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BY J. THOMAS, A.M., M.D., 



VOL. I. 







Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1870, by 

In the Clerk s Office of the District Court of the United States for the 
Eastern District of Pennsylvania. 


THE plan of the present work differs in several important respects from that of any other 
biographical dictionary which has yet been offered to the public. In its preparation the aim 
has been to produce a convenient and complete book of reference, both for Mythology and 
Biography, one which in all essential respects should, if possible, be fully equal to the best 
biographical dictionaries in the language, and include, in addition, succinct notices of all the 
more important subjects of the Norse and Hindoo, as well as of Classic, Mythology, with THE 
CORRECT PRONUNCIATION of the various names. In order to accomplish these objects, and 
at the same time confine the work within reasonable limits, great attention has been given 
to the condensation as well as to the proper selection of the different articles. That the work, 
moreover, may combine, as far as practicable, completeness with brevity, to the more im 
portant notices have been added ample bibliographical references,* indicating to the reader 
the sources whence he can obtain the fullest information respecting any person in whom he 
may chance to feel a particular interest. 

Among the peculiar features of the present work, that of the pronunciation of the names 
may justly claim the first place, both on account of its intrinsic importance, and because (so 
far as we are aware) this is the first time that anything of the kind has ever been attempted 
in any work on general biography. 

The utility pf such a feature (if thoroughly carried out) would seem to be too obvious 
to require any argument. Its great importance, however, can only be fully appreciated by 
those who like teachers or public speakers have learned by large experience the exceeding 
inconvenience arising from the want of a standard for the pronunciation of modern names. 

In pronouncing modern proper names there are only three courses which can by any 
possibility be pursued : ist. To blunder over or pronounce them at random, like a barbarian 
who should attempt to speak a language of which he knows nothing ; 2dly. To endeavour 
to pronounce all names, foreign as well as English, according to the principles of our own lan 
guage, giving each letter its proper English sound ; or, lastly, To adopt the system of pronun 
ciation now generally recognized by the more highly educated classes not only in England and 
America, but also in Germany and most other parts of Europe that is, to pronounce all 
names, as nearly as possible, as they are pronounced by the well-educated people of the dif 
ferent countries to which such names belong, with the exception of those very few celebrated 
which may be said to have acquired an established English pronunciation. 

Respecting the first method if method it can be called we need not waste our own or 
the reader s time in pointing out its absurdity. As to the second, although at the first glance 
it may have an appearance of plausibility, we shall find, if we scan it attentively, that for all 
practical purposes it is little, if any, better than the first. A few examples will suffice 
to show the utter absurdity of attempting to pronounce foreign names according to the 

* The only exceptions to this statement, of any consequence, will be found under the notices of living persons, 
of whom, generally speaking, there are either no published biographies or else such only as are very defective and 


English sounds of the letters.* How, for example, should we pronounce the name of the 
celebrated German poet HEINE, according to such a system ? Should the ei be sounded like 
ee, as in the English words seize, ceiling, etc.? or like long a, as in vein, -weight, inveigh? 
or like long /, as in height, sleight, etc.? Should HEINE then be pronounced hecn, hdn, or 
hin? or should we sound the final c, and make it hee ne, hd ne, or hl ne? Or take, if you 
choose, another name, equally well or better known that of SCHILLER. Now, the proper 
English sound of sch is sk, as in school, scholar, schooner, etc. We have no genuine English 
word in which sch has the sound of sh,\ although we have some, as schism, schismatic, etc., 
in which it sounds like simple s. Yet would any one in his senses seriously advocate 
pronouncing the name of Germany s most popular poet either as Skil ler or Siller ? Innu 
merable instances, moreover, occur, in which it is very difficult, if not impossible, to pronounce 
the names of other countries according to the English sounds of the letters, as BJORNSON, 
CZAJKOWSKI, etc., although there is not the slightest difficulty in pronouncing them according 
to the sounds of the languages to which they belong. A multitude of instances also occur 
in which the English mode of pronouncing, though not difficult, would be far less euphonious 
than the native pronunciation. CAGLIARI (kal ya-ree) and BORGOGNONE, (boR-gon-yo na,) 
two distinguished painters of Italy, and CARVALHO, (kaR-val yo,) a Portuguese bibliographer, 
may serve as examples. Another insuperable difficulty in the way of pronouncing many for 
eign names according to the sounds of our own tongue arises from the fact that in some lan 
guages the same sound is often represented by different letters. Thus, oe and o in German 
are sounded precisely alike ; hence, GOETHE and GOTHE should clearly have the same 
pronunciation. Again, the Spanish j and x are, in sound, exactly equivalent to each other : 
therefore, CARAVAJAL and CARAVAXAL should be pronounced exactly alike. So also the 
Portuguese ch and x, having the same sound (that of our sJi), were formerly often interchanged, 
as in the names XAVES or CHAVES,| XINGU or CHINGU, XOA or CHOA, (written in English, 
SHOA, etc.) Innumerable examples of this kind might be adduced. It must be obvious, even 
to the least intelligent mind, that the attempt to pronounce names so differently written 
according to the English sounds of the letters would lead to endless confusion. 

The only rational course then left for us is to adopt the third method noticed above, and to 
pronounce modern names, as nearly as possible, as they are pronounced by the inhabitants 
of the respective countries to which such names belong. It is admitted that cases not unfre- 
quently occur in which it is impossible to convey, with any great degree of precision, the 
pronunciation of foreign sounds by means of English letters ; but something is undoubtedly 
gained by such an approximation to the true sound as would enable one more readily to 
understand, and to be understood by, those who are familiar with names as spoken in their 
proper tongue. Nor are the obstacles in the way of acquiring such a pronunciation nearly 
so great, even for the ordinary English scholar, as at first sight might appear. Take, for 
example, the various names which occur in the histories and biographies of modern Italy. 
In all the countless thousands of those names (whether of persons or places) there is not a 
single vowel or consonant sound which has not its exact equivalent, or something very near 
it, in our own language ; and, consequently, not one which, if properly explained, an 
Englishman or American could not pronounce with ease. Though, to one unacquainted 
with the language, many of the names may have, when written, an uncouth and even 
formidable appearance, there is nothing uncouth or formidable in the sounds which they 
represent. Again, in the fifty thousand or more names of Spain and Spanish America 
there is only one sound (that of j or x) which presents any real difficulty to the English 

* The celebrated Charles James Fox is said to have favoured such a system. It is probable, however, that he 
merely proposed to Anglicize the pronunciation of well-known foreign names somewhat more generally than is 
customary. He could hardly have intended to apply the principles of English pronunciation to all foreign names, 
without exception. 

t All words of this kind, as schist, schorl, are clearly of foreign origin, and of recent introduction into our language. 

\ In old books instances of this kind are very frequent, but at present the Spaniards nearly always use/, (not x,) 
the Portuguese, ch, (not x,} except in a few words and names of foreign origin, and the Germans, <v, (not <v.) 
But, as the English and French still very frequently employ x for /in writing Spanish, so they generally make use 
of oe instead of o in writing German names. 


speakcr, and this corresponds almost exactly to the sound of the German ch in such words 
as ach, nach, dock, etc. For those, therefore, who may have already acquired the elements 
of German pronunciation even this difficulty would be wholly removed. The names of 
Portugal or Portuguese America (Brazil) are scarcely more formidable than those of Italy. 
There is, indeed, only one sound * (that of m or ao} unknown to our language, and this is 
by no means difficult to acquire. So that by learning two foreign sounds an Englishman 
or American will be enabled, if the pronunciation be properly marked, to pronounce, with 
tolerable correctness, all the myriads of names belonging to Italy, Portugal, Spain, Brazil, 
and Spanish America. With regard to French, the case is, we admit, very different; but, as 
an offset to the inherent difficulties of this language, we have the fact that it is more univer 
sally studied than any other ; so that if one is really desirous of mastering its peculiar sounds 
he will at least be pretty sure to find near at hand every needful aid for doing so. 

Persons who view the different European languages separately are apt to regard the 
mastering of the difficult sounds in all as a far more formidable task than it really is. They 
forget that a large proportion of the most difficult sounds are common to several different 
languages. For example, the French and Dutch u is equivalent to the German and Hun 
garian ?> , and to the Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish y. Here it will be seen that the same 
sound (and that one of the most difficult for an Englishman to acquire) occurs in seven dif 
ferent languages. Again, the German 6 or oe is found in Hungarian, Danish, Norwegian, 
and Swedish, and nearly corresponds to one of the most difficult of the French and Dutch 
sounds, that of en in the Dutch words brctik, reuk, or in the French leur, pci/r, etc. 
The German ch, as already remarked, corresponds almost exactly to the Spanish j or x, 
and is essentially the same as the modern Greek /, the Russian x, the Polish, Scottish, and 
Welsh ch, and the Dutch g.\ 

The acquisition of ten or twelve new sounds, which might be learned by persons of 
ordinary aptitude in a few hours, would enable any one who can read correctly the pro 
nunciation of English words, as marked in Walker s, Webster s, or Worcester s Dictionary, 
to pronounce with tolerable correctness all the names of Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, 
Belgium, Holland, Germany, Denmark, Norway, and (we might perhaps add) of Sweden, 
Russia, and Hungary. 

In another part of the work will be given a full and particular explanation of the system 
of orthoepy which has been adopted, and of the method pursued in order to insure the 
greatest attainable accuracy. It may, however, be proper to say here, that the author, fully 
sensible that the value of this most important feature (the pronunciation of the names) must 
depend almost entirely on the thoroughness and accuracy with which it is carried out, has 
spared neither time, labour, nor expense in order to render it as perfect as possible. 
Particular attention has been given to what may be termed the five principal languages of 
Continental Europe namely, the Italian, French, German, Spanish, and Russian. In regard 
to the French especially, this being by far the most important of all, both on account of its 
being so widely spoken, and on account of the inherent difficulty of the sounds to be repre 
sented, the utmost pains have been taken not only to ascertain the correct pronunciation, 
but to mark it so fully and clearly that any intelligent person who has once acquired the 
elementary sounds of the language, and made himself acquainted with our system of 
notation, may pronounce with facility and with tolerable accuracy whatever name he may 
have occasion to speak. As already observed, the Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese names 
are comparatively easy for the English or American learner. Those of Germany are not 
very formidable, for although the German vowel sounds are more difficult than the Italian, 
the similarity of accent that exists between the German and our own tongue is an important 
help to us in acquiring the correct German pronunciation. Of the five languages above 
named, the Russian is undoubtedly the most difficult ; but in overcoming the essential diffi- 

* There are one or two other sounds, such as the diphthongs on and ei, (or ey,) which, though having no exact 
equivalent in English, yet differ so slightly from some of our sounds, and, we may add, are so easy to acquire, that 
for practical purposes they may be said to form no exception to the above statement. 

t The same sound occurs in Arabic and Persian, besides many other languages. 


culties of the lan<nia-e, the author has had the assistance of some of the best Russian scholars 

O O 

in Europe ; and he has reason to hope that the pronunciation of the Russian names contained 
in this work will be found not only generally correct in regard to the accent, (perhaps the 
most important point of all,) but sufficiently accurate in other respects for all practical 

As the Russian Empire unites Asia with Europe, so the language of Russia may be said 
to form, in one sense, the connecting link between the Oriental and European tongues. The 
names belonging to the other languages of Europe are all written either with Roman letters, 
or in characters, like the German and modern Greek, which can readily be converted into 
corresponding Roman letters ; and the mode of writing such names is, with very few excep 
tions, the same in all the various European languages ; for example, MAZZINI, the name of 
the renowned Italian patriot, is not only the Italian, but the English, French, German, Dutch, 
Danish, Swedish, and Spanish name of the same person ; in like manner, the name of the 
celebrated French philosopher, DESCARTES, will be found to be invariably written with the 
same letters in all the modern languages of Western and Southern Europe ; so also the 
name of SCHII.LER, the illustrious German poet, is spelled alike in Italian, French, Spanish, 
German, etc. ; for though in the last-named language it is usually (but by no means univer 
sally) written in German characters, (cfyiOer,) yet as these exactly correspond to the Roman 
letters usually employed in spelling the name, the difference is only apparent, not essential. 
Russian names, on the contrary as they (like all Oriental names) are neither written in 
Roman letters nor in characters which can be converted into corresponding Roman letters 
are spelled ACCORDING TO THE SOUND, the writers of the different nations seeking to indicate 
the pronunciation of the name in the manner which to them seems most proper. Thus the 
name of one of the most distinguished Russian poets is written in English DERZHAVIN, in 
French DERJAVINE, and in German DERSCHAWIN, each spelling being intended to repre 
sent the sound of the name according to the different languages ; so likewise the name of 
another celebrated Russian poet is written in English POOSIIKIN or PUSHKIN, in French 
POUCHKINE or POUCHEKINE, and in German PUSCIIKIN ; each of these different modes being 
intended to represent exactly the same pronunciation. It is curious to observe that the 
Russians adopt precisely the same rule in writing foreign names ; that is, they spell them 
(with a few exceptions) according to the sound, without attempting to follow the letters 
of the original spelling ; thus, they would write JBordo for Bordeaux, Dzhonson* for John 
son, Davoo for DAVOUST, Roosso for ROUSSEAU, Chimaroza^ for CIMAROSA, Chartoriskee\ 
for CZARTORYSKI, etc. ; in the same manner as a Frenchman might write Ouachiutonn 
for WASHINGTON, (as Volney actually does,) Chcqucspir for SHAKESPEARE, and so on. 
(See " Reiff s Russian Grammar," pp. 167, 168.) 

There is perhaps no branch of pronunciation attended with so many difficulties as that of 
Oriental names. One great source of perplexity arises from there being in our language no 
uniform and established system for writing such names. French and German writers, for the 
most part, adhere pretty strictly to the rule referred to above that is, they try to represent 
as nearly as possible the sound of the name in their own language. The French write the 
name of the celebrated Mongol conqueror of the thirteenth century, DJENGUIS, or DJENGUYZ. 
The Germans write it DSCHENGIS ; and both give the sound of the name, as nearly as it can 
be done, in their own tongue. The French have no other way of representing the sound of 
our_/ (a very common sound in the Oriental languages) than by Dj or Dg. The Germans 
represent the same sound in the best way they can, but very imperfectly, by Dsch. In the 
second syllable of the above name the French use zi after g, to make this consonant hard 
before e, /, or y. If the u were omitted, the^ (being before c) must necessarily, according to 

* They have no single letter to represent our/, but one which is exactly equivalent to our zh. 

t They represent the sound of our ch by a single character, \, 

\ As we are unable to give the Russian letters, we give the nearest equivalent. 

See Volney s " Tableau du Climat et du Sol des Etats-Unis d Amerique," (2 vols., Paris, 1803,) where the reader 
will also find WAYNE spelled Ouayne ; WILLIAMS written Ouilliams ; RUSH, (Dr.,) Roche; GREEN BRIER, Grlm- 
bra iar ; WORCESTER, Onorcester, etc. 

PREFACE. v jj 

rules of the French tongue, have the sound of their j or our zh. But in German, as^is 
always hard, they need use only the simplest form, (gis.) The sound of the name, however, 
is represented much more simply and more perfectly in English by JENGIS or JENGIZ. Again : 
the name of a celebrated Sultan of Syria and Egypt is written in French, NouR-ED-DiN 
MAHMOUD, in German, NUR-ED-DIN-MAHMUD, and would be written in English, NOOR- 
ED-DEEN-MAHMOOD. It should be observed that the French make no attempt to conform to 
the German spelling, nor the Germans to the French ; but both nations adhere very generally 
to the principles of their respective languages. Unfortunately, a large majority of English 
writers, instead of conforming to a rule which has the double merit of being (in most 
instances) simple and easy for the writer and perfectly intelligible to the reader, by sometimes 
writing in the French and sometimes in the German or Italian mode, and not very unfre- 
quently combining the two in the same name, have involved the department of Oriental 
names in a confusion which is most perplexing to all, and is absolutely inextricable to those 
who have not made it the subject of long and laborious study.* 

Even if the mode of writing Oriental names according to the French and German letters 
were equally intelligible to ordinary readers as the English mode, there would still be one 
paramount argument in favour of the last viz. : the letters of our language are capable of 
conveniently expressing or representing a greater variety of sounds than those of any other 
European tongue. There is no sound much used either in Oriental or Russian names which 
we cannot express as well as the French ; while there are several which we can express much 
better than they ; and there are sounds perfectly familiar to our tongue which they cannot 
express at all. Take, for example, the sound of oury, (which, as already intimated, is of verv 
frequent occurrence in Asiatic names:) what we express by a single letter is indicated less 
perfectly in their language by two dj. So also the sound of our ch, one of continual occur 
rence both in the names of Asia and of Eastern Europe, is indicated in French by three letters 
instead of our two, as Tchandra for CHANDRA, etc. It may be remarked that this sound, 
as well as that of j, is one of the most common and familiar to the English tongue, while 
both are foreign to the French language, since neither of them is to be found in any genuine 
French word. Again : our iv expresses a sound (common in the Oriental languages) which 
is not nearly so neatly nor so well expressed by the French ou. This defect in their language 
is so obvious that some eminent French writers (Pauthrer, for example, in his works on 
China) often make use of TV when they wish to represent the sound of our TV at the begin 
ning of a name; e.g., WEN WANG not OUEN OUANG, as the strictly French mode of 
writing would require. Lastly, there are sounds expressed in our language with perfect ease 
which they cannot represent at all ; among them are the sounds of the Greek (th) and 
<J, (th ;) the first of these is of frequent occurrence, not only in modern Greek, but in Spanish 

With respect to the German language, there is, if we mistake not, but one frequently- 
occurring sound in Oriental names (that of kh, indicated in German by cK) which can be 
better represented in German than in English, while there are many which can not only be 
more conveniently expressed in English, but much more correctly than in German. Thus, 
the Germans employ four letters (dscJi) to indicate the sound of our y, and after all represent 
it most imperfectly, as in the example of DSCHENGIS, (JENGIS,) noticed above. Their four 
letters, tsch, do not represent correctly the sound of our c/z, nor does their sch convey even a 
tolerable idea of our zh, (the sound of 5 m pleasure or occasion.) Like the French, they 
have no letter or combination of letters equivalent to our w, nor can they in any manner 
represent the sound of the modern Greek or cJ. 

One mode of writing Oriental names, which has been recommended by several eminent 
scholars, is to employ English consonants in conjunction with German or Italian vowels, 
marked with certain accents in order to show their quantity or quality. Thus, a without the 
accent represents the Italian a either short or obscure, a or d denotes the long Italian a, as in 

* One great cause of this confusion undoubtedly arises from the fact that many English writers, in attempting 
to translate works from the German and French, fail to translate the names. But such an omission could scarcely 
occur if there was any generally-recognized system of writing such names. 

viii PREFACE. 

father, often approaching the sound of a in fall; c as in met or her; c or 6 as in fete or 
there; i as in pin; i or / as in marine; o nearly as in opinion; 6 or 6 as in /w/e; ti as in j^/z 
ovpull; u or *2 like 00 in moon. This method has the merit of combining brevity with pre 
cision, and is well adapted to publications designed chiefly for the use of scholars ; but there 
are serious, if not insuperable, objections to its general employment in English works intended 
for popular perusal. While such works are printed under the immediate superintendence 
of some competent linguist, they may, perhaps, answer every needful purpose ; but as soon 
as they get into general and popular use, and require to be reprinted, the accents, as all ex 
perience proves, will be dropped either through carelessness on the part of the printer, or, 
what is more likely to occur, from a want of the proper kind of type. And let it be re 
membered that the omission of the proper accent in such a case is equivalent to the omission 
of a letter, with this great disadvantage, that the former error would be much less likely to 
attract attention, and would therefore be less readily corrected. 

Those accustomed to the study of languages can scarcely conceive the difficulty which 
the unlearned experience in attempting to pronounce for the first time the letters of a foreign 
tono-ue. Readers of this class would be almost sure to miscall such names as NUREDDIN 
or NOUREDDIN, ABDUL MEJID or ABDOUL MEDJID, and a multitude of others, while they 
could pronounce them without the slightest difficulty if written according to the English 
sounds of the letters NOOR-ED-DEEN, ABDOOL MEJEED, etc. We admit that there are 
many names which, in order to give a correct idea of their pronunciation, would require 
some additional explanation besides merely writing them with English letters. But in a 
realm where the intricacies are so perplexing and the obstacles so formidable as often to 
bewilder and discourage the most intelligent, it is certainly no unworthy or useless task to 
attempt to do all that can be done to smooth and straighten the paths and to remove every 
unnecessary obstruction. 

The rule adopted in the present work has been to give various spellings of every cele 
brated Oriental name, whenever these spellings appeared to be sanctioned by any good 
authority ; the biographical notice being given under the English spelling, which is placed 
first in order.* Thus, in the name above cited, the English NOOR-ED-DEEN MAIIMOOD is 
given first, to which are added the French NOUREDDIN (or NOUR-ED-DYN) MAHMOUD, 
and the German NUREDDIN MAHMUD. So, also, the notice of the great Mongol conqueror, 
referred to above, is given under the English spelling JENGIS, this being followed not only 
by the French and German forms, (DjENGUiz and DSCHENGIS,) but by many others, it 
being the rare fortune of this famous name to be written by respectable authorities in no 
fewer than TWENTY different modes. In the proper alphabetical place of each of these 
different spellings will be found a reference to that form of the name under which the 
biographical notice is given. The only exceptions to the rule above indicated are those 
very few names which appear to have acquired by universal (or almost universal) usage an 
established form common to the different European languages ; as AVICENNA, (changed 
from Ibn-Seend,} AVENZOAR, (Ibn-ZohrS) AVERROES, {Ibn-Roshd,} ELMACIN, (JBl- 
Makccn or El-Making) SALADIN, (Sala-ed-Deen or Sala-cddin,} SOLYMAN, (of Turkey, 
Sooleymdn^) etc. 

The confusion which prevails in regard to the spelling of Oriental names is not, however, 
the only cause of the difficulties with which this subject is surrounded. The character of the 
Oriental languages, so different in many respects from those with which we are most familiar, 
renders it often exceedingly difficult to indicate the pronunciation in a manner satisfactory to 
the English reader. In order that he might, as far as possible, enjoy every needful facility 
and aid in encountering the difficulties in question, the author deemed it necessary that he 

* The only exception to this rule of any importance will be found in Mythological and other names from the 
Sanscrit, which, like the Greek and Latin, may be regarded as a dead language ; the names occurring in it, 
written according to the system established by Sir William Jones, (see page vii., near the bottom,) are pronounced 
according to the spelling rather than the (modern) sound of the letters. At the same time, the modern Hindoo 
pronunciation, when this appears to differ essentially from the pronunciation first given, has usually been added. 
For illustration, see the articles on AGNI, BRAHMA, GARUDA, etc. 


should have some knowledge of those tongues besides what books alone could furnish. He 
accordingly spent nearly two years in the East in studying the rudiments of several Asiatic 
languages, (with particular reference to their pronunciation,) including the Arabic, Persian, 
Sanscrit, and Hindostanee. The time and labour thus bestowed, he feels persuaded, have not 
been spent in vain. He has, in consequence of this preparation, not only been enabled to 
proceed with a surer step in representing the pronunciation of Asiatic and African names, 
but he has also in many instances, by referring to the name as written in Arabic or Sanscrit, 
been enabled to correct errors of greater or less importance in the prevalent European spell 
ings of Oriental names. 

Respecting the bibliographical references, it may be proper to remark that they are in 
tended not so much to indicate the materials from which the preceding notice has been pre 
pared, as to point out to the reader the sources whence he can obtain fuller information. 
The works referred to will be found generally, but not always, to contain all the materials 
used in the composition of the article to which the references are appended. Occasionally 
an isolated fact or circumstance of minor importance, but yet of sufficient interest to make it 
worth stating, may have been obtained from some source deemed good authority, to which, 
nevertheless, our plan, requiring the utmost condensation, would not admit of a special refer 
ence. Many of our facts, moreover, have been taken from the " Biographic Universelle," the 
"Nouvelle Biographic Generale," BROCKHAUS S " Conversations-Lexikon," or other similar 
works, when the article from which it is taken was too brief to make it worth while to 
refer to it particularly. As a general rule, it has not been deemed expedient to make a 
special reference to works like the above, unless the notice referred to extended to a page 
or more. This rule would, of course, preclude a reference in nearly all cases in which the 
subject of our notice is of minor importance. It would, however, be an error to infer that 
the omission of all references is intended as any indication of mediocrity in the subjects of 
our articles, more especially in regard to living characters, since, as has been already inti 
mated, the materials for the biographies of living persons, however distinguished, are often 
extremely meagre and defective. Nor would it be just to conclude that in all cases the 
length of the different notices is designed to be a measure of the relative importance of the 
individuals noticed, since he who has written many passable works may perhaps require a 
longer notice than he who has produced a single work of superior merit. Other things 
being equal, the man of action will almost of necessity occupy much more space than the 
man of thought, although the latter may have perhaps far juster claims upon the esteem 
and gratitude of mankind, and his glory may be as much more permanent as it is less daz 
zling, and less fitted to win the admiration of the unthinking and fickle multitude. 

It may be observed also that considerably less space, relatively speaking, has generally 
been allotted to living persons than to those who are deceased ; not merely because it is 
often much more difficult to obtain the necessary information in regard to the living, but 
more especially because it behooves us to speak with great circumspection, whether in the 
way of praise or censure, of those whose earthly career is still unfinished, and whose future 
conduct may possibly redeem the errors or throw discredit on the virtues of their past life.* 

The subjects of the Hindoo and Norse Mythologies have been treated somewhat more fully 
in proportion to their relative importance than those of Classic Mythology, for the simple 
reason that while one can find almost everywhere excellent works relating to the last, there 
exists scarcely any book of convenient reference to which the ordinary reader can have re 
course in order to satisfy his curiosity respecting the two former. 

With respect to the relative length of the various articles there will of course be con 
siderable diversity of opinion among different readers, according to their respective pursuits 
and habits of thought. We are not, however, without hopes that the majority of candid 

* Voltaire has well remarked : " On doit des egards aux vivants ; on ne doit aux morts qtie la verite" (" We owe 
consideration to the living ; to the dead we owe only truth.") This consideration for the living was, indeed, formerly 
deemed so important that, until the last half century, all works of reference of this kind systematically excluded the 
biographies of living persons, however illustrious ; thus rejecting the very class in which perhaps a large majority 

of readers feel the deepest interest. 



critics will admit that on the whole the space allotted to each notice has been apportioned 
with a fair measure of justice and impartiality. Those who are familiar with works of this 
kind cannot fail to have remarked that certain principles of perspective, so to speak, prevail 
in history and biography as well as in the arts of design. No French historian or biographer 
would treat the events or the actors of English history with the same fulness or minuteness 
that an English writer would naturally employ in describing the same occurrences or per 
sons. The same general remark, mutatis mutandis, will apply with equal truth to English, 
German, or Italian writers of history and biography. As events are magnified in importance 
by nearness of place, they are in like manner modified by nearness of time. Although the 
author of the present work has felt himself justified in following principles so universally 
recognized, and has accordingly given a greater prominence to the distinguished men of his 
own country, and to those of recent times, than to individuals equally eminent among other 
nations or living in a remote age, it has been his earnest aim not to allow this liberty to 
degenerate into license. In regard to this and all similar questions respecting which there 
are no clearly defined rules or authoritative precedents by which his course could be surely 
guided, he feels that he may safely rely on the candour and intelligence of his critics, since 
those whose opinion is most to be valued or feared will be most capable of appreciating the 
inherent difficulties as well as the extraordinary labour involved in the preparation of such 
a work. 

To the following works on general biography we have been under especial obligations in 
the preparation of this Dictionary : 

1. MICHAUD S "Biographic Universelle," of which the first edition, (the publication of 
which was begun in Paris in iSio,) with the supplement, has extended to nearly ninety vol 
umes Svo, and has included among its contributors many of the most distinguished names in 
French literature and science ; e.g., those of BIOT, CUVIER, DE SACY, GUIZOT, SISMONDI, 
Madame DE STAEL, VII.LEMAIN, etc. 

2. The " Nouvelle Biographic Generale," edited by Dr. J. C. F. HOEFER, and published 
at Paris by Messrs. F. DIDOT Freres in forty-six volumes Svo, (1857-1866.) This is one of 
the most valuable works on general biography to be found in any language. That portion 
embracing the first twelve letters of the alphabet (i.e., from A to M, inclusive) exceeds in 
completeness every other publication of the kind of which we have any knowledge. If 
inferior to the " Biographie Universelle " .in the length and fulness of many of the memoirs, 
it greatly surpasses that work in the number of its biographical notices ; and it possesses 
two important additional recommendations first, of including the living as well as the dead, 
and, secondly, of giving the reader valuable bibliographic information under almost every 

3. BROCKHAUS S " Conversations-Lexikon," in 16 volumes large Svo, (Leipsic, 1851-1855,) 
which is especially full in regard to the distinguished men of the present century, and par 
ticularly those of Germany ; also the annual continuation of that work, entitled " Jahrbuch 
zum Conversations-Lexikon." 

4. PIERER S " Universal-Lexikon," in 19 volumes, fourth (last) edition, greatly enlarged, 
(Altenburg, 1857-1865.) 

5. VAPEREAU S " Dictioanaire des Contemporains," (1858 et scq.,} important for the 
information it gives respecting living persons. 

6. ERSCII und GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyclopiidie der Wissenschaften und Kiinste," 
145 vols. 410, (Leipsic, 1818-1869.) This great work has numbered among its contributors 
several of the most eminent literary and scientific men of Germany. 

Nor must we omit to notice, among the important works of general reference, the " Critical 
Dictionary of English Literature and British and American Authors," by S. AUSTIN 
ALLIBONE, to be completed in three volumes imperial Svo, of which two volumes 
(1858-1870, pp. 2326) have already appeared ; and the il Dictionary of the United States Con 
gress and the General Government, compiled as a Book of Reference for the American 
People," by CHARLES LANMAN, (6th edition, 1869.) 


As this Dictionary of Biography and Mythology, comprising, as it does, distinguished indi 
viduals of all ages and countries, must of necessity he extremely brief in regard to a large 
majority of the notices, and especially those of persons belonging to foreign countries, and 
as our plan does not admit of special bibliographical references, except under the more 
important articles, it may not be without use to refer the reader to the following works on 
NATIONAL biography : 

In relation to the distinguished men of Denmark, Norway, etc., see KRAFT og NYERUP, 
"Almindeligt Litteraturlexicon for Danmark, Norge og Island," (Copenhagen, 2 vols. 4to, 
1820;) and T. H. ERSLEW, " Almindeligt Forfatter-Lexicon fra 1814 til nser vaerende Tid," 
(Copenhagen, 3 vols. Svo, 1843-1853,) with a supplement extending to 1864, (2 vols.) 

For Holland. See A. J. VAX DER AA, "Biographisch Woordenboek der Nederlanden," 
(2 vols., 1852-1855.) 

For Italy. G. M. MAZZUCHELLI, " Gli Scrittori d Italia, cioe Notizie storiche e critiche 
intorno alle Vite e agli Scritti dei Letterati Italiani," (6 vols., 1753-1763 ; a work of great 
merit, but unfortunately not extending beyond the first two letters of the alphabet;) E. DE 
TIPALDO, " Biografia degli Italiani illustri nelle Scienze, Lettere ed Arte del Secolo XVIII. e 
de Contemporanei," (10 vols. Svo, 1835-1847;) G. TIRABOSCHI " Storia della Letteratura 
Italiana," (20 vols. Svo, 1805-1813.) 

For Portugal.- D. BARBOSA MACHADO, " Bibliotheca Lusitana na qual se compre- 
hende a Noticia dos Authores Fortuguezes e das Obras que compuserao," (4 vols. fol., 1741- 


For Spain. N. ANTONIO, " Bibliotheca Hispana sive Hispanorum qui usquam unquamve 
sen Latina seu populari, sen alia quavis Lingua scripto aliquid consignaverunt, Notitia," (2 
vols. fol., 1672,) and " Bibliotheca Hispana Nova." (2 vols. fol., 1783-1788.) To which 
may be added CEAN-BERMUDEZ " Diccionario Historico de los mas ilustres Professores de 
las bellas Artes en Espana," (6 vols. small Svo, 1800.) 

For Sweden. GEORG GEZELIUS, " Forsok til et biographiskt Lexicon ofver namnkunnige 
och larde Svenska Miin" (3 vols. Svo, 1776-1778,) and supplement, (2 vols. Svo, 1780;) and 
a more recent woi k, of great value, (edited chiefly by W. F. Palmblad,) entitled " Biogra 
phiskt Lexicon ofver namnkunnige Svenska Man," extending to 23 vols. Svo ; the publica 
tion of which was begun at Upsal in 1835, and was afterwards continued at Oerebro, (1856 ;) 
and a sequel to the same, in 5 vols. (Oerebro, 1857-1864.) 

We cannot conclude without expressing our grateful acknowledgments to our numerous 
friends, both in this city and in other parts of the United States, not merely for valuable 
information of various kinds, but still more for the generous words of encouragement which 
we have received from them during our long and arduous labours. We feel confident that 
this general expression of our gratitude will be more acceptable to most of them than a more 
particular and open acknowledgment of their disinterested kindness. 

But there are those whose claims are so important that justice to the public, if not to them 
and to ourselves, demands a more explicit statement of the nature of our obligations. To 
Mr. William Jacobs, our almost constant collaborator for more than ten years, our acknow 
ledgments are pre-eminently due for his conscientious fidelity, no less than for his untiring 
diligence and well-directed research, to which must be ascribed in no small measure what 
ever of accuracy or thoroughness our work may possess. To his pen we owe not only a 
multitude of the minor notices, but no inconsiderable number of the more important articles, 
among which may be mentioned those on CICERO, MILTON, NEWTON, LA FAYETTE, HAMIL 
TON, (Alexander,) and NAPOLEON III. 

Justice and gratitude alike require that we should acknowledge our great obligations to 
Professor Edward H. Magill,* of Swarthmore College, for ascertaining, during his recent visit 
to Europe, the correct pronunciation of a multitude of difficult or doubtful names in the 
French, Italian, and Russian languages. He performed this important task not merely with 
the ability of a skilful linguist, but with a conscientious thoroughness and accuracy which can 
* Known to the public as the author of a series of excellent elementary books on the French language. 


only be fully appreciated by those who know by experience the peculiar difficulties attending 
researches of this kind. 

We gladly avail ourselves of this opportunity to express our heartfelt thanks to the Rev. 
Charles P. Kraulli, D.D., for many important favours, the value of which has been trebly 
enhanced by the spirit of truest kindness and generosity in which they have been bestowed. 
To cite one example out of many, he has placed at our entire disposal the contents of a library 
which, for the number of its volumes, and more especially for the rarity of many of its books, 
is surpassed by few, if any, private libraries in the United States. 

Nor must we omit to mention our important obligations to Daniel B. Smith, of German- 
town, to whose friendly sympathy and encouragement, enjoyed through a series of years, no 
less than to his judicious suggestions and valuable counsel, which his extensive and varied 
learning so eminently qualifies him to impart, we are more deeply indebted than any words of 
ours can express. 

To Mr. James S. Lippincott, of Haddonfield, so well known through his important 
contributions to climatology and other kindred branches of science, our warmest thanks are 
due for much accurate and valuable information relating to a great variety of subjects. 

Justice requires that we should not withhold the acknowledgment of our great obligations 
to Mr. Joseph McCreery, our accomplished proof-reader, to whose intelligence and judgment 
as a critic we are scarcely less indebted than to the remarkable fidelity and accuracy with 
which he habitually performs the duties of his office. 

Nor can we omit the expression of our heartfelt gratitude to Air. Rudolf Blankenburg for 
the aid he has rendered us in regard to the pronunciation of German names, and for other 
important assistance in the prosecution of our arduous labours. 

With sincere pleasure we embrace this opportunity to express our cordial thanks to 
Mr. Lloyd P. Smith, the librarian of the Philadelphia Library, to whose extensive knowledge 
of books, as well as to his unfailing courtesy and kindness in aiding our researches^ we 
are under especial obligations. 

We should do injustice to our own feelings did we not acknowledge our great indebted 
ness to Mr. William A. Wheeler, of Boston, for a variety of interesting information in regard 
to the pronunciation of difficult or doubtful names, to which his rare skill in questions of 
orthoepy has added a double value. 

Nor can we withhold the acknowledgment of our heartfelt obligations to the Trustees and 
Superintendent of the Boston Public Library, for their liberality in affording us every possible 
facility for availing ourselves of the rich literary treasures of an institution, no less remarkable 
for the endless variety and value of its works, than for the liberal and enlightened spirit which 
presides over its administration. 

PHILADELPHIA, June, 1870. 


WE have already in our Preface spoken in general terms of the system of pronunciation and 
orthography adopted in the present work. It is proposed in this introductory portion to offer, 
in support of the plan that we have thought proper to pursue, some additional arguments and 
observations, which will be followed by an explanation of the general principles of pronunciation 
of each of the more important European and Asiatic languages. 

It is interesting to observe that the practice of nearly 
all our distinguished poets, but more particularly of those 
of the present century, goes to support the system of 
pronunciation which we have adopted ; that is, they 
almost invariably follow the native accentuation of proper 
names, even where this is very irregular, except in 
the case of those few well-known names which have 
acquired an established English pronunciation, as CAL 
VIN, CORTEZ, KOSCIUSKO, etc. As the principles of 
geographical pronunciation are precisely the same as 
those of the names of persons, and as geographical names 
very often form a part either of the surnames or titles 
of distinguished men, we may without impropriety cite, 
in order to prove our position, either the names of places 
or of persons occurring in the works of the poets. It is 
indeed the more necessary that we should be allowed the 
liberty of doing so, since names of irregular accentuation 
are, comparatively speaking, of rare occurrence. We 
have spoken particularly of accentuation, because, in a 
large majority of cases, that is all that can be determined 
from the usage of the poets. It is scarcely necessary 
to remind the classical reader that the misaccentuation 
of Latin or Greek names is justly considered an inex 
cusable fault in an educated poet. We will endeavour 
to show that our best poets are not less punctilious in 
the pronunciation of modern names. That they should 
accentuate correctly such names as GRANADA, BOLOGNA, 
RAVENNA, etc. is nothing surprising, since the easiest 
and most natural accentuation is also the correct one ; 
but that they should be scrupulously exact in the pro 
nunciation of names in which the accent is placed irregu 
larly, is more remarkable. It may be affirmed without 
fear of contradiction that in all the poetry of BYRON, 
MOORE, ROCHES, SOUTHEY, SCOTT and, we may per 
haps add, of any other distinguished poet of the present 
century scarcely a solitary instance can be pointed out 
of the misaccentuation of a name of which the poet had 
any opportunity of knowing the correct pronunciation.* 

* The only exception to this rule, if we mistake not, occurs in 

French names, which, as the accent rests equally (or nearly so) on 

all the syllables, cannot readily be adjusted to the metre of English 

erse, in which case the poet usually places the accent according 

o the general rule of English pronunciation, that is, on the penul- 

ima or antepemiltima, very rarely on the last syllable. In the pro- 

unciation of foreign names that have become thoroughly anglicized, 

t is interesting to observe the tendency of our language to throw the 

accent as far as possible from the termination: e.g. Mi I/AN, (It. 

True, SCOTT says " Panama ;" but, at the time when he 
wrote, very few persons, even in the United States, were 
acquainted with the correct accentuation of that name. 
Some of our old poets also mispronounced Niagara. 

" Where wild Oswego spreads her swamps around, 
And NIAGARA stuns with thund ring sound. "t 

The Traveller. 

But this is to be explained simply by the fact that he had 
no means of learning the true pronunciation, and therefore 
he accentuated the name in the manner which appeared 
to him the most easy or most natural. It is worthy of 
remark that the only English poet of note who had an 
opportunity of ascertaining the true pronunciation of the 
name of the great cataract is the only one (so far as we 
are aware) who has pronounced that name correctly. 
We have heard it asserted that MOORE also, using a 
"poet s license," has placed the accent on the penultima ; 
but any one, we feel sure, who will read his verse atten 
tively, will see that he always gives the correct pronuncia 
tion. The name occurs several times in his poems, but 
the following passage shows his accentuation so clearly 
as to leave no room for doubt or equivocation : 

" I could fancy almost he and I were a pair 
Of unhappy young lovers, who thus, side by side, 
Were taking, instead of rope, pistol, or dagger, a 
Desperate dash down the falls of Niagara." 

Fudge Family in Paris, Letter V. 

The following are a few examples illustrating the usage 
of eminent English poets respecting foreign names of 
irregular accentuation : 

" Lerma the generous, AV II.A the proud. " 

ROGERS : Voyage of Columbus. 
" So acted to the life, as Maurice might 
And SpfNOLA have blushed at the sight." 

BEN JONSON : Undcnooods, 
(vol. viii. p. 427 of Gifford s edition, London, 1816.) 

MII.ANO or MILAN,) TYR OL, (Ger. TYR6L,) etc. HANOVER, which 
might be pronounced with the native accentuation (HAN-6v[!K) without 
the slightest offence to the genius of our tongue, (for we have a 
multitude of words similar in accent, as devotion, promoter, etc.,) 
has become irrecoverably HAN OVF.R. Thus, also, we pronounce 
ANDALU SIA, (in Spanish, ANDALUCA,) AR AGON, (in Spanish, ARA- 
GON ,) etc. 

t Many persons suppose that Niagara corresponds in accentuation 
with the old Indian name : but this, we have reason to believe, is an 
error: the Indians pronounce the name very much as the French 
pronounce it, Ne d gd rJ . 


" And strangers were received by thee, 
Of C6KDOVA the chivalry." 

BYRON : Translation of a Spanish Ballad 
on the Conquest of Albania. 

" The regal seat 
Of Abdalazis, ancient C6i(DOBA." 

"Till they saw 

The temples and the towers of C6RDOBA 
Shining majestic in the light of eve." 

SOUTHEY : Roderick, book v. 

" How quick they carved their victims, and how well, 
Let Saxony, let injured GENOA tell." 


" Remember the moment when PREVESA fell, 
The shrieks of the conquered, the conquerors yell." 

BYRON : Childe Harold, canto ii. 

"Unseen is YANINA, though not remote." 

Childe Harold, canto ii. 

There is, perhaps, no class of names whose accentua 
tion seems more foreign to an English ear than those 
ending in ia with the accent on the penultima. Yet 
even in such cases the poets conform to the native pro 
nunciation : 

" Sustained by thoughts like these, from morn till eve 
He journeyed, and drew near LEVR! A S walls." 

SOUTHEY : Roderick, book iii. 

"And now appear, as on a phosphor sea, 
Numberless barks from Mil an, from PAvfA." 

ROGERS: Italy, Part i., vii. 

Among the principal languages of continental Europe, 
the German, in its accent and in the metre of its verse, 
has perhaps the nearest affinity to the English ; and it 
is worthy of remark that precisely the same general 
usage prevails with respect to foreign names in German 
poetry as in that of our own tongue. Any one may 
satisfy himself of the correctness of this statement if 
he will consult the poems of Schiller, who seems to have 
had occasion to use foreign names far more frequently 
than almost any other German poet. In his drama of 
" Don Carlos," MADRID occurs nearly twenty times, and 
always with the accent on the last syllable. This one 
fact (even were there no other) may show how sparingly 
the "poetical license," so often alluded to, is used by 
perhaps the most careless in versification of all the great 
poets of Germany. MIRANDOLA (a town in Italy) occurs 
twice, and in both instances has the accent on the ante- 
penultima : 

"Zwei edle Hauser in MIRANDOLA." 
"Eilt nach MIRANDOLA der Trunkene." 

Act i. Scene 3. 

This is the more remarkable because MIRANDOLA is an 
exception to the general rule of Italian pronunciation 
which places the accent on the penultima of words end 
ing in a vowel. 

The name of the famous Princess of EBOLI occurs ? 
great number of times, and invariably with the correc 
accentuation, that is, with the accent on the antepenul 
tima, although this is contrary to the general rule both 
of Spanish and Italian pronunciation. The following 
lines will suffice to show Schiller s accentuation : 
" Ich hoffe meine EB OI.I denkt anders. 
" Prinzessin EB OLI, sie haben uns 

Noch nicht gesagt ob Gomez hoffen darf. " 
" Wir wollen wissen, ob er lieben kann, 
Und Liebe kann verdienen, EB OLI? 

Don Carlos, Act i. Scene 3. 
"Der Fiirstin EB OLI die Hand zu reichen." 

Act ii. Scene 8. 

"Das lang entbehrte Gliick verschafft, der Fiirstin 
Von EB OLI mich wiederum zu nahern." 

Act ii. Scene ii. 

If our poet is not equally correct in regard to AL- 
CALA, (a small town of Spain,) it was owing, doubtless, 
ither to the difficulty of making such a name " lie 
5 mooth in rhyme," or to his being ignorant of its true 
accentuation. The latter is by no means improbable, 
nasmuch as the Spanish language is far less studied by 
he generality of European scholars than the Italian. 
That it was not the result of carelessness is shown by 
:he fact that ALCALA is always pronounced in the poem 
n the same manner, and according to the general rule of 
Spanish accentuation; that is, with the accent on the 
jenultima. It may be remarked, however, that Schiller 
jlaces the accent on the last syllable of PARIS, SAINT- 
DENIS, and SAINT-QUENTIN,* in all of which he differs 
Vom the English and conforms to the French accentua 
tion. (See " Remarks on the French Accent," page 13.) 
But perhaps the most remarkable illustration of this 
:endency to adopt the native pronunciation of foreign 
names is found in his drama of " Mary Stuart ;" where 
the poet, with the obvious intention of obliging his 
countrymen to pronounce the English names correctly, 
invariably in his verse spells LEICESTER " LESTER," 
although in the explanatory (prose) parts of the play he 
as invariably writes it " LEICESTER," as we do in English. 
For the same reason, doubtless, he writes BOLEYN 
BOULEN," that his countrymen might pronounce the 
name Boo len, nearly as it is spoken in England. Had 
he written it BOLEYN, the Germans might have placed 
the accent on the last syllable, as we often hear it pro 
nounced in the United States. 

The accentuation of names occurring in poetry, as 
already intimated, can readily be determined by the 
metre ; but the manner in which the poets pronounced 
the letters of a foreign name cannot be so easily ascer 
tained, since it can be known only when the name ends 
a line in rhyme ; and even then it is often extremely un 
certain, as they appear to consider themselves entitled, 
in such cases, to much greater license than in the ac 
centuation of words. Thus, we often see associated, in 
rhyme, words which correspond very imperfectly in 
sound, as enemy and lij, mourn and burn, etc. Never 
theless, by comparing a number of passages, especially 
of those poets who are most remarkable for the cor 
rectness of their rhymes, we shall often be enabled to 
ascertain the true pronunciation of a word or name. 

Now, it will be found that the system which we have 
adopted is supported by the practice of the poets in this 
respect also. In other words, it will be found that, while 
foreign names that are very commonly used in our lan 
guage have an English pronunciation, those not very -well 
known are generally pronounced with the foreign sound of 
the letters, as will be seen from the following passages : 

" Tis Jacqueline ! tis Jacqueline ! 
Her little brother laughing cried ; 
I know her by her kirtle green, 

She comes along the mountain side. " 
" Not now to while an hour away, 
Gone to the falls in Valombrl." 
" De Courcy, lord of A rgenttire ! 

Thy thirst for vengeance sought the snare. " ROGERS. 

* The two former names occur in "The Maid of Orleans," ("DiV 
Jungfrau von Orleans,") the last in " Don Carlos." 


" Winding between Alpine trees, 
Spiry and dark around their house of prayer, 
Below the icy bed of bright Argeniiire."V?ORDSVlORTH, 

" This circumstance may serve to give a notion 

Of the high talents of this new Vatiban :* 
But the town-ditch below was deep as ocean, 
The rampart higher than you d wish to Iiang." BVRON. 

" For many an age remember d long 
Shall live the towers of Hougomont* 

And fields of Waterloo. " SCOTT. 

On the other hand, we shall find the poets pronounce 
foreign names of some celebrity with the English sound 
of the letters, as may be seen from these and similar 
examples : 

" Oh, never talk again to me 

Of northern climes and British ladies ; 
It has not been your lot to see, 

Like me, the lovely girl of Cadiz." BYRON. 
"And Courtenay s pride and Percy s fame 
Blazed broader yet in after-years, 
At Cressy red and fell Poitiers." SCOTT. 

" So the shaft 

Of victory mounts high, and blood is quafPd 
In fields that rival Cressy and Poictiers, 
Pride to be wash d away by bitter tears." WORDSWORTH. 

Not unfrequently the poets will be found to give the 
correct pronunciation of names even when this differs 
essentially from the popular usage. Thus, Halleck says, 

" Born in a camp, its watchfires bright 

Alone illumed my cradle-bed, 
And I had borne with wild delight 

My banner where BOLI VAR led." Magdalen. 

The pronunciation of the name of COKE, the celebrated 
lawyer and statesman, is almost always given correctly 
(kdok) by the poets, although this does not correspond 
with the usual spelling. t In proof of this we may, out 
of a multitude of examples, cite the following: 

"May he 

Be by his father in his study took 
At Shakespeare s plays instead of my Lord Coke." 

See "A Poetical Revenge," in COWI.EY S Miscellanies. 

" And said she must consult her books, 
The lover s Fletas, Bractons, Cokes." 

SWIFT: Cademis and Vanessa. 

" Also observe that, like the great Lord Coke, 
(See Littleton,) whene er I have expressed 
Opinions two which at first sight may look 
Twin opposites, the second is the best." 

BYRON : Don Juan, canto xv. stanza Ixxxvii. 

The name of Bolingbroke is almost always pronounced 
correctly (Bolingbrook) by the poets. The following 
example, out of several occurring in the same poem, 
may serve as an illustration : 

"What hope have yon that ever Bolingbroke 

Will live a subject that hath tried his fate? 
Or what good reconcilement can you look, 

When he must always fear and you must hate?" 

DANIEL : History of the Civil War, book ii. stanza xxxv. 

* In these names the letter is similar in sound to ng. The 
rhymes, however, are not perfect : the o in the last syllable oflfougo- 
mont should be sounded like o in won t, but the final t is silent. 
The final syllable of Vauban sounds almost like bong. 

t We say usual spelling, because in Coke s own time it was not 
unfrequently written Cook. " In the reigns of Elizabeth and James 
I., Sir Edward s name was frequently spelt Cook. Lady Hatton, his 
second wife, who would not assume it, adopted this spelling in writing 
to him, and according to this spelling it has invariably been pro 
nounced." (See LORD CAMPBELL S " Lives of the Chief Justices," 
vol. i. chap, vii.) 

There is one difficulty in carrying out the system of 
foreign pronunciation adopted by us, which it may be 
proper to notice here, viz., that of drawing the lines be 
tween foreign names which are, and those which are not, 
well known. With respect to the more obvious in each 
division there cannot be the slightest hesitation ; but the 
two classes meet and pass into each other by impercepti 
ble gradations, so that sometimes the question whether 
they should be pronounced according to the foreign or 
the English mode can be settled only by arbitrary decis 
ion. In these doubtful instances we have spared no pains 
to ascertain the prevailing practice of the best speakers, 
as well as the usage of the poets : when these have been 
found unsatisfactory, nothing has remained for us but to 
decide according to the best of our ability. We have in 
these cases usually given both pronunciations, placing 
that first which, in our judgment, is to be preferred. 

In those cases where it is impossible to express accu 
rately the sounds of other languages by English letters, 
we have endeavoured to employ a mode of indicating 
those sounds which, if it does not afford any effectual 
assistance to the mere English scholar, may at least be 
in no danger of embarrassing or leading him astray. 
Thus, we have represented the sound of the German ch 
by K, distinguished by being a small capital. Perhaps 
a strongly aspirated h which might be indicated by hh 
would convey a nearer idea of the German sound ; 
but it seems less eligible than the other mode, both be 
cause persons might differ in the pronunciation of it or 
perhaps be at a loss to pronounce it at all, and because 
the established mode of anglicizing the Germane// seems 
to be to change its sound to that of k, as in the instances 
Scottish and Dutch sounds of ck, so similar to the Ger 
man, when anglicized, assume invariably, if we mistake 
not, the sound of k. The ordinary mode of pronouncing 
the Greek % tends to the same result. We have not, 
however, represented the sound of the German g, at the 
end of a syllable, in the same manner as the ch, though it 
has nearly the same sound, because it is not customary to 
anglicize it by the sound of k, except in a few instances. 
Were the pronunciation of such a word as berg repre 
sented by berv., the effect would be to lead the Eng 
lish scholar to pronounce it differently from the ordinary 
mode, while he would be in no respect nearer the 
German than those who pronounce the word according 
to the English sound of the letters. Another considera 
tion may, perhaps, be allowed to have some weight, 
viz., that though the more approved mode of German 
pronunciation requires that^, when it does not begin a 
word, should be pronounced nearly like ch, yet in some 
parts of Germany it is pronounced in every case like g 
hard in English. In a similar manner, and for similar 
reasons, we have usually represented the German w by a 

t Although in America we very frequently hear this name pro 
nounced Blu tcher by intelligent speakers, the ch should unquestion 
ably be hard, as is indicated by the following passage from Moore s 
" Fudge Family in Paris :" 

" A fine sallow sublime sort of Werter-faced man, 
With mustnchios that gave (what we read of so oft) 
The dear Corsair expression, half savage, half soft ; 
As hyenas in love may be fancied to look, or 
A something between Abelard and old Blucher." 
DANTZIC or DANTZICK, (German, Danzig,) I.EIPSIC or LEIP- 
SICK, (German, Leipzig?) SI.ESWICK, (German, Schlewvig ; Danish, 
Slesvig,) are the only examples that we now recollect. 


ft, and not by a v, though this is nearer the sound of the 
German letter. 

With regard to French names, however, a different 
plan has been pursued, both because it is less easy, so 
to speak, to anglicize the French letters, and because, 
from the circumstance of this being far more studied 
than any other foreign language, it is much more usual 
for English, or American speakers to adopt all the pecu 
liar sounds in pronouncing French words or names. 


The Arabic belongs to what is called the Semitic* 
family of languages, and is nearly related to the Hebrew, 
which it resembles not only in its general grammatical 
structure, but also in the form of many of its individual 
words. Of all the Semitic family it is by far the richest 
in its literature and the most copious in its vocabulary. 
Like the Hebrew, it is written from right to left. It 
belongs to the class referred to in the Preface (p. vi.) as 
" neither written in Roman letters nor in characters 
which can be converted into corresponding Roman let 
ters ;" it is therefore customary for Europeans in giving 
Arabic words or names to spell them according to the 
sound, the writers of the different nations seeking to 
indicate the pronunciation in the manner which to them 
seems most proper. In order to be able to point out 
more clearly the causes of the diversity which prevails 
among European writers respecting the manner of rep 
resenting the sounds of the Arabic tongue, and for other 
reasons, we have deemed it proper to present to the 
reader a table of the Arabic characters, accompanied by 
such explanations as seemed necessary for our purpose. 

The Arabic alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters, 
as follows : 

, o 

z ta 





6 - Z t? 

7- f t 

9- o f L\ 



jeem or jim. 


1 1. 




1 6. 






Ja Ja 

Ja ,ia 

seen or sin, 

sheen or shin, 













s or ss. 
ds or dh. 

dz or dh. 

* I.e. Shemitic, a term derived from Shem, the son of Noah, 
t The letters thus marked ought never, according to the rules of 
Arabic orthography, to be connected with those that follow them. 



1 8. 





ain, (S inorin,) t 
ghain, (gi inorGin,) j 

fa, f. 


meem or mini, 

noon or nun, 



In the Persian, (and Hindostanee,) besides the fore 
going, the following four additional characters are used : 

( ) v A. >. J p. 

(See Section XIV.) 

1. \ at the beginning of a word is sounded variously, 
according to the vowel-points placed upon it, (see 31 of 
this section ;) in the middle of a word it is sounded as a 
long a, as in ^>Li (l>dl>,) a gate. 

2. *__> sounds like b in English. 

3. o has the sound of the Spanish t. (See XIX. 17.) 

4. O sounds like our th in thin, or the Spanish z. 
S^^I 1 Persian and Hindostanee it has the sound of s. 

5. _ is usually pronounced like the English/ , though 
in some dialects it has the sound of g hard. 

6. r sounds nearly like the Spanish j or x, (see 
XIX. 9,) but it is formed lower in the throat. 


sounds like the German ch in ach, doch, etc. 

It is commonly represented in the French and English 
languages by kh, and in the German by ch. 

8. ^> nearly resembles the English d in sound, but, 
in pronouncing it, the tip of the tongue is placed against 
the teeth. It bears the same relation to our t/that the 
Spanish t does to our t. 

9. J> has no exact equivalent in any European lan 
guage, though it nearly resembles the sound of our th in 
thy. It is often represented by dh, and sometimes by ds, 
d/is, or simple d. ^^" In Persian and Hindostanee it 
takes the sound of z. 

10. . sounds like the French or Italian r, or like rr in 
the English word terror. 

11. ; has the sound of our 0. 

12. (j* sounds like our s in this. 

13. (jii is like the English sh. 

14. (jo sounds nearly like the English sharp s; but, 

% These letters have in sound nothing like them in English. (See 
18 and 19 of this section.) 

Written, also, ^3. II Written, also, ta5 


in pronouncing it, the teeth are not brought so nearly 
into contact. It is often represented by ss, or by f. 

15. (ji? lias no equivalent in any European language. 
It is variously represented by dz, d/i, dd, and ds. Jt^f^ This 
letter, in Persian and Hindostanee, takes the sound of 2. 

16. _f is in sound nearly like the English f, but is 
pronounced somewhat harder. It is variously repre 
sented by t, it, and th* 

17. _ has a sound somewhat similar to (JJ?. It can 
not be indicated by any English letter or combination of 
letters ; it is, however, usually represented by dh or dth. 
fijj^ It is pronounced like z in Persian and Hindostanee. 

18. p has no exact equivalent in any European tongue. 
It nearly corresponds to the Hebrew y. In the hiatus pro 
duced in uttering a a in quick succession, we make a 
sound very similar to the Arabic ain, but the latter is 
formed lower in the throat. 

19. c has no equivalent in English. It bears nearly 
the same relation to hard g that kk (K) does to k. It is 
sometimes represented by^, but more frequently by "A, 
at least by French and English Orientalists. 

20. v_i has the sound of our f. 

21. ^jj is similar to our k, but is formed lower in the 
throat. There seems to be a sort of aspirate mixed with 
the sound of/ . It is sometimes represented by ,, (with 
a dot under it,) and sometimes by q. 

22. i in sound is exactly like our /. 

23. J is like the English /. 

24. is pronounced like our m. 

25. ... is in sound like the English ;;. 

26. *, as a vowel, is equivalent to oo or 11 ; as a con 
sonant, it sounds like the English w or z>. 

27. H sounds like our h ; when final, it is nearly silent. 

28. ^_c, as a vowel, sounds like ee or t, in which case 
a kasra is implied or expressed ; as a consonant, like y. 
In the middle of a word the sound of ^ may be doubled 
by means of the tashdeed, which, in writing, is often 
omitted. Preceded by fatha, (see below,) this letter as 
sumes the sound of our long i, and is represented by at. 

29. All the foregoing characters are regarded by Arab 
grammarians as consonants. I has been compared to 
the soft breathing (spiritus lenis) of the Greeks ; c. is 
a similar breathing, though the place of its formation is 
lower in the throat. 

30. The true vowels are three. They are called i. 
Pat ha, (a;]} 2. Kas ra, (i, sometimes e ;} and 3. Dham- 
ma,\ (oo or .) Fatha is written thus over the con 
sonant to which it belongs ; kasra is placed beneath its 
consonant, thus-p-; dhamma (which is in fact a minute >) 
is written over its consonant, thus,--. These vowels 
are always joined to the consonant which in pronuncia 
tion precedes them: thus, in *AS, (kalam,) a "reed" or 
"pen," the first fatha is considered to belong to the Mf, 
over which it is placed, the second to the lam, (not to 

* In such cases th is not intended to indicate a sound like that 
of the English th or the Greek 9, but rather a sound similar to that 
of the Hindoo th. (See XVIII. 6.) 

t Often represented by e, and sometimes (in English) by u short. 
(See IX. 3, and XI 1 1. 3.) 

t Pronounced by the Persians zam ma. 

Often represented by a, as in the case of Mohammed, (see 32 of 
this section.) 

the meem which comes after it ;) and so in all similai 
cases : it follows that no vowel can standby itself.y Hence, 
if we wish to write an initial short fatha, it must be as 
sociated either with alif or ain, as >A:>i, (ahad,) a 
"unit,"_Jic, (afu,) "forgiveness." If we would write 
a short initial kasra or dhamma, we must begin the word 
in the same manner: e.g. .y- j) fjb n,) a "son," ^>l~:-c, 
(Ibacl,) " servants," vjti, (uf or oof,) "fie!" .^c, (ubur 
or ooboor,) a "passage" or "crossing." 

31. As a general rule, if any one of the simple vowels 
is joined to an ordinary consonant, or to an initial alif 
or ain, it is short, as will be seen from the previous 
examples ; but if in any syllable not initial they are 
joined with any of the (so-called) consonants (alif, ain, 
tuaw, etc.) to which they naturally correspond, they be 
come long: for example, fatha with alif m ain gives us 
the sound of d, as v_. ;Lj, (bab,) a "gate," tAxJ, (bad or 
ba-ad,) "after:" so kasra with yd gives the sound of i, 
(or ee,} as (jj^, (seen or sin,) the name of the letter , w ; 
so also dhamma with waw gives the sound of u or 
oo, as Qy, (nun or noon,) the name of the letter .... It 
should be observed that the fatha or dhamma is not 
written on the alif or waw, nor the kasra under the yd, 
but is joined to the previous consonant, the semi-con 
sonants coming after, for the sole purpose, it would seem, 
of prolonging the vowel. If In order to indicate the sound 
of d at the beginning of a word, it is usual to place a 
circumflex over the alif, thus, ^. The initial long i(ior 
ce) is represented by JJ, and long it (n or oo) by ^1. 

32. The vowels are not usually written in Arabic 
manuscripts, and they are scarcely needed by the native 
Arabs who already know the language ; but they are 
of great utility to foreigners in learning Arabic. The 
same may be said of the jazm or jezm, (",) a mark placed 
upon a consonant to show that it has no vowel following 
it, as O; "> ) (azrak, " blue," which without the jazm might 
be pronounced azarak,) and the tashdeed or tashdid, (-,) 
placed on a consonant to show that it must be doubled 
in pronunciation ; as A.^<\^), (Mohammed.) 

33. It is proper to observe that when the Arabic 
article al or el is followed by certain letters it changes 
its sound to that of the letter following: thus, el-Deen 
becomes cd-Deen ; cl-Dowlah, ed-Dcnvlah ; al-Rahman 
or el-Rahman, ar- Rahman or er-Rahman ; al- Temeemee, 
at- Temeemee ; and so on. (See XIII. 4.) 


When any of the long vowels (see 31 of this section) 
occur in the final syllable of a word or name ending in 
a consonant, that syllable always takes the accent accord 
ing to the common European signification of this term. 

Some eminent grammarians lay it down as a rule that 
the accent in Arabic never falls on the last syllable ; but 
this rule proceeds on the supposition that the final syl 
lable is short. Or, if it be meant to apply to all syllables, 
long as well as short, the term "accent" cannot be under 
stood in the sense in which it is used by most European 

II It may be remarked as an apparent exception to this rule that 
Ibn, "son," is often written simply .. J (bn ;) but this is usually to 
be considered as an abbreviation for ,-tJ > though tenor bin is 
not (infrequently used instead of the longer form ibn. 

H The long vowels in Arabic are to be pronounced very full and 
long, particularly the long a, which is not only longer but sensibly 
broader than our a \\\far. (See XIV. 4.1 


nations. In support of our position, we may cite, as a 
practical argument of great force, the fact that when an 
Arabic word ending in a consonant, preceded by a long 
vowel, is adopted into any European language, it takes 
the accent on the final syllable: thus, Wddy-al-Kebir\>z- 
comes in Spanish Guadalquivir, Al-Mansoor becomes Al- 
mansor, and so on. Nor can it be said that this ultimate 
accent is due to the tendency of the Spanish language 
to throw the accent on the last syllable ; for Almodovar, 
derived from the Arabic Al-Modhofer, (which, like Al- 
Mansoor, signifies " the Victorious,") is in its Spanish 
form accentuated precisely as in the Arabic, that is, 
on the penultima. If an Englishman who should hear 
a native Arab pronounce the word kcbir, "great," or 
kethtr, "much," should be told, by one who had any 
knowledge of the subject, that the first and not the last 
syllable was accentuated, he could come to no other 
conclusion than that in the mind of the speaker accent 
had a totally different meaning from what it has in Eng 
lish and in most other European tongues. In Hammer- 
PurgstalPs great work on the literature of the Arabs, 
he translates into German verse many thousand lines 
from the Arabian poets, and he invariably, if we are not 
mistaken, places the accent on a long final syllable end 
ing in a consonant. In illustration and support of this 
statement, we may select, from a multitude of the same 
general character, the following passage. A witty Ara 
bian poet had been found half drunk by one of the 
caliph s police-officers in a tippling. house. The officer 
questioned the offender, as he had been instructed to 
do, "Who art thou, and what is thy religion ?" The 
poet s answer, rendered into German, is as follows : 

" Ich glaube was glauben die Beni Abbas 
Und was 1st besiegelt mil Thon auf Papier; 
Wenn icli getnmken ein frbliches Glas, 
Und wenn es im Kopfe rmnoret bei mir, 
So sei die geringste der Sorgen dir das."* 
See " Literaturgescllichte der Amber," vol. iii. p. 462. 

If there were any Arabic words, ending in a long final 
syllable, that might be considered doubtful, it would be 
those which, like Abbas, have a double consonant in the 
penultima ; and yet nothing can be clearer than that the 
accent is placed on the final syllable only, in the foregoing 
verse. Mansur, (Mansoor,) though having also two 
consonants after the penultimate vowel, is pronounced 
by Hammer-Purgstall in the same manner. The reader, 
by referring to the above work, will find a multitude of 
similar examples, among others BAGDAD, with the accent 
on the last syllable, (see vol. iii. p. 440,) to which testi 
mony we may add that of one of the most learned and 
accurate of our English poets. Southey in his "Thalaba" 

"The old man answered, To BAGDAD I go." 

"Stands not BAGDAD 
Near to the site of ancient Babylon?" 

"At length BAGDAD appeared, 
The city of his search." 

* The following is a nearly literal translation: "I believe what 
ever the Beni AbbSs [then the reigning family of caliphs] believe, and 
whatever is sealed with wax upon paper, [that is, whatever is gen 
erally recognized and established.] If I have drunk a cheerful glass, 
and if it causes some confusion in my head, let that be the least of 
thy cares." 




As it would be out of the question in a work like the 
present to attempt to give a minute and systematic ex 
position of the principles of Chinese pronunciation, vary 
ing greatly as they do in different provinces and among 
different classes of the community, we shall content 
ourselves with merely offering a few brief observations, 
for the purpose of explaining the more obvious differ 
ences in the mode of representing Chinese names among 
the nations of the West. 

1. One of the remarkable peculiarities of the Chinese 
tongue is the perpetual occurrence of nasal sounds. It 
was through the Portuguese, who, among all the nations 
of Europe, were the first to become intimately acquainted 
with China and the Chinese, that the forms of celebrated 
Chinese names first became familiar to Europeans. It 
so happened that the Portuguese language abounded in 
the same class of nasal sounds ; and in representing these 
sounds in Chinese names according to the principles of 
their own language the Portuguese missionaries adopted 
a spelling which would necessarily convey an erroneous 
idea of the pronunciation to the great majority of 
Europeans. Thus, they wrote for the name of the great 
northern capital of China, Pcqitim or Pcquin, and for 
that of the southern capital, Nanquim or Nanquin, the 
Portuguese pronunciation of which would be nearly 
pa kecN 1 or pa keeng , and naVkeeN or nang keeng . 
The Spaniards, then the leading nation in the world, 
having conquered Macao and the other Portuguese pos 
sessions in the far East, adopted, with little or no change, 
the Portuguese spellings, giving to them their own pro 
nunciation, which they introduced among the other na 
tions o^Europe. The result was that, until very recently, 
PEKING was often written Pekin, and was generally pro 
nounced in Europe pa-keen or pe-kii/; and NANKING, 
commonly written Nankin, was called nan kcen .f TON- 
QUIN (pronounced almost tong king by the Chinese) still 
retains its Spanish pronunciation, ton-keen ; and CANTON 
(in Chinese Qnantong) has in English and in most other 
European tongues completely dropped the nasal termi 
nation and taken the sound of n pure. In like manner 
we are to explain the fact that the names CONFUCIUS 
and MKNCIUS, by which the two great Chinese philoso 
phers (KoNG-FOO-TSE and MENG-TSE) are generally 
known in Europe, have no trace of that nasal sound which 
is so distinct an element in those names as spoken by 
the Chinese. 

2. Several consonant sounds which are found in all, or 
nearly all, European tongues, are wanting in most of the 
Chinese dialects, viz., / , d, g, (hard,) r, v, and s. It being 
a principle or law of this language that every individual 
word must be a monosyllable, ending either in a pure 
vowel or a nasal, it often causes strange transformations 
when an attempt is made to introduce words or names 
from other nations : thus, the Hindoo Booddha is changed 
into Fo, the initial B being necessarily replaced by a 
Chinese consonant, and the monosyllable which is sub 
stituted for the original dissyllable drops the terminal 
consonant, according to the usage of the language. 

On account of the difficulty and uncertainty attending 
the pronunciation of Chinese names, resulting from the 

t As is shown by the common English name of a kind of clolh 
manufactured there. 


great diversity of dialects in that country, to attempt 
any great exactness or nicety in representing that pro 
nunciation would clearly be a work of supererogation. 
We have deemed it sufficient to give the names accord 
ing to the usage of the best European writers, taking 
care only, when there is occasion to do so, to render 
the French, Portuguese, or German spellings into their 
nearest English equivalents. Jj^^ Respecting the diver 
sity of forms caused by writing Oriental names iu dif 
ferent languages, see Preface, (pp. vi.-viii.,) and Section 
XIII., on the Oriental Languages, in this Introduction. 


1. A usually has a sound between that in the English 
word far and that in fat. It may be represented by t. 
When it ends a syllable it is usually longer than when 
followed by a vowel in the same syllable : \\\\\$, fader 
("father") is pronounced fi Der, nearly like the English 
father. Aa is commonly pronounced nearly like our aw, 
(or an.) 

2. E, at the end of an accented syllable, usually has a 
sound like that of i m pin, (see XX., 3 ;) in other cases it 
is sometimes like e in met, and sometimes like e in battery. 

3. /is like ee, or like i \\\ pin. ft is like our ee. 

4. O is like the English o. 

5. C/is like oo. 

6. Kis equivalent to the French u or it. 

7. Ae sounds like a in fate. 

8. le sounds like ee in English. 

9. Oc or o is the same as in German. 

10. The consonants b, c, f, //, k, I, m, n, p, q, s, t, x, z 
are like the English. 

n. Z>, at the beginning of a word, is like the English 
d ; between two vowels, or at the end of a syllable in 
which it follows a vowel, it sounds nearly like th in this, 
(th.) When preceded by /, n, or r, more particularly 
when it occurs at the end of a word, it is almost or quite 
silent, as in \\y\\dga\d. 

12. G is always hard ; at the end of a word it is 
sounded very slightly, so as to resemble h: e.g. AALBORG 
is pronounced nearly ol bor h. 

13. yis like the English y, (consonant.) 

14. R is similar to the German. 

15. V\% usually like the English ; but av sounds like 
fcv, (or on in our:} plov (a " plough") is pronounced 

1 6. JFbas a sound similar to that of our v or the Ger 
man 7C. It is sometimes interchangeable with v. 


1. The vowels a, c, i, o, and u are similar to the 

2. Fis like long i in English, as in nigh. 

Oi?s. Ij is often made use of instead of y : thus, OVKKYSSEI. (the 
okl spelling) is now commonly written O->erijssel. 

3. Aa is a long, (S.) 

4. Ac is equivalent to Ja or 5. 

5. Re (equivalent to c long) sounds like our a in fate. 
C>. Ei or ey is like the German ci, or our long /, (I.) 

7. le sounds like cc in English. 

8. OL sounds like oo. 

9. Oo is always pronounced like o long in English, 
or like oo in door. 

10. Ui or ny is similar to oi in English, or eu in Ger 
man. It appears, however, that formerly the Dutch id 
had a different sound, somewhat resembling a lengthened 
ii. (See H. FKIJUNK, " Woordenboek voor vreemde 
Eigennamen," p. 31, Amsterdam, 1858.) 

1 1. The consonants b, c,f, h, /, /, m, ;/, /, q, r, s, f, x, 
and s are similar to the English. 

12. D, at the end of a word, is like /; in other cases 
it is the same as in English. 

13. G resembles in sound a strongly aspirated h, or 
the German ch. 

14. y is equivalent to the English y, (consonant.) 

15. V, at the beginning of a word or name, usually 
sounds nearly like f: or, to speak more exactly, it has a 
sound intermediate between that of the German v (f) and 
our v. 

16. W is somewhat like the German, but softer ; in 
other words, it has a sound between that of our w and 
the German w. In the word Nieuw, ("new,") followed 
by a consonant, as NiEUwrooRT, (written also NIEU- 
POORT,) it is silent. 

17. Ch is similar to the German cJi. 

18. Sch, however, has not, as in German, the sound 
of the English sh, but the pure sound of s, followed by 
the guttural ch, resembling sk in English. 

he FLEMISH is so closely allied to the Dutch that it may 
be regarded as essentially the same language. It differs, however, 
somewhat in the spelling of words. According to the modern Dutch 
orthography, tin is generally substituted for ne, and ij for y. In 
Flemish both of these old forms are still retained. 



1. A, in French, has two sounds : the short, as in ami, 
la bal, etc., is intermediate between I (as in the English 
word far) and &, (as in fat:) this sound in the present 
work is represented by i. The second or long sound is 
like that in our wordy??;-; it occurs in the a circumflexed 
(a) and a followed by a silent s, as in pas, which should 
be pronounced as if written pa. This sound is repre 
sented by a. 

2. E has four sounds : (\) close, likert in the English word 
fate, e.g. in ete, (represented in this work by a ;) (2 and 3) 
open* the second e, nearly as in met, but more pro 
longed, e.g. in proces, (represented by C or <\ ;) the third 

e circumflexed) is like the preceding, but still more 
open and more prolonged, e.g. in tele; it is represented 
by f ; (4) obscure, as in battci y, e.g. in retour, devrait.\ 

3. / has two sounds : the first nearly as in the Eng 
lish word fig, e.g. in U, ami ; the second like ie in field, 
or ee, e.g. in git, pie, etc. 

4. O has three sounds : (i) nearly as in robe, e.g. in 
tr&ne, (represented by o ;) (2) as in rob, e.g. in parole; 
(3) as in lord, e.g. in corps. The second and third are 
both represented by o without any mark. 

5. The sound of the French u has no equivalent in 
English. It may be said to be intermediate between ee 

* In pronouncing this sound the mouth must be freely opened, 
whence the name. 

t The e in these and similar cases is often scarcely sounded at all, 
and appears to pass imperceptibly into e mute ; retour and devrait 
may be pronounced r tooR and d vuV It should, ob- 
;erved that in reading poetry, as well as in the graver style of public 
speaking, the unaccented e, even when it forms the terminal letter of 
such words as fife, parle, etc., nearly always makes a distinct and 
separate syllable. (See 18 of this section.) 

I I 


and oo. This is one of the most difficult sounds in the 
language, but may readily be produced if the speaker > 
after placing his lips in the position proper for sounding 
our oo, attempts, wit/tout turning his lips, to utter the 
sound of ee. In I4ie present work it is represented by 
the German it. 

OBS. U, before nasal, lias its second English sound nearly, tin 
being pronounced almost like zJN. 

6. Y is similar to the French /. In the middle of a 
word ,y is usually equivalent to it, as mfuyard, fu-e yfR , 
(pronounced in French, fat-tar.) 

7. Ai and ay are like e, (represented by i.) 

OBS. When ai forms the termination of verbs, as in fat, ("I 
\\x\e,") je parlai, ("I spoke,")/* parlerai, ("I shall speak,") it has 
the sound of t, or a in /ate. Some authorities say that while aie, ais, 
and aye are to be sounded as I, ai, ay, ei, and ey terminal (that is, 
when not followed by e or s mute) should be pronounced as e, (I ;) 
but to this general rule there appear to be many exceptions.* 

8. Att is like d. 

9. Ei and ey are like e, (see 7 of this Section ; Ob 

10. Ku is nearly similar to the English u in tub, but the 
sound is somewhat closer and more prolonged, nearly 
resembling that of u mfiir. It is similar to the German 
o, but is rather more open. 

OBS. En, iii the different parts of the verb avoir, "to have," 
always lias the sound of simple u. 

11. Ie is like ee in English, or i. 

12. Oi usually sounds like wa : e.g. moi is pronounced 
mwa or mwoh. 

Ous. Oi \\ns formerly used in the termination of the French verbs, 
e.f . aval s, avoit, avoient ; also in the final syllable of many adjectives, 

* There is not only considerable diversity among the different 
French authorities in regard to the pronunciation of words or names 
with these terminations, but scarcely any one writer appears to be 
consistent with himself in this respect. In Boyer s " French Dic 
tionary," with the pronunciation according to the Abbe Tardy, (Bos 
ton, 1822,) Bey (a Turkish governor) is pronounced b\, (or be ;) but 
all words ending in ai, as balai, delai, essai, gai, geai, lai, Mai, quai, 
vrai, are pronounced with the open sound of e, (3 or A ;) the ai of 
balai, gai, geai, lai, Mai, and quai is sounded like the English e in 
met, but in delai, essai, and vrai, like e in there. In the Dictionary 
of Fleming and Tibbins, (American edition, Philadelphia, 1843,) a; in 
gai, Mai, and quai has the sound of e, close A, (or e\) but balai, 
delai, essai, lai, and vrai are pronounced in precisely the same 
manner as in the preceding work. In Spiers and Surenne s Dic 
tionary (American edition, 1852) gai has the sound of e close, (A or 
e ;) but balai, Mai, and all other words (not verbs) of this termi 
nation are pronounced with the sound of open e. Bey, as in Boyer 
and Fleming and Tibbins, is pronounced bA, (or be;) but dey, a word 
similar in its origin and general character, has the open sound of e, 
(tie.) Ay and ey, when forming the termination of proper names, are 
in Spiers and Surenne s Dictionary invariably represented in pro 
nunciation by e, with the single exception of Sohvay. See, also, 
" Surenne s French Pronouncing Dictionary,"( American edition, from 
the Edinburgh edition of 1840.) in which is given the pronunciation 
of a great many proper names ending in ay and ey, and never with 
the sound of e close, (e,) except in the solitary instance of Sohvay, 
just noticed. Mr. Bescherelle, perhaps the highest modern authority 
in regard to the pronunciation as well as the definition of French words, 
does not speak very definitely in regard to the sound of ai or ay 
terminal ; but, under the letter E, he says ey has its middle sound 
("son moyen ou deini-ouvert" ) in bey, dey, Hervey, Ney, Volney, etc., 
(see "Dictionnaire National," vol. i., pp. 1049 and 1050.) In con 
sideration of the general tendency of the preceding writers, and sup 
ported by the high authority last named, we have adopted the general 
rule to make the e open in the final syllables of all names of this class. 
At the same lime, those who are anxious to be accurate in their pro 
nunciation should take care to make the sound of ai, ay, and ey, 
terminal, less open and less full than in the final syllables aie, aye, 
ais, eys, etc. 

as Polotiois, "Polish," and Lyonnois, "belonging to Lyons." The 
oi in these words which are now usually written avais, avail, 
avaieni, Polonais, Lyonnais sounds like ai, (or e.) 

13. On sounds like oo in English. 

14. B, <r,t d, f, k, p, t, v, and z are the same as in 

15. G, before a, o, and n, is hard, as in the English 
\vo\<\ gap ; before e, i, and y it is soft, having the sound 
of zh, or of s in the English word pleasure. Gii sounds 
like g hard : thus, gne, guide, are pronounced ga, ged or 

16. ff\s never pronounced in French so forcibly as in 
English. Some of the best French authorities, indeed, 
say that the h should never be sounded at all in French 
words or names ; the only difference they would make 
between the (so-called) aspirated and nnaspirated initial 
h is, that before the latter the a or unaccented e in such 
particles as la, le, etc. is dropped, as Vherbe, (pronounced 
likb,) "the grass;" Vhomme, (lorn,) "the man;" while 
before the former it is retained, as la halle, (pronounced 
It 81,) "the market;" le hamac, (leh S inik ,) "the ham 
mock," etc. 

17. y sounds like soft g in French, or zh in English. 

1 8. L has usually the same sound as in English ; but 
when it ends a word, being preceded by i, or when // 
follows i in any situation, it usually has what is called 
its liquid sound. This may be said to answer nearly to 
the sound of /// in million, the sound of / in such cases 
being blended with that of y, (consonant:) e.g. papillon 
is pronounced pi pel yoN 1 ; CHANTIU.Y, shSN tel ye , etc. 
It should, however, be observed that at present, accord 
ing to the general practice of the more polite French 
speakers, the sound of / in such words is in ordinary 
conversation scarcely heard at all, so that their pronun 
ciation may rather be indicated thus, pt pe yoN , sh5.\ - 
te ye ; but in the higher style of speaking, and in 
public discourses, the / in such cases is, according to 
the best usage, distinctly pronounced. 

19. M and n, when followed by a vowel, or when 
double, have the same sound as in English; but when 
at the end of a word, (not immediately followed by 
another word beginning with a vowel,) or when followed 
by another consonant in the middle of a word, they have 
what is termed the nasal sound, which somewhat re 
sembles that of ng in long, pang, etc., but is softer :J 
thus, m and n are nasal in such words as comparer, <r<?.\- 
tewte, but have their natural sound in such as commune, 
co nmi. Bon, (" good,") before a consonant or standing 
by itself, would be pronounced box ; but if followed im 
mediately by a vowel, as in the phrase ban ami, ("good 
friend,") the final n is sounded distinctly, as nil would 
be in the same position. The pronoun sien, when not 
followed by a vowel, is pronounced nearly se-jlN ; but 
when it takes the feminine termination the ;/, being 
doubled, has the same sound as in English, so that sienne 
is pronounced se-&n f . 

20. M or n nasal, when preceded by e, causes this 
vowel to assume the broad sound of a: thus, dents, sens, 
are pronounced like the French words dans and suns, 
almost as if written in English d6\ and SON. 

t C with a cedilla, (g) before a, o, and it, sounds like s : thus, fa, 
(o, (n are pronounced like sa, so, su. 

% In uttering this sound, care should be taken not to press the 
back part of the tongue against the palate, as is done in pronouncing 
the English fig. 


21. /;/, im, ain, aim, ein, oin, and en, preceded imme 
diately by i, when nasal, have a sound nearly resembling 
that of ang\\\ the English word /-. In such cases, in, 
im, ain, aim, ein, and en are pronounced alike aN ; the o 
in oin has the sound of our w, so that loin and soin are 
pronounced almost IwaN, swaN. 

22. In om and <w nasal, the o has nearly the sound 
of 6 as in wont. 

23. (7 or qti, in French, always sounds like /: ^. <7^/ 
is pronounced / /; <7/, XY. 

Ous. (?, in French words, (except when terminal, as in coq and 
cinq,) is always followed by , though it is often employed without 
this letter in writing certain foreign names. 

24. R is like the English, but is trilled more strongly, 
especially when it precedes another consonant, or stands 
at the end of a word, as in vev.tu, puniv. : in similar cases 
the English r is but very slightly sounded. This sound 
is represented by a small capital R. 

25. S, when single and between two vowels, sounds 
like z: in other cases it is the same as in English. 

26. ^f generally has the same sound as in English, but 
is sometimes sounded like s, e.g. in six, pronounced sess, 
and Bruxelles, (Brussels,) pronounced brii sSl , and oc 
casionally like 2, as in dixieme, cle ze-|m/. 

27. Cli is like s/i in English ; tk is always like t. 

28. Gn (the same as in Italian) has a sound which 
blends that of n and y, (consonant,) or, in other words, 
is equivalent to the sound of ni in minion. Thus, AVI 
GNON is pronounced t ven yo.V. 

Ous. This sound is represented in Spanish hy ft, and bears the 
same relation to n that the liquid / (T) does to the ordinary /. In 
Hungarian it is expressed by ny, and in Portuguese by nh. 

When it occurs in the middle of a word, we have represented it 
by n and y, as in the example above given ; but when it stands at 
the end of a word, as it cannot then be expressed by any letter 
or combination of letters in English, it has been indicated by the 
Spanish n : accordingly, the French pronunciation of such names 
as COLOGNE and BOULOGNE is thus given: ko lofi*, boo loii . 


29. The vowel e at the end of a word, when not marked 
with an accent, is invariably mute : e.g. in parle, contente* 

30. The French consonants, when occurring at the 
end of a word, are generally not pronounced, unless they 
are immediately followed by a word beginning with a 
vowel : e.g. in content, (pronounced cdN tdN ,) and dents, 
(d&N.) If, however, they are followed by a mute e or any 
other vowel, they must always be articulated : e.g. in con 
tent c, detfte, etc. 

OHS. i. The letters c, f, I, and rare, when final, very often pro 
nounced, (the two former almost always:) e.g. in avec, neiif, il, and 

Ous. 2. The French articulate the final consonants in almost all 
foreign and classical names: e.g. in AMSTERDAM, {in not nasal,) 
VENUS, etc. 

It may be observed that the French language has no 
accent, in the sense in which we employ this term. The 

* The particles le, nc, and the pronouns fe, me, te, etc., are per 
haps, strictly speaking, exceptions ; but though the e in these words 
is not always absolutely mute, it is very often so: thus, the sentence 
vans me trouverez le meme is pronounced in rapid conversation voom 
troov r\l man, the vowel in me and ne being entirely suppressed, 
and the consonants attached to the preceding words. 

marks, called accents, that are placed over the different 
vowels, serve only to indicate some particular sound of 
these letters, and not that peculiar impulse of the voice 
which characterizes an accented syllable in the English 
and most other European tongues. Thus, the accent 
over the e in parle serves to show that this vowel has its 
first French sound, and at the same time distinguishes 
it from parle, another form of the same verb, in which 
the e is mute. The circumflex imparts to the vowel 
over which it is placed a longer and deeper sound than 
ordinary : e.g. in hate, tempete, gite, and apdtre. 

It is commonly said that the French pronounce all the 
syllables of a word with an equal stress of voice, but that 
they seem to an English ear to accentuate the last, be 
cause in our language the universal tendency is to throw 
the accent towards the beginning of the word. Others, 
on the contrary, maintain that in pronouncing words of 
a number of syllables the voice of a native French 
speaker almost invariably rises and dwells on the last, 
and that this peculiar terminal intonation is very analo 
gous, and nearly equivalent, to our accent. This last 
opinion appears to us to be not without a real founda 
tion. But, however the question may be settled, the 
fact that the English who have learned the pronun 
ciation of names from hearing them spoken by the 
French themselves, almost invariably throw the accent 
on the final syllable, furnishes, in our judgment, sufficient 
grounds for establishing a general rule on this subject. 
Accordingly, in the present work we have, with very 
few exceptions, placed the principal accent on the last 
syllable of French names ; at the same time, it has 
been thought proper to mark the others with sec 
ondary accents, in order to prevent them from being 
pronounced too slightly or indistinctly, as is usually 
the case with unaccented syllables in English. The 
pronunciation of ORLEANS, for example, has been thus 
given : oR la oN . 

OBS. Particular care, however, should be taken not to break such 
names into as many isolated sounds as there are different syllables, 
but, while pronouncing these syllables with a stress of voice nearly 
equal, to let each glide smoothly into that which follows it. It may 
be observed that the French, in uttering short sentences, usually 
make the different words run into each other, as if they were parts 
of the same word. 


1. A, in German, usually sounds as in the English 
word far, though sometimes approximating the a in fat. 

2. E, when long, sounds like a in fate ; when short, 
like e in met: frequently, however, it has an obscure 
sound, like e in bitter, paper, etc. It should have this 
obscure sound whenever it ends an unaccented syllable, 
(as in Goethe,} or when it precedes /, n, or r in an un 
accented syllable, (as in Schlegel, Bun sen, Schiller.} 

3. /long sounds like i in marine, (or ee in English ;) 
/ short, like i in pit. 

4. O long sounds like o in no : o short, nearly like t> 
in on. 

5. /long is like oo in moon; u short, like oo in good. 

6. Y sounds like the German / . 

7. Ac, or a, is similar to the German e, or to the Eng 
lish a in fate or e in met. 

8. le is equivalent to i long, (or ^in English.) 

9. Of, or ii, nearly resembles the eu in French, but 
has no parallel sound in English : the sound in our Ian- 



guage nearest to it is that of e in her, or u in fur : the 
German poets often rhyme it with with e, (e or a.) 

10. Ue, or u, is like the French u. 

u. Ai is similar in sound to ei, but somewhat broader. 
(See 14 of this section.) 

12. An is equivalent to the English on in our. 

13. an and eu resemble in sound the English oi, as in 

14. Ei and ^_y have the sound of our / in mine, as pro 
nounced by the Americans, (the English draw the corners 
of the mouth farther back.) 

OBS. It may be observed that ai and ait, in German, as well as in 
several other languages, are proper diphthongs, the vowels preserving 
their distinct and proper sound : thus, ai is equivalent to d e, and au 
to d oo, in English. 

15. The consonants/ k, /, m, n, p, q, t, and x are pro 
nounced as in English. 

16. B and d, at the beginning of a word, have the 
same sound as in English ; at the e-nd of a word, b is 
pronounced like /, and d like t. 

17. C, before a, o, anil u, sounds like k ; before c, /, 
and y, like ts. 

18. Ch has a sound unknown to our language, which 
can be learned from an oral instructor only. It some 
what resembles that of our h, with a strong aspiration : 
after a, o, and ?/, it is guttural ; for example, in the word 
ach* When it follows e, i, d, o, ii, an, or at, it seems to 
be sounded more in the palate or roof of the mouth, 
as in ich, eiich, etc. We have represented this sound in 
the present work by K, distinguished as a small capital. 

OBS. Ch, before J radical, (i.e. forming a part of the root of the 
word,) has the sound of k : e.g. Ochs is pronounced oks ; Sac/iseii, 
sik sen, etc. 

19. G, at the beginning of a word, sounds as in the 
English word get. In other situations it is usually pro 
nounced nearly like the German ch, in which cases it is 
represented by G small capital. In some German dia 
lects, however, it is sounded in all cases nearly like g 
hard in English : ^is usually sounded nearly like / . 

20. //"is pronounced only when it begins a word. 

OBS. i. When g and h occur in the middle of a compound word, 
they have the same sound as when they are initial, provided they 
begin any part which is a complete word in itself: thus, in the parti 
ciple gegeben, ("given,") the latter g has the same sound as the 
former, because it begins the verb geben, (to "give,") from which 
that participle is derived. It is sounded in like manner in aufgeben, 
(to "give up,") vergeben, (to "forgive,") etc. ff, in similar in 
stances, is pronounced: e.g. \ngehabt, aufhalten, etc. 

OBS. 2. G and h, occurring after a vowel, lengthen its sound : e.g. 
in Tag, Zahl, Floh, pronounced tMc;, tsJal, flo, etc. A silent h has 
the same effect though occurring before a vowel, as Thai, (pro 
nounced tSiil,) That, (taJt,) and so on. (See Remarks on the German 
Pronunciation, at the end of this section.) 

21. y has the sound of the English y, (consonant.) 

22. Q is only used before ti, and sounds as in the Eng 
lish word quit. 

23. R is pronounced like rr in the English word terror, 
but somewhat more strongly. (See V., 24.) 

OBS. Care should be taken to pronounce the r in German dis 
tinctly and forcibly. In such words as Berg and Werth, the learner 
should be particularly on his guard against allowing the e to become 
like short u, as in similar words in English. The e, in such cases, 
should have the same sound as in our word merit, so that Berg 

* Those who have no opportunity of acquiring this sound from a 
German might perhaps learn it from a Scotchman, as the Scottish ch 
is essentially the same with the German, though pronounced some- 
whal more strongly. 


should be pronounced almost as if written baira, (not b&rg ;) IVertk 
as wairt, (not wiirt,) but somewhat shorter. 

24. S, at the beginning of a word, or between two 
vowels, is like z; in other cases it is sharp, as in this. S.< 
is always sharp. 

25. Sch sounds like the English sh ; sz, like ss. 

26. 77i is pronounced like /, as in most other lan 

27. ^sounds like f in English, except when between 
two vowels ; it is then pronounced somewhat softer, ap 
proximating in sound our v. 

28. IV resembles our v, but in pronouncing it the 
upper teeth should not be allowed to touch the lower 
lip, as is done in uttering the English v. This sound is 
indicated by a w marked thus, w. 

29. Z and tz sound like ts. 


No general rule can be given for the accent of German 
words or names : it may be remarked, however, that the 
penultimate accent occurs much less frequently than in 
the Spanish or the Italian language. The German accent 
is in all respects very similar to the English, differing 
widely from the Spanish and entirely from the French. 
It is proper to observe, however, that the secondary 
accent on compound German words or names is more 
distinctly marked than it would be in English in the 
same situation : thus, the English say Pe ters-burg, with 
scarcely any appreciable accent on the last syllable, 
while the Germans say Pe ters-burg , (pa ters-booRC/,) 
the last accent being distinctly marked, though decidedly 
less than the first. 

It is a rule in German that an accented vowel ending 
a syllable is long, as in a ber, (a ber,) "but," ge ben, 
(ga ben,) to "give," Vd ter, (fa ter,) "father," Id ben, (to 
" praise.") The vowel is considered to end the syllable 
when followed by a single consonant in the middle of a 
word, in which case the consonant always goes to the 
following vowel, as in the instances above cited ; but, if 
the vowel is followed by a consonant in the same syllabic, 
it is generally short, as in fal len, (to " fall,") Mnt tcr, 
("mother,") etc. But to this last remark there are 
several exceptions. In declinable words ending in a 
single consonant, whether monosyllables or dissyllables, 
with the accent on the ultima, the syllable on which the 
stress of the voice is laid is long, as Bliit, ("blood,") gut, 
("good,") Graf, ("count,") Eugen, ("Eugene,") and so 
on. This exception may be said to follow almost as a 
matter of course from the first part of the foregoing rule ; 
for if the vowel in such words as Grafwas short, then in 
the genitive and dative (Grafts, Grafe) it must also be- 
short, thus violating the rule referred to, or else be the 
cause of a very objectionable and inconvenient irregu 
larity, by making in the same word the nominative and 
accusative short and the genitive and dative long. The 
letters and h have the effect of making long the vowel 
which precedes them. (See 20 of this section, Observa 
tion 2.) 


1. A a (alpha) is like a in far. 

2. E e (epsilon) is like a in fate. 

3. H 77 (eta) is like ee in English. 


4. I i (iota) is like e in me or i in fin. 

5. O o (omicron) is like o in English. 

6. T t; (upsilon) is nearly like the French ?/, (or it.) 

7. S2 u (omega) is like o in English, there being no 
difference between this and omicron in prose ; in poetry 
u is longer. 

8. A is like a in _/>/f. 

9. E< and <M sound like ee in English. 

10. Oy is like our 00. 

11. B 5 (beta) is like v in English.* 

12. F 7 (gamma) is like g hard, as in , . 

13. A <5 (delta) is like /// in //it s, (th.) 

14. Z (zeta) is like the English z. 

15. 9 (theta) is like //; in // . 

16. K K (kappa) is like /. 

17. A A (lambda) is like /. 

1 8. M n (mu) is like m. 

19. N v (nu) is like . 

20. H f (xi) is like x. 

21. II TT (pi) is usually like the English /; but after , 
(m) it is like b: e.g. t-uTtopof is pronounced em bo-ros.* 

22. P p (rho) is similar to the German r. 

23. ~L a c; (sigma) is like the English s. 

24. T - (tau) is usually like the English t ; after v, (n,) 
however, it is sounded like d: e.g. evrbr is pronounced 
en- do/ . 

25. T v, (consonant,} when before a vowel or the liquids 
/, m, n, r, is like our v: e.g. avepvu is pronounced av-a- 
rii o, ni ?.df, 3.v-los , avpiov, av re-on ; in other cases it is 
like f: e.g. AsvKatYia (Leucadia) is pronounced lef-ka- 
Ihee a. 

26. <I> o (phi) is equivalent to our f. 

27. X x (chi) is similar to ch in German. 

28. i i/ (psi) is like fs in English. 


As in the case of classical names we have not at 
tempted to give the ancient Latin or Greek pronunciation, 
so we have never aimed to give the ancient Hebrew pro 
nunciation of Scripture names. Nevertheless, that such 
of our readers as may happen to be ignorant of Hebrew 
may be furnished with a key to the Hebrew forms of 
these names, as well as for purposes of comparison with 
other languages, we have thought it necessary to present 
the following table, exhibiting the form and power of the 
Hebrew letters : 





a lef 

beth or bath 

gimel or gee mel 

da leth 

he or ha 

vav or vauv 

za yin 

iieth or Hath 

let or tat 



v, b 


d or dh 


(like the Arabic ) 



* As the modern Greeks have no letter corresponding to our l>, 
in order to represent this letter in words or names from other lan 
guages they employ /J.TT : as Mwao-pa, BASRA or BASSORA, M77a/X7raj, 
I A DO, etc. 










$ kaf 

la medh 

mem or mam 
jt nun or noon 

sa mek 

a yin 

pe or pa 

tsa da 

resh or rash 
shin or sheen 


kh, k 


a (like the Arabic _) 

ph, p (nearly equivalent 
to the Arabic .) 

k (like the Arabic 

sh, s 

th, t (nearly equivalent 
to the Arabic ,) 


1. Hindostanee is the name given to the language formed 
by the interfusion of the native Hindoo dialects with the 
Persian, which was introduced into India chiefly by the 
conquering Mongols under Baber and his successors. It 
was called Hindostanee or Hindustani (hin-dus-tan ee) 
because it originated in Hindostan,J which is still its 
principal seat, although the language is extensively spoken 
not only throughout the whole of India proper, but also 
in Afghanistan and Beloochistan. It is also frequently 
called Oorcloo or Urdu, (oor doo ,) or [the " language of 
the] camp," because it was in the camp or army that the 
intermixture of the Persian wilh the Hindoo languages 
first took place. In writing Hindostanee, the Persian 
alphabet, with some slight modifications, is commonly 
employed, though the Nagaree (Nagari) is not unfre- 
quently made use of. (See Sections XIII. and XVIII.) 

2. The pronunciation of the Hindostanee nearly corre 
sponds in all essential points with the Persian ; perhaps 
the only differences of any importance are in the sound 
of the short a Nagaree, which, following the Sanscrit 
pronunciation of that vowel, is usually like our short n, 
as in but, ihe nasal ;/, (seldom found in Persian,) in Ihe 
sounds of kh, gh, th, dh, etc., and in those of the lingual 
(or cerebral) d, /, and r. (See Section XVIII. for the 
mode of distinguishing, as well as for the pronunciation 
of, these letters.) 

3. Care should be taken not to apply the pronunciation 
of India to Persian and Arabic names of persons who 
have never had anything to do with India. While it may 
not be improper to pronounce the name of the great 
Akbar uk ber, for, though an Arabic name, it was 
doubtless so called by a large majority of his subjects, 
it would be inexcusable for an Englishman (except 
when talking with Hindoos) to pronounce the name of 
the Arabian prophet Mo-hum miid or Moo-hum mud, 
as it is nearly always called by the natives of India. 
(See Table on page 18.) 

Ons. There is a remarkable general analogy, both in their history 
and in their composition, between the Hindostanee and the English 

t These characters are called terminal, being used only at the end 
of a word or name. 

% It may be remarked that HINDOKTAN or HINDOOSTAN, (the 
"country of the Hindoos,") in its strict and original signification, 
was applied only to India north of the Vindhya Mountains. The ap 
plication of the name to the entire peninsula is comparatively recent. 


languages. In both tongues the staple (if we may use the terrn 
was furnished by the native dialects of the country, while the higher 
style of speech, and particularly the language of the court, was for a 
long time that of the conquerors, Norman-French or Persian ; and 
even after the amalgamation of the language of the conquerors am 
that of the conquered had taken place to a great extent, it was in both 
countries regarded as a mark of rank and high breeding lo introduce 
into conversation and into written composition as large an admixture 
of the former as possible. The analogy may be extended still further : 
as the Norman- French was not the original language of the Normans, 
so the Persian was not the original language of the Mongol conquerors 
of India, but derived from one of the countries which they had sub 
dued and in which they had established themselves. 


1. A, unaccented, is like o in not ; with an accent, (a,) it 
sounds as a \\\far, and is always long : thus, Aba Uj-vdr, 
the name of a town, is pronounced ob oh oo e-vSR. 

2. E, unaccented, is like e in met ; with an accent, (</,) 
it has a sound intermediate between in met and i mpit, 
but more prolonged. 

3. /, andjy when a vowel, sound like e in me, or i \njlg. 

4. O, without an accent, is the same as in English ; 
when accented, (6,) it has a longer and deeper sound. 

5. [7, without an accent, is like oo in English ; with 
the accent, (ii,} its sound is fuller and deeper. 

6. Oe or ii, and tie or ii, are the same as in German. 

7. The consonants b, d,f, h, k, /, m, n,p, t, v, z, are like 
the English. 

8. C is not used without being joined with some 
other consonant ; cs is sounded like ch in English ; 
cz, like ts. 

9. G, except when followed by/orj, is alsvays hard, 
as in the English word^. Gk sounds like a simple^-. 

10. yis usually like e in English; nj is pronounced 
oo-e. Dj and gj are equivalent to dy and gy, and tj to ty. 
(See 16, 17, and 20 of this Section.) 

11. R is like the German ; in other words, it is to be 
trilled more strongly than the English. 

12. S is like the English sh. 

13. Sz is like s sharp, or ss. 

14. Ts is equivalent to cs, (or ch in English.) 

15. Tz is like cz, (or ts in English.) 

1 6. Y, in Hungarian, is nearly always a consonant. 
When it follows d, g, I, n, and t, it seems to be blended 
with these letters, so as to form but one consonant sound. 

17. Dy and gy are alike. Magyar ^ pronounced mod - 

1 8. Ly is like I in Spanish, or Hi in the English word 
million. Vdsdrhely is pronounced in three syllables, 
va shtR-hel. 

19. TVyis like the Spanish , or / in minion. Mdrtony 
is pronounced in two syllables, mSn ton. 

20. Ty approximates the sound of our ch, bearing the 
same relation to / that dy does to d. 

21. Zs is sounded like the French/, or zh in English. 
OBS. In Hungarian, the accent usually falls on the first syllable. 



I. A, in Italian, is like the English a in far, though its 
sound varies somewhat in different situations.* 

* There are a number of niceties in Italian pronunciation, which, 

however interesting to a thorough linguist, cannot properly be noticed 

in a work like the present. The difficulty of giving a brief and at the 

same time a satisfactory exposition of the principles of this language 


2. E has two sounds : (i.) close, like a mfaie; (2.) open, 
like e in met. 

3. / is like e in me, or i \\\fig. 

4. O has two sounds : (i.) close, as in note ; (2.) open, 
similar to o in not, but rather broader. 

5. U is like oo in English. 

6. At and ati, in Italian, are proper diphthongs. (See 
VI. 14, Observation.) Accordingly, CAIRO is to be pro 
nounced ki ro, AUSA, ow sa, etc. 

7. The consonants l>, d, f, /, m, n, p, q, s, t, and v are 
similar to the English. 

OBS. K, iv, x, and j/are not used by the Italians, except in spelling 
foreign names. 

8. C and cc, before a, o, and u, are sounded like k ; be 
fore e, i, andjy, like ch or tsh. 

OBS. Cc should be pronounced more strongly than a singlet. This 
remark will apply to all double letters in Italian, as well as in most 
other languages. 

9. As c, when immediately before a, o, or u, is never 
pronounced like ch, in order to express this sound in 
such cases, the vowel i is inserted : thus, da, do, du, 
are pronounced c/iz, cho, choo. (See table at the end of 
this Section.) 

10. Ch is employed to express the sound of k before e 
and /. 

11. G, before a, o, and n, is hard, as in the English word 
get ; before e, i, and_y, it sounds like the English/: gia, 
gio, giti, are pronounced/a, jo,joo. (See table at the end 
of this Section.) 

12. Gh is used to express the sound of harcl^, before 
e and * . 

13. Gli has the sound of the liquid /, (I,) or of Hi in 
million: thus, BOGLIO is pronounced bol yo. 

14. Gn has the same sound as in French ; in other 
words, it is like the Spanish n: e.g. BOLOGNA is pro- 
lounced bo-lon ya. 

15. //is never sounded in Italian. 

16. y, at the beginning of a syllable, is like the Eng 
lish;)/) (consonant ;) at the end of a word it is equivalent 
to ii, (in Italian.) 

17. R resembles the French, but is trilled somewhat 
more strongly. (See V. 24.) 

18. Sc, before e and i, is like the English sh : e.g. Scio 
is pronounced shee o. 

19. Z commonly has the sound of dz in English ; zz 
is generally pronounced like ts. But to both these rules 
there are a number of exceptions. (See Monti s Italian 
Grammar, p. 4 and pp. 206-208.) 

The follosving table will perhaps enable the readet 
more readily to understand the mode in which c and ch, 
^and^//, are employed by the Italians : 

ca is pronounced k3. 
che " " kA. 
chi " ke. 
co " " ko. 
cu " " koo. 
cia ! " chi. 
ce " " cha. 
ci " " che. 
cio " " cho. 
ciu " " choo. 
Oiss. In Italian, the accent of \ 
on the penultima; but to this gene 

ga is pronounced gJ. 
ghe " " gA. 
ghi " fe. 
go " " S- 
gu " " goo. 
gia " " jl 
ge " ji. 
g> " " je. 
gio " " jo. 
gin " joo. 
vords ending in a vowel is usually 
ral rule there are many exceptions. 

is increased by the existence of different dialects indifferent parts of 
Italy. It has been deemed sufficient, in this synopsis, -merely to ex- 
ilain those principles of pronunciation which appearto be recognized 
by the Italians generally. 




As a written language, the Norwegian may be said to 
be identical with the Danish, since not only the gram 
mar, but, with very few exceptions, the words, of both, 
are precisely the same. In pronunciation, however, the 
Norwegians differ widely from the Danes, while these, 
again, differ considerably among themselves. Under 
Section III. we have given the elements of Danish 
pronunciation as the language is spoken by the educated 
classes in Copenhagen. The principal points of differ 
ence between this and the Norwegian appear to be the 
following: (i.) d in the latter tongue always has its 
proper sound, while in the Danish it is often pronounced 
like the English th : (2.) g at the end of a word, in Nor 
wegian, is usually sounded distinctly as^hard in English ; 
(3.) e at the end of a word always retains its distinct 
sound ; (4.) on is like the Dutch and English on, (fov.) 


1. Under this general term we include all those lan 
guages which are neither written in Roman letters nor 
in characters that can readily be converted i-.ito corre 
sponding Roman letters. (See Preface, p. vi.) In this 
sense it would embrace not merely the Asiatic languages, 
to which the term "Oriental" is commonly limited, but 
also the Russian, which may in one sense be said to 
form the connecting link between the Asiatic and Eu 
ropean tongues. It is proposed under this head to offer 
some remarks and explanations respecting the causes 
of the perplexity and confusion in which the whole 
subject of Oriental orthography seems at first sight so 
hopelessly involved. By a reference to what has been 
said on the different sounds of the Arabic tongue, (see 
Section I.,) it will readily be seen that, from the different 
modes employed to represent with Roman letters the 
sounds of many of the Arabic characters, an almost 
endless diversity may, or rather must, result in regard 
to the spelling of names in which those characters occur. 
The confusion is not a little increased by the fact that 
the same character has a different power according as 
it is employed by Arabian, Persian, or Indian writers. 

2. As an illustration of the foregoing remarks, we may 
take Olx, an Oriental surname, signifying a " redresser 
of wrongs." In this name each of the four letters may be 
represented in two or more different ways : I. the f. may 
be represented either by^or^// ; 2. the (j: may be repre 
sented by j, /, or (supposing it to be doubled) by iy, and 
(in English) by ey or e ; 3. the I by d, d, and (in English) 
an ; 4. the o may be represented by th or s, (or ss.) 
The name may then be written (without impropriety) by 
European writers in the following modes : First, as an 
Arabic name, in which the o retains its proper sound : 
Ghiyath, Giyath, Gheath, Geath, Ghiyauth, Giyauth, 
Gheauth, and Geauth. Secondly, as a Persian or Hin- 
dostanee name, in which the o is represented by a sharp 
s or ss: Ghiyas, Giyas, Gheas, Geas, Ghiaus, Giaus, Ghe- 
aus,* and Geans. These sixteen spellings are not all the 
modes which might legitimately be used to represent the 
above name of four Arabic letters, but they are, perhaps, 
amply sufficient to illustrate what has been said above. 

3. Another source of perplexity in regard to names of 

* So written by Sir John Malcolm. 

Arabic origin is the difference which obtains in the pro 
nunciation of the fatha, (short a.) In Western Asia it 
often approaches very nearly the sound of e in met, (as in 
U^j Yemen, (yem en,) the name of Arabia Felix,) while 
in some of the eastern parts of Persia the fatha is pro 
nounced nearly like a, and in India it is sounded like 
our short it, (as in tub.) Accordingly, in Eastern Persia 
they say yam an, and in India yiim un, for Arabia Felix. 

4. The pronunciation of the Arabic article is of itself 
often the cause of much perplexity, first, by the frequent 
change of the / to correspond with the sound of the 
initial letter of the following word, (see I. 33,) and, 
secondly, by the change of the vcnvel, which is variously 
sounded, commonly as al or el, often as ool, and some 
times as ul. Hence we \\3MzAbd-cl-Malek, Abd-al-Malek, 
Abd-ool-Malek, (written also Abd-iil-Malek or Abd-onl- 
Malik:) Abd-al- Rahman, Abd-el-Rahman, Abdar-Rah- 
man, Abderrahman, Abdurrahman, or Abdmirrahman. 

As it would be wholly out of the question for us in 
every instance to give all the different spellings of Ori 
ental names, and we have not attempted to do so, except 
in the case of a very few of great celebrity, (such as Jengis 
Khan,) we have thought it might be useful to give the 
following table, by glancing at which the reader will 
perhaps acquire a greater practical facility in identifying 
names which at first sight may appear wholly different 
from each other, than he could by a more elaborate or 
more scientific explanation of the causes of such diver 
sity. At the same time, that he may, if he desires to do 
so, clearly understand the principles which lie at the 
bottom of all this apparent confusion, we shall refer by 
numbers (indicated by figures included in a parenthesis) 
to the explanations and remarks made when speaking of 
the Arabic alphabet, (see Section I.,) where also we have 
pointed out the chief differences between the power of the 
letters in that tongue and in the Persian and Hindostanee. 


Aboo-Bekr, Abu-Beer, Aboubecre, Abu-Bakr, (30,)! 
Abou- (or Abu-) Beker (or -Bekr,) Ebubekr, Uboo- 
Bekr or Ul/oo-Btikr,} (or -Bnk ker.) 

Aboo- (Abou- or Abu-) Talib, (or -Taleb,) Ebu-Thalib, 
Ub oo-Ta leb. 

Adhad-ed-Daulah, 2 Adadoddaulah, Azad-ed-Daulah, 
(or -Dowlah,) (15,) Uz ud-ud-Dow lah. 

Adherbijan, Aderbijan, Azerbaijan, (g.)t 

1 The "father of the virgin," (i.e. of Ayeshah.) 
a The "arm (or defender) of the state." 

t The use of the numerals in parenthesis will be clearly seen from 
the following examples. Under Aboo-Bel<rwe find 30. By a reference 
to this number in Section I., (note t,) we find that fatha is sounded 

sometimes like X, sometimes 

?, and sometimes like it; hence the 

variations of Bakr, Bekr, and Bnkr or Bitkker. Under Adherbijan 
we are referred to g in Section I., where we find that while the >_>, 
as an Arabic letter, is commonly represented by dh or d, it lias in Per 
sian the sound of 2: and so on. 

t Major Price, in his " Mahommedan History," (London, iSn,) 
writes the name Abu-Bukker, somewhat inconsistently, since the 
first part of the name (Abu) is written with the Italian or German 
vowels, while the second (Bukker) is written in the English mode, 
a mode, moreover, which no Englishman would be likely to use who 
had not acquired his pronunciation of the name in India. A worse 
inconsistency is found in Major Stewart s spelling of the name of 
Hoomayoon, (Houmaioon,) in which the first and second parts of 
the name are French, and the third English. He should either have 
written it Houmaioun or Houmayoun, or else Hoomayoon. 

So generally pronounced in India. 



Aclh-Dhahabee, 1 (or -Dhahabi,) (9,) Al-Dzahabi, Uz- 
Zu hiibee,* (30.) 

Akbar, J Akber, Ekbcr, Uk biir,* (sometimes improp 
erly written Akhbar and Ackbar.) 

Alee, 3 Ali, Aly, (or Ally,)-Ul ee.* 

Al-kahir-Billah, 4 Al-Qahir-t (or Qaher-) Billah, (21.) 

Baber, Babar, or Baubur. 

Bayazee.d, Bayezeed, Bayazid ; Bajasid, (German ;) 
sometimes corrupted into Bajazet. 

Fereedoon, Feridoun, Feridun, Fureedoon ; written 
also Pheridun or Phcridoun. 

Firdousee, Firdausi, Ferdou9y, Firdousi, Firdusi, 
Ferdosi. (For die signification of this name, see FIR 
DOUSEE, in the body of the work.) 

Hassan, 5 Ha9an, (14,) Hussun.J 

Hoolakoo, Houlakou, Hulaku or Iloolagoo, Houla- 
gou, Hulagu. 

Hoomayoon, 6 Houmayoun, Humayun or Humayoon, 

Isfendiyar, Asfandiyar, Isfundear.J 

Jehan- (or Jahan-) Geeiy Djehan-Ghyr, Djahan-Guire, 
Dschehan- (or Dschahan-) Gir. 

Kai-Kaoos, Kai-Kaous, Kai-Kaus, Key-Kawuss. 

Kereem,* (or Kareem,) Kerim, Karim, Carim, Kur- 

Khadijah, (or Khadeejah,) Chadidsha or Khadid- 
schah, Khadidjah or Khadidja, Kadijah. 

Khaled, dialed, Caled. 

Khaleel, Chalil, Kliulleel.t 

Lokman, Locman, Loqinan, (21,) Lockmaun. 

Mahmood-Abool-Kasim- (or Kasem-) Yemeen-ed- 
Dow- lah, 3 Mahmoud- Abul - Ka9em -Yemin -eddaulah, 

Mansoor, 10 (Al,) Mansour or Man^our, (14,) Mansur, 

Meerza," Mirza, Mirsa, (German.) 

Moaweeyah, Moawiah, Moawiyah, Moawije and Mua- 
wijjah, (German,) Moaveah, Mauweiah, (in Latin, 

Modhafar, - Modhofar, Mozaffer, Mozuffur, Muzuffer, 
Mooziiffur,J (17.) 

Mohammed, 13 Mahomed, Mahomet, Muhammed, Me- 
hemet, Moohummud,* (moo-hiim miid.) 

Nadir Shah, 4 Nadir (or Nader) Chah, Nadir Schah, 
Nauder Shah. 

Nasir-ed-Deen, ls Nassireddyn, Nacireddin, (14,) Nas- 
ser-u-deen, Nausser-ud-deen. 

Nizamee, Nizami, Nisami, Nidhami, (17.) 

Noor-ed-Deen 16 or Nour-ed-Din, Nour-u-deen, Nour- 
eddyn, Nureddin. 

1 "The golden." a The "great," or "greatest." 

3 "High," "eminent," "noble." 4 "Victorious through God." 

"Beautiful," "handsome," "good." 

"Fortunate," "blessed." ~ "Conqueror of the world." 

"Bountiful," "generous," "merciful." 

3 Yemeen-ed-Dowlah signifies "right hand of the state (or empire.") 

10 "The victorious." 

11 I.e. Meer-7.dd, or Ameer-Zad, "son of a prince." 
11 "Victorious." "Praised." 

14 " Wonderful king." "> " Defender of the faith." 

" "Light of the faith. V 

* Sometimes so written and so pronounced by the English in 
India. (See Section IX. 3.) 

t Sir G. Wilkinson writes the name of the celebrated capital of 
Egypt (Cairo) Qahera. 

% So written by Sir John Malcolm, and so pronounced in India. 


Nousheerwan, Noushirwan, Nauschirwan or Naoti- 
chirwan, Nuschirwan. (See KHOSROO, in the body of 
this work.) 

Omeyyah, Ommeyah, Ommaiah, Umeyyah, Omaee ; 
(in German,) Omajjah, Omijjah, or Umaijjah. 

Othman, Osman, Otman, (or Ottoman.) 

Roostam, Roostum, Roustam, Roustem, Rnstain, Rus- 

Shah-Alam 11 (or -Aulum,) Chah-Alani (or -Alem,) 

Shah-Jehan 1 (or -Jahan,) Chah- Djclian, Schah- 
Dschehan or Schah-Dschahan. 

Sooleyman, Suleiman, Solyman, Soliman, Souleyman. 

Soovorof, Souvorof, Suworow, Suwarow, Su war row, 
Souvarof, Suvaroff, Suvorow. 

Taimoor or Teemoor, Timour, Taimour, Taimur or 
Timur, Tamerlane. 19 

Yakoob, Yacoob, Yakoub, Yacoub, Yakub ; Jakub, 

Yazeed or Yezeed, Yazid or Yczid; Jezid, (Dutch ;) 
Jasid or Jesid, (German.) 

Yoozuf, Yoosoof, Youzouf or Youzef, louzef; Jusuf or 
Jusef, (German.) 

The following table of names of a certain kind, classi 
fied according to their spelling in the four principal 
European languages, will, it is believed, furnish a key 
to many of the difficulties which the reader is likely to 
meet with in works on Oriental history or biography : 



























The first of the above spellings are based on the sup 
position that the initial consonant in the Mongol name 
had the sound of our ch ; while those below (Jengis, etc.) 
rest on the supposition that the initial letter had tin; 
sound of/. On this question the best Oriental authori 
ties are not agreed. It very probably had a sound 
somewhat differing from either. 
















Giaafar, etc. 











Djamschid, etc. 

of the universe. 

A corruption of Taimoor-len;; or Timur-lenk, i.e. "Taimoor 

Gibbon, the historian, writes the name Zingis. 

II It is extremely common for French writers, in spelling Oriental or 
Russian names, to use sch instead of ch, which is more strictly French. 
It has not been deemed necessary to present in the table every pos 
sible form, such as Djamschyd, Djemschyd, Dgemchid, Dgemchyd, 
etc., although these would be perfectly legitimate French spellings. 



Jnlian Geer,* 
Jehan Gecr 





Djabanguire, etc 



Dschahangir,* Giahanghir. 
Dschehangir, Gehanghir, 


Noor-ed-Deen,* Nonreddin,* 
Noor-nd-deen, Nourecldyn. 



Shah-Jeli &n, 


Chadidscha, Cadigia. 

Mirsa or Mirza. Mirsa or Mirza. 
Nisami, Nisanii. 

Nureddin,* NureHdin. 

Schah-Dschahan,Sciah Giahan. 
Schah-Dschehan, Sciach Giacan. 





Zeid or Zeyd, 











lou/.ef, etc., 









Any number of instances might be cited in which re 
spectable English writers use in the same work, and, it 
may be, in the same sentence, the English, French, and 
German orthography indiscriminately, as Aboo, Abort, 
or Abu, Abool-Katisim, Aboul-Kassim, Abul-Kassim, 
Arghoun, Feridoon, etc. etc. This is unquestionably a 
serious defect in any work, as in most cases the reader 
must be wholly at a loss to determine what sound the 
writer intends to convey ; yet the universal prevalence 
of this practice, and the absence of any settled orthog 
raphy in regard to Oriental names, may be justly urged 
as some extenuation. But there is another very common 
fault, which in our view is far more objectionable, that 
of combining French and English or English and Ger 
man orthography in the snmc name : as, Abou-Yusoof, 
(in which the second syllable is French, the third Ger 
man, and the fourth English,) Abou-Aly-Sumjoovee, (in 
which the first part is French, and the second and third 
English,) Aboushirwan, Aboul-Kausim, (in both of which 
the second syllable is French, and the third English,) 
Abulfiraclge, (Aboolfaraj,) (in which the second syllable 
is German, and the fourth French,) Nour-u-dcen-Mah- 
mood, (in which the first syllable is French, and all the 
rest English.) 

All the examples last cited, and most of the others, 
arc taken from Sir John Malcolm s " History of Persia," 

* It may be proper to observe that compound names, like the 
above, ( as Jahangeer or Djahanguir, Noureddm or Nureddin, etc., 

lav bi 

divided into the 

eparate parts, 

according to the option of the writer. Thus, we may write Jahangeer 
or Jahan-Geer, Djahanguir or Djahan-Gnir ; Nooreddeen, Noor-ed- 
Deen. Nomeddin, (or Noureddyn, ) Nour-ed-Din, Nour-Kddin, 
or Nour Eddyn : etc. etc. We have, however, in giving the Eng 
lish spellings, generally preferred to divide the names into their 
separate parts, which appears to accord with the general usage of 
our language in regard to compound words of modern origin. 

t It may be remarked that French writers sometimes, though 
rarely, use zh instead of j in order to represent the sound of the 
Russian }K. The Germans often employ sh (s in German being 
usually equivalent to our 2) for the same purpose. 

a work of decided merit, whose author was not wanting 
either in the learning or judgment required to produce 
a work essentially free from the above defects, had his 
attention been directed to the great importance of con 
sistency and uniformity in writings of this kind. 


1. The modern Persian is a mixed product formed by 
the union of words derived from the different Aryan 
dialects of ancient Persia with the Arabic, which was 
introduced into the language by the Mohammedan con 
querors of the country. The mixture of these hetero 
geneous elements may be aptly compared to that of oil 
and water. As in such a mixture we see portions or 
masses of each ingredient in contact, but not combined 
or assimilated with each other, so in modem Persian 
we often find the Aryan and Semitic elements thrown 
together side by side, without the slightest attempt to 
assimilate or combine them into a harmonious whole. 
We constantly meet with scraps of pure Arabic not 
merely phrases, but even whole sentences introduced 
bodily into a passage of which all the rest is Persian, 
both in etymology and grammatical construction. J 

2. The Persian alphabet includes, along with the 
twenty-eight Arabic letters, these four additional ones: 
v_J, (p,) . , (zh,) , (ch,) and u3, (g.) The following 
characters have, in Persian, a totally different power 
from that given them in the Arabic alphabet, viz. : 
O, jjir, and _, which are pronounced like z, and O, 
which takes the sound of s. This diversity of sound, as 
might naturally be expected, often causes much confu 
sion, because European writers are apt to spell the name 
according to the language with which they happen to be 
most familiar : thus, one who is familiar with Arabic and 
but little acquainted with Persian, as pronounced by the 
natives of that country, will write Adherbijan, Modhafer 
or Modhofar, while those who have learned the pronun 
ciation of these names in Persia or India will write 
Azerbijan, Mozafer or IMozaffcr. 

3. The Persian has also two vowel-sounds unknown to 
the Arabic, namely, e and <>. These sounds of yd and 
ivaw are usually distinguished from the common Arabic 
sounds of the same letters (namely, / or ee and A. or oo) 
by the Arabic epithet Mltjhool or Majhtil, (signifying 
" unknown,") or Ajcmec, ( Ajcmi,) (i.e. " Persian,") while 
the ordinary sound is designated by the term Mtfroof, 
(Mti rfif,) that is, " known" or " familiar." 

4. It may be observed that the long a (a) in Persian 
is considerably broader than the long a in Arabic or in 
Sanscrit, though the pronunciation varies somewhat in 
different provinces. In the city of Shiraz (where it is 
claimed that the best Persian is spoken) the sound of a 
is scarcely, if at all, less broad than in the English words 
awe, fat I, etc. 

t Sir William Jones, in the Preface to his "Persian Grammar," 
gives a very striking illustration of the difference between the crude 
mixture of different ingredients composing the modern Persian, and 
the more thoroughly assimilated elements of our own tongue, by the 
following parallel sentences. The first, exhibiting the structure of 
the English language, is from Middleton s " Life of Cicero," (vol. iii. 
P- 35 : ) "The true law is right reason conformable to the nature of 
things; which calls us to duty bv commanding, deters us from sin by 
forbidding." The composition of the Persian is similar to the follow 
ing: "The true lex is recta ratio conformable naturec, which by 
commanding vocet ad officinal, by forbidding b fraud* deterrent." 





