. C, A. M., 

President of Indian University, Muscogee, Indian Ter- 
ritory. 

Bailey, Liberty H., M. S., 

Professor of General and Experimental Horticulture, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. ; editor of American 
Gardening, and author of Annals of Horticulture : 
Nursery-book or Handbook of Plant Propagation 
and Pollination ; etc 

Baibd, William Raimond, 

Attorney and counselor at law, New York. 
Baker, George P., Jr., A. B., 

Instructor in English, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Baker, Ira Osborn, C. E., 

Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Illinois, 
Champaign, 111. 

Baldwin, J. Mark, Ph. D„ 

Stuart Professor of Experimental Psychology, Prince- 
ton University, Princeton, N. J.; co-editor Psycho- 
logical Review, and author of Handbook of Psychol- 
ogy, etc. 

Barnes, Earl, M. S., 

Professor of Education and secretary of the faculty, 
Leland Stanford Junior University, Palo Alto, CaL 

Barr, John H., M. S., M. M. E., 

Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Barrett, Jay Amos, A. M., 

Assistant secretary and librarian of Nebraska State 
Historical Society, Lincoln, Xeb. 

Barton, Clara, « 

President of the American National Red Cross, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Bashford, Rev. James W., Ph. D., D. D., 

President of Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, 0. 

Bassett, H. F., 

Librarian Silas Bronson Library, Waterbury, Conn. 
Bassett, Rev. James, 

Formerly Presbyterian missionary in Persia; now pas- 
tor in Middle Island, Long Island, N. Y. 

Battaile, J. F., 

Associate editor Commercial' Herald, Vicksburg, Miss. 
Battle, Kemp P., A. M., LL. D., 

Professor of History, University of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, N. C. 

Beach, 0. B., 

With R. Hoe & Co., printing-press manufacturers, New 
York. 

Beadle, William H. H., LL. D., 

President of the State Normal School, Madison, S. Dak. 
Bean, Tarleton H., M. D., M. S., 

Assistant-in-charge, Division of Fish-culture, U. S. Fish 
Commission, and honorary curator of the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Beardshear, W. M., LL. D., 

President of Iowa Agricultural College, Ames, la. 
Beaver, W. J., of Roe & Beaver, San Bernardino, CaL 
Bedell, Frederic, Ph. D., 

Assistant Professor of Physics, Cornell University, Ith- 
aca, N. Y. 



Beecher, Willis J., D. D., 

Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature, Auburn 
Theological Seminary, Auburn, N. Y. 

Beers, Henry A., A. M., 

Professor of English Literature, Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn. ; author of An Outline Sketch of Eng- 
lish Literature ; A Century of American Literature ; 
The Thankless Muse ; etc. 

Belknap, Lieut.-Com. Charles, U. S. navy, 

Head of Department of Mechanics and Applied Mathe- 
matics, U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

Bell, Alexander Melville, 

Author of Visible Speech and Universal Alphabetic*, 
etc. ; Washington, 1). C. 

Bellamy, Edward, 

Author of Looking Backward. 
Bemis, Edward W., 

University Extension Associate Professor of Political 
Economy and secretary of the Training Department, 
University of Chicago. 

Bendelari, George, A. M., 

Late Assistant Professor of Modern Languages, Yale 
Universitv; Instructor in History, Harvard Univer- 
sity, Cambridge, Mass. 

Benjamin, Marcus, Ph. D., F. C. S., 

Editorial staff of the Standard Dictionary, and of The 
Annual Cyclopaedia, New York. 

Bennett, Charles E., A. B., 

Professor of Latin, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Berri, William, 

Carpet merchant, Brooklyn, N. Y., and editor of The 
Carpet and Upholstery Trade Review, New York. 

Bessey, Charles E., Ph. D., 

Professor of Botany and Horticulture, Universitv of 
Nebraska, Lincoln, Neb. ; author of Botany for high 
Schools and Colleges, etc. 

Betts, Rev. Beverley R., A. M., 

Former librarian of Columbia College, New York. 

Bezzenberger, Adalbert, Ph. D., 

Professor of Comparative Philology, University of 
Konigsberg, Prussia. 

Bigelow, Frank H., A. M., 

Professor of Meteorology, U. S. Weather Bureau, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Billings, John S., M. D., LL. D., 

Director of New York Public Library (Astor, Lenox, 
Tilden foundation); ex-Professor of Hygiene, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; and 
ex-Superintendent of the Army Medical Museum, 
Washington, D. C. ; author of The National Medi- 
cal Dictionary ; Principles of Ventilation and Heat- 
ing; etc. 

Birch, Walter de Gray, 

Assistant to the keeper of Oriental MSS. and printed 
books in British Museum, Loudon, England. 

Bird, Rev. Frederic M., 

Hymnologist; editor of Lippincoffs Magazine; for- 
merly Professor of Psychology, Christian Evidences, 
and Rhetoric, Lehigh University, So. Bethlehem, Pa. 

Birge, Edward Asahel, Ph. D., 

Professor of Zoology and Dean of the College of Letters 
and Science, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Bishop, Mrs. Emily M., 

Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Bishop, Frank S., A. B., LL. B., 

Lawyer, New Haven, Conn. 
Black, Charles E. D., 

Late geographer to the India Office. London, England. 
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CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



IX 



Blackmar, Prof. P. W., Ph.D., 

Professor of History in the University of Kansas, Law- 
rence, Kan. 

Blake, William P., A. M., Ph. B., 

Geologist and mining engineer, Shullsburg, Wis. ; for- 
merly Professor of Mineralogy and Geologv, College 
of California, Oakland, Cal. ; author of Silver Ores 
and Silver Mines ; Iron and Steel ; Ceramic Art and 
Glass; etc 

Bland, Richard P., 

Ex-Member of Congress from Missouri. 

Bliss, Rev. Edwin Munsell, 

Editorial staff of The Independent, New York ; author 
of A Cyclopaedia of Missions. 

Bloomfield, Maurice, Ph. D., 

Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Blunt, Capt. Stanhope E., U. S. army, 

Watervliet Arsenal, Watervliet, N. Y. 
Booth-Tucker, R. de L., 

Commander of the Salvation Army in the U. S, ; New 
York. 

BOSBVSHELL, 0. C, 

Late Superintendent U. S. Mint, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Bowles, Capt. Francis Tiffany, 

Naval constructor, U. S. N. 
Boyesen, Hjalmar H., Ph. D., 

Professor of the Germanic Languages and Literatures, 
Columbia College, New York. 

Brabeook, Edward W., P. S. A., 

Chief Registrar of Friendly Societies, London, Eng- 
land. 

Brandt, Hermann Carl George, A. M., Ph. D M 

Professor of the German and French Languages, and 
Philology, Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. 

Breckinridge, Hon. William C. P., 

Ex-Member of Congress ; Lexington, Ky. 

Brialmont, Gen. Alexis Henri, 

Engineer and military writer; lieutenant-general (re- 
tired) Belgian army ; Brussels, Belgium. 

Briggs, Rev. Charles A., D. D M 

Edward Robinson Professor of Biblical Theology, Union 
Theological Seminary, New York. 

Brinkerhoff, Roeliff, 

Chairman of Board of State Charities, Mansfield, 0. 
Brinton, Daniel G., M. D., 

Professor of American Archaeology and Linguistics, 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. ; author 
of The Myths of the New World ; Races and Peoples ; 
The Library of Aboriginal American Literature ; etc. 

Brockunier, Wilbur C, A. M., 

Manufacturer, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Brooks, Lieut John C. W., U. S. army, 

First lieutenant, Fourth Artillery, Fort Adams, New- 
port, R. I. 

Brooks, William M., A. M., D. D., 

President of Tabor College, Tabor, la. 
Brown, Thomas E., Jr., 

Consulting engineer, New York. 

Browne, William Hand, M. D., 

Professor of English Literature, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, Baltimore, Md. 

Bruce, Gen. Dwight H., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Bruff, Capt. Lawrence L., U. S. army, 

Ordnance Department, Washington, D. C. 



Brusie, Charles Frederick, A. M., 

M'llvaine Professor of the English Language and 
Literature, Kenyon College, Gam bier, 0, 

Bryan, William L., Ph. D., 

Professor of Philosophy and vice-president, Indiana 
University, Bloomington, Ind. 

Buck, Carl Darling, Ph. D., 

Assistant Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Phi- 
lology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IU. 

Buck, Dudley, 

Composer and organist, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Buek, G. H., 

Of G. H. Buek & Co., lithographers, New York. 

Burdick, Charles W., 

Secretary of State, Wyoming ; Cheyenne, Wyo. 

Burdick, Francis M., A. M., LL. B., LL. D., 

Dwight Professor of Law, School of Law, Columbia 
College, New York. 

Burgess, John W., Ph. D. f LL. D., 

Professor of History, Political Science, and Constitu- 
tional Law and Dean of the Faculty of Political Sci- 
ence, Columbia College, New York. 

Burnham, William Henry, Ph. D., 

Instructor in Pedagogy, Clark University, Worcester, 
Mass. 

Burr, Charles W., M. D., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Burr, George L., A. B., 

Professor of Ancient and Mediaeval History, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Burrill, Thomas Jonathan, A. M., Ph. D., 

Acting Recent, and Professor of Botanv and Horticul- 
ture, University of Illinois, Urbana, ill. 

Burroughs, George S., Ph. D., D. D., 

President of Wabash College, Crawfordsville, Ind. 

Burroughs, John, 

Author of Walt Whitman as Poet and Person, etc. t 
Esopus, N. Y. 

Busbey, Hamilton, 

Editor of Turf, Field, and Farm, New York. 

Bushnell, Rev. Ebenezer, D. D., 

Secretary and Treasurer Board of Trustees, Western 
Reserve University, Cleveland, 0. 

Butler, Nathaniel, D. D., 

President of Colby University, Waterville. Me. ; late Di- 
rector of University Extension, University of Chicago. 

Butler, W. R., 

Principal of the Public High School, Waltham, Mass. 

Byrnes, Thomas, 

Ex-Superintendent of Police, New York. 

Calman, Henry L., 

Secretarv and treasurer Scott Stamp and Coin Com- 
pany, Kew York. 

Calvert, R., 

Secretary of the Board of Trade, La Crosse, Wis. 

Cameron, Henry C, Ph. D., D. D., 

Clerk of the Faculty and Professor of Greek Language 
and Literature, Princeton University, Princeton, N.J. 

Campbell, John L., 

Treasurer of Washington and Lee University, Lexing- 
ton, Va. 

Canfield, Arthur G., A. M., 

Professor of French Language and Literature, Univer- 



sity of Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 



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CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



Carhart, Henrt S., A.M., 

Professor of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Ar- 
bor, Mich. 

Carpenter, William H., Ph. D., 

Professor of Germanic Philology, Columbia College, 
New York. 

Carter, Franklin, Ph. D., LL. D., 

* President of Williams College, Williamstown, Mass. 

Cattell, James McKeen, M. A., Ph. D., 

Professor of Experimental Psychology, Columbia Col- 
lege, New York. 

Cauthorn, Henry S., attorney-at-law, Vincennes, Ind. 
Chadwick, Rev. John W., D. D., 

Pastor of the Second Unitarian Church, Brooklyn, 



N. Y. ; author of The Faith of Reason ; The Bible 
of To-day ; Belief and Life ; The Man Jesus ; Some 
Aspects of Religion ; etc. 

Chandler, Charles F., Ph. D., LL. D., etc., 

Professor of Chemistry and Medical Jurisprudence, Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons, New York; Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry and Dean of the Faculty of the 
School of Mines, Columbia College, New York. 

Ohaplin, Winfield S., LL. D., 

President of Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. 
Chard£, William D., 

Secretary of the Commercial Exchange, Kansas City, Mo. 

Chase, George, LL. B., 

Dean of the New York Law School, New York, 

Chase, Thomas, Lit. D., LL. D., 

Late President of Haverford College, and Professor of 
Philology and Classical Literature, Haverford, Pa. 

Chatfield-Taylor, Hobart C, Lake Forest, I1L 
Child, Francis J., Ph. D., LL. D., 

Professor of English, Harvard University. 
Church, John A., M. E., 

Author of The Mining Schools of the United States, 
etc. 

Church, William Conant, 

Editor of The Army and Navy Journal, New York. 

Churchill, John W., A. M., 

Jones Professor of Elocution, Andover Theological 
Seminary ; associate editor of The Andover Review, 
Andover, Mass. 

Clark, Charles F., 

President of the Bradstreet Company, New York. 
Clark, Rev. Francis E., D. D., 

Founder and President of the Young People's Society 
of Christian Endeavor; editor of the Golden Rule, 
Boston, Mass. 

Clark, Louis W., 

Designer, Mississippi mills, Wesson, Miss. ; formerly in- 
structor in designing in the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Clark. M. L., 

One of the editors of The Times and News-Letter, 
Westfleld, Mass. 

Clayton, H. Helm, 

Blue Hill Observatory, Hyde Park, Mass. 
Clement, Arthur G., A. M., 

Superintendent New York State Institution for the 
Blind, Batavia, N. Y. 

Clewell, John H., 

Principal of the Salem Female Academy, Salem, N. C. 
Coburn, F. D., 

Secretary Kansas Board of Agriculture, Kansas City, 
Kan. 



Coffin, William A., 

Artist; secretary Society of American Artists, New York. 

Colborn, ex-Judge Edward F., 

Secretary Chamber of Commerce, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Colby, Frank M., A. M., 

Professor of Economics, New York University, and ex- 
lecturer in History, Columbia College, New York. 

Collitz, Hermann, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of German and Teutonic Philology, 
Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Colvin, Col. James A., LL. B., 

Editor of The Paper Trade Journal, New York. 

Comfort, George F., A. M M 

President of the Southern College of Fine Arts, La 
Porte, Tex. 

Comstock, John Henry, B. S., 

Professor of Entomology and General Invertebrate Zo- 
ology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. ; non-resident 
Professor of Entomology, Leland Stanford Junior 
University, Palo Alto, Cal. 

Cook, Albert S., Ph. D., L. H. D., 

Professor of the English Language and Literature, 
Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

Cook, Clarence C, 

Journalist and art critic, New York. 

Cooke, Josiah P., A. M., LL. D., 

Erving Professor of Chemistry and Mineralogy and 
director of Chemical Laboratory, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Coolidge, Archibald Cary, Ph. D M 

Professor of Russian Literature, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Cope, Edward Drinker, Ph. D., M. N. A. S., 

Professor of Mineralogy and Geology, University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. ; editor-in-chief of 
The American Naturalist. 

Corson. Hiram, A. M., LL. D., 

Professor of English Literature, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

Corthell, Elmer Lawrence. C. E., Chicago and New York, 
Author of A History of the Jetties at the Mouth of the 
Mississippi River. 

Coulter, John M., Ph. D., 

President of Lake Forest University, Lake Forest, 111. ; 
formerly President of the University of Indiana, 
Bloom ington, Ind. 

Councilman, W. T., M. D., 

Shattuek Professor of Pathological Anatomy, Medical 
School of Harvard University, Cambridge, "Mass. 

Crane, Thomas F., A. M., 

Professor of the Romance Languages and Literatures, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, V Y. ; author of Italian 
Popular Tales ; Chansons Populaire de la France ; 
La Romantisme Frangais ; etc 

Croes, J. James R m C. E , M. Am. Soc. C. E. and M. Inst C. E., 
Civil and hydraulic engineer, New York. . 

Croly, Mrs. Jane C, 

Founder of Sorosis, and President of the New York 
Women's Press Club, New York. 

Cross, Charles R., B. S., 

Thaver Professor of Physics and director of the Rogers 
Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Boston, Mass. 

Curry, Hon. Jabez L. M., D. D., LL. D., 

Ex-minister to Spain ; general manager of the Peabody 
and the Slater Education Funds, Washington, D. C. 

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CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



Xl 



Curtis, Edward, M. D., 

Emeritus Professor of Materia Medica and Therapeu- 
tics, College of Physicians and Surgeons (Medical De- 
partment, Columbia College), New York. 

Curtis, Rev. Edward Lewis, Ph. D., D. D., 

Holmes Professor of the Hebrew Language and Litera- 
ture, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

Curtiss, Samuel Ives, Ph. D., D. D., 

Professor of Hebrew, Congregational Theological Semi- 
nary, Chicago, 111. ; one of the editors of the Bibli- 
otheca Sacra, and author of The Levitical Priests, etc. 

Curtius, Ernst, Ph. D., M. R. A. S., 

Professor of Classical Archaeology, University of Ber- 
lin, and perpetual secretary of the Academy of 
Sciences, Berlin, Germany ; author of Peloponnesos, 
etc. 

Cushing, Frank Hamilton, 

Ethnologist in the Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, 
D. C. 

Dall. William H., A. M., 

Professor of Paleontology, Wagner Free Institute of 
Science. Philadelphia, Pa. : Palaeontologist, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Dan De Quille, 

Pen-name of William Wright, journalist, Virginia City, 
Nev. 

Davids, T. W. Rhys, Ph. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Pali and Buddhist Literature, University 
College, London, England; secretary Royal Asiatic 
Society, London. 

Davidson, Thomas, A. M., 

Specialist in Literature and Mediaeval Philosophy, New 
York ; author of Rossminxs Philosophical System ; 
Handbook to Dante ; Aristotle and Ancient Educa- 
tional Ideals ; etc. 

Davis, Horace, LL. D., 

Ex-President of the University of California, Berkeley, 
Cal. 

Davis, Robert Means, A. B., LL. B., 

Professor of History, South Carolina College, Columbia, 
S. C. 

Davis, William M., M. E., 

Professor of Physical Geography, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Dawson, Sir John William, LL. D., F. R. S., F. G. S., 

Emeritus Principal, McGill College, Montreal, Canada ; 
author of Acadian Geology : Archaia, or Studies of 
the Cosmogony and Natural History of the Hebreut 
Scriptures ; The Story of the Earth and Man ; The 
Origin of the World ; Modern Ideas of Evolution ; 
etc. 

De Garmo, Charles, Ph. D., 

President of Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pa. ; au- 
thor of Essentials of Method ; Herbart and the Her- 
bartians; etc. 

DelbrCck, Berthold, 

Professor of Comparative Philology and Sanskrit, Uni- 
versity of Jena, Jena, Germany. 

Denison, Henry J., Davenport, Iowa. 
De Vinne, Theodore Low, 

Founder of the De Vinne Press, New York. 
De Vore, Rev. E. A., 

Union Christian College, Merom, Ind. 
Dewey, John, Ph. D., 

Professor of Philosophy, Chicago University, Chicago, 
111. ; editor of The Psychological Review, and author 
of Critical Theory of Ethics, etc. 

Dewey, Melvil, 

Secretary of the Board of Regents of the University of 
the State of New York, Albany, N. Y. 



Dexter, Franklin Bowditch, M. A., 

Author of Biographies of Yale Graduates, Sketch of 
the History of Yale College, etc. ; secretary and as- 
sistant librarian, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

Dickel, Charles W., 

Manager of Dickel's Riding Academy, New York. 
Dickermax, Rev. Lysander, D. D., New York. 
Dillman, Christian Friedrich August, Ph. D., 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Lan- 
guages, University of Berlin, Germany. 

Dixon, James Main, A. M., F. R. S. E., 

Professor of English Literature, Washington Univer- 
sity, St. Louis, Mo.; late Professor of English Litera- 
ture, Imperial University, Japan. 

Dodge, Daniel Kilham, A. M., Ph. D., 

Professor of English Language and Literature, Univer- 
sity of Illinois, Champaign, 111. 

Dodge, Rev. L. V., A. M., 

Professor of Greek, Berea College, Berea, Ky. 

Dole, Hon. Sanford B., 

President of the Republic of Hawaii. 

Dorsey, Rev. J. Owen, 

Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. 

Douglass, Hon. Frederick, 
Ex-U. S. minister to Haiti. 

Downie, Rev. David, D. D., 
Missionary, Nellore, India. 

Dreher, Julius D., A. M., Ph. D., 

President of Roanoke College, Salem, Va. 

Drisler, Henry, A. M., LL. D., 

Jay Professor of Greek and Dean of the Faculty of 
Arts, Columbia College, New York. 

Drown, Thomas M., M. D., LL. D., 

President of Lehigh University, South Bethlehem, Pa. 
Drummond, Hon. Josiah H., LL. D., Portland, Me. 
Dubbs, Rev. Joseph Henry, D. D., 

Professor of Historv and Archaeology, Franklin and 
Marshall College, Lancaster, Pa. 

Dulles, Charles W., M. D., 

Surgeon, Philadelphia, Pa. ; author of What to do in 
Accidents or Poisoning; Accidents and Emergen- 
cies; etc. 

Dunbar, George H., 

Manager Eagle Iron Works, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Dunlap. Robert, 

Hatter, New York. 
Dunning, William A., Ph. D., 

Adjunct Professor of History, Columbia College, New 
York. 

Dunwoody, Maj. Henry Harrison Chase, U. S. army, 
U. S. Signal Corps, Washington, D. C. 

Durand, Edward Dana, A. B., 

Legislative librarian State Library, Albany, N. Y. ; late 
assistant secretary of the American Economic Asso- 
ciation. 
Durand, William Frederick, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Marine Engineering, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Durfee, D. C, 

Newspaper correspondent and author, Gloversville, 
N.Y. 

Durfee, William Franklin, 

Civil and mechanical engineer. West New Brighton, 
Staten Island, N. Y. 

Digitized by VjUUVIc 



Xll 



CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



Durrett, Col. Reuben T., 

Secretary of the Kentucky Historical Society, and 
President of the Filson Club, Louisville, Ky, 

Dwight, James, A. B., M. D., Boston, Mass. 
Dwight, Theodore W., LL. D., 

Late Professor of Municipal Law, Columbia College, 
New York. 

Dwight, William B., A. M., 

Professor of Natural History, Vassar College, Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y. 

Eaton, Dorman B., LL. D., 

Ex-Civil Service Commissioner, New York. 
Eaton, Edward D., D. »., LL. D., 

President and Professor of History, Beloit College, Be- 
loit, Wis. 

Eddy, Mary Baker, 

Founder of Christian Science ; Concord, N. H. 
Edmunds, John, 

Librarian, Mercantile Library, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Edson, Cyrus, M. D., 

Commissioner of the Board of Health, New York. 
Egbert, Seneca, M. D., 

Professor of Hygiene, Medico-Chirurgieal College; lec- 
turer on Hygiene, Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Egleston, Thomas, A. M., E. M., Ph. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Mineralogy and Metallurgy in the School 
of Mines, Columbia College, New Yort. 

Elliot, Orrin L., Ph. D., 

Registrar and president's secretary, Leland Stanford 
Junior University, Palo Alto, Cal. 
Ellis, Alexander J., F. R. S., F. S. A., 

Philologist; author of Essentials of Phonetics; Alpha- 
bet of Nature; Early English Pronunciation; Uni- 
versal Writing and Printing ; etc. 

Emerson, Alfred, A. M., Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Classical Archaeology and curator 
of the Museum of Casts, Cornell University, Ithaca, 
N. Y.; editor of The American Journal of Archae- 
ology. 

Emerson, Oliver Farrar. A. M., Ph. D., 

Assistant Professor of Rhetoric and English Philology, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Ernst, Oswald H m 

Colonel U. S. Engineers : superintendent of U. S. Mili- 
tary Academy, West Point, N. Y. 

Espinasse, Francis, 

Author of Literary Recollections and Sketches, Lanca- 
shire Worthies, etc., London, England. 

Farlow, William G., A. M., M. D., 

Professor of Cryptogamic Botany, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Felkel, H. N., 

Principal of the Institute for the Deaf and Blind, St. 
Augustine, Fla. 

Fell, Thomas, Ph. D., LL. D., 

President of St. John's College, Annapolis, Md. 
Felton, Thomas C, A. B., 

Member of the American branch of the English Society 
for Psychical Research ; Boston, Mass. 

Fernow, Bernhard E., 

Chief of the Division of Forestry, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Ficklen, John R., 

Professor of History and Political Economy, Tulane 
University, New Orleans, La. 

Field, Henry F., M. A., 

State Treasurer of Vermont, Rutland, Yt. 



Fisher, Rev. George P., D. D., LL.D., 

Titus Street Professor of Ecclesiastical History. Yale 
University, New Haven, Conn. ; author of Outlines 
of Universal History; History of the Christian 
Church ; Colonial History of the United States ; His- 
tory of the Reformation ; etc. 

Fiske, John, A. M., Litt. D., LL. D., 

Non-resident Professor of American History, Washing- 
ton University, St. Louis, Mo.; formerly instructor in 
Mediaeval History and Lecturer in Philosophy, Har- 
vard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Fitzpatrick, Frank A., 

Superintendent of Schools, Omaha, Neb. 
Fletcher, Robert, M. D., 

Army Medical Museum, Washington, D. C. ; author of 
The New School of Criminal Anthropology ; Human 
Proportion in Art and Anthropometry ; etc. 

Fletcher, William I., M. A., 

Librarian, Amherst College, Amherst, Mass. 
Folwell, William Watts, A. M., LL. D., 

Ex-President of, and Professor of Economics and Poli- 
tics in, the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 
Minn. 

FORCHHEIMER, FREDERICK, M. D., 

Professor of the Diseases of Children, Medical College 
of Ohio, Cincinnati, 0. 

Ford, Jeremiah Denis Matthias, A. M., 

Instructor in French, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Forrest, John, LL. D., 

President of Dalhousie College, Halifax, N. S. 
Foster, Frank Hugh, Ph. D., 

Professor of Systematic Theology, Pacific Theological 
Seminary, Oakland, Cal.; one of the editors of the 
Bibliotheca Sacra. 

Foster, R. F., 

Author of The Whist Manual ; Duplicate Whist ; etc. ; 
Baltimore, Md. 

Fox, George Henry, M. D., 

Clinical Professor of the Diseases of the Skin, College 
of Physicians and Surgeons (Medical Department, Co- 
lumbia College), New York. 

Fox, William F., 

Superintendent of State forests, Albany, N. Y. 
Franklin, W. S., M. Sc., 

Professor of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Le- 
high University, South Bethlehem, Pa. 

Freer, Ham line H., 

Cornell College, Mt. Vernon, Iowa. 
Frizell, Joseph P., C. E., Boston, Mass. 
Gage, Simon Henry, B. S., 

Associate Professor of Anatomv, Histologv, and Em- 
bryology, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Gallagher, Rev. C. W„ D. D., 

President of Lawrence University, Appleton, Wis. 
Gallaudet, Edward M., LL. D., 

President of Columbia Institute for Deaf and Dumb, 
Washington, D. C. 

Gannett, Henry, 

Geologist U. S. Geological Survey ; geographer of the 
eleventh census of the U. S. ; author of a Dictionary 
of Altitudes, etc. ; Washington, D. C. 

Garbe, Richard, Ph. D., 

Professor Ordinarius of Sanskrit and Comparative Phi- 
lology, University of Konigsberg, KOnigsberg, Prussia. 

Garrison, George P., L. A., 

Associate Professor of History, University of Texas, 
Austin, Tex. 

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CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



XlU 



Garrison, Rev. James Harnet, 

Editor The Christian Evangelist, St. Louis, Mo. ; au- 
thor of Heavenward Way ; Alone with God ; etc. 

Gates, Rev. George A., 

President of Iowa College, Grinnell, Iowa. 

Gatschet, Albert Samuel, 

Ethnologist, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

George. Henry, 

Author of Progress and Poverty, etc.. New York. 

Giddings, Franklin H., A. M., 

Professor of Sociology, Columbia University, New York ; 
author of The Principles of Sociology ; Elementary 
Sociology for High-School Use ; etc. 

Gilbert, Edward H., 

Of the George H. Gilbert Manufacturing Company, of 
Ware and Gilbert ville, Mass. 

Gilbert, Grove Karl, M. N. A. S., 

Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, Washiigton, D. C. 

Gilbreath. S. G m A. M., 

President of Hiwassee College, Monroe co„ Tenn. 

Gildersleeve, Basil L., Ph. D., LL. D., D. C. L., 

Professor of Greek, Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Md. ; founder and editor of The American 
Journal of Philology ; and author of Essays and 
Studies* etc. 

Gill, Theodore, M. D., Ph. D., etc, 

Professor of Zoology, Columbian Universitv, Washing- 
ton. D. C. : author of Arrangement of the Families 
of Mollusks ; also of Mammals, and of Fishes ; Cata- 
logue of the Fishes of the East Coast of North 
America; etc. 

Gillett, Rev. Charles R., D. D., 

Librarian, Union Theological Seminary, New York. 

Gilman, Daniel Coit, LL. D., 

President of Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 
Gilman, Edward W., D. D m 

Secretary American Bible Society, New York. 

Gilman, Nicholas P., 

Secretarv of the Association for the Promotion of Profit- 
sharing ; editor of The New World, Boston, Mass. 

Gilmore, Joseph H., A. M., 

Deane Professor of Logic, Rhetoric, and English, Uni- 
versity of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. 

Gladden, Rev. Washington, D. D., LL. D., 

Pastor of First Congregational church, Columbus, O. ; 
author of Things New and Old; Applied Chris- 
tianity; Who Wrote the Bible f; Burning Ques- 
tions of the Life that Now is and that which is to 
Come; etc 

Godet, Frederic Louis, D. D., 

Minister of the Reformed Church of Switzerland, Neu- 
ch&tel, Switzerland ; author of Commentaire sur 
rSvangile de Saint-Jean; Ittudes bibliques; Studies 
on the Epistles; Introduction to PauVs Epistles; etc 

Gokbel, Julius, Ph.D., 

Professor of Germanic Literature and Philology, Leland 
Stanford Junior University, Palo Alto, Cal. ; author 
of Ueber die Zukunst unseres Volkes in Amerika; 
Poetry in the Limburger Chronik ; etc 

Goessman, Charles A., Ph. D., 

Professor of Chemistry, Massachusetts Agricultural Col- 
lege, Amherst, Mass. 

Good ale, George Lu, M. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Natural History, and director of the Bo- 
tanic Garden, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Goode, George Brown, LL. D., 

Assistant secretary, Smithonian Institution, in charge 
of National Museum, Washington, D. C. 



Goodnow, Frank J., A. M., LL. D., 

Professor of Administrative Law, Columbia College, 
New York. 

Goodrich, John E., A. M., 

Professor of Latin, University of Vermont, Burlington, 
Vt. 

Goodyear, S. W. 

Maker of sewing-machines, Waterbury, Conn. 
Gosse, Edmund, M. A., 

Author of From Shakespeare to Pope ; History of Eigh- 
teenth Century Literature; The Unknown Lover; 
(hi Viol and Flute ; The Secret of Narcisse ; etc ; 
London, England. 

Gottheil, Richard J. H., Ph. D., 

Professor of Rabbinical Literature and the Semitic 
Languages, Columbia College, New York. 

Gould, E. R. L., Ph. D., 

Professor of Statistics. University of Chicago, Chicago, 
III., and lecturer on Social Economics and Statistics, 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Graham, William A., 

City editor, Hartford Courant, Hartford, Conn. 

Greene, Francis V., 

Colonel, Seventv-flrst Regiment, National Guard, State 
of New York; author of The Russian Armv and 
its Campaigns in Turkey; Life of Nathaniel 
Greene; etc 

Greene, G. A., London, 

Author of Italian Lyrists of To-day. 
Griffin, George Butler, Esq., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Groo, Byron, 

Register of the U. S. Land Office for the District of 
Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

Groome, F. H., 

Author and editor, London, England. 
Grosvenor, Rev. Edwin A., A. M., 

Professor of European History, Amherst College, Am- 
herst, Mass.; author of History of Modern Times 
(New York, 1894), and of Constantinople (2 vols., 
Boston, 1895) ; formerly Professor of History, Robert 
College, Constantinople, Turkey. 

Groth, P., A. M., New York, 

Author of a Dano-Norwegian Grammar for English- 
speaking Students, New York. 

Growoll, A., 

.. Managing editor Publishers* Weekly, New York. 

GUBERNATIS, AnGELO DE, 

Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Literature, In- 
stitute di Studii Superiorii e di Perfezionameuto, 
Florence, Italy. 

Gudeman, Alfred, Ph. D., 

Professor of Classical Philology, University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Guilford, S. H., D. D. S., Philadelphia, Pa. 
Gummere, Francis Barton, A. B., Ph. D., 

Professor of English and German, Haverford College, 

Pennsylvania; author of The Anglo-Saxon Metaphor; 

Handbook of Poetics ; German Origins, a Study in 

Primitive Culture ; etc. 

Hadley, Arthur Twining, A. M., 

Professor of Political Economy and Dean of Courses of 
Graduate Instruction, Yale University. New Haven, 
Conn. ; author of Railroad Transportation, its 2ft«- 
tory and its Laws ; Economics ; etc. 

Hague, Arnold, M. N. A. S., 

Geologist, U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 
Haight, Theron W., 
| Counselor at law, Waukesha, Wis. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



XIV 



CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



Hailman, W. N., 

Editor of The New Education, Washington,. D. C. 
Halberstadt, Baird, 

Geologist, Pottsville, Pa. 
Hall, Evelyn, S., A. B., 

Principal of Northfield Seminary, East Northfield, Mass. 
Hall, Isaac Hollister, LL. B., Ph. D., L. H. D., 

Orientalist; curator of the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, New York. 

Halsted, George Bruce, Ph. D., 

Professor of Pure Mathematics, University of Texas, 
Austin, Tex. 

Hamlin, Alfred D. F., A. M., 

Adjunct Professor of Architecture, Columbia College, 
New York ; author of A Text-book of the History of 
Architecture, etc. 

Hammond, William A., M. D„ 

Late Surgeon-general, U. S. array, New York. 
Hampton, Gen. Wade, 

Ex-Senator from South Carolina. 
Hare, Hobart A., M. D., 

Professor of Materia Medica, Therapeutics, and Hy- 
giene, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Harland, Marion. 

Pen-name of Mrs. E. P. Terhune, author of Common 
Sense in the Household, etc., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Harper, John M., A. M., Ph. D., F. E. I. S., 

Inspector of Superior Schools, Province of Quebec, Que- 
bec., Canada. 

Harrington, Mark W., A. M., LL. D., F. L. S„ 

Ex- President of Washington State University, Seattle, 
Wash., and ex-chief of the U. S. Weather Bureau. 

Harris, A. W., Ph. D., 

President of the Maine State College, Orono, Me. 
Harris, George William, Ph. B., 

Librarian, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Harris, Rev. J. Rendel, A. M., 

Fellow of Clare College, Cambridge, England. 
Harris, William Torre y, A. M., LL. D., 

U. S. Commissioner of Education, Washington, D. C. ; 
founder and editor of The Journal of Speculative 
Philosophy; author of The Logic of Hegel; The 
Spiritual Sense of Dante's Divina Commedia ; etc. 

Harrison, Hall, D. D., 

Rector of St. John's Church, Ellicott City, Md. 
Hart, Albert, 

Acting Secretary of State, Sacramento, Cal. 
Hart, Samuel, A. M., D. D., 

Professor of Latin, Trinity College, Hartford, Conn. 
Hartshorne, Henry, A. M., 

Professor of Hygiene, University of Pennsylvania, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. 

Harvey, Rev. Moses, S. T. D., LL. D., F. R. G. S., 

Presbyterian clergyman, St John's, Newfoundland ; 
author of Newfoundland, the Oldest British Colony, 
etc. 

Haskins, Charles H., Ph. D., 

Professor of Institutional History, University of Wis- 
consin, Madison, Wis. 

Hastings, Thomas S., D. D., 

Ex-President of Union Theological Seminary, New York. 
Hatton, Charles K., attorney-at-law, Wichita, Kan. 
Haupt, Lewis M., A. M., C. E., 

Formerly Professor of Civil Engineering in the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 



Hawley, Christopher Eldredge, C. E., Hartford, Conn. 
Hayden, Everett, 

Ensign, U. S. navy (retired) ; marine meteorologist, U. S. 
Hydrographic Office; Vice-president, National Geo- 
. graphic Society. 

Hayes, John S., 

Librarian of the Public Library, Somerville, Mass. 
Hearn, Thomas A., 

Methodist missionary, Suchow, China. 

Helbig, Wolfgang, 

Formerly Secretary of the Archaeological Institute, 
Rome, Italy. 

Hendrickson, George L., A. B., 

Professor of Latin, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 
Wis. 

Henshaw, H. W., 

Ethnologist, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 
Herrick, Francis Hobart, Ph. D., 

Professor of Biology, Adelbert College of Western Re- 
serve University, Cleveland, O. 

Hervey, Daniel E., 

Organist, Newark, N. J. 
Hewitt, John N. B., 

Ethnologist and Linguist in the Bureau of Ethnology, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Hichborn, Commodore Philip, 

Chief constructor, U. S. navy, Washington, D. C. 
Higginson, Col. Thomas Wentworth, 

Author of Outdoor Papers; Army Life in a Black 
Regiment; Oldport Days; Thalatta; Hints on Writ- 
ing and Speechmaking ; Travelers and Outlaws ; Con- 
cerning All of Us ; etc. 

Hilgard, Eugene Waldemar, Ph. D M LL. D., 

Professor of Agriculture and Agricultural Chemistry, 
University of California, and director ef the Cali- 
fornia Experiment Station, Berkeley, Cal. 

Hill, David J., LL. D., 

President of the University of Rochester, Rochester, N. Y. 
Hine, C. C, 

Editor of The Insurance Monitor, New York. 
Hinsdale, Guy, M. D., 

Lecturer on Climatology, University of Pennsylvania, 
Department of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Hirst, Barton C, M. D., 

Professor of Obstetrics, Department of Medicine, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa, 

Hitchcock, Charles H m A. M., Ph. D., 

Hall Professor of Geologv and Mineralogy, Dartmouth 
College, Hanover, N. H. 

Hitchcock, Edward, Jr., A. B., M. D., 

Professor of Hygiene and Physical Culture, and di- 
rector of the Gymnasium, Cornell University, Ithaca, 
N.Y. 

Hittell, John S., 

Author of a History of San Francisco, etc. ; San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

Hodge, Frederick Webb, 

Ethnologist and librarian in the Bureau of Ethnology, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Hodges, H. B., 

Engineer of tests, Baltimore and Ohio R. R.. Baltimore, 
Md.; formerly instructor in Chemistry, Harvard Uni- 
versity, Cambridge, Mass., and chief chemist in Car- 
ter's ink and mucilage factory. 

Hoe, Robert, 

Of R. Hoe & Co., printing-press manufacturers, New 
York. 



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CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



XV 



Holden, Edward S., LL. D., 

Ex-President of the University of California, and di- 
rector of the Lick Observatory, San Jose, CaL 

Holm an, Lieut. George F. W., U. S. navy, 

U. S. Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R. L 

Holmes, William H., 

Curator of the National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Hooker, Henrietta Edgbcomb, Ph. D., 

Professor of Botany, Mt. Uolyoke College, South Had- 
ley, Mass. 

Hopkins, E. Washburn, Ph. D., 

Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, Yale 
University, New Haven, Conn. ; formerly Professor 
of Greek, Sanskrit, and Comparative Philology, Bryn 
Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. ' 

Horn, Edward Traill, D. D., 

Pastor of St John's Lutheran church, Charleston, S. C. 
Hoskins, Rev. Leiohton, 

Formerly assistant priest at the Memorial Church of the 
Holy Comforter, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Houghton, Mrs. Louise Seymour, 

Editorial staff New York Evangelist, New York. 
Howard, Daniel W., 

Member of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania and 
of the Chester County Historical Society, "West Ches- 
ter, Pa. 

Hoyt, Rev. Charles K. f A. M., 

Formerly Professor of English Literature, Wells Col- 
lege, Aurora, N. Y. ; now of the Presbyterian Board, 
Chicago, I1L 

Horr,Ven. S.R. J.,S.T.D., 

Archdeacon, Davenport, Iowa. 
Hubbard, Hon. Gardiner G., 

President of the National Geographic Society, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Hubbell, Mark S., 

Journalist, Buffalo, N. Y. 
Hudson. Richard, A. M„ 

Professor of History, University of Michigan, Ann Ar- 
bor, Mich. 

Hudson, William Henry, 

Assistant Professor of English, Leland Stanford Junior 
University, Santa Clara co», Cal. ; author of An In- 
troduction to the Study of Herbert Spencer ; The 
Church and the Stage ; etc. 

Hughes, Rev. Thomas P., D. D., 

Rector of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, New York ; 
formerly missionary at Peshawar, India ; author of 
The Dictionary of Islam. 

Huizinga, Rev. Prof. Abel H., Ph. D., 

McCormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, I1L 

Hull, Charles H., Ph. D., 

Assistant Professor of Political Economy, Cornell Uni- 
versity, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Humphrey, Mortimer T., 

Billiard expert ; author of Modern Billiards ; New York. 
Humphreys, Milton Wylib, Ph. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Greek, University of Virginia, Charlottes- 
ville, Va, 

Huntington, Maj. H. A., Paris, France. 
Hurd, Henry M., A. M., M. D., 

Professor of Psychiatry, Johns Hopkins University, and 
superintendent of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Hurst, Rev. John Fletcher, D. D., LL. D., 

Bishop in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and chan- 
cellor of the American University, Washington, D. C. 



Hutton, Frederick Remsen, E. M., Ph. D., 

Professor of Mechanical Engineering, School of Mines, 
Columbia College, and secretary of the American So- 
ciety of Mechanical Engineers, New York. 

Hutton, William Rich, A. M., C. E., 

Engineer of the Hudson River Tunnel, New York. 
Hyde, William De Witt, D. D., 

President of Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me. 
Hyndman, Henry Mayers, A. B., London, Eng., 

Author of The Historical Basis of Socialism ; Social- 
ism and Slavery; The Economics of Socialism ; etc. 

Iddings, Joseph Paxson, Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Petrology, University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 

Ingalls, Capt. James M., 

Artillery School, Department of Ballistics, Fort Mon- 
roe, \a. 

Irvine, R. T., M. D., 

Physician, Sing Sing Prison, Sing Sing, N. Y. 
Jackson, A. V. Williams, A. M., L. H. D., Ph. D., 

Adjunct Professor of the English Language and Litera- 
ture, and instructor in the Iranian Languages, Colum- 
bia College, New York. 

Jackson, Dugald Caleb, C. E., 

Professor of Electrical Engineering, University of Wis- 
consin, Madison, Wis. 

Jackson, Samuel Macauley, D. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Church History, New York University; as- 
sociate editor of the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopaedia, 
New York ; and editor of A Concise Dictionary of 
Religious Knowledge, 

Jacobi, Abraham, M. D., 

Clinical Professor of the Diseases of Children, College 
of Physicians and Surgeons (Medical Department, Co- 
lumbia College), New York. 

Jacobi, Hermann Georg Jakob, Ph. D., 

Professor of Sanskrit, University of Bonn, Bonn, 
Prussia. 

Jacobi, Mary Putnam, M. D., New York. 

Jacobs, Henry E., D. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Systematic Theology, Evangelical Lutheran 
Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa. ; author of 
The Lutherans', The Lutheran Movement in Eng- 
land; etc. 

Jacobs, Patrick H., 

Editor of Poultry-keeper, Ham m on ton, N. J. 

Jacobus, D. S., M. E., 

Assistant Professor of Experimental Mechanics, Stevens 
Institute, Hoboken, N. J. 

Jagic, Vatroslav, Ph. D., 

Professor of Slavonic Philology, University of Vienna, 
Vienna, Austria. 

James, William, M. D., Ph. L>., Litt D., 

Professor of Psychology, Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Jastrow, Morris, Jr., Ph. D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Jenks, Jeremiah W., A. M., Ph. D., 

Professor of Political Economy and Civil and Social 
Institutions, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Jenks, Tudor, 

Assistant editor St. Nicholas magazine, New York* 
Jermain, Frances D., 

Librarian Toledo Public Library, Toledo, 0. 
Jesse, R. H., LL. D., 

President of University of Missouri. 

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XVI 



CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



Jewett, James R., Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of Semitic Languages and History, 
Brown University, Providence, R. I. 

Johnson, John B., C. E., 

Professor of Civil Engineering, Washington University, 
St Louis, Mo. 

Johnson, Samuel W., A. M., 

Professor Agricultural and Analytical Chemistry, Yale 
University, New Haven, Conn. 

Johnson, William F., 

Editorial staff New Fork Tribune, New York. 

Johnston, Hon. John, 

Banker, Milwaukee, Wis. 
Johnston, William Preston, LL. D., 

President of Tulane University, New Orleans, La. 

Jones, John Morris, M. A., 

Professor of the Welsh Language and Literature, Uni- 
versity College of North Wales, Bangor, Wales. 

Jones, R. McKean, 

Of Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, manufacturers of 
typewriters, New York. 

Jordan, David Starr, LL. D., 

President of the Leland Stanford Junior University, 
Palo Alto, Cal. ; author of Manned of the Vertebrates 
of the Northern United States; Contributions to 
North American Ichthyology; Science Sketches; etc. 

Joseph, Hon. Antonio, 

Delegate in Congress from New Mexico; Ojo Caliente, 
New Mexico. 

Judge, William Quan, 

President of the Theosophical Society in America, New 
York. 

Judson, Rev. Edward, 

Pastor Memorial Baptist Church, New York. 

Earns, Thomas Conner, A. M., 

Professor of Philosophy and Pedagogics, University of 
Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. 

Keane, John J., D. D., LL. D., 

Bishop in the Roman Catholic Church, and ex-rector of 
the Catholic University of America, Washington, 
D. C. 

Keener, William A., LL. B., 

Kent Professor of Law and dean of the School of Law, 
Columbia College, New York. 

Kellogg, Charles D., 

One of the founders of the Reformed Episcopal Church, 
and secretary of its General Council 1881-94 ; New 
York. 

Kellogg, Robert J., A. B., 

Fellow in Comparative Philology, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

Kellogg, Vernon Lyman, M. S., 

Associate Professor of Entomology, Leland Stanford 
Junior University, Palo Alto, Cal. 

Kelsey, Clarence H., A. B., 

President Title Guarantee and Trust Company, New 
York. 

Kennedy, John B., 

Editor of Ths Alleghenian, Allegheny, Pa. 

Kent, William, A. M., M. E., 

Author of The Mechanical Engineer's Pocket-book ; as- 
sociate editor of Engineering News, New York. 

Kenyon, P. C m 

Assistant in Biology, Tufts College, Massachusetts. 
Kern, P. L., A. M., 

President, Florida Agricultural College, Lake City, Fla. 



Keyes, Emerson W., 

Author of a History of Savings-banks in the United 
Slates. 

Kimball, Sumner I., 

General superintendent, U. S. Life-saving Service, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Kingsley, J. S., D. Sc., 

Professor of Biology, Tufts College, Massachusetts ; and 
editor of Ths American JS aluralist. 

Kirchhoff, Charles, M. E., 

Editor of The Iron Age, New York. 
Kirchwey, George W., A. B., 

Professor of Law, School of Law, Columbia College, 
New York. 

KlTTREDGE, GEORGE LYMAN, A. B., 

Assistant Professor of English, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Knapp, Seaman A., LL. D., 

Formerly President of, and Professor of Agriculture in, 
the Iowa Agricultural College, Ames, la. ; now presi- 
dent of the Southern Real Estate, Loan and Guaran- 
tee Company, Limited, Lake Charles, La. 

Knight, George Wells, A. M., Ph. D., 

Professor of History and Political Science, Ohio State 
University, Columbus, O. 

Knox, Rev. George William, D. D., 

Presbyterian clergyman, Rye, N. Y. ; late Presbyterian 
missionary in Japan and acting Professor of Moral 
Philosophy, Imperial University, Tokio, Japan. 

Kral, Josef JirI, LL. B., 

Editor of Hie Bohemian Voice; member of the Chicago 
Bar ; Chicago, 111. 

Kunz, George F., 

Gem expert with Tiffany & Co., New York, and of the 
U. S. Geological Survey ; mineralogist in charge of 
the eleventh U. S. census ; author of Gems and Pre- 
cious Stones of North America, etc 

Lanciani, Rodolfo Amedeo, Ph. D., LL. D., F. A. S. t 

Director of excavations, Rome, Italy, and Professor 
Extraordinary of Roman Topography, University of 
Rome. 

Lane, J. J., 

Secretary of Board of Regents of the University of 
Texas, Austin, Tex. 

Lang, Henry R., Ph. D., 

Instructor in the Romance Languages, Yale University, 
New Haven, Conn. 

Lanman, Charles R., Ph. D., 

Professor of Sanskrit, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass. ; author of A Sanskrit Header ; On Noun In- 
flection in the Vedas ; etc. 

Larimer, H. G., 

Attorney and counselor at law, Topeka, Kan. 
Lawrence, C. E.. 

Charleston College, Charleston, S. C. 

Leavenworth, Abel E., A. M., 

Principal of Normal School, Castleton, Vt. 

Lee, Francis Bazley, 

Attorney-at-law and historical writer, Trenton, N. J. 
Lee, Gen. S. D., LL. D., 

President of State Agricultural College, Mississippi. 
Leland, Charles G., 

Author of The Hans Breitman Ballads and The Gyp* 
sies, London, England. 

Lewis, Lieut. I. N M U. S. army, 

Board of Ordnance and Fortification, Washington, 
D.C. 



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CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



XVU 



Lewis, Virgil A., A. M., 

Author of History of West Virginia ; State Superin- 
tendent of Free Schools of West Virginia, Charleston, 
W. Va. 

Lillet, Robert, D. C. L., M. R. A. S., 

One of the editors of the Century Dictionary, New 
York. 

Lincoln, Allen B., insurance agent, Willimantic, Conn. 
Lintner, Joseph A., Ph. D., 

New York State Entomologist 
Lodge, Henry Cabot, Ph. D., 

U. S. Senator from Massachusetts, Nahant, Mass. ; au- 
thor of Studies in History, etc. 

Long, Ernest M„ A. B., 

Staff of the Springfield Republican, Springfield, Mass. 
Long, George E., 

Secretary, Joseph Dixon Crucible Company, Jersey City, 

JN» v. 

Lord, John King, A. M., Ph. D. f 

Professor of Latin, Dartmouth College, Hanover, N. H. 
Lucas, Frederic A., 

Curator of the Department of Comparative Anatomy, 
U. S. National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

LrcE, Stephen B., 

Rear-admiral U. S. navy ; author of Seamanship, etc. 
Ludlam, J. S., 

Manager Merrimac Manufacturing Company, Lowell, 
Mass. 

Lund, John, 

With William S. Daland, fiber-broker, New York. 
Lyon, David G., Ph. D., 

Hollis Professor of Divinity and curator of the Semitic 
Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. ; au- 
thor of An Assyrian Manual for the use of Begin- 
ners in the Study of the Assyrian Language ; etc. 

Mabib, Henry C, 

Corresponding secretary American Baptist Missionary 
Union, Boston, Mass. 

McAdie, Alexander G., 

U. S. Weather Bureau, Washington, D. C. 
M'Arthur, Rev. George, M. A., 

Editorial staff of Worcester's Dictionary, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

McCann, Lucy Underwood, lawyer, Santa Cruz, CaL 

McCauley, James A., D. D., LL. D., 

Former President of Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa. 
McClung, D. W., 

Collector of Internal Revenue, Cincinnati, 0. 
McCollum, A. R., editor of Day-Globe, Waco, Tex. 
McCormick, Capt. Alexander H., U. S. navy, 

Navy-yard, Norfolk, Va. 
McCurdy, James Frederick, Ph. D., 

Professor of Oriental Languages, University of Toronto, 
Toronto, Ont. 

Macdonald, Neil, 

Canadian writer ; Jersey City, N. J. 
McGee, Anita Newcomr, M. D., Washington, D. C. 
McGiffert, Rev. Arthur C, Ph. D., LL. D., 

Washburn Professor of Church History, Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, New York. 

MacGillivray, Alex. Dyer, 

Assistant in Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, 

McIlwaine, Richard, D. D„ 

President of Hampden Sidney College, Virginia. 
vol. xii.- B 



McKee, Rev. James H., 

Clergyman, Olean, N. Y. 
McMichael, Rev. J. B., D. D., 

President of Monmouth College, Monmouth, 111. 
Macy, Jesse, A. M., 

Professor of Constitutional History and Political Econ- 
omy, Iowa College, Grinnell, la." 

Mahan, Capt. Frederick A., U. S. army, 
Corps of Engineers, Montgomery, Ala. 

Mallery, Col. Garrick, 

U. S. Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D. C. ; author 
of An Introduction to the Study of Sign Languaae 
among the Rorth American Indians; Greeting by 
Gesture ; etc. 

Mallet, John W., M. D., Ph. D., LL. D., F. R. S., 

Professor of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Char- 
lottesville, Va. 

Manning, James H., 

Mayor of Albany, Albany, N. Y. 

March, Francis A., LL. D., L. H. D., 

Professor of the English Language and Comparative 
Philology, Lafayette College, Easton, Pa.: author of 
A Comparative Grammar of the Anglo-Saxon Lan- 
guage ; An Anglo-Saxon Header; etc. 

Marsh, Arthur R., A.M., 

Assistant Professor of Comparative Literature, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Marsh, E. A., 

Assistant superintendent of the American Waltham 
Watch Company, Waltham, Mass. 

Marsh, Othniel C, Ph. D., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Professor of Palaeontology and curator of the Geological 
Collection, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

Mason, Otis T., 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 

Maspero, Gaston, 

Member of the Legion of Honor and keeper of the 
Boulak Museum, Cairo, Egypt; author of Life in 
Ancient Egypt; The Dawn of Civilization; Egyp- 
tian Archaeology: The Struggle of the Motions— 
Egypt, Syria, and Assyria ; etc. 

Mather, Col. Fred, 

Superintendent U. S. Fish-hatchery, Cold Spring Har- 
bor, N. Y. 

Matthews, Albert F., A. B., 

Editorial staff of The Sun, New York 
Matthews, Brander, A. M., 

Professor of Literature, Columbia College, New York. 

Mauck, Joseph W., M. A., 

President of the University of South Dakota, Vermil- 
lion, S. D. 

Mayer, Alfred M m Ph. D., 

Professor of Phvsics, Stevens Institute of Technology, 
Hoboken, N. J. 

Mayo-Smith, Richmond, Ph. D., M. N. A. S., 

Professor of Political Economy and Social Science, Co- 
lumbia College, New York. 

Mead, Charles Marsh, Ph. D., D. D., 

Professor of Systematic Theology, Hartford Theological 
Seminary, flartford, Conn. 

Meany, Edmond S., B. S., 

Registrar of the University of Washington, Seattle, 
Wash. ; one of the authors of The State of Washington, 

Mendbnhall, Thomas Corwin, Ph. D., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 
President of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 
Worcester, Mass. 

Digitized by V^OOQlC 



XVU1 



CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



Mendes, F. de Sola, 

Rabbi of the Congregation of Shaarai Tephilla, New 
York. 

Mercur, Lieut.-Col. James, U. S. A., 

Professor of Civil and Military Engineering, U. S. Mili- 
tary Academy, West Point, N. Y.; author of The 
Elements of tne Art of War, etc. 

Merrill, George P., Ph. D., 

One of the curators of the U. S. National Museum, 
Washington, I). C. ; author of Stones for Building 
and Decoration ; etc. 

Merrill, Rev. Selah, A. M., D. D., LL. D., 

Ex-U. S. consul, Jerusalem. 
Merriman, Mansfield, C. E., Ph. D., 

Professor of Civil Engineering, Lehigh University, 
South Bethlehem, Pa. ; author of Continuous Bridges ; 
A Treatise on Hydraulics ; Elements of the Method 
of Least Squares ; Introduction to Geodetic Survey- 
ing ; The Figure of the Earth ; etc. 

Merritt, Ernest George, M. E., 

Assistant Professor of Physics, Cornell Uuiversity, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

Miller, Mrs. Annie Jenness, Washington, D. C. 

Mitchell, Rev. Alexander Ferrier, D. D., 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and Divinity, St. 
Andrews University, Scotland; author of The West- 
minster Assembly, etc 

Moloney, Sir Alfred, K. C. M. G., C. M. G n 
Governor of British Honduras. 

Mooney, James, 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C; author of 
Myths of the Chei-okees ; Indian Triltes of the Poto- 
mac; etc. 

Morton, Henry, Ph. D., M. N. A. S., 

President of Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, 
N.J. 

Moses, John, 

Ex-Judge of Scott County, 111. ; secretary and librarian 
of the Chicago Historical Society; author of Illinois* 
Historical and Statistical ; co-e'ditor Munsell & Co.'s 
History of Chicago ; Chicago, 111. 

Mulford, Thomas W., 

Of the Evening Journal, Wilmington, Del 
Munde\ Paul Fortunatus, M. D., 

Professor of Gynaecology, New York Polyclinic; for- 
merly editor of The American Journal of Obstetrics, 
New York. 

Munro, Wilfred H., A. M., 

Professor of History, and director of the University 
Extension, Brown" University, Providence, R. I. 

MuNROB, Charles Edward, S. B., Ph. D., 

Professor of Chemistry, and dean of the Corcoran Sci- 
entific School and of the School of Graduate Studies, 
Columbian University, Washington, D. C. 

Newcomb, Simon, LL. D., M. N. A. S. t 

Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, Johns Hop- 
kins University, Baltimore, Md., and superintendent 
of The United States Nautical Almanac, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Newell, F. n„ 

Geologist ; U. S. Geological Survey, Washington, D. C. 

Newell, W. W. f 

Secretary, American Folk-lore Society, Cambridge, Mass. 
Newman, J. S., A. M., 

Professor of Agriculture in the Agricultural College of 
South Carolina, Fort Hill, S. C. 

Newton, Hubert A., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Professor of Mathematics, Yale University, New Haven, 
Conn. 



Newton, Gen. John, 

U. S. Engineers, New York. 

Nichols, Edward L., B. S., Ph. D„ 

Professor of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. ; 
editor of the Physical Review, and "author of Labo- 
ratory Manual of Physics and Applied Mechanics ; 
The Galvanometer; etc. 

Nichols, Starr Hoyt, 

Formerly of the editorial staff of The Social Economist, 
New \ork. 

Niemann, Capt. August, 

Late editor for Genealogy and Diplomatics of the Al- 
manach de Got ha, Gotna, Saxony. 

Ninde, Henry S., 

Secretary of the International Committee, Young Men's 
Christian Associations, New York. 

Northen, Hon. William J., 

Governor of Georgia; Atlanta, Ga. 

Norton, Charles Ledyard, 

Author of A Handbook of Florida ; New York. 

Norton, Lewis M., 

Professor of Organic and Industrial Chemistry, Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 

Norwood, Thomas M. f 

Attorney and counselor at law, Savannah, Ga. 

Noyes, Alexander D., 

Editorial staff of The EvWuing Post, New York. 

No yes, George W., A. B., Kenwood, N. Y. 
Nutting, Rev. Wallace, 

Pastor Plymouth Congregational church, Seattle, Wash* 

Oakey, Charles C, 

Editor of Terre Haute Express, Terre Haute, Ind. 

Oates, James W., attorney-at-law, Santa Rosa, Cal. 

Ogden, Herbert G., 

Assistant, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, Washing- 
ton. 

O'Grady, Standish H., London, England. 

Olmsted, Frederick Law, A. M., 

Landscape architect, Brookline, Mass. 

Olson, Julius Emtl, B. L., 

Professor of Scandinavian Languages and Literature^ 
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Ormond, Alexander Thomas, Ph. D., 

Stuart Professor of Mental Science and Logic, Prince- 
ton University, Princeton, N. J. 

Osborn, Rev. Albert, B. D. f 

Registrar, American University, Washington, D. C. 

OSTRANDER, JOHN E., 

Professor of Civil Engineering, University of Idaho, 
Moscow, Idaho. 

Oxley, J. Macdonald, B. A., LL. B., 

Manager of city agency Sun Life Assurance Company 
of Canada, Montreal, P. Q., Canada. 

Packard, Alpheus S., Jr., M. D„ M. N. A. S., 

Professor of Zoology and Geology, Brown University, 
Providence, R. I. 

Palmer, George Herbert, A.M., 

Alford Professor of Natural Religion, Moral Philosophy, 
and Civil Polity, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Mass. 

Palmer, John, 

Ex-Commander-in-chief, Grand Army of the Republic ;. 
Albany, N. Y. 



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CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



xix 



Park, Roswell, A. M., M. D., 

Professor of the Principles and Practice of Surgery and 
Cliuical Surgery, Medical Department, University of 
Buffalo, Buffalo, N. Y. 

Parloa, Miss Maria, 

Lecturer on Cookery, Roxbury, Mass. ; author of Camp 
Cookery ; First Principles of Household Management 
and Cookery; and New Cook-book and Marketing 
Guide, 

Parsons, Eugene, 

Author of Tennyson's Life and Poetry, Chicago, 111. 

Parsons, Samuel, Jr., 

Superintendent of Parks, New York. 

Paton, Lucy A., A. M., 

Author of The Character of Dante (in Reports of the 
American Dante Society) ; Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

Payne, William H., A. M., Ph. D., LL. D., 

Chancellor University of Nashville, and President Pea- 
body Normal Colle'ge, Nashville, Tenn. 

Peabody, Elizabeth P., 

Author of Moral Culture of Infancy, Letters to Kinder- 
gartners, etc. ; Cambridge, Mass. 

Pearson, Leonard, B. S., V. M. D., 

Professor of the Theory and Practice of Veterinary 
Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 
Pa, 

Peary, Robert Edwin, C. E., U. S. N., 
Arctic explorer. 

Peckhax, Stephen F., A. M., 

Formerly Professor of Chemistry, University of Minne- 
sota ; author of the monograph on Petroleum, tenth 
U. S. census ; Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Pennypacker, Isaac R., 

Editor of the Inquirer, Philadelphia, Pa, 

Pepper, William, M. D., LL. D., 

Ex-Provost of, and Professor of the Theory and Prac- 
tice of Medicine in, the University of Pennsylvania 
(Medical Department), Philadelphia, Pa. ; author of 
A System of Medicine, etc 

Perctval. Rev. Henry Robert, M. A., S. T. D., 

Rector of the Church of the Evangelists, Philadelphia, 
Pa. 

Perkins, George Henry, Ph. D., 

Professor of Natural History, University of Vermont, 
Burlington, Vt. 

Perry, Thomas Sergeant, A. M., 

Formerly instructor in English, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. ; Boston, Mass. 

Perry, William Stevens, D. D. Oxon., LL. D., D. C. L., 

Bishop in the Protestant Episcopal Church in the U. S M 
Davenport, Iowa ; author of Documentary History of 
the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States 
of America ; The History of the American Episco- 
pal Church ; Life Lessons from the Book of Prov- 
erbs; etc. 

Peterson, Sarah J., 

Teacher in the Rayen School, Yonngstown, 0. 
Phelps, William Lyon, Ph. D., 

Instructor in English Literature, Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn. 

Piceard, Samuel T., 

Author of Life and Letters of John Oreenleaf Whit- 
tier, and editor of The Portland Transcript, Port- 
land, Me. 

Pickering, Edward C, B. S., M. N. A. S., 

Director of the Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. 



Piersol, George A., M. D., 

Professor of Anatomy, Department of Medicine, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa, 

Pierson, George S., C. E., 

Civil and Sanitary Engineer, Kalamazoo, Mich. 

Pillsbury, Charles A., 

Managing director, Pillsbury-Washburn Flour Mills 
Company, Minneapolis, Minn. 

Pinkus, Frederick S. t 

Vice-president of the Linen Association of New York, 
New York. 

Pitcher, James R., 

Manager of U. S. Mutual Accident Insurance Company, 
New York. 

Planten, J. EL, 

Consul-general of the Netherlands ; New York. 

Plympton, George W., A. M., C. E., 

Professor of Natural Philosophv, Brooklyn Polvtechnic 
Institute ; director of Night Schools and Professor of 
Physics, Astronomy, and Applied Mechanics, Cooper 
Union, New York; Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Pope, Franklin Leonard, 

Author of Modern Practice of the Electric TeJegraph; 
associate editor of The Engineering Magazine, New 
York. 

Pope, Ralph W., 

Secretary of the American Institute of Electrical En- 
gineers, New York. 

Porter, Hon. Charles H., 

First mayor of Quincy, Mass. 

Porter, Gen. Fitz John, New York. 

Powell, John W., Ph. D., LL. D., 

Major, U. S. army ; director of the Bureau of Ethnol- 
ogy, Washington, D. C. ; ex-director of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey; author of Exploration of the Colo- 
rado River; Introduction to the Study of Indian 
Languages ; Studies in Sociology ; etc. 

Pratt, Charles M., A. B., 

Treasurer, Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Preston, Erasmus D., 

United States Coast and Geodetic purvey, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Price, Ira M., B. D., Ph. D., 

Associate Professor of the Semitic Languages and Lit- 
erature, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Prudent, F., 

Lieutenant-colonel, French Top. Engineers (retired), 
Paris, France. 

Pullman, James Minton, D. D., 

Pastor of the First Universalist church, Lynn, Mass, 

Pumpelly, Raphael, M. N. A. S., 

Geologist; in charge (until 1802) of the Archaean di- 
vision of the U. S. Geological Survey ; St. Louis, Mo. ; 
author of Across America and Asia ; Geological Re- 
searches in China, Mongolia, and Japan ; etc 

Purinton, D. B m Ph. D., LL. D., 

President of Denison University, Granville, Ohio. 

Pyle, J. G., 

Editorial staff of The Pioneer Press, St. Paul, Minn. 

Ramsey, Marathon Montrose, 

Professor of Spanish. Corcoran Scientific School, Colum- 
bian University, Washington, D. C. 

Rand, Rev. William W., S. T. D., 

Publishing secretary of the American Tract Society, 
New York, 

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XX 



CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



Raven, Anton A., 

Second vice-president, Atlantic Mutual Insurance Com- 
pany, New York. 

Ravenstein, Ernest George, F. R. G. S., 

Member of councils of Royal Geographical Society and 
Royal Statistical Society, London, England ; one of 
the editors of The Earth and its Inhabitants, and 
author of The Russians on the Amur, etc. 

Reavis, John R., 

Secretary of the Chamber of Commerce, Spokane, Wash. 
Redding, C. H. E., editor of Harness, New York. 
Reed, Rev. James, A. M., 

Pastor of the Boston Society of the New Jerusalem, 
Boston, Mass. 

Reed, Wallace P., 

Editorial staff of The Constitution, Atlanta, Ga. 

Reichert, Edward T., M. D., 

Professor of Physiology, Department of Medicine, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. ; author of 
A Text-book of Physiology, 

Reid, John, 

President of St. Andrew's Golf Club, Yonkers, N. Y. 

Reid, Hon. Whitelaw, 

Editor-in-chief of The New York Tribune, New York ; 
ex-U. S. minister to France. 

Remsen, Ira, M. D., Ph. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Chemistry and director of the chemical 
laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Medical De- 
partment, Baltimore, Md. ; author of Theoretical 
Chemistry; Introduction to the Study of Chemis- 
try; Organic Chemistry; A Text-book of Inorganic 
Chemistry ; etc. 

Renfrow, Hon. William C, 

Governor of Oklahoma, Guthrie, 0. T. 
Renouf, Edward, Ph. D., 

Collegiate Professor of Chemistry, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, Baltimore, Md. 

Reuck, J. M., journalist, Stockton, Cal. 
Reynolds, P. B., D. D., 

President of the West Virginia University, Morgan- 
town, W. Va. 

Rhoads, James E., LL. D., 

President Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
Rice, Franklin P., 

Editor of Worcester Records, Worcester, Mass. 
Richards, C. R., 

Director of the Department of Science and Technology, 
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Richardson, Erastus, 

Author of History of Woonsocket, Woonsocket, R. I. 

Richardson, S. T., lawyer, Salem, Ore. 

Ricord, Frederick William, A. M., 

Historian, New Jersey Historical Society, Newark, 
N. J. 

Rider, Sidney S., editor of Book Notes, Providence, R. L 

Rus, Jacob A., 

Author of How the Other Half Lives, New York. 

Riley, Charles V., M. D., Ph. D., 

Entomologist of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

RlORDAN, J. E., 

Principal of the Sheboygan High School, Sheboygan, 
Wis. 

Ripton, Benjamin H., A. M., Ph. D., 

Dean, and Professor of History and Sociology, Union 
College, Schenectady, N. Y. 



Robert, Lieut.-Col. Henry M., 

Corps of Engineers U. S. army ; author of Robert's 
Rules of Order ; New York. 

Roberts, Hon. Ellis H., LL. D., 

President of the Franklin National Bank, New York ; 
ex- Assistant U. S. Treasurer, New York ; and author 
of Planting and Growth of the Umpire State (Amer- 
ican Commonwealth Series). 

Roberts, Isaac P., M. Agr., 

Director of the College of Agriculture, Professor of Ag- 
riculture, and director of the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Roberts, Ralph A., M. A., 

Senior Mathematical Moderator of Dublin University; 
author of A Treatise on the Integral Calculus, etc. ; 
New York. 

Robertson, James W., 

Dairy Commissioner, Department of Agriculture, Ot- 
tawa, Canada. 

Robinson, John, 

Treasurer, Peabody Academy of Science, Salem, Mass. 

Rogers, Henry Wade, LL. D., 

President Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. ; for- 
merly editor of the American Law Register, and Pro- 
fessor of Law and dean of the Law School in the Uni- 
versity of Michigan ; author of Expert Testimony ; etc. 

Rogers, William Augustus, Ph. D., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 
Professor of Phvsics and Astronomy, Colby University, 
Waterville; Me. 

Rolfe, William James, Lit. D., 

Shakespearean scholar and editor, Cambridge, Mass. 

Rood, Ogden N., LL. D., 

Professor of Mechanics and Physics, Columbia College, 
New York. 

Roosa, D. B. St. John, M. D., LL. D., 

Professor of Diseases of the Eye and Ear, New York 
Post-graduate Medical School and Hospital, and 
president of the faculty, New York. 

Ross, Theodore A., 

Grand secretary of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the 
World, Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, 

Assistant Secretary, U. S. Navy Department; ex-Presi- 
dent Board of Police Commissioners, New York, and 
ex-Chairman of U. S. Civil Service Commission, 
Washington, D. C. 

Root, A. I., 

Publisher of Gleanings in Bee Culture, Medina, 0. 

Ropes, Rev. W. L., 

"" Librarian Andover Theological Seminary, Andover, 
Mass. 

Rose, Theo. C, 

Official stenographer Sixth Judicial District of New 
York, Elmira, N. Y. 

Rostan, Francesco, A. M., 

Waldensian pastor, Messina, Sicily. 

Rotch, A. Lawrence, 

Meteorologist, Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory, 
Readville, Mass. 

Round, William M. F., A. M., 

Corresponding secretary of the Prison Association of 
New York. 

Royce, Josiah, Ph. D., 

Professor of Philosophy, Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 



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CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



XX* 



Ruck, Karl von, M. D., 

Medical Director Winyah Sanitarium for Diseases of 
the Lungs and Throat, Asheville, N. C. 

Russell, Capt Andrew II., U. S. army, 

Ordnance Department, Washington, D. C. 

Rissell, Israel Cook, M. S., C. E., 

Professor of Geology, University of Michigan, Ann Ar- 
bor, Mich. 

Russell, James E., Ph. D., 

Professor of Philosophy and Pedagogy, University of 
Colorado, Boulder, Col. 

Russell, James E., A. B., 

European agent of the Bureau of Education of the 
U. S. ; Leipzig, Germany. 

Russell, Thomas, 

Professor of Meteorology, U. S. Weather Bureau, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Russell, Hon. William E., LL. D., 
Ex-Governor of Massachusetts. 

Ryan, Harris J., E. M., 

Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

St. John, Molyneux, 

Editor-in-chief, Manitoba Free Press, Winnipeg, Mani- 
toba, Canada. 

Salomon, Walter J., 

With R. G. Salomon, tanner, Newark, N. J. 

Sanborn. Franklin B., A. B., 

General secretary of the American Social Science Asso- 
ciation, Concord, Mass. 

Sanders, James H. t 

Editor of The Breeders* Gazette, Chicago, 111. 

Sanford, Horatio S., 

Ex-mayor of Long Island City, N. Y. 

Sansone, Francisco, 

Editorial staff of Dry Goods Economist, New York. 

Sargent, Charles Spraoue, A. B., M. N. A. S., 

Editor of Garden and Forest, New York ; Arnold Pro- 
fessor of Arboriculture, Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. ; Brookline, Mass. 

Saroent, Dudley Allen, A. M., M. D., 

Director of the Hemmenway Gymnasium, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Scaife, Walter B., Ph. D., 

Author of America: its Geographical History, and of 
Florentine Life during the Renaissance, Alleghenv, 
Pa. 

Schaefer, Charles A., A. M., Ph. D., 

President Iowa State University, Iowa City, la. 

Schaeffer, Prof. Edward M., M. D., Washington, D. C. 

Schaff, Rev. Philip, S. T. D., LL. D., 

Washburn Professor of Church History, Union Theo- 
logical Serainarv, New York; author of a History of 
the Christian Church ; Creeds of Christendom ; Ideo- 
logical Propaedeutics ; etc. 

Schmidt, Nathaniel, A. M., 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Literature. Theo- 
logical School of Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y. 

Schmidt- Wartenbero, H., Ph. D., 

Assistant Professor of German, University of Chicago, 
Chicago, 111. 

SCHOENFELD, HERMANN, Ph. D., 

Professor of German and Continental History, Colum- 
bian University, Washington, D. C. 



Schurz, Carl, LL. D., 

Ex-Secretary of the Interior: editorial staff of Harper's 
Weekly, Pocantico Hills, N. Y. 

Schwab, John C, Ph. D., 

Instructor in Political Economy, Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn. ; associate editor, Yale Review, 

Schweinitz, George E. db, M. D., 

Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology, Jefferson Medical 
College, Philadelphia, Pa. ; ophthalmic editor of The 
Therapeutic Gazette \ author of Diseases of the Eye, 
a Handbook of Ophthalmic Practice, etc. 

Schweinitz, Rev. Robert de, 

Secretary of Moravian Missions, and general treasurer 
of the Moravian Church in America, Bethlehem, Pa. 

Scott, Austin, Ph. D., LL. D., 

President of Rutgers College, New Brunswick, N. J. 
Scott, H. W., 

Editor of Oregonian, Portland, Ore. 

Scott, William Henry, A. M., LL. D., 

President of Ohio State University, Columbus, 0. 

Scouller, Rev. James B., D. D., Newville, Pa. 

Seddon, Thomas, librarian of the public library, Sedalia, Mo. 

Seip, Rev. Theodore L., D. D., 

President of Muhlenberg College, A lien town, Pa. 

Sellers, Coleman, E. D., 

President and chief engineer of the Niagara Falls Power 
Company, Philadelpnia, Pa. 

Seward, Theodore Freunghuysen, 

Professor of Music, Teachers' College, New York ; au- 
thor of Temple Choir, Tonic Sol-fa Music Reader, etc. 

Sexton, Samuel, M. D., 

Aural Surgeon to the New York Eye and Ear In- 
firmary, New York. 

Seymour, Thomas D., A. M., 

Hillhouse Professor of the Greek Language and Litera- 
ture, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 

Shaw, Albert, Ph. D., 

Editor of The Review of Reviews, New York. 
Shaw, Thomas, 

Professor of Animal Husbandry, Minnesota Agricultural 
Experiment Station, St. Anthony Park, Minn. 

Shaw, William Bristol, A. M., 

Late assistant librarian, New York State Library, Al- 
bany, N. Y. 

Shedd, William G. T., S. T. D., LL. D., 

Late Professor of Systematic Divinity, Union Theo- 
logical Seminary, Sew York. 

Sheldon, Edward S., A. B., 

Professor of Romance Philology, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. ; secretary of the American Dialect 
Society; and author of A Short German Grammar ; 
Origin of the English Names of the Letters ; etc. 

Shepard, Charles Upham, M. D., 

Professor of Chemistry at the Medical College of the 
State of South Carolina, Charleston, S. C. 

Shepherd, Henry E., A. M., LL. D., 

President Charleston College, Charleston, S. C. 

Shields, Charles W., D. D., LL. D., 

Professor of the Harmony of Science and Revealed Re- 
ligion, Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. 

Silsbee, Joseph L., A. B., 

Architect ; second vice-president and general manager 
of the Multiple Speed and Traction Company, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Small, C. H., 

Real estate and insurance agent, Pueblo, < 

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XX11 



CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



Smalley, Frank, A. M M Ph. D., 

Professor of the Latin Language and Literature, Syra- 
cuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Smart, James H., A. M., LL. D., 

President of Purdue University, Lafayette, Ind. 

Smith, Charles Emory, LL. D., 

Ex-U. S. minister to Russia ; editor of The Press, Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Smith, Gerrtt, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Smith, Goldwin, LL. D., D. C. L., Toronto, Canada, 

Formerly Regius Professor of Modern History, Oxford 
University; author of Lectures on the Study of His- 
tory ; Translations from the Latin Poets ; Essays on 
Questions of the Day ; etc. 

Smith, Herbert H., A. M., 

Naturalist, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburg, Pa. ; formerly 
a member of the Geological Survey of Brazil. 

Smith, John Jay, 

Late superintendent Laurel Hill Cemetery, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Smith, Munroe, A. M., J. U. D., 

Professor of Roman Law and Comparative Jurispru- 
dence, Columbia College, New York. 

Smith, Theodore E., 

Vice-president, Spencerian Pen Company, New York. 

Snider, Vaughan, 

Secretary, M. T. Richardson Company, publisher of 
Boots and Shoes Weekly, New York. 

Sondern, Frederic E., M. D., 

Fellow of the New York Academy of Medicine, New 
York. 

Spahr, Charles B., Ph. D., 

Editorial staff, The Outlook, New York. 

Sperry, Rev. Willard A., D. D., 

President of the Olivet College, Olivet, Mich. 

Spofford, Ainsworth R., LL. D., 

Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. C. ; author of 
Libi'ary of Historic Characters and Famous Events, 
etc. 

Stagg, A. Alonzo, A. B., 

Associate Professor and Director of the Department of 
Physical Culture, University of Chicago, Chicago, 111. 

Staley, Cady, Ph. D., LL. D., 

President of the Case School of Applied Science, Cleve- 
land, O. 

Standish, J. V. N., Ph. D., 

President of Lombard University, Galesburg, 111. 

Stanton, Elizabeth Cady, 

Honorary president National American Woman Suf- 
frage Association ; joint author of The History of 
Woman Suffrage ; Sew York. 

Stanton, Theodore, A. M., 

Journalist and author, Paris, France. 

Stanwood, Edward, A. M., 

Editorial staff of The Youth's Companion, Boston, 
Mass. 

Starbuck, Rev. Charles C, A. M., Andover, Mass. 

Steiner, Bernhard C, A. M., Ph. D., 

Librarian of Enoch Pratt Free Library, Baltimore, 
Md. ; author of History of Education in Connecticut. 

Steinitz, William, 

Late chess editor of the New York Tribune, New York. 

Stephens, W. P., 

Yachting editor, Forest and Stream, New York. 



Stepniak, Sergius, 

Russian agitator ; author of The Career of a Nihilist ; 
Underground Russia ; Turks Within and Without ; 
Historical Poland and the Muscovite Democracy ; 
etc. 

Sterrett, John Robert Sitlington, Ph. D., 

Newton Professor of Greek Language and Literature, 
Amherst College, Amherst, Mass. 

Stevens, Edwin A., Hoboken, N. J. 
Stevens, Rev. George B., Ph. D., D. D., 

Buckingham Professor of New Testament Criticism and 

Interpretation, Yale University, New Haven. Conn. ; 

author of The Pauline Theology, etc. 

Stevens, W. Le Conte, Ph. D. f 

Professor of Physics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 
Troy,N.Y. 

Stewart, McLeod, 

Barrister ; ex-mayor of Ottawa, Ont. 
Stewart, Oscar Milton, Ph. D., 

Instructor of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
Stillman, William J., 

Artist and critic; correspondent of the London Times; 
Rome, Italy; author of In the Track of Ulysses; 
The Acropolis of Athens; etc. 

Stockbridge, Hon. Henry, Baltimore, Md. 

Stockton, Alfred A., LL. D., D. C. L., Q. C, M. P. P., 
Barrister, St. John, New Brunswick. 

Stoddard, John Tappan, A. M., Ph. D., 

Professor of Chemistry and Physics, Smith College, 
Northampton, Mass. 

Strong, Rev. Augustus H., D. D., 

President of the Rochester Theological Seminary, 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Stryker, Rev. Melancthon W., D. D., LL. D., 

President of Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y. 

Sturgis, Russell, A. M., Ph. D., F. A. I. A., 

Ex-President of the Architectural League of New York, 
New York; author of European Architecture, an 
Historical Study, etc 

Switzler, William F., 

Editor and publisher of the Missouri Democrat, Boon- 
ville, Mo. 

Symonds, Charles S., 

President of the Utica City National Bank, Utica, N. Y. 

Talcott, H. W., lawyer, San Diego, Cal. 

Taussig, Frank William, LL. B., Ph. D., 

Assistant Professor of Political Economy, Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass.; author of Tariff His- 
tory of the United States. 

Taylor, James M., D. D., LL. D., 

President of Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
Thompson, Robert Ellis, A. M., Ph. D„ S. T. D., 

President of the Central High School of Philadelphia; 
formerly Professor of History and English Litera- 
ture, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Thompson, Walter J., real estate agent, Tacoma, Wash. 
Thornton, William M., LL. D., 

Chairman of Faculty, University of Virginia, Char- 
lottesville, Va. 

Thurber, Charles H., A. M., 

Associate Professor of Pedagogy, Chicago University, 
and dean of Morgan Park Academy, Morgan Park, 
111. 

Thurmond, G. E., 

Superintendent of schools, Santa Barbara co., Cal. 



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CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



xxui 



Thtrneysen, Rudolph, Ph. D., 

Professor of Comparative Philology. University of Frei- 
burg, Baden. Germany; author of Kdtoromanisches ; 
Mittelirish Verslehren; etc 

Thurston, Robert H., LL. D., Dr. Eng., 

Director of Sibley College and Professor of Mechanical 
Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. ; au- 
thor of History of the Steam-engine ; Materials of 
Engineering ; etc. 

Thwattes, Reuben Gold, 

Author of Story of Wisconsin, and secretary of the 
State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. 

Tidball, John C, 

Brevet major-general U. S. army. 

Tiele, Cornelis Petrus, 

Professor of Dogmatic and Practical Theology, of the 
Comparative History and Philosophy of Religions, 
and of the Babylonian and Assvriau Languages, Uni- 
versity of Leyden, Leyden, Holland. 

Tillett, Rev. Wilbur F., 

Professor of Systematic Theology in Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity, Nashville, Tenn. 

Torrance, Stiles A., 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Townsend, Martin Inoham, LL. D., 
Ex-Member of Congress, Troy, N. Y. 

Towse, J. Ranken, 

Editorial staff of The Evening Post, New York. 

Tot, Crawford H., LL. D., 

Hancock Professor of Hebrew and other Oriental Lan- 
guages, and Dexter Lecturer on Biblical Literature, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; author of 
The Religion of Israel ; Judaism and Christianity, 
a Sketch of the Progress of Thought from Old Testa- 
ment to New Testament ; etc 

Tratman, E. E. R., C. E., 

Associate editor Engineering News, New York. 

Truax, Charles, 

President Chas. Truax, Greene & Co., makers of arti- 
ficial limbs, Chicago, III 

Trumbull, Rev. Henry Clay, S. T. D., 

Editor of Sunday-school Times, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Tucker R. Schuyler, 

Secretary, J. B. Brewster & Co., coach and carriage 
builders, New York. 

Turner, Frederick Jackson, Ph. D., 

Professor of American History, University of Wiscon- 
sin, Madison, Wis. 

Tuttle, Hudson, Berlin Heights, Ohio. 

Tyler, Lyon Gardiner, A. M., J. U. D., 

President of the College of William and Mary, Williams- 
burg, Va. 

Tyler, Rev. William S., LL. D., 

Williston Professor of the Greek Language and Litera- 
ture, Amherst College, Amherst, Mass. 

Tyndall, John, LL. D. f F. R. S., 

Late Professor of Natural Philosophv and Superintend- 
ent of the Royal Institution, London, England. 
Vail, Charles D., 

Registrar of Hobart College, Geneva, N. Y. 
Valentine, Milton, D. D., LL. D„ 

Professor of Svstematic Theology in the Seminary of 
the General Synod of the Lutheran Church, Gettys- 
burg, Pa. 

Van Amringe, J. Howard, Ph. D., L. H. D., 

Professor of Mathematics and dean of the School of 
Arts, Columbia College, New York. 



Van Name, Addison, A. M., 

Librarian, Yale University, New Haven, Conn. 
Venable, Charles S., LL. D., 

Professor of Mathematics, University of Virginia, Char- 
lottesville, Va. 

Vincent, John H., D. D., LL. D., 

Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Buffalo, 

Waddill, John B., 

State insurance commissioner, Springfield, Mo. 
Walker, Francis Amasa, A. M., Ph. D„ LL. D., 

President of Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 
superintendent U. S. census 1870, 1880; author of 
historical, statistical, and economical works. 

Wallace, Joseph, attorney-at-law, Springfield, I1L 

Ward, Lester F., A. M., LL. D., 

Palaeontologist in charge of Fossil Plants, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, Washington, D. C. ; author of Dy- 
namic Sociology, etc 

Warfield, Rev. Benjamin B., S. T. D., LL. D. f 

Professor of Didactic and Polemic Theology, Princeton 
Theological Seminary, Princeton, N. J.; author of 
The Divine Origin of the Bible, etc. 

Warfield, Ethelbert D., LL. D., 

President of Lafayette College, Easton, Pa. 

Warner, Hon. Donald T., 

Senator, Nineteenth District of Connecticut, Salisbury, 
Conn. 

Warren, Howard Crosby, A. M., 

Assistant Professor of Experimental Psychology, Prince- 
ton University. 

Warren, Minton, A. B., Ph. D., 

Professor of Latin, Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Md. 

Watson, George C, M. S., 

Assistant agriculturist, Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Weeden, W. B., 

Of Taft, Weeden & Co., agents of the Weybosset Mills, 
Providence, R. I. 

Welling, James C, LL. D., 

President of Columbian University, Washington, D. C. 
Wellington, Arthur M., C. E., 

Editor Engineering News, New York. 

\?ells» Hon. David A., LL. D„ 

Late U. S. Special Revenue Commissioner, Norwich, 
Conn. 

Wendell, Barrett, A. B., 

Assistant Professor of English, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Wheeler, Benjamin Ide, Ph. D., 

Professor of Greek and Comparative Philology, Cornell 
Universitv, Ithaca, N. Y. : author of Analogy and the 
Scope of %ts Influence in Language ; and joint author 
of Introduction to the Study of the History of Lan- 
guage, etc 

White, Horace, 

Editor-in-chief, Evening Post, New York. 

White, Israel Charles, M. E., 

Professor of Geology, West Virginia University, Mor- 
gantown, W. Va. 

Whitehead, Thomas, 

Commissioner of Agriculture, State of Virginia ; author 
of Virginia : a Handbook ; Richmond, va. 

Whitford, Rev. W. C, D. D., 



President of Milton College, Milton, Wis, 

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XXIV 



CONTRIBUTORS AND REVISERS 



Whitney, James A., A. M., LL. D„ 

Counselor-at-law, New York; formerly editor of The 
American Artisan, and first President of the New 
York Society of Practical Engineering. 

Whitney, William D., Ph. D., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Professor of Sanskrit and Comparative Philology, Yale 
University, New Haven, Conn. 

Whttsitt, William H. t D. D., 

Professor of Church History, Baptist Theological Semi- 
nary, Louisville, Ky. 

Whittaker, Robert, 

City editor of The Daily Advocate, Stamford, Conn. 
Wiley, Harvey W., 

Chief of the Division of Chemistry, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 

Willard, De Forest, M. D., 

Clinical Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department 
of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Willard, Frances Elizabeth, LL. D., 

President of the World's Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union. 

Willcox, Lieut. Cornelis De W., U. S. army, 

Bureau of Information, Adjutant-General's office, 
Washington, D. C. 

Williams, George H., Ph. D., 

Professor of Inorganic Geology, Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, Baltimore, Md. 

Williams, Henry Shaler, Ph. D., 

Professor of Geology, Yale University, New Haven, 
Conn. 

Williams, John E., insurance agent, Streator, 111. 
Wilson, Gen. James Grant, D. C. L., 

Author and editor ; President of the New York Gene- 
alogical and Biographical Society, New York. 

Wilson, L. N m 

Clark University, Worcester, Mass. 
Winchester, Caleb Thomas, L. H. D m 

Professor of English Literature, Wesleyan University, 
Middletown, Conn. 

Wino, Henry H., M. S., 

Assistant Professor of Animal Industry and Dairy Hus- 
bandry, Cornell University, and deputy director and 
secretarv of the Agricultural Experiment Station, 
Ithaca, K. Y. 

Winoate, Charles F., 

Sanitary engineer, New York. 
Winn, Henry, 

Lawyer, Boston, Mass. ; candidate of the People's Party 
for Governor of Massachusetts in 1891. 

Wisser, Lieut John P., U. S. army, 

Assistant Professor of Chemistrv, Mineralogy, and Geolo- 
gy, U. S. Military Academy, West Point, jN. Y. ; author 
of a Report on the Military Schools of Europe, etc. 

Wood, Rev. Charles James, A. B., S. T. B., 
Rector of St. John's Church, York, Pa. 



Wood, De Volson, A. M., 

Professor of Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technol- 
ogy, Uoboken,N. J. 

Wood, F. E., 

Principal of Wood's Business College, Scranton, Pa. 
Wood, Horatio C, M. D., LL. D., M. N. A. S., 

Professor of Materia Medica, Pharmacy, and General 
Therapeutics, and Clinical Professor of Nervous Dis- 
eases, Department of Medicine, University of Penn- 
sylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Woodbury, Walter E., 

Editor of The Photographic Times, New York. 
Woodward, Calvin Milton, A. B., Ph. D., 

Professor of Mathematics and Applied Mechanics, dean 
of School of Engineering, and director of Manual- 
training School, Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. 

Woodworth, Rev. Frank G., D. D., 

President of Tougaloo University, Tougaloo, Miss. 

Woolpolk, Ada S., 

Of the College Settlement in New York. 

Woolsey, Theodore S., LL. B., A. M., 

Professor of International Law, Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn. 

Worm an, James H., A. M., 

Editor of Outing ; formerly Professor of Modern Lan- 
guages, Danville University, Tenn. 

Worstell, Miss M. V., 

Editorial department, St. Nicholas magazine, New York. 
Wright, Albert A., A. M., 

Professor of Geology and Natural History, Oberlin Col- 
lege, Oberlin, 0. 

Wright, C. B., A. M., 

Librarian, Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vt. 

Wright, Carroll Davidson, A. M., LL. D., 

U. S. Commissioner of Labor; acting superintendent of 
the eleventh census; Joseph Banigan Professor of Po- 
litical Science, Me Man on Hall of Philosophy, Catholic 
Uuiversity of America, Washington, D. C. 

Wurtz, Henry, A. M., Ph. D., New York. 

Wyckofp, W. 0., 

Of Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, manufacturers of 
typewriters, New York. 

Yates, J. Stuart, A. M., LL. B., 

Barrister, etc., Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. 
Youmans, William Jay, M. D., 

Editor of The Popular Science Monthly, New York. 
Yovtchefp, E. S., Cambridge, Mass. 
Yule, Maj.-Gen. Henry, C. B M 

Late of the Royal Engineers, Bengal ; London, England. 

Zachos, John C, 

Curator of library. Cooper Union, New York. 

Zo'ckler, Otto, 

Professor of Ecclesiastical History and Apologetics, 
University of Greilswahl, Germany. 



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MAPS IN VOL. XII. 



POLITICAL. 

UNITED STATES . . 

UNITED STATES: LAND ACQUIRED FROM 1783 TO 1899 

UNITED STATES POSSESSIONS 

UTAH . 

VERMONT . 

VIRGINIA . 

WASHINGTON 

WEST INDIES 

WEST VIRGINIA 

WISCONSIN . 

WORLD 

WYOMING . 



62 
593 

92 
162 
210 
298 
396 
404 
486 
517 
530 



PHYSICAL. 

UNITED STATES: SHOWING HEIGHT OP LAND 85 

UNITED STATES : RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE 36 

STATISTICAL. 

UNITED STATES: SHOWING CENTER OF POPULATION 38 

UNITED STATES: POPULATION AND WEALTH 40 

CITIES. 

VIENNA 195 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 300 



PLATES AND FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



FOSSIL VERTEBRATES: RESTORATIONS OF EXTINCT ANIMALS 
THE CAPITOL, WASHINGTON, D. C. .... 

CONGRESSIONAL LIBRARY, WASHINGTON, D. C. . 

YACHTS: SHAMROCK AND COLUMBIA 

YACHTS: TYPICAL BRITISH AND AMERICAN RACING-YACHTS 






171 
302 
803 
540 
541 



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PECULIAR PHONETIC SYMBOLS 

USED IN THE WRITING OR TRANSLITERATION OF THE DIFFERENT LANGUAGES. 



%: 

a: 
ib: 
al: 

ail: 

bh: 
b: 

9: 
S: 
c: 

ch: 



dh: 
d: 

dh: 
d: 



gh: 

r- 
5: 






V 



etc. : long vowels ; in the Scandinavian languages the 
accent (d, i, etc.) is used to denote length. 

a nasalized a ; so used in the transliteration of the Ira- 
nian languages. 

labialized guttural a in Swedish. 

open a of Eng. hat, used chiefly in 0. Eng. 

used in Gothic to denote e (open), in distinction from 
di, the true diphthong. 

used in Gothic to denote (open), in distinction from 
du y the true diphthong. 

in Sanskrit a voiced labial aspirate (cf. ch). 

voiced bilabial (or labiodental f) spirant, used in dis- 
cussions of Teutonic dialects. 

voiceless palatal sibilant, similar to Eng. sh, used espe- 
cially in transliteration of Sanskrit. 

frequently used, e. g. in Slavonic languages, to denote 
the sound of Eng. ch in cheek. 

voiceless palatal explosive, commonly used in translit- 
eration of Sanskrit and the Iranian languages. 

as used in the transliteration of Sanskrit, a voiceless 
palatal aspirate, an aspirate being an explosive with 
excess of breath; as used in German grammar, the 
symbol for a voiceless palatal or guttural spirant. 

voiced dental aspirate (cf. ch) in Sanskrit. 

voiced cerebral explosive, so used in transliteration of 
Sanskrit. 

voiced cerebral aspirate (cf. ch) in Sanskrit. 

voiced dental (interdental) spirant, equivalent to Eng. 
th in then ; so used in the Teutonic and Iranian lan- 
guages and in phonetic writing. 

a short open e, used in Teutonic grammar, particularly 
in writing 0. H. G. 

the short indefinite or "obscure" vowel of Eng. gar- 
dener ; used in the reconstruction of Indo-Eur. forms, 
and in transliterating the Iranian languages. 

in Sanskrit a voiced guttural aspirate (cf. ch). 

voiced velar (back-guttural) explosive, used most fre- 
quently in Indo-Eur. reconstructions. 

voiced guttural (or palatal) spirant, equivalent to Mod. 
Greek y, and used in transliteration of Iranian lan- 
guages and 0. Eng. 

a voiceless breathing, the Sanskrit visarga. 

a labialized h, similar to wh in Eng. what ; used in 
transliteration of Gothic and the Iranian languages. 

voiceless guttural (or palatal) spirant, equivalent to Ger- 
man ch, and used in transliteration of the Iranian 
languages. 

the semi- vowel y, or consonant form of i ; used in pho- 
netic writing and reconstructions of Indo-Eur. forms. 



kh: 
t: 

1: 



5: 

0: 
ph 
4: 



§: 



in the transliteration of Sanskrit and the Iranian lan- 
guages a voiced palatal explosive; in the Teutonic 
languages a semi-vowel (= y), for which in Indo-Eur. 
reconstructions i is generally used. 

in Sanskrit a voiced palatal aspirate (cf. ch). 

in Sanskrit a voiceless guttural aspirate (cf. ch). 

the guttural (" thick " or " deep ") of the Slavonic and 
some of the Scandinavian languages. 

vowel I ; used in transliterating Sanskrit, in reconstruct- 
ing Indo-Eur. forms, and in other phonetic writing. 

nasal vowel ; used in reconstruction of Indo-Eur. forms 
and in phonetic writing. 

in Sanskrit the cerebral nasal 

in Sanskrit the guttural nasal (see following). 

the guttural nasal, equivalent to Eng. n in longer ; used 
in transliteration of Iranian languages. 

palatal nasal, similar to gn in Fr. regner ; used in trans- 
literating Sanskrit and in phonetic writing. 

palatalized ; used in German and in phonetic writing. 

short open in Scandinavian. 

short palatalized (6) in Scandinavian. 

in Sanskrit, voiceless labial aspirate (cf. ch). 

voiceless velar (back-guttural) explosive ; used in recon- 
structions of Indo-Eur. forms and in other phonetic 
writing. 

vowel r; used in transliterating Sanskrit, in reconstruc- 
tions of Indo-Eur. forms, and in other phonetic writ- 
ing. 

voiceless cerebral sibilant, equivalent to Eng. sh ; used 
in transliterating the Iranian languages and in pho- 
netic writing. 

voiceless cerebral spirant ; used in transliterating San- 
skrit. 

in Sanskrit a voiceless dental aspirate (cf . ch). 

in Sanskrit a voiceless cerebral aspirate (cf. ch). 

in Sanskrit a voiceless cerebral explosive. 

a form of dental spirant used in transliterating the 
Iranian languages (represented in Justi's transliter- 
ation by \). 

voiceless dental (interdental) spirant, equivalent to Eng. 
th in thin ; used in Teutonic dialects and in phonetic 
writing. 

consonant form of u ; used in phonetic writing. 

voiced cerebral sibilant, equivalent to * in Eng. pleas- 
ure, and to/ in Fr.jardin; used in Iranian, Slavonic, 
and in phonetic writing. 

a symbol frequently used in the writing of 0. H. G. to 
indicate a voiced dental sibilant (Eng. *), in distinc- 
tion from z as sign of the affricata (ts). 



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EXPLANATION OF THE SIGNS AND ABBREVIATIONS 
USED IN THE ETYMOLOGIES. 



> , yielding by descent, i. e. under the operation of phonetic law. 

<, descended from. 

=, borrowed without change from. 

: , cognate with. 

+ , a sign joining the constituent elements of a compound. 

* , a sign appended to a word the existence of which is inferred. 



ablat 


ablative 


accus. 


accusative 


adjec 


adjective 


adv. 


adverb 


cf. 


compare 


conjunc. 


conjunction 


deriv. of 


derivative of 


dim in. 


diminutive 


fem. 


feminine 


genit 


genitive 


imper.- 


imperative 


impf. 


imperfect 


indie. 


indicative 


in fin. 


infinitive 


masc 


masculine 


nomin. 


nominative 


partic 


participle 


perf. 


perfect 


plur. 


plural 


prep. 


preposition 


pres. 


present 


pron. 


pronoun 


sc. 


scilicet, supply 


sing. 


singular 


subst. 


substantive 


vocat. 


vocative 


Anglo-Fr. 


Anglo-French 


Arab. 


Arabic 


Avest. 


Avestan 



Dan. 


Danish 


Eng. 


English 


Fr. 


French 


Germ. 


German 


Goth. 


Gothic 


Gr. 


Greek 


Heb. 


Hebrew 


IceL 


Icelandic 


ItaL 


Italian 


Lat 


Latin 


Lith. 


Lithuanian 


Mediaev. Lat. 


Medieval Latin 


Mod. Lat 


Modern Latin 


M. Eng. 


Middle English 


M. H. Germ. 


Middle High German 


0. Bulg. 


Old Bulgarian (= Church Slavonic) 


0. Eng. 


Old English (= Anglo-Saxon) 


O.Fr. 


Old French 


0. Fris. 


Old Frisian 


0. H. Germ. 


Old High German 


O.N. 


Old Norse 


0. Sax. 


Old Saxon 


Pers. 


Persian 


Portug. 


Portuguese 


Prov. 


Provencal 


Sanskr. 


Sanskrit 


Sc. 


Scotch 


Span. 


Spanish 


Swed. 


Swedish 


Teuton. 


Teutonic 



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KEY TO THE PRONUNCIATION. 



aa as a in father, and in the second syllable of 

armada. 
aa same, but less prolonged, as in the initial syllable 

of armada, Arditi, etc 

a as final a in armada, peninsula, etc 

& as a in fat, and t in French fin. 

ay or S. . as ay in nay, or as a in fate. 
ay or a., same, but less prolonged. 

& as a in welfare. 

aw as a in fall, all. 

ee as in meet, or as t in machine. 

ee same, but less prolonged, as final % in Arditi. 

e as in men, pet. 

e obscure e, as in Bigelow, and final e in Heine. 

4 as in for, and et* in French -eur. 

i as in it, sin. 

1 as in five, swine. 

i same, but less prolonged. 

o as in mole, sober. 

d same, but less prolonged, as in sobriety. 

o as in on, not, pot. 

oo as in fool, or as u in rule. 

oo as in book, or as it in put, pull. 

01 as in noise, and oy in boy, or as eu in German 

Beust. 
ow as in now, and as au in German foitM. 



as in G tithe, and as eu in French new/, Chintreuil. 

H as in but, hub. 

u obscure o, as final o in Compton. 

u as in German sUd, and as it in French Buzan- 

cais, vu. 
y or /. . . . see I or y. 

yu as u in mule. 

yti same, but less prolonged, as in singular, 

eh as in German ich. 

g as in get, give (never as in gist, congest). 

hw as wh in which. 

kh as eft in German nacht, g in German tag, ch in 

Scotch loch, and/ in Spanish Badajos, etc 
n nasal n, as in French fin, Bourbon, and nasal m, 

as in French nom, Portuguese Sam. 
fi or n-y.. Spanish ft, as in cation, pifton, French and 

Italian gn, etc, as in Boulogne. 
I or y. . . . French I, liquid or mouilte, as (-i)ll- in French 

Baudrillart, and (-i)J in Chintreuil. 

th as in Min. 

flk as in though, them, mother. 

v as w in German zwei, and 6 in Spanish Cordoba, 

sh as in shine. 

zh as 8 in pleasure, and j in French jour. 

All other letters are used with their ordinary English 
values. 



NOTE. 

The values of most of the signs used in the above Key are plainly shown by the examples given. But those of 
d\ Q, ch, kh, fi, and v, which have no equivalents in English, can not be sufficiently indicated without a brief explanation, 
which is here given. 

6*. The sound represented by this symbol is approximately that of -u- in hurt or -e- in her, but is materially different 
from either. It is properly pronounced with the tongue in the position it has when & is uttered and with the lips in 
the position assumed in uttering 5. 

fL This vowel is produced with the lips rounded as in uttering oo and with the tongue in the position required in utter- 
ing ee, into which sound it is most naturally corrupted. 

ch and kh. These are both rough breathings or spirants made with considerable force, ch being made between the flat 
of the tongue and the hard palate, and kh between the tongue and the soft palate ch approaches in sound to Eng- 
lish sh, but is less sibilant and is made further back in the mouth ; kh is a guttural and has a hawking sound. 

/ or y. These are both used to represent the sound of French 1 mouille*, in (-i)ll- and (-i)l, which resembles English -y- 
in lawyer. Final I, that is, (-i)l, may be approximated by starting to pronounce lawyer and stopping abruptly with 
the -y-. 

fi or n-y. The consonants represented by fi (Spanish fi, French and Italian gn, etc.) are practically equivalent to English 
-ni- or -ny- in bunion, bunyon, onion, etc., and, except when final, are represented by n-y. Final fi, as French -gn(e), 
may be produced by omitting the sound of -on in the pronunciation of onion. 

v. This may be pronounced by attempting to utter English v with the use of the lips alone 
See Preface (vol i., p. xxxix.) and the article Pronunciation of Foreign Names. 



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THE 
UETVEKSAL CYCLOREDIA. 




lybee' Island: an island in Chatham co., 
Ga., lying off the entrance to Savannah 
river. The island is 6 miles long and 8 
wide, and is separated from the other 
coast islands by Lazaretto creek. At 
its northeastern end stands Tybee light- 
house. 134 feet high, of brick, showing 
at a height of 150 feet above* the sea a 
fixed white dioptric light of the first order, visible for 18 
nautical miles; lat. 82° 1' 20' N., Ion. 80° 50* 81' W. Tybee 
island has become historic as the site of the batteries by 
which Gen. Gillraore breached Fort Pulaski on Cockspur 
island Apr. 11, 1862. See Bombardment. 

Tyche : anglicized form of the Greek name for Foetcna 
(q. v.). 
Tyeho Brahe : See Brahe. 

Tycoon, or Taikun [literally, great prince] : the name 
by which the shogun of Japan "was known to foreigners in 
the days of Japan's early intercourse with foreign nations. 
See Shogun. 
Tydides : See Diomedes. 
Tyler: city. See the Appendix. 

Tyler, Bennet, D. D.: theologian; b. in Middlebury, 
Conn., July 10, 1788; graduated at Yale College 1804; 
studied theology ; was pastor of the Congregational church 
at South Britain, Conn., 1808-22; president of Dartmouth 
College 1822-28 ; pastor of the Second Congregational church 
at Portland, Me., 1828-88 ; was the leader of the opposition 
to the theological views taught at Yale Theological Semi- 
nary known as the " New Divinity " (see Taylor, Nathaniel 
William, D. D.), and in 1834 became president and Profess- 
or of Christian Theology at the new seminary founded at 
East Windsor, Conn., by the " Pastoral Union " of churches 
in Connecticut — a post he 'retained until his death at South 
Windsor, May 14, 1858. He was author of A History of 
the New Haven Theology, in Letters to a Clergyman (1887) ; 
A Review of Day on the Will (1887) ; Memoir of Rev. Asa- 
hel Nettleton, D. D. (1844) ; The Sufferings of Christ con- 
fined to his Human Nature (1845) ; The Doctrine of Perse- 
verance of the Saints ; The New England Revivals (1846) ; 
Letters to Dr. Bushnell on Christian Nurture (1847-48). 

Tyler, Daniel: soldier; b. in Brooklyn, Conn., Jan. 7, 
1799 ; graduated at the U. S. Military Academy July, 1819, 
when commissioned second lieutenant light artillery ; served 
at the artillery school of practice 1824-27 ; on professional 
duty in France ; on ordnance duty 1830-84 ; resigned from 
the army May 81, 1834, and became a civil engineer, being 
president and constructing engineer of various railroads 
until the outbreak of the civil war. On Apr. 23, 1861, he 
was appointed colonel First Connecticut Volunteers, which 
regiment he led to Washington, and the next month was 
commissioned brigadier-general of Connecticut volunteers. 
He was in command of a division at the action of Black- 
burn's Ford, July 18, and in the battle of Bull Run, July 
21. Mustered out Aug. 11, 1861, he was reappointed briga- 
dier-general U. S. Volunteers Mar. 13, 1862. He was an ac- 
tive participant in the Mississippi campaign, and took part 
m the advance upon and sfepe of Corinth. June 15^-26, 
1863, he was in command of the Federal forces at Harper's 

VOL. XII.— 1 



Ferry and Maryland Hills when the Confederate army had 
invaded Pennsylvania. He resigned his commission Apr. 6, 
1864, and soon afterward took up his residence at Red Bank, 
N. J. He was somewhat interested in railways and manu- 
facturing business. D. in New York, Nov. 80, 1882. 

Tyler, John : tenth President of the U. S. ; b. in Charles 
City co., Va., Mar. 29, 1790; graduated at William and 
Mary College 1807; studied law; was admitted to the bar 
1809 ; was a member of the State Legislature 1811-16 and 
1828-25, and of Congress 1816-21 ; voted for the resolutions 
of censure on Gen. Jackson's conduct in Florida; opposed 
the U. S. Bank, the protective policy, and internal improve- 
ments bv the national Government ; was Governor of Vir- 
ginia 18^5-27, U. S. Senator 1827-36; opposed the adminis- 
tration of Adams and the Tariff Bill of 1828 ; made a three 
days' speech against a protective and in favor of a revenue 
tariff 1882 ; condemned the nullification measures of South 
Carolina in that year, but opposed Jackson's proclamation, 
and was the only Senator who voted against the '* Force" 
Bill for the repression of that incipient secession ; afterward 
voted for Clay's Compromise Bill, and his resolutions cen- 
suring President Jackson for the removal of the deposits 
1835, as being an unwarrantable act, although at the same 
time believing the U. S. Bank unconstitutional ; resigned 
his seat in the Senate Feb., 1836, in consequence of the vote 
of the Virginia Legislature instructing him to vote for ex- 
punging those resolutions from the Senate journal ; took 
up his residence at Williamsburg ; was regarded as a martvr 
to the Whig cause, and being in consequence supported in 
the campaign of 1886 for the vice-presidency by many 
Whigs, received forty-seven electoral votes; sat in the Vir- 
ginia Legislature as a Whig 1839-40; was a member of the 
national Whig convention which met at Harrisburg, Pa., 
Dec. 4, 1889, by which he was nominated for the vice-presi- 
dency on the ticket headed by Gen. Harrison ; was elected 
Vice-President Nov., 1840; inaugurated Mar. 4, 1841 ; suc- 
ceeded to the presidency on the death of Gen. Harrison 
Apr. 4; retained in office the cabinet of his predecessor; 
issued an inaugural address Apr. 9, 1841 ; expressed in a 
message to Congress, which met in extra session May 81, 
1841, his readiness to concur in any financial system not 
violative of the Constitution, and proposed through Mr. 
Ewing the outlines of a plan requiring the consent of the 
States to the establishment of branch banks within their 
limits ; vetoed the bill substituted by Clay expressly strik- 
ing out this requirement ; vetoed a second bill called the 
Fiscal Corporation Bill, which claimed for Congress a simi- 
lar power to establish corporations in the States ; was aban- 
doned by the members of his cabinet except Daniel Web- 
ster, who stated in a public letter that he saw no reason for 
his colleagues' deserting their offices ; filled their places with 
States-rights Whigs who were opposed to the kind of bank 
demanded by Henry Clay; negotiated through Webster the 
Ashburton Treaty, fixing the Northeast boundary for 2,000 
miles, and containing other important provisions (Aug. 9, 
1842) ; made several changes in his cabinet in 1843 ; after 
two vetoes obtained the enactment of the tariff of 1842; 
asserted the independence of the Hawaiian islands, and 
caused through Caleb Cushing the first treaty to be nego- 
tiated with China; for four years conducted the whole 



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TYLER 



financial operations of the Union, Congress having repealed 
all laws providing for the public funds and refused to adopt 
the so-called *" exchequer system" proposed by the Presi- 
dent ; suppressed Dorr's rebellion, and brought the exhaust- 
ing war with the Florida Indians to a close; concluded 
through Upshur and Calhoun a treaty for the annexation 
of Texas (Apr. 12, 1844), and when this was rejected by the 
Senate effected his object by the passage of the joint reso- 
lutions of Mar. 1, 1845 ; was nominated for the presidency 
by a convention of States-rights Whigs held at Baltimore 
in May, 1844, but soon withdrew from the canvass after 
forcing the Democratic convention, which met the same 
day, to nominate James K. Polk, an advocate of his favor- 
ite measure, the annexation of Texas ; was succeeded Mar. 
4, 1845, by James K. Polk, and lived in retirement until 
Jan., 1861, when he presided over the peace convention, 
which he suggested as a means to preserve the Union ; voted 
for secession in the Virginia State convention ; was elected 
to the Provisional Congress of the Confederate States, and 
in Nov., 1861, to the House of Representatives of the Con- 
federate States. He married in 1813 Letitia Christian, who 
died at Washington in 1842, and he contracted a second 
marriage, June 26, 1844, with Julia Gardiner, of New York. 
He died at Richmond, Jan. 18, 1862. 

Revised by L. G. Tyler. 

Tyler, Lyon Gardiner, M. A., LL. D. : educator ; b. at 
Sherwood Forest, Charles City co., Va., Sept., 1853 ; edu- 
cated at the University of Virginia; Professor of Belles- 
lettres, William and Mary College, 1877-79 ; principal Mem- 
phis Institute 1879-82 ; began the practice of law in Rich- 
mond 1882; member of the Virginia House of Delegates 
1887-88 ; became president William and Mary College 1888 ; 
author of The Letters and Times of the Tylers (2 vols., 
Richmond, 1883-84) ; Parties and Patronage in the United 
States (New York, 1890). He is the son of President John 
Tyler by his second wife, Julia Gardiner. C. H. T. 

Tyler, Moses Corr, LL. D., L. H. D. : educator ; b. at 
Griswold, Conn., Aug. 2, 1835 ; graduated at Yale College 
1857 ; studied theology there and at Andover, Mass. ; pastor 
First Congregational church, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., 1860- 
62 ; resided in England 1863-67. In 1867 he was appointed 
to the chair of English at the University of Michigan, and 
in 1881 to that of American History at Cornell. In 1881 he 
was ordained deacon in the Protestant Episcopal church, 
and in 1883 priest. He is the author of The Brawnville 
Papers (Boston, 1869), a volume of essays on physical cul- 
ture; A History of American Literature during the Colo- 
nial Time (2 vols., New York, 1878) ; A Manual of English 
Literature, jointly with Henry Morley (New York, 1879) ; 
Patrick Henry (in the American Statesmen Series, Boston, 
1887) ; Three Men of Letters (biographical and critical mon- 
ographs on Berkeley, President Dwi^ht, and Joel Barlow, 
New York, 1894) ; and A Literary History of the American 
Revolution (in press, 1895). During his early residence in 
England he was a frequent contributor to The Independent 
and especially to The Nation, and one of his articles in the 
latter on American Reputations in England was reprinted 
in a volume entitled Essays from the Nation, He has con- 
tributed important articles in more recent years to various 
other periodicals. H. A. Beers. 

Tyler, Ransom Hebbard : author and jurist ; b. in Ley- 
den, Mass., Nov. 18, 1813 ; removed to New York with his 
parents in early youth ; studied law and was admitted to 
the bar, taking up the practice of law at Fulton, N. Y. He 
was elected and appointed to various local offices, including 
those of district attorney and county judge of Oswego 
County; traveled extensively abroad, and also devoted 
much time to literature. D. at Fulton, N. Y., Nov. 27, 1881. 
He edited the Oswego Gazette, and published The Bible and 
Social Reform, or the Scriptures as a Means of Civilization 
(1863) ; American Ecclesiastical Law (including the law of 
burial-grounds, 1866) ; Commentaries on the Law of In- 
fancy, including Guardianship and the Custody of Infants 
and the Law of Coverture, embracing Dower, Marriage, 
and Divorce (1868) ; Treatise on the Law of Boundaries 
and Fences; Treatise on the Law of Fixtures (1877); 
Treatise on the Law of Usury, Pawns or Pledges, and 
Maritime Loans (1873); Treatise on the Remedy by Eject- 
ment and the Law of Adverse Enjoyment (1871) ; besides 
many short articles in magazines. F. Sturges Allen. 

Tyler, Robert Ooden ; soldier ; b. in Greene co., N. Y., 
Dec. 22, 1831 ; graduated at the U. S. Military Academy 
July 1, 1853, when commissioned brevet second lieutenant 



of artillery, reaching the grades of first lieutenant Sept. 1, 
1856, and captain and quartermaster U. S. army May 17, 
1861. After a year passed in garrison he joined Col. Step- 
toe's command, which marched from St. Louis to Washing- 
ton Territory, 1854-55, Tyler taking post at San Francisco ; 
engaged in the Yakima (1856) and the Spokane (1858) expe- 
ditions, participating in the actions of the Four Lakes, 
Spokane Plains, and Spokane river; transferred to Fort 
Ridgely, Minnesota, 1859, and New York harbor 1860 ; en- 
gaged in the civil war on the expedition for relief of Fort 
Sumter Apr., 1861 ; in reopening communications with 
Washington vi& Baltimore May, 1861 ; as d£pot quarter- 
master at Alexandria May-Sept., when appointed colonel 
Fourth Connecticut Volunteers, and in command of his regi- 
ment (known as the First Connecticut Heavy Artillery after 
Jan., 1862) in the defenses of Washington until the spring 
of 1862 ; in the Virginia Peninsular campaign in command 
of siege-batteries before Yorktown ; in battles of Hanover 
Court-house, Gaines's Mill, and Malvern HilL He was pro- 
moted brigadier-general of volunteers Nov. 29, 1862, and 
engaged in the battle of Fredericksburg, Dec. 13, in command 
of the artillery of Sumner's grand division ; of the artillery 
reserve of the Army of the Potomac at Chancellorsville, 
Gettysburg, and subsequent operations, until Jan., 1864 ; of 
division of Twenty-second Army-corps, covering Washing- 
ton and lines of communications of the Array of the Poto- 
mac, Jan.-May, 1864 ; of division of heavy artillery, Second 
Corps, in the Richmond campaign of 1864, from the Wilder- 
ness battles to Cold Harbor, where he was severely wounded 
June 1, and disabled for further duty in the field. He com- 
manded various departments from Dec, 1864, to June, 1866, 
when he resumed quartermaster duty, in which department 
he became lieutenant-colonel and deputy quartermaster- 

General July, 1866, serving thereafter in San Francisco, New 
ork, Boston, and elsewhere. He was breveted from major 
to major-general in the U. S. army for gallantry in action. 
D. in Boston, Mass., Dec. 1, 1874. 

Revised by James Mercur. 

Tyler, Roy all: jurist and author; b. in Boston, Mass., 
July 18, 1757; graduated at Harvard 1776 ; studied law un- 
der John Adams ; was for a short time during the war of 
the Revolution aide to Gen. Lincoln, which post he also 
filled during the Shays rebellion 1786; settled at Guilford, 
Vt., 1790 ; was judge of the Vermont Supreme Court 1794- 
1800, and chief justice 1800-06 ; published Reports of Cases 
in the Supreme Court of Vermont (New York, 2 vols., 1809- 
10). D. at Brattleboro, Vt., Aug. 16, 1826. He was one of 
the earliest American dramatists, enjoyed a high reputation 
as a wit, and was quite successful iii the introduction in 
comedy of Yankee dialect and of humorous stories. Among 
his pieces were The Contrast (1790), produced Apr., 16, 1787, 
at the John Street theater, in New York, the first American 
comedy regularly presented bv a company of professional 
actors : May Day, or New York in an Uproar, produced 
May, 1787 ; and The Georgia Spec, or Land in the Moon, 
produced 1797. He was a leading contributor of humorous 
verse and prose to Joseph Dennie's papers, The Farmer's 
Weekly Museum (Walpole, N. H., 1795-99) and The Port- 
folio (Philadelphia, 1801, seq.) ; wrote also for The New 
England Galaxy, The Columbian Centinel, The Polyanthos, 
and other literary journals, and was author of a Crusoe-like 
novel, The Algerine Captive, or the Life and Adventures of 
Dr. Updike Underhill, Six Years a Prisoner among the Al- 
gerines (Walpole, 2 vols., 1797) ; besides Moral Tales for 
American Youths (1800) and The Yankey in London (1809). 

