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Full text of "Universal dictionary of the English language; a new and original work presenting for convenient reference the orthography, pronunication, meaning, use, origin and development of every word in the English language ... Edited by Robert Hunter and Charles Morris"

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Presented to the 
LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

by 

PROFESSOR R. F. McRAE 



Universal Dictionary 



OF THE 

ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

A NE W AND ORIGINAL WORK PRESENTING FOR CONVENIENT 

REFERENCE THE 

ORTHOGRAPHY, PRONUNCIATION, MEANING, USE, ORIGIN AND 

DEVELOPMENT OF 

EVERY WORD IN THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

TOGETHER WITH 

ONDENSED EXPLANATIONS OF FIFTY THOUSAND IMPORTANT SUBJECTS ANI> 
AN EXHAUSTIVE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF ALL THE ARTS AND SCIENCES 

PROFUSELY ILLUSTRATED 

EDITED BY 

ROBERT HUNTER, A.M., F.G.S., AND PROF. CHARLES MORRIS 

(ENQLHH IDITIOM) (AHEMCAN tWTIOlO 

WITH THE ASSISTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING EMINENT SPECIALISTS: 

Prof. Thomas H. Huxley, F.R.S.; Prof. Richard A. Proctor; Prof. A. Estoclet; John A. Williams, 

A.B., Trinity College, Oxford ; Sir John Stainer, Mus. Doc. ; John Francis Walker, A.M., 

F.C.S.; T. Davies, F.G.S.; Prof. Seneca Egbert, M.D., Medico-Chirurgica! College, 

Philadelphia; William Harkness, F.I.C., F.R.M.S.; Marcus Benjamin, Ph.D., 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 

AND ONE HUNDRED OTHERS 
VOLUME THREE 



NEW YORK 

PETER FENELON COLLIER & SON 

MCM 
(Copyright, 1897, by PETER FENKLON COLLIER.) 





- 




T. tn, VNOIOATK 






t/A ,.C. 






IT/iUH TO38C 






PREFATORY NOTE. 



The principal points in which the UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY differs from other dictionaries are fully di* 
ragged in the Preface, but it may be well to draw attention to the following: 

(1) Compound Words are inserted under the first element of the compound, and not in the place they woulc 
occupy in strictly alphabetical order, if the second element were taken into account. Thus ANT-BEAB is inserted afte' 
ANT, and not after ANTATROPHIC. 

(2) The Pronunciation is indicated by diacritical marks, a key to which will be found at the foot of the sever* 
pages, but the division into syllables has been based solely on pronunciation, and with no reference to- the etymolog? 
of the word. In syllables wherein two or more vowels come together, not forming diphthongs, only that one of then 
which gives its sound to the syllable bears a diacritical mark, the others being treated as mute. Thus, in brSad, sf . 
float, the o is mute, the syllables being pronounced as if spelt brld, se,flot. Words of more than one syllable bear t 
mark upon the accented syllable, as dl'-tlr. 

(3) The Etymology will be found enclosed within brackets immediately following each word. To understanc 
the plan adopted, let it be noted (1) that retrogression is made from modern languages to ancient; and (2) that whe 
after a word there appears such a derivation as this " In Fr. . . . Sp. . . . Port. . . . Ital. . . . from Lat. . . . 
the meaning is, not that it passed through Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and French before reaching English, but th- 
there are or have been analogous word* in French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian, all derived, like the English, froi 
t Latin original. 



LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS. 



The following List, which contains the principal abbreviations employed in the UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY 
Is inserted here for the convenience of persons using the work for the first time. A full list, containing also the chi 
abbreviations in general use, will be given at the end of the final volume. 



i.N. Anglo-Norman. 


Norm. Norman. 


archaeol. archaeology. 


Arab. Arabic. 


Norw. Norwegian, Nora*. 


arith. arithmetic. 


Aram. Aramaic. 


O. Old. 


astrol. astrology. 


Arm. Armorican. 


O. H Ger. Old High 


aatron. astronomy. 


A.S. Anglo Savon. 


German. 


auxil. auxiliary. 


Aasyr. Assyrian. 


0. S. Old Saxon. 


Bib. Bible, or Biblical. 


Boeh. Bohemian, or 


Pers. Fenian. 


biol. biology. 


Czech. 


Phcenic. Phoenician. 


hot. botany. 


Bret. Bas-Breton, or 


Pol. PolUh 


carp, carpentry. 


Celtic of Brittany. 


Port. Portuguese. 


Cent. Centigrade. 


Celt. Celtic. 


Pror. Proveufal. 


cf. compare. 


Coal Chaldee. 


ProTinc. ProrinciaL 


U.G. S. Centunetre-gramme- 


Dan. Danish. 


Rabb. Rabbinical. 


eecond. 


Dut. Dutch. 


Run. Rviian. 


chem. chemistry. 


E. Eastern, or East. 


Sam. SaBiarltan. 


Ch. hist. Church history. 


E. Aram. East Arameean, 


Sanac. Sanscrit. 


chron. chronology . 


generally called Chaldee. 


Serv. Servian 


class, classical. 


Eng. English, or England. 


Slay. Slavonian. 


cogn. cognate. 


Eth. Ethiopic. 


Sp. Spanish. 


comm. commerce. 


Flem. Flemish. 


Sw. Swedish. 


comp. comparative. 


Fr. French. 


Syr. Syriac. 


compos, composition. 


Fries. Friesland. 


Taut. Teutonic. 


conchol. conchology. 


Fria. Frisian. 


Turk. Turkish. 


contr. contracted, or con- 


Gael. Gaelic. 


\Valach. Walachian. 


traction. 


Ger. Qerman. 


Wei Welh. 


cryptallog. crystallogra- 


Goth. Gothic 
Or. Greek. 


a., or adj. adjective. 
adv. adverb. 


phy, 
def. definition. 


Gris. Language of th* 


art. article. 


der. > derived, derivation. 


Orisons. 
Heb. Hebrew. 
Hind. Hindustani. 
Icel. Icelandic. 
Ir. Irish. 


eonj. conjunction. 
Inter), interjection. 
pa. par. past participle. 
parttclp. participial. 
prep, preposition. 


dlmin. diminutive, 
dram, drama, dramatically, 
dynam. dynamics. 
E. East. 
eccles. ecclesiastical. 


Ital. Italian 
Lat. Latin. 
Lett. Lettish, Lnttonian. 
L. Ger. Low German, or 


pr.par. present participle. 
pro, pronoun . 
8., tubs*., or trubjttan. sub- 
stantive or noun. 


econ. economy. 
e. g. (Xfmplt ffralia=lor 
example, 
elect, electricity. 


Platt Deutsch. 


v. t. verb intransitive. 


entom. entomology. 


Lith. Lithuanian. 


p. (. verb transitive. 


etym. etymology. 


Mag. Magyar. 




ex. example. 


Mediiev. Lat. Mediaeval 


ablat. ablative. 


f., or fern, feminine. 


Latin. 


accu*. accusative. 


fig. figurative, figuratively. 


M. II. Ger. Middle High 


ajjric. agriculture. 


fort, fortification. 


German. 


alg. algebra. 


fr. from. 


Mid Lat. Latin of the 


mat. anatomy. 


freq. frequentative 


Middle Agva. 


ant;.], antiquities. 


fut. future. 


N. New. 


aor. aorist. 


gen. general, generally. 


H. H. Ger. New High 


approx. approximate, -ly. 


gend. gender . 


German. 


area, architecture. ' geuit. geni'.ive. 



geography. 
geol. geology, 
eeorn. geometry, 
gram, grammar, 
her. heraldry, 
hist, history, 
hor. horology, 
hortic. horticulture, 
hydraul. hydraulics, 
hydros, hydrostatics. 
i. . id e.v*=that is. 
ich thy . ichthyology . 
Ibid. tbidem=the same. 
Imp. impersonal. 
imper. imperative, 
indie, indicative. 
intin. infinitive. 
in tens, intensitive. 
lang. language. 
Linn. Linmeus. 
lit. literal, literally, 
mach. machinery, 
m. or masc. masculine, 
math, mathematics, 
mech. mechanics. 
med. medicine, medical 
met. metaphorically, 
metal metallurgy, 
metaph. metaphysics, 
meteorol. meteorology, 
melon, metonymy. 
mi)., milk, military, 
min., miner, mineralogy, 
mod. modern. 

myth . mytho logy. 

N. North. 

n. or neut. neut. 

nat. phil. natural philo- 
sophy. 

naut. nautical. 

nomin. nominative. 

numis. numismatology. 

obj. objective. 

obs. obsolete 

ord. ordinary. 

ornith. ornithology. 

palaeont. palaeontology. 

pass, passive. 

path, pathology. 



perf. perfect. 
pers. person, personal 
persp. perspective. 
pliar. pharmacy . 
phil. philosophy. 
philol. philology. 
phot, photography. 
phren. phrenology. 
phys. physiology. 
pi., plur. plural. 
poet, poetry, or poetic** 
polit. econ. political 

economy. 
poss. possessive. 
pref. prefix. 
pres. present. 
pret. preterite. 
prim, primary. 
priv. privative. 
prob. probable, probftbv 
pron. pronounced. 
pros, proaody. 
psycho!, psychology. 
pyrotech. pyrotechnic! 
q.v. tfwodeidf=which*sf 
rlu-t. rhetoric. 
Scrip. Scripture. 
sculp sculpture. 
sing singular. 
S. South. 

sp. gr, specliic gravity. 
spec, special, specially 

BUff. Suffix. 

sup. supine. 

surg. surgery 

tech technical. 

theol. theology. 

trig, trigonometry. 

typog. typography 

var. variety. 

viz. namely. 

W. West. 

cool, zoology. 

* Rare, or obsolete. 

f Unusual, or special ootfr 

ages. 
equivalent to, or 



fy 

No 



. 
ota bene take notloi 



Infusibility ingenious 



In - flis- 1 - bn '- 1 - tf (2), [Eng. 

(2); -ity.] The quality or state of being in- 
fused ; capability of being fused or dissolved. 

In-fus -I-ble (1), a. [Pref. in- (2\ and Eng. 



., Min., <c. : That cannot be fused or 
dissolved ; not admitting of fusion; not fusible. 

" Vitrl ficatloii ! the last work of fire, and a fusion 
Of the salt mul earth, wherein ttie fusilile salt draws 
the earth and infttsiWe part Into one continuum." 
Browne : Vulgar Errouri, bit. ii., oh. 1. 

In f&f-l-ble (2), a. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. 
fusible (q.v.).] Capable of being infused. 

' in-fus'-X-ble-ness f *. [Eng. infusible, and 
suff. -ness.] The same as INFUSIBILITY (q.v.). 

In~ffV-8io&, *. [Lat. infusio, from infusus t 
pa. iiar. of in/undo ; Fr. & Sp. infusion; Ital. 
infusione.] 

1. The act of Infusing or pouring in or upon, 
as a liquid. 

"Of whych thyiigcs this infutian of water la one." 
Sir T. Mora : Warket. p. 491. 

* 2. The act or process of dipping in or into 
water ; immersion. 

" Baptism by in fusion began to be In trod need in cold 
climates." Jurtin: Ecdet. ffitt. 

3. The act or process of steeping any sub- 
tance, as a plant in a liquid for the purpose 
of extracting medicinal or other valuable 
virtues, essence, or qualities. 

4. The liquor obtained by steeping any sub- 
stance, as a plant in a liquid ; a decoction. 

5. The act of infusing, instilling, or implant- 
ing in the mind ; instillation, inculcation. 

" In the working of such clensing of the soule, and 
totfuiion of grace.' Sir T. More : Worket, p. 886. 

6. That which is infused, instilled, or ira- 
planted ; an inspiration. 

" No sooner grows 
The soft infution prevalent atid wide." 

Thornton : Spring, 583. 

* 7. A mixture, a share, a blending. 

" Of elegy there was the due illusion." 

Byron: l'tfon of Judgment, in, 

In-fu'-slon-ism, * Xn-fu'-sian-Ism (s as 

zh), s. [The first form from Eng. infusion; 
-ism; the second from Low I^at. infitsianis- 
units = the teaching described in def.] 

Metaph, : The doctrine that the human soul 
is an emanation from, or an influx of, the 
Divine Substance. It is akin to the teaching 
of Pythagoras and of the Stoics. Its de- 
fenders in Christian times have relied on 
Gen. ii. 7. Infusionism is opposed to Tradu- 
cianism(q.v.)and to Creationism, the doctrine 
accepted by the Eastern and Western Church. 

" in fu sive, a. [Eng. infus(e) ; -ive.] Having 
the power of infusion or inspiration; inspiring. 
" Sing tht infusing force of Spring on man." 

Thomson ; Spring. MS. 

In-fa-soV-I-a. s. pi. [Not the pi. of Lat. infu- 
sonum a pitcher, but Mod. Lat., from infusits, 
pa. par. of infundo = to pour in, to infuse.] 

1. Zool. : The name first given by Otto Frede- 
rick MUller to the mostly microscopic anima- 
cula developed 
in organic in- 
fusions. A 
drop of water 
from a weedy 
or other pool or 
ditch, viewed 
by the micro- 
scope,contains 
them in count- 
less numbers. 
E Ii r e nberg 
deemed them 
animals of 
com paratively 
high organiza- 
tion. Many of 
h i s infusoria 
have been removed to the vegetable kingdom, 
and the others shown to have a simpler struc- 
ture than he believed. Pritchard divided, them 
into Bacillaria, which were clearly vegetable, 
Phytozoa, on the borderland between animals 
and plants, and Protozoa, Rotatoria, or Roti- 
fera, and Tardigrada, clearly animal. They are 
placed by many as a class of Protozoa. Some 
years ago Prof. Huxley elevated them into 
one of the ei^ht primary groups, into which 
he divided the Animal Kngdom. They have 
neither vessels nor nerves, but possess in- 
ternal spherical cavities. They move by 
means of cilia or variable processes formed 
of the substance of the body, true feet being 




INFUSORIA IN THE FIELD 
OF THE MICROSCOPE. 



absent. The sarcode is differentiated into an 
ectosarc and an endosurc ; they have also a 
nucleus and a contractile vesicle. They occur 
everywhere, in salt, as well aa in fresh water. 
One, Noctiluca, is believed to take a great 
share in producing the phosphorescence of the 
ocean. The Infusoria proper (= Pritchard's 
Protozoa) are divided into three orders Suc- 
toria, Ciliata, and Flagellate. 

2. Palatont. : Ehrenberg believes that the 
protective carapnces of some infusoria have 
been found in chalk flints. The " infusoria " 
found in the mineral called Tripoli, and in bog- 
iron ore, are mostly vegetable Diatoms, and rlo 
not belong to the class as now restricted. 
[GAILLONELLA.] 

In-fa-sbr'-I-aL [Mod. Lat. infuaorialis, 
from infusoria (q.v.).] 

Zool. : Of or belonging to the Infusoria (q.v.). 

infusorial earth, infusorial 
silica, 8. A flue white earth, composed 
largely of the microscopic eilicious shells of 
diatoms, considerable deposits of which are 
found in this country. It is used as a metal- 
polish and as an absorbent in making explo- 
sives. Also called fouil flour, rotten-alone, and 
electro-silicon. 

In-ftl-sdV-I-an, *. [Mod. Lat. infusori(a); 
Eng. suff. -an.] 

Zool. : A member of the Infusoria. (Dun- 
can: Nat. Hist., iv. 356.) 

In-fus'-Sr-$r, a. & s. [Mod. Lat. infusoria) 
(q.v.); Eng. suff. -y.} 
A* As adj. : Of or belonging to the Infusoria. 

t B. /I.s subst. : One of the Infusoria. (Ka?i 
der Hoeven : Handbk. of Zool. (ed. Clark), i. 41.) 

infusory animalcules, s. pi. 

Zool. : The class or sub-kingdom Infusoria 
(q.v.). 

* Ing, s. [A.S.] A meadow, a pasture. [-!NO, 
suff. 3.] 

-ing, suff. [See def. ] A suffix of various mean- 
ings and significations. 

1. An A.S. patronymic suffix, still very 
commonly found in proper names : as, Birlwc/ 
= son of Birl. 

2. Representing the A.S. ung, the termina- 
tion of the verbal noun : as, showing = A.S. 
sce&wunj/. 

3. The A. 8. ing = a meadow, a common 
element in English place-names : as, Deeping, 
Wappinff. 

4. The termination of the present participle 
of verbs ; representing the older -ande, -ende, 
hide : as, coming = A.S. munende. 

5. A diminutive suffix = ling: as, farthing 
= A.S. feorthZtn?, feorthun?. 

in'-ga, 5. [Native name. (Larousse.)'] 

Bot. : A genus of Acacieae. About 150 spe- 
cies are known, from Brazil, Guiana, &c. 
They are generally large shrubs or trees, with 
pinnate leaves and white or yellow flowers, 
and broadly -linear compressed and one-celled 
legumes containing pulp. The pulp of the 
legumes of Ingtt tetruphylto, &.Q., is sweet and 
mucilaginous ; that of /. vera and /. fasculifera 
is purgative. 

* in gage , v.t. [ENGAGE.] 

* in-gal'-le^, * In-gaT-ltf, v.t. [Pref. in- (1), 
and Eng. galley.} To confine at the galleys. 

Yn'-gan, s. [ONION.] 

* in-gan-na'-tton, s. [Ital. ingannare = to 
cheat.] Cheat, fraud, deception, imposture, 
delusion. 

" Front the root of deceit in themselves, or Inability 
to resist such trivial ingannutiont from other*." 
Browne : Vulgar i~rourt, bit. i., ch. lil. 

in -gate, s. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. gate (q.v. }.] 
* 1. Ord. Lang. : Entrance, a passage In. 
" Therein resembling Janus auncient. 
Which had in charge the ingate of the yeare." 

Spenter: F.Q. t IV. x. 11 

2. Found. : The aperture in a mould at which 
the metal enters. It then passes by runners 
to the spaces made vacant by the withdrawal 
of the pattern. The ingate is technically called 
the tedge, gate, geat, or git. The latter two 
are corruptions of gate. 

In gath-er-ihg, . [Pref. -in (1), and Eng. 
gathering (q.v.).] The act of gathering or col- 
lecting; specif., theact of getting in the harvest. 



* In geT-a-ble, a. [Pref. in- (2), and En* 
gclable (q.v.).] Incapable of being congealed. 

* in gem i nato, a. [Lat. ingeminatus, pa. 
par. of ingemino = to double : in- (intens.), 
and gemino = to double ; geminut = twin, 
double.] Redoubted, repeated, reiterated : at, 
an ingeminate expression. (Jcr. Taylor.) 

* In-gem'-l-nate, v.t. [INGEMINATE, a.] T 

redouble, to repeat, to reiterate. 

"Now be often did ingeminate those sad predic- 
tions," Bf>. Taylor: Greit Exemplar, pt Ul., f 8. 

* in-gem-i-na tlon, *. [I^t. ingeminatus, 
pa. par. of ingemino = to double.] The act of 
doubling or redoubling; repetition, reiteration. 

"The apostle, by such an instance and iwmirut- 
tion, would press ao thin a meaning." Uvpkin*\: Oir> 
inont, aer. 14. 

* in-gon'-der, v.t. [ENGENDER.] 

* in'-gfen-er, s. [Eug. engin(e); -er.] An en. 
gineer, a contriver. (Shakesp. : Hamlet, iii. 4.) 

* in-ggn-er-a-bil'-I-t^ (1), . [Eng. inge- 
nerable(l); -ity.] The quality or state of being 
ingenerable ; incapability of being generated. 

" The incorporeity and ingenerabHity of all soul*," 
Cudworth: Intellectual .iyttem. p. 115. 

* in-gSn-er-^-bil'-i-t^ (2), s. [Eng. ing* 
nerable(2); -ity.} Capability of being gene- 
rated or engendered. 

v in-gen'-eiva-ble (l) t a. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. generable (q.v.).J Incajtable of being 
generated or engendered. 

" Neither ingenernble nor Incorruptible substanoM." 
Bagb : Works, i. 603. 

* in-gen'-er-a-ble (2), a. [Lat. ingenero = 
to generate, to engender.] Capable of being 
ingenerated or produced within. 

* in-gen'-er-a-bljf, adv. [Eng. ingenerab(U) 
(1) > -^-] So as not to be generable. 

" Endued with all those several forms and qualitlM 
of bodies ingenerably and iucoiTui>tibly." Cudurvrtk : 
Intellectual System, p. as. 

* In-gSn'-er-ate, v.t. [INGENERATE (l), a.] 
To generate or produce within ; to engender. 

"Whereby this opinion and persuasion hath been in- 
ffeneratctlnnn;i.\ikiin\."lla[f:tirt'j. of Mankind, p. 2U 

* In gen' er ate (1), a. [Lat. ingeneratu t 
pa. par. of iugenero: in- = ia, within, ana 
genera = to generate.] 

1. Inborn, innate, inbred. 

2. Born, engendered, generated. 

" Pure and vnspotted from all loathly crlm^ 
That is inyenerate in fleshly slime/' 

Spenter : F. .. III., vL L 

* in-gSn'-er-ate (2), a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 

generate (q.v.).] Not generated ; unbegotten. 

* in gen'-er at-ed, a. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. genf.rated (q.v.).J [INGEKERATE (2).] 

* in-ge'-ni-ate, v.t. & i. [Lat. ingenium^ 

genius.] 

A. Trans. : To contrive, to invent. 

"And I most all I can ingentot*," 

i' i,,ui ; A funeral Po*m, 

B. Intrans. : To contiive, to plan. (Duntel: 
The Complaint of Rosamond.) 

* In-ge-ni-ftB'-f-t& a. [Lat. ingenious) = in- 
genious ; -ity.] Ingenuity, skill, cleverness, 
cunning. 

in-ge'-ni-OUS, a. [Fr. ingenieux, from Lat. 
ingeniosus = clever, from ingenium = genius, 
cleverness.] 

M. Formerly combining, with the meaning 
which we now attach to it, Jie signification 
also which we attribute to ingenuous ; fn 
other words, it was applied indifferently to in- 
tellectual and moral qualities, instead of being 
limited to the former as it is now. 

" He Is neither wise nor faithful, but a flatterei 
that denies Ms spirit injenlout freedom." U<wktt. 
L1/e<tfAbp. Wtitiumt, pt. L, p. 150. 

2. Possessed of genius, natural capacity, 
or talent ; skilful, or ready to invent or con- 
trive ; inventive, clever. 

3. Pertaining to, or characterized by inge- 
nuity or genius ; clever ; curious in design 01 
contrivance. 

" A succession of ingentout and spirited pamphlet*." 
.Vacaultty : Hiit. hug., ch, xvi. 

* 4. Dwelling in the mind ; heartfelt, con- 
scious. 

" That cursed head. 

Whose wicked deed thy moat ingentout sens* 
Deprived thee of." Shakwp. : Hamltt, T. L 

* 5. Intellectual, mental. 

" A coarse of learning and ingenious studies," 

SHaketp. : Tanuny of the Shrno, L L 



boll, bo^; pout, jo%l; cat, 9011, chorus, fhin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, yenophon, exist, ph =- ( 
-dan, -tlan = shan. tion. -slon - shun ; -flom, -slon - zhua. -clous, -tious, -atous - shos. -We, -die, &c. = bel, deL 



4674 



Ingeniously In grain 



ln-ge'-n$-ous-l& adv. [Eng ; ingenious : -ly.} 
In an ingenious manner; with ingenuity or 
skill ; cleverly. 

" Their Implement* for fishing and hunting, which 
are both In'jKmnutfy contrived and well made. Coo*: 
Third Voyage, bk. iv.. ch. UL 

an-ge'-nl-ousi-nSss, s. [Bug. ingenious; 
-nets.] The quality or state of being ingenious ; 
Ingenuity. 

" He shewed as little Ingenuity M (nenioutn" 
JWIor/ uVnarol ICorUliai of England, oh. XXV. 



In-gen'-Ite. *In-gen-It, a. 

<*, pa. par. of ingigno : in- = in, and fftgno = 
to engender.) Innate, inborn, Inbred ; native, 
natural. 

"There is not only In the mind of man an tnyenit 
sense of tvr/w and Ivjnestum." Houth : Simon*. VOL 
ix., ser. 8. 

Ingenue (pron. ang'-nu), s. [Fr.] An in- 
genuou.s artbss, naive girl or young woman ; 
one who displays candour or simplicity in 
circumstances where it is not expected. Used 
often of female parts in plays ; also au actress 
who plays such parts. 

In-ge-nu'-It-jf, . [Fr. iwitnuttt, from Lat. 
ingpnuitattm, ace. of ingenuitas, from ingenuus 
= free-born, cat-did ; Sp. ingemddad.] 

* 1. Ingenuousness, openness, fairness, can- 
dour. 

Christian simplicity teaches openness and ing* 



Ver. Taylor : Sermons, ser. 14, pt 11 

2. The quality or state of being Ingenious ; 
the power of ready invention ; cleverness, 
skill, cunning ; readiness in resources, Inven- 
tiveness, ingeniousness. 

" To monarch! dignity; to Jndpee sense: 
To artiate ingenuity and skill." 

Cotffper: Task, Iv. 797. 

8. Skill or cleverness of invention ; curious- 
ness of design or contrivance : as, the inge- 
nuity of a machine or instrument. 

*4. Cleverness, wit, genius, acuteness, 
capacity. 

^ Ingenuity and wit both imply acuteness 
of understanding, and differ mostly In the 
mode of displaying themselves. Ingenuity 
comprehends invention ; wit comprehends 
knowledge. One is ingenious in matters 
either of art or science ; one is witty only in 
matters of sentiment. (Crabb : Eng. Synon.) 

In-gen'-u-ous, a. [Lat. ingmuut = free- 
born, candid ; Sp. ingenut).] 

L Of honourable or noble extraction ; nobly 
born, free-bom. 

2. Open, candid, frank, fair ; free from dis- 
simulation, reserve, or disguise ; sincere. 

" He would stroke 
The head of modest aud ingenuous worth." 

Cooper: Task, 11. 711. 

S. Ingenious, clever. 

" More Industrious, more ingenuous at home ; more 
potent, more honourable abroad." Milton : On a Free 
Commonwealth. 

*JI Gcniui Is altogether a natural endow- 
ment that is born with us independent of ex- 
ternal circumstances : the ingtnious man 
therefore displays his powers as occasion may 
offer. We love the ingenuous character, on 
account of the qualities of his heart ; we ad- 
mire the ingenious man on account of the en- 
dowments of his mind. One is ingenuous as 
a man ; one is ingenious as an author : a man 
confesses an action ingenuously ; he defends it 
ingeniously. (Crabb : Eng. Synon.) 

U For the difference between ingenuous and 
frank, see FRANK. 

fa gen'-u-ous-ly, adv. [Eng. ingenuous; 
-ly.} In'an ingenuous manner ; openly, can- 
didly, fairly, frankly. 

"Others more inyenuouslu declared that they would 
not ntrht In such a quarrel" Macaula]/: Hist. Eng., 
oh. xilL 

fa gen'-u-ous-ness, >. [Eng. ingenuous; 
-ness.] 

* 1. Formerly synonymous with ingenuity, 
both of them applied indifferently to intel- 
lectual and moral qualities. 

" By his ingenuousness, be [the good handicraftsman; 
leaves his art better than he found it." fuller: Holy 
State, bk. it, ch. xiii 

2. The quality or state of being ingenuous ; 
openness, candour, frankness. 

" [He] relates with amusing ingcnuoutnets his own 
mistake*," Macaulay : Hist. Eng., ch. xlx. 

fa'-4en-y, * ln-gen-ie, s. [Lat ingenium.} 
Ingenuity, genius, wit, cleverness. 

" Some things have been discovered not only by tli. 
V and Industry of mankind." Hale: Orig. v.i 
tnd, p. 1M. 



" In-ger'-ml-nate, v.t. [Pref. in- (intens.), 
and Eng. germinate (q.v.XJ To cause to ger- 
minute or sprout. 

* In gest , v.t. [Lat. ingestus, pa. par. of in- 
gtro : in- = in, into, aud gero = to carry.] To 
throw into ; to place in, as in* the stomach. 

" Nor will we affirm that iron, invested, reoeiveth in 
the belly of the osteridge no alteration.' Browne . 
Vulgar Errours, bk. Hi., ch. xxli. 

In-ges ta, s. pi. [INGEST.] 
Pkysiol. : Food. 

In-gest ion (Ion as yon), >. [Lat in- 

gestto, from ingestus, pa. par. of ingero.] The 
act of throwing or placing in, as food in the 
stomach. 

Ing-ham-itoa, s. pi. [See det] 

EccUs. : A small religious sect founded by 
Benjamin Iiigham, one of the early Metho- 
dists. Separating from his original connec- 
tion, he joined the United Brethren, but soon 
after founded a sect, the doctrines of which 
were a modification of those of the Glassites 
aud the Saudemanians. 

* In-gine', s. [Lat inyenium.] Genius, inge- 
nuity, talent 

"If thy master ... be angry with theei I shall 
suspect bis inline while I know him for it." Ben 
Jonton : Every Man in his Humour, v. L 

* In' gln-ouB, a. [ENOINOUS.] 
In-girt, v.t. [ENGIRT.) 

* fa-girt, a. [INOIBT, .] Surrounded, In- 
closed, environed. 

** And caused the lovely nymph to fall forlorn 
lu Dia, with circumfluous seta ingirl." 

Fenton : Homer Imitated. 

In'-gle (1), s. [Gael, aingeal, eingeal; Cora. 

* 1. A tire, a blaze. 
2. A fireplace. 

Ingle-nook, . The corner by the flre- 
side. 

" By the inale-isook . . . men still talked of elves 
and goblins."/. & Brevier: English Studies, p. 215. 

ingle-aide, ingle-cheek, s. The fire- 
side. 

" Everybody tells It. as we were dolnj. their aiu way, 
by the ingle-side." Scott: Ouf Manaerlng, ch. xlt 

* In'-gle (2), s. [Etym. doubtful] 

1. A male favourite or paramour. 

2. A sweetheart, a mistress, an engle. 

"Coming, as we do. from his quondam patron*, his 
dear injla nafr'ilasslnaer: CUl Ma Jam. IT. L 

In'-gle, v.t. [IiTOLE (2), .] To coax, to 
wheedle. 

" Klst and inglrd ou thy father's knee." 

bonne : ElfJH iv. ; The Perfume. 

* In-glo'-bate, a, [Lat. in- = in, into, and 
globatus = formed into a ball or sphere ; globus 
= a ball, a sphere.] In the form of a globe 
or sphere ; applied to nebulous matter col- 
lected into a sphere by gravitation. 

* fa-globe', v.t. [Lat. in- in, Into, and glabus 

= a ball, a sphere ; Fr. englober.] To make a 
globe of ; to form into a ball or sphere. 

" To inglobe or Incnoe herself among the presbyters." 
Milton . Reason of Church Government, bk. i., en. vi. 

In-gldV-I-OUS, a. [Fr. inglorieux, from Lat. 
ingloriosus, from inglariui = inglorious : in = 
not, and 0!oria=glory ; Sp. & Ital. inglorioso.} 
1. Not glorious ; obscnre ; unknown ; not 
attended or followed by glory, honour, fame, 
or celebrity. 

"Some mute inglorious Milton here 



2. Disgraceful, shameful, Ignominious. 

"That strife 

Was not inglorioHt, though the event was dire." 
Milton : P. L., i. 624 

In-glbV-I-ous-iy, adv. [Eng. inglorious; 
-ly.] In an inglorious manner; dishonour- 
ably; disgracefully; ignominiously ; ob- 
scurely. 

"Twere better in soft pleasure and repose 
Inglorifauly our peaceful eyes to close. 

benham: OJ OU, Aae, Iv. 

In-glor'-I-ous-ness, . [Eng. inglorious; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being in- 
glorious. 

"Opprest by the Inalariousness of the object," 
Mounlague: Deeoute Euayet, pt ii., tr. L, J2. 

*In-glut', v.t. [Pref. in- (intens.), aud Eng. 
glut (q.v.).J To glut, to stuff, to cram. 

"Being one* inputted with vanitle." iscjiam: 
, bk. I. 



In-glu'-vl-al, a. (INOLUVIKS.) Of 01 per 
taining to the ingluvles. 

In-glu'-vtes, . [Lat.J 

Ornith.: A crop or partial dilatation of the 
oesopliagus. (Owen.) 

in go ing, a. 4t s. [.Pref. in- (1), and Bug, 
going (<i.f.). \ 

A. As adj. : Going in, entering, as into an 
office, possession, &e. : as, an ingoing tenant. 

B. As subst. : The act of going in or enter- 
Ing ; entrance. 

In-gore', v.t. [EX-GORE.) 
in-gorge', v.t. & i. [ENOOROE.] 

in got, . [ A.S. in- = in, and goten = poured, 
pa, par. of geotttn^ to poui 1 , totuse metals ; Fr. 
lingot, from I'ingot, tiw article being incor- 
porated with the substantive; Ger. eiuyuss, 
from geissen = to pour, to fuse.) 

1. A cast mass of steel from the crucible ; 
a cast mass of gold or silver, more or less 
pure, for assaying ; a cast block of gold, silver, 
or a properly proportioned alloy of either, for 
coinage, or for working into other forms, as 
watch-cases, Ac. The crude ingot of gold or 
silver, after becoming assayed and brought to 
the standard fineness, is cast into bars ready 
for rolling, if for coin. Iran is cast into fig*, 
steel into ingots ; copper at one stage into 
bricks, at another into pigs; tin is run into 
blocks; silver from the subliming furnace i* 
in porous blocks, called bricks. 

" Some gleam like silver, some outshine 
Wrought ingots from Besoara s uilue. 

Sir W. Jotiet : Hindu Wife. 

2. A mould in which metal is cast. 
" For I wot wel ingot have ye nou." 

Chaucer: C. T.. 16,677. 

Ingot-mould, s. A flask in which metal 
is cast into blocks. The ingot mould for cast 
steel is made of cast-iron. It is in two parts, 
separating longitudinally, and united for use 
by collar-clamps and wedges. The interior of 
the mould is smokedV by the fumes of burning 
pitch, so as to give it a carbonaceous coatiug. 
to prevent the adherence of the cast-steel 
thereto. The ingot is turned out while red 
hot, and is rolled into the shape required 

in gowe, . [INOOT.J 

* In-grace', v.t. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng gram 
(q.v.).J To introduce or receive into grace 01 
favour ; to ingratiate. 

"Jngraced into so high a favour there." 

0. Fletcher : Christ's Triumph Over Death. 

" in-gra'-cious, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
gracious (q.v.).J Not gracious ; ungracious. 

"Tarquluius the Proud aud hi* tngravkms wife." 
P. Bottand: Lins, p. 41. 

in gran", v.t. [INGRAFT.] 

In graft', v.t. Another spelling of ESORAFT 
(q.v.). [GRAFTING.] 

In-graft'-Sr, In-graff'-er, . [Eng. i- 
grafl; -er.] One who ingrafts or grafts. 

" He Is the tmraffer aud Implanter of all th 
branches into thU vine." eoodwin: Triall qf * 
Christian' I Orowh. (lutrod.) 

" In-gralT-ment, >. [Bug. ingrrft; -mtnt.} 

1. The act of ingrafting or grauiug. 

2. That which Is Ingrafted, 
in gralled , a. [ENOBAILED.] 

Ill-grain', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. ymi* 
(q.v.).] 

L Literally : 

\. To dye with grain or kennes. 

2. To dye in the grain or raw material before 
It is manufactured. 

1L Figuratively: 

1. To work Into the natural texture ; to Irr 
bue thoroughly ; to impregnate ; to saturate. 

" Our fields ingrained with blood, OUT rivers dy'd." 
Daniel: Civil Wars, bk. iii. 

2. To work Into the mental constitution, so 
as to form an essential element ; to iuwork. 

Ill-grain', a. & . [Eng. in-, and grain,'] 

A. As adjective: 
L Literally: 

L, Dyed with grain or kermes. 

2. Dyed in the grain, or before manufacture, 

H. Fig. ' Thoroughly imbued or worked in. 

B. As subst. : A yarn or fabric dyed with 
fast colours before manufacture. 



Ate at. fare, amidst, what, ail, to Her; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, air, marine; go, pot, 
r. wore, wtjlt; work, who, son; mute, cub. cure, unite, cur. rule, full; try, Sfriaru 89. ce = e; c; 



ingrapple inhabitance 



2675 



ingrain - carpet, s. A carpet manu- 
factured from wool or woollen dyed in the 
grain (before manufacture). These carpets 
iire extensively m;umf;ictured in Philadelphia, 
:ilso at Kklil.-nnnmter, England, and in Scot 
iiiiid. They are ordinarily known as two-ply or 
three-ply, according to the number of webs 
of which the fabric is composed. 

Ingrain-carpet loom : A loom in which two 
or more shuttles, one for the ground and the 
other for the figure, are employed. 

In-grap'-ple, * in -gra -pie, v.t. & i. 

[Pref. in- (1), and Eng. grapple (q.v.).] 

A. Trans. : To grapple, to seize hold of. 

" Neither to mid free themselves, but were ingrapled 
together.' 1 Fuller: Worthies; Lincolnshire. 

B. Intrans. : To grapple, to wrestle. 

" Attd with their armed paws ingrappted dreadfully. 
Drayton: Ptfy.Qlbion, a. 12. 

In eras i as, . [Signor Ingrasalas an 

Italian physician.] 

A not. : See etym. and compound. 

Tf Wings of Ingrassias : 

Anat. : The small wings (alee minores) of the 
sphenoid bone ; their extremities nearly touch 
the great wings. 

in grate, * in-grate', a. & s. [Lat. ingra- 
tvs, from in = not, and gratia = agreeable, 
grateful ; Fr. ingrat ; Ital. & Sp. ingrato.] 
A* As adjective : 

1. Unpleasant to the senses ; disagreeable. 

"The causes of that which Is impleaatng or inffrate 
to the hearing." Bacon: Hat. ffitt. 

2. Ungrateful ; not having feelings of grati- 
tude. 

"01 man tnyrate and maid deceived." 

Scott : Lord of the Ittet, V. 2. 

S. Thankless, unpleasant, disagreeable. 

"A very inffrate ami unthankful part." IfortK : 
ftutarch, p. 891. 

B. As sitbst. : An ungrateful person. 

" Inyrate, he had of me 
All he eonld have." Milton : P. L.. ill. W. 

In grate ful, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
grateful (q.v.).] 
* 1. Unpleasant to the senses. 

" May of purest spirits be found 
No ingrateful food." Milton : P. L.. V. 407. 

2. Ungrateful. 
" Ingrateful savage, and Inhuman creature 1 " 

Shaketp. : Henry l'., H. t. 

* In-grate'-ful-ljr, adv. [Eng. ingrateful; 
ly.} In an ungrateful manner ; ungratefully. 

" Ingritefully contemning all we have." Bo. Sail: 
Seaven upon Earth, f 26. 

In -grate'- ful -ness, *. [Eng. ingrateful; 
ness.] The quality or state of being ingrate- 
ful ; ungratefulness. 

'Xn'-gratfr-l&adv. [Eng. ingraft ; -ly.} Un- 
gratefully. 

In-gra -ti-ate (ti as shi), v.f. & i. [Lat. in- 

= in, into, and gratia favour, grace; Sp. 
engraciar ; Ital. ingraziare.] 

A. Transitive: 

1. To put or bring into favour; to com- 
mend, insinuate, rr introduce to the goodwill, 
confidence, or favour of another; used only 
reflexively, with the prep, with before the 
person whose favour is sought or gained. 

" Lysimachus tnffratiated himself both wtih Philip 
Mid his pupil." Addtson: Spectator. No. 337, 

*2. To commend; to render easy or pleasant. 

"What difficulty would it [the love of Christ] not 
ingratiate to usT"- I/antmontl : Workt. Iv. 664. 

B. Intrans. : To gain favour ; to b*come 
rieniHy or agreeable. 

" They took that proposition as an artifice, to ingra. 
tiate with the States hryund the rest of their allies." 
Sir W. Temple: J/ tnoirt from 16T2 to 1879. 

In-graf-i-tude, s. [Fr., from Lat. ingruti- 

tiuit> = unthankfulnoss, from ingrains = un- 
j'ii'asant, unthankful; Sp. ingratitud; Ital. 
ingratitndine.} Want of gratitude for kind- 
ness or favours received or done ; insensibility 
to favours or kindness ; retribution of evil for 
good ; lint hank fulness. 

"To heap ingratitude on worthiest deeds." 

Milton : Samton Affontatet, 378. 

* ln-gra-tu'-i-t^, s. [Lat. ingratit(s) un- 
grateful; Eng. sutf.-tty.J Ingratitude. (Dames: 
Microcosmos, p. 19.) 

in-grave (1), v.t. Another spelling of EN- 
GRAVED & 2) (q.v.). 

* in-grav'-i-date, v.t. fLat. ingravidatus, 
pa. par. of ingravido: in- (intens.), suulgravido 



= to make heavy, to impregnate ; gravidus = 
heavy.) To impregnate, to make pregnant. 

"They may he so pregnant and tnynifiiiuted with 
lustful thought*." fttlltr.' Holy State, p. 35. 

* in-grav-I-da'-tlon, *. [INORAVIDATE.; 
The act of ingra vidating or impregnating ; the 
state of being ingmvidated or made (pregnant. 

* in-great', v.t. [Pref. in- (intens.), and Eng. 
great (q.v.).] To make great, to magnify, to 
enlarge, to exalt. 

"Others, to inffreat themselves, might strain tr._._ 
than the strong will be*r."Abp. Abbot: Speech on 
Kushanrth'i Collection* i. 155. 

* in grc di en9e, * in-gre di en-9y s. 

[Lat. ingrediens, pr. par. of ingredior.] 

1. Entrance ; walking in. 

"The temple they perfume with frankeuoenie 
Thus ptuincMabr at tiundtenoe,* 

Vieart: Virgil. (Kara.) 

2. The quality or state of being ingredient. 

"It should tie upon the account of its ingrediency, 
and not uf its use. Boyle: Work*. 1. 618. 

in-gre' di ent, s. & a. [Fr., from Lat. in- 
grediens, pr. par. of ingredior = to enter upon, 
to begin : in- = in, into, and gradior = to walk, 
to go. The word is explained in the Glossary 
to Philemon Holland's translation of Pliny's 
Nat. Hist., A.D. 1601, as if then of recent in- 
troduction into English.] 

A* As substantive: 

1. That which enters into & compound as 
an element, or is a component part of any 
compound or mixture ; an element. 

" The love of Nature's works 
la an ingredient in the compound man." 

Gowper: Task, IT. 732. 

* 2. A person going In or entering. (Adams : 
Works, i. 59.) 

* B. As adj. : Forming an ingredient or 
component part in a compound or mixture. 

"The first, or Hebrew tongue, which seems to be 
ingredient into so many languages." Browne; Mitcel- 
lanit-t, tract viii. 

in'-gress, s. [Lat. ingressus, from ingredior 
to go or walk in ; Sp. ingreso ; Ital. in- 
ffresso.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of entering or going in ; entrance, 

" On pain of death, my lord, am I com minified 
To stop all in-jrttt to the palace." 

Coleridge : Zapolya. L 

2. Power or liberty of entrance ; means of 
entering. 

II. Astron. : The entrance of the moon into 
the shadow of the earth in eclipses ; the en- 
trance of the sun into a sign, &c. 

in gross', v.i. [INGRESS, .] To go In or 
enter. (Annandale.') 

* in gress ion (as as sh), s. [Lat. ingressio, 
from, ingressus, pa. par. of ingredior; Fr.ingres- 
sion.] The act of entering ; entrance, ingress. 

"Mercury . . . may happily' have a more powerful 
ingreuion into gold toan any other body whatever." 
Ingby : Of Bodies, ch. xv. 

* fctt-greV-SU, s. [Lat. ; ablat. sing, otingres- 



Law : A writ, now obsolete, of entry into 
lands or tenements. 

* in-greV-vus, *. [Lat.] [INGRESS.] 

Law : The relief which the heir at full age 
paid to the head lord for entering upon the 
fee, or lands fallen by the death or forfeiture 
of the tenant. 

* in -grieve', v.t. [Pref. in- (intens.), and 
Eng. grieve (q.v.>] To make more grievous ; 
to aggravate. 

*fcl-gro6ve', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. 
groove (q.v.).] To groove in ; to flx or join, 
as in a groove. 

* In-gross', v.t. [ENGROSS.] 

In'-grdw-Xng, s. [Pref in-, and Eng. grow- 
ing.] The growing inward. 

1" Ingrowing of the nails: 

Pathol. ; A painful condition in which the 
side of the nail is pressed into the flesh of the 
great toe at its margin. The chief cause is 
ill-fltting boots. Called also Onyxis (q.v.). 



'-t^, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
guitty (q.v.).) Not guilty ; innocent, guilt- 
less. 

"Not inouttty of any indignity that he hath put 
upon his favourite. /i]>. Hall: Contempt.; ffaman 
Banged, 



in'-guin al (u as w), a. [Fr., from Lat. i*. 
gu'uudiS) from inguen (genit. ingitini6) th* 
groin.] Pertaining or relating to the groin. 

"The plague seenu to IMS a particular disease, cha- 
racterised with eruptions In buboes, by the inflamma- 
tion and supmiratiujt of the axilUry, inguinal, and 
other glands. Artiuthnot. 

* In-gtiir, * in gulph', v.t. [Pref. in- (IX 
and Eng. gulf (q.v. ).J 

1. To swallow up, as in a gulf or whirlpool ; 
to overwhelm by swallowing. 

" Thence, in the porous earth 
Lung wlillt; iit'juiphed," 

Muton : English Garden, bk. U. 

2. To cast, as into a gulf. 

" If we adjoin to the lords, whether they prevail or 
not, we ingutf ourselves Into assured danger." Bag' 

VHtl-d. 

"fai-giilf-ment, . [Eng. ingulf; -ment.} 
The act of ingulfing; the state of being in- 
gulfed. 

* Xn-gur'-fei-tate, v.t. & <. [Lat. ingurgi- 
tatus, pa. par. of ingurgito : in- ^ in, into, and 
gurges (genit. gurgitia)=it\\G throat; Fr. in~ 
gurgiter; Sp. ingurgttar; Ital. ingurgitare.] 

A. Transitive: 

1. To swallow down greedily ; to devour 
greedily. 

2. To plunge into ; to ingulf, 

" Let him in;nii-,fi'ate himself never so deep." 
Fotherbu : Atheoma.-,tix,'\>. 2M. 

B. Intrans. : To eat greedily ; to devour, to 
gorge. 

"To eat and inffurtjtfate beyond all measure, 'LRixany 
doe." Burton.' Anatomy of Melancholy , p. 236. 

* fri-gur-gi-ta'-tion, * in gour gy ta- 
tion, 8. [JLat. ingurgttatio, from ingurgitatut t 
pa. par. of ingurgito ; Fr. ingurgitation.] The 
act of swallowing or devouring greedily or in 
great quantities. 

"Too much abstinence turnes vice, and too much 
inffurgitafion la one of the seven." Bishop Bali: Of 
Cementation, 1 13. 

* in giist'-a-ble, * in gust-1-ble, a. [Pref. 
in- (2), and Eng. gustable (q.v.).] IncapabU 
of being tested ; not perceptible to the taste. 

"The body of the element Is inguttable, void of all 
sapiility." Browne: Vulgar Erroun, bk. Ii., ch. xrL 

* in-hab-Il*, a. [Fr., from Lat. inkabilis, 
from in- = not, and habilis = skilful ; Sp. 
inhabit; Ital. inabile.} 

1. Not apt, fit, or suited ; unfit, inconve 
nient 

2. Unskilled, unqualified, 



l'-*-t3f, s. [Fr., inhabiliti, from 
inhafale.] The quality or state of being in 
habile ; unfitness, uu.-iptiiess, unskilfuliicss, 
inability. (Barrow: Sermons, vol. i., ser. 1.) 

in-hab'-it, v.t. & i. [Fr. inhabiter, from Lat 
inhabito ; from in- in, and kabito to dwell, 
a frequent, from habeo=. to have.] 

A. Trans. ; To live or dwell in ; to occupy 
as a place of settled residence. 

" The Aborigines, who fit that time inhabited those 
purta." P. JJolland: Livitis, p. a 

B. Intrans. : To live, to dwell, to reside, to 
abide. 

"Who built It, who inhabits there?" 

Cotaper: Olney llymnt, xlr. 

N in-hab'-it, * in hab ite, . [INHABIT, v.} 
Iuhabite<l. 

" Sith &nt_inhabite was the luiid." 

Chaucer: Dreamt. 

* in-hftb'-Xt-a-ble (1), a. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. habitable (q.v.).J Not habitable; that 
cannot be inhabited or lived iu. 

" Some inhabitable place 

Where the hot ran and allnie breed naught but 
monsters." Ben Jonton : Catiline, r. 3, 

in hab it a ble (2), a. [Fr., from Lat. fn- 
habitabilis, from inhabito= to inhabit.] Capa- 
ble of being inhabited; tit for inhabitation* 
habitable. 

"All which live 
In the itittitbitabl* world." Donne : Lamtnttittotu. 

in hab' it an9e, in hab'- it- an- 9y, . 

[Eng. inhabitant); -ce; -cy.] 

1. The quality or state of being an inhabit- 
ant ; permanent residence in a town, city, or 
parish ; the domiciliation which the law re- 
quires to make a pauper entitled to relief from 
the parish, town, city, &c., in which he lives ; 
habitancy. 

* 2. Habitation, dwelling. 

" Nothing, sir, but poverty and hunger; 

No promise of MMMmMMi 

Seaum. * flat. : Sea Voyage, ir. 1. 



*6il, b^; pout, Jrf^l; cat, 9011, chorus, 9hin, bench; go, gem; thin, ^his; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist. -in. 
-dan, tian = shan. -tion. -slon shun; -(ion* -sion = zhun. -tious. -sious, -cious = slids. -ble, -die. &c. bel. deL 



J676 



inhabitant inheritance 



3. Inhabitation ; the state of being in- 
hibited. 

" Bo the rnln. yet peeling In the wild moor, testify 
a former inhabitance." Carete : Survey of Cornwall. 

in-nab'-it-ant, " In-hab-yt^an. *ln- 

hab yt-aimt, *. [Lat. inhabifans, pr. par. 
of inhabito = to inhabit.] One who dwells, 
lives, or resides permanently in a place ; one 
who has a fixed residence in any place, as 
distinguished from an occasional visitor or 



. 
" MUchlef. that black Inhabitant of hell." 

Drujfton: Baroiu' Wart, bk. 1L 

' an-bab'-l-tate, v.t. [Lat. inhaMtatu*, pa 
par. of inhaliito = to inhabit) To inhabit, 
to dwell in. 

" Of all the people which inhabitau Asia." P. Hol- 
land LMul, p. 89J. 

In hab i ta tion, * In-hab-y-tft-cy-on, 

i. [Lat. inhabitatio.] [INHABIT.] 

1. The act or state of inhabiting ; the state 
of being inhabited. 

" From thli Inhabitation a nnmerlcal unity may be 
effected." Of. Bull : Worti, voL ii.. due. 4. 

*2. A habitation, a dwelling, a residence, 
n abode. 

3. A qviantity or number of inhabitants; 
population. 

" We shall rather admire how the earth contained 
iU tiiliiO'iUuU thail duuhl ita inhabitation." Brown* : 
Tulgar irrours, bk. vl.. ch. vL 

li-hab'-i-ta-tive, a. [Lat. inhabitatus, pa. 

par. of inhabito ; Enj;. adj. suff. -ii*. J Of or 
pertaining to inhabitation. 

ln-hab'-i-ta-tive-nes, . [Eng. inhabita- 
tive ; -ness.] 

Phrenol. : The organ which is said to prompt 
men to inhabit particular spots in preference 
to others, thus imbuing them with love of 
home. It is situated on the centre part of 
the back of the head, having around it Self- 
U ,n, Love of Approbation, Adhesiveness, 
and Philoprogenitiveness. Called by Combe 
Conoentrativeness. 

an-nab'-it-Stl, a. [Pref. In- (2), and Lat. 
habito = to Inhabit.] Not inhabited ; unin- 
habited. 

" Othen, In Imitation of aome Tallant knte hta, have 
frequented desarts and Inhabited provinces. Brailh- 
Mitte: Sumi of Ubtortet. (1614.) 

in hab'-Jt-er, s. [Eng. inhabit; -er.) One 
who inhabits, an inhabitant, a dweller, a 
resident. 

" To (eight wyth thlnhaoUen on the farther ilde ol 
the Rhine." Ooldinge : Cottar, to. 148. 

in nab I tress, * ln-lib-l-tree, . 

[Eng. inhabiter; -as.} A female who inhabits, 
female Inhabitant. 

ABMMMMaji 

On this thy wood-crowned hill." 

Chapman : Hymn* to FemM. 

In -ha ble, r.i. [ENABLE.] 

Inhal'-ant, In-hal'-ent, a. [Lat in- 
italeni, pr. par. of inhalo = to inhale (q.v.).] 
That inhales; inhaling. 

In hal a tion, . [Fr., from Lat, inhatatui, 
pa. par. of inhalo.] 

1. The act of inhaling. 

2. That which is inhaled. 

I For therapeutical purposes there are 
Iodine, turpentine, and creosote, hydrocyanic 
and other inhalations. 

In hale , v.t [Lat. inhalo, from in- = in, into, 
and halo = to breathe.] To draw Into the 
lungs ; to inspire ; to suck in. 

" That play of lungs, inhnUna and again 
Hiring frl,U, fre.h 



* in honce , v.t. [ENHANCE.] 

* in har mon ic, * m har mon -ic-al, a. 

[Pref. in- (2), and Eng. harmonic, liarmanical 
(q.v.).] Not harmonic, not harmonious, dis- 
cordant. 

H Inharmonic relation : 

Music: That in which a discordant sound is 
Introduced. 

in har mo -nl ofis, o. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. harmonious (q.v.); Fr. inharmonieux.] 
Not harmonious ; discordant, unmusical. 

" His own verses inharnuatlaut flow." 

Francit : Horace ; Satim, bk. L, X. 



adv. [Eng. inhar- 
monious; -ly.] In an inharmonious or dis- 
cordant manner; discordantly, without har- 
mony. 

in-har-md'-ni-ous-n&ss, . [Eng. inhar- 
monious; -ness.] The quality or state of being 
inharmonious ; want or absence of harmony ; 
discord. 

"Shocked at the Inharmonioianea of a verse." 
Search : Light of Nature, vol. I., pt. i., ch. xili 

* in-har'-mon-y, >. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
harmony (q.v.); Fr. inharmonic.] Want or 
absence of harmony ; discord. 

In haul. In -haul-er, J. [Pref. in- (1), and 
Eng. haul, hauler (q.v.).] 

Jfcmt. : A rope or purchase for rigging-in the 
'jib-boom, studding-sail-boom, or other spar. 

* In haunt' , v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and haunt, v.] 
To frequent, to keep near. 

"This creeke with run lug paasadge the channel in- 
haunteth." Stanihura : rirgil ; Jneld i. 168. 

* in-hausf , v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and En 8- 
haust, s. (q.v.).] To drink eagerly. 

" lie wa. inhautting hi* .moklng tea, which went 
rolling and gurgling down his throat" Io'*- - 
Book of Jfnooj, ch. xxll. 

in-heid', pa. par. or o. [INHOLD, . ] 

In-here, t>.t. [Lat. in*reo=tto stick fast 
in : in- = In, and Kama = to stick.) To exist 
or be nxed permanently and strongly in ; to 
be permanently incorporated in ; to belong, 
as an attribute or quality ; to be Innate, in- 
born, or inbred ; to be inherent. 

" For. nor In nothing, nor In thing. 
Extreme and scattering bright, 



m-hal'-er, . [Eng. inhale); -tr.] 
L Ord. Lang. : One who inhales. 
n. Tech. : An apparatus to filter and warm 
the air respired by persons with delicate 
lungs, or by those subjected to a deleterious 
atmosphere. 

(1) For consumptives it consists of a repli- 
cated wire-gauze tissue ; a respirator. 

(2) For cutlers and others subjected to an 
atmosohere of iron dust, it is a magnetic tissue 
which vrtests the dust. 

(3) An instrument for inhaling or inwardly 
applying medicated vapours or anaesthetic 
agents. 

(4) An apparatus to enable a fireman, miner, 
r diver to work in a poisonous or heated at- 
mosphere, or in water, carrying with him a 
apply of vital air. [FILTER, ., 3.] 



In-beV-enee, in-hey-en--??. . [Fr. inher- 
ence 8p. inhcrencia, from Lat. inhasrent, pr. 
par. of inhatreo = to inhere (q.v.).] The qua 
Uty or state of being inherent ; the state of 
inhering. 

" It to I that am pleated with beholding hi* gaiety. 
and the gay man In hie greatest _ bravery la only 



pTeased because I am pleased with the "light; BO 
borrowing hit little and Imaginary complacency from 
the delight that I have, not from any hOurmcn of hit 
own po.aee.lou."-*>. Ta,lar : *rmiu, ToL 1L. Mr. 18. 

in-heV-ent, o. [Lat. inhareni, pr. par. of 
inhamo = to inhere (q.v.) ; Fr. inherent ; Sp. 
inherente ; Ital. inerente.] 

1. Sticking fast in or to ; not to be re 
moved ; inseparable. 

By my body's action, teach my mind 
A meet inherent bnaeneM. 1 

ShaJutp- ' Cortatanut, ill. 3. 

2. Naturally conjoined or attached ; innate 
inborn. 

" Those vice, which are inherent in the nature of all 
coalition.. " Jtacaulay : Silt. Eng., ch. xvli. 

U Inherent denotes a permanent quality or 
property, as opposed to that which is adven 
titious and transitory. Inbred denotes tha 
property which is derived principally froir 
habit or by a gradual process, as opposed tc 
the one acquired by actual efforts. Inbort 
denotes that which is purely natural. Inborn 
and innate are precisely the same in meaning 
yet they ditfer somewhat in application 
Poetry and the grave style have adopted in- 
iiorn ; philosophy has adopted innate. (Crabb 
Eng. Synon.) 

in-her'-^nt-ly, adv. [Eng. inherent; -ly.} In 
an inherent manner ; by inherence. 

"Matter hAth inkertntlH and essentially inch an 
Internal energy." Benllty : Strmont. 8. 

in-bSr'-.t, * In-her-yt, * in-lter-yte, .. 

& i. [O. Fr. enheriter, from Lat. hceredit 
to inherit, from hceres (genit. hceredie) = a 
heir ; Sp. heredar; Port, herdar; Ital. eredare 

A. Transitive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. In the same sense as II. 



2. To receive or derive from a progenitor or 
ancestor as part of one's nature, either physical 
or mental. 

" Her deposition she Inherit!.' 

Shaketp. : Alfl WOUnat Sndt WtU, L L 

3. To possess ; to enjoy ; to receive as a 
possession by gift or divine appropriation ; to 
own. 

" What shall I do. that I may Inherit eternal life !" 
Mattheio x. 17. 

* 4. To receive ; to take in. 

" A grave 

Whoee hollow womb inherit* nought but buuefc" 
Shaketp. : Ittchard II., ii. L 

* 5. To contain ; to hold. 

* 6. To put in possession ; to setee. (Fol- 
lowed by of.) 

" It must be great that can inherit us 
80 much as of a thought of ill In him. 

SHatai'. : Klchard I!., 1. L 

IL Law : To take by descent from an an- 
cestor ; to take by succession as the repre- 
sentative of a former possessor ; to receive as 
a right or title descendible by law from an 
ancestor at his death. 

'Phauiax the elder. inherUyng the kyngdosa. 
accordyng to the custome of their countrie. 
Ooldjfitg : Juttine, to. 171.1 

B. Intrans. : To take, receive, or have a 
an inheritance, possession, or property ; to 
take or come into possession as an heir ; to be 
an heir. (Sometimes followed by to or in.) 

"Thou shalt not inherit In our father's house." 
Judffel xt 2. 

* Jn-hSr-it-a-bis'-i-ty, s. [Eng. inherttabU; 
-ity.] The quality or state of being inheritabl* 
or descendible to heirs. 

in-ll8r'-it-a-ble, a. [Eng. inherit; -oWe.] 

1. Capable of being inherited ; descendible 
from the ancestor to the heir by course of 
law ; transmissible as an inheritance. 

" When it became inheritable, the inheritance 
long indefeasible." Blackttone : Comment., bk. ii., ok-i. 

* 2. Capable of being transmitted from a 
parent or ancestor to a child : as, inheritabU 
virtues or vices. 

* 3. Capable of or qualified for inheriting or 
receiving by descent. 

" Lest the ladle, privily should counterfeit the * 
heritable aex." Mden .- /Must to Dratton'i ftdr- 
(XMon,|U. 

* in-hir'-l't-a-bljf, adv. [Eng. inheritab(k) ; 
-ly.] By way of inheritance ; so as to be in- 
heritable or transmissible as an inheritance. 

in her It an9e, * In hear it ancc, in- 
ber-it-annoe, . [Eng. inherit; -ana.) 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act or state of inheriting or receiving 
an estate as heir to another. 

"Yon shall understand that Darius came not tofcto 
empyre by inheritance, but got into y seate of Cyrus 
by the beueate of Bagoas, hys eunuche.--r*.- 
Vllinlul Cartha, fo. 143. 

2. That which is inheritable ; that wkick 
may be inherited or transmitted by succession 
from an ancestor to his heir. 

" To you the inheritance belongs by right." 

Sfienler: F. V-, 1. IV. - 

3. A possession received or acquired by gift 
or of grace or favour ; a permanent or valuabl 
possession, received or enjoyed by divin 
favour or appropriation. 

" When the SOD dies, let the inheritance 
Descend unto the daughter." 

ShaJcesp. : Henry I .. i. t. 

* 4. Possession, acquisition, ownership. 

" Which had returned 
To the inheritance at Fortiubras." 

ShalKtp. : Hamlet, L L 

H Technically : 

1. BM. : Darwin considers the inheritance 
of every character to be the rule, and non- 
inheritance the anomaly. Peculiarities tend 
to appear in the offspring at a corresponding 
age to that at which they arose in the parent, 
if not earlier. One appearing in a particular 
sex is often transmitted to that sex only. 
Sometimes there is a reversion to the charac- 
teristics of a remote ancestor. (Darwt*: 
Orig. of Species (1882), pp. 10, 67.) 

2 Law : A )rpetual or continuing right to 
an estate invested in a person and his heirs. 
There are nine " canons of inheritance : three 
may be quoted-<l) That inheritance shall, m 
the first place, descend to the issue of the lai 
purchaser in infnitum; (2) that the male 
issue shall be admitted before the female; 
(3) that where two or more of the male se 
are in equal degree of consanguinity txi the 
purchaser, the eldest only shall inherit, but 
the females all together. (WTutrton.) 



e ISt ttire, amidst" what, fall, lather; we, wSt, hire, cameL her, there; 
r. wore, welt, work, who, son ; mute, ciib. cure, unite, cur. rule, full ; try, 



pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
Syrian, se, ea^e; ey = a. qu - kw. 



inheritant iniquity 



2677 



1 la-her -I-tant, a. [Eng. inherit ; -ant.] In- 
herent. 

" Inheritant in the Divine nature." Briton : Divine 
Contideration*, p. 8. 

fa-aer'-It-or, *. [Eng. inherit ; -or.] One 
who inherits ; an heir ; one who receives or is 
entitled to receive by inheritance. 

" The freed inheritor* of hell." 

tlyron : The Giaour. 

ia-heV-I-tress, ' ia-aer'-I-trix, s. [Eng. 
inherit ; -ress, -rix.] A female who inherits ; 
jui heiress. 

"To wit, no female 
Should be inheritrix in Salique laud." 

Shakes)*. Hcnr.'i F., L i 

* In-heV -t-triy a t 5. [Eng. inheritor); -rice = 

rix.] An Inheritress, an heiress. 

la herse, * la-hearse', v.t. [Pref. in-(l), 

and Eng. herse, hearse, (q.vA] To put in a 
hearse ; to inclose as in a coffin. 

" See. where he lie* inhcned In the arms 
Of the must bloody iiurser of his harms." 

Shake*?. : 1 Henry VI., IT. 7. 

* In- he'-3lon, *. [Lat. inhasio, from inhcesum,, 
p. of inhcereo = to stick, to inhere.] The 
state of being inherent in ; inherence. 

" The notion of a subject of inhesion." - Rrid : Inttlt. 
Powert. Ess. it., ch. fUL 

* Ia'-hi-ate, v.t. [Lat. inhiatum, sup. of inhio 
= to open the month, to gape : in- (intens.), 
and hio = to gape.] To gape upon, to desire 
eagerly. (Bccon : Works, i. 253.) 

* In hl-a' tlon, *. [Lat. inhiatio, from in- 
hiatum, sup. of inhio.] [!MHIATE.] A gaping 
after, eager desire. 

"An inhi'ition after obscene lusta." Bp. Salt: 
Bonour of Married Clergy, bk. L, \ 1 

fa nib it, *tn-ayb-yte, v.t. [Lat. inAi&- 
itus, pa. i*ar. of inhibeo to have in hand, to 
check : in,- = in, and habeo = to have ; Sp. A 
Port, inhibir; Fr. inliiber.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. To restrain, to hinder, to repress, to 
heck. 

" The stars aud planets being whirled about with 
rrent velocity, would suddenly, did nothing inhibit it. 
be shattered in pieces." Kay: On the Creation. 

2. To prohibit, to forbid, to interdict. 

" Burial may not be inhibited or denied to any one." 
Ajftifft .' Pareryon. 

U, Eccles. Law: To forbid or prohibit from 
exercising the office of a priest. 

fa alb' -It -er, A. [Eng. inAi&tt; -er.] 

1, Ord. Lang. : One who inhibits. 

2. Scots Law : One who takes out an inhibi- 
tion, as against a wife or debtor. 

In hi bl tion, * in hi bi ci on, s. [Lat 

inhibitio, from inhibitus t pa. par. of inhibeo; 
Vr. inhibition; Sp. inhibition ; Ital. inibi- 
tione.} 

I. Ord. Lang. : The act of inhibiting or pro- 
hibiting ; embargo ; prohibition ; the state of 
being inhibited. 

" Lay a negative bar and inhibition upon that which 
Is agreed to by a whole parliament." J/ttfon ; Sikono- 
elattft. 

IL Law. 

1. English Law : 

(1) (See extract.) 

"Inhibition la a writ to Inhibit or forbid a Judge 
from farther proceeding in the cause depending before 
him. Inhibition IB most commonly a writ iMOrag out 
of a higher court Christian to a lower and inferior, 
upon an appeal : trod prohibition out of the Icing's 
court to a court Christian, or an Inferior temporal 
court." Cowel. 

(2) Eccles. Law : An order of court forbid- 
ding a priest from exercising ministerial duties. 

2. Scots Law : 

(1) Inhibition against a wife at the instance 
of a husband is a writ passing the signet, 
which prohibits all and sundry from transact- 
ing business with the wife or giving her credit. 

(2) An inhibition against ft debtor is a writ 
passing under the signet, whereby the debtor 
or party inhibited is prohibited from con- 
tracting any debt which may become a burden 
on his heritable property, or whereby his 
heritage may be attached or alienated to the 
prejudice of the inhibitor's debt 



* la- hllde, v.t. [Pref. in- (1), ai 
= to pour.) To pour in or into. 




la-hive', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. hive 
(q.v.).] To put in or into a hive ; to hive. 

' in hold, v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. hold 
(q.v.).] To hold in or within ; to contain, 
to have inherent. 

" It Is disputed, whether this light first created be 
the same winch the aim inhuldeth ami caatcth forth, or 
whether it had continuance any longer than till the 
sun i creation." Kaleiyh: ffitt. ft/ the World, bk. L, 
ch. 1., | 7. 

a-h6Id'-er f *. [Eng. inhold; -er.] An in- 
habitant. 

" And eTery part's inholdert to convert" 

Spent*-: F. <j.. V1L Tit 17. 

'la-hoop', v.t. [Pref. in-, and Eng. hoop 
(q.v.).] To inclose in a hoop; to confine in 
any place. 

" His quail* ever 
Beat mine inhoop'd at odds." 

Shaketp. : Antony * Cltopatro, U. 8. 

In hos pit a ble, a. [Fr., Sp. inhosped- 
abie ; Ital. inospitale.] 

1. Not hospitable ; not willing or inclined 
to show hospitality to strangers; unwilling 
to entertain guests, or entertaining them 
reluctantly. 

" He found the inhabitants of a little village so in- 
hotpitabl."Bp. Taylor: Great Exemplar, pt 111., 
114. 

2. Affording no convenience, subsistence, or 
shelter to strangers. 

" Dreary and inhotpitablt wattes." Blair, vol. v., 
er. L 

In hos pit a ble n6s, a. [Eng. inhospita- 
ble; -ness.] The quality or state of being in- 
hospitable ; inhospitality. 

" The inhotpUableneu of the place," ftoWjrn ; 
Memoirt. vol. i. (in). 

In hos pit a-bly, adv. [Eng. inhospitable) ; 
-ly.] In an" inhospitable manner; without 
hospitality. 

" For what you call inhotpitaMy drear. 
To me with beauty aud delight api>ear." 

Francii: foract; fpittUt, t xiv. 

* in housed', a. [Pref. in- (1) ; Eng. hous(t); 
and sutl 1 . -cd.] Housed. (G. Markham : Sir 
R. GrinuiU, p. 51.) 

In 1m man, in hu mane, *Ia-au- 
maiae, a. [Fr. inhumain, from Lat. inhu~ 
manus, from in- = not, and humanus = hu- 
man, gentle ; Sp. inhumano ; Ital. inunw.no.} 

1. Not human or humane ; destitute of a 
feeling of kindness or tenderness towards 
one's fellow-creatures ; barbarous, cruel, sav- 
age, unfeeling. 

" What wretch inhuman?, or what wilder blood." 
Browne : Britannia'* Pattoralt. bk. ii.. a, 1. 

2. Characterized or marked by inhumanity 
or cruelty. 

" The crueltie of the Frenchemen and of their inhu- 
wa*ncdealyngwiththem."-tftiH: Hen. Vlll. (an. 13), 

In hu-man i-ty, . [Fr. inhumaniU.] 

1. The quality or state of being inhuman ; 
cruelty, barbarity, savageness. 

" All kind of subtllty and violence and inhumanity 
was employed to overturn it," Jortin : Chrittum 
Religion, dU. S. 

* 2. An inhuman act or person. 

" If such inhumtmities actually bare been born. It 
Is certain that they may be horn." South, vol. vl., 
er 9. 

In hu man ly, * In hu-mane-ly, adv. 
[Eng. inhuman; -ly.] In an inhuman, cruel, 
or barbarous manner ; cruelly, barbarously. 

"Alexander had in his fury inhumanly butchered 
one of hi* best friends." flr* ; rind, of #at. Soc. 

* In- hum ate, v.t. [Lat. inhumatus, pa. par. 

of inhumo: in- = in, and htimo = to bury; 
humus = the ground.] To bury, to inter. 

Xn-hu-ma tion, *. [Lat. inhumatus, pa. par. 
of inhumo.} 

* 1. Ord. Lang, : The act of burying or in- 
terring ; burinl ; interment. 

" In some localities cremation prevailed, though in- 
humat ion was the general custom. Qreenwell: British 
Barrows, p. 21. 

2. Chem, : The act of burying vessels in 
warm earth, or anything similar, that their 
contents may be exposed to a steady degree of 
moderate heat. 

* In-hnme', v.t. [Fr. inhumer, from Lat in- 
humo.] 

1. Ord. iMng. : To bury ; to Inter ; to de- 
posit in the earth, as a corpse. 

"Burled he lay, where thousands before 
For thousands of years were inhumed on the shore." 
Ityron: Si^je of Corinth, xxv. 

2. Chem. : To bury a vessel in warm earth, 



so as to heat its contents modnrately Cud 
equally. [INHUMATION.] 

* In hurl', v.t. [Pref. in- (!>, and Eng. hurl, 
v.) lo drive orcastin. (Stanykurst : Virgil; 
&neid i. 559.) 

ia'-J-a, s. [The native Bolivian name.) 

Zool. : A genus of Delpliinidee (Dolphins). 
7nia boliviensis inhabits the rivers of Bolivia, 
Ac., in some cases two thousand miles from 
the sea. The male is fourteen feet long, the 
female but seven. 

In'-I-al, a. [INION.] Of or pertaining to th* 
inion" or ridge of the occiput. 

* in-Im-agr-ia-a-ble. a. [Pref. in- (2), and 

Eng. imaginable (q.v.)J Unimaginable; in- 
conceivable. 

la-lm'-ic-al, a. [Lat. inimicalis, from inimi- 
cus = hostile : in- = not, and amicus =: friendly.) 

1. Having the temper or disposition of an 
enemy ; hostile. 

2. Adverse ; hurtful ; harmful ; injurious. 

" Associations In defence of the existing power of th 
sovereign, are not, in. their spirit, inimical to the con 
stitution, Brand: Eucty on Political AtsociationM. 
('798.) 

* ia-lm-l'-c&l'-i'-t&s. [Eng. tnimioa ; -Uy.} 
The quality or state of being inimical ; hos- 
tility ; unfriendliness. 

* in-fan'-lc-^l-ly, adv. [Eng. inimical ; -Zy.J 
In a hostile or unfriendly manner. 

* In-InvI-9l'-tious, a. [INIMICAL.] Inimi- 

cal ; hostile. (Sterne ; Letter to Warburtot^ 
1760.) 

* Im-Im'-I-OOUS, a. [Lat. inimicw*.] Hostile; 
unfriendly ; hurtful. 

" It Is hard of digestion, inimiaeut to the stomack." 
Evelyn : Acetaria. 

in-im-It-^r-W-X-ty. . [Eng. inimitable; 

-ity.] The quality or state of being inimit- 
able ; impossibility to be imitated or copied. 

in im' it a blc, ". [Fr., from Lat. inimtto- 
bilis, from in- = not, and imitabilis that can 
be imitated ; imi(or= to imitate.] That can- 
not be imitated ; incapable of being imitated 
or copied ; above imitation. 

" He stood, as some inimitable hand 
Would strive to make a Paul or Tully stand." 

r: Table Talk, Ml. 



In-Im'-It-a-ble-ness, 5. [Eng. inimitable; 
-ness.] Th'e quality or state of being inimit- 
able ; inimitability. 

Xa-Im'-Jt-a-bMr, adv. [Eng. inimitab^k) ; -ly.) 
In an iniuii table manner or degree ; so as not 
to be imitated ; to a degree beyond imitation. 

"These two small but inimitably fine poems." 
Blnir, vol. til, let 40. 

In'-I-6n, *. [Gr. \viov (inion) = the sinews be- 
tween the occiput and the Itack, the nape of 
the neck ; U (is), genit. ini? (inns) = strength, 
a muscle, fibrous vessels.] 
Atiat. : A name of the ridge of the occiput. 



a. [Eng. iniquity) - t 
Characterized by iniquity, injustice, or wicked- 
ness ; unjust ; wicked ; nefarious. 

" Pensioned and bribed to this iniquitout service." 
Burke: Vindication of Natural Society. 

ll-X'-qui-tOTis-iy,arf)'. [Eng. iniquitous; -ly.} 
In an iniquitous manner or degree ; unjustly, 
wickedly. 

"Funds of Judgments iniguttoutly legxl." 
Letter to a Noble Lord. 



---, * la-i-aui-tee, s. [Fr. ini- 
quite, from Lat. iniqnitatem, ace. of iniquitcu 
= injustice: in- = not, and aquitas equal- 
ness,' justice ; (equus = equal, just.] [EQUITY.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. A want of equity, fairness, or Justice; 
absence of just, fair, or true dealing; a devia- 
tion from the right ; unrighteousness, wicked- 
ness. 

" The world from his perfection fell 
Into all flit!) and foule iniquity." 

8i*>ur : P. <j., V. L fc 

2. An iniquitous, unjust, or unfair act; 
wickedness, crime. 

" When their intquitiei are at foil, he will not fail 
to repay vengeance Into their bosom." Sharp : 8tr- 
moni, vol. it, ser. 1. 

3. The name given to the character wh 
personified one of the vices in the old "Mo- 
ralities." He was the buffoon of the piece, 
his chief business being to make sport with 



bSi% btfy ; ptfut, J<ftrt; cat, 9011. chorus. $hia, bench; go, fcem; thin. fate. Bin, 09; expect, yenophon, eyist. ph 
-tian - shan. -tioa. -slon shun; (Ion, sioa = zhua. tious, -cloua, -slouB = vbuo. -ble, -die, <bc. = bel, d 



Iniquo us inj udioious 



and mock the devil. He was the prototype 
of the modern clown and harlequin. 

" Iniquity aunt in, lika Uukoa 1'oko*. lu a juggler ' 
Jerkiu. Am Jonton : Maple of A'mo*. 

* II. Scott Law : A term formerly applied 
to the decision of an inferior judge who de- 
cided contrary to law, in which caae he waa 

aid to commit iniquity. 

fa-i-quofts, a. [Lat. intTUtu = unequal, 
un r air : in- = not; cequus = equal, fair; Sp. 
inievo ; Ital. A Port, iniquo ; Fr. tnu/t.J 

Unjust, iniquitous, wicked, 

'* Whatsoever is done through any unequal affection 
1* intquoui, wk-ki^d. and wrong " Ktiaftetlmty : in- 
quiry Cone. Virtu*, bk. 1.. i>t. it. f 3. 

In ir ri ta toil -i-ty. *. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. irritntnlttii (q.v.).J The quality or state 
of being iuirritable ; good-nature. 

In ir H t ble, o. [Pref. in- (2X and Eng. 



L Ord, Lang. : Not irritable ; good-natured, 
good humoured. 

2. Ptysiol. : Not possessed of irritability, 
not excitable. 

In ir'-rl : ta-t*ve, a. [Pref. in- (2X and 

Eng. irritative (q.v.).] Not irritative; not 
ectUHpauied with excitement : as, an inirri- 
tative fever. 

in-isle (s silent), v.t. [Pref. in-(l), and Eng. 
We (q.v.).] 

1. To form Into an Isle or island, by sur- 
rounding with water. 

"It >gtns with Rother, whose running tbMOfh the 
woods. rtiu/ln7 Oxuey." Vrayton: Poly-t'bton, a, 18. 
{Sfldtn't f'luU.) 

2.- To encircle, to surround, to embrace. 

tn-t-ttal (tt as sh). a. & . [Lat initialise 
jKM'taiuhig to a beginning; initinm = a be- 
ginning, from initu$, pa. par. of inio = to 
enter into : (n- = in, into, and to = to go ; 
Fr. initial ; Sp. initial ; Ital. initiate.] 

A. As adjective: 

1. Of or pertaining to the beginning; be- 
ginning ; incipient: as, the init iai symptoms 
or stages of a disease.. 

" Our * H itial age la likt the rneltr I wax to the prepared 
eal.' (.'iam-iW ; Vanity uf Dugmnlitinf, ch. xiv. 

2. Placed at or standing at the beginning. 

" The initial letter* of hi* aura* that had trawUted 
It, wue printed." fiurnl : Hut. fttftirn |au. U5a). 

B. As ratal. .* The first letter of a word ; 
especially the first letters of the words com- 
posing a person's name. 

" Marked with L for our Metal* 

R. Browning : Soliloquy qf the Hfdtiuh dottier. 

In I tlal (tl aa ah), v.L [INITIAL, a. ] 

Cor&m. & Law: To mark with initials, as a 
guarantee of validity, or correctness. 

in-J'-tial-l (ti as sh). adv. fEng. initial ; 
'lit.} In an initial or incipient manner; by 
way of, or as a beginning ; at the beginning. 

"H diil initi'tifit anil lu part exerclM theee fane- 
tiuiia upon earth." Barrow : Sermon*, voL 1L. *er. SI. 

In 1 ti ate (tl as sh), r.t. & i. [TTCTTTATE, 

u. ; Fr. "iui/iVr ; Sp. iniciar; Ital. inisiare.} 
A. Tntnsttive : 

1. To begin or enter upon ; to set afoot, to 
start, to introduce : as, to initiate a new line 
of action. 

"To whom T.\irym*chut init iatst 
Their rttered rreeiiancft." 

Chapman : ffomer ; Odyttry XT! 

2. To instruct in the rudiments or princi- 
ples ; to admit into a secret society or associa- 
tion by instructing in its principles or secrets. 

*' Initiated In art*. 
Which some may practice with i*>!ttr grace." 

<?oM7>r: Tatk.lv. 495. 

* B. Intrant. : To do the first act ; to per- 
form the first rite ; to take the initiative ; to 
begin. 

"The kin* himself initial** to the power ; 

Scatters with quivering hand the altered flour.*' 
Pope: Homer; Qdytiey ill. W*. 

to I ti ate (tl as sh*), a. & *. [Lat. initut- 
tits, (vi. "par. of initio = to begin ; initium = a 
beginning. 
A. As culjectire : 

* L Ordinary Language ' 
L Unpractised, new 

" Hy Btrauue and setf-abuee 
la the initiate fear." ShaJtetp. : Mae&etk, ttt 4. 

2. Initiated ; introduced or admitted to a 
knowledge of ; instructed. 

" Initiate in the secret of the akies." 

Young: JfiyfU TneuffJUt, vi. 96, 



II. Law : A man is said to become initiate 
tenant by courtesy in him wife's estate of in- 
heritance on the birth of issue capable of In- 
heriting tli? same, his estate not being con- 
summate till the death 'if the wifc. 

* B. As subst. : One who is Initiated. 

"Th bauila at the initint* sintcitig tlielr IUUOB to 
Detut*r.' -A*(i>. Outlining Primitive Btliaf, \>. Ms. 

U Pmm the fact that the Latin verb initio 
had the secondary meaning " to admit to secret 
religious rite;4," it was adopted by early eccle- 
siastical writers as = to i>aptize ; the Latin 
initiatu* wa employed to dUtinguisha baptized 
person frctm a catechumen not yet made ac- 
quaiuted with tlie whole of Christian doctrine 
and practice; and the term initiatio ii-niiir 1 
the full participation enjoyed by those who 
had received the sacrament of baptism. [DIS- 
CIPLINE, s. t *J (1).J 

in-i-tt-a'-tion (ti as ahi), s. [Lat. initiatio, 
from initUttus, pa. par. of initio = to begin ; 
Fr. initMtii>n ; tip. initutciun.} 

1. The act of initiiiting, begiuniDg, or enter- 
ing upon. 

2. The act of Initiating, introducing to, or 
instructing in the rudiments, principles, rules, 
or feremomes ; the act of introducing or ad- 
mitting to a secret society or association. 

** Every one should pay a certain sura for hit initia 
tion.'Wart>urt<jn : Divine Uyntion, bk. tL, t 4. 

3. An Introduction. 

"Tbote who wen In the fight described It as ter- 
rible initiation l,r rtcruiU. Macmulttf-' "'<- E"O 

cli. xiii. 

4. The state of being initiated, admitted, or 
Introduced to acquaintance with anything. 

"Prom a lat initiation Into Utewtapa," *op : 
Dunciad, L (Note.) 

in r-ti-a tlve (ti aa tOO), a. & . [Fr. ini- 
tial if, from Lut. iuitiatus, pa. par. of in'dio,} 

A. A* adj. : Serving to initiate or begin ; 
initiatory. 

B. As substantive : 

1. An initiatory or introductory act or step; 
the first stop or action lu any business ; a 
first essay, a beginning, a stall. 

2. Power of initiating or beginning ; the 
power or right to take the lead or originate. 

"Th French Government hns taken the initiative 

in breaking off diplomatic relatiou*." baUy Tttt- 
Aug. 22. ISM. 



In I-tl-a tor (U as hJ), i. [Eng. initial^); 
-or.] One who initiates. 

" The interpreters of theM holy myiteriet. the hiero- 
phaota and MBMfflh" Warburton : Z>ifi Uyation, 



tiat(e); -ory.} 



r-^ (tl as shl), a. (Eng. ini- 



1. Of or pertaining to a beginning or intro- 
duction ; introductory, initiative. 

"To eiercie his ohaini>i<.iu with tome initiatory 
." Bp. Bali. Cnttmpl.;Samton't^farriaije. 



2. Initiating or serving for initiation ; intro- 
ducing by instruction or by the use of symbols 
and ceremonies. 

"By the initiatory rite of water 
burton : IHvin* l^fgatum. bk. TL, f L 

* Jn-I'-tion, *. [Low Lat. initlo t from initiis, 
)>a. par. of ineo to enter Into.] A beginning, 
an initiation. 

In jeal-ous, * in Jeal-ose, v.t. [Prof. 
in- (1), and Kng. jealous (q.v.X] To make 
jealous. (Daniel : Hist. Eng., p. 93.) 

in-Ject' t v.t. [Lat. injectus, pa. par. of inj trip 
= to tlirow or cast in : in- = in, into, and jado 
= to throw ; Fr. injector. ] 
L To throw or cast in ; to dart in. 

" Bat a kettle of waltUm: hot water injected 
Infalliby cures the timber affected." 

Xwifl : Wood, an trued. 

* 2. To inatn, to inculcate. 

"Their continuaD temptation* which they tnject 
Into oar though U~-fiu*of> Hull : SoL 8. 

* 3. To throw in ; to bring forward in the 
middle of something else ; to intervene with. 

"Cwaw al*u. tiuii hatching tyranny, injected the 
anie scrupulous ilemnr* to B to ; > the sentence of death." 
MUttm : Aniw*r to Eikon liaiilike. 

* 4. To throw or cast up. 

" Thongh bold iu open fleld. they ret ourroand 
The town with walla, anil niuund injeet on mound." 
Pope: Bomer; Odyuey. (Todd.) 

in-Jec'-tion, *. lLat. injectlo, from injectus, 
pa. par. of injicio ; Fr. injection; 8p. injec- 
cion; Ital. injezione.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

L The act of injecting or throwing in. 



2. That which is injected or thrown in. 

"To minister the tame by iray tt clytre vrtyrlna* 
frouii&iug u* that tb* taid injection mbitkall in- 
ward JiupMtuuM." ^. Holland: /Vim*, bk. xx., -:b 
uii. 

* 3. Suggestion, instigation 

" What might le >tit-wite<! by ->ur wii Torruiitlna 
without (tjiy injection of SataU. 1 ' FuUir ; 



XL TeeiinicaUy: 

1. A nut.; The art of filling the vessels and 
other minute tubular organs of animals with 
coloured substances more clearly to exhibit 
their relative size, arrangement, and relation 
to the surrounding parts. The colour is in- 
jected by means of a syringe. 

2. Therap. : The art of injsctinz any thera- 
peutic agent into the rectum, or of Introducing 
such agent under the skin, &c. ; that which is 
Injected. (HYPODERMIC-INJECTION. 1 

3. Sttam-engin. : The act or process of inject' 
Ing cold water into the condenser ofa steam en- 
gine or the cylinder of an atmospheric engine; 
che cold water so injected to produce a vacuum. 

Injection cock, -. 

Sttam-engin. : The cock which closes the in- 
Ject ion -pipe. 

injection -condenser, s. A cast-iron 
vessel of any convenient shape, and strong 
enough to bear the atmospheric pressure from 
without, in which the exhaust warn from the 
cylinder is condensed by a shower of cold 
water. The capacity of the cylinder in 
Watt's original engines was that of the cy- 
limler, but, according to present practice, it 
ranges from i to i that of the cylinder, and 
sometimes more, [CONDK.VSLK, AlR-TOJH 1 .] 

Injection-pipe, .. 

Steam-engin. : The pipe through which the 
Injection water passes to the condenser of a 
steam engine or the cylinder of an atmospheric 
engine. In marine engines the injection -pipo 
is open to the sea through the bottom of the 
vessel. [Aim- PUMP, CORNISH-ENQWK.) 

Injection-syringe, a. 

Surg. : A syringe for administering douches 
or medicines. 
injection valve, s. 

Steam-engin. : The valve which governs the 
entrance of water into the condenser from the 
sea, river, or well. 

In-jSc'-tor. s. [Eng. inject ; -or.] One who or 
that which Injects ; specif., an apparatus for 
supplying the boilers of steam engines, and 
especially of locomotives, with water. It 
works equally well when the engine is at rest 
or running, and iu that respect is superior to 
the feed-pump (q.v.). 

in-je*l v , v.t. [Fr. Jingenr=to Interfere, to 
meildle.] To insinuate, to introduce by artful 
or indirect means. 

* In-jW-lf, v.t. [Pref. in- (1) ; and Eng. jeU* 
(q.v.X] To deposit or incorporate as in a 
jelly. (Tennyson: Audiey Court, 25.) 

* In-Joln' (IX .t. [ENJOIN.] 

* in Join (2), v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Bug. 
jo((q.v.).J To join. 

"TheOttumltM . .. 
Have then injoined them with a fleet-* 1 

S)utki>. ; OUutllo. L S. 

Jn-Joint'. v.t. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng.;oi;t* 
(q.v.).J To disjoin, to break up. 

"The forauid bridge by a mighty tempeit wa in- 
Joynted and bruken. " P. Holland: Plutarch, p. 186. 



X-tj^! . [I-At. injncundUas, from 
t/^*=riot, and jucttnditas pleasantness ; jw* 
etncdu= pleasant] Unpleasantness, disagree- 
ableness. 

* ln-Jnd'-io--We, . [Pret in- (2). and 
Eng. judicable (q.v.).] Not cognizable by a 
judge. 

' In ju dl -cial (d as sh), a. [Pref. in- (2), 
ana Eng. judicial (q.v.).] Not judicial; not 
according to the forms ol law. 

In ju dl'-cioua, o. [Pref. in- (2), and Kng. 



1. Not judicious, void of judgment; acting 
without judgment or due consideration ; rash, 
hasty. 

"An Inexpert and litjudicioit* person." Bp. Mmli . 
Cate* o/ Cu'itcii-nce, dec. iii-, COM. 9. 

2. Done without judgment ordueconsidera 
tion ; rash, hasty, unwise : as, an injncttciaiu 
measure. 



fete, l&t, f&re, amidst, what, fall, lather; we, wfit, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or, wore, wglf, work, who, son; mute, CUD, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian. SB, oa = e. ey = a. qu = kw. 



injudiciously ink 



2079 



in-JU-di'-cious-;!^, adv. [Eng. injudicious; 
ly.1 In an injudicious manner ; without judg- 
in, at or due consideration ; rashly, hastily, 
inconsiderately. 

" Hd was loudly bat injutiicunaty oauMired by a 
great many." Nelson : Hfe of Hull. 

in jU-dl -doUS-neSS, s. [Eng. injudicious; 
-in'**.] The quality or state of being injudi- 
cious. 

" Injudiciousneu blinds their wonder or liking o 
the third." WMtlock ; .Vunnerx r>f the Enylith, p. 480 






f 
480. 

In June' don, * In-Juno-cion, s. [Lat. in- 
jiuictio, from injuncts = imposed, enjoined; 
PH. par. of injungo to impose, to enjoin; 
Fr. injunction.] 
"L Ordinary Language ; 

1. The act of enjoining, directing, or bid- 
ding; direction. 

2. That which is enjoined ; a direction, an 
order. 

" Though their injunction be to bar tuy doors." 
,SA-<*/>. .- LMT, 111. 4. 

IL law; A writ or process granted by a 
court of equity, and in some cases under 
tatutes by a court of law, whereby a jarty is re- 
quired to do, or to refrain from doing, certain 
acttLac cording to the exigency of the writ. 

"Tin' first peculiar remedy obUmnble on tliU ground 
ii the writ of Injunction, the most ordinary apecies of 
which ii that which operate* H a restraint upon the 
defendant la the exercise of liU real or supuoaed 
righto: and is, therefore, Bunititimes called the reme- 
dial writ i injuncti'-n, to distinguish it frum the 
judicial writ, which issues after a decree, and U iu the 
nature of a writ of execution. This writ may be had 
to stay proceedings at law. whatever stage they may 
have reached ; to restrain alienations of property 
p'-nd'-nte lite, and tenant* for life and others having 
limited interest from committing waste. It may be 
granted to restrain the neKoUatiun of bills of ax- 
change, the sailing of a ship, the transfer of stock, or 
the alienation of a specific chattel, to prohibit as- 
aigneea from making a dividend, to prevent parties 
from removing out of the jurisdiction, or from marry- 
ing, or having any Intercourse, which the court disap- 
prove* of. with a ward. The infringement of a copy- 
riglit or a patent frequently call* for the exercise of 
this beneficial process ; which may also be had to 
restrain the fraudulent use of trade marks, or of the 
names, labels, or other indicia of the makers or ven- 
dors of goods and merchandize, and in a large class of 
cases, far too numerous to be mentioned here." 
Blactotone : ConunoU., bk. iii.. oh. 17. 
U For the difference between injunction 
and command, see COMMAND. 

In jure. v.t. [Fr. injurier, from Lat. injurior 
= to do harm to ; injvria = injury, harm : 
in- = not, and jus (genit. juris) = right, 
justice ; Ital. ingiuriare ; Sp. & Port, injuriar.] 

1. To do harm to ; to hurt ; to damage ; 
to impair the goodness, excellence, value, 
strength, Ac, 

2. To do harm or hurt to, as to the body ; to 
hurt physically. 

" Lest beat should injure ns. hb timely care 
Hath onbesought provided." 

Milton: P. L., x. 1.057. 

3. To damage, to slander, to depreciate, to 
tarnish. 

" Erasmus, that great injured name." 

Poftf : Euay on Critidim, 698. 

4. To impair or diminish, as happiness. 

6. To wrong ; to do an injury or injustice to. 
"When have I injured theef when done the* wrong?" 
Shakeip. : Richard III., 1. ft. 

6. To give pain to, as sensibility or feeling ; 
to grieve, to hurt. 

7. To impair, as the intellect or mind. 

*ln-Jure, . [O. Fr., from Lat. injuria.] 
Injury. 

In -Jur-er, s. [Eng. injure) ; -er.] One who 
injures, hurts, damages, or wrongs another. 

"The injurert of your father** memory." Wttrtmr- 
ton : Letter to Dr. Lototh. 

In-jiir'-I-a, *. [Lat.] 

Law: A legal wrong, that is, an act or 
omission of which the law takes cognizance 
as a wrong. (Smith : Manual of Common Law. 
6th ed., p. 418.) 

In jur'-i-ous, a. [Lat. injuriosus, injurius= 
acting unfairly or wrongfully, from injuria=: 
an injury ; Fr. injuries; Sp. & Port. inju> 
rioso ; Ital. ingiurioso,] 

1. Injuring or tending to injure, hurt, 
damage, or wrong ; hurtful, harmful, mis- 
cliicvous, pernicious ; causing or tending to 
cause hurt or damage physically, uientally, or 
morally : as, the injurious consequences of 
In or folly. 

* 2. Acting unjustly ; unjust, tyrannical ; 

guilty of wrong or injury. 

"The injurio'tt Rnmau did extort 
This tribute." Sbaketp. . CymbtUne, ill. I. 



*3. Wrongful, unjust. 

" With other grievances to signify 
Th' injurious act committed on his sou." 

Daniel : Civil Want. bk. vli. 

* 4. Detractory, offensive, reproachful, con- 
tumacious. 

" With tclaunder and defame tniuriout. 
Chaucer: Complaint 

*5. Insolent, overbearing. 

" Who wiut before a persecutor and a blasphemer am 
injuriout.'l Timothy, i. 13. 



$ t adv. [Eng. injurious; -ly. 

1. In an injurious or hurtful manner ; so as 
to cause injury, hurt, or damage. 

2. Wrongfully ; unjustly ; with injustice. 

" That defence of myself to which every honest mail 
is bound when he is injuriously attacked 111 print." 
f>ryden : Hind * Panther. (Fref.) 

in jiir i oiis ness,s. [Eng. injurious; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being injurious; hurt- 
fulness ; injury. 

"Some miscarriages might escape, rather through 
udden neeeiwitiea of state, than any prapflnaftjr either 
to injuriotafieu or oppression." Eikon llatitike. 

3fn'-Jur-$r, * in-Jur-ie, *. [Lat. injuria, from 
in- = not, and jus (genit. juris) = right, jus- 
tice ; Sp. & Port, injuria ; Ital. ingiuria; Fr. 
injure.] 

1. That which is contrary to right or justice; 
an injustice ; a wrong. 

" Yoti do me shameful injury* 

Shake*?, ; Kit-hard /// L a 

* 2. A crime. 

" A party to thte injury." 

Shakesp. ; Othello, v. L 

3, That which injures, harms, or hurcs ; 
that which occasions loss, detriment, or mis- 
chief; damage, hurt, harm. 

"The former [private] wrongs are an infriDgement 
or privation of the private or civil rights belonging to 
individuals, considered as individuals ; aud are there- 
upon frequently termed civil ittjurie*." Blackttune: 
Commentaries, ok. liL. ch. 1. 

4. An offence ; an insult ; an annoyance. 

" The wrvice that I truly did his life, 

Uath left in.- open to all injuries." 

Xhakesp. : 2 Henry IV+ V. 2. 

* 5. A hurt or disease of the body. 

" Thought not good to bruise an injury till it were 
full ripe,* F -&'A**>. : Henry V., iii. 6. 

* 6. Contumelious or abusive language ; 
abuse. 

" He fell to bitter invectives against the French king 
and spake all the injuries he could divlae of Charles." 
bacon. 

K Injury is the most general term, simply 
implying what happens contrary to right ; 
damage is the injury which takes away from 
the value of a thing ; hurt is the injury which 
destroys the soundness or wholeness of a 
thing; harm is the injury which is attended 
with trouble and inconvenience ; mischief is 
the injury which interrupts the order and 
consistency of things. The injury is appli- 
cable to all bodies, physical and moral ; dam- 
age is applicable only to physical bodies. 
Trade may suffer an injury ; a building may 
suffer an injury; but a building, a vessel, a 
merchandize, suffer a damage. The falling of 
a chimney, or the breaking of a roof, is a dam- 
age ; the injury is not so easily removed ; the 
damage is easily repaired. (Crdbb: Eng. 
Synon.) 

f For the difference between injury and in- 
justice, see INJUSTICE. 

* fax-Jur*-^, v.t. [INJURY, .] To injure; to 
hurt. (Lyly : Ruphues, p. 460.) 



, *. [Fr., from Lat. injustitia, from 
in- = not, and justitia = justice.] 

1. The quality of being unjust ; want of 
justice, right, or equity ; unfairness : as, the 
injustice of a decision. 

2. That which is unjust or unfair ; any vio- 
lation of the right of another ; a wrong ; an 
iniquity. 

- Still these broils that public good pretend 
Work most infuttlce, being dune through spite." 

Daniel : CivUWart, bk. J. 

IT The injustice lies in the principle ; the in- 
jury in the action that injures. There may, 
therefore, be mjusiicewhere there is no specific 
injury, and on the other hand there may be 
injury where there is no injustice. The wrong 
partakes both of injustice and injury ; it is in 
fact an injury done by one person to another, 
in express violation of justice. 

Ink, * enke, * inke, 5. [O. Fr. tnque (Fr. 
encre), from Lat. enoaitstvoi the purple-red 
ink used by the later Roman Emperors ; neut. 
of enoaustux; Gr. iyitav<rro^ (engkaustos) = 



burnt in : V(en) in, and KOVOTO 
burnt ; K<U'<O (kuio) t= to burn.l 



1. A coloured, usually black, Ifqnid or vis- 
cous material used in writing or printing. 

2. A pigment, as Chinese or Indian ink. 

3. Comm. & Chem* : A liquid or pigment 
used for writing or printing. Inks may be 
classed under four heads : 

(1) Writing inks consist either of coloured 
liquids, or of finely-divided coloured precipi- 
tates, suspended in & liquid. The essential 
ingredients of a good black writing ink, are. 
an infusion of the best nut-gulls, a solution of 
ferrous sulphate (copperas), and a small quan- 
tity of gum to retain the precipitate in sus- 
pension. The proportion of ferrous sulphate 
should not exceed one-third part that <>f the 
nut-galls used, an excess of astringent vcp't.-i- 
ble matter being necesanry for the durability 
of the ink. Its specific gravity should not ex- 
ceed 1045, a higher density indicating that 
inferior nut-galls have been used, these re- 
quiring a larger proportion of galls to produce 
the deep black colour. The infusion of nut- 
galls contains tannic, or galls-tannic and gallic 
acids, both of which produce deep black pre- 
cipitate with ferric salts, but white precipi- 
tates with ferrous salts, which, however, 
readily turn black on exposure to the air. 
Hence, in making ink, it is necessary to leave 
the mixture to itself for some time In order 
that the ferrous salts may be con veiled into 
ferric salts, and the taiatic into gallic acid. 
The gum is added to retain in suspension the 
precipitated gallate of iron. It also gives a 
certain gloss to the ink. In some inks a solu- 
tion of logwood is used, to replace a certain 
proportion of the nut-galls. By this addition 
a more fluid ink is t>aul to be obtained. lied 
ink is a solution of cochineal or pure carmine 
in ammonia, or of brazil-wood in water. Blue 
ink is a solution of Prussian blue and oxalic 
acid in water. Chrome ink is a preparation 
of logwood and potassium bichromate. 

(2) Marking ink must be able to withstand 
the action of soup, alkaline, and acid liquids. 
It usually consists of a solution of silver ni- 
trate, coloured with lamp-black aud thickened 
with gum. 

(3) Copying ink must be thicker than <** 
dinary ink, and must not dry too quickly. It 
is usually prepared by adding a little sugar or 
glycerine to ordinary black ink. Its specific 
gravity should not exceed 1071. 

(4) Printing ink. All inks used for printing 
consist essentially of well-boiled drying oils, 
mixed with lamp-black or other pigments. 
Soaps and resinous matters are frequently 
added to give the oils the required consistency. 

4. Mach. : The socket of a mill spindle. 
ink-berry, s. 
Botany : 

1. An American name for Prinos gldber. 

2. Bandw, aculeata. 

Ink-blurred, a. Blurred, obscured, at 

disfigured with ink. 

ink-bottle, a. A bottle or vessel for hold- 

ing iuk. 

ink cup, s. A dip-cup for ink. 
ink-cylinder, s. 

Print. : A cylinder rotating in the ink- 
fountain to bring the ink in contact with the 
ductor or fountain -roller. 

ink-eraser, s. [ERASER.] 
ink-fish, *. The cuttle-fish (q.v.)t 

ink-fountain, s. The Ink -reservoir of a 
printing-machine from which the ink is taken 
by an ink-roller and passed to the ductor. at 
the distributing- roller. 

ink-gland, s. 

Zool. : The same aa INKBAO (Q.V.)L ( P. 

Woodward.) 

ink-glass, s. A glass vessel for holding 
ink ; an ink-bottle. 

ink pencil, *. A pencil filled with an 
Ink-like, indelible, coloring material instead 
of lead. 

ink-plant, s. 

Bot. : Coriaria thymifolia. 

* ink-pot, s. A o. 

A. As fubst. : An ink-bottle. 

B. As adj. : Affected, pedantic. 



boll, bo^; pout, joitl; oat, 90!!, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, (his; sin. as; expect, ^Cenophon, exist, ing. 
-tlon, -sion - shun ; -(ion, -sion - zhun. -clous, -Uous, aioua shus. -ble, -die, &c. - bei, dfi. 



J680 



Ink inlier 



Ink-roller, i. [IHKINO-BOLLER.] 
Ink-sac, s. The same as INKBAO (q.T.). 
Ink-slice, . A paddle for handling ink. 
Ink stone, Ink surface, ink-table, 

. [IN KINO- TABLE.] 

Ink-well, . An ink-cup adapted to oc- 
cupy a hole in a desk, iu top letting down 
flush with the top of the desk, or nearly so. 

Ink, v.t. (INK, .] To blacken, daub, or colour 

with ink. 

" With fitted ruffltiaiid claret ttatns on his tArniRhed 
laced coat" nuckeran : Etifttil ffittnourvti, lect. T. 



Uk'-bag, <. (Eng. ink, and bag.} 

1. ZooL : A bag or gland found in the 
Cephalopoda. It is tough and fibrous, with a 
thin outer coat. The animal discharges the 
contents of the bag through a duct into the 
water when it wishes to conceal itoelf or escape 
from an enemy. 

2. 1'nlimnt. : The Ink of the Ink-bag, fre- 
quently consisting of finely-divided particles 
of carbon suspended in fluid, is almost in- 
destructible. It has been found fossil in 
secondary rocks. 

3. Cnmm. : The ink of the inkbag is used fn 
the preparation of sepia. 

ink horn, ' Ink-borne, * Inkc home. 
ynke horne, s. & a. [Eng. ink, and Aorn.J 

A. As substantive : 

1. A small vessel used to bold Ink ; an ink- 
bottle. 

- Bid him briug hU pen and InMora to the Jail ; we 
art now to examine those men." .SAo*et;i. : Muck Ado 
About Nothing, iu. t. 

8. A portable case for carrying the instru- 
ments of writing. 

B. As adj. : Pedantic, affected, high-sound- 
tog. 

" And bee that can catch* an rnfe-kirne teruie by 
the taile, him they coumpt to be a fine Eiigliihiuan. 
Wilton ArU of tOutoriata, p. 165- 

* Inkhorn mate, . A bookish or pe- 

dantic fellow. 

" To be disgraced bj an inHkom-mate' 

SkakaiJ. : 1 Htnr, IV.. 11. 1. 

Ink -born Ism, s. [Eng. inA-Aorn; -inn.] 
An affected, pedantic, or bombastic expres- 
sion. 

" Like ai ihe were lome light-.klrt* of the rut. 
In mightiest inVurrnlimt he call thither wreat." 
Of. Hall. bk. 1L, aat 8. 

Ink -I -ness, I. [Eng. inky; -ntu.] The 
quality or state of being inky. 

ink Ing, pr. par., a., & i. [INK, t;.] 

A. * B. Ai pr. par. of particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As subst. : The act or process of cover- 
ing or daubing with ink. 

inking apparatus, . 

Print. : DilTerent forms of apparatus have 
been adapted to different presses, and some of 
them are peculiar to certain kinds. 

inking roller, . 

Print. ; A roller which receives the ink from 
the inking-table and transfers it to the type in 
hand-press work. In power-presses, several 
rollers are employed, which are fed with ink 
from a trough, distributing it and transferring 
it to the hiking-roller. 

Inking-table, . 

Prinf. : A table upon which Ink Is spread 
to be taken up by the iuking-roUer. 

inking trough, a, 

Print. : [I.NK-FOCNTAIN]. 

tn'-kle, In'-cle, v.t. (From the same root 

as Dan. ymte ; Icel. ymta = to murmur, to 
mutter.] To murmur. 

"To inch the troth." Aliiatutder. 616. 

In -kle, - ly n Roll, * lin nl ol. * in nl ol, 

t (O. Fr. ligneul, ligncl, a dimin. of ligne = 
thread, from Lai. lima, fein. of lineut = 
herrren, flaxen ; linum = flax.] 

* 1. A kind of crewel or worsted, with which 
ladies worked embroidery. 

2. A kind of broad linen tape ; wrought 
ipiuel. Spinel (q.v.) is known as unwrought 
Inkle. 

Inklei. caddiaaea, cambric*, lawna." ShaJtetp. : 
- ata, 1 v. ... 

* inkle beggar, s. A beggar that sells 
cheap tape, kc. (Adams : Worki, ii. 437.) 



" Inkle weaver, s. A wearer of inkle. 

[INKLE, . 2.) 

" She and yon were aa great u two frtWa-wawi." 
Sni/t : Pottle Ctmrertatii'n, OOD. 1. 

U Davies (Supp. Glass.) says that the phrase 
"as thick as inkle-vxavm originated from 
the fact that the refugees who introduced the 
manufacture of inkle in the sixteenth century 
naturally consorted together. 

ink ling, * in-kol-ynge, . [INKLE, .] 

1. A hint, a whisper, an intimation, a slight 
knowledge. 

" Who will diadaln, 
That hare an MM**/ of It, there to look ? " 

Bunion : ApHon. 
* 2. A desire, an inclination. 

ink nmk er, . [Eng. ink, and malar.] One 
who makes or manufactures ink. 

in knit' (Jfc silent), v.t. [Pref. in-(l), snd Eng. 
knit (q.v.).} To knit In, to fasten in. 

in-knit' (Jt silent), v.t. [Pref. (n- (1). and 
Eng. knot (q.v.). ] To fasten or bind, as with 
a knot. 



i shed, s. [Eng. in 
spilling or using of ink. 



in*, and thtd (q.T.).] 



ink -abed, *. 

- never thought the parade of my scanty rat lore 
would involve so much inJuhea."AU the 1'ear Jtovnd, 
March 34, 1881. 

ink-stand. . [Eng. ink, and *tond.] A 
vessel of glass or other material for holding 
ink or other writing material. 

Ink-?, o. [Eng. ink; -.] 

1. Of the nature of or resembling ink ; like 
ink. 

" An in*y hue of livid blue." 

Scoff: Lady -if the Lakt, vi. 19. 

2. Consisting or made of ink. 

" England . . . 1 bound In with shame, 
With inky blut.. aud rotten iwwchineiit bonds." 
SHaJfttp. : Richard II. II. L 

8. Black as ink. 

" Tts not aloiie my inAy cloak, good mother." 

shake*?. ; ffmxtet. 1 2. 

* 4. Black, gloomy, miserable, wretched. 

" In which doth swell a lake of in** yean 
Of inaddiixg lovers." 

brummond : Sou. IS, pt, L 

1 fa-lace', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. lace 
(q.v.).] The saint: as ENLACE (q.v.). 

'an-aar-ar-y. * in-la-ga -tion, *. [Bar- 
barous forms, from A. y. inlwri-m, in imitation 
of utlayand, utlagation outlawry.] [!NLAW.] 
A restitution of tin outlaw to the protection 
and privileges of the law. 

in-laid , pa. par. or o. [INLAY.] 

Inlaid-work, *. That in which one ma- 
terial is sunk into a hollowing in the surface 
of another, the two making an even face. 
[BUHL, REISNER-WORK, MARQUETRY, PAR- 
QUETRY. MOSAIC.] 

in -land, a., adv., & *. [Eng. in, and land.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. In the interior of a country ; remote from 
theses. 

" The bit's rich inland part*, let'i take with us along." 
Drafton : Pdy-ijtbion. a. 23. 

2. Carried on within a county ; domestic ; 
not foreign : as. inland navigation. 

3. Confined or limited to a particular conn- 
try : as, an inlan*i bill of exchange, as distin- 
guished from & foreign one, which is drawn in 
one country on a person living in another. 

*L Refined, civilized, somewhat polished ; 
opposed to "upland (q.v.). 

" An old reliuious uncle of mine was. In his youth, 
an inland m* SMakefp. ; At You. /,< It. 11L 2. 

B. As adv. : In or towards the interior of a 
country. 

"And with loose rein and bloody spur rode inland 
many a post." Jfaeauluy . Armada. 

* C* As substantive : 

1. Ord. Lang. : The interior or inland part 
of a country. 

" Hr little rill*, tier inland* that do feed." 

Draaton : Puly-Olbion, a, S. 

2. Old Late : Demesne land, as distinguished 
from outland, or that let to tenants. 

inland cliffy . 

GeoL : A cliff like one of those marking the 
coast-line, but occurring inland. In many 
cases they were once sea-cliffs, and occupy 
their present position because the land has 
been subsequently upheaved. Inland cliffs, 
formerly sea-cliffs, occur in many parts of the 
world. 



* inland-man, *. An inlander (q.v.). 

" Whereuuto the said inland-men may be Induced 
Mi.iiK the others go forth to adventure their 11 v*. ft* 
their defence." J&rype : l/tmorial (an. 15S7). 

inland revenue, . 

Taxation: The inland-levied revenue of 
Great Britain, corresponding to the internal 
revenue in this country. [See EXCISE.] 

Inland-revenue officer: A subordinate govern- 
mental functionary, formerly called an exciae- 
offlcer. 

inland sea, *. A large body of salt 
water not connected with the ocean, as the 
Black Sea or the Ouplan Sea ; or partially o, 
as the Inland Sea of Japan. 

* In -land er, *. [Eng. inland; -er.] On* 
who lives inland, or in the interior of a 
country. 

" T&e Inlander* he of the Brutlans. the AprnsUao. 
only."-. . BoUand : Plini*. bk. iii.. ch. ii. 

"In' land-ish. a. [Eng. inland; -ish.} De- 
noting sumetliiug inland; native, inland. 

in lap 1 date,t.<. [Lat.{ft- = iu,into,and 
Liit. lapis (genit. laj>idis) = a stone.] To 
make stony ; to turn or convert into stone ; to 
petrify. 

" Home natural spring waters will inlapidate wood ; 
so that you hall see one pieee of wuod, whereof UM 
part ;ibove the water shall continue wood, ainl UM 
part umier the watr shall tw tunied Into a kind ol 
gravelly stone." Bacon : fiat. Bitt.. | M. 

"In lard', v.t. [ENLARD.] 

* In large', v.t. [ENLAROB.] 

**n-law'. *.(. [A.8. inlagian.} To clear or 
free from outlawry or attainder ; to restore to 
the privileges and protection of the law. 

"It should be a great incongruity to hare them to 
make laws, who themselves were not i 
Bacon : henry VII.. \>. 12. 

in-lay, y.(. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. 

1. To lay. place, or insert In ; to diversify 
with different bodies inserted Into the ground- 
work or substratum. 

*' Look, how the floor of heaven 
Is thick inlaid with patn.es of bright gold." 

Sin t fop. : Merchant of V otic*, K 

*2. To variegate, to diversify. 

"A thousand tumbling rilts inlay 
With silver veins the vale." 

Warton : Ftrtt of April. 

3. To interlard. 

"Thence borrow'd by the monks to . n/a* thA 
story. Milton : Hut. Eng., bk. rl. 

* in-lay*. *. [INLAY, v.] Matter or material* 
inlaid or prepared for inlaying. 

" Cnwus and hyacinth, with rich inlay, 
Broider d the ground." Milton : P. L.. IT. fM. 

in-lay'-er, *. [Eng. inlay; -er.] One wk& 
Inlays ; one whose occupation is inlaying. 

"The swelling bunches, which are now and then 

found on the old trees, allure! the htlayrr pieces curium.) 
chainbletted." Jtoty/i: Silwi, bk. L. ch. xvlif.. i i. 

in liiy'-ing, s. [INLAY, v.] [INLAID- WORK.] 

* in league', v.t. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
league (q.v.).J To form or conclude a leagu* 
with ; to league ; to join in a league. 

"With a willingness, inleayue our blowl 
With his." ford: Broken Heart, 111 *. 

* in leag -uer, v.i. [Cf. BELEAGUER.] To sit 
down with an army ; to btuekade. 

"Scylla did inteagiter before thedtyo* Athsne." 
P. If 'Hand ; Plutarch, p. I- 1. 

* in-leck', *. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. leak (U.] 
A hole where water leaks in. (oianyAwrjrf; 
Virgil ; &neid iii. 538.) 

In let, s. [Eng. in-, and let.] 

1. A passage by which an enclosed placa 
may be entered ; a means of entrance or in- 
gress. 

" A narrow tnUt to their cells contrive." 

Additvn: I'irgti ; Geors/ic i*. 

2. A small bay or recess in the shore of the 
sea or a large lake ; a creek. 

" All the creeks and inlet on this side were held by 
the Romans." MUton: Hut. Eng., bk. ii. 

* 3. Any material or substance inserted or 
Inlaid. 

* in-lSt'-ter. v.t. [Pref. in- (1), >nA Eng. 
tetter (q.v.).J To engrave with letters. 

*n'-ll-er, s. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. lie, v. ; -er} 
Geol. : An expression used to indicate a. iso- 
lated exposure of an underlying bed which is 
still covered to a large extent with deposits of 
later date. It is principally found in btxlt 



la e. fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, air, marine ; go, pdt, 
or. wore, wolf; work, whd, 6n ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian. , 00 e ; ey = a. qu = kw. 



Inlighten inning 



2681 



which are more or less curved, the higher parts 
of which have been removed by denudation 
and so brought the lower bed to light. The 
converse of outlier (q.v.). 

* in light'-en (gh silent), .(, [ENLIGHTEN,] 

* In list' , v.t. [ENLIST.] 

* In-live', v.t. [Pref. in- (intens.), and Eng. 
lire (q.v.).] To give life, spirit, or animation 
to ; to animate. 

" What she did here, by great example, well, 
T' inline poster i tie, her fame may tell." 

Ben Jonton ; lcg. on Lady Anne Pawttt. 

"In Idck, v.t. PPref. in- (IX and Eng. lock 
(q.v.).] To lock up or inclose one thing in 
another. 

in lu mine, v.t. [ENLUMINE.] 

fa' 1, a. & adv. [A.8. inlic (a), inlice (adv.).] 
A* -As cij. : Internal, secret, heartfelt. 

" Dld*st tliou but kmow the inly touch of love." 
Shafcetp. : Two Gentlemen of Verona, 11. 7. 

B. As adv. : Internally, within, secretly, 
In the heart, mentally. 

" ' Save him, my God ! ' she inly cries." 

Moore: fire Worihippen. 

fa mate. s. & o. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. 
mate, s. (q.v.).] 

A. As subst. : One who lodges or dwells in 
the same house as another ; one who occupies 
any place or dwelling ; a resident or dweller 
in ; especially spoken of occupants of hos- 
pitals, asylums, prisons, &c. 

" He's bnt a new fellow, 

AD inmate here In Rome, as Catiline calls him." 
Ben Jonton : Catiline, 11. L 

* B. As adj. : Dwelling or residing in a 
place ; admitted as a resident or occupier of 
the same place ; internal. 

" To stop their overgrowth, as inmate guests 
Too numerous." Milton : P. L., xiL 1M. 

In meats, s. pi. [Pref. in- (1), and pi. of 
Eny. meat.} 

1. The edible viscera of pigs, fowls, Ac. 
(Peacock: Manley A Corringham ; Gloss.) 

2. The entrails. 

" I shall try six Inches of my knife 
On thine own inmeats." 

Taylor; Philip van Arttvelde, lit 1. 

In mesh , v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. mesh 
(q.v.).] To bring or involve within meshes, 
as of a net. 

in mew' (ewas u), v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and 
Eng. mew (q.v.).] To inclose or shut in, as in 
a mew or cage. 

'* in' -more, a. [Eng. in, and more.] Inner. 
(P. Holland : Camden, p. 131.) 

In in os t, *ine-maste, a. [A.S. innemest.] 

1. Deepest or furthest within; remotest 
from the surface. 

" Shortly, within her inmott pith there bred 
A little wicked worme." 

Spenter : Vitiont of the World 1 * Vanity. 

2. Most secret ; deepest. 

" Still there within the ton** thought he grew." 
Byron : Lara, t It. 

fan, ' in, * inne, . [A.8. in, inn, from in, 
inn within ; Icel. inni, from inn, inni 
indoors ; in = in.] 

1. A house of lodging and entertainment 
for travellers. 

" Between Chester and the capital there was not an 
ton where he had not been in a brawL" J/acaulay : 
Mitt. En*., eh. vi. 

* 2. Lodging, abode, residence, habitation. 

" Therefore with me ye may take up your in 
For this same night," Spenter : P. O.., 1. 1. 88. 

3. A college of municipal or common law 
professors and students. [^ (2).] 

* 4. The town residence of a nobleman or 
person of quality. 

It (1) Inns of Chancery : Colleges in which 
young students formerly began their law 
tiulies. They are now occupied chiefly by 
attorneys, solicitors, &c. 

(2) Inns of Court : Colleges or corporate 
societies in London, to one of which all bar- 
risters and students for the bar must belong ; 
also the buildings belonging to such societies 
to which the members of the inn dine together, 
and barristers have their chambers. There 
are four such inns viz. : the Inner Temple, 
the Middle Temple, Gray's Inn, and Lincoln's 
Inn. 

*Inn, v.i. & (, [!NN, *.] 

A. Intrant. : To take up lodging ; to lodge 
at, or as at an inn. 



B. Transitive: 

1. To lodge and entertain. 

"And inned hem. everich nt hU degree." 

Chawxr : C. T.. ,*. 

2. To house, to get in, to store in a bouse 
or barn. (Lit. <tflg.) 

" Howsoever the laws made lu that parliament did 
bear ao-\ fruit, yet the subsidy bare a fruit that 
proved harsh and bitter ; all was inned at last into 
the king's barn." Bacon : Btnry >'//., p. St. 

In-Iaas-cJ-bll-i-tfc *. [Late Lat. inno*ri- 
bilis that cannot be bom.] Self-existence ; 
the state or quality of never having been born 
or begotten. 

" Innatdbititg we mustVlmit 
The Father^ Daviet : Mirum in Modun, p. 17. 

in' -nate, a. [Lat. innatus, from in- = in, and 
natus, pa. par. of natcor = to be born.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Inborn, natural, native, not acquired. 

"An innate clinging 
A loathsome, and yet all tu vincible 
Instinct of life." Byron: Cain. L l. 

2. Derived from the constitution of the 
mind, as contrasted with what is derived from 
experience. 

"That untaught innate philosophy.* 

Byron : Child* Barold, lii. W. 

*S. Inherent 

" The blood turns back to the breast ; and there, by 
an innate, but wonderful faculty IB turned into milk. 
P. Fletcher: Purple /stand, IT. (Note 3.) 

IL Botany: 

1. Gen. : Adhering to the apex of any struc- 
ture. 

2. Spec. {Of an anther): Attached by its base 
to a dlament, as distinguished from adnate 
and versatile (q.v.) 

innate ideas, s. pi : 

Phitos,: The term generally supposed to 
correspond to the icoti/ai Ivi/otai of the Stoics 
"general notions develo|*d in the course of 
nature in all men " (Diog. I. vii. 54) though 
the earlier teachers of that school regarded 
these ideas as the natural outgrowth of per- 
ceptions, not as innate. Thomas of Aquin, 
the greatest of the Schoolmen, taught that 
"there is no knowledge which is innate, and 
destitute of all experience." On the Continent 
the doctrine of innate ideas was revived by 
Descartes, who held that the notion of things, 
truth, and thought were naturally common to 
all men. Leibnitz said that "the ideas of 
being, substance, identity, the true, the good, 
are innate in the mind ; " though his innate 
ideas are rather slumbering than conscious 
notions. The doctrine will be found in the 
second elegy of Sir John Davies'^oace Taps-urn, 
and in the De Veritate of Lord Herbert of 
Cherbury. On the opposite side, Locke 
(Human Underst., bk. i.), Culverwell (Light of 
Nature), and later writers may be consulted. 

*in-nate', v.t. [INNATE, a.] To call into 

being. 

" The first innating cause 
Laughs them to scorn." 

Martton: Antonio" t Revenge, IT. L 

*innat ed, a. [Bug. innate); -ed.] In- 
nate, inborn, natural. 

" But no channe 

The Muses have these monsters can disanne 
Of tlicir i nnnted rage." 
Habi mjton ; Cittt'tra, pt L ; To Mr. E. Porttr. 

* in'-nate-lsr, adv. [Eng. innate; -ly.] In 

an innate manner ; naturally. 

* in nate ness, *. [Eng. innate; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being innate. 

* in nat-Ive. a. [Pref. in- (IX and Eng. 
native (q.v.).] Native, natural. 

" And for the safe acceaae, 
His sonue shall make to hU innatiut port." 

Chapman : Hvmer ; Odyttey v. 

*in-nat-ur-al'-i-t& . [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. naturality (q.v.).] Unnatural conduct. 

" Innaturality auiougst kindred [is] infamous." 
North : Plutarch, p. 207. (Margin.) 

* in-nat'-nr-al-l& adv. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. naturally (q.v.).] Not naturally ; not 
according to nature. 

*in-naV-ig-a-ble, a. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. navigable tq.v.).] Not navigable ; that 
cannot be navigated or traversed by ships. 

" Which Acheron surrounds, the innavigable flood." 
/>ry,len ; Virgil ; JBnvtd vi. it; l, 

* In-nav'-ig-a-bl^, adv. [Eng. innavigable); 

-ly.] So as not to be navigable. 

* inne, prep. [Iw.] 

* inne, * in, *. [!NN, .) 



*innc, v.t. PNN, v.i 

* in-nect, v.t. [Lat. innecto = to tie or fastea 
to, together, or about : in- = In, into, and 
necto = to tie, to fasten.] To fasten together. 
(Fuller: Worthies, i. 139.) 

in'-ner, a. & s. [A.8. innera, from in = in.) 
A. As adjective : 

1. Interior ; farther inward or nearer th- 
centre than something else. 

" Many families an established in the West India*, 
ami some discovered In the inner parts of America. - 
AdUitvn: Spectator. 

2. Interior, internal, spiritual. 



" Let thy me* 

_ ercy shine." 

"Wordwjrth : Bonnet* to Liberty. NOT. 1113. 



Upon his inner soul In mercy 



3. Not obvious ; dark, esoteric : as, an inn*r 
meaning. 
B. As substantive: 

1. That part of a target immediately outside- 
the bull's-eye, enclosed by a ring varying in 
breadth, according to the range. 

2; A shot striking that part of the target 
" Scores which gave averages of innert or mow." 
Time*, July 81, 1884. 

t inner bark, s. 
Bot. : The liber (q.v.), 
inner-forme, *. 

Print. : [FORM, ., II. 6 (1) A (2)]. 

Inner-house, s. The name given to the 
chambers in which the first and second divi- 
sions of the Court of Session hold their 
sittings in Edinburgh ; applied also to the 

divisions themselves, and used iu contradis- 
tinction to the Outer House, in which the 
lords ordinary sit to hear motions and causes. 
All causes commencing in the Court of Ses- 
sion in regular form, by summons, letters of 
suspension, or advocation, reach the Inner 
House after passing through the Outer House. 

inner-parts, s. pi. 

Music: Those portions of the harmony that. 
are not at the top or bottom 

inner pedal* s. 

Music : A sustained note iu one of the inner 

parts. [SUSTAINED-NOTE.] 

Inner-plate, s. 

Arch. : The wall-plate in a double-plated 
roof, which lies nearest the centre of the roof, 
the other, or outer-plate, having its side nearer 
the outer surface of the wall. 

inner-post, . 

Shipbuild. : A piece brought in at the fore- 
side of the main-post, and generally continued 
as high as the wing-transom to seat the other 
transoms upon. 

inner-square, s. 

Carp. : The edges forming the internal right 
angle of a carpenter's square. 

*m ner-cst, a. [Eng. inner; super, suff 
-est.} Inmost, innermost. 

*in-ner-l^, adv. [Eng. inner; -ly,] Mora 
within ; nearer the centre. 

in'-ner-most, a. [A corruption of A.8. i- 
nemest inmost (q.v.)]. Farthest inward or 
within ; most remote from the surface. 

* in ner va'-tion (1), *. [Pref. in- (2) ; En#- 

nerve, and suff. -at ion.] A state of nervelew- 
ness. 

in-ner-va -tion (2), . [Eng.innenv; -alum.) 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : The act of innerving or 
strengthening ; the state of being innervea. 

2. Physiol. : The function of the nervous 
system ; nervous excitement ; special activity 
excited in any jiart of the nervous system. 

* in nerve', v.t. [Pref. in- (intens.), and Eng. 
nerve (q.v.).] To give nerve to, to strengthen^ 
to invigorate. 

* inn' hold-er, *. [Eng. inn, B., and AoWef.J 
One who keeps an inn ; an innkeeper. 

" Whether as well they as butchers, innhotderi, and 
victuallers, do sell thai which Is wholesome and at 
reasonable price*." Bacon : The Judicial Charge. 4e. 

inn -ing, s. [Eng. inn, v. ; -ing.] 

I. Ordinary Language: 

* 1. Lit. : The act of gathering in of grain, 
harvest, &c. 

"The gathering aiid inning of some harrest" 
P. Holland J'tinit, bk. xvlii., eh. vi. 



boi 1 , too^; polit, J6>1; cat, cell, chorns, chin, bench; go, fcem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, e^ist. ph = C 
-cian, -11ft" - sham, tion, -slon = shun ; -fion, -f ion = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sions - suus. -ble. -die, &c. = bel, del. 



3682 



innovation 



2. Fig. (PI.}: The time during which a 
person or party is in office. 

IL Terhnu-nli:! (I'D: 

1. Baseball and (picket: The time or turn for 
batting, either f an individual player, or of a 
whole Bidei 

S. Hyiir. Bng. : Lauds recovered from the 
ML 

In-nls, . [ENNIS.J 

* in nl ten 9V, s. [Lat. innilene, pr. par. of 
innUor : in- in, on, and iiUur = to lean.] A 
leaning nr resting upon ; pressure. 

"The InNirmey &nd itnBM being made upon the 
hypumuchlloo or fulcimcQt in the decuMttion." 
e : Cyrta' Gartlm, cb, U. 



in nix ion (x as ksh), . [Lat. 
pa. par. of tnnitor.J A resting npon ; Incum- 
bency, 

inn keop-er, *. [Bng. inn, and keej^r.} One 

who keeps an Jim ; a taverner, an hmhokler. 

"The win of an innkeeper passed himself on the 
yeomanry of Sussex as their beloved M-jnmouth." 
r . Xtx. Xnff.. ch. v. 



fn' n6-cen$e, a. [Fr., from Lat. innocentia, 
from inwcejw=inuocent(q.v.); 
Ital. 



1. The quality or state of being Innocent ; 
freedom from or absence of any quality which 
can hurt or injure ; innoxiousiiess, harmless- 
ness : as, the innocence of a medicine. 

"Suited to a golden age aud to the first tnnocency of 
nature." Burnet : Theory o/(fc Earth. 

2. Freedom from the guilt of any particular 
crime or sin ; guiltlessness. 

" For Innocence condemned revenge I vowed." 
Pitt: 1'trya; <n*d li 

3. In a moral sense, freedom from crime, 
tin, guilt, or fault ; purity of heart and life ; 
Integrity. 

" Or that high God In lieu of innocent*, 
Imprinted bad that token of his wrath." 

ATjwnwr.- f. $.. ILIL4. 

4. Freedom from any thought of evil; harm- 
leasness ; simplicity of heart. 

" When boyish innocence was all my praise." 

Cowptr: Uetirem-'nt, 972. 

&, Simplicity ; mental weakness or imbe- 
cility, bordering on silliness. 

" Who has not only his innocence, which if much to 
xcuse hini."Stia*ctp. : Winttr't Tale, T. S. 

* 6. The .state of not being contraband of 
war ; the state of being lawfully conveyed to 

a belligerent. 

t *n'-n6-9en-9y, s. [Lat. innoccntfa, from 

innocens innocent (q.v.).] Innocence. 

"That so denth and J\idgment may Hud me pre- 
pared. If not with uiiaputted innocency, yet with 
hearty aiid sincere repentance." St&Ungflett; Ser~ 
mont, Tfd. lv., ser. t. 

In' no 9ent f a. & s. [Pr., from Lat. innocens 
= harmless : in- = not, and nocens, pr. par. <if 
noceo = to hurt ; 3p. inocente; Ital. itinocentf.] 

A. At adjective: 

1. Not hurtful, harmful, or noxious ; In- 
noxious ; free from any quality which can 
hurt or injure. 

2. Free from the guilt of any particular 
crime or wicked action ; not guilty, guiltless. 
<Now followed by uj.) 

" I was innocent from any private malice." 

SAuketj*. : awry Yin., ill 1 

3. Morally free from guilt, crime, or fault ; 
not tainted with sin ; guiltless ; pure in heart 
and life ; upright, inoffensive, blameless, sin- 
less. 

" Hem that hodden wrouge suspect Ion 
Upon thU sely innocent distance." 

Chaucer ; C. T.. MM. 

4. Lawful, permitted ; not liable to punish- 
ment. 

" Bobbery was held to be a calling; not merely inno- 
Mt but honourable." Jfteaulay : ffiit. Eny.. ch. xiii. 

5. Not contraband of war ; not liable to for- 
feiture. 

6. Simple ; weak In intellect ; imbecile. 

" She hit* me a blow on the ear, and call* me inno- 
cent, and let* me go." BenJonton: Oilent Woman, L L 

B. As substantive : 

* 1. One who is free from guilt, crime, or 
fcult ; an innocent person. 

"So PUN an inttoctnt a* that same lambe." 

Spenter: F. Q., I. t. ft. 

2. A person wanting in intellect ; a natural ; 
D idiot 

"A dumb innocent that oonld not say him nay." 
Snaketp. : All's Well that Ends Well, iv. &. 

H For the difference between innocent and 
guiltless, see GUILTLESS. 



^ Massacre or Slaughter o/tlie Intiocents : 

1. CA. Hist, ; The massacre or murder of 
the young children of Bethlehem by lierod 
(Malttevli. 16.) 

2. Paii. Slang : The abandonment, towards 
the close of a session, of bills introduced by 
the Government, but nut tmllicieutly advanced 
to stand a chance of their being passed during 
that session. 

innocent-conveyances, . pi. 

Law; A covenant to stand seized ; a bar- 
gain, sale, and release ; so called because they 
convey the actual possession of the property 
by construction of law only. 

Innocents' day, s. 

Church, Hist., dc, ; The English name for the 
feast celebrated on Dec. 28, to commemorate 
the massacre of the children of Bethlehem by 
1 It-rod, in the hope of killing Jesus. It was 
probably first celebrated towards the close of 
the fifth, or early in the sixth century. In 
the English Church, it has a proper Collect, 
Epistle, and Gospel, but no Vigil. It is known 
in the Latin Church as the Feast of Holy In- 
nocents, and MasH is said in purple vestments, 
probably because the Innocents did not enter 
maven tilt Christ at His Ascension opened 
it to those who believe." On the octave the 
vestments are red, the proper colour of mar- 
tyrs. In the Greek Church the feast is cele- 
brated on Dec. 20, and is known as the Feast 
of the 14,000 Holy Children. (MARTYR.] 

* in' nd 9<Snt iVe, a. [Eng. innocent; -(.] 
Tending to iunotxmce ; innocent. 

"TtiecontenttnenU of tnmocentitc pi*tj. m r*ttham ; 
Kttolre*. pt 11.. ttM. 66. 



y. adv. [Eng, innocent ; -ly.] 
* L Without hurt or harm ; harmlessly. 

2. Without guilt ; guiltlessly ; uprightly. 

" He preMrueth the welfare of the righteous, and 
defendsth them that walk* innocently."- />rwrfrt, it 
(1551.) 

3. With simplicity or innocence of heart ; 

guilelessly. 

Turned all iiiyuiry light away ." 

Scott: Ladyq/ thi Lak*, L SO. 

In ndc'-Tj-a. s. j>l. (Nent. nom. pL of Lat. 
innocuus == harmless, innocuous,] 

Zool. : A sub-order of Ophidia (Snakes), con* 
taming the Colubriformes, or Innocuous Co- 
lubiiform Snakes. Tliey have no decided 
veuoui gland, though a special non-venomous 
one and a groove may be present. The jaws 
are armed with numerous, solid, curved teeth ; 
the body is covered with rows of large scales, 
and the head with plates. 



FamiUw: Acrochorditbe | Wart-Snake*]. Drylophidw 
(Whlp-SuakM), Dipaailidv iNocturiial Tree Suikea), 
LycououtidK (Gnmnd Bu&kes). Amblycephalldie 
(Blunt-lieadB), Deiidroj>liiU (Tree Biiakn), Paaumo- 
phlil (Desert Suakos). Rachlodontldn (Throat-tootheU 



btiaket). Uomal<>it<l (Fremh water 6uakc*|. Colu- 
brlda (True yuke*}. Pytliuuidtt (Rock 8i.ake), Ery- 
ciilae (Saud Snakes). Tortriciihe (Rollen). and Uropel- 
tidn | Rough-tails), (thtnean, Ac.) 



* Xn-n*o-n'-t-^, *. [Eng. innocu(wu) ; -tty.] 
The quality or state of being innocuous ; harm- 

lessness. 

In-n6'-a-on>, a. [Lat. innocuuj, from in- = 
not, ana nocuus hurtful ; noceo = to hurt ; 
Ital. & 8p. innoato.] 

1. Harmless ; producing no evil result or 
effect ; innocent. 

2. Harmless ; doing no injury or barm. 

" A geiiorou* lion will not hurt a b*ttt that lies pro- 
strate, nor an elephant au i/inocuou* .creature. "flur- 
ton : Aitat, <f McUtnchtfy. p. 348. 

^ Innocuous Colubrtform Snakes : 
ZooL: 



j^, adv. [Eng. innocuous ; -Zy.J 
In an innocuous manner ; without harm or 
injury ; harmlessly ; without mischievous 

effects. 

" Where the nit aea innocuotuty breaki." 

H,' Excurtwn, bk, lit 



in-noc'-n-oii-nSs, *. [Eng. innocuous; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being innocu- 
ous ; harnilessness. 

"That tonocuouxnitt of th effect makes, that, al- 
though In iUetf it be as gwt aa the other, yet 'tis 
little obsrvd."-.mj76y.- On Bodfe*, ch. U. 

in'-no-date, v.t. [Lat. innodatus, pa. par. 
of innodo ; in- = in. and nodus = a knot ] To 
bind up, fasten, or include, as in a knot. (Lit. 



* in nom'-In-a-ble, a. & s. [Lat. innomina- 
bilis, from in-"= not, and nominabilis = that 



may be name<l or nominated; nomiao=tc 
name ; women (genit. novt,inis)= a name.] 

A* As adj. : That cannot or may not be 
named or mentioned ; unspeakable. 

"And then luuuely of foule thyugea Ittnnminable." 
Ckaucer ; Tettament of Love, bk. L 

B. As subst. (PI.): Trousers; inexpressible*. 
(Southey: fhe Doctor, p. 088.) 

in nom in ate, n. & . [Lat. innominatia: 
in- = not, and nominatus, pa, par. of nomino 
to name ; nor/ten = a name.] 

A. 4a oJj. ; Not named, nameless. 

B. As substantive : 

Arutt. : The innominate artery (q.v.% 
"The accessibility of the innominate iu the neck." 
Qualm Anatomy (ed. 1st), p. 85& 

innominate-artery, f. 

Anal. : The largest of the vessels which 
proceed from the arch of the aorta. It arises 
from the transverse portion of the arch before 
the carotid artery. It ascends obliquely to- 
wards the right, and divides Into the right 
subclavian and the right carotid artery. U 
varies in length from two inches to one iti'-h, 
or less. Called also the Brachy cephalic 
Artery. 

innominate -bone, s. 

Aunt. ; The os coxte, or pelvic bone. It is 
constricted iu the middle and exjuuided above 
and below, and much Iwnt. It articulates 
with its fellow of the opposite side, with the 
sacrum, and with the femur. Iu early life it 
is in three portions: the ilium, the os pubis, 
and the ischitim. They begin to ossify before 
birth, but the process is not completed till 
the twenty-third or twenty-fifth year. 

* innominate contracts, . ;*. 

Civil LOAD; Contracts which had no particu* 
lar names, as permutation and transaction. 
(Wharton.) 

innominate-veins, . pi. 

Aitat, : Two trunk veins receiving the blood 
returning from the upix-r limbs through the 
subclavian veins, and liom the head and neck 
by the jugular oues. Called alao the JBrachy- 
cephalic Veins. 

in' -no-vate, v.t. & t. [Lat. innovates, pa, par. 
of intu/vo : in- in, and uovu = to make new ; 
novas new ; Fr. innover; fcp. itinonar; ItaL 
innovare.] 
*A. Transitive: 

1. To alter or change by the introduction 
of something new. 

"All attempts to innovate the constitutional * 
habitual charactat." The Kamtter, No. i;x 

2. To bring in or introduce by way of some- 
thing new. 

" All tb.M who had Imunated anything in religion.' 
Clarendon : Reli'jion A Policy, ch. rlL 

B. Intransitive: 

L To make innovations; to Introduce novel- 
ties ; to make or introduce changes or altera- 
tions in anything established. 