1. A sounds as a in the English wordy<zr. 

2. E, without an accent, like*? in met ; with an accent, 
(</,) like a \\\ fate. 

3. /as in marine. 

4. 6>, unaccented, as in note ; with an accent, like oo in 
^w0</, or do. 

5. /is like oo in moon. 

6. Y resembles e in me, but is more guttural, being 
similar to * \\\ pin. 

7. A sounds nearly like on in French, (ON ;) e is in in 
French, (or aN.) 

8. The consonants b, d,f,g, (always hard,) A, k, m, n, 
[>, s, (always sharp,) t and z, are essentially the same as 
in English. 

9. C in all cases, even before a or o, sounds like ts in 
English ; cz is equivalent to our ch ; ck is like the Ger 
man ch. 

10. yis like the German, being equivalent to_y con 

n. L (without any mark) is similar to our /, but 
softer ; I is very hard, somewhat resembling the // of the 

12. A is like the German. 

13. W\s> similar to the German, resembling our v. 

14. N, with an accent over it, (;/,) sounds like the 
Spanish n. 

15. S, marked in a similar manner, (r,) has a sound 
blending that of s and y consonant. Sc has a sound 
which cannot be given in English : its nearest approxi 
mation in our language is sts. 

16. Sz is equivalent to sh in English. 

17. Z, with a point over it, (4,) is like the French y, or 
zh in English. 

18. Z, with an accent, (z,) is somewhat similar to the 
above, but has no equivalent in our language. 

OBS. i. The accent in Polish words or names ot more than one 
syllable is nearly always on the penultima. 

OBS. 2. The sounds of the letters in Slavonian, Bohemian, and 
Illyrian correspond, with slight exceptions, to those of the Polish 


1. The vowels a, e, i, o, n, and y, and the diphthongs 
li, ay, au,* are essentially the same as in Spanish. 

2. Ao and am are pronounced almost ^roN. 

3. The consonants />, d,f, /, m, , p, s, f, v, and z arc 
similar to the English. 

4. C is the same as in French, differing from the Eng 
lish only by sometimes having the cedilla. 

5. Ch is the same as in French, or, in other words, is 
like our sh. 

6. G and j are the same as in French. (See V. 15 
and 17.) 

7. H, in Portuguese, is always silent. When, how 
ever, it follows / or , it renders these letters liquid: 
thus, filho ("son") is pronounced feel yoo or fel yo ; 
senhora, ("lady,") san-yo ra, etc. 

8. M frequently, and sometimes, has a nasal sound. 
Sam, like sao, is pronounced almost soux ; alem or aleit 
sounds like a-lex . 

* / and <yare almost the same as in Spanish, but have a sound 
sometimes approaching that of the English long z . 

9. Qit is pronounced as in French, the n in this case 
not being sounded. 

10. R is like the French. (See V. 24.) 

11. .A is sounded like ch in Portuguese, m sh in English. 
OBS. In Portuguese the general rules of accentuation ave similar 

to those in the Spanish language. (See XIX. Obs. i.) 


The Russian is the most important of all the Slavic 
family of languages, not merely on account of its being 
the tongue of one of the most powerful and most popu 
lous empires in the world, but it is probably not inferior, 
viewed simply as a vehicle of expression, to any other 
member of that family, if we take into consideration all 
the qualities which go to form a good language, such as 
softness, flexibility, variety, richness, and force. Al 
though some of its consonants TT{ ; for example seem 
sufficiently harsh to an English ear, it is much softer 
than the Polish, and is mostly free from that concourse 
of consonants! which makes the latter tongue so formi 
dable to foreigners. 

The power of the greater number of the Russian letters 
is perhaps sufficiently explained in the table on the 
opposite page. The following, however, require some 
additional explanation : 

1. r sounds usually nearly like our hard g, but is some 
what more guttural, as if an aspirate were mingled with 
the other sound. Occasionally it is pronounced like k, 
and not (infrequently, when at the end of words, like 
the German ch. It also has sometimes nearly the sound 
of our h : and, as the Russians have no other letter to 
represent h in foreign names, they use F for this purpose. 
Thus, they would write Kopengagen for Copenhagen. 

2. E, though generally possessing the pronunciation 
indicated in the table, (a or ya,) in some cases takes the 
sound of yo or e-o ; it is then usual to mark it thus, e, 
as Hece re, "you carry," (pronounced nes-yo te or 

OBS. i. Tlie omission of this mark sometimes leads to important 
errors: thus, Fcodor, ("Theodore,") always in three syllables, is 
not {infrequently written and pronounced by foreigners Fedor. 

OBS. 2. The varying sound of e (>i or y.l) will explain why certain 
names beginning with this vowel are written sometimes with an 
initial E and sometimes with Y, as Ekaterinoslaf ov Yekaterinoslaf, 
Elisavetgrad or Yelisavetgmd, etc. 

3. K is usually sounded as in English, but in certain 
positions it takes the sound of kh, (or the German ch.) 

4. J has usually the same sound as the English /, but 
when followed by the hard semi-vowel i>, or by the 
vowels a, o, y, (pa,} it is similar to the Polish -h 

5. The hard semi-vowel T> imparts to the preceding 
consonant a strong harsh sound, as if it were doubled. 
When preceded by n (v) it changes the sound of this 
consonant into that olfmff; as, op-iOB B, pronounced 
or-loff . Following >K, it changes the sound of this letter 
into sk ; as, HO>K1>, pronounced nosh. In like manner, 
when it follows f\^\\. changes its sound to t ; and so on. 

6. The soft semi-vowel i> usually imparts a soft or 
liquid sound to the preceding consonant. Thus, craHt 
is pronounced almost stan ; CTOrth, stol, etc. 

7. The semi-vowel & is placed after vowel with which 
it coalesces, forming but one syllable ; as, /VH pro 
nounced da"-! or di ; neii, pa-e or pa, etc. 

t As occurs, for example, in such Polish names as the following : 
. trzesc, i rzemysl, Skrzenkski, etc. etc. 


The Russian alphabet consists of thirty-six letters, as follows : 


































g or gfi 





K (like the German c/j) 















i or yi 



ch or tch (equivalent to the 






* 5 
















sh tcha 




e, ?, ye 





e mute (making the preceding 
consonant hard) 





6 or I 





e or we 


1 1. 








y, nearly mute 

ya rl 









yi or i 

ya ty or ya ti 






3 - 













u (yoo) or u 








ya or ye 


1 6. 




F i 













e, I 

ee /het-sa 

1 8. 








y, nearly mute, ( ike 
a half-uttered i.) 

e ori 



i. The Sanscrit* (i.e. the "elaborate" or "perfect" 
language) was the language used by the more highly 
cultivated portion of the ancient Aryan inhabitants 
of India, (see ARYA in the body of this work,) and is 
still the learned language of their descendants, the 
modern Hindoos.! It is regarded as the oldest of the 
Indo-European tongues. The character in which it is 
written is called Nagarif or Devanagari, (pronounced 
da va na ga-ree ,) and, like most other alphabets of the 
Indo-European family, it is written from left to right. 
The Nagari, (or Nagaree,) considered simply as a phonetic 
system, is perhaps the most perfect of human alphabets. 
It not only has a separate letter for every one of its 
elementary sounds, but it is also remarkable for its ad- 

* Written also Sanskrit and Sungskrit. The term is derived 
from the Sanscrit particle sftin, nearly equivalent to the Latin con, 
"together," (and, like it, often tised as an intensive,) and krita, 
" made" or " done. " It signifies " made or done thoroughly," and, 
hence, "elaborate," "complete," "perfect." 

t It may be said to bear nearly the same relation to the modern 
Hindoo dialects that the Latin bears lo the dialects of modern Italy. 

t Nagari [ from Nagara, a "city"] signifies "of the city, "and, hence, 
"refined" or "cultivated." Deva, (nearly related to the Latin Dens 
and Divas,} a Sanscrit word, denoting a "god" or "deity," was often 
applied as a term of honour to the Brahmans. (See " Institutes of 
Manu," ix. 317, 319.) Devanagari would appear, then, to signify the 
"cultivated (written) language of the gods, (or Brahmans,") the use 
of it having originally been for the most part, if not exclusively, con 
fined to the priestly caste. 

mirable classification of these sounds. It consists of 
fifty letters, of which fourteen are vowels and thirty-six 
consonants, besides various compound characters, which 
may be said to be merely abbreviated modes of writing 
two or three consonants together. 
2. The vowels are 

3; c-. u (or 60) 77 e 

or T a 

^ or ai (i.e. a e) 

3" T i Jf? ri (or ree) 3fJT T o 

3f T i (or ee) <?T II ^T T an (or 6u) 

3 ^ u (or 06) rR" H (or lee) 

Ons. It will be seen that most of the Sanscrit vowels have two 
forms : the first is used at the beginning of a clause or sentence, the 
other occurs in other positions, particularly in the middle of a word. 

3. The consonants are as follows : 

cFf k 

W kh 

5T g 

% gh 

3 ng 

^ ch 

^ chh 

^ j 

nr jh 

3T n 

~ t 

5 th 

3 d 

C dh 

TJT n 

?T t 

7T th 

C cl 

y dh 

^T n 

q- p 

TT ph 

^ b 

iT bh 

^7 m 

cT y 

<" r 

^ 1 

cT v 

1 lii 

OT sh 

cr sh 

^T s 

^ h 

. h|| 

The pronunciation of 5J, in modern India, is like that of our 
short n in but. It should be observed that ^J and <vT do not involve 
any sound of /, but are similar to our r and /. 

II To these may be added ^, Q,) occurring only in the Vedas. 

2 I 


4. The vowels are divided into 

Short, T% 3" ~3 3? <?[ 

Long, 337 3" 3T =f3T ? 

5. The Sanscrit letters may be classified as follows : 




Gutturals, 33" 5TT 3 Zfi & . *1 % ^ 

Palatals, 7^^" 0" 3T g- ^ sT f]7 5T 
Lineruals, ^T ^T T TTT 7T <7 T 7 T : 

y. \ 

Dentals, c?T r?T c<T ^T ?T T ? y T 
Labials, 33; 3" IT qTTTST^T 

6. The only Sanscrit sounds of frequent occurrence 
which present any serious difficulty to the European 
learner are the combinations of the mutes / , g, ch,j, t, 
d, t, d,p, and b with h, making kh, (&,)$&, (ST,) {/*, (?T>) al1 <l 
so on. It is important to observe that W has a totally 
different sound from the Arabic or Persian ^., (equivalent 
to the German ch ;) and 5" or V( is pronounced quite dif 
ferently from the Arabic O, or our th. The sound of 
kh, gh, th, dh. ph, and bh, in Sanscrit as well as in the 
modern Hindoo dialects, may be said to resemble that 
produced in such English phrases as "bake-house," 
"stag-horn," "hot-house," "bid him," "stop him," etc., 
when these words are pronounced quickly and yet very 
distinct! v; with this important difference, however, that the 
Indian mute and h are to be uttered with a single impulse 
of the voice, and never divided into separate syllables. 

1- The dental t (pr) and d, (5",) in Sanscrit, have 
essentially the same sound as the Arabic o and 0, (see 
Section I. 4 and 8;) but the lingual (cerebral) t () 
and d (Z) have no equivalent either in Arabic or Persian. 
They somewhat resemble the English t and d, but are 
formed by reverting the end of the tongue far back into 
the dome of the mouth : hence the name of cerebrals 
sometimes given to them.* The Hindostanee r{~r) is 
pronounced in a similar manner. (See 8 of this Section.) 

8. It may be observed that in the modern dialects 
of India, including Hindostanee, we have, in addition 
to the lingual and dental sounds of t and d, n lingual 
(or cerebral) r, (not found in Sanscrit.) The Sanscrit STITT 
(ghota,) a "horse," becomes in Hindostanee ghora; 
JTTiT, (Garuda,) the vahan of Vishnu, takes the modern 
form of garur, (pronounced gur oor.) In writing Hindo 
stanee with the Nagari alphabet, this lingual r is repre 
sented by 3" with a dot beneath, thus, T>, while in the 
ordinary (Persian) alphabet it is indicated thus, :: or y. 
The lingual t and d in the modern Nagari are written 
precisely as in Sanscrit; but in the common alphabet 
they are distinguished from o and J> either by having 
four dots, as dj, O, or by a stroke placed above, O, 5. 

9. In writing Sanscrit, 53" (d) is never expressed 
after a consonant, but it is implied after every consonant 
unless this be followed by another vowel or by the rest- 
sign : thus, chH^rl, (kml,) "lotus," is to be read kamala; 
but if the final consonant has the rest sign, it does not 
take the d after it, as 1-T^rT, (marut,) " wind." 

(For a fuller and more systematic exposition of the 
elements, etc. of the Sanscrit language, the reader is re 
ferred to the very able article, entitled "Sanscrit," by 
Professor Whitney, in the " New American Cyclopaedia.") 

* They are called in Sanscrit "mCirclhanya," (from murdhan, the 
"head,") because they seem to be pronounced more nearly in the 
centre of the head than any other class of letters. 


1. The Spanish a sounds as in the English word far ; 
t , like a in ale ; i, like e in mete ; o, as in English ; u, like 
oo ; andji/, (when a vowel,) like the Spanish /. 

2. Ai and ay are like long { j n English. An sounds 
like on in our. (See XVII. 13, Obs.) Ei and ey are 
pronounced a^e. 

3. The consonants^ /, (single,) m, n, />, s, t, and v are 
pronounced nearly as in English. 

4. B, at the beginning of a word, sounds as in English ; 
but when between two vowels its sound somewhat re 
sembles that of v, with this difference, v is pronounced 
with the upper teeth placed against the under lip, while 
the sound of the Spanish b is formed by bringing the 
lips loosely or feebly into contact. This sound seems to 
be between that of b and the English w. It is repre 
sented by is or V. 

5. C, before a, o, and K, is pronounced as in English ; 
before e and /, it has the sound of th in the word thin. 
In the Catalan dialect it is the same as in English. 

6. Ch has the same sound as in English, except in the 
dialect of Catalonia, where it is pronounced like k. 

7. D, at the beginning of a word, is sounded nearly 
as in English, but is pronounced with the tip of the 
tongue against the upper teeth, while in pronouncing 
the English d the tongue is made to touch the roof of 
the mouth. At the end of a syllable, or between two 
vowels, d, in Spanish, sounds like the English /// in 
this, but is somewhat softer. This sound is usually 
represented in the present work by a small capital n. 

8. G, before a, o, and //, is hard, as in English. 

9. G before e and /, and / before every vowel, are 
pronounced like a strong guttural //, similar to the Ger 
man ch in ach. This sound is indicated by U, distinguished 
as a small capital. 

10. Gua and gito sound somewhat like ^wa, giuo, but 
the g is so soft that it is scarcely perceived ; so that in 
these cases the sound of gu seems to approximate very 
nearly to that of the English w. Gu, before e and /, is 
usually sounded likc^hard : thus, GUIANA is pronounced 
ge-a na. When, however, the n is marked with a diaer 
esis, thus, gui, these two letters have the same sound as 
when before a or o, and consequently gui is pronounced 
give or iue. (See table at the end of this Section.) 

11. If, in Spanish, is never pronounced, except in 
words beginning with hue, and then very slightly. 

12. y : for this letter, see 9 and 18 of this Section. 

13. LI (now sometimes written I) has a sound which 
combines that of / and y consonant, and is similar to 
the liquid / in French : e.g. villa or vtla is pronounced 
veel ya ; Llerena, li-ra/na or lya-ra/na. 

14. N, in similar manner, unites the sounds of n and 
y, and is like gn in French: thus, petia is pronounced 
pSn ya or pan ya. 

15. Q, in Spanish, is always followed by n. Qn, before 
a and o, is sounded as in English, or, in other words, is 
equivalent to kw ; before e and /, it is pronounced like k, 
unless the u be marked with a diaeresis, in which case it 
is like /-TO. (See table at the end of this Section.) 

16. A is similar to the French, but is trilled more 
strongly. (See V. 24.) 

17. T is to be pronounced by putting the tip of the 
tongue against the upper teeth. 


18. X is usually sounded like the Spanish j, which 
letter, according to the present mode of spelling, has 
been generally substituted for it : thus, instead of the 
old spelling XIMENES, XUCAU, etc., we now often see in 
Spanish works JIMENES, JUCAK, etc. X, before a con 
sonant, or before a vowel marked with this sign, *, is 
sounded as in English : Examples, Exterior, Examinar. 

19. V, at the beginning of Spanish words, is usually a 
semi-consonant, as initial y is for the most part in English 

20. Z is to be pronounced like th in thin. 

The following table may serve to show more clearly the 
manner in which <r, g, j, y, x, and z are used in Spanish, 
en is pronounced k:l. | cua or qua is pronounced qu3. 




is pronounced 



gu " goo. 

ja or xa is pronounced nd. 

je, xe, orge " " n,i. 

ji, xi, or gi " ne. 

jo or xo no. 

ju or xu " " iioo. 

OBS. i. Spanish words or names endiu 

cue or qiie 
cui or qiii " 
cuo or quo " 



gua is pronounced gwd or \va. 
giie " " gwA or wA. 

gwe or we. 

" gwo or wo. 

is pronounced tl&. 
r ce " " th\. 
r ci " " Me. 

consonant have the 

accent almost always on the last syllable ; those ending in a vowel 
are generally accentuated on the peiuiltiina. If a word or name be 
an exception to either of these rules, in correctly-printed Spanish 
works the accent is usually marked; as, C6RDOVA, Al.CALA, JUCAR, 
CA.CEKES. It should be observed that the in the plural does not 
change the accent: hence casas," houses," though ending in a con 
sonant, has the penultimate accent as well as the singular casa, a 

OBS. 2. The Spanish accent, though resembling the German and 
Italian, is much less distinctly marked than the accent of those lan 
guages, so much so, that it is sometimes difficult for an English 
ear to determine positively which is the accentuated syllable. In this 
respect it may be said to approximate very nearly to the French. 

OBS. 3. The Spanish language as spoken in Mexico and South 
America differs in some points materially from the true Spanish. 

Thus, 2, and c before e and i, instead of having the sound of ///, are 
generally pronounced like s. Among the uneducated classes // is 
universally sounded like^: thus, gallo is pronounced almost gi yo. 


1. The vowels a and /, and the diphthongs d and d, are 
similar to the German. 

2. A sounds like the English o. Lulea is pronounced 
loo li-o ; Tornea, tor ni-o, etc. 

3. , when accentuated, has almost the sound of our 
short i prolonged, represented in this work by n. 

4. O, at the end of a syllable, is like our oo ; in other 
cases, like o in not. 

5. U, in Swedish, is a very difficult sound for foreigners 
to acquire ; it seems remotely to resemble the French z/, 
and to blend (very obscurely) the sounds of the English 
t or <? and oo. It has been represented in the present 
work by oo, this sound being the nearest to it of any in 
our language. 

6. Y is the same as in Danish, or, in other words, is 
similar to the French 11. 

7. The Swedish consonants are, for the most part, pro 
nounced like the English, with the exception of/and^-, 
(before ^, /, a, o, and ,) which are nearly equivalent to_y 
consonant, (g, before a, o, and n, is hard, as in English,) 
and of z, which commonly sounds like s, or else like the 
English z. 

8. Ch initial (except when immediately followed by 
r) is sounded like the English ch in child ; in the middle 
or at the end of a word it takes the sound of k. Ay sounds 
like the English ch in child: thus, Kjoping (written, also, 
simply Koping) is pronounced cliff ping. C, (as in Eng 
lish,) before a, o, and n, is like k ; before ^, / , and y, like s. 
Qv or qu is like qu in English. 

9. Sf, followed by/, has the sound of our sh : hence 
Stjerna is pronounced she n na. K before e sometimes 
takes the sound of our ch: thus, Kellgren is pronounced 
chcl gren. 



1. a sounds as a in fate. 

2. 5. denotes the sound of a in fare or e in there. It 

is used to indicate the sound of the long open c 
before r in cases where it would be objectionable 
to employ ai. It has not been deemed proper to 
use exactly the same letters (without any distinctive 
mark) in the pronunciation as in the spelling of a 
name ; because if the same letters were used for 
both, and the reader should happen to miscall the 
name as ordinarily written, he would perhaps be 
equally liable to miscall the pronunciation. While, 
therefore, the pronunciation of MOI.TERE may very 
properly be represented by mo le-aik , it would, 
for the reason just given, be improper to repre 
sent that of IJEAUCAIKE by bo kaiu , instead of 
which we write bo kSk . 

3. a is essentially the same as a, but less prolonged.* 

* The vowels A, e, and A, though very similar to a, e, (or ee,) o, have 

4. a is nearly like the preceding, but more open. It is 
used to represent a sound very similar to that of 
e in met, (e,) but somewhat longer. (See Intro 
duction, V. 7, note.) 

5. 3. sounds like a in/if; or father. 

6. i (the short sound of a) has a sound between a and 

a ; it is shorter than the former, and somewhat 
more open than the latter. 

7. a (the long sound of a) indicates a sound longer than 

a; in the pronunciation of Oriental names it ap 
proximates a very nearly. 

been deemed preferable in certain cases, particularly in the pronun 
ciation of French names, in order to guard against a drawling sound. 

For a similar reason, e, in marking French pronunciation, has been 
preferred to ee, even when under the full accent. 

It may be remarked that long a, (a,) as pronounced in English, 
is a sort of diphthong, almost A-e. In pronouncing foreign languages, 
this diphthongal sound should be carefully avoided ; the sound of A 
should be pure, without any, even the slightest, sound of e after it. 


S. a has the sound of a mfall. 
9. a (or a) sounds as a \n fat, fang, etc. 
10. a denotes the long a in Oriental names; it is also 
sometimes used in English names to indicate the 
sound of a mfall, halt, etc. : e.g. Dal ton. 
[I. a is obscure, as in the first and last syllables of 


[2. e is like ee; the latter (ee) is mostly used in this work. 
[ j. e is like the preceding, but less prolonged.* 

14. g (or e) sounds as e in met, pen, etc. 

15. has essentially the same sound as the preceding, 

but is more open and more prolonged. (See V. 2.) 
e is obscure, as in berth, her, rider. 
\ indicates the long sound of i in English, as m pine, 

triangle, etc. 

iS. i or i sounds as i in pin, pit, etc. 
19. j is obscure, as vnfir. 

5 sounds as o in note, home, etc. 

6 is like the preceding, but less prolonged.* 
6 (or o) sounds as o in not. 

23. 66 (or u) has the sound of u in bull, pull, etc., or of 

oo i n good. 

24. do sounds as in rule, or oo in moon, noon, etc. 

25. 6 has a sound similar to the French eu. It has no 

equivalent in English. (VI. g.t) 

26. o is obscure, as in Boston, terror, etc. 

27. ii indicates the sound of the French u. It has no 

equivalent in our language. (V. 5, VI. io.t) 

28. u is the short sound of the preceding. 

29. U (small capital) indicates the sound of the French 

eu, almost like that of our u in fur ; it resembles 
the sound of the German o. (V. 10, VI. 9.!) 

30. ii denotes the sound of 66, (very short.) 

31. H (small capital) approximates v in sound. 

32. I) (small capital) indicates a sound nearly like th, (as 

in this.) (XIX. 7.t) 

* See note * on preceding page. 

i These refer to the principles of pronunciation, as explained in 







4 6. 


hen a name occurs several times, it has not been deemed 
necessary to pronounce it more than once ; in which case the reader 
should look for the very first occurrence of the name, where the pro 
nunciation will be given. If a name having the same spelling occurs 
in several different languages, it will be pronounced but once for each 
of the different languages ; that is, the first time that it occurs in that 
particular language. 

I3P* It may be observed, in regard to the arrangement of the 
names in the present work, that if the ordinary names are spelled 
differently they are given in strict alphabetical order, without the 
slightest reference to the Christian or first names, (which are always 
placed in a parenthesis and in a different kind of type ;) but if a num 
ber of names occur spelled in precisely the same manner, they follow 
the order of the Christian names. Thus, Smith, (CHARLES,) is 
given before Smith, QOHN, ROBERT, or WILLIAM.) If it should 
happen that both the ordinary name and Christian name of two or 
more different persons are exactly alike, then the precedence is de 
termined by the priority of date: e.g. Smith, (WILLIAM,) of the 
seventeenth century is given before Smith, (WILLIAM,) of the 
eighteenth century ; and so on. 

lE^** When the same name belongs to a great number of princes 
or sovereigns, those of antiquity are given first ; among modern rulers, 
emperors are placed before kings, and these before inferior person 
ages, princes or dukes. Emperors or kings having the same name 
are usually given in the alphabetical order of the names of the coun 
tries which they rule: thus, the emperois of Austria precede the 

G and K (small capitals) indicate the sound of the 

German ch, or one similar to it. 
II (small capital) has a sound nearly like the pre 

ceding. It resembles a guttural and strongly- 

aspirated h. (I. 6, and XIX. g.f) 
h Italic is used to represent the undetermined sound 

of the so-called aspirated h. (See V. 16.) 

I (/ liquid) is pronounced like/// in million ; it blends 

the sounds of /and y consonant. (XIX. 13. t) 
n in like manner blends the sounds of andji/ con 

sonant. (XIX. 14.!) 
M and N (small capitals) denote the nasal sound in 

French. (V. ig.f) 
R (small capital) is to be strongly trilled ; it resembles 

the sound of rr in terror. 
s is used to denote the sound of a very soft z. 
w indicates a sound similar to our v. (VI. 28.t) 
ai or ay (unless otherwise marked) is to be sounded 

like a \\\fate. 

an and aw have the sound of a \nfall. 
ey at the end of an unaccented syllable (in English 

names) is to be sounded like e or short / . 
6" has the same sound as ee in been or i in the first 

syllable of spirit. 

II indicates a sound similar to the preceding, but 
longer ; it is, in fact, the sound of short z (as mpin) 
prolonged. (XX. 3-t) 

thu or on sounds as in now or our. 

, (capital,) like g, denotes the sound of g hard, as 
\nget, give, etc. 

(capital,) like g, denotes the sound of/ or soft g, 
as in gentle. 

is mark *-~ indicates that the vowels joined by it 
are to be pronounced almost in one syllable, as 
BERTHIKR, bR te-i . 

the Introduction. The Roman numerals have reference to the sec 
tion, the figures to the sound of the particular letter. 

emperors of Russia, and the kings of England are given before those 
of France, Italy, or Spain. 

jJ3=r" When a date in parenthesis is placed immediately after the 
title of a work, it always has reference to the time of publication, 
which may be, and not unfrequently is, long after the death of the 

Sd^" In marking the pronunciation in the present work, our aim 
has been not to embarrass the reader with unnecessary marks or signs. 
Thus, in giving the pronunciation of the Italian name CIARPI, we 
have simply written chaK pee, which gives the pronunciation of this 
name as perfectly as chJR pi could do; because, in English, a, im 
mediately followed by r and another consonant, always takes its 
second, or Italian sound, and ee usually represents the sound of the 
Italian z quite as well as e or e could do. For a similar reason, in 
such names as ANTUNELLI, pronounced fin-to-nel lee, we have not 
thought it necessary to place any marks on the e in the penultimate 
syllable, as the English reader would be sure to pronounce the* with 
its short sound in this position when followed by two consonants of 
the same kind. In all cases, however, when it seemed possible that 
the omission of the diacritical mark might give rise to doubt or error, 
such sign has been added, since practical utility has been deemed of 
more importance than the mere appearance of consistency. Thus, ef 
in modern names, even when under the full accent, has been marked 
short, for example, in VALDES, v^l-d s ,- because, in accordance 
with the usual Latin pronunciation, the e in such positions is com 
monly made long, as in SOCRATES. 

Fr., French. 
Ger., German. 
Gr., Greek. 


It., Italian. | Port., Portuguese. 

Lat., Latin. 
Myth., Mythok 

Pron., Pronunciation. 

Russ., Russian- 

Sp., Spanish. 
Sw., Swedish. 
Turk., Turkish. 





Aa, van der, vfn der 8, (CHRISTIAN KAREL HEN- 
DRIK,) a Dutch scholar, divine, and writer on natural 
science, born at Zwolle in 1718; died in 1793. 

Aa, van der, (CHRISTIAN PIETER ROBIDE,) a poet, 
born at Amsterdam in 1791, was a grandson of the pre 
ceding. Died in 1851. 

Aa, van der, (DIEDERIK,) a Dutch painter, born at 
the Hague in 1731. His works are commended for grace 
and other merits. Died in 1809. 

Aa, van der, QAN,) a Dutch biographer of the 
present age. He published an excellent " Biographical 
Dictionary of the Netherlands," (" Biographisch Woor- 
denboek der Nederlanden." 

Aa, van der, (PIETER,) a Dutch lawyer and writer on 
jurisprudence, born at Louvain. The date of his birth 
is unknown. He published a "Commentary on the 
Rights of Creditors," ("De Privilegiis Creditorum Com- 
mentariuin," 1560.) Died in 1594. 

Aa, van der, (PIETER,) a learned bookseller of Ley- 
den, flourished in the latter half of the seventeenth and 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. Died about 


Aacs. See Acs. 

Aagaard, au goRd, (CHRISTIAN,) written also Aa- 
gard, a Danish writer of Latin poetry, born at Viborg 
in 1616. Died in 1664. 

See ROSTGAARD, " Delicise Poetarum Danorum ;" MOLLER, 
" Cimbria literata." 

Aagaard or Aagard, (NiELS, neels,) a Danish poet, 
born at Viborg in 1612, was probably a brother of the 
preceding. He was professor of eloquence at Soroe. 
He wrote several Latin poems and critical essays, among 
which is "Prolusions on Tacitus." Died in 1657. 

Aagesen, (SVEND,) svend au geh-sen, [in Latin, SUE - 
NO AGGO NIS FII/IUS,] regarded as the earliest Danish 
historian, flourished in the latter part of the twelfth cen 
tury. He wrote a history of Denmark, extending from 
about A.D. 300 to 1187. 

See " Nouvelle Biographic Gene rale." 

Aali. See ALEE. 

Aalst. See AELST. 

Aare, van der, vfn der a reh, (DIEDERIK or DIRCK,) 
Bishop of Utrecht, and also a powerful temporal lord, 
flourished in the latter part of the twelfth century. 
Died in 1212. 

See WAGENAAR S " Vaderlandsche Historic." 

Aaron, n/ron, fHeb. jnnx ; Gr. Aapwv,] the first of 
the high-priests of the Israelites, was the eldest son of 
Amrain, who was the grandson of Levi. He is supposed 
to have been born about 1600 B.C.; but on this point the 
different authorities are not agreed. When Moses was 
called by Heaven to deliver his countrymen from the 
tyranny of Egypt, Aaron was commissioned to assist 
him as his spokesman. He died at the age of one hun 
dred and twenty-three, and was succeeded in the priest 
hood by his son Eleazar. (See Exodus iv. 14 it seq. ; 
also Numbers, particularly chap. xx. 23-29.) 

Aaron, (HARISCHON, ha re-sh5n, or ARISCON,) a j 

rabbi of the Caraites, practised medicine at Constantino 
ple in the thirteenth century, and wrote a commentary 
on the Pentateuch. 

Aaron, [It. ARONNE, a-ron na,] (PiETRO,) a monk, 
born at Florence about 1480, was a canon of Rimini. 
He published several treatises on music, (1516-45.) 

Aaron of Alexandria, a physician who lived in the 
first half of the seventh century. He wrote a medical 
work, in which the small-pox is first mentioned. 

Aa ron-Ben-Ash er, a Jewish rabbi of the eleventh 
century, wrote a "Treatise on Hebrew Accents," (1517.) 

Aar on-Beii-Jo seph-Sa son, a Jewish rabbi and 
writer, lived at Thessalonica about 1600. 

Aaron-Ben-Sam uel, a Jewish writer of the seven 
teenth century. His chief work is "The House of Aa 
ron," (Frankfort, 1690,) which is said to be a very useful 
book for biblical students. 

Aaron-Margalitha, (-maR-ga-lee ta,) a Polish pro 
fessor and rabbi, born in 1665. He was converted to 
the Protestant faith at Leyden, and wrote a number of 
theological treatises. Died about 1725. 

Aaron-Raschid. See HAROUN-AL-RASCHID. 

Aarschot or Aerschot, SR sKot, (PHILIPPE de 
Croi deh kRwa,) DUKE OF, a Flemish general who 
served under Charles V., and afterwards, when the 
troubles broke out in the Low Countries, zealously sup 
ported the cause of Philip II. of Spain. Died in 1595. 

See MOTLEY, "Rise of the Dutch Republic," vols. i. and iii. 

Aarsens, van, vSn sR sens, (CORNELIS,) Lord of 
Spyck, (splk,) a statesman of Holland, born at Antwerp 
in 1543. He was many years griffier ("recorder" or 
"registrar") to the States-General, and died at an ad 
vanced age. 

Aarsens, van, (FRANS or FRANCISCUS,) a distin 
guished Dutch diplomatist, son of the preceding, was 
born at the Hague in 1572. His talents, address, and 
unscrupulousness won the admiration of Cardinal Riche 
lieu, who ranked him with the most consummate politi 
cians of the age. The unjust death of Barneveldt is 
ascribed partly to his intrigues. Died in 1641. 

See AUHERY, " Me moires pour servir a 1 Histoire de Hollande :" 
MOTLEY, "History of the United Netherlands," vol. iii. 

Aarsens, van, (FRANS,) a grandson of the preceding, 
wrote a work called "Voyage en Espagne," (1666.) He 
was drowned at sea in 1659. 

Aartgeiis, ftRt cens, or Aertgen, SRt cen, a Dutch 
painter, called also ARTHUS CLAESSOON, (ar tus klSs- 
s5n ,) born at Leyden in 1498. He worked with suc 
cess in his native city. Died in 1564. 

Aartsbergen, fiRts beVGen, (ALEXANDER van der 
Capellen, vSn der ka-pel len,) an eminent Dutch 
statesman, who was born about 1600, and died in 1656. 
According to G. Vossius, he was a man of rare talents 
and incredible industry. 

Aartsen, (PIETER.) See AERTSEN. 

Aascov, au skov, (URBAN BRUUN,) a Danish physi 
cian, who served in the navy about 1770. 

Aba, ob oh, called also Samuel, of a noble Magyar 

e, T, 5, u, y, long; a, 6, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, li, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; n6t; good; moon} 
as k; $ as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; t h as in this. (d^See Explanations, p. 23.) 





family, became King of Hungary in 1041. as successor 
to Peter, whom a revolution had compelled to fly the 
country. His injustice and cruelty at length irritated 
the Hungarians, who entreated the assistance of the 
emperor Henry III. In 1044 a battle was fought on the 
Raab, in which Aba was defeated and slain, and Peter 
was restored to the throne of Hungary. 

Abacco, a-bak ko, (ANTONIO,) an Italian architect of 
the sixteenth century, a pupil of San Gallo. He pub 
lished a work on architecture in 1558. 

Abacco, (or Abaco,) dall , dal-la-bak ko, (PAOLO,) a 
Florentine mathematician and poet, who nourished about 
the middle of the fourteenth century. 

Abad. See ABBAD. 

Abad I, II., and III., (Sultans of Seville.) See 

Abadia, a-Ba-oee a, (FRANCISCO XAVIER Ha-ve- 
aik ,) a Spanish general, born at Valencia in 1774. Died 
about 1830. 

Abad y Queypeo, a-bao e ka-pa o, (MANUEL,) a 
Spanish bishop, born in Asturias about 1775. He was 
imprisoned about 1815 for hostility to the Inquisition, 
and was released in 1820. Died after 1824. 

Abaelardus. See ABELARD. 

Abailard. See ABELARD. 

Abata Khan, a-ba ka Kan, son of Hoolakoo, (Hu- 
laku,) and grandson of Jengis Khan, succeeded his 
father on the Persian throne A.D. 1264. He was a just 
and enlightened ruler. He curbed the soldiery, who had 
been so licentious under his father, and established order 
and justice throughout his dominions. Died about 1280. 

Abamonti, a-ba-mon tee, or Abbamonte, ab-bi- 
mon ta, (GIUSEPPE,) a Neapolitan statesman, born about 
1759. He became secretary-general of the Cisalpine 
Republic in 1798, and a member of the executive com 
mission at Naples. After the king was restored in 1799, 
he removed to Milan, and acted as secretary-general until 
1805. Died in 1818. 

Abancourt, d , dS bdN kooR , (CHARLES XAVIER 
JOSEPH Franqueville frdxk vel ,) one of the minis 
ters of Louis XVI., and nephew of Calonne. He was 
massacred at Versailles on the gth of September, 1792. 

Abancourt, d , (FRANQOIS JEAN Villemain vel - 
max ,) a French dramatist, born in Paris in 1745. Died 
in 1803. 

Abauo, di, de a-ba no, or Apo no, (PiETRO,) [in 
learned physician and astrologer, born at Abano, near 
Padua, in 1250. He was appointed professor of medicine 
in the University of Padua about 1303, and died about 
1316. He wrote a work entitled "Conciliator Differen- 
tiarum Philosophorum et praecipue Medicorum," the ob 
ject of which was to reconcile the various opinions held 
by the different philosophical and medical schools ; from 
which he has been surnamed Conciliator, " Reconciler." 
Another of his works, entitled " On Poisons and their 
Treatment," ("De Venenis eorumque Remediis,") though 
much celebrated, shows him to have possessed more 
learning than originality or cautious observation. 

See MAZZUCHELLI, "Riccolta d Opuscoli Scientific! e Filologici," 
1741 ; ELOY, " Dictionnaire de la Medecine," article APONO. 

A-ban ti-das, [ ASaim cJaf,] a tyrant of Sicyon, (one of 
the small states of Greece,) who obtained the supreme 
power about 264 B.C. He was afterwards assassinated. 

Abarbanel. See ABRABANEL. 

Abarca, a-baR ka, (JOAQUIN,) a Spanish prelate, born 
in Aragon in 1780, became Bishop of Leon. He was a 
chief of the Carlist party in the civil war which began 
about 1833. Died in 1844. 

Abarca, de, da A-baR ka, (Dona MARIA,) a Spanish 
amateur portrait-painter. She died about 1660. 

Abarca, de, di a-baR ka, (PEDRO,) a Spanish his 
torian, born in 1619. He belonged to the society of 
Jesuits, and was for many years professor of theology 
in the University of Salamanca. Died about 1690. His 
chief work, "The Kings of Aragon," ("Los Reyes de 
Aragon,") appeared in 1684. 

Abascal, a-Bas-kal , (JosE FERNANDO,) a Spanish 
commander, born at Oviedo in 1743. At 19 he entered 
the army, and in 1804 was appointed Viceroy of Peru. 
Through his abilities and indefatigable exertions, not 

only were the Peruvians preserved in a state of subjec 
tion to Spain while other parts of South America were 
in open insurrection, but the Spanish arms gained many 
advantages over the insurgents of Buenos Ayres and 
Chili. In 1816 he was superseded in the government 
by General Pezuela, and returned to Spain, where he 
died in 1821. 

See W. B. STEVENSON, "Twenty Years Residence in South 

Abati, a-ba tee, (ANTONIO,) an Italian poet, born at 
Gubbio in 1614. He was governor of several cities in 
the papal dominions. Died in 1667. 

Abati, degli, dal yee a-ba tee, a Florentine family 
known in history chiefly through the treachery of one of 
its members, Bocco DEGLI ABATI. During a battle be 
tween the Guelphs (the party of the Florentines) and 
the Ghibelines, (1260,) he cut off the hand of Jacopo del 
Vacca, who carried the Florentine standard, which con 
sequently fell, and caused the defeat of his countrymen. 
For this crime Dante assigns him a place in the ninth 
or lowest circle of hell. See " Inferno," canto xxxii. 

Abatini, a-ba-tee nee, (Guioo UBALDO,) an Italian 
fresco-painter, born about 1600, worked in Rome, and 
died in 1656. 

Abauzit, i bo ze , (FiRMiN,) a justly celebrated phi 
losopher and mathematician, born at Uzes, in France, 
in 1679. When he was two years old his father died, 
and on the revocation of the edict of Nantes his mo 
ther, being a Protestant, was obliged to seek a refuge in 
sonie foreign country. Her two sons were sent to Gen 
eva, where Firmin soon distinguished himself by his rapid 
progress in almost every branch of learning and science. 
The fame of Abauzit does not rest so much on his pub 
lications as on the opinion entertained of him by his 
contemporaries. He not only enjoyed the respect of the 
greatest writers and philosophers of France, but received 
the most flattering testimonials of regard from other 
countries. Sir Isaac Newton esteemed him highly, and, 
after having once made his acquaintance, kept up a con 
stant correspondence with him. Died at Geneva in 1767. 

See SABATIER DE CASTRES, " Les Trois Siecles de la Litterature 
Francaise ;" J. J. ROUSSEAU, " CEuvres ;" SENEBIER, " Histoire Ht- 
teraire de Geneve," tome iii. ; BERENGER, " filoge d Abauzit." 

Abba Arica, ab ba a-ree ka, [Heb. NITIX JON,] 
commonly known by the name of RAV, (3"\) a learned 
Jewish rabbi, native of Babylon, flourished in the early 
part of the third century, fie died 243 A.D. 

Abbad, (or Abid,) al/bSd , I., (called also ABOO-L- 
KASIM (or ABOUL-CACEM) MOHAMMED, a bool ka sjm 
mo-ham med,) the founder of the Abbadite (or Abaclite) 
dynasty of Seville, became sovereign of that city about 
1023, and died 1042 A.D. 

Abbad (or Abid) II., Aboo-Amroo, (Abu-Am- 
ru,) al/bad a boo am roo, the second sultan of Seville, 
succeeded his father,Aboo-l-Kasim, (Abii l-Kasim,) about 
1042, aged 26 years. He was an able and successful 
general, and was well versed in the learning and science 
of the times. In splendour and luxury he rivalled the 
most powerful sovereigns of the East ; but all his glory 
was stained by his sanguinary cruelty. He used to 
keep, it is said, in a private apartment, the skulls of all 
the chiefs and princes who had fallen into his hands, 
and paved the alleys of his gardens with those of infe 
rior rank. He died in 1069. 

Abbad (or Abad) III., Moorish King of Seville, born 
in 1039, was a son of Abbad II. He was a brave and 
prudent ruler, and patronized arts and learning. He was 
deposed by Yoosuf, (Yusuf,) King of Morocco, in 1091, 
and died in 1095. 

Abbadie, t bs de , (JACQUES,) a distinguished Prot 
estant divine, born in Beam, in the south of France, in 
1658. His " Treatise on the Truth of the Christian Reli 
gion" ("Traite de la Verite de la Religion Chretienne," 
2 vols., 1684) was received with great favour both by 
Catholics and Protestants, and still enjoys a high repu 
tation. He was the author of several other works of less 
note. He preached for some time in London, and after 
wards became Dean of Killaloe, Ireland. Died in London 
in 1727. 

See NICERON, "Me"moires," and "Biographia Britannica." 

Abbadie, d , dfbt cle , (ANTOINE and ARNOULD 

a, e, T, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged ; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; mt; n6t; good, moon; 


2 7 


MICHEL,) two brothers of Irish origin, but citizens of 
France. They made some scientific researches in Abys 
sinia, where they passed about five years, 1840-45. 

Abbamonte. See AKAMONTI. 

Abbas I., or Shah Abbas, shah ab bas , (i.e. "King 
Abbas,") surnamed the Great, King of Persia, was born in 
1557. His father, Mohammed Meerza, whose want of capa 
city rendered him unpopular, was deposed by the discon 
tented nobles, and Shah Abbas succeeded to the throne 
at the age of twenty-five. He exhibited an energy and wis 
dom which commanded the respect alike of his subjects 
and of his enemies. After having healed the dissensions 
and curbed the lawlessness which had prevailed among 
his nobles, he marched against the Turks, who, with an 
army of 100,000 men, were then ravaging the Persian 
provinces on the north. The army of Abbas consisted 
of scarcely more than 60,000 men ; but it had been dis 
ciplined under the direction of two English gentlemen, 
Sir Anthony and Sir Robert Shirley, and was provided 
with an efficient artillery. In August, 1605, a battle was 
fought, in which the Turks suffered a total defeat. The 
Persian king recovered all his lost provinces, and was 
not molested by the Turks during the remainder of his 
reign. He died in 1627. 

See MALCOLM, " History of Persia," 1829; " Travels of the Broth 
ers Shirley," 1825. 

Abbas II., Shah of Persia, born about 1631, succeeded 
his father Sufi, or Sophy, in 1641. He possessed some 
good qualities, and was noted for his liberal treatment 
of the Christians and other foreigners in his dominions. 
Died in 1666. 

Abbas III., King of Persia, born in 1731, was the last 
king of the dynasty of Sophys. He was a son of Shah 
Tamasp, who was dethroned by Nadir Shah. Died in 
childhood in 1736. 

Abbas, or more fully Abbas-Ibn-Abd-il-Moot- 
talib, (or -Mottalib,) ab bSs Ib n abd-il-moot ta-lib, 
written also Abbas-Beii-Abdel-Mottaiib, a paternal 
uncle of Mohammed, born at Mecca about 566 A.D., 
was the ancestor of the dynasty of Abbassides. He 
fought against Mohammed at the battle of Bedr, but 
afterwards was converted to the cause of that prophet, 
to whom he rendered important services. (See MOHAM 
MED.) Died in 652 A.D. 

See CAUSSIN DE PERCEVAL, " Essai sur 1 Histoire des Arabes." 

Abbas, ab bss , (PASHA,) Viceroy of Egypt, born at 
Yedda, Arabia, in 1813, was a grandson of Mehemet 
Ali. He succeeded his uncle Ibraheem in November, 
1848. Died in 1854. 

Abbas-Meerza, (-Mirza,) ab bas meeR zt , son of 
Fatah Alee Shah, King of Persia, was born about 1785. 
He was distinguished for his zealous and enlightened 
efforts to introduce into his own country the arts, sci 
ences, and military tactics of Europe. He died in 1833. 

Abbassah, ab-ba sa, a pasha of Erzeroom, distin 
guished first for his successful rebellion against the sul 
tan Amurath (Murad) IV., and afterwards for his great 
favour and influence with that monarch. At last, how 
ever, he fell a victim to the suspicions of his sovereign, 
and was executed in 1634. 

Abbassides or Abbasides, ab-bas sidz, singular, 
AliHASSiDE, ab-bas sld, [Fr. pron. f bt sed ; Ger. AB- 
BASSIDEN, ab-bas-see den ; Lat. ABBAS ID/E; called bv 
the Arabs BENEE (BENI) ABBA S, i.e. "sons or descend 
ants of Abbas,"] the name of the most illustrious dynas 
ty of caliphs. They traced their genealogy to Abbas the 
uncle of Mohammed, and reigned at Damascus and after 
wards at Bagdad from 749 to 1258 A.D. See ABOO-L- 

Abbate, ab-ba ta, or Abate, a-ba ti, (ANDREA,) a 
Neapolitan painter of natural history and inanimate ob 
jects. Died in 1732. 

Abbate, ab-ba ti, Abbati or Abati, a-ba tee, (NICH 
OLAS, or NICCOLO,) a celebrated Italian painter, born at 
Modena abut 1512. Although his productions rank 
him with the greatest Italian masters, very little is known 
of the circumstances of his life. He died in Paris in 
1571. Among his works were frescos at Fontainebleau. 
His oil pictures are very scarce. 

See VEDRIANI, " Vite del Pittori Modenesi." 

Abbate or Abati, (PIETRO PAOLO,) a brother of 

Niccolo, noticed above, was a skilful painter of battles 
and horses, at Modena. Died about 1580. 

Abbate, dell , clcl-lab-ba ta, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian 
painter and modeller, worked at Modena. Died in 1557. 

Abba-Thulle, ab ba t hul lee, a king of the Pelew 
Islands, who hospitably entertained the crew of the Eng 
lish ship Antelope, wrecked on an island of that group 
in 1783. Struck with admiration on witnessing for the 
first time the effect of fire-arms, he prevailed on Captain 
Wilson, commander of the Antelope, to assist him in 
his contests with the neighbouring islanders. The allied 
forces, armed with "thunder and lightning," easily sub 
dued their enemies, destitute of these novel and terrific 
implements of war. When his English friends were 
about to return to their native country, the king intrusted 
to their care his son Lee Boo, that he might visit Europe. 

See KEATE S "Account of the Pelew Islands, from the Journal of 
Captain Wilson." 

Abbati, ab-ba tee, or Abbatio, db-ba te-o, (BALDi 
ANGELO,) commonly called ABBA TIUS, a physician and 
naturalist, who flourished about the middle of the six 
teenth century. 

Abbatini, ab-ba-tee nee, (ANTONIO MARIA,) an Ital 
ian composer of music, who flourished in the first half 
of the seventeenth century. Died about 1675. 

Abbatucci, ab-ba-toot chee, (CARLO, or CHARLES,) 
a Corsican general, born in 1771, was a son of Giacomo 
Pietro. He gained the rank of general of division by 
his conduct at the passage of the Lech in 1796. He was 
killed at Huningue in 1796. 

a Corsican, who was a lieutenant under General Paoli, 
and after various changes of fortune was raised to the 
rank of a general of division in the French army. Born 
1726, died 1812. 

See JACOBI, " Histoire de la Corse ;" " Nouvelle Biographic Gene- 

Abbatucci, QACQUES PIERRE CHARLES,) a French 
lawyer, born in Corsica in 1791, was a grandson of 
Carlo A., noticed above. He was elected to the Con 
stituent Assembly in 1848, and became a partisan of 
Louis Napoleon, who appointed him minister of justice 
about 1852. Died in 1857. 

Abbeville, d , dfb vfel , (PERE (paiR) CLAUDE,) a 
Capuchin, who wrote a history of the French mission to 
the island of Maranham, on the coast of Brazil, entitled 
" Histoire de la Mission des Peres Capucins en 1 Isle de 
Maragnan." He gives an interesting account of the 
character and customs of the natives of that island and 
the neighbouring continent. The mission alluded to was 
undertaken in 1612. 

Abbiati, ab-be-a tee, (FiLiPPO,) an excellent Italian 
painter, born at Milan in 1640. He painted both in oil 
and fresco with great facility. Among his best works 
is a fresco of "John the Baptist preaching in the wilder 
ness." Died at Milan in 1715. 

Abbiati, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian painter and engraver, 
flourished at Milan about 1700. 

Abbon, i boN , [in Latin, AB BO CER NUUS, "Abbon 
the bent or bowed down,"] a learned French monk, who 
flourished about 900. He wrote a Latin poem on the 
siege of Paris by the Northmen, (A.D. 885-6.) 

Abbon of Fleury, [in Latin, AB BO FLORIACEN SIS,] 
an eminent ecclesiastic of the tenth century, born near 
Orleans in France. He was one of the most learned 
men of his age, and after he was elected Abbot of Fleury 
showed himself a patron of learning. He died in 1004. 

Abbondaiiti, ab-bon-dan tee, (ANTONIO,) sometimes 
called ABUNDAN TIUS OF IMOLA, (ee mo-la,) an Italian 
historian and poet, lived about 1625. He wrote an ac 
count of the war in the Low Countries, 1559-1609. 

Ab bot, (AniEL,) an American divine, born at An- 
dover, Massachusetts, in 1770. He died in 1828, on his 
return from Cuba, which he had visited on account of 
his health. A posthumous volume of letters written 
while in that island, evinces strong powers of observation 
and considerable talent for description. 

Abbot, (BENJAMIN,) LL.D., an American teacher, 
born about 1 763, was for half a century the principal of 
Phillips Academy, at Exeter, New Hampshire. He 
numbered among his pupils Daniel Webster, Edward 

as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as 2; th as in this. (S^^See Explanations, p. 23.) 




Everett, Jared Sparks, George Bancroft, and John G. 
Palfrey. Died in 1849. 

Ab bpt, (CHARLES,) LORD COLCHESTER, a British 
statesman, born at Abingdon in 1757, was educated at 
Oxford, and was called to the bar about 1 784. He was 
elected to Parliament in 1795, showed himself a warm 
supporter of Pitt, and distinguished himself by his talents 
for business and his public spirit. He was the mover of 
the bill which in 1800 authorized the first census of 
the population of Great Britain ever taken. In 1801 
he became chief secretary for Ireland. He was speaker 
of the House of Commons from February, 1802, until 
May, 1817, when he resigned on account of ill health, 
and was raised to the peerage as Baron Colchester. He 
had performed his duties as speaker to the general satis 
faction. He died in 1829, leaving two sons. 

See "Gentleman s Magazine" for May, 1829; "Annual Obituary," 

Abbot, (GEORGE,) an English prelate, born at Guild- 
ford, Surrey, in 1562. He studied at Oxford, took orders 
in 1583, became a very popular preacher, and was em 
ployed in the translation of the Bible authorized by King 
James in 1604. He was one of eight divines who trans 
lated the Four Gospels and the book of Acts. In 1609 
he obtained the see of Lichfield, from which he was 
translated to the see of London in 1610. He was ap 
pointed Archbishop of Canterbury in January, 1611. He 
was a zealous Calvinist, both before and after his high 
promotion. In the latter part of his life he favoured the 
popular party, but his influence in the church and state 
was ruined by the ascendency of Laud, who had long been 
his rival and adversary. Among his works is a " Brief 
Description of the Whole World," (1634.) Died in 1633. 

See WILLIAM RUSSELL, "Life of George Abbot," 1777; GARDI 
NER, "History of England from 1603 to 1616." 

Abbot, (GEORGE,) a nephew of Archbishop Abbot, 
was born about 1602. He fought against the royalists 
in the civil war. He published "The Book of Job Para 
phrased," (1640.) Died in 1648. 

Abbot, (LEMUEL,) an English portrait-painter, born 
about 1760, worked in London, and was well patronized. 
Most of his portraits are considered to be excellent like 
nesses. Among his works are portraits of the poet 
Cowper and Lord Nelson. Died in 1803. 

Abbot, (Sir MAURICE or MORRIS,) a distinguished 
merchant of London, was the youngest brother of Arch 
bishop Abbot. He was appointed one of the council for 
settling the colony of Virginia in 1624, and became gov 
ernor or chairman of the East India Company in 1633. 
Died in 1640. 

Abbot, (ROBERT,) a learned divine, born at Guildford 
in 1560, was a brother of Archbishop Abbot. He was 
a popular preacher, a chaplain to James I., and King s 
professor of divinity at Oxford. In 1615 he became 
Bishop of Salisbury. He was a strenuous opponent of 
Laud s opinions and church policy. Among his works 
is a "Defence of the Royal Supremacy," in Latin, (1619.) 
He was esteemed a man of more profound learning than 
the archbishop. Died in 1617. 

See "Biographia Britannica;" WOOD, " Athense Oxonienses." 

Abbot, (ROBERT,) an English Puritan divine, became 
vicar of Cranbrook, Kent, and minister of Southwick in 
Hampshire. He published, besides other works, " The 
Trial of our Church-Forsakers," (1639.) Died about 1655. 

Abbot, (SAMUEL,) born at Wilton, New Hampshire, 
in 1786; died in 1839. He invented a process of ex 
tracting starch from the potato. 

Ab bott, (CHARLES,) LORD TENTERDEN, an emi 
nent English judge, was born at Canterbury in 1762, 
and studied at Oxford. He was admitted to the bar in 
1705, and in 1802 published a "Treatise on the Law of 
Merchant Ships and Seamen," which has since been re 
garded in England and the United States as the stand 
ard work on maritime law. He became a judge in the 
Court of Common Pleas in 1816. Lord Ellenborough 
having resigned his position as Lord Chief Justice of the 
King s Bench in 1818, Mr. Abbott succeeded him, and 
in 1827 was raised to the peerage, with the title of Lord 
Tenterden. He died in November, 1832. He was a firm 
adherent of the Tory party. His judicial merits were 
of a very high order. According to some, he excelled 

Lord Mansfield in industry and learning, and equalled 
him in acuteness of perception and power of reasoning. 

See LORD CAMPBELL, "Lives of the Chief Justices," vol. iii. ; 
Foss, "The Judges of England," vol. ix. ; also a criticism on Lord 
Tenterden s professional character, by BROUGHAM, in the " Edinburgh 
Review," vol. Ixix. p. 14. 

Abbott, (Rev. JACOB,) a popular American author, 
born at Hallowell, Maine, in 1803. He graduated at 
Bowdoin College in 1820. Few writers have given to 
the public a greater number of volumes. Among them 
may be mentioned "The Young Christian;" "The 
Corner-Stone ;" "A Series of Histories of Celebrated 
Sovereigns;" "The Rollo Books," 28 vols.; "Harper s 
Story-Books," 36 vols., etc. etc. Mr. Abbott has ad 
dressed himself principally to the young, with whom his 
works have been exceedingly popular. Nearly all his 
books have been republished in England, and some, it 
is said, have been translated into various European and 
Asiatic languages. 

Abbott, (JoHN S. C.,) an American author, brother 
of the Rev. Jacob Abbott, was born at Brunswick, Maine, 
in 1805. He graduated at Bowdoin College in 1825, 
studied divinity at the Theological Seminary in Anclover, 
Mass., and was subsequently minister in Worcester and 
Roxbury. Among his principal works may be named 
the "Mother at Home," (1833;) "Histories of Marie 
Antoinette, Josephine, Madame Roland, Cortez," etc., 
forming a series in six vols. ; " History of Napoleon 
Bonaparte," 2 vols. Svo; " History of the French Revo 
lution," and " History of the Civil War in America," 2 
vols. 8vo, 1863-66. Most of his books have obtained 
an extensive circulation. He is a pleasing and animated 
writer, but as a historian he is scarcely to be relied on. 
His " History" of Napoleon, in particular, is perhaps the 
most remarkable example of indiscriminate and extrava 
gant eulogy ever given to the world under the august name 
of History. He has recently published a " History of Na 
poleon III., Emperor of the French," (1868,) which is said 
to possess the merits and demerits of the preceding work. 

Abbt, apt, (THOMAS,) an eminent German writer, 
born at Ulm in 1738. He studied at the University of 
Halle, and in 1761 was appointed professor of mathe 
matics in the University of Rinteln. Here he wrote his 
two most celebrated works, "On Merit," ("Vom Ver- 
dienste," 1765,) and "On Dying for one s Native Coun 
try," ("Ueber den Tod fur s Vaterland," 1761.) He was 
afterwards invited by Count William of Lippc-Schauen- 
burg to his court at Biickeburg, where he died in 1 766. 
Like Lessing, he exerted himself to improve and refine 
the German language, and had he lived longer his name 
would undoubtedly have become one of the most distin 
guished in his country s literature. 

See NICOLA I, " Ehrengedachtniss des Herrn Thomas Abbt," 1767 ; 
WOLF, " Encyklopaedie der Deutschen National-Literatur;" MEU- 
SEL, " Dictionnaire des Litterateurs d Allemagne." 

ABD, an Arabic word signifying "servant," and form 
ing the prefix in many names; as ABD-ALLAH, (AiiDAL- 
LAH,) the "servant of God." 

Abd-al-Kadir. See ABD-EL-KADER. 

Abdallah, ab-dal lah, (almost ab-dul lah.) or Abdul 
lah, ab-dool lah, the last shereef (sherif ) or prince of the 
Wahabites, was born about 1740. Having been captured 
by Ibrahcem (Ibrahim) Pasha, he was executed in 1818. 

Abdallah, (or Abd-Allah,) Abu-1-Abbas. See 

Abdallah- (or Abdullah-) Ibn-Abd-il-Moottalib, 
(-Tb n Jb dil motit ta-lib,) the father of the prophet Mo 
hammed, is said to have been distinguished for his virtue 
and personal beauty. Died about 570 A.D. 

See ABDALI.AH-BEN-ABDELMOTTALIB, in the " Nouvelle Bio 
graphic GeneVale." 

Abdallah-Ibn-Al-Aftas, (-al-af tas,) the founder of 
the dynasty of Benee Al-Aftas, was born at Mequinez 
in Africa about 1004. He possessed eminent military 
talents, and was surnamed Al-Mansoor, or "the vic 
torious." He died about 1060. 

Abdallah-Ibn-Balkeen, (or -Balkin, -bal-keen ,) 
the fourth and last sultan of Granada; dethroned (A.D. 
1090) by Yoosuf, whom he had invited from Africa to as 
sist him against Alphonso I. of Castile. He was a brave 
and enlightened monarch. He was a patron of science, 

a, e. T, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, ?, short; a, e, j, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; mSt; n6t; good, moon; 




and wrote a learned and valuable commentary on the 
Abdallah-Ibn-Koteyba, (-Coteyba.) See IBN- 


Abdallah-Ibn-Mohamnied, (-Tb n mo-ham med,) 
the seventh sultan of Cordova of the dynasty of Omeyyah, 
ascended the throne in 888, and died in 912. He was a 
poet and a patron of literature. 

Abdallah- (or Abdullah-) Ibnool-Fara-dhee, 
(-Ib-nul-Faradhi, ib nool fa ra-dhee,) a Mohammedan 
historian, born at Cordova in 962. He was killed at the 
taking of his native city by Suleyman, 1013. 

Abdallah- (or Abdullah-) Ibnool-Hijaree, (-Ib- 
uul-Hijari, ib nool he-ja ree,)a celebrated Mohammedan 
historian, born in the territory of Guadalajara in 1105. 
He was the author of a valuable and voluminous history 
of Spain, most of which is lost. He died about 1195. 

Abdallah-Ibii-Sa d (-sad or -sa d) was one of the 
earliest converts to the Mohammedan faith, and was em 
ployed by the prophet to write down his pretended reve 
lations. He was afterwards appointed governor of Egypt, 
under the caliph Othman, about the year 646. On the 
death of the caliph, in 656, he was deposed ; but the year 
of his death is unknown. 

Abdallah-Ibn-Yaseen, (or -Yasin,) -ya seen , the 
founder of the dynasty of the Almoravides, was born at 
Nafees, a little town in North Africa. He began his 
career as a zealous teacher of religion, about the year 
1041. His followers were called ALMORABITOON, "men 
devoted to the service of God," (whence the European 
name ALMORAVIDES.) At first he contented himself with 
forcibly converting the pagan tribes of the Berbers to Mo 
hammedanism, but finally aspired to the entire subjuga 
tion of Africa and the overthrow of the ruling dynasty 
of Zenatah. After entire success had crowned his under 
taking, although he exercised all the functions of royalty, 
he never assumed the titles, but contented himself with 
the name of Fakih, (fa-keeh ,) or "Theologian." He 
died in 1059. His successors ruled over the greater 
part of North Africa and Spain for nearly a century. 

Abdallah-Ibii- (or Ben-) Zobeyr, (or -Zobair,) -zo- 
baR r , surnamed Aboo-Beker or Abu-Bekr, a boo 
bck er, Caliph of Mecca, was born in 622. He maintained 
his independence against the Omeyyah dynasty from 680 
till 692, when he was conquered and slain by Abdel- 

See ABDALLAH-BEN-ZOBAIR, in the " Nouvelle Biographic Gene- 

Abdallatif or Abdallatiphus. See ABD-EL-LATEEF. 

Abdalmalek or Abd-al-Malik. See ABD-EL- 

Ab-da-lon y-mus or Ab-do-loiil-mus, a Sidonian, 
raised by Alexander the Great from the occupation of a 
gardener to the throne. He was descended from the 
kings of Sidon. 

Abdalrahman. See ABD-ER-RAHMAN. 

Abdal-Wahab. See ABD-EL-WAHAB. 

Ab das, [Gr. "ASJac,] Bishop of Susa, in Persia, offend 
ed the Guebers, or fire-worshippers, by burning one of 
their temples, for which he was put to death in 430 A.D. 

Abdelaziz, ab del-a-zeez , or Abdu-1-aziz, ab doo- 
la-zeez , (Anglicized pron. ab-da-la ziz,*) written also Ab- 
dalazis and Abdelasis, the son of Moosa, (Musa,) 
was the third governor of Spain after its conquest by the 
Arabs. He was assassinated in 716, at the instigation 
of the caliph, against whom tie had revolted. 

Abdelaziz or Abdulaziz, (Abul-Hassan, 3/bool 
has san,) the first sultan of Valencia, was grandson of 
the famous Al-Mansoor. He adorned his capital with 
magnificent gardens and buildings. Died about 1060. 

Abd-el-Baki, (or -Backi.) See BAKEE. 

Abd-el-Hakk, abd el hak, (Ibn-Glialeeb or -Gha- 
lib, Tb n Ga-leeb ,) a Mohammedan divine and poet, born 
in the province of Granada in 1088. He wrote a volumin 
ous commentary on the Koran, which was highly es 
teemed by the Spanish Moslems. Died 1152. 

Abd-e 1-Kader, abd el-ka der, (Ibn-Mehi-ed-Deen, 

*" The regal seat 
Of Abdalazis, ancient Cordova." 

SOUTHEY S Roderick. 

Tb n meh/hl-ed-deen ,) (see remarks on Oriental names, in 
the Introduction,) one of the most remarkable men of 
whom history makes mention, was born near Mascara, 
Algeria, about 1807. His father, Mehi-ed-Deen, was a 
Maraboot (Marabout) or religious noble of great influ 
ence. Having become distinguished for his piety and 
talents, Abd-el-Kader was chosen emir of the Arab 
tribes in Algeria soon after that region was invaded by 
the French in 1830. He attacked Oran in 1832, but, 
after the most determined and repeated assaults, was 
repulsed by the French artillery, and in 1834 concluded 
a treaty with the French general, who recognized him as 
Emir of Mascara and Oran. In 1835 he defeated a 
French army at Macta. After the victory of General 
Bugeaud at Sikka, 1836, the war was suspended by a 
treaty, (1837.) Hostilities were renewed in 1839 by the 
Arabs, who were stimulated against the infidel in 
vaders by fanaticism as well as patriotism. In the long 
contest which ensued against a power immeasurably 
superior to his own, Abd-el-Kader displayed remark 
able energy, skill, presence of mind, and fertility of re 
sources, combined with administrative talents of the 
highest order ; but he was finally compelled to surrender, 
in December, 1847, which he did on condition that he 
should be sent to Alexandria or St. Jean-d Acre. By a 
flagrant violation of public faith, he was sent to France, 
and detained as a captive until about the end of 1852, 
when he was released by the order of Louis Napoleon. 
He has since resided chiefly at Brussa and Damascus. 

While Abd-el-Kader was imprisoned in France, Gen 
eral Daumas, who had charge of him, wrote to one of 
his friends, " You are going to see the illustrious pris 
oner of the chateau of Pau. . . . You have known 
Abd-el-Kader in his prosperity, at a time when, so to 
speak, all Algeria acknowledged his rule. Well, you 
will find him greater and more extraordinary in his ad 
versity than he was in his prosperity." In 1860, when 
all the Christian population of Syria was threatened 
with massacre, Abd-el-Kader protected, with sleepless 
vigilance and at the imminent peril of his own life, many 
thousands of both sexes until the danger was past. 

Abd-el-Kader excelled in all martial exercises. As 
an equestrian he was unrivalled, even among a people 
whose warriors may be said to live on horseback. His 
quickness of intellect and his memory were extraor 
dinary. At the age of fourteen he already knew the 
Koran by heart. His literary attainments would have 
conferred distinction even upon one who had devoted 
his whole life to peaceful and uninterrupted study. In 
addition to his other accomplishments, he was endowed 
with a graceful and spirit-stirring eloquence. 

See "Life of Abd-el-Kader," written from his own dictation, and 
compiled from other authentic sources, by COLONEL CHURCHILL, 
London, 1867; also the "Nouvelle Biographic Generale." 

Abd-el-Kader-Ghilanee, (-Ghilani,) abd el-ka der 
ge-la nee or ce-la nee, an eminent Persian doctor of the 
Soofee (Sufi) sect, flourished about the middle of the 
twelfth century. Like the orthodox Mohammedans, the 
Soofees believe in one eternal God ; but their views of 
a future state are more spiritual than those taught by the 
Koran. Abd-el-Kader \trote various works on the doc 
trines of the Soofees, some of which are still extant. 
Died at Bagdad in 1165. 

Abd-el-Kadir. See ABD-EL-KADER. 

Abd-el-Lateef or Abdellatif, ab del-la-teef, or 
Abdullattif, ab dool-la-teef, an eminent Arabian his 
torian and physician, born at Bagdad in 1 162. He wrote 
an important work on the history, antiquities, and geog 
raphy of Egypt, of which De Sacy published a French 
version entitled "Relation de 1 Egypte," (1810.) 

See WUSTENFELD, " Geschichte der Arabischen Aerzte;" "Nou 
velle Biographic GeneVale." 

Abd-el-Malek or -Malik* ab del-mt lek or-mal ek, 
(Ibn-Habeeb or -Habib, Tb n ha-beeb ,) a famous 
Mohammedan historian and divine, born at Cordova in 
So i; died 853. 

Abd-el-Malek,* (Ibn-Koreyb ko-rab ,) generally 

* It should be observed that the Arabic words Malek (mM ek) (writ 
ten also Melek, ra&l ek) and Malek (md lek) differ in signification 33 
well as pronunciation : the former signifies "king," the latter "mas 
ter" or "possessor." 

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; %h as in this. (Jl^f^See Explanations, p. 23.) 




called ALASMAEE, (ALASMA !,) al-as ma-ee , a celebrated 
Mohammedan doctor, born at Bassora about 740. He 
possessed an extraordinary memory, and is said to have 
known by heart above 16,000 poems. Haroun-al-Raschid, 
hearing of the fame of Alasmaee, invited him to his court 
and chose him as his own instructor. He died at Bag 
dad about 821. The famous romance of Antar has been 
ascribed to him. 

Abd-el-Malek or Abd-ul-Malik* abd ool-ma hk, 
a suitan of Western Africa, was born at Fez about 1500. 
When his dominions were invaded by Sebastian, King 
of Portugal, he made vigorous preparations for defence, 
and, though labouring under severe disease, accompanied 
his army," in a litter, to the field of battle, (August, 1578.) 
The Moors were victorious, and Sebastian was taken and 
put to death ; but Abd-el-Malik died of exhaustion dur 
ing the contest, and Mohammed, his nephew, whom he 
had dethroned, and at whose instigation the Portuguese 
king had begun the war, was drowned in his flight. This 
battle has been called "the battle of the three kings." 

Abd-el-Malek,* (Ibn-Merwan mer wSn ,) the 
fifth caliph of the house of Omeyyah, ascended the throne 
in 685. He distinguished himself as a warrior while 
quelling several formidable rebellions in his dominions ; 
he was brave, just, and strict in the observance of all the 
duties of his religion, and was moreover a patron of learn 
ing and the useful arts. Died in 705, aged sixty years. 

See WEIL, " Geschichte der Chalifen," vol. i. chap. ix. 

Abd-el-Melek. See ABD-EL-MALEK. 

Abd-el-Moomen, (-Moumen or-Mumen,) abd el- 
moo men, written also Abdul-Mumen, the second 
prince or sultan of the line of Almohades, in Africa, was 
born in the province of Tlemsen, about noo. On the 
death of Al-Mahdee, (Al-Mahdi,) founder of the new 
dynasty, he managed to get himself elected successor to 
the throne, in 1130. His reign was constantly occupied 
with wars, in which he was for the most part eminently 
successful. Having subdued all his enemies in Western 
Africa, he was preparing to cross into Spain, that he 
might put a stop to the victorious career of Alphonso 
VIII., when he was attacked by the disease of which he 
died, in 1163. He assumed the title of caliph, which his 
successors retained. 

See ABD-EL-MOUMEN, in the "Nouvelle Biographic Generale." 

Abd-el-Moottalib, (or -Muttalib,) abd el-moot - 
ta-lib,t written also Abd-el-Mottalib and Abdol- 
Motalleb, a rich citizen of Mecca, born in 497 A.D., was 
the son of Hashem and grandfather of the prophet Mo 
hammed. He is said to have dug at Mecca, in obedience 
to a command given him in a vision, the famous well 
of Zemzem, which was destined to supply pilgrims with 
water through all succeeding ages. Died in 579- 

See ABD-EL-MOTTALIB, in the "Nouvelle Biographic Generale ;" 
SPRENGER, " Life of Mohammad." 

Abdel-Mumen. See ABD-EL-MOOMEN. 

Abd-el-Wahab,abd el-wa-iiab^rAbdul-Wahab, 
ab dool-wa-htb , the founder of the sect of the Wahab- 
ites, (Wahabees or Wahabys,) was born in the Arabian 
province of Nejd in 1691. He did not, as has been as 
serted, promulgate the doctrine? of a new religion. He 
saw, as he believed, that the primitive Mohammedan 
faith had become totally corrupted, and his efforts were 
directed towards introducing a thorough reformation. 
He acknowledged the Koran and the traditionary law, 
the " Soonnah," (or " Sunnah,") to be the foundation of 
religion ; but the opinions even of the greatest com 
mentators were not, he maintained, to be received im 
plicitly. He complained that many of the Mohammedan 
professors bestowed upon the prophet and the saints 
honours which were equivalent to adoration. He held 
and proclaimed that before God all men were equal, and 

* See note on last column of preceding page. 

t There is some discrepancy in regard to the accentuation of this 
name : some writers give Abd-el-Mutalib, (or -Motallib ;) but the best 
authorities make the penultima short. H AMMER-PURGSTALL (Litera- 
turgeschichte der Araber, vol. i. p. 384) spells it A bdol-Moththalib, 
(i.e. -Moththalib, for he uniformly places an accent on the long sylla 
bles :) it should also be observed that he employs th (in German) for 
t hard. POCOCK, in his Latin version of Abulpharagius, writes the 
name with //, Abdol-Motallab or -Motalleb ; but in the Arabic text 
the penultima is short. (See " Historia Dynastiarum," Oxford, 1663.) 

that it was a sin to pray to departed saints or to honour 
their relics more than those of ordinary persons. The 
Wahabites, wherever they had the power to do so, de 
stroyed the domes and ornamental tombs : even the 
cupola over the birthplace of Mohammed, at Mecca, 
and his tomb at Medina, were demolished. Abd-el-Wa- 
hab died in 1787. 

See BURCKHARDT, "Materials for a History of the Wahabys," 
London, 1830; "Voyages d AH-Bey," Paris, 1814; NIEBUHR, 
" Reisebeschreibung nach Arabien," etc. 

Abd-er-Rahman, abd eR-RaH man,* (or Abd-ur- 
Rahman, ab dooR-RaH man,) I., written also Abdar- 
rahmaii, (the "servant of the Merciful," that is, of God,) 
the founder of the Omeyyah dynasty of sultans in Spain, 
in opposition to the caliphs of the new line, (the Abbas- 
sides.) He wrested Moslem Spain from the govern 
ment of the caliph in 756, and died in 788 A.D. 

See AL-MAKKARI, "History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in 

Abd-er-Rahman II., the fourth sultan of Cordova of 
the Omeyyah dynasty, ascended the throne in 822 A.D. 
He was an able warrior, was eminent for his modera 
tion, justice, and humanity, and was a distinguished 
patron of learning. Died in 852 A.D. 

Abd-er-Rahman III., surnamedAN-NASiR-LiDEEN- 
ILLAH or -LiofNiLLAH, an-na sir-le-dee nil lah, (i.e. "the 
defender of the religion of God,") the eighth sultan and 
first caliph of Cordova, began to reign in 912, and by 
his talents and energy raised the Mohammedan empire 
in Spain to the highest pinnacle of glory. He was dis 
tinguished both as a warrior and as a patron of learning 
and the arts. One of his palaces near Cordova was 
decorated with unequalled magnificence ; the audience- 
room, in particular, was adorned with golden images of 
the most exquisite workmanship, and the roof was cov 
ered with pure gold. After a reign of nearly fifty years, 
An-Nasir died in 961, at the age of 73. An-Nasir-Li- 
deen-Illah was also the name of one of the caliphs of 
the Abbasside dynasty, as well as of several other Mo 
hammedan princes. 

See AL-MAKKARI, " History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in 
Spain," translated into English by GAYANGOS, London, 1840-43; 
CONDE, " Histoire de la Domination des Arabes;" CASIRI, " Bibli- 
otheca Arabico-Hispana." 

Abd-er-Rahman, Sultan or Emperor of Morocco, 
born in 1778, succeeded his uncle Muley Soliman in 
1823. He became the ally of Abd-el-Kader in the war 
against the French, who defeated his army at Isly in 

Abd-er-Rahman-Alghafekee, (or -Alghafeki,) 
al-ca fe-kee , a Moslem governor of Spain, invaded Gaul 
at the head of eighty thousand men, and, having ravaged 
Aquitaine, encountered the French army under Charles 
Martel near Tours, in October, 732 A.D. After a se 
vere and prolonged contest, the Christians gained a 
complete victory, which saved Europe from the Moham 
medan yoke and put an effectual check to the conquests 
of the Saracens of Spain. Abd-er-Rahman himself was 
left dead on the field of battle. 

See "Nouvelle Biographic Generale." 

Abd-er-Rahman, (Ibn-Khaldooii or -Khaldun.) 


Abd-er-Razzak, abd eR-Raz-zaV, or Abdurrazzak, 
ab dooR-Raz-zSk , the founder of a small empire in East 
ern Persia, about 1336, which lasted only till the con 
quest of Tamerlane in 1381. 

Abd-er-Razzak, or Abd-er-Rezzak, (Kamal-ed- 
Deen or Kemal-ed-Din, ka-mSl ed-deen ,) a Persian 
traveller and historian, born at Herat in 1413 ; died 
about 1475. He wrote an interesting history of the de 
scendants of Tamerlane. 

Abdias, ab-dee as, (Ben-Shalom sha lom,) a Jew 
ish rabbi of the seventh century, went to Arabia to dis 
pute with Mohammed, who is said to have converted him. 

* Most European writers accentuate this name on the last syllable, 
ABD-ER-RAHMAN ; but we have preferred to follow Hammer- Purgstall, 
who invariably gives it with the ultima short ABDERRAHMAN, (ab- 
der-rah m.^n.) So far as we have had an opportunity of consulting 
tile Arabic texts of the Mohammedan writers, they have nearly 
always confirmed the practice of that eminent Orientalist. Both 
forms are undoubtedly correct ; but that given above is sanctioned 
by the best Arabic usage. 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, J, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; n6t; good; moon; 


3 1 


Abdol-Malik. See ABD-EL-MALEK. 

Abdol-Moththalib. See AHD-EL-MOOTTALIB. 

Abdoloiiimus. See AHDALONYMUS. 

Abd-ool- (Abdul- or Abdoul-) Hamid, (or -Ha- 
met,) ab dool- ha micl,(or ha met,) Sultan ot Turkev, born 
in 1725, was a son of Ahmed III. He succeeded his 
brother Mustapha III. in 1774. Having been defeated 
by the Russians, he obtained a short peace by the treaty 
of Kootchook-Kainarji in July, 1774. He was again 
involved in war against Russia, and lost a battle at Oc- 
zakow, in 1788. Died in 1789. 

See VON HAMMER, " Histoire de 1 Empire Ottoman." 

Abd-ool-Mejeed, Abdoul-Medjid, or Abdul- 
Mejid, ab dool-me-jeed , an eminent Mohammedan 
poet, vizier to Aboo-Mohammed, the last king ot Bada- 
jo/. He died about 1125. 

Abd-ool-Mejeed, Abdul-Mejid, or Abdoul- 
Medjid, al/ddbl-me-jeed , [Ger. spelling, ABDUL MED- 
sciiii),] Sultan of Turkey, born in 1823, was the eldest 
son of Mahmood II., whom he succeeded July i, 1839. 
He found Turkey at war against Mehemet AH of Egypt, 
whose victorious army was marching towards his capital. 
From this danger he was saved by the intervention of 
the great European powers in 1840. He pursued the 
course of reform commenced by his father, which was 
resisted by a fanatical party among his subjects, and ex 
hibited a spirit of tolerance towards Christians. About 
the end of 1853 he was involved in a war with Russia, 
in which France and England were the allies of Abd-ool- 
Mcjeed. (See NICHOLAS I.) He died in June, 1861, and 
was succeeded by his brother Abd-ool-Azeez, (Abdul- 

See ABDOUL MEDJID, in the "Nouvelle Biographic Generale." 

Abdor-Rahmaii. See ABD-ER-RAHMAN. 

Abdoul-Melek. See ABD-EL-MALEK. 

Abdulaziz. See ABDELA/JZ. 

Abdul-Kadir. See ABD-EL-KADER. 

Abdul-Malik. See ABD-EL-MALKK. 

Abdul-Mumeii. See ABD-EL-MOOMEN. 

Abdurrahman. See ABD-ER-RAHMAN. 

Ab dy, (Mi RA SMITH,) an English authoress, born in 
London about 1818, was a niece of Horace and James 
Smith. She married a Rev. Mr. Abdy, of London. 
She has written agreeable verses and tales, some of 
which appeared in various annuals. Perhaps her most 
important work is her "Appeal on Behalf of Govern 
esses." Died in July, 1867. 

A Bec ket, (GILBERT ABBOT,) a witty and humorous 
English writer, born in London in 1810 or 1811. He 
was admitted to the bar in 1841. He contributed to 
the London "Times" and " Punch." Among his works 
are "The Comic Blackstone," (1844-46,) and "The 
Comic History of England," (1848.) Died in 1856. 

A Becket, (THOMAS.) See BECKET. 

A-bed ne-go , called also Az-a-ri ah, one of the 
three Hebrew captives whom Nebuchadnezzar, King of 
Babylon, ordered to be thrown into his fiery furnace. 
(See Daniel i. 7 ; ii. 49 ; iii. 10, etc.) 

A-beel , (DAVID,) an American missionary, born at 
New Brunswick, New Jersey, in 1804. He published 
"A Journal of a Residence in China, 1829-33." Died 
in 1846. 

Abegg, a bek, (BRUNO Erhard CR haRt,) a Ger 
man lawyer, born at Elbing in 1803. Died in Berlin in 

jurist, born at Erlangen in 1796. He became professor 
of law at Breslau in 1826, and published many legal 

Abeille, .VMl , [Fr. pron. i MI or f b.Vye,] (GAS- 
i-ARi),) a mediocre French lyric and tragic poet, born in 
Provence in 1648. He was educated for the church, and 
received the title of "Abbe." In 1704 he was elected 
a member of the French Academy. Died in 1718. 

Abeille, a bM , (Louis,) a German pianist and com 
poser, born at Baireuth about 1765. He produced 
several successful operas, etc. Died in 1832. 

See F^TIS, "Biographic Universelle des Musicians." 

Abeille, (Louis PAUL,) a French writer and agricul 
turist, born at Toulon in 1719. He was for several 

years inspector-general of the manufactures of France. 
Died in 1807. 

Abeille, (SciPiON,) a French surgeon and poet, was 
a brother of Gaspard, noticed above. He wrote in verse 
a " Description of the Bones," (" Histoire des Os," 1685.) 
Died in 1697. 

Abekeii, ab eh-ken, (BERNHARD RUDOLPH,) a Ger 
man writer, born at Osnabriick in 1780. He was em 
ployed by Schiller as tutor to his children, and was after 
wards professor in the College of Osnabriick. Among 
his works are " Studies on the Divina Commedia of 
Dante," (1826,) and a valuable contribution to the biogra 
phy of Cicero, "Cicero in seinen Briefen," (1835,) f 
which an English version was published in 1854. 

A bel, [in Hebrew ^HI] the second son of Adam and 
Eve. He is regarded as the first martyr, and the first 
of mankind who suffered physical death, having been 
murdered by Cain, his brother. (See Genesis iv., and 
Hebrews xi. 4; also Matthew xxiii. 35.) 

Abel, [Dan. pron. a bSl,] a king of Denmark, second 
son of \Valdemar II. He secretly instigated the mur 
der of his brother, Erik VI., and was elected king in 
his stead in 1250. He was killed, while endeavouring to 
suppress a rebellion of the Frisians, in 1252. 

Abel, a bel, (CASPAR,) a German writer and anti 
quary, born in 1676; died 1763. 

Abel, a bel, (CLARKE,) an English surgeon and natu 
ralist, born about 1780. He accompanied Lord Am- 
herst to China in 1816 as naturalist of the expedition, 
and published a " Narrative of a Journey in the Interior 
of China," (1818,) which has been highly commended. 
He was afterwards surgeon-in-chief to the governor- 
general of India, and died in 1826. 

See "Gentleman s Magazine," Dec. 1827. 

Abel, (FRIEDRICH GOTTFRIED,) a German physician, 
born in 1714, was a son of Caspar, noticed above. Died 
in 1794. 

Abel, (JOSEPH,) a distinguished historical painter, 
born near Linz, on the Danube, in 1768. He passed 
six years, 1802-8, in Rome, where he painted "Pro 
metheus Bound" and designs from the Iliad. He after 
wards worked in Vienna, and produced, besides many 
portraits, some historical pictures, among which is a 
" Flight into Egypt." Died in Vienna in 1818. 

Abel, (KARL FRIEDRICH,) a German musician, born 
at Kb then in 1725. In 1763 he removed to London, 
where for many years he enjoyed the highest popularity ; 
but, owing to the fickleness of the public taste, his con 
certs ceased at last to attract any attention. He died in 
1787. He is noted as having been the teacher of Cra 

Abel, a bel, (NiEi.s HENRIK,) a distinguished mathe 
matician, born at Findo, in Norway, in 1802. He 
studied at the University of Christiania ; and afterwards, 
by the aid of a pension from the government, travelled 
through Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and France. He 
returned to his native country in 1827, and died in 1829. 
The special object of Abel s scientific labours was the 
theory of elliptic functions. The celebrated Legendre 
spoke with astonishment of his discoveries, and evidently 
regarded his mathematical talents as of the most orig 
inal and highest order. 

See BROCKHAUS, " Conversations-Lexikon ;" "Nouvelle Bicgra- 
phie Ge ne rale." 

Abel, von, fon a bel, QAKOH FRIEDRICH,) a German 
philosopher, born in \Viirtcmberg in 1751, was professor 
of philosophy at Tiibingen. He wrote, besides other 
works, "Collection and Explanation of the Remarkable 
Phenomena of Human Life," (" Sammlung und Ei - 
klarung merkwiirdiger Erscheinungen aus clem mensch- 
lichen Leben," 3 vols., 1790.) Died in 1829. 

Abel, von, (KARL,) a Bavarian statesman, born at 
Wetzlar in 1788. He became minister of the interior in 
1838, and the chief of the absolutist or ultramontane 
party. By the influence of Lola Monies he was driven 
from power in February, 1847. 

Abel-De-Pujol. See PUJOL. 

Abel Remusat. See REMUSAT. 

Abela, a-ba la, (GIOVANNI FRANCESCO,) a Maltese, of 
noble family, who in the early part of the seventeenth 

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 



century wrote a valuable work entitled " Malta Illus 
trated, with its Antiquities, and other Information," 
(" Malta illustrata con le sue Antichita ed altre Notizie.") 
Born in 1582 ; died in 1655. 

Ab e-lard (PIERRE) or Abailard, [Fr. pron. a b\ - 
IfR ; in Latin, PE TRUS AB^ELAR DUS,] a celebrated 
French philosopher and logician, was born near Nantes 
in 1079. After having studied Latin, Greek, and He 
brew, he visited Paris, where he became the pupil of 
William de Champeaux, the most skilful dialectician of 
the age. But the pupil soon surpassed his master, and 
often challenged him to public disputations, so com 
mon in the eleventh and twelfth centuries. He is said 
to have been so elated by his frequent triumphs that not 
only his master but his fellow-students were disgusted 
with his vanity. About 1 101 he retired from Paris and set 
up a school at Melun, whither crowds of pupils repaired 
to hear his instructions. Not long after, he returned to 
Paris, where, both as teacher and disputant, he was soon 
without a rival. When he was about thirty-four years 
old, Abelard turned his attention to divinity, and went 
to Laon to study under Anselme. His brilliant repu 
tation, joined to his vanity and arrogance, raised up 
against him bitter enemies, whose persecution compelled 
him to leave the town. He then reopened a school in 
Paris, and his fame became greater than ever before. 
His well-known and unfortunate amour with his pupil 
Heloise need not be related here. Suffice it to say that 
it left him defenceless against the malice of those ene 
mies whom his former triumphs and arrogance had pro 
voked. The remainder of his life was little else than a 
succession of persecutions. His errors and his afflic 
tions appear to have at last taught him simplicity and 
humility. He died in 1142, at the priory of St. Marcel, 
near Chalons, whither he had gone for his health. His 
remains were, at her request, given up to Heloise, and 
buried at the oratory of the Paraclete, which he had 
founded, and where she was then prioress. Twenty 
years afterwards, she was interred in the same tomb. 

Abelard left many writings, nearly all dialectical or 
theological, except his "Letters to Heloise," ("Epistolce 
Petri Abaslardi et Heloisae,") and the " History of [his] 
Misfortunes," (" Historia Calamitatum.") 

"Abelard s reputation," says the " Foreign Quarterly 
Review" for January, 1846, " was higher than that of any 
living man. ... It is from his connection with Heloise 
that Abelard has descended to posterity ; his own claims 
are slight, and have been greatly overrated. . . . He 
discovers nothing ; he improves nothing. He can only 
dazzle and confuse." 

"Abelard," observes Hallam, " was almost the first who 
awakened mankind, in the age of darkness, to a sympa 
thy with intellectual excellence. His bold theories, not 
the less attractive, perhaps, for treading upon the bounds 
of heresy, his imprudent vanity that scorned the regu 
larly acquired reputation of older men, allured a multi 
tude of disciples who would never have listened to an 
ordinary teacher. . . . But the whole of Abelard s 
life was the shipwreck of genius ; and of genius both 
the source of his own calamities and unserviceable to 
posterity." ("Middle Ages." vol. iv. p. 377.) 

See COUSIN S " Introduction to the Works of Abelard," 1836; BER- 
INGTON, " History of Abelard and Heloise," 1787 ; J. HUGHES, " Life 
of Abelard," 1751 ; BERINGTON, " History of the Middle Ages," 1814; 
BRUCKER, "History of Philosophy," 1766; DOM GERVAISE, "Vie 
d Abelard," 1720; FESSLER, "Abalard und Heloise," 2 vols., 1806; 
SCHLOSSER, "Abalard und Dulcin," 1807; FEUERDACH, "Abalard 
und Heloise," 1834 ; O. GUIZOT, " Essai sur la Vie et les E~crits 
d Abailard et de Heloise," 1839 ; CH. DE REMUSAT, "Abelard," 2 
vols., 1845; FLEURV, " Histoire de 1 figlise," 1751; BERNARDUS, 
(Saint,)" EpistoL-e ;" also articles in the "Westminster Review," vol. 
xxxii., and the " Forei.m Quarterly," vol. xxxvi. 

Abelin, t beh lax , or Abeling, a beh-ling, (JOHANN 
PHILIPP,) a German historian, born at Strasburg, as 
sumed in some of his works the name of JOHANN LUD- 
WIG GOTTFRIED, (GOTHOFREDUS.) He published many 
works, among which are the first and second volumes of 
the " Theatrum Europium," a valuable record of con 
temporary history, which was continued to the twenty- 
first volume, and a description of the West Indies, (" His 
toria Antipodum," 1655.) Died about 1646. 

See JOCHER, "Allgemeines Gelehrten-Lexikon." 

Abell, a bel or i-beT, (JOHN,) an English singer and 

performer on the lute, was attached to the chapel of 
Charles II. He was banished as a papist in 1688. 
Died after 1700. 

Abelli or Abelly, t b.Yle , (ANTOINE,) an eminent 
French ecclesiastic, born in Paris in 1527. He was con 
fessor to Catherine de Medicis. He is supposed to have 
died about 1600. 

Abelli or Abelly, (Louis,) a French ecclesiastic, 
born in Paris in 1603. He was made Bishop of Rodez 
in 1664, and died in 1691. He wrote numerous theo 
logical works. 

Aben- (or Ebii-) Beitar, a bc n-bi-e-taR or -bl-taR , 
(Abdal lah-Ibn- (Tb n) Ah med,) an Arabian botan 
ist, born near Malaga; died in 1248. 

Abencerage, a-beVse-raj , [Sp. pron. a-Bgn-tha-ra - 
na,] plural, Abencerages or Abencerrages, (a Span 
ish corruption of the Arabic BEN! SERRAJ, i.e. the "Sons 
of Serraj,") the name of a noble Moorish family in the 
kingdom of Granada, originally from Cordova. Several 
members of this family acted prominent parts in the pe 
riod which preceded the conquest of Granada by the 
Spaniards. There was a deadly feud between the Aben 
cerages and the Zegris. 

Abendaiia, a-ben-da na, (JACOB,) a Spanish Jew, 
who lived in London, and wrote commentaries on the 
Scriptures. Died in 1685. 

Abendroth, a bent-rSt , (AMADEUS AUGUST,) a Ger 
man lawyer, born at Hamburg in 1767. He became 
mayor of that city in 1810, and burgomaster in 1831. 
Died in 1842. 

Aben- (a bSn) Ez ra, a Spanish Jew, born at Toledo 
in 1 1 19. As a commentator on the Scriptures he stands 
in the foremost rank. He excelled in almost every 
branch of science ; he was an eminent astronomer, math 
ematician, physician, linguist, and poet. He is supposed 
to have died in 1194. 

Aben-Humeya, a be n-hoo-ma ya, the last king of 
Granada, born about 1520. He was of Spanish origin, 
and was chosen king by the Moors who had revolted 
against Philip II. He was captured and strangled in 1568. 

Abenpace. See AVENPACE. 

Abercrombie, ab er-krum-be, (JAMES,) D.D., an elo 
quent and learned clergyman of the Episcopal Church 
in Philadelphia, born in 1758; died in 1841. 

Abercrombie, (JAMES,) a major-general in the Brit 
ish army in America, where he arrived and took com 
mand of the troops at Albany in 1756. The French 
having obtained possession of the lakes, Abercrombie in 
1758 was intrusted by Pitt with a force of 50,000 men to 
recover the places which had been lost. On the 8th ot 
July he attacked Ticoncleroga at the head of 15,000 
troops, but was repulsed by Montcalm with great loss. 
He was shortly after superseded by Lord Amherst. 

Abercrombie, (JOHN,) an eminent Scottish physician, 
born at Aberdeen in 1781. Having graduated as an 
M.D. in 1803, he settled in Edinburgh, and rose to the 
highest rank in his profession. His reputation was 
widely extended by his writings, among which are 
"Pathological and Practical Researches on Diseases of 
the Brain and Spinal Cord," (1828,) "Inquiries concern 
ing the Intellectual Powers of Man, and the Investiga 
tion of Truth," (1830,) and "The Philosophy of the Moral 
Feelings," (1833.) Referring to his work on the intellect 
ual powers, the "Quarterly Review" observes, " His de 
scriptions of the mental phenomena are clear and pre 
cise, and his reasonings perspicuous and sound. . .* . 
The style of the work merits equal praise. It is sim 
ple and unambitious, without being devoid of ornament 
or power." ( " London Quarterly" for July, 1831.) He 
was chosen lord rector of Marischal College, Aber 
deen, in 1835. Died in November, 1844. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen," 
vol. v. 

Abercromby, ab er-krum-be, (ALEXANDER,) a Scot 
tish judge, the youngest brother of Sir Ralph Abercromby, 
was born in 1745. In 1792 (on the death of Lord Hailes) 
he became a judge in the court of justiciary. Died in 
1795. He wrote several interesting papers for "The 
Mirror" and "The Lounger," two literary periodicals 
edited by Mackenzie. 

See CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

5, e, T, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, p, obscure; far, fall, fat; me t; n6t; good; moon; 




Abercromby, (DAVID,) a Scottish physician, who 
nourished in the latter half of the seventeenth century. 
Besides four short treatises on medicine, he wrote several 
works on other subjects. His " Fur Academicus" ("Aca 
demical Thief") shows him to have been a man of wit 
and learning. The time of his birth and that of his 
death are unknown. 

British peer, a son of Sir Ralph, noticed below, was 
born in 1776. He entered Parliament about 1812, voted 
with the Whigs, and acquired distinction as a debater. 
He was speaker of the House of Commons from 1835 
to 1839, in which year he resigned and passed into the 
House of Lords as Baron Dunfermline. Died in 1858. 

Abercromby, (JOHN,) a horticultural writer, born 
near Edinburgh in 1726. His first work, entitled "Every 
Man his own Gardener," had a great sale ; and he after 
wards published a number of others, among which may 
be mentioned "The British Fruit Gardener" and "The 
Gardener s Daily Assistant." Died in 1806. 

Abercromby, (Sir JOHN,) the second son of Sir 
Ralph, served under him in Egypt, and obtained the 
rank of general. Having been appointed governor of 
Madras, he took Mauritius from the French in 1810. 
He died, it is supposed, in 1817. 

Abercromby, (PATRICK,) M.D., the author of a work 
entitled " Martial Achievements of the Scots Nation," 
(2 vols., 1711-15,) was born at Forfar in 1656, and is 
supposed to have died about the year 1720. Although 
his work has enjoyed a considerable reputation, it pos 
sesses little merit. 

Abercromby, (Sir RALPH,) a distinguished military 
commander, was born in Clackmannanshire, Scotland, 
in 1734. lie entered the University of Edinburgh in 
1752, and in 1754 was sent by his father to Leipsic 
to study civil law. But, as he manifested a decided pref 
erence for the military profession, his father yielded to 
his wishes and permitted him to join the army. In 
1773 he was elected member of Parliament. He does 
not, however, appear to have particularly distinguished 
himself in any way till the breaking out of the war with 
France in 1793. In 1795 he was created Knight of the 
Bath. In the unfortunate campaigns in Holland under 
the Duke of York in 1793-5, and especially in that of 
1799, he did everything that a subordinate officer could 
do. The bravery and military skill which he evinced 
won for him universal respect, and every one was satis 
fied that had he commanded in chief the results would 
have been very different. Abercromby was appointed 
commander-in-chief of the expedition against Egypt, 
which set out in 1800 and reached its destination in 
1801. A few days after the landing of the troops near 
Alexandria, the British camp was suddenly attacked by 
all the French troops in that country. The assailants 
were bravely repulsed, but during the action the British 
commander received a wound in the thigh, of which he 
died a few days after. As an officer, Sir Ralph Aber 
cromby was distinguished by talents of a high order, 
and still more by a humane and generous regard for 
the welfare of his soldiers. Though perfectly reckless 
in exposing himself, he was extremely careful never to 
expose those under his command to any unnecessary 
danger. As a man, he was distinguished for benevolence, 
superiority to prejudice, and a high sense of honour. Sir 
Ralph Abercromby had four sons : the first Lord Aber 
cromby ; Sir John Abercromby, who served with credit 
under his father in Egypt, and afterwards rose to the 
rank of a general ; Lord Dunfermline; and Alexander, a 
lieutenant-colonel in the army. 

See "Memoir of Sir Ralph Abercromby," by LORD DUNFERM- 
I.INK ; CIIAMHF.RS, " Biographical Dictionary of Kminent Scotsmen ;" 
WILSON, " History of the British Expedition to Egypt." 

Abercromby, (Sir ROHF.RT,) a British general, was 
a younger brother of Sir Ralph. He became governor 
of Bombay in 1789, and commander-in-chief in India in 
1792. After a successful campaign against the Rohillas, 
he returned to England in 1797, and was elected to Par 
liament. Died about 1827. 

OF, a British statesman, born in 1784, inherited the earl 
dom (in the Scottish peerage) from his grandfather, who 

died in 1802. He was elected one of the Scottish repre 
sentative peers about 1807, identified himself with the 
Tory party, and was sent on a. diplomatic mission to Vi 
enna in 1813. In 1814 he became Viscount Gordon in 
the peerage of the United Kingdom. He was secretary 
of state for foreign affairs, in the cabinet of Wellington, 
from 1828 until November, 1830, when his party went 
out of power. In September, 1841, Sir Robert Peel 
appointed him to the same office, which he retained 
until the triumph of the Whig party, in July, 1846. His 
foreign policy was pacific. 

After the death of Peel, (1850,) the Earl of Aberdeen 
was regarded as the head of the Peelite party. On the 
defeat of Lord Derby, in December, 1852, he became 
prime minister, and formed his cabinet by a coalition of 
Conservatives and Whigs or Liberals. In spite of his ef 
forts to maintain peace, Great Britain "drifted into war" 
against Russia, in 1854. He lost popularity by his mod 
eration towards Russia, and was censured for remissness 
in the prosecution of the war. Having been defeated 
in the House of Commons about February i, 1855, he re 
signed his office, and was succeeded by Lord Palmerston. 
Died in December, 1860. He had been twice married, 
and left a son, who was styled Lord Haddo. 

See " Gentleman s Magazine" for February, 1861. 

Aberli, a beR-lee, QOHANN LUDWIG,) a Swiss land 
scape-painter and engraver, born at Winterthur in 1723. 
His landscapes of Swiss scenery, engraved and coloured, 
were much admired, and found many imitators. Died at 
Berne in 1786. 

Abernethy, al/er-ne-///e, (JOHN,) an eminent dis 
senting divine, born at Coleraine, in Ireland, in 1680. 
He took the degree of M.A. at the College of Glasgow, 
and afterwards studied divinity in Edinburgh. Upon 
finishing his course he returned to Ireland, and at length 
became the pastor of a Presbyterian congregation at 
Antrim. Some new views which he subsequently 
adopted, on the right of private judgment in matters of 
faith, together with the spirit of independence which he 
manifested with respect to the authority of the synod, 
caused at last a schism in the church. In 1730 he be 
came the pastor of an independent congregation, in ad 
dressing whom he carefully avoided all appeals to the 
affections, maintaining that nothing else was requisite 
than merely to convince the reason. Hence his follow 
ers were termed Rational Dissenters. Abernethy died 
in 1740. 

See DUCHAL, "Life of Abernethy," prefixed to his Sermons; 
"Biographia Britannica." 

Abernethy, (JOHN,) a celebrated English surgeon 
and physiologist, born in London in 1764, was a pupil 
of John Hunter. He was a grandson of John Aber 
nethy, noticed above. In 1 786 he became assistant-sur 
geon of St. Bartholomew s Hospital, London, and on 
the death of Sir C. Blick he succeeded him as chief sur 
geon in that institution. He lectured on anatoniy and 
surgery, and acquired immense popularity as a teacher. 
He published, in 1809, an able work "On the Consti 
tutional Origin and Treatment of Local Diseases," in 
which he propounded doctrines which have made a 
great change in the science of surgery. He is said to 
have been the first surgeon who performed the ligature 
of the carotid artery and the external iliac artery. 
Many amusing anecdotes are related of him, exhibiting 
that singular mixture of shrewd sense, wit, and eccen 
tricity for which he was so remarkable. A gouty rich 
man having consulted him received for answer, Live 
on sixpence a day, and earn it." In domestic relations 
he is said to have been amiable. He married Ann 
Threlfall in 1800. Died at Enfield in April, 1831. 

See GF.ORGE MACIIAVAIN. "Memoirs of J. Abernethy," 1^53 
CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Abert, a bert, (JOHN J.,) an American engineer, born 
in Maryland in 1790. He was appointed major of topo 
graphical engineers in 1814, and colonel of the same in 
1838. He was at the head of the corps of topographical 
engineers for about thirty years. Died in January, 1863. 

Abesch, a besh, (ANNA BARISARA,) a "famous Swiss 
painter on glass. Died about 1750. 

Ab gar-us, [Gr. "A/fyapoc,] written also Abagarus, 

k. c as s; g hard: g as /; <;, H, K, guttural; X, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 


xplanations, p. 23.! 




Agbarus, and Augarus, a name common to several 
kings of Edessa in Mesopotamia. 

Ab-I a-thar, [in Hebrew, "IJVJJX,] a high-priest of the 
Jews, and one of the chief counsellors of King David. 
(See I. Samuel xxii., xxiii., and xxx. ; II. Samuel viii. 
and xx.; I. Kings ii. and iv.) 

Abicht, a biKt, QOHANN GEORG,) a German author 
ancl divine, born in Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt in 1672. 
He wrote several works on the Hebrew language and 
antiquities, and also on theology. Died in 1740. 

Abicot. See HABICOT. 

Abidenus. See AHYDENUS. 

Ab i-gail, [Heb. Vr2X.] a Hebrew matron, who was 
married first to Nabal, and secondly to King David. 
(See I. Samuel xxv.) 

A-bi jah or A-bi a, [in Hebrew, iT3tf,] a name com 
mon to several Israelites, among whom may be named 
a son of Jeroboam and a son of the prophet Samuel. 

Ab-i jamflieb. D JX] or Abijah, King of Judah, was 
a son of Rehoboam, whom he succeeded on the throne. 
After a reign of three years, he died about 955 B.C. (I. 
Kings xv. 1-8; II. Chronicles xiii.) 

Abildgaard, a blld-goRd ^ NICHOLAS,) a distinguished 
Danish historical painter, born in Copenhagen in 1744. 
In 1772 he visited Italy, where he spent five years. He 
was afterwards appointed professor of painting in the 
Academy of Copenhagen. Died about 1806. He is 
considered by many as the best painter that Denmark has 
produced. Among his works are a " Socrates," and the 
"Creation of the World, after Orpheus." 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie ;" NAGLER, 
" Neues Allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexikon. " 

Abildgaard, (PETER CHRISTIAN,) an able Danish 
physician and naturalist, born at Copenhagen about 1740, 
was, according to Malte-Brun, a brother of the preced 
ing. He wrote many treatises on medicine, zoology, 
etc., and gave a description of the Megatherium at the 
same time as Cuvier, (1796.) He was secretary of the 
Academy of Sciences, and founder of the Veterinary 
School of Copenhagen. Died about 1808. 

See " Biographic Universelle;" " Historia brevis Regii Instituti 
Veterinarii," etc., Copenhagen, 1788; CUVIER, " Sur les Ossements 

Abildgaard, (So REN,) a Danish naturalist, born be 
tween 1720 and 1730. He wrote two works on topo 
graphical mineralogy, one of which is entitled " Physico- 
Mineralogical Description of the Promontory of Moen," 
(" Physik-mineralogisk Beskrivelse over Moens Klint," 
1781.) Died in 1791. 

See ERSCH, "Handbuch dsr D^utscheti Literatur." 

Abilfedae. See AKOOLFEDA. 

A-bim e-leeh, [Heb. -t^rDX,] an illegitimate son 
of Gideon, chosen king by the men of Shechem after 
he had slain all his brothers except Jothain. Afterwards, 
while attempting to take Thebez, he was mortally wound 
ed with a stone thrown from the top of ^he citadel by a 
woman ; upon which his armour-bearer, at his request, 
ran him through the body with a sword, lest it should 
be said that he had been slain by a woman. (See Judges 
ix.) Two kings of Gerar, named Abimelech, are men 
tioned in the book of Genesis, (chaps, xx. and xxvi.) 

Ab in-ger, (Lord,) an English lawyer, whose proper 
name was JAMES SCARLETS, was born in Jamaica about 
i 769. Having been educated in England, he was called to 
the bar in 1791, and obtained great success as a pleader. 
He was appointed attorney-general in 1827, and became 
an adherent of the Tory party. In 1 834 he was appointed 
chief baron of the exchequer, and raised to the peerage 
as Baron Abinger. He is said to have been almost unri 
valled in the tact and address with which he operated on 
the minds of juries. Died in 1844, leaving several sons. 

c ?- ae , G f !1 1 eman s Magazine" for June, 1844 ; Foss, " The Judges 
of England," vol. ix. 

Ab ing-ton, (FRANCES,) a celebrated English actress, 
born about the year 1731. She excelled in every de 
partment of comedy, and was for a long time without a 
rival. Her taste in dress was greatly admired. Her 
talents and elegant manners procured her admittance 
into society of the highest rank ; but, as a woman, her 
character was marred with those moral blemishes so 
common in persons of her profession. She died in 1815. 

Abington, (THOMAS and WILLIAM.) See HABING- 


Abisbal, a-Bes-bal , (HENRY O DONNELL,) COUNT, 
a Spanish general of Irish descent, who greatly dis 
tinguished himself in resisting the French invasion in 
1809-10. He afterwards acted a conspicuous part in 
the political as well as military affairs of Spain until his 
death, in 1834. 

A-bish a-i, [Heb. t^JX,] one of the three sons of 
Zeruiah, sister of King David, in whose army he was a 
leader. See II. Samuel xxiii. 18; also I. Samuel xxvi. 

Ablancourt, d , dt blS.x kooR , (NICOLAS Perrot 
pi ro ,) an eminent French translator, born at Chalons- 
sur-Marne in 1606. He produced translations of Taci 
tus, Thucydides, Caesar, and Lucian, which were received 
with favour ; but they are not faithful, and are now neg 
lected. He was admitted into the French Academy 
in 1637. Colbert proposed him as historiographer in 
1662, but Louis XIV. rejected him because he was a 
Protestant. Died in 1664. 

Ab-la/vi-us, a Roman historian, cited by Jornandes in 
his History of the Goths. The age in which he lived is 

Ableitner, ab lTt-ner, QOIIANN,) a Bavarian sculptor, 
who nourished in the early part of the seventeenth cen 

Ablesimof or Ablecirnof, a-bles e-mof , (ALEXAN 
DER,) an officer in the Russian army, who became dis 
tinguished as a dramatist. Among his works is a suc 
cessful national comic opera entitled "The Miller," 
(1779,) which is considered a faithful picture of Russian 
manners. Died at Moscow in 1784. 

Ab ner or Abiiier, [Heb. iJHX or T3X,] the son of 
Ner, was captain of the host of Saul, King of Israel. 
After the death of Saul, in consequence of an affront 
offered him by Ishbosheth, Abner sought to transfer the 
whole kingdom to David. But Joab, exasperated be 
cause Abner had killed his brother Asahel in battle, 
and perhaps jealous of the influence which he might ac 
quire with David, called him aside under pretence of 
speaking with him privately, and treacherously slew 

Ab ney, (Sir THOMAS,) M.P., Lord Mayor of Lon 
don, born in 1639. He rendered important services to 
William III. Died in 17.22. 

Abondio, a-bon de-o, (ALESSANDRO,) a Florentine 
painter, was a pupil of Michael Angelo. He worked in 
Germany, and died at Prague. He had a son of the 
same name, who lived at Munich and was no less dis 
tinguished as a painter than his father. 

AB OO, ABOU, or ABU, an Arabic word signifying 
"father," forming a prefix to many Oriental names, as 
Auoo-BEKR, (which see,) the "father of the virgin." 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Abdillah, a btTo ab-diK- 
lah, the Sheeite, the chief actor in the revolution which 
established the dynasty of the Fatimites on the throne 
of Egypt. He was born at Sanaa about 865. By his 
preaching and by his arms he induced a great part of 
the Mohammedans in Africa to join the new sect and to 
recognize the claims of Obeydallah, the first sultan of 
the Fatimite line. But having afterwards been detected 
in a conspiracy against his sovereign, whom he had 
raised to the throne, he was put to death in 911. 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Abdillah-Mohammed, 
surnamed AL-MAHDEE or AL-MAHDL, (i.e. "director" or 
"rider,") founder of the sect and dynasty of the Almo- 
hades, (Almowahedun,) was born in the province of Soos, 
in Morocco, about the year 1087. Like many other 
leaders of Mohammedan sects, he began with preaching 
and ended with the sword. He died in 1 130, leaving to 
Abd-el-Moomen the prosecution of his plans of reform 
and conquest. 

Aboo-Amroo-Al-Owzaee, (Abu-Amru-Alau- 
zai,) a boo am roo al-ow-za ee, a famous Mohammedan 
doctor, who was born at Baalbek about 706 and died 
about 774 A.D. 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Bahr-Sefwan, a boo - 
baH r sef wan , a distinguished Moslem poet and histo- 

a, e, T, 6, ii, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, ii, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; nSt; good; moon; 




rian, born at Murcia, in Spain, about the year 1106. 
Besides many other valuable works, he wrote a biograph 
ical dictionary of eminent contemporary authors, lie 
died about 1 182. 

Aboo-Bekr, (Abu-Beker, Abu-Bekr, or Abou- 
Bekr,) a boo bek er, or a-boo bek-er, written also Abu- 
Bakr, Abti-Bacr, and Aboubecre, the first of Mo 
hammed s successors, was born in 571 A. I). lie be 
longed to the celebrated tribe of Koreish, and was one 
of the first and most zealous of the converts to Islam. 
His original name was ABU-EL-KAAHA, (abd-el-kS ba ;) 
but after the prophet Mohammed had married his virgin 
daughter Ayeshah, he was called ABOO-BEKR, the " Fa 
ther of the Virgin." He was elected to the throne in 
632, and died in 634, after a reign of two years and three 
months. Aboo-Bekr is admitted by all to have been a 
pious and humble man, and a mild, generous, and excel 
lent prince. He was succeeded by Omar. 

See GIBBON, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," chap. 1. ; IR 
VING. " Mahomet and his Successors ;" WEIL, " Geschichte der Cha- 
lifen," vol. i. chap. i. for a notice of the character of Aboo-Bekr, see 
SPRENGER S " Life of Mohammad," p. 170 ct scq. 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Bekr-al-Mahree, (Al- 
mahri,) a bob bek er al-maii ree , the vizier of Almu- 
tamed, Sultan of Seville, was born about 1030. He ap 
pears to have been an able minister, but, having incurred 
the suspicion of his sovereign, he was put to death in 
1084. He was regarded as one of the first poets of his age. 

Aboo-Bekr (Abu-Beker) -Ibn-Tofail, (Tb n to- 
fll ,) an eminent Arabian philosopher, born at Guadix, in 
Spain. He wrote a philosophical romance entitled " Hai- 
Ibn-Yokdhan," (or " Hayyi-Ibn-Yokttan,") which was 
translated into Latin by Pocock and published in 1671, 
and into English by Simon Ockley, (London, 1708.) 
Died at Morocco in 1186. 

See AI.-MAKKAKI, " History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in 
Spain," translated by GAYAXGOS, vol. i. pp. 335-6. 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Faras, a boo fa-ris , a dis 
tinguished Arabian poet, born in 932. He was cousin 
to Seyf-ed-Dowlah, (Seyfu-d-daulah,) Sultan of Aleppo, 
at whose court he lived. A Mohammedan writer calls 
him " the pearl of his time, and the sun of his age, in 
learning, talent, generosity, glory, eloquence, horseman 
ship, and bravery." He was killed in a skirmish in 968. 

Aboo- (or Abou-) Hamid-Alghazaiee, (Abu-Ha- 
mid-Al-ghazali or Alghazzali,) i boo ha micl al-Ga- 
za lee, a distinguished doctor, born at Toos, (Tus,) in 
Khorassan, about 1058. He spent a part of his time in 
travelling ; but much the greater portion appears to 
have been passed in seclusion and wholly devoted to 
philosophy and divinity. He is said to have been a man 
of sound judgment and immense learning. From his rare 
attainments as a divine, he was called ZEYN-ED-DEEN, 
"the ornament of religion." Died at Bagdad in mi. 

Aboo-Haneefah. See HANEEFAH. 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Hayyan, a boo hl ySn , 
surnamed ATHEER-ED-DEEN, (ATHIR-UD-DIX,) "the 
glory of religion," a distinguished Arabian author, born 
in the province of Jaen, in Spain, in 1256. When very 
young, he visited several towns in Andalusia, where he 
supported himself by transcribing books and lecturing on 
the Koran. He afterwards went to Egypt, and was ap 
pointed a professor and lecturer on the Koran in one of 
the colleges of that country. He died in Cairo in 1344. 
He was called "the prince of his age in the science of 
grammar." Besides numerous other important works, 
lie wrote a "History of the Turkish Race," and a volu 
minous commentary on the Koran. 

Aboo- (Abu- of Abou-) Ishak, (-is-hSk ,) an Ara 
bian geographer, who lived about the beginning of the 
tenth century. The place of his birth is unknown. 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Ishak-Al-Hos ree , (or 
Al-Hosri,) a noted poet, born near Kairwan in Africa ; 
died in 1061. 

Aboo-Jaafar, (or -Jafar.) See MANSOOR, AL. 

Aboo-1- ( Abu-1-) Abbas- Abdallah, a bool ab bSs 
ab-dril lah, surnamed As-SEFFAii (as-sef fah ,) i.e. "the 
shcddcr of blood," the twenty-second caliph of the East, 
and the first of the dynasty of the Abbassides, was born 
at Damascus about 720 A.D. He was a descendant 
of Abbas, the uncle of Mohammed. His family had 

always, during the usurpation of the house of Omey 
yah, considered themselves the rightful heirs to the 
caliphate; at length, during the reign of Merwan II., 
the standard of revolt was raised in Khorassan. Upon 
hearing this, Merwan caused Ibrahcem, the brother 
of Aboo-1-Abbas-Abdallah, the representative of the 
line of Abbas, to be seized and put to death. His broth 
ers, Aboo-1-Abbas and Aboo-Jaafar, being then absent 
from Damascus, fled to Koofah, ( Kufah,) where the former 
was proclaimed caliph by the people, (A.I). 749.) Mer 
wan, having advanced against the rebels with an army, 
was defeated, and fled to Damascus, and thence to Egypt, 
where he was overtaken and slain. It is estimated that 
more than one hundred of the Omeyyah family fell vic 
tims to the vengeance of the new caliph. As-Seffah died 
in 754. Notwithstanding his severity against the ene 
mies of his family, he is represented by some historians 
as a liberal, benevolent, and able prince. He was 
esteemed the handsomest man of his time. 

See WEIL, "Geschichte der Chalifen," vol. ii. chap, i.; D HER- 
BELOT, " Bibliotheque Orientale." 

Aboo-1-ala, (Abu-l- ala,) a boor a la, a famous Ara 
bian poet, born in Syria about 970. When only four 
years old, he lost his sight from the small-pox. He used 
to call himself "the doubly-imprisoned captive," allud 
ing to his blindness and the voluntary seclusion in which 
he devoted himself to study. He soon won so great a 
reputation that his house was filled with students, who 
came to him from different countries. Died in 1057. 

Abool-Cacem. Sec AHOO-L-KASIM. 

Aboolfaraj, (Abu-1-faraj,) a boor far aj, (or-far aj,) 
an eminent Arabian author and compiler, a descendant 
of Merwan II., born at Ispahan in 897. His works are 
numerous and very valuable. Died at Bagdad in 967. 

Aboolfaraj, (Abu-1- (or Aboul-) faraj,) [written in 
French ABOULFARADGE, a bool fa raj ; Latin, ABUL- 
BR/E US,] GREGORIUS, an eminent historical writer, 
born in Armenia in 1226. At the age of twenty he was 
ordained Bishop of Cuba by Ignatius, the patriarch of 
the Jacobite Christians. About 1266 he was chosen 
Primate of the Jacobites, which position he held till his 
death in 1286. His entire life was devoted to literature, 
principally history, in which he left works of great 
value. He wrote in Arabic and Syriac. His talents 
and virtues gained for him the esteem of Mohammedans 
as well as Christians. 

See ABOULFARADGE, in the " Nouvelle Biographic Generate." 

Aboolfaraj (Abu- (or Abou-) 1-faraj) OF RON AH, 
a distinguished Persian poet, born in the first half of the 
eleventh century. He lived at the court of Ibraheem 
of Ghiznee, (Gazna.) He died, it is supposed, about 1090. 
Aboolfazl, (Abu-1-fazlor Aboul-Fazl,) a bool fdz l, 
(commonly pronounced in India ub ool-fuz l,) the en 
lightened minister and historiographer of Akbar, the 
greatest of the Mogul emperors. The date of his birth 
is unknown. In 1572 he was raised to the office of prime 
minister, which he held for about twenty-eight years.- 
He was waylaid and assassinated about the year 1600, 
leaving behind him the justly-won reputation of an ex 
cellent historian, and of a wise, virtuous, and truly great 
man. His works are numerous and extremely valuable. 
Among them we may mention the "Akbar Namah," a 
minute history of the times of Akbar ; "Ayeen Akbari," 
(or " Ayin-i-Akbari,") " Institutes of Akbar ;" and a post 
humous work entitled " Muktoobat," (or "Maktubat,") 
the "writings," or "letters," including Aboolfazl s own 

See Auoui.F/.zr., in the "Nouvelle Biographic Generate." 

Aboolfeda, (Abu-1-feda* or Aboulfeda,) a boor 
fed a" or a-boo /fe-da , a prince and warrior, and one of 
the most celebrated of the Arabian authors, was born at 
Damascus about 1273. He was a direct descendant 
from Aiyoob, (Aiyub,) the founder of the Aiyoobite dynas 
ty in Egypt. His family had possessed the throne of Ha- 

* It may be proper to observe that the Latin name AHULFEDA 
forms the genitive very irregularly AIHLFED.*:. This peculiarity is 
owing to the fact that the A bft in the first part of the name has in 
Arabic Abl for its genitive. In like manner, we say (in the nomi 
native) Abu Talib ; but Ibn Abi TSiib, the "son of Abfi Talib," the 
change of u (oo) to i (ee) being necessary to mark the genitive case. 

c as /; 9asj; ^hard; g as/; G, H, v.>itttnral; \, nasal; R, trilh d; sass; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 



mah, but the fief which they held having been declared 
extinct by Nasir, (or An-Nasir-Ibn-Kalaun,) Sultan of 
Syria and Egypt, Aboolfedawas deprived of his inherit 
ance. Upon this he entered the service of the sultan, 
and was with him in all his wars against the Tartars. 
Afterwards, as an acknowledgment of his eminent ser 
vices, the sultan conferred upon him the title of Prince 
of Hamah. He remained in undisturbed possession 
of his newly-acquired dignity until his death in 133 1. 
All the Moslem writers agree in representing Aboolfeda 
as a man of the greatest talents ; he was as much dis 
tinguished for skill and courage in the field as for wis 
dom and prudence in the divan. In spite of the cares 
of his government, he devoted much of his attention to 
the cultivation of literature. He has left valuable works 
on history, geography, and medicine. His work enti 
tled "The Description of the Countries" is considered 
to be the best and most complete Arabic geography 
which exists. His great history, called "An Abridgment 
of the History of Mankind," is a work of vast erudition. 
Besides containing a history of the Mohammedans from 
the birth of the prophet down to the date of the work 
itself, (1328,) it furnishes much information respecting 
Arabia before the time of Mohammed, the ancient Per 
sian dynasties, the Copts, the Hindoos, etc. 

See "Nouvelle Biographic Gsnerale ;" ERSCH und GRUBER, 
"Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 

Aboo-1 -Hassan or Abu-1- (Aboul-) hassan, 
a bool has san, an Arabian astronomer, who nourished 
in Morocco in the beginning of the thirteenth century. 

Aboo-1-Hassan, (or Abu-1- (Aboul-) hassan,) writ 
ten also Aboul-Hagan, a Samaritan, who embraced 
the Mohammedan religion and repaired to the court of 
the King of Damascus, by whom he was appointed vizier 
about the year 1231. Accompanying an expedition into 
Egypt, he was taken prisoner and put to death in 1251. 

Aboo-1-Hassan or Aboul-Hagan, (Alee (or All) 
Ibn Omar, d lee ib n o mar,) an Arabian astronomer 
of Morocco, lived about the year 1200. He wrote a valu 
able treatise on philosophical instruments, which was 
translated into French by Sedillot. 

Aboo-1-Kasim, Abu-1-kasim, or Aboul-cacem, 
a bodl ka sim, [in Latin, ALKUCA SIS or ABULCA SIS,] the 
most celebrated of all the Arabian writers on surgery. 
Scarcely anything is known of his life ; he is supposed 
to have practised medicine in Cordova in the latter 
part of the eleventh and the beginning of the twelfth 
century, and to have died about mo. His principal 
work, which treats of anatomy, physiology, the practice 
of medicine, and surgery, is one of extraordinary value. 
That portion which is devoted to surgery has been pro 
nounced the best treatise on this subject that has come 
down to us from antiquity. It is especially interesting 
and valuable to those who desire to trace the gradual 
progress of the surgical art in its various departments. 

See WUSTENFF.LD, "Geschichte der Arabischen Aer/.te ;" SPREN- 
GEL, "History of Medicine." 

Aboo-1-Kasim, ( Abu-1-kasim or Abou-1-cacem,) 

a distinguished Mohammedan theologian and poet, born 
in the province of Valencia, Spain, about 1143. He 
visited several foreign countries, and finally settled in 
Cairo, where he was appointed to a professorship. He 
died in 1194. He wrote several works on the Koran, 
which are highly esteemed. 

Aboo-1-Kasim or Aboul-Cacem, a Turkish gen 
eral, lived about 1050. He took Nicasa, and advanced 
towards Constantinople, but was repulsed by Taticius, 
and put to death by the Shah of Persia. 

Aboo-l-Kasim-Mansoor. See FIRDOUSKE. 

Abop-1-Khatar or Abul- (Aboul-) Khattar, a bool 
Kat taR , a governor of Spain under the caliphs. He 
was a native of Arabia, and was sent by the Viceroy 
of Africa to quiet the contending factions by which 
Spain was at that time distracted. He arrived in Cor 
dova in 743 A. a At first he was entirely successful, but 
at length a rebellion broke out, which he was unable to 
quell ; and he was finally slain by the conquering party. 

Aboo-1-Maalee or Abul- (Aboul-) Maali, a bool 
ma a-lee, a learned Persian who flourished in the reign 
of Bahrain Shah, of Ghiznee, between 1118 and 1152. 