Revised by H. A. Beers. 

Tyler, Samuel, LL.D. : author and lawyer; b. in Prince 
George co., Md., Oct. 22, 1809; educated at Georgetown, 
D. C, where he paid especial attention to Greek ; afterward 
studied at Middlebury College, Vermont, 1827; studied law ; 
admitted to the bar at Frederick City in 1831 ; in 1850 ap- 
pointed one of three commissioners to simplify the plead- 
ings and practice in all the courts of the State, and prepared 
a Report, which contained a learned comparison of the 
common law and the civil law ; resided for some years in 
Washington, D. C. ; was connected as professor with the 
law department of the Columbian University ; wrote chiefly 
on metaphysics, in which branch his labors received com- 
mendation from Sir William Hamilton and other competent 
critics. D. at Georgetown, D. C, Dec. 15, 1877. Autnor of 
A Discourse on the Baconian Philosophy (1844); Burns as 
a Poet and as a Man (1848); The Progress of Philosophy 
in the Past and in the Future (1859 ; 2d ed. 1868) ; and a 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



TYLER 



TYNDALL 



3 



Memoir of Roger Brooke Taney (1872) ; Commentary on 
the Law of Partnership (1877) ; and editor of Gilbert's His- 
tory of the Law of Chancery and Mitford's Chancery Plead- 
ing. Revised by P. Stueges Allen. 

Tyler, William Seymour, D. D., LL. D. : educator ; b. at 
Harford, Pa., Sept. 2, 1810 ; graduated at Amherst College 
1830; taught classics in Amherst Academy 1830-31; was 
tutor in Amherst College 1832-34 ; studied theology at An- 
dover Seminary; was m 1836 licensed to preach, but not 
ordained until" many years later (1859), in consequence of 
his acceptance of the professorship of Greek and Latin at 
Amherst College; became Graves Professor of Greek (1847) 
on the division of the professorial chair ; visited Europe and 
the East 1855, and Greece and Egypt 1869. He has pub- 
lished The Oermania and Agricola of Caius Cornelius Ta- 
citus (New York, 1847; enlarged eds. 1852 and 1818), irith 
notes and a Life ; The Histories of Tacitus (1849 1 : FVoyer 
for Colleges (1855; several eds.), a prize essay; Memoir of 
Rev. Henry Lobdell, if. Z>., Missionary at Mosul (B n, 
1859) ; Plato's Apology and Crito (1860) ; The Theology of 
the Greek Poets (1867); The History of Amherst College 
(Springfield, 1873); Demosthenes de Corona (Boston, 1*74); 
The (Hynthiacs and Philippics of Demosthenes (18WE) ; and 
M nine books of the Hiad (New York, 1886) ; besides numerous 
commemorative discourses, and contributions to reviews and 
cyclopaedias, and to the Transactions of the American Philo- 
logical Association. 

Tylor, Edwaed Burnett, D. C. L., LL. D., F. R. S. : an- 
thropologist ; b. at Camberwell, London, England, Oct. 2, 
1832. He was educated at the Friends' School, Tottenham. 
In 1856 he went to Mexico in company with Henry Christy, 
and made an extended exploration of the antiquities, etc. 
The results of this journey were published witn the title 
Anahuac, or Mexico and the Mexicans (1861), which has 
been much praised for the accuracy of its descriptions. 
Other important works by him are Primitive Culture (1871) 
and Anthropology (1881). In 1888 he was named Gilford 
lecturer at Aberdeen University, and in 1891 he was presi- 
dent of the Anthropological Society. H. H. S. 

Tylpinos : see Turpin. 

Tym'panum [ = Lat. = Gr. rtfxwayov, drum, kettledrum, 
deriv. of rfc-rcir, strike] : a sort of drum or hollow organ 
constituting the middle ear in man, containing air, and 
through its middle a small chain of bones — the malleus, or 
hammer-bone, the incus, or anvil, and the stapes, or stirrup. 
See Ear. 

Tyn'dale, or Tindale, William : translator of the New 
Testament ; b. perhaps at Hunt's Court, North Nibley, or 
perhaps at Meltsham Court, both in Gloucestershire, Eng- 
land, about 1484 ; studied at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, where 
he graduated B. A. 1512 ; removed to Cambridge, probably 
because Erasmus was there (1510-14) ; took holy orders ; left 
Cambridge 1521 ; resided as a chaplain and tutor in the 
family of Sir John Welsh, of Little Sodbury, near Bristol, 
incurring danger by his advocacy of the doctrines of Luther, 
then recently proclaimed, on which account *he was cited 
before the chancellor of the diocese of Worcester 1522; 
translated into English the Enchiridion Militis, or Sol- 
dier's Manual, of Erasmus; went to London 1523; made 
an unsuccessful application for admission into the house- 
hold of Bishop Tunstall ; was protected for some months in 
the family of Alderman Humphrey Monmouth, who gave 
him £10 per annum to prosecute his theological studies in 
Germany, on condition of praying at stateofperiods for the 
souls of* the alderman's parents ; went to Hamburg Jan., 
1524; thence to Wittenberg ; to Cologne, 1525. He engaged 
in the translation of the New Testament into English, with 
the aid of John Frith and William Roye, the printing of 
which at Cologne in the office of Peter Quentell (quarto, 
1525) was interrupted by the vigilance of Cochlaeus ; com- 
pleted the printing at Worms in the office of Peter Schoef- 
ier ; issued in 1526 a new octavo edition of the whole work, 
which obtained a wide though secret circulation in Eng- 
land, being prohibited by an edict of Tunstall, Bishop of 
London, who bought up the remainder of the edition at 
Antwerp and burned them at Cheapside 1529 ; removed to 
Marburg, and published there his Obedience of a Christian 
Man (1528) ; had an interview with Coverdale at Hamburg, 
and issued a fifth edition of the Testament 1529 ; published 
*us translation of the Pentateuch, " emprented at Maribor- 
ew [Marburg] in the Land of Hesse," 1520 ; had a bitter 
controversy with Sir Thomas More, who in a witty and 



abusive pamphlet denounced the translation and its author 
1529; was treacherously invited to return to England in 
order to seize his person — an artifice to which his assistant, 
John Frith, fell a victim, being burned at the stake 1533 ; 
brought out a revised and corrected edition, the first to 
which he out his name, 1534 ; wrote several doctrinal trea- 
tises and introductions, expositions, and notes to various 
books of the Bible ; resided during his later years at Ant- 
werp ; was arrested 1535 on a charge of heresy through the 
agencv of an emissary of Henry V III. acting in concert 
with tne clergy and magistrates of Brussels ; imprisoned in 
the castle of Vilvorde, Brabant, near Brussels ; tried by vir- 
tue of a decree of Charles V., issued at Augsburg 1530, and 
the University of Louvain having urged his condemnation, 
with the eager approval of Henry VlII., he was convicted, 
after eighteen months' imprisonment, during which he trans- 
lated from Joshua to 1 Chronicles, inclusive; these trans- 
lations, along with his Pentateuch and Jonah, were published 
in Matthew? Bible (1537). He was strangled and burned 
at the stake at Vilvorde, Oct. 6, 1536. He met his fate 
with composure, his last words being a prayer, " Lord, open 
thou the King of England's eyes. The spot where he 
suffered is shown near the new penitentiary at Vilvorde. 
A monument to his memory was erected at Nibley Noll, 
Nov., 1866. His translation of the New Testament is the 
basis of the Authorized Version, and is executed with con- 
siderable accuracy and elegance, and also with independ- 
ence ; his translations from the Old Testament show clearly 
dependence upon Luther. His works were published Lon- 
don, 1573, and by the Parker Society (8 vols., 1848-50) ; his 
Pentateuch was reprinted by Rev. Jacob I. Mombert (New 
York, 1884) ; his New Testament has been several times re- 
printed. A beautiful edition, with a Memoir of Tyndale's 
Life and Writings* by George OflPor, was published by S. 
Bagster (London, 1836), and reprinted at Andover, Mass., 
1837 ; but the best Life is by K. Demaus (London, 1871 ; 
rev. by R. Lovett, 1886). Revised by S. M. Jackson. 

Tyndall, John : physicist ; b. at Lei$hlin Bridge, near 
Carlow, Ireland, Aug. 21, 1820. He received a sound edu- 
cation in English and mathematics, and in 1839 became 
civil assistant to a division of the ordnance survey. He was 
a railway engineer at Manchester from 1844 to 1847, when 
he became a teacher of physics at Queen wood College, 
Hampshire, where Dr. Edward Frankland was resident 
chemist. In 1848 he and Frankland went to Germany, and 
attended Bunsen's and Knoblauch's lectures at Marburg. 
Tyndall worked in the laboratory in conjunction with Knob- 
lauch, and made discoveries in magnetism, which he embodied 
in a paper published in The Philosophical Magazine in 1850. 
He graduated in 1851, presenting for his doctorate a thesis 
on screw surfaces, and afterward continued his studies under 
Magnus in Berlin. He returned to England, where he pub- 
lished the results of his experiments, which led to his being 
elected in 1852 a fellow of the Royal Society. In 1853, 
on the proposal of Faraday, he was elected Professor of Nat- 
ural Philosophy at the Royal Institution, of which he was 
made superintendent in 1867. In 1856, with Prof. Huxley, 
he visited Switzerland, where he distinguished himself by 
being the first to climb the Weisshorn, and by his observa- 
tions on the structure and motion of glaciers. Subsequently 
he reached the summit of the Matterhorn, crossing it from 
Breuil to Zermatt, and from 1856 until his death no year 
passed without a visit to the Alps. The results of this and 
later Swiss experiences he published in the Philosophical 
Transactions, in Glaciers of the Alps (1860), Mountaineering 
in 1861 (1862), and Hours of Exercise in the Alps (1871). 
In 1859 he began his important investigations on radiant 
heat, the results of which ne described in his lectures at the 
Royal Institution in 1862, in Heat considered as a Mode of 
Motion (1863), and in the Rede lecture On Radiation (1865). 
Later he studied the acoustic properties of the atmosphere 
and the subject of spontaneous generation, discovering in 
1869 a very precise method of determining the absence or 
presence of particles of dust in the air. Several of his results 
were embodied in his lecture Dmt and Disease (1870). (See 
The Nineteenth Century, Jan., 1878.) In 1872 he visited the 
U. S. on a successful lecturing tour, the profits of which he 
placed in the hands of an American committee as a fund " in 
aid of students who devote themselves to original research." 
He received honorary degrees from the Universities of Cam- 
bridge and Edinburgh, and was made a D. C. L. by the Uni- 
versity of Oxford, in spite of the protest of Dr. Heurtley, 
Margaret Professor of Divinity, who alleged that Tyndall 



TYNE 



TYPE-FOUNDING 



had signalized himself by writing against and denying the 
credibility of miracles and the efficacy of prayer, etc. In 
1874 he was president of the British Association in its meet- 
ing at Belfast, when his address excited a keen controversy, 
in consequence of its being the first clear and unmistakable 
utterance as to the aims of modern science, and its apparent 
assertion of materialistic opinions, as for instance in the 
statement that he found in matter '* the promise and potency 
of every form and quality of life.'* In 1883 he retired from 
several appointments, and in 1887 was succeeded as professor 
at the Royal Institution by Lord Rayieigh. Toward the 
close of his life he took a somewhat prominent part in op- 
posing Gladstone's scheme of Home Rule for Ireland. D. 
at Haslemere, Surrey, from an overdose of chloral acci- 
dentally administered by his wife, Dec. 4, 1893. Tyndall's 
eminence did not arise especially from his scientific dis- 
coveries, but rather from his force of character, his uncom- 
promising love of truth, his unrivaled grasp of his mate- 
rials, and his power as a brilliant and effective exponent 
of physical science, both in his public lectures and in his 
writings, which are remarkable for their literarv merit. Be- 
sides the works previously mentioned, he published Sound, 
a Course of Eight Lectures (1867 ; 8d ed., enlarged, 1875) ; 
Faraday as a Discoverer (1868; 4th ed. 1884); Natural 
Philosophy in Easy Lessons (1869) ; Nine Lectures on Light 
(1870) ; Researches on Diamagnetism and Magnet o -cry stallic 
Action (1870) ; Seven Lectures on Electrical Phenomena and 
Theories (1870) ; Essays on the Use and Limit of the Imagi- 
nation in Science (1871) ; Fragments of Science for Unsci- 
entific People (1871 ; 8th ed. 1892) ; The Forms of Water in 
Clouds and Rivers, Ice and Glaciers (1872, being voL i. 
of the International Scientific Series); Contributions to 
Molecular Physics in the Domain of Radiant Heat (1872) ; 
Essays on the Floating Matter of the Air (1881) ; and New 
Fragments (1892). * R. A. Roberts. 

Tyne : river of Northern England ; formed by the junc- 
tion of the North and South Tyne. It flows eastward, and 
enters the North Sea after a course of 30 miles through the 
richest mining districts of England. Its chief tributaries 
are the Derwent and the Team. It is navigable 18 miles 
from the North Sea. 

Tynemouth : town ; in Northumberland, England ; at the 
mouth of the Tyne; 9 miles E. of Newcastle (see map of 
England, ref. 3-ft). Tynemouth is a well-built town, and is 
the chief watering-place of Northumberland. It has a pier 
half a mile long, completed in 1892, and a lighthouse situ- 
ated on the cliffs above. The municipal and parliamentary 
borough, returning one member, includes North Shields (see 
Shields) and several other townships. Pop. (1891) 46,267. 

Tyng, Stephen Hiooinsox, D. D. : clergyman ; b. at New- 
burvport, Mass., Mar. 1, 1800; son of Hon. Dudley Atkins 
(17&M829), U. S. collector at that port and reporter of the 
Massachusetts Supreme Court, who assumed the name of 
Tyng on inheriting the estate of his relative, James Tyng, of 
Tyngsborough ; graduated at Harvard 1817; was for some 
time engaged in mercantile pursuits; afterward studied 
theology ; was ordained in the Protestant Episcopal Church 
1821 ; was minister of St. George's, Georgetown, I). C, 1821- 
23, of a church in St. Anne's parish, Md., 1823-29 ; rector of 
St. Paul's, Philadelphia, 1829-433, of the Church of the Epiph- 
any, Philadelphia, 1833-45, and from 1845 to May, 1878, 
of St. George's, New York ; traveled in Europe ; edited suc- 
cessively 7 he Episcopal Recorder, The Theological Reposi- 
tory, and The Protestant Churchman; author of Lectures 
on the Law and Gospel (Philadelphia, 1832) ; Recollections 
of England (New York, 1847) ; Forty Years 1 Experience in 
Sunday-Schools (New York, 1860) ; The Prayer-Book Illus- 
trated by Scripture® series, 1863-67); The Child of Prayer, 
a Father's Memorial to the Rev. Dudley A. Tyng, A. M. 
(1858), and other works, theological and biographical ; pub- 
lished several volumes of sermons and many addresses ; edit- 
ed with introductions or prefatory memoirs various works 
by other hands ; was a conspicuous advocate of temperance 
and other reforms, and had high fame for eloquence in the 

?ulpit and on the platform. D. at Irvington, N. Y., Sept. 4, 
885. — His son, Dudley Atkins, b. in Prince George's co., 
Md., Jan. 12, 1825 ; graduated at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania 1843; studied theology at Alexandria Seminary; took 
orders in the Protestant Episcopal Church 1846; was" assist- 
ant to his father at St. George's church. New York; had 
charge of parishes at Columbus, O., Charlestown, Va M and 
Cincinnati, 0., and was rector of the Church of the Epiphany, 
Philadelphia, from 1854 until shortly before his death, at 



Brookfield, near Philadelphia, Apr. 19, 1808. He was a suc- 
cessful lecturer upon religious and social topics, and acquired 
a high reputation for ability and manliness, as well as phil- 
anthropy, by his course in preaching against slavery, which 
involved his dismissal from his pastorate. The hymn Stand 
up for Jesus / commemorates an incident of his deathbed. 
He published Vital Truth and Deadly Error (Philadelphia, 
1852) ; Children of the Kingdom, or Lectures on Family 
Worsh ip (1854), republished in England as God in the Dwell- 
ing (4th ed. 1859) ; and Our Country's Troubles (Philadelphia, 
1856). His Life, as above indicated, was written by his 
father. — Another son, Thbodosius S. Tyng, is a missionary 
at Osaka, Japan. Revised by W. S. Perry. 

Tyng, Stephen Hiooinson, Jr., D. D. : clergyman ; son of 
Stephen H. Tyng, D.D.; b. at Philadelphia, Pa., June 28, 
1839; graduated at Williams College 1858; studied at the 
Theological Seminary of Virginia; was ordained deacon 
May 8, 1861; assisted his father in the ministry of St. 
George's church, New York, 1861-68 ; was ordained priest 
Sept. 11, 1868; became rector of the Church of the Media- 
tor, New York, 1863 ; entered the army as chaplain of the 
Twelfth New York Volunteers 1864 ; organized the parish 
of the Holy Trinity, New York, 1865, building on Forty- 
second street a church which in 1873-74 was replaced by a>« 
larger edifice ; was tried in 1867 for preaching in a Metho- 
dist church in New Jersey, which was a violation of the 
canon law of his Church ; edited 1864-70 a weekly religious 
journal, The Working Church; was noted for his cordial 
fellowship with evangelical churches of other denomina- 
tions; took a prominent part in the revival movement of 
1875 directed by Moody and Sankey, and in the sum- 
mer of 1876, in combination with other clergymen, com- 
menced out-door Sunday services for the people in a " gos- 
pel tent " erected near his church — an undertaking which 
proved very successful ; published The Square of Life (New 
York, 1876) ; lie Will Come (1877) ; and several volumes of 
sermons. He resigned the rectorship of Holy Trinity 
Church in 1881, and settled in Paris as manager of the in- 
terests of an insurance company. D. in Paris, Nov. 17, 1898. 

Type [from Lat. ty'pus, figure, image, form, type = Gr. 
t&toj, liter., blow, impression, mark, deriv. of rinrrw, strike] : 
in theology, an image or representation prefiguring a person 
or thing, which then is called its antitype ; thus St. Peter 
describes baptism as the antitype of the ark of Noah (1 Pet., 
iii. 21). In this sense the word is used several times in the 
New Testament and by Jewish historians; and several of 
the Fathers, especially Augustine and Gregory the Great, 
are very ingenious in finding types by their intrepretation 
of the Bible. In chemistry, types are formulas representing 
the composition and structure of other more complex com- 
pounds, which may then be derived from the simpler forms 
by substitution. They include the monovalent type HC1, 
the divalent type H>0, the trivalent type H»N, and the 
quadrivalent type H 4 C. 

Type : See Printing. 

Type- founding: the process of casting or manufacturing 
tvpe. From the discovery of printing to the middle of the 
sixteenth century printers cast their own type. After 1550 
it became a business distinct from printing. Claude Garo- 
mond, of Paris, who began early in that century, is regarded 
as the father of letter-founders. He was followed by Le Be\ 
Sanlecque, Moreau, Fournier, Grand- 
jean, Legrand, and others, who main- 
tained the reputation of French type- 



H" ' 




r Ti 



L. 



Fio. 1— Letter H, 
from a type of 
canon body. 



Fio. 2.— Face of the 
Jetter on the body. 



Fio. 8.— View of bodr 
inclined to show the 
face. 

founding. Bodoni (1740-1818), of Italy, the Didots, of France, 
and Breitkopf (1719-94), of Leipzig, are other distinguished 
names in the subsequent history of tvpe-making. Great 
Britain imported most of its type from Holland until about 
1720, when William Caslon became famous as a letter-cutter. 
The Caslon foundry, established in 1718 in London, is still 
in existence, and contains the original punches which Cas- 
lon cut. Baskerviile and Wilson were other notable Brit- 



Digitized by V^jOOQ IC 



TYPE-FOUNDING 



5 




beard ; 6, shoulder; 
7. pin • mark ; 8, 
nick ; 9, groove ; 
10. feet 




fan founders. About 1785 Christopher Saur (or Sower) be- 
gan printing at Gerraantown, Pa., and east the type which 
he required, executing the second Bible 
printed in America, a quarto, in Ger- 
man, in 1743. Several unsuccessful 
attempts were subsequently made to 
establish type-foundries in America, 
among them one by Franklin. Binny 
& Ronaldson. of Edinburgh, began 
type-founding in Philadelphia in 1<96, 
and, after a severe struggle and by 
State aid, were the first to establish a 
business, afterward known as the 
Johnson Foundry, and now carried on 
as the MacKellar, Smiths & Jordan 
branch of the American Type Found- 
Fio.4.-l. counter; 2, ere' Company. The first type-found- 
hair-line : 8, serif ; erg f Xew York— Mappa, of 1793, and 
maVk^^neckTor Robert Lothian, of 1806— were unsuc- 
*'" cessful. Elihu White, who began in 
1810, succeeded. He was followed in 
1813 by the rival house of D. & G. Bruce, 
through whose efforts stereotyping 
was introduced in the U. S. There is evidence that at the 
beginning of the sixteenth century the apparatus for type- 
founding was much the same as up to the 
middle of the nineteenth century. In devis- 
ing a new font of type the first process is to 
make a model in steel for each letter. In- 
stead of cutting out the interior of the letter, a 
tool, called the counter-punch, is cut on steel 
to form the hollow or counter of the letter. 
The counter-punch, after hardening, is then 
impressed in the end of a short bar of soft 
steel, which is known as the punch. Around 
this sunken counter the model letter is cut in 
high relief. The punch is hardened (then re- 
sembling Fig. 5), and is punched into a flat 
piece of cold-rolled copper like Fig. 6, which, 
after careful finishing, becomes the matrix, or 
mother-type. The letters at the bottom of the 
matrix indicate the size, double english, and 
the number of nicks, in this case one nick. Every letter 
requires a separate punch and matrix. Matrixes may also 
be made by electrotyping from the face of the type or an 
engraving. The matrix is then fitted to the mould that 
forms the body of the letter. The hand- 
mould, used from the discovery of printing 
until recently, is composed of two parts, which 
fit exactly together. The external surface is 
of wood, the interior of steel. At the top is 
a shelving orifice, into which the metal is 
poured. The space within is of the size of 
the required body of the letter. The caster, 
holding the mould in the left hand, with a 
small ladle containing about a spoonful pours 
the metal into the orifice, then jerks up the 
mould higher than his head to expel air and 
condense the metal, lowers it, opens the 
mould, and casts out the type. The hand- 
mould is now seldom used, except to cast 
large metal or kerned type. The type, when 
first thrown out, has a piece of metal attached 
to its base, called the jet, partly represented at the bottom 
of the letter H in Fig. 7. In hand-dressing this jet is 
broken off by bovs, the sides of the type are rubbed smooth 
bn gritstone, and the type set up in long lines. They are 

then dressed and finished ; a 

? groove (Fig. 4, 9) is cut in the 
oot of the type to remove 
any bit of the "jet remaining. 
After examination with a mi- 
croscope for the detection of 
imperfect letters, the types 
are ready for use. 

Type-cast ing Mach in ps. — 
About 1826 William M. John- 
son, of Long Island, not a 
founder, conceived the idea of 
casting type by machinery, 
but the types made by his machine were too light and 
porous. David Bruce, Jr., of New York, patented a more 
successful type-casting machine Mar. 17, 1888. Subse- 
quently improved, it was put to general use in foundries in 





Fio. 7.— Half of machine- mould 
(De Vinnej. 



the U. S., and was slowly adopted, with modifications, by 
European founders. This machine is represented in Fijr. 
8. It consists of a small melting-pot to hold the metal, 
which is kept fluid by a gas-jet or small furnace. In the in- 
terior of the pot is a forcing-pump and valve that expels 
the metal under the piston or plunger, and prevents its re- 
turn to the mass in the pot. 

The valve secures the full force exerted by the plunger, 
which transmits it to the molten metal under it, and forces it 
through a narrow channel leading from the bottom of the 
chamber in which the plunger works to the outside of the 
pot, where a nipple is inserted, with a small hole through 
it, communicating with the narrow channel. Against this 
nipple the mould in which the type is formed is pressed at 
the moment when the plunger descends to receive the 
molten metal that forms the type. The type-mould, of 
steel, is composed of two parts, each fitting the other with 
great exactness. Pier. 7 represents one-half of this mould, 
containing a letter just cast, which shows the nicks in the 
letter formed by a convex ridge in the other half-mould, and 
the jet of surplus metal attached to the bottom of the type. 
The face of the letter is shown without the matrix, Fig. 6. 
which is pro|>erly adjusted when in position, and the mould 




Fio. 8.— Bruce's type-casting machine. 

closed. A mould is made for each body of type, and is im- 
movable in the direction of its depth, but is made adjustable 
to suit the varying widths of different letters. Its immobility 
in one direction insures the same body for every type cast in 
each font. It is therefore only necessary to change the ma- 
trix for every character, insteaa of having a mould and matrix 
for the different letters. Half of the mould is attached to an 
oscillating arm, which carries the mould to and from the 
nipple in the melting-pot. The other half of the mould is 
attached to another arm, which is connected to the first arm, 
so that the two halves open and shut upon each other. The 
machine operates as follows : The plunger being raised in the 
chamber of the pump, and the chamber being supplied with 
metal through the valve, the mould is brought against the 
nipple ; the valve closes to prevent the metal being forced 
back into the pot ; the plunger descends and forces the metal 
through the narrow channel into the mould, the mould re- 
cedes, the halves separate, and the type is cast out. A blast 
of cold air is directed upon the mould to keep it cool. The 
types are hand-dressed as before. This machine is worked 
by turning a small crank-wheel. It may also be worked by 
steam. David Bruce, Jr., in 1868, introduced an apparatus 
adapted to the type-casting machine to receive the type as 
fast as cast, and break off the jet or stem of metal by a con- 
secutive operation. The London Type-founding Company's 
machine is heated by gas, the mould is cooled by a stream of 
cold water, and the types when made travel into* small cham- 
bers, where they are planed, smoothed, nicked, and grooved 
ready for use. Several machines were introduced at an early 
date into the IT. S. to rub and dress type automatically. An 
important improvement is the type-casting machine of J. A. 

Digitized by VjjOOQ IC 



TYPESETTING-MACHINES 



T. Overend, of San Francisco, Cal., patented in 1875. A 
pump-cylinder is provided with a plunger, having a chamber 
in its lower end ; a hole in the lower part of the cylinder al- 
lows the metal to flow in, and as the plunger closes this hole 
in descending, an opening in its upper part arrives opposite 
the discharge opening, and the liquid is forcibly ejected. A 
self-adjusting nozzle connects the pumps with the mould. 
Between the nozzle and the mould a carrier is interposed 
having several arms with holes. When the metal passes into 
the mould, it opens, and the carrier moves forward, holding 
the type by its stem, and places it on an inclined table. A 
clamp secures the type, ana a sliding plate, breaking the type 
from its stem, forces it between rubbers, to smooth the rough 
edges, fitting the type for use. The stem left in the carrier 
is afterward forced out by a pin. 

Many new forms of automatic type-casting machines have 
been invented since 1865. Foucher Freres, of France, Hep- 
burn, of England, and Ktlstermann, of Germany, have made 
marked improvements, but the machine most preferred in 
the U. S. is that of Henry Barth, of Cincinnati, patented 
Jan. 24, 1888. In this machine one-half of the mould and the 
matrix are fixed upright and made immovable ; the other 
half rapidly slides to and fro on broad bearings, releasing the 
type that has been cast, and closing again before new metal is 
injected in the mould. It breaks off the jet, plows a groove 
between the feet, rubs off the feather edges, and delivers the 
finished types in lines in a channel ready for inspection. 

The punch-cutting machine of L. Is. Benton is a more 
recent improvement in type-founding. It is an adaptation 
of the pantograph. From one pattern letter any size of 
punch lor book letter can be made without a special draw- 
ing for each size, and all the sizes will be in exact proportion. 
The success of the Linotype type-making and type-compos- 
ing machine is largely due to the accuracy of the matrixes 
made by the Benton machine-punches. 

Types can be cast by many machines quicker than they 
can be cooled. The ordinary performance of the caster by 
hand was 400 in an hour ; by the Bruce machine, on ordi- 
nary sizes of book type, 100 in a minute ; by the newer ma- 
chines and on small sizes, 140 or more in a minute. 

Revised by Theodore L. De Vinne. 

Typesetting - machines : The simplest form of type- 
setting-machine merely sets the types provided by founders ; 
it does not make nor distribute the types. Nearly all the 
machines of this class are constructed with these features. 
The characters selected seldom exceed eighty-three in num- 
ber. Italic, small capitals, and accents are excluded, because 
they are infrequent in ordinary composition ; they add to 
the cost of the machine, and seriously diminish its perform- 
ance. For each character a separate case or narrow channel 
of brass, about 2 feet long, is provided, in which the types 
are put side by side and in a nearly vertical position before 
the operator. The lower end of each case is connected with 
a lever that is moved whenever the operator touches its 
mated connection on the lettered keyboard. The lever so 
touched thrusts out the type desired into the general collect- 
ing channel. Another operator, called the justifier, takes the 
types in the channel and makes them up in lines of uniform 
length by the same methods practiced in hand typesetting. 
All the machine can do is to set types in a continuous line, 
which it does usually four or five times quicker than they 
can be set by hand. Spacing-out or justifying, making-up, 
and distribution must be done by hand, or upon machines of 
another kind. Of the many varieties of this form of machine 
but two are in practical use — the Empire and the MacMil- 
lan. A separate machine is required for the distribution of 
the type. Each character has cut upon its shank a distinct 
nick or groove, which permits its entrance only in its own 
channel during the operation of distribution. The MacMillan 
machine is also provided with a mated justifying apparatus. 

In the Thorne machine the two distinct operations of set- 
ting and distributing are combined in one machine. An 
upright hollow, grooved cylinder of iron is divided in equal 
halves : the lower half contains in its grooved channels the 
type to be set ; the upper half contains at its top the types 
to be distributed, which are separated and distributed down 
the grooved channels of the upper to those of the lower half 
of the cylinder. The operation of dislodging the types from 
this lower cylinder into a collecting channel is accomplished 
by peculiar devices, but the types set are arranged in a con- 
tinuous line, and are spaced and justified by hand as in the 
Empire and MacMillan machines. The types can be set as 
fast as, often faster than, they can be justified. 



The Mergenthaler or Linotype machine makes the type it 
uses, casting the letters selected by the operator, properly jus- 
tified with spaces between words, in solid bars of the length 




Fio. 1.— Thorne typesetting and distributing machine. 

of line required. Brass matrixes are dislodged by the opera- 
tor instead of types, and these are automatically arranged 




Fig. 2.— Mergenthaler linotype machine. 

over the mould that forms the line. When the line is full 
another automatic device thrusts wedges between the words 
and spaces out the line. At the same instant a jet of fluid 



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TYPEWRITERS 



metal, kept fluid by gas jets under the machine, is injected 
and thrown out of the mould as soon as it is cool enough, 
without delaying the work of the operator. The brass 
matrices are also immediately returned to their proper re- 
ceptacles for future re-use. The performance of the ma- 
chine is limited only by the ability of the operator. It is 
largely used by the daily newspapers of the U. S. and to 
some extent in Great Britain. The Lanston machine also 
casts the types it uses, not in lines, but in isolated charac- 
ters. Many other forms of typesetting and distributing 
machines, some of high merit, have been invented, but those 
here described are in most use in 1805. 

The first patent for a typesetting and typemakin^ ma- 
chine was granted in England, Mar. 24, 1822, to Dr. William 
Church, who claimed that his apparatus would cast and 
compose types at the rate of 75,000 characters in one hour. 
It never did practical work, but many of his devices were 
afterward accepted by other inventors. The first practical 
machine in the U. S. was that of Clay and Rosenberg (Brit- 
ish patent of 1842), but it was not approved of by printers. 
This was quickly followed by the simpler American ma- 
chine of Mitchel, which was kept at work for many years. 
It failed, as did many of the early machines, for want of an 
equally good distributer. The names of some of the other 
prominent inventors are Mazzini, Goubert, Delcambre, Hat- 
tersley, Mackie, and Fraser — all holding British patents; 
Hensinger, of Germany; Kliegel, of Hungary; Sbrensen, 
of Denmark ; Boule\ Caillard, Simencourt, Coulon, and Beau- 
mont, of France ; Gilmer, Ray, Felt, Huston, Paige, Rogers, 
Alden, and Dow, of the U. S. Theodore L. De Vinne. 

Typewriters : machines carrying types with which writ- 
ing is done resembling ordinary print. The increasing pro- 
duction of manuscript in modern times has greatly stimu- 
lated the development of these ingenious machines. Since 
about 1870 they have been brought from a state of crudity 
to a state of perfection which compares favorably with any 
other mechanical device. They are now considered almost 
indispensable in the U. S., and their use is rapidly increas- 
ing throughout the world. 

The Earliest Typewriters. — The first recorded attempt to 
produce a writing-machine is that of Henry Mill, an Eng- 
lish engineer, to whom, on Jan. 7, 1714, was granted a pat- 
ent for *' an artificial machine or motive for impressing or 
transcribing of letters, singularly or progressively, one after 
another in writing, whereby all writings whatsoever may be 
engrossed on paper or parchment so neat and exact as not 
to be distinguished from print." This machine, however, 
was not perfected, and no description of it exists. 

The first typewriter invented in the U. S. was termed the 
" Typographer," patented in 1829 by William Austin Burt, 
of Detroit, Mich., also inventor of the solar compass. In 
design and construction it was an exceedingly crude device, 
although it would perform writing slowly. In 1838 a French 
patent was granted to Xavier Progrin, of Marseilles, for a 
machine designed to print " almost as rapidly as one could 
write with an ordinary pen " ; also to impress stereotype 
plates and to copy and stereotype music. In this device a 
circle of type-bars, operated by upright rods passing through 
the top plate, struck downward to a common center on a 
flat platen. It had no keyboard, and after printing each 
type-bar was pulled up again by the operator. The whole 
machine, regulated by suitable though crude mechanism, 
moved across the paper to provide for line and letter spac- 
ings. It was too slow and cumbersome to come into gen- 
eral use. 

Much of the progress made in later years was due to the 
efforts of electricians to provide a means for printing by 
electricity letters or other symbols by which intelligence 
could be conveyed to distant places. A British patent issued 
to Alexander Bain and Thomas Wright, June 21, 1841, cov- 
ered among other electrical contrivances a device which in- 
volves some of the principles of the modern typewriter. A 
series of type-bars arranged to print at a common center 
were moved by an electro-magnet attracting an armature on 
the connecting-rod until an armature t>n the type-bar itself 
came within the field of another electro-magnet located at 
the common center, which forced the type against an inked 
ribbon laid upon the surface of the paper upon which the 
printing was done. Another portion of the same patent 
described an ingenious machine with a type-wheel mounted 
upon a vertical shaft which was actuated by a clockwork at- 
tachment governed by an electric current. These inventors 
seem to have had no idea of making use of their device save 



for the purposes of the electric telegraph, and as such 
methods of telegraphy were soon superseded their invention 
attracted little attention. It is also known that Sir Charles 
Wheatstone devised a writing-machine before 1851. This, 
with subsequent modifications constructed 1855-60, is de- 
scribed in the Journal of the Society of Arts for Sept. 21, 
1894. 

The Thurber Machine. — A typewriter practical in every 
way except as to speed was patented by Charles Thurber, 
of Worcester, Mass., on Aug. 26, 1843. In actual construc- 
tion the only model ever made departed quite materially 
from the patent. A fiat horizontal wheel carried on its 
periphery a number of upright rods, each having a type at 
the lower end and a finper-key at the upper. The proper 
rod was moved to the printing-point by revolving the wheel, 
and its depression, by the aid of a permanent guide, served 
to imprint the character upon the right spot on the paper 
beneath. The paper was placed around a cylinder which 
was moved lengthwise step oy step by means of ratchet and 
pawl mechanism to produce the letter-spacing, while the 
revolution of the cylinder produced the proper spacing be- 
tween lines. The inking was accomplished oy passing the 
face of the type across an inked roller. 

The Foucault Machine. — A machine for printing em- 
bossed characters for the use of the blind was patented in 
France by Pierre Foucault, a blind teacher of tne Paris In- 
stitution for the Blind, on Jan. 19, 1849. The types in this 
machine were formed on the ends of a number of converg- 
ing rods sliding in radial grooves to a common printing- 
point ; the upper part of each rod contained a finger-key, 
and these finger-keys together formed a curved keyboard of 
two rows. Letter and line spacing devices were also in- 
cluded. When used for the blind the types were made to 
imprint their faces into the surface of the paper. The in- 
ventor also appears to have adopted the machine to ordi- 
nary printing by the use of carbonized paper. 

Foueault's typewriter attracted great attention and was 
awarded a gold medal at the World's Fair in London, in 
1851. Several of them were constructed and were for a 
long time used in the various institutions for the blind in 
different parts of Europe. They do not seem, however, to 
have come into very general use, or to have contributed 
anything to the development of the modern writing-ma- 
chine. 

Another typewriter, designed principally for the use of 
the blind, the invention of William Hughes, governor of the 
Manchester Blind Asylum, was also exhibited at the World s 
Fair in 1851, and received a gold medal. It is of very 
simple construction, much resembling some of the modern 
toy writing-machines in principle. 

The Beach typewriter, the invention of A. Ely Beach, of 
New York, one of the editors of The Scientific American, 
marked a considerable advance in the development of a 
practical writing-machine. After constructing a machine 
in 1847 which contained some new features, and which 
worked fairly well, he was granted another patent (June 24, 
1856) for a machine which consisted of a series of type-car- 
rying levers arranged in the now familiar form of a circu- 
lar basket, and all printing at a common center. It was 
mainly designed to print raised letters for the use of the 
blind, and was furnished with two sets of type-bars, one 
carrying depressed types striking the paper from below, 
while the other, carrying raised types, struck the paper 
from above, embossing on it the required character. Ap- 
plied to ordinary typewriting, only one set of type-bars was 
employed. They struck upon a small table over which the 
ribbon of paper was conducted. The ink was furnished by 
an endless band of carbon paper or inked fabric. This ma- 
chine did good work, but was slow in its operation. The 
method of printing was closely akin to that subsequently 
brought to a practical outcome by others, but it provided 
for the printing of characters only upon a narrow ribbon of 
paper, instead of on sheets. 

Other Early Typewriters. — It is impossible to describe 
here in detail all the early attempts to perfect a writing- 
machine. Notable among them is the invention of O. T. 
Eddy, of Baltimore, Nov. 12, 1850, a cumbersome machine 
which used seventy-eight vertical type-bars with the types on 
their lower ends, and a flat horizontal platen whose lateral 
and longitudinal movements furnished line and letter spac- 
ing; the only one ever made, however, did neat work. 
The Fairbanks machine, also of 1850, had a number of 
converging rods with types on one end, printing at a com- 
mon center, and finger-keys on the other ; it was designed 

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8 



TYPEWRITERS 



for printing on cotton fabrics, but proved impracticable. 
The typewriter invented by J. M. Jones, of Clyde, N. Y., 
and patented in 1852, and again in 1856, had types placed 
underneath the rim of a horizontal wheel, which was rotated 
and depressed by a lever s»o as to print on the paper held 
beneath. Suitable mechanism for line and (variable) letter 
spacing was provided in connection with a cylinder for 
paper. Another type- wheel machine was patented by J. H. 
Cooper, of Philadelphia, in 1856. In 1854 the Thomas typo- 
graph was patented; this was a small, cheap typewriter, 
suggestive of the modern toy machines. 

The Francis Typetcriter. — The invention of S. W. Fran- 
cis, a physician of Newport, R. I., was patented Oct. 27, 
1857. The types were arranged upon a series of hammers 
placed in a "circle and moved to a common printing-point 
upon a small circular platen, which was supported from the 
framework, and which it was necessary to remove in order 
to insert a fresh sheet of paper. The key action resembled 
that of a piano. The depression of a key caused the type to 
rise toward a common center and print upon the paper 
through an inking-ribbon so arranged that it presented, a 
fresh portion of its surface at each depression of the keys. 
The paper was held flat in a rectangular frame, moved by 
a drum containing a coiled spring, to which it was attached 
by a cord. At the end of a line the frame was drawn back, 
thus rewinding the spring and at the same time moving the 
paper forward a line-space. The machine was provided 
with a bell to indicate the end of the line (a device also em- 
ployed in Beach's first machine). The machine printed 
clearly and with a speed exceeding that of the pen, but 
it occupied a space of about 2 feet square. Only one ma- 
chine was constructed under the patent, and no attempt was 
ever made to put it on the market. 

The Hansen Machine. — The writing-ball invented by Ras- 
mus Johan Mailing Hansen, a clergvraan of Copenhagen, 
Denmark, is perhaps the best-known European invention of 
the kind ; it is said to have been made and sold in continental 
Europe in considerable numbers. In the U. S. it is known 
only as a curiosity, although U. S. patents were issued upon 
it in 1872 and later, and it was exhibited at the Centennial 
Exhibition in Philadelphia in 1876, receiving a gold medal. 
The main feature of the machine, from which it took its 
name, is a hemispherical brass shell inverted over the paper- 
carrying and spacing mechanism. Fifty-four rods or pis- 
tons protrude through this shell, radiating in different direc- 
tions from the center of the sphere, which is the common 
printing-point ; each carries a type on the lower end and a 
finger-key on the upper. Different modifications of the 
paper-carrying device nave been applied. The first designs 
provided for the use of an electrical mechanism to move the 
carriage. The machine was furnished with a bell to indi- 
cate end of line, scale to show locality of impressions, etc. 
The spacing mechanism was operated by a slight depression 
of the ball or hemisphere which followed the depression of 
the key. The machine was well made, weighed only about 
8 lb., but was costly and too slow in operation, though it did 
good work. 

The Sholes and Olidden Typewriter.— The first practical 
writing-machine was the invention of three men, residents 
of Milwaukee, Wis., working in conjunction : C. Latham 
Sholes, a printer and editor; Samuel W. Soule, also a 
printer, as well as a farmer and inventor; and Carlos 
Glidden, a gentleman of leisure. The first crude model, 
completed in Sept, 1867, was largely the work of Soule, 
who suggested the pivoted tvpes set in a circle, and other 
minor details ; Sholes contributed the letter-spacing device. 
It was a success in that it wrote accurately and with fair 
rapidity. Many letters were written with it and sent to 
friends, among others to James Densmore, of Meadville, Pa., 
who had sufficient enthusiasm to purchase an interest in the 
machine without even seeing it, by the payment of all the ex- 
penses already incurred. About this time both Soule and 
Glidden dropped out, leaving the enterprise wholly in the 
hands of Sholes and Densmore. The first patent upon the 
new machine was granted to the three associated inventors in 
June, 1868. It describes a machine with a circle of type- 
bars striking upward to a common printing-point. The 
keys resembled those of a piano, and moved the type-bars by 
means of cams or arms on the inner ends of the key-levers. 
The paper was held horizontally in a square sliding frame 
or carriage moving across the top of the machine and pro- 
vided with lateral and transverse motions for line and letter 
spacing. An arm extending from the rear of the main 
frame supported a small platen at the common center. An 



inked ribbon passed across this platen from spools situated 
on either side of it. The action of the type, therefore, 
served to carry the paper against the inked ribbon, so that 
the impression was upon the side of the paper opposite to 
the type. The motive-power for the carriage motion was 
provided by a falling weight unwinding a cord from a 
drum at the side of the machine. In July of the same year 
another patent was granted to Sholes, Soule, and Glidden 
for a machine substantially the same as the one just de- 
scribed, except that the connection between the key-levers 
and type-bars was made by means of connecting wires or 
rods. Urged on by Densmore, Sholes continued to make 
improvements, until in 1871 the machine had assumed a 
form differing in many particulars from the original model. 
A patent issued to Sholes in this year shows the use of a 
cylindrical platen which extended from front to rear and 
around which the paper was passed lengthwise. The letter- 
spacing was accomplished by a double ratchet on the axis 
of the cylinder, which was operated upon by a " twofold 
vibratory ratchet." This permitted the cvlinder to turn the 
space of a letter only at a time. The shifting of the line 
was accomplished by a screw-cam upon the cylinder engag- 
ing the teeth of a rack placed beneath it upon the top of 
the frame. An extra wide notch in the ratchet-wheels 
marked the line on the cylinder where the edges of the 
paper overlapped one another. While the cylinder revolved 
past this point the screw-cam engaged the teeth of the rack 
and threw the cylinder, which turned loose upon its shaft, 
toward the rear of the machine a sufficient distance to 
make the line-spacing. The inking-ribbon passed across 
the type-basket in a direction parallel to the line of writing, 
as in the present Remington machine, but at right angles 
to the line of travel of the cylinder. Numerous models 
were turned out, but in the hands of practical users each 
proved to be in some respect defective, and broke down un- 
der the strain of constant usage. The machines which had 
been made so far were but crude products of the shop of an 
ordinary mechanic, and it was necessary to enlist th6 as- 
sistance of manufacturers able to make them on a large 
scale and supplied with sufficient capital to support the en- 
terprise until there should be a market for them. Dens- 
more made a contract with E. Remington & Sons, gun-manu- 
facturers at Ilion, N. Y., and the improved machine has 
been called the Remington typewriter ever since. 

The Remington Typewriter.— -The ample resources and 
skillful workmen available at the great Remington factory 
were employed in the extensive improvement of the type- 
writer, and the first machines were ready for sale about 
the middle of 1874. The No. 1 Remington, the first type- 
writer to come into general use, was in general appearance 
not unlike a japanned box with a cover on the top, and 
with the keyboard projecting toward the operator at the 
bottom. The roller, around which the paper passed, ran 
from side to side, the key-levers were airectiy connected 
with the outer ends of the type-bars by means of connecting 
wires or rods, and the spacing was done by a crude rack 
and dog mechanism resembling in principle the device in 
later models. The carriage was returned by the action of a 
foot-treadle upon a pulley at the side of the machine — a 
form which was subsequently replaced by a side hand-lever, 
thus doing away with the necessity of a special table. The 
machine also contained one of the devices invented by 
Sholes at the time the machine was first brought to Ilion, 
in the form of a slotted disk forming a guide for each indi- 
vidual type-bar, a device which was long supposed to be es- 
sential to the preservation of alignment, but which later 
experience has shown to be a hindrance rather than a help. 

The No. 1 Remington was exhibited at the Centennial 
Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876, and attracted much at- 
tention, although it was slow to gain public favor. One 
great objection was that it wrote only capitals; but this 
was obviated by the joint efforts of two inventors, Lucien 
S. Crandall and Byron A. Brooks. Crandall devised and 
patented a method of carrying more than one type upon the 
type-bar. His original attempt was to simplify the machine 
and render it less complicated and expensive by reducing 
the number of parts. Six types were carried upon one type- 
bar. The swinging motion of the platen caused it to move 
to any one of three positions, each serving as a common cen- 
ter to a pair of the types. The oscillation of the keys served 
to determine which one of this pair should be brought to the 
printing-point. The device was ingenious, but it involved 
too much care in the manipulating of the machine to be 
deemed successful. Byron A. Brooks adapted Crandall'? 



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TYPEWRITERS 



idea to a type-bar carrying only two types, one a capital and 
the other its corresponding small letter. The change in the 

Srinting-center was accomplished by sliding the platen in a 
irection transverse to the line of writing by means of an 
extra key and corresponding mechanism. By properly ad- 
justing the curve of the cylindrical platen to the distance 
between the types on the bar, and by sliding the platen a 
proper distance, it was possible to print either one of the 
two letters carried on the type-bar at will. Thus was de- 
vised a machine which could write both capitals and small 
letters without increasing the size of the key-board or add- 
ing to the number of the type-bars. The well-known 
Remington No. 2 typewriter embodies these inventions, 
and was placed on the market in 1878. One of the first ma- 
chines of this model was exhibited at the Paris Exposition 
in that year, and was awarded a gold medal. 

The sales increased materially, although still disappoint- 
ingly slow, and the selling agency, after passing through 
several different hands, was finally undertaken, in 1882, by 
the firm of Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. Since then thou- 
sands of these typewriters have been sold, the machine has 
maintained a commanding position in the market, and in 
1886 the firm assumed entire control also of its manufac- 
ture. 

In 1886 the No. 8 Remington was put on the market, in 
response to a demand for a machine which would carry 
wider paper than the No. 2 (the latter writing a line only 
6$ inches long). The position of the rack and spacing-dogs 
is reversed in this machine. Four new keys were also added 
to the kevboard, thus accommodating eight more characters 
than the Xo. 2. The No. 3 Remington writes a line 12 inches 
long, and can take paper 14 inches wide, and can be made 
to accommodate even a greater width by a few unimportant 
changes. In 1888, to meet the requirements of some Euro- 
pean countries, the No. 5 Remington was introduced. This 
is intermediate between the No. 3 and No. 2, writing a line 
7J inches long, and taking paper as wide as &} inches. In 
general construction it resembles the No. 3. It has the 
same number of keys, the additional characters being util- 
ized to provide for the accented letters, etc., required in 
many foreign languages. The No. 4 Remington is a single- 
case machine, closely resembling the No. 2 model in general 
appearance, but writing capitals only. 

Improvements have been continually added to all of these 
models. In 1894 the No. 6 Remington was first offered for 
sale. In this new model important changes in the design 
of the paper carriage, spacing mechanism, and ribbon move- 
ment have been effected. 

The Caligraph. — This is a machine which was devised 
under the direction of G. W. N. Yost, principally by a skilled 
German mechanic named Franz Wagner. His aim was to 
avoid a conflict with the Jtemington patents, but, failing in 
this, he secured a license under them to manufacture his 
►roposed machine. The Caligraph was placed on the raar- 
:et in 1883. It does not employ a shift-key, using instead a 
separate type-bar for each letter, whether capital or lower- 
case. Hence it has a much larger keyboard, a greater num- 
ber of longer type-bars, and consequently a much larger 
type-basket. The key-levers are of the third order (instead 
of the second, as in the case of the Remington), the ful- 
crums beinp in the front of the machine. The keys are 
ranged in six rows in an inclined plane, while the connect- 
ing wires by which they operate the type-bars are attached 
to the inner end, or end opposite the fulcrum. The ar- 
rangement of the keys is peculiar to the machine. The 
paper carriage has a "platen cylinder with polygonal faces 
to adapt itself to the faces of the types. The motive-power 
of the carriage is furnished by a torsion-spring, whicn im- 
pels the carriage to move from right to left until the line is 
finished. The letter-spacing is effected by an oscillating 
dog or pawl which operates in a double slicling rack. The 
line-spacing is accomplished by a carriage-lever operated 
by hand, in a manner similar to the Remington mechanism 
for the same purpose. It is made in four styles : the No. 1, 
having forty-eight keys, printing only capital letters, punc- 
tuation-marks, and figures ; the No. 2, which has seventy- 
two keys, and prints both upper and lower case letters ; the 
No. 8, which differs from the No. 2 mainly in the addition of 
another row of keys, making the available characters seven- 
ty-eight; and the No. 4, which exhibits improvements in 
minor details of construction. 

The Hammond typewriter, invented by James B. Ham- 
mond, is covered by patents taken out in 1880, 1881, 1882, 
and 1883. The applications for some of these were filed as 



I 



early as 1875, The machine is of the type-wheel variety, 
and presents radical differences in theory and construction 
when compared with other writing-machine inventions, ex- 
cept the " pterotype," invented by John Pratt, of Centre, 
Ala., and fully described in a paper read by him before the 
London Society of Arts in 1867. In the latter, of which 
only a very few were ever made, the types were arranged all 
on one plate, which was moved so as to bring; the desired 
letter to the printing-point, when the impression was made 
by a hammer-blow on the paper, this being carried along 
in a square frame furnished with devices for line and let- 
ter spacing. Hammond's invention, which appears to have 
been a conception entirely independent of Pratt's, very 
strongly resembles it in principle. Hammond was finally 
successful in his efforts to control the motion of the type- 
wheel, a problem which Pratt failed to solve. The two in- 
ventors were placed in interference in the U. S. Patent- 
office, with additional complications arising from the pres- 
ence of a third application upon a type-wheel machine by 
Lucien S. Crandall, whose device is described later on. By 
concessions on the part of Pratt, Hammond was enabled to 
proceed with his applications. The " Ideal " Hammond, first 
put on the market in 1884, has an almost semicircular key- 
board, consisting of two banks of ebony keys. Each key 
controls the printing of three characters. The key-levers 
radiate from the center of a small turret-like casing, which 
contains the printing apparatus in the shape of a type-wheel, 
a small hard-rubber wheel made in two sectors of a circle, 
each containing forty-five characters disposed in three rows 
upon its outside periphery. This wheel turns freely in a 
horizontal direction. The depression of any key serves to 
throw forward the type- wheel a greater or less distance, 
bringing the proper type to the printing- point. The exact 
position of the type is determined by a small stop-arm oscil- 
lating on the shait of the type-wheel, and engaging one of 
a series of thirty hardened steel index-pins, one for each 
key-lever. The lower end of each of these pins stands di- 
rectly above its corresponding key-lever, and when a key is 
depressed the corresponding index-pin rises immediately, 
throwing its upper end into the path of the stop-arm, thus 
checking it, ana consequently the type- wheel, at the exact 
point required. The type-wheel can readily be removed 
and another substituted for it. The paper-carriage runs 
directlv behind the type- wheel turret. A pair of rubber- 
covered rollers hold the paper in a vertical position against 
the face of the type-wheel. An impression-hammer strikes 
from behind, carrying the paper forward upon the face of 
the type with sufficient force to cause an impression to be 
made. The spacing mechanism consists of an ingenious 
though very complicated set of leverages, which also impel 
the hammer. An escapement wheel with pawls regulates 
the step-by-step motion of the letter-spacing. The inking 
is done by a narrow ribbon. When capitals or figures are 
required the use of the proper shift-key elevates the type- 
wheel, bringing another line of type into the printing line. 
The arrangement of the original (now termed the " Ideal ") 
keyboard of the Hammond machine differs materially from 
that adopted by the Remington, to which almost all new 
machines conform. This led to the manufacture of a new 
model of the Hammond, which appeared in 1890, termed 
by the makers the " Universal Hammond." This machine 
differs from the first model only in adopting three banks of 
keys ranged according to the Remington Standard, with the 
space-key in the same position as in that machine. Still 
later, a light rubber shell containing the type-faces was sub- 
stituted for the type-wheel. This was supported by a metal 
backing, giving rise to the name " anvil and shuttle " ma- 
chine. 

The Hall Typewriters.— -Thomas Hall, of New York, se- 
cured a patent in 1867 on a machine upon which he had 
long been at work. Only a few of these typewriters were 
constructed ; one, printing seventy-two characters in large 
and small letters, etc., was sent to the Paris Exposition of 
1867, and another attracted great attention in the Govern- 
ment departments at Washington. The type-bars struck 
downward to a common center upon the surface of a flat 
platen, which slid into the bottom of the machine and 
worked from side to side to provide for spacing the letters, 
this being accomplished by an ingenious device which varied 
the space according to the width of the letter printed. 
Each type had a separate type-bar, which was also furnished 
with a "peculiarly adjusted counterweight intended to facili- 
tate the impression and return of the type. The type-bars 
fell upon a cushioned ring near the printing-point, a device 



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10 



TYPEWRITERS 



by which a degree of uniformity of impression was accom- 
plished. The inventor claimed to be the first to produce a 
portable, keyed, type-bar typewriter, and that the Francis 
machine was the only one of the type-bar variety which 
printed before his; in some respects, however, his device 
resembles the Foucault machine of 1833, described above. 

In 1881 Hall took out a patent for a typewriter upon a 
totally different plan. The peculiar feature of this machine 
is that in it the paper is at rest, while the printing apparatus 
moves about over it as it brines the required type to the 
printing-point. The paper is placed around a small rubber- 
covered roller, which is turned by a suitable ratchet and 
pawl at the left of the machine to accomplish line-spacing, 
and after leaving the feed-roll it passes over a fiat metal bar 
wide enough to serve as a printing-platen. The printing- 
carriage is composed of two metal plates, one about three- 
eighths of an inch above the other, and is so adjusted that it 
may slide or turn upon a rack-rod which supports its rear 
edge. Attached to the top of the carriage, and engaging 
with this rack-rod, is a pinion containing a spring which 
drives the carriage. At the right of the carriage, and work- 
ing into the grooves or notches of the rack-rod, are the feed- 
ing-dogs, which after each impression permit the carriage 
to move forward a letter-space. A flexible vulcanized-rub- 
ber type- plate is mounted upon a small frame just beneath 
the upper plate of the carriage. This frame is connected 
with the under surface of the upper plate by two pairs of 
parallel levers which permit its Horizontal movement in a 
longitudinal or transverse direction, thus permitting any 
type upon the type-plate to be brought to a hole in the lower 

?1ate, large enough to permit of the printing of one type, 
'he upper surface of the under plate is covered by a pad 
saturated with aniline ink, by which the types are inked. 
At the front edge of the frame upon which the type-plate is 
mounted, an arm extends beyond the edge of the plate and 
to this is rigidly attached an index-key which carries a pe- 
culiarly shaped pointer at its free end. Under this pointer 
is a vulcanite frame pierced with as many round holes as 
there are separate characters upon the type-plate, each hole 
disclosing its corresponding character printed upon a white 
surface beneath. The index-key pointer is placed in the 
hole which shows the type required. The motion requisite 
to do this also moves the type-plate so as to bring the cor- 
responding type to the printing-center over the aperture in 
the lower plate. Pressure upon the key then depresses the 
whole of the printing-carriage upon its bearings, causing it 
to descend until the face of the type, by means of a small 
stud projecting downward through the upper plate just 
above the opening in the lower plate, is pressed upon the 
surface of the paper, leaving its imprint there. This inge- 
nious machine does good work and has been much used, but 
lacks among other things the essential quality of speed. 

Mr. Hall also invented the Century typewriter, a similar 
machine, except that the paper moves instead of the print- 
ing mechanism. There are 100 characters, ranged in ten 
rows of ten each, on a rubber or metal type-cylinder. 

The Crandall typewriter is the invention of Lucien S. 
Crandall, and is covered by U. S. patents of 1881, 1886, 1888, 
and 1889. It is a rather compact machine, made entirely of 
metal, and has a slightly curved key-board of twenty-eight 
keys arranged in two banks. From this, bv the aid of two 
shift-keys, eighty-four characters are controlled. The types 
are all arranged on a removable circular metal sleeve with 
fourteen faces, which revolves and slides upon a nearly ver- 
tical shaft. The paper is carried upon a cylindrical platen, 
and travels across the rear of the machine just behind the 
type-sleeve. The key-levers converge toward a common 
center in the rear of" the machine, and control rotary and* 
vertical movements of the type-sleeve. When the proper 
type has come into place for printing, the shaft of the type- 
sleeve is moved forward, bringing the type-face into contact 
with the inking-ribbon, forcing it against the paper and 
making the required imprint. The inking-ribbon, which is 
only five-eighths of an inch wide, falls back after each im- 
pression, leaving the line of writing in sight. The first 
model was provided with a variable spacing device, but this 
was abandoned when the machine was substantially remod- 
eled in 1887, thus illustrating the fact that variable spacing 
is neither desirable nor practicable. 

Mr. Crandall is also the inventor of the International 
typewriter, which has seventy-six type-bars, but only thirty- 
eight keys, each of the latter operating one or the other 
of two type-levers (and hence of two type-bars and types) ac- 
cording to the position of a shift-key. 



The Columbia typewriter is the invention of Charles 
Spiro, of New York, and was first exhibited at the American 
Institute fair in New York in 1884. Mounted upon a metal 
base is a small carriage sliding in grooves cut lengthwise 
and carrying a revolving paper-cylinder governed by ratch- 
et and pawl mechanism to provide letter-spacing. Just 
above the upper surface of the paper-cylinder is a vertical 
wheel with printers' type set in its periphery, and with a 
convenient handle by which it is turned. The type-wheel 
contains a bevel gear upon its left-hand side which engages 
in a similar gear upon tne edge of a circular horizontal disk, 
the upper surface of which is marked with the letters and 
characters carried upon the type-wheel An index is fast- 
ened to the center of the disk, and indicates the character 
upon the type-wheel which will be printed when the type- 
wheel is depressed. Inking is done from a pad located at 
the lower edge of the type-wheel. A double-case machine 
with two type-wheels shifting horizontally upon the line of 
the shaft was also made. The machine was also fitted to 
write music by substituting the characters of the musical 
notation upon the wheel. For a time there was a consider- 
able demand for machines of this make. 

The Yost Typewriter.— When G. W. N. Yost retired from 
the Caligraph enterprise he, in conjunction with others, de- 
vised the typewriter now known by his name and covered 
by a number of patents, chiefly those of 1885, 1888 (about 
which year the machine was first sold), and 1889. The type- 
bars (each carrying only one type) are compound levers, 
using what is known as the " grasshopper " movement, in- 
vented by a mechanic named Davidson. They are assembled 
around the inside of a circular frame, as in other machines, 
and move by an irregular path from the surface of an ink- 
ing-pad placed in the upper portion of the type-basket 
toward a common center, when they enter a small metal 
guide intended to insure the exact alignment of type at the 

Coint of impression. The complex movement of the type- 
ar is secured by a link pivoted to the type-bar and also 
to a central post or table. Such a device requires the joints 
of the type-oar action to be loose instead of close-fitting, 
but it is" claimed that the bad alignment which would natu- 
rally result therefrom is corrected by the central metal guide 
referred to, the invention of C. L. Driesslein. A similar 

Principle was also employed in a typewriter invented by 
r. House, of Buffalo, N. Y., in 1865. The carriage of the Yost 
machine is of the ordinary pattern, but very light and nar- 
row. As the connecting wires operate the type-bars they 
also operate upon a circular ring or universal bar which is 
placed in the lower part of the type-basket and is supported 
at its center. This in turn acts as a lever to move the dogs 
which vibrate from side to side of a double-toothed horizon- 
tal rack attached to the carriage, thus providing the letter- 
spacing. 

The Smith-Premier Typewriter. — The parts of this ma- 
chine which are of recent invention must be credited main- 
ly to Alex. T. Brown, although it bears the name of L. C. 
Smith, its manufacturer. It is a type-bar machine, printing 
seventy-six characters by the single-type system. It was 
first put upon the market in 1889, but that model was with- 
drawn shortly afterward and replaced by another in 1890. 
The kevboard is rectangular and consists of seven rows of 
keys. The connection between the keys and the type-bars 
is made by a series of rocking-shafts* journaled into the 
frame of the machine at front and back. Each of these 
rocking-shafts carries two short crank-arms — one at the 
front, by which it is attached to the vertical stem of the 
finger-key, and the other nearer to the center of the ma- 
chine, by which the connecting-rod is operated. This device 
was invented by C. Latham Sholes in 1881, and his applica- 
tion for a patent was allowed, but he never took out the 
patent because of the objectionable character of the numer- 
ous frictional bearings which the mechanism involved, and 
the idea became public property. The type-bar of the 
Smith-Premier is of a peculiar crooked form, and delivers 
a somewhat indirect blow. The bearing, or hanger, upon 
which it is mounted is about H inches long, tne great 
length being designed to secure better alignment, and the 
series of hangers is disposed diagonally upon the edge of 
the type-basket. This method of attaching the type-bars 
is found in the British patent to Bain and Wright, in 1841. 
The carriage consists oi a cast-iron frame, which slides upon 
ball-bearings set in grooves. The carriage-frame does not 
lift, but the platen, which is also removable, is adapted to 
slide forward and bring the line of writing into view just 
above the scale which is fixed to the front portion of the 



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TYPEWRITERS 



11 



carriage. The letter-spacing is accomplished by means of a 
sliding plate, 9£ inches long by 2} inches in width, fitted 
into the back of the frame at the base, and operating a 
bell-crank connected with the usual spacing-dogs and hori- 
zontal rack. Each of the finger-key rocker-shafts passes 
through a hole in this plate eccentric to its own axis, and 
when the key is pressed causes the plate to slide by means 
of a small stud or cam. The carriage is returned by a 
lever, as in other machines, but the line-spacing is done by 
automatic mechanism operated by the pressure of the car- 
riage lever at the end of its return movement. The inking 
is done by a ribbon lying parallel with the cylinder. This 
moves transversely across the type-basket from front to rear 
of the machine as the keys are operated, and reverses auto- 
matically when the typesstrike near the edge of the ribbon. 
On the return a longitudinal motion is also imparted to the 
ribbon, so that the impressions are made in a new place. 
This machine also contains a novel feature in the shape 
of a circular brush mounted horizontally upon a vertical 
shaft, and resting just below the types when they are at 
rest. By means of a screw-motion, operated by a remov- 
able crank-handle, this brush is revolved over the faces of 
the types so as to clean them. A new model, called the No. 
2, containing improved spacing mechanism and other de- 
tails, was placed upon the market in 1895. 

The Bar-lock typewriter is a type-bar machine of the 
downward-stroke order, invented by Charles Spiro, of New 
York. The keyboard has seventy-two keys of the ordinary 
pattern, arranged in six rows of twelve each, besides a space- 
key. The type-bars, each of which carries a single type, 
stand erect in a crescent-shaped double row behind au 
ornamental screen of ironwork erected between the key- 
board and platen-roll, and strike down and away from the 
operator to the platen when the keys are depressed. The 
paper-cylinder, or platen-roll, is borne in a carriage of the 
usual fdrm which travels across the rear of the machine. 
The impression is made through a narrow inked ribbon, which 
is automatically moved in and out of the line of writing. 
The carriage is moved step by step by the action of a uni- 
Tersal bar underlying the key-levers in much the same 
manner as in the Remington. The typewriter takes its name 
from a peculiar arrangement intended to secure perfect 
alignment, and consisting of a semicircular frame bearing a 
row of short, pointed, phosphor-bronze pins, set perpendicu- 
larly so that every type-bar when it descends to the print- 
ing-point must pass between two of them. It is claimed 
that this device, in connection with the ball-and-socket 
joint which is used for the type-bar, so locks it into position 
that any serious derangement of the alignment is impossi- 
ble. Another advantage claimed for tne Bar-lock is the 
visibility of the work, notwithstanding the structures be- 
tween the operator and the line of writing. This machine 
was at first sold only abroad, but it was placed on the Amer- 
ican market in 1891. The machine is made in several sizes 
in order to accommodate different widths of paper, but the 
essential features are the same in all. 

The National typewriter, manufactured in part under a 
patent issued to H. H. Unz in 1889, and in part under let- 
ters patent of 1885, was first placed upon the market about 
the year first named. It is an upward-stroke, type-bar 
machine, with the usual paper-carriage and a curvea key- 
board containing twenty-nine keys, including two shift-keys. 
Each type-bar carries three types. In the normal position 
the depression of a key carries the middle type to the print- 
ing-point. By depressing a shift-key the entire keyboard, 
together with the connecting-rods, type-bars, hangers, and 
types, is shifted forward or back to tiring one of the other 
types to the printing-point. The lifting portion of the car- 
nage-frame is fitted with a gravity pointer „to indicate the 
printing-point. This machine is a good manifolder, as the 
great length of its type-bars adds to the force of the blow, 
although it renders the touch of the keys somewhat heavier. 

The Franklin typewriter, invented by Wellington P. Kid- 
der, has a nearly semicircular keyboard, the keys being ar- 
ranged in three rows around the front side of an upright 
shield, behind which stand the type-bars, which strike down- 
ward upon a common printing-point on the upper side of a 
cylinder of the usual pattern. The carriage is propelled by 
a spring encircling the shaft of a cog-wheel, which engages 
with a rack attached to the under side of the carriage. Each 
type-bar carries two types, and the platen is shifted to bring 
the printing-point from one to the other. Slotted guides 
are used to secure steadiness in the downward movement of 
the type-bars. Ink is furnished from a narrow ribbon which 



automatically unwinds from one spool, passes over the print- 
ing-point, and is rewound upon another revolving on the 
same shaft. The machine weighs about 12 lb., and has had 
a limited sale. 

The Densmore Typewriter, — The original devices of this 
machine are the inventions (chiefly) of Walter J. Barron, 
Amos Densmore (a brother of James Densmore), and Charles 
E. and M. G. Merritt. The machine has thirty-eight keys, 
placed according to the standard Remington arrangement. 
These, with the aid of a single shift-key, permit the writing 
of seventy-eight characters, as the type-bars, which are ar- 
ranged in a basket as usual, carry each two types, and a few 
characters are formed by combinations of two types. The 
key-levers are of thin metal, giving the machine a more in- 
elastic touch than the machines employing wood for this 
purpose. The connecting-rods are not directly attached to 
the type-bars, but to the ends of shorter subsidiary levers 
placed directly beneath them. A square eye is turned up at 
the end of each of these shorter bars and through this the 
type-bar proper passes, so that the type is raised to the com- 
mon center whenever the key is depressed. The method of 
securingthe hangers of the type-bars is peculiar to this ma* 
chine. EJach hanger has a small projection or shoulder which 
fits into a square hole mortised into the top plate of the ma- 
chine near the edge of the type-opening. Each hanger, 
with its type-arm, is made with reference to the type it is to 
control, and numbered to show its particular position on 
the top plate. By this method the type-bars are readily 
placed in the machine ; it is also claimed that permanent 
alignment is insured. The paper-carriage is hinged upon the 
back way-rod, and, as in the Remington, can be raised. The 
platen can also be raised in the carriage frame, and is also re- 
movable from the carriage. The inking-ribbon shifts from 
front to rear of the machine so as to bring every part of its 
width over the printing-center ; a slow, continuous longitu- 
dinal motion is at the same time imparted to it by the ac- 
tion of two frames upon which the spools are mounted, and 
when the carriage is returned to begin a new line the rib- 
bon is shifted lengthwise by about the width of one type, so 
that the next line of impressions will fall upon a fresh por- 
tion. When the ribbon is all wound upon one spool, the 
gear is automatically shifted to return it to the other by the 
same process. The machine was first sold in 1891. 

The Williams typewriter is in part the invention of 
J. N. Williams, of Brooklyn, N. Y. Its keyboard contains 
only twenty-eight keys, but each type-bar carries three types, 
the printing-point being governed by shifting the platen. 
The alphabetical characters are arranged as in the Reming- 
ton keyboard. The type-bars rest in a horizontal position 
upon the top of the frame and are arranged in two sections 
of fourteen each, between which the paper-carriage, carry- 
ing a cylindrical platen, moves from right to left. The 
impression is made upon the top of the cylinder, so that 
the line of writing is in sight of the operator. The de- 
pression of a key raises the type from the position in which 
it normally rests (in contact with an inked pad) and brings 
the face of the type down upon the surface of the paper. 
A central forked guide is provided at the printing-point, in- 
tended to prevent bad alignment. The machine is also fit- 
ted with a toothed rack in front of each section of type-bars 
to receive and hold each type-bar steady in printing posi- 
tion. The machine was placed upon the market in the lat- 
ter part of 1891, and has been advertised and sold to some 
extent. 

Other Typewriters. — Besides the machines described at 
length in this article, and those alluded to sufficiently in con- 
nection with others, there are a considerable number worthy 
of mention. The Dennis-Duplex typewriter was patented 
in 1890 by A. S. Dennis, of I)es Moines, la. ; it resembles 
the Remington or Caligraph in general, but contains 100 
types and type-bars, with the keyboard divided into two 
sections, each containing all the lower-case letters, while 
the capitals and punctuation-marks are divided between 
them. The types corresponding to the two sections print at 
different centers one letter-space apart, and the machine is 
arranged to print two letters simultaneously. The Brooks 
typewriter has vertical type-bars arranged in a semicircle, 
and striking downward upon a platen placed between them 
and the keyboard. Each type-bar carries three types, with 
the middle* one (lower case) printing normally, and the shift- 
keys move the platen so as to print the outside ones. The 
writing is in full sight of the operator. The Fitch machine 
embodied inventions of Eugene Fitch, of Des Moines, la., 
and W. H. Slocum, of Buffalo, N. Y. The type-bars, each 

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12 



TYPEWRITERS 



carrying three types, struck down, past an inking-wheel, 
upon a cylinder in the middle of the machine, and the 
writing was in sight. The Automatic typewriter was in- 
vented by E. M. Hamilton ; it was of the type-bar variety, 
but was very compact, being only 11$ by 8 by 4 inches. 
The letter-spacing was variable, and the work resembled 
ordinary printed matter. The Daugherty typewriter is 
a type-oar machine with two types to the bar, but the 
shift is made by raising the type-bars instead of moving 
the paper. The key-levers are directly attached to the ends 
of the type-bars without the intervention of any connecting 
mechanism. The type-bars are arranged in an arc, and lie 
down flat over the key-levers, but when operated strike up- 
ward to a common center located by a vibratory guide. 
The line of writing is visible to the operator. The Munson 
typewriter is similar to the Hammond in principle, but dif- 
fers in the method of controlling the movements of the 
type-sleeve. The Blickensderfer machine also belongs to 
the type-wheel class, but is more similar to the Crandall. 
The arrangement of the keyboard differs materially from 
the Remington, and is said to resemble that of a printer's 
case. The spacing after a word is performed automatically 
with the imprinting of its last letter. The Rapid typewriter, 
invented by Bernard Granville, of Chicago, in 1887, had 
straight, square, horizontal type-bars arranged radially 
with reference to the printing-point. The types were cut 
on the ends of the bars, at the proper angle so as to strike 
the paper squarely. The machine was operated by keys, 
and perfect alignment was to be secured through the close- 
fitting square holes through which each type-bar was car- 
ried. The device was a failure. The Boston typewriter 
was the invention of D. E. Kempter, of Boston, Mass. (pat- 
ented in 1886) ; it resembled in principle the Columbia type- 
writer described above. 

The '* English " was an English machine somewhat resem- 
bling the Bar-lock. The Lasar was another down-stroke 
machine, originating in St. Louis, Mo. The Typograph was 
a machine with type-bars striking downward upon a flat 
platen from a semicircular type-basket. None or those are 
now in the market. The Maskelyne, Mercury, and Gardner 
tvpe writers are of English origin, unknown in the U. S. 
Tf he last-named seeks to reduce the number of keys by writ- 
ing one character by the use of two keys at one time, an ar- 
rangement which is unlikely to commend itself to practical 
users of writing-machines. The Westphalia and Hammonia 
are German machines, the latter being better and cheaper 
than the former. They are of the single-key order, the 
types being held in a sliding holder, and are slow ; but they 
can print ten or twelve copies at once. Carbon paper is 
used in place of a ribbon or pad. 

Toy Machines. — The popularity of the typewriter as it 
came into more general use caused a demand for cheaper 
machines. Inventors soon produced devices to meet such 
demand, and a large number of machines came upon the 
market, some of which, though incapable of great speed, 
did very good work. These are generally known as u toy " 
machines, and can hardly be considered competitors of the 
larger typewriters. 

The Sun typewriter, one of the pioneers in this line, is 
the invention of L. S. Burridge and Newman R. Marshman. 
It was put upon the market in 1884, and met with a limited 
sale. Attached to a single key, or handle, is the tvpe-hold- 
er, a straight bar with type cut upon its lower surface, slid- 
ing in guides above and at right angles to the paper-car- 
riage, which is of the usual description, with mechanism 
for letter and line spacing. In close proximity to the type- 
holder is a fixed comb, or rack, bearing upon its upper sur- 
face an index of the characters contained in the type-holder, 
one to each notch in the rack. By bringing the* key to the 
notch opposite the desired character, the proper type is 
brought into printing position. The type-nolder is then 
pressed downward upon the surface of the paper. Inking 
is accomplished by small rollers, one on each side of the 
center of the type-holder, so that whichever way it moves 
the types are sufficiently inked. The Odell typewriter, first 
placed on sale in 1886, is similar in general design to the 
Sun, and seems to be a slight improvement. The type- 
holder is made with two faces instead of one, either being 
rocked into printing position at will, and hence the machine 
writes both capitals and small letters. 

The People s typewriter, or Prouty typograph, was an- 
other very simple device, consisting of a carriage contain- 
ing a sort of metal bow bearing characters electrotyped 
from ordinary printers' type, and hinged over a small rod 



bearing the paper. It was of no practical value and soon 
disappeared. Its inventor, E. Prouty, of Chicago, also de- 
vised a typewriter containing a series of type-bars in a semi- 
circular form placed horizontally and striking upward to a 
common ceuter on a carriage of the usual type running 
across the rear of the machine. The machine* now known 
as the People's typewriter, also the work of E. Prouty, was 
put on the market from Chicago about 1890, and has been 
sold to a limited extent. A horizontal type-wheel bearing 
two rows of characters upon its periphery revolves in front 
of the carriage — a small roller adapted to grasp the paper, 
and mounted upon a vibratory frame. The type-wheel is 
moved by a handle extending toward the front of the .ma- 
chine, and resting immediately above a semicircular index- 
plate by which the position of the type upon the wheel is 
indicated. The operation of the printing-key, at the left of 
the machine, serves to bring the platen smartly forward 
against the surface of the type-wheel, at the same time en- 
gaging a tooth or spur in a notch in a ratchet-wheel carried 
upon the type-wheel shaft, thus securing correct position of 
the type. Inking is performed by means of a ribbon which 
partially encircles the face of the type-wheel. 

The World typewriter, another machine of this class, was 
invented by John Becker, of Boston (U. S. patent, 1886), and 
was first placed on the market in 1886. As a novelty it at- 
tracted much attention, and many of them were sold. A 
flat semicircular disk, carrying on its under side a segment 
of rubber with the type faces cast upon it, revolves hori- 
zontally upon top of a short post or stud. Toward the front 
of the machine extends a combined pointer and handle 
which operates the type-disk and also passes over a semi- 
circular index containing all the characters to be found on 
the top plate. Upon pressing a key at the left of the type- 
disk trie face of the type is pressed upon the surface of the 
paper, and at the same time the carriage is moved ajong one 
space automatically. The inking is done by a pad which 
lies beneath the disk, with an opening at the printing-point. 

The Herrington typewriter was a toy patented in 1884 and 
put upon the market in 1886 by Milhson & Herrington, of 
Wichita, Kansas. It consisted of a pair of ways upon which 
a type-wheel, bearing the characters arranged alphabetical- 
ly upon a vulcanized rubber strip, moved over the paper, 
which was placed flat beneath. Tne wheel was operated by 
twirling a knob at the right-hand end of the axis, and ink 
was supplied by a small felt roller playing over the top of 
the wheel. A card index on the inner sid^e of the wheel 
indicated the position of the letters. 

The Merritt typewriter, the invention of C. E. and Mor- 
timer G. Merritt. consists of a paper-carriage hinged at the 
rear of the machine, a type-holder (carrying loose metal 
type which are interchangeable) sliding to and fro in suit- 
able ways, and an index-plate. By placing the index-handle 
over the desired type on the index-plate and depressing it, 
a pin is operated to bring the corresponding type up through 
a guide until it prints upon the paper, and a universal bar 
is depressed and moves the carriage forward automatically 
to the place for the next impression. A separate space-key, 
operated by the left hand, provides for spacing between 
words, and the platen is turned by a milled knob at its 
right to make line-spacing. 

The Victor typewriter is the invention of C. E. Tilton, of 
Worcester, Mass., and Arthur I. Jacobs, of Hartford, Conn., 
and is covered by patents of 1889. It consists of a paper- 
carriage of the usual description moved by a rack ana pawl 
mechanism, a vertical wheel bearing upon its rear face a 
thin metal disk containing the types, which are made of vul- 
canized rubber, a striker or hammer moved by a separate 
lever from the left of the machine, and an index handle or 
plate by which the position of the type-disk is directed. 
The impression is caused by throwing the hammer smartly 
forward: through a toothed rack cut upon the edge of the 
wheel until it pushes the type forward and impresses it on 
the paper. To facilitate tfiis, the edge of the disk is cut be- 
tween the types so that each one stands by itself on a 
flexible lip, which serves also as a spring to retract the type 
enough to clear the paper. Two small pads, situated one on 
each side of the printing-point, furnish ink to the types as 
they pass over tnem. By means of a small projection on 
the printing-lever, it is made to engage the spacing-lever 
and move the carriage at the same time that an impression 
is made. 

The name " Crown " has been applied to more than one 
typewriter. The first was patented in May and June, 1887, 
by A. G. Donelly, and in some degree resembled the Hansen 



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TYPHA 



TYPHOID FEVER 



13 



"writing-ball. A circular casing, much like an inverted 
bowl with perpendicular sides, was supported in an inclined 
position above a traveling paper-carnage of the usual de- 
sign. Within it a series of type-bars were jointed in a cir- 
ole, and adapted to strike downward upon a common cen- 
ter. The finger-keys were formed upon the upper ends of 
light rods, which were jointed to a collar upon the type-bars 
and projected upward in a circle through the casing. Each 
type-bar carried three type-faces, one upon each of three 
of the sides of a cube, so that a revolution of one-third upon 
its longitudinal axis in either direction brought another 
character downward into the printing position. This ma- 
chine proved impracticable and was abandoned. The same 
name was adopted by Byron A. Brooks for a small machine 
which was on the market for a few years after 1888. This 
is solidly constructed for real service, although slow in oper- 
ation. The printing is done by a metal type-wheel bearing 
characters in three rows upon its periphery, and carried 
upon a shaft inclined over the carriage, wnich is of the 
usual type. The front end of the type-wheel shaft also 
bears a gear-wheel meshing with the teeth of a straight rack 
which slides in ways across the front of the machine. The 
upper side of this rack carries a pointer, which passes over 
the surface of a celluloid index-plate bearing the characters 
found on the type-wheel. By sliding the pointer along the 
index-plate until it rests over any character, the type-wheel 
is rotated until the corresponding type is brought into the 
printing position. The impression is then made by depress- 
ing the type-wheel. A couple of shift-keys serve to move 
the type-wneel shaft in the direction of "its axis so that a 
different row of type on the periphery of the wheel may be 
brought into position at will. 

There are several other small machines upon the market 
under different names, but all working upon the same prin- 
ciples and having little practical value. Among such may 
be mentioned tne Morris, McLaughlin, Simplex, Pearl, 
American, and Ingersolls. 

Manifolding, — Copying- ink is generally used in type- 
writer ribbons and pads, so that reprints may be made by 
the use of the ordinary copying-press. By the use of car- 
bon paper, interleaved with sheets of thin typewriter paper, 
several copies may be made on the typewriter at once. 

As the the general use of the writing-machine increased, 
various attempts to widen its field of usefulness have been 
made by trying to adapt it to the work of writing in books. 
Several devices for this purpose have been invented, but 
none sufficiently practical to commend itself has yet ap- 
peared upon the market. A good deal of ingenuity has 
oeen expended in applying the principles of the successful 
machines to the solution of this problem, but as yet without 
success. . W. 0. Wyckoff and R. McKean Jones. 

Typha : a genus of plants to which the Cat-tail (q. v.) 
belongs. 

Typhlop'id® [Mod. Lat., named from Ty'phlops, the 
typical genus, from Gr. rv$A<ty, blind ; rv<p\6s, blind + 4ty, 
eye] : a family of serpents, characterized especially by the 
development of teeth in the upper jaw (and not in the lower), 
and therefore called Spanodonliens by Humeri! and Bibron. 
They are worm-like animals, the scales are smooth and im- 
bricated, and nearly alike all round; the head is short; 
above, it is covered by large scale-like plates ; the eyes are 
minute; the nostrils between the post-rostral and. labial 
plates ; there is no apparent neck ; the mouth is small and 
crescentif orm ; the anus is a transverse fissure near the 
posterior extremity. The skull has no ectopterygoid bones 
and no prefrontals ; the rudiments of a pelvis are present, 
but no pubis. The family is represented by about half a 
dozen genera in various tropical countries. 

Revised by F. A. Lucas. 

Typhoid Fever, called also Typhus Abdominals and 
Enteric Fever [typhoid is from Gr. rvfttys (contracted 
from *r»^o€i3^f), smoky, stupid (of persons in fever), typhoid, 
deriv. of rvQot, smoke, stupor ; enteric is from Gr. imputis, 
in the intestines, deriv. of frrfpor, intestine] : an acute in- 
fectious fever which has a duration of about four weeks, and 
is characterized by continuous high fever, abdominal disten- 
sion, diarrhoea, a rash on the skin, and great depression. 

Causes. — Typhoid fever occurs in all parts of the world 
-and affects all kinds of people. It generally attacks young 
persons, from fifteen to thirty years of age, but exceptionally 
is met with in infants or old persons. Spring and autumn 
are the seasons of its greatest prevalence. In most large 
•communities it is endemic — that is, isolated cases are 



constantly present — but under certain conditions local or 
widespread epidemics are met with. 

The investigation of the specific course of typhoid fever 
was until/recent years extremely difficult from the fact that 
clinicians had not learned to distinguish typhus fever from 
it. The credit of clearly establishing the points of distinc- 
tion rests with William Gerhard, who prosecuted his studies 
in the Philadelphia Hospital. Since Gerhard's time it has 
become recognized that typhoid, unlike typhus fever, is not 
contagious — that is, it is not communicated directly from 
person to person in the ordinary intercourse. The infection 
in roost, if not all, cases enters the alimentary tract with 
drinking-water, milk, or other food, directly or remotely 
contaminated by the intestinal discharges of persons ill with 
the disease. Exceptionally the virus may be directly con- 
veyed to the mouth by unolean hands, or it may become 
dried and reach the nose or mouth through the air, eventu- 
ally finding its way into the intestines. These facts are ab- 
solutely established by evidence of the most reliable charac- 
ter. The immediate cause is doubtless the bacillus described 
by Eberth, though there is much to be settled regarding the 
complete life history of this micro-organism. Certainly it 
does exist in enormous numbers in the intestines of persons 
suffering from typhoid fever, and in this disease alone. 

The morbid changes in the body in typhoid fever are prin- 
cipally found in the lower part of the small intestines, where 
the Peyer's plands undergo swelling, necrosis, and, finally, 
deep ulceration. The spleen and tne lymphatic glands of 
the abdominal cavity become enlarged, and the other organs 
of the body may suffer changes in consequence of continued 
fever. 

The disease begins very gradually. At first the patient 
suffers with headache, backache, and unaccountable lassitude ; 
frequently the nose bleeds, and sometimes colic and a little 
looseness of the bowels exists, though as a rule there is con- 
stipation. Graduallv, day by day, the temperature rises, 
reaching a height of 103 or 104° P. in five or seven days. 
After this the fever remains elevated to about the same 
point, falling in the morning and rising again toward even- 
ing. The characteristic symptoms of the disease are noted 
in the second week of the disease and after that time. 
These are the regular fever, the great lassitude, the devel- 
opment of abdominal distention with tenderness over the 
seat of the ulcers in the ileum — that is, in the right side of 
the abdomen — and diarrhoea. In many cases, especially when 
the fever is decided, muttering or delirium, twitching of the 
muscles, and great prostration supervene. Stupor, and even 
complete coma, may occur. After about two weeks these 
symptoms gradually abate, the fever slowly descends, and a 
slow convalescence is established. About the seventh to the 
ninth day a rash is noted in the skin of the abdomen, con- 
sisting of small red spots, which appear in separate crops, 
and last but a few days, when they fade from view. 

Many variations from this, which is the ordinary clinical 
course of the disease, are encountered. Sometimes there is 
scarcely any fever, or other signs of illness, and the case is 
spoken of as walking typhoia; again, the symptoms may 
be so intense that the case assumes a veritable malianant 
character. Fortunately, the latter are very rare. Minor 
variations in the symptoms, such as absence of the rash or 
of the diarrhoea, are quite common. 

Death may occur from perforation of the intestines or 
haemorrhage from deep ulceration ; from slow exhaustion ; 
or from various complications, as pneumonia, peritonitis, or 
the like. The mortality in typhoid fever varies greatly in 
different epidemics and at different periods of the same epi- 
demic. Modern methods of treatment have lowered tne 
death-rate very materially. 

Treatment.— First and foremost in importance is proper 
nursing. Without this any treatment is seriously embar- 
rassed. The patient must be confined to bed from the very 
first possible moment, in mild or severe cases alike; he 
must make no unnecessary physical exertion of any kind ; 
and he must be given a diet which will be least irritating to 
the intestinal ulcers. Universal opinion has decided that 
diet to be milk, of which a quart to two quarts, diluted or 
undiluted, according to the digestive power, should be given 
an adult patient in the twenty-four hours. Sometimes eggs 
beaten in milk, broths, and similar food are better borne 
than milk. 

The direct treatment of the disease is mainly concerned 
with the control of the fever. Remedies have been vaunted 
as specifics to cut short the disease, or to hold it in control, 
but these claims have not been accepted by the medical 



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profession. It is very probable that no remedy has power to 
alter materially the course of this disease. The control of 
fever by cold water, however, is of most decided value in 
preventing the serious results of continued high tempera- 
ture ; and has certainly the most marked influence in amel- 
iorating the intensity of all the symptoms. In this way it 
has in practice reduced the mortality from 15 or 20 per cent, 
to 1 or 6 per cent. Properly carried out, this treatment con- 
sists in tne immersion of the patient in a bath of about 70° 
F. every few hours, if the temperature reaches a high point. 
The patient at first is apt to shiver and to complain, but 
after a few baths grows accustomed to their use. Unfortu- 
nately, in private practice it is difficult to find the facilities, 
and the friends are led by mistaken sympathy to object to 
what appears cruel treatment. The results of hospital treat- 
ment, as well as of the private practice of those who have 
persisted sufficiently to overcome the objections of friends, 
leave not the slightest doubt as to the value of this method. 
Cold sponging, the application of cold cloths and the like, 
are also useful, though less so than tub-bathing. Febrifuges 
are all to be avoided as far as possible on account of their 
depressive action. Remedies may be needed to control diar- 
rhoea, to aid digestion, to relieve nervous excitement, and to 
combat untoward symptoms of other kinds. During conva- 
lescence the utmost care should be exercised to prevent in- 
testinal irritation by a too early return to the use of solid 
food. Tonics may be needed. Frequently the patient's health 
is much better after than before an attack, but this is not 
always the case. Not rarely relapses occur immediately after 
the attack ; but once the patient has completely recovered 
there is nearly always immunity from subsequent seizures. 
Now and then, however, instances are met with of second or 
even third attacks. See also the article Filth Diseases. 

William Pepper. 
Typhon : See Set Typhon. 

Typhoon, tl-foon' : a tropical cyclone, especially that of 
the China Sea. The storms first come in vjew in the south- 
ern part of this sea, and take a northeastern course, destroy- 
ing shipping on whatever part is traversed by them and 
doing great damage on shore in the Philippine islands, For- 
mosa, and even so far N. as Japan, and they are sometimes 
encountered far out on the Pacific Ocean on the latitudes of 
the latter country. They occur in late summer and in au- 
tumn and, except in minor details due to local geography, 
they are like the hurricanes of the West Indies and North 
Atlantic. The name typhoon is also frequently applied to 
similar great, intense storms of tropical origin in tne south- 
ern hemisphere — about Samoa ana the Fiji islands, and in 
the Indian Ocean about the Mascarenes. See Hurricanes. 
The center of a typhoon, round which the wind blows in cir- 
cles, is usually a calm which varies in diameter from one- 
tenth to one- fifth of the storra-area. In the northern hemi- 
sphere the bearing of this center is always 8 points or 90 
degrees to the right of the direction of the wind ; for exam- 

Ele, when the wind is N. the center bears E. In the right- 
and half of the storm-disk the wind always changes to the 
right of the point from which it blows, while in the left 
half it changes to the left. When caught in such a storm 
the first change of wind will indicate to the careful seaman 
whether he is in the right half or the left half. If in the 
former it has been found that his safety lies in heaving-to 
on the starboard tack, and heading off from the center, out 
if in the left-hand half he will heave-to on the port tack 
and head toward the center. This is true of the northern 
hemisphere. In the southern hemisphere the direction in 
which the vessel will head when lying-to will be the reverse 
of this. Among the Chinese names for typhoon is Kiu- 
fung, which is defined by one authority as a " four-quarter 
wind," and by another as a " wind which blows from four 
sides at once. ' Mark W. Harrington. 

Typhus Ferer [typhus is Mod. Lat., from Gr. rwpos , smoke, 
cloua, stupor arising from fever] : an intensely contagious 
disease, which is characterized by high fever, lasting ten 
days to two weeks, by a specific rash, and by great prostra- 
tion. It occurs where squalor, destitution, and overcrowd- 
ing abound, and has therefore been variously designated as 
ship-fever, jail-fever, camp-fever, and the like. In former 
centuries it was a common scourge, but is now almost lim- 
ited to half-civilized countries and to the slums of great 
seaports. Local outbreaks are met with from time to 
time on ships, in jails, or other places of like character. 
The specific cause of the disease nas not been discovered, 
though there is but little doubt that it is a micro-organism. 



The onset of the disease is very abrupt. After a brief 
period of preliminary indisposition, or without such, the 
patient falls into a chill or convulsion, or is seized with 
vomiting; fever develops rapidly and rises to a high point, 
and the patient is tormented with violent pains in the head, 
back, and limbs. The pains and fever continue, strength is 
rapidly lost, and soon tne patient sinks into a condition of 
stupor or delirium. The tongue is dry and coated; the 
breath is heavy and offensive ; the skin dry and excessively 
hot, often pungent ; the eyes are bloodshot. On the thircl 
to the fifth day an eruption of hemorrhagic spots of dark 
red " mulberry h color appears in the skin and persists for 
some days, fading gradually. If the patient survives, about 
the tenth to the fourteenth day a suaden subsidence of the 
fever is likely to occur. So sudden is this crisis and so im- 
mediate the improvement in the patient's condition in many 
cases, that some authors have been led to recall the scrip- 
tural passage : " On such a day the fever left him and he was 
well. The mortality in typhus fever is sometimes extremely 
high, most cases dying of exhaustion, of high fever, or of 
some complications, such as pneumonia. The treatment sim- 
ply consists in the control of the fever and in stimulation, 
rain may require sedatives. William Pepper, 

Typography : See Printing. 

Tyr [Icel. Tyr : 0. Eng. Tiw ; cf. 0. H. Germ. Zio, Gr. Z«fo, 
Lat. Ju- in Jupiter, Diespiter. See Tuesday] : in Scandi- 
navian mythology, a son of Odin. He is the bold god of 
war, and heroes pray to him for victory. When the gods 
were about to put the chain Gleipner on the Fenriswolf, 
and the latter refused to permit this to be done unless one 
of them laid his hand on the wolfs mouth as a pledge that 
no deceit was intended, the only god found willing to make 
this sacrifice of a hand was Tyr. The third day of the week 
is called after him, Icel. Tyrsdagr, Tysdagr, Dan. Tirsdag, 
Eng. Tuesday, See Scandinavian Mythology. 

Rasmus B. Anderson. 

Tyran'nldn [Mod. Lat, named from Tyrannus, the typi- 
cal genus, from Lat. tyran'nus, tyrant] : a family of clama- 
torial birds containing the king-bird and related forms. 
They have ten Drimanes and twelve tail-feathers ; the bill 
is hooked and flattened, and the bristles about the mouth 
are well developed. A characteristic feature is the "ex- 
aspidian " tarsus, the horny covering consisting of plates 
separated vertically on the inner side only. Although su- 
perficially resembling the Old World fly-catchers (Musci- 
capidce) in form and habits, they are very distinct and are 
confined to America, being most numerous in the tropics. 
See Fly-catchers and Kingbird. F. A. Lucas. 

Tyrant [(with y restored from Lat.) from O. Fr. tiran, 
tirant (with t by analogy of parties, in -ant)< Lat. tyran'nus 
= Gr. rtfyxo'WT, absolute sovereign or ruler] : a term which, 
in ancient Greece, did not necessarily designate, as at pres- 
ent, a despotic and cruel ruler. The Greek tyrants were 
powerful citizens who by force or stratagem assumed the 
rulership of a state or city without lawful warrant. Some- 
times, in seasons of political disturbance, the government of 
a tyrannus was highly beneficial to the state, commercially 
and socially. Some of the tyrants were men of wisdom and 
beneficence. But the natural tendency of such an unlawful 
exercise of power is toward oppression and injustice; hence 
at present the word tyrant designates a cruel and unjust 
ruler, whether a lawful king or a usurper. 

Tyrant, in ornithology : any one of the Tyrannidje (g. v.). 

Tyrcon'nel, Richard Talbot, Earl of : politician ; b. in 
Leinster, Ireland, about 1625 ; descended from an ancient 
Norman family ; became notorious for daring and unscru- 
pulous adventures in London, on which account he was rec- 
ommended to the exiled princes Charles and James as a suit- 
able person to intrust with a scheme for the assassination of 
Cromwell ; enjoyed great favor at court at the Restoration 
(1660), when, in order to enable the Duke of York to refuse 
to marry Anne Hyde, he made oath to personal knowledge 
of that lady's unfaithfulness to James ; filled many posts of 
profit at court ; was arrested and banished as a conspirator 
against Charles II. 1677; was created by James II., on his 
accession, Earl of Tyrconnel 1685, and commander of the 
array in Ireland 1686 ; dismissed English Protestant officers 
from the service, replacing them with Irish Roman Catho- 
lics ; was made lord deputy of Ireland Jan., 1687 ; proceeded 
to labor for the repeal of the act of settlement and for the 
independence of Ireland under the protection of France ; 
formed a large army of native Irish ; invited James II. to 



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TYROSINE 



15 



Ireland after the Revolution ; received him at Cork and ac- 
companied him to Dublin 1689 ; was present at the battle of 
the Boyne, but rendered little service ; went to France Sept., 
1690, and returned with French forces in the spring of 1691. 
D. at Limerick in Aug., 1691. His second wife was Frances 
Jennings, sister to the Duchess of Marlborough. 

Tyre [Lat. Ty'rus, Gr. Tvpot; cf. Heb. Tsor, from Aram. 
Tur, liter., a rock] : ancient city in Phoenicia, on the Mediter- 
ranean; 20 miles S. S. W. from Sidon. It was the wealthiest 
and most magnificent of the Phoenician cities, and sent out 
many colonies, of which Carthage was the most important. 
Hiram, King of Tyre, was the ally and friend of Solomon. 
It was besieged five years by Shalmaneser and thirteen 
years by Nebuchadnezzar. Alexander captured it after a 
siege of seven months (332 b. a), when the garrison were 
put to death and 30,000 Tyrians sold as slaves. It was taken 
by the Saracens (636), by the crusaders (1144), by the Sultan 
of Egypt (1291), it being first abandoned by its inhabitants, 
and by Selim I. (1516). The foundation of Alexandria (332 
b. c.) was a great injury to Tyre, and the discovery, almost 
2,000 years later, of a passage to India by the Cape of Good 
Hope dealt the finishing blow to its prosperity. Ancient 
Tyre consisted of two parts, Palaso-Tyre on the mainland 
and Neo-Tyre on an island. The narrow sound between 
formed the harbor. The mole constructed by Alexander 
to the island has through alluvial deposits become an isth- 
mus, and the former island is now a peninsula whereon the 
miserable modern village of Sour is situated. Numerous 
ancient remains jut through the soil, and for some distance 
among the waves foundations are seen. The latter are lit- 
erally places M for the spreading of nets in the midst of the 
sea" (Ezek. xxvi 5). Sour now exports only cotton, to- 
bacco, charcoal, and millstones by tne small and shallow 
harbor on the N. Pop. 4,500, more than half of whom are 
Mussulmans. E. A. Grosvenor. 

Tyree : See Tibee. 

Tyrian Purple : a celebrated dye used by the ancients, 
and prepared extensively at Tyre from the shellfish Murex 
(q. v.), from each of which only a minute quantity was ob- 
tained at an enormous cost ; ana hence this color became the 
symbol of imperial power. Tarentura, the modern Taranto. 
was one of tne great murex-fisheries of the Romans, and 
there they had a number of dyeing establishments. With 
the decline of the Roman empire the employment of this 
color ceased. Purple is now obtained from vegetable and 
mineral sources. See Archil and Dye-stuffs. 

Tyrnaa, or Tlrnaa (Magyar, Naqy-Szombaf) : town ; in 
the county of Pressburg, Hungary ; 30 miles N. E. of Press- 
burg, on the Waag Valley Railway. It has several educa- 
tional institutions, etc. ; was formerly a place of some im- 
portance, and was known as Little Home when the Hunga- 
rian primates lived here. The university founded in 1635 
was removed in 1773 to Pesth. Pop. 10,8^0. 

Tyrol, or Tirol, and Vorarlberg: province of the 
Austrian empire, the ancient Rhcstia ; bounded N. by Ba- 
varia, W. by Switzerland, and S. by Italy. Area, 11,324 sq. 
miles. The country is mountainous throughout, traversed 
from W. to E. by three lofty chains of the Alps — the Ty- 
rolese Alps in the north, forming the boundary toward 
Bavaria; the Trentine Alps in the south, on the Italian 
frontier ; and in the middle the Rheetian Alps, the high- 
est of the three ranges, Mt. Ortler rising 12.812 feet and 
Gross-Glockner 12,457 feet. The valley between the Tyrol- 
ese and Rhstian Alps is drained by the Inn, which nows 
through Bavaria to the Danube; the valley between the 
Rhfetian and Trentine Alps is drained partly by the Adige, 
an affluent of the Po, partly by the Drave, which flows 
through Carinthia to the Danube. Much of the surface is 
covered with perpetual snow, and glaciers descend to be- 
tween 5,000 and 6.000 feet above the sea. Nearly 40 per cent, 
is covered with forests, and of the remainder most is pasture- 
ground. Only a small part is suitable for tillage, but that 
part is very carefully cultivated. Wheat, rye, oats, and bar- 
ley are grown, though not enough for home consumption ; 
in the gardens, vineyards, and orchards, mostly situated in 
the southern valleys, excellent wines, numerous mulberry- 
trees for the rearing of silkworms, and fine fruits, olives, and 
figs are raised. The chief industry of the people is the 
rearing of cattle, especially sheep and £oats, which in the 
summer-time are driven to the pastures just below the snow- 
line. Salt and iron are produced, and various branches of 
manufactures are pursued, though mostly on a small scale. 



The climate is severe in the north and west, but is mild and 
almost like that of Italy in the south. Canary and other 
singing birds are extensively raised and exported. Pop. 
(1890) 928,769, of whom nearly 60 per cent, speak German, 
the rest Italian or some Romance or Slavonic dialect. Capi- 
tal. Innsbruck. Of the combined province, Vorarlberg occu- 
pies the northwestern corner, and has an area of only 1,007 
sq. miles, with a population of 116,073 in 1890. Each ele- 
ment of the province has its own local government. The 
country was originally inhabited by the Rhaeti, a people 
with uncertain affinities. It was conquered by Drusus and 
Tiberius, and became thoroughly Romanized, but in 600 it 
was largely peopled by the Baiuvarii, a Teutonic tribe. In 
the thirteenth century a part of the province came into the 
hands of the Counts of Tirol (anc. Teriolis), a district near 
Meran, but it became chiefly consolidated under the Counts 
of Meran and their descendants. On the failure of the 
male line the province was made over to the house of Haps- 
burg, to which it has since belonged, except during the_pe- 
riod 1805-14, when it was in the possession of Bavaria. The 
inhabitants vigorously resisted the latter power, and were 
for a time successful in a revolt under the leadership of 
Hofee (g. v.) in 1809. Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Tyrone' : an inland county of Ireland, in the province of 
Ulster. Area, 1,260 sq. miles. The surface is hilly, rising 
into mountains in the north and south, and declining to a 
level toward Lough Neagh, which forms part of the eastern 
boundary. The principal rivers are the Black water and the 
Foyle, with their tributaries. In the hilly districts the soil 
is sandy or gravelly ; in the valleys it is more productive. 
Oats and potatoes are the common crops. A small coal-field 
is worked, and some manufactures of linens, woolens, whis- 
ky, earthenware, etc., are carried on, though on a limited 
scale. The principal towns are Strabane, Dungannon, Cooks- 
town, and Omagh. Pop. (1891) 171.701, of whom 93.569 
were Roman Catholics, 88,909 Episcopalians, and 33,710 
Presbyterians. 

Tyrone : borough (incorporated in 1857) ; Blair co., Pa. ; 
on the Little Juniata river and three branches of the Penn. 
Railroad ; 14 miles N. N. E. of Altoona, and 55 miles S. W. of 
Lock Haven (for location, see map of Pennsylvania, ref. 5-D). 
It contains 10 churches, 25 public schools, 3 parochial schools, 
a national bank with capital of $100,000, a private bank, 3 
building and loan associations, and a daily and 2 weekly 
newspapers. The borough has a large general trade with 
the surrounding country and extensive manufactories, in- 
cluding iron-works, railway-shops, paper-mill, flour-mills, 
boiler-works, foundry and machine-shops, pianing-mills, 
brick-works, tannery, and box and candy factories. Pop. 
(1880) 2,678 ; (1890) 4,705 ; (1895) estimated, 7,000. 

Editor of " Herald." 

Tjrrone, Hugh O'Neill, Earl of : Irish rebel ; son of an 
illegitimate son of the first Earl of Tyrone ; b. in Ireland 
about 1550 ; commanded a troop of horse in the service of 
Queen Elizabeth in the war against the rebel Earl of Des- 
mond 1579-83 ; received from the Irish Parliament in 1587 
the title of Earl of Tyrone ; obtained by a personal visit to 
the English court the restitution to himself of the confis- 
cated estates of the rebel Shan O'Neill (d. 1567) ; maintained 
a correspondence with the English Government while con- 
spiring against it ; formed an alliance with Red Hugh, the 
cnief of the O'Donnells, 1590; assumed the title of The 
O'Neill ; offered the sovereignty of Ireland to Philip II. of 
Spain ; defeated Sir John Norris, and was proclaimed a 
traitor 1597 ; defeated and killed Sir II. Bagnal at the Yel- 
low Ford Aug. 14, 1598 ; concluded a truce with the Earl of 
Essex Sept. 8, 1599 ; retreated from Munster before Lord 
Deputy Mountjoy 1600; successfully invoked the aid of 
Spain, but was defeated with his Spanish allies in an attack 
upon Kinsale Dec, 1601, and took refuge in a stronghold 
near Lough Erne ; surrendered to Mountjoy; renounced the 
title of The O'Neill ; received a pardon 1602; presented him- 
self to King James, and was confirmed in his earldom and 
estates 1603 ; was suspected in 1607 of being encaged in a 
new conspiracy, thougn the charge was probably false ; pro- 
ceeded to Brussels to invoke the protection of the Spanish 
Government, and spent the remainder of his life in obscurity 
and poverty, a pensioner of the King of Spain and of the 
pope. D. in Rome in 1616. 

Ty'rosine [from Gr. rvp6s, cheese] : a nitrogenous sub- 
stance (C B Hii>iO$) formed by the decomposition of albumi- 
noid bodies by acids, alkalies, and putrefaction. It was first 
obtained by decomposing casein with fusing potash. It can 



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16 



TYROTOXICON 



TZff-HWUI 



also be prepared by boiling clippings of horn in dilute sul- 
phuric acia and by concentration allowing the leucine and 
tyrosine to crystallize out ; the latter is then separated by 
recrystallization. It occurs ready formed in the animal or- 
ganism (in the spleen and the pancreas, and in the urine in 
cases of yellow atroohy of the liver ; sometimes in the liver 
and bile of diseased persons). It occurs also in crayfish, 
caterpillars, spiders, etc., and in the vegetable kingdom, 
being found in the pumpkin and the white sprouts of vetch. 
Tyrosine crystallizes from an aqueous solution in slender 
silky needles, arranged in a stellate form. It dissolves in 
boiling water and in alcohol, but is insoluble in ether. 

Revised by I&a Remsen. 

Tyrotoxicon : See Cheese. 

Tyrrhenla : See Etrubia. 

Tyrrhenian Sea: the ancient Mare Tyrrhenian; that 
part of the Mediterranean which lies between the Italian 
mainland and the islands of Sardinia, Corsica, and Sicily. 

Tyrte'us (in Gr. Tvprmos) : Greek lyric poet ; flourished at 
the time of the second Messenian war, in the latter half of the 
seventh century b. c. According to Attic tradition, he was a 
native of Aphidna, in Attica, a lame schoolmaster who was 
sent by the Athenians to Sparta when the Lacedaemonians, at 
the bidding of the Delphic oracle, asked the Athenians for 
help. The lameness is symbolic of the elegiac distich, one verse 
of which is shorter than the other, and schoolmaster is synony- 
mous with poet. But the whole story ia doubtless a late 
invention. The stirring elegies of Tyrtseus and his spirited 
marching songs (ipfktHipi*) woke the Lacedaemonians to wiser 
counsels and higher courage, and made them victorious over 
their old foes. The fragments of his poems keep their 
primal fire, and his name has become typical for the warrior 
poet everywhere. Fragments in Bergk s Poetoe Lyrici Greed 
(4th ed.), vol. ii., pp. 8-22. B. L. Gildersleeve. 

Tvrwhitt, ter'it, Thomas, P. R. S. : classical scholar ; b. 
in London, England, Mar. 29, 1730 ; educated at Eton ; 
graduated at Oxford, 1750 ; became fellow of Merton College 
and Under-Secretary of State in the War Department 1756, 
and clerk to the House of Commons 1762 ; resigned the lat- 
ter post 1768 ; devoted himself to literary criticism, and was 
appointed one of the curators of the British Museum in 
1784. D. in London, Aug. 15, 1786. Among his works were 
Observations on some Passages of Shakespeare (1766) ; a cele- 
brated edition of Chaucer (1778) ; critical dissertations on 
Babrius, Euripides, Aristophanes, and Strabo, and editions 
of the Orphica, of Isseus, and especially of Aristotle's Poetics 
(posthumous, 1794). He is best remembered, however, as 
tne original editor of Rowley's Poems, to which he fur- 
nished a preface and glossary, and subsequently added an 
appendix showing them to have been written by Chattertoh. 

Revised by A. Gudeman. 

Tyssens, Peter: historical and portrait painter; b. in 
Antwerp in 1624 ; d. in the same place between 1677 and 
1679. Among his works may be mentioned Apparition of 
Christ and Apparition of the Virgin, in the Antwerp Mu- 
seum, and Adoration of the Host in St. James's church, 
Antwerp. — His son Peter Paul Tyssens (b. 1652) was also 
a painter. See Descaraps, Vies des Peintres Flamands. 

Tytler, Alexander Fraser, Lord Woodhouselee : his- 
torical writer; son of William Tytler (1711-92) ; b. in Edin- 
burgh, Scotland, Oct. 15, 1747 ; educated at Kensington and 



at the High School and University of Edinburgh ; was called 
to the bar 1770 ; appointed to the chair of History at the 
University of Edinburgh in 1780 ; became iudge-advocate of 
Scotland 1790, lord of session, with the title of Woodhouse- 
lee, 1802, and a lord of justiciary 1811. He wrote, besides 
many other works, Essay on the Principles of Translation 
(1791; 3d ed. 1813); The Elements of General History, 
Ancient and Modern (2 vols., 1801) ; and Lives of Lord 
Kames (2 vols., 1807) and of Petrarch (1810). D. in Edin- 
burgh, Jan. 5, 1818. 

Tvtler, Patrick Fraser : historian and biographer; son 
of Alexander Fraser ; b. in Edinburgh, Scotland, Aug. 30, 
1791 ; educated at the High School and Universitv of Edin- 
burgh ; studied law ; was admitted into the faculty of advo- 
cates 1818 ; held for some years the office of king*s counsel 
in exchequer, but ultimately devoted himself to biograph- 
ical and historical researches, and received from 1844 a 
pension of £200 from the crown. D. at Great Malvern, 
England, Dec. 24, 1849. His principal works were Lives of 
James Crichton of Cluny, commofUy called the Admirable 
Crichton (1819) ; Sir Thomas Craxg of Riccarton (1823) ; 
John Wicklyff (1826) ; Scottish Worthies (3 vols., 1882-83) ; 
Sir Walter Raleigh (1833) ; King Henry the Eighth (1887) ; 
An Historical View of the Progress of Discovery on the 
Northern Coasts of America, etc. (1832) ; and a History of 
Scotland from UJ& to the Union of the Crowns in 1603 
(Edinburgh, 9 vols., 1828-48 ; 5th ed. 10 vols., 1866), a work 
pronounced by Earl Stanhope and other critics M the stand- 
ard history of Scotland." Like his grandfather, he was a 
stanch advocate of Mary Queen of Scots. See the memoir 
entitled The Portrait of a Christian Gentleman, by Rev. 
John W. Burgon (1859). Revised by H. A. Beers. 

Tyumen : See Tiumen. 

Tzana : lake of Abyssinia. See Dembea. 

Tzet'zes, Johannes: Byzantine author; flourished dur- 
ing the last half of the twelfth century. The poems lliaca 
(edited by Jacobs 1793 and Bekker 1816) and Chiliades 
(edited by Kiessling 1826) are his principal works. Dull, 
verbose, and pedantic, his commentaries on the classic poets 
are valuable for their extensive learning. His brother, Isaac, 
was also a commentator on the classics. E. A. G. 

Tzschirner, tsheer'ner, Heinricr Gottlieb: theologian ; 
b. at Mittweida, Saxony, Nov. 14, 1778 ; studied theology at 
Leipzig ; was appointed Professor of Theology at Witten- 
berg in 1805 and at Leipzig in 1809, and was elected super- 
intendent at Leipzig in 1815, and prebendary of Meissen in 
1818. D. in Leipzig, Feb. 17, 1828. He acquired great 
reputation as a preacher and by the firm and intelligent op- 
position he offered to the Roman Catholic reaction all 
around him. He was a moderate rationalist, and was a 
prominent man in his time. He wrote Leben und Ends 
merktcHrdiger Selbstmdrder (Weissenfels, 1805); Geschichte 
der Apologetik (Leipzig, vol. L 1805 ; all published) ; and 
against Roman Catholicism. He is remembered mainly by 
his continuation of SchrSckh's Kirchengeschichte, vols. ix. 
and x. (1810-12) and Der Fall des Heidenthums, the product 
of ten years of labor, and still quoted (posthumous, edited 
by C. W. Niedner, vol. i., 1829 ; all published). See his Life, 
by H. G. Tzschirner (1828). Revised by S. M. Jackson. 

Tzu-Hwui : See Chinese Language. 



Digitized by 



Google 



u 




the twenty-first letter of the English al- 
phabet. 

Form, — The form U is derived through 
the Roman V from the Greek upsilon, V, 
a variant form of Y. As a sign for the 
vowel u this symbol was not used in the 
Semitic alphabets, but in the form Y ap- 
pears as the sixth symbol in the Phoeni- 
cian series, i. e. in the place afterward occupied by F, the 
Greek digamma. The Greek alphabet, in its effort to sup- 
ply the Phoenician lack of vowel-signs, used the Y (= semi- 
vowel w) as a vowel, placing it at the end of the series, and 
left in its place as a consonant a form, F, differentiated out 
of the preceding sign £ by the omission of one of the strokes. 
This addition of upsilon to the series in the place after tau 
occurred before the division of the Greek alphabets into 
groups, as this symbol, holding the twenty-third place, is 
characteristic of all the groups. 

Name. — The common Greek name of the letter, upsilon 
(J ^t\6v), " mere u" " single u" is not old, but dates from 
Byzantine times, and applies to the discrimination between 
the digraph <u and the single letter v, which at that time 
had come to be pronounced alike, viz., as fi or t in French. 
The old Greek name was 5. The Euglish name yoo (phonet. 
yu) represents the Old French u ( < Lat. u), with develop- 
ment of y-sound as in use, cure, human. 

Sound.— The letter stands regularly for the sounds (1) 
yu (yoo), as in mule, usage, impugn, value, circular ; (2) oo, 
as in rule, rude, rural ; (3) oo, as in bull, pull, put ; (4) i 
(99), as in murmur, urn, fur ; (5) u (unrounded), as in tub, 
bud, under. It also has the sound of i in busy, lettuce* 
minute, and has the consonant value of w between q or g 
and a vowel, as in quality, language, sanguine. It is silent, 
e. g. in biscuit, circuit, rogue, guess, build. . 

Source. — The sound yu (yoo) has its main source in 
French u. The sound oo (u), more frequently written with 
o o, is treated under ; so also the sound do. The sound & 
has the following main sources : (1) 0. Eng. & < Teuton, u ; 
as sung < 0. Eng. sungen : Goth, suggwans ; spun < spun- 
nen : Goth, spunnans ; thunder <]>unor ; (2) 0. Eng. u 
( < tin) < Teuton, un ; as us < us : Germ, uns ; (8) 0. Eng. u 
< Teuton., as but < butan, cf. Goth, ut; thumb <J>uma, cf. 
Germ, daumen ; (4) 0. Eng. o < Teuton. 5, as must < mosle, 
Goth, gambtan ; (5) 0. Fr. u, as suffer < suffre t butler < 
buteler. 

Symbolism. — U = uranium (cheraistrv) ; U. C. = Upper 
Canada ; U. S. = United States ; U. S. N. = United States 
navy. See Abbreviations. Benj. Ide Wheeler. 

Uanpls : See Rio Negro (Brazil). 

Uber'tl, Fazio, degli : poet (proper name Bonifazio) ; b. 
at Pisa between 1305 and 1309 ; a member of the family of 
the Uberti, who in the thirteenth century had been the lead- 
ers of the Florentine Ghibellines ; entered the service of the 
Scaligers and other noble families ; wandered about much, 
even into France and Germany, leading a wild life until 
near his fortieth year. D. after 1368. His Dittamondo, com- 
posed after 1350 in imitation of Dante's Divina Commedia, 
is a poem in lerza rima, in which he fancies himself guided 
about the world by the geographer Solinus, and instructed 
in the history of various places. It was not finished (1st ed. 
Vicenza, 1474). His lyrical poems, containing many pleas- 
ing love verses, have been edited by R. Renier: Lxriche 
edits e inedite di Fazio degli Uberti, etc. (Florence, 1883). 
See Th. Paur, Fazio degli Uberti. tin Epigone Dante's, in 
Neues Lausitzisches Magazin, lxvii., 2 ff. ; article by Renier 
in Giorn. di Filol. rom., iii. J. D. M. Ford. 