" Time Itself*, which Indeed tnnuvatet A greatly, but 
quietly." ftacon: Kttayt; Of Innovations 

2. To Invent, to introduce or put forward 
new things. 



try n 



" But every man cannot distinguish betwixt pedan- 
y nnd poetry ; every man, therefore, is not lit to in- 
ow**.' i>r v dn: Virgil; ^neid. (Dwlle.) 

in-n6-va'-tiou, s. tLat. innovatlo, from to* 
novattts, pa. par. of innovo to i i. novate (q. V.) ; 
Fr. innovation; Sp. innovation; ItaL. titno- 
PMiOttk] 

L Ordinary Language: 

1. The act of innovating ; the Introduction 
of novelties or changes in things established. 

" Perdicax, whose ambitious innouatton wan (lie saldj 
to be preueuted In tyme." Brende: (juintv* Curtiut, 
to. sw. 

2. A change made by the Introduction of 
something new in things established, as laws, 
customs, rites, &c. 

"He knew how to u*e technical law to cover the 

most etartliug mnowirfon*." (Jantiner t Muiiinaer: 
Intrtxt. CO K,,-j. Hut., On. lit 

IL Technically: 

L Bot. : A shoot which has not completed 
its growth. Used specif, of the new branches 
of mosses produced by a process of renewal 
from axillary buds by the side of the theca, or 
of the antheridla. 

2. Religions (PL): New doctrines introduced 
toy professed reformers into any faith with the 
view of harmonizing it with the science of the 
age, or new observances to adapt it to the 



flate. OU, fare, amidst, what, fall, lather; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir* marine; go, p6t, 
r* wore, woU. work, who, ado; mate, cub, cure, uaite, ear, rule, fall; try, Syrian, n, ce-e; ey = a. qa 



Innovationist inoculation 



268J 



modern feeling. Such innovations are ex- 
tremely distasteful to tlie majority of wor- 
sliipjiers, who, accepting as of Divine origin 
both the doctrines and practices sought to be 
altered, look on the innovations as impious. 
Joeephm complained of such innovations in 
liis Jemtk Wan, and the introducer of inno- 
vations In Christian doctrine or practice finds 
determined resistance in whatever section of 
the Church he may attempt to operate. 

3. Soots Law: A technical term for the ex- 
change, with the creditor's consent, of one 
obligation for another, so as to make the 
second obligation take the place of the first, 
ud be tn -*Jy subsisting obligation against 
'.he debtor, the obligant's remaining as before. 
Called also novation (q.v.X 

In nd-va'-tion-Kst, s. [Eng. innovation; 
-ix.) One who introduces, or is in favour of, 
innovations. 






j o. [Eng. imovat(e); -ire.] 
Introducing or tending to introduce Innova- 
tions ; characterized by innovations. 

" Some write are . . . innovative.- Hall : Modern 
fxylttlt. p. 11. 

In'-no-vat-or, * in no-vat-our, . lEng. 
imwvat(e) ; -or; Fr. innovateur; Ital. innova- 
tore ; Sp. tnnovador.] 

1. One who introduces novelties or innova- 
tions; an introducer of changes in things 
established. 

" As ardent ft spirit u can inspire any fcHMMfor to 
destroy the mouuiueuta of the [iletyand the glory of 
ancient ages." Burke : Letter to William Elliot. tq. 

2. One who makes changes by the introduc- 
tion of innovations or novelties. 

In noxious (noxious as nok shfis), a. 

[Lat. innoxiiis, from in- = not, and moxivs = 
hurtful, noxious ; noceo to hurt.] 

1. Harmless, innocent ; not producing or 
tending to produce mischievous or ill effects. 

"They being benign aud of innoxiout qualities." 
Brtninr: tulaar Xrrmrrt, bk. Iv., eh. xUL 

* 2. Innocent, harmless ; free from guilt or 
in. 

" The good man walked innoxious through his age." 
PofM : Prol. to Sattrei, ayj. 

In noxious ly (noxious as nok'-shns). 

adi'. [Eug. innoxious; -ly.} 

1. Harmlessly; without causing harm or 
Ul-effecte. 

" Mercury which li i*nx>ouily given In nun; case* 
WL<\<:"U^! : Work*. IL 191. 

* 2. Without suffering harm or ill effects. 

"For anlmtb that taut innoximuly digat these 
poysoiis, become antidotal uuto t lie iMiynun digested." 
Brown* : I'ulyir Errourt. bit. vii, ch. xvil. 

to noxions-ncss (noxious is nok'- shus), 
*. [tug. innoxious; -ness.} The quality or 
state of being innoxious ; harmlessness, inno- 
cence. (MadD'Arblay : Diary, vii. 873.) 

* tn'-nn-ate, v.i. [Lat {nnuatum, rap. of 
inti'to = to give a nod, to hint] To intimate, 
to hint, to signify. 

"As If Agamemnon would innuate, that aa tbl 
ow (being wtlayed) is free from Veuu*." Chapman: 
Bomer; iiiadxix. (Comment.) 

* In-nu'-bl-lous, o. [Lat. inn: 
out clouds : in- = not, aud 
Free from clouds ; clear. 

In nu en do, in-u-en' do, *. [Lat innn- 
endo = l>y intimation; gerund of innuo = to 
notl towards, to intimate: in- = In, towards, 
and HUO = to nod.] 

L Ord. Lang. : An Indirect or oblique hint 
or intimation ; an insinuation. 

" Ai by the way of innuendo, 
Luctu Is made a nan fttcetrdo" 

CkttrcUU : fc'fcotf, bk. IL 

* 2. Law : A law term, most used in declar- 
ations, and other pleadings and tbe office of 
this word is only to declare and ascertain the 
person or thing, which was named incertain 
before: as to bay. he (innuendo, the plaintiff) 
IB a thief : when as there was mention before 
of another person. (Blount ; Glossogr.) 

* In'-na-ent, a. (Tat. innuens, pr. par. of 
innuo =z to nod. to hint] Conveying a hint 
or intimation ; insinuating, significant. 

Innuit, s. [Native word = the people.! The 
name by which the Esquimaux call themselves. 
The name by which they are ordinarily known 
to outsiders is an Algonquin word. 

In-nu-mer-a-bn'-l-t^, s. | Fr. innumera- 
bilite, from IJat innianerabUitas, from innume- 



rabilis = innumerable (q.v.).] The quality or 
state of being innumerable. 

Xn-nn'-mer-o-ble, o. [Fr., from Lat tnnu- 
merabilis, from in- = not, and numerabilis = 
that can be counted or numbered ; Sp. innu- 
merable, innombrable ; Ital. innumerabile.] 

1. Not to be counted ; impossible to be 
counted or numbered for multitude ; count- 
less, numberless; indefinitely numerous. 

" Innumerable multitude of forms." 

Wordsworth : Excursion, bk. Ix. 

* 2. As if proceeding from very large num- 
bers of performers. 

*' Thy Braises, with the inntimfrable touud 
Of hyiniu." Milton : P. L., ill. 14T. 



----, adv . [Eng. innumerable); 
ly.\ Without number, so as to be innumer- 
able. 

"Sparkling brands, innutnembty wared." 

Qlover: Athenatd, bk. xxix. 

* ln-nu'-mer--ous, a. [Lat. innumerns, from 
in- = not, and numerua= number ; nvtnero = 
to number, to count.] Too many to be num- 
bered or counted ; countless, innumerable. 

" The gathered flock 
An In the wattled pen mnunwou* ureaaed." 

Thomson : Summer, 395. 

* fri nu trl' tlon, . [Pref. in- (2X and Eng. 
nutrition (q.v.).] Want or failure of nutrition 
or nourishment. 

in-nn trf tious, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 

nutrition* (a. v.).] Not nutritious, not nourish- 
ing ; not affording nourishment. 

* In-nn'-trf-tXve. a. [Pref. In- (2), and Eng. 
nutritive (q.v.).} Not nourishing, innutritions. 

'-n6, s. [Lat & Gr. = in class, myth., a 
daughter of Cadmus and Hermione.] 

Entom. : A genus of Zygaenldte ; /no staticea 
and /. globularice are enumerated by Stephens 
as British. 

in o^bo di en?, s. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. obedience (q.v.).] Disobedience ; failure 
to obey. 

" As bl tnobedimoo of oo man manye been mnml 
synuera, ao bi the obedience of oon maiiyeschulen be 
iuit." WycUffit: Montana v. 

* Xn-o-be'-dl-fint, * in-o-be-dy ent, o. & 

. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. obedient (q.v.).] 
A As adj. : Not obedient ; disobedient 

"Inobeditnt la he that dlaobeyeth for despft to the 
Commaudetnenta of God." Ckaucor : Penvne* Title. 

B. As svbst. ; One who is disobedient 

"Upon the Baled inob*UntM.*Ball: Henry T., 
ML 8. 

* in-o-be -di-ont-ly, adv. [Eng. inobedient ; 

-ly.} In a disobedient manner, disobediently ; 
by disobedience. 

"Whom I have obitlnately and inobedtontly of- 
lended." Burnet : Bitt. Jttform, u. 1536. 



ty, . [Pref. in- (2X and 
Lat. obligo = to bind.] The quality or state 
of not being binding or obligatory. 

* The Invalidity or ino&Uffability thereof." Sander- 
ton : Works, v. 67. 

in-ob-scrv'-a-ble, a. [Lat inobservabilis, 
from in- = not| and observo = to observe ; Fr. 
inobservablf.} Not observable ; that cannot be 
observed or perceived. 

* in-ob-scrV-ance, s. [Lat. inobsermntia, 
from inobaervann inobservant (q.v.).J Want 
of observance ; A failure to observe or keep ; 
disobedience. 

" Breach aud inobtervanoe of certain wholesome and 
politic law* for government. 1 * Bacon : Judicial 
Chargt, 

Xn-db-ferv'-ant, a. [Lat. inobservans, from 
in- not, and observans = observant (q.v.); 
Fr. inobservant; Ital. itwbservante.} Not ob- 
servant ; not taking notice or heed ; heedless. 

" He ha* been inobservant of impudent," Durd ; 
Sermons, vol. vi., aer. 23. 

* in 6b-s6r va -tion, . fPref. in- (2), and 
Eng. observation (q.v.); Fr, inobservation. } 
Want or neglect of observation. 

"Toes* write are in all this guilty of tbe mort 
hamcfull inobservativn" ShucJkford: Chi the Crea- 
tion, p. 118. 

*in-6b-trft'-sive. a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
obtrusive (q.v.).] Not obtrusive ; unobtrusive. 
(Coleridge.) 

* in-ob-tru'-rive-ly, adv. [Eng. inobtru- 
fivc; -ly.\ In an inobstrusive manner; un- 
obtrusively. 



* in-db tru'-sive-ness, s. [Eng. inobtn* 
sive ; *ness t } '1 he quality or state of being in 
obtrusive ; nnobtrusiveuess. 

in 6-car'-pin t s. [Mod. Lat, inocarp(us) : 
in.] A red colouring matter contained in till 
juice of the Inocnrpueilulis. The juice is at 
first colourless, but on exposure to the air 
turns red, aud dries up to a gummy masa. It 
is soluble in water and in alcohol, but Inso- 
luble in ether. 

in - 6 - car 1 - pus, s. [Gr. t (is), genii. ii>6< 
(inos) a fibre, and Kopiro? (karjws) = fruit 
Named from the fibrous envelopes.] 

Bot. : A genus of Thymelaeeae, tribe Her- 
nandia. Inocarpus edulis, the Otaheite chest- 
nut, is a large tree, with alternate leaves and 
white flowers in racemes, followed by kidney- 
shaped nnts, eaten, when roasted, by the na- 
tives of the Pacific, the Eastern Islands, 4c, 

* Xn-oo-cn-pa'-tion, *. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. occupation (q.v.),] Want of occupation. 

in 6-9cr y -a-mus, . [Gr. Z? (is), ivfc (ziws) m 
strength, force . . a fibre, and xepofioc (kera- 
mos) potter's earth, a tile.] 

Palceont. : A genus of Aviculidte (Wing- 
shells), The shell Is inequivalve, ventrieose, 
radiately or concentrically furrowed, with 
prominent urn bones, a straight, elongated 
Bilge-line, and numerous transverse, close-set 
cartilage pits. It is akin to Perna. Seventy- 
five species known, all fossil from the Silurian 
to the chalk. (S. P. Woodward.) 

* in~$c'-u-la-ble, a. [Lat. ino>xtl(o) = to in- 
oculate ;* Eng. -able.} 

\. Capable of being inoculated. 
2. That may communicate disease by inocu- 
lation. 

Inocnlable-bubo, 5. 

Path. ; A bubo which has been inoculated 
with morbid matter. Called also virulent bubo. 

in-6c'-u-lar, a. [Pref. in- (1) ; Lat oeulus 
the eye, and Eng. suff. -ar.] 

Entom. (Of Antennce): Inserted in the angle 
of the eye. 

Xn-OO'-U-late, v.t. & I. [Lat. inocnlatus, pa. 
par. of inoculo = to graft a bud of one tree 
on to another.] 

A. Transitive: 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. LU. : [IL 1, 2J. 

2. Fig. : To implant in the ralnd of any 
one certain opinions foreign to his own way of 
thinking. 

IL Technically: 

1. Agric.: To perform the operation of 
engrafting or budding. [INOCULATION, * 1.] 

2. Med. ; To introduce variolous or other 
morbific matter into the system with the view 
of mitigating the severity of small-pox or any 
other disease. 

"The Princess of Wales had two of her children in- 
oculated lu the very begiuuiiii- of the movement" 
Leclty: England in the Eighteenth Cent., vol. 1., tfh, iv. 

B. Intrans. : To practice inoculation (q.v.). 
U To inoculate grass : 

Agric. : To take pieces of sward fmm an 
old meadow, and spread them over a piece of 
grass-land somewhat deficient in verdure. 

in oc-u-la'-tion, *. (Lat = an engrafting , 
Fr. inoculation.] 

* 1. Bot. ; Grafting by the insertion of buds ; 
the operation of budding (q.v.). 

2. Medically: 

tt) The act, art, or operation of comraunl 
eating a disease to the bodily frame by intro- 
ducing, by one or more punctures in the skin, 
or otherwise, the specific poison by which it 
Is produced. 

(2) (Spec.) : The introduction in such a man- 
ner of variolous matter into the system. 
Whether or not inoculation for small-pox waa 
known in China and India at an earlier period 
than in Europe is doubtful. It seems to have 
been practiced in South Wales without attract 
ing notice. It was to Constantinople that 
America, Europe, and the world were indebted 
for the discovery. In A.D. 1713 Dr. Emanuel 
Timont, a Greek physician there, wrote a 
letter to Dr. Woodward in favour of inocula- 
tion, which was published in the Philosophical 
Transactions, as was a notice of a work in its 
favour by Dr. Pylarini, the Venetian consul 



b6il. b6y; pout, jo%l; cat, gell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -tog. 
-clan. -tian = shan. -tion. -sion- jhuxi; -(ion. sion -zhun. -tious, -clous, -aious = shiis. -ble, -die, &c. - bel, dfL. 



3684 



tooculator inosculate 



t Smyrna. In 1715 Inoculation was also 
supported by Mr. Kennedy, an English sur- 
geon who bad travelled in Turkey; but the 
actual Introduction of the practice into Eng- 
land was brought about by a letter written 
in a lively style from Turkey in 1717, by 
Idy Mary Wortley Montagu. Returning 
to England, she had her child inoculated in 
1721. Dr. Keith, who had seen the practice, 
submitted his child to it. Then six condemned 
criminals, pardoned by George I. on condition 
of their consenting to be inoculated, followed 
successfully, after which, on April 19, 1722, 
the Princesses Amelia and Caroline were 
Inoculated. A few days after three inoculated 
persons died, one being a child of the Earl ol 
Bnnderland ; and, six cases having been fatal 
out of 244 conducted by Dr Boylston at 
Boston, Massachusetts, between June, 1721. 
and January, 1722, an outcry was raised 
against Inoculation, so that only about 897 
persons were inoculated In the first eight years. 
Gradually, however, it made way, and was 
irmly established by 1798, in which year 
Dr. Jenner announced the discovery of vacci- 
nation (q.v.). Before this, the improved me- 
tbods introduced by Daniel and Robert Button 
had reduced the mortality, which, In 1797, 
1798, and 1799, in the small-pox hospitals was 
only 1 in 662. Inoculation for small-pox Is 
performed by applying the variolous matter to 
a few scratches made upon the skin. It com- 
municates actual variola, which, however, as 
rule, Is of a mild type, but acts as an excel- 
lent prophylactic against a malady of more 
Tirnlent character. The stage of incubation 
! shorter in the inoculated than in the natu- 
ral small-pox. The quantity of the eruption is 
moderated and the chief force of the disease 
is expended upon the skin, to the relief of 
the internal organs. While inoculation pro- 
tects the individual, he may, in a natural way, 
communicate the disease to others, and that 
ID malignant form. Inoculation is no 
longer practiced, vaccination having taken 
its place. 

"Inoculation was Introduced Into England from 
Turkey by Lady Mty Montagu." LeOcy : tnflanf 
N th Eighteenth Century, VoL i., eh. IT. 

In oc -u-la tor, . [Lat.] 

* 1. One who engrafts plants. 

2. One who inoculates for the small-pox. 

" Had John a Gaddesden been now living, he would 
have been t the head of the inoculatorl:' Friend : 
Biitory of Phytick. 

In-6'-di-te, v.t. [Lat. in- = in, into, and 

odium = hatred, odium ; Ital. inodiare = to 
hate.] To make hateful, to bring into odium 
or hatred. 

Partly to inodiate and Imbitter sin to the chastised 
." South : Sc'-mont, voL vL. ser. ft. 



In-o dor ate, a. [Lat. in- = not, and 
odoraius = Having an odour or scent ; odor = 
odour.] Having no scent or odour ; inodorous. 

" Whites are more inodorate than flowers of the same 
kind coloured." Bacon: Natural Sittory, I 607. 

in-d'-d6r-ott,o. [Lat inodona, from in- = 
not, and odorut = scented ; FT. inodore.] 
Wanting scent or smell ; having no smell. 

" Some whit* bodies are inodorous and Insipid." 
toyle: Worta, Hi. 301. 

iat-if-fen'-slve, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
-"--wit* (q.v.); Fr. inofensij; Sp. inofenrivo ; 

. ino/ensivo.] 
It Not offensive ; giving no offence or pro- 
vocation ; harmless, quiet. 

"In manners the most inqf entire of men." Mac- 
*Mfok> - Sift. Ktig., eh. vi. 

2. Causing no uneasiness or alarm. 

"Should Infants have taken offence at any thing, 
sailing pleasnut and agreenble apjiear.uices with It 
must be used, til] it be grown ittojfe>itic to them." 
Locke : tin education. 

3. Harmless, innocent, innocuous. 

" Thus thy praise shall be expressed, 
Inoffentlee, welcome guest! Cowper: Cricket. 

4. Not causing any obstruction or hin- 
drance ; unobstructed. 

" From neuoe a passage broad. 
Smooth, easy, inqffenttee, down to hell." 

Milton: p. t., x. 80S. 

|lV-4f-fen'-sIye-ly, adv. [Eng. inoffensive; 
-ly.] In an inoffensive manner ; without giv- 
ing offence ; without harm. 

" Not thus indfrtuieely preys, 
The cankerworm, iiidwelHngfoe 1" 

Covrper: Innocent Thief. (Trans.) 

In if-fen' slve ness, s. [Eng. Inoffensive; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being inoffensive. 
" Here must bee wisdome and inoffensiveneue of car- 
it*fe." Sp. Salt: Ep. vi., dec. 4. 



* fa-of-fT-clal (el as ah), a. [Pref. in- (2) 
and Eng. official (q.v.).] Not official, nmiffl 
cial, notdone officially or by a duly authorize* 
official : as, an inofficial communication. 

in-or-ft'-elal-ly (d as sh), adv. [E 
inofficial; -ly.} In an Inofficial manner; nol 
officially ; without the usual forms. 

" ln-6f fl'-clous. a. [Lat. inofflnofus. from 
in- = not, and officium = duty ; Fr. inofficienz; 
Ital. inqfficiosa.] Not attentive to duty ; re- 
gardless of natural obligation ; neglectful 
heedless. 

"Tbou drown it thy selfe In InoJKtlout sleepe." 

Ben Jonton : King t Entertainment. 

inofficious testament, s. 

Law: A will contrary to a parent's natural 
duty, by which a child is unjustly deprived ol 
his inheritance. 

* fn-olT, v.t. [Pref. in- (I), and Eng. oil (q.v.).] 
To anoint. 

"As well as if be was tnoiled." -Strype : Cranmer, 
bk. it. ch. i. 

In'-i-Ute, s. [Or. I, (it), genit. iwit (i*o) = a 
fibre, and Ai'Sov (lithos) = a stone.] 
Afin, : The same as CALC-SINTER (q.v.). 

* In 6p er-a'-tton, . [Lat. inoperatut, pa. 
par. of inoperor = to work : in- = In, and 
operor = to work ; oput (genit. operu) = work.] 
Agency, influence. 

" Here Is not a cold and feeble prevention, but an 

(feet Hal inoperafi'in, yea a powerful creation." fiithop 
fall : Honour of the Married Clergy, bk. I., ch. ilv. 

Jn-Sp'-er-a-ttve, o. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
operative (q.v.).] Not operative ; not pro- 
ducing a result or effect ; having no operation. 

" Though the divine knowledge ... be of itself in- 
operative." South: Sermons, VoL vt, ser. 4. 

in-A-per'-cn-lar, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
opermlar (q.v.).] [INOPERCULATA.] 

Of univalve shells: Having no opercnlum or 
lid. (Owen.) 

in d per cu la'-ta, s. pi. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Lat. operculata, netit. pi. of operculutus, pa, 
par. of opemtlo = to furnish or cover with a 
lid ; operculum = a cover, a lid.] 

ZooL : A section of Pulmoniferous Molluscs 
having the shell inoperculate (q.v.). It con- 
tains the highest families of the Pulmonifera, 
viz., Helicidee, Limacide, Oncidiadee, Lim- 
neeidee, and Auricnlidse. 

In 6 pey-cu-late, a. [IMOPERCULATA.] 

Zool. : Not having an operculum or lid clos- 
ing the aperture of the shell when the animal 
withdraws into it for shelter. 

"The rest are inopercutate, and sometimes shell. 
less." Woodward ; Moilutca (1876), p. 2S5. 

In 6 per -cu-lat Sd, o. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. operculated.] The same as INOPERCULATE 
(q.v.). 

" Inoperculated Pulmonifera, consisting of five 

'--"- -..-,.. Sat _ ma ._ n ,. 



effe 
Ball 



In op' In a-We, a. [Lat inopinabilit, from 
in- not, aud opinor = to expect. ] Not to be 
expected. 

In op'- 1 -nate, a. [Lat. inopinatui; Fr. 
inopine.] Not expected, unexpected ; not 
looked for. 

"Casual and inoptnate cases." TtmjtStorehouee. 

In-op'-por-tone, o. [Lat. inopportunus, 
from in- = not, and opportunus = opportune 
(q.v.); Fr. inopportun; Sp. inoportuno; Ital. 
inopportune.] Not opportune ; inconvenient, 
unseasonable. 

In-Sp'-por-tune-ly, adv. [Eng. inoppor- 
tune; -ly.] lu an inopportune manner or 
time ; unseasonably, inconveniently. 

" Even that holy exercise may not be done inoppor- 
tunely, nor importuuely." Donne : Letter to Sir a. G. 

* In-op-por-tun'-l-ty, . [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. opportunity (q.v.>] Want of opportu- 
nity ; unseasonableness. 

* In-ip-prSs'-sIve, o. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eug. oppressive (q.v.).] Not oppressive, not 
burdensome. 

* In-op'-n-lent, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
opulent (q.v.).] Not opulent; not affluent or 
rich ; poor. 

In-or'-di-na-cy, . [Eng. inordinate) ; -cy.] 
The quality or state of being inordinate ; de- 



viation from order or regularity ; irregularity, 
disorder, excess, want of moderation, innrdi- 
nateness. 

"They become very sinful by theexress, whlcti were 
not so in their nature ; ttiKt inorditiacy gets them In 
opposition to God's designation. "Government q/ the 

In or di nate, * In-or dl nat, a. [Lat 

inordinatus, from in- = not, and ordinatus => 
set in order ; Ital. inordinate.] Irregular, not 
in order, disorderly, excessive, immoderate, 
passing all bounds, intemperate. 

"He could not accuse Tlllotson of inordinate ambi 
tlon." Macaulay : Hilt. Bug., ch. xiv. 



. . * In-or-di-nat-ly, adv. 
[Eng. inordinate ; -ly.] In an inordinate man- 
ner or degree ; irregularly, excessively, im- 
moderately. 

"Nottolouelttaordfetatiy." Tyndall: Worket. p. 2M. 

In or di nate ness, * In or' dj nate- 
nesse, s. [Eng. inordinate; -ness.] 'The 
quality or state of being inordinate ; inordi- 
nacy. 

"He who Is mercy itself abhorres cruelty In nil 
creature above another inordhmteneue."Bp. HnU: 
Contempt. ; aibeonUet Kenenaed. 

* in or di na tlon, s. [Lat. inordinotio, 
from inordinatus = inordinate (q.v.).] Devia- 
tion from rule or right ; deviation from the 
accustomed order; excess, want of modera- 
tion, inordinacy, intemperance. 

" We are taught l>y this word to slgnlfle all Irregu- 
larity aud inordinatitm In actions of religion." Biehom 
Taylor: Strmont, vol. it, ser. 8. 

In or-gan' Ic, In~or gan'-Ic-al,a. [Pref. 

in- (2)i and Eng. organic, orjanicor(q.v.) ; Fr. 
inorganique; Sp. & Ital. inorganico.) Devoid 
or destitute of organs ; not having the organs 
or instruments of life. 

" Many erroneous opinions are about the essence and 
original! of it [the rational! soule] . . . whether it be 
orgaulea! or inorgunical." Burton : Anatomy of Melon, 
choly, p. 26. 

Inorganic cardiac-murmur, s. 
Anat. : [MURMUR]. 

inorganic chemistry,?. The chemistry 
of inorganic or unorganized bodies. The dis- 
coveries of the past few years have rendered it 
impossible to say where inorganic chemistry 
ends and where organic chemistry begins; 
but in general terms it may be said that in- 
organic chemistry treats of the metals, or of 
the metals in combination with one or more 
of the non-metallic bodies. A metal in com- 
bination with oxygen produces an oxide, wh i 1st 
a metal in combination with an acid produces 
a salt, both beine inorganic compounds. The 
union of iron with oxygen produces ferrous 
oxide, FeO, and ferric oxide, Fej.O 3 ; vith 
chlorine ferric chloride, Fe 2 Cl; whilst fer- 
rous and ferric oxides, when combined with 
sulphuric acid, produce ferrous sulph..te, 
FeO-SO 3 7H ? O,andferriC8ulphate,FejO3-3bO., 
The aim of inorganic chemistry is to examine 
into the general laws or rules which regulate 
the formation of such metallic bodies, and to 
determine the action of one upon another. 
(ORGANIC-CHEMISTRY.) 

* In or gan -Ic-al-ly, adv. [Eng. inorga* 
ical ; -ly.] In an inorganic manner; without 
organs or organization. 



-ty, s. [Eng. inorgan(ic); -ity.l 
The quality or state of being inorganic- 
(Browne.) 

In or gan iza' tlon, s. [Pref. in- (2), aud 
Eng. organization (q.v.). j The quality or state 
of being inorganized ; absence or want of or- 
ganization. 

In or-gan ized, a. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. organized (q.v.).] Not having organia 
structure ; devoid of organs ; inorganic. 

In-or-moos, a. [ENORMOUS.] 

* In or'-nate, a. [Lat. inornatus, or pref. in- 
(2), and Eng. ornate.] Not ornate, unadorned. 

* In or thog' ra phy, s. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. orthography (t\.v .).} Deviation from cor- 
rect orthography. 

jl 6s cu-late, v.i. ft t. [Lat. in- = in, and 
osculatus, pa. par. of oscular = to kiss ; Ital. 
inosculare.] [OSCULATION.] 

A. Intransitive : 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : To run into one another ; 
to form the complement of each other. 

2. Anal. : To unite by the mouth of on 



fSte, fat, Hire, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pit, 
r, wore, wolf, work, who, son; mate, cab, cure, unite, our, rale, fall; try, Syrian. SB, OB = ej ey = a. an - lew. 






inosculation inquiry 



2685 



vessel fitting into the mouth of another ; to 

auaatoillOM! (q.v.). 

"Now tliitriftl) conjugation of nerves ia branched to 
the prax:or<r.a also. In eoiue measure by iMmenlatiag 
with one of its nerves." Durham: Phyiico-Theoluiju, 
bk. v., ch. vlil 

3. Hart. : Grafting or budding. 
* B. Transitive : 

1. To anite, as two vessels in an animal 
hody. 

2. To unite Intjnately ; to cause to become 
one ; to blend. 



, s. [Fr., from Lat,fn- = 
in, and oscitlatus, pa. par. of oscufor = to kiss.] 

1, Ord. Lang. : An incorporating or assimi- 
lating nnion or blending. 

2. Anat. : Union of two vessels by the 
mouth of the one fittingiuto that of the other ; 
anastomosis (q.v.). 

"Thence returning, by itosculatitms, through the 
veins or bark vessels to the loot or lacteala again." 
Berkeley ; Sirti, | H4. 

(n-6V-I<3, a. [Gr. (is), genit. Ivoy (inos)=: 
strength, force ; Eng. suit', -ic.J (See the com- 
pound,) 

inosic acid, s. 

Chem. : CjsHaNaOe- &** uncrystallizable sub- 
stance found in the mother liquor of the pre- 
paration of creatine from Mesh-juice. It Is 
very soluble in water, the aqueous solution 
having the flavour of broth, hut insoluble in 
alcohol and in ether. The inosates on being 
heated to redness are decomposed, giving off 
the odour of roast meat. The inosates of 
potassium and sodium are very soluble in 
water, but insoluble in alcohol. The inosate 
of copper is insoluble in water, alcohol, and 
acetic acid, but soluble in ammonia. 

in' --i -site, *. [Gr. fr (is\ genit. Iv6s (inot) = 
strength, force ; -ite.] 

Chem. : C 6 H 12 <V2H2O. A non-fermentable 
substance, isomeric with glucose, discovered 
by Scherer in the muscular substance of the 
heart of the ox. It has since been found to exist 
in the lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, and brain, 
and in the urine dining some diseases of the 
kidney. It is obtained from the mother liquor 
of the creatine crystals, by acidulating with 
sulphuric acid, and then gradually adding 
alcohol till a tnrbHity begins to appear. 
Potassic sulphate first separates, and, on add- 
ing more alcohol, inosite in cauliflower-like 
groups of colourless crystals, which on re- 
crystallization assume the form of large 
rhombic prisms of sweet taste. Inosite ef- 
floresces in dry air, giving off its water of 
crystallization, and leaving anhydrous inosite, 
CflH 12 Oft, as a white efflorescent mass. It 
melts at 210% and dissolves in sixteen parts 
of water at 10 5, but is insoluble in absolute 
alcohol and in ether. On evaporating inosite 
nearly to dryness with nitric acid, adding a 
solution of ammoniacal calcic chloride, and 
again evaporating, a beautiful and very cha- 
racteristic rose-colouration is obtained. When 
inosite is dissolved in strong nitric acid, and 
concentrated sulphuric acid added, nitro-ino- 
site separates. This has the composition, 
CgH^ONO.^, which indicates that inosite is 
not an aldehyde sugar, but a hexhydric alcohol 
of the formula CfiH^OH^. Inosite is also 
found in many plants, especially in green 
beans, the shells of peas, in the leav the 
vine, in asparagus, &c. 

in ough, a. & adv. [ENOUGH.] 



p', adv. [Eng. in, and ower == over.] 
Nearer to any object ; close to ; forward. 
(Scotch.) 

In ox- I diz a-ble, a. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. oxidizable (q.v.).J 

Chem. : Not oxidizable ; not capable of 
being united with oxygen to form an oxide. 

' In-pale', o. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. pale, s. 
(4 v.).] Impaled. 

"Reuben Is conceived to bear three ban wave, Judah 
a lyon rampant. Dan a seriwut uowed, Simeon a sword 
tnpalt. the point erected, Ac." Browne : Vulgar Er. 
rOHr, bk. v., ch. X. 

in-par'-clto-a-Me. o. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. pardonable (q. v.).] Unpardonable. 

"They nhulde soore trespasae agaynst hym so y it 

cte. voL 1.. cbTccclxvl. 

to p^r'-ti-bfis. The nsual contracted form 
of the Latin phrase, in partibus infidelium^ 
m countries belonging to unbelievers. 



^[ Bishop in partibus : A bishop consecrated 
to a see formerly existing, but which, owing 
chiefly to the rise of Muhammed.-uiisin, has 
long been lost to the Roman Church. Bih(rj)s 
in partibus date from the Reformation. Catho- 
lic affairs in England were managed by Vicars- 
Apostolic, having titular sees in partibit*, 
from 1623 to the erection of the hierarchy in 
1S50. Besides Vicars- Apostolic, in a non- 
Catholic country, the Vicars of Cardinal- 
bishops, Suffragan-bishops, and Papal Nuncioa 
usually have their sees in partibus injidelium. 

* in' path, *. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. path.] An 

intricate way. (Stanyhurst : Virgil: jneid 
iii. 396.) 

in pa tient (tl as sh), s. [Pref. in- (1), and 
Eng. patient, s.] A patient who receives board 
and lodging as well as medical treatment in a 
hospital or an infirmary. [OUTPATIENT.] 

* in'-pen-n^ t s, [Eng, in, and penny.] Money 

paid by the custom of some manors on aliena- 
tion of tenants, &c. [OUTPENNY.] 

* in place, adv. phr. [Eng. in, &ndplace.] There. 

in poV-se, pjtr. [Lat.] Possibility of being ; 

probability. [!N ESSE.] 

* in prav a-ble, a. [Pref. in- (2); Lat. 

prav(atu$), pa. par. of pravo = to corrupt, and 
Eng. suff. -able.] Incorruptible. (Becon : 
Works, i. 105.) 

in pro pri a per so' -na, phr. [Lat.] In 
one's own person or character. 

Xn'-pAt, *. [Eng. in, and put.] A contribution. 

"Ilka aneto be liable for their am input." Scott : 
Start of Mid-Lothian, ch. xii. 

* in-quar-ta'-tion, s. [Fr., from in- = In, 
and quart = a fourth part. So called because 
there is a fourth part of gold to three-fourths 
of silver.] 

Metatt. ; The same as QUARTATION (q.v.). 

In'-quest, * en-queste, s. [O. Fr. inquest?, 
from Lat. inquisita (res) = (a thing) inquired 
into ; fern. sing, of inquisitus, pa. par. inqitiro 
= to inquire into ; Fr. enquete ; ItaU inchiesta.] 
I. Ord. Lang. : An inquiry ; an investiga- 
tion ; a quest ; a search. (Most frequently 
used in the sense of U (1).) 

"Thi* Is the laborious and vexatious inquttt that the 
soul must make after Bcieuce." South : Vermont, voL 
i., wr. 6. 

EL Law : 

1. A judicial inquiry before a Jury 

2. The jury itself. 

"Al we of ihe inquest together went vp Into the aayd 
tower, where we found tbeoody of the aayd Hun baiig. 
iiig vpou a staple of irou." Ball ; Henry Vlll. (au. 8) 

1[ (1) Coroner's inquest ; A judicial inquiry 
before a coroner and a jury into the circum- 
stances and causes of the deaths of such as 
die suddenly or from violence, or in a prison. 
[CORONER.] 

(2) Inquest or Inquisition of Office : An in- 
quiry made, with the assistance of a jury, by 
the sovereign's officer, his sheriff, coroner, or 
escheator, virtute officii or by writ to them 
sent for that purpose, or by commissioners 
specially appointed, into any matter entitling 
the sovereign to the possession of lands or 
tenements, goods or chattels. 

* in-qul'-et, v.t. [Lat. inquieto, from in- = 
not, and quies (genit. quiet is) = quiet ; Fr. 
inquieter ; Sp. & Port, inquietar.] To dis- 
quiet ; to disturb ; to trouble. 

" Durynge the moat part of his relgue he ( Hen. VII.] 
was lyttle or nothyug inrfuieted," Sir T. Elyot: The 
Qovemour, bk. i., ch. xxlv. 

* in-qiu et a' tion, s. [Lat. inguiettttlo, from 
inquieto = to disturb : in-= not, and quies 
(genit quietis) quiet.] Disturbance, trouble. 

The great trouble and inquiftntion of the lay sub- 
tM."~W'irb,trton : Alliance tutiewn CAurcA 4 State, 
. 1L (Notes.) 

In-qnT-e-tude, *. [Fr, from Lat. inquietudo, 
from in- not, and qitietudo = quiet ; Sp. i 
quietud ; Ital. inquietudiiie.] Disturbed state ; 
want of quiet or peace ; restlessness, uneasi- 
ness, disquietude. 

" And stirrings of inquietude, when they 
By tendency of nature needs must fall." 

Wordtworth : Michnet. 

* in'-qui-line, *. [Lat. inquilinus = a tenant, 
a lodger ; one who lives in a habitation not 
his own.] 

Ent'vn. : An insect living in an abode pro- 
perly belonging to another, as certain insects 



iectM." 
bk. 1L 



in galls made by the true gall-insects. (A* 
nandaU.) 

* in -qui-nate, v.t. [Lat. inqxinatus, pa, par. 
of inqiuno, from in- (intend.), and*ctmio = 
to void excrement; O. Fr. inquiner; Sp. in- 
quinar.] To pollute, to corrupt. 

"It [the air] la ] particularly inguinattd, infected.- 
Evelyn : Fumifivjium, pt. vL 

* In-qul-na'-tion, . [Lat. inquinatio, from 
inquinatus, pa. par. of inquino.} The act o( 
polluting or corrupting ; the state of being 
polluted or corrupted ; pollution, corruption. 

"These inwards be the very pollution and inquin* 
tion at the ttesh." P. Holland : Plutarch, p. 28*. 

* in quiV a blo, a. [Eng. inqttir(e); -able.] 
That may o'r can be Inquired into ; subject or 
liable to inquisition or inquiry. 

" There may be many more things inqiiirable by you 
throughout all the former parts- ilaconi The Judi- 
cial Charge, Ac. 

* in-qmr'-ance, . [Eng. inquire); -ance.} 

Inquiry. 

in -quire', enquire', * en-quere, in- 
quere, v.i. &, t. [Lat. inquire = to seek or 
examine into : in- = in, into, and qucero = to 
aeek ; Frtenquerir; Sp. inquirir.] 

A. Intransitive : 

1. To ask questions ; to seek for informa- 
tion or truth by asking questions. 

" Of faerie lond yet if be more inquire . . 
He may it find." Spenier ; ?. ., II. (Introd.) 

2. To seek for truth by argument or discus- 
siou of questions. 

3. To make or hold a judicial inquiry ; to 
investigate or examine into the causes of any- 
thing ; followed by into : as, A coroner in- 
quires into the cause of a death. 

IT Inquire is followed by of before the per- 
son asked or questioned ; by about, after, con- 
cerning, for, into, or of before the subject of 
inquiry. After or for is used when a place or 
person is sought for ; into when search Is made 
for particular knowledge or information. 

B. Transitive : 

1. To ask about, to seek for information con- 
cerning : as, To inquire one's way or road. 

2. To examine into ; to seek to know. 

"And all obey aiid few inquire hU will." 

Byron : Cortair, L 1 

* 3. To ask, to beg. (Followed by of.) 

" But, as I said. He will be inquired of by them to do 
It for them. " Banyan : Ptigrim't Progrtt*, pL U. 

* 4. To call, to name. 

" Now CHiitiuni. whicb Kent we commonly inquire," 
p0njr; P. V-. II- x. 12. 

In-qnir-en'-do, . [Lat. gerund of inquire 
= to seek into, to inquire.] 

Law: An authority given in general to some 
person or persons, to inquire into something 
for the benefit of the Crown. 

* in-quir'-ent, a. [Lat. inquirens, pr. par. of 
inquiro= to seek into, to inquire (q.v.).} 
Making inquiry ; inquiring. 

" E'en Delia's eye, 
As in a garden, roves, of hues alone 
Ittyuirent, curious." Shenttone: (Economy, 1L 

In-quir'-iMP, . [Eng. inquire); -er.] One 
who inquires, examines, or seeks for informa- 
tion. 

" He aiisweretli all sincere inquirer! of truth, as he 
did Saint Thomas." Mvuntayut: Devoute Xttnyt, pt 
I, tr. viii. S 1. 

In-quir'-Ing, pr. par., a., & i. [INQUIRE.] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adj. : Inclined or given to inquiry or 
investigation ; inquisitive : as, He is of a very 
inquiring disposition. 

C. As subst. : The act of making inquiry ; 
inquiry. 

in quir'-ing-ly, adv. [Eng. inquiring; -ly t ] 
In an inquiring manner ; by way of inquiry. 

* Xn-quir'-ist, . [Eng. inquire); -ist.] One 
who seeks information ; an inquirer (q.v.). 
(Richardson: Clarissa, iv. 321.) 



'-^,*. [Eng. inquire); -y.} 

1. The act of inquiring, examining, or in- 
vestigating ; interrogation. 

" He oould no path n >r tract of foot descry, 
No by inquiry leiirne." Spentvr: f. U.-. VI. iv. 3*. 

2. The act of searching or seeking for t ruth, 
information, or knowledge ; examination or 
investigation of principles by questions aod 
discussion ; investigation. 

" Where bold Inquiry, diving out of sight, 
Brings many a precioua pearl of truth to light.* 
Ctmrper : 



boil, bo^; pout, jo^rl; oat, 90!!, chorus, ohin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, ^cnophon, exist, ph - C 
-clan, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -flon, -sion = zliun. cious t tioua, -sloma = shus. -ble, -die, &c. - bel, del. 



2680 



inquisible inrunning 



3. A judicial investigation into a matter. 
^ (1) Writ of inquiry : (See extract). 

"Where damages, properly so called, lire to be re- 
covered. ft jury must lie called in to amou them 
nnl"BS the MfatuUnt, to nave chargeH, will confess the 
whole damages laid in the declaration, otherwise the 
entry of the Incitement IB, 'that tlie plaintiff ought to 
recover hi damages (ilideflniU'lyl. but because the 
court know not what diuuagea the snul jilaintdr lias 
sustained, therefore the sheriff Is cotiimnuded that l>y 
the onths of twelve honest and lawful men he inquire 
Into the Mild damages, and return such inquisition 
into court.' This in-ocew la calletl a writ of inquiry: 
li\ the execution of which the nheriff Bitea* Judge, and 
trie* by n ]nry, imbjrct to nearly the name law and 

Ellticna as the trinl by jury at niti prim, what 
a^'ea the pUIatln* has really attained; and when 
rverrlic't is (rfven, which ifiustMnu jjpntAamaffeB 
the sht-riir returns the inquisition, which is cntfi.-il 
ujH.il the roll in manner nf a pnntfi ; and thereupon it 
If considered that the plaintiff do recover the exact, 
mm of the damage* so assessed. In like manner, when 
A demurrer is detcrintniu-d for the plaintiff up 
action wherein damans are recovered, the Judg 
U also Incomplete, wlthont the aid of a writ of inq 
When a writ of injunction or mandamus has 
claimed, this also will be awarded by the Judgment." 
Kactofont: Comment., bk. lii.. oh. 14. 

(2) Court of Inqu iry : 

IMP : (See Court of Enquiry, under COURT]. 

Xn-QuIf'-I ble, a, [Lat. inquis(itus\ pa. 
par. of i&qiiiro ; Eng. a<lj. suff. -HU.] Admit- 
ting of or liable to inquiry. 

* In ~qui? fee, v.t. [Lat. inquisitvs, pa. par. of 
inqitiro to Inquire (q.v.).] To inquire into. 
(North : Examen> 621.) 

fn qnl 9! tlon, s. [From Lat. inquisUio = 
a seeking or searching for, from inquisitus, pa. 
ar. of inquire = to seek after; Fr. inquisition ; 
ov. tnqitisicio; Sp. inquisition; Port, inqui- 
Ital. inquisiziane.] 



par. 
Pro 



1 Ord. TMng. : Inquiry, quest, search. 

"When he maketb inqnUition for blood," Ptalm 
1 1 12. 

IL Technically: 

1. Ch. Hist. : A tribunal for searching out. 
Inquiring into, and condemning offences against 
the Canon Law, especially heresy, and taking 
means to have the offenders punished by the 
Civil Power. Inquisitors and the Inquisition 
did not come in together; the former prucwk'd 
the latter. [INQUISITOR.] It is sometimes 
erroneously said that St. Dominic suggested 
to Innocent III. the institution of such a tri- 
bunal, and was by him appointed the first 
inquisitor. In reality it was resolved on at a 
synod held at Toulouse, in 1229, under Gregory 
IX., after the Alhigeusian crusade, and was 
formally established by him in 1233, Innocent 
havingdied in 1216, and Dominic in 1221. The 
synod ordered that in every parish a priest 
and several respectable laymen should be ap- 
pointed to searr-h for heretics and bring them 
before the bishops. Ere long the bishops 
handed over the invidious task to the Domini- 
can order. Gregory appointed none but Do- 
minicans, Innocent III. occasionally Francis- 
Cans, and Clement III. sent Into Portugal a 
prior of the order of Minims (q.v.). The tri- 
bunal was called the Holy Office, or the Holy 
Inquisition. Its judges being more accus- 
tomed to ecclesiastical than to genuinely legal 
procedure, encouraged Informers, concealing 
their names from the person accused, w)n> 
was urged to make a complete confession. 
Torture was also used to extract evidence. It 
wag established in France in consequence of 
the decrees of the Synod of Toulouse. Philip 
the Fair converted its tribunals into State 
Courts, by means of which he crashed the 
Templars. In 1588 the Grand Inquisitor, 
Louis de Rochelle, was convicted of Calvinism, 
ami burnt. The power of these courts was 
otiii after transferred to the Parliament, and 
finally, in 1560, to the bishops. 

Nowhere in the world did the Inquisition 
find a more congenial soil than in Spain. There 
were in that country multitudes of Mahoin- 
medans and Jews who, to shelter themselves 
from persecution, professed to be Christians, 
while all the time not merely practising their 
former religious observances in secret, but 
actually making proselytes to their respective 
faiths. In 1481 the Inquisition was established 
at Seville, by Ferdinand and Is.ibelln, two 
Dominicans being the first judges. Torque- 
mada, another Dominican, who became Grand 
Inquisitor in 1483, and held office for fifte.-n 
years, extended it to various other towns. It 
was popular with the lower orders and the 
clergy, but was hated witli a deadly hatred by 
the nobles and the middle classes. It was in- 
troduced into Peru and Mexico in 15V 1. Ll<>- 
rente, the historian of the Inquisition, was 
its secretary at Madrid from 1V90 to 1792. 
Napoleon I. suppressed it on December 4, 



1808, and it was abolished on February 12, 
1813, by the Cortes. Ferdinand VII. having 
re-mtaDlished it in 1814, the Cortes in 1820 
abolished it again. [AUTO DE FE.] In U.2G il 
\v,is set up in Portugal ; in 1810 its Acts were 
burnt at Goa. Th<- Congregation of the Car- 
dinals of tlie Holy Inquisition was instituted 
by Pope Paul III., in 1542, and remodelled by 
SixtusV. about forty yearsLtter. It is composed 
of twelve cardinals, of a cnrimiissjiry, who acts 
as .judge, of a counselor or assessor, of con- 
snltcrs, an advocate, Ac., and is under the 
immediate presidency of the Pope. The open- 
ing of the dungeons of the Inquisition at Rome, 
in 1348, by the Roman Triumvirs, created a 
deep feeling throughout Europe against the 
Inquisition and the Pajwcy. The attempted 
introduction of the Inquisition into the United 
Provinces caused the Joss of that fertile terri- 
tory to Spain. No inquisitor, under that name, 
seems to have been ever commissioned to 
England ; and when, in the thirteenth century, 
Conrad of Marburg attempted to establish 
the "Holy Office" in Germany, he was assas- 
sinated, and the Inquisition never obtained a 
firm footing iu that country. 
2. Law: 

(1) A judicial inquiry, investigation, or ex- 
amination ; an inquest. 

(2) The verdict of a petty jury under a Writ 
of Inquiry (q.v.) ; also where the court requires 
a particular fact certified, or requires the 
sheriff to do certain acts in furtherance of its 
judgment. 

T Inquisition of office : (See extract). 

" An intfuuitinn of office is the act of a lmy sum- 
moned by the proper officer to imiuire of matters 
TvUtiiig to the crown, upon evidence laid before them, 
fiucli iiuiuUitiuiis* ujav In- afterward! traversed and 
examined ; as particularly the coroner'* inquisition of 
the death of a man, wlieu it Duds anyone gttilty t 
homicide, (or In such wi tbeotlender su ureaeiibeu 
mutt be Mnulgned upon thin inquisition, and may dis- 
pute the truth of It.* BtacXtton* : Comment., bk. iv., 
ch 23. 

* In-qni-ft-tlon, v.t. [INQUISITION, .] To 

. make inquisition or inquiry into or concerning. 

* in-qui srf'-tion-al, a. [Eng. inquisition ; 
-at.} 

1. Relating or pertaining to Inquisition or 
Inquiry; making inquiry. 

"That tHyuitittnnat spirit with which they were 
possessed." Wai-burton : t'recthinktrt, (Dedlc.) 

2. Of or pertaining to the Inquisition (q.v.). 

* In qui-sr-tion ar-& a. [Eng. inquisition; 

-ary.] Inquisitional. 

in quif-i : tive, * ln-quts-1 ti, a. & s. 

Fr. inifuisitif, from Lat. inquisitivus = seek- 
ing into, from inquuUus t pa. par. of inquire 
= to seek into, to inquire (q.v.).J 

A. As adj. : Addicted or given to inquiry 
or to seeking information by asking questions, 
discussion, or investigation ; busy iu research ; 
prying, curious. 

" And ever as they met with any, they would flocke 
about them, and bee very inquintt*.*P. Sottwd : 
Lieiut, p. 430. 

* B. As subst. : An inquisitive, curious, or 
prying person; one busy or curioua in re- 
search. 

5[ For the difference between inquisitive and 
curious, see CURIOUS. 

ln-qui'-jf-tgfve-ljf t adv. [Eng. inquisitive 
-ly.] In an inquisitive manner ; with curiosity 
or inquisitiveness. 

"If at any time I seeme to study you more in^.i^i- 
lively, ft U (or no other end but to know how to pre- 
sent you to God Iu my prayers." Donne : Letter*, 
p. M9. 

in qul^'-i-tlve-ness, 9. [Eng. inquisitive; 
ness.] The quality or state of being inquisi- 
tive ; curiosity ; a disposition to seek for in- 
formation ; anxiety in research. 

"Tn this Inferiour element man's infuMttveneti 
cannot be exorbitant." Mountague : Oeooufe Euaye t 
pt il.. tr. L, 5 2- 

in quis 1 tor, " in-quis-1-tour, *. 

[Lat.1* 

* I. Ordinary Language: 

1. One who searches for a suspected person ; 
a tracker, a detective. 

*' To redeeme himself with a peece of money out of 
the inq>tisttour'i hands."/*, mattnd : Suetonius, p. 1. 

2. One who examines judicially. 

"Mluoe, the strict in-jnisi'er appears." 

Dryden : Virgil ; .Eneid vL M2. 

3. An inquisitive person, (Feltham: Re- 
solves.) 

IL Ch. Hist. : A person appointed to search 



out latent heresy. The name flrsc appears in- 
the Tlieodosian code, A.D. 382; their search 
being chiefly directed against the Manichteans. 
During the crusade against the Ali>igenscs, 
early in the thirteenth century, Innomut III. 
had sent out legates to searclr out and punish 
these separatists. These wore also called in- 
quisitors. Dominic was on* of them, wlit-noe 
arose the opinion that he was the first high 
functionary of the tribunal called the Inqui- 
sition. Specif., a functionary of the ecclesias- 
tical tribunal called the floly Office or the In- 
quisition (q.v.). 

t Xn-qujf9-f-t6r'-l-al,a. [Lat. inqiiisitar, ge- 
nit. itiquisitori(s), onif Eng., ic. sulf. -ui.J 

1. After the manner of an inquisitor ; as is 
done by the agents rf tlie "Holy uin* <." 

2. Prying, searcliAig ; minutely questioning . 
with unpleasant pertinacity. 

"He turned ami met the Inquititorial tone 
* My name Is IMa.'" Byron : Lani, 1. 33. 



l-lj, adv. [Eng. inquM- 
toriai ; -ly.] Ii/an inquisitorial manner. 

* Xn-qnltj-l-toy'-ji-OUS, a. [Eng. inquisitor; 
-iotw.J Inquiiitorial, inquisitive. 

"Under whose ini/i'ititorial and tynuiuioal dim- 
cery." MUton ; Keasun <tf ChurtA Government. 



, *. [Eng. inquisitor : -s.) 
An inquisitive or ' curious woman. (SI iss 
Bronte : VUUttt, ch. xxvi.) 

* fa-qnij-i-tiir'-i-ent, o. [Formed aa if 
from a Lit. * iAqitisiturto, from inguisitits, pa. 
par. of tnguiruj Given to inquisition ; inqui- 
sitorial. 

"80 lll-favoiuedly Imitated by <rar tnquitit orient 
blshopa." Miito-t : Areopayittca. 

* in-r*o'-I uate, v.t. [Fr. inracmer, from 
in- as in, and racine = a root, from Lat. *nZi- 
cina, diuiin. of r'.t<!ix (genit, radicis) = a root.l 
To implant, to enroot. 

* in-rage' f v.t. [ESRAGE.] 

* *n-rail' v * la-ratf, v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and 
Eng. raU (q.v.).J To rail in; to inclose; to 
fence In. (Lit. A Jig.) 

"It may be reformed and tnraUed again, by that 
general authority hereunto each particular u sub- 
ject." Hooker ; cde. Polity, bk. iv., i 13. 

* fa -r&p'-ture, v.t. [ENRAPTURE.] 

In re, phr. [Let.] In the matter or case oC 
V f.(. [ENREGISTER.] 

in rem, phr. [Lat.] 

Law: Relating to a thing. Civil actions 
are divided into actions in rem and actions in 
personam. A judgment t?t rent is one pro- 
nounced on the status of some particular mat- 
ter : as an action for the condemnation nf a 
ship in the Court of Admiralty, a suit for nul- 
lity of marriage, Ac. (Wkarton,) 

* fa-rich', v.t. [ENRICH.] 

* In right -ed (gh silent), a. [Pref. in- (IN 

and Eug. right; -ed.] Entitled by right. 

"We become what he Is, are inrigkted to all he 
hath, and endowed with all his goods. Leighton : Ten 
Sermon*, ser. v. 

in road, *in'-rode, s. [Pref. in- (l), and 

Eng. road = raid, from A.8. rckd = a riding.J 
L A hostile incursion or entrance into a 
country; a sudden and desultory invasion; 
an incursion, 

" Many hot InroatU 

They make In Italy. 7 8ha*eij>. : Ant. 4 Cltop.. i. 4. 
2. An attack. 

in road', ''J [INROAD, .] To make inroads 
into ; to attack, to invade. 

" The Saracens . . . conquered Spain, tnrva4t'f Aqut- 
talne." fWJ0i'.- OVwc* Bittory. 

in -road-er, * in'-rod-er, s. [Eng. in- 
ruad, s. ; -er.\ An invader. (FiUter; Worthies, 
ch. .\x iv.) 

in-roll' t v.t. [ENROLL.] 
in-rol'-mcnt, s. [ENROLMENT.] 

in'-rtin-ning. s. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. 

running (q.v.)Tj 

1. The act of running in. 

2. The place or point where a stream falls 
Into another, or into the sea. 

" At the inrunning of a little breok." 

Tennyton: Elnine l.lTft. 



fite, fat, f&rc, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, p*t,, 
or. wore, wplf, work, who, *on; mute, ctib, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, w -e; y=a; qu-kw. 



Inrush inscription 



in-rush', v.i. [Pref. tnr(l), and Eng. rush 
(q.v.).] To break in upon ; to rush in. 

" The sea . . . inru>.heth u|xm a little region called 
Kcrwet," A Holland: C'amOen, u. ftH. 

In'- rush, *. [INRUSH, v.] An Irruption. 
(G. SliM: Daniel Deronda, ch, xxxviii.) 

In-sab-ba-ta'-ti, * K [Mod. Lat = marked 
on thfir sabots : in = on, and Fr. sabot = a 
wooden shoe. (See dcf.)j 

Eccletio?. A Ch. lii^t. : A name sometimes 
given to the Waldensis in the twelfth century 
because some of them put the sign of the crows 
on their wooden shoes. Called also SABBATATI 
(q.v.X (Mosheim: Ch. Uiat. t cent. xii. pt il., 
-h. v.,ll.) 

y, s. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
j Want of safety ; insecurity. 

In-sal-i-va'-tion, s. [5>., from in- (l), 
ja/i'ra, and suff. -(ion-.] 

Phys. : The mingling of saliva with the food 
during the process of eating. 

* In-sa-lu'-brf-oiis, a. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. salubrious (q.v.); Lat. insalubcr.] Not 
salubrious, not healthy, not wnolesome, un- 
healthy. 

" Court* that intalubriout aoQ to peace." 

Young: Sight Thought!, viil 1,030. 

* In-sa-lu'-bri-ttf, s. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
salubrity (q.v.); Lat. insalttbritas.] Want of 
salubrity ; unhealthiness, unwholesomeness. 

" To Investigate the wholesomeneao or intalubrity of 
aliments." Boy!*/ Work*, U. ill. 

.-aal'-n-tar- 

salutary (q.v.).] 

1. Not salutary ; not favourable to health ; 
unwholesome. 

2. Not tending to safety ; productive of 
evil. 

ian-a-ttfr-I-ty, s. [Ens. insanable; 
-ity.] The quality or state of being insanable 
or incurable. 

* in-san'-a-ble, a. [Lat. insanabilis, from 
in- = not, and sanua = whole, sound.] In- 
curable, irremediable. 

*In-san'-a-ble-ness, . [Eng. insanable; 
-ness.] The state or condition of being insan- 
able ; incurableness, insa liability. 

*In-san'-a-bl^, adv. [Eng. insanao(le) ; -ly.] 
In an insanable manner; 90 as to be incurable. 

in sane', a. [Lat. insanvs, from in- = not, 
and san us whole, sound, sane ; Sp. & Ital. 
insano.] 

1. Not sane ; unsound in mind or Intellect ; 
deranged in mind ; mad, lunatic. 

" Soon after Dryden'a death she became intone.' 
Malone: Life of Drydim. 

2. Used byorappropriatedtoinsaneperaons: 
as, an insane hospital. 

3. Making insaneor made; causing insanity. 
(INSANE- BOOT.] 

4. Exceedingly rash or foolish : as, an in- 
$ane action. 

* insane-root, s. 

Bot. : The Hemlock, Conium maculatum. 

" Or have we eaten on tne insane-root 
That take* tne reason prisoner." 

Shakesp. : Macbeth, 11. 8. 

fn-sanc ly, adv. [Eng. insane; -ly.] In an 
insane manner ; like one insane ; madly, 

rashly, foolishly. 

* in-sa'-nie, s. [O. Fr., from Lat. insania.} 
Madness, insanity. 

" After a little insanlf they fled tag and rag." 
H'. liulme: Fall & Evil Succetse of Rebellion. 

In -sane '-ness, s. [Eng. insane ; -ness.] The 
quality or state of being insane ; insanity. 

In san'-I ate, v.t. [Lat. in- = not ; sanvs 
(genit. sani) = whole, and Eng. suff. -ate.] To 
make unsound or distempered. 

"Does not the distemper of the body intaniate 
the soul? '-Felthnr*: Retolvet. 

t In-san'-I-tar-jf, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
sanitary (q.v.).] Prejudicial to health. 

" He considered the house to be In an insanitary 
condition, 'datty Telegraph. Aug. 22, 1884. 

In-S&n'-I-tJf, *. [Eng. insan(e) ; -ity; Fr. in- 
snnite, from Lat. intnnitas (genit. inaanitatis) 
unsoundness, unhealthiness, disease.] 

1. Path. : Unsoundness of mind, disorder of 
the intellect. In this disease the encephalic 



nervous textures are primarily involved. The 
brain being the material instrument by which 
the mind manifests itself, it is by restoring 
the perverted functions of the braiu itself 
that a lure is to be looked for, s in other 
diseased parts of the body, by appropriate 
treatment :>f its structures. There are six 
varieties of insanity : mania, acuteand chronic; 
melancholia; dementia; paralysis of the in- 
sane ; idiotcy ; and imbecility. The "non- 
restraint" system is now admitted to be of the 
greatest value, but legislation is still required 
as to granting of certificates, the conduct of 
private isyltnns, and other points connected 
with the care of the insane. 

2. Treatment: Great attention has been paid 
to the treatment of insanity in the- United 
States, state asylums being established, in 
which all citizens, rich and poor alike, have 
privilege of treatment. The members of the 
Society of Friends, in Pennsylvania, were the 
first to provide asylums for the insane, a 
philanthropic movement in which they have 
been widely followed, until our institutions are 
now unsurpassed in condition and character. 
At Kankakce, Illinois, there is an "insane 
town," composed of twenty houses laid out on 
each side of a street, with a central dining 
room for the patients, a central ward for the 
stck, Ac. In Grciit Britain the asylums for the 
insano cannot be surpassed in management 
and accommodation, and the two countries 
named probably lead the world in this particu- 
lar, though the other countries of Europe give 
careful heed to this humane duty. [LUNACY.] 

* fn-sap'-or-^, a. Lat. in- = not ; sapor = 
taste, and Eng. idj. suff. ~y.] Having no 
taste ; tasteless, insipid. 

in-sa-ti-a-bfl'-{-tjr (ti as Sbl), . [Lat in- 

8atiabilitas t from intatiabilis = insatiable 
(q.v.) ; Fr. insatiabiliU : Sp. insaciabilidad ; 
Ital. insaziabilita.} Hie quality or state of 
being insatiable; insatiableness., 

Jn-sa'-ti-a-ble (ti as shl\ * In-sa-ci a- 
ble, a. Ll-'r. insatiable^ from Lat. insatiabilis, 
from in- = not, and wtio = to satiate, to 
satisfy ; Sp. insaciable; Ital. insmiabile.] Not 
satiable ; that cannot be satisfied or appeased ; 
greedy beyond measure. 

"That intatiable thirst men {had of knowing what 
Uod thought to conceal from them." StUlingjlect : 
Sermons, vol. iii., tur. xii. 

In-sa'-ti-a bio ness (ti as sfal), s. [Eng. 
insatiable'; -ness.] The quality or state of 
being insatiable ; greediness that cannot be 
satisfied or appeased. 

"There being no thorow or real satisfaction, but a 
kind of iniiti<iblfin>sit l-elonging to this condition." 
Stut/tetbury ; Inquiry Concerning Virtue, bk. it, pt il. 

in : sa-ti a bly (ti as shl), adv. [Eng. insa- 
tiab(le) ; -ly.] In an insatiable manner or de- 
gree ; so ah not to be satisfied or appeased. 

" He WM intatiably greedy of praise." Jfacaulay : 
BUt. Kng., ch. xx. 

t in-sa'-ti-ate (ti as sbl), a. [Lat. insatiatits, 
from in- = hot, and satiatus, pa. par. of satio 
=. to satisfy.] Not to be satisfied or appeased ; 
insatiable. 

" His own intattate reservoir to fill." 

Thornton : Liberty, V. 451. 

in sa'-ti ate ly (ti as sfii), ado. [Eng. 

insatiate; -ly.] In an insatiate manner; in- 
satiably. 

" For we on that intatiately did feed." 

brnytvn : Legend of Pierce Gavttton. 

* In-sa' ti -ate ness (ti as shl), a. [En?. 
insatiate ; -ness. ] The .Duality or state of being 
insatiate or insatiable. 

* in-sa-ti'-e-t& s. [Pref. in- (2% and Eng. 

satiety (q.v.).] Insatiableness. 

* In-sat- Is -f&o'-tlon, . [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. satisfaction (q.v.).] Want of satisfaction 
or of that which satisties ; dissatisfaction, dis- 
content. 

"The iniatigfactton of those which quarrel with all 
things, ut dispute of matters." Browne : Vulgar 
Krrourt, bk. 1.. ch. v. 

* Xn-sat'-n-ra-ble, a. [Pref. in- (2), and 

Eng. satitrable (q.v.).] Not saturable ; inca- 
pable of being filled or glutted* 

Xn'-sci-enee (sci as si), s. [Fr., from Lat. 
inacientia, from in- ~ not, and scientia = 
knowledge ; aciens, pr. par. of scio = to know.] 
Want of Knowledge or skill ; ignorance. 

41 In'-scl -ent (set as si) (IX a. [Lat. Insciem, 
from in- = not, and sciens = knowing.] Igno- 
rant, foolish, unskilful. 



* in sci ent (sci as si) (2), a. [Lat. im- 

(intens.), and wiens = knowing.] Endowed 
with knowledge or skill ; inU-Uigeut 

' in sconce, v.t. [ENSCONCE.] 

* tn-SCrib'-a-ble, a. i"En^ inserit>(e) ; -abU.} 
That may or can be inscribed ; inst-riptilile. 

' in scrib' a-blo-ness, r [Ens. 1 > wri bable ; 
ness.l The quality or state of being inscribable 
or inscriptible. 

in-scribe\ v.t. [Lat, fnseH&o, from in- in 
on, and scribo = to write ; 8p. tnssribir; Ital 
inscribere.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

L To write down ; to engrave ; to mark at 
set down to be read ; to imprint. 

" In Ml you writ to Rome. IT sl 
To foreign princes. Ego and Rex ineu* 
Was still iiitcrUed." Shake*?-' B r VIIL, T. & 

2. To engrave ; to mark with writing or 
letters. (Dryden: Annus Miribilis, xlix.) 

3. To assign, fco address, to ledlcate. to 
commend or offer to a patron by a short 

address. 

" One ode, which pleased me In the reading, I haw 
attempted to tmunlate in Pindarick vente: tia that 
which is inscribed to the preBtmt Ear! of Rochester." 
Drydcn : Pref. to the Second Alitcellntiy. 

* 4. To imprint deeply ; to impress : <ia, To 
inscribe anything on the mind. 

II. Geom.: To draw or delineate In or 
within, as chords or angles within a circle. 
[INSCRIBED.] 

" A sphere can be inscribed In any regular polyhe- 
dron. A sphere can also be intcrihcd m any triangular 
pyramid," DaviesA Peck: Mafhemat. Dictionary. 

in-scribed', pa. par. A a. [INSCRIBE.) 

A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective: 

1. Off. Lang. ; Engraved, written, 1m- 
printed. 

2. Geom. : A straight line is said to be in- 
scribed in a circle when its two extremities 
lie in the circumference of the circle. An 
angle is inscribed in a circle when it vertex 
lies In the circumference, and when its sides 
form chords of the circle. A polygon is in- 
scribed iu a circle when all of the vertices of 
its angles lie In the circumference. In like 
manner, we say that a line, angle, or polygon, 
is inscribed in an ellipse or other plane curve. 
A polyhedron is inscribed in a sphere or other 
curved surface, when its vertices are all con- 
tained in the surface. A circle is inscribed in 
a triangle or other polygon, when it is tangent 
to every side of the polygon. A sphere is in- 
scribed in a polyhedron when it is tangent to 
every face of the polyhedron. A circle can 
always be inscribed in any triangle. A circle 
can always be inscribed in a quadrilateral, 
when the sum of two opposite sides is equal to 
the sum of the other two sides. 

in-scrib'-er, s. [Eng. inscrib(e); ~er.} One 
who inscribes. 

fn-scrip'-tl-ble, a. [Lat. inscriptm, pa. par. 
of inscribo = to inscribe (q.v.); Eng. -able.] 
Capable of being inscribed. 

"A polygon Is said to be intcriptibfe when it can t* 
Inscribed in a circle, or when the circumference of a 
circle cau be passed through all it* vertices. All regu- 
lar polygons are iittcrtptible. A quadrilateral is in. 
tcriptible when the sum of any two opposite angles la 
equal to ISO". A polyhedron is intrriptible wl>en the 
surface of a sphere oan be passed through till of its 
vertices." DavietA Peek: Mathematical Dictionary. 

in -scrip' -tion, s. [Fr., from Lat inscrip- 

tionem, accus. of inscriptio= an inscription, 
from inscriptus, pa. par. of inscribo sa to in- 
scribe (q.v.) ; Sp. inscription ; Ital. i/wcrt- 
zione-\ 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. The Art of inscribing. 

2. That which is inscribed ; any record of 
public or private occurrences, of laws, decrees, 
&c., engraved or inscribed on stone, metal, or 
other hard surface, and exposed for public in- 
spection. 

" When Qrotefend attempted to decipher them i Uie 
cuneiform characters t, he had first to prove that theae 
scrolls were really in*cription*."ii&x, ilttller: Hcienot 
of Language (1871), 11. 4. 

3. The act of inscribing or dedicating to a 
patron ; dedication. 

4. The words in which a book is inscribed 
or dedicated to a person ; a dedication. 

IL Technically: 

*1. Law: (See extract). 

" An obligation made In writing, whereby the M' 



bo"il, bo*^; poiit, jo^rl; oat; 90!!, chorus, 9hin, bench; go, gem: chin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ing. 
-dan, tion = shan. -tion. -sion=shun; -tion, -sion - g*fi" t .ous, sious. -clous = shus. -ble, -Uie, &<-.. - bei, aL 



inscriptive insecure 



cmer binds himself to nndergo the same pun I ah merit, 
li l>e shall not prove the crime which he object* to the 



rty accused. In hi* accusatory libel, at the defendant 
iniself ought to suffer. it the " 

Ay iff e: Panryon. 



, 
same be proved," 



2. Numis. : The name given to words placed 
ID the middle of the reverse side of some coins 
and medals, the words running round the rira 
or i 'laced on either side of the figure being 
termed the legend (q.v.> 

3. The titular line, or lines, of an illustration. 

In-3crip'-tiVe, a. [Lat. inscriptvs, pa. par. 
of i nscrioo = to inscribe (q.v.) ; Eng. surf. -ive.] 
Bearing an inscription ; of the nature of an 
inscription ; inscribed. 

" Around the margin of the plat* . . . 
Wiuds au intcriutie legenl." 

Wordtunrrth . A'xcuriton, bit. rL 

* bi scroll', v.t. [Tref. in- (1) ; Eng. scroll 
(q.v.).] To inscribe upon a scroll 

" Had yon been a wise M bold . . . 

Yonr answer hat! not beet. intcroUed." 

Shaketp. : Merchant of Venice, ii. 7. 

In scrut a-bfl 1 ty, v in scrut a-bil 1- 
tle f *. [Eng. inscrutable; -ity,} The quality 
or state of being inscrutable. 

"They arc God's own intcrutabUUU r Mountaffue: 
Devoute Euaj/et. pt. It. tr. L. f 3. 

fa* scruf -a-ble, a. [Fr., from Lat. intcrut- 

abilia, from in- = not, and scriitor = to scruti- 
nise (q.v.); 8p. inscrutable ; Ital. inscrutabile.] 

1. Incapable of being seaiched into and un- 
derstood by inquiry anc study. 

"To discover that whlct the Scr.ptun telleti me is 
Inscrutable.' Bacon . Adv. of Learn., bk. L 

2. Incapable of being penetrated or under- 
stood by human reason ; that cannot be satis- 
factorily accc unted foi , explained, 01 answered. 

" Ai If their true cansei were altogether incruta&le, 
and not to be found out' WWdn*. That the Earth 
m-ty be a Planet. 

In scrut a ble-ness, . [Er.g. intcrutablt; 

-He--*.] Inscrutability. 

In scrut -a-bly, adv. [Er.-g. inscratabtfe) ; 
-ly.} In an inscrutable n.ai.ner; so as not to 
be discovered, penetrated, or explained. 

In sculp , v.t. [Lat. intcuipo, from in- = in, 
on, and eu/po = to cut, to engrave.] To cut, 
to carve, to enjrrave, to inscril*. 

" A colii, that bean the figure ot an angel 
Stamped tu guiU ; but that r iiwuip d upon." 

Shakeip. : Merchant of Venice, ii. 7. 

* In sculp'- tlon, s [Lat. insculj>tus, ]*. par. of 

insculi'to = to cut or engrave.} An inscription. 

"A flattering, false intculption 01. a, tomb," 

Tourneur .' Revenger i Tragedy^ i. 

*bi seulp'-ture, s. [Pref. ir^ (i), and Eng. 
sculpture (q.v.).] An engraving, an inscrip- 
ti"ii, sculpture. 

"When pretioui gems anc rich intculpturet were 
added." Ifrovne: Vulgar Krrourt, bk. iv., eh. IT. 

In-sculp'-tnre, v.t. [INSCULPTURE, *.J To 
engrave, to carve, to inscribe. 

" fntculptvred round. the horroun whict betel 
The house of Laius. Glover : Atlutnaid, bk. Til 

* in sea', v.l. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. a.} To 

su: round by the sea. 

" Horse and foot inseu'd toother there." 

Chapman : Burner ; Iliad xi. 

*In-seal',t).'. [Pref. in-(l),andEng.s^(q.v.).j 
To impress or mark with a seal ; to impress. 
** Foi euery thing he said there 
Seemed a* tt insetiled were 
Oi approued. for very trew." Chaitcer : Dreamt. 

in seam', v.L f prer - ** 0). fl nd Eiv. 
seam (q.v.)O To impress or mark with a seam 
or cicatrix. 

" Deep o'er his knee inteamed remained the soar * 
Pope ; Homer ; Odyitey xix. (45. 

In sear9h', v.t. [ENSEARCH.] 

* In sec -a-ble, a. [Lat. insecabttis, from in- 
= not. arid secabilis = that may be cut ; seco 
5= to cut ; Fr. insecable; Ital. inseaibile.} In- 
caiiaMe of being cut or divided by a cutting 
instrument. 

fal S 3Ct, *. & o. [Fr. insect*; 8p. & Port, in- 
secto ; Ital insetto ; all from Lat insectum.] 

(INSECTA.] 

A. Ai> substantive : 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : One of the Insecta (q.v.), or any 
oth -i articulated animals akin to them. Some- 
times used erroneously of t> coral polype, 

(Co RAL- INSECT.] 

2. Fig .* Anything small or contemptible. 
" Yc tinsel intecU, whoit. court waiutaiua.*' 

Pope ; K^ to Sat., 11. 220. 



IL Entom. (PL) : The class Insecta (q.v.). 
B. As adj. : Of or belonging to the small 
articulated animals described under A. 

"The inmct youth are on the wing." 

Gray . Ot*e on M Spring, 

Insect- fungi, s. pi 

Bot. : Fungi parasitic upon insects. They 
beloug chiefly to the genus Cordiceps. 

In-sec '-ta, s pi. (PL of Lat lnstctnm^=va 
insect, from insectus t pa. par. of inseco = to 
rut into, to cut up, because the body seems 
cut into three leading segments the head, the 
thorax, and the abdomen.) 

1. Entom. : Insects ; a class of Annulosa, 
division Arthropoda. Formerly it was made 
tr include, amon? other animals, the centi- 
pedes and spiders. Now these are made dis- 
tinct classes, and the Insecta confined to those 
arthropodous animals which have three pairs 
of legs ; these are affixed to the thorax, which 
Is distinctly separated from the head and the 
abdomen. There are compound and simple 
eyes. In the highest orders there are four 
wings ; in another order, Dipt era, but two ; and 
ir. several more the wings are rudimentary or 
totally absent There is one pair of antenna;. 
The respiration is by tracheje. Of the thirteen 
segments, of which a typical insect consists, 
one constitutes the head, three the thorax, 
and nine the abdomen. The cutaneous skele- 
ton is composed of chitine. There is generally 
a more or less complete metamorphosis. In- 
sects exist in all countries. The species 
existing may be half a million, those known 
more than 200,000. Most of them are confined 
to particular regions : thus the insects of India 
ana Chins are mostly different from those of 
Europe ; sc are those of North America, Green- 




i; 



CARABUS ADONIS. 

L 1. The Aut*mioB, 2, 2. Tht Maxillary palpi. 3. 
The Mandibles, between and behind which Is the 
l*bruiu, or Upper lib. 4. The Head. 5. The Thonvx. 
. Tht Scutelfuia. 7. Tht Elytra, coTeriiiu the Ab- 
doinf u. B The Femur, or Thigh, ft. The Tibik, or 
Shank. 10. The Tarsi, or Foot IL The Claws. 

land only excepted. Some insects, however, 
like the Paiuted Lady Butterfly (Cynthia 
cordui), are widely diffused over the world. 
Insects txert it powerful influence In ferti- 
lizing plants. Tiny as they are, some of 
them may become formidable foes to man. 
Lmnteus founded his classin cation on the 
presence or absence of wings, and, in the 
Former case, 01. their number and structure. 
He divided his Insecta into eight orders : Cole- 
optera, Hemiptera, Lepidoiitera, Neuroptera, 
Hymenoptera, Dipter^, and Ai-tera,. Among 
the Aptera were included Crustaceans, as well 
as Spiders and Mynai-ods. Latreille, followed 
by De Geer, Introduced another order, named 
Orthoptera by Olivier. Latitillt adopted it 
hiid ultimately excluding the Crustaceans 
from Aptera, brokt that order into four: 
Mynapoda, Thysanura, Parasita, and Sucto- 
ria. He adopted Kirby*s order Strepsiptera, 
calling it Rhipiptera, Stephens's division was 
into two sub-classes : Mamlibulata Orders, 
Coleoptera, Dennaptera, Orthoptera, Neurop- 
tera, and Trichoptera; ami Ha ustellata Or- 
ders, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Homaloptera, Aph- 
aniptera, Aptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera. 
liurmeister divided insects into two sub- 
classes, Ametaliola, in which the metamor- 
phosis is incomplete, and Metabola, in which 
it is not so. Under the former are ranked the 
orders Hemiptera, Orthoptera, and Dietyop- 
tera ; and under the latter, Neuroptera, Dip- 
tera, Lep id optera, Hymenoptera, and Coleop- 
tera. Professor Huxley considers the orders 
Coleoptera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Dip- 
tera, and Hemiptera well established ; the 
propel grouping of Strepsiptera, Trichoptera, 
Neuroptera, ana Orthoptera, a matter of doubt ; 
and the Physopoda, Thysanura, and Mallo- 
phaga, not fitting well into any of the other 
assemblages. The Myriapoda and Arachnida 
lie makes distinct classes from Insecta. The 
classification now commonly adopted divides 
insects thus : 

Hub-clMS i,, Ametabola: (1) Anoplora, (2) Hallo- 



. . Aphaniptera, (2) Diptem. Ct| LepidopUra, 
(4) Hymenoptera. (5) Btrapwiptera, (6) Coleoptra> 

2. Patceont. : The oldest known insects are 
from the Devonian rocks of North America. 
They seem to have belonged to the Neuroj 'tt-ra. 
This order, with the Coleoptera and Orthop- 
tera, exists in the Carboniferous. Hymenop- 
tera and Lepidoptera in the Secondary forma- 
tion, and nearly all the known orders in the 
Tertiary. 

* In-se'c-ta'-tion, /. [Lat. insectatio, from 
insectatus, pa, par. f insector = to follow, to 
pursue.] The act of following or pursuing; 
pursuit, persecution, 

" I cau no further go, but pat all In the handes of 
him fur . . . stirred by mine owne conscience (with- 
out intfctation, or teproche Inieng tt) any other man)." 
Sir T. More ; Workes, p. 1,431. 

* in-sec ta' tor, *. [Lat., from insectatui, 
pa. par. of insertor.] A persecutor. 

Mn-sect'-ed, a. [Eng. insect; -td.} Seg- 
mented, so as to have the character of aa in- 
sect. (Howtll: Letters, bk. ii. let. vi.) 

In-aect-i-cide, s. [Lat. insedum = an insectt 
and ccedo (in comp. cido) = to kill.] 

* 1. One who or that which kills insects. 

* 2. The act of killing insects. 

3. A substance or preparation used to kill 
Insects. 

* In 6ct Ue, a. & s. [Eng. insect ; ~ile, as if 
from a Mod. Lat. word insectilis.) 

A. As adj. : Having the nature of insects. 

" Iniecfilf anlmala.' Bacon. (Todd.) 

B. As stbst. : An insect. 

" In tire inteettiei ot wiy kreatnen. " ReHquia Wot- 
Ionian*, p. *65. 

* In-6c tlon, s. fLat. in- = In, and sectio 
a cutting; seco = to cut] A cutting iu; in* 
cisiou, iucisure. 

in-ec-tiv'-6r-a, s. pi. [Lat insectun = an 
insect ; voro =. to eat, to devour, and ueut pi. 
adj. suff. -a.] 

1. Zoology: 

(1) An order of Mammalia established by 
Cuvier. who made it a family o( hi? Carna*' 
siers (Carnivora). It is of highei organization 
than the Carnivora proper. Huxley arranges 
it under his Mammal? which have a JLscoklal 
deciduate placenta, placing it between the 
Primates and the Cheiroptera. There are 
usually more than four incisors in each jaw, 
and the molars have sharp and pointed cusptt ; 
the hallux possesses* claw, and has nc marked 
freedom of adduction and abduction. Except- 
ing in one genus, there are well -developed 
clavicles. The chief families art : (1) Talptddj, 
(2) Potamogalida;. (3) Soricida, (4; Erinaeeid*. 
(5) Centetidtt, (6) luetuMbttcto. and (7) Juleo- 
pitLbCidfe (q.v.). 

(2) A se-ctioii of Cheiroptera (Bats), contain- 
ing the families Vespertilionidfe, Rhmolo- 
pliiikt, NoctihoukUt, and 1'li^lluatoiaid*. 

2. Palaeontology : 

(1) Sex-eral families of the ordei Insectivora 
are found in the Miocene. 

(2) Representatives of the cheiropterous sec- 
tion Insectivora, are found front the Eocene 
onward. 

in-secf-I-vore, s. UNSECTIVORA.I 

Zool. : A member of the Insectivartt (q.v.Ji 
"The Adapts of the farts basiti tint recently been 
proved tc be reUted to the hoofed luadruiwdtt ind m- 
teclivorct.' Daukint : Early Man in Brttain. jh. IL 

Xn-S^O-tiV'-or-ons, a. [Lat. insecta- in- 
sects ; two = to devour, and Eng. sutt. -ous.} 
Zool.: Devouring insects; of 01 belonging 
to the Insectivora 1 or 2 (q.v.> (Vanoin.) 

*In-Sect-ir-*-ger,s. [Eng. insectology); -er.\ 
One who studies insects ; an entomologist. 

"The insect itself U, according to moaen, tntectolo- 
fferi, ot the icbueauiou-fly kind. Derham. 

*in-s6ct-$l'-6-g& s. [Lat. insecta, and Or. 
Aoyo? (logos) a discourse.] The study of 
insects ; entomology. 

In-se-ciire', a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. securt 
(q.v.).J 

1. Not secure, not safe; not confident t* 
safety ; apprehensive of dangei. 

" Is man more Just than God 7 la man more pore 
Than He who deems even seraph* insecure t 

Byron : A spirit patted Irttfvrt m*. 



ftte, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wot, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, p4t 
or. wore, w9lf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, lull; try, Syrian, w, oa= e; ey - a. qu - kw. 



insecurely inset 



2. Not safe ; not securely guarded or pro- 
tected ; unsafe ; exposed to danger or loss. 

"Amuhiou's fortress insecure apj>an." 

Lewit tUttriui, bk. TtL 

In BO -cure '-ly, adv. [Eug. insecure; -ly.] In 
an insecure or unsafe manner; without se- 
curity, safety, or certainty. 

ta-se-our'-I-t*, *. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
security (q.v.).J 

1. The quality or state of being insecure ; 
want of confidence or safety. 

"Them i also a time of insecurity, when Interest* 
of all sorts become o'jjects of speculation." Burke: 
Ai>veal fr-'tn A>w to Old Whigs. 

S. Exposure to destruction, damage, or loss ; 

dange^ hazard. 

"The hwttrifictiaid inconveniences of a strange and 
new \1xxli. ' -Taylor : Great Exemplar, pi. L, ad., 6. 

* 3. Uncertainty. 

* In se-cu'-tion, *. [Fr., from Lat. inse&ttio, 
from insemtits, pa. par. of insequor: in- = in, 
on, and ?*= to follow.] The act of fol- 
lowing or pursuing ; pursuit. 

'Not the kind's own hone got more before the wheel 
Of his rich chariot, that inlftbt still the tiuecution 

(eel 
With the utntDf hairs of hisUil. ' 

Chapman : Homer ; Iliad xiiii. 

In' -se-er, . FPref- * OX "*d Eng. seer 
(q.v).] A looker into; an inspector ; an ex- 
aminer. 

" Ff these. thin?" bvi i good and a sleight 
hich y can so-ike honny of the 
dry roc " 



. 

which y can so-ike honn , 

rock, Ac." Chaucer Tettammt if Love, 



hard atone, oile if y 



* in-sele', v.t. UNSEAL.! 

* In-Bem'-X-nate, v.t. [Lat. inseminatu$, pa. 
par. of insemino : in- = in, and semino = to 
sow ; semen (genit. seminis) = seed.] To *>w ; 
to impregnate. 

* In sein I-na'-tion, s. [Lat. inseminatus, 
pa. par. of insemino.] The aet or process of 
scattering seed ; a sowing. 

* In sen sate, i. (Lat. insensatus, from in- 
not, and '^ensntns = gifted with sense ; census 
= sense ; Fr. intense,] Destitute of sense ; 
wanting or without sense or sensibility. 

" Hers the silence anJ the oalui 
Of mute. Intentate things." 
W ordmcfirth : Poemt of the Imagination. 

* In sen sate ness, s. [Eng. insensate; 
-ness.] Thequality or state of being insensate ; 
want of sense or sensibility. 

* In sense', * In 90^96', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), 
and Eng. sense (q.v.).]- To instruct ; to teach. 

"The Holy Ooste shal tncence you what to aske. ' 
Udal: Johnxvi. 

* In-sense-less, a. [Pref. in- (intens.), and 
Eng. senseJess (q.v.).J Without feeling; in- 
sensible. (Batter: Hitdibras, pt. ii., c, ii.) 

(n-sens-I-bfl'-I-ty, s. [Fr. insmsibilitt, from 
insensible = insensible (q.v.) ; Sp. tnsensibili- 
dad; Ital. insensibUitd.] 

1. The quality or state of being insensible or 
without feeling ; want or loss of the power of 
feeling or perceiving. 

2. Want of the power to be moved ; want or 
Absence of susceptibility ; want of feeling ; in- 
difference. 

" That abject peace of mind which springs from im- 
pudence aud intentibtiity."3tacaulay: Hist. Eng.. 
eh. xv. 

3. The quality or state of being impercepti- 
ble ; imperceptibility. 

11 Inxentibilitu of slow motions may be thus ac- 
eounted." GtanfUlt Sceptit Scicntiftca. 

jn sens I-ble, a. [Fr., from Lat. insensibilis, 
. from in- =. not, and sensibilis = that can be 

perceived, sensible ; sentio = to perceive ; Sp. 

msensible; Ital. insensibile.] 

1. Without feeling ; wanting or destitute of 
the power of feeling or perceiving; destitute 
of corporeal sensibility. 

" Imentible ,ia tteel." 

Cowper: Olney ffymns. ix. 

2. Imperceptible; that cannot be perreiveri 
or felt ; progressing or moving by slow de- 
grees ; so slow or gradual that the motion or 
atages can not be felt or perceived. 

3. Not taking regard or notice ; Indifferent ; 
heedless ; careless. 

"Tt> mane him intenribleot the danger jf the xmrse. ' 
-itafaitlny Ilitt. Kruj., ch. xiii. 

i. Without feeling; incapable of feeling; 
not susceptible nf feeling, emotion, 01 passion ; 
indifferent ; unfeeling ; hard ; callous. 

" A man *nom * cmven fear nad made \ntennDte to 
sname." Jfocau/ay ' Biit. Kng ch. T. 



* 5. Void of meaning or sense ; senseless, 
meaningless, nonsensical. 

" It inakM the indictment inttntiKe or uncertain. ' 
II, tie: Uitt. Pleat Crown, ii., oh. xxlv. 

* In-sens -I-ble-ness, s. [Eng. insensible; 

-ness.] The quality or state of being insensi- 
ble ; insensibility. 

" The intentibi" *u of the mlu proceeds rather from 
the relaxation of a* nerves than their obstruction,*' 



* In-sen'-si-M.lSt,*. [EnR. insensible); -i$t.] 
An apathetic, unfeeling, or callous person ; one 
destitute of feeling or emotion. 

in sens i-bly. adv. [Eug. insensible): -ly.] 

1. Without mental or corporeal sense. 

2. By slow and gradual degrees ; Imper- 
ceptibly, gradually. 

" This pair iusentibty subdued the fears 
And troubles thatowet their life." 

Wordtvorth : Sxcurtion, rt 

* in sens'-I-tive, . [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
sensitive (q.v.).] Not sensitive; not readily 
susceptible of impressions; void of sensi- 
bility ; callous, indifferent. 

*In-sens'-u ous, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eug. 
sensuous (q.v.).] Not sensuous; not address- 
ing itself to or affecting the senses. 

* In-scn tipnt (tl as shl), a. [Pref. in- (2), 
and Eng. sentient (q.v.).] Not sentient ; not 
having perception, or the power of perception. 

" As the rose Is insentient there can be no sensation," 
Reid Intdl. I'ovjcm. essay ii., ch. xvL 

fn -sep ar-a bll'-My, s. [Eng. inseparable ; 
-ity.] The quality or state of being insepar- 
able. 

"The parts of pure apace are Immovable, which 
follows from their inseparability." Locke: Human 
Under ttanding, bk. vi., ch. liii. 

In sep' ar a ble, * in-sep-er-a-ble, a. & 

s. [Fr.," fro'm Lat. inseparabilis, from in- = 
not, and separubilis = separable (q.v.); Sp. 
inseparable; Ital. inseparable.] 

A. As adj. : Not separable ; incapable of 
being separated, divided, or disjointed; not 
to be parted. 

"The faults inseparable from iwverty, Ignorance, 
ud wpentitioa." Macaulay : ffi.it. Kng., oh. xiv. 

B. As iiibst. (PI.): Things which cannot be 
sej-arated from each other; espec., persons 
who are constantly together. 

in sop'-ar -a-ble-nss. * In-scp er a 

" 



The quality or state o 
separability. 



. 
ng Inseparable ; in- 



ble ne&s, "s. [Eug. inseparable; -ness.] 
f bein 

' rheinie/j<ir,MeneMot the prerogative from the per- 
son of the kiutf." Burner ; Hitt. Own Time (an. 1681). 

in sep -ar-a-bljr, adv. [Eng. inseparable) ; 
ly.] In an inseparable manner ; so as not to 
be separable or capable of separation or dis- 
junction. 

"The forcible expulsion of the Tarquius hintepar- 
tibl/j connected with the Institution of the consular 
government." Lewis: C'red. Karly Roman Hist. (1666), 
F. 638. 

* In sep ar ate, * in-sep er-ate, a. 

[Pref. in- ('t) t and Eng. separate (q.v.).] Not 
ieparated or disjoined ; united. 

" Within my soule. there doth conduce a tight 
Of thin strange nature, tliat n thing in*eperat t 
Divides more wider tlis.n the sky anil earth." 

Shaketp. : Troilut A Creuida. V. Z. 

*In-sep ar ate ly, *in-scp er-ate ly t 

adv. [Eng. inseparate; -ly.] Not separately ; 
so as not to be separated or disjoined. 

"If so be that yee live in*eperately."Bomttin: 
State of Matrimony, it 11. 

* In se quent, a. [Lat. insequemf:, pr. par. 
of insequor = to follow after.) Subsequent. 
(Racket : Life of Williams, I 25.) 

*In-se-rene'. r.t. [Pref. in- (2), and Eug. 
serene.] To disturb. 

"Whose gaatly presence Intrrenet my face." 

Oaviei : Boty Hoods, p. 18. 

In-sert', v.t. [Lat. insertus, pa. par. of insero 
=. to insert, to introduce in : in- = in, into 
and sero = to join or bind; Fr. inserer; Sp. 
inserir, interior; Ital. inserire.] To set or 
place in or amongst others ; to introduce ; to 
intercalate. 

"The Lords very wisely abstained from tntrrting 
In their records an account of a debate in which they 
had been M> signally discomfited." J/acautays Bitt. 
Kng., ch. xlv. 

In-sert -ed, pa. par. & a. 

A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective: 

1. Ord. Istntj. : Placed or set in or imongst 
others ; intercalated. 



2. Bot. (Of the stamens, c.) : Growing from, 
or upon a part, as the calyx, the receptacle, 
ic. (Followed by i?i, into, on t or upon.) 

In *ert-ihg, pr. par., a., <b s. [INSEET.] 

A. & B. A pr. par. A particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 
C* As substantive : 

1. Ord. Lang. : The act of setting or placing 
In or amongst others ; insertion. 

2. Dressmak. : Material inserted or set in, as 
lace ; insertion. 

In-ser'-lion, s. [Lat. insertio, from touertus 
pa. par. of insero = to insert (q. v.) ; Fr. inser- 
tion ; S] . insercion; Ital. inserzione. ] 
L Or- Unary Language: 

1. T -6 act of inserting, setting, or placing 
in or .-.mongst others ; intercalation. 

"The great disadvantage our historian* labour mdej 
is too tedious an Interruption, by the interti-m >l t* 
corda in their narration." Felton : On (he Clnttlckt. 

2. That which is inserted ; a pi<^ce or 
passage inserted or intercalated ; an interpo- 
lation. 

" He chances one word, Ood, and not two, upon God. 
to be the insertion," Brnntl*)/ ; Of Free-thinking. { H. 

IL Technically: 

1. Anat. (Of a muscle) : The more movable 
or remote attachment of a muscle at one of 
thy ends, as distinguished from the mare 
fixed one at the other. Quain consider* It 
difficult in some cases to distinguish between 
the two. 

2. hut.: The manner in which one part is 
inserted into or adheres to another. 

^y For the insertions of stamen* see Epigy- 
nous, Hypogynous, and Psrigynous. 

3. Dressmak. : A band or border of lace, 
frilling, &c., inserted in a lady's dress 

* In serve , v.t. [Lat. inservio, from fa- = 
in, into, and servio = to serve.] To conduce ; 
to be of use or service towards an end. 

* In-ser'-vl-^nt, a. [Lat. inserviens, pr. par. 
of inservio.] Conducive; serving or feuding 
towards an end. 

"A part intervient to voice and respiration.' 
Browne; rulgar Emntrt, bk. iv.. cb. vllL 

* m-sess ion (ss as sh), s. [Lat. insessus, 
pa. pnr. of insidw.] [INSE.SSORES.] 

1. The act or state of sitting In or upon. 
"Used by way of fomentation, intettton, or bath.' 

P. Holland. 

2. That upon or in which one sits. 

in-ses-sor'-ef, 5. pi. [Masc. and fern. pi. 

of Lat. insessor = a waylayer, but here = a 
percher, from Lat. insesws, pa. par. of insideo 
= to sit in or upon : in- = in, on, and sedeo = 
to sit.] 

1. Ornith. : Perchers. The name first given 
by Mr. Vigors, and adopted by Swaiuson and 
many others for a great assemblage of birds, 
mostly small In size, with feet adapted for 
lurching and walking; the toes generally four, 
the hinder one on the same level with the 
others, generally three, more rarely two, 
pointing forward ; in the latter case, the feet 
being scansorial. The length of the tarsus, or 
shank, is always moderate, the claws never 
retractile. Some have the bill without notch, 
in others it is notched. Many sing beauti- 
fully, build elegant nests, &c. As to food, 
they are omnivorous. The order wa divided 
Into live tribes Dentirostres, Conirostres, 
Scansores, Tenuirostres, and Fissirostres. The 
Scansores are now well-established as a sepa- 
rate order. The Insessores are called also 
Passerea and Passeriformes. 

i. Pilceont. ' The order is found from the 
Eocenj imward. 

In-ees-sor'-t-al, a. [Lat (nsewor, genit 
tnsessor'-(s), and Eng. suff. -oZ.J 

Ornith. ; Of or belonging to the order In- 
sessor-jd (q.v.X 

" rhe prominent type or representative of the i 
tatorial >rder. ' Swainton : Bird*, t. S4S. 

* insessorlal-type, s. 

Ornith. : In the Quinary system of Vigors, 
Bwainson, &c., the second, or sab-typical 
order of Birds, with which analogies were 
sought in each ^f the other orders. 

* In-set', r.t. | Pref. in- (1 1 and Kng. tet (q.T.). J 
To set in, to fix in, to hilix. 

' fhe *oruw that is tntet ^reaeth the thoupnt. ' 
Jhaueer : Boethiut, bk. i). 



coll, D^; poiit, J6^1; cat 9011, chorus, 911111, oencn; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph 
-oian, tian = shan. -tion, -slon shun ; -$ion, sion - zaun. -cious, -clous, -sious - shu. -ble, -die, &c. ^ bel, d 



2690 



inset insinuate 



Inset, s. [INSET,*.] 

1. Ord. Lung. : That which is set or fixed 
In ; au Insertion. 

2. Bookbind. : Same as offcut. A certain 
portion of the printed sheet in 12mo, 24mo, 
c., which is cut off before folding and set 
into the middle of the folded sheet, to com- 
plete the succession of paging. 

In gVer a We, a. [Pref. in- (?X and 
Eng. seiwrndfe (q.v.).l Not seveiable; that 
cannot be severed, disjoined, or disunited. 
(De Quiacey: Autob. Sketche, I 88.) 

in Bhod -cd, a. [Pref. in- (miens.), and 

shaded (q.v.).] Shaded ; marked with 
of colo 



dlArett shades of colour. 

" Whose llly.white, Mad* with the row 
Uiul that man aeenv who sang the Jitocidos, 
Illdo hud In oblivion slei.t. uid -he 
Had given his Muiw her bert eten.itle." 

Brown* : ftritannia'l yastum.'i. bk. 1., s. i. 



to shave, s. [Pref. in- (1). nd Eng. stnw 

(q.v.).] 

Cooper. : A jointer having a convex-edged 
bft, on which the inner faces of staves are 
dressed. 

In sheathe'. .t [Pref. (it- (IX n<l Eng- 
sheathe (q.v.).] To hide, cover, or place In a 
shrath ; to sheathe. 

"On high he hung the martini .word insftntfM.* 
ffut/ket : Triumph of Ptaet. 

In shell', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. dull 
(q.v.). ] To hide in, or as in a shell. 

" Thrust* forth his horns Again Into the world. 
Which wen fnsfettrtoheu M arolus stood tor Rome/ 
Shaketp. : .Coritilanut, 1 v. & 

In-sheT-ter. ./. [Pref. in- (IX and Eng. 
thelter (q.v.).] To place in shelter; to shelter. 

In-shlp', r.. [Pref. in- (IX and Eng. ship 
(q.v.).] To place on board or In a ship; to 

embark. 

" Safely brought to Dover : where InMfpti 
Commit UK-IO to the fortnue of the sea," 

KA.v.1. 



In' -shore, o. or adv. [Pref. in- (ix and Eng. 
sltore (q.v.).] On or near the shore. 

'In shrine , r.(. [ESSHBIXE.] 

In-slc^ja'-tlon, >. [Lat in- = In, and tie- 
catio = a drying ; siccatus = dried, pa. par. of 
ticca = to dry ; siccus = dry.] The act of dry- 
ing in. 

(n side, in syde, a., adv., ., ft prep. 
[Pref. in- (1), and Eng. side (q.v.).] 
A* A* adj. : Being within ; interior. Internal. 
B. Ai adv. : Within ; in the interior. 
C* A s substantive: 

1. The Interior or Internal part of anything. 

"The pavne would be much lesse, If the knvfe myglit 
faegione on the intyde and cutte fro the uilddes out. 
ard."-.Sir T. Han II rt, p. l.asc. 

2. The entrails, the bowels. 

8. An inside passenger in a vehicle. 

"The Derhy dllly carrying six intidee." 

J. B. frert : Lovee of the Triangle* 

* 4. One's private or secret thought's ; one's 
mind. 

"At the great day of trial lie will thr.ronirlily anato- 
mise us, and lay our very intitte perfectly open and 
naked. "-fliiiojj Bull : Sermaia, vofli.. ssr. 15. 



D. As prep. : In the in tenor of; within : as, 
inside a circle. 

H The inside may be said of bodies of any 
magnitude, small or large ; the inferior is 
peculiarly appropriate to bodies of great mag- 
nitude. 

Inside-calipers, . A pair of calipers 
for measuring bores and inside diameters of 
tubes. [CALIPERS.] 

Inside framing, s. 

Steam-engine : 

1. The frame of one form of English loco- 
motives, in which the wheels and driving-gear 
are inside of the main frame. 

2. The stays of a locomotive-engine that rest 
on the axles. English practice often has the 
framing outside of the cylinders, the connect- 
ing-rods of the engines passing to cranks on 
the axles. 

Inside-gear, s. 

Steam-eng. : The English arrangement In 
locomotives of the connecting-rods and cranks 
inside the frame, in contradistinction to the 
American practice of connecting the cross- 
heads of the engines by connecting-rods to 
wrists on the outside of the driving-wheels. 



inside-screw, s. A hollow screw; one 
having its thread on the inside. 

Inside screw-tool : 

Wood-turninij : A hooked-shaped tool for 
threading interior surfaces while revolving in 
a lathe ; a form of chaser. 

inside-tin, *. 

Book-bind. : A plate laid Inside the cover of 
a book when placed in the standing-press. 

Inside-tool, . 

Wood-turning: A tool for hollowing out 
work and bottoming holes. 

* In-Bid' -I ate, v.t. [Lat. intidiatm, pa. per. 
of imidior. In nn intidia = au auibuan.) To 
lie In ambush for. 

' in-sid-I-a'-tion, a [Isamum] Guile. 
(Adams: (forte, i. Ul.) 

in-sld'-l a tor, in sid i-a tour. . 

[Lat. inaidiatur, from intidiatus, pa. par. of 
injidior.) One who lies in ambush ; a Inrker ; 
a waylayer. 

" Many dlsoaMartl nutlouiilents. many botk open 
enemies and close inrittintottrt." Bum*: Vermont. 
roLL.ser 16. 

In sid 1 ous, * in-sld-i-onse, a. [Fr. 

iusuiieitx. from Lat. iuKidiusuj, from insidice 
au ambush ; ItaL 4i bp. iKsidioso,] 

I. Lying in wait, treacherous, sly, intending 
or designing to betray ; deceitful, deceptive. 
" Tbe theft an old tnttdiaui peasant viewed." 

Addtrm : (Mil JMamorpAosssll. 

i Intended to deceive or entrap, crafty, 
treacherous. 

"There be now* memelous subtyle eraftlneaseBexer- 
oised by courtes, Imitliouie wyuueasea." Joiftt J- 
portciott <// Ji'tnirf. xi. 

U The insidious man has recourse to various 
little artifices, by which he wishes to effect 
his purpose, and gain an advantage over his 
opponent ; the treacherous man pursues a sys- 
tem of direct falsehood, in order to ruin liis 
friend : the insulims man objects to a fair and 
open contest ; but the treacheromt man assails 
lii the dark him whom be should support. 
(Crnbb: Eng. Synon.) 

in-stt'-I-o&s-l?, adv. [Eng.inrid.oM; -fy.] 
In an insidious manner, treacherously, craftily, 
slyly. 

" Ko soft and costly sofa there 
/nsMftowIy strvtched out Its lazy length." 

irorHsssorM Acmioii.bk.rlL 

In sid I ous ness, >. [Eng. insidious; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being insidkras ; deceit- 
fulness, treachery. 

" Nona ut 1U lurking inWIotumsa of Its sorprislng 
violence, of lu rancorous veuoui." Barrow: ^enayms. 
voL i., ser. &. 

In'-slght (gh silent), * in-siht, a. [Pref. <n- 
(1), and Eng. sight (q.v.) ; Dut. inzicht; Ger. 
rinsichi.] 

1. A sight, view, or Inspection of the in- 
terior of anything ; deep inspection or view ; 
introspection. 

" I have acquired no small fcuipA/ Into the manners 
and conversation of uien." Uuardtan, No. as. 

2. Power of observation, discernment, pene- 
tration. 

" For Merlin had In nuuicke more inriahl, 
Than euer him before or after living Wight* 

.i^ritser: f. .. III. Ill S. 

In-sight-ed (p* silent), o. [Eng. imijht; 
nl. l Possessed of in. light. {P. Holland: 
Camden, p. 687.) 

In-slg'-nf-a, . pi. [Lat pi. of Intlgne, neut. 
of insitjnis = distinguished by a mark.] 

1. Badges or distinguishing marks of office 
or honour. 

2. Harks or signs by which anything Is or 
may be known or distinguished. 

in-slg-nif' -I-eance, * In-sIg-nlr-I-ean- 
cy, s. [Pref. IB- (2), and Eng. significance, 
3,gnifanKy (q.v.X] 

1. The quality or state of being Insignifi- 
cant ; want of significance or meaning. 

"With easy sntf^nitfcance of thought" 

OartA .- Cifpensary. i 187. 

2. Want of Importance or weight; unim- 
portance. 

" The elan had been made Insignificant by the in- 
tiynific'tnce of the chief." Macatday : Bat. o/ ng , 

ch. xiil. 

3. Want of force or effect ; unimportance. 

4. Want of weight or claim to considera- 
tion ; meanness. 



I In-slg-nif ' i cant, 

Eng. " 



o. [Pref. in- (2), and 



1. Not sigiiillcaut ; void of signification ; 
wanting In ineaning or signincation. 

" LAWS must be tnriynificanl without the sanction 
of rewards aud nuiiltilmiviiU. " flo. Uilkini: of .v.t- 
turai Rellqtvn. bk- L, ch. jj. 

2. Having no weight or Importance ; unim- 
portant, trivial, mean, not deserving or calling 
for notice. 

" Witness Its (mlftnlkant result" 

Cotfper : CvnMTtaHon, 17. 

3. Without weight of character ; mean, con- 
temjitible, beneath notice. 

" What sclinol-lMiy, what little Inrigrtlfi"' tnouk 
could not li.ive inude a more elegant speech for ttis 
king I" XUtim : Defatctaftlu PeopU ,J f/-i>ij. 

In sig-nif -I-cant-ly. wlv. [Eng. iiungnifi. 
cant; -ly.\ 

1. Without meaning or signification. 

" They ... use them i/w^ylcaitr/v, as the organ 01 
pipe renders the time which it nudentAAds not" 
Ilale : Ortg. o/ MtltMna, p. 06. 

2. Without Importance or effect ; unimport- 
antly; trivially. 

" With all tie preltlncss of feigned alarm, 
ind auger imiytii^cantlu tterce." 

Cotfi*r: Task, vt OK. 

* In-slg niT-I-oat Ive, o. [Pref. in- (2), 
and Eng. signifcative (q.v.X] Not significa- 
tive, or expressing by external signs. 

* In sign' mcnt (g silent), s. [Lat insigne.) 
(littKiMiA.J An exhibition of; a direction to ; 
some mark or sign by which one thing may 
be known from another. 

" Neytber his father, nor any other man, ooulde .lls- 
cerue vt vs tlie one frome the other, but by our owut 
t*iiff**ment or shewyuge."^Sir T. Etgot : Tin Uo- 

* In slm'-n late, v.t. [I.-it. {nsimulatvt. pa. 
lr. of lunmulo.} To accuse, tr> charge. 

- FaWy to intintutat, and accuse Uie church* * -Srr 
T. More: Work*, p. MO. 

In sin-cere', a. [Lat. insincerus, from in- . 
not, and sinoenu ** sincere (q.v.) ; Fr. iiutn 



1. Not sincere ; not being what one appears 
or pretends to be ; blse, dissembling, hypo- 
critical. 

H 31 ay I myself at hist appear 
Unworthy, hasa, and Insincere." 

(.*> : frleiUMp. 

2. Deceitful, false, hypocritical, not to be 
trusted. 

"All her censures of the work of gmoo 
Are inftmcere,' Counter I Com-ertation. 7U. 

* 3. Not free from flaw ; Imperfect ; decep 
tive. 

" To render sleep's soft hlrsringi i*ti*txre~ 

fop*. (Todd.) 

Jn-sln-9ere'-iy, adv. [Eng. tmincere; -ly.} 
In an insincere manner ; without sincerity ; 
hypocritically. 

" Or rather, as Mr Travers has inuncerely misrepre- 
sented. his asBertious." iXniM : Life of H'ltitt/ift. L 
(an. ISSfi). 



ty, . [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
sinaerirj(q.v.); Fr. InnnrtriU.) The quality 
or state of being insincere; want of sincerity 
or of being really wliat one appears or pre- 
tends to be ; dissimulation, hypocrisy, false- 
ness. 

" What men call pulley and knowledge of the world, 

iruiitcerity.' Blair, vol. V.. ser. 17. 

* in sin'-ew (ew as u), vt. [Pref. in- (IX 
aud Eng. sinew (q.v.).J To strengthen; to 
give strength or vigour to. 

"All members of our cause, both here, and hence, 
That are iruinfwed to this action." 

Otaketp. . 2 Hear, f.. Ir. I. 

In-sln'-u-ant, o. [Fr., pr. par. of insinuer 
= to insinuate (q.v.XJ Having the power of 
insinuation or of gaining favour. 

"Very plausible, frufnuant. and fortunate men.* 
Wotton : Jtemttint, p. 78. 

in-sm'-u ate, v.t. & 1. [Lat. insinuates, pa. 
par. of insiuuo, from in- = in, and sinuo = U 
wind about ; sinus = a bend ; Fr. iiminver ; 
Sp. insmuar ; Ital. iiainuure.] 
A. Traiuitivt: 

1. To introduce anything gently or by slew 
degrees, as by a winding or narrow passage ; 
to wind or force in slowly and imperceptibly. 

14 fiuinnatinff It sette by )MuwA*:ea, aud boles. Into the 
very bowels oftbe earth.'- ucut . I i/jmw. i. US. 

2. To wind or push oneself into favour ; to 
ingratiate oneself ; to introduce oneseb* by 
gradual and artful means into favour. 

He Insbtualitd liimseli into the very good grace of 
the duke of Buckingham." Clartndm : Civil War. 



fiste, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pit, 
or, wore, wolf, work, whd, s6n ; mate, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, fall ; try, Syrian, x, oe = e ; ey - a. qu = kw. 



insinuating insolation 



* 3. To infuse gently; to introduce imper- 
ceptibly and artfully ; to Instil, 

"Horace . . . i*mmtn(et virtue, rather by familiar 
luuii plea tliaji by tbe severity ol precepts." llryden .' 

4. To hint ; to give an intimation or hint of; 
to suggest. 

"To insinuate that Russell's conduct had not been 
faultless." Mucaulay: Hint, ttg.,cb. ztx. 

B. Intransitive: 

* 1. To move on in folds or with a tortuous, 
winding movement ; to wind. 

" Close tl_' BIT] >-.'ii t sly 

S \tinuatinrf, wove with Gunliim twiue 
is l>ruidI train." Milton: 1>. L.. IT. 3*8. 

* 2. To creep, wind, or move gently and im- 
perceptibly ;t make its way by indirect means. 

" But the Romanes espied where there was a breach 
made and lane left between, nnd there they would in- 
tinniite and wind in with tlu-ir makes and files." 
I*. Holland : Liviut, p. l. I'.'T. 

*a. To enter gently, slowly, or impercept- 
ibly, as water into crevices. 

* 4. To Insinuate one's self into favour ; to 
* ingratiate one's self. 

"Some ... do wind and insinuate Into the grace 
and favour ol the hearer." /*. Holland ; Plutarch, 
*). 

* 5. To wheedle, to coax, to flatter. 

" I hardly yet have learned 
To insinuate, flatter, )H>W, and bend my knee." 
Shaketp. : nidwrd 11 , IT. 1. 

6. To hint ; to suggest indirectly. 



if A person who insinuate adopts every art 
to steal into tlie goodwill of another; but he 



I who ingratiates adepts nnartifleiai means to 
conciliate goodwill. A person of in.ti.inuit.iixj 
manners wins upon another imperceptibly, 
even so as to convert dislike into attachment ; 
a i>erson with ingratiating manners procures 
goodwill by a permanent intercourse. 7n- 
timtute and ingratiate differ in tbe motive, as 
well as the mode, of the action ; the motive 
is, in both cases, self-interest ; but the former 
is unlawful, and the latter allowable. In- 
sinuate may be used in the improper sense for 
unconscious agents; ingratiate is always the 
act of a conscious agent. Water will insinuate 

itself into every body that is in the smallest 
degree porous ; there are few persons of so 
much apathy, that it may not be possible, one 
way or another, to ingratiate one's self into 
their favour. (Crabb : Eng. Synon.) 

in-sin -u-at ing, pr.par.& a. [INSINUATE.] 
Tending or calculated to win a flection or 
favour gradually and imperceptibly. 

" Some of the Whig leaders had been unable to resist 
bis insinuuttity address." Macaulay : tlitt. Eng., eh. 
xxii. 

in sln'-u-at~ing-iy, adv. [Eng. insinuat- 
ing; -hj-} In an insinuating manner; by in- 
sinuation. 

Sn-sln-ii-a'-tion, s. [Pr., from Lat. invtnu- 
ationeni, accus. of insinuation an entrance by 
a narrow or crooked way, from insinuatus, 
pa. par. otittsinuo; tip. insinuation; ItaL in- 
tinutizione.] 

L The act or state of winding, flowing, or 

I making way in gradually and imperceptibly. 
2. The act of gaining or insinuating one's self 
Into favour by gentle or artful means. 
"In their imtnuattoni into favour." Wotton: Re- 
mains, p. 186. 
3. The art or power of pleasing or of gaining 
favour or affection ; winning manners or ad- 
dress. 
" He bad * natural tnrinuation and addreu, which 
made him acceptable in tbe best company." Claren- 
don. 

4. The act of insinuating, hinting, or sug- 
gesting. 

5. A hint, a suggestion ; an indirect intima- 
tion. 

" Give not therefore a ready ear to tbe offidons in- 
tiit'taliont of those who, under the gnise of friendly 
concern, come to admonish you." Blair ; Kertnvnt, 
vul. IT., ser. 17. 

U The in&inuat'um always deals In half 
words ; the reflection is commonly open. They 
re both levelled at the individual with no 
good intent. The insinuation respects the 
honour, the moral character, or the intellec- 
tual endowments of the person ; tho reflection 
respects his particular conduct or feelings to- 
wards another. (Crabb. : Eng. Synon.) 

* fai-sln'-u-a-tive, a. [Fr. insinuatif; Ital. & 
Sp. insinvativo.] 

1. Stealing on or Into the affections ; In- 
sinuating, winning. 

"It t* a strange irutnuative power which example 

and custom have upon tis." tiovernment (if the Tongua, 

2. Making insiauatlons ; hinting, suggesting. 



* Jn-Sin'-U-a-tor, . [Lat., from insinuatus, 
pa. par. oY insinuo.] One who insinuates. 

* In-eln'-llTa-tdr-Sr, a. [Eng. insinuate); 

-ory.\ Insinuating. 

In-slp'-ld, a. (Fr. insipide, from Lat. insi- 
pulus, from in- = not, and sajnd-us = savoury ; 
aapio = to taste ; Ital. & Sp. insipido.] 

1. Tasteless ; wanting in taste ; destitute of 
taste or savour ; vapid. 

" More pregnant patterns of transcendent worth 
Than Darren aod iitxii/id fruit brings forth. 

Carew: Tu Sir '. liwnnnt. 

2. Wanting in spirit, life, or animation; 
dull ; heavy ; wanting in the qualities which 
excite emotion ; flat. 

"His art Is faint ; his salt, if may dare to nay so, 
almost iniiifid." J>ryden : Juvenal. (DedlcJ 

* 3. Dull, listless, dispirited. 
"Without it all is gothic as the scene. 
To whfeh th' insipid citizen resorts 
Near yonder heath.* Cowper : TatK. Ill Ml 

f An insipid writer is without sentiment of 
any kind or degree ; a dull writer fails in 
vivacity and vigour of sentiment ; a flat per- 
formance is wanting in the property of pro- 
voking minli, which should be its peculiar 
ingredient. 

fai-si-pta-l-tjr, s. [Fr. insipiditi, from t- 
sipide = insipid (q.v.).] 

1. Tbe quality or state of being insipid or 
tasteless ; tastelessness ; want or absence of 
taste. 

2. Want of life, spirit, or animation : dul- 
ness, flatness. 

"Tbe hanhness of remonstrance or the tniipidtty of 
truth," Oambter, No. 168. 

in-s!p'-id-l& adv. [Eng. insipid ; >ly.} 

1. In an insipid manner; without taste. 

2. Dully ; flatly. 

"How pitifully, flatly, and iiuijndly will they [our 
pretty notiuuB, and fine-spun controversies] taste." 
Sharp: Sermons, vol. i., ser. L 

* in-sip i 1190, s. [O. Fr., from Lat. insip- 
ientia, froui in- = uot, and sapientia = wisdom ; 
sapiens wise ; Sp. insipiencia; ItaL insip- 
it-nzu.] Want of understanding or intellect ; 
folly, foolishness. 

"Tbe ring her tooke of his insiji^nce." 

arotme : Shtybaardi /*ipe. Ed. L 

* in-sip'-I-ent, a. <k s. [Lat. insipiens, from 
in- = uot, aud *apin$ = wise.J 

A. As adj. : Wanting in understanding or 
intellect; foolish. 

B. As snbst. : A foolish, silly person ; a fool. 

" It will go nye to prove hym an insipient," Fryt\ : 
Worket, p. 40. 



n-ss, v.i. [Fr. insiater, from Lat. insisto = 
to set foot on ; in- = in, on, and sisto = to set, 
from si'i t<> stand ; Sp. insistir; Ital. insis- 
tere.] 
L LiL : To stand or rest upon. 

"The ftugles on oue side intftt upon the centers of 
tbe bottom of ttie cells on the other side." A'ay; On 
the Creation. 

II, Figuratively : 

* 1. To dwell on or npon In discourse; to 
dilate upou as a matter of special moment. 

" Without lurther insisting on the different tempera 
Of Juvenal and Horace." Dryden: Juottial. (Dedtc.) 

2. To be persistent, urgent, or peremptory 
concerning any matter ; to persist in ; to 
press or urge earnestly and persistently. 

"Hamilton insisted that the question should be. 
Approve or not approve the rabbling r ' 'Maaaulay : 
Bitt. etiff., eh, xvt. 

^ Usually followed by on or upon. 

* In-siBt'-en^e, *. [Eng. insist; -ence.] The 
act of insisting, resting upon, or persisting in 
any matter ; the act of dwelling upon a 
matter or point as of special moment ; per- 
sistency, urgency. 

* In - slst' - ?nt, a. [Lat. insistent, pr. par. 
of insisto.] Standing or resting npon any- 
thing. 

"The breadth of the substruction must be at least 
double to the insistent wall." War ton : Remains, p. 19. 

* Xn-sist'-tire, . [Eng. insist ; -we.] A dwell- 
ing or standing upon ; fixedness, persistency, 
insistence. 

" Observe decree, priority, and place, 
Jntisture, course, proportion, season, form,'* 

Shakes?. : Trailu* 4 Crettutn, L & 

* In-rf' tlen-^ (tt as nln\ . [Lat. in- = 

not, and si(ie* thirsty ; sitio = to be thirsty.] 
Freedom or exemption from feelings of thirst. 

"The docility of an elephant, and the tntitiencjf ot 
a camel (or travelling in dssarts." 0ro. 



* in-sl'-tion, *. [Lat. insitin, frnm insitus, 
jia. par. of i nsero to implant, to ingraft) 
The act of inserting or ingrafting ; ingraft- 
luent ; the state of being engrafted. 

" The bearing or not bearing of the cions of a cherry- 
tree the first year of iteinsUton." lioyli. Works, i. 3*L 

in Sl'-tU, phr. [Lat. = in (its) situation.] 

Geol. (Of a stratum, mineral, c.): In its 
natural position, not displaced, or transported, 
like an erratic block, to a distance. 

* In slave , v.t. [ENSLAVE.] 

in snare', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. snan 
(q.v.).] 

1. Lit, : To catch in a snare or trap ; to en* 
trap, to ensnare. 

" By long experience Dnrfey may no doubt 
Intnare a gudgeon, or mrm|* tnwt." 

J-'unton: Spittle to T. Latubartl, 171. 

2. Fig. : To catch, as in a snaioor trap; to 
entrap, to inveigle, to entangle. 

" Intnare tb wnielied in the tolU of law." 

T-iuittson: Autumn, 1,290. 

TT To insnare is to take in or by means of 
a snare; to entrap is to take in a trap or by 
means of, a trap ; to entangle is to take in a 
tangle, or by means of tanylcd thread ; to in~ 
veigle is to take by means of making blind, 
from the French aveuyle = blind. Insnare arid 
entangle are used either in the natural or 
moral sense ; entrap mostly in the natural, in- 
veigle only in the moral sense. (Crabb ; Eng. 
Synon.) 

in snar'-er, *. [Eng. immar(e) ; -er.} Oae 
who or that which insnares. 

in sniir'-ing, pr. par., a. t & s. [iNSNAaE.] 

A. & B. As pr. par. & pwtitip. adj. ; (See 
the verb). 

C. As sitbst.: The act of trapping or in- 
veigling. 

in-snar'-Ing-ly, adv. [Eng. insnaring ; -ly.] 
So as to insnare. 

* in -snarl', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. snarl, 
s. (q.v.).J To make into a snarl or knot; to 
entangle. 

t In-sd-l)ri'-g-ty, *. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
sobriety (q.v.).] Want of sobriety; iutempe- 
ranee, drunkenness. 

" HB whose couscience upbraids him with profane. 
ness towards God, and intobriety towards bimaelf." 
Decay of Piety. 

In-m-ot-ft-MT-X-ty (cl <w aW), [P'-rf. 
in- (2), "and Eng. sociability (q.v.).] The 
quality or state of being insoclable ; vrant o( 
sociability. 

"Will* hd carried Its <t-iMHry H> fr. nj ttl 
preteiiHiinm much farther." Warburum : Dioine Le- 
yatwa. bk. V., i t. 

* In-BO'-d-a-We (oi as shl), a [Pr., from 

Lat. insociabilis, from in- = not, and sociabilit 
= sociable (q.v.) ; Bp. tusocioite ; Ital. tjisooi- 



1. Not sociable ; not Inclined to join in 
social intercourse or converse ; not affable ; 
unsociable. 

"If till, luutere {ruoHable life 
Change not your offer made in hent of blood." 

Sh'ikrti'. : Lnrrt Labour'l Lott, V. 2. 

2. Not capable of being joined or connected* 

"Lime and wol are ImoefciW*" Wotton: Be> 
maint, p. 19. 



* in so'-cl-a-bljr (ol as hi), adv. fEng. 
insaciaMle)'; -ly.] In an insuciable manner ; 
unsociably. 

' in- so'-cl ate (ol as shift, a. [Lat. in- = 
not, and soriaiwjs, pa. |r. of socio = to aaso- 
ciate.) Not associated ; solitai-y, insociaL 
"The tntociate virgin life." Ben Jotuon. 

* In-s6l-ate, v.t. [Lat Inmlatii*. pa. per. of 
insulo, from in- = in, and sol = the Run.] To 
dry or ripen In the rays of the sun ; to expose 
to 'the heat of the sun. 

* In sol a tion, . [Lat. tnmlntii, from inso 
lotus, i. par. of insolo ; Fr. insolation. ] 

t Ordinary Lanfjwtgc : 

1. The act of insolating ; exposure to the 
heat of the sun ; a drying in the rays of the 
sun ; the state of being exposed to the heat 
of the sun. 

" We one thew tower* for Imitation, refrigeration, 
conservation, and for the view of certain muteor*. ' 
Bacon Jfew Atlantis. 

2. Sunstroke (q.v.). 

H. Bat. : A disease produced In plant* 



J>65l, bo^; porkt, }63rl; oat, cell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, ^Conophon, eylst. Ing, 
-olan, tian = shan. -tion, -sion - shun ; -tioii, -slon = zhun. -dons, -tlons, -slous = shus. -ble, -die, &<. - bei. dL 



2692 



insole inspectorship 



exposed to fierce sun heat, which, causing too 
rapid evaporation, tends to kill the parts af- 
fected. 

in' -sole, *. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. sole, s. 
(q.v.)-] 

1. The inner sole of a hoot or shoe ; opposed 
to outsole (q.v.). 

2. A thickness of cork, felt, flannel, leather, 
paper, A T C., placed inside a shoe to protect 
the sole of the foot, or to improve the fit of 
the shoe. (American.) 

In so Ien9e, s. [Fr, from Lat. insolent ia, 
from inx>lens= insolent (q.v.); Sp. insolenda; 
Ital. insolenza.} 
* 1. That which Is unusual or rare. 

"Being flUed with furious intolmct, 
I (eel myself like one yrapt iu apriuht." 

Spenter : Colin Clout't Com* Home Again, 

2. The quality or state of being insolent ; 
overbearing and contemptuous haughtiness or 
pride ; contemptuous treatment of others ; 
petulant contempt, impudence. 

" He become proud even to ftwofmc*." Jtacaulay i 
Mta. E'ty., cb. xxiv. 

3. An insolent act ; Insolent conduct to- 
wards or treatment of others ; impudence. 

" I do not design to be exposed to such an intolence 
M this that you have committed against me." .Sir 
Wm, Temple: To the Procurator of the Court of Sot- 
land. 

* In'-sA-lence, v.t. [INSOLENCE, *.] To treat 
with insolence or contempt ; to insult. 

" The IjUlioi*, who wen flrat fault?, 
and assaulted.*- Jttton Batilite. 



^, . [Lat. insoltntia.] Inso- 
lence. 

In so lent, a. [Fr., from Lat. insolfns = un- 
usnal . . . insolent; in- = not, and solens = 
customary, usual ; Sp. & Ital. insolente,} 

* 1. Original ; out of the beaten track ; un- 
usual, uncommon. 

"For ditty and amorous ode, I find Mr. Walter Ra 
leigh't vein most lofty, insolent, and passionate." 
Puttettham Knfftith Poety, bk, i.. cb. xxiL 

2. Exhibiting overbearing contempt for 
others ; haughty, overbearing, Impudent, ln- 
nlting, impertinent 

"He took all the liberties of an intotrnt servant, 
who believes himself to be necessary." Maeaulay ; 
Hi*, gng., ch. xlt 

3. Proceeding from or characterized by inso- 
lence or impudence. 

" Their insolent triumph excited the popular Indig- 
nation," Macaulajf : ffit(. Sny., cb. vitL 

In' -si-lent-iy, adv. [Eng. insolent ; -ly.] In 
an insolent manner ; insultingly, impudently. 

"Jeffreys conducted himself, as was his wont, into- 
teittly aud unjustly." ilaeaulay : Bitt. Eng., ch. vi. 

* In-sol'-id, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. solid.} 
Light, frivolous. (Adams : Works, ii. 381.) 

* In-s6l-l'd'-i-t&*. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 

solidity (q.v.).] Want of solidity ; weakness. 

in sSl'-I-dd, phr. [Lat.] 

Law ; Iu the whole. (Used of a joint con- 
tract.) 

In-SOi-ln'-ic, a. [Eng. insoluble); -inic.} 
(See etym. and compound.) 
Insolinic add, N. [TEREPHTHALIC-ACID.] 



--bll'-J-t*. s. [Fr. insolubiliU, from 
Lat insolubilitas, from insolubili$= insoluble.] 
1. The quality or state of being insoluble ; 
incapability of being dissolved. 

* 2. Incapability of being solved orexplained ; 
not soluble ; inexplicable 

In soi'-u-ble, a. & *. [Fr., from Lat. insolu- 
WJia, from in- = not, and solubilis = soluble ; 
solvo = to dissolve, to loose ; Sp. insoluble; 
Ital. insolubile.] 
A. As adjective : 

1. Not soluble; incapable of being dissolved. 
particularly in a liquid. 

" To dissolve all the several sorts of food appropriate 
to their species : even sometimes things of that con- 
sistency, as seem insoluble." Derham : Phyitco-Theo. 
logy, bk. iv., ch. xi. 

* 2. Incapable of being pulled down or to 
pieces. 

" The formost of every ranke In the vay ward stood 
firms and fast, like a strong aud inioluble wall." 
P. Holland : A mmianut, p. 71. 

* 2. Incapable of being solved or explained ; 
not to be cleared, explained, or resolved ; in- 
explicable. 

" The notion of God's moral attri butes gave birth to 
an insoluble question concerning the origin of eviL" 
Warburton: Divine Legation, bk. ii. (Apu.) 



* B. As subst. : A matter or point incapable 
of being solved or explained. 

" That good lawM be turned Into sophemea and in- 
Klublti"Sir T. tlyot : Tkt Oo.emour, bk. iii.. ch. vi 

in - sol u - ble - ness, . [Eng. insoluble; 
-ness.] The quality or state of beiug insolu- 
ble ; insolubility. 

" The objection be fratnea from tbe uppoaed intolu- 
Utntual ft "-( : (Porttiii. 2t 

* In-sSlv'-a-We, o. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
solvable (q.v.).] 

1. Not solvable ; that cannot be solved, 
cleared, answered, or explained ; not admit 
ting of solution or explanation. 

"There appear ome intottablt difflcaltlea." Watts: 
On Uu JHnS. 

2. Incapable of being paid or cleaved off. 

3. Incapable of being loosed ; indissoluble. 

" To guard with baud* 
/fUoltaWe theK gifts, thy cre demands." 

Pope : Homer ; Odyuey viii. 490. 

In-sdlv'-fn-f & . [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 

solvency (q.v.)."] 
L Ordinary Language ; 

1. The quality or state of being insolvent ; 
Inability of a person to pay or meet all his 
debts ; the state of a person who has not suf- 
flcent property to discharge all his liabilities ; 
bankruptcy. 

" The greater or lee* rtak there may be of irwoleenru 
on the part of the borrower. '-AaUM : *oroi*;ce. 
pt 111., ch. I.. | ns. 

2. Insufficiency to discharge all the liabili- 
ties of the owner : as, the iiuolvcncy of an 
estate. 

IL Lam: Many acts relating to Insolvency 
and bankruptcy have been passed in the 
United States and elsewhere. 

\ Insolvency is a state ; failure an act Bow- 
fng out of that state ; and bankruptcy an effect 
of that act. Insolvency is a condition of not 
paying one's debts ; failure is a cessation of 
business, from the want of means to carry it 
on ; and bankruptcy is a legal surrender of all 
one's remaining goods into the hands of one's 
creditors, in consequence of a real or supposed 
insolvency. (Crabb: Eng. Synon.) ' 

In sol' vent, o. & . [Pref. in- (2X and Eng. 
solvent (q.v.). ] 

A. As aJjrctive : 

1. Not solvent ; not having sufficient money 
or estate to pay ill debts or to discharge all 
liabilities. 

" If his father was insolvent by his crime, the pun- 
ishment was to go no further than the fault." Bp. 
Taylor : Rule of Conscience, bk. 111., ch. ii. 

2. Insufficient to discharge all the liabilities 
of the owner. 

3. Pertaining or relating to insolvent per- 
Bons : as, an insolvent act. 

B. As subst. : A debtor who Is unable to 
pay all his debts. 

" fntotvmt* consequently wen to be found In every 
dwelling, from cellar to garret" MaeaiOay ; Hit(. 
fng.. ch. ill. 

insolvent debtor's court, s. 

Eng.: A court for the relief of insolvent 
debtors, established in 1813, by the 53 Geo. III. 
c. 102. It continued till 1820. The business 
formerly transacted by the Insolvent Debtor's 
Court is now transferred to the Court of 
Bankruptcy. 

in so m n I a, s. [Lat = want of sleep ; 

sleeplessness*.] 

Path. ; Sleeplessness, or Inability to sleep. 
This disorder is of nervous origin, arising from 
mental anxiety or overwork, and is one of the 
earliest and most marked features of acute 
mania ; the functions of the body are badly 
performed, and severe fever frequently accom- 
panies it. 

In-s6m -nl-OUS, a. [Lat. insomnia); Eng. 
suff. -ous ; Lat. iiisomniosus.] Sleepless ; un- 
able to take the proper amount of sleep ; 
wakeful. 

* In-s6m'-no-len9e, s. [Pref. in- (2), and 

Eng. somnolence.] Sleeplessness. 

" Suspicion's wasting pale intomnolence." 

Taylor : Edwin the Fair, L 2. 

n-s6-mU9h'. adv. [Eng. in, 50, and much,.} 
So ; to such a degree ; in such wise. (Generally 
followed by that, sometimes by of.) 

" Intomuch that there is no nation but Is sprinkled 
with their Ittuguage." Spenter : State of Ireland. 

insouciance (as ah so-syans'), s. [Fr.] 
Carelessness, heedlessness, unconcern, in- 
difference. 



Insouciant (as an so syan), a. [Pr.] 
GuvteH, heedless, un concerned, indifferent. 

" In-BOuT, v.t. [Pret. in- (1), and Eng. soul 
(q.v.).] To place or fix one's soul iu or on ; 
to set one's affections on. 

" Whosoever look't Imt stedfaatly upon ber conld 
not but intouf himself in her." Felt ham : fietolves, pt. 
L, rea 9. 

In' -Span, v.t. [Dut. inspannen = to yoke a 
set of draught oxen : in- = in, and spannen = 
to stretch, to yoke.} To yoke, as draught 
oxen. (South Africa.) 

" Next morning at daybreak we intpanned, and mad* 
a short treck of two boura. " P, QUlmore : Great Thirtt 
Land, ch. x i i. 

* In speak'-a-ble, a. [UNSPEAKABLE.] 

In-spect'. v.t. [Lat. inspecto, freq. of inspicio 

* to look into: in- = in, into, and specio = 
to look ; Fr. inspecter.] To view or look closely 
in to for thepurpose of ascertaining the quality, 
condition, ic., of; to view and examine offi- 
cially : as, To inspect troops, a school, &c. ; to 
examine or view, narrowly and critically; to* 
superintend. 

" They [the Burgomasters] intpect and pursue all tht 
great public works of thecity." Sir W. Tempi* Unite* 
Provincet, ch. ii. 

* In'-sp^ot, . [INSPECT, v.] Inspection, ex- 
amination. 

" Not so the man of philosophic eye. 
And intpect sage." Thornton: Autumn, 1,1*. 

In-Spe'cf -Ing, pr. par., a., & s. [INSPECT, r.J 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. A s adj. : Employed in inspection: M, 
an inspecting officer. 

C. As subst. : Inspection. 

In spec tlon, * in spec clon, t. (Fr. in- 
spection, from Lat. inspectionem, accus. of in- 
spectio = an inspection, from inspectus, j>a. par. 
of inspicio; Sp. inspeccion; Ital. ins)>ezione.] 
The act of inspecting ; a careful, narrow, or 
critical examination or survey, for the purpose 
of ascertaining the quality or condition of 
anything, and of pointing ont errors or de- 
fects ; an official view, survey. 01 examination ; 
superintendence. 

" Which could nerer hare happened If the affairs of 

that kingdom had been under a more equal intpee- 

tion."Burnet : Oum Time (an. 1660). 

T[ The officers of an army inspect the men, 
to see that they observe all the rules that have 
been laid down to them ; a general or superior 
officer has the sujierintendence of any military 
operation. Fidelity is peculiarly wanted in 
an inspector, judgment and experience in a 
superintendent. Inspection is said of things as 
well as persons ; oversight only of persons : 
one has the inspection of books in order to 
ascertain their accuracy ; one has the oversight 
of persons to prevent irregularity. (Crabb : 
Eng. Synon.) 

* In-spec'-tlve, a. [Lat. inspectivus, from 
inspectus, pa. par. of inspicio.] Inspecting; 
pertaining to inspection. 

" Describing the measure* and dimensions of the 
intpeetiae |>arts, order, and position." Evelyn : Archi- 
tectt A Architecture. 

In spec'-tor, . [Lat.. from inspectus, pa. par. 
of inspicio ; Fr. inspecteur; Sp. inspector.] 

1. One who inspects or oversees ; one to 
whose care the superintendence and execution 
of any work is entrusted ; an overseer, a su- 
perintendent ; one who examines officially 
into the quality, condition, &c., of work. 
The title is given to many officials who test 
or examine into the condition and carrying 
ont of matters affecting the public Interest : 
as, an inspector of schools, an injector of 
weights and measures, an inspector of markets, 

fee. 

" With their new ligbt our bold inipector* press 
Like Cham, to show their father's nakedness." 

Denham: Proffrett of Learning. 208. 

2. An officer of police, ranking next below s 
superintendent, and above a sergeant. 

in-Spec -tor-ate, s. [Eng. inspector; -ate.\ 

1. The office of a inspector ; inspectorship. 

2. A body of inspectors or overseers. (An* 

nandale.) 

n-spec -tor-Ship, s. [Eng. inspector; -ship.J 
L The office of an inspector. 
2. The district under the control or super- 
vision of an inspector. 

* 3. An inspector. 

"We think proper to observe here that his tntpe& 
torthip has the most notable talent at a motto." 
Smart: The HUiad. (Notes.) 



fate, tat, tare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, ptft. 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian. , ce = e ; ey = a. qu = kw. 






in *;pectress instalment 



2693 



* In-SpeV-triss, *. [Eng. inspector ; -ess.] 
A female inspector or overlooker. (Wolcot : 
Peter Pindar, p. 39.) 

* In sperso , v.t. ILat. inspersvt, pa. par. of 
ins}>ergo = to sprinkle or scatter upon : in- = 
in, mi, and spargo = to scatter, to sprinkle.] 
To sprinkle, to scatter, to cast up. 

*in sper aion, s. [Lat. inspersio, from in- 
spervus, pa. par. of inspergo.] The act of 
sprinkling or scattering over or upon. 

" With sweet intptrrion of fit baluies, and perfect 
search nf wounds." 

Chapman : Homer; Iliad xl. 

to spex I mus, s. [Lat., 1st pers. pi. perf. 
inilie. of inspicio = to examine, to inspect 

(q.v.).] 

Law : An exemplification, a royal grant ; 
the first word in ancient charters aud letters- 
patent. 

* In sphere', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. 
$]>ltnre (q.v.).] To place or set in an orb or 
sphere. 

" Mv mansion is, where those Immortal shapes 
Of bright nerlal spirits live insphered 
In regions mild." Milton : Comux, S. 

" In-Spir'-a-ble, o. [Eng. inspires); -able.] 
That may" be inspired ; capable of being 
dmwn into the lungs ; inhalable, as air or 
vapours. 

"To these intpirable hurts we liny enumerate those 
they sustain from their expiration of fuliginous 
teams," Harvey : On Contitmption. 

in spl ra'-tton, * In spi ra - ci-oun, *. 
[From Lat. in&fiiratio = inspiration, from 
inspire; Fr. inspiration; Prov. ins/tiroi'to; 
8j". inspiration; Port, insperacao ; Ital. in- 
tj'iraxione.] [INSPIRE.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

t 1. Lit. : In the same sense as II. 1. 

2. Figuratively : 

(1) In the sense II. 2 ; or, in a looser sense. 
n elevating influence conveyed to the mind 
by scene, circumstances surrounding one, con- 
tact with a great mind, Ac. 

(2) The state of receiving such inspiration 
Into the mind. 

(3) The ideas inspired. 

"Hely meu at their death have good intpirationt," 
gkakotp. : Merchant of Venire, L a. 