Aboo-1-Mahanee or Abul- (Aboul-) mahani, 

a bool ma-ha nce, an Arabian astronomer, who lived at 
the court of Al-Mamoon, the seventh caliph of the Ab- 
bassides, between 813 and 833. 

Aboo-1- Wafa or Abul- (Aboul-) Wafa, a b6ol 
wa f & , a distinguished mathematician and astronomer, 
born in Khorassan about 940 ; died in 998. He was 
employed at Bagdad, with other eminent astronomers, 
to correct the astronomical tables of Aboo-1-Mahanee. 

Aboo-1-Waleed or Abul- (Aboul-) Walid, 
a bool wa-leed , a famous Mohammedan divine, born at 
Beja, in Portugal, about 1012. His talents and learning 
attracted the notice of Al-M66tamcd, King of Seville, by 
whom he was appointed chief justice, which position he 
held till his death, in 1081. 

Aboo-1- Waleed or Abul- (Aboul-) Walid, a dis 
tinguished Moslem divine and historian, born at Alep 
po about the year 1400 ; died 1478. 

Aboo-1- Waleed- (or Abul- (Aboul-) Walid-) Ibn- 
Jehwar Ib n-jeh waR or -jeh war, the second sul 
tan of Cordova of the Jehwar dynasty, whose capita^ 
was treacherously wrested from him by Al-Mootamed 
King of Seville, about the year 1045; the latter having 
with a large army entered Aboo-1- Walecd s kingdom 
with the professed object of assisting him against Al 
Mamoon, King of Toledo. Aboo-1-Waleed died, or was 
killed, soon after. 

Abool-Waleed-Mohammed-Ibn-Roshd. See 


Aboo-Mansoor, (Abu-Maiisur or Abou-Man- 
soiir,) a boo man sooR , a distinguished astronomer, 
born at Mecca in 855. He lived at the court of the 
caliph Al-Mamoon, who appointed him president of an 
academy of astronomers at Bagdad, and committed to 
his superintendence the building of two observatories. 
The time of his death is unknown. 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Merwan or Merouan, 
a boo meR wSn , a distinguished Mohammedan divine, 
born at Seville about 1170. He was for several years 
chief justice of his native city. Having made a pil 
grimage to Mecca, he died at Cairo, on his return, in 1237. 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Mos lem, (or -Muslim,) a 
general, who contributed greatly to the overthrow of the 
Omeyyah dynasty and the establishment of that of the 
Abbassides, was born about 720 A.I). Neither his fidelity 
nor the greatness of his merits availed him against the 
jealous cruelty of a sovereign whom he had raised to 
the throne. Aboo-Jaafar had employed him in quelling 
some formidable rebellions which threatened to dismem 
ber the empire. But, when his services were no longer 
needed, the caliph, having invited him, with every mark 
of friendship, to visit him in his palace at Roomeeyeh, 
(Rumiyyah,) caused Aboo-Moslcm to be basely assas 
sinated, in 755. Although Aboo-Moslem s character 
was undoubtedly stained with many crimes, he appears 
to have been always faithful to his sovereign. 

S^e WEIL, "Geschichte der Chalifen," vol. i. chap, xvii., and vol. 
ii. chaps, i. and ii. 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Nowas no-wass , an Ara 
bian poet, born about 744, and died about Sio A. I). 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Obeyd o bad or -o bid , 
a noted Mohammedan geographer and historian, born 
in Spain about 1040. He was vizier to Mohammed, 
King of Almeria. Died about 1095. 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Obeydah o-ba dah, a 
celebrated Mohammedan general, who commanded un 
der the caliphs Aboo-Bekr and Omar. He died of the 
plague, at Damascus, in 639. 

Aboo-Reehan or Abu- (Abou-) Rihaii, written 
also Abou-Ryhan, a boo ree hftn , a distinguished 
Arabian astronomer, born about 970; died in 1038. 
He was employed on several embassies by Al-Mamoon, 
(Mainiin,) Sultan of Kharasm. 

Aboo-Saeed or Abu- (Abou-) Said, a boo sa-eed , 
the ninth of the Persian kings of the race of Jengis 
Khan, ascended the throne in 1317. lie was a weak 
prince, being ruled first by his favourite, the emir Choo- 
ban, and afterwards by his wife, the daughter of that 
nobleman. He died in 1335, at the age of thirty. 

Aboo-Saeed-Meerza, ( Abu-Said-Mirza or Abou 
Said Mirza,) a boo sa-eed meer zS, a prince of the 
Moguls, born about 1427, was a descendant of Tamei lane. 

i, e, T, 5, ii, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fall, fat; mit; n5t; good; moon; 




Having invaded Irak and Azerbaijan, he was taken 
prisoner and put to death in 1469. 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Sahl-Isa, a boo san l is a, 
(or ee sa,) an eminent Christian physician of Khorassan, 
tutor to the famous Avicenna, (Ibn-Seena.) He lived in 
the early part of the eleventh century. 

Aboo-Salat or Abfl- (Abou-)s-Salat, a boo sal dt, 
(or sal at,) a Spanish physician, astronomer, and poet, 
born in 1068; died in 1134. 

Aboo- (Abou- 01 Abu-) Sofiaii, (Sophian or So- 
phyaii,) a boo so-fe-fln , a chief among the Koreish, who 
distinguished himself by his obstinate hostility to the 
claims of Mohammed. After all resistance was vain, 
he reluctantly acknowledged the divine mission of the 
prophet. Aboo-Sofian was the father of the caliph 
Moaweeyeh, the founder of the Omeyyah dynasty at 
Damascus. (See MOHAMMED.) 

Aboo-Tahir or Abu- (Abou-) Tahir, a boo ta hjr, 
the chief of a sect called Karmatians, who, with a com 
paratively small number of followers, took and plun 
dered Koofah, (Kufah,) Mecca, and several other cities of 
Asia, and at length, in 931, was bold enough to advance, 
with only 500 horse, to within a short distance of Bagdad. 
He suddenly attacked, defeated, and took prisoner 
Abissaj, (a be-saj ,) whom, at the head of 30,000 men, 
the caliph had sent against him. Died in 943. Bahrein, 
on the Persian Gulf, was the capital of his dominions. 

Aboo-Talib, (or -Taleb,) Abu-Talib, or Abou- 
Talib, (or -Thaleb,) a boo ta lib, written also Ebu- 
Thalib, an uncle of Mohammed, and the father of Alee, 
(AH,) who married the prophet s only daughter, Fatimah. 
He belonged to the illustrious tribe of Koreish, and 
flourished in the latter half of the sixth and beginning 
of the seventh century. Died about 620 A.D. (See MO 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Talib, (pronounced by the 
Hindoos lib oo ta lib,) a native of India, born at Luck- 
now in 1752. For a number of years he was em 
ployed by the East India Company in various offices, 
civil and military. At length, in 1800, he visited Eng 
land, where he was received with the most flattering at 
tentions by the royal family and many of the nobility. 
He returned to India through France, Italy, Turkey, 
and Persia. He wrote a very interesting journal of his 
travels, a translation of which into English has been 
published. Died in 1806. 

Aboo- (Abu- or Abou-) Temam te-mam , a 
famous Arabian poet, born in Syria about 805 A.D. 
He spent the first years of his life in Damascus in the 
service of a tailor. He afterwards repaired to Bagdad, 
where he was munificently patronized by the caliph and 
the officers of his court. Died in 845. 

Aboo-Yakoob-Yoosuf, Abu-Ya kub-Yusuf, or 
Abou-Yakoub-Yousouf, (or -Yousef,) a boo ya - 
kool/ yoo soof, (or yoo suf,) the third sultan of Africa and 
Spain of the Almohade dynasty, succeeded his father, 
Abd-el-Moomen, in 1163. In 1184 he was mortally 
wounded before the walls of Santarem, a fortress of Por 
tugal, in the possession of the Christians, which he had 
besieged with a large army. Aboo-Yakoob was a mild 
and enlightened sovereign, and a patron of learning. 

Aboo-Yoosuf, Abu-Yusuf, or Abou-Yousef, an 
eminent Moslem divine, born at Koofah (Kufah) about 
731 A.D. In consequence of his great talents and legal 
knowledge, he was appointed chief judge of Bagdad, an 
office which he held till his death, in 798. In the latter 
part of his life he was the subject of the famous Haroun 

Aboo-Yoosuf-Yakoob, Abu-Yusuf-Ya kub, or 
Abou- Yousouf-Yakoub, a boo yoo soof ya koob , 
surnamed ALMANSOOR, (AL-MANSUR,) "The Victorious, 
the fourth sultan of Africa and Spain of the Almohade 
dynasty, was born at Morocco in 1160. He succeeded 
his father Aboo-Yakoob-Yoosuf, who fell at the siege 
of Santarem, in 1184. Having established himself on 
his throne, and put down several rebellions in his Afri 
can dominions, he determined to cross the Straits of 
Gibraltar and avenge the death of his father. He made, 
in all, three expeditions into the Spanish peninsula : in 
the first (1189) he took captive, of both sexes, 40,000 
persons, whom he led into Africa and settled at Rabatt, 

near Sale ; in the second (1190) he reduced the fortress 
of Torres and the town of Silves in Portugal ; in the 
third (1195) he defeated the Christians under Alphonso 
III., in a great battle near Valencia ; after which he took 
Calatrava, Guadalajara, Madrid, Alcala, and Salamanca 
He died at Morocco in 1 198, leaving behind him the char 
acter of an able and enlightened prince. He has been pro 
nounced the greatest and best of the Almohade sultans. 

Aboubecre. See ABOO-BEKR. 

Abou-Bekr. Sec AKOO-BEKR. 

Abou-1-Cacem, (or Kasim.) See AKOO-L-KASIM. 

Abou-1-Casim-Mansour. See FIRDOUSKE. 

Aboulfaradge. See ABOOLFARAJ. 

Aboul-Hagan. See AKOO-L-HASSAN. 

successful and pithy French writer, born at Dicuze (in 
Meurthe) in 1828. Having passed some time at Athens, 
he published, in 1855, a work on modern Greece, " La 
Grece contemporaine," which is said to be remarkable 
for the best qualities of a truly French style. His ro 
mance entitled "Tolla" (1855) is also much admired. 
He has written several novels, among which are "The 
King of the Mountains," (1856,) and "Germaine," (1857,) 
and a remarkable political work on the " Roman Ques 
tion," (about 1860,) which shows a decided sympathy for 
the liberal cause. 

Abou-Tahir. See ABOO-TAHIR. 

Abou-Taleb, (or-Thaleb.) See ABOO-TALIK. 

Abou-Yousouf. See Anoo-YoosuF. 

Aboville, d , dt bo vel , (FRANgois MARIE,) COMTE, 
a French general, born at Brest in 1730. He served with 
distinction as colonel at Yorktown, Virginia, where he 
directed the artillery, (1781,) became a general about 
1790, and opposed Dumouriez at the time of his defec 
tion, 1793. Under the regime of Bonaparte he was in 
spector-general of artillery, and senator. Died in 1817. 

Abrabanel, a-i:Ra ua-neT, [Span. pron. almost av-Ra - 
va-nel ,] written also Abarbanel and Abrabaniel, 
(ISAAC,) the most illustrious of all the Spanish rabbis, 
was born in Lisbon in 1437. His family, which was sup 
posed to be descended from King David, had dwelt in 
Spain from a very early period. The parents of Abra 
banel were rich, and no expense was spared in his edu 
cation. Endowed with extraordinary quickness of in 
tellect and great powers of application, he soon made 
himself master of all the learning of that time, and was 
particularly distinguished for his thorough acquaintance 
with the Holy Scriptures and the writings of the rabbis. 
His great abilities attracted the attention of Alphonso 
V. of Portugal, who frequently consulted him on the 
most important affairs. On the death of this king, in 
1481, his son, John II., yielding to the bigoted spirit of 
that age, banished Abrabanel from his presence and 
forced him to seek refuge in Spain. Here he was at 
first received with great favour by Ferdinand and Isa 
bella ; but in 1492 a decree was promulgated by which 
all the Jews were banished from the Spanish dominions 
and their property confiscated. Abrabanel fled at first 
to Naples ; he afterwards resided for a short time in 
several of the Italian cities, and at last died in Venice 
in 1508. His works consist of commentaries on various 
parts of the Scriptures. They are considered by the 
best judges to display not only the greatest learning, but 
powers almost unrivalled in this species of writing. 

See ANTONIO, " Bibliotheca Hispana;" LE LONG, " Bibliotheca 
Sacra;" J. H. MAI, "DissertiUio cle Vita et Scriptis Abrabanielis," 

Ab-ra-da tas, a king of Susa, who at first fought on 
the side of the Assyrians, but afterwards attached him 
self to Cyrus the Great, King of Persia. He fell in the 
war which Cyrus waged against Croesus. 

See XENOPHON S " Cyropreclia," book v. 

Abraham, a bra-ham, [Heb. Dmnx,] or Abram 
a bram, one of the most eminent of the Hebrew patri 
archs, was born at Ur, a city of Chaldea, about 2000 years 
(it is supposed) before the Christian era. " Abraham" 
signifies the "father of a numerous people," and 
"Abram" "exalted father." In consequence of his ex 
emplary obedience and trust in God, he has been hon 
oured with the title of " father of the faithful." He died 
at or near Hebron, aged 175 years. (See Genesis xi.-xxv.) 

Explanations, p. 23.) 



Abraham-a-Sancta-Clara a-sank ta kla ra, an 
Augustine friar, regarded as the greatest popular preach 
er of Germany during the seventeenth century, was born 
in Suabia, in 1642. His proper name was ULRIC ME- 
GERLE, (ma ger-la). He studied philosophy and theo 
logy in the Augustine convent at Vienna. In 1662 he 
entered holy orders, and took the degree of doctor of 
* divinity; in 1669 the emperor Leopold appointed him 
preacher to the imperial court at Vienna, which office 
he continued to hold for many years. He died in 1 709, 
leaving many religious works. 

See LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe;" "Oester- 
reichisches Biographisclies Lexikon," Vienna, 1851. 

Abraham-Bar-Chasdai-Hallevi baR-iias dl hal - 
leh-vee , a Jewish rabbi, born at Barcelona, Spain, lived 
in the last half of the twelfth century. He wrote " The 
Book of the Soul," and other works. 

Abraham-Beii-Chaiiania-Jagel (or -Jaghel) 
ki-na-nee a ya gel, an Italian rabbi, was bom near the 
close of the sixteenth century. He wrote a work en 
titled " The Book of Good Doctrine," a catechism on 
the articles of the Jewish faith, which is much cele 
brated. He embraced Christianity about the beginning 
of the seventeenth century, and was baptized by the 
name of Camillus Jaghel. The exact time of his death 
is unknown. 

Abraham-Beii-Dior cle oR , (The Levite,) a famous 
rabbi, born at Toledo, in Spain, in the early part of the 
twelfth century. He is said to have been a personal 
friend of Maimonides, who speaks of him with great 
respect. He is supposed to have suffered death on ac 
count of his religion about the year 1180. 

Abraham-Beii-Haja (-ha ya) or -Chaja, (-Ka ya,) 
a Spanish rabbi, wrote a treatise " On Nativities," and 
one entitled the "Globe of the World," (" Spha^ra Mun- 
di," 1546.) Died in 1105. 

Abraham-Beii-Isaac-Zahalon za-ha-lon , a dis 
tinguished Spanish rabbi, who lived in the sixteenth 
century. He was an excellent lawyer, an eminent astron 
omer, and also a poet. He was banished from Spain 
with the other Jews, and took refuge in Italy. 

Abraham-di- (or de-) Balmis de bal mes, a cele 
brated Italian rabbi and physician, born at Lecce in the 
latter part of the fifteenth century. Died about 1522. 

Abraham-Zacuth (or -Zacut, -za-koot ) or -Zacu- 
tho za-koo to, [Span. pron. tha-koot or thd-koo to,] a 
Spanish rabbi and astronomer, born at Salamanca near 
the middle of the fifteenth century. He was one of the 
Jews banished from Spain in 1492. On leaving his na 
tive country he went to Portugal, where he was kindly 
received by King Emmanuel and appointed astronomer 
and chronographer royal. The date of his death is un 

Abram, f bRON , (NICHOLAS,) a learned French Je 
suit, born near Charmes, in 1589. In 1636 he became 
professor of theology in the University of Pont-a-Mous- 
son. Died in 1655. 

Abranches, de, da a-bRan she s, (ALVARO,) a Por 
tuguese noble, who took a prominent part in the revo 
lution which occurred in 1640, and which resulted in the 
expulsion of the Spaniards from Portugal. 

Abrantes, a-bRan tes, fourth MARQUIS OF, a Portu 
guese nobleman, born in 1784. He occupies a promi 
nent place in the political history of his country from 
1807 to 1824, when, in consequence of the part which he 
took in the murder of the Marquis of Louie, he was ban 
ished from Portugal. He went first to Italy, and thence 
to England, where he died in 1827. 

Abrantes, DUKE OF. See JUNOT. 

Abresch, a bResh, (FRIEDRICH LUDWIG,) a learned 
German author, born at Hesse-Homburg in 1699. He 
studied at the University of Utrecht. His parents had 
designed him for the Church, but his own inclinations 
led him to devote himself wholly to classical literature. 
Among his works are " Notes on ./Eschylus and Thucy- 
dicles." He was rector of the College of Micldelburg, 
1725-41. Died in 1782. 

Abreu, d , da bre-oo, (ALEXIS,) a distinguished Por 
tuguese physician, born about 1570. In 1606 he was ap 
pointed consulting physician to Philip III. of Spain. 
Died in 1630. 

Abreu y Bertodano, de, da a bae-oo ebeR-to-Da no, 
(FELIX JOSE,) a Spanish knight, (caballero,) son of the 
Marquis de Regalia, born about 1720. He devoted him 
self to the study of international law, and published, 
in 1746, a "Treatise on Maritime Prizes," (Trataclo ju- 
ridico-politico sobre Presas de Mar,") which attracted 
considerable attention. From 1755 to 1760 he was 
envoy extraordinary to the court of St. James. The 
year of his death is unknown. 

Abreu y Bertodano, de, (JosE ANTONIO,) a Span 
ish writer on international law, was brother to the pre 
ceding. Died in 1775. 

Abrial, a bRe tl , (JOSEPH ANDRE,) a French advo 
cate, born in 1750, at Annonay, was educated in the 
College of Louis-le-Grand, at Paris. He was sent in 
1 800 to Naples, in order to organize a republican gov 
ernment, in which work he manifested great ability. 
During the whole of his administration, his mildness 
and moderation won for him the affection of the Nea 
politans. He was made senator, and received the title of 
count, under Napoleon, but was nevertheless one of 
the first to vote for his dethronement in 1814. He was 
afterwards created a peer by Louis XVIII. Died in 

Abriani, a-bRe-d nce, (PAOLO,) an Italian poet, born 
at Viccnza in 1607. He was employed as professor 
or teacher in Genoa, Verona, and Padua. Among his 
works are a volume of sonnets, " Canzoni," etc., and a 
poetical version of Horace s "Art of Poetry," (1663.) 
Died at Venice in 1699. 

Abril, a-BReel , almost a-vReel , [in Latin, APRI LIS,] 
(PEDRO SIMON,) a Spanish grammarian, who is supposed 
to have died near the close of the sixteenth century. 
He was the author of a number of books, some of which 
are in Spanish, and some in Latin 

Abruzzi, a-bRoot scc, a landscape-painter, who lived 
in Rome towards the close of the last century. 

Abruzzo, a-bRoot so, (BALDASSARE,) a Sicilian philos 
opher and civilian, born about 1600; died in 1665. 

Ab sa-lom, [Heb. rDl^tJON,] the third son of Da 
vid, was born in Hebron after his father ascended the 
throne. Possessed of winning manners and an ex 
ceedingly handsome person, he became very popular 
throughout the land of Israel, and at length sought 
openly to dethrone his father. In the battle which was 
subsequently fought, Absalom was slain by Joab, al 
though King David had expressly commanded that the 
life of his son should be spared. The rebellion of Ab 
salom is supposed to have occurred in 1036 li.c. (See 
II. Samuel xiii.-xviii.) 

Absalon, ab sa-lon , called also Axel, a descendant 
of Slagus, was born in Iceland in 1128. He studied in 
Paris, and in 1 178 was appointed to the archbishopric of 
Lund, in Scania, which office he held till his death in 
1 20 1. Absalon was undoubtedly one of the greatest 
men of his age ; he was a wise counsellor to his king, a 
brave general, and a generous patron of learning. 

See ESTRUP, "Absa .on considere comme heros, homme d fitat et 
eveque," 1856. 

Abschatz, ap shats, (HANS Assmann ass man,) 
BARON OF, a poet and statesman, born in Silesia in 1646. 
He studied jurisprudence at the Universities of Stras- 
burg and Leyden. In 1675 he was appointed governor 
of the principality of Liegnitz, and afterwards was Sile- 
sian ambassador at the court of Vienna. Died in 1699. 
He is ranked among the principal German poets of the 
seventeenth century. Many hymns of his composition 
are still sung in the Protestant churches. 

Abshoven. See APSHOVEN. 

Abstemlo, ab-sta me-o, or Astemio, [Lat. AKSTE - 
Mius,] (GiAMPiETRO,) an eminent teacher, who lived in 
Friuli about the middle of the sixteenth century. His 
school was attended by young men of the first Italian 

Ab-ste mi-us Lau-reii ti-us, (lau-rcn shcvus,) [It. 
ASTEMIO, as-ta/me-o,] an Italian writer, who was born 
at Macerata in the latter half of the fifteenth century. 
Besides several works on grammar and criticism, and 
one on geography, he wrote, in Latin, a book of Fables, 
which at one time enjoyed considerable popularity. 

Ab-syr tus or Apsyr tus, [Gr. "Ai/wp7oc; Fr. AH 

a, e, I, 6, ft, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon; 




SYRTK, ab seRt ,] a son of /Eetcs, King of Colchis, was 
a brother of Medea, who took him with her when she 
fled with Jason. When she was pursued by her father, 
she killed her brother and scattered his severed limbs 
along the road, in order to retard the pursuit. 

AJ1U, ABU, or ABU, a prefix to many Arabian 
names. See ABOO. 

Abu-Bakr, (or -Bacr.) See ABOO-BEKR. 
Abubeker or Abubekr. See ABOO-BEKR. 

A-bu ca-ra, [Gr. A.povK.apd,] (THKODORUS,) a Chris 
tian theological writer, who lived in the eighth century. 
Of the circumstances of his life little or nothing is known. 
He wrote a great number of works, mostly in Greek, 
though a few arc in Arabic. 

Ab-u-dac nus, (JOSEPH,) a native of Cairo, who, about 
the year 1600, was a teacher of Arabic at Oxford. Be 
sides some grammatical treatises on Hebrew, he wrote 
a " History of the Copts," (" Historia Jacobitarum seu 
Coptorum in /Egypto Libya," etc.) 

See WOOD, "Athenae Oxonienses." 

Abulfaragius. See ABOQLFARAJ. 

Abul-Faraj, (or Farage.) See ABOOI.FARAJ. 

Abulfeda. See ABOOI.FEDA. 

Abul-Kasim or Abu-1-Kasim. Sec ABOO-L-KASIM. 

Abu-1-Kasim-Mansur. See FIRDOUSEE. 

Abulola. See AHOO-I.-AI.A. 

Abulpharagius. See ABOOI.FARAJ. 

Abul-Walid-Ibn-Roshd. See AVERROES. 

Abundance, d , di buN d&Nss , (JEAN,) a French 
poet and satirist, who flourished in the early part of the 
sixteenth century. Nothing is known of his life ; the 
name is supposed by some to be fictitious. One of his 
works is entitled "The Great and Marvellous Acts of 
Nobody," (" Lcs Grands et Merveilleux Faits de Nemo.") 

Ab-y-de nus, [ A ; 3u<V wc,] a Greek historian, who 
wrote a work on Assyria, very valuable, so far as can be 
judged from the few fragments which remain. Of his life 
nothing is known. 

Acace. The French spelling of AcACius, which see. 

Acacius, a-ka shc-us, [Gr. Awktoc; Fr. ACACE, 
S kiss ,] a bishop of Caesare a, who succeeded Eusebius 
in 339 A.D. Died about 366. 

Acacius, a philosopher and rhetorician of Caesarea, 
contemporary with the preceding. 

Acacius, a bishop of Beroe, who lived in the fourth 
and fifth centuries. 

Acacius, a bishop of Amicla, in Mesopotamia, who 
ransomed 7000 Persians that had been taken prisoners 
by the Romans, about the beginning of the fifth century. 

Acacius, a patriarch of Constantinople, to which 
dignity he was appointed in 471 A.I). He was ambi 
tious and crafty, and aimed to raise the church of Con 
stantinople above all other Eastern churches. Died in 

Ac-a-de mus [ Am tAri/ior] or Hec-a-de mus, an 
Athenian, who disclosed, it is said, to Castor and Pollux 
the place where their sister Helen was secreted. The 
garden or grove called Acadcinia, in which Plato found 
ed his school of philosophy, is supposed to have been 
named in honour of Academus. 

Acamapichtli, a-ka-ma-petcr/tlee, the first king of 
Tenochtitlan or Mexico, was elected to the throne, 
according to the Mexican annalists, in the year 1352. 
His authority extended only to the Aztecs inhabiting 
the island on which Tenochtitlan was built. Under his 
reign the Aztecs increased in fame, stone edifices were 
built, and canals were constructed. Died^in 1389. 

Ac a-nia.s, \ \,] a son of Theseus and Phoodra, 
is said to have been sent with Diomede to Troy to 
demand the surrender of Helen. According to Virgil, 
he was one of the band enclosed in the wooden horse. 

Agarq, d , dt stak , a French critic and grammarian, 
who was born in 1720 and died in 1795- 

A-cas tus, [Gr. "A/caaror; Fr. ACASTK, S kSst ,] a son 
of Pel i as, King of lolcus, was one of the Argonautnc. He 
married Astydami a, who, by false accusations, produced 
an enmity between Acastus and Peleus. 

Ac ca, a learned bishop of Hexham, a contemporary 
and friend of the celebrated Bede. Died in 740 A.D. 

Ac ca Lauren tia (lau-ren she-a) or Larentia, la- 

as k; c as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K , 

rOn she-a, the wife of the shepherd Faustulus, is said 
to have been the nurse of Romulus and Remus. Ac 
cording to one tradition, she was a courtesan who was 
renowned for her beauty, and who bequeathed a large 
sum of money to the Roman people in the time of An- 
cus Martius. 

Accama, ak ka-ma, (BERNARD,) a Dutch historical 
and portrait painter, born in Friesland. Died in 1756. 

Accarigi, ak-ka-ree jee, or Accarisi, ak-ka-ree see, 
[Lat. ACCARIS IUS,] (FRANCESCO,) a distinguished pro 
fessor of civil law, born at Ancona about 1550. He 
taught successively in the Universities of Sienna, Parma, 
and Pisa. Died at Pisa in 1622. 

Accarrigi, (jACoro,) a native of Bologna, who was 
professor of rhetoric in the University of Mantua. Died 
in 1654. 

Accarisio, ak-ka-ree se-o,(Ai,BERTO,) an Italian, born 
at Cento, near Ferrara, in the early part of the sixteenth 
century, was the author of an Italian grammar of some 

Acciajuoli or Acciaioli, at-cha-yo lee, (DoNATO,) 
a distinguished Italian scholar, born at Florence in 1428, 
wrote commentaries on the ethics and politics of Aris 
totle. Died in 1478. 

Acciajuoli or Acciaioli, (FiLiPPO,) a dramatic writer 
and composer, born at Rome in 1637; died in 1700. 

Acciajuoli or Acciaioli, (NICCOLO or NICHOLAS,) 
an eminent statesman, born at Florence about 1310. 
He was for many years the chief adviser of Joanna, Queen 
of Naples, to whom he was recommended by his talents, 
eloquence, and fine personal appearance. Died in 1366. 

Acciajuoli or Acciaioli, (RENIER,) a Florentine, 
who obtained possession of Athens and Corinth about 
1364, and was styled Duke of Athens. 

See GIBBON, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." 

Acciajuoli or Acciaioli, (ZENOBIO,) a classical 
scholar, born at Florence in 1461, became librarian oi 
the Vatican and a friend of Politian. He translated 
Eusebius and Thepdoret into Latin, and wrote Latin 
verses, which were praised by Giraldi and other critics. 
Died in 1519. 

Acciajuoli-Salvetti, at-cha-yo lee sal-vet tee, (MAD- 
DALENA,) an Italian poetess of Florence, wrote " Rime 
Toscanc," and other works. Died in 1610. 

Accioli, at-cho lee, (JUAN de Cerqueira y Silva 
da seR-ka e-ra e seel va,) a Brazilian historian, born about 
the end of the eighteenth century. Among his works is 
" Historical and Political Memoirs of the Province of 
Bahia," (6 vols., 1835 and the years following.) 

Accius, ak she-us, or Attius, at she^us, (Lucius,) a 
celebrated Roman tragic poet, born about 170 B.C. 
None of his dramas has come down to us entire ; but 
the numerous fragments which remain justify the ad 
miration with which the ancients regarded him. The 
date of his death is unknown. 

See SELLARR, "Roman Poets of the Republic," chap. v. 

Accius, (Tirus,) a Roman orator, born at Pisaurum, 
(now Pesaro,) in Umbria. He lived about 70 years B.C. 

Accolti, ilk-kol tee, (BENEDETTO, or BENEDICT,) an 
Italian writer, born at Arczzo in 1415. He was doctor 
and professor of law at Florence ; in 1459 he was made 
chancellor of the republic, which office he held till his 
death in 1466. He wrote a Latin history of the conquest 
of Palestine by Godfrey of Bouillon, from which Tasso 
derived the materials of his great poem. 

Accolti, ak-kol tcc, (BENEDETTO,) an Italian cardinal, 
born at Florence in 1497, was a grandson of the pre 
ceding, and a son of Michcle Accolti. He became a 
cardinal in 1527, after which he was sometimes called 
Cardinal de Ravenna. He was an elegant Latin poet, 
in the opinion of such judges as Vida and Sadoleto, and 
was also a patron of learning. Died in 1549. 

See AUBEKY, " Histoire cles Carclinatix." 

Accolti, (BERNARDO,) a noted Italian poet and im- 
provisatore, who lived at the court of Leo X., was a son 
of the historian Benedetto, and uncle of the preceding. 
Whenever he recited his verses in public, great crowds 
flocked to hear him. Died about 1535. 

Accolti, (FRANCESCO,) a distinguished Italian lawyer, 
(better known as Areti nus or Aretino, a-ra-tee no,) a 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




name assumed by several members of his family,) born 
at Aiezzo about 1418, was a brother of Benedetto the his 
torian. In 1440 he was made professor of law at Bo 
logna, and in 1479 was appointed senior professor of 
law at Pisa, which position he held till his death, about 
1485. Besides a number of works of a strictly profes 
sional character, he wrote several essays in general lit 
erature, including translations from the ancient authors. 

See MAZZUCHELLI, "Scrittori d Italia. " 

Accolti, (PiETRO,) Cardinal, son of Benedetto the 
historian, was born at Florence in 1455. He held for 
some time the professorship of law in the University of 
Pisa; afterwards, in 1511, he was made Cardinal of St. 
Eusebius. He has generally been called, though incor 
rectly, Cardinal of Ancona : it is under this title that he 
is said to have had the principal share in preparing the 
bull against Luther, in 1520. It is certain that he pos 
sessed great influence at the court of Leo X. Died in 


See MAZZUCHELLI, "Scrittori d ltalia." 

Accolti, (PiETRO, the younger,) grandson of Cardinal 
Benedetto, lived in the early part of the seventeenth 
century. He lectured on canon law at Pisa. 

Accoramboiai, ak-ko-ram-bo nee, (FABio,) an Ital 
ian lawyer, born in 1502. In 1523, or soon after, he was 
appointed professor of civil law in the University of Pisa, 
and afterwards, about 1527, became professor of canon 
law at Rome. Died in 1559. 

Accoraniboni, (FELIX,) an Italian philosopher and 
physician, a grandson of Geronimo, noticed below, lived 
about 1600. He wrote commentaries on Aristotle and 

Accoraniboni, (GiROLAMO,) an eminent Italian phy 
sician, born about 1467, at Gubbio, in the duchy of Ur- 
bino. He was professor of medicine at Perugia, and 
afterwards at Rome. Leo X. chose him as his own phy 
sician. Died in 1537. 

Accoraniboni, (VIRGINIA,) an Italian poetess, was 
the wife of Francesco Peretti, a nephew of Pope Sixtus 
V. She was murdered by Luigi Orsini in 1585. 

See ADRY, "Vie de V. Accoramboni," 1807. 

Accorso, ak-koR so, [Fr. ACCURSE, t kuRss ,] (Buo- 
NO, boo-o no,) written also Buonaccorso, [Lat. BO NUS 
ACCUR SIUS,] a celebrated classical scholar and rhetori 
cian, native of Pisa, lived in the latter half of the fifteenth 
century. He wrote commentaries on the writings of 
Caesar and other Latin classics. 

Accorso, (or Accursio, ak-kooR se-o,) (MARIAN- 
GELO,) an Italian writer and critic, who lived at Rome 
in the time of Leo X. 

Accuni, ak kum or ak kum, (FRIEDRICH,) a German 
chemist, born at Biickeburg in 1769. He emigrated to 
London in 1793, and became professor of chemistry 
there about 1802. He published an excellent " Practical 
Treatise on Gas Light," (1815,) which contributed greatly 
to promote the use of gas for illumination of cities. 
Among his other works are, "On the Adulteration of 
Food," (1822,) and " Essay on Chemical Reagents," (Lon 
don, 1816.) Died in Berlin in 1838. 

Accurse. See ACCORSO and ACCURSIUS. 

Accursii, ak-kur she-I, (CEKVOT TUS,) second son of 
A.ccursius, noticed below, born about 1240; died in 1287. 

Accursii, ak-kur she-T, or Accursius, ak-kur shc-us, 
(FRANCISCUS,) or Accorso, (FRANCESCO,) the sorTof 
Accursius mentioned below, was born at Bologna in 
1225. He was for several years a counsellor to Edward 
I. of England, and afterwards a professor of law at Bo 
logna, where he died in 1293. 

Accursii, (WILHELMUS,) a third son of Accursius, 
mentioned below, bom in 1246, obtained several eccle 
siastical preferments, and was for some time in the service 
of the pope. Died about 1310. 

Accursius, ak-kur .shonis, (the Latinized form of Ac 
corso,) [Fr. ACCURSK, IFkiiRss ,] an Italian lawyer, 
whose Christian name is supposed to have been FRAN 
CESCO, was born in or near Florence about 1182. He 
was for many years a teacher of law in Bologna. His 
" Glossa," i.e. a collection of glosstz, or notes, made by 
different commentators on Justinian, is very celebrated. 
Died in 1260. 

Acebedo, a-tha-Ba Do, (Don MANUEL,) a Spanish 
historical painter, born at Madrid in 1744, and died in 

A-ger bas, or Sichasus, si-kee us, a Tyrian priest, 
who married Dido and was murdered by her brother 
Pygmalion. Servius gives Sicharbas or Sicharbes for 

Acerbi, a-cheR bee, (ENRICO,) an Italian surgeon, 
born at Castano, near Milan, in 1785. Died in 1827. 

Acerbi, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian traveller, born near 
Mantua in 1773. He performed, in 1799, a journey 
through Lapland to Cape North, and published a narra 
tive of that journey in English, (1802.) In 1816 he 
founded, at Milan, the "Bibliotcca Italiana," a period 
ical of some merit. Died in 1846. 

Aceriius. See KLONOWICZ. 

Ag e-sas [Gr. A/cwa;] or Aceseus, as e-sus, [ A/ce- 
ffet f,] a celebrated embroiderer or weaver of remote an 
tiquity, was born in Cyprus. The time in which he 
lived is unknown. 

Acesius, a-see shejis, [ AxecKO?,] a bishop of Constan 
tinople, who nourished in the early part of the fourth 

A-ges tor, [ A/cecrrwp,] a sculptor of Gnossus,or Cnosus, 
in Crete, lived about 430 B.C. 

Acevedo or Azavedo, a-tha-va i>o, (FELIX AL 
VAREZ,) a brave Spanish officer, born in the province 
of Leon, was one of the chiefs of the popular party in 
the revolution of 1820. Having gained a victory near 
the Minho, he was shot in March, 1820, by some roy 
alists whom he had approached with friendly overtures. 
The Junta ordered that his name should be retained on 
the army list as if he were alive. 

Acevedo, de, da a-thi-va Do, (ALONZO MARIA,) an 
advocate in the royal council at Madrid, and doctor of 
canon law in the University of Salamanca, flourished 
from about 1760 to 1770. Died about 1775. 

Acevedo, de, (CRISTOBAL,) an eminent Spanish 
historical painter, born at Murcia. He studied with B. 
Carducci, at Madrid, about 1590, after which he worked 
in Murcia. He excelled in design and in grandeur of 

See CEAN -BERMUDEZ, "Diccionario Historico." 


Achaemeiies, a-kem e-n6z, [Gr. Axaifisvrif,] the fa 
ther of a line of Persian kings, named from him 
Acn. EMENiD/E, (ak-e-men T-de.) He is supposed to have 
been the great-grandfather of Cyrus the Great. 

Achceinenidae. See ACH.EMENES. 

Achaeus, a-kee us, [Gr. A^aw? ; Fr. ACHEE, t shi ,] 
rhe mythical ancestor of the Achaeans, was said to be a 
son of Xuthus, a grandson of Helen, and a brother of Ion. 

Achaeus, a Greek dramatic writer, born at Eretria, 
484 B.C. He wrote several tragedies, but succeeded 
best in the satiric drama. Only a few fragments of his 
works remain. 

Achaeus, a cousin of Antiochus III., by whom he 
was appointed governor of Asia Minor. Having re 
belled against his sovereign, he was taken and put to 
death, 214 B.C. 

Achaiiitre, S shaxtR , (NICOLAS Louis,) a French 
philologer, born in Paris in 1771, became a school 
teacher. He was patronized by Firmin Didot, and pro 
duced good editions, with notes, of Horace, (1806,) Juve 
nal, (iSio,) and Persius, (1812.) Died about 1830. 

Achard, a^sl-iin , (ANTOINE,) a Swiss Protestant min 
ister, born at|Geneva in 1696, was an eloquent preacher. 
He settled in Berlin in 1724, received the title of privy 
counsellor, and was admitted into the Royal Academy 
of Berlin in 1743. Two volumes of his sermons were 
published, (1774.) Died in 1772. 

Achard, t shtR , (CLAUDE FRANC. ois,) a French 
writer, born at Marseilles in 1758. Among his works 
are a " Description of Provence," (1787,) and " Elements 
of Bibliography," (3 vols., 1807.) Died in 1809. 

Achard, (FRANZ KARL,) a distinguished German 
chemist, son of Antoine Achard, born at Berlin in 1753. 
He was elected, in 1776, a member of the Royal Acad 
emy of Sciences at Berlin. The extraction of sugar 
from the beet-root appears to have engaged his especial 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged ; a, e, T, o, ii, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; ndt; good, moon; 



attention ; and his essays on the subject contributed 
much towards the introduction of this manufacture into 
France. Among his works is "Lectures on Experi 
mental Philosophy, (4 vols., 1792.) Died in 1821. 

Achard, (Louis AMEDEE EUGENE,) a French writer 
of fiction, born at Marseilles in 1814. He removed to 
Paris about 1838, and wrote for several journals, amon 
which was the "Charivari." His romance "La Belle 
Rose" (5 vols., 1847) obtained success. 

Achards, de la Baunie des, d li bom d.Vza shtR , 
(fiLEAZAR FRANCOIS,) a French bishop, born at Avi 
gnon in 1679. He is commended for acts of charity 
during the prevalence of the plague at Marseilles in 
1721. Died in Cochin in 1741. 

Acharius, a-ka re-us, (ERIK,) a distinguished botan 
ist and physician, born at Gefle, in Sweden, in 1757. 
He studied at Upsal, under the celebrated Linnasus. 
As a botanist, his attention seems to have been chiefly 
directed to cryptogamous plants, and especially to lichens. 
He published "Lichenographia Universafis," (1810.) 
Died in 1819. 

See " Biographiskt Lexicon ofver namnkunnige Svenska Man," 
Upsala and Oerebro, 1835-1856. 

A-eha tes, [Fr. ACHATE, i shtt ,]*a friend of /Eneas, 
whose fidelity was so exemplary that " Fidus Achates" 
became a proverb. (See VIRGIL, "/Eneid," lib. i. 188 
and 312.) 

Achates, a-Ka tas, (LEONARDUS,) one of the early 
printers, who carried the art from Germany into Italy. 
He flourished in the latter half of the fifteenth century. 

Achelom. See ANTIQUUS. 

Acll-e-lo us, [ Ae/,MOf,] a river-god of Greek mythol 
ogy, was a son of Oce anus. The poets relate that he 
had the assurance to compete with Hercules as a suitor 
of Dejanira, and was defeated by that hero in a combat. 

Achen or Aachen, van, van a Ken, (JoiiANN,) writ 
ten also Ackeii, Fanacheii, and Janachen, an emi 
nent German painter of history and portraits, born at 
Cologne in 1552. He was employed at Munich by the 
Elector of Bavaria, and afterwards at Prague by the em 
perors Rudolph and Matthias. Died at Prague about 
1620. He was reputed the richest artist of his time. 

See DF.SCAMPS, "Vies des Peintres Flamancls," etc. 

Achenbach, a Ken-baK , (ANDREAS,) a German 
painter, of the Dusseldorf school, born at Cassel in 
1815. He excels in landscapes and marine views. He 
obtained a medal of the first class at Paris in 1855, 
when he exhibited " High Tide at Ostencl ;" a " Moon 
light Scene," etc. 

Achenbach, (OSWALD,) a brother of the preceding, 
and like him distinguished as a painter of landscapes, 
was born at Dusseldorf in 1827. 

Achenwall, a Ken-vval, (GOTTFRIED,) an eminent 
writer on statistics, born at Elbing, in Prussia, in 1719. 
He may almost be said to have created the science of 
statistics, called by him, in German, Staatswissenschaft, 
(in Latin, "Scientia Statistica,") i.e. "the science or in 
formation relating to States." He appears to have in 
cluded in the terms above cited all those facts of which 
a knowledge is necessary to thorough statesmanship. 
Accordingly, in his lectures he treated of the laws of 
nations and history, as well as of statistics in the present 
acceptation of the word. He first taught in the Uni 
versity of Marburg; but in 1748 he was employed at 
Gottingen, where he continued till his death, in 1772. 

Acherley, ak er-le, (ROGER,) an English lawyer and 
political writer, who lived in the early part of the eigh 
teenth century. He wrote a work on the Britannic Con 
stitution, and another on Free Parliaments. 

Acheron. See PLUTO. 

Achery, d , dt sha re , (JEAN Luc,) a learned French 
Benedictine monk, born at St. Cjuentin in 1609. His 
most important work is a collection of rare documents, 
entitled a "Gleaning [Spicilegium] of certain ojd Wri 
ters who have been buried in the Libraries of France," 
(13 vols., 1653-77.) Died in 1685. 

A-ellillas, [Gr. A^t/Jtof,] an Egyptian general, who, 
on the death of Ptolemy Auletes, was appointed regent 

* Chaucer writes the name Achate. (See the " House of Fame.") 

of Egypt and guardian to Ptolemy XIII. and his sister 
Cleopatra. He was afterwards put to death by Arsinoe, 
sister of Ptolemy. 

Achilles, a-kiKlexjfGr. A^AAn f; Fr. ACHILLE, t shel , 
It. ACHILLE, a-kel la, j a celebrated Grecian warrior, the 
hero of Homer s Iliad, was the son of Peleus, King of 
Thessaly, and the sea-nymph Thetis : hence he is often 
called PELI DES. The poets feigned that his mother 
dipped him into the river Styx to render him invulnera 
ble, and that he was vulnerable only in the heel by 
which she held him. He led to the siege of Troy a 
band of Myrmidones in fifty ships, and performed great 
exploits ; but he quarrelled with Agamemnon before the 
end of the war, and withdrew from the contest. To 
avenge the death of Patroclus, he again took arms, and 
slew Hector. He was at last killed by Paris, (or, as some 
say, by Apollo,) who shot him in the heel. 

See " Iliad, " passhti, and " Odyssey," xxiv. 36. 

Achilles, [Ger. pron. a-Kil les,] (ALEXANDER,) a Prus 
sian nobleman, whom Ladislaus, King of Poland, sent 
on an embassy to Persia. Born in 1584; died in 1675. 

Achilles Tatius, a-kil liz ta she-us,) [ A^/iZei f T- 
"Of,] a Greek poet and romance-writer, who is sup 
posed to have lived in the fourth or fifth century. This 
writer, or another of the same name, is the author of an 
astronomical work called the "Sphere." 

Achillini, a-kel-lee nee, [Lat. ACHILLI NUS,] (ALES- 
SANDRO,) a celebrated physician and philosopher, born at 
Bologna in 1463. He studied at Paris, and in 1485 be 
gan to teach in his native town. In 1506 he was ap 
pointed professor of philosophy and medicine at Padua ; 
but three years after, in consequence of a war, he re 
turned to Bologna, where he died in 1512. He left sev 
eral works on anatomy, and some philosophical treatises. 

Achillini, (CLAUDIO,) [Lat. CLAU DIUS ACHILLI - 
NUS,] born at Bologna in 1574, was professor of law 
successively in the Universities of Bologna, Ferrara, and 
Parma. lie wrote poems in the inflated style which 
was prevalent in his time. He was a grandson of Gio 
vanni Filoteo. Died in 1640. 

Achillini, (GIOVANNI FILOTEO,) a poet and anti 
quary, brother of Alexander the physician, was born 
at Bologna in 1466, and died in 1538. 

Achish, a/kish, a king of Gath, to whom David fled 
from Saul. (See I. Samuel xxi. 10.) 

Achitophel, (a-kit o-fel.) See AHITHOPHEL. 

Achmet. See AHMED. 

Achmet Geduc. See AHMED KEDUK. 

Achrelius, a-kree le-us, (DANIEL,) a professor at the 
University of Abo, wrote a book against the Copernican 
system, in the latter part of the seventeenth century. 

See " Biographiskt Lexicon b fvernamnkunnige Svenska Man," Up 
sala, 1835. 

Achterveldt, aK ter-velt , (JACOB,) a Dutch painter, 
who died in 1 704. 

Achtschelling, aKt sKCl-ling, (LucAS,) a skilful land 
scape-painter, who lived at Brussels towards the close 
of the seventeenth century. He was a close imitator of 

Acidalius, as-se-da le-us or at-se-da le-us, (VA LENS,) 
a German classical scholar, born at Wittstock, in Bran 
denburg, in 1567; died in 1595. His commentaries on 
Velleius Paterculus, Quintus Curtius, and other Latin 
authors, exhibit much critical acumen. 

See LEUSCHNER, "De V. Acidalii Vita, Moribus et Scriptis," 

Acier, 3 se-i , (MICHEL VICTOR,) a French sculptor, 
born at Versailles in 1736; died in 1799. 

A-gill-us Gla bii-o, (MANius,) a Roman general, 
who became consul in 191 D.c., and commanded the army 
sent against Antiochus of Syria, whom he defeated at 
Thermopylae. He also subdued the Boeotians and /Eto- 
lians. A golden statue of Acilius Glabrio was the first 
of that material seen in Italy. 

Ag-in-dy iius, [ Aw wWof,] (GREGORIUS,) a Greek 
monk and polemical writer, who lived at Constantinople 
during the fourteenth century. 

Ac inelli, a-che-nel lee, a Genoese historian, who 
flourished about the middle of the eighteenth century. 
He wrote a "History of Genoa," (1745-47.) 

as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H . K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( ftj^ See Explanations, p. 23.) 




Ack, ak, (JOHN,) a distinguished painter on glass, 
who flourished at Brussels about 1550. 

Acken, (JAN VAN.) See ACHEN. 

Ac ker-mann, [Ger. pron. ak ker-man ,] (CONRAD,) 
a celebrated German comedian, born in 1710; died in 

Ackermann, (JACOB,) an eminent German physiolo 
gist, born near Mentz in 1765. He was professor of 
botany and afterwards of anatomy in the University of 
Mentz. In 1804 he was appointed to the chair ot anat 
omy at Jena, and in 1805 to the same position in Hei 
delberg, which he held till his death, in 1813. 

physician and distinguished classical scholar and critic, 
was born in Upper Saxony in 1756. He studied at Jena 
in 1771, and subsequently at Gottingen, under the cele 
brated Heyne. Some years after, he was appointed pro 
fessor of pathology and therapeutics in the University 
of Altorf, where he died in 1801. Among his various 
works the lives of Hippocrates, Galen, and other Greek 
physicians deserve particular mention. 

Ackermann, (RUDOLPH,) a German artist and dealer 
in prints, was born in Saxony in 1764. He settled in 
London, where he prospered as a print-seller, and estab 
lished an extensive repository of arts, which had a 
European reputation. He published coloured engrav 
ings and lithographs, and an annual or series of annuals 
entitled " The Forget-me-not." He is said to have been 
the first who introduced lithography as a fine art into 
England. According to Jerdan, he published the first 
annual in England. Died in 1834. 

See "Autobiography of William Jerdan," vol. iv. chap. xiii. 

Ac land, (HENRY WENTWORTH,) M.D., F.R.S., a 
distinguished English physician, born in 1815, graduated 
as M.D. at Oxford in 1848. In 1860 he accompanied the 
Prince of Wales to America as his medical attendant. 

Acland, (Lady HARRIET,) wife of Major Acland, who 
served with distinction in the British army under Bur- 
goyne. She accompanied her husband in the campaigns 
of 1776-7, of which she wrote a narrative. Her husband 
was seriously wounded and taken prisoner in October, 
1777. She died in 1815. 

Agoka. Sec ASHOKA. 

Acoluth, a ko-loot , [Lat. ACOLU THUS,] (ANDREAS,) 
a distinguished Oriental scholar, born in Silesia in 1654, 
was a member of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin. 
Died in 1704. 

Acoluth, (JoiiANN,) a German theologian, born in 
Silesia in 1628. Died in 1689. 

Acominatus. See NICETAS. 

Aconce. See ACONZIO. 

Aconz Kover, a konts ko ver, (STEPHEN,) a distin 
guished Armenian writer, born in Transylvania in 1740. 
His ancestors had removed from Armenia, in Asia, in 
1330. He was chosen, in 1800, abbot of the convent of 
St. Lazarus at Venice, regarded as the great centre of 
Armenian learning. Died in 1824. 

Aconzio, a-kon ze-o, (GiACOMO, or JAMES,) [Lat. 
JACO BUS ACON TIUS, (a-kon shc-us;) Fr. ACONCE, 
S k6Nss / ,] a distinguished writer, IxTrn at Trent about 
1500. Having relinquished the Catholic and embraced 
the Protestant faith, he left his native country about 
1557, and, passing through Switzerland, went to Eng 
land, where it is supposed that he died about 1565. He 
wrote a book entitled "Stratagems of Satan," (1565,) 
which has enjoyed great celebrity. His work on the 
Best Method of Acquiring Knowledge, evinces an acute 
understanding ; and all his writings show him to have 
been a man of learning and literary taste. 

Ac o-ris, [Gr. "A/coptc,] a king of Egypt, who nou 
rished about 380 B. c. He made war, though with little 
success, against Artaxerxes Mnemon, King of Persia. 

Acosta, a-kos ta, (CiiRiSTOvAo, or CHRISTOPHER,) a 
Portuguese naturalist, who visited India to procure 
drugs, and afterwards practised medicine at Burgos. 
He wrote a " Treatise on the Drugs and Plants of the 
East Indies," (1578.) Died about 1580. 

Acosta, (GABRIEL,) a professor of theology at Coim- 
bra, Portugal, wrote commentaries on the "Scriptures. 
Died in 1616. 

Acosta, (JOAQUIN,) a native of South America, a 

colonel of engineers in the service of New Granada, 
published a " Historical Compendium of the Discovery 
and Settlement of New Granada," (1848,) with a good 
map of that country. 

Acosta, ii-kos ta, or d Acosta, da-kos ta, (JosE,) 
a Spanish Jesuit and writer, born at Medina del Campo 
about 1539. He went to South America as a missionary 
in 1571, returned in 1588, and published a work entitled 
"Natural and Moral History of the Indies," ("Historia 
Natural y Moral de las Indias," 1590,) which was much 
esteemed, and translated into several languages. He 
became rector of the University at Salamanca, where he 
died in 1600. 

Acosta, (URIEL,) a Portuguese, who was educated as 
a Christian, converted to Judaism, and afterwards ex 
communicated by the Jews in consequence of his having 
written against the Mosaic Scriptures and the immor 
tality of the soul. He killed himself in 1640, or, accord 
ing to some accounts, in 1647. 

See his Autobiography, Leipsic, 1847; JELLINEK, "Acostas Le- 
be:-.," 1847. 

Acquapendente. See FABRICIUS or FABRIZIO, 

Acquaviva, ak-kwa-vec va, a noble family of Naples 
that has produced a number of distinguished command 
ers, statesmen, and men of learning. Its representa 
tive has for several generations borne the title of Duke 
of Atri. 

Acquaviva, (ANDREA MATTEO,) Duke of Atri, a tree, 
a Neapolitan, born about 1460, was a munificent patron 
of learning. Died in 1528. 

Acquino, ak-kwec no, a Piedmontese chronicler, who 
lived about the beginning of the sixteenth century. 

Acquisti, ak-kwes tee or ak-kwis tee, (Luii;[,) an 
Italian sculptor, born at Forli in 1744; died in 1824. 
He worked at Rome and Milan. A group of " Venus 
pacifying Mars" is considered his master-piece. 

Ac ra-gas, [Gr. \K(iuym;,} a celebrated engraver or 
chaser in silver, supposed to have lived in the fifth cen 
tury Il.C. 

Acrel, a kuel, (OLOF,) an eminent Swedish surgeon, 
born near Stockholm in 1717. Having spent some 
time in Paris in observing the practice of the most dis 
tinguished surgeons of that city, he entered the French 
army in 1743 ; but, after serving in two campaigns, he re 
tired on account of ill health. He died at Stockholm in 
1807, leaving several surgical works. 

See " Biographiskt Lexicon ofver namnknnnige Svenska Man." 

Acrisius, a-krish (>us, [Gr. AKplatof,] a son of Abas, 
King of Argos, and the father of Danae, whom he con 
fined, it is said, in a brazen tower or other prison, be 
cause an oracle had declared that she would bear a son 
who should kill her father. He was killed accidentally 
by Perseus, the son of Danae by Jupiter. (See DANAE.) 

A cron, [Gr. "A.Kpuv,] a celebrated physician of Agri- 
gentum, (now Girgenti,) in Sicily, who lived in the fifth 
century B.C. 

A cron Hel-e m-us, a Roman grammarian, who 
wrote a commentary on Horace. The age in which he 
lived is unknown. 

A-cro m-us or Acron, a-kron , (JAN, or JOHN,) a 
Dutch physician, born in 1520. Died at Bale in 1563. 

A-crop-o-li ta, [Gr. A^po-oA^c,] (CONSTANTINE,) a 
Byzantine writer, lived between 1250 and 1300. He was 
a son of George, below noticed. 

Acropolita, (GEORGE,) a celebrated Byzantine his 
torian, born at Constantinople in 1220. He was highly 
esteemed by the emperors Ducas (to whom he was re 
lated) and Michael Palaeologus, and held the office of 
chancellor (logotheta) at the Byzantine court. 1 le was, 
moreover, employed on several important embassies. 
His greatest work is a history of the Byzantine Empire 
from the capture of Constantinople by the Latins in 
1204 down to 1260, when Michael Palnsologus again took 
possession of the city. Died in 1282. 

See GIBBON, "History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Em 
pire," chap. Ixii. 

A-crot a-tus, [ A-Kporarof,] King of Sparta, was the 
son of Areus, whom he succeeded about 265 B.C. Be 
fore his accession he distinguished himself by the de 
fence of Sparta against Pyrrhus in 272. After a reign of 

a, e, T, 5, u, y, long; a, e,6. same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, diort; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; ndt; good; mocn; 



one year, he was killed in battle against Aristodcmus of j 

See I l.UTAKCit, "Life of Pyrrhus." 

Acs or Aacs, fitch, (MicuAKL,) a Hungarian philos- | 
opher, burn at St. .Martin in 1631. Died in 1708. 

Acs or Aacs, (MICHAEL,) a theologian, born at Raab : 
in 1672, was a son of the preceding. Died in 1711. 

Actaeon, ak-tee on, [Gr. kuraiuv ; Fr. ACTION, 
ik ta o.N ,] in the Greek mythology, a hunter, who was a ; 
son of Aristaaus and Autonoe, a daughter of Cadmus. 
He was changed into a stag by Diana and torn to pieces 
by his own hounds, because he had seen that goddess 

Ac-tis a-iies, [Gr. AKnaun/r;,] an ancient king of 
Ethiopia, who is said to have conquered Egypt before 
the time of the Trojan war. 

Ac ton, [Fr. pron. ak tox ,] (JosEi H,) an officer of 
Irish descent, born at Besancon, France, in 1737. He 
entered the navy of Tuscany, became a captain, and af 
terwards passed into the service of the King of Naples. 
The favour of the queen, and his own intrigues, procured 
his promotion to the office of minister of the marine. 
He was prime minister from 178410 1798. His policy- 
was implacably hostile to the French. Died about 

See COI.LETTA, " Sloria del Regno di Napoli." 

Ac tor, [Gr. "AKTU/),] a son of Deion, (or, as some say, 
of Myrmidon,) was the husband of /Egina, and grand 
father of Patroclus, who was called Actor ides. 

Ac-tu-a rl-US, [ AnTovapiof,] (Jonx,) a Greek physi 
cian and medical writer, who nourished about the end 
of the thirteenth century. 

A-cule-O, (C.uus,) a Roman knight and distin 
guished lawyer, who married an aunt of Cicero the 

A-cu me-nus, [ A/imy/trw-,] an Athenian physician, 
and friend of Socrates, lived in the fifth century B.C. 

Acuiia, de, da a-koon ya, (ANTONIO,) Bishop of Za- 
mora, Spain, distinguished for his martial exploits in the 
insurrection of Castile in 1520. He was strangled in 
prison in 1526. 

Acufia, de, (CRISTOVAL,) a Spanish Jesuit, born at 
Burgos in 1597, wrote an interesting narrative of the 
voyage of exploration of the river Amazon in 1639-41. 
His work is entitled " New Discovery of the Great River 
of the Amazons," (" Nuevo Descubrimiento del gran 
Rio de las Amazonas.") Died about 1680. 

Acufia, de, (HERNANDO,) a distinguished Spanish 
soldier and poet, born about 1500, was a friend of Gar- 
cilasso dc la Vega. His sonnets and eclogues were 
much admired. Died in 1580. 

Acuiia, de, (Don PEDRO BRAVO,) a Spanish gov 
ernor of the Philippine Islands, distinguished as a war 
rior and naval commander. His principal exploit was 
the rcconquest of the Moluccas from the Dutch in 1606. 
He died the same year, at Manilla. 

A-cu-si-la/us, [ AKOVOIACIOC;,] a Greek historian, sup 
posed to have nourished about 530 B.C. 

A da, a Carian princess, who succeeded her husband 
on the throne of Caria in 344 B.C. When Alexander 
conquered Asia Minor, he appointed her to the satrapy 
of Caria. 

Ada, 3/dl, a countess of Holland, deprived of her 
patrimonial estate by William of Friesland. She is sup 
posed to have died about the year 1218. 

A da, (Bar-Ahaba or -Ah avah,) a celebrated rabbi, 
regarded as the greatest of all the Jewish astronomers, 
was born at Babylon, A.D. 183. He is said to have lived 
to the age of 170 years. 

Adadurof, a-da-doo rof, (BASIL,) a Russian savant, 
born at St. Petersburg in 1709, was preceptor to Cathe 
rine 1 1. lie wrote some scientific works. Died in 1780. 

Adaeus [ Arkwr] or Addaeus, [ AiMmor,] ad-dec us, 
a Greek poet, native of Macedonia, flourished, it is sup 
posed, about 320 B.C. 

A-dair , (JAMES,) a trader and resident among the 
Chickasaw and other neighbouring tribes of Indians, pub 
lished in 1775 a "History of the American Indians," in 
which he endeavours to establish their descent from the 

A-dair , (JAMES,) an eminent English lawyer, and 

member of Parliament. He was recorder of London 
about 1780, or after that date. Died in 1798. 

A-dair , (JAMES MAKIT TRICK,) a Scottish physician, 
born in 1728, died in 1802. He spent many years of his 
life in the West Indies. Besides a number of medical 
essays, he wrote a pamphlet against the abolition of the 

A-dair , (JoiiN,) an American general and senator, 
born in South Carolina in 1757. He served in the wars 
against the frontier Indians in 1791-2-3, was a senator 
in Congress from Kentucky, 1805-6, and in 1814 distin 
guished himself in command of the Kentucky troops at 
the battle of New Orleans. From 1820 to 1824 he was 
Governor of Kentucky, and from 1831 to 1833 a repre 
sentative in Congress. Died in 1840. 

Adair, (JoiiN,) F.R.S., a noted Scottish hydrog- 
rapher, who lived in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. He is the author of a work entitled " De 
scription of the Sea-coast and Islands of Scotland, with 
Large and Exact Maps for the Use of Seamen." 

Adair, (Sir ROBERT,) an able English diplomatist, 
born in London in 1763. He entered Parliament about 
1802 as a friend of Fox, and was sent on an embassy to 
Vienna in 1806. In 1808, although not identified in 
politics with the ministry, he was appointed on a special 
mission to the Ottoman Porte. Pie w as ambassador at 
that court from 1809 until 1811. In 1831 he was sent 
by Earl Grey on a special mission to the court of Bel 
gium, and in 1835 retired from public service with the 
rank of privy counsellor. Died in 1855, aged about 92. 

See "Gentleman s Magazine" for Nov. 1855. 

Adalard. See ADALHARD. 

Adalbero, a-dal-ba ro, or Adalberon, i claTbeh- 
r6.\ , Archbishop of Rhcims, flourished in the latter 
half of the tenth century. He officiated at the corona 
tion of Hugh Capet in 987, and died in 988. 

Adalbero, a bishop of Laon in the time of Louis the 
last of the Carlovingians, and Hugh Capet. 

Ad al-bert, [Fr. pron. i dfl baiR ; Lat. ADALBER - 
TUS,] written also Al debert or Aldeber tus, a French 
bishop of great popularity, who lived about the middle 
of the eighth century. He pretended, it is said, to work 
miracles, and to be possessed of all knowledge. He was 
deposed from his bishopric for heresy, and imprisoned, 
about 775 A. ix 

Ad al-bert, [Gen pron. a dal-bCRt ,] an archbishop 
of Bremen, born, it is supposed, about 1000 A.I). He 
was descended from the emperor Otho II., and became 
a favourite of Henry IV. Died in 1072. 

Ad al-bert (Adalberto, a-clal-bcr to) I., son of 
Boniface, Count of Lucca, assumed the title of Marquis 
of Tuscany. His son Adalbert (or Adalberto) II. suc 
ceeded him, with the titles of duke and marquis. Died 
about 888. 

Ad al-bert or Adalber tus, Bishop of Prague, called 
the "Apostle of the Prussians," commonly known as 
Saint Adalbert, was born in 939. He was killed in 997. 

Ad al-bert, an eminent prelate who lived in the time 
of Henry V., Emperor of Germany, by whom he was 
made Archbishop of Mentz. When Henry was excom 
municated by the pope, in 1112, Adalbert was one of the 
first to turn against him, and became at length his irre 
concilable enemy ; and on his death, in 1 125, had sufficient 
influence to prevent his nephew, Frederick of Suabia, 
from being elected emperor. He died in 1137. 

Adalbert, a dal-bc-Rt , (HEINRICH WILHELM,) a 
Prussian prince, cousin-german of Frederick William 
IV., born in Berlin in 1811. He entered the army in 
his youth, and made a voyage to Brazil, of which he 
wrote a narrative : " Passages from my Travelling Diary," 
("Aus meinem Reisetagbuch," 1842.) He obtained com 
mand of the Prussian navy about 1850. 

Adalbertus. See ADALBERT. 

Adalhard, ad a-lard , [Lat. ADALAR DUS,] an abbot 
and eminent preacher, allied to the family of Charles 
Martel, born about 753. He stood in high favour at the 
court of Charlemagne, who employed him on several 
important missions. Died in 826. 

A-dalo-al dus, a king of the Lombards, son of Agi- 
lulfus and Theuclelinda, was born at Mu tina (Mod ena) 
about 602 A. i). He is said to have been poisoned by 

c as /; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; o, II, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




some of his subjects whom his tyranny had exasper 

Ad am, [Heb. DTX, i.e. "man,"] the first man, (see 
Genesis i., ii., and iii.,) is commonly supposed to have 
been created a little more than 4000 years before the 
Christian era ; though according to the computation of 
some writers, his date should be placed much earlier. 

Adam, t doN 1 , (ADOLPHE CHARLES,) a popular com 
poser, born in Paris in 1803, was a son of Jean Louis, 
noticed below. He composed with extreme facility. In 
1844 he was chosen a member of the Institute. Among 
his works are operas entitled " Le Chalet," (1834,) and 
"Le Postilion de Lonjumeau," (1836.) Died in 1856. 

Adam, a dam, (ALBRECHT,) a German painter of bat 
tles, was born at Nordlingen in 1786. He entered the 
service of Eugene, Viceroy of Italy, whom he accom 
panied in the Russian campaign of 1812. Among his 
works is "The Battle of the Moskwa," (1835.) Died in 

Ad am, (ALEXANDER,) an eminent teacher and gram 
marian, born in 1741 in Murrayshire, Scotland. In 1768 
he became rector of the Edinburgh high school, which, 
under his able management, acquired a reputation al 
most unequalled among institutions of its kind. He 
published his " Principles of Latin and English Gram 
mar" in 1772, and in 1791 his "Roman Antiquities." 
Both of these works, until within a few years, have been 
extensively used in many schools in the United States 
as well as in Great Britain. His " Roman Antiquities," 
(1791,) considered the most creditable of all his works, 
immediately established his reputation as a sound and 
thorough scholar. In 1794 appeared his "Summary 
of Geography and History, both Ancient and Modern," 
which afterwards passed through several editions. Be 
sides the foregoing, and a little book entitled " Classical 
Biography," he published a compendious Latin dictionary, 
(" Lexicon Linguae Latinas Compendiarium,") abridged 
from a much larger work, of the same kind, which was 
never finished. He died in 1809. 

See ALEXANDER HENDERSON", " Life of A. Adam," 1810; CHAM 
BERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen;" and SIR WAL 
TER SCOTT S "Autobiography," which contains some interesting par 
ticulars illustrating Dr. Adam s character, both as a teacher and as 
a man. 

Adam, (DANIEL,) a German historian, born at Prague 
in 1546. Died in 1599. 

Adam, 3 d6N , (FRANgoisGASPARD,) a French sculp 
tor, born at Nancy in 1710, was a brother of Lambert 
Sigisbert, noticed below. He worked in Paris and Ber 
lin. Died in 1759. 

Adam, a dam, (GEORG,) a German landscape-painter, 
of Nuremberg, born about 1783 ; died in 1823. 

Adam, (JACOB,) a German engraver, lived in Vienna 
about 1800. He engraved plates for the " Bilder-Bibel" 
of Vienna. 

Adam, (JACQUES,) a French writer, born at Vendome 
in 1663 ; died in 1735. He was one of the translators 
of De Thou s Universal History, (16 vols., 1734,) and 
was a member of the French Academy. 

Ad am, (JAMES,) an architect, was a brother and part 
ner of Robert, noticed below. Died in 1794. 

Adam, (JEAN Louis,) a French composer and pianist, 
born in the department of the Lower Rhine about 1760. 
He had great success as professor of music in Paris, and 
published a " Methode de Piano," (1802,) which was very- 
popular. Died in 1848. 

Adam, (JEAN VICTOR,) a French painter and lithog 
rapher, born at Paris in 1801. He painted several bat 
tle-pieces for the gallery of Versailles, and produced 
many lithographs, among which are the " Promenades 
and Environs of Paris." 

Adam, (LAMBERT SIGISBERT,) a distinguished French 
sculptor, born at Nancy in 1 700. When only twenty-three 
years of age, he obtained the first prize in the Academy 
at Paris. He executed several groups for the roya l 
gardens at Versailles and Choisy. In 1744 he was ap 
pointed professor in the Royal Academy of Paris. His 
works were less remarkable for their conception than 
for their finished execution, and are deficient in the sim 
plicity of antique art. Died in 1759. 

Adam, a dam, (MELCHIOR,) an eminent German 
biographer, born in Silesia in the latter part of the six 

teenth century, and died in 1622. He wrote the lives of 
many eminent men, both Germans and foreigners, who 
lived between 1500 and 1618. He was rector of the 
College of Heidelberg. One of his works is entitled 
" Lives of German Philosophers," (" Vitce Germanorum 
Philosophorum," 4 vols., 1615-20.) 

Adam, (NICOLAS,) a French grammarian and trans 
lator, born in Paris in 1716. Died in 1792. 

Adam, (NICOLAS SEBASTIEX,) a younger brother of 
Lambert Adam the sculptor, whom he surpassed in all 
the higher qualities of the art, was born at Nancy in 
1705. His two greatest works are his "Prometheus 
Chained," and his " Monument of the Queen of Poland." 
He was professor of sculpture in the Academy of Paris. 
Died in 1778. 

Adam, (ROBERT,) an architect, born at Edinburgh in 
1728, and died in 1792. He and his brother James 
erected a number of mansions for the nobility, and 
public edifices in different parts of England. His style, 
though strikingly novel at the time of its introduction, has 
the great defect of excessive and minute decoration ; and 
his works generally are deficient in unity of composition. 

See CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Adam, (Rev. ROBERT,) a Scottish writer, born at 
Udney about 1770, published "The Religious World 
Displayed." Died in 1826. 

Adam, (Rev. THOMAS,) born at Leeds in 1701, and 
died in 1784. He wrote numerous works of a religious 
character, of which his " Private Thoughts on Religion" 
(published in 1786) is probably the best-known. 

Adam, (Right Hon. WILLIAM,) a British lawyer, 
born in Scotland in 1751, was a nephew of Robert Adam 
the architect. He was chosen a member of Parliament 
in 1774, fought a duel with Charles James Fox in 1779, 
and was one of the managers appointed by the Commons 
to conduct the impeachment of Warren Hastings in 
1788. He was sworn of the privy council in 1815, and pre 
sided over the Scottish jury court for the trial of civil 
causes from 1816 until his death in 1839. His son John 
became Governor-General of India, and died in 1820. 
Another son, Charles, obtained the rank of admiral. 

See LOCKHART, "Life of Scott." 

Adam-Billaut, i dfiV be yo , commonly styled MAI- 
TRE ADAM, mSt R S dSN , (i.e. " Master Adam,") a French 
poet, and a joiner by trade, sometimes called THE 
JOINER OF NEVERS. He was patronized by the great 
Concle, and pensioned by Richelieu. Died in 1662. 

Adam of Brem eii, [Lat. ADA MUS BREMEN SIS,] an 
ecclesiastical author, who flourished in the latter part of 
the eleventh century. He wrote a history of the efforts 
to extend Christianity from the time of Charlemagne to 
that of Henry IV. 

Adam de la Halle cler/li-hSl , surnamed LE Bossu 
D ARRAS, leh bo sii dS rass , (i.e. "The Hunchback of 
Arras,") a French poet of the thirteenth century. He 
wrote a piece called " The Play of the Shepherd and 
Shepherdess," (" Le Jeu clu Berger et de la Bergere,") 
which is regarded as the earliest specimen of the modern 

Adam de Marisco. See ADAMUS MARISCUS. 

Adamarmus or Adamanus. See ADOMNAN. 

Adamanteo, a-da-man-ta o, an Italian mathemati 
cian and Orientalist. Died in 11581. 

Adamantius, ad-a-man shc-us, [ ArkjUaimof,] the au 
thor of a treatise in Greek on physiognomy, is sup 
posed to have lived about the beginning of the fifth cen 
tury after Christ. 

Adam!, a-da mcc, (ADAM,) a German ecclesiastic, 
statesman, and historian, born at Miihlheim about 1600. 
He was chosen by the prelates of Wiirtemberg to repre 
sent them in the congress which met in 1643 to nego 
tiate the peace of Westphalia ; and afterwards wrote an 
excellent and impartial history of those negotiations, 
"Arcana Pacis Westphalicae," (published in 1698.) Died 
in 1663. 

Adami, a-cla mee, (ANTONIO FILIPPO,) an Italian 
poet and prose-writer, born at Florence about 1720. 
Died in 1761. 

Adami, (LiONARDO,) an Italian author and excellent 
classical scholar, born in Tuscany in 1690. He wrote a 
history of ancient Arcadia, (1716.) Died in 1719. 

a, e,T, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; n5t; good; moon; 




Adami, a-da- mee, (TOBIAS,) a writer born in Saxony 
in 1581, first introduced the works of Campanella to the 
notice of the philosophers of Germany. Died in 1643. 

Adami-da-Bolsena, a-da mce da bol-sa na, (AN 
DREA,) an Italian musician, born at Rome in 1663, pub 
lished a work called " Observations for the Regulation 
of the Choir of Singers in the Pontifical Chapel," (" Os 
servazioni per ben regolare il Coro clei Canton dellaCa- 
pella Pontificia," 171 I.) Died in 1742. 

Adamino, a-da-mee no, an Italian sculptor, who lived 
in the eleventh century. 

Adamnaii or Adamuanus. See ADOMNAN. 

Ad ams, (ABIGAIL,) the daughter of the Rev. William 
Smith, was born at Weymouth, Massachusetts, in 1744. 
She was married in 1764 to John Adams, afterwards 
President of the United States, and died in 1818. Her 
" Letters" are interesting and valuable for the hints 
which they furnish of the manners of her country at 
the period in which she lived, and for her original and 
graphic notices of European society. 

Adams, (AMOS,) an American divine, born in 1727. 
He published several sermons, two of which, giving a 
" Concise Historical View, etc., of New England," were 
republished in London. Died in 1775. 

Adams, (CHARLES BAKER,) an American naturalist, 
born at Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1814. He grad 
uated at Amherst College, became, in 1838, professor of 
chemistry and natural history in Middlebury College, 
Vermont, and afterwards of chemistry and zoology at 
Amherst. He assisted Professor Hitchcock in his geo 
logical survey of New York, and as State geologist was 
engaged for several years in a survey of Vermont. He 
published "Contributions to Conchology," and other 
works. Died in 1853. 

Adams, (CHARLES FRANCIS,) an American diplomat 
ist, the son of John Quincy Adams, was born in Boston 
on the 1 8th of August, 1807. He passed his childhood 
mostly in St. Petersburg and London, graduated at 
Harvard College in 1825, studied law, and was admitted 
to the bar in 1828. He served for five years in the 
legislature of Massachusetts. He was nominated at 
Buffalo, in August, 1848, for the office of Vice-President 
by the convention of Free-Soilcrs which nominated Mar 
tin Van Buren for the Presidency. 

He published the " Life and Works of John Adams," 
(10 vols., 1850-56.) In 1858 he was elected to Congress 
as a Republican by the voters of the third district of 
Massachusetts. He was re-elected in 1860, and was ap 
pointed minister to England in the spring of 1861. lie 
encountered the most bitter social hostility in England, 
but he maintained the rights of his country, and acquit 
ted himself with credit in the difficult and important 
controversies that arose during the great rebellion. 
Among the principal subjects of his negotiations was 
the damage inflicted on the American mercantile marine 
by piratical war-steamers built in England and depend 
ing for success on British aid and sympathy. 

" No ambassador in recent times," says the " London 
Spectator" of Feb. 8, 1868, "has ever had to fill a posi 
tion, not merely so delicate and difficult, but so trying 
to the equanimity of him who held it through the rapid 
and extreme changes of fortune in the State of which he 
has been the mouth-piece. . . . Mr. Adams must 
have entered on his diplomatic task with a just sense of 
soreness, which, but for his great self-command and even 
self-forgetfulness, might have resulted after the most 
lamentable fashion." He resigned about February, 1868. 
" It has been the good fortune of Mr. Adams," says the 
" London Illustrated News" of February 15, 1868, "to 
have exercised the grandest qualities of true statesman 
ship just where and when they were of priceless value, 
and to have exercised them with complete success." 

Adams, (GEORGE,) an English optician and scientific 
writer, distinguished as a maker of mathematical instru 
ments and globes. Among his works are a " Treatise on 
the Construction and Use of Globes," ( 1 766,) and an " Es 
say on the Microscope," (1771.) Died in London, 1786. 

His son GEORGE, born about 1750, was also an op 
tician. He published an " Essay on Vision," ( 1 789,) and 
"Astronomical and Geometrical Essays," (1789, often 
reprinted.) Died in 1795. 

Adams, (HANNAH,) one of the earliest female writers 
of America, born .at Medfield, Massachusetts, in 1755. 
She was the author of a "View of Religious Opinions," 
(1784,) " History of New England," (1799,) "Evidences 
of Christianity," (1801,) " History of the Jews," (1812,) 
and of several other works. She numbered among her 
friends the Abbe Gregoire and other distinguished per 
sons. Died in 1832. 

Adams, (ISAAC,) of Boston, inventor of the Adams 
printing-press, was born near the commencement of the 
present century. His printing-presses are now in general 
use in all parts of the United States, and in the principal 
cities have nearly or quite superseded every other. 

Adams, (JASPER,) D.D., an American divine, born at 
Medway, Massachusetts, in i 793. He graduated at Brown 
University in 1815, and soon after became professor of 
mathematics in that institution. He was subsequently 
president of Charleston College, South Carolina. Died 
in 1841. 

Adams, (JOHN,) an Englishman, who lived in the 
seventeenth century. He published " Index Villaris ; or, 
An Alphabetical Table of all the Cities, Market Towns, 
Parishes, etc., in England and Wales," (1680,) which has 
been pronounced the best work of its kind. 

See GOUGH, "British Topography." 

Adams, (Joiix,) an eminent preacher, born in Lon 
don in 1662, was chaplain to William III. and to Queen 
Anne. Lie obtained a prebend at Canterbury, which he 
exchanged in 1708 for a stall in the royal chapel at 
Windsor. He left a treatise on suicide, and several ser 
mons. Died in 1719 or 1720. 

Adams, (JOHN,) an American divine and poet, born 
in 1704. Died at Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1740. 

Adams, (JoiiN,) an eminent American statesman, the 
second President of the United States, was born in 
Braintree, Massachusetts, about ten miles from Boston, 
on the I gth of October, 1735, O. S. He was the eldest 
son of John Adams, a farmer, and Susanna Boylston. 
He graduated at Harvard College in 1755, and, while he 
was preparing himself for the profession of the law, 
taught school at Worcester for two years or more. In 
choosing a profession he was at first inclined to be a 
minister of the gospel ; but he found he could not assent 
to the orthodox creed in the doctrine of election and 
reprobation. " His disgust at the doctrines of Calvin 
ism," says John Quincy Adams, "was perhaps riveted 
by the opinions which he found disseminated in the so 
cial circle into which he had been introduced." He. 
studied law, and was admitted to the bar in 1758, and 
afterwards resided with his father at Braintree for sev 
eral years. 

" For the profession of the law," says his grandson, 
" John Adams had been pre-eminently gifted with the 
endowments of nature ; a sound constitution of body, a 
clear and sonorous voice, a quick conception, a discrim 
inating judgment, and a ready elocution." 

Among the intimate friends of his youth was Jonathan 
Sewall, an eloquent lawyer. In 1761 his patriotic zeal 
was inflamed by the argument of James Otis (which he 
heard) on the subject of writs of assistance. Alluding 
to the time and place of that plea, John Adams said, 
"American independence was then and there born." 
He married, in 1764, Abigail Smith, (a grand-daughter 
of Colonel John Quincy,) a woman of excellent char 
acter and superior talents. The passage of the stamp act 
in 1765 was the occasion of his first active participation 
in political affairs. At a meeting of the citizens of I5rain- 
tree he offered resolutions or instructions addressed to 
the legislature, which were approved, and were adopted 
by forty other towns in Massachusetts. He published, 
in 1765, an "Essay on Canon and Feudal Law." 

The same year, Jeremiah Gridley, James Otis, and John 
Adams were employed by the people of Boston as their 
counsel to support an important memorial, addressed to 
the governor and council, praying that the courts of law, 
which had been closed, might be reopened. In order to 
induce him to join the Tory party, he was offered in 1763 
the place of advocate-general, which he declined. He 
removed from Braintree to Boston in 1768, and soon 
obtained an extensive practice. 

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural: N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




He had now become distinguished as one of the most 
prominent and intrepid advocates of the popular cause; 
yet he was also disposed to act the part of a moderator 
and to counteract the violent excesses of the patriots. 
He acted as counsel for the defence in the trial of the 
soldiers who, when attacked by a mob in Boston in 
March, 1770, had fired and killed several persons. In 
this case he firmly resisted the storm of popular excite 
ment and the violence of party spirit. He was elected 
a member of the general court (i.e. the legislature) in 
1 770. " It was not as a politician," says Charles Francis 
Adams, " but as a lawyer, that John Adams was first 
drawn into public life." He became the chief legal ad 
viser of the patriots. The destruction of the tea in the 
harbour of Boston, December, 1773, opened the active 
drama of the Revolution by a resort to physical force. 

Mr. Adams was one of the five delegates sent by Mas 
sachusetts to the first continental Congress, which met at 
Philadelphia in September, 1774. To his friend Sewall, 
who urged him not to engage in the perilous enterprise 
of revolution, he replied, " The die is now cast ; I have 
passed the Rubicon. Sink or swim, live or die, survive 
or perish with my country, is my unalterable determina 
tion." In Congress he found a fitting arena for the ex 
ercise of those great talents, both for business and de 
bate, which ultimately raised him to the leadership of 
that body. His diary and letters give a graphic account 
of the proceedings of that assembly. 

During the winter of 1774-75 he wrote, under the sig 
nature of Novanglus, a series of able essays in defence of 
the rights of the colonists. These first appeared in a 
journal of Boston, and may be found in the fourth vol 
ume of his collected works. After the battle of Lexing 
ton, (April, 1775,) which made many converts to the 
cause of independence, he returned to Congress. The 
majority of the members, however, were still disposed 
to temporize, and adopted another petition to the 
king, which Mr. Adams opposed. He was more suc 
cessful in his efforts to induce the Congress to provide 
for the defence of the colonies. It appears tha* he 
was the first to propose George Washington as com- 
mandcr-in-chief of the army. He was again elected to 
the Federal Congress for one year, and went to Philadel 
phia in February, 1776. In a letter dated March 23, 

1776, he wrote, "All our misfortunes arise from the re 
luctance of the southern colonies to republican govern 
ment." He procured, in May, the passage in Congress 
of a resolution that the colonies should assume the duty 
of self-government. On the 7th of June a resolution 
was moved by Richard Henry Lee, and seconded by Mr. 
Adams, that these colonies " are and of right ought to 
be free and independent States." On the nth of June, 
Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, 
Roger Sherman, and Robert R. Livingston were ap 
pointed a committee to prepare a declaration of inde 
pendence. This measure was opposed by a strong party, 
of which John Dickinson was the leader and spokes 
man. In reply to him, Mr. Adams made, about July 2, a 
memorable speech, in reference to which Jefferson said, 
"John Adams was the ablest advocate and champion of 
independence on the floor of the house." " He was the 
colossus of that Congress. Not graceful, not eloquent, 
not always fluent in his public addresses, he yet came out 
with a power of thought and expression which moved 
his hearers from their seats." 

On the 3d of July he wrote to his wife, "The second 
day of July,* 1776, will be the most memorable epoch 
in the history of America. I am apt to believe that it 
will be celebrated by succeeding generations as the great 
anniversary festival. " 

Mr. Adams was the president, or chairman, of the 
board of war appointed in June, 1776. He was also 
chairman of twenty-five committees in Congress. He 
was appointed commissioner to France in November, 

1777, and arrived in Paris in April, 1778, to learn that a 
treaty between France and the United States had al 

ready been concluded. He returned to the United 
States in July, 1779, anc ^ m the ensuing autumn served 
in the convention which formed a new constitution for 
Massachusetts. Before this business was finished, Mr. 
Adams was appointed minister to negotiate a treaty of 
peace and commerce with Great Britain. He embarked 
in November, 1779, but did not reach Paris until Feb 
ruary, 1780. Having changed his base of operations tn 
Amsterdam, in July, he was authorized in January, 1781, 
to act as minister to Holland. The difficulty of his po 
sition was increased by the intrigues and duplicity of 
the French minister, De Vergennes, who induced Con 
gress to revoke Mr. Adams s powers to negotiate a treaty 
of commerce. Adams, Franklin, Jay, and Laurens, 
who had been appointed joint commissioners, negotiated 
with Great Britain a treaty, the preliminary articles of 
which were signed November 30, 1782. He was minis 
ter at London from May, 1785, until the spring of 1788, 
during which period he published a " Defence of the 
American Constitutions." When, in 1789, Washington 
was inaugurated as President of the United States, 
Adams became Vice-President. As an advocate of the 
P ederal constitution he was identified with the Federal 
ist party, by which he was again elected Vice-President 
in 1792. In the first Congress he gave no less than 
twenty casting votes, all on points of importance in the 
organic laws, and thus rendered an efficient support to 
the policy of Washington. When the French Revolu 
tion divided the Americans into two parties, Mr. Adams 
joined the Anti-Gallican party. 

In 1796, John Adams and Thomas Pinckney were 
nominated by the Federalists for the offices of President 
and Vice-President. The Republican candidate for the 
Presidency was Thomas Jefferson. Mr. Adams wrote 
to his wife, under date of January 20, 1796, " I am heir-ap 
parent, you know, and a succession is soon to take place." 
His friends assert that General Hamilton, who was the 
favourite leader of the Federal party, used his influence 
to elect Pinckney to the Presidency. The result of the 
canvass was that Adams received seventy-one electoral 
votes and became President, while Jefferson received 
sixty-eight votes and became Vice-President. As Pres 
ident, Adams retained the cabinet ministers appointed by 
Washington, viz., Timothy Pickering, Oliver Wolcott, 
James Mctlenry, Joseph Habersham, and Charles Lee. 
With the first two of these secretaries, however, he had 
no cordial relations. In the war between France and Eng 
land he maintained neutrality ; but the French Directory 
provoked the enmity of the Americans by the violation of 
their maritime rights, and by the expulsion of the envoys, 
Marshall and Pinckney, from France. In 1798 the gov 
ernment of the United .States organized a new army, of 
which General Washington was appointed commander- 
in-chief. For the post of second in command Wash 
ington preferred Hamilton, whom the President regard 
ed with ill will or distrust ; but the general-in-chief pro 
cured the appointment of Hamilton by a " menace of 
resignation." In February, 1799, without consulting his 
cabinet, Adams nominated a Mr. Van Murray as minister 
to the French Republic. This act, which Charles Francis 
Adams says was " the most noted event of Mr. Adams s 
administration," gave great offence to many of his own 
party, although the result, by averting a war with France, 
was probably advantageous to the country. His unpop 
ularity was increased by the alien and sedition laws, the 
latter of which made the mere expression of opinions or 
public men and measures a penal offence. In May, 1800, 
he removed Mr. Pickering from the office of secretary of 
state, and appointed John Marshall in his stead. 

In the presidential election of 1800 he was again the 
Federal candidate, and received sixty-five electoral votes, 
but was defeated by Thomas Jefferson, who received 
seventy-three votes. In March, 1801, he retired from 
public life, and sank into neglect, covered with obloquy 
by both of the great political parties. A reaction of 
public sentiment, however, gradually took place in his 
favour, and his faults which, indeed, were of a kind to 
impair his popularity rather than his usefulness were 
almost lost sight of, after he had withdrawn from political 
life, in the remembrance of his many and inestimable 
public services. 

a, e, T, 5, u, y, lon^; a, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; fir, fall, fit; met; n6t; good; moon : 

* The day on which the resolution in favour of independence was 
passed: the Declaration of Independence, with its various amend 
ments, was not agreed to until the 4th, and then only after a Ion" and 
vehement debate. 


He began to write an Autobiography, which he never 
finished Having lived to see his son, John Quincy, 
elected President of the United States, he died at Quin 
cy on the 4th of July, 1826. By a remarkable coinci 
dence, Thomas Jefferson died on the same day. The 
character of John Adams as drawn by Jefferson before 
these distinguished men had become rivals for the suf 
frages of the American people, is probably very near the 
truth. lie says, writing from Paris, "A seven months 
intimacy with him here, and as many weeks in London, 
have given me opportunities of studying him closely. 
He is vain, irritable, and a bad calculator of the force 
and probable effect of the motives which govern men 
This is all the ill which can possibly be said of him. He 
is profound in his views and accurate in his judgment, 
except where knowledge of the world is necessary to 
form a judgment." Letter to Madison, dated January 30, 

United States;" "Quarterly Review" for December, 1841; "New 
York Review" for January, 1842 ; " North American Review" for 
October, 1850; JARED SPARKS, " Diplomatic Correspondence of the 
American Revolution." 

Adams, (JoiiN,) a British sailor, was one of the mu 
tinous crew of the "Bounty," who, in 1789, sent their 
commander, Bligh, adrift in a boat, and established them 
selves in Pitcairn s Island. After some of his comrades 
had been killed by the natives, he became religious, 
trained his children in habits of strict morality, and was 
regarded as the patriarch of the colony. His proper 
name is said to have been Alexander Smith. Died in 
1829. An account of this colony was published in a 
" Voyage to the Pacific," etc., by Captain Beechey, who 
visited it in 1825 ; also by Rev. E. Murray, (1853.) Lord 
Byron has made the history of this colony the subject 
ot a poem in four cantos, entitled " The Island." 

See, also, SIR JOHN BARROW, " History of the Mutiny of the 

Adams, (Joiix Coucu,) an eminent English astron 
omer, born in Cornwall about 1817, was educated at 
Cambridge. He shares with Leverrier the honour of the 
discovery of the planet Neptune, although he was anti 
cipated by that astronomer in the publication of the dis 
covery. He began his researches into the causes of the 
irregularities in the motion of Uranus as early as 1843, 
and communicated the results to Professor Airy in 1845. 
In November, 1846, he made public his "Explanation 
of the Observed Irregularities in the Motion of Uranus." 
He received the Copley medal in 1848, was chosen a 
fellow of the Royal Society in 1849, and President of the 
Astronomical Society in 1851. lie was appointed pro 
fessor of astronomy at Cambridge in 1858. 

Adams, (JOHN Quixcv,) an American statesman, 
orator, and diplomatist, the sixth President of the United 
States, was born in Braintree, Massachusetts, on the i ith 
of July, 1767. He was the eldest son of President John 
Adams, above noticed. He enjoyed peculiar and rare 
advantages for education. In childhood he was instruct 
ed by his mother, a grand-daughter of Colonel John 
Quincy, and a woman of superior talents. In 1778, 
when only eleven years old, he accompanied his father 
to France, attended a school in Paris, and returned 
home in August, 1779. Having been taken again to 
Europe by his father in 1780, he pursued his studies at 
the University of Leyden, where he learned Latin and 
Greek. In July, 1781, at the age of fourteen, he was ap 
pointed private secretary to Francis Dana, minister to 
Russia. He remained at St. Petersburg until October, 
1782, after which he resumed his studies at the Hague, 
and was present at the signing of the definitive treaty of 
peace in Paris, September 3, 1783. Having passed some 
months with his father in London, he returned to the 
United States to complete his education, entered Har 
vard College in 1786, and graduated in 1788. 

He studied law with the celebrated Thcophilus Par 
sons, of Newburyport, was admitted to the bar in 1791, 
and began to practise in Boston. In 1791 he published 
in the " Boston Centinel," under the signature of /W>//- 
cola, a series of able essays, in which he exposed the fal 
lacies and vagaries of the French political reformers. 

These papers attracted much attention in Europe as 
well as in the United States. 

Under the signature of Marccllus he wrote, in 1793, 
several articles, in which he argued that the United 
States should observe strict neutrality in the war between 
the French and the British. " To him," says Mr. Sew- 
ard, " it is believed, belongs the honour of first publicly 
advocating this line of policy, which afterwards became 
a settled principle of the American government." These 
writings having commended him to the favour of Gen 
eral Washington, he was appointed minister to Holland 
in May, 1794. He married, in July, 1797, Louisa Cath 
erine Johnson, a daughter of Joshua Johnson, of Mary 
land, who was then American consul at London. In a 
letter dated February 20, 1797, Washington wrote to the 
elder Adams, " I give it as my decided opinion that 
Mr. Adams is the most valuable public character we 
have abroad," and he advised the President-elect not to 
withhold promotion from him because he was his son. 
John Quincy Adams was accordingly appointed minister 
to Berlin, in 1797. He translated Wieland s " Oberon" 
into English, and published an account of his travels in 
Silesia, which he visited in 1800. He succeeded in ne 
gotiating a treaty of amity and commerce with the Prus 
sian government, and was recalled about February, 1801. 
He was elected a senator of the United States by the 
Federalists of Massachusetts, for the term beginning 
March, 1803. In 1805 he was appointed professor of 
rhetoric and belles-lettres at Harvard College, and ac 
cepted that office on condition that he should be permit 
ted to attend to his senatorial duties while Congress was 
in session. His lectures at Harvard were much ad 
mired, and were published in 1810. In 1805 he endeav 
oured to procure the passage of a law to levy a duty on 
the importation of slaves. He offended his political 
friends, the Federalists, by supporting Jefferson s em 
bargo act, which was passed in December, 1807, and 
thus became connected with the Democratic party. The 
legislature of Massachusetts elected another person to 
take the place of Mr. Adams, who resigned his seat in 
March, 1808, declining to serve for the remainder of the 
term, rather than obey the instructions of the Federalists, 
who were then the dominant party in his State. He sub 
sequently gave far deeper offence by charging some of the 
Federal leaders with a plot to dissolve the Union and 
establish an independent northern confederacy. This 
accusation was doubtless one of the principal causes of 
the hostility and distrust which were long felt towards 
New England, not only in the Southern, but also in the 
Middle and Western States. 

While a member of the Senate, Mr. Adams had dis 
tinguished himself as an able and eloquent public speak 
er, as well as an accomplished scholar. In March, 1809, 
he was appointed by President Madison minister to 
Russia. During his residence in that country he was 
nominated an associate justice of the supreme court of 
the United States, and confirmed February, 1811; but 
he declined the appointment. His influence and diplo 
matic services at St. Petersburg laid the foundation of 
those amicable relations which have ever since been 
maintained between Russia and the United States. In 
1813, Adams, Clay, Gallatin, and Russell were appointed 
commissioners to negotiate a treaty of peace with Great 
Britain. They met the British diplomatists at Ghent, 
and, after a protracted negotiation of six months, signed 
a treaty of peace on the 241)1 of December, 1814. 

In the spring of 1815, Adams was appointed minister to 
the court of St. James, where he remained until he was 
selected by Mr. Monroe for the office of secretary of state 
in 1817. In his long and successful career as a diplomat 
ist he had justified the confidence of Washington, who, 
in 1797, had predicted that Mr. Adams would "prove 
himself to be the ablest of all our diplomatic corps." 
He entered upon his duties as secretary of state in Sep 
tember, . 817, and performed them with a fidelity and 
uccess which obtained the approbation of the country. 
He defended General Jackson s conduct in Florida, when 
the other members of the cabinet censured him for tran- 
cending his orders. 

According to Mr. Seward, " Mr. Adams deserved 
and received a high share of credit" for negotiating, in 

e as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; o, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( ^JT^See Explanations, p. 23.) 




1819, with Spain, a treaty which was very advantageous 
to the United States. 

In 1824, Adams, Jackson, Crawford, and Clay were 
candidates for the Presidency ; all Democrats, and pro 
fessing substantially the same political creed. Mr. 
Adams, who was supported by the Eastern States and 
New York, received eighty-four electoral votes ; General 
Jackson, ninety-nine ; Mr. Crawford, forty-one ; and Mr. 
Clay, thirty-seven. Neither of the candidates having 
received a majority in the electoral colleges, the election 
devolved on the House of Representatives. Aided by the 
influence of Henry Clay, Mr. Adams received the votes 
of thirteen States, and was elected. 

He appointed Mr. Clay secretary of state, Richard 
Rush secretary of the treasury, James Barbour secretary 
of war, Samuel L. Southard secretary of the navy, and 
William Wirt attorney-general. The friends of Jack 
son were indignant, and accused Adams and Clay of 
obtaining their success by "bargain and corruption." 
Athough Mr. Crawford wrote to Mr. Clay, after the elec 
tion, " I approved of your vote when it was given, and 
should have voted as you did between Jackson and 
Adams," yet the friends of Crawford formed a coalition 
with the Jacksonians to oppose the new administration. 
Mr. Adams favoured internal improvements, and the 
protection of domestic manufactures. It ought to be 
remembered to his honour that he refused to remove 
competent men from office merely because they were 
his political opponents. In the latter part of his Pres 
idential term the opposition had a majority in both 
houses of Congress, and assailed the President with un 
scrupulous and bitter hostility. At the election of 1828 
he received eighty-three electoral votes, and was defeated 
by General Jackson, who received one hundred and 
seventy-eight votes. His defeat was probably promoted 
by the charge of corrupt collusion with Mr. Clay in 1825, 
although that charge appears to have been wholly des 
titute of foundation. On the 4th of March, 1829, he 
retired to his estate at Quincy. 

In 1830 the public were greatly surprised by the elec 
tion of Mr. Adams to Congress, in which he took his 
seat in December, 1831. He continued to represent his 
native district in that body for seventeen years, during 
which he was constantly at his post, and surpassed 
nearly all the members in close application to business 
and in the power of endurance. " In every respect," 
says Sevvard, " he was a model legislator." He usually 
acted with the Whigs, but kept himself free from the 
trammels of party. His most memorable service in Con 
gress was his defence of the right of petition, and his 
inflexible resistance to the encroachments of the slave 
power. In 1836 the opponents of slavery began to send 
to Congress petitions for the abolition of slavery, which 
were presented by Mr. Adams. The House of Repre 
sentatives adopted a rule that no petition relating to 
slavery should be read, printed, or debated. " With un 
wavering firmness," says Seward, " against a bitter and 
unscrupulous opposition, exasperated to the highest 
pitch by his pertinacity amidst a perfect tempest of 
vituperation and abuse he persevered in presenting 
these petitions, one by one, to the amount sometimes 
of two hundred in a. day demanding the action of the 
house on each separate petition." His opponents once 
made a motion to punish him by a vote of censure for 
presenting a petition from slaves ; but they were baffled 
in their object when the fact was announced that the 
said petitioners prayed that slavery should NOT be abol 

On the 2ist of February, 1848, while in his seat in 
the Capitol, he was struck with paralysis. He died on 
the 230! of that month ; his last words were, " This is 
the last of earth ! I AM CONTENT !" 

In the latter part of his career he was popularly known 
by the title of "the Old Man Eloquent." He kept a 
copious diary of his public life, and was a voluminous 
writer of prose and verse. Many of his orations, poems, 
and discourses have been published. In religion he 
was, like his father, a Unitarian. 

Second Series.) 

Adams, (JOSEPH,) a physician and medical writer, 
born in 1756. He practised in London from 1805 till 
his death in 1818. His principal work is entitled 
" Observations on Morbid Poisons," (1796.) He was an 
enthusiastic admirer of Hunter, and appears to have 
adopted, too implicitly, most of the views of that emi 
nent physiologist. 

Adams, (NEIIEMIAH,) D.D., an American divine, born 
at Salem, Massachusetts, in 1806. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1826. For many years he has been 
pastor of the Essex Street Congregational Church, Bos 
ton. Among his various publications may be men 
tioned " Remarks on the Unitarian Belief; " " Friends of 
Christ in the New Testament ;" " Life of John Eliot;" and 
"South Side View of Slavery," (1854,) which has been 
severely criticised by the free-soil press of the country. 

Adams, (RiCHARD,) an English non-conformist minis 
ter, born in Cheshire, graduated in 1644. He was eject 
ed from a living in Bread street, London, in 1662. Died 
near the close of the seventeenth century. 

Adams, (SAMUEL,) an eminent American patriot and 
orator, born in Boston on the 27th of September, 1722, 
was a second-cousin of President John Adams. He 
graduated at Harvard College in 1740. A few years af 
terwards, on taking the degree of master of arts, he chose 
for his thesis the question, " Whether it be lawful to re 
sist the supreme magistrate if the commonwealth can 
not otherwise be preserved ?" of which he maintained 
the affirmative. In early life he applied himself to mer 
cantile business, in which he was not successful. He af 
terwards served as collector of taxes in Boston. Having 
gained distinction as a political writer, he was elected a 
member of the general assembly of Massachusetts in 
1765. He continued to represent Boston in that assem 
bly for nine years, and by his courage, talents, and energy 
acquired great influence. Before the Revolution he was 
a zealous opponent of the policy of the British ministers, 
and an advocate of independence. John Adams, in his 
diary, written in 1765, after some notice of James Otis 
and others, says, "Adams, I believe, has the most thor 
ough understanding of liberty and her resources in the 
temper and character of the people, though not in the 
law and constitution, as well as the most habitual radi 
cal love of it, of any of them." 

He was elected a member of the continental Congress 
in 1774, and was one of the two popular leaders excepted 
from the general pardon offered by-the British govern 
ment in June, 1775. As a member of Congress, in which 
he continued about eight years, he rendered important 
services, and signed the Declaration of Independence. 
Mr. Adams took part in the formation of the constitution 
of Massachusetts, adopted in 1780, served afterwards as 
a senator of that State, and was a member of the con 
vention which ratified the Federal constitution in 1788. 
In national politics he favoured the Republican or Jef- 
fersonian party. He was lieutenant-governor from 1789 
to 1794, and in 1795 succeeded John Hancock as Gov 
ernor of Massachusetts. Having been several times re- 
elected, he served as Governor until 1797, and then re 
tired from public life. He had married young, and had 
an only son, whom he survived. In religion he was 3 
strict Calvinist. An oration on the independence of his 
country, which he delivered i i Philadelphia in August, 
1776, has been published. He died in Boston, on the 
2cl of October, 1803. Respecting his merits as a speaker 
and writer, John Adams remarks that in his works may 
be found "specimens of a nervous simplicity of reasoning 
and eloquence that have never been rivalled in America." 

See " Life and Public Services of Samuel Adams," bv WII.I.I.AM 
V. WKT.LS, 3 vols. 8vo, Kostpn, 1865: see also the "Encyclopaedia 
Americana; GOODRICH, "Lives of (lie Signers to the Declaration 
of Independence:" SANDEKSON, "Biography of the Signers to the 
Declaration of Independence ;" BANCROFT, "History of the United 
Stales," vol. v. chaps, x. and xix.; HILDRETH, "History of the 
United States," vol. ii. 

Adams, (Sir THOMAS,) an English rovalist, noted for 
munificence, born in Shropshire in 1586. He was lord 
mayor of London in 1645. Died in 1667. 

Adams, (THOMAS,) an English dissenting minister, 
who was rejected for non-conformity about 1662. He 
wrote a work called "Protestant Union." Died in 1670. 

Adams, (WILLIAM), an English navigator, born in 

a, e, T, o, ft, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, ii, y, short ; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fatj,met; not; good; moon; 




Kent about 1575. He entered the Dutch navy as pilot, 
and passed some time in Japan, where he is said to have 
rendered important services to the commerce of the 
Dutch and English. Died in 1621. 

Adams, (Rev. WILLIAM,) distinguished as the friend 
of Dr. Johnson, was born in 1707, and died in 1789. 
Besides some smaller pieces, he published "An Answer 
to Mr. Hume s Essay on Miracles," (1752,) which at 
tracted considerable attention. 

Adams, (WILLIAM,) an English divine and writer, 
born in 1814. He held the position of vicar of St. Peters, 
Oxford. Among his works are " The Shadow of the 
Cross," (1842, 8th edition, 1849,) and "Distant Hills," 
(4th edition, 1847.) Died in 1848. 

Ad am-son, (HKNRY,) a Scottish poet, who lived in 
the early part ot the seventeenth century. He was a 
nephew of Archbishop Adamson. Died in 1639. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scots 

Adamson, (JOHN,) an English author, born in 1787. 
He published a "Memoir of Camoens," (1820,) and 
" History, Antiquities, and Literature of Portugal," (2 
vols., 1842-46.) Died in 1855. 

Adamson, (PATRICK,) an eminent Scottish prelate 
and writer, born at Perth in 1536. He embraced the 
cause of the Reformation on its gaining the ascendency, 
and in 1564 published a poem "On the Superstitious 
Follies of the Papists," (" De Papistarum Superstitiosis 
Ineptiis.") In 1576, through the influence of Morton, 
the regent, he was raised to the archbishopric of St. An 
drews. From this time to the end of his life he was en 
gaged in an almost incessant struggle with the Presby 
terian party, who were growing every day more powerful, 
and who at last succeeded in deposing him, not only 
from the primacy, but from all his functions as a minis 
ter. He died in 1592, in great indigence. Besides the 
poem already mentioned, he wrote translations of the 
book of Job, of the Apocalypse, and other parts of the 
Bible, in Latin verse. 

See CALDKRWOOO, " History of the Church of Scotland ;" CHAM 
BERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ;" SPOTTS- 
WOOD, " History of the Church of Scotland." 

A-da mus Ma-ris cus or Ad am de Maris co, a 

learned monk, and teacher of theology at Oxford, born 
about the end of the twelfth century. Roger Bacon, 
who was his contemporary, speaks of him as an eminent 
mathematician. He died about 1260. 

A-da mus Mu-re-mu-then sis (or Murimtitheii- 
sis) or Adam de Murimuth, Murimouth, or Mu- 
rymouth, an English chronicler, who wrote a " Chron 
icle or History of his Own Time," extending from 1303 
to J 337- He appears to have been employed on several 
important missions ; in 1323 he was ambassador from Ed 
ward II. (of England) to the pope and the King of Sicily. 

Ada mus Sco tus, (i.e. "Adam the Scotchman,") a 
learned bishop, who lived in the twelfth century, chiefly 
remarkable as the author of a curious dialogue between 
the Soul and Reason. Of the events of his life little or 
nothing is known. 

Adanson, S doN soN , (MiciiEL,) an eminent French 
naturalist, born at Aix in 1727. His family were of 
Scottish extraction, and had been exiled from their 
country on account of their devotion to the house of 
Stuart. He was distinguished at school for his great 
application, and won many of the prizes while at the 
College of Plessis. In 1748 he visited Senegal, in Africa, 
where he remained five years, and in spite of burning 
suns and drenching rains he collected, by unremitting 
labour, an immense number of new plants and animals, 
as well as objects of commerce, clothes, utensils, and 
implements of war peculiar to the inhabitants; made 
exact maps of the countries through which he travelled ; 
prepared grammars and vocabularies of the different 
nations of that region, and kept an exact register of me 
teorological observations. After his return to France, 
he published, in 1757, his " Natural History of Senegal," 
(" Histoire Naturclle du Senegal,") and, in 1763, his 
"Families of Plants," (" F.uviHe:; des Plantes.") In 
these, and all his other works, he strenuously opposed 
the artificial system of Linnaeus ; but the influence and 
popularity of the Swedish naturalist were so great as 

not only to resist uninjured all the efforts of his talented 
and powerful assailant, but to throw for a time even 
Adanson s extraordinary merits into the shade. Though 
on the publication of the " Natural History of Senegal" he 
was elected member of the Royal Academy of Sciences 
of Paris, and fellow of the Royal Society of London, yet 
he passed a considerable portion of his after-life in ob 
scurity and extreme indigence ; but he was finally main 
tained by a pension from the French government. He- 
died in 1806. In addition to the works already men 
tioned, Adanson contributed many valuable papers to 
the Memoires of the Royal Academy of Sciences ; and 
also prepared an immense work entitled " Universal Or 
der of Nature," ("Ordre Universel de la Nature,") a 
sort of encyclopaedia of natural science, which has never 
been published. He read, in 1761, before the Academy 
of Sciences, a very interesting notice (accompanied by 
an accurate botanical description) of the baobab-tree, 
which was afterwards named, in honour of the illustrious 
botanist, Adansonia. As a naturalist, Adanson is not 
unworthy to be the rival of Linnaeus ; in the estimation 
of Cuvier, indeed, he ought to rank far above the illus 
trious Swede. His eulogy was composed by Cuvier, 
who represents his character as noble, but eccentric. 

See CUVIER, " Eloge d Adanson," 1819; LEJOYAND, " Notice sui 
la Vie et lesTravaux de M. Adanson," 8vo, 1808; "Observations sur 
feu M. Adanson," by his nephew, M. ADANSON ; " Nouvelle Bio 
graphic Generale." 

Adashef, a-da-shef, or Adashev, written also Ada- 
schew, (ALEXIS,) an eminent Russian statesman, who 
was the minister and favourite of Ivan IV. from 1547 to 
1560. His administration was distinguished for its jus 
tice, humanity, and enlightened policy. Having incurred 
the displeasure of his sovereign, he died, in prison, at 
Dorpat, in 1561. 

See K.ARAMZIX, "History of the Russian Empire." 

Adashef or Adashev, (DANIEL,) a brother of the 
preceding, greatly distinguished himself by a successful 
expedition which he commanded against the Crim Tar 
tars in 1559. Two years after, he was beheaded by the 
order of his capricious and ungrateful sovereign. 

Addemeeree or Addemiri, ad-deh-mee ree, writ 
ten also Al-Damiri, surnamed KEMAL-ED-DHEN, (or 
-ED-Df N,) ke-mal ed-deen , (" Perfection of the Faith,") 
a distinguished Arabian naturalist, born in Egypt about 
1350. He wrote on history and biography as well as 
natural science. The best-known of his works is " The 
Lives of Living Creatures." Died about 1405. 

Ad diiig-toii, (ANTHONY,) an English physician, who 
was the confidential friend and adviser of Lord Chat 
ham, was educated at Oxford, where he took the degree 
of master of arts in 1 740, and that of doctor of medicine 
in 1744. He practised at Reading, and died in 1790. 

Addington, (HENRY,) afterwards LORD SIDMOUTH, 
son of the preceding, was born in 1756, and educated 
with Pitt, the son of Lord Chatham. He soon distin 
guished himself in the political world; in 1789 he was 
chosen speaker of the House of Commons, and in 1801, 
on the resignation of Pitt, to whom he had ever shown 
himself an unfaltering frierp, he succeeded that great 
statesman as chancellor of the exchequer and first lord 
of the treasury. The opposition of his enemies obliged 
him to leave his station in May, 1804: the king then 
conferred upon him the title of Lord Viscount Sidmouth. 
He became home secretary in 1812, and retired from 
public life in 1822. Died in 1844. 

See " Life and Correspondence of the Hon. Henry Addington," 

by PELLEW, 1847. 

Addington, (STEPHEN,) D.D., a dissenting minister, 
born at Northampton, England, about 1730, and died in 
1796. He wrote, besides other religious works, a life of 
the Apostle Paul. 

See WILSON S "Dissenting Churches." 

Ad di-son, (ALEXANDER,) an American lawyer and 
judge, distinguished for his learning and eloquence, was 
born in 1759. Died at Pittsburg in 1807. 

Ad dison, (G. H.,) an Englishman, born in 1793; wa - s 
a youth of high promise when he died, in India, in 1815, 
leaving a work called " Indian Reminiscences," (1837.) 

Addison, (JOSEPH,) an English author, pre-eminent 
as an essayist, humorist, and moralist, was born at Mil- 

c as k; c as s; g hard; g as/; c, H, ^ guttural; N, nnsal; K, frilled; s as z; th as in this. OJ^See Explanations, p. 23.) 




ston, rtar Amcsbury, in Wiltshire, on the 1st of May, 
1672 He was a son of the Rev. Lancelot Addison. 
He attended school at the Charter House, from which, 
about the age of fifteen, he passed to Queen s College, 
Oxford, with a stock of classical learning that would have 
done honour to a master of arts. In 1689 he removed 
to Magdalen College, where he remained about ten years. 
He acquired at college a high reputation as a writer of 
Latin verse, in which he probably excelled all his con 
temporaries. His first English composition was a piece 
of complimentary verse addressed, in 1694, to Dryden, 
who appears to have been pleased with this tribute, and 
became a friend of the author. Addison wrote the crit 
ical preface which Dryden prefixed to his version of the 
"Georgics," (1697.) 

His friends destined him for the church, to which his 
opinions and Habits of thought were well adapted. Be 
fore he had decided in relation to the choice of a profes 
sion, he formed an acquaintance with Charles Montagu, 
the eminent Whig financier, to whom he dedicated an 
elegant Latin poem on the peace of Ryswick, (1697.) He 
was persuaded by Montagu to decline the clerical pro 
fession and to devote himself to the service of the state. 
The course of his life was determined in 1699, when he 
received an annual pension of ^300, and set out on a 
tour to France and Italy, partly with the design to qualify 
himself for diplomacy by the study of the French lan 
guage. At Paris he met with Boileau, who complimented 
him highly on his Latin poetry. He passed many months 
in the chief cities of Italy, and addressed to his friend 
Montagu, now Lord Halifax, a " Letter from Italy," in 
verse, (1701,) which was greatly admired. In conse 
quence of the death of King William and the removal of 
his Whig friends from office, Addison was deprived of 
his pension in 1702. He returned to England about the 
end of 1703. 

One morning he was surprised to receive, in, the garret 
which he occupied in the Haymarket, a visit from Mr. 
Boyle, chancellor of the exchequer, who, on behalf of 
the chief minister, Godolphin, requested him to write a 
poem on the battle of Blenheim, (1704.) The result of 
this visit was "The Campaign," which was received 
with immense applause by the public, and procured for 
the author a commissionership as an earnest of greater 
favours. .He published an interesting "Narrative of his 
Travels in Italy," which, before it was reprinted, sold 
for five times the original price. His next work was the 
opera " Rosamond ;" which failed on the stage through 
the fault of the music, but was completely successful as 
a publication. 

In 1705 Addison was appointed under-secretary of 
state, through the influence of Halifax and Somers, who 
had formed a coalition with Godolphin and Marlborough. 
He was elected to Parliament in 1708, and on one occa 
sion rose to speak, but could not overcome his diffidence, 
and made no further effort to become a debater. His 
literary talents and character, however, rendered him 
one of the main pillars of the Whig party, for at that time 
public opinion was influence! more by the pen than by the 
tongue. " When these thrags are duly considered," says 
Macaulay, " it will not be thought strange that Addison 
should have climbed higher in the state than any other 
Englishman has ever, by means merely of literary talents, 
been able to climb." 

He was chief secretary to Lord Wharton, Lord-Lieuten 
ant of Ireland, in 1 709, with a salary of about 2000. In 
this year his friend Steele began to issue "The Tatler," 
which afforded to Addison an opportunity to display his 
genius in a new department of literature. His graceful 
style, his genial spirit, his excellent invention and inimi 
table humour rendered The Tatler, and its successor 
" The Spectator," extremely popular. The Spectator 
was issued daily from March i, 1711, until December 6, 
1712, and was revived in 1714 as a tri-weekly paper. 
Addison wrote about three-sevenths of The Spectator, 
the success of which was such as no similar work has 
ever obtained. The circulation of it amounted to nearly 
four thousand copies. For some particular papers, it is 
said, the demand was so great that not less than twenty 
thousand copies were required. These essays exerted 
a great and salutary influence on society. " He not only 

made the proper use of wit himself," says Dr. Johnson, 
" but taught it to others. . . . He has dissipated the 
prejudice that had long connected gaiety with vice, and 
easiness of manners with laxity of principles. He has 
restored virtue to its dignity, and taught innocence not 
to be ashamed. This is an elevation of literary charac 
ter, above all Greek, above all Roman fame, " Although 
the Whigs were defeated in the general election of 1710, 
Addison was so popular that he was returned to Parlia 
ment without a contest. On this occasion Swift writes, 
" I believe if he had a mind to be king, he would hardly 
be refused." 

In 1713 he produced his tragedy of " Cato," which 
was greeted with "thunders of unanimous applause," 
and obtained more celebrity among his contemporaries 
than any other of his works ; but this favourable esti 
mate has not been confirmed by the suffrages of a later 
age. On the death of Queen Anne, August, 1714, lie 
was appointed secretary to the regency or lords justices. 
Soon after that date he again became chief secretary to 
the Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland. He exchanged this office 
for a seat at the board of trade in 1715, and began to pub 
lish "The Freeholder," his best political work. After a 
long courtship, he married, in 1716, the Countess-dow 
ager of Warwick, who, according to Johnson, "thought 
herself entitled to treat with very little ceremony the 
tutor of her son." He became one of the two principal 
secretaries of state in the new ministry formed in the 
spring of 1717, but remained in office only eleven months. 
His retirement is attributed to ill health and incfficienc) 
as a public speaker. 

He died on the I7th of June, 1719, leaving no child 
but a daughter, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 
Shortly before his death he said to his step-son, Lord 
Warwick, " I have sent for you in order that you might 
see in what peace a Christian can die !" 

The two gravest faults charged against him are his 
habit of drinking wine, and his insidious enmity to Pope. 
The former has, in all probability, been much exagger 
ated, and the latter is said to have been fully and dis 
tinctly disproved. It appears, indeed, to have never had 
any better foundation than Pope s morbid suspicion. 

Addison s colloquial powers are extolled by several 
authors. Lady Mary Montagu said thai: " she had known 
all the wits, and that Addison was the best company in 
the world." "Addison s conversation," says Pope, "had 
something in it more charming than I have found in any 
other man. But this was only when familiar : before 
! strangers, or perhaps a single stranger, he preserved his 
dignity by a stiff silence." " His humanity," says Mac- 
I aulay, " is without a parallel in literary history. The 
I highest proof of human virtue is to possess boundless 
power without abasing it. No kind of power is more 
formidable than the power of making men ridiculous ; 
and that power Addison possessed in boundless meas 
ure. But it would be difficult, if not impossible, to find, 
in all the volumes which he has left us, a single taunt 
which can be called ungenerous or unkind. . . . The 
numerous fictions, generally original, often wild and 
grotesque, but always graceful and happy, which are 
found in his essays, fully entitle him to the rank of a 
great poet, a rank to which his metrical compositions 
give him no claim. As an observer of life, of manners, 
of all the shades of human character, he stands in the 
first class." 

See JOHNSON, "Lives of the English Poets;" MACAUI.AY, 
"Essays," article Addison; STEELE, " Memoirs of the Lite and 
Writings of J. Addison," 1724; DES MAIZEAUX, "Viede J. Addi 
son;" LucvAiKiN, " Life of Joseph Addison," 1843; EUVIN, "Life 
of Addison," 1857; "Biograpliia Britannica;" VILI.EMAIN, "Coursde 

Addison, (Rev. LANCELOT,) father of the preceding, 
was born in Westmoreland in 1632, and educated at 
Queen s College, Oxford. He passed seven years at Tan 
gier as chaplain to the garrison, and, after his return, 
published " West Barbary, or a Short Narrative of the 
Revolutions of the Kingdoms of Fez and Morocco," 
(1671,) which attracted considerable attention both in 
England and foreign countries. He became a royal 
chaplain about 1670, Dean of Lichfield in 1683, and Arch 
deacon of Coventry in 1684. Among his writings are 

a, e, I, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, li, y, short; a, e, j, o, obsairc; far, fall, fat; met; ndt; good; moon; 



several religious treatises, and a work on "The Present 
State of the Jews, (more particularly relating to those in 
Barbary,") (1675.) He died in 1703, leaving three sons : 
Joseph ; Gulston, who died Governor of Madras ; and 
Lancelot, who was eminent as a classical scholar. 

See WOOD, "Athena: Oxonienses." 

Adel, a dcl, or Adils, a dils, one of the early kings 
of Sweden, whose history is lost in fable. He is sup 
posed to have lived in the fifth or sixth century. 

Adelaar. See ADELER. 

Adelaide, ad el-ad, [Gcr. ADF.LHEID, a del-hlt ,] an 
empress of Germany, daughter of Rudolph II., and wite 
of Otho I., (surnamed the Great,) was born in 931. Alter 
the death of the emperor, her husband, she governed the 
empire with great ability during the early part of the 
reign of her son, Otho II. She was afterwards regent 
during a part of the minority of Otho III. She died in 
999, universally beloved, and is regarded as a saint, 
though her name does not appear in the Roman cal 

Adelaide, ad e-lad, [Fr. ADELAIDE, t da lt ed ,] (MA 
DAME,) the eldest daughter of Louis XV., was born, in 
1732, at Versailles. On the breaking out of the revolu 
tion, she, with her sister, Madame Victoire, left their 
native country for Italy. She died at Trieste in 1800. 

Adelaide, ad e-lad, Queen of England, born in 1792, 
was a daughter of the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen, and was 
married, in 1818, to the Duke of Clarence, who became 
William IV. Died in 1849. 

See DOKAN, "Life of Queen Adelaide." 

Adelaide, t da ls ed , (EUGENE LOUISE,) a French 
princess, born in Paris in 1777, was a sister of King Louis 
Philippe. She was an exile from 1792 until 1814. In 
1830 she urged Louis Philippe, with whom she had 
much influence, to accept the crown. Died in 1847. 

Adelais (id hVor S deh-li ) OF LOUVAIN, the daugh 
ter of Godfrey, Duke of Brabant, and the second queen 
of Henry I. of England, was born about 1103, and mar 
ried in 1 121. Her beauty was celebrated under the des 
ignation of " The Fair Maid of Brabant." After the 
death of Henry I. she married William de Albini, an 
English nobleman, and died in 1151. 

Ad el-ard or Athelard, a king of the West Saxons, 
who ascended the throne in 727, and died in 740. 

Sis,] a student of natural science, who lived in England 
in the early part of the twelfth century. He wrote a book 
entitled " Concerning the Natures of Things," (" De Na- 
turis Rerum,") and made a translation of Euclid from the 
Arabic into Latin, at a time when this work was almost 
unknown in Western Europe. 
Adelbert. See ADALBERT. 

Ad el-bold, [Lat. ADELBOL DUS, ADELBAL DUS, or 
ATHELBAL DUS,] a bishop of Utrecht, who flourished in 
the early part of the eleventh century. He was distin 
guished for his piety, and was a great patron of learning 
and the arts. Died in 1027. 

Adelburner, a del-booR ner, or Adelbulner, a del- 
bool ner, (MICHAEL,) a German mathematician, born at 
Nuremberg in 1702, became professor at Altdorf in 1743. 
He published an astronomical journal, called " Commer- 
cium Astronomicum," (1735-40,) which had great suc 
cess. Died in 1779. 

See MONTUCI.A, "Histoire des Mathematiques." 
Adelcrantz or Adelkrantz, a del-kRants , the name 
of two Swedish architects, father and son. The latter, 
CHARLES FREDERICK, who was the more eminent, was 
horn at Stockholm in 1716, and died in 1796. 

Adeler, a dcl -er, also written Adelaar, (CoRD or 
CONRAD SIVF.RTSKN,) a famous admiral, born in Nor 
way in 1622. He entered the service of Venice in his 
youth, and obtained command of a fleet. In 1654 he 
gained a signal victory over the Turkish fleef, anil killed 
\\ith his own hand the admiral Ibraheem Pasha. The 
King of Denmark recalled him in 1663, and gave him the 
command of his navy. Adeler was appointed grand ad- 
m ral in 167^, and died the same year. 

Ad el-frid, a Saxon king, was slain in battle in 617. 

Ad-el-gi sus, called also A del-eli:s, the only son 

of Desiderius, King of the Longobards. Though a brave 

prince, he was defeated, with his father, by Charlemagne. 
in 773 ; after which he fled to Constantinople. Little 
else is known respecting him. 

Adelgisus, a prince of Beneventum, (now Benevento,) 
who lived in the ninth century. He was murdered by 
his own relations in 878. 

Adelgreiff, a del-gRif , (JoHANN ALBRECHT,) a noto 
rious fanatic of the seventeenth century. He claimed to 
represent God on earth. He was beheaded at Konigs- 
berg in 1636. 

Ad el-man, (or a del-man ,) an ecclesiastical writer, 
who lived about the middle of the eleventh century, 
was Bishop of Brescia. 

Adelon, sd loN , (NICOLAS PHILIBERT,) a French 
physician and writer, born at Dijon about 1780. lie was 
a favourite pupil of Chaussier, with whom he co-operated 
in the first volumes of the "Biographic Universelle." 
In 1823-2-4 he published a "Treatise on the Physiology 
of Man," (4 vols.) He obtained the chair of legal medi 
cine in Paris in 1826, and continued to occupy it so late 
as 1858. Died in July, 1862. 

Adelstan. See ATHELSTAN. 

Adelung, a deh-loong, (FRIEDRICH,) a German phi 
lologist, born at Stettin m 1768, was a nephew of Johann 
Christoph, noticed below. He removed to St. Peters 
burg, where he became preceptor to the grand duke 
Nicholas, (afterwards emp eror,) and a counsellor of state. 
Among his works are "The Relations between the San 
scrit and Russian Languages," (1815,) and an " Essay on 
the Sanscrit Literature and Language," (1830.) Died at 
St. Petersburg in 1843. 