UcAjali, oo-kaa-yaa'lee : a river of Peru, one of the great 
southern tributaries of the Amazon, and by many regarded 
as its true head. It is formed by the union of the Mantaro, 
Apurimac, Vilcamayu, and Paucartambo, all of which rise 
on or near the eastern side of the western Cordillera, and 
after flowing through the high sierra region break through 
the Andes in narrow canons. The Mantaro, called in its 
upper course the Jauja and Ancas-yacu, has its source in 
Lalce Junin near the head-waters of the Marafton, and flows 
VOL. xii.— 2 



at first S. K, turning abruptly N. and N. E. The Apuri- 
mac rises near 14° §0 S., S. E. of Cuzco, flows N. W., and 
joins the Mantaro after cutting through the Andes. The 
Vilcamayu rises in the Vilcaftota cross range close to the 
Titicaca basin, and it receives the Paucartambo, which rises 
near the sources of the Madre de Dies. Collectively these 
rivers water the finest and most thickly settled part of Peru, 
and after passing the Andes all of them become navigable. 
In Peru the name Ucayali is given only to the united flood, 
which lies entirely in the lowlands ana has a general north- 
ern course, though with many windings ; the whole of it 
has been navigated by Tucker and others with small steam- 
ers, and its length is calculated at over 1,000 miles. Its 
course is through a forest-covered plain, and it is frequented 
only by rubber-gatherers and a few wild Indians ; ultimately 
it must become the great eastern outlet of Peru. Entire 
length, with the Apurimac, nearly 1,500 miles. See Castel- 
nau, Expedition dans les parties centrales de VAmerique du 
Sud (vol. iv., 1851) ; the reports of Tucker ; LCffler, in Peter* 
manns Mittheilungen (1886, part L). Herbert H. Smith. 

Uccello, dbt-chel'lfl, Paolo : painter ; b. in Florence, 
Italy, in 1397. His family name was Doko, but from his 
love of painting birds he was called Uccello. After prac- 
ticing the goldsmith's art he became an assistant of Loren- 
zo Ghiberti at the time the latter was working on the doors of 
the baptistery at Florence. The frescoes Uccello painted in 
the cloisters of Sta. Maria Novella in Florence nave been 
almost entirely effaced by time. A colossal equestrian por- 
trait of Sir John Hawkwood in chiaroscuro in terra verae is 
in the Duomo of Florence; also some giants in the same 
method in the Casa dei Vitaliani at Padua, which Vasari * 
tells us were much admired by Mantegna. Uccello was much 
devoted to geometry and perspective, but, according to Va- 
sari, the study of "these branches made him rt more needy 
than famous." D. in Florence, Dec. 11, 1475. The Louvre 
possesses a picture on panel by Uccello containing portraits 
of Giotto, Donatello, Brunelleschi, Giovanni Manetti, and 
himself. The National Gallery also has pictures by this 
master. See Gaye, Carteggio inedito d'Artisti (vol. i., p. 
146) and MilanesPs edition of Vasari's Live* of the Painters. 

W. J. Stillman. 

U'chean Indians: a linguistic stock of North American 
Indians which must have been divided into many tribes liv- 
ing distant from one another at an early period, but of whose 
tribal names none has come down to us except that of Yu- 
chee or Euchee. They were scattered through parts of South 
Carolina, Georgia, and Florida at the time of de Soto's expe- 
dition, and reached Alabama not earlier than 1729. The 
center of their early settlements appears to have been the 
lower Savannah river. In bodily size they are smaller than 
the Creeks, but lithe, active, and wiry. In settling private 
disputes they are the most pugnacious of the Indians S. of 
the Appalachian ridge, and, although members of the Creek 
confederacy, never were friendly to those tribes. In revenge 
for this the Creeks regarded them as slaves, and antagonize 
them even yet. Regarding their ancient customs and rites, 
they are more conservative than anv other of the southern 
tribes. They attribute their origin directly to the sun ; his- 
torically they never appear as acting in a body, but only as 
detached, a single tribe inhabiting a village on the lower 
Tallapoosa river, another on the Chattahoochee, three on 
Flint river and its side creeks, several on the Savannah river, 
on the watercourse of Southern Georgia, and on the coast 
tracts of South Carolina. After 1835 they removed with 
the Creek Indians to the Indian Territory, where they are 
now settled S. of the Arkansas river to the number of over 
600. See Bart ram, Travels through North and South Caro- 
lina, etc. (Philadelphia, 1791, and later editions); Hawkins, 
A Sketch of the Creek Country, etc. (New York, 1848; Sa- 
vannah, 1848). See Indians of North America. 

J. W. Powell. 

U'dall, Nicholas : author and divine ; b. in Hampshire, 
England, in 1505 or 1506 ; educated at Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford (graduated in 1524), where he became a fellow ; wrote 
verses for the city of London pageant at the coronation of 

DictizedbyLiOCV 



18 



UDINE 



UGANDA 



Queen Anne Boleyn, May, 1533 ; took orders in the Church 
of England; was a zealous advocate of the Reformation ; 
was master of Eton School 1534-43, where he was noted 
as a severe disciplinarian; published Flovres for Latin 
Spekynge, Selected and Gathered out of Terence, and the 
same translated into Englysshe (1533) ; wrote several Latin 
and English plays to be performed by his pupils, one of 
which, Ralph Roister Doister, probably produced as early 
as 1540, though not printed until 1565, is memorable as the 
earliest English comedy known to be extant. Udall was 
dismissed from the mastership of Eton in 1543 in conse- 
quence of having removed from the chapel some silver images 
— a proceeding for which he was charged with robbery by 
his Roman Catholic adversaries ; was vicar of Braintree, Es- 
sex, 1537-44 ; entered the service of Queen Catharine Parr ; 
obtained on the accession of Edward VI. the rectory of Cal- 
borne in the Isle of Wight ; edited, with a dedication to the 
Queen Dowager Catharine, The First Tome or Volume of 
the Paraphrase of Erasmus upon the Neic Testament (1549), 
translated partly by himself, partly by the Princess Mary, 
afterward queen, whose tutor he seems to have been ; be- 
came canon of Windsor 1551-56, and head master of West- 
minster School 1555, and wrote for the queen's entertain- 
ment various Dialogues and Interludes. D. at Windsor in 
Dec., 1556. He was author of several schoolbooks and of 
some poems, and translated Latin works of Peter Martyr 
and others. No copy of his Ralph Roister Doister was 
known to exist until 1818, when it was discovered and re- 
printed by Rev. Mr. Briggs ; was again issued, with notes, 
by F. Marshall (1821). by Thomas White in his Old Enqlish 
Drama (1830), by William Durant Cooper (1847), who edited 
it for the Shakspeare Society, prefixing an elaborate Life 
of Udall, and by Arber in his series of English Reprints 
(1869). It was identified as the earliest English comedy (a 
distinction previously accorded to Gammer Gurton y s Needle) 
by J. Payne Collier in his History of English Dramatic 
Poetry (1881), by means of a quotation from it found in the 
Arte of Logtque (1551) of Sir Thomas Wilson. The name of 
Udall also occurs under the forms Owdall, Dowdall, Wod- 
dall, Uvedale, and Vuedale, Revised by H. A. Beers. 

Udine, oo'dee-na (anc. Vedinum) : capital of the province 
qt Udine, Northern Italy ; at the foot of the Alps, 354 feet 
above the sea, and 25 miles from the Adriatic (see map of 
Italy, ref. 2^E). It is nearly circular, handsomely built, with 
clean and commodious streets and large squares flanked with 
fine porticoes. It has many forges and foundries, and manu- 
factures oils, matches, silk and cotton thread and tissues, dyes, 
leather, and furniture. The castle near the center of the 
city, now used for military purposes, was designed by G. 
Fontana, and occupies the site of a still earlier castle which 
was destroyed by an earthquake. The municipal palace, 
built in 1457, was damaged by fire in 1876, but has been re- 
stored, and is a very fine Gothic building, resembling the 
ducal palace of Venice and very rich in frescoes. The epis- 
copal palace has frescoes by Giovanni da Udine. The Met- 
ropolitana (1236), injudiciously restored, except the west 
front, in 1706, contains some admirable pictures, and there 
are many other interesting churches. The Bartoliniana Li- 
brary and that of the Casa di Florio are very rich. Udine 
first appears historically in the ninth century; was gov- 
erned for a time by the patriarchs of Aquileia ; was long the 
chief city of the duchy of Friuli, and formed an important 
portion of the Venetian republic when the latter fell. It is 
now an active center of industry and traffic. Pop. of com- 
mune (1893) 36,600. Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Udine, Giovanni, da : painter ; b. at Udine, Italy, Oct. 27, 
1487, of a family bearing the name of Ricamatori, perhaps 
from their skill at embroidery. He studied at Venice with 
Giorgione; afterward went to Rome with an artist called il 
Morto da Feltre, who invented a new kind of grotesque 
decoration which Giovanni practiced also. In Rome he be- 
came an assistant to Raphael in the decoration of the loggie 
of the Vatican and the Sal a dei Pontifici in the Vatican ; he 
painted the musical instruments in Raphael's Santa Cecilia. 
He was the first to make grotesque decorations in stucco, 
and became famous for his graceful productions. After the 
sacking of Rome he wandered about in Italy, returning to 
his native city, whence Clement VII. called him to Rome 
again to paint the standards for the castle of S. Angelo. 
Rewarding the artist with a pension. Clement also sent him 
to Florence to work in the sacristy of San Lorenzo. During 
the time Giovanni was thus occupied the pope died, and 
Giovanni, disgusted with ill fortune, returned to Udine, where 



he married and settled, executing works for his native city, 
also a chapel of Sta. Maria of Cividale. In the year 1550 he 
returned to Rome as a pilgrim, where Giorgio Vasari pro- 
cured for him the renewal of the pension which Clement 
VII. had given, as he was then in great poverty. D. in 
Rome in 1564. ~ W. J. Stillman. 

Ueberweg, tt'ber-t'ech, Frikdrich: classical scholar; b. 
at Solingen, Rhenish Prussia, Jan. 22, 1826 ; studied at G8t- 
tingen and Berlin. In 1861 the Vienna Academy awarded 
him the first prize for his treatise entitled Untersuchungen 
uber die Echtheit und Zeitfolge Platonischer Schriften 
und Uber die Hauptmomente aus Platofs Leben, a work 
which secured him a call to the chair of Philosophy at 
KSnigsberg, where he died June 7, 1871. He edited" the 
Poetics of Aristotle with a German translation, but is 
chiefly noted as the author of a valuable System der Logik, 
and of a standard work on the History of Philosophy from 
Tholes to the Present (3 vols., 1863 ; 7th ed., by M. Heinze, 
1888) which, although primarily intended for students, em- 
bodies considerable original research. See Friedrich Ueber- 
weg, by F. A. Lange (Berlin, 1871). Alfred Gudeman. 

Ufa : government of Eastern Russia ; area, 47,112 sq. miles. 
It extends along the rivers Ufa and Belaia, which flow to 
the Ural, and is to a great extent covered by branches of 
the Ural Mountains, but the western part is a great plain 
extending to the Kama river. The ground is well supplied 
with forests, and the rich soil is largely devoted to agri- 
culture, so that much grain is exported. Bee-keeping and 
cattle-raising are carried on, though the cattle are fewer 
than formerly. The climate is cold but healthful. Mining 
is an important branch of industry ; gold, lead, copper, and 
especially iron, are mined in large quantities, and of supe- 
rior quality. The transit trade between Europe and Asia, 
or rather between Nijnii-Novgorod and Bokhara, is im- 
portant. Pop. (1897) 2,219,838. Capital, Ufa. 

Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Ufa: capital of the government of Ufa, Eastern Russia; 
on the Ufa, at its influx in the Belaia ; 200 miles N. of 
Orenburg (see map of Russia, ref. 7-H). It has several good 
educational institutions, some manufactures, and an active 
trade. Pop. (1897) 50,576. 

Ugan'da : long famous as the most powerful native king- 
dom of the lake region of Central Africa ; lying on the 
northern and western sides of Victoria Nyanza. Bordered 
on the E. by the Nile, its northern limit is. approximately, 
in the same' latitude as Lake Gita. W. of Victoria Nyanza, 
it includes about half the territory between that lake and 
Lake Albert Edward, bein^ limited on the S. by the Kagera 
river ; also the Sesse archipelago and other islands in Vic- 
toria Nyanza. It consists of undulating uplands, in part 
well timbered, and so high above the sea that the climate is 
fairly salubrious, though under the equator. The soil is very 
fertile, and the plantations are devoted chiefly to the cul- 
ture of the banana, plantain, maize, and vam, which form the 
larger part of the food-supplies, though beef, goat's flesh, 
and fish are also eaten. One family has reigned in Uganda 
for over three hundred years, and the king, though he has 
been shorn of almost all his authority by the British, who 
are now in possession, is still regarded with superstitious 
reverence by many of the peasantry. The people belong to 
the Bantu family of African tribes* and are much higher in 
intellectual development and civilization than any other Cen- 
tral or East Africans. They are fully clad, are skilled in 
brass, iron, and copper working, and were a prosperous and 
very numerous people when discovered by Speke (1862) and 
described by Stanley (1875). For a number of years after 
1884 the country was greatly exhausted by desperate civil 
wars and by the attempt of the king, Mwanga, to extirpate 
Christianity by wholesale massacres. Christianity, however, 
has taken a firm hold upon the country, which is (1895) di- 
vided into three political and religious parties, the Moham- 
medans, Catholics, and Protestants. Peace is fairly well 
maintained only by means of a native military force in the 
service of Great Britain. The population is not over 500,000, 
less than half what it was at about 1875. The British Gov- 
ernment decided (June, 1895) to build a railway from Mom- 
basa, on the Indian Ocean, 800 miles away, and a preliminary 
survey has been made. The country is of great strategical 
importance, as it dominates Lake Victoria and controls the 
head- waters of the Nile. See Speke's Journal of the Dis- 
covery of the Source of the Nile; Stanley's Through the 
Dark Continent ; Ashe's Two Kings of Uganda ; and Stock's 
The Story of Uganda. * C. C. Adams. 

Digitized by V^jOOQ LC 



UGLITCH 



UKRAINE 



19 



Ugrlltch' : town ; in the government of Yaroslav, Russia ; 
on the right bank of the Volga; 60 miles W. S. W. of the 
city of Yaroslav ; contains many fine buildings (see map of 
Russia, ref. 6-E). It has extensive tanneries and some other 
manufactories. Pop. (1888) 14,172. 

Ugoli'no da Siena : a name borne by four painters, na- 
tives of Sienna, living in the fourteenth century. Vasari 
tells us that one of them was an intimate friend of Stefano 
Fiorentino (nephew and pupil of Giotto). This Ugolino 
was much employed in Italy. He retained the Byzantine 
style, and followed Cimabue rather than Giotto ; he is said 
to have painted the high altarpiece in Santa Croce of Flor- 
ence, and other works there, also the altar-piece in Santa 
Maria Maggiore, and a Madonna in Or San if ichele. Only 
the first mentioned of these works exists, and that one only 
in part and not in its original place, nor all its parts to- 
gether. Two pictures in the National Gallery in London 
are supposed to be parts of its predella. See Vasari (Mil- 
anesi's edition, vol. l.) ; Catalogue of the National Gallery, 
London (1889). * W. J. Stillman. 

U'grians: common name for a Finnish stock inhabiting 
parts of the government of Tobolsk, Siberia. They speak a 
primitive Finnic dialect, much mixed, however, with Tartar 
elements, and occupy a very low stage of civilization. They 
are nominally Christians, but their religion is really a mix- 
ture of Christianity and Shamanism. They are nomads, and 
hunting and fishing are their chief occupations. 

Uhehe. oo-ha'ha : a warlike tribe of Africans occupying 
a considerable area between lat. V and 9° S. and Ion. 35° and 
37° E., on the middle Rueha and upper Urania rivers. In 
1891 they defeated with considerable loss of life a German 
expedition under Lieut, von Zalewski, and in 1892 sacked 
the German trading-station of Mpuapua, in the Usagara 
country, 50 miles N. of their usual limits. M. W. ft. 

Uhland, oo laant, Ludwig : poet and scholar ; b. at Tubin- 
gen, Germany, Apr. 26, 1787; studied law at the university 
of his native "city ; went to Paris in 1810 for the purpose of 
stud ving Old French and Old German manuscripts ; practiced 
law "in Stuttgart 1812-80; was elected to the Wurteraberg 
assembly in 1819 ; was appointed Professor of the German 
Language and Literature at TQbingen in 1830, but resigned 
in 1833; became a member of the national assembly of 
Frankfort-on-t he-Main 1848 ; retired to private life ; d. 
Nov. 13, 1862. Among the great lyric poets of Germany in 
the nineteenth century Uhland takes a foremost place. At 
the beginning of his poetic career he was deeply influenced 
by the romantic school, but he kept himself free from the 
fantastic extravagances of this school. While the latter 
looked upon the Middle Ages with a vague enthusiasm and 
an undue overestimation, Uhland's love for mediaeval Ger- 
man life and poetry resulted from an intimate knowledge 
of both, which was based upon thorough studies. When- 
ever he, therefore, undertakes to revive the German an- 
tiquitv in his poetry, his productions bear the stamp of 
truthfulness, besides being the works of a great poet 
schooled in the art of Goethe. Most of his lyric poetry can 
be compared only with Goethe's songs and the best of the 
Volkslied, and so perfectly did he know how to reproduce 
the spirit of the latter that manv of his poems became 
folk-songs. As a writer of ballads he has few equals in 
German literature. But while these ballads, which are 
classic specimens of their kind, are full of dramatic power, 
his dramas, Herzog Ernst (1818) and Ludwig der Bayer 
(1819), though highly poetical in many passages, are lacking 
the true dramatic effect. During the latter part of his life 
Uhland devoted himself exclusively to scientific research in 
the fields of literature and mythology, and the results of 
his investigations are collected in the Schriften zur Qe- 
schiehte der Dichtung und Sage, published after his death 
(8 vols., 1865-72). Among these the essay Ueber doe alt- 
franzOsische Epos (1812), the excellent biography of Walther 
von der Vogelweide (1822), the treatise Ueber den My thus 
von Thor (1836). and the classical collection Alte hoch- und 
niederdeut8che Volkslieder (1844) may be mentioned espe- 
cially. Equally great as a poet and scholar, Uhland also 
played a conspicuous and noble part in politics, and his ac- 
tivity in the latter field shows the same devotion, simplicity, 
and manliness which characterize his entire career. See 
Fr. Vischer, Kritische Odnge % iv., 97; H. v. Treitschke, 
Historisehe und politische Aufsdtze ; O. Jahn, Ludwig Uh- 
land (Bonn, 1863) ; F. Notter, Ludwig Uhland (Stuttgart, 
1863); Ludwig Uhlands Leben % von seiner Witt tee (Stutt- 
gart, 1874); H. Fischer, Ludwig Uhland (1887); Dederich, 



Uhland ah Diehter und Patriot (Gotha, 1886); E. Paulus, 
Ludwig Uhland und seine Jleimat (Tubingen, 1887). 

Uhle, Albrecht Bernhard : See the Appendix. 

Ullrich, Jean Jacques Alexis : general ; b. at Pfalzburg, 
Lorraine, then in France, Feb. 15, 1802 ; educated at the 
Military Academy of St.-Cyr, France ; served in the cam- 
paign of 1823 in Spain ; afterward in Africa ; attained the 
rank of brigadier-general in 1852 ; served with distinction 
in the Crimean war, where he became general of division, 
and in Italy in 1859 ; became grand officer of the Legion of 
Honor in 1862 ; transferred to the reserve in 1867 ; resumed 
active service at beginning of war between France and 
Germany, and commanded at Strassburg. This important 
strategic point was ill fortified, and held but a small garri- 
son. In Aug., 1870, it was invested by the Germans, who, 
upon Uhrich's refusal to surrender, began a destructive 
bombardment, in the course of which $00,000 projectiles 
were thrown against the city. Uhrich's brave resistance 
lasted till Sept. 27, 1870, when, convinced of its uselessness, 
he surrendered. For his services he was rewarded with the 
Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor. He is the author of 
Documents relatifs au SQge de Strasbourg (1872). D. at 
Passy, France, Oct 9, 1886. 

Uhrichsville : city (founded as Waterford in 1833, name 
changed in 1839); Tuscarawas co., 0.; on the Stillwater 
creek, and the Cleve., Loraiu and Wheel., and the Pitts., 
Cin., Chi. and St. L. railways; 99 miles N. E. of Columbus, 
and 101 miles S. of Cleveland (for location, see map of Ohio, 
ref. 4-H). It is in an agricultural and wool-growing region, 
and has 6 churches, several public schools, electric street- 
railway, 2 private banks, 2 weekly newspapers, and manu- 
factures of sewer-pipe, drain-tile, and fire-brick. Uhrichs- 
ville with the village of Dunnison adjoining practically form 
one city, with a local and suburban population of 8,000 to 
10,000. Pop. (1880)2,790; (1890)3,842. 

Editor of " Tuscarawas Chronicle." 

Uist, wist, North and Sooth : two islands of the Outer 
Hebrides, belonging to Scotland. North Uist is 18 miles 
long and from 3 to 13 miles broad, with 3,371 inhabitants. 
South Uist is 20 miles long and 7 miles broad, with 8,825 
inhabitants. Both islands are high and rocky, and ill suited 
for agriculture ; fishing is the principal business. 

U it landers: See the Appendix. 

Ujlji, oo-jee'joe: a place in Africa, consisting of a number 
of mud huts, and situated on the shore of Lake Tanganyika, 
in a district of the same name, in lat. 4° 58' S., Ion. 30° 4' E. 
(see map of Africa, ref. 6-F). It became noted as the point 
where Stanley met Livingstone on Nov. 10, 1871. 

Ujlna: a port situated in the inland sea of Japan, close 
to the city oi Hiroshima (q. v.) and to the naval station of 
Kure, where is located the Imperial Naval College, removed 
thither in 1890 from Tokio (see map of Japan, ref. 7-B). 
The port admits the largest vessels, and was the center of 
naval activity in the war with China in 1894-95. The court 
moved westward in the summer of 1894 to Hiroshima, as a 
safer and more convenient locality for directing warlike 
operations. J. M. Dixon. 

Ukerewe, oo-keer-yu' : native name for the great African 
lake called Victoria Nyanza (q. v.). 

Ukl'ah : city (founded in 1857) ; capital of Mendocino 
co., Cal. ; on the Russian river, and the San Fran, and N. 
Pac. Railway; 121 miles N. W. of San Francisco (for location, 
see map of California, ref. 5-B). It has a picturesque loca- 
tion ; contains 3 public schools, a State bank with capital of 
$250,000, a private bank, the Sacred Heart Convent of Mercy, 
and 2 weekly newspapers; and is engaged in agriculture, 
fruit, hop, and wool growing, lumbering, and stock-raising. 
Pop. (1880) 933 ; (1890) 1,627 ; (1895) estimated, 2,300. 

Editor of " Republican Press." 

U'kralne (the frontier-land) : the name commonly given 
to that easternmost portion of Poland which, extending on 
both sides of the Dnieper along its middle course, and con- 
quered by the Poles in 1320, formed the frontier of the Polish 
empire against the Tartars ; it hardly ever signified a polit- 
ical division with precisely defined boundaries, but it soon 
became a matter of contention between Russia and Poland. 
In 1654 ten Cossack tribes settled on the eastern bank of the 
Dnieper, fell away from the Polish crown, and surrendered 
themselves to Russian authority. By the Treaty of Andrus- 
sow (1667), and finally by the Peace of Grzymultowsk (1686), 
this territory was ceded by the Poles and annexed to Russia 

Digitized by VjiUOv IC 



20 



ULCER 



ULM 



under the name of Russian Ukraine, or Little Russia. The 
rest of the country, situated on the western bank of the 
Dnieper, remained with Poland, under the name of Polish 
Ukraine, until the second division of Poland, when Russia 
took the whole and divided it into various governments. 
Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Ulcer [from Pr. ulcere < Lat. ulcus, ul certs, sore, ulcer ; 
cf. Gr. foxof, wound, sore, ulcer] : a localized disintegration 
on one of the external or internal surfaces. Two processes 
are concerned in ulceration : the molecular death of part of 
the surface involved, and inflammatory conditions at the 
base and sides. The causes of ulceration are those of in- 
flammation, with an added element of poor reaction on the 
part of the tissue involved. Local injuries, as by pressure, 
foreign bodies, as splinters and the like, are the immediate 
exciting cause in external ulcers. Internally, as in ulcers 
of the mouth, stomach, or intestines, the immediate exciting 
cause is either injury by foreign bodies or by micro-organ- 
isms and decomposed secretions or other contents. To make 
the exciting causes spoken of operative to the production of 
an ulcer, diminution in the resisting power or reparative ac- 
tivity of the tissues is necessary. This explains the occur- 
rence of ulcers on the lower extremities in old people when 
the veins are varicosed and the circulation therefore slug- 
gish ; in the rectum in case of haemorrhoids ; in antemic, 
debilitated, or syphilitic subjects ; in parts of the body ex- 
posed to constant wetting ; and in tissues where the nerve 
tone is lowered, as in paralyzed parts. 

The appearance of ulcers varies greatly in different cases. 
In general there is an irregular excavation, with a base cov- 
ered with pus and showing small red elevations, the inflam- 
matory granulations by which nature repairs the injury. Ac- 
cording to the variations from this general appearance and 
from the greater or less tendency to heal there are described : 
(i) Indolent ulcers, in which the base and edges are hard 
and healing is very slow ; they are common on the legs of 
old people ; (2) irritable ulcers, which are painful and bleed 
easily; (3) inflamed ulcers, in which from irritation active 
inflammation is evident ; (4) sloughing ulcers ; (5) serpigi- 
nous ulcers, in which there is a tendency to spreaa in a ser- 
pentine fashion ; (6) phagedemic ulcers, in wtich great tis- 
sue destruction occurs; (7) cedematous ulcers, which are 
moist and boggy ; and (8) fungatinq ulcers, iu which the 
granulations in the floor of the ulcer grow excessively. 
Other terms, such as specific, epifheliomatous, and the like, 
are in use, but do not oelong to the anatomical classifica- 
tion given above. 

There are certain parts of the body specially liable to ul- 
cer formation. Such are the lower part of the legs, the 
mouth, the stomach, the intestines (especially in typhoid 
fever and in tuberculosis), and the rectum. 

The tendency of ulcers is to get well spontaneously. Na- 
ture is best assisted by cleanliness of the part, local or gen- 
eral tonic remedies to build up the reparative power, and 
stimulating applications to the ulcer, strapping, or incision 
when there is a tendency to indolence. William Pepper. 

Ulema, oo-le-maV [Arab., wise] : a plural term in Mus- 
sulman countries including all persons learned in religious 
law. Till 1846 the ulema controlled all Mussulman educa- 
tion in Turkey. From them are chosen the cadis, mollahs, 
and imams. E. A. G. 

Ulex : scientific name of Furze (q. v.). 

Ulfeldt, Leonora Christina: prose-writer; b. at the 
palace of Frederiksborg, Denmark, July 18, 1621. She was 
a daughter of Christian IV. and Kirstine Munk, and was 
married in 1636 to Korfitz Ulfeldt, one of the most power- 
ful of the Danish nobility. On the conviction, in 1663, of 
her husband of high treason, she fell a victim to the jealousy 
of the queen, Sophie Araalie, and was confined in the Blue 
Tower in Copenhagen until the death of the queen in 1685. 
During her imprisonment she wrote an account of her suf- 
ferings. Jammers Minde (The Memory of Grief), first pub- 
lished in 1869 by S. Birket Smith, wlio calls it " the most 
important Danish prose work of the seventeenth century." 
D. at Maribo cloister, Mar. 26, 1698. D. K. Dodge. 

Ulfllas: See Gothic Language. 

Uliaso'tai, or Uljassotai : an important commercial sta- 
tion of Mongolia, in lat. 48° 22' N.. Ion. 97° E., on the line 
between the Russian frontier and Si-ngan-foo ; capital of the 
Chinese province of Shonsi, and principal d6pot for all goods 
destined for the markets of Central Asia (see map of China, 
ref. 1-F). It consists of a civil and a military quarter, the 



latter occupied by the Chinese garrison, the former by in- 
habitants who are partly Chinese and partlj Mongolian. The 
Mongolian nomads who visit the city during the fair live in 
tents. Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Ullmann, Karl: theologian; b. at Epfenbach, Palati- 
nate, Mar. 15, 1796; studied theology at Heidelberg, Tubin- 
gen, and Berlin ; lived in friendly intercourse with Hegel 
and Daub; afterward with Schleiermacher and Neander; 
was appointed Professor of Theology at Heidelberg in 1821 ; 
founded in 1828, together with Umbreit, the Theologische 
Studien und Kritiken, which is still the principal represent- 
ative of that school of German theology which believes in, 
and tries to work out, a complete reconciliation between 
Christianity and the modern culture; went as professor to 
Halle in 1829, but returned to Heidelberg iu 1836 ; was made 
president of the chief ecclesiastical council of Baden in 1856, 
but resigned this office in 1861, and retired into private life. 
His principal writings are Gregory of Nazianzus (Darmstadt, 
1825; 2d. ed. 1867; Eng. trans., London, 1851); Historisch 
oder mythisch 9 (Hamburg, 1838 ; directed against Strauss) ; 
The Worship of Genius (Hamburg, 1840; translated into 
English 1846) ; Reformers before the Reformation (2 vols., 
1841; translated into English bv Robert Menzies, Edin- 
burgh, 2 vols., 1855) ; Apologetic View of the Sinless Char- 
acter of Jesus (Jena, 1828 ; Eng. trans., Edinburgh, 1841 ; 
from 7th ed. [1863] 1870); The Essence of Christianity 
(Gotha, 1845 ; 4th ed. 1854 ; Eng. trans., London, 1860). See 
his Life, by W. Beyschlag (Gotha, 1866). D. at Carlsruhe, 
Jan. 12, 1865. * Revised by S. M. Jackson. 

Ulloa, ool-y<5'ria, Antonio, de : naval officer and scientist ; 
b. at Seville, Spain, Jan. 12, 1716. He early entered the 
navy, and in 1735 was appointed, with Jorge Juan, to ac- 
company the French scientific expedition to Peru. (See La 
Condamine.) During a residence of nine years in that 
country, Ulloa and Juan made extensive surveys, and stud- 
ied the history and social condition of the people. A secret 
report which they sent to the Spanish Government was pub- 
lished in English in 1826. It is of great historical impor- 
tance, especially in showing many of the abuses which sub- 
sequently led to the revolution. Returning to Europe at 
the end of 1744, Ulloa was captured by a British cruiser, 
but was soon released. In 1748 he published, with Juan, 
Relation histbrica del viaje a la Amirica meridional, which 
has been translated into various languages, and is widely 
known. A second work relating to the expedition, Noticias 
Americanos, appeared in 1772. Ulloa became a leader of 
science in Spam, and founded the first metallurgical labo- 
ratory in the country, and the observatory at Cadiz. He was 
intrusted with several important offices, for which, however, 
he showed little aptitude. In 1766-68 he was governor of 
Louisiana. D. near Cadiz, July 3, 1795. H. H. S. 

Ulloa, Francisco, de : navigator ; b. in Spain about 1485. 
He was with Cortes in Mexico, and in July, 1539, was placed 
in command of three vessels which left Acapulco to explore 
the Gulf of California. One ship was wrecked; with the 
others he penetrated to the head of the gulf, and, returning, 
coasted tne western side of the peninsula of California, 
which had been supposed to be an island. The extant ac- 
counts of this voyage are confused and somewhat contra- 
dictory, but it is certain that Ulloa proved the peninsular 
form of Lower California. It is stated that he perished in 
a shipwreck, but another account says that he returned to 
Acapulco, and was murdered there soon after. H. H. S. 

Ulloa y Pereira, -ee-pd-ra ee-raa, Luis, de : poet ; b. at 
Toro, Leon, Spain, in 1590 ; was a magistrate, but devoted 
himself also to literature, producing lyrical poems and sev- 
eral prose treatises. D. 1660. He is sometimes subject to 
the faults of the school of Gongora. Rachel, the best-known 
of his poems, treats the love-episode of Alfonso VIII. and a 
beautiful Jewess of Toledo. One of his prose pieces is a dis- 
course in defense of the comedy (1659), at that time assailed 
by the clergy. See the Obras de D. Luis de Ulloa : Prosas 
y Versos (2d ed. Madrid, 1674). J. D. M. Ford. 

Ulm: city; in the kingdom of Wtirtemberg, Germany ; 
at the influx of the Blau into the Danube, which here be- 
comes navigable (see map of German Empire, ref. 7-E). It 
is 58 miles S. E. of Stuttgart, is fortified, and is a place of 
much interest to the tourist, on account of its many fine old 
buildings. Its cathedral (Protestant), begun in 1377 and 
carried on till 1494, then left unfinished till 1844, was com- 
pleted in 1890. It is a magnificent edifice in Gothic style, 
455 feet long, 186 feet broad, and 134 feet high, and contains 



Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



ULMACELE 



ULTRA VIRES 



21 



the largest organ in Germany. The open-work spire is the 
highest in the world (530 feet). The town has a great vari- 
ety of manufactures, of which no single branch, however, is 
extensively developed, although its sweet bread is famous. 
On Oct. 17, 1805, Gen. Mack, at the head of an Austrian 
army of 30,000 men, here capitulated to Napoleon. Pop. 
(1895)39,304. 

Ulma'ce* : See Nettleworts and Elm. 

Ulmic Acid and Ulmin : See Humus. 

Ulna : See Arm, Osteology, and Skeleton. 

Ulphilas, or Ulfllas : See Gothic Language. 

UlplA'nns, Domitius : jurist, of Tyrian origin ; b. about 
170 a. D.; entered public life in Rome under Septimius 
Severus ; obtained the greatest reputation as a jurist, and 
held various judicial offices under Septimius Severus and 
Caracalla ; lost his influence and his offices under Elagaba- 
lus, but came again into power after the accession of Alex- 
ander Severus, but incurring the enmity of the pretorian 
guard, he was murdered by them in 228. Of his writings, 
which were very numerous and extensive, only fragments 
exist, but about one-third of the Digest of Justinian con- 
sists of excerpts from his books. The Tituli ex Corpore 
Ulpiani, generally called Fragment a Ulpiani, was edited 
by Hugo (1834) and by Booking (1845). 

Revised by G. L. Hendrickson. 

Ulric, Saint: bishop; b. at Augsburg about 890: d. Julv 
4, 973. He came of noble parents, and having become a monk 
was in the line of promotion to the episcopacy, to which he 
attained in 923. As was customary, he combined worldly 
pomp with spiritual authority and acts of piety. He stirred 
up tne people to a ^reat fight by which they repelled the 
Magyars in 955. This caused him to be held in grateful es- 
teem. He dispensed alms lavishly, built churches and mon- 
asteries, and did much to beautify Augsburg. He was very 
devout, and exerted strict discipline over his priests. He 
was particularly given to the worship of relics, and made 
long journeys to secure them. He resigned his see shortly 
before his death and died as a Benedictine monk. His re- 
tirement was considered a sin by the Council of Ingelheim 
(972). He enjoyed repute for holiness while he lived, and 
his first biographer, Gerhard, does not hesitate to ascribe 
miraculous power to him. Miraculous cures were wrought 
on his grave. His successor, on the strength of these state- 
ments, claimed that the whole Christian world should honor 
him. In Feb., 993, Pope John XV. issued a bull laying such 
an obligation upon Christendom — interesting as the first in- 
stance of a papal command raising a local saint into the 
company of saints of the Roman Catholic Church. Several 
writings* have been falsely attributed to Ulric, particularly a 
memorable rejoinder to the decree of a certain Pope Nich- 
olas, who sought to enforce sacerdotal celibacv, which the 
author contends was going beyond Scripture, lnis was pub- 
lished by Flacius in his Catalogue testium veritatis, qui ante 
nostram cetatem reelamarunt Papos (Basel, 1556) ; nest by 
Martene and Durand, Amplissima collection pp. 449-454, and 
translated An epistel ofmoche learning, sent by saint Hul- 
dericus, Bisshoppe of Augusta, called Augsburgh, unto Nic- 
olas, Bysshoppe of Home, the fyrst of that name : against 
the unmaried chastitie ofpryestes (London, 1550). But there 
was no pope of that name in the tenth century. For his 
biography, see Waitz, edition of Gerhard's biography in 
Monumenta : Scriptores IV., pp. 377, seq. S. M. J. 

Ulrich, Charles Frederick: See the Appendix. 

Ulri'cl, Hermann: philosopher; b. at Pforten, Branden- 
burg, Mar. 23, 1806: studied law at Halle and Berlin, but 
devoted himself after 1829 exclusively to the study of phi- 
losophy, and was appointed Professor of Philosophy at the 
University of Halle in 1834. He wrote Ueber Princip nnd 
Methode der Hegelschen Philosophie (1841) ; Grundprincip 
der Philosophie (2 vols., 1845-40) ; System der Logik (1852) ; 
Glauben und Wissen (1858); Gott und die Xatur (1862); 
Gott und der Mensch (1866; 2d ed. 1874); Der Philosoph 
Strauss (1873 ; translated by C. P. Krauth, 1874) ; Ueber 
Shakespeare 's dramatische iCunst (1839; 3d ed. 1868 ; trans- 
lated into English by A. J. W. Morrison, London, 1846). D. 
at Halle, Jan. 11, 1884. Revised by J. M. Baldwin. 

Ulster: the northernmost of the four provinces into 
which Ireland is divided ; borders N. and W. on the Atlan- 
tic and E. on the North Channel and the Irish Sea ; area 
8,613 sq. miles. The surface is greatly diversified ; the west 
part is mountainous, some summits being over 2,000 feet high. 
The province contains the large loughs Neagh, Strangford, 



and Erne. Pop. (1891) 1,619,814, of whom more than half 
are Protestants. 

Ultramarine [from Lat. ultra ma're, beyond the sea. 
So called because originally brought from Asia ; cf. Span. 
ultramarino] : a blue pigment formerly obtained from lapis 
lazuli, a mineral containing silica, alumina, soda, lime, sul- 
phuric acid, a little sulphur and iron, with a very little chlo- 
rine and water. It is found in Siberia, Transylvania, Persia, 
China, Tibet, Tartary, and the East Indies, and furnishes a 
beautiful and very durable pigment The analysis of lapis 
lazuli led to the production of artificial ultramarine, a prize 
of 6,000 francs being offered in 1824 by the Societe* d'En- 
couragement of Paris for this purpose. It was awarded in 
1828 to Guimet of Toulouse, who first produced it on a large 
scale, although Gmelin had shortly Defore made it by a 
process essentially the same as that now followed. Wagner 
{Chemical Technology) gives the following classification of 
the different methods followed : The sulphate or Glauber's 
salt ultramarine is prepared by intimately mixing 100 parts 
of dried kaolin, 83 to 100 parts of calcined Glauber's salt, 
and 17 of charcoal, or else 100 of kaolin, 41 of Glauber's 
salt, 41 of calcined soda, 17 of charcoal, and 13 of sulphur, 
and heating the mixture very strongly for seven to ten 
hours in fire-clay crucibles. The contents are then re- 
peatedly treated with water, pulverized, washed, dried, 
ground, and sifted, furnishing green ultramarine, ready for 
the market. (See Chromium.) To convert it into blue ultra- 
marine about 4 per cent, of sulphur is mixed with it, the 
whole roasted at a low temperature, with access of air, and 
this treatment repeated until the desired blue color is pro- 
duced. The blue product is pulverized, washed, dried, and 
separated into different qualities. Soda ultramarine is 
either made with a mixture of soda and sulphate or with 
soda alone, as in the following mixture : kaolin 100, soda 
100, charcoal 12, sulphur 60. The ignition is best performed 
in a reverberatory furnace, and the conversion into blue 
ultramarine in a large muffle, with addition of sulphur, the 
product being finer than the former. By increasing, within 
certain limits, the quantities of soda and sulphur, blue ultra- 
marine may be at once obtained. Silica ultramarine is 
soda ultramarine prepared with kaolin which has received 
an addition of 5 to 10 per cent, of silica. It is at once ob- 
tained by calcination as blue ultramarine, withstands the 
action of alum, and has a violet tint. 

Ultramarine is decomposed by the mineral acids, even 
dilute, with evolution of hydrogen sulphide. The natural 
ultramarine is far more durable, but the artificial is now 
very extensively employed as a pigment for calico-printing, 
coloring paper and cotton fabrics, and various otlier pur- 
poses for which smalt was formerly used. It should not be 
used for coloring candies. Sometimes it is mixed with 
chalk, kaolin, and barytes to make the tints lighter. Cobalt 
ultramarine is Thenard's blue. (See Cobalt.) Yellow ultra- 
marine is a name sometimes applied to barium chromate. 
Ultramarine ashes is a pale residue obtained in the prepa- 
ration of native ultramarine. Ultramarine is largely manu- 
factured in Germany, France, Belgium, and to some extent 
in England. Its manufacture is an important industry in 
the t . S., and according to the Mineral Resources of the 
United States for 1893 113,647 tons were produced in that 
year. Revised by Ira Rem sen. 

Ultramon' tanism [from Late Lat. ultramonta'nus, ultra- 
montane ; ultra, beyond + mon'tes, mountains (i. e. the 
Alps), viz., generally m relation to France] : in the Roman 
Catholic Church the principles and tendency of those who 
desire rather to increase than to minimize the authority and 
power of the pope. The opposite tendency is known as 
Gallicanism. Not unfrequently, in the ardor of recent dis- 
cussions, the genuine teachings of the Catholic Church have 
been classed as Ultramontanism. John J. Keane. 

Ultra Vi'res [Lat., beyond the powers] : a term applied 
to the contract of a corporation when it is beyond the pow- 
ers conferred upon this artificial person by its charter and 
the general laws applicable thereto. The term is quite mod- 
ern, having been introduced by Baron Bramwell as counsel 
in Fast Anglian R. Co. vs. Eastern Counties R. Co., 11 
Common Bench 775, in 1851. Since its adoption it has 
been employed in a variety of senses. It has been applied 
to authorized acts which the corporation has performed in 
an unauthorized manner. It has been applied also to acts 
within the power of the corporation, but not within the 
authority of the officers or agents who have done them. 
Still again it has been applied to positively illegal acts of 



22 



ULUGH BEG 



UMBRELLA-BIRD 



corporations. The tendency of recent decisions, however, 
is to limit the term to the signification stated at the open- 
ingof this article. 

ultra Vires Contracts, — The general rule is that they are 
not enforceable. This rests upon three reasons: 1. The 
interest of the public that the corporation shall not trans- 
cend the powers granted. 2. The interest of the stockhold- 
ers that the capital shall not be subjected to the risk of 
enterprises not contemplated by the charter, and therefore 
not authorized by the stockholders in subscribing for the 
stock. 3. The obligation of every one, entering into a con- 
tract with the corporation, to take notice of the legal limits 
of its powers. (Railway Cos. vs. Keokuk Bridge Co., 131 
U. S. 371.) So long as an ultra vires contract remains ex- 
ecutory on both sides, neither party can maintain an action 
for its enforcement nor for damages for its breach. If it 
has been executed by one party, its ultra vires character is 
still a defense to the other, provided the latter has not re- 
ceived and retained the benefit of its performance. For 
example, a savings-bank gives an order to a broker for the 
purchase and sale of cotton futures. The broker buys, 
sustains a loss, and sues the bank for his commissions and 
loss. Ultra vires is a good defense. (Jemison vs. Bank, 
122 N. Y. 135.) Had the bank received and retained the 
cotton, a different question would have been presented. In 
such a case, according to some authorities, the bank would 
have been liable on the contract, on the ground of Estoppel 
(q. v.). " The basis upon which the enforcement of the con- 
tract in such cases rests is that the company is estopped 
from setting up its own unauthorized act, and its own 
incapacity to evade performance on its part after receiv- 
ing the fruits of the bargain." (Camden, etc., R. Co. vs. 
Mays Landing R. Co., 48 N. J. L. 630, 568.) According 
to other authorities, the bank would not have been liable on 
the contract, but would have been subject to a quasi-con- 
tractual obligation. This seems to be the better view. It 
was clearly and forcibly stated in Central Transportation 
Co. vs. Pullman's Car Co. (139 U. S. 24). " A contract ultra 
vires being unlawful and void, not because it is in itself im- 
moral, but because the corporation by the law of its crea- 
tion is incapable of making it, the courts, while refusing to 
maintain any action upon the unlawful contract, have al- 
ways striven to do justice between the parties ... In such 
case, however, the action is not maintained upon the unlaw- 
ful contract, nor according to its terms, but on an implied 
contract of the defendant to return, or, failing to do that, 
to make compensation for propertv or money which it has 
no right to retain." See Keener, Quasi Contracts, p. 272. 

Torts committed bv corporations are not within the doc- 
trine of ultra vires. The U. S. Supreme Court has declared 
that it has been found necessary to hold corporations re- 
sponsible for torts or quasi-criminal acts not strictly within 
their corporate authority, when done in their corporate 
name, ana by officers competent to exercise corporate pow- 
ers. (Salt Lake City vs. Holliater, 118 U. S. 256.) To per- 
mit the defense of ultra vires in such cases would be equiva- 
lent to a license to corporations to indulge in unlimited 
wrougdoing. 

Restraining Ultra Vires Acts. — Suits for this purpose may 
be brought by stockholders or creditors. In some jurisdic- 
tions such suits may be instituted by the State, but in the 
absence of statutory authority therefor they will not be 
sustained unless some plain and sufficient public mischief 
be shown as a warrant for State interference. (Attorney- 
General vs. Railway, 11 Chancery Div. 449.) Ultra vires 
acts may be so deliberate and flagrant as to justify a for- 
feiture of the charter by the State. (People vs. North River 
Sugar Refining Company, 121 N. Y. 582.) For a full dis- 
cussion of this subject, the reader is referred to Green's edi- 
tion of Brice's Ultra Vires, Francis M. Burdick. 

Ulngh (oo'loog) Beg : ruler and astronomer ; b. in 1394 ; 
a grandson of Timur. He succeeded his father on the im- 
perial throne of Persia in 1447, but was put to death in 1449 
by his own son. He founded the observatory at Samarkand, 
encouraged the study of astronomy, was a diligent and accu- 
rate observer himself, and wrote several astronomical works 
in Arabic, which have been translated into Persian : into 
Latin by Greaves (London, 1650-52) and by Thomas Hyde 
(Oxford, 1665) ; into French by L. A. SCdillot (1846-53). An 
edition of his catalogue of stars appeared in the Memoirs of 
the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. xiii (1843). 

Ul'verstone : town; in Lancashire, England; on More- 
cambe Bay ; 8 miles N. E. of Barrow-in-Furness (see map of 



England, ref. 5-F). It manufactures different kinds of 
coarse woolen and linen fabrics, and exports considerable 
quantities of pig iron, bar iron, iron ore, limestone, and slate. 
Pop. (1891) 9,948. 

U'lybnschew, Uliblschew, Uliblscheff, or Onliblcheff 

(Ulybuschew is the German mode of spelling the name), 
Alexander Dmitriwich, von : Russian musical critic ; b. in 
1795 in Dresden, where his father was Russian ambassador; 
descended from a Tartar family ; studied at various German 
universities ; served in the Russian army and subsequently 
entered the ministry of foreign affairs, but resigned nis po- 
sition in 1831 and lived on his estates near Nijnii Novgorod, 
devoting himself to the study of music. He wrote Nouvelle 
Biographie de Mozart (3 vols., Moscow, 1844) and Beethoven, 
ses Critiques et ses Olossateurs (Leipzig and Paris, 1857), 
both of which were translated into English. The latter 
was in reply to Lenz, who had attacked Ulybuschew for 
depreciating Beethoven. In Russian he wrote a great num- 
ber of musical essays and criticisms in various periodicals, 
which exercised a great influence on the development of 
musical taste in Russia. D. at his residence Jan. 24 (Feb. 5), 
1858. 

Ulysses, or Ullxes : See Odysseus. 

Umatll'la River : a stream which rises in the Blue Moun- 
tains of Oregon, flows W. and N. W., and empties into the 
Columbia river at Umatilla, on the boundary between Ore- 
gon and Washington ; length about 150 miles. 

Uniba'gog, Lake : a body of water lying chiefly in the 
town of Errol, Coos co., N. H., but extending into Oxford 
co., Me., and there connecting with the most southerly of the 
Rangeley lakes. It is about 9 miles long and from 1 to 2 
miles wide. It is in a wild and beautiful region, and owing 
to its fine trout is a famous resort in summer for fishermen. 

Umbel'lifers, or Umbell Irene [umbelliferm is Mod. 
Lat. ; Lat. umbel' la, umbrella + fer're, bear, produce ; named 
in allusion to the shape of the umbels or clusters of flowers 
and fruit] : a family of 1,400 species of dicotyledonous herbs, 
or rarely shrubs, abounding in both hemispheres, chiefly in 
cool regions. Most have hollow striated stems, and flowers 
in umbels, but these are not perfectly constant characters. 
Various as these plants are in aspect, it is difficult to define 
accurately their generic and specific distinctions. Among 
its useful plants are the carrot, parsnip, skirret, chervil, fen- 
nel, caraway, dill, coriander, anise, parsley, and celery. Some 
are useful in medicine, many being active poisons — the medi- 
cines coniura, cicuta, assafoetida, ammoniac, galbanum, etc 
Revised by Charles E. Besset. 

Umber [from Fr. ombre, short for terre d'ombre, transL 
of ltal. terra di ombra, liter., shadow earth ; terra, earth + 
di, of + ombra, shadow] : a mineral pigment formerly ob- 
tained from Umbria in Italy, but at present chiefly import- 
ed from the island of Cyprus. Small quantities of umber 
are found in the U. S., chiefly in Pennsylvania. Its compo- 
sition is : Silica, 13 per cent. ; alumina, 5 per cent. ; iron ox- 
ide, 48 per cent. ; manganese oxide, 20 per cent. ; water, 14 
per cent. ; being essentially a siliceous brown hematite. It 
forms brown or yellowish-brown masses, possessing a hard- 
ness of 1*5 to 2 # 5 and a specific gravity of 2*2 ; adheres to 
the tongue ; shines when rubbed, and dissolves to some ex- 
tent in hot hydrochloric acid, the solution giving the reac- 
tion of iron. When gently heated, water is expelled, and a 
dark-brown pigment termed raw umber is formed ; at a 
higher temperature it is completely dehydrated, and con- 
verted into a soft red-brown modification known as burnt 
umber. The dark colors of these pigments depend upon the 
manganese. They are extensively used as oil and water-color 
pigments, and are often mixed with other colors. 

Umber, or Umbre : the Scopus umbretta, a bird of the 
heron family, better known as Shadow-bird (q. v.), 

Umberto I. : Italian form for Humbert I. (q. v.), 

Umbreit, oom'brit, Friedrich Wilhelm Karl : theolo- 
gian; b. at Sonneborn, Saxe-Gotha, Apr. 11, 1795; studied 
theology at Gottingcn, and in 1820 was appointed Professor 
of Theology and Philosophy at Heidelberg, where he died 
Apr. 26, 1860. In connection with Ullmann he founded the 
Theologische Studien und Kritiken(\$28); author of Kom- 
mentar Hber die Spruche Salomos (1826), and Kommentar 
uber die Propheten des alten Testaments (4 vols., 1841-46). 

Umbrella-bird : a name given to certain of the cotingas 
(Cotingidm) belonging to the genus Cephalopterus, because 
they bear a large, recurved crest which seems to shade the 
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UMBRELLAS AND PARASOLS 



UMBRIDJS 



23 



head like an umbrella. The most familiar species, Cepha- 
lopterus omatus, has a long feathered wattle hanging 
from the lower part of the neck. It is nearly the size of a 




The umbrella-bird. 



crow and of a blue-black color. It inhabits the forests of 
Northern and Eastern South America. F. A. L. 

Umbrellas and Parasols [umbrella is Lat. form of Ital. 
ombrella : Fr. ombrelle : Rouraan. umbrS < Lat. *umbrella y 
dimin. of umbra, shade ; parasols is from Fr. parasol : Ital. 
parasole < Lat, para re, prepare (in Romance langs., be ready, 
ward oft) + sol f sun] : portable shades or canopies, capable of 
being folded ; intended as shields against rain or sun. The 
umbrella is of ancient origin. The Egyptian and Ninevite 
sculptures, of the earliest dates, have representations of it, 
but only in connection with royalty. The umbrella was 
spread like a halo over the head of the monarch, whether in 
a chariot or in open-air feasts. The Chinese adopted it at an 
early period of their history, and were the only people who 
did not confine its use to the king and princes. With them, 
the man who was privileged to bear an umbrella was one of 
wealth and high position. The Japanese have used the um- 
brella ever since they established themselves in their island 
empire. The use of the umbrella or parasol is universal 
throughout India, but in Burma and Siam it is a mark of 
rank. In Burma the umbrellas of the king were of white silk, 
and no other person was allowed to carry a white one. In 
some of the Hindu sculptures Vishnu is represented as visit- 
ing the infernal regions with an umbrella spread above his 
head. In Greece the umbrella or parasol was much used by 
women of rank, and there are allusions to it in the Greek 
poets. In Rome its use was confined to women and effemi- 
nate men who used it as a protection from the sun, and it 
was made substantially like those of the present. Thence it 
extended to the countries of Southern Europe and Northern 
Africa. In the Middle Ages its use among women was less 
common, but it was an emblem of rank in the Church. All 
the large churches, especially cathedral churches, owned an 
umbrella to be used in processions. The umbrella was intro- 
duced into England as early as the fourteenth century. The 
parasol came into use in France and England, probably from 
China, about the middle of the seventeenth century. The 
forms and the material indicate its Chinese origin, though it 
was used in Italy nearly seventy-five years earlier. In Eng- 
land it was carried by women as a protection from both the 
rain and the sun as early as 1700. Jonas Hanway, an eccen- 
tric traveler and philanthropist, is believed to have been the 
first man of note who carried one in the streets, and he en- 
countered much ridicule for doing so. The umbrella in use 
at this time was made of oiled muslin or silk, sometimes of a 
tough oiled paper, and rarely, as in Haiiway's case, of silk. 
It was generally very heavy. Improvements in its con- 
struction have made it light and graceful, and it is now 
universally used. Besides its hand-service, it is used for 
express-wagons, omnibuses, and carriages, where it takes the 
place of the leather carriage-top. Modifications of it are the 
parachute and the umbrella-tent. 



The umbrella, in the general construction of its frame, 
has changed but little in thousands of years, though the 
materials used have been improved. Chinese frames, which 
have been largely the models of others, were made of bam- 
boo and light but strong woods. In Europe the ribs were 
at first made of rattan or split bamboo, then of wood, usu- 
ally white oak, afterward of whalebone. They are now made 
of the best steel (and often grooved) in the finer classes of 
goods, and of rattan in the cheaper. In the finest umbrellas 
the covering is of silk or of silk and cotton, while for the 
cheapest cotton alone is used. Waterproof materials, such 
as rubber, are also sometimes used. Tne paragon frame, in 
which the ribs and stretchers are grooved, has been im- 
proved by a slight bending inward of the ribs, so that when 
closed they fit compactly round the stick. Parasols are 
made like umbrellas, though occasionally lined, trimmed, or 
covered with lace, etc. The English market is the chief one 
for umbrellas, single manufacturers making millions of 
them in a year. Umbrellas have been made in the U. S. since 
1802, and in considerable numbers since 1812, but except 
for the cheapest goods, the sticks, the ribs, the stretchers, 
and the coverings were imported. A large part of the silk, 
the steel ribs, and a large proportion of the sticks are still 
(1895) imported, though paying a heavy duty. The census 
of 1890 reported that there were in the U. S. that year 435 
establishments for the manufacture of umbrellas and canes, 
employing 6,868 persons, paying wa^es during that year 
amounting to $3,204,797, and producing $13,771,927 worth 
of goods. During the fiscal year of 1894 umbrellas, parasols, 
and sunshades (together with sticks for the same) valued at 
$86,305*75 were imported into the U. S. See L'Ombrelle, It 
Qant, le Manchon, by Octave Uzanne (Paris, 1882). 

Revised by Marcus Benjamin. 

Umbrella-shell [so called from its shape] : any gastero- 
pod mollusc of the genus Umbrella (family Pleurobranchidce), 
which contains only three known living and two extinct 
species. The small, flattened umbrella-shaped shell covers 
only the more important organs, and the shell itself is often 
concealed by the mantle. 

Umbrella-tree: a small tree of the magnolia family 
(Magnolia tripelala\ found in the U. S. along the Alleghany 
Mountains from Pennsylvania to Kentucky. It has obovate- 
lanceolate leaves, pointed at both ends, and a rose-colored 
fruit. It takes its name from the fact of the leaves being 
crowded on the summit of the flowering branches in an 
umbrella-like circle. Revised by Charles E. Bessey. 

Um'bria : an ancient division of Italy, extending along 
the east side of the upper Tiber, and embracing the valleys 
fonned by the smaller watercourses of the Apennines E. to 
Adriatic. In classical times the Tiber formed the western 
boundary between Umbria and Etruria, while the eastern 
border extended along the Adriatic from the Rubicon to the 
JEsis. The region contained no important towns, but was 
inhabited by a population devoted to agriculture and graz- 
ing, living in small hamlets. The inhabitants were related 
in race and language to the Sabine and Latin peoples to the 
south and west. For an account of their language and its 
relations, see Italic Languages. 6. L. Hendrickson. 

Uni'brldn [Mod. Lat., named from Um'bra, the typical 
genus, from Lat. um'bra, a kind of fish, liter., shadow] : a 
family of haplomous fishes, represented in North America 
and Eastern Europe. In form they resemble the " killie- 
flshes " or " minnows " (Cyprinodontidoe) : the body is cov- 
ered with moderately large scales ; the lateral line is obso- 
lete ; the head is conic in profile, and covered with moderate 
scales like those on the body ; the eyes are lateral ; the oper- 
cular normal and unarmed ; the mouth is moderate and has 
a lateral oblique cleft ; the upper jaw is formed by the in- 
termaxillaries as well as supramaxillaries; teeth are present 
on the jaws and palate ; branchiostegal rays five or six ; the 
dorsal fin has articulated and branched rays, and is above 
the ventrals ; the anal is smaller and farther back than the 
dorsal; the ventrals abdominal and with six rays. The in- 
testinal canal has a simple stomach and no pyloric caxia ; 
the air-bladder is simple. The species of the family are from 
3 to 5 inches long, and live in fresh and brackish water 
ponds and the waters in the eastern parts of Europe and 
many portions of the U. S. The European species is Umbra 
crameri; the American are Umbra limi and Dallia pecto- 
raits. The American species live, it may be said, in the 
mud, and patches of water which appear destitute of fishes 
may yield considerable numbers of this kind by being dragged 
and the bottom stirred up. Revised by F. A. Lucas. 



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Google 



24 



UMLAUT 



UNCONSCIOUS STATES 



Umlaut, oom'lowt, or Mutation [umlaut is Germ., modi- 
fication or reconstruction of a sound ; cf. umkleiden % dress 
anew, umarbeiten, retouch, make over, etc.] : a technical 
term of Teutonic historical grammar denoting in its strict- 
est application the influence exercised upon an accented 
syllable by the vowel * or its consonant j (jf) in a following 
syllable. The application of the term has been extended 
to the parallel, though less common, phenomena, resulting 
from the influence of other vowels than *, so that it is Dossi- 
ble to speak, e. g., of t-umlaut, o-uinlaut, u-umlaut ; but in its 
proper and original significance, and when left unqualified, 
the term applies to t-umlaut. The phenomena of t-umlaut 
belong to tne separate life of the different Teutonic lan- 
guages, and the laws of their occurrence must be stated sep- 
arately for each branch, e. g. for 0. Eng., for 0. H. Germ, or 
M. H. Germ., for 0. Norse, etc. In 0. Eng. the action of these 
laws was in the main complete by the beginning of the 
eighth century a. d., having begun in the sixth. Their chief 
results are the following : (1) a{a)> e, settan : Goth. satjan ; 
(2) d > &, hal : Goth, hails versus h&lan < *halain : Goth. 
hailjan ; cf. Eng. whole versus heal — so Eng. one versus any, 
lode versus lead ; (8) o >y, gold versus gylden < *goldln, cf. 
Eng. gild, also fox versus fixen, vixen ; fore versus first ; 
foal versus filly ; born versus birth ; (4) d > 9, ddm, judg- 
ment, versus diman, to judge : Goth, domjan ; cf. Eng. doom 
versus deem — also goose versus geese, foot versus feet, tooth 
versus teeth, food versus feed (Goth, fodjan), book versus 
beech, blood versus bleed, etc. ; (5) u > y, full versus fyllan 
< *fullian : Goth, fulljan ; cf . Eng. inch, from Lat. uncia ; 
dung versus dingy, stunt versus stint, won versus winsome ; 
(6) u > g, cu, cow versus eg, kine ; cf. Eng. mouse versus mice, 
louse versus lice ; (7) ea>y (te, t). earn, old versus ieldra, 
elder ; cf. Eng. old versus elder ; (8) ea > y (le), dap versus 
cijpan (cipati) ; cf. Eng. cheap versus keep ; (9) eo, eo>y,y 
(te, le), weorc, work versus wiercan, to work. Similar re- 
sults of umlaut in German are gast versus g&ste, lamm 
versus Idmmer, kraut versus kr&uter, trost versus trdsten, 
etc. The phenomena of umlaut do not differ in their es- 
sential character from the various forms of assimilation 
between syllables, which appear in other languages and 
elsewhere in Teutonic, receiving various names, as epenthe- 
sis, fracture (brechung), vowel-assimilation, vowel-harmony, 
etc. See Ablaut. Benj. Ide Wheeler. 

Umnak, oom-naa&h' : one of the Aleutian islands, Alaska, 
the westernmost of the Fox islands group; in about lat. 
53 3 N., Ion. 168° 80' W.; 65 miles long and 10 miles broad 
at its broadest part ; lying N. E. and S. W., and separated 
from Unalashka by the narrow Umnak Pass (5 miles wide). 
It is mountainous* and bare, and the climate, though mild, 
is too cool for ordinary crops, except potatoes. The popu- 
lation is Aleut, very small, and mostly centered in the little 
village of Nikolski, of less than 800 inhabitants, on the 
west coast. The chief industries are fishing and sealing. 
The island has a ridge of mountains along its axis, culmi- 
nating with the volcano of Vsevidoff, said to be 8,000 feet 
high, and which, though not active, occasionally smokes. 
Other volcanic peaks of the island are sometimes active, 
and in 1817 one of the northern peaks emitted such clouds 
of ashes as to cover the island several inches thick. The 
small volcanic island of Bogosloff, which appeared in 1796, 
is just N. and connected with Umnak by a reef. Many 
hot springs are known to exist on the island. In a small 
valley inland there are several, all boiling ; one is said to 
rise and fall a distance of 2 feet four times an hour. Near 
Deep Bay, at the northeastern end, are several with temper- 
atures ranging from lukewarm to boiling. Lignite, fossil- 
wood, and fire-clay have been noted on Umnak. The first 
recorded visit to the island was that of a Russian skipper 
named Nikiforoff in 1757. Mark W. Harrington. 

Uniritsir: another spelling of Amritsir (q. i\). 

Unadil'la: village; Otsego co., N. Y. ; on the Susque- 
hanna river, and the Del. and Hudson Railroad ; 44 miles E. 
of Binghamton, and 95 miles S. W. of Albany (for location, 
see map of New York, ref. 5-H). It has a milk-condensing 
establishment, foundry, machine-shop, wagon-factory, four 
churches, high school, academy, a private bank, and a weekly 
newspaper. Pop. (1880) 922; (1890) 1,157; (1895) estimated, 
1,500. Editor of " Times." 

Unalashka, oon-aa-lash'kaa : an Alaskan island, middle 
one of the Fox islands, and second largest of the Aleutian 
chain ; lying between theparallels 58° and 54° N. and the 
meridians 166° and 168 J W. ; about 75 miles long, 25 broad 
in its broadest part, mallet-shaped, mountainous, bare, and 



treeless. The great Captain's Bay at the northern end is a 
common naval rendezvous. Population small, aggregated 
in a few small villages, of which by far the largest is Una- 
lashka town (native Iliuliuk), near the head of Captain's 
Bay, and containing 307 inhabitants in 1890, mostly Aleuts, a 
few Russians and Americans. The only industries are fish- 
ing and sealing. The climate, though moderate, is too cool 
for the ordinary crops, except potatoes. The thermome- 
ter very rarely falls below zero at Iliuliuk, and very rarely 
passes 80° in summer. The grasses are very juicy and luxu- 
riant. The mountains are volcanic, and Makushin, in the 
northwestern part of the island, 5,961 feet high, constantly 
smokes, and is occasionally in active eruption. Earthquakes 
in its vicinity are not rare. Metallic copper has been re- 
ported from Unalashka. The land fauna is poor in species 
and numbers. The black and silver foxes of the island, 
formerly much prized, are exterminated* Unalashka is one 
of the most important points in Alaska. Cave explorations 
show that the early inhabitants had developed a relatively 
considerable art, and tradition attributes to them unusual 
skill in whaling. Soloiroff and Glottoff, Russian adventur- 
ers, wintered there with a party in 1765-66, and then began 
a series of cruelties on the Aleuts which soon reduced them 
to a condition of helpless subserviency to Russian masters. 
In 1824 the cloud was lifted in part by the appearance of 
Father Veniaminoff, a noble ana devoted missionary, the 
apostle of the Aleuts, who devoted himself to their well- 
being and education. Unalashka has been often visited by 
explorers and whalers, was long an administrative center, 
and is, after the Pribilof islands, the most important place 
W. of Kadiak. Mark W. Harrington. 

Unan : the two-toed South American Sloth (q. v.), 

Uncas : an Indian sachem ; b. in the Pequod settlement* 
Connecticut, about 1600. Originally a war-chief of the Pe- 
quods, he revolted against Sassacus, the sachem, in 1634 ; 
made friends with the whites, and became chief of the Mo- 
hegans. In 1637 he joined Mason's expedition against the 
Pequods, and was rewarded with some of their lands ; made 
several treaties with the settlers in Massachussets and Con- 
necticut, and in 1643 joined them in a war against Mianto- 
nomo, the Narragansett sachem. In 1657 he was besieged 
in his stronghold on Connecticut river by the Narragansetts, 
but when on the point of starvation was relieved by Ensign 
Thomas Leffingwell, to whom it is said that he granted the 
land upon which Norwich now stands, although he subse- 
quently sold it to others. Many complaints were made against 
him by other Indians, and in 1654 he was warned by the com- 
missioners of the united colonies that he would not be pro- 
tected in any unlawful, treacherous, or outrageous course. 
He was always on good terms with the whites. D. in 1683. 
See Stone, Uncas and Miantonomo (New York, 1842). 

Uncial Letters [transl. of Late Lat. lit'term uncia'les f 
liter., inch letters, i. e. letters of considerable size ; uncial is 
from Late Lat. uncia'lis, liter., of or pertaining to an inch, 
deriv. of un'cia, a twelfth part, ounce, inch] : a name used 
in palaeography for the rounder characters which took the 
place of capitals in the manuscripts of the early Middle 
Ages. The angular capitals of the inscriptions could not be 
written with ease and speed on papyrus or parchment ; and 
already in the first century a. d., in the Herculanensian rolls 
and the wall-scratches and waxed tablets of Pompeii, the 
germs of a rounder script may be seen. By the fourth cen- 
tury this style was fully developed, and till the eighth the 
uncial was the prevailing hand of books. The letters which 
especially show the change are a, d, e, h, m (which then took 
on the forms so familiar in our small letters), and, in less 
degree, g, q, t, u. The name uncial is borrowed from St. 
Jerome, who censures the luxury of books written " unciali- 
bus ut vulgo aiunt litteris " ; though there is every reason to 
believe that he meant large letters in general. A style of 
writing, common from the fifth century, in which forms 
derived from the cursive hand of documents are mixed with 
uncials, is often known as half-uncial or semi-uncial. 

The development of Greek handwriting was similar to 
that of Latin ; and the name uncial, borrowed from Latin 
palaeography, is applied also to the rounded Greek capitals 
which, appearing as early as the third century b. c, remained 
the current book-hand till the ninth century a.d. For 
specimens of Greek uncials, see under Codex Alexandrinus. 

George L. Burr, 

Unconscious States : states of mind considered as still 
mental when they are not present in consciousness or thought, 
as, for example, our memories when we have no occasion to 



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UNCTION, EXTREME 



UNGER 



25 



call them consciously to mind. The psychologists have found 
it a difficult question to decide whether such supposed modi- 
fications of mind have any right to be called mental at all 
when there is no trace of their actual presence in conscious- 
ness. The school of Herbart — a great German psychologist 
and philosopher — hold that nothing that the mind has once 
experienced can ever be entirely lost to it ; but each such 
experience preserves its identity as a presentation or mental 
picture, although it becomes unconscious. The memory 
then of a thing or event once experienced is its literal recall 
from the sphere of the unconscious where it has been lying 
since its last appearance in consciousness. To this view the 
name ** pigeon-nole theory " has been given, especially to 
the view that memories are stored away somewhere in the 
soul, of which the Herbartian theory is a refinement. In 
opposition to it many psychologists hold what is known as 
the u functional " theory, according to which the memories 
which at any time we are not thinking about at all, those 
which are not in consciousness however dimly, simply do 
not exist. The reappearance of a memory in consciousness 
is a new exhibition of the function involved in its original 
appearance. It is a new creation. It has not persisted 
since its earlier appearance. The only thin£ that has per- 
sisted is a tendency to have the same functional reinstate- 
ment again ; and this tendency may be largely accounted 
for as an easier — because more habitual — stirring up of the 
brain processes which occur with this particular memory. 
Many striking facts have been discovered showing what the 
mind may do in apparent unconsciousness; but they seem 
all to be capable of explanation on the functional theory. 
See the Psychologies cited in the article Psychology, espe- 
cially the works of James, Brentano, and Baldwin. 

J. Mark Baldwin. 

Unction, Extreme : See Extreme Unction. 

Underground Railways: railway lines built below the 
level of the streets of a city, partly in tunnels. The under- 
ground railways of London were be^un in 1860, and in 1884 
the inner circle, connecting the principal railway termini 
on the north side of the Thames, was completed ; this is 13 
miles long, with four tracks and twenty-seven stations. The 
Metropolitan District Railway forms an outer circle, with ex- 
tensions leading to the suburbs. In these railways the cost 
of construction was extremely high, owing largely to the 
difficulties of tunneling and excavating without disturb- 
ing the foundations of buildings ; it ranged from $1,800,- 
000 to $2,500,000 per mile. The number of passengers 
carried on the inner circle is about 90,000,000 per year. 
The motive power is mainly steam, the exhaust steam and 
smoke being condensed in water- tanks during the passage 
through the tunnels. The City and South London line, 
opened in 1890, uses a system of electric traction ; this is 
Z\ miles long, and runs under the Thames. Underground 
railways, to be operated by electricity, are proposed or under 
construction in Berlin, Paris, and other large cities. 

The railway lines entering New York have an under- 
ground way along Fourth Avenue above Forty-second 
Street ; the length of this is H miles, and it was constructed 
in 1874 at a cost of $6,400,000. Many projects for an un- 
derground line on Broadway have been worked out, and in 
1871 a pneumatic road one block in length was constructed 
by way of trial. The difficulties of such construction are, 
however, surmountable only at very great expense, in con- 
sequence of the large number of sewer, water, steam, and 
gas pipes beneath the surface. An estimate made in 1894 

fives the cost of the 2*85 miles S. of Fourteenth Street as 
12,150,000. 

An underground belt-line in Baltimore, 7 miles long, was 
completed in 1892; it has four tunnels, the principal one 
being 8,350 feet in length. This was built to enable the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to reach the central part of the 
city. Its cost was about $1,000,000 per mile. See Tunnels 
and Tunneling. Mansfield Merriman. 

Underbill, John : colonist ; b. in Warwickshire, England, 
1597 ; went to America with Winthrop in 1630 ; was a rep- 
resentative in the general court from Boston, and in 1637 
was associated with Capt. Mason in command of the colony 
troops in the Pecmod war. Banished from Boston on ac- 
count of his religious opinions, he went to England, where 
in 1638 he published an account of the Pequod war in a 
work entitled Newts from America. Returning to Amer- 
ica, he was in 1641 governor of Exeter and Dover (N. H.) ; 
removed to Stamford, Conn., and in 1646 to Flushing, L. I., 
and held a command in the war between the Dutch and the 



Indians. In 1665 he was a delegate from Oyster Bay to the 
assembly at Hempstead, and in 1667 the Mantinenoc Indi- 
ans gave him a tract of 150 acres of land on Long Island, 
which is still held by his descendants. D. at Oyster Bay, 
L. I., 1672. * Revised by F. M. Colby. 

Under-lease : See Landlord and Tenant. 

Understanding: the mental function of knowledge or 
intellect as contrasted with feeling and will. (See Knowl- 
edge.) The use of the word in this more general sense, 
which is in near accord with the popular use of it, is in con- 
trast to its earlier philosophical meaning. The older view 
of the understanding considered it a higher faculty for the 
apprehension of the ideas. It was thus a kind of higher 
endowment for taking in abstract a priori truths, such as 
the ideas of God, immortality, freedom, etc., which come as 
a kind of revelation to this faculty without the admixture 
of error, the tentative formulations, etc., which necessarily 
belong to all the knowledge which rests upon experience. 
The current meaning given to the word in psychology is based 
upon the denial of the existence of any special human faculty 
for the apprehension of the abstract or universal. According 
to it all mental activity is alike in its nature and function. 
Abstract notions are due simply to the further exercise of 
the same function that gives the perception of concrete 
things. All knowledge is both abstract and concrete, both 
singular and universal; and all knowledge is dependent 
upon experience in exactly the same sense. So the word 
knowledge when properly defined covers the whole case; 
and other words, such as understanding, if used at all, sim- 
ply become alternative or synonymous terms. J. M. B. 

Underwood, Lucien Marcus, Ph. D. : botanist; b. at 
New Woodstock, N. Y., Oct. 26, 1853 ; educated at Caze- 
novia Seminary and Syracuse University; Professor of 
Geology and Botany in Illinois Wesleyan university 1880- 
83 ; Professor of Biology in Syracuse University 188<M)1 ; 
became Professor of Botany in De Pauw University 1891. 
He has published Our Native Ferns and How to Study Them 
(1881), revised as Our Native Ferns and their Allies (1882 ; 
4th ed. 1893) ; Descriptive Catalogue of North American 
Hepaticce (1884) ; Hepaticcs in the sixth edition of Gray's 
Manual of Botany (1890) ; besides many papers on similar 
subjects in the botanical journals. He prepared An Illus- 
trative Century of Fungi, 100 specimens (1889), and He- 
paticcs Americana, 160 specimens (1887-93). C. E. B. 

Underwriter and Underwriting : See Marine Insur- 
ance. 

Undulation : See Waves, Acoustics, and Light. 

Undnlatorj Theory of Light: See L;ght. 

Unger, Franz : botanist ; b. near Leutschach, Styria, Nov. 
80,1800; studied medicine at Prague and Vienna ; practiced 
as a physician, but in 1836 was appointed Professor of Botany 
and director of the botanical garden at Gratz ; removed in 
1850 to Vienna ; undertook extensive scientific journeys in 
Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, subsequently in Egypt and 
Syria. His principal works are Anatomie und Physiologic 
der Pflanzen (1855) ; Versuch einer Geschichte der Pflan- 
zenwelt (1852); Botanische Streifz&ge auf dem Gebiete der 
Kulturge8chichte (1857) ; Genera et Species Plantarum Fos- 
silium (1850) ; Iconographia Plantarum Fossilium (1852) ; 
Sylloge Plantarum Fossilium (1860); Die Fossile Flora 
von Sotzka (1850) ; Die Fossile Flora von Kumi in Eubcea 
(1867). D. near Gratz, Feb. 13, 1870. 

Revised by Charles E. Besset. 

Unger, Joseph : statesman and jurist ; b. in Vienna, Aus- 
tria, July 2. 1828; studied law in Vienna 1846-50; held a 
position in the university library at Vienna 1850-53; taught 
as privat docent in 1853, in which year he was made Pro- 
fessor of Jurisprudence in the university at Prague, and in 
1857 he was installed as Professor of Jurisprudence in the 
University of Vienna. Here he entered in the discussion of 
the political questions of the day, and in connection with the 
revival of the constitutional regime in Austria he published 
Zur Ldsung der ungarischen Frage, in which he espoused 
the cause of the liberals. He was successively a member of 
the Landtag. Reichsrath, and cabinet, but retired from the 
cabinet in Feb., 1879, upon the reorganization of the ministry. 
In 1881 he was made president of the Supreme Court. As a 
jurist he has been most celebrated for his work in systema- 
tizing the laws of Austria, and his greatest works are System 
des Gsterreichischen allgemeinen Privatrechts(ljeipzis, 1856- 
59) and Das 6sterreichische Erbrecht (Leipzig, 1864). Besides 
these he has written many other works, including ~ 

Digitized by " 



;ig, low). r>esnif» 



26 



UNGULA 



UNIFORMITY OF NATURE 



UcheNatur der Inhaberpapiere (Leipzig, 1857) ; Revidierter 
Entwurf eines bUrgerlichen Geselzbuchs fur das Kdnigreich 
Sachsen (Leipzig, 1861) ; and (with Joseph Glaser) Samm- 
lung von civilrechtlichen Entscheidungen des obersten Ge- 
richtshofs in Wien (Vienna, 1859-85). F. Stueges Allen. 

Un'gula [Mod. Lat., from Lat. un'gula, dimin. of unguis, 
nail, claw, talon, hoof. So called from its being like a 
horse's hoof in shape] : a segment of a volume. An ungula 
of a c»ne or cylinder is a portion of the cone or cylinder 
included between the base and an oblique plane intersecting 
the base. A spherical ungula is a portion of a sphere 
bounded by two semicircles meeting in a common diameter. 

Ungnla'ta [Mod. Lat., from Lat. un'gula, hoof] : a name 
applied in various senses to placental mammals having digits 
terminated by hoofs. 

I. By Linnaeus the name was employed for all the hoofed 
mammals in contradistinction to tne clawed and mutilate 
(finned) mammals. These, again, were differentiated into 
two orders— (1) Pecora, including all the ruminating forms, 
and (2) Bellua* % embracing the equine and hippopotamine 
forms : Rhinoceros was referred to the Glires (rodents), and 
Elephas to the Bruta (chiefly edentates). 

II. The errors of Linnaeus in his references of the genera 
Rhinoceros and Elephas were corrected by his successors, 
and all the true ungulate mammals were combined under 
the name Ungulata or hoofed quadrupeds. 

III. By Cuvier (1817, etc.) the ungulate mammals were 
differentiated into two orders — (1) " les Pachydermes," equiv- 
alent to the Belluce of Linnaeus after the inclusion of Rhi- 
noceros and Elephas, and (2) '• les Ruminants," identical with 
the Pecora of Linnaeus. This classification for a long time 
prevailed, and was the one found in most of the popular works 
on natural history still longer. 

IV. By de Blainville (in 1816) the group, under the name 
" les Unguiigrades," was restricted to the ordinary hoofed 
quadrupeds, the elephants being isolated as the representa- 
tives of a distinct order named " les Gravigrades." The Un- 
guiigrades were in turn differentiated into two groups — (1) 
those with unpaired digits, embracing the normal pachy- 
derms and equines, and (2) those with paired digits, includ- 
ing the suilline forms as well as the ruminants. The mana- 
tee was added, erroneously, as an anomalous form of the 
order. These modifications, except the last, constituted a 
very decided advance in classification. They, however, at- 
tracted but little attention till Owen (in 1840, etc.) revived 
the same views, and adopted the groups in question under 
other names. Accepting the division of ungulates as a nat- 
ural whole, he divided it into three subordinate ones— (1) 
Isodactyle or Arliodactyla, answering to the paired-toed Un- 
guiigrades of de Blainville ; (2) Amsodactyle or Perissodac- 
tyla, equivalent to the odd-toed Unguiigrades of de Blain- 
ville ; and (3) Proboscidea, identical with the Gravigrades of 
de Blainville. These three divisions were finally raised to 
ordinal rank by Owen. 

V. By Huxley and later writers the living ungulate mam- 
mals have been mostly distinguished into three orders, char- 
acterized by placental as well as skeletal features. (1) The 
name Ungulata has been reserved for the bulk of the spe- 
cies, which have again been divided into the sub-orders Peris- 
sodactyla and Artiodactyla ; (2) the term Hyracoidea has 
been introduced as an ordinal term by Huxley to cover a 
form (Hyrax) which had been confounded with the perisso- 
dactyle ungulates and approximated to the Rhiywceros by 
Cuvier and others ; (3) the group Proboscidea has been ac- 
cented as another order. 

VI. In addition to the recent forms of ungulate mam- 
mals, there are several extinct types which are also by some 
authors regarded as the representatives of other orders; such 
are the Toxodoniia of South America, the Dinocerata of 
North America, etc. 

The order Ungulata, in the sense now generally used, is 
characterized as follows : The teeth are, archetypically, in 
full number (44), but often a number are suppressed ; the 
molars have generally grinding surfaces, and are two- or 
three-rooted ; the canines are very diversiform, generally 
rudimentary or wanting, sometimes (as in Tragulidw, Suidm, 
etc.) extremely developed ; the incisors are, typically, six in 
each jaw, but often wanting entirely in the upper, and are 
implanted by simple roots and have incisorial crowns ; the 
legs at their proximal joints (humerus and femur) are more 
or less inclosed in the common abdominal integument (least 
in the camels) ; the feet are upraised, and their palmar and 
plantar surfaces are invested in a hairy skin unuistinguish- 



able from the rest of the integument ; the carpal bones are 
in two interlocking rows; the cuneiform narrow, and afford- 
ing a diminished surface of attachment forward for the ulna 
(which is retrorse beside the radius) ; the unciform and lunar 
articulating with each other, ana interposed between the 
cuneiform and magnum ; the hind foot nas the astragalus 
at its anterior portion scarcely deflected inward, and articu- 
lating more or less with the cuboid as well as navicular; the 
scaphoid and lunar are separate ; the toes of all the feet are 
never more than four in number, and the terminal joints are 
invested in thick nails or " hoofs " ; the brain is well devel- 
oped, and the cerebrum covers more or less of the olfactory 
lobes and cerebellum ; the placenta is non-deciduate ; the 
rectal and generative apertures are well separated ; the tes- 
tes more or less exposed. The order thus defined embraces 
about 250 living species. The existing forms are grouped 
under two sub-orders and fourteen families, viz. : (I.) Artio- 
dactyla, with the families (1) Camelidce, (2) Giraffidaf, (3) 
Saigiidm, (4) Bovidm, (5) Antilocapridm, (6) Cervidm, (7) 
Tragulidm, all of which are ruminants, and (8) Phacochcs- 
ridm, (9) Suidm, (10) Dicotylidce, and (11) Hippopotamidm, 
which are non-ruminants; and (II.) Perissodactyla, with the 
families (12) Equidce, (13) Rhinocerotidce, and (14) Tapiridce. 
Of these, the second, third, seventh, eighth, ninth, eleventh, 
twelfth, and thirteenth are now peculiar to the Old World, 
and the fifth and tenth to the New World ; but in ancient 
times the case was very different, the Rhinocerotidm and 
Equidm having abounded in North America in the Miocene 
epoch. A large number of extinct forms are now known 
which connect together types that are at present far removed. 
Among the most notable are the Anoplotheriidm, Oreodon- 
tidm, and Hyopotamidm, which bridged the existing chasm 
between the ruminant and non-ruminant ungulates. These 
had fully developed upper incisors, combined with the char- 
acteristic double lunate-ridged molar teeth of the living 
ruminants, and thus on the one hand were related to the 
typical ruminants, and especially the Tragulidm,&n<i on the 
other to the omnivorous artiodactyles, and perhaps most to 
the peccaries. Also to be noticed in this connection are 
Orohippidm and Anchitheriidm, as well as Hipparion, which 
form a series with the Palmotheriidm, and demonstrate the 
relation between the Rhinocerotidm and Equidm of the pres- 
ent epoch. The order was represented by typical examples 
as early as the beginning of the Eocene period, and undoubt- 
edly very long before, although no remains of an earlier date 
have been yet discovered. Over twenty families, now en- 
tirely extinct, are known from their fossil remains. The 
order has therefore played a very important part in the 
earth's past history, and the extinct types already known 
outnumber the recent. Why certain of the forms formerly 
existent in America, but later confined to Africa and Asia, 
became extinct in the former, can scarcely be surmised, as 
when reintroduced (as have been the horse and hog) they 
multiply and flourish as much as in their native lands. The 
order is also noteworthy as furnishing by far the largest por- 
tion of the meat-food which man uses, as also the beasts of 
burden which he employs. Almost all the species — and, 
above all, the ruminants — are hunted or kept for the meat 
they yield, and even the perissodactyles — horse, rhinoceros, 
and especially tapir — are esteemed as food by some peoples. 
Beasts of draught and labor are obtained chiefly from the 
Equidce (horse and ass, etc.), the Bovidm (ox, buffalo, etc.), 
and Cervidm (reindeer). Their contributions in other ways 
are manifold; the most noteworthy are milk, hides, jrlue, 
etc. See the names of the different sub-orders and families, 
as well as the domesticated animals, and especially the arti- 
cle Horse. Revised by F. A. Lucas. 

Uniaxial Mica: See Biotite. 

Unicorn [Lat. unus, one + cornu, horn] : described by 
various writers, from Ctesias, Aristotle, and Pliny down, as 
a horse-like creature with a straight horn in the middle of 
the forehead. Its figure occurs as a heraldic charge. The 
word reetn in the Hebrew Bible, translated " unicorn " in 
the English version, denotes some horned creature, perhaps 
the buffalo. 

Uniformity of Nature : the principle that there are no 
breaks in the operation of natural law. The principle has 
two great applications : (1) It underlies the formulation of 
all the so-called laws of nature, since the possibility of 
arguing from one or more observed facts in nature to other 
facts of the same kind which are not observed must rest 
upon the presumption that the sequences of events in na- 
ture are stable and regular. If a certain combination of 

Digitized by UOOQ IC 



UNIGENITUS BULL 



UNION COLLEGE 



27 



chemical elements takes place to-day under certain condi- 
tions, the chemist expects the same combination to take 
glace under the same conditions to-morrow. And it does, 
o, on the basis of this uniformity, he announces the dis- 
covery as a fact which any other chemist can confirm. 
(2) The second application of the principle is made in phi- 
losophy. It consists in the demand that uniformity shall be 
given due criticism, and its meaning in the world as a whole 
made out. This demand has led to various views, i. e. that 
uniformity is itself a hypothesis respecting nature, resting 
upon the experience that nature repeats her events ; again, 
that uniformity is an inborn regulative principle of the 
human mind. The construing of uniformity, however, has 
been largely confined to external nature, mind and its events 
being held to present in free will a phenomenon which vio- 
lates it. As to the merits of this position, see Will. The 
rise of the evolution hypothesis has broken this tradition ; 
the mind is treated as a natural thing and the science of its 
movements as involving the presuppositions of the natural 
sciences. J. Mark Baldwin. 

Unigen'itus Ball [so called from its first word being 
Lat. unige'nitus, only begotten] : a bull issued in 1713 by 
Pope Innocent VI. against 101 propositions contained in 
the Reflexions morales of Pasquier Quesnel (1634-1719). 
This book had been proscribed bv the pope in 1708, but the 
parliament objected to the prohibition of French books by 
any other authority than their own. But the king and the 
great majority of the French bishops were anxious for the 
pope to pronounce sentence on the subject. Of the 101 
propositions condemned by the bull 43 concern grace, 28 treat 
of the theological virtues, and 30 deal with the Church, her 
discipline and sacraments. One of the propositions was con- 
demned for holding that all love, except the supernatural 
love of God, is evil ; another, that every prayer made by a 
sinner is sinful ; another, that sinners should not hear Mass 
at all. No note was assigned to each proposition. Some 
are evidently not heretical, while others, if examined apart 
from the spirit which prompted them and the context in 
which they are found, are capable of a good sense. They 
have notes affixed only in globo, some as heretical, some as 
ill sounding, scandalous, etc. See A. Schill, Die Constitu- 
tion Unigenitus (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1876). J. J. K. 

Unimak, oon-i-maa&h' : the easternmost and largest of 
the Aleutian islands ; lying between 54° and 55° N. lat. and 
164° and 165° W. Ion. ; nearly rectangular ; about 50 miles 
long bv 20 broad; separated from the Peninsula of Alaska 
by an impassable strait or lagoon called Isanotski or False 
Pass, which is said to be shoaling. The island is mountain- 
ous, rocky, treeless, and is less known and visited than the 
other large islands. Population, Aleut, very sparse ; climate 
mild, but not favorable to ordinary crops because of the cool 
summer. Volcanic phenomena are very common, and Shi- 
shaldin, the best-known volcano, 8,955 feet high, is generally 
smoking and often emits flames. Sulphur is found in crevices 
on Shishaldin, and is reported in large fields near Progrum- 
noi village, at the western angle. Mark W. Harrington. 

Uninhabited Islands : See Bonin Islands. 

Union : town ; Knox co., Me. ; on the George's Valley 
Railroad: 13 miles N. W. of Rockland (for location, see 
map of Maine, ref. 9-D). It was settled in 1774 as Taylor 
Town, organized as the plantation of Sterlington in 1786, 
and incorporated under its present name the same year, and 
had part of its territory set off as the town of Washington 
in 1811. It contains the villages of Union, North Union, 
South Union, aud East Union ; has 2 churches, high school, 
2 libraries, a weekly newspaper, and manufactories of car- 
riages, furniture, organs, mowing-machines, and stoves; 
and is in an agricultural region. Pop. (1880) 1,548 ; (1890) 
1,436. 

Union Christian College: a coeducational institution 
at Merom, Ind., founded in 1859 by the denomination 
called Christians. It has a good working endowment, com- 
modious buildings, and beautiful grounds. It offers thorough 
instruction in the classics, sciences, the Bible, pedagogy, 
music, business, and fine arts. The enrollment is steadily 
increasing from year to year. President, Rev. L. J. Aid- 
rich, D. D. 

Union City: city; Randolph co., Ind.; on the Cleve., 
Cim, Chi. and St. L. and the Ritts., Cin., Chi. and St. L. 
railways ; 30 miles W. by N. of Piqua, and 84 miles N. E. of 
Indianapolis (for location, see map of Indiana, ref. 5-G). It 
is in a region abounding in walnut, oak, ash, hickory, and 



other valuable woods ; and has a public high school, 2 State 
banks with combined capital or $180,000, a daily and 3 
weekly newspapers, improved water-works, and several flour- 
mills and other manufactories. Pop. (1880) 2,478 ; (1890) 
2,681. 

Union City: village; Branch co., Mich.; on the St. 
Joseph river, and the Mich. Cent Railroad ; 11 miles N. W. 
of Coldwater, and 41 miles W. S. W. of Jackson (for location, 
see map of Michigan, ref. 8-1). It is the trade-center of a 
large agricultural region, and has a variety of manufactories ; 
there are 2 national banks, capital $100,000, and 2 weekly 
newspapers. Pop. (1880) 1,280; (1890) 1,156; (1894) 1,293. 

Union City : borough ; Erie co., Pa. ; on the Erie, the 
Penn., and the W. N. Y. and Penn. railways; 26 miles S. E. 
of Erie (for location, see map of Pennsylvania, ref. 1-A). It 
is in an agricultural region ; has 6 churches, a public high 
school, business college, co-operative trust company, gravity 
and Holly system of water-works, electric lights, and a weekly 
newspaper; and contains an oil-refinery, tannery, several 
flour-mills, and manufactories of barrels, carriages, furni- 
ture, pumps, and cabinet ware. Pop. (1880) 2,171 ; (1890) 
2,261. Editor op " Times." 

Union City : town ; capital of Obion co., Tenn. ; on the 
Mobile and O. and the Nash., Chat, and St. L. railways ; 154 
miles W. by N. of Nashville, and 204 miles S. by E. of St. 
Louis (for location, see map of Tennessee, ref. 6-B). It is in 
an agricultural and stock-raising region, and has 6 churches 
for white people and 4 for colored, a public school for white 
children and one for colored, a training-school, 2 hotels, 
union railway station, electric lights, canning-works, 2 plan- 
ing-mills, saw-mill, furniture, duck, spoke, and ice factories, 
a national bank with capital of $50,000. a State bank with 
capital of $50,000, and 2 weekly newspapers. Pop. (1880) 
1,879 ; (1890) 3,441, with 500 in suburbs. 

Editor of u Democrat." 

Union College : an institution of learning at Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. ; incorporated in 1795. It owes its name to the 
fact that it was founded by a union of several Christian de- 
nominations. In 1779 some 500 citizens of Northern and 
Eastern New York petitioned the Governor and Legislature 
for the establishment of a college in the city of Schenectady 
to be named after the first Governor, Clinton. The petition 
was denied, but in 1785 an academy was incorporated in 
Schenectady, and on Feb. 25, 1795, this academy became Un- 
ion College, the charter of the college being the first one 
granted by the newly constituted board of regents of the 
State of New York. The first class, numbering three stu- 
dents, matriculated Oct. 19, 1795, when the Rev. John Blair 
Smith, D. D., assumed the office of president. Dr. Smith re- 
signed in 1799, and was succeeded by Jonathan Edwards the 
younger, who died in 1801, and was followed by Rev. Jona- 
than Maxcy, D. D. In 1804 the Rev. Eliphalet Nott, then 
pastor of the First Presbyterian church at Albany, was 
elected president, and held the office until his death, in 1866, 
this being the longest presidential terra in the history of col- 
leges in the U. S. During Dr. Nott's presidency the college 
became one of the foremost educational institutions of the 
country. Many of the greatest scholars and educators were 
members of its faculty, among them Francis Wayland, aft- 
erward president of Brown University, Alonzo Potter, after- 
ward Bishop of Pennsylvania, Tayler Lewis, Isaac W. Jack- 
son, and William M. Gillespie. The number of students 
increased steadily until the outbreak of the civil war, when 
the college suffered greatly from the withdrawal of the large 
number of Southern students, and from the enlistment of a 
company of Northern undergraduates, who marched to the 
front under the command of the Professor of Modern Lan- 
guages, Elias Peissner. Col. Peissner was killed at Chancel- 
Forsville ; many of the students never returned from the war, 
and few returned to the college to graduate. Upon the death 
of Dr. Nott, Dr. Laurens P. Ilickok, who had been vice- 
president for fourteen vears, was elected president and served 
for two years. In 18o9 he was succeeded by the Rev. Dr. 
Charles A. Aiken, and on his resignation, in 1871, the Rev. 
Dr. Eliphalet Nott Potter, son of Bishop Alonzo Potter and 
grandson of President Nott, became president. Under his 
administration the college made substantial progress. En- 
dowments were increased, new buildings erected, the educa- 
tional facilities enlarged, and the college advanced in num- 
bers. In 1884 Dr. Potter resigned, and for four years Judge 
Judson S. Landon was president ad interim. In 1888 Har- 
rison E. Webster, LL. D., was elected president, and was fol- 
lowed in 1894 by the Rev. Dr. Andrew V. V. Raymond. In 

Digitized by VjCTOQ IC 



28 



UNIONISE 



UNITARIANISM 



1873 the Albany Law School, the Albany Medical College, 
and the Dudley Observatory were united with Union Col- 
lege to form Union University. In 1881 the Albany College 
of Pharmacy was established and incorporated as a depart- 
ment of the University. Union College was the first non- 
sectarian college in the U. S. ; it was the first to introduce 
the study of the modern languages, the first to add a scien- 
tific course to the time-honored classical course ; the first 
to recognize the importance of technical training, organ- 
izing a school of civil engineering in 1845. It also origi- 
nated the fraternity system, and the oldest of the Greek- 
letter societies were founded here. It offers to students a 
choice of courses leading to the degrees of Bachelor of 
Arts, Bachelor of Philosophy, Bachelor of Science, and 
Bachelor of Engineering. A department of electrical en- 
gineering is now organizing, in co-operation with the Gen- 
eral Electric Company, whose great shops are located at 
Schenectady. The faculty consists of twenty-eight mem- 
bers besides twelve regular and many occasional lecturers, 
and the students number (1894-95) 275. B. H. Ripton. 

Union' id© [Mod. Lat., named from ZTnio, the typical 
genus, from Lat. u'nio, a single large Dearl, liter., oneness, 
unity. See Onion] : a group of bivalve (Lamellibranch) 
molluscs containing the so-called fresh-water clams and 
mussels, especially well developed in the U. S., where innu- 
merable so-called species have been described. Each ani- 
mal has a large foot, a short anal siphon, the branchial 
siphon present or absent. The shell is equivalve, closed 
by two adductor muscles. The hinge varies considerably, 
and the shell is internally nacreous. The fresh-water mus- 
sels are unfit for food, and their sole value lies in the pearly 
character of the shells, for they occasionally produce pearis 
of value. In Ohio, New Jersey, Wisconsin, and elsewhere 
in the U. S. many pearls have been found in such mussels, 
including some valued as high as $2,000. Pearl-fishery was 
maintained for many vears in Scotland, and pearls valued 
at £10,000 were obtained in the Tay in 1761-64 The in- 
dustry is also carried on in Germany and China. The chief 
literature on the American species is Lea's Synopsis of the 
Naiads (1870) and his Observations on the Genus Unto (13 
vols., 1827-73). The embryology has been studied by Rabl, 
Jenaische Zeitschrift f Naturwiss., vol. x. (1876), ana Lillie, 
Jour. Morphol., vol. x. (1895). J. S. Kinosley. 

Union, La, laa-oon-yon' : seaport; in the southeastern 
part of Salvador, Central America ; capital of a department 
of the same name ; on an arm of the Gulf of Fonseca, called 
the Bay of La Union (see map of Central America, ref. 6-G). 
Most of the commerce of the eastern part of the republic 
centers here, and until recently it was the most important 
seaport of Salvador. The harbor is good, but the town is 
somewhat insalubrious. Pop. about 2,500. H. H. S. 

Union Springs: town; capital of Bullock co., Ala.; on 
the Cent. Railroad of Ga. ; 40 miles E. S. E. of Montgomery, 
and 55 miles W. S. W. of Columbus, Ga. (for location, see map 
of Alabama, ref. 5-E). It is an agricultural and fruit-grow- 
ing region, and has a college for women, a male and female 
institute, an academy for males, several cotton-mills, 2 cot- 
tonseed-oil mills, 2 grist-mills, 3 ginneries, canning and spoke 
and handle factories, a State bank with capital of $70,000, 
an incorporated bank with capital of $52,000, and a weekly 
newspaper. Pop. (1880) 1,862 ; (1890) 2,049 ; (1895) 2,349. 

Editor of " Herald." 

Union Theological Seminary in the City of New 
York : the corporate name of an institution for the train- 
ing of students for the Christian ministry; at 700 Park 
avenue. According to the preamble to the constitution, it 
was the "design of the founders to provide a theological 
seminary in the midst of the greatest and most growing 
community in America, around which all men of moderate 
views and feelings, who desire to live free from party strife, 
and to stand aloof from all extremes of doctrinal specula- 
tion, practical radicalism, and ecclesiastical domination, 
may cordially and affectionately rally." The first board of 
directors was elected on Jan. 11. 1836"; instruction began on 
Dec. 5, 1836, in the houses of the professors, and after Dec. 
12, 1838, in the first home of the seminary at 9 University 
Place, where it remained till Sept., 1884, when it was re- 
moved to its present quarters. Ihe seminary was incorpo- 
rated by act of the New York Legislature on Mar. 27, 1839. 
Its board of directors is a self- perpetuating body. The 
charter specifies that "the government of the seminary 
shall at all times be vested in a board of directors," con- 
sisting of fourteen ministers and fourteen laymen, and that 



" equal privileges of admission and instruction, with all the 
advantages of the institution, shall be allowed to students 
of every denomination of Christians." No denominational 
name appears in the charter. Although not under ecclesi- 
astical control, it is a Presbyterian institution, and for some 
thirty years stood in intimate relations with the New School 
branch of the Presbyterian Church in the United States 
of America. During that period several of its professors 
were moderators of the General Assembly of the Church. 
After the reunion of the Old and New School branches of 
the Church in 1870, it granted to the General Assembly a 
veto power upon the appointment of its professors ; but in 
1892, in consequence of a difference touching the terms and 
scope of this veto, and on the ground that it had violated 
its charter and constitution in conceding such a power, the 
seminary terminated the agreement of 1870. By the pro- 
visions of the constitution it is required that the president 
of the faculty and the professors of systematic and practical 
theology shall be ordained ministers, and the adoption of 
the Westminster Confession of Faith is required of all mem- 
bers of the faculty and directory. In 1894-95 the curric- 
ulum was broadened by the introduction of optional and 
elective courses, and by the extension of the "seminar" 
method of instruction to an increased number of subjects. 
There are seven endowed professorships. Connected with 
the seminary are also three lectureships : The Ely founda- 
tion, on The Evidences of Christianity ; the Morse, on The 
Relations of the Bible to the Sciences ; and the Willard 
Parker, for hygienic instruction. There are also endowed 
instructorships in vocal culture and music. The scholastic 
year extends from about Oct. 1 till the middle of May, di- 
vided into two terms by the holiday recess. The library con- 
tained in May, 1895, about 70,000 volumes, 28,000 pamphlets, 
and 186 manuscripts. Relations exist with Columbia Col- 
lege and the University of the City of New York, by which 
the students of the seminary are allowed post-graduate 
privileges in both these institutions, while members of the 
colleges may take part of the seminary course as special 
students. The whole number of students connected with 
the seminary from its foundation to the close of the vear 
1894-95 was 2,784, of whom 1,779 were graduates. 'The 
seminary confers no degrees, but grants diplomas to those 
who have pursued the full course. 

Among the notable names of those (now deceased) who 
have been connected with the corps of instructors are Hen- 
ry White, Edward Robinson, Thomas Harvey Skinner, Henry 
Boynton Smith, Roswell Dwight Hitchcock, William Adams, 
Philip Schaff, and William Greenough Thayer Shedd. 

Charles R. Gillett. 

Unlontown: borough; capital of Fayette co., Pa.; on 
the national pike and the Bait, and Ohio and the Penn. 
railways; 40 miles S. E. of Pittsburg (for location, see map 
of Pennsylvania, ref. 6-B). It is in an agricultural, coking, 
and iron-mining region ; has natural gas, water-works, 
electric lights, electric street-railway, 2 national banks with 
combined capital of $200,000, a State bank with capital of 
$50,000, and a dailv and 4 weekly newspapers ; and contains 
12 churches, 2 public-school buildings, stone court-house 
and jail, 2 glass-works, and steel and structural iron-works. 
The borough was laid out by Jacob Beeson in 1783, was first 
known as Beesontown, and was incorporated in 1796. Pop. 
(1880) 3,265 ; (1890) 6,359 ; (1895) estimated, 8.000. 

W. F. Ulery. 

Unionvllle : town (founded in 1853) ; capital of Putnam 
co.. Mo. ; on the Chi., Burl, and Kan. City Railwav ; 44 
miles W. S. W. of Bloomfield, la., and 140 miles N. o*f Jef- 
ferson City (for location, see map of Missouri, ref. 1-F). It 
is in an agricultural and coal-mining region, and has 4 
churches, 2 public-school buildings, 2 national banks with 
combined capital of $100,000, and 3 weekly newspapers. 
Pop. (1880) 772; (1890) 1,118 ; (1895) estimated, 1,500. 

Editors of " Putnam County Leader.'* 

Unita'rlanlsm [deriv. of unitary, as if from Lat. *itnita- 
rius, deriv. of u'nitas,, unity, deriv. of u'nus, one] : in theol- 
ogy, the doctrine that God exists in one person only. This 
involves the denial of the doctrine of the Trinity and the 
divinity of Jesus Christ. The historical origin of the name 
is uncertain. Some have traced it to the Transvlvanian 
Uniti, a league of toleration between Roman Catholics, Cal- 
vinists, and Socinians. Ever since thinking man has been 
in the world there have been speculations about the Cause 
of all things — about its nature, or its action, or the mode 
of its existence. These speculations have always held to 
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UNITARIANISM 



29 



one Being supreme, while they have been put into various 
forms — polytheism, trinity, or simple and indivisible unity. 
The tendency, however, in successive ages, has always been 
to the latter. In the Jewish and Christian systems this has 
come to be distinctly maintained ; for the Trinity, at least 
while it is conceived of merely and abstractly as a mode of 
existence, has not been construed to be a denial of the 
Unity. It is impossible, perhaps, in strict thesis, to decide 
which of these views is true ; for of the mode of the Divine 
Existence, if we presume to think upon it, we can not un- 
dertake to form any judgment ; and it is not the business of 
this statement to argue ior one or the other, but only to give 
an historical account of the latter — i. e, of Christian Unita- 
rianism. 

Judaism was undoubtedly unitarian, and it is held that 
Christianity was at the start That the first disciples, who 
had passed one or two years in daily intercourse with their 
Master, should have thought of him as God, or, if they did, 
should have failed plainly and pre-eminently to teach this 
doctrine, is doubtless hard to believe. It is certain that 
the earliest churches of which we have any definite knowl- 
edge upon this point consisted in the mass, or at least in 
great numbers, of Unitarians. Believers in Christ at the 
beginning were simply denominated, as at Antioch, Chris- 
tians, and doubtless continued to bear that common name ; 
but the oldest body of Christians holding a distinctive faith 
upon the point in question — i. e. the Kbionites— were un- 
doubtedly Unitarians; and the earliest Fathers, Justin 
Martyr, Tertullian, and Origen, while advocating their 
** Economy," the initial form of Trinity, evidently wrote in 
an apologetic strain, as if they felt that there was a great 
body of opinion against them ; and Tertullian at the end 
of the second centurv complains of the mass of people— 
"idiotce" he calls them — as obstinately opposed to the 
Economy. And later, Chrysostora and Athanasius under- 
take with considerable explanation to show why the apostles 
did not plainly teach the sublimer doctrine of the Economy 
or Trinity, the reason being that the people were not pre- 
pared to receive it. Gradually, however, the early Fathers, 
falling in with Platonic speculations, were tending to ideas 
of a Trinity, but it was not till the fourth or fifth century, 
as J. H. Newman has shown in his Development of Chris- 
tian Doctrine, that the doctrine of the Trinity was com- 
pletely formulated and established. And this continued 
for several centuries— except with the great Arian division, 
which was essentially unitarian — to be the settled orthodoxy 
of the Church, till in the sixteenth century Unitarianism 
was revived by the Socini. 

Unitarianiam in Europe. — Laelius and Faustus Socinus, 
uncle and nephew, were Italians of a noble family. It is 
the more remarkable that they should have been learned 
men and studious in the Scriptures, and that both should 
have broken off from the religion of their education and 
social position to embrace new and unpopular opinions — so 
unpopular ancL, indeed, dangerous to them, that they both 
found it expedient to leave, for their evidently honest con- 
victions, their home and country. Laelius went to Switzer- 
land, where he died in Zurich in 1562, after having gone to 
Germany and Poland and made visits of some length in 
those countries. After the death of his uncle Faustus re- 
sided in Basel, and spent some time in collecting and ar- 
ranging the papers wnich LaBlius had left to him, and then 
went to Transylvania, where, with the aid of the celebrated 
physician Blandrata, a number of Unitarian churches were 
formed and established. Thence he removed to Poland, 
and, marrying into a noble family and becoming settled in 
life, had leisure for study and wrote theological works, 
which are to be found in the Fratres Poloni. His opinions 
met with favor among the higher classes, with whom he was 
associated, and.it appeared for a time as if he were likelv to 
escape the usual fate of reformers. But his speculations 
gave offense to the lower classes; they rose against him, 
and that which happened to Priestley in Birmingham befell 
him : a mob broke into his house, tore him from a sick-bed, 
exposed him in the market-place, ransacked his dwelling, 
and destroyed his manuscripts : and he died near Cracow in 
1604, a martyr to his faith. There is still left, however, in 
Hungary and Transylvania, a considerable body of Unita- 
rians who inherit his faith, and by their character are doing 
signal honor to his memory. They have 106 churches, with 
parishes, numbering 60,000 persons. They have parish 
schools and schools of theology in which are professors who 
are discharging their duties with salaries scarcely able to 
support them. 



In the British empire there are about 350 places of worship, 
of which fully 300 are in Great Britain. In Germany the 
speculations of many of her eminent theologians and critics 
have been in the direction of Unitarianism, without any 
formal separation from the Lutheran Church ; while in 
France only the honored names of the Coquerels, father and 
son, have been distinctly known in connection with it. In 
England its earliest confessors were men unknown to fame, 
but remarkable for their virtues — Thomas Firmin, a mer- 
chant of London, and well known as a friend of Archbishop 
Tillotson, and John Biddle, who set up in London the first 
Unitarian public worship known in England. He was a 
scholar bred at Oxford, who was able to expound and de- 
fend his opinions ; who drew upon himself the attention of 
Parliament and of Cromwell, and of Archbishop Usher to 
convert him from his heresy ; whom courts and judges pur- 
sued and hounded through five imprisonments, till on the 
sixth he died in a dungeon on Sept. 22, 1662, at the age of 
forty-seven. He was a man whose memory, for his unblem- 
ished probity, for his calmness and firmness, and for his 
cruel fate so bravely met, deserves to be remembered, and 
would do honor to the lineage of any body of men holding 
dear their opinions and their history. 

Indeed, it is by a lineage of remarkable men that English 
Unitarianism has been most distinguished — in which are the 
names of Milton, Locke, and Sir Isaac Newton, William 
Penn, and Sir William Jones ; and of authors such as Na- 
thaniel Lardner, William Roscoe, Samuel Rogers, Charles 
Lamb, Priestley, Joseph Blanco White and his biographer, 
J. H. Thorn, and James Martineau. The earlier of these 
were Arians in their Christology, the later Socinians — i. e. 
humanitarians. Richard Price, however, against whom 
Burke directed his Reflections on the French Revolution, 
held the Arian opinion in a Socinian generation. The works 
which have been written expressly in its defense are Em- 
lyn's Humble Inquiry and Yates's Vindication, and many 
others. Some of the later writings even of the divine 
Watts show that although he did not come to any decided 
result he distrusted his theology and leaned to the Uni- 
tarian view. Penn wrote ably against the Trinity and its 
kindred doctrines in the Sandy Foundation Shaken, for 
which he was put in prison and when he came out sturdily 
said, " I have not budged a jot." There too, in prison, he 
wrote No Cross, No Croum t a work as remarkable as that 
other book written in prison, Boethius on The Consolation 
of Philosophy. Also to be mentioned among English Uni- 
tarians are Dr. Samuel Clarke, of a former day, Ricardo, the 
political economist, Sir John Bo wring ; and not the least 
to be honored, John Pounds, of Portsmouth, the founder 
of the ragged school; and of celebrated women, Joanna 
Baillie and Florence Nightingale. 

In the U. S. — Boston, with its vicinity, may be called the 
birthplace of Unitarianism in America. The controversy 
which brought matters to that result in a good many 
churches there and elsewhere in New England, carried oh 
bv Dr. Noah Worcester, of Salem, and Prof. Moses Stuart, 
oi Andover, on one side, and William E. Channing and 
Prof. Henry Ware, Sr., and Andrews Norton on the other, 
broke out in 1812. Just before, in 1810, Noah Worcester 
had published his Bible News. Nearly thirty years before 
Dr. James Freeman, of King's chapel, in Boston, had taken 
the same ground, and his congregation altered the Liturgy 
in accordance with his views. It was the first church in the 
U. S. that decidedly espoused the Unitarian faith, though 
many years before Jonathan Mayhew, pastor of the West 
church in Boston, was known as an Arian. In Boston and 
its vicinity also there were several distinguished laymen 
who took the same side, as the Presidents Adams, father 
and son, the celebrated jurist Theophilus Parsons, George 
Cabot, Nathaniel Bowditch the astronomer, Harrison Gray 
Otis, Daniel Webster, and others. As early as 1718 Dr. 
Ebenezer Gay, of Hingham, was settled, and became gener- 
ally known as a Unitarian. In 1794 Dr. Priestley removed 
to the U. S., and, though he was received with attention in 
Philadelphia, he chose to retire to Northumberland, Pa., to 
pursue his philosophical studies, where he also collected a 
small congregation for worship. Two years after a church 
was formed in Philadelphia, of which," in 1825, Dr. W. H. 
Furness became pastor. According to the census of 1890, 
there were in the U. S. 421 organizations and 67,744 members. 

The American Unitarian Association was formed in Bos- 
ton in 1825, chiefly for the publication and distribution of 
tracts and books. It has used its funds also to build 
churches and assist feeble ones, and to send out preachers 



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30 



UNITARIANISM 



UNITED COPTS 



in the U. S. : for a number of years supported a mission- 
ary in India, the devoted Charles H. A. Dall, who did an 
excellent work there by his schools, by circulating books, and 
bv publications of his own, and also' through communication 
with the Brahma Somaj (q. v.) and its thousand congrega- 
tions. Chunder Sen, their chief preacher and leader, visited 
England, and made a most favorable impression in London 
(as Rammohun Roy did before him) by his liberal and earnest 
inculcation of universal religious truth and virtue. Mo- 
zoomdar, the successor of Chunder Sen, has maintained re- 
lations of the liveliest sympathy with English and American 
Unitarians. 

Tenets. — The first general convocation of the Unitarian 
clergy of America was held in New York in 1865, consisting 
of ministers and delegates from the churches; and on this 
occasion arose and was keenly debated the question about 
a creed. But the word met with no favor in the confer- 
ence. With regard to the distinctive tenets of Unitarians, 
indeed, except that which the name indicates, it is less easy 
precisely to define them, because Unitarian ism is an em- 
Dodiment of principles — principles of reasoning and criti- 
cism — rather than a collection of institutes like the Insti- 
tutes of Calvin or the Confessions of Augsburg and Dort, 
or the Thirtv-nine Articles of the Church of England. Its 
history is a history of individual opinions, rather than of 
organizations, measures, or methods of action. It is bio- 
graphical, not national. Heresies, as they are called, rather 
than creeds, are the forms it has taken. Protests rather 
than professions have marked it. It has been called by its 
opposers a system of negations, though it is to be consid- 
ered that every negation implies an affirmation. The affir- 
mations of the conference were — that every man has a 
perfect right to judge for himself, unbound by any set of 
articles; that while professing itself to be a Christian 
body, it left every one to decide for himself what Christian- 
ity itself is — i. e. without forfeiting his place in the body, 
to choose among the conflicting views of Christian doctrine 
and statement that which seemed to him to be true and 
right. 

In fact, Unitarianism is characterized not so much as 
being a system of thought as a way of thinking; and that 
may be called, whether for praise* or blame, the rational 
way. Religion it regards as addressing itself to reason 
and conscience alike, requiring of men to believe nothing 
which contradicts reason, and to do nothing which they 
have not ability to do. Human nature, in its view, is not 
a mass of helpless depravity, but is endowed with moral 
qualities which are capable of good, and which are to be 
educated to virtue and religion, just as truly as the mental 
powers are to be educated to knowledge and the highest 
intelligence. Human life is appointed to be the sphere of 
this culture, with all its toils, cares, trials, and sufferings — 
its natural affections and enjoyments also not to be crushed 
down, but intended to minister to the same end. 

In short, the stand taken by Unitarianism is for nature, 
for human nature, for everything that God has made, as 
the manifestation of his will as truly as anything written 
in the Bible. This world, the world of nature and of life, 
does not lie under the curse of Adam's sin nor any other 
curse, but is ordained by infinite wisdom and goodness to 
be the field of human training for a life to come, whose al- 
lotments are to be in accordance with the law that * 4 what- 
soever a man soweth, that shall he also reap." Righteous- 
ness, and not dogma, is the everlasting condition of all wel- 
fare in this world and the next, and what needs to be done 
for religion is to free it from all falsehoods, from all substi- 
tutions of ceremony, profession, and sensational experience 
for truth and virtue, and thus to purify and rationalize it — 
to lift it up, not as a terror to men, but as friendship and 
help, as strength and comfort, as a joy and delight, and so 
to relieve it of the mystery or misery that it is to many. In 
fine, the ground taken by this Christian body is that sub- 
stantially held by the Universalists and to which many 
other denominations are approaching, and is this — that 
Christianity is not a philosophy, but a divine power; that 
the acceptance of it is not the believing in a creed, but be- 
lieving with the heart ; that Jesus Christ himself in his life 
and death, all dogmatizing apart, is the embodiment of his 
religion ; that he holds that supremacy in the beauty and 
power of his life which makes it, of all that has appeared 
upon earth, the fittest to be imitated and followed ; and 
that he who comes nearest to that is the best Christian. 

The growth of Unitarianism as an organized body has 
been more rapid since 1880 than at any time in its history 



since the division of the New England Churches. In this 
growth New England has rivaled the Middle West, and the 
Pacific slope. Tne average opinions of the body have under- 
gone a great change since Channing's death in 1842. Parker 
and Emerson are now equally revered with Channing as 
leaders of the faith. Its most radical but generally accepted 
criticism of the New Testament is James Martineau's Seat 
of Authority in Religion. Martineau is the acknowledged 
head of English philosophic thought, and his philosophical 
opinions attract to him many who find his critical opinions 
too destructive of the traditional beliefs. 
, Revised by John W. Chadwick. 

United Armenians : those Armenian Christians who ac- 
knowledge the pope, the orthodox Armenians being called 
Gregorians. The Armenian Rite in the Roman Catholic 
Church has 1 patriarch and primate (in Cilicia), 4 arch- 
bishops (at Constantinople, Aleppo, Seleucia (or Diarbekir), 
and Leraberg), besides 2 in partibus, and 16 bishops. Their 
union took place 1316-84. They number some 100,000, of 
whom 78,000 are in Turkey and Persia (20,000 under the 
Archbishop of Constantinople, 56,000 under the Patriarch of 
Cilicia, and 1,000 in Mt. Lebanon), and the remainder in 
Austria-Hungary, Russian Caucasia, and Siberia. The 
United Armenians, amounting to about 4,000, who with 
Bishop Kuppelian left the Catholic Church in 1870, re- 
turned in 1879 and with him submitted to Leo XI II. See 
Silbernagl, Kitchen des Orients, and Hergenroether's article 
in Herder's Kirchentexikon, edited by F. Kaulen. 

United Baptists: See Baptists. 

United Brethren, or Unitas Fratrnm : See Moravian 
Church. 