IL Technically: 

L Phys.: A mechanical movement by which 
air is drawn into the lungs by the increase of 
the thoracic cavity. It is one of two move- 
ments constituting the act of respiration, the 
other being expiration (q.v.). [RESPIRATION.] 

2. Scrip. A Theol. : An extraordinary in- 
fluence exerted by the Holy Spirit on certain 
teachers and writers so as to illuminate their 
understandings, raise and purify their moral 
natures, and impart a certain divine element 
to their utterances, whether oral or written. 
The chief New Testament passages on which 
the doctrine rests are two. The first is thus 
rendered in the A.V., " All scripture [is] given 
by inspiration of God, and [is] profitable for 
doctrine," Ac. ; in the text of the R.V. this 
is "Every Scripture inspired of God [is] 
also profitable for teaching," &c., and in the 
margin "Every Scripture [is] inspired of God 
and profitable," &c. The second is 2 Pet. ii. 
21, " For the prophecy came not in old time 
by the will of man ; but holy men of God spake 
(as they were] moved by the Holy Ghost " 
(A.V.). " For no prophecy ever came (margin, 
was brought) by thewillof man ; but men spake 
from God, being moved by the Holy Ghost " 
(R.V.). The "Scriptures" were, of course, the 
Old Testament. (Cf. also Job xxxii. 8, in which 

Cissage, however, the inspiration referred to 
only that common to all men of intellect.) 
The great majority of Christians hold what is 
termed plenary inspiration viz., that theinflu- 
ence of the Holy Ghost on the sacred speakers 
and writers was such as absolutely to pervade 
their mind and heart, making their utterances 
as divine as if they had come from God with- 
out human instrumentality. With regard to 
the Scripture, a large majority hold what is 
termed verbal inspiration i.e., that each 
word of th Hebrew Testament and the Greek 
New Testament was suggested to the sacred 
penmen by the Holy Ghost. Of this school, 
Gaussen of Geneva was the modern apostle. 
A minority believe that the Scripture writers 
were preserved from all error only when tliey 
Uttered moral and spiritual teaching, whilst in 
numbers, unimportant points of history, &c., 
they might err. A few reduce the inspiration 



of the sacred writers to that possessed by 
Shakespeare, Milton, Cowper, &c. f in other 
words, identify it with what is termed Genius 
(q.v.). [BiBLE.1 

in spi ra'-tion-al, a. [Eng. inspiration ; -al.} 
Of or belonging to or resembling inspiration. 

" Tozer had on that occasion evinced a skill almost 
intpi rational." CornhUl Mag.. April, 1884, p. 4*4. 

in spi ra' tion ist, . [Eng. inspiration; 
-ist.} 

Theol. ; One who holds the doctrine of 
plenary inspiration. 

In-spir'-a-tor-jr, a. [Lat. inspirator ss an 
inspirer ;" Eng. suff. -y,] 
Anatomy : 

1. Gen. : Of or pertaining to inspiration. 

2, Spec. : Aiding in the process of inspira- 
tion. Used of the muscles which enlarge the 
thoracic cavity, as of the external intercostal 
muscles, the parts of the internal intercostals 
placed between the costal cartilages ; the ser- 
ratus magnns, the pectoralis minor, with the 
pectoralis. major, and latissimus dorst. 

in spire , v.t. & i. [Lat. inspiro = to blow into 
or ujton, to breathe into, to inspire : in- = in, 
anl spiro ~ to breathe or blow ; Fr. inspirer; 
Prov., Sp., & Port, inspirar; Ital. inspirare.} 

A. Transitive: 

I. Ordinary language : 

1. Lit. (Of air) : To breathe or blow air into 
a musical instrument with the view of produc- 
ing music. 

2. Figuratively: 

(1) Divinely to breathe into the body with 
creative effect. 

(2) Divinely to breathe into the soul [II. 1]. 
00 To communicate to the soul an animat- 
ing impulse. 

IL Technically: 

1. Phys. : To take, MI air, into the lungs. 
[INSPIRATION, II l.J 

2. Theol. : To breath* true and spiritual 
ideas into the mind and heart. Used of the 
action of the Holy Spirit on the writers of the 
Bible. 

3. Press: To impart a tone, possibly official, 
to the matter of a newspaper or magazine 
article. 

"A paragraph, obviously intpired, appears In ft local 
Journal this evening. 'and runs as follows.** Itaily 
TflfyrajA, Sept. 11, 1884. 

t B. Intrans. : To take air into the lungs. 

in-spired' ( pr. par. & a. 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 
B* As adjective : 

1. Lit. : Breathed in. 

2. Figuratively: 

(1) Acted on or produced by the inspiration 
of the Holy Ghost : as, the inspired writers. 

(2) Produced by inspiration : as, the in- 
spired Scriptures. 

in-spir'-er, . [Eng. inspire); -er.] 

1. Lit. : One who inspires ; specif., the Holy 
Ghost. 

"Inipirer of that holy flame." 

Cowper .' Ouion ; Joy of the Crott. 

2. Fig. : Any source of inspiration. 

"Flow, W elated, flow, like thine inipirer. Beer!" 
Pope; Dunclad, iii. 109. 

In-spir'-ing, pr. par., a., & . [INSPIRE.] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 
B* As adjective : 

1. Breaking in ; inhaling into the lungs. 

2. Infusing or instilling into the mind super- 
naturally. 

3. Infusing spirit, life, or animation ; ani- 
mating, inspiriting. 

B. As subst. : The same as INSPIRATION (q.v.). 

in-splV-tt 



i-spir'-ft, v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. spirit 
(q.v.).] To infuse spirit, life, or animation 
into ; to animate, to rouse, to invigorate, to 
exhilarate. 

" O Dodington ! attend my rural song, 
Stoop to iiiy theme, inijArit ev'ry line." 

Thomton : Summer, 80. 

in spis sate, v.t. [Lat. inspissatus= thick- 
ened : in- (intens.), and spiasatus, pa. par. of 
spisso = to thicken ; spissus = thick.] To 
thicken, to render more dense, to bring to a 
greater consistence by evaporation. 

The sugar doth inti-iuatc the spirit* of the trine." 
Bacon . A'at. But. t \ 72ft. 



t In spls'-sate, a. [INSPISSATE, v.] Thickened, 
rendered more dense, reduced to a greater 
consistence. 

" The ayr of rivers being always grot* and heavy. 
In winter is more intpiuate by reason of the circuiu- 
stfcutcold. 1 -/*. Holland: Plutarch, p. KB. 

t Xn'-spls-sat-ed, a. [Eng. inspissat(e) ; -xi.) 
The same as INSPISSATE (q.v.). 

t in spis-sa'-tlon, s. [Eng. inspissate ; -ion.} 
The act of thickening or reducing to a greater 
consistence and density by boiling or evapora- 
tion ; the state of being so thickened. 

" Attributed to such a deleterious quality in th. Ok* 
f (it-ll. as well as to the itupiitntiun of the aer. "Emir* 
f-'uinifufjinni. pt. 1. 

* in-spyre, v.t. [INSPIRE.) 

Inst., A [See def.] A contraction or abbrevia- 
tion for instant, a term used in correspondence, 
Ac., for the current or present month : &s. He 
will come on the 10th inst., that is, on the 
tenth day of the present mouth. 

in-sta-bH'-r-t& * in sta bill tec, s. [Fr. 

instabilite, from Lat. instabUitatcm, accus. of" 
in*tal> ilitas, from in- = not, and stahilitas = 
stability (q.v.); Sp. instabilidad ; Ital. insta~ 
bilita.] 

1. The quality or state of being instable ; 
want of stability, strength, or firmness in con- 
struction ; liability to give way or fall. 

* 2. Want of firmness or constancy in pur- 
pose ; inconstancy ; fickleness ; inconsist- 
ency of purpose. 

" Lamenting the inttabUitee of the English* people." 
ffaU: Henry IV, (au. 1). 

* 3. Changeableness ; mutability. 

" I mt ability of temper ought to be checked, when It 
disposes men to wander from one scheme of govern- 
ment to another." Additon : Freeholder. 

* in-Bta'-ble, a. [Fr., from Lat instabilt$ t 
from in- = not, and stabilis = stable (q.v.); 
Sp. instable; Ital. instabiU.] 

1. Wanting in stability, firmness, or strength 
of construction ; liable to give way or fall. 

2. Not firm or constant in purpose ; fickle ; 
inconstant ; inconsistent. 

" III this inrtable and uncertain age." B. '. Mon : JsV 
petition (tftlic Seven Churchvi. (Deuic.) 

3. Changeable ; mutable. 

* In 8ta -ble-n^SS, s. [Eng. instable; -ness.} 
The quality or state of being instable ; i u sta- 
bility. 

" The very faculty of reason Is subject to the wuu* 
inttabUiUM."B<necU : Letter*, bk. Iv.. let 1. 

in Stall, in stal, v.t. [Fr. installer, from- 
Low Lat. installo = to install, from Lat. in- = 
in, aud Low Lat. stallum = a stall ; Sp. in-- 
statin- ; Ital. installare.] 

* 1. To place or set in a seat ; to give a seat to. 
2. To set, place, or instate in any office, rank, 

position, or order; to invest with an office, 
charge, or rank with customary ceremonies. 

" A sour reproachful glance 

From those in chief who, cap in hand, installed 
The new professor." Browning : Paracelsus, IT. 

in stal la tion, s. [Fr., from Low Lat. in* 
sUUlatio, from installatus, pa. par. of installo- 
= to install (q.v.); Sp. instalacion ; Ital. t'n- 
stallazione.] 

1. The act of installing ; the act of investing 
with an office, charge, or rank, with customary 
ceremonies, as a Knight of the Garter in the 
Chapel of St. George at Windsor, a dean, pre- 
bendary, or other ecclesiastical dignitary in 
the stall of the cathedral to which he belongs, 
&c. ; the state of being installed, 

" Before hla iuvesture tuiili'tttallatiori therein." 
P. Holland : Suetoniut, p. 127. 

2. The institution or ordination of an or- 
dained clergyman to a charge in the United 
States. (American.) 

3. A set of apparatus, or arrangement of 
machinery or machines. (Generally used of a 
suite of electric lamps.) 

"The total outlay upon the present inttallation, in- 
cluding duplicate steam -engines and electrical m 
cliin.-s, will be about 11,000. Weekly Diipatch. Tun* 
16. 1884. 

In star ment, * in stall ment. s. [Eng. 
install); -ment.] 

* 1. The act of installing or investing with' 
an office, rank, or charge ; installation. 

"The instalment of this noble auke 
In the seat royal." 

Shaketp. : Richard III., iii. L 

* 2. The seat or stall in which one is installed. 

" The several chain of order look you scour ; 
Each fair instalment, cont, and several crest. 

. : Merry Il'i<r< of Windtor, T. 4. 



^; p^ut, JdiW; cat, 96!!, chorus, 9hln, bench; go, ^em; thin, thi^ sin, a?; expect, Xonophon, eyist. pb ' 
tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun; ton. 8lon = ^^n. tlous, clous, sious = shus. -ble. -die. &c. = bel. dftl. 



-ciau. 



2694 



instamp instigator 



3. A part of an entire <lebt or sum of money 
paid or agreed to be paid at a time dittnvnl 
from that at which another part or the balance 
is paid or agreed to be paid ; a part of a sum 
of money paid or to be iaid at a particular 
time : as, A debt is paid by instalment*. 

* In stamp', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. 
stump (q.v.).] To mark or impress by stamp- 
ing, beating, or striking. 

" Inttampt i characters inay send 
Abroad to tliunsitiul*. ttiuuaaiid men's latent." 

Daniel Civil Wart, Tt 87. 

fat stan96, &. [Fr., from Lat. instantiate, 
betug near, urgency, from instant = present, 
urgent, pr. par. of insto = to be at hand, to 

ress, to urge : in- = in, on, and sto to stand ; 
p. instancia ; Ital. instamia, instanza, is- 
tanzia, ittanaa.] 
L Ordinary language : 
1. The state or act of being argent or 
pressing ; importunity ; solicitation ; applica- 
tion. 

" HI* frandea tent he to, at bU in*t<tnc*, 
And prated hem to doii him that pleuice." 

CA<irrr : C. T.. 9,466. 

* 2. An impelling motive, ground, or reason ; 
jifluence ; cause. 

" His (can are shallow, wanting instancr* 

,***;.. . tiicixtrd 111.. UL I. 

* 3. A sign, symptom, or token. 

" Blushing red no tniilty inttwe gave.* 

Shaketp.; Rmpe of Ltteret*, 1,511. 

4. A case occurring ; a case offered aa an 
example, exemplification, or precedent. 

" Tbe value of his inttancet ba still remained unim- 
paired." SI (on : Origin* of Engttth HUtury, P. 182. 

* 5. A pattern ; a sample. 

" Borne pi vcluiu inttanc* of itself." 

Shiketp. : ffamlet, IT. 8. 

6. A sentence ; a saw ; a proverb ; a pro- 
verbial saying. 

" Full of wise MIWI and modem lntt<inrrf. m 

SttaKetp. : Much Ado About forking. II. 7. 

* 7. An argument ; a proof. 

* What tnttantv of the contrary ?' ,SAa*p. : Two 
ffaitlrmnt of Verona, IL. 4. 

* 8. The process or prosecution of a suit. 
The inttann of a cause U Hid to be that judicial 

process wlilcb U made from a contestation of n suit, 
evi-ii to tbe time nfvrouounclng sentence In the cause, 
or till tbe end of three year*." Aylkffe : Parergon, 

IL Scots Law : That which may be insisted 
on at one diet or course of probation. 

1 (1) Cmtset of Instawx : 

Scots Law : Causes which proceed at the so- 
licitation of some party. 

(2) Prerogative Instances: 

Philos. : The name given by Bacon to certain 
facts to be used as means of discovery. In 
the Novum Organttm (bk. iL, aph. 22 ad An.) 
he enumerates twenty-seven kinds, of which 
the chief are: 

1. Solitary Itutances: Examples of the Batne quality 
existing In two bodies otherwise different, or of a 
quality dltferiug lit two bodies otherwise tbe same. 

2. J/iarating Instances.' Exhibiting some property of 
the body i*a*.sinj; from one condition to another ; aa 
coming nearen>erfection or verging towards extinction. 

8. Ottoujptf fnttanrtt: Facts which show eome par- 
ticular i*opertj iu it* highest state of power and 



7. Crucial /twtancet: Instances which, when the 
.ding i> in a state of suspense, lead It to a 



4. Annlaffoui or Parallel Instance*: Having an 
analogy or resemblance in some particulars, though 
exhibiting great diversity in all others. 

ft. Accomf'anying Int'-tnc--*: Those which are always 
found together, as fia>'<e .-uid heat. 

. Bottile Instances: Tbe reverse of Accompanying 
Instances; thus traiiHuareucy and malleability are 
never combined In solids. 

7. CruHoI 
nnderstandit 
decision, perl ------- _________ . ------------ 

the Junction of two roads directing the traveller whk-h 
toUke. 

instance-court; s. 

Law : A branch of the Court of Admiralty, 
distinct from the prize court, and having juris- 
diction in cases of private injuries to private 
rights taking place at sea, or intimately con- 
nected with maritime subjects. 

IT For tire difference between instance and 
example, see EXAMPLE. 

In' -stance, v.t. & i. [INSTANCE, .] 

A. Trans. .- To mention, adduce, or bring 
forward as an instance or example ; to quote, 
give, or offer as exemplifying the matter in 
hand. 

" I shall not instance an abstruse author." Milton : 



*B, Intransitive: 

1. To be exemplified ; to receive illustra- 
tion. 

2. To quote or bring forward instances or 

examples. 



* In'-stan-cy, * in-stan cie, &. [Lat. in- 
ttantia.\ limt&nce, importuuity, solicitation. 

" To whet the ItutanH*. and double the hitreaUes of 
so welcome suiters."//^. Mull: tieuven upon Earth, 

In'-stant, a., *., ft adv. [Lnt. instant = press- 
ing, urgent; Ital. <fc Sp. insUinte = urgent; 
Fr. instant = an instant, a moment.] 
A* As adjective ; 

* 1. Pressing, urgent, solicitons, Importu- 
nate. 

"And they were infant with lood voices, requiring 
that be might be crucified." LJee xxiii. . 

* 2. Immediate; without intervening time ; 
present. 

"That you will take your instant leave." 

SA*f>. . All't Well That And* WHO. IL 4. 

3. Present, current, still going on. (Used 
now only in such expressions as the 10th 
instant.) [IssT.J 

- But is all inXamt. your eternal Muse 
All ages can to any one reduce." 

Waller : To a Perton qf Honour. 

B. As substantive : 

1. A moment of time ; a part of duration in 
which we perceive no succession. 

"At any inttanr of time tbe moving atom Is but In 
one aingle point of the \ii\v."Btuttey ; Senntmtt 

* 2. Any particular time or season. 
"To make tome special inttant special bleat." 

S/mketp. : tionncU, HL IL 

* 3. A pressing application. 

"Upon her instant unto the Romans for aid." 
F. Holland : Cantden, p. t7. 

C. As adv. : Quickly, without delay. 
" Come, Philomelas ! let us initaxt go." 

Thornton : Cattle of Jndolencf, IL 84. 

* in'-stant. v.t. [INSTANT, a.] To urge, to 
solicit earnestly. 

"Pilate . . . inttanted them, as the/ were religions, 
to ahow tiodlv favour. "Bale : Select Works, p. 3i2. 



e i-tf , 9. \VT.instantaniite.} 
The quality or state of being instantaneous ; 

instan tan e o usitess. 

Xn-stan-ta'-ne'-ofts, a. [Formed as if from 
a Lat. instvntaneuSj by Analogy with contem- 
poraneous, etc. ; Fr. instan t anc ; Ital. & Sp. in- 
stantaneo.} Done in an instant; occurring, 
happening, or acting without any perceptible 
lapse of time ; very speedy. 

" They started at the tributary peal 
Of fcutiirmiroi<j thunder." 

tt'ordttforth : Xxeurtiom, bk. vIL 



lnt*utaneou generator, 

ERATOR, II. 5.J 



[GEN- 



^, adv. [Eng. instan- 
taneovs; -ly.\ In an instant, hi a moment of 

time. 

" What I had heard of the raining of frogs came to 
my thoughts, there being reanou to conclude that those 
came from the clouds, or were inttantaneoutly gene- 
rated." /tay.' On the Cneation, pt. it 

^ For the difference between instantaneously 

and directly, see DIRECTLY 

in-tan-ta'-n-oftB~nss, *. [Eng. instan- 
taneous ; -nese.] The quality or state of being 
instantaneous. 

* in stAH-ta-ny, a. [Fr. instantaiU; Ital. & 

Sp. install tuneo, as if f ruin a. Lut.* inatanUineus.] 
Instantaneous ; done or occurring in an in- 

stant. 

"An Intttintnny and entire creation of the world." 
lip, Hull : Ctuet uf Contctmct, dec. lii., case 10. 

in stAn ter, adv. [Lat.] At once, imme- 
diately, without delay. 

" How their souls would sadden tntfanter." 

Hood: Mlu KUnMntegg. 

* in' stant-ly, * in stant-lie, adv. [Eng. 
instant'; -iy.] 

* 1. With importunity, urgency, or solicita- 
tion ; earnestly, diligently, assiduously. 

"I require cf you most initantll* that if herebie 
mysklloeeui -umelent-" Gateoiffme: Tothe Revtrmde 
Jttvinet. 

2. At once, directly, immediately ; without 
delay or loss of time, 



"It is surely unjust to blame him for not inttanfty 
Kiting out, in such circumstances, an armament suffi- 
cient to conquer a kingdom." J/aeauiay: Hat, Eng., 



fitting out, ii 
cientto 

ch. xil. 

H For the difference between instantly and 
directly, see DIRECTLY. 

* in-star, v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. star 
(q.v.).] To spot or stud with, or as with 
stars. 

" And asphodel* irutarred with gold." 

ff'irte : The Ascetic. 

in-state', v.t. [Pref. in- (IX and Eng. state 

(q-v.).J 



1. To put or place in a certain state, posi- 
tion, or rank ; to instal, to establish. 
" Iu UK king's favour be w* BO i 

Drayton. Jfiteriet of < 

2. To invest. 

" Fur lili nosnesslons . . . 
We do intt-ttf and widow you witbal." 

*. .- Metuurtfor Meawn, T. L 



, s. [Eng. instate ; -ment.\ The 
act of establishing; establishment. 

"The inttatemfnt of God's kingdom." Matdie* 
Arnold: LeM Euayt, p. 47. 

* In-stau'-rate, v.t. [Lat. inetoumtus, pa. 
par. of instauro ; Fr. instaurer.] To reform, 
to repair, to renew. 

* Xn-stau-ra'-tion, *. [Lat. tnstavratio, from 
instauratus, pa. par. of insUturo; Fr. intfaura* 
ttott.J The act of renewing or restoring a 
thing to ita former state, aftf-r decay, lapse, or 
dilapidation ; renewal, restoration, reparation. 

* In-Btau'-ra-tor, . [Lat., from instavratus, 
pa. par. of imtauro; Fr. instaurateur.) On 
who renews, repairs, or restores anything to 
its former state, after decay, lapse, or dilapi- 
dation. 

* in sta nre, v.t. [Fr. instaurer, from Lat. 
itutauro.1 To renew, to repair. (Afarton.) 

in stead', * in-stede, adv. [A,S. on stcde = 
in the place.] 

1. In the place, stead, or room. (Followed by 
V-) 

"tnttead at pleasing, make us gape and duse," 

Itrayton: Art o/ Paltry, L 

2. Equal or equivalent to. 

* in-stead-fast, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
steadfast (q.v.).J Not steadfast or firm. 

"And Eptmetheusof inttead/ttst mind. 
Lured to false joys, aud to tbe future blind." 

Cooke : Theogony uf Jfettod. 

* in-steep', v.t. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. steep 
(q.v.).] To steep, to soak, to drench ; to 
macerate under water ; to immerse. 

M Suffolk first died, aud York, all haggled over, 
Conies to him where in gore h lay iwrfee/wd/ 

Mo*u>. / Jlotry T* vL C 

in' step, * in stop, * in stoppo, * in- 
Stup, * in-stuppc, & ( A corrupt, of in- 
stop, or instup, from in- = in, into, and stoop; 
hence = the in-bend of the foot.] 

1. The forepart of the npper side of th 
hnman foot, near its junction with the leg. 

"The peer, whose footman's instep he measures, U 
able to keep hU cbaplalu from a Jail." tturke ; tivetch 
at Bristol. 

2. That part of the hind leg of a horse which 
reaches from the ham to the pastern-joint. 

in sti gate, v.t. [Lat. instigates, pa. per. of 
instigo = to incite, to instigate : in- =ln, on, 
and a root stig = to stick or prick; whence 
sting and stigma; Fr. instiguer; Bp. instigar; 
Ital. instigare.] To incite, to urge on, to set 
on, to encourage, to provoke. (Used chiefly 
or wholly in a bad sense.) 

" He bath now inttigntfd his blackest agents to the 

very extent of their malignity." Warburtcn : LHvint 

Lfgalion. IDed.) 

H For the difference between to instigate 
and to enoovrage, see ENCOURAQK. 

in -Sti gat ing, pr. jr. t a., & s. [INSTIGATE. J 
A. & B. As pr. par. <t particip. adj. : (See 

the verb). 
C, As subst. : The act of inciting, encourag- 

ing, or provoking ; instigation. 

in' sti gat ing-ly, adv. [Eng. instigating; 
-iy-} Uy instigation ; incitingly. 

in-sti ga'-tion, ' in-sti-ga-ci-on,^. [Fr., 
Jrom Lat. instiyatio, from inxtigatus, pa. par. 
of inst igo ; Sp. instigacion ; Ital. instigasione.] 

1. The actof instigating, urging (ir inciting, 
especially to evil ur crime; incitement, or 
impulse to evil ; temptation. 

" At their tuftigatimi departing from his milder 
designs. "Jortin : Jlemark* on Xoclet. But. 

2. That which serves to instigate or indU; 
an incitement. 

" Such iniligationt have often been dropped." 

ShaXeip. : Julius Catur. it 1. 

Xn'-Btt-ffiv-tSr, *. [Lat., from insttgatus, pa, 
par. of instigo = \io instigate (q.v.); Fr. insti~ 
gateur; Sp. instigador.] Oue who instigates, 
incites, or encourages another to evil or wic- 
kedness ; a tempter, an ineiter to evil. 

" Being himself the first mover and ingriyator of 
that Injustice." Burke: Chary* ayainst Warren 



Ate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, po>. 
or. wore, wplt work, who, son ; mute, cub. ciire, unite, cur. rule, full ; try, Syrian, w, ce = e. ey = a. qn = k w. 



instil institutionary 



2635 



In stil, vt [Fr. inatillcr, from Lat. instil lo 
= to ponrin by drops : i>i- = in, into, and stil/o 
= to drop ; gtUlu = a drop ; 8p. instilur ; ItaL 



1. Lit. : To pour in or infuse by drops. 

"The Juice of It Mns boiled with oile. and BO 
dropped or itittUleJ into the ljnd, is good fur tlie 
paioes thereof." A Holland : Pliole, bk xx., ch. xvii. 

2. f lg, .* To Infuse slowly ami gradually 
Into the mind or feelings ; to insinuate or im- 
plant gradually ; to cause to be imbibed. 

"Tlie Earl of Nottlncrmin was, at the stand time, 
inxtilliity into the kin'.; jealuunlea of i\iem."Burnet : 
Hist. Own Time (an. !.*). 

in-Stll-la'-tlon, s. [Fr., from Lat. instiflatin. 
troiii instittattts, pa. par. of insWfa to instil 
(q.v.); Sp. isiJ"ci<m ; Ttal. insfiffruioue.] 

I. Lit : The art of pouring in or infusing 
by drops or small quantities. 
IL Figuratively: 

1. The act of infusing into or Implanting in 
the mind by degrees. 

2. That which is Instilled or Infused into 
the mind. 

" Hake the draught of 1 If e sweet or bitter by Impel* 
ceptib'i itutiUatiuru." A'amUer, No. 72. 

In'-Stfl-la-tor, *. [Lat. instWatus, pa. par. 
of instilln = to instil (q.v.).J One who instils 
cr infuses ; an instiller. 

in stir la-tor-y, a. [Ut, instiUat(us), pa. 
par. of in&i illo ; Eng. adj. suff. ory.] Relating 
or pertaining to instillation. 

In-stiET-ler, . [Eng. instil ; -er.J One who 

instils or infuses. 

" Never was there ... 00 artful an trutiller of loose 
principle* my tutor. Skelton : fieitm Revealed, 

In-stil'-ment, *. [Eng. instil ; -went] 

1. The act of instilling. 

2. That which is instilled. 




n-stim-u-la'-tion, *. riNsrmuLATE.] The 

act of stimulating, inciting, or urging for- 
ward ; instigation. 

jo'-stihct, a. & s. [From Fr. instinct or Lat. 
instinctus = instigation, impulse ; instinguo=z 
to instigate, incite, or impel ; Sp. & Port, in* 
ttinto; Ital. insteiito, istinto.} 

A. At adj. : Animated, excited, moved, im- 
pelled, nrged, or stimulated from within, 
(Generally followed by with.) 

B. As subst.: A natural Impulse leading 
animals even prior to all experience to perform 
certain actions tending to the welfare of the 
Individual or the perpetuation of the species, 
apparently without understanding the object 
at which they may be supposed to aim, or 
deliberating as to the best methods to em- 
ploy. In many cases, as in the construction 
of the cells of the bee, there is a perfection 
about the result which reasoning man could 
not have equalled, except by the application 
of the higher mathematics to direct the opera- 
tions carried out. Mr. Darwin considers that 
animals, in time past as now, have varied in 
their mental qualities, and that those varia- 
tions are inherited. Instincts also vary slightly 
in a state of nature. This being so, natural 
selection can ultimately bring them to a high 
degree of perfection. 

"That there Is such a thing therefore as {nttlnrt lu 
brute auimaU. I Umik it is very plain ; that U to say, 
there is an lustlgattoti or impetus ID them to do such 
things without counsel, deliberation, or acquired 
knowledge, a* according to our reason aud best consul- 
tation, we cniiiiut but approve to be fittest to be done. 
Which principle In general scaliger seems to parallel 
to divine inspiration. In*tinctu dicitur a naturu, 
lAcut a /Hit gmattH,"Mor; Immortality tfttutioul, 
bk. Hi., ch. xlfl. 

'Instinct', tJ.f. [INSTTNCT, .] To impress as 
by an animating power or Influence ; to im- 
press as an instinct. 

" What native Inextinguishable beauty must be tin- 
pressed and mtttncted through the whole." BtntUy : 
teuton. (Pref.) 

' tn-stinc'-tion, *. [Lat. inatinctus, pa. par. 
of instinguo = to instigate.] Instinct, inspi- 
ration. 

"Tulll ID his Tusciilane questions suppoeeth, that a 
poete can not abundantly expresse verses sufficient* 
and complete . . . without celestial intt irtetton." 
Sir T. Etyot. Oovernour. bk. i., ch. xiii. 

In stlnc'-tlve, a. [Eng. instinct; -Ive; Fr. 
iiiasc, iwfinctir, fein. Distinctive.] Prompted by 



instinct (q.v.); produced without deliber iti >! 
or instruction or experience ; spontausous ; 
impulsive. 

" She ha* lost 

Much of her vigilant instinctive dread, 
Not needful here." Cotcper : Ttuft, Hi. S40. 

in-sttnc'-tlve-l$r, adv. [Eng. instini-tive ; 
-ly.] In an instinctive manner; by instinct ; 
by natural impulse. 

" From that low bench, rising ituHncttvtry, 

I turned aside." Worttoworth . Excursion, bk. L 

* In-Stlric -tiV-I-tjf, s. [Eng. instinctive); 
ity,} 'Ihe quality or state of being instiiuaive 
or prompted by instnirt. 

"There la irritability, or, a letter word, inittnctMty 
to animals. "Coleridje: Table Talk, May 2, 18:W. 

* JEn'-8tinct-iy, culv. [Eng. instinct ; -ly.} In- 
stinctively ; by instinct. 

in stip' u-late, a. [Fref. in- (2), and Eug. 
stipulate' &. (q.v.).] 
Bot. : Destitute of stipules. 

in sti tor' i al,a. [Mod. Lat. ins(itor(genit. 
instltori(s) = a" consignee or factor; Eng. suif. 
al.} (See the compound.) 

institorlal power, s. 

Scots Law : The charge given to a clerk to 
manage a shop or store. 

In'-stl tute, v.t. [Lat. institutes, pa. par. of 
instituo : in- in, and statuo to place ; status 
= a position; Fi 1 . instituer; Sp. instltutir ; 
Ital. instituire.] 
L Ordinary Language: 

1. To set up, to establish, to ordain, to 
enact, to put in force. 

"To intdtnte and defende a false worship without 
God's worde. " Joy 6 : Expatidon qf Daniel, lit. 

2. To originate, to establish, to found. 

"The end for which all gorerninenta had been in- 
ttitutedSMncuulag: Hi*t.En>j., ch. xiv. 

3. To set in operation ; to comuienee, to 
start, to begin : as, To institute an inquiry. 

* 4. To ground or establish in principles ; 
to teach, to instruct. 

*' A painful school in aster that hath In hand 
To institute the fiower of all the land." 

Sylvester : Dtt Bart<u. week 1., day 7. 

* 5. To nominate, to appoint ; as to an office. 

" We iiwtitutv your grace to be our regent" 

Shaketp. : 1 Henry VI., IT. t. 

IL Eccles. : To invest with the spiritual part 
of a benefice or cure of souls. 

"If the bishop hath no objections, but admits the 

G trim's presentation, the clerk so admitted is next to 
inititu'e-l by him ; which h a kind of investiture 
of the spiritual oart of the benefice; for by institu- 
tion the care of the souls of the i>arish is committed 
to the charge of the clerk." Blackttone : Comment., 
bk. L, oh. S. 

Tf To institute is to form according to a 
certain plan ; to establish is to fix in a certain 
position what has been formed ; tv found is to 
lay the foundation ; to erect is to make erect. 
Laws, communities, and particular orders, 
are instituted ; schools, colleges, and various 
societies, are established; a college is founded 
and consequently erected : but a tribunal is 
erected, but not founded. (Crabb : Eng. Synon.) 

in'-Stt-tute, *. [Lat. instittitnm = that which 
is instituted or established ; neut. sing, of 
iiutitutus, i>a. par. of instituo = to institute 
(q.v.) ; Fr. institut ; Ital. & Sp. institute.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

* 1. That which is established, ordained, or 
settled ; an established law or order. 

"Greek institu to* require 
The nearest kindred on the funeral stage 
The dead to lay." Glover: Athmaid, xxvt 

* 2. A precept, a maxim, a principle. 
"Thou art pale in nightly studies grown, 

To make th' Stoick intCitutes thy own." 

Drj/den ; I'ertitu, T. 

*3. The act of instituting, ordaining, or 
establishing ; institution. 

"Water, sanotify'd by Christ's intitut t thought 
little enough to wash oft the original spot." Milton : 
Oftht tteform, in Knffland, bk. U 

4. A scientific body ; a society or body esta- 
blished under certain rules or regulations for 
the promotion or furtherance of some par- 
ticular object; a literary or philosophical 
society or association ; specif, in France ap- 
plied to the principal society of this kind, 
formed in A.D. 179} by the union of the four 
existing royal academies. 

5. The building in which such a society 
meets. 

6. (PI.) A book of elements or priin-ipl-s ; 
specif., a book containing the elum:Mt.s or 
principles of a system of jurisprudence : as, 
The Institutes of Justinian. 



II. Scotj IMW : The person to whom the 
estate is first given by dispensation or limita- 
tion. 

U Institutes of Medicine: That department of 
the science of medicine which attempts to 
account philosophically for the various phe- 
nomena that present themselves during health 
as well as in disease ; the theory of medicine 
or theoretical medicine. 

in'-stf-tut-er, s. [EK. institute); -r.] 

I. One who institutes, establishes, or or- 
dains. 
*" 2. An instructor, a teacher. 

" Neither did he this for want of better Instruction!, 
having had the leamedeat and wiaect man reputed of 
all Britain the inttltuter of his youth." MUlutt : 
Sittory of England, bk. lii. 

in-8tl-tu'-tion, *. IFr., from Lat. iiustitutio, 
from inatitittus, pa. var. of instit no ; Sp. ijutti- 
tucion ; Ital. instituzione.} 
L Ordinary language ; 

1. The act of instituting, establishing, or- 
daiuing, or enacting. 

" There is 110 right in this partition, 
Ne was it so by intficutiou 
Ordained first" 

Spenser: Mother Rubbtrdt Tat, 144 

2. The act of originating, establishing, or 
founding; establishment, foundation. 

3. The act of commencing, or setting in 
operation : as, the institution of an inquiry. 

* 4. Instruction, teaching, education. 

"A short catechiam for the inttttutian of young 
perions in the Christian religion." Jerenifi Ttti/lor. 

5. That which is instituted, established, or 
settled; an established order, law, regulation, 
or custom; that which is enjoined by au- 
thority to be observed ; an enactment. 

"The bad institutions which lately afflicted our 
country." J/acauIay : Silt, Eng.. ch. L 

6. A society or association established for 
the promotion or furtherance of some parti- 
cular object, public, political, social, or educa- 
tional ; an institute. 

"About 750 students, mostly elementary teachers, 
availed themselves of the privileges afforded by this 
institution. " Batty fffwt, Sept. 12, 1881. 

7. The building in which such a society 
meets. 

* 8. That which instructs ; a system of the 
elements or rules of any art or science ; a 
textbook. 

9. That which forms a prominent feature in 
social or national life. 

II. Technically: 

1. Eccles. ; The act or ceremony of institut- 
ing or investing a clerk with the spiritual 
part of a benefice, as the cure of souls. 

" The certificate of the triers stood in the place both 
of institution and of induction.." Mucuulay : ffist. 
Xng.. ch. ti. 

2. Law: 

(1) English, dV. (PI.) : Laws, rites, and cere- 
monies enjoined by authority as permanent 
rules of conduct or of government. 

(2) Civil Law: The appointment of a debtor 
as heir of a testator. 

3. Missions: A Christian educational estab- 
lishment, with a school and college depart- 
ment, for teaching young Hindoos ami Mnham- 
madans the religion and science of the West, 
chiefly through the medium of the English 
tongue. (Chiefly Anglo-Indian.) 

institution-system, s. pi. 

Missions : The system of missionary opera- 
tions which directs its main effort to the 
founding and maintenance of ,an institution, 
II. 3., in place of to street preaching. The Kev. 
Dr. Alexander Duff, Missionary of the Church 
of Scotland in Bengal, originated this method 
of missionary operations in 1830, by founding 
an institution at Calcutta. Othersuch institu- 
tions followed at Bombay, Madras, Poouah, 
Nagpore, &c. [MISSIONS.] 



a. [Eng. institution; -ai.} 

1. Pertaining or relating to institutions ; 
instituted or enjoined by authority. 

"Fictions, of which we meet with maay examples 
In the aarly Roman history, and which we may call 
institutional legends." tmait : CVud Early Human 
Bitt. (1855), it. 46. 

2. Pertaining or relating to elementary 
knowledge ; elementary. 



*fcl-ti-tu'-tion-9Hr#, a. [Eng. i 
wry.] 

1. Pertaining or relating to institutions; 
institutional. 



p6ut, Jrffcrl; cat, 96!!, chorus, chin, bcn<?h; go, fcem; thin, $hls; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -lag 
-ten. -tin* = shan. -tion, -sion shun; -tion, -*ion - zhun. -tious, -clous, -sloua = shus. -tole, -die, &c. =- b$I, d*L 



2696 



Institutist instrument ary 



1 Pertaining to or containing the first prin- 
ciples or elements ; elementary. 

"That it was not oat of fashion Aristotle declareth 
in his Politicks, among the institutional^ rule* of 
yonth." ArowiM. 

3. Pertaining to institution to a preferment. 
(MiK Austen : Mansfield Park, ch. xlvii.) 

* In'-VtI-tat-XJrtt * [Eng. institute), s. ; -itt.] 
A writer of institutes or elementary rules and 
instruction. 

" Green (mil the instituttsti would persuade ui to be 
Ml effect of an over-hot stomach." Harvey On Con- 
sumption. 

*In'-*ti-tUt-Ive, a. [Fr. institute/; from Lat. 
institutes, pa. par. of instituo ; Ital. & 8p. in- 
stittttivo.] 

1. Tending or intended to institute or esta- 
blish. 

2. Instituted by authority, established ; de- 
pending on institution. 

"[H| prefers a special reason of charity before AH 
itutUunvc decency.! J/UUm : Doct. t Du. of Divorce. 
bk. 11.. cb. v. 

* In' sti tut ive-ly, adv. [Eng. instttutive; 
-ly.} In accordance with au institution. 

In'-Btl-tU-tor, s. [Lat., from institutus, pa. 
par. of instituo=to institute (q.v.) ; Fr. in- 
itituttur; Ital. institutore.] 
I. Ordinary Lanyuage : 

1. One who institutes, establishes, or enacts. 
"Tbe contriver and instUutorot that law La things 

MM.*-3Uf Orig. O/ Mankind, p. 348. 

2. One who establishes or found*, as an 
order, a society, &c. 

" The wise instUutors of government . . . thought 
religion necessary tn civil obedience," Btntlry ser- 
mons. >0r. l. 

*3. One who instructs or educates ; an in- 
structor. 

" The two great alms which every institutor of 
youth should mainly and intentionally drive at" 
Walker. (Todd.) 

IL Eccles. : An ecclesiastical dignitary ap- 
pointed by the bishop to institute a clerk Into 

a benetice and cure of souls. 

* in stitu tress, *. [Eng. institutor; -ess.] 
A foundress. (Archival., xxL 549.) 

* in-stop', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. stop 
(q.v.).] To stop, to close up. 

" With I -oiling pitch, another near at han>l, 
From friendly Sweden bruu#iit, the seams insteps." 
Dryden: Annus .virtibilis, cxlvii. 

* in store , v.t. [Pref. in- (I), and Eng. store 
(q.v.).J To store up, to comprehend, to com- 
prise, to contain. 

"And if ther be oiiy otliir maundement. It IB in- 
ttortd in this word, thou schalt loue thi neighbore a* 
tbl ult."H'wliffc; Rontant xii. 

f in strat i f ied, a. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. 

stratified, pa. pur. of stratify (q.v.).J 

Geol. : Stratified within something else; 
interstratified ; not the suine as unstratiGed 
(q.v.). 

In stream ing, s. [Pref. in- (1); Eng. 
stream, and stiff, -ing.] An access, a flowing 
in. (G. Eliot : Daniel Deronda, ch. xl.) 

In struct, v.t. [Lat. instructus, pa. par. of 
imtruo = to build in, to put in order, to in- 
struct : in- = in, into, and strtto = to build ; 
Pi 1 , ft Ital. instruire; Sp. instruir.] 

1. Ordinary Language : 

* 1. To put or draw up in order ; to prepare, 
to arrange. 

" If any did oppose instructed swannes 
Of men immayl'd." 
Browne : Britannia's Pastoral*, bk. ii., s. 4. 

2. To teach ; to inform the mind of ; to 
educate; to indoctrinate. 

" [She] taking by the hand that faeries sonne, 
Can him instric-' in every good Wheat 
Of love anil righteousness*. Spenser ; f. Q., I. x. 33. 

3. To bid, to enjoin, to direct; to furnish 
with orders or instructions. 

"She, being before imtrttct>-tl of her mother, said, 
Give me here John Baptist's bead on a charger." 
Matthew xiv. 8. 

H Technically: 

1. Eng. Law : To convey information as a 
Client to an attorney, or an attorney to coun- 
sel ; to authorize one to appear as advocate for 
another. 

" Mr. 8. appeared for the debtor, and stated that a 
balance would be left sufficient to pay a composition of 
5*. in the pound, which he was instructed to offer." 
Jorfly A'evx, Sept. 12, 1884. 

2. Scots IMW : To adduce evidence in sup- 
port of; to confirm, to vouch, to verify : as, 
To instruct a claim against *. bankrupt. 



* in struct', a. [INSTRUCT, .] 

1. Furnished, equipped. 

" Ships instruct with oars." Chapman. 

2. Instructed, taught. 

" Where the Boules might be kept for a space to be 
taught and instruct." Tyndatt : Workes. p. 486. 

In-fltrao'-ter, *. [INSTRUCTOR.] 

1 in struc toss, <. {Eng. instruct; -ess.] An 
instructress. (Braithwaite : Eng. Gentleman. 
1>. 4:1.) 

* in struc'-ti-ble, a. FEng. instruct; -able.] 
That may or can be instructed ; teachable, 
docile ; capable of instruction. 

in struc tion, s. [Fr., from Lat. instructio 
a I'lacing in order, from instructus, pa. par. 
otinstruo; Sp. instruccion ; Ital. instruzione.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

* 1. The act of furnishing or equipping ; 
equipment 

2. The act of instructing, teaching, or in- 
forming the understanding ; education, infor- 
mation. 

"Induced to recyae perfect instruction In these 
sciences.' 1 Mr T. Bigot : Goeernour, bk. L. ch. vtti. 

3. That which is communicated for the pur- 
l>ose of instructing or teaching; a precept, a 
lesson. 

" In every rill a sweet instruction flows." 

Young : Love of fame, sat li. 

4. Direction, order, command, injunction ; 
information or directions how to act in parti- 
cular cases. 

"U Is possible that Kldd may at tint have meant to 
act in accordance with In* instructions" Macaulay : 
attt. Eng.. cb. xxv. 

IL Eng. Law (PI.): Information conveyed 
by a client to a solicitor, or by a solicitor to 
counsel for the purpose of carrying on legal 
proceedings. 

"Counsel had been engaged* for the defendant, but 

time had uot allowed of proper instructions to be 
given." Daily Ttt^graph, Sept. 11. 1884. 

T Instruction is a piling up more or less know- 
ledge viewed as if it were brought into the 
mind from without ; education is the develop- 
ment of the mental powers themselves, or 
whatever may tend thereto. The latter is in- 
calculably the more important of the two. 

* in struc tion-al, a. [Eng. instruction ; 
al.] Pertaining to instruction or education ; 

educational. 

Jn-strtic'-tlve, a. [Eng. instruct; -ive ; Fr. 
instruct^.] Conveying or intended to convey 

instruction. 

" Say, Memoi? thou. from whose unerring tongue 
Instructive flows the aulnutted song." 

Falconer : Sltipwreck, ill 

3tn-truc'-tive-ly, adv. [Eng. instructive; 
-ly.] In an instructive manner; so as to con- 
vey instruction. 

ln-struc -tive-ness, s. [Eng. instructive; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being in- 
structive ; power of conveying instruction. 

in struc tor, s. [Lat, from instructs, pa. 
par. otinstruo; Fr. instructeur; Ital. instrwt- 
tore; Sp. instructor.] One who teaches or 
instructs ; a teacher ; one who imparts know- 
ledge to another. 

"She hath beene the instructor of his wife, and 
causer of a great parte of his felicitie." Vines: In- 
struction of a Christian Woman, bk. U., ch. xiv. 

* In- struc -tress, * in-strac'-trce, *. 

[Eng. instructor; -ess, -ice.] A female who 
instructs ; a preceptress, a tutoress. 

" Knowledge also, as a perfeyte fnstntctrtet and 
" -:TheG " *" ' 



maatresse." Sir T. Slyot : 



e Governour, bk. iiL.ch. iit 



in stru ment, 5. [Fr., from Lat instru- 
mentnm t from instrtto = to build up, to pre- 
pare ; Fr. & Sp. instmmento. ] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. That by means of which work is done or 
anything is effected ; a tool, a utensil, an im- 
plement. 

2. A scientific or mechanical apparatus or 
contrivance : as, optical instruments, astro- 
nomical instruments. 

3. A mechanical contrivance, constructed 
for giving out musical sounds, as an organ, a 
pianoforte, &c,. 

" By virtue of that sacred instrument, 
His harp." Wordsworth : Excursion, bk. IL 

4. An agent, an author. 

'* Yet was not Conrad thus by nature sent 
To lead the guilty guilt's worst instrument," 
Byron : Coriair, i. U. 



5. One who is subservient or helps towarda 
the execution of any plan or purpose ; a tooL 

" Kftsooue* supposed him a person meet 
Of his revenge to make the instrument." 

3p*nter: F. V-. H- ill. U. 

6, The means by which any object or pur- 
pose is effected. 

" Improve* the art* and instrument* of rage." 
Waller : Instructions to a Painter. 3M. 

II. Technically: 

\. L<iw : A document or writing, as the 
means of giving formal expression to an act ; 
a writing expressive of some act, contract, 
process, or proceeding, as a deed, a contract, 
a writ, &c. 

" Burnet however had, under the authority of thta 
instrument, been consecrated." Macaulatj : Bitt. 
Eng., ch. xi. 

2. Music : Any mechanical contrivance for 
the production of sound. The musical instru- 
ment employed are divided into the following 
classes stringed, wind, and pulsatile. The 
stringed instruments are the pianoforte and 
older instruments of its kind which are played 
by means of a clavier or key-board ; the guitar 
and others whose strings are struck or plucked 
by the fingers ; and the violin class flayed 
with a bow. Wind instruments are of wood 
or metal ; those that art- of wood in ordinary 
use are the flute, piccolo, hautboy, cor anglais, 
clarionet, l>asset horn, and liassoon ; those that 
are of metal are the horn, trumpet, cornet-a- 
piston, trombone, pphicleide, saxhorn, bom- 
bardon, &c. The pulsatile or percussion instru- 
ments are the kettle-drums, great drum, side 
drum, triangle, cymbals, and tambourine. 

^[ Instrument and tool are both employed tr> 
express the means of producing an end ; they 
differ principally in this, that the former is 
used mostly in a good sense, the latter only in 
a bad sense, for persons. Individuals in high 
stations are often the instruments in bringing 
about great changes in nations ; spies and in- 
formers are the worthless tools of government. 

in stru ment'-al, a. [Fr., from Lat. instru- 
mentvm; Sp. & "Port, instrumental; Ital. in- 
strumental.] 

1. Conducive as an instrument or means to 
some end or object ; contributing or tending 
to contribute to the promotion or carrying out 
of an object ; helpful, serviceable, aiding. 

" From instrumental causes proud to draw 
Conclusions retrograde." Cowper; Task, lit 238, 

2. Pertaining to, or produced by instru- 
ments, esiecially musical instruments: as, in- 
strumental music, as distinguished from vocal 
music, which is produced by the human voice. 

" With heavenly touch of instrumental sounds." 
Mitten: P. L., Iv. 686. 

* In stru ment al ise, v.t. [Bag. instru- 
mental; -ise.] To "make, to build up, to con- 
struct. 

"Ood first instrumentalited* perfect body." Adamt: 
Works, Hi. H7. 

in-stru-menf-al-ist, s. [Eng. instrument- 
al; -ist.] One who plays upon a musical in- 
strument. 

" How seldom 1s It that English instrumentalists *n 
permitted tbe opportunity of appearing as soloists." 
Athenaum, Nov. 1883. p. 575. 

in strumen-tal'-I-ty, s. [Eng. instntmei* 
tal ; -ity.] The quality or state of being in- 
strumental; subordinate or auxiliary agency 
towards an end ; means, agency. 

"The government was able, through their instru- 
mentality, to fine, imprison, pillory, and mutilate 
without restraint. -Xacaulay. Hist. Eng.. ch. L 

* in stru ment al ly, adv. [Eng. instru- 
mental; -ly.] 

1. By means of an instrument or instruments. 

"I took the height of It instrumental^, standing 
near the sea side." /ioyle : Works, v. 709. 

2. In the nature of au instrument ; as means 
to an end. 

" As often as it Is supposed to act inttrumentatts/ 
for our Justification." Jfetson : Life of B&. Bull. 

3. With instruments of music. 

* in stru ment al ness, s. [Eng. instru- 
mental; -ness.] The quality or state of being 
instrumental ; instrumentality ; usefulness a* 
means to an end. 

" The instrumentalnets of riches to works of charity." 
Hammond. (Richardson.) 

In-Stra-me'ntf-ar-y, a. [Eng. instrument; 
ary.} 

1. Ord. Lang. : Conducive towards an end 
or object ; instrumental. 

2. Scots Law : Of or pertaining to a legal in- 
strument, as instrumentary witnesses. 



ftte, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, lather ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, p* 
*>r, wore, wolf, work, who, sin ; mute, cab, cure, unite, oar, rale, fall ; try, Syrian, w, o> = e ; ey = a. qa = kw. 



_ 



instrumentation insulator 



2697 



ItVStru-men-ta'-tlon, . [Eng. instrument; 
-at ion.] 
* L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of employing as an instrument. 

2. Instruments collectively ; a combination 
or set of instruments used as a means to an 
end ; agency, instrumentality. 

H Music: 

1. The art of using several musical instru- 
ments in combination ; also, the style or treat- 
ment of orchestral instruments with a view to 
the production of special effects. [ORCHES- 
TRA, SCORING.] 

2. The art or manner of playing on an in- 
strument. 

3. The music arranged for performance by 
number of instruments in combination. 

"For the careful workmanship shown in the treat- 
inent of Scotch melodies, and for Its effective inttru- 
mentation." Atheiiatum, April 28, 1883, p. M9. 

* In'-stru-ment-Ist, s. [Eng. instrument; 
-int.] A performer upon a musical instrument ; 
an instrumentalist. 

* in style', * in-stile, v.t. [Pref. in- (i), 
and Eng. style (q.v.).] To style, to call, to 
name, to entitle. 

" She Frosh well after bight, then Black water tntfyled." 
Drayton : Poly-Olbion. B. 19. 

* In-suaV-i-t^ (u as w) f s. [Pref. in- (2), 

and Eng. suavity (q.v.).J Want of suavity ; 
unpleasantness ; disagreeableness. 

"All fears, griefs, suspicion*, Inibonitiea, intua.fi- 
tiM." Burton: Anat. of Melancholy, p, 215. 

* In sub J6c tion. s. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. subjection (q.v.)/] Want of subjection 
or obedience ; disobedience. 

* in-siib-merg'-i'-ble. a. [Pref. in- (2); Eng. 
submerge, and suff. -able.] Incapable of being 
submerged. 

11 in sub mi ssion, s. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. submission (q.v.).]] Want of submission 
or subjection ; disobedience. 

In sub ord -f-nate, a. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. subordinate (q.v.).] Not subordinate ; 
not submissive to authority ; disobedient, un- 
ruly, riotous. 

in sub ord I-na -tion, s. [Pref. in- (2), 

and Eng. subordination (q.v.).J The quality 
or state of being insubordinate ; disobedience, , 
disorder, unruliness. 

"Acts of astonishing insubordination marked the 
whole line of march." Edin. lire., Jan., 1871, p. 26. 

* in siib stan tial (ti as an), * in sub 
stan tiall (ti as sh), . [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. substantial (q.v.) ; Fr. insubstantial.] 
Not substantial ; not real ; unsubstantial ; 
having no substance ; unreal. 

" Like this insubstantial! pageant faded." 

Shaketp, : Tempett, iv. 1. 

In-sub-stan-ti-al -I-t^(tiasshJ), . 

[Pref. in- (2), and Eng. substantiality (q.v.).] 
Unsubstantially. 



* In-SUC-ca -tion, s. [Lat. insuccatus, pa. 
par. of insiicco= to dip in, to moisten in- = 
in, into, and succus = juice, moisture.] Tlie 
act of soaking or moistening ; maceration ; 
solution in the juice of herbs. 

* In-SUC-oess'-ful, a. [UNSUCCESSFUL.] 

In suck en, a. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. 
tucken (q.v.).] 

Scots Law : A term applied in the servitude 
of thirlage to those multures exigible from 
the suckeners or parties astricted to the mill. 
These multures, having been originally com- 
posed In part of a premium to the proprietor 
Of the mill, exceed in amount what may be 
called the market value of grinding. 

* in sue', v.i. [ENSUE.] 

in sue-tude (u as w\s. [Lat. insuetudo, 
from insuttus = unaccustomed.] The quality 
or state of being unaccustomed or unused ; 
unusualness ; absence of use or custom. 

tn-suf'-fer - a- ble, o. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
sufferable (q.v.); Sp. insufrible ; Ital. insoffri- 
Mk.] 

1. Intolerable, insupportable, unendurable ; 
not to be borne or endured, as insufferable 
heat. 

" Perccirimg still her wrongs insufferable were.** 
Drayton : Poly-Olbian, s. vL 

2. Disgusting beyond endurance; detestable. 



in siif '-fer-a-ba?, adv. [Eng. insufferable) ; 
ly.] In an insufferable manner or degree ; to 
a degree beyond endurance. 



. 

"For want of being very good, absolutely and in- 
fferably bad." Surd : Harac* ; Art of Paltry. (Oom- 
eutj 



tuffe 



* in suf f Jc -ien9e, ln-siif-f io-ien-c^ 

(o as sh), * in suf fis aunce, 5. [Lat. in- 
fufficientia, from insufficient = insufficient ; in- 
= not, and sufficiens = sufficient (q.v.); Sp. 
insuficiencia ; Fr. insuffisance ; ItaL insuffi- 
cienzia. ] 

1. The quality or state of being insufficient, 
deficient, or inadequate ; deficiency, inade- 
quateness, shortcoming. 

"Owing, not to any absolute insufficiency of the 
light of nature itself." Clark : Evidence*, prop. 7. 

2. Want of capacity, ability, power, strength, 
or skill ; incapacity, incompetence. 

"We should address ourselves to him by prayer, to 
acknowledge our own insufficiency." GlanviU: Ser- 
man*, ser. !. 

m suf fic lent (c as sh), * in suf fis 

aunce, a. jLat. insufficient, from in- = not, 

and sufficient = sufficient (q.v.) ; Ital. & Port. 

insufficiente ; Sp. insujiciente ; Fr. insuffisant] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Not sufficient ; deficient ; inadequate to 
to any need, use, or purpose. 

" But a single hand Is insufficient for such a harvest" 
Dryden : Etnnora. (Dedfc.) 

2. Wanting in capacity, ability, power, 
strength, or skill ; incapable, incompetent. 

II. Chancery usage (of an answer): Not reply- 
ing to the specific charge. 

in-suf-flc' ient-iy (o as sh), adv. [Eng. 
insufficient; -ly.] In an insufficient manner or 
degree ; not sufficiently ; inadequately ; with- 
out proper or needful ability, capacity, or 
power. 

" As insufficiently, and to say truth, as Imprudently 
did they provide by their contrived liturgies. Fj JrtttoH.- 
Animad, on the Remonxt. Defence. 

* In suf flate , v.i. [Lat. insuffiatus, pa. par. 
of insuffio = to breathe upon.] To breathe or 
blow upon anything. 

in suf fla tion, s. [Lat. insuffiatio, from in- 
suffiatus, pa. par. of insuffio : in- = in, on, and 
su$o = to blow or breathe.] 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : The act of blowing or 
breathing upon. 

"That divine insitflation, which Christ has used to 
them In conferring the Holy Ghost." Hammond : 
Workt, 1. *9. 

2. Rom. Cath. Church. : The breathing, by the 
priest administering baptism, into the face of 
the recipient of the sacrament, to signify the 
new spiritual life which is to be breathed into 
his soul. 

in' suf fla-tor, s. [INSUFFLATE.] An instru- 
ment for blowing burned alum or other powder 
into the laryux or other deep-seated part. 

* ln-suit-a-bfl'-I-t& a. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. suitability (q.v.).] Want or absence of 
suitability ; unsuitability. 

" This strange countenance and gait amazed Don 
Ferdlnandii ami his companions very much, seeing his 
ill-favoured visage so withered ami yellow the ine- 
quality and the ixsuitabilify of hut arms aim his grave 
manner of proceeding." Shclton: Don Quixote, bk. iv., 
ch. x. 

* in-suit a-ble, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
suitable (q.v,).] Not suitable. 

" Circumcisiuii, and many other rites of the Jewish 
worship, seemed to him intuitablc to the divine na- 
ture." Burnat ; Life of Rocltetter. 

in su-lar, a. & s. [Lat. insufaris, from in- 
sula'= an island ; Fr. insulaire; Sp. & Port. 
insular. ] 
A. As adjective : 

1. Of or pertaining to an island ; of the 
nature of an island ; surrounded with water. 

2. Of or pertaining to the inhabitants of an 
island ; narrow ; contracted ; not broad or 
liberal. 

" The relief given to the mind In the penury of in- 
tutor conversation to a new toplck." Jonnton : Jour- 
ney to the Wettern Islands. 

* B. As subst. : One who lives in an island ; 
an islander. 

" Our insulan, who act and think to much (or them- 
selves." Berkeley: Slrit, S 1<W. 



Meteorol. : Such a climate as exists in an 
island. The sea tempers the heat of summer 
and the cold of winter. Opposed to a conti- 
nental or excessive climate. 



in-su-lar -I-tjr, [Fr. inndariU, from in- 

sulaire = insular (q.v.).] 

1. The quality or state of being or consist- 
ing of an island or islands. 

" He discovered the Society Islands ; determined th* 
insularity ol New Zealand." Coot: Third Vayaye. bk. 

T.. ch. ui 

2. Narrowness or contractedness of viewi 
or opinions natural to those who live in an 
island. 

* an'-sn-lar-iy, adv. [Eng. insular ; -ly.] In 
an insular manner. 

* in'-su-lar-jf, a. [Fr. insulaire.] The same 
as INS'ULA'R (q.v.). 

" But these nre the natural effect* of parity, popular 
libertinism, and intulary manners. "Kvdyn: A Char- 
acter qf England. 

in su late, v.t. [Lut. insulatus made into 
an island, and insult = an island.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. To form into an island ; to make an is- 
land of. 

"There may perhai'ti be reason to suspect nre tu have 
been a principal agent In the formation of this inu- 
latfd mountain. "Swinburne: Sptiin, let 8. 

2. To place in a detached situation or posi- 
tion, so as to have no communication with 
surrounding objects or other bodies. 

3. To detach from others ; to isolate. 

"The regicide power finding each of them insulated 
and unprotected, with great facility gives the law to 
them all." Burke : Regfaule Peace, let. L 

II. Elect. Thermotics : To interpose non- 
conductors so as to prevent the passage ol 
electricity or heat to or from a body. 

in -su lat-ed, pa. par. & a. [INSULATE.] 

1. Ordinary Language : 

* 1. Formed into an island. 

2. Detached from others ; standing by it- 
self ; not contiguous to other bodies ; isolated, 

" Spirit that knows no imitated spot. 
No chasm." Wordtvxtrth : Excursion, bk. Ix. 

H Technically: 

1. Astron. : Situated so far apart from other 
heavenly bodies that the mutual attraction 
between it and them is imperceptible. (Young.) 

2. Elect. & Thermotics : Separated from other 
bodies by the interposition of non-conductors. 

insulated column, s. 
Arch. : A column unconnected with any 
wall or building. 

Insulated- wire, s. 

1. A wire suspended by insulators (q.v.) so 
as to prevent the electric current from going 
to earth. 

2. A wire wrapped with silk or clothed with 
gutta-percha or caoutchouc to prevent the es- 
cape of the electric current. Among the best 
insulators are dry air, shellac, sulphur, resins, 
gutta-percha, caoutchouc, silk, dry fur, glass. 
[INSULATOR.] 

in su lat ing, pr. par., a., & s. [INSULATE.! 
A. & B. As pr. par. & particip. adj. : (Se 
the verb). 
C. As subst. : The same as INSULATION (q.v.). 

Insulating-- Stool, s. A stool with glass 
legs to insulate a person or an object placed 
thereon. 

In-su-la'-tlon, s. [Eng. insul(ate); -ation.] 

I. Ord. Lang. : The act of insulating or de- 
taching from other bodies ; the state of being 
insulated ; isolation. 
IL Technically: 

1. Chem. : The act of setting free from com- 
bination with other substances ; the state of 
being so set free. 

2. Elect. : The act of preventing the passage 
of electricity to or from a body by the inter- 
position of a son-conductor. 

3. Thermotics : The interposition of a non- 
conductor of heat to prevent its passage to or 
from a body. 

In'-SU-la-tor, s. [Eng. inaulatfa); -r.] 

L Ord. Lang. : One who or that which in 
lates. 
IL Technically: 

1. Elect. : A non-conductor of electricity so 
placed as to insulate a body. 

2. Thermotics: A non-conductor of heat 
placed so as to prevent the passage of heat to 
or from a body. 



boil, 



pout, jortrl; cat, 90!!, chorus, chin, bench ; go, gem; thin, (his; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph = C>' 
-tlon, -sion = shun ; -(ion, -$ion - zhun. -clous, -tious, sious = shus. -ble, -die, &c. - bel, del 



fnstilous insurrection 



* in'-SU-lous, a. [Lat. insulosus, from inwla 
= an island.] Abounding in islands. 

* In sul phurcd, a. [Pref. in- (1), Eng. 
uhj/iur, and surf. ~ed.\ Charged with sulphur ; 
Milphurous. 

"Metre heat* 
Of aire tauulptuured" Handy* : Travel*, p. 366, 

*m SUlso. a, [Lat. insulsus, from in- ~ nnt, 
ami salsus = salty ; sal = salt ; Ital. A 8p. in- 
wlso.} Dull, insipid, heavy. 

"The Hasoreth* aud Rabbinical Scholiast* . . . 
gave u* this intuit'- rule oat of their Taltn ad. " JNttcm.* 
Apology for Smectymnuut. 

*Ih-BUls'-i-ty, s. [I At. insulsitas, from fo- 
Mt/ud tanteless t insipid.] Dulueas, insi- 
pidity, stupidity. 

"To Justify the councils of God and fate from the 
intuit it y of inurtal touguea," Milton : Doctrine 4 
DUcip. of Divorce, bk, if. ch, lit 

lA'-sult, * In suit , *. [O. Fr. intuit (Fr. in- 
tulle), from Lat. insultits, pa. par. of insilio = 
to leap upon ; Ital. i. Sp. insulto.] 

* L The act of leaping upon. 

" The bull's insult at four she might sustain ; 
But after ten. from miptinl riles refrain." 

In-Hdtn; Virgil-, Oeorftc lit M. 

*2. An attack. 

"Many a m<le tower and rampart there 
Repelled the intuit of tlie nir." 

Scott: Marmton, vi 2. 

8. Gross abuse offered to another, either by 
word cr deed ; an act or speech of insolence 
or impudence ; an affront, an indignity. 

if tliem offered hit 
: Hist. Eng.. ch. i 

in suit, v.t. A i, [Fr. intulter, from Lat. in- 
fuito = to leap upon : in-- = In, on, and salio 
=5 to spring, to leap; Bp, inniUar; IU1. in* 

A. Transitive: 

X. Ordinary Language .' 

* 1. To leap upon ; to trample on or down. 

"The sacred pomp trodden under foot, intuited." 
gka.fr ftkury : .Vitcrtl. Kejtettiont, ch. i.. mil. 2. 

2. To treat with gross indignity, insolence, 
or contempt ; to abuse, to affront. 

" But why intuit the poor, affront the f?reat f * 

Pope : 1'rol. to .sot. MO. 

* II. Mil. : To make a sudden, open, and 
told attack upon. 

B. Intransitive : 

* 1. To leap upon or about. 

** Far from the cows and goaU' tnmtitintj crew. 
That trample down tin- flowers, and brush the dew." 
Dryden: Virgil; (ieorgic \v. 14. 

1 2. To behave with insolence ; to make use 
' of abuse or insults. 

1 If To insult over : To triumph with Inso- 
lence ; to exult insultingly over. 

in sulf-ance, s. [Lat. insultant, pr. par. 
Of insulto.] Insult, insolence. 

" Jiuultance vsde ; 

Cyclop t thou shonldat not haue so much abusda 
Thy iiiuustrous forces." 

Chapman : Banter; Odyuey Ix. 

* Xn-SUl-ta'-tion, . [Lat. insultatio, from 
insalto = to leap upon.] The act of instilling, 
abusing, or treating with violence and insult ; 
ieult. 

" Wee should not have so much cause of shame and 
sorrow, nor our adversaries of triumph and intuittt- 
aM."Bp. HaU: Phttritaimne A Ckritlianirte. 

Innsult er, a. [Eng. insult; -er.J One who 
insults another ; an insolent or abusive person. 

" The defender of religion should not Imitate the tn- 
mlterot It in Ma modes of disputation." Warburton: 
Doctrine of (trace. (Pref) 

In suit Ing, pr. par., a., & s. [INSULT, v.] 
A* As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adj. : Containing, using, or convey- 
ing abuse or insult. 

" Bout not my fall (he cried) intuiting foe.' 

Pvpe : Rape of the Lock, v. 97. 

C. As svbst. : The act of treating with in- 
sult or violence ; an insult, insolence. 

"(.'ranmer's recantation was presently printed, and 
occasioned almost initially great intuiting* on the one 
hand. Hud detection on the other." Ournet: Silt. 
Reform, (an. 15W). 

ta-BUlt'-ing ly, adv. [Eng. insulting; -1y.] 
In nn insulting manner ; with insults, abuse, 
or insolence ; insolently. 

"Here, said they insultingly, is a specimen of that 
truly liberal spirit." Ilurd : On (he Delioacy of 



* in-sult'-ment, s. [Eng. insult; -ntent.} The 

act of iiiuulting ; insult. 

" lie ou the ground, my speech of tntnltntent nded 
m hl dend body."-Sfca*<wp- ' Cymbflint, III. - 



* In sumo', v.t. [I^at. insumo ; in- = in, into. 
and sumo = to take.] To take or receive In. 

" The etnulgent relna. which intttmc atid convey the 
~ oartohnint to Uw whole tree.' 9*9* ; Bglva. 

*Jn-u-per-a-bn'-I-t^, . [Eng. insuper 

able; -i/?/.] The quality or state of beiitg in 
superable. 

In-su'-per-a-ble, a. [Fr., from Lftt intu. 

prat>ilis t from in- =. not, and supero = to <n-er- 
come ; super = abcve ; Sp. insvperablf ; Ital. 
intuperahile.] Impossible to be surmounted, 
got over, or overcome ; insurmountable, in- 
vincible, 

" She meets the irwM/wa&fo bar." 

Wordtwortk; White Doe, \^. 

Xn-sn'~per-a-l>le-nsa, s. [Eng. inmper- 
able; -ness.] The quality or state of being in- 
aujieralile; insuperability; insurmountability; 
invincibility. 

In-SU'-pir-g,-bl$f t adv. [Eng. inavptrabtfe) ; 
-/;/.) In an msuperable manner or degree ; so 
as to be insuperable; insurmountably; In- 
vindbly. 

"Many who toll through the Intricacy of coropll* 
oatd sytmn are intvpcrubfit embttrramed with the 
least perplexity in common affair*." Aamiftr, No 160. 

in sup port-a-ble, a. [Fr., from ln- = 
not, and supportable = supportable (q.v.) ; 8p. 
importable ; Ital. iiwopjwrtaiite.J Not sup- 
portable ; Incapable of being borne or en- 
dured ; unendurable, insufferable, intolerable. 
" In winter the cold was often 
u/of ; UUt. Sag., cb. ill. 



In sup port a ble ness, 0. fEng. 

portaJile ; -n**s.} The equality or state of being 

Insupportable ; iutolerablenexs. 

Then fell she to so pitiful a declaration of the in- 
portabieitfm of her dealrea,*~5uJn< > y : Arcadia, 



In sup-pbrt'-a-biy, adv. [Eng. insvpport- 
db(le); -ly.] In an insupportable manner or 
degree ; so as to be insupportable ; intolerably, 
beyond endurance. 

"The Journey would be tnttipportably tediona," 
Maeauttty: ffttt. Knj.. ch. lit. 

* In sup-pos'-a We, a. [Pref. in- (2), and 

Eng. avpposable (q.v.). J Not ipposable ; in- 
capable of being supposed. 

in-up-pres i ble, a. rpref. in- <2), and 
Eng. svppressible (q.v.).J Not suppressible ; 
that cannot be suppressed, concealed, or kept 
oat of sight 

" Which, when once known, U tntuj/pr'-uibie.' 
Tom* ' On Original Compotitten. 

in -sap- pre'- sJ-bly, adv. [Eng. insup- 
pressuj(U); ~ly.] In a manner or degree that 
cannot be suppressed, concealed, or kept out 
of sight 

* in sup pres -slve, a. [Fret in- (2), and 

Eng. suppresslve (q.v.).] 

1. Not suppressive ; not tending to sup- 
press. 

2. Incapable of being suppressed ; insup- 

pressible. 

" The iiuuppreuirc mettle of our spirit*." 

ulitu Cettar, it, L. 



In siir'-a We (8 as sh), a. [Eng. insure); 
-able.] Capable of being insured against loss, 
damage, death, <tc. ; proper to be insured. 

In siir an96 (8 as sh\ s. [Eng. intwrie); 
-anee,] 

1. The act of Insuring or assuring against 
damage or loss ; a contract by which a com- 
pany, in consideration of a sum of money paid, 
technically called a premium, becomes bound 
to indemnify the insured or bis representa- 
tives against loss by certain risks, as fire, 
shipwreck, &c. Insurance is with respect to 
goods or property, the correlative of (tssurance, 
with respect to life, but the distinction Is not 
always observed. [ASSURANCE.] 

* 2. The act of insuring or making certain ; 
assurance ; that which assures or insures. 

"Toe most acceptable insurance of the divine pro- 
tectloii." Jficfct* : Bramin Philosophy. 

3. The premium or consideration paid for 

insuring life or property. 

* 4. Engagement, betrothal. 

" Do I not knowe afore of the tnturanrn 
Betweene Oawyn Ooodlucke aud Chri-tlau Cu- 
tance?" Uttal : Hoitter Itottter, \v. . 

Insnr an co-broker, . One whose busi- 
ness or profession it Is to insure or procure 
insurances for vessels at sea or about to pro- 
ceed on a voyage ; an underwriter. 



ne oil tfii- Krritinu, my spepcn 01 mimrmmi auaeu : , ., 

on M* dend body."-Sfca*<wp .- Cymbtline. III. 8. Ceed OH a Voyage ; an Underwnter. general iruurrec 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, s'i 
or, wore, wplt work, whd, s6n; mute. cub. cure, unite, cur, rule, fall; try, Syrian, ae, ce 



insurance -company, . A company 

or corporation associated lor the j-uqmsc rf 
insuring against loss or damage. 

insurance - policy, s. The contract 
under which a person or company become* 
bound to indemnify the insurer against loss 
or damage by certain risks. 

* in - sur - an - 9er (s as sh), . (Eng. in- 
turunc(e); -tr.] One who insures, an insurer " 
spec-ill tally, an underwriter. 

** The far-fiimd aculptor, and the laurelled bud. 
Those bold hitu raiirvrt of df nthleas fame. 
Supply their little feeble aids In vi:ii /' 

tttair; Thr Grave. 

in-sure', ' en siir e (s as sh), *en-mr- 
en, v.t. & i. [O. Fr. en^tii. and aeur = sme 
(q.v.).] 

A. Transitive: 

1. To make sure, certain, or secure ; to In- 
sure, to assure. 

**No present health can health frtrurv." 

Cowper : Bill of Mortality. 1717. 

* 2. To assure ; to inform positively, 

" I insure you I neither will oor can cease to umk*." 
Fr^th : Worke*, p. 115. 

3. To assure or secure against possible loss 
or damage in consideration of the payment of 
a certain stipulated stun or premiums to as- 
sure ; to make a snbject of insurance : as, To 
insure life, to insure a house. 

"They gare orders to their factor to take up at Am- 
fc-r.hm is. 4oo Dutch pounds t inmre the siild ship." 
Milton: To Ote Lordt of the United Proviticet. 

B. Intrans. : To nndertakp to assure or 
secure a person or persons agaiust loea or 
damage ; to make insurances. 

Jn-siir'-er (s as sh), *. [Eng. insur(e); -er.] 
One who or that which insures ; {>ecif., one 
who in cunsLidration of ft certain premium in* 
sures another against loss or damage ; an in- 
surance-broker ; an underwriter. 

"The very moderate profit of 
'o#A of JtationM. bk. I., ch. x. 

* in surge', ' In so urge, v.i. , 

= to rise up.] To rise up, to rise. 

"What mischief hath im<trged In realmea 
tine devUiou. 1 Sail: Benrylt'. (lutrod.) 

* in sur'-gen^e, in-sur'-gen-cy\ s. [Eng 

insurgent; -cy.] The quality t>r state of beiag 
insurgent ; a state of insurrection, 

" The paJe narrow-chested opentlve of the city who 
at once resounds to the faintest cry of inturgenee . " 
Mojloclt Jietr Republic, bk. L. ch- lit 

in sur'-gent, a. & $. (Lat. inswrgtns, pr. par. 
of iiisiirgo to rise up : in- = iu, upyn, aad 
turgo = to rise.] 

* A. As adj. : Rising up against or in op- 
position to th- established or lawful civil or 
political authority, or against any constituted 
government ; rebellious, rebel, insubordinate, 

B. As sttbst. : One who rises Dp against or 
In opposition to any established authority or 
government ; a rebel. 

" Taken the command of a regiment of intttrymtt.'' 
Jfacaulay : Hut. Eng., cb. vi, 

in sur mount a bi! X ty, s. [Eng. tnrurv 
mountable ; ~ity.] The quality or state of being 
insuruioun U ible. 

in-sur molint'-a-ble, o. fTr. insurmont- 
able, from in- = not, and surmontaWt & 
surmountable (q.v.).] That cannot be sur- 
mounted, passed over, or overcome ; insupera- 
ble, unconquerable, invincible. 

"Perhaps those prejudices might not prove intur- 
wtounlablv."Macaulaji : ffitt. nff., ch. vt, 

in-sur-mount'-a ble n^ss, s. [Eng. in- 
surmountable; -ness.] The quality or state of 
being insurmountable ; insurmountability. 

ln-sur-md"unt'-ar-bly t adv. [Eng. insur- 
mountab(le) ; -ly.] In an insurmountable man- 
ner or degree ; so as to be insurmountable. 

in-siir-rec'-tion, * (La*, insttrrectto, from 
insurrtctus, pa. i*r. of insurgo = to rise up ; 
Fr. insurrection; 8p. insurreccion ; Ital. in- 
eurrezione.} 

* 1. The act or state of rising up ; a rising. 

" Open to every inturrection of 111 bunonr." Bla Ir : 
Sermons, vol. 1L, ser. 2. 

2. The act of rising up against or In oppost- 
tlon to civil or political authority ; open and 
active opposition on the part of a number of 
persons to established government and law ; 
rebellion, sedition, revolt. 

" But more than a century passed away without one- 
general imurrection."i/acan.!aif : Hit'. Eng., ch. xvlL 



rv, wet, licie, ui*uici, 11 ui. LIIUJ. u i piuu, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot* 
cure, unite, cur, rule, fall ; try, Syrian, ae, ce e ; ey a. 



Insurrectional integro- 



2699 






* 3. A rising In mass to oppose an enemy. 

<f Insurrection Is general: it Is used In a 
good or bad sense, according to the nature of 
the power against which one rises up ; sedition 
and rcVWon are more specific ; they are al- 
ways taken in the bad sense of unallowed 
opposition to lawful authority. 

' ln-siir rec'-tlon-al, a. [Eng. insurrec- 
tion; -al.] Of or pertaining to insurrection ; 
consisting in insurrection. 

* in-aur-re'c'-tion-a-r& o. fJSng. insur~ 
mction; -ary.] Pertaining to insurrection; 
writable or fit for insurrection. 

" Their murderous (n*rnft-rtonary system." flurt: 
Rfjicide reuce. let. 4. 

* In-sur-rec'-tion-er, . [Eng. insurrec- 
tion; -cr.J A rebel, an insurgent. (North: 
Examen, p. 418.) 

t In-sur-re"c'-tion-Ist, *. [Eng. insurrec- 
tion; -ist.] One who stirs up or promotes in- 
surrection ; an insurgent ; a rebel. 

* fca-Sur-reV-tCT, s. [Eng. insurrection) ; 
-or.] The samo as Ixsrjj.^ECTiON'ER (q.v.). 

" They not onely sided with his Gherontan inmrrec- 
to-n."~HotoeU : Parly of Seat!*, p. 129. 

ta-sus-$ep-ti-btt'-*-ty\ .". [Pref. in- (2), 
and Eng. susceptibility (q.v.).J The quality 
or et;ite of being insusceptible ; want of sus- 
ceptibility ; incapacity to feel or perceive. .-. 

in aiis-cep'-ti-ble, a. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. susceptible (q.v.).] 

1. Not susceptible ; incapable of feeling, or 
being moved, affected, or impressed by any 
feeling or impression. 

" Detached from pleasure, to the love of gain 
Superior, inntnxptible vt uriOe.* 

II ordmoortn : Excursion, bk. rl. 

* 2. Incapable of receiving or admitting. 

* i-sus-9ep'-tive t o. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. susceptive (q.v.).] Not susceptive ; not 

.susceptible ; insusceptible. 

" All this had no effect ; the sailor was wholly insut- 
cfj'tive of the softer passions, and, without regard to 
tears or anniDtenta, persisted In hts resolution to make 
me a man. fiambier. No. lus. 

' in-su-sur-ra'-tion, s. [Lat. ineusiirratio, 
from" inmgwrro = to whisper in : in- := in, 
into, and susvrro = to whisper ; susurrus = a 
whisper.] The act of whispering into any- 
thing. 

' in swa'the, v.t, [Pref. in- (1) and Eng. 
swathe (q'.v.)/] To swathe in, to enwrap, to 

infoM. 

" Intwathed sometimes In wandering mist" 

TVnnyftMi : St. Simeon StfHtn, 

In- tact', a. [Lat. intactus, from in- = not, 
and tactus, pa. par. of tango ^ to touch.] Un- 
touched by anything likely to cause Injury or 
damage ; uninjured, unharmed. 

* in-tact-a-ble, in tict-i-ble, a. (Lat. 

in- = not, and tactus = touch, from tango =to 
touch ; Eng. adj. stiff, -able, -ible.] Not per- 
ceptible to the touch. 

* Intaglia (as In-toT~ya), . [INTAGLIO.] 

* Intagliated (as in tal' yat cd >, a. [Is- 
TAOLIO.] Engraved or carved upon, 

* A species of astrotte. or starry-stone . . . deeply 
{nffigfinted. or engraven like a seal" Warion: Bitt, 
<tf Kiddington, p. 25. 

Intaglio, * Intaglia (as in tal'-yo, iu- 
tal'-ya), *. & a. [Ital., from intagliare = 
" to engrave, to carve : in- in, into, and tag- 
liare = to cut, from Low Lat. taleo = to cut 
twigs ; Lat. talea = a twig.] 

A. As subst. ; A cutting, an engraving ; a 
figure cut or engraved into any substance ; a 
precious stone with a figure cut or engraved 
into it, so as to form a hollow. It is the 
opposite to cameo (q.v.). 

*' In vue-% flwer-tota, lain]*, aud sconces, 
Intafflioi. cameos, gems, and bronzes." 

Cau-tharne :.Thr Antiquarian!. 

B. As adj. : Cut in ; as of the lines in an 
engraved plate, the sunken letter in the 
matrix of a type, the design in a seal, punch, 
or die, which delivers a raised or cameo im- 
pression. 

In-tail', v.t A s. [ENTAIL.) 

in take, s. [Pref. in- 0). and Eng. take (q.v.).] 
1. That which Is taken in. 
" I would forbid the water-companies to Increase 
their intab-.-'Tirt*, July 21. 1884. 



^T Davies (Sitpp. Gloss.) has an example from 
Defoe (Tour Through i'-reat Britain, iii. 4), in 
which intake = an enclosure of land from a 
common. 

2. The point at which a narrowing or con- 
traction begins or takes place. 

3. The point at which water is received 
Into a pipe or channel : the opposite to outlet 

(q.v.). 

* In'-tak-er, . [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. taker 
(q.v.)J A receiver of stolen goods ; a fence. 

* in -tam'-I-na-t&d, . [Lat intaminatus, 
from in- = not, and taminatut, pa. par. of 
tamino = to contaminate (q.v.).] Not con- 
taminated, uncontaminated. 

"The Inhabitants use the antient and Intaminattd 
Frlsic language." tt'uod; Athena Oxon. (f. Juniut.) 

* In-tang-f bfl -i-t#, . [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. tangibility (q.v.).] The quality or state 
of being intangible. 

* in-tang I ble, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
fangible (q.v.).] Not tangible ; incapable of 
being touched or perceived by the touch ; im- 
perceptible to the touch. 

'* The means by which two bodies attract each other 
may be invisible and intitnyible." Clarke: Leibnitz 
fapert ; Fourth Kp1y. 

* In-tangT-I ble-ngsa, s. [Eng. intangible ; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being intangi- 
ble ; intangibility. 

41 In tangT-i bly, adv. [Eng. intangible) ; 
-ly.] In an intangible manner ; so as to be in- 
tangible. 

In-tan'-gle, v.t. [ENTANGLE.] 

* In-tast -a ble, o. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
testable (q.v.).] Incapable of being tasted ; 
incapable of being perceived by the organs of 
taste ; tasteless, unsavoury. 

in'-te-ger, 5. & a. [Lat integer = untouched, 
whole, entire : in- = not, and tag = root of 
tango = to touch.] 

A, As subst. : The whole of anything ; an 
entire entity : specif, in arithmetic-, a whole 
number as distinguished from a fraction ; that 
is, a number which contains the unit 1 an 
exact number of times. 

* B. .-Is adj. : The same as INTEGRAL (q.v.). 

" The nearest of small integer numbers that express 
the proportion between the speoiflck gravities, of 
quicksilver ami water." Boyle : Work*. 111. 202. 

in-teg-ra-bil'-X-t^, s. [Eng. integrate; -ity.] 
Possessing the capacity of being iutegrable. 

" The equation x dx + y d x = y dy, which does not 
possess the criterion of intcffraMlity. Thornton : Cal- 
culus (1931), p. 148. 

in'-te-gra ble, a. [Eng. integrate) ; -able ; 
Fr. integrable.] 
Math. : Capable of being Integrated. 

" The second number of which being intcgrablt, the 
first U also integrable." Thornton: Calculus (1831), 
pi 149. 

in'-te-graL a. & . [Lat. integer; Eng. adj. 
suff. *al; Fr. integral; Ital. integrate; Sp. A 
Port integral.'] 

A* As adjective : 

L Ordinary Language: 

L Whole, entire, complete, untouched ; 
containing or comprising all the parts. 

*' A local motion keepeth bodies integral, and their 
parts together." Bacon : Natural flittory. 

* 2. Making up or constituting the whole ; 
completing. 

"Ceasing to do evil, and doing rood, are the two 
great integral parts that complete this duty." Sawth : 
Serjnom, vol. 11.. ser. 8. 

II. Mathfmatics : 

1. Of or pertaining to or being an integer or 
whole number. 

2. Pertaining to or proceeding by integra- 
tion (q.v.). 

B. As substantive : 

I. Ord. Lang. : A whole ; an entire entity ; 
in integer. 

"They all make up a most magnificent and stately 
temple, aud ever}' integral thereof full of wonder." 
Bale : Orig. of Mankind, p. 872. 

U, Mathematics : 

1. An integer, a whole number. 

2. In calculus, an expression which, being 
differentiated, will produce a given differen- 
tial. [INTEGRAL-CALCULUS, INTEGRATION.] 

Integral calculus, s. 

Math. : A branch of mathematics, the con- 



verse of the differential calculus. Having a 
given or known differential ; the integral cal- 
^nlus has for its object to find a function sunh 
that, being differentiated, it will produce the 
given differential. Such expression is called 
the integral of the differential. The operation 
of finding the primitive function or integral 
is called integration (q.v.). Besides the me- 
thod of finding the integrals of given differen- 
tials, the integral calculus is also applied t 
various branches of mathematics, as well aa 
to almost every branch of natural philosophy 
and engineering. 

' !n-t*-grftr-X-t& 5. [Eng. integral; -Uy.] 
The quality or state of being integral , entire- 
ness. 

* In'-tS-gral-l^, adv. [Eng. integral; -iy.] 
In an integral nianuer ; wholly, completely. 

" We should choose vertue with great freedome ol 
spirit, and pursue It earnestly, integrally." Taylor: 
Great fxmnplar, pt. ii., f 26. 

in'-tS-grant, a. [Lat. integrans, pr. par. of 
integro ~ to make whole ; integer = whole ; 
Fr. integrant.] Making part of a whole; 
necessary to constitute a whole or entire entity. 

" Let the integrant parts of a continuum be more or 
leu finite or infill it* in uumber." floyrt: Workt. \. 147. 

integrant - molecules, integrant - 
parts, integrant-particles, s. j>l. 

Crystallog. : The name given by Haiiy to the 
smallest particles into which a crystal can be 
brought by mechanical sub-division, without 
losing its essential character. (Haiiy : Nat. 
Phil. (ed. Gregory), 89, &c.) 

in'-te-grate,r.f. [Lat. integratus, pa. par. of 
integro = to make whole ; integer = whole.) 

1. Ordinary Language : 

* 1. To make whole or entire ; to form one 
whole ; to complete. 

"All the world must grant that two distinct sub- 
stances, the soul aim the body, go to compound and 
integrate the mini. ' South : Sermon*, vol. vii.. ser. L 

2. To indicate the whole ; to give the sum 
or total : as. An integrating anemometer ig 
one which indicates the entire force of the 
wind exerted within a given time. 

II. Math. : To determine from a differential 
its primitive function ; to find the Integral of 
a given differential. [INTEGRATION.] 

in to-gra'-tion, s. [Fr. integration; Sp. in- 
tegracion,; Ital. integrazione.] [iNrEGUATK.] 

* 1. Ord. Lang.: The act or process of 
making whole or entire. 

2. Math. : The operation of finding the in- 
tegral of a given differential. [CALCULUS.) 
The symbol of integration is this,/, which is 
only a particular form of the letter s, which 
originally stood for the word summa, or sum. 
In fact, the integral is the sum of all the 
differentials, these being infinitely small. For 

integrating between limits, the symboly is 
used, and is read, the integral between the 
limits a and b, the subtractive limit being 
written at the bottom of the symbol. 

In-t6g'-rf-t^, * in-teg-ri-tie, s. tFr. in- 

tegrite, from Lat. integritatem, accus. of <- 
tegritas soundness, blamelessness, from in- 
teger = whole, blameless ; Sp. integrulad ; 
Ital. intf.grita.] 

1. The quality or state of being whole, en- 
tire, or complete ; entirenesa, completeness ; 
unbroken state. 

" One entiere bodye, that Is to wltte, the very lynrile 
natural! glorious bodye of our Snuiur Oln ist liimself, 
to the integritie whereof the blovul of tin- ttame per> 
teyueth, and whereof It Is nowe an inseparable parte." 
-Sir T. More: Workt. p. 1,8:17. 

2. Purity ; genuine, unadulterated state. 

" Language continued long in its purity and in- 
t*3rit]/*-BaU. (Todd.) 

3. Moral soundness, purity; uprightness or 
honesty in dealings with others ; probity, rec- 
titude, incorruptibility, high principle. 

*' Both of them men of integrity and both of then 
men uf parts." Macauluy : Hist. Eng., ch. xxlr. 

In-te-gr<K pref* [Lat, integer, fern, integra, 
neut. integrwn= entire.) 

Zoo/., t&c. : Entire. 

Integro-pallial, a. Having the pallia! 
line or the impression entire. 

Integro-pallialia, s. pi. 

Zool, ; A sub- section of Conchiferons Mol- 
luscs having the palliitl line i.e., the line or 
impression left upon the shell by tb r mantle 
simple. It contains the families >strciila.-, 
Aviculidee, Mytilidse, Arcadee, Trigortiadae, 



boil, bo^; pout, jtf^krl; oat, cell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, eitlst. Ing, 
clan, -tian - ahan, -tion* -sion ~ shun ; -tion, -slon = zhun. -Uou, -lous. -clous = onus, -ble, -die, &c. = bel. dfl 



roo 



integumation intemerate 



Unionid86,Chamid8e,Hippuritid,Tridacnidfie, 
Cardiadse, Lucinidse, Cycladid, and Cyprin- 
Idffi. (S. P. Woodward?) 

tn-tSg-u-ma'-tton, s. [Eng. integum(ent); 
ation.] The dejwrtment of physiology which 
treats of the integuments of animals or plants. 

tn-teg'-u ment, s. [Lat. integume-.Uum = a 
covering ; Fr. integument.] 
L Ord. Lang. : Any covering. 

"[Pallaa 1 rendered him an aged man agalite, 
With all his vile integument*." 

Chapman : Homer ; Odyttey xrt 
IL Technically: 

1. Anat. : The skin, 

2. Bot. : The outer covering of a seed. 

In-te'g-u-inenf-a-rj^ a. [Eng. intetrnment ; 
art/.] Of, belonging to, or consisting of in- 
teguments. 

In-teg-u-mSn-ta'-tlon, *. [Eng. integu- 
msnt ; -ation.] The act, art, or process of 
covering with integuments ; the state of being 
o covered. 

fa'-tel-lect, s. [Fr., from Lat. intellect = 

perception, discernment, from intelle'-tus, pa. 
par, of intelligo = to umlcrstand, lit. = to 
choose between; inter = between, and lego = 
to choose ; Sp. inUleeto ; Ital. intelletto.] 

1. That faculty of the human soul or mind 
by which it receives or comprehends the ideas 
communicated to it by the senses or by per- 
ception, or other means, as distinguished from 
the |K>wer to feel and to will ; the power or 
faculty to fwrccive objects in their relations ; 
the power to judge and comprehend ; also the 
capacity for higher forms of knowledge as dis- 
tinguished from the power to perceive and 
imagine. 

** His books well trimmed, and In the gayest style . . . 
Adorn his intellect* as well as shelves. 

Cottrper : Trutk, 8. 

2. (PI.) : Wits, senses : as, To be disordered 
In the intellects. 

3. Intellectual people collectively : as, The 
intellect of a country. 

If Intellect is the generic term; there cannot 
be genius or talent without intellect ; but there 
may be intellect without genius or talent : a 
tan of intellect distinguishes himself from the 
common herd of mankind by the astuteness 
of hfs observation, the accuracy of his judg- 
ment, the originality of his conception, and 
other peculiar attributes of mental power; 
genius Is a particular bent of the intellect, 
which distinguishes a man from every other 
individual; talent is a particular modus or 
modification of the intellect, which is of prac- 
tical utility to the possessor. (Crttbb : Eng. 
Sync*,) 

fa tSl I6ct-e'<t a [Eng. intellect; -ed.] 
Endowed with intellect ; having intellect or 
intellectual powers. 

fa-tel-leV tlon. *. [L*t. inteUectin, from 
intellectiw, pa. par. of intelligo =.to discern.) 
The act of understanding or comprehending ; 
apprehension of ideas. 

"And the proper acts of the Intellect are * ntettection, 
deliberation, and determination or decision." Bale: 
Ortg. of Mankind, p. 88. 



et-lve, o. [Fr. fatettectif; Sp, in- 
telectivo; Ital. intellettivo.] 

1. Of or pertaining to the intellect ; having 
power to understand or apprehend ideas. 

"Ill order to the actual intellection of any object, 
there is a spiritual intellectual lijrht necessary to 
n.ible the object to move or affect the intellective 
faculty, which yet the object cannot give to Itself, nor 
vet strike or move the aald faculty without It" 
Soitfft .' Sermon t, vol. lv., ser. S. (Note.) 

2. Produced by the understanding. 

3. Capable of being perceived by the un- 
derstanding only, and not by the senses. 

* In-tSl-lSc'-tJve-l J, adv. [Eng. intellective ; 
ly.] In an intellective manner. 

" Not intellectlveJy to write 

Is learnedly they troe." 
Warner : Albion t England, bk. Ix., ch. rllv. 

fa-teJ-lec'-tu-aL, a. & s. [Lat. intellectitalis 
= pertaining to "the intellect ; Fr. intellectuel ; 
Sp. intei 'ectual ; Port intellectual; Ital. intel- 
kttnale.] 

A* As adjective : 

1, Of or pertaining to the intellect or un- 
derstanding ; belonging to the mind ; per- 
formed by the intellect or understanding : as, 
intellectual powers or operations. 



2. Appealing to or exercising the intellect 
or the higher capabilities of man : as, an in- 
tellectual pursuit or study. 

3. Perceived by the intellect ; existing only 
in the understanding ; ideal. 

" In a dark vision's intellectual scene. 
Beneath a Iwwer for sorrow made, 
The melancholy Cowley lay." Cowlty. 

4. Endowed with intellect or the power of 
understanding ; characterized by intellect or 
mental capacity. 

*B. Aswbet. : The intellect; the intellec- 
tual powers ; mental powers ; understanding. 

" His intellectual* and hla senses remained perfect 
until the eighty-fourth year of his age." Wood : 
Athena: Oxon. (P. ffolland,) 

t fa-tel-lec'-tu-al-Jsm, . [Eng. intellec- 
tual; -tarn.) 

1. Intellectual power or quality ; intellec- 
tuality. 

2. The doctrine that knowledge is derived 
from pure reason. 

* Jn-tel-lec'-tu-al 1st, s. [Eng. intellectual ; 
-ist.] 

1. One who overrates the intellect or un- 
derstanding. 

"These intellectuaHttt. which are notwithstanding 
commonly taken for the most sublime and divine 
philosopher*." Bacon : Advancement Qf Learning, 

2. One who holds or supports the doctrine 

of intellectual ism (q. v.). 

t fa-te'l-le<>-tu-al'-l'-t& *. [Eng. intellectu- 
al; -ity.] The quality or state of being intel- 
lectual ; the possession of intellect ; intellec- 
tual powers. 

" The plastick or spermatick nature, devoid of all 
aniiriHllty or conscious intellectuality." Cudtoorth : 
Intel!. Xyttem, p. 133. 

t In tel lec'-tu al-ize, v.t. [Eng. intellec- 
tual; -ize.] 

1. To make intellectual ; to endow with in- 
tellect. 

2. To reason on or treat in an intellectual 
manner. 

3. To give an intellectual or ideal character 
to; to idealize. 

" When Lelbniti Is mid to hare inUUtctualized the 
sensuous representationa, the reproach conveyed is, 
that he disregarded the special distinction of their 
bails In sense, and regarded them as only lesa clear 
than the representations of intellect* 0. S. Lewet : 
Si*. PMot, (1880). 11. WO. 

fa-teVleV-tu al-iy.orfy. [Eng. inteltf dual ; 
-ly.] In an intellectual manner ; by means of 
the intellect or understanding. 

" Man above all visible creatures la able to perform 
that duty intellectually and Intentionally." Sale : 
Ortff. of Mankind, p. 71 

fa-teT-U gence, s. [Fr., from Lat. intrlli- 
gtntia, from intelligtns, pr. par. of intelligo = 
to understand.] [INTELLECT.] 

1. The act or state of understanding or 
knowing ; the exercise of the understanding. 

2. The ability to know, understand, or com- 
prehend ; intellectual power. 

" The flash of Wit-the bright Intelligence. 
The beam of Song the blue of Eloquence." 

Byron : Death of Sheridan. 

3. Capacity for the higher functions of the 
intellect 

" And dim VI with darknea their intelligence." 

Spenier : Teareioftht Mutet ; Euterpe. 

4. Knowledge acquired by study, research, 
or experience ; information. 

5. Quickness or sharpness of intellect : as, 
He is a lad of intelligence. 

6. Information, notice, notification, news. 

7. Familiar terms of acquaintance or inter- 
course. 

* 8. An intelligent or spiritual being ; an in- 
corporeal being. 

" Fully hast thou satisfied me, pare 
Intelligence of heaven, angel serene." 
Jfitton: P. L.. vii 

* 9. Communication. 

"From whence I found a secret means, to have 
Intelligence with ray kind lord the kiiir." 

Drayton : Legend of Pierce (laoetton. 

intelligence-department, s. 

Mil. : A branch of the anny to which is en- 
trusted the duty of supplying the officer in 
command with all necessary intelligence, sig- 
nalling, Ac. 

intelligence-office, s. An office or place 
at which information may be obtained, more 
particularly with reference to servants to be 
hired. 



* In tel'-ll-gence, v.t. [INTELLIGENCE, j.J To 
convey or impart intelligence to ; to instruct ; 
to inform. 

"That sad inteVigmcing tyrant that mUchiefs the 
world with uia mines of Ophlr." Milton : Reform, in 
Ertg., bk. ii. 

* ln-tel'-lJ-feen-9er, s. [Eng. intelligence) ; 
-er.] One who conveys or sends intelligence ; 
one wh gives information or notice of private 
or distant transactions ; a messenger ; a spy. 

" Be tliou my bookes intelli-iencer. note 

Wlmt each man ayea of It." 
Ben Jontan : Underwood* ; To my 



* In-ter-U-ften-fy, s. [Lat intelligentia.] 
Intelligence. 

In tel'-li gent, a. [Lot intelligens, pa. par. 
of intelligo ~ to understand ; Fr. intelligent ; 
8p. inteligente; Ital. intelligente.] 

1. Understanding; seeing into; cognisant, 
skilled. 

" Part loosely wing the region, part more wise. 
In common ranged in figure, wedye their way, 
Intelligent of seasons.* Milton : P. L., vil. 4ft 

2. Endowed with the faculty of under- 
standing or reason. 

"No intelligent man thence concludes marriage 
allowed In t In- Gospel only to avoid an evil." Hilton : 
Tetractutrdon, 

3. Endowed with a quick or ready intellect ; 
sharp, sensible, clever, quick. 

* 4. Giving or bearing intelligence or in- 
formation ; communicative, informing. 

" Be intelligent to me." 

Shakeip. Winter 1 ! Tale. L 1 

5. Characterized by intelligence : as, an in- 
telligent answer. 

* In tel li gen tial (tl as Bh), *in-tel-U- 
gen clal, f [Eng. intelligent: -ial.] 

1. Intellectual ; exercising understanding ; 
implying or characterized by understanding. 

" The devil entered, and hia brutal sense 
ID heart or head, possessing, soon inspired 
With act inteUigential." Milton : P. L., ix. 1M. 

2. Consisting of intelligence, unbodied mind, 
or spiritual being. 

" Food alike those pure 
" Intelligential substances require 
As doth your rational." Milton : P. L., T. 4M. 

* In telll gen tiar y (ti as sh), in-tel- 
U gen-Ciar-y, s. [Eng. intelligency ; -an/.] 
One who conveys intelligence ; an informer ; 
an intelligencer. 

"There were sent oaer into Prance oerteine intflti- 
genciariet to moue some conspirndc " ffoHnslsasT .' 
Bilt. Scot. ; Caratake 

In tel -li-gent^lf, adv. [Eng. intelligent; 
-ly.] In an intelligent manner ; with intelli- 
gence. 

" Intelligently on their behalf to present all their 
praises and acclamations to their common Creator." 
Sale: Ortg. of Mankind, f. 372. 

fa-tel-Ui-I-bll-i-ty; *. [Eng. intelligible; 

-ity.} 

1. The quality or state of being intelligible ; 
possibility to be understood ; plainness, clear- 
ness, perspicuity. 

"I see no necessity thit intelligibility to a human 
understanding should be necessary to the troth or 
existence of a thing." Boyle .* Works, iv. 4M>. 

2. The quality or state of possessing intel- 
ligence ; the power of understanding ; .ntel- 
lection. 

" The soul's nature consists In intelligibility" Glait- 
901 : Sceprii Scientijica. 

fa tel Hgible, a. & $. [Fr., from Lat tn- 
tettigibilis = perceptible to the senses ; intel- 
ligo = to understand.] 

A. As adj. : Capable of being understood or 
comprehended ; comprehensible, plain, clear, 
perspicuous. 

* B. At subst. : That which can be under- 
stood or comprehended. 

"Thus tnteUi-riMei are conveyed from one man to 
another by writing." Bale : Orlg. of Mankind, p. i 

In-teT Ug-i-ble n^SS, . [Eng. intelligible; 
-ii'-^.} The quality or state of being intel- 
ligible ; intelligibility. 

" It la In our ifleaa that both the lightness of our 
knowledge, and the propriety or itel!iffib/''>itsi of our 
apeaking, consists," Locke : Human Understanding, 
bk. ii-i ch. rzxii. 

fa-tgl'-Ut-l-Wy, adv. [Eng. intelligible); 
-ly.] In an intelligible manner; so as to be 
understood ; plainly, clearly. 

"Which, if we speak intettigibly. Is to charge God 
with making us guilty when we were not." Bp. 
Taylor : Of Repentance, ch. vi., f 1. 

* ln-tem'-er-ate, . [Lat. intaneratut, from 
in- = not, and" temeratus, pa. par. of temero = 



0fcte, flit, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, p&t, 
r. wore, wolf, work, who, sin; mute, cttb, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, w, o = e ; ey = a. QU = kw. 



to pollute, to deflle.J Not polluted or denied ; 
unpolluted, pure, undented. 

"The entire and intemerate comelinece of TirtUfs." 
Parthmia Sacra (Pref J, X 4 6. (1<S33|. 

ln-tem'-er-ate-nese,Jr. [Enc. intemerate ; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being inteiu- 
erate. 

"The sincerity and intnntratcneut of the fountain." 
Donne ; Letter to Sir S, 0.. p. ML 

* in tSm per a mSnt, *. [Pref. to- (2), 
and Eng. temperament (q.vAJ A bad tem- 
perament, state, or constitution. 

In tern'- per ange, * In tern per aunco, 
*. [Fr. intemperance, from Lat. intcmperantia, 
from in- = not, and temperantia = moderation, 
gentleness.] [TEMPERANCE.] 
1. A want of moderation or self-restraint ; 






" An intemperance which, even in the moat atrocious 
eases, ill btooaiM the Judicial character." Macau/ay 
Sift. Eng., ch. iv. 

2. Excess or habitual indulgence in the use 
of alcoholic liquors ; drunkenness. 

"A cruel internal malady which had been aggrava- 
ted by intemperance." MacavJay : Bitt. ng., ch. vi. 

3. An intemperate act ; an act of excess. 

* in-tem'-per-an-c. *. [Lat. intemperan- 
tia.] Intemperance ; excess. 

"Casaar's inttmperancy In his pleasure*." North : 
Plutarch, p. 619. 

In -tern per -ant, * In tern per-aunt, 

a. d?s. [Lat. intemperans (genit. intemperantis) 
intemperate, immoderate.] 

* A* As adj. : The same as INTEMPERATE 
(q.v.). 

" Soche M b intemperaunt, that U foloert of their 
naughtieappetitea," Udal: A).ph. of Eratnwt, p. 15. 

t B. .( * subst. : One who is intemperate ; a 
word introduced by Dr. B. W. Richardson to 
designate one who indulges to excess in the use 
of intoxicating liquors. It has since found its 
way into general temperance literature. 

tn-tem'-per ate, a. & . [Lat. intemperatus 
= antempered.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Not exercising due moderation or self- 
restraint ; indulging any appetite or passion 
In excess ; immoderate. 

" Ensample be of infud intemperate." 

Spenter.- F. O... II. vil. o. 

2. Addicted to an excessive or immoderate 
Indulgence in the use of alcoholic liquors. 

" Men habitually intemperate Justly forfeit the es- 
teem of their fellow citizens." Beattie : Moral Science, 
pt. ill., ch. ill., i 8. 

3. Done In excess ; immoderate, excessive ; 
iceeding proper bounds. 

" When mariner* would madly meet their doom 
With draughts intemperate on the linking deck." 
Byron : CMlde Barotd. lii. !. 

4. Violent ; rough ; boisterous : as, intem- 
perate weather. 

B. At subst. : One who is not temperate ; 
pecif., one who is addicted to an excessive or 
immoderate indulgence in alcoholic liquors ; 
an inebriate. 

If For the difference between intemperate 
and excessive, see EXCESSIVE. 

In-tem'-per-ate, v.t. [INTEMPERATE, a.] 
To disorder. 

'frl-tem'-per-ate-iy, adv. [Eng. intemperate ; 

-ly-} 

1. In an intemperate manner ; to excess ; 
beyond proper hounds. 

" A man that la rashly and tntemperateJy angry upon 
ny occasion." Sharp : Sermont, vol. ill., aer. 8. 

2. In an intemperate manner; with exces- 
sive indulgence in alcoholic liquors. 

in tern -per-ate-ness, s. [Eng. intem- 
perate; -ness.] 

1. The quality or state of being intemperate ; 
want of moderation ; excess, especially in the 
use of alcoholic liquors ; intemperance. 

2. Excess of heat or cold; unseasonable- 
ness of weather. 

" By unseasonable weather, by intemperatentM of the 
air or meteora." Bale : Contempt. ; Of Contentation. 

" In-tem'-per-a-ture, . [Eng. intemper- 
at(e); -ure.} Excess of some quality ; excess 
of temperature ; unseasonableness. 

"For the great heat and intemperatur* of the 
wetther." Hackluyt ; royagei. ii. 87. 

* In torn per-ous, a. [Lat. in- = not, and 
tempero = to moderate.] Intemperate. 



Intemeratenesse intense 

* In-tem-pes'-tive f a. [Lat. intempestivus, 
from in- = not, and tempestiviis = seasonable, 
from temftestas = season ; Umpus =1 time ; Fr. 
intempestif; Ital. & Sp. intempestivo.} Not 
seasonable ; unseasonable, untimely. 

" Intempetttve laughing, weeping, Ac." Burton : 
Anat. of Melancholy. (Democritiu to the Reader.) 

* Xn-tem-pe's'-tive-iy, adv. [Eng. intem- 
pestive ; *ly. ] In an unseasonable manner or 
time ; unseasonably. 

" They intempettively ralle at and pronounce them 
damned." Burton: Anat, Melancholy. (Democritut to 
the Reader.} 

* Xn-te'm-pe's-titv'-J-tjf, *. [Lat. intempes- 
tivitas, from intempestivits = unseasonable.] 
Unseasonableness ; untimeliness. 

t " Our moral booka tell \u of a vice, which they call 
O-Kaipia, intempettivity,"-~ Haletl- Serm. at Kton, p. 4. 

* In ten a-ble, a. [Pref. in- (2). and Rng. 
tenable (q.v.).] Not tenable ; not defensible ; 
untenable ; incapable of being maintained or 
defended. 

"The more it haa discovered of the*n(no*( preten- 
sions of the Gospel" Warburton: Workt, voL U.. 
er. 18. 

Xn-tend', * en-tende, * en tend en, * in- 

tende, v.t. & i. [Fr. entendre = to under- 
stand, to conceive, from Lat. intendo = to 
stretch out, to bend, to apply the mind : in- = 
in, on, and tendo = to stretch ; 8p. & Port, en- 
tender; ItaL intendere.] 

A. Transitive : 

* 1. To stretch out ; to distend ; to extend. 

" By this the lungs are intended or remitted," Bale : 
Orig. of Mankind. 

* 2. To bend. 

"Things reciprocate forwards and backwards, a* 
when a bow is successively intended and remedied." 
Cudworth : InteU. Syttem, p. 22L 

* 3. To turn ; to direct ; to bend. 

" Tyre, I now look from thee then, and to 
Tarsui intend my travel." 

Shalutp. : Periclet, i. Z 

* 4. To enforce ; to increase ; to intensify. 

"The magnified quality of this star, conceived to 
cause or intend the heat of this Kaon.'Broiene : 
Vulgar Srrourt, bk. Iv., ch. xliL 

* 6. To turn or fix the mind on ; to attend 
to ; to regard. 

"Nay, hut intend me." Ben Jontan: CyntMti't 
XeveU, T. 2. 

* 6. To fashion ; to design. 

* 7. To pretend ; to simulate. 

" Tell them that you know that Hero loves me, in- 
tend a kind of zeal both to the Prince and Claudia" 
Bhaketp. : Much Ado About ffothiny, ii. 3. 

8. To design ; to fix the mtnd on as the ob- 
ject to be effected or attained ; to mean. 

" The men were quiet and sober, and intended nobody 
any harm. "Bunyan: Pilffrim't Proffmt, pt L 

B. Intransitive .* 

* 1. To stretch forward ; to extend. 

2. To have a design, purpose, or intention ; 
to design. 

1 For the difference between to intend and 
to design, see DESIGN. 

* In tend' an9e. . [Eng. intend ; -ance.] 
Attention ; "care. 

"But the malde, whom wee would haue specially 
good, requireth all intendance both of father and mu- 
ther. Five* : Inttruct. of a Christian Woman, bk. i., 
ch,L 

* in-tend an 9y, * in-tnd'-en-9y, *. 
[Eng. intendant; -cy.] 

1. The office or position of an Intendant. 

" A famous poet and countryman of ours who had 
some intendencyin an hospital built on the VtaTrium- 
phalia." Evelyn : Memoirt ; Rome, 1616. 

2. The district under the charge of an in- 
tendant. 

* in-tend -ant, * in tond-ent, a. & s. [Fr., 
from Lat. intendens, pr. par. of intendo.] [IN- 
TEND.] 

A. As adj. : Attentive ; attending. 

"To him I sighe all intenitant 
1 not where he were sufflsaiit*." 

Gowtr: C. A., viii 

B. As subst. : One who has the charge, 
superintendence, oversight, or direction of 
some public business ; a superintendent. 

In-tend'-ed, pa. par., a., & . [INTEND.] 

A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective : 

1. Stretched out, extended. 

"The same advauuclng hlghabonve hti head, 
With sharpe intended sting so rude him mot" 
Spenter: F. Q,, I. xi. S8. 

2. Designed ; done or said intentionally or 
of design. 



2701 

3. Engaged, betrothed : as, an intended 
wife. 

C. As subst. : A person engaged to be mar- 
ried to another ; an affianced lover. 

" He had called there to we his late intended." 
Pall Mall Oasette, Sept. 6, 1884. 

* In-tdnd'-ed-l^, adv. [Bug. intended; -ly.] 
Of set purpose or design ; intentionally, de- 
signedly. 

" He made them more intended! y a meet help to re- 
move the evil of being alone." MUton : Tetrachordon, 

In-tSnd'-er, s. [Eng. intend; -er.] One 
who intends or designs. 

"I will rather bless them, M Instruments, then 
condemn them. M noiintendert." Fetthtim : Ket-Jvet, 
l>t. i., res. 32. 

* In-ten -der, v.t. [Pref. in- (intens.), and 
Eng. tender (q.v.).'] To make tender. 

" Which gives those venerable scenes full weight. 
And deep reception in th' intendered heart. 

Young: Jfiffht Thought, It TSL 

* In-tend -i-ment, s. [Low Lat. intendi* 
mentum, from Lat. intendo,] [INTEND.] 

1. Attention, patient hearing, coiisideratioa 

"Till well ye wot, by grave intendiment, 
What woman, and wherefore doth me upbraid." 
Spenter; F. Q,, I. xiL SL 

2. Knowledge, skill, experience. 

" For she of bearbes had great intendiment.* 

Spenter: F. Q., III. v. H 

* In-tend'-ment, 5. [Fr. entendement, from 

entendre = to understand.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 
1. Intention, design, purpose. 



" [We] fear the main intendment of the Scot, 
who hath been still a giddy neighbour to us.~ 

Sfiaketp. : Henry VI., i. ft. 

2, Supervision, oversight. 

"Well he merited 
The intendments o'er the gal lies at Leghorn." 

Ford : Atnciei Chatte t Noble, L L 

TJ. Law : The true intent or meaning of s 
person, Jaw, or legal document. 

" According to the true intendment of the laws of 
England." Junius, let. 69. 

* in ten'-e-brat-ed, a. (Lat. in- = in, and 

tenebr(e= darkness.] Darkened, obscured. 

"A pretty conjecture intentbrnted by antiquity." 
Wotton : Kemaint, p. 861. 

* in ten-er-ate, v.t. [Lat in- (intens.), and 
tener= tender.] To make tender or soft; to 
soften. 

"Fear inteneratet the heart making It fit for all 
gracious impression." Bp. ffatt : Remedy of Pro- 
phanenett, bk. ii.. | 18. 

* in-ten'-er-ate, a. [INTENERATE, v.] Made 
tender or soft* ; softened, soft. 

* In-t^n-er-a'-tlon, s. [INTENKBATE, v.] The 
act or process of making tender or soft ; soft- 
ening. 

" The noblest use of nourishment U for the prolong, 
ation of life, restoration of some degree of youth, and 
intcnerution of the parta," Bacon : flat. Hat., f 56. 

* In ten'-i-ble, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
t< niii'e (<i.v.).~\ Incapable of holding, contain- 
ing, or retaining. 

" Yet In this captious and intenible sieve 
I still pour in the waters of my love." 

Shaketp. ; Alii Well That Sndt Well, i. & 

t fa-te*n'~sate, v.t. [Eng. intense) ; -*te.] To 
make intense or more intense ; to intensify. 
(Emerson: English Traits, ch. iv.) 

t in-ten'-Ba -tlon, *. [Eng. intense); -ation.] 
An ascending climax. (CarlyU : Miscell., 
Hi. 221.) 

t In-tens'-a-tive, a. [Eng. intensat(e) ; -ive.} 
Making intense or more intense ; intensifying, 
adding intensity. 

" An inttn*atiee attributive." Athentntm. Dec. IS, 
1880, p. 816. 

In-t<Snse , a. [Lat. intensus, pa. par. of in 
tendo = to stretch out.] [INTEND.] 

1. Raised to the highest ; strained, forced . 
anxiously attentive, strict, severe : as, intenst 
study. 

2. Extreme in degree : as 

(1) Violent, vehement, exceedingly strong: 
as, intense love, intense affection. 

(2) Exceedingly hot, ardent. 

"Then, woe to mortals ! Titan then exert* 
His heat intentf." Philipt : Cider, L 

(3) Exceedingly cold, biting, sharp ; as, ia* 
tense cold, an intense frost. 

(4) Exceedingly sharp, severe, or acute : as, 
intense jiain. 



bo"y; pout, jo^rl; oat, 90!!, chorus, ghin, bench; go. Kern; thin, fills; sin, as; expect, yenophon, exist, ph - t 
-dan. -tlan = shan. -tton, -sion = shun ; -flon, -sion = zhttm. -clous, -tlous, -slous = shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, del. 






2702 



intensely in tentness 



(6) Vehement ; very strong or passionate. 
" Fraught with a pntiou BO inttnie.' 

rntnyxm . Jfiwd, II. II. 69. 

(6) Strict, severe, harsh. 

"Tb* ngal power won or lM inUiuf or remiss ; 
that it. (mater or !.' Jfittim . Otf.i of I'tuptt of 
tngland. 

(!) Exceedingly deep in colour : u, an in- 

tense blue. 

In tcnse'-ljr, ad". [Eng. intense; -ly.] 

I. In an intense manner or degree ; to an 
extreme or very great degree; vehemently, 
exceedingly. 

" The more ardently and intenuly a man lore. God." 
Bkarp : Sertnom, voL IT.. Bar. 6. 

* 2. Attentively, earnestly. 

in-tense'-new, s. (Bng. Menu ; -TWM.) The 
quality or state of being intense; intensity, 
vehemence. 

With intenwieu of dtttir* 
In her upward eye of lire." 

*: Klttn. 



(n-t^iut-l-f a-oa'-tton, >. tEng. infcuOV; e 
connective, and suff. -ation. ] The actor pro- 
cess of intensifying or making more intense. 



. *. [Eng. intensify ; -er.] 
One who or that which intensities ; specifically 
in photography, a substance used to intensify 
opacity of the deposit [iNTENsirr. A. 2.) 

Xn-tens'-l'-f y, v.t. & i. [Eng. ink me ; i con- 
nective ; -Jy.] 

A. Trim si tin: 

1. Ord, Lang. : To make intense, or more 
Intense. 

" Aud felt bow vlerclng ti the sting of pride. 
By want embittered and MumMM., 

ut : Otvdatft Tale. 



2. Photog. : A term applied to various modes 
Of giving strength or increased opacity to the 
deposit forming the photographic picture on 
11 exposed and developed plate. This may be 
effected by depositing metallic silver, from a 
solution of the nitrate of that metal, by means 
of some iron salts, or pyrogallfc acid, and also 
by increasing the density of the deposit already 
formed. One method of doing this U to first 
bleach it with bi-chloride of mercury, and, 
after well washing, to treat with dilute am- 
monia. 

* B. Intrans. : To become Intense, or more 
Intense ; to act with greater force or energy. 

fn - ten'-slon, . [ Fr. , from Lat. intensio, from 
intensus, pa. par. of inttndo ; Sp. intension ; 
Ital. intensione.] 

* I. Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of straining or stretching ; the 
tate of being strained or stretched. 

** MJWT divert tunea and different intentions of the 
Voice, which the musicians call harmonic." P. Hol- 
land : Plutarch, p. 825. 

2. The act of intensifying or rendering more 
Intense ; intensification. 

" Sound* will be carried farther with the wind than 
gainst the wind: and likewise to rise and fall with 
the intention or remission of the wind." Bacon : flat, 
ffitt. \Todd.) 

U. Logic < Afetaph, : Those attributes which 
go to make up a complex general notion, and 
which cannot be taken away from it without 
destroying it. More usually termed COMPRE- 
HENSION (q.v.). [EXTENSION.] 

" The greater the extension, the leas the intention ; 
the more objects a conception embraces, tbe more 
lender the knowledge which It conveys of anjotfthoM 
object* ; and rtc* verm." Thomson : Lawt of Thought, 

rs 

In-tens'-I-ty, s. [Eng. intense); -ity.] 

L Ord. Lang. : The quality or state of being 
Intense ; in tenseness, vehemence, violence, 
f orce, depth, severity. 

"She could prove to him tbe intentity and disin- 
terestedness of her affection." Macaulay: Jfitt. JSny., 
ch, x. 

n. Technically : 

1. Magnet. : [MAGNETOMETER]. 

2. Elect.: In a similar sense to 3. Thus 
the intensity of a current is the quantity of 
electricity which, in any unit of time, flows 
through a section of the current. That of 
an electric light is the amount of light it gives 
forth compared with that of an ordinary-sized 
candle, of a lamp of any given kind, or of the 
ran. 

3. Physics, Ac. : The concentrated energy 
with which a force acts ; the potency of a 
force as measured by its effects. Used of 
light, of radiant or other heat, of sound, of 
gravity, Ac, [*f.] 



extensively in the latitude of the object accordiug 
a liberty of exercise. but not of specification." Bra 



TI Intensity of pressure, Intensity of stress : 
The force per unit of area. It is of the dircen- 
B i oas t^ jj jj gtands for mass, L for 
length, aud T for time, then intensity of pres- 
sure or of stress =j5*. (Everett: C. Q. 5. 
System of Units (1875), p. 6.) 
In-tens-ive, o. & t. [Eng. intense); -i.) 

A* As adjective : 

1. Admitting of intension ; that may or can 
be intensified or increased In degree. 

"The intmtive distance between the perfection of 
an angel and of a man U but finite." Salt. (Todd.) 

2. Serving to intensify, or to add force or 
emphasis. 

* 3. Intense, deep, strong. 

" An effectual grief for aln should be erlooa. deep, 
hearty, infm****. Bp. Halt t Bairn of (Jilead. 

* 4. Intent, assiduous, very careful. 

" Tired with that assiduous attendance and int emit* 
circumspection which a long fortune did require." 
Wotton. 

B, As subst. : Something serving to give 
force or emphasis ; specif., an intensive par- 
ticle, word, or phrase. 

" Anon, hai ' Infernal wed u an intensatlve.* I* 

not the word a mistake for intensive!" Jf of e t 
Queries, March 6. 1881, p. 181. 

t In-tens-Ive-ly. adv. (Eng. intensive; -ly.} 
L In an intensive manner ; by increase of 
degree. 

"God and the good angels. are more free than we are, 
that U. intentivelit In the degree of freedom ; but not 
nsivel 

erty o . 

hall: Affaintt Hobbet. 

2. So as to give force or emphasis. 

3. Intently, assiduously, earnestly. 

" Let UB wait reverently and intentively upon thU 
Bethesdaof God." Bale: Contempt; Pool of Btthexla. 

4. By intension. 

" Not only If it be considered intmsiecly, but exten- 
sively (as a schoolman would express it)." Boyle : 
Works, vol. IT., p. M. 

* in-tena'-Ive-ness, *. t Eng. intensive _;-*.] 
Tbe quality or state of being intensive ; In- 
tensity. 

" Where nothing might or could Interrupt or divert 
the intentiveneu of hU Borrow and lv*i."f/uie : Con* 
temp. ; Christ Crucified. 

in-tcnt', a. [Lat intentus, pa. par. of intendo.] 
Having the mind bent or strained on an ob- 
ject ; eager in pursuit of or attention to an 
object ; anxiously diligent ; sedulously ap- 
plied. (It is now followed only by on, but to 
was also formerly used.) 

" The village of Plymouth 

Woke from Its Bleep, aud arose, intent on its manifold 
labours." Longfellow: JtUet Standith, v. 

in tent', * en-tente, *. [Fr. entente, from 
entendre = to understand, to conceive ; Ital. 
& 8p. intento.] 

1. The act of stretching, straining, or bend- 
ing the mind or thoughts towards an object ; 
a design, a purpose, an intention. 

" Some foe to his upright intent 
Finds out bis weaker part." 

Cowper : ffaman FraOtg. 

2. Meaning, drift. 

t (1) To the intent that : In order that 
(2) To all intents, To all intents and purposes: 
Practically, really, in reality. 

" A people, who are In general excluded from any 

share of the legislature, are, to all intents and puriiotes, 
as much slave*, when twenty, independent of them, 
govern, as when but one domineers, iturke: A I' in- 
dication of National Society. 

in-ten'-tion, * in-ten-cy-one, *. [Fr. in- 

tention, from Lat intentionem, accus. of in- 
tentio an endeavour, an effort, from intentus t 
pa, par. of intendo; Sp. intencion ; Ital. in- 
tenzione.} 
L Ordinary Language : 

* 1. The state of being strained, increased, 
or intensified ; intension. 

"The operations of agents admit of intention and 
remission ; but essences are not capable of such raria. 
tiou."Lockf. (Todd.) 

2. The act of stretching or bending the mind 
towards an object ; closeness of application ; 
sedulous attention or application ; earnest* 
ness. 

"My soul 
Is bent with more intention on their follies.* 

Ben Jonton : Cynthiai Revt,lt t \. 1. 

3. A determination to act in some particular 
mode or manner ; a purpose, a design, a pro- 
ject, an intent 

" He announced his intention to protect them In the 
free exercise of their religion." ilacauiay ; Biit. Eng., 
oh. vii. 



4. That which is intended ; an aim, an end, 
an object 

5. The purpose for which anything is in- 

tended ; object 

"The boneallin tbe human frame) are reckoned t* 
be 24; the distinct eco}>ea or inttntiont In each of 
these are above 40. iu all about 100.000." H'iUim: 
Jfat. JteL. bk. L, ch. vL 

IL Technically: 

1, Logic: Any mental apprehension of an 
object 

2. Roman Theology : 

(1) Interior assent to an external act on thfl 
part of the minister; held by some theolo- 
gians to be essential to the validity of such an 
act, when of a sacramental character. One ol 
the arguments against the validity of Anglican 
Ordens, urged by some Roman writers, is the 
absence of intention in the Elizabethan bishopa 
and their consecrators to do what tbe Roman 
Church does when she consecrates bishopa or 
ordains priests. 

(2) The special purpose to say mass, to re- 
cite vocal prayers, or perform any act of devo- 
tion with a particular object in view, as for 
the spiritual benefit of some person or the 
iinpetration of some grace for one's self. 

IT (1) First intention : 

Logic : A conception of a thing formed by 
the first or direct application of the mind to 
the individual object ; an idea ; an image. 

(2) Second intention : 

Logic: A conception generalized from th 
first intuition or apprehension already formed 
by the mind ; an abstract notion. 

"The jfrtf intention of every word Is Its real mean, 

Ing ; the $econd intention. Its logical value, accord I m 
to the function of thought to which It belongs."- 
Thornton : Lawn qf Thought, lutrtxl., p. M. 

(S) To heal by the Jlrst Intention : 

Surg. .* To cicatrize without suppuration, at 

a wound. 

(4) To heal by the second intention: 
Surg. : To unite after suppuration ; said of 

a wound. 

In ten -tlon-al, a. [Eng. intention ; -a/.) 
Done with intention, design, or purpose ; de- 
signed, intended, not accidental. 

" Both arm fee In the field, however, refuse to fight 
for their hated masters, and sustain inten'ion-il de- 
feaU." Lewi* : Cred. Early Roman Uitt, (1W5), II., SOI. 

* in ten tion-al'-i-ty, . [Eng. intentional ; 
-ity.} The quality or state of being inten- 
tional. 

in ten'-tlon-al ly, adv. (Eng. intentional; 
-IV'} 

1. In an intentional manner; with inten- 
tion or design ; of set purpose ; designedly. 

2. In will, If not In deed. 

" Innocent, at least 
Intentionally guiltless, 1 began." 

Glover: Atkenaidxx\. 

' In-ten'-tioned, a, [Eng. intention; -ed.} 
Having intentions or designs; used In com- 
position, as well-intentioned = having good or 
honest intentions. 

"The best intention**, meet religion* writer will 
employ many phrases, that a Spiuozist would use. In 
tbe explanation of his Impiety." Warbwrton: Cat*- 
inenf. on way OH Man. 

* in-tn'-tiive, a. [Lat intentivut, from inten- 
tus. pa. par. of intendo ; Ital. intentivo.} Hav- 
ing the mind closely applied ; attentive ; in- 

tent 

"I haue found TOO. faithful!, obedient, and to all 
my requester and desires diligent and intentiut' 



* In-ten'-tive-ly', adv. [Eng. incentive; >ly.) 

Closely, attentively, carefully. 

" Intenliurly ready and prepared to Hue and die." 
ffackluyt : Yoyaget, it 87. 

* in-ten'-tive-ness, . [Eng. intentive' 
-ness. } The quality or state of being intentive ? 
close attention or application of mind. 

" Their care and intentivcnette Is truly commend' 
able," Bp. HaU : Contempt. ; Latarut raited. 

in-tenf -IJ?, adv. [Eng. intent \; -ly.] In an in- 
tent manner ; with close application of mind ; 
closely, narrowly, attentively, zealously. 

"Intently prosecuting one entire scheme ; and direct- 
Ing the constituent parts of It to the general purpose 
of his providence." Burd: On the Propheciet, ser. H. 

In- tent -ness, s. [Eng. intent; -ness.] The 
quality or state of being intent ; close appli- 
cation of mind ; zeal ; attention. 

" A course, either of extreme solicitude, or Mentneu 
upon business.*' South : Sermont, voL vi., sr. 7. 



fltte, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet. here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, p5t, 
or. wore, woit, work, whd, sdu ; mute, cub. ciire, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, w. ce = e ; ey = a. qu = JEW- 



inter intercellular 



2703 



ln-ter', * en-ter-ren, In terre, v.t. [F. . 
mterrer, from Low Lat. intern, from Lat in- 
-* in, and terra = the earth.] 

* L To deposit in and cover with earth ; to 
uory. 

"The kest way Is to inltr them as yon furrow pease." 
^Mortimer: Butbandry. 

2. To bury with funeral rites ; to inhume. 

" He was intern* In the parish church there " 
Maun : Pretnoy ; Art of Painting ; Lift. 

3. To bury ; to place out of sight. 

" The evU that men do lives after them ; 
The good is oft interred with their bones." 

' t . Jullia Canr. ill. 9. 



ln-ter-, prtf. [Lat.] A Latin preposition, 
signifying between, among, or amongst, and 
largely used as a prefix in English in words 
which are for the most part purely Latin, 
some, however, as interweave, being hybrid. 

In ter-ac-ceV sor-& a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. accessory (q.v.).] 

Anat. : Situated between the accessory pro- 
cess of one vertebra and the mamillary process 
of the next. Used of interaccessory muscles, 
called the interacessorii. 

t In'-ter-act, . [Pref. Inter-, and Eng. act 
(q.v.).] 

1. Lit. : The Interval between two acts of a 
drama ; a short piece between others ; an in- 
terlude. 

2. Fig. : Any intermediate employment or 
time. 

t In'-ter-act, v.t. [INTERACT,*.] To act re- 
ciprocally one on another. 

In-ter-ac'-tlon, . [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
action (q.v.).] 

1. An intermediate action. 

2. Mutual or reciprocal action. 

In-ter-ad'-di-tfve, o. & . [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng. additive (q.v.).] 

A, At adj. : Added or inserted parentheti- 
cally or between others, as a clause in a 

sentence. 

B. As roost. : Anything added or inserted 
parenthetically. 

In-ter-a'-gen-sy, . [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
agency (q.v.).] The quality or state of being 
an interagent ; the acts of one acting as an 
interagent; intermediate agency. 

In-ter-a'-gent, . [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
a0eni(q.v.).J One who acts as an intermediate 
agent between others ; a medium. 

In-ter-all, s. [ENTRAIL, .] 

In tcr al' ve 6-lar, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
alveolar (q.v.).] 

Anat. : Between the alveoli of the lungs. 
Used of the Interalveolar lymphatics which, 
united below, pass upwards to the Inner sur- 
face of the alveoli. 

In ter-am-bn-la' era, . ft. [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng., &C. ambulacra (q.v.).] 

Zool. : The Imperforate plates which occupy 
the intervals of the perforated ones (ambu- 
lacra) in the shells of Echinodenns. (Oven.) 

In-ter-am-bu-la'-craL, a. [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng. ambuiacral.] 

Zool.; Of or belonging to the Interambnlacra 
(q.v.* 

in-ter-am'-nl-an, a. [Lat. inter- = be- 
tween, amongst; omji!'s = a river, and Eng. 
adj. sun", -on.) Situated between riven ; en- 
closed by rivers. 

In ter-an'-I-mate, v.t. [P re f. inter-, and 
Brig, animate (q.v.).] To animate or inspire 
mutually. 

When love with one another so 
Jnlfrantmatft two souls." Donne : T\4 Ecstatg, 

In ter ar-bor-a'-tlon, .>. [Lat. inter = be- 
tween, amongst, and ortor = a tree.] The 
intermixture of the branches of trees standing 
in opposite ranks. (Browne: Cyrus" Garden, 
ch. iv.) 

n-ter-ar-tite'-u-lar. a. [Pref. inter-, and 

Eng. articular (q.v.).] 

Anat. : Situated between joints, as inter- 
articular Bbrocartilages and ligaments. 

In-ter-au'-lio, o. [Lat inter = between, 
amongst ; aul(a) = a hall, a palace, and Eng. 



adj. sun*, -ic.) Existing or carried on between 
royal courts : as, interaulic politics. (Uotley.) 

In-ter-au-rio'-u-lar, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. auricular (q.v)'.] 

Anat. (Of a foitus): Situated between the 
auricles of the heart. 

In-ter-ax'-al, o. [Pref. inter-; Eng. <u<is), 
and sulT. -al.\ 
Arrk. ; Situated In an interaxls. 

In-ter-ax-il'-la-rjf, a. [Pref. inter-, nd 
Bug. axillary (q.v.).] 

Bot. : Situated between or in the axils of 
leaves. 



Is [Pref. inter-, and Eng. axit 

Arch. : The space between axes. 

* in-ter bas-ta-Hon, t. [Pref. inter-; Eng. 
basUe) (q.v.) ; -ation.] Patchwork. 

"A metaphor taken from interbattafion, patching 
or piecing, sewing or clapping close together." Smith : 
Uut Age, p. 181 

t in-ter-blend', v.t. CPref. infer-, and Eng. 
blend (q.v.).] To blend or mingle so as t* 
form a union. 

In-ter-bra'-chl-al, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. brachial (q.\-!)!] 
Anat. : Between the arms. 

"The reproductive organs [of the OphlnroUea] are 
situated near the bases of the arras, and open by ori. 
flees on the ventral surface of the body, or in the inter. 
orachial areas.' jff. A. NiduUon : Zool. (5th ed.), p. 196. 

In ter-branch'-I-al, o. [Pref. inters and 
Eng. branchial (q.v.).] 

Ichfhy. <t Zool. : Between or among the 
branchiae or gills. 

In ter breed', v.t. & i. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
frreed (q.v.).] 

A. TVetnsiiiDe : 

1. Gen. : To breed between two individuals, 
related to each other in a greater or less 
degree. 

2. Spec. : To cross-breed ; to breed by cross- 
ing dilferent strains or sub-varieties, varieties, 
or species of animals or flowers. 

B* Intransitnv : 

L To breed together. (Used of animals.) 
2. To adopt means to effect this result. 
(Used of cattle-breeders, Ice.) 

In t^r-breed Ing, pr. par. ft . [INTER- 
BREED.] 

A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As subst. : The act of breeding between 
two individuals ; cross-breeding. 

If Close Interbreeding continued during 
several generations between the nearest rela- 
tions, and remaining under the same condi- 
tions of life almost always tends to decreased 
size, weakness, or sterility. (.Darwin: Orioin 
of Species, 6th ed., p. 251.) 

" In : ter-brlng', v.t [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
bring (q.v.).] To bring between or among. 

" May you interbriny 
Dally new Joys, and never sing." 

Donne; njoptu. Dec. M, Mil 

In-teV-ca-lar, in tor -ca-la-ry, a. [Lat. 

intercalarte, intercalarius, from intercalo = to 
Intercalate ; Fr. intercalate.] 

* L Ord. Lang. : Inserted between or 
amongst others. 

" Thla initrfiilari line ... seems to be intended as 
> chorai or burden to the song." Seattie : riroit : 
Fait. viii. (Note.) 

H. CAron. : Inserted between or among 
others. Used of months, or shorter periods of 
time, Insfted into the calendar to make the 
astronomical and civil years more nearly co- 
incide. Romulus is said to have intercalated 
two months into the Roman year, which had 
hitherto consisted of ten months only. Numa 
Intercalated a month every second year, and 
as the time for doing so was unfixed, the 
Pontiflces placed it at such times as might 
suit the convenience of the government or of 
their own friends. 

In-teV-ca-lato, v.t. [Lat. intercalatm, pa. 
par. at intercalo = to proclaim that something 
lias been inserted : inter = between, and calo 
= to proclaim ; Fr. intercaler; 8p. intercalar ; 
Ital. intercalare.] 

* L Ord. Lang. : To insert between r 
amongst others. 



U. Technically: 

1. CAron, : To insert a day, a mouth, *o., 
in a calendar. 

" It was the custom with Greeks to add. or. as It wai 
termed, to intercalate a month every other year " 
Prieal,,.- On History, led. llv. 

2. Ceo!. : To insert, Introduce, or intrude a 
stratum between other strata. 

" In-ter'-cal-at-Ive, o. [Eng. intercalate); 
we.) Tending to intercalate ; that Inter- 
calates. 

In-ter-ca-la'-tlon, s. [Lat. intercalate, from 
in(ercaia(i, pa. par. of Intercalo ; Fr. interca- 
lation; Sp. intercalation ; Ital. intercalaziane.] 

* L Ordinary Language: 

1. The act of intercalating or inserting be- 
tween others. 

2. The thing so intercalated. 
U, Technically: 

1. Chron. : The insertion of a day, a month, 
&c., in a calendar. 

2. Geol. : The insertion, introduction or in- 
trusion of a stratum between or amougother 
strata. 

tn-ter-C&T-o't'-Io, o. [Mod. Lat. intercantl. 
cui-otoi belonging to the carotid artery.] 

Anat. : Situated on the inner side of the 
angle of division in the common carotid 
artery. Used of the intercarotic ganglion or 
glandule. 

"an-ter-cede', v.t. & i. [Fr. inferoMer, from 
Lat. intercede = to go between : inter- = be- 
tween, and eedo = to go ; 8p. interceder ; ItaL 
intercedere.] 
A* Intransitive : 

* 1. To pass or occur intermediately ; to 
intervene ; to come between. 

" He supposeth that a vast period interceded between 
that origination and the age wherein he lived." note : 
Orig. of Jiantind. (Tod) 

2. To go, come, or act between as a peace- 
maker, with a view to reconcile parties at 
variance ; to plead in favour of another ; to 
mediate; to make intercession. (It is fol- 
lowed by for before the person on whose be- 
half intercession is made, and by with before 
the person to whom it is made.) 

" I heare not one man open his mouth to intercede 

for the offender." tiiahop Halt: Contempt.; Haman 

Hanged, Ac. 

* B. Trans. : To go, come, or pass between. 
"Those snpernces reflect the greatest quantity of 

light, which have the greatest refracting power., and 
which intercede mediums that differ most in their re- 
fracting densities." Jfetft on. 

*$ To mediate and intercede are both con- 
ciliatory acts ; the intercessor and mediator 
are equals or even inferiors ; to interpose is an 
act of authority, and belongs most commonly 
to a superior : one intercedes or interposes for 
the removal of evil ; one mediates for the at- 
tainment of good. To intercede and interpose 
are employed on the highest and lowest occa- 
sions ; to mediate is never employed but in 
matters of the greatest moment. (Crabb : 
Eng. Synon.) 

* In ter-ce'-dent, a. [Lat. intercedem, pr. 
par. of intercede = to go between.] Coming 
or passing between ; interceding, mediating. 

* In-ter-9e'-dent-ljf,odt>. [Eng. interceded; 
ly.} By way of intercession ; as an inter- 
ceder or intercessor. 

In-ter-oe'-der, . [Eng. intercede) ; -<r.] One 
who intercedes ; a mediator, an intercessor. 

n-ter-gel'-ln-lar, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. cellular (q.v.).~\ 

Anat., Bot., <tc. : Situated between cellules 
or cells : as, intercellular space. 

intercellular canals, intercellu- 
lar-passages, s. pi. 

Bot. : Spaces left between contlguons cells 
In some species of plants. DC Candolle thought 
they were designed for the passage of sap, but 
In Nymphaeacese they are filled with air. 

intercellular-spaces, s. pi. 
Bot. : Open spaces, or air-cavities, between 
the cells of certain species. 

intercellular substance, >. 