See GRETSCII, " Histoire de la Litterature Russe." 

Adelung or Adlung, ad loong, (JACOB,) an organist 
and writer on music, born near Erfurt, in Germany, in 
1699 ; died in 1762. 

Adelung, (JOHANN CHRISTOPH,) a distinguished phi 
lologist and lexicographer, born near Anklam, in Pofne r 
rania, in 1732. He commenced the study of theology at 
the University of Halle, but his tastes led him to general 
literature and philology, to which, from about the year 
1761, he appears to have devoted all his time and thoughts. 
He wrote several historical works, which, however, have 
attracted but little attention. That on which his fame 
principally rests is his "Attempt at a Complete Gram- 
matico-Critical Dictionary of the German Language," 
(" Versuch eines vollstandigen Grammatisch-Ktltischen 
Wb rterbuches der Hochdeutschen Mundart.") This 
great German work has been compared to the great Eng 
lish dictionary of Dr. Johnson ; but Adelung s is supe 
rior to Johnson s in its definitions, and in all that relates 
to etymology. His dictionary attracted great attention 
in Germany ; and, as a reward for the important service 
he had rendered to German literature, he was appointed, 
by the Elector of Saxony, chief librarian of the public 
library of Dresden, with the title of Hofrath, (" court- 
counsellor,") an office which he held until his death. 
Among the defects, however, of Adelung s dictionary 
may be named : ist, an excessive partiality for the dialect 
of Upper Saxony, which caused him to reject words used 
in other parts of Germany ; 2clly, his fastidious rejection 
of all new words not sanctioned by what he considered 
good authority. Besides writing a German grammar, 
and several other books illustrating his own tongue, he 
commenced a great work, entitled " Mithridates, oder 
Allgemeine Sprachen-Kunde," a general treatise on lan 
guage, which was finished, after liis death, by J. S. Vater. 
Died in 1806. 

See ERSCH und GRUUKK, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie;" " Nouvelle 
Biographic Ge ne rale." 

Adelwalch, ad el-wolk, a king of Sussex, who was 
slain in battle in 686. 

Ad e-mar [Lat. ADFMA RUS] or Aymar, Ji maV, a 
French historical writer, who flourished in the early part 
j of the eleventh century. 

Ad-e-ma rus, a courtier of Otho III., Emperor of 
! Germany, by whom he was appointed Duke of Spoletim> 
! (Spoleto) and Marquis of Camerino, about the end of the 
tenth century. 

Aclenez or Adenes, fd na or S deh-na , sometimes 
written Adaiis, surnamed LE Roi, (leh Rwa,) a cele 
brated minstrel, born in Brabant about 1240. He was. 

as k; 9 a 


nasal: K, trill fd: s as a; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.; 



first patronized by Henry III., Duke of Brabant, and 
afterwards by Philip the Bold, King of France. The 
time of his death is unknown. 

Adeodat. See DIEUDONNE. 

Adeodato, a-da-o-da/tj, an Italian sculptor, who lived 
in the twelfth century. 

Ader, i daia , (G JILLAUME,) a physician and medical 
writer, who lived at Toulouse, in France, about the be 
ginning of the seventeenth century. 

Adet, S di , (PiERRE AUC.USTE,) a French politician 
and chemist, born at Nevers in 1763. He was sent, in 
1795, as minister to the United States, but resigned or 
suspended his office in 1797, on account of an alleged vio 
lation of neutrality. Having returned to France, he 
became, in 1809, a member of the legislative body. He 
published "Elements of Chemistry," (1804.) Died in 

Adgillui (ad-jil lus) I. and II., two dukes of Fries- 
iand, who lived in the latter part of the seventh and the 
beginning of the eighth century. 

Adhad-ed-Daulah, (or -Eddoulat.) See AZAD-UD- 


Adh-dhahebee or Adh-dhahebi, aD-Da heh-bee , 
(almost ath-tha heh-bee ,) written also Al-Dzahabi, sur- 
uamed SHEMS-ED-DEEN, (i.e. the "Sun of Religion,") 
an eminent Arabian writer and lawyer, born at Damas 
cus about 1274. He was raised to the high office of 
Mufti of Damascus. Died about 1347. His principal 
work is a chronological history of all the Moslem nations 
from the creation down to his own time. 

Adh-dhobbee (Adh-dhobbi) or Ad-dobbee, ao- 
Dob bee or ath-thob bee , a native of Cordova, who wrote 
a valuable history of the Spanish Arabs. He flourished 
about the beginning of the thirteenth century. 

Adhemar, a cleh-maR , written also Azeiiiars, (WIL 
LIAM,) a Provenal poet of the twelfth century, who is 
said to have loved the Countess of Die so passionately 
that, on hearing she was about to be married to the Count 
of Embrun, he fell desperately ill, and, having sent for 
her, expired in her presence. This so affected her that 
.she abandoned all thoughts of marriage, and died of 
grief a few years afterwards. 

Adhemar de Monteil, ad eh-mar deh mon-tal , 
[Fr. pron. td miR deh moN til or moN ti ye,] an eccle 
siastic, statesman, and warrior, who lived in the four 
teenth century. He was appointed Bishop of Metz in 
1327, and died in 1361. He had the reputation of a 
spirited and magnificent prince. 

Ad-her bal, [Gr. Aru/jJac,] a Carthaginian command 
er during the first Punic war, who gained a great victory 
over the Roman fleet 249 B.C. 

Adherbal, the son of Micipsa, King of Numiclia. On 
the death of his father (i;.c. 118) he shared the kingdom 
with his brother Hiempsal and his cousin Jugurtha, by 
whom he was slain, 112 K. c. (See JUGURTHA.) 

Adi-Buddha, (or -Booddha.) See BOODDHA. 

Adil-Shah-Yoosuf, (or-Yusuf,) a dil-shahyoo soof, 
a .son of the Turkish sultan Amurath II., whom, on the 
death of this monarch in 1451, his mother contrived to 
secrete from the executioners sent by his brother, Mo 
hammed II., for the purpose of destroying him, and 
caused him to be privately conveyed to Persia, whence 
he afterwards fled to Hindostan. Here he entered the 
service of Mohammed Shah, (II.,) King of the Dekkan, 
and gradually ross to the highest military offices in the 
state. On the death of Mohammed Shah, an attempt 
was made by a corrupt faction at court to destroy Yoosuf ; 
but he withdrew to Bejapoor, (of which province he had 
been appointed governor,) where his military fame and 
his high character for liberality and justice soon drew to 
his standard multitudes of the best and bravest of the 
land. Though at first he acted uniformly on the de 
fensive, he at length (about i^oo) established an empire 
on the ruin of his enemies. He had previously, in 1489, 
assumed the title of royalty. He died about 1510. His 
posterity continued to reign at Bejapoor till 1689, when 
their capital was taken by Aurungzebe, and Sikandar, 
the last of the Adil-Shah dynasty, was made prisoner by 
the conqueror. 

Ad-i-man tus, [ Afe /zavroc,l the commander of the 
Corinthian ships during the invasion of Greece by Xerxes, 

480 11. c. He appears to have been destitute alike of skill 
and bravery. 

Adimantus is also the name of an Athenian gen 
eral who was defeated and taken prisoner by Lysandcr 
at /Egospotami, 405 B.C. 

Acumaiitus, a Manichoean writer, who is supposed 
to have lived in the fourth century. 

Adimari, a-de-ma ree, a noted, though not noble, 
Florentine family, who hold a considerable place in the 
history of Italy in the middle ages. 

Adimari, ( ALESSANDRO,) a classical scholar and poet, 
bom at Florence about 1580, made a translation of Pindar 
into Italian verse. Died in 1649. 

Adimari, (Luoovico,) born at Naples in 1644; 
died at Florence in 1708. He was professor of Tuscan 
in the Academy of Florence, and wrote, in Italian, satiric 
poetry which is much admired by some. 

Aditi, ad I-tl, [common Hindoo pron. ud I-tT,] the wife 
of Kasyapa, and the mother of the gods. She is sometimes 
styled, for greater distinction, the "mother of Indra." 
She is supposed to personify the earth. 

See MOOR, " Hindu Pantheon." 

Aditya, a dit-ya, [in the English plural, ADITYAS,! 
the name given to twelve Hindoo deities, sons of Aditi. 
They are said to represent the sun in each of the differ 
ent months of the year. Among the Adityas the prin 
cipal are Varuna, Surya, Indra, Yama, and Vishnu, who, in 
his fifth Avatar, was born as the son of Kasyapa and Aditi. 

See MOOR, Hindu Pantheon." 

Adler, (CASPAR.) See AQUII.A. 

Adler, acl ler, (GEORG CHRISTIAN,) a theological 
writer and eminent teacher, born in Silesia in 1674. 
He founded a school at Konigsberg, which afterwards 
became a gymnasium, being now called the " Collegium 
Fredericianum." Died in 1741. 

Adler, (GEORG CHRISTIAN,) son of the preceding, 
was born in 1734. He was chief pastor of a Lutheran 
congregation at Altona, and died in 1804. Besides other 
works of the same kind, he wrote one on the topography 
of the city of Rome, (1781.) 

Adler, (GF.ORG J.,) a philologist, born at Leipsic, in 
Germany, in 1821. He came to the United States in 
1833, graduated at the University of New York in 1844, 
and from 1846 to 1854 was professor of the German lan 
guage in that institution. He is the author of several 
German and Latin school manuals, and of an excellent 
German and English dictionary. Died in New York in 
August, 1868. 

Adler, acl ler, (JACOB GEORG,) a Danish Orientalist, 
born at Amis, in Sleswick, in 1755, became professor 
of theology at Copenhagen in 1788. Among his works 
is one on the Cufic writings or inscriptions, (" Musauim 
Cuficum Borgianum," 2 vols., 1782-92.) Died in 1805. 

Adler, (PHILIPP,) the first who carried the art of etch 
ing to any degree of excellence, was born in Nuremberg 
in 1484. The date of his death is unknown. He en 
graved many of the works of Albert Diirer. 

Adlerbeth, ad ler-bet , (GUDMUND GORAN,) a trans 
lator and Swedish poet, born at Jonkfiping in 1751. In 
1778 he was appointed antiquary and private secretary 
to Gustavus III., whom he accompanied on a tour to 
Rome. He was afterwards made councillor of the state, 
and baron, besides receiving numerous other honours. . 
Died in 1818. He was a voluminous writer ; among his 
works are many operas and tragedies, constructed on the 
plan of the French school. He translated the works of 
Virgil, Horace, and the Metamorphoses of Ovid. 

Adlerfeld or Adlerfelt, ad ler-felt , (GUSTAF,) a 
Swedish historical writer, born near Stockholm in 1671. 
He was appointed by Charles XII. /lof-jinikan; or gen 
tleman of the court, and afterwards accompanied the 
king on several of his campaigns, of which he wrote a 
regular journal until his death. He was killed by a can 
non-ball in the famous battle of Pultowa, (or Poltava,) 
July 8, 1709. 

Adlerfeld, (PEHR, or PETKR,) a brother of the preced 
ing, born at Stockholm in 1680. lie was made a co onel 
in the Swedish army in 1712, and in 1720 was, raisec tc 
the rank of a baron, and made a member of the Riks- 
rad, " Council of the Kingdom." He was killed, ir. 

5, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, 11, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; gcvkl; ir oon ; 




1743, while defending his native city against the insurgent 

Adlerscreutz, ad leRs-kRoits , (BARON,) a Swedish 
general, was the leader of the party which dethroned 
Gustavus IV. in 1809. 

Adlersparre, ad ler-spar rn, (GEORG,) COUNT OF, a 
Swedish general and writer, born in 1760. He acted a 
prominent part in the conspiracy or revolt which de 
throned Gustavus IV. in 1809. Died in 1837. 

Adlung. See ADELUNG. 

Adlzreiter, ad elts-rl ter or ad lts ri ter, QOHANN,) a 
lawyer and statesman, born at Rosenheim, in Bavaria, in 
1596. He became vice-chancellor and privy counsellor 
.to Maximilian, Elector of Bavaria. Died in 1662. He 
furnished important materials to the history of Bavaria, 
by Fervaux, which was published under his name. 

Ad-me tus, [Or. "Arty^/roc; Fr. ADMETE, tcl mit ,] a 
son of Pheres, King of Pheras in Thessaly, succeeded his 
father on the throne. Apollo, who had been banished 
from Olympus for one year, tended the herds of Admetus 
during that period. Admetus became a suitor for Al- 
cestis, the daughter of Pelias, who promised her to him 
on condition that he would come in a chariot drawn 
by a lion and a wild boar. With the help of Apollo 
he fulfilled that condition, and married Alcestis. (See 

Admiral, L , Itd me ril , (JEAN,) a French portrait- 
painter in miniature, born in Normandy in 1698. Died 
in 1773. 

Ado, a do, SAINT, born about 800, in the territory 
of Gatinois, in the north of Gaul, became Archbishop of 
Vicnne in 860, and died in 875. He wrote a work pur 
porting to be a chronicle of events from the creation to 
the year 874. 

Adoaldus. See ADALOALDUS. 

Adolf, a dolf, a German sculptor, who lived in the 
beginning of the sixteenth century. 

Adolf, (JOSEPH FRANZ,) a German painter, who died 
about 1750. He excelled in painting horses. 

Adolfi, a-dol fee, (CiRO,) an Italian painter, born at 
Bergamo in 1683 ; died in 1758. As an artist he was 
much superior to his brother Giacomo. 

Adolfi, (GiACOMO,) a brother of the preceding, also 
a painter, was born in 1682 ; died in 1741. 

Adolphe, (of Cleves, Guelders, etc.) See ADOLPHUS. 

Adolphi, a-dol fee, (CHRISTIAN MICHAEL,) a German 
physician, professor of medicine at Leipsic, born in 1676; 
died in 1753. 

Adolphi, (CiRO.) See ADOLFI. 

A-dol phus, [Fr. ADOLPHE, f dolf ,] son of Arnold, 
the sixth Duke of Guelderland, born in 1438. He was 
in constant disputes with his father from his earliest 
years, and at length, in 1465, suddenly seized and im 
prisoned him, and then extorted from him a formal act 
of abdication. But he was afterwards compelled by 
John I., Duke of Cleves, and Charles the Bold, of Bur 
gundy, to release him and restore to him all his posses 
sions. Adolphus, in turn, was seized and kept in con 
finement for several years, during which time his father 
died. Having at length, on the death of Charles the 
Bold, been released, he was soon after killed, while be 
sieging Tournay, in 1477. 

Adolphus for Adolph) I., Duke of Holstein and 
Sleswick, son of Frederick I., King of Denmark, was 
born in 1526. He was distinguished as a soldier, and 
was the founder of several hospitals and flourishing pub 
lic schools. Died in 1586, after a rule of forty-two years. 

Adolphus (or Adolph) I., Count of Holstein, one of 
the most remarkable men of his time, flourished in the 
early part of the twelfth century. Little is known re 
specting him, except that he was distinguished both as a 
statesman and a warrior, and contributed greatly to the 
diffusion of Christianity among the Wendi, a neighbour 
ing nation of Slavonian origin. Died in 1131. 

Adolphus (Adolph) II., a son of the preceding, 
succeeded his father while still very young. Though 
at first unsuccessful in his campaign against Magnus, 
Duke of Sleswick, and in his war with Henry the Proud, 
Duke of Saxony, he soon recovered himself, and after 
wards eclipsed even the glory of his father. He com 
pletely subdued the Wendi, and, by planting colonies in 

the territories which they had occupied, thoroughly Ge 
manized the country. To those colonies the towns o. 
Lubeck and Eutin owe their origin. He gained several 
victories over Canute, Prince of the Danes. In 1164. 
however, while engaged in the siege of Demmin, in 
Ponierania, he was, through treachery, suddenly attacked 
and slain, after an administration of thirty-three years. 

Adolphus (Adolph) III., Count of Holstein, was a 
son of Adolphus II., whom he succeeded. Although a 
valiant soldier, he appears to have been far inferior to 
his father in justice and wisdom. Having sided with 
Waldemar, Bishop of Sleswick, in his contest with Can 
ute, King of Denmark, in 1200, Adolphus lost nearly all 
his possessions, and died soon after. 

Adolphus (Adolph) IV., son of the preceding, re 
covered Holstein from Waldemar, King of Denmark, 
whom he defeated in a great battle near Eutin. In 1238 
he entered a monastery, where he passed the remaining 
fourteen years of his life as an humble friar. 

Adolphus [Fr. ADOLPHE, t dolf] II., Duke of Cleves, 
was born in 1371. He was almost constantly engaged 
in wars, chiefly with his brother Gerard, Duke of Mark. 
He died in 1448, leaving behind him a high reputation 
for piety and justice, as well as for bravery and enterprise 
as a soldier. 

Adolphus (Adolph) VIII., Duke of Sleswick, was 
the son of Gerard, Count of Holstein. His father hav 
ing died when he was but three years old, he received 
his education at the court of the emperor Sigismund. 
In 1440 Christopher, King of Denmark, conferred Sles 
wick upon Adolphus as a fief. When Christopher died, 
in 1448, the crown of Denmark was offered him, but he 
declined it. He died in 1459, leaving a high character 
for wisdom and justice. 

Adolphus, (FREDERICK,) a king of Sweden, born in 
1710, was descended from the royal line of Vasa. He was 
elected to the Swedish throne in 1743. The royal au 
thority, however, was at this period almost entirely over 
borne by the council of the states ; and, after having been 
continually thwarted in his wishes by that body, Fred 
erick Adolphus at length, in 1769, tendered the resigna 
tion of his crown. Upon this the council made some 
trifling concessions, and he remained a nominal king till 
his death, in 1771. 

Adolphus (or Adolph) II., ( JOHN, or JOHANN,) Duke 
of Saxe-Weissenfels, sprung from a collateral branch of 
the electoral (now royal) line of Saxony, was born in 
1685. He early distinguished himself by his bravery 
and military skill. In 1704 he was made a lieutenant- 
general in the Hessian service, and in 1710, Augustus, 
Elector of Saxony, appointed him one of the generals of 
his forces then engaged against Charles XII. of Sweden. 
His two older brothers having died, Adolphus became 
Duke of Saxe-Weissenfels in 1736. In 1744 he took an 
active part against Frederick II. of Prussia ; but, ex 
hausted by the fatigues and hardships through which 
he had passed, he soon after retired to his duchy, where 
he died in 1746. 

Adolphus (Adolph) OF NASSAU [in Latin, ADOI/- 
PHUS NASSOVIEN SIS] was elected, in 1292, successor to 
Rudolph, Emperor of Germany. Though possessed of 
considerable military talents, by his falsehood and bru 
tality he soon became very unpopular, and in 1298 was 
deposed by an assembly of the electors. He refused, 
however, to relinquish his power. But in a battle fought 
soon after (in 1298) between him and Albert his succes 
sor, Adolphus was slain, fighting desperately. 

See J. P. WAGNER, "Vita Adolphi Naspoviensis," i775~?o; J. G 
LEUCHS, "Adolph der Nassauer, Kaiser ur.d Kiinig der DeutEchcn," 

A-dol phus, (JOHN,) an English lawyer and historian, 
born about 1770. He practised in the criminal courts of 
London, and had a high reputation as an eloquent ad 
vocate. His chief work is a "History of England, from 
the Accession of George III.," (7 vols., 1805-45,) which 
displays considerable research and learning. Among 
his other works we may name " Biographical Memoirs 
of the French Revolution," (4 vols., 1799.) He gained 
great credit by his able defence of Thistlcwood, charged 
with treason, in 1820. Died in 1845. 

Ad om-nan or Ad am-nan , [Lat. ADOMNA NUS 

c as i-; q as .r; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as 2; th as in this, (S^^See Explanations, p. 23.) 




or ADAMNA NUS,] also written Adaman/nus, an abbot 
of the monastery of lona, born about 624. According 
to some writers, he was a native of Ireland ; according to 
others, of Scotland. He was a contemporary and friend 
of King Alfred of Northumbria. He is the author of a 
" Life of St. Columba," a curious work, which throws 
interesting light upon the political and social condition 
of that period. 

Ad-o-m jah, [Heb. H JIN,] a son of King David and 
Haggith, who] near the close of his father s reign, aspired 
to the succession in opposition to the claims of Solomon. 
He was afterwards put to death by the order of Solomon, 
1030 B.C., it is supposed. (See I. Kings i. 5 ; ii. 13.) 

A-db nis, [Gr. "A<5uwc,] a son of Cin yras, King of 
Cyprus, represented by the poets as a youth of exquisite 
beauty. He was passionately fond of hunting, and, not 
withstanding the anxious admonitions of Venus, by 
whom he was greatly beloved, he exposed himself daily 
in the chase, and at last was killed by a boar which he 
had wounded. From his blood sprang the anemone, a 
beautiful flower. Venus was inconsolable at his loss ; 
but she obtained at last from Proserpine that Adonis 
should spend six months of every year with her on earth, 
and the other six in Hades. Adonis or Adonai (i.e. 
" Lord") was an Oriental title sometimes given to the 
sun, as the " lord of day :" the preceding fable, therefore, 
is supposed to allude to the periodical return of summer 
and winter. Hence the expressions " Beautiful as Ado 
nis" and " Beautiful as day"* (in French, " Beau comme 
le jour") maybe considered as equivalent to each other. 

Adorni, a-doR nee, (CATERINA or CATHERINA 
Fieschi fc-es kee,) an Italian poetess, born at Genoa 
in 1447, wrote on religious subjects. Died in 1510. 

See CATTANEO MARBATTO, "Vita de Catherina Adorni." 

Adorno, a-cloii no, (in the plural, Adorni, a-cloR nee,) 
an influential Genoese family, from which, between 1360 
and 1530, no fewer than six doges of Genoa were chosen. 
They held, however, a precarious authority, being ever 
and anon driven from the city according as the opposing 
faction (the Fregosi) chanced for the moment to prevail. 

Adorno, (ANTONIO,) a doge of Genoa, elected in 
1384, is said to have been an enlightened and liberal 
statesman. Died in 1397. 

Adorno, (FRANCESCO,) an eminent Italian Jesuit, born 
about 1530, was the author of several theological works. 
Died in 1586. 

Adorno, (PROSPER or PROS PERO,) was elected Doge 
of Genoa in 1461, but was soon expelled from the city 
by Paul Fregoso. He was restored to power in 1477, 
and defeated the Duke of Milan in battle in 1478, soon 
after which he was driven out by a sedition. Died at 
Naples in 1486. 

See VARESE, "Storia della Republica di Genova." 

A-drain , (ROBERT,) LL.D., a distinguished mathema 
tician, born in Ireland in 1775. Having emigrated to 
America, he became successively professor of mathema 
tics and natural philosophy in Rutgers College, New 
Brunswick, and Columbia College, New York, and sub 
sequently professor of mathematics in the University of 
Pennsylvania. He edited Mutton s Mathematics. Died 
at New Brunswick, New Jersey, in 1843. 

A-dras tcts, [Gr. "Mpzame; Fr. ADRASTE, t dRfst ,] a 
king of Argos, contemporary with Theseus. He was 
the leader of a celebrated expedition against Thebes, the 
object of which was to restore Polynices to the throne 
of that state. This expedition, which was called the war 
of the " Seven against Thebes," was not successful. All 
of the Seven, except Adrastus, were killed at Thebes. 
The war of :he Seven against Thebes was a favourite 
subject of ancient epic and tragic poets. 

Adrastus, ["AJpacrror;,] a Greek, who wrote a com 
mentary on the works of Aristotle, and a treatise on 
music, which is extant. Nothing is known of his life ; it 
s supposed that he lived in the first or second century. 

^Adrets, des, d& zfdaj/, (FRANQOIS Beaumont 
jo mo.N ,) BARON, usually called simply Des Adrets, 

* " For he was beautiful as day 
When day was beautiful to me 
As to young eagles being free." 

BYRON S Prisoner of Chillon. 

a celebrated French nobleman, born in 1513, became a 
leader of the Hugiienots in 1562, out of resentment to 
the Duke of Guise. He was distinguished for great mili 
tary talents, the boldness and celerity of his movements, 
and for the most atrocious cruelty. In 1567 he joined 
the Catholic party ; but soon after, incurring their sus 
picions, he was thrown into prison. Though released hi 
1571, he never regained his influence, but, distrusted and 
abhorred by all, died in 1587. 

See GUI-ALLARD, "Vie du Baron Des Adrets," 1675. 

Adria, a chie-a, (GIOVANNI GIACOMO,) an eminent 
Italian physician, born at Mazara, in Sicily, about the 
beginning of the fifteenth century. The emperor Charles 
V. made him his own physician, ennobled him, and ap 
pointed him proto-mcdicus of Sicily. Died in 1 560. 

Adriaens, a dRe-ins , ( LUCAS,) a Flemish painter, 
who lived in the latter half of the fifteenth century. 

Adriaensen, a dRe-ftn sen, (ALEXANDER,) a Flemish 
painter, born at Antwerp about 1620. He painted flow 
ers, fruit, vases, etc., with exquisite skill. 

See DESCAMPS, " ViesdesPeintres Flamands." 

Adriaensen, (CORNELIS,) a popular Catholic preach 
er and Franciscan friar, born at Dordrecht (Dort) about 
1520. The Protestants, to whom he was extremely ob 
noxious, charged him with the most scandalous conduct, 
whether justly or not cannot now be determined. Died 
in 1581. 

See VOET, "Historia von Bruder Cornells, etc.," 1613. 

Adrian, a/dre-an, [Gr. A(5pn>6r; Lat. ADRIA NUS,] a 
Greek writer of the fifth century, who wrote an intro 
duction to the Scriptures. 

A drian [ A<5p;ai>6f] or Ha drian OF TYRE, a Greek 
sophist of the second century, studied eloquence at Athens 
under Herodes Atticus, whom he succeeded in his school. 
His reputation was so high that he was invited to Rome 
by Marcus Aurelius. He died at Rome during the reign 
of Commodus, whom he served as secretary. 

Adrian or Adrianus, (Emperor.) See HADRIAN. 

A dri-anor Ha dri-an,[Lat. ADRIA NUS or HADRIA - 
NUS,] a native of Africa, who was made abbot of the 
monastery of St. Peter, at Canterbury, about 670. Ac 
cording to Bede, he was a man of great learning, both 
theological and secular. 

Adrian [Lat. ADRIA NUS; It. ADRIANO, d-dRe-a no; 
Fr. ADRIEX, t dRe aN ] I., son of Theodore, of a dis 
tinguished Roman family, was elected pope in 772. 
When Desiderius, King of the Longobards, had taken 
several towns belonging to the papal see, and was pro 
ceeding to Rome, Adrian threatened him with excom 
munication, the first instance on record of such a threat 
to a sovereign prince. He was, however, indebted to 
Charlemagne for protection against the Longobard king. 
In the reign of this pontiff (A. D. 787) was held at Nicasa, 
(Nice,) in Bithynia, the seventh rccumenic council, which 
recognized and restored the worship of images. In 794 
Charlemagne assembled at Frankfort-on-the-Main a 
general council of the West, which justified the use of 
images in churches, but condemned their worship, a 
limitation disapproved by the pope, though countenanced 
by the King of the Franks. Adrian appears to have 
been an able and liberal prince. During his pontificate 
Rome enjoyed a degree of peace and prosperity to which 
she had long been a stranger. He built, or repaired, at 
his own expense, several public edifices ; he was also 
very liberal towards the poor. Died in 795. 

See PAN VINIO, " Vite dei Pontefici." . 

Adrian II., a native of Rome, succeeded Nicholas I. 
in the popeclom in 867, and died in 872. 

Adrian III., a native of Rome, succeeded Marinas 
as pope in 884, and died in 885. 

Adrian IV. (NICHOLAS BREAKSPERE) was born 
about the end of the eleventh century, near Saint Albans, 
in England. Having gone to France to seek his fortune, 
he was made abbot of a monastery near Avignon in 1137. 
But the canons, displeased with his strict discipline, 
brought charges against his character, which obliged him 
to repair to Rome. The pope, Eugenius III., having 
examined the matter, not only acquitted Nicholas entirely, 
but was so pleased with him that he kept him about his 
person, and in 1146 appointed him Cardinal-Bishoi) of 

a, e, T, o, u, y, long; a, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, ij, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; mSt; n8t; good; nn55n- 




Albano. After the death of Anastasius IV., in 1154, he 
was raised to the holy see by the name of Adrian IV. 
lie was a man of acknowledged talents, but his exalted 
views of papal supremacy involved him in serious dif 
ferences with the emperor Frederick, (of Suabia,) which, 
still unsettled at his death, led to an open rupture dur 
ing the pontificate of his successor, Alexander III. 
Adrian IV. died in 1159. He was the only Englishman 
ever raised to the papal chair. 

Adrian V., a native of Genoa, was elected to the 
Roman see in 1276, and died the same year. 

Adrian VI., a native of Utrecht, was raised to the 
papal see on the death of Leo X., in 1521. He had 
formerly been preceptor to the emperor Charles V., by 
whom he was greatly esteemed. He was a sincere and 
upright man, and saw with profound sorrow the scandal 
ous abuses which then prevailed in the Catholic churches. 
He justly attributed the formidable progress of Protest 
antism to the sins of the Catholics, particularly to those 
of the higher clergy. He undertook and accomplished 
several important reforms ; which, however, rendered 
him extremely unpopular. When he died, (A.D. 1523,) 
the people of Rome, especially those about the court, 
expressed the most indecent joy. 

A drian. de Cas-tel lo or Adriano di Castello, 

a-dRe-a no de kas-tel lo, a native of Tuscany, who was 
agent for English affairs at the court of Rome, and was 
afterwards appointed Bishop of Hereford, whence he 
was translated to the bishopric of Bath and Wells. lie 
was made cardinal by Pope Alexander VI. Wolsey suc 
ceeded him as Bishop of Bath and Wells in 1518: He 
wrote Latin poems, and "On True Philosophy," (" De 
Vera Philosophia,") which was frequently printed. Died 
about i S2O. 

A dri-an, [Russ. pron. a-dre-an ,] the last primate or 
patriarch of Russia, died in 1702, after which the office 
of patriarch was suppressed by Peter the Great. 

Adrian, a due-an, QOHANN VALENTIN,) a German 
litterateur, born at Khngenberg, on the Main, in 1793. 
He became professor of modern languages at Giessen 
in 1823. Among his works is one called "Pictures of 
England," (" Bilder aus England," 2 vols., 1828.) 

Adriani, a-due-a nce, (JoiiN BAPTIST, or GIOVANNI 
BATTISTA,) an Italian historian, born at Florence in 1513. 
He was appointed, in 1549, professor of eloquence in 
the University of P lorence, which office he held till his 
death in 1579. He wrote a " History of his own Times," 
(" Istoria dc suoi Tempi," 1583,) which is much es 

Adriani, (MARCELI.O,) a son of John Baptist Adriani, 
whom lie succeeded as professor of eloquence. Died in 
1604, aged about 70. 

Adriani, (MARCEI.LO VIRGILIO,) the father of John 
Baptist Adriani. He was born at Florence in 1464, and 
became professor of belles-lettres ; in 1498 he was 
made chancellor of the republic. He made a good 
Latin version of Dioscorides " De Materia Medica." 
Died in 1521. 

Adriano, (Pope.) See ADRIAN. 

Adriano (a-clRe-a no) THE FRIAR, a Spanish histori 
cal painter, who was born at Cordova, and died there in 
1630. He was a pupil of Cespedes, and painted a Mag 
dalen, which Palomino pronounced equal to Titian in 

Adriansen, a-dKe-an sen, (ALEXANDER,) a Flemish 
painter of fish, born about 162^. 

Adricliomia, a-dre-ko mc-a, (CORNELIA,) a mm of 
the order of St. Augustine, in the sixteenth century, who 
versified the Psalms of David, and composed other sa 
cred poems. 

Ad-rl -eho mi-us, (CmusTiANUS,) a writer, born at 
Delft, in Holland, in 1533. Being a Catholic priest, he 
was driven from his native country on the overthrow of 
Mic authority of Spain, and died at Cologne in 1^85. 
He left a work on the geography of the Holy Land, cn- 
itlcd " Theatrum Terras Sanctac," (1593.) He also 
vrote, under the name of Christianus Crucius, a " Life 
of Christ." 

Adrien, the French of ADRIAN, which see. 

Adry, S dRe , (JEAN F.,) a French writer, born near 
Auxerre in 1749. He was professor of rhetoric at 
Troyes, and afterwards received a pension from the gov 
ernment. He wrote several biographical works, besides 
making various compilations, translations, etc. Died in 

Adryan, a-dri-an , (ALBIN,) a Polish poet, born about 
1490. Died at Cracow about 1540. 

Ad so, Az o, or As so,[Fr. ADSON, td siN 1 ,] a French 
monk, born about 910 A.D. He wrote the lives of sev 
eral saints. 

Aduarte, a-Doo-au ta, almost ad-waR ta, (DiEGO,) 
a Spanish historian, born at Saragossa about 1570. He 
was a missionary to the Philippine Islands, and in 1632 
was made Prior of Manilla, where he died in 1637. He- 
has left a very interesting account of his missionary 
labours, and of the dangers and sufferings which he and 
the other Spanish missionaries encountered in conse 
quence of their efforts to introduce Christianity into 
Cambodia; he also wrote a history of the martyrdom of 
the Christian converts in Japan, and several other works. 

Adveuier-Fontenille, I d veh-ne-i foNt nel or foNt - 
ne ye, a French captain of engineers, who wrote an opera 
and other works. Born at Paris in 1773 ; died in 1827. 

Adventius, ad-ven shc-us, a bishop of Metz, who 
flourished in the latter halTc)f the ninth century. 

-SUacides, e-ass e-dez, [Gr. AJawcwfyf,] the father of 
Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, was killed in battle 313 is.c. 

.ffiacus, ee a-kus, [Gr. AtuKoc; Fr. EAQUE, a fk ,] 
(Myth.,) a son of Jupiter and /Egina, reigned in the island 
of /Egina. He was the father of Telamon and Peleus. 
Lie was renowned for justice and piety, and after his 
death became one of the judges of Hades. 

^EJantides, e-an te-dez, [A/ovrtd^j 1 ,] a Greek poet, 
lived at Alexandria about 300 li.C. 

.SJdesius, e-dee she-us, [Gr. AWt itcr.] a New-Plato- 
nist, native of CappadocTa, lived in the time of Constan- 
tine the Great. He was a disciple of the celebrated 
lamblichus. Some of the most distinguished men of the 
subsequent age were taught by him : among others, the 
emperor Julian. 

2Eetes, e-ce tez, or Sleta., e-ee ta, [Gr. A<Y/r??f; Fr. 
EKTK, a et or a it ,] a fabulous king of Colchis, regarded 
as a son of Helios and Perseis, and the father of Medea 
and Absyrtus. He was renowned as the possessor of 
the golden fleece, the object of the Argonautic expedition. 

JEgaeon, e-jee on, [Gr. Al*/aiur; Fr. EGEON, a zha oN ,] 
a monster said to have a hundred arm?. (See BRIAREUS.) 

^3geus, ee jus, [Gr. Aiym;; Fr. EGEE, a zha ,] a king 
of Athens, was a son or adopted son of Pandi on, and 
was the father of Theseus. According to tradition, he 
drowned himself in the /Egean Sea. 

JBgidius-a-Columna. See COLONNA, EGIDIO. 

^Bgidius, e-jid e-us, (PETRUS,) OF ANTWERP, born 
in 1490, travelled in Asia and Africa, and wrote a "De 
scription of Thrace," etc. Died in 1555. 

.ffigid ius Corbolieii sis, a medical writer, and physi 
cian to Philip Augustus, King of France, lived about the 
end of the twelfth century. He wrote several medical 
treatises in Latin verse, which show him to have been a 
man of information and considerable poetical skill. 

.Sjgid ius Leodien sis, or Giles of Liege, a monk 
and historical writer, lived between 1200 and 1250. 

.ZEgidius Romamis. See COLONNA, EGIDIO. 

was borVi near Viterbo in 1470. He was made cardinal 
in 1517, and died in 1532. He was regarded as one of 
the most eminent scholars and the best pulpit-orator of 
that age. 

JEIgimus, ej T-mus, or .S-gimiiis, e-jim e-us, [Myt/io<; 
or Alyittiof.] a Greek physician, who is supposed to have 
lived before the time of Hippocrates. He is said to have 
been the first who wrote particularly on the pulse. 

.ffigirieta. See PAULUS /EG IN ETA. 

JEJginhard. See EGINHARD. 

^Igisthus, e-jis thus, [Gr. AlyiaOot;; Fr. ficiSTHE, a - 
zhest ,] in classic mythology was regarded as a son of 
Thyestes and Pelopea. The latter was a daughter of 
Thycstes. He was adopted as a son by Atreus, and in 
the absence of Agamemnon seduced CJytemnestra. He 

e as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

anations, p. 23.) 



was >n accomplice in the murder of Agamemnon, and 
wa.s killed by Orestes. 

^Bgyptus, e-jip tus, [Gr. Atyimro?; Fr. EGYPTUS, 
a zhep tus ,] a son of Belus, and a brother of Danaus. 
He inherited Arabia from his father, and obtained by 
conquest the country which derived from him the name 
of Egypt. The poets feigned that he had fifty sons, who 
were about to marry the fifty daughters of Danaus, but 
were murdered by them. (See DANAIDES.) 

Alfred. Sec ALFRED. 

JEifric or JElfricus. See ALFRIC. 

.SJliaii, ee le-an, [Lat. /ELIANUS, e-le-a nus ; Gr. 
M Aiavos; Fr. ELIEN, a le iN ,] (CLAUDIUS,) a native of 
Frzeneste in Italy, lived in the early part of the third 
century. Although an Italian by birth, he ranks among 
the purest Greek writers. He is the author of a work 
entitled " Various History," made up chiefly of extracts 
from other authors, and of a history of animals, which, 
though written in a clear and agreeable style, is full ot 
absurd stories. 

^Eiian or ^-li-a nus Tac ti-cus, [ A/Atoi-of Toxrwcof ,] 
a Greek writer, who nourished about the middle of the 
second century. He wrote a work on the military tactics 
of the Greeks, whence his surname "Tacticus." 

-ZEliaiius Meccius mek she-us, a Roman physi 
cian, who lived in the second century. He is mentioned 
by Galen with high commendation. 

JElius, ee le-us, (SEXTUS FOETUS CATUS,) an emi 
nent Roman jurist, became consul in 536 A.U.C. A 
portion of the Roman law was named after him the 
- Elian law. 

.ffilius Donatus. See DONATUS. 

./Elius G-allus. See GALLUS. 

-SUlius Marcianus. See MARCIANUS. 

JE Liua Fro-mo tus, [Gr. AZAtof Ilpo/zwroc,] a physi 
cian of Alexandria, who wrote several medical works in 
the Greek language. His date is uncertain. Most critics 
suppose that he lived before the Christian era. 

^Bliioth, el noth, a monk, who was born in England 
in the eleventh century, and removed to Denmark about 
1085. He wrote a life of Saint Canute the Martyr. 

Aelst or Aalst, van, vtn list, (VERT), a distin 
guished Dutch painter, born at Delft in 1602. He 
painted principally inanimate objects, as dead game, ves 
sels of gold and silver, etc. Died in 1658. 

Aelst, van, (WILLEM,) a nephew of the preceding, 
by whom he was instructed, was born at Delft in 1620. 
He excelled in the same department of art as his uncle. 
He also represented fruits and flowers with exquisite 
skill. Died in 1679. 

-ZEmilia, e-mil e-a, (JULIANA,) [Ger. pron. yoo-le-a nii 
a-mee le-a,] a countess of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, born 
in 1637. She married Count Albert Anton in 1665, and 
died in 1706. She was eminent for her benevolence and 
piety, and wrote a number of religious poems and hymns. 

SJinilia Tertia, e-mil e-a ter she-a, a daughter of 
Faulus /Emilius, and wife of Scipio Africanus the elder, 
a Roman matron, distinguished for her prudence and 
conjugal affection. Cornelia, the mother of the Gracchi, 
was her daughter. 

.ffimiliaiius, e-mil-e-a nus, [Fr. MILIEN, a me le - 
aN ,] a Roman prefect of Egypt, put to death for rebel 
lion, by order of the emperor Gallienus. 

JEmiliaaus, (MARCUS JULIUS ^EMILIUS,) a native 
of Mauritania, born about 208 A.D. He was governor 
of Pannonia and Moesia under the emperor Gallus. 
His soldiers having proclaimed him emperor, Gallus 
marched against him, but was murdered by his own 
men, who went over to /Emilianus. The reign of the 
latter, however, lasted but four months. He, in his 
turn, was killed by his own soldiers, at Spoletum, in 254 


.SJmilius, e-mil e-us, or .ffimilianus, e-mil-e-a nus, 
a Christian martyr, put to death by Huneric, King of the 
Vandals, in 484 A.D. , 

-ffimilivis, (ANTONIUS,) a professor of history and a 
friend of Descartes, was born at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1589. 
He wrote Latin verses. Died in 1660. 

.ZEmilius Macer. See MACER. 

_ .Slmilius, (MAMER CUS,) a Roman, who was three 
times dictator. His first dictatorship was in 437 B.C. 

JEmilius (PAULUS or PAULLUS) I., a Roman consul 
and able general, who fell bravely at the battle of Can 
nae, 216 B.C. 


.ZEmilius, (PAULUS,) an Italian historian. See EMILIO. 

JEneee, a-na i, (HENRICUS,) a Dutch mathematician 
and physicist, born in Friesland in 1743, became a mem 
ber of the committee of the marine. He wrote a 
" Treatise on Hydrostatics," and other works. Died in 

./Eneas, e-nee as, [Gr. Aiveiaf ; Fr. ENEK, a na ,] the 
hero of Virgil s great poem, (the "/Eneid,") was, accord 
ing to tradition, the son of Anchises, a Trojan prince, 
and the goddess Venus. In the various accounts given 
of his life it is impossible to distinguish the fabulous 
from the historical. Some writers relate that he went 
to Thrace, and died there ; but, according to the more 
popular tradition, which is followed by Virgil, /Eneas, 
after the destruction of Troy, came to Italy, married 
Lavinia the daughter of Latinus, King of Latium, and 
prepared the foundation of the Roman empire. He had 
a son, Ascanius or lulus, to whom the Julian family of 
Rome traced their origin. 

-SEneas Gazaeus ga-zee us, (so named from Gaza, 
where he was born,) a Platonic philosopher, who em 
braced Christianity in the latter half of the fifth century. 
He wrote a book called "Theophrastus," in which the 
Platonic and Christian doctrines are strangely blended. 

JEneas Sylvius. See Pius II. 

.ffineas Tacticus, [6 Ta;crc6f,] a Greek writer on 
military tactics, lived, it is supposed, 350 B.C. 

JEnesidemus, e-neVe-dee mus, [Gr. Ati^cr^/^of,] a 
skeptical philosopher, native ofGnossus, (orCnossus,) in 
Crete, is supposed to have lived in the first century. 

JEnobarbus. See AHENOBARBUS. 

JEolus, ee o-lus, [Gr. A<o/loc; Fr. OLE, a ol ,] in 
the Greek mythology, the god or ruler of the winds. He 
is said to have reigned in the Aeolian Islands, and to 
have enjoyed the favour of Juno. For a vivid descrip 
tion of the country of the winds, and their prison, con 
structed of high mountains, whence they could issue 
only on the permission of yEolus, see Virgil s /lineid, 
book i. 51-63. 

.ffiolus, a mythical personage, said to have been a 
son of Helen, a brother of Dorus, and the father of 
Cretheus, Athamas, and Sisyphus. He was supposed 
to be the founder of the /Eolic branch of the Greek 

.a3pinus, e-pl nus, (FRANZ MARIA ULRIC THEO- 
DOR,) a German natural philosopher and eminent elec 
trician, born at Rostock in 1724. His proper name was 
HOCII. Having settled in Saint Petersburg in 1757, he 
became a member of the Academy of Sciences of that city, 
and professor of physics. He possessed great sagacity 
as an experimenter, discovered the electric properties 
of tourmaline, and is justly regarded, says Biot, as the 
inventor of the electrical condenser and electrophorus. 
His principal work is an attempt to establish a new 
theory of electricity, etc., entitled "Tentamen Theorize 
Electricitatis et Magnetismi," (1759.) In this he en 
deavoured to subject the phenomena of electricity to 
mathematical analysis. He contributed many memoirs 
to the academy above named. Died at Dorpat in 1802. 

See " Memoires de I Academie de Berlin," 1756. 

JE-pi nus, (JoiiN,) [in German, HUCH or HoECK,]*an 
eminent Protestant divine, born at Brandenburg in 1499, 
was a disciple of Luther. He became minister of a 
church in Hamburg in 1529, and was the most influen 
tial theologian in the North of Germany. In 1538 he 
signed the Articles of Schmalkalden. He wrote several 
polemical works. Died in 1553- 

See ARNOLD GREVIUS, " Memoria /Epini," 1736. 

A-e ri-us, [Gr. Aepwc,] a native of Pontus, who lived 
in the fourth century. He was the founder of a heretical 
sect called Aerians. He opposed offering prayers for 
the dead, the keeping of Easter, and some other prevail 
ing customs of the church. 

Aerope, a-er o-pe, [Gr. Aepoiri); Fr. EROPE, a rop , 
or AEROPE, t a rop ,] a daughter of Crateus, King of 
Crete, was married to Plisthenes, and afterwards to 

i, e, T, o. li, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, Q, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; n3t; good; moon; 




Atreus. She was the mother of Agamemnon and Mene- 

Aerschot, DUKE OF. See AARSCIIOT. 

Aerseiis. See AARSENS. 

Aertseii, SRt sen, (PETER,) surnamed LUNGO, 
(" long,") an eminent historical painter, born at Am 
sterdam in 1519; died in 1573. 

Aertsz, fiRts, (RICHARD,) a Dutch historical painter, 
born at Wyck, in North Holland, in 1482, worked at 
Antwerp, and died in 1577. 

JEschines, es ke-nez, [Gr. Mox iv^; Fr. ESCHINE, s - 
shen ,] a celebrated orator, and rival of Demosthenes, 
bom at Athens about 389 B.C. He first became distin 
guished as a soldier in the battle of Mantinea, (362 B.C.,) 
and won the approbation of his general, Phocion, in 
that of Tamynae, (350 li.c.) He began his political ca 
reer as a violent opposer of Philip of Macedon ; but, after 
his embassy to the Macedonian court, a change took 
place, and he afterwards opposed a war with the king 
as zealously as he had urged it before. This was either 
the cause or the pretext of a quarrel between him and 
Demosthenes, who charged /Eschines with preferring 
Macedonian gold to the interests of his country. The 
contest which followed between the rival orators is one 
of the most remarkable in history, and it gave birth to 
perhaps the finest specimens of rhetorical genius and 
skill that are to be found in the literature of any nation. 
At length Demosthenes triumphed : ^Eschines went 
into exile, (330 B.C.,) and afterwards opened a school of 
rhetoric at Rhodes, where he taught with great applause. 
Died 314 i!.C. 


meine Kncyklopaedie ;"" PLUTARCH, " Demosthenes," also " Vitas 
])eccm Oratorum." 

JGschiiies surnamed SOCRAT ICUS, a disciple of 
Socrates, by whom he was highly esteemed. He lived 
about 360 H.C. 

JGschrion, eVkre-on, [Gr. A/o^pfuv,] a physician, 
native of Pergamus, and preceptor of Galen. He lived 
in the early part of the second century. 

JEschylus, eVke-lus, [Gr. Aiaxi<Aog ; Fr. ESCHYLE, 
eVsh.61 ,] the first of the three great tragic poets of Greece, 
was born at Eleusis, in Attica, 525 B. c. He distin 
guished himself at the battle of Marathon, 490 B.C., and 
ever after regarded this as the most glorious event of 
his life. He gained his first prize in tragedy 484 B.C. 
Having in 468 B.C. been defeated by Sophocles in the 
first trial of this young poet, he left his native country 
and went to Syracuse, in Sicily, where he was held in 
great regard by King. Hiero. He afterwards returned to 
Athens. The manner of his death, which took place 
456 B.C., was extraordinary. An eagle soaring above 
him dropped a tortoise on the bald head of the poet, and 
killed him. /Eschylus is said to have written seventy 
tragedies, besides a number of satiric dramas, and to 
have gained thirteen prizes. Seven of his tragedies are 
extant, viz., "Prometheus Bound;" "The Seven against 
Thebes;" "The Persians;" "The Female Suppliants;" 
"Agamemnon ;" " Choephorse ;" and "Eumenides." 

According to Macaulay, ^Kschylus was a great lyric 
poet, rather than a great dramatist. " Considered as 
plays," he remarks, " his works are absurd ; considered 
as choruses, they are above all praise. . . . But if we 
forget the characters and think only of the poetry, we 
shall admit that it has never been surpassed in energy 
and magnificence." (See article on Milton in the "Edin 
burgh Review," 1825.) 

Speaking of the spirit of /Eschylus poetry, another 
critic remarks, " If ever there was a poet filled with a 
deep sense of the sacred nature of his calling as the 
teacher of religion, and of all virtue as therewith con 
nected, /Eschylus WP.S he. And this it is which to all 
such as have studied him earnestly gives a character to 
his poetry nothing less than awful." (Sec article en 
titled "Modern Criticism on ^Eschylus," in the "Quar 
terly Review" of October, 1839. 

See PETKRSF.V, " De ./Eschyli Vita et Fabulis," 1814; AHRKNS, 

Ueber ./Eschylus," 1832; R.H.Ki.AUSEN, "Theologumena /Eschyli 
Tragici," 1829 ; F. JACOBS, " Ueber den Charakter des ./Kschylus ;" 
ROCHEFORT, " Sur la Vie d Eschyle," 1785; FRENSDORFF, "Etudes 
sur Eschyle," 1847; K. O. Miii.LER, "History of the Literature of 
Ancient Greece;" EDWARD R. LANCE, " Programma de yEschylo 
Poeta," 1832. 

.ffisculapius, es-ku-la pc-ns, [Gr. AoK^Tnof, (As- 
klefios] ; Fr. ESCULAPE, es kii ltp ,] (Myth.,) the god of 
medicine, supposed to have been the son of Apollo and 
Coronis. He is said to have raised men from the dead, 
so that Jupiter, fearing lest the realms of Pluto should 
become depopulated, struck him with thunder. After 
his death he was translated to heaven. He is usually 
represented as a venerable old man with a flowing beard. 
Hygieia (i.e. " Health") is said to have been a daughter 
of Asculapius. 

.ffisir, a sjr, [Icelandic pron. T sjr,] sometimes incor 
rectly written Asir, Asar, or Aser, [the Norse plural 
of As, as, or ASA, a sa, a word of doubtful etymology, 
but not improbably related to the Sanscrit as, to " be," 
and applied to the gods as " beings" par excellence. 
^[J^The German plural of As is ASEN, a zen ; the Eng 
lish plural ASAS or ASES is sometimes used,] the name 
of the principal or ruling gods in the Norse mythology. 
They may be said to be the representatives of life, order, 
and progress, in contrast to the Jotuns, who typify, under 
various forms, confusion, desolation, and death. (See 
JOTUNS, and VANIR.) Among the /Esir are generally 
reckoned twelve gods, viz., Odin, Thor, Balder, Niord, 
,or Njord,) Frey, (or Freyr,) Tyr, Bragi, Heimdall,Vidar, 
Vali, Ullur, and Forseti ; and the same number of god 
desses, Frigga, Freyia, (called also Van adis,) Iduna, Eira, 
Saga, Fulla, Siofn, (or Siona,) Lofn, (or Lovna,) Vara, (or 
Vor,) Hlin, Gefione, and Syn, (or Synia.) 

The dwelling-place of the /Esir is called Asgard, (i.e. 
the " Asa court, ward, or garden.") It is represented as 
a vast fortress, sufficiently capacious to contain the man 
sions of all the gods and goddesses, as well as the field 
or plain of Ida, the assembling-place of the gods. It is 
Heimdall s special office to keep watch that the giants 
(Jotuns) do not approach Asgard unperceived. Odin also 
is said to have a lofty throne in Asgard, whence his eye 
surveys all the regions of the world. (See ODIN.) 

For a more particular account of the ./Esir, see separate articles in 
this work ; also, THORPE S " Northern Mythology," vol. i., MALLET S 
"Northern Antiquities," vol. ii., and PETERSEN S " Nordisk My- 

.ZEson, ee son, [Gr. Alauv; Fr. ESON, i zoN ,] (Myth.,) 
a son of Cretheus, king of lolchos in Thessaly, and the 
father of Jason. He was deprived of the kingdom by 
his half-brother Pelias. 

JEsop, ee sop, [Gr. Alauxof ; Lat. .^SC/PUS ; Fr. 
ESOPE, a zop ,] the celebrated fabulist, was born about 
619, died 564 B.C. He is supposed to have been a 
Phrygian. He was the slave of ladmon the Samian, 
who set him free as a reward for his wit and pleasantry. 
The Athenians erected a statue in honour of him. The 
fables of ^Esop are among the very earliest compositions 
of this kind, and probably have never been surpassed 
for point and brevity, as well as for the practical good 
sense which they display. It should, however, be re 
membered that in most of the popular collections of 
fables which go under /Esop s name a large proportion 
are spurious, and perhaps all have been more or less 
modified by the translator or compiler. Phasdrus says, 
"/Esopo ingentem statuam posuere Attici, 
Servumque cpllocarunt sterna in basi 
Patere honoris scirent ut cunctis viam."* 

See SUIDAS, "^Esopus;" BACHET DE MEZIRIAC, "Vie d Fisope," 
1632; MANOEL MENDES, " Vida y Fabu!as de Esopo," 1603; BENT - 
LEY, "Dissertatio in ^Esopi Fabulas;" A WESTERMANN, "Vita 
,/Esopi," 1845; "/Esopi Leben und auserlesene Fabeln," Nuremberg, 
1747; M. PLANUDES, "Vita yEsopi," 1505 ; CLINTON, "Fasti Hel- 

leinci, vol. i. 

_33sopus, e-so pus, (Ci.omus,) the most eminent 
tragic actor of Rome, was a friend of Cicero, who speaks 
of him as an old man in 55 B.C. At this date he made 
his last appearance on the stage. He was grave, digni 
fied, and impassioned, but less versatile and graceful 
than Roscius, his contemporary. He is styled gravis 
by Horace. 

* " The Athenians erected a great statue to .-"Esop, and placed [him 
who was] a slave on an eternal pedestal, that [men] might know that 
the road to glory was open to all." 

as k; c as .r; g hard; g asy ; G, 11, K, guttural; N, nasal: K, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 



.ffithelred. See ETHELRKD. 

.ZEtherius, e-^ee re-us, [AiOepiaf,] a Greek architect, 
who flourished about 500 A.D., and bui t an edifice, called 
"Calchis," at Constantinople. 

.Sthicus or Ethicus, eth e-kus, the supposed au 
thor of an ancient " Cosmography" of uncertain elate, 
written in barbarous Latin, consisting of three treatises 
on Geography, one of which is by some ascribed to Ju 
lius Honorius, and another is found in Orosius, forming 
the second chapter of his history. In some MSS. he is 
surnamed Istcr, a native of Istria. 

JEthra, ee thra, [Gr. AlOpa; Fr. ETHRA, ;VtR3 ,] 
(Myth.,) a daughter of Pittheus, was a wife of /Egeus, 
and the mother of Theseus. She was taken as a cap 
tive to Sparta by Castor and Pollux, and became a ser 
vant of Helen. 

Aetion, a-ee te-on, [ Am wv,] an eminent Greek 
painter of antiquity, who is supposed to have lived in 
the early part of the second century. His most cele 
brated work was a painting of the marriage of Alexander 
the Great and Roxana, which, it is said, exhibited the 
most exquisite skill. 

Aetius, a-ec shc^us, sometimes improperly written 
^Etius, a Roman ^general, born near the end of the 
fourth century. For many years he successfully de 
fended Gaul against the encroachments of the barba 
rians. In 451, when Attila the Hun had besieged and 
was on the point of taking Orleans, the approach of the 
combined armies of Aetius and Theodoric obliged him 
to raise the siege ; and, these generals having followed 
the Huns in their retreat to the plains of Chalons, a 
great but indecisive battle was fought, in which 300,000 
men are said to have been slain. Soon after, Attila 
retreated beyond the Rhine. But the emperor Valen- 
tinian, having become jealous of the fame and influence 
of Aetius, slew him with his own hand in 454. The 
emperor, it is said, asked a Roman if he had done well 
in killing Aetius. He replied, " I do not know ; but 
I think you have cut off your right hand with your left." 

See GIBBON, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;" JOR- 
NANDES, " De Rebus Geticis." 

Aetius, a-ee she-us, written also, but incorrectly, 
.Sltius, [ Aertof,] a Greek physician, who is supposed to 
have lived at Amida about the end of the fifth century. 
He wrote a work on medicine, divided into sixteen 
books, which is extant, and possesses great merit. 

Aetius surnamed THE ATHEIST, a heresiarch of the 
fourth century, who favoured the doctrine of the Arians, 
and taught fatalism. He wrote a work in defence of 
his doctrines, and had a number of followers, called 

Aettenkover or Attenkover, et ten-ko ver, (JO 
SEPH ANTON,) a German historian, wrote a "History of 
the Dukes of Bavaria." Died at Munich in 1775. 

Afer, a fer, (DoMiTlUS,) a distinguished Roman orator, 
who flourished in the reigns of the emperors Tiberius 
and Caligula. He was born at Nimes, (Nemausus,) in 
Gaul, 15 B.C., and died 60 A.D. He was the preceptor 
of Quintilian, (by whom his oratory was highly extolled,) 
and was made consul by Caligula. 

Afesa, ft-fa sa, (PiETRO,) an eminent Italian painter, 
who flourished about the middle of the seventeenth cen 
tury. He was born in Basilicata, a province of Naples. 

Affaitati, af-fi-ta tee, (FoRTUNio,) an Italian of the 
sixteenth century, who wrote a work on astronomy and 
natural philosophy, (1549.) He was drowned in the 
Thames, England, about 1550. 

Affelman, 3.f fel-man, (JOHANN,) a German theolo 
gian, born at Soest in 1588, was professor at Rostock, 
where he died in 1624. 

Affichard, 1 , la- fc shSu , (THOMAS,) a French dram 
atist and romance-writer, born in 1698; died in 1753. 

Afflitto, af-flet to, (GIOVANNI MARIA,) a Neapolitan 
monk, who wrote a "Treatise on Fortifications." Died 
in 167^. 

Afflitto, d , daf-fl6t to, (EuSTACHio,) an Italian Do 
minican, wrote " Memoirs of the Writers of the King 
dom of Naples," (" Memorie degli Scrittori del Regno di 
Napoli,") 2 vols., 1792, (unfinished.) Died in 1790. 

Afflitto, d , (MATTEO,) [in Latin, MATTH^E US DE 
AFFLIC TIS,"] an eminent Italian lawyer, was born in 

Naples in 1448. He became professor of civil and canon 
law in the University of Naples in 1469. He wrote a 
number of works, all on the subject of law. Died in 1524. 

Affo, af fo, (IRENEO,) an Italian historian, philologist, 
and antiquary, bom at Busseto, in the duchy of Parma, 
in 1741 ; died about 1800. His works are very numer 
ous : they relate chiefly to the antiquities and history, 
both literary and political, of his native country, Parma. 
He is regarded as one of the most eminent Italian critics 
and philologists that the last century produced. 

Affonso. See ALFONSO. 

Affre, tfR, (DEMS AUGUSTE,) Archbishop of Paris, 
born at Saint-Rome-de-Tarn in 1793. He was appointed 
canon titular and vicar-general at Paris in 1834. Hav 
ing become Archbishop of Paris in 1840, he distinguished 
himself by his virtues. During the insurrection of June, 
1848, he made a noble effort to arrest the carnage. Thu 
troops having at his request suspended their fire, he ad 
vanced towards the insurgents, preceded by M. Albert, 
who wore the dress of a workman and carried a green 
branch. He began to address the insurgents, who, 
hearing the report of a gun, and suspecting treachery, 
opened a fire on the Garde Mobile, and he was mortally 
wounded. He left, besides several religious works, an 
"Essay on the Egyptian Hieroglyphics," (1834.) 

See ABBE CRUICE, "Vie de Denis Auguste Affre," 184 .); DENIS 
E. AFFRE, "Biographic de D. A. Affre," 1848 ; E. GOURDON, " Bio 
graphic authentique de i Archeveque de Paris, D. A. Affre," 1848. 

Affrikan, af-fre-kan , (a corruption of Africanus,) the 
name by which Chaucer designates SCIPIO AFRICANUS 
the elder. (See the "Assembly of Foules.") 

Affry, t fite/, (Louis,) of a Swiss family, was born at 
Versailles in 1713. In 1755 he was sent as French min 
ister to the Hague. He afterwards became colonel of 
the Swiss guards under Louis XVI. In 1792 he was 
imprisoned by the revolutionists ; on being released, he 
retired to Switzerland. Died in 1798. 

Affry, (Louis AUGUSTE PHILIPPE,) COUNT, a son of 
the preceding, was born at Friburg in 1743. He was a 
lieutenant-general in the French army; but after the mas 
sacre of 1792, in which he lost a brother, he retired to 
Friburg. He afterwards became Landjinann or chief 
of the Helvetic Confederacy, as established in 1803. 
Died in 1810. 

Afliacker, afhak er, (GILES,) a Dutch theologian, 
born at Vreeswyk, lived about 1600. 

A-fra m-us, (Lucius,) a Roman comic poet and 
orator, who flourished about 100 B.C. Scarcely anything 
of his writings has been preserved. 

A-fra m-us or Afra nius Ne pos, (Lucius,) an ad 
herent of. Cneius Pompcy, was killed in Africa by the 
soldiers of Caesar, 46 i:.c. 

Afrasiab, a-fra-se-ll/, a semi-fabulous king of ancient 
Persia, who, though born in Tartary, (Turan,) claimed to 
be a direct descendant of the famous Ferccdoon, (Feri- 
dun.) He is said, with an army of Tartars, to have in 
vaded Persia, which he conquered after an obstinate 
resistance and for many years ruled with a rod of iron. 
The people, exasperated by his tyranny, rose in rebel 
lion, and, headed by Zal, (the father of Roostum,) drove 
out Afrasiab and restored the lawful line of Persian 
kings to the throne. Afrasiab is supposed to have lived 
about 1000 years before the Christian era. 


Africanus, Leo. See LEO, JOHN.) 

Af-ii-ca nus, (SF.XTUS C/ECILIUS,) a Roman jurist, 
who is supposed to have lived in the second century. 

Africanus, (Si XTUs UJLIUS,) |Fr. SEXTE Jin.ics 
AFRICAIN, sSxt zhiil ffRe kaN ,1 a Christian writer, who 
lived in the early part of the third century. He was a 
man of extensive learning, and wrote a hislury of the 
world from the creation to the year 22 1 A. P. He fixes 
the date of the creation 5499 years H.C., and the birth 
of Christ three years earlier than the ordinary computa 
tion. The era thus fixed is known as the historical era, 
or that of the Alexandrian historians. He is supposed 
to have died in 232 A.n. 

Af-ze li-us, [Sw. pron. af-tsTT le-us,] (Ar>AM,) a Swed 
ish botanist, born in 1750. He was a pupil of Linnreus. 
Having visited England in 1789, he was appointed 
botanist to the Sierra Leone Company. In 1792 he lef* 

a, e, T, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, li, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; mt; n5t; good; ir> 




London for Africa, and returned in 1794 with collections 
of plants from the regions which he visited. In 1812 he 
became professor of dietetics and materia medica in the 
University of Upsal, an office which he held till his death 
in 1836. Most of the writings of Afzelius are in the form 
of papers contributed to different scientific periodicals. 

Aizelius, (Akviu AUGUST,) a Swedish historical 
writer, born in 1785. Among his works is "Legendary 
History of the Swedish People," ("Svenska Folkets 
Sagoluifder," 1839-43.) 

Afzelius, (JoilAN,) a Swedish chemist, born in 1753, 
was a brother of Adam, noticed above. He became pro 
fessor of chemistry at Upsal. Died in 1837. 

Ag a-bus, a Christian prophet in the time of the 
apostles. (See Acts xi. 28, and xxi. 10.) 

Ag-a-me des [ A) //?/%] and Trophonius, two 
ancient architects of Greece, who are supposed to have- 
lived in the time of Homer. See TROPHONIUS. 

Ag-a-mem non, [ A;ae/ wr,] the son of Atreus, King 
of Myccnse, and brother of Menelaus, was appointed 
generalissimo of the Greek forces during the Trojan 
war. On his return to his native country, Argolis, after 
the destruction of Troy, he was murdered by his wife 
Clytcmnestra and her paramour yEgisthus, who had 
possessed the kingdom in his absence. He was the 
father of Orestes, Elcctra, and Iphigeni a. He and his 
brother Menelaus were often called ATRI D/E. 
See HOMER S "Iliad;" ./ESCHYLUS, "Agamemnon." 
Aga- (or Agha-) Mohammed, a ga mo-ham med, 
the founder of the present dynasty of Persia, was born 
in 1734. He was an artful as well as a warlike prince. 
Commencing his career about 1780, he overran in a few 
years a large part of Persia, also Georgia and Khoras- 
san. lie was assassinated in 1797. 

Aganduru, a-gan-doo roo, or Aganduro, a-gan- 
doo ro, (RooRico MAURICIO,) a Spanish missionary, 
who laboured in Japan about 1640. He wrote a "His 
tory of the Moluccas and Philippine Islands." 

Ag-a-pe tus, [Gr. \ya-r>-i>(; ; Fr. AGAPET, S gf pV,] 
a deacon of the principal church of Constantinople, lived 
in the sixth century. He is the author of a work ad 
dressed to the emperor Justinian in 527, containing 
many excellent precepts, religious, moral, and political. 
Agapetus I., an archdeacon of Rome, who was ele 
vated to the Roman see in 535. Died at Constanti 
nople in 536. 

Agapetus II. was raised to the Roman see in 946. 
He is supposed to have died about 955. 
Agar. See HAGAR. 

Agar, 3 glr , or d Agar, dS gSR , (JACQUES,) a native 
of Paris, born in 1640. He became court painter and 
chamberlain to Christian V., King of Denmark, and died 
at Copenhagen in 1716. 

Agar, fgaV, (JEAN ANTOINE MICHEL,) Count of 
Mosbourg, a French administrator, born near Cahors in 
1771. He was chosen a member of the legislative body 
in 1804, and became minister of finances to Murat, Duke 
of Berg, in 1806. Murat having ascended the throne of 
Naples, Agar administered the finances of that kingdom 
with success from 1809 to 1815. He was elected to the 
French Chamber of Deputies in 1830, and became a 
peer of France in 1837. Died in 1844. 

Agar, a-gaR , (PEDRO,) a Spanish officer, born in 
America, was one of the three members of the regency 
chosen in 1808 by the Cortes after the abdication of 
Charles IV. His conduct was prudent and moderate. 
He was banished by the absolutists in 1814. On the 
revolution of 1820 he became president of the Junta of 
Galicia. He resigned in July of that year. Died about 

Agarde or Agard, i-gard , (ARTHUR,) an eminent 
Knglish archivist and antiquary, born at Foston about 
1540, became one of the deputy chamberlains in the 
Exchequer in 1570. He contributed several treatises to 
the Society of Antiquaries, which were published by 
flearne. Died in i6iv 

Sec HKARNR, "Curious Discourses." 
Aeardh, a gaRd, (KARI, Anoi.i H,) a Swedish natural 
ist, w;is born at Bastad, or Bostad, in Scania, in 1785. 
lie became professor of botany and rural economy at 
Lund about 1812, and was ordained a priest in 1816. 

Besides several works on theology and economy, he 
published many remarkable treatises on botany, among 
which we notice "Species of Sea-weeds," ("Species Al- 
garum," 1820-28,) "Systematic Arrangement of Sea 
weeds," (" Systema Algarum," 1824,) and a "Manual of 
Botany," (2 vols., 1830-31.) He was appointed Bishop 
of Karlstad in 1834. Died in October, 1862. 

See " Biographiskt Lexicon bfver namnkunnige Svenska Man." 

A-ga si-as, [Gr. Aj aut ric,] a sculptor of Ephesus, who 
is supposed to have lived about 400 B.C. He was the 
author of a statue called the Fighting Gladiator, a fine 
specimen of ancient art, discovered at Antium (where 
the Apollo Belvidere was also found) in the beginning 
of the seventeenth century. 

Agassiz, S gS see or a-gas siz, (Louis,) a Swiss natur 
alist of great eminence, was born in the parish of Mot- 
tier, near the lake of Neufchatel, in 1807. His father was 
a Protestant divine. Young Agassiz studied the medical 
sciences at Zurich, Heidelberg, and Munich, where he 
graduated about 1830. In 1827 he was selected by Martins 
to describe the species of fishes which Spix had brought 
from Brazil, and on wliich he produced an able work in 
Latin, (1829-31.) He had previously, during the college 
vacations, visited many parts of EuVope to study the fossil 
and fresh-water fishes. In 1832 or 33 he was appointed 
professor of natural history or zoology at Neufchatel. 
He published a " Natural History of the Fresh-Water 
Fishes of Central Europe," (1839,) and "Researches on 
Fossil Fishes," (14 livraisons, or 5 vols., with 311 plates, 
1832-42,) a work of high order, in which he made im 
portant changes in classification. 

The Transactions of the British Association, the " An- 
nales des Sciences Naturelles," and other journals, con 
tain many contributions from Agassiz on fossil fishes and 
on geology. He propounded some new and remarkable 
ideas on geology and the agency of glaciers, in his capital 
work entitled "Etudes sur les Glaciers," (1840,) and in 
his "Systeme Glaciere," (1847.) 

In 1846 he visited the United States on a scientific 
mission, and about the end of 1847 was induced to ac 
cept the professorship of zoology and geology at Har 
vard University, Cambridge. About 1854 he declined 
the offer of a chair of natural history in the University 
of Edinburgh. He has delivered several courses of lec 
tures in Boston, and has given a decided impulse to the 
study of his favourite sciences in the New World. M. 
Agassiz favours the theory that the human race is not 
descended from a single pair, and discredits that of or 
ganic development, or metamorphosis, which was main 
tained by Lamarck and others. In 1865 he went to 
Brazil with a corps of assistants, and explored the Lower 
Amazon and its tributaries with reference to natural his 
tory, geology, etc. It is stated that he discovered more 
than 1800 new species of fishes in that region. 

Among his other works are a " Monography of Living 
and Fossil Echinodermata,"( 1838-42,) "Outlines of Com 
parative Physiology," (1848,) "Principles of Zoology," 
in conjunction with Dr. A. A. Gould, (2d edition, 1851,) 
"Contributions to the Natural History of the United 
States," to be completed in ten volumes, quarto, of 
which the first two were published in 1857 ; and a " Jour 
ney in Brazil," (1868.) Mr. Agassiz became in 1868 a 
non-resident professor at the Cornell University at Ith 
aca, New r York. 

"In the operation of his [Agassiz s] mind," says one 
of the ablest of American critics, "there is no predomi 
nance of any single power, but the intellectual action of 
what we feel to be a powerful nature. When he ob 
serves, his whole mind enters into the act of observation ; . 
just as, when he reasons, his whole mind enters into the 
act of reasoning. . . . He is not merely a scientific 
thinker ; he is a scientific force ; and no small portion of 
the immense influence he exerts is due to the energy, 
intensity, and geniality which distinguish the nature of 
the man. In personal intercourse he inspires as well as 
informs, communicates not only knowledge, but the love 
of knowledge. . . . He is at once one of the most domi 
nating and one of the most sympathetic of men, having 
the qualities of leader and companion combined in singu 
lar harmony." (See WHIPPLE S "Character and Charac 
teristic Men," Boston, 1866.) 

as k: 9 as s: g hard; g asy ; o, n, K, guttural; N, nasal; K, trilled; 5 as z; th as in this. (Jd^See Explanations, p. 23.) 




Ag a-tha, SAINT, [Fr. SAINTE-AGATHE, saN ti git ,] 
a vii-gi.i martyr of Sicily in the middle of the third cen 
tury. She was put to death by Quintianus, Proconsul 
of Sicily, in 251. 

See Mrs. JAMESON, "Sacred and Legendary Art;" TIU.EMONT, 
" Memoires ecc.i.s astiques, etc. 

Ag-a-than ge-lu3, an Armenian historian, lived about 
320 A.f>., and was secretary to King Tiridates. 

Ag-a-thar -ehi-des [ Ayoap^ %] or Ag-a-thar - 
ehu3, a Greek writer and grammarian, born at Cnidos, 
lived about 130 B.C. He was guardian to the young 
king of Egypt, probably Ptolemy Soter II., who became 
king 117 H.C. 

Ag-a-tliar -ehus, [Gr. A> u(top,w ; Fr. AGATHARQUE, 
S gt tSRk ,] a Greek painter, who lived about 480 B.C., 
is considered as the first artist who applied the laws of 
perspective in painting. Vitruvius says that he made a 
scene for , Kschylus at Athens. From the context it is 
inferred that a painted perspective scene is signified. 

Agatharchus, a Greek painter, born at Samos, lived 
about 420 B.C. He was patronized by Alcibiades, who 
once confined him in his house until he had painted cer 
tain pictures which he had ordered. Plutarch states 
that he boasted of his facility and rapidity in the pres 
ence of Zeuxis, who reproved him by a simple remark 
that he (Zeuxis) painted slowly. 
Agatliarque. See AGATHARCHUS. 
Agathe. See AGATHA. 

Ag-a-them e-rus, [Gr. Ayaftyppo?/ Fr. AGATHEMERE, 
I gyta main ,] the author of a small work on geography 
in Greek, is supposed to have lived about 200 A.D. 

A-ga thi-as, [ Ayaflt of,] surnamed ASIANUS, a-she-a - 
nus, a Greek historian and poet, born at Myrina, in Asia 
Minor, in the early part of the sixth century. He studied 
at Alexandria, and afterwards settled at Constantinople, 
where he died about 580. He commenced a history of 
his own time, but left it unfinished. His history and 
some of his epigrams are extant ; his other poems are 

Ag-a-thl nus, [ Aja&vof,] an eminent Greek physician, 
born at Sparta, lived in the latter half of the first cen 
tury. He was a pupil of Athenreus, from whose doc 
trines, however, he dissented in many points, and founded 
a school or sect of his own. 
Agatho. See AGATHON. 
Agathocle. See AGATHOCLES. 
A-gath-o-cle a, [Gr. \-/ado KAeia ; Fr. AGATHOCLEE, 
S gS to kla ,] a mistress of Ptolemy Philopator, who, with 
her brother Agathocles, obtained an absolute ascend 
ency over that king. After his death, which for a time 
was kept secret, Agathocles ruled in the name of the 
young prince ; but his tyranny became so intolerable that 
the people rose in revolt, and killed him, his sister, and 
also his mother (Enanthe, who had been the first, if not 
the principal, instigator of his crimes. 

A-gath/o-cles, [Gr. AyadoK /j/s ; Fr. AGATHOCLE, 
a"g3 tok K,] a tyrant of Syracuse, who reigned from 317 
to 289 B.C. Born at Thermi, in Sicily, he learned the 
trade of a potter. Being distinguished, however, for 
bodily strength and beauty, he was raised to the military 
rank of chiliarch. He afterwards married a rich widow, 
and became in consequence one of the wealthiest of the 
Syracusans. As an officer he was not only brave and 
fertile in resources, but he was distinguished for readi 
ness and boldness as an orator. In 317 B.C. he caused 
all the men of note opposed to him in Syracuse to be 
massacred, and became tyrant of the city. The subse 
quent career of Agathocles is marked with a variety of 
fortune, in which the boldness, cruelty, and treachery of 
his character are conspicuous. His death, as related by 
Diodorus Siculus, is remarkable. His grandson Archag- 
athus, aspiring to the succession, corrupted a favourite 
of his grandfather, named Macnon, who gave him a pois 
oned toothpick, by which his mouth became incurably 
gangrened. Being speechless, he was placed on a funeral 
pile and burnt while still alive, (289 B.C.,) in his seventy- 
second year. 

See R. PKRRINCIIIEF, "The Sicilian Tyrant ; or, The Life of Agath 
ocles," London, 8vo, 1661 ; DIODORUS SICULUS, "History." 

Agath ocles OF CYZ ICUS, a Greek historian, lived 

probably about 100 or 150 B.C. He wrote a "History 
of Cyzicus," which is lost. 


Agathodaemon, ag a-tho-dee mon, [Gr. \yaOo6ai- 
fj.uv,] OF ALEXANDRIA, an ancient geographer and map- 
maker of an uncertain date. He probably lived after 
200 A.D. 

Ag a-thon or Ag a-tho, [ AyoOuv,] an eminent Greek 
tragic poet, born at Athens about 450 B.C., was a con- 
:emporary and friend of Plato and Euripides. He gained 
the prize in tragedy at a public festival in 417 B.C. His 
works are praised by Plato and Aristotle. He was rather 
fond of antithesis and sophistical subtleties. Only a few 
fragments of his works remain. Died about 400 B.C. 

See BENTLEY, "Dissertation on the Epistles of Euripides." 

Agathon, a monk, native of Sicily, was raised to 
the Roman see in 679, and died in 681 A.D. 

Agay^d .dt gi , (FKANC.OIS MARiEBruno bRii no ,) 
COUNT, a French jurist, born at Besanson in 1722. Died 
in 1805. 

Agazzari, a-gat-sa ree, (AGOSTINO,) an Italian musi- 
ian, native of Sienna. Died about 1640. 

A-gel a-das, [ A;eA(Sac,] a Grecian sculptor, who lived 
at Argos about 500 B.C. lie was the master of Phidias. 

Agelet, azh KV, or d Agelet, dfzh LV, (JOSEPH Le 
Paute leh p5t,) a French astronomer, born in 1751. 
He became professor of mathematics in the Ecole Mili- 
taire in 1777. He accompanied La Perouse on his voy 
age of discovery in 1785, and perished with him in 1788. 

Agelli, a-jel lee, [Lat. AGEL LIUS,] (ANTONIO,) a dis 
tinguished Italian commentator, born at Sorrento in 
1532. He was made Bishop of Acerno in 1593, and died 
in 1608. He wrote a commentary on the Psalms, the 
Lamentations of Jeremiah, and many other parts of 

Agellio, a-jel le-o, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian painter, 
born at Sorrento. He worked at Rome in the early part 
of the seventeenth century, and excelled in landscapes. 
He assisted Roncalli and other artists in the figures and 
the landscapes of their paintings. 

Agellius. See GELLIUS, AULUS. 

Ag el-noth, [Lat. AGELNO THUS,] also called Eth - 
el-noth, an archbishop of Canterbury, who lived in the 
early part of the eleventh century, and died in 1038. 
He was one of the principal advisers of the Danish king 

See HOOK, " Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury," vol. iii. 
chap. iii. 

A-ge iior, [Gr. Ayf/vup; Fr. AGENOR, t zha noR ,] a 
fabulous king of Phoenicia, regarded as a son of Nep 
tune, a brother of Belus, and the father of Cadmus, 
Phcenix, Phineus, and Europa. 

Agenor, a brave Trojan warrior, was a son of An- 
tenor. According to Homer, he wounded Achilles, and 
was rescued from him by Apollo. 

Ager, t zha , [in Latin, AGE RIUS,] (NICOLAS,) a 
French botanist, born in Alsace in 1568, wrote a treatise 
" On Vegetable Life," (" De Anima Vegetiva," 1629.) 
Died in 1634. 

Ag-e-san der, [Gr. \y^aavdpof; Fr. AGESANDRK, 
t zha z&Ndk ,] a sculptor of Rhodes, mentioned by Pliny 
as one of the three artists who executed a group of La- 
ocoon and his sons, which was in the palace of Titus at 
Rome. This same group, there is reason to believe, is 
now in the Vatican. It was accidentally discovered in 
1506. The time of Agesander is unknown ; some sup 
pose him to have been contemporary with the earlier 
Roman emperors. 
Agesias. See HEGESIAS. 
A-ges i-cles, a king of Sparta, who lived about 600 

A-ges-i-la us [Gr. Ayr/o-^aoc; Fr. AGESILAS, t zha - 
ze ljis ] I., a king of Sparta, who lived in the ninth 
century B.C. He was contemporary with Lycurgus. 

Agesilaus II., one of the most distinguished of the 
Spartan kings, was a son of Archidamus. He ascended 
the throne at the death of his brother Agis in 398 B.C., 
and reigned thirty-seven years in the most eventful pe 
riod in the history of Sparta. In the second year of his 
reign he commanded an expedition into Persia, in which, 

i, e, I, o, u, y, long ; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged ; a, e, I, o, li, y, short ; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; nfit; good; moon; 




by his generosity and courtesy, as well as by his success Aglaia. See CHARITES. 

as a general, he won over to his cause many of the sub- ; Ag-la o-phon, [ Ay/lao^wi ,] a painter, native of Tha- 

jects of Artaxerxes. He even contemplated the con- sos, (a Grecian island,) supposed to have lived about 500 

quest of the Persian empire ; but the accomplishment of \ B.C. He was the father of Polygnotus the paintei. 

this great scheme was prevented by a hostile confederacy ! Aglaophon, a Greek painter, supposed to have been 

of the Greeks at home. lie was summoned home by : a descendant of the preceding, lived about 416 B.C. He 

the Ephori about 394 B.C. In the subsequent contest ; painted a picture of Alcibiades. 

between the Spartans on the one side, and the Argives, ; Agliata, al-ya ta, (GIOVANNI,) a distinguished Sicilian 

Thebans, Athenians, and Corinthians on the other, Agesi- < lawyer, born at Palermo, held several high offices under 

laus, if not always successful, at least fully justified the | the government. Died in 1675. 

high opinion which his countrymen entertained of his ; Aglietti, al-yet tee, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian physician, 

statesmanship and military skill. His vigilance and born in 1757. Died in 1836. 

energy saved the city of Sparta, which was menaced by 
Kpaminondas in 362. He was not present at the battle 
of Leuctra, where the Spartans were defeated in 371. 
I le died about 361 i:.c., being more than eighty years old. 

See "Life of Agesilaus," by PLUTARCH, who compares him with 
1 ompey; XENOPHON, "Agesilaus" and " Hellenica ;" CORNELIUS 
\EHOS, "Agesilaus;" GROTE, "Hisiory of Greece," vol. ix. chaps. 
Ixxiii.-lxxiv. ; THIRI.WALL, " History of Greece ;" CAUER, " Ques- 
tioiuim de Fontibus ad Agesilai Historiam pertinentibus," Pars I., 
lireslau, 1847. 

Ag-e-sip o-lis, [ A}7;cri7ro/l(f,] a Spartan king, who 
ascended the throne as colleague of Agesilaus in 394. 
Died in 380 n.c. 

There were several other kings of this name. 

Agezio or Agesio, 4-ga ze-o, (THADDEUS,) a Bohe 
mian, born at Prague in 1525, wrote on physiognomy. 

Ag gas or Au gus, (ROBERT,) an English landscape- 
painter, who lived in the reign of Charles I. Died in 
1679, aged about 60. 

Aggee. See HAGGAI. 

Aggenus Urbicus, ad-jee nus ur be-kus, a Latin 
writer on agriculture, who probably lived in the time of 
the emperor Vespasian. 



Agier, a zhc-a , (PIERRE JEAN,) a French judge, born 
in Paris in 1748. He was president of the revolutionary 
tribunal in 1795, when Fouquier-Tinville and his accom 
plices were condemned to death, and became vice-pres 
ident of the tribunal of appeal in Paris in 1802. He 
published, besides several legal works, a new version 
of the Hebrew Prophets, (11 vols., 1820-23.) Died in 

Agila, aj e-la, or Agilan, aj-e-lan , a Gothic king of 
Spain, who began to reign in 549, and was murdered in 
554 A.D. 

Agiles, d , di zhel or df zhe leV, (RAYMOND,) Canon 
of Puy, followed the Count of Toulouse to Palestine, and 
wrote a " History of the Crusade of 1095." 

Ag-i-lul fus or Agilul phus, [Fr. AGILULPHE, t /hc"- 
lulf/,] a Longobard duke of Turin, who became King of 
the Longobards, in 590, by marrying Theudclinda, the 
widow of King Autaris or Autarich. Through her influ 
ence he embraced the Catholic faith, and induced many 
of his nobles to do the same. He died in 616 A.D. From 
the reign of Agilulfus may be dated the commencement 
of civilization among the Longobards. 

Agincourt. See D AGINCOURT. 

Agis, a jis, [*Aytf.] There were four kings of Sparta of 
this name. The first began to reign about 1060 B.C. 
The second became king 427 B.C., and reigned twenty- 
eight years, during a great part of the Peloponnesian war. 
lie defeated the Athenians and their allies in a great 
battle at Mantinea, about 414 B.C. He died in 399 B.C. 
Agis III. ascended the throne in 338 and died 331 B.C., 
being contemporary with Alexander the Great. Agis 
IV. began to reign 244 B.C. He attempted to restore 
the ancient Spartan discipline, and the simplicity of 
manners which had prevailed under the earlier Spartan 
kings ; but the nation was too deeply sunk in effeminacy 
and corruption. Agis became a martyr to his virtuous 
ambition. He was condemned by the Ephori for an at 
tempt to subvert the laws of his country, and was stran 
gled 240 B.C. He met his death with a heroism worthy 
of the glorious cause in which he had been engaged. 

See ZANNINI, " Biografia di F. Aglietti," Padua, 1836. 

Ag H-oii-by, (JOHN,) an English divine, born in Cum 
berland about 1568. He was chaplain to Queen Eliza 
beth, and one of the translators of the New Testament 
for the English Bible authoVized by James I. Died in 

Agnani, di, de an-ya nee, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian 
jurist, born about 1390, was professor of law at Bologna. 
Died in 1457. 

Agneaux. See AIGNEAUX. 

Agnelli, an-yel lee, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian Jesuit, who 
wrote several theological works. Born in 1621 ; died 
in 1 706. 

Agnelli,(jACOB, or JACOPO,) an eminent Italian Jesuit, 
born at Ferrara in 1701. He was professor of eloquence, 
and afterwards of medicine, in the University of Ferrara. 
He wrote a number of poems, some of which possess 
great merit. He died in 1798, aged more than ninety- 
six years. 

Agiiello, an-yel lo, (ANDREA,) or Ag-nel lus, (AN 
DREAS,) an abbot of Ravenna in the latter half of the 
ninth century, wrote a history or chronicle of Ravenna. 
His work is valuable as illustrating an important portion 
of ecclesiastical and civil history. 

Agiien, tn ySN , (JEROME,) a Dutch painter, born at 
Bois-le-Duc about the middle of the fifteenth century. 
He worked in Spain. Died in 1530. 

Agnes, ag ncz, [Ger. pron. ag nfis,] a German em 
press, who, after the death of her husband, Henry III., 
was regent during the minority of her son, Henry IV. 
She died in 1057. 

Agnes OF AUSTRIA, the daughter of Albert I., Duke of 
Austria, (afterwards King of Germany,) was remarkable 
for the atrocious cruelty with which she revenged the 
death of her father, murdered in 1308. Many persons 
were put to a death of torture on mere suspicion, and a 
multitude of persons, innocent in all probability, were 
beheaded by her order. She died in 1364. 

Agnes, ag nez, SAINT, a Roman virgin of noble 
family, who, according to the legend, suffered martyrdom 
under Diocletian in 303 A. D., when only thirteen years of 


See Mrs. JAMESON, "Sacred and Legendary Art ;" BAILLET, 
" Vies des Saints ;" J. A. MAKTIGNY, "Notice Historique, etc. sur 
le Culte de Sainte Agues." 

Agnes (ag nez or aiv yes ) de Meranie, deh ma - 
ra ne , Queen of France, was married to Philippe Au- 
guste in 1196. The censure of the church, because he 
had divorced Ingelburge to marry Agnes, induced the 
king to discard the latter. Died in I2OI. 

Agnes Sorel. See SOREI.. 

Agnesi, an-ya see, (MARIA Gaetana ga-i-ta na,) 
an Italian lady of wonderful intellectual powers and ac 
quirements, born at Milan in 1718. When she was only 
twenty years of age, she was able to discourse in a great 
number of different languages on abstruse questions of 
mathematics and philosophy. Her Latin is said to have 
been remarkably pure and correct. She published, in 
1748, her "Instituzioni Analitiche," ("Analytical Institu 
tions,") a treatise on algebra, including the differential 
and integral calculus,and displaying wonderful knowledge 
as well as judgment. " \Ve cannot," says a recent 
critic, "take leave of a work which does so much honour 

See PLUTARCH, "Life of A-is;" T..IKLWAU, "History of | to female genius, without earnestly recommending the 
Greece," vol. viii. chap. Ixii. ; DAKRAU, " Histoire d Agis IV, Roi 1 perusal of it to those who believe that great talents are 
de Lacedemone," 8vo, 1817. j bestowed by nature exclusively on men." (See review 

A gi-us (or Agio, a jo) de Solda nis, da sol-da - . of Maria G. Agnesi s "Analytical Institutions" in the 
ness, (PlETRO,) an Italian antiquary, born in the isle of j " Edinburgh Review" for January, 1804.) In 1750, 

Gozzo. Died in 1760. 

c as k; 9 as s; g hard; g asy; o, 1 1, K, guttural; N, wisn*: R, trilled; s as z; t-h as in this. 

I during the illness of her father, (who was professor in 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




the University of Bologna,) she supplied his place. 
Shortly after this she retired to a nunnery, where she 
spent the remainder of her life, and died in 1799- 

See PAOLO FRISI, " Elogio Storico di M. Agnesi;" BIAXCA 
MILESI-MOJON, " Vita di Mar.a Gaetana Agnesi, 1836. 

Agnesi, (MARIA THERESA,) a composer of operas, 
born at .Milan about 1724, was a sister of the preceding. 

Ag new, (Sir ANDREW,) M.P., a noted Scottish Sab 
batarian, born in Wigtonshire in 1793; died in 1849. 

See DR. McCRiE s "Life of Sir Andrew Agnew." 

Agiiew, QAMES,) a brigadier-general in the British 
army in the American Revolution, was killed at the battle 
of Germantown in October, 1777. 

Agni, ag nl, or Ag iiis,[common Hindoo pron. ug nl or 
lig nis ; etymologically allied to the Latin ignis,] the name 
of the Hindoo god of lire, lie is sometimes represented 
in pictures with two faces, three legs, and seven arms, and 
is usually painted of a deep-red colour. His two faces are 
supposed to symbolize fire in its two characters benefi 
cent (or creative) and destructive. His seven arms have 
been conjectured to indicate the seven prismatic colours. 
Agni has been called the Hindoo Vulcan ; but he does not 
appear anywhere as an artificer, like the Vulcan of classic 
mythology, his most prominent characters being those of 
a purifier and of a bearer of incense to heaven, becoming 
thus a mediator between men on earth and the gods above. 

See MOOR, "Hindu Pantheon;" KopfEN, " Religion des Buddha," 
p. 5 ; SIR W. JONES on "The Gods of Greece, Italy, and India, in 
"Asiatic Researches," vol. i. p. 264. 

Ag-nod I-ge [ AJTO& /O?,] an Athenian woman, who, 
disguised in the dress of a man, studied medicine under 
HeVophilus, and practised with success, in the third cen 
tury H.c. She devoted herself chiefly to midwifery. 

Agnolo, d , dan yo-lo, (BACCIO, bat cho,) an eminent 
Italian architect and sculptor in wood, was born at Flor 
ence in 1460. He was the first who adorned the windows 
of mansions and palaces with frontons, or frontispieces. 
Among his chief works are the Palazzo Bartolini, (Flor 
ence,) and Ihe Villa Borgherini, near Florence. Died in 


See VAS IF.I, "Lives of the Painters and Sculptors." 

Agnolo, d , (GABRIELE,) a Neapolitan architect, who 
designed the Gravina Palace, and the church of Santa 
Maria, at Naples. Died in 1510. 

Agnolo, d , (GiULiANO,) a son of the preceding, who 
followed the profession of his father, both as sculptor 
and architect. Died in 1555. 

Ag-noii i-des, [Gr. Aypw(5/;c; Fr. AGNONIDE, Sn jo - 
n6d ,] an Athenian orator, who induced the Athenians 
to put Phocion to death. For this he was afterwards, in 
his turn, condemned to die. 

Ag o-bard , SAINT, [Fr. pron. saN ti go btR/,) an 
archbishop of Lyons in the ninth century, took part with 
the sons of Louis le Debonnaire against their father, for 
which he was deposed in 835. He was, however, re 
stored to his see about 838, on the reconciliation of Louis 
and his sons. He died in 840. 

See C. B. HUNDESIIAGEM, "De Vita et Scriptis Agobardi," 1831. 

Agocchi, a-gok kee, or Agucchio, a-gook ke-o, 
(GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) a learned Italian ecclesiastic, 
born at Bologna in 1570. About 1624, Pope Urban VIII. 
appointed him his nuncio to Venice, with the title of 
Archbishop of Amasia. Died in 1632. 

Ag-o-rac ri-tus, [Gr. Ayoppm>?; Fr. AI.ORACRITE, 
3 go rt kRet ,] a famous sculptor, native of Paros, lived 
in the fifth century H.c. He was a pupil of Phidias. 

Agosti, a-gos tee, (GiULio,) an Italian dramatic poet, 
born at Reggio in the latter part of the seventeenth cen 
tury. Died young in 1704. 

Agostini, a-gos-tee nee, (LlONARDO,) an Italian an 
tiquary, born at Sienna, went to Rome about 1623, and 
was appointed by Alexander VII. pontifical antiquary. 
He published an enlarged edition of Filippo Paruta s 
work on the medals of Sicily, (1649,) and another work, 
of great merit, on antique gems, "Antique Gems Deline 
ated," ("Le Gemme antiche figurate," 1636 and 1657.) 

Agostiiii, (MIGUEL.) See AGUSTI. 

Agostini, degli, dai yee a-gos-tee nee, (GIOVANNI,) 
a learned Italian monk, born at Venice about 1700. He 
wrote " Historical and Critical Notices of the Lives and 

Works of Venetian Authors," 2 vols., 1754, which is said 
to be a valuable work. Died about 1755. 

Agostini, degli, (NiccoLo,) a mediocre Italian poet, 
born at Venice, flourished in the first half of the six 
teenth century. He translated Ovid s " Metamorphoses," 
(1522,) and wrote a continuation of Bojardo s "Orlando 
Innamorato," (1538-) 

Agostiiio (a-gos-tee no) and Agnolo, an yo-lo, of 
Sienna, sculptors and architects, born about 1265, were 
brothers, and always worked together. Among their 
works were the Palazzo tie Novi, the church of St. Fran 
cesco at Sienna, and the tomb of Bishop Guido at 
Arezzo, which was designed by Giotto. Died about 1350. 

See VASAKI, "Live; of ihe Painters," etc. 

Agostiiio surnamcd VKNEZIANO, va-net-se-a no, or 
the " Venetian," a celebrated Italian engraver, also calico 
Augusti nus de Mu si.s, and in French Augustin, 
(o giis taN ,) was born about 1490. He was a pupil of 
Marcantonio Raimondi, for whom he worked in Rome. 
He engraved several works after Raphael and Giulio 
Romano. Some of his works are dated 1536. 

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters," etc. 

Agostiiio, sometimes called Agostiiio dalle Pro- 
spettive dal la pRo-spet-tee va, (which may be trans 
lated " Perspective Agostiiio,") an Italian painter, who 
flourished in the first half of the sixteenth century. He 
was distinguished for his skill in perspective. 

Agostiiio, (PAOLO,) an eminent Italian musician of 
the seventeenth century, was chapel-master of St. Peter s, 
Rome. Died about 1660. 

Agoub, a godb , (JOSEPH,) a native of Cairo, in Egypt, 
born in 1795. His parents removed to France when he 
was about seven years old. In 1820, or soon after, he- 
was appointed professor of Arabic at Paris, but, having 
been deprived of this situation in 1831, he died the next 
year, it is said, of a broken heart. 


JOSEPH,) born at Grenoble in 1747, became Bishop of 
Pamiers in 1787. He took part in political affairs, and 
was one of the friends of Louis XVI. whom that king 
consulted just before his flight to Varenncs. I le pub 
lished several works on finance. Died in Paris in 1824. 

Agoult, (WILLIAM,) a French poet of the twelfth 
century. He was a gentleman of the household of Al 
fonso X., King of Castile, and has been styled the chief 
and father of troubadours. Died in 1181. 

Agoult, d , cll goo , (MARIE de Flavigny deh 
flfven ye ,) COUNTESS, a French authoress, who assumed 
the name of Daniel Stern, was born at Frankfort-on-the- 
Main about 1800. She was married to Count d Agoult 
in 1827. She has written several successful novels, 
among which is " Nelida," (1845 ) anc l a "History of the 
Revolution of 1848," (2 vols., 1851.) 

Agraiii, d , dS gRaN , (EusTACHE,) a French warrior, 
who went to Palestine in the first crusade with Raymond 
of Toulouse, and became Viceroy of Jerusalem. He was 
called "The Sword and Shield of Palestine." 

Agrate, a-gRa ti, (MARCO Fer.rerio fer-ra re-o,) an 
Italian sculptor, lived about the year 1500. 

Agreda, de, da a-gRa na, (MARIA,) a Spanish abbess, 
born in 1602. She wrote a " Life of the Virgin Mary," 
which Bossuet censured as indecent. Died in 1665. 

Agresti, a-gRes tee, (Livio,) an eminent Italian 
painter, who died about 1580. He was a native of Forli. 
He painted frescos at Rome and Forli. Vasari extols 
the grandeur of his style. 

Agricola, a-gRik o-la, (CiiRiSTOrn LUDWIG,) an emi 
nent German landscape-painter, born at Augsburg (or, 
according to some authorities, at Ratisbon) in 1667. He 
worked for a long time in Naples, and painted several 
views of Southern Italy. Died at Augsburg in 1/19. 

A-gric o-la, (CNVEUS JULIUS,) a distinguished Ro 
man general, born at Forum Julii, (Krejus,) a Roman 
colony in Gaul, A.D. 37. In 62 he married at Rome a 
lady of high rank, and the next year went as qurestor to 
Asia, under the proconsul Salvins Titianus, where he 
distinguished himself by his strict integrity. In 73, Ves 
pasian (whose cause Agricola hid early espoused) made 
him a patrician, and appointed him governor of Aqui- 
tania, which position he held for nearly three years. In 
77 he was chosen consul, and not long after was made 



Governor of Britain, where he subdued the Ordoviccs in 
North Wales, and conquered the island of Mona, (An- 
glesea.) He adopted a wise and generous policy towards 
the Britons, encouraging them to embrace the Roman 
customs and dress and to instruct their children in the \ 
Latin language. He afterwards crossed the Tweed, and 
carried his arms (So A.n.) as far as the Frith of Tay,^and 
erected a chain of fortresses from the Clyde to the Frith 
of Forth. He was soon after recalled by the emperor | 
I )omitian, and retired into private life, whither, however, j 
the admiration of the people followed him. He died in 
93, not without a general suspicion of his having been 
poisoned through the jealousy of Domitian. Agricola j 
was the father-in-law of the historian Tacitus. (See | 

See TACITUS, " J. Agricola; Vita ;" DION CASSIUS, " History of 
Rome;" HELD, "Commentatio de C. J. Agricola; Vita qua; vulgo 
Cornelio Tacito assignatur," Schweidnitz, 1845. 

A-gric o-la, (FRANCIS,) a German theologian, born at 
Lunen, wrote against the Reformation. Died in 1621. 

Agricola, (GEORG,) an eminent mineralogist and 
physician, whose proper name was BAUER, was born 
at Glauchau, in Saxony, about 1490. He became well 
versed in metallurgy and the art of mining. " He was 
the first mineralogist," says Cuvier, "who appeared 
after the renaissance of the sciences in Europe. He was 
to mineralogy what Conrad Gcsncr was to zoology." 
His principal works are, " Concerning Ores, (or Mines,)" 
("De Re Metallica," 1546,) and "On the Origin and 
Causes of Subterranean Things," (" De Ortu et Causis 
Subterraneorum.") both written in elegant Latin. Died 


See A. D. RICHTER, "Vita Georgii Agrico .-e," 1755; M. ADAM, 
"Vitas Medicorum Germanorum ;" BAYLE, "Historical and Critical 
Dictionary;" ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyklopsedie." 

Agricola, (GKORG ANDREAS,) a German physician, 
born at Ratisbon in 1672. He pretended to have dis 
covered a method by which the growth of plants might 
be greatly accelerated, and published in 1717 a useful 
work on the culture and propagation of plants. Died 
about 1738. 

Agricola, QOHAN NES AMMO NIUS,) a German phy 
sician, who was one of the best commentators on Hip 
pocrates and Galen. He became professor of Greek at 
Ingolstadt, where he died about 1570. 

Agricola, QOHANN FRIEDRICH,) a German musician 
and composer, born in Altcnburg in 1720. He com 
posed "Achilles," an opera. Died at Berlin in 1774. 

Agricola, (Jonx, or JOHANN,) was originally called 
JOHN Schneider (shm der) or Schnit ter; but, ac 
cording to the usage of that time, he changed his name 
into Agricola. Born at Kisleben, in Prussian Saxony, 
in 1492, he studied at Wittenberg, where he formed an 
intimate friendship with Luther. But from being one of 
that great reformer s most active supporters, he after 
wards became a bitter opponent. Agricola asserted 
that obedience to the Mosaic law was not necessary for 
a Christian, that nothing was required but penitence 
and faith ; while Luther maintained the necessity of obey 
ing the Ten Commandments. The followers of Agricola 
were styled Antinomians, ("opposers of the law.") He 
died in 1566. Besides writing a great number of theo 
logical works, he made a valuable collection of German 
proverbs, to which he added a commentary, with numer 
ous illustrations. 

See UXGKR, "Dissertatiode Johanne Agricola," 1732; B. KORDES, 
"J. Agricola aus Eisleben," 1817; DE THOU, " Histoire," book v. ; 
KKSCH und GRUHHK, "Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 

Agricola, (MARTIN,) an eminent musician, born in 
Silesia about 1486; died in 1556. 

Agricola, ri-guik o-la, (MICHAEL), an early Swedish 
reformer of the sixteenth century, who translated the 
New Testament into the Finnish tongue. Died in 1577. 
Agricola, ( RUDOLPH,) an eminent Dutch scholar, 
born near Groningen, in Friesland, in 1443. In 1476 he 
went to Italy, where he studied Greek, and afterwards 
excited the admiration of the Italians (who had previously 
regarded the Germans as barbarians) by his various ac 
complishments. In 1482 he became professor at Heidel 
berg, where he died in 1485. He was highly eulogized 
by Krasinus. His influence contributed greatly to dif 
fuse a taste for Grecian literature among the Germans. 

"He was," says Guizot, ("Biographic Universelle,") "a 
good painter, a good writer, a good poet, and a learned 
philologer." His greatest work is "De Inventione Dia- 

See PHILIP MELANCHTHON, " Orationes II., prior de Vita Rud. 
Agricola;," etc., 1539; T. K. TRESLING, " Vita et Merita Rud. Agric- 
o ;e," 1830; EKSCH und GKUBKR, "Allgemeine Encykiopaadie; " 
JOCHER, "Allgemeines Ge ehrten-Lexikon." 

A-grip pa, an ancient skeptical philosopher, men 
tioned by Diogenes Laertius as author of a treatise called 
"Five Reasons for Doubt." 
Agrippa, a-gRep pa, (CAMILLO,) an Italian architect, 
born at Milan, flourished in the latter half of the six 
teenth century. 

Agrippa, a-grip pa, (!!ENRY CORNELIUS,) a German 
physician, theologian, and astrologer, who acquired 
celebrity by his varied learning, superior talents, and 
supposed skill in alchemy and occult philosophy, was 
born at Cologne in 1486. He was extolled by some as 
an ornament of his age, and denounced by others as an 
impostor and a heretic. In his youth he served several 
campaigns in the Imperial army with distinction. His 
success in the various pursuits which he followed in many 
countries of Europe was hindered by his quarrelsome or 
satirical temper. After he had lectured on theology at 
Cologne, Pisa, Turin, and Pavia, and practised medicine 
in France, he received, in 1529, invitations from Henry 
VIII. of England, and from other sovereigns. He ac 
cepted that of Margaret of Austria, regent of the Low 
Countries; but she died in 1530. He died poor, at Gren 
oble, in 1535, leaving, besides other works, one "On the 
Vanity of the Sciences," in Latin, (1527,) which has 
been translated into English and several other languages. 
Hallam calls him " a meteor of philosophy." 

See H. MORI.EY, "Life of Agrippa," 1856; "Agrippaeana oder 
H. C. Agrippas Leben," 1722; "Retrospective Review," vol. xiv. 

A-grip pa, (MAR/cus VIPSA NIUS,) a distinguished 
Roman commander and statesman, born 63 li.C. His 
family was obscure, but a friendship was early formed 
between him and Octavius, (afterwards Augustus Caesar,) 
and his fortunes became inseparably associated with 
those of the future emperor. To the skill and wisdom 
of Agrippa, Augustus owed much of his continued suc 
cess ; especially his victory at Actium, which gave him 
the empire of the world. After the death of Marcellus, 
in 23 B.C., Agrippa married his widow, Julia, the daugh 
ter of the emperor, by whom he had three sons, two of 
whom were adopted by Augustus, (see CAIUS C/ESAR,) 
and two daughters. He died 12 H.C., in the fifty-first 
year of his age. Agrippa and Maecenas were the chief 
ministers or advisers of Augustus, and the former was 
for some time regarded as his destined successor. 

See G. C. GEBAUER, " Dissertatio de M. V. Agrippa," 1717; P. 
FRAND.SEN, "Marc. Vipsanius Agrippa: historische Untersuchung 
iiber dessen Leben und Wirken," 1836; Livv, "Epitome;" TACITUS, 
" Annales " 

Agrippa, (MENE NIUS,) a Roman consul, who gained 
a victory over the Sabines in 503 B.C., and afterwards 
quelled a sedition of the plebeians by relating to them 
the well-known fable of the belly and the members. 

Agrip pa Post umus, a posthumous son of M. Vip 
sanius Agrippa, put to death by Tiberius, 14 A.D. 

Ag-rip-pi na |Fr. AC-RIPPINE, S gue pen ] I., a 
daughter of M. Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia, was mar 
ried to Caesar Germanicus, the nephew of the emperor 
Tiberius. She was the mother of the emperor Caligula. 
She died, it is supposed, about 31 A.D. 

See ELIZABETH HAMILTON, " Memoirs of the Life of Agrippina," 
1800; C. BUKKHARD, " Agrippina des M. V. Agrippa Tochter," 1846. 

Agrippina II., or Agrippina Augusta, a daugh 
ter of the preceding, and mother of the emperor Nero 
bv her first husband, Domitius. She was a woman of 
abandoned principles and remorseless cruelty. She 
married her father s brother, the emperor Claudius, and 
afterwards poisoned him. After a life of almost unin 
terrupted crime, she was put to death (A.D. 60) by the 
order of her son Nero. 

e as /; c as s; g hard: ; as/: <:, H, K. itttnral; x, nasal; u, trilled; sas z; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




Aguado, a-gwa Do, (A. MARIA,) a financier and mil 
lionaire, born at Seville, Spain, in 1784. He became a 
banker of Paris. Died in 1842. 

Aguado, de, da a-gwa oo, (FRANCISCO,) a learned 
and pious Spanish Jesuit, born near Madrid in 1572; 
died in 1654, leaving many religious works. 

Agucchio. See AGOCCHI. 

Agiiero, de, da a-gwa ro, (BENEDICTO MANUEL,) a dis 
tinguished Spanish painter, born at Madrid in 1626; died 
in 1670. He excelled in landscapes and battle-pieces. 

Aguesseau, d , dt gi so , (HENRI FRANCOIS,) (writ 
ten by himself Daguesseau,) a celebrated French chan 
cellor, orator, and legislator, was born at Limoges, No 
vember 27, 1668. He passes for the most learned law 
yer that France ever produced, and is called the father 
of French forensic eloquence. In 1691 he was appointed 
by Louis XIV. one of the advocates-royal. He be 
came procureur-general to the Parliament in 1700, and 
chancellor of France in 1717. Before the latter date 
he had resolutely defended the liberties of the Gallican 
Church against the aggressions of the papal power in 
the case of the bull Unigenitus, (1713.) He was ban 
ished from court in 1718 for his opposition to the finan 
cial system of Law, but was restored to his high func 
tions in 1720, after the ruinous collapse of that system. 
A contest for precedency between D Aguesseau and Car 
dinal Dubois resulted in the removal of the former from 
office in 1722. He was again appointed chancellor in 
1737, and kept the seals until 1750, when he resigned on 
account of his great age. Died in Paris in February, 
1751. His works, consisting chiefly of forensic argu 
ments, official papers, and treatises on law, were pub 
lished in thirteen volumes, (1759-89.) His legislative 
reforms constitute perhaps his greatest claim to the re 
membrance of posterity. 

See ST. SIMON S " Memoirs ;" ANTOINE THOMAS, " filoge de 
H. F. d Aguesseau," 1760; " Histoire de la Vie et des Ouvrages de 
D Aguesseau," 2 vols., 1835 ; " Discours sur la Vie et la Mort de M. 
D Aguesseau," by his son : BOURLET DE VAUXCELLES, " fi oge de 
D Aguesseau," 1760; MORLHOV, "filogedu Chancelier D Agues 
seau," 1760; BOINVILLIERS, " filoge clu Chancelier D Aguesseau," 
1848; BOULLEE, "Histoire de la Vie du Chancelier D Aguesseau," 

Aguesseau, d , (HENRI C. JEAN BAPTISTE,) COUNT, 
born at Fresnes in 1746, was a grandson of the chancel 
lor. He became a member of the French Academy in 
1789, and a senator in 1805. Died in 1826. 

Aguiar, a-ge-aR , (ToMAS,) a Spanish portrait-painter 
of the seventeenth century. 

Aguila, d , da ge-la, (C.F.E.H.,) an officer of engineers, 
who travelled extensively between 1770 and 1774. He 
appears to have been a native of Spain. He wrote, in 
French, a " History of the Reign of Gustavus III. of 
Sweden, (1803.) Died in 1815. 

Aguila, del, del a ge-la, (MIGUEL,) a Spanish painter, 
whose works are said to be in the style of Murillo. 
Died at Seville in 1736. 

Aguilar, a-ge-laR , (GRACE,) a Jewish authoress, of 
Spanish extraction, born at Hackney, near London, in 
1816. She wrote "The Magic Wreath," in verse, and a 
number of prose works, among which are " Women of 
Israel," " Home Scenes and Heart Studies," and " Home 
Influence : a Tale." Died at Frankfort in 1847. 

A~uilera, de, da a-ge-la ra, (DiEGO,) a Spanish his 
torical painter, who was born at Toledo, and lived in the 
latter part of the sixteenth century. 

Aguillon, i ge yoN , (FRANQOIS,) a learned Jesuit, 
born at Brussels in 1566; died in 1617. He wrote a 
work on optics, (1613.) 

Aguirre, de, da a-ger ra, (JosE Saenz sa-Snth ,) a 
i^anied Spanish ecclesiastic, born in 1630, was made 
cardinal in 1686 by Pope Innocent XI. Died in 1699. 
1 le wrote several works on theology. 

Agujari, a-goo-ya ree, (LUCRETIA,) a popular N singer 
and performer, who flourished in the latter half of the 
eighteenth century. Died at Parma in 1783. 

Agusti, a-goos tee, written also Agustin, a-goos-teen , 
or A^ostini, a-gos-tee nee, (MIGUEL,) a Spanish agri 
culturist, born at Banolas, in the sixteenth century, was 
prior of the order of St. John at Perpignan. He wrote 
a useful and popular work called "The Book of the 
Secrets of Agriculture," (1617.) 

Agylaeus, aj-e-lee us or a-ge-la us, [Fr. AGYLEE, 
t zhe la ,] (HENDRIK,) a Dutch jurist, born at Bois-le- 
Duc about 1533, was noted as a Greek scholar. Died 
in 1595. 

Ahab, a hab, [Heb.DXnX,] an idolatrous king of Israel, 
who reigned from 931 to 909 B.C. He was slain in bat 
tle in a war against Benhadad, King of Syria. (See I. 
Kings xvi.-xxii.) 

A-has-u-e rus, or, more correctly, Ahhasverosh or 
Akhasverosh, [Heb. itfniiynx,] a Hebrew name ap 
plied in the Scriptures to various Persian and Median 
kings. It is in all probability derived from the ancient 
Persian word Khshvcrshc, (the Xerxes of the Greeks, 
and corresponding to the Sanscrit Kshatra,) which sig 
nifies "king" or "lion-king." 

The Ahasuerus mentioned in the book of Esther is 
generally believed to be Artaxerxes Longimanus, (in 
modern Persian, Ardashir Daraz-dast,) who reigned 
from 464 to 425 B.C. (See ARTAXERXES.) 

Ahaa, a haz", or Achaz, a kaz, [Heb. IHN,] a son of 
Jotham, King of Judah, succeeded his father about 
741 and died 725 B.C. He distinguished himself above 
all his predecessors by his abominable idolatry, even 
sacrificing his own children to Moloch. (See II. Kings 
xvi., and II. Chronicles xxviii.) 

Ahaziah, i-ha-zT a, [Heb. n"HX,] King of Israel, 
the son and successor of Ahab. He reigned two years. 
from 909 to 907 B.C. (See I. Kings xxii. ; II. Kings i.) 
Also, a son of Jehoram, King of Judah. He succeeded 
his father about 896 B.C., and after a reign of one year 
was slain by Jehu. (See II. Chronicles xxii. i-io; II. 
Kings viii. 25-29.) 

A-hen o-bar bus, in the plural A-hen o-bar bi, a 
name given to a branch or division of the Domitian 
family of Rome. It signifies " having red or copper- 
coloured beard," and is said to have originated as fol 
lows. When Castor and Pollux, on their return from 
the battle of Lake Rcgillus, announced to Lucius Domi- 
tius the victory of his countrymen, he did not believe 
them ; whereupon they stroked his hair and beard, which 
were instantly changed from black to red. The most 
distinguished of this name are the following : 

Ahenobarbus, (CNEIUS DOMITIUS,) a consul, 122 
B.C., who gained a victory over the Allobroges and Ar- 
verni, nations in the south of Gaul. 

Ahenobarbus, (CNEIUS DOMITIUS,) a son of Lucius 
Domitius, noticed below. In the civil wars he joined 
the party of Brutus and Cassius, but after the battle of 
Philippi he attached himself first to Antony and after 
wards to Octavius. lie died a few days after the battle 
of Actium, 31 B.C. 

Ahenobarbus, (CNEIUS DOMITIUS,) a grandson of 
the preceding, distinguished for his profligacy and fero 
city. He married Agrippina, by whom he became the 
father of the emperor Nero. 

Ahenobarbus, (Lucius DOMITIUS,) a Roman gen 
eral, who married a sister of Cato Uticensis. He be 
came praetor in 58 and consul in 54 B.C. He opposed 
Caesar and Pompey during their coalition. In the civil 
war that ensued, he was appointed by the Senate to suc 
ceed Caesar in Farther Gaul in the year 49. lie was, it 
is said, the only leader of the senatorial party who 
showed energy when Caesar invaded Italy. He was, 
however, on account of the defection of his army, com 
pelled to surrender at Corfinium. He was killed in 48 
B.C., at Pharsalia, where he commanded a wing of Pom- 
pey s army. 

See C/ESAR, "De Bello Civili;" SUETONIUS, "Life of Caesar; 
DION CASSIUS, "History of Rome." 

A-hi jah, [Heb. !TnX,] a prophet who lived in the 
reigns of Solomon and Rehoboam. (See I. Kings xi., xii. ; 

I. Chronicles xxvi. 20; II. Chronicles ix. 29.) 
Ahinielech, a-him e-lek, a priest, the son of Ahitub, 

slain by the command of Saul. (See I. Samuel xxi., xxii.) 

A-hith o-phel or A-ehit o-phel, a Hebrew courtier, 

a counsellor of King David, whose cause he deserted and 

became an adherent of Absalom in his rebellion. (See 

II. Samuel xv. 12, xvi. and xvii.) 

Ahle, a leh, QOHANN GEORG,) a German musician 
and composer, born at Miihlhausen in 1650; died in 

a, e, I, o. u. y, Ions;: a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o. u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure: far, fill, fat; met; not; gem;!; moon: 



Ahle, (JoiiANN RUDOLPH,) a German organist, born 
at Muhlhausen in 1625 ; died in 1673. He was the father 
of the preceding. 

Ahlee or Ahli, aii le , surnamed SHIRAZEE or 
SHEERAZEE, (SHIRAZI,) she-ra zee, from the place of his 
birth, a celebrated Persian poet, born at Shiraz about 
the middle of the fifteenth century ; died about 1535. 

Ahlwardt, Sl waRt, (CHRISTIAN WII.HELM,) an emi 
nent German linguist, born at Greifswalde in 1760. In 
1818 he was appointed professor of ancient literature in 
the university of his native town, where he died in 1830. 
He translated into German portions of many of the most 
celebrated poems in the ancient as well as in the differ 
ent modern languages. He made, moreover, a com 
plete translation of the poems of Ossian. 

Ahlwardt, (PETER,) born at Greifswalde in 1710. 
Though the son of a shoemaker, by diligence he made 
great progress in learning, and in 1752 was appointed 
professor of logic and metaphysics in the University of 
Greifswalde. Died in 1791. 

Ahmed (aii med) or Achmet (aK/met) I., a son of 
Mahomet III., born in 1590. He succeeded his father 
on the Ottoman throne in 1603, and died in 1617. 

Ahmed or Achmet II., born in 1643, was tne son 
of Sultan Ibraheem, (Ibrahim.) He began to reign in 
1691. His army was defeated with great loss by the 
Austrians, at Slankament, in the same year. He was a 
feeble ruler, and his reign was disastrous in various 
respects. He died in 169^, and was succeeded by Mus 
tafa II. 

Ahmed or Achmet III., son of Mahomet IV., 
born in 1673, was raised to the Ottoman throne in con 
sequence of a revolt of the Janissaries in 1703. Though 
unfortunate in his war with Austria and Venice, his 
reign was, on the whole, not inglorious. The Turkish 
name was respected abroad, while learning and the arts 
of peace flourished at home. Vet Ahmed was deposed 
by the rebellious Janissaries in 1730, and died in 1739. 

Ahmed or^Achmet IV., or Abd-ool- (Abdul-) 
Hamid, al/dool-ha mid, was born in 1 725, and succeeded 
the sultan Mustafa III. in 1773. His reign is memora 
ble lor two disastrous wars with Russia, in which Turkey 
lost the Crimea, a considerable portion of Circassia, and 
some other territories, besides a number of important 
fortresses. Died in 1789. 

See HAMMKK, " Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs." 

Ahmed PASHA, surnamed THE TKAITOR, a Turkish 
commander, who, in the reign of Solyman I., captured the 
island of Rhodes, defended by the Knights of St. John. 
Afterwards offended because the sultan did not make 
him grand vizier, he raised the standard of revolt in 
Egypt, and caused himself to be proclaimed sultan in 
1524; but, though successful at first, he was soon after 
taken and put to death. 

Ahmed THE RENEGADE, grand vizier to the sultan 
Solyman the Great, was a native of Gratz, in Styria. 
He was educated a Christian, but, having been taken 
prisoner by the Turks, he embraced the Mohammedan 
faith, rose to distinction at the Ottoman court, and mar 
ried the grand-daughter of the sultan. Died in 1580. 

Ahmed-al-Kastalee, (al-Kastali,) -al-kas-ta lee, a 
distinguished Arabian poet, born in Spain in 958 ; died 
about 1030. 

Ahmed-al-Makkari, (or Mekkari.) See MAK- 


Ahmed An-Nahhas an-nah-nts , a distinguished 
Arabian grammarian and philologist, who was drowned 
in the Nile about 950. He was a native of Egypt. 

Ahmed-ar-Razl See AHMED-ER-RAZEE. 

Ahmed-er-Razee, (el-Razi,) -er-ra zee, a native of 
Cordova, lived in the tenth century. He was the author 
ol a voluminous work on the geography and history of 
Spain. Another Ahmed-er-Razee, distinguished as 
II:N- (or BEN-) FARIS, (fii ris,) i.e. "son of Faris," 
wrote an Arabic dictionary and a work on biography. 
Died in 985. 

Ahmed-Ibn (or -Ben) -Arab-Shah* (-Tb n a rab- 
shah ,) an Arabian historian of the fifteenth century, was 

the author of a "History of Tamerlane," which was 
translated into Latin by Manger and into French by 
Vattier. Died in 1450. 

Ahmed-Ibn-Faraj far aj, a distinguished Arabian 
poet and historian, native of Spain, died about 970. 

Ahmed-Ibn-Haiibal. See IDX-HAMSAL. 

Ahmed-Ibn-Tcolooii. See TOOLOON. 

Ah med-Kediik ke-dtik , written also Achmet- 
Geduc, a celebrated Turkish commander, who was grand 
vizier of Mahomet II. from 1473 to 1477. During this 
period he conquered the Crimea, and took the towns of 
Kaffa and Azof, (or Tana.) Under Bayazeed (Bajazet) 
II., the son and successor of Mahomet II., Ahmed-Kediik 
greatly distinguished himself. He quelled a formidable 
rebellion headed by Prince Jem, a brother of the sultan, 
and conquered Kazim Bey, the last of the Caramanian 
princes. But, having by his arrogance deeply offended 
Bayazeed, he was put to death in 1482. 

Ahmed Khan Abdalee (Abdali) or Abdallee 
Kfln ab-da lee, a celebrated conqueror, the founder of the 
Doorranee (or Durrani) dynasty in Afghanistan. He 
commenced his military career in the service of the fa 
mous Nadir Shah, by whom when a child he had been 
taken prisoner. After the death of that monarch, he 
succeeded in getting possession ef a large convoy of 
treasure on its way from India to Nadir s camp, and by 
this means laid the foundation of a powerful kingdom. 
He was crowned at Canclahar in 1747, and died in 1773. 
In the intermediate period he had extended his sway 
over the eastern part of Persia, the whole of Afghanistan, 
and a large portion of India. 

See ELPHINSTONE S "Caubul;" MALCOLM S "History of Persia." 

Ahmed- (or Achmet-) Resmi-Effendi, aii ired 
res mee ef-fen dec, a Turkish historian and diplomatist, 
who signed the treaty of Kainarji. He wrote a "His 
tory of the War between the Turks and Russians," 
(1768-74.) Died about 1788. 

Ahmed (or Ahmad) Shah, (of Afghanistan.) See 

Ahmed Shah shah, succeeded his grandfather,Muz- 
zaffar Shah, on the throne of Guzerat, in 1411. He 
founded Ahmedabad, (i.e. "city of Ahmed,"; and made- 
it his capital. Died in 1443. 

Ahmed Shah Walee Bahmanee,* (Bahmani,) 
wa Ice bSh ma-nee , the ninth king of the Bahmanee 
dynasty in the Dekkan. He succeeded his brother Firoz 
in 1422, and died in 1435. 

Ahrens, a rens, (HEINRICH,) a German jurist, born 
in Hanover in 1808. He was professor of philosophy at 
Brussels from 1839 to 1848, after which he obtained a 
chair at Gratz. His "Course of Natural Law" (Paris, 
1838) has been often reprinted, and translated into sev 
eral languages. 

Ahriman. See ORMUZD. 

Ahroon, (Ahrim,) ah roon , or Aaron, a Christian 
priest of Alexandria, lived in the early part of the seventh 
century. He composed a voluminous medical work, of 
which some extracts only are extant. 

Aibek-Azad-ed-De eii, (-ed-Ein,) a e-bgk (or T bek) 
a zad ed-deen , the first Egyptian sultan of the dynasty 
of Mamelukes. He began to reign in 1254, and was as-. 
sassinatecl, through the jealousy of his wife, in 1257. 

Aicardo, I-kau do, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian architect, 
born in Piedmont, worked in Genoa. Among his works 
is the aqueduct which supplies Genoa with water. Died 
in 1650. 

Aicher, T Ker, (OTTO,) a German antiquary and his 
torian, born in 1628, lived at Salzburg, and died in 1705. 
He wrote a work on epitaphs, entitled "Theatrum Fu- 
nebre," (1675,) an d many treatises on points of anoicnt 

Aichspalt, iK spalt, (PETER,) an archbishop of Mftntz, 
born about 1250. Died in 1320. 

Aidan or ".ZEdan, ii dan, SAINT, a pious monk of 
lona, who was employed about 635 A.D. by Oswald, King 
of Northunibria, to instruct his subjects in the Christian 
religion. He is considered as the first of the line of 
bishops now styled Bishops of Durham. 

SL-C HOOK-, " Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury," vol. i. chap. ii. 