United Brethren in Christ: a denomination of evan- 
gelical Christians organized in 1800, near Frederick City, 
Md., with Philip William Otterbein, a German missionary, 
and Martin Boenra as bishops. The first general conference 
was held at Mt. Pleasant, Pa., in 1815, when the confession 
of faith in use was revised and formally adopted. A formal 
constitution was adopted in 1841. In 1888 this constitution 
and the confession of faith were revised by a popular vote. 
Since 1889 lay delegation has been a rule of tne Church in 
both the annual and general conferences. Women have been 
admitted to the ministry ou the same terms as men since 
1889. The United Brethren in Christ have sometimes been 
confounded with the Moravians, Unitas Fratrum, or classed 
with Methodists, though there never was any historical con- 
nection between them. The denomination has (1899) 4,234 
churches, with a membership of 246,487. It has 2,450 min- 
isters, and operates missions in Africa, Japan, Germany, 
Canada, China, and Puerto Rico. It has a publishing house 
and theological seminary in Dayton, O., with headquarters 
there for all its boards. It has twelve colleges and academies, 
all coeducational. It has five bishops, who superintend the 
work in fiftv conferences and mission districts. See United 
Brethren Church History, by D. Berger, D. D. (1897). 

United Christians of St. Thomas: a body of East Ind- 
ian Roman Catholics, chiefly found in Travancore, at the 
southern extremity of India. In 1599 the synod of Diamper 
(Udiamperur) compelled the ancient Church of St. Thomas 
Christians (see Christians of St. Thomas) to conform to the 
Church of Rome, conceding to them a modified Syrian rite. 
In 1653 nearly all fell away, but were soon after induced in 
great numbers to return, chiefly by the labors of the Bare- 
footed Carmelites. At present more than half are of the 
Latin rite, but a portion retain the Oriental rite. They 
are chiefly in the vicariate apostolic of Verapoly (Latin 
rite), reported as having about 300 priests and 233,000 mem* 
bers. See Germann's Die Kirche der Thomaschristen (1877) ; 
Assemani, Bibliotheca orientalis, iv.^p. 2; Silbernagl, Kir- 
chen des Orients ; G. B. Howard, The Christians of St. 
Thomas, and their Liturgies. Revised by J. J. Keane. 

United Copts : since 1741 the designation of a body of 
Roman Catholic Copts (native Egyptians) of the Eastern 
rUe. They number (in Egypt) 12,000 or 13,000, and are 
under a vicar apostolic of their own rite, established (1781) 
by Pius VI. at Cairo. The United Copts are of two rites, 
the Egyptian and the Ethiopic or Abyssinian. According 
to the reports of Roman Catholic missionaries, the latter 
would appear to be the more numerous. Since 1879 there 
exists in Egypt a Coptic seminary under the charge of the 
Jesuits. Their missionaries are also educated at the Propa- 
ganda College, Rome. See Werner's Orbis Terrarum 
Catholicus (Freiburg, 1890). Revised by J. J. Keane. 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



UNITED EVANGELICAL CHURCH 



UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH 



31 



United Evangelical Church : the state church of 
Prussia; formed by the union of the Lutheran and Re- 
formed bodies in 1817. 

United Greek Church : a body of Roman Catholics of 
Eastern rite, who accept the papal supremacy and the doc- 
trines of the Roman Church. Their secular clergy are al- 
lowed to marry, but only before ordination to deaconship. 
At any time thereafter they are forbidden to contract mar- 
riage under pain of deposition. Their rites are four in 
number — the Roumanian, the Ruthenian, the Bulgarian, and 
the Greek Melchite (Greeks of Syria, etc.). The Melchftes 
proper are estimated to number from 75,000 to 100,000. The 
United Greeks of Bosnia and Herzegovina are about 265.000. 
In Austria there are over 2,500,000 United Greeks, mostly 
of Ruthenian rite, and in Hungary 1,500,000. There are 
some United Russian Greeks of Ruthenian rite in the an- 
cient dioceses of Chelm and Minsk, and there are 'about 
250,000 in Russian Poland, the remnant of those forced by 
violence to conform to the orthodox Russian Church in 1839. 
The few Catholic Bulgarians of European Turkey are found 
at Constantinople and scattered in small numbers through 
Thrace and Macedonia. The Greek Catholics of Poland 
numbered 888,223 in 1887. In Southern Italy and in Sicily 
there are a few Greek Catholics. See Silbernagl, Kirchen 
des Orients ; the Oerarchia Cattolica (1895) ; 0. Werner, S. 
J., Orbis Terrarum Catholieus (1890). J. J. K. 

United Irishmen : the name of an Irish political society 
formed to aid Geattan (q. v.) in carrying out his reforms. 
It was originally a peaceful organization, but about the year 
1795, under the influence of Theobald Wolfe Tone {a. v.), it 
became active in fostering rebellion against the British Gov- 
ernment. Tone was captured in 1798, but the rebellion was 
not put down till 1800, and was followed by the formation 
of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland : the 

official designation of the British islands since the legisla- 
tive union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801. See Great 
Bjutain, England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. 

United Methodist Free Churches : See Methodism. 

United Nestorians : a body of Roman Catholics of the 
Syrian rite, more often called Chaldean Christians (q. v.), 
dating from 1553. 

United Original Seceders: a Presbyterian sect of Scot- 
land dating from 1820, when a number of ministers of the 
General Associate Synod refused to reunite with the Asso- 
ciate Synod. For an account of their origin, with recent 
statistics, etc., see Presbyterian Church. W. J. B. 

United Presbyterian Church of North America : a 

religious denomination which is the result of the union of 
several bodies. This makes its early history complex and 
fragmentary. It is the principal American representative 
of the Dissenting churches of Scotland. In 1751 the Re- 
formed Presbytery of Scotland sent the Rev. John Cuth- 
bertson to visit the Covenanters settled in Southeastern 
Pennsylvania; in 1773 two more ministers followed, and in 
Mar., 1774, they organized the Reformed Presbytery of Amer- 
ica. In 1753 the Associate Synod of Scotland " missioned " 
Messrs. Gellatly and Arnot to those of their faith in the val- 
ley of the Susquehanna, and in November of the same year 
they organized the Associate Presbytery of Pennsylvania. 
Every Covenanter and Seceder, lay and clerical, in the coun- 
try was a patriot, a large number entered the Revolutionary 
army, ana when national independence was won they de- 
cided to establish a free church in a free state. As both 
Earties held to the same standards and had been kept apart 
y the union of Church and state in the fatherland, they 
united Oct. 31, 1782, and formed the Associate Reformed 
Synod. Two Associate ministers and three or four congre- 
gations refused to go into this union, and, re-enforced from 
Scotland, continued their organization, which grew into a 
synod. This at the union of 1858 contained 230 ministers, 
300 congregations, and 25,000 communicants. By new ar- 
rivals from Scotland the Covenanting Church was rebuilt, 
and has (1895) between 100 and 200 ministers. Instead of 
one church the union made three, and the Covenanters and 
Seceders continued to recognize a subordination to the 
mother churches in Scotland. The Associate Reformed 
Church prospered, and in 1804 formed a delegated General 
Synod, but as the chnrch members were scattered from 
fioston to Georgia and W. to the Wabash, and the means of 
travel were slow and expensive, its meetings called for too 



much money and time ; so in 1822 it was dissolved and the 
Church fell apart into the independent but affiliated synods 
of New York, the West, and the South, and some twelve or 
fourteen disaffected ministers passed to the Presbyterian 
Church. All these synods, Associate and Associate Re- 
formed, labored diligently in their respective spheres and 
were reasonably successful. Their principal field of labor 
was among those of Scotch-Irish descent, but they did what 
they could for others, and in addition to their home work 
they all undertook missionary work in foreign countries. 
Difficulties and prejudices gradually faded away and a 
yearning came year by year for closer union and co-opera- 
tipn. They were one in origin, one in faith, one in govern- 
ment, and one in worship, and there could be no sufficient 
reason why they should not be one in organization. In 1842 
a movement was made toward a union, but the negotiations 
dragged on until May 26, 1858, when the Associate and As- 
sociate Reformed Synods, except that of the South, which 
stood aloof because of slavery, united in Pittsburg, Pa., and 
formed the United Presbyterian Church of North America. 
The terms of union were the Westminster standards, with 
the addition of a Testimony containing eighteen items, which 
it was thought were not sufficiently stated in the Confession. 
It holds strictly to the Calvinistic system of theology as set 
forth in the Westminster Confession, and practices re- 
stricted communion, requiring the same qualifications in 
strangers that it does in its own, and confines its praise 
service to a metrical version of the Psalms of the Bible. It 
has always insisted upon the most thorough education of its 
ministers, a collegiate course, and at least three years of 
theological training. In the latter it is indeed the pioneer 
in the u. S., for in 1794 the Associate Church established a 
theological school at Service, in Beaver co., Pa., under Dr. 
John Anderson. It was the first fully organized school of 
the kind in the U. S., with a salaried professor, prescribed 
curriculum, library, and dormitory. The Associate Re- 
formed Church was also early in this field. In 1805 it 
opened in New York a theological seminary under the dis- 
tinguished Dr. John M. Mason, with eight students. The 
United Church has under its care two theological seminaries 
with over a hundred students, seven colleges with more than 
2,000 pupils, and several classical schools. It has maintained 
missions in Trinidad, Syria, China, India, and Egvpt, but for 
the sake of efficiency has latterly concentrated all its force 
upon the last two. In the Punjaub, in India, its mission em- 
braces a synod with three presbyteries, 85 foreign mission- 
aries, over 200 helpers, and 7,000 communicants, and a 
training-school for native ministers. In Egypt it has a 
presbytery, 38 foreign missionaries, 325 native helpers, con- 
gregations all along the Nile from Alexandria to Assouan, 
with over 4,000 members, and over 15,000 scholars in its 
day schools and 6,000 in the Sabbath-schools, and issnes a 
religious newspaper in Arabic. Its home mission work is 
well organized, stretching from Boston to San Diego, and 
employing over 200 ministers. Its freedraen's board has 
large schools in several Southern States, and colleges at 
Knoxville, Tenn., and Norfolk, Va. It has a large publica- 
tion house in Pittsburg, which sends forth all needed helps 
for Sabbath-schools and denominational purposes. The sta- 
tistics of 1895 show 12 synods, 64 presbyteries, 900 ministers 
and licentiates, 938 congregations, 117,236 members, 103,000 
Sabbath-school scholars, and contributions for all purposes 
$1,400,000. James B. Scouller. 

United Presbyterian Chnrch of Scotland : a religious 
denomination, the third in size of the Presbyterian Churches 
in Scotland, formed in 1847 by the union of the United Se- 
cession Church and the Relief Church. 

The larger of these two churches traces its origin back to 
1733. The immediate occasion of this first secession from 
the Church of Scotland was the oppressive exercise of pa- 
tronage in the " planting of vacant churches " — the dissatis- 
faction caused by this being intensified by the failure of the 
Church courts to check or punish what many regarded as 
grave errors in doctrine. In 1712 the right of patrons to 
present ministers to vacant congregations, of which they 
nad been deprived in 1690, was restored to them by an act 
of Parliament; and in 1732 the little that had been left to 
the people of power, in certain circumstances, to elect their 
own ministers had been taken away by an act of Assembly, 
which made the elders and Protestant heritors jointly the 
electoral body in these cases. At the opening of the Synod 
of Perth and Stirling, Oct. 18, 1732, the retiring moderator, 
Ebenezer Erskine, preached a sermon in which he corn- 
Digitized by V^jOOQIC 



32 



UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF SCOTLAND 



mented on the recent act of Assembly and on other eccle- 
siastical proceedings in such terms as to bring upon him 
the censure of the Synod. He appealed, along with three 
others who adhered to him, to the General Assembly, but 
only to receive the rebuke of that court (May, 1733) m its 
turn. They thereupon tabled a protest against being thus 
wronged, avowing their purpose to preach the same doc- 
trines and to testify against defections as before ; and on 
Nov. 16 the commission of Assembly, to which their case 
had been referred as one of contumacy (although they 
were only availing themselves of their legitimate privilege 
of protest), loosed them from their charges and declared 
them to be no longer ministers of the Church. Against this 
sentence these ministers lodged a protestation, maintaining 
their right to continue the exercise of their ministry though 
compelled to make " a secession from the judicatories of the 
Church," and appealing to the " first free, faithful, and re- 
forming General Assembly of the Church of Scotland." 
A few weeks later (Dec. 5, 1733) " The Pour Brethren," as 
they were called, Ebenezer Erskine, William Wilson, Alex- 
ander Moncrieff, and James Fisher, ministers at Stirling, 
Perth, Abernethy, and Kinclaven respectively, met in a 
cottage at Gaimey Bridge, near Kinross, and after solemn 
deliberation constituted themselves into a presbytery. This 
is the point of departure of the new denomination. The 
Assembly of 1734 empowered the Synod to restore them to 
their charges, but the evils which they had complained of 
and for which they had suffered had not been removed, and 
they could not resile from their secession. Though asso- 
ciated as a presbytery, they " agreed that they would not be 
too sudden in proceeding to any acts of jurisdiction," and 
they acted generally with great moderation and caution ; for 
instance, in the title of the " Act, Declaration, and Testi- 
mony " which they put forth in 1736 they designate them- 
selves " some Ministers associate together for the exercise of 
Church-Government and Discipline in a presbyterial capa- 
city." But it soon appeared that there was throughout the 
country a widespread and increasing sympathy with the 
attitude assumed bv the seceding ministers ana the views 
they expressed. Other ministers joined them ; and a great- 
er number, without seceding, openly expressed more or less 
agreement with them. Many of the people rallied round 
them, and they had to organize congregations and adminis- 
ter ordinances at the peopled call. Upward of thirty se- 
ceding congregations had been formed when " The Four," 
with four others who had joined them, persisting in their 
secession, were eventually (May 15, 1740) deposed by the 
Assembly, and ejected from their churches, in which* they 
had till then continued to preach. 

" The Associate Presbytery," as the court of these associ- 
ated minsters had been named, was converted into ** The 
Associate Synod," Oct. 11, 1744, embracing the three Pres- 
byteries of Edinbugh, Glasgow, and Dunfermline. Shortly 
after this an unhappy division took place, occasioned by Par- 
liament in 1745 (doubtless on account of the Jacobite rising 
of that time) requiring all persons becoming burgesses in 
Edinburgh, Glasgow, and Perth to take the following oath : 
" I protest, before God and your Lordships, that I profess 
and allow with my heart the true religion presently pro- 
fessed within this realm, and authorized by the laws there- 
of ; I shall abide thereat, and defend the same to my life's 
end, renouncing the Roman religion called Papistry. The 
taking of this oath was held by the one party to imply con- 
donation, if not approval, of the still existing evils which had 
led to the secession, and was therefore not to be tolerated in 
members of their congregations ; the other party denied the 
alleged implication, and held that the oath might warrant- 
ably be taken. The stern conscientiousness of all of them 
expressed itself in an extremely hot contention, and the 
separation known as The Breach took place Apr. 9, 1747. 
Both parties claimed to be the true "Associate Synod," but 
those opposing the burgess oath came at a later period to 
call themselves the General Associate Synod. Popularly, 
however, they were spoken of as Burghers and Antiburgh- 
ers, and the members of both denominations were ordi- 
narily designated Seceders, especially by outsiders. 

Thus separated, the two churches remained apart for up- 
ward of seventy years, a strong feeling of antagonism long 
existing between them. Toward the end of the century 
diversity of opinion arose in both Synods on the question of 
the relation of the civil magistrate to matters of religion, 
and both were divided into what were popularly called 
New Light and Old Light sections. The Kew Lights, cor- 
responding to the " voluntaries " of later times, were largely 



in the majority, and secessions of Old Lights took place — 
some nine congregations leaving the Burgher Synod in 1799 
and four leaving the Anti burgher Synod in 1806. Steps 
were ultimately taken in the direction of union, and in 18§0 
the Associate and General Associate Synods united to form 
" The United Secession Church." The denomination thus 
incorporated grew and prospered during the twenty-seven 
years of its existence, taking a prominent part in the so- 
called voluntary controversy, and initiating and successfully 
prosecuting important missionary enterprises, but its history 
was otherwise uneventful. 

The Relief Church dates from the formation of a presby- 
tery by three ministers, two of whom had for a considerable 
time been pastors of ecclesiastically isolated congregations 
that had been formed in consequence of the intrusion of 
ministers into charges against the will of the people. 
Thomas Gillespie, minister at Dunfermline, often regarded 
as the founder of the Relief Church, had, when minister of 
the neighboring parish of Carnock, been deposed by the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1752, be- 
cause, with five other members of his presbytery, who were 
merely censured, he had refused to tate part in inducting 
a minister at Inverkeithing in the face of the strenuous op- 
position of the parishioners. Thomas Boston, minister at 
Jedburgh (a son of the author of the well-known Fourfold 
State), had seceded from the Church of Scotland, in which 
he held a pastoral charge, to take the oversight of a congre- 
gation formed in Jedburgh by nearly all the people of the 
parish, dissatisfied by the enforced settlement of a minister. 
These two met at Colinsburgh, in Fife, for the induction of 
Thomas Colier as pastor of a congregation formed there in 
1760 by reclaimers against the settlement of a minister in 
the parish ; and the three Thomases then organized " The 
Presbytery of Relief," Oct. 22, 1761, " for, ,v as they ex- 
pressed their purpose in their minute, " the relief of Chris- 
tians oppressed in their Christian privileges." The Pres- 
bytery became " The Relief Synod," with subordinate 
presbyteries, in 1778. The name assumed by these dissent- 
ers was indicative of reaction against oppression. A dis- 
tinctive feature of this church was liberty of "free com- 
munion." While Burghers and Antiburghers were mutually 
intolerant of attendance at the services of the rival denomi- 
nation, "visible saints" who were not even Presbyterians 
were from 1773 permitted by the Relief Church to sit occa- 
sionallv at times with their members at the Lord's Table. 

The tnited Presbyterian Church (colloquially the *' U. P." 
Church, its members similarly being called "U. P.'s"), in 
these its lines of ancestry and in its recent development, has 
been steadily progressive and increasingly prosperous. In 
1820 the 154 Burgher congregations united with 129 of the 
187 Antiburgher congregations to form the United Seces- 
sion Church. On May 13, 1847, the Church was incorpo- 
rated under its present name by the union of the entire 
number of the United Secession congregations (400) with 
118 of the 136 Relief congregations. At the end of 1875 
these 518 congregations had increased to 620, with 190,242 
members; but in 1876 ninety-eight congregations in Eng- 
land, having over 20,000 members, were, by a friendly re- 
adjustment, made over to the Presbyterian Church of Eng- 
land, the religious body in that country which corresponds 
to and is in close connection with the Free Church of Scot- 
land, At the end of 1894 the U. P. congregations numbered 
578, with a membership of 190,950. The returns for 1894 
give 848 Sabbath-schools, with 12,565 teachers and 106.682 
scholars, and 810 ministers' and elders' classes, attended by 
36,803 students. In the Church's foreign mission fields in 
Jamaica, Trinidad. Old Calabar, Kaffraria, India, China, 
and Japan 150 fully trained agents and about 750 native 
helpers are at work; 116 congregations have been formed, 
ana 170 are in process of formation, the total membership 
being about 20,000. The total income of the Church in 1894 
was £391,607, the income for congregational purposes being 
£262,837. There is a Theological Hall at Edinburgh, con- 
ducted by a principal and four professors. 

The three large denominations in Scotland are separate, 
not on account of differences with regard to doctrine, or 
government, or mode of worship (in all of which, with some 
diversity of details, they are in substantial agreement), but 
as a result of the fact that the Church of Scotland is an es- 
tablished and endowed state Church. The United Presby- 
terian Church is a voluntary church ; it is the belief of the 
vast majority of its members (although this is not a term of 
communion) that the civil magistrate, in his magisterial ca- 
pacity, has nothing to do with matters of religion, that church 



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UNITED PROVINCES 



UNITED STATES 



33 



Obverse. 



i charge or is a " pas- 



organizations should be independent alike of state support 
and of state patronage and control. It can not therefore 
unite with the Church of Scotland unless that church is dis- 
established and disendowed. The Free Church professes the 
belief that some kind of state connection is right, and may 
be obligatory ; but practically its position, as shown by the 
action of a large majority of its mem- 
bers, differs but slightly from that of 
the United Presbyterian Church. 
Like the others, the" United Presby- 
terian Church has as its standards, 
subordinate to the Scriptures, the 
Westminster Confession and the 
Larger and Shorter Catechisms, but 
adherence to these is professed in 
view of a Declaratory Act, passed in 
1879, which, while reiterating the ex- 
ception to these standards that the 
Church has long taken in the line of 
its ** voluntaryism," gives an outline 
of the doctrines which the Church 
regards as embodying the substance 
of the faith, and allows liberty of 
judgment and of teaching in matters 
outside of these doctrines. The su- 
preme court of the Church is not a 
general assembly, but a synod, under 
which there are twenty-nine presby- 
teries. Every one who is minister in 

tor emeritus has a seat in the synod, as also has one rep- 
resentative elder from each congTeffation, such elder being 
preferably but not necessarily an elder in that congregation. 
The United Presbyterian Church was the first of the Pres- 
byterian Churches in Scotland to permit the use of instru- 
mental music in public worship (1872), and it has otherwise 
taken the lead in so-called " innovations." The Relief Synod 
sanctioned a collection of hymns in 1794 and another in 
1833. The United Presbyterian Hymn-book, issued in 1852, 
considerably in advance of the Church of Scotland and Free 
Church collections, was superseded by a new book, the Pres- 
byterian Hymnal, in 1877. The three Churches have for 
some time been acting in concert for the production of a 
common hymn-book, and in May, 1895, the joint committee 
appointed by them submitted to the three supreme courts 
the draft of a hymnal designed to be used in Presbyterian 
services generally. George M' Arthur. 

United Provinces : the seven northern provinces of the 
Netherlands {q. v.), united Jan. 23, 1579, at Utrecht, for 
mutual defense. 

United Provinces of La Plata : See La Plata, United 
Provinces of, and Argentine Republic. 

United Secession Church : a religious body formed in 
Scotland in 1820 by a reunion of the Associate and General 
Associate Synods. In 1847 it was united to the present 
United Presbyterian Church. See Presbyterian Church. 

United Society of Believers : See Shakers. 

United States: a federal republic composed (1897) of 
forty-five States, three organized Territories, and the District 
of Columbia, Indian Territory, and Alaska ; capital, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Geographical and Physical. 

The country consists of two detached portions : one, con- 
taining five-sixths of the area and over 99 per cent, of the 
population and wealth, occupies the middle portion of the 
North American continent, extending from lat. 24° 20' to 49° 
N„ and from Ion. 66° 48' to 124° 32' W. from Greenwich ; 
the other portion, known as the Territory of Alaska, occu- 
pies the northwestern part of the continent, is very sparsely 
settled, and almost unexplored. The limits of the main 
body of the U. S. are as follows : The eastern boundary 
is the Atlantic coast. The northern, beginning at the east- 
ern limit of Maine, extends up the St. Croix river, thence 
runs northward until it strikes the St. John river, which it 
follows around the northern end of Maine ; then it runs along 
the highlands which separate the St. John river from the 
streams flowing into the St. Lawrence river, and follows 
them to the head of the Connecticut river. This stream 
serves as the boundary southward to the 45th parallel, 
along which it runs westward to the St. Lawrence river. It 
then follows this river, winding among its many islands, to 
Lake Ontario, passes through the Great Lakes and connect- 
ing streams to a point near the head of Lake Superior ; 
vol. xii.— 3 



then leaving the lake, it follows a chain of small lakes and 
connecting streams to the Lake of the Woods, W. of which 
point it follows the 49th parallel to Puget Sound. The 
western coast is the western boundary of the country. On 
the south the line is formed by the Gulf of Mexico, the Rio 
Grande, and thence by a series of parallels and great circles 



Reverse. 




1 of the U. 8. 



to the Pacific coast, which it reaches just S. of the city of 
San Diego. The boundaries of Alaska are as follows : Be- 
ginning at the southern point of Prince of Wales island, the 
line ascends Portland channel to the 56th parallel of N. 
latitude ; thence runs parallel to the coast and 10 marine 
leagues inland therefrom as far as the point of intersection 
of the 141st meridian, thence along the 141st meridian to 
the Arctic Ocean. The western limit passes through a 
point in Bering Strait on the parallel of 65° 30' N. latitude, 
at its intersection by the meridian which passes midway be- 
tween the islands of Krusenstern and Ratmanof, and pro- 
ceeds due N. into the Arctic Ocean. The same limit, be- 
ginning at the same initial point, also proceeds in a course 
nearly S. W. through Bering Strait ana Bering Sea, passing 
midway between the northwest point of the island of St. Law- 
rence and the southwest point of Cape Choukatski to the me- 
ridian of 172; thence southwesterly, including the island of 
Attu and the Copjper island of the Korandorski group in 
the North Pacific (Jcean, to the meridian of 193, including 
the whole of the Aleutian islands E. of that meridian. The 
following tables summarize the extent of the ocean shore- 
line and of the land, lake, and river boundaries of the main 
portion of the country (the boundaries of Alaska, especially 
upon the seaboard, are not sufficiently well known to war- 
rant giving similar measurements) : 

OCEAN SHORE-LINE. 



COASTS. 


Including bay*, 
klnndt, etc 


Excluding 
blind*. 


Excluding t,l *~f» u 
b«yi» He 


North Atlantic : 
Maine r 


Mile*. 

2,486 
49 
886 
820 
262 
980 
540 
118 
509 

654 

1,641 

756 

684 

2,474 

1,562 

315 

287 

2,250 

1,880 

1,477 

442 

1,832 


Mile*. 
784 

41 
622 
245 
240 

50 
800 
106 
411 

348 

1,089 

267 

480 

1,034 

888 
247 
225 
1,256 
940 

1,068 
442 

1,028 


Mile*. 
278 


New Hampshire 


18 


Massachusetts 


286 


Rhode Island 


45 


Connecticut 


104 


New York 


None. 


New Jersey 


120 


Delaware 


28 


Maryland 


88 


South Atulntio : 
Virginia 


116 


North Carolina 


320 


South Carolina 


220 


Georgia 


128 


Florida, east coast 

Mexican Gulf: 

Florida, west coast 

Alabama 


472 

674 
58 


Mississippi 


88 




552 


Texas 


892 


Pacific : 
California 


718 


Oregon 


892 


Washington 


238 






North Atlantic coast 

South Atlantic coast 

Mexican Gulf coast 

Pacific coast 


6.150 
6,209 
5.744 
8,251 


2.799 
8.218 
8,551 
2,588 


907 
1,256 
1,764 
1,348 






Totals 


21,854 


12,101 


5,270 







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34 



UNITED STATES 



LAND, LAKE, AND RIVER BOUNDARY. 

Langth, mOts. 

Along the 49th parallel to Lake of the Woods 1,275 

Lake of the Woods to Lake Superior «W 

Lake Superior to river St. Mary WJJ 

River 8t. Mary to Lake Huron W 

Lake Huron to river St. Clair ;••«•. ^ 

River and Lake St. Clair and river Detroit to Lake Erie 80 

Lake Erie to Niagara river »» 

Niagara river to Lake Ontario *> 

Lake Ontario to St. Lawrence river 1W 

St. Lawrence river to New York State line (near lat. 46°) 130 

Along lat. 46° to Hall's stream log 

Hairs stream and highlands to Maine State line 40 

West line of Maine to St. Francis river 280 

St. Francis river to 8t. John river 40 

St. John river to New Brunswick line 80 

West line of New Brunswick to head of St. Croix river 90 

St. Croix river to Passamaquoddy Bay 2°° 

Boundary toward Canada J>700 

Rio Grande to lat. 81° 47' 1.420 

Along lat. 31° 47' 100 

South line to lat. 81° W *> 

Along lat. 81* 20* to Ion. Ill* 160 

From lat. 31° 20' and Ion. 111° to Colorado river 230 

Colorado river „20 

Colorado river to the Pacific 145 

Boundary toward Mexico 2,105 

Total ocean, land, lake, and river boundary 11,075 

Dimensions and Area.-— Greatest extent (excepting Alas- 
ka) E. and W., 8,100 miles ; N. and S., 1,780 miles. Area 
(including Alaska, 570,000 sq. miles), 8,595,600 sq. miles. 

Areas of States and Territories. — The following table 
gives the areas of the States and Territories (according to 
the U. S. census report of 1890) and the total area of the 
country (exclusive of Alaska) : 



STATES AND TERRI- 
TORIES. 

Total 

Alabama 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado 

Connecticut 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Indian Territory 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota 

Mississippi 

Missouri, 

Montana 



8,025,600 



53,250 

118,020 

58,850 

158,860 

103,925 

4,990 

2,050 

70 

""-80 

fit), -175 

«4,H0O 

50 

30;.i50 

31,400 

&!.'« 

k-:,<«0 
40. tOO 
■JH.T20 
:*H 40 
VI, 110 
MJJ15 
r>uii5 
88*865 
4'VHIO 
Qfc 115 
Mr?.iW) 



STATES AND TERRI- 
TORIES. 



Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire . 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina. . . 
North Dakota. . . . 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina. . . 
South Dakota. . . . 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia 

Washington 

West Virginia.... 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Delaware Bay 

Raritan Bay and lower 
New York Bay . . . 



77,510 

110,700 

9,305 

7,815 

122,580 

49,170 

52,250 

70,795 

41,060 

89,080 

96,030 

45,215 

1,250 

80,570 

77,650 

42,050 

265,780 

84,970 

9,565 

42,450 

69,180 

24,780 

56,040 

97,890 



100 



Physical Features. — The main body of the U. S. presents 
two great systems of uplift. One is in the East near the At- 
lantic coast, and is known as the Appalachian system ; the 
other, much higher, broader and more complex, occupies 
the western third of the country, and is known as the Cor- 
dilleran system. 

The Appalachians. — The Appalachian system extends 
from Canada southwesterly into Alabama. The base from 
which it rises, known as the Atlantic Plain, has in New 
England an elevation of some 300 or 400 feet at the base of 
the mountains. Toward the southwest, this plain becomes 
broader, and at the foot of the mountains is much more ele- 
vated, rising in North Carolina to an altitude of about 1,000 
feet. The northern part of the Appalachian system is 
sharply distinguished in character from the southern part. 
In New England and Northern New York — that is, E. of 
the Hudson river and N. of the Mohawk river — the system 
is represented by isolated groups of mountains and by north 
and south ridges. Of the former type are the Adirondacks 
of Northern New York, the White Mountains of New 
Hampshire, and the broken, irregular hills of Maine. Of 
the latter type are the Green Mountains of Vermont and 
the Berkshire Hills of Massachusetts. The most important 
of these in point of altitude are the White Mountains, which 
rise in the highest summit, Mt. Washington, to an altitude 



of 6,293 feet, with several other summits in its immediate 
vicinity approaching 6,000 feet. (See White Mountains.) 
Among the Adirondacks the dominant peak is Mt. Marcy, 
with an altitude of 5,879 feet. (See Adirondack Moun- 
tains.) Among the Green Mountains the highest peaks are 
Mts. Killington and Mansfield, 4,380 and 4,389 feet respec- 
tively (see Green Mountains), and in the Berkshire Hills, 
Mt. Greylock, in the northwestern corner of Massachusetts, 
rises far above its fellows, with an altitude of 3,505 feet. 
In Maine the highest summit, so far as known, is Mt. Ka- 
tahdin, elevation 5,200 feet S. and W. of the Hudson 
river, extending through New York, Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, Virginia, West Virginia, the Carolinas, Eastern Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Northern Georgia, and Alabama, the Ap- 
palachian system presents a different type. The eastern 
member of the system, which fronts the Atlantic Plain, is 
known in Pennsylvania as South Mountain, and in the 
States farther S. as the Blue Ridge. This is throughout 
most of its course a single ridge, having an altitude in 
Pennsylvania of less than 1,000 feet. It rises at the gap 
cut by the Potomac river at Harper's Ferry to some 1,500 
feet above sea-level, and farther S., in Central Virginia it 
reaches altitudes of 4,000 feet, as in Stony man, 4,031, and 
the peaks of Otter, near Lynchburg, 4,001 feet. In North 
Carolina the character of this ridge changes. It becomes a 
plateau, with an escarpment to the S. E. and a gentle slope 
to the N. W., this escarpment having an average elevation 
of about 4,000 feet. Upon this escarpment and its western 
slope stand numerous ridges and groups of mountains 
trending, so far as any trend can be detected, in a northeast 
and southwest direction. They cover the western portion 
of North Carolina, extending slightly into Northern Georgia, 
and among them are found countless peaks exceeding 5,000 
feet in altitude, while one short range, known as the Black 
Mountains, contains several peaks exceeding 6,000 feet. 
Among them is Mt. Mitchell, which, with an altitude of 
6,688 feet, is the highest summit E. of the Rocky Mountains. 
W. of the Blue Ridge stretches from Pennsylvania to Ala- 
bama a broad valley — the Appalachian. It is intersected 
throughout its entire extent by ranges and ridges, each fol- 
lowing the general direction of the valley. These ranges are 
narrow and abrupt in slope, with level tops extending for 
scores of miles, except where cut through here and there by 
water gaps. The streams generally follow the valleys be- 
tween these ridges. In some places the water gaps are so 
frequent as to reduce the ridges to lines of knobs. Rising 
from this valley at its northwestern limit is an escarpment, 
known in Pennsylvania as the Allegheny Mountains, in 
Maryland and West Virginia as the Allegheny Front, and in 
Southwestern Virginia and Eastern Tennessee as the Cum- 
berland Mountain. From the summit of this escarpment a 
plateau slopes gently to the N., terminating at the Allegheny 
and Ohio rivers, and limited farther S. by the Blue Grass 
Region of Kentucky and Tennessee. The escarpment ranges 
in altitude from 2,500 or 2,800 feet in Pennsylvania to 4,000 
feet in West Virginia, diminishing again toward the south- 
ward. In most localities it is so deeply scored by streams 
that there is little except the skeleton of the plateau re- 
maining, its form being that of a succession of abrupt ridges 
and gorges ; the summits of the ridges are nearly all upon 
the same level, betraying the former altitude of the plateau. 
In some places, however, considerable areas of the summit 
have remained intact. This feature is known as the Alle- 
gheny plateau in New York, Pennsylvania, and West Vir- 
ginia, and as the Cumberland plateau in Tennessee. It ex- 
tends southward to Central Alabama, and dies away into 
the low country. See Appalachian Mountains. 

The Mississippi Valley. — Between the Appalachian sys- 
tem and the Rocky Mountains (q. v.) stretches a broad val- 
ley, the southern and much the greater portion of which is 
drained by the Mississippi river and other streams into the 
Gulf of Mexico, the northern portion into the Great Lakes, 
and a smaller area into Hudson Bay, by way of the Red 
River of the North. Speaking broadly, this country is a 
plain, but looking at it closely it presents irregularities of 
surface, many of which are significant. The northern por- 
tion, near the shore of the Great Lakes, especially upon the 
upper peninsula of Michigan, Northern Wisconsin, and 
Minnesota, has been greatly disturbed by the agency of the 
great continental glacier which in ancient times covered it. 
In certain regions this glacier eroded the surface, carrying 
off all the softer rock and leaving the harder and tougher 
portions standing in the form of miniature mountains, as 
I Keweenaw Point and the Marquette iron range in Northern 



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UNITED STATES 



35 



Michigan. In other parts, especially farther S. and W., 
the glacier deposited material in the form of drumlins and 
moraines. In Southern Ohio and Indiana streams tributary 
to the Ohio river cut their courses deeply, leaving consider- 
able relief in the form of bluffs. The Ohio, Mississippi, 
Missouri, and other streams are also bordered by high bluffs 
throughout much of their course. The greatest relief in the 
Mississippi valley is afforded by the Ozark Hills. These, like 
the Appalachian Mountains, present two different characters 
of surface. S. of the Arkansas river, in Western Arkansas 
and Southern Indian Territory, they consist of a group of 
narrow, abrupt ridges, which in spite of their serpentine 
course have a general E. and W. trend. They rise to 
altitudes of 2,500 to 8,000 feet above the sea. N. of the 
river the Ozark Hills consist of a plateau presenting an es- 
carpment to the S., with a gentle slope N„ the surface being 
deeply scored by streams. From the Mississippi and lower 
Missouri rivers the country rises gradually in a long incline 
over a breadth of more than 500 miles to the base of the 
Rocky Mountains. This great incline, known as the Great 
Plains, extends from the northern to the southern boundary 
of the country, and forms one of its grandest features. Its 
eastern base has an altitude ranging from sea-level to per- 
haps 2,000 feet, while at the base of the Rocky Mountains 
theplains range from 4,000 to 8,000 feet above the sea. 

The Rocky mountains. — This system is a part of the great 
Cordilleran mountain system which borders the Pacific coast 
through North and South America, extending from the 
Aleutian islands and Alaska through British Columbia, the 
U. S., Mexico, and the Central American republics, and 
thence, as the Andes, through South America to Cape Horn. 
In the U. S. this system has its greatest breadth and com- 
plexity. It extends from Ion. 105° to 124°, and comprises 
an area which may be roughly estimated at one-third that of 
the country, or in the neighborhood of 1,000,000 sq. miles. 
The mountain ranges stand upon a plateau, the eastern 
slope of which is the Great Plains. This plateau has an 
altitude ranging from 4,000 to 10,000 feet, being highest in 
Colorado and diminishing in elevation to the N. and S. The 
great rivers here indicate by their courses the directions of 
slope of the plateau upon which the mountains stand. The 
region maybe divided for purposes of description into a 
number of districts, the Stony Mountains, the Park Ranges, 
the Plateau region, the Great Basin, the Cascades and Sierra 
Nevada, the Pacific valley, and the Coast Ranges. The Stony 
Mountains form the eastern member of this system, front- 
ing the plains in Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming. They con- 
sist of a number of ranges, generally parallel, and trending 
slightly W. of N. and E* of S. In Montana few of the peaks 
exceed 12,000 feet, while the general altitude of the ranges 
here is 9,000 or 10,000 feet. In Wyoming, one of the mem- 
bers of this sub-system, the Wind River Range, which sepa- 
rates the head of the Big Horn from Green river, rises to 
nearly 14,000 feet. In Southern Wyoming the Stony Moun- 
tains disappear, and are succeeded by a broad plateau hav- 
ing an average altitude of fully 8,000 feet. This break in 
the continuity of the ranges is traversed by the Union Pacif- 
ic Railroad, so that the traveler by this route crosses most 
of the Rocky Mountain region without passing among 
mountains. In Southern Wyoming, near the Colorado 
boundary, the Park Ranges rise from the plateau, and in 
Colorado they reach their greatest altitude and complexity. 
Here are a score of mountains exceeding 14,000 feet in 
height, and hundreds exceeding 13,000 feet, and here also 
the plateau from which they spring attains its greatest alti- 
tude. In these high mountains are the head branches of 
the Platte, Rio Grande, Arkansas, and Grand rivers, the lat- 
ter a fork of the Colorado river. Farther southward in New 
Mexico the ranges begin to die away, and in the neighbor- 
hood of Santa Fe their continuity disappears. In Utah there 
is a range which is in the nature of a spur from the Stony 
Mountains, known as the Wasatch Range. It extends S. 
along the eastern border of Great Salt Lake and its system 
of tributary lakes to the central part of the Territory. 

Plateau Region. — The region drained by the Colorado is 
hardly paralleled on the earth. It consists of canons and 
of plateaus whose surfaces are horizontal or but slightly in- 
clined and terminated by cliffs. All streams flow in caflons 
—deep, narrow gorges with precipitous and even vertical 
walls. Besides those cut by living streams, there are many 
in which at ordinary times no water flows, so that in many 
places the plateau is a mere skeleton of narrow, flat ridges, 
separated by equally narrow, precipitous gorges. Of these 
caflons, the series which has been cut by the Colorado is the 



most remarkable. It culminates in the Grand Canon in 
Northern Arizona, which at its deepest part exceeds 6,000 feet 
From summit to summit of the plateau the distance is in 
many places from 10 to 12 miles, the walls descending from 
top to bottom of the gorge by a series of precipitous steps. 

The Great Basin. — W. of the Wasatch Range, comprising 
parts of Utah, Nevada, California, and Oregon, is a region 
which, owing to its deficient rainfall, has no natural system 
of drainage. It is, in fact, not a single basin, but a vast 
number of basins, most of which have no connection by 
drainage lines with other basins. The streams which flow 
down from the mountains on its expanse sink into the 
earth or are evaporated. This basin is intersected by many 
mountain ranges, trending generally parallel in a direction 
nearly N. and S. Their bases are buried deeply in the de- 
tritus worn down from their sides and deposited in the in- 
tervening valleys. The principal basins among the many 
which are found on its surface are those of the Great Salt 
Lake (q. v.), at the west base of the Wasatch Range, and those 
of the Carson and Humboldt at the east base of the Sierra 
Nevada. See Great Basin. 

Cascades and Sierra. — Traversing Washington, Oregon, 
and California is a system of mountains known in its north- 
ern part as the Cascade Range and in the southern as the 
Sierra Nevada. The former is a volcanic plateau, from 
which rise numerous cones to altitudes of 12,000 to 14,440 
feet. Among these are Mts. Rainier, Shasta, and Hood, 
14,444, 14,860, and 11,225 feet respectively. (See Cascade 
Range.) The Sierra Nevada rises with an abrupt, precipi- 
tous front to the E M and a long, deeply eroded slope to the 
W. The altitude, which in the northern part of California 
is perhaps 12,000 feet, increases southward until near its 
southern end it has many peaks from 14,000 to 15,000 feet. 
From this point it descends rapidly in altitude, swings 
around to the S. and joins with the Coast Ranges. (See Sierra 
Nevada.) W. of the Cascades and Sierra Nevada lies a 
long valley trending parallel to the coast, which in Wash- 
ington is occupied partly byPuget Sound and several minor 
streams; in Oregon by the Willamette, Umpqua, and Rogue 
rivers, and in California by the Sacramento and its tributary, 
the San Joaquin. This valley is the great wheat-field of the 
Pacific coast Separating it from the coast is a series of 
ranges and ridges, known collectively as the Coast Ranges. 
In Northwestern Washington a part of them are known as 
the Olympic Mountains, and exceed 8,000 feet In Oregon 
these ranges are of little importance, but in Northwestern 
California they rise again to a considerable height. The 
system is broken through by the Bay of San Francisco, rises 
again to the S M and in Southern California reaches a height 
of 8,000 to 4,000 feet. 

Altitude.— The mean elevation of the U. S., excluding 
Alaska, is about 2,500 feet. The areas of the different zones 
of elevation above sea-level are given in the following table : 

Zoom, tot. Arm, m\. m. 

1,000 to 2,000 086,596 

2,000 to 8,000 262.686 

8,000 to 4,000 182,800 

4,000to 6,000 268,880 

6,000 to 6,000 216,160 

6,000to 7,000 169,616 

7.000 to 8,000 98,109 

8,000to 9,000 89,000 

9.000 to 10,000 19,110 

Above 10,000 19,260 

River Systems.— The river systems may be grouped into 
four gran a divisions, viz., the Northern Lake, Atlantic, Gulf, 
and Pacific. The first consists of Lakes Superior, Michigan, 
Huron, Erie, and Ontario, together with their connecting 
and tributary streams, the water of which is poured by the 
St. Lawrence into the Atlantic Ocean. These lakes and the 
St. Lawrence river form a navigable system which is ex- 
ceeded in the U.S. only by the Mississippi river and its 
tributaries, and bears an amount of traffic which in bulk is 
equaled by that of few waterways. From the mouth of the 
St. Lawrence to the head of Lake Superior is nearly 2,400 
miles. The following table presents the area, dimensions, 
depth, and elevation of the Great Lakes: 



Zoom, tot. Anas, sq. m. 

OtO 109 200.510 

100 to 600 888,805 

600 to 1,000 545,770 



to 1,000.... 



1,: 



1,000 to 1,600. . 
1,500 to 2,000.. 



896,080 
240.516 



LAKKS. 


Art*, square 
miles. 


Lwiftb, 
milts. 


Breadth, 
milt*. 


Depth, 
tot. 


Sanation, 


Lake Superior 


81.200 

21,000 

22,450 

896 

9,960 

7,240 


412 
263 
845 
29 
250 
190 


167 
101 
84 

60 
64 


1,008 
702 
870 
19 
210 
788 


602 


Lake Huron 


681 


Lake Michigan 


681 


St. Clair 


676 


Erie 


693 


Ontario 


247 T 








le 



36 



UNITED STATES 



With this system may be associated for convenience the Red 
River of the North, which drains a small area in Minnesota 
and the Dakotas northward through Lake Winnipeg into 
Hudson Bay. The entire system embraces 175,340 sq. miles 
of territory. See articles on the Great Lakes severally, 
Niagara Palls, and St. Lawrence River and Gulp. 

The second division comprises all those streams which 
flow E. and S. into the Atlantic, including all those E. of 
the Appalachian Mountains. These are all comparatively 
short streams, navigable only a short distance above their 
mouths. Among them are the Penobscot, Kennebec, Con- 
necticut, Hudson, Delaware, Susquehanna, Potomac, Rap- 
pahannock, James, Roanoke, Neuse, Cape Fear, Pedee, San- 
tee, Edisto, Savannah, Ogeechee, Altamaha, and St. Johns. 
The area of this division is estimated at 276,890 sq. miles. 
The third division embraces the Mississippi system, includ- 
ing the great river with all its tributaries, and also the 
streams of Western Georgia, Western Florida, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, which flow into the Gulf 
•of Mexico. The total area of this division is 1,725,980 sq. 
miles, or more than half the territory of the U. S., excluding 
Alaska, and of this great area 1,240,039 sq. miles is drained 
by the Mississippi and its tributaries, the principal of which, 
with their several drainage areas, are as follows : 

lUrar. Dnbaf* aiM. 

Missouri 5*27,155 

Ohio 201 ,720 

Arkansas 185,671 

Bed 89,970 

Among other tributaries which elsewhere would be im- 
portant, but are here of secondarv importance, are the Min- 
nesota, Desmoines, Illinois, ancl Yazoo. Of the rivers 
emptying directly into the Gulf the most important are the 
Suwanee, Appalachicola, Mobile, Pearl, Sabine, Trinity, Bra- 
zos, Colorado of Texas, Nueces, and Rio Grande. (See Mis- 
sissippi, Missouri, Ohio, etc., rivers.) The fourth division, 
that of the Pacific, has an area of 619,240 sq. miles. The 
principal rivers of this system are the Columbia, with its 
great branch, the Snake ; the Sacramento ; and the Colorado 
of the West. (See Columbia, Sacramento, and Colorado 
rivers.) Besides the areas enumerated is to be considered 
the Great Basin, which has an area of 228,150 sq. miles. 

Alaska. — The topographic features of Alaska are very 
simple. The Cordilleran system passes up through Canada, 
following the Pacific coast, and enters Alaska in its south- 
eastern part. This portion of Alaska is entirely occupied 
by these mountains. Proceeding to the N. W., they nu£ 
the coast closely as it swings around to the W. and S. W., ulti- 
mately dropping into the sea, from which their summits 
emerge as the islands of the Aleutian Archipelago. Their 
greatest elevation in Alaskan territory, so far as definitely 
known, is Mt St. Elias, 18,100 feet. N. of the Cordilleras is 
mainly a great plain, stretching northward to the Arctic 
Ocean. The great river is the Yukon, which, rising in the 
mountains of Southeastern Alaska and British Columbia, 
flows N. and then W. to the Bering Sea. In length and vol- 
ume of water it ranks among the great rivers of the conti- 
nent. See Alaska and Yukon River. 

Geology. — The most ancient part of the U. S., from a geo- 
logical point of view, is the northern portion of the Appa- 
lachian Mountains, together with the western portion of the 
Atlantic Plain in the Southern States, including the Blue 
Ridge. The eastern limit of this ancient Archaean region is 
indicated by the fall line on the rivers flowing to the At- 
lantic Ocean. At this point the rivers pass from ancient to 
recent rocks, from hard to soft rocks, and the point is marked 
by falls or rapids in the streams, which put an end to navi- 
gation from tne sea and which have been utilized for water- 
power. This fall line is at Trenton on the Delaware, Phila- 
delphia on the Schuylkill, Georgetown on the Potomac, 
Richmond on the James, Columbia on the Santee, and Au- 
gusta on the Savannah. Seaward ffom these points the 
surface rock is of Tertiary age, and these Tertiary beds, ex- 
tending around the southern end of the Appalachian system 
and up the Mississippi valley to Cairo, occupy much of Ar- 
kansas and Texas, and all of Louisiana. The upper part of 
the Mississippi vallev is occupied mainly by the Carbonifer- 
ous, Devonian, and Silurian formations, the first being pre- 
dominant. The Great Plains are more recent, being mainly 
covered by Cretaceous and Jura Trias. The Rocky Moun- 
tain region is one of extended and violent volcanic action. 
By the slow action of internal stresses and strains, the moun- 
tain ranges have been slowly upheaved, and violent action 
has resulted in the pouring forth of lava which has spread 



over enormous tracts, as the Snake river j>lains of Id aha 
Much of this work is recent, and in the \ ellowstone Park 
in Wyoming the remains of its action are still visible in the 
form of thousands of hot springs and geysers. See Geology, 
and especially the geological maps of the U. S. accompany- 
ing that article ; also the articles on the various geological 
periods, formations, and groups. 

Climate. — The climate of the U. S. ranges widely in dif- 
ferent parts, since the country stretches over twenty-four de- 
grees of latitude and from sea-level to 15,000 feet elevation. 
With every variation of surface it possesses every variety of 
climate, from that of the tropics to that of the Arctic regions. 
It is at the same time one of the hottest and one of the cold- 
est countries ; one of the wettest and one of the driest. 

Temperature. — The temperature ranges with the latitude 
and the altitude. Along the Gulf coast and on the lower 
Colorado the mean annual temperature is 75° F., thence it 
diminishes until at the northern boundary it falls below 40°, 
while on the high peaks of the Rocky Mountains it is far 
below freezing-point. The average annual temperature of 
the whole country is estimated at 53° F. In the eastern part, 
which has a moist climate and an ample rainfall, the range 
between summer and winter is not so great, but in the Rocky 
Mountain region, where the altitude is great and the climate 
arid, the range is extensive. 

Rainfall. — The rainfall differs greatly in different sec- 
tions. Over the eastern half it is abundant, over most of the 
western half it is scanty, and on the northern part of the 
Pacific coast it is often excessive. The South Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts receive an annual rainfall exceeding 60 inches ; 
thence northward the precipitation diminishes gradually 
until about the Great Lakes it commonly does not exceed 
80 inches. It diminishes also westward on the slope of 
the plains, and over most of the Rocky Mountain region it 
ranges from 10 to 20 inches, being naturallv greater on the 
mountains and less on the valleys and plateaus. In the 
Great Basin and Southwestern Arizona it is commonly less 
than 10 inches, and in some localities for years no rain falls. 
On the northern Pacific coast the rainfall is very heavy, in 
some localities exceeding in certainyears 100 inches, while 
in the Pacific valley in Oregon and Washington it common- 
ly ranges from 40 to 50 inches. The average annual rainfall 
on the country as a whole is estimated at 26*7 inches. Over 
the eastern half of the country the winter rainfall exceeds 
the summer. The same is the case in so much higher de- 
gree on the Pacific coast that the winter is locally known as 
the rainy season and the summer as the dry season. In the 
Rocky Mountain region, however, these conditions are re- 
versed. Of the scanty rainfall the greater part falls in sum- 
mer, and the winter is practically dry. because in winter the 
ranges near the Pacific coast drain the moisture from the 
air-currents, while in summer these currents carry most of 
their moisture over these ranges and deposit it on the moun- 
tains and plateaus farther E. See Climate and Meteor- 
ology. 

Flora. — The flora of the U. S., as might be inferred from 
the wide range of soil, topography, and climate, is both rich 
and varied. Tropic species are found in the extreme south, 
in Florida, Texas, California, and Arizona, and near the 
northern border and on the high mountains boreal species 
are found. Throughout the greater part of the couutry the 
species are those of the north temperate zone, and are, to a 
great extent, peculiar to North America. The whole num- 
ber of indigenous species, exclusive of the lower crypto- 
grams, probably amounts to 5,000, many of which have a 
wide range. Tne number of woody species is not less than 
800, and over 400 are large enough to be called trees, 250 of 
which are common. Of the larger and more important, ex- 
cluding all the smaller and rarer ones, and also those trop- 
ical forms found only along the extreme southern border, 
there are about 120 species in sufficient abundance to have 
economic importance. Twelve of these occur 200 feet high, 
and five or six are sometimes 300 or more feet. About 50 of 
the 120 species belong to the ConifercB. Compared with 
Europe the local floras are poorer in the actual number of 
species but vastly richer in trees, many of which belong to 
older types. The hickories, sequoias, magnolias, liquidam- 
bar, sassafras, etc, so abundant or noteworthy in the New 
World, are only found fossil in the Old. The U. S. has con- 
tributed a few species to the useful plants of cultivation. 
Many valuable varieties of grasses have originated from na- 
tive species. Near the Atlantic coast and along the southern 
borders European explorers found maize, squashes, tobacco, 
and other useful plants in cultivation i 
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The forests are mainly confined to the eastern, well-wa- 
tered portion of the country. The Atlantic States and those 
bordering the Gulf westward as far as Central Texas are 
mainly covered with heavy forests, except where cleared by 
man. This region includes many of the States of the Mis- 
sissippi valley, its western limit following roughly the line 
between Oklahoma and Indian Territory and the western 
boundary of Missouri as far N. as the mouth of the Kansas 
river, whence it turns E., excludes the prairies of Northern 
Missouri, and passes across Southern Illinois, Northern Indi- 
ana, and Southern Wisconsin. In Minnesota the line may be 
said to follow the course of the Minnesota river, and near 
its head it turns N M following the eastern edge of the Red 
river valley to the Canadian border. This limit is not a def- 
inite line, but a broad belt of country, in which the forests 
gradually become thinner until they disappear. The plains 
are treeless, except a narrow belt along the watercourses, 
and are covered with grasses, grading in the more arid re- 
gions into artemesias and cacti. In the Rocky Mountain 
region, excepting in the extreme N. W., there are no for- 
ests, tree vegetation being found, as a rule, only upon the 
mountains. The valleys and plateaus are covered in the 
north with artemesias and other desert shrubs, and in the 
south with cacti, Spanish bayonet, and other plants peculiar 
to the desert. In Western Washington and Oregon and on 
some of the elevated plateaus and valleys of Western Mon- 
tana, the rainfall is sufficient to induce forest growth. This 
is especially the case W. of the Cascade Range, where the 
rainfall is superabundant and the forests are luxuriant. It 
is estimated that altogether, allowing not only for those re- 
gions naturally devoid of forests, but those which have been 
cleared by man, 38 per cent, of the country, or a little over 
one-third, excluding Alaska, is covered with tree growth. 
In the low country bordering the Atlantic and Gulf plain 
the prevalent timber ic pine, of various species; in the South 
the long-leaved, short-leaved, and loblolly pines, in the North 
the white pine. In the Appalachian Mountains and the 
upper Mississippi valley, broad-leaved, deciduous trees, 
oaks, chestnuts, walnuts, poplars, and cherry predominate ; 
and about the lakes and generally in the northern part 
of the country, pines, firs, spruces, and larches are most 
abundant. In Western Washington and Oregon, and in the 
Coast Ranges and Sierra Nevada, the forests consist mainly 
of coniferous trees. In the latter regions the forest growth 
has its greatest development. In the Sierra are found the 
gigantic sequoia and sugar pines, and on the Coast Ranges 
are found redwoods. See Forestry and the names of indi- 
vidual trees. 

Fauna, — In general, the fauna is the same as that of 
North America, which is especially rich in fresh-water 
forms, for the reason, doubtless, that North America has 
been a continent ever since the Carboniferous period. The 
species of vertebrata described number about 2,250, the 
principal of which may be classified as follows : Mammalia, 
310; Aves, 756; Reptilia, 257; Batrachia, 101 ; Pisces, 816. 
The Mollusca found in rivers and lakes number 1,034 spe- 
cies ; about 400 more are terrestrial and air-breathers ; the 
marine species are very numerous, but nothing approaching 
a complete enumeration is possible. Of the number of spe- 
cies in the inferior division of the animal kingdom only the 
rudest estimates can be made. Of the larger quadrupeds, 
the buffalo, once extremely abundant on the plains and in 
the Rocky Mountain region, is now practically extinct. 
The elk or wapiti, several species of deer, and the antelope 
are still found in unsettled regions. The black cinnamon 
and grizzly bears are found away from the haunts of man, 
and on the plains and among the mountains wolves of sev- 
eral species are abundant 

Population and Races. 

The census of the U. S. is taken, under a provision of the 
Constitution, every ten years. The work is done under a 
superintendent, with headquarters in Washington. The 
country is divided into districts, of which at the census of 
1890 there were 175, each under the control of a supervisor, 
who reported directly to the superintendent. Each super- 
visor's district was divided into a large number of enumera- 
tion districts, the estimated population of which was in no 
case greater than 4,000, and to each was assigned an enu- 
merator. A house-to-house and farm-to-farm canvass was 
made in the month of June. The results are tabulated in 
the office in Washington. See Census. 

Population.— The population June 1, 1890, was 62,622,250, 
showing a rate of increase of about 25 per cent, in the ten 



37 

years preceding. This total does not include the population 
of Alaska, or Indians living on reservations or in tribal 
relations. Adding these the population closely approxi- 
mated 63,000,000. The density of population, counting all 
the inhabitants and the entire area of the country, was 17*37 
per square mile. The following table shows the population 
at each census, the rate of increase, and the average number 
of inhabitants per square mile : 



CENSUS. 


Population. 


Percent 
inert—. 


D»*y. 


1790 


3.989,214 

5,308,488 

7,289,881 

9,633,822 

12,866.020 

17,069,468 

23,191,876 

81,448.321 

88,568,371 

60.165,788 

62,622,250 


8510 
86 38 
83 07 
88 55 
3267 
35 87 
35 58 
22 68 
3008 
2488 


475 

6*41 

862 

4*82 

625 

829 

778 

1039 

10 70 

13 92 

17-37 


1800 


1810 


1820 


1830 


1840 


I860 


1860 


1870 


1880 

1890 





The Settled Area. — Adopting the census definition of a 
settled country, that is, one which has a population of two or 
more to the square mile, the settled area in 1890 comprised 
nearly 2,000,000 square miles, or somewhat more than half 
the area of the entire country, and about two-thirds of its 
area, excluding Alaska. The following table shows the set- 
tled area at each census, and the proportion which it bore 
to the total area: 

SETTLED AREA AT EACH CENSUS. 



CENSUS. 


Scttladareft, 
•qnara mil**. 


Proportion of wttl«i to 
total art*, per ctnt. 


1790 


289,935 

305.708 

407,945 

508,717 

632,717 

807,292 

979,249 

1,194,754 

1,272.239 

1,569,570 

1,947,285 




29 


1800 


87 


1810 


20 


1820 


25 


1830 


31 


1840 


89 


1850 


83 


I860 


39 


1870 


86 


1880 


44 


1890 


64 







Center of Population. — The center of population is the 
.center of gravity of the population, each individual being 
supposed to have the same weight and to press downward 
with a force proportional to his distance from that center. 
The movements of this point from census to census consti- 
tute a net resultant of all the movements of population. 
The following table, with the accompanying map, shows 
this movement since the first census. In a century the cen- 
ter has moved well into Indiana from a position near Balti- 
more, keeping all the time close to the 39th parallel : 

POSITION OF THE CENTER OF POPULATION. 

1790 89° 16-5' N. lat., 76° 11 2' W. Ion. 

1800 89°161' 76° 565' 

1810 39° 11 5' 77° XT* 

1820 39° 57' 78°330 / 

1830 38° 579' 79° 16 9> 

1840 39° 2 0' 80M8-0' 

1&50 38° 590' 81° 190> 

1860 39° 04' 82° 488' 

1870 89*12 0' 88° 35 V 

1880 89° 41' 84° 39-7' 

1890 89° 11-y 85°829 / 

Urban Population. — The urban population has increased 
at a much more rapid rate than the total population. In 
1790 the inhabitants of cities of 8,000 or more constituted 
but 3 per cent, of the total population. In 1890 they consti- 
tuted 29 per cent. The increase of the urban element is set 
forth in the following table : 

URBAN POPULATION AT EACH CENSUS. 



CENSUS. 


Urban population. 


Proportion of arban 

to total population, 

per cent. 


1790 


181.472 

210.878 

856.920 

475.135 

861.509 

1,463,994 

2.897.586 

5,072.256 

8,071.875 

11,318.517 

18,284.385 


8 


1800 , 


4 


1H10 . . . , 


5 


1820 


5 


1830 


7 


1H40 . 


9 


1850 


12 


1800 


16 


1KT0 , 


21 


1N80 


23 


1890 


^->» 29 



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38 



UNITED STATES 



The States containing the highest proportion of urban 
population are those of the North. 31 ore than half the popu- 
lation of the North Atlantic States is contained in antci <>f 
8,000 or more inhabitants, while of the North Central Sutrs 
more than one-quarter are found in similar cities. Indeed, 
four-fiftlis of all the urban population of the country \- 
found in the Northern States. In 1K90 there were 28 ciiirs 
containing 100,000 or more inhabitants each, and of these 
three— New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia — containc*! 
more than 1,000,000 inhabitants each. The following is a 
list of these cities, with their population : 



CITIES OF OVEE 100,000 POPULATION IS 1890. 



New York 1,515,801 

Chicago 1,099,850 

Philadelphia 1,046,964 

Brooklyn 806,848 

St. Louis 451,770 

Boston 448,477 

Baltimore 434,489 

San Francisco 298,997 

Cincinnati 896,908 

Cleveland 861,853 

Buffalo 255,664 

New Orleans 242,039 

Pittsburg 888.617 

Washington 880,898 



Detroit..,, Wfi 

Milwaukee .... an 

Newark..,, ,. i8r 

Minn-aiM>lis. 164 

Jersev City .,**.,.. ... 163 

Louifivijje......,.„ jm, 

Omaha. „,,*.., 140 

Roch ster m 

St. Paul . 1*1. 

Kanaji* City ias 

Providence . . . , . , . . . lSti 

Denver ..^ IOR. 

IndiaiLa|xiHa uk> 

Allegheny. 105. 



,F7ft 
Ttt 

m 

im 

, id 

. i i>\ 

,713 

i it 
W7 



Size of Families. — The average number of persons to a 
family in 1890 was 4*98. The size of the family is dimin- 
ishing slowly, but steadily, as shown by a comparison of this 
with the figures for previous censuses : 



NATIVITY OF THE POPULATION, 1850 TO 1890. 



AVERAGE 8IZE OF FAMILIES AT EACH CENSUS, 



1850. 
1860. 
1870 
1880. 
1890. 



fi-U 
5 28 
ft'09 
5 <U 
493 



The smallest families are found in the North Atlantic ami 
Western States, and the largest in the Southern States. 

Sex. — In 1890 51*21 per cent, of the population wire 
males and 48*79 per cent, were females. In most of tin? 
Atlantic States the females exceeded the males iii number, 
but in the remaining States males were in excess, and in the 
newer States of the Rocky Mountain region they were 
largely in excess. The general excess of males is dm tn 
immigration. 

Race. — In 1890 the Negroes, including in that term k11 
those of full or mixed blood, numbered 7,4 70,040, and the 
whites 54,988,968, the remainder of the population being 
made up of Chinese, Japanese, and citizen Indians. The 
proportion of the Negroes has steadily diminished during 
the century, being only about two-thirds as great in ltfpu us 
in 1790. 

WHITE AND COLORED AT EACH CENSUS. 



CENSUS. 


WHITE. 


I"? n.iKJi * 


Nn»b». 


Pteent. 


KuthIxt. 


P« «*nt» 


1790 


3,172,008 

4.306.446 

6,862,078 

7,862,166 

10,537,378 

14,195,805 

19,553,068 

26.922,537 

83.589,877 

43.402,970 

54,988,968 


80 79 
8113 
8097 

81 m 
flTrtt) 
m 17 

urn 

Ki ffc" 

ht n 

Hfi-M 
87 80 


757.308 
1,002,087 
1.377.806 
1.771,656 
2,328,042 
£.873,648 
3.638,006 
4*B*>J84 
4.908,094 
6,759,818 


m g7 


1800 


18 87 


1810 


19 '09 


1820 


18' 39 


1830 


18' 10 


1840 


16 83 
15 09 


1850 


I860 


11 HH 
13 HJ 
13-46 


1870 


1880 


1890 







* Including Chinese, Japanese, and citizen Indian*. 

The colored were found mainly in the Southern States, 
seven-eighths of them living S. of Mason and Dixon*s line, 
the Ohio river, and the southern boundary of Missouri, 1 a 
these States, as a whole, they constituteff nearly one-third 
of the entire population in 1890; in Louisiana they consti- 
tuted one-half, and in Mississippi and South Carolina vet? 
nearly three-fifths. The Chinese population haa remained 
unchanged in consequence of the enforcement of the Chi- 
nese Exclusion Act. In 1890 they numbered 107,745. 

Nativity.— In 1890 there were 9,2-19,547 persons of foreign 
birth, leaving 53.372,703 natives, of whom 45,862,028 w»~rc 
native whites. The foreign born constituted 14*77 per cvni. 
of the population. 

The following table gives the numbers of the native, na- 
tive white, and foreign-born elements since 18f>0, the yenr oj 
the census in which statistics giving these particulars w&Q 
first obtained : 



CENSUS. 


Nail**. 


Natto wfcfta. 


PoNlgBkMB. 


1850 


90,047,874 
27,804,094 
89.901,148 
40,475.840 
53,872,708 


17,978,804 
29,869,704 
98,111,188 
86,895,047 
45,869,088 


2,944.602 


1880 


4,188,697 


1870 


6,567,2» 


1880 


6,679,943 


1800 


9,249,547 







The following table converts the above figures into per- 
centages of the population : 



CENSUS. 


Nativa. 


Nativawhfta. 


r«*b«. 


1850 


00-89 
86 84 

85 56 

86 68 
85*28 


78-24 
7846 
78 01 
7856 
78*24 


9*68 


1860 


1316 


1870 


14*44 


1880 


13*38 


1800 


1477 







The source of the element of foreign birth is immigration 
from Europe, which has been exceedingly active for nearly 
half a century and particularly since 1880. Between 1880 
and 1890 5,248,613 immigrants entered the U. S. The fol- 
lowing table shows the immigration in each ten-year period 
since statistics were first obtained : 

IMMIGRATION. 

1891 to 1880 148.489 

1881 to 1840 599,185 

1841 to 1850 1,711251 

1851 to 1860 2.579.580 

1861 to 1870 2,282,787 

1871 to 1880 2,812.191 

1881 to 1800 5,846,613 

See Immigration and Sociology. 

The following table classifies the foreign born by the 
principal contributing nationalities : 

FOREIGN BORN, BT PRINCIPAL NATIONALITIES, 1890. 

Germany 2,784,804 

Ireland 1,871,468 

England, Scotland, and Wales 1,951.897 

Canada and Newfoundland 080,941 

Norway, Sweden, and Denmark 083,249 

Russia. 188,645 

Italy 182,580 

Poland 147,440 

Austria. 128,271 

Bohemia 1 18,106 

France 118,174 

China 108,468 

Switseriand 104,069 

Hungary 68,485 

This element of foreign birth is found mainly in the 
Northern States, only a trifling number having gone into 
the Southern. With the exceptions of the Norwegians and 
Swedes the foreign element is found principally in the cities, 
where it is often in far higher proportion than is the native. 
The number of persons whose parents were of foreign birth, 
including the foreign born, was 20,263,902, constituting 82 per 
cent or nearly one-third of the entire population. The dis- 
tribution of tnis class is similar to that of the foreign born, 

CONSTITUENTS OP THE POPULATION OP THE GREAT CITIES. 



Milwaukee — 
New York .... 

Chicago 

Detroit 

San Francisco 

Buffalo 

St. Paul 

Cleveland 

Jersey City . . . 

St. Louis 

Cincinnati 

Brooklyn 

Pittsburg 

Boston...*..... 

Rochester 

New Orleans. . 

Newark 

Minneapolis . . 

Allegheny 

Providence . . . 

Louisville 

Philadelphia.. 
Baltimore .... 
Washington . . 

Omaha 

Denver 

Indianapolis.. 
Kansas City . . 



Natlva whites 


NaU>« white* 


rotate* 

horn. 




of natirc 


offonJgn 


Cokmd. 


pantttaga. 


parang*. 






18 


48 


80 




18 


88 


49 




21 


56 


93 




21 


88 


40 




21 


97 


49 


10 


92 


48 


85 




98 


86 


40 




94 


88 


87 




95 


40 


88 




96 


49 


96 




27 


45 


94 




27 


41 


89 




99 


87 


31 




80 


88 


85 




80 


40 


80 




30 


80 


14 


96 


81 


87 


80 


9 


38 


80 


87 




86 


36 


95 


3 


87 


80 


80 


3 


80 


90 


15 


17 


40 • 


91 


85 


4 


43 


26 


16 


15 


47 


19 


8 


88 


40 


93 


95 


8 


51 


91 


94 


4 


54 


23 


14 





55 


10 


15 


11 



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UNITED STATES 



39 



nearly all of it bein^ comprised in the Northern and West- 
ern States, The foreign elenaen t, includ hig those born abroad 
as well m those whose parents were bom abroad, is very 
large in the more northern States of the Mississippi valley 
and in certain New England States. In North Ihikotu only 
about one-fifth of the jiupulation wiis of native parentage, in 
Minnesota about one-fourth, and in Wisconsin a little more 
than one-fourth, while in twelve States Jessi than half i\w 
people were of native parentage, A similar situation was 
developed tu the great eiticH; the preceding table of the 28 
cities which have more than 100,000 inhabitants shows the 
percentage of the various elements in the population of each, 

Of the large foreign element of Cincinnati and Milwaukee, 
more than two- thirds are Germans, The Germans form a 
majority of the foreign element id so in Louisville, liahi- 
m o re, St. Louis, I nd i anapo Lis, and A 1 1 eghen y . In New V «» r k 
$3 per cent, of the foreiign element consists of ( Term an s and 
30 per cent, of Irish. In Chicago 38 per cent, are Germans 
16 per cent, Irish, and 16 per Ofiflt. Seand in avians. In St. 
Paul 31 per cent, are Germans and 32 per cent. Standi im- 
vian,^ and in Minneapolis 56 per cent, of the foreign born 
are Scandinavians. 

The following table shows the population by States and 
Territories, and by nativity and race : 

POPULATION BY NATIVITY AXD RA<E, 



STATfS AND Taial 

TtBJLlTORIKS. pimLiOiw. 



Wblb. CuIuppJ. 






Alabama ,.,....,., 

Artaona — . .. 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado .,.„..... 

Coanectkul 

DWaw&re 

Dirt- of Columbia, 

Florida >. 

f *eor»cia. , . , 

[flftSlO » ..; 

Illinois .♦....*,,< „ 

Indiana ,. 

Iowa, ............. 



I,5l?i,eiT 8$l,nH 
],i->i.i7'j ".is.::.- 



Kentucky. 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Mnrv land 

Michigan . 

MinnehOta 

MisHisaiopi 

Missouri ,„ 

Montana... , 

Nebraska.. -*,... . 

Zfevadi 

N» j w Ham nature. 
New Jnrwpy, 

New itaxioo..... 

Neiw York ....... 

North Carolina. . 
North Dakota-,. 

"hio ... 

Oklahoma....... 

Omcoe 

Pi-ntuo'lvanla.... 
RJaode Inland 
Booth Curollna .. 
South Dakota... 

IVti negate , .. 

T exaa. ....,,, 

Vtah. ,.,.. 

Vermont. ........ 

Virginia ....... 

WashinKton 
Weal Virginia . . 

U toOOMB. 

Wyoniiog......„ 



ItiMfiB 

S. , ie 1 ;fi« 

84.WS 

-\rr,\l"J 
I Hi 1, 806 
L-H7,UU-t 

801,0811 



4rtl t 4flH 
m.438 
U0,QMJ 



8,1^788 

l.'Vl.lM. 

i :,>, m- 

tmm 

U| _ - . i 

*,fl7ft,184 *&2H 45* 

132 t 159 127,271 
[,Q68 T S»10 i,M§,sft 

45,71} I I HluKl 

attire Mr '* . h |i i 
L4J4/i'tt LSOiVWl 

m us,rts 

5,99^,853 5, S^flfiil 

1/.17/.M7 |,06S,!W4 

1*2.7 IP 1W23 

:i.n; '.'.-11 '.:!,>!. 806 

5.830,014 AJ 48.207 

SlfcHM 837,869 

1,1M.14D| 4flS.0CN 

1 ,707,51 8| 1,886,68? 
ft^J&S 1.74fi,9S6 



am\un& 

p. il-, V." H. I 
840.890 
7nc*,791 

00.701! 



205,009 
Xll ,41ft 

*m,5ia 

710,077 

1,600*478 

&9,273 



a09 T 427 J 

7 t 73(> 
lS,tf3U 
2H,427 
ffi.flffi 

<%s.iJim i. 

MC7 

^7,H70 3, 

4. r i.0iW 2 

10,810 1. 

W.M3 1 

368.173; 1, 

HtMtiS 1. 

EKOtt 

rn.ti:. r, 

- 
12,022 
M77 
om 

■lfl.35'J !, 

10^74 

fiMWI 4, 

BflS^UB 1, 

tm, 

87.511 3, 
3,00Hi 

10a, 757 4. 

7,847 
9W441 I, 

1J518 
4W.*«i 1 

!-•' >i ■' 

8,006 
1JHU 

8.H7TI 
:i-.* ; 1 7 
lijor i 
1,5:^ 



.41tS.-.Mo 
4U,N25 

H4 1.821 

am, we 

Vi2.fi:.7 
1,"kUJ32 
a 11.022 
908,490 
BSJUS 

,B84,00J,* 

040sine : : 
,!S87,aser ). 

.^I.^.S j 

,700,47t) l 

,W2,I25 
M8>0W 
W?l,806 I 
.."jfii^iW^ J , 
HJW.470 
2H1/HH 

144,315 2. 

v,,«,:: 

:il.i>r.r, 
,ii,vmw 1, 
m,we\ 1 

,814,345 I 
101, S5S 
,2ir!jra a, 

W.094 

2&0.45C 

280,901 
,144,870 

3ST,7M 
.747,4Nfl 1, 
,0HS ( W17 I, 
154,841 
28H,:W4 
.(Wr.aw I 

7ia/<ll 

,107,11X1 1 

4fl,«a 



819,114 

38,117 
804,058 

Hia,im 
s*i,gci 

imflfTa 

188,178 

4*27,407 
t 0(»,7M 
^77, KM 
t «Sk0S8 
,531^50 
&0&,S65 
580,608 

,561,870 
£St,28S 

,2SW,170 
8ii,341 

^n 1. 11 
87,1«3 
808,044 
068,5*1 
131.86H 
.»68.tnw I 
,051,7*40. 
H)0,77, r > 

B6.117 
160.990 

881,(482 
466.889 
8Sfl HI 
ill m 

8H7,!»4 
(Oftl.BSa 
254. 31 S* 
711.225 
(8t,4N 
+4,845 



3 4.777 

866,400 

*:'.',■ «' 

IH.lfll 
1«,770 
2l,04n 
12,137 
I7,4ftfl 
842,^17 
146,»0D 
894^009 
147,8*38 
60,360 
4»,747 
7K,tWl 
04.S88 
fL->7.r L ? 
648,880 
W7 .mi 

23.K8IWI 
43,006 

21 Bi ,'. 12 

I 1 ?0fl 
72,840 

328,ir7r> 

I I ,«&» 
;,; i om» 

a roe 

UW5 r 2»3 
2,740 

57,317 

tMft,730 

100 J05 

+u27) > 

Ol.OTiB 

a),029 

iv <■■• 

M.0IV4 

44.OMS 

IH.HTl 

00.005 

1 R, RW 

510.109 

14,«13 



Alaska, S*».OS2, of whom 4,2W3 ars wbii>. 

Itnlian Territory, 179,321, of whom 50,055 are IndiAJis and 100,384 
are whites. 

[mUnm* — Iadians a not taxed"— i. p, in tnl.nl n lotions- 
are excluded by the Constitution from the basis <»f polttifftJ 
representation. The several tribes are ppg&rtieil as doiDOftfc, 
dependent nal ions. u' j '^--rrn'd by their own livws, yel suhjeel 
Jo the sovereignty ol the V. S. ; harin^a right nf oocufinncM 
In Ifeiir lands, yet without the power to cede thosw Inmii 
except to the U.S. The policy of rernovin^ I In Sndiiliis to 
Jeinds W t of the MMssippi was inaugurated about IHS5, 
ihJ luri^ely carried out in tlio twenty years tol]awin%, estH'- 
ciallr with the Srtnthern or Appalachian Indians — 1 1 4 ^ i 'reeW 
C hoeta wa, Ch i i-kasa ws, Cherokees, and Seinf iwl es, Be5i rlea 
the Indian Territory, other lart^e reservatioriB have been •*<■} 
apart, for Indian tVcu pat ion, especially in Montana mid tfal 
Dakotas. The total area of these n m r vii toiiis was, in |H!M, 



85,580,882 acres, or 183,720 sq. miles. The total Indian popu- 
lation, as returned by the census of 1890, was 249,278. Of 
these there were on reservations and under the control of 
the Indian office, 188,382. The Five Civilized Tribes in the 
Indian Territory, who are self-supporting, numbered as fol- 
lows: Cherokees, 29,590: Chickasaws, 7,182; Choctaws, 14,- 
379 ; Creeks, 14,632 ; Seminoles, 2,561— total, 68,344, of whom 
52,065 were reported as Indians, including mixed bloods, 
the remainder being whites who had married into the tribes 
or colored citizens of the tribes. The Pueblo Indians of 
New Mexico numbered 8,278 ; the Six Nations of New York, 
5,304; and the Eastern Cherokees of North Carolina, 2,885. 
Indians who had abandoned tribal relations and established 
themselves among the whites numbered 32,567. See Indians 
op Noeth America. 

Mortality. — The estimated death-rate of the population 
is 18 per 1,000. Among persons of foreign birth the rate is 
greater than this, and among the colored it is much greater, 
being in the cities very nearly double that 6i the whites. 
The rate in the cities is naturally very much greater than 
that in the rural districts, especially among young children. 
The most prevalent and fatal diseases are in the order men- 
tioned : Consumption, which in 1890 was the cause of 11*6 per 
cent, of all deaths ; pneumonia, 8*8 per cent. ; diarrhoeal dis- 
eases, 8*5 per cent. ; diphtheria ana croup together, 4*8 per 
cent. ; enteric fever, 3*1 per cent. ; and malarial fever, 2*1 
per cent. See also Vital Statistics. 

Dependents and Prisoners. — The number of insane in 1890 
was 106,254, or 1,649 per 1,000,000 of inhabitants; feeble- 
minded, 95,571, or 1,526 per 1,000,000; deaf and dumb, 41,- 
283 (659 per 1,000,000) ; blind, 50,411 (805 per 1,000.000); and 
prisoners, 83,329, of whom 75,924 were men and 6,405 were 
women. Of prisoners, 57,810 were white and 25,019 colored. 
Classifying them by nativity and race, and reducing the 
numbers to proportions of the total number of inhabitants, 
it appears that of white natives of native parentage 6 out 
of every 10,000 are prisoners; of white natives of foreign 
parentage, 18 out of every 10,000; of the foreign born, 17 
out of every 10,000; and of the colored, 32 out of every 
10,000. The number of paupers in almshouses was 73,015. 
Classifying these also by race and nativity, and obtaining 
the proportion between the number of paupers and the 
number of population of each race and nativity, it appears 
that 9 out of every 10,000 of the native whites were paupers ; 
while the similar figures for the foreign born are 30 out of 
every 10,000 ; and of the colored, 9 out of every 10,000. The 
low proportion of paupers among the colored is probably 
due to tne fact that there are few almshouses in the South. 

For other statistics, see the article Vital Statistics. 

Public Lands. 

Accessions of Territory. — The original limits of the U. S. 
extended on the W. to the Mississippi river, and on the S. 
to the 81st parallel. From time to time accessions of terri- 
tory were made, as set forth and illustrated in the following 
map and table : 




AREA OF ACQUIRED TERRITORY. 



DATE. 



1803 
1821 
1845 
1848 

urn 

186? 



Am, tq. mile*. 



Louisiana purchase. . . 

Florida purchase 

Annexation of Texas . 

Mexican cession 

Gadsden purchase 

Purchase of Alaska. . . 



1,171,931 

59.268 

875,239 

545.783 

45,535 

570,000 



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40 



UNITED STATES 



Of the original territory much was unsettled, and was 
claimed by certain of the original States, their claims over- 
lapping one another in a perplexing manner. As a simple 
method of settling these conflicting claims, these States 
ceded them to the U. S., and thus the U. S. became a large 
landowner. Each addition of territory has added to the 
Government's land holdings, with the exception of Texas. 

(1) Methods of Subdivision. — In order to subdivide the 
lands into parcels convenient for disposal, they have been 
cut up into townships, sections, and quarter-sections, under 
a uniform system — a section comprising a square mile and a 
township 36 sq. miles. The method of survey is as follows : 
Starting from an initial point, selected arbitrarily, an east 
and west line, known as a base line, and a north and south 
line, known as a principal meridian, are run through it. At 
intervals of 24 miles on the principal meridian, lines are 
run east and west. These are known as standard parallels, 
or correction lines. At similar intervals of 24 miles on the 
base line, and on these standard parallels, lines are run N. 
24 miles, to the next standard parallel. In this way the 
land is divided into tracts approximately 24 miles on a side. 
On account of the convergence of meridians, the tracts are 
not exact squares, but are narrower at the N. than at the 
S. These tracts are then divided into townships by lines 
following meridians and parallels, and the townships are 
divided into sections in a similar manner. The ranges, 
as the north and south tiers of townships are termed, are 
numbered E. and W. of the principal meridian, and the 
townships are numbered N. or S. of tne base line. The sec- 
tions are numbered within each township, beginning with 
the northeasternmost, running thence westward to the west 
line, the northwestern one being numbered 6, while that 
S. of it is 7, and thence the numbers increase to the E., 
then to the W. a^ain, etc. For example, the southwest sec- 
tion of a township may be designated as Sec. 31, Twp. 4 N., 
R. 15 W. of the 6th Principal Meridian. 

(2) Methods of Disposal. — The policy of the U. S. in dispos- 
ing of its public lands has been to use them to aid in the 
extension of settlements and the development of its do- 
main rather than for purposes of profit. Accordingly, lib- 
eral homestead and pre-emption laws (see Homestead Laws) 
have been enacted, by which actual settlers can obtain land 
for little more than the cost of surveying it ; grants have 
been made to railways to enable them to extend their lines 
into unsettled regions ; and donations have been made for 
educational purposes. Apart from special grants, the public 
lands have been acquired by individuals in the following 
ways: (1) Under the Homestead Act, by which a tract of 80 
acres at $2.50 an acre (called double minimum land), or 160 
acres at $1.25, may be obtained through the payment of 
certain fees and commissions, ranging from $7 to $34, on 
condition that the applicant resides on and cultivates the 
land for five years; (2) under the Pre-emption Act, through 
which a person may, by entering at the appropriate land 
office a tract of 80 or 160 acres, secure a right to take the 
land at Government rates whenever it may be offered for 
sale (repealed in 1891) ; (3) by auction, whenever offered by 
proclamation of the President or by public notice from the 

fenerai land office at Washington ; (4) after a failure to sell 
y auction, the lands remain subject to purchase by what is 
called private entry at any subsequent period ; (5) by timber- 
culture, or planting trees on 10 acres, one may obtain a 
patent for 160 acres free, at the end of three years (repealed 
in 1891) ; (6) by providing means of irrigation, settlers may 
take up a full section, 640 acres, of desert land.. 

Excluding Alaska, the entire area of the public lands may 
be estimated at 1,440,000,000 acres. Of this area the U. S. 
had, to July 1, 1894, disposed of 895,000,000 acres, leaving 
545,000,000 acres still in its possession. The following table 
shows the principal items of disposition : 

DISPOSITION OF PUBLIC LANDS. 

A em. 

Homesteads 147,000,000 

Cash sales -234,000.000 

Railway land grants patented 80.000,000 

Swamp lands to States 70,000.000 

Land bounties for military services 61,000,000 

Of the remainder, a large part, say one-sixth, consists of 
Indian reservations ; another large part, perhaps an equal 
proportion, has been granted to railways, but is not yet 
patented, since the conditions under which the grants were 
made have not been fulfilled ; and a third large part, which 
it is impossible to estimate, has been filed on by settlers, but 
title has not yet passed. 



Public Improvements. 
In the early part of the nineteenth century public im- 
provements were made by the individual States. During 
this period many great works were undertaken and carried 
through by them. Among these is the Erie Canal, built 
by the State of New York, which is still one of the most im- 
portant factors in transportation from the West, notwith- 
standing the development of railways. A number of canals 
were also built by Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, and Indiana, 
but most of them are now merely matters of history. After 
1820, or thereabouts, the general Government undertook 
public improvements, and constructed several wagon-roads, 
among them the great Cumberland road across the Appa- 
lachian Mountains. In 1850 it inaugurated a policy, since 
carried out on a large scale, of aiding in the construction of 
railways by grants of lands. The first railway to be so aided 
was the Illinois Central in Illinois. At first grants were 
made to the railways through the medium of the States; 
subsequently, however, the grants were made directly to the 
corporations. By these grants the construction of many of 
the roads of the far West was made possible. The lands 
were granted in alternate sections for a certain breadth on 
each side of the road, the Government retaining the other 
sections. As it often happened that certain lands within 
these belts had already passed into other ownership, indem- 
nity strips were added outside of the grant — strips from 
which the companies could select land to indemnify them- 
selves for such sections of the grant as had already passed 
from Government ownership. The price of the Government 
sections within the grant limits was immediately doubled, 
so that while the Government encouraged the building of 
railwavs by granting lands, it suffered no loss, the increased 
price being easily obtained on account of the facilities af- 
forded by the railway for transportation. This policy of 
the Government has resulted in great good to the country by- 
inducing rapid settlement. The total amount of land which 
had been so patented to railways in 1894 was 80,000,000 acres. 
In addition to these land grants, States and municipalities 
have made large subsidies to railways, usually in the form 
of subscriptions, either to bonds or to capital stock. In 1870 
the general Government began making direct appropria- 
tions for river and harbor improvements in aid of navi- 
gation. The appropriation amounted in that vear to the 
modest sum of $2,000,000, but it increased, with a few set- 
backs, until in 1890 it was in excess of $25,000,000. While 
these appropriations are in many instances unwise and the 
money is used in a wasteful manner, both upon unworthy 
objects and under bad plans, still many useful results have 
been attained ; the navigation of the great rivers, the Ohio, 
Mississippi, and Missouri, has been greatly improved ; the 
construction of the iettv system at the mouth of the Missis- 
sippi river has made Sew Orleans an important port and 
has given it an immense commerce ; the construction of the 
canal at Sault St. Marie has connected the navigation of 
Lake Superior with that of the lower lakes ; the entrances 
to many harbors have been deepened, and the shelter which 
they afforded has been improved by means of breakwaters. 
The U. S. maintains an admirable system of coast lighting, 
for details of which see Lighthouse. It also maintains an 
efficient life-saving service upon its coasts. See Life-sav- 
ing Service. 

Means of Communication. 

Railways. — At the close of 1893 there were in operation 
177,753 miles of railway, the capital stock of which was 
$5,080,032,904; funded debt, $5,570,292,613; and floating 
debt, $410,361,503. The total liabilities therefore, which 
may be regarded as representing the cost of the roads, are 
$11,060,687,020. The average cost per mile for construction 
was $63,021 ; the gross earnings, $1,222,618,290, or 111 per 
cent, the cost of construction ; the net earnings were $384,- 
591,109 ; and the dividends paid during the year $95;337,681, 
which is 1*86 per cent, of the stock. The average rate of inter- 
est paid on the bonds and floating debt was 4*1 per cent. The 
number of passengers carried 1 mile was 15,246,711,952; 
average receipts per passenger per mile, 2*05 cents; amount 
of freight carried 1 mile, 90.552,087,290 tons ; average re- 
ceipts per ton per mile for freight, 0*89 cents. See Rail- 
ways, tunnels, etc. 

Rivers. — The rivers furnish a system of internal naviga- 
tion of the highest importance. The system of the St. 
Lawrence river and the Great Lakes provides, with the aid 
of two canals, access from the ocean to the head of Lakes 
Superior and Michigan, in the heart of the continent, and 
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41 



this is utilized yearly by nearly 1,000,000 tons of ship- 
ping. The rivers of the Atlantic Plain have but short 
navigable courses, ranging from 100 to 200 miles in length, 
as their navigability is stopped at the fall line. The Mis- 
sissippi is the greatest artery of the country. The main 
stream is navigable, by the aid of a canal at Rock Island, 
111., to the Falls of St. Anthony at Minneapolis ; the Ohio is 
navigable to Pittsburg ; the Missouri at high water to Great 
Falls, Mont. ; the Arkansas to Fort Smith, Ark. ; the Red 
river to Shreveport, La. Besides these, many other branches 
of the great river are navigable for considerable distances, 
making it possible for river traffic to compete with railway 
transportation over a large part of the Mississippi valley. 

Canals. — Prior to the construction of railways, many 
canals were built in the Eastern States, in part at State ex- 
pense and in part by private corporations. The advent of 
the railway checked their construction, and has since in- 
duced the discontinuance of fully half of them. In 1890 the 
total mileage of canals in operation was 2,704, of which 2,598 
miles were canals proper, and 106 miles slack water naviga- 
f tion. The tonnage which passed through them in that year 
i is given as 21,046,857. The gross income of the canals was 
, $3,900,000, and the expense of maintenance $2,070,589, 
f leaving a profit of $1,829,425. See Canals and articles on 
individual canals, such as the Erie, Illinois and Michigan, 
Janes River and Kanawha. 
Postal Service. — The statistics of postal service for 1894 
! are as follows : Total number of post-offices, 69,805 ; extent 
I of post routes, 454,746 miles, of which 169,768 was railway 
j routes ; revenue of the department, $75,080,479 ; expendi- 
ture, $84,324,414 ; deficit, $9,243,935. See Postal Service. 
Telegrapto and Telephones. — The telegraph system is al- 
most entirely in the hands of a single corporation, the West- 
ern Union Telegraph Company, which in 1894 had 21,166 
offices, operated 190,303 miles of line, over which were strung 
790,792 miles of wire, sent over 58,600,000 messages, and 
had receipts of $21,900,000 and expenditures of $16,000,000. 
(See Telegraph.) The telephone business is almost entirely 
in the hands of a single company, which in 1894 had 838 ex- 
changes and 237,186 subscribers, operated 353,480 miles of 
local and 154,106 miles of long-distance lines, and paid divi- 
dends amounting to $3,339,156. See Telephone. 

Industries. 
Agriculture. — The latest statistics of agriculture which 
are reliable are from the U. S. census of 1890, and concern 
the crops of the preceding year. Up to and including the 
census of 1880 agriculture was in all respects the leading 
industry of the country. Returns from the census of 1890 
indicate that while it was still the leading industry as re- 
gards the number of persons engaged in and supported by 
it, it had become secondary to manufactures in respect to 
the value of the product. Probably two-fifths of those en- 
gaged in profitable occupations among the population were 
engaged in agriculture, and a corresponding proportion of 
the total population were supported thereby. The value of 
agricultural products in 1890 was returned as $2,460,000,000, 
the increase over corresponding figures for 1880 being at the 
rate of 11 per cent., a rate of increase very much less than 
that of the population. The estimated net value of manu- 
factures in 1890 was a trifle over $4,000,000,000, and the rate 
of increase in the value of the net product in the ten years 
preceding was slightly in excess of 100 per cent, a rate very 
much greater than that of the population. These facts in- 
dicate that the increase in population between 1880 and 1890 
went in great measure to manufacturing industries rather 
than to those of agriculture. In 1890 the number of farms 
was 4,565,000, the rate of increase during the ten years pre- 
ceding being but 14 per cent. The value of farms in 1890 
was $13,276,000,000; the rate of increase in the ten years 
preceding was 30 per cent., a rate greater than that of the 
number of farms and indicating an increased value per farm. 
Farming tools and machinery were valued at $494,000,000. 
From 1850 to 1880 the average size of farms diminished 
from 203 to 134 acres. The census of 1890 showed a slight 
increase, the average size being 137 acres. The extent of im- 
proved or cultivated land in 1890 was 358,000,000 acres, or 
about 560,000 sq. miles, being about 18 per cent, of the area 
of the country, excluding Alaska. The proportion of cul- 
tivated land in the different States ranges very widely. It 
is highest in the States of Illinois and Iowa, where nearly 
three-fourths of the total area is cultivated, while in Ohio 
more than two-thirds and in Indiana three-fifths is under 
cultivation. In Southern New England about one-half the 



area is cultivated. In the Southern States the proportion is 
about one-quarter of the total area, and in many of the 
States of the Cordilleran region less than 1 per cent is as 
yet under cultivation. 

The cotton crop is one of the most important, and as an 
export crop the most important, of all the products of agri- 
culture. The crop of 18»2, as appears from the estimates of 
the Agricultural Department, was the largest ever raised, 
comprising 9,038,707 bales, and that of 1893 was 7,493,000 
bales. The crop of 1889, as shown by the census returns, was 
7,434,687 bales. Cotton is produced mainly in the South 
Atlantic States S. of Virginia and in those bordering on the 
Gulf of Mexico, together with Arkansas. The following 
table shows the product in each of these States during the 
census year : 

YIELD OF COTTON IN 1888, BY STATES. 
State. Bafaa. 

Texas 1,470.353 

Georgia 1,191.919 

Mississippi 1,154,408 

Alabama 915,414 

South Carolina 746,798 

Arkansas. 691,423 

Louisiana 659.583 

North Carolina. 336,245 

About two-thirds of the cotton crop is exported, mainly to 
Great Britain, and most of the remainder is manufactured 
in New England. (See Cotton.) The wheat crop in 1894 
was, according to the estimates of the Department of Agri- 
culture, 460,000,000 bush. ; in 1891, by the same authority, 
612,000,000, the largest ever produced ; and in 1889, by the 
census returns, 468,000,000. This crop is produced mainly 
in the Northern States of the Mississippi valley. One-thiri 
to one-fourth of the crop is annually exported. (See Wheat.) 
Indian corn or maize is cultivated to an enormous extent 
and over a wide area, extending from the southern to the 
northern limits of the country. The greater proportion of 
the crop, however, is produced in the Middle States of the 
Mississippi valley, from Kentucky and Ohio westward to 
Kansas and Nebraska. The largest crop ever produced was 
that of 1889, which amounted to 2,122,073,463 bush. In 1894 
the estimates of the Department of Agriculture reported a 
crop of only 1,218,000,000 bush. (See Maize.) Oats is a 
crop of great importance, and its cultivation is rapidly in- 
creasing. It is produced mainly in the Northern States of 
the Mississippi valley and about the Great Lakes. The 
product of 1889 was 809,000,000 bush. Since then it has 
fluctuated in different years, being in 1894, according to the 
estimates of the Department of Agriculture, 662,000,000 
bush. (See Oat.) The product of rye in 1894 was 27,000,- 
000 bush.; of barley 61,000,000; and of buckwheat 13,000,000. 
These are hardy crof >s and are produced mainly in the North- 
ern States. The tobacco crop of 1894 was 407,000,000 lb. ; 
in 1889, 488,000,000. Nearly half of it was produced in 
Kentucky, and this State, with Virginia, Ohio, North Caro- 
lina, Tennessee, and Pennsylvania, produced over 400,000,- 
000 lb. It was raised to a greater or less extent in 42 of the 
States and Territories. (See Tobacco.) The hay crop is one 
of the most valuable. See Hay. 
The number of farm animals in 1895 was as follows : 

Horses 15.893.818 

Mules 2,333,108 

Cows 16.504.629 

Other cattle 34,364,216 

Sheep 42,291,064 

Swine 43,882,708 

The value of live stock was estimated at $1,818,000,000. 
See Cattle, Sheep, Swine, etc. 

The wool clip was estimated in 1894 at 278,000,0001b. The 
sugar product of the same year was as follows, in millions 
of pounds. 

Cane 611*2 

Sorghum 9 

Beet 48-2 

Maple 7*6 

See SroAR. 

Irrigation. — In the States and Territories of the Cordil- 
leran region, with the exception of the northwestern part of 
California, Western Oregon, and Washington, irrigation is 
necessary for the successful prosecution of agriculture, ow- 
ing to insufficient rainfall. This area includes about 1,250,- 
000 sq. miles, or two-fifths of the total area of the country, 
excluding Alaska. The full utilization of t*he water re- 
sources of this region may possibly result in the reclamation 
of one-tenth of this area. In 1890, however, only about 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



42 



UNITED STATES 



one-half of 1 per cent of the entire area had been thus re- 
claimed. See Irrigation. 

Manufactures. — Manufactured, in respect to the value of 
products, constitute the leading industry of the U. S., and 
their importance is increasing more rapidly than that of ag- 
riculture. In 1890 the census returns snowed that the num- 
ber of manufacturing establishments having an annual prod- 
uct of more than $500 each numbered 855,415 ; the capital 
employed in these establishments was $6,189,000,000; the 
number of employees was 4,712,622 ; and the total expendi- 
ture in wages was $2,283,000,000, an average to the em- 
ployee of $485, which may be assumed as the average yearly 
wage. The cost of the material used was $5,162,000,000, and 
the gross value of the product $9,872,000,000, showing a net 
product, after deducting the materials used, of $4,210,000,- 
000. All these figures show an enormous increase since 1880. 
The number of establishments increased 40 per cent. ; capi- 
tal, 121 per cent., showing a great increase in the average 
capital per establishment, ana a consequent centralization 
of industries ; wages, 131 per cent., being at a greater rate 
than the increase of capital ; cost of material, 48 per cent. ; 
and the value of products, 69 per cent The manufacturing 
section is situated mainly in the North Atlantic States, 
spreading with diminishing importance westward, following 
closely the distribution of the urban population. About hall 
of the manufactured product of 1890 came from the nine 
States included in the North Atlantic group, and about one- 
third from the North Central States. These two groups of 
States together produced fully 88 per cent of all the manu- 
factured product of the country. The principal branches of 
manufacture, as measured by the value of product in 1890, 
are set forth in the following table, which includes all those 
whose product exceeds $50,000,000 : 

VALUE OF MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS. 

Agricultural implements. $81,000,000 

Blacksmithing and wheelwrighting 54,000,000 

Boots and shoes 256,000,000 

Bakeries . 128.000,000 

Brick and tile manufactures. 68,000,000 

Butter and cheese 63,000,000 

Carpentering 281,000,000 

Carpets 50,000,000 

Carriages and wagons 115,000,000 

Cars, construction and repair 206,000,000 

Chemicals. 50,000,000 

Clothing 508,000,000 

Coffee and spice, roasting and grinding 75,000,000 

Confectionery 56,000,000 

Cotton goods 268,000,000 

Flouring and grist mills 514,000,000 

Foundries and machine-shops. 418,000.000 

Furniture 1 19,000,000 

Glass 57,000,000 

Hosiery and knit goods 67,000,000 

Iron and steel 562,000.000 

Leather 171,000,000 

Liquors 290,000,000 

Lumber products 587,000,000 

Masonry, brick and stone 204,000,000 

Painting and paper-hanging 74,000,000 

Paper 74,000.000 

Petroleum-refining 86,000,000 

Plumbing and gasfltting 81,000,000 

Printing and publishing 275,000,000 

Silk manufactures 87,000,000 

Slaughtering and meat-packing . . . 565,000,000 

Sugar-refining 128,000,000 

Tin, copper, and sheet-iron working 67,000,000 

Tobacco manufactures 195,000,000 

Woolen goods 189,000,000 

Worsted goods 79,000,000 

See the articles Factories and Factory System, Strikes 
and Lockouts, Cotton Manufactures, etc. 

Patents. — In its patent system the U. S. is far in advance 
of any other country. During the year 1894 20,867 patents 
were issued. See Patents. 

metallic products. 



Pig iron, long tons . 
Silver, troy ounces. 
Gold, troy ounces. . . 



hort tons 

Zinc, short tons 

Quicksilver, flasks 

Aluminium, pounds — 
Antimony, short tons. . 

Nickel, pounds 

Tin, pounds 

Platinum, troy ounces . 



Total value of metallic products. . 



7,124.602 

60,000,000 

1,789,081 

887,416,848 

163.982 

78,832 

30,164 

889,629 

250 

40,399 

8,988 

75 



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$84,810,426 

77,575,757 

85,950,000 

82,054,601 

11,839,590 

6,306,560 

1,108.527 

266,903 

45,000 

22,197 

1,788 

617 



$249,981,866 



non-metallic mineral products. 



products. 



Bituminous coal, long tons 

Pennsylvania anthracite, long tons. 

Lime, barrels 

Building-stone 

Petroleum, barrels 

Natural gas 

Clay (all except potter's clay) 

Cement, barrels 

Mineral waters, gallons sold 

Phosphate rock, long tons 

Salt, barrels 

Limestone for iron flux, long tons . . , 

Zinc white, short tons 

Potter's clay, long tons 

Gypsum, short tons 

Borax, pounds 

Mineral paints, short tons 

Fibrous talc, snort tons 

Asphaltum. short tons 

Pyrites, long tons 

Precious stones 

Soapstone, short tons 

Corundum, short tons. 

Novaculite, pounds 

Bromine, pounds. 

Mica, pounds. 

Barytes, short tons , 

Fluorspar, short tons 

Feldspar, long tons 

Manganese ore, long tons 

FlinL long tons , 

Graphite, pounds , 

Sulphur, snort tons 

Mans, short tons , 

Infusorial earth, short tons 

Chromic iron ore, long tons. 

Millstones 

Cobalt oxide, pounds 

Magnesite, short tons , 

Asbestos, short tons 



Total value of non-metallic mineral prod- 
ucts 



Total value of metallic products 

Estimated value of mineral products un- 
specified 



Grand total. 



114,629,671 
48,185,806 
68,000,000 



48,412,666 



8,002,467 

23,644,496 

941368 

11,816.778 

8,968,065 

94,059 

400,000 

268,616 

8,699,000 

87,714 

86,861 

47,779 

88^277 



81,071 
1,718 



848,809 
66,971 
88.970 
12,400 
18^91 
7,718 
89,671 

848,108 

1,200 

75,000 



1,460 



8,488 
704 
60 



Vita* 



$128,751,618 

85,687,078 

85,960,000 

88,866,573 

88,932,826 

14,346.250 

9,000,000 

6,262.841 

4,246,734 

4,186,070 

4,064,668 

2,874,888 

1,804,480 

900,000 

606,615 

652,485 

680384 

408,486 

872388 

875,808 

264,041 

865,067 

142,885 

185,178 

104,580 



88306 

84,000 
68,087 
66,614 
68,798 



48,000 
40,000 
28388 
81.^0 
16,645 
10346 
7,040 
8300 



$868,889,804 
249,961368 

1,000,000 



$609,881,670 



Mineral Production. — The preceding tables give the quan- 
tities and values of the metallic and non-metallic mineral 
Croducts of the U. S. for the calendar year 1898, as estimated 
y the U. S. Geological Survey. For details regarding the 
distribution of the leading mineral products, see articles 
under their several heads. 

Fisheries. — The fisheries of the U. S. form an important 
industry; in 1898 the exports alone amounted to over 
$5,500,000, and the total value is over $40,000,000. Nearly 
three-fourths of this comes from the Atlantic States, over 5 
per cent, each from the Gulf States and from the Great 
Lakes, and nearlv 15 per cent, from the Pacific States. In 
the last-named the salmon is the most important fish taken. 
See also the articles Fisheries and Fishery Relations of 
the United States. 

Commerce. 

The commerce of the U. S. is of enormous proportions, but 
by far the greater part of it is internal, consisting of an in- 
terchange of commodities from one part of the country to 
another. It is estimated that its internal trade is twenty- 
four times as great in volume as its external trade, and m 
value ten times as great. In 1895-96 the domestic exports 
had a value of $863,200,487, and the total exports $882,606,- 
938; the imports a value of $779,724,674. The principal 
items of export were raw material, consisting principally of 
agricultural products, as follows : 

Artkl*. Vila*. 

Cotton (raw) $190,066,460 

Breadstuffs 141,366.993 

Meat and dairy products 181,606,690 

Petroleum and products 62,388,408 

41,840,969 



The following are the principal items of import : 



ArtkU. 

Sugar. 



Bug* 
Coff< 



Vila*. 

9,966,017 



Coffee 84,798,11 

Tea 12,704,440 

Silk goods 26,652,768 

Woolen goods 58,494,400 

Cotton manufactures 82,487,504 

Manufactures of iron and steel 9,097,731 

See Commerce and Interstate Commerce. 

Shipping. — In 1890 the amount of shipping which sailed 
under the U. S. flag was 7,633,676 tons, including that 



Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



UNITED STATES 



43 



engaged in foreign trade and in domestic trade on the sea- 
coast and Great Lakes, and on the rivers. Classified as 
above the tonnage was : 

V«Mb. TVjm. 

Engaged in foreign trade 028,008 

Coastwise trade 2,885,879 

Lake trade 988,865 

River traffic 8,898,380 

In other words, only about one-eighth of the shipping was 
engaged in foreign traffic, the remaining seven-eighths being 
engaged in domestic trade, while fully two-fifths of the 
whole amount was engaged on the navigable rivers. The 
shipping may also be classified as follows : 

VaMts. 'Tom. 

Steam-Teasels 1,820,886 

Sailing vessels. 1,795,448 

Unrigged vessels 4,017,847 

This large class of unrigged vessels consists mainly of 
barges, largely employed upon the great navigable rivers, 
where a number of them are towed by tugs as a locomotive 
draws a train of freight-cars. They are of considerable ca- 
pacity, averaging 500 tons each. The amount of freight 
moved by water in 1890 was 172,110,428 tons; the average 
length of journey is unknown, and therefore these figures 
can not be compared with transportation by rail, but it is 
probable that, measured in tonnage, water transportation is 
in volume about one-fourth that by rail, while measured by 
values it is doubtless much less, inasmuch as articles con- 
veyed by water are commonly bulky and less costly. 
• Ship-building. — The statistics of ship-building for 1894 
show that the total number constructed was 888, with a ton- 
nage of 181,195, classified as follows : 

Sailing vessels : 

8hips and barks 8 

Schooners 958 

81oopa, canal-boats, and barges 889 

Steam-vessels 808 

Total 888 

Of the above, 89 vessels, with a tonnage of 51,470, were 
built of iron, the remainder being of wood. See Ship- 
building. 

Banks. — The number of national banks in 1894 was 8,755 ; 
their net earnings were $22,192,422, and dividends $22,101,- 
910, being 8-8 per cent, of the capital stock. The following 
table sets forth the liabilities and assets of national banks 
in 1894: 

LIABILITIES. 

Capital $668,900,000 

Surplus 846,800,000 

Undivided profits 88,900,000 

Circulation 178,800,000 

Deposits 1,748,100,000 

Due to banks 626,900.000 

Other liabilities. 89,600,000 



Total $8,478,900,000 



ASSETS. 



$8,007,100,000 

199,600,000 

86,900,000 

198,800,000 

899,800,000 

97,900,000 

Specie 887,800,000 



Bonds for circulation. . 

Other U. 8. bonds 

Stocks, bonds, etc 

Due from banks 

Real estate. 



Legal-tender notes 

National bank-notes ,. 

Clearing-house exchanges . 
U. 8. certificates of deposit. 
Due from U. S. treasurer. . . 
Other sources 



180,600,000 
18,600,000 
88,600,000 
46,100,000 
9,600,000 
81,800,000 



Total $8,478,900,000 

The savings-banks numbered 1,025 ; had deposits amount- 
ing to $1,777,900,000, and surplus of $189,700,000 ; undivided 
profits $26,000,000, and other liabilities $87,100,000. There 
are also numerous banks in each State, operating under State 
charters or acts of incorporation, which report to the State 
authorities only. See Bank and Savings-banks. See also 
articles on Building and Loan Associations, Clearing- 
house, Fire-insurance, Life-insurance, etc. 

Government. 
The government is based on the Constitution of Sept. 
17, 1787, and amendments made thereto in the years 1791, 
1798, 1804, 1865, 1868, and 1870. The electors of the most 
numerous branch of the several State legislatures are quali- 
fied voters either directly or indirectly in the States respect- 
ively for all elective officers of the Federal Government 
All legislative powers are vested in a Congress, which con- 
sists of a Senate of two members from each State, elected by 
the Legislature thereof for six years, and a House of Repre- 
sentatives, the members of which are apportioned according 
to population, and elected by the people directly in districts 
for two years. Each State is entitled to at least one repre- 
sentative. The Constitution provided for a specific number 
of Representatives to the first Congress, but afterward the 
number was designated by a vote of Congress itself after 
each decennial census. Besides its ordinary legislative ca- 
pacity, the Senate is vested with certain judicial functions, 
and its members constitute a high court of impeachment. 
No person can be convicted by this court unless on the con- 
currence of two-thirds of the Senators present, nor does 
judgment extend further than to removal from office and 
disqualification to hold a federal office thereafter. The 
House of Representatives has the sole power of impeach- 
ment The executive power is vested in a President, who 
is elected by an electoral college chosen by popular vote, or 
by the legislatures of the States, the number of electors 
from each State bein£ equal to the number of its Senators 
and Representatives in Congress. His term of office is four 
years, and he is eligible for re-election, but custom has pro- 
nounced against a third term. The electors forming the 
college are themselves chosen in the manner prescribed by 



PRESIDENTS AND VICE-PRESIDENTS. 



1 
ft 
8 

4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

10 
11 
12 
18 

14 

15 

16 

17 
18 
10 

20 

21 
22 



26 
27 



George Washington, Virginia 

George Washington, Virginia 

John Adams, Massachusetts 

Thomas Jefferson, Virginia 

Thomas Jefferson, Virginia 

James Madison, Virginia 

James Madison, Virginia 

James Monroe, Virginia. 

James Monroe, Virginia. 

John Quincy Adams, Massachusetts . 

Andrew Jackson, Tennessee 

Andrew Jackson, Tennessee 

Martin Van Buren, New York 

j William Henry Harrison, Ohio 

\ John T^rler, Virginia 

James K. Polk. Tennessee 

j Zachary Taylor, Louisiana. 

1 Millard Fillmore, New York 

Franklin Pierce, New Hampshire .... 

James Buchanan, Pennsylvania. 

Abraham Lincoln, Illinois 

f Abraham Lincoln, Illinois 

1 Andrew Johnson, Tennessee 

Ulysses 8. Grant, Illinois 

Ulysses 8. Grant, Illinois 

Rutherford B. Hayes, Ohio 

J James A. Garfield, Ohio 

1 Chester A. Arthur, New York 

Grover Cleveland, New York 

Benjamin Harrison, Indiana 

Grover Cleveland, New York 

William McKinley, Ohio 



John Adams, Massachusetts 

John Adams, Massachusetts 

Thomas Jefferson. Virginia 

Aaron Burr, New York 

George Clinton, New York 

George Clinton, New York 

Elbridge Gerry, Massachusetts. . . . 
Daniel D. Tompkins, New York... 
Daniel D. Tompkins, New York. . . 
John C. Calhoun, South Carolina. . 
John C. Calhoun, South Carolina . 

Martin Van Buren, N«»w York 

Richard M. Johnson, Kentucky . . . 
John Tyler, Virginia 



George M. Dallas, Pennsylvania.. 
Millard Fillmore, New York 



William R. King, Alabama 

John C. Breckinridge, Kentucky. 

Hannibal Hamlin, Maine 

Andrew Johnson, Tennessee 



Schuyler Colfax, Indiana. 

Henry Wilson, Massachusetts. . . 
WilUam A. Wheeler, New York. 
Chester A. Arthur, New York . . 



Thomas A. Hendricks. Indiana. D. Nov. 25, 1886. 

Levi P. Morton, New York 

Adlai E. Stevenson, Illinois 

Garret A. Hobart, New Jersey 



Apr. 
Mar. 



Apr. 
Mar. 

July 
Mar. 



Apr. 
Mar. 



Sept. 
Mar. 



80,1789, 

4,1798, 

1797, 

1801, 

1806, 

1809, 

1818, 

1817, 

1821, 

1825, 

1829, 

1888, 

1887, 

1841, 

6, 1841, 

4,1846, 

1849, 

9,1860, 

4,1858, 

1857, 

1861, 

1866, 

15, 1865, 

4, 1869, 

1878, 

6,1877, 

4, 1881, 

20, 1881, 

4,1885, 

1889, 

1893, 

1897. 



to Mar. 
to 
to 

to M 
to 

to " 
to " 
to ** 
to *• 
to 

to " 
to *• 
to •• 
to Apr. 
to Mar. 
to " 
to July 
to Mar. 
to " 
to " 
to " 
to Apr. 
to Mar. 
to " 
to " 
to •* 
to Sept. 
to Mar. 
to 

to " 
to 



4,1798 
1797 
1801 
1806 
1809 
1818 
1817 
1881 
1825 
1829 
1888 
1887 
1841 

4,1841 

4,1846 
1849 

9,1850 

4,1858 

1857 

1861 

1866 

14,1866 

4,1869 

1878 

1877 

1881 

19, 1881 

4,1886 
1889 
1898 
1897 



Google 



Digitized by 



44 



UNITED STATES 



the laws of the several States, but an act of Congress pro- 
vides that the presidential electors shall be all chosen upon 
the same day — viz., on Tuesday after the first Monday in 
November. (See Electors.) A majority of the aggregate 
number of votes given is necessary to the election of Presi- 
dent and Vice-President; and if none of the candidates has 
such a majority, then the election of President is deter- 
mined by the House of Representatives from among the 
three candidates having the highest number of electoral 
votes, and that of the Vice-President by the Senate from 
among the two candidates having the highest number. In 
voting for President the vote is taken by States, the entire 
delegation from any State having but one vote. No person 
can be President or Vice-President who is not a native-born 
citizen. The President is commander-in-chief of the army 
and navy, and of the militia when in the service of the 
Union. With the concurrence of two-thirds of the Senate 
he has the power to make treaties, and to appoint civil and 
military officers. He has a veto on all laws j>assed by Con- 
gress, but so qualified that, notwithstanding his disapproval, 
any bill becomes a law on its being afterward approved of 
by two-thirds of both Houses of Congress. The President 
has a salary of $50,000 a year, and the Executive Mansion 
at Washington for a residence during his official term. The 
Vice-President is ex-officio president of the Senate ; and in 
case of the death, resignation, or other disability of the 
President the powers and duties of that office devolve upon 
him for the remainder of the term for which the President 



had been elected. This provision of the Constitution came 
into operation for the first time in 1841, on the demise of 
William H. Harrison, who died one month after his inaugu- 
ration, when John Tyler, the Vice-President, succeeded to 
the presidency. Vice-President Fillmore succeeded Presi- 
dent Taylor. Vice-President Johnson succeeded President 
Lincoln in 1865, and Vice-President Arthur succeeded Presi- 
dent Garfield in 1881. In case of the removal, death, resig- 
nation, or inability of both the President and the Vice- 
President, the Secretary of State is the first officer in the 
line of succession. See Constitution of the United States, 
Congress, Law-making, Methods op ; and Legislatures. 

The administrative business of the nation is conducted 
by several high officers, of whom six have the title of secre- 
tary, and who form what is termed the cabinet, or advisory 
council, of the President. These are the Secretary of State, 
the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of the Treasury, 
the Secretary of War, the Secretary of the Navy, the Post- 
master-General, the Attorney-General (the official law au- 
thority for advisement in administrative affairs), and the 
Secretary of Agriculture. They are appointed by the Presi- 
dent, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, and 
the several departments of the Government are under their 
direct control. (See the articles on the respective depart- 
ments.) The following table gives the names and dates of 
appointment of those who have held the several offices since 
the adoption of the Constitution, although the Postmaster- 
General was not a member of the cabinet till 1829 : 



Thomas Jefferson, Va Sept. 

Edm. Randolph, va. Jan. 

Timothy Pickering, Mass Dec. 

John Marshall, Va May- 
James Madison, Va Mar. 

Robert Smith, Md Mar. 

James Monroe, Va Apr. 

John Q. Adams, Mass Mar. 

Henry Clay, Ky Mar. 

Martin Van Buren, N. Y Mar. 

Ed. Livingston, La ^ . . May 

Louis McLane, Del May 

John Forsyth, Ga June 

Daniel Webster, Mass Mar. 

Alexander Hamilton, N. Y Sept. 

Oliver Wolcott, Conn Feb. 

Samuel Dexter, Mass Jan. 

Albert Gallatin, Pa May 

George W. Campbell, Tenn Feb. 

Alex. J. Dallas, Pa, Oct. 

William H. Crawford, Ga Oct. 

Richard Rush, Pa Mar. 

Samuel D. Ingham, Pa Mar. 

Louis McLane, Del Aug. 

William J. Duane, Pa. May 

Roger B. Taney, Md Sept. 

Levi Woodbury, N. H June 

Thomas Ewlng, O Mar. 

W T alter Forward, Pa Sept. 

John C. Spencer, N. Y Mar. 

Henry Knox, Mass Sept. 

Timothy Pickering, Mass Jan. 

James McHenry, Md Jan. 

Samuel Dexter, Mass May 

Roger Griswold, Conn Feb. 

Henry Dearborn, Mass Mar. 

William Eustis. Mass Mar, 

John Armstrong, N. Y Jan. 

James Monroe, va Sept. 

William H. Crawford, Ga Aug. 

George Graham, Va Apr. 

John C. Calhoun, S. C Oct. 

James Barbour, Va Mar. 

Peter B. Porter, N. Y May 

John H. Eaton, Tenn Mar. 

Lewis Cass, Mich Aug. 

Benjamin 8toddert, Md May 

Robert Smith, Md July 

Jacob Crowninshield, Mass Mar. 

Paul Hamilton, S. C Mar. 

William Jones, Pa Jan. 

Benj. W. Crowninshield, Mass.. Dec. 

Smith Thomson, N. Y Nov. 

Samuel L. Southard, N. J Sept. 

John Branch, N. C Mar. 

Levi Woodbury, N. H May 

Mahlon Diekerson, N. J June 

James K. Paulding. N. Y June 

George E. Badger, N. C Mar. 