Bot. : A substance alleged to cement toge- 
ther the many minute cells in the parenchyma 
of a plant. In the higher plants It constitute! 
only a thin layer, while In Nostoc and some 



btfr; p6ut, 



1 cat, 9011, chorus, 9hln, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist. -Ing. 
-taon. -slon = hun; -fton, -slon = hun. -dons, -ttons, -tuou* = sUus. -We, -die, &o. = 1*1. dej. 



J704 



intercept intercolumniation 



other forms of aig It constitute* * Jelly. 
The intercellular substance is only contiguous 
in cell-walls which have undergone a certain 
chemical change. 

In ter-cept, v.t. [Fr. intercepter; Sp. inter- 
eepfar; Ital. interceptors.] [INTEBCKPT, a.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. To stop, take, or seize by the way or on 
the i>ussage. 

" [I] Bothered flocks of friends. 

Marched towards St. Alb&ns to interred the queen. 
Shatetp. : a Henry VI., U. 1. 

2. To obstruct or interrupt the passage of ; 
to stop. 

" Behind th hole I fastened to the pasteboard, with 
pitch, the blade of a sharp knife, to intercept some 
part of the light which passed through the bole. 
ffevlon : Optics. 

8. To obstruct or interrupt communication 
With, or progress towards ; to shut out. 
H Swarming o'er the dusky fields they fly. 
New to the fiowers. and intercept the sky." 

Dryden : Flower f Leaf, "M. 

* 4. To take away, to put an end to, to stop. 

"God will shortly inUrcept your brethe." ^o . 
Mcpof. of and* x. 

6. To stop, to delay, to interrupt. 

Being intfrctfUd In your sport." 

?: : TtOU Androniaa. U. a. 



tt Afaft. : To include between. When * 
eurve cuts a straight line in two points, the 
part of the straight line lying between the 
two points Is said to be intercepted between 
the two points. And, In general, that part of 
a line lying between any two points is said to 
be intercepted between them. 

,In ter 9opt, * In ter-oepte, a. 4i. ILat. 
interccplus. pa. par. of intercipio : inter- = be- 
tween, and capto = to takv to catch.) 

* A. At adj. : Intercepted, included, com- 
prehended. 

"The arche meridian that Is contained or intercept* 

betwlxe the sighet and the equlnoodaL" Chaucer : 
jarotabe. pt. l', I . 

* B. At tubsi. : That which is Intercepted ; 
ipecif., in geom., that portion of a line which 
lies between the two point* at which it is 
intersected by other two lines, by a curve, by 
two planes, or by a surface. 

Jn-ter-cSpf -or, >. [Eng. intercept; ;-er.} One 
who or that which intercepts ; one who stops 
another. 

"Thy interceptor full of desplght. bloody as the 
hunter, attends thee at the orchard end." S*otP. : 
Twelfth ITifM, UL 4. 

In-ter-oSp'-tlon, . [Lai inteneptio, from 
intercepts, pa. par. of intercipio. [INTER- 
CUT, .] The act of intercepting or stopping 
in the course ; stoppage, hindrance, obstruc- 
tion. 

"The king hath note of all that they Intend 
By interception, which they dream not of. 

Shakrtp. : Henry r.. IL J. 

In-ter-cep'-ttve, a. [Eng. intercept; -ive.] 
Serving or tending to intercept or stop. 

In-ter 9688 -ion (ss as sh), . [Fr., from 
Lat. intercessio = a going between, from inter- 
cesfus, pa. par. of intercedo = to go between ; 
Bp. interceswn ; Ital. intercessione.] The act of 
interceding ; mediation ; interposition between 
parties at variance, with a view to reconcilia- 
tion ; prayer to one party in favour of another : 
sometimes, but rarely, against another. 

" The hymn of interceuion rose." 

Scoll . Lat of the Lent Hinitrel, vl. II. 

In terras' lon-al (ss as sh), a. [Eng. in- 
tercession; -at] Pertaining to, containing, or 
of the nature of intercession or entreaty. 

In ter jess' lon-ato (ss us sh), v.t. [Eng. 
intercession ; -ate.] To make intercession to ; 
to entreat. 

In-ter-fcs' sor, "In-ter-ces-sour, >. 
[Fr. intercesseur, from Lat. intercessorem, ace. 
of intercessor, from intercessus, pa, par. of 
intercedo = to go between. ] 

L Ord. Lang. : One who intercedes or goes 
between ; one who makes intercession for 
others ; a mediator ; one who interposes be- 
tween parties at variance, with a view to 
reconcile them. 

" He, from wrath more cool. 
Came, the mild Judge and Interceptor both, 
To sentence man." Jfilton : p. L., x. 96. 

* II. Eccles. : A bishop who, during a va- 
cancy of a see, administers the bishopric till a 
successor is elected. 

la-ter-oes-BOr'-l-al, a. [Eng. intercessor ; 
-ia 7 .] Of or pertaining to intercession or an 
intercessor ; intercessory. 



t an-ter-9ea.'-or-y, o. [Eng. intercessor ; -y.] 
Containing or of the nature of intercession ; 
interceding. 

"The Lord's Prayer has an fntrcsssory petition for 
our enemies." Barberry (1720). 

in ter-9haln , v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
chain (q.v.).] To chain or link together. 

" Two bosoms interchained with an oath." 

Shakeep. : itideummer Xight't Dream, 11. 1 

TT The Folio reads interchanged. 

in ter chan ge, * en tre chaunge, * en- 
ter-change, * In ter chaunge, v.t. & i. 
[Fr. entrechanger, from entre (Lat. inter) = 
between, among, and changer = to change.] 

A* Intransitive : 

1. To exchange ; to give and .take mutually. 



Were interchanged twlx 



Full many strokes 

;t them two." 

nr ./... IV. 111.11. 

2. To change mutnally ; to put each in the 
place of the other. 

" Again his soul he interchanged 
With friends whose hearts were long estranged. 
Scott : Lady of the Lake. 1. S3. 

3. To cause to succeed alternately : as, To 
interchange cares with pleasures. 

B. Intrant. : To succeed alternately ; to 
change mutually. 

" With some interchanging changes of fortune, they 
begat, of a lust war, the best ohildpeaoe." mdney. 

* In' -ter-change, t. [INTERCHANGE, v.] 

1. The act of interchanging or mutually 
changing; the act or process of mutually 
giving and receiving ; exchange. 

"No interchange of eipericnos was necessary to 
lead the metallurgists of remote regions to similar 
results," Wilton : preUttoric Man, en. ix. 

2. Alternate succession, change, alternation. 

" Sweet interchange 
Of Mil and valley." Milton : P.L.. Ix. 1U. 

3. Trade, commerce. 

" Those have an interchange or trail, with Elana," 
Bovell : Letter*. 

to-ter-ehanie-a-bir-1-ty, . [Eng. inter- 
changeable ; -ity.] The quality or state of being 
interchangeable; interchangeableness. < 

In-ter-ohan'ie-a-ble, o. [Eng. interchange; 
-able.] 

1. Capable of being interchanged; admit- 
ting of exchange: as, Two letters may be 
interchangeable. 

* 2. Following each other in alternate suc- 
cession. 

"The interchangeable weather of spring and an. 
tttmn." Dantpier : foitaget (an. 1048). 

In-ter-ohan'ge-a-ble-ne'ss, . [Eng. inter- 
changeable; -ness.] The quality or state of 
being interchangeable. 

ta-ter-onan'fce-a-bly, adv. [Eng. inter- 
changeabKf) ; -ly.] In an Interchangeable 
manner ; alternately ; by reciprocation : so 
as to be interchangeable. _ 

" The portions of the le- "~ 
ments they will have to be 
interchangeably transmut- 
able." Boyle : Work*, i. 0. 

Interchangeably 




Her.: Placed or lying 
across each other, as three 
fishes, threeswords, three 
arrows, &c., the head of 
each appearing between DSTERCHANOEABLY 
the tails, hilts, or butt- POSED. 

ends of the others. 

*ln-ter-9han'ge-ment, i. [Eng. inter, 
change; -nent.] The act of interchanging; 
exchange, mutual transfer. 

" A contract of eternal bond of love . . 
Strengthened by interchan?ement of your rings." 
Shaketp. : Twelfth Night, r. 

* in-ter-9llJP'-ter, s. [_Pift. inter-, and Eng. 
chapter (q.v.).] An interpolated or interca- 
lated chapter. 

* In'-ter-che'cked, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. checked (q.v.).] Alternated, varied. 

" Lead them and ourselves through many years 
Of sin and pain or few, but still of sorrow, 
Interceded with an Instant of brief pleaiure, 
To Death," Byron : Cain, 1. 1. 

* an-teV-9i<l-en9e, s. tLat. intercidcns, pr. par. 

of intercido : inter- between, among, and 
codo = to fall.] The act or state of falling or 
coming between ; occurrence, accident. 

" Talking of the Instances, the Insults, the interci- 
dencei. communities of diseases, and all to show what 
books we have read." P. Holland : Plutarch, p 608 



* tn-teV^id-ent, a. [Lat. intercident, pr. 

par. of intercido. } Falling or coming between. 

* in-ter-clp'-i-ent, a. It i. [Lat. mtercipient, 
pr. par. of ititercipio = to intercept (q.v.)."] 

A. As adj. : Stopping or seizing by the way, 
or in the course ; intercepting. 

B. As fubti. : One who or that which in- 
tercepU or stops the course or passage. 

"They commend repellanta. but not with mnon 
astriimency, unli-sii as Intenmnat uiou the parta." 
Wiseman : Surgery, vol. L, bk. i.. eh. v. 

* In-ter^J'-sion, s. [Lat. intercisio, from in- 
tercisus, pa. par. of intercido to cut apart : 
inter- = between, among, and cosdo = to cut.] 
A cutting off ; an interruption. 

" We may understand their tntercition, not abscinion 
or consummate desolation. "Srovme : Vulgar Krrourt, 
bk. vii.. ch. ill 

* in-ter-ela-vJo'-u-lir, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. clavicular.] 

Anat. : Between the clavicles, or collar 
bones. There are an iuterclavicular notch 
and ligament 

*ln-ter-cldse', v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
dote, v. (q.v.).J To shut in, to inclose. 

" To intercloie some very minute and restless parti- 
cles."-ft>f .' Worts, L ess. 

* In-ter-cloud', v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
cloud (q.v.).J To shut within clouds ; to 
cloud. 

None the least blackness interctouded had 
80 fair a day." ln,,M : CMt Wort. v. M. 

* In-ter-olude', v.t. ILat. intercludo, from 
inter = between, among, and claudo = to shut.] 
To shut out from a place or course by some- 
thing intervening ; to intercept, to interrupt, 
to cut off. 

* In-ter-clu'-slon, >. [Lat. interdusio, front 
interduntt, pa, par. of imtercludo.] [IHTEB^ 
CLUDB.] A shutting off or out ; interception, 
obstruction. 

in ter-col-le'-giate, a. Between colleger 

In ter col -line, a. [Lat. inter- = between ; 
collio = a hill, and Eng. suff. -int.} 
* I. Ord. Lang. : Between hills. 
2. Oeoi. : Lying between the several vol- 
canic cones or eminences produced by recent 
or remote eruptions. 

In-ter-oi-ld'-nK-al, o. '[Fret inter-, and 
Eng. colonial (q.vT)0 Existing or exercised 
between colonies. 

"The Congregntlonallsts of Australia and Sew 
Zealand have lust commemorated their jubilee by s 
series of intercolonial meetings at Sydney." ajil, 
-Venn. July 17, ISO. 

In-tep-eS-lum'-nar, o. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. columnar (q.v.).] 

Anat. : Between any two structures colum- 
nar in form, as the interoolumnar fascia. 

In-ter-ci-lum-ni-a'-tlon, . [Lat. inttr- 
columnium, from inter- = between, and colvmna 
= a column, a pillar.] 

Arch: The space between two columns. 
When columns are attached to the wall, thi 
space is not under such rigorous laws as when 
they are quite insulated ; for, in the latter 




INTERCOLUMNIATION. 



case, real as well as apparent solidity requires 
them to be near each other, that they maj 
better sustain the entablatures they carry. 
The different intercolunmiations are known as 
Pycnostyle (No. 1), Systyle (No. 2), Diastyle 
(No. 3), Aneostyle (No. 4), and Eustyle(q.v.)- 
In the Doric, however, the intercolumniation it 



Me. lt, fare, amidst, what, fill, father; we, wt, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, p*t, 
r, wore, wolf, work, who, son : mute, cub, cure, unite, ear. rule, full ; try. Syrian. IB. oe = e ; y - a. qu - kw. 



interoombat interdeal 



2705 



regulated by the disposition of the trlglyphg 
in the frieze ; for the triglyphs ought always 
to be placed over the centre of a column, anc 
the metope should be square. In the Tuscan 
Interval, the architraves being of wood, the 
pace may be considerably extended. Columns 
may be said to be either engaged or insulated 
when insulated, they are either placed very 
near the walls or at some considerable distance 
from them. With regard to engaged columns, 
or such as are near the walls of a building, 
the intercolumniations are not limited, but 
depend on the width of the arches, windows, 
niches, or other objects, and the decorations 
placed within them. But columns that are 
entirely detached, and perform alone the office 
of supporting the entablature, as in peristyles, 
5'orches, and galleries, must be near each 
ottier, both for the sake of real and apparent 
solidity. (Weale.) 

* in-ter com'-b&t, . [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 

comiat (q.v.).] A combat, an engagement. 

" [They] at the point of intercombat were." 

Daniel: Cittt Wari, \. J. 

fa tor come', v.i. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
come (q.v.).] To come between ; to intervene, 
to interpose, to interfere. 

in-ter-cSm'-mo'n, v.i. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. common (q.v,).] 

1. To have to do with or act in common or 
community with others ; to act, share, or 
participate with or among others. 

" The spirits of the wine do prey upon the roscld 
juice of the body, and inrercommon with the spirits 
of the body." Bacon : Vat. Bin., I 55. 

2. To use a common with others ; to graze 
cattle on a common pasture ; to enjoy or 
possess the right of feeding or grazing on 
common. 

In'-ter-odni-mdn, s. [INTERCOMMON, .] The 
same as INTERCOMMONAOE (q.v.). 

IT It was the right of Intercommon that 
gained Epping Forest for the Corporation of 
London, and saved It for the public. While 
iu at least one parish it was considered that 
all rights of common had been bought out ; 
the rights of intercommon had been forgotten. 
No fences existed round that parish, on which 
account cattle from five other parishes crossed 
the unnoted boundary line. The rights of 
their owners would be taken away if inclosures 
took place, hence none must be permitted, and 
any previously existing must be thrown open. 

* In ter com'-mon-age (age as Ig), ,. 
[Pref. inter-, and Eng. commonage (q.v.).] A 
joint or mutual right of commonage; the 
privilege enjoyed by the inhabitants of two 
or more contiguous manors or townships of 
pasturing their cattle on the commons of each 
other. Called also intercommon. 

In'-ter-cSm-mo'ned, a. [Pref. inter- ; Eng. 
commdn, and suff. -ed.] Having things in com- 
mun ; acting in common ; outlawed by a writ 
of intercommoning (q.v.). 

" Those desperate Intercommoned men, who werej 
as it were hunted from their houses." Burnet : Eitt. 
Oam Time (an. 1*79). 

* fa ter com'-mon-or, . [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. commoner (q.v.).] A joint communicant. 

fa-ter ctfm'-mon Ing, . [Pref. intei^,- 
Eng. common, and suff. -ing.] 

* 1. (For def. see extract.) 

" And upon that great numbers were outlawed ; and 
B> writ was issued out, that was Indeed legal, but very 
seldom used, called Intercommotiiny ; because it made 
all that harboured such persons, ordid notseize them, 
when they had it in their power, to be involved iu 
the same guilt." Burnet : Own Time (an. 1676). 

2. The same as INTERCOMMON, ., and IN- 

TERCOMMONAOE (q.V.). 

in-ter-cdm-mune', v.i. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. commune (q.v.).] 

Scots Law : To maintain mutual intercourse 
or communication : as, To intercommune with 
rebels. 

In-ter-cdin-miin'-lfo-a-'ble, a. rPref. in- 
ter-, and Eng. communicable (q.v.).] That may 
or can be mntually communicated. 

ln-ter-c6in-mun'-I-cate, v.i. & t. [Pref. 
inter-, and Eng. communicate (q.v.).] 

A, Intram. : To maintain or hold mutual 
communication ; to communicate mutually. 

B. Trans. : To communicate mutually ; to 
Interchange. 

"The rays . . . fnferc&mmunfcofethe lights, aathey 
may be seat to and fro."/*. Holland : Plutarch, f. 9M. 



" in ter-c*m-mun-I-ea'-tlon, s. [Pref 
inter-, and Eng. cojnmunica(ion(q.v.).] Mutua 
or reciprocal communication. 

" Intercommunication of suggestions, plans, wants 
and wishes takes place between the horse and the 
cow." Lindtay : Hind in the Lover Animal*. L 837. 

fai-ter-cSm-mun'-Inir, . [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. communing (q.v.).] The same as INTER- 
COMMUNION (q.v.). 

IT Letters of intenxmmuning : 

Scots Law: Orders from the Scotch Privy 
Council, forbidding all and sundry from 
holding any kind of intercourse or communi- 
cation with the persons therein denounced, 
on pain of being regarded as art and part in 
their crimes, and liable accordingly. 

In ter com mun ion (ion as yun), s. 

[Pref. inter-, and Eng. communion (q.v.).] 
Mutual communion ; intercommunication. 

"An entire intercommunion with the idolatrous re. 
llgious round them. 1 * Law: Theory of Religion, pt ii 

* in-ttjr-oiim-mun'-I-t*, . [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng. community (q.v.).] 

1. A mutual communication or community ; 
Intercommunication. 

" That intercommunity of Paganism, which will be 
plained hereafter." Warourton : Divine Legation, 

2. A state living or existing together In har- 
mony. 

* In-tcr com-par'-I son, . [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng. comparison (q.v.).] Mutual com- 
parison, as between the parts of one thing and 
the corresponding parts of another. 

* In-ter-cdm-pley-I-t*, >. [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng. complexity.] Entanglement. (De 
Quincey : Spanish Nun, 20.) 

In ter-con'-dy-lar, a. [Pref. infer-; Eng., 
Ac. condyte, and suff. -or.] 

Anat. : Between the condyles : as, the inter- 
condyior fossa, or notch of the femur. 

* In-ter-con-nect', v.t. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. connect (q.vA] To conjoin or unite 
closely or Intimately. 

in-ter-con-nec'-tion, s. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. connection.] Reciprocal connection. (De 
ttuincey : System of the Heavens.) 

fa-ter-cdn-tl-nen'-tal, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. continentoi (q.v.).] Subsisting or carried 
on between different continents : as, intercon- 
tinental traffic. 

In-ter-cos -tal, o. 4 . [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
coital.] 

A. As adj. : Between the ribs. 

IT There are intercostal arteries, veins, lym- 
phatics, muscles, and nerves. 

B. As subst. : The intercostal muscles. The 
external ones are directed obliquely down- 
wards and forwards from one rib to another. 
The internal intercostal muscles, placed deeper 
than the former, are attached to the inner mar- 
gins of the ribs and their cartilages. 

"For the structure of the inleraatali. midriff. *o.. : 
suaU refer to Dr. Willis, and other anatomist*. "Der- 
ham : Phytico-Theology, bk. iv., ch. vii. (Note.) 

intercostal neuralgia, s. 

Path. : Pain along the course of the Inter- 
costal nerves, those on the left side from the 
sixth to the ninth are the most frequently 
affected ; common in aniemic and chlorotic 
females. ' It often precedes herpes zoster 
(shingles), and sometimes follows it in aged 
people. 

tn-ter-cos-td-, pref. [Lat. inter = between ; 
cost(a) = a rib, and o connective.] (See etym. 
and compound.) 

intercosto humeral, a. 
Anat. : Connecting the humerns and the 
ribs. 
U There Is an intercosto-humeral nerve. 

Jl'-ter-course, * en ter-course, . [Pr. 

entrecours, from Low Lat. intercursus = com- 
merce ; Lat, = interposition, from inter = be- 
tween, amongst, and cursus = a running ', curro 
= to run.] 

1. Connection or association by reciprocal 
actions or dealings between two or more j>er- 
sons or countries ; interchange of thought or 
feeling ; commerce ; communication ; associa- 
tion, 

" There was ever intercoune 
Betwixt the living and the dead." 

n'orditfforth : Affliction of Margaret. 



2. An interview ; conversation. 

3. Sexual connection. 

IT The intercourse and commerce subsist only 
between persons ; the communication and con- 
nexion between persons and things. The com- 
munication, in this sense, is a species of inter- 
course ; namely that which consists In th 
communication of one's thoughts to another ; 
the connection consists of a permanent inter- 
course. As it respects things, communication 
is said of places in the proper sense ; connec- 
tion is used for things in the proper sense. A 
communication is kept up between two coun- 
tries by means of regular or irregular convey- 
ances ; a connection subsists between two 
towns when the inhabitants trade with each 
other, intermarry, and the like. (Oa6i> : Sng. 
Synon.) 

t In-ter-cross', v.t. & i. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
cross (q.v.).] 

A. Trans : To effect fertilization by mean* 
of another strain, variety, or species. [Iw- 
TERCKOSS.] 

"The view generally entertained by naturalists tl 
that species when, intercroised have beeu specially en- 
dowed with sterility, in order to prevent their confu- 
sion." Darwin : Origin of Bpecici (ed. IMS), p. 299. 

B. Intrans. : To become impregnated in the 
manner described under A. 

" If there exist organic beings which never inter- 
mu.-Danein: Origin of Spedei (ed. 1M9), p. lit, 

In'-ter-cross, s. [INTERCROSS, ?.] 

Btof. : A cross between individuals of the 
same variety, but what breeders call another 
strain. Its effect is to give great vigour and 
fertility to the offspring. Such intercrossing 
was discovered by Mr. Darwin and others to 
be incalculably more extensive in nature than 
had been believed. Though most plants are 
hermaphrodite, yet intercrossing with other 
Individuals is the rule, the agency of Insect! 
being largely exerted to effect the result 
[CROSS-FERTILIZATION.] 

" Oc !?l<'J tntercronei take place with all animals 
** """*"' <M in /*(*. 



* in-ter-our', v.i. [Lat intercum = to run 
or come between : inter- = between, among, 
and curro = to run.] To come between; to 
intervene. 

"Infinite cross accidents may intercur and dasa 
them to pieces." Scott : chrittian Life, pt L, ch. lii. 

* In ter curled , a. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
curled.] With curls mutually intertwined. 

* In ter cur -ren9e, s. [Lat interatrrens, 
pr. par. of interourro.] [INTERCUR.] A pan* 
ing between ; an occurrence ; intervention. 

"The least intercurrence of fortune."- p. Holland: 
Plutarch, p. 1,086. 

in-ter eiir'-rent, a. & . [Lat. intercurreiu, 
pr. par. of intercurro,] [INTERCUR.] 
A* As adjective : 

I. Ord. Lang. : Running or coming between ; 
occurring between ; intervening. 

"The ebbing and flowing of the sea, Des Cartes - 
cribeth to the greater pressure made upon the air by 
the moon, and the intercurrent ethereal substance. " 
Boyle: Iforki, i. . 

II. Path. : A term used of a malady gener- 
ated or arising during the progress of another 
disease, and running its course at the same 
time as the first 

* B. As subst. : Anything which comes in 
between or intervenes. 

" Like a play or interlude, with many dangerous its. 
tercurrentt." P. Holland: Plutarch, p. 998. 

* In-ter-ciit', v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. cut, 
v.] To intersect (HoaieU : Parly of Beasts, 
p. 5.) 

In-ter-cu-ta'-ne'-ous, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. cutaneous (q.v.).] Existing between or 
under the skin. 

* In ter dash', v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
das* (q.v.).] To dash at intervals ; to inter- 
sperse. 

" A prologue interdaMd with many a stroke." 

Cmeper: Table Talk, Us. 

* In ter deal, In ter de.-ilc, . [Pref. 
inter-, and Eng. deaf (q.v.).] Mutual dealing ; 
traffic ; commerce. 

"The trading and intrrdeal' with other natloM 
roundabout." Spenur: Ireland. 

Kn-ter-deal', v.i. [INTEHDIAL, .] To 
carry on mutual intercourse ; to intrigue. 
" York and bis side could not. while life remained, 
Though thus dispersed, but work and interdeal. 

Daniel: Civil If an, vii. fa. 



boil, T>5^; p<Sut, J<S-vVl; oat, 9 ell, chorus, .jhln, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, yenophon, exist, ph - t 
-in, -tian = 8iu>n. -tlon. -ion = shun ; -flon, -sion - xhun. -clous, -tlous, -slous =. shit*. -We, -dl, &c. = bel, out 



2706 



interdentel interestingness 



In ter-d6n-tel, *n- tdr-den'-tll, . [Pref. 

inter-, and Eng. dentel, dentil (q.v.).J 

1. Mach. : The space between teeth or cogs. 

2. Arch. : The space between two dentil*. 

In-te'r-de'-pe'nd'-ence, *In-ter-dfi- 

pen den-9$r, *. [Pref. infcr-, and Eng. 
dependence, dependency (q.v.).] Mutual de- 
pendence. 

" The old and true Hocrmtic thesis of th interdr. 

pemlrni-e of virtue and knowledge." JfaA*w Arnold : 

Latt Euayt, (Pref.. p. XXI L) 

* In ter de-pend'-ent, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. dependent (q.v.).] Mutually dependent. 

In-ter-de^struc'-tfve-n&w, . [Pref. 
inter-, and Eiig. destructiveness.] The act or 
quality of mutual destructiveness. (Godwin : 
MandevilU, ii. 103.) 

fn ter-diot', *en-tre-dlt-en,v.f. [!KTER- 

D1CT, *.] 

1. On*. Lang. : To forbid ; to prohibit or 
debar by an interdict. 

" The Injunction by her brother laid . . . 
That interdicted all debute." 

WordfM-vrth . White Dotof HylXont.iv. 

2. Ecdrs. : To lay under an interdict ; to visit 
Wlththespi ritual penalties of an interdict(q.v.). 

" Aflrf an the Fourth . . . interdicted the city of 
Bmue because the people had in a tumult wounded a 
cardinal' Clarendon : KeU'jion A Policy, oh. iv. 

T In general literature, the verb, in this sense, 
has given place to the expression "to lay 
under an interdict," but both are still used by 
ecclesiastical writers. 

In -ter-dict, * in-ter dicte, *. (Low Lat. 
interdictum = a kind of excommunication ; 
Lat. interdiction = a decree of a judge, uent. 
sing, of interdictus t pa. par. of interdico = to 
pronounce judgment between two parties, to 
decree : inter- - between, among, and dice = 
to speak, to utter ; Fr. interdit.} 

I. Ord. Lang.: A prohibition; a forbidding; 
prohibitory decree or order. 

*' The** art not fruit* forbidden ; no interdict 
Defend* the touching of these viands pure." 

Milton: /'. A'., ii. Mfc 

II. Technically: 

1. Old Roman Civil Law: A decree of the 
pnetor pronounced between two litigants 
sometimes enjoining, but more frequently pro- 
hibiting , something to be done. The inter- 
diction of any one from fire and water i.e. t 
from obtaining those necessaries at Rome was 
tantamount to banishment from the city. 

2. Roman Ecdes. Law & Hist. : An ecclesias- 
tical censure by which persons are debarred 
from "the use of certain sacraments, from all 
the divine offices, and from Christian burial." 
It Is a commingling and development of the 
New Testament excommunication with the 
interdict of the Roman pnetor [1]. It could 
be directed against prominent individuals, 
kings, for instance, or against localities, as 
small as a parish or as large as an empire. 
Interdicts seem to have commenced with 
bishops in the ninth century ; Hinckmar, bi- 
shop of Laon in France, having laid a parish 
of his diocese under an interdict in the year 
870. Gregory VII. (Hildebrand) launched an 
interdict against the Emperor Henry IV., 
which ultimately led to the humiliating sub- 
mission of the latter at Canossa. After the 
murder of Thomas a Becket on Dec. 27, 1170, 
Pope Alexander suspended diyine service in 
the cathedral for a year, which was of the 
nature of an interdict. On March 23, 1208, 
Pope Innocent III. placed England under an 
interdict, which was not removed till Dec. 6, 
1213. On Dec. 17, 1588, Pope Paul III. pub- 
lished a bull excommunicating and deposing 
Henry VIII., and placing the kingdom under 
an interdict. Various other interdicts were 
sent forth. The Canon Law gradually intro- 
duced mitigations in the severity of interdicts. 
Baptisms and confirmations might be admin- 
istered to persons in danger of death ; penance 
was open to all but those who had caused the 
issue of the interdict ; marriage was permitted, 
but without solemnities, faithful ecclesias- 
tics might be buried in the churchyard, but 
in silence, priests might be ordained if there 
were not enough previously, there might be 
Low Mass every week, and High Mass at the 
five great festivals of Christmas, Easter, Whit- 
sunday, Corpus Christ!, and the Assumption. 
In April, 1606, Pope Paul V. placed the republic 
of Venice under an interdict, which was met 
by determined and effectual resistance from 
the government, and soon afterwards inter- 
dicts fell into disuse. 



S. Sco( Law: An order of the Court of 
Session having the same purpose and effect as 
an injunction of the English Court of Chancery. 

" This gentleman threaten* to obtain an interdict to 
prevent this uMlru autiuuvian work going forward." 
Pott Mall Gatttte. Sept 4. UH. 

In-ter-dlc'-tion, i. [Lat. inttrdictio, from 
interdictu*, i>a. par, of interdico ; Fr. interdic- 
tion.] 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : The act of interdicting, for- 
bidding, or prohibiting ; a prohibition ; a pro- 
hibitory decree. 

"Sternly He pronounced 
The rigid interdiction, which resounds 
Yet dreadful." Milton ; P. L., Till, m 

2. Scots Law : A system of judicial or of 
voluntary restraint, provided for those who 
from weakness, facility, or profusion are liable 
to imposition. It is judicially imposed by 
order of the Court of Session, generally pre- 
ceding an action at the instance of a near 
kinsman of the facile person on proper evi- 
dence of the facility of the party, or voluntarily 
imposed by the party himself, who executes a 
bond binding himself to do nothing that will 
affect his estate without the consent of certain 
persons named. 

3. Ecdes. : The same as INTERDICT (q.v.). 

- His spiritual artillery, the thunder and lightning 
of hi* excommunication* and interdiction*." Clarejn, 
(ton / /ittiffion * Pvticy. ch. it 

* In-ter-<llc -tlve, a. [Eng. interdict; -ive.] 
Having power to interdict, forbid, or prohibit. 

" By that inttrdtctiwe sentence." Milton t Antmad, 
on/temont. Defence. 

* In-ter-dTc'-tor-y, a. [Eng. interdict ; -ory.] 

Of or pertaining to, or of the nature of an in- 
terdict ; serving to interdict. 

In ter dig I tal, a. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
digital.] Between the nngera, 

* ln-ter-dif-1 tate, v. t. & i. [Lat. inter = 

between, among, and digititt a finger.] 

A. Trans. ; To insert between the fingers ; 
to interweave. 

B. Intrant. : To be interwoven ; to com- 
mingle ; to run into each other like the fingers, 
when those of one hand an inserted between 
those of the other. 

* In ter^Hg-I ta'-tlon, *. [Pref. inter-, and 

Eng. digiUition.] 
L Ordinary Language ; 

1. Lit. : The state of inserting the fingers 
of one hand between those of the other. 

2. fig.: Entanglement 

II. Anat.: The space between fingers or 
flnger-liKe processes. (Owen.) 

In -ter-du9, *. [Lat. inter - between, 
among, and duco = to lead.] 
Carp. : An intertte (q.v.). 

In-te> e qul n6c-ttal(tls*h),a. [Pref. 
inter-, and Eng. equinoctial (q.v.).J Coming 
between the equinoxes. 

* an-ter-ett', v.t. [Fr. intireuer; Ital. in- 
teretsare; 8p. intertstar.] [INTEREST, v.] 

1. To interest, to concern, to affect* 

" Our sacred laws, and Jurt authoritle 
An inteTMS'd therein." 

Ben Jomton : Svanut. UL L 

2. To make interested. 

" Have intermt'd, ]n either** cause, the moat of the 
Italian Prince." Mauinger : Dukt of Milan, L i. 

* In'-ter-eas, . [INTERIMS, v.] Interest, 
right, or title. 

" May challenge aht In Heaven'* int*rrt*.~ 

*.-, VILTL W. 



In-ter-est', v.t. & i. [Formed, by partial con- 
fusion with the noun, from the pa. par. in- 
teress'd of the verb to interest (q.v.). (Sfcea*.)] 



A. Transitive: 

1. To engage the attention 'of ; to awaken 
an interest in ; to concern ; to excite emotion 
or passion, generally in favour of something, 
but sometimes in opposition ; to affect, to 
move. It is followed by in before that which 
arouses interest, and for before the person. 

* 2. To be concerned with or interested In ; 
to concern ; to be mixed up with. 

3. To give an interest or share In ; to cause 
to participate in. 

4. (Reflex.) To concern, excite, or exert on 
behalf of another. 

" This was a goddeH who twed to interett hertelf In 
marriages." Additon: On Medal*. 



* 5. To place or put in or amongst. 

him among the Uoda." Cluipman. 



B. Intrant. : To be interesting ; to arouse 
interest or concern. 

In -ter-est, s. [O. Fr. (Fr. interit), from Lat. 

interest = it is profitable, It concerns; thinl 
pers. sing., pr. t., indie, of intersum = to ! 
between, to concern : inter = between, among, 
and ffttm = to be ; O. Sp., Port., & Ital. inte- 
rest; Sp. interes.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Excitement of feeling, whether pleasant 
or painful ; concern, sympathy, feeling. 

" So much interett have I in thy sorrow. 

SHakesp. : Richard III., ii. 1 

2. Advantage, good, profit, concern, utility. 
*"Tis manifestly for the intertst of humane society." 

-Clark*; On tht Attribute*. (Introd.) 

3. Influence with or over others ; as, To 
have interest with the Government. 

4. Share, portion; participation in value: 
as, He has parted with his interest in the 
business. 

* & Possession, property. 

" Interett of territory, cares of state." 

SkaXttp. : /.ear, L L 

* 6. Claim, right, title. 

** He hath more worthy interest to the state than 
thou," Shaketp, : 1 Henry II'., 11L B. 

7. A selfish regard for private profit or ad- 
vantage. 

8. In the same sense as II. 1. 

9 Any surplus of advantage ; an addition. 

'You ihall hare your desires with interett." 

tihaketp. .- 1 Henry IV., iv. 8. 

10. A collective name for those carrying o 
or interested in any particular husiness, mea- 
sure, or the like. 

XL Technically: 

1. Comm. : An allowance made for the 
use of borrowed money. The money, on 
which interest is to be paid, is called the 
principal. The money paid is called the inter- 
est. The principal aud interest, taken to- 
gether, are called the amount. The ratio oi 
the principal to the interest, per annum, is 
the rate or rate per cent. luterest is either 
simple or compound. Simple interest is the 
interest upon the principal, during the time 
of the loan. Compound interest is the inter- 
est, not only upon the principal, but upon 
the interest also, as it falls due. 

IT The exaction of interest was prohibited 
In England In 1197 and 1436. It was legalized, 
the rate being fixed at 10 per cent., in 1545, 
prohibited In 1652, restored fn 1570, and re- 
duced to 3 per cent, in 1713. In the United 
State*, each state has a legal rate of Interest, 
differing ID the different states. 

2. Law : Chattel real, as a lease for years, 
or a future estate ; also any estate, right, or 
title In realty. 

In'-ter-est fid, pa. par. St, a. [INTEMST, v ,\ 

A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. At adjective : 

L Affected, moved; having the feelings or 
passions moved or excited. 

2. Having an interest, concern, or chare In ; 
concerned. 

3. Biassed or liable to be biassed or preju- 
diced through personal interest ; not impartial. 

4. Done through or for personal interest or 
for personal motives ; not disinterested. 

"The interested leniency which he had ihowu to 
rich deliii<jueiiU."-.VacrtM/ay : UiMt. Eng., ch. v. 

5. Too regardful of private profit or advan- 
tage ; selfish. 

* ln'-ter-6t-$d-neM, . [Eng. interested ; 
ness.] 

1. The quality or state of being interested. 

2. A regard for one's own private views 01 
profit. (Richardson: Clarissa, ii. 243.) 

In'- ter - Sst - Ing, a. [Eng. interest; -ing.] 
Arousing or exciting interest; engaging the 
attention or curiosity ; exciting or liable to 
excite the feelings or passions. 

" That theme exhausted, a wide chwiu ensues, 
Filled op at last with intertttina newa." 

Covper Conteriation, 8M. 

* In' ter-est-Ing-1^, adv. [Eng. interesting ; 
-ly.] In an interesting manner; so as to inter- 
est. 

* ln'-ter-$t-ang-n5ML *. [Eng. interesting; 
ness.] The quality orstate of being interesting. 



Ate. ifct, fare, amidst, what, tall, lather ; we. wet, here, camel, her, thdre ; pine, pit, sire, sir. marine ; go, pfit, 
r, wore, woU, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian. se,o = e;ey = a. o.u = kw. 



interfacial Interior 



2707 



*f,-ter-fa'-ci-al (ci a shi). o. [Pref. 

inter-, and &n$. j\ti-.ini (q.v.).] 

Geoflt. : Included between two plane faces. 
An interfacial angle of a polyhedron is a 
diedral single included between two faces of 
the polyhedron. All interfacial angles of a 
regular iwlyliedron are equal to each other. 

fn-ter-fem'-or-al, o. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
femoral.] 

Anat. & Zool. : Between the thighs. 

interfemoral - membrane, s. The 

membrane connecting the posterior limbs of 
a bat. 

In ter-fere', * en-tyr-fer -yn, * en - te - 
feir, * in ter-feere, v.i. [o. Fr. entreferir 
= to exchange blows: entre= between, and 
Jerir = to strike.] 

L Ordinary language : 

1. To intermeddle, to interpose, to inter- 
vene ; to enter into or take a part in anything. 

"With which tha English Parliament could Dot 
interfere." Maeautay : Mitt. Kwj., ch. ii. 

IT It is followed by in or with. 

2. To come into collision ; to clash ; to be 
to opposition : as, Claims or interests interfere. 

II. Technically: 

1. Farr. : (See extract). 

" A how ii said to inter/ere when the aide of one of 
Ills shoes strikes against and hurts one of his fetlocks ; 
or the bitting one let; ngnfuat another, juid striking oft" 
the akin." Furrier"! Dictionary. 

2. Phys. (Of two things'): To exert a mutual 
action so as to increase, diminish, or destroy 
each other's action. Used of rays of light, 
heat, sound, &c. 

hi-ter-feV-en^e, 5. [Eng. interfere) ; -ence.] 
I. Ordinary language : 

1. The act or state of interfering or inter- 
meddling ; interposition, intervention, espe- 
cially in matters with which one has no con- 
cern, and which had better be left alone. 

2. The act or state of clashing or being in 
opposition. 

II. Technically: 

1. Farr. ; The act of interfering or striking 
the hoof or shoe of one hoof against the fet- 
lock of the opposite leg, BO as to break the 
akin or injure the flesh. 

2. Phys. : The mutual action, In certain cir- 
cumstances, of two streams of light or air, 
vibrations of sound, undulations of waves, &c., 
coming in contact so as to affect each other. 
Used especially of light, [t] 

3. Football: The act of protecting a fellow- 
player, who holds the ball and desires to run 
with It, from being tackled by the opposing 
players. [See TACKLE, v.t., I. 3.J 

Tf Interference of light : 

Optics : The mutual action which two lumi- 
nous rays exert upon each other when the 
undulations meet in different phases. If two 
very small holes are made near each other in 
the shutter of a dark room, two divergent 
luminous cones will result. If caught upon a 
white screen fringes will appear where they 
overlap. The same effect is produced if the 
light from a luminous point of any kind be 
received upon two slightly inclined mirrors, 
or two prisms, so as to cause the rays to en- 
croach upon each other. It is due to all the 
series of waves reinforcing each other wher- 
ever they coincide in phase, and extinguishing 
each other where the phases are contrary. 
The same effects are produced more gorgeously 
by polarized light (q.v.)t and by the interfer- 
ence of the two sets of waves reflected from 
the two surfaces of a thin film, as of a soap- 
bubble. 

\ tsuryical interference: Relief by surgery. 

In-ter-fer'-er. s. [Eng. interfere); -*.] One 
who or that which interferes. 

la-ter-fer'-Ing, pr.par.,o.,&. [INTERFERE.] 
A* At pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adj. : Given or inclined to inter- 
meddling in matters with which one haa no 
concern ; officious. 

C. Aft substantive : 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of intermeddling ; Interposition ; 
Interference. 

I. The act or state of clashing or being In 
opposition. 

IL Farr. A Phys. : [INTERFERENCE, IL], 



in-ter-feV-Ing-ly, adv. [Eng. interfering; 
-ly.] In an Interfering manner ; by inter- 
ference. 

* in-ter-flow', v.i. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
Jlow (q. v.).J To flow in. 

" Wlmt way the current cold 

Of Northern Oceeji with strong tides doth interjlv* 
and well." P. Holland : C.imden, p. IS. 

* in -ter'- flu-en t, a. [Lat. interjluens, pr. 
par. of interfluo to flow between or among : 
inter- = between, among, and flua = to flow.} 
Flowing or floating between or among. 

"Upon the imitation of some interfluent tubtile 
matter." Boyle : WarXt. ii. 60S. 

* ln-tcr'~flu ous, a. [Lat. interjluui, from 
interjluo to flow between or among.] Inter- 
fluent. 

* in - tcr-f old'- cd, a. [Pref- inter-, and Eng. 
folded (q. v.).] Folded or clasped together, in- 
tertwined. 

" Kneels down before the Eternal's throne ; and, with 
hands interfolded." 

LongftUo*: Children of the Lor>fi Supper. 

in ter f 6 Ii a' ceous (ce as ah), a. [Pref. 
inter-, and Eng. foliaceous (q.v.).j 

Bot. : Situated between opposite leaves. 
Used of flowers on peduncles or of stipules. 

* in-ter-f o'-ll-ate, v.t. [Lat. inter- =* be- 
tween, among, and/oZium = a leaf] To inter- 
leave. 

" I will take care to MDd yon y interfoliated copy." 
-Evelyn : Mematn, Aug. 17, 109A. 




[Pref. inter', and Eng. 
fretted (q.v.).] - - 

Her. : Interlaced. (A 
term applied to any bear- 
ings linked together, one 
within the other, as keys 
interlaced in the bows, 
or one linked into the 
other.) 

in ter-fric tlon, . 

[Pref. inter-, and Eng. INTERFRETTED. 

friction (q.v.).] A rub- 

bing together ; mutual friction. (Lit. <tjig.) 

" Kindling a fire by interfrictto* of dry sticks." Dt 
Quincey : Spaniib Jfun, ft 16. 

m tor- fill' -gent, a. [Lat. interfulgens, pr. 
par. of interfidgeo = to shine between : inter- 
= between, among, and fulgeo = to shine.] 
Shining between. 

in ter-fu$e' ( v.t. [Lat. inter- = between, 
among, and fiisu = poured.J 

1. To pour, scatter, or spread between or 
amongst. 

" A tense sublime 
rfused. 
: Tintern Abbey. 

2. To mix up together ; to commix, to asso- 
ciate. 

* in-ter-f u'-jlon, . [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
fusion (q.v.).] The act of pouring or spread- 
ing together ; close mingling or fusion. 

In ter-gan gli on'-ic, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. gang I ionic.] 

Zool. : Between the ganglions. Used of 
nervous chords in the intervals of the gan- 
glions, which they connect. (Owen.) 

* in-ter'-ga-tor-y', . [See def.] A corrup- 
tion or contraction for interrogatory (q.v.). 

" Charge us thereupon interaatortet.* 

Shaltftp. : Merchant of Venice, v. 

* in-ter-gern', v.i. [Pref. inter-, and Mid. 
Eng. ffm grin,] To exchange grins or 
snarls. 

" The eager dogi . . . lit grimly intergemtnff.* 
Sylvetter : Decay. 1. 938. 

in-ter-gla' 91 al (or 9! as shi), a. [Pref. 
inter-, and Eng. glacial (q.v.).] 

Geol. : Occurring between two periods of 
glacial action. 

interglaciul period, s. 

Geol. : The name given by Professor Heer 
to a warm interval intercalated between two 
periods of glacial action. [GLACIAL-PERIOD.] 

in-tor-hce'-mgl, in tcr-he'-mal, a. [Pref. 

inter-, and Eng. Ixemal, hemal.] 

Ichthy. : Situated between the haemal pro- 
cesses or spines. Used specially of the iuter- 
hamial bones which pass up from the spaces 
between the ha-inal spines. 



In' ter-im, *. A a. [I^t.= In the meantime.] 
A* As substantive : 

1. Ord. Lang. : The meantime ; the Inter* 
voning time or period. 

"It will be short ; the interim is mine ; 
And a inau'* life's 110 mure than tu aay, one." 

Shaketp. : Hamlet, V. t 

2. Hist. : Various temporary arrangement* 
during the Reformation struggle of the six- 
teenth century. One published by the Diet 
of Ratrisbon, July 29, 1541, was to be in force 
till a General Council met. The Augsburg 
Interim, which was sent first by Charles V., 
and was read before the Diet of Augsburg, 
May 15, IMS, was intended to reconcile the 
Catholics and Protestants, an object in which 
it failed. That prepared under the auspices 
of the Saxon Elector Maurice, Dec. 22, 1548, 
was called the Leipsic Interim. In it Me- 
lancthon and various other Protestant theo- 
logians treated of "things indifferent" and 
the extent to which the Interim of Charles V. 
might be accepted. ( ADI APHORISTIC.) 

B. As adj. : Pertaining to, connected with, 
or intended for an intervening period of time; 
temporary ; intended to last only till a certain 
fixed time or date. 

" The directors have declared an interim dividend at 
the rate of & per cent, per annum." Da'dy Tdeyrapk, 
Sept. 10. 1864. 

T Interim decree : 

Scots Law : A decree disposing of part of a 
cause, but leaving the remainder unexhausted. 

* Xn'-ter-im-Xst, *. [Eng. interim; -ist.] 

Eccles. Hist. : One who accepted or sup- 
ported the Interim. [INTERIM, A. 2.] 

* in-ter-lm-ist' 1C, o. [Eng. interim ; -irfic. J 

Pertaining to, or existing during an interim. 

in- tcr'-i or, * in tcr i-our, a. & . [Lat., 

coinp. of interns = within.) 

A. As adjective : 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Within ; internal ; being within any 
limits, inclosure, or substance ; the opposite 
to exterior (q.v.). 

" He, that attend* to his interior sell.* 

Cowper: Taik, 111. 3TS. 

2. Inland; remote or distant from the coast, 
frontier, or limits : as, the interior parts of a 
country. 

II. Geom. : Lying within. An interior angle 
of a polygon is an angle included between two 
adjacent sides and lying within the polygon. 
[INTERIOR- ANGLES.] 

B. As substantive : 

1. The internal part of any thing ; the Inside: 
as, the interior of a house, 

2. The inland parts of a country or kingdom. 

3. The home or domestic affairs of a country ; 
hence that branch of the government having 
charge of the same, as, in this country, tha 
Department of the Interior; in France, the 
MinUtry of the Interior, &c. 

4. A painting or theatrical scene represent- 
ing the interior of a building. 

" It IB a cottage interior, with an old mother Mated.* 
Athwtum, Sept. 11, 1684, p. ML 

1T For the difference between interior and 
inside, see INSIDE. 

Interior-angles, . pi. 

Geom. : The angles formed within any flgort 
by two adjacent side*. 



Thus, In the triangle ABC, the tnglei 
BC A, and CAB are interior angles, as distin- 
guished from ABD and ACE, which are exterior 
angles. Similarly in the second figure the 
angles c B E, D B K, F E B, and a E B are Interior 
angles, and the angles A B c, A BD, r SB, and 
OEH exterior angles. The angles CBE and 
B E F are interior adjacent angles with respect 
to DBE and BEG, and the angles CBE and 
BEQ are interior and opposite angles. 

Interior-planets, s. pi. 






bS)l. rjfi^t poUt, Jtftrl; cat, cell, chorus. 9hln, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xonophon, cxlnt. -Ing. 
-clan, tian = nhan. tlon. -slon=shan; -tlon, -don - zhan. -tious, -sious. -clous = shus. -We, -die, &c. - bel, del. 



2708 



interiority interlink 



Interior-screw, a. A screw cut on an 
Interior or hollow surface, as of a nut, burr, 
IT tap-hole ; a hollow or socket screw, 

interior-slope, s. 

Fort. : The slope of the embankment from 
the crest inward toward the body of the place. 
[ABATTIS.] 

* In-ter-i-oY-*-t& . [Eng. interior; -tty.J 
The quality or state of being interior. 

* In-teV-i-Sr-l^, * ln-ter-i-our-ly, adv. 
[Eng. interior; -ly.] On or in the interior; 
internally. 

" The divine nature sustains and inttrtourly noor- 
Isheth all things," Donnt : Bitt. Septuagtnt, p. 206. 

, s. [Eng. interjacen^i) ; 

1. The quality or state of being interjacent ; 
the act or state of lying between or among. 

"England and Scotland is divided only by the inter- 
tactncy of the Tweed." Bale : Or iff. <tf MaaMnd. 

2. That which lies between. 

"It fluctuations are bot motion*, which wind*, 
storms, hoars, and every interjacency irregulates, 
Brovma : Vulgar Srroun, bk. ylL, ch. xvti, 

*In-ter-Ja'-9ent, a. [Lat. interjacent, pr. 
par. of interjaceo = to lie between ; inter = 
between, among, and jaceo = to lie.] Lying 
between or among ; intervening. 

" Berkeley, by the way, doe* not admit this lut ele- 
ment in our judgment the number of interjacent 
object*." J. S. Mill: Dtitertat ion ; Berkdetft Mfe A 
Writing!. 

* In-ter-Jao'-u-late, v.t. [Lat. inter = be- 
tween, and jocw.br = to throw, to cast.] To 
utter as an interjectional expression. 

*"O DIu ! que n'-al-]e pu le volrf interjaculate! 
Mademoiselle." Thackeray : The Nevcome*, ch. vli. 

In-ter-jan'-gle, v.i. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
jcmgle(<\. v.).] To make a dissonant, discordant 
voice, one with another ; to talk or chatter 
noisily. 

" For the divers disagreeing cords 
Of interjartgling ignorance.* 

Daniel : JftuopftUiu. 



t', v.t. & {. [Lat. interjectus, pa. 
par. of interjicio = to throw between : inter = 
between, among, and jacio = to throw ; FT. 
interjecter.] 

A, Trans.: To throw or cast between or 
among other things ; to insert. 

"The papen contained sixty-four f question "I and 
the rest were interjected with the accustomed vehe- 
mence." Poll Mall Gatette, March 26. 1884, 

B. Intrans. : To come between ; to inter- 
vene ; to interpose. 

" The confluence of soldiers interjecting reecned him." 
Buck. 

fn-ter-Jec'-tlon, *. [Fr., from Lat. interjec- 
tionem, accus. of interjectio = a throwing be- 
tween, an interjection, from interjectus, pa. 
par. of interjicio.] [INTERJECT.] 

* 1. Ord, Lang. : The act of throwing in or 
tietween ; insertion, interposition. 

" The loud noise which niaketh the interjection of 
laughing. "Bacon. ( Todd, ) 

2. Gram. : A word thrown in parenthetically 
In speaking or writing between words used in 
construction to express some emotion or pas- 
sion, as exclamations of joy, sorrow, pain, 
astonishment, &c. 

"I forbear not only sweating, but all interjection* 
of fretting, aa pugh 1 pish ! and the like." rotter. No. 
11L 

tn-ter-Jec'-tlon-al, a. [Eng. interjection; 
-at.] 

1. Thrown in parenthetically between other 
words or phrases : as, an interjectional obser- 
vation. 

"Th interjectional employment of common words 
or incomplete phrase*." Whitney ; Life A Growth qf 
Language, ch. x. 

2. Of the nature or character of an inter- 
jection* 

"Interjectional utterance ends where speech be- 
gtaa." Wilton : Prehistoric Man, iL 370. 

8. Consisting of or characterized by inter- 
jections or involuntary exclamations. 

* In-ter-jec'-tlon-al-l^, adv. [Eng. inter- 
jectional ; -ly. ] In manner of an interjection ; 
as an interjection. 

* lu~ter-jec'-tton-ar-^, a. fEng. interjec- 
tion; -ary.] ThesameaslNTEBJEcrioNAL(q.v.). 

* ln-ter-j6ct'--u-raLa- [From a fictive Eng. 
interjectur(e) ; -a/.]" The same as INTERJEC- 
TIONAL (q.v.). 

He rapped out ft dozen inte-rjectural oath*. * 
"in.- Rival*. U. 1. 



In-ter-Join', * In-ter-Joyne, u.(. [Pref. 
inter-, and Eng. join (q.v.).] To join mutu- 
ally ; to unite, to marry. 

"Sofellestfoee . . . shall grow dear friends. 
And interjoin their Issues? 

Sutteef. : Coriolanut. Iv. 4. 

In'-ter-loTst, s. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. joist 
<q.v.)J 

Arch. : The space or interval between two 
joists. 

* in-ter-Juno'-tion, . [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. junction (q.vi)J The act of interjunc- 
tion ; mutual junction. 

* In-ter-knit' (k silent), v.t. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. Intl (q.v.):] To knit together. 

* In-ter-knowl'-edge (fc silent), . [Pref. 
inter- and Eng. knowledge (q.v.).] Mutual 
knowledge. 

" In mutiUllHnterXnotpleage, enjoying each other's 
bleesednesse." Sp. Ball : Kecapit. of the whole Dit- 
course. 

In-ter-lace', * en ter lace, v.t. & i. (O. 
Fr. entrelasser, from nfre=between, and lasser, 
lacer = to lace.) 

A. Transitive: 

1, To intermix ; to put or insert one thing 
within another ; to interweave. 

" Apples of price, and plenteous sheavee of corn, 
Oft interlaced, occur:' Pkilipe : Cider, i. 

2. To pass in and out between. 

" Severed into stripe 
That interlaced each other." Coteper: Talk, L 41. 

B. Intrans. : To be interwoven or inter- 
mixed ; to intersect. 

" Their slender shafta, with leavee interlacing." 

Longfellow: Kmngeline. 1L 4. 

1[ Interlacing arches : 

Arch. : Circular arches which intersect each 




INTERLACING ARCHES. 



other. They are frequently found in Norman 
arcades of the twelfth century. 

In-ter-laced', a. [INTERLACE.] 

Her. : The same as INTERFRETTBD (q.v.). 

* an-ter-lace'-ment, s. [Eng. interlace ; 
ment.] The state of being Interlaced ; Inter- 
mixture ; insertion between. 

In-ter-laid, pa, par. or a. [INTERLAY, v.] 

in ter lam -In-at-ed, a. [Lat. inttr-= be- 
tween, among, and lamina = & plate.] Placed 
between laminae or plates ; iuclosed in laminae. 

in ter-lam'-I-na'-tion, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. lamination (q.v.).] The state of being 
interlaminated. 

* in-ter-lapsej s. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
lapse, 6. (q.v.).J The lapse of time between 
two events ; an interval. 

"Tbeee dregs are calcined Into such salts, which, 
after a short interlapie of time, produce coughs." 
Barney : On Coiitumjftion. 

In-ter-lard', v.t. [Fr. entrtlarder.} 

* L, Lit. : To mix fat meat with lean ; to 
diversify lean with fat. 

" Whose grain doth rise in flakes, with fatness inter, 
larded." Urayton: Poly-Olbton, a. 26. 

IX Figuratively: 

1. To intermix ; to Interpose ; to insert 
between. 

" I will not overpaase the multitude of others, but 
interlard (as it were) arid disperse them among." 
P. Holland: Pllnie, bk. codv. oh. Till. 

2. To mix ; to diversify by mixture. 

" They interlard their native drinks with choice 
Of strongest brandy." J. PMlipl : Cider, bk. 11 

" in-ter-lard -ment, s. [Eng. interlard; 
-ment.] Intermixture. (Richardson : Clarissa, 
iii. 89.) 



* In-ter-lay', v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. te 
(q.v.).] To lay or place between or among. 

"This chain of nature might be interlaid 
Between the fattier and his high iutenti. 
To hold him back.' Daniel : Civil Wart, IT, 1% 

* In' ter-lea s. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. lr*j 
(q.v.).] A leaf inserted between or amoi 
other leaves ; a blank leaf inserted in a book. 

In-ter-leave', v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng 
leaf (pi. leaves)."] To insert a leaf or leave? 
between others in a book. (Generally in the 
pa. par.) 

" It was nothing more than a small interleaved 
pocket-almanack." Warbitrton: W orlu, L 87. 

"In-ter-li'-bcl, v.t. [Pref. inter-, and libel 
(q.v.).] To libel mutually or reciprocally. 

in tcr-lig -ni-iim, . (Lat. inter = between, 
and lignum = woou.] 

Arch. : The space between the ends of the 
tie-beams. 

in-ter-lme', v.t. & {. [Fr. entreligner, from 
Low Lat. interlined ; from Lat. inter = be- 
tween, among, and linea = a line ; Fr. inter- 
ligner; Sp. & Port, interlinear; Ital. inter- 
lineare.] 

A. Transitive: 

1. To write or print in alternate lines. 

" When, by interlining Latin and English one with 
another, he has got a moderate knowledge of the Latin 
tongue. Locke : On Education. 

2. To write or print between the lines at, 
as for purposes of correction or addition. 

"The minute they had signed was In some places 
dashed and interlined." Surnet: Silt, of Refurr*. 

(an. 1530). 

B. Intrant. : To write words between th 
lines of others already written. 

" I write, Indite, I point, I rase, I quote, 
I interline. I blot, correct, I note. 

Drayttm : Matilda to X. John. 

in-ter-lin'-S-al, o. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
lineal (q.v.).] "Between lines ; interlinear. 

In ter-lln'-e-ar, a. & s. [Low Lat. interlin- 
ealis; from Lat. inter- = between, among,_and 
linea a, line ; Fr. interlineaire.] 

A. At adj. : Written or printed between 
lines already written or printed. 

* B. As subst. : One or more words written 
or printed between lines already written or 
printed. 

" Scoring the margent with his blazing start. 
And hundreth crooked interlinear^? 

Bp. Sail. bk. i v.. sat, L 

I Interlinear System : The same as HAM it,- 
TONIAN SYSTEM (q.v.). 

in-tt5r-lxn'-S-t>r-i(-l*. in-ter-Un'-S-ar- 
Ij^, adv. [Eng. intenineary, interlinear ; -ly.\ 
In an interlinear manner ; by interlineation. 

" Certalue common principles there are (together 
with thU law) interlinearily written In the tables of 
the heart." Bp. Ball : The (treat Imitator. 

' in ter-lin'-e-ar-jf, a. &, t, [Eng. interli- 
near; -y.] 

A. Asadj.: The same as INTERLINEAR (q.v.X 

" I have looked into Pagulu's interlinear^ version." 
Law t Theory of Reliffion, pt. ii. 

B. At tubst. : A book having Interlineations. 

" Not to reckon up the Infinite helps of inierlineariet 
breviaries, synopees, and other loitering gear." i/- 
ton : Of Vnlictnted Printing. 

in tcr lin-e-a'-tion, s. [Fr. interlineation.] 

A. Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of interlining or Inserting words 
between others already written or printed. 

2. That which is interlined ; one or more 
words inserted between the lines of others 
already written or printed. 

" There was yet a former copy, more varied, and 
more deformed with interlineation!." Johnton : Life 
of Pope. 

B. Laic : An alteration of a written instru- 
ment, and the insertion of one or more words 
after it has been engrossed. 

in-ter-lln'-ing, . [Eng. interlink); -ing.\ 
An interlineation. 

"At the end. the register and clerk of the court do 
not only attest it with their hands and markH, but 
reckon up the number of the laws, with the inter- 
linings that are In every page." llumet : ffia. Reform 
(an. 1629J, 

* in-ter-linlc', v.t, [Fret. Inter-; and Eng. 
link (q.v.).] To link together; to connect 
together by uniting links; to join closely 
together. 

" These are two chains which are interltnlttd, wht<* 
contain, and are at the same tljne contained. Dryaen : 
Art of Painting, j 7L 



te, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, s6n; mute, onb, cure, unite, cor, rule, fall; try, Syrian. co e; ey-a; qu = kw. 



interlink intermediary 



2705 



* In -ter-llnk, s. [INTERLINK, v.] An inter- 
mediate link or connection ; an intermediate 
step in a process of reasoning. 

In-ter-loV-n-lftr, a. (Pref. inter-, and Eng. 

lobiitar.] Situated between lobea. 

Interlobular emphysema, s. 

Pathol. : One of two forms of emphysema, 
the other being of the vesicular type. In both 
there is dilatation of the air-cells of the lungs, 
and blending of them into one large cystic 
cavity with effacement of their blood-vessels 
and anaemia of the lung, causing dilatation of 
the right side of the heart and anasarca, with 
great difficulty of breathing. In interlobular- 
emphysema air infiltrates the meshes of the 
lung connective-tissue. 

fa-ter-ld-ca'-tion, s. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
location (q.v.).] The act of placing between ; 
interposition. 

In-ter lock', v.t. [Pref inter-, and Eng. lock 
(q.v.).] To unite, communicate with, or act 
in association with each other. 

" My lady, with her flugers interlocked" 

Tennyton : Aylmer"* Field. 199. 

fa tor I6ck -Ing, pr. par. or o. [INTER- 
LOCK, v.] 

A. As pr. par. (See the verbX 

B. As adjective : 

Railway Eng. : The term given to a principle 
or system, applied by means of mechanism 
called locking-gear, to levers used for working 
the signals and switches of railways, whereby 
the levers are prevented from being worked 
otherwise than in consecutive and prearranged 
order consistent with safety. By the adop- 
tion of this system, no signalman, through in- 
advertence or carelessness, can give conflicting 
Or dangerous signals. 

Interlocking -signals, .pl. [INTER- 
LOO KINO.] 

interlocking-swltches, s.pl. [INTER- 
LOCKING.] 

* Xn-ter-ld-cu'-tion, * [Fr., from Lat. inter- 

locutionem, accus. of interlocutio = a speaking 
between : inter- = between, among, and locutio 
= a speaking [LOCUTION] ; Sp. interlocution; 
Ital. interlocuxione.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Interchange of speech ; dialogue, conver- 
sation. 

" A good continued speech, without a good speech of 
interlocution, shows slowness." Bacon ; Ettayt ; Of 



2. Alternate, orantiphonal speech or singing. 

" It la done br interlocution, and with a mutual re- 
turn of sentence* from side to side." Hooker : ccle- 
liaitical Polity, bit. v., I S7. 

3. Intermediate discussion or argument. 
IL Law : An intermediate or decree before 

final decision ; an Interlocutory decree or de- 
cision. 

"These things are called accidental, because some 
new Incident In judicature may emerge upon them, on 
which the judge ought to proceed by interlocution.' 
Ayliffe: Paragon. 

In-ter-ldV-u-tor. . fLat. inter- = between, 
among, and * locutor = a speaker ; locutiis, pa. 
par. of loquor to speak.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : One who takes part In m 
dialogue or conversation. 

" Nor need I make the interlocutor! speak otherwlM 
than freely tn a dialogue. "Boyle; Work*, 1. 462. 

2. Scots IM.W: A decree or judgment pro- 
nounced In the course of a suit, but which 
does not finally decide the cause ; an interlo- 
cutory decree. 

fn-ter-lSc'-u-tor-^, * In-ter-Ioc-u-tor- 

le, a. & s. [Eng. interlocutor ; -y ; Fr. inter- 
locutoire; Ital., Sp., & Port, interlocutorio.} 
A* As adjective : 

1. Ord. Jjang. : Consisting of dialogue ; par- 
taking of the nature of dialogue or conversa- 
tion. 

" The recitative consequently Is of two kinds, narra- 
tive and interlocutory." Jayo ; Adam ; An Oratorio. 

2. Law: Intermediate; not final or defini- 
tive ; applied to an order, decree, or Judgment 
given in the course of a suit, or on some in- 
termediate question before the final decision. 

" It Is easy to observe that the judgment here given 
i> not final, but merely interlocutory ; for there are 
afterwards further proceedings to be had, when the 
defendant hath put in a better answer." Blackttont : 
Commentaries, bk. lit., ch. 24. 

* B. As subst. : A digression or discussion 
Interpolated Into a discourse. 



' In -ter-l&o-u- trice, *In-ter-l&c'-u- 

trix, 3. [Formed from interlocutor, on analogy 
of such words aa administratrix, &c.] A 
female interlocutor. 

"To Mrve her as audience and interlocturice." 
C. BronU : Jane Byrt, ch. xlv. 

* In-ter-lope', v.i. [INTERLOPER.] To run 
between parties and intercept the advantage 
that one would gain from the other ; to traffic 
without a proper licence ; to forestall others, 
to intermeddle ; to interfere officiously in 
matters with which one has no concern. 

" But Hymen, when he heard her name, 
Called her an interloping dame." 

Cotton : Life, Vision 8. 

In'-ter-lop-er, s. [Lat. inter- = between, 
among, and Dut. looper = a runner, from loopen 
(cogn. with Eng. leap) = to run.] 

* 1. One who intercepts or forestalls the trade 
or traffic of another ; one who trades without 
being legally authorized. 

"AH those interloper* who bring their woollen 
manufacture directly thither." Temple: Letter to 
Merchant Adventurer*, March 26, 1675. 

2. One who interferes or intermeddles offi- 
ciously in matters with which he lias no con- 
cern ; one who intrudes himself into a place 
or position to which he has no claim ; an 
intruder. 

"The competition of these interloper* did not be- 
come really formidable till the year 1680." Alacawlay ; 
Bitt. Eng., ch, Jtvlil. 

* In'-ter-ldp-Ing, s. [INTERLOPE, v.] In" 

trusiou, insertion, interpolation. 

"Ton should have given so much honour then to the 
word . . . without the interloping of a liturgy for them 
to bite at." Milton: Animad. upon the tiemont. i>v.- 
fenoe. 

* in-ter-lu'-cate, v.t. [Lat. interlucatus, pa. 
par. of interluco = to lighten by clearing away 
useless branches : inter- = between, among, 
and lux (genit. lucis) = light.] To let in light 
by clearing away branches, &e. (Cockeram.) 

* in-ter-lu-ca'-tion, *. [Lat. interlu$atio, 

from interlucahts.) [!NTERLUCATE.] The act 
of letting in light by clearing away branches, 
&c. ; the act of thinning a wood to let in light. 

* ln-ter-lu'-9$nt, a. [Lat. interlucens, pr 
par. otinterluceo, from inter- =between, among, 
and luceo = to shine.] Shining between. 

In'-ter-lude, s. [Low Lat. interludium, from 
inter- = between, among, and ludus = a game, 
a play ; Fr. interlude.] 

1. An entertainment exhibited on a stage 
between the acts of a play, or between the 
play and the afterpiece, to occupy the time 
while the actors are changing their dresses, or 
the scenes, &c., are being shifted. 

" Every man's name which Is thought fit, through 
all Athens, to play in our interlude before the duke 
and duchess." ShaJtetp. : Midiummer Jfiffhd Dream, 
Li 

2. The name given to dramatic compositions 
In England from the time when thev super- 
seded the old miracle or mystery plays till 
the period of the Elizabethan drama. 

"Many of the old interlude* and Moralities before 
the time of Shakespeare were chiefly, but nut entirely, 
composed of lines of twelve or fourteen syllables ; and 
that sort of metre was generally appropriated to the 
Vice in the Moralities, and to the clown or btinVm in 
other inter Ittdet," Jialont : Dryden ; On Dramatic* 
Potty. (Note.) 

3. A piece of music, either impromptu or 
prepared, played between the acts of a drama, 
the verses of a canticle or hymn, or between 
certain portions of a church service. 

In'-ter-lud-e'd, a. [Eng. interlud(e) ; -ed.] 
Inserted as an interlude ; having interludes. 

* In'-ter-lud-er, * eV-ter-lud-er, *. [Eng. 
interlud(e); -er.] One who performs In an 
interlude. 

" They make all their scbollers play-boye 1 Is't not 
a fine sight, to see all our children iiitu\eenterludert)" 
Sen Jonnon : Staple of Nevtei, act Hi 

* ln-ter-lu'-n-cy, *. [Lat. interlwns, pr. 
par. of interluo = to flow between ; inter- 
between, among, and luo = to wash, to lave.] 
A flowing between, water Interposed. 

"Those parts of Asia and America, which are now 
disjoined by the interluency of the a. might have 
been formerly contiguous." Bale; Oriy. of Mankind, 
p. 193. 

* In-ter-lu'-nar, * In-ter-lu'-nar-*, a. 

[Lat. infer- = between, among, and Eng. lunar, 
lunary.] Pertaining or relating to that time 
when the moon, being about to change. Is in- 
visible. 

"And silent as the moon . . . 
Hid in her vacant inttrlunar cave." 

Milton : Sanuon Agonitte*, 89. 



In - ter - mar - rlage, s. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. marriage (q. v.).] Marriages between 
families, tribes, or nations, when each takes 
and gives in marriage. 

" Intermarriage* were no longer possible exospt be- 
tween equal ranks." Khy* David: Uiboert Ltcturmt 
(1881), p. 34. 

in ter-mar-ried, pa, par. or a. [INTER- 

MAKRY.J 

In-ter-mar'-ry, v.i. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
marry (q.v.).] To become connected by mar- 
riage ; to give and take in marriage. 

"A similar hard-aud-faat line preventing any on* 
belonging to the non- Aryan tribes from intermarrying 
with an Aryan family." fifty* David: flibbert i* 
fure* (1881), p. 23. 

In-ter max -U-lee, *. pi. [Lat. inter-, and 
pi. of maxilla = the jawbone, the jaw.] 

Anat. (Human & Compar.): Two bones 
situated between the two superior maxilUe in 
the Vertebrata. In man and some monkeys 
they anchylose with the maxillae so as not to 
be distinguishable in the adult. Where exist- 
ent, the intermaxillae form the front part ol 
the upper jaw and support its incisor teeth. 
Called also Premaxillaries. 

In-ter-max-il'-lar-y, a. & s. [Pref. inter-, 

and Eng. maxillary (q.v.).] 

A. As adjective : 

Anat. (Human <fc Com/par.) : Of or belonging 
to the intermaxillffl (q.v.); situated between 
the maxillae or jaw bones. 

B. As sitbst. (PI.) : The intermaxillae (q.v.). 

* In -ter-mean, s. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
mean (q.v.).] Something done in the mean- 
time. 

* in ter-me-a'-tion, *. [Lat. inter- = be- 

tween, among, and meatus = & passage.] A 
flowing or passing between. 

In termed die, * en tcr mod Ic, * in- 
ter medle, v.t. A; i. [O. Fr. entremedler, 
entremesler = to intermingle, from entre = be- 
tween, among, and mesler = to meddle.] 
* A. Trans. : To intermix, to intermingle. 

" Many a rose-leafe full long 
Was inter mettled there among." 

Romaunt of the Ron, 904. 

B. Intrans. : To meddle or interfere offi- 
ciously in the affairs of others in which one 
has no concern ; to interpose or interfere im- 
properly. 

" Nor stranger intermeddling with my joy.' 

Cowper; Tatk, vi. 291. 

In ter-med'-dler, 8. [Eng. intermeddle); 
-er.] One who intermeddles or interferes om- 
ciously in matters with which he has no con- 
cern. 

* In ter-med'-dle-some, a. [Eng. inter- 
meddle; -some.] Given to Intermeddling or 
interfering ; meddlesome. 

" in ter-med -die-some-ness, . [Eng. 
intermeddlesome ; -ness.] The quality or state 
of being intenneddlesouie. 

* to'- ter - medo, s. [Fr. ; Ital. intermedia, 
from Lat. inter- = between, among, andmediu* 
= the middle.] An interlude ; a short musical 
dramatic piece. 



y, 5. [Eng. intermedia(te) ; 
-cy.] The quality or state of being interme- 
diate ; interposition, intervention. 

"The auditory nerve Is affected by the Impressions 
made on the membrane by only the intermediacy of 
the columella." Derham; Phytico-Theology, bk.lv., 
oh. ill. (Note 20.) 

**n-ter-me'-dX-al, a. rPref. inter-, and 
Eng. medial (q.v.).J Lying in the middle or 
between ; intervening. 

"Through all the intermedia! regions of cloud*." 
Bithop Taylor : Sermon*, vol. L. ser. is. 

Mn-ter-me-di-an, a. [Lat. inter- = be- 

tween, among, and -niedius = the middle.) 
Lying between ; intermediate. 

* In-ter-me'-dX-ar-^ *. & a. [INTERME- 
DIATE.] 

A. As gubst. : One who or that which Inter- 
venes or is intermediate ; an agent Interposed ; 
a medium. 

" The Crown Princess was the principal fnf*rm(tt</rir 
In bringing about the purchase." Pott Mall Oatetu, 
Feb. 23.1S84. 

B. As adjective : 

1. Ord. Lang. : Lying between, intervening 
| Intermediate. 



. v-6^; poilt, Joltrl; oat, 90!!, chorus, 90111, bench; go, gem; thin, this, sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph = 
-elan, -tian = shan. -tion, -slon = shun; tion, slon - xhun. -tlous, -clous, -sious = shus. -ble, -die, <tc. - bel. del. 



2710 



intermediate intermittent 



2. OrystaUog. (Of secondary planes) : Inter- 
mediate between the planes on an edge, and 
those on an angle. 

In-ter-me'-cLi-ate, a. & . [Fr. intermediat, 
from Lat. inter- = between, among, and me- 
diatus, jta. par. of media = to halve ; medius 
= the middle ; Ital. & Sp. intermedia.] 

A. As adj. : Lying or being in the middle 
place or degree between two extremes ; lying 
between ; intervening, interposing ; in the 
middle : as, an intermediate space between 
two rivers, an intermediate position or rank, &c. 

" Employed the intermediate time In collecting Lit 
father's force*." Mown : Coracfocu*. (Argt ) 

B. A$ substantive : 

Pharm. : A substance added to a medicinal 
compound to enable the other ingredients to 
combine. 

intermediate-frame, *. 

Sptnn. : The second fly-frame ; an inter- 
mediate, in order of time, between the stub- 
bing and the roving frame. 

Intermediate-shaft, & The shaft cross- 
ing the frame of a marine-engine, to connect 
the two engines and two paddle-wheels. 

intermediate state, *. 

1. Theol.. Ac. : The state of the soul be- 
tween death and the resurrection. (For Jewish 
Tiews on the subject, see Hades.) Christian 
opinions on the subject may be reduced to 
two : one that there is a place distinct from 
both heaven and hell in which disembodied 
souls are kept till the resurrection [HADES, 
LIMBUS, PURGATORY], the other that the souls 
of the righteous at death becoming perfect in 
holiness, immediately pass to heaven, whilst 
those of the wicked, now beyond the power of 
being regenerated, go to hell in anticipation 
of the judgment day. The Greek and the 
Roman Churches hold the first opinion, whilst 
the Calvinistic or Puritan theology accepts the 
latter view. 

2. Ch. Hist. : The most notable controversy 
on the subject of an intermediate state was 
that raised by some discourses of Pope John 
XXII. in the fourteenth century. 

intermediate-terms, *. pi. 

Arith. ( Alg. : In a progression the firstand 
last terms are called extremes, the remaining 
ones are called intermediate terms or simply 
means. Thus in the proportion, 3 : 6 :: 4 : 8, 
6 and 8 are the intermediate terms. 

* In- ter me -dilate, r.f. [INTERMEDIATE, a.] 

To intervene, to interpose, to interfere. 

" Opposing jova intermediating authority." JHfcon .- 
Lettert of State ; To Guttavm Adotphut. 

* to-ter-me'-di-ate-l& adv. [Eng. inter- 
mediate; ~ly.] By way of intervention. 

* fa-ter-me-di-a'-tion, * [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng. mediation (<\.\ t y\ Intervention, in- 
terposition. 

* In-ter-me'-di-a-tor, *. [Pref. inter-, and 

Eng. mediator (q.v.).] One who intervenes 
between two parties ; a mediator. 

* m-ter-me'-di-OUS, a. [Lat. inter- = be- 
tween, among, and medius = the middle.] 

Intermediate, intervening. 

* Jn-ter-me'-dl-um, s. [Pref. inter-, and 

Eng. medium (q.v.).] 

1. Intermediate space. 

2. An intervening agent or Instrument. 

* In-ter-meU', *.t. & t [0. Fr. entremesler; 
P entrem&ler.] 

A. Trans.:To mix, tomingle, to intermingle. 

"The life of this wretched world is always inter- 
tnelled with much bitterness." Fitker ; Psalmt. 

B. Intrans. : To intermeddle, to interfere. 

"To ... boldly intermea 
With holy things." 

J/ariton . Scourye of I'Wany, 

tn-ter'-ment, * en-tere-ment, s. [Fr. 
enterrement, from enterrer.] The act of in- 
terring, burial, sepulture. 

* In-teV-men'-tion, v.t. [Pref. inter-, and 

Eng. mention (q.v.).] To mention amongst 
other things ; to include in mentioning. 

*ln'-ter-mess, 3. [Probably intended as an 
. English form of intermezzo (q.v.).] An inter- 
lude ; a short dramatic piece. 

"Some other interment* which might divert within 
doim" Evelyn : Memoirt, Aug. 4, 1690. 



in ter-met-a-car-pal, a. [Pref. inter-, 
and Ettg. metdcarpal.] 

Anat. : Between the metacarpal bones of 
the hand : as, intermetacarpal articulations. 
(Quain.) 

* in ter mez-zo (mezas metz), s. [Ital.] 

Music : An interlude ; a short composition 
of a lively character played between the parts 
of a more important work, or between the acts 
of a drama, &c. 

* in-ter-mi'-cate, v.l. [Lat. intermicatum, 
sup. of intermico, from inter- *= between, 
among, and mico = to shine.] To shine be* 
tween or among. 

"In-ter-nu-ca'-tion, *. [INTERMICATE.] The 
act or state of shining between or among. 

* In-ter-nu-gra'-tion, *. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. migration (q.v.).] Motion or removal of 
two families from one country to another, so 
that each takes the home of the other ; inter- 
change of dwelling-places. 

" Though the continent be but one. u to point of 
access, mutual intercourse, and possibility ol intermi- 
yranont." Battt Orij. of Mankind, p. 300. 

Jn-ter'-min-a-ble, a. & . [Lat. intermina- 
bilis, from in- = not, and terminus = an end ; 
Ital. interminabiU ; Sp. interminable.] 
A. As adjective : 

1. Boundless, endless, unlimited, illimitable, 
Infinite. 

*' Seas ol mow that shine 
Between tnterminahl* tracts of pine." 

Wurdnvorth : Descriptive Sketche*. 

2. Protracted so as to be apparently end- 
less ; wearisomely protracted. 

" The debate* were long and sharp ' nd It soon be- 
came evident that the work wu interminable." 
Jfacaulay : Ilitt. Eng., ch. xiv. 

*B. As subst.: The Deity; the Infinite 
Being. 

"A If they would confine the interminable 
And tie him to hia own prescript." 

Mtiton : Annum Agonittet. 907. 

In-teV-mJn-a-ble-ness, . [Eng. intermin- 
able; -ness.} The quality or state of being 
Interminable ; endlessness. 

In-teV-min-a-bly^ adv. [Eng. interviina- 
b(le); -ly.] In an interminable manner or 
degree ; endlessly. 

"A Idngdome restored magnificently, tnt ernUnabt^.' 
Up. Sail : Contempt. ; Christ Transfigured, 

* in-teV-min-ate, a. [Lat. interminatus, 
from in- = not", and terminatus bounded, 
limited : termino = to end, to limit ; Ital. in- 
terminate; Sp. interm.in.ado; Fr. intermine.] 
Unbounded, unlimited, boundless. 

" But faer estate 

In passing hli, was BO intermirtat* 
For wealth aud honour." 

Chapman : Hero A Leander. Mat. T. 

Interminate decimal, s. 

Arith. : A decimal which may be carried on 
ad infinitum, as a repeater. Thus $ reduced 
to a decimal become *S833, Axs., ad injlnitum, 
and is written &. An infinite decimal. [IN- 
FINITE.] 

* In-teV-min-ate, v.t. [Lat. interminatits, 
pa. par. of interminor r inter- = between, 
among, and minor to threaten ; mince = 
threats.] To threaten, to menace. 

" Enough, enough of these inttrminattd j udgmenta," 
Hall : Remaint, p. 193. 

* ]n ter' mln- at-ed, a. [Pref. In- (2)^ and 
Eng. terminated.} Boundless, endless, inter- 
minable. 

"To follow her interminated way." 

Akensid* : Imagination, L 

in-ter-mXn-a'-tion, *. [Lat interminatio, 
from interminatus, pa. par. of iTiterwinor.] A 
threat, a menace. 

"With threatening* and (ntomirfnaffami of hUseTere 
Judgement)* against them." Bp. Taylor: Diu. from 
Poptrt. Pt li.. bk.il., f . 

* in- ter -mined', a. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
mine (q.v.).] Intersected with mines. 

" Her earth with allom veins so richly intfrmin'd." 
Drayton : Poly-Qlbvm, a 28. 

in-ter-mm'-gle, v.t. & i. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. mingle (q.v.).} 

A* Trans. : t To mingle, to mix amongst 
others, to intermix. 

" The sheeted smoke with flashes of flame intermin- 
gled." Longfellow; Evangel inc. L 6. 

B. Intrans. : To become or be mingled, 
mixed, or incorporated with others. 

" Shadow and sunshine intermingling quick." 

Cotoper : Tatk, i. 847. 



* in-ter-mM'-gle-doin, .*. [Eng. \->uerm,in- 
gU;-dom.\ Mixture. (Ulcitardson : Grandison. 
vi. 184.) 

* In'-ter-nu^e, *. [Lot. inter- as between, 
among, and missus, pa. par. ofmitto = to send.] 
Interference, interposition. 

* In'-ter-mlss, s. [Lat. inter- = between, 
and missus = sent.] An interval. 

" In which short inttrmitt tlie king relapsed to his 
former errour." J/t. of tidward I!., p. 94 (1G60X 

in ter miss'- Ion (as as sh), s. [Fr., from 
Lat. intermissionem, from intermissio = a leav- 
ing off, from intermissus, pa. par. of intrr- 
miito = to leave off: inter- = between, among, 
and mltto to send ; Sp. intennision ; Ital. 
intermission. ] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act or state of intermitting ; cesta- 
tion or discontinuance for a time ; pause ; 
intermediate stop, interruption, rest. 

"They answered one another without inter-minion.* 
ffunyan : Mtyrim't Progrtu, pt L 

* 2. The state of being discontinued or dis- 
used ; disuse, neglect 

"Words borrowed of antiquity, hare the authority 
of years, and out of their inter-mittlon do win to them- 
selves a kind of grace-like newness." Sett Jonton: 



* 3. Intervening time ; interval. 

" Cut short all inlermiuion ; front to front 
Bring thou this neud of Scotland, and myself 
Shaketp. : Macbeth, IT. t. 

* 4. Interposition, intervention. 

" In any part meddle by way of friendly inttrmi* 
tion.'Btjttin : ffitt. Pretty tenant, p. 1M. 

IL Pathol. (of a fever): Temporary cessatioo 
of a paroxysm. 

* in-ter-mU'-Bive, a. [Lat intermiw, pa. 
par. of intermitto.] [INTERMISSION.] Having 
temporary cessations ; not continuous; inter- 
mittent ; coming by fits. 

" Wounds I will lend the French, Instead of eyws, 
To weep their intermiuive iniaeries." 

8kak*V>. : 1 Henry VI. t L 

in-ter-mlt', v.t. & i. [Lat. intermitto = to 
send apart, to interrupt. [INTERMISSION.] 

A. Trans.: To leave or discontinue for a 
time ; to cease temporarily ; to forbear, to 
Interrupt, to suspend. 

"The bickerings which had begun In Holland had, 
never been intermitted during the whole course of the 
expedition." Jiacaulag: Ilitt. Eng., ch. v. 

B. Intrans. : To leave off or cease for a 
time ; to cease or relax at intervals. 

" Heaved on the surge with intermittntg breath, 
And hourly panting in the arms of death." 

rope t Bomer ; Odyuey v. 496. 

t m ter-mit'-ten9e, 0. [Eng. intermittent); 
~ce.} The act or state of intermitting; inter- 
mission. (Prof. Tyndall in Annandale.) 

in ter-mit'-tent, a. & *. [Lat. intermittent, 
pr. par. of inwrmi^o = to intermit (q.v.) ; Fr. 
intermittent; Ital. intermittent^ ; Sp. infermi- 
tente.] 

A. As adj. ; Ceasing or relaxing at inter- 
vals ; not in continual action or force. 

"The doctor Is curing her almost as one of an 4nte*v 
mittcnf-fever." Boyle : Workt. vi 4TT. 

B. As subst. : An intermittent fever (q.v.). 
If Intermittent action nf the heart : 

Pathol. : A morbid state, in which, after 
the heart has made a certain number of regular 
beats, it misses one. It arises from dyspepsia, 
temporary debility, the use of tobacco, &c, 

intermittent-fever, & 

Pathol. : [AauB]. 
Intermittent-fountain, *. 

Hydraul. : A stoppered glass globe, nearly 
two-thirds filled with water. The globe has 
two or three capillary tubulures, curved down- 
wards, for the egress of the water. A glass 
tube, open at both ends, terminates above, 
within the glass globe near its top, and the 
lower part, just above a small aperture, in 
a dish supports the apparatus. The water 
flows out by the tubulures till it rises In the 
dish high enough to close the lower snd of 
the glass tube, and to prevent the entrance of 
the external air, the pressure of which is need- 
ful to continue the flow ; the water then ceases 
to run out. 

intermittent-gear, s. 

1. A wheel having a part of its cogs cut 
away ; mutilated gear. 

2. A wheel moved at intervals by a cog, 
cam, ratchet, rack, or lever ; as in counting- 
machines, meters, registers, escapements, <tc. 



fltte, fftt, rare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or, wore, wolf; work, wh6, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, w, ce - e. ey - a. qu kw. 



intermitting international 



2711 



Intermittent-light, . One of the cha- 

racters of light exhibited from lighthouses 
under the catoptric system. The variations 
or different characteristics of lights enable a 
mariner coming within sight of them on a 
coast to determine his geographical position 
and bearings. The intermittent light bursts 
suddenly into view, remains steady a short 
time, and is then eclipsed for half a minute. 
The effect is produced by the motion of shades 
in front of the reflectors, alternately display- 
ing and hiding the light. [ FLASH INO-LIGHT.J 

Intermittent-pulse, *. 

I'nthvl. : A pulse which, beating steadily for 
a time, then intermits. It arises chiefly from 
the innervation of the heart, and follows on 
some physical or moral shock to the system. 

v Intermittent siphon, s. 

Hydravl. : A vessel having a siphon with 
Its .shorter leg near the bottom of the vessel, 
and the longer leg passing through it A 
continuous supply of water being provided, 
the level gradually rises, both in the vessel 
and the tube, to the top of the siphon, and 
an outflow begins. It being arranged that 
this should be more rapid than the inflow, 
the siphon Is gradually emptied, and the 
water ceases to come forth. 

intermittent spring, *. 

Hydrol. : A natural spring which alternately 
flows and stops. A cavity is more or less 
slowly filled by springs, and then at intervals 
emptied by fissures, so shaped and placed as 
to constitute natural intermittent siphons. 
Intermittent springs exist in various parta of 
the world. 

Intermittent-wheel, s. The name In- 
cludes all the escape-wheels ; counting wheels 
1n meters, arithmometers, and registers ; stop- 
motions in clocks and watches, ratchet move- 
ments, &c., Ac. 

In-ter-mlt'-tlng, pr. par. & a. [INTERMIT.] 
U-asing or relaxing at intervals ; intermittent. 

Intermitting -spring, . [INTERMIT- 
TENT-SPRING.] 

In-ter-mlt'-tlng-l& adv. [Eng. intermit- 
ting; -ly.] In an intermitting or intermittent 
manner ; with intermissions ; at intervals. 

" Suffering it to look up bnt intermittinffly." Jfoun- 
t.i'jitn : Devout* Xttayet, pt. Ii., tr. Ti. $ 2. 

In-ter-mlx', v.t. & i. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
mis (q.v.).] 

A. Trans. : To mix or mingle with others ; 
to intermingle. 

"They ing praises unto God, which they intermix 
with instrument* at music." Sir T. Mor: Utopia 
(L Robbuon). bk. 1L, ch. xi. 

B. Intrant. : To become intermingled or 
Incorporated with others ; to be intermingled. 

Jn ter-mixed', pa. par. or a. [INTERMIX.] 

* In-ter-inXT'-e'd-ljf, adv. [Eng. intermixed; 
ly.} In an intermixed manner; with inter- 
mixture. 

*in ter-mlx'-tion (x as U), *ln-ter- 
mix-cl-on, s. [Lat. inter- = between, among, 
and mixtio = a mixing.] The same as INTER- 
MIXTURE (q. v.). 

"Tnw christen people in thli world, which, without 
fntermixdon of obstinat* heresies, prof 
cathollke faith." SKr T.Mora: 



fn-ter-mix'-ture, *. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
mixture (q.v.). J 

1. The act or process of intermixing or 
mixing together. 

" Both were marked 
By circuuiatancewith intermixture fine." 

Wordtworth : Exeurtion. bk. V. 

2. A mass formed by the mixture of two or 
more ingredients. 

3. An admixture ; something additional 
mingled in a mass. 

"He may indeed Judge certain intermixtures of ad- 
veroity to be proper for our improvement.'' Blair: 
Workt, vol. ii., iier. v. 



'-l-t^, *. [Pref. inter-, and 
Em;, mobility (q.v.).] The quality or state of 
being capable of moving amongst each other, 
as the particles of a fluid. 

In-ter-mo-dil'-li-on. s. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. modillion (q.v.).] 
Arch. : The space between two modillions. 

* In ter mon'-tanc, a, [Lat. inter- = 'be- 
tween, among, and montanvs = pertaining to 



mountains; mons (genit. mentis) - * moun- 
tain.] Between mountains. 

in ter-mun'-dane, a. [Lat. inter- be- 

tween, among, and mundanua = pertaining to 
the world ; mundu* = tlie world.] Being or 
existing between worlds, or between orb 
and orb. 

" The vast distance between then great bodle* we 
called intermunaan* paces." Lock*: Klcmentt QJ 
Natural fMlotojAy, ch,li. 



* in-ter miin'-di-aLn, a. [Lat. inter- = be- 
tween, among, and mundus the world.] 
Intennundane. 

Jn-ter-mur'-al, a. [Lat. inter- = between, 
among, and muralis=z pertaining to a wall; 
murus = a wall.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Lying or being within walls. 

2. Anat. <* PathoJ. : Between the intestinal 
walls. 

H Tliere are sometimes Interraural intes- 
tinal obstructions, as cancerous stricture, 
non-cancerous stricture, and intussusception, 
witli or without polypi. 

* In ter mure', v.t. [Lat. inter- between, 
among, and murus = a wall.] To surround 
with or inclose in walls. (Ford.} 

in ter-mus cu lar, o. [Tref. inter-, and 
Eng. muscular (q.v.).J Lying or being be- 
tweeu the muscles. 

In ter muscular- septa, s. pi. 

Anat. : Two fibrous partitions binding the 
aponeurosis of the arm to the humerus. They 
are called the External and Internal Inter- 
muscular Septa. 

* in-ter mu ta'-tlon, *. [Pref. infer-, and 
Eng. mutation (Q.V.).] Mutual or reciprocal 
change or mutation ; Interchange. 

* in ter-mu' tu-al, a. [Pref. inter-, nd 
Eng. mutual (q'.v.).] Mutual, reciprocal, al- 
ternate. 

" By intennutu'il vows protecting there, 
Thi* never to reveal." J*mt2 : CMl Wart, ill. 35. 

* in-ter-mn'-tn-aM& adv. [Eng. inter- 
mutual ; -ly. ] Mutually, reciprocally. 

" And intennutvally there ratified 
With protestAtions." Daniel; Oivtt Wan.vii. 80. 

* in'-tern, a. & s. [Fr. interne, from Lat. 
intemus = inward, from inter- = within, be- 
tween ; Ital. & Sp. interno.] 

A. As adj. : Internal, intestine, domestic. 

"The Inland towns an most nourishing, which 
shows that her riches are intern and domestic." 
Howl. 

B. As svbst. : A pupil who resides In a 
seminary or school ; a boarder. (In Roman 
Catholic Schools.) 

In-torn', v.t. [Fr. intemer.} To send to or 
confine !n the interior of a country, without 
permission to leave. 

"When a considerable portion of the French army 
routed at Sedan took their flight through Belgian ter- 
ritory, they laid down their arms according to conveu. 
tion, and were interned in the dominions of King Leo- 
fold." Annual Kcgiiter. 1870. 

in-teV-nal, a - [Lat. intern(v\ from inter- 
within, between ; Eng. suff. -al.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Inward, interior, not external; being 
within or inclosed in any limits or bounds. 

"There must be some internal organs within us, as 
tar above the organs f brutes, an the operations of oar 
miuds are above theira. 11 StttUxgJUet : Work*, voL ilL, 
Mr 7. 

2. Domestic, not foreign; belonging to 
Itself or its own affairs or interests. 

" The internal regulations of one branch of the Le- 
gislature." Saturday Rewim. Feb. 11. 1882, p. 180. 

3. Derived from or dependent on the object 
itself; inherent : as, internal forces. 

4. Pertaining to the mind or thoughts ; 
pertaining to one's inner being. 

* 5. Intrinsic, real. 

" The internal rectitude of our aetlona." Rogtn. 
U. Geom. : The same as INTERIOR (q.v.), 
Internal angles, 5. pi 
Geom. : [INTERIOR- ANGLES], 

Internal-gear, *. A wheel whose cogs 
are on the internal perimeter. 

Internal safety-valve, *, 

Steam-eng. : A valve opening Inwardly into 
the boiler, to allow air to enter when a vacuum 
is formed inside by the condensation of steam. 



internal-wheel, *. An annular wheel 
whose cogs are presented internally. 

* In-ter-nal'-X-t?, t. [Eng. internal; -t*.] 
The quality or state of being internal. 

In ter -nal-ly, adv. [Eng. internal ; -ly.] 

1. Inwardly, within ; in or at the interior ; 
beneath the surface. 

2. Mentally, intellectually, spiritually. 

"Those who were well qualified, and seemed to b* 
internally called by a divine vocation." Burnet: 
Uitt. Reformation (an. 1M7J. 

In-ter-n&'-tlon-al, or. & . [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. national (q.v.).J 

A. As adjective : 

1. Pertaining to or mutually affecting the 
relations and intercourse of nations with each 
other. 

"To avoid Intervention. It must leave untouched" the 
international tribunals." Saturday Review, March 
18, 1883, p. 310. 

2. Of or pertaining to the society called the 
International. [B.] 

B. As substantive: 

History : The recognized contraction for a 
society of which the full title was The Inter- 
national Working Men's Association. It owed 
its being to Karl Marx, the author of Dns Capi- 
tal, and was founded at a meeting held in St. 
James* Hall, London, In 1864, under the presi- 
dency of Prof. E. S. Beesley. Two Parisian 
workmen, Henri Tolain, a chaser in bronze, 
and Eugene Fribourg, a decorative engraver, 
attended as delegates for their fellows. Mr. 
George Odger was elected President, and a Ger- 
man tailor, Eccarius, secretary. Statutes and a 
general manifesto, drawn up by Karl Marx. 
were issued. Of the manifesto Prof. Beesley 
says, " It is probably the most striking and 
powerful statement of the workman's case as 
against the middle class that has ever been 
compressed into a dozen small pages." The 
first congress met at Geneva, Sept. 3, 1866. 
Some sixty delegates, chiefly French and Swiss, 
were present, and the subjects discussed 
were : 

1. International combination of effbrta by the agency 
of the Association In the struggle between labour aim 
capital. 

2. Limitation of the houn of the working day. 
X Juvenile labour. 

4. Co-operative labour. 

5. Trades Union*. 

The congress was ignored by the London 
papers, and the reports entrusted to Jotteaux, 
a Swiss naturalized in England, for convey- 
ance to London, were taken from him by the 
Imperial Police as he crossed the French 
frontier, but afterwards restored on the inter- 
vention of Lord Stanley, tben Foreign Secre- 
tary. The next congress was held at Lausanne 
in the following year, and the Times published 
lengthy reports of its proceedings. In that 
year the International kept foreign workmen 
out of the labour market in England in case of 
strikes. In 1868 the Paris Association was 
dissolved by judicial proceedings, bnt indi- 
vidual members kept up their connection with 
the parent society, which was victorious in a 
contest with the master-builders of Geneva ; and 
in Germany 120 societies sent representatives 
to Nuremberg, and affiliated themselves. The 
third congress was held at Brussels in the Sep- 
tember of this year, and its discussions on war, 
strikes, machineryj instruction, credit, proper- 
ty, and the reduction of the hours of labour, 
formed the subject of four leaders in the Times. 
TheSocialDemocratic Centresat Vienna, Pesth, 
and Presburg sent delegates to Brussels. The 
fourth congress was held at Bale in Sept., 1869, 
and on Dec. 13, the day of the opening of the 
Reichstag, 40,000 workmen assembled in the 
streets of Vienna, demanding that a bill should 
be brought in legalizing; trade combinations ; 
numbers were arrested and Imprisoned. In 
this year Bakunin joined the Association, and 
his influence soon became apparent. In 1870 
the members of the Committed* of Paris, 
Lyons, Marseilles, Toulouse, Brest, and Rouen, 
were sentenced to terms of imprisonment, but 
were released on the proclamation of the Re- 
public. The International now separated into 
two parties. At the Hague Congress, in 1872, 
Bakunin's, or the extreme party, was oat- 
voted by the followers ui Marx, who trans- 
ferred the seat of administration to New York. 
After the Geneva Congress, in 1874, the Inter- 
national Proper ceased to exist. Bakuniu's 
party lingered till 1879, and then formed an 
alliance with Socialism (q.v.). The general 
aims of the International were the abolition 
of wage-paid in favour of associated labour, to 



^; pint, J13H; cat, 90!!, chorus, 9hln, bench: go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist. -Ing. 
-clan, -tlan = shan. -tion, -sion=shnn; -tion, -slon = zhnn. -tlous, -aions, -clous = shus. -ble, -die, &c. - bel, <leU 



2712 



Internationalism interpellate 



be developed to national dimensions by na- 
tional means, the abolition of private property 
in the means of production, and their rever- 
sion, with land, to the State. 

international-code, . 

tfaut. ; A common system of maritime signal- 
ling, now adopted by commercial nations gener- 
ally, in order to facilitate communication at 
sea between vessels of all nations. 

international-copyright, *. [Corv- 

KIOHT.] 

International-exhibitions,*.^. Ex- 
hibitions of the industries characterizing the 
different countries of the world. The first 
was the World's Exhibition, held in 1861. In 
London. It was followed by those of London, 
Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia, Chicago, Ac. 

international-law, *. 

Law 4t Hist. : The name given by Bentham 
to what had previously been called the Law 
Of Nations. It arose gradually during the 
latter part of the middle ages, when commerce 
and navigation, not very flourishing during 
the prevalence of the feudal system, began to 
revive with its decline. At first it took the 
form of commercial usage, then it was promul- 
gated In " royal ordinances," and finally be- 
came tacitly recognised as commercial law. 
Then ft was extended to all international 
transactions, even though not commercial. 
It is divided into three departments : the prin- 
ciples that should regulate the conduct (l) of 
states to each other; (2) of private parties 
arising out of the conduct of states to each 
other ; (3) of private parties as affected by 
the separate internal codes of distint nations. 
Its leading principles are three : (1) that 
every nation possesses an exclusive sovereignty 
and jurisdiction in its own territory ; (2) that 
no state or nation can by its laws directly 
ffect or bind property out of its own territory, 
or persons not resident therein, natural born 
subjects or others ; (3) that whatever force 
the laws of one country have in another depends 
solely on the municipal laws of the latter. 
The tendency of international law is to prevent 
war. 

In tcr na-tion al Ism, s. [Eng. interna- 
tional; -ism.} The principles or objects advo- 
cated by the Internationalists. 

In ter na tion-al ist, *. [Eng. interna- 
tional; ~ist.} 

1. One who upholds the principles of inter- 
national law. 

2. A member of the secret society known as 
the Internationa). 

*' The glit of Rll theories of the Intfrnatimialittt la 
thi*." RijXev A Dana: Amur. Kyctop.. ix. MS. 

In-ter-na'-tion-al-ize, v.t. [Eng. inter- 
national; -tee.] To make international; to 
cause to affect the mutual relations of two or 
more nations. 

t Xn-ter-na'-tlon-al-iy, adv. [Eng. inter- 
national; -ly.] In an international manner; 
from an international point of view ; so as to 
Affect the mutual relations of two or more 
nations. 

" Would It be internationally cotirteoiu of England 
to flood the Tunnel?" Saturday Jleview, Feb. 11, 1883, 
p. 186. 

fa-terne', . [INTERNE, a.] That which > 

within ; the inside, the interior. (E. S. Brown- 
ing.) 

In-ter-ne'-cl-ar-y (ol as shit), a. [Lat. 
internecio = utter slaughter ; neco = to kill, 
to slaughter.] The same as INTERNECINE 
(q.v.). 

In ter-ney-In-al, a. [Lat. internecin(ui), 
from intemecio utter slaughter ; Eng. adj. 
nff. -al.) Mutually destructive; extermi- 
nating, internecine. 

In ter ne-9ine, a. [Lat. inttmeciniu.] 
Mutual destruction ; endeavouring or Involv- 
ing mutual destruction ; deadly. 

" The Egyptians worshipped dogs, and for 
Their filth mud* internecine war." 

Butler : Sudibrat. pt. 1., 0. i. 

In-tcr-ne'-clon (d as sh), . [Jr., from 
Lat. internecio.] Mutual slaughter or destruc- 
tion. 

"The number of interneciom and slaughters would 
exceed all Arithmetical calculation." Bale: Oria oj 
Mankind, p. 215. 

In-ter-ne'-CiVe, a. [La*. inferneofo) = to 
kill, to slaughter ; Eng. adj. suff. -ive.] Kill- 
ing, slaughtering, internecine. (Carlyle.) 



* In-ter-nec'-tton, . [Lat. internecto = to 
bind together: inter- = between, among, an.l 
necto = to bind.) A binding or fastening to- 
gether ; connection, conjunction, bond. 

" He coupled hii own goodness and man', evils by 10 
admirable an inUrnection that even the wont part* 
of the chain drew some good after them." Mountague : 
Reroute Kuayet, pt. it. tr. IT.. | L 

In-ter-neur -al, o. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
neural (q.v.).] 

Anat., Ichthy., etc. : Situated between the 
neural processes or spines. 

Interneural-cartllage, a. A small ac- 
cessory cartilage at the fore and back part of 
the neur-apophysis, in the vertebral column 
of a flub. (Owen: Compar. Anat. of Fithti (ed. 
1846), p. 53.) 

Internenral-mplnes, i. ft. Spines sup- 
porting the framework of the dorsal fin. In 
osseous fishes they are generally shaped as in 
the interhsemal spines, like little daggers, 
looking as If plunged In the flesh up to the 
hilt. (Owen: Compar, Anat. ofFUku, p. 67.) 

* sn-teV-nl-t*, . [As if from a Low Lat. 
internitaf.] fnteriorness ; interior presence. 

"The iniernfty of hlsever.llvuig light." fl. Brooi*: 
fool / yualiry. It. Stt. 

In tern mdnt, >. [Fr. intrrnement.} Con- 
finement to the interior of a country as 
prisoners of war ; the state or condition of 
being so confined. 

In ter-nod al. In -ter -nod- it- al, a. 

[Eng. inttrnod(e) ; -al ; Lat intenodi(um), and 
Etig. suff. -al] 
Bat., etc. ; Of or belonging to the Intel-nodes. 

" But the intemedial parts of vegetables, or spaces 
between the Joint*, are contrived with more uncer- 
tainly." Bro*Tt4: Cirui Garden, ch. 111. 

In'-ter-node, i. [Lat. intenuxiium.] 

Hot. : The space between two nodes of the 
stem. [NODE.] 

In ter-no -dl a, . pi. [PL of Lat .ntenw- 

dium.] [INTERNODE.J 

Anal. : The digital phalange*. They are 
fourteen in number three for each of the four 
fingers and two for the thumb. 

In-tcr nod'-i al, a. [INTERNODAL.] 

* In' ter nun9e, .<. [Lat. inter- = between, 
and nuncius a messenger.] A means of 
transmitting messages between two parties. 

" Intelligence Is familiarly conveyed by the inter. 
unce of pigeons trained up for the purpose. Evelyn : 



nunce o 

Navigation it Commerce. 



(ol as shl), o. [Eng. 



In ter niin'-cl 

internunci(o) ; -a 

1. Ord. Lang. : Of or pertaining to an Inter- 
nuncio or his office. 

2. Phytiol. (Of the nermut it/item) : Trans- 
mitting impressions between one part of the 
body and another. 

"A definite nervous system, whose action may be 
purely internuncial that of calling forth muscular 
movements in respondeuce to the impressions made by 
external agencies. Carpenter : Mental Pkytlat.. f 4i. 

" In-te'r-niin'-cl'-e'ss, . [Eng. internund(o) ; 
en.] A female messenger. 

" Iris that had place 
Of intemuncieu from the gods." 

Chapman : Homer: /Htufxv. 

In-ier-nun'-of-d, . [Pref. inter-, and nuncio 

(q.v.).] 

1. A messenger between two parties. 

" They are only tbe internuneiof. or the go-betweens 
of this trim-devised mummery." Milton : Animad. 
upon Remon. lie/ftice. 

2. An envoy of the Pope, sent to small 
states or republics, as distinguished from a 
nuncio, who represents him at the courts of 
emperors and kings. 

" The tnternuncio at Brussels proceeded to censure 
those that were for it. as enemies to the papal autho- 

rity." fiurnrf : Own Tim** (an. Iflttt. 

In -tcr -nun 91 6 -ship, . [Eng. infcr- 
nuncio; -tliip.] 

1. The office of an Internnncio. 
* 2. The agency of any messenger. 

"Several billets psased ... by the (nttmtmcloiAip 
of Dorcas." Rtehardton: Clariua, v. 6. 

In-tcr-o-ce an -1C (ce as she), a. [Pref. 
inter-, and Eng. oceanic.] Between two oceans. 

n-ter-Sc'-u-lar, o. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
octitor.] 
Anat. Entom. : Situated between the eyes. 



in-ter-6-pey-cu-lar, a. [Mod. Lat. infer. 
opercul(um), and Eng. suff. -ar.] 

Compar. Anat. it- Idithy. : Of or belonging 
to the interoperculum (q.v.). 

Intcropcrcular-bono, >. 

Compar. Anat. Ichttiy. [iNTEROPEBCULUsf^ 

In-ter-^-per'-ou-liim, . [Pref. infer-, and 
Lat. operculum (q.v.).] 

Compar, Anat. & IchtKy. : One of the four 
portions of which the gill-cover of a llsh is 
composed. It is articulated to the pre-oper- 
cular one above, to the sub-opercular behind, 
and usually to the back part of a mandible of 
some fishes. Called also Intropercular Bone. 
(Owen: Compar. Anat. o/Fitha, p. 114:) 



[Pref. inter-, and or- 
any orbit, as those of 

[Pref. inter-, and 
.).] Connecting two 
' any kind, as a variety 
a species two genera, 
L family two tribes, a 



In-ter-oV-Wt-al, a. 

tital.) 

Anat., if, : Between 
the eyes. 

In-ter-oV-cu lant, a. 

Eng., etc. osculant (q.v 
different assemblages of 
connecting two species, 
a genus two families, i 
tribe two orders, etc. 

In ter oV-cu-late, v.t. [Pref. inter-, and 
osculate (q.v.).] 
BioL : To connect two different assemblages. 

[IHOSCULAKT.] 

m-ter-68 sS-al, In-ter os'-sc-ous, . 
[Pref. inter-, and Eng. osseal, osseoiw (q.v.).] 

Anat., etc. : Situated between bones. There 
are interosseons bones, nerves, arteries, and 
an interosseous ligament, 

In-ter-6V-s-i, . pi. [Pref. inter-, and masc, 
pL of Lat. ossens.] 

Anat, : Two sets of muscles. The Dorsal 
Interossel, seven in number, withdraw the 
fingers from the middle line of the hand ; 
there are corresponding muscles In the foot, 
four dorsal and three plantar. (Quain.) 

in ter-Ss-sc ofis, a. [INTEROSSEAL.] 

* In-ter pale', v.t. [Pref. inter- and Eng. 
pale (q.v.).] 

1. To place pales between ; to divide by 
pales. 

2. To interweave, to interlace. 

" He ware upon his head a diademe of purple Inter. 
paled with white." Brtnde : (juintui Curtiu*. to. 15U 

In-ter-par-i-e'-tal, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
parietal (q.v.).] 

Compar. Anat. ft Zool. : Between the parietal 
bones, as the interparietal suture occurring in 
the young of the Ruminantia and Carnivora. 

* In-ter-poss', r.i. [Pref. Inter-, and Eng. 
past (q.v.).] To pass between. 

"Many skirmishes inlerpatted with orprlaementl 
of castles." Daniel: Sift. Bng., p. 47. 

* In'-ter-panye, . [Pref. ister-, and Eng. 
pause (q.v.).] A pause or stop between ; an 
intermission. 

"Giving an tnterpatue to pride and sprU." 

Daniel: Civil Wart. vl. 72. 

* ln-ter-peal', * In-ter pell , v.t. (Lat in- 

terpello to interrupt : inter- = between, 
among, and petto = to drive.] 

1. To interrupt, to hinder, to Interfere with* 

"This being thus : why should my tongue or pen 
Presume to interpetl that fulness*. " 

Hen Jomon,- On my MUM, nitty ff. 

2. To intercede with, to appeal to. 

" Here one of us began to inter j,e<a 
Old Mnemon." 

a. Mart: OnOaSmO, pt L. bk. UL. | SI. 

In-ter-pS-dun'-on-lar, o. [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng. peduncular.] 

Anat. : Between the peduncles of the cere- 
brum. 

interpedunoular-gpace, . 

Anat. : A lozenge-shaped interval situated 
between the peduncles of the cerebrum and 
containing the posterior perforated space, the 
corpora albicantia, and the tuber cinereum. 



In-ter-pel'-late, v.t. [Lat, Interpellate, pa. 
par. of interpello.} [INTERPEAL.] To ques- 
tion ; to address a question to ; especially 
said of a question addressed by a member of 
a legislative assembly to a minister. 



Ate. fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, hare, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pit, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub, care, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, so, ce = e; ey = a. qu = kw. 






interpellation interposition 



2713 



In ter-pel-la'-tion, $. [Fr., from Lat. inter- 
peiiationem, ace. of interpellatio = a speaking 
between, an interruption, from interpellate*, 
pa. par. of interpello. [luTEBPKLUiTtt. J 

* 1. The act of interrupting or interfering; 
interruption. 

"The littler make* no little ciuuplaiut ot the impor- 
tnntty of those contiiiUH.ll interpeUittiont." Sp. Ball: 
Dffeni-e of the Bumble Slemoruiranc*. 

* 2. The act of interposing or interceding 
on behalf of another ; intercession, interposi- 
tion. 

" Continually* be maketh interpellation for V* sin. 
tun." finis : Apologia, to. 8. 

* 3. A summons, a citation. 

** In all extrajudicial act* one citation, monition, or 
xtrajudiclal interpellation is sufficient" Ayliffe: 
farergon. 

4. A question addressed by a member of a 
legislative assembly to a minister or member 
of the government. 

In ter pen'-e~trate, v.t. & i. [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng. penetrate (q.v.).] 

A. Tram. : To penetrate between other sub- 
tances ; to penetrate mutually so as to form 
union. 

B. Intrant. .* To penetrate between or 
within bodies ; to penetrate mutually, so as 
to form a union. 

In ter-pen-S-tra'-tlon, . [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng. penetration (q.v.).] The act or state 
of interpenetrating; the actor state of pene- 
trating mutually so as to form a union. 

* In-ter-pn'-$~tra-tfve, o. [Eng. inter- 
penetrate); -tve.] Penetrating between or 
within other bodies ; mutually penetrating. 

t In-ter-pt'-al-a-r3f,n, [Pref. inter-; Eng. 

petal, and sufT. -ary } 
Bot. : Between petals. 

i-ter-pet'-SE 6-lar, a. [Pref. inter-, and 

Eng. petiolar.} 
Sot. : Between the petioles or leafstalks. 

In ter pha-ldn'-ge al, o. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. pkatangeal (q.v.).] 

Anat. : Between the phalanges of the hand 
and foot. There are interphalangeal articula- 
tions of both. 

In-ter-pH-as'-ter, *. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
Piaster (q.v.).] 
Arch. : The space between two pilasters. 

* tn-ter-plaoe', v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
place (q.v.).] To place between or among. 

"The power of lords (thus inter-placed 
Betwixt the height of princes, mid the state)." 

Daniel : Civil Wan. rlL 58. 

ln-ter-plan'-e't-ar-3f, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. planetary (q"v.).] Situated or existing 
between the planets. 

"In the Intermundiwe or interplanetary space*, 
that it refracts the rays of the moon and other remoter 
luminaries." Boyle : Work*, V. 612. 

"aB'-ter-play, . CPref. inter-, and Eng. play 
(q.v.).] Reciprocal action or influence. 

In tor plead', * en-tcr-pload, v.i, [Prof. 
inter-, and Eng. plead (q.v.).] 

Law : To plead or discuss a point incidental 
to a cause, before the principal cause is tried. 
[INTERPLEADER.] 

3n-ter-plead-er, * en -ter-plead or, . 
(Eng. interplead ; -*.] 
Lav): 

* 1. One who interpleads. 

2. The pleading or discussion of a point 
Incidentally arising, as it were, between or in 
the middle of a case, before the principal cause 
is determined. Interpleader is allowed that the 
defendant may not be charged to two severally 
where no fault is in him ; as where one party 
brings detinue against the defendant upon a 
bailment of goods, and another against him 
npon trover, there shall l>e interpleader to 
ascertain who has right to his action. 

" If A claim be made hy a third party to the good* of 
the person against whom the writ of fieri faciat is 
Ivied, the sheriff may Impanuel a Jury to try the 

Siestion of property ; and according aa the question 
determined, surrender the goods or Mil them In 
terms of the writ. But he now usually proceeds in 
such a case under the Interpleader Acts ; and obtains 
from a Judge >it chambers, a summons directed to the 
execution creditor, and the party claiming the goods; 
and calling upon them to appear and maintain their 
respective claims ; which, if the claimant fail to do, 
his claim IB barred. But if both parties appear, the 
Judge may decide between them ; or an interpleader 
Isaue, to try the right of property, Is directed ; on 
which the parties go to trial as In ordinary cases." 
Blaclutane: Comment., bk. iii.. ch. 11. 



Interpleader-order, . 

Law : (See extract). 

"Again, if the defendant doea not claim any interest 
In the money or goods for which the plaintiff IB suing, 
and they are claimed by some other party, be may 
apply to a Judge for an interpleader order, whereby 
the third party is called upon to appear and state his 
claim, ana maintain or relinquish It, his falling to do 
so being for ever after a bar to his prosecuting it 

rust tlie defendant." BlacJutan* : Comment., bk. 
ch.ll. 

* in ter pledge', v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
pledge (q.v.).] To pledge or plight mutually 
or reciprocally. 

" We inttrpledge, and bind each other's heart." 

Davenant : (Jondibcrt, I. vL 

* In ter point , v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
point (q.v.).] To distinguish by points or 
stops ; to place or insert points or marks of 
pause or stop. 

" Her heart command*, her words should pass out first, 
And then her sighs should interpoint her words." 
Daniel: Civil Wart, li. M. 



e, o. [Eng. interpolate); 
-able.] Capable of being interpolated or in- 
serted ; suitable for interpolation. (De Morgan, 
in Annandale.) 

In -teV~po* -late, v.t, [Lat. interpolatus, pa. 
par. of interpolo = to polish up, to interpolate ; 
interpolu*. interpolis = polished up ; inter- = 
between, among, and polio = to polish ; Fr. 
interpoler ; Sp. interpotar ; Ital. interpolare.} 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. To insert, as a spurious word or passage 
In a book or document ; to add a spurious 
word or passage to ; to foist in. 

2. To alter or corrupt by the introduction 
or insertion of spurious matter : as, to vitiate 
or corrupt a book by the interpolation of 
words or passages spurious or foreign to the 
subject. 

" In the larger epistles, which are generally supposed 
to be interpolated, the passages of the Old and New 
Testament are more numerous." Jorlin .' /torn, on 
Scclet. Bitt. 

* 3. To introduce at intervals ; to carry on 
with intermissions. 

"The alluvion of the sea upon those rocks might be 
eternally continued, but interpolated." Bale : Orig. 
of Mankind, p. 96. 

IL Math. Phys. .* To introduce or find one 
or more intermediate terms necessary to com- 

Slete a partial aeries of numbers or observa- 
ons ; to make the necessary interpolations 
on : as, To interpolate a table of numbers. 

In-tcr'-po-lat-ed, pa. par. & a. [INTERPO- 
LATE.] 

A* As pa. par. : (See the verb). 
B. As adjective: 

I. Ord. iMng. : Inserted or added to the 
original ; foisted in ; spurious. 

II. Mathematics: 

1. Having had the necessary interpolations 
made : as, an interpolated table. 

2. Introduced or determined by interpola- 
tion : as, interpolated numbers. 

In-teV-po-lat-er, tLat., from interpolates, 
pa. par. of interpolo; Fr. interpolateur.] One 
who interpolates ; one who foists spurious 
words or passages into a book or writing ; one 
who vitiates or corrupts by interpolation. 

In-ter-pi-la'-tion, s. [Fr., from Lat. inttr- 
polationem, accus. of interpolatio = an altera- 
tion made here and there, from interpolatus, 
pa. par. of interpolo; Sp. interpolacion ; Ital. 
interpolaztone.) [INTERPOLATE.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of interpolating ; the act of foist- 
ing in or introducing spurious words or 
passages into a book or writing ; the act of 
corrupting or vitiating by the introduction or 
Insertion of matter spurious or foreign to the 
subject 

"By transcribing. Interpolation, misprinting, and 
creeping in of autichrouiams now and then strangely 
disordered." Drayton ; Poly-Qlbion, s. 4. 

2. That which is interpolated ; spurious 
words or passages introduced or inserted in a 
book or writing. 

" Sir. I beseech yon to accept or pardon these trifling 
interpolation*, which I have presumed to send you." 
Evelyn: Letter to Mr. Aubrey. Feb., 1675-0. 

II. Math. Phys. : The operation of finding 
terms between any two consecutive ones of a 
series which shall conform to the law of the 
series. In most cases the law of the series is 
not given, but only numerical values of certain 
terms of the series, taken at fixed and regular 
intervals. The method of interpolation is of 



extensive use, not only in pure analysis and 
geometry, but also in various other subjects 
of mathematical inquiry and computation, 
particularly in astronomy. In this latter 
branch of investigation it is the means of sav- 
ing, in many cases, immensely laborious com- 
putationa. Thus, for example, In finding the 
places of some of the planets whose motions 
are not very rapid, it will be sufficiently accu- 
rate to compute their places for every fourth 
or fifth day, and then by interpolation, to find 
their places for intermediate days. 

* in-ter-poT-ish, v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng 
polish (q.v.).] To polish here and there; to 
polish in parts. 

"Cunningly interpolitht by some second hand." 
Milton: Reaton of Church ffort.. bk. L, ch. v. 

* &i-ter-p$a'-J-t#, . [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
polity.} Exchange of citizenship. 

" The transplant lug and intercity of our specie*." 
Lytton.- The Oaxtont, bk. xlll., ch. 1. 

* Xn-ter-p6ne', v.t. [Lat. interpono, from in- 
fer- between, among, and pono = to place, 
to set.] To place or set between or among ; 
to interpose. 

* In ter-pon'-ent, . [Lat. interponens, pr. 
par of interpono.} One who or that which 
mterpones or interposes. 

** Lop down these interponent* that withstand 
The passage to our throne. ' 

Hay wood t Rape of Lucrece, 

* In-ter-pdf'-al, . [Eng. interpose) ; -al.} 

1. The act of interposing; interposition | 
interference, 

2. The act of coming between ; intervention. 
"Our overshadowed souls may be emblemed by 

crusted globes, whose influential emissions are inter- 
cepted by the interposal of the benighting element, 
GlanviU: Scepsis Scientific*, ch. it 

ln-ter-pose', v ,t. & i. [Fr. interpoer t from 
Lat. inter- = between, among, and pono (pa. 
par. positits) to place, to set.] [INTERPONE.] 
A. Transitive: 

1. To place or set between ; to cause to in- 
tervene. 

" Mountains interpoied 
Make enemies of uatioua." Couiper : Tatk, ML 17. 

2. To place between or among ; to thrust 
in ; to intrude ; to present or put forward for 
obstruction, interruption, aid, succour, or ad- 
justment of differences. 

" What watchful cares do interpote theutelve* 
Betwixt your eyes and night!" 

Shaketp. : JulHu Ctar, 11. L 

3. To utter or remark between the words of 
another. 

" If Adam aught, perhaps, might interpote," 

Milton : P.L., xlL & 

IB* Intransitive: 

1. To be or come between ; to Intervene. 

"Long hid by interpoting bill or wood." 

Cotoper ; Truth, 249. 

2. To come or step in between parties at 
variance ; to intervene ; to intercede ; to 
mediate. 

"The prayers of thow 
Who for th' offending warriors interpose." 

Dryden : Palawan A Arcite, it. 8M. 

3. To make a remark byway of interruption 
between the words of another. 

* In-ter-poe', . [INTERPOSE, v.} The act 
of interposing ; interposition, interposal, in- 
tervention. 

" Without the wise interpote of state-physician*." 
Spenter ; On Prodigiet, p. llu. 

!n-ter-pdy-er, . [Eng. interpose); *?.] 

1. One who or that which comes between 
or intervenes. 

" I will make haste ; but, till I come again, . . . 
No rest be interpoler 'twixt us twain." 

Shaketp. : Merchant of Venice, ill. 1 

2. One who comes between parties at vari- 
ance ; a mediator. 

* in-ter-p$f-it, *. [Lat. inter- = between, 
among, and posittu, pa. par. of pono = to 
place.] A place of deposit between one com- 
mercial city or country and another. 

in-ter po $i -tion, * in-tcr po-ai -oion, 
$. [Fr., from Lat. interpositionem, accus. of 
interpositio, from interpositus, pa. par. of in- 
terpono = to place between ; Sp. interposition; 
Ital. interposixione.} [INTERPONE.] 

I. Ordinary Language : 

L The act of placing or setting between or 
among. 

" By reason of the often interposition of the Initial 
letters.' Sir T. More: Worket, p. l.WL 



*^-; poiit, 16%1; oat, cell, chorus, 9hin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, eyist. ph = 
-Man = ahan, -tion, -alon = shun ; -(Ion, -slon = xhun. -oioua, -tioua, -eioua = shus. -We, -die, &c. = hel, dfl. 



5714 



interposure in terrorem 



2. The state of being or coming between ; 
Intervention. 

" It is a mere privation of the sun's light by reason 

of the inter ponr/o it of the earth's opacous body." 
WOkint: The J/ourt a World. 

3. Intervenient agency ; mediation ; inter- 
vention ; justitiable interference : as, A quarrel 
It settled by the interposition of friends. 

* 4. That which is interposed. 

"A shelter, and a kind of shading cool 
InterpotUion." Jfilton : />, A. Hi. m 

* 5. Words or phrases used parenthetically. 

"Some vseso many interpositions, both In their talke 
Md in their writing, thiit they mitke tbelr sayings as 
tJarke us helL "~ it'Ston : Arteo/ Rhetoriyue, p. in, 

n. Min. : The placing by natural agency of 
A crystal of one mineral in the mass or crystal 
of another, or anything similar ; the state of 

being so interposed. 

In ter po'-sure ( as th), *. fEng. inter- 
pos(e); -.] "The act of interposing, Inter- 
posal, interposition. (GlanvUl: Pre-exlstence 
of Soul*, ch. xi v.) 

in tcr'-prd*t, * In-ter-prete, v.t. & i. [Fr. 
interpreter, from Lat. interpreter, from inter- 
pres (gen. interprets) = an interpreter; 8p. 
itUerpretar ; Ital. interpretan.} 

A. Transitive: 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. To explain the meaning of; to expound; 
to translate from an unknown or foreign Ian- 
guage into one known ; to define; to decipher. 

"Emmanuel, which being interpreted. Is God with 
*."- Matthew 1. SS. 

2. To explain or unfold the intent, meaning, 
or reasons of ; to make clear ; to free from ob- 
scurity or mystery ; to expound ; to make 
Intelligible. 

" Pharaoh told them his dreams : but there was none 
that could interpret them unto htm."-<7*tw*fc xlL ft. 
8. To assume the meaning of; to under- 
stand ; to explain to oneself. 

"The child who knows no better 
Than to interpret hy the letter, 
A story of a cock nml bull." 

Covper: Pairing Time Anticipated. 

4. To represent artistically ; to act ; to re- 
present the intentions or meaning of in action. 

" The choruses were Admirably interpreted.' A then- 
urn, Nov. 10, 1388, p. CIO. 

II. Math. : To explain by the application of 
mathematical rules. 
B* Intransitive: 

1. To act as an interpreter ; to explain, 

* I could interpret between you and your love." 

Shakftp. : Samlet, liL 1. 

2. To understand ; to assume as an explana- 
tion. 

If For the difference between to interpret 
and to explain, see EXPLAIN. 

" In-ter'-pret-a-ble, a. [Eng. interpret; 
able.} Capable" of being interpreted, ex- 
pounded, or explained. 

" Howsoever the law be In truth or interpretabte." 
Orayton : Poty-Olbion, a. 17. 

Xn-teV-pret-a-ment, *. [Lat. iterpreto- 
mentum..} Interpretation, explanation. 

In-ter'-pre'-tate, v.t. [Lat. interpreted 

pa. par. of interpreter = to interpret (q.v.).] 

To interpret. 

" And those I took to be of mine own opinion, and 
divers doctors that followed, whose sentence I did in* 
terpretate as to agree with mine." Strype : Life of Sir 
Jokn Ckdte, oh. T., i L 

In-ter-pre-ta'-tion, a. [Fr., from Lat. in- 
terpretationem, accus. of interpretatio, from 
tnterprttatut, pa. par. of iuterpretor = to in- 
terpret (q.v.) ; Sp. interpretation ; ItaL inter- 
prttazione.} 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of interpreting, expounding, or 
explaining that which is unintelligible, not 
understood, or not obvious; translation, ex- 
planation, exposition. 

"Do not interpretation* belong to God T" ffeneett 

* 2. The power of explaining or expounding. 

" We beseech thee to prosper this great sign, and to 
ire us the interpretation and use of It In mercy." 
Bacon. 

3. The sense or explanation given by an in* 

terpreter. 

" Those texts may receive a kinder aud more molli- 
fied interpretation?' Dryden: Religia Laid. (Pref.l 

4. The conception and representation of a 
tharaeter on the stage. 

" The part of Cassandra ... Is capable of tar more 
nrlons interpretation than that of her rival." 
Atheiumtm, Dec. 25. 1380. p. 876. 



B. Math.: The process of explaining results 
arrived at by the application of mathematical 
rules. When, for example, an algebraic defi- 
nition is laid down, there is frequently some 
restriction implied in making the definition, 
BO that the result to which it leads presents 
more cases than can be explained by it, or 
even than was contemplated by it. Thus the 
abbreviation of aa t aaa, into a 3 , a 3 , and the 
rules which spring from it, lead to results of 
the form *, o, o, &c. These results, until 
interpreted, are without any intelligent alge- 
braic meaning. 

f Scripture interpretation : [ExBOESis, HKB- 

MENEUTICS]. 

*ln-ter'-pre-ta-tive, a. [Lat toittrpn- 
toJ(u), pa. par. of interpreter to interpret 
(q.v.) ; Eng. adj. suff. -ive.] 

1. Fitted or designed for interpretation ; 
explanatory, expounding. 

" The rigour of interpretatio lexicography. 1 * John- 
torn.- *nff~Dlct. (Prtf.) 

2. Collected or known by interpretation. 
"Th rejecting their additions may Justly be deemed 

an interpretative siding with heresies." Sammond. 

* ln-tey-i>rS-ta-tive-l& adv. [Eng, inter- 
pretative ; -ly.] In an interpretative manner ; 
so as to interpret. 

"Hy this provision the Almighty interftretatit>ely 
peaks to him lit this manner." Jtaf: On the Creation. 

in-ter'-pre'-ter, "in-ter-pre-tour, . 

[Eng. interpret ; -er.] 

1. One who or that which interprets, ex- 
plains, or makes clear what Is unintelligible, 
not understood, or not obvious ; an expounder, 
a translator. 

" Sacred interpreter of human thought, 
How few respect or use thee AS they ought" 

Ctneper : Convrrtution, i*. 

2. Specifically, one who explains what a 
speaker says in one language to the person 
addressed in another. 

" Friday's father had learned Spanish . . . and he 
should serve him for an interpreter." Defoe : Kobiit 
mm Crutoe, pi. 1L 

3. One who conceives and represents a 

character on the stage. 

* In-ter-priM, s. [ENTERPRISE.] 

* In ter punc'-tion, . [Lat. interpnnctio, 

from inter- = between, among, and punctut, 
pa. par. of pungo = to prick ; ItaL interpun- 
zione.] The act of making or placing points 
between sentences or parts of sentences ; 
punctuation. 

"A various interpunction, a parenthesis, a letter, an 
accent, may much alter the sense." Taylor: Libert)/ 
Of Prophesying, J *. 

In-ter-quar'-ter, . [Pref. intor-, and Eng. 

quarter (q.v.).] 
Arch. : The space between two quarters. 

* In-ter-ra'-di-aLa. [Lat inter- m between, 

among, and ro<2iu0 = a ray, a radius.} Between 
the radii or rays. 

* In-ter-rS-9eive', tU [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
receive (q.v,).] To receive between or within. 

in-terred', pa. par. or a. HHTER, p.] 

* in-ter-re'-gen 9^, * In-ter -re' -gentle, 

*. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. regency (q.v.).] An 
Interregnum (q.v.). 

"The government was called Interregnum, the to. 
terreffeneie."P. Holland: Li*y. P- " 



* in tcr-rc -gent, s. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
regent (q.v.).] One who has the chief power 
during an interregnum (q.v.)- 

"M. F. Camlllu* was created interregent'P. Hol- 
land: Livy, [>. 21.1 1. 

in ter-reg niim, s. [Lat., from inter- * be- 
tween, and regnum = a kingdom, a reign.] 

1. The time during which a throne is vacant 
between the death or abdication of a sovereign 
and the accession of his successor, or between 
the cessation of one government and the esta- 
blishment of another. 

2. An interval during which the powers of 
the executive are in abeyance, owing to a 
change of government. 

"Persons who, under pretence of promoting the 
union, might really be contriviiig only to prolong the 
" 



ffitt. Knff.,ch. xlii. 

3. Any period of abeyance. 

* In' -ter- reign (olgn as an), *in-ter- 

reigne, *. [Fr. interregne t from Lat. inter- 
regnum.] An interregnum (q.r.X. (Bacon: 
Henry VIL) 



t In-ter-re-la'-tlon. *. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
relation (q.v.).] Correlation ; reciprocal rela- 
tion. 

"The interrelation of the Gospels." A Ot^nmum^ 

Aug. 2, UK p. 1 44. 

* In-ter-rd-peT-lent, a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. repellent (q.v.).] Mutually or recipro- 
cally repellent. 

In-teV-rer, s. [Eng. inter, v. ; -er.] One who 
inters or buries. 

* in'-ter-rex, s. [Lat, from inter- = between, 
and rex = a king.] A person appointed to 
govern during an interregnum ; a regent. 

" The proposition for the appointment of an intern* 
which lit mentioned l>y Llvy."LewU: Crea. Karly 
Roman Sift, (issaj, ii. 204. 

in-tcr'-rd-gate. v.t. & i. [Lat. interrogate, 
pa, par. of interrogo to question : inter- = 
thoroughly, and rogo = to ask ; Fr. inter-roper; 
8p. interrogar; Ital. inirro^ar.] 

A* Trans. : To question ; to examine by 
asking questions. 

"The messenger was arrested. Interrogated, and 
searched; and the letters were round." Macaulay : 
SUt. Sny., ch. xiii. 

B. Intrans. : To ask questions ; to examine. 

" By his Inatructious touching the quarn of Naples 
It Heemeth lie could interrogate touching beauty." 
Bacon: Henry I'll. 

* Kn-ter'-rd-gate, . [INTERBOOATE, v.} A 
question, an interrogation. 

" Ask me of things to come concerning my sons, Ac, 
referring the ventura, (things to come) to the follow- 
ing interroyatt."~Bp. HmU: Catetof Contcitnce, Dee. 
8, cassia 

* in-ter-r&-gft-tee', . [Eng. interrogate); 
suff. -.] One who is questioned or interro- 
gated. 

in tcr-ro ga -Uon, s. [Fr., from Lat. in- 
terrogationein, accus. of interrogatio = an ask- 
ing, a question, from interrvgatus, pa. par. of 
interrogo = to interrogate (q.v.); 8p. interro- 
gacion ; Ital. interrogazione.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of interrogating or asking ques- 
tions ; examination by questions. 

" He opposlth by interrogation, and would be aua- 
swered." /fp. Gardner: Explication, to. 80. 

2. A question aaked or put ; an enquiry ; a 
query. 

" We heare of no more objections, no more intem- 
gition."~lip. Salt; Contempt. ; The Annunciation. 

II. Print. ; The mark, note, or sign (0 which 
Indicates that the sentence preceding it con- 
tains a question. 

In-ter-ro'g'-a-tlve, a. & *. [Lat interroga* 
tivug, from interrogate, pa. par. of interrogo 
= to interrogate (q.v.) ; Fr. interrogate/; ItaL 
& Sp. interro^a/iw).] 

A. As adj.: Denoting a question ; employed 
In asking questions ; expressed in the form of 
a question : as, an interrogative pronoun, an 
interrogative sentence. 

"Though, instead of the interrogative point, th* 
HebrewB make use of their interrogative He.'B<jyle: 
Workt, it. 27& 

B. As substantive : 

Gram. ; A word used in asking questions, 
auch as Who ? When ? How ? 

" For al voices that are relatluw, may sometimes b 
interroyatiuet, as whan they aske a question." Udal: 
Flowert, to, 1M. 



, adv. [Eng. interro- 
gative; -ly.] In an interrogative manner; in 
form of a question. 

"Mr. Poiw, perceiving the absurdity of the common 
Interpretation, seems to have read the lines interro- 
gatively ."Surd : Note* on the Epiitle to Augiatw. 

in-ter'-r6^-ga-t6r, *. [Lat., from iuterro* 
gatus, pa. par. of inierro^o = to interrogate 
(q.v.).] One who Interrogates ; one who asks 
questions. 

In-ter-rSg'-a-t6r-& in-ter-rog-a : tor- 

le, a. & 8. [Lat. interrogatorius = consisting 
of questions ; Pr. interrogatoire ; Sp. & Ital. 
interrogatorio. ] 

A. As adj. : Containing a question ; express- 
ing a question ; interrogative. 

B. As subst. : A question, an inquiry, a 
query; specif., in law, a question asked in 
writing. 

" tnterrogatoriet framed (or the purpose of ascer- 
taining how ttiey would act at a general election." 
M.icautay : ffitt. Eny.. ch. vlii. 

In te>-ra'-rem, phr. [Lat.] With the vtew 
of terrifying. 



fitte, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pdt, 
or. wore, wolf, work. who. sdn ; mute, cab, cure, unite, car. rule, full ; try* Syrian. . OB = e : ey = a. QU = kw. 



interrupt interstice 



2715 



in-ter-riipt', v.t. [Lat. interrupts, pa. par. 
of interrumpo = to break through : inter- 
between, among, and rumpo = to break.] 

1. To stop, binder, or obstruct the progress 
or process of anything by breaking in upon it ; 
to stop or break the current or course of any- 
thing ; to cause to be delayed or given over 
for a time ; to cause a temporary cessation or 
Intermission in, 

" Interrupting prayers and sermons with clamour 
and scurrility." ifacaWay .- Hist. Kn<j . ch. xvii. 

2. To binder a speaker from proceeding by 
Interposing remarks or exclamations ; to break 
In upon the conversation of. 

" Answer not before thou hast heard the cause ; m-i- 
theT interrupt men in the midst of their talk." Ecclut. 

Xi.8. 

3. To form a break in ; to break the regular 
puceession of. 

" Flanders was ertcted into a county, which changed 
the title of Forester for that of Count, without inter- 
rupting the succession." sir W. Temple; United 
Provinces, ch. 1. 

i. To cause a break or gap in. 

" Find the brightness interrupted by fewer clouds." 
Blair: (ForJfci, vol. v., er. l. 

6. To disturb, so as to prevent from con- 
tinuing at one's occupation : as, To interrupt 
a person at his work. 

If For the difference between to interrupt 
and to disturb, see DISTURB. 

* In-ter-rupf , a, & s. [Lat 1 . interruptits, pa. 
par. of interrumpo = to break through.] 

A. As adj.: Irregular, interrupted. (Bwrton.) 

B. As subst. : A gap, a chasm. 

"No ban of hell, nor all the chains 
Heap'd on him there, nor yet the main abyss. 
Vide interrupt, can hold/' Milton: P. L., ill. 84. 

In-ter-rupt'-ed, pa. par. A a. [INTEBBUFT, 
*.] 

A. Aa pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective: 

1. Ord. Lang. : Broken off, intermitted. 

2. Bot. : A term used when any symmetrical 
arrangement is destroyed by causes operating 
locally. 

interrupted-spike, s. 

Bot. : A spike having the axis here and there 

unusually elongated, and not covered with 
flowers. 

In-ter-rupf-Sd-l?, adv. [Eng. inter- 
rupted; -ly.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : "With breaks or interrup- 
tions ; not in continuity. 

" The owl's long cry, and, inter- 

ruptwtty, 
Of distant sentinels the fitful 

song 
Begun and died." 

Byron : X<ifre<l, Hi. 4. 

2. Pot. ; So as to be inter- 
rupted (q.v.). 

interruptedly pin 
mate, a. 

Bot. : Having the leaflets al- 
ternately large and email, as 
In the potato. 

fa-ter-rtipt'-er, *Xn-ter- 
rttpf-01% *. [Eng. interrupt. 
v. ; -er, -or.] One who or that 
which interrapts. 

" The great disturbers of those pleasures, and inter* 
ruptrt of the caresses of those lusw." South: Sermons, 
vol. IT., ser. 8. 

In tcr rup'-tlon, * In-ter-rup-cion, s. 

[Fr. interruption, from Lat. interruptionem, 
accus. of interruptio = an interrupting, from 
interruptus, pa. par. of intemtmpo = to Inter- 
rupt (q.v.); Sp. interrupcion ; Ital. interru- 
slone,] 

1. The act of Interrupting or breaking in 
upon. 

2. A hindrance, a stop ; an obstacle caused 
liy the breaking-in of something upon the 
course, progress, or process of anything ; a 
toppage. 