* This name is incorrectly given Ahmed Urn- Arabsham in the 
Nouvelle Biographic GeneYa -e." 

- as k; 9 as s; g hard: g as/; r,, H, K, guttural; N, nasal: K, trilled: s as a; th as in this. (JT"S^e Explanations, p. 23.) 

* Pronounced in India, uh miid sh3h wiil ee bJh niiin-ce. 




Aidan, a dan. King of Scotland, began to reign about 
578 A.D. Died in 606. 

Aidoiieus. See PLUTO. 

Aignan, in yo.V, (TIENNE,) an able French trans- 
la or and political writer, born at Beaugency-sur-Loire 
in 1773. He produced a translation of the Iliad in verse, 
which is one of the best in the French language. In 
1814 he was chosen a member of the French Academy 
in olace of Bernardin cle Saint Pierre. After the restora 
tion of 1815, he entered the ranks of the liberal opposi 
tion as a publicist. His work entitled "The Condition 
(Jitat) of the Protestants in France" (1818) is highly 
commended for the sentiments and style. Died in 

Aigneaux or Aignaux, in yo , (ROBERT and AN- 
TOINE,) two brothers, born at Vire, in Normandy, in 
the sixteenth century, translated Virgil into French 
verse. Their work a ppeared in 1582, and in that age 
enjoyed a high reputation. 

Aiguani, I-gwa nee, a Carmelite friar of the fourteenth 
century, was a respectable sculptor, and afterwards be 
came Cardinal of Bologna. Died in 1400. 

Aiguebere, Ag baiR , QOHN Dumas dii rna ,) a 
French dramatic writer, born at Toulouse in 1692. He 
studied at Paris, where he formed a friendship with Vol 
taire which lasted through life. He was a counsellor of 
the Parliament of Toulouse, the duties of which office 
he performed with equal zeal and integrity. Died in 


Aiguillon, d , cl.Yge yoN or da gel yoN , (ARMAND 
mSN ven yeh-ro difpli se, resh le-uh ,) Due, born in 
1720, is said to have been a great-grand-nephew of Cardi 
nal Richelieu. He was prime minister of France during 
the last three years of the reign of Louis XV. He was 
chiefly indebted for his promotion at court to the favour 
of Madame du Barry, mistress of the king. His admin 
istration was highly disgraceful to France ; for, though an 
accomplished courtier, he was destitute of all the great 
and solid qualities necessary to form a statesman. Dur 
ing his ministry the partition of Poland took place ; yet 
he knew nothing of this nefarious project till it was already 
accomplished. On the accession of Louis XVI., Aiguillon 
was removed from office, and died in 1788. 

See "Me moires clu Due d Aiguillon ; " LACKETEU.E, " Histoire 
du Dix-huitieme Siecle." 

RICHELIEU,) Due, a son of the preceding. He warmly 
supported the popular cause in the States-General of 
1789, and was the second of the noblesse to renounce his 
privileges in the session of August 4. He superseded 
Custine in the command of one of the armies, early in 
1792, but was proscribed by the dominant party in Au 
gust of that year. He escaped by flight, and died in 1800. 

See THIERS, "History of the French Revolution." 

VIGNEROD,) DUCHESSE, a niece of Cardinal Richelieu, 
born about 1610. She founded several charitable institu 
tions. Died in 1675. 

Aiken, a ken, (WILLIAM,) born in Charleston, South 
Carolina, in 1806, graduated at the College of South 
Carolina in 1825, served several sessions in the State 
Legislature, and. was chosen Governor of his native State 
in 1844. In 1850 the Democratic party elected him a 
representative to Congress, of which he continued a 
member till 1857. In the memorable contest for the 
speakership, 1855-6, he came within one vote of being 
elected to that office. Among Southern statesmen he 
has distinguished himself by his moderation and good 


Atkin, a kin, (ARTHUR,) a son of Dr. John Aikin, 
noticed below, was born about 1780, and gained dis 
tinction as a scientific writer. He was editor of the 
"Annual Review," (1803-08,) and was for many years 
secretary of the Society of Arts. His principal works 
.are a "Manual of Mineralogy," (1814,) and a "Dictionary 
of Chemistry and Mineralogy." Died in 1854. 

Aikin, (EDMUND,) an English architect, born at War- 
rington in 1780, was a brother of the preceding. Died 
in 1820. 

Aikin, (JOHN,) M.D., an eminent miscellaneous 
writer, born in Leicestershire, England, in 1747. Besides 
a number of essays and papers, scientific and literary, 
he published an instructive and popular work, entitled 
"Evenings at Home," (1792-95,) in which he was as 
sisted by his sister, Mrs. Barbauld. His greatest work 
was his " General Biography," a biographical dictionary, 
extending to ten closely-printed quarto volumes : it was 
completed in 1815. In 1816 he published his "Annals 
of the Reign of George III.," in 2 vols. 8vo ; and in 
1820, his " Select Works of the British Poets," with bio 
graphical and critical prefaces. He died in 1822. 

Aikin, (LucY,) a daughter of the preceding, born in 
1781. She published, among other works, a "Memoir" 
of her father, in 2 vols. 8vo, (1823,) and a "Life of 
Joseph Addison," (1843.) Died in 1864. 

Aikmaii, ak man, (WILLIAM,) a Scottish portrait- 
painter, born in Aberclcenshire in 1682. He studied in 
Rome, returned to Scotland in 1712, and settled in Lon 
don in 1723, after which he painted portraits of many 
eminent persons. He was a friend and patron of the 
poet Thomson, who was introduced by him to Sir 
Robert Walpole, and who wrote verses to the memory 
ofAikman. Died in 1731. 

See WALPOI.E, Anecdotes of Painting," etc. 

Aillaud, t yo , (PIERRE Toussaint too saN ,) a 
French poet, born at Montpcllier in 1759, became an 
abbe and a professor at Montauban. Among his works 
are " L Egyptiade," a heroic poem, (1802); and " Le 
Nouveau Lutrin," (1815,) an imitation of Boilcau s " Lu- 
trin." Died in 1826. 

Ailly or Ailli, tl ye or fye , (PETER OF,) an eminent 
French ecclesiastic, born at Compiegne, in Picardy, in 
1350. In 1389 he was made chancellor of the Univer 
sity of Paris; in 1395, Archbishop of Cambray; and in 
1411 he was elevated to the dignity of cardinal. He 
presided at one of the sessions of the famous Council of 
Constance, in which John Huss was condemned to the 
stake. Yet he was a reformer, and confessed and boldly 
denounced the abuses and impurities of the church. He 
died about 1420. 

See DINAUX, "Notice historique sur P. D Ailly," 1824. 

Aiired, al red, a religious and historical writer of the 
twelfth century, and abbot of the monastery of Rievaulx, 
in Yorkshire. 

Aimar Rivault. See RIVAULT. 

Aime (i ma ) de Varemie. Sec AIMON DE VA- 

Aimeric, a mer-ik or em rtk , written also Haimeric, 
a native of France, chosen Patriarch of Antioch in 1 142 ; 
died in 1187. 

Aimeric de Pegulha cla pa-gool ya, or Aimeri de 
Peguilain, a meh-re deh peh-ge lilN , a troubadour of 
the thirteenth century, wrote a number of popular poems 
and songs. Died about 1260. 


Aimerich, I-ma-rek , (MATEO,) a Spanish Jesuit of 
great learning, born in Catalonia in 1715, became pro 
fessor of philosophy and divinity. He was noted for the 
elegance of his Latin style. Among his works is " Novum 
Lexicon Historicum et Criticum Antiqux Romanre 
Literaturse," (" A New Historical and Critical Lexicon of 
Ancient Roman Literature," 1787.) Died at Ferrara in 

Aimery. See AMAURY. 

Aimoin, I rnoin , [Fr. pron. .\m waN ; Lat. AIMOI - 
NUS,] a French monk and writer, who flourished in the 
latter part of the tenth century. Died in 1008. 

Aimon. See AYMON. 

Aimon de Varemie, ;YmoN deh v3 re~n , a French 
poet, who lived in the thirteenth century. 

Ainmiiller, Tn muKler, (MAXIMILIAN EMANUEL,) a 
German painter, born at Munich in 1807, is called the 
restorer of the art of painting on glass in Germany. 
Among his works are the glass windows of Notre Dame 
de Bon Secours, Munich. He has also a fair reputation 
as an oil-painter. 

Ainslie, anz le, (GEORGE ROBERT,) born at Edinburgh 
in 1766, was appointed Governor of Dominica in 1813, 
but soon after retired, having obtained the rank of lieu- 

a, e, T, 5, u, y, long; a, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, li, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; me" t; n6t; good; moon; 




tenant-general. Died in 1839. He was a distinguished 
numismatologist, and published "Illustrations of the 
Anglo-French Coinage," (1830.) 

Ainslie, (HEW,) a poet, born in Scotland in 1792, 
emigrated to America in 1822. He is author of " Pil 
grimage to the Land of Burns ;" and of " Scottish Songs, 
Ballads, and Poems," (1855.) 

Aiiislie, (Sir Ror.i- UT,) born in Scotland about 1730, 
was knighted and sent as Knglish ambassador to the 
Ottoman Porte in 1755. While in Constantinople, he 
made an extensive collection of coins and other curiosi 
ties. Died in 1812. 

Aiiisworth, anz worth, (HENRY,) one of the leaders 
oi the English Independents in the sixteenth century, and 
a distinguished controversial writer. He was banished 
from England, with others of his sect, in 1593, and settled 
in Amsterdam, where he became the pastor of a church. 
Died about 1622. His "Annotations" on the five books 
of Moses, the Psalms, and the Song of Solomon, is a 
work of great merit. 

See NEAL S "History of the Puritans;" BKOOK S " Lives of the 

Aiiisworth, (ROBERT,) a writer, teacher, and eminent 
classical scholar, born near Manchester, England, in 
1660; died in 1743. He is principally known as the 
author of an excellent Latin Dictionary, (1736,) which 
is still extensively used. 

Aiiisworth, (WILLIAM FRANCIS,) an English geolo 
gist, physician, and traveller, born at Exeter in 1807. He 
went with the expedition of Colonel Chesney to the Eu 
phrates in 1835, and afterwards, as agent of the Bible 
Society and Geographical Society, was sent to explore 
the river Halys and visit the Christians of Koordistan. 
He has published " Researches in Assyria," and " Travels 
and Researches in Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, 
etc.," (2 vols., 1842.) 

Aiiisworth, (WILLIAM HARRISON,) a cousin of the 
preceding, an English novelist, born at Manchester in 
1805. He produced in 1834 "Rookwood," which had 
great success. His popularity with a certain class was 
maintained by his "Jack Sheppard," (1839.) He has 
been censured for choosing robbers as the heroes of 
these novels. Among his other works are "The Tower 
of London," and "The Admirable Crichton." He is, or 
was recently, proprietor of the "New Monthly Maga 
zine." "With a great regard for Ainsworth," says an 
English critic, "and a full sense of the talent and re 
search which he brings to bear upon every subject which 
he touches, we must say, we like not this gallows school 
of literature." (See article on "Ainsworth and Jack 
Sheppard" in " Fraser s Magazine" for February, 1840.) 

Airault. See AYRAULT. 

Airay, a re, (CHRISTOPHER,) an English clergyman, 
born in Westmoreland about the beginning of the seven 
teenth century. He wrote on logic. Died in 1670. 

Airay, (HENRY.) an English Puritan, born in West 
moreland in 1560, became provost of Queen s College, 
Oxford, and vice-chancellor of the university, about 1606. 
He wrote "A Treatise against Bowing at the Name of 
Jesus," and several other works. Died in 1616. 

Aird, ard, (THOMAS,) a Scottish poet, for some time 
editor of the "Dumfries Herald," born in Roxburgh 
shire about 1802. He published in 1846 a volume of 
poems, \\ nich are commended. He has also written 
some prose works, among which is "Religious Charac 

Airey, a re, (Sir RICHARD,) a British officer, born in 
1803, served in the Crimean war, 1854-55, as quarter 
master-general. He became lieutenant-general in 1862. 

Airy, a re, (C.KOROE BII/DKI.I.,) an English astrono 
mer, born at Alnwick, Northumberland, in 1801, was 
educated at Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he was 
elected a Fellow in 1824. He became Lucasian profes 
sor of mathematics at Cambridge in 1826, and Plumian 
professor of astronomy in 1828. In 18^5 he was ap 
pointed astronomer royal and director of the Observa 
tory at Greenwich, the efficiency of which he increased 
b\ improved methods and new instruments. He was 
elected in 1836 a Fellow of the Royal Society, from which 
he lias received the Copley and Royal medals. He pub 
lished in 1846 an important "Abridgment of the Planet 

ary and Lunar Observations from 1 750 to 1 830." Among 
his works are the articles " Figure of the Earth," and 
"Tides and Waves," in the " Encyclopaedia Metropoli 
tana," and the article " Gravitation," in the " Penny C - - 

Aischah. See AYESHAH. 

Aisse, :Vsa , (MADEMOISELLE,) a fair Circassian, born 
about 1694, was brought to France by Count de Ferriol 
in 1698. She was educated by Madame de Tencin. Her 
letters were published, with notes by Voltaire, (1787.) 
Died in 1733. 

Aitkeii, at ken, QOHN,) M.D., a Scottish physician 
and medical writer, who died in 1790. 

Ait kin, (ROBERT,) for many years a printer and pub 
lisher in Philadelphia, was born in Great Britain in 
1734, and came to America in 1769. He died in 1802, 
To him is generally attributed the authorship of an " In 
quiry into the Principles of a Commercial System for 
the United States." 

Alton, a ton, (JoiiN,) D.D., a British writer of the 
present era, was minister of Dolphinton, county of Lan 
ark, Scotland. He published " The Lands of the Mes 
siah, Mohammed, and the Pope, as visited in 1851," 

Aiton, (WILLIAM,) an eminent Scottish botanist, 
born near Hamilton in 1731. He was selected in 1759 
by George III. to establish and arrange a botanic gar 
den at Kew. In 1783 he became superintendent of the 
pleasure- and kitchen-gardens of the king. He published 
a descriptive catalogue of the plants cultivated in the 
botanic garden, entitled " Hortus Kewensis," (3 vols., 
1789,) which Lowndes calls an excellent work. Died in 


Ai ton, (WILLIAM TOWNSEND,) a landscape-gardener, 
born in 1766, was a son of the preceding, whom he suc 
ceeded as superintendent at Kew. Died in 1849. 

Aitsingerus or Aytsiiigerus, It-sin jer-us, (MI 
CHAEL,) otherwise called MICHAEL von Eytzing 
fon It sing, an Austrian chronologist and historian, born 
about 1535 ; died about 1600. 

Aitzema, van, van Tt-za ir>a, (FOPP.E, fop peh,) a 
Dutch diplomatist, born in Friesland in 1586. Died at 
Vienna in 1637. 

Aitzema, van, (LEO,) a Dutch historian, born at 
Doccum in 1600; died in 1669. He wrote a valuable 
history of Holland, extending from 1621 to 1668, (15 
vols., 1657-71.) 

Aiyoob, Aiyftb, or Aiyoub. See JOB. 

Aiyoob- (Aiyub- or Ayyub-) (Ibn-Shadi or 
-Shadhi,) T yoob Ib n sha clce, [written in French AIOUB 
nejm-ecl-deen , (the "star of religion,") was born in Ar 
menia, or Western Persia, in the early part of the twelfth 
century. His son, the famous Salah-ecl-Din or Saladin, 
having become the vizier of the Egyptian caliph Al-Ad- 
hed, invited his father to Egypt. Aiyoob was received 
with the highest honour by the caliph, as well as by Sal 
adin, who offered to resign his position in favour of his 
father. But the latter refused to accept it, and died in 
retirement in 1173. The dynasty founded by Saladin is 
called, from the name of his father, that of the Aiyoobites. 

See D HEKBEI.OT, " BibliothAque Orientale;" QUATREM&RE, 
" Histoire ties Sultans Mamelouks d Egypte ;" also, the " Biographical 
Dictionary" of IBN-KHALLIKAN. 

Aiyoobites or Aiyubites, T yoob Its, written also 
Ayyubites, Aioubites, and Eioubites, [called in 
Arabic AIYOO BIA and BENEE (or BENI) AIYOOH, ben ee 
I yoob , i.e. the " sons of Aiyoob,"! a name applied to the 
successors of Saladin, who founded the Aiyoobite dynas 
ties of Egypt, Damascus, etc. (See preceding article.) 

Ajala or Axala, de, da a-na la, (MARTIN PEREZ,) a 
Spanish prelate, born in 1504, became Archbishop of 
Valencia. He wrote "Apostolic Traditions," (1562.) 
Died in 1566. 

Ajax, a jax, [Gr. Amr,] the name of two Grecian 
heroes who fought in the Trojan war. 

Ajax, the son of Tclamon, [in Latin, A jAxTELAMo - 
NIUS,] was King of Salami s. He was often called "the 
Great," on account of his great stature, in which he 
exceeded all the other Greeks. He was also distin- 

as k; c as s; ^hard; g as// <;, H, K,^n(/tinil; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z: th as in this. (Rj^See Explanations, p. 23.) 




guished for his valour and beauty. He contended with 
Ulysses for the armour of Achilles without success, be 
came mar; in consequence of this defeat, and killed 

See the " Iliad ;" SOPHOCLES, "Ajax;" HYGINUS, "Fabuiac." 

Ajax, son of O ileus, was King of Locris, and was 
called the " Lesser Ajax," to distinguish him from the 
son of Telamon. Next to Achilles, he was the swiftest- 
footed of the Greeks. He perished while returning from 
Troy, through the wrath of Minerva and Neptune, whom 
he had offended by his impiety. 

Ajello, a-yel lo , (SEBASTIANO,) a Neapolitan medical 
writer, who nourished about 1575. 

Ajescha. See AYESHAH. 

Akakia, S ka ke t , written also Acacia, (MARTIN,) 
an eminent French physician of the sixteenth century ; 
died in 1551. His real name was SANS-MALICE, ("with 
out malice,") which, according to the usage of those 
times, he changed into the Greek AKAKIA, having the 
same signification. He translated portions of Galen s 
works, to which he added commentaries that show him 
to have been a man of judgment and a close observer 
of facts. He left a son of the same name, who became a 
professor of surgery, and second physician to Henry III. 
Died in 1588. 

Akbar or Akber, Sk ber,* [usually pronounced by 
the Hindoos uk ber,] (written also Acbar, Ackbar, 
Ekber,) Mohammed, surnamed JALAL-ED-DEEN, (or 
DjEi.A L-ED-DiN,)ja-lSl / ed-deen / , the "glory of the faith," 
the greatest and best of all the Mogul emperors, was born 
at Amerkote, in the valley of the Indus, the I4th of Oc 
tober, 1542. He appears to have been, like Alfred the 
Great, one of those thoroughly accomplished sovereigns 
of whom history presents us with so few examples. 
His father Humayoon had been driven from his capital 
by his rebellious subjects : so that Akbar was born in 
exile. The young prince grew up amid privations and 
dangers. He early distinguished himself by his courage 
and magnanimity. The victory which restored Huma 
yoon to the throne of his father, after his long banish 
ment, was clue in a great measure to the heroic example 
of young Akbar, then only about fourteen years of age. 
But, although he displayed on various occasions the 
most splendid abilities as a general, his military achieve 
ments form the least part of the glory of his reign. He 
was not only a brave and able commander, but a far- 
seeing statesman and a humane, magnanimous, and 
enlightened ruler. He treated all his subjects, whether 
Mohammedans, Christians, Jews, or Hindoos, with strict 
and impartial justice, so that he received and deserved 
the title of Jug at Gooroo, the " protector or guardian 
of mankind ;" and he furnishes perhaps the only exam 
ple in which an Oriental sovereign has really merited 
such an appellation. If he had any fault as a ruler, it 
was, perhaps, too great a lenity towards his enemies. 
It is related that in the early part of his reign, when he 
had not yet completed his sixteenth year, he had de 
feated and taken prisoner a brave but most troublesome 
leader of a rebellious faction. The captive, covered 
with wounds, was brought into the presence of the young 
emperor. Akbar s vizier, who also held the office of 
tutor or governor, exhortc;! him to take away with his 
own hands the life of his dangerous foe. But, though 
on the field of battle he had no superior, he had not the 
nerve to kill in cold blood a defenceless captive. He 
drew his sword, but, scarcely touching with it his victim, 
he burst into tears. The vizier regarded the young 
prince with a look of stern disapprobation, and then 
with his own sabre struck off the head of his prisoner. 

Akbar earnestly sought to lighten as far as practi 
cable the taxes and imposts of his subjects. With a 
view to regulate the imposts according to a just scale, 

* This is sometimes erroneously accentuated on the last syllable 
Akbir; but the name is nothing more than the comparative and su 
perlative degree of the Arabic adjective Kel<eerot KeKr, (" great, ") and 
should be pronounced, as every Arabic scholar knows, ak bar. It sig 
nifies "greater" or "superior ;" also "greatest;" hence as a surname 
it nearly corresponds to the Latin Maxitnus, which was given as a 
surname to the greatest of the Fabii. "Allah Akbar," the battle-cry 
of the Moslems, is often incorrectly rendered "God is great;" it prop 
erly signifies " God is greatest," or superior to every other power: 
hence Gibbon translates it "God is victorious. " 

he caused to be taken a complete survey or census 
of his whole empire, with minute statistical details in 
regard to the extent or area of the different provinces 
and their various productions. The book treating of 
these particulars, called Ayccn Akbcry, (" Institutes of 
Akbar,") enjoys a great celebrity, and is probably with 
out a parallel in Oriental history. Among his other 
regulations, Akbar established throughout his vast do 
minions posts, (called by the Hindoos Dak Chowkee,) 
to convey either ordinary letters or the expresses of the 
government. According to Ferishtah, he never during 
his reign had less than five thousand elephants, (proba 
bly the greatest number ever possessed by any Indian 
sovereign ;) he had also twelve thousand stable-horses, 
and nearly one thousand hunting leopards. Akbar died 
in 1605, after a reign of fifty-one years, during which he 
had enlarged his dominions by the conquest of Bengal 
and the greater part of the Dekkan. With him died, it 
would seem, all the magnanimity which had hitherto 
distinguished the race of Baber. He was succeeded by 
his son Selim, better known by the proud title of Je- 
hangeer, or the "Conqueror of the World." 

See FEKISHTA, " History of the Mahomedan Power in India," 
translated by BKIGGS, vol. li. ; ELPHINSTONE, "History of India;" 
MILL, " History of British India," 1841; ABOOL-FAZL, "Akbar 
Namah ; " "Memoirs of Humayoon," translated into English by 
STEWART; RICKARDS, "India," 2 vols., 1821. 

Akemoff. See AKIMOFF. 

Aken, van, vfn a ken, (JAN or JEAN,) a Dutch or 
Flemish artist, distinguished as a painter and still more 
as an engraver, lived in the first half of the seventeenth 

Aken, van, (JOSEPH,) a painter of Antwerp, born 
about 1710, excelled in his representations of draperies 
and embroidery. He came to England, where he died 
about 1750. 

Akeiiside, a ken-sld, (MARK,) an eminent English 
didactic poet, born at Newcastle-on-Tyne in 1721, was the 
son of a butcher. His parents were dissenters. His mo 
ther s name was Mary Lumsden. He studied at the Uni 
versity of Edinburgh, devoting his chief attention to med 
ical sciences, and took his degree of M.D. at Leyden in 
1744. On this occasion he wrote an able Latin thesis 
on the origin and growth of the human fetus, and at 
tacked some prevalent theories on that subject which 
have since been supplanted. He had begun to write 
verse at an early age. His principal poem, " The Pleas 
ures of the Imagination," in blank verse, appeared in 
1744, and had a great success. 

" It has undoubtedly a just claim to very particular 
notice," says Dr. Johnson, "as an example of great feli 
city of genius and uncommon amplitude of acquisitions, 
of a young mind stored with images and much exercised 
in combining and comparing them. ... In the 
general fabrication of his lines he is perhaps superior to 
any other writer of blank verse ; his flow is smooth and 
his pauses are musical, but the concatenation of his 
verses is commonly too long continued, and the lull close 
does not recur with sufficient frequency." Addison s 
essays on the Pleasures of the Imagination formed the 
groundwork of this poem. 

Akensicle published a volume of odes in 1745. In 
1748 he became a resident of London, where he prac 
tised medicine with moderate success until his death. 
He was appointed a physician to St. Thomas s Hospital, 
and one of the physicians to the queen about 1760. 
Besides the works above named, he wrote several short 
poems and medical treatises, including a treatise on 
Dysentery, (1764,) in elegant Latin, which, says Johnson, 
" entitled him to the same height of place among the 
scholars as he possessed before among the wits." Died 
in 1770. 

See JOHNSON, "Lives of the Poets;" BUCKE, "Life. Writings, 
and Genius of Akenside," 1832; KIPPIS, " Biographia Britannica ;" 
CAMPBELL, "Specimens of the English Poets." 

Akerblad, a ker-blad, (JOHAN DAVID,) a distinguished 
Orientalist and antiquary, born in Sweden in 1760. 
Having been attached to the Swedish embassy at Con 
stantinople, he visited Jerusalem in 1792, and the Tread 
(i.e. the plain on which ancient Troy was situated) in 
1797. He was the first who attempted with any success 




to decipher the cursive or demotic writing of the ancient 
Egyptians. His chief work is a " Letter on the Egyptian 
Inscription of Rosetta," (1802.) Died in 1819. 

See CHAMPOLI.IOX, " Grammaire figyptienne ; " " Biographie Uni- 

verselle," (Supplement.) 

Akerel, a ker-el, (FREDRICK,) a Swedish engraver, 
born at Sodermannland in 1748. Died in 1804. 

Akerhielm, o ker-hyelm , (ANNA,) a learned Swedish 
lady, born in 1642. Died in 1698. 

Akermann, a ker-man, (ANDERS,) a Swedish en 
graver, born at Upsal in 1718. Died in 1778. 

Akers, a kerz, (BENJAMIN PAUL,) an American sculp 
tor, born at Saccarappa, in Maine, in 1825. lie passed 
several years at Rome, whither he went in 1855. Among 
his works are busts of Edward Everett and Henry \V. 
Longfellow, and a head of Milton. Died in Philadelphia 
in May, 1861. 

See TUCKERMAN, " Book of the Artists," New York, 1867. 

Akersbot, a kers-bot, (WILLEM,) a Dutch painter 
and engraver, lived at Haarlem in the first half of the 
seventeenth century. 

Akiba, a-kee M, (Beii Joseph,) a famous Jewish 
rabbi, born in the first year of the Christian era. Hav 
ing joined the false Messiah Bar-Cokeba, (A.D. 120,) he 
was taken prisoner and put to a cruel death by the Ro 
mans, after a life of one hundred and twenty years. 

Akimoff, Akiinov, or Akimow, a-ke-moP, written 
also Akemov, (I VAN,) an eminent Russian painter, 
born in 1754; died in 1814. 

Akoui. See AKWEI. 

Ak-Shems-ed-Deen, (or -ed-Din,) Sk-shSms-ed- 
deen , (i.e. the " White (or bright) Sun of the Faith,") a 
Turkish sheikh, famous for his prophecies, born in Syria 
in 1389 ; died about 1472. When the troops of Ma 
homet II., after having besieged Constantinople, had 
become discouraged with the obstinate resistance of the 
Greeks, Ak-Shems-ed-Deen is said to have predicted 
truly the day and hour in which the city would be taken. 

Akwei, a-kwa c, (or Akoui, a-kwee ,) a distinguished 
Chinese general and prime minister during the reign of 
Keen-Loong, (or -Loung,) which lasted from 1736 to 1796. 

A L, al or al, the Arabic definite article, forming a 
prefix to a multitude of Oriental names : as, Ai.-AnKL, a 
surname signifying "the Just;" AL-AMKKN (-AM^N,) 
" the Trustworthy ;"AL-MANSOOR, " the Victorious," etc. 
It should be observed that the / in this particle is often 
changed so as to correspond to the initial consonant of 
the following word: as, AD-DEMEEREK for AL-DEMEEREE, 
(or -S.A.FFAH.) The a in al has an obscure sound, and is 
sometimes pronounced nearly like ool, at other times like 
ill or el, varying according to the different dialects. (See re 
marks on Oriental names in the Introduction to this work.) 

Al-a-bas ter, (WILLIAM,) an English writer, born in 
Suffolk in 1567 ; died in 1640. He "was chaplain to the 
Earl of Essex in his expedition to Cadiz in 1596. He 
is chiefly known as the author of a Latin tragedy entitled 
"Roxana," said to be to a great extent a mere transla 
tion from an Italian drama by Groto. The poet Spenser 
expressed great admiration for his poetry. 

See FUI.I.RK, "Worthies of England;" WOOD, "Fast! Oxonien- 
ses," in "Athena; Oxonienses;" ADDISON, "Spectator," No. 221. 

Alacoque, 3 lt kok , (MARGUERITE,) a French nun, 
born in 1647 ; died in 1690. As a reward for her emi 
nent piety, she was, it is said, gifted with prophecy, and 
foretold correctly the time of her own death. 

Ala-ed-Deen,(or Ala-ed-Din,) a-la ed-decn , written 
also Aladdin, a younger son of Osman the founder of 
the Ottoman Empire, was a distinguished statesman of the 
fourteenth century, and first organized the band called 
Janissaries, (i.e. Yeni-Sheri, ya ncc-sha rec, or the "new 
troops.") In 1370, Ala-ed-Deen, at the head of his new 
soldiers, gained a great victory over the emperor An- 
dronicus, and took Nicasa, the bulwark of the Greek 
Empire in Asia. 

See VON HAMMER, " Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs ;" 
MAKSIGLI, " Stato milltare dell ImperioOttomano. 

Alagon, d , dS lt go.N , (Louis,) a French noblemar 
put to death in 1605 for having entered into a plot fo 
delivering Marseilles into the hands of the Spaniards. 

Alahmar, a-laii mar, (Ibn (Tb n) Moham med,) the 
first king of Granada, built the Alhambra. Died in 1237 

Alaimo. See ALAYMO. 

Alaimo, a-lT mo, a Sicilian nobleman, who took z 
part in the famous conspiracy called the Sicilian Ves 
pers in 1282. Afterwards, in 1287, he was drowned by 
the order of the King of Sicily. 

Alain, t laN 7 , or Alan, S loN , [Lat. ALA NUS,] a 
bishop of Auxerre (France) in the twelfth century, who 
wrote a life of Saint Bernard. Died about 1185. 

Alain, (Jon.N.) See ALAN. 

Alain Chartier. See CIIARTIKR. 

Alain de Lille, S la.V deh lei, [in Latin, ALA NUS DE 
IN SULIS,] a French ecclesiastic, surnamed THE UNIVER 
SAL DOCTOR, was reputed one of the most learned men 
of the twelfth century. He died about the year 1200, 
leaving numerous works, some of which are in verse. 

Alaleona,* a-la-la-o na, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian law 
yer and litterateur, born at Macerata in 1670 ; died in 

Alaman, a-la-man , (LucAS,) a Mexican politician, 
born in the eighteenth century. He was appointed min 
ister of foreign affairs (1853) by Santa Anna. His policy 
was reactionary and despotic. Died in 1855. 

Alaman, d , dS lt muN , (SiCARD,) the chief minister 
and favourite of Raymond VII. of Toulouse. Died in 


Alamamii. See ALEMANNI. 

Alamamio. See ALEMANNI. 

Alameen, (Alamin,) a-la-meen , (Mohammed,) a 
son of Haroon-ar-Rasheed, (Haroun-al-Raschid,) whom 
he succeeded in the caliphate in 809. Having disre 
garded his father s injunctions that he should give the 
command of the army to his brother Al-Mamoon and 
continue him in the government of Khorassan, he was, 
after a short and troubled reign, besieged in his own 
capital, and slain while on his way to surrender himself 
to his victorious brother, in 813. 

Al-Ameer or Al-Amir, al-a-meeR , a Saracen, who 
assumed the title of caliph in the ninth century, and 
ravaged some parts of the Greek Empire. 

Alamos, a la-mos, (BALTAZAR,) a Spanish writer, 
who lived in the latter part of the sixteenth and begin 
ning of the seventeenth century, was born at Medina del 
Campo. He is the author of an accurate Spanish trans 
lation of Tacitus, (1614.) 

Alamundar, al-a-moon-dar ,(?) a Saracen prince, who 
invaded Palestine in 509 A.D., and, it is said, was con 
verted by the anchorites. 


Alan (al an) OF LYNN, an English theologian and 
monk, born at Lynn. Died about 1420. 

Alan OF TEWKESIUJRY, an English monk of the 
twelfth century, wrote a Life of Thomas a Becket. Died 
in 1201. 

Alan, a lan, or Alanus, a-la nus, (JoHANN,) a Danish 
writer and professor of philosophy, was born at Ala 
about 1565. Died in 1631. 

Aland. See FORTESCUE, (Sir JOHN.) 

Al an-son, (EDWARD,) an English surgeon, born in 
Lancashire in 1747. He practised in Liverpool, made 
improvemer.ts in the method of amputation, and wrote 
"Practical Observations upon Amputation," (1779.) 
Died in 1823. 

Alarcon, a-laR-kon , (FERNAN MARTINEZ de Ce- 
vallos da tha-val yos,) the founder of the noble house 
of Alarcon, fought against the Moors in Spain in the 
twelfth century. 

Alarcon, de, da a-laR-kon , (Don ANTONIO Suarez 
swa reth,) a Spanish historian, born about 1636, was a 
son of the Marquis of Trocifal. Died about 1663. 

Alarcon, de, (Don FERNANDO,) called El Senor 
Alarcon, a famous Spanish general, born about 1466, 
to whose custody Francis I. was committed after the 

* The " Nouvelle Biographie GeneVale" spells this nameAfa/cona ; 
but tills is doubtless a misprint. Compare MAZZUCHELLI, "Scrittori 
d ltalia." 

: as /; c as s; %hard; g as/; o, H, K,g-nt(nral; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (&Jf =P See Explanations, p. 23.) 




battle of Pavia, 1525. He had a high reputation for 
honour and bravery. To him was intrusted the custody 
of the captive pope Clement VII. in 1527. Died in 1540. 
See ANTONIO SUAREZ DE ALARCON, "Comentarios de los hechos 
del Seiior Alarcon," 1665. 

Alarcoii, de, (HERNANDO,) a Spanish navigator, of 
whom little is known. He was sent in 1540 to explore 
the coast of California, of which he made an accurate 
survey. He was the first who ascertained that Lower 
California was not an island, but a peninsula. 

See D. DE MOFRAS, "Explorations dei Territoires de 1 Oregon, 
des Calitornies, etc." 

Alarcon y Mendoza, de, da a-laR-kon e men-do - 
tha, (Don JUAN Ruiz roo-eeth ,) an excellent Spanish 
iramatic poet, born in the province of Mexico about the 
end of the sixteenth century. He removed to Spain 
about 1622, and attained eminence as a lawyer. A vol 
ume of his dramas was published in 1628, and another in 
1634. Among his works are "Las Paredes oyen," 
("Walls have Ears ;") "El Examen de Maridos," ("Trial 
of Husbands ;") and "LaVerdad sospechosa," ("Suspi 
cious Truth,") which was the original of Corneille s 
" Menteur." His moral tone is highly commended ; his 
versification is easy and harmonious. His other princi 
pal merits are a faithful delineation of Spanish manners, 
and a nervous expression of noble sentiments. 

See A. DE PUIBUSOUE, " Histoire comparee des Litteratures Es- 
pagnoles et Francaises;" N. ANTONIO, "Bibliotheca Hispana." 

Alard, a laRt or it ll R , written also Adelard, a Dutch 
ecclesiastic, born at Amsterdam in 1490, was the author 
of several controversial works. 

Alard, (FRANCIS,) a theologian, born at Brussels in 
the sixteenth century. He was converted to Protestant 
ism by reading a work by Luther. Having been de 
nounced to the Inquisition by his own mother, it was 
determined to poison him, in order to save his relatives 
from the shame of a public execution. The poison did 
not take effect ; and he afterwards escaped from prison, 
and died in Holstein in 1578. 

See a Life of F. Alard, by his grandson Lambert, in "Danische 
Bibliothek," vi. ; and NICHOLAS ALARD, "Decas Alardorum Scriptis 

Alard, a laRt, (LAMBERT,) a German writer, a son of 
Wilhelm, noticed below, born in Holstein in 1602, was 
the author of a treatise " On the Music of the An 
cients," in Latin, and a history of Holstein, entitled 
" Nordalbingia," etc., (1628.) Died in 1672. 

Alard, t laV, (MARIE JOSEPH Louis,) a French 
medical writer, born at Toulouse in 1779. Died in Paris 
in 1850. 

Alard, a laRt, (NICHOLAS,) a German biographer, 
born at Tonningen in 1683, wrote "Decas Alardorum 
Scriptis Clarorum," (1721.) Died in 17^6. 

Alard, (WILHELM, or WILLIAM,) a son of Francis, 
above named, was born in 1572, and became pastor at 
Crempe, in Holstein. He wrote many religious works, 
and Latin poetry which was much admired. Died in 

A.-lar diis, (surnamed /EMSTELREDA MUS, from the 
place of his birth,) a distinguished scholar and rhetori 
cian, born in Amsterdam towards the end of the fifteenth 
century; died about 1541. 

Al ar-ic, [Lat. ALARI CUS,] a famous conqueror, King 
of the Visigoths, was born about 350 A.n. He served for 
some time in the army of the emperor Theodosius, who 
died in 393. Having been offended by Arcadius, he in 
vaded the Eastern Empire with a large army in 396. lie 
captured Corinth and other cities, and ravaged the coun 
try, but was checked by Stilicho, (or Stilicon,) and con 
cluded a treaty with the ministers of Arcadius, who 
admitted him again into his service, with the rank of 
general. In 402 he invaded Italy, where he was de 
feated .by Stilicho at Pollcntia, and was compelled to 
withdraw from Italy. After the death of Stilicho, Alaric 
renewed, in 408, the invasion of Italy, where the feeble 
Honorius offered little resistance. He advanced to the 
gates of Rome, then the most magnificent city of the 
world, the citizens of which induced him to spare it by 
the payment of five thousand pounds of gold and thirty 
thousand pounds of silver. He soon after withdrew his 
army into Tuscany. Negotiations ensued between Ala 

ric and Honorius ; but the latter foolishly rejected the 
reasonable terms offered by the victorious Goth, who 
captured Rome in 410 and delivered it up to pillage for 
six days. The churches and public buildings, however, 
were spared. Alaric marched southward, with a design 
to conquer Sicily, and died at Cosenza in 410. 

See JORN ANDES, "De Rebus Geticis;" SOZO.MEN, "Historia;" 
GIBBON, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire;" CLAUDIAN, 
"De Bello Getico." 

Alaric II, a king of the Visigoths, who succeeded 
his father Euric in 484 A.D. He was killed in battle 
by the hand of Clovis, King of the Franks, in 507. The 
reign of Alaric II. was distinguished by the formation of 
a body of laws known as the " Breviarium Alaricianum," 
i.e. " Compilation or Abridgment of Alaric." 

Alary, s Js re , (GEORGE,) a French missionary, born 
in 1731 ; died in 1817. He preached in the Burmese 
Empire, and afterwards in China, making many converts. 
He returned to his native country about 1772. 

Alary, (JEAN,) a French poet, born at Toulouse in 
the sixteenth century. He wrote, besides other poems, 
" Virtue Triumphant over Fortune ," (1622,) and a prose 
work called " Abrege des longucs Etudes," ("Abridg 
ment of Long Studies.") 

Alary, (PIERRE JOSEPH,) a French academician, born 
in Paris in 1689. He was sub-preceptor to Louis XV., 
and was admitted into the French Academy in 1723. 
His Letters to Bolingbroke were published. Died in 1770. 

See BOLINGUROKE S "Letters." 

A Lasco, Alasco, or Alasko, a-las ko, (Ton\,) a 
Polish Protestant theologian, born in 1499. He avowed 
his conversion to the doctrines of the Reformation after 
he had become Bishop of Vcsprim in i ^29. He preached 
some years at Emden, and in the reign of Edward VI. 
went to London, where he had charge of a congregation, 
On the accession of Mary (1553) he was compelled to 
leave England, and returned to Germany. He wrote 
several works on theology. Died in Poland in 1560. 

See J. F. BERTRAM, " Griind.licher Bericht von Johann Alasco," 
3 vols., 1733. 

Al-Asliaree, (Al-Ashari,) al-ash a-ree , an Arabian 
doctor, born at Basrah about 860 A.D. He was the founder 
of a Mohammedan sect called Asharites. Died about 940. 

Alasko. See Alasco. 


Alatino, a-la-tee no, (MoSES,) a Jewish physician, 
born at Spoleto, Italy; lived about 1600. He translated 
into Latin Galen s treatise on Hippocrates work en 
titled " De Acre Locis ct Aquis." (See HIPPOCRATES.) 

Alaudarms. See ALLOUETTE. 

Alaux, t 16 , (JEAN,) a French historical painter, born 
at Bordeaux in 1786. He was patronized by Louis 
Philippe, and became a member of the Institute. 

Alava, d , da la-va, (MiGUEL RICAROO,) a Spanish 
general, born at Vittoria in 1771. He fought against the 
French in the Peninsular war, became aide-de-camp to 
Wellington, and obtained the rank of general of brigade 
about 1813. In May, 1822, he was chosen President of 
the Cortes, and in the next month fought for the Consti 
tution and the Cortes against the insurgents. His party 
having been subdued by French intervention, he went 
into exile in 1823. He returned to Spain after the death 
of Ferdinand, arid was sent as ambassador to London in 
1834. Died in 1843. 

Alava Esquivel, d , da la-va es-ke-vel , (DiEGO,) a 
Spanish prelate, born at Vittoria. He was successively 
Bishop of Astorga, of Avila, and of Cordova, and wrote 
a work on Councils, "De Consiliis Universalibus, (pub 
lished in 1582.) Died in 1562. 

Alava y Navarete, de, da a la-va e na-va-ra ta, 
(Don IGNACIO MARIA,) a Spanish admiral, born at Vit 
toria. lie entered the navy in 1766, and became rear- 
admiral in 1787. In 1794 he set out on a voyage of cir 
cumnavigation, during which he rectified many errors 
in the charts of the South Sea. He was second in com 
mand of the Spanish fleet at Trafalgar, (1805,) where he 
was wounded. In 181 7 he was raised to the rank of high- 
admiral. Died the same year. 

See CLARK S "Life of Nelson." 

Alawy, a-la wee, a Persian physician, bom at Shiraz 
in 1669, was patronized by Aurungzebe. Died in 1749. 

a, e,T, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, li, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fit; met; nSt; good; moon; 



Alaymo, Alainio, pronounced alike a-ll mo, or Al- 
caimo, al-kl mo, (MARCO ANTONIO,) an Italian physi 
cian, born in Sicily in 1590. He practised at Palermo, 
and was regarded as the first physician of his time in 
Sicily. Among his works is one called " Diadecticon," 
giving an account of different medicinal substances, 
(1637.) Died in 1662. 

Alba. See ALVA. 


Albacini, al-ba-chee nee, (CARLO,) a Roman sculp 
tor who Flourished in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century. lie was much employed in the restoration of 
antique statues. He was living in 1807. 

Alban, aul ban, SAINT, the first person put to death 
in England for embracing the Christian faith. He suf 
fered martyrdom in the time of Diocletian, about 285 
A.D. The monastery of Saint Albans was founded, in 
honour of him, in the eighth century. 

Albaiie. See ALBANI, (FRANCESCO.) 

Albaiieze, iTba naz , or Albaiiese, al-ba-na sa, a 
noted Italian singer, who lived in Paris. He died in 

Albani, al-ba nee, (ALESSANDRO,) [Lat. ALEXAN - 
DER ALBA NUS,] a nephew of Pope Clement XL, born 
at Urbino in 1692, was made cardinal in 1721. He was 
a liberal patron of learning and the arts. He made a 
very valuable collection of statues and other works of 
art. Died in 1779. 

See STKOCCIU, "De Vita Alex. Albani Cardinalis," 1790. 

Albani, (ANNIBALE,) CARDINAL, born at Urbino in 
1682, wrote "Memoirs of the City of Urbino," (1724.) 
Died about 1750. 

Albani, (FRANCESCO,) [in French, L ALBANE, IftK- 
bSn , a distinguished Italian painter, born at Bologna 
in 1578, was a pupil of Denis Calvart and of Ludovico 
Caracci. He painted mostly in Bologna and Rome ; 
in the latter city he executed some large frescos. His 
best works are small oil-pictures, treating of subjects 
from ancient poetry and mythology, and arc highly fin 
ished. In the opinion of Mengs, his studies of women 
surpass those of all other painters. He excelled also in 
rural prospects. He reproduced in many of his works 
"Venus Sleeping," "Diana Bathing," and similar sub 
jects. Among his master-pieces arc " The Four Ele 
ments," " The Toilet of Venus," a " Noli-me-Tangere," 
and an Annunciation. He had a family of twelve chil 
dren, who, as well as his wife, were remarkable for their 
beauty, and served him as models for his angels, Ve- 
nuses, and Cupids. The sculptors Algardi and Fiam- 
mingo, it is said, likewise studied Albani s children as 
models. Died at Bologna in 1660. 

See MALV ASIA, "Felsina Pittrice ;" PASSERI, "Vitede, 1 Pittori;" 
HEINECKEN, "Dictionnaire cles Artistes." 

Albani, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an Italian landscape- 
painter, was a brother of the preceding. Died in 1668. 


Albani, (GIOVANNI FRANCESCO,) a nephew of the 
cardinal Alessandro Albani, born at Urbino in 1720, and 
made cardinal in 1747. Died in 1809. 

Albani, (GlusEiM E,) an Italian- nobleman, born at 
Koine in 1750, became cardinal in 1801, and died in 1834. 


Albaiio, al-ba no, (GIOVANNI GIROLAMO,) [Lat. Jo- 
ii AN NES HIERON YMUS ALBA NUS,] an eminent Italian 
lawyer, born at Bergamo in 1504, made cardinal in 1570, 
and died in 1591. 

Albans, Saint, sent aul banz, (JoiiN OF,) a physi 
cian, philosopher, and theologian, born near Saint Al 
bans, in England. In 1198 he became chief physician 
to Philip II. of France; in 1228 lie joined the Domi 
nican order, and died about the middle of the thirteenth 

Albans, Saint, (DUCHESS OF,) an English actress, 
whose maiden name was Mellon, was married first to 
the rich banker Coutts, and again to the Duke of Saint 
Albans. Died in 1837. 

Albany, al ba-ne, (LouiSA,) COUNTESS OF, a daughter 
of Prince Stolberg-Gedern, was born in 17:53. She was 
married in 1772 to the Pretender Charles Stuart, a grand 
son of James II., from whom she was separated in 1780. 
Soon after the death of her husband (1788) she was 

f. as /; 9 as s; g hard; g , as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; t-h as in this. 

privately married to the poet Alficri, and settled at 
Florence. (See AT/FIERI.) He ascribed to her influence 
much of his success as an author. Died in 1824. 

Albarelli, al-ba-rel lee^jACOPO,) a Venetian sculptor, 
born about 1570; died in 1620. 

Albaspinus. See AUBESI-INE. 

Al-ba-teg ni-us, the Latin name of Albateiiee, (Al- 
bateni,) al-ba-ta nee, or Albatini, al-ba-tee nee, a cele 
brated Arabian astronomer, who died at Bagdad in 
929. He made an abridgment of the Almagest of Ptol 
emy, with a commentary, and wrote other valuable works. 

Albe, d , Due. See ALVA, DUKE OF. 

Al-Beidawi, (or -Beidhawi.) See BEIDAWEE. 

Albeladory or Al-Beladori, (an Arabian historian.) 

Al be-marle, (ARNOLD van Kep pel,) EARL OF, a 
Dutch gentleman, born in Gueldcrland in 1669. He 
became a favourite courtier and attendant of William, 
Prince of Orange, whom he accompanied to England in 
1688. "Courage, loyalty, and secrecy were common 
between him and Portland," says Macaulay. He was 
created Earl of Albemarle and Master of the Robes by 
William III., and was a rival of the Duke of Portland. 
He served as general in the war against Louis XIV., 
(1702-12.) Died in 1718. 

See MACAULAY S "History of England," vol. v. 

Albemarle, DUKE OF. See MONK. 

Albenas, d , dtlb na , or dal beh-na , QEAN JOSEPH,) . 
VICOMTE, a French military officer and writer, born near 
Nimes in 1760 ; died in 1824. 

Albenas, d , ([EAN Poldo pol do ,) a French anti 
quary, born at IS 1 imes in 1512, was a Protestant. He 
wrote a work on the antiquities of Nimes, (1560.) Died 
in 1565. 

Alber, al ber, [Lat. AL BERUS,] (ERASMUS,) a learned 
German poet and witty satirist, who was an intimate 
friend of Luther, and a zealous Protestant. He was 
born at Sprendlingen, a village of Hesse-Darmstadt, but 
the date of his birth is unknown. He was employed as 
teacher or preacher at Stadc, Magdeburg, and other 
places. He wrote, besides satires against the Roman 
Catholics, many sacred songs or hymns, abounding in 
original ideas. Died in 1553. 

See T- J- KORBEK, " Beitrag zu der Lebensbeschreibunt; Erasmi 

Albergati, al-beR-ga tee, (FABio,)an Italian political 
writer, born at Bologna. Died about 1605. 

Albergati, (NiccoLo,) an Italian, born at Bologna in 
1375, was made cardinal in 1426,, and died in 1443. 

Albergati-Capacelli, d , dal-beR-ga tce ka-pa-chel - 
Ice, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian marquis, senator of Bo 
logna, born in 1728, devoted himself to theatrical rep 
resentations and became a consummate actor. He also 
composed several comedies and farces. Died in 1804. 

Albergoni, al-beR-go nee, an Italian preacher and 
learned theologian, born at Milan in the latter part of 
the sixteenth century ; died in 1636. . 

Albergotti, al-beR-got tee, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian 
lawyer, born at Arezzo in 1304 ; died in 1376. 

Alberi, al ba-rec, (EuGENio,) an Italian writer, born 
at Padua in 1817. He published a Life of Catherine de 
Medicis, (1838,) and a work, " De Lavori di G. Galilei, " 


Alberic I. and II. Sec ALBERICUS I. and II. 

Alberic, tTba rek , a Benedictine monk, afterwards a 
bishop, born at Beauvais in 1080. In 1140 he con 
voked at Antioch a council which deposed the patriarch 
Rodolphus, (or Rudolphus.) Died in 1147. 

Alberic (aTba rek ) OF TROIS FONTAINES, (tR\va 
foN tAn ,) a French chronicler of the thirteenth century. 

Alberici, al-ba-ree chee, or Albrizzi, al-bRet see, 
(ENRICO,) an Italian painter of Bergamo, born in 1714; 
died in 1775. 

Alberico de Rosciate, al-ba-ree ko di ro-sha ta, 
an eminent Italian lawyer, born near Bergamo about 
the beginning of the fourteenth century. Died in 1354. 

Al-be-ri cus or Alberico (al-ba-rce ko) [Fr. AL- 
BERIC, Sl ba rek l I., a count of Tusculum, and con 
sul of Rome in the tenth century. 

Albericus II., a son of the preceding, married the 

Explanations, p. 23.) 



daughter of Hugo, King of Italy, and governed Rome 
with full authority from 936 till his death in 954. 

Al be-ro I. and II., the name of two bishop-princes 
of Liege" in the twelfth century. 

Alberoni, dl-ba-ro nee, (Giuno,) an Italian, born 
near Piaccnza in 1664. Having been appointed agent 
of the Duke of Parma at the court of Madrid, he won 
the favour of Philip V., obtained a cardinal s hat, and 
was made prime minister of Spain about 1716. Aiming 
to restore to that country the power she had possessed 
under Philip II., Alberoni, as little restrained by sound 
judgment as by principle or the laws of nations, without 
an? declaration of war, surprised and captured Caghari 
and other towns of Sardinia then belonging to the Em 
peror of Germany. All Europe cried out against this 
violation of the rights of nations, and the ambitious car 
dinal was, in consequence, deprived of his office, in 
1719, and banished from Spain. He retired to Italy, 
where he died in 1 792. 

See ROUSSET DE MISSY, "Vie d Alberoni," 1719; G. MOORE, 
" Life of Cardinal Alberoni," 1806. 

Albers, al bers, (HEINRICH PHILIPP,) a German phy 
sician, born at Hameln in 1768; died in 1830. 

Albers, (Jo HAN N ABRAHAM,) a distinguished Ger 
man physician, born at Bremen in 1772. He first in 
troduced among his countrymen a knowledge of the doc 
trines of Broussais and the discoveries of Laennec. Died 
in 1821. 

physician, born at Dorsten, near Wesel, in 1805. He 
became professor of medicine at Bonn in 1831. Among 
his works is a " Manual of General Pathology," (2 vols., 

Albert, al bert, [Ger. ALBRECHT, al bRCKt,] I., Duke 
of Austria, son of Rudolph of Habsburg, was born in 
1248, and elected Emperor of Germany in 1298, in the 
place of Adolphus of Nassau, who had been deposed. 
He was distinguished for his avarice, cruelty, and for an 
all-grasping and unprincipled ambition. In 1308 a con 
spiracy of the nobles was formed against him, and he 
was killed by his own nephew, John surnamed the Par 

See PISZZL, " Oesterreichische Biographie ;" J. C. PFISTER, " Ge- 
schichte der Teutschen." 

Albert (Albrecht) II., (or THE LAME,) Duke of 
Austria, was a younger son of the preceding. He was 
born in 1298, began to reign in 1330, and died in 1358. 

Albert III., Duke of Austria, a son of Albert the 
Lame, born in 1348, died in 1395. He was a distin 
guished patron of the arts and sciences. 

See ERSCH und CRUDER, " Allgemcine Encyklopaedie ;" LUDEN, 
Histoire de I Aiieaiagne." 

Albert (Albrecht) IV., Duke of Austria, born in 
1377, succeeded his father, Albert III., in 1395. He 
was a nephew of Sigismund, King of Hungary, and of 
Wenceslaus of Bohemia, each of whom appointed Albert 
his successor. Died in 1404. 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 

Albert (Albrecht) V., Duke of Austria, son of Al 
bert IV., was born in 1397, and succeeded his father in 
1404. He distinguished himself by his activity against 
the Hussites, over whom he gained several victories. 
In 1435 he drove the Turks from Hungary ; and on 
the death of Sigismund, his father-in-law, the Hunga 
rians chose Albert for their king. In 1438 he was 
elected Emperor, and thus became Albert II. of Ger 
many. He died in 1439. 

See WENK, " Historia Albert! II.," 1740; HORMAYR, " Oester- 
reichischer Plutarch; 1 ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allgemeine Ency .dc- 

Albert (Albrecht) VI., Duke of Austria, surnamed 
THE PRODIGAL, born in 1418, was a son of Ernest. 
The dominions of Ernest were divided, in 1438, between 
Albert and his brother Frederick III., Emperor of Ger 
many. Died in 1463. 

Albert, (Albrecht,) Archduke of Austria, a son of 
the emperor Maximilian II., was born in 1559. He was 
appointed Governor of the Low Countries by Philip II. 
in 1596, and married Isabella, (Elizabeth,) a daughter 
of that king. In an attempt to conquer the Dutch, he 

was defeated by Maurice of Nassau at Nieuport, in 
1600. He took Ostend, after a memorable siege of three 
years, in 1604. The war was suspended in 1609 by a 
truce of twelve years. Died in 1621. 

See LE MIKE, "Vita Albert! Pli," 16.22; CHARLES DUBOIS, 
"Histoive d Albert et d Isabelie," 1^47 ; DK THOU, "Histoire." 

Albert ur Aibrecht, (FRIKDRICH RUDOLPH,) ARCH 
DUKE, an Austrian prince and general, son of the Arch 
duke Charles, the famous commander against Napoleon, 
was born in Vienna in 1817. He fought under Radetzky 
at Novara in 1849, and was appointed Governor of Hun 
gary in 1851. Having obtained command of the south 
ern army, lie defeated the Italians at Custozza, about 
the ist of July, 1866, soon after which he succeeded 
Bcnedek ?s commander-in-chief. 

Albert (Albrecht) of Baircuth, surnamed AL- 

of Brandenburg. He was a man of dissolute habits. 
He was defeated in 1553 by the Elector Moritz of Sax 
ony, and his allies. Died in 1555. 

Albert (Albrecht) I. of Bavaria, son of the em 
peror Lewis (Ludwig) V., succeeded to the territory of 
Lower Bavaria in 1349 ; died in 1404. 

Albert (Albrecht) IV. of Bavaria, surnamed THE 
WISE, succeeded to the government in 1463, and, turn 
ing all his attention to the consolidation and organiza 
tion of his estates, contributed greatly to the rank and 
influence which Bavaria has since attained among the 
powers of Europe. Died in 1508. 

Albert (Albrecht) V. of Bavaria, surnamed THE 
MAGNANIMOUS, succeeded his father, William IV., in 
1550. He was a distinguished patron of learning and 
the arts. Died in 1579, aged about fifty. 

Albert I., Margrave of Brandenburg, surnamed THE 
BEAR, was born about 1106. He is called the founder 
of the house of Brandenburg. Died about 1170. 

Albert II., Margrave of Brandenburg, succeeded his 
brother, Otho.II., in 1206. Died in 1221. 

Albert III., Margrave of Brandenburg, surnamed 
ACHILLES, and ULYSSES, on account of his bravery and 
wisdom, born in 1414, was renowned for martial ex 
ploits. He was a son of Frederick I. He commanded 
the army of the emperor, in 1471, against the Duke of 
Bavaria. Died in 1486. 

Albert (Albrecht) of Brandenburg, a grandson of 
the preceding, and first Duke of Prussia, was born in 
1490. In 1511 he was elected Grand Master of the 
Teutonic Order, who held Prussia proper as a fief of 
the King of Poland. In 1525 he abandoned the vows 
of his order, became a Protestant, and received Prussia 
as a hereditary fief of the crown of Poland. Thus the 
dominion of the Teutonic Knights was brought to an 
end. Died in 1568. 

Albert, (Albrecht,) Duke of Brunswick, called THE 
GREAT, born in 1236, was a son of Duke Otho. He was 
an energetic and warlike prince. Died in 1279. 

Albert, (Albrecht,) Archbishop of Magdeburg, 
waged war against the emperor Otho, and promoted 
the election of Frederick II. in 1212. Died about 1232. 

Albert, (Albrecht,) an archbishop of Magdeburg 
and Mentz, the son of John Cicero, Elector of^Bran- 
denburg, w r as born in 1489. He was elected Archbishop 
of Magdeburg in 1513, Archbishop and Prince Elector of 
Mentz in 1514, and raised to the dignity of cardinal in 
1518. Died in 1545. He was a patron of literature, 
and possessed popular manners, but was unfitted by hki 
want of energy and courage to contend with the storms 
which prevailed in Germany at the time of the Reformation. 

Albert (Albrecht) of Mecklenburg, a son of Al 
brecht, Duke of Mecklenburg, was chosen King of Swe 
den in 1363. He waged war against Margaret, Queen 
of Denmark, wHo gained a decisive victory in 1388 and 
deprived him of the crown. Died in 1412. 

Albert, (Albrecht,) Archbishop of Mentz in the 
twelfth century, was a turbulent politician, and an 
enemy of the emperor Henry V. Died in 1137. 

Albert (Albrecht) I., Duke and Elector of Saxony, 
began to reign in 1212. He accompanied the emperor 
Frederick II. in a crusade against the Saracens in 1228. 
Died in 1260. 

Albert (Albrecht) II. of Saxony, was a son of the 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, it, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; ndt; good; moon; 




preceding. He contributed to the election of three em 
perors, Rudolph 1., Adolph, and Albert I. Died about 
1 300. 

Albert (Albrecht) III. succeeded his brother Ru 
dolph as Elector of Saxony in 1418. Died in 1422. 

Albert, tl baiit , a French revolutionist, whose proper 
name is ALEXANDRE MARTIN, was b.>rn in Oise about 
181^, and became a mechanic. 1111840 he founded a 
journal called " L Atelier," ("The Workshop.") He 
was a member of the provisional government formed in 
February, 1848, and of the Constituent Assembly 
which met in May of that year. For his alleged com 
plicity in a sedition of May 15, 1848, he was sentenced 
to deportation. 

Albert THE BLESSED, Patriarch of Jerusalem, born in 
the diocese of Parma about 1150, was the legislator of 
the order of the Carmelites, (or White Friars.) He was 
chosen Patriarch of Jerusalem in 1204, and assassinated 
at Acre in 1214. 



Albert, (ERASMUS.) See ALBER. 



Albert (Albrecht) vox HALBERSTADT, (fon hal ber- 
stat ,) a German poet or minnesinger, wrote about 1210-20. 

Albert, al beitt, (HEINRICH,) a German lyric poet and 
musician, born at Lobenstein, Saxony, in 1604. He pro 
duced sacred and secular airs and songs which arc highly 
esteemed. He was organist of the cathedral of Kpnigs- 
berg from 1631 till his death. Died in 1668. 


Albert,( PRINCE,) or, more fully, Albert Francis Au 
gustus Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha and Consort of Queen Victoria of Great Britain, 
was born near Coburg in August, 1819. He was the 
second son of Duke Ernest I. He visited England in 
1838, and was married to Victoria in February, 1840. 

In 1842 he was elected Chancellor of the University 
of Cambridge. He obtained the rank of field-marshal 
in the British army and colonel of the Grenadier 
Guards. While maintaining a proper reserve and neu 
trality with respect to political parties, he acquired a 
great influence in the public councils, and merited the 
confidence of the queen by his discretion and other 
qualifications which rendered him her best adviser. He 
was the efficient chairman of the Council of the Great 
Exhibition of 1851, and in 1859 was chosen president 
of the British Association for the Advancement of Sci 
ence. Prince Albert was interested in the promotion of 
the fine arts, of agriculture, and, we may add, of every 
benevolent enterprise. By the manner in which he 
passed through the somewhat peculiar trials of his ex 
ceptional position, in which there were no safe prece 
dents to guide him, he won the general approbation of 
the British people. Died on the I4th of December, 
1 86 1. His death was regarded as an irreparable loss, 
not merely to the queen, but to the nation of which he 
had been king in all but the name. 

See "Early Years of His Royal Highness the Prince Consort." 
1867. ^TT-H7i &# <l - .>7. v 



Albert, d , (CHARLES.) See LUYNES, Due DE. 

Albert, d , dSTbaiR , (Louis JOSEPH,) Prince of Griin- 
berghen or Grimbergen, born in 1672, was a grandson of 
Constable de Lnynes. He entered the service of the em 
peror Charles VII. He published " The Dream of Alci- 
biades," (1735.) Died in 1758. 

Albert, d , dSl bain , (I Ari.,) born in 1703, was made 
Archbishop of Sens in 1753, and Cardinal of Lnynes in 
1756. Died in 1788. He was distinguished for his libe 
rality of mind and for his high moral character. 

Albert d Ailly. See CHAULNES, Due DE. 

Albert Diirer. See DUKER. 

Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, the eldest son of 
Prince Albert, noticed above, and Queen Victoria, and 
heir apparent to the British crown, was born on the 9th 
of November, 1841. Besides being Prince of Wales, he 

is Prince of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Duke of Cornwall and 
Rothesay, and Baron Renfrew. In 1860 he visited the 
United States, where he was received with flattering de 
monstrations of popular favour. In the winter of 1861-2 
he set out on a tour to Syria, Palestine, Egypt, etc. He 
married, in March, 1863, the Princess Alexandra of Den 
mark, and has a son, Albert Edward, born in January, 1 864. 

Albertano da Brescia, al-beR-ta no da bResh ya, an 
Italian writer, who was magistrate of Brescia in the early 
part of the thirteenth century. 

Albertazzo, Marquis of Este. See ESTE. 

Alberti, al-bCR/tee, (ARiSTOTiLE,)called alsoRidolfo 
Fioravanti, rc-dol fo fe-o-ra-van tee, an architect and 
engineer, born at Bologna, was one of the greatest me 
chanicians of the fifteenth century. 

Albeiti, (BENEDETTO,) a Florentine chief of the popu 
lar party in the revolution which occurred at Florence in 
1379-80. He was exiled in 1387. 

Alberti, (CHERUBINO,) a brother of Giovanni, noticed 
below, a painter and noted engraver, was born in 1552. 
Died in 1615. 

Alberti, (DURANTE,) an Italian painter, born at Borgo 
San Sepolcro in 1538. He worked in Rome, where he 
painted in fresco and oil. Died in 1613. 

Alberti, (FiLiPPO,) an Italian poet, born at Perugia in 
1548, was a friend of Tasso. Died in 1612. 

Alberti, al-beR tee, (GEORG WILHELM,) a German 
Protestant minister, born at Thundern, in Hanover, in 
1723. He published "Letters on the State of Religion 
and Science in Great Britain," (1752-54,) which are 
commended by Guizot in the "Biographic Universelle." 
Died in 1758. 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyclopaedic." 

Alberti, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian painter, born at Borgo 
San Sepolcro in 1558, was a brother of Cherubino. He 
was unrivalled in his age for foreshortenings of the fig 
ure, and excelled in perspective and landscape. He 
painted frescos in the Vatican for Clement VIII. Died 
in 1601. 

Alberti, (JoiiANN,) a German jurist and Orientalist of 
the sixteenth century, born at Widmannstadt. He was 
appointed Chancellor of Austria by Ferdinand I., and 
published an "Epitome of the Koran," with critical 
notes, (1543.) Died in 1559. 

Alberti, (JoiiANN,) a Dutch theologian and profound 
scholar, was born at Assen in 1698. He became profes 
sor of theology at Leyden in 1740. He was well versed 
in Greek literature, and had a high reputation as a critic. 
His greatest merit consists in his labours to perfect the 
Lexicon of Hesychius, of which he published an excel 
lent edition, 2 vols., 1746-66. Died in 1762. 

Alberti, (JOHANN GUSTAV WILHELM,) a German 
manufacturer, born at Hamburg in 1757. He invented, 
about 1817, a machine for spinning linen. Died in 1837. 

Alberti, (LEANDRO,) a learned Italian friar, born at 
Bologna in 1479. He wrote, besides other works, a 
" History of Bologna," (1541-43,) and a "Description of 
all Italy," (1550.) Died in 1552. 

Alberti, (LEON BATTISTA,) an eminent Italian archi 
tect and philosopher, born of a noble family, at Genoa, 
(or, as some writers say, at Florence,) in 1404. He was 
also a poet and a painter, and highly distinguished by his 
general learning and personal character. He succeeded 
to the direction of several works which Brunelleschi left 
unfinished at Florence, where he completed the Pitti 
Palace and was one of the restorers of the classic style. 
The church of St. Francis at Rimini is called his mas 
ter-piece. He also gained a high reputation as a writer 
on art, by his " Treatise on Architecture " (" De Re yEdi- 
ficatoria," 1485) and treatises on painting (1540) and 
sculpture. Died in 1472. 

See G. B. NICCOLINI, " Elogio di L. B. Alberti," 1819 ; MILIZIA. 
"Vite degli Architetti ;" TIKAIIOSCHI, "Storia della Letteratura 
Italiana;" QUATREMERE DE QUINCY, "Histoiredes plus celebres 
Architecles. " 

Alberti (al-beVtee) or Albert, (MICHAEL,) a learned 
German physician and medical writer, born at Nu 
remberg in 1682. In 1716 he was appointed professor 
of medicine, and in 1719 professor of philosophy, in the 
University of Halle. Died in 1757. 

as /:; 9 as s; g hard; g as /.- G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

anations, p. 23.) 




Albert!, (ROMANO,) an Italian painter and writer on 
art, born at Borgo San Sepolcro, lived about 1600. 

Alberti, (SALOMON,) an eminent German physician 
and anatomist, born at Naumburg in 1540, was appointed 
professor of anatomy and philosophy in the University 
of Wittenberg in 1576, and died in 1600. His writings 
and discoveries entitle him to a high rank among mod 
ern anatomists. 

Albert!, (VALENTIN,) a German theologian, born in 
Silesia in 1635, became professor of theology at Leipsic. 
He wrote many polemical works on questions of theology. 
His "Compendium of the Law of Nature" ("Compen 
dium Juris Naturae," 1673) was written in opposition to 
a work of Puffendorf ; it has often been reprinted. Died 
in 1697. 

Albert! di Villanova, al-beVtee dc vel-la-no va, 
(FRANCESCO,) an Italian, bora at Nice in 1731, known 
as the author of several popular dictionaries. His Dic- 
tionnaire Italien-Frar^ais et Frai^ais-Italien" had a high 
reputation, and has passed through a number of editions. 
Died in 1800. 

Albertinelli, al-beR-te-nel lee, (MARIOTTO,) an emi 
nent Florentine painter, born about 1475, imitated and 
equalled Fra Bartolommeo. He painted religious sub 
jects at Florence and Rome. " The Visitation of Eliza 
beth to the Virgin " is his master-piece. Innocenzio da 
Imola was his pupil. Died about 1520. 

See VASARI, " Lives of the Painters. " 

Albertini, al-bCR-tce nee, or Albert!, al-bea tee, 
(ANNIBALE,) an Italian medical writer, lived about 1600, 
and wrote "On Diseases of the Heart," (" De Affec- 
tionibus Cordis," 1618.) 

Albertini, [Lat. ALBERTI NUS,] (FRANCESCO,) an Ital 
ian priest and antiquary, born at Florence in the fifteenth 
century. His chief work is one on the Antiquities of 
Rome, entitled " On the Wonders of Ancient and 
Modern Rome," (" De Mirabilibus novas ct veteris Urbis 
Romx," 1505.) 

Albertini, (GIORGIO FRANCESCO,) an Italian theologi 
cal writer, born in Istria in 1732. He became professor 
of theology in the University of Padua. Died in 1810. 

Albertini, (!PPOLITO FRANCESCO,) an eminent Italian 
physician, born at Crevalcore in 1662. He studied under 
Malpighi, whom he succeeded as professor of medicine 
in the University of Bologna. Died in 1738, leaving a 
valuable essay on diseases of the heart. 

Albertini, (PAOLO,) an Italian priest, writer, and po 
litical agent, born at Venice about 1430. Died in 1475. 

Albertini, von, fon al-beR-tee nee, QOIIANN BAP 
TIST,) an eminent Moravian minister, born at Neuwied, 
on the Rhine, in Germany, in 1769. He wrote hymns 
which display much poetical talent. He was a man of 
extensive acquirements and most estimable character. 
His sermons are remarkable for beautiful simplicity of 
style. He was made a bishop in 1814. Died near Herrn- 
hut in 1831. 

Al-ber-ti nus, (/GID IUS,) a German satirist, born 
at Deventer, in Holland, in 1560; died in 1620. He is 
remarkable for having written in the German tongue at 
a time when Latin was almost universally employed by 
the learned men of Germany. His works were very 
popular in his time. 

Alberto!!!, al-beR-tol lee, (FERDINANDO,) an Italian 
architect, was a nephew of Giocondo, whom he suc 
ceeded at the Academy of Milan. Died in 1846. 

Albertolli, (GIACOMO,) an Italian architect, born in 
1761, became professor of civil architecture in the Uni 
versity of Padua. Died in 1805. 

Albertolli, (GIOCONDO,) a distinguished Italian archi 
tect, born in 1742, was appointed professor of decorative 
architecture at Milan about 1775. Died in 1840. 

Albertrandy, al-beR-tRan de, (JOHN CHRISTIAN,) an 
eminent Polish historian, linguist, and numismatist, born 
at Warsaw in 1731. He became librarian to King Stan 
islaus, who appointed him Bishop of Zenopolis. Among 
his works are " Roman Antiquities explained by Medals," 
(3 vols., 1805-08,) and a " History of Poland during the 
Last Three Centuries." Died in 1808. 

Albertsen, al bSRt-sen, (HAMILTON HENDRIK,) a 
Danish writer of Latin poetry, born at Copenhagen in 
1592. Died in Egypt about 1630. 

Albertucci de Borselli, al-beR-toot chee da boR- 
sel lee, (GIROLAMO,) an Italian preacher, and chronicler, 
born at Bologna about 1432. Died in 1497. 

Albertus, al-beR tus, a German painter and engraver, 
born in Saxony. Died about 1680. 

Alber tus Mag nus, [Fr. ALBERT LE GRAND,trbaiR 
leh gRON,] (i.e. "Albert trie Great,") a celebrated school 
man and philosopher, born at Lauingen, in Bavaria, 
about 1 200, was sometimes called Albert de Boll- 
stadt (bol stat) and Alber tus Gro tus. He occupies 
the first rank among the philosophers and theologians of 
the middle ages. He became a Dominican friar in his 
youth, and, after lecturing on theology for three years at 
Paris, was chosen provincial of his order in 1 254. During 
a long period he gave public lectures at Cologne. He 
was appointed Bishop of Ratisbjn in 1260, but about 
1263 he resigned that office, which he had never soli 
cited. He died in 1280. As a man, he was remarkable 
for an enthusiastic love of knowledge, for modesty, and 
for a noble and disinterested spirit. He left a great num 
ber of works, which treat of logic, theology, physics, and 
metaphysics. Thomas Aquinas was his disciple. 

See RUDOI.PHUS NOVIOMAGEXSIS, "De Vita Albert! Magni," 
1499 ; RAPHAELS KADI, " Ristretto della prodigiosa Vita del Alberto 
Magno," i6So-S8; PKTRUS DE PRUSSIA, "Vita Albert! Magni;" 
ECHAKD, "Scriptures Ordinis Praedicatorum ;" GAUSI.INUS, "Synop 
sis Vitae Alberti Magni,". 1630; LUUWIG CHOULA.NT, "Albertus 
Magnus." Tauehft f sSc,r+tcaJ-x rnrtirt~e7/tS: / ,.,,.*, nrc. . 

Al-ber tus Sta-den sis, an abbot of Stade, Hanover, 
in the thirteenth century, known as the author of the 
"Chronicon Alberti," (i.e. "Chronicle of Albertus,") 
containing an account of many events which occurred in 
the north of Germany in the middle ages down to 1256. 

Alberus. See ALBER. 

Albi, Sl be , (HENRI,) a French Jesuit, born in Prov 
ence in 1590. He wrote biographical notices of several 
religious persons. Died in 16^9. 

Albicaiite, al-be-kan ta, (GIOVANNI ALBERTO,) a 
mediocre Milanese poet, who flourished about the middle 
of the sixteenth century. 

Al-bi cus, (SIGISMUNDUS,) or Albicus OF PRAGUE, 
called also Al bic or Albik and Albicius, al-bish e-us, 
a distinguished physician, born in Moravia in the latter 
part of the fourteenth century. He taught medicine at 
Prague for many years, and was physician to Wences- 
laus IV., King of Bohemia, by whom in 1409 he was 
made Archbishop of Prague. He held this office only 
about four years. Died in 1427. 

Albignac, d , daTben yik , (Louis ALEXANDRE,) 
BARON, a French military officer, born in Gascony in 
1739. He served in Hindostan previous to the peace 
of 1783, and afterwards commanded the tenth division 
under the French Directory. He retired from service 
in 1798, and died in 1820. 

COUNT, a French royalist general, born at Milhaucl in 
1775 ; died in 1824. 

Albiii, aul bin, (ELEAZAR,) an English artist and 
painter in water-colours, published in 1731 a "Natural 
History of Birds," with 205 fine coloured plates ; also 
a work on English Insects, in Latin, (1731,) and the 
same in English in 1749, with 100 copper-plates, coloured. 
The figures were correctly drawn from the life by him 

Albina, al-bee na, (GIUSEPPE,) an Italian painter, 
sculptor, and architect, lived at Palermo, and died in 

Albini, al-bee nee, (ALESSANDRO,) a distinguished 
Italian painter, born at Bologna in 1568, was a pupil 
and coadjutor of the Caracci. Among his works is a 
" Prometheus bringing Fire from Heaven." Died in 1646. 

Albini, al-bee nee, (FRANZ JOSEPH,) a distinguished 
German lawyer and statesman, born at Saint Goar, in 
Rhenish Prussia, in 1748. His great fame as a jurist 
introduced him to the notice of the emperor Joseph II., 
who conceived a warm affection for him and gave him a 
place in the imperial cabinet. After the death of the 
emperor, in 1790, Albini was invited to the court of the 
Elector of Mcntz, (Mayence,) and soon after was placed 
at the head of the government. From 1792 to the deatli 
of the elector in 1802, his prince allowed him to manage 
everything ; and he proved himself worthy of the trust 

a, e, T, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, li, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; mt; not; good; moon; 




He not only showed distinguished ability in the manage 
ment of all civil affairs, but also on a number of occasions 
evinced military talents of a high order. Died in 1816. 

Albiiii, de, cki al-bec nec, (WILLIAM,) Earl of A run- 
del, the son of a Norman baron who followed William 
the Conqueror to England, lie married Adelais, queen- 
dowager of Henry I., by whom he obtained the castle of 
Arundel and other estates. He took an active part in 
those troublous times, and died in 1176, during the reign 
of Henry II. 

Albino, .il-bee no, (GIOVANNI,) [Lat. JOAN NES AL- 
iu xL"s,J a Neapolitan statesman and historian, who lived 
towards the close of the fifteenth century. He was a 
counsellor to Ferdinand of Aragon, who appears to have 
consulted him in military as well as in civil affairs. He 
wrote a history of the events of his own time. 

Al-bi-iio-va nus, (C.-uus PEDO,) a Latin poet of the 
Augustan age, was a friend of Ovid, who addressed to 
him one of his " Epistolae ex Ponto," (" Letters from 
Pontus.") He is said to have excelled in epic poetry, 
and is supposed to have written an epic poem on the 
exploits of Germanicus, which is lost. There is extant 
a beautiful elegy on the death of Drusus, which is as 
cribed to Albinovanus. 

Al-bi nus, [Gr. A/&Yoo,] a Platonic philosopher, who 
lived at Smyrna about i^o A.D., was one of the teachers 
of Galen. He wrote an " Introduction to the Dialogues 
of Plato," which is extant. 

See FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Gr:eca." 

Albi nus, a Roman procurator of Judea in the time 
ot Nero. He succeeded Portius Festus. 

Al-bi nus, [Ger. pron. al-bce nus,] (ADRIAN,) a Ger 
man professor of law, born at Lauban in 1513, was a 
friend of Luther. Died in 1590. 

Albinus, (BERNARD,) a German physician, born at 
Dessau in 1653, was appointed professor of medicine in 
the University of Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1681, and 
in 1702 to the chair of anatomy at Lcyden. Died in 1721. 

Albinus, (BERNARD SIEGFRIED,) an eminent Ger 
man anatomist and physician, son of the preceding, was 
born at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1696 or 1697. He was 
educated at Leyden, and on the death of his father in 
1721 was unanimously chosen professor of anatomy and 
surgery in the university. In 1745 he became professor 
of therapeutics, and held this office till his death in 1770. 
As an anatomist he was distinguished for the accuracy 
ot his observations and the clearness and fulness of his 
descriptions. Almost all his works are on anatomy. His 
excellent " History of the Muscles of Man" (" Historia 
Musculorum Hominis," 1734) is highly praised by Haller. 

See BOERHAAVE, "Oratio de Vita et Obitu B. Albini," 1721; 
HALLER, " Bibliotheca Anatomica." 

Albinus, (CHRISTIAN BERNARD,) a brother of the 
preceding, was born near the close of the seventeenth 
century. He became professor of anatomy at Utrecht, 
where he died in 1752. 

Al-bi nus, (CLODius,) a native of Adrumctum, in 
Africa, became Roman governor of Gaul about 180 
A.D., and defeated the Frisian tribes beyond the Rhine. 
Prompted by jealousy, the emperor Scverus endeavoured 
to remove him by assassination ; but, this proving unsuc 
cessful, the two leaders met in battle near Lyons. Al 
binus was defeated and slain in 197. He appears to have 
been at one time associated with Severus in the empire ; 
at all events, he reigned three years in Gaul and Britain, 
with the title of Caesar. 

Albinus Flaccus. See ALCUIN. 

Albinus, (FRIEDRICH BERNARD,) born at Leydcn in 
1715, was a brother of Bernard Siegfried, whoirThe suc 
ceeded as professor of anatomy in 1745. His chief work 
is a physiological treatise "On the Nature of Man," 
(} De Natura Hominis," 1775.) Died in 1778. 

Albirms, (JOHAXN GEORG,) a German poet, born at 
Naumburg, was a son of an inferior poet of the same 
name, (1624-79.) The son wrote in German a number 
of popular idyls and hymns, a volume of which was pub 
lished in 1686. He was living in 1714. 

See I. B. LIEDI.ER, " Xachrichten von J. G. Albinus Leben, 1 


Albinus, (or Weiss, wTss,) (PKTKUS, or PETER,) a 
learned German writer and historian, who was born in I 

Saxony and lived in the latter half of the sixteenth cen 
tury. Died at Dresden in 1598. 

Al bl-on, [Gr. A/,6tuv or AAefituv,] a fabulous giant, 
regarded as a son of Neptune. He and his brother 
Bergion attacked Hercules near the Rhone, and were 
killed by that hero. 

Albissoii, Sl be sdx , QEAX,) a French lawyer and 
politician, born at Montpellier in 1732, was made tribune 
in 1802. He assisted in the preparation of several por 
tions of Napoleon s celebrated Code. Died in 1810. 

Albitte, tl bet , (ANTOINE Louis,) a French Jacobin, 
member of the Legislative Assembly in 1791, distin 
guished for his violence and cruelty. He was a leader 
of the desperate revolt of May 20, 1795, against the 
Convention. For this he was condemned to death, but 
succeeded in concealing himself till the danger was over. 
He perished in the retreat from Russia in 1812, after 
he had served some years as sub-inspector of reviews. 

Albizzi, al-bit sce or al-bet see, a Florentine family 
which occupies a considerable place in the history of 
Florence during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 
The most worthy of notice are PIETRO, RINALDO, and 
TOMMASO ALHIZZI, noticed below. 

Albizzi, [Lat. ALBICIUS, al-bish e-us,] (BARTOLOM- 
MEO,) an Italian friar, born in Tuscany, was the author 
of a work called " Conformities of the Life of Saint 
Francis with that of Jesus Christ." Erasmus Alber pub 
lished in 1542 a refutation of this work, entitled "The 
Barefooted Monk s Jester and Alcoran," with a preface 
by Luther. Died in 1401. 

Albizzi, (PIETRO,) the leader of the Guelph party at 
Florence, was put to death in 1379 by the Ghibelines. 

Albizzi, (RINALDO,) a son of Tommaso, noticed be 
low, born towards the close of the fourteenth century. 
He became involved in an unsuccessful contest with the 
family of the Medici, and died in exile at Ancona in 1452. 

Albizzi, (TOMMASO,) born in 1347, was a nephew of 
Pietro and father of Rinaldo. He was chief magistrate 
of the republic from 1382 to 1417, which is accounted 
the most glorious period in the history of Florence. 
Died in 1417. 

Albo, al bo, (JOSEPH, or JOSE,) an eminent Spanish 
rabbi, born at Soria in the latter part of the fourteenth 
century. He wrote a very able work in defence of his 
religion, entitled " The Foundations of the Jewish 
Faith." Died in 1428. 

Al boiii, [Lat. ALROI XUS,] the son of Alduin, be 
came King of the Longobards on the death of his father, 
about 553. Alduin had defeated the Gepidce, who occu 
pied the countries corresponding with the modern prov 
inces of Slavonia and Servia. Alboin nearly extermin 
ated that nation, killed Cunimund, their king, and com 
pelled his daughter Rosamund to become his wife. He 
next (about 570) turned his arms against the northern 
provinces of Italy, and, conquering everything in his 
course, excepting Mantua and Padua, advanced as far as 
Spoletum, (or Spoleto.) In 573, Alboin, after drinking 
deeply at a banquet at Verona, ordered a cup, which he 
had made out of the skull of Cunimund, to be brought 
and invited his wife Rosamund to drink out of it. This 
outrage roused her to deadly vengeance. She conspired 
with two of his officers, and they killed the king when 
he was sunk in his afternoon sleep. 

See GIBBON, "History ot" the Decline and Fall of the Roman Em 
pire," chap. xlv. ; MURATORI, "Annali d ltalia." 


Albon, d , dal box , (CLAUDE CAMILLE FRANCOIS,) 
a French litterateur, born at Lyons in 1753. He wrote 
a discourse on the " History, Government, Arts, etc. of 
some Nations of Europe," (4 vols.) Died in 1788. 

Alboni, al-bo nee, (MARIETTA,) a celebrated Italian 
singer, born at Cesena in 1824, was a pupil of Rossini. 
She made her debut at Milan in 1841, with a success 
which was repeated, or surpassed, at Vienna and Saint 
Petersburg. In 1847 her performances excited great 
enthusiasm in London and Paris, and a few years later 
she visited the United States. Her voice is a contralto 
of great purity, compass, and flexibility. " There never 
existed a voice more bewitching," says M. Bousquet, 
" whose tone was more limpid and sweet, whose sono 

c as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, v., guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (^^ See Explanations, p. 23 




rousness was more homogeneous in its different regis 
ters." She was married to the Marquis de Pepoli. 
See "Nouvelle Biographic Ge narale." 
Alboni, (PAOLO,) a distinguished landscape-painter 
of Bologna. He worked in Vienna from 171010 1722, 
and afterwards at Bologna. Died in 1730. 
Al-Borak or Al-Burak. See BORAK. 
Alboresi, al-bo-ra see, (GiACOMO,) an Italian painter 
of architecture, born at Bologna in 1632. He painted 
(with M. Pasio) the west facade of the cathedral ot 
Florence. Died in 1677. 

Albornotius. See ALBORNOZ, (GiL ALVAREZ CA- 

Albornoz, al-boR-noth , (DIEGO FELIPE,) a Spanish 
historian, lived about 1650, and published " Castilla Po- 
litica y Cristiana," 1666.) 

Albornoz, de, daal-boR-n6th , [Lat. ALBORNO TIUS,] 
(GiL ALVAREZ CARILLO,) or simply .ZBgidius de Al 
bornoz, a noble Spaniard, bom at Cuenca about the be 
ginning of the fourteenth century. He was chaplain and 
counsellor to Alfonso XI. of Castile, who raised him to 
the archbishopric of Toledo. After the accession of 
Pedro the Cruel to the throne, Albornoz, having incurred 
his displeasure, fled to Avignon to Pope Clement VI., 
by whom he was made cardinal. Innocent VI., Clem 
ent s successor, subsequently appointed him his legate, 
in which capacity Albornoz showed great wisdom as 
well as military skill, and in a few years recovered a 
multitude of Italian towns which had become disaffected 
or openly rebellious to the Papal see. He died in 1367. 

See MURATORI, " Annali d ltalia;" STEPHANO, " Vita del Cardi- 
nale Albornoz;" SEPULVEDA, "DeVitaet Rebus gestis G. Aibor- 

Albosius, al-bo she-us, or Aillebout, fl boo or 
S ye-boo , QEAN,) a French physician, born at Autun, 
published in 1587 a description of a remarkable mon 
strosity, (a petrified embryo,) entitled " Portentosum 
Lithopsedium sive Embryon petrifactum." 

Albrand, tl bRON , (FORTUNE,) a French Orientalist, 
born about 1 795, planted a colony in Madagascar. Died 
in 1827. 




Albrecht, (ACHILLES.) See ALBERT. 

Albrecht, al bReKt, (BALTHASAR AUGUSTIN,) a Ger 
man painter, born at Berg, near Munich, in 1687. Died 
at Munich in 1765. 

Albrecht, (JoHANN LORENZ,) a German musician 
and composer, born near Muhlhausen in 1732. Died in 


Albrecht, (JoHANN SEBASTIAN,) a German naturalist 
and writer, born in 1695, lived at Coburg. 

Albrecht, ( JOHANN WILHELM,) a German physician, 
born at Erfurt in 1703, became professor of medicine in 
his native town in 1729, and professor of anatomy, sur 
gery, and botany in the University of Gottingen in 1 734. 
Died in 1736. 

Albrecht, (SOPHIE,) a German poetess, born in 1757 
at Erfurt, where her father, J. P. Baumer, was professor 
of medicine and philosophy. She was married at the 
age of fourteen, and died in 1837. Her poems are lyric 
and dramatic ; they display deep feeling and considera 
ble poetic power. 

Albrecht, (WILHELM,) a German agriculturist, born 
in 1786, was a pupil of Thaer. In 1820 he was ap 
pointed director of an experimental school of agriculture 
founded at Idstein in Nassau, and afterwards removed to 
Geisberg near Wiesbaden. He wrote, or edited, "The 
Annals of the Agricultural Society of Nassau," (15 vols.,) 
and had a high reputation as a te acher. Died in 1848. 

Albrecht, (WILHELM EDUARD,) a German legist, 
born at Elbing in 1800, was professor of German law at 
Gottingen from 1829 to 1837. He became professor of 
law at Leipsic in 1840. 

Albrechtsberger, al bReKts-beRG er, (JOHANN 
GEORG,) a distinguished German musician, born near 
Vienna in 1736; died in 1809. The celebrated Bee 
thoven was one of his pupils. 

Albret, al bRi , (CHARLFS OF,) [Fr. CHARLES D AL- 
BRET, shtRl da-1 bKi ,] a cousin-gcrman of Charles VI., 

appointed Constable of France in 1402. He commanded 
the French army at the disastrous battle of Agincourt 
in which he was defeated and slain, in 1415. 

Albret, (HENRY OF.) See HENRY II. OF NA 


A lbrici, al-bRee chee, (VINCENZO,) an Italian com 
poser and organist, who nourished in the latter part of 
the seventeenth century. He spent some time, at the 
court of Christina, Queen of Sweden. 

Albrion, de, da al-bRe-on , (DOMINGO,) a Spanish 
sculptor, lived between 1550 and 1600. His works are 
praised by Ponz. 

Albrizzi. See ALBERICI. 

Albrizzi, al-bRet see or al-bidt see, (ISABELLA Teo- 
toki ta-o-to kee,) a daughter of Count Teotoki, was 
born at Corfu about 1770. She was married to a Vene 
tian nobleman ; and her house in Venice became a place 
of resort for persons of distinction, both natives and 
foreigners. She was distinguished for her learning, wit, 
and taste, and not less for her domestic virtues. She 
wrote several works of merit. Died in 1835. 

Albucasis. See ABOO-L-KASIM. 

Albufera, DUKE OF. See SUCHET. 

Albumazar, al-boo-ma zar, (a corruption of Aboo- 
Mashar,) a celebrated Arabian astronomer, born at 
Bulkh (or Balkh) about 780 A.D. He died in 885, aged 
above one hundred years. 

Albuquerque, de, daal-boo-keR ka or al boo-keRk , 
dal-bo-keR ka,] surnamed THE GREAT, and THE PORTU 
GUESE MARS, a famous Portuguese commander, was 
born of a branch of the royal family, near Alhandra, in 
1453. He commanded a squadron in the fleet which 
in 1506 was sent to India under Tristan da Cunha, and 
carried a secret commission by virtue of which he should 
supersede Francisco de Almeida as governor or viceroy 
of the Indies. On his way he took Ormuz, then a great 
emporium; but he was soon forced to evacuate that 
place, in consequence of the defection or insubordination 
of some officers of his squadron. He arrived in India 
in 1508. In 1510 he captured the rich city of Goa, and 
in 1511 performed a brilliant exploit in the conquest of 
Malacca. He entered the Red Sea in 1513 with the 
first European fleet that ever navigated its waters, and 
afterwards obtained permanent possession of Ormuz. 
He raised the affairs of the Portuguese in India to the 
highest state of prosperity. Having, however, been su 
perseded in the government of India, he died near Goa 
in 1515. (See ALMEIDA.) His son wrote a history of 
his campaigns, entitled " Comentarios do granclc Affonso 
d Alboqucrque," Lisbon, 1557. 

See, also, A. THEVET, "Vie des Hommes illustres;" LAFITAU, 
"Histoire des Descouvertes, etc. des Portugais;" UARROS, "De- 
cada Segunda ;" FARIA v SOUZA, "Asia Portugueza;" "Nouvelle 
Biographic Generale." 

Albuquerque, de, (BRAS AFFONSO,) a son of the 
preceding, was born at Alhandra in 1500. He obtained 
command of a ship of war, and was afterwards " Vecdor" 
or manager of the royal patrimony. 1 Ie was noted for his 
integrity. He wrote a narrative of his father s exploits, 
(1557.) Died in I 580. 

Albuquerque, de, (DUARTK COKLIIO, cloo-ait ti ko- 
6Kyo,) Marquis of Basto, served as a general in the 
war against the Dutch in Brazil, 1620-39, and wrote an 
account of that war, (16^4.) Died at Madrid in 1658., da al-boo-keR ka, (JuAN ALFONSO,) 
the tutor, and afterwards minister and favourite, of Pedro 
the Cruel, of Castile, was the unprincipled agent of that 
monarch s perfidy and cruelty; but, having at last in 
curred his displeasure, he was banished from court. 
Died in 1354. 

Albuquerque, de, (MATEO,) a Portuguese general, 
who was appointed, in 1628, governor of the province 
of Pernambuco, which he defended against the Dutch. 
He was recalled to Portugal in 1635, after which he 
commanded a division in the war against the Spaniards, 
and gained an important victory at Campo Mayor in 
1644. Died in 1646. 

See SOUTHEY S "History of Brazil." 

Albutius, al-bu she-us, (CAius SILAS,) a Roman ora- 

a, e, T, o, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, li, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon ; 




tor, born in Cisalpine Gaul. He lived in the time of the 
emperor Augustus. 

Albutius or Albucius, (Tirus,) a Roman, who lived 
about 100 li.c., distinguished by his devotion to the doc 
trines of Epicurus. 

Alcagoba, al-ka-so ba, or Alcazova, a Portuguese 
navigator in the service of Charles V. of Germany. He 
was murdered in a mutiny in 1535. 

Al-ca-di nus or Alcadiiio, al-ka-dee no, a Syra- 
cusan physician, who attended the emperors Henry VI. 
and Frederick II. He lived about the beginning of the 
thirteenth century. 

Alcseus, al-see us, [Gr. A/Aa?or; Fr. ALCEE, tl sa ,] a 
celebrated Greek lyric poet, a native of Mitylene, in Les 
bos, flourished about 600 i;.c. He wrote in the ^-Eolic 
dialect, and is said to have invented the metre called Al 
caic. His odes were characterized by strong passion and 
enthusiasm ; they were admired and imitated by Horace. 
Among the nine lyric poets of the Alexandrian canon, 
Alcanis occupied the second* or, according to some wri 
ters, the first place. Quintilian expressed the opinion that 
lie was often equal to Homer. Nothing remains of his 
productions except a number of small fragments. Some 
ot his poems were addressed to Sappho, his contempo 
rary. In the contest between the nobles and the people 
of Lesbos, he fought and wrote for the former. 

See BODE, " Geschichte derlyrischen Dichtkunst der Hellenen," and 
"Ai.KAios," in EKSCH und GRUUHK S "Allgemeine Kr.cykiopnedie." 

Alcaeus, a comic poet, a native of Mitylene, contended 
in 388 li.c. with Aristophanes for the prize which the lat 
ter gained by his " Plutus." 

Alceeus OF M ESSEN E, author of a number of epigrams 
in the Greek Anthology, lived about 210 li.c. He wrote 
epigrams against Philip III. of Macedonia. 

Alcaforadajal-ka-fo-ra da, (MAKi ANNA,) a Portuguese 
nun, who, about 1662, conceived a passion for a French 
marquis (Dc Chamilly) who is noticed in this work. Her 
letters to him were published in a French version, ("Let- 
tres Portugaiscs," 1669,) and were much admired. He 
did not return her affection, and appears to have published 
them to gratify his vanity. 

Alcaforado, al-ka-fo-ra do, (FRANCISCO,) a Portu 
guese who took part in the expedition which discovered 
Madeira in 1420 and wrote a narrative of the discovery. 

Alcala, al-ka-la , (Don Parafau de Rivera pa 
ra-fan da re-va/ra,) DuKEOF, bornin 1508, was Viceroy 
of Naples under Philip II. Died in 1571. 

Alcala y Herrera, de, da al-ka-la/ e cr-ra ra, (AL 
FONSO,) a Spanish poet and novelist, who lived in the 
early part of the sixteenth century. He wrote a novel 
called "The Two Suns of Toledo," (1641,) in which the 
letter a was not used. 

Al-cam e-iies, [Gr. A/l/ca^et^c; Fr. AI.CAMENE, fK- 
kt man , | one of the most distinguished sculptors of 
antiquity, was a native of Athens, and flourished in the 
fifth century i;.c. According to Pausanias, he was living 
in 400 i:.c. He was a pupil of Phidias. His most cele 
brated work was a statue of Venus, (now lost,) known as 
" Venus of the Gardens." He is considered to have been 
second to no Greek sculptor of his age except Phidias. 

Alcamo, d , dal ka-mo, (CIULLO,) a Sicilian, who lived 
near the close of the twelfth century; supposed to be the 
earliest writer of Italian poetry. 

Alcantara, de, da al-kili/ta-ra, (DIEGO,) a Spanish 
architect, employed by Philip II. Died in 1587. 

Alcantara, de, (San PEDRO,) a Spanish zealot, who 
founded a monastic order in the sixteenth century. He 
was born at Alcantara in 1499. Died in 1562. His peni 
tential austerities were almost incredible. For nearly 
forty years, it is said, his daily allowance of sleep was 
less than two hours. 

Al-cath o-us, a son of Pelops, married the daughter 
of the King of Megara, and afterwards became himself 
king of that city. 

Alcazar or Alca9ar, al-ka thau or al-ka sar, (AN 
DRES,) an eminent Spanish surgeon, who lived in the 
latter part of the sixteenth century. He was professor 
of surgery in the University of Salamanca. His most 
important work was a treatise on syphilis. 

* The FIRST place being accorded to AI.CMAN, (which see. 1 ) 

Alcazar, de, da al-ka thaR, (BALTAZAR,) a Spanish 
poet, who lived at Seville about 1600. He composed 
many " redondillas," and was highly commended by Cer 
vantes in his "Canto de Caliope." 

See LONGFELLOW S "Poets and Poetry of Kurope." 

Alcazar, de, written also Alcasar, (Luis,) a Span 
ish Jesuit, born at Seville in 1554. lie wrote on the 
Apocalypse. Died in 1613. 

Alcazova. See ALCACOKA. 

Alcedo, de, da al-sa uo, (ANTONIO,) a native of 
Spanish America, published at Madrid in 1786 a valu 
able work on the geography of America, " Diccionario 
Geografico-historico de las Jndias Occidentals b Ame 
rica," (5 vols.) Scarcely anything is known of his life. 

Alcee. See ALC/EUS. 

Al-^es tis, [Gr. "A/./a/crrif or AA/ct or?/ ; Fr. ALCESTE, 
Sl scst ,] the daughter of Pelias and wife of Admetus, 
King of Thessaly, is fabled to have prevented the death 
of her husband by offering to die for him. Tradition 
adds that she was rescued from the realms of death by 
Hercules. The story of her heroic devotion forms the 
subject of one of the best tragedies of Euripides. 

Al ce-tas [Gr. A/./a -ac] L, King of Epirus, was an 
ally of the Athenians. He reigned about 375 li.c. 

Al cetas II., King of Epirus, was a grandson of Al- 
cetas I. He was killed by his own subjects, and was 
succeeded by Pyrrhus. 

Al cetas, a brother of Perdiccas, the favourite of 
Alexander the Great. After the death of his brother, 
321 li.c., he killed himself, to avoid falling into the hands 
of Antigonus. (Sec PERDICCAS.) 

Alchabitius, al-ka-bish e-us, [Arab. AKDALAZEEZ 
or AUDALAZiz,] an Arabian astrologer, who lived at 
Aleppo about the middle of the tenth century. 

Alchfred. Sec ALFRED. 

Al-ehin dus or Al-kin dus, [Arab. AL-KIN DEE or 
ALKINDI,] a noted Arabian astrologer, physician, and 
writer, born about the end of the eighth century. He 
lived at the court of Al-Mamoon, Caliph of Bagdad. He 
wrote many works, in one of which he pretended to 
explain the action of medicines by the principles of 
mathematics and music. 

Alciati, al-cha tce, |Fr. ALCIAT, fl se-t ,] (ANDREA,) 
a celebrated lawyer of Milan, born in 1492. lie became 
professor of law in the University of Avignon in 1518, 
and afterwards filled the same chair in Bourges, (1528 
to 1532,) and subsequently in Bologna, Pavia, and Fer- 
rara. He died at Pavia in 1550. Though possessed of 
popular and brilliant talents, he was far from being a 
profound jurist. He left "Commentaries on the Digest," 
and many other legal works. 

"Alciati," says liallam, "was the first who taught the 
lawyers to write with purity and elegance. Erasmus has 
applied to him the eulogy of Cicero on Scaevola, that he 
\vas the most juiisprudent of orators and the most elo 
quent of lawyers." (See "Introduction to the Literature 
of Europe.") 

See "Vita Alciati," prefixed to his " Emblemata," published by 
CLAUDE MIGNAULT in 1581; MAZZUCHELLI, "Scrittori d ltalia." 

Alciati, (FRANCESCO,) a nephew of the preceding, 
and tutor to the celebrated Saint Carlo Borromeo, born 
in 1522, was made cardinal in 1565. Died in 1580. 

Alciati, (GIOVANNI PAOLO,) an Italian Protestant of 
the sixteenth century, who was accused, or at least 
strongly suspected, of heresy by Calvin and other re 
formers, in consequence of which he retired to Dantzic, 
where he died about 1570. 

Alciati, (TERENZIO,) a learned Jesuit, born at Rome 
in 1570. He taught divinity for seventeen years in the 
Jesuits College at Rome, and wrote several works on 
theology. Died in 1651. 

Alcibiades, al-sc-bl a-diz, written also Alkibi ades, 
[Gr. A/.Ki6uu^ir : Fr. ALCIBIADE, Itl se be a d ; Ger. AL- 
ciiiiADES, alt-se-bee a-des,] a celebrated Athenian, son 
of Clcinias, was born about 450 n.c. He seemed to 
combine all the gifts of nature and of fortune. He was 
descended from the noblest families and inherited one 
of the largest estates of Athens. He possessed remark 
able personal beauty, and an intellect of wonderful 
strength and versatility. The ward of Pericles, and the 

as /; 5 as s; g hard; gasy; c, u, K, guttural; N, nasal; K, trilled: s as z ; th as in this. (2JP" See Explanations, p. 23.) 



favourite pupil and companion of Socrates, he enjoyed 
unequalled opportunities for cultivating his talents to 
the highest degree. Yet all these advantages were ren 
dered futile or pernicious by his fickleness and want of 
virtue. He was elected one of the board of generals in 
419 B.C., and became the leader of the democratic party. 
Through his intrigues and counsels, the Athenians were 
involved in a war with Sparta and Syracuse, 414 u.c. 
About the time he was to sail for Sicily with the fleet, 
(in the command of which Nicias was associated with 
him,) he was accused of an act of sacrilege which had 
been recently committed, and was afterwards condemned 
in his absence. Upon this he joined the enemies of his 
country, and by his counsels contributed powerfully, 
though indirectly, to the destruction of the Athenian 
army in Sicily in 413. (See NICIAS.) Having quarrelled 
with the Spartans, he W.-LS recalled by the tickle popu 
lace of Athens in 411, and was again intrusted with the 
command of the fleet. Under his conduct the Athe 
nians gained several signal victories, at Cynossema and 
Abydos in 411 B.C., at Cyzicus in 410; and in the two 
following years they acquired Chalcedon and Byzan 
tium. But subsequently he made an unsuccessful at 
tempt on the island of Anclros, and soon after his lieu 
tenant in his absence was defeated at Notium, near 
Ephesus. He was superseded in the command of the 
fleet, and retired into Thrace, for he thought it unsafe to 
return to Athens. After the fall of Athens and the es 
tablishment of the rule of the thirty tyrants, he with 
drew into Asia, where he was honourably received by the. 
satrap Pharnabazos. Not long after, the house in which 
he slept was attacked at night by a body of men, who 
set it on fire, and when he rushed out, sword in hand, 
dispatched him with darts and arrows, 404 K.C. It is 
not known whether this deed was done at the instigation 
of his public or his private enemies. 

See his life in PLUTARCH ; GROTE, " History of Greece," vol. viii. 
chaps. Ixii. to Ixiv., also Ixvi. ; THIRLWALL, " History of Greece ;" 
A. G. MEISSNER, "Alcibiades,"4vols., 1785-85; J. H. JOANIN, " His- 
toire d Alcibiades," 1819; HERTZBEKG, " Alkibiades der Staatsmann 
imd Feldlierr," Halle, 1853; W. VISCHER, " Alcibiades und Lysan- 
dros,"iS45; XENOPHOM, " Hellenica ;" THUCYDIDES, "History." 

Al-gid a-mas, [ AA/c5u/iaf,] a Greek rhetorician, who 
lived about 400 K.C. He was a native of Eloea, in Asia 

Alcides. See HKRCULES. 

Al-gi de, [Gr. Altaic; Fr. ALCIDK, tKs6d ,] a 
name of Hercules, supposed to have been derived from 
the Greek /k/?, (alke,) "strength." 

Al-gim a-ehus, [ AA/a /w^of,] a Greek painter, sup 
posed to have lived in the time of Alexander the Great. 

Alcime. See ALCIMUS. 

Al-gim e-iies, [ A/l/auei;?7f,] a Greek comic poet, who 
is supposed to have lived at Athens about 500 K.C. 

Al ci-mus, [Gr. "Alw^oc; Fr. ALCfME, Sl seni ,] (called 
also Ja-gi mus [Gr. I/c,uoc] or Jo a-ehim,) a Jewish 
high-priest, contemporary with Judas Maccabaeus. He 
apostatized and joined Demetrius. 

See I. Maccabees vii., ix. 

Al gi-mus A-le thi-us, a Latin writer and rhetori 
cian of the fourth century. He lived in Burdigala, (Bor 

Al-giii o-us, [Gr. A/i/a cooc,] a king of the Phasacians, 
whose beautiful gardens, described by Homer in the 
Odyssey, have afforded a favourite theme for other poets. 
He reigned in the island of Scheria, (now Corfu.) 

Alcinous, a Greek philosopher, who wrote an intro 
duction to the philosophy of Plato. He is supposed to 
have flourished in the time of the early Roman em 

Alcioiiio, (PIETRO.) See ALCYONIUS. 

Al/gi-phrpn, [ A^K%>uv,] a Greek epistolary writer, 
supposed to have lived about 200 A.D. His works are 
interesting as exhibiting a picture of the domestic life of 
that period. The number of his letters is above seventy. 
His language is elegant and purely Attic. 

Alcmaeon, alk-mce on, [Gr. \faiiw.uv; Fr. ALC- 
MEON, f Ik ma oN ,] a son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle, 
renowned as the leader of the Epigoni in their successful 
expedition against Thebes. 

Alcmae on, [Gr. AA/c^a/wv,] a natural philosopher, 
native of Crotona, lived in the sixth century B.C., and 

was a pupil of Pythagoras. He is said to have been the 
first who dissected animals in order to study anatomy. 

Alcmaeon, (the lyric poet.) See ALCMAN. 

Alcmseoiiidce, alk-me-on I-de, [Gr. AA/c/zajvtJ(M,] 
one of the most distinguished of the noble families ol 

Alcmaii, alk man, [Gr. A/i/c^ai ,] called Alcmee on 
[ \/.K/j.aiuv] by the later Greek writers, the chief lyric 
poet of Sparta, flourished about 650 i;.c. He was origin 
ally a Lydian slave, born at Sardis, and was emanci 
pated in his youth and nationalized by the Spartans. He 
wrote Parthenia, pecans, bridal hymns, and other poems, 
which were highly prized by the ancients. Some beau 
tiful fragments of his works are extant. He was con 
sidered by some ancient writers the inventor of erotic 
poetry. To Alcman was assigned the first place in the 
canon of lyric poets, by the Alexandrian grammarians. 

See SCIIOELL, "Histoire de la Literature Grecque." 

Alcmeiie, alk-mce ne, or Alc-me iia, [Gr. A?,/c- 
PJVTJ ; FY. ALCMENE, ftlk ,] the daughter of Elec- 
tryon, King of Mycenae, and wife of Amphitryon. She 
bore Hercules to Jupiter, who, it is said, in the absence 
of her husband, deceived her by assuming the form of 

Alcock or Alcok, aul kok, (JoHN,) a native of York 
shire, England, was sent as ambassador by Edward IV. 
to John II. of Castile, and afterwards became success 
ively Bishop of Rochester, of Worcester, and of Ely. He 
was also tutor to Prince Edward of Wales, and president 
of his council. He held the chancellorship a short time 
under both Edward IV. and Henry VIII. Died in 1500. 
He was a patron of learning, and founded Jesus College, 

Alcock, (JOHN,) an English musical composer, born 
in London in 1715. Died in 1806. 

Alcock, (THOMAS,) an English surgeon, born in 1784 ; 
died in 1833. 

Al con |*A/AM?>] or Al co, a Greek statuary of un 
known epoch, noted for having made an iron statue of 

Alcott, aul kot, (AMOS BRONSON,) an American 
writer on education, born in Wolcott, Connecticut, in 

Alcott, (WILLIAM A.,) M.D., an American reformer 
and educational writer, born in Wolcott, Connecticut, in 
1798. He studied medicine at New Haven, but, after 
following the profession for a few years, united with Wil 
liam C. Woodbridge in the preparation of his school 
geographies and atlases, and in editing the "Annals of 
Education," etc. He has since laboured zealously in the 
cause of educational reforms, and lectured extensively on 
the best modes of instruction, hygiene, physiology, etc. 
Besides editing and contributing to various journals, he 
has published many volumes on educational and kindred 
subjects. Some of his works have enjoyed a great popu 
larity, especially "The House I Live in ;" "The Young 
Man s Guide;" " The Young Woman s Guide;" "The 
Young Mother;" "The Young Housekeeper," etc. 

Alcuin, al kwin, or Al cwiii, an English prelate, who 
passes for the most learned man of his age, and whose full 
name was Fiac cus Albi iius Alcui nus, was born 
at York about 735 A.D. About 780 he accepted an in 
vitation to the court of Charlemagne, with whom he lived 
thenceforth on terms of intimate friendship. The court 
of that monarch, it is said, became a school of which 
Alcuin was the head. According to some writers, he 
founded schools at Aix-la-Chapelle and Paris. He was 
appointed in 796 abbot of St. I^airtin at Tours, where he 
died in 804. He left many epistles, poems, and theo 
logical works, which are among the best specimens of 
mediaeval Latinity. A life of Alcuin, by Professor F. 
Lorenz, of Halle, has been translated into English, 


See also BAHR, " Geschichte der Romischen Literatur;" "Bio- 
graphia Britannica Literaria," 1842. 

Alcyone (al-sl o-ne) or Hal-gy o-iie, [Gr. AA- 
Kvovrj,] (Myth.,) a daughter of /Eolus, who became the wife 
of Ceyx. They were remarkable for their mutual and de 
voted love. Ceyx having perished in a storm at sea, 
Alcyone, overcome by grief and despair, threw herself 
into the waves. To reward their conjugal devotion, the 

a, e, T, o, u, y, long; a, c, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, li, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon; 




gods transformed them into kingfishers. The sea, as 
ancient writers tell us, is always calm and the weather 
delightful during the period in which these birds build 
their nests and hatch their young: hence the origin of 
the expression "halcyon days," signifying those of peace 
and happiness. 

Al-gy-o m-xis or Al-gi-o m-us, (PKTRUS,) [It. Ai.- 
CIO.NIO, al-cho nc-o, PIKTKO, ] a distinguished Italian 
scholar, was born at Venice about 1490. He translated 
into elegant Latin several works of Aristotle, and be 
came professor of Greek at Florence about 1521. His 
most celebrated work is "Medices Legatus de Exsilio," 
(1522,) a dissertation on Exile. He was erroneously 
suspected of having taken the finest passages of this 
work from Cicero s lost treatise on Glory. He died in 
Rome in 1527. 

Sj;c MAZZUCHELLI, " Scrittori d ltalia ;" PAOI.O Giovio, " Elogia 
Virorum illustrium," .Bale, 1677. 

Al-Damiri. See ADDEMEEREE. 

Alday, aul dc, (JoiiN,) an English translator, of 
whom little is known. He translated a popular French 
work by Boaistuau, (or Boistuau,) entitled " The Theatre 
of the World," ("Theatrum Mundi," 1581.) 

Aide, van, vfn al deh, (HENDRIK,) a Dutch painter 
and engraver, lived at Amsterdam about 1650. 

Aldebert. See ADALHERT. 

Aldegati, al-da-ga tee, (MARCO or MARCANTONIO,) 
an Italian poet, born at Mantua, lived in the latter part 
of the fifteenth century. 

Aldegonde, SAINT. See MAKNIX, (Piiii.ii> VAX.) 

Aldegrever, al deh-gRa ver, or Aldegraef, al deh- 
gRCf , (HEINRICH,) an eminent German painter and en 
graver, born at Soest, Westphalia, in 1502, was a pupil 
of Albert Diirer, whose style he closely imitated. He 
left a great number of engravings, mostly from his own 
designs. They are finely executed in the Gothic style. 
Among his plates are "Susanna and the Elders ;" "The 
Labours of Hercules ;" and portraits of Luther and Me- 
lanchthon. His paintings are not numerous. Died about 

Aldeguela, de, da al-di-ga la, (TosKF or JOSE MAR 
TIN,) a Spanish architect, born in 1730; died in 1802. 

Al-Demiri. See ADDEMEEREE. 

Alden, aul den, (JoiiN,) one of the first settlers of 
Plymouth, Massachusetts, came over in the Mayflower 
in 1620. He was a magistrate in that colony for more 
than fifty years. He forms one of the principal charac 
ters in Longfellow s poem on "Miles Standish s Court 
ship." Died in 1687, aged about eighty-nine. 

Alden, (TIMOTHY,) an American clergyman, born in 
Massachusetts in 1771, was the founder and first presi 
dent of Alleghany College, Meadville, Pennsylvania. 
He published a collection of epitaphs and inscriptions, 
in 5 vols. Died in 1839. 

Alderete, de, da al-da-ra ta, or Aldrete, ai-dRa ta, 
(BERNARDO,) a learned Spanish writer and priest, born 
at Malaga about 1550. He was distinguished for his 
knowledge of Hebrew, Arabic, and Greek, and was re 
puted one of the best Spanish writers of his time. 
Among his works is " The Origin and Principles of the 
Castilian Language," (1606,) which, says Gayangos, is 
the best on that subject. The date of his death "is un 

Alderete, de, (DIEGO GRACIAN,) a Spanish Hellenist 
of the sixteenth century, was employed as private secre 
tary by Charles V. and by Philip II., at whose court he 
enjoyed great favour. He made good Spanish versions 
of Xenophon, (1552,) Thucydides, (1554,) and other 
Greek writers. He died at an advanced age about 1590. 

Alderete, de, (Jo.SE,) a younger brother of Bernardo, 
noticed above, was rector of the College of Granada, and 
author of a treatise " De Religiosa Disciplina tuenda," 
(1615.) Died in 1616, aged about fifty-six. 

See N. ANTONIO, " Bibliothecn Hisjuna Nova." 

Alderoti, al-di-ro tee, (TADDEO,) a celebrated phy 
sician, and a friend of Dante, was born at Florence in 
1215. Died in 1295. 

See VIM.ANI, " Vie d Alderoti." 

Alderson, aul der-son, (JoiiN,) M.D., a distinguished 
English physician, born in Suffolk in 1758, practised in 
Hull. Died in 1829. 

Aldhelm, ald helm, SAINT, a distinguished Saxon 
ecclesiastic, born about the middle of the seventh cen 
tury. He was made Bishop of Sherborn in 705, and 
died in 709. 

Aldigieri. Sec ALTICHERIO. 

Aldini, al-dee nee, (ANTONIO,) COUNT, an Italian 
statesman, born at Bologna in 1756, was a nephew of 
Galvani. Having become a political friend of Bonaparte, 
he was chosen president of the Council of State of the 
Cisalpine Republic, and in 1805 secretary of state in 
the kingdom of Italy. He continued to live at Milan 
after it passed into the power of Austria. Died in 1826. 

Aldini, (GIOVANNI,) a distinguished natural philoso 
pher, nephew of the celebrated Galvani, and brother oi 
the preceding, was born at Bologna in 1762. In 1798 
he was appointed professor of physics in the university 
of his "native city. In 1807 he became a member of the 
council of state at Milan, and Knight of the Iron Crown, 
Died in 1834. He has left essays on galvanism, steam, 
the hydraulic lever, and other subjects. 

See Tii ALDO, " Biografia degli Italiani illustri." 

Aldini, (ToBiA,) an Italian botanist of Cesena, wrote 
a " Description of the Garden of Cardinal Farnese at 
Rome," (1625.) 

Aldobrandini, al-do-bRan-dee nee, (CiNZio,) a 
nephew of Pope Clement VIII., born at Sinigaglia, be 
came cardinal in 1593. He was a friend of Tasso, who 
dedicated to him his "Jerusalem Delivered," (" Gerusa- 
lemme Liberata.") 

Aldobrandini, (SILVESTRO,) a learned Italian jurist, 
born in 1499. He was for some years professor of law 
at Pisa. Died in 1558. His son Ippolito became pope 
in 1592. (See CLEMENT VIII.) He had a son, Gio 
vanni, and two grandsons, Pietro and Cinzio, (noticed 
above,) who became cardinals. 

Aldobrandini, (TOMMASO,) a son of Silvestro, born 
at Rome about 1540, was a brother of Clement VIII. 
He produced a translation of Diogenes Laertius, (1594.) 
He died in the prime of life. 

Aldobrandino, al-do-bRan-dee no, (called FIOREN- 
TINO, or the "Florentine,") an Italian physician, prac 
tised at Sienna, and died at Florence in 1327. 

Aldo Manuzio. See MANUTIUS. 

Aldred, al drcd or al drcd, surnamed THE GLOSSER, 
[Lat. GLOSSA TOR,] an Anglo-Saxon writer, author of 
the " Book of Durham," lived about 800 A.D. 

Aldred, al dred, [Lat. ALDRE DUS, called also AL- 
RE DUS and EALRE DUS,] an archbishop of York in the 
eleventh century. He enjoyed high favour with Ed 
ward the Confessor. In 1066 William the Conqueror 
was crowned by him. Died in 1069. 

Aldrete. See ALDERETE. 

Aldric, al drik, [Lat. AI.DRI CUS,] SAINT, was born in 
France about 800. He was elected to the bishopric of 
Le Mans in 832, in which office he acquired the highest 
character for wisdom and sanctity. Died about 856. 

Aldrich, aukl ritch or auld rij, (HENRY,) D.D., an 
eminent English scholar and divine, born at Westmin 
ster in 1647, was educated at Oxford. He became a tutcr 
of the college of Christ Church, and edited several 
Greek classics. In the reign of James II. he was one 
of the most able defenders of the Protestant cause. He 
was appointed dean of Christ Church, Oxford, in 1689. 
He possessed great skill in music, and composed numer 
ous services and anthems which are used in the English 
cathedrals. His " Compendium of the Art of Logic" 
("Artis Logica? Compendium") was extensively used in 
England until the publication of Whately s "Elements 
of Logic" in 1826. 

See MACAUI.AY S "History of England," vol. iii. ch. xiv.; 
HAWKINS S "History of Music." 

Aldrich, auld ritch, (JAMES,) an American poet and 
journalist, born in Suffolk county, New York, in 1810. 
He at first engaged in mercantile pursuits, but subse 
quently devoted himself entirely to literature. Died in 
1856. He edited several popular periodicals, and was 
author of numerous poems. 

See GRISWOI.LJ S "Poets and Poetry of America." 
Aldrich or Aldridge, auld rij, (ROBERT,) born in 
Buckinghamshire, England, became Bishop of Carlisle 
in 1537, and died in 1555. 

c as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; c, u, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




Aldrich, (THOMAS BAILEY,) an American poet, and 
assistant editor of the " New York Home Journal," 
was born at Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1836. He 
is author of " Miscellaneous Poems," " The Course of 
True Love Never Did Run Smooth," etc. 

Aldridge, auld rlj, (!RA,) a negro tragedian, born 
near Baltimore, in Maryland, about 1810. He early ex 
hibited uncommon powers of mind, acquiring knowledge 
with great facility, and learning, among other things, to 
speak the German language. Having attracted the 
notice of Kean, the eminent tragedian, he accompanied 
him, as an attendant, to Europe, and at Belfast appeared 
on the stage in the character of Othello to Kean s lago. 
He subsequently rose to distinction as an actor, person 
ating with great success a wide range of characters, 
both in Great Britain and on the continent. Particular 
honours were conferred on him by the King of Prussia 
and the Emperor of Austria, and in 1857 the King of 
Sweden invited him to visit Stockholm. Died in 1867. 

See "Leben und Kiinstlerlaufbahn des Negers I. Aldrige," Ber 
lin, 1852. 

Aldrighetti, al-dRe-get tee, an Italian physician and 
medical writer, born at Padua in 1573; died in 1631. 

Aldringer, alt ring-er, or Altringer, (JoiiANN,) an 
officer in the Thirty Years War, was born in the duchy 
of Luxemburg, of an obscure family. From a common 
soldier in the Imperial (Austrian) army, he rose gradu 
ally to the highest rank, and after the death of Tilly, in 
1632, was made field-marshal. He was killed while de 
fending the bridge of Landshut against the Swedes in 

Aldrovande. See ALDKOVANDUS. 

Aldrovandi. See ALUROVANDUS. 

Aldrovandini, al-dRo-van-dee nce, a family of artists 
who lived in Bologna in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. The most celebrated were the following : 

Aldrovandiui, (POMPEO AGOSTINO,) born in 1677, 
died in 1739. Like the others of his family, he was dis 
tinguished as an architectural and decorative painter. 
He painted in oil and fresco, in Vienna, Dresden, and 

Aldrovandini, (TOMMASO,) a painter of Bologna, 
born in 1653, was a cousin of the preceding. Died in 

Al-dro-van dus, [Fr. ALDROVANDK, tl dRo vSNd ; 
It. ALDROVANDI, al-diio-van dee,] (ULYSSES,) a great 
Italian naturalist, born of a noble family, at Bologna, 
about 1524. Having studied botany, medicine, and other 
sciences, he graduated in medicine in 1553, and obtained 
the chair of natural history at Bologna in 1560. He pur 
sued his favourite studies with unremitting zeal, and spent 
his fortune in collecting specimens and procuring en 
gravings by the best artists. The result of his labours is 
a "Natural History," in 13 volumes, of which four ap 
peared during his life. He published three volumes on 
Birds, 1599-1603, and one volume on Insects, 1602. The 
other, volumes were edited by various persons. His 
works are praised for their completeness, but are defi 
cient in scientific arrangement and condensation. "The 
book of Aldrovandus," says Cuvicr, " can only be re 
garded as an enormous compilation, without taste or ge 
nius : the plan and materials of it are in a great measure 
borrowed from Gesner." Died at Bologna in 1607. 
Buffon praises the method of Aldrovandus and his 
fidelity of description. 

See FANTUZZI, " Memorie della Vita d Ulisse Aldrovandi," 1774; 
HAI.USR, " Bibliotheca Botauica ;" JOCHER, " Allgemeines Gelehrten- 

Alduiii, akl win, [Lat. ALDUI NUS or ALDOVI NUS,] 
written also Aud win, Aud oin, and sometimes 
Hieldui mis, the first king of the second dynasty of 
Longobards or Lombards, reigned about the middle of 
the sixth century. The emperor Justinian made an alli 
ance with him, and gave him Pannonia, (now the south 
western part of Hungary,) and the Longobard king sent 
him in return 5 mercenaries to fight in the imperial 
army. (See ALISOIN.) 

Alduinus. See ALDUIN. 

Aldus Manutius. See MANUTIUS. 

Ale, a lch, (Koimus,) a Flemish painter, who was 
born at Liege, and worked at Rome. Died in 1689. 

Aleander and Aleandre. See ALEANDRO. 

Aleandro, a-la-an dko, [Lat. ALEAN DER ; Fr. AL^- 
ANDRE, t la ONdR ,] (GiROLAMO,) a distinguished Italian 
scholar, born near Friuli in 1480, was reputed one of the 
most learned men of his time. He became professor of 
belles-lettres in the University of Paris in 1508, and libra 
rian of the Vatican in 1519. In 1520 he was sent by Pope 
Leo X. as nuncio to Germany, to oppose the doctrines 
of Luther, against whom he showed a violent hostility. 
He was the redacteur of the edict against Luther which 
the emperor and diet adopted. In 1525 he was taken 
prisoner at Pavia with Francis I., whom he had accom 
panied as nuncio. He was made a cardinal in 1538, and 
died in 1 542, leaving an unfinished work on holding coun 
cils, (" De Concilio habendo.") 