28 


1789 


2,1794 


10 


1795 


18 


1800 


5 


1801 


6 


1809 


2 


1811 


5, 


1817 


7 


1825 


6, 1829 


24 


1831 


29, 


1833 


>27 


1884 


5 


1841 


11, 


1789 


2, 


1795 


1, 


1801 


14 


1801 


9, 


1814 


6, 


1814 


22, 1816 


7, 


1825 


6, 


1829 


2, 


1831 


29, 


1833 


23,1833 


27, 


1834 


5, 


1841 


18, 


1841 


3, 


1843 


12,1789 


2, 


1795 


27, 


1796 


13, 


1800 


8,1801 


5, 


1801 


7, 


1809 


18, 


1813 


27, 


1814 


1, 


1815 


7, 


1817 


8, 


1817 


7, 


1825 


26, 


1828 


9, 


1829 


1, 


1831 


21, 


1798 


15, 


1801 


8, 


1805 


7, 


1809 


12, 


1813 


19, 


1814 


9, 


1818 


16, 


1823 


9, 


1829 


23, 


1831 


80, 


1834 


25, 


1838 


5, 


1841 



SECRETARIES OF STATE. 

Hugh S. Legare, S. C May 9, 1843 

Abel P. Upshur, Va July 24, 1843 

John C. Calhoun, S. C Mar. 6, 1844 

James Buchanan, Pa Mar. 6, 1845 

John M. Clayton, Del Mar. 7, 1849 

Daniel Webster, Moss July 22, 1850 

Edw. Everett, Mass Nov. 6, 1K52 

William L. Marcy, N. Y Mar. 7, 1853 

Lewis Cass, Mich Mar. 6, 1857 

Jere. S. Black, Pa Dec. 17, I860 

William H. Seward, NY Mar. 5, 1861 

Elihu B. Washburne, 111 Mar. 5, 1869 

Hamilton Fish, N. Y Mar. 11, 1869 

William M. Evarts, N. Y Mar. 12, 1877 

SECRETARIES OF THE TREASURY. 

George M. Bibb, Ky June 15, 1844 

Robert J. Walker. Miss Mar. 6, 1845 

William M. Meredith, Pa Mar. 8, 1849 

Thomas Corwin, O July 23, 1850 

James Guthrie, Ky Mar. 7,1853 

Howell Cobb, Ga Mar. 6,1857 

Philip F. Thomas, Md Dec. 12, 1860 

John A. Dix, N. Y Jan. 11,1861 

Salmon P. Chase, O Mar. 7, 1861 

William P. Fessenden, Me July 1, 1864 

Hugh McCulloch, Iud Mar. 7, 1865 

George S. Boutwell, Mass Mar. 11, 1869 

William A. Richardson, Mass... Mar. 17, 1873 

Benjamin H. Bristow, Ky June 4, 1874 

Lot M. Morrill, Me July 7, 1876 

John Sherman, O Mar. 8, 1877 



James G. Blaine, Me Mar. 5, 1881 

Fred. T. Frelinghuyseo, N. J.... Dec. 18, 1881 

Thomas F. Bayard. Del Mar. 5. 18«5 

James G. Blaine, Me Mar. 5, 1889 

John W. Foster, Ind June 89, 1892 

W T alter Q. Gresham, 111 Mar. 6,1893 

Richard Olney, Mass June 1, 1895 

John Sherman, O Mar. 5, 1897 

William R. Day Apr. 26. 1*98 

John Hay Sept. 30, 1898 



I William Windom, Minn Mar. 5, 1881 

! Charles J. Folger, N. Y Oct. 27, 1881 

i W r alter Q. Gresham, Ind Sept. 24, 1884 

Hugh McCulloch. Ind Oct. 28, 1884 

Daniel Manning, NY Mar. 5. 18*5 

Charles S. Fairchlld, N. Y Apr. 1, 1887 

William Windom, Minn Mar. 5, 1889 

Charles Foster, O Feb. 84, 1891 

John G. Carlisle, Ky Mar. 6,1898 

Lyman J. Gage, IU Mar. 5, 1897 



SECRETARIES OF WAR. 

Joel R. Poinsett, S. C Mar. 

John Bell, Tenn Mar. 

John C. Spencer, N. Y Oct. 

James W. Porter, Pa Mar. 

William Wilkins, Pa Feb. 

William L. Marcy, N. Y Mar. 

George W. Crawford, Ga Mar. 

Charles M. Conrad, La Aug. 

Jefferson Davis, Miss Mar. 

John B. Floyd. Va Mar. 

Joseph Holt, Ky Jan. 

Simon Cameron, Pa Mar. 

Edwin M. Stanton, Pa Jan. 

Ulysses S. Grant, 111. (ad int.) .. Aug. 
Lorenzo Thomas, Del. (ad int.). Feb. 
John M. Schofteld, HI May 

SECRETARIES OF THE NAVY. 

Abel P. Upsher, Va Sept. 

David Henshaw, Mass July 

Thomas W. Gilmer, Va Feb. 

John Y. Mason, Va Mar. 

George Bancroft, Mass Mar. 

John Y. Mason. Va Sept. 

William B. Preston, Va Mar. 

W T Uliam A. Graham, N. C July 

John P. Kennedy, Md July 

James C. Dobbin. N. C Mar. 

Isaac Toucey. Conn Mar. 

Gideon Welles, Conn Mar. 

Adolph E. Boric, Pa Mar. 



7,1837 

5, 1841 
12, 1841 

8, 1848 
15, 1844 

6, 1845 
8, 1849 

15, 1850 

5, 1853 

6, 1857 
18, 1861 

5, 1861 
15, 1862 
12, 1867 
21, 1868 
28, 1868 



13, 


1841 


24, 


1843 


15, 


1844 


14, 


1844 


10, 


1845 


9, 


1846 


8, 


1849 


22, 


1850 


22, 


1852 


7, 


1853 


6, 


1857 


5, 


1861 


5, 


1869 



John A. Rawlins, 111 Mar. 11,1869 

William W. Belknap, la Oct. 25, 1869 

Alphonso Taft, O Mar. 8, 1876 

James D. Cameron, Pa May 22, 1876 

George W. McCrary, la Mar. 12, 1877 

Alexander Ramsey, Minn Dec. 10, 1879 

RobertT.Lincoln.Ill Mar. 5,1881 

William C. Endicott, Mass. Mar. 5, 1885 

Redfield Proctor, Vt Mar. 5, 1889 

Stephen B. Elkina, W. Va. Dec, 22, 1891 

Daniel S. Lamont. N. Y Mar. 6, 1893 

Russell A. Alger, Mich Mar. 5, 1897 

Elihu Root Aug. 1, 1899 



George M. Robeson, N. J June 25, 1869 

Riehard W. Thompson, Ind Mar. 12,1877 

Nathan Goff , Jr., W. Va Jan. 6, 1881 

William H. Hunt, La Mar. 6, 1881 

William E. Chandler, N. H Apr. 12, 1882 

William C. Whitney, N. Y Mar. 5, 1885 

Benjamin F. Tracy, N. Y Mar. 5, 1889 

Hilary A. Herbert, Ala Mar. 6, 1893 

John D. Long, Mass Mar. 5, 1897 



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Google 



UNITED STATES 



45 



Thomas Ewing, O Mar. 8, 1849 

Alexander H/H. 8tuart, Va . . . . Sept. 12, 1860 

Robert McCleUaod, Mich Mar. 7, 1863 

Jacob Thompson, Miss Mar. 6, 1857 

Caleb B. Smith, Ind Mar. 6,1861 

John P. Usher, Ind Jan. 8, 1868 

James Harlan, la May 15,1866 

Orville H. Browning, 111 July 27,1866 



Samuel Osgood, Mass Sept. 26, 1789 

Timothy Pickering, Mass Aug. 12,1791 

Joseph Habersham, Ga Feb. 25, 1795 

Gideon Granger, Conn Not. 28, 1801 

Return J. Meigs, O Mar. 17,1814 

John McLean, O June 26, 1823 

William T. Barry, Ky Mar. 9,1829 

Amos Kendall, Ky May 1,1835 

John M. Niles, Conn May 25,1840 

Francis Granger, N. Y Mar. 6, 1841 

Charles A. Wickliffe, Ky Sept. 13, 1841 

Cave Johnson, Tenn Mar. 6,1845 

Jacob Collamer, Vt Mar. 8,1849 

Nathan K. Hall, N. Y July 23,1860 



Edmund Randolph, Va Sept. 26, 1789 

William Bradford, Pa. Jan. 27,1794 

Charles Lee, Va. Dec. 10,1795 

Theophilus Parsons, Mass Feb. 20, 1801 

Levi Lincoln, Mass. Mar. 6,1801 

Robert Smith, Md- Mar. 8,1805 

J. Breckinridge, Ky. Aug. 7,1806 

Casar A. Rodney/Del Jan. 28,1807 

William Pinkney, Md Dec. 11,1811 

Richard Rush, Pa Feb. 10,1814 

William Wirt, Md Nor. 18,1817 

John McP. Berrien, Ga Mar. 9,1829 

Roger B. Taney, Md July 20,1831 

Benjamin F. Butler, N. Y Nov. 15, 1833 

Felix Grundy, Tenn July 5,1838 

Henry J. Gilpin, Pa Jan. 11,1840 

John J. Crittenden, Ky Mar. 6,1841 



SECRETARIES OF THE INTERIOR. 

Jacob D. Cox, O Mar. 6, 1869 

Columbus Delano, O Nov. 1, 1870 

Zach. Chandler, Mich Oct. 19, 1875 

Carl Schurz, Mo Mar. 12, 1877 

Samuel J. Kirkwood, la Mar. 6, 1881 

Henry M. Teller, Col Apr. 6,1882 

Lucius Q. C. Lamar, Miss. Mar. 5, 1885 

William F. Vilas, Wis Jan. 16,1888 

POSTMASTERS-GENERAL. 

Samuel D. Hubbard, Conn Aug. 

James Campbell, Pa Mar. 

Aaron V. Brown, Tenn Mar. 

Joseph Holt, Ky Mar. 

Horatio King, Me Feb. 

Montgomery Blair, Md Mar. 

William Dennison, O Sept. 

Alexander W. Randall. Wis .... July 

John A. J. Creswell, Md Mar. 

Marshall Jewell, Conn Aug. 

James N. Tyner, Ind. July 

David M. Key, Tenn Mar. 

Horace Maynard, Tenn June 

Thomas L. James, N. Y Mar. 

ATTORNEYS-GENERAL. 

Hugh 8. Legare, S. C Sept. 

John Nelson, Md July 

John Y. Mason, Va Mar. 

Nathan Clifford, Me Oct 

Isaac Toucey, Conn June 

Reverdy Johnson, Md Mar. 

John J. Crittenden, Ky July 

Caleb Gushing, Mass Mar. 

Jeremiah 8. Black, Pa Mar. 

Edwin M. Stanton, Pa Dec 

Edward Bates, Mo Mar. 

Titian J. Coffey, Pa. (ad int.)... June 

James Speed, Ky Dec 

Henry 8ianberry, O July 

William M. Evarts, N. Y July 

Ebenezer R. Hoar, Mass Mar. 

Amos T. Akerman, Ga. June 



21, 


1852 


6, 


1853 


6, 


1857 


14, 


1859 


12, 


1861 


6, 


1861 


24, 


1864 


25, 


1866 


&, 


1869 


24, 


1874 


12, 


1876 


12,1877 


2, 


1880 


5. 


1881 



18, 1841 
1,1843 
6,1845 

17,1846 

21,1848 
8,1849 

22,1850 
7,1853 
6,1867 

20,1860 
5, 1861 

22,1863 
2,1864 

23,1866 

15,1868 
5.1869 

28,1870 



John W. Noble. Mo Mar. 5, 1889 

Hoke Smith, Ga Mar. 6, 1MJ3 

David R. Francis, Mo Aug. 22, 1896 

Cornelius N. Bliss, N. Y Mar. 5, 1897 

Ethan A. Hitchcock Dec 21,1898 



Timothy O. Howe, Wis Doc 20, 1881 

Walter O. Gresham, Ind Apr. 3, lft«3 

Frank Hatton, la Oct. 14, 1884 

William F. Vilas, Wis .Alar. 5, 18S5 

Don M. Dickinson, Mich Jan. 16, 1888 

John Wanamaker, Pa. Mar. 5, 1889 

Wilson S. Bissell, N. Y Mar. 6, 18i>3 

William L. Wilson, W. Va \pr. 1, 1HP5 

James A. Gary, Md Mar. 5, 1807 

Charles Emory Smith Apr. 21,1898 



George H. Williams, Ore Dec. 14,1871 

Edwards Pierrepont, N. Y Apr. 26, 1875 

Alphonso Taft, O May 22, 18TC 

Charles Devens, Mass Mar. 12, 1877 

Wayne MacVeagh, Pa Mar. 5, 1881 

Benjamin H. Brewster, Pa. Dec 19, 1881 

Augustus H. Garland, Ark Mar. 5, 1885 

William H. H. Miller, Ind Mar. 5, 1889 

Richard Olney, Mass Mar. 6, 18»3 

Judson Harmon, O June 7, 1895 

Joseph McKenna, Cal Mar. 5. 1897 

John W.Griggs Jan. 22,1898 



SECRETARIES OF AGRICULTURE. 

Norman J. Coleman. Feb. 12, 1889 

J. M. Rusk, Wis Mar. 5.1889 

J. Sterling Morton, Neb Mar. 6,1898 

James Wilson, la Mar. 5,1897 

SUMMARY OF POPULAR AND ELECTORAL VOTES FOR PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE U. S. 



Yaarrf 

cita- 
tion. 


Nunbcr 
of state 
voting. 


Total 
tlartoral 

TOtt. 


1789 


tio 


73 


1792 


16 


185 


1796 


16 


138 


1800 


16 


188 



Political party. 



Federalist... 
Federalist... 
Republican . 



Federalist. . . 
Republican . 
Federalist. . . 
Republican . 



Republican . 
Republican . 
Federalist... 
Federalist. . . 



PRESIDENTS.* 



George Washington. . , 

John Adams 

John Jay 

Richard H. Harrison. . 

John Rutledge 

John Hancock 

George Clinton 

Samuel Huntingdon . . 

John Milton 

James Armstrong 
Benjamin Lincoln 
Edward Telfair 

Vacancies 

George Washington. . . 

John Adams 

George Clinton 

Thomas Jefferson 

Aaron Burr 

Vacancies. 

John Adams 

Thomas Jefferson 

Thomas Pinckney 

Aaron Burr 

Samuel Adams 

Oliver Ellsworth 

George Clinton 

John Jay 

James Iredell 

George Washington . . 

John Henry 

Samuel Johnson 

Charles C. Pinckney.. 

Thomas Jefferson 

Aaron Burr 

John Adams 

Charles C. Pinckney . . 
John Jay 



Popular. 



VICE-PRESIDENTS.* 



4 

182 



8 

71 



$73 



84 
9 
6 
6 
4 
8 
2 
2 
1 
1 
1 
4 

77 

50 

4 

1 

8 



69 
80 
15 
11 
7 
5 
8 
2 
2 



65 

54 

1 



• Previous to the election of 1804 each elector voted for two candidates for President ; the one receiving the highest number of votes, if a 
majority, was declared elected President, and the next highest Vice-President. 

t Three States out of thirteen did not vote— viz., New York, which had not passed an electoral law, and North Carolina and Rhode 
Island, which had not adopted the Constitution. 

X There having been a tie vote, the choice devolved upon the House of Representatives. A choice was made on the thirty-sixth ballot, 
which was as follows : Jefferson— Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Ver- 
mont, and Virginia— 10 States ; Burr— Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island— 4 States ; Blank— Delaware and 
8onth Carolina-2 States. 



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46 UNITED STATES 

SUMMARY OP POPULAR AND ELECTORAL VOTES FOR PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE U. 8.— (CONTINUED.) 



YMTOf 

•tac- 
tion. 


Number 
of State*. 


Total 
doctoral 

TOtO. 


1804 


17 


176 


1806 


17 


176 


1812 


18 


218 


1816 


10 


221 


1890 


24 


285 


1824 


24 


261 


1828 


24 


261 


18S2 


24 


288 


1888 


26 


294 


1840 


26 


294 


1844 


26 


275 


1848 


80 


290 


1852 


81 


296 


1856 


81 


296 


1860 


88 


808 


1864 


*25 


814 


1868 


f34 


817 


18T2 


87 


866 


1876 


38 


860 


1880 


88 


869 



Political party. 



PRX81 DENTS. 



VICB-PRBSIDBNTS. 



Republican . 
Federalist... 
Republican . 
Federalist... 



Republican . 
Federalist... 

Republican . 
Federalist... 



Republican . 
Opposition. . 



Republican . 
Coalition.... 
Republican . 
Republican . 



Democratic 

National Republican. . 

Democratic 

National Republican . . 

Anti-Mason 



Democratic. 

Whig 

Whig 

Whig 

Whig 

Whig 

Democratic . 
Liberty 



Democratic . . 

Whig 

Liberty 

Whig 

Democratic.. 

Free Soil 

Democratic. 

Whig 

Free8oil 

Democratic. 
Republican . . 

American 

Republican . . 
Democratic. . 
Cons. Union . 
Ind. Dem 
Republican . . 
Democratic . 

Republican . . 
Democratic . 



Republican 

Dem. and Liberal. 

Democratic 

Temperance 



Thomas Jefferson. . . . 
Charles C. Pinckney . 

James Madison 

Charles C. Pinckney . 
George Clinton 



Vacancy 

James Madison . . 
De Witt Clinton.. 

Vacancy 

James Monroe... 
Ruf us King 



Vacancies 

James Monroe.. 
John Q. Adams. 



Vacancies. 

Andrew Jackson. . . 

John Q. Adams 

Wm. H. Crawford . 
Henry Clay 



Vacancy 

Andrew Jackson. . 
John Q. Adams. . . 

Andrew Jackson.. 

Henry Clay 

John Floyd 

William Wirt 



Vacancies. 

Martin Van Buren . 
Wm. H.Harrison.. 

Hugh L. White 

Daniel Webster. . . . 
Willie P. Mangum. 
Wm. H. Harrison.. 
Martin Van Buren . 
James G. Birney . . . 



James K. Polk 

Henry Clay 

James G. Birney 

Zachary Taylor 

Lewis Cass 

Martin Van Buren 

Franklin Pierce 

Winfleld Scott 

John P. Hale 

James Buchanan 

John C. Fremont 

Millard Fillmore 

Abraham Lincoln 

John C. Breckenridge. . 

John Bell 

Stephen A. Douglas 

Abraham Lincoln 

George B. McClellan. . . 

Vacancies 

Ulysses S. Grant 

Horatio Seymour 

Vacancies 

Ulysses S. Grant 

Horace Greeley 

Charles O'Conor 

James Black 

Thomas A. Hendricks . 

B. Gratz Brown 

Charles J. Jenkins 

David Davis 



Republican Rutherford B. Hayes . 

Democratic Samuel J. Tilden 

Greenback Peter Cooper. . 

Prohibition 



Republican . 
Democratic 
Greenback.. 



Green Clay Smith 

Scattering 

James A. Garfield — 
Winfleld S. Hancock.. 
James B. Weaver. 

Scattering 



15 
2 

12 
6 



11 

7 



16 
8 



10 
8 
8 
8 



15 
9 



16 



16 
7 
2 
1 
1 

19 
7 



15 
11 

is 

15 

27 
4 

i9 

11 

1 

17 
11 
8 
2 
22 
8 
11 
26 
8 
3 



21 
17 



19 
19 



155,872 
105,821 
44,282 
46,587 



647,281 
609,097 

687,502 
580,189 

88,108 



761,549 

786,656 

1,275.017 

1,128,702 

7,059 



1,837,243 

1,299,068 

62,800 

1,360,101 

1,220,544 

291,268 
1,601,474 
1,886,578 

156,149 
1,838,169 
1,841,264 

874,534 
1,866,852 

845,763 

589,581 
1,375,157 
2,216,067 
1,808,725 

8,01*5*071 

2,709,618 

8,597,070 

2,884,079 

29,408 

5,608 



4,033,950 

4,284,885 

81.740 

9,522 

2,636 

4,449,053 

4,442.035 

307,306 

12,576 



162 
14 

122 

47 

6 



1 
128 
89 
1 
183 
34 



4 

281 
1 



8 
•99 
84 
41 
87 



178 



219 
40 
11 

7 

2 

170 
78 
26 
14 
11 

234 
60 



170 
105 

168 

127 

254 
42 

i74 

114 
8 

180 
72 
39 
12 

212 
21 
81 

214 
80 
23 

286 



42 

18 
2 

1 

185 
184 



214 
155 



George Clinton. . 

Ruf us King 

George Clinton.. 

Ruf us King 

John Langdon . . 
James Madison . 
James Monroe.. 



Elbridge Gerry 
Jared Ingersoll 



Daniel D. Tompkins . 

John E. Howard 

James Ross 

John Marshall 

RobertG. Harper.... 



Daniel D. Tompkins . 
Richard Stockton. . . . 

Daniel Rodney 

Robert G. Harper 

Richard Rush 



JohnC. Calhoun... 
Nathan Sanf ord. . . . 
Nathaniel Macon . . 
Andrew Jackson . . . 
Martin Van Buren . 
Henry Clay 



JohnC. Calhoun... 

Richard Rush 

William Smith 

Martin Van Buren . 

John Sergeant 

Henry Lee 

Amos Ellmaker 

William Wilkins... 



Richard M. Johnson t. 

Francis Granger 

John Tyler , 

William Smith 



John Tyler 

Richard M. Johnson . 



Littleton W. Tazewell.. . . 

James K. Polk 

Geo. M. Dallas 

Theodore Frelinghuysen. 



Millard Fillmore 

William O. Butler 

Chas. F. Adams 

William R. King 

William A. Graham . . . 

George W. Julian 

John C. Breckinridge.. 
William L. Dayton 
Andrew J. Donelson. . . 

Hannibal Hamlin 

Joseph Lane 

Edward Everett 

Herschel V. Johnson . . 

Andrew Johnson 

George H. Pendleton . . 



Schuyler Colfax . . . 
Frank P. Blair, Jr . 



Henry Wilson 

B. Gratz Brown 

George W. Julian 

Alfred H. Colquitt 

John M. Palmer 

Thomas E. Bramlette. . 
WilliamS. Groesbeck.. 

Willis B. Machen 

Nathaniel P. Banks.... 
William A. Wheeler... 
Thomas A. Hendricks . 



Chester A. Arthur 

William H. English 

Benjamin J. Chambers. 



162 

14 

118 

47 

9 

8 

8 

1 

181 

86 

1 

188 

22 

5 

4 

8 

4 

218 

8 

4 

1 

1 

8 

182 

30 

24 

18 

9 

2 

1 

171 

83 

7 

189 

49 

11 

7 

80 
2 
147 
77 
47 
28 

234 

48 

11 

1 

170 

106 

168 
127 

254 
42 

174 
114 

8 

180 

72 

89 

12 

212 

21 

81 

214 

80 

23 

286 

47 

5 

6 

8 

3 

1 

1 

1 

186 

184 



214 

155 



* No choice having been made by the electoral college, the election of a President devolved upon the House of Representatives, in ac- 
cordance with a provision of the twelfth amendment to the Constitution. This directs that only the three candidates who stand highest in 
the electoral vote shall be voted for. A choice was made on the first ballot, which was as follows : Adams— Connecticut, Illinois, Kentucky, 
Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Missouri, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Rhode Island, and Vermont-18 States ; Jackson 
—Alabama, Indiana, Mississippi. New Jersey, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Tennessee— 7 8tates ; Crawford— Delaware, Georgia, 
North Carolina, and Virginia— 4 States. , . „ . , „, „ . . * . 

t No candidate having received a majority of the votes of the electoral college, the Senate elected R. M. Johnson Vice-President, who 

t Eleven States did not vote— viz., Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Ten- 
nessee, Texas, and Virginia. . Mi ._, f m J ,„ . . 
$ Three States did not vote— viz., Mississippi, Texas, and Virginia. 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



UNITED STATES 

SUMMARY OF POPULAR AND ELECTORAL VOTES FOR PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT OF THE U. 8. — (CONTINUED). 





Nombw 


Total 

electoral 

vote. 


Politic*! party. 


PRESIDENTS. 


VICE-PRESIDENTS. 


Tor of 

•loo. 


CaadMatN. 


Vote. 


Candidal-. 


Ekctoml 




State*. 


Popalar. 


Electoral. 


vota. 


1884 


88 
88 
44 
45 


401 
401 
444 
447 


Democratic 


Grover Cleveland 


SO 
18 

20 

18 

28 
16 
6 

88 
88 


4,911,017 

4,848,884 

151.809 

183,885 

11,868 

5,440,561 

5,538,484 

850,890 

147,045 

10,818 

5,556,918 

5,176,108 

1,041,088 

864,183 

81,164 

7,106,199 

6,508,685 

181,757 
188,871 
86,858 


819 

188 

8S8 

168 

877 
145 
88 

an 

176 


Thomas A. Hendricks 

John A, Logan L 


Si9 




Republican 


James G. Blaine 


188 




Prohibition 


John P. St. John 


William Daniel. 
Absalom M. West. 

Levi P. Morton 






Greenback ........ ... 


Benjamin F. Butler 

Kettering r . , , , . r 






Republican 




1888 


Benjamin Harrison 

Grover Cleveland 


888 




Democratic 


Allen G. Thurman 

John A. Brooks. 
Charles E. Cunningham. 

Adlai E. Stevenson 

Whitelaw Raid 


168 




Prohibition 


Clinton P. Fisk 






Union I^ahor 


Aison J. Streeter 






Democratic 


Scattering 




1802 


Grover Cleveland 


877 




Republican 


Benjamin Harrison 

James B. Weaver 


145 




People's Party 

Prohibition 


James G. Field 


88 




John Bid well 


James B. Cran field. 
Charles H. Matchett. 
Garret A. Hobart 






Social Labor 


Simon Wing 




1896 


Republican 


William Mckinley 

William J. Bryan I 

William J. Bryan f 

Joshua Levering 

John M. Palmer 


871 




Democratic 


Arthur Bewail 


176 




Populist 


Thomas E. Watson. 
Hale Johnson. 
8imon B. Buckner. 
Matthew Maguire. 






Prohibition 

National Democratic. . 
Social Labor 






Charles H. Matchett 











ELECTORAL TOTE FOB PRESIDENT, 1864-96. 



Alabama..... 

Arkansas 

California.... 

Colorado 

Connecticut.. 
Delaware — 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 



Kentucky. . 
Louisiana.. 



Maryland 

Massachusetts. 
Michigan 



Mississippi.. 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska... 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 
New Jersey.... 

New York 

North Carolina 
North Dakota.. 

Ohio 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania.. 
Rhode Island . . 
South Carolina 
South Dakota.. 

Tennessee 

Texas. 

Utah 

Vermont. 

Virginia 

Washington . . . 
West Virginia . 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



Totals. 818 81 

No. States voting. . 25 



1864. 



88 



1868. 



ri 



10 



214 80 
84 



1878. 



10 



87 



48 



1876. 



4 



10 



15 



18 



185 184 
88 



1880. 



6 

86 



8 
29 
4 



10 



10 
6 
5 



8 
4 

11 



8 
9 

id 



1884. 



15 



214 i 155 



4 



88 



11 



219 182 
88 



1888. 



if 



88 

15 
18 
9 



8 
80 

4 



168 



189*. 



18 



277 



f 



18 



145 
44 



10 



1886. 



84 
15 
18 

is 

*6 
8 
15 
14 
9 



4 
10 
86 



4 

18 
8 



10 

1 
8 



9 
4 

18 
15 
8 

18 
4 



271 176 
45 



* In 1872 Horace Greeley, Democratic and Liberal-Republican candidate for President, having died before the electoral vote was cast, 
the Greeley electors voted as above for Thomas A. Hendricks in five States. Kentucky, Georgia, and Missouri cast 18 electoral votes for 
B. Grate Brown, of Missouri, for President, Georgia 2 votes for Charles J. Jenkins, of Georgia, and Missouri 1 vote for David Davis, of Illi- 
nois ; and 17 votes irregularly cast were not counted by Congress. 



Courts. — The judicial powers of the U. S. are vested in a 
Supreme Court and such other inferior courts as Congress 
may from time to time establish. The present judicial 
establishments consist of a Supreme Court, circuit courts, 
and district courts. The Supreme Court, the highest 



judicial tribunal of the Union, is composed of a chief 
justice and eight associate justices. One session is held 
annually at the capital, beginning on the first Monday 
in October and closing generally early in May. See 
Courts. 



JohnJay,N.Y. 

John Rutledge, 8. C 

Oliver Ellsworth, Conn. 



. Sept. 26, 1789 
. July 1, 1795 
. Mar. 4, 1796 



CHIEF JUSTICES AND DATES OF APPOINTMENT. 

John Marshall, Va Jan. 27, 1801 I Morrison R. Waite, O. 



Roger P. Taney, Md Dec. 28, 1895 Melville W. Fuller, 111.. 

Salmon P. Chase, O Dec. 6, 1864 1 



..Jan. 21,1874 
..July 20, 1888 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



48 



UNITED STATES 



The circuit courts are held by a justice of the Supreme 
Court and the judge of the district in which the court sits, 
conjointly. The U. S. is divided into nine judicial circuits, 
in each of which a session is held twice a year. 



I. Me., N. H., Mass., R. L 
II. Vt., Conn., N. Y. 

III. Del., N. J., and Pa. 

IV. Md., Va., W. Va., N. C, 8. C. 
V. Ga.,Fla M Ala., Miss., La.,Tex. 

VI. O., Mich., Ky.,and Tens. 
VII. 111., Ind., and Wis. 



VIII. Minn., la., Mo., Kan., Ark., 
Neb.,CoL,N.Dak.,S.Dak., 
Wyo., N. Mex., Okla., and 
Utah. 
DL Cal., Ore.. Nev., Mont. 
Wash., Ida., Ariz., and 
Alaska. 



The district courts are held by the district judges alone. 
Kach State forms one or more districts. There are, besides 
these, territorial courts, which are temporary, and lose that 
character whenever a Territory becomes a State. Each 
court has a clerk, an attorney, and a marshal. All judges 
of the U. S. courts are appointed by the President, by and 
with the advice and consent of the Senate, and hold their 
offices during good behavior. See Courts. 

Political Stwdivision* — The political organization of the 
States is essentially similar to that of the general Government, 
the chief executive officer being the Governor. Legislative 
functions are carried on by a Legislature consisting of two 



subdivided in various ways. The relative power reposed in 
the county government and in that of its subdivisions dif- 
fers greatly in different States. In New England the coun- 
ties are divided into towns or cities, and these towns and 
cities retain nearly all the powers of government not as- 
sumed by the States, the county being comparatively unim- 
portant as a political division. In the northern Slates of 
the Mississippi valley the counties are, as a rule, divided into 
townships, and the powers are shared in almost equal pro- 
portion oy these townships and the counties. In the South- 
ern and most of the Western States, the subdivisions of the 
county are politically very feeble, nearly all the powers 
being held by the county government. These subdivisions 
bear various names, being known in Delaware as hundreds, 
in Maryland, Florida, and other States as election districts, 
in the Virginias and Kentucky as magisterial districts, in 
the Carolinas and Arkansas as townships, in Georgia as 
militia districts, in Alabama and Mississippi as beats, and 
in Louisiana as wards. 

Various classes of municipalities are chartered in different 
States. Cities are chartered in all States, and in some all 
municipal incorporations are designated as cities of a cer- 
tain class, as in Missouri, where four classes of cities are 
chartered. The New England city is simply a chartered 



SUMMARY OP THE STATE8 AND TERRITORIES. 



STATES AND TERJUTr.rRieS. 



Alabama 

Alaska 

Arizona 

Arkansas 

California 

Colorado , 

Connecticut. 

Delaware 

District of Columbia. . 

Florida 

Georgia 

Idaho 

Illinois 

Indiana 

Iowa 

Kansas 

Kentucky 

Louisiana 

Maine 

Maryland 

Massachusetts 

Michigan 

Minnesota. 

Mississippi 

Missouri 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Nevada 

New Hampshire 

New Jersey 

New Mexico 

New York 

North Carolina 

North Dakota 

Ohio 

Oklahoma 

Oregon 

Pennsylvania 

Rhode Island 

South Carolina 

South Dakota 

Tennessee 

Texas 

Utah 

Vermont 

Virginia. 

Washington 

"West Virginia 

Wisconsin 

Wyoming 



PETTf.EMRKT. 



DATB OF ACT CREATING 



Br wboui. 


i-i'.. 1 


French. 


1718 


Russians. 


1805 


Spanish. 
French. 


1598 
1670 


Spanish. 


1769 


Americans. 


1860 


English. 


1633 


Swedes. 


1027 


Md. and Va. 




Spanish. 
English. 


1564 


1733 


Americans. 


1852 


French. 


1749 


" 


1730 


Americans. 


1835 


** 


1850 


Virginians. 


1775 


French. 


1699 


English. 


1630 
1634 


* 4 


1620 


French. 


1670 


Americans. 


1847 


French. 


1716 


** 


1763 


Americans. 


1858 


* 4 


1850 


44 


1850 


English. 


1628 


Swedes. 


1627 


Spanish. 
Dutch. 


1598 


1613 


English. 


1650 


Americans. 


1860 


Va. and N. Eng. 


1788 


Americans. 


1890 


English. 


1796 
1682 


44 


1631 


44 


1689 


Americans. 


1860 


N. C. and Va. 


1765 


Spanish. 


1630 


Americaas. 


1847 


English. 


1763 


** 


1607 


Americans. 


1848 


English. 


1607 


Americans. 


1831 


44 


1864 



Mar. 8, 1817. 
May 17, 1884. 
Feb. 24, 1863. 
Mar. 2, 1819. 



Feb. 28, 1861. 
Original State 

Mar. 8, 1791. 
Mar. 8, 1822. 
Original State 
Mar. 8, 1863. 
Feb. 8, 1809. 
May 7, 1800. 
July 8, 1838. 
May 30, 1854. 



Mar. 8, 1805. 



Original State. 

June 80, 1805. 
Mar. 3, 1849. 
Apr. 7, 1798. 
Apr. 80, 1812. 
May 26, 1864. 
May 30, 1854. 
Mar. 2, 1861. 
Original State. 

Dec. 18, 1850. 
Original State. 

Mar. 2, 1861. 



May 2, 1890. 
Aug. 14, 1848. 
Original State 

it 

Mar. 2, 1861. 



Sept. 9, 1850. 



Original State 
Mar. 2, 1853. 



June 8, 1836. 
July 25, 1868. 



Dec. 14, 1819. 



June 15, 1836. 
Sept. 9, 1850. 
Mar. 8, 1875. 



Mar. 8, 1845. 



July 3, 1890. 
Dec. 8, 1818. 
Dec. 11, 1816. 
Mar. 8, 1845. 
Jan. 29, 1861. 
June 1, 1792. 
Apr. 80, 1812. 
Mar. 15, 1820. 



Jan. 26, 1837. 
May 11, 1858. 
Dec. 10, 1817. 
Aug. 10, 1821. 
Nov. 8, 1889. 
Mar. 1, 1867. 
Oct 81, 1864. 



Nov. 2, 1889. 
Nov. 29, 1802. 



Feb. 14, 1869. 



Nov. 2, 1889. 
June 1, 1796. 
Dec. 29, 1845. 
Jan. 4, 1896. 
Mar. 4, 1791. 



Nov. 11, 1889. 
June 19, 1863. 
May 29. 1848. 
July 10, 1890. 



T«rtn of 

Governor, 

yean. 



TERM OF LEGIS- 
LATURE, YEARS 



Capital. 



Montgomery. 

Sitka. 

Phoenix. 

Little Rock. 

Sacramento. 

Denver. 

Hartford. 

Dover. 



Tallahassee. 

Atlanta. 

Boise. 

Springfield. 

Indianapolis. 

Des Moines. 

Topeka. 

Frankfort. 

Baton Rouge. 

Augusta. 

Annapolis. 

Boston. 

Lansing. 

St. Paul. 

Jackson. 

Jefferson. 

Helena. 

Lincoln. 

Carson. 

Concord. 

Trenton. 

Santa F6. 

Albany. 

Raleigh. 

Bismarck. 

Columbus. 

Guthrie. 

Salem. 

Harrisburg. 

Providence and Newport. 

Columbia. 

Pierre. 

Nashville. 

Austin. 

Salt Lake. 

Montpelier. 

Richmond. 

Olympia. 

Charleston. 

Madison. 

Cheyenne. 



houses, similar to the Federal Congress, and the laws are 
enforced by a State judiciary. The government of the or- 
ganized Territories is in part by the general Government 
and in part by the people. The President appoints the 
Governor and certain other territorial officers, while the 
Legislature is elected by the people of the Territory. The 
District of Columbia is governed directly by the general 
Government, the President appointing its executive, which 
consists of three commissioners. Its laws are made by Con- 
press, and its judiciary is appointed by the President. Ind- 
ian Territory and Alaska are unorganized Territories. 

The States are divided into counties, which in the case 
of Louisiana are known as parishes, and the counties are 



town. In some States cities are independent of the town- 
ship organization, in others are subject to it. Some cities 
are independent of county organization, as Baltimore and 
St. Louis, and some comprise the entire county, as New York 
and San Francisco. In most of the States towns and vil- 
lages are incorporated; in New Jersey and Pennsylvania 
boroughs are chartered ; and in Ohio minor incorporations, 
known as hamlets, exist. 

Altogether, there were, in 1890, nearly 45,000 distinct 
governments coexistent in the U. S., including the States, 
Territories, counties, townships, and other county sub- 
divisions, and the various classes of municipal incorpora- 
tions. 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



UNITED STATES 



49 



Army and Navy. 

The army consists of 2,169 commissioned officers and 
55,000 non-commissioned officers and privates. The organ- 
ization is as follows : 



divisions. 



| Nod- 
oflkan Rod private*. 



General staff 

Orduance corps 

Engineer corps. 

10 regiments of cavalry. . 
5 regiments of artillery . . 
25 regiments of infantry . 
Indian scouts, etc 



Totals. 



400 




58 


450 


113 


500 


482 


6,050 


289 


3,675 


877 


12,125 




2:200 


2,109 


25,000 



See Army, Military Academies, Machine and Rapid- 
fire Guns, Magazine-guns, Artillery, Ordnance, and 
Small-arms. 

Militia. — Most of the States maintain an organized militia 
force. In 1893 this comprised 9,278 commissioned officers 
and 102,912 enlisted men, exclusive of the naval militia main- 
tained by some of the maritime States. In 1895 this force 
<»rn prised 226 officers and 2,706 men, with 13 practice-ships, 
assigned to as many States by the Federal Government 

Navy. — The naval force consists (1895) of 726 officers, 
■8,250 enlisted men and boys, and a Marine Corps of 2,177 
officers and men. The U. S. has been engaged since 1884 in 
reconstructing its navy, and rates as fifth among naval 
powers. It has (1895) 6 armored battle-ships in commission 
or under construction and nearly completed, 2 armored 
oruisers, and 20 monitors, most of which are of an old type, 
and were constructed during the war of 1861-65. Of un- 
armored cruisers she has 3 of the first-rate, 11 second-rate, 
D third-rate (built in recent times), together with 3 gun- 
boats, and 7 torpedo-boats. There are also in commission 
16 vessels, most of them of wood, and of old construction. 
See Ships of War, Navy, and Naval Academies. 

tensions. — There were expended in 1894 by the pension 
bureau $140,772,163, making the total payments since 1861 
on account of pensions $1,717,275,718. Tne number of pen- 
sioners on the rolls was 969,544, of which 754,382 were inva- 
lid pensioners and 215,162 were widows and children. 

Finance. 
The total receipts for the year ending June 30, 1894, were 
$372,802,498.29, derived from the following sources : 



Amount. 

Customs $131,818,530.62 

Internal revenue 147,111,232.81 

Postal service 75,080,479 .04 

Miscellaneous 18,792,255.82 

The total disbursements for the year were $442,605,758.87, 
the constituent items of which were : 



Legislative 

Executive, proper 

State Department 

Treasury Department (except ink on debt). 

Interest on public debt 

War Department 

Navy Department. 

Interior Department (except pensions) 

Pensions 

Post-office Department 

Department of Agriculture 

Department of Labor 

Department of Justice 

Judicial 



$8,921,801.27 

138,935.48 

1,842,245.26 

59,557,915.45 

27,841,405.64 

56,«4 1,758. 51 

82.090,658.46 

19,204,536.37 

141,177,284.96 

85.825,418.64 

2,704,118.11 

167,838.74 

283.398.60 

6,008,948.38 



See Finance, Tariffs, Subsidies, Protection, and Free 
Trade. 

Circulation. — The total amount of money of all kinds in 
circulation in the country in 1894 was $1,660,808,708, or 
$2433 per capita of estimated population, besides which 
there was in the U.S. treasury $759,626,073, making the 
total amount of money in circulation and in the treasury 
$2,420,434,781, or $35.44 per capita. The following table 
classifies the currency as gold, silver, different kinds of pa- 
per, etc. : 

Gold: 

In treasury, including bullion $181,316,471 

In circulation 41)5,976,730 

Total $6*7.293.201 

Certificates in treasury $4«.050 

In circulation 66.339.K49 



Total. 



$60,387.8^9 



VOL. XII. — 4 



SiLvm: 

Silver dollars and bullion in treasury $495,435,870 

Subsidiary coin in treasury 17,738,968 

Total $5 13,174.338 

Dollars in circulation $52,564,662 

Subsidiary coin in circulation 68,510,967 

Total $111,075,619 

Certificates in treasury $10,457,768 

In circulation 385,925,786 

Total $306, 383,504 

Paper : 

U. S. notes in treasury $80,091,414 

In circulation 266,589,602 

Total $846,681,016 

National bank-notes in treasury $6,635,044 

In circulation. 200.219,748 

Total S20 6.a54.7 87 

Fraction al Currency : 

In treasury $17,902,988 

In circulation. 134,681,429 

Total $152,584,417 

See the articles Coinage, Mint, Monetary Standards, Sil- 
ver Coinage, etc. 

Public Debt. — The public debt, which, less cash in the 
treasury, amounted in 1866 to $2,773,000,000, has been great- 
ly reduced, and in 1894 amounted to only $899,313,380, or 
$13.17 per capita of the population. Of this amount, $635,- 
041,890 was interest-bearing, almost entirely at 4 per cent. 
The debts of States aggregated in 1890 $228,997,389, show- 
ing a rapid reduction in the preceding ten years. The 
dents of counties amounted in the same year to about 
$145,000,000, and that of municipalities to $724,463,060, 
these classes showing a slight increase in the ten years 
preceding. See Debt, Public. 

Wealth. — The total assessed valuation of property in 1890 
was $25,473,173,418. On this there were levied taxes amount- 
ing to $471,365,140. Of the total assessed valuation, $18,- 
956,556,675 was on real estate, and $6,516,616,743 on per- 
sonal property, being in the proportion of about three to 
one. The true valuation has been estimated at the time of 
each census since 1850 as follows : 



CENSUS YEAR. 


Estimated ruination. 


Per capita. 


1850 


$7,135,780,228 
16.159,616,068 
30,068.51 8,507 
43.642.600,000 
65,037,091,197 


$308 
514 


1860. 


1870 


780 


1880 


870 


1890 


1,036 





The following are the particular items of the estimate for 
1890 : 



Real estate and improvements 

Live stock, farm implements, and machinery.. 

Mines, quarries, and products on hand 

Gold and silver coin and bullion 

Machinery of mills and products on hand, 

either raw or manufactured 

Railways and equipment 

Telegraphs, telephones, shipping, and canals. . 
Miscellaneous 



$39,544,544,333 
2.703,015.040 
1,291,291,579 
1.158,774,948 

8.058.598,441 

8,685,407.823 

701,755,712 

7,893,708,821 



Total $65,037,091,197 

Religion. 
In the IT. S. the utmost freedom regarding religious be- 
lief prevails, and this fact, coupled with the great diversity 
of the peoples and the independence and boldness of thought, 
has resulted in the existence of a most bewildering number 
of religious denominations, theprincipal of which, with the 
membership of each, are given in the following table : 

German Evangel. Synod.. 187.432 

latter-day Saints 166,125 

Evangelical Association . . 133.318 

Jews 130, 196 

Friends 107,208 

Dunkards 73.795 

Unitarian 67,749 

Adventist 60.491 

Universalist 49.194 

Mennonite 41,541 



Roman Catholic 6.257,871 

Methodist 4.589.284 

Baptist 8,762,729 

Presbyterian 1,278.332 

Lutheran 1,231.072 

Christian 744.778 

Protestant Episcopal . . . 540.509 

Congregational 512,771 

Reformed 309,458 

United Brethren 225,158 



As is seen, the Roman Catholic is the most powerful re- 
ligious body. Its membership as reported represents the 
entire Roman Catholic population, as compared with the 



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50 



UNITED STATES 



communicant members of other denominations. It is derived 
from various sources widely dispersed over the country. In 
the Northeastern States it is made up largely of Irish and 
French-Canadian stock, while farther West, along the shores 
of the Great Lakes, the Roman Catholics are principally 
French Canadians by birth or extraction. In Maryland 
they are the descendants of some of the early settlers; in 
Louisiana of the early French settlers : and in Texas, Ari- 
zona, New Mexico, and Southern California, the Mexican 
population is responsible for the strength of this denomina- 
tion. The Methodist and Baptist denominations have the 
greatest strength in the Southern States, both among the 
white and colored, nearly all the colored race belonging to one 
or the other of them. The Presbyterians are found mainly 
in the Middle and Southern States and in the upper Missis- 
sippi valley. The Lutherans are a German denomination, 
and are found in their greatest strength wherever the Ger- 
man element predominates. The Christians are scattered 
widely over the country. The Episcopalians are found very 
largely in the Northeastern States, especially in New York, 
New Jersey, and Connecticut. The Congregationalists were 
formerly confined chiefly to New England, but since 1860 
have increased rapidly in the Northwest From the returns 
of the census of 1890 it is learned that the value of church 
property in 1890 was $680,000,000 ; the number of clergy- 
men, preachers, etc., 108,879 ; and the number of communi- 
cants 20,661 ,046— a trifle more than one-third the population 
of the country, and a half of that part of the population 
ten or more years of age. 

Education. 

Elementary education is mainly provided for by public 
schools. The number of children enrolled in all schools, 
public, private, and parochial, in 1890, was 14,878,670, of 
whom 12,967,468 were white and 1,416,202 colored. This is 
about 75 per cent, of the children of school age. Of the 
total number entered in all schools, about nine-tenths are 
in the public and the remainder in about equal proportions 
in private and parochial schools. The enrollment in the 
schools is much more nearly complete in the Northern than 
in the Southern States, and most complete of all in Kansas, 
where 94 per cent, of the children of school age are enrolled, 
while Maine and Ohio each enrolled 93 per cent The total 
number of teachers was 868,935, of which a little more than 
one-third were males and a little less than two-thirds were 
females. The total expenditure for public schools was 
$140,277,484, an average rate of $17 per pupil in average 
attendance. The amount expended per pupil in the North 
was, as a rule, above this average, while that in the South 
was below it Of schools for higher education, including 
universities and colleges, there were 476, employing 11,843 
professors and instructors. Of these, 2,709 were employed 
in the preparatory departments, 6,263 in the collegiate, and 
2,871 in the professional. Of students there were in the 
preparatory departments 45,188 ; the collegiate, 60,415 ; and 
the professional, 21,265— total, 126,868. The property, in- 
cluding buildings and grounds, productive funas, and other 
items, is in excess of $220,000,000 ; the total income of all 
these institutions is $15,365,612. See Education, Schools, 
Common Schools, College, and University. 

The following is a general summary of statistics of pro- 
fessional schools for 1893-94 : 



class of schools. 


School*. 


Initnictan. 


Students. 


Graduate*. 


Theological 


147 
«7 

152 
86 
85 
8 
66 


9C8 
621 
4105 
794 
288 
118 


7,658 
7,811 
21.802 
4,152 
8,658 
554 
2,710 


1,462 
2.454 
5,133 
877 
988 
171 
970 


Law 


Medical 


Dental 


Pharmaceutical 


Veterinary 


Nurse training 




Totals 


510 


6,»74 


47.845 


12,055 





Illiteracy. — The number of illiterates was reported in 1890 
as 6,824,702. This is 183 per cent, of the population over 
ten years of age. The white illiterates comprised but 7-7 
per cent, of all the whites over ten years of age, while the 
corresponding proportion for colored is 56*8 per cent. In 
1880 70 per cent, of all the colored were illiterate, showing 
a rapid reduction of illiteracy among this race. Of the na- 
tive white population ten years of age and over, 6*2 per 
cent, were illiterate, while among the foreign born the per- 
centage of illiteracy was 18*1, being more than twice as 
great as among the native whites. Illiteracy is much greater 



in the South than in the North. Among the native whites 
of the North, less than 3 per cent, are illiterate ; among the 
native whites of the South the proportion is nearly 15 per 
cent. The State having the smallest proportion of illiterates 
among its entire population is Nebraska, with 8*1 per cent., 
and that having tne largest is Louisiana, where 45*8 per cent, 
of the people are illiterates, due to the large proportion of 
colored population. 

Periodicals. — According to Rowell, the total number of 
periodicals published in 1895 in the U. S. was 19,580. They 
were classified as follows by frequency of issue : 



Weekly 14,096 

Monthly 2,548 

Daily 1,956 

Semi-weekly 801 

Semi-monthly 272 

Quarterly 182 



Bi-weekly 79 

Bi-monthly 49 

Triweekly 87 

Tri-monthly 5 

Semi-quarterly 5 



The total yearly issue of all periodicals is estimated at 
8,481,610,000 copies, an average of 50 per inhabitant. 

History. 
The Colonial and Provincial Period. — The discovery of 
the North American continent by the Norsemen, the Span- 
iards, the English, and the French is suflaciently described 
under the titles Vinland, Norumbega, Ponce de Leon, Ca- 
bot, Soto, Champlain, Raleigh, Smith, Puritans, and the 
other explorers and settlers prominently connected with 
this early period. Under the names of the several States 
information concerning the settlement and colonization of 
particular localities will also be found. Results only can 
be considered here. The coming of the Norsemen in the 
tenth century left no permanent impression ; and the only 
abiding influence of the discovery of Florida by the Span- 
iards was the Spanish claim to that territory, which was 
purchased by the U. S. in the nineteenth century. With the 
English and the French, however, the matter was very dif- 
ferent. In a general way, it may be said that the English es- 
tablished permanent settlements along the coast-line from 
Florida to Nova Scotia, and claimed the territory extending 
indefinitely westward ; while the French, taking the river St. 
Lawrence as the basis of their advances, pushed along the 
line of the Great Lakes and down to the mouth of the Mis- 
sissippi. Thus English methods and institutions came to 
prevail in the eastern part of what is now the U. S., while the 
institutions of France established themselves in the North 
and West. It was inevitable that disputes concerning the 
boundary-lines should take place at an early day. The claims 
of the English and those of the French were quite irreconcil- 
able. Both nations tried to establish lines of defense and at- 
tack along the lakes and on the Ohio river. The French 
were far more skillful than the English in dealing with the 
Indians, and consequently the Indians generally fought on 
the French side. King George's war (1744 and 1748) settled 
nothing, and the final trial of strength did not come until 
the French and Indian War (see French War), which was 
really a part of the Seven Years' War (q. v.), and extended 
from 1754 to 1768. While France was occupied in the great 
contest with Frederick the Great, Great Britain, which un- 
der the statesmanship of Pitt was enlisted on the other side, 
Sushed the war in America to a definite conclusion. The 
efeat of Montcalm by Wolfe (qq. v.), and the consequent 
fall of Quebec Sept. 15. 1759, put the British in possession of 
all the territory E. of the Mississippi river. 

While this long contest had been going on, the British 
colonies along the coast had been developing their institu- 
tions according to English methods. The colonial divisions 
were determined primarily by the charters received from 
the mother government ; and as time advanced, the enter- 
prise of the settlers and the liberality of the charters deter- 
mined the size and prosperity of the respective colonies. 
Along the rivers and valleys colonization pushed in some 
regions slowly, in others rapidly, toward the West, so that 
at the time of the Revolutionary war each of the more impor- 
tant colonies S. of New England had established personal 
and political, as well as territorial, connections with the vast 
domain extending into the valley of the Mississippi. (See 
the article Frontier ; also Roosevelt's Winning of the West.) 
In Virginia, the typical Southern colony, the charter re- 
tained large powers for the Governor, and gave few powers 
to the people. Not a little turbulence was the result. (See 
Bacon's Rebellion.) The part of the mother country was 
not skillfully played, and therefore when the troubles ante- 
cedent to the Revolution broke out Virginia was one of the 
foremost to urge a policy of vigorous resistance. South 



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UNITED STATES 



51 



Carolina was animated by a similar spirit. But it was in 
New England that the most advanced ideas prevailed. In 
Massachusetts and Connecticut the colonists were able for 
the most part to control and shape their own local and po- 
litical affairs. Harvard College was founded within sixteen 
years after the first settlement at Plymouth, and only a 
little later a general school system was adopted. Similar 
provisions for a somewhat comprehensive system of educa- 
tion were adopted in Connecticut, and in the Dutch colony 
in New York. With many characteristics in common, the 
colonies had also many individual peculiarities, and thus it 
came about that each colony for itself built up on a basis of 
great liberality a system of social, educational, and political 
institutions that enabled it to contribute something to that 
great stock of political opinion which was at length embod- 
ied in the Federal Constitution. No government was ever 
more perfectly developed out of the past. Each colony 
grew up independently of the others, and so far as its char- 
ter permitted framed its government, in its own way, on the 
general model of British institutions. It was not strange, 
therefore, that when the colonies were forced to unite their 
interests in a common cause they brought to this service an 
amount of political experience and wisdom that has rarely 
been equalled. As the colonies derived the form and es- 
sence of their government from Great Britain, so the Fed- 
eral Constitution was built out of materials furnished by the 
colonies. 

Efforts to Unite the Colonies. — Although the political 
history of the U. S. begins in 1774, there had been several 
efforts to unite the colonies before that time. The mother 
country had provided no common government in which the 
colonies should take part, and the relations into which these 
occasionally entered under the stress of Dutch, French, and 
Indian wars were voluutary and transient. Planted along 
the Atlantic coast, each having its own harbors and river 
systems, the colonies had felt no drawings toward general 
union. To this statement of geographical independence an 
exception may seem to have existed in the case of Delaware 
and Pennsylvania, which, even after the legislative secession 
of 1703, continued under a common governor. With this 
possible exception no colony depended on the consent of any 
•ether for the exercise of any vital privilege. One or more 
of the colonies had taken advantage of superior harbors to 
tax the products of their neighbors going out through their 
ports ; Connecticut and Massachusetts quarreled for a while 
(1647-50) over the dues levied by the former at Say brook 
on goods destined for Springfield in the latter colony; 
Virginia and Maryland long maintained a dispute concern- 
ing their respective rights to the navigation of Chesapeake 
Bay and the Potomac river ; while even the adoption of the 
Constitution has not wholly prevented controversy between 
New York, New Jersev, and Connecticut in the matter of the 
control of New York Bay, as in the case of the claim of cer- 
tain patentees of New York to the monopoly of steam-navi- 
gation within those waters. But none of these issues was 
vital, while the exigencies of a common defense against the 
savages were held to be sufficiently met by an occasional 
common armament and joint expedition of two, three, or 
four contiguous colonies. One exception, indeed, is found. 
In 1643 the four colonies of Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, 
Connecticut, and New Haven, which afterward formed two 
of the thirteen original States, united in a confederation, 
known as the United Colonies of New England, for defense 
against the savage tribes. In this confederation the four 
colonies, though very unequal in size and population, were 
to have equal power, but all war-expenses, which were to 
be a common charge, were to be apportioned according to 
the number of male inhabitants in each colony. Runaway 
servants and fugitives from justice were to be mutually 
delivered up, and the judgments of courts of law and pro- 
bates of wills in each colony were to receive full faith and 
credit in every other. This confederation, thus limited in 
extent, had but a feeble existence, and expired after about 
half a century with the exigency in which it had its rise. 

No other attempt at confederation was made until 1754, 
though in the interval colonies were temporarily or per- 
manently consolidated by the crown, sometimes with and 
sometimes without their consent. In the year named a 
convention was held at Albany, New York, in view of 
the approaching hostilities with the French and Indians, 
and on the instance of the British Board of Trade. Com- 
missioners were present from New York, Pennsylvania, 
Maryland, and the four New England colonies. Delegates 
were also present from the famous Six Nations of New 



York. Under the leadership of Benjamin Franklin, a plan 
of permanent union for the colonies was adopted, to be 
dependent for effect on the sanction of the British Par- 
liament. The scheme comprised a president-general, named 
and supported by the crown, and a council of fortv-eight 
members, to be chosen every three years by the legislatures 
of the colonies. Each colony was to have representation in 
proportion to its contributions to the general cause, no 
colony, however, to have less than two or more than seven 
members of the council The council was to undertake the 
common defense, apportioning quotas of men and money 
therefor, controlling the forces raised, and enacting ordi- 
nances of general interest. The president-general was to 
have a negative on all acts of the council and the appoint- 
ment of all military officers. Civil officers were to be ap- 
pointed by the council, with the consent of the president. 
This promising scheme was, however, rejected by the Board 
of Trade as conferring dangerous powers on the colonies, and 
by the colonies themselves as giving too much authority to 
the crown in matters which they had jealously reserved to 
themselves ; so that the colonies had to sustain the ensuing 
war, which broke the power of France upon the continent, 
with no other concert than that derived from the voluntary 
concurrence of the several legislatures or executives. 

The forces which thus for more than a century withstood 
union were not found alone in the indifference growing out 
of the natural independence which has been noted. There 
was also a decided repugnance, if not between individual 
colonies, between groups of colonies, arising out of differ- 
ences in race, religion, and political institutions. New 
England was almost purely English ; the populations of the 
middle colonies were most curiously and variously composed 
of a great number of nationalities. New England was 
chiefly Puritan; in the middle colonies the Quakers and 
Lutherans dominated ; at the South, the Church of Eng- 
land had formally established its offices. But the repug- 
nance caused by differences of race and religion was proba- 
bly less than that due to differences in the political franchises 
and institutions of the several sections. The charter gov- 
ernments of New England (excepting New Hampshire) 
were in strong contrast to the proprietary governments of 
Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Delaware and the provincial 
governments of the South. The political habits and apti- 
tudes which resulted were widely diverse, especially in re- 
spect to the forms in which political power was exercised 
and to the modes of taxation in use. Evidence abounds that 
the total effect of all these causes was to produce a strong 
disinclination to confederation amon^ the colonies, and 
especially that the Episcopal and aristocratic prejudices 
against the leveling spirit of New England, and tne Quaker 
opposition to war, to which the New England colonies were 
from the first exceedingly prone, constituted obstacles to 
union which no cause but the single one which actually 
brought the colonies together could for more than one gen- 
eration have overcome. 

Causes of the War of Independence. — In 1765 the general 
opposition to Grenville's Stamp Act led to a congress of 
delegates from nine colonies, appointed by various authority, 
which met at New York and formed a union for the pur- 
pose of resisting taxation by Parliament. This congress, 
nowever, assumed no powers of government ; its proceedings 
were limited to deliberation and remonstrance, and the 
union expired with the repeal of the obnoxious law in 1766. 
In 1774, however, the opposition to Charles Townshend's 
measures for raising a British revenue within the colonies, 
inflamed by the stirring events at Boston — the " massacre " 
of 1770 ana the " tea-party " of 1773 — resulted in a congress 
of the colonies, which met at Philadelphia on Sept. 5. 
Twelve colonies were soon represented, Georgia being the 
exception. This congress was in reality an assemblage of 
committees. The colonies voted as entire bodies, casting 
single votes, the question of proportional representation 
being waived for the sake of harmony. The congress under- 
took to exercise no coercive powers. Separation from Great 
Britain was not then determined on, and was not even gen- 
erally in contemplation. The important measures of the 
congress of 1774 were a declaration which based the rights 
of the colonies on the laws of nature, the principles of the 
British Constitution, and the several charters or compacts 
between the colonies and the crown, and denied expressly 
and completely the right of Parliament to tax the colonies, 
though recognizing the power of commercial regulation ; 
and, second, non-importation and non-exportation agree- 
ments, the article tea being particularly named in the 

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52 



UNITED STATES 



former, while rice, the product of Carolina, was specially ex- 
cepted from the prohibitions of the latter. The congress 
adjourned in October, recommending that another congress 
be held in 1775, should the grievances of the colonies not 
meanwhile have been redressed. During the winter which 
followed, rapid progress was made toward revolution in 
Massachusetts. The Governor, on the part of the crown, dis- 
solved the General Assembly, and called new councilors into 
office by mandamus, under authority of an act of Parliament 
revoking so much of the charter of the colony as authorized 
the assembly to elect the council. The Governor's council- 
ors were compelled by a show of popular violence to resign, 
while a new Assembly, elected by the people in defiance of 
an executive proclamation, met at Salem and resolved them- 
selves into a provincial congress, whose recommendations 
had all the effect of law throughout the colony. On Apr. 19, 
1775, occurred the battle of Lexington, an unforeseen collision 
between the royal troops marching to seize military stores 
at Concord and the militia and citizens. 

The second Continental Congress met at Philadelphia 
on May 10, following. Most of the delegations had been 
chosen" before the battle of Lexington, when armed resist- 
ance to the obnoxious acts of Parliament was not in contem- 
plation. " They were," says Mr. Bancroft, " committees 
from twelve colonies, deputed to consult on measures of 
conciliation, with no means of resistance to oppression be- 
yond a voluntary agreement for the suspension of importa- 
tions from Great Britain. They formed no confederacy ; 
they were not an executive government; they were not 
even a legislative body." Such, indeed, they were in theory ; 
but the course of events threw upon this body of committees 
the duties of a revolutionary congress. Blood had been shed ; 
the British troops were besieged in Boston by the militia 
of New England ; Congress, by the necessity of the situa- 
tion, became the organ of the common resistance. A Con- 
tinental army was raised ; a commander-in-chief, George 
Washington, of Virginia, was chosen, in whose commission 
the phrase " United Colonies " was first used ; a Continental 
currency was created ; a general treasury and post-office es- 
tablished ; while the whole management of Indian affairs 
was assumed by Congress. Here we see most of the parts of 
government emerge. What, meanwhile, had become of the 
governments of the colonies! Much stress has been placed 
by some writers on the fact that the revolutionary govern- 
ments of the colonies were generally not organized until 
after the Continental Congress had assumed powers of legis- 
lation, and had recommended the establishment of new 
governments in the several colonies. But no inference can 
justly be drawn from this fact adverse to the full political 
rights of each colony. The priority noted was a priority in 
time, not in logic. It was due to the urgent military neces- 
sity of the situation, and intimated no supremacy on the 
part of the Continental Congress. It is not conceivable 
that the latter body should have assumed to disregard the 
entity of a single colony, even the smallest, or have pro- 
ceeded to do anything authoritatively in respect to the or- 
ganization of colonial governments, or to take territory 
from one colony for the benefit of another. The colonies in 
no respect owed their existence or their political rights to 
the Continental Congress, which was their creature, the or- 
gan of their voluntary common action. 

On June 17 was fought the battle of Bunker Hill, be- 
tween the garrison of Boston and the besieging provincials. 
Though this action was not, as now, regarded as a substan- 
tial victory for the Americans, it did much to strengthen 
the purpose of resistance and to quicken the growth of 
revolutionary ideas. The progress of the popular mind of 
the colonies toward independence of Great Britain was has- 
tened by the refusal of Parliament to receive the petition of 
Congress ; by the bombardment of the town of Falmouth, 
now the city of Portland ; by acts of Parliament prohibiting 
trade with the colonies and authorizing the capture of their 
vessels ; and by the active impressment of seamen on the 
North American coast. The military operations of the au- 
tumn and winter had not been decisive. The expedition of 
Montgomery and Arnold against Canada had resulted dis- 
astrously ; on the other hand, Washington had been ap- 
pointed commander-in-chief of the Continental forces, and 
in consequence of the skill of his manoeuvers the British 
garrison had been compelled to evacuate Boston. A British 
fleet had also been beaten off Charleston in the action at 
Fort Sullivan. 

The War of Independence. — On June 7, 1776, a resolution 
of independence was introduced into the Continental Con- 



gress by Richard Henry Lee, of Virginia, and referred to a 
committee consisting of John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, 
Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Liv- 
ingston. The Declaration op Independence (q. v.) was 
drawn by Jefferson, and on July 4, after slight modifications, 
was adopted and promulgated, the delegations being gener- 
ally instructed to that end by the respective colonies. On the 
same day on which the committee was appointed to prepare 
the Declaration, a committee was appointed to prepare Ar- 
ticles of Confederation, it being fully recognized that inde- 
pendence of Great Britain necessitated union among the 
colonies, now become States. Yet this committee did not 
report a plan for confederation until Nov., 1777, nor were 
the Articles adopted by all the States before Mar. 1, 1781. 
During the whole of this period the States, united only by 
their free consent, were carrying on war with Great Britain 
at a distinct disadvantage by reason of the absence of authori- 
tative government. This long delay in such an exigency 
affords a measure of the difficulties of union. One obstacle, 
however, additional to those previously mentioned, requires 
to be stated. Seven States, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New 
York, Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia, 
owned or claimed considerable tracts of land to the W. of 
their present limits. The six other States objected to sign- 
ing the Articles until these unoccupied lands, which were to 
be defended by the arms and resources of the Confederation, 
should be ceded for the benefit of the Confederation. This 
objection, however, was maintained with less vigor by some 
of these States than by others. Before the close of July, 
1778. ten States had ratified the Articles. New Jersey ac- 
ceded Nov. 26, 1778; Delaware May 5, 1779; Maryland re- 
mained out until Mar. 1, 1781. The contention of Slaryland 
was that without such cession the States owning Western 
lands would pay their war expenses by sales of lands instead 
of by taxation ; and, secondly, that when this Western ter- 
ritory should be settled, the communities there formed 
would become politically and socially the satellites of the 
States under whose laws and administration they had grown 
up. The contest was finally settled by the patriotic action 
of New York, which authorized (Feb. 19, 1780) its delegates 
to cede its Western lands. This action was accepted by 
Maryland as an earnest of what she had claimed, and she 
joined the Confederation as stated. Sooner or later all the 
landed States followed the example of New York — Virginia, 
1784; Massachusetts, 1785; Connecticut, 1786; South Caro- 
lina, 1787; North Carolina, 1790; Georgia, 1802. 

Meanwhile the war had been prosecuted without a gov- 
ernment having coercive power. The States, when called 
upon by Congress for contributions of men and money, re- 
sponded in their own time and way. The British tfoops 
under Sir William Howe defeated the American array on 
Long Island Aug. 27, 1776, and soon afterward occupied 
the city of New York and the country of the lower Hudson. 
Before the close of the year Washington had been obliged 
to retire beyond the Delaware river with a small, ill-pro- 
vided army, but by the brilliant surprises of Trenton and 
Princeton the British were thrown back and New Jersey 
was largely recovered. During the summer of 1777 Sir 
William Howe transferred the greater part of his force by 
water to the neighborhood of Philadelphia, which city he 
captured, after defeating the American army on the Bran- 
dywine, Sept. 11. A bold attack by Washington on the 
British forces at Germantown (Oct. 4) was repulsed. At 
the North, however, the cause of independence found this 
year a better fortune. Gen. Burgoyne, in command of an 
array composed of British regulars, Hessians, Canadians, 
and "Indians, in July captured Ticonderoga and Whitehall, 
and began a movement intended to gain possession of the 
Highlands of the Hudson, and by opening that river from 
its source to its mouth to isolate New England. The expe- 
dition, however, was wholly disastrous. A strong detach- 
ment of British was defeated by a militia force under Gen. 
Stark at Bennington Aug. 16, and in September Burgoyne 
was brought to bay near Saratoga, and alter two severe ac- 
tions (Sept. 19 and Oct. 7) was compelled to surrender (Oct. 
17) to Gen. Gates. The battle of Saratoga has often with 
much reason been regarded as the turning-point or decisive 
battle of the war. If Burgoyne had succeeded, an open line 
of communication would probably have l)een established be- 
tween Canada and New York, and New England would have 
been cut off from the possibility of giving active support to 
Washington. The failure of this brilliant project kept the 
colonies united and greatly embarrassed the British. Nor 
was this all. The victory at Saratoga gave great reputation 
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abroad to the American arms, and decided the French king 
to join in treaties of alliance and commerce with the U. S., 
which were signed in Paris in Feb., 1778. Meanwhile Wash- 
ington had been reduced to straits in keeping the field against 
the British, and his army encountered the greatest hardships 
during the winter of 1777-78 at Valley Forge, a day's march 
N. of Philadelphia. The want of an authoritative govern- 
ment was severely felt in the slow and partial responses 
made by the States to the requisitions of tne Congress. In 
this strait the issue of bills of credit was resorted to. The 



for $100; May 1, 1781, for $200-$500. During the opera- 
tions of 1778 the co-operation of the French fleet under 
cTEstaing proved delusive, but the conduct of the British 
armies was ineffective ; Sir Henry Clinton, who succeeded 
Howe, evacuated Philadelphia and retired on New York. 
During the movement an indecisive action was fought at 
Monmouth, the army of Washington remaining in possession 
of the field. The British forces still held Rhode Island, 
which they had occupied two years before. Toward the 
close of 1778 Sir Henrv Clinton sent a force against the 
city of Savannah, which fell Dec. 29. This result turned 
toward the South the efforts of both armies. During the 
summer of 1779 the British overran the whole of Georgia, 
but were compelled to abandon Rhode Island in view of an 
expected expedition of the troops and fleets of France and 
Spain, the latter country having declared war against Eng- 
land in June. In September the Americans under Lincoln, 
assisted by the French fleet, made a futile attack on Savan- 
nah, being repulsed with heavy loss. In Apr., 1780, Clin- 
ton in person invested Charleston, which was held by Gen. 
Lincoln. The defense was weak, and the city was surren- 
dered with the garrison in May ; South Carolina was com- 
pletely overrun, and Cornwallis, who was left in command 
oy Clinton, threatened North Carolina. In this emergency 
troops were detached from the Northern army under the 
command of Gen. Gates, who was re-enforced by the militia 
of Virginia and North Carolina, but was routed with great 
loss at Camden, while the patriotic corps of Sumter, who 
since the conquest of South Carolina had not ceased to 
harass the British outposts, was destroyed by Tarleton on 
the banks of the Wateree. The three southernmost States 
were now held by the British, while to the disaster at the 
South was nearly added the capture of the strongholds on 
the Hudson through the treachery of Benedict Arnold. In 
October, however, a considerable detachment of the British 
army was destroyed by militia at King's Mountain, inducing 
Cornwallis to retire into South Carolina ; and in December 
Gen. Greene arrived from the North, superseding Gates. 
The close of the year found Holland also in arms against 
Great Britain, though not taking part in the military oper- 
ations in America. 

The campaign of 1781 was destined virtually to close the 
war in favor of the Americans. Jan. 17 the British, under 
Col. Tarleton, were defeated at Cow pens, S. C, by Gen. 
Morgan ; Mar. 15 a severe action was fought at Guilford 
. Court-house between Greene and Cornwallis, by which the 
British, though they held the field, were so far weakened 
that they were compelled to retire ; on Sept. 8 was fought 
the severe action of Eutaw Springs, in which the Americans 
had the advantage. The effect of these actions, combined 
with the activity of the American partisans under Marion, 
was to compel the abandonment of North Carolina and 
nearly all of South Carolina by the British, who were con- 
tent to hold a few places by garrisons. Meanwhile Corn- 
wallis, moving into Virginia with a view to forming a junc- 
tion with Sir Henry Clinton, was hemmed in at Yorktown 
bv the troops of Washington and Rochambeau, and after a 
siege of about three weeks was compelled to surrender his 
whole force, about 8,000 men, Oct. 19. The surrender of 
Cornwallis practically ended the war. No operations of 
importance followed. In July, 1782, the British evacuated 
Savannah ; a preliminary treaty of peace was signed Nov. 
30 of that year at Paris; Dec*. 14 Charleston was evacu- 
ated; the definitive treatv was signed Sept. 3, 1783; New 
York was evacuated by tne close of November ; in Decem- 
ber Washington {q. v.) resigned his commission as com- 
mander-in-chief. 

The Confederation. — The Government which, as recited, 
had been brought into existence Mar. 2, 1781, remained in 
effect during two years of war and six years of peace. Its 
constitution is given in full under the title Confederation, 



Articles of. It was early shown to be a hopeless failure^ 
It had no coercive power over States or individuals. The 
Congress could not even command the attendance of its own 
members. In consequence, the States ordinarily neglected 
or refused to comply with the requisitions of Congress, and 
settled their disputes or contended over them without regard, 
to the authority of the U. S. ; while Congress itself sank to 
be, in the language of Mr. Curtis, " a feeble junta of about 
twenty persons," moving about from city to city as circum- 
stances required. 

On Feb. 21, 1787, Congress called upon the States to send 
delegates to a convention at Philadelphia for the purpose of 
revising the Articles of Confederation, " to render the Fed- 
eral Constitution adequate to the exigencies of the Govern- 
ment and the preservation of the Union." The convention . 
met in May, George Washington being president. Among 
the most eminent members were Benjamin Franklin, Alex- 
ander Hamilton, James Madison, Edmund Randolph, George- 
Mason, James Wilson, Gouverneur Morris, John Rutledge r 
Charles C. Pinckney, Rufus King, and Roger Sherman. 
Rhode Island was not present by delegates. It was long 
doubtful whether the conflicting interests could be brought 
to agreement. The small States feared thev would lose 
their identity ; the large ones that they would be deprived 
of their superiority. This difficulty was settled by giving- 
the small States equal representation in the Senate and the- 
larger ones the advantage of representation in the House of 
Representatives on the basis of population. A still more 
difficult question was that of slavery, and it is safe to say 
that but for the spirit of concession on both sides, the North 
and the South could not have been brought into a single 
Union. Then there were radical differences of opinion as 
to the nature of the Government to be established. Hamil- 
ton desired a strong central power, while, at the other ex- 
treme, the followers of Jefferson insisted upon the recog- 
nition of State sovereignty. Both sides made concessions,, 
and a final agreement was reached. The question, however, 
as to the relative authority of the Federal Government and 
the individual States was not conclusively determined. If 
it had been, it is hardly probable that the Constitution, even 
if adopted by a majority of the delegates, would have been, 
ratified by the States. 'The convention was dissolved in Sep- 
tember, having submitted a form of constitution essentially 
different from the Articles of Confederation. The main fea- 
tures of the plan of government thus proposed are given in 
this article under the title Government ; see also the article 
Constitution op the United States. The order of ratifica- 
tion by the conventions of the States was as follows : Dela- 
ware, Dec. 7, 1787, unanimously; Pennsylvania, the same 
day, by a vote of 46 to 23 ; New Jersey, Dec. 12, unanimously ; 
Georgia, Jan. 2, 1788, unanimously ; Connecticut, Jan. 9, by 
a large majority ; Massachusetts, Feb. 7, 187 to 168 ; Mary- 
land, Apr. 28, 63 to 11 ; South Carolina, May, bv a large ma- 
jority; New Hampshire, June 21, 57 to 46; Virginia, June 
25, by a majority of 10 ; New York, July 26, 30 to 27. The 
ratification of nine States being sufficient, the new Govern- 
ment went into operation before Rhode Island and North. 
Carolina had acceded, which they did shortly after. Ten. 
amendments to the Constitution were immediately proposed 
and adopted, constituting a sort of Bill of Rights desired by 
some of the ratifying States. 

Inauguration of the Federal Government. — The new Gov- 
ernment was inaugurated, nominally, on Mar. 4, really on 
Apr. 6, 1789. George Washington, of Virginia, was found 
to have received the entire number of votes in the electoral 
college, and was declared President ; John Adams, of Mas- 
sachusetts, having received aplurality of second choices, was 
declared Vice-President. Tlie cabinet was announced as 
follows: Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State; Edmund 
Randolph, Attorney-General; Alexander Hamilton, Secre- 
tary of the Treasury ; Henry Knox, Secretary of War. At 
the election party distinctions had not been formulated, 
though it was not to be doubted that the divisions of senti- 
ment which had been developed in the constitutional con- 
vention would eventuate in the formation of parties under 
the Constitution. The cabinet even gave testimony to 
fundamental differences of political belief between North 
and South. IJaniilton and Knox were pronounced advocates 
of what became known as Federalism ; Jefferson and Ran- 
dolph were strong asserters of those views of the powers of 
the general Government, and of its relations to tne States, 
which characterized the Anti-Federalist party. 

The Formation of Political Parties. — Two measures of 
Washington's first term especially prompted the division of 

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the country by party lines. These were the creation of a 
national bank by act of Congress, and the assumption by 
the U. S. of the war debts of the several States. The former 
measure was opposed in the cabinet by Jefferson and Ran- 
dolph, and supported by Knox and Hamilton, the latter 
being the author of the scheme. Washington, who had 
strong Federal associations and proclivities, though disown- 
ing party obligations, gave the bill his approval. The bank 
went into operation in 1791, the charter having twenty years 
to run. The State debts were assumed in a limited amount 
($21,500,000) after an embittered contest in Congress, in 
which the party asserting the utmost fullness of national 
powers under the Constitution triumphed. During the ad- 
ministration of Washington the U. S. progressed steadily 
toward industrial and financial prosperity, and entered into 
diplomatic relations with several of the principal powers of 
Europe. War was, however, waged with the Miami confed- 
eration of the Ohio, over which, after two successive disas- 
ters to the armies under Gens. Harmer and St. Clair, Gen. 
Anthony Wayne, the hero of Stony Point in the Revolution- 
ary war, won a decisive victory, which led to peace and the 
cession of nearly the whole of Ohio by the Miamis in 1795. 
No opposition was made to the re-election of Washington in 
1798, but during his second term the antagonism of the 
Federalists and Anti-Federalists (now called Republicans) 
became intense. The Republicans sympathized strongly 
with the progress of the Revolution in France ; and the more 
forward, incited by the acts and appeals of Genet, minister 
from France, strove to commit the U. S. to an active support 
of that cause, which the Federalists, who were popularly 
charged with English sympathies, as strongly opposed. The 
treaty negotiated by Chiel Justice Jay as special envoy to 
England was resented by the Republicans as a surrender of 
American rights, and the debates thereon in Congress were 
marked by extraordinary bitterness. This treaty, while it 
secured the surrender of the posts in the Western territory 
held by Great Britain for twelve years in violation of the 
articles of the treaty of peace in 1783, left other questions 
open to remain the cause of alienation and dissatisfaction, 
to ripen many years later into war. The financial policy of 
Congress, which was controlled by the Federalists, also en- 
countered much factious opposition from the Republicans, 
which culminated in 1794 in open rebellion against the 
whisky tax in Western Pennsylvania, only suppressed by the 
levy of the militia of Maryland and Pennsylvania. (See 
Whisky Rebellion.) The increasing bitterness of feeling 
in the second term of Washington led to the disruption of 
his cabinet, in which the eminent statesmen who originally 
constituted it were finallv replaced by Oliver Wolcott, Sec- 
retary of the Treasury ; Timothy Pickering, of State ; James 
McHenry, of War; Charles Lee, Attorney-General. 

At the presidential election of 1797, Washington declin- 
ing to be a candidate, Jefferson was supported by the Re- 
publicans and Adams by the Federalists. The latter was 
elected by a vote of 71 to 68. As the second choices of the 
Federalists were divided, Jefferson, receiving the highest 
number next to Adams, became, under the Constitution as 
it then was, the Vice-President and the leader of the oppo- 
sition. Adams's administration was an unfortunate one 
throughout. He mistakenly retained Washington's secre- 
taries, who either gave him no hearty support or intrigued 
against him in the interest of Hamilton. Adams was fin- 
ally compelled to dismiss Pickering and McHenry. The 
President further alienated his own party by renewing ne- 
gotiations with France after that power, deeming itself out- 
raged by the Jay treaty with Great Britain, had ordered the 
U. S. minister out of her territory. Further than this, Rhe 
had insulted the special envoys, Marshall, Pinckney, and 
Gerry, who had been sent to adjust the difficulties which 
threatened war between the two powers to the extent that 
both nations prepared for action, and captures and conflicts 
occurred on the ocean. In the (J. S. the war-spirit ran so 
high among the Federalists, especially those who supported 
Hamilton, that the course of the President in dispatching 
other envovs on what was deemed insufficient evidence of 
the better disposition of France, provoked deep hostility to 
Adams, and was an important cause of his subsequent" de- 
feat. The embassy was, however, successful, and a treaty 
was concluded in 1800. But while Adams was thus alienat- 
ing sections of his own natural supporters, the Federal party 
as a whole was sowing the wind from which it was to reap 
the whirlwind bv the enactment in Congress, which that 
party still controlled, of the Alien and Sedition laws — acts 
authorizing the summary removal by the executive of sus- 



pected aliens, and providing severe penalties for seditious 
publications. These measures, which were an excellent imi- 
tation of those by which Pitt was striving to keep down the 
growth of revolutionary sentiments in England, were re- 
sented as inconsistent with the genius of republican institu- 
tions, and led to the famous declarations of the right of nul- 
lification known as the Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 
(see Nullification) of 1798-99, those of Virginia being 
drawn by Madison, those of Kentucky by Jefferson. During 
the preparations for war with France in 1798, the Navy De- 
partment was created, and Benjamin Stoddert, of Maryland, 
was appointed secretary. The policy of maintaining a large 
naval force had always been advocated by Adams from the 
earliest days of the Revolutionary war. 

At the fourth presidential election Adams was defeated, 
receiving only 65 votes against 73 for Jefferson. As, how- 
ever, Aaron Burr, the intended Vice-President, received also 
73 votes, there being no designation on the ballots as to 
which should be President and which Vice-President, the 
election was thrown into the House of Representatives, 
where the States, in such an event, have equal power, each 
casting a single vote. After thirty-five ballots, in which the 
Federalists, in order to defeat Jefferson, who was peculiarly 
obnoxious to them, supported Aaron Burr, Jefferson received 
the votes of ten States and was elected ; Mr. Burr became 
Vice-President. This contest led to the adoption of the 12th 
Amendment to the Constitution, which provided that the 
candidates for President and for Vice-President should be 
voted for separately. 

Accession of Anti-Federalists. — The defeat of the Feder- 
alists had been decisive — so much so that Mr. Jefferson was 
accustomed to speak of " the revolution of 1800 " in refer- 
ring to the election of that year ; and in 1804 Jefferson was re- 
elected, with George Clinton as Vice-President, the Federalist 
candidates receiving but 14 votes against 162. Jefferson's 
cabinet consisted of James Madison, Secretary of State ; Sam- 
uel Dexter, of the Treasury ; Henry Dearborn, of War ; Benja- 
min Stoddert, of the Navy ; and Levi Lincoln, Attorney-Gen- 
eral. Dexter was afterward replaced by Albert Gallatin, 
and Stoddert by Robert Smith. Consistently with his theory 
of government, Jefferson sat and voted with the secretaries 
in cabinet session upon equal terms, so that the executive 
resembled a directory. The President and his cabinet were, 
however, perfectly harmonious, and the Republican party 
continued to gain power rapidly in every section. The prin- 
cipal measures ana events of Jefferson's administration con- 
cerned the foreign relations of the U. S. 

In 1801 war was declared against the U. S. by the Bev of 
Tripoli, to whom the U. S. had paid tribute for the privilege 
of navigating the Mediterranean. Hostilities continued with 
slight practical result, though much to the credit of the 
American navy, till peace was made in 1805. In 1803 Rob- 
ert R. Livingston and James Monroe, as envoys of the U. S., 
concluded a treaty with Napoleon, by which the whole of the 
vast possessions of France W. of the Mississippi, embracing, 
as computed, 1,171,931 sq. miles, were ceded to the U. S. for 
about $15,000,000. This purchase, admitted by Jefferson to 
have been made by a great stretch of constitutional author- 
ity, was a remarkable act of concession to the principles of 
the Federalists ; but the immeasurable advantage to be 
gained by the undisputed possession of the Mississippi river 
and all the territory W. of it were enough to induce even 
Jefferson to set aside his doctrine of strict construction. 
This cession greatly exasperated Spain, who deemed her pos- 
session of Florida threatened thereby. Friendly relations 
between the two nations were interrupted, and some acts of 
hostility took place. In her desperate efforts to stay the 
progress of Napoleon, then fast overrunning the continent 
of Europe, Great Britain at that period exercised with un- 
wonted severity her always disputed rights of search and 
impressment. Napoleon, seeking to effect the commercial 
isolation of Great Britain and the independence of conti- 
nental Europe, issued successive decrees from Berlin, from 
Milan, and from Rambouillet. (See Napoleon.) These de- 
crees, together with the retaliatory orders in council issued 
by Great Britain in 1807, were without a shadow of justifica- 
tion in the law of nations, and were peculiarly oppressive to 
American commerce. But while France and Great Britain 
were equally in the wrong as regarded their attitude toward 
the U. S. as a neutral power, the superior naval force of Great 
Britain rendered her course practically the more injurious. 
It was this view which constrained Jefferson and his successor 
more and more to overlook the wrongs done by France, and to 
seek to direct the public thought of the nation toward Eng- 
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land as the real enemy of the U. S„ though at times the sug- 
gestion of a ** three-cornered war " was made with more or 
less seriousness. In 1806 James Monroe and William Pink- 
ney, as envoys, negotiated a treaty with Great Britain, by 
which it was sought to remove or reduce the points in dis- 

Sute, but the treaty was rejected as insufficient oy the Presi- 
ent without reference to the Senate. In 1807 occurred the 
affair of the Chesapeake and the Leopard, which did much 
to arouse those feelings of exasperation which made war 
possible. A British frigate, in asserting the British claim to 
recover British seamen wherever found, attacked a U. S. 
public armed vessel in U. S. waters, and after compelling a 
surrender took off four seamen. Reparation for this act was 
delayed four years. In Dec., 1807, on the recommendation of 
the President, an embargo was declared by Congress, all ves- 
sels being prohibited from sailing for foreign ports, while 
the coastwise trade was placed under stringent restrictions. 
This policy was continued until Mar. 1, 1800, the commer- 
cial interests of the country suffering meanwhile the deepest 
distress. The blow fell with especial severity on New Eng- 
land, where the exasperation of the community was carried 
almost to the point of open resistance to the law. Three 
days after the repeal of the embargo— which, though still 
approved by the President, could no longer be sustained 
against the force of public feeling — Mr. Jefferson, having 
declined re-election, went out of office, leaving the settle- 
ment of the disputes with England to his successor, James 
Madison, of Virginia, who had long been his pupil in politics 
and his Secretary of State during the eight years of his ad- 
ministration. Mr. Madison, with George Clinton for Vice- 
President, had been elected in 1808 over the Federal candi- 
dates, Charles C. Pinckney and Rufus King, by a nearly 
three-fourths vote. The cabinet was constituted of Robert 
Smith, Secretary of State ; Albert Gallatin, of the Treasury ; 
William Eustis, of War ; Paul Hamilton, of the Navy ; Caesar 
A. Rodney, Attorney-General. For the embargo prohibiting 
all foreign trade were now substituted acts prohibiting trade 
with England aud France, but containing provisions intend- 
ed to induce one of those powers to seek a restoration of in- 
tercourse at the expense of the other. This policy of invit- 
ing the belligerents to bid against each other for the privilege 
of open trade with the U. S. was continued through three 
years, with the effect that France, after one ambiguous an- 
nouncement — which the Republican party welcomed as sat- 
isfactory, while the Federal party and the British minister 
denounced it as insufficient and insincere — repealed her ob- 
noxious decrees. Great Britain followed by a repeal of her 
orders in council ; but Ave days before — viz., on June 18, 
1813 — Congress had declared war upon the recommendation 
of President Madison, who, though personally averse to ex- 
treme measures, was urged forward by younger men now 
rising into power, notably Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun. 
The arrival of the news of the repeal led to a renewal of ne- 
gotiations, but the U. S. feared to give time for the strength- 
ening of the fortifications of Canada, and hostilities com- 
menced. 

The War of 1812.— The war was to be fought upon the 
very issues which had been evaded in the Jay treaty of 
1794, but the eighteen years that had elapsed had brought 
a great gain of numbers and resources to the U. S. The 
population had grown from 4,500,000 to 8,000,000, and the 
wealth of the nation had trebled or quadrupled in the in- 
terval. The number of States was now eighteen, Vermont 
having been admitted in 1791, Kentucky in 1792, Tennessee 
in 1796, Ohio in 1802, Louisiana in 1812. The war was 
fought on three faces— viz., along the lakes, on the North 
Atlantic shore, and along the Gulf of Mexico. It opened in 
the N. by the invasion of Canada from Detroit by Gen. Hull, 
Governor of the Territory of Michigan. In about a month 
Hull had surrendered his entire force without fighting, and 
Michigan and parts of Ohio were overrun by the British, 
whose progress was withstood by Gen. William Henry Har- 
rison, who in the preceding year had earned distinction by 
defeating the Shawnees under their chief Tecumseh (q. v.) 
and his brother the Prophet. The campaign of 1813 gained 
little credit to the American arms. Gen. Jacob Brown suc- 
cessfully defended Sackett's Harbor, and Harrison routed 
the British and their savage allies on the Thames, killing 
Tecumseh; but other attempts at invasion by Wilkinson 
and Hampton resulted in disgraceful retreats, while the 
British overran Western New York and burned several 
towns in retaliation for the burning of Toronto (then York). 
In September, however, Lieut. Oliver H. Peeey (a. v.), of 
the U. S. navy, in command of an extemporized fleet, de- 



feated and captured the British squadron, giving the Ameri- 
cans complete control of Lake Erie. The campaign of 1814 
witnessed a marked change. On the one hand, the British 
forces in Canada were heavily re-enforced by veteran troops 
from Europe ; on the other, the American soldiery were ac- 
quiring discipline, and able young commanders were com- 
ing to the front. Under Jacob Brown and Winfleld Scott 
the Americans won the victories of Chippewa and Bridge- 
water (or Lundy's Lane). On the other end of the Canada 
line the invasion of a powerful army under Sir George 
Prevost was defeated through the destruction, off Plattsburg, 
of the supporting squadron by an American fleet under 
MacDonough. This practically closed the war on the north- 
ern frontier. On the Atlantic coast the years 1812 and 
1813 were marked by the gallant efforts of the six or eight 
U. S. frigates, and as many sloops of war, to sustain them- 
selves against the numerous cruisers, and, later, the power- 
ful fleets, of Great Britain. In spite of victories in single 
combat which reflected the highest credit on American sea- 
manship and courage, the few armed vessels of the U. S. 
were one by one captured by superior force or blocked up in 
the northern harbors, and in 1814 the British fleets cruised 
without serious opposition along the whole coast, depredat- 
ing and destroying at will, though American privateers still 
swarmed over the seas inflicting great damage upon British 
commerce. In Aug., 1814, a British army under Gen. Ross, 
supported by a powerful fleet under Admirals Cockburn and 
Cochrane, captured Washington afteran insignificant conflict 
at Bladensburg, and burned the Capitol and the President's 
mausion. In September the same force attacked Baltimore, 
but both the army and the fleet were beaten off, Gen. Ross 
being killed at North Point The third theater of war was 
at the Southwest The Creeks of Alabama having taken up 
arms. Gen. Andrew Jackson with a body of Western levies 
invaded their country, and defeated them with great 
slaughter at Tohopeka in Mar., 1814, compelling the cession 
of the larger part of the Creek lands. In the summer of the 
same year a British party occupied Pensacola, then claimed 
by the Spaniards, and later assaulted unsuccessfully Fort 
Bowyer near Mobile. In December the British advanced to 
a formidable attack on New Orleans, and Jackson prepared 
for its defense. A night attack was made (Dec. 28) on the 
British camp, for which considerable effect has been claimed ; 
but on Jan. 8, 1815, the British commander, Pakenham, ad- 
vanced with a greatly superior force of Wellington's veter- 
ans against the U. S. lines, and was repulsed, he himself, 
his second in command, and 2,600 men falling in the attack, 
while the U. S. loss was less than 100. Never had a British 
army been so disastrously beaten. Meanwhile peace had 
already been concluded at Ghent, Dec. 24, 1814. By the ar- 
ticles of the treaty all conquests on both sides were to be 
restored, while the questions of search and impressment, 
concerning which the war had been begun, were not men- 
tioned. See Ghent, Treaty of. 

The Rise of New Issues.— With the war of 1812-15 closed 
what may be called the first era of the political history of 
the U. S. — the era when the foreign relations of the country 
engrossed public attention. The second era, which extended 
from 1816 to 1843, was the era in which financial and in- 
dustrial questions assumed supreme importance before the 
country, and gave purpose ana passion to party. The war 
with Great Britain had, by cutting off the foreign supply, 
called into existence considerable manufactures of iron, of 
cotton, and of wool, which on the return of peace were threat- 
ened with destruction. Moreover, Great Britain had, by the 
corn-laws of 1815, set the example of attempting to stereo- 
type war prices for the time of peace. At this time a strong 
impulse to protection came from the South, where the cot- 
ton-planting interest desired the creation of a home market 
Upon the recommendation of President Madison, and under 
the leadership of Calhoun and Lowndes, of South Carolina, 
the first distinctively protective tariff of the U. S. was en- 
acted in 1816. The charter of the first U. S. Bank had ex- 
pired in 1811 without renewal. The second, with a capital 
of $35,000,000, one-fifth owned by the Government, which 
had a corresponding share in the direction, was chartered 
by Congress, after a severe struggle, in 1816. 

The course of the Federal party had been downward. At 
the elections of 1812 the imminence of war and the unpopu- 
larity of the Embargo and Non-intercourse Acts had given 
them a temporary strength, and at the election of that year 
they had polled 89 electoral votes for De Witt Clinton against 
128' for Madison, with whom was elected Elbridge Gerry, of 
Massachusetts, as Vice-President. But the opposition of 

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the Federalists during the war, as shown in the refusal of 
the Federal governors of two States to allow their militia to 
march at the orders of the national executive, and in the 
holding of the Hartford Convention (a. v.) in Dec, 1814, 
at which measures for restricting the authority of the gen- 
eral Government were discussed, and which was charged 
with being in the interest of a separate New England con- 
federation, practically destroyed the party. At the election of 
1816 James Monroe, of Virginia — who, upon the resignation 
of Robert Smith on the ground of his opposition to the war 
with Great Britain, had become Secretary of State in 1811 — 
was elected President by 188 votes, against 34 Federal votes 
for Rufus King, all from the States of Massachusetts, Con- 
necticut, and Delaware. At the election of 1820 Monroe 
received every electoral vote but one, and the so-called era 
of good feeling began, with party lines wholly obliterated. 
Daniel D. Tompkins, of New York, was chosen Vice-Presi- 
dent. Mr. Monroe constituted the cabinet as follows : John 
Quincy Adams, Secretary of State ; William H. Crawford, 
of the Treasury ; John C. Calhoun, of War ; Benjamin W. 
Crowninshield, of the Navy ; William Wirt, Attorney-Gen- 
eral. One of the earliest important events of Monroe's ad- 
ministration was Jackson's successful expedition against 
the Seminoles in 1818. This arose from depredations com- 
mitted by the Indians residing in the Spanish territory of 
Florida upon the frontier settlements of Georgia and Ala- 
bama. Gen. E. P. Gaines, in command of U. S. troops at 
Fort Scott, attacked the Indians, who avenged themselves by 
a massacre of a body of whites on the Appalachicola river 
and threatened Gaines's garrison with superior forces. 
Jackson was ordered to take the field, and, believing that 
the outrages were incited by British subjects under the pro- 
tection of the Spanish authorities, carried the war into 
Florida, captured the Spanish post of St. Mark's, and seized 
the persons of two Bntish subjects, Arbuthnot and Am- 
brister, suspected of having incited the Indians against 
U. S. citizens. These men were court martialed, found 
guilty, and executed. This provoked much indignation in 
Great Britain and Spain. The Spanish minister protested 
against the invasion of Florida, but the U. S. Secretary of 
State, J. Q. Adams, fully sustained Jackson's conduct. Other 
noteworthy events of the administration were (1) the cession 
of Florida, embracing about 60,000 sq. miles, by Spain in 
1819, for the sum of $5,000,000 ; (2) the enunciation by the 
President, in his annual message in 1823, of the so-called 
Monroe Doctrine (q. v.) — that is, that all attempts of 
European governments to acquire new territory on the 
American continent, or to reconquer provinces that had 
achieved independence, would be regarded as hostile acts, 
the declaration being especially aimed at Spain, whose 
South American colonies had revolted, and had been ac- 
knowledged as republics bv the U. S. ; and (8) the enact- 
ment of the tariff of 1824, by which the system of protec- 
tion to U. S. manufactures was extended and fortified. 
But the chief political measure was the Missouri Compro- 
mise. It was the era of new States. Indiana had been 
admitted in 1816, Mississippi in 1817, Illinois in 1818, and 
Alabama in 1819. After the preliminary steps had been 
taken for forming a State government in Alabama, Missouri 
applied for admission. Of the nine States already admitted 
since 1789, four had been free States, five slave States. It 
was now claimed to be the turn of the free States. Great 
opposition was made to the admission of Missouri with 
slavery ; intense feeling became aroused North and South, 
and threats of disunion were loudly made. Various propo- 
sitions for compromise were rejected, but the admission of 
Maine in 1820 as a free State, formed out of the territory of 
Massachusetts, prepared the way for an amicable adjust- 
ment, and a compromise was reached by which Missouri 
was admitted as a slave State, while slavery was for ever 
prohibited in all unorganized territory N. of 36° 30'. This 
was the first, and one of the most bitter, of the struggles re- 
lating to slavery under the Constitution. 

At the presidential election of 1824 four candidates, all 
calling themselves Republicans, were voted for in the elec- 
toral college. Andrew Jackson, of Tennessee, received 99 
votes; John Quincy Adams, of Massachusetts, 84; William 
H. Crawford, of Georgia, 41 ; Henry Clay, of Kentucky, 37. 
The election devolved upon the House of Representatives, 
whose choice was by the Constitution confined to the three 
highest candidates. Clay being thus thrown out, his friends 
united with those of Adams, and the latter was elected, re- 
ceiving the votes of thirteen States, while seven voted for 
Jackson and four for Crawford. This unexpected alliance 



of Clay and Adams, taken in connection with the appoint- 
ment, which followed, of the former as Secretary of State* 
led to the charge of " a corrupt coalition," which was urged 
with great bitterness at the time, and was reiterated at a 
subsequent period, but appears not to have been justified 
by the facts. The correspondence of Clay, Jackson, and 
Buchanan, together with the speeches in Congress on the 
subject, form a conspicuous feature in the political litera- 
ture of the U. S. The other members of the cabinet were 
Richard Rush, Secretary of the Treasury ; James Barbour, 
of War; S. L. Southard, of the Navy; William Wirt, At- 
torney-General. The chief events and measures of Adams's 
administration were — 1, the appointment, against violent 
opposition in Congress, of envoys to represent the U. S. 
at Panama in a proposed congress to be composed of rep- 
resentatives of tne principal American states — a scheme in 
the spirit of the Monroe doctrine, but which was aban- 
doned through, first, the death of the U. S. envoy, and sub- 
sequently through revolutions in Central America; 2, a 
controversy with the State of Georgia, arising out of the 
action of the general Government in protecting the Creek 
Indians against the efforts of the State authorities to ex- 
trude them under cover of a pretended treaty, during which 
Gov. Troup threatened open war and the State militia was- 
embodied ; 8, a series of complications, resulting, fortunately, 
in the negotiation of the Gallatin treaty, by which trade was 
opened between the U. S. and the British West Indies ; and 
4, the tariff of 1828 known as the " act of abominations " (see- 
Tariffs), by which the protective system instituted in 1816- 
and extended in 1824 was carried to a much higher point, 
the feeling of the sections on this question being now re- 
versed — New England, under the lead of Daniel Webster, 
advocating high duties, while the South, under the lead of 
Calhoun, who was the virtual author of the tariff of 1816,. 
denounced the existing system and its proposed extension 
as unconstitutional. 

Adams, a former Federalist, and the son of a Federal 
President, had been elected President in 1824, the distinc- 
tion of Federalist and Republican being no longer formally- 
maintained. But grave differences of political feeling and 
of constitutional theory did not lose their power for want 
of names to characterize them. From the day of Adams's 
election he was the subject of unceasing attacks having in 
view his defeat in 1828. Especially in the Senate, where the 
ablest leaders were in opposition, was the war of resolutions, 
motions, and speeches most fiercely carried on. The Presi- 
dent, on his side, instead of assuming the initiative, promptly 
occupying the field, and by the use of his power and patron- 
age recruiting as largely as possible that as yet unnamed 
political entity which was to become known as the Whig* 
party (see Whig), sought to remain the President of the 
whole country. As a result, the opposition by its aggres- 
siveness won over all the loose elements of the political field, 
especially among young men having no party traditions, and 
acquired at this time that power and cohesivene?s which has- 
characterized the Democratic Party (q. v.). At this period 
the word "Democrat," which at an earlier date had been 
almost a term of offense, assumed by only the most advanced 
French sympathizers, had come to supplant the word " Re- 
publican." At the election of 1828, Adams, stvling himself 
a National Republican, was defeated by Gen. Jackson, who 
received 178 out of 261 votes in the electoral college. Cal- 
houn, who in 1824 had been elected Vice-President with 
Adams, was re-elected. The cabinet was constituted of Mar- 
tin Van Buren. Secretary of State; Samuel D. Ingham, of 
the Treasury ; John H. Eaton, of War ; John Branch, of the 
Navy ; John M. Berrien, Attorney-General. Heretofore, the 
Postmaster-General had not been a member of the cabinet, 
but Gen. Jackson now appointed William T. Barry Post- 
master-General, with a seat at the council-board. Imme- 
diately, the maxim " to the victors belong the spoils " was 
put in force. Hundreds of removals from office took place 
in the first six months of this administration, and the civil 
service became, as it long remained, prostituted to the pur- 
poses of party. See Civil Service and Civil Service Re- 
form. 

The Southern States had been deeply dissatisfied with 
the tariff of 1828, having become convinced that a home 
market for their cotton crop was a matter of indifference, 
while the protection of cotton, woolen, and hempen goods, 
and of iron manufactures at the North was in no small de- 
gree at their expense. South Carolina and Georgia had, as 
States, formally protested against a tariff for protection as un- 
constitutional. In 1882 South Carolina held a convention 
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57 



which proceeded to " nullify " the obnoxious acts as an in- 
vasion of the rights of the State. (See Nullification.) 
The ground of the "milliners" was that of the resolutiou 
of 1798-99 — viz., that there being "no common judge" be- 
tween the States and the nation (the office of the Supreme 
Court, in this regard being denied), each State remained the 
proper judge for itself both " of the fact of an infraction " of 
the terms of u the Federal compact " and " of the mode and 
measure of redress." The tariff acts were declared null and 
void, the collection of customs duties within South Carolina 
was prohibited, and the convention announced that any at- 
tempt by the U. S. to enforce such collection would be 
deemed a dissolution of the Union. It was in this emer- 
gency that Jackson issued his famous proclamation, drawn 
by Edward Livingston, who had succeeded Van Buren as 
Secretary of State, in which the rights and powers of the 
Government of the U. S. were asserted in the fullest degree. 
Everything portended war. The Governor of South Carolina 
put the State in a condition for defense, while U. S. troops 
were forwarded to re-enforce the garrison of Charleston. At 
this juncture Virginia offered her mediation, in the very 
act of doing so corroborating the position of South Caro- 
lina, that a State may assert itself, by its own agencies, 
against the general Government, instead of seeking redress 
and relief through the Supreme Court. At the same time, 
Henry Clay, in the Senate, appeared as the advocate of con- 
cession, and succeeded in carrying through the compromise 
tariff of 1833, by which the duties of 1828 were to be re- 
duced in ten years, by a sliding scale, to a general rate of 20 
per cent This concession and the mediation of Virginia 
were accepted by South Carolina, and the ordinance of nul- 
lification was repealed. 

The second Bank of the U. S., chartered, as has been said, 
in 1816, for twenty years, had still seven years to live when 
Gen. Jackson was inaugurated, but its doom was sealed. 
The President's hostility was shown in his first message, 
and the bill for recharter which passed Congress in 1832 was 
vetoed. In the face of favorable reports from the Treasury 
and from committees of both Houses of Congress, Gen. 
Jackson determined that the U. S. deposits should be with- 
drawn. This, however, by law, could be the act of the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury alone. Louis McLane, who had suc- 
ceeded Ingham in the Treasury Department, and had shown 
himself moderately favorable to the bank, had opportunely 
been translated to the State Department. William J. Duane, 
who succeeded, refused to do the President's bidding in the 
matter of the deposits, and was replaced by Roger B. Taney, 
who had succeeded Berrien as Attorney-General in the gen- 
eral cabinet overturn of 1831. Taney did the task for which 
he was appointed, and in 1833 the Government deposits were 
placed in State banks. The U. S. Bank, as a national insti- 
tution, had received its deathblow; after a brief struggle 
against the enmity of the administration, it accepted a 
charter from Pennsylvania, but after the great financial 
storm of 1837-39 it suspended specie payments (Feb., 1840), 
and soon afterward its affairs were wound up. The bank 
was charged by Gen. Jackson with many technical viola- 
tions, of its charter, with expending money for political 
purposes, and with using its vast power of discount with 
favoritism toward some and malignity toward others. 

Gen. Jackson had been re-elected in 1832 by 219 electoral 
votes, against 49 for Henry Clay, of Kentucky, 11 for John 
Floyd, of Virginia, and 7 for William Wirt, of Maryland, the 
last-named being the candidate of the anti-Masonic party. 
Martin Van Buren, of New York, became Vice-President. 
For years, under the high tariff of 1824 and the higher one 
of 1828, together with the large sales of public lands, the 
revenue had been in excess of the ordinary expenditures by 
25, 50, and even 100 per cent As a result, the public debt, 
which at the close of the war in 1815 had amounted to 127,- 
000,000, was rapidly reduced, and in 1835 was extinguished. 
This excess of revenue had proved a powerful weapon in 
the hands of the advocates of tariff reduction in the strug- 
gle of 1828-33. It now became a serious embarrassment to 
the administration. What to do with the surplus was the 
great question of 1833-36. In the latter year the monstrous 
expedient of depositing $28,000,000 in the several State 
treasuries was resorted to. The division of this sum was 
according to population, although the money, having been 
largely raised by indirect taxation, had originally been con- 
tributed according to the consumption of taxed articles, 
which varied greatly among the several States and sections. 
The occurrence of the financial crisis in 1837 relieved the 
Government from any further embarrassment of this nature. 



During the administration of President Jackson the two 
domestic questions of Masonrv and slavery led to great agi- 
tation of the public mind. The abduction and presumed 
murder of Morgan in New York for betraying tne secrets 
of the Masonic order led to the formation of an anti-Masonic 
party, which, however, proved unable to sustain itself in 
the face of a more exciting issue. No political party was 
yet formed adverse to slaverv ; but anti-slavery societies had 
commenced the agitation of the subject at the North and 
the " moral invasion of the South " through pamphlets and 
newspapers, leading to many riotous acts, and to efforts, 
through Congress and the administration of the post-office, 
to suppress the circulation of •* incendiary documents." 
Two Indian wars— one (1832) known as the "Black Hawk 
war," against the Sacs and Foxes of the Northwest, the 
other (1835-39) against the Seminoles of Florida under 
their leader Osceola (q. t\), extending later to the Creeks — 
hail their origin in the prosecution of the policy started by 
President Monroe of removing the Indians w. of the Missis- 
sippi. In each the Indians were subdued, though in the lat- 
ter case not without some dishonor to the U. S. on the score 
of treachery. The foreign policy of Gen. Jackson was 
throughout vigorous. Denmark, Naples, Sj>ain, and Portu- 
gal satisfied claims of long standing for spoliations on U.S. 
commerce, while France, after diplomatic complications 
which at one time threatened war, paid over $5,000,000 on 
account of depredations committed more than thirty years 
before. 

Gen. Jackson, though declining a third term in deference 
to the example of his predecessors, was able to determine 
the succession ; and Martin Van Buren, of New York, was 
elected President in 1836, receiving 170 votes against a 
divided opposition — now known as the Whig party, corre- 
sponding in many features to the Federal party of the 
earlier time. William Henry Harrison, of Ohio, received 73 
votes, Hugh L. W T hite, of Tennessee, 26, Daniel Webster, of 
Massachusetts, 14, Willie P. Mangum 11. No one having 
received a majority of the votes for Vice-President, Richard 
M. Johnson, of Kentucky, was chosen by the Senate out of 
the two highest names on the list, this being the only oc- 
casion on which the Senate has been so called to act. Upon 
Van Buren's administration fell the financial distress which 
had been generated in the preceding administration, wheth- 
er due, as the Whigs claimed, to the removal of protec- 
tion from U. S. manufactures by the compromise tariff of 
1833, to the shock given bv the war on tne bank, and the 
excess of worthless issues by the State banks wheu that 

S*eat regulative institution was destroyed, or due, as the 
emocrats claimed, to the speculation induced by the opera- 
tions of the bank before the deposits were withdrawn, which 
operations, in their opinion, justified that withdrawal. In 
May, 1837, the banks of New York and other cities sus- 
pended payment, and widespread bankruptcy ensued. A 
second and more severe commercial shock occurred in 1839. 
The ordinary agencies of trade and exchange were largely 
destroyed, industry was paralyzed, and the revenue of the 
Government fell sharply off. It was not until 1842 that 

C rices and wages readied the minimum, and a revival of 
usiness with a restoration of confidence began. During the 
later years of this crisis eight States in whole or in part re- 
pudiated their obligations, either as to the interest or the 
principal. Except Lewis Cass, Secretary of War, Mr. Van 
Buren retained all the members of Gen. Jackson's latest 
cabinet — namely, John Forsyth, Secretary of State; Levi 
Woodbury, of the Treasury ; Mahlon Dickerson, of the Navy ; 
Benjamin F. Butler, Attorney-General; and Amos Kendall, 
Postmaster-General, though he subsequently made several 
changes. His Secretary of W T ar was Joel R. Poinsett. The 
chief financial measure of Van Buren's administration was 
the establishment of the sub-treasury system, by which the 
public moneys were to be kept in Government offices until 
required for current expenses, instead of being kept in 
banks. State or national. This scheme was proposed in Mr. 
Van Buren's first annual message (1837), but not adopted 
till 1840, to be repealed the next year, when the W'higscame 
into power. A serious difficulty, threatening the peace of 
the U. S., arose from the acts of certain sympathizers with 
the insurrection which took place in Canada in 1837. A 
steamer (the Caroline) in this interest was destroyed in U. S. 
waters by a detachment of British troops, and theact avowed 
by the British Government as done in self-defense. Three 
years later a Canadian sheriff was arrested in New York on 
the charge of murdering a U. S. citizen who had perished 
on the Caroline, and tried by the State authorit' 

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UNITED STATES 



the protest and threats of the British Government, which 
demanded his release on the ground that the act was done 
under its authority. Fortunately, the prisoner was acquitted 
on the evidence. 

The long-continued financial and industrial distress of 
Van Buren's administration had lost the Democratic party, 
for the time, its hold on the country, and Gen. William 
Henry Harrison, of Ohio, with John Tyler, of Virginia, as 
Vice-President, was chosen in 1840 by 234 electoral votes, 
against 60 for Van Buren. At this time a *• Liberty party " 
was formed in the anti-slavery interest, which polled about 
7,000 of the nearly 2,500,000 votes cast. From the inaugu- 
ration of the Government under the Constitution, the 
scheme of nominating candidates for the presidency and 
vice-presidency had been by a Caucus (q. v.) of the mem- 
bers of Congress of each party, but this had become dis- 
credited when the Republican party in 1824 repudiated the 
nomination of Crawford. By 1840 the scheme of national 
conventions, consisting of delegates chosen by the votes of 
the pnrty throughout the U. S., had been fully established, 
and has continued the accepted method of nomination ever 
since. See Nominating Conventions. 

The Whig party, having come into power on the issue of 
opposition to the sub-treasury and a demand for protec- 
tion to American manufactures, repealed the sub-treasury 
—or, more properly, the independent treasury — act in 1841, 
and in 1842 enacted a tariff by which the existing duties 
were largely increased. But in other respects that party 
was doomed to disappointment Gen. Harrison had scarcely 
constituted his cabinet when, within one month of his inau- 
guration, he died. Tyler, who succeeded to the presidency, 
had never been a Whig, but had been selected by the Whigs 
for his antagonism to V an Buren, the leader of the Northern 
and more moderate wing of the. Democratic party. His veto 
of a bill chartering a new national bank led to an open 
quarrel with the party which elected him, and to the resig- 
nation of the entire cabinet except Daniel Webster, Secre- 
tary of State. For his course in remaining in office Webster 
was severely blamed, but he was able afterward to point for 
his ample justification to the so-called Webster- Ashburton 
treaty, which he was then negotiating with England. By 
this treaty the claims of the U. S. in several important par- 
ticulars were fully conceded, and every question in dispute 
between the two nations, excepting that relating to Oregon, 
was finally adjusted. For this much was due to Webster, 
much also to the logic of events. The thirteen States had 
become twenty-six (Arkansas having been admitted in 1836, 
Michigan in 1887, the first since Missouri in 1821), the four 
millions of people had become eighteen. 

Texas afid the Mexican War. — A motive was now found 
sufficient to restore the Democratic party to power. Texas 
had been largely colonized between 1821 and 1835 from the 
Southern States. In the latter year it revolted from Mexico, 
and the next year asserted independence, with the unques- 
tioned purpose of ultimately joining the U. S. Independ- 
ence in fact was soon achieved under the leadership of 
Houston, and Texas in 1837 offered herself for admission to 
the Union. The accession was desired by the Southern 
States, both on account of kinship and for the opportunity 
that would thus be afforded for extending slave-labor over 
new soil. The national instinct of territorial aggrandize- 
ment came to re-enforce these motives, especially in view of 
the probability that Great Britain or France might seek to 
become the protector of the republic. Throughout the ad- 
ministration of Van Buren the movement acquired but little 
headway. President Tyler, a man of strong Southern feel- 
ings, the only Senator who voted against the Force Bill for 
compelling the obedience of South Carolina in the nullifica- 
tion contest, warmly approved of annexation, and a treaty 
to that effect was negotiated by Calhoun in 1844, which 
was rejected by the Senate. The question thus became the 
principal issue in the election of that year. The Whigs, 
having their main strength at the Nortn, opposed the an- 
nexation of Texas as being in the interest of slavery, and 
nominated Henry Clay, of Kentucky. The Democrats threw 
over Van Buren on account of his opposition to annexation, 
and nominated James K. Polk, of Tennessee, a strong advo- 
cate of that measure. Polk received 170 electoral votes, Clay 
105; but before the inauguration of Mr. Polk a resolution 
for the incorporation of Texas was passed by Congress, 
signed by President Tyler, Mar. 1, 1845, and notice sent to 
the government of Texas on the last day of his administra- 
tion. Florida and Iowa also came in as States about the 
same time. 



President Polk formed his cabinet as follows : James Bu- 
chanan, Secretary of State ; Robert J. Walker, of the Treas- 
ury ; William L. Marcy, of War ; George Bancroft, of the 
Navy ; Cave Johnson, Postmaster-General ; John Y. Mason, 
Attorney-General. The annexation of Texas involved war, 
inasmuch as Texas and the U. S. claimed the territory to 
the Kio Grande, while the Mexican Government insisted 
that Texas only embraced the territory bounded by the 
river Nueces, upon this issue hostilities commenced early 
in 1846. Congress voted men and money, and Gen. Zachary 
Taylor, commanding the forces on the Rio Grande, entered 
Mexico and fought the victorious battles of Palo Alto (May 
8) and Resaca de la Palma (May 9), and, after being re-en- 
forced by volunteers under Gens. Worth and Wool, cap- 
tured Monterey Sept. 23. In February of the next year he 
was attacked in position at Buena Vista by a large Mexican 
force under the President, Santa Anna, who was repulsed 
with great loss, and retreated, leaving Taylor in full posses- 
sion of the northeastern provinces. 

Meanwhile New Mexico had been occupied by the U. S. 
troops, and an invasion of Chihuahua took place with partial 
success. At about the same time a band of Americans under 
Capt. John C. Fremont, of the U. S. army, declared the inde- 
pendence of California at Sonora July 4, 1846, and with the 
co-operation of a fleet under Com. Sloat, soon superseded 
by Stockton, succeeded in reducing that province. But the 
army which was to decide the issue of the war was gather- 
ing for a movement up the valley of Mexico. In Mar., 1847, 
Vera Cruz, long deemed impregnable, was reduced after 
three days' bombardment; and Gen. Winfield Scott, with 
about 10,000 troops, mainly regulars, commanded by Gens. 
Worth (who had oeen detached from Taylor's army), Pillow, 
Quitman, and Twiggs, moved on Cerro "Gordo, where Santa 
Anna was posted with a superior force. This position was 
carried Apr. 18 and 19, but Gen. Scott awaited re-enforce- 
ments, having lost many men by the termination of their 
enlistments. In August he entered the valley of Mexico, 
which Santa Anna defended with 35,000 men. Sanguinary 
battles followed : Contreras, Aug. 19, 20; Churubusco, Aug. 
20 ; Molino del Rev, Sept. 8 ; Chapultepec, Sept. 12, 13 ; and 
on Sept. 14 Gen. Scott, with 6,500 men, all that remained 
of the invading column, entered the city of Mexico. The 
capture of the Mexican capital practically concluded the 
war; and by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Feb. 2, 1848, 
Mexico ceded the whole of Texas, New Mexico, and Upper 
California, while the U. S. paid $15,000,000, besides assuming 
certain claims of its citizens against Mexico on account of 
long-continued depredations in the Gulf, which had been 
the subject of negotiations since 1837, to the amount of more 
than $3,000,000. The U. S. subsequently (1850) paid Texas 
$10,000,000 on account of her claims to territory not included 
within the limits of the State. 

While war was waging with Mexico a rupture was threat- 
ened with Great Britain, on account of the conflicting claims 
to Oregon. The U. S. claimed as far N. as 54° 40 ; Great 
Britain claimed the mouth of the Columbia. The territory 
in question had long been in joint occupation, but all at- 
tempts at compromise had failed. At the election of 1844 
one of the watchwords of the Democratic party had been 
u Fifty-four Forty, or Fight ! " and President Polk gave for- 
mal notice that the U. S. receded from the arrangements 
for joint occupation that had subsisted. At this serious 
juncture Great Britain offered terms which were accepted, 
by which the 49th parallel became the boundary-line of the 
U. S. on the N. W., while Vancouver's island was relinquished 
to Great Britain. The failure in the treaty to define the 
status of the smaller island of San Juan led to further com- 
plications, which were not settled till 1871. 