" Here the first stop our rapid course delays, 
And with a grateful int err nation stays. 

Brooke : The Fox Cham, 

3. A breach, break, or gap caused by the 
breaking-in or intervention of anythingforeign; 
intervention, interposition. 

" Places severed from tbe continent by the interrup- 
tion of the sea. 11 ffate : Orig. of Mankind, 

*i. Intermission; temporary cessation. 




"This way of thinking on what we read, will be a 

__iboulyithe beglnnluf 

familiar, it will be diapa 
terruption ' " 
(Toad.) 



rnb only in the beginning ; when custom has made it 
familiar, it will be dispatched without resting or in- 
terruption In the course of our reading." Locke. 



* In-ter-rup'-ttve ( a. [Eitg. interrupt; ~ive.} 
Tending to interrupt ; Interrupting. 



ruptive; -ly.] bo as to interrupt; by inter- 



pa 
tw 



in -ter-rup'- tlve-ljf, adv. [Eng. inter- 
"y-I 

ruptioo. 

* In-ter-soalxne', . [Fr., from Lat. inter- 
scalmium, from inter- = between, and scalmus- 
B an oar.] 

Antiq. : In ancient galleys that part of the 
side of the vessel included between two oars 
or rowlocks ; it contained about four feet. 

in ter scap'-u-lar. a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. scapular (q.v.).] 

Anal. : Situated between the shoulder 
blades. 

* In-ter-scgnd'-ent, o. [Lat. inter- = be- 
tween, and scandens, pr. par. of wndo = to 
climb.] 

Alg. : A term applied by Leibnitz to quan- 
tities when the exponents of their powers are 
radical : as, x >J 2, x -J a, from their holding a 
mean, as it were, between algebraicand trans- 
cendental quantities. 

* In-ter-scifnd', v.t. [Lat. interscindo, from 

inter- = between, amoug, and scindo *= to cut.] 
To cut off. 

* In-ter-Bcribe', v.t. [Lat. intertcribo, from 

inter- = between, among, and scribo = to 
write.] To write between. 

* In-ter-ae'-cant, a. [Lat. intersecans, pr. 
par. of intersect) : inter- = between, among, 
and seco = to cut] Cutting or dividing into 
parts ; crossing, intersecting. 

Xn-ter-sect', v.t. & i. [Lmt. intersectus t pa. 
ar. of intersect) = to Jcut apart : inter- be- 
ween, among, and seco = to cut.] 
A* Trans. : To cut into or between ; to cut 
across ; to cut mutually ; to divide into parts. 
" Where frequent hedgerowi interact rich fields 
Of many a different form and different hue, 
Bright with ripe corn." Scott l AmwtU. 

B. Intransitive : 

1. Ord. Lang. : To cut into each other; to 
meet and cross each other. 

" Did I say Its floor 
Waamada of foferMctfn? cedar beams?" 

Browning : SordeUo. bk. U. 

2. Geom.: To cut each other. Two lines 
are said to intersect when they cross each 
other, having a point in common. Two sur- 
faces intersect when they cut each other, 
having a line, or lines, in common. 

in-ter-sec'-tion, . [Lat. intersectio, from 
intersectus, pa. par. of interseco = to intersect 
(q.v.) ; Fr. intersection; Sp. interseccion; Ital. 
inter 'sezione.} 
I. Ordinary Language : 
L The act or state of intersecting; the state 
Of being intersected. 

"The intertection of the planes of the equator and 
elliptic." Kay : On the Creation, pt L 

* 2. A cutting up or dividing into parts. 
" Obstructed and embarrassed by the frequent inter - 
lection* of the sense which are the necessary effects of 
rhyme." Johnton : Life of Thornton. 
n. Geom. : The point or line in which two 
lines or planes cut each other. 

In-ter-sec'-tion-al, a. [Eng. intersection; 
-a/.] Pertaining to" or formed by an intersec- 
tion or intersections. 

* In-ter-Bem'-i(-nate, tU. [Lat intersemi- 
natus, pa. par. of intersemino ; inter- = be- 
tween, among, and semino=to sow; semen 
(genit. seminis) = a seed.] To sow between 
or among. 

* In-ter-sertf, v.t. [Lat intersertus, pa. par. 

of intersero : inter- = between, among, and 

ero= to sow, to plant] To put or set be- 

tween other things ; to insert, to interpolate. 

"If I may tntersert a short speculation, the depth of 

the sea ia determined in Pliny to be fifteen furlongs." 

Brereuood, (Todd.} 

* Jn-ter-er'-tlon, *. [Eng. intersert; -ion.] 
Something inserted or put In between or 
among other things ;;au insertion ; an interpo- 
lation. 

" They have some intcrtertioni which are plainly 
spurious."/?/'. Ball : A Defence of cAe Bumble Re. 



momeranc*. 



* Jn-ter-set, v.t. [Pref. infer-, and Eng. $el 
(q.v.).] To set, place, or put between or 
among. 

" He saw this barrier of dislike 
Thus intertet," Daniel : Civil Wart, Tilt M. 



* In ter Shock', v.t. [Fief, inter-, and Eng. 
s/wcA:(q i .v.).] To shock mutually or recipro- 

cally. 

" What dlscontentmenta will there still arise 
In such a camp of kings to tnterthock 
Each, other's greittueu. ' 

.' Chorvt in />fcOobu. 



t in-tdrn.i-der'-S-.A o. [Pref. inter-, and 

Eng. sidereal.] Situated between or among 
the stars ; interstellar. (Annanflale.') 

* in~ter-o'-cial (ci as sh), n . [Pref. i ntft .. 
and Eng. social (q.v.).] Pertaining to inter 
course or association ; social. 

* fo-ter-SO'm'-ni-OUS, a. [Lat. inter- = be- 
tween, and somnus = sleep.] Between sleep- 
ing and waking ; in an interval of wakefulnesa. 

* In-ter-sd"ur' t v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
sour (q.v.).] To mix with something sour. 

"And held back something from that full of sweet 
To tntertoitr unsure delight" demure. ** 

Daniel : Octavia to 31. Antonitu. 

in' -ter- space, s. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
space (q.v.).] Space between other things ; 
intervening space. 

"The lucid intertpaOf of world and world." 

Tennyton : Lucretiu*, 10*. 

* in'-ter-speech, *. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
speech (q.v.).] A speech inserted orinterposea 
between others. 

In-ter-sperse', v.t. [Lat. intersperse, pa. 
par. of interspergo ; inter- = between, among, 
and spergo = to scatter.] 

1. To scatter here and there amongst other 
things. 

"Ton should do well to intertperte among them 
some encharistical ejaculations and doxologtes." 
ffowetl : Letters, bk. 1L, let. 67. 

* 2. To diversify, to variegate ; to be scat- 
tered amongst 

" Oaks inlerspcrte it, that had once a head." 

Cvaper ; A tfeedleu Alarm. 

* 3. To diversify by scattering or disposing 
here and there amongst 

" Which space Is intertperted with small islands and 
rocks." Coo*: Third. Voyage, bk. Ui., oh. Til. 

* in-ter-sper'-slon, . [INTERSPERSE.] The 

act of interspersing or scattering here and 
there amongst other things ; the state of being 
interspersed. 

" These seutUnente have obtained almost In all age* 
and places, though not without intertpertion of certain 
corrupt addltameutc" Sale: Orig, of Mankind, p. 6'i. 

in tor-spin' al, a. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 



In tcr spi-nal'-es, 9. pi. [Hasc. & fern. pi. 
of Mod. Lat interspinalis =. between spines ; 
pref. inter-, and spinalis of or belonging to 
the spine.] 

Anat. : Muscles consisting of short vertical 
fasciculi of fleshy fibres placed in pairs be- 
tween the spinous processes of the contiguous 
vertebrae. 

in tcr -spin'- ous, in -tcr- spin' -al, & 

[Pref. inter- ; Eng. spine ; -ous, al. ] 

Anat. : Situated between the processes o< 
the spine. 

interspinons-ligaments, *. pL 
Anat. : Thin, somewhat membranous, liga- 
ments connecting the inferior border of on* 
spinous process with the superior border of 
that next below it. 

* In-ter-spl-ra'-tton, . [Lat inUrspiratto.) 
Inspiration between ; occasional inspiration. 

"What gracious respite are here, what favgunbs* 
intcrtpirations, as if Qud bade me to recollect myaeu. 
Bp. Hall : Satan'* fVery.Dart* Quenched, Dec. 2. 

In' ter- state, a. [Pref. inter-, and Eug. 
state (q.v.).] Between different states. 

In-ter-ster-lar, ln-ter-stel-lar-& a. 

[Lat inter- = between, and stella = a star ; FT. 

interstellaire.] Situated between or amongst 

the stars. 

" Comets an have, by a Injection through the ntber, 
for a long time wandered through the celestial or 
interstellar part of the universe. Boyla: Work, U 
870. 

bt-ter'-Stloe, . [Fr., from Lat interstitivm 

&n interval of space: inter- = between, 
among, and status a position ; Sp. inter- 
tticio; Ital. inttrstizio.} 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. A sice intervening between one tlitatf 
and another; especially a narrow or small 



ttfft, bo>; pdut, JoUrl; eat, 9011, chorus, ^hln, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, ^enophon, eylst. -ing. 
-dan, -tiaa = shan. -tlon, -ion = shun ; -(Ion, sion = zbun. -clous, -tious. -iou - shiia. -ble, -die. &c. - bel. dfU 



2716 



intersticed intervene 



pace between two tilings close together, or 
between the component parts of A body ; a 
crevice, a chink, a cranny. 

"For when the alary inttrntic* an filled, and M 

Each of the salt of the uhw u MW water wilt imbibe 
disioliml, there rem*ii a frro and Urnuna portion 
At the bottom." Brown* ; \\ufar AVrouri, bk. it., 
*.r. 

* 2. An interval of time between one act 
and another. . 

U The term is specifically applied to the 
Intervals which Roman canon-law requires 
should elapse between the reception of the 
various degrees of .orders. The Council of 
Trent (sess. 24, cap. xi.) recommends that 
Interstices should be observed even 'in confer- 
ring minor orders, but they are usually con- 
ferred at once. A full ecclesiastical year 
from Lent to Lent, or from Pentecost to 
Pentecost is required between minor orders 
and the subdiaconate, the subdiaconate and 
the diaconate, and the diaconate and the 
priesthood. 

"The member* of religious order* can be ordained 
In many CMM .... without observing tbe inttr- 
tticm. -Addii A Arnold : Cart. Met., p. 454. 

In-ter'-sti.jed, a, [Eng. interstice); -ed.] 
Having interstices or spaces between ; situated 
at intervals. 

Jn-ter-stlhc'-tive, a. fLat- intergtinct(us\ 
pa. par. of interstinguo = to diversify or varie- 
gate ; Eng. suff. -ive.J Distinguishing, dis- 
tinctive. 

" What care U taken of tbe Jnfrjfincttw point* t" 

WaUit, In Aubrey'* Anecdotet, i. 78. 

In ter-str-tlal (tt as sh), *ln-ter-stl- 
tlall, a. [Lat. interslilHum) ; Eng. adj. suir. 
aL] 

1. Physics, Anat., Ac.: Containing Inter- 
stices ; pertaining to interstices ; intermediate. 

" How many chasm* he would find of wide And con- 
tinued vacuity, and how many inlerttitial siiaoes un- 
nlled." om(or. No. 8. 

2. Path. : (See the compounds). 
Interstitial -absorption, s. 

Path. : Gradual absorption of tbe molecules 
of some part of the body. It is one of the re- 
sults of inflammation. It is seen In bone 
with obliteration and absorption, also in the 
granular contracted kidney, cirrhotic or 
gouty, and in the tissues of the liver and 
lungs. It precedes the extension of inflamma- 
tion to pus, as when an abscess points, when 
the pus is moving in a distinct course towards 
the mucous or cutaneous surface of the part 
fleeted, this resulting from interstitial ab- 
sorption of the tissues Involved. 

Interstitial hepatitis. . 

Path. : The same as CIRRHOSIS (q.T.% 

interstitial-organs, . pi. 

Anat. : Organs occupying the intermediate 
(paces between other organs, as the bladder 
which is situated in the abdomlno-pelvic 
eavity. 

interstitial pneumonia, t. 
Path. : The invasion of one or both lungs 
by a fibroid exudation. 

In-ter-stf ti iim (ti as shl), . [Lat] An 
interval of time. (INTERSTICE.] 

"Then wai an imtertitiitm or distance of seventy 
years between the destruction of Solomon's and erec- 
tion of Zorobabel's temple. 'Fuller: PtmA statu of 
Palatine, p. 28. 

^ Became ultimately naturalized in Eng- 
lish as interstice, though we should not say 
interstice but interval in the passage quoted 
above. (Trench : On Some Defects, p. 28.) 

In ter strat-I-fl-ca'-tlon, . [Pref. Inter-, 
and Eng. stratification.] 

Owl. : The state of being stratified between 
other strata ; the state of occupying a place 
between two other beds of different character. 

an-tor-strat-l-fied, o. [INTERSTRATIFT.] 

In-ter-strat'-K-fy. .(. * i. [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng. stratify (q.v.).] 

A. Trans. : To cause to occupy a position 
between or among other strata. 

B. Intrant. : To be stratified between other 
beds or layers. 

In-ter-taixt', * in ter-tatn -ment, &c. 

[See under KN.) 

In-ter-talk' (I silent), e.l. [Pref. inter., 
and Eng. talk (q.v.).] To exchange conver- 
sation ; to talk, to converse. 

" Love and my sighs thus intertatked." 

Care*: Enquiry. 



ln-ter tan-gle, t>.<- [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. tangle (q.v.).] To entangle ; to bind one 
with another ; to interlace. 

" The one of the other may be laid to water 
Their intvrtangled roots of love." 

t net. : Too Habit Kinlmen, L . 



* In-ter-tejc 1 , .fc [La*, intertexo, from inter- 

- between, among, and teat to weave.] To 
interweave, to intertwine. 

" Green leave* of burdocks and Me Intertexvd and 
woven together." MM. Don Quixote (16:6). to. 18. 
<JVar)* 

* In-ter-tex'-ture, . [Pref. infer-, and Eng. 
texture (q.v.).] The act of interweaving; the 
state of things interwoven; that which is 
interwoven. 

" Skirted thick with Intertertur, Una 
Of thorny boughs." Cvtoper : Toek, till. 

in'-ter-tie, t. [Pret inter-, and Eng. rto(q.v.).] 
Carpentry : 

1. A horizontal timber framed between two 
posts. 

2. A binding joist 

* In ter- tlss'-ued (as as sh), a. [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng. tissued (q.v.).] Interwoven, varie- 

gated. 

" The Intern*** robe of itold and pearl." 

Shakily. : fffnrg K.. Iv. 1. 

* In'-ter-traf-f Ic, . [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
traffic (q.v.).] Traffic Between two persons, 
places, or peoples. 

* In-ter-trif -Wo, in-ter-traf -flcke. 

t'.i. [iNTKKTHAFKic, .] To trade together. 

" And intertrafflcke with them, tunne for tunne. 
Daviee ; Jftcrocotmvi, p. eL 

* In-ter-tran-splo'-u-ous, a. [Pref. inter-, 
and Eng. transpicuous (q.v.).] Transpicuous 
between. 

In-ter-trans ver-sa--les, . pi. [Masc. & 
fern. pi. of Mod. Lat intertransvtrmlu ; pref. 
inter-, and transversus = turned across ; trans- 
verto = to turn across : (rant- = across, and 
verto to turn.] 

Anat. : Short muscles passing almost verti- 
cally from vertebra to vertebra between the 
transverse processes. 

In ter-trans -verse, a. [INTERTRANSVIE- 

SALES.J 

Anat. : (See tbe compound). 
Intel-transverse ligaments, . pi, 

Anat. : Unimportant bands extending be- 
tween the transverse processes. 

In ter-trS chan'-ter-Ic, a. [Pref. inter-; 
Eng., &c. trochanter, and suff. -ic.] 

Anat. : Between the two trochanters of the 
femur : as, the anterior and the posterior in- 
tertrochanteric line. 

Jn-ter-tr8p'-Ic-al, o. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. tropical (q.v.).]] Situated within or be- 
tween the tropics. 

* in-ter-turb'-ijr, . [Lat inter- - between, 
among, and turbo = to disturb.] A disturber. 

"An InUrturber of the peace.' Benrf rill. : To 
Wiatt, May, 1538. 

In-ter-twine', v.t. A i. [Pret Inter., and 
Eng. twine (q.v.).] 

A. Tram. : To unite by turning or twisting 
together; to Intertwist, to interweave, to 
interlace. 

"Under some concourse of hades, 
Whose branching arms thick intertwined might shield 
From dews.' JtUton : P. A, Iv. 406. 

S. Intrant. : To twine together; to be 
interwoven or Interlaced. 

" Bricks line the sides, but shivered Ion? ago, 
And horrid bramble* intertwine below. 

Ca*i*r: Seedlea Alarm. 

t In'- tear- twine, . [INTERTWINE, .] A 
mutual or reciprocal twining or winding ; an 

interweaving. 

"TO 
Such intertvine beseems triumphal wreatha" 

Catenae t: To WonUmrth. 

In-ter-twm'-ing, pr. par., a., & . (I"- 

TERTWINE, V.] 

A. & B. A$ pr. par. <f particip. ad}. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As subst. : The act of twining or twisting 
together; the state of being intertwined or 
interwoven. 

IB- 
Mi 

twined. 



ter-twin'-lng-iy, adv. (Eng. int 
fining; -ly.] By intertwining or being int 



infer- 

:er- 



In -tor-twist, v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
twist (q.v.).] To unite by twisting together ; 
to Intertwine, to interlace. 

" Ye with yoor tongh Mid tnttrtwiittd roota. 
Grasp the firm rocks." Maton : Caractoem. 

" in -ter -twist -Ing, pr. par., o., & . [I- 

TERTWI8T.J 

A. & B. At pr, par. it particip. adj. : (8e 
the verb), 

C. As ntiut. : The act of twisting or twining 
together ; the state of being intertwisted. 

In-ter-twisf -Ing-lft adv. [Eng. inter 
twisting; -ly.\ By intertwisting or being iu 
tertwisted. 

In'-tSr-val (1), In-ter-vall, s. [Fr. inter- 
nolle, from lit intermllum = the space be- 
tween the rampart and the soldiers' tents 
inter- = between, among, and vallum = * 
rampart) 
L Ordinary Language ; 

1. Space between two things ; space or dis- 
tance intervening between any two objects; 
Intermediate space or distance. 

" TwUt host and host but narrow space was left, 
A dreadful tnurfal." MUton : P. t.. vl. lot. 

2. A space of time between two points ot 
events ; intervening or intermediate time. 

"The interval between the demise of the Crown and 
the meeting of 1'arliameut.'' J/acuu/av ; UuL. Ena^ 
oh. Iv. 

3. The space of time between attacks of 
disease, pain, or delirium ; remission. 

It U the sleep of the spirit . . . with lucid lnut~ 
i'Cdrrtda*: TaUt Talk, Hay 1, 1830. 



IL Music: The distance between any two 
sounds. Intervals when confined within the 
octave are simple, when they exceed It they 
are compound. The interval of a whole tone, 
as from o to D, Is called a second, of a whole 
tone and a semitone, as from c to Eb a minor 
third, &c. 

V At intervals : From time to time ; inter- 
mittently. 

14 Miriam watched and dosed at Intmali* 

TennytoH .' JfnocA A i-tifn, tot. 

IT Every respite requires an interval; but 
there are many intermit where there is no 
respite. The interval respects time only: 
rnrptte Includes the Idea of action within that 
time which may be more or less agreeable : 
intervals of ease are a respite to one who ii 
oppressed with labour ; the interval which ic 
sometimes granted to a criminal before hi* 
execution U in the properest sense a respite. 
(Crabb: Eng.Synon.) 

In' - ter -val (2), In' -ter -vale, . [Etym. 
doubtful; probably from pref. inter-, and volt,} 
A tract of low or plain ground between hills or 
along the banka of rivers. (American,) 

* in'-tSr-TaL "In'-tSr-vall, ... [im* 
VAL (1), >.] To come between. 

"If olondado<nfrvfiR, Apolloas taos 
Is but a figured aliape.' 

J. Tailor: World (ed. lex). Ma. 

" In-ter-var-lum (pU In-tor-val -la), . 
[Lat] An interval (q.v.). 

"If they should bar. tbe nood fortune to be taken 
away In one of these iittervalla." CWlingwort* : 
Prlnc. Sermon*, p. IL 

* itn-ter-var'-J, v.t. fPref. Inter-, and Eng. 
vary (q.v.).] To alter or vary between ; to 
changa. 

Jn-teY-velned' (el as a), a. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. veined (q.v.).] Intersected as with veins. 



" Fair champaign, with lees riven i. 

Milton : P. X.. 111. W. 

In-ter-vene', .t & I. [Pr. idterwnir, from 
Lat. intermtto = to come between: inter 
between, and venio = to come ; Sp. intervenir ; 
Ital. inferwutre.) 
A* Intransitive: 
L Ordinary language : 

1. To come or be situated between persons 
or things ; to be interposed : as, Hills intervene 
between two valleys. 

2. To occnr, fall, or come between points or 
time, or events. 

" Many things may intervene betwixt this engage- 
ment by promise, and that full and cnmtileat solemol- 
sation. Bp. Sail : Cat* of Comettnot, Itec. IT., a 4. 

3. To pass between. 

"What wonder If so near 
Looks Intervene.- Milton : 1: L.. Iz. m. 

4. To happen, occur, or break In so as to in- 
terrupt, disturb, or cross. 

"[God) may be fear'd amidst the busiest scenes, 
Orscoru'd where business BavfWsVstfrMfsat, 

Cotfper: Jtetirement. 1st. 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wot, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or. wore. wolf. work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, se, ce = e; ey = a. qu = kw. 



intervene intestine 



2717 



5. To Interpose between parties at variance. 
" The mediators desired b- both parties to intervene 
. . for the better composing of any dhtereno*." 
Templet To Lord Arlington, March 22, 1668. 

H. Law: To interpose and become a party 
to a suit between other parties: as, The 
Queen's Proctor intervenes in a divorce case. 

* B. Trans. : To lie or be situated between ; 
to divide ; to come between. 

In tcr vcne, . [INTERVENE, v.] A coming 
or meeting together ; intervention. 

"They had some sharper and some milder differences 
which might easily happen in such an intervene of 
grandees.' Wotton. 

' In-ter-ven'-er, J. [Eng. intervene); -er.] 
One who intervenes ; specif, in law, one who 
intervenes in a suit to which hewas not origin- 
ally a party. 

In-ter-ve'-nl-en9e, . [Lat. internment, 
pr. par. of intervenio = to intervene (q.v.).] 
The act or state of intervening or coming in 
between ; intervention. 

in-ter-ve'-nl-ent, a. [Lat. intenenient, 
pr. jiar. of intervenio ~ to intervene (q.v.).J 
Coming or passing between ; intervening ; in- 
terposed. 

" By an intervenient power discharged from bis ob- 
ligation to obey." Uouth : Sermont. vol. Til., ser. 6. 

In-ter-ve'-nl-ilm, s. [Lat. = the space be- 
tween the veins ; inter- - between, and vena 
= a blood-vessel, a vein.] 

Bot. : The name given by the old botanists, 
and adopted by Lindley for the area of paren- 
chyma lying between two or more veins or 
veinlets. 

In-tor-ventf, v.t. [Lat inter- = between, 
among, and ventnm, sup. of venio = to come.] 
To come in the way of ; to obstruct ; to thwart. 

"Whose purpose bis command by Iris given 
Doth intervene" Chapman: Bomer ; Iliad Till 

ln-ter-v8TJ.'-tlon, . I FT-, from Lat inter- 
ventionem, accus. of interventio = a coming be- 
tween, from inlervenio = to come between, to 
intervene (q.v.); Sp. intervention ; ItaL infer- 
vennone.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of intervening orcoming between 
persons or things ; agency of persons between 
persons ; interposition ; mediation ; interfer- 
ence in the interests of others. 

2. The state of being interposed or set be- 
tween persons or things ; interposition. 

" Sound is shut out by the intervention of that lax 
membrane, and not suffered to pass into the inward 
ar." Bolder ; On Speech. 

IJ. law: The act of a third party In inter- 
vening and becoming a party to a suit between 
others. 
in tor von' tioii 1st, . 

1. Ord.Ia.ng.: One who advocates Interven- 
tion. 

2. Wed.: OnewhofavorsHmited Interference 
with the course of a disease rather than leaving 
the patieutUo nature. 

Kn-ter-vSnV-or, . [Lat] One who Inter- 
venes or interposes ; a mediator ; specif., a per- 
son appointed by a church to reconcile parties, 
and unite them in the choice of officers. 

in ter-ven'-ue, . [INTERVENE, v.] Inter- 
vention ; interposition. 

Kn-ter-verf , v.t. [Fr. tntervertir, from Lat. 
interixrto = to turn aside ; verto to turn.) 
To turn to another course or use. 

In-ter-ver'-tS-bral, o. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. vertebral.} 

Anat. : Between the vertebrae : as, interver- 
tebral discs, intervertebral foramina, 

Inti -vertebral discs, s. pi. 

Anat.: Elastic plates, outwardly flbro- 
laminar, inwardly pulpy, placed between the 
bodies of the vertebrae, from the axis to the 
sacrum 

Intervertebral foramina, . pi 

Anat. : A series of rounded apertures be- 
tween the vertebras through which the spinal 
nerves and blood-vessels pass oft 

In'-ter-view (lew as u), s. tO. Fr. entreveu, 
pa. par. of entrevoir = to visit ; Fr, entrevue.] 
1. Gen. : A meeting between two persons 
face to face ; generally a formal meeting for 
the consideration of some important business ; 
a conference. 



2. Specially: 

(1) A formal meeting between some person 
of note or notoriety and a press representa- 
tive, in order that the hitter may gather infor- 
mation and impart it to the public. 

'"I asked Mr. Fowler to put that question,' said Mr. 
White to the representative of the Pall Mall Gazette 
in a recent interview." Pali Mall Oatette, July 81, 
1884. 

(2) The opinion elicited or the information 
imparted at such a meeting. 

" Some were even absurd enough to imagine that he 
paid for the insertion of his interview in solid cash." 
fall itall Vauftte, July 31. 1884. 

t The special sense of interview, s. & ., and 
interviewer, as well as the practice itself, is of 
American origin. 

fei'-ter-vlew (lew as u), .. [INTERVIEW, s.] 

1. To visit or wait upon for the purpose of 
having an interview with, generally for the pur- 
pose of extracting information for publication. 

"Not long ago I was asked to interview a statesman 
here." Weekly Diipatdt, Aug. 81, 1884. 

2. To grant an interview to. 

In'-ter-view-er (lew as u), s. [Eng. inter, 
view; -r.J One who interviews; specif., a 



i purpose 
publication. 

" Quite right, sir. there is no person like the inter. 
viewer." Pall Mall Otuette, Sept 5, 1884. 

In'-ter-vle w-lng (lew as u), s. [Eng. inter- 
view; -ing.} The practice of gathering infor- 
mation from public persons, in order to im- 
part it to the world through the press. 

" Interviewing is an admirable system for creating 
false impressions, or no impressions at all.' Weekly 
Diipatch, Aug. 31, 1384. 

In-ter-vls'-I-ble, o. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
risible (q v.).] 

Surv. : Mutually visible ; able to be seen the 
one from the other ; said of stations. 

* fci-ter-vls'-st, v.l. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
visit (q.v.).] To exchange visits ; to pay visits, 
each to the other. 

" Here we trifled, and bathed, and interallied with 
the company." Evelyn : Diary June 27, 1654. 

* in-ter-vls'-it, . [INTEHVISIT, v.] An in- 
termediate visit. 

* fax-ter-vi'-tal, o. [Lat. inter- = between, 
and vita = life*.] Between two lives ; applied 
to the intermediate state between death and 
the resurrection. 

"Through all its intervital gloom." 

Tennyton : In Semariam, xlii S. 

* Xn-ter-vO'-lu'-tloia, s. [Lat. intervolvtus, 
pa. par. of intervolvo : inter- = between, and 
volvo = to roll.) The quality or state of being 
intervolved. 

" In-ter-v81ve', v.t. [Lat. intervolvo : Inter 
= between, and volvo = to roll.) To roll be- 
tween or among ; to involve or wind one 
within the other. 

" Then the sly serpent. In the golden flam* 
Of his own volumes intervolved." 

Shelley: Witch of Jtku, TL 

Kn-ter weave', J. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
weave (q.v.).] 

1. To weave together ; to intermix by weav- 
ing together, so as to combine in the same tex- 
ture or construction ; to intermingle, as though 
by weaving ; to intertwine, to interlace. 

"Her dewy locks with various Sowers new blown 
She interwttipfi, various, and alt her own." 

Cowper : Approach of Spring. (Trans.) 

2. To intermix ; to connect closely or inti- 
mately. 

"A despotic principle which happened fortunately 
to be interwoven in its constitution. Beattit : Moral 
Science*, pt iii., oh. U.. ! 2. 

In-ter-wtoh', v.t. [Pref. inter-, and Eng. wish 
(q.v.).] To wish mutually to each other. 
" The venom of all stepdaraes. gamester's gall, 
What tyrants and their subjects intervnth, 
All ill fall on that man." Donne : The Curte. 

"In-ter-work'-lniS, . [Pref. inter, and Eng. 
working (n.v.).] Mutual, reciprocal, or joint 
working ; a working together. 

"What interweavingsor fnf erworjtin^i can knit the 
minister and the magistrate?" Milton: Reformation 
in Upland, bk. ii. 

In'-ter-world, > [Pref. inter-, and Eng. 
world (q.v.).] A world between or among 
other worlds. 

" Imaginary intenoorldt and spaces between."/ 1 . 
Holland : Plutarch, p. 840. 



* In-ter-wdund', v.t. [Pref. inter-, and En*. 

wound (q.v.).] To wound mutually. 

" Hence tnlenftmndinff controversies spring." 

lianiel: Munphil**. 

In tir-wov -en, fa-ter-wove', pa. par. at 

a. [INTERWEAVE.] 

* in-ter-wreathe', v.t. [Pref. inter-, and 
Eng. wreathe (q.v.).] To weave into a wreath; 
to intertwine, to interweave. 

" Say, happy youth, crowu'd with a heav'nly ray 
Of the first flame, and Interwrea1he.<l bay. 

Lovelace : Ptnthuma, pt. 11 

* In test'-a-ble, a. [Lat. intestabilis = not 
capable of making a will : in- not, and testa- 
liUis = capable of making a will, from testatus, 
pa. par. of testor = to be a witness, to make a 
will; feat's a witness.) Incompetent to 
make a will ; not legally qualified to make a 
will. 

" Such persons, as are intertable for want of liberty 
or freedom of will, are by the civil law of various 
kinds ; as prisoners, captives, and the like. But the 
law of England does not make such persons absolutely 
inteitable, Blactatone : Comment., bk. 11., ch. 83. 

In-tSst'-9k-^, 8. [Eng. intesta(te) ; -cy.] The 
quality or state of being intestate ; the sUU 
of dying without having made a will. 

" In case of intettacy. the ordinary shall depute th* 
nearest and most lawful friends of the deceased to ad. 
minister his goods." Slaciatone : Comment., bk " 
ch.32. 

in-test'-ate, a. k >. [Lat. inttstatui, from . 
= not, and testatus = having made a will, psx 
par. of tester = to make a will; Fr. inttstal ; 
Ital. intestate; Sp. intestado.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Dying without having made a will. 

" In case a person made no disposition of his goods 
as were testable, whether that were only part or tbs 
whole of them, he was, and is, said to die wtntatt." 
Blackttone: Comment., bk. 11., ch. 32. 

2. Not disposed of by will ; not devised o* 
bequeathed : as, an intestate estate. 

B. As subst. : A person who dies without 
having made a will. 

In-teV-ti-na, s. pi. [Lat. = the entrails, neul 
pi. of intestinua = inward, internal ; intut 
within.) 

Zoo!. : Intestinal Worms ; in Cuvier'g = 
rangement a class of Zoophytes, called b 
Rudolphi Entozoa. It contains the Intestinal 
Worms. They were divided into two orders : 

(1) Cavitaria, called by Rudolphi Nematoidea; 

(2) Parenchymata. The class has been broken 
up and redistributed. 

In tes'-a-nal, a. [Eng. intestine); -oil 

1. Lit. it Anat. : Of or belonging to the In- 
testines. 

" It is confounded with the intestinal excretions ansl 
egestions of the belly." flrom .- Yniaar Xmun, 
bk. lit., ch. lUL 

2. Fig. : Domestic, not foreign. 
Intestinal canal, s. 
Anat. : The same as INTESTIN*. 
Intestinal-Juice, . 

Anat. : Siiccus entericia, an alkaline secreted, 
by the intestines. 

intestinal- worms, . pi. 

Zool. : The English name for Cuvier's In- 

testina. 

in tes-ti-na^li-a, . pi. [Nent. pi. of Mod. 
Lat. intestinalia, from intestina (q.v.).] 

Zool. : A name sometimes given to Cuvier** 
Intestina. 

in tcs -tine, o. * . [Fr. intestin, from Lat 
inUstinus = inward, from intia within ; 
Ital. 4i 8p. intestinal.} 

A. As adjective: 

*1. Internal, inward ; contained or existing 
within, as within the body. 

" Intettin* stone, and ulcer, cholick pangs 
And moon-struck madness. Milton : P. L., xt. 481 
2. Internal, with regard to a country o* 
nation ; domestic, not foreign. 

"The succeeding sword of intettine wu.' Milton f 
Qf Reform, in England, bk. 11. 

* 3. Innate, inner ; depending on the inter- 
nal constitution. 

" Bverything labours under an rMeuttu Mcessity." 
Cvdworth. 

* 4. Shut up or inclosed ; contained. 

" It sleeps : and the Icy touch 
Of unprolinc winter has impressed 
A cold stagnation on the intettine tide. 

Cowper : Talk, vl. IM 

B. As subst. (PI.): The guts the entrails; 
the portion of the digestive apparatus inferior 



ptiut, Jrfwl; oat, oell, chorus, 9hln, bench; go, gem; thin, ^hla; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph - t, 
-olan, -tlan = shan. tion, -slon = shun ; -{Ion, -sum = zhun. -cious, -tions, -slous = shus. -We, -die, *c. = bel, del. 



2718 



intexine intolerant 



In petition to the stomach. The intestines 
consist of three coats, an outer one (the peri- 
toneum), an inner or mucous membrane, and 
an intermediate muscular coat There are two 
intestines, the law and the small one. The 
large intestine extends from the termination 
of the ileum to the anus. It is about five or 
six feet long, or about one-fifth that of the 
Intestinal canal Its diameter Is from two 
and a half inches to an inch and a half. It is 
divided into the cecmn, with its vermiform 
appendix, the colon, and the rectum. The 
mall intestine commences at the pylorus, 
winds into many convolutions, and terminates 
In the large intestine. In the adult it is 
about twenty feet in length. It is arbitrarily 
divided into three parts viz., the duodenum, 
the .jejunum, and the ileum. It constitutes 
four-fifths of the whole intestines, the larger 
making up the other fifth. They are used to 
aid In assimilating the food after digestion, 
and convey forward the excrement! tio us 
matter. 

"The different length of " the intetttnet In carnl- 
Torons and herbivorous animals ha* been noticed on a 
former none ill in " Pafrjr : Jfatural Ptntioeoptty, ch. 
ni.. |4. 

in tex -Ine, *. [Bug. inline), eae(tine\ and 

sutT. -ine.} 

Bot. : The name given by Fritzche to the 
fourth coating in the pollen of Clarkia elegant 
and some other Onagraceee. It is next the 
extinc or outer crust, and above the inline or 
inner lining. 

* In'-text, s. [Pref. in-, and Eng. text.] The 
contents. 

"I had a book which none 
Could mule the intezt but myself aJone." 

Jforrfc*: Betperidm. 

* in-teV-ture, v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. 
texture (q.v.).] To work in, to weave In, to 

Interweave. 

* in-thirst, v.t. [Pref. in- (intens,), and Eng. 
thirst (q.v.)t] To make thirsty. 

" Using our pleasure a* the traveller doth water, not 
M the drunkard <loea wine, whereby he is iuflaraedaud 
tntkirttfd the more." Bp. Hall: Chrutian Modera- 
tion, bit, L, i 8. 

In thral , * in -thrall'. In thral-ment. 
[See ENTHRALL, ENTHRALMENT.] 

In thro ne, &c. [See ENTHRONE, Ac.) 

* in-ti9O , tc. [See ENTICE, &c.J 

In'-tJ-ma-cjf, s. [Eng. intimate 0), a.; -cy.] 
The quality or state of being intimate ; close 

familiarity or fellowship. 

"Tt*t peculiar friendliness, intimacy, and famili- 
arity, with which the Romanists visit the Noncon- 
tonnista." South: Sermont, vol. L, ear. L 

In tl mate (1), a. & . [Lat. intimns = inner- 
most, super, of interns = within ; Fr. infirm.] 
A* As adjective ; 

* 1. Internal, inward ; arising or proceeding 
from within. 

"I knew 

From in'imute impulse, aud therefore urged 
The marriage on." Milton : Samton Agonittei, 223. 

* 2. Near, close. 

"'To have au intimaUmoA speaking help, a ready and 
striving associate in marriage." Milton Doct, Jt /Ate. 
* Divorce, bit. L. ch. iv. 

8. Closely acquainted ; close in friendship 
or fellowship ; closely familiar. 

4. Close, very fall, complete, familiar. 

41 It Is no wonder that my intimate acquaintance 
with these specimens of the kind has taught me to 
hold the sportsman's amusement In abhorrence." 
Cowtier: Treatment of hit Harts. 

* B. As siibst. : One who is closely acquainted 
or familiar with another ; a familiar friend or 
associate. 

" An intimate whose Intellect as rnutfh corresponded 
with his as did the outward form." Government of 
the Tony UK, 

In -tl-mate, v.t. & i. [Fr. intimer; 8p. & Port. 
intinuir; Ital. intimarc.] [INTIMATI-; (2), a.] 
A* Transitive: 

* 1. To hint ; to Indicate Indirectly or ob- 
curely ; to suggest ; to point in the direction 
of. 

"Thenceforth to her he sought to intimate 
His iuwarde gnefe," Spenter : f. .. III. U. . 

2. To make known, to announce. 

" He Incontinent dyd proclayme and intimate open 
warre agaynat the Kvng of England, with blud, fire, 
and sweard." Sail : Henry /I", (an, l). 

B. Intrans. : To signify, to hint, to indicate. 

* In'-tl-mate (2), a. [Lat. iittimatus, pa. par. 
of intimo= to bring within, to announce, from 



intimiis = innermost.] Made known, Inti- 
mated, declared. 

" That their enterpryse was intimate aud published 
to the kyug." Hall . Henry I >'. (au. U- 

in -ti-mate-ly, adv. [Eng. intimate (1); -ly.} 

1. Closely ; with close intermixture of parts. 

"Mixing it intimately with the parU of the fluid to 
which itu to be aseimUated." Arbuthnot : On AH- 
menu. 

2. Nearly, inseparably, closely. 

" Quality, as it regards the mind has It* rise from 
knowledge and virtue, and is that which Is more essen- 
tial to us, and more intimately united with us." 
Adduon : Spectator. 

3. Familiarly ; in close fellowship or friend- 
ship. 

" The late Mr. Tjren, who knew Or. Johnson tnti- 
mately, observed, that he always talked as if he was 
talking upon oath." Murphy : Life * Geniut f Dr. 



in-tl-ma'-tion, . [Fr., from Lat. intlma- 
tionem, ace. of intimatio an announcing, 
from intimatus, pa. par. of intiwo = to inti- 
mate (q.v.).] 

1. The act of Intimating, hinting, or indi- 
cating. 

"The intimation of sondry virtues, whlche be by 
them represented." Sir T. Klyot: The Oooernour. bk. 
L,ch.xxL 

2. A hint; an indirect announcement or 
suggestion. 

"With. .i:t mentioning the King of England, or 

Svlng the lejua intimation that be was sent by him, 
II he onoo discovered their opinions." Unmet: JJiit. 
Beform, (an. 1630). 

3. An explicit announcement or declaration. 

"[The Consuls] caused the Latin* feasts and bolt- 
dales to be published . . . ith an intimation that 
they would goe straight Into their province," 
P. Holland: LMut, p. 1.131. 

In' time, a. [0. Fr., from Lat intimut = 

innermost.] 

1. Inward, Internal. 

2. Intimate, close. 

" To the composition or dissolution of mixed bodies, 
which is the chief work of elements, and requires an 
ititime application of the ageut*," Diffbg On Bodiet, 
eh. r.. i 8. 

In-tim'-I-date, v.t. [Low Lat. intimidate*, 

pa. par. of intimido = to frighten, from in- 
(Intens.), and timidus = timid ; Fr. intimider.] 
To frighten ; to make fearful ; to inspire with 
fear ; to dishearten ; to make cowardly ; to 
cow. 

" Why do Te quake, intimidated throne* ? " 

Wordnporthi Jfecursjod, bk. viL 
IT For the difference between to intivtidate 

and to frighten, see FRIGHTEN. 

Xn-tim-I da-tion. s. [Fr.] The act of In- 
timidating or making fearful ; the state of 
being intimidated ; specif., the influence used 
by landlords and employers over tenants and 
employes in public elections, and the deterring 
of workmen from their work by threats. 

"The king carried his measures In parliament by 
intimidation." faley : Moral J>AUosopAy, bk. vL. 

ci.. .;. 

In-tlxn'-I-da-tor-y, a. [Eng. iniimidat<t) ; 
-ory.] Causing or tending to cause intimida- 
tion. 

' In-ttno'-tion, *. [Lat. intinetio, from in- 
tinctu* t pa. par. of intingv.} 

1. Ord. Lang. : The act or process of dyeing. 

2. Ritual * Church. History: One of the 
methods by which the sacrament of the Eu- 
charist is administered to the laity of the 
Eastern Church by breaking the consecrated 
bread into the consecrated wine, and giving 
the two elements to each communicant In a 
spoon. It is doubtful whether the practice 
was general in early Christian times. (For its 
probable origin see extract.) Intinction was 
formally condemned by the third Council of 
Braga (A.D. 675), point being added to the 
condemnation by the remark that Judas is the 
only example in the Gospel of communion by 
intinction; by Pope Urban II. (A.D. 1088-99) 
and his successor, and by the Convocation of 
Canterbury (A.D. 1175). 

" The practice forbidden seems to have been as much 
the consumption of the superabunoaut element* . . . 
as that of intinction." JfClintoct A Strong : Cyclop. 
Bibl.,*e. f Ut.. fv. 629. 

* In-tino-tiV-I-t?, s. [Lat. in- = not, and 
ttnctus, pa. par. of tingo = to dye.) The ab- 
sence or want of the quality of dyeing or 
tingeing other bodies. 

In'-tlne, 5. [Lat. intfys) = within, and sun*. 
-int.] 
Bot. : An Inner membrane surrounding the 



pollen grain, the protrusion of which consti- 
tutes tin: pollen-till*:. 

"In-tirtf, * in-tire-l*. &c. (See ENTIRE, 
to.) 

*fal-ti'-tle, T.(. [ENTITLE.] 

In tit -uled, a. [Lat. t; talus = a title.] 

1. Having a name or title ; entitled ; a term 
used in Acts of Parliament. 

* 2. Having a claim. 

" Beautr in that white intitvltd 
From Venus' doves duth challenge tlmt fnfr field." 
Shaket)., : Kape of Lucrece. ST. 

in' -to, prep. [A.S. in, and to.] A I'lvi'osition 
denoting passage, motion, or change inwiiids. 
Thus it is used ; 

1. Of motion or direction towards the in- 
terior of a place, with such verbs as oome, 
go, throw, look, fiy, push, Ac. 

"Go tell my brethren that they go into Galilee. " 
Matthew xxrill. 10. 

2. Of motion towards the interior of a body 
or substance, with such verbs as fall, sink, Ac. 

"Acrid substances, which paas into the capillary 
tubes, must Irritate them Into greater contraction," 
Arbutknott On Aliment*. 

3. Of entrance into the heart or mind. 

" How much more may education, being a constant 
plight and Inurement, induce by custom good habit* 
into a reasonable creature ? " H'otton. (Toad. ) 

4. Of penetration or research which is more 
than superficial : as. To inquire into a matter. 

& Of inclusion or comprehension. 

"They have denominated some herbs solar aud some 
lunar, and such like toys put info great words." 
Mem. \Toad.) 

6. Of a new state into which anything is 
brought ; of a change of condition ; used with 
such verbs as fall, lead, bring, change, con- 
vert, grow, &c. : as, To fall into a fever ; to 
lead into bad habits, &c. 

t ln-t5l-er-a-bH'-X-ty, *. [Eng. intolerable; 
ity.] Excessive badness. 

"The goodne** of your true pun is In the direct 
ratio of TU intQUrabUity.". A. Foe; Marginalia, 
{In trod.) 

In t6T-er-a~ble, * in tl Icr a-ble, a. 

[Fr. intolerable, from Lat. intolerabilis t from 
in.- = not, and tolerabilis = that can be borne, 
tolerable (q.v.); 8p. intolerable; Ital. intol- 
Itrabile.] 

I. Not tolerable ; that cannot be tolerated 
or endured ; insufferable ; unendurable ; too 
great to be endured. 

** Not always frotn intolerable pangs 
He fled." Word*, 'h : Xxcurtion, bk. 111. 

* 2. Enormous, monstrous. 

" Ooe half-pennyworth of bread to this intolerable 
deal of -Mlc." ShaJtetp. : 1 Henry 1 V.. 11.^4. 

in-tol-er a-ble-nes, . [Eng. intolerable; 
-ness.] Th'e quality or state of being in- 
tolerable. 

Xn-ti>r-er-a-bl& adv. [Eng. intolerable); 
ly.] In an intolerable manner or degree ; to 
an Intolerable degree or extent ; beyond en- 
durance. 

"The weather was intolerably hot." Cook; Pint 
Voyage, bk. L. ch. U. 

ln-tda'->r-an$e, . [Fr., from Lat. intolemn- 
tia, from intolerant = that cannot bear.] [Iv- 

TOLERAMT.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. The quality or state of being intolerant ; 
want of patience or forbearance; indisposition 
to tolerate the existence or spread of any- 
thing opposed to one's own opinions. 

" Carrying the intolerance of the tonjrue and of th* 
pea Into a persecution." Burke : French Revolution, 

2. Want of capacity or power to endure ; 
non-endurance : as, the intolerance of cold or 
heat. 

IL Relig. : Refusal to tolerate a faith dif- 
ferent from one's own. Most religions advo- 
cate toleration while they are feeble and be- 
come intolerant when they are powerful 
Though most governments are more or less 
Intolerant, yet genuine statesmen have in 
every age instinctively tended towards toler- 
ance as the most successful method of dealing 
with contending faiths. 

Xn-t$l'-er-an-$y, . [Eng. intolerance); 
-y.] The same as INTOLERANCE (q.v.). 

In-tol'-er-ant, a. & . [Fr., from Lat. in- 
tolerant = "not able to endure : in- = not, and 
tolerant, pr. par. of tolero = to endure, to 
tolerate (q.v.); Sp. intolerante; ItaL intol' 
lerante.] 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, air, marine; go, poi, 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, fall ; try, Syrian, ee, 09 = e ; ey = a. an = lew. 



intolerantly intransitive 



A. As adjective: 

L Nut enduring ; not able to endure. (Fol- 
lowed by of.) 

" The powers of human bodies being limited and in- 

tolerant ./ excesses." ArbwkHot. 

2. Not enduring or allowing difference of 
opinion, teaching, or worship! unwilling or 
refusing to allow toothers freedom of speech, 
choice, or act inn In opinions, doctrines, or 
worship ; bigoted. 

" Religion, harsh, intolerant, austere." 

Cowper: Table Talk, li 

B. As sitbst. : One who will not allow to 
others freedom of speech, choice or action in 
opinions, doctrines or worship ; a bigot. 

" You mijlit a* well have concluded that I wan a 
Jew, or ji Bihometan. M an intolerant and a perse- 
cutor." Loath : Lfttt-rt to Warburton, p. 62. 

in-toT-er-ant-1^, adv. [Eng. intolerant ; 
-ly.] In fttt intolernnt manner. 

11 in toT-er at-mg, a. [Pref. in- (2), and 

Eug. tolerate (q.v.)7) Intolerant. 

"Experienced this integrating spirit" Shaftc*. 
bury: Jlisccll. Reflection* ; Miscell. ii., cil. ii. 

t fcl-tol-er-a'-tlon, . [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. toleration (q.v.).] Want of toleration; 
intolerance; refusal or unwillingness to toler- 
ate others in their opinions or worship. 

* In tomto' (& silent), v.t. [ENTOMB.] 

* In -ton-ate (1), v.i. [Lat. intonatum, sup. 
of intono : in- (iutens.), andto/io = to thunder.] 
To thunder. 

* In -ton-ate (2), v.i. & t. [Low Lat. intona- 
turn, sup. of intono; in- = in, and tonus = a 
tone, a note.] 

A* Intransitive : 

1. To sound the notes of the musical scale. 

2. To pronounce in a musical manner ; to 
intone. 

B. Trans. : To intone, to chant. 

* In-tdn-a'-tlon (I), s. [Lat. intonatus, pa. 
par. of intono = to thunder.] The act or state 
of thundering. 

in ton-a'-tion (2), s. [Fr., from Low Lat. 
intomttio, from intonatum, sup. of intono = to 
intone (q.v.).] 
Music: 

1. The method of producing sound from a 
voice or an instrument. 

2. Correctness of pitch ; e.g., Just intona- 
tion, singing or playing in perfect tune. 

" Tis ld he bad a tuneful tongue 
Such happy intonation." 

Tennytan : AmpMon, 18. 

3. The method of chanting certain portions 
of the church services. 

4. The notes which precede the reciting- 
note In a Gregorian chant. 

"One tlow and uniform intonation, consisting of 
note* of equal or nearly equal length. "~Jta*on : Church 
Mutic, p. 90. 

ln'-ton-a-tor, a. [Eng. intonate); -or.] 

Music : A monochord, or single string, 
stretched across a flat sound-board. Below 
the string is a diagram of the exact divisions 
of the monochord necessary for the production 
of the true musical scale. By means of a 
movable bridge, the student is able to sound 
the notes represented on the diagram, and so, 
to educate his ear to a true sense of relative 
pitch. 

in tone', u.i. & t. [Low Lat. intono, from 
Lut. intonum = according to tone ; ItaL in- 
tonare ; Fr, entoner, entonner; Sp. entonar.] 
A. Intranxitive : 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : To make a loud protracted 
Boise. 

" So swells each wind-pipe ; AM intone t to aw 
Hariuouiok twang." Pope : Dunciiid, il. 25a 

2. Music: To recite prayers, &c., in a mono- 
ton* ; to chant. 

" I heard no longer 
_ ludeddiletta-- 
Delicate-handed priest int 



The siiowy-bauded dilettante 
" ,te-handed priest infonf.^ 

Tennyton: J/aud. L TilL 11. 



B. Trans.: To recite in a monotone; it 
includes the delivery of the prayers in mono- 
tone, and the precenting or leading of the 
plain song of the Psalms, Creed, Canticles, &c. 



[Lat. intortio, from intortus, 
pa. par. of intorqueo = to bend, to curve.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : A winding, bending, or 
twisting. 

2. Sot. : The state of any part which is 
twisted upon itself. 



* in tort', v.t. [Lat. intortus, pa. par. of in- 
t-jnjueo : in- = in, into, and torqueo= to twist,] 
To twist, to twine, to wreathe, to wring. 

" With rev'rent hand the king present* the gold, 
Which round the intorttd horns the gilder rolled." 
Pope : Homer ; Odyuen iiL SWW 

* in-tor'-tion, . [Lat. intortio, from intortus, 

pa. par. of intorqueo = to twist.} [!NTORT.] 
A winding, twining, or twisting. 

in td'-td, phr. [Lat] Wholly, entirely. 

*in-t6x'-i-ca-ble, a. [Eng. intoxicate); 
-able.} Capable of being intoxicated. (Lit. & 

Jig-) 

"If ... the people were not BO intoxical'lt as to fall 
In with their brutal astisUuce." North: Stamen. 
p. 315. 

Xn-tOJt-i-cant, s. [Low Lat. intoxicant, pr. 
par. of into'xicu~to poison.] [INTOXICATE, a.] 
That which intoxicates ; an intoxicating liquor 
or substance. 

in-tox'-i cate, v.t. [O. Fr. intoxiquer; Sp. 
intoxicar; ItaL intoaioart.} [INTOXICATE, e.] 
L Literally; 

1. To poison ; to produce fatal effects. 

"Meat, I say, and nt poison. For the one doth 
intoxicate and slay tliu enter; the other fuedeth autl 
noorlxheth him." Latimer : Works, i. 36. 

2. To make drunk ; to inebriate with, or as 
with alcoholic liquors. 

" It leaueth behind it a tute like the taste of ahnou 
milke. and goeth dowue very pleasantly, intoxicating 
weak braines." HacJttuyt ; Voyages, i. 97. 

IL Fig. : To excite the spirits of to the 
highest pitch ; to excite to enthusiasm ; to 
make delirious as with joy. 

" Through an aerial universe of endless 
Expansion at which my BOU! aches to think 
Intoxicated with eternity." Byron: Cain, ii. L 

*in-tox'-i-cate, a. [Low Lat. intoxicutus, 
pa. par. of i'ntoxico = to poison ; Lat. in- = 
into, and toxicum = Gr. TOIKOP (toxikori) = 
poison in which arrows were dipped ; TOOV 
(toxori) = a bow ; TO a (toxa) = arrows.] In- 
toxicated, delirious. 

"Their mynde Is o intoxicate th&i there la nothyng, 
but they will note it with a blacke coale." Fri/th : 
Worker, p. 77. 



*. [Eng. intoxi- 
cated; -ness.] The quality or state of being 
intoxicated; intoxication. 

Jn-tdx'-i-cat-ing, pr. par. or a. (INTOXI- 

CATE, v.] Tending to make drunk ; exciting 
the spirits to the highest pitch ; making de- 
lirious or enthusiastic. 

* Intoxicating -gas, 0. 

Chtm. : An old name for nitrogen monoxide, 
N2O. Called also laughing-gas (q.v.^ 

in-tox i ca'-tion, s. [INTOXICATE, v.] 

L Literally: 

1. The act of intoxicating or making drunk. 

2. The state of being intoxicated ; drunken- 
ness, ebriety, inebriation ; the state pro- 
duced by drinking alcoholic liquors to excess. 

" Sobriety perhaps may now be found 
Where once intoxication pressed the ground." 
Cowper : Convertation, 808. 

II. Fig. : A state of high excitement of 
spirits ; elation leading to frenzy, delirium, or 
enthusiasm. 

"His actions, however, display the intoxication of 
extreme self-confidence. ' Hallam: Middle Age*, 
ch. vii. 

in-tra-, pref. [Lat.] A Latin preposition, 
signifying within, used as a prefix to many 
English words. 

in-tra-car-pel'-lar-^, o. [Pref. intra- = 
within, and Eng. cdrpellary (q.v.).J 

Bot. : Among or interior to the carpels. 
(B. Brown, 1874.) 

in-tra-cran'-i-al, a. [Pref. intra-, and Eng. 
cranial. I Situated within the cerebellum. 

fai-trac-ta-btt'-i-t& . [Eng. intructabl(e); 
it:/.] 1"'"" quality or state of being intractable. 

"If hestill fell ahort. of his maater, the fault was 
not In him, but the intractability of bis language." 
Hu.rd : Note* on the Art of Poetry, 

in-tract'-a-ble, a. [O. FT., from Lat. intracta- 
bilis, from in- = not, and tractabilis = tract- 
able (q.v.); ItaL intrattdbile ; Sp. intratable,] 
1. Not tractable ; that cannot be governed, 
managed, or kept in order; unmanageable, 
refractory, violent, ungovernable, obstinate, 
stubborn, perverse. 

"To the common ran of more intractable and 
perverse tempera." Warburton : LH*in* Legation, 
bk. Ii., J 3. 



2. Hard to treat 

"He [Henry VI II. I was much pained and became 
exceeding froward aud intractubt. f 'um# : History 
Reformation Jan. 1M7J. 

In-tract'-a-ble-nesa, 5. [Eng. intractable ; 
ness.} Tile quality or state of being iutract> 
able ; obstinacy, indocility. 



adv. [Eng. intractab(lt) ; 
ly.] In an intractable, unmanageable, or 
perverse manner. 

* in-tract'-gd, a. [Lat tntractus, pa. par. of 
intraho = to draw or trail along.] Drawn in. 

*' With hot intrncteil tongue and burning een." 
lludton : Judith, iii. 29ft 

*ln-tract'-ile, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 




In. iNTRiDoa, Kx, EXT>ADM. 



Not tractile ; 
incapable of 
being drawn 
out. 

in-tra'- dos,s. 
[Sp. = an en- 
trance.] 

Arch, : The 
soffitorunder- 
surface of an 
arch, as op- 
posed to the 
exterior, or 
upper curve, which is called ext racing (q.v.). 

in-tra-fo-li-a'-ceous (ce aa shy), a. 
[Pref. intra-, and Eng. foliaexous. \ 
Sot. : Within the axil of a leaf. 

* in'-tralL, . [ENTRAIL.) 

in-tra-mar'-gin-al, a. [Pref. infra-, and 
Eng. marginal (q.v.).J Situated or beiuj; 
within the margin. 

* in-tra-mun'-dane, o. [Tref. intra-, and 

Eug. mundane (q.v.).] Situated or being 
within the world ; belonging to the material 
world. 

In-tra-mixr'-al, a. [PreC intra-, and Eng. 
mural (q.v.}.'] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Situated or being within the 
walls or boundaries, as of a city, town, &c. : 
as, an intramural cemetery. 

2. Anat. & Path. : Within the walls of a 
tube or vessel : as, intramural obstruction of 
the intestines. (Tanner : Practice of Medicine, 

11. 148.) [INTKHMUKAL.] 

*in'-tran9e, & [ENTRANCE, .] 

* In-trance' t v.t, [ENTRANCE, v.] 

in-tran-qun'-U-t^, . JTref. in- (2), and 

Eng. tranquillity (q.v.).] Want or absence of 

tranquillity or rest ; inquietude, restlessness. 

" Jactations were used for amusement, and allay In 

constant pains, and to relieve that intranquillitif 

which mates men lmi>n.tlent of lying In their beda," 

Temple : Of Bealth A Long Life. 

* in-trans-ca'-lent, a. [Pref. in. (2), and 
Eng. transcalent (q.v.).] Impervious to heat. 

*in trans-gres'-si-ble, a. [Pref. i- (2), 
and Eng. transg feasible (q.v.).] That cannot 
be passed ; incapable of being passed. 

" Fatal destiny is a divine reason or sentence itf 
franjffre*W and inevitable." p. Holland: Plutarch, 
p. 869. 

* in-tran'-sl-^nt (s as ah), a. [Pref. in- (2), 

and Eng. transient (q.v.).l Not transient; 
not passing quickly away ; lasting. 

in-tran'-i-&ent, a. & s. [Fr, intransigeant, 
from Lat. in- = not, and transigo = to coma 
to a settlement] [INTRANSIOENTES.] 

A. As orfj. : Refusing to agree to come to 
an understanding, uncompromising ; irrecon- 
cilable. Used especially of the Extreme Left, 
or Radical party, on the Continent. 

B. As rubst.: An irreconcilable person: 
one who refuses to agree to some political 
settlement. 

in-tran'-si-gen-tef , (g as h), . pi [Sp. * 
the irreconcilables.] The name given to the 
Extreme Left in the Spanish Cortes, and after- 
wards to the extreme Republican party in 
Spain, corresponding with the Communists in 
France. In the latter sense, it was first used 
in the Spanish troubles which arose when 
Amadeus resigned the throne (A.D. 1873). 

In-tran'-i-tive, a. [Lat. intransitive, from 
in- = not, and transitivus = passing over; 



^; po"ut, Jo^rl; cat, 96!!, chorus, 9hln, bench; go, gem; thin, fl^s; a t n , ag. expect, Xenophon, exist. 
-elan, -tian shan. -tion, -sion -shun; -tlon, -sion^zliun. -tious, -clous, -slous shns, blc, -die, &c. =- bcl, 



1720 



Intransitively intrigue 



transeo = to pass over : tram = over, across, 
and to = to go.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Not passing on or over. 

"And then it i for the image sake, and so far u In. 
tratuitii* ; but whatever U paid more to the image i 
transitive, and tiauea further."^. Taylor: Itiu. 
fnm Popery, pt U. bk. li., S 6. 

2. Gram, : A terra applied to verbs which 
express an action or state limited to the sub' 
Ject ; that is, not passing over to an object : 
as, I Hit, I walk, I talk, &c. Intransitive 
verbs may take a noun of kindred meaning 
or object, called the cognate object : as, To 
die a death, to lire a life, &e. Many verbs 
which appear to be Intransitive are in reality 
transitive, without the object expressed : as, 
they are building, where the object, a house, 
wall, Ac. , Is omitted. Some intransitive verbs, 
by means of a preposition or completing ad- 
verb, become transitive, and may be used pas- 
sively : as, The man laughs at the boy ; he is 
iavghed at. Some intransitive verbs have a 
causative meaning, and take an object, as, 
He ran a thorn into his linger. 

"Active verb, are subdivided Into tratultlT. and 
lntrantMn.-BaiH : Marat Science, j.t, L. ch. L. I 3. 

In-tran'-sI-tXve-ty, adv. [Eng. intrantUive; 
-ly.] In an intransitive manner or sense ; in 
manner of an intransitive verb. 

in tr&n'-d-tn, phr. [Lat] In the act or 
state of passing from one place to another ; 
in transit : as, The goods were lost in tranntu. 

t ln-trns-mls'-sl-ble, a. [Pref. in- (2), 
and Eng. transmissible (q.v.).] Not transmis- 
sible ; incapable of being transmitted. 

t In-trins-mut^a-bn'-*-t& . [Pref. in- 
(2), and Eng. transmutability (q.vA] The 
quality or state of being intransmutable. 

In tr&ns mut -a-ble, o. [Pref. tn- (2X 
and Eng. transmutable (q.v.).] Not transmu- 
table ; incapable of being transmuted or 
changed into another substance. 

" Borne of the moet experienced chemlati do affirm 
quicksilver to be intrammutaklc, and therefore call it 
uquor ternus," Ray : On th* Crearion. 

In -trant, a. & s. [Lat. Intrant, pr. par. of 
intro = to go in.] 

A. Ai adj. : Entering, passing In, pene- 
trating. 

B. A> sutst. : One who enters ; specif., one 
who enters upon some public duty or office. 

In-tr&p', v.t. [ENTRAP.] 

> In-trsjr-p&r-l-e'-tal a. [Pref. intra-, and 
Bng. parietal] Situated or happening within 
walls, or within an enclosure ; as, aa intra- 
parietal execution. (Annandale.) 

In-tra-pSf-it-d-lsr, o. [Pref. Intro-, and 

ting' petiolar.] 

Sot. : Situated between the petiole and the 
item. (Used when the two stipules at the 
hase of a petiole so unite at their adjacent 
margins as to seem like one stipule between 
the petiole and the stem.) Not the same as 
INTERPCTIOLAB (q.v.), with which it la often 
confounded. (GoodricA & Porter.) , 

In-tra.-th5-r&9'-lo, a. [Pref. Mm-, and 
Kng.(lorocic(q.v.).] 

Anat. is Path. : Within the thorax or breast : 
as, an intrathoracic tumour. 

In-tra-tr8p'-lc-al, a. [Pref. intra-, and 
Eng. (fopicaHq.v.).] Situated or being within 
the tropics. 

In-tra-u'-ter-Ine, o. [Pref. intra-, and 

Eng. uterine (q.v.).] 

Zool. : Within the uterus. (Used of an 
embryo.) (Owen.) 

ta-tra-v&T-vu-lar, o. [Pref. intra., and 
Eng. valvular.] 

Bot. : Placed within valves, as the dissepi- 
ments of many Cruciferae. 

t In-tra-ve'-notis, a. [Pref. Intro-, and 
Eng. venous (q.v.).] Introduced within the 
veins. 

"The intravfnout Injection of ammonia." rim, 
May 21, 1873. 

in-treas'-ure (8 as zh), v.t. [Pref. In- (1), 
and Eng. treasure (q.v.).] To lay up as in a 
treasury ; to board up. 

Witch In their Medi 
** weak beginnings he iHtrfaatrfd." 



1 In-treat , * tn-treate, v.t. & i. [O. FT. 

entraiter t from Lat. tiueto = to handle.) 
A. Transitive : 
L To treat, to use. 

" He shall gather the lanibes together with bli arme, 
and carve them in hys bosome, mid shall kyudlye in- 
treats those that beare yuiige." tbaye. *! (iWLJ 

2. To treat of, to discourse of. 

3. To entreat, to beg, to implore. 

4. To persuade ; to gain over by entreaties. 

"All this her weeping sister does repeat 
To the atcrii man, whom nothing could intrcrtie," 
Waller : Virgil ; <neid Iv. 

B* Intransitive: 

1. To treat, to discourse. (Followed by of.) 

" Stephyn Gardiner. Bishop of Winchester, preached 
at Paules Crone, and there intreated of the Gospell of 
that dale," Salt: Benry VJU. (an. 86). 

2. To beg, to entreat, to implore. (Followed 
by /or.) 

"Then lets intreat ftyr pcaae. and yealdyng handes to 



Mia submit" 



> Virgil ; Aneidot XL 



fcx-treaf-a-ble, o. [Pref. in- (2) ; Eng. 
treat ; and auff. -able.] Implacable, Inexorable. 

in -treat'- ancc, ' In-treat-aunce, . 
[Eng. intreat; -ance.] Entreaty, solicitation. 

"The shepherd, ooercoma with the earnest tntreat* 
aunce of his owne wife, returned Into the wood." 
Goldyng t Jmtine. to. S. 

In-treat'-ful, o. [Bng. intreat; 
Full of entreaties. 

*" To seek, for succour of her and her pares 
With humble prayers and MrvBtfUl tares. B 
Spenter; A &. V. x. it. 

la-treat '-mSnt, *. ping, intreat; nent.] 
A begging or imploring for ; entreaty. 

" For tntreatment of peace, lone, and aniltle betwixt 
Uta two retimes." BolitiAed : Scotland {an. U2S). 

In-treat'-^, *. [ENTRSATY.J 

In-trenoh' (1), v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Bng. 
trench, s. (q.v.).] 

* 1. To make furrows or hollows In. 

"Hisfaoe 

Deep scars of thunder had intrenched, and care 
Bat on his laded cheek.' Hilton: P. L.. 1. 601. 

2. To surround or inclose with trenches, as 
In fortification ; to fortify with intrench me iiU ; 
as, To intrench a camp. 

3. To lodge within intrenchments ; to place 
in a strong and fortified position. 

** Intrenched before the town both armlet lie ' 
While night, with sable wings. Involves the sky." 
Dryden: Viryllt <neid xi. 1,818. 

* 4. To protect or defend In any way. 

"Spiritual gibberish Is still better intrenched, KnA. 
harder to be approached, for it* having no weak side 
of common sense." Warburton : Charge to the Clergy 
of Qloucetter. 

In-trenQh' (2), r.i. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. 
trench, v.] To trench ; to encroach on that 
which belongs to another. (Followed by on 
or upon.) 



* We dare not on yonr privilege tntrench, 
" ' o why ye like them? they are Frc _ 

Itryden : /'rui. to Arvirayu* A Philicia. 



French." 



* In-trSnph'-ant, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
trenchant (q.v.).] Not to be cut; indivisible, 
Invulnerable. 

" As easy may*st thoa the tntreneHant air 
With thy keen sword impress, aa makes me bleed." 
Shaketp. i JJacbetX. v. 7. 

Jn-trcn<?h'-ment (1), & [Eng. intrench (1); 
-ment.] 
I. Literally: 

1. The act of Intrenching. 

*' Their method of intrenchment was of Latin origin." 
Macaitl*}/ : Prophecy of CapfM. (In trod.) 

2. A defensive work, consisting of a ditch 
or trench, and a parapet made from the exca- 
vated earth. 

"Csesar forced some of their strongest intrench- 
ments ; and then carried the war directly Into the 
territories rfCaadbelan." Surte.- Jfrru^. Eng. Bitt. t 

bk. i., ch. L 

IL Fig. : Any defence or protection. 

* In-trenQh'-ment (2), . [Eng. intrench (2); 
ment,] The act of trenching or encroaching 
on the property or rights of others ; aa en- 
croachment. 

3n-trep'-Xd, a. [Lat. intrepidus, from in- = 
not, and trepidus = fearful, timid ; Fr. intre- 
pide; Ital. & Sp. intrepido.] Fearless, bold, 
crave, daring, undaunted, dauntless. 

" He was intrqptd, strong, fleet, patient of cold, of 
hunger, and of fatigue." Jfacaulay : HiA. Eng., 

ch. xiii, 

IT For the difference between intrepid and 
bold, see BOLD. 



In-trS-p)[d'-I-t^ f s. [Fr. intrepidite, fron: t- 
trepide; Ital. intrepidita.] The quality cr 
state of being Intrepid; fearlessness, boldness, 
courage. 

"That htgb and serene intrepidity which Is tha 
virtue ol great commanders." Macaulay : Uitt, Eng., 
ch. xvL 

In-trep-Id-1^, ?r. (Eng. intrepid; -ly.] In 
an intrepid, fearless, or dauntless manner. 

"Orlando, determined to pursue hl purpora, rushed 
forward intrepidly with bis lifted shield." Boole . 
Orlando Furioeo, bk. xix. (Note 6.) 

* Xn'-tric-a-ble, a. [Lat. intric(o) = to en 
tangle, and Eng. -able.} Entangling, perplex 
Ing. 

Xn'-trfc-a-9y, . (Eng. intrica(te); -cy.] 

1. The quality or state of being intricate or 
tangled ; perplexity, complication, involution . 

"The intricacy of complicated systems. " ft 
No. 180. 

2. An intricate or perplexing situation; a 
difficulty or perplexity. 

"As perplexing that fable with very agreeable plots 
and intricacies" Add4<m: Spectator, No. 273. 

If For the difference between intricacy and 
complexity, see COMPLEXITY. 

in' trio-ate, a, [Lat Intricatus, pa. par. of 
in/rtco = to perplex, to embarrass: in-=In, 
and triixe hindrances, wiles ; Ital. intricato.] 

1. Ord. Lang. .* Entangled, Involved, com- 
plicated, perplexing; obscure; difficult to un- 
ravel or understand. 

** The sense Is intricate, 'tis only clear 
What vowels and what consonants are there." 

Dryden: Bind * Panther. It. SSft, 

& Sot.: The same as ENTANGLED (q.v.). 

* in'-trl-cate, v.t. [INTRICATE, a.] To involve, 
to complicate, to perplex, to make obscure. 

" This by .path of cunning doth *s embroil. 

And intricate the passage of affairs." 

Daniel; To Lord Henry Howard. 

In'-trlc-ate-ly, adv. [Eng. intricate; -ly.} 

In an intricate manner ; with perplexity, com- 
plication, or intricacy. 

" By certain marks or notes Intricately knotted." 
Warfiurton: Divine Legation, bk. iv.. | 4. 

in'-tric-ate-ness, . [Eng. intricate; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being intricate, com- 
plicated, or involved ; intricacy. 

"The difficulty and intricatenett of the subject of 
oar discourse." Boyle .* Workt, Iv. 4U. 

* In-trf-ca'-tlon, s. fLat. intricatus, pa. par. 
of inrico = to entangle,] Entanglement, in- 
tricacy, complication. 

"The contact or infricatton of the sobering firm 

corpuscles." Boyle ; Workt, i. 420. 

Xn-trigUO', *. [Fr. intrigue; Sp. intriga; ItaL 
intrigo.] [INTRIGDE, .] 

* 1. Intricacy, complication. 

"Though this vicinity of ourselves to ourselves can- 
Dot give us the full prospect of all the intrigue* of our 
nature, yet wo have much more advantage to know 
ourselves, than to know other things without ua." 
Ilale : Orig. of Mankind. 

2. The act of intriguing or plotting by 
secret aud underhand ways or means ; a plot 
or scheme of an Intricate or complicated 
nature, intended to effect some object by 
secret arts. 

** Busy meddlers with intriguet of ctate." 

Pomfret; The Choice. 

* 3. The plot of a play, roma nee, fable, &c. ; 
ft complicated scheme of actions and events 
Intended to excite the interest of the reader 
or audience, and make them look forward 
eagerly to the development of the plot. 

" As causes are the beginning of the action, the op- 
posite designs against that of the hervt are the 
middle of it, and form that difficulty or intrigu* 
which makes up the greatest part of the poem." Pope, 
(Toad,) 

4. Illicit intimacy between persons of diffe- 
rent sexes : a liaison ; libertinism. 

14 Nor yet the swarms that occupy the brain. 
Where dream* of dress, intrigue, aud pleasure 
reign." Cotoper: /ietirement, 642. 

In-trigue', v.t. & i. [0. Fr. intriguer; Fr 

intriguer, from Lat. intrico = to entangle, t> 

intricate (q.v.) ; Sp. intrigar; Ital. intrigare.} 

*A. Trans.; To perplex; to render intricate 

*' How doth It perplex and intriyue the whole count* 
Of your lives." Scot* : Christian Life, pt L. ch. IT. 

B. Jntrans. : To form, enter Into, or carry 
on plots or schemes, usually of a complicated 
nature, with a view to effect some object by 
secret or underhand artifices ; to plot, to 
scheme. 

"The cardinal of York was not satisfied to be to- 
triffuinff fur the popedoin after his death." Burnet i 
Bist. Reform, (an. 1527). 



fite, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, 6t, 
r, wore, wolf, work, who. son- mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full; try, Syrian, ce, oa = e: ey = a. qu = kw, 



intriguer intromission 



2721 



In-trig'-uer, *. [Eng. intrigu(e); -er.} One 
who intrigues ; one who forma or enters into 
secret or underhand plots ; a plotter ; a 
chemer. 

" A gentleman of the Inns of Court, and a deep in- 
tHffuer."-Tutlr. No, 198. 

* tn-trig'-uer-^ s. [Eng. intrigue; -ry.] The 
act, art, or practice of intriguing. 

In-trig -U6SS, . [Eng. intrigu^e); -.] 
A scheming woman. 

"The wife, for her port . . . was a complcat in- 
trtffuess." North: Examen, p. ll>7. 

IT Miss Edgeworth (Manoeuvring, ch. i.) re- 
grets that " a word used in the days of 
Charles II., and still intelligible in our times, 
hould have become obsolete." 

In-trig'-ulng, pr. par., a., & s. [INTRIGUE, v.] 
A. & B. As pr. par. A parttcip. adj. : (See 

the verb). 
C. As subst. : The act or practice of plot- 

ting ; intrigue. 

In-trig^-uing-1^, adv. [Eng. intriguing; -ly.] 
In an intriguing, plotting, or scheming man- 
ner ; with intrigues or secret plots. 

in trig uish, o. [Eng. intrigue); -ish.] 
Connected with plots or intrigues. (North: 
Examen, p. 193.) 

In-trinse' 



Enta 



rinse', *an-trfnce', a. [INTRINSIC.] 

ngled, intricate, complicated. 



"Bach smiling rogues as thoM. 
Like rats. oft bite the hofy cords atwain, 
Which are too intrince to unloose." 



r, 1L 1 

In-trlns'-e'-cal, a. [INTRINSIC.) 

1. Inherent, natural, essential. 

" These measure the laws of God not by the tntHit. 
tecal goodness aud equity of lhetn,"~TUlotton. 

2. Close, intimate, familiar. 

Jn trm se cate, * in trm'-sl-cate, a. 
[Lat. intrinsecus; Ital. intrinsecato, intrinsi- 
cato.] [INTRINSIC.] Entangled, perplexed, 
complicated, intricate. 

" With thy sharp teeth thU knot intriraicate 
Of life at once uutle." 

Shakesp. : Antony A Cleopatra, v. 2. 

In trin sic, in- trln'-sfc-al, * in-trln- 
se cal, * in-trin-sick, * in-tryn-clc- 
all, a. & s. [O. Fr. intrinseque, from intrin~ 
tecus = inwards, from in- = in, into, and seew*, 
from same root as sequor = Sp. & Port, intrin- 
teco ; Ital. intrinsico, intrinxco.] 

A. As adjective : 

L Ordinary Language : 

I. Inward, Internal, inherent 
*2. Domestic, internal. 

*3. Intimate, close, familiar. 

4. Existing because of natural reasons and 
not as a result of accident or extrinsic influ- 
ence; belonging to the nature of a person or 
thing; not extrinsic. 

U Intrinsic value : A term commonly but 
erroneously used as a synonym of market price. 
8ee VALUE, ., If.] 

* 5. Intricate, complicated. 

" Hys workinge toles are such vnsauerye sophismea, 
problemea, subtyltyea, seconde intentions, intrynsica.ll 
moodes, with other prodigious scoroeries." Bale i 
Image, pt li. (Pref.) 

II. Technically: 

1. Anat. (Of muscles) : Attached wholly to 
the bones of the limbs and their arches. 

2. Scots Law: A term applied to circum- 
stances sworn to by a paity on an oath of 
reference, so intimately connected with the 
point at issue that they make part of the evi- 
dence afforded by the oath, and are inseparable 
from it. 

* B. As subst. : A genuine, true, or essential 
quality. 

"This history will display the very intrinsicals of 
the CastUian, who goes for the prime Spaniard." 
Bowtll: Ltttert, bk. TV., let. 1L 

T The value of a thing is either intrinsic or 
real : the real value of a book, in the proper 
sense, lies in the fineness of the paper, and 
the costliness of its binding ; and, in the im- 
proper sense, it lies in the excellence of its 
contents, in opposition to the artificial value 
which it acquires in the minds of biblioma- 
niacs from being a scarce edition. The worth 
of a man is* either genuine or native : the 
genuine worth of a man lies in the excellence 
of his moral character, in opposition to his 
adventitious worth, which he acquires from 
the possession of wealth, power, and dignity : 



the native worth of a man is that which is 
inborn in him, and natural, in opposition to 
the meretricious and borrowed worth which 
he may derive from his situation, his talent. 
or his efforts to please. (Crabb: Eng. Synon.) 

In-trin-si-cal'-i-ty, s. [Eug. intrinsical; 
ity.] The quality or state of being intrin- 
sical ; essentiality. 

m trin sic-al ly, * in trin-sec-al-ly, 
adv. [Eng. intrinsical ; -ly.] 
*!. Internally, within. 

" Till it be thrurt by some other body from without, 
or intrinsically moved by \ti immaterial self-active 
substance." Benttey : Hoy I* Lectures. 

2. .Really, truly, in reality. 

"Lumps of base metal, nominally worth near a 
million sterling, intrinsically worth about a sixtieth 
part of that aura, were in circulation. "Jfaeaulay : 
Sift. Eng., ch. xiL 

in trin'-sic -al ness, s. [Eng. intrinsical ; 
ness.] The quality or state of being intrin- 
sical ; intrinsically. 

Jn-tTO-, pref. [Lat.] A Latin adverb, signi- 
fying within, used as a prefix to English words. 

In tro cess ion (ss as sh), *. [Lat intro- 
= within, and cemo a going.] 

Mai. : A going or shrinking of the parts 
inwards. 

t In-trd-curved', a, [Pref. intro-, and Eng. 

curved.] 
Bot. : The same as INTROFLEXED (q.v.). 

In-tro du 96, v.t. [Lat. introduce, from intro- 
= within, and duco = to lead ; Fr. introduire; 
Ital. introdurre; Sp. introducir,] 

1. To bring or lead in ; to usher in. 

" Introduced her to the parks and plays." 

Pope : The Basset TabU, M. 

2. To pass or put in ; to insert : as, To intro- 
duce a finger into a crevice. 

3. To insert, to interpolate. 

" Anything that is afterwards to be introduced In a 
mow proper place." Blair, vcl. li., Led. 80. 

4. To bring into use or practice. 

" A custom or habit introduced by the necessity of 
trade among them." Tcmpte: United Provinces, 
Tol. il., Lect. 80. 

5. To bring forward with preliminary or 

prefatory matter; to bring into notice; to 
make known : as, To introduce a subject with 
a preface. 

6. To bring before the public by writing or 
exhibition : as, To introduce a character on 
the stage. 

7. To make personally known : as, To intro- 
duce a gentleman to a lady, 

8. To produce ; to cause to exist ; to induce. 

" Whatsoever introduces habits In children deserves 
the care and attention of their governors." Locke: 
On Education. 

* In-tri-du^e-ment, *. [Eng. introduce; 

-ment. ] Introduction. 

" Without the introducement of new or absolute 
forms .or termo, or exotic models." Milton; Way to 
Ex'ablinh a Free Commonwealth. 

in-tro-dU9'-er, 5. [Eng. introduce); -er.] 
One who or that which introduces. 

" The introducer of those divisions into English 
poetry." Johnson : Proposal to Print the Work* of 
Shakespeare. 

* In-tr&-duct', v.t. [Lat. introductus, pa. par. 
of introduce to introduce (q.v.).] To bring 
in ; to introduce. (Hacket : Life of Williams. 
i. 29.) 

in-tro due tion, *in tro duc-ci on, *. 

[Pr. introduction, from Lat. introductionem, 
accus. of introductio ; from introductus, pa. 
par. of introduce = to introduce (q.v.); Sp. 
introduction ; Ital. introduzione.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of introducing, bringing, or 
leading in ; the act of inserting; insertion. 

2. The act of introducing or bringing into 
use, practice, or notice. 

3. The act of making personally known to 
each other ; the state of being made known 
personally to each other. 

4. That part of a book, treatise, or discourse 
which precedes the main part, and in which 
the author gives a general account of its ob- 
ject, plan, or subject ; a prefatory or prelimi- 
nary discourse. 

5. A treatise more or less elementary, on 
any branch of study ; a treatise introductory 
to more elaborate or scientific works on the 
same subject : as, an introduction to geology. 



IX Bib. Science : A department of Biblical 
science, the objects of which are stated by 
Prof. K. A. Credner, D.D., to be fivefold: 
(1) The origin of the individual books received 
into the sacred canon ; (2) the history of the 
canon and the origin of the collection of 
Scripture books ; (3) the history of the several 
translations, &c. ; (4) the history of the text ; 
and (5) the history of interpretation. It ia 
divided into Introduction to the Old, and In- 
troduction to the New Testament. 



ucing or bringing forward . 



, a. [Fr. introductlf; from 
Lat. introductus. pa. par. of introduco = to 
introduce (q.v.).] Serving or tending to in- 
troduce ; iiitroducf 
introductory, 

" Laws, when prudently framed, are by no mean* 
subversive, but rather intrvductive of liberty. 
Blackstone : Comment^ bk. i., ch, L 



adv. [Eng. introduo- 
tive ; ~ly.] In a manner serving to introduce ; 
introductorily. 

* In tri due'- tor, *. [It. from introducing 
pa. par. of introduco to introduce (q.v.).] 
An introducer. 

" We were accompanied . . . by ye introductor 
of ambassadors and ayd of [ceremonies." Svelyn : 
Memoirs, Sept. 16, 1851. 

t fa-tr&-dtic'-t6r-I-l& adv. [Eng. intro- 
ductory; -ly.] In an introductory manner; 
by way of introduction. 



r-^, a. [Low Lat. introdw 
torius, from introductus, pa. par. of introduce 
= to introduce (q.v.); Sp. introductorio.} 
Serving to introduce ; serving as an introduc- 
tion to something further ; previous, prefa- 
tory, preliminary, 

"The introductory chapters have undoubtedly a 
-bearing on the event* which follow." Athtnaum. 
Sept , 1884. p. 80S. 

* in-tro-duc'-tresa, *. [Eng. introductor; 
-ess.] A female who introduces. 

in tro-flexed' t a. [Pref. intro-, and Eng. 
Jleaxd (q.v.).] 

Bot. : Flexed or bent inwards ; curved in- 
wards ; introcurved. 

* In tro-gress'-ion (SB as sh), $. [Lat. intro- 
gressio, from introgressus, pa. par. of introgre* 
dior : intro- = within, and grodior = to go, to 
walk.] Theact of going in orentering; entrance. 

In'-tro^ft, in-tro'-it-tis, *. [Lat introitu* 
= a going in, from introeo = to go in : intro- = 
within, and eo = to go ; Fr. introit,] 

1. In the Roman Church ; Words recited by 
the priest in saying Mass, after the Confiteor, 
as soon as he has ascended the altar. The 
custom of reciting the Introit is of early* 
origin, and has been attributed to Gregory 
the Great. The words are usually from some 
psalm, formerly recited entire, and have an 
antiphon, and are followed by a Gloria ; in 
some cases they are taken from other portions 
of Scripture, and occasionally from uninspired 
writers. The old English word is office, which 
corresponds to the Latin oj^cium, by which 
name the Introit is known in the Mozarabic, 
Carthusian, Dominican, and Carmelite mis- 
sals. At High-mass and in a Hissa Cantata 
the Introit is sung by the choir, u the priest 
commences the Mass. 

2. In the Anglican Church : A short anthem, 
psalm, or hymn, sung while the minister pro- 
ceeds to the table to commence the Commu- 
nion service. Formerly, in some English 
cathedrals, the Sanctus was sung as an In- 
troit. This practice arose probably from the 
fact that the Communion Service soon after the 
Reformation ceased to be performed chorally, 
a proof of which is found in the fact that for 
nearly two centuries namely, from 1660 to 
1840 the Sanctus was never set to music ex- 
cept as an Introit, nor was the Gloria in ex- 
celsis set but as an anthem. 

In-tro'-It-us, . [INTROIT.] 

In-tro-mlss'-idn, . [Lat. intromissio, from 
intromi&sus, pa. par. of intromitto : intro- 
within, and mitto to send.] 
* L Ordinary Language. : 

1. The act of sending in ; the act of admit- 
ting ; admission. 

"All the reason that I could ever yet hear alledged 
by the chief factors for a general intromission of ail 
sorts, sects, and persuasions into our communion." 
South: Sermons, vol. U., ser. 12, 

2. The act of introducing or inserting ; in- 

sertion. 



boil, bo^; pout, j6wl; cat, 90!!, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, ^enophon, exist, ph => ft 
-Clan, -tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, T sion = zhxin. -clous, -Uous, -sions = shus. -ble. -die. &c. - boL d*L 



2722 



intromit intuition 



IL Scots Law: The act of Intermeddling 
with the property or effects of others, whether 
legally or without authority ; also the dealing 
of a factor or agent with the money of bis em- 
ployer. 

" And All tntromiuion and dJspoalUoun of onto caro- 
alteis, properties," ffollntHtxt : Scotland (u. 1M7). 

la tro mil, v.t:& i. [Lat. introntito, from 
intro- within, and mitto = to send.) 
*A. Transitive: 

1. To send in, to let in, to admit. 

2. To allow to enter ; to be the medium by 
Which anything eaters. 

"Tinged bodies and liqnon reflect aome aorta of 
rays, and intromit or trxuttui it other aorta. " Stwtan : 

B. Intrcouitive : 

Scots Law: To Intermeddle, to interfere. 

* Where the said officer or officer* mar Dot I.twfully 
intrvmit or Intermeddle." Hackluyt : ioytigtt. L STL 

* In-tro^mlt-tent. a. [Lat. intromittens, 
pr. jwir. of intrJmUto.} Sending or conveying 
in or iuto. 

* In-tr6 mlt'-ter, $. [Eng. intromit; -er.] 
One who intromits. an intermeddler. 

* in tro press'-ion (ss as sh), s. [Lat intro- 

= within, and pressio = a pressing, pressure ; 
presfus, pa. ir. of pnw*>=to press (q.v.).J 
Pressure acting within ; internal pressure. 

* ta-tro r*-9*p'-tlon, *. [Pref. intro-, and 
Eng. reception (q.v.).] The act of receiving 
Within ; admission within. 

" Were bat the lore of f'hrlirt to u erer ufltred to 
conic into our heart* (aa specie* to the eye by iittroro- 
cefXion}." Hammond: Work*, iv. Wi, 

In tror'se, a. [Lat. introrsum & introrsiis, 
adv. = (1) towards the inside, inwards, into, 
(2) within.] 

Hot. : Turned towards the axis to which it 
appertains. (Used specif, of anthers when the 
lint- of dehiacence is on their inner side facing 
the pistil.) 

In tri-sp^Cf.r.r. {JAt.introspecto-=to\ook 
within : intro- within, and specto = to look.] 
To look into or within ; to view the inside of. 

* in tro spec'-tion, . [Lat. introspectio, 
from inirosjxctus, pa. par. of introspicio = to 
look within : intro- = within, and specio ^ to 
look.] The act of looking into or within ; a 
view of the inside or interior ; examination of 
one's own thoughts or feelings. 

" Tha action of the mind or imagination lt*elf, by 
way of 1-eflection or introt faction of themaelvea," 
Bait: Orig. of Mankind, p. 55. 

t In-tri-SpeV-tton-Iflt, *. [Eng. introspec- 
tion; -itt.] One given to introspection ; one 
who studies the operations of his own mind. 
(Annandaie,) 

I In'-tro-Bpeo-tlve, a. [Eng. introspect; 

ivt.] Looking within ; viewing inwardly ; 
examining one's own thoughts or feelings, 
" * I expect,' mid Mlaa Merton that we an nAtonUr 

more introtv-xtive than men. "Mattock : AM* *- 

public, bk. lit. ch. IL 

* In tr6-sume , v.t. [Lat. intro- = within, 
and sunv> = to take.] To take or receive ID ; 

to absorb.- 

fa-tri-siis 9ep' tlon, . [Pref. intro-, and 
Eng. susception (q.v.).] 

* L Ord. Lang. : The act of taking or receiv- 
ing in or within. 



2. Anat. : The 



INTUSSUSCEPTION 



In tro - ve'-ni ent, o. [Lat intro- = within, 
and veniens, pr. par. of vfnio = to come.] 
Coming in or between ; entering. 

"Scarce any condition which Is not exhausted and 
obscured, from the commixture of tnfrovwtwnl na- 
tions, either by commerce or conquest." Brotpnt: 
Vulgar ErroUTt, bk. IT. ch. X. 

In-tro^ve'-nl-urn. s. [Fret intro- (q.v-X and 

Lat. vena a vein. ] 

Bot. : The obscuration of the venation by 
the abnormally developed parenchyma, as in 
Hoya, &c. 

* In tro ver'-slon, s. [Lat intro- = within, 
and iwrsio = a turning, from versus, pa. par. 
ef vrrto = to turn.] The act of introverting ; 
the state of being introverted. 

tln-tri-vert', v.t. [Lat. intro- = within, and 
verto to turn.] 



1. To turn in or inward. 

" His awkward gait, his tnirowrteil toes, 
Bent knees, round shoulders, and dejected look*. 
Procure him many a curse." 

Ca*i*r: fast IT. SO. 

2. To turn or direct to one's own heart or 
thought*. 

" Beyond Its natural elevation raised 
His introverted spirit." 

Wordncortlt : Stcnrtkm, ML rU. 

In-trude', r.l. & t. [Lat intrude, from in- - 
in, into, and trudo = to push, to thrust ; Ital. 
intruders.} 

A. Intransitive: 

1. To thrust or push one's self forward into 
any place or position ; to push in ; to force 
one's way. 

"Unprndent man, that whan th Rutll Kings did 
through intrude." f niter : Virgil ; .fneidot Ix. 

2. Specif. : To thrust or push one's self for- 
ward into any place or position ; to force one's 
self upon others ; to enter or pnt one's self 
forward un welcome ly or without Invitation ; 
to obtrude. 

" There la society, where none intrvdet, 
By the deep Sea. and music In Its roar." 

lltnn : CUlOe Harold. IT. Ul 

3. To Intervene ; to be Interposed. 

Where half the convex world tntrvdet between." 
OoKKmlt* .- Denrttd riOagi 

* 4. To encroach ; to trench. 

" Now. Henry, thou hast added to thy sin 
Of usurpation, and intnuihvj force, 
A greater crime." Daniel .- CMl Wan, IT. I 

B. Heflex. : To push or throat one's self for- 
ward. 

" And that man is not meet* for a rowme or minis. 
traclon. whych iatnuM* hymaelfe Into the same." 
Udal : Bebruei T. 

C. Transitive: 

1. Ord. Lang. : To force or cast In ; to push 
or thrust forward unwarrantably : as, To in- 
trude one's conversation upon people. 

2. Oeol. : To force In, as a volcanic rock 
may into sedimentary strata. (IimtuarvB.) 

In-trud'-Sd, o. [Eng. intrud(t); -td.} 
Geol. : Intrusive (q.v.X 

in-trud'-er, >. [Eng. intnuKf); -er.] One 
who intrudes ; one who thrusts himself in or 
enters where lie is not wanted, or where he 
has no business. 

* Hence, Tatn Intruder t haste away, 
Wash not with unhallowed brine 
The footsteps of my Celia'a shrine.* 
Cam: 



f A man is an intruder who la an unbidden 
guest at the table of another : he is an inter- 
loper when he joins any society In men manner 
as to obtain its privileges, without (baring its 
burdens. Intruders are always offensive in 
the domestic circle : interloper! in trade are 
always regarded with an evil eye. 

* In-tru'-dress, . [Eng. intruder; -en,] A 
female who intrudes. 

" Jewish should recover hie rightful throne from the 
unjust usurpation of AthalUh. an Idolatrous inlru- 
trot thereinto." fuller: Pivot, SitU, pt,iL,bk.lil., 

ch. x. 

fa-trunk'. v.t. [Pref. < (IX nd Eng. 
trunk (q.v.).] To encase, to enwrap, to in- 
close. 

Had eager lust (ntrunKd mr conquered soul 
I had not buried living Joys In death.* 

ford: Lot* I tfOTlft*. V. a 

in tru'-jion. . [Fr., from Lat intrumt, pa. 
par. of intrude = to intrude (q.v.).] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of intruding or thrusting one's self 
forward unwarrantably and unwelcoioely 
where one is not wanted. 

" Frngs. lice, and flies, must all his palace fill 
With loathed intrude*, and All afi the land." 
HiUan : P. L.. ill. in. 

2. The act of encroaching or infringing ; an 
encroachment. 

" For slth he saleth they come Into the place by suc- 
cession, he layth not any Inuaslon, or intrusion, or 
other vnlawfull oouiming ther Int*." Stf T.tJ/ore: 
Wort*, p. MO. 

IL Technically : 

1. Oeol. : The operation of forcing through 
or into sedimentary strata. (Used of volcanic 

rocks.) [INTHUSIVE-BOCKS.] 

2. Law : An unlawful entry into or upon 
lands and tenements void of a possessor, by 
one who has no right to the same. 

3. Scotch Ch. : The settlement of a minister 
in a church or congregation against the will, 
or without the consent of the congregation. 

f The term was frequently used during the 



ten years' ecclesiastical controversy which 
culminated in the disruption of the Scotch 
Church In 1843. 

in txu'-jion-al, o. [Eng. (n'nuim; 4!.] 
Pertaining to intrusion ; noting intrusion. 

ln-tru' ^ion-ist, . [Eng. intrusion; -itt.] 
One wlm favours the intrusion or settlement 
of a minister In a church or congregation con- 
trary to the will, or without the consent of 
the congregation. 

In-trii'-slve, a. [Lat intrusut, pa. par. of 
intrtulo => to intrude (q.v.).] Tending or apt 
to intrude ; thrusting or entering without in- 
vitation or welcome ; obtrusive. 

" Nor interrupting with intriuin talk 
The grand, majestic symphonies of ocean." 



intrusive rooks, & pi. 

Gi'ol. : Rocks of igneous origin which have 
forced their way through crevices or rents in 
sedimentary strata, or have broken them up. 

H Intrusive sheets of eruptive rock may bo 
distinguished from true lava tlow.s which have 
been subsequently overlaid conformably by 
sedimentary strata, by the fact that the rocks, 
both above and below the intrusive sheets, 
are altered at the contacts, while in the case 
of lava-flows the rocks over which they ran 
have been altered, but the deposits above 
them show no trace, of metamorphi&m, (Rviley: 
Study of Socks, 2nd ed., p. 32.) 

In trti' slve-ljf. adv. [Eng. intrusive; -ly.} 
In an intrusive or intruding manner. 

Xn-trft'-Bfre-ne'sft., *. [Eng. intrusive; -nea$.} 
The quality or state of being intrusive. 

in trust , * en trust f v.t. [Pref. in, (i\ 
and Bug. tnw*(q.v,).] 

1. (Of things) : To give In trust ; to commit 
or confide to the charge of a person ; to com- 
mit with confidence. (Followed by to before 
the person charged.) 

"That the aerie* of our matronomlcal observation.! 
might sufter no Interruption by:my abeeiice, I in- 
truutd the owe of continuing them to Mr. Trevenen.* 
too* . Third Voyag*. bk. T, cu. U. 

2. (Of persons): To charge with the care, 
custody, or sapervisioa of anything ; to com- 
mit or confide the charge or care of anything 
to. (Followed by with before the thing in- 
trusted.) 

U For the difference between to intrust and 
to consign, see CONSIGN. 

'in'-tu ite, v.t [Lat. intuit**, pa. par. of 
intueor.] [iNTurnoii.) To perceive oy in- 
tuition. 

" Aa mathematical quantltle* only ouin* Into zist* 
ence by beine intuited or constructeu. so the i.nre cun- 
cepta only exiat when tbey aw thought" -*. B. ZMOM; 
But. PhUo*v*e (18.30), it. Ill 

in-tu-i'- tion. *. [Fr., from Lat. (ntuttu*, pa. 
par. of intueor = to look Jn or within : in- = 
into, and tutor = to look ; Sp. intuition; ItaL 
intuiziane.] 

L Ord. Lanff. ; The act of looking on ; a 
Bight, a view ; a regard, an aim. 

" Hi disciples moat not oneljr abstain from the act 
<rf unlawful coucubiuat, but (roui the iiupurer intui- 
tion of a wife of another man. 'jt. Taylor: (treat 
Xxemptnr. pt. IL, f . 

IL Phil. ; A term borrowed from Scholastic 
Theology, where it signifies a knowledge of 
God supernaturaliy obtained, and, by con- 
sequence, superior to knowledge obtained by- 
ordinary methods. In passing into the ser- 
vice of Philosophy the word intuition hai 
retained in some measure the idea of supe- 
riority, or at least of priority. In the French 
and Scotch schools all beliefs and judgments 
presenting themselves spontaneously to the 
mind, with irresistible evidence, but without 
the assistance of reasoning or reflection, are 
called intuitions, axioms, first principles. 
principles of common sense, or self-evident 
truths, and the recognition of these intuitions 
Is the fundamental doctrine of Intuitionalism. 
Held (Essay on Tntett. Powers, ess. iv.) enume- 
rates twelve first principles or intuitions of 
contingent truths ; 

(1) Everything exists of which we are con- 
scious. (2) The thoughts of which I am con- 
scious are the thoughts of a being called my- 
self. (3) The things which I remember did 
really happen. (4) We may be. certain of our 
identity aa far as we remember. (5) The 
things which we perceive exist, and are what 
we perceive them to be. (6) We have some 
power over our actions and the determinations 
of our wills. (7) The natural faculties by 



fete, at, ftre, amidst, what, fail, father; we, wet, here, cameL her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pit, 
or. wore, wplf, work, whO, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full: try, Syrian, te os-e: ey = a; qu = kw. 



Intuitional inulol 



2723 



which we disci iminate truth from error are 
oot fallacious. (8) There is life and intelli- 
gence in our fellow-men. (9) Certain features 
and gestures indicate certain thoughts and 
dispositions of the mind. (10) Human testi- 
mony naturally awakens confidence. (11) In 
respect to events depending on human voli- 
tion, there is a self-evident probability, greater 
or less. (12) In the phenomena of nature, 
what is to be will probably be like to what 
has been in similar circumstances. 

In the school of Kant the word intuition 
(Ansckauung) is nearlj synonymous with 
perception. (See extract, and for Schelling's 
teaching, see *H Intellectual Intuition.) 

" intuition la Beholding ; considered subjectively It 
It ft mental onerutloii ; objectively, it U the product 
of that operation, the Beheld. Time nd Space may 
therefore be considered as pure forms of the mental 
operation Behol.llng; or as products of that operation. 
In the one case they are transcendental, ID the other 
empirical. Just as we spealc of Sensation in genera!, 
ana of particular sensations, so Kant speaks of Intui- 
tion as the general faculty, and of intuitions as the 
acts and product* of that faculty.' 0. B. Lewei: Bit. 
Wk it 613. 



^1 Intellectual Intuition : 
Ifetaph. : (For def. see extract). 

" In both [the Alexandrian and German Schools] the 
Incapacity of Reason to solve the problems of Philo- 
sophy la openly proclaimed: in both some higher 
faculty is called in to solve them. Plotiuu* called this 
(acuity Ecstasy. Schelling called it the Intellectual 
Intuition, The Ecstasy was not supi-osed to be & 
faculty possessed by all men. and at all times ; It was 
only possessed by the few, and by them but sometimes. 
The h\MIctnal Intuition waa not supposed to be a 
(acuity common to all men ; on the contrary, it waa 
held as the endowment only of a few of th privileged: 
It was the facility for philosophizing.--^. B. Ltwet: 
Hiit. I'hilosophy (1830). ft. 77. 

In -tii-l'-lion-al, a. (Eng. intuition; -al.] 
Pertaining to, derived from or characterized 
by intuition; intuitive. 

Intuitional-reason, a. 

Phil. : (See extract). 

" By Intuitional Kecuon I here wish to express what 
the Oermuu call Vernunft, which they distinguish 
from Verttand, as Coleridge tried to make Eiiglish- 
men distinguish between Reason and Understanding. 
The term Reason U too deeply rooted In our language 
to be twisted Into any uew direction, and I hope by 






attention alive to the fact that by U Is designated 
the process of the mind engaged In transcendental 
enquiry." &. B. Lewet: BlA. Ph&oiopky (1880), t. liv. 

in-tu-f-tlon-al-Jtam, . [Eng. intuitional; 
-ism.] 

Metaph. : The doctrine that the perception 
of truth is from intuition* 

xn-tu-i'-tion-al-lst, *. [Eng. intuitional; 
ist.] An advocate or supporter of the doctrine 
of intuitionalism. [INTUITION, II.] 

"By the intutttnnattott It is asserted that the 
tendeuy to form them [primary beliefs J is an Intellec- 
tual instinct inborn in man. Carpenter: Mental 
, I SQL 



a, [Fr. intuitif, trom Lat in- 

ttiitus, pa. pa'r. of intueor.] [INTUITION.] 

1. Perceives or seen by the mind immedi- 
ately without the intervention of argument or 
testimony ; exhibiting truth to the mind im- 
mediately on inspection. 

2. Obtained or received by Intuition or 
simple inspection. 

" Sometime* the mind percelrea the agreement or 
disagreement of two ideas immediately by themselves, 
without the Intervention of any other: and this, I 
think, we may call intuitive knowledge." Locke : 
Sumnn Undrritanding, bk. iv., ch. 11, ) L 

3. Seeing clearly, not merely believing. 

4. Having the power of discovering truth 
Immediately without reason or argument* 

" W hence the soul 

Reason receives, and reason in lier betng, 
Dlscuwive, or intuitive." J/iiton : f. L., T. 488. 






$ t adv. [Eng. 

1. In an intuitive manner ; by intuition. 

"For Although with speech they intuitively conceive 
Mch other, yet do their Apprehensions proceed through 
WaJities." Brown*: Vulgar Srroun, bk. L, ch. xi. 

2. On bare inspection ; without argument 
or reasoning. 

"The truth of mathematical ailomi ntu always been 
opposed to be intuitively obviovut." Stewart; PMto- 
tophy of Human Mind. TO*, II. eh. 1L. 1 1. 

Xn-tu-mSa^e, v.i. [Lat. intumesco, from 
in- (intens.), and tumfsca, incept, of tumeo 
= to swell.] To swell; to become enlarged 
or expanded, as by heat. 

tin-tumcs' 991196, In tn meV-9en cy, 
. [Fr. intumescence, from Lat. intumescens, pr. 
par. of intumesco.) [INTUMESCE.) 

1. The act, state, or process of swelling or 
expanding, as with heat; expansion. 



2. A swollen or expanded mass. 

3. Heat of mind ; excitement. 

There t little reason for doubting but the Intumtt- 
ctnce ot nations would have found its vent.' Johruon: 
Taxation no Tyranny. 

' an-tu'-mu-late, v.t. [Lat. in- = in, into, 
and tumulatun, pa. par. of tamulo = to bury, 
to entomb ; tumulus = a tomb.) To bury, to 
inter, to inhume, to entomb. 

"He a! so caused the corpa of King Richard y Second 
to be taken from the earth, whom King Henry the 
Fourth had intumnlme In the frier. Church of Laug- 
ley." Stou: Henry V. (an. 1413). 

* In-tu'-mu-late, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
tumulatus, pa. par. of tumulo to bury.] Not 
buried ; unburied. 

in tur'- bid-ate, v.t. [Lat. in- (intens.), 
and turbidus= turbid (q.v.).] To make tur- 
bid, dark, or confused. (Coleridge.) 

' In-tur-geV-ce^e, In-tur-fces'-oen- 

cjf, s. [Lat. tnturgescem, pr. par. of intur- 
gesco to swell up: in- (intens.), and t-urgeeco, 
Incept, of turgeo = to swell.] A swelling ; the 
act or state of swelling. 

" Not by attenuation of the opper part of the aea, 
but inturgetcencies caused first at the bottom, and 
carrying the upper part of it before them." Browne : 
Yttlgar Srroun, bk. Til., ch. xiii. 

In'-tiirn, . [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. turn, s.] 
A term in wrestling, when one puts his thigh 
between those of his adversary, and lifts him 
up. (HallimU.) 

" And with > trip 1' th' Mum mwl him." 

D'l'rfey: CoUln'l WaOt. 

In tuse', . (Lat. intusus, pa. par. of in- 
tundo = to bruise.] A bruise, a wound. 
" And after, baaing search t the intuse deepe, 
She with her acarfe did bind the wound fro' cold to 
keepe." ftxmMr. F. ., IIL T. as. 



In-tus- sus-9ept'-ed, a. [Lt 
within, and nuceptus, pa. par. of >usclpio = 
to receive.] 

Anat. {Of a vessel or part, oSc.): Received 
within another vessel or part. 

in-tus BUS ccp'-tlon, . [Pret intm-, and 
Kng. susception (q.v.).] 

1. Ord. Lang. : The reception of one part 
within another. 

2. Anat. : The term used when part of a 
tube is inverted within the contiguous part. 
(Owen.) The art, operation, or process or tak- 
ing dead matter into a living being. (Nichol- 
son.) 

3. Pathol. : The accidental Insertion or pro- 
trusion of an upper segment of the bowels 
Into a lower. The varieties are ileo-ctecal, 
iliac, jejunal, and colic. It occurs most fre- 
quently in infancy and childhood, and in the 
adult death ensues in five or six days if the 
stricture is not removed. By drawing one 
portion of a toeless long stocking into the 
other, a correct representation of this condi- 
tion is obtained. Inflation, practised long 
ago by Hippocrates, is the most successful 
treatment. 

In- twine', en-twine', e.fc [Pref. In- (I), 
and Bug. twine (q.v.).] 
1. To twine or twist together. 

There grew two olivea, closest of the grove. 
With rout* intwiited and branches interwove.* 
M : Ilomtr ; 



. 
T. 017. 

* 2. To surround by a winding course. 
8. To twine round. 

"The flowering thorn, self -taught to wind, 
The hazle'B stubborn Btem intuined.' 

Beallie: The earn: Ji Fable. 

* in-twine'-ment, s. [Kng. intwine ; -ment.] 
The act of intwiniug. 

in-twist, en-twfat'. v.t. [Pref. in- OX and 
Eug. twist (q.v.).] To twist or twine together. 

In'-n-la, s. [Lat. = imtla, probably a corrup- 
tion o*f helenium ; Gr. flAeVtoK (luleniun) = 
elecampane.] [Def.J 

1. Hot. : The typical genus of the composite 
sub-tribe Inulea; (q.v.). The heads are pani- 
cled, corymbose, or solitary rayed, yellow; 
the Involucre campanulate, the bracts in 
many series, the receptacle flat, naked ; the 
ray flowers female or neuter, in one series 
ligulate ; the dark flowers tubular, having 
two sexes ; the fruit terete or angled, the 
pappus in one series, scabrous. About fifty 
species are known, of which the only important 
one is the Common Elecampane, /. heteiiium, 
a native of Europe, and an escape in the United 
States. It was uuce much valued for its medi- 
cinal root, but is now neglected. 



2. Pharmacy: 

(1) [ELECAMPANE, IKCUK.] 

(2) The dry roots of Inula raeenwm, a West 
Himalayan and Cashmere plant, have a weak 
aromatic odour like orris, and act as a mild 
tonic. They are used in veterinary medicine. 
(Watts.) 

In ul o-mide, 5. [Lat. inuUa), and Eng. 
amide."] 

Chem. : C^HsoCOHXX), NH 2 . A compound 
obtained by passing aniniouiacal gas into an 
alcoholic solution of inulic anhydride. It 
crystallizes in feathery crystals, sparingly 
soluble in alcohol. It nHts at 210, under- 
going decomposition, and > very feebly basic. 

In u'-le se, s. pi. [Lat. itiul(a), and fern. pL 
adj. suit', -eas.] 

Bot. : A sub-tribe of tubuliferous compo- 
sites, tribe Asteroideae. 

In-u-lic, a, [Lat., &c. inul(a); -ic.] Derived 

from the genus Inula (q.v.). 

inulic acid, s. 

Chem, * t^isH^Os CjgHgoOj -t- HjO. A 
monobasic acid, prepared by heating inulic 
anhydride with dilute potash, and decompos- 
ing the salt formed with hydrochloric acid. 
It crystallizes in delicate needles, melting at 
90% and is sparingly soluble in water, .nit 
very soluble in alcohol. When heated above 
90, it gives off its water, and is converted into 
the anhydride. The potassium and sodium 
salts are very soluble in water ana in alcohol, 
but crystallize with great difficulty. The 
ammonium salt is very unstable, decomposing 
on simply evaporating the solution. The 
silver salt, CujHgiAgOs, crystallizes in small 
brilliant scales. When inulic acid is dissolved 
In absolute alcohol, and dry hydrochloric acid 
gas passed into the solution, large colourless 
rhombic crystals are formed, which melt at 
140, decomposing and giving off hydrochloric- 
acid. This crystalline body forms salts, but 
they are very unstable. Its formula ia 
Ci 6 H 21 O 2 Cl. 

inulic anhydride, * . 

Chem. : C^HsoOs. A white crystalline sub- 
stance, obtained by distilling elecampane root 
with steam, pressing the crystals between, 
blotting-paper, and recry stall i zing from al- 
cohol. It is almost insoluble in water, l-nt 
very soluble in alcohol and ether. It melt* 
at 66, and boils at 275 with partial decompo- 
sition. 

in' u-lin, in '-u line, *. [Lat.. &c. inul(a)f 
in, -ine (Chem,:) (q.v.).] 

Chem.; CgHjpOfl. A soft white tasteletw 
powder, isomeric with and similar in its pro- 
perties to starch, discovered by Valentin Rose 
in 1804. It is very widely distributed through- 
out the vegetable kingdom, being found in the 
roots of elecampane, dandelion, chicory, fever- 
few, in the tubers of the potato, the dahlia, 
and the Jerusalem artichoke, in the seeds of 
the sun-flower, and in many other plants. 
It is usually prepared from the sliced or 
rasped roots of the elecampane or the dahlia, 
by boiling with water in tlie presence of 
sodium carbonate. The liquid obtained it- 
cooled by a freezing mixture, when the hjulin 
precipitates. To obtain it pure, it is dissolved 
in hot water, filtered, and again exposed to a 
freezing mixture. On repeating this process- 
three or four times, the inulin is obtained 
perfectly white. It is insoluble in alcohol, 
slightly soluble in cold water, but very soluble 
ID boiling water. It dissolves in an ammo- 
niacal solution of cupric oxide, the solution 
yielding, after a few hours, a blue amorphous- 
precipitate, insoluble in water and in am- 
monia, but soluble in tartaric acid. It* 
specific gravity is 1*349, and its optical laevo- 
rotatory power [a]D = 34'6. When heated 
with water in sealed tubes at 100*. or when 
boiled with dilute sulphuric acid, it is con- 
verted into a sugar, which has all the proper- 
ties of levulose. Inulin is distinguished from 
starch by its giving a yeliow or yellowish- 
brown instead of a blue colour with iodine ; 
by its solubility in uqueous cuprainmouia, 
and by its inalterability under the influence 
of ferments. It appears to be a substance 
Intermediate between gumsand starch. Inulin 
has lately been examined by H. Kiliani^ He 
assigns to it the formula, 0^ 
+ H 2 O. 



*>((?)]. 



. [Lt. &C, i 



; Eug., &c. (at. 



boil, b6y : plat, jowl; oat, 9ell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, eyist. ing. 
-dan. -tlan = shan. -tion, -lon = hun; -tion, -flon = zhun. -oious, -tious, -sious - slius. -We, -die. &e. = bel, d0. 



J724 



inumbrate invalidate 



Chem,.: C 1( )HigO. A yellowish liquid, having 
an aromatic taste and an odour of peppermint, 
obtained by distilling elecampane root, Inula 
Helenium, with steam. The white crystalline 
mass which comes over is pressed between 
blotting-paper, which absorbs the inulol, and 
this may be afterwards recovered in a toler- 
ably pure state by distilling the paper with 
team. It boils at 200, and, when distilled 
with phosphorus pentasulphide, a hydro-car- 
bon, CioHj4, is obtained, which boils at 175. 

* in-um'-brate, v.t. [Lat. inumbratus, pa. 
par. of inumbro : in- = in, into, and umbra = 
a shade.] To skade ; to cover with shade ; to 
darken. 

" In um-bra'-tion, *. [Lat inumbratio, 

from inumbratus, pa. par. of inumbro = to 
darken.] Shade, shadow, overshadowing. 
"The obstruction and tnumbration beginueth oa 

that Mile."/ 1 . Holland : t'lutarch, p. M. 

* In tmct 6d, a. [Lat. invnctus, pa. paf. of 
inungo = to anoint.] Anointed. 

* in uhc -tion, s. [Lat. inunctio, from iuunc- 
tu$, pa. par. of inungo = to anoint.] The act 
of smearing or anointing ; unction. 

"Ao oily liniment, fit for the inunction of the fea- 
thers." Say : On the Creation, pt li. 

* in-tthc-tn-os'-I-ty, *. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eug. unctuosity (q.v.).] Want or absence of 
unctuosity ; absence of greasiness or oiliuees 
perceptible to the touch. 

* In-un'-dant, a. [Lat. invndans, pr. par. of 
inuntio = to flow over, to overflow : in- = in, 
upon, and undo, = a wave.] Overflowing. 

" Costly draughts, inundant bowls of icy." 

Shenttone .' Economy, 1. 

fn un-da -tee, s. pi. [Norn, fern, pL of Lat 

inundatus.] [INUNDATE.] 

But. : The name given by Linnaeus to the 
forty-eighth class of his Natural System of 
Botany. He included under it the genera 
Hippuris, Elatine, Ruppia, Typha, &c. 

in un' date, in -tin-date, v.t. [Lat. inun- 
datus, pa. par. of inundo = to overflow ; Fr. 
inonder ; Ital. inondare; 8p. inundar.] 

1. Lit. : To spread over or cover with a 
flood ; to overflow, to flood ; to submerge, to 
deluge. 

" During the period when the Nil* inundate* 
Egypt" Belt* : Herodotut, bk. it., not* 89. 

2. Fig. : To fill to overflowing ; to fill with 
overabundance or superfluity ; to swamp. 

In un -date, a. [INUNDATE, v.} 

Bot. & Geog. ; Flooded. (Treat. ofBot.) 

In-nn-da'-tion, . [Lat. inundatio, from in- 
undatus, pa. par. of inundo = to overflow ; Fr. 
inondation; 8p. inundation; Ital. inonda- 
sionc.} 

I Literally: 

1. The act of inundating or overflowing ; 
the state of being inundated or flooded. 

"ThU place bath a great pond caused by the inttn- 
ttufion of XHu&."HucKluyt : Voyaget, It 208. 

2. An overflow of waters ; a flood, a deluge. 
II. Fig. : An overflowing or overspreading 

of any kind ; a flood. 

" Many good towns, through that Inundation of the 
Irish were utterly wasted. Spenter : Pretent Staff 
nf Ireland. 

t inundation mud , *. 

Geol. : The same as LOESS (q.v.). 

* in un der-stand -ing, a. [Fret in- (2), 
and Eng. understanding (q.v.)t] Wanting or 
void of understanding. 

"Snob material and mortal, such inunderttandiny 
ouls." Pear ton: On the Creed, art. 10. 

In-ur-bane' a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
urbane (q.v.).] Not urbane, in civil, uncour- 
teous, impolite, rough. 

"Just it would be, and by no means inurbane," 
Matthew Arnold : Literature A Dogma (1873), p. 180. 

" ln-ur-bane'-l& adv. [Eng. inurbane ; -ly.] 
In an uncivil, uncourteous, or rough manner; 
not urbanely ; iucivilly. 

* In -ur- bane -ness, s. [Eng. inurbane; 
-ness.) The quality or state of being inur- 
bane ; incivility. 

* *n-ur-ban'-f-t& *. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
urbanity (q.v.).] Incivility, impoliteness ; rude 
unpolished manners. 

" Bach idle stuff . . . as his own servile inurbanity 
forbears not to put into the Apostle's mouth." Milton: 
Colatterion. 



In-iire , * en -ore, v.t. & i. [Pref. in- (1), 
and Mid. Eng. ure = work, operation, use ; 
O. Fr. owe, cevre, uevre, eure t from Lat. opera 
= work.] 

A* Transitive: 

1. To expose to use, practice, or operation 
until use gives little or no puin or inconveni- 
ence; to habituate, to accustom ; to make 
used, to harden. 

" Equally inured 

By moderation either state to bear, 
Prosperous or adverse." Milton : P. L., rl. SM. 

* 2. To accustom ; to make accustomed. 

" He ... did inure them to speak little." North : 
Plutarch, p. 94. 

* 3. To exercise, to practise. 

" The wits of the Utopians, inured and exercised In 
learning." Air T. Jfore : Utopia, bk. U.. ch. Til 

B. Intransitive : 

Law : To pass into use ; to take or have 
effect; to serve to the use or benefit of. 

* In-iire'-mdnt, s. [Eng. inure; -ment.] The 
act of inuring ; the state of being Inured ; 
practice, habit, use. 

" Education being nothing else bat a constant plight 
and inurement." Wort on ; Item aim, p. 79. 

*in-urn', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. urn 
(q.v.).] To put into a funeral urn ; to bury, 
to inter, to iutomb. 

"The sepulchre 
Wherein we saw thee quietly inurned." 

.SAo*p. .- Hamlet. I 4. 

* Xn-uf'-l-tate, . [ INVITATION.) Unusual; 
out of the common order, 

" I find some inutifate ex prewiuus about some mys- 
teries." Bramhaa : Work*, ii. 61. 

* In-us-i-ta'-tion, s. [Lat. inutitatus = nn- 
used : in- = not, aud usltatus = used, prac- 
tised.] The quality or state of being disused ; 
disuse, neglect. 

"The mammas of the male have not vanished by 
inuritdtivn."J>aley : Jfaturat Theology, ch, xxiii. 

* in list , a. [Lat. inustut, pa. par. of inuro 
= to burn in.] Burnt in. 

" That furious hot intut tin 
Anil, pt. ii., bk. Ui., ch. I, ( 

* in ust ion (ion as yttn), s. [Lat inwfio, 
from inustus, pa. par. of inuro : in- (intens,), 
and uro = to burn.] The act of burning in ; 
the act of branding. 

* in-U'-tile, a. [Fr., from Lat. inutilis, from 
in- = not ; utilis = useful ; utor m to use.] 
Useless, unprofitable. 

"To refer to heat and cold is a compendious and 
inutile speculation." Bacon : Natural fftttory. 

in-u-tU -I-t3r, 3. [Fr. inutilite, from Lat.inu- 

tii'itaUm, accua. of inutilitas, from inutilis 

useless.] The quality or state of being useless 

or unprofitable ; uselessness ; unprofitableness. 

" On their own opinion of their tnuftUly." Burke: 

Soonom. Reform. 

in-ut -ter a ble, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
utterable (q.v.).] Incapable of being uttered 
or told ; unutterable ; unspeakable. 

"They fill the mind with inutttrabii remorse and 
horror. Surd: Sermont, vol. vi., ser. 87. 

* In -u-tis, s. [Lat. Inuu* = another name for 
the rural god Pan.j 

Zool. : An obsolete genus of Old World 
monkeys, Simiadae, destitute of a tail. It is 
now merged in Macacus (q.v.). 

In vac'-u-o, phr. [Lat., = in what la empty.) 

1. Phys. : In a vacuum ; with the air ex- 
hausted. 

2. Law: 

0) Without object 

(2) Without concomitants or coherence. 
(WKarton.) 

In-vade', v.t. & t. [0. F. invader, from Lat 
invado, from in- in, into, and vado = to go ; 
Ital. invadere; 8p. & Port, invadir.] 
A. Transitive: 

* 1. To go or pass into ; to enter. 

"[It] doth then tnvadt 
The state of life, out of the griealy shade." 

Spenter: f. ., HL ri 7. 

2. To pass into or enter with hostile inten- 
tions ; to enter as an enemy, with intent to 
conquer or plunder ; to make an invasion 
into ; to enter by force. 

" Let others with Insatiate thirst of rule 
Invade their neighbour's land*." 

J.PhUipt: Blenheim. 

3. To attack, to assault. 

" With dangerous expedition to invade 
Heaven, whose high walls fear no assault, or siege. 
Or ambush.' J/Uton: f. L., ii. 843. 



4. To intrude or intrent.i upon ; to encroach 
on ; to violate ; to infringe. 

" The ancients thus their rules in*ade, 
As kings dispense with IS.WB themselves have mad*.** 
Pope : Euay on Crtticitm, 1*L 

* B. Intrans. : To make an invasion. 

"Where small aud great, where weak and mighty mad* 
To aerve, not surfer, strengthen, not invade." 

Pope: Kuay on Jfan, Hi. 2M. 

U For the difference between to invade and 
to encroach, see ENCROACH. 

In-vad'-er, . [Eng. invod(e); -tr.} One who 
i nv;utes, attacks, assaults, or encroaches ; an 
assailant ; an intruder.] 

" Who order'd Gideon forth, 
To storm the invader'* camp." 

Cowper : Olney Bymmt, IT. 

in va'-dl-6, phr. [Mod. Lat., from Lat. vador 
= to bind over by bail.] lu gage, in pledge. 

* Jn-vag'-I-nate. v.t. [Lat. in- = in, and 
vagina = a sheath.] To sheathe ; to put into 
a sheath. 

In-vafc-l-na'-tion, *. [IKVAOINATE.] 

A not. ( f Pathol. : The same as INTUSSUSCEP- 
TION (q.v.). 

* in-va-lds'-^enoe, . [Lat. invalesctns, pr. 
par. of invalesco = to become strong : in- 
(intens.), and valesco = to become strong, in- 
cept. of valeo=io be strong or well.] Strength, 
health, force. 



& o. [Pref. in- (2\ 

and Eng. valetudinary (q. v. ) .] Wanting 
health ; not healthy, not strong. 

In val'-Id, a. & s. [Fr. invalide, from Lat. 
invalidus, from in- = not, and validut * 
strong : raleo = to be strong or well ; Ital. A 
8p. invalid^.] 

A. As adjective: 

L Ordinary Language: 

L, Of no force, weight, or cogency. 

" But this I urge, 

Admitting motion In the heaven*, to shew 
Invalid, that which thee to doubt it moved." 

Milton : P. L., vill. lift 

8. Not strong ; in ill health ; delicate, ill 

"i In this second sense, and as a substan- 
tive, the pronunciation is in-ni-lid'. 

II. Law: Having no force or effect; null ; void. 

"The bishop . . . did now clearly perceive how *n- 
aiidaud iusufflcieut it (the iaarrias] was." Buntet: 
Hilt. Ktformatiun, an. 1SS7. 

B. As substantive : 

1. One who is not strong In health ; one 
who is weak, infirm, or delicate. 

" Bath ... Is always as well stowed with gallants u 
invalid*, who live together in a very good understand- 
ing." Tatler, No. 16. 

2. A soldier or sailor disabled either by 
sickness or wounds for active service. 

"H.M. troopship 'Orontes' has arrived from Alex- 
andria with 190 naval in*alid> and time-expired men." 
Daily Nevet, Sept. , 1884. 

Invalid-bed, s. A bed having conveni- 
ences for the sick or the wounded, having ele- 
vating head and shoulder portion, to give the 
patient a change of position ; a portion which 
conforms to the shape of the bended knees, 
and other conveniences for the patient's com- 
fort 

invalid-chair, 5. A chair capable of as- 
suming and retaining any required position 
from the erect to the prone. 

If Invalid is a general and patient a par- 
ticular term ; a person may be an invalid 
without being a patient ; he may be a patient 
without being an invalid. 

in-va-lid', v.t. & i. [INVALID, a.] 

A. Transitive: 

1. To affect with disease or illness ; to render 
an invalid. 

" Drawing the invalided stroller's arm through his." 
Dickent : Pickwick, ch. xlv. 

2. To register as an invalid ; to insert in 
the list of persons unfit fur military or naval 
duty ; to give leave of absence from duty on 
account of illness or ill health. 

* B. Intrant. : To consent to be placed on 
the list of invalids. 

in-vAI i date, v.t. [Eng. invalid; -ate; Fr. 
invalider ; Sp. invalidar ; Ital. invalidare.] 
To make invalid or not valid; to weaken, 
lesaen, or destroy the validity or force of; to 
render of no effect or force ; to overthrow. 

" Argument Is to be invalid-ited only by argument 
and is in itself of the same force, whether or nt ii 
convince* him by whom it is proposed." Ramitvr t 
No. 14. 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, air, marine; go, rot, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full ; try, Syrian , GO = e ; ey = a. qu - kw. 



inv alidation invention 



2725 



In-val-l-da'-tion, *. [INVALIDATE.] The 
state of invalidating or rendering invalid ; the 
state of being invalidated. 

"So many invalidation* of their right*,- Bur** ; 
Powers of Jurie*. 

* In'-va-lid-ism f s. [Eng. invalid ; -tern.) 
The quality or state of being an invalid ; sick- 
ness, ill-health. 

In-va-Ud'-J-t^, *. [Fr. invaliditt, from Lat. 
invaliditatem, accua. of invaliditas, from in- 
validus = not strong, invalid (q.v.).J 

1. Want of validity, legal force, or efficacy ; 
want of cogency. 

"Ill show the invalidity of their objection." Glan- 
vfn : Pre-exittence of Souls, ch. iv. 

2. Want of bodily health or strength ; In- 
firmity. 

" He ordered that none who could work should be 
Idle : and that none who could not work, by age, weak- 
ness, or invalidity, should want." Temple. 

* In-val'-Id-ness, s. [Eng. invalid; -ness.] 
Invalidity. 

In-val'-or-OUS, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
valorous (q.v.).] Wanting in courage; timid, 
timorous. 

In-val'-u-a-ble, a. [Pref. in- (intens.), and 
Eng. valuable (q.v.).] Precious above esti- 
mation ; so valuable that its worth cannot be 
estimated ; of inestimable value, 

" His friends adjured him to take more care of a life 
tnvtilnalile to his couutry." Jtacaulay : ffitt, Eng,, 
Ch. vli. 

Hn-vaT-u-a-bl^, adv. [Eng. invaluable) ; 
-ly.] In an invaluable manner or degree; 
above all estimation ; inestimably. 

"That invaluably precious blood of the Bonne of 
God." Bp. Butt : Sermon of Thanksgiving, Jan., 1626. 

In-val'-ued. a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
valued (q.v.).] Invaluable ; inestimable. 

" Closely conveys thi great invalued spoil.* 

Drayton : Baront' Wart, vi. 16. 

fa-var-f-a-bn'-i-t& s. [Eng. invariable; 
-ity.] The quality or state of being invari- 
able ; invariableness. 

"This invariability In the birds' operation*." 
Digby: Of Bodiet, cb. xxxvii. 

ta-var'-l'-a-ble, a. & s. [Fr.] 

A, As adj.: Not variable; not subject or 
liable to change ; constant in the same state ; 
unchangeable, unalterable. 

" According to some invariable and certain laws." 
Burke : On Tatte. (lutrod.) 

B. As substantive : 

Math. : An invariable quantity ; a constant. 
invariable-function, *. 

Math. : A function which enters an equation, 
and which may vary under, certain circum- 
stances, but which does not vary under the 
conditions imposed by the equation, is called 
the invariable of the equation. In a common 
differential equation which holds true for all 
values of x and y, the only invariable^ must 
be absolute constants ; but in an equation of 
differences in which the value of x only passes 
from one whole number to another, any func- 
tion which does not change value whilst x 
passes from one whole number to another, 
may be an invariable. 

Jn-var'-I-a-ble-ness, s. [Eng. invariable; 
-ness.] Th'e quality or state of being invari- 
able ; constancy of state ; unchangeableness ; 
immutability. 

" From the dignity of their Intellect arises the in- 
wrioWenew of their wills." Jfountague: Devoute 
JKuayet, pt IL, tr. 11.. f 3. 

In-var'-i-a-bl f t adv. [Eng. invariable); -??/.] 
In an invariable manner ; without changing 
or altering ; constantly ; uniformly. 

" He almost invariably took that view of the great 
questions of his time which history has finally 
adopted." jfaeaulay : Bitt. Eng.. ch. xxi 

*|n-Var'-le'd,a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. varied 
(q.v.).] Unvaried, invariable, unchanging. 

fn-va-fion, *. [Fr., from Lat. invasionem, 
accus. of invasions, going in, from invasvs, 
pa. par. of invado =s to invade (q.v.) ; Sp. in- 
vasion; Ital. invasione.} 

1. The act of invading ; the act of entering 
into the country of another with a view to 
conquest or plunder ; a hostile attack upon or 
entrance into the territory of others. 

" Pound able bv inviuton to annoy 
Thy country Jftlton : P. ft., lit S 

2. An attack or encroachment on the rights or 
privileges of others ; infringement ; violation. 



3. The approach or assault of anything dan- 
gerous or pernicious. 

" What demonstrates the plague to be eudemial to 
Egypt. Is its invmion and going off at certain seasons." 
Arbutknot. 

U Invasion expresses merely the general 
Idea, without any particular qualification ; in- 
cursion signifies a hasty and sudden invasion ; 
irruption signifies a particularly violent inva- 
sion ; inroad signifies a making a road or way 
for one's self, which includes invasion and oc- 
cupation. (Crabb ; Eng. Synon.) 

* In-va'-sive, a. [Low Lat. invasivus. from 
Lat. invasus, pa. par. of invado = to invade 
(q.v.) ; Fr. invasif.] Invading; aggressive. 

" With them to dare 
The fiercest t*rrour of invasive war." 

Boole : Orlando Furioto, bk. xxxlll. 

* m-vock'-eo, a. [Etym. doubtful.] 

Her. : A term used by writers on heraldry 
for double arching. [ARCHED.] 

* In-vecf, v.i. [T>at. invectus, pa. par. of in- 
veho = to carry into, to inveigh (q.v.).] To 
inveigh. 

" Fool that I am, thus to invert against her." 

Beaum. A fief. : Faithful Friend, ill. 3. 

In-vSct'-Sd, a. [Lat. invectus, pa. par. of in- 
veho= to carry in.] 

Her. : The reverse to engrailed, all the points 
turning inwards to the ordinary thus borne, 
with the semicircles outward to the field. 

* Xn-veV-tion. s. [Lat. invectio, from invec- 
tus, pa. par. or inveho.} Invective. 

Xn-veV-tlye, s. & a. [Fr., from Lat invecti- 
vus, from invectus, pa. par. of inveho = to in- 
veigh (q.v.) ; 8p. invectiva; Ital. invettiva.} 

A, A$ subst. : A censorious or vituperate 
attack on a person ; a censure in speech or 
writing ; a severe or violent expression of cen- 
sure or abuse ; a bitter and reproachful accu- 
sation. 

"A tide of fierce 
Invective seemed to wait behind her HI*.* 

Tennytun ; Princett, IT. 451. 

B. As adj.; Censorious, satirical, vitupera- 
tive, abusive, 

" Satire among the Romans, but not among the 
Greeks, was a biting invective poem." Dryden ; Ju- 
venal. (Dedlc.) 

ln-vc'-tlve-l& adv. [Eng. invective; ~ly.] In 
the manner of invective; abusively, censor- 
ously, satirically. 

" Thus most invectivdy he plerceth through 
The body of the country, city, court." 

Shakctp. : At You Like It, 11. 1. 

I Jn-veV-thre-neas. *. [Eng. invective; 
ness.] The quality of being invective or vi- 
tuperative ; abusiveness. 

" Some wonder at his invectiveneu." Fuller: Wor- 
tMet; Hantt. 

In veigh (cigh as a), * In vey, r.t. [Lat. 
inveho = to carry into or to, to inveigh : in- = 
in, into, and veho = to carry ; Sp. invehir. ] 
To utter or make use of invectives ; to ex- 
claim censoriously and abusively against a 
person or thing ; to declaim ; to utter cen- 
sorious and bitter language. (Usually followed 
by against, but sometimes by at and on.) 

"In regretting the depopulation of the country, T 
inveigh againtt the increase of our luxuries.* 1 Gold- 
tmith : Deterted Village. (To Sir Jothua Jleynotut.) 

In veigh er (eigh as a), s. [Eng. inveiyh ; 
-er.} One who inveighs ; a railer. 

" One of these tnveighert against mercury. In seven 
weeks, could not cure one small herpes in toe face." 
Witeman : Surgery, bk. vlll., ch. li. 

Jn-vei'-gle, * Sn-veT-gle, * in-voa- glc, 

v.t. [Etyni. doubtful ; by some thought to be 
a corruption of Fr. aveugler = to blind, from 
Low Lat. aboculus = blind : Lat. ab- = away, 
from, and ocvlus = an eye. By others referred 
to Ital. invogliare = to give a desire to, to 
make one long for, from in- = in, voglia = a 
wish ; Lat. volo = to wish. Puttenham, in 
1587, ranks this word with those which had 
been quite recently introduced into the lan- 
guage.] To persuade to something bad or 
hurtfiil ; to entice, to seduce, to allure, to 
wheedle, to entrap. 

"A Serjeant made use of me to inveigle country 
fellows, and list them iu the service of the parlia- 
ment. 11 -- Tatter, No. 2. 

In-vei'-gle-ment, s. [Eng. inveigle; -ment.] 

1. The act of inveigling ; seduction to evil ; 
enticement. 

2. That which Inveigles, reduces, or allures ; 
enticement. 

" Through the invtigtementt of the world, and the 
frailty of his nature.** South ; Serniont, vol. vi., ser. 4. 



In voi'-gler, * en-vol'-glor, *. [Eng. in- 
veig^e); -er.} One who inveigles, entices, or 
seduces to evil ; an allurer, an enticer. 

** As still fs seene in court enueiglert an 
Procurers of despite and avarice." 

liirrourjor JfayittraUt, p. 1st 

* In-veir (el as a), * In-vayl, v.t. [Pret 
in~ (1), and Eng, veil (q.v.)/] To cover, as 
with a veil ; to veil, to cover. 

" When straight a thlcke swolne cloud 
Invaylcd the luetre of great Titan's carre." 
Browne: Britannia t f'attoralt. bk. ill.. . t 

11 In-vel-ope, v.(. [ENVELOPE, v.} 



d-X-bll'-I-t^ . [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. vendi&iWy (q.v.).] The quality or statft 
of being invendible ; unsaleableness. 

" All that Is terrible In this case Is, that the author 
may be laughed at, and the stntimier beggared by tb* 
book's invendibilify."Brome. (To the Reader.) 

* In-vSnd'-JE-ble, a. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
vendible (q.v.).] Not vendible ; not saleable; 
unsaleable. 

* In-ven'-om, v.t. [ENVENOM.] 

3tn-venf , v.t. [Fr. inventer, from Lat. inventua, 
pa. par. of invenio = to come upon, to find, to 
invent, from in- = in, upon, and venio=to 
come ; Sp. inventar; Ital. inventare.] 

* 1. To come or light upon ; to find, to meet 
with. 

" I She] vowed neuer to returne againe, 
Till him allue or dead she did invent." 

Spenter: F. Q. III. T. 10, 

* 2. To find out, to discover. 

" Zoroastres, kyng of the Bactrfans, who Is reported 
to haue fyrst inumtted arte-magicke." Qotdyng : 
Jtutine, to. 1. 

3. To contrive and produce, as a thing that 
did not exist previously. 

** ' They hunt old trails.' said CyrH. * very welfc; 
But when did woman ever yet invent I ' " 

Tennyton : Princeu, 11. M9. 

4. To frame by the imagination ; to exco- 
gitate, to devise, to concoct, to fabricate. 
(Used in a good or bad sense.) 

"And they layde their heades togtther, tH they 
had inuented an other captioua questiou," BarnetJ 
Workei, p. 223. 

* 5. To feign, 

T (1) To invent, feign t and frame are all 
occasionally employed in the ordinary con- 
cerns of life, and in a bad sense ; fabricate and 
forge are never used any otherwise. Invent is 
employed as to that which is the fruit of one's 
own mind ; to feign is employed as to that 
which is unreal ; to fra-me is employed as to 
that which requires deliberation and arrange- 
ment ; to fabricate and forge are employed as 
to that which is absolutely false, and requiring 
more or less exercise of the inventive power. 
(Ora&b .* Eng. Synon.) 

(2) For the difference between to invent and 
to contrive, see CONTRIVE ; for that between 
to invent and to find, see FIND. 

In-vSnt'-r, s. [INVENTOR.] 

* in-vent -fuL, a. [Eng. invent; -ful(D.] Ful 

of invention; inventive. 

'Xn-v&af-l-ble, a. [Eng. invent; -able.} 
Capable of being invented ; discoverable. 

"I thought there had been but one only exquisite 
way inventible." Century qf Invention*, No. 7. 

* in-vent i-ble-ness, s. [Eng. inventible ; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being in- 
ventible. 

in-vcn'-tion, * in-yen-cion, *. [Fr. in- 
vention, from Lat. inventionem, accus. of in- 
ventio = & coming upon, a finding out, from 
inventits, pa. par. of invenio to flud out, to 
Invent; Sp. invencion; Ital. invenzione.] 

* 1. The act of coming upon, meeting with, 
or finding : as, the Invention of the Cross of 
St. Helena. 

2. The act, operation, or process of finding 
out or discovering something new, or not pre- 
viously known ; discovery. 

"The finding out of apt matter, caled otherwise 
invention, is a searching out of things true or thing* 
likely." Wilton : Arle of Rhetorique, p. fl. 

3. The act of excogitating, devising, or pro- 
ducing mentally ; excogitation. 

" Generally all stanzas are, In my opinion, hut ty- 
rants and torturers, when they make invention obey 
their number, which sometimes would otherwise 
scantle it*elf." Drayton: Barons' Wart. (Pref.) 