See D AuBiGN E, "History of the Reformation;" MAZZUCHELLI, 
"Scrittori d ltalia;" A. VICTOREI.U, " Vie d Aleandre," in a collec 
tion of lives of Pontiffs, published at Rome in 1630, 2 vols. 

Aleandro, (GIROLAMO the younger,) a very learned 
Italian poet and antiquary, born in Friuli in 1574, was a 
grand-nephew of the preceding. lie was remarkable for 
the precocity of his intellect, and composed, at the age of 
sixteen, seven beautiful odes, called " The Tears of Peni 
tence," (" Le Lagrime di Penitenza.") He was for about 
twenty years secretary to Cardinal Banclini, at Rome. 
He was also for some time secretary to Pope Urban 
VIII. Among his works are " Penitential Psalms," (in 
Latin. 1593,) and an antiquarian treatise entitled "An- 
tiqure Tabulae Marmorese," etc., (1616.) Died in 1629. 

See MAZZUCHEI.U, "Scritiori d ltalia;" GASPARO DE SIMKOM, 
"In morte di G. Aleandro orax.ione," 1636. 

Aleaume, I la om , (Louis,) a French litterateur, 
born in 1525, died in 1596. He wrote Latin verses. 

Alecto. See EUMENIDES. 

Alee or All, a lec, or Ali-Ibn-Abi-Talib, a lee Tb n 
a bee ta lib, (i.e. "Alee the son of Aboo-Talib :" see note 
to ABOOLFKDA, on page 35,) surnamcd THE LION 01- 
GOD, an Arabian caliph, born at Mecca about 600 A.D., 
was a cousin-german of the prophet Mohammed. He 
was one of the first to embrace the new faith, which he 
afterwards defended with unequalled zeal and valour. 
He married Fatimah, a daughter of Mohammed. Upon 
the death of the prophet in 632, Alec and Aboo-Beki 
were rival candidates for the succession, which the latter 
obtained. This contest was the origin of the great 
schism between the Soonnites (orthodox) and Sheeites, 
the latter of whom were partisans of Alec. On the 
death of Othman in 655, Alee became caliph ; but he was 
obliged to maintain his cause in battle against Moa- 
weeyeh, a powerful rival. Three fanatics conspired to 
assassinate both of these rivals in order to end the war. 
and Alee was killed by one of them in 660. A.D. He left 
a son, Hassan, who became caliph. Alee is a popular 
hero, especially with the Persians, who belong to the 
sect of Sheeites. He is also celebrated as an author of 
maxims and sentences. 

See IRVING, "Mahomet and his Successors," vol. ii. ; WEIL. 
"Geschichte der Chalifen," vol. i. chap, iv.; OCKI.EY. " History of 
the Siracens;" ELMACIN, " Historia Saracenica ;" D HERBELOT, 
" Bibliotheque Orientale ;" Noiii. DES VERGERS, " Histoire de 1" Ara 
bic," 1846. 

Alee or All, ( Abool-Hassan, a bool has san,) King 
of Granada, ascended the throne in 1466. He renewed 
the war against Ferdinand and Isabella in 1481, and was 
defeated at Alhama. In 1482 his subjects revolted, and 
proclaimed his son Boabdil, or Aboo-Abclillah, king. 
Alee died soon after that date. 

Alee, All, or Aali, .Vice, a Turkish historian, who 
wrote a history of the Ottoman Empire. Died in 1597. 

Alee- (or All-) ar-Ridha, a lec ar-rld l, a descendant 
of Alee the son-in-law of Mohammed, born in 758 A.D., 
was considered one of the legitimate successors of the 
prophet. He married a daughter of the caliph Al-Ma- 
moon. Died in 819. 

Alee Beg, (of Poland.) See ALT BEG. 

Alee-Bestamee or Ali-Bestami, a lee bes-ta mec, 
a famous sheikh and learned Mohammedan writer, born 
at Herat in 1400. He came to Turkey in 1443, and re 
sided at the court of the sultan Mahomet II. He wrote 
on ethics, grammar, philosophy, etc. Died in 1470. 

Alee (or All) Bey, a lee ba, or Alee Beg, a Mam- 




el ukc chief, was born in 1728,011 or near Mount Caucasus. 
Having been taken to Cairo when a child, he was sold to 
an officer of the Janissaries, who adopted and educated 
him. He soon distinguished himself by his courage and 
ability. Having at length got possession of the chief 
power in Egypt in 1768, he aimed to make it an inde 
pendent kingdom. In 1770 he attempted to conquer 
Palestine and Syria from the Turks, which led to a long 
contest, in which Alee was at length slain in 1776. 

Alee-Chor-lee lee, (or Ali-Chorlili,) sometimes 
written -Chourlouli, a vizier of Sultan Ahmed III. 
during the time that Charles XII. of Sweden was in 
Turkey in 1709-10. He was an enemy of Charles XII. 
Died in 1711, aged about forty. 

Alee-Ibn-Hammood, or Ali-Ibn-Hammoud, (or 
-Hammud,) a lee Tb n ham-mood , the founder of the 
dynasty of Ilammood ites in Spain. He defeated in bat 
tle and killed Suleiman, an aspirant to the throne. Died 
in 1017. 

Alee-Ibiiool-Abbas, or Ali-Ibiiu-1-Abbas, a lee 
il/nool al/bSs , (often called Haly Abbas,) a cele 
brated Arabian physician, who was probably a native of 
Persia, and died about 994. Little is known of the 
events of his life. His work, commonly known as 
" Royal Book," (" Liber Regius,") is considered by some 
as the best or most complete treatise on medicine which 
has come down to us from ancient times. 

Alee- (or All-) Ibii-Rodhwaii, a lee Ib n rod wan , 
(often called Haly Rodoan,) a noted Arabian physician, 
born near Cairo in Egypt, flourished in the early part of 
the eleventh century. 

Alee-Ibn-Saeed, (or Ali-Ibn-Said,) a lee Tb n 
sa ecd , a distinguished Mohammedan geographer and 
historian, born at Granada in 1214; died about 1286. 

Alee- (or All-) Ibn-Yoonas, (-Yunas or-Younis,) 
a lee Tb n yoo nas, surnamed Ali ooL HAS SAN, an emi 
nent Arabian astronomer, born at Cairo. He was author 
of astronomical tables, which were considered the best 
in the language. Died in 1008. 

Alee- (or All-) Ibn- (Ben-) Yoosuf, (or -Yusuf,) 
a lee Tb n yoo sdof, a sultan of Africa and Spain of the 
Almoravide dynasty, began to reign in 1107. He waged 
war against the Christian princes of Spain, who captured 
a number of his cities. Died in 1142-3. 

A lee-Koo jee, [Gcr. spelling, ALI Kunscm,] an 
Ottoman astronomer, who lived at Constantinople. Died 
in 1474. 

Alee-Koolee- (or Ali-Kuli-) Khan, a lee koo Iee 
K5n, a nephew of the famous Nadir Shah of Persia, 
succeeded that monarch in 1747. He was dethroned 
and deprived of sight in 1 748. 

A lee-Mo-ez-zeen , (Ali-Moezzin or -Muezzin,) 
Kapudan Pasha under Sultan Selim I., was defeated 
and killed in the great naval battle of Lepanto, (1571,) 
where he commanded the Turkish fleet. 

Alee- (All-) Mustafa-Ben-Ahmed, a lee moos ta-fa 
ben ail med, an excellent Turkish historian and indif 
ferent poet, born at Gallipoli in 1542. His chief work 
is a universal history, called "Mine of Information." 
Died in 1599. 

Alee-Sheer-Ameer, or Ali-Shir-Amir, a lee sheer 
a-meer , a Persian poet and statesman, born about 1440. 
lie became vizier or prime minister of Sultan Husain 
of Persia about 1470. He has been styled the Mae 
cenas of his age and country, and had a high reputation 
as a poet. Died about 1500. 

Alee-Welee-Zade, or Ali-Weli-Zade, a lee wel ee 
za deh, surnamed ARSLAN, aRs-liki , (i.e. the " Lion,") and 
commonly called Alee (or All) Pasha, was born at Tep- 
alcen, or Tepalcn, in Albania, about 1750. He began his 
career as a robber. At one time, when he was in a state of 
extreme destitution, after having sold his sword to avoid 
starvation, he accidentally discovered, partially buried 
in the earth, a large iron box filled with gold. With this 
he levied two thousand Albanian soldiers. From this 
time forward fortune seemed to smile upon almost all 
his enterprises. He possessed extraordinary courage, 
shrewdness, and strength of mind, and well knew how 
to take advantage of the weakness of the Porte, and of 
the troubles in which it was involved with the surround 
ing nations. In return for his services in the war against 

e as k; 5 as s; g harJ; g as /; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s ass; th as in this, 

Austria and Russia, the sultan appointed him Pasha of 
Trikala in 1787. Soon after, by intrigue, bribery, and 
force, he caused himself to be declared Pasha of Yanina, 
(Janina,) by which title he is generally known. He sub 
sequently rose, step by step, to be the most powerful 
subordinate prince (subject he could scarcely be called) 
in the Ottoman Empire. In the wars which convulsed 
Europe after the breaking out of the French Revolution, 
Alee Pasha took part now with this power and now with 
that, as it suited his interest. Though the Porte had 
abundant reason to distrust and fear him, its weakness 
obliged it to temporize. At length, in 1820, the Sultan 
Mahmood II., who had too much pride and energy to 
endure any longer the greatness and independent spirit 
of Alee, sent against him a powerful army ; and, though 
the Pasha of Yanina strove to avail himself of the aid of 
the Greeks, who were then beginning to assert their in 
dependence, he lost one fortress after another, and was 
at last entrapped by the craft of Khurshid Pasha, the 
commander of the sultan s forces. Hassan Pasha was 
dispatched for Alee s head. No sooner had he announced 
his errand than Alee, seizing his pistols, rose with the 
fury of a lion, broke with one shot the thigh of his op 
ponent, and with two others killed two of Hassan s lieu 
tenants, but was shot dead himself the same moment. 
This occurred in P ebruary, 1822. 

See MALTE-BRUN, "Tableau historique et politique de la Vie 
d Ali Pacha;" BEAUCHAMP, "Histoire du fameux Ali Pacha," 
1822 ; DAVENPORT, "Life of Ali Pasha," 1837 ; article on Ali Pacha 
in the "North American Review," January, 1824; POUQUEVILLE, 
" Memoire sur la Vie et la Puissance d Ali Pacha ; " VAUDONCOURT, 
"Memoirs on the Ionian Islands, including the Life of Ali Pacha." 

Alefold, a leh-felt , (GEORG LUDWIG,) a German 
physician and writer, born at Giessen in 1732, became 
professor of medicine and physics at that place in 1758, 
and died in 1774. 

Alegambe, a leh-gSMb or a leh-gam beh, (PHILIP,) 
a learned Flemish Jesuit, born at Brussels in 1592. He 
became superior of the house of the Jesuits at Rome, 
where he died in 1652. He was the principal author of 
an excellent work entitled " Library of the Writers of the 
Society of Jesus," ("Bibliotheca Scriptorum Societatis 
Jesu," 1643,) devoted to the biography and bibliography 
of Jesuit writers. 

Alegre, d , dS ligR , (YvES or IVES, ev,) BARON, a cele 
brated French captain, who served in Italy in the time 
of Charles VIII. and Louis XII., from 1495 to 1512, 
when he fell at the head of his victorious troops in the 
battle of Ravenna. 

Alegre, d , (YvES,) MARQUIS, a distinguished French 
general in the time of Louis XIV. He became marshal 
of France in 1724. Died in 1733, aged about eighty. 

Alejandro, the Spanish for ALEXANDER, which see. 

Alekseief or Alexejev, a-lex-a -yeT, (FEODOR YA- 
KOVLEVITCII,) a Russian architectural painter, born in 
1755. He excelled in perspective, and in a skilful selec 
tion of the point of view from which his pictures were 
drawn. Died in 1821. 

Alemagna, di, de a-la-man ya, (Giusxo,) [Lat. Jus - 
TUS DE ALEMA NIA,] an eminent artist, probably of Ger 
man origin, painted at Genoa about 1450. 

Al e-man, [Fr. pron. tl moN ,] (Louis,) a distin 
guished French ecclesiastic, born in 1390, was made car 
dinal in 1426. For his resolute defence of the authority 
of the councils in opposition to the despotism of the 
Papal see, Eugenins IV. issued a bull depriving him of 
all his ecclesiastical dignities ; but these were restored 
by Nicholas V., the successor of Eugenius. Aleman died 
in 1452. 

Aleman, a-la-man , (MATED,) a Spanish writer of the 
time of Philip II., born at Seville about the middle of 
the sixteenth century. He was the author of a celebrated 
novel, "Guzman de Alfarachc," (gooth-man da al-fa- 
ra cha,) (1599,) which was translated into many lan 
guages ; and of a few other works of less importance. 
Aleman is said to have been a man of sterling integrity 
as well as of great wit and judgment. He was employed 
twenty years by the king in the department of finances. 

Alemand, rtl mSN , (Louis AUGUSTIN,) a French 
writer, born at Grenoble in 1653. He practised law and 
medicine at Grenoble, and displayed both judgment and 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




erudition in his works, among which is a collection of 
critical remarks on the history of words, called " New 
Observations, or Civil War of the French respecting 
Language," ("Nouvelles Observations, ou Guerre Civile 
des Frai^ais sur la Langue," 1688.) Died in 1728. 

Alemann, a leh-man , (CoNRAD,) a German writer, 
born at Magdeburg in 1309. Died in 1398. 

Alemanni, a-la-man nce, sometimes written Ala- 
manno, d-la-man no, (ANTONIO,) a Florentine poet, 
who nourished about 1500. He is cited for the purity 
of his style in the " Vocabolario della Crusca." 

Alemanni, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) a son of Luigi, the 
celebrated poet noticed below, born in 1519, became a 
privy counsellor of Francis I., and, in 1558, Bishop of 
Mascon, (Macon.) He wrote several sonnets and let 
ters. Died in 1581. 

Alemarmi, written also Alamamii, a-la-man nec, 
( LUIGI,) an eminent Italian poet, born at Florence in 
1495. He removed to Paris about 1530, and passed 
many years at the court of Francis I., in whom he found 
a liberal patron, and by whom he was sent as ambassador 
to Charles V. in 1544. He was also patronized by 
Henry II. His chief work is an excellent didactic poem 
on agriculture, "La Coltivazione," (1546,) which, says 
Ginguene, "abounds in elegant imitations of Virgil s 
Georgics, and in true and poetical descriptions of the 
rural beauties of Italy and France." He was author of 
numerous sonnets, epigrams, elegies, satires, etc. Died 
at Amboise in 1556. 

See MAZZUCHELLI, "Scrittori d ltalia;" TIRABOSCHI, "Storia 
della Letteratura Italiana;" LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of 

Alemarmi, (LuiGi,) a grand-nephew of the poet of 
that name, was born at Florence in 1558. He was a good 
classical scholar, and author of several short Latin poems. 
Died in 1603. 

Alemanni, (NiCGOLO,) an antiquary of Greek origin, 
born at Ancona in 1583. He became a priest, and was 
for some time professor of Greek in Rome. In 1614 
he was appointed librarian of the Vatican. He pub 
lished, besides other works, the ninth book of the his 
tory of Procopius, with a Latin version and notes. Died 
in 1626. 

Alemans, Sl mSN , a miniature-painter of rare merit, 
resided at Brussels in the early part of the eighteenth 
century. His works were in great demand, and com 
manded very high prices. 

Alembek, a lem-bek , (Louis VALERIAN,) a Polish 
poet, born at Leopol about 1620. Died about 1690. 

Alembert, d , dS lSN baiR , QEAN le Rond leh 
roN,) an eminent French geometer and philosopher, 
born in Paris on the i6th of November, 1717, was an 
illegitimate son of M. Destouches-Canon, a commissary 
of artillery, and Madame de Tencin, an authoress. 
Having been found exposed in the street, he was placed 
by the police in the care of a glazier s wife, named Rous 
seau, by whom he was brought up. A few days after his 
birth his parents settled upon him an annuity of 1200 
livres. It is said that after his remarkable talents be 
came known his mother discovered herself to him, but 
he replied, " Je ne connais qu une mere, c est la vitriere," 
("I know but one mother the glazier s wife.") He was 
educated in the College Mazarin, which he entered in 
1 730. After he left college he studied mathematics and 
law, and continued to reside with his foster-mother for 
many years. 

Having written a " Memoir on the Integral Calculus," 
he was elected to the Academy of Sciences in 1741. He 
published, in 1743, a celebrated "Treatise on Dynamics," 
containing an important principle which will always be 
known by the name of D Alembert, and which initiated a 
revolution in physico-mathematical sciences. The prin 
ciple in question amounts simply to this, that every force 
applied to a system must produce its entire effect some 
where, if not at the point of application, then somewhere 
else. In other words, there is an absolute equality at 
all times between the entire amount of force applied and 
the sum total of the effects produced: thus, one portion 
of the force may be spent in neutralizing an antagonistic 
force, for example, in overcoming the momentum which 
a body may have already acquired ; another portion, 

in overcoming the resistance caused by friction ; a 
third, in imparting motion in a new direction. D Alem- 
bert s work "On the General Theory of the Winds" 
gained a prize of the Academy of Berlin in 1 746. He 
declined, in 1752, the invitation of Frederick II. of 
Prussia, who offered him the presidency of the Royal 
Academy with a liberal pension, but he accepted an un 
conditional pension of 1200 francs from that monarch 
in 1754. From this time until his death a constant epis 
tolary correspondence was maintained between him and 

D Alembert was elected to the French Academy in 
1754, and received a pension of 1200 francs- from Louis 
XV. in 1756. He declined, in 1762, an urgent invitation 
trom Catherine II. of Russia to come to her court and 
direct the education of her son for a salary of 100,000 

About 1764 he became attached to the accomplished 
Mademoiselle de 1 Espinasse, who lived with him twelve 
years, but rendered him unhappy by her growing indif 
ference to him and her partiality to another. (See ESPI- 
NASSE.) D Alembert was for a time joint editor with 
Diderot of the famous " Encyclopedic, (commenced 
about 1750,) for which he wrote many mathematical 
articles, and an introductory discourse that was highly 
commended as a model of accurate thinking and elegant 
composition. (See DIDEROT.) For many years he was 
on terms of great intimacy with Voltaire, to whom he 
was as superior in justness of thought as he was in 
ferior in wit and brilliancy. D Alembert was a skeptic 
in the true sense of the word, (i.e. a "doubter" or "in 
quirer,") but not a scoffer or blasphemer, as he has been 
commonly represented. We find in his published works 
no attacks on the Christian religion; although he did not 
conceal his hostility to Roman Catholicism. 

In 1772 he was chosen secretary of the French Acad 
emy. He wrote " liloges" of the members of that insti 
tution who died between 1700 and 1772. Among his 
numerous works are " Researches on Various Important 
Points of the System of the Universe," (3 vols., 1754- 
56;) "Melanges of Literature and Philosophy," (5 
vols. ;) and "Elements of Philosophy," (1759.) lie was 
a member of all the prominent learned societies of Eu 
rope. Died in Paris on the 2gth of October, 1783. 

Lacroix, in the " Biographic Universelle," expresses 
the opinion that D Alembert should be ranked as high 
as any contemporary geometer, when we consider the 
difficulties he overcame, the intrinsic value of the methods 
which he invented, and the ingenuity (finesse] of his 

"His literary works," says Lacroix, "constantly di 
rected to the perfection of reason and the propagation 
of correct ideas, were highly appreciated by all men of 
sense, (bans esprits.) All of them are remarkable for a 
pure diction, a neat style, and strong or pithy thought." 
His character presents many amiable traits, among which 
are candour, modesty, and beneficence. 

See "l^loge de D Alembert," par CONDORCET; a notice in the 
first volume of the edition of his literary and philosophical works 
published by J. B. BASTIEN", Paris, 18 vols., 1805 ; and the notice [ire- 
fixed to an edition of his works by BOSSANGE, 5 vols., iSzi ; N. RO 
SEN VON ROSENSTEIN, " Lefnadsbeskrifiiingofver J. L. d Alembert," 
Stockholm, 8vo, 1787; " B^raphie Universelle." 

Aleii, van, vSn a len, (or van O len,) (JoiiN, or JAN,) 
a Dutch painter, born in 1631, imitated Melchior Hon- 
dekoeter. Died at Amsterdam in 1698. 

Alence, d , di loN si , (JOACHIM,) a French astron 
omer and physicist, born in Paris. Died in 1707. 

Aleiigon, a-len son or I ION .SON , COUNTS, and after 
wards DUKES OF, a distinguished line of French nobles 
in the middle ages. 

Alengon, (CHARLES DE Valois vSl wa ,) COUNT 
OF, a brother of Philippe dc Valois, King of France. 
He was killed at the battle of Cre cy in 1346. 

Alengon, (CHARLES,) DUKE OF, a grandson of Jean, 
who died in 1476, was born in 1489. lie married a sister 
of Francis I. The loss of the battle of Pavia was at 
tributed to him. He is said to have died of shame for 
his misconduct in that action. Died in 1525. 

Alengon, (FRANgois,) DUKE OF, afterwards Duke of 
Anjou, the youngest son of Henry II. of France and 

a, e, I, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, li, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; mgt; ndt; good; moon; 



Catherine de Me dicis, born in 1554; died in 1584. He 
was awkwardly made, was disfigured by the small-pox, 
and, to crown all, was of a cowardly and malignant dis 
position. Although he acted a conspicuous part in the 
wars and intrigues of his time, he accomplished nothing 
useful or great. lie paid court to Queen Elizabeth of 
England, and his proposals were very favourably re 
ceived by her, but the marriage was broken off on ac 
count of his being a Catholic. 

See DE THOU, " Historia sui Temporis ;" SIMON DE DE SISMONDI, 
" Histoire des Francais ;" SULLY, Memoires ;" MOTLEY, " Rise of 
the Dutch Republic," vol. iii. ; FROUDE, "Reign of Elizabeth." 

Aleii9on, (JEAN,) first DUKE OF, a French nobleman, 
born in 1385. He was killed at the battle of Agincourt 
in 1415. 

Alengon, (JEAN,) fourth DUKE OF, a French noble 
man in the reigns of Charles VII. and Louis XL, noted 
for his turbulent ambition. Died in prison about 1474. 

Aleni, a-la nee, or Aleiiio, a-la ne-o, (GiULio,) a 
learned Italian Jesuit and missionary, born at Brescia. 
He visited China in 1610, and preached with great suc 
cess ; he caused several churches to be erected, and 
made many converts. Died in China in 1649. He wrote 
a number of works in the Chinese language. 

Aleni, (ToMMASO,) an Italian historical painter, born 
at Cremona in 1500 . Died about 1560. 

Aleotti, a-la-ot tee, (GIAMBATTISTA,) an Italian en 
gineer and architect, born near Ferrara in 1546; died in 
1636. His chief work is the theatre of Parma. 

Aler, a ler, (PAUL,) a German Jesuit, born in Lux 
emburg in 1656, passed many years as a teacher at Co 
logne. He wrote several Latin dramas, and published 
a popular school-book called " Gradus ad Parnassum," 
of which it is said he was not the author. Died in 1727. 

Ales, Aless, or Alesse, a-less , [Lat. ALF.SIUS, a-lee - 
shc-ois,] (ALEXANDER,) an eminent Scottish divine, born 
in Edinburgh in 1500. His family name was ALANE. 
He was driven into exile about 1530 by persecution for 
religion, and became a pupil of Melanchthon, with whom 
he formed an intimate and lasting friendship. He was 
professor of theology at Leipsic from 1543 until 1565. 
He wrote commentaries on several books of Scripture, 
and some polemical works. Died at Leipsic in 1565. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ;" 
MACKENZIE. "Lives of Scotch Writers." 

Ales, t leV, (PIERRE ALEXANDRA,) Vicomte de 
Corbet, a French writer, born in Touraine in 1715. 
> His chief work is "On the Origin of Evil," (2 vols., 1758.) 
Died about 1770. 

Alesio, a-la se-o, (MATTED PIETRO; more properly 
MATTED Lecce leVchi,) a painter and engraver, born 
at Rome, was a pupil of Michael Angelo. He worked 
at Seville. His fresco of Saint Christopher in that city is 
Highly praised. He returned to Italy, and died in 1600. 

Alesius. See ALES, (ALEXANDER.) 

Alessandri, a-les-sau diiee, (ALESSANDRO,) [in Latin, 
ALEXAN DER AB ALEXAN DRO,] an Italian writer and 
jurist, born at Naples about 1460; died in 1523. He left 
a work on philology, called "Dies Geniales," (1522,) 
often reprinted. It is on the model of the "Attic 
Nights" of Aulus Gellius. 

Alessandri, a-lcs-san dRee, (FELICE,) an Italian 
composer of operas, born at Rome in 1742. Died about 

Alessandri, (!NNOCENTE,) an Italian engraver of 
Venice, born about 1742. 

Alessandrim, a-les-san-dRee nee, (GiULio,) an Ital 
ian medical writer, bom at Trent in 1506. Died in 

Alessandro, the Italian for ALEXANDER, which see. 

Alessandro, a-lfis-san duo, and Ju li-o, (or Giuglio, 
jool yo,) two Italian fresco-painters, who are supposed 
to have been pupils of Raphael, (or, according to some 
writers, of Giovanni da Ucline,) and appear to have been 
partners. They worked for Charles V. in Spain, and 
decorated the Alhambra. Died about 1530. 

Alessi, a-les see, (GALEAZZO, ga-li-at/so,) an eminent 
Italian architect, born at Perugia in 1500, was an inti 
mate friend of Michael Angelo. Having adorned his 
native city with several palazzi, (palaces,) he was called 
to Genoa in 1552, to design the Carignano Church. He 

was architect of the Grimaldi Palace, and of other granc 
palaces of Genoa. Died in 1572. 

See Q. DE QUINXY, "Histoire des plus celebres Architectes ; 
MILIZIA, " Vite de piii celebri Architelti." 

Alessio Piemoiitese, a-leVse-o pe-a-mon-ta sa. 
[Lat. ALF.X IS PEDEMONTA NUS,] a physician of the six 
teenth century, who dealt in secret remedies. Stung by 
remorse at the death of a person who, as he supposed 
might have been saved if he had communicated his know 
ledge to the attending surgeon, he resolved to make- 
known to the world all his remedies, and published a 
curious book called " The Secrets of Alexis of Pied 

Al e-vas or Aleu as, [ AAerac,j an ancient Greek 
statuary, who worked in bronze. He is mentioned by 

Al-ex-am e-rms, [ A/U^a/cztwr,] a native of Teos, was, 
according to Aristotle, the first Greek who wrote dia 
logues in the Socratic style. 

Al-ex-an/der [ Ahegavdpof] I., King of Macedonia, 
a son of Amyntas I., began to reign about 500 U.C. He 
was obliged to join his forces with the army of Persian 
invaders in 480. 

Alexander II., King of Macedonia, was a son of 
Amyntas II., whom he succeeded about 370 B.C. He 
was assassinated in 367. 

Alexander [Gr. A/ieav(5pof ; Lat. ALEXAN DER ; Fr. 
ALEXANDRE, a lek sdNdR ;* It. ALESSANDRO, a-les-san - 
dRo; Sp. ALEJANDRO, a-la-iian dRo ; Persian and Turk 
ish, ISKAN DER and SIKAN DER] surnamed THE GREAT, 
the first in order of time of the four most celebrated com 
manders of whom history makes mention, t and the third 
Macedonian king of his name, was born at Pella, 356 B.C. 
He was the son of Philip and Olympias, being descended 
on his father s side from the ancient royal line of Mace 
donia, and on his mother s from the kings of Epirus. 
who boasted their descent from Achilles. When Alex 
ander was about fourteen years of age, his father sent 
for Aristotle, that he might become the tutor of the 
young prince. Under this illustrious master, the greatest 
intellect of that or, perhaps, of any age, Alexander 
rapidly advanced in knowledge of every kind, and devel 
oped mental powers of the highest order. Unhappily, 
his descent from Achilles, and the flattery of the cour 
tiers around him, gave his mind an early bias towards 
war, and the ambition to be a great conqueror became 
the ruling passion of his soul. The Iliad was his favour 
ite book ; and it is said that he had a copy of that poem 
which he regularly placed under his pillow at night along 
with his sword. He seemed fitted to excel in every de 
partment of knowledge, as well as in every manly and 
martial exercise. In horsemanship he was unequalled ; 
and when the famous steed Bucephalus was brought to 
Pella, the Macedonian capital, as none of the grooms or 
nobles could manage him, Philip, displeased, ordered the 
animal to be sent back whence he came ; but the young 
prince begged to be allowed to try his skill. His wish 
was at first regarded as the thoughtless expression of 
youthful folly ; but, when he earnestly insisted, the king 
asked what forfeit he would be willing to pay in case he 
failed. "The price of the horse," said Alexander.t He 
had observed that Bucephalus was excited by his own 
shadow. He therefore turned the horse s head towards 
the sun, and, at the same time using every means to 
soothe him, he soon succeeded in bringing him under 
complete control. The king was so delighted with his 
son s success that he is said to have wept for joy, telling 
him he must seek for another kingdom, for Macedonia 
was too small for him. He had such confidence in Alex 
ander s abilities, that when he set out on an expedition 
against Byzantium he left the young prince, then only 
sixteen years old, as regent of the kingdom during his 
absence. According to Plutarch, Philip was delighted to 
hear the Macedonians call his son " king," while he him- 

* Chaucer has A Icxandre and Alisaunder, the latter being evi 
dently derived from the Italian, but not improbably through an old form. 

t Alexander, Hannibal, Gcsar, and Napoleon. 

t The price of Bucephalus, says P .iny, in his "Natural History," 
was sixteen talents, probably more than twenty thousand dollars ot 
our money. 

c as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; c, H, K.,gutlnral; N, nasal; K, trillui; s r.s z; th as in this. (20^ See Explanations, p. 23.) 




self received the title of "general" only. When but 
eighteen years of age, Alexander greatly distinguished 
himself in the battle of Chaerone a, and the victory which 
Philip won on that memorable field was due in a great 
measure to his son s courage and valour. On the death 
of his father, (336 B.C.,) Alexander, who was not yet 
twenty years old, succeeded to the throne. Several of 
the Grecian states which had been subjugated by Philip, 
deemed this a favourable opportunity for regaining their 
independence. Alexander s energy and promptitude, 
however, disconcerted all their measures, and even 
those who had been most active submitted to his power 
without a struggle. But soon after, while he was en 
gaged in subduing the Triballi and other barbarous na 
tions in the east of Europe, a report having been circu 
lated that he was dead, the Thebans revolted a second 
time. But the young king advanced into Boeotia by rapid 
strides, and was soon at their gates. The city was taken 
by storm, the houses levelled to the ground, and all the 
citizens who had escaped massacre in the assault were 
sold into slavery the posterity of the poet Pindar, 
and the families of those who had opposed the revolt, 
alone excepted. The other states of Greece, intimi 
dated by this terrible example, were fain to accept Alex 
ander as their ruler. In a general assembly held not 
long after, at Corinth, he was chosen generalissimo of 
all the Grecian forces destined for the expedition against 
Persia. In the spring of 334 B.C. he passed over into 
Asia Minor with an army of not more than 35,000 men, 
including the cavalry, which scarcely amounted to 5000. 
He first engaged the Persians at the river Grani cus, 
where they endeavoured to prevent his passage. Al 
though the Macedonians fought at a great disadvantage, 
being attacked by the Persians while they were still in 
the river, they soon put their enemies to flight. He af 
terwards advanced to Gordium, where was the famous 
Gordian knot. He had been told that the fates had de 
creed the empire of the world to him who should untie 
the knot. He tried therefore for some time ; but, finding 
all his efforts to be vain, he at last drew his sword and 
cut the knot, declaring that this was the only way to 
untie it. In 333 B.C., having received reinforcements 
from Macedonia, he advanced to meet Darius, who had 
assembled an army of about 600,000 men. The opposing 
forces met at Issus. The Persians were defeated with 
terrible slaughter. Darius himself escaped from the 
battle, but his mother, his wife, and two daughters were 
taken by the conqueror, who treated them with the 
greatest kindness and consideration. The booty which 
fell into the hands of the Macedonians after their victory 
at Issus was immense. Before proceeding farther, Alex 
ander deemed it wisest to reduce the maritime states. 
Most of the other towns and cities submitted at once to 
his power ; but Tyre offered a most determined resist 
ance. After a siege of seven months, during which the 
Tyrians defended the place with equal skill and obsti 
nacy, the city was taken, 332 B.C. The glory of this 
achievement, however, was stained by the cruelty of the 
conqueror towards the inhabitants, of whom several 
thousands were mercilessly slaughtered, and the remain 
der, amounting to thirty thousand, sold into slavery. 
As he proceeded southward, all the towns opened their 
gates except Gaza, which experienced a fate similar to 
that of Tyre. Alexander then marched into Egypt, 
where he was received by the people, who were weary 
of the Persian domination, as a liberator. Here he 
founded a city called, after his own name, Alexandria. 
He afterwards visited the temple of Jupiter Ammon on 
an oasis in the desert of Libya, in the hope, as some 
say, that the god would acknowledge him as his son. 
This acknowledgment having been made through the 
priest of the temple, Alexander returned to Egypt, and, 
not long after, marched against Darius, who had col 
lected another army of more than a million men, with 
40,000 cavalry. The Macedonians had only about 40,000 
foot-soldiers and 7000 horsemen. The armies met ;\t 
Gaugamela, near Arbela, 331 B.C. The Persians were 
routed with immense slaughter. Soon after Babylon and 
Susa opened their gates to the conqueror. Persepolis, 
the capital of the empire, defended by Ariobarzanes, 
was taken after a slight resistance. Alexander was now 

the undisputed master of Persia; but his successes 
appear to have turned his brain. Having persuaded 
himself that he was a god, he thought that he owed no 
obedience to laws which were made for mortals only. 
While at Persepolis, he is said, in a drunken revel, at the 
instigation of the courtesan Thais, to have set fire, with 
his own hand, to the magnificent residence of the Per 
sian kings, then one of the wonders of the world. In 
330 B.C., having learned that Darius was collecting 
another army in Media, Alexander set out in pursuit of 
him. The Persian king fled towards Bactria ; but be 
fore he reached its confines he was murdered by Bessus, 
the satrap of that country, who aspired to the throne of 
Persia. The conqueror came up just as Darius was 
breathing his last. The dying king, covered with wounds, 
lay extended on a chariot. At this sad spectacle Alex 
ander could not restrain his tears. He caused the body 
of Darius to be conveyed to Persepolis and interred in 
the tombs of the Persian kings. He then marched in 
pursuit of Bessus, who, having at last fallen into his 
hands, was put to death, as Plutarch informs us, in the 
following manner. He was attached by his limbs to two 
trees, which had been bent towards each other for this 
purpose, and, on their being allowed to recoil, his body 
was torn asunder. Alexander had carried his victorious 
arms to the northward beyond the Jaxartes. He after 
wards subdued Sogdiana. Oxyartes, a Bactrian prince, 
had, for the sake of security, placed his wife and daugh 
ters in a fortress built upon a lofty rock. Alexander 
took it, and was so deeply smitten with the beauty of 
Roxana, one of the daughters, that he mar ied her. 
After his conquest of Persia there were formed against 
his life two conspiracies, in the first of which Philotas, 
the son of Parmenio, was implicated, and which led to 
the death both of son and father, (see PARMENIO;) the 
second, of which Hennolaus was the chief instigator, in 
volved Callisthenes, the pupil, and, according to some, 
the nephew, according to others the cousin, of Aristotle, 
and several of the royal pages. All the conspirators 
were put to death, except Callisthenes, who was muti 
lated and afterwards killed ; though some say he de 
stroyed himself by poison. 

1:13276. C. Alexander invaded India, a country of which 
until that time even the name was scarcely known to the 
Greeks. Having crossed the Indus, he formed an alli 
ance with Taxiles, one of the kings of that region, who 
is said to have brought him, in addition to a large body 
of troops, one hundred and thirty elephants. He ap 
pears to have met with little opposition until he arrived 
at the banks of the Hydaspes, (Jhylum.) Here his ad 
vance was resisted by a king named Porus, at the head 
of a great army, with a large number of elephants. After 
a hard-fought and bloody battle, Alexander was victo 
rious. He took Porus prisoner, but afterwards he re 
stored him to his kingdom and treated him with the 
highest consideration. His favourite horse Bucephalus 
had been severely wounded in the battle, so that he died 
soon after. On the spot where he was buried Alexander 
founded a town, which he called, in honour of him, Buce- 
phala. He afterwards advanced, subduing many cities 
in his course, as far as the Hyphasis, (Gharra,) w ner. ms 
soldiers refused to go any farther. His commands and 
entreaties were equally unavailing, and he was under the 
necessity of returning. Having previously given orders 
that a fleet should be built on the Hydaspes, they imme 
diately embarked upon that river, continuing their course 
down the Indus to the sea. Committing his fleet to 
Nearchus, he proceeded by land to Susa. In his march 
he encountered incredible hardships, and a large number 
of his men perished from hunger and thirst. At Susa, 
where he rested for some time, he married, as his second 
wife, the daughter of Darius ; and to all those Mace 
donians (amounting, it is said, to 9000 or 10,000) who 
married Persian women he gave presents. His object 
was to unite the two nations as intimately as possible. 
Soon after, his friend Hephasstion died, for whose loss 
he was for a long time inconsolable. As he was forming 
vast projects for the improvement of his empire, and for 
the subjugation of the surrounding nations, he died at 
Babylon, 323 B.C., in his thirty-third year. 

In the extent of his conquests, and in the splendour 

a, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, li, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; \ 5t good; moon; 



of his exploits, Alexander may be said to have surpassed 
all other military heroes. He overran and subdued the 
greater part of the world known to the ancients, almost 
as quickly as the same could have been explored by an 
active and enterprising traveller. Even now, after the 
lapse of twenty-two hundred years, his name is still 
"familiar as household words" in most of the countries 
that he conquered. It may not be irrelevant to state 
in order to show what a deep impression the arms and 
policy of Alexander had made upon the mind of the 
Persian nation that Firdousee, (Firdausi,) in his great 
historic poem, the " Shah Nameh," written about the 
year 1000 A.ix, speaks of Alexander (Iskander) as the 
greatest of heroes ; but, following probably the tradi 
tions of his country, the poet represents him as the son 
of a Persian king who had married a Macedonian prin 
cess, and, while she was on a visit to her father in Mace- 
don, Alexander was born. This is equivalent to an 
acknowledgment, on the part of the Persians, that they 
considered his glory too great not to be appropriated at 
least in part by themselves. Although it must be ad 
mitted that Alexander owed more to fortune than any 
other of the great conquerors mentioned in history, it 
can scarcely be questioned that his military talents were 
of the very highest order. Many of his views of public 
policy were liberal and enlightened ; and his ideas re 
specting the greatness and dignity that became a king 
were very different from those of an ordinary or vulgar 
sovereign. Undoubtedly, much of what was greatest and 
noblest in his character was due to the instructions of 
his illustrious teacher Aristotle ; but it is certainly no 
small praise that the royal pupil was, at least in the 
early part of his career, before his brain had been turned 
by his unparalleled successes, every way worthy of such 
a teacher. He appears to have regarded him with an 
affectionate reverence such as he felt for no other human 
being, not even his father. And if these sentiments were 
afterwards somewhat changed by the folly or crime of 
Aristotle s relative Callisthenes, they were never wholly 
extinguished. There was in Alexander s nature a gene 
rosity and magnanimity rare even among men most 
distinguished for greatness of soul. His "treatment of 
the family of Darius, and his generous conduct towards 
Poms, have already been spoken of. We may cite 
another example of his magnanimity, related by Plutarch 
and some other writers. A letter from Parmenio, one 
of his ablest and most trusted officers, informed Alex 
ander, when he was once lying very ill, that his physi 
cian Philip had been bribed by Darius, with presents of 
immense value and the promise of his daughter in mar 
riage, to take him off by poison. As Philip entered the 
chamber with a cup of medicine for his royal patient, 
Alexander drew the letter from under his pillow and 
gave it to him to read, while he himself, without the 
slightest hesitation, drank off the medicine prepared for 
him. The result fully justified the trust with which 
Philip s character had inspired him, and which his coun 
tenance then confirmed. Although the strength of his 
intellect and of his will was most extraordinary, unhap 
pily that of his passions was still greater. Accordingly, 
we behold him, after the conquest of Persia, so elated 
as eagerly to accept the adoration which his flatterers 
offered to him as to a god, and yet surrendering him 
self up at one time to the most insane paroxysms of 
anger, at another to the most passionate and uncontrol 
lable grief. In a fit of rage he slew his friend and foster- 
brother Clitus, who had once saved his life, after which 
he became a prey to sorrow and remorse no less violent 
than his anger had been, so that had he not been re 
strained by his friends he would probably have killed 
himself. Pope, in his " Temple of Fame," appropriately 

calls him 

"The youth who all things but himself subdued. 

See PLUTARCH S "Lives;" AKRIAN S "History of Alexander s 
Expedition;" "Life of Alexander," by QUINTUS CURTIUS ; " Bib- 
hotheca" of DIOIJORUS SICULUS," books xvii.-\x. ; SAINTE-CROIX, 

Examen critique dcs anciens Historiens d Alexandre !e Grand," 
1775; DROYSEN, " Geschichte Alexanders des Grossen," 1833: WIL 
LIAMS,^" Life arid Actions of Alexander the Great," 1829: THIRL- 
WAI.L, " History of Greece;" VALERIUS, "Historia AlexandriMagni," 
Vir?i LKHMANN, "Historia Mapni Alexandri." 1667; KOSSIN 

L Eroismo ponderate nella Vita di Alessandro il Grande," 2 vols. 
1716 ; PONSECA-REBELO, " Historia abreviada de Alexandra Magno," 

1753; LINGUET, "Histoire du Siecle d Alexandre le Grand," 1762 
DE liuKY, "Vie d Alexandre le Grand," 1760; G. SCHLECEL, " Ein- 
leitung zu einer Alexandropadie oder iiber die Jugemljahre Alexander- 
des Grossen," 1775; GUSTAV PFIZER, "Gesch;chte Alexanders de-. 

etc.," 1764. 

Alexander IV., a son of Alexander the Great ana 
Roxana, was born in 323 i;.c., after his father s death. He 
was saluted as king by the army at Babylon, and was 
under the guardianship of successive regents, Perdiccas. 
Antipater, and Polysperchon. About 316 he fell into 
the power of Cassander, who put him and Roxana to 
death in 310 B.C. 

Alexander V. of Macedonia, was the third son of 
Cassander. He disputed with his brother Antipater for 
the royal power, and was put to death by Demetrius 
Poliorcetes in 294 n.c. 

Alexander I., King of Epirus, was a son of Neop- 
tolemus, and brother of Olympias, who was the mother 
of Alexander the Great. He was killed in a war against 
the Lucanians about 330 li.c. 

Alexander II. of Epirus, succeeded his father Pyr- 
rhus in 272 i;.c. He waged war against Demetrius of 
Macedon. Died about 242 B.C. 

Alexander, tyrant of Phcrae in Thessaly, usurped 
the throne in 369 li.c., and was notorious for cruelty. 
He was compelled byEpaminondas to give up Pelopidas, 
whom he had taken prisoner in 367. In 364 he was 
defeated by the Thebans under Pelopidas, who fell in 
the action. He was killed by conspirators in 359 B.C. 

Alexander I. of Egypt, was a son of Ptolemy Ever- 
getes II. He reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra 
eighteen years, from 107 to 89 B.C. He was dethroned 
and killed in battle soon after the latter date. His son 
Alexander reigned a few weeks in 81 B.C., and was 
killed by his own subjects in the same year. 

Alexander I., surnamed BA LAS, King of Syria, pre 
tended to be the son of Antiochus Epiphanes. He began 
to reign in 150 li.c., after he had defeated Demetrius 
Soter in battle, and after the Roman Senate had issued 
a decree in his favour. The kingdom was invaded in 148 
by an army raised by Demetrius IL, and by another under 
Ptolemy of Egypt, who gained a decisive victory over 
Alexander in 147. He fled into Arabia, where he was 
killed in 146 B.C. His surname of Balas is supposed to 
signify "Lord." 

See JOSEPHUS, "History of the Jews." 

Alexander II., otherwise called Alexander Za- 
bi nas, (or Zebina, i.e. "a purchased slave,") was a 
pretender, who, being favoured or instigated by Ptolemy 
Physcon of Egypt, obtained the throne of Syria in 128 
B.C., after he had defeated Demetrius II. Refusing to 
pay tribute, he provoked the hostility of Ptolemy, by 
whom he was defeated and put to death in 122 B.C. 

Alexander, a grandson of Alexander Jannaeus, and 
a son of Aristobu lus II. He raised an army in 57 B.C. 
and entered Judca, then occupied by the Romans. He 
made himself master of that country in 56, but was de 
feated by Gabinius about the end of that year. He 
was put to death by Q. M. Scipio in 49 B.C. 

Alexander OF JEc,sE, (ee je,) a Peripatetic philoso 
pher, instructor of the Roman emperor Nero. 



Alexander surnamed ^ETOLUS, (e-to lus,) from 
his birthplace, TEtolia, a Greek poet, who lived in the 
third century B.C. He was regarded as one of the Pleias 
of tragic poets. 

Alexander surnamed EXEGF/TF.S, (i.e. the "Ex 
pounder,") a celebrated philosopher and cpmmentator 
on Aristotle, flourished in the early part of the third 
century. He was a native of Aphrodisias, in Caria, 
Asia Minor. 

Alexander JANNVEUS, (jan-nee us,) a son of John 
Hyrcanus, succeeded his brother Aristobu lus as King 
of Judca in 105 B.C. The enmity of the Pharisees against 
him caused a rebellion, which raged several years, and 
was suppressed with great cruelty in 86 B.C. Died in 

78 B.C. 

See article by GESENIUS in ERSCH und GRUBER S " Allgemeine En- 

c as /; 5 as r; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; K, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (2^=See Explanations, p. 23.) 




Alexan der MYN DIUS, a Greek writer and natural 
ist, lived probably in the second century B.C. 

Alexan der NUME NIUS, a Greek rhetorician of the 
second century, wrote a book on the " Figures of Rhet 
oric," which is extant. 

Alexan der PELOP LATON, a Greek orator, who 
was secretary to Antoninus Pius about 150 A.D. 

Alexander PHILALE THES, [4>^a/J/^f,] a Greek 
physician, who was the head of a celebrated medical 
school in Phrygia. He is mentioned by Strabo as his 
contemporary, and by Galen. His works are not extant. 

Alexan der TRALLIA NUS, [Gr. oTpa?Jtawc; Fr. AL- 
EXANDRE DETRALLES, t lgk sSNclR 7 deh tRfl ,] a Greek 
medical writer of great merit, was born at Ttalles, in 
Lydia, and lived in the sixth century. He settled in 
Rome, and attained great distinction in his profession. 
It is supposed that he was a Christian. His great work 
is entitled "Twelve Books on Medicine," (BiiSAia larpiKu 
Jyo/caMwca.) He is considered one of the best Greek 
physicians after Hippocrates. His style is clear and 
elegant. His works have often been printed. 

See E. MILWARD, "Trallianus Revivescens," 1734; FREIND, 
" History of Physic." 

Alexander, a bishop of Jerusalem, who was perse 
cuted under the emperor Septimius Severus. He was 
translated from the see of Cappaclocia to that of Jeru 
salem, where he founded a library. Died in prison about 
250 A.D. 

Alexander, Patriarch of Alexandria from 312 to 325 
A.D., is noted as the first orthodox theologian who took 
a prominent part in the Arian controversy. He wrote 
many epistles against Arianism. He attended the Coun 
cil of Nice in 325, and died in 326 A.D. (See ATHA- 


Alexander, Emperor of Constantinople, born about 
870 A.D., was a son of Basilius. He succeeded his 
brother Leo the Philosopher in 911, and disgraced him 
self by his debaucheries. Died in 912. 

Alexander I., POPE, became Bishop of Rome in 108 
A.D. ; died in 117. He is said to have been the first 
to introduce the use of holy water in the service of the 

Alexander II., named originally Anselmo Bada- 
gio, (ba-di jo,) was elected pope in 1061; died in 1073, 
and was succeeded by Gregory VII. 

Alexander III. (previously Cardinal ROLANDO 
Ranuccio Bandinelli ra-noo cho b3n-cle-nel lee) 
was raised to the papal chair in 1159 ; died in nSi, and 
was succeeded by Lucius III. He was distinguished 
for his learning and great abilities. 

See " Vita Alexandri III.," by the CARDINAL OF ARAGON ; Mu- 
RATOKI, "Annali d ltalia ;" G. F. LOREDANO, "Vita di Alessandro 
III.," 1672. 

Alexander IV. ( di Anagni de d-nan - 
yee) became pope in 1254; died iri 1261, and was suc 
ceeded by Urban IV. 

Alexander V. (PIETRO Filargo fe-laR go) became 
pope in 1409 ; died in 1410. His successor was John 

Alexander VI. (RODRIGO Lenzuoli Borgia Ign- 
zoo-o lee boR ja) was born at Valencia, Spain, about 
1430. He first studied law, and distinguished himself as 
an advocate, but afterwards embraced the military pro 
fession. When he was only twenty-five, his uncle, Ca- 
lixtus III., was raised to the papal see. This circum 
stance directed his ambition towards the church. He 
was made cardinal through the influence of his uncle in 
1456, and at length, in 1492, was elected pope as suc 
cessor to Innocent VIII. He was distinguished, both 
while he was a cardinal and after he became pontiff, for 
his profligacy, inhumanity, and unscrupulous ambition. 
Alexander s illegitimate son, the infamous Cesare Bor 
gia, was made cardinal soon after his father s accession 
to the papal throne. (See BORGIA.) He died in August, 
1503, and was succeeded by Pius III. It has been as 
serted by several historians that Alexander VI. died from 
the effects of a poison which he and his son Borgia had 
designed for certain of their guests at a banquet, but 
which, by mistake, was taken by the pope himself. The 
"Nouvelle Biographic Generate," in an elaborate article, 

endorses this accusation. It has, however, been dis 
credited by several historical critics, on the ground that 
the evidence is insufficient. But, whatever judgment 
we may form on this question, it can scarcely be denied 
that the reign of Alexander VI. constitutes the blackest 
and most infamous page in the history of modern times. 

See GORDON, " Lives ofAlexander VI. and Cassar Borgia," 1729 ; 


Alexander VII. (FAIIIO Chigi kee jee) was born 
at Sienna in 1599, and chosen pope in 1655, on the death 
of Innocent X. He is noted for his zealous and successful 
efforts to improve and embellish the city of Rome. He 
died in May, 1667, and was succeeded by Clement IX. 

See BAGATTA, "Vita di Alessandro VI I.;" BOTTA, " Storia d lta 
lia;" N. N. SFORZA PALLAVICINO, "Delia Vita di Alessandro VII.," 
vols., 1840. 

Alexander VIII. (named originally PIETRO Otto- 
boiri ot-to-bo nee) was born at Venice in 1610. He 
succeeded Innocent XI. in 1689. He aided the Vene 
tians in war against the Turks. Died in 1691. His suc 
cessor was Innocent XII. 

See ARTAUD DE MONTOR, "Vies cles souverains Pontifes." 

Alexander I., King of Scotland, was a younger son 
of Malcolm Canmore. He succeeded his brother Edgar 
in 1107, and married a natural daughter of Henry I. of 
England. He died in 1124, and left the throne to his 
brother, David I. 

See BURTON, " History of Scotland," vol. i. chap. xi. and vol. ii. 
chap. xii. 

Alexander II. of Scotland, born in 1198, succeeded 
his father William the Lion in 1214. He fought against 
King John of England, as an ally of the revolted barons, 
and after the end of the war married a sister of Henry 
III. He is represented as a wise and able ruler. Died 
in 1249, and was succeeded by his son. 

See BURTON, "History of Scotland," vol. ii. chap. xiv. 

Alexander III. of Scotland, a son of the preceding, 
was born in 1241, and began to reign in 1249. His nup 
tials were celebrated with Margaret, the daughter of 
Henry III. of England, in 1251. His long reign was 
prosperous and peaceful, with the exception of an un 
successful invasion of Scotland by Haco, King of Nor 
way, with a large army, in 1263. Alexander fell with his 
horse over a precipice, and was killed by the fall, in 1286. 
He left no surviving children, and was succeeded by his 
infant grand-daughter Margaret. 

See BURTON, " History of Scotland," vol. ii. chap. xv. ; TYTLER, 
" History of Scotland;" WYNTOWN, " Chronicle of Scotland." 

Alexander JAGELLON ya-gel lon, King of Poland 
and Grand Duke of Lithuania, born in 1461, was a son 
of Casimir IV. of Poland. He became king at the death 
of his brother John Albert in 1501. lie waged war 
with little success against the Grand Duke Ivan of Rus 
sia. In his reign the laws of Poland were reduced to a 
code by John Laski. Died in 1506. 

Alexander-NKVSKY nev ske, (i.e. " of the Neva,") 
sometimes written -NEVSKOI and -NEWSKOJ, a brave 
Russian prince, born in 1219, was a son of Yaroslav 
(Jaroslaw) II. He is said to have gained, in 1240, a 
great victory over the Swedes on the river Neva, whence 
his surname. He succeeded his father as grand duke 
in 1245. Died in 1263. He is venerated as a saint by 
the Russians. 

Alexander I., (or, more fully, Alexander-Pavlo- 
vitch pav lo-vitch , i.e. "Alexander the son of Paul,") 
Emperor of Russia, the son of Paul and Maria Feodo- 
rovna, daughter of Prince Eugene of Wiirtemberg, was 
born at Saint Petersburg in 1777. The care of his 
education was taken from his father by Catherine II., 
his grandmother, who herself wrote tales for the amuse 
ment and instruction of the young prince. Catherine 
died in 1796, having named, it is said, Alexander as 
her successor in a will which was destroyed by Paul. 
In 1 80 1 Paul was assassinated ; but there is no sufficient 
ground for believing that Alexander in any way, directly 
or indirectly, sanctioned this crime, al-npugh he appear? 

a, e,T, o, ii, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, ii, y, short : a, e, i, o, obscTtre; far, fall, fat; met, n6t; good; moon; 



to have consented to the dethronement of his father. 
The chief defect of his character in the early part of his 
life was the yielding too passively to the advice of the 
corrupt courtiers about him, and the want of reliance 
on his own judgment and on the dictates of his own 
noble nature. This may perhaps account for the in 
consistencies which appear in his conduct in different 
parts of his life. He does not seem to have exhibited 
any striking indications of that greatness of mind 
which was afterwards so conspicuous, till about the 
time of the French invasion in 1812. Our limits neces 
sarily compel us to pass over the military movements 
and those other acts of his reign which are found in 
every history of that eventful period. Suffice it to say 
that as his firmness and wisdom had led to the over 
throw of Napoleon in 1813, so, after that event, his 
magnanimity preserved the city of Paris from the fury 
of the Russian soldiers, liberated one hundred and fifty 
thousand French prisoners of war confined in Russia, 
and sought to obtain for his fallen foe the most liberal 
terms compatible with what he deemed the safety of 
Europe. It was, in fact, through his influence that Bo 
naparte was allowed an independent sovereignty in Elba 
and the command of a portion of his former guard. On 
Alexander s return to Russia he granted an absolute 
pardon to all his subjects who had taken part against 
him in the late war. When it was proposed to erect a 
monument to commemorate his exploits, he peremptorily 
declined the honour, adding, " May a monument be 
erected to me in your hearts, as it is to you in mine." 
He gave unremitting attention to the internal improve 
ment of his empire. Reform was introduced into every 
department, military and civil. In the army, the soldier 
was subjected to the restraints not merely of discipline, 
but also of humanity. Persecution on account of reli 
gion was first abolished in Russia under his reign. He 
entered Paris with the army of the Allies in July, 1815, and 
in September of that year he concluded with the Em 
peror of Austria and the King of Prussia a treaty called 
the Holy Alliance, which, although ostensibly formed to 
promote religion, peace, and justice, proved to be a bul 
wark against the progress of liberal principles. He died 
without issue, at Taganrog, on the 1st of December, 1825, 
and was succeeded by his brother Nicholas. 

In reviewing the life and character of Alexander I. 
of Russia, we are obliged to confess that although his 
nature was on the whole kind and generous, and most 
of the acts of his reign were prompted by the spirit of 
justice and humanity, the cause of freedom owes little or 
nothing to his influence. It may be that he, like so 
many others, received such an impression from the ex 
cesses of the French Revolution that he came to believe 
that the people could not safely be trusted with any por 
tion of liberty. In the latter part of his life especially, 
his mind sharing, perhaps, in his bodily infirmities, he re 
garded with morbid apprehension every public manifes 
tation which looked towards the slightest enlargement 
of the privileges and powers of the people, and Ins at 
tention was chiefly devoted to suppressing liberal move 
ments not only in Poland, but also in Italy, Spain, Por 
tugal, and Germany. 

See HENRY EVANS LLOYD, "Alexander I., Emperor of Russia," 
1826; SIR WALTER SCOTT, "Life of Napoleon Bonaparte;" ALI 
SON, "History of Europe;" HEINRICH STORCH, "Russland unter 
Alexander I.," 8 vols., 1803-06; J. D. F. RUMPF, " Alexander I. 
Kaiser von Russland," 1814; COUSIN D AVALLON, "Vie privee, 
politique et militaire d Alexandre I," 1826; CARL F. LEIDENFROST, 
"Abriss einer Lebens Alexanders I.," 1826; ADRIEN EGRON, "Vie 
d Alexandre I de Russie," 1826 ; ALPHONSF. RADUE, " Histoire d Al 
exandre I," etc., 1826; CARL MORGENSTERN, "Znm Gedaechtnisse 
Alexanders I.," 1827; E. W. C. VOIGT, "Alexander I.," 1830. 

Alexander II., surnamed NicoLAEViTCH,ne-ko-la e- 
vitch, (i.e. "son of Nicholas,") Emperor of Russia, the 
eldest son of Nicholas I., was born on the 2gth of April, 
1818. His mother, Alexandra Feodorovna, was a sister 
of Frederick William IV. of Prussia. He married, in 
1841, a daughter of Louis II., Grand Duke of Hesse- 
Darmstadt, who, on joining the Greek Church, adopted 
the name of Marie Alexandrovna. On the death of 
Nicholas, March 2, 1855, he ascended the throne, in the 
midst of a war between Russia on one side, and France, 
England, Turkey, and Sardinia on the other. He re- 
ained in office the ministers of his father, and pro 

claimed his intention to pursue the policy of his prede 
cessor. The war was prosecuted with vigour even aftei 
the capture of Sebastopol, September, 1855. Conferences 
for the negotiation of peace, opened in Paris in March, 
1856, resulted in a treaty by which neither party gained 
any important advantages. 

Since the restoration of peace he has ordered several 
reforms in the administration, and has acquired the 
reputation of being more moderate and liberal than his 
father. Among the important measures of his reign is 
the gradual emancipation of more than twenty millions 
of serfs, which was decreed in March, 1861. 

A letter which he addressed to the government of the 
United States in 1861, on the subject of the great rebel 
lion, was received as an indication of a most friendly 
feeling on the part of Russia towards this country, which 
was doubly welcome on account of the doubtful or hostile 
attitude assumed by some of the other leading European 

Alexan der ALEN SIS, (i.e. "of Hales,") a renowned 
English theologian, styled the "Irrefragable Doctor." 
His chief work is a " System of Theology," (" Summa 
Theologian, ") written by order of Pope Innocent IV. 
Died in 1245. 

Alexander [Fr. ALEXANDRE, f lek soxdR ] OF BER - 
NAY , afterwards ALEXANDER OF PARIS, a French poet 
of the twelfth century, born at the village of Bernay, in 
Normandy. He was the author (or one of the authors) 
of a poem on the exploits of Alexander the Great, in 
verses of twelve syllables, a measure which has ever 
since been termed "Alexandrine." 

Alexander OF CANTERBURY, an English abbot and 
writer, who was noted for his assertion of the rights or 
interests of King John against the pope. Died about 
1 220. 

Alexan der ESSEBIEN SIS, (i.e. "of Ashby,") an 
English monk, who wrote historical and theological 
works in the first part of the thirteenth century. 

Alexaii der INSULA NUS, a monk and chronicler of 
Westphalia, flourished about 1210. 

Alexander, Bishop of Lincoln, born at Blois, was 
surnamed THE MAGNIFICENT. He rebuilt Lincoln Ca 
thedral. Died in 1 147. 

Alexan der OF VILLE DIEU, (vel de-ul/,) a gramma 
rian of the thirteenth century. He taught in Paris, and 
composed a book of grammar in verse, which was long 
in general use as a school-book. 

Alexan der, (ARCHIBALD,) D.D., an eminent Ameri 
can divine, born in Rockbridge county, Virginia, in 
1772. His grandfather, of Scottish descent, came from 
Ireland to Pennsylvania in 1736, and, after a residence 
of about two years, removed to Virginia. His father 
was a farmer. Archibald received his classical education 
at the academy of the Rev. William Graham, with whom 
he also studied theology. He was licensed to preach in 
1791, and for several years devoted himself to itineraiit 
labours, in which he acquired great fluency as a speaker. 
In 1796 he succeeded the Rev. Dr. John Blair Smith as 
president of Hampden-Sidney College, Virginia. He 
became pastor of the Pine Street Presbyterian Church of 
Philadelphia in 1807. On the organization of the Theo 
logical Seminary at Princeton in 1812, Dr. Alexander was 
unanimously chosen the first professor, with the sole 
charge of the several branches of a theological educa 
tion. As the number of students increased, other pro 
fessors were called to his assistance, which enabled him 
to direct his attention more particularly to the depart 
ment of pastoral and polemic theology, in promoting 
which and the general interests of the institution he con 
tinued to labour with great zeal and success till his death 
in 1851. Dr. Alexander s powers, both for pulpit oratory 
and polemic disquisition, were extraordinary ; and in all 
the relations of life he possessed rare excellencies. Few 
persons who have commenced authorship at so late a 
period in life have written so much. With the exception 
of some occasional sermons and contributions to peri 
odicals, he had published nothing till the appearance of 
his "Outlines of the Evidences of Christianity," in his 
fifty-second year, a work which has been translated 
into various foreign languages and is a text -book of high 

e as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s ns z; th as in this. (SJf^See Explanations, p. 23 



authority in several colleges. This was followed by his 
"Treatise on the Canon of the Scriptures ;" "Christian 
Experience ;" " History of African Colonization ;" "His 
tory of the Israelites ;" "Bible Dictionary ;" "Counsels 
fom the Aged to the Young ;" besides many other works 
which our limits will not permit us to mention. His 
"Outlines of Moral Science," published in i852,-(after 
his decease,) says the " Westminster Review," " is a calm, 
clear stream of abstract reasoning flowing from a thought 
ful, well-instructed mind, without any parade of logic, 
buf. with an intuitive simplicity and directness which 
give an almost axiomatic force." Dr. Alexander mar 
ried in 1802 Janetta Waddell, daughter of the celebrated 
blind preacher mentioned by Wirt in his "British Spy." 
He left five sons and one daughter. Of the former, three 
were ministers. 

See "Life of Dr. Archibald Alexander," by his son, JAMES W. 
ALEXANDER, New York, 1852; STRAGUE S "Annals of the American 
Pulpit," vol. iii. 

Alexander, (CALEB,) D.D., an American clergyman, 
was born at Northfield, Massachusetts, and graduated 
at Yale College in 1777. He afterwards settled at Onon- 
daga Hollow, New York, where he died in 1828. He 
was the author of a Latin Grammar, (1794,) an English 
Grammar, and an Essay on the Deity of Jesus Christ, 

Alexander, (Sir JAMES EDWARD,) a British officer 
and writer, born in Scotland in 1803. He was employed 
about 1835 in an exploration of Africa, and commanded 
a regiment at Sebastopol in 1855. Among his works 
are "An Expedition into Southern Africa," "Travels 
through Russia and the Crimea," and a "Life of the 
Duke of Wellington." 

Alexander, (JAMES WADDELL,) D.D., an American 
divine, eldest son of Dr. Archibald Alexander, was born 
in Louisa county, Virginia, in 1804. He graduated at 
Princeton in 1820, and, after studying theology, was for 
some time tutor in that institution. He commenced his 
labours as a minister in Charlotte county, Virginia, about 
1826; subsequently removed to Trenton, New Jersey; 
and, from 1830 to 1833, edited "The Presbyterian," pub 
lished in Philadelphia. He filled the chair of rhetoric 
and belles-lettres in the College of New Jersey (Prince 
ton) until 1844, when he became pastor of the Duane 
Street Presbyterian Church, New York. From 1849 to 
1851 he was professor of ecclesiastical history and church 
government in the Princeton Theological Seminary, and, 
for the remainder of his life, minister of the Presbyterian 
church in Fifth Avenue, New York. Dr. Alexander was 
a ripe scholar and vigorous writer. Among his works 
may be mentioned above thirty juvenile books written 
for the American Sunday-School Union; "Life of Dr. 
Archibald Alexander," 8vo, pp. 700 ; " American Me 
chanic s and Working-Man s Companion," 2 vols. ; 
" Gift to the Afflicted ;" besides numerous sermons, 
essays, etc. For many years he was one of the principal 
contributors to the "Princeton Review." Died at Vir 
ginia Springs, July, 1859. 

See " Forty Years Familiar Letters of James VV. Alexander," by 

Alexander, (JOSEPH ADDISON,) D.D., a distinguished 
theologian and Oriental scholar, third son of Dr. Ar 
chibald Alexander, was born in Philadelphia in 1809. 
At the age of twelve he commenced the study of Arabic, 
and before entering college had made considerable pro 
gress in the Persian and Hebrew. After graduating at 
Princeton in 1826, he continued his studies under pri 
vate tutors, and from 1830 to 1833 was adjunct pro 
fessor of ancient languages and literature in the Col 
lege of New Jersey. In 1838 he became professor of 
biblical criticism and ecclesiastical history in the 
Princeton Theological Seminary, and in 1852 was trans 
ferred to the chair of biblical and ecclesiastical history. 
This position he occupied till his death, (1859.) In the 
extent and accuracy of his learning Dr. Alexander had 
few superiors in America ; and several of his works 
have had a great success. His " Commentary on the 
Prophecies of Isaiah," (8vo, pp. 968,) republished In 
Scotland, Dr. Eadie, of Glasgow, pronounces " among 
the best commentaries on Isaiah of any age or lan 
guage." His " Psalms Translated and Explained," in 

three voh mes, which appeared in 1850, reached a sale 
of ten thousand copies in four years. In 1851 he gave 
to the public his " Essays on the Primitive Church Of 
fices." He was one of the principal contributors to the 
" Princeton Review." At the time of his decease he was 
engaged, with Dr. Hodge, in the preparation of a com 
mentary on the New Testament. 

See "Life of J. A. Alexander," by the REV. HENRY C. ALFCX- 
ANPKR, New York, 1870. 

Alexander, (NATHANIEL,) born in 1756, was elected 
Governor of North Carolina in 1806 ; died in 1808. 

Alexander, (Noi ; .L.) See ALFXANDRE. 

Alexander, (STEPHEN,) LL.D., an American as 
tronomer, was born at Schenectady, New York, in 1806. 
He graduated at Union College in 1824, entered Prince 
ton Theological Seminary in 1832, and in 1834 was 
appointed adjunct professor of mathematics in the Col 
lege of New Jersey. In 1840 the professorship of as 
tronomy was created and assigned to him, and on the 
death of Dr. Albert D. Dod, in 1845, ne succeeded him 
as professor of mathematics. Since 1854 he has filled 
the chairs of mechanics and astronomy. He has pub 
lished numerous papers on astronomy, mathematics, 
etc., some of which have attracted the attention of emi 
nent astronomers both at home and abroad. Among 
these may be mentioned one on the " Physical Phenom 
ena attendant upon Solar Eclipses ;" " Fundamental 
Principles of Mathematics ;" " On the Origin of the 
Forms and the Present Condition of some of the Clus 
ters of Stars," etc. In 1860 he conducted an astronom 
ical expedition sent out to the coast of Labrador by the 
United States government for the purpose of making 
observations on the solar eclipse of July 18 of that year. 

Alexander, (THOMAS,) Earl of Selkirk, a British 
writer on politics, etc., planted a colony in Canada. 
Died in 1820. 

Alexander, (WILLIAM,) Earl of Stirling, a Scot 
tish poet and courtier, born, it is supposed, about 
1580. He produced in 1604 tragedies entitled "Julius 
Caesar " and " Croesus ;" and " Parcenesis to the Prince," 
a didactic poem. His long didactic poem of " Doomes- 
day" appeared in 1614. These works were greatly ad 
mired by his contemporaries, but are now obsolete. 
He received from James I., by charter, in 1621, the ter 
ritory of Nova Scotia, which he afterwards sold to the 
French. He was appointed secretary of state for Scot 
land in 1626, and received the title of Earl of Stirling in 
1633. Died in 1640. 

See CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen;" 
"Biographia Britannica." 

Alexander, (WILLIAM,) (generally known in Ameri 
can history as LORD STIRLING,) a major-general in the 
American army of the Revolution, was born in 1726 in 
New York, of which his father, a Scotchman, was for 
many years the provincial secretary. He served as an 
officer in the war with the French and Indians, and at 
its close went to Scotland, where he spent a large por 
tion of his fortune in an unsuccessful attempt to estab 
lish his claim to the estates and earldom of Stirling, of 
which many believed him the rightful heir. He early 
and warmly espoused the patriotic cause in the war of 
the Revolution, and, before the arrival of Washington 
from Boston, captured with a small fleet of boats a 
British transport in the harbour of New York. He led 
the attack in the battle of Long Island, in which he dis 
played the most determined courage, but was finally 
compelled to surrender, after securing the safe retreat of 
a large part of his detachment. On being exchanged, 
he at once resumed his command under Washington, 
fought with him at Brandyvvine, and especially distin 
guished himself at Germantown and Momnouth. In 
the last of these engagements he commanded the left 
wing of the American army. Through his fidelity, Wash 
ington was made acquainted with the intrigues and 
cabals of General Con way in 1777. Besides his military 
achievements, General Alexander won an honourable 
distinction as a mathematician and astronomer. Died 
at Albany in 1783. 

See WILLIAM A. DUER, "Life of William Alexander, Earl of 
Stirling," New York, 1847. 

Alexander, (WILLIAM,) an English artist, born at 

a, e, I, 6, u, y, long; a, 6, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon; 




Maidstone in 1768. He accompanied Lord Macartney 
as draughtsman on his embassy to China in 1792, and 
published "Views of Chinese Scenery," etc. Died in 1816. 

Alexander, (WILLIAM,) a British medical writer, 
practised in London. Died in 1783. 

Alexander, (WILLIAM LINDSAY,) D.D., a Scottish 
writer on theology, born at Lcith in 1808. He became 
pastor of a church in Edinburgh. He is author of nu 
merous works, among which are " The Connection and 
Harmony of the Old and New Testaments," (1841,) and 
"Memoirs of Ralph Wardlaw," (1856.) 

Alexander ab Alexandro. See ALESSANDRI. 

Alexander, (Ben-Moses-Ethu san or-Ethuzan 
et-hoo zan.) a German rabbi, born at P\ilda, lived about 
1710, and wrote a History of the Jews, (1719.) 

Alexander Farnese. See FARNESK. 

Alexander de Medici. See MEDICI. 

Alexander Polyhistor. See POLYHISTOR. 

Alexander Severus. See SKVERUS. 

Al-ex-an dra, a daughter of Hyrcanus, was the 
mother of Mariamne, the wife of Herod the Great. She 
conspired against Herod, and was put to death in 28 u.c. 

Alexandre, the French of ALEXANDER, which see. 

Alexandre, i lek sS.NclR , (CHARLES,) a philologist, 
born in Paris in 1 797. Among his works is a " Greek-ancl- 
French Dictionary," ("Dictionnaire Grec-Francais.") 

Alexandre, (Dom JACQUES,) a French Benedictine, 

Jte a "Treatise on 
General Treatise on 

born at Orleans in 1653. He wri 
Tides," (1726,) and a valuable "G 

Alexandre, (NICOLAS,) a French monk and medical 
writer, born in Paris in 1654, published a "Botanical 
Dictionary," (1716.) Died in 1728. 

Alexandre, (Noia,) a French Janscnist theologian, 
born at Rouen in 1639. He published, besides other 
works, "Dogmatic and Moral Theology," ("Theologia 
Dogmatica et Moralis," 10 vols., 1694.) Died in 1724. 

See NICERON, "Memoires." 

Alexandre-Severe. See SEVERUS. 

Al-ex-an-dri nus or Alexandrini, a-lek-san-dRee - 
nee, (Jui.ius,) a medical writer, physician to the empe 
rors Frederick II., Maximilian, and Rudolph II., was 
born at Trent in 1506 ; died in 1590. He translated and 
commented on several of Galen s works. 

Al-ex-i nus [Gr. A/^h oc] OK ELIS, a disciple of Eu- 
bulides, lived about 350 u.c., and distinguished himself as 
a logician. He attacked Aristotle and Zeno the Stoic, 
and was nicknamed ELENXI NUS, ("the fault-finder.") 

Al-ex is, ["A/lfftf;,] a Greek comic poet, an uncle of 
the poet Menander, was born at Thurium, and flourished 
between 350 and 290 n.c. He removed to Attica in his 
youth. He excelled in the delineation of the characters 
of Parasites, belonged to the middle school of the Attic 
comedy, and was a very prolific writer. Only small frag 
ments of his works are extant. 

See A. MEINEKE, " Historia Critica Comicorum Gra;conmi." 

Alexis, a Greek sculptor, who is mentioned by Pliny 
as a pupil of Polycletus, and of whom nothing more is 
known. He is supposed by some to have been identical 
with the Alexis whom Pausanias mentions as the father 
of Cantharus. 

Alexis, f lek se , (Gun.LAUMK,) a French Benedictine, 
who lived in the latter part of the fifteenth century. He 
wrote in verse and prose several works, among which is 
"Le Grand Blason de Faulces Amours," "The Great 


on of False Loves," 1493.) 
l-ex is or Al-ex 1-us I. 

Al-ex 1-us I., (Com-ne nus,) 

or Atefw? Kop T/vo^,] an emperor of Constantinople, born 
about 1048. He was of high birth, and became general 
of the Byzantian armies, in which capacity he showed 
considerable military skill. About 1080 he was pro 
claimed emperor by his soldiers, in opposition to Nice- 
phorus, who, on the approach of the troops of Alexis, 
left his throne for a monastery. It was during the reign 
of Alexis that the first crusade to Jerusalem took place. 
He died in m8, and was succeeded by his son John. 
As a ruler he was more distinguished for craft and in 
trigue than for any higher qualities. 

See ANNA COMNENA, "Alexias;" GIBBON. "Decline and Fall of 

the Roman Em 

tory of the Crusades. 


re," chaps, xlviii., Ivi., Iviii., lix.; MILL, "His 

Alexis or Alexius II., (Comne nus,) Emperor of 
Constantinople, a son of Manuel, was born about 1168, 
and became emperor in 1180. He was deposed and 
strangled by Androni cus in 1183. 

Alexis or Alexius III., (An ge-lus,) was a 
brother of Isaac Angelus, Emperor of Constantinople, 
whose throne he usurped in 1195. An army of crusa 
ders, whose destination was Palestine, besieged Constan 
tinople in 1203, ostensibly to restore Alexis, son of Isaac, 
to the throne. (See DANDOLO.) Alexis III. fled on 
the capture of the city, and died in exile in 1210. 

Alexis or Alexius IV., (Angelus,) a son of Isaac 
Angelus, reigned a few months. He was put to death 
in 1 204 by Alexis Ducas. 

Alexis or Alexius V., (Du cas,) surnamed MUR- 
ZU I HLUS, usurped the throne in 1204. The Latin chiefs 
who commanded the crusaders, having resolved to par 
tition the Empire of the East, took Constantinople by 
assault in 1204. Alexis escaped, but was arrested in 
the Morea, was tried for the murder of Alexis IV., and 
was executed in the same year. He was succeeded by 
Baldwin I. 

See GIBBON, " History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman 

Alex is or Alex ius Comne nus is also the name 
of several emperors who reigned at Trebizond (Trape- 
zus) in the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. 
They were of the same family as the Alexis Comnenus 
noticed above. 

Al-ex is or Alexei (a-lek-sa e) Michaelovitch or 
Mikhaylovitch me-Kl lo-vitch, Czar of Muscovy, 
born in 1629 or 1630, succeeded his father Michael m 
1645. H C introduced many improvements, particularly 
with respect to the administration of the laws. He also 
succeeded in transferring from Poland to Russia the alle 
giance of the Cossacks who were attached to the Greek 
Church. He may, indeed, be said to have prepared the 
way for the great undertakings of his son Peter. (See 
PETER I. of Russia.) Died in 1676, and was succeeded 
by his son Feodor. 

Alexis, a monk, who became Patriarch of Constan 
tinople in 1025. In 1042 he crowned the emperor Con- 
stantine Monomachus. Died in 1043. 

Alexis of Samos, a Greek historian, the author of a 
" History of Samos," which is mentioned by Athenaeus. 
The period in which he lived is not known. 

Alexis Pedemontanus. Sec ALESSIO PIEMONTESE. 

Alexis Petrovitch or Petrowitsch, (pa-tRo vitch,) 
written also Petrowitz, a Russian prince, born in 1690, 
was a son of Peter the Great and his first wife Eudokia. 
He is said to have been a studious youth, averse to mar 
tial pursuits and hostile to the innovations of his father. 
While Peter was absent on one of his long European 
tours in 1716, Alexis retired furtively to Vienna and 
Naples, for refuge from the dreaded ire of the Czar. 
This strange proceeding, which perhaps was as wise as 
any course that was open to him in the circumstances, 
was treated as a crime by his father. Having been in 
duced to return, Alexis was compelled to renounce his 
claim to the throne, and was condemned to death on a 
charge of meditated rebellion, in 1718. He was found 
dead in prison a few days after his sentence was pro 
nounced. There are very strong reasons for believing 
that he was poisoned by order of the Czar. He left 
a son, Peter, who became Czar in 1727. 

See VOLTAIRE, "Histoire de Russie;" LEVESQUE, " Hisloire de 
Russie;" Sir JOHN BARROW, "Life of Peter the Great, "in the " Fam- 
ly Library;" VON HA I.EM, " Leben Peters des Grossen;" EKSCH 
und GRUBER, "Allgemeine Encyklopxdie." 

Alexis del Arco. See ARCO, (ALONSO DEL.) 

Aleyn, al en, (CHARLES,) an English poet, who once 
had considerable reputation, born, it is supposed, about 
1590, was educated at Cambridge, and became tutor to 
Sir Edward Shcrburne. His principal poems arc "The 
Battles of Crcssy and Poitiers," (1632,) and a "History 
of Henry VII., etc.," (1638.) Died about 1640. 

See WINSTANI.EY, "Lives of the Poets," 1687. 

Alfani, al-fa nee, (DOMENICO Dl PARIS,) an eminent 
Italian painter, born at Perugia about 1483, was a pupil 
of Pietro Perugino. Among his works are a "Virgin 
Mary" and a "Saint John." Died about 1540. 

c as /; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; o, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (JjJf^See Explanations, p. 23.) 



Alfaiii, (ORAZIO Dl PARIS,) an able artist, a son o 
the preceding, born at Perugia about 1510. He imi 
tated the manner of Raphael with success, and paintec 
both in oil and fresco. Among his chief works are 
several Madonnas. Died in 1583. 

See LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy." 

Alfar. See ELVES. 
Al-fa-ra bi-us, [Arab. ALFARABEE or ALFARABI 
3.1-fa-ra bee,] the Latin name of a distinguished Ara 
bian philosopher who lived at Damascus in the tenth 
century. He is said to have understood seventy dif 
ferent languages. Besides other works on variou 
sciences, he wrote several treatises on the philosophy o: 

Alfarazdak, al-fa raz-d&k , an eminent Arabian poet 
of the seventh century. 

Alfaro, al-fa/ro, (FRANCISCO,) a Spanish silversmith 
and artist, who flourished at Seville towards the close 
of the sixteenth century. His representations on silver 
were designed and executed with great taste. 

Alfaro y Gomez, de, di al-fa ro e go meth, (JUAN, 
a Spanish painter of high reputation, born at Cordova 
in 1640, was a pupil of Castillo and Velasquez. He 
worked at Madrid, and excelled in portraits, in which 
he imitated the style of Velasquez. Among his best 
works is an " Incarnation," at Cordova, and a portrait 
of Calderon the poet. He was a brilliant colorist. Died 
in 1680. 

See BERMUDEZ, " Diccionario Historlco," etc. 
Alfath, al-fat , or Alfatah, al-fa ta, a distinguished 
Arabian philologist, born at Seville, in Spain, near the 
close of the eleventh century. He was put to death 
at Morocco in 1135. He wrote a book containing bio 
graphical notices of various Arabian poets, with speci 
mens of their poetry. 

Alfen, tl fen, ( JOHAN EUSEBIUS,) a Danish miniature- 
painter, worked in Vienna. Died in 1770. 

Al-fe nus Va rus, an eminent Roman jurist, and a 
pupil of Servius Sulpicius, lived in the last half of the 
first century B.C. He wrote forty books of Digesta, 
extracts from which are to be found in the Digest of 
Justinian. He is often quoted by other jurists. A pas 
sage in Horace Sat. i. 3, v. 130 is supposed to refer to 
this Alfenus. 

Alferghanee, (Alferghani,) al-fer-oa nee, written 
also Alferganee, Alfergany, and Alferganus, some 
times called Al-fra-gan , an Arabian astronomer of 
the ninth century, was born in Sogdiana. He wrote a 
work entitled " Elements of Astronomy," which has 
been translated into Latin. 

Alfez, al-feV, or Alphesi, al-feVee or al-fa zee, 
(ISAAC Berabbi be-rab be,) a rabbi and eminent Jew 
ish writer, born near Fez, in Africa, about 1013. Died 
in Spain in 1103. His chief work is an abridgment of 
the Talmud, called the " Lesser Talmud." 
Alf heim. See ELVES. 

Alfieri, al-fe-a/ree, (BENEDETTO,) COUNT, an Italian 
architect, born in Rome in 1700, was an uncle of the 
great poet Alfieri, who, in his own memoirs, speaks of 
him as a very worthy man. He designed the Royal 
Opera- House of Turin, one of the noblest structures of 
the kind in Italy, and was patronized by the king, Charles 
Emmanuel. Among his other works are the fa9ade of 
Saint Peter s Church at Geneva, and the church at 
Carignano. Died at Turin in 1767. 

Alfieri, (VITTORIO,) the most celebrated Italian poet 
of his age, was born of a noble family at Asti, in Pied 
mont, on the 1 7th of January, 1749. He inherited an 
ample fortune from his father, who died while Vittorio 
was an infant, and was sent to the Accademia or College 
ot Turin, in which he received such an education as those 
wholly incompetent to teach could impart. He left 
school about the age of fifteen, and indulged his passion 
for travel and reckless dissipation. He visited Paris, 
passed over to England, and sojourned in Holland. 
From a second tour through Germany, Sweden, Russia, 
etc., he returned to Turin in 1772. He once went to 
England on purpose to purchase horses, of which he 
was very fond. The success of his first drama, " Cleo 
patra," which was performed at Turin in 1775, appears 
to have produced a change in his mode of life, which 

was thenceforth devoted to study and to dramatic com 

In the course of the seven ensuing years he composed 
fourteen tragedies, among which are "Filippo II.," 
" Virginia," " Orestes," " Mary Stuart," " Octavia," 
"Merope," and "Saul," (1782.) The first and the last 
of these are considered his master-pieces. His dramas 
are simple in design, noble in sentiment, sententious in 
style, and pervaded by intense passion. About 1778 
Alfieri became acquainted with the Countess of Albany, 
(wife of the Pretender, Charles Edward Stuart,) who in 
spired his wayward heart with a lasting passion. (See 
ALBANY, COUNTESS OF.) It is supposed that he was 
privately married to her after the death of her husband 
in 1788. He resided some years in France, and invested 
a large sum of money in French stocks, which he lost 
when he iled from the outrages of the Revolution in 1792. 
He then became a resident of Florence, and about the 
age of forty-six commenced the study of Greek, in which 
he made good progress. He translated some of the 
plays of /Eschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides. 

Among the other works of Alfieri are an Essay on 
Tyranny," a translation of Sallust, a number of sonnets 
and epigrams, and five odes on the American Revolu 
tion. He died at Florence on the 8th of October, 1803. 
Notwithstanding his faults, he was a man ot public spirit, 
a sincere patriot, and an ardent lover of liberty. A 
monument, designed by Canova, was erected to him by 
the Countess of Albany in Santa Croce, Florence, be 
tween the tombs of Michael Angelo and Machiavel. 
"He rarely speaks to the heart," says Ginguene, "but 
he is eloquent and nervous in intense passions ; he pos 
sesses grandeur, and in his ideas, as well as in his style, 
aspires always to the sublime. . . . His dialogue is often 
a model of precision and dramatic argumentation." 
" The aim of his works," says Madame de Stael, " is so 
noble, the sentiments which the author expresses accord 
so well with his personal conduct, that his tragedies 
ought always to be praised as actions, even when they 
may be criticised as literary works." (Corinne.) " A par 
allel between Alfieri and Cowper," says Macaulay, (in 
his article on Byron, in the "Edinburgh" Review," 1831,) 
" may at first sight seem as unpromising as that which 
a loyal Presbyterian minister is said to have drawn in 
1745 between George the Second and Enoch. . . . But 
though the private lives of these remarkable men pre 
sent scarcely any points of resemblance, their literary 
lives bear a close analogy to each other. They both 
found poetry in its lowest state of degradation, feeble, 
artificial, and altogether nerveless. They both possessed 
precisely the talents which fitted them for the task of 
raising it from that deep abasement. . . . They had not 
in a very high degree the creative power, but they had 
great vigour of thought, great warmth of feeling, and, 
what was above all things important, a manliness of 
taste which approached to roughness." 

See his Autobiography entitled "Vita cli Vittorio Alfieri scritta da 
Esr.o," translated into English by C. E. LESTER ; "Vita di Vittorio 
41fieri," Milan, 1823; SERAFICO GRASSI, " Dissertazipne in lode di 
Vittorio Alfieri," 1819; ANTONIO ZEZON. " Biografia di Vittorio Al 
fieri," 1835; LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe ;" VILLE- 
MAIX, " Cours de Literature;" A. BUCCEI.LINI, " Elo^io deVittoric 
Alfieri," 1811 ; R. SOUTHEY, article on the Life and Writings of 
\lfieri, in the " Quarterly Review" for January, 1816. 

Alfon, al-fon , (JUAN,) a Spanish painter, born at 
Toledo, lived about 1418. 

Alfonse, aTfoNs , (JF.AN,) a French navigator of the 
sixteenth century, was a native of Saintonge, whence his 
surname LE SAINTONGEOIS, (leh saN toN zhwa .) He 
nade several voyages of discovery in the South Seas, 
an account of which was published in 1559, entitled 
Voyages Adventureux du Capitaine Jean Alfonse." 

Al-fon so I., surnamed EL BATALLADOR, ?1 ba-tal- 
7 a-doR r , (i.e. the "battler" or "warrior,") King of Ara- 
gon and Navarre, ascended the throne in 1104. He 
fell in battle in 1134. He had, it is said, previously de 
feated the Mohammedans in thirty-nine successive con 
flicts, and taken from them a much greater extent of 
territory than he had inherited from his ancestors. He 
was succeeded by his brother, Ramiro II. 

Alfonso II. of Aragon, a grandson of Ramiro II., 
born in 1152, became king in 1163. He inherited Bar- 

a, e, i, o, ft, y, long; i, 6, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, ti, y, short; a, e, i, 9, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon; 


9 1 


celona from his father, Raymond V., and extended his 
dominions at the expense of the Mussulmans. Died in 
1196, leaving the throne to his son, Pedro II. 

Alfonso III. of Aragon, born about 1265, was a son 
of Pedro III., whom he succeeded in 1285. The Cortes 
asserted their privileges with success in this reign, and 
set bounds to the royal prerogative. He died in 1291, 
and was succeeded by his brother, Jaime II. 

Alfonso IV. of Aragon, a son of Jaime II., began 
to reign in 1327. He waged a war against the Genoese, 
who invaded his kingdom, but were repulsed. Died in 
1336, and was succeeded by his son, Pedro IV. 

See ZUKITA, "Annales de Aragon." 


Alfonso I., King of Asttirias, ascended the throne 
in 739 A.I). He gained many victories over the Mos 
lems, and took from them a multitude of towns and for 
tresses. From his zeal for religion, evinced in building 
churches and founding monasteries, etc., he received the 
surname of EL CATOLICO, ("the Catholic.") Died in 756. 

Alfonso II. of Asturias, surnamed EL CASTO, 
("the Chaste,") succeeded to the throne in 791 A.D. He 
was distinguished for his successful wars against the 
Mohammedans. lie died in 842, after a prosperous 
reign of more than fifty years. 

Alfonso III. of Asturias and Leon, surnamed EL 
MAGNO, ("the Great,") succeeded his father Ordono 
in 866 A.D. He greatly extended his dominions by con 
quests from the Mohammedans. Died in 910, leaving 
the throne to his son Garcia. 

Alfonso I. of Castile, (or Alfonso VI. of Leon,) 
surnamed EL BRAVO, SI bra vo, ("the Brave, . ) a son of 
Fernando I., ascended the throne of Leon in 1065. On 
the death of his brother, Sancho II. of Castile, in 1073, 
Galicia, Asturias, Castile, etc. were added to his sway. 
He acquired great renown in his wars against the 
Moors. His reign may be considered as the dawn of 
Christian prosperity in modern Spain. Died in 1109, 
aged seventy-nine. 

Alfonso II. of Castile, (called Alfonso VII. of 
Leon by some historians, who count Alfonso I. of 
Castile as VI. of Leon,) named also Alfonso Ray 
mond, a grandson of the preceding, ascended the throne 
in 1126. He was very successful in his wars with the 
Mohammedans, and removed the frontiers of Castile 
from the Tagus to the Sierra Morcna Mountains. In 
1135 he assumed the imperial title, and is accordingly 
sometimes styled "the Emperor." Died in 1157, leav 
ing Castile to his son Sancho, and Leon to his son Fer 
nando. The written language of Spain is supposed to 
date from about the beginning of the reign of Alfonso 
VII., and the oldest Spanish document of which the 
date is known is one given by Alfonso VII. to the city 
of Aviles, in Asturias, in confirmation of certain privi 
leges previously granted. 

See TICKNOR S " Spanish Literature," vol. i. chap. ii. 

Alfonso VIII. of Castile, called by some Alfonso 
III., surnamed EL NOBLE, el no iila, ("the Noble,") 
succeeded to the throne in 1158, when he was only three 
years old. After he became of age he was almost con 
stantly engaged in war with the Mohammedans. In 
1 195 he sustained a severe defeat from the arms of Aboo- 
Yoosuf-Yakoob ; but in 1212, with the kings of Aragon 
and Navarre, he gained a great victory over the Almo- 
hade sultan Mohammed An-Nasir, at the head of 600,000 
men. Tne loss of the Mohammedans, as estimated by 
their own writers, was not less than 160,000. Alfonso 
died in 1214, and was succeeded by his son, Enrique I. 

Alfonso XI. of Castile, a son of Fernando IV., 
succeeded to the throne in 1312, when he was only a year 
old. In 1333, aided by Alfonso IV. of Portugal , whose 
daughter he had married, he turned his arms against 
the Moors, and in 1340 gained a great victory over the 
sultan Abool-Hassan (or Alboacen) under the walls of 
Tarifa, then besieged by the Mohammedan forces. He 
died in 1350, respected even by his enemies. The 
Moorish king of Granada is said to have exclaimed, 
when he heard of Alfonso s death, "We have lost the 
best king in the world, one who knew how to honour 

the worthy, whether friend or foe." He was succeeded 
by his son, Pedro the Cruel. 

See MARIANA, " Historia general de Espana." 

Alfonso I., H., and III. OF LEON. See ALFONSO OF 


Alfonso IV. of Leon and Asturias, surnamed THE 
MONK, succeeded his uncle Fruela in 924. He abdi 
cated in favour of his brother Ramiro about 930, and 
became a monk. Died about 932. 

Alfonso V., King of Leon, born in 994, succeeded 
his father, Bermudo II., in 999. His reign was pros 
perous, and his armies gained several victories over the 
Moors. He was killed at the siege of Viseu in 1028, 
and was succeeded by his son, Bermudo III. 



Alfonso IX., King of Leon, succeeded his father 
Fernando II. in nG8. He waged war against Alfonso 
of Castile, and afterwards married his daughter. Died 
in 1230, leaving a son Fernando, who was King of Cas 
tile and Leon. 

Alfonso X., King of Leon and Castile, surnamed 
EL SAHIO, el sa ce-o, ("the Wise,") born in 1226, was a 
son of Fernando III., whom he succeeded in 1252. He 
had a high reputation for learning and eloquence, and 
was distinguished for the patronage he extended to 
science and literature ; but he was not a successful or 
popular ruler. His reign was disturbed by civil wars, 
one of which was instigated by his second son, Sancho, 
about 1281. The situation of Alfonso was so desperate 
that he solicited aid from the Moors. Spain owes to him 
an excellent code of laws, a translation of the Bible 
into Castilian, the restoration of the University of Sala 
manca, and the first use of the Castilian language in 
public affairs. Europe is indebted to him for the valu 
able astronomical tables called Alphonsine Tables. 
Died in 1284. 

See TICKNOR, "History of Spanish Literature," vol. i. chap, iii.; 
LONGFELLOW, "Poets and Poetry of Europe;" CONDE, "Historia 
de la Domination de los Arabes en Espana;" MARIANA, "Historia 
general de Espafia ;" MARQUIS DE MONUEJAR, " Memorias historicas 
del Key Don Alfonso el Sabio." 

Alfonso I. of Naples, Sicily, and Aragon, born in 
1385, succeeded his father Fernando I. on the throne of 
Aragon in 1416. He had been adopted as the heir of 
Queen Joanna of Naples, and in 1442, seven years after 
the death of that princess, and after encountering much 
opposition, he obtained possession of the whole Neapoli 
tan kingdom. Died in 1458. He was a man of learning, 
and a liberal patron of literature and science. His son 
Ferdinand became King of Naples. 

See FACIO, " Fatti d Alfonso d Aragona." 

Alfonso II., King of Naples, born in 1448, was a 
son of Ferdinand I. He defeated the Florentines at 
Poggio in 1479, and the Turks at Otranto in 1481. He 
ascended the throne in January, 1494, and rendered him 
self odious by his cruelty and avarice. Alarmed at the 
approach of Charles VIII. of France with an army, he 
abdicated in favour of his son Ferdinand in January, 
1495, and died about the end of that year. 

See GIANNONE, "Storia del Regno di Napoli." 

Alfonso I., [Port. AFFONSO,] or, more fully, Dem Af- 
fonso Enriques, doN af-fon so n-ree kes, the founder 
of the Portuguese monarchy, son of Henry of Besancon, 
Count of Toulouse, was born in 1094. He inherited 
the title of Count of Portugal from his father, who had 
received it from Alfonso I. of Castile, his father-in-law. 
Enriques was yet a child when his father died, and Por 
tugal was for along time under the rule, or rather mis 
rule, of his mother Theresa ; but in 1 128 he took the su 
preme authority into his own hands. Alfonso VIII. (or 
more properly III.) of Castile, having supported the 
claims of Theresa, Enriques met him in the field, de 
feated him, and established the entire independence of 
Portugal. He did not, however, take the title of king 
till 1139, when, at the head of about 13,000 Portuguese, 
he completely routed, at Ourique, the combined army 
of the Mohammedans, amounting, it is said, to 2OO,cco 
men, and made prisoners the five kings by whom this 
mighty host was led. In 1146 he took Santarem from 

e as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

anations, p. 




the Moors Oy assault, and in the same year, or early in 
the next, reduced Lisbon, after a siege of more than rive 
months. He turned his arms successively against the 
other towns and fortresses in possession of the Moham 
medans, and in 1 158 became undisputed possessor of his 
kir-gdom. Died in 1185, aged ninety. He left a son, 
who became King Sancho I. 

See MARIANA, " Historia de Esp.ina;" SCHAEFFER, "Histoire 
du Portugal." 

Alfonso (or Affoiiso) II. of Portugal, a son of San 
cho I., was born in 1185, and began to reign in 1211. 
His kingdom was placed under an interdict by the pope 
because he taxed the property of the clergy. Alfonso 
was thus reduced to submission. He died in 1223, leav 
ing the throne to his son, Sancho II. 

Alfonso (Alfonso) 111., a son of the preceding, born 
in 1210, succeeded his brother Sancho II. in 1248. His 
reign was rather prosperous, though he was once excom 
municated by the pope. He died in 1279, and was suc 
ceeded by his son Denis, (Diniz.) 

Alfonso (Affonso) IV. of Portugal, surnamed THE 
BRAVE, a son of Denis, was born in 1290, and began 
to reign in 1325. Among the remarkable events of his 
reign was the rebellion of his son Dom Pedro, whose 
motive was revenge for the murder of Iries de Castro, 
to which the king had consented. He died in 1357, 
leaving the throne to his son, Pedro I. 

Alfonso (Affonso) V. of Portugal, a son of Duarte, 
was born in 1432, and became king in 1438, under the 
regency of his mother. He conducted a large armament 
against Africa in 1458, and captured Tangier. Having 
invaded Castile, he was defeated by Ferdinand of Ara- 
gon in 1476. He died in 1481, and was succeeded by his 
son Joao II. 

See MARIANA, "Historia de Espana." 

Alfonso (Affonso) VI. of Portugal, a son of John 
IV., was born in 1643, and became king in 1656. His 
imbecility or vices having rendered him unpopular, he 
was forced to abdicate in 1667 in favour of his brother 
Dom Pedro, and was banished to Terceira. He was con 
fined in the castle of Cintra in 1675, and died in 1683. 

Alfonso I. of Este, Duke of Fcrrara, born in 1476, 
Jjegan to reign in 1505. He commanded the Papal 
troops in the war of the League of Cambrai, I59- In 
1512 he fought against the Pope, Julius II., at Ravenna. 
He married the famous Lucretia Borgia. Died in 1534. 

Alfonso, (the Navigator.) See ALPHONSE. 

Alfonso, al-fon so, (PEDRO,) a Spanish Jew, who was 
born in Aragon in 1062, and was converted to Chris 
tianity. He wrote after his conversion, besides other 
works, one called "Clerical Discipline," ("Disciplina 
Clericalis,") which was much esteemed. Died about 

kaR-ta-na na,) [Lat. ALPHON SUS A SANC TA-MARI A,] 
a celebrated Spanish historian, born at Carthagena (or 
Cartagena) in 1396, became Bishop of Burgos. He 
wrote a " History of Spain," from the earliest ages down 
to his own time, and other works. Died in 1456. 

Alfonso de Cartagena. See ALFONSO OF CAR 

Alfonso Lopez de Corella, (lo peth da ko-rel ya,) 
a Spanish physician, born in Navarre, wrote numerous 
medical works, dated 1546-82. 

Alfonso de Palencia, (de pa-leVshe-a,) [Sp. pron. 
al-fon so da pa-len //5e-a ; Lat. ALPHON SUS PALENTI - 
NUS,] a distinguished Spanish historian, born at Palen 
cia, in Old Castile, in 1423. He was royal historiogra 
pher to Queen Isabella of Castile. The precise time 
of his death is unknown. He was alive in 1492. He 
wrote in Latin a history of the reign of Isabella, and a 
chronicle of Henry IV. 

See PRESCOTT, " Ferdinand and Isabella," vol. i. part i. 

Alfonso Tostado. See ALPHONSUS ABULENSIS. 

Alford, awl forcl, (HENRY,) D.D., commonly known 
as DEAN ALFORD, an English poet and divine, born 
in London in 1810, was educated at Trinity College, 
Cambridge. He became vicar of Wymeswold, Leices 
tershire, in 1835, Hulsean Lecturer at Cambridge in 
1841, incumbent of Quebec Street Chapel, London, in 
1853, and Dean of Canterbury about 1856. He pub 

lished in 1835 "The School of the Heart, and other 
Poems," (2 vols.,) which are commended. " The present 
volumes," says the "Edinburgh Review," "appear to us 
to be a beginning of great promise. . . . Extracts so 
much longer than we are in the habit of making, are a 
sufficient proof of our sense of the talent displayed in 
these poems." (Critique on "The School of the Heart, 
and other Poems," January, 1836.) His reputation as 
a divine is founded on an excellent edition of the Greek 
New Testament in four or more volumes, 1841-61. He 
has also published a small volume entitled "The Queen s 
English," (2d edition, 1864,) which has attracted much 

Alford, (MICHAEL,) an English Jesuit and writer, 
born in London in 1587 ; died at Saint Omer, in France, 
in 1651. He wrote "Britannia Illustrata," (1641,) treat 
ing of the ecclesiastical history of Britain. 

Alfragan. See ALFERGHANEE. 

Alfrago, al-fKa go, (ANDREA,) an Italian physician, 
wrote a history of Arabian physicians, etc. Died at 
Padua in 1520. 

Alfred, al fred, written also -SJl fred, El fred, and 
Alured, i.e. Alvred, [Lat. /ELFRE DUS,] surnamed 
THE GREAT, King of the West Saxons in England, was 
born in 848 or 849. He was the son of King /Ethel- 
wulf and Osburga, (or Osberga,) the daughter of a Gothic 
nobleman. On the death of his brother /Ethelred, in 
871, Alfred became king. At this period the country 
was in the most deplorable condition. The Danes had 
overrun a great portion of England, and many of the 
bravest Saxons had fallen in vain attempts to resist their 
pagan invaders. King Ethelred himself had died of a 
wound received in this unequal conflict. Alfred was 
fain to procure peace on almost any terms, and at last 
agreed to pay the Danes a sum of money on condition 
that they would leave his dominions. But they broke 
their oaths, and, attacking him by night, destroyed all his 
cavalry. All the means of resistance being lost, Alfred 
for a time laid aside the ensigns of royalty and concealed 
himself in the family of a poor herdsman. Having at 
length been discovered by some of his nobles, he grad 
ually, but secretly, collected a considerable force, with 
which he occasionally made inroads into the territory 
occupied by the Danes, and thus procured the means of 
subsisting himself and his army. About this time Odun, 
Earl of Devon, sallied from his castle, defeated the be 
siegers, slew Ubbo, one of the principal leaders, and 
took the Danish standard. Upon this, Alfred resolved 
to attack the main army of his enemies, which he routed 
with great slaughter at Eddington in 878, and soon after 
obliged the survivors to surrender at discretion. The 
Danish king, Godrun, (or Guthrun,) embraced the Chris 
tian religion, Alfred standing as his godfather ; and a 
considerable tract of country was allotted to the con 
verted Danes. Alfred now directed his earnest efforts 
towards the fortifying and internal improvement of his 
kingdom. He caused a number of ships to be built, and 
may be said to have laid the foundation of the British 
navy. He repaired the old dilapidated fortresses, and 
erected new ones wherever they were needed. He ex 
erted himself, moreover, to establish an efficient police 
and a thorough administration of justice within his 
dominions. He was not, however, as has frequently been 
stated, the author of the trial by jury. It was his highest 
glory that he did so much for his country s literature and 
the intellectual improvement of his people. He not 
only established schools in all the principal towns, but 
he began himself, it is said, to learn Latin at the age of 
thirty-nine, and afterwards translated a number of works 
from that language into his native tongue. In 894 the 
Northmen again invaded England, with a fleet of three 
hundred ships ; but they were defeated by Alfred, and 
those who escaped the sword were either taken captive 
and executed as pirates or chased from the kingdom. 
Alfred died in 901. 

Alfred the Great presents to us one of the most per 
fect characters to be found on the page of history. He 
was, to use the language of a recent author, "a saint with 
out superstition, a scholar without ostentation, a warrior 
all whose wars were fought in defence of his country, a 
conqueror whose hands were never stained by cruelty, a 

a, e, T, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short ; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; mt; nfit; good; moon.; 




prince never cast down by adversity, never lifted up to 
insolence in the day of triumph." (See Freeman s " Nor 
man Conquest," vol. i. chap, ii.; also, Hume s character 
of Alfred in his " History of England," vol. i. chap, ii.) 

See J. A. GILES, " Life and Times of Alfred the Great," 1854; 
SPELMAN, "Life of Alfred," 1709; A. BICKNELL, "Life of Alfred," 
1777; STOLBERG, " Leben Alfreds des Grossen," 1815; ASSER, 
"Life of Alfred," ("De Aelfredi Rebus gestis," 1571 ;) RICHARD 
PAUI.I.I, " Kbnig Alfred und seine Stelle in derGeschichte Englands," 
London, 1851, translated into English by THOMAS WRIGHT, 1852. 

Alfred, a son of the Saxon king Ethelred II., and 
Emma. He attempted to obtain the throne in 1042, but 
failed, and lost his life. 

Alfred, surnamed AN GLICUS (or the " Englishman") 
and THE PHILOSOPHER, wrote some scientific works, 
one, " On the Motion of the Heart," (" De Cordis Motu.") 
A part of his life was passed in England ; but the place 
of his nativity is unknown. Died about 1270. 

Alfred or Alured OF BEVERLEY, an English historian, 
born about i too, became a priest. He left a Latin His 
tory of Britain, which is supposed to be an abridgment 
of the work of Geoffrey of Monmouth. 

Alfred OF MALMESBURY, an English monk and 
writer, became Bishop of Crediton about 990. 

Alfred, (ERNEST ALBERT,) Duke of Edinburgh, the 
second son of Victoria, Queen of England, was born in 
1844. He entered the navy in 1858, and made voyages 
to various countries. In 1862 he declined the throne of 
Greece, which had been offered to him. He was shot at 
and wounded by an assassin in Australia in 1 868. 

Alfred and A-bi ram, two German architects, born 
in Bavaria, lived in the ninth century. They built the 
imperial palace of Ratisbon. 

Alfric, al frik, written also -SJlfric and Elfric, [Lat. 
(the "Abbot,") andGRAMMATicus, (the "Grammarian,") 
a celebrated Anglo-Saxon writer, who flourished in the 
latter half of the tenth century. Of his life nothing cer 
tain is known. It is supposed that he became Archbishop 
of Canterbury in 995. Among his works are numerous 

Alfric or ^Elfric, Archbishop of York, an Anglo- 
Saxon writer, who is by some identified with the famous 
writer Alfric surnamed Grammaticus, above noticed. 
Died in 1051. 

Algardi, al-gaR dee, (ALESSANDRO,) a celebrated 
Italian sculptor and architect, born at Bologna about 
1600. His birth is variously dated at 1588, 1593, and 
1602. He studied design with the Caracci, became a 
pupil of Cesare Conventi, and went to Rome about 1625. 
He was architect of the Villa Panfili or Pamphili, and 
of the fafade of the church of St. Ignatius, Rome. His 
master-piece in sculpture is a colossal bas-relief* in the 
church of Saint Peter s, representing Saint Leo forbid 
ding Attila to enter Rome, (1640.) This is said to be the 
largest bas-relief in the world. Among his works are 
statues of Saint Philip de Ned and Innocent X. He is 
regarded by some critics as the greatest sculptor of his 
age. Died in 1654. 

See PASSERI, "Vitede" Pittori,"etc. ; MILIZIA, " Vite degli Archi- 

Algarotti, al-ga-rot tee, (FRANCESCO,) COUNT, a dis 
tinguished Italian writer and connoisseur, born at Venice 
in 1712. He was not only well versed in many languages 
and sciences, but possessed decided skill in the art of 
design, and wrote verses with facility. In 1733 he pro 
duced popular dialogues on Optics, entitled "Optics for 
Ladies," ("Neutonianismo per le Dame,") which were 
translated into several languages. Invited by Frederick 
the Great, he went to Berlin about 1740, and passed 
many years at that court as a friend of the king, who 
gave him the title of count. This friendship continued 
until the death of Algarotti. He corresponded with Vol 
taire and many other eminent authors. Besides essays 
on various subjects, he wrote "Letters on Painting," 
which display good taste and judgment. He died at 
Pisa in March, 1764. 

See D. MlCHELESSI, " Memorie intorno alia vita del Conte F. Al 
garotti," 1770, and French version of the same, 1772; FABRONI, 

* Some authorities call Algardi s great work an alto-relievo ; we 
have followed the " Nouvelle Biographic Generale." 

"Vita? Italorum doctrina excellentium ;" and VOLTAIRE, "Correspon- 
dance Generale." 

Algazi, al-ga zee, (Solomon Ben Abraham,) a 

voluminous Jewish writer, born in the Levant. Died in 

Algazzali, Algazali, or Alghazzali. See Auoo- 

Alger, al jer, [Fr. pron. tl zhaiit ; Lat. AI/GERUS,] 
an ecclesiastical writer, who died about the middle of the 
twelfth century. He was a native of Liege. 

Alger, al jer, (WILLIAM ROUNSEVILLE,) an Ameri 
can writer, born in Freetown, Massachusetts, in 1823. 
He is author of "Symbolic History of the Cross of 
Christ;" "Oriental Poetry;" " History of the Doctrine 
of a Future Life, as it has Prevailed in all Nations and 
Ages," (1862,) to which was contributed a very complete 
bibliography of the subject, by Ezra Abbot, assistant 
librarian at Harvard University; and various other works. 
Mr. Alger has furnished numerous contributions to the 
" Christian Examiner" and other periodicals. 

Alghafikee or Alghafiki, al-Ga fe-kee , an eminent 
physician, who lived in Mohammedan Spain in the 
twelfth century. Died about 1164. 

Alghisi, al-gee see, sometimes written Algisi, (FRAN 
CESCO,) an Italian musical composer, born at Brescia in 
1666. He composed two operas, one of which, called 
"II Trionfo clella Continenza," ("The Triumph of Con 
tinence,") had a great success. Died in 1733. 

Alghisi, (GALASSO,) an Italian architect of the six 
teenth century, born at Carpi. He published a splendid 
work on fortifications, ("Delia Fortificazione," 1570.) 

Alghisi, (TOMMASO,) a distinguished Italian surgeon, 
born at Florence in 1669. He particularly excelled in 
lithotomy, on which he wrote an able treatise, (1707.) 
Died in 1713. 

Algrin, fi guaN , QEAN,) a French theologian, who 
became Archbishop of Besai^on. Died in 1237. 

Alhakem or Al-Hakem (al-hak em) I., Sultan of 
Cordova, began to reign in 796 A.D. He waged war 
against Alfonso of Asturias and the Franks, and sup 
pressed with great cruelty a rebellion in Cordova. Died 
in 822. 

Alhakem II., Sultan and Caliph of Cordova, suc 
ceeded his father Abd-er-Rahman III. in 961. He was a 
pacific and enlightened sovereign, and was celebrated as 
a patron of literature and science. His reign has been 
called the golden age of Arabian literature. He col 
lected a great library, and expended vast sums in the 
erection of colleges, mosques, hospitals, etc. He died 
in 976, aged sixty-three, and was succeeded by his son 
His ham (or Hescham) II. 

Al-Hakem-Ibii-Atta, al-ha kem Ib n at ti , com 
monly called Al-Mo-ken na, ( -Mo-caia na or -Mu- 
kamia, moo-kan na,) or " the veiled one," a famous 
impostor, who arose in the time of Aboo-Jaafar Al-Man- 
soor, the second caliph of the Abbasside dynasty. He 
first made his appearance as a legislator and prophet at 
Merv or Meru, the capital of Khorassan, in 774 A.D. 
About 780 the caliph Mahdee (Mahcli) sent an army 
that besieged the impostor in his principal fortress. 
When Al-Hakem found that there was no chance of 
escape, he administered, it is said, a mortal poison to 
those about his person, and afterwards burned their 
bodies to ashes, so that no vestige might be left; and, 
the better to impress posterity with the idea of his divine 
character, he plunged into a large caldron filled with a 
liquid so powerful and penetrating that no part of his 
body remained unconsumed. The truth appears to have 
j been, that he burned himself in the castle in which he 
was, so that no trace of him remained except ashes. 
This story forms the basis of Moore s poem entitled 
"Mokanna, or the Veiled Prophet of Khorassan." 

See WEIL, "Geschichte der Chalifen," vol. ii. chap, iii.; D HER- 
BELOT, " Bibliotheque Orientale ;" ABUI.PHARAGIUS, " Historia Dy- 
nastiarum ;" ABULFEDA, " Annales Moslemici." 

Alhazan or Alhazen, written also Alhaceii and 
Alhasan, al-haz an, an Arabian philosopher and mathe 
matician, native of Bassora, celebrated as the author of 
a treatise on optics, of great merit. Died at Cairo about 

Al-Homaydee or Al-Homaydi, al-ho-ml uee , a clis- 

e as k; ; as s; g hard; g as j; G,n, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




Alinard, ll e-nard or f le nf u/, written also Hali- 
nard, a learned French prelate, born in Burgundy about 
990, became Archbishop of Lyons in 1046. Died in 1052. 

A-lip i-us, a friend of Saint Augustine, was an emi 
nent lawyer. Having been baptized by Saint Ambrose 
in 387 A.D., he became Bishop of Tagaste. Died about 

Aliprandi, a-le-pRan dee, (BUONAMENTE,) an Italian 
poet, native of Mantua. He wrote a history of Mantua 
and other cities of Italy, a work of little merit. Died 
in 1414. 

Alisaunder, one of the modes in which Chaucer 
writes the name of ALEXANDER the Great. 

Al i-son, (ALEXANDER,) a British writer, born in Scot 
land about 1812. He published, besides other works, 
"The Philosophy and History of Civilization," (1860,) 
and is about to publish, it is said, "The Church and the 
World Reconciled." 

Alison, (Rev. ARCHIBALD,) a Scottish writer, born 
in Edinburgh in 1757. He took orders in the Anglican 
Church in 1784, and married the same year a daughter 
of the well-known Dr. John Gregory of Edinburgh. 
He became curate of Kenlcy, Shropshire, in 1790, and 
vicar of Ercall in 1794. In 1790 he published "Essays 
on the Nature and Principles of Taste," a popular work, 
which Lord Jeffrey made the subject of a laudatory article 
in the "Edinburgh Review" in 1811. He became senior 
minister of the Episcopal Chapel, Cowgate, Edinburgh, 
in 1800. Two volumes of his sermons were published. 

"We do not know any sermons," says the "Edin 
burgh Review" for September, 1814, "so pleasing, or so 
likely both to be popular and to do good to those who 
are pleased with them. All the feelings are generous 
and gentle all the sentiments liberal and all the gen 
eral views just and ennobling." Died in 1839. 

See CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen," 
Supplement, vol. v. ; "Gentleman s Magazine," September, 1839. 

Alison, (Sir ARCHIBALD,) a historian, a son of the 
preceding, was born at Kenley, Shropshire, in Decem 
ber, 1792. He was educated in Edinburgh, studied law, 
and was called to the Scottish bar in 1814. In 1828 he 
was chosen sheriff of Lanarkshire. He gained distinc 
tion by his "Principles of Criminal Law," (1832.) His 
most important work is a " History of Europe from the 
Commencement of the French Revolution to the Resto 
ration of the Bourbons, 1815," (istvol., 1839,) which has 
been eminently successful. The ninth edition was pub 
lished in 1853-55, I2 vo s - "It i s upon the whole," 
says the "Edinburgh Review" for October, 1842, "a 
valuable addition to European literature, evidently com 
piled with the utmost care : its narration, so far as we 
can judge, is not perverted by the slightest partiality. 
... Its merits are minuteness and honesty qualities 
which may well excuse a faulty style, gross political 
prejudices, and a fondness for exaggerated and frothy 
declamation." He published in 1847 "The Life of 
John, Duke of Marlborough," (3d edition, 1855,) and in 
1852-57 a continuation of his "History of Europe" to 
the year 1852, (6 vols.) The latter work is not so able 
nor so popular as his first history. He was created a 
baronet in 1852. His political sympathies were ultra- 
conservative. He was the author of several other 
works, among which are "Essays, Political, Historical, 
etc.," (3 vols., 1850,) originally published in " Blackwood s 
Magazine." Died near Glasgow in May, 1867. 

See a review of his History in " Blackwood s Magazine " for 
July, 1840. 

Alison, (WILLIAM PULTENEY,) an eminent physician 
and physiologist, son of the Rev. Archibald Alison, 
born in Edinburgh in 1790. He became professor of 
medical jurisprudence at Edinburgh in 1820, and was 
appointed professor of the institutes of medicine in 1828. 
In 1830 he published "First Lines of Physiology." He 
became professor of the practice of medicine in the 
University of Edinburgh in 1832, and published "Out 
lines of Physiology and Pathology" in 1833. He re 
ceived the title of "First Physician to the Queen for 
Scotland." Died in Edinburgh in 1859. 

Alix, 3 , or Alice, a l iss, (called by the older 
writers Adela, Ada, and Ala,) a daughter of Theobald, 
(Thibaud le Grand,) Count of Champagne, was married 

a, e,T, 5, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; fir, fill, fat; met; nSt; good; moon; 

tinguished Arabian writer, born at Majorca in 1029. 
\mong his works is a valuable biography of the distin 
guished Moslems of Spain. Died at Bagdad about 1095. 

Alhoy, 5 lwd , (Louis,) a French litterateur, born at 
Angers in 1755, succeeded Abbe Sicard as Director of 
the Institution for Deaf-Mutes in 1797. He wrote "Les 
Hospices," a poem. Died in 1826. 

Ali. See ALEE. 


Aliamet, t le-3 mi or il yS m.V, (FRANgois GER 
MAIN,) a French engraver, born at Abbeville in 1734, 
was a brother of Jacques, noticed below, to whom he was 
inferior in skill. He worked some years in London, 
and engraved historical works after the Italian masters. 

Aliamet, (JACQUES,) a skilful French engraver, born 
at Abbeville in 1727; died in Paris in 1788. He ex 
celled in landscapes and sea-pieces. His engravings, 
after Vernet, are much admired. 

Alibaud, t le bo , (Louis,) a French fanatic, born at 
Nimes in 1810. He attempted to assassinate Louis 
Philippe with a pistol in June, 1836, and was guillotined 
in July of the same year. 

Ali Beg, a lee beg, a native of Poland, was captured 
in childhood by Tartars, who sold him to a Turk. He 
became dragoman to the sultan, and translated the Bible 
into the Turkish language. Died in 1675. 

Alibert, t le baiR , (JEAN Louis,) an eminent French 
physician, born in Aveyron in 1766. He became one of 
the chief physicians of the Hospital Saint Louis, Paris, 
in 1801, and professor of medicine in 1802. In 1814 he 
was appointed consulting physician to Louis XVIII., and 
a few years later was made first physician-in-ordinary. 
He gave special attention to diseases of the skin, on which 
he wrote a work of much merit, called " Description of 
Diseases of the Skin," (" Description des Maladies de 
la Peau," 1806-25.) He was author of other medical 
works, written in an elegant style. Died in 1837. 

See QUERARD, "La France Litte raire." 

Aliberti, a-lc-be R tee, (GIANCARLO,) an Italian fresco- 
painter, born at Asti, in Piedmont, in 1680; died about 
1740. His chief works were executed at his native city. 

Ali Bey, a lee ba, the assumed name of Domingo 
Badia y Leblich, do-ming go ba-dee a e la-blek , a 
Spanish traveller and projector, born in Biscay in 1766. 
He travelled in the disguise of a Mussulman, and pub 
lished " Travels in Asia and Africa, 1803-1807," (3 vols., 
1814.) Died in 1818. 

See the "Quarterly Review" for July, 1816. 

Alibrandi, a-le-bRan dee, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian 
Jesuit and casuist, born at Messina. Died in 1711. 

Alibrandi, (GIROLAMO,) a distinguished painter, 
called " the Raphael of Messina," where he was born in 
1470. His manner resembled that of Leonardo da 
Vinci, with whom he studied. Died of the plague in 
1524. His master-piece is a " Purification of the Virgin." 

See LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy." 

Alidosi, a-le-do see, (GIOVANNI NiccoL6 PASQUALE,) 
an antiquary of Bologna. Died about 1630. 

Alighieri. See DANTE. 

Aligiian, i len y6N r , Benedict of, [Fr. BENOIT 
D ALIGNAN, beh-nwa dS lin yo.V,] a French Benedict 
ine monk, who was elected Bishop of Marseilles in 1229. 
Died in 1268. 

Aligre, t legR , (F/riENNE FRANgois,) born about 1726, 
became president of the Parliament of Paris in 1 768, which 
office he held for twenty years. Died in exile in 1798. 

Ali, Hyder. See HY DER ALEE. 

Al-i-men tus, (Lucius CINCIUS,) a Roman histo 
rian of merit, became tribune of the people in 214 B.C., 
and prastor in 210. He received with the province of 
Sicily the command of two legions which had been de- 
feated_ at Cannae and were afterwards condemned to 
serve in Sicily. Some time after 208 he was taken pris 
oner by Hannibal, who appears to have treated him with 
great respect. He wrote, in Greek, a history of Rome 
from the foundation of the city to his own time, and 
other works, on law, grammar, etc. His diligence and 
erudition are commended by Livy. Only fragments of 
his works are extant. 

See NIEBUHR, " History of Rome ;" AULUS GELLIUS, xvi. ; Voss, 
De Histoncis Latinis." 




to Louis VII., King of France, in 1160; died in 1206. 
Her son became King Philippe Auguste. 

Alix, 3 less , (MATTHIEU FRANCOIS,) a French phy 
sician, born in Paris in 1738. He was professor of anat 
omy at Fulda, and wrote a work of merit, entitled "Sur 
gical Observations," (" Observata Chirurgica," 1774-78.) 
Died at Briickenau in 1782. 

Albc, (PIERRE,) a French priest, born at Dole in 1600, 
became a canon at Besancon. He defended against the 
pope, in several tracts, the rights of his chapter in regarci 
to the election of archbishops. Died in 1676. 

Alix, (P. M.,) a French engraver, born 171:2 ; died 1800. 

A 1 T_ 1-i _ A 1 T 1- 

Bagdad about 947, succeeded to the throne in 991; died 
in 1031 or 1032. He received and protected at his court 
Firdousee, (Firdausi,) the celebrated Persian poet, who 
fled from the anger of Mahmood of Gazna. 

Al-Kahir-Billah, al-ka hjr bil la, (i.e. "victorious 
by the grace of God,") a caliph of the house of Abbas, 
who ascended the throne in 929. His tyranny and 
cruelty rendered him an object of execration, and caused 
his dethronement after a reign of rather more than a year. 

Alkaios. See ALC.^US. 

Al-Kasim-Ibn-Hammood, (-Hammud,) al-ka - 
sim Ib n ham modcl , a sultan of Cordova, dethroned by 
his nephew Yahya in 1024. 

Al-Kayim, al-ka yim or al-kl yim, a caliph of the 
house of Abbas, succeeded his father Al-Kader-Billah 
about 1031. Died in 1073. 

Alkemade, van, vt n al-keh-ma deh^KoRNELis,) 
a Dutch antiquary, born in 1654. He was first commis 
sioner of import and export duties at Rotterdam. He 
published, besides other works, a curious treatise on old 
Dutch customs in civil life, entitled "Nederlandsche 
Displechtighcden," (3 vols., 1732.) Died in 1737. 

Al-Khazrejee or Al-Khazreji, al-Kaz reh-jce , an 
excellent historian of Mohammedan Spain, supposed to 
have lived about the end of the twelfth century. 

Alkhowareznii,al-k6w-a-rez mee, an Arabian math 
ematician, lived about 810-830 A.D. He was librarian 
to Al-Mamoon at Bagdad. 

Alkibiades. See ALCIUIADES. 

Alkindi, Alkindus, or Alkendi. See ALCHINDUS. 

Alkmazi. See ALCMAN. 

Alkmar or Alkmaar, van, vtn alk-mSR , (HENRY, 
or HINREK,) a Low-German poet, who lived in the latter 
half of the fifteenth century, was the author or first trans 
lator of a celebrated poem and satire, "Reynard the 
Fox," which he published in Low German at Liibcck in 
1498. In the preface he states that he translated it from 
the Walsch (supposed to be the Walloon) and the 
French, and that he was a schoolmaster and teacher of 
virtue in the service of the Duke of Lorraine. The 
original is lost, if it ever existed. The poem of Alk 
mar is one of the most popular in the language, and has 
been translated into several other languages. Goethe 
produced a modern German version of it in hexameters, 
which has been splendidly illustrated by Kaulbach. 

See J. GRIMM, "Die Sage von Reinhart Vos," 1834. 

Allacci. See ALLATIUS. 

Allainval, S laN val , (LEONOR JEAN CHRISTINE 
Soulas soo las ) a French dramatic poet, born at Char- 
tres about 1700; died in 1753. Although he assumed 
the title of abbe, he never entered holy orders. Among 
his best works is " L ficole dcs Bourgeois," (1728,) a 
comedy which is praised by La Harpe. 