The important financial measures of Polk's administration 
were the permanent re-establishment of the sub-treasury 
system in 1846, and the tariff of the same vear, by which 
duties were largely reduced. The election of 1848 found a 
third partv in the field. The Liberty party had polled about 
7,000 votes in 1840, and over 60,000 in 1844. In Aug., 1848, 
a convention at Buffalo, comprising the members of the 
Liberty party, with others, many of them Democrats, and 
some Whigs, disaffected by the course of the old parties 
respecting slavery, put forward a declaration of principles, 
ana presented as a candidate for the presidency Martin 
Van Buren, of New York, with Charles Francis Adams, of 
Massachusetts, for the vice-presidency. The new party suc- 
ceeded in polling nearly 300,000 votes, though, as it carried 
no State, it cast no vote in the electoral college. Its leading 
principle was opposition to the extension of slavery into 

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59 



new territory, and to the admission of new slave States out 
of territory already acquired. In all essentials its political 
doctrines were those which afterward led to the formation 
of the new Republican Party (q. v.). Slavery was to be 
sectional, freedom national — slavery to be local and excep- 
tional, to exist only where protected by the laws of States 
already members of the Union ; freedom was to be the gen- 
eral law of the land. These principles were regarded as 
embodied in the Wilraot Proviso, a proposition offered in 
1846 by David Wilmot {<j. v.), of Pennsylvania, in prospect 
of the acquisition of territory from Mexico through the war 
then waging. The Democrats, who had accomplished the 
annexation of Texas, and had conducted the Mexican war 
to its successful termination, nominated Lewis Cass, of 
Michigan. The Whigs nominated Gen. Zachary Taylor, of 
Louisiana, for President, and Millard Fillmore, of New York, 
for Vice-President, on a platform intended to conciliate the 
anti-slavery sentiment or the country. Taylor was elected 
by 163 votes against 127 for Cass. llis cabinet consisted of 
John M. Clayton, Secretary of State ; William M. Meredith, 
of the Treasury ; George W . Crawford, of War ; William B. 
Preston, of the Navy ; Thomas Ewing, of the Interior (that 
office having just been created) ; Jacob Collamer, Postmaster- 
General; Reverdy Johnson, Attorney-General. A little more 
than a year after his inauguration — viz., on July 9, 1850 — 
Gen. Taylor died ; Mr. Fillmore succeeded to the presidency. 
The cabinet was entirely reconstructed, as follows : Daniel 
Webster, Secretary of State ; Thomas Corwin, of the Treas- 
ury : Charles M. Conrad, of War ; William A. Graham, of the 
Navy; A. H. H. Stuart, of the Interior; N. K. Hall, Post- 
master-General ; J. J. Crittenden, Attorney-General. 

The Compromise of 1850. — Congress and the country were 
already in heated conflict, arising out of the proposed ex- 
tension of slavery to the new territory acquired by the treaty 
with Mexico. California had in 1840 formed a constitution 
prohibiting slavery, and applied for admission as a State. 
The Southern State Rights party, led by Calhoun, demanded 
the rejection of California, as well as a guaranty, through 
an amendment to the Constitution, against the further pro- 
scription of slavery. New Mexico also appeared as an appli- 
cant for admission, while Texas made extensive claims upon 
the territory of New Mexico. In 1850 Henry Clay again ap- 
peared as a pacificator, proposing and carrying the Com- 
promise measures of that year, by which, on the one hand, 
California was admitted without slavery and the slave-trade 
was prohibited within the District of Columbia, and, on the 
other hand, extensive concessions were made to Texas, and 
the rendition of fugitive slaves was sought to be secured by 
stringent provisions. As to Utah and New Mexico, the issue 
was for the time avoided by leaving them under territorial 
governments and remitting the question of slavery to the 
inhabitants. The series of measures containing those jpro- 
visions and known as the Compromise of 1850 passed Con- 
gress, with the support of Webster, and were approved by 
Fillmore in September. The most important measures con- 
cerning the foreign relations of the U. S. in this adminis- 
tration were (1) the so-called filibustering expedition to wrest 
Cuba from Spain, which resulted in the capture and execu- 
tion of many of the adventurers ; and (2) the negotiation of 
a treaty with Japan by Com. Perry, who had entered the 
waters of that country with a fleet for that purpose. 

The Slavery Question.— In the Constitution slavery, which 
had been introduced into the country as early as 1620, was 
treated as though it were of transient significance. In many 
of the Northern States it had already been abolished. In 
the South, however, owing largely to the invention of the 
cotton-gin, the raising of cotton by slaves soon became a 
very profitable industry. What, therefore, Washington and 
Jefferson regarded as a transient evil, to be eradicated at 
an early day, came to be strongly intrenched in what were 
believed to be the financial interests of the people. Instead 
of diminishing, the number of slaves increased, even after 
the lawful importation of slaves was discontinued. Mean- 
while, in the North, a strong anti-slavery sentiment was de- 
veloped. Though at first the sympathisers with the agita- 
tion were few, the number steadily increased. Anti-slavery 
papers, started by Lundt and Garrison (qq. v.\ slowly but 
surely gained adherents. John Quincy Adams led the attack 
for the exclusion of slavery from the District of Columbia, 
and Phillips (q. v.) aroused public opinion for the abolition 
of slavery from all parts of the country. Intense excite- 
ment and bitterness resulted. The people of the North were 
not generally in favor of interfering with slavery where it 
existed, believing that it was a domestic institution, which 



under the Constitution could be dealt with only by the indi- 
vidual States. But they were intensely opposed to the in- 
troduction of slavery into territory where it did not already 
exist. They insisted, moreover, upon the right of agitation 
for the purpose of forming and moulding public opinion. 
The people of the South, on the other hand, insisted that as 
slavery was a domestic institution, the people of the North 
had no right to interfere with it, even by tne promulgation 
of anti-slavery opinions. Anti-slaverv books and papers, as 
far as possible, were excluded from the South. The publi- 
cation of Mrs. Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin, in 1852 created 
a profound and almost universal impression in the North. 
By means of these conflicting opinions the gulf between the 
North and the South grew wider and wider. William H. 
Seward {q. v.) in 1858 spoke of the subject as an '• irrepress- 
ible conflict/* The intensity of the strain was increased by 
the fact that many in the North refused to assist in the re- 
turn of fugitive slaves. Some even assisted in the escape of 
slaves to Canada, where they could not be arrested and re- 
turned. 

The election of 1852 found both the great political parties 
insisting on the Compromise of 1850 as "a finality." Many 
of the dissatisfied Democrats who had voted for Van Buren 
in 1848 had gone back to their party, and the popular vote 
of the Free-soil or Liberty party of 1852 was little more than 
half of that of the election previous. Gen. Scott, who had 
been nominated by the Whigs, was defeated, receiving bat 
42 electoral votes, all from four States, against 254 votes for 
Franklin Pierce, who, with William R. King, of Alabama, 
for Vice-President, had been nominated by the Democrats. 
President Pierce's cabinet consisted of William L. Marcy, 
Secretary of State ; James Guthrie, of the Treasury ; Jeffer- 
son Davis, of War ; James C. Dobbin, of the Navy ; Robert 
McClelland, of the Interior ; James Campbell, Postmaster- 
General; Caleb Cushing, Attorney-General. In 1853 the 
U. S. acquired, by purchase from Mexico, the tract S. of the 
river Gila in Arizona and New Mexico, containing 45,535 sq. 
miles, known as the Gadsden purchase. 

Early in 1854 Stephen A. Douglas, of Illinois, the most 
conspicuous of the younger leaders of the Democratic party, 
introduced into the Senate a bill for the organization of 
territorial governments in Kansas and Nebraska, prepara- 
tory to their admission as States. By the Missouri Compro- 
mise of 1820 slavery was to be forever excluded from that 
region, but the Kansas-Nebraska bill repealed this provision, 
leaving the question to be determined by the inhabitants 
themselves, under the principle advocated by Douglas, 
known as "squatter sovereignty." This most unwise and 
disastrous effort to open the burning question once more 
by making it possible for slavery to be introduced into Ter- 
ritories N. of the Compromise line, encountered earnest 
resistance from the Whjgs and the few Free-soilers in Con- 
gress, and aroused intense indignation in many portions of 
the North. The bill was, however, firmly pressed, and be- 
came a law in May. 

The Kansas War. — A contest at once began for the colo- 
nization of Kansas, the more southerly of the two Territories, 
active efforts being made in the free States to induce migra- 
tion hostile to slavery, while the opposing party sought to 
secure Kausas both through immigration and through peri- 
odical raids from the border counties of Missouri. Violence 
was freely resorted to, and many undoubted wrongs were 
perpetrated by both parties. This struggle, which at times 
amounted to civil war, continued through the presidency 
of Pierce, and was bequeathed to his successor. The anti- 
slavery sentiment of the North was still further inflamed by 
a conference between the U. S. ministers to France, Spain, 
and Great Britain, which resulted in their issuing a circu- 
lar known as the Ostend Manifesto, favoring the acquisition 
of Cuba in the interest of slavery, and by a violent assault 
made in 1856 by Preston S. Brooks, of South Carolina, for 
words spoken in debate, upon Senator Charles Sumner (see 
Sumner, Charles), of Massachusetts, who with Chase, of 
Ohio (see Chase, Salmon P.), and Seward, of New York, had 
led the opposition to the repeal of the Missouri Compromise. 
The Free-soil party of 1848 and 1852 now passed into the 
Republican party, which for the election of 1856 nominated 
John C. Fremont on a declaration of opposition to the ex- 
tension of slavery into the Territories. So strong had be- 
come the sense of the inadequacy of the Whig party to offer 
resistance to the encroachments of the slavery propagan- 
dists that the popular vote for Fremont rose above 1,300,000. 
This, while nearly 500,000 short of the vote for Buchanan, 
the Democratic candidate, was yet 500,000 in excess of the 

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vote for Fillmore, the former President, who had been nomi- 
nated by the Whigs. In the electoral college Buchanan re- 
ceived 174 votes, Fremont 114, Fillmore 8. This passage of 
the Whigs into the Republican party was assisted by a vio- 
lent popular agitation in 1854 against the political influence 
of foreigners who had been naturalized as citizens of the 
U. S. These generally voted with the Democratic party. 
This agitation against foreign influence led to the forma- 
tion of a secret political society known as the Native Ameri- 
can order, more popularly as the Knownothings (q. v.), 
which in 1854 carnea several States and elected many mem- 
bers of Congress, but in 1856 fell away in the presence of 
the more exciting issue of slavery. On the last day of 
Pierce's adraiuistration (Mar. 8, 1857), a tariff bill passed 
Congress which greatly reduced the customs duties of 1846. 
Buchanan, who as U. S. minister to Great Britain had taken 
part in the Ostend conference, constituted his cabinet of 
Lewis Cass, Secretary of State ; Howell Cobb, of the Treas- 
ury; John B. Floyd, of War; Isaac Toucey, of the Navy; 
Jacob Thompson, of the Interior; Aaron V. Brown, Post- 
master-General ; and Jeremiah S. Black, Attorney-General. 

The troubles in Kansas still continued to agitate the en- 
tire country. In the struggle between the Free-State and 
the Slave-State parties the power of the administration was 
thrown in favor of the latter, and that party in Congress, in 
spite of the opposition of a minority of its members headed 
by Stephen A. Douglas, carried through a bill submitting 
to the people of Kansas for ratification the so-called Le- 
compton constitution, which had been framed by the pro- 
slavery party, constituting an unmistakable minority of the 
State. Meanwhile several of the Northern States passed 
acts intended to assert the personal liberty of their citizens 
against certain of the provisions of the Fugitive-slave laws, 
which were deemed unconstitutional, by securing a jury 
trial and the privilege of habeas corpus in the cases of al- 
leged fugitives from service. On tne other hand, the Su- 
preme Court, of which Roger B. Taney, once Gen. Jackson's 
Attorney-General and Secretary of the Treasury, was chief 
justice, decided in the Dred Scott case in favor of the claim 
of the extreme Southern State Rights partisans, that the 
slaveholder should be allowed to carry his property with 
him anywhere under the protection of the Constitution. 
The question of slavery had now become the one question 
of national politics, and it. was evident that, as the Whig 
party had been rent by the antagonisms developed by this 
issue, the Democratic "party was to be likewise disrupted in 
the efforts of the Southern leaders to assert the nationality 
of slavery. The leader of the more conservative Democrats 
was Senator Douglas, by whose act in 1854 the question of 
slavery in the Territories had been reopened after the settle- 
ment of 1820. The approaching conflict of arms was inti- 
mated toward the close of Buchanan's administration by 
the attempt of John Brown (q. v.), formerly a leader of the 
Free-State party in the Kansas struggles, to seize the U. S. 
armory at Harper's Ferry, Va., for the carrying out of 
plans he had formed for the wholesale escape of the slaves 
of that region. After a brief success and a fierce resistance, 
Brown and his party were overcome by a detachment of 
IT. S. troops, and were given up to the State authorities for 
trial and execution. 

The disruption of the Democratic partv, in consequence 
of the manner in which the issue of the nationality of 
slavery was pressed by the Southern wing, occurred at the 
national convention held at Charleston in Apr., 1860, for 
the nomination of Buchanan's successor, when the majority 
of the Southern delegates withdrew upon the passage of a 
resolution declaring that the constitutional status of slavery 
should be determined by the Supreme Court. In conse- 
quence of the secession, the convention was adjourned till 
June, when Douglas was nominated. The seceding dele- 
gates met later in convention and nominated John C. Breck- 
en ridge, of Kentucky, who had been Vice-President with 
Buchanan. A convention representing what was called the 
Constitutional Union party, embracing many former Whigs, 
with what was left of the Native American party, nomi- 
nated John Bell, of Tennessee, with Edward Everett, of 
Massachusetts, for Vice-President. The Republican nation- 
al convention nominated Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois, with 
Hannibal Hamlin, of Maine, for Vice-President, on a decla- 
ration of principles which, while leaving "inviolate the 
rights of the States, and especially the right of each State 
to order and control its own domestic institutions," made 
freedom •' the normal condition of all the territory of the 
U. S." Douglas received 12 votes from Missouri and New 



Jersey ; Bell received 89 votes from Virginia, Kentucky, and 
Tennessee ; Breckenridge received all the Southern votes re- 
maining, 72 in number ; Lincoln received all the Northern 
votes remaining, 180 in number, and was elected. 

Among other events and measures of Buchanan's admin- 
istration must be noted the expedition under Col. Albert S. 
Johnston against the Mormons in Utah, to assert the au- 
thoritv of the Government, which had been defied by Brig- 
ham Young ; the admission of Minnesota as a State in 1858, 
and of Oregon in 1859 ; but particularly the commercial 
and financial crisis of 1857, which began in September with 
the failure of a large trust company in New York, produc- 
ing a panic which spread rapidly, until in two or three 
weeks' time the banks had generally suspended and numer- 
ous failures, mainly commercial, had occurred. The recov- 
ery from the effects of this disaster was, however, very 
prompt, and no long suspension of industry resulted. 

Tlie Civil War.— -The canvass preceding the election of 
Lincoln (q. v,) had been highly exciting. Extensive prepa- 
rations for conflict followed at the South, with a general 
arming and drilling of the population. The Southern lead- 
ers declared the election of a President pledged to oppose 
the extension of slavery to be a moral invasion of the slave 
States, and a violation of their constitutional rights. South 
Carolina led in secession in Dec, 1860 ; other slave States 
followed, and in February, 1861, their delegates met in con- 
vention at Montgomery, Ala., and framed a constitution for 
" the Confederate States of America." Jefferson Davis, of 
Mississippi, was chosen President, Alexander H. Stephens, 
of Georgia, Vice-President. Apr. 12 the troops of South 
Carolina opened fire on the U. S. garrison of Fort Sumter in 
Charleston harbor, which two days later surrendered. The 
news of actual conflict overcame alike the scruples of the 
Democrats at the North and of the Unionists at the South, 
and each section went into the war practically entire. 
Eleven States, with an aggregate population of 9,000,000, were 
arrayed against the Government Kentucky, Maryland, and 
Delaware remained in the Union, though the first two fur- 
nished many soldiers to the Confederate armies. 

Lincoln had been inaugurated on Mar. 4. His cabinet 
was constituted as follows : William H. Seward, Secretary 
of State ; Salmon P. Chase, of the Treasury ; Simon Cam- 
eron, of War ; Gideon Welles, of the Navy ; Caleb B. Smith, 
of the Interior ; Montgomery Blair, Postmaster-General ; 
Edward Bates, Attorney-General. 

The day following the surrender of Sumter the President 
issued a call for 75,000 militia, which were put under arms 
in a surprisingly short time. The strong sympathy with 
secession in Baltimore led to an attack by a mob upon the 
Sixth Massachusetts Regiment, on the way to Washington, 
Apr. 19, in which several soldiers were killed. A military 
occupation of the city soon suppressed the rebellious senti- 
ment, and the arriving militia took position along the Poto- 
mac in defense of Washington, already menaced by the 
Confederates. For an account of this and the other events 
of the civil war, see Confederate States. 

The conduct of the civil war (1861-65) had been much 
embarrassed by fears of interference on the part of France 
and Great Britain. Such action was rendered more proba- 
ble on the part of the latter power from the irritation caused 
by the seizure of Mason and Slidell, Confederate envoys to 
England and France, who were taken off the British vessel 
Trent by Capt. Wilkes, of the U. S. steamer San Jacinto, in 
Nov., 1861. War was averted by the release of the envoys 
on the demand of Great Britain. The occupation of Mex- 
ico by the European powers and the attempt to establish an 
empire by the aid of French troops (see Maximilian) were 
also regarded by the U. S. Government as a menace. 

Perhaps in no war has the conduct of affairs been more 
affected by political exigencies. In 1862 and 1863 elections 
in several States went against the administration, and the 
necessity of resorting to a draft in the summer of 1863 led 
to riots in New York, which involved much loss of life and 
property, and required for their suppression considerable 
detachments from the armv. (See Draft Riots.) The 
measures which were especially obnoxious were the suspen- 
sion of the Habeas Corpus Act, the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia and in the Territories, the enlistment 
of colored soldiers, and the proclamation of the President 
(Jan. 1, 1863). declaring free all persons held as slaves in all 
States and parts of States in rebellion. 

In 1864 tne Democrats nominated for the presidency Gen. 
George B. McClellan on a platform denouncing the arbi- 
trary measures of the executive and declaring the war a 

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failure. Lincoln was renominated by the Republican party, 
and elected, with Andrew Johnson/of Tennessee, as Vice- 
President, by 212 votes against 21 for McClellan. On Apr. 
14. I860, a little more than a month after his reinauguration, 
President Lincoln was assassinated at Washington by J. 
Wilkes Booth. Booth was killed by his pursuers, and four 
of his accomplices were executed on the sentence of the 
military court. Vice-President Johnson succeeded to the 
presidency. 

No one" was criminally punished for participation in the 
war of secession. Jefferson Davis, President of the Con- 
federacy, after the fall of Richmond, escaped southward, 
was captured in Georgia, placed on trial, and released on 
bail. Several successive amnesty proclamations of increas- 
ing scope were issued between May, 1865, and Dec, 1868, 
the last being universal. By proclamation of the President 
of the U. S. the civil war was declared at an end on Apr. 2, 
1866. 

The financial legislation of the war covered the issue, in 
1862 and subsequently, of notes of the U. S., constituting a 
legal tender; the issue of interest-bearing bonds of several 
different descriptions; the establishment of the national 
banking system ; the increase of customs duties from the 
low average under the tariff of 1857 to an average of nearly 
50 per cent. ; the imposition of a great varietv of excise du- 
ties and a direct tax. (See the titles Bank, Currency, and 
Tariffs.) The ordinary expenditures of the Government 
which had to be thus provided for rose from $60,000,000 in 
1860 to $1,21 7.000,000 in 1865. 

Reconstruction. — The work of political reconstruction 
constitutes the great feature of tne history of the U. S. 
from 1865 till the withdrawal of Federal troops from the 
Southern States in 1877. In 1863 fiftv counties of Virginia 
W. of the Alleghanies were admitted to the Union as the 
State of West Virginia, being the thirty-fifth State, the re- 
quired formal assent of Virginia thereto being given by a 
legislature gathered from a few counties adjacent to Wash- 
ington. In Dec., 1863, a proclamation of the President pro- 
vided for the re-establishment of civil government in any 
seceded State on the initiative of a number of qualified 
voters, not less than one-tenth of the number voting at the 
presidential election of 1860. Under this scheme govern- 
ments were instituted in 1864 in Louisiana and Arkansas. 
In 1865 the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, abolish- 
ing slavery within the U. S. and all places subject to their 
jurisdiction, was ratified by three-fourths of the States, and 
was proclaimed by the Secretary of State Dec. 18. In 1865 
provisional governors were appointed by the President in 
most of the Southern States, the regular army of the U. S. 
still remaining in occupation of the territory, though the 
volunteers had been disbanded. Bv these provisional gov- 
ernors conventions were to be called to place the several 
States in a position to resume their interrupted federal re- 
lations, the principal conditions being the repeal of the or- 
dinances of secession, the repudiation of public debts in- 
curred in aid of the Confederacy, and the abolition of 
slavery by the authority and as the act of the States them- 
selves. Such conventions were held and ordinances passed, 
but the action was not satisfactory to the Republican party 
in Congress, with which President Johnson soon broke even 
more completely than President Tyler had broken with the 
Whig party in 1842. It was alleged by the Republican 
leaders that the Southern whites were seeking by stringent 
laws of apprenticeship and vagabondage to reduce the late 
slaves to a condition of virtual slavery. Congress there- 
fore refused to admit the Senators and Representatives of 
the reorganized governments, and in April, by a two-thirds 
vote, passed over the President's veto, the Civil Rights Bill, 
intended to protect the freedmen, and enlarging the juris- 
diction of the U. S. courts to this end. In June, 1865, the 
two houses of Congress proposed the 14th Amendment to 
the Constitution, which was subsequently ratified by the 
requisite number of States, and proclaimed July 28,1868. 
This provides in its first section that all persons born or 
naturalized in the U. S., and subject to the jurisdiction 
thereof, shall be deemed to be citizens of the U. S. and of 
the State where they reside, and that no State shall make 
or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or im- 
munities of citizens of the U. S. ; nor shall any State de- 
prive any person of life, liberty, or property without due 
process of law, nor deny to anv person within its jurisdic- 
tion the equal protection of the law ; and Congress is author- 
ized to enforce these provisions by appropriate legislation. 
The second section of the amendment sought to induce the 



States to confer the right of suffrage on the blacks by pro- 
viding that otherwise the representation of any State should 
be diminished in the proportion which the excluded classes 
bore to the total population ; but, inasmuch as a subsequent 
amendment conferred the right of suffrage without distinc- 
tion of color and without reference to the choice of the 
States, this section of the 14th Amendment remains wholly 
without content. The third section prohibits certain classes 
of persons, participants in the rebellion, from holding office 
under the U. S. or any of them until such disability shall 
have been removed by a two-thirds vote of both houses 
of Congress. The fourth section provides that the validity 
of the public debt of the U. S. shall not be questioned, anil 
that the U. S. or any of them shall never assume or pay any 
debt incurred in insurrection, or any claims for the loss or 
emancipation of any slave. 

The antagonism between the President and the Repub- 
lican majority in Congress gradually increased, until Con- 
gress, in Mar., 1867, passed over the veto the Tenure of 
Office Act, to limit the President's power of removal from 
office. In Feb., 1868, the President, in defiance of this law — 
which he deemed an unconstitutional invasion of the execu- 
tive functions — designated Gen. Lorenzo Thomas, adjutant- 
general of the array, as Secretary of War ad interim, remov- 
ing Stanton (q. v.) from the office. This led immediately 
to an impeachment of the President by the House of Repre- 
sentatives, which was tried by the Senate, the chief justice 
presiding. President Johnson was acquitted, the prosecu- 
tion failing to secure a two-thirds vote for conviction. Sec- 
retary Stanton, resigning, was succeeded by Gen. John M. 
Schofield, and Attornev-General Stanberv, a little later, was 
succeeded by William M. Evarts, who had been of the Presi- 
dent's counsel. 

The presidential election approaching, Johnson failed of 
renoraination by either party, the Democrats putting for- 
ward Horatio Seymour, formerly Governor of New York, 
the Republicans nominating Gen. U. S. Grant, with Schuyler 
Colfax, of Indiana, Speaker of the House of Representatives, 
for Vice-President. Grant and Colfax were elected, receiv- 
ing 214 votes again t 80 for their opponents ; three States, 
Virginia, Texas, and Mississippi, were not admitted to the 
electoral college. 

The accessions to the U. S. during Johnson's administra- 
tion had been through the ad mission of Nebraska as the 
thirty-seventh State in 1867, Nevada having been admitted 
as the thirty-sixth State in 1866, and the purchase of Alaska 
from Russia for the sum of $7,000,000. In Feb., 1869, just 
before the expiration of Johnson's term of office, the 15th 
Amendment to the Constitution was passed by Congress over 
the veto. This amendment provides that the rights of citi- 
zens of the U. S. to vote shall not be denied or abridged by 
the U. S., or by any State, on account of race, color, or pre- 
vious condition of servitude. It received the ratification of 
the requisite number of States, and was proclaimed Mar. 30, 
1870. 

In President Grant's administration the office of the At- 
torney-General was enlarged to constitute the administra- 
tive department of justice, having supervision of U. S. dis- 
trict attorneys and marshals. All the States were restored 
to representation in Congress. Between 1869 and 1873 the 
tariff duties imposed during the war suffered considerable 
reductions, while the internal revenue duties were mainly 
abolished, except as to spirits and tobacco. The reform of 
the civil service was begun in this administration ; but Con- 
gress failed to furnish the requisite means for carrying it 
on, and no great progress was made. The completion of the 
Union Pacific and Central Pacific railways, making a con- 
tinuous line from the Missouri to the Pacific, was effected 
in 1869. Out of the connection of the Government with 
the?e roads arose much scandal from the alleged corruption 
of certain members of Congress, who were charged with re- 
ceiving stock of the Credit Mobilier Company, which built 
the road. The charges were investigated by Congress in 
winter of 1872-73, with much injury to the reputation of 
several members. 

During the presidential election of 1868, which was the 
first national election after the 15th Amendment to the 
Constitution, numerous outrages were perpetrated upon the 
colored people of several of the Southern States, and in- 
timidation was largely exercised to restrain their political 
action. These acts were generally committed by masked 
men, supposed to belong to a widespread organization to 
which was popularly given the name Ku-Klux Klan (a. v.) 
In Apr., 1871, an act was framed under the authority of the 

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14th Amendment to the Constitution, enlarging the juris- 
diction of the U. S. courts for the punishment of such of- 
fenses. 

In 1871 a treaty was negotiated at Washington between 
commissioners on the part of the U. S. and of Great Britain 
for the settlement of the Alabama and other claims against 
Great Britain arising out of the depredations of the Con- 
federate cruisers built in England, and also for the adjust- 
ment of the conflicting claims of the two countries to the 
islands of the San Juan group between Vancouver's island 
and the continent on the Northwest. The latter were re- 
ferred to the Emperor of Germany as arbitrator, who de- 
cided in favor of the U. S. The Alabama and kindred 
claims were referred to a tribunal to be convened at Geneva, 
consisting of five arbitrators, appointed, one each, by the 
President of the U. S., the Queen of England, the King 
of Italy, the President of the Swiss Confederation, and the 
Emperor of Brazil. The arbitrator on the part of the U. S. 
was Charles Francis Adams, who had been minister to Great 
Britain during the war. The tribunal assembled in Dec, 
1871, and, after hearing the evidence and the arguments, 
awaided to the U. S. a gross sum of $15,500,000, to be dis- 
tributed by the Government. By the same treaty certain 
other claimfc, both of American citizens against the British 
Government and of British citizens against the Government 
of the U. S., were referred to a joint commission of three. 
The commissioner on the part of the U. S. was James S. 
Frazer. The commission met at Washington in Sept., 1871, 
and sat nearly two years, making a net award against the 
U. S. of about $2,000,000. Another commission, provided 
for by the treaty for determining the disputed rights of 
navigation and fishing between Canada ana the U. S., met 
at Halifax in 1877, and awarded $5,500,000 to Great Britain. 

The unsettled condition of affairs in Santo Domingo in 
1869-71 led- to propositions for its acquisition by the U . S., 
and the President appointed a commission to visit that ter- 
ritory and report respecting the state of society therein ; 
which they did", but with no practical result. 

As the presidential election of 1872 approached, consid- 
erable dissatisfaction was developed among a section of the 
Republican party in consequence of many alleged abuses of 
the public patronage, especially the manner in which the 
power of the administration had been used to sustain Re- 
publican ascendency through Negro votes in the Southern 
States. In May a convention of Liberal Republicans met at 
Cincinnati and nominated Horace Greeley, of New York, for 
President. This nomination was ratified by the Democratic 
convention, though a very small section dt the party repu- 
diated the action and nominated Charles O'Conor, of New 
York. The Republicans in convention at Philadelphia re- 
nominated President Grant, with Henry Wilson, of Massa- 
chusetts, for Vice-President. The Republican ticket received 
the electoral vote of twenty-nine States — in all, 286 votes. 
The votes of Arkansas and Louisiana were thrown out for 
irregularities. The remaining six States, all late slave States, 
went Democratic, but Greeley having died before the as- 
sembling of the electoral college, this vote was scattered ac- 
cording to local preferences. 

In Oct., 1873, the steamer Virginius, carrying the U. S. 
flag, and having on board munitions of war and recruits for 
the insurgents in Cuba, was captured by a Spanish armed 
vessel, and a number of the prisoners shot by tne authorities 
in Cuba. War was anticipated, and considerable naval 
preparations were made by the U. S., but the lawless char- 
acter of the Virginius was fully established, and friendly 
relations were restored, Spain paying a sum for the relief of 
the families of the victims. 

In the same year there was a commercial crisis resulting 
in frequent and disastrous failures in business, owing to the 
unsatisfactory condition of the currency and the prevalent 
spirit of speculation. At the outbreak of the war a paper 
currency was issued in such quantity that at the close of the 
struggle the "greenback" dollar was greatly depreciated. 
Prices rose enormously and the spirit of speculation became 
general. It was the era of railway building. Enormous for- 
tunes were made, and these enticed people into unsafe ven- 
tures. The commercial crisis that followed was laid at the 
door of the administration, and consequently the congres- 
sional elections of 1874 turned a Republican majority of 
sixty or seventy in the House of Representatives into a nearly 
equal Democratic majority. After the panic of 1873 both 
houses of Congress passed a bill for the further inflation of 
the currency, but this bill was vetoed by the President. Just 
before the incoming of the new House of Representatives, 



Congress passed an act declaring that specie payments, which 
had been suspended early in the civil war, should be resumed 
by the U. S. on Jan. 1, 1879. 

In the autumn of 1875 the elections in the States of Ohio 
and Pennsylvania were severely contested between the 
Democrats and the Republicans on the currency issue, popu- 
larly known as " hard money " or " soft money, the position 
taken by the former party being that the Resumption Act of 

1875 was arbitrary, ineffective, and injurious to the industry 
of the country. Both these elections were carried by the 
Republicans. The Democrats coming into power in the 
House of Representatives for the first time in sixteen years, 
many investigations Were made by special and standing 
committees into the conduct of affairs by the Republicans, 
and reports were made censuring the conduct of various 
cabinet officers and subordinate officials. On the report of 
a committee to examine the expenditures of the War Depart- 
ment, William W. Belknap was impeached as Secretary of 
War for corruption in the appointment of a post-tradership. 
The impeachment was tried by the Senate, and Mr. Bel- 
knap, wno had resigned from office before the vote of im- 
peachment, was acquitted, less than two-thirds voting for 
conviction. 

In May, 1876, an international exhibition was opened at 
Philadelphia under the auspices of the U. S. Government, 
which made an appropriation of $1,500,000 for the purpose, 
while the private, municipal, and State subscriptions aggre- 
gated several times that amount. 

One of the features of President Grant's administration 
was the appointment of Indian agents upon the recommen- 
dation of the religious societies and missionary boards hav- 
ing the spiritual charge of the tribes. This did not, how- 
ever, prevent three Indian wars. The first occurred with 
the Apaches in Arizona, who, after numerous depredations 
and massacres, were severely punished by Gen. Crook. A 
second with the Modocs, a small band under "Captain 
Jack," ranging in Southern Oregon and Northern Califor- 
nia, began in 1873 with the massacre of Gen. Edward R. S. 
Canby while treating with the savages, and was closed by 
the utter destruction of the band after severe losses to the 
U. S. troops, from the difficult character of the lava-beds in 
whioh Captain Jack made his stand. The third began in 

1876 with a large body of Sioux Indians under Sitting Bull 
in Montana, who refused to receive the terms of the Gov- 
ernment and remain at the agencies established for them. 
In June Gen. George A. Custer moved against the hostile 
Sioux with a regiment of cavalry, and, dividing his com- 
mand, advanced with five companies into the neighborhood 
of a camp of more than 2,000 warriors. Custer and his 
troops were surrounded and every man fell, no one remain- 
ing alive to tell the tale. The other companies of Custer's 
command were attacked by the Indians, but were saved by 
the arrival of Gen. Terry with a large body of infantry. 
Extensive preparations were at once made by the Govern- 
ment for punishing this band, and a formidable expedition 
under Gens. Crook and Terry was sent against them, but 
without important result. 

On the approach of the presidential election of 1876 the 
Republican party in convention at Cincinnati nominated 
for President Rutherford B. Hayes, Governor of Ohio, with 
William A. Wheeler, of New York, for Vice-President. The 
Democratic convention nominated for President Samuel J. 
Tilden, Governor of New York, with Thomas A. Hendricks, 
Governor of Indiana, for Vice-President, on a platform de- 
manding the repeal of the Resumption Act of 1875. The 
election that followed resulted in one of the greatest strains 
to which the Constitution was ever subjected. From South 
Carolina, Florida, Louisiana, and Oregon two sets of returns 
were sent in. In each of these States one set of the votes 
was entirely Republican, while the other set was entirely 
Democratic, except in Oregon, where two votes were Repub- 
lican and one Democratic. If all these States should cast 
their entire vote for the Republican ticket Hayes would 
have 185 votes and Tilden 184. If even the odd Democratic 
vote of Oregon should be cast for Tilden he would have 185 
votes and would be elected. The Senate was Republican 
and the House was Democratic, and therefore Congress 
could not agree on a method of counting the votes. It was 
finally decided that the disputed points should be submitted 
to a commission of five Senators, five Representatives, and 
five members of the Supreme Court. The commission had 
eight Republicans and seven Democrats. Every question 
was decided by a strict party vote, and consequently Hayes 
received 185 votes and was declared elected. The decision 



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AND TfiEATY 



i I »NIUA I. 

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i 1899 

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63 



was not announced until Mar. 2, two days before the inau- 
guration. See Presidential Electoral Commission. 

The administration of President Hayes was free from the 
scandals that had but recently prevailed. One of his first 
acts was to withdraw the Federal troops from the South and 
thus leave the Southern States to govern themselves. The 
period of reconstruction was closed by this act. In 1873 the 
Coinage Act had put an end to the free coinage of silver in 
the U. S. (See Silver Coinage in the U. S.) In 1878 the 
Bland Silver Bill, providing for the coinage of silver dollars 
of 412fr grains in quantities of not less than $2,000,000. and 
not more than $4,000,000 a month, became a law. In 1879 
specie payment was resumed. 

Beginnings of Civil Service Reform. — In 1880 James A. 
Garfield, the Republican candidate, was elected President and 
Chester A. Arthur Vice-President, Garfield receiving 214 
electoral votes as against 155 cast for the Democratic candi- 
date, Gen. Hancock. No sooner was the result of the elec- 
tion known than the clamor for offices broke out with un- 
wonted violence. Congress had given very meager support 
to the efforts of the Presidents to establish civilservice re- 
form (see Civil Service and Civil Service Reform), and the 
contributors to Garfield's success now claimed their reward. 
The President refused to comply with the demands of the 
Senators from New York in regard to the collectorship of the 
port of New York city, whereupon both Senators tendered 
their resignations to the New York Legislature. On July 2 
the President was shot in a railway station in Washington 
by a man named Guiteau, who had failed to obtain a small 
office. After more than ten weeks of painful lingering the 
President died Sept. 19, and was succeeded by Vice-President 
Arthur. The horror of this great crime awakened the peo- 
ple to the evils of the " spoils system," and an act was soon 
passed for the reform of the civil service. The strength of 
the reform movement thus set on foot during the adminis- 
tration of President Arthur showed itself in the election of 
1884. The candidates were the Republican leader James G. 
Blaine and the Democratic Governor of New York G rover 
Cleveland (qq. v.). Many Republicans now identified with 
the reform movement refused to support Blaine, who re- 
ceived 182 electoral votes, while Cleveland received 219, and 
was therefore elected. The reform of the civil service con- 
tinued to be slowly but surely advanced. 

Financial Questions. — As the great questions involved in 
the civil war and the reconstruction of the Southern States 
were gradually settled, questions of finance assumed increas- 
ing importance. The pension laws for the assistance of vet- 
erans of the war made large and increasing demands on the 
treasury. The existing tariff laws were highly unsatisfac- 
tory to Cleveland's administration. The Walker tariff of 
1846, enacted, for the most part, for revenue only, had con- 
tinued, with modifications still further reducing the rates in 
1857, till the outbreak of the war. The necessity of addi- 
tional revenue and the advent to power of the Republican 
party, which had inherited the old Whig doctrines of a tariff 
for protection as well as revenue, led to the high protective 
Morrill acts of 1861 and 1862. These acts from time to time 
were modified, the modifications being often in the in- 
terest of higher protection. In 1887 President Cleveland 
made the question of the tariff the subject of his message to 
Congress. Advocating an abandonment of the protective 
policy, he urged the establishment of a revenue tariff which 
should tend toward the ultimate establishment of free trade. 
This message brought the tariff question into immediate 
prominence, and caused it to overshadow all other issues in 
the next election. The Republicans put forward as their 
candidate Benjamin Harrison, of Indiana, a grandson of 
President William Henry Harrison. Cleveland received 168 
electoral votes and Harrison 233. 

This popular indorsement of the principle of protection led 
to the enactment of the McKinley tariff of 1890, which large- 
ly increased the duty on certain articles and diminished it 
on others, all the provisions of the act being adjusted for the 
purpose of further emphasizing the principle of protection 
to American industries. At about the same time the pen- 
sion laws were modified so as greatly to increase the de- 
mands upon the treasury from this source. In the mean- 
while the operation of the Bland silver law had stimulated 
the development of mines and the production of silver, and 
this result had emphasized the popular call for a more lib- 
eral rate of coinage. The demand was met by the Sherman 
act. which provided for large monthly purchases of silver 
bullion. An attempt to pass what was commonly called the 
Force Bill, providing for Federal supervision of elections, 



intensified political feeling. There were also unmistakable 
signs of financial uneasiness. The very rapid accumulation 
of silver in the treasury caused bv the Bland and the Sher- 
man acts awakened a financial distrust which was followed 
by a large balance of trade against the country, and the 
consequent embarrassment of large exports of gold. These 
several untoward facts contributed to the result of the elec- 
tion in 1892. Harrison and Cleveland were both renomi- 
nated ; Cleveland received 277 electoral votes, Harrison 145. 
The so-called People's Party cast 22 electoral votes. The 
House of Representatives became overwhelmingly Demo- 
cratic, and the victorious party also obtained a slight ma- 
jority in the Senate. Thus for the first time since the civil 
war the Democrats were placed in control of both the elec- 
tive branches of the Government. During President Har- 
rison's term, six new States— the two Dakotas, Wyoming, 
Montana, Idaho, and Washington — had been admitted to the 
Union. The census of 1890 showed that the Northwest had 
enormously increased in population and wealth during the 
preceding ten years. That the influence of this region had 
grown in corresponding measure was shown by the feet that, 
after a very warm contest between different cities for the 
World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, Congress decided 
that it should be held at Chicago. 

The first important act of Cleveland's second administra- 
tion was to call an extra session of Congress for the purpose 
of dealing with the financial situation. The exports of gold 
and the accumulations of silver were so great that the 
President earnestly recommended the repeal of the silver 
clause in the Sherman act. Congress adopted this recom- 
mendation, though only after a long discussion which dis- 
closed a formidable faction or party that advocated the free 
coinage of silver. The repeal, however, did not avert the 
impending crisis. In view of an anticipated radical change 
in the tariff, the manufactures of the country fell into deep 
depression, and the rapid fall in the price of silver caused a 
very general wreck of industries in the mining States. The 
crash resulted in the suspension of many banks and the fail- 
ure of many business houses. The Wilson Tariff Act, adopted 
in 1894, was far less radical as a measure for revenue only 
than the one the leaders of the party had advocated, for the 
reason that a few Democratic members of the Senate could 
not be brought to co-operate with their party colleagues. 
The act was a source of bitter disappointment to a majority 
of the people in many ways. It fell short of what the advo- 
cates of tariff reform desired, and it provided for a tax upon 
persons having incomes of more than $4,000 a year. The 
opposition aroused by these two features of the measure and 
the continued financial depression led to overwhelming Re- 
publican victories throughout the country in Nov., 1894. 
The Senate was given a small Republican majority, while 
in the House of Representatives the victorious party had 
more than twice as many members as their opponents. On 
May 21, 1895, the Supreme Court, by a majority of five judges 
against four, declared those portions of the Wilson act which 
established an income tax invalid, on the ground that they 
provided for what is practically a " direct tax," in a man- 
ner not authorized by the Constitution. This decision by 
a majority of one in a court of nine judges is a most inter- 
esting and significant example of the authority of this 
branch of the Federal Government. 

The presidential campaign of 1896 was characterized by 
great political tension, a remarkable sundering of party 
ties, and much anxiety in regard to its outcome, owing to 
the importance of the issues involved. The agitation in 
favor of the free coinage of silver at a ratio of 16 to 1 had 
become very aggressive, and at the national conventions 
overshadowed almost all other issues. The Republican con- 
vention, which met at St. Louis, Mo., June 18, nominated 
for the presidency William McKinley, of Ohio ; for Vice- 
President Garret A. Hobart, of New Jersey, and declared in 
favor of the maintenance of the present gold standard, and 
against free silver except under international agreement. 
The adoption of this plank led at once to the withdrawal of 
Senator Teller and most of the delegates from the silver- 
producing States of the West. At the Democratic conven- 
tion, held in Chicago, July 10, William J. Bryan, of Ne- 
braska, was nominated for President, and Arthur Sewall, of 
Maine, for Vice-President, and free silver was made the 
paramount issue. No bolt occurred then, but later (Sept. 8) 
a large number of delegates representing the " sound-mon- 
ey " wing of the Democratic party met at Indianapolis un- 
der the name of the National Democratic party, adopted a 
simple platform, in which the maintenance of the present 



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gold standard was the principal plank. For President thej 
nominated John M. Palmer, of Illinois, and for Vice-Presi- 
dent Simon M. Buckner, of Kentucky. The People's (or 
Populist) party assembled in national convention at St. 
Louis, Mo., Julv 22, and nominated W. J. Bryan for Presi- 
dent and Thomas E. Watson, of Georgia, for Vice-Presi- 
dent. The principal plank in their platform demanded 
** the free and unlimited coinage of silver at the present 
legal ratio of 16 to 1, without waiting for the consent of 
foreign nations. The results of the elections are given on 
page 47. See United States in the Appendix. 

Authorities. — See the official publications, bulletins, and 
reports issued by the various departments and bureaus of 
the U. S. Government ; and the unofficial annuals devoted 
in whole or in part to subjects connected with the U. S., 
such as Appletons' Annual Cyclopedia and Poor's Manual 
of the Railroads of the United States, and the almanacs, 
giving statistical information, published by newspapers 
(e. g. those by the New York Tribune and World, the Chi- 
cago Tribune, and the Brooklyn Eagle) ; Bryce's Amer- 
ican Commonwealth (London, 1898); Civil Government in 
ihe United States, bv John Fiske (1890); J. Macy, Our 
Government (1886); N r . S. Shaler, The United States of 
America (1894); Josiah H. Strong, Our Country (1894); 
Henry Gannett, Building of a JSation (1895); Appletons' 
General Guide to the United States; Baedecker's United 
States; etc. 

Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America (8 
toIs.) ; Bancroft's History of the United States, and his 
History of the Constitution of the United States ; llildreth's 
History of the United States; Lodge's Short History of the 
American Colonies; Frothingham's Rise of the Republic; 
Schouler's History of the United States under the Consti- 
tution (6 vols.) ; McMaster's History of the People of the 
United States (6 vols.); Parkman's Works { 12 vols.); Fiske's 
Discovery of America, Beginnings of New England, Amer- 
ican Revolution, and Critical IVriod of American History, 
1783-89 ; Winsor's Handbook of the Reivlution ; Eggleston's 
The Beginners of a Nation (1897); Henry Adams's History 
of the United States under Adams and "Jefferson (9 vols.) ; 
Roosevelt's Winning of the West (0 vols.); Hinsdale's Old 
Northwest (1 vol.) ; II. H. Bancroft's 39 vols, on the history 
of the Pacific coast ; and Von Hoist's Constitutional His- 
tory of the United States, from 1781 to 1861 (9 vols.). For 
the civil war, see works by the Count of Paris, Greeley, 
Nicolay and Hay, Stevens, Davis, and Grant. Of the works 
designed specially for the use of schools, The Epoch Series 
of Thwaites, Hart, and Wilson, and The American History 
Series of Fisher, Sloane, Walker, and Burgess ; The Amer- 
ican Statesman Series, the Great Commanders Series, and 
the American Commonwealth Series. See also Jameson's 
Dictionary of United States History, 1492-1894. ^ For lists 
of works on special topics and periods, see Adams's Manual 
of Historical Literature. Henry Gannett, 

Francis A. Walker, C. K. Adams. 

United States Bank: See Bank. 

United States Christian Commission : See Christian 
Commission. 

United States Homestead Legislation: See Home- 
stead Laws. 

United States, Literature of: See English Litera- 
ture and Newspapers. 

United States Military Academy : See Military Acad- 
emies. 

United States Naval Academy: See Naval Academies. 

United States of Brazil : See Brazil, United States of. 

United States of Colombia: See Colombia (History). 

United States of Mexico: See Mexico. 

United States of Venezuela: See Venezuela. 

United States Sanitary Commission: See Sanitary 
Commission, United States. 

United Synod of the Presbyterian Chnrch: the name 
taken by the Southern members of the New School Presby- 
terian Church in the U. S. who withdrew in 1858. See 
Presbyterian Church. 

United Syrians: in general, a body of Christians who- 
together with the Chalda*ans, the Maronites, and the United 
St. Thomas Christians, comprise the Syrian rite in the East- 
ern rite of the Roman Catholic Church ; more particularly, 
the converts from the Jacobite or Monophvsite Church in 
Syria, usually known as Syrian Catholics. (The United Syr- 



ians have a patriarch at Aleppo, stvled Patriarch of Antioch, 
and Archbishops of Aleppo, Babyfon, Damascus, and Seleu- 
cia, besides eleven bishops. They number about 30,000. They 
date from the sixteenth century, when (1546) one of their 
congregation was converted to the Catholic Church. In 
1650 the Capuchins converted Achigian, the Jacobite Bishop 
of Aleppo. The movement of conversion, however, dates 
chiefly from the end of the eighteenth century. The Patri- 
arch of Aleppo has jurisdiction over the Syrian Catholics of 
Syria, Mesopotamia, and Egypt, but is himself immediately 
subject to the Propaganda and to the vicar-apostolic of 
Aleppo as apostolic delegate. See Silbernagl, Kirchen des 
Orients ; Gerarchia Cattolica for 1895 ; O. Werner, S. J., Or- 
bis Terramm Catholicus. See also Maronites, Chaldean 
Christians, Eastern Rite, and United Christians of St. 
Thomas. Revised by J. J. Keane. 

Unities, The Dramatic : fundamental principles sup- 
posed to appear in everv artistic dramatic composition. As 
finally elaborated, the llnities were three in number — Unity 
of Action, Unity of Time (or of the Day), and Unity of Place. 
Insistence on the rigid observations of these principles is pre- 
eminently to be found in the French dramatists and critics 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, beginning with 
Corneille. These writers, however, believed that they were 
but restating laws that had governed the Greek and Latin 
dramas, and that had first been definitely formulated by 
Aristotle in his treatise on the Poetics. To this work, there- 
fore, we must turn, if we would rightly understand the ori- 
gin and meaning of the conceptions designated as the Dra- 
matic Unities. 

In the Poetics (which, it must be remembered, is not a 
completed work, but rather a series of not wholly harmo- 
nized notes and observations), Aristotle discusses at greatest 
length two forms of poetry — epic and dramatic. II is met hod 
is at once inductive and synthetic. The materials used for 
induction were the Homeric poems and the already existing 
plavs of the greatest Greek dramatists, JEschylus, Sophocles, 
and Euripides. The synthetic, or constructive, part of the 
treatment, on the other hand, was largely determined by the 
analogy that Aristotle felt to exist between art- and nature, 
the creations of the poet and the living forms of the natural 
world. His observations on the drama, accordingly, need 
careful discrimination to avoid the confusion of generaliza- 
tions derived from the limited forms of the drama known to 
him, with principles believed by him to exist of necessity in 
all successful works of art, by reason of the organic charac- 
ter of true artistic creation. 

To this latter class of principles belongs the one form of 
dramatic unity that Aristotle most insists upon, and indeed 
alone treats as absolutely indispensable, namely, Unity of 
the Action (wpa^it). The one primal necessity of any organic 
form of life whatever is that it be clearly separated and dis- 
tinguished from what is unbounded (&wapov), undefined, in- 
determinate. It must be in itself one (tV), a whole (8Aor). 
The various parts of it must belong functionally together ; 
they must tend to a single total result or end (rckos). Hence 
Aristotle's definition of tragedy [Poetics, ch. vii.): "Tragedy 
is an imitation of an action that is complete and whole and of 
a certain magnitude ; for there may be a whole that is want- 
ing in magnitude. A whole is that which has beginning, 
middle, and end. A beginning is that which does not itself 
follow anything by causal necessity, but after which some- 
thing naturally is or comes to be. An end, on the contrary, 
is that which itself naturally follows some other thing, either 
bv necessitv or in the regular course of events, but has noth- 
ing following it. A middle is that which follows something, 
as some other thing follows it," These definitions have at 
first sight the appearance of too great obviousness, yet in 
them is really to be found Aristotle's whole theory of art. 
His " beginning," " middle," and " end " by no means ex- 
press mere consecutiveness of events. Rather he indicates 
by them a certain body of fact, bounded and limited in con- 
trast with the variety of fact in the universe, but at the 
same time tied together by the closest bonds of causality. 
As Lowell has excellently' put it (The Old English Drama- 
tists, p. 55) : " In a play we not onlv expect a succession of 
scenes, but that each scene should lead, by a logic more or 
less stringent, if not to the next, at any rate to something 
that is to follow, and that all should contribute their frac- 
tion of impulse toward the inevitable catastrophe. That is 
to say, the structure should be organic, with a necessary and 
harmonious connection and relation of parts, and not mere- 
ly mechanical, with an arbitrary or haphazard joining of 



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one part to another. It is in the former sense alone that 
any production can be called a work of art." 

Of quite a different character is Aristotle's Unity of Time, 
in so far as he has formulated it at all. The necessities of 
the Greek stage were such that a dramatic story had to be 
told upon it in a highly concentrated form. The Athenian 
audience, furthermore, was in general perfectly familiar 
with the themes employed by the dramatists, and had not 
to be informed of all the long preliminaries that led up to 
the tragic situation. The development of character, too, 
which requires some lapse of time, was severely subordinated 
to the plot. As Aristotle says {Poetics, ch. vi.) : •* The Plot, 
then, is the first principle, and, as it were, the soul of trag- 
edy ; character holds the second place." Consequently, the 
best, though by no means all, of the Greek tragedies famil- 
iar to Aristotle depicted merely the brief final moment, the 
•catastrophe, of the life of the hero. He was led, therefore, 
to make the empirical statement {Poetics, ch. iv.), that " trag- 
edy endeavors, as far as possible, to confine itself to a single 
revolution of the sun, or but slightly to exceed this limit ; 
whereas the epic action has no limits of time ; . . . though 
at first the same freedom was admitted in tragedy, as in 
-epic poetry." From this statement, and this alone, modern 
critics have derived the principle of Unity of Time. 

Even less substantial is the Unity of Place. Aristotle 
•does not mention it at all. Most of the existing Greek trag- 
edies, to be sure, show it, probably because the chorus regu- 
larly consisted of onlookers whose character remained un- 
changed throughout the piece, and whose songs embodied 
the reflections of the community in which the tragic catas- 
trophe was supposed to occur. This, however, is clearly an 
accidental feature of the Athenian drama, quite unconnected 
with any inner principle. In modern times it has chiefly 
been defended as a logical deduction from the Unity of 
Time, though the logic is far from close or compulsive. 

The importance of the Unities in modern discussions of 
the drama is largely due to the exaggerated authority at- 
tributed during the Renaissance to all utterances of the 
•classical world. It was in Italy, early in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, that Aristotle's Poetics began to be studied as the ba- 
sis of the art of poetry. A Latin translation by G. Valla 
was printed in Venice in 1498, and the Aldine editio prin- 
ceps of the Greek text appeared in 1508. These were fol- 
lowed by the Latin translations, Anon. (Venice, 1515), A. 
Pazzi (Venice, 1536) ; and the Italian versions of B. Segni 
'Florence, 1549), L. Castelvetro (Vienna, 1570), and A. Pic- 
♦olomini (Venice, 1575). Besides these appeared Fr. Robor- 
telli's In librum Aristotelis de Arte Poetica explicationes 
{Florence, 1548) ; V. Maggi's In Aristotelis librum de Poe- 
tica explanations (Venice, 1550): and P. Vettori's Com- 
mentattones in primum librum Aristotelis de Arte Poet arum 
(Florence, 1560). The Italian criticism of the time fully re- 
flects the great interest implied by these numerous versions 
and comments. By the end of the centurv no cultivated 
Italian ventured to doubt the authority of the principles 
Aristotle was supposed to have laid down. From Italy the 
discussion passed into France. In the middle of the same 
century Ronsard and his school, the P16iade, in their eager- 
ness to establish classicism in French literature, made much 
of the dicta of the treatise, though they but partially under- 
stood them and poorly applied them. The tragedies of 
Seneca, however, which alone among ancient plavs they 
really knew, from their triviality and essentially literary 
rather than dramatic character, seemed to bear out fully 
Aristotle's principles. In the next century, the seventeenth, 
however, the doctrine of the Unities found an advocate in 
Corneille, who in his Cid gave the first example of a play 
in which they were strictly observed. The genius of Racine 
still more completely established their authority, and they 
held undisputed sway in France for nearly two hundred 
years. England and Germany (and to a less extent Spain) 
also submitted to their rule, and not till the romantic move- 
ment of the nineteenth century was their absoluteness called 
seriously into question. 

The best discussion of the real meaning of Aristotle's prin- 
ciples is to be found in S. H. Butcher, Aristotle's Theory of 
pjetry and Fine Art, with Critical Text and Translation 
of the Poetics (London, 1895). Much of value is to be found 
in the notes of T. Twining, Aristotle's Treatise on Poetry, 
translated with Notes (London, 1789). For the discussion 
of the Unities by Corneille and his school, see the Disco urs 
of Corneille, especially Discours III., Des trois Unites. See 
also Heinrich Breitinger, Les unites dAristote avant le Cid 
de Corneille (Geneva, 1879). A. R. Marsh, 

vol. XII. — 5 



Units [unit is shortened from unity, from Lat u'nitas, 
oneness, unity, deriv. of u'nus, one] : certain known quanti- 
ties, of the same kind as the quantities to be measured, taken 
as standards of reference. The numerical value of a con- 
crete quantity is the number of such units which the quan- 
tity contains. Every expression for a quantity consists, 
therefore, of two factors — the numeric and the unit. Thus 
10 feet, 50 grammes, 80 seconds. 

Fundamental Units. 

A system of units contains as many different ones as there 
are quantities to be measured ; they may be quite arbitrary, 
but it is convenient to connect them together in such a man- 
ner that they may be defined in terras of three arbitrary or 
underived units. These are called fundamental units in 
distinction from all others, which in turn are called derived 
units. The fundamental units adopted in science are those 
of length, mass, and time. This particular selection is a 
matter of convenience, and rests upon several considerations 
which have properly determined tneir choice. 

The standard unit of length in Great Britain is the im- 
perial yard ; in the U. S. it is the distance between the 27th 
and the 63d inch divisions of the Troughton scale. This at 
59-6° C. is equal to the imperial yard. In France the unit 
of length is the mitre des archives. The standard of mass 
in Great Britain is the avoirdupois pound ; in the U. S. it is 
the " troy pound of the mint," according to which the coin- 
age of the U. S. is regulated. It is a certified copy of the 
lost imperial standard of 1758, and contains 5,700 grains. 
The avoirdupois pound adopted by the Treasury was derived 
from the troy pound and contains 7,000 grains. In France 
the unit of mass is the kilogramme des archives. 

By act of Congress in 1866 the meter was defined to be 
39*87 inches. The weights and measures of the metric sys- 
tem are lawful in the U. S., and the standards of length and 
mass are the "national prototypes " of the meter and the 
kilogramme, made by an international commission, and 
preserved at the Bureau of Weights and Measures in Wash- 
ington. They were authorized by a metric convention which 
was signed at Paris by the representatives of seventeen gov- 
ernments on May 20, 1875. See Weights and Measures. 

The universal unit of time is the second of mean solar 
time. The C. G. S. or centimeter-gramme-second system is 
based upon the centimeter, the gramme, and the second as 
the fundamental units. It was proposed by the British As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science in 1861. 

Derived Units. 

A. Mechanical. — The derived units will be defined in the 
C. G. S. system. The corresponding units for any other sys- 
tem are easily derived from them. 

The unit of area, the square centimeter, the area of a 
square with sides 1 cm. long ; unit volume, the cubic centi- 
meter, the volume of a cube with edges 1 cm. long ; unit 
velocity, the velocity of a body moving through 1 cm. in 1 
sec. ; unit of acceleration, the acceleration which in 1 sec. 
produces an increase in velocity of 1 cm. a second; unit 
force, the dyne, or that force which acting on a mass of 1 
gramme generates a velocity of 1 cm. per second (see Dy- 
namics) ; unit of work and energy, the erg, the work done 
or the energy expended by 1 dvne through 1 cm. ; unit of 
power, the power represented by the expenditure of 1 erg 
per second. 

B. Electrical and Magnetic. — Electrical units are either 
electrostatic or electromagnetic. The electrostatic units 
are based upon the phenomenon of the attraction and re- 
pulsion between charges of electricity, the law of which was 
established by Coulomb. The electromagnetic units are 
based upon the phenomenon of the magnetic field produced 
by a current, and they are derived from the definition of 
unit magnetic pole. All electrical units may be defined in 
either system. 

The electrostatic units are as follows: Unit quantity, the 
Quantity which repels an equal and similar quantity at a 
distance of 1 cm. with a force of 1 dyne ; unit difference of 
potential between two points, a difference such that 1 erg 
of work is expended in moving unit quantity from one point 
to the other ; unit current, a current conveying unit quantity 
in 1 sec. ; unit capacity, the capacity of a conductor which 
is charged to unit potential by unit quantity. See Poten- 
tial. 

The electromagnetic units are as follows: Unit magnetic 
pole, a magnetic pole which repels an equal and similar pole 
at a distance of 1 cm. with a force of 1 dyne ; unit magnetic 



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66 



UNIVERSAL EXPOSITIONS 



UNIVERSALISM 



field, a field in which unit pole is acted upon by a force of 
1 dyne ; unit current, a current which, flowing in a circle of 
1 cm. radius, produces at its center a magnetic field of 2 w 
units ; unit magnetizing farce, a magnetizing force produc- 
ing unit magnetic field, equivalent to x £ w ampere-turns per 
centimeter length ; unit electromotive force (E. M. F.), the 
electromotive force which does 1 erg of work per second 
when unit current is flowing ; unit resistance, the resistance 
of a circuit in which unit E. M. P. produces unit current. 

C. Practical Units. — Since some of the C. G. S. units are 
inconveniently large and others inconveniently small, the 
practical units are some multiple or sub-multiple of ten times 
the corresponding C. G. S. units of the electromagnetic sys- 
tem. The practical units defined by the International Elec- 
trical Congress at Chicago, 1893, are as follows : Unit of re- 
sistance, the ohm, represented by the resistance offered to an 
unvarying current by a column of mercury at the tempera- 
ture of melting ice and 14*4521 grammes in mass, of a con- 
stant cross-sectional area, and 1063 cm. in length ; unit of 
current, the ampere, which is the practical equivalent of the 
unvarying current, which, when passed through a solution 
of silver nitrate in water, deposits silver at the rate of 
0*001118 gm. per second; unit of electromotive force, the 
volt, or the E. M. F. that, steadily applied to a conductor 
whose resistance is 1 ohm, will produce a current of 1 ampere ; 
it is equivalent to +$8 J of the E. M. F. of the Clark cell at a 
temperature of 15° C. ; unit of quantity, the coulomb, which 
is the quantity transferred by 1 ampere in 1 sec. ; unit of 
capacity, the farad, the capacity of a condenser charged to a 
potential of 1 volt by 1 coulomb; unit of work, the joule, the 
energy expended in 1 sec. by an ampere in an ohm ; unit of 
power, the watt, the work done at the rate of 1 joule per 
second ; unit of induction, the henry, the induction in a cir- 
cuit when the E. M. F. induced is 1 volt while the inducing 
current varies at the rate of 1 ampere per second. 

The relation between these practical units and the C. G. S. 
units is set forth in the following table : 



PHYSICAL QUANTITY. 



8uantitv 
urrent 

Electromotive force 

Resistance 

Capacity 

Induction 

Work 

Power 





RATIO OF PRACTICAL 




TO C O. 


8. UNIT8. 


Practical suit 








Ebctrooagnctlc. 


Xlectrmtatk. 


Coulomb 


io- » 


3x10* 


Ampere 


io- * 


3xl0» 


Volt 


10« 


ixl0"« 


Ohm 


10» 




Farad 


io- • 


9x10" 


Henry 

Joule 


10» 
10 T 




Watt 


10' 





Henry S. Carhart. 

Universal Expositions : See Expositions, Interna- 
tional. 

Unirer'salism ("from Lat. universalis, of or belonging 
to all or to the whole, universal, deriv. of univer'sus, all 
together, whole, entire, liter., turned into one ; u'nus, one + 
ver'tere, ver sum, turn]: in theology, the doctrine that all 
mankind will finally attain salvation. Stated more fully, 
the beliefs which constitute this doctrine are : that God is ; 
that his infinite power, wisdom, and justice are modes of his 
essential nature, which is love ; that he holds to man the 
relations of Creator and Father ; that he is manifested 
through his works and providence ; that he has disclosed 
through holy men, and especially through Jesus Christ, his 
character, will, and purpose as related to the duty and des- 
tiny of man ; that he is continually working upon mankind 
through his cosmic and ethical forces, and by his Ilolv Spirit 
of truth, faith, hone, and love ; and that thus gui Jed and 
inspired, all his children will eventually clear themselves 
from evil and achieve perfected character with its resulting 
power, peace, and joy — so that a final moral harmony of the 
universe will be attained, and God will be all in all. 

Man.— It is held by Universalists that man is not under the 
wrath and curse of God for the sins of his ancestors, but that 
he is under the difficulties and dangers of inherited and ac- 
quired incompleteness and defect ; that his chief peril, the 
real, demonstrable hell into which he may fall, is degeneration 
— the failure to live up to his organic capacity ; that the evils 
in which he is enmeshed are, nowever, challengers of his 
strength ; that pain is the gTeat stimulus of his energy — the 
prolonged birth-pang of his higher powers; and that his 
agonizing conflict with evil is but the fair price of perfected 
character and enduring life. Universalism emphasizes the 
importance of faith in man as the chief work of God and the 



highest organism in the visible creation ; and it contributes 
to the Christian creeds this new article of faith : " We be- 
lieve that man is created in the spiritual image of God, and 
is capable of knowing and doing his will." It is affirmed 
that man is not a fallen being, a worm, a slave, a wreck, but 
a developing being who began low down and is on his way 
up, not a rum, but a mine full of latent riches. His capaci- 
ties are great, some of them are sublime ; he is God's fellow- 
worker, co-operator, and agent, through whom the divine 
purposes are wrought out on earth. God furnishes the arena, 
the organism, the constant inspirations, but man does the 
work, and in doing it he develops the one thing which God 
does not create, namely — character. Universalism affirms 
the spiritual unity of the race, and the universality and es- 
sential ethical identity of all of God's revelations to man. 

Salvation. — It is held that moral development is not con- 
fined to the present state of existence, but is conterminous 
with the whole duration of man ; that salvation consists in 
the formation of a character conformed to God's will ; that 
such character can not be instantaneously acquired, nor pro- 
duced in any other way than by the voluntary action of the 
individual ; that rewards and punishments are aids to the 
development of character and not ends or finalities ; that 
God's love is as clearly shown in penalty as in reward, since, 
by the return of his deeds upon his head, man is made aware 
that there is Somebody in tne universe who cares which way 
he goes ; that punishment is medicinal and corrective ; that 
the remission of the penalties of voluntary disobedience 
would be unmerciful; that forgiveness does not involve such 
remission, but works a change in the attitude of the soul 
which enables the sinner to endure the consequences of his 
sin in such a way that they will ennoble, instead of degrad- 
ing him. Universalism affirms that the revelation of the 
divine character through the Christ is the most potent 
awakener of the moral energy of men ; that the chief func- 
tion of the Church of Christ is to hold his ideal of life and 
character before men and assist them to attain it ; that man 
can not find salvation by withdrawing from the sphere of 
life's appointed activities and duties, but that the great 
school oi moral discipline and spiritual culture is to be 
found in the common personal relationships and ordinary 
pursuits .of life. 

The Bible. — The Universalist Confession of Faith says : 
"We believe that the Holv Scriptures of the Old and }sew 
Testaments contain a revelation of the character of God, 
and of the duty, interest, and final destination of mankind." 
It is held that the moral and spiritual content of the Bible 
constitutes a progressive revelation; that it is adapted to 
the successive stages of man's development ; that, since a 
revelation must necessarily be intelligible to those to whom 
it is addressed, the Bible must be interpreted according to 
the present canons of historical criticism and in the terms 
of man's present understanding and conscience ; that it con- 
tains a record of man's spiritualexperience and moral growth 
through many ages under the tuition of God's Spirit ; and 
that it stands pre-eminent in its power of communicating 
moral energy to the struggling souls of men. 

Methods. — It is held that all moral transformation and 
growth is from within outward ; that the incarnation of 
God in Christ is representative of the possibility of the in- 
dwelling of God's Spirit in all men ; that every soul is capa- 
ble of receiving that Spirit ; that the entrance of the divine 
life into humanity is not an exceptional, official, or magical 
act, but a process whose laws can, to a large extent, be dis- 
cerned and obeyed ; and that repentance of sin, the wor- 
ship of God, loyalty to the Christ, the service of men, the 
diligent discharge of humble duty, and the honoring of the 
common relationships of life, are all channels through which 
the soul may receive in ever-increasing measure that divine 
energy which lifts it out of the power of siu and sorrow, and 
forwards it on the way to perfection. 

Remrrection and the Future Life. — It is held that the 
resurrection is experienced by each soul when, at the disso- 
lution of the body, it enters upon a new order of existence. 
It is not conceived that death works any moral transforma- 
tion, but that the soul enters the next state with just the 
spiritual character which it achieved on earth. It is be- 
lieved that in the future life all the opportunities for further 
growth which the powers of the soul open to it will be ac- 
corded ; that it will there be under the ministry of truth 
and love, until truth and love have wrought within and 
upon it their perfect work. 

Historical. — Universalism in its essential features dates 
from a high antiquity in the Christian Church. It was 



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UNIVERSALS 



UNIVERSE 



67 



held by Clement of Alexandria (a. d. 190), by the great and 
learned Crimen (a. d. 225), and a little later by Theodore 
of Mopsuestia, and others. When the Latin form of Chris- 
tianity triumphed over the Greek form, and Rome gained 
supremacy, the doctrine of purgatory gradually superseded 
the Universalist belief in moral progress beyond death. In 
the rigors of the Reformation, the recoil from the abuses of 
the doctrine of purgatory took the form of a rigid denial of 
the possibility or any moral change after death, But through 
all this period Umversalism had its isolated scholars and 
saints, and the reformed Christianity produced many able 
and devoted advocates of the universal hope, in Germany, 
France, and England/ Universalism began its development 
in America in the last half of the seventeenth and the first 
half of the eighteenth centuries, through certain English 
and French Mystics, through the German Brethren, the 
Moravians, and through a few learned divines of the Epis- 
copalian and Congregationalist bodies. John Murray came 
from England in 1770, and began to proclaim it openly. Its 
doctrines spread rapidly, but it acquired institutional power 
slowly. Tne organization of the Universalist branch of the 
Christian Church in America was accomplished in 1803, at 
Winchester, N. H., by the adoption of a confession of faith 
and the acquisition of a legal status. The Church now 
(1895) numbers more than 1,000 parishes, organized under 
forty State conventions and one general convention ; owns 
church property worth over $9,000,000, besides nearly 
$4,000,000 invested in educational institutions, which com- 
prise four colleges, one polytechnic institute, three divinity 
schools, and five seminaries and academies. 

References. — For detailed information and statistics, see 
The Universalist Register, Boston, published annually ; for 
history, Hosea Ballou, The Ancient History of Universal- 
ism (Boston, 1878) ; Richard Eddy, Universalism in Amer- 
ica (2 vols., Boston, 1886) ; for doctrine, Thomas B. Thayer, 
The Theology of Universalism (Boston, 1870) ; Samuel Cox, 
Salvator Mundi (London, 1874) ; Frederic W. Farrar, 
Merty and Judgment (New York, 1881); The Columbian 
Universalist Congress (Boston, 1893); Joseph S. Dodge, 
The Purpose of God (Boston, 1894) ; O. Cone, Gospel Criti- 
cism ana Historical Christianity (New York, 1891). 

James M. Pullman. 

Universal 8 [from Lat. universalia, neut. plur. of uni- 
versalis, belonging to the whole, collective, general. See 
Universalism] : a term used in various ways. Universals 
are either metaphysical, universalia ante rem, denoting the 
archetypal forms of things as far as they existed in the Di- 
vine Mind before the real things were created ; or physical, 
universalia in rem, denoting the archetypal forms as far 
as they actually exist in things created ; and finally logical, 
universalia post rem, denoting the archetypal forms as far 
as they are abstracted by the human intellect from the 
things* See Realism, Nominalists, and Generalization. 

Revised by W. T. Harris. 

Universe [from Lat. univer'sum, all things, the universe, 
liter., neut. of univer'sus, all together, whole, entire. See 
Universalism] : a terra employed to signify the grand and 
total aggregate of created things. 

Regarding this aggregate as a material structure, it is, so 
far as we know, made up of what we familiarly call the 
heavenly bodies. Particulars respecting these bodies and 
the systems which they form are found in the articles As- 
tronomy, Asteroid, Comets, Nebula, Planet, Solar Sys- 
tem, Stars, and Sun. In this article is summed up what 
may be said of the whole creation. 

When the telescope was pointed at the heavenly bodies, 
and the law and consequences of gravitation developed 
by Newton and his successors, the universe was, in thought, 
divided into two parts. There was first our solar system, 
composed of a definite number of bodies, of which the sun 
was much the greatest ; and there was outside this system 
another, composed of countless stars, seemingly scattered 
through all space. The void space between the outermost 
planet and the nearer stars, which to the early astronomers 
seemed not very wide, became, as astronomical research 
was continued, of immeasurable extent. After Herschel 
explored the heavens with his great telescopes, it became 
continually clearer that our sun was in reality simply one 
of the millions of those shining bodies called stars. In 
other words, it became clear that the stars were suns. The 
natural outcome of this conception, aided by measures 
of parallax, was the conclusion that the distance between 
our sun and the nearer surrounding stars was perhaps no 



greater than that which separated most of the stars from 
each other. Photometric measures, combined with deter- 
minations of the parallax of the stars, have shown that our 
sun is probably rather a small star, whose actual bright- 
ness is exceeded manifold by Sirius, and perhaps by a ma- 
jority of the stars which stud the heavens. Our conclusion 
is that a being flying through the entire universe, and scan- 
ning its great bodies as he passed, would notice our sun 
merely as one among the millions of those bodies. 

Lambert's Theory.— Even before all these conclusions 
were fully established, Lambert formed the sublimeet con- 
ception of the universe that has yet entered into the mind 
of man. We see that our solar system is made up of a 
number of minor systems. Each of the latter is formed by 
a planet, with its attendant satellites, when it has any. 
Each of these systems revolves around the great central lu- 
minary, the sun, preserving its general form through all 
ages. So far as we can see, the solar system, as thus consti- 
tuted, is fitted to endure forever. Should an inhabitant of 
the earth visit our system at the end of any number of 
aeons, the presumption is that he would still find all the 
planets revolving around the sun in their regular order, 
each with its attendant satellites, under the same laws 
which now direct their motions. The similarity of the stars 
to the sun being established, the presumption is that each 
of the former is the center of a system of planets. A num- 
ber of the stars, each with its attendant planets, may re- 
volve around some great unknown center, forming a system 
of yet higher order. Each cluster of stars was supposed to 
be such a system. All these clusters or systems which our 
telescopes can see may again revolve around a yet greater 
center. Thus Lambert reached the conception of a univer- 
sal system including all created bodies, and fitted to endure 
forever without undergoing any change in its general ar- 
rangement. 

The Stars Irregular in Motion.— Sublime though this 
conception is, it is not verified by modern research. Not 
only is there no evidence that the stars as a whole form an 
organized system of the kind we have described, but it is 
only in the exceptional cases of binary or ternary systems 
that two or three stars are seen to have any relation to each 
other. The proof is very simple. Were the stars thus 
aggregated into systems, we should see a certain regularity 
in their motions, by which we could form some idea of the 
center around which each revolved. But no such regularity 
can be detected. The general rule is that each star seems 
to be moving forward in a straight line entirely independ- 
ent of the lines of motion of other stars. The only modifi- 
cation that this statement requires is that in many cases a 
number of stars in the same region of the heavens seem to 
have the same proper motion. Of these, we may say that 
they are moving through space together. But even in these 
cases there is no such orderly arrangement among them as 
there would be if they formed a system in any way like our 
solar system. If any orbit is being described, either by the 
individual stars or by star clusters, many thousands of 
years of observation will be required to make it out, and in 
all probability it would be found to be not an orbit of any 
definite form, but only an irregular curve, determined by the 
attraction of great numbers of other stars. 

This view is still further strengthened by the widest gen- 
eralization of modern science, that of the dissipation of en- 
ergy. If we admit that the law of the conservation of en- 
ergy and of the correlation of its different forms, which is 
established by our experiments and observations on the 
earth's surface as one of the most universal and far-reach- 
ing laws of nature, holds good throughout the whole uni- 
verse, and in all time, then we must admit that the life of 
all the stars is finite ; that at a certain time in the past, very 
long when measured by human life, yet not long when 
measured by geological ages, a time only a small number of 
millions or hundreds of millions of years back, the stars 
did not exist in their present form, but were great nebulous 
masses, filling the space now occupied by the universe. 
Looking forward, the same considerations lead us to the 
conclusion that before a system organized on the plan sup- 
posed by Lambert could make many revolutions, the heat 
and light of the component stars, which is their life, would 
come to an end. From this point of view, the motions 
among the stars are merely a continuation of the motions 
of the nebulous masses which originally formed them, modi- 
fied in each case by the attraction, more or less great, of 
innumerable other stars. 

The Universe probably Finite in Extent.— i 
Digitized by ' 



C8 



UNIVERSITY 



conclusion, two questions arise. First, is the universe of 
stars infinite in extent f Every addition to the power of 
our telescopes reveals new and probably more distant bod- 
ies. If this power were increased without limit, would we 
continually find yet more distant stars, without end, or 
would we at length reach a boundary to the whole system 
beyond which is only empty space f This question was an- 
swered both in the positive and negative by Kant, in one of 
his Antinomies. He proved both the positive and the nega- 
tive by what seemed to him equally conclusive reasoning. 
The modern scientific philosopher would set aside both 
courses of reasoning as necessarily inconclusive, because 
the question is one of fact, which can be settled only by ob- 
servation, and observations are not yet sufficiently compre- 
hensive to settle it. We may, however, take a step toward 
•doing so. Were an infinite number of stars scattered 
:through space in such a way that every region of fixed 
size, however great, would in a general average contain one 
•or more stars, then it can be shown by mathematical reason- 
ing that these stars would fill the heavens with a blaze of 
light like that of the noonday sun. We may therefore say 
conclusively that either the universe, as we understand it, 
is finite in extent or that the light of the stars does not 
travel through infinite space. The former conclusion is 
that most in consonance with the ideas of modern science. 
But this does not prove that there is a boundary beyond 
which no stars exist. It shows the finitude only of the col- 
lection of stars, a few of which are within the reach of our 
telescopes. In the infinite depths beyond may lie other 
stars and systems without end. 

Arrangement of the Stars and Nebula*. — Granting this 
conclusion, which is that the 50,000,000 of stars and the un- 
known masses of nebulae which are visible with the most 
powerful telescopes of our time form at least a considerable 
part of a system of stars scattered within a limited region 
of space, we meet the second question. Should a being 
view this collection of stars from a point outside of it, 
what form would it present I In other words, what is the 
actual arrangement of the stars and nebulae in space t This 
question we can partially answer. The great majority of 
stars visible with the telescope are seen in the region of the 
Milky Way. It follows that the great mass of stars which 
compose the universe are, so far as our telescopes show 
them, not arranged spherically, but rather form a flat disk ; 
possibly a great numoer of them form a ring. Our sun ap- 
pears to be situated nearer to the center of this ring than to 
its circumference. On the two sides of the disk or ring are 
scattered comparatively few stars, but a great number of neb- 
ulae. Adopting the modern views of cosmogony, these nebulae 
are ultimately to condense into stars. In this arrangement 
of a disk or ring of closely connected stars, with numerous 
scattered stars lying all around on each side and in the 
center, and nebulae arranged on either side, we have the 
closest approach to a system that modern science can yet 
see in the arrangement of the universe. S. Newcomb. 

University : an institution for the promotion of higher 
education by means of instruction, the encouragement of 
literary and scientific investigation, the collection of books 
and apparatus, and the bestowal of degrees. The term has 
had a different meaning in different ages and in different 
countries. In Latin it conveyed some such idea as our word 
incorporation, the totality of a society formally organized 
by a recognized authority. The dictionaries give various il- 
lustrations, among them the phrase Incolarum Oppidi Uni- 
versitas, the corporation of a city. From this meaning of 
the whole or entirety of a society the term became restricted 
to a body of masters and students associated for learning, 
and then'it came to signify that all departments of knowl- 
edge were studied. It is true that in the Middle Ages the 
idea of a place for general education was expressed by 
Studium Generate, a seminary where higher studies were 
pursued in many fields. Denifle has discovered the use of 
this phrase in 1233-34 ; yet he has found a still earlier use 
of the word university in its modern academic sense. Uni- 
versitas Magistrorum (interpreted by the words Communio 
Magistrorum) occurs in a rescript of Pope Innocent III. to 
the Parisians, dated in 1208-09 ; and a few years later, in 
1221, the formal title appears in the statutes, Nos, Univer- 
sitas Magistrorum et Scholarium Parisiensium. So it is 
safe to say that the word, in the sense of a society of schol- 
ars, dates from the early part of the thirteenth century. 
Amid the differences that have developed respecting the 
legitimate authority, scope, subdivision, statutes, and usages 



of universities, one idea has never disappeared. Since their 
origin, universities have been organizations in which stu- 
dents were taught the highest branches of knowledge. 
Moreover, universities have been places where man's inher- 
itance from the past has been preserved and interpreted to 
living generations. Independence of thought, habits of in- 
quiry, investigation, and research, and the art of reasoning 
have been encouraged or developed within their walls — not 
always with fervor, it must be conceded, yet perpetually, 
according to the light of each passing age. The univer- 
sity, everywhere and always, has been a society of masters 
and scholars associated for the acquisition and advancement 
of knowledge. It mav be more; it nfust be this. 

As education has advanced, and especially as instruction 
has been provided in many technical branches which call 
for the ablest intellectual exertion, the word university has 
come to imply advanced instruction, given bv superior 
teachers to well-qualified students, in very wide domains of 
knowledge. In almost every civilized land the work of a 
university is supposed to rest upon that of a preliminary 
or introductory college, gymnasium, or lycie. In the U. S. 
an unfortunate confusion has resulted from the occasional 
adoption of the term university by institutions which, how- 
ever excellent in their work, represented a lower grade of 
instruction than that which is given in the best European 
and American universities. 

Distinction between a College and a University. — The col- 
lege is understood to be a place for the orderly training of 
youth in those elements of learning which should underlie 
all liberal and professional culture. Ordinarily the confer- 
ring of the bachelor's degree marks the conclusion of the 
college course. Often, but not necessarily, the college pro- 
vides for the ecclesiastical and religious as well as the intel- 
lectual training of its scholars. Its scheme admits but little 
choice. Frequent daily drill in languages, mathematics, 
and science, with compulsory attendance and repeated for- 
mal examinations, is the discipline to which each student is 
submitted. Often (especially in France, England, and the 
U. S.) the students of this grade are provided with lodgings 
and sustenance by the college authorities. This work is 
simple, methodical, and comparatively inexpensive. It is 
everywhere understood and appreciated. 

In the universitv, more advanced instruction is given to 
those who have already received a college training or its 
equivalent, and who afterward desire to concentrate their 
attention upon special departments of learning and research. 
Libraries, laboratories, and apparatus require to be liberally 
provided and maintained. The holders of professional 
chairs must be expected and encouraged to advance by 
positive researches the sciences to which they are devoted, 
and arrangements must be made in some way to publish 
and bring before the criticism of the world the results of 
such investigations. Primarily, instruction is the duty of 
the professor in a university as it is in a college ; but uni- 
versity student* should be so mature and so well trained as 
to exact from their teachers the most advanced instruction, 
and even to quicken and inspire by their appreciative re- 
sponses the investigations which their professors undertake. 
Such work is costly and complex ; it varies with time, place, 
and teacher ; it may be remote from popular sympathy, and 
it is of course liable to be depreciated by the ignorant and 
thoughtless. Nevertheless it is by the influence of univer- 
sities, with their comprehensive libraries, their costly instru- 
ments, their stimulating associations and helpful criticisms, 
and especially their great professors, indifferent to popular 
applause, superior to authoritative dicta, devoted to the dis- 
covery and revelation of truth, that knowledge has been 
promoted, and society released from the fetters of supersti- 
tion and the trammels of ignorance, ever since the revival 
of letters. 

The Idea of Liberal Studies. — We are not to suppose that 
universities did not exist in antiquity because this word, in 
its academic sense, is of mediaeval origin. From the time of 
Aristotle and Plato until now the idea of " liberal " studies 
in distinction from those that are "practical" has been 
handed down. Thoughtful men have recognized the fact 
that many things must be learned without reference to their 
professional or technical profit. Intellectual strength, en- 
joyment, sagacity are worthy to be cultivated, quite as much 
as skill in turning one's knowledge to account. In modern 
times it is held that any study may be pursued either with 
freedom or in a restricted and narrow spirit, and conse- 
quently that a liberal education does not depend so much 
upon the subjects that are taught as upon the ways in which 
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UNIVERSITY 



69 



they are taught. In the Middle Ages also, it may be said, 
methods were all in all ; bat the methods were anything but 
liberal. The written texts, even such inadequate texts as 
translations, commentaries, and glosses, were the ultimate 
appeal. Such an idea as that of scientific verification, or of 
reference to and dependence upon original sources of knowl- 
edge, in the modern sense, was rarely proposed ; and those 
who suggested this method of establishing the truth were 
liable to be silenced by the portentous utterance, Scrip- 
turn est. 

The doctrine of liberal studies is distinctly stated in the 
fourth and fifth books of Aristotle's Politics (of. Welldon). 
Proceeding from the dictum that all life is divided into 
business and leisure, he savs that " there is a certain educa- 
tion which our sons should receive, not as being practically 
useful nor as indispensable, but as liberal and noble " ; and 
again, ** the universal pursuit of utility is far from becom- 
ing to magnanimous and free spirits." From the time of 
the ancient Greeks different schedules of the liberal arts 
have been given. The number seven is first clearly indi- 
cated about the beginning of the sixth century by Martianus 
Capella, who enumerates grammar, dialectic, rhetoric, ge- 
ometry, arithmetic, astronomy, and music. Of these, the 
three 'first named constitute the trivium ; the four last 
named, the quadrivium. Cassiodorus (468-568) finds a sug- 
gestion of this mystical group in a verse of the book of 
Proverbs, which reads : " Wisdom hath builded her house. 
She hath hewn out her seven pillars." Much curious lore 
upon these points, collected by Prof. A. P. West in the 
Princeton College Bulletin (1890), is reproduced in David- 
son's Aristotle and the Ancient Educational Ideals. Gradu- 
ally the triviura and the quadrivium were crystallized in 
educational systems. The fourteenth and fifteenth chap- 
ters of the second book of Dante's Convito illustrate the 
scope of liberal studies in his time. The seven sciences of 
the trivium and the quadrivium are here represented as 
like unto the seven heavens. To the eighth sphere, the starry 
heaven, physics, and metaphysics correspond ; to the ninth, 
moral science ; and to the tenth or quiet heaven, divine 
science or theologv. Davidson has reduced these ideas to a 
formal schedule in the appendix of his Aristotle, and he 
adds the remark that here we have the culmination of the 
ancient and mediaeval systems of education. The schedule 
is worth reproducing as a significant landmark, for " Dante," 
says Lowell, " was a mystic, with a very practical turn of 
mind ; a Platonist by nature, an Aristotelian by training." 

THE LIBERAL ARTS, ACCORDING TO DANTE. 

Liberal Arts. 

( Oram mar Moon Angela. 

. < Dialectic Mercury Archangels. 

f Rhetoric Venus Thrones. 

f Arithmetic Sun Dominions. 
Music Mars Virtues. 
Geometry Jupiter Princijialities 
Astrology Saturn Powers. 

Philosophy. 

P S3EyE!.! , ?r:f *•"»■*»•«■ <»«««. 

Moral science Crystalline heaven Seraphim. 

Theology Empyrean God. 

To the modern student the liberal arts of the early Chris- 
tian centuries and of the Middle Ages present a very restrict- 
ed domain, especially when compared with the modern ency- 
clopaedia of knowledge or with tne needs of civilized society. 
The enlargement of the idea of liberality, the foundation of 
modern progress, was closely associated with the organiza- 
tion of universities. It may not be easy to determine which 
was the cause or which was the effect. Did the universities 
evoke freedom, or did liberal thought create universities! 
There was action and reaction. A great step forward was 
taken when medicine, law, and theology found a place by 
the side of philosophy, as subjects of the highest educational 
value. Thenceforward they have been exclusively con- 
sidered as the liberal or learned professions, until recently. 
In the nineteenth century the liberal arts include scores of 
subjects which during previous ages had not entered the 
minds of men, except perhaps in the most rudimentary 
form, and liberal professions are no longer limited to the 
primitive three. 

The Immediate Precursors of Modern Universities. — 
While in general terms the origin of modern universities is 
dated from Salerno, Bologna, and Paris, in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries, yet the beginnings of these and kin- 
dred institutions are lost in the obscure past. We may as- 



TriTium. 

Quadrivium. 



sume that there has never been a period in the history of 
civilization without arrangements for the advancement and 
dissemination of knowledge, corresponding with what in 
modern times is called the university. Babylon, Heliopolis, 
Athens, Alexandria, each must have been a seat of higher 
learning. Nor were they alone. So in Western and South- 
ern Europe, certainly from the time of Charlemagne, there 
were schools of more or less dignity in courts, cathedrals, 
monasteries. For example, in France, at the beginning of 
the twelfth century, three religious schools were famous, 
those of Paris, Laon, and Chartres. William of Champeaux 
opened a school of logic in Paris in 1109, and was followed 
by his brilliant pupil Abelard (1079-1142), cut soli patuit 
scibile quidquid erat, whose lectures were heard by throngs 
of hearers. Laon won its distinction under Auselm, the 
" Doctor of Doctors," and his brother Ralph. The school at 
Chartres became famous at an earlier period under Fulbert, 
a pupil of Gerbert. Its fame was still greater under the 
lead of Bernard Sylvester, ot whose methods of instruction 
an account is handed down by John of Salisbury. (Consult 
Poole' s Illustrations of Mediipval Thought, where abundant 
references are given to original sources of information.) As 
to the subjects studied in these schools of the Church, we 
have very good records which have been well arranged and 
condensed in the work of Mullinger on the University of 
Cambridge. An abstract of his statements will here be given. 

Under Gregory the Great (590-604) the Church rested on 
the authority of the three fathers, Ambrose, Jerome, and 
Augustine. From the first, she derived her conception of 
sacerdotal authority; from the second, her attachment to 
monasticism ; from the third, her dogmatic theology. In 
Augustine, and especially in his work entitled De i'ivitafe 
Dei, may be found the key to the belief and practice of the 
Church in the Middle Ages. In face of the destruction of 
Rome, he proclaimed the dominion of a new city, the New 
Jerusalem. A sublime theocracy was to supersede the rule 
of the Capsars. Under Charlemagne (742-814), in the circle 
where Alcuin taught the mysteries of logic and grammar, 
there is evidence of a spirit very different from that of Greg- 
ory, and in advance of the ecclesiastical ideas of the time. 
For example, steps were taken for the collection and revision 
of manuscripts. But these higher aspirations soon ceased. 
Only here and there the lamp of learning shone with no un- 
certain light — for example, at Ferrieres, where Lupus was 
bishop. As the twelfth century approached instruction was 
almost entirely founded on the writings of Martianus Ca- 
pella and Boethius (non-Christian writers) and of Orosius, 
Cassiodorus, and Isidorus (Christian writers), all of them 
compilers from Greek and Roman authors. Other books 
were read, but these works were the usual school-books. 
The histories of Orosius (about 416), a kind of abstract of the 
I)e Civitate, formed a somber treatise, full of wars, plagues, 
famines, and other tokens of the wrath of God. Through 
the allegorical treatise of Martianus Capella. De nupfiis 
Philoloffi(P et Mercurii, et de septem Artibus liberations, the 
modern universities inherited their notions of the trivium 
and quadrivium. To this far from contemptible curriculum 
we must be careful not to attach our modern conceptions. 
To Boethius (475-524) is due the transmission of that ele- 
ment of purely Greek thought which was during seven cen- 
turies nearly the sole remaining tradition of the Aristotelian 
philosophy, although the Aristotle of Western Europe, from 
the sixth to the thirteenth century, was simply Aristotle the 
logician. Of Cassiodorus (468-568) there was a meager man- 
ual of education, De Artibus liberalium literarum. The 
Orioines of Isidorus (d. 636) constitute a kind of encyclo- 
paedia, a laborious collection of such fragments of knowledge 
as were still discoverable. 

Two conclusions are based upon this study: that the liter- 
ature from the seventh century to the tenth was scanty in 
the extreme, and what learning existed was almost exclu- 
sively possessed by the clergy. 

Those who wish to prosecute the inquiry further will be 
aided by a reference to the writings of Gerbert, better known 
as Pope Sylvester II. (about 991), printed (1867) in a critical 
edition edited by Olleris. A list of the authors upon whom 
he commented in his school at Rheims, before he was chosen 
to the holy see, has been preserved by his pupil Richerus, 
and it indicates instruction remarkable in thoroughness and 
extent. 

Certainly, from Abelard to Aquinas, Aristotle ruled the 

university world — not the original Aristotle, but his lineal 

descendant, bearing his name and exhibiting his character- 

| istics, often modified and attenuated, yet not so altered as 

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70 



UNIVERSITY 



to lose the original qualities. A couplet of Godfredus de S. 
Victor, quoted by Denifie, illustrates the reverence for the 
writings of the Stagyrite in the mediaeval universities : 

Omnis hlnc excluditur, omnia est abiectus 

Qui non Aristotelis venit armis tectus. 

It is not uncommon to hear the studies of the Schoolmen 
spoken of with contempt, but it should never be forgotten 
that their aim was to establish correct habits of reasoning. 
By the precepts and example of Aristotle, logic was taught. 
This logic was often employed upon questions rightly called 
trivial. Time was wasted upon fruitless inquiries. But as 
vears rolled on and new generations arose, the Aristotelian 
habit, directed to new themes, emancipated the mind and 
led the wav to the modern advancement of knowledge. 

Although the data are vague, precedence in the list of 
modern universities is generally accorded to Salerno, where 
medicine was taught at a very early period. In the ninth 
century Salerno was spoken of as Civitas Hippocratica ; to 
the eleventh century a poem is attributed, which bears the 
title Flos Medicines Scholce Salerni ; and there are statutes 
regulating the school which belong to the year 1231. Dur- 
ing the next quarter of a century there are many evidences 
of the importance of the school. In the face of political 
changes, Salerno continued to be a seat of medical science 
until the time of Napoleon's interference. The influence 
exerted by the Saracens upon the school of Salerno, " their 
legitimate offspring," as Gibbon calls it, would be a most 
interesting line of research. 

The Universities of Bologna and Paris. — Respecting the 
early days of the Universities of Bologna and Paris, the an- 
tiquaries have brought together so many curious particu- 
lars that it is difficult to separate the important from the 
secondary. It is easy, however, to see that usages, regula- 
tions, titles, phrases still in academic vogue, even in the new 
world, go back to the beginnings of these institutions. In- 
deed it is hardly possible to understand the unwritten laws 
by which modern universities are governed without refer- 
ence to their historic basis. Nevertheless the main utility 
of such investigations is found in a revelation of the long 
and wearisome steps by which the human race has been 
advancing in its searches after truth. It has taken fully 
seven centuries for the most civilized nations of mankind to 
establish the proper relations of literature and science to a 
liberal education, and the most efficient methods of pro- 
moting learning. At certain periods the universities have 
even seemed to hinder the advancement of knowledge and 
the appreciation of literature; nevertheless, as a general 
rule, their influence, direct and indirect, has perpetuated 
the study of the great writers of antiquity and tne great 
leaders of human thought ; their influence also, especially 
during the last century, has favored the employment of sci- 
entific methods. 

The exact date when the university was organized in Bo- 
logna is of little importance compared with the fact that the 
Roman law was there introduced as a subject of study by a 
teacher who had the power of attracting and inspiring large 
companies of students. The influence of Irnenus (d. 1118) 
was soon and strongly felt far beyond Italy. All historians 
of this period recognize the fact that the emancipation of 
the human mind, and also the development of the modern 
state, were largely due to this revival of interest in the 
Corpus Juris Vivtlis. For example, James Bryce says, " It 
can not be doubted that, in Germany and in England, a 
body of customary Teutonic law would have grown up had 
it not been for the notion that since the German monarch 
was the legitimate successor of Justinian, the corpus juris 
must be binding on all his subjects." 

Paris shares with Bologna the honors of priority. As 
Bologna was renowned for the study of law, Paris was dis- 
tinguished for its attention to theology and the liberal arts, 
while the student of medicine resorted to Salerno and a lit- 
tle later to Montpellier. There was a saying, " Italy has the 
pope, Germany the emperor, Prance the university." The 
usages and example of Paris were followed in England and 
in Germany, and indirectly at least in other countries. 

The publications of Father Denifle reveal the condition of 
affairs in the University of Paris during the thirteenth cen- 
tury in minute details. It is amusing to read the original 
papers thus brought together, and observe how exactly hu- 
man nature then corresponds with human nature now. 
There are the same jealousies, ambitions, difficulties, strifes, 
and victories. If a writer with the skill of Froude would 
do for this mass of documents what he has done for the cor- 
respondence of Erasmus, a volume of even greater interest 



might be forthcoming. Meanwhile, as much of this material 
is unknown to the general reader, a few illustrations will 
here be given, for it is certain that but few will have the 
patience to go through this great repository. Those who 
wish for a briefer story will find an excellent article, by Rev. 
H. Rashdall, in the English Historical Review for 1886, the 
conclusions of which were reached by independent studies. 

Thus, for example, there are questions of prerogative or 
jurisdiction between the chancellor or external authority, 
representative of the Church, and the rector or intramural 
representative of the teaching body. The faculty of theol- 
ogy dispute the power of the rector. In the faculty of 
medicine there is a quarrel about the election of deans and 
examiners. There are the rudiments of a "curriculum," 
prescribing what books may be read and what may not be 
read, particularly on holy days. We have indications of 
trouble between gown and town, the students and the night- 
watchmen. Academic degrees and titles are abused, and 
must be protected. Especially, unauthorized persons must 
not practice medicine. Surgeons and apothecaries must 
keep to their own special departments. Expulsion from 
the university is a penalty for continued neglect of studies. 
Masters of arts must not dictate their lectures. Fees are to 
be made proportionate to the time of residence. Students 
must be punctual at their meals, and may be punished for 
misconduct. Presents to the chancellor, on receipt of a 
license from him, are not allowed. Steps are taken by the 
university to control the sale of books. Heresy must be 
stamped out by vigorous measures. Certain teachers who 
hold to the doctrine of the Trinity in an unacceptable form 
are burned at the stake — a seculo migraverunt is their eu- 
phonious epitaph. These citations are taken here and there 
from papers that are dated between the middle of the thir- 
teenth and the middle of the fourteenth centuries. Only 
one more extract will be given, and this will show that 
academic boasting is not the invention of the nineteenth 
century. A paper that belongs to the end of the fourteenth 
century, attributed to Gerson, but, according to Denifle, 
more probably the work of another, begins with this lauda- 
tion of the University of Paris : 

"Just as the University of Paris is prior in origin, so, 
too, in glory and dignity it has always surpassed all others. 
Some derive it from Rome, others from Athens, others from 
Egypt. Some even trace it to the prophets, while others 
find its origin in paradise, either that earthly paradise where 
the knowledge of things divine and things human is said to 
have been infused into Adam, or that heavenly paradise, 
where, if we are to believe the poets, Minerva, goddess of 
wisdom, sprung from the head of Jove. The Wise One 
himself, as if in agreement with them, has asserted that 
* Wisdom was sent down from heaven ' (Wisdom, ix., 10), and 
elsewhere (Eccles. xxiv. 5) that it 'proceeded out of the 
mouth of the Most High/ and 'was an image of his good- 
ness ' (Wisdom, vii., 26). Without, however, continuing this 
discussion we know this for certain, that the other seats of 
learning derived their origin from Paris, it being as it were 
a living fountain, which, dividing into four faculties like so 
many rivers, irrigates the whole surface of the earth with 
the waters of learning. I know, indeed, that other schools 
contribute in no small degree to the store of learning, and 
that they are by no means without reputation, each one be- 
ing strong in its particular branches; but ours embraces all 
in its more ample bosom, so that there are some who think 
that it was from this fact that the Parisian school got the 
distinctive name of 'university,' because it has accumu- 
lated within itself the particular prerogatives and branches 
of learning of the individual schools. In philosophy, meta- 
physics, and theology it surpasses all others, even as in 
brilliancy the sun surpasses the moon. To use the words 
of Maro, it is a Britisn whale among dolphins." The quo- 
tation, however, is not from Vergil, but from the tenth satire 
of Juvenal, v., 14. 

The Universities of Paris and Bologna were the gradual 
evolution of the times. Not the Church nor the state, but 
students following the lectures of masters made the first 
universities. The associations or societies of students at 
Bologna, called universitate^ more than four of them at 
one time, were in fact akin to guilds of craftsmen, combina- 
tions of those whose pursuits were similar, for mutual pro- 
tection and advantage. Like confederations arose in other 
seats of learning, as at Vercelli and Padua. So in Paris 
(probably after the example of Bologna) four "nations" 
were constituted, including both teachers and pupils — name- 
ly, the French, Picard, Norman, and English "nations," 



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UNIVERSITY 



71 



each of these terms having a very broad territorial signifi- 
cance. These constituted the faculty of arts. Presently 
the faculties of medicine, canon law, and theology were 
grouped around the faculty of arts, which was in a certain 
sense tributary to the three other faculties. 

With respect to the inner life of the university, Mullinger 
has pointed out the differences between Bologna and Paris. 
In the former, instruction was entirely professional, designed 
to prepare the student for a definite and practical career in 
after life ; in the latter, it was sought to provide a genera] 
mental training, and to attract the learner to studies which 
were speculative rather than practical. In the sequel, the 
less mercenary spirit in which Paris cultivated knowledge 
added immensely to her influence and reputation. 

The Rapid Spread of Universities in the Thirteenth and 
Fourteenth Centuries, — It is now time to consider the spread 
of universities. When their importance was perceived, pope 
and emperor, cities and sovereigns, rivaled one another in 
efforts to establish seats of learning. Consequently, includ- 
ing Bologna and Paris, fifty-five high schools were initiated 
prior to 1400, some of them destined indeed to premature 
death, but most of them surviving at the end of the century. 
A group of a dozen schools (Macerata, Lyons, Brescia, Mes- 
sina, Palermo, Vienne, Palma, Rheims, Todi, Pistoia, Man- 
tua, and Parma) may be passed by as wrongly called univer- 
sities. Nine grew into universities by usage and privileges — 
namely, Salerno, Oxford, Orleans, Angers, Padua, Vercelli, 
Reggio, Modena, Vicenza. Sixteen establishments were based 
upon papal charters— that of the papal court, Rome, Pisa, 
Ferrara, Toulouse, Montpellier, Avignon, Cahors, Grenoble, 
Cambridge, Valladolid, Heidelberg, Cologne, Erfurt, Funf- 
k ire hen, and Buda. A group of ten institutions received im- 
perial or other civil charters — Arezzo, Sienna, Naples, Trevi- 
so. Orange, Palencia, Salamanca, Seville, Lerida, Huesca. 
The fourth £roup, nine in number, received both papal and 
civil authority— Perpignan, Lisbon, Perueia, Florence, Pia- 
cenza, Pavia, Prague, Vienna, Cracow. Finally, nine pro- 
jected universities did not come into being — Fermo, Verona, 
Orvieto, Pamiers, Dublin, Valencia, AlcaU, Geneva, and 
Lucca. Such an exhibit justifies the statement that the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries are the epoch of uni- 
versity foundations. 

The Rise of the German Universities, — If Germany was 
not the original seat of the modern university, it has certain- 
ly been its most congenial home. Paulsen has arranged by 
E^riods the names of those institutions in which the German 
nguage is employed for instruction, thus including the 
Austrian universities and some of the Swiss. The first 
period is prior to the invention of printing ; the second prior 
to the Reformation; the third is the period of religious 
ware, when denominational universities dependent on the 
state and Church came into being — Marburg, KSnigsberg, 
Jena, Giessen, etc., on the Protestant side, and WQrzburg, 
Gratz, Innsbruck, etc., on the Catholic side. The fourth 
period, covering the last two centuries, is naturally divided 
into an earlier epoch (that of Halle, Gdttingeu, Erlangen, 
etc.), and a later, which has seen the ascendency of Berlin, 
Bonn, Munich, and the rejuvenated Strassburg. 

In the following table, taken from Paulsen, the figures 
indicate the date of foundation, and in certain cases the 
date of suppression, or of transference to a new site : 



First Period, 
Prague (Austrian), 1348. 
Vienna (Austrian), 1365. 
Heidelberg, 1385. 
Cologne, 138&-1794. 
Erfurt, 1392-1816. 
Leipzig, 1409. 
Rostock, 1419. 

Second Period, 

Greifswald, 1456. 

Freiburg (Baden), 1457. 

Basel (Swiss), 1460. 

Ingoldstadt, 1472-1802. 

Treves, 1473-1798. 

Mentz, 1477-1798. 

Tubingen, 1477. 

Wittenberg, 1502-1817; trans- 
ferred to Halle. 

Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1506- 
1811; transferred to Bres- 
lau. 



Third Period. 

Marburg, 1527. 

KSnigsberg, 1544. 

Dillingen, 1549-1803. 

Jena, 1558. 

Braunsberg, 1568; reorgan- 
ized, 1818. 

Helrastfidt, 1576-1809. 

Olmutz (Austrian), 1581-1855; 
now a theological faculty. 

Wttrzburg, 1582. 

Gratz (Austrian), 1585. 

Giessen, 1607. 

Paderborn, 1615-1818. 

Strassburg, 1621 ; newly 
founded, 1872. 

Rinteln, 1621-1809. 

Altdorf, 1622-1807. 

Salzburg (Austrian), 1623- 
1810. 

Osnabruck, 1630-1633. 

Bamberg, 1648-1803. 



Herborn, 1654 ; converted in- 
to a theological seminary. 
1818. 

Duisburg, 1655-1818. 

Kiel, 1665. 

Innsbruck (Austrian), 1672. 

Fourth Period. 

Halle, 1694 

Breslau, 1702; re-organized, 
1811. 



GCttingen, 1787. 

Erlangen, 1743. 

MQnster, 1780. 

Berlin, 1809. 

Bonn, 1818. 

Munich, 1826. 

Zurich (Swiss), 1832. 

Berne (Swiss). 1834. 

Czernowitz (Austrian), 1875. 

Freiburg (Swiss), 1889 (lec- 
tures partly in German, 
partly in French). 

Spread of Universities through Europe, etc— The Univer- 
sity of Oxford was modeled upon that of Paris. Like that of 
its antecedent, its origin is obscure, and its early years show 
the influence of many subtle forces rather than the impulse 
of the crown or the Church. Certain monastic schools, St. 
Frideswyde and Oseney, are supposed to have been the nu- 
cleus of the university. Vacanus, a follower of Irnerius, 
brought from Bologna to Oxford the knowledge of the 
Roman law, and previously (1138) Robert Pullen had arrived 
from Paris and lectured upon the Bible. In the twelfth 
century Giraldus Cambrensis describes Oxford as a place 
where " the clergv in England chiefly flourished and excelled 
in clerkly lore. 1 ' Early in the thirteenth century large 
numbers of students migrated from Paris to Oxford and 
Cambridge. In the year 1257 the Oxford authorities speak 
of theirs as a school second only to Paris. The earliest 
colleges were University (1249), Baliol (1263), and Merton 
(1264). 

The University of Cambridge is a little younger than that 
of Oxford. In the twelfth century there were probably 
schools connected with the Church of St. Giles. In 1224 
the Franciscans came, and half a century later the Domini- 
cans. In 1231 and 1233 there are indications that the uni- 
versity is an organized body with a chancellor at its head, 
and in 1318 a formal recognition of the place as a studium 
generate is received from the pope. The earliest colleges 
are Peterhouse (1286), Michaelhouse and King's Hall (1326), 
Pembroke (1347), Gonville (1348), Trinity Hall (1350), Corpus 
Christi (1352). ' * 

The modern universities in England are Durham (1657; 
revived in 1831). London (1825; reorganized in 1836), and 
Victoria (chartered in 1880). 

There are four universities in Scotland— St. Andrews 
(1411), Glasgow (1453), Aberdeen (1494), Edinburgh (1582). 

In Ireland the leading university is that of Dublin, com- 
monly known as Trinity College, Dublin, founded in 1591. 
The Royal University (1880), which is chiefly an examining 
body akin to the University of London, comprises also the 
Queen's colleges of Belfast, Cork, and Galway, which were 
formerly associated in the Queen's University. The Catholic 
University (1854) is in Dublin, and St. Patrick's College at 
Maynooth was founded in 1795 for the education of priests. 

Where British colonization and conquest have gone — in 
Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India— universities of the 
English type have been established. Among the higher in- 
stitutions in Canada the most important are the University 
of Toronto (1828), the McGill University in Montreal (1821), 
Laval University in Quebec (1852), Dalhousie University in 
Halifax (1820), and Queen's University in Kingston (1841). 
In Australia there are the Universities of Adelaide, Sydney, 
and Melbourne. New Zealand has its university. India has 
five institutions for superior instruction under English aus- 
pices. The University of Tokio in Japan, an establishment 
of great promise, is based upon the observation of German, 
English, and American experience. 

In France, the antiquity of Montpellier comes next to 
Paris. Its six hundredth anniversary was celebrated in 
1890. As far back as 1181 medical instruction was there 
given, and a faculty of jurisprudence was instituted before 
the close of the twelfth century. Pope Nicholas IV. gave 
Montpellier a charter in 1289. Toulouse in 1233 received a 
charter recognizing it as a studium generate, and Orleans 
not far from the same time. As already stated, the univer- 
sities of Angers, Avignon, Cahors, Grenoble, Perpignan, 
and Orange (the two last named having but a nominal exist- 
ence) were established before the end of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. In the course of the Revolution (1793) the ancient 
universities of France were suppressed, together with the 
professional faculties. In their place, when Napoleon as- 
sumed the rule of centralization, the University of France 
was instituted by a decree of Mar. 17, 1808, as a central 



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UNIVERSITY 



authority, which should control nearly all the higher insti- 
tutions of learning in the country. " Academies " took the 
place of " universities." The College de France, founded in 
1530 (spared by the Convention and restored in 1831), the 
fecole Polvtechnique (begun in 1794), and the Ecole Pratique 
des Hautes fitudes (instituted in 1868), with other founda- 
tions, supplement the faculties in Paris, and amid many 
political changes, have maintained their autonomy and 
their distinctive characteristics. The name of one of the 
oldest colleges in the University of Paris, the Sorbonne, has 
been perpetuated since its foundation in 1250 until the 
present time, and the magnificent buildings recently con- 
structed in Paris as a home for the liberal arts bear the 
name of the New Sorbonne. 

For many years past a movement has been in progress 
tending toward the revival of the ancient foundations, or, in 
other words, for the transformation of the existing " facul- 
ties " into universities. In 1875 a law was passed relative 
to the liberty of superior instruction, and in accordance 
therewith the Roman Catholics began university work at 
Paris, Lille, and Angers. This law made provision for future 
legislation in the interest of still greater reforms. Such leg- 
islation was actually proposed in 1890 by M. Bourgeois, then 
Minister of Public Instruction. In the meanwhile the Gov- 
ernment had been actively engaged in the improvement of 
the buildings and apparatus devoted to higher education 
in different cities. The New Sorbonne illustrates this ac- 
tivity. So in other seats of learning, where, until recent- 
ly, only lecture-halls were found, laboratories for instruc- 
tion and research, cabinets, libraries, studies, and conference- 
halls have been provided by liberal expenditures. The pro- 
visions for retaining governmental supervision while certain 
powers are transferred to the local universities proved to be 
a difficult problem. The number of students has rapidly 
increased as better opportunities have been offered them. 
See a paper on Education in France, by A. T. Smith, in 
Report of United States Commissioner of Education for 
1891-92. 

The other states of Northern Europe — Russia, Sweden, 
Norway, Denmark, Holland, Belgium, and Switzerland — 
maintain their universities very much in accordance with 
German models. In the south of Europe, Spain followed 
Italy in the early establishment of universities, among 
which, for nearly five centuries, from the thirteenth to the 
eighteenth, Salamauca was the most distinguished. Madrid 
is now frequented by a large number of students. Coimbra, 
in Portugal, is flourishing. In recent years the universities 
of Italy — sixteen of them pertaining to the state, and four 
being free from governmental control — have shown new 
life. In Greece the University of Athens (1837) has acquired 
distinction. 

Attendance upon European Universities. — The list of uni- 
versities given in Minerva for 1894-95 includes 129 names, 
besides the 16 faculties of France, 63 colleges or academic 
institutions of a high rank, and 7 examining bodies more or 
less akin to the University of London. Of those enrolled as 
universities, 64 have an attendance of more than 1,000 stu- 
dents each, and 48 others are attended by more than 500 
students each. The largest numbers are found in Paris, 
10,643 ; Berlin, 8,343 (of whom 4,735 are " hearers ") ; Madrid, 
5,867 (of whom 2,906 are " hearers ") ; Vienna, 4,856 (of whom 
8,913 are " hearers"); Naples, 4.822 (of whom 4,732 are 
u hearers "). The number attributed to Oxford is 3,222, and 
to Cambridge 3,156. 

Universities in the U S. — Higher education in the U. S. 
was at first promoted by simple colleges. Harvard, Yale, 
and William and Mary were based upon the conception of 
the college as it existed within the universities of Oxford 
and Cambridge in the early part of the seventeenth century. 
Columbia, Princeton, Rutgers, Brown, Williams, Bowdoin, 
Union, and scores of other institutions were formed substan- 
tially upon the model of Harvard and Yale. At the begin- 
ning of the nineteenth century broader ideas prevailed. Pro- 
fessional schools of law, medicine, and theology were grafted 
upon the original stock, or were founded in close proximity 
to existing colleges. In the middle of the nineteenth cen- 
tury schools of science (Lawrence, Sheffield, Chandler, etc.) 
were inaugurated. Still the name "university" was very 
cautiously employed. 

The organization of the University of Virginia, in 1826, 
brought new methods forward. Thomas Jefferson was fa- 
miliar with the continental ideas of universities, and he in- 
troduced many of their features, which were quite distinct 
from those of the English colleges. W r ith the opening of 



the Northwest separate States were persuaded to ^rive their 
name and their funds to the foundation of universities ; and 
at a still later period the so-called agricultural college grant 
gave to scientific education all over the land a new impulse. 

Thus it may be seen that the universities of the U. S. may 
be arranged in four groups : First, those which are the out- 
growth of the early colleges, like Harvard, Yale, Columbia, 
etc. ; second, those which have been founded by some of the 
separate States of the Union, like Michigan, Wisconsin, 
Minnesota, California, Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, 
etc. ; third, private foundations, like Cornell, Johns Hopkins, 
Inland Stanford, Tulane; and fourth, ecclesiastical univer- 
sities, as in Chicago, Washington, Evanston, Sewanee, etc 
Although the administration of these institutions may ap- 
pear to differ widely, yet within the walls, the courses of in- 
struction, the methods of discipline, and the terms of pro- 
motion will be found quite similar. The differences that 
exist are due rather to differences of income than to dif- 
ferences of aims. The hope is sometimes expressed that the 
attempt will be made to give emphasis in each strong insti- 
tution to particular branches of learning, philology, natural 
science, mathematics, etc., but no such tendency is yet 
manifest. Each institution, so far as its means will permit, 
endeavors to cover just as wide a range as possible. 

Four distinct periods are also to be noticed in the devel- 
opment of universities in the U. S. In colonial days, until 
the Revolution, the English college was the simple "form by 
which higher education was promoted. Next came a period 
early in the nineteenth century, when professional schools 
of medicine, law, and theology were instituted — sometimes 
in close connection with the older colleges, and often quite 
indej>endently. A third period began in the middle oi the 
nineteenth century, when scientific schools and technological 
institutes were devoted to the advancement of pure and ap- 
plied science. In the fourth period opportunities of study 
and for investigation and for publication have been given 
far beyond those ever offered in previous days. 

In the city of Washington, at the present moment, we 
may see the different forces of society at work upon the uni- 
versity problem. Since the early part of the nineteenth 
century the national capital has been the seat of the Colum- 
bian University, a private corporation, which has been large- 
ly controlled by one religious denomination. It includes 
schools of law, medicine, science, and the liberal arts. For 
reasons which need not here be discussed it has not acquired 
that distinction among universities of the U.S. which might 
have been expected from its relat ions to the seat of govern- 
ment. Consequently, the demand has sprung up for a na- 
tional university, to be established in Washington and en- 
dowed by the Government. Able men have worked to- 
gether in the advocacy of this idea. Bills have been repeat- 
edly introduced in the Congress, and have passed through 
one or more of the requisite stages of legislation, but final 
action has not been taken. While this discussion has been 
in progress, the Roman Catholics have begun a university at 
the capital, having secured for it a large tract of land, upon 
which commodious halls have been constructed. Faculties 
of theology and philosophy have been organized, students 
assembled, and publications of a scientific character have 
appeared. It is a remarkable fact that the authority of this 
foundation proceeds from the see of Rome, being embodied 
'in a papal decree issued by Leo XIII. Closely coincident 
with the action of the Roman Catholics is that of the Metho- 
dists. Under the auspices of leading members of this de- 
nomination, a charter has been secured, land acquired, and 
plans matured for the American University. Thus we have 
in Washington a Roman Catholic, a Methodist, and a Bap- 
tist universitv, with the possibility that a national university- 
will be added to the number. 

Existing Forms of European Universities. — The existing 
forms of university organization in Europe may be arranged 
in these groups: 

1. The most common is the German type, which has 
these characteristics: The authority, the ultimate direction, 
rests with the government of each state. Students are pre- 
sumed to have received a good preliminary training in the 
gymnasium, or in some corresponding institution. The philo- 
sophical faculty usually includes the chairs devoted to lan- 
guage, literature, history, philosophy, mathematics, physical 
and natural sciences. Sometimes there is a division, as, for 
example, in Munich, where the political sciences are attrib- 
uted to a separate faculty, and the philosophical faculty is 
divided into two sections: (a) philosophy, philology, and 
history ; (b) mathematics and natural sciences. 

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Many students pursue for a time a course of philosophical 
studies, though their chief interests are elsewhere. Three 
other faculties are grouped around the philosophical — name- 
ly, law, medicine, and theology. Laboratories and institutes 
for special subjects are growing up under the university 
control. Technical schools are for the most part regarded 
as without the pale. This type prevails in Germany, Aus- 
tria, Holland, Belgium, Scanainavia, Russia, and Switzer- 
land. The prevalence of this form of organization induced 
the remark of a distinguished German professor, that there 
is not as yet in the U. S. a single university in the sense 
attached to the word by Europeans. 

2. The French type was established under Napoleon by 
the decree of Mar. 17, 1808. The ancient universities had 
been suppressed. In their place nearly all institutions of 
learning, from the lowest to the highest, were constituted 
the University of France. The ministry of Public Instruc- 
tion, aided by a council, controls everything. This council 
includes five directors of (a) superior, {b) secondary, and (c) 
primary education ; (d) of the office of secretary and comp- 
troller; and (e) of the fine arts. The educational system of 
France is divided into academies. At the head of each is a 
rector, named by the minister, who directs in his domain 
the three grades of instruction — primary, secondary, and 
superior. A vigorous movement is in progress to restore to the 
ancient universities — Montpellier, Lyons, etc. — their former 
prerogatives and prestige. The law of 1880 (Feb. 27) so far 
reorganized the university councils that the inner forces, 
the teaching forces, have now a greater share in the govern- 
ment. By this law the Conseil Supe>ieur has become the 
representative of the intellectual and scientific interests of 
the country. 