4. The act of contriving, framing, and pro- 
ducing something new : as, the invention of 
the steam-engine. 

5. The power or faculty of inventing or ex- 



boJl, bo^ ; poiit, J6rvl ; oat, 90!!, chorus, ^hin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, ^ onophou, exist, ph = 
-oiau, tian = ahau. -tion, sion --- shun ; -tion, -slon - zJuun, -clous, - tious, aious --- shus* -ble. -die, Ac. = bel. dtjl, 



2726 



inventions invertebrata 



cogitating; that skill or ingenuity which is, 
or may be, employed in contriving, devising, 
or excogitating anything new ; the creative 
and imaginative faculty ; specifically, fn art, 
the conception or representation of a subject, 
the selection and disposition of its various 
parts, and the whole means by which the 
artist seeks to portray his thoughts. 

" Gifted by nature with fertile invention, an ardent 
temperament, and great powers of persuasion." Mao 
aulay : Hit'. Kng.. ch. xx. 

6. That which is invented ; an original con- 
trivance. 

" The invention all admired ; and ach how be 
To be the inventor misted, BO easy it seemed. 
Once found." iiaton : P. L., vi. tw. 

7. That which Is mentally invented or ex- 
cogitated ; a thought, a desire, a scheme, a 
forgery, a fabrication, a fiction. 

" We bear our bloody cousins, not confeulng 
Their cruel parricide, filling their hearers 
With strange invention.' ShaJtetp. : Maabeth, ill. 1. 

8. Mvstc: A term used by J. 8. Bach, and 
probably by him only, for small pianoforte 
pieces, each developing a single Idea, and in 
some measure answering to the impromptu of 
ft later day. (Sir G. Grow, in Diet, of Music.) 

11 Invention of the Cross: 
Ecclesiol. A Church History: 

1. The alleged finding of the cross of Our 
Lord by Helena, mother of Constantino the 
Great. [HOLY-CROSS.] 

2. A feast, celebrated on May 3, In honour of 
the event mentioned above. It Is said to have 
been first celebrated in the Church of Santa 
Croce, at Rome. Gregory XI. (1370-78), who 
brought back the seat of the Popedom from 
Avignon to Rome, ordered a special office to 
be composed for this feast. Clement VIII. 
(1592-1605) raised it to a double of the second 
class, and removed parts of the old office. 

* in - ven'- ttous, o. [Eng. invent; 
Inventive. 

"Then art a fine inrentiout rogue." Ben Jonton : 
Cyntttia't Revett, 1L 1. 

In veilt -Ive, a. [Fr. inventif, from Lat. in- 
ventvs, pa. par. of invenio; Ital. & Sp. in~ 
ventivo.} 

1. Quick at contrivance; ready at expe- 
dients ; fertile In invention, imagination, or 
contrivance. 

" A beautiful and ]>erfect whole 
Which busy mail's inventive brain 
Tolls to anticipate, in rain." 

Covoper : EpMU to Lady A urtm. 
* 2. Fabricating, false. 

** The queen's fond hope inventive rumour cbeen." 
Pope: Homer ; Odyury t. US. 

* in-vfint'-Xve-ly, adv. [Eng. inventive; 
ly.] By the means or power of invention. 

in - vent'- Xve - ness, s. [Eng. inventive ; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being in- 
ventive ; the faculty of invention ; invention. 

in-ventf-or, In-vSnt'-er, * in-vent-our, 

s. [Fr. inventeur, from Lat, inventorem, accus. 
of inventor = a discoverer, from inventus, pa. 
par. of invenio ; ItaL inventore.] One who 
invents, contrives, or produces something new. 

"O mighty-mouthed intent or of harmonies." 

Tenni/ton- Milton, 

* In-ven-tbr'-X-al, o. [Eng. inventory; -al.] 
Of or pertaining to an inventory. 

In-vSn-tor'-l-al-ly.adtJ. [Eng. tnventortal; 
-ly.} In manner of an inventory. 

" To divide him inventoriaUy would d izzy the rl th- 
met ic of memory.'* ShaJceip. : Samlet, T. S. 

In ven tor-y , * in- ven tar -ie, * in- ven- 
tor-le, 8. [Lat. inventorium ; Fr. inven- 
taire; Ital., Sp., & Port inventario.] A list 
or catalogue of goods and chattels, containing 
a full, true, and particular description of each, 
with its value, made on various occasions, as 
on the sale of goods, decease of a person, 
storage of goods for safety, &c. ; hence,* 
generally a list, an account, a catalogue. 

" To compare their account with the inventoriet 
made in former visitations." Burnet : Bixt. Reform. 
(an. 1553). 

|n'-ven-tor-y\ v.t. [INVENTORY, .] To make 
or draw up an inventory of; to set down iu 
an inventory ; to make a list, catalogue, or 
schedule of. 

" The philosopher thought friends were to be inven- 
toried as well as food*." Government of the Tongue. 

In-ven'-tress, s, [Eng. inventor; .) A 
female who invents. 

" Cecilia came, 
Inventmt *f the vocal frame." 

Dry den: Ode on St. Cecilia' t Day. 



In-ver-, pref. [Gael.] A confluence of rivers. 
It is used largely as an element in place names 
in Scotland, as Inverness, /nverary, Ac. 

In-vSr-i-sfan-lT-l'-tuac, . [Pref. in- (2), 

and Eng. verisimilitude (q.v.).'} Want of veri- 
similitude ; improbability. 

In -ver-znin-a'-tlon, s. [Lat. in- = within, 
and verminatio (genit. verminationis) = the 
worms, the boU ; from vermino, to be troubled 
with worms ; remits = a worm.] The same as 
HELHINTHIASIB (q.v.). 

In-ver-nac'-u-ld, . [Sp.] A greenhouse 
for preserving plants in winter. 

In verse', a. [O.Fr. invere (Fr. inverse), from 
Lat. inrersia, pa. par. of inverto = to Invert 
(q.v.) ; Ital. & Sp. inverto.} 

L Ord. Lang. : Opposite in order or rela- 
tion ; Inverted, reciprocal ; opposed to direct. 

IL Technically : 

1. Hot. : The same as INVERTED (q.v.). 
(London.) 

2. Math. : Two operations are inverse, when 
the one is exactly contrary to the other, or 
when, being performed in succession upon a 
given quantity, that quantity remains un- 
altered, Addition and subtraction are inverse 
operations, for, if we add to a the quantity 
b. and from the sum subtract the quantity b, 
the result will be . Multiplication and divi- 
sion, raising to powers and extracting roots, 
differentiation and integration, are all inverse 
operations. If two variable quantities are 
connected by an equation, either one is a func- 
tion of the other. If it be agreed to call the 
first a direct function of the second, then is 
the second an inverse function of the first. 
The forms of direct and inverse function*, as 
dependent upon the connecting equation, may 
be determined by solving the equation with 
respect to each function separately. 

inverse or reciprocal proportion, s. 

Math. : The application of the rule of three 
In a reverse or contrary order. 

inverse or reciprocal ratio, a> 

Math. : The ratio of the reciprocals of two 
quantities. 

In-versed', a. [Eng. inverse); -<&) In- 
verted ; turned upside down. 



" A invcrrd V did formerly stand for 
H inverted re (or muHer.'WUMnt: 
Meatnger. en. x. 



, and 
Jt Swift 



in-verse'-ly, adv. [Eng. invent; -Zy.] In 
an inverse or inverted order or manner ; in an 
inverse ratio or proportion ; as, when one 
tiling is greater or less in proportion, as 
another is less or greater. 

In-veV-Sion, *. [Lat. invenio, from invenvs, 
pa. par. of inverto = to invert (q.v.); Fr. & 

Sp. Inversion ; Ital. inversione.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of inverting; change of order, 
so that the first becomes last and the last 
first ; a turning or changing of the natural 
order of things. 

'* By an odd insertion of the command, all that w 
do Is first to pray against a temptation, and afterwards 
to watch for It. fl&ut* : Sermont, voL vL. Mr. 10. 

2. Change of place, so that each takes the 
place of the other. 

" The one protruding the other by insertion, where- 
of they make a backward motion. Brotene: Vulgar 
rrour$, bk. ili, ch, xv. 

3. A turning backward ; a reversing of the 
ordinary process : as, Problems in arithmetic 
are proved by inversion. 

IL Technically: 

1. Chem. : The change which takes place 
when starch, dextrin, or sugar is boiled with 
a dilute acid, pifferentacidsact with various 
degrees of rapidity; mineral more quickly 
than organic acids ; sulphuric acid the most 
quickly of all. Thus starch and dextrin are 
changed into glucose, cane-sugar into invert 
sugar, maltose into glucose, Ac, Inversion 
may also take place in the presence of fer- 
ments, or by prolonged boiling with water. 

2. Geol. : The overturning or folding over of 
strata by Igneous agency, so that the order of 
their succession seems reversed. 

3. Gram. : A change of the natural order of 
words in a sentence. 

"Accustomed now to a different method of ordering 
our words, we call this an inwrtion, and consider It M 
a forced and unnatural order of speech." Blair, vol. L, 
lct.7. 



4. Math. : The operation of ('hanging the 
order of the terms, so that the antecedent 
shall take the place of the consequent and the 
reverse, in both couplets. Thus, from the 
proportion o : b : : c : d, we have, by inver- 
sion, b : a : : d : c. 

5. Milit. : A movement in tactics by which 
the order Of companies in line is inverted, the 
right being on the left, the left on the right, 
and so on. 

6. M us, : The transposition of certain 
phrases having a common root. (1) The inwr- 
version of a chord is effected by making nne 
of the Inner notes act as a bass note, and by 
this means aa many inversions can be made 
as there are actual notes in the chord, not 
counting the root. In such inversions the 
harmony remains the same, although the 
order of component parts is changed. (2) 
Intervals are inverted by making that which 
was the upper note the lower, and the reverse. 
The inversion of an interval within the ootave 
may readily be found in the difference between 
the figure 9 and the interval known ; then an 
interval of a second becomes a seventh by 
inversion, Ac. (3) The inversion of a subject 
is produced by inverting the intervals of which 
it consists. 

7. Rhet. : A mode of argument by which the 
speaker tries to show that the arguments of 
his opponent tell against his own cause, and in 
favour of the speaker's. 

In-verf, v.t. [Lat. inverto to turn over :<n- 

towards, up,andtxrto=to turn; Ital. inverters.) 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. To turn upside down ; to place In an in- 
verse or contrary position or orcier. 

" The spear inverteti, streak* the dust around." 
Pitt ; Virgil ; .neid L 

8. To divert ; to turn into another channel 
or to another purpose ; to embezzle. 

" Solyman charged him bitterly with inverting his 
treasures to his own private use, and having secret 
Intelligence with hit cnemla." Knollet : But. qf Ike 
Turke*. 
IL Technically: 

1. MILS. : To change the order of the notes 
which form a chord, or the parts which com* 
pose harmony. 

2. Math, : To place in a contrary order. To 
invert the terms of a fraction is to put the 
numerator in place of the denominator, aud 
the reverse. 

In'-vcrt, . HNVERT, ] 

1. Au inverted arch. 

2. The floor of a canal lock-chamber. It Is 
usually an inverted arch. 

3. The lower part or bottom of a sewer, 
drain, Ac. 

Invert-sugar, *. 

Chem. : A mixture of dextrose and hevulose, 
obtained by boiling a solution of cane sugar, 
acidulated with sulphuric acid, and afterwards 
removing the acid with chalk. CigH^On 
CfiHiaOg+CeHjoOj. It is sweeter than cane 
sugar, and rotates the plane of polarisation to 
the left (25'). Honey is the sugar of the 
nectaries of flowers, inverted by a ferment in 
the body of the bee. 

In- vert' ant, a. [Fr.] 

Her. : The same as INVERTED (q.v.). 

in-vert'-g-bral, a. [Pret in* (2), and Lat* 

verUbr(a) a joint; suff. -al.} The same M 
INVERTEBRATE, adj. (q.v.). 

Jn-ver-tfi-bra'-ta, . pi. [Pref. in-; Lat. 

vertebra = a joint, especially one belonging 
to the spine, and ueut. pL suffi. -ctfa.] 

ZooL: A subdivision of the Animal King- 
dom, containing the animals which have no 
jointed, bony, or cartilaginous spinal column^ 
with a brain-case or limbs connected with an 
Internal skeleton. The adults want even the 
cartilaginous rod or notochord, though rudi- 
ments of itexist in the young of the Tunicuted 
molluscs. A great group, or division foundedj 
like the Invertebrata, on negative characters, 
is not homogeneous or natural, and animals 
of immense variety of form and structure are 
brought together by the negative character of 
their being invertebrate. They are divided 
into the following great groups or types ; 
Mollnsca, Arthropoda,Vermes, Echinodermata, 
Zoophyta, and Protozoa, with two interme- 
diate or connecting groups, the Tnuicata and 
the Molluscoida. (Prof. P. Martin Duncan, 



Ate, f&t, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we. wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go. pot, 
or. wore. WQU. work, whd, sou ; mute. cub. cure, unite, our, rule, full ; try* Syrian. ,oa=e; ey = a. qu^ lew* 



Invertebrate inveterably 



2727 



In-vert'-e-brate, a. & . [INVERTEBRATA.] 

A. As adjective: 

1. Lit, : Destitute of vertebra. 

" It WM evident that there was DO proportion or 
equivalency between the vertebrate and the inverte- 
brate groups." Owen ; Cotnpar. Anat.; Invertebrates 
[Animal*]. 

2. Fig. : Wanting in material or mental 
power ; weak. 

" To me the Tory Irrlcs are quite RJ delightful as the 
Radical unes ao long as they are not hi vertebrate." 
Iltutt. London Xewt, Aug. 30, 1884. p. 195. 

B. As subtt. : An animal destitute of verte- 
bras. 

(n-verff-e'-brat-e'd, a. [Eng. invertebrate); 
ed.\ Not having a backbone ; invertebrate, 

In vert'-ed, pa. par. & o. [INVERT, r.] 
A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 
B* As adjective : 

L Ord. lM,ng. : Turned upside down ; turned 
the contrary way ; reversed, inverse. 

"O Winter, ruler of the inverted year. 
Thy scattered hair with sleet like ashes filled.* 
Covper; Task, lv. 190. 

H Technically: 

1. Bot. : Having the apex of one thing in an 
Opposite direction to that of another, as in 
many seeds. 

2. OeoL (of strata): So tilted over by Igneous 
or other agency that their position with re- 
spect to other strata Is the opposite of what 
It originally was. Hence, unless special care 
be taken, its age, as tested by superposition, 
may be misread. The most ancient rocks are 
those most likely to be inverted. Thus, Mur- 
chison notes the inversion of the Silurians in 
Cornwall, in the Eifel, in the Alps, Ac. 

" Protestor Sedgwick has shown, indeed, that these 
trriu are inverted, the Lower Silurian (which he now 
calls Cambrian), overlying the Devonian or Old Hed 
rooks.* Murchison: SUtiri*, ch. Til. 

3. Her. : Turned the wrong way : as wings 
are said to be inverted when the points are 
turned downwards. 

Inverted-arch, s. 

Arch. : An arch whose crown Is downward ; 
the key-stone being the lowest of the vmis- 
Boirs, and the springings the highest It is 
used In foundations, the floors of tunnels, &c, 

in verted -commas, s. pi. 
Print. : Commas turned upside down ; they 
are used as the sign of a quotation (" "), 



& adv. [Eng. inverted; -ly.} 
In an inverse, contrary, or inverted order. 

** We have a pretty laiuUkip of the object* abroad 
fcuvrtty pointed on the paper, OB the back of the 
eye." Oerkam: Phytlco - Theology. bk. lv., ch, ii. 



m vert I ble (1), a. (Eng. invert; 
Capable of being inverted. 



-i-blc (2), a. [Lat. ln- = not, and 
verto = to turn.] Incapable of being turned ; 
Inflexible. 

In-vert'-in, . [Eng. invert; and suff. *fn 

- 



Chem. : The active principle of the yeast 

Slant, obtained by repeatedly washing yeast, 
rst with water and then with alcohol. On 
shaking up the residue with ether, the in- 
vertin which rises to the surface is removed 
and carefully dried. In vertin has the power 
of inverting cane sugar, bat has no action on 
maltose. 

to- vest , v.t. & *. [Fr. tnvestir, from Lat. in- 
vestio = to clothe in or with : in- = in, and 
vestio = to clothe ; vesti* - a dress, clothing ; 
Bp. invfsstir; ItaL investire.] 

A. Transitive: 

I. Ordinary Language 7 

* L To dress, to clothe, to array. (Followed 
by with or in.) 

** Invett me in my motley." 

Shabap. : At Tou r It, It ?. 

* 2. To put on ; to clothe, attire, or array 
With. 

" Alas t for ptttle that so fair a crewe . . . 
Cannot find one this girdle to invftf." 

Hftmter ; ,'. Q.. IV. T. IS. 

* 8. To cover, as with a dress. 

*' Thou . . . wlt\ a mantle did inwxt 
The rising world of water* dark ard deep." 

Mil** P. L..UL Mi 

* 4. To cover, to fin. 

" Palmy ahadet and aromatic woods, 
That grace the plain*, invetf the peopled hill*. 
And up the more than Alpine mountain wave. 

Thornton : Summer, 793. 



5. To clothe as with an office or authority ; 
to place in possession of a rank, office, or 

dignity. 

" The licence of traducing the executive power with 
which you own he U in*e*t4d."~&rj/dt* : Xputle to 
0* Whig*. 

* 0. To adorn, to grace, to bedeck : as with 
clothes or ornaments. 

" For this they hare been thoughtful to invest 
Their soua with arts and luartiiil exercises." 

Shaketp. : 2 Henry 1 7.. IT. ft. 

* 7. To confer, to give. 

"If there can be found such an Inequality between 
man and man, ai there is between man and beast : or 
between soul and body, it invetteth a right of govern- 
ment." Bacon. 

8. To lay out, as money in the purchase of 
some kind of property, usually of a permanent 
nature : as, To invest money in land. 

11. Mil. : To blockade, to beleaguer, to sur- 
round or inclose with forces, so as to intercept 
succour of men or provisions. 

B. Intrans. : To make an investment : as, 
To invest in bank stock. 

U One is invested with that which is exter- 
nal : one is endued with that which is internal. 
We invest a person with an office or a dignity : 
one endues a person with good qualities. The 
king is invested with supreme authority ; a 
lover endues his mistress with every earthly 
perfection. (Crabb : Eng. Synon.) 

* In-yeV-tl'-e nt, a. (Lai. invcstiens, pr. par. 
of inwstio.] Covering, clothing. 

"This sand, which, when consolidated and treed 
from its invettietif shell, is tit the same shape at ttie 
cavity of the shell."- Woodward : On fosttit. 

* In-veV-tlg-a-ble (1), a. [Lat. investiga- 
bttis, from investigo = to track out.] That 
may or can be investigated, searched ont, or 
discovered by reasoning or research. 

"In doing evil, we prefer a lees food before a 1 greater, 
the greatness whereof is by reason invettigablc, and 
may oe known." Booker: Ecctet. Polity, bk. l.,cn. vii. 

Xn-veV-tte-a-ble (2), a. [Low Lat in- 

vestigabilis, from Lat. in- not. and vertigo = 
to track out.] That cannot be investigated or 
searched out ; unsearchable. 

" Through the investigable deep." 

Cotton : Eighth Fialin Faraphrcutd. 

in-veV tl gate, v.t. [Lat. invettigntue, pa. 
par. of investigo = to track out : in- = in, and 
vestigo = to trace ; vestigium, = a footstep, a 
track; Sp. & Port, investigar; ItaL invest i- 
gart.] To search or trace out; to follow np, to 
pursue, to search into ; to examine and Inquire 
into carefully and closely ; to examine into 
with care and accuracy. 

" This process of investigating the truth In dark and 
ambiguous cases." Jortin: Kemarla on Ecclm. ffitt. 

In-ves-tl-ga'-tlon, 9. [Lat. investigate, 
from investigatus, pa. par. of investigo; Fr. 

investigation ; Sp. investigation ; Ital. investi- 
gazione,] The act of investigation, inquiring, 
or examining closely into any thing ormatter ; 
close and careful examination or research ; 
scrutiny, inquiry, inquisition. 

"The delight which the mind feels In the tnvtttiga* 
tton of secrets." Jehnton : U/e o/ &ryd*n. 

* In-ves'-tl'-ga-trire, a. [Eng. investigate) ; 
-ire.] Given to investigation ; curious, care- 
ful, and exact in examination or investigation. 

" When money WM in his pocket he was more de- 
liberate and ini>fttiffntive."Peyffe : Anecdote! of Eng- 
lith Language, p. 305. 

In-vSs'-ti-ga-tor, . [Lat., from investigatus, 
pa. par. of investigo; Fr. investigateur ; Ital. 
investigatore ; Sp. investigador. ] One who in- 
vestigates or inquires carefully and closely 
into anything. 

" Reason, and the guide of life, the support of reli- 
gion, the inv ettigator ot truth." Warburt on: fad. to 
thf Frtethinkert. (Pott.) 

* Xn-vfi*t'-l-in, 8. [Low Lat. investio a 
handing over, a putting into possession, inves- 
titure.) The same as INVTSSTITUBE (q.v.), 

Xn-ves'-ti-ture, *. tFr. investiture ; Prov. & 
Ital. investiiura; Sp. 4 Port, investidura.] 
[INVEST.] 

L Ordinary Language: 

1. The act of investing; the state of being 
invested with anything : as, with the symbols 
of office, emolument, or dignity. [II.] 

" Intending your invetttturr so near 
The residence of your despised brother." 

Marlowe : Tambvrtttine, L 1. 

1 2. That with which one Is Invested ; gar- 
ments, vestments. 

IL Technically : 

1. Ch. Hist. : If any bishop or other clergyman 



have the cure of souls and also a stipend, 
two elements, the one sacred and the other 
civil, exist in his position ; and as nearly 
every spiritual act carries civil consequences, 
and nearly every civil act connected with 
his benence has sacred clients, scarcely any 
prudence can avoid periodical collision be- 
tween the ecclesiastical and the civil power. 
From the kingly or imperial point of view, a 
great political object will be served if the 
church can be made simply a tool in the 
hands of the civil government. From the 
papal point of view, und indeed from that of 
all church functionaries, a great ecclesiastical 
end will be achieved if the State can be made 
an obedient handmaid of the Church. From 
the establishment of the Church under Con- 
stautine the Great, in the fourth century, the 
Roman functionaries increasingly interfered 
in ecclesiastical affairs, and by the eleventh 
lay patronage had been much abused, and 
simony largely prevailed. The emperors, 
kings, and princes of Europe had been accus- 
tomed to confer the temporalities of the larger 
benefices and monasteries by the delivery of 
a ring and a staff, or crozier. When the bishop 
or abbot elect had received these, he carried 
them to the metropolitan, who returned them, 
to indicate that the Church had conferred on 
him sacred office. Pope Gregory VII. (Hilde> 
brand) considered that a ring and a crozier 
were insignia of spiritual office, and not of its 
temporal accompaniments, the crozier sym- 
bolising the pastoral charge and the ring the 
celestial mysteries. He therefore wished the 
then reigning emperor, Henry IV., to desist 
from conferring investitures In such a form, 
or indeed at all. The emperor was willing 
to see simony terminated, but clung to in- 
vestitures, and Gregory on his part threat- 
ened to excommunicate any one conferring 
such Investitures or receiving them. A fierce 
contest now arose between Henry and Gregory, 
continued by their successors. At last the 
pontiff's legates and the emperor came to an 
arrangement at the Diet of Worms, A.D. 1122, 
one article of the treaty being that the em- 
peror should confer the temporalities of a se* 
or abbacy by some other symbols than the 
sacred ones of the ring and the crozier. 

2. Law: The open delivery of seisin or pos- 
session. 

Mn-vfe'sf-lVe.a. tEng. {**; -ft*.] Clothing, 
investing, covering. 

Jn- vest '-men t, *. [Eng. invest; -menL] 

1. The actof In vesting, clothing, ordressfng. 
t 2. The act of investing with or placing in 
possession of an office, rank, or dignity ; In- 
vestiture. 

3. The act of surrounding, blockading, r 
beleaguering with an armed force ; siege, 
blockade : as, the investment of a town. 

4. The act of Investing or laying out money 
In the purchase of some species of property, 
usually of a permanent nature ; as, the invest- 
ment of money in railway shares or in land. 

5. Money invested. 

"The wreck of their investment in Mexican securV 
ties." Pail Mall Gazette, Sept 9, 1864 

* 6. That which invests or clothes ; dress, 
attire, vestments, clothes. 

" Ton, my lord archbishop. 
Whose white investment! figure innocence* 

ShaAttp. : X Henry IV., lv. I. 

7. That In which money is Invested. 

"A certain portion of the revenues of Bengal nw 
been, for many years, set apart to be employed In the 
purchase of goods for exportation to England, and tin's 
is called the invtttment." Burk : On the Affatrt of 

Mfe. 

In-vest'-or, *. [Eng. invest ; -or.] One woo 
invests or makes an investment. 

"No prudent invettor would calculate too much 
upon the permanent payment of Mexican coupon*." 
faU Mall 6a*ette, Sept. 9, 1884. 

* In-ves'-tnre, v.t. (Eng. invest ; -ur.) 

1. To clothe. 

2. To Invest, to Instal ; to pat Into posses- 
sion of an office. 

" Hath already tnvatured him In the dukedom vt 
Prussia." Atchamt Affairt of Germany. 

* In-veV-ture, . lEng. fount; [-we.] In- 
vestment, investiture. 

" Before hi* i**ettur and Installation therein.- 
P. BoUandt Suttoniui. p. 137. 

* ln-v8t'-r-%-biy, adv. [As if from an Eng. 
inveterab(lr) ;' -ly."\ In an inveterate manner; 
inveterately. (Colley Gibber: Careless ff*- 
band, v.) 



boil, b^; put, Jrf^l; oat, ell, chorus, 9hln, bench; go, ftem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, eyist. -fcig. 
-Oiim* tlan = sb.au. -tlon* -slon shun ; -Jion, -slon = zhun. -tlous, -clous, -clous = shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, dfd. 



2728 



Inveteracy in vise ate 



to-vSt'-fir-a-cy, . [Eng. inveterate; -cy. 
The quality or state of being inveterate or o 
long duration ; the state of being firmly esta 
Hislied by time ; long continuance ; the state 
of being deeply or firmly rooted or engrainec 
in one's nature ; firmness or deep-rooted ob- 
stinacy of any quality or state gained by time. 

" Such the fixed inveteracy wrought 
By the iiupatiencwof my early thought." 

Byron: Child* Harold. lv. 76. 

In-vSt'-er-ate, a. [Lat. inveteratus, pa. par, 
of invetero = to retain for a long time : in- 
(intens.), and vetus (genit. veteris) = old ; Fr. 
invetere; Ital. inveterate; Sp. inveterado.] 

1. Old, long established ; having existed or 
continued for a long time. 

" It Is mi inveterate and received opinion that can- 
tharides, applied to any part of the body, touch the 
bladder, and exuloerate it" Bacon: fiat. Hitt. 

2. Firmly or deeply rooted or established by 
long continuance ; deeply rooted ; obstinate. 

"But the inatati tAiieous reform of inveterate abuses 
was a task far beyond the powers of a prince strictly 
restrained by law." Macaulay : Hut. Eng., ch. x. 

3. Confirmed in any habit or practice by 
long use or continuance. 

" The Spanish. American is an inveterate gamester. " 
Daily Telegraph. Sept. I, 1884. 

* 4. Malignant, virulent. 

"In terms the most aggravating and invettrat*." 
S. Brook* : foot of Quality. 1L 84. 

* In-v6t -er-ate, v.t. [Lat inveteratus, pa. 
par. of invetero.] To fix or establish firmly by 
long continuance. [INVETKBATE, a.] 

" Let not Atheists lay the fault of their sins upon 
human nature, which have their prevalence from long 
ctutom and inveterated habit," aentley ; Sermont, L 

t In vet -er-ate-1^, adv. [Eng. inveterate; 
ly.] In an inveterate manner or degree; with 
obstinacy ; virulently. 

"To It they were most invfttrately pron*." IFar- 
*t*rtan : In fine Legation, bk. 1 v.. f . 

t in-vSt -er-ate-nSss, . [Eng. inveterate; 
-MM.] The quality or state of being invete- 
rate ; inveteracy. 

"As time hath rendered him more perfect In the 
art, so hath the invtterattneu of his malice made him 
more ready In the execution." Browne; Vulgar r- 
rvuri, bk Til. ch. xli. 

* In vet or-a'-tlon, . [Lat. inveteratio, from 
invetertitits, pa. par. of invetero.] [INVETE- 
RATE, a.] The act of making inveterate; 
hardening or confirming by long continuance. 

In vexed , a. [Lat. in- = in, and vexi t pert. 
indie, of veho = to carry.] 
Her. : Arched or enarched. 

* in-vlot', a. [Lat. invlctus.] Unconquered, 
indomitable, invincible. 

" With as inuict a myiid and manly an hert let T 
confess* the worde of Qod as wold Cryste die for his 
goepell." Joy* : Exporicion of Daniel, ch. tl. 

In vid -J-otia, a. [Lat. invidiosus, from in- 
vidia. = envy ; Ital. & O. Sp. invidioso ; Sp. 

envidioso.] 

* 1. Envious, malignant. 

" Hay with astonishment invidiout view 
His tolla outdone by each plebeian bee.' 

Smart .' Omniscience of the Supreme Being. 

* 2. To be envied ; enviable. 

"Such a person appears in a far more honourable 
and invidtotu state." Barrow. 

3. Likely to incnr or bring on hatred, odium, 
Mi-will, or envy. 

" He rose and took the advantage of the times, 
To load young Turuiu with invidious crimes. " 

Dryden : Virgil ; .ffneid xl. MS. 

IT Invidious in its common acceptation sig- 
nifies causing ill will ; envious signifies having 
ill will. A task is invidious that puts one in 
the way of giving offence; a look is envious 
that is full of envy. Invidious qualifies the 
thing ; envious qualifies the temper of the 
mind. (Crabb : Eng. Synon.) 

ln-vid'-I-oas-l& adv. [Eng. invidious; -ly.] 

1. In an invidious manner ; enviously, ma- 
lignantly. 

" These were worded so invidiously," Burnet : Hitt. 
Own Time (an. 1702). 

2. In a manner likely to incnr odium or ill- 
will. 

ln-vid'-I-ous T ness, a. [Eng. invidious; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being invidious. 
" We had with us neither spades nor pickaxes ; and 
If love of ease uncounted our desire of knowledge, 
the offence has not the in*idimitnr*t of singularity. 
Johnton : A Journey to the Western Ittandt 



In vlfc -n-ance, * In-viSr-fl-an-ofr, *. 

[Pref. in- (2)| and Eng. vigilance (q.v.).] Want 
of vigilance ; neglect of vigilance or watching. 



* in-vig'-or, * In-vigr-our, v.t. [Pref. in 
(1), and Eng. vigor (q.v.XJ To invigorate, to 
animate. 

" What pomp of words ! what nameless energy 
Kindles the verse, invigourt every line.' 

Thompton ; On Mr. Pope't Work*. 

In-vlg'-or-ate, v.t. [Formed as if from a Lat 
* invigoratus. pa. par. of * invigoro, from in- 
(intens.), and vtyor = vigour, strength ; Ital 
invigorare.] To endue with vigour ; to give 
vigour or strength to ; to strengthen ; to 
animate ; to give life and energy to. 

" Would age In thee resign his wintry reign. 
And youth invigorate that frame a^alu. 

Coteper ; Bop*, 84. 

In-vlg-or-a'-tlon, a. [INVIGORATE.] The 
act of invigorating ; the state of being in- 
vigorated. 

" By virtue of a supposed antiperlstasls, or invigorn- 
(ion of the internal heat of the lime." Boyle : Work*. 
IT. . 

* in-vile', v.t. [Pref. in- (intens.), and Eng. 
vile (q.v.).] To render vile or of no value. 

" It did so much invile the estimate 
Of the opened and luvulgar'd mysteries." 



* In-Vfl lage (age as ifc), v.t. rpref. in- 
(1), and Eng. village (q.v.).] To make into a 
village ; to reduce to the rank or condition ol 
a village. 

" There on a goodly plain (by time thrown downe} 
Lies buried In hia duat some auucieut town* ; 
Who, now InvUlaged, there's only scene. " 

Brown* : aritamtia't PaMoraU, b. L, s. 8, 

* In-vin -ate, o. [Pref. in- (1) ; Lat vin(um) 
wine, and Eng. suff. -ate.] Incorporated 
with wine. 

"Christ should be Impanate and tttvinat*." Cnm- 

mer: Worto.LX*. 

In-vln-fl-bU'-I-t^, . [Eng. invincible; -ity.] 
The quality or state of being invincible; iti- 
vincibleness. 

"Their absolute faith In the invincibility of their 
anna." Sain. Jt*v. t Jau.. 1871. p. . 

In-vin -9! ble, a. & s. [Fr., from Lat invin- 
cibilis, from in- = not *nd vincibilis = vin- 
cible ; vinco to conquer; Sp. invincible; Itai. 
invincibUe.] 

A. At adjective : 

1. Ord. Lang, : Incapable of being conquered 
or subdued ; unconquerable, insuperable, in- 
surmountable. 

" His power secured thee, when presumptuous Spain 
Baptized her fleet invincible In vain.' 

Copper : Xxpoetulation. MS. 

2. Hist. : Belonging to or in any way con- 
nected with the secret society described 
under B. 

B. As substantive : 

Irish. Hist. (PI.) : An Irish secret society, 
not identical with, though it developed from, 
that of the Fenians, in or prior to 1882. One 
of the main objects of the Inviucibles was to 
" remove " (a euphuism for " to assassinate ") 
government officers or others who might incur 
the displeasure of the association or its leaders. 
On May 6, 1882, it achieved what doubtless 
it deemed a great victory, having on that day 
succeeded in "removing, i.e., in stabbing to 
death, Lord Frederick Cavendish, who had 
just arrived from England as Secretary for Ire- 
land, and Mr. Thomas A. Burke, the Under- 
secretary, in the Phoenix Park at Dublin. The 
plot was directed against the latter gentleman, 
and the former, nobly interfering to protect 
his friend, shared his fate. The nefarious deed 
arrayed against the unknown murderers the 
moral feeling of the civilized world, and the 
government soon overcame the " Invincibles." 
On February 20, 1883, twenty charged with 
complicity in the Phoenix Park murders were 
put on trial ; on July 14, Joseph Brady, who 
had been convicted of actual perpetration of 
the murder of Mr. Burke, was executed, as 
were others subsequently. The leading wit- 
ness, who revealed all the secrets of his Fellow 
conspirators, was one James Carey, a member 
of the common council of Dublin. He was 
shot dead in a steamboat near Natal, on July 
29, by an Irishman, O'Donnell, who was sub- 
sequently brought to England, tried, and exe- 
cuted for hia crime in December, 1883. 

Invincible Armada, *. [ARMADA.] 

In-vin -9! -ble -ness, s. [Eng. invinri?>le; 
ness.] The quality or state of being invin- 
cible ; unconquerableness, insuperableness. 

"Against the invincibleneu of the general custom 
(for the most part) men strive In faith." Wilkine ; 
Real Character, bk. L, ch. v. 



!n-vin'-el-biy, adv. [Eng. invincible) ; -fcj 
In an invincible manner or degree ; insup* 
rably, unconquerably. 

" And v ye have received, so have ye done 
Invincibly." Milton : P. L.. vt 80*. 



r-J-ty, *. [Eng. inviolable ; -ttyj 
The quality or state of being inviolable. 

" Our Constitution unites the most perfect security 
of the subjects' liberty with the moit absolute inviola- 
bility of the sacred person of the sovereign." /Jp. 
Hartley : Worht, vuL 111, er. 44. 

an-Vl'-i-la-ble, a. [Fr., from Lat. tntnoZo- 
bilis, from in- = not, and violabilis = that 
may be violated ; violo = to violate ; Sp. i- 
violable ; Ital. inviolabile. ] 

1. Not to be profaned, injured, polluted, or 
treated with irreverence. 

2. Not to be broken : as, a promise, a treaty, 
a contract, Ac. 

"He ought to have determined that the existing 
settlement of landed property should be inviolable." 
Jlacaulay: ffitt, Eng., ch. vi. 

3. Not to be injured, tarnished, or defamed. 
* 4. Not susceptible of hurt or injury. 

" He tried a third, a tough well-choseu spear, ' 
The invivible Ixnly stood sincere." 

Lryden; Ovid; Mttamnrphotm ztt. 

*5. Not to be broken ; unbreakable. 

"Their Almighty Maker drst ordained, 
And bound them with inviolable bands." 

Spenter : F. ., IV. X . 

in vi 6 la blo ness, *. [Eng. inviolabb; 
ness.] The quality or state of being invio- 

lable ; inviolability. 



*, adv. [Eng. inviolable) ; Jy.] 
In an inviolable manner ; without profanation, 
breach, failure, or violation. 



"The path prescrib'd. inviolably kept, 
Upbraids the lawless sallies of 
' 



mankind." 

Young : Jtight Thought*. Ix. 1.111. 

* In-vi'-o'-la-cy, s. [Eng. inviola(te) ; -cjf.j 
The quality or state of being inviolate ; invio- 
lability. 

In-vi'-A-late, a. [Lat inviolatus, from in- = 
not, and violatus, pa. par. of violo = to violate : 
Fr. inviole ; Ital. inviolate; Sp. inviolado.} 
Not violated or profaned ; unhurt, uninjured, 
unbroken. 

"[She] bound her purpose with a solemn oath, 
A virgin life inviolate to lead." 

Congrtv* : Homer; Hymn to fmsm 

' In-vi lat-Sd,. [Pref. in- (2), and En* 
violated (q.v.).] In viola ted, unbroken, un- 
profaned. 

" For your honor to kepe your promyse slnoerly *s> 
violated, A faithfully obserued/'-tfaJl : Henry IT. 
(an. 8). 

* In - vi'-o" -Ip.te-rjf , * In-vl-o late-lye, adv. 
[Eng. inviolate ; -ly.] In an inviolate manner ; 
without violation ; so as not to be violated. 

"All other things, which depend upon the eternal 
and Immutable laws and rights of nature, remaining 
tnviolately the same under both covenants, and as un- 
changed as nature itself. " SoufA : Sermont, vol. X* 
ser. & 

* In vi'-6 late-ne'ss, s. [Eng. inviolaU ; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being invio- 
late ; inviolacy. 

* in vl- ous, a. [Lat. invius, from in- = not, 
and via = a way, a road.] Impassable, n- 
trodden. 

"And Virtue inviout ways can prove." 

Butler: Jfudibrat, pt. L. ch. UL 

* In'-vi-OUS-ness, *. [Eng. invious; -ness.} 
The quality or state of being invious or Im- 
passable. 

"What Is called invioutnett and emptiness, whN 
all Is dark and nnpassable, as perviouuiess is the com- 
trary-" Ward: Tranti. of More'i Pref to kit fWtos. 

Work* (1770). 

in-vi-rfl'-i-t^,. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
virility (q.v. ).~\ Want or absence of manhood ; 
loss or want of manliness or manly character ; 
effeminacy. 

" The inviriltty of Nero. Heliogabalus or Sardanapsv 
lus. those monsters. If not shames of mu and uaUm. 
Prynne: \ Jfittrio-Mattix, v. a. 

in-vir'-on, v.t. [ENVIRON.] 

In-vis'-oate, v.t. [Lat inviscatus, pa. par. 
of invtteo - to daub with bird-lime : in- = in, 
on, and viscum = mistletoe, bird-lime; Sp. & 
Port, enviscar ; Ital. inviscare.] [ VISCID.] To 
daub or besmear with glutinous or viscid 
matter ; to *ttk or involve in glutinous mat- 
ter. 

"It hath In the tongue a mucous and slimy ex- 
tremity, whereby upon a sudden emission It inviteatet 
and tangleth those insects. ' Browne : Vulgar Errourt, 
bk. ili, ch. xzil. 



Ate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, thdre ; pine, pit, sire, sir. marine ; go, p 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full; try, Syrian. M, o = o; ey = a, qu = kw. 



inviscerate involucrated 



2729 



!n-vto'-9er-ate, v.r. [INVISCBRATE, a.] To 

implant or root deeply. 

" Our Saviour seemeth to have affected so much the 
imritcerating this deposition iu.our hearts." Mounts 
ffue : Itovuute uayet. pt. 1., tr. XT., S i. 

ln-vis'-9er-ate t a. [Lat. invisceratus, pa. 
par, of inviseero to put deep into the en- 
trails : in- = in, into, and viscus (pi. viscera) = 
the intestines, the entrails ; Ital. inviscerare,] 
Implanted or rooted deeply. 

" Mali Bigbetb (M the Apostle satth) M burthened 
with inviscerate interests.' Mountagut ; Devout* E*- 
tayet. p. i. tr. xiv., | 8. 

* In' -vised, a. [Lat. invisus, from in- = not, 
and visits, pa. par. of video = to see.] Un- 
seen ; invisible. 

" The diamond ; why 'twas beautiful and hard, 
Whereto his invited properties did tend." 

Bhaketp. : Lover's Complaint, 212. 

In-vis-I-Wl'-i'-tjf, s. [Fr. invisibility, from 
invisible = invisible (q.v.) ; Sp. in visibttidad ; 
Ital. invisiUlita.} 

1. The quality or state of being invisible ; 
incapability of being seen, or perceived by the 
ight. 

" Around the idea* of religion she throw* the idea* of 
tnvitibilitit." Wallace.- Kant, p. 1B. 

* 2. That which is invisible. 

Kn-vfy-I-ble, a. A . [Fr., from Lat. invist- 
bilis, from in- = not, and visibilis = visible 
(q.v.); Bp. invisible; Ital. invisibile.] 

A. As adj. : Not visible ; incapable of being 
seen ; not perceptible by the sight. 

" I cannot aatne, If that it be possible 
But Venus had him makad inviri&le 
Thus sftieth the booke." 

Chaucer : Of Dido Queene "/ Cartkaf*. 

B. As substantive : 

X. Ordinary Language : 

1. God ; the Supreme Being. 

" Oar lather 
Adores the fnvittble only." Byron : Cain, 1. L 

* 2. A Rosicrurian, as not daring publicly 
to declare himself. 

IL Ch. Hist. (PI.): Heretics who denied 
the visibility of the Church ; followers of 
Osiander, Flaccius, Illyrieus, and Swenkfeld. 
(Shipley.) 

In vis '-f-ble-n&M, *. [Eng. invisible; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being invisible : invisi- 
bility. 

In-vis'-i-bly*, adv. [Eng. invisible); -ly.} In 
an invisible manner ; imperceptibly to the 
sight. 

" Invitibly the fairy came." Gay: Fdblet, S. 

* In-vl -slon, . [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. vi- 
sion (q.v.).] Want or absence of vision or of 
the power of seeing. 

In-vi-ta'-tion, s. [Fr., from Lat invitationem, 
accus. of invitatio, from invitatus, pa. par. of 
invito = to invite (q.v.) ; Sp. invitacion.] 

1. The act of inviting, or soliciting a per- 
son's company at an entertainment, visit, 
ceremony, Jto. 

2. The words or document In which a per> 
son is invited. 

*' He received a list, and inmtatinn* were sent to all 
whose names were In \V-~DaUy Telegraph, Sept 11, 
1S84. 

* 3. Allurement, enticement. 

" To which there are greater invitation*, greater mo- 
tive*." Sharp : Vermont, voL i., ser. 15. 



a. & *. [Lat. invitatvrius, 
from invitatus, pa. par. of invito = to invite.] 

A. As adj. : Containing or using invitation. 

B. As substantive : 

Eccles. ; The invitatory psalm, Venite, ex- 
gultemus Domino (xci v. in Vulg. , xc v. in 
A.Y.) recited at the beginning of matins in 
the Roman Church, on all days except the 
Epiphany, when it forms part of the third 
nocturn, and the last tfrree days of Holy 
Week. Possibly a relic of the old Roman prac- 
tice of omitting the psalm on feria-s. 

IlV-vite', v.t. & i. [Fr. inviter, from Lat. in- 
vito = to ask, to invite ; Sp. invtiar; ItaL in- 
vitare.] 
A. Transitive: 

1. To allure, to attract, to entice, to pre- 
sent allurements or temptations to ; to tempt 
to come. 

" God invited men onto the folowfng of hlmsetfe." 
Utr T. More : Work**, p, 1,20ft. 

2. To ask, to bid, to summon ; to ask or 



bid to an entertainment, visit, &c. ; to solicit 
the company of. 

" When such company IB invited, then be as sparing 
M possible of your cuals." Swift-' tiirectiotu to Ser- 
vanti, 

B. Intrant. : To give invitation, to attract, 
to allure, to call. 

" He that invitet will not the invited mock.' 

Waller : Of the Fear of God, i. 7. 

fci-vite', *. [INVITE, v.] An invitation. 
(Slang.) 

" Guest After guest arrived ; the invitet had been ex- 
celleutly arranged." ZMcJtoni : tUeetchet by Sot; Steam 
Sxcttrtion. 

* in vite'-mcnt, s. [Eng. invite ; -ment.] 
The act of inviting ; invitation. 

"By counsel and moral invitementt.'Bp. Taylors 
Great Exemplar, pt. ill., dia. 17. 

in-Vit'-er, s. [Eng. invite); -er.] One who 
invites. 

" Friend with friend, the inviter and the guest." 
Jfurte: Spittle from Boetiut to hit Wife. 

in-vit'-Irig, pr. par., a., & s. [INVITE, v.] 
A* As pr. par. : (See the verb). 
B. As adjective: 

1, Calling, summoning, bidding courteously. 

"The king of the country where her husband wu 
had sent tu\ writing letter to come thither." Bunyan ; 
Pilgrim* Progrett, pt. ii. 

2. Tempting, alluring, seductive, attractive: 
as, an inviting prospect. 

C* As subst. : Invitation. 

" In drinking one to another and mutual invitingt." 
P. Holland : Plutarch, p. 558. 

fa-Tit' -teg-iy, adv. [Eng. inviting ; -ly.} 
In an inviting manner; attractively ; so as to 
invite or allure. 

" If be can but drew up a temptation to look to* 
ritinffly, the business is done." Decay of Piety. 

* In vit'-Ing-nes, *. [Eng. inviting ; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being inviting ; attrac- 
tiveness. 

" An aptitude and in9ittnfneti."Bp. Taylor: ArH- 
jtcial Handtomeneu, p. 166. 



a. [Pref. in- (2), and 
Eng. vitrijiable (q.v.).J Not verifiable ; in- 
capable of being vitrified. 

*in vo-cate, v.t. [Lat. invocatus, pa. par. of 
invoco = to invoke (q- 00 To invoke, to call 
upon ; to address in prayer. 

" Henry the Fifth 1 thy ghost I tnvoeate." 

Shakeip. ; 1 Henry VI.. i 1. 

in vo-ca tlon, s. [Fr., from Lat. invoca- 
tionem, accus. of invooatio = a calling upon, 
from invocatiis, pa. par. of invoco = to invoke 
(q.v.); Sp. invocation; Ital. invocafione.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of invoking or calling upon in 
prayer. 

"There Is fn religion no acceptable duty, which de- 
vout invocation of the name of God dotn not either 
presuppose or infer." footer ; Ecclei. Polity. 

2. The act of invoking or calling for the 
presence or assistance of any being, particu- 
larly of some divinity. 

"Let us proceed upon 
Our invocation." Byron: Heaven A Earth, L 1. 

* n. Law : A Judicial call, demand, or 
order : as, the invocation of papers into court. 

T[ Invocation of Saints : 
1. Roman Theology, dkc. : The authoritative 
statement of Roman doctrine on this subject 
is found in a decree of the Council of Trent 
(sess. 25, held Dec. 3 and 4, 1563), which or- 
dains that " all bishops and others having the 
duty of teaching " should instruct the faith- 
ful 

"That the saints reigning with Christ offer their 
prayers to God for men ; that it is good and useful to 
invoke them, and to have recourse to their prayers, 
succour, and assistance to obtain benefits from God 
through his Sou Jesus Christ, our Lord, who alone is 
our Redeemer and Saviour." 

Here two propositions are laid down in the 
plainest possible manner : (1) That the saints 
do intercede for men ; (2) the utility of asking 
such intercession. Theologians allege Scrip- 
ture and tradition in support of the doctrine 
and practice (cf. Jer. xv. 1 ; Luke xv. 7 ; Rev. 
v. 8, vi. 9-11, viii. 3). The chief argument is 
from analogy ; the oneness of the mystic 
Body of Christ (1 Cor. xii. 12); the duty of 
mutual prayer, and the efficacy of the prayers 
of the just on earth (James v. 15-18); and 
the value which St. Paul set on the prayers 
of his fellow-Christians (Eph. vi. 18, 19 ; Col. 
iv. 3, 4; 2 Thess. iii. 1). But on the other 
hand cf. 1 Tim. ii. 5. It should be noted 
that the saints are asked to intercede for men, 



and not to bestow of their own power either 
temporal or spiritual blessings. Inscriptions 
in the Catacombs show that the practice waa 
common in the Early Church, and mention ol 
it is made by St. Gregory Nazianzen (Grot. 
xxiv.), St. Basil (prat, xliv.), St. Gregory Nys- 
sen (Orat. in S. Theod.), St. Ambrose (De Vid.. 
cap. xi. n. 55), and St. Augustine (Semi. 324 ; 
cont. Faust, xx. 21). The devotion of tli* 
Church is chiefly towards the saints who die'! 
after Christ. To the Maccabees alone is 
feast celebrated in the whole Latin Church. 
(The texts are from the A.V. ; the Fathei* 
from Migne.) 

2. Anglican Theology, c. : There were verj 
many reasons why, when the Articles of Re- 
ligion were " ratified and confirmed,' the 
separation between the Reformed and Roman 
Churches should be made as marked as pos- 
sible, and the twenty-second of the Thirty- 
nine Articles strongly condemns the invocation 
of saints. The Liturgy is less unfavourable to 
the doctrine. In the canticle Benedicite, omnia 
opera, from the apocryphal portion of Daniel, 
the "Angels of the Lord" (Dan. iii. 58 in the 
Vulg.) and the "Spirits and Souls of the 
Righteous" (iii. 86) are called upon to " bless 
the Lord," to " praise him and magnify him 
for ever." Here there seems to be an admis- 
sion that angels and the departed just hear 
the invocations of, though there is no declara- 
tion as to their intercession for, members of 
the Church militant. The practice, as a pri- 
vate devotion, was known in Caroline days, 
and lingers, in a debased form, iu country 
districts, in the rhyme 

" Matthew. Mark, Luke, and John, 

Blew the bed that I lie on," Ac. 
With the Oxford Movement the doctrine ol 
the Invocation of Saints came to the front. 
Keble (Visitation of the Sick) wrote 
" soothe us, haont UK, night and day, 
Ye gentle spirits far away, 
With whom we shared the cup of grace. 
Then parted ; ye to Christ 1 ! embrace." 



y, a. [Eng. invocat(e); -ory.) 
Making invocation; containing invocation; 
invoking. 

In' voi9e, *. [A corrupt, of envois, an English 
plural of Fr. envoi = a sending, from envoyer 
= to send.] 

Com. : A statement on paper concerning 
goods sent to a customer for sale or on ap- 
proval. It usually contains the price of th 
goods sent, the quantity, and the cliarg- * 
upon them made to the consignee. Any other 
details respecting which it is important for 
the consignee to be informed are added, and 
in these respects it differs from a trade bill or 
definite account. 

In' -voice, v.t. [INVOICE, .] To write or enter 
in an invoice. 

in vokc', v.t. [Fr. invoquer, from Lat. invooo 
= to call upon : in- = on, upon, and voco = to 
call; Sp. invooar ; Ital. invocare.] 

1. To call upon or address in prayer ; to 
solicit in prayer for assistance and protection ; 
to invocate. 

" Whilst I invoke the Lord, whose power shall m 
defend." Surrey: Ptalm IxxllL 

2. To call for solemnly or with earnestness 

" Cheerful hope, so oft invoked in vain." 

Col lint : I'ertet with a piece of Bride-cakei 

3. To call on in attestation : as, To invoht 
the name of the Deity. 

* 4. To call for judicially ; to order : as, To 
invoke documents into court. 

* In-vdl'-U-'ble, a. [As if from a flctive Lat. 
involubilis : in- not, and volubilis = change- 
able, mutable.] Immovable, immutable (?). 

"Infallible, involulile. Insensible." 

Sylvester: Little Bartat, 181 

in - vol - n - 90!, In vol u 96! lum. a. 

[Mod. Lat., dimin. of Lat. involucrwm.] [IN- 
VOLUCRE.] 

Bot. : A partial involucre occurring in an 
umbelliferous plant. 

in-vol-u-9el'-late, a. [Mod. Lat. i 
latus, from involucellum.] [!NVOLUCEL.] 
Bot. : Having around it an involucel. 



a. [Eng. involucre); -ai,J 
Bot. : Of or belonging to an involucre. 

In-v8-lu'-Cra^t5d,a. [Eng. involute); -ated.] 
Bot. : Covered with an involucre ; having 
an involucre. 



, boy; poiit, joltl; oat, 9011, chorus, ohin, bench; go, gem : thin, this ; sin, ftf ; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph 
-tlon, -slon shun ; -(ion, jion -- zhiin. -cioua, -tious, sious = shoo. -We, -die, &c. = bL d 



2730 



involucre Inward 



In vp lu ere (ore as ker), In-v5 -lu'- 

orum. s. [Lat. involucmm = a wrapper, a 
covering, a case, an envelope ; mwrfiw = to roll 
to or upon : in- = in, upon, and volvo = to roll.] 
Botany: 

1. Vertirillate bracts surronndingthe flowers 
of Urabelliferas and Composite. Those sur- 
rounding the general umbel in the former 
order are called the universal involucre, and 
those around the nmbellules the partial invo- 
lucre. An involucre may be calculated, 
ealy, imbricated, superimposed, &c, Lin- 
niens calls the involucre the common calyx. 

2. The peridiuzn, volva, or anuulus of some 
fungals. 

3. The indusium of ferns. 

4. (/'/.)' The sporangia of Equisetaceee. 

In- vp lu'-cred (cred as kcrd), in v8-lu'- 
crat-ed, it. IEng. involucre); -ed.] 
Bat. : Having an involucre. 

In-v5-lu'-or6t, s. [Dimin. of Eng., &C. tow- 
Ivcre.] 

not. : An involucel. 
Kn-vS-ln'-orttm, s. (Itmn.ccRc.1 

In-v<51'-iin-t>r fl-jf, a*>. [Eng. involuntary ; 
-ly.1 In an involuntary manner ; not volun- 
tarily ; not spontaneously or of one's own 
choice ; against one's will. 

"W ihrlnk Irnoluntarai tram th nnMmbnnn of 
our task." /<Or. No. 102. 

fn-vor-un-ttxr-i'-nSss, . [Eng. involun- 
tary ; -nets.! The quality or state of being 
involuntary. 

"I apprehend there Is not an absolute inotu*tari. 
MM In this engagement, but a nitxt one." Bp. Ball : 
CaMt of Conscience, dec. L, case &. 

In-vSr-tin-t>r-jf, a, fLut Involuntariusi 
in- not, and voluntariut = voluntary.] 

* 1. Not acting according to will or choice ; 
unwilling. 

"The gath'ring number, as It mores along. 
Involves a vast titeduntiiry throng." 

Popt: Dunefol. IT. M. 

2. Not proceeding from choice ; not done wil- 
lingly ; opposed to the will ; not spontaneous : 
as, involuntary obedience or submission. 

3. Independent of will or choice. 

"It is found by experience, that all the voluntary 
and involuntary motions of the body are performed by 
their [the nerves] means." A'rfd . InttUKtual Povftrt, 
ess. 2. ch. iL 

fa'-v4-lute, In'-v6-lu-tlve, a. & . [Lat. 
involutes, pa. par. of involvo = to roll in, or 
on : in- = in, and volvo = to roll.] 

A. At adjective : 

* L Ordinary Language : 

L LU. : Rolled up, folded, rolled inward. 
2. Fig. : Involved. 

The style 1> so IntrtuM.* Pat : MarrlxaUa. oxTiL 
II. Technically: 

1. Botany : 

(1) Rolled inwards. 

(2) (Of vernation) : Having the edges rolled 
Inwards spirally on each side, as the leaf of 
the apple. 

(3) A name proposed for the embyro of mono- 
cotyledons. 

2. Zfiol. : Having its margin turned inward, 
*s in the genus Cypreea. 

B. As substantive : 

Geom. : If a thread be tightly wrapped 
about a given curve and then unwrapped, 
being kept stretched, each point of it will 
generate a curve, called an involute of the 
given curve. The given curve, with respect 
to any of its involutes, is called an evolute. 
Any given curve has an infinite number of 
Involutes, and in order to fix the position of 
any one of them, it is necessary to know not 
only the evolute, bat also one point of the 
involute. 

In vo lut' ed, a. [Lat inmlvtut.') The same 
as INVOLUTE (q.v.). 

fa-vi-lu'-tlon, . [Fr., from Lat. Inmlu- 
tionem, ace. of involutio, from involutus, pa. 
par. of tnwrftw = to roll up ; ItaL involution. ] 
(INVOLVE.] 

* L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of involving, infolding, or rolling 
up. 

" ThlB commnn.c...t]cm of DMHW IB only In descen- 
Idii, by r:;ison of the involution, or comprehension of 
psWsbyter within (fpiteojnu)." Bp* Taylor: Epitco- 
Vacy Auertfd, | 23. 



2. The state of being involved, intangled, 
or implicated ; complication. 

"All thlngi are mixed, mid causes blended bjr 
mutual inwjl utiovtt.~ UlanvUL 

3. That which is wrapped or folded round 
anything. 

" Great conceit* are raised of the involution or mem- 
braneous covering called the silly-how. sometimes 
found about the heads of children." Browne: Vulgar 
Krrvurt, bit, v., ch. xi. 

*4. A fold, & twist, a turning. 

"Such the clue 

Of Cretan Ariadne ne'er explained. 
Hoolu ! angles ! crooks ! ami invotutinnt wild 1 " 
Skvnitone: (Xconomy, ill. 

IL Technically : 

1. Arith. A Alg, : The operation of finding 
any power of a given quantity, the multipli- 
cation of a number into itself any given 
number of times : thus the third power of 2 
is found by involution, or multiplication of 
the number by itself, and the product by the 
same number : thus 2x2x2 = 8. It is the 
reverse of evolution (q.v.). The operation of 
involution may be directly performed by con- 
tinued multiplication, but it is often i>erformed 
by means of formulas, particularly by the 
binomial formula. 

2. Gram. : The insertion of one or more 
clauses or members of a sentence between the 
agent or subject and the verb. 

8. Path. : The restoration to its normal size 
of any part which has been abnormally de- 
veloped. The opposite of evolution. 



', v.t. [Fr. involver, from Lat in- 
volvo = to roll in or up : in- = in, upon, and 
volvo = to roll; Bp. envolver; ItaL involvere.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

* 1. To roll up ; to fold up ; to entwine. 

"The faire- resound Ing tea doth la hU raf* Invade 
His sandy confines, whose aide* grone with his involved 
wave." chapman : Homer ; Iliad ii. 

2. To enwrap, to envelope, to infold, to 
cover with surrounding matter. 

" Though long before the linking day 
A wondrous sluwle invoked them all." 

Scott : Lay of the Last Hinttrel, TL U. 

3. To wrap up ; to surround. 

" Also that rent-remit 1 study Is involved In so bar- 
barous a langage. that It is Tolde of ml *loqMnoe. r 
Sir T. El)/ot : The Ooveniour. bk. 1., ch. xlr. 

* 4. To mix or mingle together confusedly ; 
to confuse. 

* 5. To take in, to include, to comprise. 

"One death i%Krfr 
Tyrants aiid Blare*." Thornton : Summer, 1,021. 

6. To include by rational or logical con- 
struction ; to imply ; to comprise aa a logical 
or necessary consequence. 

7. To connect by way of natural or neces- 
sary consequence. 

8. To entangle, to implicate. 

**Fond worldlings there involved In vain* delight." 
Xtirling ; Domet-4ay; The fourth ffoure. 

9. To place in a position or state ; to include. 

"Involving all the contending j*rtles In the tame 
dwtruction?' ur**: A findioation e/ Natural 



10. To make complicated or intricate. 

"Syllogism is of necessary use, even to the loren of 
troth, to shew them the fallacies that an often con. 
coaled In florid, witty, or involved discourses. " Locke, 

IL Arith. & Alg. : To raise a number to any 
given power by involution. 

H For the difference between to involve and 
to implicate, see IMPLICATE. 

In-volved', pa. par. or a. [bnroLvx.] In 
financial difficulties ; as, He is very much 

involved. 

* In-VO'lv'-Sd-ne'ss, . [Eng. Involved; -ness,} 
The quality or state of being involved. 

" As for the snpposal this mistake Is built on (the 
involvednen of all men in the guilt of swearing} It Is 
as weak as it is uncharitable,' Boyle: Workt, vt 6. 



--, a. [Eng. involve; ~ment.} 
The act of involving ; the state of being in- 
volved* 

* In-vtiT-gar. v.t. [Pref. in- (1) "* Eng. 
vulgar (q.v.).] To cause to become or appear 
vulgar or common ; to vulgarise. 

" The opened and inntlyarrd myterls,* 

Daniel ; Xutophilxt. 

fci-viil'-gar, . [pref. in. (2), and Eng. 
vulgar fq.v.),] Not vulgar, not common, re- 
fined, elegant. 

" The sad parenta this lost Infant owed, 
Were as invulgar as their fruit was fair." 

/tray ton : Motet, bk. 1. 

Xn-vtU-ner-a-l>n'-i-t& . [Pref. ijt- (2), 
and Eng. vulnmtbUUy (q.v.).] The quality or 
state of being invulnerable. 



in-vtU-ner-a-ble, a. [Fr., from I*t. in- 
vulntrabilis, from in- = not, and vulnerdbilit 
vulnerable (q.v.) ; 8p. invulnerable ; ItaL 



1. Not vulnerable ; incapable of being. 
wounded or of receiving injury. 

"For, from bis mother's wombe, which him did beare, 
lie was invulnerable made by matticke .en.iv." 

Spemer: F. Q. t VI. Iv. l 

* 2. Unassailable ; that cannot be attacked 
or moved. 

" Prompt to assail, and careless of defeoe*. 
Imitintr<tf>!>: iu his iuipudeiice. 
Ue dares the world." 

Pryden: Bind A 1'a.nther, lit 1,1 H. 

*3. Unassailable; that cannot be refuted: 
as, The argument is invulnerable, 

In-vul'-ner-a-ble-ncsa, s. [Eng. invulner- 
able; -ness.] 'The quality or state of being 
invulnerable ; invulnerability. 

in-viil-ner-a bl^, adv. [Eng. invulneratylf') ; 
-ly.] In an invulnerable manner ; so as to be 
Incapable of being wounded or injured. 

* In-vtil'-ner-ate, a. [Lat inraltaerada, 
from in- = not, and vulneratut = wounded, 
pa. par. of vulnero = to wound ; vulnus (genit- 
vulneris) = a wound.] That is not or cannot 
be wounded ; invulnerable, unhurt. 

" Not at all on tboM, 
That are invulnfratr and free from Mows." 

Butler ; Satire upon Marrtaff*. 

* In-waU' v.t, [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. watt 
(q.vAJ To surround, Inclose, or fortify with 

"Three such towns In tboae places with the garri- 
sons, would be so augmented as they would be abl 
with little to tnwaU themselves strongly." Spenter : 
On Ireland, 

* In -wall, s. [INWALL, v.] An Inner wall 

" With his weight th' InwaU his breast did knock." 
Chapman : Homer ; Mad ziL 

in'- Ward, a., adv., prep., & s. [A.& inn* 
weara, innaniceard = inward, a., from innan r 
inne = within ; suff. weard=. towards, -ward.] 
A, As adjective : 
L Internal, interior ; being in or within. 

2. Internal ; connected with or residing in 
the mind, soul, or thoughts. 

'* With inward struggling I restrained my cries, 
And drank the team that trickled Iron mj eyes.' 

ifrydtn : Ovid ; tieroir p, XL 

* 3. Intimate, familiar, domestic. 

" All my inward Mends abhorred we." Job xlx. 19. 

* 4. Private, confidential 

"Sir, the king Is a noble gentlemen, and my familiar 
... for what Ts inward between us. let It pass." 
' ' 



.: L-ve'i Labour's Lott, T. 

B. As adverb : 

1. Towards the Internal parts ; towards the 
interior ; within, internally. 

" Arblastas sone & ginnea without* me bende, 
A wote inward vatte Inou." 

Robert of Gloucester, p. fcM 

2. Into the mind or thought*. 

" So much the rather thou, celestial Light, 
bhliie inward, and the mind tl. rough all her powers 
Irradiate. 1 ' Milton : P. L.. UL 42. 

3. In the mind or heart ; mentally. 

4* With a curve or bend towards the centre. 
" He stretches out his arm In sign of peace, with hi* 
breast bending inward." Dry den; Ihnfremoy. 

* C. A* prep. ; Within. 

"Inward mine harte I feele blede." 

Somaunt of the Bote. 

D* As substantive : 

1. That which ia inside or within ; especially 
In the plural the internal parts of an animal ; 
the viscera. 

* The prince ... to his sire assigns 
The tasteful inwardt aud uectftreous wines," 

Pope : Homer ; Odyuey xx. 835. 

* 2. An Intimate, a familiar friend, an asso- 
ciate. 

" I was an inward of hU."-4*oJ*p. : Metuure fvT 

Measure, lii. S. 

* 3. (PL): Mental endowments ; Intellectual 
Parts ; genius. 

* JUwurte, whom good wise inward* grace." 

Cka)tnMn : Homer ; Iliad xz. 

IT Inward is employed more frequently to 
express a state than to qualify an object ; 
internal qualifies the object : a thing Is said 
to be turned inward which forms a part of 
the inside : it is said to be internal as one of 
its characteristics ; inward, as denoting the 
position, is indefinite ; any thing that is in in 
the smallest degree is inward : but that is 
properly internal which lies in the very Irame 
and system of the body : inner which rises in 
degree on inieard, is applicable to such bodies 1 
as admit of specific degrees of enclosure : so 



fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or. wore, wolf, work, who, son* mute, cub, cure, unite, our. rule, full; try, Syrian. aa,ce = e; ey = a. <iu = kw. 



Inwardly iodio 



2731 



likewise interior Is applicable to that which 
Is caj>acious,and has many involutions, as the 
interior coat of the intestines. (Crnbb: Eng. 
Synon.) 

* inward duteous, a. Heartily or sin- 
cerely duteous. 

" Which my most true and inward-duteout spirit 
Teacheth. 1 ** Shaketp. : 3 Henry IV., iv. 4. 

Inward-fits, . pt. 

Pathol. : A name given by nurses to slight 
Infantile convulsions, often occurring about 
four days after birth. They generally arise 
from improper food. 

in-ward'-l^ t adv. [A.8. inweardlice.} 

1. "in the Interior or inside ; Internally, 

within. 

" Grieved to the Boole, and gronlng inwardly, 
That h of women's hamla HO base a death iliould die. 
Sp*ner: F. ., V. iv. S3. 

2. Towards the centre : as, To curve in- 
wardly. 

3. In the heart or soul ; mentally, privately, 

secretly. 

" I bleed inwardly for my low." 

Shaketp. : Timon of A thent, L 3. 

*4. Intimately, closely, thoroughly, famil- 
iarly. 
5, To one's self ; not alond. 

" Be shrnnk, and muttered inwardly* 

W'fdtworth; White Doe of KyMone, ti. 

In ward -ness, s. [Eng. inward ; -ness.] 

1. The ouality or state of being inward or 
internal. 

* 2. Intimacy, familiarity. 

" You know my inwardnea and love 
IB Fry 'uuch unto the Prince and Claudio.** 

Shaketp. : Much Ado About Nothing, IT. 1. 

*3. (PI.): The inwards, the bowels, the 
heart, th souL 

" Yhe tx- 1 not angwlochld In na, but yhe ben anf 
.rU." Wycliffe: 2 Cor. v 



In -ward^ , adv. [IHWARD.J Inward ; towards 
the inside or centre. 

* I would *sk what else IB reflecting besides turning 
the mental eye inward* t" Search: light of Nat., 
Tol. i., pt. i., ch. xL 

in wards, s. pi. [INWARD, D. 2.] 

ln-weave', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. weave 
<q.v.).] 

1. To weave in or together ; to interweave. 

2. To intertwine, to interlace. 

" He saw brisk fountains dance. crisp rivleta wind 
O'er borders trim, and round inwoven bow'ra. 

Jonet : A Jlymn to LachsmL. 

in -Wheel', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. wheel 
(q.v.).] To encircle, to involve, to infold. 

" Heaven's grace iitwheet ye: 

And all good thoughts and prayers dwell about ye." 
Beaum. A flet. : The Pilgrim, J. L 

In wick, 8. [Pref. in- (\\ and Scotch wicfc 
= a narrow passage.] In curling, a station in 
which the stone stops very near the tee after 
passing through a wick. 

* In'-wlt, * in-witte, * In-wyt, . [Eng. 
in- (1), and wit.} Mind, understanding; the 

conscience. 

" But enquire of thy next friendea. that Is. thine in- 
Vfllte, and me tlmt haue been thy maistreaae, 
Chaucer*' Testament of Love, bk. 1. 

n with, prep. [Eng. in-, and with.] Wrthln. 

* In-wood', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. 
wood (q.v.).] To hide in a wood. 

"He got oat of the river, and shaking off the water. 
ttnoooded [al: inweded} himself soaa the ladle* lost 
the farther marking bis sportf uluesa," Sidney : Ar- 
cadia, bk. li. 

* in work , v.t. & i. [Pref. in- (2), and Eng. 
work (q.v.).] 

A. Trans. : To work In or within. 

B. lutrans. : To work, operate, or exact 
force within. 

* In-worn', a. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. worn 
(q.v.).] Worn, wrought, or worked into. 

" By the Just judgment of God, long since branded 
and inworn Into the rery essence thereof." Milton : 
Jteaton of Church Govern., bk. 1L, oh. L 

fa-w6ve' f In-wov'-en, 3x1. par. or a. [IN- 
WEAVE.] 

i-wrap', v.t. [Pref. in- (1), and Eng. wrap 



B-wrap 

(q.v.).] 



1. To wrap up ; to cover by wrapping ; to 
Infold. 

" Two splendid mantles, and a carpet spread, 
They lean, to cover and inttrrap the dead. 

Pope : Homer ; Iliad iv. M. 



* 2. To involve, to include. 

"David might well look to be inwrapped In the 
coumiou destruction." Bishop Ball : Contempt. ; The 
Numbering of the People. 

* 3. To involve in doubt or perplexity ; to 
perplex. (Bacon,) 

In - wreathe', w(. [Pref, in- (1), and Eng. 
wreathe (q.v.).] To surround or encircle as 
with a wreath, or anything resembling a 
wreath. 

" Bind their resplendent looks inbreathed with 
beams." Milton: P. L., lit. 8GL 

In-wrought' (gh silent), o. [Pref. in- (1), and 
Eng, wrought (q.v.).] Wrought or worked in 
among other things ; adorned with work or 
figures. 

" The lute Dow also sounds, with gold inurrought, 
And touched with flying fingers nicely taught." 
: To Charles JJeodati. (TransL) 



i'-d (1), s. [Lat.] An exclamation of joy or 
triumph. 

f-Q (2), s. (Or. "Iti (Jo). In classical mythology 
a daughter of Iiiachus, who founded Argos.J 
L Astronomy: 

1. An asteroid, the 86th found. [ASTEROID.] 

2. One of the satellites of Jupiter. 

IL Zool : A genus of Melaniadse. with a 
fusiform, inflated, conical, or oval shell; the 
aperture with a canal. A hundred species 
are known, all from North America. 

I 6d-&9'-e-tate, . [Eng. iod(ine); acetate.} 
Chem. : A salt of ioducetic acid (q.v.). 

i-od a~9Ct'-ic (or 9t as 90!), a. [Eng. 

iod(ine), and acetic.] (See the compound.) 

iodacctic acid, s. 

Chem. : CH 2 I'CC"OH. On heating in the 
dark, an alcoholic solution of ethylic brom- 
acetate with potassie iodide, a brown oil, 
ethylic iodacetate is obtained. This, on being 
saponified by a solution of baric hydrate, and 
the resulting soap decomposed by sulphuric 
acid, gives a solution of iodacetic acid. It 
crystallizes in thin, colourless, rhombic plates, 
which melt at 82, and decompose at higher 
temperatures. It is very soluble in water, but 
does not deliquesce in air. The iodacetates of 
potassium, sodium, and ammonium are all 
very soluble, crystalline, and non -deliquescent. 
The barium salt is slightly soluble in water, 
but is precipitated by alcohol. The silver 
salt readily decomposes in presence of water 
into argentic iodide and glycollic acid. The 
iodacetate of ethyl is an oily liquid, heavier 
than water, and possessing an irritating odour. 

i-Sd-a-cetf-^l (or $et aa 961), s. [Eng., 
iod(ine) t and acetyl.] 

Chem. : Acetic iodide. CH 3 'CO'I. A liquid 
produced by the action of phosphorus di- 
iodide or tri-iodide on glacial acetic acid. The 
product, heated with dilute soda solution and 
then rectified, yields iodacetyl. It is always 
coloured brown, owing to the presence of free 
iodine, and readily decomposes on exposure to 
light with separation of iodine. It boils at 108. 

I'-O-dal, 5. [Eng. iod(ine), and alcohol).] 

Chem. : C 2 Hl3O = CaIsO-H. An cily liquid 
obtained by adding iodine to a mixture of 
alcohol and nitric acid, and purifying by agi- 
tation with water and distillation over chloride 
of calcium. It has a variable boiling point, 
beginning at 26 and rising gradually to 115% 
When treated with a solution of potash, it is 
converted into formic acid and iodoform. 

i-$d' a-mides, s. pi. [Eng. tod(ine), and 
amides.] 

Chem. : NI 3 or NHI 2 . A term applied to a 
number of compounds, mostly of an explosive 
character, produced by the action of iodine 
on ammonia. These compounds, commonly 
called nitrogen iodides, vary in composition 
and properties according to the mode of pre- 
paration. They are usually prepared by di- 
gesting iodine in excess of ammonia, or by de- 
composing chloride of nitrogen with iodide of 
potassium. The product obtained is a brown- 
ish-black, soft powder, which in the dry state 
can scarcely be touched without exploding. 

1-6*1 -am mo'-ni-um, s. [Eng. iod(ine), and 
ammonium.] 

Chem. : Iodide of ammonium. NHgl. A 
brownish -black liquid obtained by passing dry 
ammoniacal gas into dry iodine, 100 parts of 
Iodine absorbing 8'5 parts of ammonia at the 



ordinary temperature. The product has ft 
metallic lustre, smells of ammonia and iodine, 
and wheu heated is decomposed. It is very 
soluble in alcohol, but is resolved by water 
into iodide of ammonium and di-iodamide, 



iodammonium iodide, s. 

Chem. : NHsI 2 =(NH 3 I)I. A compound di- 
covered by Guthrie, prepared by adding pow- 
dered iodine to a saturated solution of nitrate 
or carbonate of ammonium mixed with potash. 
It is a brownish-black liquid soluble in alcohol, 
ether, chloroform, and bisulphide of carbon, 
but is decomposed by water, evolving nitrogen 
gas, and yielding a di-iodamide which explodes 
spontaneously under water. 

I-&d-&n'-i-lln6, s. [Eng. iod(ine\ and aniline.} 
Chem. : C 6 H 4 rNH 2 . Prepared by the re- 
duction of iodonitro- benzene, or by the action 
of iodine on aniline. It crystallizes in brilliant 
lamime, and melts at 25. Synonymous with 
iodaphenylamine. 

i-6d-&n-is'-ic, a. [Eng. iod(ine) ; anis(e oiQ, 
and suff. -ic.} (See the compound.) 

iodanisic acid, & 

Chem. : CgE^IOs. Produced, together with 

hydriodate of oxanisarnie acid, by the action of 

liydriodic acid on diazoanis-oxanisamic acid : 

C8H6N203-C8H9NOS+ SHI = 

(Diazoanui-oxaiiiaamic aoid) 



riodute of {lodamaic 

oxanlsamlc acid) acid). 

It forms white needles, insoluble in water, 
easily soluble in alcohol and in ether. The 
silver salt is a white amorphous precipitate. 
(Watts: Diet. Chem. (1865), iii. 283.) 

i-6d-a-phen-^r-a-mme, s. [Eng. iod(ine), 
a(nUine), phenyl ; -amine.] 
Chem. : The same as IODANILINE (q.v.). 

i-6-dar-^yr'-ite (yras Ir), a. [Eng. iod(ine\ 
and argyrite.] 

Min. : A soft yellow-greenish or brownish 
flexible translucent mineral, crystallizing hex- 
agonally. Lustre resinous or adamantine. 
Hardness, 5'5 to 6'71. Compos. : silver, 4572 
to 46'62; iodine, 53'11 to 54'03. Found at 
Guadalajara in Spain, in Mexico, in Chili, &c. 

l'-$-date, s. [Eng., Ac., iod(ic); -ate.] 
Chem. : A salt of iodic acid. 
lodato of potassium, s. 

Chem. : KIO 3 . Obtained by passing chloric 
gas through water in which iodine is suspended 
till it is all dissolved, then adding for every 
atom of iodine a molecule of KC1O 3 , and ordi- 
nary chlorine is liberated, and on evaporation 
pure KIO 3 is obtained. It crystallizes in 
small shining crystals which are soluble in 
thirteen parts of water. It is poisonous. It 
melts at 660 and gives off oxygen, KI being 
formed. 

I-6d-ben zeno, s. [Eng. iod(ine), and ben- 

zene.} 

Chem. : CgHgl. lodobenzene. An aromatic 
iodine substitution compound, formed by the 
action of iodine and benzene, CgHg. It is ne- 
cessary to add iodic acid to decompose the 
hydriodic acid which is formed, or thia 
would act on the CgHfil, re-forming benzene. 
SCgHs-f 4HI0 3 + 41 = dCeHjI + 3H 2 O. lod- 
beuzene boils at 188. 

l-o'd'-lc, a. [Eng. iodine) ; -ic.] 

Chan.: Of, belonging to, or containing 
iodine. 

iodic -acid, . 

Chem. : HIO 3 . A monobasic acid obtained 
by boiling iodine with strong nitric acid, or 
by pasrting chlorine into twenty parts of watei 
containing one part of finely-divided iodine in 
suspension la -f 5Cla + 6H 2 O = 10HC1 + 2HIO 3 , 
By evaporation the iotlic acid is obtained in 
transparent six-sided tables, which, when 
heated to 170% is converted into the anhy- 
dride IgOjj. Iodic acid is very soluble in 
water. The solution reddens litmus, and theu 
bleaches it. lodic-acid is reduced by sul- 
phurous acid. An aqueous solution of Iodio 
acid is a powerful oxidizing agent. 

iodic quicksilver, 5. 

M in, : The same as COCCINITB (q.v.). 

iodic silver, s. 

Min.. : lodargyrite (q.v.X [!ODTRITE.] 



t>6il, bo"&; pout, 16rW; oat, coll, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, tula; sin, as; expect, Xcnophon, exist. 
-don, -tlan = shan. -tion, -ston = shun ; -(ion, -slon = zhun. -tious, -sious, -cious = all us. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, 



ing. 



2732 



iodide iodosalicylio 



T-4-dide, . [Eng. iocl(iw); -ide.] 

CAm. : A compound formed by the union of 
iodine with an element or with a radical. 

Iodide of ammonium, . [IODAMMO- 

IOM.) 

Iodide of cadmium, . 

Chem. : Cal, Cdi. Formed by the direct 
Union of iodine of cadmium in the presence of 
water. An ointment is made of it, which acts 
tike lead iodide (q.v.). 

Iodide of ethyl, . [ETHYL-IODIDE.] 
Iodide of Iron, >. [IRON-IODIDE.] 
Iodide of lead, . [LEAD-IODIDE.] 
Iodide of nitrogen, a. [IODAMIDES.] 

Iodide of potassium, . [POTASSIUM- 
IODIDE.] 

Iodide of sliver, i. 

Chem. : Agl. Argentic Iodide. It occurs as 
ft mineral. When argentic nitrate la added to 
a soluble iodide, a light yellow precipitate ii 
formed, which is insoluble in ammonia. Iodide 
Of silver is very sensitive to the action of sun- 
light, and is therefore used in photography. 

Iodide of sulphur, . 

Chem. : S-jU. A dark gray crystalline mass, 
resembling native antimony sulphide, prepared 
by heating a mixture of sulphur and iodine. It 
is insoluble in water, gives off iodine when ex- 
posed to the air, and is rapidly decomposed 
when exposed to a high temperature. It ia a 
powerful remedy in skin dii 



i-6-dine, s. [Gr.ui*r|s(iKs)=vIolet-coloured; 

Eng. sun. -inf.] 

1. Chem. : Iodine is a haloid monatomic ele- 
ment ; symbol I ; atomic weight 127. Ob- 
tained from the ash of sea- weeds called kelp ; 
this is treated with water, filtered and evap- 
orated to a small bulk ; potassium and sodium 
alts crystallize out and the dark-brown 
mother liquid is then mixed with sulphuric 
acid and manganese dioxide, and, gently heated 
In a still, the Iodine distils over and is collected 
in a receiver. 



. 

The iodine of commerce is generally impure ; 
it may be purified by dissolving it In a solu- 
tion of potassium iodide till it is saturated, 
adding water which precipitates pure iodine. 
Iodine crystallizes in dark gray rhombic 
crystals, having a metallic lustre resembling 
graphite ; sp. gr. 4'95. It melts at 107' and 
boils at 175". Its vapour Is of a deep blue 
colour ; when less dense it has a violet colour. 
Iodine dissolves in 7000 parts of water ; it Is 
soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, and in 
carbon disulphide. Iodine stains the skin 
brown, and is soluble in potassium iodide. At 
ordinary temperatures iodine is slightly vola- 
tile, and has a peculiar smell. A small trace 
of iodine can be detected by its giving a blue 
colour to starch. The blue colour is destroyed 
by heat but reappears on cooling. Iodine 
unites with other elements and radicals, form- 
ing iodides. Its affinity for oxygen is greater 
than that of chlorine, but it has a less affinity 
for hydrogen, hence hydriodic acid Is easily 
decomposed by chlorine. 

2. Phar. : Iodine is used externally in 
chronic skin diseases and over enlarged and 
Indurated parts and diseased joints to alter 
action or cause absorption, or to kill parasites. 
It may be applied in the form of a liniment, 
a solution, a tincture, or an ointment. As a 
Tesicant the liniment may be painted over 
the part once, or, if need be, twice or three 
times. The vapor iodi (vapour of iodine) may 
be used as an inhalation in some forms o'f 
chronic bronchitis and phthisis. (Garrod.) 

3. Camp. Anat., Ac. : A solution of iodine is 
useful for rendering very transparent objects 
more distinct. 

f-6-dfam, s. [Eng. iuUine) ; -im..} 

Pathol. : The morbid effects produced by 
overdoses of iodine. They are irritation of the 
mucous membranes of the nose, the frontal 
inus, the eyes, pharynx, &c., with catarrh, 
ooryza, &c. 



, v.t. [Eng. iocKine); -ix,] 

1. Therap. : To treat with inhalations or ex- 
ternal applications of iodine ; to place under 
the influence of iodine. 

2. Photog. : To prepare with iodine. [IODIZED.] 



i'-o'-dized, pa. par. & a. [IODIZE.] 

lodized-collodion, i. [COLLODION.] 

I'-A-diz-er, . [Eng. iodide) ; -er.] One who 
or that which iodizes. 

1-O-do-, prtj. [Eng. iod(ine) t and o connective.] 
Chem. : Having iodine in its composition. 

lodo bromated, a. Impregnated with 
Iodine and bromine. 

lodo-bromattd vxiters : Waters thus Impreg- 
nated. (Used of springs.) They exist at 
Kreuznach, in Germany, and at Woodhall Spa 
in England. The waters are used in scrofula, 
in many chronic skin diseases, in internal dis- 
orders, and in constitutional syphilis. 

i-4-d4-bru'-cfcie, . [Pref. iodo., and Eng. 
brucine (q.v.).J 

Chem. : CaHjjNjOvIj. Iodide of brucine. 
A brown powder, very soluble in hot alcohol, 
obtained by triturating brucine with an excess 
of iodine. It Is readily decomposed by dilute 
acids, giving off iodine, and forming salts of 
brucine. 

I-*-d6-ca-ouf -chin, s. [Pref. iodo-, and 
Eng. caoutchin (q.v.).] 

Chem. : CioHu'Ij. A brownish-black oil 
produced when caoutchin ia added to an 
aqueous, or alcoholic solution of Iodine. It 
is insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol 
and ether. When distilled, it gives off hydri- 
odic acid ; but when heated with an acid or 
an alkali, it is rapidly decomposed. 

I-i-di-9in'-ch6n Ine, s. [Pret iodo- ; and 
Eng. diichanine (q.v.).] 

Chm. : 2CjoH 2 4NjO'Ij. Prepared by tri- 
turating cinchonine with about naif Its weight 
of iodine, and digesting the product witli 
alcohol. On slowly evaporating the alcohol- 
ic-solution, iodo-cinchonine is deposited in 
saffron-coloured plates. It is insoluble in cold 
water, but very soluble in boiling water, in 
alcohol, and in ether. When heated, it 
softens, bnt does not melt till the temperature 
is raised to 80*. It is decomposed by acids 
and alkalis. 

i-A-di^cIn-nam'-lo, a. [Pref. iodo-, and 

cinnamic (q.v.).] 

Chem. : Composed of Iodine and cinnamic 
add. 

iodocinnamic acid, i. 

Chem. : C 9 H;I0 2 . Obtained by melting cin- 
namic acid with an excess of Iodine, and boil- 
ing the product with water till all the free 
iodine is volatilized. On cooling the liquid, 
small stellate crystals of iodocinnamic-acid 
are precipitated. The acid is very soluble in 
hot water, and in alcohol. 

i-6-do-co -deine, i. [Pref. iodo-, and Eng. 
codeine (q.v.).] 

Chem. : Ci 8 H 2 iNO 3 -Ij. Iodide of codeine. 
Prepared by dissolving in a small quantity of 
alcohol equal weights of iodine and codeine. 
On leaving the mixture at rest for a few days, 
iodo-codeine is deposited in the form of tri- 
angular plates, which show a violet colour 
by reflected light, bat a fine ruby colour by 
transmitted light. Iodo-codeine is insoluble 
in water and ether, bnt dissolves readily in 
alcohol with a reddish-brown colour. It 
gives off iodine when heated to 100". 

i-od'-6-form, s. [Eng. iod(ine); o connect., 
and/om(3/I)0 

Chen. : CHI 3 . Obtained by heating iodine 
with alcohol mixed with sodium carbonate, 
lodoform crystallizes in shining yellow six- 
sided hexagonal plates which melt at 117'. It 
smells like saffron. 

i-o-d6-me -cone, . [Pref. iodo-, and Eng. 
mccon(in)e (q.v.).] 

Chem. : CsH^ps. A crystalline substance 
obtained by treating pyromeconic acid with 
an excess of protochloride of iodine, and pre- 
cipitating with potash. It is insoluble in 
water, but soluble in alcohol and ether, from 
which it crystallizes in yellow hexagonal plates 
having an odour of saffron. It has neither an 
acid nor an alkaline reaction, and sublimes at 
90. 

i-6-do-me'- thane, . [Pref. iodo-, and Eng. 
methane (q.v.).] 

Chem. : CH 3 I. Methyl iodide. A colour- 
less sweet-smelling liquid, obtained by distill- 



ing 8 parts iodine, 15 parts wood-spirit, and 
1 part phosphorus. It is almost insoluble in 
water, has a sp. gr. 2-199, and boils at 44"-46". 
Its vapour density, referred to hydrogen us 
unity, is 71". 

l-4'-do-nI-trd-phe'-n5l$ . pi [Pref. fodo- ; 
nitr(ic acid) ; o connective, and Eng. phenol 

(q.v.).] 

Chem.. : Compounds formed by the action 
of iodine and iodic-acid on the nitrophenols 
in alkaline solutions, and precipitating from 
these solutions by hydrochloric acid. Mono- 
iodonitrophenol hns a golden yellow colour, and 
crystallizes readily, but has not been further 
examined. Di - iodonitrophenol is slightly 
soluble in water, but very soluble in alcohol 
and ether, and melts at 98. It crystallizes 
from a mixture of alcohol and ether in dark 
yellow needles. Its potassium salt crystallizes 
in reddish needles, and its sodium salt in 
dark-brown prisms, having a golden lustre. 



fil^, . pi. [Pref. iodo-, and 
Eng. phenol (q.v.).] 

Chem. : CjHjI'OH. By the action of iodine 
and iodic acid on phenol, in presence of an 
alkali, a mixture of three isomeric raono-iodo- 
phenols is obtained. When this is distilled 
In a current of steam, first a liquid, ortho- 
iodophenol, passes over, then a solid, meta- 
iodophenol, and lastly, at a higher tempera- 
ture, tri-iodo-, or para-iodophenol. The residue 
still contains a quantity of tri-iodophenot, 
which, however, may be extracted by alcohol. 
Ortho-iodophenol is a colourless, oily liquid, 
with a strong, disagreeable odour. It does 
not become solid even at - 23 and is readily 
decomposed by chlorine, or by nitric acid. 
Meta-iodophonol is almost insoluble In water, 
but dissolves in alcohol and ether, from 
which it crystallizes in flat glistening needles. 
It melts at 64"-06". Para-iodophenol Is solu- 
ble in water, alcohol, ether, and carbon di- 
sulphide. It crystallizes from alcohol in 
large six-sided plates, from ether in the form 
of needles, and from carbon disulphide In 
short, thick prisms. From its aqueous solu- 
tion it is precipitated by hydrochloric acid, 
as a graylsVwhite flocculent mass. It has 
a faint but unpleasant odour, and melts at 89". 



, o. [Pref. iodo-; pro- 

pion(e), and suff. -ic.] 

Chem. : Composed of iodine and propionio- 
acid. 

iodopropionic acid, .-. 

Chem.: C 3 H 5 IO 2 . A monobasic acid, ob- 
tained by heating gtyceric acid in syrupy 
solution, with phosphorus iodide, or by heat- 
ing acrylic acid and a solution of hydriodic 
acid to a temperature of 120". C 3 H 4 Oj+HI = 
C 3 H 6 IOj. It crystallizes in large colourless 
plates, which melt at 82*, and are insoluble 
in cold, readily in hot, water. When heated 
to 180" with concentrated hydriodic acid, it is 
converted into propionic acid. 

1-6 do-quin-ine', . [Pref. iodo-, and Eng. 
quinine (q.v.).] 

Chem. : zXDjoHMNoOj'Ij. A brown crystal- 
line body, obtained by triturating quinine 
with iodine. It contains 28'0 per cent, of 
Iodine, and possesses properties exactly simi- 
lar to iodocinchonine. 

i-o-d*-sal-I-c#r-Ic, o. [Pref. iodo., and Eng. 
salicylic (q.v.).] 

Chem. : Composed of iodine and salicylic- 
acid. 

iodosallcylic acids, i.pl. 

Chem. : These acids are prepared by adding 
tincture of iodine, drop by drop, to a cold 
aqueous solution of barytic salicylate, C?H4 
Ba"O, and then precipitating with hydro- 
chloric acid ; or, by fusing one atom of sali- 
cylic acid with two atoms of iodine, and treat- 
ing the product with a solution of potash, 
which dissolves out the several iodosalicylic- 
acids. Mono-iodosalicylic acid, C7H B IO 3 , is a 
white crystalline mass, slightly soluble in 
water, but very soluble in alcohol and ether. 
It crystallizes from water, acidulated with 
sulphuric acid, in long silky needles, which 
melt at 196". Di-iodosalicylic acid, CyHJoOj, 
is a white amorphous mass, insoluble m water, 
but slightly soluble in alcohol and ether. It 
is soluble in water acidulated with sulphuric 
acid, from which it crystallizes In needle- 
shaped crystals. On being heated It does not 
melt, but at 214" Is decomposed with separa- 



fntc, Kit. fare, amidst, what, fall, lather; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, s'ire, sir, marine: go. pit, 
or. wore, wolf, work, whd, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full ; try, Syrian. SB, ce = e ; ey = a. qu - lew. 






iodosulphurlo ipomcea 



-T3$ 



lion of iodine. Tri-iodosalioylic acid, C 7 H 3 I 3 O $ . 
This acid is very unstable, decomposing during 
the process of formation into carbonic anhy- 
dride and tri-iodophenol. 

l-o" d$-sul-phur'-Ic, a. [Pref. todo-, and 

Eng. sulphuric (q.v.).] Composed of iodine 
and sulphuric acid. 

lode-sulphuric acid, 5. 

Chtm. : H 280313- When a mixture of iodine 
and lead sulphite is distilled, and the distil- 
late rectified over mercury, iodosulphuric* 
anhydride is obtained, and this, on being 
mixed with water, yields iodosulphuric-aeid. 
It may also be prepared by passing sulphurous 
t acid into iodide of starch, and distilling the 
decolourized liquid. The iodosulphatea are 
prepared by neutralizing the acid with the 
corresponding bases. Sodium iodosulphate, 
NaaSOjIa+lOHsO, crystallizes in elongated 
prisms, which are slightly soluble in water 
and alcohol. 






. [Pr. iodure, and suff. -ite.] 
Min. : Dana's name for the iodargyrite of 
the British Museum Catalogue. 

i'-^ lite, 9. [Gr. ioc (ion) = a violet, and Xtfo 
(lithog) stone.] 

Min. : An orthorhombic transparent or 
translucent mineral, generally blue, but in 
aoiue cases yellow, or yellowish -gray on the 
part perpendicular to ttie vertical axis. Hard- 
ness, 7 to 7'5 ; sp. gr. 2'56 to 2'66 ; lustre 
vitreous. Compos. : silica, 4811 to 60'65 ; 
alumina, 28'72 to 33'11 ; protoxide of iron, 
4-10 to 11*58 ; magnesia, 8-2 to 20'45, Ac. 
Feeble double refraction present. Occurs in 
granite, gneiss, and more rarely In volcanic 
rocks, in Bavaria, Tuscany, Norway, Sweden, 
Greenland, the United States, Ac. In its 
altered state it forms many minerals, such as 
Pinite, Fahlunite, Ac. 

! Hydrout loliU : 

Jf in. ; (1) A variety of lolite ; (2) Bonsdorff- 
Ite ; (3) Auralite ; (2) and (3) = Fahlunite (q. v.). 

i'-on, i-d"ne, a. [Gr. I6v(i6ri), pr. par. of 
tfyit (eimi) = to go.] 

Elect, (PL) : The substances resulting from 
decomposition by electrolysis. [ANIONE, 

KATIONE. ] 

1-d ni an, a. & . [Lat. lonius, from Gr. 
*I*ifio \Iuiiios) = pertaining to Ionia, a dis- 
trict of Asia Minor in which lonians from 
Attica settled about B.C. 1050. It extended 
from the river Hermus along the shore of the 
JSgean Sea to Miletus.] 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to Ionia or 
the lonians. 

B. As subst. : A native or inhabitant of Ionia. 
Ionian mode, s. 

Mus. : One of the ecclesiastical modes, com- 
mencing on the note C, corresponding exactly 
in tonality with the major diatonic scale as 
used iu modern music. [MODE.] 

Ionian-school, . 

PhUos. : The first school of Greek philo- 
sophy, the distinctive characteristic of which 
was its inquiry into the constitution of the 
universe. Thales of Miletus opened the in- 
quiry. The common notion that he taught 

the principle of all things was water," must 
be taken with a distinction. Water, as the 
principle of Thales, was not water in any de- 
terminate form, but water instinct with vital 
energy, capable of taking an infinite number 
of forms. This doctrine appears in Hesiod 
{Theog., 133 - 136) ; and the " ariston men 
Xudor" of Pindar (Olymp., i. 1) is proverbial. 
Thales is usually spoken of as the founder of 
the Ionian school ; he was more he was the 
Cather of Greek speculation. He prescribed 
no method, and those who followed him did 
not accept his answer to the question, What 
is the Beginning of all things? But the 
special claim of Thales to notice lies in the 
fact that he was the first to ask the question, 
nd the first to attempt to establish a physi- 
cal Beginning. 

" Tho whole ordinary arrangement of the Ionian 
School seems to hare proceeded 011 the conviction that 
ach disciple not only contradicted his master, but 
al*o returned to the doctrine* of Ms roaster** teacher." 
tf. a. Lex** : Hut, Philot. (1867). L 8. 

f-o*n'-ie, a. | Lat lonicus, from Gr. 'loctxoc 
(lonikos) = pertaining to Ionia (q.v.).] 

A. As adj. : Relating or pertaining to Ionia 
or the lonians. 




B. As substantive : 
Prosody: 

1. An Ionic foot 

2. An Ionic verse or metre. 
Ionic-dialect, $. 

Philol. : The dialect of the Greek language 
spoken in Ionia. 

Ionic-foot, t. 

Pro*. : A foot consisting of four syllables, 
either two long and two short (the greater 
/ante), or two short and two long (the smaller 
Ionic). 

Ionic-metre, . A metre consisting of 
Ionic feet. 

Ionic-mode, *. 

Jlfus. ; [IONIAN-MODE]. 

Ionic order, . 

Arch. : One of the five orders of architec- 
ture, the distinguishing characteristic of which 
is the volute of the capital. Its main features 
are the same as in the Doric style ; their forms, 
however, are different. The Ionic order has 
more mouldings. Its forms are richer and more 
elegant, and, as a style, it is lighter and more 
graceful than the Doric. The Doric order has 
been compared to the male, and the Ionic to 
the female figure. The Ionic column has a 
less diminished shaft and a smaller parabolic 
curve than the Doric. It is, like the Doric, 
channelled ; the flutings, which are twenty- 
four in number, are separated by annulets, 
and are therefore narrower, but at the same 
time deeper, -' .-.... 

than the 
Doric, and 
are termi- 
nated at 
the top and bot- 
tom by a final 
curvature. The 
column has a 
base, which, as 
essential parts, 
has a moulded 
or plain cavetto 
with a torus 
above, or the 
torus is placed 
above two ca- 
vetti, which are 
themselves sepa- 
rated by several 
Intervening 
mouldings. The 
80 -called Attic 
base is the form 
which most fre- 
quently occurs, 
and consists of 
two tori separa- 
ted by a cavetto, 
the whole having a plinth as basis. In the 
capital the Doric echinus is replaced either 
by a cyma ornamented with leaves, or, more 
generally, by an ovolo with a pearl-bead- 
ing beneath. Instead of the Doric abacuj 
there occurs a cushion-like band in its place, 
whose ends, wound in a spiral shape and coiled 
with elastic force, when viewed either from 
In front or behind, form volutes, which on 
both sides considerably exceed the diameter 
of the column, and also surpass the architrave 
in breadth. These volutes, or scrolls, when 
viewed from the side, appear to meet fn the 
middle, and form a wavy line over the echinus. 
The architrave consists of several faciee, 
which project slightly one over the other, and 
which are separated by small hollowed mould- 
ings and capped by a moulded band. The 
frieze is undivided, either plain or with ara- 
besques representing either implements used 
in worship or simple plants. The frieze also 
bears the name of the zophorus. As regards 
the proportions of the Ionic order, no such 
remarkable difference as In the Doric ts per- 
ceptible in the monuments which have been 
preserved to us. The height of the column 
is from eight and a-balf to nine times ^ie 
lower diameter ; the distance between the 
columns averages about twice the diameter, 
while the height of the entablature is not 
quite one quarter that of the column. The 
most perfect specimens of the Ionic order are 
the temples of Minerva Polias and of Erectheus 
in the Acropolis at Athens, and of Fortuna 
Virilis and the Coliseum at Rome. 

Ionic sect or school, . [IONIAN 

SCHOOL.] 




IONIC COLUMN. 



i--nId'-I-nm, *, [Latinised from Gr. 
(ion) = a violet (Viola odorata), and e 
= form.] 

Bot. : A large genus of Violacese, tribe Violeas, 
closely allied to Viola proper. The species are 
chiefly from the sub-tropical parts of America. 
lonidium parviflonim and some others an 
violent purgatives and emetics. They are used 
in the disease Elephantiasis tuberculata, and /. 
parviflorum, I. Poaya, and /. Ituba as substi- 
tutes for ijiecacuaiilia ; the last is given In 
South America in dysentery and gout. /. /pe- 
cacuanha is White Ipecacuanha. 

i 6 nop sld 09, *. pi. [Mod. lit. ionopris; 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 
Bot. : A family of Orchids, tribe Vamlee. 

l-^n-dp -!, s. [Gr. lov (ton) = a violet, and 
01^ ts (opsis) = look, appearance.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of the family lonop- 
sidae. It consists of small epiphytal orehiJg 
from tropical America. 

l-O'-ta, *. [Gr.) The name of the Greek letter 
t, and this being frequently indicated by a 
dot under other letters (as ), known as iota 
subscript, the word has come to mean a jot, a 
tittle, a very small quantity. 

I O tT, *. [See def.] A recognised contraction 
for / owe you. A paper with these letters on 
it, followed by an amount and duly signed. 
Itisa simple acknowledgment of indebtedness 
to some particular person. 

"He teacheth od fellowei to play tricks with thrfr 
creditors, who, Instead of payments, write / U." 
Breton : Conrf ier <t Countryman, p. 9. 

I' o wan, a. & . 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to Iowa, one 
of our Northern Central States. 

B. As subtt. : A native or inhabitant of Iowa. 

ip-e-cac-u an'-ha (h silent), Ip-c-c&c'-a- 
an, s. [The native Brazilian name.] 

1. Bot. : The plants producing the drug de- 
scribed under 2. 

2. Pharmacy: 

(1) The dried root of Cephaelis Ipecacuanha, 
a cinchonaceous plant from Brazil. [CEPHAE- 
LIS.] The ipecacuanha from that country is 
called ammlated, to distinguish it from the 
striated kind from Peru. It arrives from Rio 
Janeiro and elsewhere iu contorted pieces, 
two to four inches long, about the size of a 
small quill, and knotted. The smell of ipe- 
cacuanha is slight, but disagreeable ; the taste 
bitter, aromatic, and slightly acrid. The active 
ingredients reside chiefly in the cortex. It 
contains a feeble alkaloid called ceretin. Its 
preparations are pills, powders, lozenges, and 
wine. In large doses it is an emetic ; in 
smaller ones it is an expectorant and an altera- 
tive. It is considered a specific in dysentery. 
" Dover's powder " is a compound powder of 
ipecacuanha ; it is diaphoretic. Ipecacuanha, 
made into ointment, is a counter-irritant 

(2) Various other plants produce a similar 
drug, as, for example, all the Atsodince, a 
tribe of ViolaceK. 80 also the root of Euphor- 
bia Ipecacuanha is said by Barton to be at 
least as good as the genuine ipecacuanha, 

?f The Ipecacuanha of Cayenne is loniJium 
Ituba ; that of Guiana is the root of Boerhaavia 
decumbens, one of the Nyctagos ; that of Vene- 
zuela is the root of Sarcostemma gfaucum, an 
Asclepiad ; Black Peruvian or Striated Ipe- 
cacuanha is Psychotria emetica; the False Ipe- 
cacuanha of Bourbon is Camptocarpus mauri- 
tianvs; False Brazilian Ipecacuanha is loni- 
dium Ipecacuanha; Undulated Ipecacuanha 
is Richardsonia scabra ; White Ipecacuanha la 

(1) lonidium Ipecacuanha, (2) Richardsonia 
scabra, (3) in India, Tylophora asthmatica, and 
the Wild Ipecacuanha of the West Indies ia 
Asclepias curassavica, called also Bastard 
Ipecacuanha. 

* Ip'-i-Cri*, 9. [HlPPOORAS.] 

Ip-i-mce -a, . [Said to be from ty (ips), genit 
Jiros (ipos) = bindweed ; but Llddell & Scott 
do not recognize this sense of ty (ips). [IpaJ 
They give tyo$, tyo (ipsos) (1) the cork tree, 

(2) the ivy ; opoioc (homoios) = similar.] 

Bot. : A genus of Convolvulaceie, tribe Con- 
volvulese. Sepals five ; corolla campanulas ; 
stamens five; style single; stigma bilobed:. 
lobes capitate ; ovary two-celled, each cell 
two-seeded. The species, which are nume- 
rous, are found in the warmer parts of both 



boll, bo"jr; pout. Jo*fcrl ; cat, cell, chorus, $hin, lunch; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, yenophon, e^lst. ph = C. 
-tlan = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -(Ion, -flon - zhun. -clous, -tious. - sious = shos. -ble, -die, c. = bel, deL 



S734 

hemispheres. About a hundred are cultivated 
in gardens for their showy flowers, which are 
an ornament to trellis-work. Ipomaca tuberosa, 
the Spanish Arbour-vine of Jamaica, furnishes 
a kind of scammony ; the root of /. pandvrata 
i* employed in the United States as jalap ; 
I. Batatoida is the Male Jalap of Mestitlan ; 
f. QuainaclU 1* sternutatory ; /. Turpethum, 
ft native of the East Indies, and /. opercvlata 
are purgative. The> foliage of /. maritiwi is 
made into a fomentation, and applied to joints 
enlarged by scrofula. The Sweet Potato was 
formerly called /. atata, now it ia Itatatas 
tdulis. [BATATAS.] 

tps, . [Gr. 'ifi (tpt) = * worm that eats hom 
and wood ; also one that eats vine-bud* ; a 
cynips (*).J 

KiUom.: A genus of beetles, placed by 
Stephens In the family Engidse, but now re- 
moved to Nitidulidaj. They have the club 
of the antennffl three-jointed, and the last 
Joint of the palpi truncate. The species live 
on the sap of decaying trees, and are usually 
found beneath loose bark where there I* an 
exudation of sap. Four British species are 
known, some of them common. (Stephens.) 

Ip so dtx'-tt, phr. [Lat = he himself said.) 
A mere assertion without proof. 

Ip sis si nm veV-ba, phr. [Lat.] The 
very words ; the exact words or term*. 

Ip' so fie -to, phr. [Lat] By the very act 
or fact 

Ir-, prtf. The form which the prefix In- assumes 
before words beginning with r. [IN-, pref.] 

ii" a ound, o. [Lat Iracundut = angry.] 
Passionate. 

" A spirit crocs-grained, fantastic, IroesMd, Incom- 
patible." Cartyle . Mimltank-i. Iv. 87. 

ir-a-cnn'-dl-o&s-ly, adv. [As from an 
Kng. iracundious ; -ly.\ Angrily, passionately. 

" Drawing out his knife most tracvndtavtlg."-. 
JTatfce : UMen Stxft. 

X ra tie, . [Turk., from Arab. Irada = will, 
I. sin-.) A decree of the Sublime Porte. 

I' rail, <. [Eng. 7, and rat'.] A double-headed 
rail with flanges on each side above and below, 
on the foot and tread ; hence like a capital L 

. & a. [Pen. Iran = Persia.] 

A. As subsU : Of or belonging to Iran : a*, 
the Iranian languages. 

B. As adj. : A native of Iran. 

Iranian languages, . pi. The Aryan 

adintinguished from the Turanian languages. 

t-ras-ej-bn'-r-ty, . [Fr. IrasciHlitt, from 
irascible = Irascible (q.v.); Sp. irascibilidad ; 
Ital. irascibilila .] The quality or state of Iteing 
irascible or easily excited to anger ; irritability. 

- The trfKibitU, at tbU claas of tyrants." gambler, 
He. Ill 

I ras'-cl ble, a. [Fr., from Lat irascibilit, 
from irascor = to be angry ; Sp. irascible ; Ital. 
irrucihile. J Easily excited to anger ; choleric, 
hot-tempered, passionate, irritable. 

" The hsatj and somewhat frosciofe blacksmith.'' 
LongfeWng : SwittffMru, L X 

i ras'-ol-ble-ness, 9. {Eng. irascible ;iiea.] 
The quality or state of being irascible ; irasci- 
bility. 

J-ras'-cI-bly, adv. [Eng. {raicib(le) ; -ly.l In 
an irascible, choleric, or passionate manner. 

i rate', a. [Lat trains, pa. par. of irascor = 
to be angry.] Angry, enraged. 

ire, . (O.Fr., from Lat. tra.] Anger, passion, 
rage, wrath, keen resentment 
"The ire of a despotic king 
Rides forth upon destruction's wing." 

S'-<:lt : Munition. 1 L 81. 

"ire'-ful, "ire'-fnll, o. [Eng. ire; ful(l).'] 
Full of ire or anger ; angry, wrathful, enraged. 

That <rtful bastard Orleans, that drew blood 
From thee." Skaktip. : Benrg r/., Iv. 8. 

ire'-fnl-ly', adv. [Eng. (refill ; -ly.] In an 
ireful manner ; with ire ; angrily, wrathfully. 

- /Ft/WHy eniaged. would needs to open arms." 
Drayton : Poly-Olbion, ft. 4. 

"ire'-ful-ness, . [Eng. Ireful ; -ness.] The 
quality or state of being ireful ; ire, wrath, 
anger. 

" Through tr^rufoeeM and rsahnesse." 
Cmar. to. Mi 



f ra nl an, 

[ARYAN.] 



ips iris 

i'-ren-aroh, s. [EIRENARCH.] 

I-re'-ne, >. [Gr.] 

1. Greek Myth. : The goddess of peace. 

2. Astron. : An Asteroid, the fourteenth 
found. It was discovered by Hind, on May 
18, 1861. 

"I-rSn'-io, "i-rSn'-lc-al, o. [Gr. t'twKk 
(eirenikoe) = pertaining to peace, peaceful : 
tlpjvji (f Irene) peace.) Peaceful, pacific; 
promoting or tending to promote peace, 

I-ren'-I-con, . [Or. tiftiruch (et 
[iRKNia] A proposition, scheme, or arrange- 
ment for the promotion and maintenance of 
peace, especially in the church. [EIRENICON.] 



ire -stone, i. [Eng. ir(oi); -otmt.] 

Min. : A general term for any hard rock. 

I'-ri-an, a. [Eng. ir(is); -cm.] 

A not. : Belonging to or In any way connected 
with the Iris. 

" The IrU receive* the irian nerrea." 



ir-I ar'-te-a, t. [Named after Jnan Iriarte, 
a Spanish amateur botanist] 

Bi>t. : A genns of Palms, tribe Arecere (q.v.). 
It consist* of few species, all from South 
America. The hard outer wood of Iriartea 
own-Mat, the Pashiuba or Paxiuba palm of 
Bm7.il, le brought to the United States and need 
in ranking umbrella handles. 

iy-l^lsm, ,. [Eng. Jriak ; -fata.] An Irish- 
lam (q.v.) ; any Irish peculiarity of behaviour. 

I'-rW. . [Lat Mt (genlt **.); Gr. fot 

(iru). genit. Tpioot (iridas) = the rainbow ; the 
plants described under 2.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : The circle round the pupil 
of the eye ; the Iris. 

" Brown eyes, with a one benignant light In their 
trtdt." C. BrtmU: Jant A>re, cb. T. 

2. Bulany: 

0) Sing. : A me jiber of the Iridacese (q.T.X 
(2) PI. : The name given by Lindley to the 
Iridacese (q.v.). 

i-rfd-a'--iB, i-rfd'-S-ie. i'-rid es, . pi. 

[Lat iru (genit truiu).] [!RID.] 

Bet. : Irids, an order of Endogens, alliance 
Karcissalea. It consists of herbs, or more 
rarely of undershrubs, with tuberous or 
fibrous root* ; leaves generally equitant or 
distichous ; bracts spathaceous ; calyx and 
corolla adherent or coloured ; petals three ; 
stamen* three ; ovary three-celled, many- 
seeded ; fruit capsular. Found at the Cape of 
Good Hope, the temperate part* of Europe 
and America, otc. 

i-rid-n-a, f. [Lat. <rt, genlt <rM(w); fern, 
adj. sing. sun*, -tea.) 

Hot. : A genns of Rose-spored Algals, order 
Ceramiacea-, sub-order Cera mete, family Nema- 
stomidie or Cryptonemlaceffi. Iridaa edvlis 
is sometimes called Dulse, though the genuine 
Scottish Dulse is Jihodomenia palmata. 

i'-rid-al, a. [Lat. iru, genlt irirf<) = the 
rainbow ; Eng. adj. sun". -oi.J Pertaining to 
or resembling the rainbow. 

1-rid -eo'- tome, s. [Gr. fot (iris\ genit tpiioj 
(iridoi) = the rainbow, the iris, and ixro^ (ek- 
tfime) = a cutting out: * (ek) = out, and repv* 
(femno) = to cut] 
burg. : A knife for operations on the eye. 

i-rid-eV-to-my, . [IRIDECTOME.] 

Surg. : The ai't or operation of cutting ont 
a portion of the iris for the purpose of forming 
an artificial pupil. 

Ir-i'd-e'B'-cenee, s. [As if from a Lat "iri- 
dtscens, ft. par. of * iridexa = to become like 
a rainbow ; irw (genit iridit) = a rainbow.] 
The quality or state of being iridescent ; ex- 
hibition of colours like those of the rainbow. 

ir-id-cs'-9ent, a. [IRIDESCENCE.] Prismatic, 
nunbow-like ; exhibiting iridescence. 

" Here Gubbloe. workshop! gieam and glow 

With brilliant 



_ tosf .- Ktnimot. 
i-rid'-I-an, a. [Lat. iris, genit irid(U) m 
the rainbow ; Eng. adj. sutf. -on.] Pertaining 
to the rainbow. (Annandale.) 

I-rid-I-o-, pref. [IRIDICJC.] (See the com- 
pound.) 

iridio chlorides, i. pi. 



I-rtd'-l-d-Bcope, . [Or. Ip<5 (fri), gentt 
iptoo? (iridos) a rainbow, the iris, and o-Koire'u* 
(gkoped) = to see, to observe.] An optical in- 
strument which shows the inside of the eye, 
used to detect foreign substances and disease. 

i-rid'-I-um, . [Or. 7p (iris) - the rainbon. 
and eloos (eirfo)= form, appearance.) 

1. diem. : A tetrad metallic element, symbol 
Ir. ; atomic weight 193 ; discovered by Des- 
cotils in 1803, and by Tennant in 1804, in the 
black powder which remains when crude 
platinum is dissolved in uitro-liytlrochloric 
acid. This powder in an alloy or indium and 
osmium, called iridusiuincor osiniridium. To 
separate the iridium from the alloy, the blade 
jiowder Is mixed with an equal weight of dry 
sodium chloride, and heated to reTness in a 
glass tube, through which a stream of moist 
chlorine gas is transmitted. The further end 
of the tube is connected with a vessel con- 
taining ammonia. Iridium chloride aud os- 
mium chloride are formed : the former remains 
in the tube in combination with the sodium 
chloride, whilst the latter, being a volatile 
substance, is carried forward into the receiver 
where it is decomposed into osrnic and hydro- 
chloric acids, which combine with the am- 
monia. The Iridium and sodium chloride left 
in the tube is dissolved in water, mixed with 
an excess of sodium carbonate and evaporated 
to dryness. The residue, after ignition in a 
crucible, is reduced by hydrogen at a high 
temperature, and- treated successively with 
water and concentrated hydrochloric acid, by 
which all impurities are removed, and the 
metallic iridium left in a finely divided state. 
Iridium is a white, brittle, very hard metal, 
fusible, with great difficulty, in the flame of 
the oxy-hydrogcn blowpipe. It is insoluble in 
all acids, but when reduced by hydrogen at a 
red heat it oxidizes slowly aud dissolves in 
nitro-hydrochloric acid. Iridium forms fnor 
oxide* IrO, Ir 2 O 3 , IrO 2 , and IrO.. The 
monoxide, or hypo-iridious oxide, IrO, isl>ut 
little known. The sesquioxide, or trillion* 
oxide, Ir^Og, is unstable, having a great ten- 
dency to absorb oxygen and become dioxide. 
The dioxide, or iridic oxide, IrOj, is the most 
easily prepared and the most stable. It I* 
prepared by boiling a solution of iridic chlo- 
ride with an alkali. The trioxide, or periridlo 
oxide, IiOs, is unknown in the free state. Imt 
is found in combination with potash as a black 
crystalline powder, when iridium is fused with 
nitre. Iridium forms four chlorides IrCl, 
IrClj, IrjCbj, and Irt'lj but only two of them 
have been obtained in definite form viz., the 
trichloride, or trillions chloride, IroCl e . and 
the tetrachloride, or iridic chloride, IrCl4. 
Iridlons chloride combines with other metallic 
chlorides, forming compounds, called iridoso- 
chluridc*, which are all olive-green pulveru- 
lent salts. Iridio chloride also unites with 
alkaline chlorides, forming iridio-chlorides, 
which are all of dark brown colour. There 
are three iodides of iridinm analogous to the 
chlorides, and three sulphides analogous to 
the first three oxides. Iridic solutions give, 
with ammonium or potassium chloride, a crys- 
talline precipitate, which is distinguished from 
the platinum precipitate by its reddish-brown 
colour. 

2. Min. : The Native Iridinm of Jameson 
i* Iridumnine (q.v.). 

i - rid -8'- mine. t. [Hod. Lat. {ri<i(fum); 
om(lvm), with suff. -ine (Min.) (q.v.).] 

Min. : An hexagonal opaque mineral of tin- 
white or light steel-gray colour and metallic 
lustre. Hardness, 6 to 7; sp. gr. , 19'30 to 
21'12. Compos.: iridium, 43-28 to 70--H) ; 
osmium, 17-20 to 4086, &c. Found with 
platinum In Choco in South America, also in 
the Ural Mountains aud in Australia. Vui it-ties 

- Newjanskite and Siaserskite. {Dana.) 

i'-rli (pi. i'-ri-des), . [Lat. lrtt = Gr. Zpt 
(iris) = rainbow.) 

1. Ord. Lang. : The rainbow. 
H. Technically: 

L A nut. : The coloured portion of the ey 
surrounding the black central pupil. It con- 
sist* of three layers, an anterior epithelial 
layer, a posterior layer of pigment called the 
uvea, and a middle fibrous layer. 

2. Bat. : The typical genns of the order 
Iridacese (q.v.). The perianth is regular, it* 
segments unequal ; sepals large, stipulate, 
reflexed ; petals smaller, sub-erect, stipulate ; 
stigmas three, very broad, petalojd. About 
forty-eight are known, all from tie north 



tote, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go. pdt, 
. or, wore, wolf, work, who, sin; mute, cub, ciire, unite, cur. role, fall ; try, Syrian. a>, ce = e. ey=a.<in = kw. 



irisated Iron 



2735 




temperate zone. Two are British. Ira Ptettdn- 
corus, the Yellow Flag, common on river 
banks, canals, &c., and /. fcetidissima, the 
Fetid Tree or Roast-beer plant, with bluo 
purple flowers, and occurring chiefly in chalk 
or limestone districts. Other species aro eft- 
capes. The rousted 
set-ds of 7. Pseuda- 
conts are like coffee. 
It is a diuretic pur- 
gative and emetic, as 
are /. tvberosa, I. ver- 
sicolor, and /, verna. 
I. Florentina fur- 
nishes the vinift- 
scented orris - root, 
which is slightly 
stimulating. It is 
used in the prepara- 
tion of the sweet- IRIS. 
scented otto of roses. 

/. ensata has been supposed to furnish the irisa 
root of India. Dr. Stewart says that it is used 
externally in the treatment of rheumatism. In 
Chumba the root and leaves are given in fever. 
The purple flowers of /. germaniat and /. sibi- 
ricn, treated with lime, furnish a green colour. 
I. sibirica is anti-syphilitic ; /. faetidissima is 
said to be a cure for scrofula. 

j The Peacock Iris ia the genus Vteus- 
seuxia, the Scorpion Iris 7. alata, and the 
Snake's-head Iris /. tnberosa, or Hermodactylus 
tuticrosus. The name iris is given to the genus 
because of the variety and beauty of the 
colours in the flowers. 

3. Astron. : [ASTEROID, 7]. 

Iris diaphragm, 5. 

Optics: A contractile diaphragm, simulat- 
ing the action of the natural iris, to regulate 
the size of the aperture in a microscope 
through which light passes. 

Iris-disease, s. A skin disease (herpes 
iris), appearing generally on the back of the 
hands, and especially affecting children and 
fair women. It extends in a radiated manner 
in different shades of red, whence the name 
Iris. 

iris root, s. 

Bot. & Comm. : The same as ORRIS-ROOT 
(q.v.). 

* i'-rfe-at-Sd, o. [Eng. iris; -ated.] Ex- 
hibiting the prismatic colours ; resembling 
the rainbow. 

1' ri scope, s. [Gr. Ip (iris) = the rainbow, 

and a-KOTTcw (skopeo) = to behold.] 

Mack, : An instrument invented by Dr. 
Reade for exhibiting the prismatic colours. 
It consists of a plate of polished black glass, 
having its surface smeared with a solution of 
soap, and dried by wash-leather. If the breath 
be directed through a tube upon the glass, the 
Tapour will be deposited in coloured rays. 

i'-rised, a. [Eng. iris; -ed.] Containing col- 
ours like those of the rainbow. 

Ir ish, a. & s. [A.S. yrisc.} 

A. As adjective : 

1. Pertaining to Ireland or its Inhabitants ; 
like an Irishman. 

" Those early colonists who were proverbially mid to 
have become more Irish than Irishmen." Macaulay : 
Sitt. Eng.. i:h. xii. 

2. Pertaining to the Highlands of Scotland. 
(ERSE.] 

B. As substantive : 

1. A native of Ireland ; In the pi., the people 
of Ireland. 

2. The Irish language. 

* 3, An old game resembling backgammon. 
Irish Church, a. [CHURCH or IRELAND.] 
Irish-elk, s. [ELK.] 
Irish-elm, s. 
Bot. : Ulmus montana nlgra. 
Irish famine-fever, . [FAMINE-FEVER.] 
Irish-furze, s. 
ot, ; Ulex strictvs. 
Irish-heath, *. 
Bot. ; Menziesia polifolia. 
Irish-moss, s. [CARAOHEEN.] 
Irish Presbyterian Church. . 
Xcclesiol. & Ch. Hist. : A Presbyterian Church, 
formerly called the Synod of Ulster, as having 



its strength mainly within that province of 
Ireland. Its members are mostly descended 
from the Scotch Presbyterians, who came 
over by invitation of James I., between 1609 
and 1612, to colonize Ulster. [IRISH SOCIETY.] 
The Church still remains identical in doctrine 
with the Scottish Establishment. In 1672 
Charles II. conferred upon its members a small 
" Regium Donum " (Royal Gift). Tliis having 
lapsed, was revived by William III. In 1690, 
and continued till the passing of the Irish 
Church Act in 1S71. Compensation was given 
by the Act to the then living ministers en- 
titled to the gift. By the spontaneous transfer- 
ence of this money to the synod, the nucleus 
of a sustentation fund was obtained, and soon 
considerably developed by voluntary contribu- 
tions. By the census of 1881 the Presby- 
terians in Ireland amounted to 485,503, the 
vast majority belonging to the Irish Presby- 
terian Church. In that year it had 36 presby- 
teries, 621 ministers, 557 congregations, 103,548 
communicants, 78,820 families, 8,514 Sunday- 
school teachers, and 87,047 Sunday- scholars. 
It raised for all religious and charitable pur- 
poses 140,749. 

Irish Society, s. 

Hist. : A committee of citizens belonging to 
twelve London Companies, invited by James I, 
In 161S to take part in cultivating the contis- 
cated lands in Ulster, which, to the extent 
of 511,465 acres, had become vested in the 
Crown. The society in large measure built 
Londonderry, though walls and bastions had 
been erected there as early as 1609. They 
largely colonized the county of the same name, 
which was bestowed in honour of the twelve 
London companies. The full title of the 
society is the Honourable Irish Society. 

Irish-whin, a. [IRISH-FURZE.] 

Kr'-ish-Jsm, *. [Eng. Irish ; -ism.] A mode 
of expression or idiom peculiar to the Irish ; 

an iricism. 

Ir '-ish man, . [Eng. Irish, and man.} A 
native or naturalized inhabitant of Ireland. 

* Ir'-Ish-ry; *. [Eng. Irish; -ry.} The people 
of Ireland, as opposed to the English settlers, 
known as the Englishry, 

*' Choosing rather to trust the wind* and wavea than 
th exaaperateU Irithry, " Afacaulay : Hist. Eng., ch. 
xJL 

ir'-ite, s. fLat. f ri* = Gr. Tpts (frfc) = the rain- 
bow ; suffT -ite (Min.) (q.v.).] 
Min. : A variety of Chromate (q.v.)t 

l-ri'-tls, i-rfd-l'-tis, s. [Gr. Tow (iris), genit. 
ipi3of (iridos) ; euff. -iiis(u,.v.),J 

Poi/t. : Inflammation of the iris, accom- 
panied by vascular! ty, change In colour and 
appearance, irregularity and immobility of 
the pupil, with a visible and varying amount 
of lymph deposited in, on, and round the iris. 

* irk, * irk en, * yrke, * irk-yn, v.t. & t. 
[Sw. yrka = to urge, to press, from the same 
root as work and urge.} 

A. Trans, : To tire ; to weary ; to be irk- 
some or wearisome to. (Now only used im- 
personally.) 

" It frJtn, high Dame, my noble Lords, 
'GfUuat 1,-ulye fair to draw their iwonla." 

Scott : Lay of th Latt Minstrel, 1 v. 21. 

B. Intrans. : To grow or become tired or 
weary. 

41 To preche MBO tbou myght not yrfet." 1 IfyiT ,* In- 

Itructiont/ur Parith PrieeU, &16, 

irk'-some, * yrke-soroe, o. [Eng. irk ; 
-some.] 

1. Wearisome, tiring, tedious ; tiresome by 
long continuance or repetition. 

" No higher recompense they aeek 
Thtm honest maintenance, by irlaome toll 
Full oft procured." 

Wordtvmrth : Bxeunien. bk. TlIL 

* 2. Sorrowful, sad, weary. 

* 3. Weary ; tired. 

" I'rketome of lif and too long llngrtng night,* 

IfSffS /.., I. ti. 8. 

irk'- some ly, * irk'-som-I& adv. [Eng. 
irksome; -ly.} In au irksome, tedious, weari- 
some or tiresome manner. 

" Abnrollronioirtjomly long." Guardian, No. 143. 

irk' some ness, * yrke som nesse, s. 

[Eng. irksome ; -ness.} The quality or state of 
being irksome ; tediousness, wearisomeness. 
"Th irktomtneu and wearlueu of a mind raffled by 

nwntment." Heid: Euay* ; On th Active Power*, 

ch. T. 



Iron (as I era), * iron. * yron, * yrene. 
* yron. * yrun. * yzen, s. & o. [A.S., u 
subst,, iren, yren, isen, irsern, as adj., irr, 
jfren t wen, isern ; Q. S. isarn ; O. H. Ger. fear*. 
tiati, isen; M. H. Qer. tsen; N. H. Gr. tisen ; 
Dut. yseii; Goth, eisarn ; Icel. jam ; Dan. & 
Sw. jern ; Ir. iarran, earrcm, iarun ; GaeL, 
as subst., iaruinn, wmwcft, as adj., ia 
iantach ; Wei. haiarn ; Ann* houarn.] 
A. As substantive : 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Literally: 

(1) In the same sense as II. 6. 

(2) An article made of iron ; spec., one for 
ironing clothea. 

2. Fig. : Anything strong, hard, or unyielding. 
IL Technically: 

1. Bot. : A minute quantity of ferric oxide, 
Fe2 Oa, is necessary to the healthy growth ol 
plants. 

2. Chcm. ; Ferrum, a metallic tetrad ele- 
ment, symbol Fu, atomic weight 5u*, sp. grar. 
of pure iron 7 '8. Iron occurs nearly pure 
or alloyed with nickel in meteorites, but 
is generally found in combination with oxy- 
gen and as a carbonate. It is widely diffused 
in rocks, and often forms the chief colouring 
matter of clays aud sands. It also occurs 
combined with sulphur. The chief ores used 
for the manufacture of iron are Magnetite, 
Hematite, Brown oxide, Spathic ore, and 
Clay ironstone. The ore. is first calcined, to 
expel the water and carbonic acid and moat of 
the sulphur, and to convert the oxides to 
peroxide, which prevents the waste of iron in 
the form of slag. The calcined ore ia then 
smelted, with the addition of coke and lime- 

stone ; the limestone unites with the silica 
present and forms a fusible slog, whilst the 
oxide of iron is reduced by the action of the 
carbon monoxide. [BLAST - FURNACE.] The 
Iron thus obtained is called cast or pig Iron,. 
and is vfry impure. Pure iron is prepared by 
placing four parts of fine iron wire, cut in 
pieces, and one part of black oxide of iron in 
a Hessian crucible, and covering it with 
mixture of white sand, lime, and potassium 
carbonate in the proportions used for glass- 
making ; a cover is then closely applied and 
the crusible exposed to a very high tempera- 
ture. Iron is a soft, tough, tenacious, malle- 
able, ductile, white metal, not acted upon by 
dry air; but it rusts in moist air containing; 
carbonic acid, forming a hydrate of thesesqui- 
oxide. When heated to redness in the air, ft 
is coated with black magnetic oxide, Fe$Q^ 
It burns in oxygen gas, black oxide being; 
formed. Red-hot iron decomposes water, hy- 
drogen being given off. Iron is magnetic ; it 
is soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid and in 
dilute sulphuric acid witii evolution of hydro- 
gen. Iron unites with cxygen, forming fer- 
rous oxide FeO and ferric oxide FegOs. Inter- 
mediate oxides are also known. The salts of 
iron have already been described. The al- 
chemists represented It by the symbol of 
Mars 6*> [FERROUS, FERRIC, WROUGHT-IRON, 
STEEL.] 

3. Geol. : Iron is widely diffused through 
the rocks. Many are coloured red by its 
oxides. It is also deposited from ferruginous 
springs. [IKON-ORE ; Boa IRON-ORE.] 

4. Hist. : Iron is mentioned In the Bible as 
early as Gen. iv. 22. Tubal Cain is described 
as having been an " instructor of every artificer 
in brass (copper) and iron." On the sepulchres 
of the Egyptian Thebes, butchers are depicted 
as sharpening their knives on a round bar of 
metal which, from being blue, is assumed to- 
be iron. The steel weapons in the time of 
Rameses III. are also painted blue. There 

* are with them the representations of bronze 
weapons, which are painted red. [IRON AGE 
(2).] Iron ore is said to have been discovered 
in Mount Ida about B.C. 1406. The Romans 
early knew it. There is so much iron ore in 
India that it must have l>een known from 
remote times. Iron mines came into operation 
In Britain B.C. 54, and still continue highly 
productive. The United States is exceedingly 
rich in iron, which has for many years been 
largely mined in Pennsylvania, while now a 
large product Is yielded by the mines of Michi- 
gan, West Virginia, Alabama, and some other 
states. In Missouri whole mountains of iron 
ore exist. Its production from the ores has been 
largely increased by the substitution of coal for 
wood aa fuel and tbe employment of the hot blast 
furnaces. The Bessemer process of converting 
crude iron into steel was discovered in 1U56. 



boll, boy; poUt, jowl; cat, cell, chorus, fhin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-tiau s shaxu -tion. -sion-shun; -(ion, -sion - zhun. -tious, -sious. -clous -= shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, del. 



273b 



iron 



& Min. : Native iron occurs in masses or 
mailer portions in meteorites. It is nearly 
pare, still it contains one to twenty per cent, 
of nickel with traces of cobalt, manganese, 
tin, copper, chromium, phosphorus, oic. Whe- 
ther unmeteoric native iron exists is doubtful. 
Specimens of ore so pure as to admit of direct 
forging into horseshoes have been mined at 
Shepherd's Mountain, in the Iron Mountain 
district of Missouri, U.S. [METEOR'TE.] 

6. Pharm. : In the haematin or colouring 
matter of the blood 6J per cent, is iron. 
When anaemia occurs, the administration of 
iron is of much use. It acts also on the 
nervous system. It often, however, causes 
constipation, and sometimes also stains the 
tongue and the teeth. It may be given in the 
form of reduced iron lozenges, saccharine 
carbonate of iron, compound mixture of iron, 
* pill of carbonate of iron, iodide of iron, &c. 

IT (1) Iron Alum = Halotrichite ; Iron and 
Manganese Tungstate = Wolfram ; Iron Anti- 
monial Sulphnret = Berthierite ; Iron Apatite 
= Zwieselite ; Iron Arsenate = (1) Pharmacosi- 
derite, (2) Scorodite ; Iron Arsenide = Lolin- 

fite ; Iron Borate = Ludwigite or Lagonite ; 
ron Carbonate = Chalybite or Siderite ; Iron 
Chromate = Chromite ; Iron Qymnite = Hy- 
drophite ; Iron Magnetic Oxide = Magnetite ; 
Iron Phosphate = (1) Vivianite, (2) Ludiamite ; 
Iron Pyrites = Pyrites, or Pyrite (q.v.) ; Iron 
Sesquioxide = (1) Haematite, (2) Gothite, (S) 
Limonite, (4)Turgite; Iron Silicate = Lievrite ; 
Iron Sinter = PitWcite ; Iron Sulphate = Mel- 
anterite ; Iron Sulphide = (1) Pyrites, (2) Mar- 
casite, (3) Pyrrhotite ; Iron Tungstate = Wol- 
fram ; Iron Vitriol = Melanterite. 

(2) Carburet of Iron = Graphite ; Chloride of 
Iron = Molysite ; Columbate of Iron = Tanta- 
lite ; Cupreous Arsenate or Arseniate of Iron 
= Scorodite ; Diarsenate of Iron = Pitta- 
cite ; Magnetic Iron-ore = Magnetite ; Meteoric 
or Native Iron [II. 5] ; Olagist Iron = Hema- 
tite ; Oxalate of Iron = Humboldtine ; Oxide 
of Iron = Haematite ; Oxydulated Iron = Mag- 
netite ; Iron Sulphate = Melanterite ; Tanta- 
tate of Iron = Tantalite ; Titaniferous Iron = 
Menaccanite. 

B. As adjective : 

1. Lit. : Made of iron ; consisting to a 
greater or lesser extent of iron. 

2. Figuratively: 

(1) Resembling iron In hardness. [!BON- 

OBND.] 

"Though aged, he was so iron of limb. 
Few of our youth could cope with him." 

Byron : Siege of Corint\, XKT. 

(2) In hardness and inflexibility. 

" While Erin yet 

Strove 'gainst the Saxon's iron bit." 

Si-ott : Xokrby, ( v. 0. 

(3) In heaviness ; in mental dulness. [!RON- 

ITTED.] 
" Him Death's iron sleep oppressed." PhOipt. 

(4) In power of endurance, In permanence. 

(5) In absence of feeling. 

(6) In wickedness. [IRON-AGE, 1.] 
(T) In wretchedness. 

IT (1) In irons : With iron fetters on the 
hands, the feet, or both. 

(2) To have many irons in the fire : To carry 
ont many projects at the same time. 

Iron age, t. 

1. Class. Mythol. : The last of the four great 
ages of the world described by Hesiod, Ovid, 
Ac. It was supposed to be characterized by 
abounding oppression, vice, and misery. 

2. Scientific archceol. : An age, the third in 
succession, in which weapons and many other 
Implements began to be made of iron, stone 
having been used for these purposes in the first, 
and bronze in the second. As the advancement 
of each tribe or people is not necessarily at the 
same rate as that of their neighbours, the 
Iron Age probably did not begin everywhere 
simultaneously. In Denmark, and perhaps 
some of the adjacent regions, it may have 
commenced about the Christian era. 

iron-bark, iron-bark tree, . 

Bot. : (1) Various Eucalypti : E. rarinijera, 
E. leucoxylon, E. melanophloia, Ac. ; (2) Sider- 
xylon. 

iron-block, s. A tackle-block with an 
iron shell and strap. 

Iron-boat, s. A boat made or iron sheets, 
riveted together. 

Iron-bottle, . An iron bottle with a 




screw-plug, for holding quicksilver. It is 
made by swaging and drawing from a disc of 
tough wrought-iron. After being brought by 
swaging to the form of an open-ended cylinder, 
it is put on a steel mandrel and driven through 
holes of decreasing dimensions till it becomes a 
long cylinder. The neck is pressed and twisted 
into shape, and fitted with a screw-stopper. 

iron-bound, a. 

1. Lit. : Bound with iron. 

2. Fig. : Surrounded or bounded with rocks : 
as, an iron-bound shore. 

iron-cage. . 

Hist. : A cage of iron for the confinement of 
criminals. Louis XI. of France imprisoned 
the Cardinal de Balue in oue of eight feet 
square for an act of treachery and ingrati- 
tude ; and, by one account, Timur similarly 
treated the Sultan Bavaria I., after taking 
him captive. 

iron-eased, . Cased with iron ; iron- 
clad. 

iron-chamber, >. 

Puddling: That portion of the puddling- 
furnace in which the Iron is worked ; the re- 
verberatory-chamber, the charge-chamber. 

iron-chlorides, <.p2. [FERRIC-CHLORIDE; 
FERROUS-CHLORIDE.] 

iron-cross, . A cross of Iron. 
H Order of the Iron Crots : 
Her. t Hist. : A Prussian order of knight- 
hood, instituted In 1813. 

iron-crown, >. A crown of gold set with 
jewels, made origin- 
ally for the kings of 
Lombardy, and de- 
riving its name from 
the Tact that it en- 
closed within its 
round a circlet of 
iron, said to have IRON-CROWN. 

been forged from one 
of the nails used in the crucifixion 
It was supposed to confer upon the holder 
sovereignty over all Italy. 

T Napoleon I. was crowned with it at 
Milan on May 26, 1805. 

iron-earth, 8. [BLUE IRON-EARTH.] 

iron-fiddle, s. A number of pieces of 
iron wire, of different lengths, fixed at one 
end, by whose vibration notes are produced. 
(Oossiter.) 

iron-fisted, a. Close-fisted, niggardly, 
covetous, miserly. 

iron-founder, *, One who makes iron 
castings. 

iron-foundry, iron-foundery, . A 

place where iron castings are made. 

* iron framed, a. Made or framed of 
iron ; hardy. 

iron-froth, >. 

if in. : A variety of Haematite. 

iron-furnace, s. 

Metal. : A furnace in which iron-ore or the 
metal is exposed to heat. The purposes and 
construction are various. 

iron-glance, . 

Min. : A crystallized variety of Haematite. 
Called also Specular Iron (q.v.). 

iron-gray, a. t s. 

A* As adj. : Of a grayish hue, approximating 
to the colour of freshly-fractured iron. 

B. As subst. : A gray hue, approximating to 
the colour of freshly-fractured iron. 

* iron-handed, a. Harsh, severe, cruel. 
iron-hat, a. 

Old armour : A headpiece of iron, made in 
the form of a hat, and worn from the twelfth 
to the seventeenth century ; a steel-hat. 

iron-hearted, a. Hard-hearted, harsh, 
unfeeling, cruel. 

" Think, ye masters IronJiearted, 
Lolling at your Jovial boards." 

Cotfper : Styro't Comptmtnt. 

iron-horse, s. 

1. A railway-engine. 

2. A bicycle, or other velocipede. 

" Mr. s. started on his third day's Journey of the 650 
miles ride ou his ' injn-Aone.' "Echo, Oct. 29, 1876. 



iron-Iodide, . 

1. Chem. : Fej or FeI 2 . 

2. Pharm. : It may be made into a syrup 
and a pilL Given in scrofula, phthisis, &c. 

iron-liquor, s. Acetate of iron ; used a> 
a mordant by dyers and calico-printers. 

Iron-lord, a. A great ironmaster. 
iron-man, s. 

Cotton-mnnuf. : A name applied to the self- 
acting mule invented in 1825 by Roberts, ol 
Manchester. 

iron-mask, a. 