Allais, 3 Ii , (DKNYS Vairasse va rtss ,) a French 
writer of the seventeenth century, born in Languedoc, 
was known as the author of a political romance called 
the " History of the Sevarambians," (" Histoire dcs 
Sevarambes, 1677.) 

Al lam, (ANDREW,) a learned English antiquary, born 
near Oxford in 1655. He entered holy orders in 1680. 
He assisted Wood in the "Athena: Oxonienses," and 
began a "History of English Cathedrals," the comple 
tion of which was prevented by his death in 1685. 

Allamand, i lf mSN , (JEAN NICOLAS SEKASTIEN,) 
a philosopher and naturalist, born at Lausanne, in Swit 
zerland, in 1713. In 1749 he became professor of phi 

losophy, and afterwards of natural history, in the Uni 
versity of Leyden, both of which chairs he held with 
credit till his death in 1787. He was the first to explain 
the phenomena of the Leyden jar, and rendered an im 
portant service to the public by the publication of the 
Historical Dictionary of his friend Prosper Marchand, 
( : 75^-9,) which the latter left in manuscript. The writ 
ing was so minute that he was obliged to use a powerful 
microscope to decipher it. 

Allan, al lan, (DAVID,) a Scottish historical painter, 
sometimes called "the Scotch Hogarth," was born at 
Alloa in 1744. He went to Rome in 1764, and gained 
there a gold medal for his picture of a Corinthian maiden 
drawing her lover s profile on the wall by the shadow, 
which is esteemed his master-piece. He settled in Edin 
burgh about 1780, and increased his reputation by illus 
trations of Allan Ramsay s "Gentle Shepherd." He 
owes the name of the Scotch Hogarth to his humorous 
designs of the Roman Carnival. Died in 1 796. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen ;" 
CUNNINGHAM, " Lives oi Painters, Sculptors," etc. 

Allan, al lan, (GEORGE,) an English attorney and 
antiquary, who resided at Darlington, was a zealous 
student of national antiquities. He contributed to 
Hutchinson s " History and Antiquities of Durham," 
and published, besides other works, a "Life of Bishop 
Trevor," (1776.) Died in 1800. 

See NICHOLS, " Literary Anecdotes," etc. 

Allan, (ROIJERT,) a Scottish lyric poet, born at Kil- 
barchan in 1774, was a weaver. He produced a volume 
of poems in 1836. Having emigrated to the United 
States, he died at New York in 1841. 

Allan, (THOMAS.) See ALLEN. 

Allan, (THOMAS,) F.R.S., a Scottish mineralogist, 
born in Edinburgh in 1777. He formed a collection of 
about seven thousand specimens of minerals, said to be 
the finest collection in Scotland. His knowledge of 
mineralogy was extensive and accurate. He wrote the 
article Diamond for the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," and 
a work on Mineralogical Nomenclature. Died in 1833. 

Allan, (Sir WILLIAM,) an eminent British historical 
painter, born in Edinburgh in 1782. He studied in the 
Royal Academy of London, worked some years in Saint 
Petersburg, visited Circassia and Turkey, and returned 
to Scotland in 1814. His large picture of the " Circassian 
Captives" was purchased for 1000 guineas by Sir Walter 
Scott and ninety-nine other subscribers, lie afterwards 
painted subjects of Scottish history, among which are 
the "Parting of Charles Stuart and Flora Macdonald," 
and "The Murder of Regent Murray." He was elected 
academician of the Royal Academy, London, in 1835, 
and succeeded Wilkie in 1840 as her Majesty s limner 
for Scotland. From 1838 until his death he was presi 
dent of the Scottish Royal Academy. Among his chief 
works are two pictures of the "Battle of Waterloo." 
Died in 1850. 

See CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen," 
vol. v. ; " Encyclopedia Britannica." 

Allard, ft laV, (Gui,) a French writer, noted for his 
works on the history and genealogy of Dauphine. Born 
at Grenoble about 1645; died i 1 1715- 

Allard, (JEAN FRANCOIS,) a French general, born in 
Var in 1785. He left France after the restoration of 
1815, and went to Hindostan. He entered the service 
of Runjeet Singh at Lahore, organized his army after 
the French system, and became general-in-chief. Died 
n India in 1839. 

Allarde, d , da la"Rd , (PIERRE GILKERT Leroi leh- 
Rwa ,) BARON, a French political economist, born at 
Montlufon in 1749; died in 1809. 

Allart, S laV, (MARY GAY,) a novelist, born at Lyons, 
n France, in 1750. She lived a long time in Paris, and 
wrote a successful novel called "Albcrtine de Saint- 
Albe," (1818.) She also made an elegant French trans- 
ation of the "Family Secrets" of Miss Pratt. Died in 
Paris in 1821. 

Allatius, al-la she^us, (LEO,) [It. LEONE AI.LACCI, 
i-o na al-lat chec,] an eminent scholar and physician, 
Horn at Chios (Scio) in 1586, embraced the Catholic 
religion, taught Greek in a college of Rome, and was 

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; o, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in tins. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




appointed librarian of the Vatican by Pope Alexander 
VII. lie edited and translated into Latin several old 
Greek works, and wrote some original productions. 
Died in 1669. 

Alle, al ji, (GiROLAMO,) an Italian writer and eccle 
siastic, born at Bologna probably about 1580. He was 
an admired orator, and author of many works in prose 
and verse on religious and moral subjects, (1613-54.) 

Al-lec tus, an officer of Carausius, King of Britain. 
Having murdered Carausius, in 293, he usurped the 
throne. He was defeated and killed by the Roman army 
of Constantius Chlorus about 296 A.D. 

Allegrain, t /gRaN , (CHRISTOPHE GABRIEL,) a dis 
tinguished French sculptor, born in Paris about 1710. 
He excelled in nude figures. Died in 1795. 

Allegrain, (fixiENNE,) the father of the preceding, 
was a skilful landscape-painter, who died in 1736, aged 

Allegretti, al-la-gRet tee, (ANTONIO,) a Florentine 
poet, who lived (mostly at Rome) about the middle of 
the sixteenth century. 

Allegretti, (CARLO,) an Italian painter, born at Monte 
Prandone, lived between 1600 and 1650. 

Allegretti, (jACoro,) an Italian physician and as 
trologer, born at Forli in the early part of the fourteenth 
century, had an extensive reputation as a Latin poet. 

Allegri. See CORREGGIO. 

Allegri, al-la gRee, (ALESSANDRO,) a satirical poet of 
the sixteenth century. He was a native of Florence, 
and excelled in burlesque poetry. The purity of his 
language was recognized by the Academy Delia Crusca. 
Died aoout 1596. 

Allegri, (GREGORIO,) an eminent musician and com 
poser, born at Rome about 1580, was a singer in the 
pontifical chapel. He is said to have been a relative of 
the painter Correggio. His most remarkable work is 
the "Miserere," which is still performed annually in the 
pope s chapel during the holy week. Died in 1652. 

See BURNEY S "Musical Tour in Italy." 

Allegrini, al-la-gRee nee, (FRANCESCO,) a distin 
guished Italian painter, born at Gubbio in 1587. He 
worked at Rome and Genoa in oil and fresco. Died in 

Allegrini, (FRANCESCO,) a designer and engraver, 
born at Florence in 1729. Died about 1785. 

Allein or Alleine, al len, (JOSEPH,) an English non 
conformist divine, born at Devizes in 1633, was educated 
at Oxford. He became curate to Mr. Newton at Taun- 
ton in 1655, and was ejected for nonconformity in 1662. 
Continuing to preach frequently, he was committed to 
Ilchester jail in 1663, fined one hundred marks, and im 
prisoned one year. He again suffered similar persecu 
tion in 1665, in consequence of which he died prema 
turely in 1668, leaving several religious works, one of 
which, "An Alarm to the Unconverted," (1672,) is 
highly esteemed and has been often reprinted. 

See A. DUFF S " Life and Death of the Rev. J. Alleine ;" AUGUST 
RISCHE, " Leben J. Alleins weiland Predigers zu Taunton," Biele 
feld, (?) 1850; " Life and Death of J. Alleine," London, 1672. 

Alleiu or Alleine, (RICHARD,) an English noncon 
formist minister, born about 1610, was rector of Batcombe, 
in Somersetshire. He published, besides other works, 
a " Vindication of Godliness," (" Vindiciae Pietatis," 
1663,) which was highly esteemed. Died in 1681. 

Allemand. See L \LLEMAND. 

Allemand, tl mdN , (GEORGES,) a French historical 
painter, born at Nancy, lived in Paris about 1650. 

Allemand, (JEAN BAPTISTE,) a French painter, was 
a pupil of J. Vernet. He lived at Rome, and painted 
some fine landscapes in the Corsini palace in 1750. 

a French admiral, born at Port Louis, in Mauritius, in 
1762. He commenced his career as a cabin-boy. In 
1792 he was made captain, and captured many British 
merchant-vessels between 1793 and 1800. He rose 
gradually by his activity and skill to the station of vice- 
admiral in 1809., He commanded the fleet which Coch- 
rane attempted to destroy with fire-ships at the Isle of 
Aix in 1809. Died in 1826. 

Allemanni, a -la-man nee, (PIETRO,) of Ascoli, an 
Italian painter, who flourished between 1470 and 1490. 

Allemant. See LALLEMANT and LALAMANT. 

Allen, al len, (ALEXANDER,) an English philologist, 
a son of John Allen (1771-1839) noticed below, born at 
Hackney, near London, in 1814. He was agood classical 
scholar, and an excellent teacher. He wrote articles for 
the " Penny Cyclopaedia" and for Smith s " Dictionary 
of Greek and Roman Biography," and published seve 
ral works for the use of students of the Greek and Latin 
languages. Died in 1842. 

Al len, (DAVID OLIVER,) an American missionary, 
born at Barre, Massachusetts, in 1800. He laboured 
many years in India, whither he went about 1827, and 
published " India, Ancient and Modern," (2d edition, 
1858.) Died in 1863. 

Al len or Al eii, (EDMOND,) an English theologian, 
born in Norfolk. He wrote a number of works. Died 

in 1559- 

Allen, (EPHRAIM W.,) born about 1780, was for more 
than thirty years editor of the "Newburyport Herald." 
In his office William Lloyd Garrison learned the art of 
printing. (See GARRISON.) Died in 1846. 

Allen, (E THAN,) an officer of the Revolutionary 
war, born at Litchfield, in Connecticut, about 1742. He 
settled, when young, in Vermont, and became the leader 
of the famous "Green Mountain Boys." On the loth 
of May, 1775, at tn e head of only eighty-three men, he 
took the forts Ticonderoga and* Crown Point. In Sep 
tember of the same year, while on an expedition to take 
Montreal, he fell in with a much larger force of British 
troops, and was made prisoner. He remained in cap 
tivity above two years and a half, when he was exchanged 
for Colonel Campbell, an English officer. After his re 
lease he was appointed general of the state militia. He 
died suddenly, February 13, 1789. Besides a narrative 
of his captivity, and some writings of a political char 
acter, he wrote a work entitled " Reason the only Oracle 
of Man," in which he advocated pure Deism. 

See " Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Heroes of 76," by 1. 
W. DE PUY; Life of Ethan Allen, in SPARKS S "American Biogra 
phy;" HUGH MOORE, " Memoir of Colonel E. Allen," Plattsburg, 1834. 

Allen, (HENRY,) a. religious enthusiast, born at New 
port, Rhode Island, in 1748. He was the founder of a 
sect in Nova Scotia who taught that Adam and Eve, in 
their state of innocence, had a spiritual existence with 
out bodies, and that all human beings are emanations 
from the same great Spirit, and were present with our 
first parents in the Garden of Eden before the fall, and 
participated in the original transgression. He published 
a collection of hymns, and several religious treatises and 
sermons. Died in 1784. 

Allen, (JOHN,) an Irish prelate, born at Dublin in 
1476, became Archbishop of Dublin in 1528. He was 
killed in 1534 by Thomas Fitzgerald, a son of the Earl 
of Kildare, during a rebellion. 

Allen, (JOHN,) a Puritan divine, born in England in 
1596, emigrated to America, and settled as first minister 
in Dedham, Massachusetts. Died in 1671. 

Allen, (JOHN,) M.D., an English physician, who lived 
in the early part of the eighteenth century and wrote a 
valuable work in Latin entitled a " Synopsis of Universal 
Practical Medicine," (" Synopsis Universal Medicinas 
Practicas,") which aims to give in a succinct form the 
opinions of the most eminent physicians in all ages re 
specting the cause and cure of diseases. He was elected 
a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1730. Died in 1741. 

See NICHOLS, "Literary Anecdotes." 

Allen, (Jonx,) a dissenting layman, born at Truro, 
England, in 1771. He was the master of an academy at 
Hackney. Besides other writings of a religious charac 
ter, he was the author of a valuable and learned work 
entitled " Modern Judaism, or a Brief Account of the 
Opinions, Rites, and Ceremonies of the Jews," (1816,) 
said to be the best work on the subject in the language. 
Died in 1839. 

Allen, (JOHN,) M.D., a British writer on constitu 
tional history, metaphysics, etc., was born at Redford, 
near Edinburgh, in 1770. lie studied medicine and 
metaphysics at Edinburgh, and " was eminent in that fa 
mous school of metaphysics," says Brougham, " for his ex 
tensive learning and unrivalled power of subtle reason 
ing." In 1 795 he published " Illustrations of Hume s Es- 

a.e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, 6, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fill, fat; met; not; good; moon; 




say concerning Liberty and Necessity." He contributed 
many political and historical articles to the " Edinburgh 
Review," and published, besides other works, a learned 
and luminous "Inquiry into the Rise and Growth of the 
Royal Prerogative in England," (1830.) His intimacy 
with Lord Holland was such, says Lord Brougham, that 
"in the latter part of his life [Mr. Allen] shared all his 
thoughts, and was never a day apart from him." He 
was master of Dulwich College for many years. Died 
in 1843. 

See BROUGHAM, "Statesmen of the Times of George III.," 
Second Series; SYDNEY SMITH, "Alemoirs. " 

Allen, (JOSEPH W.,) an English landscape-painter, 
born at Lambeth, Surrey, in 1803. He was reduced in 
his youth to the necessity of painting scenes for the 
theatre, and became principal scene-painter at the Olym 
pic Theatre, the success of which was greatly promoted 
by his skill. He acquired considerable reputation as a 
painter of pastoral, landscape, and simple, quiet, rural 
scenery. The style of his later works was vitiated by 
" brilliant effects " obtained at the expense of fidelity to 
nature. Died in 1852. 

Allen, (Musics,) an American patriot, a brother of the 
Rev. Thomas Allen, was born at Northampton in 1748. 
He served as chaplain in the army, was taken prisoner 
at Savannah, and was drowned in 1779 in an attempt to 
escape from a prison-ship. 

Allen, (PAUL,) an American poet and journalist, born 
at Providence, Rhode Island, in 1775. He was for seve 
ral years editor of the "Morning Chronicle," published 
at Baltimore, where he died in 1826. His principal 
works are a volume of " Original Poems, Serious and 
Entertaining," and a large poem in five cantos, entitled 

Allen, (RICHARD,) an English Baptist minister of 
London, published "Ecclesiastical Biography, ("Bio- 
graphia Ecclesiastica," 2 vols., 1690.) Died in London 
in 1717. 

Allen, (SAMUKI.,) a London merchant, who came to 
New England about 1690, and was subsequently Gov 
ernor of New Hampshire. Died in 1705. 

Allen, (SOLOMON,) an American divine and patriot, 
brother of the Rev. Thomas Allen, was born in North 
ampton, Massachusetts, in 1751. He rose to the rank 
of major in the war of the Revolution. While in the 
army, he was ordered by Lieutenant-Colonel Jameson to 
carry from Andre to Arnold the letter which informed 
the latter of Andre s capture and enabled Arnold to 
make his escape. Died in 1821. 

Allen, (STEPHEN,) a distinguished citizen of New 
York, born in that city in July, 1767. He was elected 
mayor of New York in 1821. While commissioner for 
visiting prisons, he proposed the erection of a State 
prison at Sing Sing. He was one of the principal 
originators of the project for supplying New York with 
water from Croton River, and was chairman of the Board. 
He perished in the steamer Henry Clay, which was 
burned in July, 1852. 

See HUNT S " Lives of American Merchants," vol. ii. 

Allen, (STEPHEN M.,) an American merchant and 
banker, born at Burton, New Hampshire, in 1819. He 
distinguished himself by his liberal donations to various 
literary institutions. 

See LIVINGSTON S "Portraits of Eminent Americans," New York, 

Allen, Alleyn, or Allan, pronounced alike al lcn, 
(THOMAS,) an English mathematician of high reputation, 
born at Uttoxetcr in 1542. He refused a bishopric from 
the Earl of Leicester, with whom he was intimate, and 
lived much in the family of the Earl of Northumber 
land. 1 le was a great collector of manuscripts, historical 
and antiquarian. Among his few publications is a copy 
(made with his own hand) of Ptolemy s work on As 
trology, ("De Astrorum Judiciis,") to which he added 
some explanatory notes. Died in 1632. 

See WOOD, "Athena: Oxonienses. " 

Allen, (THOMAS,) an English divine, born in 1572 or 
1573, was a Ecllow of Merton College. Died in 1636. 

Allen, (Sir THOMAS,) an English naval commander, 
born in Suffolk. lie was appointed in 1664 commodore 
and Commander-in-chief of the fleet sent to punish the 

Algerine pirates, and in the same year he gained a vic 
tory over the Dutch near Gibraltar. He became a rear- 
admiral in 1665, and was vice-admiral of the fleet which 
under the Duke of Albcmarle defeated the Dutch near 
the southeast coast of England in 1666. Died about 

See CHARNOCK, " Biographia Navalis." 

Allen or Allein, (THOMAS,) an English clergyman, 
born at Oxford in 1682, became rector of Kettering in 
1715. Among his works is "The Practice of a Holy 
Life," (1716.) Died in 1755. 

Allen, (Rev. THOMAS,) an American divine, born at 
Northampton, Massachusetts, in 1743, was the first min 
ister of Pittsfield. .He graduated at Harvard in 1762, 
and was ordained at Pittsfield in 1764. In the Revolu 
tionary war he warmly supported the popular cause, 
and served as chaplain at White Plains, Ticonderogaj 
etc. Four of his brothers were soldiers in the army. 
He was the author of several published sermons, letters, 
etc. Died in 1810. He was the father of William 
Allen, president of Bowdoin College. 

Allen, (THOMAS,) an English topographical writer 
and engraver, born about 1803. He published, among 
other works illustrated by his own hand, " The History 
and Antiquities of London, Westminster, and Parts ad 
jacent," (4 vols., 1827-8.) Died in 1833. 

See " Gentleman s Magazine," July, 1833. 

Allen, Alan, or Alleyn, (WILLIAM,) CARDINAL, born 
in Lancashire in 1532, took the degree of D.D. in the 
University of Douay in 1571, and was made cardinal by 
Pope Sixtus V. in 1587, in order that he might superin 
tend the Catholic interests in England after Philip II. 
of Spain should have conquered that country. He left 
a number of works in defence of the Catholic Church. 
Died in Rome in 1594. 

See FITZHERBERT, "Epitome Vita; Cardinalis Alani," 1608; a 
" Life of Allen " in the folio Brussels edition of Dodd s "Chinch 
History;" WOOD, "Athena; Oxonienses." 

Allen, (WILLIAM,) a chief justice of Pennsylvania, who 
assisted Dr. Franklin in establishing the College of 
Philadelphia ; but in the Revolution he took sides with 
the royalists. Died in 1780. His son, Andrew Allen, 
also became chief justice of Pennsylvania, and, like his 
father, sided in the Revolution with the British. 

Allen, (WILLIAM,) an English chemist and philan 
thropist, born in London in August, 1770, was a member 
of the Society of Friends. He became a pupil and as 
sistant of Joseph Gurney Bevan, chemist, of Plough 
Court, and acquired distinction as a pharmaceutical 
chemist. In 1802 he was appointed a lecturer on chem 
istry at Guy s Hospital, and in 1804 gave a course of 
lectures on natural philosophy at the Royal Institution, 
at the request of his friend, H. Davy. He was elected 
a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1807, and was associated 
with W. II. Pepys in researches on respiration and car 
bonic acid. (See PEPYS.) William Allen was an active 
promoter of various benevolent and reformatory en 
terprises, and devoted much time to the cause of the 
education of the poor. He began to preach in the meet 
ings of his Society in 1818, and accompanied Stephen 
Grellct, a noted minister of the Society of Friends, in a 
religious visit to the continent, from which they returned 
in 1820, after they had traversed Russia from north to 
south and visited various cities in Turkey and Italy. 

In 1822 he went to Vienna to see Alexander, Emperor 
of Russia, with whom he had a long and satisfactory 
interview in relation to schools, the slave-trade, and the 
Greeks. In 1825 he founded two manual-labour schools, 
one for boys and one for girls, at Lindfield, Sussex. 
He visited Germany, France, and Spain on religious 
and philanthropic missions in 1832 and 1833. H C CO11 
tributed several papers on chemistry to the Philosoph 
ical Transactions. Died at Lindfield in 1843. 

See "Life of William Allen, with Selections from his Correspond 
ence," 2 Vols., 1847. 

Allen, (WILLIAM,) D.D., an American biographer, 
born at Pittsfield, Massachusetts, in 1784. He graduated 
at Harvard College in 1802. and was president of Bow 
doin College from 1820 to 1839. He succeeded Dr. 
Channing as regent in Harvard College. In 1809 he 
published "The American Biographical Dictionary," (3d 

as /; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, v., guttural ; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z ; th as in this. (23T" See Explanations, p. 23.) 





edition, enlarged, 1857.) Among his works are "Wun- 
nissoo," a poem, (1856;) and "Psalms and Hymns, with 
many Original Hymns," (1835.) Died in July, 1868. 

Allen, (WILLIAM HENRY,) an American naval officer, 
born -it Providence, Rhode Island, in 1784. He dis 
tinguished himself as lieutenant under Captain Decatur 
in the battle which resulted in the capture of the Mace 
donian, October 25, 1812. Having been raised to the 
rank of captain, he sailed in the Argus, and took many 
prizes. In August, 1813, he was killed in a fight between 
the Argus and the Pelican, and his vessel was captured. 

Allen, (WILLIAM HOWARD,) an American naval 
officer, born at Hudson, New York, in ,1792. He took 
command of the Argus when Captain William Henry 
Allen was disabled by a mortal wound in August, 1813. 
He was killed in a fight with pirates near Matanzas in 
November, 1822. 

Allende, al-yen da, (J.,) a Mexican officer, who in 
1810 joined Hidalgo in the revolt against Spain and 
rendered efficient service to the cause. He was cap 
tured and shot in July, 1811. 

Allent, t lo.N 1 , (PIERRE ALEXANDRE JOSEPH,) a French 
general, born at Saint Oiner in 1772. After the resto 
ration he became chief of the staff of the national guard, 
and counsellor of state. He wrote a " History of the 
Imperial Corps of Engineers, and of the Sieges it has 
directed," (1805,) and a few other works. Died in 1837. 

Alleon-du-Iiac, t la o.V dii Itk, QEAN Louis,) a 
French naturalist, born ajf Saint Etienne in 1723, was 
postmaster at that place. He published "Memoirs on the 
Natural History of Lyonn/)is, Forez, and Beaujolois," (2 
vols., 1765,) and "Me lan^fes of Natural History," (2 vols., 
1762,) both works of merit. He died, it is supposed, 
about 1770. 

Allerstein, Allerstain, al ler-stm , or Hallerstein, 
a German Jesuit, born about 1700, went as a missionary 
to China. He stated the population of China in 1760 at 
196,837,977. Died at Pekin about 1777. 

Allestree or Allestry, anls tre, (RICHARD,) an emi 
nent English divine, born in Shropshire in 1619. He 
served in the royalist army in the civil war, and at the 
restoration became one of the chaplains of Charles II. 
In 1663 he was appointed regius professor of divinity at 
Oxford. His lectures, which were continued about 
twenty years, are commended by Bishop Fell. A volume 
of his sermons was published in 1669 and 1684. Died 
in 1681. 

See WOOD, "Athenas Oxonienses." 

Allestry, auls tre, (JACOB,) an English poet, born 
about 1653 ; died in 1686. 

Alletz.S lis , (PIERRE EDOUARD,) a French litterateur, 
born in Paris in 1798. He wrote "Walpole," a dra 
matic poem, (1825,) an "Essay on Man, or the Accord 
ance of Philosophy with Religion," (2 vols., 1835,) and 
"Sketches of Moral Suffering," ("Esquisses de la Souf- 
france morale," 2 vols., 1836,) which is his principal 
work. He was consul at Barcelona when he died in 1850. 

Alletz, (PoNS-AuousTiN piN zo giis taN ,) a French 
litterateur, born at Montpellicr in 1703. He worked for 
the booksellers of Paris, and compiled a number of suc 
cessful works, some of which were popular school-books. 
Among his works are a "History of the Popes," (1776;) 
"L Agronome," a treatise on farming, (1760;) an "Epi 
tome of Grecian History," (1764;) and a Synopsis of the 
Evidences of Christianity, called "Catechism for Adults," 
(" Catechisme de Page mur.") Died at Paris in 1785. 

See QUERARD, "La France Litte raire." 

Alley, al le, (Rev. JEROME,) a theologian, born proba 
bly in Ireland in 1760, was educated at Trinity College, 
Dublin. He became rector of Beaulieu and Drumcarr. 
Among his works is "Vindiciae Christiana?, or a Com 
parative Estimate of the Genius and Temper of the 
Greek, the Roman, the Hindu, the Mahometan, and the 
Christian Religions," (1826.) 

Alley or Alleigh, al le, (WILLIAM,) an English 
bishop, born at Great Wycombe about 1512. He became 
a zealous Protestant minister, and in the reign of Mary 
resigned his cure. On the accession of Elizabeth he was 
appointed reader of the divinity lecture in Saint Paul s, 
London. He was consecrated Bishop of Exeter in 1560. 

He translated the Pentateuch for the Bishops Bible, and 
left several religious works. Died in 1571. 

Alleyii or Allen, al len, (EDWARD,) a celebrated 
English actor, born in London in 1566, was a friend or 
companion of Shakspeare. He was one of the two 
owners and managers of the Fortune Theatre, London, 
and amassed a large fortune, which he spent in acts of 
munificence. He founded, for the benefit of the poor, 
Dulwich College, finished about 1618, and by his last 
will endowed twenty almshouses. The college 
founded for the support of one master, (whose family 
name must always be the same as that of the founder,) 
one warden, four fellows, six poor men, six poor women, 
and for the education and support of twelve boys. Died 
in 1626. 

See J. P. COLLIER, " Memoirs of Edward Alleyn," etc. 

Al li-boiid, (JOHN,) an English divine, born in Buck 
inghamshire, was rector of Brad well. He wrote a 
satirical poem, " Rustic Description of the Oxford Acad 
emy lately reformed," (" Rustica Academias Oxoniensis 
nuper reformats; Descriptio," 1648,) and is called by 
Anthony Wood an excellent Latin poet. Died in 1658. 

Al li-bone, (SAMUEL AUSTIN,) an American writer, 
born in Philadelphia in 1816. He is the author of an 
excellent work entitled " A Critical Dictionary of Eng 
lish Literature and British and American Authors," 
of which the first volume (royal 8vo, pp. 1005) was is 
sued in 1858; the second is said to be now (1868) in 
press. The plan, which is as happy as it is novel, is to 
give a succinct biography of each author, accompanied 
by copious extracts from the opinions of the most cele 
brated critics, or some periodical of acknowledged repu 
tation, by means of which the reader is at once enabled 
to determine the literary standing of the author con 
cerning whom he may desire information ; and this plan 
has been so fully and thoroughly carried out as to leave 
little or nothing to be desired. 

Allier, S le-a , (AcniLLE,) a French artist and anti 
quary, born nT the Bourbonnais in 1807 or 1808. He 
described some antiquities of his native province in 
"Esquisses Bourbonnaises," (1832,) and began, in 1833, 
to issue, in numbers, " L Ancien Bourbonnais," a splen 
did work on the history and antiquities of the Bourbon 
nais, with plates designed by himself. He died in 1836, 
leaving it unfinished. 

Allier, (ANTOINE,) a French sculptor, born at Em- 
brun in 1793. Among his works are statues of Philopce- 
men and Eloquence, and busts of Sully and Arago. 

Allier, (Louis,) called also Hauteroche, hoVrosh , 
a French antiquary and numismatist, born at Lyons in 
1766. He visited the Troad and Asia Minor, collected 
many Greek medals, and wrote several antiquarian 
treatises ; died in 1827. 

Allies, al lez, (JABEZ,) an English antiquary, born in 
Worcestershire in 1787; died in 1856. 

Al ling-ham, (JoiiN TILL,) a popular English dra 
matic writer, flourished about the end of the eighteenth 
century. He was a native of London, and belonged to 
the legal profession. He wrote comedies and farces, 
among which are "The Weathercock," and "Fortune s 
Frolic," (1799.) 

Allingham, (WILLIAM,) a poet, born at Ballyshannon, 
Ireland, about 1828. He published a volume of poems 
in 1850, and "Day and Night Songs" in 1854. His 
poem entitled "Laurence Bloomfield in Ireland" (in 12 
chapters, 1864) was very favourably received. He has 
received an appointment in the Customs in England, and 
a literary pension was granted him in 1864. 

Allied, al le-o, (MATTEO,) an Italian sculptor, worked 
at Milan about 1750. His brother Tommaso was also 
a sculptor at Milan. 

Allioli, al-le-o lee, (JOSEPH FRANZ,) a German theo 
logian, born at Sulzbach in 1793. He became professor 
of theology at Munich in 1826, and provost of the cathe 
dral of Augsburg about 1838. He made a translation 
of the Bible from the Vulgate into German, (1830, 6th 
edition, 1839-45,) which was approved by the pope, and 
wrote several religious works. 

Allioni, al-le-o nee, (CARLO,) an Italian physician 
and eminent botanist, born at Turin in 1725. He was 
professor of botany in the University of Turin, and Fel- 

a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; mt; not; good; moon; 




low of the Royal Societies of London, Madrid, and Gb t- 
tingen. Like his friend Haller, he was opposed to the 
artificial system of Linnaeus. His principal work is a 
"Flora of Piedmont," ("Flora Pedemontana, etc.," 3 
vols., 1785,) by which he acquired a durable reputation. 
He wrote an able medical work, entitled " Synopsis 
of the Present Condition of Diseases," ("Conspectus 
PiTCsentaneae Morborum Conditionis," 1793.) Died in 

See M. F. BUNIVA, " Reflexions sur toutes les ouvrages iniblies et 


Alliot, t leV, (PIERRE,) a French physician of the 
seventeenth century, born at Bar-le-Duc, had the repu 
tation of great skill in the treatment of cancerous and 
other malignant ulcers. 

Allison. See ALISON. 

Al li-son, (FRANCIS,) a Presbyterian minister, born in 
Ireland in 1705. He became a professor and vice-pro 
vost of the Philadelphia College about 1755. Died in 1777. 

French general, born at Percy (Manche) in 1776, served 
as colonel at Marengo, 1800. Died in 1836. 

Allix, (PIERRE,) a French Protestant theologian, born 
at Alcncon in 1641, was eminent as a scholar and preacher. 
He was deeply versed in Hebrew and classical literature. 
The sermons he preached at Charenton in opposition to 
Bossuet were much admired. On the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes in 1685 he took refuge in England, 
learned the English language, and was appointed treas 
urer of the- cathedral church of Salisbury, (1690.) He 
was greatly distinguished as a controversial writer. His 
principal work, " Reflexions on the Books of the Holy 
Scripture," (1688,) is highly esteemed, and has been often 
reprinted. Died in 1717. 

See WOOD, "Fasti Oxonienses." 

Allix. See ALIX. 

Alloisi. See GALANINO. 

Allori, al-k/ree, [It. pron. al-16 ree,] (ALKSSANDRO,) 
an eminent Italian painter, born at Florence in 1535, was 
a pupil of Angelo Bronzino, his uncle, and an imitator of 
Michael Angelo. He was skilful in drawing, and in the 
science of anatomy, of which he made an excessive dis 
play in his works. He adorned the churches and palaces 
of Florence with paintings in fresco and oil. His mas 
ter-pieces are "The Last Judgment," " Christ Disputing 
with the Doctors," and "The Sacrifice of Abraham." 
Died in 1607. 

See LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy." 


Allori, (CRISTOFANO,) a celebrated painter, a son of 
Alessandro, noticed above, was born at Florence in 1577. 
He studied with Gregorio Pagani, and adopted a style 
very different from that of his father. He excelled in 
richness and delicacy of colouring, and was a superior 
portrait-painter. His works are scarce, and exquisitely 
finished. Among his master-pieces are a Magdalen, 
and the "Miracle of San Giuliano," in the Pitti gallery. 
Died about 1620. 

See LANZI, "History of Painting in Italy." 

Al lot, (ROBERT,) is believed to have been the com 
piler of a valuable collection of early poetry, entitled 
"England s Parnassus," (London, 1600,) in the compila 
tion of which he showed good taste and judgment. 

Allou, t loo , (CHARLES NICOLAS,) a French arch 
aeologist, born in Paris in 1787. He wrote an "Essay 
on the Universality of the French Language," (1828.) 

Allouette, de 1 , deh 13 loo et , |Lat. ALAUDA NUS,] 
(FRANCOIS,) a French antiquary, born at Vertus about 
1 530, was president of the court of Sedan, and master 
of requests. He wrote many works on genealogy, civil 
law, the history of the Gauls, etc. Died about 1608. 

Allston, auKston, (JOSEPH,) an American, born in 
1778, was Governor of South Carolina in 1812. His 
wife was Theodosia, the only daughter of Aaron Burr. 
Died in 1816. 

Allston, (Roi)ERT FRANCIS WITHERS,) an American 
planter, born in South Carolina in iSoi. He was elected 
Governor of his native State in 1856. He distinguished 

himself as an agriculturist, and made improvements IP 
the cultivation of rice. 

Allston, (WASHINGTON,) one of the most eminent, 
of American artists, born at Waccamaw, in South Caro 
lina, November 5, 1779. Owing to his delicate health 
in early childhood, he was sent to Newport, Rhode Is 
land, where he remained at school ten years. He en 
tered Harvard College in 1796, and took the degree of 
A.B. in 1800. He returned soon after to Charleston, 
and in 1801 embarked for England, accompanied by 
Malbone, the painter, whom he had previously known 
at Newport, and with whom he formed a warm and 
lasting friendship. The following year he exhibited in 
London several pictures, one of which, a "French Sol 
dier telling a Story," attracted very favourable notice. 
He visited Paris in 1804, and subsequently repaired to 
Italy, where he remained four years. While at Rome 
he formed an intimacy with Coleridge, of whose extra 
ordinary genius he speaks in enthusiastic terms. In 
1809 he returned to America, and soon after married a 
sister of William E. Channing, the eminent Unitarian 
divine. He again sailed for England in 1811, and es 
tablished himself in London, where he had resided but 
a short time when he met with a severe affliction in the 
death of his wife. In 1818 he was elected associate of 
the Royal Academy. The same year, in consequence 
of failing health, he returned to his home in America. 
He had previously finished his great historical painting 
of " The Dead Man revived by Elisha s Bones," for 
which he obtained the first prize at the British Institu 
tion. Among Mr. Allston s most celebrated pictures 
arc "Jacob s Dream;" "Elijah in the Desert;" "The 
Angel Uriel in the Sun;" and "Spalatro s Vision of the 
Bloody Hand." He was engaged on a large painting of 
" s Feast," when he died, July 9, 1843. In 
addition to his genius as a painter, Allston possessed 
poetic talent of a high order. He was the author of 
" The Sylphs of the Seasons, and other Poems," pub 
lished in 1813. 

During his residence at Rome, Allston became ac 
quainted with Washington Irving, who thus describes 
him: "There was something to me inexpressibly en 
gaging in the appearance and manners of Allston. I do 
not think I have ever been more completely captivated 
on a first acquaintance. He was of a light, graceful 
form, with large blue eyes, and black silken hair waving 
and curling round a pale, expressive countenance. Every 
thing about him bespoke the man of intellect and refine 
ment. His conversation was copious, animated, and 
highly graphic, warmed by a genial sensibility and be 
nevolence, and enlivened at times by a chaste and gentle 
humour. . . . His memory I hold in reverence and 
affection, as one of the purest, noblest, and most intel 
lectual beings that ever honoured me with his friend 

See DuNi.Ai , " Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in Amer 
ica," vol. i.; TUCKERMAN, " P.ook of the Artists;" also, article by 
DR. O. W. HOLMES, in " North American Review," vol. 1. p. 358. 

Allut, t lu , ( ANTOINE,) born at Montpellier, in France, 
in 1743, was educated at Paris, and became, while very 
young, a contributor to the "Encyclopedic." He was 
executed by the Jacobins in 1794. 

Ally, (Ali.) "See ALEE. 

Almada, de, da al-ma na, (Ai/VARO VAS,) a famous 
Portuguese warrior, was created Count of Avranches by 
Charles VI. of France. He was a loyal adherent of 
Dom Pedro, regent of Portugal, and was killed in battle 
in 1449. 

Almagro, de, da al-ma gRo, (DiEGO,) a bold and 
enterprising Spanish officer, who was the principal asso 
ciate of Pizarro in the conquest of Peru. He was a found 
ling, born about 1464, and went to America to seek his 
fortune. About 1525, Pizarro, Almagro, and Luque 
agreed to co-operate in an effort to conquer Peru. This 
object they effected with a very small force about 1533. 
(See PIZARUO, FRANCISCO.) In 1534 Almagro was ap 
pointed adelantado (governor) of the region which lies 
southward from Peru. He extended the conquests of 
the Spanish power into Chili in 1535, after which he cap 
tured Cuzco from the army of Pizarro, who had become 
his perfidious enemy. In a decisive battle, fought near 

planter, uurn in r>ouin v^aiuniui in loui. nc wa.a ciccicu iui^.u ^>u^^.v; m^ m*n^ \j> 

Governor of his native State in 1856. He distinguished his perfidious enemy. In a decisive battle, fought near 

e as k; 9 as j; g hard; g as/; G, H, v., guttural; N, nasal; R, /rilled; s as s; th as in this. (^^""See Explanations, p. 25.) 




Cuzco in 1538, Almagro was defeated and taken pris 
oner by Pizarro, who caused him to be put to death. 

See ROBERTSON, "History of America;" PRESCOTT, "Conquest 
of Peru," vol. i.; HERRKRA, "Historia." 

Almagro, de, (DIEGO,) a son of the preceding, born 
about 1520, assisted to revenge his father s death by the 
assassination of Pizarro. After the defeat of his asso 
ciates by De Castro, he was betrayed and put to death 
in 1542. 

Al-Mahdee or Al-Mahdi, (founder of the sect of 
Almohades.) See ABOO-ABDlLLAH-MoHAMMED. 

Almahdee or Almahdi, al-mah dce , or, more fully, 
Almahdi Billah, (i.e. "the director by the grace of 
God,") the third caliph of the house of Abbas, succeeded 
to the throne in 776 A.D. Died in 785. 

Almaiii, fl maN , (JACQUES,) a French theological 
writer, who was a native of Sens. Died in 1515- 

Al-Makhzoomee or Al-Makhzfimi, nl-maK-zoo - 
mee, a distinguished historian and poet of Mohammedan 
Spain, born in 1190. He passed the latter part of his 
life at the court of the Sultan of Tunis. Died in 1256. 
Al-Makkari. See MAKKAREE. 
Al-Makin. See ELMACIN. 
Al-Makreezee or -Makrizi. See MAKREEZEE. 
Al-Malek or Al-Melik. See MALIK. 
Al-Mamooii. See MAMOON. 

Al-Mansoor, Al-Mansflr, Al-Mansour, or Al- 
Mangour, al-man soor , written also Almanzor and 
Almansor, ("the Victorious,") the surname by which 
Aboo-Amir (a boo a mjr) -Mohammed, the minister 
of Hisham II., Sultan of Cordova, is generally known. 
Born near Algeziras in 939 A.D., he began his career as 
a bookseller and scribe ; but he soon found means to 
recommend himself to the notice of the sultan, and at 
length, by his talents and address, succeeded in possess 
ing himself of all the real power in the state, Hisham 
retaining only the name of sovereign. He exercised the 
power thus obtained with an ability and success which 
have scarcely a parallel in the history of Mohammedan 
Spain. He not only overran the greater part of the 
Peninsula, but also extended his sway over a considerable 
portion of Western Africa. His internal administration 
is said to have been no less distinguished for wisdom and 
justice, than was his military career for brilliant success. 
Died in 1002. 

See AL-MAKKAR.I, "History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in 
Spain," translated by GAYANGOS, 2 vols. 410, London, 1840-43 ; CONDE, 
Historia de la Dominacion de los Arabes en Espana ;" MARIANA, 
" Historia general de Espana." 

Al-Mansoor, (Aboo-Jaafar,) Caliph of Bagdad. 

Almanzor. See AL-MANSOOR. 

Almeida, al-maVcla, (MANGEL,) a Portuguese Jesuit, 
born at Viseu in 1^580. He passed ten years in Abys 
sinia, (1622-32,) and collected materials for a "History 
of Ethiopia," which was published byB. Tellez in 1660; 
it is said to be a work of decided merit. Died at Goa 
in 1646. 

Almeida, de, da al-ma^e-da, (ANTONIO,) a Portu 
guese surgeon, born in Beira about 1760. He published 
"Surgical Works," ("Obras Cirurgicas," 4 vols., 1814.) 
Died in 1822. 

Almeida, de, (BRITES, bRee tes,) a heroine who has 
been called " the Portuguese Joan of Arc," was born 
about the middle of the fourteenth century, and followed 
the business of a baker. When her native village (Al- 
jubarotta) was attacked by the Spaniards in 1386, she is 
said to have killed several soldiers with a baker s shovel, 
which was religiously preserved as a memorial by the in 
habitants of Aljubarotta through several generations. 

See " Nouvelle Biographic Generale." 

Almeida, de, (Dom FRANCISCO,) the first Portuguese 

V iceroy of India, a son of the Count of Abrantes, was 

born at Lisbon about the middle of the fifteenth cci> 

Having distinguished himself in the Moorish 

wars, he was appointed Viceroy of India in 1505, and 

the seat ot his government at Cochin. By his 

courage and prudence he greatly extended the dominion 

Portugal. When Albuquerque arrived in 1508 with 
a commission to supersede the viceroy, Almeida refused 
atfirst to resign the office, and arrested the admiral 

About the end of 1508, Almeida gained a great victory 
over the Egyptian rleet near the coast of India. "Soon 
after this victory he gave up the command to his rival, 
and embarked for Portugal in November, 1509; but 
before the end of the voyage he was killed in an af 
fray with a band of Caffres, near the Cape of Good 
Hope, in 1510. Thus obscurely perished, by the hands 
of savages, a man who had humbled the potentates of 
India and rendered his country s flag triumphant on the 
Eastern seas. 

See BARROS, "Decadas da Asia;" FARIA Y SOUZA, "Asia Por- 
tugue/.a. " 

Almeida, de, (LORENZO,) a son of the preceding, 
distinguished for the many noble qualities of his heart, 
as well as for bravery and military talents, fell in a sea- 
fight with the Egyptians near Choul, in 1508. 

See JOAO DE BARROS, " Decada quarta;" FARIA Y SOUZA, "Asia 

Almeida, de, (NICOLAO Tolentino to-len-tee no,) 
a Portuguese satirical poet, born at Lisbon in 1745. He 
published a volume of poems in 1802. It is stated that 
his superiority in satire was such that he had neither 
rivals nor imitators. Died in 1811. 

Almeida, de, (THEODORO.) See ALMEYDA. 

Almeida-Garrett, al-ma^e-dagar-rct r ,(or gjir ret,) (J. 
B. LEITAO DE,) a PortuguescT7/#cw//r, and the author of 
ametrical romance entitled "Aclozinda," (London, 1828.) 
He also wrote a "Historical Sketch of Portuguese Lite 

See LONGFELLOW S "Poets and Poetry of Europe." and an article 
"On the Poets of Portugal," in the " Foreign Quarterly Review" for 
1832, (vol. x.) 

Almela, de, da al-ma la, (DIEGO RODRIGUEZ,) a 
Spanish historical writer of the fifteenth century, was 
born in the city of Murcia. 

Almeloveen, van, vSn al meh-lo-van , (THEODORUS 
Jansson yans son,) an eminent Dutch physician and 
scholar, born at Mydrecht in 1657, was professor of 
Greek and of medicine at Harderwyk. He published 
good editions of the "Aphorisms" of Hippocrates, and 
"Celsus de Medicina," (1687,) and wrote several works, 
among which is "Theological and Philological Ame 
nities," ("Amoenitates Theologico-Philologicrc," 1694.) 
Died in 1712. 

Almeloven, al meh-lo ven, (JAN,) a Dutch painter 
and engraver, born in Holland about 1620. He left a 
number of spirited etchings of landscapes, some of 
which are after his own designs. 

Almenar, al-ina-naR , (JUAN,) a Spanish physician, 
lived about 1500, and wrote "Dc MorboGallico," (1502.) 

Almendingeii, von, fon- al men-ding en, (LUDWIG 
HARSCIIER,) a jurist, born of German parents in Paris 
in 1766. He was a judge or counsellor in the duchy 
of Nassau. He wrote several legal treatises, and co 
operated with Feuerbach in his " Bibliothek," a periodi 
cal devoted to criminal law. Died in 1827. 

Aimer, al mer, QOIIANN CHRISTIAN,) a Danish 
painter, born at Copenhagen in 1742 ; died in 1792. 

Almeras, il ma ras , (Louis,) an able French gene 
ral, born at Vienne in 1768. He served on the staff of 
Kleber in Egypt, and distinguished himself at Heliopo- 
lis. Having obtained the rank of general, he joined the 
grand army in 1809, and was wounded at Wagram. 
For his conduct at the battle of the Moskwa, in 1812, 
he was made lieutenant-general. He was taken prisoner 
in the retreat from Russia. He was appointed com 
mandant of Bordeaux in 1813. Died in 1823. 


Almeyda, de, da al-ma/e-da, (FERNANDO,) a Portu 
guese sacred poet, born at~Xlberca in 1459. 

See LONGFELLOW S " Poets and Poetry of Europe." 

Almeyda, de, (FRANCISCO,) a Portuguese theologian, 
born at Lisbon in 1701; died after 1750. 

Almeyda or Almeida, de, da al-ma^e-da, (TiiEo- 
DORO,) a Portuguese priest and writer, borrTat Lisbon in 
1722. He promoted the study of philosophy on rational 
principles in Portugal, and wrote many wotxs, of which 
the most remarkable is "Philosophical Recreation," 
("Recreacao Filosofica," 5 vols., 1751.) Died in 1804. 

Almici, al-mee chcc, (CAMILLO,) a learned Italian 
priest and writer, born at Brescia in 1714 ; died in 1779. 

a, e, i, o, u, y, long;, a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, il, y, short; a, e, i, o, obsctire; far, fail, fat; met; not; good; moo: 





Almodovar, al-mo-do vau, (Don ILDEFONSO Bias 
de Ribera cle as di re-Ba ra,) COUNT OF, a Spanish 
diplomatist and writer of considerable merit. He was 
successively ambassador to Russia and England, and 
returned to Spain in 1779. His chief work is a free 
translation of Raynal s " History of the East and West 
Indies," (1784-90,) in which he made such changes as 
enabled it to pass the Spanish censorship. Died in 

See COXE, "Memoirs of the Kings of Spain." 

Almohades, al mo-hadz ; singular, Almohade, aK- 
mo-had, [Fr. pron. f 1 mo id ; Ger. ALMOHADKN, 
mo-ha den ; Lat. ALMO HAD/E from the Arabic 
MOWAHIDOON, (ALMUWAHioCN,) signifying "worship 
pers of ONE God,"] the name of a celebrated Moham 
medan dynasty which succeeded in Northern Africa and 
Spain to the power of the Almoravides. Its founder was 
ABOO-ABDILLAH-MOHAMMED, (which see,) a religious 
reformer, who took the surname of AL-MAHDEE, (AL- 
MAHBI,) " the director." His followers called themselves 
Al-Mowahidoon, that is, "worshippers of the ONE true 
God" as revealed by Mohammed, and accused the Almo 
ravides of having departed from the original purity of 
the Moslem faith and of having relapsed into a condi 
tion little better than polytheism or paganism. The power 
of the Almohades lasted from about 1 145 until 1269, when 
it was subverted by the Benee Mcreen, (Beni Merin.) 
The Almohade dynasty is sometimes called that of 
Abd-el-Moomen, (or Abd-ul-Mumen,) because he was 
the first of the Al-Mowahidoon who took the name of 

See AL-MAKKARI S " Mohammedan Dynasties of Spain," trans 

lated by GAYANGOS, London, 
of the Berbers." 

1840-43; IUN-KHALDOON, "History 

Almon, al mon, (JOHN,) an English political writer, 
born at Liverpool about 1738, was a political friend of 
John Wilkcs. He became a prominent publisher of 
pamphlets for the opposition party about 1763. Some 
of these pamphlets were of his own composition. He 
also published "Anecdotes of Lord Chatham, with his 
Speeches from 1736 to 1778," (1792,) and " Biographical, 
Literary, and Political Anecdotes," (3 vols., 1797.) Died 
in 1805. 

See "Gentleman s Magazine," December, 1805. 

Almonacid, de, di al-mo-na-theo , (SEBASTIAN,) a 
Spanish sculptor, who flourished in the beginning of the 
sixteenth century. 

Almonde, van, vtn al-mon deh, (PniLiPPUS,) writ 
ten also Allemonda, a Dutch admiral, born at Briel in 
1646. He distinguished himself as captain in the battle 
against the English in Solcbay, 1672. On the death of 
DC Ruyter, 1676, he obtained command of the fleet, and 
in the following year shared in Tromp s victory over the 
Swedes. He accompanied William of Orange in his 
expedition to England in 1688, and commanded the 
Dutch fleet at La liogue, (1692,) where the French were 
signally defeated. Almonde and Sir George Rooke 
commanded the allies at the destruction of a Spanish 
fleet in the Bay of Vigo in 1702. Died in 1711. 

Sec VAN DKR A/\, " Biogrnphisch Woordenbock der Nederlanden." 

Almonte, al-mon ti, (JUAN N.,) a Mexican general, 
born about the beginning of the nineteenth century, 
served under Santa Anna in Texas in 1836, and was 
sent as ambassador to the United States soon after 1840. 
He took part in the battles of Buena Vista and Cerro 
Gordo in 1847. In 1862 he was appointed dictator by a 
party of Mexicans opposed to Juarez, but he was de 
prived of power by the French general Forey in Sep 
tember of that year. Died in 1869. 

Al-Moohtadee or Al-Muhtadi Billah, al-mooh - 
ta-dcc bil lah, a caliph of the house of Abbas. Born in 
838 A.D., he ascended the throne in 869, and was killed, 
after a reign of eleven months, by the rebellious Turkish 

Al-Mooktadee or Al-Muktadi, al-mook ta-dee , 
a caliph of the house of Abbas, began to reign at Bagdad 
in 1075, and died in 1094. 

Al-JVTooktader, (-Muktader,) al-mook ta-der, or 
Almdbk tader Bil lah, a caliph of the house of 
Abbas, ascended the throne in 908, and, after a troubled 

and inglorious reign, was killed in battle by his rebel 
lious subjects in 931 A.D. 

Al-Mooktafee or Al-Muktafi, al-mdok ta-fee , ;, 
caliph of the house of Abbas, who began to reign in 
902 A. n., at the age of twenty years, and died in 908. 

Al-Mooktafee or Al-Muktafi was also the name 
of another Abbasside caliph, who ascended the throne ii. 
1136. Died in 1160. 

Al-Moontaser, Al-Muntaser, or Al-Muntasir. 
al-moon tas-ser, the eleventh caliph of the line of Abbas, 

succeeded to the throne by parricide in 862 A.D., and 
died after a reign of six months. 

Al-Mootassem. See MOTASSEM. 

Al-Mootenabbee or Al-Mutenabbi, ai-moo teh- 
nab bec, or El-Motenebbi, el-mo teh-neb bee, one of 
the most distinguished of the Arabian poets, born at 
Koofah (Kufah) in the early part of the tenth century. 
He was killed, while on a journey, by a party of hostile 
Arabs, in 965 A.D. 
Almoravides, dl-mo ra-vidz; singular, Almoravide, 

al-mo ra-vid, [Fr. pron. Srmo rS ved ; Ger. ALMORA- 
VIDEN, al-mo-ra-vee den ; Lat. ALMORAV ID/E a Eu 
ropean corruption of the Arabic term Almorabitoon, (or 
Almorabitun,) in the oblique cases Almorabiteen, (Al- 
morabitin,) an Arabic term signifying "those bound" or 
" devoted" to the service of God,J the name of a Moslem 
dynasty which arose in Northern Africa about the mid 
dle of the eleventh century. It was founded by ABDAL- 
LAH-IBN-YASEEN, (which see,) a religious leader, one 
of whose generals, Yoosuf-Ibn-Tashefeen, conquered a 
large part of Spain and established a dynasty which 
lasted about one hundred years. The last sultan of this 
line, Tashefeen-Ibn-Alee, was deprived of his throne and 
life by the victorious Almohades in 1145. 

See IBN-KHAI.DOON-, " History of the Berbers," (in manuscript,) 
and AL-MAKKARI, " History of the Mohammedan Dynasties in 
Spain," translated by GAYANGOS, London, 1840-43. 

Almosnino, iil-mos-nee no, (MosES,) a learned Jew 
ish rabbi and writer, born at Salonikiin 1523 ; died near 
the close of the sixteenth century. 

Al-Motassem. See MOTASSEM. 

Al-Moteuebbi. See AL-MOOTENABBEE. 

Almquist, alm kwist, (KARL JONAS LUDWIG,) a 
Swedish poet and novelist of the romantic school, was 
born in 1 793. He published several novels, one of which 
is entitled "Amorina," a number of elementary works 
on history, mathematics, etc., and a collection of poems 
entitled "Book of Thorn-Roses," (i.e. "sweet-briers;" 
in Swedish, " Tornrosens Bok.") Died in 1844. 

SeeFAHLKRAXTZ, "C. J. L. Almquist sasom Forfattarei Allmrinhet 

h sasom Theolog i synnerhet skarSkadad," 2 vols., 1845. 

Al-Muhtadi. Sec AL-MOOHTADEE. 

Al-Muktader. See AL-MOOKTADER. 

Al-Muktadi. See AL-MOOKTADEE. 

Al-Muktafi. See AL-MOOKTAFEE. 

Al-Muntaser. See AL-MOONTASER. 

Al-Mutassem. See MOTASSEM. 

Al-Muteiiabbi. See AL-MOOTENABBEE. 

Almy, al me, (WILLIAM,) an American philanthro 
pist, member of the Society of Friends, born in 1761. 
He amassed a large fortune, which he employed in pro 
moting objects of benevolence. Among other things, 
he liberally endowed the Friends Boarding-School at 
Providence, Rhode Island. Died in 1836. 

Alnaiider, al-nan der, (OLAF JOHAN,) a Swedish an 
tiquary, born at Norrkjoping, lived about 1510. 

Al-Nassir or Al-Nasir, (An-Nasir.) See ABD-ER- 

Aloisi or Alloisi, (BALDASSARE.) See GALANINO. 

Aloisio, a-lo-ee sc-o, (GIAN-FRANCESCO,) an Italian 
poet, born near Naples, was accused of heresy, for which 
he was put to death in 1564. 

Aloja, a-lo yS, (GiusEi-i-E,) a Neapolitan engraver, 
lived about 1750. 

Alompra, a-lom pra, the founder of the present dy 
nasty of Burmah, was born about 1710. He was the 
chief of the town of Monchaboo, when the King of Pegu 
conquered Burmah, in 1752. Having raised the standard 
>f revolt, in 1753, he defeated the Pegtians in several 
Battles, and made himself master of all Burmah. He 
took the King of Pegu prisoner in his own capital in 

e as k; c as .r; g hard; g as/; c, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (^=See Explanations, p. 23. ) 



1757. Alompra was faithless and cruel, but possessed 
superior civil and military talents. Died in 1760. 

See DALRYMPLE, "Oriental Repertory;" CRAWFURD, "Journal 
of an Embassy to Siam," etc. ; SYMES, "Account of an Embassy to 
the Kingdom of Ava in the year 1795." 

Alouso or Alonzo, (of Spain.) See ALFONSO. 

Alonso de los Rios, a-lon so cli 16s rec 6s, (PEDRO,) 
a Spanish sculptor, born at Valladolid in 1650, worked 
at Madrid. Died in 1700. His father, Francisco, was 
also an able sculptor. 

Alonzo. See ALFONSO. 

Alopa, d , da-lo pa, (LoRF.NZO,) a learned printer, 
born at Venice, published at Florence, about 1475-1500, 
accurate editions of several Greek works, in elegant 

AlopEeus, a-lo-pa iis, (DAVID,) brother of Maxim, 
noticed below, born at Viborg in 1769, was sent by the 
emperor Alexander I. as minister to Sweden in 1809. 
After the peace of 1815 he was minister from Russia to 
the court of Berlin, where he died in 1831. 

Alopaeus, (MAXIM MAXIMOVITCH,) a Russian diplo 
matist, born at Viborg, in Finland, in 1748. lie was 
appointed by Catherine II., in 1790, minister plenipo 
tentiary to the court of Prussia. Died in 1822. 

Alos, a/l6s, (JuAN,) a Spanish medical writer, be 
came professor of anatomy at Barcelona in 1664. 

Aloysius, a-lo-ish e^us, an architect who flourished 
at Rome in the time of Theodoric the Great. 

Alpago, al-pa go, [Lat. ALPA GUS,] (ANDREA,) an 
Italian physician, native of Belluno, lived about the 
close of the fifteenth century. 

Alp-Arslan, alp-ars-lan , (the "strong lion,") written 
also Alp-Arselan, a celebrated Seljook sultan, born 
in Toorkistan in 1030, succeeded to the throne in 1063. 
In 1071 he defeated and took prisoner Romanus Dioge 
nes, the Byzantian emperor, who is said to have com 
manded, in this battle, three hundred thousand men. 
He treated his imperial captive with great generosity 
and kindness. Alp-Arslan was assassinated in 1072. 
His person was remarkable for beauty, grace, and 
strength, and his character appears to have been almost 
without a stain. His minister, Nizam-ul-Mulk, (ne- 
zSm-ool-moolk,) shared the glory of his sovereign. 
" Under his wise direction," says Sir John Malcolm, 
" the territories of Alp-Arslan attained the highest pros 
perity. Justice was well administered ; colleges and 
mosques were erected in every city ; learning was en 
couraged ; the poor were protected ; and the inhabitants 
of Persia confessed that the conquest of their country 
by the savage Tartars, which they had dreaded as the 
worst of evils, had proved the greatest of blessings." 

See MALCOLM, " History of Persia," vol. i. chap. viii. ; VON 
HAMMER, " Geschichte des Osmanischen Reichs ;" D HERBELOT, 
" Bibliotheque Orientals ;" GIBBON, " Decline and Fall of the Roman 

Al-pha nus or Alfani, al-fa nee, (FRANCESCO,) an 
Italian medical writer of Salerno, lived between 1550 
and 1600. 

Alphee. See ALPHEUS. 

Alphege. See ELPHF.GE. 

Alphen, van, vSn al fen, (DANIEL,) a Dutch jurist, 
born in 1713, was professor of law at Leydcn. Died in 

Alphen, van, (HlERONYMUS,) a popular Dutch poet, 
born at Gouda in 1746, became procurator-general at 
the court of Utrecht, and treasurer-general of the Union. 
He published " Poems and Meditations," (1777,) " Dutch 
Songs," ("Gezangen," 1779,) and "Short Poems for 
Children," (1781,) which are remarkable for simple 
grace and beauty. His imaginative poem of " The 
Starry Heavens" ("Dc Starrenhemel," 1783) is one of 
his finest productions. Died at the Hague in 1803. 

See K AM PEN, " Geschiedenis der Letteren en Wetenschappen in 
de Nederlanden ;" JORISSEN, " Erinnerung an H. van Alphen," 1804. 

Alphen, van, (HIERONYMUS SIMON,) a distin 
guished theologian, an ancestor of the preceding, was 
born at New Hanau in 1665. He became professor of 
theology at Utrecht in 1715, and acquired a high repu 
tation as a teacher. He wrote commentaries on the 
epistles of Paul (1742) and on other books of Scripture. 
Died in 1742. 

HlERONYMUS VAN ALPHEN, (1700-58,) son of the pre 
ceding, was professor of theology at Utrecht, and grand 
father of the poet Van Alphen. 

Alphery, al fa-re, (NlCEPHORUS,) a Russian, who 
emigrated to England and became a parson of the An 
glican Church, lie died at an advanced age in the latter 
part of the seventeenth century. 

Al-phe us or Al-phei us, [Gr. AA^sof or \A(J>EIO<: ; 
Fr. ALPHEE, STfa ,1 a river-god of classic mythology, 
was a son of Oceanus. The poets fabled that he loved 
the nymph Arethusa, who fled from him to the island 
of Ortygia and was metamorphosed into a fountain, 
and that Alpheus followed her through the sea and was 
thus united to that fountain. 

Alpheus, a Greek poet, native of Mitylene, supposed 
to have lived in the time of Augustus Caesar. He was 
distinguished as a writer of epigrams. 

Alpheus, a Greek engraver of gems, lived in the first 
century of our era. 

Alphonse. See ALFONSO. 

Alphoiiso. See ALFONSO. 

Alphonso (or Alfonso) Tostado. See ALPHON- 


Al-phon sus Ab-ti-len sis, (i.e. "Alphonso of 
Avila,") or Alfonso Tostado, al-fon so tos-ta i>o, an 
eminent Spanish theologian, born in New Castile about 
1400, became Bishop of Avila. Died in 1445, leaving 
many works, among which arc "Commentaries on the 
Scriptures," (13 vols., 1508.) 

Alphonsus a Saucta Maria. See ALFONSO OF 

Alphonsus Palentinus. See ALFONSO DE PALEN- 

Alpin. See ALPINUS. 

Al-pi nus, written also Alpin, (PROSPER,) [It. PROS- 
PERO ALPINI, pRo s pa-ro al-pee nce,] an eminent Italian 
botanist and physician, born at Marostica, in the re 
public of Venice, in 1553. He passed some years in 
Egypt, and after his return published, in Latin, a work 
"On the Plants of Egypt," (1591.) He also published 
a treatise " On the Egyptian Practice of Medicine," 
(" De Medicina /Egyptiorum," 1591.) In 1593 he became 
professor of botany at Padua. He was the first Euro 
pean who published an account of the coffee-plant, and 
he enriched the science of botany with many new facts. 
He died in 1617, leaving in manuscript a valuable work 
"On Exotic Plants," (""De Plantis Exoticis," 1628.) 

See TOMASINI, " Elogia Virorum Illustrium ;" HALLER, "Biblio- 
theca Botanica." 

Alptageen or Alpteghin, alp ta-gcen , a Turkish 
slave, regarded as the founder of the Gaznevide dynasty 
in Eastern Persia, (in what is now called Afghanistan.) 
Died in 976 A.D. His son-in-law Sabuktageen (or Sebek- 
tagin) was the father of the famous Mahmood of Gazna. 

Alquie, d , dtl ke-a , (FRANC.OIS SAVINIEN,) a French 
author of the seventeenth century, wrote, besides other 
works, "The Delights of France," ("Lcs Delices de la 
France," 1670.) 

Alquier, tl ke-a , (CHARLES JEAN MARIE,) a French 
diplomatist, noted for his tact and amenity, born in La 
Vendee in 1752. From 1798 to 1813 he was appointed 
successively ambassador to Bavaria, Madrid, Florence, 
Naples, Rome, Stockholm, and Copenhagen. In 1816 
he was banished from France, on the ground of his 
having, when in the National Convention, voted for 
the death of Louis XVI. He was, however, recalled in 
1818, and died in 1826. 

Als, Sis or Slss, (PETER, or PEDER,) a Danish painter 
of history and portraits, born at Copenhagen in 1725; 
died in 1775. 

Alsace, d , clSl sfs , (THOMAS Lours,) CARDINAL, 
called also Alsace de Bossu, Sl sts deh bo sii , 
(THOMAS PHILIPPE DK Hennin or Henin ha nax ,) 
was born at Brussels in 1680. He was descended from 
the counts of Flanders and from the counts of Bossu. 
In 1714 he was appointed by the Emperor of Germany 
Archbishop of Malines (Mechlin) and. Primate of the 
Austrian Netherlands. In 1719 he was raised to tne 
dignity of cardinal. Died in 1759. 

Al-Saffah or As-Seflah. See ABOO-L-ABBAS-AB- 




Alsario della Croce, al-sa re-o del la kRo cha, [Lat. 
ALSA RILS,] a learned physician and writer, born at 
Genoa about 1576. He gave lectures on medicine in 
Rome for twenty years or more, and was physician to 
Pope Gregory XV. Died after 1631. 

Al-Sheik, al-shak or al-sha ik, (MosES,) a Jewish 
rabbi, born at Sapheth, in Galilee, was celebrated as an 
interpreter of the Scriptures, on which he wrote many 
commentaries. Died about 1595. 

Alsloot, van, vtn als-lot , (DANIEL,) a Flemish land 
scape-painter, who was born at Brussels about 1550, and 
died in the early part of the seventeenth century. 

Alsop, aul sop, (ANTONY,) an English divine and 
eminent classical scholar, who graduated at Cambridge 
in 1696, and became a prebendary of Winchester. He 
published a " Selection of the Fables of /Esop," in Latin 
verse, ("/Esopicarum Fabularum Delectus," 1698.) He 
also wrote Latin odes with facility. Died in 1727. 

Alsop, aul sop, (RICHARD,) an American poet and 
journalist, born at Middletown, Connecticut, in 1761. 
With Theodore Dwight, Hopkins, Trumbull, and others, 
called the "Hartford W 7 its," he issued, in 1791, the first 
number of the " Echo," a satirical journal, directed chiefly 
against the Democratic party. In 1800 he published a 
Monody on the Death of Washington. He translated 
"The Enchanted Lake of the Fairy Morgana," from 
Berni s "Orlando Innamorato ;" and Molina s "Geo 
graphical, Natural, and Civil History of Chili." Died 
in 1815. 

See GRISWOI.D, " Poets and Poetry of America." 

Alsop, (Rev. VINCENT,) an English nonconformist 
divine, who became minister of a Presbyterian congre 
gation in Westminster. He gained distinction by his 
strictures on Sherlock s work "On the Knowledge of 
Christ," and his reply to a sermon by Stillingfleet against 
nonconformists. Died at an advanced age in 1703. 

See NICHOLS, "Literary Anecdotes." 

Alsted, al stet, [Lat. ALSTE DIUS,] (JOHANN HEIN- 
RICH,) a voluminous German writer on theology and 
history, born near Herborn, in Nassau, in 1588. His 
works, which were all written in Latin, were once highly 
esteemed. Died in 1638. 

Alston, auls ton, (CHARLES,) an eminent Scottish 
botanist and physician, born at Eddlewood in 1683. He 
began to read lectures on botany anc] materia medica at 
Edinburgh soon after 1720, and was appointed professor 
of the same in the university of that city about 1740. 
His principal work is a manual of botany, entitled "Tiro 
cinium Botanicon Edinburgense," (1753,) in which he 
defended the system of Tournefort and wrote against 
that of Linnaeus. Died in 1760. His lectures on Ma 
teria Medica (2 vols., 1770) are highly commended. 

See CHAMBKRS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 


Alston, auls ton, ( WILLIS,) a native of Halifax county, 
North Carolina, was a representative in Congress from 
that Slate from 1799 to 1815, and from 1825 to 1831. 
During the war of 1812 he was chairman of the Com 
mittee of Ways and Means, the most honourable and at 
the same time the most arduous and responsible posi 
tion, after the speakership, in the National House of 
Representatives. Died in 1837. 

Alstorph, als torf, (JAN,) a Dutch antiquary, born at 
Groningcn about 1680; died in 1719. 

Alstromer or Alstroemer, al stRo-mer, (almost al - 
stRum-er,) ( JONAS,) a distinguished Swede, born at Al 
ingsas, in 1685, of poor and obscure parents. lie went 
to seek his fortune, first to Stockholm and afterwards to 
London, where he set up as ship-broker, in which busi 
ness he appears to have been very successful. Although 
he became an English citi/en, he still retained the warm 
est attachment to his native country, to which he returned 
about 1724. His earnest and untiring efforts were sub 
sequently directed towards the improvement of Swedish 
commerce and manufactures, by which he merited and 
obtained the esteem and gratitude of his countrymen, 
who conferred upon him many honours. He was made, 
n 1739, a member of the Council of Commerce, and was 
afterwards ennobled. Died in 1761. 

See KRYGER, "Aminnelse-Tal bfver J. Alstromer." 

as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; t-h as in t/tis. 

Alstromer or Alstroemer, (KLAUDIUS or KLAS,) a 
Swedish naturalist, born at Alingsas in 1736, was a son 
of Jonas Alstromer, mentioned above. He studied 
natural history under Linnasus, and travelled in Spain 
to obtain information respecting sheep and other sub 
jects. A journal which he wrote during this tour was 
accidentally destroyed by fire. He published a " Dis 
course on the Breeding of Fine-Woolled Sheep," (1770,) 
which is highly praised. Died in 1796. 

SeeDuBB, "Aminnelse-Tal bfver Clas Alstrbmer," 1796. 

Alt, alt, (FRANZ JOSEPH NICOLAUS,) a Swiss historian, 
born at Freiburg in 1689, bore the title of baron. He 
wrote in French (of which he was not a perfect master) 
a "History of Switzerland," (10 vols., 1749-52,) a work 
of much research, but defective in style and criticism. 
Died in 1770. 

Altani, al-ta nee, (ANTONIO,) Bishop of Urbino, an 
eminent Italian ecclesiastic of the fifteenth century. Died 
in 1450. 

Altani, (ANTONIO,) an Italian poet, born in Friuli 
about 1510, was of the same family as the preceding. 
He left in manuscript a great number of sonnets, can- 
zoni, and epigrams, the most of which are lost. Died 
about 1570. 

Altani, (ENRICO,) an Italian dramatic poet, who 
flourished in the first half of the seventeenth century. 
Among his productions is "L Americo," a tragedy. His 
works are commended by several Italian critics. Died at 
an advanced age in 1648. 

Altaroche, il ti rosh , (MARIE MICHEL,) a success 
ful and witty French writer and journalist, born at Is- 
soire (Puy-de-D6me) in 1811. He was chief editor of 
the " Charivari" from 1834 to 1848, and sustained during 
that period an exuberant flow of ready wit, raillery, and 
satire. He published a volume of political songs, (1835,) 
two historical studies entitled the " Reformation," and 
the "Revolution," (1841,) and other works, which favour 
democracy. He was elected to the Constituent Assem 
bly in 1848. 

Altdorfer, alt doR fer, written also Altorfer, (AL- 
BRECIIT,) a celebrated German painter and engraver, 
born at Altdorf, in Bavaria, in 1488. There is a doubt 
ful tradition that he was a pupil of Albert Diirer. He 
worked chiefly in Regensburg, (or Ratisbon,) and is called 
by the French "Le Petit Albert," either in contradistinc 
tion to Albert Diirer or because he seldom painted other 
than small figures. Among his works is a remarkable 
picture of the victory of Alexander at Arbela, which 
contains a great number of figures. The details of cos 
tume and accessories are very minutely represented. His 
engravings on copper and wood are more numerous than 
his paintings. Died in 1538. 

See STRUTT, "Dictionary of Engravers." 

Alteii, al ten, (KARL,) the youngest son of Baron Al- 
ten, was born in Hanover in 1/64. He entered the Eng 
lish army in 1803, became a major-general in 1812, and 
commanded with great credit the third division of Wel 
lington s army at the battle of Waterloo, in which he 
was wounded. He was soon after created a count. 
Died in 1840. 

Altensteig or Altenstaig, al ten-stlo , (JOHANN or 
JOHANNES,) a Roman Catholic theologian, a native of 
Germany, flourished in the first half of the sixteenth 

Altenstein, al ten-stln, (KARL,) BARON, a Prussian 
minister of public instruction, born at Anspach in 1770. 
In 1815 he undertook the recovery of the works of art 
and literary treasures which the French had removed 
from Germany to Paris. For the successful accomplish 
ment of this arduous task, all Germany owes him a debt 
of gratitude. He became minister of public instruc 
tion and worship in 1817, and made important changes 
during the long period of his administration. Died in 

Alter, al ter, (FRANZ CARL,) a German Jesuit and 
eminent classical scholar, born in Silesia in 1749; died 
in 1804. He published editions of Homer s "Iliad," 
Lucretius, and other Greek and Latin works. 

Althaea, al-thce a, [Gr. \XOala ; Fr. ALTHEE, tl ta ,] 
in the Greek mythology, was the wife of CEneus, King 

Explanations, p. 23.) 


of Caltflon, and the mother of Meleager. (See MELEA- 
GER ) 

Altliammer, alt ham mer, or Althamer, (ANDREAS,) 
a distinguished German divine, born at Brenz, in Sua- 
bia, in 1498. He embraced the principles of Luther in 
1520, and became, by his learning, energy, and wisdom, 
one of the chief pillars of the Reformation. Died in 
1564. His best-known work is his "Diallage," (i.e. 
"Reconciliation," 1528,) in which he attempts to explain 
and reconcile those passages of Scripture which at first 
sight appear to be contradictory. 

Althen, Sl tSx , (HAN, e-han , or JEAN,) a native of 
Persia, who became a benefactor to France by the in 
troduction of madder, was born in 1711. His father was 
the governor of a province. He was made captive in his 
youth by some Arabs, and sold as a slave at Smyrna, 
whence he escaped to Marseilles. He carried thither 
some seeds of the madder, the exportation of which was 
forbidden under penalty of death. Having the advan 
tage of a handsome person, he married a rich heiress of 
Marseilles, and was thus placed in a situation to pursue 
at leisure his plans for the culture of madder in France. 
He had observed that the soil and climate of the Comptat- 
Venaissin were similar to those of Smyrna and Anatolia, 
which were most favourable to the cultivation of madder. 
His experiments in this part of France were crowned 
with complete success, and the culture of madder has 
since become extensive arjd very profitable. Diedin 1774. 

See A. RASTOUL, " Vie de J, Althen," in " Portraits et Histoire des 
Homines utiles." 

Althof, alt hof, (Luowio CHRISTOPH,) a German 
physician and medical writer, born at Detmold in 1758; 
died in 1832. 

Althorp, al thorp, (Lord JOHN CHARLES SPENCER,) 
Earl Spencer, a liberal English statesman, the son of 
George John, Earl Spencer, was born in May, 1782. He 
was elected to Parliament for Oakhampton in 1804, and 
was a junior lord of the treasury under the ministry of 
Fox and Grenville, 1806-7. He represented Northamp 
tonshire in the House of Commons from 1806 until 1834. 
By his good sense, prudence, probity, and other moral 
qualities, he acquired great influence, and was commonly 
called "honest Lord Althorp." In 1830 he became 
chancellor of the exchequer in the Whig ministry. He 
inherited the title of Earl Spencer at the death of his 
father in 1834, and resigned office in the same year. His 
favourite pursuit was agriculture, to the improvement 
of which he probably contributed more than any other 
English nobleman of his time. Died in 1845. 

See "Gentleman s Magazine" for November, 1845. 

Althusen, alt hu sen, [Lat. ALTHU SIUS,] QOHANN,) 
a Dutch jurist, born probably at Emden about 1556, 
became professor of law at Herborn in 1590, and syndic 
at Bremen. He was an enlightened friend of liberty, 
and advocated the doctrine that supreme power is the 
right of the people. He published a " System of Roman 
Law," (1586,) and other works. Died about 1638. 

See BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary." 

Alticherio, al-te-ka re-o, or Aldigieri, al-de-ja ree, 
(DA ZEVIO dad-za ve-o,) a distinguished Veronese 
painter, who flourished in the latter half of the four 
teenth century. 

Alticozzi, al-te-kot see, (LORENZO,) an Italian Jesuit 
and theological writer, born at Cortona in 1689. His 
chief work is " Summa Augustiniana," (6 vols., 1744-61.) 
Died in 1777. 

Altieri. See CLEMENT X. 

Altilio, al-tee le-o, [Lat. ALTIL IUS,] (GABRIELLO,) an 
Italian poet and ecclesiastic, born about 1440. He lived 
mostly at Naples. He is known as the author of some 
short Latin poems of great merit, among which is an 
Epithalamium on the marriage of Galeazzo Sforza, Duke 
of Milan. Died about 1500. 

Alting, al ting, [Lat. ALTIN GIUS,] (HEINRICH,) a 
Calvinistic theological writer and professor, born at 
Emden in 1583. He was preceptor of Frederick, King 
of Bohemia, professor of theology at Heidelberg, and 
subsequently at Groningen, 1627-44. Died in 1644. 

. , See . ".Encyclopaedia Britannica," and BAYI.E, " Historical and Crit 
ical Dictionary. 

Alting, (JACOB,) a distinguished biblical scholar, son 
of the preceding, was born at Heidelberg in 1618. In 
1642 he was appointed professor of Hebrew and the 
Oriental languages at Groningen. He wrote several 
valuable exegetical and philological works, among which 
was a Syro-Chaldaic grammar. Died in 1679. 

See B. BECKER, "Vita J. Altingii," prefixed to his " Opera Oin- 
nia. " 

Alting, (MENSO,) a zealous Calvinistic preacher and 
controversialist, born in Drenthe, a district of Holland, 
in 1541, was the father of Heinrich, above noticed. He 
was minister at Emden, and leader of his party in a con 
test against the Lutherans. Died in 1612. 

Alting, (MENSO,) a grandson of the preceding, was 
born in 1636. He became burgomaster of Groningen, 
and published a valuable work, entitled a "Description 
of Lower Germany," ("Notitia Germanise Inferioris," 
1697.) Died in 1712. 

See UBBO EMMIUS, "M. Altingii Vita," 1717. 

Altissimo, al-tes se-mo, (i.e. "most sublime,") the 
surname of a famous Italian poet and improvisatore 
who lived in the beginning of the sixteenth century. His 
true name is believed to have been CRISTOKORO Fio- 
RENTINO, (kris-tof o-ro fe-o ren-tee no.) His best work 
is an Italian metrical version of the first book of the 
prose romance entitled " Reali di Francia." 

Altissimo, dell , del-lal-tes se-mo, (CRISTOKANO,) an 
eminent Florentine portrait-painter of the sixteenth cen 

Altmann, alt man, (JOHANN GEORG,) a Swiss theo 
logian, born at Zofingen in 1697, was professor of moral 
philosophy and Greek at Berne. He published, be 
sides other works, "Critical Observations on the New 
Testament," (3 vols., 1737,) and was one of the two 
editors of the "Tempe Helvetica," (6 vols., i7;s-47.) 

T^ 1 1 rt J J 

Died m 1758. 

See ERSCH und CRUDER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 
Altmish, tlt mish, surnamed SHEMS (or SHUMS) 
OOD-DEEN shems or shiinis ood-decn , (the "sun of re 
ligion,") a young man of Tartar descent, who, from the 
condition of a slave, became Sultan of Delhi in 1210 A.n. 
He died in 1236. He was an able ruler, and was the 
father of Ruzeea Begum and Mahmood Nasir ood-Dcen. 

See FERISHTA S "History of the Mahomedan Power in India," 
translated by BRIGGS, vol. i. 

Altobello, al-to-bel lo, (FRANCESCO ANTONIO,) a 
Neapolitan historical painter of the seventeenth century, 
was born at Bitonto. He worked at Naples, and ex 
celled in invention and composition. 

Altomare, al-to-ma ra, (DoN.vro ANTONIO,) [often 
called in Latin DONA TUS \r, ALTOMA RI,] an eminent 
Neapolitan physician and medical writer. Having been 
driven from Naples by persecution, he was restored by 
the mediation of Pope Paul IV. His chief work, "Ars Me- 
dica," (1553,) has been often reprinted. Died about 1566. 

Altomonte, al-to-mon ti, (MARTIXO,) an Italian 
painter, born at Naples in 1657. He worked many 
years in Vienna with success, and painted portraits of 
the Austrian emperors. Died in 1745. 

Alton, al ton, (RICHARD,) COUNT OF, a general in 
the Austrian service, born in Ireland in 1732, command 
ed in the Low Countries at the beginning of the insur 
rection in 1789. He was forced to evacuate Brussels, 
and died during his retreat towards Vienna in 1790. 

His younger brother, EDWARD, Count of Alton, served 
with distinction against the Turks and French. He fell 
at the siege of Dunkirk in August, 1793. 

Alton, d , dal ton, (JOHANN SAMUEL EDUARD,) a 
physician, born at Saint Goar in 1803. He became pro 
fessor of anatomy at Halle in 1834, and published a 
"Manual of Comparative Anatomy of Man," (1850.) 

Alton, d , (JOSEPH WILHELM EDUARD,) a German 
naturalist and antiquary, the father of the preceding, 
was born at Aquilcja in 1772. He studied natural his 
tory and the fine arts, and travelled in France, England, 
Spain, etc. He published a "Natural History of the 
Horse," (1810,) and a " Comparative Osteology, " (1821- 
28.) About 1821 he was appointed professor of archae 
ology and the history of art in the University of Bonn, 
where he remained until his death in 1840. 

a, e, T, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon; 




Aitoii-Shee, d , dil tox shi , (EDMOND,) COMTE, a 
French democrat, born in 1810. lie was an active pro 
moter of the revolution of February, 1848, advocated a 
socialist regime, and acted with Ledru-Rollin. 

Altorfer. Sec ALTDORFER. 

Altoviti, al-to-vee tee, (ANTONIO,) born in 1521, at 
Florence, was made archbishop of that city in 1548; 
died in 1573. 

Altovitis, al to ve tess , orAltouvitis, f 1 too ve tess , 
MADEMOISELLE, a poetess, born at Marseilles in 1550. 
Died in 1606. 

Altringer. See ALDRINGER. 

Altschul, alt shool, (ELIAS,) a German homccopathic 
physician, born at Prague in 1812. He published a 
" Dictionary of Ocular Medicine," (2 vols., 1836.) 

Altzenbach, alt sen-baK. , (WILHELM,) the name of 
two German engravers (father and son) of the sev 
enteenth century. They worked in Paris and Stras- 

Alurino, a-loon no, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian gram 
marian and calligraphist of the sixteenth century, was 
born at Ferrara. lie is known as the author of two 
works on the Italian language, which were often re 
printed, viz. : " Riches of the Italian Language," (1543,) 
and a Vocabulary containing the words in Dante, Pe 
trarch, Boccaccio, and others, (1548.) Died in 1556. 

Alunno, (NlCCOLO,) an Italian painter of Foligno, 
flourished from 1450 to 1500, painted in water-colours, 
and was an artist of great merit for his time. He was 
one of those who contributed to the progress of art by 
the freedom of his style. Among his works is a " Na 
tivity of Christ." 

See VASARI, "Lives of the Painters." 

Alured. See ALFRED. 

Alva, al va, or Al ba, [Sp. pron. al va,] (FERNANDO 
ALVAREZ DE TOLEDO,) [Sp. pron. feR-nan do al va- 
reth da to-la Do,] DUKE OF, [Fr. Due D ALKE, diik 
dtlb,] a celebrated Spanish general under the emperor 
Charles V. and Philip II., King of Spain, was born in 
1508, of a noble and ancient Castilian family. At an 
early age he entered the army of Charles V., whom he 
afterwards accompanied in most of his campaigns. In 
1556-7 he successfully defended Naples against the 
allied French and Papal armies, and acquired a high 
reputation as a prudent and able general. , He was sent 
by Philip II., in 1567, to quell the insurrection which 
had broken out among the Protestants of the Low 
Countries. But, although in this war he displayed great 
abilities as a general, the rigour of his administration, 
and the extreme cruelty with which he treated the avowed 
or suspected heretics who fell into his hands, doubtless 
contributed more than any other cause towards the final 
separation of those provinces from the Spanish crown. 
Alva was recalled to Madrid in 1573. He boasted that 
in the space of four years he had brought no fewer than 
eighteen thousand persons to the scaffold! In 1580)16 
invaded Portugal, and, after defeating the Portuguese 
forces at the mouth of the Tagus, annexed that kingdom 
to the dominions of Spain. Alva died in 1582. 

See WATSON, "Philip II.;" PRESCOTT, "Philip II.," vol. ii. ; 
MOTLEY, " History of the Dutch Republic;" J. ANTONIO DE VERA 
Y FIGUEROA, " Kesultas de la Vicla de Fern. Alvarez tie Toledo," 
1643 ; " Vie du Due d Albe," Paris, i6g8 ; J. V. DE RUSTAUT, " His- 
toriade Fern. Alvarez de Toledo Duque de Alva," 1750 ; J. MITCHELL, 
Biographies of Eminent Soldiers of the Last Four Centuries," 1865. 

Alvarado, de, da al-va-ra/Do, (ALONZO,) a Spanish 
officer, who served under Cortcz in Mexico, after the 
conquest of which he went to Peru and obtained a high 
command in the army of Pizarro. Having been sent 
with five hundred men to reinforce the brothers of Pi 
zarro at Cuzco, he was defeated and made prisoner by 
Almagro in 1537. After the death of Pizarro he took 
arms against Almagro the younger, and joined his troops 
to those of De Castro, (1542.) He was lieutenant-gene 
ral of the army which suppressed the rebellion of Gon- 
zalo Pizarro in 1548. 

See PRESCOTT, "Conquest of Peru." 

Alvarado, de, (PEDRO,) a Spanish officer, born at 
Badajos at the close of the fifteenth century, was one of 
the principal companions of Cortez in the conquest of 
Mexico. lie distinguished himself at the battles of Ta 

basco and Otumba, and gained the full confidence of 
Cortez. He was left in command of the city of Mexicc 
when Cortez marched to encounter Narvaez. In 1523 
he led a successful expedition against Zacatula, Tehuan- 
tepec, and Guatemala, and received from the King of 
Spain the title of Governor of Guatemala. He per 
formed an arduous march over the Andes with a design 
to seize Quito ; but, having met the troops of Pizarro, who 
claimed the command in that place, he retired peaceably 
after receiving a large indemnity for his expenses. He 
was killed in a fight with some natives in 1541. Some 
writers say his death was caused by a horse falling on 
him down a steep bank. 

See PRESCOTT, " Conquest of Mexico," vols. ii. and iii. 

Alvares. See ALVAREZ. 

Alvarez, al va-reth, (DiEGO,) a Spanish theologian, 
born in Old Castile about 1550, became Archbishop ot 
Trani, in Italy, in 1606. His chief work is "On the 
Aids of Divine Grace," ("De Auxiliis Divinas Gratia:, 
1610.) Died about 1633. 

Al va-rez, [Port. pron. al va-rez,] (EMANUEL,) a 
Portuguese Jesuit, bom in the island of Madeira in 1526 : 
died in 1582. Among other works, he was the author of 
an excellent Latin grammar. 

Alvarez, (FRANCISCO,) a Portuguese priest, born at 
Coimbra, became chaplain to King Manoel some time 
before 1515. Soon after this date he accompanied 
Duarte Galvam on a mission to the King of Abyssinia, 
who was then called Prester John. He passed about 
six years in that strange country, and returned home in 
1527. A long and valuable account of this mission was 
published in 1540, with the title "Prester John of the 
Inclias : a True Account of the Country of Prester 
John," ("Ho Prcste Joam das Inclias : verdadera Infor- 
ma9am das Terras do Preste Joam.") He is regarded as a 
candid and veracious writer. Died probably about 1540. 

See F. DENIS, "Le Monde enchante," etc.; RAMUSIO, " Viaggi 
e Navigazioni." 

Alvarez, (GoMEZ,) a Spanish poet, born in 1488; 
died in 1538. 

Alvarez, (Don JOSE,) one of the most eminent Span 
ish sculptors, was born at Priego, in the province of 
Cordova, in 1768. He became a student in the Acad 
emy of Madrid in 1794, gained there a prize of the first 
class, and received from the king a pension of twelve 
thousand reals (fifteen hundred dollars) in 1799, after 
which he pursued his studies in Paris. His reputation 
was increased by a statue of Ganymede, (1804.) He 
worked chiefly in Rome, and became a member of the 
Academy of Saint Luke. Among his master-pieces are 
"Orpheus Sleeping," a "Venus and Cupid," and a 
group of "Antilochus and Memnon." He received the 
title of court-sculptor to Ferdinand VII. about 1818. 
Died at Madrid in November, 1827. His son, a prom 
ising sculptor, died in 1830, aged about twenty-five. 

SeeBERMUDEZ, "Diccionario Historico;" NAGLER, "Allgemeines 

Alvarez, (JuAN,) a Mexican general, born in 1790, 
was distinguished for his energy and boldness. He took 
a prominent part in the insurrection which began in 
1854 and which deprived Santa Anna of power in 1855. 
Alvarez became President of Mexico about September, 
1855, and abolished the old privilege (fttero) of the clergy 
and the army. He resigned in December, 1855. 

Alvarez, (Don MANUEL,) a distinguished Spanish 
sculptor, born at Salamanca in 1727, was a pupil of Fe 
lipe de Castro. He gained the first prize at Madrid in 
1754, and became sculptor to the king in 1794. The 
purity and vigour of his design procured for him the sur 
name of "El Griego," ("the Greek.") Died in 1797. 

Alvarez, (Don MARTIN,) Count of Colomera, a Span 
ish general, born in Andalusia about 1714. He obtained 
in 1779 the command of the army which besieged Gib 
raltar without success for several years, and was super 
seded by the Due de Crillon in 1782. Having been raised 
to the rank of captain-general, he commanded in 1794 
against the French, whose progress he failed to arrest. 
He was removed in February, 1795. Died in 1819. 

Alvarez, (ToMAS,) a Spanish physician of Seville, 
published a treatise on the plague in 1569. 

e as k; c as s; g hard; g is/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as 2; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 


1 06 


Alvarez, de, cli al va-reth, (BERNARDO,) a Spanish 
adventurer, born at Seville in 1514, founded several hos 
pitals in Mexico. Died in 1584. 

Alvarez de Cabral. See CABRAL. 

Alvarez de Castro, al va-rgth da kas tRo, (MARI 
ANO,) a Spanish officer, born at Granada, was distin 
guished for his resolute defence of Gerona against the 
French, by whom it was taken in 1809, after a siege 
of seven months. He died in prison about the end of 

See SOUTHEY, "History of the Peninsular War." 

Alvarez de Coimenar. See COLMENAR. 

Alvarez de Luna. See LUNA. 

Alvarez do Oriente, al va-rez do o-re-en ta, (i.e. 
"Alvarez of the East,") (FERNAO,) a Portuguese poet of 
great merit, born at Goa, in India, about 1540. Scarcely 
anything is known of his life, except that he was bred to 
the sea and at one time was himself the captain of a 
vessel. His chief work is entitled " Portugal Trans 
formed," ("A Lusitania transformada," 1607,) a pastoral 
partly in verse and partly in prose. 

Alvarez y Baeiia, al va-reth e ba-a na, (JosE AN 
TONIO,) a Spanish biographer, born at Madrid, wrote 
the "Illustrious Sons of Madrid," ("Hijos de Madrid 
illustres," 4 vols., 1789-91.) Died about 1803. 

Alvaro, al va-ro, (GIOVANNI,) a Neapolitan painter, 
who flourished in the first half of the eighteenth century. 

Alvarotto, al-va-rot to, QACOPO,) a distinguished 
feudal lawyer, born at Padua in 1385 ; died in 1453. 

Alvar Paez, al vaR pa es, or Alvar Pajo, al vaii 
pa zho, [Lat. AI/VARUS PELA GIUS,] a theologian, born 
probably in Portugal, became Bishop of Silves in Al- 
garve about 1334. His chief work is "On the Com 
plaint of the Church," ("De Planctu Ecclesiae,") com 
pleted in 1332. He maintains in this the supremacy of 
the pope. Died about 1350. 

Al va-rus, (PAULUS,) often called Al varus Cordu- 
ben sis, (i.e. " Alvarus of Cordova,") from the place 
of his birth, a Christian writer of the ninth century. 

Alvarus. Sec ALVAREZ. 

Alvensleben, voii, fon al vens-la ben, (ALBRECHT,) 
COUNT, a Prussian minister of state, born in 1794. He 
was minister of finances from 1836 to 1842. 

Alvensleben, von, (KARL GERHARD,) a Prussian 
general, born in 1778. He fought at Jena in 1806, com 
manded a regiment at Lutzen in 1813, and rendered im 
portant service at Bautzen. He became a general in 
1817. Died in 1831. 

Alvensleben, von, (PHILIP CHARLES,) COUNT, a 
diplomatist in the service of Prussia, born at Hanover 
in 1745, was made a count in 1801, and died in 1802. 

Alves, al ves, (ROBERT,) a Scottish poet, born at 
Elgin in 1745, wrote "The Weeping Bard," and "The 
Banks of the Esk," (published in 1801.) Died in 1794. 

Alviano, al-ve-d no, (BARTOLOMMEO,) an Italian gen 
eral who was famous for his courage, audacity, and skill 
in the wars that preceded and followed the League of 
Cambrai, was born about 1455. Having entered the 
service of Venice, he routed the Imperialists near Ca- 
dore in 1508, and was promoted to the position of gen- 
eral-in-chief. He was defeated and taken prisoner by 
Louis XII. of France at Ghiera d Adda in 1509. The 
Venetians and the French having become allies, he was 
released in 1513. The victory of the French at Mari- 
gnano, in 1515, is ascribed in great measure to him. He 
was a lover of literature, and a .generous patron of lite 
rary men. Died of fever in 1515. 

See SISMONDI, " Histoire des R^publiques Italiennes." 

Alvinczy, Alvinzi, or Alvinzy, von, pronounced 
alike fon al-vmt se, (JOSEPH,) BARON, an Austrian gen 
eral, was born at Vincz, (Vints,) in Transylvania, in 1 735, 
(or, as some authorities say, in 1726.) He became a licu- 
tenant-ficld-marshal in 1789, and greatly distinguished 
himself as commander of a division in the campaigns of 
1792 and 1793 against the French. After the defeat of 
Wunnser in Italy in the summer of 1796, Marshal Al 
vinczy was appointed to the command of a new army of 
about fifty or sixty thousand men, sent against Bona 
parte. He entered Italy from Carinthia, and fought an 
indecisive action at Bassano on the 6th of November, 

1796. In the same month he was defeated by Bona 
parte at Arcola, after a battle of three clays duration. 
"The ruinous fetters of the Aulic Council," says Alison, 
"paralyzed all the movements of Alvinzi, who in this 
strife evinced neither the capacity nor spirit of a general 
worthy to combat Napoleon." Having been again de 
feated at Rivoli in January, 1797, he resigned his com 
mand. Died in 1810. 

See BOTTA, " Storia d ltalia ;" ALISON, "Historyrf Europe." 

Alvintzi or Alvinczi, al-vint se, (PETER,) a Protest 
ant divine and writer, who lived at Waradin and Ka- 
schau, in Hungary, in the early part of the seventeenth 
century. Two volumes of his sermons were published 
in 1632 and 1634. 

Al-Waleed or Al-Walid (al-wa leed ) I., the sixth 
caliph of the race of Omeyyah, ascended the throne of 
Damascus in 705. During his reign, Toorkistan in the 
East, and Spain in the West, were added to the Arabian 
Empire, and the Omeyyah dynasty attained the acme of 
its power. Died in 715 A.D. 

See WEIL, "Geschichte cler Chalifen." 

Alxiiiger, alk sing-er, (JoiiANN BAPTIST,) a German 
scholar and poet, born at Vienna in 175=5. He wrote 
lyric, dramatic, and epic poems. Among his most popu 
lar works is "Doolin von Mainz," an epic poem, (1787.) 
He was well acquainted with the best works in the an 
cient as well as the modern languages, and is said to have 
known the whole of the /lineid by heart. As a man he 
was distinguished by a noble and unostentatious gene 
rosity towards all who needed his sympathy or aid. He 
died in 1797. 

Aly. See ALEE. 

A-ly-at tes, [Gr. AAuurrT?!, 1 ; Fr. ALYATTE, i le-tt ,] a 
celebrated king of Lydia, the father of Croesus, began to 
reign about 618 B.C. He waged war for five years against 
Cyaxares, King of Media. A battle between them was 
interrupted by an eclipse of the sun, in consequence of 
which they made a treaty of peace. This eclipse, pre 
dicted by Thales, is supposed to have occurred in 610 
B.C. Alyattes reigned fifty-seven years. 

See HERODOTUS, book i. ; ROI.LIN, "Ancient History;" HAMIL 
TON, "Researches in Asia Minor." 

Alyon, i le-oN , (PIERRE PHILIPPE,) a French phar 
macist, naturalist, and writer, born at Auvergne in 1758; 
died about 1820. 

A-lyp i-us, [Gr. A?.i mof,] an architect of Antioch, 
lived in the fourth century. He was charged by Julian 
the Apostate to rebuild the temple at Tei usalem. But 
this design was frustrated, if we may credit the statement 
of an excellent pagan historian, ( Ammianus Marcellinus,) 
by eruptions of fire from the earth. 

See GIBBON, " Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, "chap, xxiii. 

Alypius, [ AP.i mof,] an ancient Greek musician and 
writer on music. Fragments sif his work are extant. 

Alypius, a distinguished Greek sophist of the fourth 
century, born at Alexandria, in Egypt, excelled in dia 

Aly Shir. See ALEE- SHEER- AMEER. 

Alyy. See ALEE. 

Alzate y Ramirez, al-sa ti. e ra-mee res, (JosE 
ANTONIO,) a distinguished astronomer and geographer 
who lived at Mexico in the early part of the eighteenth 
century. His numerous works are written in Spanish. 

Amac, (a Persian poet.) See AMAK. 

Amadei, a-ma-da ce, (GiROLAMO,) an Italian priest, 
born about 1483, preached and wrote against Luther. 
Died in 1543. 

Amadei, (STEFANO,) an Italian painter of history and 
portraits, born at Perugia in 1589. He excelled in the 
use of the crayon, and worked in Rome. Died in 1644. 

See LANZI, "History of Painting in Italy." 

Amadeo, a-ma-cla o, or Amadei, a-ma-da ee, (Gio- 
VANNI ANTONIO,) a distinguished Italian sculptor, born 
at Pavi a about 1400. Among his principal works are 
the monuments of the Venetian general Colleoni and his 
daughter, at Bergamo. Died in 1474. 

Amadesi, a-ma-da scc, (DoMF.Nico,) a popular Italian 
poet, born at Bologna in 1657, was a rich merchant, rlis 
first poems appeared under the anagram " Simonidc de 
Meaco," (1709.) Died in 1730. 

a, e, T, 6, u, y, long; i, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, li, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; fir, fall, fat; mt; nSt; good; moon; 



Amadesi, (GIUSEPPE LUIGI,) a distinguished anti 
quary and scholar, born at Leghorn, of Bolognese 
parents, in 1701. lie contributed to Calogera s " Rac- 
colta di Opuscoli," and published "Dc Comitatu Argen- 
tato," (1763.) Died in 1 773. 

Am-a-de us, [It. AMEDF.O, a-ma-da o, or AMADEO, 
a-ma-da o; Fr. AMEDEE, i mi da ,] the name of several 
counts and dukes of Savoy from about noo to 1472. 

Amadeus I. of Savoy, a son of Humbert, Count of 
Mauriciine, lived in the first half of the eleventh century. 

Amadeus II. was a nephew of the preceding, and a 
son of Oddo by his wife Adelaide of Susa. Died in the 
eleventh century. He was succeeded by his son. Hum 
bert II. 

Amadeus III., Count of Mauricnnc, succeeded his 
father, Humbert II., in 1103. He went to Palestine on 
a crusade with his nephew, Louis VII. of France, in 
1147, and died in Cyprus in 1148. His successor was his 
son, Humbert II 1. 

Amadeus IV. succeeded his father, Thomas I., 
Count of Savoy, in 1233. He made some additions to 
his dominions. Died in 1253. 

Amadeus V., born in 1249, was a son of Thomas II. 
of Savoy, Count of Flanders. He succeeded his uncle 
Philip as Count of Savoy in 1285. He died in 1323, 
leaving the crown to his son Edward. 

Amadeus VI., born in 1334, was a son of Aymon, 
Count of Savoy, whom he succeeded in 1343. He was 
one of the most able and successful princes of the house 
of Savoy. He defeated the French at Arbrette in 1354, 
and, having joined a crusade against the Turks, took 
Gallipoli in 1366 and released the captive emperor 
John. He acquired large accessions of territory in Pied 
mont. Died in 1383. 

Amadeus VII., born about 1360, succeeded his 
father, Amadeus VI., at the age of twenty-three. He 
was styled the " Red Count," from the colour of his ar 
mour, lie annexed Nice to his dominions. Died in 

Amadeus VIII., son of Amadeus VII., succeeded 
his lather in 1391, being then only eight years old. In 
1416 he was created by the emperor Sigismund first 
Duke of Savoy. He enjoyed a great reputation for wis 
dom, and was called the Solomon of his age. In 1434 
he made his son Louis lieutenant-general of his domin 
ions, and retired to the monastery of Ripaillc, which he 
had founded. Having remained here five years, he was 
elected pope by the Council of Bale, in the place of 
Eugenius IV., whom they had deposed. Amacleus ac 
cepted the office, though with great reluctance, taking 
the name of Felix V. Afterwards, wishing to put an 
end to the schism in the Church, he publicly renounced 
his claims to the papacy in favour of Nicholas V., who 
on the death of Eugenius had been elected at Rome. 
Died in 1451. 

Amadeus IX., a son of Louis, Duke of Savoy, and 
a grandson of the preceding, was born at Thonon in 
1435, an( l began to reign in 1465. He married Yolancle, 
a daughter of Charles VII. of France. Died in 1472, 
and was succeeded by his son Philibert. 

Am a-dis de Gaul or Gaii la, the hero of a famous 
romance of chivalry written in the thirteenth century by 
Vasco de Lobeira, a Portuguese. (See LOHEIRA.) "The 
Amadis," says Ticknor, "is admitted by general consent 
to be the best of all the old romances of chivalry." 

See TICKNOK, " Spanish Literature," vol. i. chap. xi. p. 22ici sey. 

Amador Rebello, a-ma-doR ra-bel lo, a Portuguese 
Jesuit and writer, born in 1^39 ; died at Lisbon in 1622. 

Amaduzzi, a-ma-doot/see, [in Latin, AMADU THTS,] 
(GIOVANNI CRISTOFORO,) a learned Italian writer, born 
near Rimini in 1740, was professor of Greek in Rome. 
He published " Anecdota Literaria," (3 vols., 1774,) and 
other works. Died in 1792. 

Amaia. See A MAYA. 

Amak Bokharee, (or Bokhari,) am ak bo-Ka ree, 
(i.t: " Amak the Bokharian,") written also Amac and 
Amik, a Persian poet, whose life was nearly coexten 
sive with the eleventh century. 

A-mal ar-ic, | Lat. AMALARI CUS,] the last kintr of 
the Visigoths that reigned in Spain, was a son of Alaric 
II., who died in 507 A.D. He married Clotilde, a 

daughter of Clovis, King of the Franks. He was killed 
during a war against the Franks, in 531 A.D. 

Am-a-la ri-us For-tu-iia tus, an archbishop of 
Treves, who was sent by Charlemagne, in Su A.D., to 
diffuse Christianity among the Saxons. He established 
the first church at Hamburg. In 813 he went as ambas 
sador to Constantinople. Died in 814 A.D. 

Am a-lek, [Heb. p-D> .] a king of the Amalek- 
ites, who opposed the Israelites on their flight from 
Egypt. He was defeated at the battle of Rephidim. (See 
Exodus xvii. 8-14; Deuteronomy xxv. 17.) 

Amalfi. See AVALOS, (COSTANZA.) 

Amalie, a-ma le-eh, or Ame lia, (ANNA,) Princess 
of Prussia, and sister of Frederick the Great, was born 
in 1723. She had a remarkable talent for music, to 
which she devoted her life. Her musical library was 
the finest and most complete ever collected. Died in 

Amalie, or Amelia, (ANNA,) Duchess of Saxe- 
Weimar and Eisenach, a daughter of the Duke of Bruns 
wick- Wolfenbiittel, born in 1739, was distinguished as 
a patron of genius and learning. She assembled at her 
court the brightest ornaments of German literature, 
among others Wieland, Herder, Goethe, etc. She was 
mother of the duke Karl August. Died in 1807. 

See BROCKHAUS, " Conversations-Lexikon." 

Amalie, (CATHERINE,) a German poetess, born in 
1640, married the Count George Lewis (Georg Ludwig) 
of Erbach. Died in 1696. 

Amalie or Amelia, (ELISABETH,) a grand-daughter 
of William I., Prince of Orange, was born in 1602, and 
in 1619 married William V., Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel. 
After his death, in 1637, she was made regent, in which 
capacity she displayed extraordinary energy, wisdom, 
and virtue. Died in 1651. 

See K. W. JUSTI, "Amalie Elisabeth Landgrafm von Hessen." 

Duchess of Saxony, born in 1794, was a sister of Fred 
erick Augustus II. She cultivated poetry and music, 
and wrote in German successful dramas, among which 
are " Falsehood and Truth," " The Marriage-Ring," 
" Cousin Henry," and " The Young Lady from the 

See articleby Professor FEI.TON, in the " North American Review," 
vol. lii.. and " Social Life in Germany, illustrated in the acted Dramas 
of the Princess Amelia," etc., translated from the German by Mrs. 


Amalric, S mtl Rek , (ARNAUD,) a French ecclesiastic 
of the thirteenth century, distinguished by the energy 
and sanguinary cruelty which he displayed against the 
heretics of Languedoc, commonly known as the Albi- 
genses. He was made Archbishop of Narbonne in 1212, 
and soon after assumed the title of Duke of Narbonne. 
Died in 1225. 

Amalricus. See AMALRIC and AMAURY. 

Am-al-a-scm tha, written also Amalasoiite, [Lat. 
AMALASUEN TA,] Queen of the Goths in Italy, distin 
guished for her wisdom, was a daughter of Theodoric I. 
She began to reign in 526 A.D., as guardian of her son, 
who was a minor. The famous Cassiodorus was her 
prime minister. She was assassinated in 535. 

See J. D. RITTER, "Dissertatio de Amalasuenta," 1735. 

Amalteo, a-mal-ta o, [Lat. AMALTHF/US ; Fr. AMAL- 
TIIEE, t m&l ti ,] (CoRNELio,) an Italian poet, born at 
Oderzo about 1530. His profession was medicine. He 
wrote Latin poems, the best of which is entitled " Pro 
teus," (1572.) Died in 1603. 

Amalteo, (FRANCESCO,) the father of the preceding, 
was born towards the close of the fifteenth century. He 
taught literature in several cities of Italy, and had some 
reputation as a writer of Latin verse. lie had three 
sons, who were poets. 

Amalteo, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA ) an excellent Latin 
poet, a son of Francesco, noticed above, born at Oderzo 
in 1525, became secretary to the republic of Ragusa. 
lie wrote Latin eclogues, elegies, and epigrams, and 
verses in Greek and Italian. His Latin poems are con 
sidered equal in elegance to those of any poet of his 
time. Died in Rome in 1573,50011 after he had become 

as k; c as s: g hard: g as/; o, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as r; th as in this. (JJJf^Sec Explanations, p. 23.) 




secretary to Pope Pius VII. He is regarded as the 
most eminent poet of all his family. 

Amalteo, (GIROLAMO,) a brother of the preceding, 
born at Oderzo in 1506, was a physician, philosopher, 
and celebrated Latin poet. He practised medicine with 
great success at several places. His reputation is founded 
on two Latin epigrams, entitled "De Gemellis Luscis," 
(" On the One Eyed Twins,") and " Horologium Pul- 
vereum," (" Hour-Glass,") the former of which has been 
translated into many languages. Died in 1574. 

Amalteo, (GIROLAMO,) a brother and pupil of Pom- 
ponio, noticed below, was a historical painter of distin 
guished ability. His chief works are small pictures, 
highly finished. He died at an early age. 

See ALTAN, "Memorie intorno alia Vita di Pomponio Amalteo;" 
LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy." 

Amalteo, [Lat. AMALTHEUS,] (PAOLO, or PAUL,) an 
Italian poet, born at Pordenone in 1460, was a brother 
of Francesco, noticed above. Died in 1517. 

Amalteo, (PoMi ONio,) an eminent painter of the 
Venetian school, was born in Friuli in 1505. He was a 
pupil of Pordenone, whose style he imitated, though with 
less grandeur of invention. His colouring is brilliant, 
and his drawing correct. Among his master-pieces are 
"The Judgment of Solomon," and "The Judgment of 

Am-al-the a or Am-al-thei a, [Gr. Aiiu/Meta; Fr. 
AMALTHEE, i mtl ta ,] in Greek mythology, the name 
of the nurse of Jupiter. According to one tradition, she 
was a goat, whose horn Jupiter broke off and filled with 
herbs, fruits, flowers, etc., and endowed it with the prop 
erty of supplying whatever its possessor might desire. 
This was the origin of the fable of the Cornucopias, or 
" horn of plenty." 

Amalthee, the French of AMALTEO, which sec. 

Amaltheus. See AMALTEO. 

Amama, a-ma ma, (SIXTI NUS,) a Dutch Protestant 
and biblical philologist, born at Franeker in 1593. He 
was professor of Oriental languages at that city from 
1618 until his death, and declined the chair vacated by 
Erpenius at Leyden. He was the author of a critical 
work on the historical books of the Old Testament, and 
a number of Latin treatises. Died in 1629. 

Aman, a man, QOIIANN,) a German architect, born 
in Baden in 1765. He designed several public buildings 
in Austria and other countries. Died about 1834. 

Amaud, t mS.\ , SAINT, [Lat. SANC TUS AMAN - 
DUS,] a bishop of Bordeaux in the fifth century, eminent 
for his piety and purity of life. 

Amand or Amaiidus, SAINT, a French ecclesi 
astic, born about 590. He was a man of eminent vir 
tues. Died in 679 A.D. 

Amand, (JACQUES,) a French engraver, born near 
Blois in 1730; died in Paris in 1769. 

Amand, (PIERRE,) a French surgeon and writer on 
obstetrics, born at Riez about 1650; died in 1720. 

Amanieu des Escas, t mft nc-uh d.YzeVka , a 
troubadour, who flourished in the latter half of the thir 
teenth century. He passed a part of his life at the court 
of James II. of Aragon. 

Amantoii or Amanthoii, t mSN toN , (CLAUDE 
NICOLAS,) a judge at Dijon, in France, and a writer on 
biography and local history, born in 1760; died in 1835. 

Amar, I mia , (ANDRE,) (or Amar, J. P., according 
to the "Biographic Universelle,") a French demagogue, 
born at Grenoble in 1750, was notorious for his cruelty 
in the reign of terror. He was elected to the Conven 
tion in 1792, voted for the death of the king, and became 
chairman of the committee of surete gfntrale in Septem 
ber, 1793. I" October he wrote and presented to the 
Convention a report which condemned the twenty-two 
Girondins arrested in June and ordered the arrest of 
seventy-three other deputies. lie acted with the enemies 
of Robespierre on the gth of Thermidor, 1794, and de 
fended Barrere, Collot d Herbois, and Billaud-Varennes 
in 1795. Died in Paris in 1816. 

Amar (or Amare) du Rivier, finta clii re ve-i , 
(JEAN AUGUSTIN,) often called simply Amar or Amare, 
an able French critic and miscellaneous writer, born in 
Paris in 1765. He became conservator of the Mazarin 
Library in 1809. He made translations of many of the 

ancient classics, published several school-books, and 
wrote many articles for the " Biographic Universelle." 
Died in 1837. 

Amarai, A-ma-raK, (ANDRES DO,) a Portuguese, who 
became chancellor of the order of Saint John of Jerusa 
lem while that order had possession of the island of 
Rhodes. He was defeated as a candidate for the orfice 
of grand master in 1521. During the siege of Rhodes 
by the Turks in 1522 he was put to death on a charge 
of giving intelligence to the enemy. 

See VERTOT, "Histoirc ties Chevaliers Hospitallers de St. Jean; 
FONTANUS, " De Bello Rhodico," 1524. 

Amarai, (ANTONIO Caetano (ka-a-ta no) DO,) a Por 
tuguese writer, born at Lisbon in 1747. He wrote a 
very valuable work on the early history of Portugal, 
entitled " Memorias sobre a Forma do Govcrno e Cos 
tumes," etc. Died in 1819. 

Am a-ra Siiigha or Siiiha, am a-ra sing ha, [mod 
ern Hindoo pron. lim ur-a sing ha,] a celebrated Hindoo 
poet and grammarian, who is supposed to have flourished 
in the first century B.C. lie belonged to the Booddhist 
sect. His works were all destroyed by the Brahmans, 
except a vocabulary of the Sanscrit language, entitled 
"Amara Kosha," which is esteemed a standard work. 

Amari, a-ma ree, (EMERICO.) an Italian political 
economist, born at Palermo in 1810. He became pro 
fessor of law at Palermo in 1841. 

Amari, (MiciiELE,) an Italian historian, born at 
Palermo in 1806. His father was condemned to an im 
prisonment of thirty years for a conspiracy against the 
government. He published in 1842 his principal work, 
"The War of the Sicilian Vespers," ("La Guerra del 
Vespro Siciliano," 2 vols.,) which had great success, but 
was prohibited by the government. The author was 
summoned to trial, but escaped to France. He took an 
active part in the revolution of Sicily in 1848, and was 
appointed minister of finances in the new government. 
He resigned office before the end of the year. He has 
since resided in Paris, and published the first volume of 
a "History of the Mussulmans in Sicily." 

Amariton, S mt re tox , (JEAN,) a French jurist, born 
in Auvergne ; died in 1590. 

Am a-sa, [Xiyo^*,] a Hebrew warrior, who was ap 
pointed by Absalom, when he rebelled, captain of the 
host instead of Joab. After the suppression of this re 
bellion he became commander of the army of David, 
and was treacherously slain by Joab. (See II. Samuel 
xvii. 25 ; xx. 4-10.) 

Amaseo, a-ma-sa o, [Lat. AMAS/E US,] (POMPILIO,) 
an Italian scholar, was a son of Romolo, noticed below. 
Died about 1584. 

Amaseo, (ROMOLO,) a celebrated Italian scholar and 
orator, born at Udine in 1489 ; died about 1552. He 
was professor of belles-lettres (literae humaniores) at 
Padua, Bologna, and Rome. Among his works may be 
mentioned a Latin version of Pausanias, (1547,) and a 
Latin version of Xenophon s "Anabasis," (1533.) 

A-ma sis, [Gr. "A.unair,] a celebrated king of Egypt, 
succeeded Apries about 570 i!.c. He is said to have 
been a man of liberal and independent spirit, and free 
from the prejudices against foreigners which were com 
mon among the Egyptians. His reign was prosperous 
and peaceful. He built the grand temple of Isis at 
Memphis, and adorned Egypt with many magnificent 
monuments. Died about 525 H.C., leaving the throne to 
his son Psammcnitus, (or Psammctichus.) 

A-mas tris, a Persian lady of superior talents, and 
a niece of Darius Codomannus. She was married suc 
cessively to Craterus, to Dionysius, tyrant of Heraclea, 
and to Lysimachus, King of Thrace. 

Amat, a-rnat , (FELIX,) an eminent Spanish eccle 
siastic and writer, born at Sabadell, near Barcelona, in 
1750. He became Archbishop of Palmyra m partibus 
infidelium in 1803, and confessor to Charles IV. in 1806. 
He was supposed to be favourable to the French 
during the war which began in 1808. His great work is 
an ecclesiastical history, entitled " Treatise on the Church 
of Jesus Christ," (" Tratado dc la Tglesia de Jesu Cristo," 
12 vols., 1793-1803.) Died in 1824. 

See FEI.IX TORRES AMAT, " Vida de Amat Arzobispo de Pal 
myra," 1835. 

a. e, I, o, u, y, long; a, 6, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, ii, y, short; a, e, j, Q, obscure; far, fall, fat; mSt; not; good; moon; 




Amati, a-ma tee, (ANDREA,) a celebrated maker of 
violins, worked at Cremona in partnership with his bro 
ther Niccolo about 1550. Their instruments are highly 
prized at the present time. 

Amati. (ANTONIO,) a son of the preceding, born at 
Cremona about 1565, followed the same business with 
success. He made for Henry IV. of France, in 1595, a 
violin, which is said to be now in good order. 

Amati, (CARLO,) an eminent Italian architect, born 
at Milan about 1786. Among his chief works is the 
Rotunda of San Carlo, at Milan. 

Amati, (GIROLAMO,) a distinguished Italian scholar 
and antiquary, born at Savignano in 1768. He was an 
assistant librarian in the Vatican, and was regarded as 
an oracle among antiquaries. lie wrote papers on the 
antiquities of philology and art for the " Giornale Arca- 
dico, :> and furnished materials for the works of other 
authors. His sagacity in palceographical science was 
remarkable. Died in 1834. 

Amati, (PASQUALE,) an Italian antiquary, born at 
Savignano in 1716; died in 1796. 

Amatius, a-ma she-us, (CAius,) a famous impostor, 
who made his appearance at Rome about 45 B.C., claim 
ing to be the grandson of Marius. He was strangled by 
order of Antony about 43 or 44 B.C. 

Amato. See A MAT us. 

Amato, d , da-ma to, or Amati, a-ma tee, [Lat. 
AMA TUS,] (ELIA,) a literary Italian monk, born at Mon- 
talto in 1666. He wrote on various subjects, and dis 
played a talent for dry humour. Died in 1747. 

Amato, d , (GIOVANNI ANTONIO,) a celebrated his 
torical painter, called " II Vecchio," (" The Elder,") was 
born at Naples in 1475. Iiis st } le resembles that of 
Perugino in simplicity. He painted religious subjects 
exclusively, and was also noted as a theologian. Among 
his master-pieces are a " Dispute on the Sacrament," at 
Naples, and a " Madonna and Child." He painted in 
oil and fresco. Died in 1555. 

Amato, d , (GIOVANNI ANTONIO,) a nephew and 
pupil of the preceding, surnamed IL GIOVANE, (i.e. 
"the younger,") born at Naples in 1535, was a skilful 
painter. He excelled in colouring, and painted some 
works which are said to be as finely coloured as those 
of Titian. His chief work is an altar-piece of the infant 
Christ, in a church of Naples. Died in 1598. 

See DOMINICI, "Vite de Pittori Napolitani." 

Amato, d , (MICHELK,) an Italian theologian, born 
at Naples in 1682; died in 1729. 

Amato or A-ma tus, (Scii io,) an Italian jurist and 
linguist, flourished between 1600 and 1650. 

Amato or Amati, [Lat. AMA TUS,] (VINCFNZO,) a 
Sicilian musician and composer, born in 1629; died in 

Amatrice, dell , del la-ma-tRee cha, (Co LA,) a Nea 
politan architect and painter, who nourished in the early 
part of the sixteenth century. He worked at Ascoli. 
His master-piece is a picture of the "Last Supper." 

See LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy." 

Am-a tus Lu-si-ta nus, [Port. JOAO RODRIGUEZ 
AMATO, zho-owN ro-dRec gez a-ma to ; Lat. JOAN NES 
RODERI CUS AMA TUS,] an eminent Portuguese physi 
cian and anatomist, born at Castel-Branco in 1511. lie 
lectured in Venice, and practised at Ancona. In 1555 
the fear of the Inquisition, which persecuted him as a 
Jew, induced him to retire to Saloniki, where he joined 
a synagogue. Died in 1568. He is said to have been 
the second author who has described the valves in 
veins. He left, besides other works, one giving an ac 
count of seven hundred remarkable cases in medicine 
and surgery, (1551-66,) which was highly esteemed. 

See SPRENGEL, "Biographic Mddicalc." 

Amaiiry. See AMALRIC. 

A-mau ry, [Fr. pron. t mo re ,] Aimery, a meh-re, 
TFr. pron. em re ,] or Am-al ric, [Ger. AMALRICII, 
a mal-riK. ; Lat. AMALRI CUS,] 1, King of Jerusalem, 
born in 1135, was a son of Baldwin II. He succeeded 
Sis brother Baldwin III. in 1162. He invaded Egypt in 
1168, and marched victoriously to Cairo, but was driven 
out by an army of Turks under Saladin, who invaded 
the kingdom of Amaury in 1170. The latter defended 

his dominions with ability and courage, but with ill suc 
cess, until his death in 1173, and left the throne to his 
son, Baldwin IV. 

Amaury II. OF JERUSALEM (otherwise called 
Amaury de Lusignaii deh lii zen ydN ) inherited 
Cyprus from his brother Guy, and received the title of 
King of Jerusalem in 1194. He was unable to defend 
the kingdom against the Saracens, and died at Ptole- 
mais in 1205. 

Amaury, Amalric, or Aimcric, [Lat. AMALRI 
CUS,] Patriarch of Jerusalem, succeeded Fulcher in 1159. 
He contributed much to the election of Amaury I. as 
King of Jerusalem. Died in 1180. 

Amaury, s mo re , [Lat. AMALRI CUS,] OF CHAR- 
TRES, a French theologian of the twelfth century. He 
advanced heterodox opinions on the Divine nature (which 
he identified with the primary matter of Aristotle) in a 
work called "Physion," now lost. Died about 1205. 

Amaury-Duval. See DUVAL. 

Amaya, a-ml a, a Spanish painter, a pupil of Vin- 
cenzo Carducci, lived about 1682. 

Amaya or Amaia, (FRANCISCO,) a noted Spanish 
jurisconsult of the seventeenth century, born at Ante- 
quera. He published " Observationes Juris," (1625,) and 
other works. 

Am-a-zi ah, [Heb. m OK,] a king of Judah, who as 
cended the throne 849 li.c. He was killed by a con 
spiracy, 820 i;.c. (See II. Kings xiv. ; II. Chronicles xxv.) 

Am a-zcns, [Gr. Awafwec; Lat. AMAZ ONES,] the 
name of a semi-fabulous race of female warriors, sup 
posed to have lived originally on the Thermodon in 
Pontus, and to have made conquests in Asia Minor and 
Thrace. During the Trojan war, led by their queen, Pen- 
thisile a, they fought against the Greeks. The battles 
of the Amazons were favourite subjects of the ancient 
Greek artists. 

See " Encyclopaedia Britannica. " 

Amberger, am beRG er, (CHRISTOPH,) a celebrated 
German painter, born at Nuremberg about 1490, is sup 
posed to have been a pupil of Plans Holbein. He 
worked in oil, fresco, and distemper, excelled in per 
spective, and designed well. The history of Joseph, in 
twelve pictures, is called his best work. He was patron 
ized by Charles V., of whom he painted a good portrait 
at Augsburg in 1530. Died at Augsburg about 1570. 

Am-bi-ga tus, [Fr. AMUIGAT, ON be gt ,] an an 
cient and powerful king of Gaul, supposed to have reigned 
about 600 or 650 i:.c. 

Ambilloii. See BOUCHET, (RENE.) 

Am bi-o-rix or Am-bi o-rix, written also Abrio- 
rix and Ambriorix, a king of the Eburoncs, a Belgic 
nation, in the time of Julius Caesar. By stratagem or 
treachery he succeeded in destroying the army com 
mandcd by Caesar s legates Sabinus and Cotta, 54 B.C. 

See CA-.SAR, "De Bello Gallico," lib. v. 

Ambiveri, am-be-va ree, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian 
writer, born at- Bergamo about 1592; died in 1627. 

Am-biv I-us, (Lucius TURPIO,) a famous Roman 
actor, lived about 175 i;.c. 

Amblimont, d , doN blc moN , (Fuschemberg, fti - 
shSN baiR ,) COUNT, a French naval officer, and writer on 
naval tactics, was killed in battle in 1796. 

Ambly, d , clGN ble , (CLAUDE JEAN ANTOINE,) a 
French marquis and field-marshal, born in Champagne 
in 1711. He emigrated in 1792, and served in the army 
of the Prince of Conde, after he had been a royalist 
member of the States-General. Died at Hamburg in 


Ambodik, am bo-dik, (NESTOR MAXIMOVITCH,) an 
eminent Russian physician and accoucheur, born in the 
province of Pultava in 1740. Died in 1812. He is said 
to have been the first who wrote on medical subjects in 
the Russian language. He practised in Saint Peters 
burg, and published many translations and compilations. 

Amboise, (Bussv D .) See BUSSY D AMHOISE. 

Amboise, d , dSN bwaz , (FRANC.OIS,) a French ad 
vocate and scholar, born in Paris about 1550; died in 
1620. He is chiefly known as the editor of the works of 
Abelarcl, (1616.) 

Amboise, d , (GEORGE,) commonly known as CAR- 

c as; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, v., guttural; N, nasal; K, trilled; sas:; th as in MAT. (j^ = " Sec Explanations, p. 23.) 