The nearest approach to the French idea in the U. S. is 
the University of the State of New York, the regents of 
which exercise a limited control over all universities, colleges, 
academies, and schools which are organized by the laws or 
charters of the State. 

3. The two great English universities, Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, have preserved more of the ancient forms. They 
arc groups of colleges, associated in a university, each re- 
taining independence in the holding of property and in the 
training of youth. Above the colleges are the authorities 
of the university by whom degrees are conferred, professors 
appointed, and regulations of general importance prescribed 
and enforced. By various boards and syndicates the teach- 
ers of kindred subjects are brought into close co-operation 
with one another, and by their college enrollment the stu- 
dents are divided into distinct companies and subjected to 
tutorial discipline and instruction. Of recent years the 
colleges have united in the establishment and maintenance 
of professorships, the instruction of which may be accessible 
to all members of the university, and, under certain regula- 
tions, to others who are qualified to attend. In 1880 a 
charter was given to the Victoria University, the official 
title of a group of colleges, of which Owens College, at Man- 
chester, is the leader. 

4. The University of London is unique. It exists as an 
examining body, having the power to confer academic de- 
grees upon students who have conformed to certain definite 
requirements. The examinations of this body have been 
conducted with so much accuracy and skill that diplomas 
thus secured have a very high value as certificates of pro- 
ficiency ; but they afford little evidence of the possession of 
such an academic spirit as is usually produced by residence 
in a well-developed university. Measures are now in prog- 
ress for the organization of a teaching university in Lon- 
don, and a voluminous report upon the subject has been 
presented to Parliament 

Dominant Subjects of Study. — Far more interesting than 
a statistical, chronological, or territorial account of univer- 
sities is the story of the subjects that have successively come 
into prominence, especially in the faculty of philosophy or 
the liberal arts. We have seen how, at Salerno and Mont- 
pellier, medical science was fostered, at Bologna the study 
of law, and at Paris theology and scholastic philosophy. 
The intense enthusiasm exhibited by the Schoolmen never 
reached a higher point than it did in the lecture-rooms of 
Abelard (1079-1142), but for two centuries afterward the dis- 
cussions of the Nominalists and the Realists were vigorous 
and absorbing. It is hard to appreciate the importance at- 
tached to the distinctions of these acute dialecticians, except 
by bearing in mind that philosophy and theology were close- 
ly interlocked (as they are still), and that the doctrine of 
the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist turned largely 



upon the meaning of the word real and the nature of ab- 
stract existences. " Are abstract terms words only, or are 
there physical beings corresponding to every abstract term t " 
Aristotle was at the bottom of all this dialectic. The Sen- 
tences of Peter Lombard (d. 1164) applied the principles of 
the Stagyrite to Christian doctrines, and remained for a long 
period the manual of theological students. In St. Thomas 
Aquinas, " the angelic doctor " (1227-74), mediaeval philoso- 
phy bore its richest fruit. He was unwearied, says a recent 
Roman Catholic writer, in laying stress upon the funda- 
mental principle that between the truths of reason and the 
truths of revelation, when rightly understood, there is neither 
divergence nor discord. It is for this reason that he still 
retains his ascendency. His writings, republished by the 
Vatican in a sumptuous edition, are commended by Leo 
XIII., in the encyclical JEterni Patris of 1879, to renewed 
and earnest study. "Greatly enriched as he was with the 
science of God and the science of man, he is likened to the 
sun, for he warmed the whole earth with the fire of his 
holiness and filled the whole earth with the splendor of his 
teaching." (Cf. Aristotle, etc., by Brother Azarias.) A Prot- 
estant historian (Flint, Phil. Hist.) emphasizes the fact that 
St. Thomas recognized *' progress to be a universal law of 
things, and all knowledge to be progressive." This comes 
very near to the modern law of continuity, and the more re- 
cent doctrines of evolution. Whatever repugnance to the 
scholastic philosophy may be felt, no mistake will be made if 
we remember what has alreadv been said, that to its indirect 
influence may be attributed the ascendency of reason above 
authority which has characterized the modern era, and of 
which ttie end is not yet. 

Roger Bacon (1214-92) was one of the most able of edu- 
cational reformers. He advocated a study of Greek, He- 
brew, and Arabic, but to mathematics, divine mathesis, ho 
gave the highest place. It was long indeed before such 
views were prevalent. The mathematics of his time were 
rudimentary indeed. Geometry held its place, but we are 
told that the student seldom crossed the pons asinorum. In 
the early days of the Universities of Prague, Vienna, and 
Leipzig, as well as in Paris, provision was made for the 
study of mathenmthics, but not until the discoveries of 
Newton and Leibnitz was there an adequate recognition of 
the value or even of the significance of mathematical 
thought, and it was not until the nineteenth century that 
the dignitv and possibilities of this science were discovered. 

The revival of letters in the last half of the fifteenth cen- 
tury quickly made its influence felt in the universities. The 
migration of Eastern scholars to the West, consequent upon 
the capture of Constantinople by the Turks (1453), was of 
great significance, for they brought to Italy knowledge and 
appreciation of Greek letters. The invention of printings 
(about 1454) and the production by the Aldi (1490-1597) and 
other enlightened printers of the great works of antiquity 
were likewise events the potency of which can not be esti- 
mated. A century earlier Petrarch (1304-74) had given an 
impulse to the study of classical literature, especially Latin, 
ana the collection of manuscripts by Guarino, Filelfo, Au- 
rispa, and Poggio established the reign of the humanities. 
Classical learning was ascendant. There was "a resurrec- 
tion," as Symonds has said, "of the mightiest spirits of the 
past." It took a long while for Greek literature to win its 
place. The annals of Cambridge show what hostility the 
new education encountered. Latin was the tongue of the 
Church, of the received Scriptures, of current theology and 
philosophy. It was a sanctified language — but Greek! That 
was the language of heresy. Reuchlin, at Basel, brought 
forward the Greek text of Aristotle, and was vehemently as- 
sailed by the seniors of the university, who declared that to 
give instruction in the opinions of schismatic Greeks was 
contrary to the faith and an idea only to be scouted (Mul- 
linger). Oxford was more hostile than Cambridge to Greek, 
a circumstance which led Erasmus to begin his career as a 
teacher of Greek in England in Cambridge. Slowly but 
surely the battle was won, and Greek and Latin letters have 
ever since had their place in every university. Their effects 
are seen in all departments of modern literature. 

The exact observation of natural phenomena and the per- 
formance of physical experiments, chief factors in the ad- 
vancement of modern science, have only recently found a 
place in the domain of university instruction. But now they 
receive almost everywhere abundant encouragement. Let. 
the programme of any flourishing university of this day be 
compared with that of the most expanded university 100 
years ago, and the change will seem marvelouj 



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advance was made when Liebig, at Giessen, introduced the 
laboratory as an agent in university instruction. The 
methods of instruction and research first employed in chem- 
istry have been carried into other sciences — physics, anat- 
omy, physiology, pathology, botany, zoology, geology, min- 
eralogy. The example of the laboratory methods has even 
been felt in literary, philological, and historical studies, 
where the critical scrutiny of original authorities is gener- 
ally encouraged, in " seminaries." The comparative method 
of investigation has been fruitful. Indeed the historian 
Freeman has said that " the discovery of the comparative 
method in philology, in mythology — let me add, in poli- 
tics and history and the whole range of human thought — 
marks a stage in the progress of the human mind at least as 
great and memorable as the revival of Greek and Latin 
learning." To Bopp is due the honor of initiating the study 
of comparative grammar, and to Stein and Ranke the en- 
couragement of Quellenforschung, an investigation of the 
sources of historical literature. 

The Functions of a University. — It may now be well to 
enumerate some of the principal functions of a university 
at the end of the nineteenth century. In the first place, it 
adheres to its original task of instruction. Youth, fitted by 
previous studies to follow the highest attainments of human 
thought, are encouraged to do so by teachers who have won 
distinction in the various branches of knowledge which they 
profess. It is by this quality that universities are dis- 
tinguished from academies and learned societies, which are 
associations of scholars for their mutual benefit and for the 
promotion of knowledge, but without any reference to the 
training of youth. Universities are also distinguished from 
colleges, the object of which is to provide a preparation for 
life or to lay foundations for the subsequent study of law, 
medicine, theology, and innumerable modern vocations, in- 
cluding those of the teacher and investigator. 

2. It is the duty of universities to perpetuate all the best 
achievements of mankind in former ages, to provide for the 
study of the languages, literature, religions, laws, philoso- 
phies, customs of antiquity, so that nothing that the human 
race has achieved may be lost sight of. Everything that 
illustrates the experiences of our race or its endeavors to 
establish good social conditions and to promote the highest 
intellectual and moral progress should be taught in a uni- 
versity. Especially in these days should the study of com- 
parative religion and comparative politics be encouraged, 
the sources from which have sprung the modern ideas of 
government and religion. Literatures remote from those of 
modern Europe, by their antiquity or by their appearance 
in Oriental countries, are not to be neglected. 

3. It is another function of universities to extend the 
borders of knowledge, especially to investigate, with the 
newer methods of research, and with the co-operation of 
scholars in every part of the world, the phenomena of 
nature. Such researches begin with an extension of the 
field of mathematics. Astronomy, physics, dynamics, logic, 
follow closely. Chemistry stands next. The functions of 
living organisms in health and disease, animal and vege- 
table, open wide domains. The structure of the earth and 
the processes by which it has been brought into its present 
form are another field of observation. The laws of climate 
are closely connected with those of geology. Then there is 
the wide range of economic and financial laws and the study 
of those subtle processes by which social institutions have 
been organized and established. 

4. For the prosecution of such work universities must 
form large collections of books, works of art, coins, speci- 
mens in natural history, maps, scientific apparatus, and in- 
struments of precision. It is not essential tnat such collec- 
tions should belong to the corporate body known as the uni- 
versity, but every company of scholars must have the easiest 
possible access to literary and scientific collections, to labo- 
ratories, observatories,- museums^ cabinets, and libraries. 

5. It is an important function of universities to bestow, 
upon suitable evidence, certificates, academic titles, and 
licenses, both in the liberal arts and in the various depart- 
ments of professional activity. It is quite time that in the 
U. S. there should be a rehabilitation of degrees. They have 
been brought into ridicule partly by multiplying such dis- 
tinctions and partly by bestowing them unworthily. In 
Europe academic diplomas convey many rights and privi- 
leges of an important social character. They are guarded 
both by law and by public opinion. In the U. S. degrees 
are awarded with unfortunate freedom by any institution 
which bears the chartered name of a college. It may be as 



difficult to limit this power as to limit the suffrage, but 
every step taken in that direction is to be commended. 

6. It is the business of universities to disseminate as 
widely as possible by means of publications, perhaps also by 
popular lectures, the knowledge of which its members are 
the possessors and guardians. There is danger that college 
publications will be regarded as advertisements of the insti- 
tution from which they proceed, and not as the means of 
conveying to the highest scientific and literary courts of the 
world, the results of original work. Nevertheless the prin- 
ciple holds good that the members of a university are bound 
to bring before the public the results of their study. 

7. Another function of the university is to discover and 
encourage unusual talent, not merely by offering to needy 
students of merit financial support, but* by recognizing and 
encouraging the rare abilities wnich appear alike among the 
poor and among the rich. 

8. From what has been said it is apparent that univer- 
sities should uphold the highest standards of professional 
learning, in law, medicine, theology, in education, in investi- 
gation, and in scientific service. 

9. In the future development of American universities, 
the possibility and desirability of co-operation and federa- 
tion should be considered. In every large city the forces 
which are working together for the promotion of culture 
should, by some process or another, be brought into a state 
not of passive friendliness, but of active co-operation. James 
Bryce explains the structure of the American Federation 
by a reference to the federal system as it long existed in the 
Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. The Universities 
of Harvard and Yale are largely the federation of separate 
foundations. Columbia College, in New York, is becoming 
the central point of many local institutions devoted to medi- 
cine, pedagogics, natural history, and the fine arts. In Cali- 
fornia the State University has its seat at Berkeley, with 
certain of its departments in San Francisco and the Lick 
Observatory scores of miles away. In New Orleans, around 
the foundation made by Tulane, several institutions are 
grouped. The three great libraries in the city of New 
York, the Astor, Lenox, and the Tilden, have come under 
one administration. Ail these signs are encouraging. They 
look toward the promotion of independence in special direc- 
tions, with an obligation to respect and help on what is 
done in other institutions. Dr. S. S. Laws, in the U. S. 
Commissioner's Report for 1891-92, advocates, as Dr. James 
McCosh suggested long ago, the federation of the colleges of 
a State under the leadership of a State university. 

Conclusion. — The German authority already quoted, Dr. 
Paulsen, surveying the field outside of Germany, makes this 
significant remark : " Thus far the greatest measure of suc- 
cess has perhaps been reached by some of the most promi- 
nent American universities in tneir efforts to carry out the 
German principle of the union of scientific investigation 
and scientific teaching." But lest this encouraging word 
should be too grateful, it may be well to temper it with a 
warning from another German, Dr. Conrad, who wisely says 
that " what is wanted in American higher education is not 
so much quantity as quality. There exist centers at least 
sufficiently numerous for the teaching of the higher sub- 
jects ; the teaching given is sufficiently cheap ; it is much 
valued, and affects a large proportion of the population. In 
these respects America may seem to resemble Germany and 
Scotland rather than England, where the lower middle and 
poorer classes remain outside the sphere of university influ- 
ence. But there are still few among the transatlantic uni- 
versities — and this applies to Canada no less than to the 
U. S. — which have an adequate staff of professors, which 
duly recognize the less popular subjects, which have ex- 
panded their old curriculum or evolved new curricula so 
as to keep pace with the recent development of the sciences, 
the moral, political, economic, and philological, as well as 
the natural sciences." 

Dr. Stanley Hall, in an article in the Academy, 1891-92, 
expresses the opinion that " the last quarter of this century 
will be remarkable hereafter as the educational era in the 
world's history M ; and he adds that " universities have be- 
come the leading question of our age. Their patronage is 
the chief glory of the modern state, and their discoveries 
now kindle the brightest lights upon the Muses' sacred hill." 

For further information on the subject of universities, the 
reader should consult the writings of the four investigators 
whose statements have been freely quoted in the body of this 
article — Prof. J. B. Mullinger, of the University of Cam- 
bridge, England ; Prof. Paulsen, of the University of Berlin ; 



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Prof. Conrad, of the University of Halle ; and the Rev. Father 
Denifle, O. P., who is one of the archivists of the Vatican. 
They represent respective! v English, German, and French 
university history. In the 'Report of the U. S. Commissioner 
of Education for 1891-02, translations, by L. R. Klemm, of 
the papers by Paulsen and Conrad are riven. 

Tne modern interest in the origin 01 universities is due, 
in no small degree, to the learned historian of the Roman 
law, Friedrich C. Von Savigny, one of the early professors 
in the University of Berlin. His first volume was printed 
in 1815, and the last in 1832. President Woolsey, in The 
New Englander, has given to American readers a careful 
estimate and abstract of the university chapters. But since 
Savigny a flood of light has been thrown upon the subject 
by special volumes devoted to particular foundations — for 
example, Bologna, Paris, Oxford, Cambridge, Montpellier, 
Freiburg, Edinburgh, Dublin, Heidelberg, Vienna, Basel, 
Erfurt, Leipzig, and Louvain. 

Perry's translation of Paulsen's study of the Organiza- 
tion of German Universities, introduced by N. M. Butler 
(New York, 1894), supplemented by the English translation, 
introduced by J. Bryce, of Conrad's German Universities 
during the Last Fifty Years (1889), and compared with the 
impressions of an English critic, M. Arnold, Schools and 
Universities of the Continent (1868), and of an American 
observer, J. M. Hart, will give a good impression of the con- 
dition and methods of German institutions. For the earliest 
period, Denifle's Entstehung d. Univ. des Mittelalters bis 
14O0 is almost indispensable, but it has not been translated. 

The three volumes in quarto, Cartularium Universitatis 
Parisiensis (Paris, 1893-94), edited by Father Denifle, with 
extended and learned annotations, is an inexhaustible mine 
of information respecting the origin of the University of 
Paris, and incidentally of its kindred elsewhere. For the 
period that it covers it supersedes all other histories of that 
gT«at foundation in Paris which was known as " the mother 
of universities." The writings of J. Bass Mullinger not only 
give the early history of the University of Cambridge, but 
exhibit the relations of the great English universities to the 
progress of learning and education on the Continent To 
the student of English and American education these dis- 
criminating volumes, with a smaller book by the same au- 
thor on the University of Cambridge in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, will be found instructive. For this period a part of 
Froude's Erasmus is suggestive. 

During many years Huberts English Universities, trans- 
lated by F. W. Newman (1843), was a standard. For Ox- 
ford, Anthony a Wood's Athena Oxonienses will always 
be an important book ; see also Lyte's History of the Uni- 
versity to 1530 (1886), Brodrick's History of the University 
(1886), Andrew Lang's Historical ana Descriptive Notes 
(1890), A. Clark's Colleges of Oxford (1891), Oxford and Ox- 
ford Life, by J. Wells, and the City of Oxford, by Boase. 
In addition to the works of Mullinger, already cited, which 
give the history of Cambridge to the accession of Charles I. 
(2 vols., 1873 and 1884), reference should be made to the 
Architectural History of the University of Cambridge, by 
Willis and Clark (4 vols., 1886). There are two books by 
Americans who have studied in Cambridge — Five Years in 
an English University, by C. A. Bristed (1852), and On the 
Cam, by William Everett (1866). The histories of separate 
colleges in Oxford and Cambridge should also be consulted. 
Grant's History of the University of Edinburgh, prepared 
for the tercentenary celebration, is admirable. 

The lectures of S. S. Laurie on the Rise of Universities, 
Sir William Hamilton's Discourses, Wordworth's Scholm 
Aeademicm, Mark Pattison's Suggestions on Academic Or- 
ganization, various essays of Prof. Goldwin Smith, H. Rash- 
dall on the Universities of the Middle Ages, Cardinal New- 
man on the Idea of the University, and the voluminous 
blue books of the British Government, including one on the 
Evidence taken by the Gresham Commission (1894), may be 
read with profit by those who are concerned in the organiza- 
tion and administration of American universities. For the 
U. S. the best sources of information are the inaugural 
speeches of college presidents and the annual reports of 
colleges and universities, with some special articles to be 
found in various journals of education edited by H. Barnard, 
N. Murray Butler, and G. Stanley Hall. Valuable contribu- 
tions to American educational history are found in the series 
of monographs edited by Herbert B. Adams and issued by 
the U. S. bureau of education, each one of which is devoted 
to the higher education of a particular State. A bout twenty 
of these have been issued (1895). D. C. Oilman. 



University Extension : an educational movement, the 
main idea of which is to furnish teaching by university in- 
structors to those who, for any reason, can not reside at the 
universities. The term extension may, in this connection, 
be interpreted as meaning both (1) the extension of univer- 
sity activities beyond university premises, and (2) the exten- 
sion of university studies beyond the period of youth and 
throughout adult life, Its constituency is the large class of 
people, itself made up of all classes, in the towns and cities, 
who wish to read and study under such direction as col- 
leges and universities can give through the living teacher. 
It has been termed the school for adults, the university of 
the busy. In the words of Prof. James Stuart, of London, 
at whose suggestion this work was first organized, it is an 
attempt ** to bring the universities and the people together." 
It is not, however, to be understood as designed for those 
only •* who can not come to the universities, if that be in- 
terpreted to mean thpse who have never had and never can 
have the advantages of resident study. It is rather one 
form of education for adults of every class, and finds among 
its constituents (1) college graduates who desire to continue 
courses of reading and study in their favorite subjects ; (2) 
teachers who wish university instruction and direction both 
as to method and as to subject-matter ; (3) those who seek 
relief from the routine of business and toil ; (4) parents 
who desire to be closer intellectual companions with tfceir 
children in the schools ; (5) those who desire to be better in- 
formed upon matters pertaining directly to citizenship, 
such as political science, history, social science ; and all, in 
general, who desire such stimulus and instruction as may 
thus be enjoyed. Whatever may have been the original de- 
sign as to the precise class for whom this form of instruction 
was intended, it may now be said to contemplate as wide a 
variety of constituents as society itself presents, attempting 
in every practicable way to bring the teaching resources of 
universities within reach of those outside the universities 
for the enrichment of life and the improvement of culture. 

Method. — University teaching is thus extended principally 
by three methods : (1) By lectures at intervals of one or two 
weeks, conducted by the university instructor, with special 
aids for student work in the interval; (2) by correspondence, 
lesson-sheets being prepared and mailed to the student, 
with detailed instructions how to proceed, and with test 
exercises for work ; (3) by means of classes organized in the 
city or the suburbs about the university itself, which classes 
are taught by the university instructor in the same subjects 
and by the same methods as classes upon the university 
premises. Usually the second and third varieties of uni- 
versity extension instruction are sought by those who, while 
they can not become residents at the .universities, desire to 
pursue courses exactly parallel with those pursued in the 
universities themselves, either because they find such courses 
especially adapted to their present needs or because they 
wish university recognition with a view to subsequent resi- 
dence study. The method first described, however, is that 
usually denoted by the term university extension, and is 
especially suited, not to those who desire to pursue, as non- 
resident students, the courses laid down in the curricula of 
universities, but rather to those in every walk of life who 
desire a broader view of those subjects taught in the uni- 
versities, a knowledge of which is essential to general cul- 
ture and intelligent citizenship. 

The distinctive features of university extension lectures are 
(1) the connected series instead of the single lecture, and (2) 
the aids to student work already referred to. These consist 
of (a) the syllabus or printed outline of the lecture, which is 
furnished to each member of the audience or class ; {b) ref- 
erences for reading designated by the lecturer ; (c) the trav- 
eling library, a collection of books especially bearing upon 
the subjects discussed ; (d) the review-hour in connection 
with each lecture, affording opportunity for familiar discus- 
sion, and for question and answer between the instructor 
and the audience ; (e) the written paper upon topics sug- 
gested by the lecturer and designated in the syllabus. The 
performance of all work is voluntary with tne student, it 
being open to all who so desire to do nothing further than 
attend the lectures. The lecturer gives instruction in six or 
twelve lectures at intervals of one or two weeks. The lec- 
ture usually lasts one hour. Its aim is to interest the hearer, 
and to give him a working knowledge of the subject, such 
as will stimulate his desire for further knowledge and will 
guide him in his thinking and reading. After or before the 
lecture-hour the lecturer reviews and discusses the preced- 
ing lecture with such of his hearers as desire this. In this 

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UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 



exercise use is made of such written papers as members of 
the audience may have furnished to the lecturer. Usually 
a large proportion of the lecture audience remains to the 
review-hour. Those attending the lectures thus have the 
opportunity, the use of which is entirely voluntary, of read- 
ing some or all the works assigned, and further of writing 
for examination and comment short papers on designated 
topics, and so of suggesting the basis lor general discussion 
at the review. Usage varies in the different colleges as to 
the recognition accorded to those who do the work. In 
some cases a certificate of readings performed and written 
exercises rendered is given to the student in the name of 
the university. In the case of courses of twelve lectures, 
where the nature of the course permits it, the student who 
performs all the designated work and takes the university 
examination is, by some institutions, allowed credit as a non- 
resident student of the university, and this credit stands in 
his favor if he at any time becomes a resident student. 

Obviously not all subjects of study are equally adapted 
to teaching by university extension lectures. This is espe- 
cially true of subjects that can be pursued best in labora- 
tories, as well as the direct teaching of languages and 
mathematics. However, owing both to the nature of the 
subjects as they lend themselves to this kind of teaching 
and to the desires of the people, the subjects especially de- 
manded are literature, history, sociology, economics, political 
science, and certain phases of biblical study. Geology, 
chemistry, and biology have received considerable attention, 
and the study of theliistory of art and art criticism is also 
successfully carried on in this manner. 

Organization, — The organization of the university ex- 
tension center is comparatively simple. Two or three per- 
sons interested in securing such an organization for tneir 
town or neighborhood usually procure university extension 
literature from any college engaged in the work, and pro- 
ceed to interest first of all a few persons of public spirit and 
general influence in the community. Through these inter- 
est in the subject may easilv be spread until it becomes 
practicable to secure a general meeting representative of the 
various elements in the town. Sometimes a representative 
from the university is present to give a specimen lecture, 
and to explain briefly and simply the nature of the work, 
answer any questions that may arise, and give such advice 
as may be needed. As soon as the interest warrants it, steps 
are taken to form a simple organization consisting usually 
of a president, secretary, treasurer, and local committee. A 
choice of lecturer and course is then made, a canvass for 
tickets proceeds, and in due time the work begins. Circu- 
lars of information explaining all practical details are com- 
monly furnished on application by the institutions engaged 
in this work. 

History. — As a differentiated and organized form of edu- 
cational activity university extension was first recognized 
in 1873, when "the University of Cambridge (England), at 
the instance of James Stuart [then fellow and lecturer of 
Trinity College, and now (1895) member of Parliament], 
offered to supply the towns of England with capable in- 
structors in the various departments of knowledge, under 
the supervision and with the sanction of the university it- 
self." As early as 1867 Prof. Stuart had been invited by a 
company of ladies in the north of England to give them a 
lecture on teaching.* He replied that, "as a thing is often 
best described by showing a piece of it," he would prefer to 
give them a course of lectures, in which he would attempt 
to teach something. The thought prompting Prof. Stuart 
in sending this reply was the very germ of university exten- 
sion methods — namely, that the single lecture should be re- 
placed by the series of lectures on a given subject, occurring 
at intervals, and that these lectures were to be distinctively 
teaching lectures. The lectures by Prof. Stuart constitute 
really the beginning of university extension, and they clear- 
ly display the evolution of the special features of this kind 
of instruction — namely, the syllabus, the weekly paper, and 
the review. Prof. Stuart says that he received the idea of 
the syllabus from Prof. Ferrier, of St. Andrews, who had 
used the syllabus in his own classes as a means of indicating 
to his students what sort of notes he desired them to take. 
Prof. Stuart found that oral questioning of his audience was 
not in all respects satisfactory, and asked his hearers to write 
short papers upon various topics connected with the lectures 
and mail them to him. At the following meeting these 
papers were commented upon as their contents seemed to 

* See Sadler, The Development of University Extension (Philadel- 
phia, 1892). 



demand. The origin of the so-called class or review-hour is 
interesting. One of the managers of the Crewe Railway 
works asked Prof. Stuart in 1867 if he would give a lecture 
to the workingmen. He accepted the invitation, and spoke 
on the subject of meteors. The lecture received unusual and 
gratuitous advertisement by copious showers of meteors that 
fell the evening before, and was so acceptable that the men 
requested him to give them a course. When Prof. Stuart 
came for the second lecture he found a number of his hear- 
ers gathered about some diagrams that had been left in the 
hall, discussing them with much interest. The result was 
that he was asked if he would come to the hall somewhat 
earlier than the time for the beginning of the lecture, to ex- 
plain and further discuss these illustrations. This gave him 
an idea of the so-called " class " or review, which is a feature 
of the university extension lecture. Soon after this Prof. 
Stuart gave similar courses, accompanied by the features 
described, in Leeds, Sheffield, Manchester, and Liverpool, 
so that when, in 1873, the university took up the work its 
characteristic features were well developed. 

All conditions were favorable for the success of the move- 
ment. The great and rich towns, with few exceptions (Man- 
chester had a college), were practically untouched by uni- 
versity influence. The two great universities of England 
were utilized by a small fraction of the population. The 
general diffusion of easily accessible free schools and insti- 
tutions of all grades, so familiar in the U. S., was unknown 
in England. The idea of establishing teaching posts or 
" centers " for university teaching in the towns met with 
eager response. Centers were first established in the autumn 
of 1873 in Nottingham, Derby, and Leicester, and since that 
time the system has been an integral part of the university's 
work. In 1876 the Ixmdon Society for the Extension of 
University Teaching was formed for the purpose of carrying 
on this work in the metropolis. In 1878 the Universitv of 
Oxford engaged in the work, but for a time abandoned it. 
That university, however, resumed it in 1885, and has car- 
ried it on successfully ever since. 

The first direct efforts to introduce this form of teaching 
into the U. S. were made in 1887 by persons connected with 
Johns Hopkins University.* The subject was first publicly 
presented to the American Library Association at their 
meeting in Sept., 1887. It was at once taken up in a practi- 
cal way bv J. N. Larned, superintendent of the Buffalo 
Library. Mr. Larned secured the services of Edward W. 
Bemis, a graduate student of the Johns Hopkins University, 
and by him twelve lectures were delivered, at intervals of 
one week, upon Economic Questions of the Day. The regu- 
lar English university extension system was followed. The 
first formal organization of the work on a large scale, how- 
ever, was effected in 1890 within and about Philadelphia 
through the exertions of Provost William Pepper ana his 
associates in the University of Pennsylvania. George Hen- 
derson was sent by them to England, and made a valuable 
report on the English movement. The name of the first 
organization was the Philadelphia Society for the Extension 
of University Teaching. The society was soon reorganized 
on a larger scale, and was called the American Society for 
the Extension of University Teaching. This society has 
continued its work vigorously and successfully until the 
present time (1895), and has formed the most considerable 
central organization for the work in the eastern part of the 
U. S.f The University of New York took up the work, and 
organized it on a large scale in the spring of 1891. The 
Legislature appropriated $10,000 for the purpose of organ- 
ization. In the autumn of 1891 the Chicago Society for 
University Extension was formed. It drew its lecturers 
from a number of allied colleges, including the Universities 
of Illinois, Wisconsin, Indiana, the Northwestern University 
at Evanston, 111., Lake Forest University, Illinois, Beloit Col- 
lege, and Wabash College. Other central organizations for 
prosecuting this work were formed at Brown University, 
Bowdoin College, Colby University, Colgate, Rutgers, the 
Universities of Cincinnati, Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa, Mis- 
souri, Kansas, and California. The most noteworthy step, 
however, in the development of this work in connection 
with a university in distinction from an organization like 
the Philadelphia society was taken when, at the organization 
of the University of Chicago, which opened in Oct., 1892, a dis- 
tinct division of the university was equipped for the prose- 
cution of the work of university extension. A separate faculty 

* See article by Prof. Herbert B. Adams, The Forum (July, 1»1). 
+ See pamphlet entitled Review of the Work of the American 
Society, etc., E. J. James U895). 



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UNIVERSITY EXTENSION 



11 



was selected for this work, a special set of administrative offi- 
cers was chosen to organize and direct it, and special offices 
were set apart and equipped for the business involved. The 
administrative staff consists of a director and five secre- 
taries of departments — the departments, namely, of lecture- 
study, correspondence-study, and class-study, library, and 
district organization and training. This organization has 
been substantially continued until the present, and has been 
found essential to the prosecution of the work as conceived 
and planned.* The results of the efforts of some of these 
organizations are partially shown in tables below. It may 
be added, however, that the work attained so great impor- 
tance as a form of education that a special congress on uni- 
versity extension was held among the world's congresses at 
Chicago in the summer of 1893, and the twenty-first anni- 
versary of university extension was celebrated by a congress 
of workers from every part of the world assembled in Lon- 
don in June, 1894. 

Early Promoters, — Names forever to be associated with 
the beginnings of this work are those of Prof. James Stuart ; 
university magnates like Bishops Westcott and G. F. Browne, 
{Cambridge), and the Right Hon. Arthur Acland (Oxford), 
Minister of Education in Lord Rosebery's government ; or- 

fanizers like Dr. R. D. Roberts and T. J. Lawrence (Cam- 
ridge), and M. E. Sadler (Oxford) ; men of reputation in the 
Jecturing field, like Dr. R. G. Moulton (Cambridge), Rev. T. 
Hudson Shaw (Oxford), Churton Collins (London). It is 
right to mention also names of distinguished local organ- 
izers, like those of Dr. Paton, of Nottingham, and Miss 
Jessie D. Montgomery, of Exeter. The name of Dr. Moul- 
ton belongs to both Great Britain and the U. S. ; under the 
auspices of the Philadelphia organization at its initiation, 
and subsequently of the U niversity of Chicago, he has had 
perhaps a larger share than any other individual in repre- 
senting university extension before the people of the U. S. 

The Movement %n Great Britain and in the United States. — 
The motives for the extension of university teaching and the 
constituency which responds to this movement have thus 



the U. S., on the other hand, it would be more correct to say 
that the universities have reached out, and have entered into 
co-operation with all classes of persons outside of their own 
premises, not so much for the enlightenment of the unedu- 
cated as to meet the demands of intelligent people of every 
class for co-operation in the interests of the intellectual life 
of the country at large. In Great Britain one peculiar result 
of university extension has been the establishment of so-called 
university extension colleges, the best examples of which are 
at Reading and at Exeter. In the U. S. sucn a result as this 
would be quite impossible, since the latter country has been 
filled with free high schools, academies, institutes, and small 
colleges from the earliest colonial times. 

Results. — The chief central organizations for the prosecu- 
tion of universitv extension are those of Cambridge, Oxford, 
and London in fingland, and of Philadelphia (the American 
Society for the Extension of University Teaching), Albany 
(University of the State of New York), Rutgers College, at 
New Brunswick, N. J., and Chicago (the University of Chi- 
cago) in the U. S. The University of Wisconsin is organiz- 
ing a separate department for this purpose. 

The following statements, necessarily somewhat incom- 
plete, will convey an idea of the results of the attempts to 
extend university teaching: Cambridge, England, reports 
(for 1898-94) 137 courses given, with an average total at- 
tendance for that season of 10,600; Oxford, 223 courses, 
23,500 attendance ; London, 152 centers, 15,150 attendance ; 
Philadelphia reports (1894-95) 91 active centers, at which 
126 courses have been given, with a total (estimated) attend- 
ance of 20,000. The extension department of the Univer- 
sity of the State of New York reports (1894-95) 20 active 
centers, at which 31 courses have Deen given, with a total 
attendance at the lectures of 50.489 ; Rutgers (1894-95) re- 
ports 19 centers, at which 14 courses have been given, with 
a total attendance of 1,518. The University of Chicago 
makes the following report of the three departments of uni- 
versity extension work, as developed since Oct., 1892, at 
which date the university began its work : 



TABULATED STATEMENT OF THE WORK OP THE UNIVER8ITY EXTENSION, 1898-86. 
Lecture-study Department. 



QUARTER. 



Number of courses 

Number of active centers 

Number of lecturers 

Total attendance 

Average attendance at each lecture. . 
Average attendance at each class 



Autumn, 
18W. 


Winter, 

1893. 


Spring, 
1898. 


Totals. 


Autumn, 
1898. 


Winter, 
1894. 


Spring, 
1894. 


Totals. 


[ Autamn, 
; 1894. 


Winter, 
1898. 


Spring, 
1895. 


88 

31 

9 

10,070 

265 

101 


81 
58 
20 
16,448 
20$ 
99 


2 
2 
2 

215 

108 

15 


121 

91 

20 

26,728 


35 
33 
17 
5,120 
147 
80 


39 
85 
16 
7,059 
181 
96 


9 
9 
4 

1,875 
208 
145 


83 

77 

17 

14.054 


64 

62 

18 

11,968 

187 

127 


52 
44 
17 
9,724 
187 
157 


11 

10 

2 

2,065 

188 
126 



127 

116 

18 

28,757 



Class-study Department. 



QUARTER. 


Autumn, 
ISM. 


Winter, 
1898. 


Spring,* 
1898. 


Total*. 


Autamn, 
1893. 


Winter, 
1894. 


Spring, 
1894. 


Totals. 


Autumn, 

1894. 


Winter, 

1895. 


8pring, 

1895. 


Totals. 


Number of classes 

Enrollment I 

Average number per class 


4 

50 
18 
4 


7 

79 
11 
7 




11 
129 

"" 7 ' 


1 
5 
5 
1 


15 

109 

7 

18 


13 
68 
5 
10 


29 
182 

"is 


49 
1,156 

i 24 
1 83 


30 
689 
23 
22 


23 
352 

17 
14 


102 
2,197 


Number of Instructors 1 


33 









Correspondence-study Department. 














QUARTER. 1 


Autumn, 
1892. 


Winter, 
1893. 


Spring, 
1893. 


Summer, 
1893. 


Autumn, 
1893. 


Winter, 
1894. 


Spring, 

1894. 


Summer, 
1894. 


Autumn, 
1894. 


Winter, 
1895. 


Spring, 
1895. 


Summer, 
1895. 


Number of courses in progress 

Enrollment 

Number of instructors 


12 

635 

3 


25 

692 

11 


26 

688 
10 


28 

695 

18 


20 

673 

16 


29 

466 

17 


27 

461 

17 


25 

419 
15 


30 
880 
27 


34 
876 
27 















* No courses offered. 



far been somewhat different in Great Britain from what they 
have been in the U. S. In the former country there has 
been a much more keenly felt need for bringing educational 
advantages within reach of the people. College education 
has been by no means so generally diffused among the people 
of Great Britain as among those of the U. S. Among wage- 
earners in England there is a much larger class of men of 
good intelligence who earnestly desire educational advan- 
tages, which formerly have been beyond their reach. Fur- 
ther, in the English schools there is a large number of " pu- 
pil-teachers " who are able, by attending university extension 
courses and taking examinations, to make direct progress 
toward gaining their full teachers' certificates. These cir- 
cumstances and others which they imply have made for uni- 
versity extension in England a constituency to which, in a 
sense, it may be said the universities have reached down. In 
• See article In University Extension (Philadelphia, Dec, 1894). 



Bibliography. — (1) Books and pamphlets treating of the 
movement in general : R. G. Moulton, The University Ex- 
tension Movement (London, 1885) ; the same, An Address 
before the American Society (Am. Soc, iii., Philadelphia) ; 
R. D. Roberts, Eighteen Years of University Extension 
(Cambridge, England, the University Press, 1894) ; Mac- 
kinder and Sadler, University Extension, Past, Present, and 
Future (London); University Extension and the University 
of the Future, notes supplementary to the Johns Hopkins 
University Studies in Aspects of Modern Study (New York, 
1894) ; R. A. Woods, English Social Movements, chap, iv., 
pp. 119-141, University Extension (New York, 2d ed. 1894; 
this chapter appeared originally in TJie Andover Review, 
Mar., 1891) ; R. M. Wenley, M. A., The University Extension 
Movement in Scotland (Glasgow, 1895) ; R. G. Moulton, His- 
torical and Political Science, No. 1 (1891) ; C. Han ford Hen- 
derson, University Extension (New York, 1892) ; Walter C. 



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78 



UNIVERSITY OP THE SOUTH 



UNIVERSITY SETTLEMENTS 



Douglas, The Y. M. C. A, and University Extension (Am. 
Soc M iii., Philadelphia) ; Proceedings of the First Annual 
Meeting of the National Conference on University Extension 
(Philadelphia, 1892) ; Michael E. Sadler, The Development 
of the University Extension Idea (Am. Soc., iii., Philadel- 
phia) ; the same, Hie Function and Organization of a Local 
Center (Am. Soc., iii., Philadelphia) ; Report of the Proceed- 
ings of the London University Extension Congress (1894) ; 
William T. Harris, The Place of University Extension in 
American Education (reprinted from the Proceedings of 
the First Annual Meeting of the National Conference on 
University Extension, held at Philadelphia, Dec., 1891, in 
Report of the Commissioner of Education, 1891-92, vol. ii.) ; 
E. J. James, Review of the Work of the American Society 
(Philadelphia, 1895). (2) Magazines containing important 
articles: The Forum, July, 1891, University Extension in 
America, Herbert B. Adams ; University Extension World, 
Sept., 1893 (the University of Chicago Press), University 
Extension in England, James Stuart, M. P. ; The University 
Extension Movement in America, Katharine L. Sharp ; Uni- 
versity Extension World, Oct., 1894 ; University Extension, 
Dec., 1894 (American Society for the Extension of University 
Teaching, Philadelphia), The University Extension Class 
Courses of the University of Chicago ; University Extension, 
Feb., 1894, University Extension and the University of Chi- 
cago, Nathaniel Butler ; The Place of University Extension, 
Simon N. Patten. (3) Journals published in the interests of 
university extension : Oxford University Extension Gazette 
(Oxford, England) ; Melbourne University Extension Jour- 
nal (Melbourne, Australia) ; University Extension Journal 
(London, England); University Extension (Philadelphia); 
University Extension World (U niversity of Chicago) ; Bul- 
letins of the University of the State of New York (Albany). 

Nathaniel Butler. 

Unirersity of the South : an institution at Sewanee, 
Tenn., founded by Leonidas Polk, Bishop of Louisiana, and 
chartered in 1858. Its cornerstone was laid in 1860, but 
buildings and endowments ($300,000) were swept away by 
the civil war. The domain of 10,000 acres was saved from 
lapsing by the planting of a small school by Bishop Quintard 
of Tennessee in 1868. In 1870 a collegiate department was 
added, in 1873 a theological department was opened, in 1892 
a medical, and in 1893 a law department. The growth of 
the institution has been steady in spite of its lack of endow- 
ment. The faculty in 1894 numbered thirty-eight professors 
and instructors, the students 300. The bishops and throe 
elected representatives of fifteen dioceses of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the Southern States constitute the board 
of trustees. The administrative head is the vice-chancellor, 
B. Lawton Wiggins, M. A. The tone of the institution is 
conservative and English. The Sewanee Review is the lit- 
erary organ of the university. B. Lawton Wiggins. 

Unirerslty of the State of New York : an organiza- 
tion including all incorporated institutions of academic and 
higher education in New York, with the State Library, State 
Museum, and such other libraries, museums, or other insti- 
tutions for higher education in the State as may be admitted 
by the regents to the university. It was incorporated May 
1, 1784; reorganized Apr. 13, 1787; had its powers enlarged 
and its laws revised and consolidated June 15, 1889, and 
Apr. 27, 1892. Its object is, in all proper ways, to encourage 
and promote academic and higher education throughout the 
State. 

Besides the State Library and State Museum there are in 
the university (1895)466 institutions— 381 academies and high 
schools, and 85 degree-conferring and professional institu- 
tions, viz. : 21 colleges of arts and science for men, 8 for 
women, and 5 for men and women, 7 law schools, 18 medical 
schools, 3 schools of pharmacy, 12 theological schools, 1 poly- 
technic, and 10 special institutions. Or these, 1 college of 
arts and science, 1 medical college, 4 theological schools, 2 
law schools, and 1 special school confer no degrees. 

The 18 medical schools include 1 homoeopathic, 1 eclectic, 
2 for women, 1 of dentistry, 2 veterinary, and 1 post-grad- 
uate college. Of the 12 schools of theology 3 are Baptist, 
2 Presbyterian, 1 each Lutheran, Episcopal, Universalist, 
Christian, Roman Catholic, German Lutheran, and Reformed. 
The 10 special schools (except the Dudley Observatory, which 
is part of Union University), include only institutions with 
degree-conferring powers, though to show the full facilities 
of the State many institutions doing similar work should be 
included in this list. The law ranks as "colleges" only 
those with degree-conferring powers. These include 2 pop- 



ular institutions (Chautauqua and Pratt Institute), 3 peda- 
gogic colleges, 1 each of art, music, and magnetics. While 
there are in the State 76 institutions in which degrees may 
be earned, there are only 55 degree-conferring bodies, as in 
a university or a college having a professional school at- 
tached a single board oi trustees confers all degrees. Co- 
lumbia thus confers degrees in the arts, science, law, and 
medicine. Union confers degrees in law, medicine, and 
pharmacy; the University of the City of New York in law, 
medicine, theology, and pedagogy; St. Lawrence and Al- 
fred Universities in theology; Cornell in law, pharmacy, 
and engineering; Syracuse in medicine and art; Niagara 
in law, medicine, and theology. 

The powers of the university are vested in twenty-three 
regents, including the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Sec- 
retary of State, and Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
ex officio. Regents are elected by the two houses of the 
State legislature in joint session, in the same manner as Sen- 
ators of the U. S., and serve without salary and for life. 

The regents have power to incorporate, and to alter or re- 
peal the charters of colleges, academies, libraries, museums, 
or other educational institutions belonging to the univer- 
sity ; to distribute to them all funds granted by the State 
for their use ; to inspect their workings and require annual 
reports under oath of their presiding officers ; to establish 
examinations as to attainments in learning; and confer on 
successful candidates suitable certificates, diplomas, and de- 
grees, and to confer honorary degrees. 

They apportion annually an academic fund of $106,000, a 
part for buying books and apparatus for academies and high 
schools raising an equal amount for the same purpose, and 
the balance on the basis of attendance and of the regents* 
examinations. 

The regents meet regularly on the second Thursday of 
February and the second Wednesday in December. Nu- 
merous special meetings are held as called by the chancellor 
or on request of five regents. 

The university convocation of the regents and the officers 
of institutions belonging to the university, for consideration 
of subjects of mutual interest, is held annually at the Capitol 
in Albanv usually on the first Wednesday, Thursday, and 
Friday after July 4. 

The work of the university is divided into five depart- 
ments : 

1. Executive — including incorporations, supervision, in- 
spection, reports, finances, and all other work not assigned 
to another department. 

2. Examinations — including preliminary, law student, 
medical student, academic, higher law, medical, library, and 
any other examinations conducted by the regents. 

3. Extension — including the work of extending more 
widely opportunities and facilities for education to adults 
and others unable to attend the ordinary institutions of 
higher education. 

4. State Library — including public libraries department, 
duplicate department, library school, and all other library- 
interests intrusted to the regents. 

5. State Museum — including the work of State geologist, 
paleontologist, economic geologist, botanist, entomologist, 
and zoologist, together with all other scientific interests of 
the university. 

Libraries,— Besides the State Library of over 160,000 vol- 
umes, which is open daily throughout the year, except Sun- 
days, from 8 A. m. to 10 p. m., there are eight other libraries 
of more than 3,000 volumes each — i. e. those of the Albany 
Female Academy, Albany Institute, Medical College, High 
School, St. Agnes's School, Court of Appeals, Normal College, 
and of the Young Men's Association, the last having nearly* 
20,000 volumes. Melvil Dewey. 

University Settlements : homes in the poorer quarters 
of a city, where educated men and women may live in daily 
personal contact with the working people. Here they may 
identify themselves as citizens with all the public interests 
of their neighborhood, may co-operate with their neigh- 
bors in every effort for the common good, and share with 
them, in the spirit of friendship, the fruit and inspiration 
of their wider opportunities. 

No definite date can be assigned for the origin of the 
university settlement movement. The establishment i» 
London of the Working Men's College, in 1860, by Freder- 
ick Denison Maurice, and the beginning of the university 
extension movement from Cambridge in 1867, were among* 
the early expressions of the spirit that later was to produce 

Digitized by UOOQ IC 



UNIVERSITY SETTLEMENTS 



UPAS 



79 



the settlement. The essential idea of settlement work— 
the establishing of the home among the poor — had its rise 
at Oxford. In 1867 Edward Denison, an Oxford man of 
wealth and position, went to John Richard Green, the Eng- 
lish historian, then vicar of St. Philips, at Stepney, in Lon- 
don, and asked an opportunity to live and work in his 
parish. Denison lived but a short time, and left his work 
still in the form of an experiment. During the time of his 
residence in the East End he discussed with a few friends 
plans for the social elevation of the poor, and the idea of 
the university settlement was then evolved, but no steps 
were taken for beginning the work. In 1875 Arnold Toyn- 
bee, tutor to the Indian civil service students at Oxford, 
decided to spend his summer vacation at Whitechapel, Lon- 
don. This he did for several successive summers, becoming 
an intellectual leader among the working men of the vicin- 
ity. After his death, as a memorial to him, his friends at 
Oxford determined to secure a hall at the East End, where, 
through university extension and other methods, it was de- 
signed to give the working men of the neighborhood the 
benefit of education. It was due to the influence of Samuel 
A. Barnet, vicar of St. Jude's, in Whitechapel, that this 
original plan was enlarged, and in addition to the lecture- 
hall a settlement for university men, Toynbee Hall, was es- 
tablished. It began its work in Whitechapel in 1885, with 
Mr. Barnet as warden. The movement was rapid in its de- 
velopment, and within a few years settlements were started 
in various districts in London and in several of the cities of 
Scotland, and in 1887 the founding in New York city of the 
Neighborhood Guild, which in 1891 came under the control 
of tne University Settlement Society, marked the beginning 
of the settlement movement in the U. S. 

Methods of Working. — The most vital part of the work 
of a settlement is the expression, in the widest measure, of 
a wise friendship toward its neighborhood. This attitude 
results in many opportunities for usefulness that can not be 
classified. The definitely organized efforts of every settle- 
ment are mainly social, educational, and civic In a neigh- 
borhood where overcrowding and poverty have destroyed 
the best social life, the settlement seeks to be a social center. 
It provides entertainments, organizes clubs, and in general 
constitutes itself a meeting-ground for the people of the 
neighborhood. Among the people who spend their days in 
toil there is the greatest need of elevating relaxation. In 
offering them the hospitality of a home of refinement and 
culture, the settlement helps to satisfy this need. Much 
work is done for the children through books, music, pictures, 
and story-telling ; every attempt is made to brighten their 
lives and awaken in them a desire for better things. The 
settlement also attempts to bring together in social inter- 
course all classes of society, with the hope that, through the 
better mutual understanding and wider sympathies that 
must result, aid may be given toward the solution of eco- 
nomic and civic problems. In its educational work a settle- 
ment aims to give a fuller life and broader sympathies, 
rather than any technical perfection. Toynbee Hall, Lon- 
don, and Hull House, Chicago, are " outposts " of university 
extension, and all settlements have undertaken some work 
of this kind. The settlement exists not only as an education 
for the neighborhood, but as a school for the workers, many 
of whom take part in the work with a view to study and 
investigation, in order to obtain accurate data with regard 
to the problems of poverty. In the settlements in general 
an earnest enthusiasm is felt for gaining and promulgating 
a right understanding of the aims and methods of the labor 
movement. When no definite attitude is taken toward the 
movement a general sympathy is accorded it, and in many 
settlements active work is done in organizing unions anil 
giving them support. The first duty of a settlement- worker 
is to fulfill the offices of a good citizen. As far as possible 
the resident takes an active part in local government, and 
serves on committees and boards appointed to look after 
the health, education, and general well-being of the neigh- 
borhood. In this way important service is rendered in a 
community where unsuitable laws often go unchanged in 
the absence of intelligent criticism, and good laws are badly 
administered because of the lack of wise direction. 

The settlements are generally supported by associations 
formed for that purpose. These organizations do not at- 
tempt to control the work to any extent. The management 
of each settlement is delegated to a local committee or to 
the resident workers. The head worker is in direct charge 
of the settlement, and is free to plan and develop its activi- 
ties. The service is voluntary, each resident worker paying 



part of the current expenses of the house. The head worker 
only receives a salary. The expenses of the clubs, classes, 
eta, are usually paid by the members. The character and 
scope of the wort are determined largely by the tastes and 
ability of the residents, and by the needs of the neighbor- 
hood. 

Leading Settlements. — The leading English settlements 
are in London. Among them are Toynbee Hall, Oxford 
House, the Woman's University Settlement, Mayfield House, 
and Mansfield House. In Scotland settlement-work has 
been undertaken in both Glasgow and Edinburgh. 

In the U. S. the increase in the number of settlements 
has been rapid. At the present time (1895) they exist in 
New York city, Brooklyn, Buffalo, Jersey City, Boston, 
Hartford, Philadelphia, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, 
St. Louis, and San Francisco. Among the leading settle- 
ments in the U. S. are the University and College Settle- 
ment in New York city, Hull House in Chicago (which, 
however, designates itself a social rather than a college or 
university settlement), Philadelphia College Settlement, 
Denison House and Andover House, Boston. 

The movement has also spread to India, where there is a 
missionary university settlement in Bombay. 

Ada S. Woolfolk. 

Unlawful Assembly : See Riot. 

Unleavened Bread, Feast of: See Passover. 

Unst : the northernmost of the Shetland Islands (q. v.). 

Unterwalden, oon'ter-waal-den : canton of Switzerland, 
bordering N. on Lake Lucerne ; area, 295 sq. miles. It is 
surrounded and traversed by mountain ranges, forming two 
long, narrow valleys which open toward Lake Lucerne. 
There are several other minor lakes in the canton. The 
surface is rarely level enough for agriculture, but the forests 
are extensive and rich in timber. Apples, pears, and chest- 
nuts are raised in great quantities and of excellent quality. 
Cattle-breeding and dairy-farming are the chief employ- 
ments, cheese and timber the principal exports. Pop. 27,- 
581, who are Roman Catholics and speak German. Unter- 
walden is divided into two semi-cantons, having certain 
federal relations in common, but their local governments 
separate. Obwalden, or Upper Unterwalden, has an area of 
183 sq. miles ; pop. (1888) 15,043. Nidwalden has an area of 
112 sq. miles; pop. (1888) 12,538. 

Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Unwln, William Cawthorne, F. R.S. ; engineer; b. at 
Coggeshall, Essex, England, 1838 ; educated at the City of 
London School ; served an apprenticeship in the works of 
Sir William Fairbairn at Manchester 18o5-62; instructor 
at the Royal School of Naval Architecture, South Ken- 
sington, 1868-72; Professor of Mechanical and Hydraulic 
Engineering, Royal Indian Engineering College, Cooper's 
Hill, 1872-54; Professor of Engineering, Central Institu- 
tion of the City and Guilds Institute, bouth Kensington, 
1884-. His principal works are Wrought -Iron Bridges and 
Roofs (1869) ; The Elements of Machine Design (1877 ; 11th 
ed. 1890-91) ; and The Testing of Materials of Construction 
(1888). 

Unyo'ro : one of the largest of the native states of inner 
Africa. It is N. and N. W. of Uganda, which separates it 
from Victoria Nyanza, and it lies between Lake Gita on the 
E. and Albert Nyanza on the W. It is an elevated, fertile, 
and populous country, whose king, a ^reat slave raider and 
trader, nas been much opposed^to the introduction of white 
influences. His power was much weakened by the war upon 
him (1893-94) by the British native forces from Uganda, and 
the country is likely soon to be brought entirely under the 
control of Great Britain. The inhabitants (Wanyoro) are 
farmers and cattle-raisers. Polygamy is common. The mili- 
tary organization is inferior to that of Uganda, and the 
Wanyoro have generally been worsted in their many wars 
with the Waganda. * C.C.Adams. 

Upanishads [Sanskr.]: a group of over 100 mystical 
treatises, mostly in prose, attached to the Brahmanas or 
ritualistic precepts which form the second division of the 
Veda. They contain the beginnings of Hindu philosophy, 
and cast aside matters of rites and ceremony to deal with 
the mysteries of creation and existence. See the article San- 
skrit Literature ; Monier-Williaras, Indian Wisdom (4th 
ed. London, 1895) ; and vols. i. and xv. of the Sacred Books 
of the East, edited by Max Miiller (Oxford, 1879, 1884). 

Upas [from Malay upas in puhn-upas, upas-tree, liter., 
poison-tree ; puhn, tree + upas, poison] : a tree indigenous 

Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



80 



UPCOTT 



UPPER SANDUSKY 



to the forests of Java; where it is called Bohun upas ; the 
scientific name is Antiaris toxicaria. The viscid juice of 
the plant dries into a resinous mass termed by the Javanese 
antiar. This exudation is extremely poisonous, and when 
introduced into the circulation of an animal death speedily 
ensues. The stories of the early travelers respecting the 
pernicious character of exhalations from the foliage of this 
tree are believed to be gross exaggerations. Specimens of 
the plant are cultivated in the conservatories of all large 
botanic gardens. The plant belongs to the bread-fruit fam- 
ily. The leaves are ovate or obovate, 4 or 5 inches long and 
conspicuously veined. The minute flowers are monoecious. 
The fruit is drupaceous. Other species of Antiaris are 
known to be innocuous. 

Upcott, William : historian and bibliographer ; b. in Ox- 
fordshire, England, in June, 1779; served an apprenticeship 
to a London bookseller; became purchasing agent for sev- 
eral book-collectors, and on the foundation of the London 
Institution in the Old Jewry, 1806, was appointed sub-libra- 
rian, the celebrated Porson being librarian. He made the 
most extensive known collection of autographs, which com- 
prised more than 36,000 letters ; was the discoverer and first 
editor of Evelyn's Memoirs ; furnished most of the originals 
for the publication of the State Letters (1820) of Henry 
Hyde, second Earl of Clarendon, and Ralph Thoresby s 
Diary and Correspondence (4 vols., 1830-32) ; wrote a con- 
tinuation of Edmund Carter's History of the County of 
Cambridge (1819), and a considerable part of a Biographical 
Dictionary of Living Authors of Great Britain and Ireland 
<1816), and published A Bibliographical Account of the Prin- 
cipal Works relating to English Topography (3 vols., 1818). 
He resigned his position at the London Institution 1834. 
D. at Islington, Sept. 23, 1845. His collection of autographs 
was dispersed at auction in 1846, but a large part was se- 
cured by the British Museum. Revised by H. A. Beers. 

llpfold, George, M. D., D. D., LL. D. : bishop ; b. at Shem- 
ley Green, near Guildford, England, May 7, 1796 ; taken by 
his parents to the U. S. 1802, the family settling at Albany, 
N. Y. ; graduated at Union College 1814, and in medicine 
in New York 1816; commenced practice at Albany, but 
soon entered upon the study of theology ; was ordained in 
the Protestant Episcopal Church 1818 ; was minister at Lan- 
singburg, N. Y., 1818-20 ; rector of St. Luke's, New York, 
1820-28, being also assistant minister of Trinity church 
1821-25 ; rector of St Thomas's church, New York, 182&- 
51, and of Trinity church, Pittsburg, Pa., 1832-50; and was 
consecrated Bishop of Indiana Dec., 1849. D. in Indianap- 
olis, Ind., Aug. 26, 1872. 

Upham, Charles Wentworth : clergyman and author ; 
b. at St. John, New Brunswick, May 4, 1802 ; son of a loyal- 
ist refugee, judge of the supreme court of the province ; 
graduated at Harvard College 1821, at Cambridge Divinity 
School 1824; colleague of John Prince, pastor of the First 
•church in Salem, 1824-44 ; left the profession on account of 
bronchial weakness ; edited The Christian Register 1845-46 ; 
traveled and lectured as agent of the Massachusetts board 
•of education ; was elected mayor of Salem ; was member of 
the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1849, of the 
State Senate 1850-51, of the national Congress from the Sixth 
District 1854-55; State Senator 1858, Representative 1859-60. 
During his ministry, which fell in controversial times, Mr. 
Upham made his mark as a writer by his Letters on the 
Logos (1828) and Prophecy as an Evidence of Christianity 
(18135), both written in the Unitarian interest. The Lectures 
on Witchcraft, comprising a History of the Salem Delusion 
of 1692, afterward, in 1867, rewritten and expanded into an 
elaborate work (in 2 vols.) appeared in 1831. Mr. Upham 
was a diligent student of New England times and men. 
For Sparks's American Biography he wrote the Life of Sir 
Henry Vane (1835). In 1856 appeared from his pen the 
Life, Letters, and Public Services of John Charles Fremont. 
His last work was a Memoir of Timothy Pickering (4 vols., 
1867-72). D. in Salem, Mass., June 15, 1875. 

Upham, Thomas Cogswell, D. D.: educator and author; 
b. at Deerfield, N. H., Jan. 30, 1799 ; graduated at Dart- 
mouth College 1818, and at Andover Theological Seminary 
1821 ; became assistant teacher of Hebrew in the seminary, 
and translated Jahn's Biblical Archeology ; in 1823 was or- 
dained pastor of the Congregational church in Rochester, 
N. H. ; in 1825 was chosen Professor of Mental and Moral 
Philosophy in Bowdoin College. His principal works are 
Manual of Peace (1830) ; Philosophical and Practical Trea- 
tise on the Will (Portland, 1834) ; Elements of Mental Phi- 



losophy (1839 ; abridged ed. 1864) ; Outlines of Disordered 
ana Imperfect Mental Action (New York, 1840) ; Life of 
Faith (1848) ; Treatise on the Divine Union (Boston, 1851 ; 
London, 1858) ; Religious Maxims (2d ed. Philadelphia, 
1854) ; Method of Prayer (London, 1859) ; and Christ m the 
Soul (210 hymns, New York, 1872). D. in New York, Apr. 
2, 1872. Revised by G. P. Fisher. 

Uplngton, Sir Thomas, K.C. M.G., Q.C.: jurist and 
statesman ; b. in County Cork, Ireland, Oct. 28, 1844 ; edu- 
cated at Cloyne Diocesan School and Trinity College, Dub- 
lin, where he took the degree of M. A. ; called to the Irish 
bar 1867 ; became secretary to Lord O'Hagan, Lord Chan- 
cellor of Ireland ; settled at the Cape of Good Hope 1874 ; 
elected member of the Legislature for the division of Coles- 
bere: 1878 ; Attorney-General for the colony 1878-81 ; elected 
leader of the opposition in the Cape Parliament; Prime 
Minister of the Cape Colony 1884-86; Attorney-General 
1886-90; appointed a puisne judge in the Supreme Court at 
the Cape 1892 ; is one of her Majesty's counsel for the Cape, 
and as lieutenant-colonel commands a volunteer regiment 
in Cape Town. 

Upjohn, Richard: architect; b. in England, Jan. 22, 
1802. He became a cabinet-maker and builder first in Eng- 
land, and followed that trade afterward in the U. S., having 
settled in New Bedford, Mass., about 1829, and in Boston a 
few years later. As trained architects were rare in the 
U. S. at that time, he was employed occasionally on minor 
pieces of architectural designing, and afterward built St. 
John's church in Bangor, Me. The iron fence around Bos- 
ton Common, with its entrance gate-wavs, was put up from 
his designs. Trinity church, New Yorfc, was to be rebuilt 
in 1839, and Mr. Upiohn's designs for the new structure 
were accepted. The building was not finished until 1846. 
It was built with unusual care and great expense for the 
time, and its design was studied from the English Per- 
pendicular, adapted with considerable skill. In connec- 
tion with the Church of The Holy Trinity in Brooklyn, 
built about the same time by another architect, it estab- 
lished the character of American churches for a number of 
years. The tower and spire were especially notable, not 
only for their general architectural merit, but also because 
of the great height of the steeple (285 feet), a height not 
reached for many years by any other building in the U. S. 
After this many other churches were built by this architect, 
one of the most successful being Trinity chapel, belonging 
to the same foundation as Trinity church, and completed 
about 1856. This is a study in English Gothic of an earlier 
style than that of Trinity church, nighly decorated, and of 
unusual solidity and excellence of construction. The Church 
of the Ascension, in Fifth Avenue; University Place Pres- 
byterian church, and the Church of the Holy Communion 
— all in New York city ; several churches in Brooklyn; St. 
Stephen's at Providence ; St. Paul's at Buffalo ; St. Paul's at 
Baltimore ; and a number in other parts of the country were 
built by Mr. Upjohn. He built also a number of country- 
houses, in many of which there is considerable architectural 
character, much beyond what was usual at the time of their 
erection ; also Trinity building in New York, and the Corn 
Exchange Bank, which was replaced in 1893 by a sixteen- 
story building. His latest important building was St. 
Thomas's church, at Fifth Avenue and Fifty-third Street, 
New York, finished in 1870. The exterior of this church is 
remarkable for its tower capped by a lantern instead of 
spire. Mr. Upjohn was president of the American Institute 
of Architects while it was a New York society merely, from 
1857 till about 1868, and was then the president of the en- 
larged and nationalized institute until 1876. D. at Garri- 
son's, Putnam co., N. Y., Aug. 16, 1878. Russell Sturgis. 

Upolu' : an island of Samoa (q. v.). 

Upper Alton: city; Madison co., 111.; on the Burl. Route 
and the Chi. and Alton railways; 2 miles N. of Alton (for 
location, see map of Illinois, ref. 8-D). It is the seat of 
Shurtleff College (Baptist, opened in 1827, chartered in 
1835). which at the end of 1893 had 19 professors and in- 
structors, 269 students, 26 scholarships, 2 endowed professor- 
ships, and 10,000 volumes in its library. The city nas an at- 
tractive public park, strect-railwav, manufactory of roof-tile, 
and 2 monthly periodicals. Pop.* (1880) 1,534 ; (1890) 1,803. 

Upper Peru (Span. Alto Peru) : one of the colonial 
names for the country now called Bolivia (q. v.). 

Upper Sandus'ky : village ; capital of Wyandot co., O. ; 
on the Sandusky river, and the Col., Hock. Val. and Tol. and 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



UPSALA 



URALSK 



81 



the Penn. railways ; 17 miles W. of Bucynw, and 60 miles S. 
of Toledo (for location, see map of Ohio, ref. 3-E). It contains 
foundries, machine-shops, carriage-factories, a national bank 
with capital of $105,000, and a daily, 2 semi-weekly, and 2 
weekly newspapers. Pop. (1880) 3,540 ; (1890) 3,572. 

Editor of " Union." 

Upsa'la : town of Sweden ; 45 miles N. W. of Stockholm ; 
has a beautiful cathedral and a flourishing university (see 
map of Norway and Sweden, ref. 10-G). The cathedral was 
built between 1289 and 1435, and is 370 feet long, 128 feet 
broad, and 92 feet high. Its interior is magnificent and 
richly decorated, but its exterior has suffered much from 
fire. Among its relics are the silver shrine of St. Eric, the 
tomb of Gustavus Vasa, the monument of Linnaeus, etc. 
The university was founded in 1477 by Sten Sture, devel- 
oped rapidly, produced a great number of illustrious schol- 
ars, and at "times exercised a decisive influence on Swedish 
civilization. It has about 2,000 students and its library 
contains over 250,000 volumes. Pop. (1895) 21,42a 

Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Upshur, Abel Parker : cabinet officer ; b. in Northamp- 
ton co.. Va., June 17, 1790; studied law under William 
Wirt at Richmond, where he practiced 1810-24; was repre- 
sentative in the Legislature, and in 1826 was appointed a 
judge of the general court ; in 1829 was a member of the 
State constitutional convention, and in 1841 was appointed 
Secretary of the Navy, but after Webster's resignation was 
made Secretary of State in 1843. In politics he belonged to 
the pro-slavery party, and was in full accord with Presi- 
dent Tyler's policy of annexing Texas. He was killed by the 
bursting of a gun on board the U. S. steamer Princeton on 
the Potomac river, Feb. 28, 1844. He published several es- 
says, reviews, and addresses, and an Inquiry into the Nature 
and Character of our Federal Government (1840). 

Upsilonlsm : See Czech Literature. 

Upson, Anson Judd, D. D., LL. D. : educator; b. in Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., Nov. 7, 1823 ; A. B., Hamilton College, 1843 ; 
A. M. 1846 ; D. D. 1870 ; LL. D., Union, 1880 ; tutor, Ham- 
ilton College 1845-49 ; Adjunct Professor of Rhetoric and 
Moral Philosophy 1849-58 ; Professor of Logic and Rhetoric 
1853-70 ; Professor of Sacred Rhetoric and Pastoral Theology, 
Auburn Theological Seminary, 1880-87 ; professor emeritus 
since 1887; ordained to the ministry (Presbyterian) Jan. 29, 
1868, at Rome, N. Y. ; pastor Second Presbyterian Church, 
Albany, N. Y., 1870-80; trustee Hamilton College 1872-74; 
regent University of the State of New York 1874 ; elected 
vice-chancellor of the University of the State of New York 
1890, and chancellor 1892; member Presbyterian General 
Assembly 1871, 1877, 1884; delegate to Evangelical Alli- 
ance, Belfast, Ireland, 1884; author of numerous educa- 
tional and collegiate addresses, sermons, and articles in 
periodicals. v C. H. Thurber. 

Upton : town (incorporated in 1735) ; Worcester co., Mass. ; 
on the Grafton and Upton Railroad ; 13 miles S. E. of 
Worcester, and 33 miles W. S. W. of Boston (for location, see 
map of Massachusetts, ref. 3-G). It contains the villages of 
Upton Centre and West Upton ; has Congregational, Uni- 
tarian, Methodist Episcopal, and Roman Catholic churches, 
high school, seven public schools, and a public library ; and is 
principally engaged in the manufacture of straw hats. Pop. 
(1880) 2,023 ; (1890) 1,878 ; (1895) 2,150. 

Upton, Emory : soldier ; b. at Batavia, N. Y., Aug. 27, 
1839 ; graduated at the U. S. Military Academy, May, 1861, 
and commissioned second lieutenant of artillery ; served in 
the Manassas campaign, engaged in the battles of Black- 
burn Ford and Bull Run, where he was wounded. In the 
Peninsular campaign of 1862 he commanded his battery at 
Yorktown, Gaines's Mill, and Giendale ; in command of ar- 
tillery brigade at South Mountain and Antietam ; appointed 
colonel 121st New York Volunteers, Oct., 1862, and engaged 
at Fredericksburg, Salem Heights, Gettysburg, and was in 
command of a brigade during the subsequent Rapidan cam- 
paign. In the Richmond campaign of 1864 he led his bri- 
gade (Sixth Corps) through the Wilderness battles to the 
front of Petersburg, particularly distinguishing himself at 
Spottsylvania Court-house; transferred with his corps to 
the Shenandoah July, 1864, he was wounded at Opequan 
Sept. 19, while in command of a division. Returning to 
duty in December, he was assigned to a division of cavalry 
in the West, and was engaged in the expedition into Ala- 
bama and Georgia in the spring of 1865 resulting in the 
capture of Selma, Columbus, etc. Mustered out of the vol- 
vol. xn. — 6 



unteer service Apr., 1866, he was in July transferred to the 
Twenty-fifth Infantry with rank of lieutenant-colonel, and 
eugaged in perfecting a System of Infantry Tactics, which 
was adopted in Aug., 1867, for the use of the army and mili- 
tia of the U. S. He was transferred to the Eighteenth In- 
fantry in 1869, and to the First Artillery 1870; was com- 
mandant of cadets at West Point 1870-75 ; on professional 
duty in Asia and Europe 1875-77 ; commanded several ar- 
tillery posts, and was on the board to codify army regula- 
tions 1878-81. He received the brevets from major to 
major-general in the U. S. arm v. D. in San Francisco, Cal., 
Mar. 15, 1881. See his Life and Letters, by Prof. P. S. 
Michie (New York, 1885). Revised by James Mercur. 

Upton, George Putnam : journalist and musicographer ; 
b. at Roxbury, Mass., Oct. 25, 1834 ; educated at Brown Uni- 
versity, Providence, R. L, graduating in 1854 ; went to Chi- 
cago and entered upon a journalistic career. In 1862 he 
became connected with The Chicaao Tribune, and was its 
music critic until 1882. He has published Women in Music 
(1882); The Standard Operas (1885); The Standard Ora- 
torios (1886); The Standard Cantatas (1887); The Standard 
Symphonies (1888) ; and has translated several of Mohl's 
Lives of Eminent Musicians. D. E. H. 

fUpup'idK [Mod. Lat., named from Upupa, the typical 
en us, from Lat. u'pupa, hoopoe ; cf. Gr. fcroif/] : a family of 
irds typified by the common hoopoe of Europe, character- 
ized by a desmognathous palate, perforate episternal process, 
pointed manubrium, and spinal feather-tract forked on the 
upper back. The singing apparatus is lacking. On account 
of its peculiarities the family is considered as representing a 
distinct sub-order, having its nearest relations with the horn- 
bills. See Hoopoe. F. A. L. 

Upward, Allen : See the Appendix. 

Uraba, Gulf of : See Darien, Gulf op. 

Ura'mia: a condition resulting from the imperfect action 
of the kidneys, whereby substances which would normally be 
excreted are retained in the blood. It occurs especially in 
cases of Bright's disease ; the symptoms are headache, con- 
vulsions, delirium, nausea, etc. 

Uraga, oo-raang'aa : a port of Japan ; at the western en- 
trance to the Bay of Tokio (see map of Japan, ref. 6-E). 
The town is built on both sides of a narrow fiord-like har- 
bor, which are connected by a bridge and a ferry. Formerly 
all junks entering the bay were stopped for inspection here. 
Uraga is associated with the opening up of the empire, for 
it was here that Commodore Perry cast anchor July 8, 1853, 
when sent by President Fillmore with a letter for the em- 
peror. The place has daily steam communication with the 
capital, the journey taking four hours ; and is noted for the 
production of midzu-ame % a sweetmeat resembling barley- 
sugar. It is a minor naval depot and has a naval gunnery 
school. Pop. (1895) 12,719. J. M. Dixon. 

Ural : river of Russia, which rises in the Ural Mountains, 
flows S., forming the boundary between Europe and Asia, 
and enters the Caspian Sea after a course of 930 miles. It 
is not navigable on account of sandbanks, but is very rich 
in the finest kinds of fish, particularly near its mouth, where 
the Cossacks have important fisheries. Its delta is very large, 
and is still increasing. 

Ural-Altaic Languages : See Language. 

Uralian Emerald : See Garnet. 

Ural Mountains : a range of plateaus rising from 3,000 
to 5,000 feet, and with a breadth of from 16 to 66 miles. 
They begin in the Arctic Ocean, in lat. 70° N., and stretch 
southward to lat. 50° N., forming the natural boundary be- 
tween Europe and Asia. They are rich in gold, platinum, 
copper, iron, and other ores. Of precious stones, beryl, 
topaz, amethvst, and diamonds are found ; coal is abun- 
dant. The tibdorsk Mountains branch off from the middle 
chain of the Ural Mountains in lat. 62° N., and extend 500 
miles N. N. W. Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Uralsk' : province of Russia ; at the southern end of the 
Ural Mountains, on the Ural river, and N. E. of the Caspian 
Sea (see map of Russia, ref. 7-1). It lies partly in Europe, 
but is essentially Asiatic, and is one of the provinces of the 
general government of the Kirghiz steppe. It is chiefly dry 
steppe and desert, and much of it is below sea-level. Area, 
139,168 sq. miles. Pop. (1889) 559,552. The capital, Uralsk, 
is near the northern border, on the Ural river, is well built, 
and has a fine trade in fish, hides, tallow, grain, and im- 
ported goods. Pop. (1890) 26,034. M. W. H. 

Digitized by V^jOOQIC 



82 



URANIA 



URATES 



Ura'nia [= Lat. = Gr. ObpaAa, liter., the Heavenly One, 
fern, of obpfotos, of the sky or heaven, deriv. of obpayls, sky, 
heaven] : in Grecian mythology, one of the nine Muses, the 
goddess of astronomy, and a daughter of Zeus and Mne- 
mosyne. She was generally represented as holding a celes- 
tial globe in the one hand and pointing at it with the other. 

Uranlne : the sodium salt, CioHioNasO*, of fluorescein. 
Its yellow solution exhibits the most wonderful fluores- 
cence, which is instantly destroyed bv acidulating it ; for 
this reason it has been recommended as an indicator in 
volumetric analysis. See Phthalic Acid. 

Uraninite, or Pitchblende : a pitch-black mineral with 
a specific gravity of 9*5. It is found at Joacbimstal, Bohe- 
mia, in sufficient quantity for commercial purposes ; also in 
Cornwall, England, and other localities. In addition to 
uranoso-uranic oxide (U»Oa) it contains lead sulphide, silica, 
lime, etc., and from 1 to 2*5 per cent, of a gas which was first 
supposed to be nitrogen, but in 1895 was shown to be a 
mixture of the gases argon and helium. 

Ura'nium [Mod. Lat., named from the planet Uranus] : 
a name given by Klaproth in 1789 to a metal whose oxide 
he discovered in the mineral called pitchblende (uraninite 
of Dana), which contains from 40 to 90 per cent, of the ox- 
ide UsOs. It was not until as late as 1840, however, that 
metallic uranium was first discovered by Peligot, what had 
previously passed for the metal having been ascertained by 
nim to be the dioxide, UO«. There are a large number of 
mineral species that contain uranium, but the only one oc- 
curring in sufficient quantity to be available for the extrac- 
tion of uranic compounds is pitchblende. In the U. S. it 
is found as coracite, on the north side of Lake Superior, and 
as autunite, on the Schuylkill above Philadelphia. 

To obtain uranium compounds from pitchblende it is 
ground and washed to remove impurities, roasted to re- 
move sulphur and arsenic, and dissolved in nitric acid, evap- 
orated then to dryness, which decomposes the ferric nitrate. 
Water dissolves from the dried mass little but the pure uranic 
nitrate, which is further purified by crystallization, and sev- 
eral recrystallizations when required perfectly pure. From 
this salt the pure oxide, UfO*, may be obtained by ignition 
alone, and the dioxide, UO t , by ignition with reducing agents, 
and the tetrachloride, UCl 4 , by heating with charcoal in 
chlorine gas. The metal was obtained by Peligot from the 
tetrachloride by heating with metallic potassium or sodi- 
um. It is bard, but somewhat malleable, and can be 
scratched by a file. The maximum density was 18*68 ; the 
color approached that of iron. It tarnishes to a yellowish 
color in air. It takes fire, when in powder, at a tempera- 
ture of about 500° P., burning brightly to U>0 8 , of a dark- 
green color. It does not decompose water in the cold, but 
evolves hydrogen with dilute acids, dissolving with a green 
color. It combines directly with sulphur and chlorine. Ura- 
nium nitrate, or uranyl nitrate, is one of the commonest 
commercial compounds of uranium. In the usual method 
of preparation of uranium oxide from pitchblende, the ura- 
nium is first obtained as this nitrate, which has the for- 
mula UO»(NO t )a. Sodium uranate, Na,U t O T , is a fine yel- 
low powder which is manufactured on a large scale and sold 
under the name uranium yellow, as a pigment for glass, 
etc. Ammonium uranate, (NH 4 )tUaO T| is also manufactured 
on a large scale. Uranium compounds impart to glass a 
greenish-yellow fluorescent color. Revised by Ira Remsen. 

Uranium or Beeqnerel Rays : See the Appendix. 

U'ranns [= Lat. = Gr. Obpa»6s, liter., sky, heaven] : in Gre- 
cian mythology, the son of Gaia, the earth, and by her the 
father of the Titans, Cyclopes, Hundred-handed, etc. He 
hated his children, and confined them in Tartarus, but on the 
instigation of Gaia, Cronus, the youngest of them, overthrew 
and dethroned him. See Gaia and Zeus. 

Uranus [= Mod. Lat., named from the Greek deity 
Uranus = obpavAs, heaven]: the seventh planet in order of 
distance from the sun, and, with the exception of Nep- 
tune alone, the outermost member of the planetary familv. 
Uranus travels at a mean distance of 1,753,869,000 miles 
from the sun, but, its orbit being considerably eccentric, its 
greatest distance, 1,835,561,000 miles, exceeds its least dis- 
tance, 1,672,177,000 miles, by nearly 163,400,000 miles, or not 
much less (relatively) than the entire span of the earth's orbit 
Since the earth's mean distance from the sun is 91,430,000 
miles, the opposition distance of Uranus varies from about 
1,744,100,000 miles to about 1,581,700,000 miles ; and as the 
planet is farther from the sun in the former than in the lat- 



ter case, and therefore less brightly illuminated, there arises 
a considerable variation in the apparent brightness of Uranus. 
In fact, Uranus is more favorably situated for telescopic study 
when in opposition near perihelion than when in opposition 
near aphelion, in the proportion of (17,441)' x (18,356)* :( 15,- 
817)* x (16,723)», or nearly as 8 to 2 (more exactly as 63 to 
43). The eccentricity of "the orbit of Uranus is 0*0466. The 
planet completes a sidereal revolution in 30686*8208 days, or 
in 84 years and 6*5 days. Its synodical period is 369*656 days, 
exceeding a year by little more than four days. The incli- 
nation of the orbit to the ecliptic is about 46*5'. The mean 
diameter of Uranus is estimated at about 33,000 miles ; the 
compression of the globe is not known. Its volume exceeds 
the earth's about seventy-four times, but its mean density is 
so small (0*17 — the earth's as 1) that its mass exceeds that of 
the earth only about twelve and a half times. It has been 
said that Uranus rotates on its axis in nine and a half hours, 
but no reliance can be placed on the assertion, as the most 
powerful telescopes fail to show any clearly defined markings 
on this distant globe. Uranus was discovered by Sir William 
Herschel Mar. 13, 1781, when he was examining the small stars 
in the neighborhood of ij Geminorum. He was led by the 
apparent size of a star in this region to suspect that it was 
a faint comet. Examining the object with higher powers, 
and finding its disk enlarged (which would not have been 
the case with a fixed star), he was confirmed in this suspi- 
cion. But soon after the discovery had been announced the 
mathematicians who had undertaken the calculation of the 
stranger's orbit found the path to be an ellipse of moderate 
eccentricity, and concluded that the new orb was a member 
of the planetary family. This was placed beyond doubt be- 
fore long ; and in 1787 two satellites were discovered whose 
motions indicated that the supposed comet had a mass many 
times exceeding that of our earth. Herschel proposed to 
call the new planet Georgium Sidus, in honor of George III. 
Continental astronomers for a long time called it Herschel, 
but the name Uranus, suggested by Bode, of Berlin, is now 
universally adopted by astronomers. 

Satellites of Uranus. — Uranus is attended by four satel- 
lites. The two brighter ones were discovered by Sir William 
Herschel, who afterward thought that he had discovered four 
more, so that until the middle of the nineteenth century 
Uranus was considered to have six satellites in all. But 
Lassell, of England, in pointing his great reflectors on 
Uranus, announced that these four additional satellites had 
no existence, but that two very minute ones circulated be- 
tween Uranus and the bright ones. It is now established 
that Uranus has these four satellites, and no others have so 
far been discovered. Their times of revolution are shown 
in the following table : 





ELEMENTS 


OF 


URANUS S 


SATELLITES. 






NAME. 






SMaraal revo- 
lution. 


M(to dtataaet la 
radii of Uraao*. 


Ariel 


d. h. m. 
2 12 28 
4 3 27 
8 16 56 

18 11 6 


7-44 


Umbrlel 


10-37 


Titania 


17 01 


Oberon 


22*75 







Revised by S. Newcomb. 

Urari : another spelling for Curari (q. v.). 

Ura'shima Taro: in Japanese folk-lore, a legendary 
personage, incidents in whose story furnish frequent themes 
for art treatment. He is the Rip Van Winkle of Japan. A 
flsherboy, he was caught in a storm and rescued by a god- 
dess who rode upon a large tortoise. Mounting beside her, 
he descended to the bottom of the sea, and was royally en- 
tertained in a magnificent palace. After seven days he 
wished to return, and his request was granted. But he found 
that he had been centuries awav. The story is told at 
length in Griffis, The Mikado's umpire, and in Chamber- 
lain, Classical Poetry of Japan. J. M. Dixon. 

U'rates, or Lit hates [urates is deriv. of uric ; see Uric 
Acid ; lithates is deriv. ollithic, deriv. of lithium ; see Lith- 
ium] : compounds of uric acid with bases. Both neutral and 
acid urates of most metals are known. They are sparingly 
soluble in water, but dissolve in warm alkaline solutions and 
in solution of borax. The acid ammonium, sodium, and 
calcium urates are frequent ingredients of Urinary Calculi 
and Deposits (q. v.), the proportion of the calcium salt, how- 
ever, being very small. The lithium is the most soluble of 
the urates ; for this reason lithia-water is sometimes used as 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



URBAN 



URE 



83 



a remedy for gout and for superabundance of uric acid in 
the system. Ammonium urate is occasionally applied me- 
dicinally, in chronic cutaneous affections, in the form of an 
ointment ; but urates should be taken internally very cau- 
tiously, as they may give rise to the formation of oxalic 
acid in the urine. " Revised by Ira Remsen. 

Urban (Lat. Urbanus): the name of eight popes. (1) 
Urban I. (about 222-230), son of Pontianus, a Roman noble ; 
a martyr, according to somewhat doubtful authority.— <2) 
Urban II., Othon de Lagny (1088-99) ; b. at Chatillon-sur- 
Marae, in Prance, about 1042; was successively a disciple 
of St, Bruno, canon of Rheims, and monk of Cluny, where 
Gregory VII. made his acquaintance. This pope invited 
him to Rome, made him cardinal and Bishop of Ostia, em- 
ployed him as his legate in Germany, and on his death-bed 
named him among those worthy of the succession, which in 
fact became his after the short reign of Victor III. (1086-87). 
The main object of Urban's life was the continuation of the 
policy of Gregory VII. against the lay investitures, simony, 
and priestly concubinage. Henry IV. and the anti-pope 
Guibert of Ravenna (Clement III.) maintained for a long 
time possession of all or part of the city of Rome, and much 
of Urban's life was spent outside the city. In the eleven 
years of his pontificate he bore up manfully against the em- 
peror, helped in turn by the rebellion or the latter's son 
Conrad, by the marriage of the Countess Mathilda to Welf, 
the son of the Duke of Bavaria, by King Roger of Sicily, 
and by the first crusaders. (See Crusade and Peter the 
Hermit.) Urban held a number of councils in Southern 
Italy for the reformation of manners and the maintenance 
of the independence of the holy see, notably that of Bari, 
at which St. Anselm of Canterbury assisted and aided in the 
refutation of the Greek arguments against the Latin doc- 
trine concerning the procession of the Holy Ghost from the 
Father and the Son. Urban died in Rome, July 29, 1099, 
fourteen days after the capture of Jerusalem. — Urban III., 
Umberto Crivelli (1185-87), a native of Milan. His short 
and stormy pontificate is chiefly noted for the struggle with 
Frederick Barbarossa, whom he was about to excommuni- 
cate when death surprised him at Ferrara, Oct. 20, 1187. — 
Urban IV., Jacques Pantaleon (1261-64), a Frenchman; 
son of a shoemaker; became canon of Liege, Bishop of 
Verdun, and Patriarch of Jerusalem. He carried on the 
long papal struggle against the Hohenstaufen in Southern 
Italy and Sicily, and made over these possessions to the 
house of Anjou, by inviting Charles of Aniou to take the 
place of the untractable King Manfred. Urban endeavored 
to bring about the union of the Latin and Greek Churches ; 
he also established for all Christendom the feast of Corpus 
Christi, first celebrated at Orvieto, June 19, 1264. i Urban 
died at Orvieto, Oct. 2, 1264. — Urban V., Guillaume Grimo- 
ard (1362-70) ; a Benedictine monk ; distinguished professor 
of canon law and Scripture ; abbot of St Victor at Mar- 
seilles, and papal legate. Yielding to the necessities of the 
situation and to the entreaties of such persons as Petrarch 
and St. Bridget of Sweden, he returned from Avignon to 
Rome Oct. 16, 1367, and ended the long exile of the popes. 
But his passionate love for France drew him back again to 
Avignon, where he died Dec. 16, 1370. He was a mild-man- 
nered, studious man, the friend of scholars, and founder 
of a school of medicine at Montpellier. — Urban VI., Bar- 
tolommeo Prignani (1378-89) ; Archbishop of Bari ; elected 
Apr. 8, 1378, to succeed Gregory XL, a Frenchman, who, 
it is said, had been meditating a return to Avignon. Shortly 
after his election the French cardinals, dissatisfied with his 
zeal and somewhat harsh manners, took flight to Anagni, 
and there elected anti-pope Cardinal Robert of Geneva 
(Clement VII., 1378-94). They claimed that the Roman 
people had forced them by violence to elect Urban, but it is 
sure that they assisted at his authorization, at his consis- 
tories, and asked favors from him. Thus the papacy was 
divided, and the great schism of the West inaugurated, 
which filled all Christendom with woe. The hasty, impetu- 
ous temperament of Urban did not aid matters ; his latter 
days were embittered by the ill success of his plans in the 
kingdom of Naples and by the conspiracy of his own car- 
dinals, who tried to create a kind of tutorship for him, but 
paid for it with death or imprisonment D. in Rome, Oct. 
15, 1389.— Urban VII., John Baptist Castagna (1590) ; Arch- 
bishop of Rossano, cardinal, ana legate to Spain ; d. after a 
reign of thirteen days Sept. 28, 1590.— Urban VIII., Maffeo 
Barberini (1623-44) ; built the Collegium Urbanum, or Col- 
lege of the Propaganda ; established the Vatican Seminary ; 



gave its final shape to the bull In Ccena Domini ; increased 
and strengthened the fortifications of Rome; gave to the 
cardinals the title of eminence; regulated the number of 
feasts of obligation ; inherited the state of Urbino by extinc- 
tion of the Delia Rovere family ; issued an emendated brevi- 
ary, in which the ancient Chnstian style in the hymns was 
replaced by classic exactness of metre. He has been accused 
of excessive nepotism, and of furtherance of French inter- 
ests in the Thirty Years' war. To his pontificate belongs 
also the condemnation of Galileo by the Congregation of the 
Holy Office. See Les pieces du process de Galileo, by H. de 
l'Epinois (Paris, 1877), and Ward. Copernicanism and Pope 
Paul V. {Dublin Re\*iew, 1871). D. in Rome, July 29, 1644. 
Urban was a man of polished manners and literary tastes, 
and was personally gentle and refined. John J. Keanr. 

Urban'a: city; capital of Champaign co., I1L; on the 
Cleve., Cin., Chi. and St. L., the 111. Cent., and the Wabash 
railways ; 81 miles W. of Danville, and 50 miles E. S. E. of 
Bloomington (for location, see map of Illinois, ref. 6-F). It 
is in an agricultural and mineral region ; is the seat of the 
University of Illinois ; and has a national bank (capital $50,- 
000), a private bank, and a weekly paper. Pop. (1880) 2,942 ; 
(1890) 8,511. Editor or " Champaign County Herald." 

Urbana: city; capital of Champaign co., 0.; on the 
Cleve., Cin., Chi. and St. L., the Erie, and the Pitts., Cin., 
Chi., and St. L. railways ; 46 miles W. of Columbus, and 100 
miles N. of Cincinnati (for location, see map of Ohio, ref. 
5-D). It is in an agricultural region, and is the seat of 
Urbana University (New Church, chartered in 1850). It con- 
tains a high-school building that cost $125,000, a public 
library, a soldiers' monument in the center of Monument 
Sauare, 8 national banks with combined capital of $300,000, 
5 building and loan associations, and a daily and 3 weekly 
papers. The business interests include the shops of the U. S. 
Rolling Stock Company, machine-works, agricultural-imple- 
ment works, tannery, carriage and wagon shops, stove-foun- 
dry, woolen-mill, water-wheel works, and straw-board, fur- 
niture and table, broom, and shoe factories. Pop. (1880) 
6,252 ; (1890) 6,510. Editor of " Times-Citizen." 

Urbl'no (anc. Urbinum Hortense) : an old town in the 
province of Urbino, Italy ; on two steep and lofty hills of 
the Umbrian chain, between the Metauro and the Foglia ; 
about 25 miles S. W. of Pesaro (see map of Italy, ref. 4-E). 
The walls were erected by the celebrated mathematician 
Federigo Commandini, and the town was afterward further 
strengthened with a castle and towers by the lords of Mon- 
tefeltro (1213). The large cathedral is of the seventeenth 
century, the ancient church on this site having been de- 
stroyed by an earthquake. The ducal palace (begun 1447) 
is a noble edifice in the early Renaissance style, and, be- 
sides much striking mediaeval ornament, contains ancient 
inscriptions and bas-reliefs of ^reat interest. Several of the 
private palaces possess rare artistic treasures, especially that 
of the Staccoli Castracane, where there is a fine collection 
of the famous ceramics of Urbino, Casteldurante, and Gub- 
bio. The modest house in which the painter Raphael Sanzio 
was born (1483) is now used as a town museum. There is a 
free university, founded in 1564. Urbino is among the most 
ancient cities of Italy, acquired the rights of Roman citizen- 
ship in 89 b. c, and suffered many vicissitudes during the 
breaking up of the Roman empire. It recovered some im- 
portance in the early part of the thirteenth century, but 
the first who assumed the title of Duke of Urbino was Fe- 
derico di Montefeltro (1474), and he and his immediate suc- 
cessors, as wise and virtuous as they were prosperous, made 
Urbino famous in the history of the mediaeval world. In 
1508 the duchy passed to the Delia Rovere house ; in 1681 
it became the direct property of the Church, and so re- 
mained, with the brief exception of the French domination, 
till united to the kingdom of Italy. Urbino is distinguished 
for the number of remarkable men to whom it has given 
birth, and for the general intelligence and activity of its 
citizens. Both agricultural and manufacturing industries 
are flourishing. Pop., with the commune. 17,230. 

Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Urchin-fish, or Porcupine-fish : See Diodon. 

Ure, yur, Andrew, M. D., F. R. S. : chemist ; b. in Glas- 
gow, Scotland, May 17, 1778; educated at the Universities 
of Glasgow and Edinburgh, where he also graduated in 
medicine ; became Professor of Chemistry at the Anderso- 
nian Institution at Glasgow 1804, and director of the Glasgow 
Observatory 1809 ; removed to London 1830 ; was appointed 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



8± 



UREA 



URIA 



analytical chemist to the board of customs 1834 ; and suc- 
cessfully applied chemical discoveries to the arts and to 
manufactures. He was the author of A New Systematic 
Table of the Materia Medica (1813) ; A Dictionary of Chem- 
istry (2 vols., 1821 ; republished in the U. S. by L)r. Robert 
Hare and Dr. Franklin Bache, Philadelphia, 1821) — a work 
which was the undisputed standard for several years; A 
New System of Geology (1820) ; The Philosophy of Manu- 
factures (1835) ; The Cotton Manufacture of Great Britain 
(2 vols., 1836; new ed. 1861); and A Dictionary of Arts, 
Manufactures, and Mines (1837), which was rewritten and 
enlarged by Dr. Robert Hunt (3 vols., 1859-30: 7th ed., 4 
vols., 1875-78). D. in London, Jan. 2, 1857. 

U'rea [Mod. Lat., from Gr. olpov> urine : cf. Urine, etc.] : 
an isomer of ammonium cyanate, first obtained by Rouelle 
in 1773, afterward in a state of greater purity by Fourcroy 
and Vauquelin in 1799. It is an essential constituent of the 
urine of mammiferous animals, particularly of the Carniv- 
ora, but is also found in that of birds and of Amphibia. 
Urea also occurs, to some extent, in human blood and per- 
spiration, in the vitreous humor of the eye, and in the lymph 
and chyle of various animals. It is the chief outlet for the 
oxidized nitrogen of the tissues of the system, a healthy 
adult excreting more than an ounce daily. It is not formed 
in the kidneys, which appear merely to separate it from the 
blood in which it is pre-existent. Urea may be formed arti- 
ficially in several ways, but its preparation by the action of 
cyanic acid on ammonia (discovered by Wohler in 1828) pos- 
sesses special interest as being the first synthetic formation 
of an organic compound : 

Ammonium cyanate. Urea. 

H4N.CNO = CH 4 N,0. 

It is also obtained from cyanamide (CN 9 H a ) by the addition 
of one equivalent of water, and by the decomposition of nu- 
merous complex organic compounds, such as creatin, gua- 
nin, and Uric Acid (q. v.); likewise by the action of car- 
bonyl chloride (COCU) on ammonia ; but in the laboratory 
it is usually prepared either from urine or by the evaporation 
of a solution of ammonium cyanate. In the former process 
the urine is evaporated to dryness on the water-bath, and 
the residual mass exhausted with alcohol, which is evapo- 
rated to dryness. The second residue is then extracted 
with pure alcohol, which, upon evaporation, leaves the urea 
in a slightly colored state. In another method the urine is 
concentrated by evaporation, and nitric or oxalic acid added, 
by which a precipitate of urea nitrate or oxalate is formed, 
from which the urea is obtained by decomposition with 
barium or calcium carbonate, filtering the solution, and 

Eurifying the urea by repeated recrystallization from alco- 
ol. Urea is, however, most readily and abundantly pre- 
pared from ammonium cyanate in the following manner : 
Potassium cyanate is first formed by heating a mixture of 
56 parts of carefully dried potassium ferrocyanide and 28 
parts of dry manganese dioxide to dull redness. The res- 
idue, when cold, is treated with cold water, and 41 parts of 
ammonium sulphate are added, when ammonium cyanate 
and potassium sulphate are formed. The solution is then 
evaporated, and treated with hot alcohol, from which, on 
cooling, the urea crystallizes out. 

Urea crystallizes in colorless striated prisms, which fuse 
at 248" F., but are decomposed at a higher temperature. Its 
specific gravity is 1*30. It is very soluble in water and in 
hot alcohol, but is nearly insoluble in ether. Its solution 
possesses a neutral reaction and a cooling bitter taste. 
When heated in a sealed tube to about 284° F., urea com- 
bines with two molecules of water, and is converted into 
ammonium carbonate, CH4N a O + 2H a O = (H 4 N)«,CO«. The 
same change takes place when urine is exposed to the air, 
owing to the action of micrococci (micrococcus urece). It is 
to the formation of ammonium carbonate that the alkaline 
reaction of stale urine is due. When it is heated above its 
melting-point, biuret (C a O a H 5 Ns) and cyanuric acid (Q%0%- 
HsN«) are formed, with evolution of ammonia. Urea com- 
bines with acids, forming crystalline compounds, and also 
with metallic oxides, such as those of mercury and silver. 
Numerous substitution-derivatives of urea {compound ureas) 
have also been obtained. For the quantitative estimation 
of urea in urine, see Urine. Revised by Ira Remsen. 

Uredin'ese, or Uredines [Mod. Lat., named from Ure'do 
(a form or stage of development of the Uredinea?, and for- 
merly considered a genus), from Lat. ure'do, burning, blast, 
blight, deriv. of u'rere, burn] : an Order of minute parasitic 
fungi popularly known as the Rusts (q. v.). They consist 



of branching colorless threads which penetrate the tissues 
of their hosts (flowering plants or, rarely, ferns), eventually 
producing their characteristic rust-colored spores. About 
1,500 species are known to botanists, all falling within the 
familv Ureddnacem, and divided among about a dozen gen- 
era, the more important of which are uromyces, Puccinia, 
Gymnosporangium, and Phragmidium. C. E. Bessey. 

IJre'ter [Mod. Lat., from Gr. ovpvr-fjp, urethra, ureter, 
deriv. of ovpuv, urinate. See Urethra] : the excretory duct 
of the kidney. In man it is a cylindrical membranous tube 
about 17 inches long, and as large as a goosequill, passing 
from the pelvis of the kidney to the base of the bladder. It 
has a fibrous (or outer), a muscular, and a mucous (or inner) 
coat. Each kidney normally has a distinct ureter. 

Ure'thra [Mod. Lat., from Gr. ohp4iBpa, the passage for 
urine, deriv. of obp*iv, urinate, deriv. of olpov, urine] : the 
name of the membranous canal by which the urine is emp- 
tied from the bladder. In the female it is but a short passage 
opening below the clitoris. In the male it is a canal of about 
8 to 9 inches in length, and of a somewhat complicated struc- 
ture, conducting not only the urine, but also the semen. 
Going from the bladder outward, the urethra is divided into 
three parts : (1) the prostatic part, surrounded bv the pros- 
tate gland, in which (part) are the openings of the seminal 
ducts ; (2) the membranaceous part, 8 to 10 lines long ; and 
(3) the cavernous or spongy part, surrounded by the spongy 
tissues of the penis. The caliber 01 the urethral canal is 
different in the different parts and different individuals, and 
ranges from 3 to 7 lines in diameter, the orifice bein^r the 
narrowest part. The urethra is lined throughout with a 
delicate coating of mucous membrane, which is a direct con- 
tinuation of that of the bladder. For obstructions of the 
urethra, see Stricture. Revised by W. Pepper. 

Uriah : See Orfa. 

Urga [palace], the Russian name of the Mongolian Bojt- 
do-Kuren or Da-Kuren [holy camp] : the capital of North- 
ern Mongolia ; on the Tola, in lat. 47° 58 N., Ion. 106$ ° E., 
at an elevation of 4,370 feet, between Kiachta and Peking, 
on the principal caravan route between Russia and China 
(see map of Asia, ref. 3-G). Urga consists, like all Mon- 
golian towns, of a Mongolian and a Chinese quarter. The 
latter, which contains the fort, is also called ilai-mai-chin 
(trading-place), and stands 2| miles from Bogdo-Kuren. 
Bogdo-Kuren contains large Buddhist monasteries and tem- 
ples, and is the seat of the supreme Mongolian Kutukhtu, 
who is considered the terrestrial representative of Buddha, 
and ranks in holiness next to the Dalai lama of Lhassa and 
the Panchen Rinpoche of Shigatse, both in Tibet. The 
monasteries are extensive structures of stone, and contain 
numerous shrines and relics, which are subjects of the deep- 
est veneration ; the occupants, the monks, are called lama*, 
and number about 10,000. The custom is not to bury the 
dead, but to leave them, in accordance with Buddhistic doc- 
trines, to be devoured by the dogs and birds of prey ; only 
those of priests and princes are interred. The Mongols set- 
tled here belong to tne Khalka tribe. During summer, nu- 
merous pilgrims from all parts of Mongolia gather to the 
city, ana a brisk trade springs up. The unit of value was 
formerly the tea-brick, but this has given way to Chinese 
cash. Tea, mixed with cows' blood, was moulded into the 
form of bricks, and from twelve to fifteen such bricks were 
paid for a sheep, or from 120 to 150 for a camel. The sur- 
rounding country has a South Siberian character; the mean 
temperature of the year is 25*70 ] F. ; the number of rainy 
or snowy days is forty-one. A Russian consul is stationed 
here, with a small detachment of Cossacks for his protection. 
Russian merchants and scholars often visit Urga, and under- 
take from here extensive journeys into Northern Mongolia. 
Pop. about 30,000. Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Uri : one of the forest cantons of Switzerland, bordering 
N. on Lake Lucerne, and having St. Gothard on its southern 
frontier. Area, 415 sq. miles. It consists of one valley, in- 
closed by lofty mountains and traversed by the Reuss. Rear- 
ing cattle and dairy-fanning are the principal employments. 
Pop. (1894) 17,249, who are Roman Catholics and speak Ger- 
man. Chief town, Altorf. It was one of the three original 
cantons of Switzerland. M. W\ H. 

Fria, or Hyria : an inland city of ancient Calabria, in 
Southern Italv ; situated on the Appian Road, about mid- 
way between ferundusiura and Tarentum. Herodotus rep- 
resents it as having been the metropolis of the Messapians, 
founded by a colony of Cretans on their return from Sicily, 
Digitized by ViOOylC 



URIC ACID 



URINE 



85 



Uric Acid, or Lit hie Acid [uric is from Gr. odpw, urine ; 
lit hie, i. e. pertaining to the formation of stone or uric acid 
concretions in the bladder, etc., is from Gr. \i0uc6s, of a stone 
or stones, deriv. of AiAw, stone] : a substance first discov- 
ered by Scheele in 1776, and subsequently more thoroughly 
investigated by Wohler and Liebig in 1838 ; formula, C»X«- 
H«0«. Later Adolf Bfiyer gave attention to the uric group 
of compounds ; and Emil Fischer finally solved the problem 
of the chemical constitution of uric acid. Uric acid occurs in 
a small proportion in human urine, but is much more abun- 
dantly contained in the excretions of insects, land-reptiles, 
and birds, usually as the ammonic salt. It is extensively 
found in the guano-beds of the Pacific islands, also in the 
form of ammonium urate, and is said to be contained in the 
human spleen, liver, and lungs ; also in the blood, which 
latter, in certain diseases, as gout, contains a very consider- 
able amount; indeed, in persons suffering from gout it 
often accumulates around tne joints, forming what are com- 
monly but incorrectly termed "chalk-stones," which con- 
sist chiefly of sodium urate. When secreted in excess, it is 
discharged by the kidneys, and is deposited from the urine 
as red gravel, or it accumulates in the bladder and forms a 
constituent of Urinary Calculi (q. v.). 

Uric acid is most advantageously prepared from the dried 
urine of serpents, by dissolving the powdered mass in a large 
quantity of boiling water, to which caustic potash enough 
to dissolve all the acid is added, and heating until ammo- 
niacal vapors cease. The fluid is then filtered, and the po- 
tassium urate decomposed by hydrochloric acid, uric acid ap- 
E earing in minute white crystals. It can also be obtained 
y boiling guano with a weak borax solution, whereby a 
solution of sodium urate is formed, from which the uric acid 
is precipitated by hydrochloric acid. Uric acid crystallizes 
in small white rhombic prisms ; but if slowly deposited 
from a dilute solution, it frequently separates in large crys- 
tals containing two molecules of water; when obtained 
from animal fluids, its crystalline form is often very much 
modified. It is almost insoluble in water, requiring 10,000 
parts of cold water, and is quite insoluble in alcohol and in 
ether. It dissolves in concentrated sulphuric acid, from 
which it is precipitated in a hydrated form by the addition 
of water. When dry uric acid is heated, it is decomposed 
without fusion, and hydrocyanic acid is evolved, a subli- 
mate, consisting of cyanuric acid, urea, with ammonium cya- 
nate and carbonate, being formed. 

The most remarkable property of uric acid is the facility 
with which it is altered by oxidizing agents, such as nitric 
acid, plumbic dioxide, etc., and transformed into numerous 
well-defined crystalline com pounds, some of which, how- 
ever, are obtained from the immediate products of oxida- 
tion by the action of reducing agents, acids, and alkalies. 
More than thirty of these compounds (many of which are 
termed ureides) have been prepared, including the follow- 
ing : alloxan, alloxantin, uramil, allantoin, glycoluril, mu- 
rexide ; also the acids uroxanic, barbituric, bioluric, thio- 
nuric, oxaluric, parabanic, and mesoxalic. Uric acid has 
been synthetically produced. 

Uric acid is dibasic, and forms both normal and acid salts. 
(See Urates.) Its presence can often be recognized with 
the aid of the microscope by its peculiar crystalline struc- 
ture — rhombic tablets, frequently associated with dumb- 
bell-shaped crystals. When moistened with nitric acid and 
gently heated, a residue is obtained, which, upon treatment 
with ammonia, assumes a fine violet-red color {murexide), 
and when treated with potassium hydroxide acquires a vio- 
let-blue color (pot ostium purpurate). It may also be de- 
tected by dissolving in sodium carbonate, and placing a drop 
of the solution on paper moistened with silver nitrate, upon 
which it produces a brown spot, caused bv the reduction of 
the silver. (For the quantitative estimation of uric acid in 
urine, see Urine.) One of the uric acid series {murexide) was 
formerly used in cotton-dyeing. Revised by Ira Remsen. 

Frini and Thummim [Wrim = Heb. urlm, plur. of ur, 
flame, fire ; cf. or, light ; Thummim is from Heb. tum- 
mim, plur. of tarn, perfection, truth, deriv. of fdmam, he 
perfect] : sacred symbols of the high priest of Israel given 
at Sinai (Ex. xxviii. 30), but lost forever at the destruction 
of the first temple (Ez. ii. 63 : Neh. vii. 65). They were 
two objects placed in a pocket behind the breastplate of the 
high priest, and used to cast lots or to receive answers to 
questions and thus determine the divine will. It is not 
known just how the divine will was learned. In the Sep- 
tuagint translation of 1 Sam. xiv. 41 the following descrip- 



tion of their use occurs, and this is the clearest knowledge 
we have : "And Saul said, Lord God of Israel, why hast 
thou not answered thy servant to-dav I If I or Jonathan 
my son has sinned, then Lord God of Israel give Might'; 
but if it be thy people Israel who have sinned, then give- 
'right.'" The questions to be answered by the Urim and 
Thummim were public and not private, and only the high 
priest could use them. Revised by S. M. Jackson. 

Urinary Calculi and Deposits: Urine in disease often 
deposits on standing various Kinds of sediments, which dif- 
fer in properties and composition according to the causes 
which induce their formation. Both morphological and 
chemical bodies are thus separated. The former class in- 
cludes such substances as blood, pus, epithelial cells, etc. ; to- 
the latter class belong urates, uric acid, phosphates, calcic- 
oxalates and carbonates, hippuric acid, cystin, leucin, xan- 
thin, tyrosin, etc. Perhaps the most common urinary sedi- 
ment is that known as lateritious or brick-dust deposit* 
It occurs in health when active perspiration or free move- 
ment of the bowels renders the urine concentrated. It is a 
constant symptom in conditions of excessive urinary acidity 
as in gout. As a rule, the deposit occurs when the urine- 
cools, and it may be redissolved by heat. In cases of dis- 
ease, however, the urates and also uric acid may be present 
as deposit in the urine at the moment it is voided. If small 
masses are voided they are spoken of as gravel ; if larger 
masses, as calculi or stones. Uric acid and urate stones are 
especially prone to form in the pelvis of the kidney. They 
are red in color, and fuse on platinum foil without leaving 
a residue. The same conditions which occasion urates in 
the urine frequently cause calcium oxalate also to appear. 
The latter may be due likewise to certain vegetables and 
fruits rich in oxalates, and is then less significant. Oxalate 
calculi are usually formed in the pelvis of the kidney ; they 
are generally tuberculated, or oi a mulberry appearance, 
and on fusing them a residue of calcium carbonate remains 
on the foil. Phosphates may appear in the urine as a whitish 
sediment, or, when ammoniacal decomposition has taken 
place, triple phosphates (ammonium-magnesium phosphate). 
These may cause the white or mixed pnosphatic calculi in 
the bladder. They fuse in the blowpipe and are soluble in 
acids. Other calculi are rare, such as those composed of 
xanthin, cystin, calcium carbonate, and others. 

Calculi are liable to cause serious obstructions to the flow 
of urine, and also severe inflammatory conditions of the 
pelvis of the kidney and of the bladder, where they most 
commonly occur. It is to be remarked, however, that the in- 
flammatory conditions may in the first place cause the calculi 
by favoring the deposit of the urinary salts, and that the 
calculi afterward aggravate the original trouble. 

Once formed, medication probably has no power to dis- 
solve calculi. Occasionally they break spontaneously, and 
are discharged as fragments. Their formation is often pre- 
ventable by careful medication, the use of waters, and care 
in diet, exercise, etc. Their removal when necessary in- 
volves cutting, crushing, and other operations. See Li- 
thotomy. William Pepper. 

Urinary Organs : See Kidney and Histology. 

Urine [vi& O. Fr. from Lat. uri'na, urine ; cf. Gr. olpw f 
urine : Sanskr. vdr, water : Icel. ur, drizzling rain] : an ex- 
crementitious fluid excreted by the kidneys. Urine in 
health possesses a light amber color, a slight acid reaction, a 
peculiar odor, and a bitter saline taste. During the process 
of digestion it sometimes acquires an alkaline reaction. It 
has a sp. gr. of 1*024, but this also changes with the diet and 
state of health of the individual. It becomes more strongly 
alkaline on standing, owing to ammoniacal decomposition. 
(See Urea.) The urine excreted in the morning has a dif- 
ferent composition from that passed in the evening, which 
has absorbed various substances taken into the stomach 
during the day. An average sample of healthy human 
urine nas the following composition : 

In 1.000 parts, water = 966 80 parts. 
In 100 parts of solid matter : 

fUrea 83 00 

Uric acid S6 

Organic matters. . - Alcoholic extract 29 03 

Aqueous " 5S0 

Vesical mucus 37 

f Sodium chloride 16 73 



Fixed salts. . 



Phosphoric pentoxide 4'91 

Sulphuric trioxide 8 94 

Lime 49 

Magnesia 0"HS 

Potash 447 

Soda. 



Digitized by 



sry.. oi2 

C^oogle 



86 



URINE 



URODELA 



Besides the constituents named, the following compounds 
are occasionally contained in healthy urine, usually in mi- 
nute quantities: Iron, ammonia, sugar, xanthin, creatin, 
creatinin, and lactic, succinic, oxalic, formic, phenylic, and 
hippuric acids. Free gases also occur : In 100 cubic cm. of 
urine, Plauer found 0*87 nitrogen, 0*06 oxygen, 4*54 free 
and 2*07 combined carbonic acid. Certain pigments, the 
composition of which is uncertain, are likewise present. 
There are a number of pigment matters in the urine, of 
which the most important is urobilin. Indigo-blue appears 
to be a product of the decomposition of other pigments, as 
it occurs in urine which has been exposed to the air for 
some time. Among the other bodies said to be contained 
in urine may be mentioned certain ferments and albumi- 
noid matters, casein, leucin, tyrosin, taurin, acetone, and 
taurocholic, glycoeholic, and cholic acids, which latter are 
present only in the abnormal or diseased excretion. The 
acidity of urine is due to the presence of acid sodium 
phosphates, and hippuric and other acids. Numerous sub- 
stances appear to pass unchanged through the urine, such as 
many alkaline salts and numerous compounds of metals, 
alkaloids and organic acids, while others suffer a partial or 
complete transformation ; thus malic acid is converted into 
succinic acid ; sulphites and sulphides are changed into sul- 
phates ; tannic acid is converted into gallic acid ; benzoic 
acid is transformed into hippuric acid ; iodine changes to 
alkaline iodides ; potassium ierrocyanide to the ferricyanide ; 
and indigo-blue is reduced to indigo-white. In the disease 
diabetes a large amount of grape-sugar (glucose) is contained 
in the urine, owing to an incomplete digestion of the food, 
sometimes in the proportion of over a pound in the liquid 
voided during twenty-four hours. Small amounts of glucose 
occasionally appear in the urine in health or in persons not 
suffering with diabetes. In Albuminuria (q. v.) a large 
quantity of albumin is secreted, the formation of which is 
due to a lack of secretive power on the part of the kidneys. 

Analysis of Urine. — urea may be determined in a va- 
riety of ways. Liebig's volumetric method is executed as 
follows: Dissolve 100 grammes of pure mercury in 500 
grammes of nitric acid, evaporate to a sirup, add a little 
nitric acid, and dilute to 1,400 cubic cm. ; this forms the 
standard mercury solution, 1 cubic cm. of which is equal to 
1 centigramme of urea. Its strength should be actually 
determined by estimating a known weight of urea in the 
manner described further on. A baryta solution is next 
prepared by mixing 2 volumes of baryta-water and 1 volume 
of a solution of barium nitrate, both saturated in the cold ; 15 
cubic cm. of this baryta mixture is then added to 80 cubic 
cm. of the urine to be tested ; the liquid is well stirred, and 
then Altered through dry paper; 15 cubic cm. of the filtrate 
(= 10 cubic cm. of the original urine) is then measured 
off in a beaker-glass, and the standard mercury solution 
is slowly added from a burette as long as any precipita- 
tion occurs, the precise end of the operation being deter- 
mined by adding a drop of the mixture to a solution of sodium 
carbonate contained in a watch-glass, when a distinct yellow 
color should be produced. The number of cubic centi- 
meters of the mercury solution used is read off, each cubic 
cm. indicating 1 centigramme of urea in the 10 cubic cm. of 
urine. In this method the presence of an excess of urea 
and of sodium chloride affects the accuracy of the result, and 
renders a correction of the figures obtained necessary. 
Davey's method consists in adding a small quantity of the 
urine to a graduated glass tube filled one-Uiird with mer- 
cury, completely filling the tube with sodium hypochlorite, 
and immersing it in an inverted position in a concentrated 
solution of sodium chloride, in which position it is allowed to 
remain for several hours, after which the quantity of gas 
(nitrogen) evolved is read off : 1*549 cubic inches of nitrogen 
at 60° F. = 1 grain of urea. A modification of this method in 
which sodium hypobromite is used is more useful. 

Uric acid is roughly determined by adding to about 200 
cubic cm. of the urine 10 cubic cm. of hydrochloric acid, 
and allowing the mixture to stand for two days, when the 
precipitate formed is collected on a smaller filter, washed, 
dried, and weighed. Care should be taken not to use more 
than about 30 cubic cm. of water in washing the precipitate, 
as otherwise a partial solution of the uric acid is to be feared ; 
and all albumin present should at first be removed by co- 
agulation with dilute acetic acid, in which case this acid, in 
a concentrated form, should be employed as the precipitant 
of the uric acid. 

Sugar {glucose) is estimated by its reducing action on a 
boiling cupric solution in presence of an alkali, or it can 



also be determined by adding a small quantity of yeast to 
the urine, and measuring the amount of carbonic acid 
formed by the fermentation of the sugar. Albumin is sep- 
arated by heating the urine to boiling, and adding a few 
drops of nitric acid until complete coagulation takes place. 
Chtoridc8 may be estimated by a volumetric method (as 
with silver and potassium dichromate solutions) ; ammonia 
by placing 20 cubic cm. of the urine in a shallow dish, over 
which is placed a similar vessel containing 10 cubic cm. of 
a standard solution of sulphuric acid ; 10 cubic cm. of milk 
of lime is then added to the urine, and an air-tight bell-jar 
is placed over the whole. In two days the ammonia will 
have been absorbed by the acid, and is estimated by titrating 
and comparing the residual acidity with that of the standard 
acid. Revised by William Pepper. 

Urine, Retention of: See Retention of Urine. 

Urinom'eter [urine + Gr. iUrpor, measure]: an instru- 
ment used in the determination of the specific gravity of 
Urine (q. v.). It consists merely of an ordinary hydrometer, 
in which the scale runs from 1,000 to the limits of density 
of urine, 1,060 or 1,070. 

Urinous Fermentation : See Fermentation. 

Urmia, or Urnmia : town ; in the province of Azerbi- 
jan, Persia (see map of Persia and Arabia, ref. 1-F) ; on an 
elevated plain 12 miles W. of Lake Urmia. It is well built, 
and is in a densely peopled and well-cultivated district, 
which by European travelers has often been compared with 
Lombardy. The Protestant mission has here a very pros- 
perous station, with a printing-press, which has issued over 
3,000 volumes in the old and new Syriac languages. The 
station has several native preachers and teachers. Pop. es- 
timated at from 25,000 to 50,000. 

Urmia or Urnmia, Lake : in the province of Azerbijan, 
Persia; 64 miles S. W. of Tabriz; covers an area of 1,420 
sq. miles, and is 4,000 feet above sea-level. It receives sev- 
eral large rivers, but has no outlet. Its waters are so im- 
pregnated with saline substances that neither fish nor mol- 
luscs can live in it. 

U'rochorda : a name sometimes given the Tunicata (q, v.) 
in allusion to the fact that the notochord is restricted to 
the caudal region. 