Hist. : A mask, not really of iron, but of black 
velvet, worn by a mysterious state prisoner in 
France in the seventeenth century. Who he 
was is an unsolved historical problem. 

iron natrolite, s. 

Min. : A dark-green, opuque variety of Na- 
trolite, having a fourth of the alumina replaced 
by oxide of iron. 

iron-ochre, >. 

Min. : A variety of Haematite. 
iron-ore, >. 

Min. : Various minerals containing so large 
an amount of Iron in their composition as to 
be suitable for smelting. The chief are haema- 
tite, limonite, and clay-ironstone, which occur 
In extensive deposits in various parts of the 
world. 

T Argillaceous Iron-ore = Clay Ironstone 
(q.v.); Arsenicated Iron-ore = Pharmacoet- 
derite ; Axotomous Iron-ore = Menaccanite ; 
for Bog Iron-ore, see Boo ; Brown Iron-ore = 

(1) Limonite, (2) Gothite ; Calcareous Iron- 
ore = Siderite ; Clay Iron-ore = Clay Iron- 
stone ; Green Iron-ore = Dufrenite ; Jaspery 
Iron-ore = a jaspery-looking red variety of 
Clay Ironstone, and Lenticular Iron-ore one 
with minute flattened concretions ; Magnetic 
Iron-ore Magnetite ; Micaceous Iron-ore = 
Haematite ; Ochreous Iron-ore = (1) Haema- 
tite, (2) Gothite ; Octahedral Iron-ore = Mag- 
netite ; Pitchy Iron-ore = Pitticite ; Bed Iron- 
ore Haematite ; Sparry Iron-ore = Siderite ; 
Specular Iron-ore = Haematite ; Titaniferout 
Iron-ore = Menaccanite. (Dana.) 

iron-paper, >. A name given to ex- 
tremely thin sheet-iron, which has been rolled 
thinner than the finest tissue-paper. 

iron-pipe, t. A pipe or tube made of 
iron. 

iron-pyrites, >. [MENACCANITE.] 

H Magnetic Iron-pyrites = (1) Pyrrhotite, 

(2) Troilite ; Prismatic, or White Iron-pyritei 
= Marcasite. 

iron-rations, s. pi. This term is applied 
to the supplies taken and carried by the troops 
themselves on service beyond the sea, when 
detached from their transport. The ordinary 
iron rations for two days should be 2 Ibs. of 
preserved meat and 2 Ibs. of biscuits, supple- 
mented in such a manner as circumstance* 
admit. (Vayle.) 

iron rutilc, .-. 

Min.: The ferriferous variety of Rutile 
(q.v.). 

iron-sand, s. 

Min. : (1) Meuaccanite ; (2) Magnetite. 

iron-sheathed, a. Sheathed or cased 
In iron ; iron-cased, ironclad. 

iron-shod, a. Shod with iron. 
iron-shrub, s, 

3ot. : Sauvagesia erecta. 

iron - sulphates, s. pi. [FERRIC-SOL. 
PHATE ; FERROUS-SULPHATE.] 

iron - sulphides, s. pi. [FERROUS-SUIT 

PHIDE.] 

iron-tree, s. 

Bot. : (1) Siderodendron, (ftPamtia ptnttm. 

iron-weed, s. 

Bot. : The genus Vernonia, 

* iron witted, a. Unfeeling, insensible. 

" I will convene with iron-vrittcd fools." 

Shalcetp. : Kicluird III., IT. a. 

iron (as i'-ern), v.t. [IRON, .] 

1. To furnish or arm with iron. 

2. To shackle or fetter with irons ; to hand- 
cuff. 



t&te, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pin, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian. e, oa = e; ey = a. q.n-kw. 



ironclad irradiate 



2737 






3. To smooth with ft smoothing- iron. 



. 
Itochetter ; Triul i>/ the Poet* for the Bayt. 

Iron did (Iron as I'-ern), s. & a. [Eng. 
iron, and clad.] 

A. As subst. : The system of plating ships 
with iron was first tried on some of the French 
floating batteries used at Kinburn in 1855 ; 
lint, though the results were satisfactory, no 
advance was made until 1858, when the French 
again took the lead with the " Gloire," but 
were quickly followed by the first English 
armoured vessels of the " Warrior " class, to 
which were added, to strengthen the ironclad 
fleet, altered wooden line-o ["-battle ships, such 
as the " Royal Alfred," which were cut down 
and plated. All the early vessels were con- 
tructed of wood, but the later specimens have 
been built of iron framing, and few of the 
modern ships are alike. None of the early 
ivon-clads mentioned were tested in actual war- 
fare, the first battle of iron-clads taking place 
between the Monitor and Merrimac, in the 
tarly days of our Civil War. The test here 
applied demonstrated that the days of wooden 
war-ships were at an end, and this fact was 
still further indicated by later events of the 
Civil War. Since its close the nations of Europe 
have been busy building Irou-clad vessels, of 
various patterns, and increasing the thickness 
of protective armor, as the power of rifled 
cannon increased. From war vessels with 3 
or 4 inches of iron casting, the thickness has 
gradually increased, until vessels are now afloat 
with protective armor 24 Inches thick, and with 
turrets plated with 36 inches of iron. Costly 
experiments of this kind were entered Into by 
Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Ac., while the 
I'nited States held aloof, quietly watching the 
products of European navy yards as one by one 
they were rendered of questionable value by 
the rapidly increasing penetrative power of 
the great cannon now produced. About ten 
years ago this country actively began to build 
a new navy, and has now afloat a fleet of iron- 
clads of the finest description yet made, and 
steadily growing in numbers. In armoring 
these vessels some highly useful lessons have 
been learned. Steel replaced Iron ; and when 
it was found that even a great thickness of 
steel was incapable of resisting the power of 
our great rifled guns, new experiments were 
made, resulting in the production of a nickel- 
ateel, of remarkable resisting powers, and of 
methods of hardening the surface of plates so 
effective that for the present the armor has 
won the battle, some of the newly -built 
American iron-clads being impenetrable by the 
ball of any cannon now in existence. The 
term iron-clad has now largely become a 
misnomer. Not only are many of the vessels 
so entitled built of steel, but steel has replaced 
iron generally in their armor, hence the 

Shrase steel-clad has become a more correct 
esignation. The monitor idea which played 
so interesting a, part in our Civil War, has 
largely gone out of use, the unseaworthy 
character of the low-decked monitors being a 
serious defect in their navigation. The original 
monitor went to the bottom in a storm. 

B. As adj. : Armour-plated ; strengthened 
with plates of iron to resist artillery. 

Iron er, (iron as i'-ern), s. [Eng. iron, v. ; 
-tr.] One who irons. 

* Iron-flint (iron as i'-ern), s. [Eng. iron, 
and flint.] 
Min. : Ferruginous quartz. 

Iron h^ads (iron as i'-ern), s. pL [Eng. 
iron, and heads.} 
Bot. : Centaitrea nigra, 

l-r6n'-Ic, i-rdn'-fo-al, a. [Fr. ironique, 
from Low Lat. ironieus, from Gr. etpomitb? 

(eirSnikos) = dissembling ; ItaL & Sp. ironico.] 

1. Pertaining to, containing, or of the 
nature of irony ; saying one thing and mean- 
ing another. 

"Ttie tone which Nletmhr calls ironical is rather 
that of Indifference and uncertainty." Lewit: Cred. 
Early Roman Hat. (1856), 1. 252. 

2. Addicted to or using irony. 

l-r6n'-Xc-al-l& adv. [Eng. ironical; -ly.] 
In an ironical manner ; with irony. 

l-ro'n'-lc-al-ne'ss, *. [Eng. ironical; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being ironical. 

Iron-ing (iron as I'-ern), pr. par., a. t &s. 

I IRON, v.] 



A. & B. At pr. par. dt particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C* As subst. : The act of smoothing clothes, 
&i-., with an Iron. 

ironing-board, . 

Domestic : A board for laundry Ironing, 
sometimes having a special shape, aa fur 
shirt-fronts, &c. [SLEEVE-BOARD.] 

ironing-lathe, 5. 

Hat-making: A machine having mandrels 
carrying blocks on which hats are mounted 
for ironing. 

ironing- machine, s. A machine for 
ironing clothes, &c. Specific forms are made 
for laundry work, for hat-ironing, for hosiery, 
and for tailors. 

* iron-fob (iron as i'-ern), a. [Eng. iron; 

-is/i.] Somewhat resembling iron. 

" Borne, who did thrust a probe or little ttlck Into a 
chink of the coffin, which bringing out aume moisture 
with it, found It of an ironitb taste." Wood : Athena 
Oxon. ; John Cotet. 

* i'-ron-Ist, *. [Eng. iron(y) ;-ist.] One given 
to using irony ; one who deals in irony. 

"To Bend to the inetaphorist for hit allegories, to 
the ironist for his sarcasms. Ac." Martina* Scrio- 
lerut : Art of Kinking, ch. xiii. 

iron mas ter (iron as i'-ern), s. [Eng. 
iron, and master.] A manufacturer of iron. 

iron mon ger (iron as i'-ern), s. [Eng. 
iron, and monger.] One who deals in iron 
wares or hardware. 

" Obvious In the shops of blacksmiths, locksmith* 
gunsmiths, cutlers, clock makers, ironmonger*, aud 
others.' Boyle ; Work*, Hi. 484, 

H The Ironmongers' Company is one of the 
London City Companies. It was incorporated 
by Edward IV. in 1463. 

Iron mon ger y (iron as i'-ern), . [Eng. 
ironmonger ; -y.] Ironware; hardware; such 
iron goods as are usually kept for sale in 
shops. 

iron-mould (iron as i'-ern), 0. [Eng. 
iron, and mould.] A spot on cloth caused by 
iron rust. 

iron mould (iron as i'-ern), r.t. [IRON- 
MOULD, s.J To spot or stain cloth, &c., by 
touching it with iron rust. 

* iron-sick (iron as i'-ern), a. [Eng. iron, 
and sick.] 

Naut. : A term applied to s ship when the 
bolts and nails have become so corroded or 
eaten with rust that she begins to leak. 

iron-side (Iron as i'-ern), s. [Eng. iron, 
and side.] Originally one of the veteran 
soldiers of Cromwell's army ; a hardy veteran. 

iron smith (iron as i'-ern), s. [Eng. iron, 
and smith.] One who works in iron, as a 
blacksmith, locksmith, &c. 

Iron-stone (iron as i'-ern), s. [Eng. iron, 
and stone.] 

Min. : A "stone" or mineral into the com- 
position of which iron largely enters. 

U (1) For Clay Ironstone, see CLAY. 

(2) Blue Clay Ironstone = Vivianite ; 
Brown Clay Ironstone exists in compact 
masses, or in concretionary nodules ; it may 
be pisolitic or oolitic. (Dana.) 

Ironstone china, s. One of the con- 
tributions of Wedgwood to the ceramic ai t. 
The materials of the Staffordshire ware are 
calcined flints and clay. The fliuts are burned 
in kilns, and then, while hot, plunged into 
water, by which they are cracked through 
their whole substance. They are then ground 
with water, in mills resembling the arrastra, 
to the consistence of cream. The clay, from 
Dorsetshire and Devonshire, is mixed with 
water, and in this state, as well as the flint, 
is passed through fire sieves to separate the 
grosser particles. The flint and clay are now 
mixed by measure, and the mixture is passed 
again through a sieve for better incorporation. 
In this state it is called slip, is evaporated to 
a proper consistence, and tempered in the 
pug-mill. Cups, pots, basins, ana other round 
articles are turned rough on the horizontal 
potter's-wheel, and when half dried are again 
turned in a lathe. They are then fully dried 
in a stove, and polished up with coarse paper. 

iron-ware (iron as i'-ern), s. [Eng. iron, 
aud ware.] Tools, utensils, &e., made of iron. 



iron-wood (iron as i'-ern), *. [Eng. iron, 
and wood.] 

Bot. : (1) Sideroxylon (London); (2) variooa 
species of Diospyrot (ebony) ; (3) Metrosidero* 
vera. That of North America (1) Ostrya vir- 
ginica, and (2) Carpinus americana ; that of 
Jamaica Erythroxylon areolatum ; that of New 
South Wales Argyrodendron tr(foliatum; that 
of Tasmania, Notelcea ligustrina. Bastard 
ironwood is Xanihoxylan Pterota, Black iron- 
wood Olea undulata, and White Vepris lanceo- 
lata, (Treas. of Bot.) 

" After this I made a great heavy pestle or beater of 
the wood called ironwood," Defoe ; Kobinton Crutoe 
Pit 

iron-work (iron as i'-ern), s. [Eng. iron, 
and work.] 

1. Anything made of iron ; a general term 
for those parts of a structure, vessel, carriage, 
Ac., which are made of iron. 

"The smashing of tome of the ironteork, and th 
complete disablement of the steamer." Daily .Vrm; 
August 26, U84. 

2. (PL): An establishment where iron Is 
manufactured, wrought, or cast into heavy 
work, as cannons, rails, &c. 

iron-wort (iron as i'-ern), s. [Eng. iron, 
and wort.] 

Bot. ; (1) Siderites ; (2) Ualeopsis Ladanum. 
7 Yettow ironwort : 
Bot. : 



iron- 3? (iron as i'-ern), a. [Eng. iron; -y.] 
1. Made or consisting of Iron ; containing 
iron. 



2. Resembling iron in any of its qualities or 
characteristics : as, an irony taste, 

i'-rin-jf, *. [Fr. ironie, from Lat. ironio, 
from Gr. eipwFcm (eroneta) = dissimulation, 
irony, from etpwc (eiron) a dissembler ; 
properly the pr, par. of elp*> (ciro) = to speak ; 
Sp., Fort., & I till, ironia.] A mode of speech 
In which the meaning is contrary to the words. 
The intention is mildly to ridicule undue pre- 
tensions or absurd statements while nominally 
accepting them unquestionably. 

"In Plato's comedy there IB almost always some 
under-current of bitterness; It la irony, not joyuu*. 
ness." Lewet ; B istory tf PhUotophy, i. 307. 

* 'ir'-ous, a. [Eng. ir(e); -o.] Angry, wrath- 
ful, choleric, passionate. * 

" An irout mail, God send him lltel might.'' 

Chaucer: C. T., T.WT. 

* irp, * irpe, s. [Etym. doubtful.] A grimace; 
a contortion of the body. 

" From Spanish shrugs, French faces, smirks. trpti 
and all affected humours." Ben J onion: Cynthia't 
llevelt, T. 11. 

* irp, adv. [!RP, s.] With grimaces or con- 
tortions. 

"Maiutalne your station, briske aud irpe," Bern 
Jonton : Cynthia t Revelt, ill. ft. 

Jr-ra'-dSf-a^e, Ir-ra'-dl-an-c& s. [Lat. 

irradians? pr. pr. of irradio = to irradiate 
(q.v.).] 

1. The quality or state of being irradtant: 
the act of irradiating ; emission of rays of 
light upon any object. 

" Love not the heavenly spirits, and how their lov 
Express they ? by looks only, or do they uitx 
Jrradiancef Milton: P. L, viil. 617. 

2. That which irradiates or renders irra- 
diant ; that which is irradiated. 

*' Supreme irradiance t speed the distant ray ; 
Far speed the dawn of tlty internal day." 

Brooke; Univertal Beauty, bit. vi. 

* Ir-ra'-dl-ant, a. [Lat. irradians, pr. par. 
of irradio.]* Emitting beams of light ; irra- 
diating. 



" So bright the lamp of night, the constant moon, ... 
Oft thro' the fleecy cloud irradiant bends. 
Aud to benighted hinds her Influence lends." 



Irradiant bends, 
iflitence lend 
Itoyie ; To Manilla, 

* Ir-ra'-dl-ate, a. [l&t.irradiatus, pa. par. of 
irradio = to cast beams on : ir- = in- = on, 
upon, and radius = a ray.] Irradiated, illu- 
mined ; made brilliant or bright. 

" Thou chief of bards, whose mighty mini 
With inward light irradiate, mirror-Ilk* 
The Bov'reigii planter's primal work displayed," 
Jfaton : EngUA Garden, bk. L 

ir-ra-dl ate, v.t. & i. [Fr. irradier; Sp. 
irradiar ; Ital. irradiare.] 
A. Transitive: 
1. Literally: 
1. To illuminate or shed a light upon by 



Doll, bo~^; po*ut, J6%1; eat, 90!!, chorus, onin, bench; go, gem; thin, this, sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist. ph^C 
-cian, -tian - shan. -tion, -slon - shun; fion, sion - zhun. -tious, -cious, -sious - shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel. del. 



2738 



irradiation irreducible 



casting beams on ; to brighten ; to make 
bright or brilliant. 

*' Such, poet* feign, irradiated all o'er 

The aim's abode on India's iitumst shore." 

fltaajMr; JfenrUL (Tnuui.) 

* 2. To radiate into ; to penetrate by radia- 
tion. 

" Ethereal or solar heat imist digest, influence, irra- 
ttatc, and put those more simple parts of matter into 
motion." Xal* : Ori-j. of Manttnd. 

IL Figuratively : 

1, To enlighten intellectually; to Hlnminate. 

M 80 much the rather thoti. celestial tight 
Bhine inward, and the mind through all her power* 
Jrradiatf." MUton : P. .,111. SI 

2. To brighten up, to cheer; to make to 
ppear bright. 

" Such beauty did his looks irradiate." 

Skertiurne : Rupe of Helm. 

* S. To decorate, to adorn. 

** Xo weeping orphan saw his father** tore 
Our shrines irradiate, or liiihlnz.- the floor." 

Pope: EtolM to Abelard, 1M. 

* B. Intrans. : To emit rays, to shine. 

fr-ra dl-a-tion, . [Fr., from Lat. irra- 
diatus, pa. par. of irradlo = to irradiate (q.v).] 

1. Ordinary Language : 
L Literally: 

(1) The act of irradiating or emitting beams 
ofliKht. 

" Probably, therefore. It IB, that the moon Is lllu- 
Blnate by the bright irradiation and shiuiug beams 
the sun." P. Holland : Plutarck, p. toX 

(2) Illumination, brightness, irradiance. 

" Sooner may a dark room enlighten tttelf. without 
the irradiation ot a. candle." South; Strnumt. vol. vlil., 
wr. is. 

2. Fig. : Intellectual illumination or light. 

"The means of immediate union of these Intelligible 
object* to the understanding, are sometime* divine 
and supernatural, M by immediate irradiation or re- 
relation." BaU ; Ortg. qf Mankind. 

TL Technically: 

Optics, Astron., Ac. : A curious phenomenon, 
ta virtue of which a star or any bright object 
appears larger than it really is. If a thin 
platinum wire be intensely heated by the pas- 
sage of an electric current, it seems to a person 
distant about fifty feet to be as thick as a 
pencil. In this way the sun's diameter looks 
larger than it is in the sky. (Forbes: Tmnsit 
Of Venus (1874), p. 60.) While, however, a 
white or a bright object on a dark ground 
looks larger than it is, a black one on a bright 
ground is diminished in apparent magnitude. 

Ir rftd -i cat, v.i. [Lat ir- for in- = In, 

on, and radicatus, pa. par. of radicor=\o 
take root ; radix (genit. radicis) = a root) To 
fix by the root ; to fix firmly. 

fr-ra'-tion-al, a. & . fLat. irrationalis, 
from ir- for in- = not, and rationalis = ra- 
tional (q.v.); Fr. irrationel; Sp. irrational; 
Ital. irrazionale.] 

A. As adjective: 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Void of reason or understating. 

" Discord flrnt. 

Daughter of gin, among the irrationttl 
Death Introduced." Milton : P. L., x 70C. 

2. Not according to reason ; contrary to 
reason ; absurd. 

" It Is equally irrational and unjust to deny them 
the power of Improving their minds M well as their 
fortunes." Burke : On th* Penal Lam agattut the 
CatJtolia. 

II. Math. : Any quantity which cannot be 
exactly expressed by an integral number, or 
by a vulgar fraction : thus, -J 2 is an irra- 
tional quantity, because we cannot write for 
it either an integral number, or a vulgar frac- 
tion ; we may, however, approximate to it as 
closely as may be desired. In general, every 
Indicated root of an imperfect power of the 
degree indicated, is irrational, ouch quanti- 
ties are often called surds. 

* B. As subst. : A person devoid of reason 
Or understanding. 

s"For the poor shiftless irrationalt." Derham : 
Phytico-Theolvyy, bit. iv., ch. xii. 

If Irrational is not so strong a term as 
polish: it is applicable more frequently to 
the thing than to the person, to the principle 
than to the practice ; foolish on the contrary 
is commonly applicable to the person as well 
as the thinjr ; to the practice rather than the 
principle. (Croftb : Eng. Synon.) 

Ir-ra-tlon-aV-l-t& a. [Eng. irrational; 
dty.] The quality or state of being Irrational ; 
want of reason or understanding. 

"Which would bring on u* the charge of ii 
titmality.'Beattt*: Moral Science, pt, iv., ch. ii. 



Xr-ra'-tton-al-ly, -ay. [Eng. irrational; 
-ly.] In an irrational manner ; without reason ; 
contrary to reason ; absurdly. 

"It may not irrationally be doubted," Boylt ; 
Workt, i. 108. 

* Ir-ra'-tion-al-ne*S. *. [Eng. irrational ; 
-ness.} The quality or state of being irra- 
tional ; irrationality. 

Xr-re-but'-ta-ble. a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 
and Eng, rebut; -able.] Incapable of being 
rebutted or refuted. (Coleridge.) 

Ir-rS-ceV-tlVe. a- [Pf. ir- in- (2), and 
Eng. receptive (q.v.).] Not receptive; inca- 
pable of receiving. 

ir-rS-clalm'-a-ble, a. [Pref. ir> in- (2), 
and Eng. recla'imable (q.v.ji] 

1. Incapable of being reclaimed; that can- 
not be reclaimed or recalled from error or 
vice ; incapable of being reformed. 

"This unthankful, thla irreclaimable people of 
England."* Sharp : Strmmu, voL IL. ser. 1. 

2. That cannot be reformed ; inveterate. 

" Such trrtdatmaN* Inclltiatlom to what Is Tltlotu." 
GluiirM : Frc-exiMtnci of Soul*, eh, X. , 

* 3, That cannot be checked or repressed : 
as, an irreclaimable fit of auger. (P. Holland.) 

Ir-re'-olalm'-a-bljf* adv. [Eng. irreclaima- 
b(le); -ly.] In' an irreclaimable manner ; so as 
not to admit of reformation ; obstinately. 

"Others imxIatwWg persist to tteir rebellion. "- 
.* Aerial Mat*. 



* lr-re'o-6|r/-uiz-a-ble, a. [Pref. ir- m in- 
(2), and Eng. recognisable (q.v.).] Not recog- 
nizable ; that cannot be recognized. 



-l-ty, . [Eng. irrecon- 
cilable; -if'/ ] The quality or state of being 
Irreconcilable ; irreconcilable ness. 

ir-rSo-dn-cir-a-ble, Ir-re'c-on-cile'-a- 

ble, a. A *. [Fr. irreconciliable, from ir- = 
i- = not, and reconcilier = to reconcile ; Sp. 
irreconcilable ; Ital. irreconciliabile.] 

A. At adjectii* : 

1. Incapable of being reconciled, appeased, 
or pacified ; implacable. 

" To wage by force or gull* eternal war 
fmroneilable to our grand foe, 
Who now triumphs." Mtlt-.n: f. L., L K2. 

2. Incajtable of being made to agree, accord, 
or harmonize ; incongruous, inconsistent, in- 
compatible. (Followed by vith t and formerly 
also by to.) 

"The manifest and {mcondteabh repugnancy of, 
Its doctrines." oy' ' Work, IT. 190. 

* 3. Incapable of being atoned for ; Inca- 
pable of atonement. 

" That irrcondla''U schism of perdition and apos- 
tacy, the Roman antichrist. ' MOton; teuton of 
CAurcA Ooswrnm7i/., bk. L, ch. vL 

B. As subst.: One who cannot be recon- 
ciled, appeased, or satisfied; specif., a member 
of a legislative assembly who will not work in 
harmony with his fellow-members, 

Ir rcc on 91! a ble ness, * ir-rcc-6n- 
$ile'-a-ble-lies8, s. [Eug. irreconcilable ; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being irrecon- 
cilable ; irreconcilability. 



" That which long since I wrote, 

ablentue ot Itome." *p. Ball: 77* A*e*ndKr. (To 
the Keader.) 



i 4 W W V** -**- W* J , fl/?f . [EUg. 11 I ci.' i /*- 

cUab(le) ; ly.] In an irreconcilable manner; 
in a manner not admitting of reconciliation. 

"The doctors differ Infinitely and irrconcileal>ly." 
Bp. Taylor ; Jsittuatioe/rom Popery, ut 1., S 6. 

Ir-rec on 9110, v.t. [Pref. f> in- (2), 
and Eng. reconcile (q.v.).] To prevent or 
hinder from being reconciled. 

"As the object calls for our derotlon, so It must 
Deeds t'rrrrwwri'te as to sin.* Bp. Taylor; Life of 
Chritt, iii. 15. 

Xr-rec'-6u-9aed. a. [Pref. Ir- = in- (2). 

and Eng. reconciled (q.v.).] Not atoned for, 
not expiated. 

" If a servant . , . die In many trreconcQed tntqnl- 
tlm."~SknJutp. ; i/tnry P.. ir. L. 

Ir-rc 6n-cilo ment, *. [Pref. ir. = 
in- (2), and Eng. reconcilement (q.v.).J Want 
of reconciliation ; irreconciliation. 

- Booh an irrtcancilement between God And BCanv 



[Pref. tr. 

<-(2), and Eng. reconciliation ((i.v.).'] Want 
of reconciliation, disagreement. 

ir re-cord -a-ble, a. [Pref. ir* = in- (2), 



and Entf. recordable (q.v.).] That cannot be 
recorUed ; incapable of being recorded ; uot 
fit to be recorded. 

Iivrfi-c6v'-er-a-ble. a. [Pref. ir- = in- (3^ 
and En^. recoverable (q.v.).] 

1. That cannot be recovered or regained ; 
Incapable of Wing recovered ; not capable of 
being recalled. 

2. Incapable of being remedied, restored, or 
made good ; irreparable, irremediable. 

"Gave apprehensions of souifl loss irrmcoverable to 
the province of UullanO." -Mr W. Timple: Mtmoirt. 

* 3. Incapable of being escaped from or 
avoided. 

"Till they fall Into irreweraMi darn nation." 4p. 
Salt: Occational Meditation*, S 63. 

Ir-rc-c6v'-er-a-ble-nes, . [Eng irreco- 
verable ; -ness,} The quality or state of being 
irrecoverable. 



,/, adv. (Eng. irrfcovera- 
bl(e) ; -ly.] In" an irreco \-erable manner or 
degree ; beyond recovery or remedy. 

**O dark, dark, dark amid the blaze of noon ; 
Irrecoverably dark." 

Milton : Samton Ayonitfat, 81. 

* Ir-re'-cu'-p4r-a-blo, a. nvef. ir- = * 
2), and Eng. recti Arable (q.v.).] 

1. Irrecoverable, 

" Thus irr&Mpcrablt Joy h went." 

CHauoer : 1'txament qf 1099, bk. L 

2. Irremediable, irreparable. 

" What frrwi*;>*raW damage either to us or them." 
' T. JXgvt : Uvvemour, bk. i, cli. xxvlL 



* Jr-r8-cu'-per-a-biy, adv. [Eng. irrecn- 
perab(le) ; -ly.] Irrecoverably, irremediably, 

irreparably. 

* Ir-rS-cnred', a. [Pret ir- = in- (2), and 
Eng. recure = recovery.J Incapable of being 
cured. 

* Ir-re-cus'-a-ble, a. [Lt. irrecusabilix, 
from ir- = in- = not, and rtcusabilis = that 
should be rejected ; rtcuto = to reject, to de- 
cline.] Not liable to exception. 

It Is a proposition (rrecuwW*" Thornton: Law% 



Jr-re-deem-a-bil'-X-tJr, . [Eng. irredeema- 
ble ; -ity.] The quality or state of being irre- 
deemable. 

Xr-rc-deem'-a-ble., a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2j, 
and Eng. redeemable (q.v.)TJ Not redeemable ; 
not subject to be paid off at its nominal 
value. Applied especially to a depreciated 
currency. 

Ir re-deem'-t> ble nSss, . [Eng. irre- 
deemable ; -ness.] The quality orstate of being 
irredeemable ; irredeemability. 

Ir-rc deem -a-blf , adv. [Pref. ir- in- (2), 
and Eng. redeemably (q.v. ).] So as not to be re- 
deemed ; irrecoverably, irreparably ; beyond 
redemption or recovery. 

" But though past time be gone, we are not to con- 
alder it irreanmaMy loat," Blair : Arnunu, voL ill. 
ser. S. 

Ir - re" - dent- 1st, . & a. [I tal. (Italia) trre- 
dent(a): ir- = in- = not, and redentu, fern, of 
reilento, pa. par. of redimere to redeem ; 
Eng. s utt. -ist.] 

A. As subst. : In Italian politics, one of the 
party of the Left, in whose accession to office 
Jn 187fl the cry of " Italia Irredenta," and 
pledges in favour of the recovery of the unre- 
deemed territory, were powerful factors. Un- 
redeemed Italy was held to include Trieste 
and the Trentino, in the occupation of Austria ; 
the canton of Tieino, in Switzerland ; and Nice 
and Malta, in the respective possession of 
France and England. The taking office by the 
Left was viewed with alarm in many coun- 
tries, especially In Austria, where the pre- 
cautionary measure was taken of strengthening 
and garrisoning the fortresses on the Italian 
frontier. The movement, however, had no 
solid foundation iu the feeling of the Italian 
people. 

" If the lUlliui Government has little to ft*r from 
the Irredentist*, the Austrian Government lias still 
less.' Saturday Reviev, Dec. 80, 1882. p. 645. 

B. As adj. : Belonging to, or in any way 
connected with the Irredentiats. 

" An attack on *,he office of anewapapcr which at] vo. 
eates the Irrtdentiit cause." Saturday Review, Aug. 
36, 1888, p. 884. 

lr-rc du9 -i-ble, a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 
and Eng. reducible (q.v.).] Not reducible ; 



tttc, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet. here, camel, her, thAre ; pine, pit, sire, six, marine ; go. ndt 
or. wore, woll, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try, Syrian, eo, 00 = e ; ey = a. qu = kw. 



Irreducibleness irremeable 



2739 



Incapable of beinpr reduced, or brought into a 
certain state, condition, or form. 

-Theae otaemtlow u*m to fcrge the corpuscle, of 
air to be irreducible into water." Boyl*: (font*. 1. 6a 

Ir rc-du9'-I-blo-nfis, i. [Eng. imdu- 
cible ; -ness.] The quality or state of being 
irreducible. 



-ly.} In a manner not reducible ; so as not to 
b reducible. 

Kr-re-dfio-tf-ba'-I-ty, . [Eng. tmduct- 
ii,le ; -ity. } The quality or state of being irre- 
ductible or irreducible. 

Ir re-dtto'-tit-ble. o. [Pref. if- = to- (2). 

and Eng. redvctible (q.v.).] Irreducible. 

Ir-re fic'-tion, . rPref. ir- = in- (2), 
nud Eng. rr/Ire(ion(q.v.).] Want or absence of 
reflection. (Brougham.) 

Jr - r8 - flSo'- tfve, a. [Pref. IT. > in- (2), 

and Eng. reflective (q.v.).] Not reflective. 



-tfts. [Fr. IrrlfmgaUHtl, 
from irrifia^cMt.] The quality or state of 
Iwing irrefragable ; irrefragableness. 

tr-ref-ra-ga-ble, o. [Fr., from Lat. imf- 

r(tgabili8'e= not to be withstood : ir- = in- =* 
not, and refragor= to oppose, to withstand ; Sp. 
irrefragable ; ItaL irrefragabile.] Not refrag- 
able ; incapable of being refuted or confuted ; 
undeniable, incontestable, indubitable. 

" By these Inscriptions of *rr*yVoffaW and undent* 
abl antiquitie," Evelyn : Sculplura. 

Jr-r6f -ra-ga-ble-ngss, . [Eng. Irrefrag- 
able ; -ness.} The quality or state of being 
irrefragable ; incapable of being refuted ; in- 
contestability. 

fr-ref -ra-ga-biy, adv. [Eng. irrefragable) ; 
ly.] In'au irrefragable manner ; tn a manner 
not admitting of being contested or refuted ; 
with force or strength above refutation. 

" So dearly and irrefragaMy proved." South i Sfr- 
mow, vol. ir., aer. 6. 

* Xr-rS-fr&n'-ltf-ble, a. [Pref. ir> = in- (2), 

and Eng. refrangible (q.v.).T Not refrangible; 
not to be broken or violated,. 

Ir-rS-fut'-^ble, Xr-rSf'-n-ta-ble, a. 

[Pref. ir- = in-('2)i and Eng. refutable (q.v.). J 
Incapable of being refuted or disproved. 

1 ' I can return to it a full and Irrefutable answer." 
More : Antidote against A thei&tn. (Fret.) 

ar-rS-*ut'-a-bl& lr-rSr-u-t-bl& adv. 

JEng. irrefutable); -ly.] In an irrefutable 
manner ; so as not to be refuted ; irrefragably. 

Xr-rS-gen'-er-a^9& s. [Pret ir- = in- (2), 

and Eng. regeneracy (q.v.).] The quality or 
state of being irregenerate ; irregeneracy. 

Ir-rS-gen-er-a'-tlon, s. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 
and Eng. regeneration (q.v.).J The quality or 
state of being regenerate; an irregenerate 
state. 

Ir-re'K'-u-Iar, a. & . [Lat. irregularia : ir- 
= in* =s not, and -rcgularis = according to 
rule; regula = a rule; Fr. irregulier; Sp. 
Irregular; ItaL irregolare.] 
A. A* adjective : 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Not according to rule or common form : 
j, an irregular building. 

2. Not according to established rules, prin- 
ciples, customs, or usage : as. irregular pro- 
ceedings at a meeting. 

3. Not according to the rules or principles 
Of art : as, an irregular verse. 

4. Not In conformity with the law ; not 
Strictly legal. 

"The Declaration of Bight an Instrument which 
WM Indeed revolutionary and irregular." Jfacaulay .' 
But. Kny., ob. XL 

5. Not conformable to nature, or the usual 
coarse of natural laws ; unusual 

" Whatever In thoM clime* be found 
Irregular in sight or sound 
Dtd to his mtnu Impart 
A kindred impulse/ Wardiworih: that. 

6. Not in conformity with the laws of moral 
rectitude ; immoral, vicious : as, an irregular 
life. 

7. Not straight, not direct. 

* The ptaceof meeting was a flowery meadow, through 
which a clear stream murmured iu many irr 
meanders." Janet: Arcadia. 

8. Not uniform : as, irregular motion. 



IL Technically: 

1. Bot. (Of a corolla, c.): Having Its sym- 
metry destroyed by some inequality of parts, 
as the corolla of the horse-chestnut, that of 
the violet, Ac. 

2. Geom. : Applied to a figure, whether 
plane or solid, whose sides as well as angles 
are no tall equal and similar among themselves. 

3. Gram. : Deviating from the common or 
regular form in respect to the inflectional ter- 
minations. 

4. Music ; Applied to a cadence which does 
not end upon the tonic chord. 

5. Mil. : Undisciplined ; not embodied 
according to regular form ; as, irregular 
cavalry. 

6. Nat. Science : Not symmetrical ; not ac- 
cording to the typical form of the species, 
genus, order, &c., to which it belongs. 

B, As subst. : One who does not conform to 
established rule ; specif., a soldier not under 
regular discipline. [A. II. 5.] 

TT Irregular, that Is literally not regular, 
marks merely the absence of a good quality ; 
disorderly, that is literally out oforder, marks 
the presence of a positively bad quality. 
What is irregular may be so from the nature 
of the thing ; what is disorderly is rendered so 
l>y some external circumstance. Things are 
planted irregularly for want of design ; the 
best troops are apt to be disorderly in a long 
march, irregular and disorderly are taken in 
a moral as well as a natural sense. 

Irregular-bones, s. pi. 

Anat. : Bonra of a complex figure, as verte- 
bra. Generally they are situated along the 
median line of the body. Called also mixed 
bones. 

irregular-cchinoids, s. pi. 

1. Zool. : Echinoidea exocyclica, one of two 
groups of Echinoidea (Sea-urchins). They are 
generally oblong, pentagonal, heart-shaped, or 
discoidal, having no masticatory apparatus ; 
they have the anus outside the apical disc, 
and but four genital plates. The Irregular 
Echinolds are divided into eight families 
Echlnoconidffi, Collyritid&e, Echiuonidae, Echi- 
nobrissidte, Echinolampadce, Clypeastridie, 
AnanchyliiUe, and Spatangida;. 

2. Palcennt. : (See the several families). 
irregular-reflection, s. 

Optics: Reflection in all directions. 

Jr-rSg'-u-lar-Ist, . [Eng. irregular ; -ist] 
One who is irregular. (Baxter.) 



'-X-ty, . [Fr. irregulavttt, from 

Lat irregularia = Irregular (q.v.). 

1. The quality or state of being Irregular ; 
deviation from regularity; want of regularity 
or conformity to established rules, usage, or 
practice ; deviation from a straight line. 

" I found It necessary to distinguish those irreyw 
Inritiet that are inherent In our tongue," Joknmn: 
nff. Diet. (Fret.) 

2. That which Is irregular ; that which de- 
viates from the rest ; an inequality : as, an 
irregularity on the surface. 

3. A deviation from law, human <">r divine* 
or from moral rectitude; irregular, disorderly, 
or immoral practices. 

" He . . . had been distinguished them only by bit 
tmgutarittfi."Jlaeaulay : ffitt. Jtng., ch. xix. 

4. An Impediment to taking holy orders. 
(Wharton.) 

r-rSg'-U-lar-l^, adv. [Eng. irregular; -ly.] 
In an irregular manner ; without or contrary 
to method, rule, or order. 

"The abodes of men irregularly massed." 

Wordtwarth : Excursion, bit. vi iL 

Mr-re'g'-u-Iate, .*. [Lat. ir- ~ in* (2) = 

not, and regulatus, pa. par. of regulo = to regu- 
late (q.v.).J To make irregular, to throw out 
of order, to disorder. 

"It* fluctuations fire but motion* tnbservtent, whlfh 
winds, shelves, and every luterjacency irreguiatti" 
Browne : Vulgar JSrrourt, bit. rU., ch. x vii. 

* Ir-re'g'-ij-loiis, a. [Lat. ir- = in- = not ; 

regula = a rule, and Eng. adj. sun", -ous.] Law* 
less, unprincipled, licentious. 

"Conspired with that {rremtlotu devil. Cloten." 
Shatotp. ; Cymtvlint, ir, 2. 

*Ir-rS jgct a-ble, a. [Pref. ir- - in- (2), 
and Eng. rejectable (q.v.).] That cannot be re- 
jected. 

"The latter (Armlnlans) deny It to be {rr^tctabU." 
Boyl*: Workt, 1. 2T8. 



- !r-rfi-lap'--ble, a. [Pref. ir- = i*-(2); 
Eng. relate), and -able.} Not liable to relapse. 
(More.) 

IT re-la'-tlon, *. [Pref. ir. = tn-(2), and Eng. 
relation, (q.v.).] The quality or state of being 
irrelative ; want of relation or connection. 

**r-rel'-a-tlve t a. & . [Pref. ir- n in- (2), 

and Eng! relative (q.v.).] 

A. As adj.: Not relative; not connected 
with other things ; single, unconnected. 

'And from this hut noted head, arfneth that other 
of joining causes with irrelative effects. " Glanvilli 
Vanity <tf Dogmatizing, ch. xil. 

B. As subst. : That which is not relative or 
connected. 

* lr-reT-a-tive-l& adv. [Eng. irrelative; 
-ly.] Unconnectedly. 

"The severed leaves and portions of scripture do 
irrelatively betray and evidence their own heavenly 
extraction, "Boylt : Workt, iL 376. 

Sr-reT-6-vance, Ir-r^r-S-van-9^, . 

[Eng. irrelevant) ; -cy.] The quality or state 
of being irrelevant : as, the irrelevance of an 
argument. 

fr-rel'-e'-vant, a. [pref. ir- = in- (2) ; Eng. 
relevant (q.v.).J Not relevant ; not applicable 
or pertinent ; not serving to illustrate or sup- 
port. 

" Most of them were of an Irregular and irrelevant 
nature." Burke : Charget ayaimt Warren llnttinyt. 

fr-rSr-^S-vant-lir, adv. [Eng. irrelevant ; -ly.] 
In an irrelevant manner ; not pertinently. 

*Xr-r6-lieV-a-ble,a. [Pref ir- = in- (2), and 
Eng. relievable (q.v.).] Not relievable ; that 
cannot be relieved. 

Ir-rg-li$'-i6'n f *. [Fr.] Want of rellglou* 
feeling ; contempt of religion ; impiety, un- 
godliness. 

"The accusation of trretiyion brought against him 
is uot sufficiently made out. -Jortin : JCoel-tt. Ilittory 



* ir-rS-Ufe'-idn-tet, *. [Pref. ir- ~ in- (2), and 
Eug. religionist (q.v.).] One who Is destitute 
of religious feeling; au irreligious or ungodly 
person. 

Ir-re'-Ug'-ioii, a. [Fr. irreligieux, from Lat. 
irreligiosus, from ir- in- = not, and religiosv* 
= religious ; ItaL & Sp. irreligioso.] 

1. Destitute of religious feelings or prin- 
ciples ; contemning religion ; impious, un- 
godly. 

" And It eeldorae or neuer chaunceth that any man 
Is so irreliffiout."Gvl(linge ; C'atar, to. 158. 

2, Contrary to religion or religious prin- 
ciples ; impious, ungodly, profane, wicked. 

"There is nothing to im&igiout but a violent paa 
don may betray men to." SttlUngyteet : Sermont, voL 
t, ser. 10, 

U Irreligious is negative; projfcww and Im- 
pious are positive, the latter being much 
stronger than the former. All men who are 
not positively actuated by principles of re- 
ligion are irreligious. Profanity and impiety 
are, however, of a still more heinous nature ; 
they consist not in the mere absence of regard 
for religion, but in a positive contempt of it 
and open outrage against its laws. When 
applied to things, the term irreligious seems 
to be somewhat more positively opposed to 
religion: an irreligiout book is not merely 
one In which there Is no religion, but that 
also which fs detrimental to religion, such as 
sceptical or licentious writings : the profane 
In this case is not always a term of reproach, 
but is employed to distinguish what is ex- 
pressly spiritual in its nature, from that 
which Is temporal : the history of nations Is 
profane, as distinguished from the sacred 
history contained in the Bible. On the other 
hand, when we speak of a profane sentiment, 
or a profane joke, profane lips, and the like, 
the sense is personal and reproachful ; im- 
pious is never applied but to what is personal, 
and' in the worst sense. (Crabb : Kng. Synon.] 



----^, adv. [Eng. irreligious ; 
ly.] In an irreligious manner; profanely, 
impiously ; with irreligion or impiety. 

" To perform holy duties irreligiously." Mi! ton : 
Civil Pvtftr tn cclet. Cautet. 

Ir-re-lIgMous-ncss, s. [Eng. irreligious; 
-ness.} The quality or state of being irre- 
ligious ; irreligion, ungodliness 

" More especially the sin of IrreUfrlmun** and pro. 
pbaneoess." wttldnt; Si at. Religion, bk. H., ch. vi. 



lr-re*-me'-a-ble, a. fl*t. , 

fromir-=itt- =not,andremea&iiu=returning; 



boil, bo^; poftt, Jovvl; oat, oell, chorus, fbin. bench; go, gem; thin, thisi sin, as; expect, Xcnophon, exist. Ing. 
-tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -flon, -f Ion - xhun. -clous, -tious, -sioru = shua. -ble, -die. &c. _ bel. dL 



2740 



irremediable irresolutely 



nmto = to return : re- = back,audmeo = togo.] 
Admitting of no return ; not permitting the 
retracing of one's steps. 

" Forbid to cross the irremeable flood." 

Pope : Bomer ; Iliad x x ill. 9L 

Ir-re-me'-di-a-ble, a. [Fr., from Lat. irre- 

mediabilis, fromir- = i7t-=not, and remediabilis 
- remediable (q.v.) ; Sp. irremediable; Ital. 
irremediabile.] 

* 1. Incapable of being cured or healed ; 
Incurable. 

" Irremediable palna," Rambler. No. 165. 

2. Incapable of being remedied, corrected, 
or redressed. 

"By deficiencies and Inconveniences I here mean 
thoa things, which axe wool to be complained of, and 
TU& irremediable." Boyle: Workt, Ui., SAO. 

T r rc me di a ble n6ss, s. [Eng. irreme- 
diable ; -ness. ] The quality or state of being 
irremediable. 

>-r6-me'-di-%-blj^ adv. [Eng. remediable) ; 
-ly.} In an irremediable manner; In a man* 
ner that precludes remedy or cure; incurably, 

Irretrievably. 

" Leave him irremediably in the condition ha bath 
brought himself Uito." SJWwy . Sermon*. v,,l. ill., MT. 

* Ir-re miss'-i ble, * ir-re miss-a-ble, a. 

[Fr., from Low Lat. irremissibilis, from ir- = 
in- = not, and remissibilis = that may or can 
be remitted, from remissvs, pa. jir. of remitto 
= to remit (q.v.).] That cannot be remitted, 
forgiven, or pardoned ; unpardonable. 

" Hii other heresy that euery deadly sin after bap- 

tlame should be irremitetble/ Sir T. Mom Worto, 

P.M4. 

* Ir-re-mlss'-i-ble-ne'ss, s. [Eng. irremissi- 
bfe ; -new.} The quality or state of being irre- 
missible. 

" Thence arise* the aggravation and irremiuiblmrti 
of the Bin against the Holy Ghost" Hammond : 
Workt, TOL L, p. 467. 

* Ir-r6-miss'-i-bljf t adv. [Eng. irremissi- 
tyly) ; -ly-] In an irremissible manner or de- 
gree ; unpardonably. 

* ir r6 miss -i6n (ss as sh), *. [Pref. ir- = 
<?ir (2), and Eng. remission (q.v.).] The act of re- 
fusing or delaying to remit or pardon. (Donne.) 

* Ir-r6-mlss'-ive,a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2X and 

Eng. remissive (q.v.).j" Not remissive ; not 
remitting ; unforgiving. 

* ir-re-mitt'-a-ble, a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 
and Eng. remittable (q.v.).] That cannot be 
remitted or forgiven ; unpardonable. 

" The sinne againat the Holle Ghost, which they call 

Immutable." Holintked : Scotland (an. 1689). 



T-I-ty', *. [Pref. irremov- 
able ; -ity.] The quality or state of being irre- 
movable. 



tr-re move a ble, 

. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), and Eng. removable 
(q.v.J.] 

1. Not removable ; that cannot be removed ; 
Immovable, unalterable. 

" Constant devotion and irremoetiible pletle to hit 
Prince."/ 1 . Holland : Suetvniut, p. 231. 

2. Immovable, inflexible, determined. 

" Hee'a irremovea&ie. 
Reaolved for flight'' 

Sh*ketp. . Winter'* Tale, Ir. S. 

ir-re-moV-a-ble-nSss, *. [Eng. irre- 
movable ; -ness.} The quality or state of being 
irremovable ; irremovability. 

Ir-re'-mdv-a-bly', adv. [Eng. irremovable); 
ly.] In an irremovable manner ; so as not to 
be moved ; inflexibly, unalterably. 

" But above all. BO firmly and irremovcably fixed to 
the profession of the true Protestant Religion." 
Evelyn; Mitoel. Kern from Bruuelt. 

* ir re-mdv'-al, *. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), and 
Eng. removal (q.v.).] Absence or want of re- 
moval ; the state of not being removed. 

ir-i-e'-mu'-ner-a-ble, a. [Pref. ir- = in- 
(2), and Eng. remunerable (q.v.).] Not re- 
munerable ; incapable of being remunerated 
or rewarded. 

* ir-re'-nd'wned', a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), and 

Eng. renowned (q.v.).] Not renowned; not 
celebrated, unrenowned. 

tr-rSp-a-ra-bn'-i-ty\ s. [Eng. irreparable ; 
ity.] The state or quality of being irrepar- 
able ; incapacity or impossibility of repair or 
recovery. 



ir-r6p'-a-ra-ble, a. [Fr., from Lat. irrepa- 
rabuis = that cannot be repaired or restored : 
ir- = in- = not. and repa.ro = to repair (q.v.) ; 
8p. irreparable; Ital irreparabiU. ] 

1. Incapable of being repaired or remedied , 
irremediable ; incurable, 

" Run Into the most irreparable and pernicious dis- 
orders." Derham: Jttro-l\eoloffv t WL. vt.ch.L,p. 13ft. 

2. Incapable of being recovered or regained ; 
irretrievable. 

"War hath determined us, and foiled with low 
Irreparable." Milton: P. L., IL SSL 

lr-rop'-a-ra blo-n6ss, . [Eng. irreparable ; 
ness.} The quality or state of oeiug irrepar- 
able. 

ir-rep'-/-ra-Wy\ adv. fEng. irreparable); 
ly.] In an irreparable manner ; incurably ; 
irretrievably ; beyond recovery or remedy. 

" We find such adventures to have sometimes be- 
fallen artists * rreparuolj/." Boyle : World, I 8*1 

* Xr-re^peal-a-blM-ty\ *. [Eng. irrepeal- 
able; -ity.] The quality or state of being ir- 
repealable. 

ir r peal a ble, a, PPref. ir- in- (2), 
and Eng. repealable (q.v.).] Not repenlable ; 
incapable of being legally repealed; irrevoc- 
able. 

" Such are the confident* that Ingage their irrepeal- 
able assents." Glanviil ; Vanity of ItoffmatUiny. ch. 
rxUL 

* ir-re-peal'-a ble-nss, s. [Eng. irrepeal- 
able; -ness.] the quality or state of being ir- 
repealable ; irrepealability. 

*ir-r$-pear-a-t>l& adv. [Kng. irrepeal- 
abKe) ; -ly.] So as not to admit or be capable 
of repeal. 

ir-r6 pnt-an9e t *. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 
and Eng. repentance (q.v.V] Want of repent- 
ance or penitence ; impenitence. 

" There are some disposition* blame-worthy In men, 
. . . as unchangeable new and IrnptHtance." Bp. 
Ball: Select Thought*. | 47. 

ir-r-pla9'-a-ble, o. [Pref. {*- = in (2), 
and Eng. replaceable (q.v.)-j That cannot be 
replaced. 

" That reaerve which Is neceaaary whenever general 
use of such incomparable and irreplaceable gems of 
art U advoot.ted."-^CAnum, 8epL 2, 1882. 

ir rc plcv i a ble, a. rPref. ir-^in- (2), 
and Eng. repUviable (q.v.).J 
Law : Incapable of being replevied. 

ir-r-plV-is-a-We, a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 
and Eng. replevisable (q.v.Xl 
Law : The same as I RKKI-LKVIABLE (q.v.). 

lr-r6p-rS-h8n'HBi-ble, a, [Pr.; from Lat. 
irreprehensibilis, from ir- = in- = not, and re- 
prehensibilia = reprehensible (q.v.).] Not 
reprehensible ; free or exempt from blame ; 
blameless. 

"Tis irreprehrntible la phymitlans to cure their 
patient of one disease, by casting him lute another, 
Irss deaperate." Olanvill : Vanity qf Doffmatifing, ch. 

mm 

ir - rep -rS- hen' -si -ble -ness, s. [Eng. 
irreprehensible ; -nets.] The quality or state 
of being irreprehensible. 

Ir-rSp-rS-hen'-Bf-biy, adv. [Eng. irre- 
prehensib(le) ; -ly.] In an irreprehensible man- 
ner ; so as not to incur blainw. 

ir-rep-re sent -a-ble, a. [Pref. ir- = 
in-(2), and Eng. reprsitoWe(q.v.).] Notre- 
presentable ; incapable of being represented. 

"God's irrepTftentable nature doth hold against 
making images of God." Sttilin&teet, 

ir-re-pr^ss -i-ble, o. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), and 
Eng. repressible (q.v.).] Not repressible ; in- 
capable of being repressed, restrained, or kept 
under control. 



'-I-bl^, adv. [Eng. irrepressi- 
b(le); 'ly.] In an irrepressible manner or 
degree. 

ir re proa$h -a ble, a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 
and Eng. reproachable (q.v.).] Not reproach- 
able ; not deserving of or calling for reproach 
or blame ; free from reproach or blame ; blame- 
less, upright, innocent. 

" His Intentions were irreproachable." Beattie: On 
Truth, pt. ill., ch. ill. 

JFor the difference between irreproachable 
blameless, see BLAMELESS. 

r-r-prdach'-a-ble~nsa, . [Eng. irre- 
proachable; -ness.] The quality or state of 
being irreproachable. 



Ir re-proach-a-bljr, wfi>. [Eng irreproocA- 
ab(le); -ly.] In an irreproachable mauner ; in 
a manner beyond reproach or blame ; blame* 
lessly ; faultlessly. 

"Prom Uiis time, aays the monk, the bear lived ir- 
Ttproachably:~AdMon. Switzerland. 

ir-rfi-prov'-a-ble, a. [Fr.] Not deserriog 
or calling fur reproof or censure ; blameless, 
unblamable, irreproachable. 

" Not only all other ways are dangerous and unpa- 
sable, and this irreproveable, but also thut there U 
direct evidence enough to prove it solid and rational. 
Utanvill ; fre-exittetux of Soutt, ch. v. 

ir-rg-prov'-a-blo-ness, s. [Eng. irreprov- 
able; -ness.] The quality or state of l*ing 
improvable ; freedom from blame, censure, 
or reproof ; blamelessness. 

ir-r5-prdv"-a-bl& adv. [Bug. improvable); 
-ly.] In an'irreprovable or irreproachable 
manner. 

* ir-rep-ti -tious, a. [Lat irrepto, freq. 
from irrepo = to creep in : ir- = in- = into, 
and repo = to creep.] Crept in ; secretly or 
privately introduced ; surreptitious. 

* ir-rep'-n-ta-ble. a. [Pref. ir- fn-(2), and 
Eug. reputable (q.v.).] Not reputable ; disre- 
putable. 

" It's very irrettutable for a young woman to gad 
." about to meu's lougiuga." female Toiler. No. 4 

* ir-renrfl'-l-ent, a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2X an<i 
Eng. resilient (q.v.).] Not resilient. 

* Ir-rS-sIsf -anoe, *. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), and 

Eng. resistance (q.v.).} Forbearance to resist ; 
non-resistance ; passive submission or obe- 
dience. 

t ir-rtt-flftt-I-biT-I-ty, . [Eng. irresistible ; 
ity.] The quality or state of being irresistible. 

" In what bold colours has the Poet drawn his im- 
petuosity and irretutibilitif 1 " Lewit: Statiut, bk. x. 
(Note.) 

ir re sist -i-ble, o. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), and 
Eug. resistible (q.v.).] Not resistible; that 
cannot be resisted ; incapable of being suc- 
cessfully resisted or withstood ; superior to 
opposition or resistance. 

" But James supposed that the primate was struck 
dumb by the irretittible force of reason," Macautau : 
Hut. En:j., ch. \\. 

ir-ro sist'-i-ble-nes, . [Eng irresistible ; 
-ness.] The quality or state of being irre- 
sistible. 

" For the remotenesse, violence, trretittibttneof ot 
the blow, are tlie enemies of the church described by 
the speare and dart." Bp. Hall: Defeat of Cruelty. 

ir-rS-it'-i-bl$> adv. [Eng. irresistible); 
-ly.] In an irresistible manner ; in a manner 
or degree not admitting of resistance. 

" For irretittibly their power presides 
lu all event*, and good and ill divides." 

WBSll Epigoniad. bk. vii. 

*irrg-slst -!, a. [Pref. ir- = in-(intens.X 
and Eng. resistless (q.v.). ] Resistless ; incapable 
of being resisted or withstood ; irresistible. 

" When beauty In distress appears, 

An irretiftlett charm It bvars." 
Falden : In Allusion to Horace, bk, tL, ode 4. 

* Ir res 6 lu ble, o. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 
and Eng. resoluble (q.v.).] 

1. Incapable of being resolved or dissolved ; 
incapable of resolution into parts ; indisso- 
luble. 

" I know It may be here alledged. that the produc- 
tions of chemical analyse* are simple bodies, and upon 
that account irre*3luble."tioyle : Work*, iv. 74. 

2. Incapable of being released or relieved, 
aa from guilt. 

"The second U hi the Irretotuble condition of our 
souls afU-r n known sin committed. "Bp. Hall : Catet 
of Conscience, dec. 8, case a. 

11 Ir-res'-6-lu-ble-n6ss, s. [Eng. irresolu- 
ble; -ness.] The quality or state of being ir- 
resoluble ; resistance to separation of parts. 

" Qnersetanus has this confession of .the imtolub'e- 
nM of diamonds." Boyle ; Work*, i. 511. 



e, a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), and Eng. 

resolute (q.v.).} Not resolute ; not firm or con- 

stant in purpose ; not decided or determined ; 

wavering, hesitating, vacillating, undecided. 

" Weak and irr&olute is man." 

Cotffper : Human Frailty. 

r-rey--lto-l& adv. [Eng. irresolute; -ly.\ 
In an irresolute, hesitating, er wavering mau- 
ner ; with hesitation. 

" Between the incompatible o'. Jecta on which hi* 
heart was et, he, for a time, went irresolutely to and 
fro."Jtacaitlay : Uitt. Eng., ch. iv. 



late, fat. fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, po 
or, wore, wolf; work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full ; try. Syrian, aj. oa = e ; ey = a. qu ^ kw. 



irresoluteness irritability 



2741 



Ir-res'-4-lute-nSss, . [Eng. irresolute; 
iicss.] The quality or state of being irreso- 
lute ; want of firmness of purpose ; hesita- 
tion, irresolution. 

lr-re>-*-liV-tlon, . [Pref. ir- = in- (2), and 
Eng. resolution (q.v.)-] Want of resolution or 
firmness of purpose ; want of decision ; inde- 
cision ; hesitation ; fluctuation or wavering of 
the mind. 

" He had by his irretention forfeited the (STOUT of 
William-" Macaulay : Hist. ng., ch. xrtl. 

Ir-re'-so'lv-a-bn'-i'-ty, . [Eng. irresolva- 
ble ; -ity.] The quality or state of being irre- 
solvable. 

lr-rg-a81V-a-ble, a. [Pref. tr- = in- (2), 
and Eng. resolvable (q.v.).] Incapable of being 
resolved. 

" Kr-rSnySlv'-a-ble-nesa, . [Eng. irresolv- 
able ; -ness.] The quality or state of being 
irresolvable ; irresolvability. 

ir re solved , a. [Pref. ir- =in- (2), and 
Eng. resolved (q.v.).] Not resolved, not 
settled in opinion, undetermined. 

"While a person la irrrsvlved. he Buffers all the force 
of temptation to call upou him." StilUngJleet : Ser- 
mon*, voL iv., ier. 11. 

ir-rS-ao'lV-ed-l?, adv. [Eng. irresolved; 
-ly.} Without settled opinion ; hesitatingly, 
doubtfully. 

"Diver* of my friends have thought It strange to 
hear me apeak ao irrcsolvedly." Boyle : Work*, iii. 198. 

ir res peof-Ive, a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 

and Eng. respective (q.v.). J 

1. Not respective or having regard to cir- 
cumstances or conditions ; regardless of cir- 
cumstances ; not making distinction or differ- 
ence. 

" The execution of that decree ... Is equally free 
and irrespective." South : Sermon*, vol. vliL, ser. xhi. 

* 2. Not respectful, not showing respect. 

" Irrererend and irrespective behaviour." .Str 9. C. 
Lewis. (Annandale.) 

IT Irrespective of is used prepositionally in 
the sense of not having regard or respect to ; 
leaving out of account : as, Irrespective o/that, 
there are other reasons. 

Ir-res-pSot'-Jve-ljf, adv. [Eng. irrespective ; 
-ly.] Without regard to circumstances or con- 
ditions. 

" Can he ascribe this reprieve to anything but to 
mercy, to mere undeserved mercy, that places the 
marks of Its favour absolutely and irrespectively upou 
whom It pleases?" South : Sermons, vol. vll., ser. 1L 

Ir-rSsj'-pir-.jr-ble, ir-rSs-pir'-a-ble, a. 

[Pref. ir- = in- (2), and Eng. respirable (q.v.).] 
Not respirable ; not fit for respiration. 

1r-r&-*p6nM-l-\>n'-'l-t$,s. [Pref. tr- = in- 
(2), and^ng. responsibility (q.v.).] Want of 
responsibility ; freedom from responsibility. 

Ir re-spons' J-ble, a. [Pref. ir- = in. (2), 
and Eng. responsible (q.v.] 

1. Not responsible ; not answerable ; not 
liable to be called to account. 

" They left the crown, what, in the eye and estima- 
tion of law, it had ever been, perfectly irresponsible. 1 ' 
tlurke : On the French Revolution. 

2. Not trustworthy ; not to be relied on or 
trusted. 

" What a dangerous thing therefore Is It for men to 
Intrust such a treasure as their innocence and religion 
in such irresponsible hands." ScoM : Christian Life, 
pt i., oh. Iv. , 



'-I-biy, adv. [Eng. irrespon- 

tib(k); -ly.] In an irresponsible manner; so 
as not to be responsible. 

f Ir-r8-p8ns'-lve, o. [Pref. ii- = in- (2), 
and Eng. responsive (q.v.).] Not responsive. 

sr-rS-straln'-a-ble, a. [Pref. ir- = in- 
(2), and Eng. restraimble (q.v.).] That cannot 
be restrained ; incapable or restraint. 

" rrrrstrainabte, irresistible, or unalterable." 
Prynne : Treachery a Disloyalty, p. . 

Ir-re'-siis'-Oit-a-ble, a. [Pref. ir- = tn- 
(2), and Eng. resuscitable (q.v.).] Incapable of 
being resuscitated or revived. 

ir-rS-siis'-9lt-a-bljf, adv. [Eng. irresiw- 
citabfle); -ly.] So as not to be capable of re- 
suscitation. 

aT-re'-ten'-t.ve, o. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), and 
Eng. retentive (q.v.).] Not retentive ; not apt 
to retain : as, an irretentive memory. 



ir-rS-trace'-a-blo, a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 
and Eng. retractable (q.v.).] Not retraceable ; 
incapable of being retraced. 

Ir-re trte^-a-ble, o. [Pref. ir. = in- (2), 
and Eng. retrievable (q.v.).] Not retrievable ; 
that cannot be retrieved, recovered, or reme- 
died ; irrecoverable, irreparable. 

"Unaffected with irretrievable losses" Rambler, 
No. 48. 

Ir-re'-triev'-a-ble-ne'ss, . [Eng. irretrUv- 
able; -ness.] The quality or state of being 
irretrievable. 

Ir-re-trleV-a-bljf. adv. [Eng. imtrieva- 
b(le); -ly.] In an irretrievable manner; irre- 
parably, irrevocably. 

"The danger they were tn of being irretrievably 
lost" Sharp : Sermons, VoL V. (Pref.) 

* ir-rg-turn'-a-ble, o. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 
and Eng. returnable (q.v.).] Incapable of re- 
turning or of being recalled. 

" Forth irrctumable flieth the spoken word." 

Mirrourfor Magistrates, p. 429. 

* Ir-rS-veal'-a-ble, a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 
and Eng. revealable (q.v.).J That cannot be 
revealed. 

* Ir-re-veal'-a-biy, adv. [Eng. irreveala- 
b(le); -ly.] So' as not to be revealuble. 

sT-reV-er-enge, s. [Fr., from Lat. irreve- 
rentia, from irreverent = irreverent (q.v.) ; Sp. 
irreverencia.] 

1. The quality or state of being irreverent ; 
want of reverence or veneration ; want of a 
due regard or respect for the character, posi- 
tion, or authority of a superior ; irreverent 
conduct or actions. 

"That is the natural language, the true signification 
and import of all irreverence. . South : Sermons, voL 
ii., ser. 3. 

* 2. The qnalityor state of being disregarded 
or treated with disrespect. 

" The irreverence and acorn the Judges were Justly 
In." Clarendon : Civil War. 

* ir-reV-er-end. o. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), and 
Eng. reverend (q.v.).] Irreverent. 

"If any man ose Immodest speech or irreverend 
gesture." Strype : Life of A bp. Ortndal, App. bk. 1L 

Ir-reV'-er-ent, a. [Fr., from Lat. irreverent, 
from ir- = in- = not, and reverent, pr. par. of 
revereor = to revere (q.v.) ; 8p. & Ital. irreve- 
rente.] 

1. Wanting in reverence or respect towards 
the Supreme Being, or any superior ; having 
no veneration ; disrespectful. 

" Witness the it-reverent sou 
Of him who built the ark." Milton : P. I.., xiu 101. 

2. Proceeding from or characterized by ir- 
reverence ; expressive of or displaying a want 
of reverence or respect. 

" Dishonouring the grace by irreverent cavils at the 
dtapensation." Warburton: /Heine Legation, bk. ii. 
14. 

Ir-reV-er-ent-l& adv. [Eng. irreverent ; 
-ly.] In an irreverent manner ; without due 
regard or respect. 

"To speak irreverently of God, or to scoff at nil- 
gion." South: Sermons, voL viii., ser. 1. 

t Ir-rS-vers'-I-ble. a. [Pref. <r- = m- (2), and 
Eng. reversible (q.v.).] 

1. Not reversible; Incapable of being re- 
versed or turned the opposite way. 

2. Incapable of being recalled, repealed, or 
annulled; irrevocable. 

" This rejection of the Jews, as It la not universal, 

so neither is it final and irreversible." Jortin : Re. 
marks on Keel. Hist. 

t Ir-rS-vers'-I-ble-ne'sS, . [Eng. irrever- 
sible; -ness.] The quality or state of being 
irreversible. 

f Ir-rS-Vtjrs'-I-bl^, adv. [Eng. Irreversible) ; 
ly.] In an irreversible manner ; so as to be 
irreversible ; irrevocably. 

"Many myriads of sollfldlans have stumbled, and 
fallen irreversibly." Hammond: Works, L 402. 

* ir-reVo-ca-bil'-l'-tjf, . [Eng. irrevocable ; 
-ity.] The quality or state of being irrevocable. 

Ir-reV-*-ca-ble. * Ir-reV-o-ka-ble, a. 

[Fr., from Lat. revo&tbilis, from ir- = in- = 
not, and revocabilis = revocable(q.v.); Sp. irre- 
vocable; Ital. irrevocabile.] Not revocable; 
incapable of being revoked or recalled ; that 
cannot be reversed, repealed, or annulled ; 
irreversible, unalterable. 

" Wrathful Jove's irrevocable doom. 
Transfers the Trojan state to Grecian hands." 

Oryden : Virgil ; .fneid ii. 4. 



ir-reV-S-ca-ble-ne'ss, >. [Eng. irremxa. 
bleness.] The quality or state of being irrevo- 
cable. 

lr-r8v'-Sc--biy, adv. [Eng. irrevocable); 
-ly.] In an irrevocable manner ; in a mannei 
not admitting of repeal or recall ; beyond 
recall. 

" I pledge my word, irrevocably past.' 

Byron : Xisut * Suryalue. 

* Ir-reV-6-ka-ble, a. [IRREVOCABLE.] 

* Ir-reV-6-lu-ble, a. [Pref. ir- = in- (21 
and Eng. revoluble (q.v.).] That cannot roll 
or turn round ; not revolving ; having no 
rotatory motion. 

"Progressing the dateless and irrevolttble circle el 
eternity [theyjshall clasp insepe ruble bauds." Jfiltoni 
On the Reform, in England, bk. ii. 

* Kr-rhe-toV-lc-al, a. [Pref. ir- = in- (2), 
and Eng. rhetorical (q.v.).] Not rhetorical; 
unpersuasive. 

Ir'-rf-gate, v.t. [Lat. irrigatut, pa. par. of tit* 
rigo = to moisten, to irrigate : in = on, upon, 
aud rigo = to moisten ; Ital. irrigare.] 

* 1. To water, to wet ; to fill with a fluid or 
liquid. 

" We say that bloud, coming to a part to irrigate it. 
Is ... at length transmuted into the nature of that 
part." Digbtji Qf Bodies, en. xxlr. 

* 2. To moisten. 

" Their frying blood compels to irrigate 
Their dry-furred tongues." 

J. Philips : Cider, bk. U. 

3. To water, as land, by causing a stream to 
flow and spread over it. 

fr-rf-ga'-tlon, . [Lat. irrigatio, from irri- 
gatus, pa. par. of irrigo=to irrigate (q.v.); 
Fr. irrigation^ Ital. irrigazione.] 

L Ord. Lang. : In the same sense as II. 1. 

IL Technically: 

1. Agric. : The act of watering land by 
causing a stream to flow and spread over It. 

"This way of irrigation may by a cheap and easy 
mechanical contrivance be very much improved." 
Boyle : Works, ill. 447. 

2. Med. : The art or operation of making 
water trickle over an inflamed wound or other 
portion of the body morbidly affected. 

Ir-rig'-u-otls, a. [Lat. irrignut = irriga- 
ting, from irrigo to irrigate ; Ital. irriguo.1 

1. Watery, watered. 

" The flow'ry lap 
Of some irriguous valley spread her store. 

Milton : P. L., iv. IK. 

2. Penetrating gently, as water into the) 
earth. 

" Rash Elpenor , , . thought 
To exhale his surfeit by irriguous sleep." 

Philips : Cider, bk. It 

* Ir-iis'-i-ble, . [Pref. ir- = in- (2), and 
Eng. risible (q.v.).] Not risible ; not capable 
of laughter. 

Jr-ri'-slon, s. [Fr., from Lat. irritionem, 
ace. of irrisio = a laughing at, from irritta, 
pa. par. of irrideo = to laugh at : in- = at, 
and rideo = to laugh ; Sp. irrision; Ital. irri, 
sione.] The act of laughing at or mocking 
another ; mockery, derision. 

" Then he againe, by way of irrision, Te say Tery 
true indeed."/*. Holland : Suetonius, p. 212. 

Ir-rit-a-blT-K-tJF, . [Fr. irritabilUe, from 
Lat. irritabilitatem, ace. of irritabilitas, from 
irritabilis = irritable (q.v.) ; Sp. irritabilidad ; 
Ital. irrltabiMa.] 

i Ord. Lang. : The quality or state of being 
irritable or easily provoked or irritated ; sus- 
ceptibility to irritation ; petulance. 

" During some hours his gloomy irritability kept hit 
servants, his courtiers, even his pr 1 ta, in terror. 
Jtacaulay: Blst. Eng.,ch. xxl. 
EL Technically: 

1. Anat. (Of a muscle): Vital contractibility, 
the property of visibly contracting, even after 
death, on the application of a stimulus. It 
varies in duration according to the muscle 
irritated. The right auricle has been found 
irritable for sixteen and a half hours after 
death. A voluntary muscle has been found 
irritable twenty-four hours after death. The 
great physiologist Albert Von Haller directed 
much attention to the subject of irritability. 

2. Bat. : Excitability of an extreme character, 
in which an organ exlribits movements different 
from those commonly met with in plants. IU 
known causes are three atmospheric pressure, 
spontaneous motion, and the contact of other 
bodies. Thus plants sleep, the compound 
leaves, where such exist, folding together ; so 
also the sensitive plant shrinks from touch. 



, bo^; poilt, JtfiW; oat, 9011. chorus, chin, bench ; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, eylst. ph = t 
-clan, -tlan = sban, -tion, -slon = shun ; -flon, -sion - zhun. -cions, -tlous, sioua = skua. -ble. -die, &c. = bol. del* 



2742 



irritable isagogics 



3. Pathol (Of any organ): Morbid excite- 
ment or excitability, often with pain. Tims 
thre may be irritability of the bladder. 

Ir'-rft-a-ble, o. [Fr., from Lat irritaUlis, 
from i'rrilo = to Irritate (q.v.) ; 8p. irritable ; 
Ital. irritaMle.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Easily irritated or exasperated ; petu- 
lant, fretful. 

" His irritable ami imperious nature was constantly 
Impelling him to quarrel with both." Jfacaulny : 
Bitt. Sitff- en. xvil. 

2. Susceptible of being worked Into a heat 
or paiufulness : as, an irritable aore. 

IL Technically: 

1. A natomy : 

(1) Gen. : Capable of being acted upon with 
effect by stimuli. 

(2) Spec. (Of muscles) : Capable of contract- 
Ing under the influence of stimuli [IRRITA- 
BILITY, II. 1.) 

2. But. : Capable of being excited to motion 
under the Influence of certain stimuli. 

Ir-rit-a-ble ness, . [Eng. Irritable; -ness.} 
The quality or state of being irritable ; Irrita- 
bility. . 

IV-rtfr-a-hly, adv. [Eng. irritable); -!.] In 
an irritable manner ; with irritation. 

*lr'-lit-an-c (IX i. [Eng. irritant (1) ; -cy.] 
The quality or state of being Irritant or irri- 
tating. 

If-rit-an-cy (2), >. [Eng. irri<on(0(2) ; **.] 
Scots Lena: The quality or state of being 
irritant or of no force or eft>ct ; the state of 
being null and void. 

Ir'-rlt-ant (1), o. 4 . [Fr., from Lat tertians, 
(genlt. ' irritantis), pr. par. of irrt(o=to pro- 
voke, to enrage, stimulate, incite, or excite.] 

A. As adj. : Exciting irritation ; producing 
excitement ; causing pain, heat, or tension by 
mechanical injuries, chemical action, &c. 

B. As substantive : 

1. Pharmacy: 

(1) Sing. : That which produces Irritation 
or excitement of any muscle, nerve, or other 
organ or part of the body. 

(2) PI. : Oarrod makes Irritants the flrst 
order of his second division, that of external 
remedies. He includes under it three groups 
(1) Rubefacients, (2) Epispastics, Vesicants, or 
Blistering Agents, and (3) Pustulants. 

2. Toxicology : An irritant poison (q.v.). 

H Pure irritant : A poison producing In- 
flammation without corrosive action on the 
tissues. 

irritant poison, >. 

Toxicol. : A poison which produces Inflam- 
mation with or without corrosive action on the 
tissues, as arsenic, mercury, or other mineral 
poisons. 

Ir'-rit-ant (2), a. [Lat. Irritans, pr. par. of 
Irrito = to invalidate : in- = not, and ratus = 
ratified, valid.] Rendering null and void; 
invalidating. 

irritant clause, t. 

Scots Law : A clause in a deed declaring null 
and void certain specified acts if they are done 
by the party howling under the deed. It Is 
supplemented by the resolutlve clause. 

fr-ri tate (1), .(. A *. [Lat trritatui, pa. 
par. of irrito = to irritate.) 
A. Transitive: 
i Ordinary Language : 

* 1. To excite, to stir up, to Inflame. 

"Dydde with vncleane motions or ooontynanoes 
irritate the myndes of the uauuoers." Sir T. Zlrot : 
3*4 Qonrnour, bit. i.. ch. xix. 

2. To excite heat, redness, and Inflamma- 
tion in ; to inflame, to fret : as, To irritate a 
ore. 

8. To excite anger or displeasure In ; to vex, 
to annoy, to exasperate. 

" The persecution which th separatist! had tmder- 
gone had been severe euough to irritate, but not severe 
enough to destroy. Jfaoautay: Bat. Kng.. ch. i. 

* 4. To give greater force or energy to ; to 

Increase ; to heighten. 

" Air, if very coM, trritateO* th flame, and malteth 
It burn more fiercely." Bacon. 

* ii. To excite, to heat, to stimulate. 

" Cold maketh the spirits vigorous, and irrttatelX 
them." Saeon. 



IL Technically: 

1. Physial. : To excite irritation in ; to ex- 
cite the irritability of. [IRRITABILITY.] 

2. Patkol. : To cause morbid excitement in. 
* B. Intrans. : To excite, to heat, to inflame. 

** Music too ... Is tempered by the law ; 
still to her plan subservient melts in antes. 
Which cool and soothe, not irritate and warm." 
(Hover .- Levniilut, bk. i L 

1 iy-ri-tate (2), v.t. [Lat irritatut, pa. par. of 
irrtto = to invalidate : t'r- = in- = not, and ratus 
=* ratified, v:tlid.] To invalidate; to make of 
none effect ; to render null and void. (Scotch.) 

* iV-ri tate, a. [IRRITATE (1), t>.) Excited, 
heightened, inflamed. 

" When they are collected, the heat uecometh men 
violent and irritate Bacon: A'at. Hut. 

Ir-rl-ta'-tion, . IFr., from Lat irritationem, 
accua. of irritatio, from irrUatus, pa, par. of 
irrtto = to irritate (1); Sp. irritation; Ital. 
irritasione.] 
1. Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of irritating, provoking, exas- 
perating, or vexing. 

2. The state of being Irritated ; anger, vexa- 
tion, annoyance, exasperation. 

3. The act of exciting heat or inflammation. 

" It will often happen, that the fibre*, or motive 
organs of the stomach, bowels, and other parts will, 
by that irritation, be brought to contract themselves 
vigorously." Boyle : H'orti, V. 218. 

II, Technically: 

1. Pathol. : An abnormally potent sensation 
or action, or both together, produced by me- 
chanical or chemical agents, or other causes. 
Even hunger will produce this action, simula- 
ting that produced by strength, but the reac- 
tion with increased weakness u great and im- 
mediate. 

2. Physiology: 

(1) Gen. : The normal action, both In cha- 
racter and amount produced by appropriate 
stimuli on any portion of the bodily frame. 

(2) Spee. : The contraction of the muscles 
tinder the operation of appropriate stimuli. 

* Ir'-rl ta-tlve, a. [Eng. irritate) ; -in.] 

1. Serving or tending to irritate or excite. 

2. Accompanied with or produced by in- 
creased action or irritation : as, an irritative 
fever. 

* Ir'-ti-ta-tor-^, a. [Eng. irritate); -ory.] 
Irritating ; causing irritation. 

" By reason either of some passion or of some irri- 
tatorjf and troublesome huiuur In his behaviour." 
Salt: 0m. Xrrtna ChrltOara. 

' Ir-rite ', v.t. [Fr. irriter, from Lat irrtto = to 
irritate (1).] To irritate, to exasperate, to 
influence, to provoke. 

"/rritfaoaud provoking men nnto anger." Ora/ton : 
Xd<c. r. Ian. 1). 

ir'-ror-ate, .(, [Lat. Imratia, pa. par. of 
irroro, from ir- = in- = on, upon, and roro = to 
distil dew; ro (genit. roris) dew.] To 
moisten with dew ; to bedew. 

Ir-ror-a'-tlon, . [IRHORJ.TE.] The act of 
bedewing; the state of being bedewed. 

ir-ru'-brlo-al, o. [Pref. ir- - in- (2), and 
Eug. rubrical (q.v.Xj Not rubrical ; not ac- 
cording to the rubric. 

* ly-ru-gate, v.t. [Lat Imgatas, pa. par. 
of irrugo : in-(iutens.), and rugoio wrinkle.] 
To wrinkle. 

Ir-rupt'-e'd, o. [Lat trruplu*, pa. par. of 
imnnpo = to break into : in- = in, into, and 
rumpo = to break.] Broken violently and 
with great force. 

Kr-rup'-tlon, . [Fr., from Lat irruptionem, 
accus. of irruptio, from irrupt**, pa. par. of 
immpo; Sp. irruption; Ital. imaione.) 

1. A breaking in ; a bursting In ; an attack. 

"With terrible irrutMom bursting- o'er 
The marble cliffs." Falconer . Mlpsfrtdt. Ill 

2. A sudden invasion or incursion into a 
country ; an inroad. 

t Jr-rapt'-iVe, o. [Lat irnpt(us), pa. par. of 
irrumpo; Eng. adj. suff. -it*.] Rushing or 
bursting in or upon. 

iV-vlng-ites, s. pi. [For etym. see def.] 

Ecdesiol. & Ch. Hist. : The followers of the 
Eev. Edward Irving, who was born at Annan, 
In Dumfriesshire, on August 15, 1792 ; in 1819 



became assistant to the celebrated Dr. Chal- 
mers, in St. John's Church, Glasgow ; in July, 
lS2:i, was chosen pastor of a small Scottish- 
Presbyterian congregation in Cross Street, 
Hatton Garden, and attracting thither crmuU 
of eminent people, had built for him a Hn 
church in Regent Square, to which he removed 
in 1829. On October 16, 1831, the gift of 
speaking in unknown tongues was alleged to 
have been bestowed upon some people, most 
of them females, in his congregation, the same 
phenomenon having arisen on a limited sc;tle 
before in Glasgow. Irving believed ihat the 
miracle recorded in Acts ii. 4-11 had occurred 
again, and that Pentecostal times had returned. 
The more sober-minded of his flock and his 
ministerial brethren thought differently, and 
were strongly influenced by the couaideratinu 
that no human being of any nationality recog- 
nised the new tongue as his own. Irving s 
views regarding the human nature of Cluist 
were also deemed erroneous. On May 3, 18:, it 
was decided that Mr. Irving was unfit to retain 
the pastorate of Recent Square Church, and 
on Maron 15, 1838, the Presbytery of Annan, 
which had licensed him as a preacher, deposed 
him from the ministry. He died on Decem- 
ber 8, 1884. His followers are often popu- 
larly termed Irvlngites, but the official desig- 
nation of the denomination which he founded 
is the Holy Apostolic Church. They use a 
liturgy framed in 1842 and enlarged in 1853. 
They have an altar on which caudles are lit, 
and they burn incense (q. v.> As church officers 
they have apostles, angels, prophets, &c. In 
1851 they had in England thirty chapels. In 
1854 one was opened in Gordon Square, London, 
which is now their leading place of worship. 

f, r. [See def.] The third person sing., pres. 
Indie, of the substantive verb to be. It repre- 
sents the Sansc. asti, Goth, ist, Lat. at, Gr. <<ni 



fa-, pref. [Iso..] 

ls'-a-bel.s. [From/loiKife. Generally referred 
to IsabeTle of Austria, daughter of Philip II. 
of Spain, and wife of Archduke Albert ol 
Austria, who, In A.D. 1601, made a vow not to 
change her linen until her husband had taken 
Ostend, which be was besieging. The town, 
however, held out till A.D. 1604, by which 
time her linen had assumed a dingy hue.) A 
pale brownish-yellow colour, dull yellow with 
a mixture of gray and red. 

Isabel bear, s. [ISABELLINE-BEAH.] 

Isabel - colour, Isabella - colour, > 

The same as ISABEL (q.v.). 

ibj a bel' Une, a. [Mod. Lot, inofUinui.] 
[ISABEL.] 

isabclline bear, j. 

ZooL : Ursus isabellinus. a lighter variety of 
the Syrian bear. It is of a yellowish-brown 
colour, but the hue varies according to the 
season of the year. It is found In the Hima- 
laya Mountains, and feeds chiefly on vegeta- 
bles. Called also the Indian White Bear. 

is ab nor'-mal, >. [Pref. it-, and Eng. 06- 
7tormai(q.v.).] 

Meteor. (PL) : Deviations from mean tem- 
perature. 

t is a del phoua, a. [Pref. is- ; Gr. ai,^6t 
(adelphos) = a brother, and Eng. suff. -ous.] 

Sot. (Of a diadelphous jlower): Having the 
two "brotherhoods" or bundles of stamens 
equaL 

t is'-a-go&e, tis-a-gogne, . [Gr. uo- a - 
yoyii (eisagoge) = (1) (Gen.) a bringing in ; (2) 
(Law) a bringing of cases into court ; (3) (Rhet.) 
an introduction, nfi elementary treatise.] [!SA- 

GOOICS.] 

Kliet., Theol., Ac. : An Introduction to the 
study of a department of thought 

is-a-go&'-lc, I-sa-gSg'-Ic-aLa. [Lat. iso- 
gogicus ; Gr. i(ra-ywyix6c (eisagogikos) = intro- 
ductory ; ticrayttyyri (eisiigogt) = an introduc- 
tion : eis (eis) = into, and aytayr, (agogv) = a 
leading ; dyw (ago) = to lead.] 

Theol., Rhet., <tc. : Introductory. (J. A. 
Alexander.) 

is-a gog'-Ics, s. [IsAOooic.] 

Theol., <tc. : Introduction (q.v.) ; the pre- 
liminary Investigations regarding the sacred 
books, Ac., before reaching hermeneutics and 
exegesis. 



late, fat. Hire, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pt 
r. wore, wolf, work, who. son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rul, full ; try. Syrian, n, os = e ; ey = a. u = kw. 



isagon isatyde 



2743 



I'-sa gin, s. [Or. ;<ro? (fcos) = equal, and 
yamit (gonia) = an angle ; Fr. isagone.] 
Math. : A figure whose angles are equal. 

E-sa -l-ah, iB-a'-tan (i as y). . [Heb. 
\Tyip' (Yeshayah-u) = the salvation of Jeho- 
vah, i.e., the salvation effected by Jehovah ; 
Gr. 'Homa? (flfeaias).] 

Script. Hist. : One of the greatest of the 
Hebrew prophets. He was the son of Amos, 
whom some of the fathers supposed to be the 
prophet Amos, the names being identical in 
Greek ; in Hebrew, however, theyare different, 
the prophet being Amos, and Isaiah's father 
Amots. As in the vision recorded in Isaiah 
vi., the prophet is represented as being in 
the court which none but the descendants of 
Aaron might enter, he was perhaps a priest, 
He was born probably between B c. 78S and 
783. He married a woman to whom, as to 
him, prophetic gifts were given (Isa. viii. 8). 
One of his sons was called Bhear-jashub = a 
remnant returns, or a remnant will return 
(vii. 3); another Maher-shalal- hash -baz = 
hasten to the spoil, quickly carry off the prey. 
Isaiah exerted great influence at the court of 
Jerusalem under Ahaz, and yet more under 
Hezekiah. He was contemporary with Amos, 
Hosea, Micah, and perhaps with Joel. Besides 
his prophecies, he wrote also biographies or 
histories of Uzziah (2 Chron. xxvi. 22), and 
Hezekiah (xxxii. 32). Tradition says that he 
was sawn asunder by order of King Manasseh. 
his tragic fate, it is supposed, being alluded 
to in Heb. 3tt. 37. [II] 

D The Prophecies of Isaiah : 

Scripture Canon : The first and most Im- 
portant of the prophetic books. It is headed 
*' The vision of Isaiah, the son of Amoz, which 
he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the 
days of Uzziah, Jothain, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, 
Kings of Judah." If chapter vi. is chronologi- 
cally the earliest of any, and describes his first 
call to the prophetic office, his utterances 
would commence in B.C. 758, 757, or 758. If 
the prophecies are arranged in the order of 
time, then chapters i.-y. would belong to an 
earlier period. Omitting these writiugs of 
uncertain date, the next utterances are in the 
reign of Ahaz, none apparently belonging to 
the sixteen years of Jotham's reign. He con- 
tinued at least till the fourth year of King 
Hezekiah, B.C. 712, a period of 44 to 46 years. 
This is the minimum span of his prophecies ; 
the maximum is much greater. 

The book naturally divides itself into three 
parts : (1) chapters x. to xxxv. , the earlier 
prophecies ; (2) ch. xxxvL to xxxix., an historic 
appendix or intercalation ; and (3) ch. xL to 
Ixvi. the later prophecies. The standpoint in 
this third section is that of the Babylonian 
captivity, and Cyrus, who set the two tribes 
trie, is mentioned by name (xliv. 28, xlv. 1). 
Hence Koppe (A.D. 1779-1781) supposed a 
second author, a view adopted by Doderlein, 
Eichhorn, Justi, Paulus De Wette, Geseuius, 
Ewald, and nearly all rationalistic critics. On 
the other hand Hengsteuberg, Havemick, 
Keil, &c., have maintained the integrity of 
Isaiah. Viewed as a poetic composition the 
book of Isaiah exhibits genius of a very high 
order. There are numerous quotations from 
or references to Isaiah in the New Testament, 
ch. liii. and other prophecies (vii. 14; ix. 1, 2 ; 
liii. 4 ; Ixiii. 1-3) being considered Messianic 
and applied to Jesus. Hence Jerome con- 
sidered that Isaiah should rather be called an 
evangelist than a prophet, and he is not un- 
trequently called the fifth Evangelist. 

IUh 1. 9 = Rom. I*. 29 ; vi. 9. 10 = Mat lilt. 14. IS, 
Act* xxvlit. 3ft-27 ; vii. 14 = Mat. 1. 22, 23 ; vllL 14 =3 
Rom. ix. 83 : ix. 1. 2 = Mat iv. 14.16 ; x. 22 = Rom. Ix. 
27, 28 . XL 3 = Mat. ill. s. Mark 1. i ; xllL 1-3 = Hat. 
zlll. 17-20 ; xliv. 26 = 1 Cor. 1. 19. 20 ; lilt. 1. = Rom. x. 
IS ; 1111. 4 = Mat. Till. 17 ; 1111. 7.8 = Acta rill s-35 ; 
iv. 8= Acts xlil. 84; ivi. 7= Mat xxi. 13; Ixi. 1-3 = 
Luke Iv. 17-21 ; Ixv. 1, 2= Rom. X. 20-21 ; Ur. 17 = 
2 Pet. Hi. 18 : Ixvi. 24 = Hark Ix. 43-fB. 

Is-al IJl^ne, *. [Eng. <a(a); anyl, and 
suff. -ene.] 

Chem. : CHj'C'CHj. A gaseous hydrocar- 
bon, isomeric with allylene, prepared by the 
electrolysis of potassic itaconate. It combines 
directly with bromine, forming a crystalline 
isallylene tetrabromide, CHjBrCBrjCHjBr. 
It gives no precipitate with ammoniacal solu- 
tions of silver salts. 

to am'-ic, a. [3ng., *o. <s(aM); aa(mmia\ 

and sutf. -ic.] (See the compound.) 

Isamlc acid. <. 

Chem. : C 18 Hi s N 3 O4. Imasati: acid. Pro- 



duced by the action of warm ammonia on 
isatine. It crystallizes in glistening rhombic 
plates of the colour of red iodide of meivury, 
which are slightly soluble in boiling water, 
forming a bright yellow solution, but very 
soluble in hot alcohol anil in ether. It dis- 
solves in hydrochloric acid with a beautiful 
violet colour, but is violently attacked by 
bromine, forming indelibrome Ci 6 H 8 Br 4 N 3 O 3 . 
By boiling with dilute acids it is decomposed 
into ammonia and isatine. Ammonium is- 
amate, C 16 Hi.j(NH4)N 3 O4, crystallizes >n 
microscopic needles. Potassium isarnate, 
Ci 6 Hi2KN 3 O 4> is a very stable compound, 
and may be boiled without decomposing. 

IS am ide, t. IEng., &c. fc(a<is), and amide.} 
Chem. : CieHi 4 N 4 O 3 . Amasatin. A bright 
yellow powder, produced by heating am- 
monium isamate till water is driven otf, and 
washing the residue with water. It is insoluble 
in water and ether, but moderately soluble in 
boiling alcohol containing ammonia. 

is ap 6s toT-Ic, o. [Pref. O (q.v.), and 
Eng. apostolic. Cf. also Gr. ijrairoo-roAos (is- 
apostolos).] 

1. (Of persons'): Equal in sanctity or devo- 
tedness or in success to the apostles. 

2. Of laws or customs : As binding on the 
Christian conscience as if they had been in- 
stituted by apostles. 

l-sar'-i-o, s. [From Gr. IO-OT (iso) = equal to, 
the same as; fern. sing. adj. suff. -aria.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of the sub-order 
Isariacei (q.v.). It consists of filamentous 
moulds, parasitic, some on insects, especially 
Hymenoptera, on dead pupa?, spiders nests, 
and partly upon various vegetable substances. 
(Berkeley.) 

i-sap-I'-*-! (pi. i-ear-i-a'-ce-i), . [Mod. 
Lat. isaria; Lat mas. pi. adj. suff. -ei, -acei.] 
Bot. : A sub-order of Hyphomycetous fungi. 
The fertile threads are compacted, and have 
deciduous pulverulent spores at their free 
apices. British genera, Isaria, Anthina, and 
Ceratium. 

i-saV-trw-a, . [Fret is-, and Mod. Lat 
astrasa (2) (q.v.).] 

Pahtont. : A genus of fossil Actinozoa, 
family Astrseidae. It is from the Oolite, 
Morris enumerates twelve species as British. 

IS-a-tan, 8. [Eng., &c. feasts); -an.] 

Chem. : CieHuXaOj. A white compound 
produced by boiling disulphisatyde with acid 
ammonium sulphate. It dissolves in boiling 
alcohol, and deposits on cooling in the form of 
rectangular crystals. When strongly heated 
it yields a mixture of isatine and indine. 
Boiling nitric acid decomposes it, with the 
formation of a violet powder, somewhat re- 
sembling nltrlndin. 

is'-a-tate.s. [Eng., &c. isatfis) ; -ate (CTww.).] 
Chem. : A salt of isatic-acid (q.v.). 

l-sat -to, a. (Eng., &c. <Mt(w) ; -fc.J Seethe 
compound. 

Isatic-acid, . 

Chem. : C 8 H 7 NO 3 
boiling a solution of potassium isatine, it is 
converted into potassic isatate, C 6 H 6 NKO 3 , 
which, on the addition of plumbic acetate, 
gives a precipitate of plumbic isatate. When 
this is suspended in water, decomposed with 
sulphuretted hydrogen, and the filtrate eva- 
porated in vacuo, a white flocculent deposit 
of isatic acid or trioxiudol is obtained. Am- 
monium isatate is capable of existing only in 
solution. Barium isstate, CgHjBaNOs, pro- 
duced by the action of baryta water on isatine, 
crystallizes in scales. The silver salt, C 8 H a 
AgNO 3 , crystallizes in fine yellow prisms, 
which are very soluble in water. Isatic acid 
unites with bromine and chlorine forming 
broinisatic and chlorisatic acids. 

i-sat'-l-das, s.pl. [Lat isot(s) ; fern. pi. adj. 
suff. -idee.] 

Bot. : A family of Brassicacex, tribe Noto- 
rhizeae. 

ifl'-a tine, s. [Eng., &c- isati(s) ; -Int.] 

Chem. : C 8 H,NO S = C8H 4 <j>CO. Ob- 
tained by suspending finely powdered indigo 
in three times ,it8 weight of boiling water, and 



adding gradually nitric acid of ap. gr. 1-36 
until the blue colour has disappeared. On 
cooling, crude isatine is deposited, and may 
be purified by dissolving in potash, precipita- 
ting with hydrochloric acid, and crystallizing 
from alcohol. It crystallizes in the form of 
brilliant yellowish-red prisms, which dissolve 
readily in boiling water, in alcohol, and in 
ether. It may also be produced synthetically 
by the action of oxidizing agents on aiuido- 
oxindol : 



Ct) 



or by the reduction of orthonitro-phenyl 
oxalic acid in alkaline solution : 



WKSof 

^XO-rSHjO. 




Isatine does not unite with acids, but rather 
plays the part of an acid. It dissolves in po- 
tassic hydrate, forming a dark violet-coloured 
solution of potassium isatine, which, on addi- 
tion of argentic nitrate, gives carmine-red crys- 
tals of argentic isatine, C 8 H 4 NO2Ag. It also 
yields crystalline compounds, with alkaline 
nydric sulphites. Boiling with concentrated 
nitric acid, it is converted first into nitro- 
salicylic acid, and finally into trinitro-phenoL 
When strongly heated, isatine fuses and sub- 
limes in part unchanged. 

IS'-a-tls, . [Lat. (satis, from Gr. urarif 

(isiitis) = a plant, Itatistinctoriatf), producing 

a dark dye - wood. 

(Def.)] 

Bot. : Wood. The 
typical genus of the 
Cruciferous family 
Isatidn (q.v.). It 
consists of tall, 
erect, annual or 
biennial branched 
herbs, with equal 
sepals and one- 
celled indehiseent 
pods, oblong, ovate, 
or orbicular, thick- ISATIS. 

ened in the middle, 

the wing or margin very broad. Species 
twenty-five to thirty. One, Isatia tinctona 
(Dyer's Woad) is half wild in Britain. The 
ancient Britons are said to have stained them- 
selves blue with it It is still cultivated in 
Lincolnshire, as /. indigotica is in China, for 
dyeing purposes. 

i-sa-to-sul-phiir'-iic, o. [Eng. t((w); a 
connective, aud Eng. sulphuric.) (See the 
compound.) 
isatosulphuric acid, . 

Chem. : C 8 H 5 NO 2 'SO 3 . Prepared by boiling 
indigo-carmine with sulphuric acid, and de- 
colorising by means ot acid eliminate of 
potassium. On adding nitrate of potassium 
to the hot filtered solution, potassium isato- 
sulphate is deposited in the form of a brownish- 
yellow sandy powder. By dissolving this 
powder in hot baryta water, and decomposing 
the barium salt formed, with an equivalent 
quantity of sulphuric acid, isatosulphurie acid 
is obtained in the free state. It is a strong 
acid, separating even some of the mineral 
acids from their salts. When evaporated in 
vacuo, it yields a yellow, silky, crystalline 
mass, which does not alter on exposure to the 
air. It is soluble in water, slightly soluble In 
alcohol, but insoluble in ether and in benzene. 
It forms two classes of salts, monobasic and 
dibasic, the former of which are very stable 
compounds, retaining their water of crystalli- 
zation till heated above 100% 

ia-a-trop'-ic, a. [Eng. <!ic. u(atis), and 
atropic.] (See the compound.) 

isatropic acid, >. 

C*ri, : <VI 8 Oa 
Isomerlc with cinnamic acid, obtained together 
with atropic acid, by heating tropic acid with 
hydrochloric acid. It crystallizes in thin 
rhombic plates, which are slightly soluble in 
water. It melts at 200, and is not oxidized 
by chromic acid. 

I'-sa-tyde, s. [Eng. isaUfne); suff. -yd* 
(Chem.) (q.v.).] 

Chem. : CjeH^NjO^ A white crystalline 
powder produced by the action of nascent 
hydrogen, evolved from zinc and hydrochloric 



1)6.1, b<fr; poUt, J61M; oat, jell, chorus, 9hiii. bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist. -Ing. 
-Clan, -tlan = ahan. -tion, -Blon = shun ; -tion. -lon = zhun. -clous, -tious, -sions = shfis. -We, -die, &o - bel, del. 



2744 



isch Isls 



acid, on isatine. It is insoluble in water, but 
lightly soluble in boiling alcohol and ether, 
from which it separates, on cooling, in micro- 
scopic scales. It softens when heated, chang- 
ing to a violet brown ; at a higher temperature 
it suffers partial decomposition. Isatyde 
bears the same relation to isatin, that indigo- 
white bears to indigo-blue. 

'isChtV.i. [O.Fr. iasir, from Lat. two, from 
ex- = out, and eo to go.] To issue ; to come 
or go out. 

Is chte -ml-a, >. [Hod. Lat., from Gr. 
t<7X<ufK>? (ischdimos) = staunching blood : 
iaxw (ischo) = to hold, check, or curb, and 
Ifui (haima) blood.] 

Pathol. : This affection of the discs of the 
eye is caused by distension of the ophthalmic 
veins, as in meningitis and hydrocephalus ; if 
extreme, the optic nerves suffer considerable 
destruction, and become atrophied. This con- 
dition is described by Von Graefe as "ob- 
struction at the cavernous sinus, with con- 
current action of the sclerotic ring." 

Is chi -iid -ic, fo-ctt-ftd'-fok, a. [Or. 

t.<r\iav (ischion), i<rxto&Kot (ischiadikot) ; Fr. 
ischuulique.] In anatomy, an epithet applied 
to the crural vein ; in pathology, the ischia- 
dick passion is the gout in the hip, or the 
sciatica, (//arris.) 

Is-chi-ig'-ra, s. [Gr. urxCm (itchian) = the 
hip joint, and afpo (affra) = hunting, catching, 
seizure.] 

I'uth. : Gout situated in the hip joint ; 
sciatica. 

Is'HJhi-al, o. [Mod. Lat. isrfii(K>)(q.v.);Eng. 
suff. -a/.] 

Anat. A Path. : Of or belonging to the 
isehium or hip joint ; ischiadic, ischiatic. 

I-chi il'-gta, s. [Gr. ;<rx>oi> (i**ion) = the 
hip joint, and oA-yoc (algos) = pain.] 
i'ath. : Pain in the hip joint 



f-lO, 0. [ISCHIADIC.] 

is chi &t-6 cele, is -chl i ? ele, .. [Eng. 

Ac. ischiatHf), and Gr. mjXij (**') = tumour.] 

Surg. : Hernia or rupture through the sacro- 

sciatic ligaments ; a rupture between the os 

sacrum and the tuberosity of the os ischinm. 

Is Chi -6-, prtf. [Gr. ior^ior (ixAton) = the hip 
joint.] 

Anat., Ac. : Of or belonging to the hip joint. 
ischio capsular, a. 

Anat. : Pertaining to the hip joint and cap- 
sular. There is an ischia-captular ligament. 

ischio cavernous, a. 

Anat. : Pertaining to the hip joint and 
cavernous. There is an ischio - cavernous 
muscle. 

Ischio rectal, a. 

Anat. : Pertaining to the rectum and to the 
hip joint. There is an ischio-rectal fossa. 

to chi 6 dus, is-chy-o -dus, s. [Gr. !<TXV; 
(ischus) = strength, and btovs (odous) = a 
tooth.] 

Palceont. : A genus of Chimrerktje, found in 
the Secondary and Tertiary deposits. 

Is'-chX-um, . [Gr. IIT X IO (itchion) = the hip 
Joint] 

Anat. A Zool. : One of the bones in the 
pelvic arch in vertebrated animals. It forms 
the posterior and inferior part of the os in- 
nominatum, and bounds the obturator foramen 
in the lower half of its extent. 

t Isch-nS-plid'-nl-a, t. [Gr. l<rxmf*,ma. 
(iachnophonia) = (see def.), \anUfmnt (isOmn- 
phonos) thin- voiced ; Iirxv6<; (tscftno*) = dry, 
withered, meagre, and pwnj (phanl) = a sound, 
tone.) 
Pathology : 

1. Thinness of voice. 

2. Stuttering. 

*B-chu ret'-ic, a. & t. [Lat *Aur(ia); Eng. 

SUff. -!.] 

Pharmacy : 

A. As adj. : Having the quality of mitiga- 
ting or removing ischuria. 

B. As subsl. : A medicine fitted to mitigate 
or remove ischuria. 



Is chiir I a, ItMShu-ry, s. [Lat., from Gr. 
ltr\ovpia lis'chourui) : t<rxt (isclto) = to hold or 
curb, ana ovpov (ourtm) = urine.] 

Pathol. : Suppression of urine occurs some- 
times in teething, in hysteria, or some morbid 
conditions of the blood, and is aeconipanir.l 
with pain, often severe. Less complete sup- 
pression is culled retention of urine, and the 
local sufferings are more severe. 

Is chy o dus, s. [IscHiopus.] 

to-chyp'-ter-ns, s. [Gr. iirxv? (itckus) = 
strength, and wrcpdi' (pteron) = a wing, a tin ; 
Lat. termination -us. Named from the size 
and strength of the tin.] 

Paksont. : A genus of fossil fishes found in 
the Trias of North America. 

to-chyr-o-my'-i-dw (yr as ir), . pi. [Mod. 
Lat. ischynmys (q.v.) ; Lat fern. pi. adj. suff. 
fate.] 

Paloxmt. : A family of Rodentia containing 
only one species of Ischyromys (q.v.X 

Is chyr 6 rays (yr as ir), . [Or. 'wrx 
(IfcAunu) = strong, and j* (mu<) = a mouse.] 
Palaxmt. : The typical genus of the family 
Ischyromyidas (q.v.). It is known only by a 
North American fossil rodent, Ischyromys 
typus, described by Dr. Leidy from remains 
found by Dr. Hayden in Miocene deposits in 
the " Bad Lands " of Wyoming. It resembles 
the Husk Bat, but has closer affinity to the 
Squirrels, and certain resemblances to the 
Beavers. 

fje, phr. [See def.] Scotch for " I shall." 

" Never fear, /'' b caution fur them /'* gle yon 
my penonal warrandioe." Scott: H'awrky. ch. Uvi. 



i ser ine, i ser ite, . [So named from 
having been found near the river Iser (the 
" Iser rolling rapidly " of Campbell's " Ilohen- 
linden "X and suffs. -ine, -ite (Aftn.) (q.v.).] 

Min. : Isometric titanic iron, in the form of 
iron sand. Colour, iron-black passing into 
brownish-black. Compos. : titanic acid, 13-JO 
to 67-13; sesquioxide of iron 16'67 to S"00 ; 
protoxide of iron, 17'79 to 81 10 ; magnesia, 
1-94 to 8-02. Found in numerous localities, 
including Great Britain, Bohemia, Saxony, and 
many other parts of the Eastern Hemisphere, 
in various localities of the New World, Ac. It 
occurs in many parts of the United States. 

i'-er-ite, . [ISERIN*.] 

i ser -tl-a, s. [Named after P. E. Isert, a 
German surgeon in the Danish service at 
Accra.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of the family Isertidae 
(q.v.X It consists of shrubs or small trees 
with scarlet flowers, from Central America. 

i-sef-tH-da), . pi. [Mod. Lat lsrt(o); Lat 
fern. pi. adj. suff. -idcK.] 

Bot. : A family of Cinchonaceas, tribe Cin- 
chonete. 

Is e thl-Sn-Ic, a. [Eng., Ac. i^atts); 
ethionlf), and suff. -ic.] 

iscthionic acid, . 

CH,-OH 



. This acid, 
which is isomeric with sulphovinic acid, was 
discovered by Magnus in 1833. It is obtained 
most readily by adding sulphuric anhydride 
to anhydrous ether, cooled by a mixture of 
ice and salt. The resulting thick, oily liquid 
is diluted with water, boiled for several hours 
in order to decompose the ethionic acid, and 
then saturated with baric carbonate. The 
liquid, filtered at the boiling point, yields, 
first crystals of baric methionate, and after- 
wards, on further evaporation, baric isethi- 
onate (HO-CH 2 -CH 2 -SO 2 -O)2Ba. On decom- 
posing the baric salt with sulphuric acid, and 
evaporating the filtrate, isethionic acid is ob- 
tained in the form of deliquescent needles. 
The isethionates, which can be prepared by 
decomposing the baric salt with solutions of 
the respective metallic sulphates, are all 
soluble in water, and slightly soluble in alco- 
hol. They crystallize well, and in many cases 
can be heated to 3JO without decomposition. 
Ammonium isethionate, CsHgCNH^SO^ crys- 
tallizes in well-defined octahedrons, which do 
not lose weight at 120" Potassic isethionate, 
CaHjK'SO^ forms rhomboidal prisms, which 
melt between 300 and 350*. The copper salt, 
CaHsCu-SO^ forms pale-green prisms with 
rhombic base ; at 140 to 150" it turns white, 



and gives off twenty per <*it.. nf water of 
crystallization. 

-i8h. suff. [See def.] 

1. An adjectival suffix, representing A.8. 
isc, -ysc, Dan. -wfc, Qer. -isch, Fr. -esgwe = par- 
taking of tli* nature of, as fool, foolish, Dane. 
Dam'-s/i, tic. Suffixed to adjectives, it lessens 
the signification, as white, whituA some- 
what white ; sweet, sweetiaA. = rather sweet. J 

2. As a verbal suffix it is derived from the 
Lat. inchoative suffix -esc, as in florarco t<> 
begin to flower or flourish, from Jtoreo ~ to 
flourish. It is generally found in verbs wltu-h 
have come through the French, and which 
retain the influence of that suffix in some of 
their tenses, us finir t finissant, Eng. finish; 
punir, puni&sant, Bug. punish, &c. 

ish, Ische, s. [A corruption of i$rut (q.v.).} 
Issue ; liberty or right of going in and out. 

Tf 1th and entry : 

Soots Law : A term in a charter implying a 
right to all ways and passages, in so far as 
they may be necessary to kirk and market, 
through the adjacent grounds of the grantor, 
who is by the clause laid under that burden. 

Ish -ma-el-it, * [From Ishmael, Heb. 
b*^^ (Ishmatl), Sept 'la^A (Imait) ; suiT, 
-Ue.} 
t Literally: 

1. A descendant of Ishmael (Gen. xvi. 12)- 

2. An Ismaelian (q.v.). 

II. yig. : One resembling Ishmael, whose 
hand was against every man and every man's 
hand against him ; one at war against society. 

Ish -ma-?l it-lsh, a. [Eng./AmoH((); -M 
Like Ishmael ; like an Ishmaelite. 

I -sl-&c, a. [Lat Isiacta.] Of or pertaining 

to Isis. 

Isiac table, s. A spurious Egyptian 
monument, consisting of a plate of copper 
bearing a representation of most of the Egyp- 
tian deities with Isis in the centre, said to 
have been found by a soldier at the siege of 
Rome, in 1525. 

* U l-cle, . [ICICLE.] 



sId-i'-xuB, *. pi. [Lat. Isit (genit. Indis\. 
from Or. M* (/^is).] [Isis.] 

Zool. & Palceont. : A sub-family of Gorgonidae^ 
The axis is flexible, horny, and only partly 
calcareous. 

i aid -I um (pi. i-sld'-l-a) ( . [London and 1 
Faxton derive it from Or. tcrot (isos) = equal, 
in allusion to the small difference existing be- 
tween the podetia and the substance of the 
frond. Hay it not be from Irit, Isidis, and 
Or. cttot (eidos) = form?] 

1. A genus (T) of Crustaceous Lichens, 
Isidium Westringii, is used in dyeing. (Lind- 
ley, &c.) 

2. A corolla-like elevation of the thallus of 
a lichen bearing a globule at its end. (Treat. 
of Sot.) 

i sld-oid, a. [Lat Isis (genit. Isidis), and 
Gr. fT(eido) = form(?)] 
Bot.: (Of a lichen): Covered with isidia 

[ISIDIUM, 2.] 

i -sin glass, s. [Corrupted from Eng. icing, 
and glass, i.e., iceglass.] 
I, Ord'wiary Language : 

1. The dried swimming bladder of various 
species of Actpenser prepared and cut into 
tine shreds. It consists of a gelatinous tissue, 
which on boiling yields gelatine. 

2. A popular name for sheets of mica. 

IL Phar. : A solution of gelatine figures 
among officinal preparations. 

Isinglass-Stone, s. [ISINGLASS, I. 2.] 

f '-sis, s. [Lat. Isis ; Gr. *I<ri (Isis) = (1) the 
Egyptian goddess of fecundity and sister of 
Osiris, (2) a planet or coral.] 
L A*tron. : [ASTEROID, 42]. 

2. Zool. : A genus of corals, the typical on 
of the sub-family Isidinae (q.v.). The sclero- 
basia consists of alternate calcareous aud 
horny segments, the former giving rise to 
branches. Isis hippuris is from Amboyna, /. 
polyantha from the American seas, aud /. cor- 
aUoides from those of India, 

3. Palteont. : Found in the Miocene beds. 



fate, flit, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we. wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, 
or. wore. wolf. work, who, s6n; mute, cub, cure, unite, our. rule, full; try, Syrian, w ce-e; ey-a; qn = k 



Islam isocaproic 



2745 



Is' lam, * s lam, 1^ -lam ism, s. [Arab. 
Islam (1) the true or orthodox faith among 
the Muhammadans, (2) obedience to the will 
of God, submission, (3) the Muhammadan reli- 
gion, (4) the Muhammadan church or commu- 
nity.] [Catafago.] A name given to Muham- 
madanism (q.v.). 

Is lam ism, s. [Arab. Islam; -ism.] Mu- 

Is'- lam-lte, s. [ Arab. Islam ; -ite.] A Muham- 
madan. 

la lam it -ic, a. [Eng., Ac. Islamite); -ic.] 
Of or belonging to Islam ; Muhammadan. 

Is'-lam-ize, v.t. & i. [Arab., fcc. Islam; suff. 

A. Trans. : To render Muhammadan, to 
convert to Muhammadanism. 

B. Intrans. : To go over to the Muhamma- 
dan faith. 

is land (s silent), * i lond, * i lond, * y- 
land, * y-lond, s. & a. [A.S. igland, from 
ig = an island, and hind = land ; But eiland ; 
Icel. eyland; Sw. oland; Qer. eiland. The 
A.S. i<j, ieg, eg, also appears as -ea, -ey in 
English place-names, as in Anglesey, Batter- 
sea, &c., and in Icel. ey = an island ; Dan. & 
Sw. o ; O. H. Ger. -awa, -auwa, in composi- 
tion ; Goth, ((ftiwi ; 0. H. Ger. ahe & stream ; 
Ijat. aqua ; Eng. ait, eyot. The * in islaml is 
owing to a confusion with isle (q.v.).] 

A. As substantive : 

1. A piece of land surrounded by water, aa 
distinguished from mainland or continent. 

"[They were] cotne vnto an Hand waste and voyil. ' 
Spewjar : ^. ft., IL vi. IL 

2. Anything resembling an island ; as a mass 
of floating ice. 

B. As adj. : Of the nature of an island ; 
situated on an island : as, an island home. 

f (1) Island of foil: 

Anat. : The central lobe within the fissure 
of Sylvius in the cerebrum. It is a triangular 
eminence, forming a sort of delta between 
the two divisions of the fissure. 

(2) Islands of the Blest, Island of the Blest : 

Greek Mythol. : Imaginary islands, situated 
in the West, thought to be the abode of good 
men after death. The following passage from 
Cooke's translation of Hesiod's Works it Days 
(i. 170) shows the ancient belief as to the 
nature of the enjoyment to be found there : 

" There in the I it and of the Blot they find, 
Where Saturn reigns, an endless calm of mind ; 
And there the choicest fruits adom the fields. 
And thrice the fertile year a harvest y icltK". 
This passage has been amplified both by 
Homer (Odyss. iv. 563, sqq.) and Virgil (JEfc. 
vi. 637-44). The same idea of fertility occurs 
in the Apocalypse (xxii. 2), and Bernard de 
Mortaix, in De Contemptu Mundi, says of the 
Celestial Country : 

" Lux erit aurea, terraque lactea, melle redundans." 

* is -land (s silent), v.t. [ISLAND, *.] 

1. To form into an island ; to cause to be- 
come or appear like an island ; to surround 
with water. 

2. To dot, as with islands. 

is land er (* silent), . [Eng. island ; -er.] 
An inhabitant of an island. 

"Ye itlanders, bound In the ocean's chain." 

Drayton : Robert Duke qf Normandy. 

* is'-land-y (* silent), a. [Eng. island; *y.] 
Pertaining to islands ; full of islands. 

isle (1) (s silent), * lie, * yle, *. [O. Fr. isle 
(Fr. lie), from Lat. insula an island ; Sp. 
isla; Ital. isola.] An island : chiefly used in 
poetry. 



Drydtn: Virgil; 

* isle (2) (* silent), *. [AISLE.] A corruption 
ot aisle. 

* isle (s silent), v.t. [!SLE (!),*] To form into an 

Wand ; to cause to become or be like an 
liland ; to isolate. 

" Itlod in sudden sow of light" 

Tennyton ; Fatlma, 33. 

Ules -man (first s silent), *. [Eng. isle, and 
man.] An islander. 

" The itletmen carried at their backs 
The ancient banish battle-nxe." 

tfcwtt : Marmlon, v. 6. 

IS' -let (5 silent), t. [Eng. wte(l); dimin. suff. 

-*.} 



1. Lit. : A little isle or island. 

" An itlet upou the coast of Scotland, in the Qermau 
K *.-"in-aytan: Puly-OUrion, a. 34. (Note.) 

2. Fig. : A spot within another of a different 
hue, as on the wing of a butterfly, or th blos- 
som of a plaut. (Tennyson: Enid, 1,3*24.) 

-ism, suff. & s. [Or. t<rjio (-ismos) = condition, 
uct ; Lat -ismus; Fr. -isme.] 

A. As swjf. : A common suffix in English, 
meaning doctrine, theory, principle, system 
or practice of the abstract idea of the word 
to which it is suffixed : as, spiritual ism, mono- 
theism, &c., also an idiom peculiar to the 
country named, as Gallicism, Irishism, 

B. As subst. : A doctrine or theory, espe- 
cially one of a pretentious or absurd character. 

"Compared with any of theftnu current." C'arlyle : 
Pott 4 J'retent, bk. it, ch. XV. 

Is'-ma-e-lites, Is-ma-e'-U-ans, s. pi. 

[From an Ishmael (see def.), and Eng., &c. 
pi. suff. -ites, -ians.] 

Hist. : A branch of the Shiites. Djafar 
Madeck, the sixth Imam from Alt, having lost 
his elder son Ismael, appointed his younger 
son Mousa to be his successor. A schism 
followed among the Shiites, one party con- 
tending that the Imamship should have de- 
scended to the posterity of Ismael. The Fati- 
mide dynasty were Ismaelite, so were the 
Assassins (q.v.). 

is nar di a, s. [Named after Antoine Dante 
Isnard, member of the Academy of Sciences.] 
Bot. : A genus of Onagracese, tribe Jusstseeae. 
Isnardia palustris is called, by Joseph Hooker, 
Ludwigia palustris. The root of /. alterni- 
folio, is said to be emetic. 

1-8O-, prtf. [Or. IO<K (isos) = equal to, the 
same as.] 

1. Gen. : Epjial to. 

2. Bot. (Of an organ) : Equal in the number 
of its divisions or parts to another one. [Iso- 

STEMONOU8.] 

i-so am'-y-lene, *. [Eng. iso(meric), and 
amylene.] 

Clum. : ^gp>C-CH'CHj. A mobile, colour- 
less oil of peculiar odour, obtained by dis- 
tilling isoamylic alcohol with zinc chloride. 
It has a specific gravity of *663 at 0% and boils 
at 35". It is readily decomposed by an acid, 
even in the cold, hydrochloric acid producing 
Isoamylic chloride, and hydriodic acid iso- 
amylic iodide. 

I-TO-a-myT-ic, a. [Eng. iso(meric) ; amyl, 
and suff. -ic.] (See the compound.) 

isoamylic alcohol, s. Isobutyl car- 
binol. [AMYL-ALCOHOL] 

i-SO-ar'-ca, . [Pref. iso- = equal, and Lat. 

area (q.v.).] 

Palceont. : A genus of Arcadee. Fourteen 
species are known, from the Lower Silurian to 
the Chalk. 

i-so-bar', t i-so-bare', s. [Fret iso-, and 
Gr. |3apos (baros) = weight.] 

Phys. Geog. Meteor. (Pi.) : Lines connect- 
ing places which have the same mean baro- 
metric pressure. Three modifications of them 
exist : those connecting places which have 
equal pressure in January, those which possess 
it in July, and those in which it exists during 
the whole ye,ar. The closer the isobars are 
the stronger the wind, the further apart the 
lighter the wind. 

i-6-bar'-lC, a. [Eng., &c. isobar; -4c.] 

Phys. Geog. & Meteor. ; Having equal baro- 
metric pressure ; of or belonging to isobars. 



* l-so-bor-ysm, s. [Eng. 

isobar; -ism.] 

Phyg. Geog. & Meteor. ; Equality of baro- 
metric pressure. 

i-Bd-bar-o-met'-rfc, a. [Pref. iso- = equal, 
and barometric (q.v.).] 

Phys. Geog. & Meteor. : The same as ISO- 
BARIC (q.v.). 

i-so'-bri ous, a. [Pref. iso = equal, and Gr. 

ppiaoi (briao) = to make strong, to be strong.] 
Bot. : An epithet proposed by Cassini for 
Dicotyledons because their force of develop- 
ment in connexion with the embryo is equal 
on both sides. 



l-so bu-tane, *. [Eng. i*o(meric); 
and suff. -ane.} 

Chem. : (CHsJgCH. Tri methyl-methane, or 
methyl-isopropyl, is formed by the action of 
zinc and hydrochloric acid on tertiary butyl 
iodide, or by the action of zinc on tertiary 
butyl alcohol in presence of water. It is 
colourless gas which liquefies at 17'. 

i-so bu'-tcne, i so bu' tyl ene, s. [Eng. 

iso(mei-ic) ; butfyl), and sun", -ene.} 

Chem.; jJ 3 >CtlCH2, Isobutylene. Pro- 

duced by the action of alcoholic potash on 
isobutyl iodide, or on tertiary butyl iodide. 
It may also be formed by passing the vapour 
of isoamylic alcohol through a red-hot tube. 
It is an unpleasant smelling gas, which con- 
denses on cooling with a mixture of ice and 
salt, to a colourless liquid, which boils at 5*. 

l-SO-bii'-tyl, s. [Eng. iso(meric) t and butyl} 

[BUTYL.] 

isobutyl -alcohol, . 
Chem. : Isopropyl carbinol. [BUTYL ALCO- 
HOL.] 

i-sd-bu-tyi'-a-mine, s. [Eng. isobutyl. and 
amin.] 
Chem, : CH(CH3VCH ? -NH 2 . Obtained by 

distilling potassium isobutyl sulphate with 
potassium cyanate, and treating the distillate, 
which contains isobutyl isocyanate, with pot^ 
ash. It has a specific gravity of 0*7357 at 15*, 
and boils at 67'6. 

i-so-bu'-tjl-ene, *. [Eng. iso(meric), and &- 

tylene.] [JSOBUTENE.] 

i-so-bu-tyr'-a-mide, s. [Eng. iso(merie)f 
butyr(ic) t and amide,] 

Chem.: C^O'NHa^CH^ : CH'CO'NHa. 
Prepared by heating isobutyric acid with am- 
monium thiocyanate. It is an agreeable, 
aromatic smelling, crystalline mass, soluble 
in water. It melts at 100", and sublimes in 
the form of iridescent scales. 

jHso-bfi'-tyr-ates, s. pL [Eng. iso(meric\ 
and butyrates.l 

Chem, : The salts of isobutyric-acid, rsem- 
bling in genemi properties the butyrates. 
Calcium Tsobutyrate, (CiHyOo^Ca + 5H 2 O, 
crystallizes in mouoclimc needles, which are 
slightly soluble in cold, but very soluble in 
hot water. Silver isobntyrate, C^TOsAg, 
crystallizes from hot water in transparent 
scales. Zinc isobutyrate, (C4H 7 O^22n, crys- 
tallizes in monoclinic prisms, which are so- 
luble in cold water, but decrease in solubility 
as the temperature is increased. 

l-SO-tra-tyr'-lc, a. [Eng. iso(meric) t and 
butyric.] (See the compounds.) 
isobutyric-acid, s. [BUTYRIC-ACID.] 
isobutyrlo-ether, s. [BUTYRIC-ETHZR.] 

iHBO-bu-tyr-d, pref. [ISOBUTVBQNE.] (See 

the compound.) 

isobutyro nitrile, s. 

Chem. ; C 4 H 7 N = (CHaJaCH'CN. Isopro- 
pylic-cyanide. Prepared oy adding potassic- 
cyanide to isopropylic iodide, or by heating 
isobutyric acid with potassic sulpho-cyanate. 
It is an oily liquid,' possessing a peculiar aro- 
matic odour, and boiling at 107. 

i-SO-bu'-tyV-dne, *. [Eng. iso(meric); and 
butyrone.] 

Chem. : ( (CH^'CH ) ? CO. Diisopropyl-ke- 
tone. Obtained by tne dry distillation of 
calcic isobutyrate, or by carefully oxidizing 
di-isopropyl oxalic acid. It distils at 124% and 
is oxidized by chromic acid to isobutyric, 
acetic, and carbonic acids. 

i-sd-cap-ro-, pref. [ISOCAPROIC.] (See the 
compound.) 

isocapro nit rile, s. 

Chem. : QjHnN = (CH s yCH-CH 2 -CH 2 CN. 
Isoamylic cyanide. An unpleasant smelling oil, 
obtained by the dry distillation of isoamylio 
potassic sulphate with potassic cyanide, or by 
heating amyl iodide with potassic cyanide 
and alcohol. It boils at 146, and has a 
specific gravity of 0*806. Like most other 
nitrils, it unites with metallic chlorides to 
form crystalline compounds. 

i-so-ca pro'-fc, a. [Eng. ito(meric\ and 
caproic.] (See the compound.) 



boil, b6y ; pout, j6wl; oat, yell, chorus, 9 bin, bench; go, gem; thin, (his; sin, as: expect, ^fcnophon, exist, ph = t 
-dan, -tian = shan. -tion, -si on. = shun ; -tion. sion = zhun. -cioiis, -tious, -sious = shus, -ble, -die, <tc. = bel, d^L 



2746 



isocardia isogeothermal 



isocaproic acid, . 

Gum. : IC'APROIC-ACID]. 

i-Bo-car'-dl-a, s. [Fret too- - equal, and 
Or. KafSia (kardia) = the heart.] 

Zool. PnlcEont. : Heart-cockle ; a genus of 
Molluscs, family Cypriuidsa. The shell is 
cordate and ventrlcose ; the hinge teeth 2-2, 
the laterals 1-1 in each valve. Five recent 
species are known from Britain, &c., and 
ninety fossil, the latter from the Trias on ward. 

i-so^ef-a-mide, I. [Bug. iso(meric), and 



Chen. : C 15 H 31 NO. Obtained by heating in 
sealed tube a mixture of the oil ntjatropha 
Cunas and strong ammonia. It la a white, 
nacreous powder, melting at 7% and la not 
attacked by strong potash. 

i'-so-cneim, >. [Fret too-, and Gr. x'"/" 1 
(cheima) = winter-weather, cold, frost, winter.] 
Physical Geog. it Meteor.: An isochelmal 
or isochimenal line. [ISOCEUMENAL.] 

1-BO chei -mal, a. [ISOCHIMAL.] 

i so chei men -al, i-so-cliei'-mon-al, a. 

[IBOCHIMENAL.] 

i 6-chei'-men-6, s, [ISOCIIIMINE.] 

i SO Chi II dse, . pi. [Mod. Lat. isochilfta); 
Lat. fein. pi. adj. auff. -idae.] 

Bat. : A family of Orchids, tribe Epidendreffl 
(q.v.). 

i so chi Ina, s. [Pref. too-, and Gr. x' A< * 
.(cheilos) a lip; cf. Gr. to-6xeiAoc (isochetl0s\ 
iox>xAijc (isochetlls) = level with the lip or 
dge.] 

Bat. : The typical genus of the family Iso- 
chiliilie (q.v.). The species are from Bouth 
America. 

I so Chi' mal, I so chei '-mal, a, [Eng., 

Ac, itocheim; -at.] Marking equal winters. 

[ISOCUIHENAL.] 

Isochimal lines, s. pi. [IsocmiiENAU- 

LINES.] 

i-so chi men-al, i-so-chi'-mon-al, 
1 so chei mon al. a. [Eng., &c. wo- 
ckiit(0 (q.v.) ; -a(.] 

Meteor. : (See etym. and compound). 

isochimcnal lines, a, pi 

Meteor. : Lines drawn on the globe over 
places in which the winter temperature Is the 
same. 

I-so-chi'-nien-e, I -so -chei'- men -6, <. 
[Pref. iso-, and Gr. xttfuav (cheimon) = a storm, 
winter.} An isocheim (q.v.), 

i-si-cho-leV-tor-in, . [Eng. teofmerfe), 
and chvlesteriii.] 

Chem. : C^H^O, occurs, together with chc- 
lesterin, in the grease of sheep's wool, and 
may be separated by saponifying the fat, 
Seating the mixture of cholesterin and iso. 
cholesterin thus obtained with benzoic acid, 
wliereby they are converted into benzoic ethers, 
and crystallizing these compounds from com- 
mon ether, the cholesteryl benzoate separating 
In thick, tabular crystals, the isocholesteryl 
benzoate in slender needles, and from the 
latter the isocholesterin may be obtained by 
heating with alcoholic potash. It melts at 
1S7-138, and does not give any colour with 
chloroform and sulphuric acid. In all other 
respects it resembles cholesterin. 

I-s4 chro mat'-ic, a. [Pref. too-, and Eng. 
Aromatic (q.v.).] Of the same colour. 

isochromatic lines, . pi. 

Optics: Coloured rings appearing when a 
pencil of polarized light is transmitted along 
the axis of a crystal, as of mica or nitre, and, 
after passing through a plate of tourmaline, 
finally reaches the eye. 

i-sSeh'-ron-al, a. [ISOCHRONOUS.] 
isochronal-lino, . 

Physics: A line down which a heavy body 
descends with uniform Telocity. 

1 fftih -rdn-Sj-ly, adv. [Eng. Isochronal; 
-Zjf.| In an isochronal manner ; so as to be 
isochronal. 

* i'-so^chrone, a. [ISOCHRONOUS.] The same 
as ISOCHRONOUS (q.v.). 



1-so chron'-Ic, a. [ISOCHRONOUS.] 

i soch'-ron-isin,s. [Eng. uachron(aui);-trm.] 
The state or quality of buiug isochronous. 

i soch'-ron-im, s. [Gr. tcnixporot (tsochrmos) 
= equal in age or time : pref. iso-, and Gr. 
Xpow; (cAro?tos) = time.] 

Hor. : A clock designed to keep perfectly 
accurate time. 

i-soch'-ron ous, i-soch'-ron-al. I sd- 
dirdn'-ic, a. [Gr. itroxfiovw (isochronos) -= 
equal in age or time : pref. Iso- = equal ; Gr. 
XpoVos (chronos) = time, and suH -out, -oj, -ic.) 
Hor. (Of two pendulums) : Performing their 
beats In the same time. 

i-soch'-rous, i-so-chro'-us, a [Pref. too-, 
and Gr. xpoid(cArt)ia), xp&a (eAroa), \p*x (chrds) 

. . . colour.] Having a uniform colour 
throughout. 

l-so-cli'-nal, i so cli'-nle, a. [Pref. too- 
= equal, and Gr. jcAtp<* (klino) to make to 
bend.) 

Magnetism : Having the same Inclination or 
dip. 

Isoclinal-lines, isoclinic lines, .. pi. 

Magnetism : Lines connecting places in 

which the dipping-needle makes equal angles. 

1-so cro ton'-lc, o. [Eng. iso(meric\ and 
crotcnic.] (See the compound.) 

Isocrotonlc-add, i. 

Chem. : [G'KOTONic-AclDj. 

l-4-cry'-inal, o. [Eng., Ac. kocrym(e'): snff. 
-al.] Of, belonging to, or constituting an iso- 
cryme. 

I si-cryme, <. [Pref. too- - equal, and Or. 

xpvpot (brumes) = frost.] y 

Physio. Geog. * Meteor.: The cold-water line, 
having a mean temperature of 68 F. ; the cold 
limit of coral-making polypes. 

I-s6-9y'-clus, i. [Pref. ito-, and Gr. nfoAot 
(kvklos) m a circle.) 

ZooL : An animal composed of a succession 
of equal rings. (Owtit: Comp. Anat. Inc. 
Animals. Gloss.) 

I-so9'-^-mene, . [Eng. {to(meric\ and <* 

nene.] 

Chen.: CoHXCEWCH : (CHj)> A colour- 
less liquid formed l>y the action of aodium on 
an ethereal solution of methylic Iodide and 
parabrom-cnmene. It boibj at 817*. and has a 
sp. gr. 1-3014 at 15*. 

i-si- di-a-baf-Io, o. [Pref. {to-, and Gr. 

oia.i3a.Tuc6s (cHabaUkos) = able to pass through ; 
uxj3auVu> (dinlmim'i) = to pass over : 6id (dia) 

through, and jSiuVu (6oiio) = to walk.] 
Thermodynamics (Of a substance) : Receiving 

or giving out equal quantities of heat. 

isodiabatic - lines, isodlabatlo - 
curves, .;>(. 

Physics : Two lines on a diagram, the one 
exhibiting the law of variation of the pressure 
and density of a fluid during the lowering of 
Its temperature ; the other, during ita rise. 
These two lines are Isodiabatic If the quan- 
tity of heat given out by the fluid during a 
certain stage of the lowering of the tempera- 
ture Is the same as that given out during the 
corresponding stage of its rise. 

i-BO-di-giy-eo'l-, pref. [Eng. fcoOwrfc); 
pref. di- = two, and gli/col.] (See the com- 
pound.) 

isodiglycol-ethyl.nlc-acid, s. 

Chem. : CH 10 Oj. An acid isomeric with 
diglycol-ethylenic acid, prepared by heating 
to 100', ID a strong vessel, a solution of milk- 
sugar and bromine, and neutralising the pro- 
duct with moist oxide of silver. On decom- 
posing the filtered solntion by means of 
sulphydrie acid, evaporating at a gentle heat 
ana saturating with cadmium carbonate, cad- 
mium isodiglycol-ethylenate crystallizes out 
in granular groups of monoclinic needles. It 
Is soluble in water and in alcohol, and from 
the latter it is precipitated by ether in flocks. 
The aqueous solution gives no precipitate with 
neutral or basic acetate of lead. It melts at 
98% and at a higher temperature chars, giving 
off the odour of burnt sugar. Ammonium 



iaodiglycol - ethylenate, C 6 H 8 (NH i )O 6 -H 2 O l 
crystallizes in large transparent crystals, 
soluble in water, but insoluble in alcohol. 
Tlie calcium salt crystallizes in large shining 
plates. The barium, strontium, and silvei 
salts are gelatinous and easily decomposed. 
The sodium salt, CflHgNaCVaHjO, forma tutu 
of prisms, which giveoff hall their water at 100 a . 

J-so-di mor'-phlgm, i. [Pref. too-, and Eng. 

dimorphism (q. v.).J 

Crystallog. : Isomorphism between the two 
forms of a dimorphous substance. 

i-so di-mor'-phous, a. [I'ref. too-, and 
Eng. dimorphous (q.v.).] 

Cryntallog. : Having the quality of Isodi- 
morphism (q.v.). 

I-so-dl-naph'-thyl,*. [Eng. isu(meric); pref. 
tiif two, aud nu.pkthyl(enc)J] 

Chem. : CaoHu = CioHj-CjoHr. Obtained 
by passing the vapour of naphthalene through 
a red-hot tube. It crystallizes in white plates, 
having a slight fluorescence, and melts at 187". 

I-sod'-A-mon, i sod'-o mum, . [Gr. iaot 

lisot) ~ ouUttk, and ouos (donnix) iibuiM in '. 1 
Greek Arch. ; A method of building walla, 
In which the thickness and length of the 
tones forming the courses were uniform, but 
the stones were so lard that the vertical joints 
of each course were directly over the middle 
of the atones forming the coarse below. 

1-BO dul'-cite, *' [Eng. i$o(meric) t and dul- 
cite.] 

Chem. : C 6 Hi 2 6 H2O. An Isomeridc of 
mannitan, obtained by boiling qnercitrin with 
dilute mineral acids. It is In the form of 
large transparent crystals, which are very 
soluble in water and melt at 107*, with loss of 
their water of crystallization. 

i-s-4y-n&m'-io, o. [Pref. {*>-, and Eng. 
dynamic (q.v.).] 

Magnetism, c. .* Having equal force or 
power ; of equal size. 

isodynamic-lincs, *. pi. 

Magnetism : Lines connectingplaces in which 
the magnetism is of equal intensity. 

I so-dyn'-a^xnoua. a. [Gr. Jo-oS.Vu/ios (ito- 
dunanwt) = equal in po\ver: pref. uo-; On 
jvrafu? (dunamis) c= power, might, strength, 
and Eng. suff. ~ous.} 
Bot. : The same as ISOBBIOUS (q.v.). 

l-BO-ef-es, . {Lat isoftfs; Gr. t<ror^t (iso- 
etis\ as adj. = equal In years ; as subst. = an 
evergreen plant : pref. wo- (q.v.), and Gr. 
fro? (etos) = a year.] 

Bot.: Quillwort; a geuua of Lycopodia- 
cese, formerly placed under Marsil< .trta-. It 
consists of aquatic or terrestrial plants, with 
long subulate or fili- 
form, often tubular ' 
leaves, sheathing at 
the base ; capsules 
sessile in the axils of 
the leaves, traversed 
by transverse 
threads, those of the 
outer leaves contain- 
ing globose macro- 
spores, and those of 
the inner oblong tri- 
gonous microspores, 
the cntstaceoua in- 
tegument of the latter 
marked with th ree ra- 
diating lines. Known 
species six or eight, 
chiefly from the North temperate or from the 
warm regions. They are fuund in the regions 
named, and may be obtained both IB the Hew 
and Old Worlds, la suitable localities. 




[Pref. too- ; Gr. 
= the earth or land, and ftfpnq(thenne) = neat.] 
An isogeothermic line (q.v.). 



-----, i-s6-te-6-thSr'- 

mic, c. [Eng., Ac. isogeotherm; -alt -ic.] 
(See etym. and compound.) 

Uogeothermlc-lines, >. pi. 

Geog. tt Meteor : A term introduced by Knp- 
fler for lines drawn on s globe or map across 
those places In which the mean temperature 
of the soil is the same. 



.tate, Cit, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pit, 
OT, wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, cub, care, unite, cur, rule, toll; try, Syrian. , ce = e; ey = a. qu- kw. 



1-flO g6n'-lc, a. [Gr. icroyuiuo? (is-i^/nat) 
equiangular ; pref. wo-, aud yuipta (yoia) := an 
angle.] 

Magnetism : (See etym. and compound). 

Isogonic linos, s. ;>?. 

Magnetism : Lines connecting those places 
on the eartli's surfece at which the declination 
of the muk'iietie needle is the same. The first 
chart of the kind was constructed by Halley, 
in 170ft 

i so - graph'- Ic, o. Of or pertaining to 

isography. 

I-so-gr&pli'-I-oeJUjf, ado. In an leu- 
graphic nmuuer. 

I sog'-ri-phf , . The imitation of hand- 
writing. 

i-s6-gyr'-ous (yrasir), o. [Prof. i>- = 

equal, and Gr. -yCpos (guros) = a circle.] 
But. : Forming a complete spire. 

i-so-hSp'-tane, s. [Eng. Isofmtrtc), and hep- 
tane.] 

Cham. : CH 3 -CH a -CH a -CH a -CH<^ s . Ob- 

tained as etliyl-isoamyl, by decomposing a 
mixture of equal parts of ethyl- and amyl- 
Ipdide, by means of sodium. It Is an oily 
liquid, boiling at 90'3, and having a sp. gr. 
of 0'8969 at . Chlorine adts upon it In dif- 
fused daylight, a mixture of the primary and 
secondary chlorides being formed, which can- 
not be separated by fractional distillation. 

i so-hex'-ane, . [Eng. lso(merlc), and 
hexane.] 

Chem. : CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -CH<Jg. Prepared 

first by Wnrtz. by acting on a mixture of 
ethyl-iodide and iaobutyl-lodide with sodium. 
It was named by him, ethyl-butyl. Isohexane 
is a mobile liquid, boiling at 32, and having a 
sp. gr. of O'TOU at 0. Its vapour density is 
8-053. 

1-BO-hy dri-, pref. [Eng. tetmerie), and hy- 



Jsohydro benzoin, s. 

Chem. : Cnll].i< K A crystalline compound 
formed by the action of sodium amalgam ou 
an alcoholic solution of benzaldehyde. It 
cijystallizes from water in efflorescent, long, 
shining, four-sided prisms, from alcohol in an- 
hydrous monoclinic prisms. It melts at 
119'5, and ditTers from hydro-benzoin in not 
being converted into benzoin when heated 
with strong nitric acid. 

I so hy--e-tdse, a. 

Isohyotose lines, . pL 

Physic. Ueog. & Meteor. : Lines passing over 
those places on a globe or map where the 
annual rainfall is the same. 

* l'-ol-a-ble, o. [Eng. isolate) ; -aife.] Cap- 
able of being isolated. 