I 10 


niNAL D AMBOISE, a French statesman, born of a noble 
family at Chaumont-sur-Loire in 1460. He became 
Archbishop of Rouen in 1493, and prime minister of 
Louis XII. of France at his accession in 1498, before 
which he had been his faithful partisan or friend. lie 
displayed great talents for administration, made reforms 
in legislation and finance, and left the reputation of a 
wise and virtuous minister. He remained in power 
until his death in 1510. He was surnamed the "Father 
of the People." 

See LEGE.VDKE, "Vie du Cardinal D Amboise," 1726. 

Amboise, d , (JACQUES,) [Lat. JACO KUS AMBOSIA - 
NUS,J a French surgeon, brother of Frai^ois, noticed 
above, born near the middle of the sixteenth century. 
His father Jean was surgeon to Henry II., Charles IX., 
and Henry III. Jacques became in 1594 rector of the 
university, which he restored to a flourishing condition. 
Died in 1606. 

Ambra, d , dam bua, (FRANCESCO,) a distinguished 
Italian comic poet, born at Florence in the early part of 
the sixteenth century; died in 1558. His chief works 
are three comedies, "II Furto," in prose, (1560,) "La 
Cofanaria," inverse, (1561,) and " J. Bernardi," in verse, 


See GINGUENE, " Histoire Litteraire d ltalie;" MAZZUCHELLI, 
" Scrittori d ltaiia." 

Ambrogi, am-buo jee, (ANTON MARIA,) an Italian 
Jesuit, born at Florence in 1713. He was professor of 
rhetoric and poetry at the Collegio Romano, and en 
joyed a great reputation as teacher. Died in 1788. His 
principal work is a translation of Virgil s works into 
Italian verse, (4 vols., 1758-62.) 

Ambrogi, degli, dil yee am-bRo jee, (DoMEXico,) a 
skilful Italian painter of the seventeenth century, born 
at Bologna, was a pupil of Denis Calvart and of Fran 
cesco Brizio. He painted landscapes and other works, 
in oil and fresco, at Bologna. He is said to have had 
great facility in composition. 

Ambrogio, am-bRo jo, (GIOVANNI,) a Florentine 
painter and sculptor, who flourished in the fourteenth 

Ambrogio or Ambrosio, am-bRo se-o, (TESEO,) a 
distinguished Italian Oriental scholar, born at Pavi a in 
1469, became a regular canon of San Giovanni di Late- 
rano at Rome. He was professor of Syriac and Chal- 
dee at Bologna. His principal work is an " Introduc 
tion to the Chaldee, Syriac, Armenian, and ten other 
Languages," (1539.) Died in 1540. 

See TIRABOSCHI, "Sturia della Letteratura Italiana." 

Ambroise de Lombez, Sx bRwaz cleh lox ba , or 
de La Peirie, (deh 13 pi re ,) a French devotional 
writer, born at Lombez in 1708; died in 1778. 

Ambrose, SAINT, sent am broz, [Lat. SANC TUS AM- 
HRO SIUS ; Fr. SAINT-AMIJROISK, sax tSx bRwaz ,] one of 
the Latin Fathers, was born in Gaul, at Treves, it is 
supposed, about 340 A.ix His father, a Roman noble, 
was then praetorian prefect of Gaul. Ambrose was Gov 
ernor of Liguria (a province of which Milan was the 
capital) in 374, when Auxentius, the Arian archbishop 
of Milan, died. In the attempt to elect a successor, the 
contest between the Catholics and the Arians was very 
fierce, and the presence of the governor was necessary 
to appease the tumult. He addressed them with such 
eloquence and power that the assembled people declared, 
with one voice, " Ambrose shall be bishop." He accepted 
the office with great reluctance, but afterwards fulfilled 
its duties with unequalled ability, zeal, and disinterested 
ness. He sided with the Catholics, and used all his ef 
forts and influence for the suppression of Arianism. In 
390 the emperor Theodosius, incensed at the insolent 
disobedience of some of the people of Thessalonica, or 
dered an indiscriminate massacre of all the inhabitants. 
Ambrose was greatly shocked at this crime ; and when, 
shortly after, the emperor was about to enter the church 
at Milan, the archbishop sternly forbade him. Theodosius 
submitted, and, besides undergoing various other humili 
ations, was at last obliged to perform public penance 
Ambrose died in 397. He left, besides other works, a 
treatise "De Officiis," on the duties of Christian minis 
ters, which was highly esteemed, and expositions of 

Scripture. He was the author of a method of singing 
known as the "Ambrosian Chant." 

"His Letters," says Villemain, "evince a man who, 
amidst the turbulence and instability of the empire, 
never had a foible nor stain on his character, whose mag 
nanimity was adequate to all trials, and who in a more 
auspicious period would have placed himself by his 
writings in the rank of the first orators and the most 
noble geniuses." 

See PAULINOS, "Vita Ambrosii ;" GODEFROI HEKMANT, "Vie 
de Saint-Ambroise," 1678; J. P. SILBEKT, " Leben des heiligen Am 
brosius," 1841; BARONIUS, "Annales:" "Saint-Ambroise; sa Vie et 
extraits de ses ecrits," Lille, 1852; " Nouvelie Biographic Generale ;" 
"Encyclopaedia Britannica;" VILLEMAIN, "Saint-Ambroise," Paris, 
8vo, 1852. 

Am brose, (ISAAC,) an English nonconformist min 
ister and writer, who died in 1664. 

Ambrosini, 3.m-bRo-see nee, (BARTOLOMMEO,) a Bo- 
logncse physician and writer on botany, born in 1588. 
He wrote several botanical and medical treatises, and 
edited four volumes of the works of Aldrovandus on 
reptiles, quadrupeds, etc. Died in 1657. 

Ambrosini, (GIACINTO,) a botanist, born in 1605, 
was a brother of the preceding, whom he succeeded as 
professor of botany at Bologna in 1657. He published 
the first volume of a botanical dictionary, entitled "Phy- 
tologia," etc., (1666.) Died in 1672. 

Ambrosius, am-bro she-us, (AUKELIA NUS,) a British 
chieftain, who lived in the fifth century, was a rival and 
the successor of Prince Vortigern, whom lie defeated 
about 466. According to tradition, he fought with suc 
cess against the Saxon invaders under Hengist about 
485 A.D. 

See PALSGRAVE, " Rise and Progress of the English Common 
wealth;" BEDA, "Chronicon." 

Ambrosius OF CAMALDOLI, (ka-mal-do lee,) [Fr. 
AMBROISE I,E CAMALDULK, Sx bRwaz leh kt mSl dul ; 
Lat. AMBRO SIUS CAMALDULEN SIS,] an Italian monk, 
born in the Romagna in 1378, became general of his 
order in 1431. Among his -works is an account of an 
official visitation of nunneries and monasteries, entitled 
" Hoclceporicon." Died in 1439. 

Ambrosius or Ambrose, Archbishop of Moscow, 
distinguished for his learning, was born in 1708. Having 
removed an image of the Virgin, to which the people 
had resorted for protection from the plague, he was 
charged with sacrilege, and massacred by a mob, in 1771. 

Ambrozy, am-bRo zc, (WENZEL BERNHARD,) [Ger. 
pron. went sel beim haRt am-bRot sc,] a Bohemian his 
torical painter, born in 1723 ; died in 1806. 

Ambuhl or Ambuehl, am biil, (JOIIANN LUDWIG,) 
a German school-teacher and poet, born in Switzerland, 
in the canton of Saint Gall, in 1750. He wrote novels 
and historical dramas, which were once popular, and 
among which was one entitled " Wilhelm Tell." Died 
in 1800. 

Amedee. See AMADEUS. 

Ameen- (Amin- or Amyii-) Ahmed-er-Razee, 
d-meen aii mcd-er-ra zee, written also -Ahmed-el- 
Razy, (or -al-Razi,) a Persian geographer, who lived 
about the close of the seventeenth century. 

Ameil, % mhV or S m.Vye, ( AUGUSTS,) BARON, a French 
general, born in Paris in 1775. He distinguished him 
self at the capture of Munich in 1804, and was wounded 
at Jena in 1806. In 1812 he served in Russia, and ob 
tained the rank of general of brigade. He entered the 
service of Louis XVIII. in 1814, changed sides twice 
or oftener during the Hundred Days, and led a corps 
of Napoleon s cavalry at Waterloo in 1815. Died in 
exile in 1822. 

Ameilhon, t m.VloN , (HUBERT PASCAL,) a distin 
guished French scholar, born in Paris in 1730. He 
wrote a " History of the Commerce and Navigation of 
the Ancient Egyptians," (1766,) which caused him to 
be chosen a member of the Academy of Inscriptions. 
Having become a partisan of the Revolution, he was 
elected a member of the CommissioiTof Monuments in 
1793. He is said to have preserved from destruction 
800,000 volumes which belonged to various libraries and 
had been confiscated. Ameilhon was librarian of the 
Arsenal from 1797 until 1811. He contributed many ar 
ticles to the "Journal des Savants" and the "Journal de 

a, e, i, 6, u, y, long; a, 6, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, iV, y, short; a, e, j, o, obsairc; far, fall, fat; met; nftt; good; moon; 


1 1 1 

Verdun," and some valuable antiquarian treatises to the 
Memoirs of the Institute. Died in Paris in 1811. 

See QUERAKIJ, "La France Litteraire;" DACIER, "Notice sur la 
Vie et les Ouvrages d Ameilhon." 

A-mei iio-cles, [ A/itaoK/J/c,] a Corinthian 
builder, who lived about 700 i!.c. 

A-meip si-as, or A-mip si-as, [ Afiaipiaf,] a comc 
poet of Athens in the time of Aristophanes, over whom 
he won the first prize in a dramatic contest, with his 
KtjfiaaTai, 414 li.c. 

Amel, a mel, (HANS,) an architect who lived in the 
first half of the fifteenth century. He designed the 
facade and steeple of Antwerp Cathedral. 

Am el-gard , [Lat. AMELGAR DUS,] a Flemish histo 
rian, who lived in the fifteenth century. He wrote Latin 
histories of the reigns of Charles VII. and Louis XL 

Amelia or Anielie OF GERMANY. Sec AMAI.IK. 

A-me il-a, (or a-meel ya,) an English princess, daugh 
ter of George III., was born in 1783. Her character is 
highly commended. Died in 1810. 

Amelin, d , dJrm la.V, (JEAN,) the earliest translator 
of Livy into the French language, was an officer in the 
army, and lived in the time of Henry II. He published 
a version of the "Third Decade" in 1559. 

Ameline, Sm len , (CLAUDE,) a French priest, born 
in Paris in 1624, wrote on the Will, (1684.) Died in 1708. 

A-me H-us or A-me ri-us, an Eclectic philosopher, 
who was born in Italy and flourished in the last half of 
the third century. lie was a disciple of Plotinus. His 
works have not come down to us. 

A-me H-us, (MARTIN,) a distinguished professor of 
jurisprudence in the University of Freyburg, in Baden, 
was born in 1526. He contributed greatly to the in 
troduction of the Protestant religion into Baden about 
1556, and was chancellor of Baden for about thirty years. 
Died about 1590. 

Amelot de la Houssaye, fm lo deh 13 hoo s.V, 
(AHRAIIAM NICOLAS,) a French historical writer and 
translator, born at Orleans in 1634. He was secretary 
of embassy at Venice about 1670, and published a "His 
tory of the Government of Venice," (3 vols., 1705,) 
which had a high reputation. Among his other works 
are "Historical, Political, Critical, and Literary Me 
moirs," (2 vols., 1722.) He translated the "Prince" of 
Macchiavelli, (1683,) and the first six books of the "An 
nals" of Tacitus, (10 vols., 1690,) to which he added 
notes, historical and political. The last six volumes 
were translated by Bruys. " His translations with politi 
cal notes," says Voltaire, "and his histories are very good ; 
his memoirs, very faulty. He is the first writer who has 
made the government of Venice known." Died in Paris 
in 1706. 

See MORERI, " Dictionnaire historique ;" QUKRARD, "La France 

Amelotte or Amelote, Sm lot , (DENYS,) a French 
priest and ecclesiastical writer, born at Saintes in 1606 ; 
died in 1678. He made a version of the New Testa 
ment which was circulated by Louis XIV. and often re 

Amelunghi, a-ma-loon gee, (GiROLAMO,) a burlesque 
poet of Pisa in the sixteenth century. He wrote a poem 
called "The War of the Giants," ("La Gigantea," 1566,) 
one of the first productions of a kind in which the Italians 
have excelled. 

Amendola, a-meVdo-la, (FERRANTE,) a historical 
painter of Naples, born in 1664 ; died in 1724. His chief 
merit was in colouring. He failed in his effort to imitate 
Luca Giordano. 

Am-e-no phis or Am-me-no phis, [Gr. Ap 
the name of several of the early kings of Egypt. 

Ameiiophis I., a powerful king of Egypt of the 
eighteenth dynasty, ascended the throne about I778l!.c. 

Amenophis II. of Egypt, is reckoned as the seventh 
Pharaoh of the eighteenth dynasty. He is identified by 
some authorities with the Memnon of the Greeks, whose 
statue was one of-the seven wonders of the world. 

Amenophis III., a famous king of Egypt, a grand 
son of the preceding, is supposed to have built the pa 
lace or temple of Luxor. His conquests arc recorded on 
the obelisk which now stands near the Louvre in Paris. 

Amenta, a-men ta, (NiccoiA) an Italian poet, law 

yer, and philologist, born at Naples in 1659. He com 
posed popular comedies, among which are " Con- 
stanza," " II Forca," " La Fantc," and " La Carlotta." 
His observations on the Italian language, "Delia Lin 
gua nobile d ltalia," (1723,) are commended. He wrote 
the Tuscan language with purity. Died in 1719. 
See TIPALDO, " Biografia degli Italiani ilhiEtri. 

Amerbach, a mer-baK , (BASIL,) a jurist, born at Bale 
in 1534, was a son of Boniface, noticed below, whom he 
succeeded as professor. He left some manuscript works 
on law. Died in 1591. 

Amerbach, (BONIFACE,) an eminent scholar, born at 
Bale in 1495, was a son of Johann, noticed below. He 
taught civil law at the University of Bale for twenty 
years, and was an intimate friend of Erasmus, who ap 
pointed him his residuary legatee. He wrote but little. 
With the aid of his brothers Basil and Bruno, he cor 
rected an edition of Saint Jerome, (1516-26.) Died in 
1 562. His Latin style was remarkably good. 

See MELCHIOR ADAM, "Vitae Germanorum Jurisconsultorum." 

Amerbach, a mer-baK , QOHANN,) an eminent Ger 
man printer, born in Suabia. He settled at Bale about 
1480. His principal publications are editions of Saint 
Ambrose, and of Saint Augustine, (1506,) which was 
printed in a new kind of type, called Saint Augustin. 
Died about 1520. 

Amerbach, (Virus.) See AMERPACH. 

Amerighi. See CARAVAGGIO. 

Amerigo Vespucci or Americus Vespucius. 

Amerling, a mer-ling , (FRIEDRICH,) a German 
painter of high reputation, born in Vienna in 1803. He 
studied with Horace Vernet in Paris, and visited Italy. 
He is considered to be eminently successful in portraits. 
Among his works are "Dido deserted by yEneas," 
" Moses in the Desert," and a portrait of the emperoi 
Francis I. 

Amerpach, a mer-paK , (Virus or VEIT,) [Lat. Vi - 
TUS AMERPA CHIUS,] a distinguished German scholar, 
born at Wendingen, in Bavaria, about the close of the 
fifteenth century, studied at Wittenberg, and was for 
several years professor of philosophy at Ingolstadt. He 
wrote, besides other Latin works, one " On the Soul," 
("De Anima," 1542,) and "Six Books of Natural Phi 
losophy," (1548.) lie also translated some of the 
speeches of Demosthenes and Isocrates, and wrote com 
mentaries on Cicero and on Horace s "Art of Poetry." 
Died in 1557. 

Amersfoordt, a mers-foRt , or Amersvocrdt, (JA 
COB.) an eminent Oriental scholar, born at Amsterdam 
in 1786; died in 1824. He left "A Discourse on the 
Popularity of the Christian Religion, or its Adaptation 
to the Popular Mind," ("Oratio de Keligionis Christianas 
Popularitate," 1818.) 

See J. W. DE CRANE, "Vie d Amersvoordt," 1824. 

Amersfoort, van, vSn a mers-foRt , (EVERT,) a Dutch 
painter, lived in the first part of the seventeenth century. 

Ames, amz, (EmvARn,) a bishop of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, born at Athens, in Ohio, in 1806. 
He was educated at the Ohio University, licensed to 
preach in 1830, and made a bishop in 1852. Since 1861 
he has resided at Baltimore. 

Ames, (FISHER,) a celebrated American orator and 
statesman, born in Dcdham, Massachusetts, on the gth 
of April, 1758. I lis father and grandfather were physi 
cians. The former died when Fisher was only six years 
old. His mother, perceiving the promise of her son, re 
solved to give him a classical education, and at the age 
of twelve he was sent to Harvard College. At the pre 
liminary examination he was pronounced a boy of un 
common attainments. He graduated in 1774, but, in 
consequence of his extreme youth and the straitened 
:ircumstances of his family, it was several years before 
he entered upon his professional studies, the meantime 
being devoted to teaching and reading the ancient and 
modern classics. He became a student at law in the 
office of William Tudor of Boston, and commenced 
practice in his native town in 1781. Although too young 
to take an active part in the Revolutionary contest, he 
watched its progress with deep interest. 

e as k; 9 as j; g hard; g asy; G, H, K. guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (JjJ^See Explanations, p. 23.) 


I 12 


He acquired distinction by several political essays 
which were published in the newspapers under the sig 
nature of Brutus and Camillus, and which gave proof of 
practical wisdom, as well as literary merit, of a nigh or 
der. They procured his election to the convention which 
met in Massachusetts in 178810 ratify the Federal Con 
stitution. In this convention he made, on the subject of 
biennial elections, a speech characterized by extraordi 
nary eloquence and power. As a member of the legisla 
ture of Massachusetts, he was the principal promoter of 
a law which placed the common-school system of that 
State upon an improved basis. Having joined the Fed 
eral party, he was elected a member of Congress in 1789 
by the voters of his native district, which included Bos 
ton. He continued to serve in Congress for eight years, 
during which he constantly supported the administration 
of Washington and took a prominent part in the de 
bates on all important questions. 

" He was," says Griswold, " the leader of the Federal 
party in the House of Representatives during the ad 
ministration of Washington, and was applauded for his 
eloquence and learning, the solidity of his judgment, and 
the unsullied purity of his public and private conduct." 

On the 28th of April, 1796, he supported Jay s treaty 
with Great Britain in an eloquent and powerful speech, 
which has been preserved. At the close of this speech, 
a member of the opposition moved to postpone the sub 
ject, on the ground that the House was in a state of too 
great excitement to come to a just decision. The health 
of Ames had been for some time very delicate and de 
clining, and on the retirement of Washington, about the 
end of 1796, he returned to his farm in Dedham. He had 
married in 1792 Frances Worthington, of Springfield. 
In 1798 he wrote " Laocoon " and other essays, to arouse 
the Federalists to a more vigorous opposition to the 
aggressions of France. On the death of Washington, 
December, 1799, he pronounced his eulogy before the 
legislature of Massachusetts. He was elected president 
of Harvard College in 1804, but he declined the honour, 
chiefly on account of ill health. He died on the 4th of 
July, 1808, leaving several sons, of whom one, Nathan 
iel, acquired some reputation as an author. 

In the preparation of his speeches, Fisher Ames did 
little more, it is said, than draw the outlines, depending 
for the language, illustrations, and modes of appeal, upon 
his mental resources at the time of speaking. He was 
equally distinguished for his delicate wit and brilliant 
imagination; and his colloquial gifts were considered by 
his acquaintances not less remarkable than his powers 
as an orator. His disposition was amiable, and his 
character without reproach. In person he was of me 
dium height and well proportioned. His letters and 
other writings were published by his son, Seth Ames, 
in 2 vols., 1854. 


Ames, amz, (JOSEPH,) a British naval officer, born in 
1619, distinguished himself in a battle against the Dutch 
in July, 1653. Died in 1695. 

Ames, (JOSEPH,) F.R.S., an English antiquary, born 
at Yarmouth in 1689. In 1749 he published "Typo 
graphical Antiquities : being an Historical Account of 
Printing in England, with some Memoirs of our Ancient 
Printers, and a Register of the Books printed by them." 
An improved edition was published by W. Herbert in 
3 vols., 1785-90; and another by Dr. T. F. Dibdin in 
1810-19. Died in 1759. 

See GOUGH, " Memoirs of Joseph Ames," prefixed to the " Typo 
graphical Antiquities." 

Ames, (NATHAN P.,) an American machinist and 
manufacturer of fire-arms, ordnance, and cutlery, born 
in 1803. He owned extensive works at Chicopee Falls 
and Cabotvillc, Massachusetts, and was distinguished as 
an inventor. Died in 1847. 

Ames, (NATHANIEL,) a son of Fisher Ames, was the 
author of several sea-sketches. Died in 1835. 

Ames, ( WILLIAM,) D.D., a learned English Puritan 
divine, born in Norfolk county in 1576. He emigrated 
to Holland about 1612, and was professor of theohxrv at 
frraneker for twelve years. He attended the Synod of 

Dort in 1618. Among his works are "Marrow of Theo 
logy," ("Medulla Theologiae," 1623,) and a book on 
practical theology, entitled " On the Conscience and its 
Authority," ("be Conscientia et ejus Jure vel Casi- 
bus," 1630,) which had a high reputation even in foreign 
countries. Died at Rotterdam in 1633. 

See BROOK S "Lives of the Puritans." 

Amestris. See AMASTKIS. 

Amfreville, d , doNT r-vel , MARQUIS, a brave French 
naval officer, commanded the vanguard at the battle of 
La Hogue in 1692. He obtained the rank of lieutenant- 
general of the naval armies, and died at an advanced 
age. Two of his brothers were also distinguished naval 

See QUINCY, " Histoire militairc de Louis le Grand." 

Amherst, am erst, (JEFFERY or JEFFREY,) usually 
called LORD AMHERST, an English general, born at River- 
head, in Kent, in January, 1717. He entered the army 
in 1731, was aide-de-camp to Lord Ligonier at Fontenoy 
in. 1741, and became a colonel in 1756. Having ob 
tained the rank of major-general in 1758, he commanded 
at the capture of Cape Breton, and took Ticonderoga 
from the French in 1759. He performed an important 
part in the conquest of Canada in 1760, (see WOLFE, 
GENERAL,) after which he was commander-in-chief of 
the armies in America until 1763, when he was ap 
pointed Governor of Virginia. He was made lieutenant- 
general of the ordnance in 1772, received the title of 
Baron Amherst in 1776, and became commander-in-chief 
of the English army in 1778. This command was taken 
from him in 1782, and restored in 1793. He was super 
seded as commander-in-chief by the Duke of York 
in 1795, and was made a field-marshal in 1796. Died in 

See "Gentleman s Magazine," September, 1797. 

Amherst, (WILLIAM PITT,) LORD, an English diplo 
matist, born in 1773, was a nephew and heir of the pre 
ceding. He was sent as ambassador extraordinary to 
China in 1816, and arrived at Pekin, but, as he refused 
to submit to the degrading ceremonies which were the 
necessary conditions of admission to the Chinese court, 
his mission was so far a failure. An account of his 
journey to China was published by Clarke Abel. He 
was appointed Governor-General of India in 1823, re 
ceived the title of earl in 1826, and was recalled to Eng 
land the same year. Died in 1857. 

Amhurst, am iirst, (NICHOLAS,) an English political 
and satirical writer, born at Marden, Kent, about 1702. 
Having been expelled from a college of Oxford in 1719, 
he published, in 1721, a witty satire against that univer 
sity, in a periodical entitled "Terra: Filius." lie after 
wards gained distinction as editor of "The Craftsman," 
a weekly political paper, (commenced about 1730,) which 
had a very large circulation, (ten or twelve thousand 
copies,) and in which Lord Bolingbroke and Pulteney 
were his coadjutors. He was neglected by his political 
friends when they obtained power in 1742, and died in 
the same year. 

See CIEBER, "Lives of the Poets." 

Amici, a-mee chee, (GIOVANNI BATTISTA,) an Italian 
optician, astronomer, and natural philosopher, born at 
Modena in 1784. He acquired skill in the construction 
of optical instruments, especially of mirrors for tele 
scopes and lenses for microscopes. About 1827 he pro 
duced a dioptric or achromatic microscope which bears 
his name and is highly esteemed. At the death of L. 
Pons, (1835,) Amici was appointed director of the Obser 
vatory of Florence, where he gained a high reputation 
as an observer. He wrote memoirs on double stars, on 
the diameter of the sun, etc. Died in 1863. 

Amici, (TOMMASO,) an Italian sculptor of the fifteenth 
century, was living in 1495. 

Amico, a-mee ko, (ANTONINO,) a Sicilian priest, 
historiographer to Philip IV. of Spain. Died in 1641. 
He wrote several works on the history and antiquities 
of Sicily. 

Amicp, (BARTOLOMMEO,) an Italian Jesuit, born in 
Lucania in 1562, was professor of philosophy at Naples. 
He wrote a "Commentary on Aristotle," (7 vols., 1623- 
48.) Died in 1649. 

, o, ti, y, long; i, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, u, y, ;kort; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fill, fit; met; n3t; good; moon ; 



Amico, (BERNARDINO,) an Italian monk, born at 
Gallipoli, near Taranto, passed several years at Jerusa 
lem from 1596 to about 1600. He published at Rome, 
in 1609, descriptions and designs of sacred buildings in 
the Holy Land, entitled "Trattato delle Piantc ed im- 
magini dei sacri Edifici," etc. The designs were en 
graved by Callot. 

Amico or A-mi cus, (Dio.ME DK,) an Italian medical 
writer, born at Piacenza, lived about 1600. 

Amico, (FAUSTINO,) an Italian poet, born at Bassano 
in 1524. He gave promise of extraordinary talents, but 
died prematurely in 1558. Among his works is a beau-. 
tiful Latin epistle to his friend Alessandro Campesano, 
(1564.) He wrote also Italian verses. 

Amico, (FRANCESCO,) an Italian Jesuit and writer on 
theology, born at Cosenza in 1578; died in 1651. 

Amico, (LORENZO,) an Italian monk and writer on 
philology and other subjects, born at Mila/zo in 1633. 

Amico, (Luioi,) an Italian diplomatist, born at Asti 
m J 757 died in 1832. 

Amico, (Vrro MARIA,) a learned Sicilian historian 
and antiquary, born at Catania in 1693. He was for 
some time professor of philosophy at Catania. He pub 
lished "Sicilia Sacra," (1733,) and "Catana Illustrata," 
(4 vols., 1741.) Died in 1762. 

Amiconi, a-me-ko nee, or Amigoni, a-me-go nee, 
(OiTAViu,) an Italian painter, born at Brescia in 1605; 
died in 1661. 

Amidano,a-me-da / no,(PoMPONIO,) an Italian painter, 
born at Parma in the sixteenth century, was one of the 
most eminent pupils of Parmegiano. His chief work is 
an altar-piece in the church of the Madonna del Quar- 
tiere at Parma, which is highly praised by Lanzi. Died, 
it is supposed, about 1600. 

See LANZI, "History of Painting in Italy." 
Amigoui, a-me-go nee, or Amiconi, a-mc-ko nee, 
(JACOPO,) an Italian historical painter, whose success 
appears to have been greater than his merit, was born 
in Venice in 1675. He worked in London about ten 
years, (1729-39,) during which he painted many portraits. 
His style was admired by the purchasers of pictures 
more than by the critics. Among his works is the His 
tory of Judith. He was court painter at Madrid when 
he died in 1752. , 

See LANZI, "History of Painting in Italy." 
Amik, a mik or a meek , (OF BOKHARA,) a Persian 
poet of the twelfth century. 
Aniilcar. See HAMII.CAR. 
Amin-Ahmed-el-Razy, (or -al-Razi.) See AMEEN- 


Amiot or Amyot, ft me-o , (JOSEPH,) a French 
Jesuit and missionary, born at Toulon in 1718. He 
went to China in 1750, and was invited by the emperor 
to Pekin, where he remained forty-three years and 
made great proficiency in the Chinese language. No 
other writer of the eighteenth century has thrown so 
much light on the manners and history of the Chinese. 
He translated several Chinese works, wrote a "Letter 
on the Genius of the Chinese Language," (1773,) and 
compiled a Manchoo-Tartar-French Dictionary, (3 vols., 
Paris, 1789-90,) the first ever published. He was author 
of a large part of the collection entitled " Memoirs con 
cerning the History, Sciences, Arts, and Customs of the 
Chinese," (16 vols., 1776-1814.) A life of Confucius by 
Amiot is included in these Memoirs. Died at Pekin 
in 1794. 

See"I,ettresedifiantesetcurieuses,"xxviii. 158 ; STAUNTON, "Mis 
cellaneous Notices relating to China;" A. RKMUSAT, " Rccherches 
sur les Langues Tartares;" ERSCH und GRUBEK, "Allgemeine En- 

Amipsias. See AMEIPSIAS. 

Am leth or Ham leth, an ancient and perhaps fabu 
lous prince of Jutland, whose story, as recorded by.Saxo 
Grammaticus, is the foundation of Shakspearc s tragedy 
ot "Hamlet." He is supposed to have lived before the 
Christian era. 

Amling, am ling, (KARL GUSTAV,) a celebrated Ger 
man designer and engraver, born at Nuremberg about 
650. He worked at Munich, was patronized by the 
elector Maximilian II., and excelled in portraits. He 
rflso engraved historical paintings, but with less success. 

He was reputed the best German engraver of his time. 
Died in 1701. 

Ammaeus, am-ma us, or Van Amm, vSn am, (DoMi 
NIC,) a Dutch jurist, born at Lceuwarden in 1579, became 
professor of law at Jena in 1602. He wrote an import 
ant work on public or constitutional law, "Discursus de 
Jure publico," (1617-23.) Died in 1637. 

Amman, written also Ammann, iim man, (JOHANN,) 
a German botanist and physician, born at S chaff hausen 
in 1707, graduated in medicine at Leyden in 1729. In 
1733 he became professor of botany at Saint Petersburg, 
where he died in 1741 or 1742, leaving the first volume 
ot an unfinished work on the plants of Russia, (1739.) 
See SPREXGEL, "Geschichte des Botanik." 

Amman, (/OHANN CONRAD,) a physician, native of 
Schaffhausen, who settled in Holland, where he gained 
a great and deserved reputation for teaching the deaf 
and dumb to speak. He wrote " Surdus Loquens," 
(1692.) Died probably about 1725. 

Amman, (/OHANN JACOI!,) a German surgeon, born 
at a little village on Lake Zurich in 1586. lie published 
a book of Travels in the Levant, (3 vols., 1618.) Died 
at Zurich in 1658. 

Amman or Ammon, am mon, (Josr, or JUSTUS,) a 
famous Swiss engraver and designer, born at Zurich 
about 1535. He became a citizen of Nuremberg about 
1560, and probably passed there the rest of his life, of 
which little is known. He illustrated many books with 
his designs, which are exceedingly numerous. He en 
graved on wood and copper, and excelled in the art of 
grouping figures. His "Portraits of the Kings of France 
from Pharamond to Henry III." appeared in 1576. His 
wood-cuts are better than his copper-plates. -Died in 

See HEINECKEN, " Dictionnaire des Artistes;" STRUTT, "Dic 
tionary of Engravers." 

Amman or Ammann, (PAUL,) an eminent German 
botanist and physician, born at Breslau in 1634. He 
obtained a chair of botany at Leipsic in 1674, and a chair 
of physiology in 1682. He was addicted to paradox, and 
was a severe critic. Among his works may be mentioned 
his "Treatment of Deadly Wounds," (" Praxis Vulnerum 
lethalium," 1690;) and "Natural Character of Plants," 
("Character naturalis Plantarum," 1676.) Died in 1691. 

See HALLER, " Bibliotheca Botanica." 

Ammanati, am-ma-na tee, written also Ammanato 
and Ammanate, (BARTOLOMMEO,) a distinguished Ital 
ian sculptor and architect, born at Florence in 1511, 
was a pupil of Bandinelli and Sansovino. He imitated 
Michael Angelo in sculpture. He worked in Rome for 
Pope Julius III., adorned the Capitol with sculptures, 
and designed the court and facade of the Roman College. 
At Florence he constructed the noble bridge called 
Ponte della Trinita, (which is still standing,) finished the 
Pitti Palace, and erected several monuments. Among 
his chief works are three statues which adorn the tomb 
of Sannazar at Naples, and a colossal statue of Neptune 
at Florence. Died about 1590. He left a valuable work 
on public buildings, etc., entitled "The City," ("La 
Citta.") His wife, LAURA BATTIEERRI, was celebrated 
as a poetess. 

See VASARI, " Uomini illustri d ltalta ;* CICOGNARA, "Storia di 


Ammanati, (GIOVANNI,) an able Italian sculptor, 
worked at Orvieto from 1331 to 1355. 

Ammanati, (LAURA Battiferri bat-te-fcr ree,) a 
distinguished Italian poetess, born at Urbino about 
1520. She was married in 1550 to B. Ammanati, above 
noticed. Died in 1589. 

Ammann. See AMMAN. 

Ammar-Ibn-Yasir, am-maR Ib n ya sjr, a famous 
Arab and companion of Mohammed. lie took part in 
the battle of the Camel, 658 A.rx, and was killed at the 
battle of Sefayn, where he commanded the cavalrv for 

Am men, (jACOii,) an American general, born in Vir 
ginia, graduated at West Point in 1831. He was after 
wards professor of mathematics in several colleges in 
different parts of the United States. He was appointed 
brigadier-general of volunteers about July, 1862. 

e as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; o, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (^="See Explanations, p. 23.) 





Am-mi-a mis, [ \ufuav6f,] a Greek poet, lived about 
100-130 A.D.. and wrote epigrams, many of which are 
found in the Greek Anthology. 

Am-mi-a nus Mar-cel-ii nus, [Fr. AMMIEN MAR- 
CELLIN, S me aN mf R si laN ,] a Roman historian of 
great merit, born of a G~reek family at Antioch in the 
early part of the fourth century. He entered the army 
in his youth, took part in a campaign in the East in 350 
A.D., and afterwards accompanied Julian in an expedition 
against Persia. Having retired from the army, he be 
came a resident of Rome, where he wrote his history 
of the Roman Empire, in thirty-one books, of which 
the first thirteen are lost. The whole work comprised 
the period from 96 A.D. to 378 A.D. His fidelity and 
impartiality are highly commended by Gibbon and 
other critics. His style, however, is much inferior to 
the classic models of Roman prose. He died, it is sup 
posed, about 395 A.D. It has been disputed whether he 
was a Christian or a heathen ; but there would seem to 
be little ground for doubting that he was a pagan. 

See CLAUDE CHIFFLET, "De Ammiani Marcellini Vita;" GIBBON, 
"Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire," chap, xxiii. 

Ammien Marcellin. See AMMIANUS MARCELLI- 


Ammirato, am-me-ra to, (SCIPIONE,) an Italian his 
torian, born at Lecce, in Naples, in 1531. After various 
adventures in Venice, Rome, and Naples, he settled at 
Florence in 1569, and found a patron in the Grand 
Duke Cosmo, who commissioned him to write the his 
tory of Florence. He became a canon in the cathedral 
of Florence in 1595, and wrote a large number of works, 
among which is a "Discourse on Cornelius Tacitus," 
(1594.) His most important work is a "History of 
Florence," ("Istorie Fiorentine," ist vol., 1600; 2d 
vol., 1641,) which is the most accurate and complete 
that has been written on that subject. The Academy 
Delia Crusca styled him "the modern Livy." Died at 
Florence in 1601. 

See DOMEXICO DE ANGELIS, "Vita di Scipione Ammirato," 1706; 
TIRABOSCHI, " Storia della Letteratura Italiana." 

Am mon [Gr. *A/z//ui>"| or Ham mon, an ancient hea 
then deity, worshipped in Libya, Egypt, Greece, etc., was 
called Zeus Ammon by the Greeks, and Jupiter Ammon 
by the Romans. There was a famous temple of Ammon 
at Thebes in Egypt, and another in the oasis of Siwah, 
in the Libyan Desert. He was represented in the form 
of a ram, or as a human being with a ram s head. 

Ammon, am mon, (Ci.K.MK.vr,) a German engraver, 
born at Frankfort, lived about the middle of the seven 
teenth century. 

Ammon, (KARL WILHF.LM,) a Prussian writer on 
horses, born at Trakehnen, Prussian Lithuania, in 1777. 
He published a "Natural History of the Horse," (181^,) 
and a " Complete Manual of Practical Veterinary Medi 
cine," (" Vollstandiges Handbuch der praktischen Pfer- 
dearzeneikunst," 2 vols., 1804-7.) 

Ammon, von, fon am mon, (CHRISTOPH FRIEDRICH,) 
a German Protestant theologian and popular pulpit ora 
tor of wide reputation, was born at Baireuth in 1766. 
He was professor of theology at Go ttingen from 1 794 to 
1804, in which year he obtained a chair at Erlangen. He 
removed to Dresden in 1813, and became court preacher 
to the King of Saxony. He was one of the first apos 
tles of what is called Rationalism in German theology. 
His principal work is " Development of Christianity into 
the Universal Religion," (" Fortbildung des Christen- 
thums zur Weltreligion," 4 vols., 1833-40.) Among his 
numerous works is a " Plan (Entwurf) of a pure Biblical 
Theology," (3 vols., 1802.) Died in 1820. 

See JULIUS PABST, " Lebens- und Charakterumrisse C. F. von 
Ammons," Dresden, 1850; BROCKHAUS, "Conversations-Lexikon;" 
and "Ch. F. Ammon nach Leben, Ansichten und Wirken," Leipzig, 

Ammon or Ammen, von, (FRIEDRICH AUGUST,) 
a German physician, son of the preceding, was born at 
Gottingen in 1799. He became professor in the medical 
academy of Dresden in 1829, and royal physician, (Leib- 
arzt.) He published, besides other works, "Observa 
tions on Diseases of the Eye," (3 vols., 1838-41.) Died 
in 1861. 

Am-mo nas or Amoun, a-moon , [Gr. A[j./iuvac or 

\fj.avv,\ the founder of a celebrated monastic order in 
Egypt. Died about 320 A.D. 

Ammonio, am-mo ne-o, written also Ammon, (AN 
DREA,) [Lat. AN DREAS A.MMO NIUS,] a distinguished 
Italian scholar, born at Lucca in 1477, was an intimate 
friend of Erasmus. He became about 1513 Latin sec 
retary to Henry VIII. of England, whose victory at 
Guinegate he celebrated in a Latin poem called " Pane- 
gyricus," which was praised by Erasmus. He afterwards 
served Pope Leo X. as nuncio to the court of Henry VI II., 
and died in London in 1517. All his Latin poems are 
lost, except one eclogue. 

See MAZZUCHELLI, " Scrittori d ltalia." 

Am-mo ni-us, [Gr. A/u/uwwof.] There were among 
the ancients a number of eminent persons of this name : 
the following are perhaps most worthy of notice : 

Ammonius, a Greek grammarian, who lived at Alex 
andria about 50 B.C., and wrote commentaries on Homer 
and Aristophanes. 

Ammonius, a Peripatetic philosopher who taught at 
Athens or Delphi in the latter half of the first century. 
He was a preceptor of Plutarch, and endeavoured to 
reconcile the doctrines of Plato and Aristotle. Plutarch 
wrote a life of him, which is not extant. 

Ammonius, a Christian philosopher, who has been 
confounded with Ammonius Saccas, lived at Alexandria 
in the third century of our era. He is the reputed author 
of a Harmony of the Gospels. 

Ammonius, a Greek grammarian, was priest of a 
temple in Alexandria about 380 A.D. He wrote a Dic 
tionary of Greek Synonyms, which has been often printed. 

Ammonius surnamed LITHOT OMUS, a celebrated 
surgeon of Alexandria, supposed to have lived in the 
third century B.C. He was the first who contrived a 
method of breaking the calculus in the bladder when it 
was too large to be extracted through the opening made 
by incision ; from which improvement in lithotomy he 
received his surname. 

Ammonius surnamed SAC CAS, (because in early 
life he was a porter, and earned a livelihood by carrying 
sacks,) the founder of that school of Eclectic philosophy 
commonly known as New Platonism, was a native of 
Alexandria, in Egypt, where he died 241 A.D. He was 
the son of Christian parents, but preferred the heathen 
religion. Among his numerous disciples were Origen, 
LMiginus, and Plotinus. He left no writings, and ex 
acted from his disciples a promise not to divulge the 
mysteries which he taught. 

See RITTER, " History of Philosophy ;" DEHAUT, " Essai his- 
torique sur la Vie d Ammonius Saccas," 1836. 

Ammonius, son of Hermias, a Greek philosopher, 
born at Alexandria, lived at Athens in the last half of 
the fifth century after Christ. He wrote valuable com 
mentaries on Aristotle and Porphyry, and belonged to 
the school of New Platonists. 

Am/iion, a son of David, King of the Jews, was slain 
by Absalom. (See II. Samuel xiii.) 

Amo, a mo, (ANTONY WILLIAM,) a learned negro, 
born in Guinea about 1702. He studied at Halle, be 
came a classical scholar, and published a work " On the 
Law of the Moors," (" De Jure Maurorum," 1729.) He 
was afterwards a councillor of state at the court of Ber 
lin. On the death of his patron, the Duke of Brunswick, 
he returned to Africa. He was seen by H. Gallaudet 
at Axoom, (Axum,) in Abyssinia, in 1753. 

See GREGOIRE, "De la Litterature des Negres." 

Amolon, S mo loN , or Amulon, it mU lox , a French 
ecclesiastic, who became Archbishop of Lyons in 841 
A.D. He wrote a treatise against the Jews. Died in 

Am-O-me tus, [ A/zw^rof,] an ancient Greek author, 
wrote an account of a voyage on the Nile, of which some 
fragments are extant. 

Amon, a mon, a son of Manasseh, King of Judah, suc 
ceeded to the throne of his father, and was killed by 
his own servants, who conspired against him. (See II. 
Kings xxi. 19-23 ; also II. Chronicles xxxiii. 21-24.) 

Amontons, t moN toN , (GUILLAUME,) an ingenious 
French natural philosopher and mechanician, born in 
Paris in 1663. He learned architecture, and .vas em 

it, e, T, o, u, y, long; a, e, o, same, less prolonged; a, e, T, o, li, y, short; a, e, i, o, obscure; far fall, fit; met; not; good; moon; 


ployed on several public works. He laboured with suc 
cess to improve the barometer, thermometer, and hy 
grometer, and wrote a treatise on instruments, 
(1695.) "He was the real inventor of the telegraphic 
art," says Biot, " as it is practised at the present day," 
(i.e. 1811.) He proposed that signals should be trans 
mitted from station to station by operators whose vision 
was aided by the telescope ; but his plan was not executed 
until fifty years later. Died in 1705. 

Amor, the Roman god of love. See CUPID. 

Amoretti, a-mo-ret tee, (CARLO,) a meritorious Ital 
ian naturalist, writer, and translator, born at Oncglia, 
near Genoa, in 1740 or 1741. He translated Winckel- 
mann s "History of Ancient Art" into Italian, (1779,) 
wrote an excellent biography of Leonardo da Vinci, 
(1784,) and became one of the keepers of the Ambrosian 
Library, at Milan, in 1797. He was a member of the 
Italian Institute. Amoretti is author of an important 
work on the geography and natural history of Lakes 
Como, Maggiore, and Lugano, and the adjacent districts, 
entitled "Journey from Milan to the Three Lakes," 
(" Yiaggio da Milano ai tre Laghi," 1794.) He trans 
lated into French the voyages of Pigafetta and Malclo- 
naclo. Died in 1816. 

See LOMBARDI, "Storia della Letteratura Italiana;" " Nouvelle 
Biographic Generale." 

Amoretti, (MARIA PEREGRINA,) a learned Italian 
lady, born at Oneglia in 1756. She wrote a work "On 
the Right of Dowry among the Romans," ("De Jure 
Dotium apud Romanos.") Died in 1787. 

Amoreux, i mo ruh , (PIERRE JOSEPH,) a French 
physician and miscellaneous writer, born at Beaucaire 
about 1740. He wrote several works on natural history 
and rural economy, which were received with favour. 
Died in 1824. 

Amoros, a-mo r6s, (FRANCISCO,) a Spanish colonel, 
born at Valencia in 1769, was the first who introduced 
gymnastic education into France. During the reign of 
Joseph Bonaparte he was councillor of state, minister of 
police, etc. He afterwards became an exile in France, 
and established a gymnasium with success. In 1831 he 
was appointed director of a normal gymnasium in Paris. 
Died in 1843. 

Amorosi, a-mo-ro see, (ANTONIO,) an Italian painter, 
born near Ascoli, lived in the first half of the eighteenth 
century. He painted humorous subjects, which the 
Italians call Bambocciate, and displayed much talent for 

See LANZI, " History of Painting in Italy." 

Amort, a moRt, (EusEBius,) a German theologian 
and monk, born near Tolz, in Bavaria, in 1692. He 
wrote a " History of Indulgences," (1735,) and attacked 
prevailing superstitions in a work "On Revelations, 
Visions, and Apparitions," (1744.) Died in 1775. 

See SAVIOLI-CORBELLI, " Ehrendenkmal E. Amorts," 1777. 

Am o-ry, (THOMAS,) an eccentric English writer, a 
zealous Unitarian, was born about 1690. He published 
memoirs of several ladies of Great Britain, (1755,) and 
is supposed to have represented his own character and 
experience in "The Life of John Buncle, Esq. ; contain 
ing Various Observations and Reflections made in Va 
rious Parts of the World," (2 vols., 1756-66.) Died in 

Amory, (THOMAS,) a distinguished Presbyterian di 
vine, born at Taunton, England, in 1700. He was or 
dained in 1730, and became principal tutor of a dissent 
ing academy at Taunton in 1738. In 1759 he removed 
to London, and in 1766 became sole pastor of the chapel 
at Old Jewry, where he had preached seven years as 
colleague of Dr. Chandler. He published, besicfes other 
;vorks, two volumes of sermons, (1758, 1766,) and 
" Grove s System of Moral Philosophy, revised, cor 
rected, and improved," (1749.) Died in 1774. 

Amos, a mos, [Heb. D1D> ,] one of the minor He 
brew prophets, lived about 800 u.C. He was a herdsman 
and gatherer of sycamore-fruit. His book is the third 
in order of position among the minor prophets, and 
c jntains several eloquent and admirable passages. 

Amondrou, t moo dRoo , (ANTOINE,) a French 
architect, born at Dole in 1739 ; died in 1812. He built 
some nalaces in Warsaw. 


Ampach auf Griinfelden, (or G-ruenfelden,) von 

fon am paK owf gRtin fel den, (JoiiANN GEORG,) a Ger 
man physician, born in 1784, wrote several veterinary 
treatises. Died in 1832. 

Am-pe H-us, (Lucius,) a Roman, known only as the 
author of a work called " Book of Memory," (" Liber 
Memorialis,") which was edited by Salmasius. It is a 
compendium of history, geography, etc. 

Ampere, 6N T/ paiR , (ANDR MARIE,) a celebrated 
French mathematician and natural philosopher, born at 
Lyons on the 2Oth of January, 1775, was the son of a mer- 
cfiant. He learned mathematics in early youth at home 
without a teacher, and eagerly read the poems of Virgil 
and Horace in the original. He married Julie Carron 
in 1799. In 1802 he attracted the public attention by a 
curious work " On the MathematicalTheory of Gaming." 
In 1805 he obtained by the favour of Delambre the 
place of repetitair of analysis in the Polytechnic School, 
Paris. He became inspector-general of the university 
in 1808, professor of analysis in the Polytechnic School 
in 1809, and a member of the Institute in 1814. 

In 1820 he announced the remarkable discoveries in 
electro-magnetism which constitute, perhaps, his chief 
title to celebrity. He demonstrated the influence of a 
spiral wire conducting a galvanic current, in magnet 
izing a needle, proved that two voltaic conductors at 
tract each other when the currents have the same direc 
tion and repel each other when- the currents flow in 
opposite directions, and inferred from his experiments 
that the phenomena of natural magnetism depend on 
electrical currents which constantly pass around the 
earth from east to west. These results, which he ob 
tained by the application of the most difficult parts of 
mathematical analysis, were communicated to the Acad 
emy of Sciences, in several papers, in the autumn of 
1820. "The vast field of physical science," says Arago, 
"perhaps never presented so brilliant a discovery con 
ceived, verified, and completed with such rapidity." 

Ampere gave the name of Electro-Dynamics tto his 
new science. In 1822 he published a "Collection of 
Observations on Electro-Dynamics." His theory and 
discoveries in this science were more amply developed 
in his work entitled " Theory of Electro-Dynamic Phe 
nomena deduced from Experiments only," (" Theorie 
des Phenomenes electro-dynamiques uniquement deduite 
de FExperience," 1826.) 

Among his later works is a treatise on the undulatory 
theory of light, (" Memoire sur la Determination de la 
Surface courbe des Ondes lumineuses, etc.," 1828 ;) also, 
an " Essay on the Philosophy of the Sciences , or Ana 
lytic Exposition of a Natural Classification of all Human 
Knowledge." ("Essai sur la Philosophic des Sciences, ou 
Exposition analytique d une Classification naturelle de 
toutes les Connaissances humaines," 1834.) 

He wrote numerous treatises on optics, natural his 
tory, etc., which were printed in the " Memoires" of the 
Institute, and in other journals. He was a Fellow of the 
Royal Society of London. Died in Paris in 1836. He 
is said to have resembled La Fontaine in good nature, 
(bonhomie,} simplicity, and absence of mind. 

See ARAGO, " E"loge d Ampere ;" SAINTE-BEUVE et M. LITTR, 
notice in the "Revue cles Deux Mondes," February, 1837; QUETE- 
LET, "Notice sur M. Ampere," 1836; Louis DE LOMENIE, "Gale- 
rie des Contemporains illustres." 

Ampere, QEAN JACQUES,) a son of the preceding, 
was bom at Lyons in August, i8co. He devoted him 
self to literary pursuits, and obtained access to the select 
society which met at the salon of Madame Recamier. 
In 1830 he became an assistant or substitute of Ville- 
main as professor at the Sorbonne, and in 1833 suc " 
j ceeded Andrieux as professor of French literature at 
the College of France. He was admitted into the Acad 
emy of Inscriptions in 1842, and into the French Acad 
emy in 1847. Among his works are "The Literary 
History of France before the Twelfth Century," (" His- 
toire litteraire de la France avant le douzieme Siecle," 
3 vols., 1839,) and a collection of charming articles called 
" Litterature et Voyages," (1833.) Died in 1864. 
Sue QUERARD, " La France Litteraire." 
Am-phi-a-ra us, [Gr. A^mpao?,] a famous soothsayer 

as k; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; o, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; K, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (2^ = See Explanations, p. 23.) 




;md hero of Argos. He took part in the Argonautic 
expedition, and married Eriphyle, who, bribed by the 

fatal necklace of Harmonia, persuaded him against his 
will to join in the expedition of the Seven against Thebes. 
Tradition adds that the earth opened and swallowed 
him, and that he was afterwards worshipped as a hero. 

Am-phic ra-tes, [Gr. A/^i,vpur?/f,] an Athenian ora 
tor, who nourished about 70 li.c. For some unknown 
cause he was banished from Athens, and went to Asia, 
where he died. 

Am-phic ty-oii, [Gr. A^p jcrvdir,} a fabulous king of 
Attica, was a son of Deucalion, (or, as some say, an 
autochthon.) He was expelled from his kingdom and 
succeeded by Erichthonius. He is supposed to have 
lived about 1490 K.C. 

Am-phi-lo -ehi-us, [Giv A^Ao^of; Fr. AMPHILOQUE, 
ON fe lok ,] a bishop of Iconium, and a zealous opponent 
of Arianism, was born in Cappaclocia. About 383 A.I). 
he went to the court of the emperor Theodosius, and 
instigated him to issue a decree prohibiting the public 
assemblies of the Arians. Died about 395 A.U. His 
works are nearly all lost. 

Ani-phi on, [Gr. Auoiuv,] a Theban prince, who re 
ceived a golden lyre from Mercury, and cultivated music 
with such success that he built the walls of Thebes by 
the sounds which he drew from that instrument, the 
stones arranging themselves obsequiously at his will. 
The meaning of this fable appears to be that by his elo 
quence and persuasive- manners he prevailed upon his 
rude and hitherto intractable subjects to build the walls 
of their city. He married the famous Niobe. 

Amphi / on [ Auoiuv] OF CNOS SUS, a Greek statuary, 
who lived about 420 B.C. 

Am phis, ["A/^f,] an Athenian comic poet, who was 
i contemporary of Plato. His works are not extant. 

Am-phis tra-tos, [ Aju0<rrparof,] a Greek sculptor, 
mentioned by Pliny as the author of a good statue of 
Callisthenes. He lived about 320 is.c. 

Am-plii-tri te, [ Appirpinj,] a Nereid of the Greek 
mythology, represented as the wife of Neptune, and 
mother of Triton. She was sometimes styled by the 
poets the goddess of the sea. 

Am pi-us, (TITUS FLAVIANUS,) a Roman general, 
who fought for Vespasian against Vitellius about 70 A.D. 

Anipsing, amp sing, or Amp zing, (JoiiN ASSUE- 
RUS,) a Dutch medical writer, born in 1559 ; died in 1642. 

Ampsiiig, (SAMUEL,) a Dutch poet, a son of the pre 
ceding, lived in the early part of the seventeenth century. 

Ampudia, am-poo de-a, (PEDRO DE,) a Mexican gen 
eral, who obtained that rank in 1840. He commanded 
an army which besieged Campeachy in 1842-43. In 
1846 he was in command at Monterey, which was be 
sieged by General Tayloi, and was taken prisoner in 
September of that year. 

Amreeta. See AMRITA. 

Am ri-ta, [Hindoo pron. um n-ta, from a, priva 
tive, and mrita, "dead," also "death,"] sometimes 
written, but less correctly, Amreeta, the name given 
by the Hindoos to the water of immortality which was 
produced by the churning of the ocean. (See KURMA- 
VATARA.) The term Amrita or Amrit is also applied to 
the food as well as to the drink of the gods, and hence 
to any delicious drink. 

Amroo, Amru, or Amrou, am roo,* or, more fully, 
Amroo-Ibn-Al-Aas, (or -Ass,) Tb n al ass, (i.e. " Am 
roo the son of Al-Aas,") a famous Arabian general, who 
conquered Egypt in the reign of the caliph Omar, about 
640 A.D. He was afterwards governor of Egypt until 
Omar s death. In the civil war which followed the death 
of Othman he fought against Alee. Died in 663 A.D. 

See IRVING, "Mahomet and his Successors," vol. ii.; ADUI.FEDA, 
"Annales Moskmici;" GIBBON, "Decline and Fall of the Roman 
Empire," chap li.; WEIL, "(^schichte der Chalifen," vol. i. 

Amrool-kays, Amrulkais, or Amroulcays, am - 
rool-kis , written also Amrolkais, a distinguished 
Arabian poet, who lived about 600 A.n. He was author 
of one of the Mo allakat, poems suspended oa the Kaaba 
at Mecca. 

Amrou or Amru. See AMROO. 

* See remarks on Oriental names, in the Introduction. 

Amr-Seebawayh or Amr-Sibawayh, am r see - 
ba-wln , the greatest of the Arabian grammarians, lived 
at Bagdad in the reign of Haroun-al-Raschid. 

Amsdorf, von, ton ams doRf, (NIKOLAUS,) a Ger 
man Reformer, born near Wurzen, in Saxony, in 1483. 
He became professor of divinity at Wittenberg in 1511, 
and a zealous adherent of Luther, whom he accompa 
nied to the Diet of Worms in 1521. He was appointed 
superintendent and minister at Saint Ulrich in Magde 
burg in 1524, and Bishop of Naumburg in 1542. Ams 
dorf took part in Luther s translation of the Bible, and 
wrote numerous polemical treatises on theology. Died 
in 1565. 

See MELCIIIOR ADAM, "Vitas Theologorum Germanorum." 

Ainsler, ams ler, (SAMUEL,) an excellent German 
engraver, born in Switzerland in 1791. He was profes 
sor at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich, and en 
graved many pieces after Michael Angelo, Raphael, and 
Thorwaldsen. Among his works is a " Holy Family" 
of the second, and "The Triumph of Alexander" of the 
last-named artist. Died at Munich in 1849. 

Amstel, (CoKNELis PLOOS VAN.) See PLOOS. 

Amstel, G-ijsbrecht or Gysbrecht van, gls breKt 
or ins bKeivT vSn am stel, a Dutch nobleman of the 
thirteenth century, infamous as the betrayer of Floris 
V., Count of Holland, in 1296. (See FLORIS V.) The 
odium of this crime contributed much to the ruin of the 
power of the Dutch aristocracy. 

Amtlior, am toR, (CiiRisTOPH HEINRICII.) a German 
jurist, born at S toll berg in 1678. He entered the service 
of Denmark, and was made a counsellor of justice at 
Copenhagen about 1718. He wrote some successful 
political tracts and works on law. Died in 1721. 

Amulio, a-moo le-o, or Da Mula, da moo la, (MARC- 
ANTONIO,) CARDINAL, an Italian scholar, born at Venice 
in 1505. He gained the confidence of Pope Pius IV., 
who employed him in important commissions, and made 
him a cardinal in 1561. He wrote Latin poems and 
orations, and other works of some merit, nearly all of 
which remain in manuscript. Died in 1570. 

A-mu/li-us, King of Alba, was a younger brother of 
Numitor, whom he dethroned about 714 B.C. (See 

Amurath, a-moo-rSt , or Moorad, (Mourad or 
Murad,) moo rful , (written also Amurat, Amurad, 
and Murad,) I., the first of the Ottoman sultans who 
made conquests in Europe, succeeded his father Or- 
khan in 1360. He took Adrianople in 1362, and made it 
the capital of his European dominions. During a reign 
of twenty-nine years his arms were everywhere crowned 
with success. .A formidable insurrection having at length 
broken out in Scrvia, he hastened to meet this new 
danger, accompanied by his son, the famous Bayazeed, 
(Bajazet,) surnamed Ilderim, or "the lightning." His 
army was inferior in numbers to that of the insurgents ; 
but, yielding to the ardour of Bayazeed, he resolved at 
once to give battle. After a long and terrible conflict 
on the plain of Kossovo, the forces of Amurath gained a 
complete victory. The sultan rejoiced all the more over 
this success because, as the Moslem historians inform 
us, he had dreamed the night before that he met his 
death from the weapon of an assassin. While he lingered 
on the field of battle, one of the bodies on which lie 
chanced to tread suddenly started up and plunged a 
dagger into the heart of Amurath, who died a few 
moments afterwards, (June 15, 1389,) aged sixty-three 
years. Amurath I. has the distinction of having formed 
the Janissaries (who had been first levied by his father 
Orkhan) into a thoroughly organized and disciplined 
body of troops. 

See "Nouvelle Biographie Generale ;" Vox HAMMER, " Histoire 
del Empire Ottoman." 

Amuratli or Moorad (Murad) II., born about 

i 1405, succeeded his father Mahomet I. in 1422, His 

I reign was marked by various vicissitudes of fortune. 

I At one time (1422) he threatened Constantinople with 

i a formidable army. In 1429 he took Thessalonica from 

the Venetians, and in 1433 took possession of Vanina 

?.nc! razed its fortifications to the ground. In 1442 the 

famous Huniades defeated the troops of Amurath in two 

successive battles, in the latter of which the Tirks lost 



two hundred banners and five thousand prisoners, in 
cluding their general-in-chief. In the following year 
Huniades gained in rapid succession several victories 
over the Ottoman forces. In one engagement in which 
the sultan himself was present, Amurath lost six thou 
sand men, so that he was compelled to sue for peace. 
A treaty of peace for ten years was signed between the 
sultan and the King of Hungary, but it was soon after 
broken by the latter at the instigation of the papal legate 
Julian. This want of good faith on the part of the 
Christians was signally avenged the same year by the 
defeat of the Hungarians near Varna, and the death of 
Vladislaus, their king, who was unhorsed by Amurath 
himself and sjain by a janissary. Again in 1448 the 
Hungarians under Huniades suffered a total defeat in 
the battle of Kossovo, (October, 1448.) This engage 
ment lasted three days ; at last Huniades fled, and his 
troops were almost annihilated. Twice during his reign 
Amurath II. abdicated the supreme power and sought 
in retirement that peace of mind which he could not 
find on the throne ; but in both instances he was speed 
ily recalled by the wishes of his people to the post which 
he had so lately left. He died in 1451, leaving behind 
him the reputation of an able, just, and humane ruler. 
He was succeeded by his son, Mahomet II., the con 
queror of Constantinople. 

See " Nouvelle Biographic Ganerale;" 
de 1 Empire Ottoman." 

VON HAMMER, " Histoire 

Amurath or Moorad (Murad) III, born in 1545, 
succeeded his father, Selim II., in 1574. On the first day 
of his reign he caused his five brothers to be strangled . 
He was weak and sensual as well as cruel ; but his mind 
was not altogether without taste and cultivation. Died 
in 1595. 

Sec "Nouvelle Biographic Generale;" VON HAMME.R, "Histoire 
ie 1 Empire Ottoman." 

Amurath or Moorad (Murad) IV., born about 
1610, succeeded his uncle Mustafa in 1623. In 1638 he 
took Bagdad, which was thenceforward incorporated with 
the Ottoman Empire : this was the only important event 
of his reign. He had a vigorous, athletic frame, but a 
feeble, passionate, and tyrannical disposition ; and these 
evil traits in his character seemed to increase with his 
years. He was almost continually intoxicated ; in a fit 
of drunken rage he would sometimes rush from his 
palace into the street, sword in hand, killing all whom 
he met ; at other times he would amuse himself by 
shooting with his bow from the palace-windows those 
who happened to be passing beneath. Happily for his 
people, he died (1640) before he had completed his thir 
tieth year. He has been styled "the Turkish Nero." 

See " Xouvc!le Biographic Generale;" VON HAMMER, "Histoire 
de 1 Empire Ottoman." 

Amussat, s nui st , (JEAN Zulema zii la mi ,) a 

French surgeon, bom in Deux-Sevres in 1796. 
vented several instruments, among which 

He in- 

used in lithotrity, and published a number of treatises. 
His memoir on "The Torsion of Arteries" (1829) ob 
tained a prize of the Institute. Died in 1856. 

Amy, fine , a French advocate of Aix, wrote some 
interesting works on rivers and fountains, among which 
is " Observations experimentales sur les caux cles rivieres 
de Seine, dc Marne, etc.," (1749.) Died in 1760. 

Amyii or Aniin. See ALAMEEN. 

A-myii tas, [Or. A/wvrac,} the name of three kings 
of Macedonia between 510 and 330 u.c. Also, a Mace 
donian general in the service of Alexander the Great. 

Amyntas I., King of Macedonia, began to reign 
about 510 r,.c. He presented earth and water to the 
Persian ambassadors in token of submission to the su 
premacy of Darius. 

Amyntas II. of Macedonia, ascended the throne in 
394 B.C. He was defeated in battle by the Illyrians, and 
recovered his kingdom by the aid of the Thessalians. 
He afterwards strengthened himself by an alliance with 
Sparta. Died in 370 K.C., leaving three sons, Alexander, 
Perdiccas, and Philip called the Great. 

Amyntas III. was a grandson of the preceding, and 
a son of Perdiccas. He was an infant at the death of 
his father in 359 j;.c., and was the lawful heir to the 
throne which was usurped by his uncle Philip. He was 

put to death on the charge of a conspiracy Alex 
ander a short time before the latter invaded Asia. 

Amyntas, one of the generals of Alexander the 
Great. During the campaign in Asia he conducted re 
inforcements from Macedonia to the army at Babylon. 
About 330 B.C. he was tried on a charge of complicity 
in a plot alleged to have been formed by his friend Phi- 
lotas, and acquitted. 

Amyntas, son of Antiochus, a Macedonian officer 
who was in the service of Persia when Alexander in 
vaded that country. He commanded some Greek auxil 
iaries that fought for Darius at Issus, 333 B.C., after 
which he led an expedition against Egypt, then in the pos 
session of the Persians. After he had gained a victory 
near Memphis, he was surprised by the Persians and 
killed, about 330 B.C. 

Amyntas, a king of Galatia, fought for Antony at 
Philippi, and against him at the battle of Actium, 31 
B.C. Died about 30 B.C. 

Amyntianus, a-min-she-a nus, [ A/j.vvnav6e,] a Greek 
author, lived about 170 A.D., and wrote a " Life of Alex 
ander the Great," which is lost. 

Amyot, t me-o , (JACQUES,) a French writer and 
translator of great merit, born at Melun in 1513. He 
became professor of Greek and Latin at Boufgcs about 
1540, and was appointed tutor to the sons of Henry II. 
in 1558. He was made grand almoner of France on 
the accession of Charles IX. in 1560, and Bishop of 
Auxerre in 1570. In 1559 he published an excellent 
translation of Plutarch s " Lives," which is especially 
celebrated as a model of French style. He also trans 
lated from the Greek seven books of Diodorus Siculus, 
(1554,) Longus s romance of "Daphnis and Chloe," 
(1559,) and the " Moral Treatises of. Plutarch." Died at 
Auxerre in 1593. Amyot is ranked among the prose 
writers who have contributed most to the perfection of 
the French language. 

See De THOU, "Histoire," book viii. ; NICERON, " Metnoires;" 
"Eloge d Amyot," in the "Memoires de PAcademie Francaise ;" 
" Nouvelle Biographic Gdnerale;" BAYLE, "Historical and Critical 

Amyot, (JOSEPH.) See AMIOT. 

Am/yot, (THOMAS,) an English antiquary, born at 
Norwich about 1775. He embraced the legal profes 
sion, and became private secretary to Mr. Windham 
while the latter was secretary at war in 1806. In 1812 
he published the speeches of Windham, with a short 
notice of his life. He contributed several treatises to 
the " Archccologia," and was for many years secretary 
to the Society of Antiquaries. Died in 1850. 

Amyraut, t me ro , [Lat. AMYRAL DUS,] (Mosss.) a 
distinguished French Protestant divine and writer, born 
at Bourgueil, in Anjou, in 1596. He became professor of 
divinity at Saumur in 1633. In order to promote union 
among the Protestant churches, he wrote a Latin " Treat 
ise on Secession from the Roman Church, and on Peace 
among the Evangelical Churches," and was, in conse 
quence, involved in a controversy with certain Calvin- 
istic divines by his attempt to explain Calvin s views 
on predestination, which he wished to reconcile with the 
doctrine of universal grace. He 
works in French and Latin, among 
Morality," (6 vols.,) a work of much merit. He was 
esteemed for his talents and worth by both Catholics and 
Protestants. Died in 1664. 

Sec CHARLES E. SAJGEV, " M. Amyraut, sa Vie et ses Merits," 
1849; BAYLE, "Historical and Critical Dictionary." 

Amyrtaeus, am-jr-tee us, [Gr. Aftvpraiof ; Fr. AMYR- 
TEE, i meR ta ,] King of Egypt, obtained the throne about 
450 B.C. by a revolt against the King of Persia. 

Anacaoua, a-na-ka-o na,surnamed GOLDEN FLOWER, 
r as the wife of Caonabo, a cacique of Hayti when Co- 
umbtis discovered that island in 1492. She was put to 
death by Ovando, the Spanish governor. 

See IRVING S " Life of Columbus." 

An-a-ehar sis, [Gr. ^VU^KJLC ,} a Scythian philoso 
pher, contemporary and friend of Solon. He was, it is 
said, the only barbarian admitted to the citizenship of 
Athens. He was reckoned by some writers among the 
Seven Wise Men of Greece. On his return to his native 
country he was shot dead with an arrow by the Scythian 

was author of many 

which is "Christian 

as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; K, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




king for performing the Greek rites to the goddess Cy- 
bele. Some of his witty sayings have been preserved by 
Diogenes Laertius, Plutarch, and Lucian. 

An-a-cle tus, [Fr. ANACLET, i nt cli ,] sometimes 
called Cletus, the second or third bishop of Rome, was 
a native of Athens. He is variously represented as the 
successor or predecessor of Clement. Died, it is sup 
posed, about 100 A.D. 

Anacletus THE ANTIPOPE, was elected by a part of 
the cardinals in 1 130, and disputed the claim of Innocent 
II. to the popeclom. Supported by the populace of 
Rome, he maintained possession of that city until his 
death in 1138, though his rival was recognized by nearly 
all the European powers. 

See ARTAUD DE MONTOR, "Histoire des souverains Pontifes." 

A-iiac re-on, [Gr. Ava/cpewj;,] a celebrated Greek 
amatory lyric poet, born at Teos, in Ionia, about 560 B.C. 
He passed many years in the prime of his life at the 
court of Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, to which it is sup 
posed he was invited about 540. After the death of 
Polycrates, whose bounty he had largely enjoyed, he re 
moved to Athens, which he left probably about 514 B.C. 
According to some accounts, he attained the age of 
eighty-five. His death is said to have been caused by a 
grape-stone or dried grape, by which he was choked. 
He left odes and songs on love and wine, which are re 
garded as models of that species of poetry named from 
him Anacreontic ; also elegies, epigrams, etc. Numer 
ous fragments of his poems are extant. 

See MULLER, "Histoire de la Litterature de 1 ancienne Grace ;" 
BODE, "Geschichte der lyrischen Dichtkunst der Hellcnen;" Vos- 
sius, "De Poetis Graecis." 

An-a-dy-om e-ne, [Gr. Avadvo/tevri,] (i.e. the god 
dess "rising up out" of the sea,) a surname given to 
Venus, in allusion to the story of her origin. 

An-a-fes tus or Anafesto, a-na-feVto, (PAOLUCCIO, 
pow-loot/cho,) the first Doge of Venice. Died in 717 A.D. 

A-na-i tis or Anahid, [Gr. Avairif,] a goddess wor 
shipped in Armenia and Asia Minor, was supposed to be 
identical with the Greek Aphrodite or the Persian god 
dess of nature. 

A rian, (Ben David,) a Jewish rabbi of the eighth 
century, is represented as the restorer of the Karaite 
doctrines and defender of the pure law. 

Anania, a-na ne-a, (GIOVANNI LORENZO,) a learned 
Italian of the sixteenth century, born at Taverna, in Ca 
labria. Among other works, he wrote a treatise on the 
nature of demons, (1581 ; 5th edition, 1669.) 

Anania, d , da-na ne-a, or Anagny, d , da-nan yee, 
written also Agnany, (JOANNES,) an Italian jurist and 
canonist. Died in 1458. 

An-a-m as or Hananiah, called Sha drach, one 
of three Hebrew captives whom the King of Babylon 
ordered to be thrown into a fiery furnace. ^See Daniel i. 
and iii.) 

Ananias, a Jewish general, was a son of Onias who 
erected a Hebrew temple at Heliopolis, in Egypt. He 
and his brother Chelcias commanded an army which 
Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt, sent into Judea against her 
son, Ptolemy Lathyrus, in 103 B.C. 

Ananias, a Jew, who was appointed high-priest at 
Jerusalem about 45 or 50 A.D. He was a party to the 
persecution of the Apostle Paul, and appeared as his 
accuser before Felix. (See Acts xxiii. 2 ; xxiv. i ; xxv. 2.) 
He was killed by robbers, or, according to some ac 
counts, by the seditious Jews, about 66 A^D. 

See JOSEPHUS, "Jewish Antiquities." 

Ananias, one of the primitive Christians, was a resi 
dent of Damascus, and eminently devout. He was sent 
by the Lord, who appeared to him in a vision, to restore 
sight to Saul of Tarsus, who had just been converted. 
(See Acts ix. 10-18.) 

A-nan^ta, | Hindoo pron. lin-iin ta from an, priva 
tive, and anta, "end,"] a name signifying "without end," 
sometimes applied to the great serpent Sesha, the svm- 
bol of eternity. (See SESHA.) 

A-na pi-u s and Am-phin o-mus, two brothers, who 
lived at Catania before the Christian era and acquired 
celebrity by saving their parents from an eruption of 
Mount Etna. 

Anar. See NORVI. 

Aiiasco, de, da an-yas ko, QUAN,) a Sevillian officer, 
who served under Hernando de Soto in his expedition 
into Florida in 1539-43. 

Auassagora. See ANAXAGORAS. 

Anastase. See ANASTASIUS. 

Anastasia, an-as-ta she-a, [Fr. ANASTASIE, t nis - 
tt ze ,] SAINT, the wife of Publius, a pagan. After his 
death, having made a public profession of Christianity, 
she suffered martyrdom in 303 A.D., during the reign of 

Anastasius, an-as-ta/she-us, [Gr. AvaaTuoioc ; Fr. 
ANASTASE, i nis taV/,] I., a Tlyzantine emperor, born at 
Dyrrachium (now Durazzo) about 430 A.D. On the death 
of the emperor Zeno, in 491, his widow, the empress 
Ariadne, gave her hand in marriage to Anastasius, and 
raised him to the throne. He persecuted or differed 
with the orthodox, who rose in arms, and, under the 
command of Vitalianus, defeated his army in 514. Died 
in 518 A.D., and was succeeded by Justin I. 

See GIBBON, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." 

Anastasius II., Emperor of the East, succeeded 
Philippicus by election in 713 A.D. The army which he 
sent against the Arabs revolted, proclaimed Theodosius 
emperor, and captured Constantinople. Anastasius was 
deposed in 716, and put to death by order of Leo III. 
about 720 A.D. 

See GIBHON, "Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire." 

Anastasius, Patriarch of Constantinople, was raised 
to that dignity by Leo about 730 A.D. He favoured the 
Iconoclasts. The Catholic writers represent him as a 
disgrace to his profession. Died in 753 A.D. 

Anastasius, an-as-ta shc-us, [Fr. ANASTASE, f nts - 
tftz ,] I., POPE, a Roman by birth, succeeded Siricius 
about 398 A.D. He was strongly opposed to the doc 
trines of Origen. Died in 402, and was succeeded by 
Innocent I. 

Anastasius II., a native of Rome, was elected pope 
in 496, in place of Gelasius I. He wrote a letter to 
Clovis, King of the Franks, on his conversion to Chris 
tianity. Died in 498 A.D. 

Anastasius III. became pope after the death of 
Sergius III. in 911. Died in 913, and was succeeded by 

Anastasius IV., a native of Rome, was elected pope 
in 1153, as successor to Eugenius III. He is repre 
sented as wise and virtuous. He died at an advanced 
age in 1154, and was succeeded by Adrian IV. 

Anastasius surnamed BIBUOTHECA RIUS, (i.e. "Li 
brarian,") a Roman priest of the ninth century, trans 
lated from Greek into Latin several works, among which 
is "Historia Ecclesiastica," composed chiefly of extracts 
from Nicephorus and Syncellus. Died probably about 

890 A.D. 

Anastasius, surnamed SINAITA (sT-na-T ta) from 
having been a monk on Mount Sinai, became Bishop or 
Patriarch of Ahtioch in 561 A.D. He was a zealous de 
fender of the orthodox Catholic faith, for which he was 
expelled from his see by Justin II. in 570 ; but he was 
restored by the emperor Maurice in 593. Died in 599 A.D. 

Anastasius, SAINT, called "the Apostle of Ilun- 
ary," was born in 954 A.D., and died in 1044. 

An-a-to li-us, [Fr. ANATOLE, firS tol ,] an eminent 
philosopher of Alexandria, lived in the latter part of the 
third century. He opened a school in Alexandria, and 
was the first Christian who taught the philosophy of 
A ristotle. He became Bishop of Laodicea about 270 A.D. 

Anatolius, a Platonic philosopher, contemporary with 
the preceding, was a master of lamblichus and friend of 
Porphyry. A fragment of work, entitled " Sympathies 
and Antipathies," is ascribed to him. 

See FABRICIUS, " Bibliotheca Grxca." 

Anatolius, a Greek jurist, born at Berytus, was em 
ployed by Justinian in the compilation of the Digest, 
about 530 A.D. 

An-ax-ag o-ras, [Gr. M a^ayojmr , Fr. ANAXAGORE, 
nSk sft- goR ; It. ANASSAGORA, a-nas-sag o-ra,] a cele- 
)rated Greek philosopher, born at Clazomenae, near 
Smyrna, 500 B.C. He came to Athens about 460 B.C., 
or, according to some writers, twenty years earlier, an-1 
remained there about thirty years. Socrates and EH- 

a, e, I, 6, u, y, long; a, b, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, I, o, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; n6t; good; moon; 




ripides are said to have been among his disciples. In 
432 B.C. he was prosecuted on a charge of impiety. 
Pericles, who had been his pupil, assisted in his defence. 
To escape from death he fled from Athens, and died at 
Lampsacus, in Asia Minor, 428 B.C. Anaxagoras wrote 
a treatise on Nature, of which some fragments have been 
preserved. He maintained the eternity of matter, the 
elements of which were, he held, in a state of confusion, 
till another distinct principle, self-existent, infinitely sub 
tile and powerful, which he termed Nous, (or Mind,) re 
duced them to order : generation and destruction were 
only the union and separation of elemental particles 
which could neither be created nor annihilated ; there 
was no such thing as chance or accident, these being 
nothing more than names for unknown causes. 

Anaxagoras may be regarded as the father of modern 
science. Of all the ancient philosophers he appears to 
have been the first to combine, in the investigation of 
Nature and her laws, close reasoning with careful obser 
vation and experiment. He demonstrated that air was 
a substance, and not mere vacuity according to the popu 
lar notion, by showing that when it was confined, as in 
bladders, it offered a positive resistance and displaced 
other bodies. His observation that there is no such thing 
as chance, but that " chance" is merely the name for a 
"cause unperceived by the human intellect," (rr/v -TVXTJV, 
udrfAov alriav uvdpurrivu Aoyujftu,) evinced rare sagacity, 
as well as subtlety of thought ; and in teaching that the 
destruction and production of material bodies are nothing 
more than the separation and reunion of the elemental 
particles, he anticipated one of the most important dis 
coveries of modern chemistry. 

See RITTEK, " History of Philosophy," 3 vols. 8vo, Oxford, 1838; 
G. H. LEWES, "Biographical History of Philosophy ;" DE RAMSAY, 
"Anaxagoras," the Hague, 1778; J. T. HEMSEX, Anaxagoras Cla- 
zomenius sive de Vita ejtis atque Philosophia," 8vo, 1821 ; SCHAU- 

Anaxagoras, a Greek statuary, born at /Egina, lived 
about 480 B.C. He executed a statue of Jupiter placed 
at Elis after the battle of Platasa. 

Anaxagore. See ANAXAGORAS. 

Au-ax-an dri-des, [Gr. Ava<n<(5pf<5?/c,] a king of 
Sparta, reigned from about 560 to 520 B.C. He was the 
father of Cleomenes and Leonidas. 

Anaxaiidrides, a Greek comic poet, lived in the 
fourth century B.C. He wrote many successful dramas. 

An-ax-ar -ehus, [Gr. Ava^up^ot;; Fr. ANAXARQUE, 
S ntk sSak ,] a Greek philosopher, a native of Abdera, was 
intimate with Alexander the Great, whom he accompanied 
on his expedition into Asia in 334 B.C. He appears to 
have been a man of respectable character. After the 
death of Alexander, Anaxarchus is said to have been put 
to death by the tyrant Nicocreon, by being pounded in a 
large mortar ; he bore the torment with stoical fortitude. 

See AKKIAN, "Anabasis." 

A-nax i-las, [ Ava^tAaf,] an Athenian comic poet, 
contemporary with Plato, lived about 340 B.C. 

A-iiax-i-la us [Gr. Ava^i/.anf] or An-ax I-las, a 
tyrant or prince of Rhegium, (now Reggio,) in the south 
of Italy, in the fifth century B.C. 

Anaxilaus, [Gr. Ai- a^laoc,] a Pythagorean philoso 
pher, born in Larissa, lived at Rome in the reign of 
Augustus, and was banished from Italy on a charge of 

A-iiax-i-man der, [Gr. Ava&fiarfyof; Fr. ANAXIMAN- 
DRE, S ntk se mfiNdR/,] an eminent Greek philosopher, 
born at Miletus, in Asia Minor, about 610 B.C., is said 
to have been a disciple or friend of Thales. The inven 
tion of the sun-dial is attributed to him, and Pliny states 
that he discovered the obliquity of the ecliptic. He 
taught that the earth is a sphere, that the sun is a globe 
of fire as large as the earth, and that there is an infinite 
number of worlds. The statement of his opinions given 
by Plutarch differs from the above. A book which he 
wrote is the oldest prose work on philosophy mentioned 
among the Greeks. Died about 546 B.C. 

See RITTER, " History of Philosophy;" G. H. LEWES, "Bio 
graphical History of Philosophy ;" DIOGENES LAEKTIUS. 

An-ax-im e-nes, [Gr. AvaSt/jewx ; Fr. ANAXIMENE, 
S nik / se / m?in / ,] a Grecian philosopher, born at Miletus, 
nourished probably about 500 B.C. Little is known of 

his life. His opinions were recorded by Theophrastus. 
He maintained that Aer (air) is the original principle of 
which all things are formed and into which all things 
are resolved, and that this aer is in eternal motion. 

See RITTER, "History of Philosophy;" G. H. LEWES, "Bio 
graphical History of Philosophy ;" J. H. SCHMIDT, "De Anaximenis 
Vita et Physiologia," 1689; DIOGENES LAERTIUS. 

Aiiaxim enes OF LAMP SACUS, a historian who lived 
about 350 B.C. He wrote a history of Philip of Macedon 
and of his son Alexander, which is lost. According to 
Suiclas, he was one of the instructors of Alexander the 
Great. Pausanias relates that he once saved his native 
city by his ready wit. When he came as an intercessor 
to Alexander, (who was greatly exasperated against the 
citizens of Lampsacus for siding with the Persians,) 
the conqueror, anticipating his intention, exclaimed, " I 
swear I will not grant your request !" " I implore you, 
then," said Anaximenes, "to destroy Lampsacus and 
reduce its citizens to slavery." Alexander had the mag 
nanimity to keep his word. 

Anayay Maldonado, a-nl a e mal-do-na Do^DiEGO,) 
born at Salamanca about 1350, was made Archbishop of 
Seville in 1417 ; died in 1437. 

Ancaeus, an-see us, [Gr. Ay/ccwoc; Fr. ANCEE, Sr/si ,] 
a fabulous son of Neptune, and King of Samos, was the 
pilot of the ship Argo in the Argonautic expedition. He 
planted a vineyard, but was warned by a seer that he 
would never drink any wine of his own production. He 
made some wine, and was raising a cup of it to his mouth, 
when he was told that a wild boar was in his vineyard. 
He left the wine untasted, and attacked the boar, by 
which he was killed. This event is said to have given 
rise to the proverb, " There is many a slip between the 
cup and the lip." 

An-can ther-us, (CLAUDIUS,) a physician and histor 
ical writer, lived at Vienna between 1550 and 1600. 

Ancarano, dn-ka-ra no, (GASPARO,) an Italian priest 
and poet of Bassano, lived between 1550 and 1600. 

Ancarano, d , dan-ka-ra no, (PIETRO GIOVANNI,) an 
Italian jurist and poet, born at Reggio, in Lombardy, 
lived about 1550. 

Ancee. See ANC/EUS. 

LYCARPE,) a French dramatic author, born at Havre in 
1794. He was in his youth a clerk in the bureau of the 
navy department. In 1819 he produced " Louis IX.," a 
tragedy in verse, which had a great success, and obtained 
from the king a pension of two thousand francs. His 
tragedy of "Fiesco" (1824) was also favourably received. 
He afterwards composed many dramas, comedies, and 
vaudevilles, and succeeded De Bonald in the French 
Academy in 1841. Died in 1850. 

a painter and authoress, was born at Dijon in 1792. 
She wrote several plays, and a volume of tales called 
" Emprunts aux Salons de Paris," of considerable merit. 

See " Nouvelle Biographic Generale;" QUERARD, "La France 
Litteraire. " 

Ancharano, d , dan-ka-ra no, (PiETRO,) an Italian 
jurist, born about 1350; died probably about 1420. 

Ancheres, Sx shaiR , (DANIEL,) a French poet, born 
near Verdun in 1586, was patronized by James I. of Eng 

Anchersen, Sng ker-sen, (JOHAN PEDER,) a Danish 
antiquary, born at or near Ribe about 1700, was professor 
of elocution at Copenhagen. He wrote "Origines Dan- 
icae," (1747,) and other works on Danish antiquities. 
Died in 1765. 

See ERSCH und GRUBER, " Allgemeine Encyklopaedie." 

Anchersen, [Lat. ANSGA RIUS or ANSGA RII, | (MAT- 
TII/EUS,) a Danish Oriental scholar, born at Colding in 
1682, was made Bishop of Ribe in 1731, and died in 1741. 

Ancheta, an-cha ta, (MlGtTEL,) a Spanish sculptor of 
the sixteenth century, was born at Pamplona. He was 
reputed one of the best sculptors of his time. 

See BERMUDEZ, " Diccionario Historico." 

Anchieta, de, da an-she-a ta, (JosE,) a distinguished 
Portuguese Jesuit and missionary, commonly called " the 
Apostle of Brazil," was born at Laguna, in Teneriffe, in 
1533. He went to Brazil in 1553, and the same year 
founded a collccre for the Creoles and natives. After a 

e as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; x, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. 

xplanations, p. 23.) 




life of peril and unceasing toil, he died, near Espiritu 
Santo, in 1597. 

bee VASCONCELLOS, "Vida do Padre Joseph de Anchieta," 1672; 
" VK a del Padre J. de Anchieta," by RODRIGUEZ, 1618. 

Anchilus, ang Ke-lus, [Fr. pron. oN she liis ,] (N.,) 
a Flemish painter, an imitator of Teniers, born at Ant 
werp in 1688, and worked in London. Died in 17.33. 

An-ehi ses, |Gr. Aj^/ m/f ; Fr. ANCHISE, Sx shez ,] a 
Trojan prince, who was said to have been the father of 
. Eneas by Venus. On the destruction of Troy he escaped 
With his son, and afterwards died in Sicily. 

Ancillou, ON se yiN , (CHARLES,) a French writer> 
son of David, noticed below, was born at Metz in 1659. 
He accompanied his father to Berlin, where, under the 
Elector of Brandenburg, (afterwards King of Prussia,) 
he enjoyed various honourable offices. He left several 
mediocre works. Died in 1715. 

Ancillon, (D.WID,) a learned French Protestant di 
vine, born at Metz in 1617. He was pastor of a church 
at Metz from 1653 to 1685. After the revocation of the 
edict of Nantes in the latter year, he went to Berlin, 
where he died in 1692. He wrote an "Apology for Lu 
ther," and a few other works. 

See "Discours sur la Vie de M. Ancillon," by CHARLES ANCIL 
LON, 1698. 

Ancillon, (JoiiANN PETER FRIEDRICII,) an eminent 
German writer and statesman, of French extraction, 
born at Berlin in 1766. He was a Protestant minister 
in early life. In 1806 he was appointed instructor to 
the crown prince, and received the title of councillor of 
state, and afterwards held other important offices. He 
was minister of foreign affairs from 1831 until his death. 
He belonged to the French family of Ancillons, and 
wrote in the language of his ancestors with as much 
facility as in the German. Among his works are " Me 
langes of Literature and Philosophy," in French, (1801,) 
and " On the Spirit of Constitutions, and its Influence 
upon Legislation," in German, (1825.) His " View of the 
Revolutions of the Political System of Europe since 
the Fifteenth Century" (in French, 4 vols., 1803) was very 
popular. Died in 1837. 

See F. A. A. MIGNET, "Notice sur la Vie et les Travaux de M. 
Ancillon," 1847. 

Ancillon, (JOSEPH,) an eminent lawyer, born at Metz 
in 1626, was a brother of David, noticed above. He 
emigrated to Berlin about 1685, and became a counsellor 
of the Elector of Brandenburg. He published a " Treat 
ise on the Difference between Personal Property and 
Real Estate," (1698.) Died at Berlin in 1719. 

Aucillon, (LuowiG FRIEDRICII,) the father of Johann 
Peter Friedrich, noticed above, was born in 1744. He 
was a man of superior talents, and wrote some works on 
religious philosopny and sacred literature, among which 
is one on the Cartesian argument for the existence of 
God, (Berlin, 1792.) Died in 1814. 

Ancina, an-chee na, (GIOVANNI GIOVENALE,) an 
Italian ecclesiastic, born at Fossano in 1545, became 
Bishop of Saluzzo in 1602 : died in 1604. He wrote 
several short Latin poems. 

Aiickarstrom. See ANKARSTROM. 

Aiicona, d , dan-ko na, (CIRIACO,) an Italian traveller, 
writer, and antiquary, born at Ancona about 1390. He 
travelled much in the Levant, where he copied inscrip 
tions and collected manuscripts. He left, besides other 
works, an " Itinerarium." Died about 1450. 

Ancora, d , dax ko- ra, (GAKTANO,) an Italian miscel 
laneous writer and antiquary, born at Naples in 1757, 
was professor of Greek in the university of that city. 
Died in 1816. Among his works are a "Memoir on 
the Observance of Silence by the Ancients," (1782,) and 
"Researches on some Metallic Fossils of Calabria," 

Ancourt. See DANCOURT. 

Ancre, d , do.\kK, [It. D ANCORA, dan ko-ra,] (Con- 
cino Coiioini, kon-chee no kon-chee nee,) LK MARE- 
CHAL, an Italian courtier, born at Florence, went to 
France in 1600 in the retinue of Maria de Medici, queen 
of Henry IV. He married Eleonora Galigai, who was 
the favourite attendant of the queen and had great in 
fluence at court. After the death of Henry, in \6\o, he 
became first gentleman of the chamber, Marquis d Ancre, 

and marshal of France. He even assumed the power 
of prime minister, and made many enemies by his inso 
lence and rapacity. He was assassinated in 1617 by De 
Luines, De Vitry, and others, who appear to ha< - e per 
formed the will of the king in this action. His wife was 
tried, convicted of sorcery and lese-majeste, and executed, 
in the same year. It is said that when asked by what 
magic art she gained an ascendency over the queen, she 
replied, "By that power which strong minds exercise 
over the weak." 

SISMONDI, "Histoire des Francais;" D. SANDELLIUS, "De D. Con- 
cini Vita," 1767. 

An cus Martins or Marcius, (mar she-us,) the 
fourth king of Rome, a grandson of Numa Pompilius, 
succeeded TuHus Hostilius about 634 H.C. He is con 
sidered the lawgiver or founder of the plebeian order, 
which seems to have received in his reign a distinct po 
litical existence. He waged war with success against 
the Latins, founded Ostia, and built the Pons Sublicius, 
(Bridge of Piles.) He died about 610, and was suc 
ceeded by Tarquinius Priscus. 

See NIEHUHR, " Roman History." 

Aiicwitz. See ANKWITZ. 

Aiidala, an da-la, (RuARD,) a learned professor of the 
Cartesian philosophy, and afterwards of theology, in the 
University of Franeker, was born in Friesland in 1665. 
He wrote " Descartes in reality the Overturner of Spi- 
nosism and the Architect of Experimental Philosophy," 
(1719.) Died in 1727. 

Aiidelot. See DANDELOT. 

Anderloiii, an-clCR-lo nee, (PiETRO,) an Italian en 
graver, born near Brescia in 1784. He became director 
of the School of Engraving at Milan in 1831, and en 
graved several works of Raphael and Titian. Died in 

Aii der-sen, (HANS CHRISTIAN,) one of the most 
gifted writers of the present age, was born at Odense,in 
the island of Fiinen, April 2, 1805. His father was a 
shoemaker in very indigent circumstances, although he 
belonged to a family that had once been rich. He used 
to seek relief from the bitterness of his lot by relating to 
his children and friends stories of the wealth and splen 
dour of his ancestors. Hans was only nine years old 
when his father died. His mother wished to apprentice 
him to a tailor, but was prevailed on by a fortune-teller 
to send him to Copenhagen. Here he tried to obtain 
a situation at the theatre ; but he was refused because he 
was so meagre and thin. Having a fine voice, he found 
employment for a time as a singer. But after six months 
he lost his voice, and was again thrown upon the world. 
He was, however, so fortunate as to meet with gen 
erous and enlightened patrons. Councillor Collin, who 
had the sagacity to perceive Andersen s uncommon 
powers, obtained permission of the king to send the boy 
to a free academy, to be educated at the expense of the 

At an early age Andersen had written several short 
poems, among which "The Dying Child" was particu 
larly admired. Having obtained pecuniary aid from the 
King of Denmark, he travelled through Germany, France, 
and Italy. After his return he produced a successful 
romance, entitled "The Improvisatore," (1834.) The 
delineations in this work of the scenery and manners )f 
Southern Europe have never been surpassed by any 
writer. Another, called "O. Z.," appeared in 1835, con - 
taining descriptions of life in the North. "Only a Fid 
dler" presents some striking pictures from the story of 
his own early life. 

The "Poet s Bazaar" (1842) was the result of a visit 
to the Levant. His original genius is most conspicuous 
in his fairy-tales, of which he has published several vol 
umes. They are characterized by quaint humour, rich 
imagination, and sometimes by deep pathos. His numer 
ous works have been translated into most of the Euro 
pean languages. 

" For vividness and reality of detail, for breadth and 
boldness, too, in the description of scenery, and for skill 
in conveying the impression made on a fine mind and 
earnest heart by all that is beautiful in nature and true 

a, e, 1, 6, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat: met; ndt; good; m< ion; 




in art, he stands without a rival among recent writers of 
romance." ("Quarterly Review," March, 1845.) 

See HOWITT S "Literature and Romance of Northern Europe," 
London, 1852; also, " Blackwood s Magazine," vol. Ixii. p. 387. 

An der-soii, (ADAM,) a Scottish political economist, 
born about 1690, was a clerk in the South Sea House for 
forty years. He was author of a well-known History of 
Commerce, entitled an "Historical and Chronological 
Deduction of the Origin of Commerce, etc.," (2 vols., 
1762,) a work of great research. Died in 1765. 

See CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Anderson, (ALEXANDER,) an eminent Scottish mathe 
matician, born at Aberdeen about 1580, became professor 
of mathematics at Paris, and died in the early part of the 
seventeenth century. He published, besides other works, 
" Supplementum Apollonii Redivivi," (16*2.) 

See CIIAMHKKS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Anderson, (ALEXANDER,) M.D., a British botanist, 
who passed many years in the West Indies, and was super 
intendent of the botanic garden of Saint Vincent. He 
wrote an "Account of a Bituminous Lake or Plain in the 
Island of Trinidad," (1789 ;) a" Description of the Bread- 
Fruit Tree," (1798;) and an "Essay on the Cultivation 
of the Clove," (1802.) Died about 1813. 

Anderson, (ARTHUR,) M.P., a Scottish gentleman 
noted for his public spirit and enterprise, was born in 
Shetland in 1792. He was the principal founder, and 
for many years the director, of the Peninsular and Orien 
tal Steam Navigation Company. 

Anderson, "(CHRISTOPHER,) a British Baptist min 
ister, born in Edinburgh in 1782. He founded the Edin 
burgh Bible Society. His chief works arc the " Domestic 
Constitution," (1826,) and "Annals of the English 
Bible," (2 vols., 1845.) Died in 1852. 

See " Life and Letters of Christopher Anderson," by his nephew, 
1854; CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Aii der-soii, (Sir EDMOND,) an English judge, noted 
for his learning, born at Broughton about 1530. He was 
chief justice of the court of common pleas from 1582 
until his death, and was one of the commissioners who 
tried Mary, Queen of Scots, and Sir Walter Raleigh. 
He treated the Puritans with rigour, but his judicial con 
duct is said to have been generally moderate and correct. 
His " Reports of Cases argued and adjudged in the Com 
mon Bench" are esteemed good authority. Died in 1605. 

See Foss, " Judges of England ;" LLOYD, "State Worthies." 

An der-son, (GEORGE,) a traveller, born in Sleswick. 
He traversed Persia, India, China, and other countries, 
between 1644 and 1650, and published a narrative of his 
travels, in German, (1669.) 

Anderson, (GEORGE,) an English writer and mathe 
matician, born at Weston in 1760; died in 1796. 

Anderson, (GEORGE B.,) an American general, born 
at Wilmington, North Carolina, about 183*4, graduated 
at West Point in 1852. He commanded a brigade of 
Lee s army at the battle of Antictam, and received there 
a wound of which he died in October, 1862. 

Anderson, (HENRY J.,) professor of mathematics, 
etc. in Columbia College, New York, from 1825 to 1843. 
He was associated with Lieutenant Lynch in the explo 
ration of the Dead Sea, and published "Geology of 
Lieutenant Lynch s Expedition," (1848.) 

Anderson, (ISAAC,) an American Presbyterian min 
ister, born in Rockbridge county, Virginia, in 1780. 
He was distinguished as a pioneer preacher or mission 
ary in the Western States, and as the founder of a theo 
logical seminary at Maryville, Tennessee. Died in 1857. 

Anderson, (JAMES;) a Scottish antiquary and histori 
cal writer, born at Edinburgh in 1662. He became a 
resident of London soon after the union of England and 
Scotland. He wrote an " Essay showing that the Crown 
of Scotland is Independent," (1/05,) and spent many 
years in making a collection of ancient Scottish charters, 
etc., which was .published under the title of "Choice 
Treasury (or Collection) of the Charters and Coins of 
Scotland," (" Selcctus Diplomatum ct Numismatum 
Scotise Thesaurus," 1739.) He also published "Collec 
tions relating to the History of Mary, Queen of Scotland," 
(4 vols., 1724-28.) Died in 1728. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Anderson, ([AMES,) an ingenious writer on agricul 
turc and political economy, born near Edinburgh in 1739 
was a practical farmer, lie published valuable "Essays 
relating to Agriculture and Rural Affairs," (3 vols., 1777, . 
and edited a weekly periodical called "The Bee," (1730-^ 
94,) which is highly commended. In 1797 he removed 
to the vicinity of London, where he issued a monthly 
periodical called " Recreations in Agriculture, Natural 
History, Arts, and Literature," (1799-1802,) in which he 
developed a new theory on rent, that was afterwards 
adopted by Malthas and others. His scientific informa 
tion was extensive and accurate. Besides his other wri 
tings, he has contributed several articles to the " Ency 
clopaedia Britannica." Died in 1808. 

See CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Anderson, (JAMES,) was physician-general of the 
East India Company s army at Madras, in the last quar 
ter of the eighteenth century. He was noted for long and 
diligent efforts to introduce the cochineal, mulberry- 
tree, silkworm, and other productions, into Hindostan. 
He published letters to Sir Joseph Banks and others on 
these subjects. Died about 1810. 

Anderson, (JAMES,) M.D., an American physician, 
born in 1752 ; died in Maryland in 1820. 

See THACHER, "Medical Biography." 

Anderson, (JAMES STUART MURRAY,) an English 
writer, born about 1798, graduated as B.A. at Oxford in 
1820. He became rector of Tormarton about 1850, and 
published "The History of the Church of England in 
the Colonies and Foreign Dependencies of the British 
Empire," (3 vols., 1851.) 

Anderson, an der-son, QOHANN,) an accomplished 
publicist, was born at Hamburg in 1674, and took the 
degree of doctor of laws at Leyden in 1697. He was 
afterwards employed by the citizens of Hamburg in va 
rious negotiations at different European courts. lie 
became successively syndic, burgomaster, and senior 
burgomaster of his native city. Died in 1 743. He left 
an "Account of Greenland, Iceland, and Davis Straits," 

Anderson, (JoiiN,) born in Dumbartonshire, Scot 
land, in 1726, was appointed professor of natural phi 
losophy in the University of Glasgow in 1760. Died in 

1796. He deserves honourable and grateful remem 
brance for having founded in Glasgow an institution, 
called the Andersonian Institution, for the purpose of 
imparting by popular lectures a knowledge of the useful 
sciences to mechanics and others not able to go through 
a full collegiate course. He published a popular work, 
entitled "Institutes of Physics," (1786.) 

See CHAMBERS, "Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 
Anderson, (JoiiN,) a Scottish surgeon, born in Mid- 
Lothian in 1789, wrote " Memoirs of the House of Ham 
ilton," (1825.) Died in 1832. 

Anderson, (Rev. JOHN,) a Scottish Presbyterian di 
vine, born about 1671. He became minister of Dum 
barton in 1/04, and removed to Glasgow in 1720. His 
chief work is a " Defence of the Church Government, 
Faith, Worship, and Spirit of the Presbyterians," (1714.) 
Died about 1722. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 
Anderson, (JOSEPH,) United States Senator, born 
near Philadelphia in 1757. He was appointed by Wash 
ington, in 1791, judge of the territory south of the Ohio. 
Upon its organization into the State of Tennessee, in 

1797, he was elected to the United States Senate, of 
which he continued an influential member for nineteen 
years, being twice chosen president fro tcmforc. From 
1815 to 1836 he was First Comptroller of the United 
States Treasury. Died in 1837. 

Anderson, (LARS.) See ANDRE.*:, (LAURENTIUS.) 

Anderson, (RICHARD C.,) an American diplomatist, 

born in Kentucky about 1750. He was a representative 

in Congress from Kentucky from 1817 to 1821, United 

States Minister to the Republic of Colombia in 1823, 

and in 1826 Envoy Extraordinary to the Assembly of 

American Nations at Panama. Died at Panama in 1826. 

Anderson, (RICHARD HENRY.) an American general, 

born in South Carolina about 1822. graduated at West 

Point in 1842. He became a captain in 1855, resigned 

as /; 9 as s; g hard; g as/; G, n, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. ( 

Explanations, p. 23.) 




his commission in 1861, and was made a brigadier-gene 
ral in the confederate army. He commanded a division 
at Gettysburg, July, 1863. 

Anderson, (ROBERT,) M.D., a Scottish critic and 
biographer, born in Lanarkshire in 1750. He resided 
in Edinburgh from 1790 until his death, and had an ex 
tensive correspondence with literary men. He is best 
known as editor of a good edition of " The Works of 
the British Poets; with Prefaces Biographical and Crit 
ical," (14 vols., 1792-1807.) He also published "The 
Life of Ur. Johnson," (1795,) and "The Life of Dr. Smol 
lett," (1803.) Died in 1830. 

See CHAMBERS, Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Anderson, (ROBERT,) a British poet, born at Carlisle 
in 1770 ; died in 1833. Many of his ballads and other 
poems are in the Cumberland dialect. His works are 
chiefly of a humorous cast. 

See "Autobiography of Robert Anderson." 

Anderson, (ROBERT,) an American general, born 
near Louisville, Kentucky, in 1805, graduated at West 
Point in 1825. He served as captain in the Mexican 
war, 1846-47, and became a major of artillery in 1857. 
In the autumn of 1860 he took command of the forts of 
Charleston harbour. He removed his garrison, Decem 
ber 26, from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter, which he 
refused to surrender on the demand of Governor Pickens. 
The insurgents besieged Fort Sumter, and began to bom 
bard it on the I2th of April, 1861. The bombardment 
was kept up with red-hot shot and with unremitting 
fury for many hours. Major Anderson s position having 
at length been rendered untenable by want of provisions 
and by the combustion of part of the fort, he surrendered 
on the I3th of April. He was promoted to be a briga 
dier-general in the regular army in May, 1861. In con 
sequence of ill health, or some other reason, he took 
no further part in the civil war. 

See GREELEY S "American Conflict." 

Anderson, (WALTER,) a historical and critical writer, 
who was minister of Chirnside, Scotland, for about fifty 
years. Among his works are "The History of Croesus, 
King of Lyclia," (1755,) and "The Philosophy of Ancient 
Greece investigated in its Origin and Progress, etc.," 
(1791,) which has some merit, but was superseded by 
Enfield s "Abridgment of Brucker." Died in 1800. 

See CHAMBERS, " Biographical Dictionary of Eminent Scotsmen." 

Anderson, (WILLIAM,) a British naturalist who was 
surgeon on the Resolution in Cook s second voyage 
round the world, 1772-75. He wrote several short 

Anderson, (WILLIAM,) a British horticulturist, born 
about 1766, was for many years curator of the botanic 
garden at Chelsea. Died in 1846. 

Andersson, an der-son, (CHARLES JOHN,) a trav 
eller, born in Sweden in the nineteenth century. Be 
tween 1850 and 1855 he passed several years in the ex 
ploration of Southern Africa, and made contributions to 
the natural history and geography of that region. He 
published a narrative of his adventures. While on a 
hunting expedition in Southern Africa, he was attacked 
and killed by a wounded elephant in 1856. 

An der-ton, (HENRY,) an English painter of history 
and portraits ; died about 1665. 

Anderton, (JAMES,) an English Roman Catholic con 
troversial writer, who died in 1643. 

Andhrimnir or Andrimner, an-drim ner, in the 
Norse mythology, the name of the cook who boils every 
day, in the kettle Eldhrimnir, the flesh of the boar 
Ssehrimnir, for the table of the gods and heroes. 

See THORPE, "Northern Mythology," vol. i. ; MALLET, "North 
ern Antiquities," vol. ii., Fable xx. 

Andlo (and lo) or Andlau, and low, written also An- 
delo, an cleh-lo, (PETER HERMAN OK,) [Lat. PE TRUS 
DE AND LO or AND ELO,] a German jurist, of Italian de 
scent, lived in the fifteenth century, and wrote in Latin 
on the Germanic Empire a work which is remarkable 
as the first attempt in Germany to compile a system of 
public law. 

An-dog i-des, [ AwWrtyf,] an Athenian orator, born 
about 467 B.C., was called one of the "Ten Orators." 
He was appointed with Glaucon to command a fleet in 

432, and acted a prominent part in political affairs. 
When the thirty tyrants obtained power in 404 B.C., he 
went into exile, from which he soon returned. He died 
about 390 B.C. A few of his orations are extant. 

Andoque, SiVdok , a French writer of the seven 
teenth century, author of a History of Languedoc, (1648.) 

Andrada, an-dKa cla, (FRANCISCO,) a Portuguese poet, 
flourished about 1600. 

Andrada, de, da an-clRa ca, or Andrade, de, da 
Sn-dRa Da, (ALFONSO,) a Spanish Jesuit, born at Toledo 
in 1590, wrote many works on theology. Died in 1658. 

Andrada, de, da an-dRa da, or Andrade, de, da an- 
dRa da, (ANTONIO,) a Portuguese Jesuit, born in Alentejo 
about 1580. He went as a missionary to India and 
Thibet, and published a " New Discovery of the Grand 
Cathay, or I^ingdom of Thibet," (1627.) Died at Goa 
in 1633. 

Andrada, de, or Andrade, de, (Dioco LOPEZ,) a 
Portuguese preacher, born in Santarcm in 1569; died 
in 1635. 

Andrada, de, or Andrade, de, (FERNAN PEREZ,) a 
Spaniard, surnamed (in the Galician dialect) O Bo, 
(" the Good,") was a friend of Henri de Trastamara. He 
built, about 1388, a noble bridge across the Fume. 

Andrada, de, (FERNAO PEREZ,) a Portuguese naval 
officer, commande l a ship in the fleet of Albuquerque, 
who in 1511 appointed him admiral of a fleet of ten 
ships at Malacca. He defeated the Sultan of Java in a 
sea-fight in 1513, and commanded the first European 
fleet that appeared on the coast of China, (1518.) He 
was successful in opening commercial intercourse with 
the Chinese. 

Andrada, de, or Andrade, de, (FRANCISCO RADES,) 
a Spanish writer of great merit, born at Toledo, was 
author of a " History of the Three Spanish Orders of 
Chivalry," (1572.) He lived in the latter half of the six 
teenth century, and was chaplain to Philip II. 

Andrada, de, or Andrade, de, (JACINTO,) an excel 
lent Portuguese writer, born at Beja in 1597. He was 
abbot of the monastery of Santa Maria das Chas. Died 
in 1657. His principal work is the Life of Dom Joao 
de Castro, Viceroy of India, (1651,) which is a model of 
fine writing. 

Aiidrada, de, (PAOLO GONZALEZ,) a Portuguese 
lyric poet of the early part of the seventeenth century. 
He wrote a volume of Spanish poems, (published at 
Lisbon in 1629.) 

Andrada e Sylva, (or Silva,) an-dRi da a sel va, 
(JosE BONIFACIO,) a distinguished Brazilian, born at 
Santos in 1765. He studied at the University of Coim- 
bra in Portugal, and returned to Brazil in 1819. He was 
a man of great courage, ability, and eloquence, and took 
the lead in those measures which in 1822 severed Brazil 
from Portugal and created it an independent empire. 
He was prime minister of Brazil for a short time in 
1822-23, and was appointed guardian of the emperor s 
minor children in 1831. He died in 1838, leaving sev 
eral scientific treatises. 

CISCO DE ANDRADA, born towards the close of the eigh 
teenth century, were both distinguished for their talents 
and eloquence, and both held high positions under the 
Brazilian government. Antonio Carlos died in 1845. 

See J. M. PEREIRA DA SYLVA, " Plutarco Brasileiro," 1847; E. 


histonco," 1838; FLETCHER and KIDDER, "Brazil and the 

Andrade or Andrada, (Diooo de Payva da pl - 
va,) a learned Jesuit, born at Coimbra, in Portugal, in 
1528. He distinguished himself by his talents and elo 
quence at the famous Council of Trent, and afterwards 
wrote an elaborate defence of its doctrines against Chem 
nitz, a Protestant controversialist. Died about 1575. 

Andral, SN dRtK, (GABRIEL,) an eminent French 
physician, born in Paris in 1797, was a son of Gnillaume, 
noticed below. He published "Clinique Medicale," (4 
vols., 1824-27,) and a "Summary of Pathological An 
atomy," (3 vols., 1829,) which had a great success. He 
wrote also various other medical works. In 1830 he 
became professor of pathology, and in 1839 succeeded 
Broussais in the chair of pathology and therapeutics, in 

I, e, I, o, u, y, long; a, e, 6, same, less prolonged; a, e, 1, 6, u, y, short; a, e, j, o, obscure; far, fall, fat; met; not; good; moon- 




Paris. He was admitted into the Institute in 1842. The 
wife of Dr. Andral was a daughter of Royer-Collard. 
Died in 1853. 

See QUERARD, "La France Litteraire." 

Andral, (GUILLAUME,) a distinguished physician, the 
father of the preceding, was born in Lot in 1769. He 
became a physician to the army of Italy, and obtained a 
high position under Murat at Naoles about 1808. 

Andray. See ANDRE. 

Andre. See ANDRE/E. 

Andre. See ANDREAS. 

Andre, oN dui , called SYL VIUS, [in French, Du BOTS, 
dii bwa .J a French chronicler of the twelfth century. 

Andre, an dRa, (CHRISTIAN KARL,) a German teacher 
and writer, born at Hildburghausen in 1763. He taught 
near Gotha and at Briinn, and was editor of a popular 
magazine called "Hesperus," (1809-31.) Among his 
numerous works are "Useful Walks for Every Day in 
the Year," (1790,) and a valuable " Geographico-Statis- 
tical Description of the Austrian Empire," (1813.) Died 
at Stuttgart in 1831. 

Andre, (EMIL,) a German writer on the culture and 
management of forests, was born at Schnepfenthal in 

Andre, Sx dRa , or Saint- Andre, saN tfiN dRa , 
(FRANCOIS,) a French medical writer, lived about the 
close of the seventeenth century. 

Andre, sometimes written Andray, ON dRa , (JEAN,) 
a French historical painter, born at Paris in 1662 ; died 
i" 1753- 

Andre, (JoHANN,) a celebrated German composer, 
kapellmeister to the Prince of Prussia, was born at Offen 
bach in 1741. He composed many operas and songs. 
Died in 1799. 

Andre, (JOHANN ANTON,) a musical composer, son 
of the preceding, was born at Offenbach in 1775. He 
composed masses, concertos, symphonies, etc., and pub 
lished some works which Mozart left in manuscript. 
Died about 1845. 

Andre, an dri or an dre, (JoiiN,) an adjutant-general 
in the British army of the American Revolution, cele 
brated for his complicity in the treason of Arnold, was 
born in London in 1 75 1. His parents were from Geneva, 
in Switzerland, where he was educated with a view to 
becoming a merchant. But, being crossed in love, he 
abandoned the counting-house for the camp, and received 
his first commission in the British army in 1771. In 
1774 he came to America as a lieutenant in the Royal 
Fusiliers, and was among the officers captured at Saint 
John s early in the war by Montgomery. His varied and 
graceful talents and his engaging manners appear to 
have obtained for him the appointment of adjutant-gen 
eral with the rank of major, without his performing any 
distinguished military services. He held, moreover, a 
facile and at times satirical pen, and occasionally amused 
himself with caricaturing in rhyme the appearance and 
exploits of the " rebel " officers. After the evacuation 
of Philadelphia by the British he was employed to carry 
on a correspondence with a body of loyalists near the 
Chesapeake, who were conspiring to restore the royal 
government. He first introduced himself to the notice 
of Arnold by means of a letter, written August 16, 1779, 
to Mrs. Arnold, whose acquaintance he had formed in 

Major Andre was employed by Sir Henry Clinton to 
conduct the secret negotiations with Benedict Arnold for 
the surrender of West Point ; and for this purpose he 
assumed the name of John Anderson. On the 2 1st of 
September, 1780, Major Andre and Arnold had an inter 
view at the house of Joshua H. Smith. Arnold furnished 
Andre a number of papers relating to West Point, in 
cluding maps and plans and memoranda of the weakest 
points where an attack might be made with the besf 
advantage. He also gave him a passport through the 
American lines. After he parted from Arnold, Smith 
accompanied him beyond the American outposts, and 
Andre proceeded towards New York City by land. 
Andre now pursued his journey in confident security 
until he had crossed a small stream near Tarrytown, 
when three men, armed with muskets, emerged from a 
thicket and brought him to a stand. Losing all caution, 

he exclaimed, " Gentlemen, I hope you belong to our 
party?" " What party ? asked the leader. "The lower 
party," said Andre. "We do," was the reply. Andre 
then declared himself a British officer on important 
business, who must not be detained a moment. To his 
consternation, the party now declared themselves Ameri 
cans, and told Andre lie was their prisoner. Recovering 
himself, he attempted to pass off his former declaration 
as a subterfuge, saying he was a Continental officer 
procuring information from below, and showed a pass 
from General Arnold. The suspicions of his captors, 
however, were fully aroused, and, on searching his per 
son, the papers furnished him by Arnold were found 
between his stockings and the soles of his feet. As a 
last resort, Andre offered them his horse and watch, 
or any reward they might name, if they would let him 
go. But the sturdy republicans were not "to be bribed. 
They conducted him ten or twelve miles to North Castle, 
and delivered him to Lieutenant-Colonel Jameson. Rec 
ognizing the handwriting of Arnold in the papers found, 
and perceiving that they were of a dangerous nature, 
Colonel Jameson forwarded them by express to Wash 
ington at Hartford, and then, with an obtuseness almost 
incredible, was about to send Andre to Arnold with a let 
ter stating the circumstances of his arrest and the char 
acter of the papers found on him. Major Talmadge, ar 
riving soon after, immediately suspected Arnold, and, by 
earnest entreaty, prevailed on Jameson to detain Andre ; 
but the letter was suffered to go on and furnish Arnold 
timely warning to make his escape. Andre was tried by 
a court-martial and condemned to be hung as a spy. He 
admitted freely who he was, and for what purpose he 
came within the American lines, but declined disclosing 
anything implicating any other person. Sir Henry Clin 
ton made great efforts to secure his release. It was 
intimated to him that Andre would be given up on the 
surrender of Arnold ; but this was not to be thought of. 
Andre requested that his sentence might be commuted 
to being shot; but the magnitude of the plot in which he 
was implicated forbade any indulgence being shown him. 
He was executed at Tarrytown on the morning of Oc 
tober 2, 1780, conducting himself with great fortitude to 
the last. The day before his execution he sketched, 
with pen and ink, a miniature likeness of himself, which 
is now in the Trumbull Gallery of Yale College. In 
1821 his remains were transferred to England and in 
terred in Westminster Abbey. The names of his captors 
were John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van 
Wart. They were liberally rewarded by, and 
in 1853 a monument was erected to their memory on 
the site of Andre s arrest. Joshua H. Smith was tried 
for treason, but acquitted on the plea of his ignorance 
of Arnold s traitorous designs. 

See Life of Benedict Arnold, in SPARKS S "American Biography;" 
WIXTHROP SARGENT, "Life and Career of Major John Andre 1 ," 1861 ; 
"Atlantic Monthly" for December, 1860. 

Andre, oN clRa , L A)u;E, a French writer, born at 
Marseilles, lived between 1750 and 1800. lie published 
an edition of the works of D Aguesseau, (13 vols., 

Andre, (RUDOLPH,) a German writer on rural econ 
omy, born at Gotha in 1792, was a brother of Emil, 
above noticed, and was a practical cultivator. It is 
stated that he first described the art of improving races 
of animals. Died in 1825. 

Andre, (Marshal SAINT.) See SAINT-ANDRE. 


Andre, (YVES MARIE,) a French Jesuit writer, and 
professor of mathematics at Caen, born in 1675 in Brit 
tany ; died in 1764. He is known as the author of an " Es 
say on the Beautiful," ( 1 741 ,) a work of considerable merit. 

Andrea, an-dRa a, (AI.ESSANDRO,) an Italian histori 
cal writer, born at Barletta in 1519. 

Andrea, (GIOVANNI,) an Italian scholar, born at 
Vigevano in 1417, became Bishop of Aleria in Corsica. 
He is chiefly remembered as the editor of several clas 
sical works published at Rome, among which are "Cae 
sar s Works," (1469 ;) "The Decades of Livy," (1470;) 
"The Works of Virgil," (about 1470;) "Pliny s Natural 
History," (1470,) and "Cicero s Orations," (1471.) Died 
in 1475. 

e as k; 5 as s; g hard; g as/; G, H, K, guttural; N, nasal; R, trilled; s as z; th as in this. (^~See Explanations, p. 23.) 




Andrea, written also Andreas, (ONUFRIO,) a Nea 
politan poet, wrote, besides other works, a heroic poem, 
called " Italia Liberata," (1646.) He was ranked among 
the best Italian poets of his time by Crescimbeni. Died 
about 1650. 

Andrea PISANO, (pe-sa no,) a celebrated Italian 
sculptor and architect, born at Pisa about 1270, was a 
pupil of Nicola and Giovanni Pisani. He was one of 
the first who abandoned the Gothic style for the antique 
nodels of Greece. He was invited to Florence to exe 
cute the sculptures of the facade of Santa Maria del 
Fiore. At the death of Arnolfo di Lapo, Andrea was 
appointed superintendent of the public works of Flor 
ence. He designed the Castello di Scarperia and the 
church of San Giovanni at Pistoja. His master-piece 
of sculpture is the bronze rilievi of the gates of the 
baptistery of San Giovanni at Florence, (1339.) Died 
at Florence in 1345. 

His son NINO was an able sculptor, and finished some 
of his father s works. 

See CICOGNARA, " Storia della Scultura." 
Andrea, (ZoAN or GIOVANNI,) a skilful Italian en 
graver, who lived in the early part of the sixteenth 
century. He copied and imitated the prints of Man- 
tegna. His works are rare, and command high prices. 
See OTTLEY, "Early History of Engraving." 
Andrea, d , dan-dRa a, (FRANCESCO,) an eminent 
jurist of Naples, born near Amain in 1625 ; died in 

Andrea del Castagno. See CASTAGNO. 
Andrea del Sarto or Vamiucchi. See SARTO. 
Andrea di Luigi. See LUIGI. 

Andreae, an-dRa a, (ABRAHAM,) a Swedish prelate, 
born in Angermannland. He was elected Archbishop 
of Upsal in 1593, before which date he had opposed the 
attempt of King John to restore the Roman Catholic 
religion in Sweden. He died in prison in 1607. 

Andreae or Andrea, an-dRa a, (or Andreas, an- 
dka as,) (JACOB or JAMES,) an eminent German Protest 
ant theologian, born at Waiblingen, in Wiirtemberg, in 
1528. He was ordained deacon at Stuttgart in 1546, 
after which he became professor at Tubingen. He 
performed many long journeys in Germany to organ 
ize the Lutheran worship, and acquired great influ 
ence by his learning, energy, and eloquence. He was 
president of a board of five who, in 1580, produced the 
" Formula Concordias," a summary and symbol of faith 
then adopted, and still recognized, by the Lutheran 
Church. He wrote many polemical works against the 
Calvinists and Papists. Died in 1590. 

See MELCHIOR ADAM, " Vita; Germanorum Theologorum ;" J. V. 
AXDRE/E, " Fama Andreana reflorescens," etc., 1630; LEBKET, 
" Programmata III. de J. Andrea; Vita," 1799. 

Andreae, an dre-e or an-dRa a, [Fr. ANDRE, ON T/ - 
dRa ,] (JOHANNES or GIOVANNI,) an eminent professor 
of canon law, was born near Florence about 1275. He 
was professor at Bologna for many years. Died in 1348. 
He was reputed the most celebrated canonist of the 
fourteenth century. His "Commentaries on the Decre 
tals" were highly esteemed. 

See FANTUZZI, " Scrittori Bolognesi ;" MAZZUCHELLI, " Scrittori 
d ltalia." 

Andreae, (JOHANN GEORG REINHARDT,) a German 
apothecary, born at Hanover in 1724. He wrote treat 
ises on chemistry, botany, etc., which appeared in the 
" Hanover Magazine," and " Letters from Switzerland," 
(2d edition, 1776.) Died in 1793. 

Andreee or Andrea, [Fr. ANDRE, oN dRa ,] (JO 
HANN VALENTIN,) a German satirical writer of great 
merit, born at Herrenberg, in Wiirtemberg, in August, 
1586, was a grandson of Jacob Andreoe, (1528-90.) He 
became deacon at Vaihingen in 1614, town-pastor at 
Calw in 1620, court preacher at Stuttgart in 1639, and 
ecclesiastic counsellor to the Duke of~Brunswick-Wol- 
fenbuttel in 1642. The institution of the order of Rosi- 
crucians is ascribed to him by some writers ; but the 
disputes on this question have not dispelled its obscurity. 
His principal work is a " Hundred Satirical Dialogues/ 
(" Menippus, sive Dialogorum Satiricorum Ccnturia," 
1617.) He showed a liberal philosophical spirit in his 
Latin work entitled " The Images of the Virtues and 

Vices of Human Life," (1619.) He also published 
poems in German, which are praised by Herder. Died 
in 1654. " Andreas," says Hallam, "was a man above 
his age, and a singular contrast to the narrow 
dantic herd of German scholars and theologians." 

See SEYBOI.D, "Selbstbiographien beriihmter Manner," 1799; W. 
HOSSBACH, _[. V. Andrea; ur.d seiner Zeitalter dargestellt," 1819; 
FLOGEL, " Geschichte der Komischen Literatur." 

one of the principal agents in the introduction of the 
Reformation into Sweden. He was converted to the 
Protestant faith in 1520, and appears to have become 
soon after the principal adviser of Gustavus Vasa, who 
appointed him chancellor. In 1526 he published a 
translation of the New Testament into Swedish. He 
afterwards incurred the suspicion and displeasure of his 
sovereign, and died in obscurity in 1552. 

See GEZELIUS, "Biographiskt-Lexicon." 

Andreae, (TOBIAS,) a German Cartesian philosopher, 
born at Braunfels in 1604, was professor of Greek at 
Groningen. Died in 1676. 

Andreae, (ToniA.s,) a German physician and profes 
sor of philosophy, was born at Bremen in 1633; died 
at Franeker in 1685. 

Andreani, an-dRa-a nee, (ANDREA,) a noted Italian 
engraver, surnamed MANTUANO, (i.e. the "Mantuan,") 
born at Mantua about 1540; died in 1623. He carried 
to great perfection the art of engraving on wood in 
chiaroscuro. His master-piece is "The Triumph of 

An dre-as, [Gr. AwJpeaf,] the name of several an 
cient physicians, none of whom is of sufficient note to 
deserve a place here. 

Au dreas, an archbishop of Cresarea in Cappadocia, 
supposed to have lived about the close of the fifth cen 
tury. He wrote a commentary on the Apocalypse. 

An dreas surnamed CRETEN SIS, ("of Crete,") a 
native of Damascus, -who became Archbishop of Crete 
near the end of the seventh century. 

Andreas, (Italian.) See ANDREA. 

Andreas, an-dRa as, Archbishop of Lund, in Sweden, 
wrote " Hexaemeron," a Latin poem on the Creation, 
and was author or compiler of the "Laws of Zealand." 
Died in 1228. 

An-dre as or An/ drew, (OF NAPLES,) called also 
Andreasso, an-dua-as so, born about 1324, was the 
second son of Carobert, King of Hungary. His marriage 
with Joanna, heiress of the throne of Naples, was cele 
brated in 1331, and she became queen regnant in 1334. 
A conspiracy having been formed against him by sev 
eral princes and barons of