U rode' la, or Urodeles [from Gr. obpd, tail + &t)\oj, evi- 
dent]: one of the subdivisions or "orders" of Amphibia 
(q. v.), often called Oradientia in allusion to their walking 
as opposed to the jumping gait of the frogs and toads, the 



to the jumping gait of 
Salientia of systematists. The urodeles have an elongate 
body terminated by a long tail which is flattened in the 
aquatic forms, rounded in the terrestrial species. In all 
forms (except Siren, which has no hind legs) {he body is sup- 
ported on two pairs of limbs, but in several species these are 
small, and show a tendency toward degeneration in the di- 
minution in number of digits from the typical four fin- 
gers and five toes. In the larval stages respiration is effected 
by external gills upon the sides of the neck, and in a few 
forms (Perennibranchiata) these are retained throughout 
life. In others they entirely disappear, and the gill slits on 
the sides of the neck may remain open (Derotremata) or en- 
tirely close (Caducibranchiala). In these latter respiration 
has been supposed to take place by lungs, but recently it has 
been shown that in a few species lungs are never developed, 
and that in all stages all traces of a trachea or windpipe 
are lacking. Most of the urodeles lay their eggs in water, 
but Amphiuma wraps the long strings of eggs about her, 
thus recalling the habits of several of the frogs and toads. 
It is to be noted that Cope has restricted the order Urodela 
on skeletal characters, taking from it the Siren, Proteus, 
and Necturus, and adding to it the C-scilid^b (q. t\). 

The classification of the urodeles is yet in an unsatisfac- 
tory condition. One scheme has been outlined above; a 
second divides them into Ichthyodea and Salamandrina, ac- 
cording as eyelids are absent or present ; while Cope ar- 
ranges the ten families which he recognizes in four groups 
based upon peculiarities of skull and vertebral column. 
There are about 100 species known from the whole world, 
the order being best represented in North America. Among 
the more interesting forms may be mentioned the common 
salamander of the Eastern U. S., Diemyctylus virideacens, 
in which two stages occur originally described as distinct 
genera. The first, after leaving the water, is red, and indi- 
cates a period of sexual immaturity ; it later enters the 
water, changes its shape slightly, becomes an olive green, 
and is then sexually mature. Later no change occurs. 
Digitized by LiOOQ IC 



UROPELTID^E 



URUGUAY 



87 



Among the species of Ambly stoma the larval branchiate 
condition is retained until the animal becomes of consider- 
able size, and these larvze were long known as a distinct ge- 
nus, Siredon* and in some cases these larvae were capable of 
sexual reproduction without the assumption of the adult 
characters. The axolotl of the Lake of Mexico is apparently 
a Siredon stage of some Amblystoma, but its transformation 
into the adult has never been witnessed, the many records 
of such change being in reality made upon another species, 
Siredon lichenoides, the young of Amblystoma mavortium. 
In the Salamandra atra of the Alps the young are born 
alive. In the oviduct with the developing young are other 
eggs which serve as nourishment The young before birth 
have very large gills, but these are entirely absorbed before 
birth. A strange feature is found in the Spanish Pleuro- 
deles, where the ends of the ribs penetrate the skin, protrud- 
ing as a series of spines along either side. 

Literature. — Cope, Batrachia of North America, Bulle- 
tin U. S. Nat. Museum No. 34 (1889): Boulenger, Catalogue 
of the Batrachia Gradientia in the British Museum (Lon- 
don, 1883). J. S. Kinosley. 

Uropel'Udae [Mod. Lat., named from Uropel'tis, the 
typical genus; Gr. obpd, tail+*&ny, shield]: a family of 
snakes. The body is cylindrical, the head short and pointed, 
with no apparent neck ; the eyes are very small ; the cleft of 
the mouth is comparatively narrow; teeth are in both jaws, 
but none on the palate ; there are no rudiments of posterior 
extremities ; the tail is short and blunt, and has a naked 
terminal shield of keeled scales. The family is composed 
of several genera, mostly confined to the East Indies and 
the Philippine islands. F. A. L. 

Urpethite: See Wax. 

Urqnhart, ur'kart, David : political writer ; b. at Brack- 
lanwefl, County Cromarty, Scotland, in 1805 ; educated at St 
John's College, Oxford ; entered the diplomatic service; trav- 
eled extensively in the East ; was secretary of legation at 
Constantinople 1835-36 ; resigned that post in consequence 
of his opposition to Lord Palmerston's Eastern policy, which 
he denounced as subservient to the ambitious views of Russia ; 
made a vigorous warfare upon that policy in the press for 
several years, and continued it in Parliament, where he sat 
as a Conservative member for Stafford 1847-52. D. in Na- 
ples, May 16, 1877. His writings did much to foster jeal- 
ousy and suspicion of Russia's Eastern policy. Among them 
may be mentioned England, France, Russia, and Turkey 
(1835) ; The Spirit of the East, a Journal of Travels through 
Roumeli (2 vols., 1838) ; Diplomatic Transactions in Cen- 
tral Asia (1840) ; The Progress of Russia in the West, 
North, and South (1853) ; Letters and Essays on Russian 
Aggressions (1853) ; Recent E^nts in the East (1854). 

Urquiza, oor-kee'thaa, Justo Jose, de : general and politi- 
cian ; b. near Concepcion del Uruguay (now in Entre Rios, 
Argentine Republic), Mar. 19, 1800. He received a rudi- 
mentary education at Buenos Ayres, became a clerk and a 
country storekeeper, and gradually acquired great influence 
over the gauchos. Prom 1835 to 1842 each province fell, 
practically, into the hands of a dictator, who in most cases 
was more or less subservient to Rosas, the dictator of Buenos 
Ayres. As leader of the federalist party, Urquiza became 
the chief power in Entre Rios, and he was elected governor 
in 1846. His rule was irresponsible and was directed mainly 
toward his own aggrandizement. He acquired great wealth, 
but by wise management was generally able to maintain 
peace and prosperity while cementing his power. In 1844- 
45, as an ally of Rosas and Oribe, he marched into Uruguay 
with 4,000 men, and defeated Rivera at the battle of India 
Muerta Mar. 28, 1845. He was also successful in a war with 
the unitarian faction which had risen to power in Corrientes. 
When the dictatorship of Rosas threatened the autonomy of 
the provinces, Urquiza turned against him and in 1851 joined 
with Brazil and the government of Montevideo. Marching 
into Uruguay, he compelled Oribe to capitulate Oct. 8, 1851. 
The allied forces then invaded Buenos Ayres, and Rosas 
was defeated and overthrown at the battle of Monte-Caseros 
Feb. 3, 1852. Urquiza was proclaimed provisional dictator, 
and the provinces, except Buenos Ayres, having adopted a 
federal constitution, he was elected president of the Argen- 
tine Confederation for the terra of six years beginning in 
May, 1853. By his victory over Mitre at Cepeda Oct, 23, 
1859, he compelled Buenos Ayres to join the confederation. 
At the end of his presidential term he took command of the 
army against Buenos Ayres, which had revolted. Mitre de- 
feated him at Pavon Sept. 17, 1861, and the federalist con- 



stitution was abandoned for the unitarian one now in force. 
Urquiza retired to Entre Rios where he continued to exer- 
cise a semi-dictatorial power, though nominally subject to 
the central government He refused to take part in the 
Paraguayan war. On Apr. 11, 1870, a band of political op- 
ponents murdered him on his estate near Concepcion. 

Herbert H. Smith. 
Ursa Major [=Lat., liter.. Greater Bear] : the first of 
Ptolemy's northern constellations, including the fine group 
of seven stars known as Charles's Wain, the Dipper, or the 
Butcher's Cleaver, near the north pole, formerly called also 
Septentriones (likewise Seplemptrtones) and the Plow. 

Ursa Minor [=Lat., liter., Lesser Bear] : one of Ptol- 
emy's northern constellations, containing the North Star 
(Polaris) and the group anciently known as Cynosura, the 
Dog's Tail. Polaris is a star of the second magnitude, 
About 15° from it is another equal star, & Ursae Minoris. 
In the latitude of the Northern U. S. neither of these stars 
ever sets. S. N. 

Ur'sldtt [Mod. Lat., named from Ur'sus, the typical ge- 
nus, from Lat. ur'sus, bear ; cf. Gr. ipttros : Sanskr. fksa-, 
bear] : a family of carnivorous mammals embracing the 
bears. These have the body heavy, the hair abundant, the 
muzzle more or less pointed, the feet plantigrade, and each 
with five digits fully developed, armed with sharp non-re- 
tractile claws ; the teeth in adult 36 to 42 (M. f , P. M. t (f), 
C. t» I. i ($) x 2) ; last true molar of the upper jaw is oblong 
and exceeds the first ; the last premolar of the upper jaw, as 
well as the succeeding true molars, is tubercular ; the first 
true molar in the lower jaw is narrow, but longest ; the sec- 
ond oblong and broader. The family is widely distributed, 
and has representatives in the extreme arctic regions as well 
as in the temperate and torrid zones — in America, Europe, 
and Asia, and: in the north of Africa. About fifteen species 
are known, which have been distributed by recent system- 
atists under six genera — viz., Thalarctos (polar bear), Ursus 
(ordinary bears), Tremarctos (South American), Jlelarctos 
(Indian, etc.), Melursus (the Ursus labiatus of India), and 
JEluropoda (Tibetan) : the last two are very distinct ; the 
others closely related. See also Bear. 

Revised by F. A. Lucas. 

Ursua, dbr-soo'-da, or Orsua, Pedro, de : soldier ; b. at 
Ursua, Navarre, about 1510. He joined a Spanish expedi- 
tion to New Granada ; was governor of that country 1545-46 
and subsequently led two expeditions to the E. and N. E. of 
Bogota, in search of El Dorado. Pamplona and other towns 
now in Santander were founded by him. In 1555-57 he com- 
manded a force against the Cimarrones or fugitive slaves of 
the Isthmus of Panama, and completely subdued them. In 
1559 the Viceroy of Peru placed nira in command of an ex- 
pedition, the avowed object of which was to find and con- 
quer the reported " kingdom " of the Omaguas, on the up- 
per Amazon ; secretly, the viceroy's purpose was to get rid 
of the turbulent soldiers who had been drawn to Peru by 
the civil wars, and in this he was successful, several hun- 
dred of them enlisting for the expedition. Ursua assumed 
the title of governor of Oinagua and El Dorado ; he em- 
barked on the Moyobamba in Sept., 1560, and descended 
the Ucuyali to the Amazon. There a conspiracy was formed 
against him by Lope de Aouirre (q. v.) and others, and he 
was murdered at Machiparo, Jan. 1, 1561. H. II. S. 

Ursula, Saint : See Ursulines. 

Ur'snlines [deriv. of Ursula (see below), liter., dimin. of 
Lat. ur f sa % bear] : an order of celibate women in the Roman 
Catholic Church, named in honor of St. Ursula, who, ac- 
cording to legend, suffered martyrdom in the third, fourth, 
or fifth century, being massacred, together with her army 
of virgins, by the Huns near Cologne. The order was 
founded by St. Angela Merici of Brescia, who in 1537 be- 
came its first superior. In 1544 Paul III. approved tho 
order, and Gregory XIII. and Clement VIII. gave it their 
sanction. St. Charles Borromeo was another powerful friend 
of the Ursulines. They have houses in various countries, 
and are chiefly devoted to the training of girls. 

Revised by J. J. Keane. 

Urtlca'cew: See Nettleworts. 

Urticaria : See Nettle-rash. 

Uruguay, Span. »>i>>n. r o r c ><) gwl' (officially, Republics, 
Oriental del Uruguay, formerly Cisplatine Republic or 
Estado Oriental) : the smallest of the South American re- 
publics; in the southeastern part of the continent and 

Digitized by V^OOQLC 



88 



URUGUAY 



entirely in the south temperate zone ; bounded N. by Brazil, 
E. by the Atlantic and Brazil, S. by the Rio de la Plata, and 
W. by the Uruguay river, separating it from the Argentine 
Republic. Area, 72,170 sq. miles. 

Physical Features. — The general surface is rolling or 
hilly, with manv ridges crossing in different directions. In 
the central and northern parts some of these are over 1,500 
feet high. Bordering the Uruguay there are fertile plains 
resembling the pampas of the Argentine, and near the At- 
lantic are extensive swamps and lagoons, separated from the 
ocean by wide sand-dunes. Most of the land is open prairie ; 
the largest areas of forest are in the western part. Besides 
the Uruguay and Plata, the only important river is the 
Negro, which flows to the Uruguay and is navigable for 
small vessels in its lower course. Lake Miri, on the north- 
eastern frontier, is entirely included in Brazil, but furnishes 
an outlet to the N. for the Uruguayan territory bordering 
on it. Uruguay has no good natural harbors. The best is 
that of Montevideo, on the Plata, where elaborate improve- 
ments have been planned. Maldonado, at the extreme 
southeast angle of the coast, is protected only by a project- 
ing point, but it is much used for a shelter during storms. 
A few rocky islands in the Plata belong to Uruguay ; Flores, 
one of these, is the quarantine station. The climate is tem- 
perate and healthful ; the winter months (May to October) 
are marked by a lower but not unpleasantly cold tempera- 
ture, with occasional light snows and severe southerly storms 
called pamperos ; rains are abundant almost all the year. 

Natural Products; Industries. — Gold is washed on a 
small scale ; there are fine marbles, much used for building 
at Montevideo, and agates and fossil woods are exported to 
Germany. Other minerals, including coal, are reported, but 
their richness has probably been exaggerated. The soil in 
many places is very fertile ; wheat and fruits (apples, pears, 
quinces, etc.) are extensively grown, especially in the valley 
of the Uruguay. But the principal and almost the only 
prominent industry is stock-raising, for which the land is 
especially adapted. In 1890 there were 5,281,000 cattle, 
860,000 horses, and 13,760,000 sheep, the latter rapidly in- 
creasing in numbers. Much of the land is held in large 
estates on which the cattle run almost wild ; nearly all the 
small land-holdings are in the agricultural districts settled 
by recent immigrants. Subsidiary to the grazing industry 
are many saladeros, where jerked beef is prepared, one or 
two condensed-meat factories, and a few tanneries. 

Communication. — The common roads are generally bad ; 
the ordinary vehicles are huge, squeaking, two-wheeled 
carts, each drawn by several yokes of oxen. Diligences, 
drawn by mules, are much used. In some of the more re- 
mote districts traveling is still somewhat dangerous, owing 
to brigands. Uruguay has now several railways, most of 
them radiating from Montevideo and one crossing the coun- 
try to the Brazilian frontier ; in 1892 the aggregate length 
open for traffic was 974 miles. There is a fairly $ood in- 
terior system of telegraphs and cable communication with 
Europe and the U. S. 

Commerce is very active, the exports exceeding $25,000,- 
000 and the imports $80,000,000 annually. Nearly all of 
this is carried on foreign vessels, the Uruguayan merchant 
marine being small. The principal exports are wool, hides, 
bone-ash, tallow, frozen, salted, and condensed meats, wheat, 
and fruits. The trade is mainly with Great Britain (about 
one-third), Prance, Belgium, and Brazil. The imports from 
the U. S. were valued in 1890 at $3,210,112, but have since 
fallen off ; the exports to that country reach about $2,000,- 
000 annually. The standard of value is the peso fuerte 
or dollar, equal to $1.0352 in U. S. currency; no gold and 
little silver are coined, but gold coins of other countries cir- 
culate freely. Government paper, and to a certain extent 
bank-notes, fluctuate in value. The metric system has been 
legalized, but the old Spanish standards are still in general 
use. See Uruguay in the Appendix. 

Population.— In 1892 this was 728,447. The native popu- 
lation embraces a small educated and wealthy class, out 
the great mass, especially in the grazing districts, is of the 
mixed race called Gauchos (q. v.); owing to their roving 
and turbulent disposition these people readily follow any 
revolutionary leader. For many years a steady stream of 
immigration, mainly from Italy, Spain, and Brazil, has 
added a laborious and useful class to the population. In 
1890 about two-fifths of the inhabitants were of foreign 
birth, and they held over half of the wealth ; commerce is 
almost entirely controlled by foreign merchants. All the 
culture and much of the wealth are gathered at Montevideo, 



the capital and only large city. In the frequent civil wars 
Montevideo has generally been held by one party and the 
interior by the other. 

Government, Religion, Education. — Uruguay is a central- 
ized or unitarian republic, divided, for administrative pur- 
poses, into nineteen departments. Congress consists of two 
nouses ; these, in joint session, elect the president for a term 
of four years, and he is ineligible for re-election during the 
two following terms. The established religion is the Roman 
Catholic, but the Church receives only a small subvention, 
and all other sects are tolerated. Primary education is 
compulsory; in 1892 there were 904 public and private 
schools. Montevideo has a national university, scliool of 
arts and trades, museum, etc. The army, on a peace foot- 
ing, consists of 3,500 men, and the navy is insignificant. On 
June 30, 1893, the entire internal and foreign debt, accord- 
ing to an official statement, was $103,820,489. The finances 
are in bad condition, the revenue (mainly derived from 
customs duties) being constantly less than the expenditure 
if the service of the debt is included. By an arrangement 
with bondholders, made in 1892, the interest on the foreign 
debt was reduced one-half. 

History. — Of all the South American countries Uruguay 
was the last settled by Europeans. This was partly owing 
to the fierce character of the Charruas and other Indian 
tribes near the coast, though the interior was inhabited by 
the pacific Guaranys. In 1624 the mission of Santo Do- 
mingo de Soriano was founded on the Rio Negro. Portu- 
gal claimed all the land N. of the Plata, and in 1680 estab- 
lished Colonia de Sacramento, a fortified post, nearly opposite 
Buenos Ayres ; this was repeatedly besieged, and was alter- 
nately held by the Portuguese and Spanish until its final 
cession to the latter in 1778. Portuguese who had fortified 
the bay of Montevideo were driven out in 1726, and the city 
was founded soon after. It became the capital of the coun- 
try and the residence of governors who, after 1776, were subor- 
dinate to the viceroy at Buenos Ayres ; in 1807 the city was 
taken by the British, but it was soon evacuated. The revo- 
lution of 1810 in Buenos Ayres quickly spread to the gau- 
chos of Uruguay, but a strong Spanish force held Monte- 
video until 18li The country remained in a disordered 
state under the irresponsible government of Arti^as, a gau- 
cho leader. Depredations on the northern frontier gave a 
pretext for the interference of the Portuguese, who still 
claimed this region as a part of Brazil. After a desultory- 
war of several years, Artigas was driven out and Uruguay 
was annexed to Brazil as the Cisplatine state (later, when 
Brazil became independent, the Cisplatine province). Revolts, 
encouraged by Buenos Ayres, broke out in 1825, and were 
finally successful in 1828, when both Brazil and Buenos 
Ayres recognized the independence of Uruguay. The po- 
litical parties, Blancos and Colorados, speedily plunged the 
republic into fresh civil wars, alternately seizing the presi- 
dency. Rosas, dictator of Buenos Ayres from 1835. wished 
to extend his power into Uruguay; and Montevideo was 
the special object of his hatred because it sheltered the 
numerous fugitives from his tyranny, and, profiting by his 
narrow commercial policy, was rapidly absorbing the trade 
of the Piatine region. He therefore espoused the cause of 
Oribe, the revolted chief of the Blancos, who, thus aided, 
held most of the interior from 1842 to 1851, besieging Mon- 
tevideo at intervals ; this period is known as the Mne Years* 
Siege. Brazil and Entre Rios at length interfered. Oribe 
was forced to capitulate in 1851, and Rosas was overthrown 
soon after. In 1862, the Blancos being in power. ex-Presi- 
dent Flores led a revolt of the Colorados, and was even- 
tually supported by Brazil, which had unsatisfied claims 
against the regular government. Thus aided, Flores took 
Montevideo and became president in 1865. Lopez, dictator 
of Paraguay, made this affair the pretext for a war on Bra- 
zil, in which Uruguay and the Argentine engaged as allies 
of the latter country. This war, one of the most bloody ever 
known in South America, was ended by the death of Lopez 
in 1870. From that year until 1876 Uruguay had several 
civil wars. Since then the country has been comparatively 
quiet and prosperous, and it is probable that the extension 
of railways will furnish a check to the dangerous gaucho 
class. In 1890-91 there was a sharp financial crisis. 

Authorities. — Apuntes para la historia de la Republica 
Oriental del Uruguay, por A. D. de P. (2 vols., 1864) ; De- 
Maria, Compendio de la historia de la Republica Oriental 
del Uruguay (1875) ; Mulhall, Handbook of the River Plate, 
(6th ed. 1892) ; Bureau of the American Republics, Hand- 
book of Uruguay, with map (1892). Herbert H. Smith. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



URUGUAY 



USENEB 



89 



Uruguay: a river of South America; rises on the west- 
ern slope of the Brazilian Coast Range, on the confines of 
Santa Catharina and Rio Grande do Sul ; flows W. be- 
tween those two states, then S. W. between Rio Grande do 
Sul and the Argentine Republic, and finally S. between 
Uruguay and the Argentine, and empties into the Rio de 
la Plata, which is the estuary of the Parana and Uruguay 
combined. The upper portion is called the Pelotas, and 
locally the Uruguay is said to be formed by the junction of 
the Pelotas and Canoas, It is essentialiy a highland river 
like the Sao Francisco and upper Parana ; the only exten- 
sive flood-plains are on the western side near its mouth, and 
the river brings down comparatively little sediment. The 
valley is varied with hills, and contains much forest, espe- 
cially in its upper portion, which is an almost unknown 
wilderness; lower down there are extensive grassy plains 
suitable for grazing, and from about lat. 29° S. there are 
numerous stock-farms and some considerable towns, As a 
means of communication the Uruguay is important, though 
much inferior to the Parana. Large steamers ascend to 
Paysandu, in Uruguay, about 150 miles from the Plata, and 
small ones to Salto, 50 miles farther. At this point there 
is a fall, but beyond it barges are used for 800 miles, and a 
considerable part of the trade of Western Rio Grande do 
Sul takes this channel. The exports by the river are hides, 
cattle, meat, etc. Whole length of the Uruguay and Pelotas, 
over 1,100 miles. Toward the mouth the river is 7 or 8 
miles wide, but divided by islands. The annual flood in 
September or October attains 20 and occasionally 40 feet. 
The principal affluents are the lbicuy, in Rio Grande do 
Sul, tne Quaraim or Cuareim, formingpart of the boundary 
between Brazil and Uruguay, and the Rio Negro in the lat- 
ter country. Herbert H. Smith. 

Uruguay: a city of Argentina. See Concepcion del 
Uruguay. . 

Uruguay Ana, oo-roo-gwl-aa'n A : a town of Rio Grande 
do Sul, Brazil; on the river Uruguay, near the southwestern 
angle of the state, and connected with Pelotas and Monte- 
video by railway. It is the center of the grazing industry 
of Western Rio Grande do Sul, and has an important river 
trade. Here, on Sept. 18, 1865, the Paraguayan invading 
army of 6,000 men surrendered to the allies, who were com- 
manded by the Emperor of Brazil, President Mitre of the 
Argentine Republic, and President Flores of Uruguay. 
Pop. (1894) about 6,000, and rapidly increasing. H. H. S. 

Urumia : town and lake of Persia. See Urmia. 

Urumf si : city of Central Asia, with a population esti- 
mated at 40,000; at the northern foot of the Tien Shan 
Mountains (see map of China, ref. 2-D). It became the 
capital of the Chinese Mongolian province of the same 
name, and in 1862 it formed the center of the Dungan re- 
bellion. In the commerce of Central Asia, Urumtsi formerly 
occupied the same position as Nijnii-Novgorod in that of 
Eastern Russia. Goods from Russia, Turkistan, Persia, and 
Kashmir flowed to this place, numerous merchants' offices 
and Chinese banks were established here, and by its well- 
stocked magazines Urumtsi held a perpetual fair. But the 
uncertainty consequent on the Dungan rebellion put an end 
to this traffic. Dungan, a corruption of Tangut, is the name 
of the 4,000,000 Mussulmans of Turkish-Tartarian descent 
who inhabit the northern provinces of China, and who on 
account of the enormous taxes rose in revolt in Shen-si in 
1862, and pushed into Southern Mongolia, where they took 
Urumtsi. Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Urns [= Lat., from Teuton. ; cf. O. H. Germ, ur : Icel. 
urr : O. Eng. ur >Eng. outre (obs.), aurochs; cf. also 0. H. 
Germ, urohso (ur+ohso, ox) >Mod. Germ, auerochs, whence 
Eng". aurochs]: a wild ox, the Bos primigenius, now ex- 
tinct, although mentioned by Caesar as inhabiting the forests 
of Germany, and, so late as the sixteenth century, an object 
of the chase. It was very large, with a flat forehead, and 
spread of horns of 4 feet or more. Judging from the re- 
mains, it was domesticated by the Swiss lake-dwellers, and 
the modern Scotch cattle, and possibly the Chilli ngham 
Cattle (q. r.), are its direct descendants. See also the arti- 
cle Aurochs. F. A. Lucas. 

Usage : the habitual practice of a person, a class, a trade, 
or a community. The term is used often interchangeably 
-with custom. Strictly speaking, however, custom is a usage 
which has acquired the force of law. For example, the 
custom of merchants allowing days of grace on a bill of ex- 
change or promissory note has long been a part of English 



common law. A custom need not be proved ; judges will 
take judicial cognizance of it, and contracting parties can 
not plead ignorance of it On the other hand, a usage must 
be proved by the party whose case depends upon its exist- 
ence. It may be established by the evidence of one witness 
if his means of knowledge and his credibility are satis- 
factory. 

A usage may be proved for the purpose of adding a term 
to a written contract or to give a special meaning to its lan- 
guage. This is allowed on the theory that the parties did 
not mean to express in writing the whole of their agree- 
ment, but contracted with reference to the usage in question. 
It is assumed that the parties knew of the usage. Hence 
if either of them can show that he had neither knowledge 
nor notice of the usage it can not affect him. Moreover, it 
can influence the construction of the contract only when it is, 
in the opinion of the court, not unreasonable, is not contrary 
to the positive rules of law, and is not inconsistent with the 
clear provisions of the contract. In other words, a usage is 
competent to explain or annex incidents to a contract, but 
not to contradict its express terms. For a full treatment of 
the subject, the reader is referred to Clarke's edition of 
Browne s Usages and Customs; Law son, Usages and Cus- 
toms. Feancis M. Burdick. 

Usambft/ra : the mountainous northeastern part of Ger- 
man East Africa, separated from the Indian Ocean by a low 
coastal plain. Coffee and cotton are successfully raised in 
this district, and a railwav is (1895) being built to connect 
Tanga, the chief port, with these upland plantations. The 
climate is fairly healthful. C. C. A. 

rscup', or Scop'ia (lookout): town; in the vilayet of 
Eossova, European Turkey ; on the Vardar (see map of Tur- 
key, ref. 3-B). It is on the Salonica-Mitrovitza Kailway, 
and is the proposed point of junction of the South Danu- 
bian railway system. Besides being the residence of the 
provincial governor it is the seat of a Greek archbishop. It 
manufactures leather and has a large transit trade. Pop. 
13,000. E. A. G. 

Use : See Uses. 

r&e and Occupation : Whenever the land or building 
belonging to one person is occupied by another, either under 
an express agreement or under such circumstances that the 
law will infer an agreement, but without any stipulation as 
to the amount of rent, the owner may recover from the ten- 
ant such compensation in the nature of rent as the occupa- 
tion is reasonably worth. The action under these circum- 
stances is said to be for the " use and occupation of the 
premises." The right to recover is based upon the notion 
that the possession was taken and held in pursuance of a 
contract, express or implied, and the action is brought upon 
the tenant's implied promise to pay. If, therefore, the en try 
is tortious, and the land is held adversely and not in subor- 
dination to the owner's ri^ht, no action tor use and occupa- 
tion can be maintained, since no promise can be inferred. 
The remedy of the owner in that case is an action for dam- 
ages resulting from the unlawful trespass. See Landlord 
and Tenant. Revised by G. W. Kirch wey. 

Fsedom, ooz^-dom : a low, irregular, and little produc- 
tive island belonging to Prussia; situated at the mouth of 
the Oder, between the Baltic and the Stettiner Haff ; area, 
157 sq. miles. On its northeastern shore is the port of 
Swinemllnde. 

IJsener, Hermann : classical scholar; b. at Weilburg. Ger- 
many, Oct. 23, 1834 ; studied under Ritschl at Bonn, in Hei- 
delberg, Gottingen, and Munich : teacher at the Berlin Joa- 
chimsthaler Gymnasium in 1858; professor extraordinary 
at Berne in 1861; ordinary professor in Greifswald 1863, 
whence he was called to Bonn in 1866. Among his many 
famous writings are Analecta Theophrastea (1858); Alejran- 
dri Aphrodienxis Probhmata (1859); Scholia in Lucan um 
(1869); Anecdoton Holderi. Kin Beitrag zur Geschichte 
Boms in ortgothischer Zeit (1877); Legenden der heiligen 
Pelag ia (1879) ; Altgriechischer Versbau (1887); Ej icvrea, 
the standard work on the subject (1887); fieh'giorisge- 
schichtliche Untersuthungen (1889) ; Theodoros u. Jxyrillos; 
derheilige Theodusios (1890); Unser Platotejct (1892); Die 
Unterlage des Laertius Diogenes (Berlin Acad, publications, 
1892); and numerous penetrating treatises, published in 
Jiheinisches Museum, university programmes, and elsewhere. 
He also edited Kayser's Homensche Abhandlungen (Leip- 
zig, 1881) and J. Bernays's Gemmmelte Werke (2 vols., Berlin, 
1885). " Alfred Gudeman. 

Digitized by V^UUvlC 



90 



USERTESEN 



USES 



User'teseii, or Usertsen : the name of three kings of 
the twelfth Egyptian dynasty, who with Amenemhat I.-IV. 
composed one of the most notable royal families in Egyp- 
tian history. Their period was one of great brilliancy, and 
its special chronology is as exactly determinable as any in 
Egyptian annals. It succeeds a period of anarchy and the 
rule of petty princes, but it gradually grew to a degree of 
power unequaled except under Thothmes III. of the eigh- 
teenth and Ramses II. of the nineteenth dynasty. The ex- 
cellence of its artistic work was surprising, and is contrasted 
vividly with that of later tiroes, particularly in the instances 
where its monuments were usurped by the degenerate Me- 
neptah, of the nineteenth dynasty. 

Usertesen I. (Kheper-ka-ra, the Sesonchosis of Manetho) 
was for ten years associated with Amenemhat I. as co- 
regent. It is probable that the latter came to the throne at 
advanced ape, and that the administration of affairs, at first 
foreign and later domestic as well, early fell into the hands 
of Usertesen I. His total reign covered about forty years, 
and he succeeded in strengthening the strong government 
established previously. In his earlier years he waged war 
with the Libyans and with the Ethiopians. In Sinai he 
opened the mines that had been worked under the earlier 
dynasties; at Tanis he built temples and erected several 
statues, which have come down to us, showing great fine- 
ness of work and excellence of execution and finish; he 
erected a temple to Osiris at Abydos ; worked the quarries 
of Hammamat; adorned the temple at Koptos; Duilt a 
temple at Heliopolis, whose only remnant is the solitary 
obelisk now in situ. A broken obelisk at Begig in the 
Fayum shows that he was also busy in this region, which 
was the scene of much active labor on the part of his suc- 
cessors. During the last two years of his reign Amenemhat 
II., his son, was associated with him. 

Usertesen II. (Kha-kheper-ra, the Sesostris of Manetho) 
succeeded Amenemhat II. and enjoyed a long reign, sup- 
posed by Petrie to have covered thirty-nine years. The en- 
tire uncertainty as to the chronology of the dynasty falls 
upon this reign, and the length of it is uncertain. The 
highest monumental record is of the tenth year, but Ma- 
netho assigns forty-eight years to him. His pyramid is that 
at Illahun, at the mouth of the Fayum. It has as a core a 
mass of native rock, in which the sepulchral chambers and 
passages were cut, and it was composed of brick with a fac- 
ing of limestone. Unlike other similar structures, it has 
two entrances on the south side, apparently to perplex 
would-be robbers. But one of them was discovered by 
workmen of Ramses II., and the contents were then rifled. 
The houses of the workmen at Kahun even now cover 18 
acres, and their remains were mistaken by Lepsius for the 
ruins of the labyrinth. 

Usertesen III. (Kha-kau-ra, the Lachares of Manetho), 
the following king, built as his mausoleum the northerly 
brick pyramid at Dahshur, adopting a plan for the deposit 
of funereal remains different from any previous method. 
Subterranean passageways were excavated around the base 
of the structure with adjacent chambers in which the mum- 
mies were placed. The pyramid was explored by de Morgan 
in 1894. Usertesen III. also built temples at Tanis, Bubas- 
tis, and elsewhere in the Delta region, but he is best known 
on account of the expeditions which he led into Nubia. In 
order to facilitate transportation to the southward, he caused 
a canal to be constructed around the first cataract of the 
Nile. In his eighth year he built forts and temples at Sem- 
neh and Kumraeh, 30 miles S/of the second cataract, erected 
several stelie there, and prohibited the passage of Negroes 
northward except for the purpose of trade. Under him 
Egypt entered upon the policy of foreign conquest, which 
reached its climax during the eighteenth and nineteenth 
dynasties. His reign lasted thirty-eight years. His suc- 
cessor, Amenemhat III., devoted himself to internal im- 
provements, regulated the flow of the Nile by means of 
dams erected to control the flow of water into and out of 
the Fayum (Lake Mceris), which is supposed by some au- 
thorities to have constituted a large inland sea at that time. 
From the lake he reclaimed certain portions, and on them 
built his pyramid at Uawara and also the neighboring laby- 
rinth. Charles K. Gillett. 

Uses [vi& 0. Fr. from Lat. u'sus, a using, use, deriv. of u'ti, 
u'sus, to use]: in law, rights, r.^o^nized only in eouity, to 
the possession and enjoyment of real estate, the legal title to 
which is vested in another. At an early day the English 
ecclesiastics, in order to avoid the Statutes of Mortmain, 



which forbade them to take or hold lands in England (see 
Mortmain), contrived a plan whereby they might enjoy all 
the benefits of ownership without taking or holding the for- 
bidden title. The land was conveyed by the donor to some 
person in the ordinary manner, but the conveyance was ac- 
companied with the direction — which might be contained 
in the deed, or charter, of feoffment, or which might be a 
mere oral declaration of intention — that the grantee should 
hold the land to the use, or to the benefit (ad usum or ad 
opus), of a designated person or corporation. Originally the 
oolieation and duty thus imposed upon the person to whom 
the land was conveyed — that he should be seized of the land, 
but for the benefit of another; that he should have the 
legal title, but that another should be allowed to enter upon 
and enjoy the land — was purely conscientious and could be 
enforced, if at all, only by the power which resided in the 
Church. There is no doubt that in very many cases a par- 
tial or complete deprivation of spiritual rights and privi- 
leges, and in some cases the infliction of temporal pains as 
well, awaited the feoffee to uses who was disposed to rest 
upon his legal right* and to ignore the intention with which 
the land was conveyed to him. As early as the reign of 
Richard II., however, the indefinite sanctions of the Church 
had been re-enforced by the growing jurisdiction of the chan- 
cellor, who, himself usually an ecclesiatic, was the natural 
custodian of the king's power to enforce even conscientious 
and extra-legal obligations. The courts of common law 
knew nothing of all this. If the chancellor chose to hold 
men to the performance of pious duties undertaken by them, 
he might do so ; but nevertheless the title, the property, was 
effectually vested in the feoffee, who was, notwithstanding 
the uses, the only one possessing any legal interest. Mean- 
while, however, the court of chancery enforced the trust that 
had been imposed on the feoffee, and regarded the bene- 
ficiary, or cestui que use, as the real owner, entitled to the 
possession, profits, and complete control of the land. This 
was the " use." 

From this time on the practice of conveying lands to 
uses, even as between private and non-religious persons, 
grew apace. It was of the utmost convenience to all sorts 
and conditions of men and, even more, of women. Not 
only the religious houses, but also married women and 
aliens — who were equally incapacitated from holding lands 
at common law — might be the beneficiaries of uses. More- 
over, being utterly unknown to the common law, not being 
an estate or interest in lands, the use was of course en- 
tirely free from the vexatious and burdensome incidents 
and restraints of tenure as it existed at common law. It 
could be devised by will, and conveyed without any public 
delivery of possession (livery of seisin), while it would yet 
descend to the heir, if not otherwise disposed of, just as the 
legal title descended at common law. The cestui que use 
was not, under the feudal rlqime, liable to perform the serv- 
ice of military duty, nor could he be called upon for *' aids " 
or " reliefs," nor was he subject to the feudal exactions of 
" wardship " or " marriage." (See Tenure.) It is there- 
fore not to be wondered at that the system of conveying 
lands to be held " to uses " became exceedingly prevalent, 
nor, on the other hand, that it was in the highest degree 
obnoxious to the king and the other great landowners. 
Several ineffectual attempts were made Dy Parliament to 
remedy this anomalous and, as it was considered, mischiev- 
ous state of affairs, and these attempts finally culminated in 
that drastic effort of legislation, the Statute of Uses, passed 
in the twenty-seventh year of Henry VIII. (a. d. 1585). 
This celebrated enactment provided, in substance, that 
whenever lands should be conveyed in fee to one person for 
the use or benefit of another, the complete title, legal and 
equitable, should at once vest in the latter, free from any 
use, and that no interest whatever should attach to the 
former. " The object of the statute was, by joining the pos- 
session or seisin to the use and interest (or, in other words, 
by providing that all the estate which would by the com- 
mon law have passed to the grantee to uses should instant- 
ly be taken out of him and vested in cestui que use), to anni- 
hilate altogether the distinction between the legal and bene- 
ficial ownership, to make the ostensible tenant in every case 
also the legal tenant, liable to his lord for feudal dues and 
services, etc." But so far as this, its main object, was con- 
cerned, the statute was almost a complete failure. It did 
not have the effect of abolishing uses; it did not, except to 
a very limited extent, restore to the lord his feudal dues. 
Partly in consequence of the looseness with which the stat- 
ute was drawn, partly as a result of a long and ingenious 

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USES, CHARITABLE 



USURY 



91 



process of judicial construction of its terms, the courts of 
equity were not long in reviving the system of uses under 
the name of " trusts." In that form and under that desig- 
nation this system has continued with great vigor and suc- 
cess to the present day, when it is the chief ornament of the 
equity tribunals. See Trusts. 

The statute, however, in so far as it was allowed to operate, 
had another and wholly unanticipated effect. By virtue of 
the fact that the practice of conveying lands to uses con- 
tinued unabated, and the further fact that the statute " exe- 
cuted " certain of these uses, i. e. converted them into legal 
estates, the courts of common law at once acquired jurisdic- 
tion over a vast number of new interests in land. This spe- 
cies of legal estate, being created " by way of use," was al- 
lowed by the common-law tribunals to retain in large measure 
the form and character which had been impressed upon it 
in equity before it had acquired legal recognition. The 
equity tribunals had recognized uses which bore no analogy 
to estates as they existed at common law and which were, in- 
deed, repugnant to the common-law system. Thus it was 
an inflexible rule of that system that no future estate could 
arise, or be ** limited " except as a " remainder " or " rever- 
sion," and it was a characteristic of these estates that the 
remainder or reversion must be immediately consequent 
upon some prior estate less than a fee simple. Thus a limi- 
tation to A for life, with remainder to B after the death of 

A, would be good ; but a limitation of a future interest to 

B, to take effect a year or even a day after A's death, would 
be bad as a remainder. But there was no reason why the 
court of chancery should not enforce a use to arise at any 
time in the future, whether it was supported by a precedent 
use or not. Hence arose those varieties of future interests 
known as " springing " and " shifting uses," and when the 
courts of common law took jurisdiction of executed uses 
under the statute, they preserved these new and useful forms 
of estates under those names, and added them permanently 
to the older body of common-law limitations. It was in this 
indirect and unintended way that the English law of real 
property was revolutionized and brought into conformity 
with modern conditions. The new methods of conveyanc- 
ing introduced by virtue of this transformation persisted for 
three hundred years, until abolished by statute in England 
and the U. S. See Bargain and Sale. 

Uses, under that name and as a separate system, no longer 
exist, all conveyances " by way of use " being referred either 
to the jurisdiction of equity as trusts or to the common-law 
limitations of real propertv, as above described. The whole 
system as thus developed and altered, together with the 
Statute of Uses, forms a part of the jurisprudence of the 
U. S., except in a few jurisdictions where it has been ex- 
pressly abolished by statute. 

The learning of uses is somewhat refined and abstruse, and 
has engaged the attention of many of the ablest minds at 
the English bar. Perhaps the most elaborate treatises are 
those of Sir Francis Bacon {Reading upon the Statute of 
Uses) and Lord Chief Baron Gilbert (Law of Usee and 
Trust8). The various authoritative works on real property 
and conveyancing contain satisfactory statements of the 
system ana its influence upon the law of property. The best 
modern authorities for that purpose are Leake, Digest of the 
Law of Property in Land, and Digby, History of the Law 
of Real Property, The older treatises of Littleton, Coke, 
Blackstone, Lord St. Leonard (Handy Book of Property 
Law) and Preston (on Conveyancing and on Estates) should 
also be consulted. The History of English Law by Pollock 
and Maitland contains a valuable note (vol. ii., pp. 224, 231) 
on the origin of uses. George W. Kirchwey. 

Uses, Charitable : See Charitable Uses. 

Ush'ant (Pr. Ouessant) : the largest of a group of islands 
of the same name, oft* the coast of Brittany, France ; belong- 
ing to the department of Finisterre. Area, 20 sq. miles. It 
is fertile, ana has about 2,300 inhabitants, engaged in the 
rearing of cattle and in fisheries. 

Ussher, or Usher, James, D. D. : archbishop ; b. in Dub- 
lin, Ireland, Jan. 4, 1580, or 1581; educated at Trinity Col- 
lege, Dublin, where he became a fellow 1600 ; took orders in 
the Church of England 1601 ; became chancellor of the Ca- 
thedral of St. Patrick about 1604 ; was Professor of Divinity 
at the University of Dublin 1607-20; drew up the Articles 
of Faith of the Irish Church 1615; became Bishop of Meath 
1620, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland 1624- 
25 ; had his house destroyed by the Irish rebels 1641, while 
visiting England, in which country be thenceforth remained; 



was given by Charles I. the temporalities of the vacant see 
of Carlisle, which made him practically the bishop, and as 
such he acted, and was preacher of Lincoln's Inn, London, 
1647-54, residing chiefly at Oxford. D. at Reigate, Surrey, 
England, Mar. 21, 1656, and by order of Cromwell was buried 
with great magnificence in Westminster Abbey. He was 
the author of numerous theological treatises, mostly in Latin, 
of which a complete edition was published by the University 
of Dublin (17 vols., 1847-64), with a Life by Rev. C. R. El- 
rington. His Annates Veteris et Nov% Testamenti (2 vols., 
1650-54) contains a scheme of biblical chronologv, since 
printed in the margin of the Authorized Version of the Bible 
and generally adopted by English and continental historians, 
though now admitted to be inexact. Another Life, with 
that of John Selden, was written by Dr. John Aikin (1811). 
His library now belongs to Trinity College, Dublin. He 
was a learned antiquarian, and the Epistles of Polycarp and 
Ignatius were first published by him. He was twice elected 
by the Long Parliament to the Westminster Assembly of 
Divines, but from loyalty to the king did not attend. He 
prepared the Irish Articles of Religion (1645), and proposed 
a system of reduced episcopacy as a compromise between 
Episcopalians and PresDyterians. 

Revise^ by S. M. Jackson. 

Ustilagin'eee: See Smuts. 

Usufruct : See Servitudes. 

Usumacfn'ta : a river of Guatemala and Mexico ; formed 
by the union of several branches which drain the northwest- 
ern half of the former country; flowing with a general 
northwesterly but very crooked course, and joining, in Ta- 
basco, the Grijaiva, through which it reaches the Gulf of 
Mexico. Length about 400 miles. The lower part is naviga- 
ble, and is connected bv channels with the Bay of Campeche 
and the Laguna de Terminos. By the treaty of 1882 the 
upper Usumacinta, with its principal head, was agreed upon 
as part of the boundary between Mexico and Guatemala. 
After a survey, Guatemala claimed that the Salinas was the 
head ; Mexico claimed that this was the Rio de la Pasion, 
which would extend her territory at one point so far E. as 
nearly to cut Guatemala in two. This question nearlv led 
to a war in the early part of 1895. The disputed territory 
is mainly covered witn forest. H. H. S. 

Usury [usury is from O. Fr. usure < Lat. usu'ra, use, 
usury, interest, deriv. of uti, u'sus, use] : " When money is 
lent on a contract to receive not only the principal sum 
again, but also an increase by way of compensation for the 
use," the increase " is called interest by those who think it 
lawful, and usury by those who do not so. (Blackstone's Com- 
mentaries, 2, 454.) The term is now applied to the taking 
of an illegal rate of interest. For the early English statutes 
on this subject, see the article on Interest. Its economic 
bearings are considered in the article on Political Economy, 
under the heading Government Interference with Industry. 
All usury laws in England were repealed in 1854, and the 
example nas been followed to some extent in the U. S. Most 
of the States, however, prescribe a lawful rate of interest, 
and subject the taker of any excess to punishment as a crim- 
inal, as well as to the forfeiture of a part or the whole of the 
principal and lawful interest. In order to have a case of 
usury there must be a loan or forbearance of money. Hence 
one who buys negotiable instruments, bonds, or mortgages, 
or other choses in actions for less than their face value does 
not engage in a usurious transaction. (Cram vs. Hendricks, 
7 Wendell (N. Y.) 569.) In many jurisdictions, however, it 
is held that the buyer of accommodation paper is a mere 
lender of money, and hence if he pays less than the face and 
legal discount the transaction is usurious. This doctrine is 
based on the view that the paper has no legal inception when 
delivered by the accommodating to the accommodated party, 
but takes its inception from its delivery to the buyer. ( Claflxn 
vs. Boorum, 122 N. Y. 385.) Corrupt intention is essential 
to usury. From this it follows, on tne one hand, that what- 
ever may be the form of the transaction, however cunning 
may be the devices for evading the statute, if the parties 
have in effect bargained for the loan or forbearance of money 
at a prohibited rate of interest, the transaction is under 
asttutory ban ; on the other hand, if an illegal rate of interest 
is agreed upon or paid by mutual mistake, the statute is not 
violated, but the mistake may be corrected and the agree- 
ment really intended by the parties enforced. A valuable 
compilation of the modern statutes upon this subject is con- 
tained in Perley's Law of Interest (Boston, 1893). 

Francis M. Burdick. 



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92 



UTAH 



Utah : one of the States of the U. S. of North America 
(Western group) ; the thirty-second admitted to the Union. 
Capital, Salt Lake City. 

Location and Area. — It extends from lat. 87° to 42° N., 
and from Ion. 32° to 37° W. from Washington ; is bounded 




Territorial i 



I of Utah. 



N. by Idaho and Wyoming, E. by Wyoming and Colorado, 
S. by Arizona, and tV. by Nevada. Greatest length, about 
850 miles; greatest width, nearly 800 miles. Area, accord- 
ing to the U. S. oensus 1890, 84,970 sq. miles (54,880,800 acres), 
of which 2,780 sq. miles are water surface ; or, according to 
the U. S. Surveyor-General for Utah, 84,476 sq. miles. 

Physical Features. — Utah is traversed N. and S. by one 
great range of mountains, the Wasatch, and there are several 
minor ranges, as the Deep Creek, Oquirrh, and San Fran- 
cisco in the west, and the Roan or Book, the La Salle, the 
Sierra Aba jo, and the Orejas del Oso in the east and south- 
east, all extending in the same general direction. There is 
also one great transverse range running E. from the Wasatch 
to the Rocky Mountains, along the northeast boundary. E. 
of the Wasatch Range the water flows into the Du Chesne, 
Green, Uinta, Price, Grand, White, Dirty Devil, San Juan, 
and San Rafael rivers, reaching the Pacific Ocean through 
the Colorado river and Gulf of California. W. of the Wasatch 
Mountains the waters, for the most part, flow into the Great 
Salt Lake, though there are several fresh-water lakes and 
"sinks" S. of the Salt Lake valley which receive the flows 
from the mountain rivers and streams. The Wasatch and 
Uinta Mountains are high and rocky, broken and furrowed 
into cations and deep gorges. Some of their peaks reach an 
elevation of 14.000 feet. The other ranges are lower and 
less rugged. The only rivers of importance within Utah 
are the Green and the Grand, forming the Colorado. The 
others are little more than mountain streams, some of them 
of considerable volume in the spring and early summer, but 
receding or disappearing entirely later in the season. The 
rivers named have formed deep canons or ravines, ranging 
in depth from 500 to 4,000 feet, the stream at many places 
being inaccessible. E. of the Wasatch Range the country 
is broken and rough, consisting of mountain spurs, high 
plateaus, and arid mesas, the soil being hard and clayey and 
generally weak. W. of the Wasatch there is a succession of 
valleys, extending N. and S. These vary in length from 1 
to 40 miles, and in width from 1 to 15 or 18 miles. The 
valleys and mesas range in elevation from 4,000 to 7,000 
feet. W. of the Great Salt Lake (q. v.) is a vast alkaline 
desert, 100 miles in length and 40 miles in width. The 
chief fresh- water lakes are Bear Lake, 18 by 8 miles, in the 
extreme northeast corner; Utah Lake, 24 by 10 miles, in 
the central part; and Sevier Lake, 25 by 5 miles, in the 
southwest. 

Soil and Productions. — In the main the soil is arid and 
much of it alkaline, some sections being so strongly impreg- 
nated with the salts as to render its reclamation impracti- 
cable. The soil of the valleys is sedimentary, gravelly, 
clayey, and sandy ; that of the mesas is generally hard clay 
or rocky. However, the land is not, as a rule, difficult of 
reclamation where water for irrigation can be obtained, and 
with sufficient water the soil is extremely fertile. Agricul- 
ture is entirely dependent upon artificial irrigation, the 
rainfall being so slight and uncertain as to put reliance on 
it out of question. Weeks and sometimes months pass with- 



out a shower. In the valleys rain is infrequent and light 
from May until October. The result has been the develop- 
ment of an extensive system of reservoirs, canals, and ditches 
for irrigation purposes. The chief agricultural products are 
wheat, oats, barley, Indian corn, peas and beans, potatoes, 
beets, and carrots; of fruits, there are apples, peaches, plums, 
apricots, cherries, grapes, etc. Vast quantities of dried fruits 
are regularly shipped to the East. Though the mountains 
and more elevated valleys are not susceptible of cultivation, 
they produce succulent grasses, thus providing excellent 
ranges for live stock in summer, and in the southern part 
good ranges also in winter. 

The State census report of 1895 shows that in 1894 there 
were in Utah 19,816 farms with 467,162 acres under cultiva- 
tion (of which 89*36 per cent, was irrigated), and 294,725 
acres under pasture and fenced. The number of laborers 
employed on these farms was 5,960, and the wages paid 
them amounted to $1,015,366. 

The following table from the State census of 1895 shows 
the acreage, yield, and value of the principal crops for the 
year 1894: 



crops, rrc. 



Wheat 

Corn 

Oatt 

Barley 

Rye 

Lucerne 

Hay 

Potatoes 

Beets 

Other products. 

Apples 

Pears 

Peaches 

Plums 

Apricots 

Small fruits 

Grapes 



Act— ft. 



144,717 

13,393 

49,334 

8,754 

8,791 

163,544 

89,255 

18,526 

8,056 

4,801 

4,548 

524 

1,686 

764 

851 

747 



TUd. 



8,113,078 bush. 

260,697 " 
1,887,710 •• 
271,866 " 
42,352 " 
462,459 tons 
183,646 " 
1,649,239 bush. 
38,015 tons 
10,506 " 
877,935 bush. 
27,261 " 
154,772 " 
86,814 " 
21.284 " 
618.817 lb. 
1,046,768 " 



Vain, 



$1,440,096 

151,488 

470,658 

100,207 

20,094 

1,861,689 

604,399 

522,855 

160,714 

177,792 

146,764 

18,832 

82,107 

19,835 

10.272 

12,777 



The live stock consisted of 60,595 milch cows ; other cat- 
tle, 238,974; swine (over six months old), 47,703; sheep, 
2,422,802; goats, 2,966; horses, 99,895; mules, 1,308; and 
asses, 835. 

Minerals.— Next to agriculture the chief industry is min- 
ing. Gold, silver, lead, copper, iron, and zinc ores exist in 
large quantities and in various parts of Utah, and extensive 
measures of coal are found in Summit and Uinta Counties 
in the northeast, Sanpete, Carbon, Sevier, and Emery Coun- 
ties in the central anu eastern sections, and in Iron County 
in the south. The most extensive ledges of iron are in Iron 
County, though both hematite and magnetic ores exist in 
other districts. Silver is found in very nearly all the moun- 
tains from one end of Utah to the other. The principal 
gold deposits, whether in placer or in quartz, are in the 
Oquirrh Mountains, S. W. of Salt Lake City ; in the Tin- 
tic Mountains, Juab County ; in the Camp Floyd district of 
Tooele County ; and along the Green and Colorado rivers. 
The chief silver-lead mining districts are Park City, Summit 
County ; Tintic, Dugway, and Pish Springs, Juab County ; 
Ophir and Deep creek, Tooele County ; Big and Little Cot- 
tonwood, Salt Lake County; San Francisco, Beaver County ; 
and Ohio, Piute County. A superior quality of onyx has 
been found on the west shore of Utah Lake. In addition to 
the minerals named there are extensive beds of sulphur in 
Beaver County, alum, borax, gypsum, rock-salt, and asphal- 
tum, the last-mentioned being used largely for paving streets 
in Salt Lake City. It is also being shipped to Eastern cities. 
The following is a summary of the mineral production in 
1894 : Gold, 56.427 fine oz., value $1,128,540 : silver, 6,659,798 
oz., value $4,193,674; unrefined lead, 55,551,663 lb., value 
$888,826; refined lead, 202,500 lb., value $62,977; and cop- 
per, 1,066,160 lb., value $53,308. Computing the gold and 
silver at their mint value, and the other metals at their 
value at the seaboard, shows the total metallic product to 
have been equal to $11,631,402. Of Gilsonite or asphaltum 
(not reported in 1894) 3,200 tons, value $90,000, were mined ; 
salt, 108,570 barrels, value $30,075; and sandstone to the 
value of $136,462. 

Climate. — The climate is mild and equable in the valleys, 
but extremely cold in the winter in the mountains. In the 
south the snowfall is light. In the northern and middle 
sections snows come in November and continue until March, 
or even later, though the depth is seldom great, except in 
the mountains, where snow is perpetual. The temperature 
rarely reaches zero in the valleys, and seldom goes above 95°. 



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1 UTAH I 



I LongttndeN Wert 110 from Q Greenwich lot 




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UTAH 



93 



The accompanying table shows the mean temperature and 
the rainfall at the station of the Utah Weather Service, Salt 
Lake City, during 1894 : 



MONTHS. 


Mmotam- 


Pradpltt- 
ticou 


MONTHS. *—•■-- 

| pacmtur*. 


tioo. 


January 

February. . . 

March 

April 

May 


29* F. 

26 

41 

48 

61 

64 


1 81 in. 

•83 
1-78 
1-67 
1 22 
1-38 


July 

August 

September. . 

1 October 

November.. 
December . . 


75' F. 

75 

61 

53 

46 

31 


•82 in. 

•87 

287 

101 

28 


June 


128 



Divisions. — For administrative purposes Utah is divided 
into twenty-seven counties, as follows : 

COUNTIES AND COUNTY-TOWNS, WITH POPULATION. 



COUNTIES. 


***L 


Pop. 

1890. 


Pop. 

1895. 


COUNTY-TOWNS. 


Pop. 
1S94. 


Beaver 


7-K 
2-K 
2-L 
5-N 
8-L 
6-N 
8-M 
6-0 
7-K 
5-K 
8-L 
6-K 
3-M 
7-L 
2-M 
4-L 
8-N 
5-M 
6-M 
3-M 
4-K 
4-0 
4-L 
4-N 
8-K 
6-M 
3-L 


8,340 
7,612 
15,509 

" 6,75i 
6,078 
2,457 
541 
2.683 
6,582 
1,685 
4,033 
1,780 
2,842 
1,527 

58,457 
365 

13,146 
6.199 
7,783 
8.700 
2,762 

23.768 
8,595 
4,009 

22,723 


8,791 
8,331 

18,286 
3,696 
7,480 
4,390 
2,888 
891 
8,123 
6.466 
1,908 
5,375 
2,261 
1,727 
1.781 

68,182 


B 

Bri^hjira. 

LuKau.... 


2,048 


Boxelder 

Cache 


2.722 
5,756 


Carbon t 


Prn. 


604 


Davis 

Emery 

Garfield, 


Ffcrmiturton 

Gmlle l^le 

Pui^ultcll 


1,108 
533 
977 


Grand 


M hii, 


525 


Iron 


P ( \munn 


1.084 


Juab 


N- f lit... 


2,515 


Kane 


Kiiuub 


613 


Millard 


Fillmore 


1,077 




Morgan 


800 


Piute 


Junction 


206 


Rich 


Randolph 


593 


Salt Lake 


Rait iAke Oitv 


48,076 


San Juan 


500 Montieello 


149 


Sanpete. 


15,538 
7,898 
9,631 
4,428 
8,967 

29,229 
4,408 
4,619 
1,520 

25,015 


Manti 


2,828 


Sevier 


Richfield 


1,817 


Summit 


Coalville 


1,515 
1,154 

6,992 


Tooele 


Tooele 


Uinta . 

Utah 


Ashley 

Provo City 

Heber 

8t. George 

Loa 


Wasatch 


1,672 


Washington 

Wayne t 


1,661 


Weber 




15,826 






Totals 


207,905 


247,324 











* Reference for location of counties, see map of Utah, 
t Organized since 1890. 

Principal Cities and Towns, with Population for 1895. — 
Salt Lake City, 48,076; Ogden, 15,828; Provo CMtv, 5,992; 
Logan, 5.756; Park Citv, 4,491; Springvilie, 3,168; Mt. 
Pleasant, 2,481 ; Spanish Fork, 3,157 ; Brigham, 2,722 ; Pav- 
son, 2,135; and Nephi, 2,515. 

Population and Races.— In 1850, 11,380; 1860, 40,273; 
1870, 86,786 ; 1880, 143,963 ; 1890, 207,905 ; 1895. 247,324— of 
whom 194,825 were native born, 52,499 foreign born, 126,803 
males, 120,521 females, 245,985 whites, 571 colored, and 768 
Chinese. 

Industries and Business Interests. — Manufactures were 
early stimulated by the necessities of the people, owing to the 
distance from manufacturing centers and the cost of trans- 
porting goods by ox and horse teams from the Missouri 
river. Before the advent of railways woolen and cotton 
mills, tanneries, foundries, and machine-shops had been es- 
tablished and were in successful operation, and most of 
these industries have been developed since in greater or less 
degree. The State census of 1895 shows that during 1894 
880 manufacturing establishments were in operation. The 
aggregate capital was $5,476,246; 5,054 persons were em- 
ployed, to whom $2,027,118 was paid in wages. The estab- 
lishments used materials that cost $2,640,038, and turned 
out goods valued at $6,678,118. There is an extensive woolen- 
mill at Provo City, another at Salt Lake City, one at Beaver, 
and a fourth at ferigham. A large beet-sugar factory is in 
successful operation at Lehi. There are numerous silver- 
lead smelters and gold and silver reduction-mills in the Salt 
Lake valley and in the mining districts, most of the gold, 
silver, and lead ores produced in Utah being reduced at 
home. At Salt Lake City is a copper reduction and manu- 
facturing plant which cost over $500,000, and near the city 
are extensive lead-refining and pipe works. 

Finance. — The revenue from the territorial and school 
tax in 1893 was $575,574, and the estimated true value of 
taxable property $115,114,842. The assessed valuations in 
1894 were: Real property, $49,131,679; improvements, $19,- 
819,969; personal property, $18,780,242; and railways, tele- 
graphs, and telephones, $11,771,352, making a total of $99,- 
503,242. 



Banking.— At the end of the fiscal year 1898-94 there 
were 39 banking institutions of all kinds, with aggregate 
capital of $5,011,800, and deposits, $9,266,569. There were 
also 6 building and loan associations, with 3,672 sharehold- 
ers and 43,054 shares in force. 

Post-offices and Periodicals. — In Jan., 1895, there were 
296 post-offices, of which 7 were presidential (1 first-class, 1 
second-class, 5 third-class) and 289 fourth-class; 78 were 
money-order offices, and 3 were limited money-order offices. 
The newspapers and periodicals (1894) comprised 10 daily, 7 
semi-weekly, 34 weekly, 5 semi-monthly, ana 8 monthly pub- 
lications — total, 64. 

Means of Communication. — The northern and middle 
divisions are well supplied with railways. The Union and 
Central Pacific cross Utah from east to west ; the Rio Grande 
Western, connecting with the Colorado system of roads on 
the eastern border, extends to Ogden; the Union Pacific 
operates a north and south line from Frisco, 236 miles S. 
of Salt Lake City, into Idaho, Montana, and Oregon ; and 
there are short fines running from Salt Lake City and the 
trunk roads into the mining districts, as the Utah Central 
to Park City, 31 miles; the Echo and Park City, 28 miles; 
the Tintic mining-district branches of the Union Pacific 
and Rio Grande Western, the Sanpete valley, and the Sevier 
valley branches. In 1894 the mileage of railways of 4 ft. 8^ 
in. gauge was 1,207; of 3-feet gauge, 140; total mileage, 
1,347. There were also 72 miles of street-railway, princi- 
pally in Salt Lake City, Ogden, and Provo City. 

Churches. — The majority of the people are Mormons, or 
Latter-day Saints, as they call themselves. They own nu- 
merous and many of them large, costly, and imposing 
church edifices, called temples, tabernacles, stake-houses, 
chapels, and meeting-houses. The temples, of which there 
are four magnificent structures, viz., at Salt Lake City, Lo- 
gan, Manti, and St. George, are not used for public services, 
but in them are performed the secret rites of the church. 
None but members are permitted to enter these buildings. 
The tabernacles and other church buildings number about 
200, with a seating capacity of 75,000, and are for public 
worship. Among the other denominations which have or- 
ganizations in Utah, most of them having church edifices 
and resident ministers in the cities, are the Advent, Baptist, 
Roman Catholic, Christian, Christian Scientist, Congrega- 
tional, Disciples of Christ, Jewish, Lutherans, Methodist 
Episcopal, African Methodist, Presbyterian, Protestant Epis- 
copal, Salvation Army, and Spiritualist. 

Schools. — Utah has an excellent system of free schools, 
supported by general and local taxation, and good schools 
are maintained for nine or ten months of the year. Besides 
the public schools there are many mission and private schools, 
the former maintained by the evangelical churches. The 
University of Utah, at Salt Lake City, is supported by di- 
rect appropriation from the State treasury, and the Agri- 
cultural College at Logan is supported in part by the State 
and in part by the U. S. Both are free in the matter of 
tuition. The general school taxes amount to about $360,000 
per annum, and in addition to this are the sums raised from 
special levies in the districts. 

Libraries. — According to a U. S. Government report on 
public libraries of 1,000 volumes and upward each in 1891, 
Utah had 9 libraries, containing 37,993 bound volumes and 
5.473 pamphlets. The libraries were classified as follows : 
General. 6 ; school. 2 ; society, 1. 

Charitable, Reformatory, and Penal Institutions. — The 
penitentiary at Salt Lake City belongs to the U. S., and is 
maintained and controlled by the Federal authority. There 
is a reform school for youth at Ogden, and an asylum for 
the insane at Provo. With the exception of a few of the 
sparsely settled, each countv has a jail. Salt Lake, Weber, 
Cache, and Utah Counties have each a house and farm for 
the indigent. 

Political Organization. — The government of the State is 
that provided in the constitutional convention held at Salt 
Lake, May 4-6, 1895, ratified bv the people at the general 
election, and approved bv the President of the U. S. in his 
proclamation admitting tJtah to the Union Jan. 4, 1896. 
The legislative branch consists of a Senate of eighteen mem- 
bers and a House of Representatives of fortv-five members, 
both chosen for two years, and holding sessions biennially. 
They are all chosen by popular vote, men and women over 
twenty-one years of age having equal electoral rights. The 
Governor, Secretary of State, State Treasurer, Attorney- 
General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction are elected 
for four years and must reside at the seat of government 

Digitized by UOOQ IC 



94 



UTAH 



UTERINE DISEASES 



during their term of office. As compensation the Governor 
and Secretary of State each receive $2,000 per annum, the 
State Auditor, the Attorney-General, and the Superintendent 
of Public Instruction $1,500, and the State Treasurer $1,000. 
The judicial power of the State is vested in the Senate, a Su- 
preme Court of three members, each of whom receives $3,000 
per annum, seven district courts, and justices of the peace. 
Education is free and unsectarian and open to all the chil- 
dren of the State. Polygamous or plural marriages are pro- 
hibited, but absolute freedom of conscience is guaranteed. 
The public debt must not exceed $200,000 over and above 
the territorial indebtedness assumed by the State. 

History. — Utah was settled by the Mormons in 1847, 
when it was Mexican territory. Owing to the impossibility 
of living at peace in Missouri and Illinois, Brigham Young, 
the president of the church, led his people W. into the 
wilderness, the first band, numbering 148, arriving in the 
Salt Lake valley July 24, 1847. Since then Utah has been 
the gathering-place and headquarters of the Mormon peo- 

?»le. For two years there was no secular government. In 
849 a constitution was formulated and the provisional gov- 
ernment of the state of Deseret went into operation with a 
full quota of state officials. In 1850 Utah was organized 
into a Territory of the U. S., but the new government did 
not go into effect until the following year. An unfortunate 
incident in the history of Utah was the Mountain Meadow 
massacre, in which 120 men, women, and children were mur- 
dered by a band of Indians under Mormon leadership Sept. 
15, 1857. A party of emigrants, numbering about 140, were 
passing through Utah on their way to California when they 
were suddenly attacked at Mountain Meadow in the north- 
ern part of Washington County. Though taken completely 
by surprise they kept their assailants at bay for five days, 
but were induced by two of the Mormons, John D. Lee and 
Isaac Haight,to lay down their arms and return to the East 
on the understanding that their lives would be spared. 
Guided by Lee and Haight the emigrants started on their 
return journey, but the attack was renewed from an am- 
bush, and all but seventeen were killed. For many years 
the crime was charged to the Indians, but the complicity of 
the Mormons was brought to light in 1874, and an investi- 
gation was ordered by the U. S. Government. Lee was ar- 
rested and tried for the offense in 1875, and on Mar. 23, 
1877, was executed at the place where the massacre was 
committed. In 1857 the U. S. Government sent an army 
into Utah, it being alleged that the Mormon leaders were 
assuming and exercising power and authority unlawfully, 
and interfering with the administration of justice by the 
Federal courts. The Mormon militia was mobilized, and, 
opposing the army on the eastern border, prevented the 
troops from reaching Salt Lake valley until the spring of 
1858. There was no actual collision between the opposing 
forces, but the militia burned some Government supply- 
trains, and so hampered and annoyed the troops as to pre- 
vent an advance beyond Fort Bridger on the eastern border. 
In 1862 Congress passed a bill to punish those guilty of 
polygamy, yet for years thereafter little effort was made to 
enforce the law. In 1882 another and more drastic act was 
passed against the practice, which had been continued openly 
until that time, and in 1887 Congress passed a bill greatly 
restricting suffrage and escheating most of the vast property 
of the Mormon church, including both real estate and per- 
sonality. The act of 1882 was tne work of Senator George 
F. Edmunds, and was upheld by the Supreme Court in de- 
cisions that were rendered in 1884 in a series of five cases. 
From 1885 to 1890 there was persistent warfare against the 
polygamists in the courts, and in Oct., 1890, after more than 
1,100 of their men had served terms in the penitentiary, the 
people voted in general conference to sustain the proclama- 
tion or "manifesto" issued a month previously by their 
president, discontinuing the practice of polygamy. 

GOVERNORS OF UTAH. 



Territorial. 

Brfffham Younj? 1860-64 

Edwin J. Steptoe 1854-57 

Alfred dimming 1857-61 

Stephen S. Harding 1861-64 

James J. Doty 1864-65 

Charles Durkee 1865-69 

J. Wilson Shaffer 18TO-71 

George L. Woods 1871-78 

Samuel B. Axtell 1873-75 



George W. Emery 1*75-80 

Eli H. Murray 1880-86 

Caleb W. West 1886-89 

Arthur L. Thomas 1889-93 

Caleb W. West 1893-98 

State. 
HeberM. Wells 1896- 



See History of Utah, by H. H. Bancroft (San Francisco, 

Byron Groo. 



Utah Lake : the largest body of fresh water in Utah ; N. 
lat. 40° 15', W. Ion. (from Greenwich) 111 45'. Its altitude 
above the sea is 4,500 feet ; its length f rom N. to S. is 25 
miles; its extreme width 18 miles; its area 150 sq. miles. 
The valley in which it lies is part of a great trough formed 
by the uplift of the Wasatch range of mountains at the E. 
and the Oquirrh, Lake, and Tintic ranges at the W. The 
eastern range is the loftier, and all the tributaries of the 
lake come from that side. Corn creek, Hobble creek, and 
the American Fork rise in the Wasatch Mountains, but the 
Spanish Fork and Provo river head to the E. of the range, 
and pass through it in deep defiles. Its outlet is the river 
Jordan (q. v.). The water contains *00080 of mineral mat- 
ter, of which *00018 is calcium sulphate. G. K. G. 

Ute Indians : See Shoshonean Indians. 

Uterine Diseases [uterine is from Lat. u'terus, womb] : 
diseases of the womb or uterus (including also the derange- 
ments of its various appendages) ; the so-called " female dis- 
eases." Diseases of this kind are comparatively infrequent 
in the women of aboriginal and savage tribes, and in civil- 
ized races among the women of rural districts who labor, 
are much in the open air, and are free from artificial and 
debilitating habits of dress and living. The predisposing 
causes of a majority of all uterine diseases are the constant 
recurrence of the menstrual periods during the greater part 
of adult life, the complications and sequelae of child-bear- 
ing, and the intimate nervous and vascular sympathy which 
connects the uterus with every other part of a woman's or- 
ganism. The uterus itself is subject to congestion and 
to inflammation from many causes, as suppressed men- 
struation, catching colds, falls, blows upon the abdomen. 
Congestion and inflammation are indicated by a sense of 
fullness, weight, warmth, and pain, with tenderness on pres- 
sure in the lower part of the abdomen, especially in stand- 
ing or walking. The disease may be limited to the inner 
mucous membrane, to the body of the organ, or the ex- 
terior investing loose tissue, or rarely it may involve all. 
The term metritis denotes inflammation of the body proper 
of the organ, endo-raetritis of the mucous interior, peri- 
metritis of the surrounding tissues. This tissue, when exten- 
sively inflamed, is often infiltrated with new plastic matter, 
the product of the vascular engorgement, and this, becoming 
set, fixes the uterus for a time, so that it is rigid and immov- 
able^ — a condition termed pelvic peritonitis. This loose tis- 
sue is occasionally the seat of profuse haemorrhage from a 
ruptured vessel, as in lifting, jumping, or falling. The ef- 
fused blood gravitates in tne pelvis, and the blood-tumor, 
termed pelvic hematocele, often presents in the vagina. 

The normal uterus is a svm metrical organ, with a straight 
axis, and the cavity of its body and neck slightly open ; its 
normal position is that of slight anteversion, or upnght and 
from above inclining slightly backward. But attacks of 
congestion and inflammation change its shape, size, symme- 
try, and position. Thus, either from external pressure or 
adhesions, or from softening or thickening of its own walls, 
it may be drawn down, backward, forward, or to either side ; 
the organ as a whole may be tilted, giving rise to version, or 
the body may be bent on the neck, a condition termed flex- 
ion. According to the direction which the displacement or 
deformity of the uterus takes, it is called anteversion, retro- 
version, right and left lateral version, and anteflexion, retro- 
flexion, and right and left lateral flexion. Flexions of the 
uterus are a common cause of dysmenorrhoea, or difficult and 
painful menstruation, since by the bending of the uterus its 
canal is bent and constricted, and the free escape of menstru- 
al blood is prevented ; this flexion of the uterine canal is also 
a cause of sterility, since seminal elements can not enter the 
organ and produce conception. Whenever the uterus is en- 
larged, as by congestion or inflammation, is the seat of a 
polypus or tumor, or is pressed down by growths in the cavity 
of the abdomen, and also whenever in debilitated persons its 
ligaments and outside supports are weakened and relaxed, it 
tends to gravitate below its natural position in the pelvis, and 
even to project from the body. This falling of the womb is 
termed prolapse, and, when extreme, procidentia. The lower 
end of tne uterus, the neck or cervix, is often ulcerated as 
the result of congestion, inflammation, contact of its end 
with the floor of the pelvis, and the irritation of the acrid 
mucus discharged in endo-metritis. Tumors may develop 
within the cavity of the uterus, in the substance of its walls, 
or upon its outer surface, either beneath its serous cover- 
ings or loosely attached by pedicles. The uterus is often 
the seat of cancer, especially at the " change of life." The 



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UTICA 



UTILITARIANISM 



95 



ovaries are subject to congestion, inflammation, hemor- 
rhage, and intense neuralgia. The fibrous framework of 
these organs may increase and develop fibrous tumors ; but 
especially frequent and important are ovarian cysts. The 
ovisac becomes distended with fluid in order to rupture and 
eject the ovule ; it is then filled by the serum of the coagu- 
lated blood from the haemorrhage consequent upon the rup- 
ture. The ovisac is liable to fill, and by a process of vas- 
cular activity and growth in its wall become a cyst of 
greater or less size ; cysts may be present of small size and 
in numbers, never attracting attention, or reversely, grow 
either by secretion or dropsical transudation to contain 10, 
20, 60, or more pounds of serous fluid. Such ovarian cysts 
maybe single sacs, or be divided by partitions into compart- 
ments. The latter are more common, the single-celled cysts 
springing rather from the parovarium, a remnant of total 
life. The vagina is frequently the seat of catarrhal inflam- 
mations, causing a discharge termed Leucobrhcea (q. v.). 
It may also be acutely inflamed (vaginitis), or it may be the 
seat of ulcers, and also of spasm, with or without pain, a 
condition termed vaginismus. This passage is, very excep- 
tionally, anatomically defective, being wholly or partially 
wanting or constricted. The most common of all uterine 
diseases are merely functional derangements or irregulari- 
ties of menstruation. By amenorrheas is understood absence 
of menstruation; dysmenorrhoea is characterized by pain, 
sickness, and deficient flow at the period ; and monorrhagia 
is a prolonged and excessive menstrual flow, or persistent 
loss of blood from the uterus, as when cancer or polypus 
exists. In the treatment and cure of uterine diseases cor- 
rect diagnosis is essential at the outset. Most of them are 
benefited by use of general tonics, by rest, corrected habits, 
and by supporting the abdominal viscera ; but many are not 
even alleviated by these general measures. Physical explo- 
ration, both manual and by aid of the speculum, will often 
reveal an unsuspected disease, and point to the special top- 
ical treatment or surgical procedure which is the essential 
means of cure. Revised by William Pepper. 

U'tlca : an ancient city of Africa ; on the river Bagradas, 
near its entrance into the Mediterranean, occupying the site 
of the modern village of Duar. When Carthage was taken 
and destroyed by the Romans, Utica rose in importance and 
became the capital of the Roman province. The remains of 
its temples, amphitheater, and aqueduct show that it must 
have been a magnificent place. In the latter part of the 
seventh century it was taken and destroyed by the Arabs. 

Utiea : city ; capital of Oneida co., N. Y. ; on the Mo- 
hawk river, the Erie Canal, and the Del., Lack, and W., the 
N. Y. Cent, and Hud. R., the N. Y., Ont. and W„ the Rome, 
Water, and Ogdens., the Utica, Ch. and Susquehanna Val., 
and the W. Shore railways ; 53 miles E. of Syracuse, and 
96 miles W. of Albany (for location, see map of New York, 
ref. 4-H). It is built on the slope of a hill, about 500 feet 
above sea-level, and has 18 public squares and parks with 
fountains and other adornments. The surrounding country 
is devoted principally to dairying. General agriculture and 
the cultivation of roses are carried on extensively. The city 
is the chief cheese-market in Central New York. Water is 
supplied by a private corporation having a capital of f 500,- 
000. There are 74 miles of mains and a reservoir with a 
daily capacity of 4,000,000 gaL Utica is lighted by gas and 
electricity, and has a system of electric street-railway with 
over 25 miles of track. The public buildings include a U. S. 
Government building, city-hall, a State armory, public li- 
brary, and Y. M. C. A. building. Forest Hill Cemetery is 
a place of much artistic beauty. 

Churches, Schools, and Charities. — There are 47 churches, 
divided denominationally as follows : Protestant Episcopal, 
7 ; Presbyterian, 6 ; Roman Catholic, 6 ; Methodist Episco- 
pal, 5 ; Evangelical Lutheran (German), 5; Baptist, 4 ; Welsh, 
8; Evangelical Lutheran (English), 2; Congregational, 2; 
Moravian, 2 ; Universalist, 2 ; Jewish, 2 ; and Reformed, 1. 
The total estimated value of church property is $1,562,500, 
and the total church membership is 28,135. The public 
schools have an enrollment of 7,705 pupils, and in 1894 cost 
for maintenance $124,047. There are 22 ward schools, a 
training-school with a normal department, and an academy 
for higher education. Of private schools there are 14, at the 
head of which is Mrs. Piatt's female seminary. The char- 
itable institutions number 16, and include the State, City, 
St Luke's, Homoeopathic, and Faxton hospitals, Home 
for the Homeless, Home for the Aged, Utica Orphan Asy- 
lum, St. Vincent's Protectory, and a Masonic Home. The 



benevolent institutions have real estate valued at over 
$1,500,000. Utica is known as the " City of Charities." 

Business Interests. — The census returns of 1890 showed 
that 478 manufacturing establishments in Utica reported. 
These represented 72 industries, had $12,257,855 capital, em- 
ployed 11,416 persons, paid $8,535,130 for wages and $6,582,- 
234 for materials, and had a combined output valued at $18,- 
205,572. The principal industries, according to amount of 
capital employed, were the manufacture of cotton goods, 
$2,894,859; men's clothing $2,655,888; and boots and shoes, 
$758,932. In 1895 the value of the manufacturing output 
was estimated at over $17,000,000. The cotton and woolen 
mills in the city use upward of 30,000 bales of cotton an- 
nually, and the New York Mills, 8i miles distant, use about 
8,500 bales. The annual output of beer is over 94,000 barrels, 
Other manufactures are canned goods, furnaces, iron pipe, 
furniture, agricultural implements, steam-gauges, oilcloth, 
varnish, hosiery, trunks, and gas fixtures. In 1895 there 
were 4 national banks with combined capital of $1,500,000, 

2 State banks with capital of $825,000, and a savings-bank 
with surplus of $1,103,722 and deposits of $5,543,764 ; and 

3 daily, 2 semi-weekly, 7 weekly, and 6 monthly periodicals. 
History. — The site of the city was known in early days as 

Old Fort Schuyler, from the fort or block-house erected at 
the fording-place over the Mohawk river, near the present 
intersection of Second Street and the railway. The site was 
taken from a tract of 22,000 acres given by the king to 
William Crosby, the colonial governor, in 1784, which be- 
came known as Crosby's manor. The place was settled by 
immigrants from England and New England ; was incor- 
porated as a village Apr. 8, 1798 : and was chartered as a 
city Feb. 13, 1882. Pop. (1880) 33,914 ; (1890) 44,007 ; (1895) 
estimated, 53,000. Charles S. Symdnds. 

Utilitarianism [from Lat. utilitas, usefulness, profit, 
deriv. of u'tilis, useful, deriv. of u'ti, to use] : the doctrine 
that the object of all moral conduct is to subserve utility. 
The theory has plaved historically a ^reat r6le in the devel- 
opment of ethical thought. It began in the Greek moralists, 
who identified the supreme good — the Summum Bonum — 
with happiness. In modern times the home of utilitarian- 
ism has been England, where the school of English utili- 
tarians has pressed the theory with great force and refined 
it with great ingenuity. The British development may be 
said to have begun with Locke, although Locke's influence 
was exerted rather through the general bearings of hisphi- 
losophy than through his direct ethical teachings. Then 
follow the names of Hobbes, Hume, James Mill, John Stuart 
Mill, Bent ham, Bain, Spencer, Stephen, and Sidgwick. 

The doctrine itself has passed through several interesting 
phases, all inspired by the criticism of the intuitional moral- 
ists, who argued that the most conspicuous thing about 
moral conduct is just the fact that it is disinterested — i. e. 
not done with view to utility. The postulate of " general 
utility," or " the greatest good of the greatest number, came 
to be substituted for the happiness of the private individual ; 
and in this way Bentham and the elder Mill sought to do 
justice to the demand that morality should have an altruistic 
ingredient. The point is made in opposition to such a for- 
mulation of the ethical end that there is no way of telling 
what the greatest happiness of the greatest number is except 
by judging of the happiness of the individual. 

Another attempt to put utilitarianism above the criticism 
of being egoistic is that of Stuart Mill, who distinguished 
between the lower or more physical enjoyments to which the 
word " pleasure " applies and the higher or more spiritual 
to whicn the word " happiness " should be restricted. It is 
in recognition, in the main, of this distinction that the 
school of utilitarian thinkers is divided into two wings — i.e. 
the Hedonists, or lower-pleasure men, and the higher-pleas- 
ure men called Eudaemonists. Mills's distinction is open, 
however, to the criticism often brought against it that it 
affords no criterion of distinction between the two classes of 
enjoyments. For to distinguish between them on grounds 
other than those of utility is to give up the utility formula. 

Yet a further turn has been given to the discussion by 
those — notably Leslie Stephen — who have endeavored to save 
the utility doctrine by a view of society which makes the 
u organic development " of " social tissue " the ultimate end 
of human progress, and endeavors to show that under this 
conception all of the earlier formulas may be brought. 
Writers who still consent to call themselves utilitarian are 
seeking to work out on some such basis of social and political 
theory a new and more adequate view. 



Digitized by V^OOQlC 



96 



UTOPIA 



UZZIAH 



The need of a reconstruction in view of the newer work 
in social psychology is emphasized by the advances in the 
theory of evolution and its application of social problems. 
The critical point in the historical development of utilitari- 
anism, as indeed of all ethical theories, has been the uncer- 
tainty attaching to the relation of the individual's welfare 
and happiness to that of society and the race. So long as no 
social psychology existed it was impossible to tell how far 
the gratification of self might tend to subserve the larger 
utilities of society also. Is there a real antagonism between 
tgoism and altruism f — between the welfare of the individu- 
al and that of the social organism of which the individual is 
an integral part I How can there be such a conflict if it be 
true, as the evolution doctrine declares, that both are inci- 
dents of a common progress f It may well be — and this is 
what current theories are beginning to teach — that the evo- 
lution of the individual could never have taken on a social 
phase or have acquired its own highest plane, if the very 
statement of its goal had not come to include those social 
values which in their operation subvert, and in their pres- 
ence in consciousness conceal, the more individualistic 
sources from which they sprang. On some such basis as 
this it may yet come to pass that a new utilitarianism mav 
be erected upon these very instincts of social and anti- 
egoistic value to which the opponents of the older utilitari- 
anism made their appeal. 

The later adherents of idealistic philosophy have seen in 
a measure the value of a deeper synthesis of doctrines on 
this subject, and have tried to work out a formula. In their 
phrase " self-realization " is the ethical end, and the defini- 
tion of self-realization is made wide enough to include the 
altruistic impulse. Here we may class Green in England, 
and his later representative, Edward Caird, together with the 

Sneral school of thinkers who follow in the footsteps of 
egel. They have failed, however, to work out a consistent 
■concrete statement, being generally led astray by verbal and 
logical distinctions. Their work, while aiming at a pro- 
founder grounding of egoism and altruism in race progress, 
has had no adequate social psychology to rest upon. See 
Moral Philosophy, Hedonism, and Intuitionalism. 

References. — Mill, Utilitarianism ; Sidgwick, History of 
English Ethics and Methods of Ethics (4th ed.) ; Marti- 
neau, Types of Ethical Theory ; Stephen, Science of Ethics, 

J. Mark Baldwin. 

Uto'pia [ = Mod. Lat., liter., nowhere ; Gr. oh, not + 
t6xos, place]: an imaginary island, the abode of a people 
free from care, folly, and the common miseries of life, de- 
scribed by Sir Thomas More in his political romance De 
Optimo Reipublicce Statu, deque Nova Insula Utopia (Lou- 
vain, Antwerp, and Paris, 1516) ; translated from the Latin 
by Robynson (1551 ; 2d ed. 1556; reprinted 1880), by Bur- 
net (1683), and by Cayley (1808). 

U'traquists : a Hussite sect, deriving their name from 
the fact that they demanded the Lord's Supper administered 
to them sub utraque specie — that is, in both bread and wine. 
They were also called Oalixtines, from calix, chalice. The 
execution of Huss at Constance created an immense ex- 
citement in Bohemia, and brought about a complete breach 
between his adherents and the Church of Rome. In the so- 
called Four Articles of Prague the Utraquists set forth their 
demands — freedom of preaching, communion under both 
kinds, the reduction of the clergy to apostolic poverty, and 
severe punishment of all open sins. The war was very 
bloody, but successful ; and it was simply the internal split 
in the Utraquist party which finally gave the victory to the 
Romanists. By the compacts of Iglau the pope yielded only 
the one point of the Prague articles, communion under both 
kinds. Revised by S. M. Jackson. 

Utrecht, yu'trekt: province of the Netherlands, bounded 
N. by the Zuyder-Zee and S. by the Rhine and Leek ; area, 
534 so. miles. The surface is diversified by low hills along 
the Rhine, the soil is very fertile, and the climate drier and 
brighter than in the other provinces. Wheat, barley, oats, 
and tobacco are extensively cultivated : cattle and sheep are 
reared ; and several branches of manufactures, such as the 
making of tiles, bricks, and pottery, are practiced on a large 
scale. Pop. (1896) 241,178, of whom about 30 per cent, are 
Roman Catholics and the rest Protestants. 

Utrecht : capital of the province of Utrecht ; on the Old 
Rhine, where the Vecht branches oft* from it, 23 miles S. S. E. 
of Amsterdam (see map of Holland and Belgium, ref. 6-F). 
It is strongly fortified, is well built, traversed by canals, and 



surrounded with finely planted promenades, has two cathe- 
drals, and, among other educational institutions, a celebrated 
university, founded in 1634, with which are connected a 
botanical garden, a chemical laboratory, an observatory, 
and different museums and scientific collections. Its manu- 
factures of plush, velvet, and carpets, of leather, soap, salt, 
and brand v, of metal ware and cigars, are very extensive, 
and it carries on an active trade in grain, cattle, and its own 
manufactures. It is probably the oldest town of the Neth- 
erlands, called by the Romans Trajectum ad Mhenum or 
Ultrajectum, from which latter appellation its present name 
is derived. Here the fusion between the seven provinces 
which formed the Dutch republic was organized in 1579, 
and here the treaty was signed (Apr. 11, 1713) between 
France, England, Holland, Prussia, Portugal, and Savoy, 
which ended the war of the Spanish succession. Pop. 
(1806) 96,349. Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Utre'ra : town ; in the province of Seville, Spain (see map 
of Spain, ret 19-D). It is well built and pleasant ; has sev- 
eral oil-mills and manufactures of soap, leather, and pot- 
tery ; and is in a rich and beautiful district, famous for its 
excellent horses and ferocious bulls. Pop. 15,000. 

Utricula'ria : a genus of plants represented by the Blad- 
derwort (g. v.). See also Insectivorous Plants. 

Uttara-inimanga : See Mi m ansa and Vbdanta. 

Uvalde: town; capital of Uvalde co., Tex.; on the S. 
Pac. Railroad ; 92 miles W. by S. of San Antonio (for loca- 
tion, see map of Texas, ref. 5-F). It is in an agricultural, 
asphalt-mining, and stock-raising region, and has 7 churches, 
separate public schools for white and colored children, Leona 
Springs, several sawmills, a national bank (capital $50,000), 
a private bank, and 2 weekly papers. Pop. (1880) 794; 
(1890) 1,265 ; (1895) estimated, 2,000. Editor of u News/' 

Uvic Acid : See Racemic Acid. 

Uvula: See Palate. 

Uxbridge : post-village, Ontario County, Ontario, Canada; 
on Black river, and Midland Division of Grand Trunk Rail- 
way ; 43 miles N. N. E. of Toronto (see map of Ontario, ref. 
4-E). It has important manufactures of iron castings, en- 
gines, mill-machinery, plows, axes, leather, woolens, and 
other articles. Pop. (1891) 2,023. 

Uxbridge : town ; Worcester co., Mass. ; on the Black- 
stone river, and the N. Y., N. H. and Hart. Railroad ; 20 miles 
S. E. of Worcester (for location, see map of Massachusetts, 
ref. 3-F). It contains the villages of Uxbridge, Uxbridge 
Center, North Uxbridge, Calumet, Hecla, Wheelock's, Scott s, 
and Rivulet; was formerly the western part of Mendon; 
was set off and incorporated under its present name in 1727, 
and its northern part was set off under the name of North- 
bridge in 1772. There are 5 churches, 18 public schools, 
free public library, several cotton and woolen mills, a na- 
tional bank with capital of $100,000, a savings-bank, and a 
weekly newspaper. Pop. (1880) 3,111 ; (1890) 3,408; (1895) 
3,546/ Editor of " Compendium." 

Uxmal, dbsh-maaT : a mined city of Yucatan, 40 miles S. 
of Merida (see map of Mexico, ref. 7-1). The remains are 
the most extensive in Mexico, covering an area of several 
square miles ; but mostof them are so nearly destroyed that 
little beyond their ground plan is recognizable. Those in 
better preservation are apparently temples, standing on low 
truncated pyramids, and ouilt of cyclopean masonry faced 
with dressed and sculptured stone. One, known as the 
Casa del Gobernador, is 320 feet long. Many of the sculp- 
tures are elaborate and curious, and all the work is markedly 
different from that of Copan and Palenque. There are no 
idols. Uxmal has been frequently visitea by archaeologists. 
It is said to have been occupied by the Mayas at the time of 
the Conquest, and even as late as 1673 ; but its origin is un- 
known. See Central American Antiquities. H. H. S. 

Fzbegs, or Uzbecks : a people of mixed Turkish blood 
inhabiting nearly all parts of Turkestan, where they are 
the dominant race. Intellectually and morally, they are 
the superiors of those about them. They are zealous Mo- 
hammedans, partly non-nomadic, and pride themselves on 
their culture and civilization. In 1862 the Chinese Uzbegs 
revolted from China, and under Yakub Beg founded a Mo- 
hammedan empire, with 1,000,000 inhabitants and 740,000 
sq. miles of territory. At his death, in 1877, his empire be- 
came subject to China. Revised by M. W. Harrington. 

Uzziah: See Azariah. 



Digitized by 



Google 



V 




the twenty-second letter of the English 
alphabet. 

Form. — V and U, which until the seven- 
teenth century were used interchangeably 
as signs for both vowel u and consonant 
v, are merely two variant forms of the 
original Roman V (see under U). The 
Roman V had a consonant value (== w 
in weal), as well as a vowel value ( = u in rule). Now, 
when Latin consonant ~u became in Old French v, i. e. 
like v in Eng. vile, the symbol was left unchanged ; hence 
the symbol v (t#) came to have the quite distinctive values of 
u as in rule and v as in vile, and with these values it was 
adopted into Middle English orthography. The Old Eng- 
lish had used for the sound v in native words the symbol /, 
which was thus forced to do double duty, both as / and v ; 
cf. 0. l&ng.findan, find, and ofer, over. 

Name. — The name vee (phonet. v\) is modern, being evi- 
dently constructed on the analogy of the names for b, c> d, 
e, g, p, t ; similarly the modern name for z. 

Sound. — It denotes a voiced labio-dental spirant, produced 
by passing voiced breath between the lower lip and the 
edges of the upper front teeth. Only the addition of voice 
distinguishes it from the sound of /. 

Sources. — The main sources of the sound are: (1J Teu- 
tonic v (bilabial, i. e. b). All English words beginning 
with v, with the exception of vat, vane, vixen, are of 
foreign origin, mostly French. The three exceptions are 
loan-words from a southern English dialect, in which 0. 
Eng. / became v ; vat y < 0. Eng. fait : Germ, fass ; vane 

< 0. Eng. fana : Germ, fahne ; vixen < O. Eng.jyxen : 
Germ. fUchsin. Teutonic v (p) was represented in 0. Eng. 
by f, being thus indistinguishable from Teuton. /. Teu- 
tonic v (b) has the following main sources: (a) Indo-Eur. 
bh; cf. Eng. weave < 0. Eng. wefan, Gr. tya/w; calves, 
plur. of calf < 0. Eng. cealf : Germ, kalb, Sanskr. gdrbha-, 
offspring ; love < 0. Eng. lufu : Germ. Hebe, Sanskr. lubh-, 
Lat. lubet. (b) Indo-Eur. p between voiced sounds and 
not preceded by accent ; Eng. over < O. Eng. ofer : Germ. 
Qber, Sanskr. updri, Gr. Inrip. (c) Indo-Eur. a; five < O. 
Eng. f\f : Germ, funf : Goth, fimf < Indo-Eur. penoe > 
Gr. Wktc, Sanskr. pdflca ; wolves, plur. of wolf < 0. Eng. 
wulf : Goth, wulfs, Gr. \6kos. Sanskr. vrka-. 

(2) In loan-words from early French ; cf. vain, Fr. vain < 
Lat vanus ; veal, 0. Fr. veil < Lat. vitellus ; verb, Fr. verbe 

< Lat. verbum ; vine, Fr. vigne < Lat. vinea ; Eng. wine 
came into 0. Eng. direct from Latin before Latin v (w) 
changed from w to v; poverty, 0. Fr. poverte < Lat. pau- 
pertas ; receive, Fr. recevoir < Lat. recipere. 

(3) In later loan-words from various sources, as Lat. veto, 
vertex, villa ; Fr. vignette, vis-d-vis ; Ital. volcano, velvet ; 
Russian verst; Scandin. viking, valhalla; Arab, vizier; 
Sanskr. veda, etc. 

Symbolism. — V = vanadium (chem.), verb, vocative ; v. 
= 5 ; Va. = Virginia; v. a. = active verb; v. i. = intransi- 
tive verb ; vid. = see (Lat. vide) ; viz. = namely (Lat. vide- 
licet) ; V. R. = Queen Victoria ( Victoria Regina) ; vs. = 
against (versus) ; Vt. = Vermont. See Abbreviations. 

Benj. Ide Wheeler. 

Vaca, Alvar NuSez Cabeza, de : explorer ; b. in Estre- 
madura, Spain, in 1507 ; went to Florida in 1527 in the ex- 
pedition of Panftlo de Narvaez, and after an unsuccessful 
land journey, again took ship, sailed alone the northern 
coast of the Gulf, and was cast ashore at Matagorda Bay. 
After six years of captivity among the Indians, he met 
three other survivors of the expedition, with whom he jour- 
neyed westward, and followed the course of a large river, 
probably the Rio Grande, until he fell in with some Spanish 
explorers on the river Pe tat Ian and was conducted to a town 
in Sinaloa. Authorities disagree as to the route taken by 
the four travelers, some holding that it lay through New 
Mexico, others tracing it through Southern Texas, Chihua- 
hua, and Sonora. Some identify a large stream crossed by 
de Vaca on his westward journey with the Mississippi, and 
give the credit of its discovery to him instead of ae Soto. 

VOL. XII. — 7 



The kingdom of Cibola, the country of the civilized Pueblos, 
is thought to have been first visited by de Vaca and his men. 
A joint report of their travels, given by them on arriving 
at Santo Domingo, is contained in Oviedo's Historia general, 
y natural de Indias. De Vaca returned to Spain in 1537, 
but was soon afterward appointed administrator of La Plata 
and went to Paraguay, of which country he was the first ex- 
plorer. Arrested in 1544 on the charge of one of his sub- 
ordinates, he was sent to Spain and condemned to exile in 
Africa. He was pardoned after eight years, and lived at 
Seville till his death, which occurred in 1564 De Vaca 
published an account of his adventures in 1542. It was re- 
printed at Valladolid in 1555, and in Barcia's collection of 
narratives in 1749 under the title of Naufragios de Alvar 
Nuflez de Vaca. An English version is given by Purchas 
in his Pilgrims. See also a literal translation by Bucking- 
ham Smith (Washington, 1857 and 1871). 

Vaca de Castro, Cristoval : administrator ; b. in Leon, 
Spain, in 1492. He was a lawyer and a judge of the audi- 
ence of Valladolid ; in 1540 he was sent to Peru to inquire 
into alleged abuses there, and with authority to act as gov- 
ernor in case of Pizarro's death. Crossing the Isthmus of 
Panama he narrowly escaped shipwreck in the Pacific, and 
finally disembarked on the coast of New Granada, purpos- 
ing to proceed by land. At Popayan (July, 1541) he learned 
of the assassination of Pizarro and the rebellionof Almagro 
" the Youth." He at once assumed command, was joined 
by Benalcazar and others, marched through Quito to Lima, 
and on Sept. 16, 1542, defeated Almagro, who was captured 
and executed. He remained at the head of affairs until the 
arrival, in May, 1544, of Viceroy Vela. The latter, suspect- 
ing him of conspiracy, imprisoned him on a vessel in Callao 
harbor. He prevailed on the captain to sail to Panama, 
whence he went to Spain. There he was again imprisoned, 
and was only exonerated after eleven years. D. in 1562. 

Vacation Schools : See the Appendix. 

Va'caviHe: town and village; Solano co. f Cal. ; on the 
South Pac. Co.'s railway; 30 miles S. W. of Sacramento, 
60 miles N. E. of San Francisco (for location, see map of 
California, ref. 6-C). It is in an agricultural and fruit- 
growing region, is the seat of the California Normal and 
Scientific School, and has a State bank with capital of $100,- 
000, and a weeklv newspaper. Pop. (1880) town, 1,299 ; vil- 
lage, 361 ; (1890)' town, 2,712 ; village, 725. 

Vaccination [deriv. of vaccine, from Lat. vacci'nus, of a 
cow, deriv. of vac'ca, cow] : (1) in a narrow sense, the in- 
oculation of an individual with the virus of cowpox, thus 
conferring protection against smallpox; (2) in a broader 
sense, the inoculation of an individual with any mild virus 
calculated to produce protection against malignant disease. 
The former use of the term is the common one, and this 
article treats only of the vaccination designed to prevent 
smallpox. It was observed that on the udders of cows an 
eruption was frequently seen which infected the hands of 
the milkers. Pustules were produced on the hands, and 
sometimes changed into painful sores; other parts of the 
body became affected, and sometimes there was extensive 
disturbance of the general system. The remarkable fact was 
discovered that persons who had passed through this disease 
were protected from the pure smallpox. In Scotland, Eng- 
land, and Holstein in the eighteenth century inoculations 
were made by certain persons among the laity with the con- 
tents of the pustules from the udders of cows. In the year 
1781 a milkmaid who had the cowpox went to London and 
there in the inoculation hospital attempts were made to in- 
oculate her with smallpox, but without success. In the 
medical circles of the metropolis this did not excite much 
attention, and it remained for a country physician, Edwaed 
Jenner (q. v.), to see its general scientific importance and to 
make it useful to mankind. 

Jenner's Experiments. — Jenner inoculated people who had 
gone through with the cowpox with the virus of smallpox, and 
in all cases without result. Many of the persons inoculated 
had had the cowpox many years before, one of them fifty- 



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98 



VACCINATION 



VACUUM 




nation. He vaccinated an eight-year-old child on the arm 
by making two superficial incisions, in which he placed the 
contents of a pustule of cowpox which had developed on the 
hand of a milkmaid. After this healed on the arm of the 
boy, he inoculated him in numerous places on the body with 
the contents of smallpox pustules, but without success. In 
this way he proved that when the cowpox was conveyed to 
man by inoculation it carried with it protective material. 
He wrote a treatise on his experiments and the results he 
had obtained, and sent it to the Royal College of Physi- 
cians in London to make the facts generally known, but 
the manuscript was returned to him with a letter by no 
means flattering. In 1798 he inoculated a boy with the 
contents of the pustule of a cow, and by successive inocula- 
tions from the boy he propagated the virus through four 
generations, thus snowing that the virus of the cowpox did 
not lose its efficiency when carried through different indi- 
viduals. Jenner afterward settled in London, where he 
published a treatise, giving the results of his experiments, 
which has become world renowned; it excited the greatest 
attention, and his experiments were repeated on a large 
scale. In the year 1801 10,000 persons were vaccinated by 
him and other physicians in England, and on more than 
half of them experiments were tried which proved that the 
method was entirely successful as a preventive of smallpox. 

Utility of Vaccination.—ln 1857 the British Parliament 
received answers from 542 physicians to questions which 
were asked them in reference to the utility of vaccination, 
and only two of these spoke against it. Nothing proves this 
utilitv more clearly than the statistics obtained. Especially 
instructive are those which Flinzer compiled respecting the 
epidemic in Chemnitz which prevailed in 1870-71. At this 
time in the town there were 64,255 inhabitants, of whom 
53,891, or 83*87 per cent, were vaccinated, 5,712, or 8*89 per 
cent., were un vaccinated, and 4,652, or 724 per cent., had had 
the smallpox before. Of those vaccinated 953, or 1'77 per 
cent., became affected with smallpox, and of the uninoculated 
2,643, or 46*3 per cent., had the disease. In the vaccinated 
the mortality from the disease was 0*73 per cent., and in the 
unprotected it was 9*16 per cent. In general, the danger of 
infection is six times as great, and the mortality 68 times as 
great, in the unvaccinated as in the vaccinated. Statistics 
derived from the civil population are in general not so in- 
structive as those derived from armies, where vaccination is 
usually more carefully performed and where statistics can 
be more accurately collected. During- the Franco-German 
war (1870^71) there was in France a widespread epidemic of 
smallpox, but the German array lost dunng the campaign 
only 450 cases, or 58 men to the 100,000 ; in the French army, 
however, where vaccination was not carefully carried out, 
the number of deaths from smallpox was 23,400. It is known 
that the first idea of Jenner in regard to the duration of 
the protection conferred by vaccination was an erroneous 
one. It is positive that there is a certain decree of protec- 
tion which fasts during the entire life of the individual, and 
which in many cases is absolute, but in other cases the pro- 
tection gradually declines from the date of vaccination, and 
in general we can sav that the period of protection lasts 
about ten years. The "best results are always obtained by re- 
peating the vaccination every ten years from the first time. 
When the disease appears after vaccination, it runs a rela- 
tively limited course, similar to that of varioloid or modi- 
fled smallpox. The numerous mortality-rates which have 
been collected show that the mortality due to smallpox de- 
pends greatly upon the number and the clearness of the 
scars left by vaccination. In the Stockwell smallpox hos- 
pital in London, of 703 cases without vaccination scars 47* 
per cent, died ; of 516 with an imperfect scar 25 per cent, 
died ; of 632 with a good scar 5^ per cent, died ; of 677 with 
two good scars 4^ per cent, died ; of 301 with three good 
scars 2^ per cent, died ; of 249 with four or more good 
scars ItV per cent. died. From the statistics of Marson, 
which cover 6,000 cases, the mortality among those with 
the scars of several vaccinations was only 0*55 per cent. 

Action of the Virus Described.— The susceptibility of an 
unvaccinated individual to the vaccine virus is almost an 
absolute one ; there is usually a slight primary reaction in 
the place vaccinated which lasts until the end of the sec- 
ond day. On the third day a little nodule develops, and 
on the fifth day this beginsto change into a small vesicle 
which gradually enlarges. On the seventh day this vesicle 



reaches the limit of its development ; it is then surrounded 
by a reddened edge, and is of a pearly color with a central 
yellowish or brownish depression marking the place of vac- 
cination. Sections made through the vesicle show a fan- 
like structure when examined through the microscope. 
There are numerous radiating branches going from the skin 
to the surface of the vesicle, which holds a fluid called 
lymph in its meshes. This is a clear, slightly yellowish 
opalescent fluid ; a microscopic examination shows that it 
contains red and white blood corpuscles, small masses of 
fibrin, refractive globules, and usually some micro-organ- 
isms. On the eighth day the contents of the vesicle some- 
what change. The vesicle opens and the lymph has a puru- 
lent character. By and by the brown spot which appeared 
in the middle of the vesicle extends over the entire surface, 
and the vesicle becomes changed into a brown crust with a 
central depression. After three or four weeks the crust 
falls off and a scar appears in its place. In the beginning 
this is red and superficial ; it becomes deeper in the course 
of time, and whiter than the surrounding skin. The base 
of the scar often has a reticular appearance. The depres- 
sions in the scar take the place of hair follicles which have 
been destroyed. Along with this local affection there is 
more or less general affection of the body ; there is consid- 
erable irritation and itching of the spot ; the neighboring 
lymph glands are often enlarged, and there is a slight rise 
in the temperature of the body. There are some disadvan- 
tages connected with vaccination, but these are not neces- 
sarily dependent upon it, and are the result of its perform- 
ance by inexperienced or careless persons. There is some- 
times an extensive gangrenous inflammation extending 
from the spot of vaccination ; in other cases there may be 
severe inflammation of the glands in the axilla, with sup- 
puration, or in other cases an erysipelas extending from 
the spot of vaccination to neighboring parts. Of especial 
importance are the very few cases in which syphilis has 
been conveyed by vaccination. There have been collected 
in the whole history of smallpox records of fifty such cases 
with about 700 cases of retransference of the disease. When 
this number is divided among the millions vaccinated, it is 
easily seen that the danger must be a very slight one. All 
of these disadvantages connected with vaccination can be 
easily avoided. In the first place the danger of syphilis is 
always avoided by using the animal virus, and in general at 
the present time in civilized lands this is the only virus 
which is used. The other infections, the extensive inflam- 
mations, etc., are due to inoculation with various micro- 
organisms at the time when the vaccination is performed. 
For this the person performing the vaccination is frequent- 
ly directly culpable by using dirty instruments. 

Method of Vaccinating. — The method ordinarily used in 
procuring the lymph is to inoculate young heifers with the 
virus of cowpox. The place selected for the inoculation is 
on the mamma ; when tne vesicles are fully formed and be- 
fore the stage of pustule formation is reached incisions are 
made in the vesicles and small ivory points are dipped into 
the fluid, or it may be drawn up in capillary tubes. When 
ivory points are used the lymph on them is allowed to dry, 
and they may then be kept for an almost indefinite time. 
In performing the operation the skin on the spot selected, 
which is usually the shoulder or upper part of the arm, 
should be carefully cleansed, and tnen with a perfectly 
clean instrument the epidermis should be gently scraped off 
over a small space, which need not be larger than an eighth 
of an inch square. As soon as the moist deeper layers of the 
skin are reached the ivory point containing the virus should 
be rubbed over the spot, ana the small wound allowed to dry. 

Notwithstanding the evidence from all sides as to the effi- 
cacy of vaccination as a protection from smallpox, there have 
not been wanting opponents to the procedure. It is impos- 
sible for any one with any acquaintance at all with the na- 
ture of the evidence, and with any appreciation of the value 
of evidence generally, to see on wnat grounds the position of 
these enemies to society is based. See the article Immunity 
in regard (o the way in which immunity by vaccination and 
inoculation is produced. W. T. Councilman. 

Vaccin'iuni : a genus of plants to which the Whortle- 
berry (q. v.) belongs. 

Vac'uum [ = Lat, liter., neut. of va'cmta, empty, void] : 
a void ; a portion of space which contains no matter. The 
definition implies a condition which it is impracticable to 
fulfill altogether, but the physicist is able to approach almost 
indefinitely near to the fulfillment. The ordinary mechanical 



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VAGA 



VAGANTES 



99 



air-pumps cease working before the pressure is reduced to 
ttAhf of an atmosphere, but by means of mercury vacuum 
pumps of the type designed by Sprengel it is possible, as is 
explained in the article Pneumatics {q. v.), to obtain an ex- 
haustion of looiooo - In the same article is an account of 
the method of measuring such high vacua. By the addition 
of chemical and other processes for getting rid of the traces 
of vapor which remain, even after the action of the mercurv- 
pump has reached its limit, it is possible to attain to still 
nigher degrees of exhaustion. Thus Crookes, Rood, Bid- 
well, and others describe vacua of from ioooAuooo to 
goooioooo of an atmosphere. The properties of gases at 
such low pressures are of jrreat interest. A high vacuum 
is, for example, the best of insulators againt the passage of 
heat. Dewar made use of this property in preparing a vial 
of liquid oxygen for transportation. The liquid, which 
boils at —196 C, was placed in a double flask. The inner 
vial was coated with a mirroring surface of mercury (fro- 
zen) to protect the contents from radiation. Between the 
walls of the inner and outer flasks the pressure was reduced 
to a very small quantity. In this manner, without further 
shield against heat conduction, the oxygen was carried with 
but little loss from London to Oxford, a distance of 63 miles. 
The phenomena which occur when an electric discharge takes 
place through an exhausted receiver afford further illustra- 
tions of the importance of the study of partial vacua. A 
difference of electrical potential which is capable of send- 
ing sparks through only a few millimeters of air at ordinary 
pressure will cause a discharge through many centimeters 
when the pressure is reduced to a few thousandths of an at- 
mosphere. The form of the discharge varies in the most 
striking and beautiful manner as the degree of exhaustion 
increases. (See Electric Discharge, Electricity, and 
Geissler's Tubes.) At a pressure somewhat less than 
jwhrs atmosphere the discharge through the vacuum changes 
its form altogether, and a senes of remarkable effects follow 
which have Deen studied by Crookes. The electrical dis- 
charge at these low pressures develops luminescence of 
the solids in its path, varying with the nature of the mate- 
rial. The phenomenon is known as the Crookes effect. 
Finally, at the very highest attenuations the discharge in 
vacuo ceases altogether. These partial and approximative 
vacua of the physicist never entirely meet the definition of 
that complete void the possibility of the existence of which 
used to form a subject of debate among the earlier philoso- 
phers. By virtue of the varied phenomena which they pre- 
sent, however, they are of much greater importance, from 
all standpoints excepting that of the metaphysician. 

E. L. Nichols. 

Yaffil, Perino, del : painter; b. in Florence, June 28, 1500. 
His family name was Buonaccorsi. He was adopted by an 
artist called Andrea dei Ceri, who took him from a druggist 
whom he served as assistant. Recognizing the boy's £reat 
gifts, he placed him with Ghirlandaio, whose best pupil he 
soon became. He was afterward taken to Rome by a me- 
diocre painter called Vaga, who engaged him to help him in 
his work. In Rome he studied ancient art, became one of 
the best draughtsman of his day, and was chosen by Ra- 
phael to execute, together with Giovanni da Udine and Giu- 
lio Romano, his designs for the stucco and arabesque dec- 
orations of the loggias of the Vatican. He was also commis- 
sioned to decorate the great hall of the Appartamenti 
Borgia and the house of the archbishops of Cyprus, and 
executed other works, till he was driven from the city by 
the plague. He took refuge in Florence, where the Carthu- 
sians commissioned him to execute an important work for 
them which he designed, but was unable to carry out on ac- 
count of the plague that broke out in Florence. In 1525 
Perino was in Rome and married Catharine, the sister of 
Giovanni Francesco Fattore, a brother artist. It was at 
that time he painted The Birth of Eve in the Church of San 
Marcello. The sacking of Rome obliged him again to 
wander with his wife and child. After trouble and impris- 
onment he arrived in Genoa, where Prince Doria became 
his patron, and employed him to decorate his palace beyond 
the gate of St. Thomas. On his return to Rome he re- 
stored many of Raphael's works and received innumerable 
orders, but much of his later work is inferior, owing to 
many commissions which led him to employ incompetent 
assistants. The Sala Reale in the Vatican, begun under 
Paul III., from whom he received a regular salary, is his 
greatest work. He died in Rome, Oct. 14, 1547, worn out 
by overwork and dissipation. W. J. S. 



Vagan'tes, Vaffi Schola'res, or Go'liards : wandering 
clerks of the Middle Ages. The class was a large one ana 
contained persons of the most diverse characters — students 
roaming from university to university, clergy willingly or 
unwillingly unprovided with benefices, and even mere buf- 
foons and popular entertainers who had happened to obtain 
something of Latinity at some monastic or cathedral school, 
and who used their uncertain connection with the Church as 
a means to keep them out of the hands of the secular au- 
thorities. At a very early period the obvious opportunities 
for abuse in such a wandering and unattached life brought 
upon the Vagantes the denunciations of the councils of the 
Cnurch. Like the modern tramp, who is in a sense their de- 
generate descendant, they became the terror of the commu- 
nities into which they came. The lawlessness of their lives, 
too often unpunished, owing to their ready assertion of their 
right of clergy, brought discredit upon the whole body of the 
latter. They seem to have grown particularly prevalent dur- 
ing the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, the period when the 
great European universities were coming into being. France 
and England were the countries in which they most flour- 
ished ; but they were to be found in great numbers also in 
Germany, Italy, Spain, and even Bohemia. At last the 
Church became thoroughly aroused, and by severe measures 
cut off from itself all those among the Vagantes who re- 
fused to regulate their lives. With the end of the thirteenth 
century they ceased to exist as a distinct clerical class. 

The most interesting and important matter connected with 
the Vagantes, or Goliards, is the Latin poetry produced by 
them. Of this a considerable amount has come down to us. 
Though written by clerks, it is thoroughly profane in its 
character for the most part, and contrasts strangely with the 
hymns and other poetry of the Church. They seem to have 
studied Latinity only that they might use the amorous 
ideas and mythology of the Roman poets. They imitated, 
too, though in Latin, the verses of their contemporaries, 
the troubadours and trouveres. Often their praises of wine, 
women, and song reached an almost inconceivable cyni- 
cism. They did not limit themselves, however, to these 
subjects. They were violent haters, as well as too ardent 
lovers ; and many of their poems are devoted to denuncia- 
tions of their enemies, the monks and the professedly well- 
regulated clergy, whose vices they castigated unsparingly. 

A curious development of the activity of the Vagantes was 
the institution among them of a kind of mock order, after 
the manner of the orders of monks. Thev chose as their 
patron saint Goliath, probably because of the similarity of 
his name to Goliardi (a derivative, perhaps, of the French 
gaillard, gay, merry). They had mock rites and cere- 
monies, all parodies of those of the Church. They had a 
kind of pope, known as prima* vagorum, or Archipoeta, 
or simply Oolias. They nad forms of initiation into the 
order. In short, they made their ribald lives the parody of 
the lives of the regular clergy. And so it came to pass that 
the very word goliardeis meant, as in Chaucer (Prol., v. 560), 
a loose and ribald fellow. 

Bibliography. — Collections of Goliardic poetry are to be 
found in J. Grimm and A. Schmeller, Lateinisehe Oedichte 
dee X. und XL Jahrhunderts (GSttingen, 1888) ; Carmina 
Burana, ed. by J. A. Schmeller (Stuttgart, 1847 ; new ed. 
1883) ; T. Wright, The Latin Poems commonly attributed to 
Walter Mapes (London, 1841) ; E. du Me>il, Poisies pojou- 
laires latines anterieures au XII* siicle (Paris, 1843), Poi- 
sies populaires latines du moyen age (Paris, 1847), and 
Poistes indditee du moyen dge (Paris, 1854); F. Novati, 
Carmina medii cevi (Florence, 1883). For English trans- 
lations see J. A. Symonds's Wine, Women, and Song (Lon- 
don, 1884). Discussions of the Goliards and their poetry 
are Giesebrecht's Die Vaganten oder Ooliarden una ihre 
Lieder (in Allgem. Monatschr. f. Wissenschaft und Lit- 
teratur, 1858); Hubatsch, Die lateinischen Vagantenlieder 
des Mittelalters (GQrlitz, 1870); K. Francke, Lateinisehe 
Schulpoesie des XII, und XiIL Jahrhunderts (Munich, 
1879) ; A. Straccali, I Goliardi owero i clerici vagantes 
delle universitd medievali (Florence, 1880); L. Ehrenthal, 
Studien zu den Liedern der Vaganten (Bromberg, 1891) ; 
C. Corradino, / Canti dei Goliardi (with Ital. translations, 
Turin, 1892) ; N. Spiegel, Die Vaganten und ihre Orden 
(Speyer, 1892) ; U. Konca, Cultura medievale e poesia latina 
d 'Italia nei secoli XL e XII. (Rome, 1892) ; J. Feifalik, 
Die altbdhmischen Gedichte vom Streite zwischen Seele und 
Leib. Nebst Beitrdgen der Vagantenpoesie in BShmen (Vi- 
enna, 1861) ; Carmina clericorum : Studenten-Lieder aus 
dem Mittelalter (Heilbronn, 1876). A. R. Marsh. 

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VAGRANTS AND VAGRANCY 



Vagrants and Vagrancy: terms which, in their most 
general sense, mean •• wanderers " and " wandering " ; but 
as used in legal works and statutes they have come to desig- 
nate various classes of disorderly persons who can not be 
brought within any definite classification. They can be prop- 
erly indicated only by giving in effect the statutes which treat 
of them. In all civilized countries there is more or less regu- 
lation of vagrancy by law according as the conditions giving 
rise to the necessity for such regulation exist or are absent. 
For this same reason the laws of each country must be 
adapted to the suppression of that species of vagrancy which 
is found to be most detrimental to the public welfare, so that 
no general classification of the laws upon this subject can be 
given. Thus in the U. S. the laws regulating the subject vary 
widely both as to the kind of vagrancy intended to be sup- 
pressed and as to the severity of punishment inflicted upon 
vagrants. In the U. S. the term " tramp " is in general use 
as equivalent to vagrant in its general sense of a wandering 
disorderly person, or one wandering about without any visi- 
ble means of support ; but vagrant in its wider sense is ap- 
plied to many classes of persons who would not be termed 
tramps. In England vagrancy has been a subject of regu- 
lation by law for many centuries, and the laws there in force 
now apply (by extending acts) to Scotland as well as Ire- 
land and Wales. Owing to the gradual development of 
these laws and the varied conditions to which they are in- 
tended to apply, their history and present state will serve as 
a good illustration of the general treatment of the subject 
by the laws of other countries. Generally speaking, the 
class of mendicant vagrants is more freely tolerated in 
European countries than in the U. S. 

Outline of English Vagrancy Laws. — The first vagrancy 
laws of England grew out of an attempt to regulate labor 
by requiring laborers to continue to reside in a given place, 
and labor there for the wages ordinarily given. In 1340 and 
1350 when the institution of serfdom was breaking down 
and a rise in laborers* wages was taking place consequent 
to the pestilence of the black death, the Statutes of Labour- 
ers (two in number) were