1 -sol ate, v.t. [Ital. leolato, from isoZu, Lat. 
ituuia = an island ; Fr. isoler.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : To place or set In a place by 
oneself or itself ; to place in a detached situa- 
tion ; to insulate ; to disassociate from others. 

2. Elect. : The same as INSULATE (q.v.). 

I'-sAl-a-ted, pa. par. ft a. [ISOLATE, INSU- 

LATED.] 

1. Ord. Lanq. : Separated or detached from 
others ; placed or standing by oneself or Itself. 

2. Elect. : [INSULATED]. 

i'->&l-ar-td-iy, adv. [Eng. feohted; -ly.] 
In an isolated mauner. 

I-Bol-a'-tion, . [ISOLATE, t?.J The act of 

isolating ; the state of being isolated. 

i-so-le'-pfa, . [Pref. ito-, and Gr. ACITK (fepfs) 
= a scale, rind, or husk.] Named from the 
equal glumes. 

Hot. : A genus of Cyperaceffi, tribe Scirpeffi. 
About a hundred species are known, mostly 
from temperate climates. 

I sol 6 gous, a. [Pref. {*>-, and Or. jWy 

(logos) = proportion.] Bearing the same pro- 
portion ; proportionate. 

isologous series, s. 

Chem. : Applied to any series of comjjounds 



Isegonlo Isopathy 

in which the terms differ, proportionately, in 
one or more of their elements, thus : 
CsH 8 C:,H 6 C a H 4 C a II, 

Propane. Propen. Proplna. Propuin 
is an isulogous-series, in which the successive 
terms differ by H 2 . 

i' s^-mer, . [ISOMIIUI*.] 

i so-mer-Jic, i so-mer'-X-cal, a. [Gr. 
i<rofjifpr)<; (isuineris) = having an equal share of 
anything : pref. iso- f and Gr. fw'pov (nieroti) = a 
part, a till/lie. | 
Chem. : Pertaining to Isomerism, 

i-som' er-ide, i'-&6 mer, J. [Eng., i-c. 
isomer(ic); -ide.] 
Chem. : An isoraeric body. 

I aSm' cr-ism, . Gr. io-oftepifr (lsomeres\ 
and Eng. suit. -i*m.] USOMERIC.) 

Chem. : A term applied to those bodies which 
are composed of the same elements, in the 
same proportions, but which differ either in 
their physical characteristics, or in their 
chemical properties. They may be divided 
into three distinct classes : isomeric, meta- 
meric, and polymeric bodies. 

Isomeric bodies or isomerldes are those 
which show analogous decompositions and 
changes, when heated, or when treated with 
reagents, but differ in physical properties. 



The terpenes, CjoHjg, constitute the chief 
ingredients in the essential oils of tur- 
pentine, lemon, orange, juniper, &c. They 
have the same composition, and resemble each 
other closely in their chemical actions, but 
they differ in odour, boiling point, and their 
action on polarised light They are true 
isomers, in the strict sense of the word. 

Metameric bodies, or metamerides, are those 
which exhibit dissimilar transformations when 
heated, orwhenactedonbyreagents. The mo- 
lecular formula, CjHgOg, represents the three 
compounds, propionicacid, ethyl formate, and 
methyl acetate. Propionic acid, a crystalline 
body, is converted by potash into potassium 
propionate ; ethyl formate, a colourless, aro- 
matic liquid, boiling at 56, is resolved by 
potash into ethylie alcohol and potassium 
formate ; whilst methyl acetate, a colourless, 
volatile liquid, is decomposed by potash into 
wood spirit (methylic alcohol) and an acetate. 
These three compounds, which are composed 
of the same elements in the same proportions, 
differ in the nature of their products when 
acted on by reagents, and are said to be 
metameric with one another. 

Polymeric bodies, or polymerides, contain 
the same elements in the same proportions, 
but have different molecular weights. The 
most striking example is exhibited by the 
hydrocarbons, all of which are multiples of 
the lowest, namely, methene, CHj, which, 
however, is not known in the free state.fc.Thus 
we have ethylene, C^H^ propylene, CsH, 
butylene, C^g, amylene, CjHiO) all of which 
possess the same per centage composition, but 
different molecular weights. All polymerides 
exhibit regular gradations of boiling points, 
and vapour densities. 

i-so mer-6-mor -phlsm, . [Gr. la-ofitp^ 
(isomerea), fiop<>J (morphe) = form, and suff. 
-iam.} [IsoMCKie. ] 

Crystallog. ; Isomorphism between sub- 
stances having the same atomic proportions. 

i-som'-cr ous, a. [ISOMERIC.] 

Bot. (Of a flower) : Equal in number, having 
all the parts equal in number, as having five 
sepals, five petals, five stamens, &c. 

2. Crystalloff. t Min., Ac: Of like composi- 
tion. (Used of isomorphism between sub- 
stances of the same atomic proportions.) 

i-so met' rlc, I-s4-me't'-rfc-al t a. [Gr. 

ITO<; (isos) equal, and Eng. metric, metrical 

1. Ord. Lang. : Equal in measure ; charac- 
terized by equality of measure. 

2. Crystatlog. ; Monometric, tessular. 

Isometrical perspective, *. A method 
of perspective drawing which allows of build- 
Ings being represented with base lines at any 
angle of view, but without the other lines of 
any side of such building converging, as they 
do in ordinary perspective, to a vanishing 
point. It is generally adopted for birds'-eye 
views of extensive buildings, which thus com- 
bine the advantages of a ground plan and ele- 
vation. 



274T 



i-8o v -mor / -phlsm, . [Pref. iso- ; Gr, 
(morphe) = form, shape, and suff. -ism.} 

Min.; A general law, discovered in 1819 by 
Professor Mitscherlich, of Berlin, by which 
the variation of minerals is governed. It i 
that the ingredients of any single species erf 
mineral are not absolutely fixed as to their 
kind and quality, but one ingredient may be 
replaced by an equivalent portion of some 
analogous ingredient. Thus in angite the 
lime may be in part replaced by portions at 
peroxide of iron, or of manganese, while the 
form of the crystal and the angle of the 
cleavage plane remains the same. These sub- 
stitutions are, however, confined within cer 
tain limits. (Lyell, &c.) 

i-so-mor'-phous, a. [Pref. wo-, and Gr. 
fiop^TJ (morphe) = a form, and Eng. suff. out,} 
Chem, ; A term applied to certain sub- 
stances, which have the same crystalline form, 
and are also analogous in their chemical con- 
stitution. The alums, for instance, no matter 
what their composition, all crystallize in octa- 
hedra, and if we place a crystal of potassium 
alum in a solution of chrome-alum, the 
crystal will continue to increase with perfect 
regularity from the deposition of the latter 
salt. ** Bodies having apparently an exactly 
similar constitution are not necessarily iso- 
morphous, but are rather divisible into two or 
more groups, of which the respective members 
are isomorphous ; on the other hand, the pos- 
session of an equal number of atoms is not 
essential to isomorphism, for two atoms of one 
element arenotunfrequently isomorphous with 
one atom of another element ; and sometimes * 
molecular group is isomorphous in its combi- 
nations with an elementary atom NH4 with 
K, for example. There are also numerous 
examples of bodies crystallizing in the same 
form, but without exhibiting any similarity of 
chemical constitution." Isomorphous bodies 
are generally arranged according to the crys- 
tallographie systems. The elements belong 
to the monometric system, with the exception 
of arsenic, antimony, and bismuth, which lie- 
long to the hexagonal. The protoxides, the 
proto-chlorides, bromides, and iodides, and 
the proto-sulphides are also monometric. The 
carbonates belong partly to the trimetric, and 
partly to the hexagonal, the nitrates to the 
hexagonal and the monometric, and the alums 
to the monoclinic systems. When the sanx- 
body is found to crystallize in two different 
forms, it is said to be dimorphous. (Oitvs- 

TALLOORAPHV, CRYSTALS.] 

i-so nan'-dra, s. [Pref. &o-, n euphonic, and. 
Gr. aiojp (aner), genit. avSpo* (andros) = a man, 
a stamen.] 

Bot. : A genus of Sapotacese. Isonandria o&- 
ovafo, an evergreen tree, growing in Teuiia- 
serim, yields a kind of gutta-percha, and 
Isonandra Guffotlie gutta percha itself. (Watt r 
Economic Products of India, i. 1.) 

i-SO-ni-trd-phen'-Ic, a, [Eng. iso(meric)? 
-nitr(ic); o connective, and phenic.] (See tho 
compound.) 

isonitrophenio-aoid, s. [PHENIC-ACUXJ 

I-so - nom'- Ic, a. [Pref. <*>- = equal, and 

Eng. nomic (q.v.).] Of or pertaining to faou- 
omy; equal in law or right 

-on'-d-m$r, s. [Gr. c<rovopu'a (iaonomia") =*> 
distribution, equality of rights, specially/ 
equality of rights in a Greek democracy.) 
Equality of political or legal rights. 



f I'-Ic, a. [Eng. iso(meric) t and i 
tylic.] (See the compound.) 

isooctylio-aold, s. (OCTYLIC-ACID.] 



_3, o. [Eng. 

and cenanthylic.] (See the compound.) 

isocenanthylic acid, *. 

Chem. : (CH 8 > 2 -CH-C _ 
Isoheptoic acid. An unpleasantly smelling,. 
oily liquid, obtained by heating a mixture of 
sodic ethylate and isovalerate in carbonio 
oxide. II boils at 210-213 . Its barium salt 
forms an amorphous mass, whilst its calcium 
salt (C 7 H l3 02>>Ca + 2H 2 crystallizes in mi- 
croHCopic needfes. 



^, s. [Pref. feo-, and Gr. vaAft 

(pfithc), iraBos (fothoa) = suffering.] 

Medicine : 

L The attempted cure of a disease by the 
virus of the same malady. 



boll, boy ; poiit, jo%l; oat, 90!!, chorus, ^hln, bench; go, gem; thin, (his; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, eyist. -ing. 
-fi&an, tiau = shon. -tion, -sion = shun; -(ion, -jdon = zhun. -oious, -tious, -sioua = shus. -ble, -die, &c. = bel, del* 



2748 



isopentane Israel 



2. The idea that a diseased organ may be 
cured by eating the analogous organ of a 
healthy animal. 

i-so-pen tane, . [Eng. iio(mcric), and pen- 
tajit.] [PENTANE] 

tone, <*. (Eng. iso<tric), and pen- 



tent.f 

I-sd-p-Sn-t-W'-^mine, *. [Eng. isc(mericy ; 
-pentyl, and amine.] IAMVLAMINE.) 

l-so per i met rio-al, a. [Eng., &c, <*o- 

9trimetr(y); -ical.] 

Geom. : Of or belonging to isoperimetry(q.v.). 

I-s6-per-Jm'-*.S-tr^, *. [Pref. iso-, and Gr. 
mpt^erpov(perimetron)^ circumference ; Eng. 
suff. -y.} 

Geom. ; Having equal perimeters, circum- 
ferences, or boundaries. 

f SO phane, a. [Pref. iso- = equal, and Gr. 
4>atVi (phaino) = to cause to appear.] 
Min. : The same as FRANKLINITE (q.v.), 

i-8oph -or-ous, a. [Pref. wo- = equal, and 

Gr. (fropo-s (phoros) = bearing, carrying.] 
Bot. : Transformable into something else. 

i'HB*&-p$d, i'-s&-p6de, a. & s, [ISOPODA.] 

A. As adj. : Having the feet equal in length ; 
ipopodous. 

B. As subst. : A crustacean of the order 
Isopoda (q.v.). 

"One group ol Itopodt, the Onicld," Dr. Henry 
Woodward, in Cauell't If at, Iltit., vL -l<>. 

I-6p 6 da, s. pi [Pref. iso-, and Gr. JTOV* 
(pous), genit. irooos (podos) = a foot.] 

Zool. : An order of Crustaceans, division 
Thoracipoda, legion Edriophthalmia, The 
body is composed of seven segments, as a rule 
nearly equal in size. The legs, which are 
seven pairs, are almost of the same length. 
They are fitted for walking, swimming, or ad- 
hering as parasites. The posterior (abdominal) 
appendages are converted into leaf-like respi- 
ratory apparatus. The heart is near the tail. 
Prof. Milne-Edwards divides the Isopoda into 
three sub-orders or sections, the Cursorial, 
Natatory, and Sedentary Isopods. The Cur- 
sorial section includes the families Oniscidae, 
Asellidffi, and Idotheidte ; the Natatory two, 
Sphitromkhe and Cymothoidee ; and the Seden- 
tary one, Bopyridffl. The common wood-louse 
is a well-known example of Isopoda. 

2. Pulasont. : The Isopoda are believed to 
extend from the Devonian times till now. 

i-ft6-pdd'~I-form. a. [Mod. Lat. isopod(a); 
i connective, and Lat. forma = form, shape.] 
Entvm. (Of a larva) : Shaped like an isopod. 

1 - ftop - -6 - dous, a. [Mod. Lat. itopod(a); 
Eng. suff. -ous.] 

Zool. : Having feet of equal length ; of, be- 
longing, or relating to the Isopoda (q.v.). 

"Tarloiu forms which may be Itopodout." .* 
ton : Palaont.. L 389. 



l'-l-tjf, . [Gr. l<rom>j.rt'ui(isopolUeia) 
= (1) equality of civil rights, (2) a treaty be- 
tween two states for a reciprocity of such 
rights : ID-OS (isos) equal, and jroAirrj? (po- 
KKa) = citizen.] Equal rights of citizenship, 
as conferred by the people of one city or state 
upon those of another. 

" Between America and England one would be glad 
if there could exiat aome itopoiittr." A. H. Olctiok: 
Remain*. L 21*. 

t-sd prene, s. [Eng. iso(meric\ and (te)rpent 
transposed (?X] 

Chem. : CsHg. A volatile hydrocarbon, 
polymeric with caoutchin, produced by the 
dry distillation of caoutchouc and gucta 
percha. It is an oily liquid, possessing a 
i 'naphtha-like odour. It boils at 37, and has 
a sp. gr. of 0-6823 at 20*. It is an unstable 
compound, decomposing, by keeping, into a 
white amorphous mass, having the composi- 
tion, C-.oH-.sO. 

I-s4-prd'-pi-<Sn-ate, . [Eng. iso(meric), and 
propionate.] [PROPIONIC-ACID.] 

i-Bi-pro-pl-Sn'-Ic, o. [Eng. iso(meric), and 
propionic.] [PBOPIONIC-ACID.] 

t-sS-prSp'-yL s. [Eng. iso(mertc), and pro- 
pyl.] [PROPYL.] 

isopropyl - carbinol, . [BDTYL- AL- 
COHOL.] 



i-d-pur-pur'-Io, a. [Eng. io(w-ericX and 
purpuric.] (See the compound.) 

Isopurpurlc acid, . [PUBPURIC-ACID.] 

i'-BO-pyre (yr as ir), . [Pref. *(>-. here = 
like, and Gr. irvp (pur) = flre.] 

Min. : An opaque to sub-translucent, 
slightly magnetic, brittle mineral ; in colour 
grayish or velvet-black, occasionally sjwtted 
with red ; in lustre vitreous ; its hardness 
6 to 6*6 ; sp. gr., 2*9 to 3. Compos. : silica, 
47*00 ; alumina, 18*91 ; sesquioxide of iron, 
20*07 ; lime, 15*43 ; and protoxide of copper, 
1*94. Found at St. Just near Penzance, and 
on the Calton Hill near Edinburgh. 

l-ftSs'-fS-lef, o. [Ut, from Gr. MrooKeXe'-s 
(isoskelis) = having equal legs or sides ; I-rot 
(Isos) = equal, and <neeAo*s (skelos) = a leg ; Fr. 
im&.] 

Geom. : Having two legs or sides only that 
are equal : as, an isosceles triangle. 

i 6-eif -mal, a. [Pref. ito- = equal, and 
Eng. teismal (q.v.).] Relating to equal earth- 
quake action. 

iso*eUmal lines, s. pi. 

Geol. (PL) : Lines on a map or globe* resting 
where earthquake action is equal, 

.'-djMI, *. pi. [Pref. tso-, and Gr. 

6vAoi (spondulos) a vertebra.], 
Ichthy. : A sub-order of Teleocephall. It 
consists of soft-rayed fishes, with the head 
naked, an adipose fin or abdominal sutures 
often present; dentition and habitat various. 
Families : Stomiatidee (the Stomiatoids), Sco- 
pelidae (the Scopelids), Synodontidae(ttie Syno- 
donts), Percopsidie (Trout Perches), Salmonidse 
(Salmon), Clupeidse (Herrings), Hyodontida 
(Mooneyes), Engraul!aee( Anchovies), Albuliihe 
(Lady Fishes), Dussumieridee (Round Her- 
ringsX and Elopidee (Jew Fishes). (Jordan : 
Vertebrates; Northern United States, 1876.) 

i so-spor ous, a. [Pref. wo- = equal, and 
Gr. <nropoc (sporos), trnopd (spora) = a seed.] 

Bot. (Of Cryptogams): Having spores all of 
one size. The prothallium developed from 
them grows for a considerable time inde- 
pendently of the spore, and bearing both 
male organs (autheridia) and female ones 
(archegonia). It contains the orders Fllices, 



Equisetaceee, and Ophioglossaceee. (Thome.) 

l-si-stem'-on-oiis, a. [Pref. ito-; Gr. irr/iiuar 
(stemori) = warp ; Lat. stamen (q.v.), and Eng. 
suff. -ous.] 

Bot. : Having the stamens equal in number 
to the petals. (De CandoUe.) 

l-so stU'-bene, >. [Eng. ho(meric), and stil- 
bene.] 

Chem. : CHj _ C(C 6 H 5 )^ Unsymmetric 
diphenyl-ethene. A colourless non-solidifying 
oil, obtained by boiling diphenyl-monochlor- 
ethane with alcoholic potash. It boils at 277", 
and by oxidation is converted into dipheny 1- 
ketone. 

I so tar tar' lo, a. [Eng. iso(meric), and 
tartaric.] (See tLe compound.) 

isotartaric-acid, i. [TARTARIC ACID.] 

1-80 ther' al, o. [Eng., &c. itoOurff); -al.] 
(See etym. and def.) 

iBotheral lines, . 

Physic. Gtog. Meteor. : Lines on a globe or 
map passing over places in which the meav 
summer temperature is the same. 

I'-si-there, s. [Pref. ito- = equal, and Gr. 
lepot (theros) = summer.] 

Physic. Geog. it Meteor. : An isotheral line 
(q.v.). 

I' so therm, 9. [Fret (so-, and Gr. tifiui 
(thermi)= heat] 
Physic. Geog. Meteor. : An isothermal line. 

I so-ther' mal, a. [Pref. ito- = equal, and 
tfe'p/--) (thermic) = heat] 

Physic. Geog. t Meteor. : Of or belonging to 
zones or divisions of the land, ocean, or atmo- 
sphere, whioh have an equal degree of mean 
annual warmth. (LyeU.) 

isothermal lines, s. pi. 

Geog. it Meteor. : Lines on a globe or map 
passing over places in which the mean general 
temperature is the same. Humboldtfirstgeue- 



ralized the observations and collected the Cacti 
bearing on isothermal lines. 

isothermal zone, >. 

Geog. it Meteor. : The space between twr 
isothermal lines. 

i so ther 6m Tbrose, a. [Pref. iso- = equal 
(q.v.) ; Gr. fle'pos (theros) = summer, and ofi- 
ftoos (ombros) rain.] (See etym. and def.) 

isothcrombrosc lines, .-. pi. 

Physic. Geog. Meteor. : Lines on a globe or 
map drawn across planes having the same 
amount of rain in summer. 

i sdt -6m-o, . [Pref. io- = equal (q.v.)., and 
Or. To/iij (tame) = a cutting.] 

Hot. : A genus of Lobeliaceffi, tribe Lobeleie. 
Isotoma. longijlora, a West Indian species, la 
very poisonous, both to horses and men. It 
is an over-potent cathartic. 

i-so ton'- io, a. [Gr. to-os (isos) equal, and 
TOCOS (tonos) = tone.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Indicating or having equal 
tones. 

2. Mia. : Applied to a system of music in 
which each concord is alike tempered, and in 
which there are twelve equal semitones. 

l-so tri mor'-phiifin, s. [Eng. isotrimor- 
ph(ous); -ism.] 

Crystallog. . Isomorphism between the thru* 
forms of two trioiorphous substances. 

I so tri mor phous, . [Pref. io-,-Gr. rat- 

/AOpoVof (trimorphos) = triple : pref. rpi-, from 

Tpis (Iris) = three, and /Aop*$*j (morphf) = form.] 

Crystallog. : Presenting the phenomenon of 

isotrimorphism (q.v.). 

-so-trSp' 1C, l so trdp OUB, a. [Fret 

iso- = equal, and Gr. Tpo-nj (trope), or TOO-TOC 
((rojx) = a turn.] (For def. see compound.) 

Isotroplc-substances, t. pL 
Optics, c. : Substances singly refracting. 
(Hiitlfy : Stjtdy of Socks, 2nd ed.( p. 76.) (Op- 
posed to auisotropous doubly refracting.) 

l-sdn-'rff-io, a. [Eng. ito(meric), and uritie.] 
(See the compound.) 

Isouvltic acid, s. 

Chem. : C 9 H 8 O4 = CjHs(CHaYCO*OH)j. A 
dibasic aromatic acid produced from gamboge 
by fusion with potassic hydrate, pyrotartaric 
acid and acetic acid being formed at the same 
time. It crystallizes in snort rhombic prisms, 
which are very soluble in boiling water and 
melt at 160*. 

I so va-ler'-ic, a. [Eng. ito(menc), and 
valeric (q.v.).] (See the compound.) 

isovaleric-acid, >. [VALERIC ACID.) 

l-so-va-ler'-jFl-one, . [Eng. iso(meric), and 
vaterylene.] 

Chem. : CnHj = (CHj^C'C-CH,. A liquid 
hydrocarbon, formed from brom isoamylene 
by the action of alkalis. It possesses the 
odour of garlic, and boils between 42 and 
46". When treated with bromine, it yields 
two liquid compounds, a dibromfde, C^HgHrj, 
boiling at 170', and a tetra-bromide, CgHgBr,, 
which cannot be distilled unchanged. 

Is pa-han'-ee, a. k s. [See def.] 

A. As adj. : Pertaining or relating to Ispa- 
han, in Persia. 

B. At nbst. : A native or Inhabitant of 
Ispahan. 

lV-ra-31, . [Heb. V^p* (IsraeT) ; Gr. 'lo-paiiA 
(Israel) = fighter or soldier of God (Gesenitu), 
from rnij? (Sarah) = (1) to Intervene, (2) to be 
a leader, prefect, or prince, (3) to fight] 

1. The name divinely given to Jacob during 
the scene at Peniel or Fennel as a memorial 
that, as a prince, he had power with God and 
with men and had prevailed (Gen. xxxii. 28). 

2. The Jewish people; a contraction for 
Children of Israel or House of Israel. (Hosea 
xi. 1.) 

II A religions sect which appeared for the 
first time in 1883 ; in the Registrar-General's 
returns is called The New and latter Housa 
of Israel. 

IT Kingdom of Israel : 

Script. Histr: The kingdom of the Ten Trioi-s, 
beginning with Jeroboam and ending with 
the Assyrian Captivity. 



fete, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pit, 
or. wore, wolf, work, wild, son; mate, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, ee, to = e; ey = *. qu - kw 



Israelite Itaballi 



2749 



is -ra-el-ite, 5. [Heb., &c, Israel, and sufi". 

"l/O.j 

1. A descendant of Israel and of Jacob ; a 
Jew. 

2. Used In the New Testament for a Jew 
viewed as a member of the Theocracy. [JEW.] 
(Trench: Syn. of the New Test., p. 158.) 

"Behold MI Itraclite Indeed in whom ia no guile." 
John ii. 47. 

II A sect called the Israelites figures in the 
Registrar-General's returns. 

Is ra-el-It'-Io, a. [Eng., Ac. Israelite); -ic.] 
Of or belonging to the Israelites ; Hebrew, 
Jewish. 

Xs-ra-el-if -ish, a. [Eng., &c, Israelite) ; -ish.] 
Nearly the same as Jsraelitic, but a less 
respectful woru\ 

fs -ra-el-it-ism, s. [Eng. IsraelU(e) ; -ism; 
Fr. Israelitisme. ] The same as JUDAISM (q.v.). 

* lss-u-a-ble (IBS as Ish), a. [Eng. issu(e); 
-able.] 

1. That may or can be issued ; capable of 
being issued. 

2. Pertaining to an issue or Issues ; admit- 
ting of issue being taken upon it ; containing 
an issue or issues : as, an issuable plea. 

3. Admitting or allowing of Issue being 
taken or joined. 

" Hilary or Trinity terms ; which from the making 
Tip of the issue* therein, are usually called iauabli 
terms." Blackstone: Comment,, bit. iiL, ch. 38. 

Issuablo pica, s. 

Law : A plea upon which a plaintiff may 
take issue, and go to trial upon the merits, 

las uable terms, s.pl. 

Law : Hilary and Trinity, because in them 
issues are made up for the assize ; but, for 
town causes, all the four terms are issuable. 
(Wharton.) 

* iss -u-a-bly (Iss as fell), adv. [Eng. is- 
siiab(le) '; ~ly.} In an issuable manner ; by way 
of issue. 

* iss 11-0,1190 (Iss as fan), *. [Eng. isnt(e); 
-ancf.] The act of issuing or giving out : as, 
the issuance of food. 

Iss u ant (iss is itsh), -7. [Eng.t*i(); -*] 
Her. : Issuing or coming out. A term ap- 
plied to a charge or bearing represented as 
issuing out of another charge or bearing. 
When an animal is blazoned as issuant, only 
the upper half is depicted. 

Iss -ue (iss as fob), s. [Fr., prop. fern, of 
issu, pa. par. of issir = to issue, to go out, 
from Lat. exeo, from ex- = out, and to = to go ; 
Ital. iwcito, escita.} 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of passing or flowing out ; egress ; 
motion out of an enclosed place : as, the issue 
of water from a pipe ; the issue of an audience 
from a hall or other public building. 

2. The act of sending out ; delivery ; publi- 
cation. 

"English railways improved with scarcely an ex- 
ceptlon, despite the iuue of very disappointing traffic 
returns." Daily Tdrgraph, Aug. ai, 168*. 

3. A means of passing or getting out ; a 
means of exit or escape. 

" Let us examine what bodies touch a movable whilst 
In motion. M the only means to find an ittuf out of 
this difficulty ."/Hgbg: On Bodies. 

4. A flux, as of blood. 

"A woman which was diseased with an Itiu* of 
blood twelve years." Matthew ix. 30. 

5. That which issues ; that which proceeds, 

flows, or is issued or sent out ; the whole 
quantity or amount issued or sent out as, 
the daily issue, of a paper ; the weekly issue 
of notes from the Bank, &c. 

6. Progeny, offspring ; a child or children. 

"The utut of the next sou should have reigned." 
Shaketp. : 2 Henry 17.. i i. 2. 

7. The produce of the earth ; the profits or 
return from lands, tenements, or other pro- 
perty. 

8. Result, fruit, consequence. 

" Look you for any other isnte t~ 

Shukesp. : Much Ado About Nothing. IL t. 

*9. That which proceeds from a man; 
tctiop, deed. 

"How the people take 
The cruel issue of these bloody men." 

HhaXnp. : Juliut Ceexir. HI. 1. 

10. A material point in an argument or 
debate, upon which the parties take affirma- 



tive and negative positions, and on which 
they base the result of the argument or debate. 
IL Technically: 

1. Law: The close or result of pleadings; 
the point or matter depending in a suit on 
which two parties join and put their cause to 
trial ; a single definite and material point 
which is affirmed on one side and denied on 
one side aud denied on the other. 

" An M*u* upon matter of law Is called a demurrer ; 
and it confesses the facts to be true, as stated by the 
opposite party; but denies that, by the law arising 
upon those facts, any injury is done to the plaintiff, 
or that the defendant has made out a legitimate ex- 
cuse ; according to the party which first demurs, rests 
or abides upon the point in question. The form of 
such demurrer Is by averring the declaration or plea, 
the replication or rejoinder, to be bad ID substance, 
that Is, insufficient ID law to maintain the action or 
the defence; and the party demurring is thereupon 
understood to pray judgment for want of sufficient 
matter alleged. Upon a demurrer, the opiiosite party 
must aver his pleading to be good in substance, which 
Is called a joinder in demurrer, and then the parties 
are at itnt in point of law. Which itnte. In law or 
demurrer, the fudges of the court before which the 
action is brought must determine. An itsw. of fact 
is where the fact only, and not the law, is disputed. 
And when he that denies or traverses the fact pleaded 
by his antagonist has tendered the issue, the other 
party may immediately join issue: or if affirmative 
matter be set out In the pleading, he may at once take 
issue thereon. Which done, the istue is said to be 
Joined, both parties having agreed to rest the fate of 
the cause upon the truth of the fact in question. Aud 
this Issue of .act must, generally speaking, be deter- 
mined by the country, that 1*. by Jury." Blactotone : 
Comment., bk. iiL, ch. 2L 

2. Surg. : A fontanel ; an artificial ulcer 
made on some part of the body to promote 
secretion of pus. 

T (1) At issue : In controversy ; disputed ; 
at variance ; disagreeing. 

(2) To join or take issue: To take up affirma- 
tive and negative positions respectively upon 
a point in debate or dispute. 

" That touc will I ioine with him which shall sum*e, 
for the conf utaciou of this booke." Bishop Gardner ; 
JSxplic.. to. 145. 

issue-pea, . 

Therap, : A pea or any similar body placed 
Inside an issue to maintain irritation and 
promote the secretion of pus. 

T For the difference between issue and 
event, see EVENT. 

Iss' -tie (Us as Ish), * Issew, v.i. & f. 

[ISSUE, *.] 

A. Intransitive: 

L Ordinary Language : 
1. To come, flow, or pass out ; to run out, 
as from any enclosed place. 

" I Richard's body have Interred anew, 
And on it have bestowed more contrite tears 
Thau from it itsued forced drops of blood." 

Shakes?. : Henry '., Iv. l. 

* 2. To run out or extend in lines. 

" Pipes made with a belly towards the lower end. and 
then ittuiny Into a straight concave again." Bacon. 

3. To go or come out ; to rush out. 

" The gates cast vp, we issued out to play." 

Surrey; Viryile; ,ncis 11. 

4. To proceed, as offspring or progeny ; to 
be descended, to spring. 

" Of thy son* that shall iitua from tbee, which thon 
halt beget, shall they take away." 3 Kings xx. 18. 

5. To proceed, as from a source ; to arise ; 
to be produced as an effect or result ; to grow, 
to accrue. 

" This Is my fault : as for the rest appealed. 
It issues from, the rancour of a villain." 

Shakeip. : Richard If., L 1. 

6. To result, to turn out, to terminate, to 
end : as, It is doubtful how this cause will 
issue. 

IL Law ' To come to a point In fact, or law 
on which the parties join issue ; to join issue. 

B. Trans. : To send out ; to deliver for use ; 
to supply ; to put into circulation. 

"A writ wa itsued out to burn him." Bvmtt : 
ffitt. of the Reform., bk. i. 

* iss -U6 less (iSS as Ish), o. [Eng. issue ; 
less.] Without issue ; having no issue or off- 
spring ; wanting children. 

"She matched herself with Spain, and brought 

King Philip hither . . . 
But touefw she died.' 

Drayton : Paly-Ottom, s. 17. 

* iss-u-er (Iss as fell), s. [Eng. issu(e); -r.] 
One w'ho issues. 

isth'-mi-an (or th silent), a, [Lat. Isthmius; 
Gr. 'ItrOfjiios (Isthmios).~] Of or pertaining to 
an isthmus ; specif, pertaining to the Isthmus 
of Corinth In Greece. % 

Isthmian-games, a. pi. 

Gr. Antiq. : Games celebrated in April and 
May of the first and third years of each 



Olympiad. The contests included all varie- 
ties of athletic sports, as wrestling, running, 
boxing, Ac., and competitions in music and 
poetry. The victors were crowned with gar- 
lands of pine leaves, these being the only prize, 

isth miis (or th silent), * 1st mus, * Isthim, 

a. [Lat. isthmus, from Or. t<rd/ioc (isthmus).} 

1. Ord, Lang. A Geog. : A narrow slip or 
neck of land connecting two continents to- 
gether, or uniting a peninsula to a continent. 

" The itthmut which joined the two great continents 
of the New World remained, according to him, unap 
propriated." Macaulay ; Hist, Eng., ch. xxlv. 

2. Anat. : The name giv'en to various parts 
which more or less closely resemble an isth- 
mus. There is an isthmus of the thyroid 
body, an isthmus uteri, &c. 

Isthmus of the fauces : 

Anai. : The constricted passage between 
the anterior pillars leading from the mouth to 
the pharynx. 

Isthmus of the thyroid "body or gland : 

Anat.: A transverse portion of the gland 
uniting the, two lateral lobes. 

Xs-tl-oph'-or-a, s. pi. [Gr. to-TiW (is(iow) = 
a web, cloth, or sheet, and 4>opoe (phoros) = 
bearing, carrying.] 

Zool. : A group or division of Insectivorous 
Bats having a nose-leaf ; but Mr. Dobson, 
who has deeply studied the subject, considers 
the arrangement unnatural. 

IV-n-ret, 5. [Eng. is(omerie), and -ure((q.v.).] 
Cftem. ; CON 2 H 4 = C H ^NH'OH Hydr- 
oxyl-methenyl-diamine. This base, which ia 
isomeric with carbamide, is formed by the 
direct union of hydrocyanic acid with an 
alcoholic solution of hydroxylamine. It crys- 
tallizes in rhombic prisms, which are soluble 
in water, insoluble in alcohol, and melt at 
104-105*. It has an alkaline re-action, and 
unites with one equivalent of acid, forming 
crystalline salts. On boiling the aqueous 
solution, it decomposes in a very complicated 
manner, yielding nitrogen, carbon dioxide, 
ammonia, guanidine, biuret, and urea. 

ft, * hit, * hyt, pron. [A.S. hit, neut. of ht 
(q.v.) ; Icel/Aii, neut. of hinn ; Dut. het, neut. 
of hij. The genitive case its is comparatively 
modern. It does not occur once in the Autho- 
rised Version of 1611, and is found but three 
times in all Shakespeare, and not once ia 
Milton, although other writer had already be- 
gun to introduce it. In some parts of the 
country the rustics still employ his where edu- 
cated men would use its. In Levit. xxv. 6 t 
where the modern editions read " of its own 
accord," the edition of 1611 has " of it own 
accord." The A.S. genit. his was regularly 
used as the genit. of it up to the time of 
Shakespeare.] 

1. A pronoun of the neuter gender corre- 
sponding with the masculine he and feminine 
she, the plural of all three being they. It ia 
frequently classed as a demonstrative. 

41 Keep thy heart with all diligence ; for out at it an 
the Issue* of life." Provtrt* Iv. 23. 

2. It is used as the nominative to impersonal 
verbs : as, It rains, it snows. 

3. It is commonly used to introduce a sen- 
tence, preceding a verb as a nominative, bat 
referring to a clause or distinct member of the 
sentence following : as, It is well known that 
he is dead. 

4. It is frequently used to begin a sentence 
when a personal noun ,or the name of a person. 
or a masculine or feminine noun follows, and 
it may represent any one of the three gender*, 
or either the singular or the plural number: 
as, " It is I, be not afraid," " /( is these," &c. 

^[ When a question is asked, it follows the 
verb : as, Who was if that betrayed Christ? 

6. It is used absolutely for the state of a 
person or thing : as, " How Is it with the 
general?" (Shakesp.: Coriolanus, v. 6.) 

fi. It is used indefinitely after intransitive 
verbs, frequently imparting a ludicrous mean- 
ing. 

" If Abraham brought all with him. it Is not pro- 
bable that he meant to walk it back again for hi* pice, 
sure. " Raleigh. 

Xt-a-bSl'-ti, s. [The Guiana name.] 
Bot. : (Bee etym. and compound). 

itaballi wood, s. 

Bot. : The wood of Vochya guianen*i$. It 
is hard but not very durable. 



boil, bo^; pout, jowl; oat, $ell, chorus, 9hln, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph = 
-oian, -tian = shg.ii. -tlon, -sion shun; -fion* -sion zhun. -clous, -tlous, -sious shus. -ble, -die. &c. = tool, del. 



itabiryte iterately 



I-tab'-ir-yte, I-tab'-ir-ite, . [From 
Itabtra, a mountain in Brazil.] 

Win. d> Petrol. : A micaceous variety of 
hematite, occurring in micaceous schist in 
North and South Carolina. &c. Called also 
upecular schist (q.v.). (Dana.) 

f-ta-c51'-u-mite, I-ta-cSl'-u-myte, . 

[F'rom Itacolumi = the Giant, the Dame of 
several Brazilian mountains.] 

Petrol. : A laminated granular flexible quartz 
rock, with a little talc, found iu Brazil, Georgia, 
North Carolina, the Ural Mountains, oic. It 
sometimes contains diamonds and gold. 
I-ta-eon'-lc, a. [Formed by transposition 
from aconitic (?).] (See the compound.) 

itaconic acid, s. 

Chem.: CaH^CO-OH)* A bibasic acid, Iso- 
meric with citraconic and mesaconic acids, 
obtained by the dry distillation of citric acid, 
whereby water is first driven off and aconic 
acid formed. C 3 H 4 (OHXCO-OH), = OH 2 + 
CjHj(CO-OH)s, the latter being further de- 
composed into COj and itaconic acid. CgH-, 
(CO-OH)s = COa + C. 3 H 4 (CO-OH)a. It limy 
also be prepared bv heating to 160* a mix- 
ture of citric acid and water In a sealed 
tube. Itaconic acid is inodorous, but has a 
strong acid taste. It crystallizes in rhombic 
prisms, soluble in 17 parts of water at 10 
and melting at 161". It bears a close resem- 
blance to citraconic acid, but differs from it in 
not yielding mesaconic acid when treated 
with nitric acid. 

ff-a-ka, i. (The Guiana name of the tree.] 

itaka - wood, *. 

Bat. * Comm. : A kind of wood with black 
and brown streaks, much used In cabinet 
work. It comes from Machterium Schom- 
burgkit, a papilionaceous tree, tribe Dalberg- 
iese, growing in Guiana. 

I-taT-lan (1 as y), o. & i. [Ital. Italians ; la t, 
IMicus, from Italia = Italy ; Sp. Italian*}.] 

A, As adj. : Of or pertaining to Italy. 

B. At substantive : 

1. A native or inhabitant of Italy. 

2. The language spoken by the Italian*. 
Italian-beech, . 

Sot.: The same as ITALIAN -OAK (q.v.). 
Beally an oak, and in no respect a beech. 

Italian cloth, .. A thin, glossy fabric 
composed of mixed cotton aud worsted, much 
used for coat linings, 4c. 

Italian-iron, . A laundress's smooth- 
ing-iron for fluting and smoothing frills ; a 
gaufTering.iron. 

Italian Juice, s. 

Comm. : The axtract of liquorice prepared 
In Calabria. There are several kinds ; but 
that prepared on the estates of the Mar- 
chioness Solazzi, and known as Solazzi juice, 
la the best. [SPANISH-JUICE.] 

Italian-marble, a, [MARBLE.] 
Italian-may, s. 
Hot. : Spiraxi Filiptndula. 
Italian-oak, >. 

Sot. : Qiiercus .-Escnliu. Called also Italian- 
beech (q.v.). 

Italian-roof, >. A hip-root 

i-tal -ion-ate (1 as y), a. [Eng. Italian; 
ate.] Italianized ; made conformable to Ital* 
ian customs or practices. {Marlowe.) 

I- tal -Ian-ate (I as y), v.t. [Eng. Italian ; 
ti -ate.] To render Italian ; to make conform- 
able to Italian customs ; to Italianize. 

1-tar-lan-lfm (1 as y), . [Eng. Italian. ; 
~ism.] A phrase, idiom, or custom peculiar to 
or characteristic of the Italians or the Italian 
language. 

I-tal'-lan-ue (i as y), >.{. & (. [Eng. Italian ; 
-i.) 

A. Intrans. : To act or speak as an Italian ; 
to act the Italian. 

B. Trans. : To render Italian ; to give an 
Italian character to. 

I- tal' Ic, n.ks [Lat, Italicia - Italian, from 
Italia = Italy.] 

A. As adjective: 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : Of or pertaining to Italy 
or the Italians. 



t. Print. : A term applied to a sloping type, 
commonly employed to give emphasis or to 
draw special attention to a particular letter, 
word, or sentence. It is so called from having 
been invented by Aldo Manuzio (Aldus Mami- 
tius), an Italian printer, born in 1447, died in 
1515. 

This line is printed in italic type, 

B. As substantive : 

Print. : An Italic letter or type. 

1 Italic School of Philosophy : 

Hist, it PhUos. : A term adopted by some 
writers to denote the Pythagorean and Bleatic 
systems taken together, but more properly 
confined to that of Pythagoras alone. The 
reason of the name lies In the statement that 
Pythagoras taught in Italy, and more parti- 
cularly in the south and south-west. 

Italic -version, . 

Ch. Hist. : The version of the Scriptures in 
Latin known as Vetut Itala. It was made 
early in the second century, the Old Testa- 
ment being translated from the LXX., not 
from the Hebrew. St. Jerome was dissatisfied 
with it, and, after trying in vain to amend it 
to his satisfaction, made the Latin translation, 
now In common nse in the Roman Church, 
known as the Vulgate, which was approved 
by the Council of Trent 

I-taT-t-oIfm, .'. [Eng. Italic; -Ism.} An 
Italian idiom or custom ; an Italianism, 

I-tal'-t 9126, T.t. [Eng. italic; -i.] To 
write or print In italic type; to make em- 
phatic or distinct by the nsu of Italics. 

I-ta-maT-Io, a. [Eng. i(u(amic), and Motto.] 

itamallc acid, .<. 

Chem. : CjHsO. = CjH^OHXCO-OHfc. A 
homologue of malic acid. On heating itaconic 
acid with concentrated hydrochloric acid, 
itamono-chlor-pyrotartaric acid is formed, and 
this, on boiling with water or alkalies, yields 
itamalio acid. It crystallizes in long, deli- 
quescent needles, which are soluble In alcohol 
and ether, and melt between Wand 65". At 
a higher temperature, it loses a molecule of 
water, and is re-converted into itaconic acid. 

Itch, l. [A.S. gictha.] [ITCH, .] 
L Ordinary Language: 

1. Literally : 

(1) In the same sense as II. 

(2) A sensation of uneasiness in the skin 
arising from the disease or other cause. 

2. Fig. : A constant teasing desire or long- 
ing for something. 

" And this Is what the world . .. 
IJeuouiiiL'Lte* nil ttcfc fur writing." 

Ctasivtv fpialelc tody A**m. 

II. Path. : Scabies ; a disease arising from 
the irritation produced by the presence in 
the parts affected of the itch-mite (q.v.) and 
its ova. The animal burrows chiefly Detween 
the fingers, on the front of the forearm, on the 
abdomen, and the Inside of the thighs. The 
disease chiefly assails uncleanly people. It Is 
very common among the natives of India and 
other Orientals, and exists, though leas ex- 
tensively, in Europe. Where It ta widely 
spread ou the body, a sulphur-bath Is the best 
remedy. 

itch insect, t. ^ 

Zool.: An Inaccurate name for the Itch- 
mite (q.v.). (Griffith & Henfrey.) 

itch-mite, s. 

Zool. : Sarcoptei tcabUl, a small white para- 
sitic spider, of the family Acaridse, producing 
the disease called itch. The mouth is fur- 
nished with bristles; so are the third and 
fourth pair of legs, while the first and second 
pair nave suckers. [ITCH.] 

itch, Mechen, "iken, "yechen, "ylchcn, 

.i. [A.S. giccan; cogn. with Dot jenlcen ; 
Ger.juofcen.) 

1. Lit. : To have a sensation of uneasiness 
In the skin which causes in the person a desire 
to scratch or rub the part affected. 

2. Fig. : To long ; to desire continually ; to 
feel a constant teasing desire. 

" Though I now be old and of the peace. If I Bee ft 
word out. my finger itchtu to make one." Shaketi>. : 
Marry Wioet of Windtor, ii. a. 

itch' -wood, . [Eng. itch, and vxad (q.T.).] 
Pot. : Inocarpus vitiensis. 



Itch'-Jf, a. [Eng. itch; -y.] Affected with tha 
itch ; of the nature of the itch. 

- Bxcew, the scrofulous and ttrht plague, 
That wizen first the opuleut.'* 

Cotpper : Talk, IT. 681 

-Ite, titff. [Lat -ites; Gr. -mjs (-ills). (Seedef.)] 
I, Ordinary Language : 

1. Ai an adjectival suffix: Of or belonging 
to, as DaniZe. 

2. As a substantival suffix: One belonging 
to : as, an Israelite, a man belonging to tin 
people of Israel. 

II Technically: 

1. Chem, : A suflix used in chemical term:. 
In the naming of salts. When the name oi 
the acid terminates In -ovs, the name of thr 
salt ends in -ite, and the word thus fonnnl is 
connected by of with the 'name of the base 
combined with the acid. Thus from sulphur- 
out acid come sulphites: as, sulphite of so- 
dium, sulphite of barium, &c. 

2. Min. : A mineral. Remotely it was de- 
rived from the Gr. -mis (-ties), which is an 
adjectival termination = of or belonging to, 
and required Ac'flot (lithos) added, before the 
meaning stone was supplied. Thus 
(puritls) is = of or on flic, and miptV>it 
(purUes litho*), fire-stone, not simply 
(puritls), is the mineral which strikes fire, as 
copper or other pyrites. When the Greek 
word was transferred to Latin, Arttoc (lithos) = 
stone, was dropped, and pyrites is used by Pliny 
for (1) flint, (2) a mill-stone, and (S) Iron py- 
rites, sulphuret of iron. Mineralogists taking 
the word from Pliny's Latin, and not from 
Greek, now attach to -ite the signification 
stone or mineral. 

3. Palawnt. A Palcm-bot. : Fossil. Daed aa 
the English equivalent of -ites in the termina- 
tion of many genera ; as ammonite, the Eng- 
lish equivalent of ammonites; belemnite, of 
belemnites ; Nipadites, of Nipa. 

4. Petrol. : Formerly -ite was used also for 
rock, but Dana, for discrimination's sake, 
altered It to -yie. Some still use -ite in place 
of -yte. 

i'-tem, adv.&i. [Lat. = likewise, also.] 

A. As adv. : Likewise, also. 

Item two tlpe liuli tTen-nt red ; turn two gray ere*.' 
?.! Tuft/th JfifllU, L i. 

B. As substantive : 

1. A separate article or particular ; a single 
article. 

-I could hare looked on him without the help 01 
a-tmlraUon, thongh the catalogue of his endowment* 
had been tabled by his side, and 1 to peruse him by 
torn*." OuUap- ' Cfmb^Une, i. i. 

* 2. A bint, an inuendo. 

"If this discourse have not concluded o 
I uave one twin more of lulll" 



3. A paragraph of news. 

* i'-tem, v.t. [ITEM, adv.] To make a memo- 
randum of ; to note. 

"I aarattxitsrf It la my memory." AdtUm: n* 
Drummer, lii. L 

If-er-a-ble, . [Lat. UerabiUi, from Itero 
to repeat; Sp. iterabte.] Capable of being 
iterated or repeated. 

" Whereby they had made the! r acts itemb/e by 
sober hands." Srotfne : HactUanUM. tract xi. 

If-er an90, * tt-tijr-anje, . [Lat. il- 
emns, pr. par. of itero = to repeat] The act 
of iterating or repeating ; iteration. 

"What needs this rtterunc*. wouunl" BWeup.: 
OtJseUo, v.-L 

*If-er-ant,a. [Lat iterant, pr. par. of itero.] 
Repeating, iterating. 

" Waters being near, niske a current echo ; but being 
farther off. they make an iterant echo." Jtaeon: Nat. 

ant. 

If-er-ate,tJ.. [Lat, ileratut, pa. par. of ifero 
to repeat, from iteritm again ; Fr. ittrer ; 
Sp. iterar; Ital. tierare.] 
1. To repeat ; to utter or say over again. 

"This Is the Terr cause why we itenae the psalms 
of tner than any other part of Scripture." t/ook^r : 



2. To do over again, or a second time ; to 
repeat, 

" Having wiped and cleansed away the soot, I Umrnted 
the experiment. "-Soyfe.- irorb.iv.u2. 

It-er-ate, a. [ITERATE, .] Repeated. 

The sacrament of baptlsine ones likewise mlnlstred, 
and nener to be rar. Sp. Oarttntr: xpltoacton, 
to. 149. 

It'-er-ate-l*, adv. JEng. Iterate; -ly.] By 
repetition or iteration. 

" Iterattly Affecting the pourtralbi of Enoch, ba. 
saruA, Jonas, Ac." Browne: Urne Burial, ch. lit 



flUc, fat, Hire, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her. there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pit, 
ore wore, wolf; work* who. son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, fullt try, Syrian, re, o- e; ey-a. qu - kw. 



iteration ixia 



2751 



It-er-a'-tion, s. [Lat, ite ratio, from iUratas t 
pa. par. of ttero = to repeat; Fr. iteration; 
8p. iteration; ItaL iUrazione.] 

1. The act of iterating or repeating ; repeti- 
tion. 

" An ttiruttnn of the ones perflted ftacrlfloe on the 
crow," lip. Gardner ; tixplicacion, to. 149. 

* 2. Allegation, quotation ; readiness in quo- 

tation. 

" Tlioa hait damnable iteration, and art Indeed abl* 
to corrupt a BainL" SJiaketp.: 1 Henry /V. t L 2, 

*lf-er-a-tlve, o. [Eng. iterate); -<.] 
Iterating, repeating. 



, a. & *. [Gr. i 
(ithitpliuUikos) of OP pertaining to the Iflu- 
^>oAA<K (ithvphallos), or pnallos (?nembrum virtue 
trectum\ carried at the festivals of Bacchus.] 

A. As adj. : Lewd, lustful, obscene, in- 
decent. 

B. .4s subst. (Ft.}: A lustful, obscene, or 
amorous song or poem. 

" I omit noticing some edifying TthyphaTHn of Sava- 
giu*." Byron: Vition of Judgment, (Preface.) 

t l-tln'-er-a-c& s. [Eng. itinera(te) ; -ey.] 

The act or practice of itinerating. 



, A [Eng. itinerant); -cy.] 

1. The act or practice of passing from place 
to place, especially in the discharge of official 
duties ; the discharge of official duties by 
itinerating from place to place. 

2. A body or number of persons who dis- 
charged official duties, not at one fixed place, 
but by passing from place to place. 

X-tln'-er-ant, a. ks. [Lat. itinerant pr.par. 
of * itinero = to travel or journey from place 
to place ; iter (gen. itintris) a journey from, 
itum, sup. of eo to go ; Fr. itinerant.] 

A. As adj. : Passing or moving from place 
to place; wandering, strolling, not stationary. 

" A lone enthusiast, and among the fields, 
Jtinerant in this labour." 

Wortlnoorth : Excursion, bit. L 

B. As subst. : One who passes or wanders 
from place to place ; a wanderer ; a stroller ; 
specif, an itinerant preacher, one who moved 
from place to place preaching. 

" Yet not the noblest of that hononr*d race 
Drew haupiar, loftier, more impassion 'd thoughts 
Than this ubocum itinerant." 

Wordsworth : Excurtion, blc. U. 

^-tln'-er-ant-ljf, adv. [Eng. itinerant; -ly.] 
In an itinerant, wandering, or strolling man- 
ner. 



r-ar-^, *. & a. [Lat. itinerartum = 
an account of a journey, from * ttinero = to 
travel; iter (gen. itineris) = a journey; Fr. 
itineraire; 8p. & I till, itinerario.] 
A. As substantive : 

1. Ord. Lang. : A book of travels ; an account 
of the various places to be met with on any 
particular road or line. 

" Now HabautjL, according to the itineraries of the 
ohMrvingat traveller* ia those parta, is thought to be 
In respective magnitude as big as Germany, Spain, 
France, and Italy cunjuuctly.' ffoveU: Letters, bk. 
U.. l*t-fc 

2. Roman Ritual: A form of prayer in- 
tended for the use of clerics when travelling, 
and, for their convenience, placed at the eud 
of the Breviary. The Itinerary consists of 
the canticle tienedictiis, with an sntiphon, 
prayer, and two collects. Itineraries are not 
found in the older Breviaries ; but Gavantus 
mentions an ancient Pontifical with an Itine- 
rary for the use of prelates rather longer than 
that at present employed. (Addis & Arnold.) 

B* As adj.: Travelling; wandering or pass- 
Ing from place to place ; itinerant. 

" It WHS rather an itttn-rnri/ circuit of Justice than a 
progroB*." Bacon: Henry Yll. 

I-tin'-er-atO, v.i. [Lat. * itineratum, sup. of 
itinern.] [ITINERANT.] To pass or go from 
place to place ; to wander. 

-1-tJs, niff. [Lat. -itis; Gr. -m? (-ito).] 

Path, : Inflammation ; as, hepatitis = in- 
flammation of the liver; pericarditis = inflam- 
mation of the pericardium. 

Its, pron. [See def.l The possessive case of 
the pronoun U (q. v.). 

It-self, pron, [Eng. it, and self.] The neuter 
pronoun corresponding to the masculine hint' 
telf, and feminine herself. 

ftf-ner-ite, *. [Named by Gmelln after 
Von Ittner, who was the first to describe the 
mineral.} 



Min. : A variety of Hauyne. It occurs 
massive or in granular dodecahedron*, is 
translucent, of adark blue, ash-gray, or smoky- 

gray colour, and resinous lustre. Found in 
ermany. 

lf-trl a, jff -trl-a, t. [YTTRIA.] 



Jtf-rf-bu. it-ze-bu, It zi boo, It-cno-bo, 
s. [Japanese.] 

Uumis. : A Japanese monetary unit of 
account. It is a silver cofti, value varying 
from Is. 4d. to Is. 6*d- sterling. It is a thin 
oblong plate, with square comers. Its use is 
now dying out, owing to the Introduction into 
Japan of the decimal system. 

* l-itte', . [YULE.] 

i-u'-ll-dae, *. pi. [Lat. <!(*) (q.v.) ; fern. pi. 

adj. suff. -idee.] 

Zool : A family of Chilognatha (Millipedes). 
The body is elongated and cylindrical, with 
numerous segments, each bearing two pairs 
of legs. They advance with a gliding motion, 
and roll themselves up when in danger. They 
may be seen in mossy situations or on the 
trunks of trees. They undergo a metamor- 
phosis, the larva commencing with only six 
feet 

l-U'-U-dan, *. [Lat. iulid(cE); Eng. guff, -an.] 
Zool.; A myriapod of the family lulidae 
(q.v.) 

l-u'-lf-form, a. [Lat. iuliu (q.T.)> and forma 

= form, shape.] 

Entom. Shaped like an lulus (q.v.). The 
iiiliforni larva: or caterpillars were considered 
by Swainson as the pre-eminently typical kind. 

l-U'-lU*, 8. [Lat. iulis = a kind of millipede ; 

and iiilits => a catkin ; Or. touAoy (ioutos) 
the first growth of the beard, a catkin, a 
centipede, or a millipede.] 

* 1. Bot. : An ament or catkin. 

2. Zool. : The typical genus of the family 
lulidte (q.v.). The body has from forty to 
fifty segments, each with a pair of small legs. 
One of the American species la about six 
Inches long. 

i'-va, s. [According to Puschius, an abbrevia- 
tion of Lat. abiga = Teucrium Iva of Linnseus, 
which it resembled in smell.] 

JJot.: The typical genus of the sub-tribe 
Ivese (q.v.), 

I-va'-a-ritO, *. [From Ivaara, In Finland, 
where it occurs.] 

Min. : A variety of Schorlomite. It Is black 
and opaque, witli an adamantine lustre. 

Iv a ran-cu'-sa, 0. [Name in some Indian 

languages, ] 

Bot. : An essential oil, obtained from Andro- 
pogon tichcenanthus, an Indian grass. 

i'-ve- t . pi. [Uod, Lat it<a) ; Lat fern. pi. 
adj. suit, -eat.} 
Bot.: A snb-tribe of Composites, tribe 

Senecionidese. 

-Ive, *JT. [See def.l -A- common adjectival 
sulfix in English, derived from the Latin -ivus ; 
it gives au active force to the stem to which 
it is suffixed: as motive, that which moves; 
formative, that which forms, &c. 

l'-vied, a. [Eng. ivy ; -ed.] Covered or over- 
grown with ivy. 

" Each ivied arch and jilllar lone 
Heads haughtily lor glorlei gone ! * 

Byron: Giaour. 

i'-vor-& I-vor-le t * e-ver-y, . & a. [O. 

Fr. ivwrte; Fr. ivoire, from Ijat, eboreua => 
made of ivory ; ebur (gen. eborti) ivory ; Itat 
avorio, avolio.] 

A* As substantive ; 

L Literally : 

L Gen. : The hard material of the teeth ; 
enamel [DENTINE.] 

2. Spec. ; The tusks of the elephant, the 
narwhal, &c. (A tusk is simply a huge project- 
ing tooth.) 

T Ivory was brought from Tarshlsb by 
Solomon's ships (1 Kings x. 22). Homer often 
mentions it Phidias, B.C. 400, made statues 
from it, plating them with gold. 

IL Fig. (PL): The teeth. (Slang.) 



B. As adj.: Consisting or made of ivory 
resembling ivory. 

" Oft hit heating fimten went 
Hurriedly, an you may aee 

Your owu ruu over tho ivory Icey." 

Huron: Siege <>f Corinth, lit 

H Vegetable ivory : 

Bot. t &c. : The albumen of the seeds of a 
fincipalm, Phyteleplias macrocarpa, found in 
South America, along the bonks of the river 
Magdalena. The ivory consists of the coagu- 
lated milk. 

Ivory-black, *. A species of bone-black 
made by the calcination of ivory scraps, turn- 
ings, and sawdust. It is used as a pigment 
in the manufacture of paints and printers' ink. 

Ivory-nut, *. [IVORY-PALM.] 
ivory-palm, s. 

Bot. : Phytelephas macrocarpa, [IVORY, ^.] 

Ivory-paper. *. A superior kind of paste- 
board, with a linely prepared polished surface, 
used by artists. 

ivory-saw, . A thin saw stretched in a 
steel frame for sawing ivory from the solid. 
It has a blade one-fortieth of an inch thick, 
one inch and a half wide, and fifteen to thirty 
inches long. The teeth, five or six to the inch. 
A frame-saw with a blade made of a fine watch- 
spring is suitable for the purpose, 

ivory-shell, s. 

Zool. : The molluscous genus Eburna (q.v.). 

ivory-tablet, *. Small leaves of ivory, 
arranged in pocket-book form, for receiving 
memoranda. 

Ivory-white, a. 

Bot. : White, verging to yellow, with 
little lustre, as the flower of ConvaUaria 
majalis. (Lindley.) 



, *. [Eng. ivory ; -type.] 
Phot. : A kind of picture in which two 
finished photographs are taken, one light in 
colour, made translucent by varnish, tinted 
on the back, and placed over a stronger pic- 
ture, so as to give the effect of a photograph 
in natural colours. Also known as Uelleno- 
type. 

'-v& s. [A.S. iflg; O. H. Ger. ephi, epfl, ephih, 
ephon; N. H. Ger. ephen, eppich, from Lat 
opium = parsley.] [APIUM.] 
Botany : 

1. Hedera Helix, a well-known climbing 
shrub, adhering to trees or to walls by aerial 
rootlets ; the ordinary leaves are cordate, flve- 
lobed, those of flowering branches ovate or 
lanceolate; flowers yellowish-green, in um- 
bels, appearing in October and November; 
berry globose, black, in one variety yellow 
Wild in forests, woods, among rocks, Ac. ; used 
also to train over walls and houses, with excel- 
lent effect It is a sudorific, and ltd berries 
are emetic. 

"Direct the clatplpg ivy where to cllinto.* 

Milton : P. I*, ix. nT. 

2. The genus Hedera (q.v.) 

Tf American Ivy is Ampelopsis hederacea; 
German Ivy, Senetio mikanoides; Ground Ivy, 
Nepeta Gkchoma; Coliseum or Kenilworth 
Ivy, Linaria Cymfoalaria; and Poison Ivy, 
Rhus Toxicode'ndron. 

Ivy-berry, *. The berry of the ivy. 

Ivy-gum, *. A gum obtained from old 
Ivy-bushes. 

ivy-mantled, a. Covered or overgrown 
with ivy. 

"Cklta nature from her ivy-mantled den," 

Cowper; Charity, M. 

Ivy-tree, . 

Bot. : The Otago name for Panax ColeiiKi. 

"i'-v^ed, a. [I VIED.] 

l-V^-wdrtf , *. pi. [Eng. ivy, and worts.] 

Bot. : The name given by Lindley to th 
order Araliacese (q.v.). 



, *. [From i6? (ixoe) =. . . birdlime, 
from the viscous character of some sjwcies 
(Paxton); cf. also Gr. ifta(ixia), iurj(txiH) = 
Carlina gummifera, a composite plant, not the 
modern ixia,] 

Bot. : A genus of Iridaceae. It consists of 
beautiful Cape bulbs, with spikes of showy 
flowers. Ixia viridiflora has large sea-green 
flowers, with black markings. It is from the 
Cape of Good Hope. 



bo^; polit, J6>1; cat, ^ell, chorus, 9)110, bench; go, &em; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist. -Ing, 
-clan, -tiaii = shan. -tion, -slon=shun; -tlon, -sion = **ifl*- -tious, -sious, -clous = shiis. -ble, -die, &c. - bel, dcU 



2752 



ixiolite jacfc 



U-l 6-llto, s. [Named by Nordeuskiold after 
Ixion, a relative of Tantalus, ixiulite being a 
variety of tantalite. 
Min. : The same as KiMiTOTANTAUTE(q.v.). 

lx-6'-def,<. [Or. ifiM^t (ixSdii) = like bird- 
lime, sticky, clammy : ifot (ixos) = birdlime, 
and '*os (tidot) = form, appearance.) 

Zool. : The typical genus of the family Ixo- 
didte. Ixodet rlcinus is the Dog-tick, /. Z>u- 
gesii Iwing also found on the dog, /. redumw 
on the sheep, /. inc(us on the deer or on 
mosses, and 7. plumbms upon the Rock- 
Bwallow (Hinmdo rtparfo) or m its nest. 

Ix o dl dw, !x-o de i, . p(. [Mod. Lnt 
teoiles (q.v.) ; Lat. fem. pi. adj. suff. -wte or 
masc. -.] 

Zooi. : A genus of parasitic spiders, order 
Ai-arina. The month is suctorial By means 
of it these parasites attach themseU'es to the 
bodies of sheep, oxen, dogs, and other mam- 
mals, holding on so tenaciously that, when 
pulled away, they often bring off with them 
part of the skin of the animal on which they 
were parasitic. 

ll'-i-lyte, . [Gr. if cfc (tow) = the miseltoe, 
any viscous substance, and Av*> (iuo) = to 
loose, to dissolve.] 

Min. : An amorphous mineral, of greasy 
lustre and hyacinth-red colour, becoming 
ochre-yellow or brown when pulverised. 
Found in a coal stratum near Gloggnitz. 

Ix-or'-A, . [Said to be altered from Sansc., 
&c. isi'ioor, a name of God. (See def.).] 

Sot. : A genus of Cinehonaceffi, tribe Coffee?, 
family Psychotrida. Ixora uxxinm is a fine 
Indian shrnb, with scarlet flowers, which are 
presented as votive offerings in many Hindoo 
temples. [Etym.] It is used In India for 
various medicinal purposes. 

f-jhuc, i. [Tnux.] 

b'-ar, . [Corrupted Arabic.] 

Astron. : A fixed star in the constellation 
Bootes. Called also c Bootis. 

Ix-ard, Ir zard (1), >. (Etym. doubtful.] 
Zool. : A name for the Ibex (q.v.)i 

" For the MTCAM of an iaard he reoeired only ten 

francs. --Cajx. Mam' 'W Bruin, ch. ixiil. 

*lz'-ard (2), t. [Prob. a corruption of hard.] 
An old name for the letter Z. 

"You go over, the first chance you get, and hook 
ven one of their taird*-- *, 4. fi: f^'ll t 
Paraffrab. 



J. 

J. The tenth letter and the seventh consonant 
In the English alphabet. It was formerly in- 
terchangeable with i, the same character being 
used for both. It is a palatal, its sound being 
that of g in gem or of dg in ridge, edge. Even 
up to a comparatively recent date i and j were 
not separated in English dictionaries, alpha- 
betical lists, Ac. 

Al a symbol, ) is used in medical prescrip- 
tions at the end of a series of numbers for 1 : 
as, vij. = seven, viij. = eight, &c. 

la'-al, ja'-el, . [Arab, jaal; Chal. jaela.} 
(See etym. and compound.) 

jaal-goat, s. 

Zool. : Capra Jaela, the Abyssinian Ibex, an 
Ibex found in the mountains of Abyssinia, in 
Upper Egypt, at Mount Sinai, and probably 
ta Persia. (Griffith's Cuvier.) 

|&b'-ber, *jaber, ' jable. "Jabil, *Jab- 

ble, v.i. & t. [A weakened form of gabber, 
gabble, thefreq. forms from gab; Icel.gabba = 
to mock, to scoff.] [GABBLE.] 

A. Intratis. : To talk rapidly and incohe- 
rently ; to chatter, to prate ; to utter non- 
sensical or unintelligible sounds. 

"Ja&b'rtng spectres o'er her traces glide." 

JoneM : ffymn to L<uc\ma. 

B. Trans. : To utter rapidly and indis- 
tinctly ; to gabble. 

J&b'-ber, s. [JABBER, .] Rapid, indistinct, 
or nonsensical uttering of words ; gibberish. 



Jab'-ber-er, 8. [Eng. jabber; -r.] One who 
jabbers. 

" Out-cant the Babylouiau labourer* 
At all their dialect* of jabbfreri." 

Baler: Hiulibrai, 111. 1 

Jab'-ber-infif f pr. par., a., & s. [JABBER, p.] 

A. & B. At pr. par. t particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As most. : Jabber, nonsensical talk, gib- 
berish. 

" Twas chattering, grinning, mouthing, jabbertny alt" 
Pope : Dunctad, U. S37. 

Jabbering crow, t. 

Ornith. : Coma jamaiceiuu. 

*Jab'-ber-lng-iy, adv. [Big. jabbering; 
ly.] In a jabbering manner. 

Jab'-ber-ment, . [Eng. jabber; -mtnt.} 
Jabber, nonsensical talk, gibberish. 

" At last, and In good hoar, we ate come to bis fare- 
wel, which Is to be a concluding taste of hi* JaMer- 
ment in law. " Milton : Colamrio*. 

Jab'-ber-no%l, . [JOBBERNOWL.] 

*Jab'-ble,*JaWe, t..*fc [JABBER,*.] To 
splash, as water. 

* Jab -ble, . [JABBLE, .] Agitation on the 
surface of water. 

Jab-I-ru, . [Brazilian jabiru, Jabvn.} 

Ornith. : Mycteria, a genus of Ciconinw 
(Storks). ' They resemble the adjutants, and 
are not much less in size. They are found in 
South America. 

Jib 6 rin di, >. [A word used by nine 
Indian tribes of Brazil.] 

Boi. : A plant, either a Piper or of the 
Rutaceous genus Pilocarpus. The Indians 
believe it very useful in fevers, and a Portu- 
guese medical man, called Coutinho, having 
sent some of the leaves to M. Rabutean, the 
celebrated Parisian pharmacist, the latter 
gentleman ascertained by experiment that 
they were powerfully sudorific. He believes 
them as valuable as cinchona, 

Jab 6r-o'-a, >. [South American word.] 

/>'<>(. : A genus of Solanacete. Jaborota runci- 
nata U used in South America as an aphro- 
disiac 

Ja-bu-ti', t. [Brazilian.] 

Hot. : Psidium albidum, which furnishes an 
excellent dessert fruit used iu Brazil. 

Ja-bft-tl-oa'-b*. Ja-bot-i-oa-bu-nu, s. 
[Brazilian.) 

Bot. : Eucalyptus cauliflora, which furnishes 
one of the most agreeable fruits eaten in 
Brazil. 

Ja -oa, . [JACK, (S).] 

jaoa-tree, >. [JACK-TREE.] 

mar, s. [Fr. jacamar; Brazilian jaca- 



Jao-a-i 

manca, 



Ornith. (PL) : The name generally given to the 
birds ranked under Galbulinae, a sub-family 
of Alcedinidre or King-fishers. The Jacamars 
have the bill less stout than the typical Alce- 
din;B ; their body also is more slender; the 
tail long ; the toes either in two pairs, or two 




before and one behind, the anterior ones being 
united. They are bright-coloured birds, gene- 
rally with a good deal of green in their 
plumage. They are found in the tropical 
parts of South America and in the West Indies, 
breeding in cavities of trees, and sallying forth 
from a branch or spray to capture the inserts 
on which they feed. Sometimes elevated into 
a family, Galbulidse. 

j&c'-a-na, *. [In Brazil the name of the water- 
hen.*) 




'**' \*^ -^ 



Ornithology : 

1. Sing. : The name of Parra, a genus of wad- 
ing birds belonging to the family Palamedeidae. 
The feet have four 

very long toes, sepa- 

rated to their ruot, 

and with their claws. 

especially the hind 

one, so long that 

these birds have been 

called by the French, 

surgeons. The wing 

is generally armed 

with a spur. The 

common species, , 

Parra Jacana, is' 

black with a red 

mantle, the primaries JACANA. 

of the wings are 

green, and there are fleshy wattles under the 

bill. It occurs la all the warmer parts of 

America. 

2. PL : Parrine, a sub-family of Rallklae. 

jiic-a-r&n'-da, s. [The Brazilian name of one 
species J. brasiliana.} 

1. Bot, : A genus of Bignoniaceee. It con* 
sists of South American trees with showy 
flowers in terminal panicles. Jacaranda pro- 
cent and other species of the genus are used 
In syphilitic affections. 

2. Comm. : [ROSEWOOD]. 

J&c'-a-re, a. [Jackare and yackare, South 
American Indian names of the species.] 

Zool. : A genus or sub-genus of Alligators 
established l>y Dr. Gray. There are various 
species, as the Dog-headed Jacare (Jacare 
latirostria), the Long-shielded Jacare (J. longi- 
tcutata), the Eyed Jacare (J. ocellata), &c. All 
are American. 

* Jao-a-to6, . [COCKATOO.] (Evelyn.) 

jac -chiia, I-ac'-chus, . [Gr.. = a name of 
Bacchus.] 

Zool. : A genus of Cebidee, American Mon- 
keys. containing the Marmosets. More com- 
monly called Hapale (q.v.). 

Jac -c6n-t, . [JACONET.] 

* ja'-c^nt, a. [Lat. jacens, pr. par. of jaceo 
to lie.] Lying down; recumbent; lying at 
length. 

"Became o laid, they [brick or*qond toue*) u 
more &pt In nwaggingiluwii. to pierce with their inn t, 
thau in thtjacent \*Mt\m."Aeli^ula Wottvn., i>. 20. 

J&9'-inth, *. [HYACINTH, II. 2 (IX] 

jac i-ta'-ra, . [The Brazilian name of the 
tree.] 

Bot. : Drsmoncus macro canthos, a fine palm, 
fifty or sixty feet long, with a stem as thin as 
a cane. It grows along the Amazon and the 
Bio Negro. 

Jack (1), * Jacke, 5. [Fr. Jacques, from Lat. 
Jacobus ; Gr. 'Ia*cw/3os (lakobos), from the 
Heb. 3J75^ (Yaaqob) = one who seizes by the 
heel. 2V (aqab) = a heel. In the princi- 
pal modern languages John, or its equiva- 
lent, is a common name of contempt, or 
slight. Thus the Italians use Gianni, whence 
Zani ; the Spaniards, Juan, as bobo Juan = 
a foolish John = the French Jean, Ac. Hence 
In English we have Jack-fool, Jack-an-apes, 
Jack-pudding, and perhaps Jackass. A Jack o' 
the clock (Shakesp. : Richard //., v. 6) was a 
figure which, iu old clocks, struck the hours 
upon the bell : hence the word Jack came to 
be applied to various implements, which sup* 
plied the place of a boy or attendant, as the 
jack which turns the spit in a kitchen, a boot- 
jack t &c. Still more generally it is applied to 
a large variety of implements or instruments 
which are used in the place of another hand or 
of an assistant, and in this way is frequently 
compounded with other words, the associated 
word expressing either its purpose, structure, 
or relation, as jack-screw, jack-frame, raU- 4 
jocfc, &c.J 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. The diminutive of the proper name John. 

2. A terra of contempt ; an upshot, a clown, 
a boor. 

" Do yon play the flouting .tee*." Shatetp. : Much 
Ado About Nothing, 1. L 

3. A common equivalent for a sailor ; a tor. 
* 4. A cant word for a Jacobite. 

" With every wind be laiied. and well could tack. 
Had many pendent*, but nbhorred * Jack." 

Swift : Jtlegjf on Judge Boat. 



late, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot 
r. wore, wolf, work,./ who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full; try, Syrian. 8,00 = 0. ey - a, qu - kw 



Jack jackal 



2753 



5. A measure ; sometimes half-a-pint, some- 
times quarter of a pint. 
II. Technically: 

1. As the name a/an instrument : 

(1) Domestic: 

(a) An instrument for turning a roasting 
loint of meat ; a bottle-jack ; a smoke-jack. 

" So footJtoys, who had frequently the common name 
of Jack given them, were kept to turn the spit, or 
t*> pull off their master's uoota ; but when instrument* 
were Invented for both these services, they were both 
called./<icts." Wattt: Logic, pt. L, ch. iv. 
(6) A contrivance to assist a person in taking 
off his hoots ; a boot-jack. 

(c) A pitcher, formerly of waxed leather, 
but now of metal ; a black-jack. 
"Body of me, I'm dry sttll ; give me theyrcc*, boy." 
Beaum. * Flet. : Bloody Brother, fl. 3. 

(2) Knitting : The pivoted bar or lever in a 
knitti ng-machine, from whoseend is suspended 
the sinker which forms the loop ; a beater. 

(S) Much. : A lifting instrument ; a contriv- 
ance for lifting great weights. [JACK-SCREW.] 

(4) Metal-working : A form of metal planing- 
machine which has short, quick motions, and 
is used in shaping objects, planing seats for 
valves, &c. 

(5) Mining : A wooden wedge used in min- 
ing to aid in the cleavage of strata ; a gad. 

(6) Music : Formerly the hammer or quill- 
carrier of a clavichord, virginal, harpsichord, 
or spinet, but now an intermediate piece which 
conveys to the hammer the motion imparted 
to the key. 

(7) Nautical: 

(a) The cross-trees. 

(c) A small flag ; the union without the fly. 
{UNION-JACK.] 

(8) Sawing : A saw-horse or saw-buck. 

(9) Spinning : A coarse bobbin and fly-frame, 
operating on the sliver from the earding-mach- 
ine and passing the product to, or fitting it 
for, the fine roving-machine. 

(Iff) Sports: 

(a) Any one of the knaves in a pack of cards. 

" He calls the knaves Jack*." Dickens : Great Ex- 
pectation*, ch. viiL 

(i>) The small bowl aimed at in the game of 
bowls. (Butler : Human Learning, pt. ii.) 

(11) Weaving : The heck-box ; a grated frame 
for conducting the threads from the bank to 
the warping mill. 

2. As applied to animals : 

(1) A male. [JACK-HARE, JACKASS.] 

(2) A young pike ; a pike. 

" Sometimes poor Jack and onion* ore bis dish." 
King : Art of Cookery. 

(3) A name given to various brilliantly 
coloured flsh of the mackerel family, found in 
the West Indies. 

H 1. Jack-at-a-pinch : 

(1) A person unexpectedly or suddenly 
called upon to do something. 

(2) A clergyman who has no cure, but offi- 
ciates for a fee wherever wanted. 

2. Jack-by-the hedge : 

Bat. : Alliaria offlcinalis. One of the names 
of Sisymbrium Alliaria. 

3. Jack-in-a-basket : 

Naut. : A basket on a pole marking a shoal ; 
a beacon. 

4. Jack-in-office : One who is proud of a 
petty office. (H'olcott : Peter Pindar, p. 18.) 

5. Jack-in-the-box : 

(1) Ordinary Language : 

(a) A toy consisting of a box out of which, 
on raising the lid, a figure springs. 

(0) A game or sport In which some article 
of more or less value is placed on the top of a 
stick or rod, standing in a hole, and thrown 
at with sticks. If the article be hit so as to 
fall clear of the hole, the thrower is entitled 
to claim it. 

(2) Technically: 

(a) Bot. : Hemandia, a genus of Lauraceie, 
and spec. //. sonora. So called because tte 
seeds rattle in the seed-vessel. 

(6) Machinery : 

(1) A name conferred upon the jack-frame, 
a device for giving a twist to the drawn sliver 
and winding the same on a bobbin as it was 
received in the roving can. [JACK-FRAME.] 

(ii) A large, wooden, solid screw turning 
in a nut in a bridge-piece and rotated by 



means of a lever. It is a clumsy form of 
screw-press, used for various purposes. 

(iii) A screw-jack for lifting and for stowing 
cargo. 

(iv) A burglar's implement, used for forcing 
a box-lock on" a door. 

" Take care of the Jack-in-the-box : there never was 
but two made." Albert Smith: Christopher Tadpole. 
ch. illi. 

6. Jack-in-the-box shears : 

Sfech. : A pair of shears, the lower jaw of 
which is worked by a cam motion from below. 
This allows the knife to drop to its full extent 
immediately the cut is made, giving the work- 
man plenty of time to place the work in 
position ready for the next operation. 

7. Jack-in-the-bush : 

Bot. : Cordia cylindrostachya. (W. Indian.) 

8. Jack-in-the-green: A chimney-sweep en- 
closed in a portable framework of boughs for 
the processions on the first day of May. 

9. Jack-of-all-lrades : One who can turn his 
hand to any business. 

10. Jack-of-tke-Buttery : 
Bot. : Sedum acre. 

11. Jack-of-the-clock : A figure which struck 
the hours on the bell of a clock. 

12. Jack-unth-a-Tantern, Jack-a-lantern : A 
will-o'-the-wisp ; an ignis fatuus. 

1 Black jack : [BLACK-JACK]. 

* jack adams, s. A foot (T. Brown : 
Works, ii. 220.) 

jack a dandy, s. A little foppish fellow;; 
a coxcomb, a dandiprat. (S. Warren: Ten 
Thousand a. Year, ch. vii.) . 

jack a lent, lack o -lent, >. 

1. Lit. : A puppet which was thrown at in 
Lent, in Shrovetide games. 

2. Fig. : A simple fellow. 

" Yon little/dct-o-fenf, have yon been true to nT" 
Shakeip. : Mern Wirnt of Windier, 111. a, 

Jack arch, i. 

Arch, : An arch of the thickness of one brick. 
jack ass, s. [JACKASS.] 
jack back, i. 
Brewing: 

1. A vessel below the brewery-copper which 
receives the infusion of malt and hops there- 
from, and which has a perforated bottom to 
strain off the hops. 

2. A tank or cistern which receives the 
cooled wort in a vinegar-factory. 

Jack-block, . 

Naut. : A block used in sending the top- 
gallant mast up and down. 
Jack-boot, . [JACKBOOT.] 

* Jack-cap, s. A helmet. (Defoe: Tour, 
ii. 148.) 

jack-chain, s. The chain revolving on 
the wheel of a kitchen-jack. 

Jack cross-tree, s. 

Naut. : An iron cross-tree at the head of 
a top-gallant mast. 

Jack-flag, >. 

Naut. : A flag hoisted at the] spritsail top- 
mast head. 

jack-frame, s. 

Cotton-man. : A contrivance, formerly in 
great favour, for giving a twist to the roving 
as it was delivered by the drawing rollers. 

jack fruit, . The fruit of the jaca- 
tree (q.v.). 

jack-hare, s. A male hare. 

jack-head pump, s. A form of lift- 
pumps for mines and deep borings, in which 
the delivery-pipe is secured to the cylinder by 
a goose-neck. 

Jack Ketch, s. A hangman, an execu- 
tioner : said to be derived from Richard 
Jaquette, lord of the manor of Tyburn, where 
felons were for a long time hanged. 

jack-knife, s. A horn-handled clasp- 
knife with a laniard, worn by seamen. 

jack-ladder, . 

Naut. : A ladder with wooden steps and 
side ropes. 

* jack-nasty, s. A sneak, a sloven. 



jack-pin, >. 

Naut. : A belaying-pin in the fife-rail ui 
elsewhere. 

jack-rafter, s. 

Carp. : One of the short rafters used in * 
hip-roof. 

jack-saw, >. 

Ornith. : A provincial English name for the 
Goosander, llergus Merganser, a kind of duck. 

jack-screw, s. A lifting implement 
which acts by the rotation of a screw in * 
threaded socket. 

Jack-sinker, >. 

Knitting-machine : A thin iron plate sus- 
pended from the end of the jack, and acting 
to depress the loop of thread between two 
needles. The jack - sinkers alternate with 
lead-sinkers, the former being movable sepa- 
rately, but the latter are attached to a sinker- 
bar, and move together. 

jack - snipe, >. Scolopax gallinula. A 
small snipe found in Britain. 

jack-spanlard, >. A scorpion. 

"Hitting on the sandy turf, defiant of galliwasps and 
Jack-ipardard."C. Kingtiey : Wettward Ho /ch. xvU. 

jack-staff, s. 

Naut. : A flag-stafr on the bowsprit-cap for 
flying the jack. 

jack-stay, . 

Kant. : A rib or plate with holes, or a rod 
running through eye-bolts, passing along the 
upper side of a yard, to which the sail is bent. 

jack timber, s. 

Carp. : A timber in a building which is 
shorter than the other timbers, being inter- 
cepted by another piece ; as (1) a stndding in 
a partition, which is intercepted by a brace or 
window or door frame ; (2) a rafter in a hip- 
roof, which meets the hip, and is shorter than 
those which run a full length and meet at 
the comb or ridge ; (3) a rib in vaulting or 
groining, shorter than the main rib. 

jack-towel, s. A coarse towel on a roller. 
jack-tree, . [JACA-TREE.] 

Jack (2), 'Jacke (2), - Jaque, -Jala. 
* jakke, . [O. Fr. jaoue ; cf. Dut jak ; Ger. 
jacke; Sw. jocko, ; ItaL 
ffiaco ; 8p. joco.] 

Old armour : A coat 
of mail ; defensive body- 
armour worn by troops 
from the fourteenth to 
the seventeenth centu- 
ries inclusive. It con- 
sisted of a leathern sur- 
coat worn over the hau- 
berk, and sometimes 
quilted likeagambeson. 
The Illustration is taken 
from a MS. of the Ro- 
man de la Rose (1433). 

" At those (laves the yo- 
men had theyr lyinlues at 
lybertle, for theyre hoayn 
were than fastened wt one 
iioynt, and theyr locket T *nw 

[were] tonee and easy to JACK. 

note in." fabyan (im). 

jack (3), Jac, ja'-ca, >. IJaca is a word from 
the Indian Archipelago.] 

Sot. : Artocarpua integrifolia, a tree which 
furnishes an edible fruit, but inferior to the 
bread-fruit itself, to which It is allied. 

Jack'-al, s. [InGer.dwfai(;Fr.o5Sp.cfta<aJ; 

Turk, chical.] 
ZooL : The Canis (Samliui) aureus, an a 





of the family Canidse, and presenting a clow 
affinity to the dog. It is yellowish-gray above, 



boll, boy; pout, jowl ; cat, 9011, chorus. 
dan. -tian Shan* -tion, -sion = 



9hin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xonophon, exist, ph - f 
-sion = zhun. -clous, -tious, sioua = shus. -ble. -die, die = tool, dpi. 



8754 



Jackanapes jaoobinio 



whiter underneath, the tail is bushy and at its 
extremity tipped with black. The jackal in- 
habits the warm parts of Africa, Southern 
Asia, and Europe. All who have lived in the 
East must have heard its unearthly yells sud- 
denly breaking in upon the silence of night. It 
hunts in packs. It is not, consciously at least, 
the " lion's provider." It is not generally on 
living animals that it feeds, but on carrion. 
It is, therefore, improbable that, as a rule, a 
troop of jackals hunts down prey, and then 
the lion, presenting himself, takes it from 
them. More probably he hunts it down, and 
they consume what he leaves. There is another 
species, C. mesomeUa, the black-backed jackal. 
It occurs at the Cape of Good Hope. 

jackal buzzard, . 

ontith. : Buteo Jackal, found In Africa. 

jack a napes, . [For Jack on apt* = Jack 
tfapes.) 
* 1. A monkey ; an ape. 

" I could lav on like a butcher, and alt 1 ike * Jafbx- 
ItapM." Stuttftft. : ttmry t'., v. s. 

2. A coxcomb, a fop, an upstart, conceited 

fellow, 

" That/actanapes with Bcarfa" 

: All I WM That fruti W,H, 111 a. 



* Jackanapes-coat, >. A dandy coat. 
IPepys.) 

j&ck ass, >. [Eng. jack (1), and as*.] 

1. A male ass. 

" 1 have seen a jackau from that country aboTa fif- 
teen bauds high." GotdtmUh : Animated Jfaturt; 
WlJm 

2. A term of reproach or contempt ; a 
stupid, ignorant fellow. 

U Laughing or feathered jackass: 
Ornith. : Dacelo gigantea, a New Zealand 
Kingfisher. 

jackass penguin, s. 

Ornith. : Endyte* demersa. A species of 
Penguin which rises to the surface and again 
dives with great rapidity, so that according to 
Mr. Darwin it might be mistaken for a Hah 
leaping for sport. 

j&ck -boots, . pL [Eng. jack (IX nd boot.] 

1. Large, overall boots, reaching up to the 
thigh, worn by fishermen. 

2. Large boots with a front-piece coming 
above the knee, worn by cavalry men, and 
sometimes by huntsmen. 

- Some had been BO used to wear brogue* that they 
stumbled and shuffled about strangely in their mfl 
taryjaottoou." Jfocaufay.* But. ing., oh. vi. 

j&ck' -daw, daw, . [Eng. jack (1), and (fair.] 
OrnitJi. : Cotteut or Cortms monedula. The 
smallest of the British crows, being but 
thirteen Inches In length. The general colour 
Is black, with a grayish shade on the margins 
of the feathers, the back and wings purplish ; 
the crown of the head is glossy blue-black, 
forming a cap ; the neck hoary-gray, the bill 
and feet black, the eye bluish-white. Both 
sexes coloured alike. The bird is found over 
nearly all Europe. It breeds In towers and 
old buildings, also in hollow trees. It Is a 
familiar object in cathedral towns. Eggs four 
to seven, more bluish than those of ordinary 
crows, and blotched with brown spots. 
(Bawdier Sharps, F.L.S., F.Z.S.) 

" In the neighbour quarter* of the Insuhrlans neere 
adjoining, ye shall have Infinite and Innumerable 
nuckea and flight* of choughes and Jaokdawef." P. 
BoUand t ninie. tile, x., ch. x xix. 

j&ck et, >. [Fr. jacqvettt, dlmln. of O. ft. 
janus - a jack or coat of mail.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. A short coat extending downwards; to 
the hips. 

They [the niinonen, or thlef-takenl wear a short 
striped waistcoat, and over It a red jaclta." Sioia- 
ournt.' Spain, let . 

2. A kind of coat or dress made of- cork to 
support the wearer while swimming : a cork- 
Jacket. 

3. A short, outer, close-fitting garment worn 
Dy women. 

H Technically: 

1. Machinery: 

0) A steam-jacket Is a body of steam be- 
tween an inner and outer cylinder or casing ; 
its usual purpose Is to warm or maintain the 
warmth of the contents of the inner cylinder. 

(2) The steam space around an evaporating- 
pan to heat the contents. Other jackets are 
of wood or other non-conducting material. 



Cylinders of steam-engines are sometimes 
covered with felt and an ornamental wooden 
casing to prevent radiation of beat. Steam- 
boilers, for the same purpose, are jacketed 
with felt on the upper part. Also called 
cleadiug, deading, lagging. 
2. Nautical: 

(1) A double or outer coat. 

(2) A casing for a steam-chimney when it 
passes through a deck. 

^ To beat or dust one's jacket: To thrash 
one. (Slang.) 

Jack -ct, .(. [JACKET, .] 

1. Lit, : To cover or envelop In a Jacket : 
as, To jacket a steam-boiler. 

2. Fig. : To thrash, to beat. (Slang.) 

* j&ck'-ey, . [JACK (1)0 A slang term for 
gin. 

' jack-man, . [Eng. Jack (2), and man.] 

1. A soldier dressed In a Jack; a horse- 
soldier. 

2. A retainer, an attendant. (Scott.) 

jack-plane, . [Eng. jack (I), and plane.) 

Carp. : The first and coarsest of the joiner's 
bench-planes ; the others being the trying, 
panel, and smooth planes. 

jack pud -ding, . [Eng. jack (I), and 
pudding ; cf. Fr. jean-pottage = John-pottage ; 
Ger. Hans-umnt Jack-sausage.] A merry- 
andrew, a clown, a buffoon. 

Jack-pudnUng-hood... . 

ding; -hood.} Buffoonery. (Walpole. 

jack rab'-t)it, . A large American hare 
having very long lejrs aud ears. Fonnd on the 
western prairies (Lepui campatrii), In Texas 
and New Mexico ( L. caUoto), and In California 

(L. caltfornicut). 

Jack -rib, . [Eng. jack (I), and rib.) 

Arch. : Any rib In a framed arch or dome 
which is shorter than the rest. 

' Jack' sau 5 o, -Jack-sawse, . [F.ng. 

jack (1), and sauce.] An Impudent or saucy 
fellow. 

" Every Jarkttuce of Rome shall thus odiously dare 
to controll and disgrace it," fin, Ball: Honour of rtu 
Marie* CUryn, bk. U.. | IX, 

jack-smith, t. [Eng. jack OX >d smith.) 
A workman who makes jacks for roasting. 

"The celebrated watchmaker [Mr. Tomnion] who 
was originally a Jackmit/i."I>ryam: Let. to Mr. 
fonjoniuue). 

Jack-son ite, s. [Named by Whitney after 
Dr. C. T. Jackson ; raff, -ite (Afin.).] 

Min. : The same as PREHKITE (q. v.). Found 
at He Royale, Lake Superior, aud Keweenaw 
Point, Michigan, U.S.A. 

Jack'-straw, s. [Eng. jack (I), and straw.) 

* 1. A figure of a man made of straw ; a 
scarecrow. 

* 2. A person of no weight or substance. 

An Inconsiderable fellow and A Jadutram.* 
MlUan : Dtf. o/ < /V-pJ. of Avion* (Pref-l 

3. A slip of straw, wood, Ivory, bone, or 
other material, used In a child's game, In 
which all the strips are thrown Into confusion 
on a table to be picked singly with a hooked 
instrument without disturbing the rest 

Jack-wood, . [Eng. Jack, and wood.] 

Corom. : The wood otArtocarpus integrifulia. 
It is a furniture and fancy wood. 

Ja'-cob (1), . [Lat. Jacotnu, remotely from 
the patriarch Jacob, Heb. 3j; (yaao<*X] 
[JACK.] 

Jacob's -ladder, . 

1. Hot. : The genns Polemonimn. One 
species, the Blue Jacob's-ladder (Polemonium 
camleum). Is a plant with pinnate glabrous 
leaves and large blue or occasionally white 
flowers. 

2. Kant. : A rope ladder with wooden 
rounds. 

3. Meek. : The elevator used In brewhouse 
machinery for raising spent mash-stuff. 

Jacob's-staff, t. 

* L Ordinary Language : 

1. A pilgrim's staff, from the pilgrimages 
made to the Shrine of St. James (Lat. Jaco- 
bus) at Compostella In Spain. 



2. A staff containing a concealed dagger. 
IL Surveying : 

1. An instrument for taking altitudes, having 
a brass circle divided into fonr equal parts by 
two diametric lines. At each extremity Is a 
purpenijicular rigletuver the lines, with a hole 
below each slit for discovering objects. The 
cross is mounted on a staff. A cross-staff. 

2. An instrument used to measure distance* 
and heights. It has a square rod, with a 
cross or cursor, which lias a set screw to keep 
it iu position on the rod when required. The 
rod is three or four feet in length, and divided 
into four or five equal parts. The cursor has 
a square socket and slips on the staff. The 
Instrument is mounted ou a tripod when in 
use, the cursor being In the plane of the hori- 
zon when im-asurhig distances, aud vertical to 
it when measuring heights. 

3. A straight rod shod with iron, and with 
a socket-joint and pintle at the summit for 
supporting a surveyor's circurafereutor. 

Jacob's atone, s. A stone fabulously 
said to be that on which Jacob rested his head 
at Luz, which was usnl as the coronation-stone 
of the kings of Scotland at Scone, in Perth- 
shire, and was thence transferred by Edward I. 
to Westminster, where it still remains, la- 
closed in the coronation-chair. 

Ja'-cob (2), a, [From Jacob, its discoverer). 
Anat. : (See etym. and compound). 
Jacob's membrane, >. 
Anat.: The columnar layer, or layer of 
rods or cones, constituting the seventh layer 
covering the retina of the eye. (Qualn.) 

Jac 6 be an, Ja co be an, Ja co bl- 

an, a. [Lat. Jacob(us) = James ; Eug. suff. 
tan; -ian.J 

Arch.: A term sometimes applied to the 
style of architecture prevailing during the 
later years of the reign of Elizabeth and that 
of James I. It differs from the Elizabethan 
or Tudor style, In having a greater admixture 
of Italian, greatly owing to the influence of 
the Italian architect Falladio. 

Jac -o-bln, Jae'-6 bine, . & a. (Fr. Jaco- 
bin, from Low Lat. Jacobinus, from Lat. Jam- 
bus = James.] 

A. As ntslnntirt: 

L. Originally a synonym for a Dominica* 
friar, though the name did not extend bevoud 
France. 

Now am I Robert, now Rubin. 
Now frere Uiiiour, nuw Jacobin." 

tiotnaunt a/tlu Ron. C.MI. 

2. A member of a faction or club of violent 
republicans, so called from the Jacobin club, 
which met in the hall of the Jacobin friars, 
in the Rue St. Jacques (St. James' Street), in 
Paris, in October, 1788. 

* 3. One who is radically opposed to the 
existing government.; specif., applied to the 
extreme section of the revolutionary party at 
the end of the last century. 




4. A variety of hooded pigeon. 

B. At adj. : The same as JACOBINIC (q.T.X 

"France is formidable. Dot only ae she Is France, bwt> 
at she la Jamoitt France?' Burke : StffMttf Ptaot. 

Jac'-6-bine, j. [JACOBIN.] 

jdc-o-bin'-Ic, * J&o-4-bin'-Io-al, o. 

[Eng. Jacobin; -ic,-loui.J Of or pertaining to 
the Jacobins of France; turbulent, revolu- 
tionary, demagogical. 

" Her own ill polley. which dismantled all her towM 
and discontented all her sutiieeta tiy jaoobiitival inao- 
Tatlona." Burkt: Policy o/Ac Allici. 



sSte, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, po% 
w. wore, wolf. work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, eur, rule, full; try, Syrian. a>, oa = ej ey = a. qn = kw. 



J acobinically j agged 



2755 



Jac-6-bin'-l-cal-iy. atlv. [Eng. jacoUni- 
cat ; -ly.] In a Jacobinical, revolutionary, or 
demagogic principles. 



--m, . [Eng. jacobin; -ism.] 
The principles or objects of the Jacobins ; re- 
volutionary or demagogic principles. 

* JSc'-i-bin-ize, v.t. [Eng. jacobin; 
Tu imbue or tint with jacobinism. 



" So country can be aggrandised whilst Fiance la 
d." Burkt: Policy Q/ Me Allw. 



Jacobintoed." 



n-yf, adv. [Eng. jacobin ; -&/.] lu 
the manner of the Jacobins ; jacobinically. 

Tac -6-bite, s. & a. [Lai. Jacobw =- James ; 
Eng. suff. -ite.J 

A. At substantive : 

1. Eng. Hist. : A partisan or supporter of 
James II., after his abdication, and of his des- 
cendants, the Pretenders ; one who opposed 
the Revolution of 1688 in favour of William 
nd Mary. 

"Already, in the short space of six months, he had 
been several time a Jacnbfte, and several times a Wil- 
liainite.' llacaulas : Ilia. Kng., eh. jiii. 
' 2. Church History (PI.) : 

(1) The followers of Jacob Baradanis, a 
Monophysite monk who restored the sect to 
prosperity after it had become extinct. He 
died at Edessa in 578. 

(2) A name for the Monothelites (q.v.). 

(S) An order of mendicant monks, which 
Arose and obtained the sanction of Pope In- 
nocent III., in the thirteenth century, but 
Very soon became extinct. 

(4) A name forthe Dominicans. [JACOBIN (1).] 

B. As adj. : Pertaining to the Jacobites ; 
holding the opinions of the Jacobites. 



[Eng. 

Jacobite); -ic.] Relating or pertaining to the 
Jacobites ; supporting or adhering to the 
Jacobites. 

" Of all the counties of Rngland. Lancashire was the 
C' JfttcauJay: Btit.nff., ch. xxl. 



Jao-d-bit'-Ic-al-ly,odt>. 

ly.] In a jacobitical manner; like the Jaco- 
bites. 

Tac'-o-bl't-lujm, i. [Eng. JacoMl(e) ; -ism.] 
The principles of the Jacobites or adherents of 
James II. 

" Between English Jacobitltm and Irish Jacobittim 
there was nothing in common." Jfacaulay: Silt. 
Eng., ch. xit. 

Ja cobs'-ite, . [Named by Damour after Its 
original locality, Jacobsberg, Wennland, Swe- 
den ; suff. -Ue (Altn,).] 

Kin. : An oxide of Iron and manganese, 
represented by the formula Inn (Fe 2 Inn s X*4. 
Isometric, occurring in octahedrons : hardness 
= 6 ; sp. gr., 4'75 ; lustre, brilliant ; colour, 
deep black ; streak, blackish-brown ; magnetic. 
Occurs with a white mica and native copper 
in a crystalline limestone, 

Ja'-cfib-sdn, >. The name of Its discoverer. 
(See etym. and compound.) 

Jacobson's nerve, . 

Anat. : The tympanic branch of the cranial 
nerves. 

Ja-co'-bns, 9. (Lai. = James. ] A gold coin, 
current in the reign of James 1. It was of 
the value of 25s. sterling. 

"His salary was the same with that of the Lord 
Lieutenant, eight thousand Jacobutet, equivalent to 
ten thousand rounds sterling a year." Jfocautay . 
Mitt. Eng., CD. xr. 

Jac' 6-net, Jao'-co-net, . [Fr. jaeonas.] 

Fabric: A fine, close, white cotton goods, 
intermediate between cambric and lawn. 

Jac quard' (qn as k), ,'. [The name of a 
straw-hat manufacturer In Lyons, who died in 
1834.] (See etym. and compound.) 

Jacquard-loom, s. A loom for weaving 
figured goods. A chain of perforated cards is 
made to pass over a drum, and the strings by 
which the threads of the warp are raised pass 
over an edge with a wire or leaden weight of 
small diameter suspended from each. These 
weights, at each stroke of the loom, are pre- 
sented to each successive card, and some of 
them are intercepted by the card, while others 
pass through the holes therein, the latter thus 
determining which threads of the warp shall 
be raised. In this way the figure on the card 
determines the nature of the figure on the 
fabric. 



Jacquerie (pron. zhak'-re), i. [Fr. Jacques 
= James.] [JACK (I).] 

Hist. : A name given to a revolt of the pea- 
sants against the nobles in Pieardy, France, 
lu 1358. Any revolt of peasants. 

* jac'-tan 9y, s. [Lat. jactarttia, from jactans, 
pr. par. of ju^o, frequent, of jacio = to throw.] 
A boasting, a boast. 

Jac-ta'-tlon, . [Lat. jactatto, from jacto, 
frequent, of juc.in = to throw.) The act of 
throwing ; agitation or shaking of the body in 
exercise, as in riding. 

"Jaftal/'inM were used for some amusement and 
allay in great and constant pains." Sir Yf. Temple : 
ill Health t Lang Lift. 

Jac-tf-ta'-tlon, t. [La*- jacttto, I double 
frequent, from jacio * to throw.] 

1. A tossing or shaking of the body ; rest- 
lessness. 

" If the patient be surprised irlth Jactitation, or great 
oppressiou about the stomach, expect no relief iruiu 
cordials." Harvey . On Consumption. 

2. Vain boasting, vaunting. 
^ Jactitatwn of marriage : 

Eccles. Law : A terra applied to a false pre- 
tension or claim to be married made by any- 
one with a view to gain the reputation of being 
married. 

* J&e'-n-la-ble, a. [JACCLATB.] Fit to be 
thrown. 

* jac'-u-Iato, v.t. [Lit. jaadatut, pa. par. of 
jocular = to throw a dart or javelin ; jaculnm 
s= a dart ; jacio = to throw.] To throw or 
dart out ; to emit. 

"Jao-u-la'-tlon, . [Lat. Jaculatlo, from 
jaeulatus, pa. par. of jocular.] The act of 
throwing or hurling missive weapons. 

" So hills amid the air encountered hills. 
Hurled to and fro wittijaculation dire." 

Milton : P. L.. vi. 865. 

Jatf-u-la-tor, . [Lat., from jtmdatus, pa. 
par.'of jacuZor.J 

* 1. Ord. Lanff. .* One who throws or darts. 
2. Zool. : The Archer-fish (q.v.). 

* Jac-u-la'-tor-^, a. [Lat. Jaculatoriua, from 
jaculatus, pa. par. of jacvlor; Fr. jaculatoire.] 
Throwing or darting out suddenly ; uttered or 
thrown out suddenly or in short sentences ; 
ejaculatory. 

Jao'-u lus, . [Lat. = that which Is 'thrown ; 

a fishing-net ; a serpent which darts at its 

prey ; a noose thrown over the horns of cattle.] 

Zool. : A genus of Dipodida. Jas.ulus labra- 

doriut is the Labrador Jumping Mouse. 

jade (IX . [Etym. doubtful, probably of Teu- 
tonic origin,] 

L A sorry nag ; a broken-down, worthless 
horse. 

" They fall their crests, and like deceitful .tedot, 
Sink in the trial." Sluillcip. : Juliut Cmar.lv. 1 

2. An old woman, a wench, a quean. (Used 
in contempt.) 

"A faded old woman, a heathenish S<1/" 

Longfellow : Jiuitctan'l Tale, Iv. 

S. A young woman. (Not necessarily used 
in contempt.) 

"A soupta/ode she was and strang." 

Burnt: TainlfSltanttr. 

jade (2), >. [Sp. pietra di Ujada = kidney- 
stone. (King.)\ 

Min. : A massive or sometimes cryptocrys- 
talline silicate of magnesia, allied to horn- 
blende, with sp. gr. from 2-98 to 3-18, and 
hardness from 5'5 to 6'5. Dmmour divides it 
into *' Oriental Jade," with sp. gr. 2'96 to S'06 ; 
colours white and white variously tinted, 
greenish-gray, and many shades of green ; and 
"Oceanic Jade," sp. gr. 3'18, differing also 
from the former in possessing a silky lustre 
due to exceedingly delicate fibres. Found 
In situ in Central Asia, China, and New Zea- 
land. Much used for ornamental and other 
purposes by ancient peoples, having been 
found as implements In the remains of pre- 
historic lake-dwellings, and by Dr. Schlie- 
mann on the site of Troy. (For geographical 
distribution and archaeological uses, see Fixlter: 
Nepkrit v, Jadeit, Stuttgart, 1880.) 

Jade, !.<.&*. MADE (I),*.] 
A. Transitive: 

1. To ride or drive overmuch ; to overdrive. 

"It Is a dull thing to tire and jadt anything too 
far." Boeon. 



* 2. To treat as a Jade ; to spurn, to kick. 

" The honourable blood of Lancaster 
slust not be shed by such Ajadtd groom." 

SliutMP. : S Ittnry 17., tr. a, 

3. To tire out, to fatigue, to weary. 

" He that is timorous and flexible ... will be jattf* 
and be rid like an sea.* SoulA: Sermons, vol. Mi- 
ser. 4. 

* 4. To make appear like a jade ; to mak* 
appear ridiculous ; to befool. 

" On my wedding nUrht am I thus Jaded f 

Beaum. A ftet. : troman /'roe. i. L 

* B. Intrant. : To become weary or worn 
out ; to lose spirit. 

"Theyare promising In the beginning, but they Call 
andjode ami tire ill the prusecuuou." Hoattt: 

lade'-Ite, . [Named by Damour from jadt; 
suff. -ilt (Mte.).] 

Mln: A silicate of alumina, soda, a little 
lime, magnesia, and iron. Sp. gr. 3 '28 to 3-4 ; 
hardness, 6*5 to 7 ; colours, milky-white, w itu 
bright-green veins and splotches, various tints 
of greenish and blueish-gray, orange yellow, 
apple and emerald-green (all green shailes 
brighter than in oriental jade), rarely violet. 
The splinters fuse in the flame of a spirit- 
lamp. Damour, from analyses, suggests a 
relation to the cpidotes. Found in Central 
Asia, China (where, under the name of 
" Feitsui," It is much prized), and as articles 
worked by the Aztecs, in Mexico, (be* 
Fischer: Nephrit u. Jatleit, btuttgart, 1880. ) 

Jad'-er-ft * Jad'-er'-le, . [Eng. jade (l)j 
-ry.J The tricus or manners of a jade. 
" [He] seeks all foul means 
Of boystrous and rough jad'rie to Oieseat 
His lord." 

t&ukctp. t net. : Two Noble Kintmm, 9. 4 

Jad'-ish, a. [Bng. jad(e) (1) ; -i.J 

t L Like a jade ; vicious, Ill-tempered. 

" So, in this mongrel state of ours. 
The rabble are the supreme powers. 
That horsed us on their backs to show OS 
Ajfodfek trick at last, and throw us." 

Uutler : Hudibr!, lit a, 

* 2. Unchaste, Incontinent. 

" TIs no boot to be Jealous of a woman : for If th 
humour takes her to be iadlth, not all the locks and 
nies lu nature can keep her honest. "~L'JMranffe. 

Jag (IX " Jagg, * jagge, >. [Ir. gag = a cleft ; 
gagaim = to split or notch ; Gad. yog = a 
cleft ; gag = to split ; Wei. gagtn = a cleft] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. A notch, a ragged protuberance, a cleft, 
a denticulation. 

"These inner garments, thus beset with long tagget 
and purses, might shine agiiiue with varietieof threads 
scene quite through." 7'. Holland : Ammtanui, u. 11. 

2. A prick. 

" Affliction may 'gle htm a jagg." Scott : Heart nf 
HiMalhiaa. ch. ix. 

H. Bot. : A cleft or division. (Goodrkh it 
Porter.) 

jag-bolt, . A bolt with a barbed shank. 
Jag (2), . [Etym. doubtfuL] 

1. A small load, as of grain, hay, or straw. 

2. A saddle-bag, a pedlar's wallet 

Jag(lX.<. [JAo(i),..] 

1. To notch ; to cut into notches ; to torra 
denticulations in. 

"And vmlerueath his breech was all to-tnrne and 
itigyed." ajjfnter : f. Q., V. ix. 10. 

2. To prick, as with a pin or thorn. 

jag (2X .. UAO (2X .] To carry, as a load 

Jag-an na'-tha, Jag'-a-nat, jag gan- 
ath, i. (JUGGERNAUT.) 

Jag-a-tai', ft. [From Jagatal, the native name 
of Turkistan, from Jagalai, a son of Genghis 
Khan.] The dialect used by the inhauitautt 
of Turklstaa. 

"I could speak Janatai fairly well'S. ffDonaan: 
Uere Oatil, ch. xxxvi. 

Jag'-er, . [Etym. donbtfnl.) 

Ornith. : A name for the predatory guls ol 
the genus Lestris. (Swairuon.) 

Jag'-er-J'. . [JAGOKRY.J 
ja'-ger ant, . [JAZERAST.J 

Jag--ged, o. [JAO (1), .] 

1. Ord. Lang.: Having Jags at notches; 
notched; specif., in heraldry, applied to a 
division of the field or of the outlines of the 
ordinary, when appearing rough, as if forcibly 
torn away. 

2. Bot. : Cot In a coarse manner. 



boll, b65-; potlt, J6%1; cat, 90!!, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, af ; expect, Xenophon, exist. -Inft 
-oiaa. -tian = sharu -tion, slon = shun ; -fion, -sion = zhuu. -tious, -sious, -cioua onuo. -ble, -die, Ac. = bt}I, dfL 



2756 



jaggedness jalapinolic 



Jagged chickweed, s. 

Bot. : The genus Holosteum. R. umbeUa- 
turn, tin Umbelliferous Jagged Cbickweed, fa 
British. 

J&g g6d ness, 5. [Eng. jagged ; -ness.] The 
quality or state of being jagged or notched ; 
nnevenness. 

" Fint draw rudely your leare... making them plain, 
before you give them their veiru or jagyediHU." 
Peacham ; On Drawing. 

J*g ger (1), . [Eng. jag (1) ; -r.] 

1. One who or that which jags, 

2. A small wheel, mounted in a handle and 
used for crimping and ornamenting edges of 
pies, cakes, ta, or cutting them Into orna- 
mental shapes ; a jagging-iron. 

3. A toothed chisel. 

J&fiT-ger (2), *. [Eng. jag (2) ; -r.] One who 
carries a jag or wallet ; a pedlar. 

" I would take the lad for a jogger." Scott : Pirat*. 

Jatf-ger-Jr, Jag - gher - r?. JagT-Sr-?. 
Jag'-gor-jF, . [Hind, jagri.] 

Comm. : A kind of sugar separated from the 
Juice of the flower and stems of the cocoanut, 
Caryota urent, and some other palms. 

Jag ging, pr. par., a., & . [Jxo (1), .] 

A. & B. As pr. par. <t particip. adj. : (See 
' the verb). 

C. As sttbst. : The act of cutting in jags or 
notches. 

jagging board, i. 

Mttall. : An inclined board In a huddle or 
frame on which slimes of ore are deposited to 
be gradually washed by a current of water to 
the inclined bed where the slimes are sorted 
according to gravity. 

Jagging-iron, >. The same as JAOOER 
0), 2 (q.v.). 

Jag-g*. a. [Eng. jag; -y.] Full of or marked 
with jags ; jagged, uneven. 
" Her jam grin dreadful with three rows of teeth ; 
Jaggy they stand, the gaping den of death." 

Pop* : Homer ; odyitey xlL 114, 

Ja ghir, Ja ghcor, Ja'-geer, s. [Bind.] 
Land given by government as a reward for 
services, especially of a military character. 

Ja ghir dar, s. [Hind.] One holding a 
jaghir (q.v.). (Anglo-Indian.) 

Ja-gnar 1 (n as w), >. [Braz. jaguara.} 

Zool. : FfJis onca, a ferocious-looking feline 
animal, a little larger than a leopard, which 
it resembles In colour, except that in the 
jaguar the spots are arranged in larger and 
more definite groups. It is found in the 
southern part of the United States, through 
Mexico, Central America, and Brazil, as far 
south as Paraguay. It can climb trees and 
swim rivers. In some places its chief food is 
the capybara, bnt it will attack horses, cattle, 
and even man. 

Ja-guar Sn'-dl (u as w), >. [A South Ameri- 
can word.] 

Zool. : Felii jaguarondi, a small long-bodied 
feline animal, of a variable dark-brown colour, 
found in the thick forests of Brazil, Paraguay, 
and Guiana, where it feeds on fowls, small 
mammals, ic. 

Jab, s. [Heb. ^ (lah or Yah), au abbreviation 
of Jehovah in its older form.] (For def., see 
tym.) [JEHOVAH.] 

"Sing unto God. sing pralaes to his name: extol him 
that rideth upon the heavens by his name JAB." 
Plalm U viii. 4. 

jail,*. [Oxou] A prison; a place of confine- 
ment for persons Convicted of crime. 

* jail delivery, . 

1. Lit. : A judicial process for the release 
of prisoners from jail. It is effected by trial 
or by order of court. 

9. Fig. : A release from any confinement or 
restraint, as of the soul from the body. 

Jail-fever, s. 

Path. : The name given prior to A.D. 1759 
to a fever very prevalent in jails, where the 
nnhappy inmates were often half-starved. It 
was called also putrid, pestilential, malignant, 
camp or hospital fever. It is that now known 
as typhus fever (q.v.). 

jail-keeper, ,. A jailer. 



Jail, v. I. [JAIL.] To imprison. 

"Onewhoeebolto 
That/ofi you from free life.' 

T'nn t ton : Oium Marl. Ill i. 

ird, . [Eng. jail, and liirrf.] A person 
who has been imprisoned for crime ; an incor- 
rigible rogue. 

JaiT-w, "Jayl-r. "Jail-or, . [Eng. 
jail; -tr.] One having charge of a jail and its 
inmates. 

Jain, Jai-na, s. & a. [Sansc. ^m = vic- 
torious over all human passion and infirmities.] 

A. As subst. : A professor of the Jain faith* 

[JAINISK.] 

B. As adj. : Of or belonging to the Jains or 
their worship. 

J.-iln architecture, s. 

Arch. : The architecture of the Jains. Their 
chief seats in India being Guzerat and Mysore, 
the chief temples and ruins exist in those 
provinces ; the oldest are believed to be about 
Junaghar in Guzerat. There are fine ones on 
Mount Abu, a granitic mountain 5,000 or 
6,00v feet high, in the same province. One 
temple there is of date between A.D. 1197 
and 1247, another about A.D. 1032. In Jain 
architecture there is generally a horizontal 
dome supported by eight leading pillars, with 
other less important ones, the whole number 
in some cases amounting to fifty-six. There 
are cells as in Booddhist monasteries ; they 
are occupied, however, not by monks, but by 
the cross-legged Images of the Tirthankars, to 
whom it is dedicated. There is elaborate orna- 
mentation ; the temples are surrounded by 
porticos. Some Jain temples have been con- 
verted into mosques. (Fergutxm, &c.) 

Jain' -ism, s. [Goozerathee, Ac., Jain, from 
SauscTjma = victor over all human passions 
and infirmities ; sun", -ism.] 

Reliijioits: An Indian faith, most closely 
akin to Booddhism (q.v.). The Jains, like the 
Booddhlsts, disregard the authority of the 
Vedas. Like them, they give high adoration 
to mortal beings ; bnt while the Booddhists 
practically confine their worship to seven 
Booddhas, the Jains nominally recognize 
seventy-two viz., twenty-four for the past 
age, twenty-four for the present one, and 
twenty-four for the future. These are called 
Tirthankars or Tirthakars persons who have 
crossed over (tiryata anena) i.e. t the world 
compared to the ocean. They are then 
deified, and divine qualities are predicated of 
them in their present state. They are called 
supreme lords and gods of gods. Practically 
speaking, worship is confined to two of the 
Tirthankars, Parsanath and Mahavira. The 
latter is said to have been the preceptor and 
friend of Booddha. This would look as if the 
Jaina faith had preceded Booddhism, but the 
period of its greatest glory was the eleventh 
or twelfth century of the Christian era, just 
after Booddhism had been driven from India. 
Fergusson thinks that it actually existed prior 
to the rise of Booddhism, and that when the 
latter system fell, perishing under the weight 
of its immense priesthood and its legions of 
monks, an effort was made by Its friends to 
revive the old faith. But modern Hfndooism 
was shooting up so vigorously, that its exist- 
ence could not be ignored. Jainism was 
obliged to derive various tenets and practices 
from it, so that it berame rather a degenerate 
than a reformed Booddhism. 

'Jakes, s. [Etym. doubtful.] A house of 
office ; a privy. 

"Their toneU wen an horrible confuilon of all 
sort* of impieties, which flowed Into this eect as into 
a/afce*." Jorttn . Remark* on Lcclti. attt. (an. 379). 

* lakes-farmer, . One who contracted 
to clean out the public privies and drains. 

Ja'-kle, s. [A Guiana word (T).] 

Zool. : Pseudit paradom, a greenish frog, 
spotted and marked with brown, found in 
Guiana. 

Jal'-ap, s. [Fr. jalap; Sp. jalapa. Named 
from the city Xalapa or Jalapa In Mexico, 
whence the drug was first brought.] 

1. Phar. : The dried tubercles of Exogonium 
Purga. The true jalap is called also Vera 
Cruz jalap ; another kind, derived perhaps 
from Iprmcea simulant, is called Tampico 
jalap. The tubers of true jalap are ovoid, 
from the size of a nut to that of an orange. 
They are sometimes sliced ; the other kind is 



fusiform. The chief officinal preparations ol 
it are Extract of Jalap and Tincture of Jalap 
Jalap is a brisk purgative, and is also given as 
a hydragogue in dropsy. 
2. Botany: 

(1) The same as JALAP-PLANT (q.T.). 

(2) Ipomcea Jalapa. 

IT (1) Mirabilii jalapa was once erroneously 
supposed to be the true jalap, whence its 
specific name. The male jalap of Mestitlan 
is Ipomcea Batatoidea. 

(2) Resin of jalap: A resin obtained from 
jalap by means of rectified spirit. 

Jalap-plant, i. 

Hot. : Exogonium Purga, a beautiful convol. 
vulaceous twiner, with long crimson flowers. 

Jal'-a-pate, s. [Eng. jalap(ic) ; -ate.) 
Chem. : A salt of jalapic-acid (q.v.). 

Ja lap ic, a. [Eng. jalapine); -ic.] Derived 
from or in any way connected with jalapine 
(q.v.). 

Jalapio-acid, . 

CAtm. : CjjHjsOi?. A tribasic acid obtained 
by boiling jalapine with baryta-water, and, 
after accurately precipitating the barium with 
sulphuric-acid, evaporating the filtrate to dry- 
ness. It Is au amorphous, yellowish, brittle 
mass, melting a little above 100', very soluble 
in water and in alcohol, less so in ether. It 
is odourless, but possesses an unpleasant, 
bitter taite. When heated on platinum foil 
to 130", it decomposes, burning with a bright, 
sooty flame. Jalapic-acid unites with baSM 
forming salts, in which one, two, and three 
atoms of hydrogen are replaced by the same 
number of atoms of the metals. The jalapates 
are all amorphous. When an aqueous solu- 
tion of Jalapic-acid is boiled with dilute sul- 
phuric-acid, a brown semi-crystalline mass U 
formed. By boiling this mass with baryta- 
water, and filtering when cold, alpha jalapic- 
acid is formed in the mother liquor. It crys- 
tallizes in white, flexible needles, which melt 
at 78 to a pale yellow oil. It Is soluble in 
alcohol and in ether, and slightly soluble In 
water. 

Jar -a pin, Jal a pine, .. [Eng., &c. jalap; 
suff. -in, -ine (Chen.) (q.v.).] 

1. Chem. : An amorphous glucoside exist- 
ing, together with convolvuline, in the tubeni 
of officinal Jalap root. In order to prepare it, 
the jalap root must be several times extracted 
with water, aud then with alcohol, the colour 
removed by animal charcoal, and the Nitrate 
evaporated to dryness on a water-bath. The 
residue is then dissolved in alcohol, filtered, 
and the glucoside precipitated by means of 
ether, when pure, it is a colourless, odour- 
less, tasteless, amorphous mass, very soluble 
in alcohol and dilute acids, slightly soluble in 
water, but insoluble in ether. It dissolves 
readily in the fixed alkalis, and is not repre- 
cipiUted by acids, having been converted into 
amorphous convofvulic-acid, which is soluble 
in water. When heated to 100*, it becomes 
brittle, and may be rubbed down to a white 
powder. It softens at 123% and melts at 150* 
to a pale yellow syrup. At a higher tempera- 
ture it takes fire, and burns with a sooty 
flame, emitting a pungent, empyrenmatic 
odour. When dissolved in strong sulphuric- 
acid, the solution acquires a beautiful purple 
colour, which changes to a brown, and finally 
to a jet black. 

2. Comm, : The jalapin of the shops is the 
resin of jalap, extracted by spirit from the 
tubers, and afterwards precipitated by water. 

jal-a-pln-ol', . [Eng. jalapin, and <rf(etn).] 
Chem. : 2C ]6 HaoO3,H 2 O. A white crystal- 
line body, prepared by adding fuming hydro- 
chloric acid to a concentrated, aqueous solu- 
tion of jalapic-acid, and leaving it to itself till 
the mixture has solidified to a thick rrystall e 
mass. On washing the product on a filter 
with cold water, and recrystallizing several 
times from alcohol, pure jalapinol is obtained. 
It is inodorous, feels fatty to the touch, melts 
at 62", and solidifies at 59 to a hard, brittle, 
crystalline mass. It is insoluble in water, 
but soluble in alcohol and in ether. 

Jal a-pln'-o-late, s. [Eng. jalapinol; -oto.] 
Chem. : A salt of jalapinolic-acid. 

Jal-a-pln-ol'-Ic, a. [Eng. jalapinal ; fc.) 
Derived from or in any way connected with 
jalapiuol (q.v.). 



lite, fat, fare, amidst, what, tall, father; we, wet. here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pSt, 
r, wore, wolf, work, whd, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full ; try, Syrian. 88, ce = e ; ey = a, Q.U = kw. 



jalouse jampanee 



2757 



Jalaplnollc-acld, .. 

Chem. : CigH^O^ A monobasic acid pro- 
' duced by treating jalapinol with caustic alka- 
lis, or by heating gradually a mixture of 
jalapin and sodium hydrate, and decomposing 
the sodium jalapinolate by means of hot 
acidulated water. On cooling, jalaplnolic- 
acid separates in the solid form. It is in- 
odorous, but has an irritating taste, insoluble 
in water, but soluble in alcohol and in ether. 
It crystallizes from alcohol in the form of 
white tufts of needles. It melts at 65, and 
solidities at 62 to a white, crystalline, brittle 
mass. At a higher temperature it decom- 
poses, emitting a pungent odour, which at- 
tacks the eyes and throat. It forms salts 
called jalapinolates. 

Jal ouso , v.t. [A form of JEALOUS (q.v.).] 
To suspect, guess, doubt. 

" \ialotutd him, sir. no to be the friend to govern- 
ment he pretends. Scott Old Mortality, eh. ii. 

Jal'-ou-Jle (J as zh), . [Fr., from jalottx = 
jealous (q.v.).] A louvre-window or Venetian 
shutter. 

lal'-pa-ite, s. [Named by Breithaupt after 
its locality Jalpa, Mexico; suff. -Ue (Min.) 

(q.v.).] 

Min. : Jalpaite is a cupriferous sulphide of 
silver, with isometric cleavage, and malleable. 
Colour blackish, lead-gray ; sp. gr., 6'87 to 6-89. 

jam (1), s. [Etym. doubtful : 8k eat connects 
it with JAM, v. (q.v.).] A conserve of fruit 
boiled with sugar and water. 

Jam (2), s. [Pen. & Hind. jdmaJi = dress.] 

1. A kind of muslin dress worn in India. 

2. A child's frock. 

Jam (3), s. [JAM, .] A crush, a squeeze ; a 
crowd or block of people. 

Jam(4),. [JAMB.] 

Jam, v.t. [Of doubtful origin : according to 
Skeat the same as cham or champ = to chew, 
to tread heavily ; also as adj. hard, firm.] 

J, To wedge in, to press, to crush, to 
queeze. 

" In a stage-coach with lumber crammed 
Between two bulky Ixxlies^'amm'd." 

Lloyd : Eputle to J. B., Kff. 

2. To tread hard ; to make hard and firm 
by treading, as land by cattle. (Provincial.) 

jam-nut, >. An auxiliary nut screwed 
down upon another one to hold it ; a check- 
nut, lock-nut, or piuchiug-nut- [NUT-LOCK.] 

Jam weld, s. 

Forging : A weld in which the heated ends 
or edges of the parts are square-butted against 
each other and welded. 

Jam a dar, s. [.TAMIDAR.] 

Ja-mai'-ca, s. [O. Sp. Xaymaca = a country 
abounding in springs.] 

Geog. : The name of a large island In the 
Vest Indies. 

Jamaica-dogwood, s. 

Bot. : Piscidia Erythrina. 
Jamaica ebony, . 
Bot. : Amerimnum or Brya Ebenut. 
Jamaica kind, s. 

Phar. : An extract made from the bark of 
Coccolttba nrifrni, the West Indian seaside 
grape. 

Jamaica lace-bark tree, .. 

Bot. : Lagetta lintearia. 
Jamaica milkwood, s. 
Bot.: (1) The same as ALLSPICE (q.T.); (2) 
Srosinium spitrium. 

Jamaica pepper, s. 
Bot. : Pimenta vulgaris, 
Jamaica-redwood, i. 

Hot. : Gordonia- Hosmatoxylon. 
Jamaica-rose, s. 

ot. : The genus Heriana. 

fa mat can, s. & a. [Eng., &o. Jamaica); 
suff. -an.] 

A. As subst. : A native or inhabitant of 
Jamaica. 

B. As adj. : Belonging to, produced in, or 
in any way connected with Jamaica (q.v.). 



Jamaican stcnoderm, s. 

Zool. : Stenoderma jamaicense, a fruglvorous 
bat, feeding chiefly on Achras Sapota, the 
Jamaica naseberry. 

Ja-ma'-I-'cIne. . [Mod. Lat (Geoffroya) 
jamaic(ensis) ; suff. -tn.] 

Chem. : An alkaloid discovered by Hlitten- 
schmid in the bark of Geoffroya jama'icmsis, a 
leguminous tree growing in Jamaica and in 
Surinam. To obtain it, the powdered bark is 
boiled with water, and the solution evaporated 
to a syrup. Freshly-ignited charcoal in 
powder is then added, and the jamaicine ex- 
tracted from the mixture by repeated treat- 
ment with boiling alcohol. It crystallizes in 
yellowish-brown needles, which are soluble in 
boiling water and In alcohol, but insoluble in 
ether. It melts at 98 to a brownish-red 
liquid ; at a higher temperature It swells up 
very much, and bums, giving off an odour of 
roasted cocoa. It is inodorous, very bitter, 
and neutral to vegetable colours. The salts of 
jamaicine are bitter, crystalline, and soluble 
In water and in alcohol. 

jam'-a-na, . [JACANA.] The same as the 
JACANA (q.v.). (Swainson.) 

Jamb (6 silent), 'Jam, "Jaum, * Jambe, 
"Jaumbe, s. [Fr. jami= the leg or shank, 
a jamb of a door, 
from Low Lat. 
gamba = a hoof. 
Cf. Hal. & Sp. 
gamba = the leg.] 
1. Arch. : The 
upright sides of 

an aperture, as a - ,,,, 

doorway, window, fgtJM- 
or fireplace, and 
supporting the 
lintel,entablature, 
or mantel. 

"The beam*, and 
pillars also sustain. 
Ing the said build. 




JAMB AND FITTINGS. 
A. Architrave. B. Ploughed 
ground. C. Door. D. Rab- 
beted Joint f. Quarter. 



ing, yea, the jamiiet, posts, principals, and standerds, 
all of the same mettall? P. MaUand: flinit, bk. 

xxxiii., ch. ill. 

2. Mining : A pillar of ore in a mine. 
Jamb lining, s. 

Carp. : The vertical boarding on the sides 
of a doorway. 

jamb-post, i. 

Carp. : One of the uprights on the sides of 
a doorway or window. 

jamb-stone, s. 

Arch. : One of the stone pillars on the 
sides of a doorway or of a window. 

* jamb (6 silent), v.t. [JAM, t.\ 
Jam'-bart, J. [JAMBE.] 

Jambe (pi. jambes, * jam-benx, "Jam- 
beaux), i. [Fr. jomie = the leg.) [JAMB, s.J 
Old Armour : A leg or shin-piece of cuir- 
bouilli or metal worn during the fourteenth, 
fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, but espe- 
cially during the reign of Richard 1L 

* Jam' -bee, s. [O. Fr. jamboier = to walk ; 
jambe = the leg.] A walking-stick or cane. 

* Jam-beiuc, . pi [JAMBE.] 

Jam bo-la'-na, a. [The native name.] 
Bot. : The Java plum (q.v.). 

jam bo ree', . A reckless frolic or carousal. 
(U.S. Slang.) 

Jam-bo'-sa, . [Malay schamtm the name 
of one of the species.] 

Hot. : A sub-genus of Eugenia. It contains 
the Rose Apple, Jambosa vulgaris (Eugenia 
Jambos), and the Malay Apple, /. matacceiisis. 
Both are from the East. About thirteen 
species are cultivated in British greenhouses. 

Jam dar I, s. [Hind. jamah = a robe, dress.] 
Fabric : A Dacca muslin woven with figures 
of flowers and other ornaments. 

James, . [Fr. Jame, Jacques; Lat. Jacobus; 
Or. 'Ii*uot (lakobot); Heb. 3^; (Iaaqob) = 
Jacob (q.v.).] 

Scrip. Hist. : The name certainly of two, and 
possibly of three, persons mentioned in the 
New Testament. 

1. James, the son of Zebedee, and the 
brother of the apostle John, himself also 



being an apostle (Matt. iv. 21, 22, X. 2, Jtvii. 1; 
Mark i. 19, 20, iii. 17, ix. 2, xiii. 3. xiv. 33; 
Luke vi. 14 ; Acts i. 13). He was martyred 
under Herod Agrippa 1., A.D. 44 (Acts xii. 2). 
2. James, the son of Alphaeus, also an 
apostle (Matt. x. 3; Mark iii. 18; Luke 
vi. 15 ; Acts i. 13). It lias been greatly de- 
bated whether James, " the Lord's brother," 
mentioned in GaL i. 19, was the same with 
the son of Alplueus. If in this passage the 
word "apostle " is used in its usual technical 
sense, they are clearly identified, for there 
were only two Jameses apostles. If used in a 
loose sense, they may have been different. A 
James, probably the same one, " seemed to 
be " a " pillar," like Cephas and John (Gal. ii. 9). 
This James apparently had strong Jewish 
proclivities, finding fault with those Jewish 
Christians who ate with Gentile convert* 
(Gal. ii. 12). It was probably he who presided 
over the Council of Jerusalem mentioned In 
Acts xv., and he seems to have had apostolic 
charge of the mother church at that city 
(Acts xii. 17, xv. 13, xxi. 18). He was called 
"the Less," either from being younger than 
James the son of Zebedee, or from being 



shorter than he in stature (Mark xv. 40). 
[1.] His mother's name was Mary (Matt. 
xxvii. 56 ; Mark xv. 40 ; Luke xxiv. 10), and 



he was brother to Jude or Judas (Mark vi. 3 ; 
Jude 1). 

If Epistle of St. James: 

New Testament Canon: The first of the 
catholic or general epistles. The apostle 
James, the son of Zebedee, died too early to have 
been its author. [JAMES,!.] It was penned by 
either James, the son of Alphaeus, or James, 
the brother of our Lord, if the two were diffe- 
rent; by the apostle who bore both designa- 
tions if they were the same. It was addressed 
to the twelve tribes scattered abroad i.e., to 
the Jewish converts to Christianity beyond 
the limits of Palestine. Its teaching is in 
disconnected portions, and treats more of 
conduct than of belief, though the indispen*- 
sableness of faith to efficacious prayer ii 
strongly insisted on (i. G). Portions of it look 
antagonistic to the teaching of St. Paul (cf. 
Rom. iii. 28 with James ii. 21, 25), and most 
rationalists believe that the antagonism ix 
real. But faith is used in a different sense 
in James from that which it obtains in the 
Pauline writings. What Paul calls simply 
"faith," James would term a living faith. 
and it is not against it but against a dead 
faith that he contends (ii. 17). The epistle 
was written probably at Jerusalem. Its date 
is uncertain. It has been fixed in A.D. 44 or 
45, in A.D. 60, in A.D. 62, and not till the 
second century. Clement of Rome seems to 
have referred to it, and perhaps Hennas. 
Origen expressly mentions it as the epistle 
ascribed to Kt. James (Comment, on John, torn. 
xix.). It figures in the Syrian Version of the 
New Testament. It was ranked by Eusebiua 
among his Antilogoumena. In A.D. 397 the 
Council of Carthage placed it in the canon. 
Though Luther spoke disrespectfully of it, 
yet it is now generally accepted as a portion 
of Divine Scripture. 

James, . [From the name of its first corn- 
pounder.] 
James's powder, s. 

Phar. : Oxide of Antimony, 8bO 3 or Sb-jOg. 
It is preiiared by pouring a solution of ter- 
chloride of antimony into water, and then treat 
ing it with carbonate of soda, the product 
beingoxideof antimony and chloride of sodium. 
The oxide is afterwards washed and dried at a 
heat not exceeding 212% (Garrod.) 

Jame'-S&n-Ite, s. [Named by Haidingcr after 
Prof. Jameson ; suff. -ite (Min.) (q.v.).] 

Min. : Essentially a sulphide of lead and 
antinlony, represented by the formula | PbS + 
SbsSg. Orthorhombic in crystallization, with 
highly perfect basal cleavage. Hardness, 2 to 
3 ; sp. gr. 5*5 to 5*8. Mostly occurs in fibrous 
masses, originally in Cornwall, but subse- 
quently at many other places. 

James'-town, s. [A place in Virginia.] 
Jamestown weed, s. 
Bot. : An American name for Datura (q.v.X 
Jam' -pan, 5. [Japanese.] A sedan-chair, 
supported between two bamboo -poles, and 
borne by four men. (East Indies.) 

Jam-pan-ee ', 5. [Eng. jampan ; -. \ One oi 
the bearers of a jampan. 



bo~y ; poiit, J<iwl ; cat, 90!!, chorus, ^hin, bench; go, gem; thin, this, sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph I 
-tian = shan. -tion, -sion = shun; tion, sion = zhun. tious, -clous, aiou = shiis, -We, -die, &c. = b*l, del* 



3758 



Jamrosade Japan 



Jsvm'-ros ade, . [Sansc. jamtu = the rose 
apple, aud Lat. row, with sulf. -ode (?).J 

ot : The rose-apple (q.v.). 
Jan, & [Arab.] An inferior demon. 
Jau'-oa, >. [A Spanish West Indian word.) 

Janca tree, <. 

Lot,: Atnyris toxifera. (Amer.) 
' Jane (1), * Jean, . l\ corrupt of GESOA.] 

1. A coin of Genoa ; a small cola. 

2. [JEAN]. 

Jane (2), J. [Fr. Jeanne, the fern, of Jea* = 
John.] A woman's name. 

* Jane of apes, a. The female counter- 
part of Jackanapes (q.v.)j a pert, forward 
girl. 

"Hen'ijon^>/-<i/xi hall serve.' 

Jtoettoifer: Uononm III. a, 

Jan ga' da, s. [Fort.] A kind of raft-boat 
used la Brazil and Peru. 

J&n'-gle, " gan-gle, * Jan'-gly\ .{. A (. 
[p. Fr. jangler, a word of imitative origin ; cf. 
But. jangalen = to Importune, from janken-= 
to howl ; Low Ger. janken = to yelp like a 
dog ; Lat. gannio = to yelp, to talk loudly.] 

A. Intransitive : 

L To quarrel or bicker in words ; to wrangle. 

''Then to jangle toAto jape." 

f.m>mitom.U.tt. 

2. To chatter. 

"I'll v Diinil is lorn, thon janotote ae a lay.' 

MMMTJ <?. r., MM. 
& To sound harshly or discordantly. 

"To MW njanalina uolst of words unknown." 

lliluu: P.L..M.U. 

B. Transitive: 

1. To cause to sound harshly ordiscordantly. 

"Now MO that noble and that sovereign reason, 
Like sweet bt:\lJaiitiled out of time and harsh." 
Skaketp. : IJamla, til z. 

2. To utter in a discordant or harsh manner. 

" III our vene ere monkish rhlraee 
ElA Jangled their fiuitaatick chimes." 

Prior I rrotoyenet * April*. 

H There is in jangling more of cross ques- 
tions and perverse replies than direct differ- 
ences of opinion ; those jangle who are out of 
humour with each other ; there is more 
of discordant feeling and opposition of opinion 
in jarring ; those who have no good will to 
each other will be sure to jar when they come 
In collision ; and those who indulge them- 
selves in jarring will soon convert affection 
into ill will. Married people may destroy the 
good humour of the com]iany hy jangling, but 
they destroy their domestic peace and felicity 
by jarring. To wrangle is, technically, what 
to jangle is morally : those who dispute by a 
Terbal opposition only are said to wrangle ; 
and thedisputers who engage in this scholastic 
exercise are termed wranglers. 

Jan gle, s. [JANGLE, c.) Wrangling, quarrel- 
ling, prate, chatter ; a discordant sound. 

" This aouiunour, which that was as ful ot janylft." 
Chaucer: C. T., 6.989. 

Jan-gler, 'Jan glour.. lEag.jangl(e); -er.] 
A wrangling, chattering, prating fellow; a 
wrangler. 

" Mmglcr Is to God ahhoralnable.* 

Chaucer : C. ! 17.392. 

jjaft'-gler-esse, s. [Eng. jangler ; -eise .] A 
female jangler ; a noisy, wrangling womaa 

"Thlse worries ben undt-rstonde of women that ben 
tartglrrvuet and wicked." Chaucer: Tale of Melibeut. 

Jan'-gler-y', * jan-gler-le, "Jan-glar- 

le,. [Eug. jangle; -rj/.J Wrangling, chatter, 
bickeriug. 

*' The j'tnglerie of women ne can nothing hide." 
CJuHtcer : Tale of Xelibeui. 

Jan'-gllng, s. [Eng. jangl(e} ; -ing.] Wrang- 
ling, bickering, quarrelsomeness. 

* Jan glour, a. [JANOLER.] 

Jan'-l-pha, . [Brazilian janipaba, the name 
of the plaut.) 

But. : A genus of Euphorbiacew, tribe Cro- 
'toneae. Jinipha manihot is the Manioc (q.v.), 
formerly Jatropha manihot, now generally 
called Manihot utiltesima. [MANIHOT. J 

Jan'-Is-sar-y\ s. [JANIZARY.] 

Jan'-I-tor, s. [Lat., from janva = a door.J A 
doorkeeper; a porter; a man ho haa the 
general care of a building or part thereof, sees 
to its cleaning, locks it up and unlocks it, Ac. 

jan'-I-tr6ss, i. A female janitor. 



* Jin'-I-trix, s. [Twined from Lat. janitor, 

with feui. sutf. -ix.J 

1. Ord. Lang. : A female doorkeeper ; a 

portress. 

"The complalkwuit old janttrix ahnt tlie door In 
their fawM." a, Warrm. : Ten Thousand a y-xtr. ch. li. 

t 2. Anat. : A large vein ; the vena porta. 
J&n-I-z&r', s. [JANIZARY.] 

j-in-I-MUP'-i'-.^n., a. (Eng. janizary; -a.] 
Of or pertaining to the janizaries or their 
government. 

**I never th&Il no Ur Injure tkejanitarian republlck 
of Atglerm." flMrt.- Jt-vicidt PKU*. L 

J&n'-I-eE^r-^, jin'-If -*ar-^, . [0. Fr. ant*. 
saire, froia Turk, yeni new, t askari =a sol- 
dier.] A soldier of the old Turkish footguunl ; 
originally young prisoners trained to arms ; 
they were first organized by Oscar about A.D. 
1330, and remodelled by his son Amurath I., 
In A.D. 1360. They formed the Imperial body- 
guard. In consequence of their rising against 
the Sultan, they were abolial.nd on June 17. 
1826. 

"We see example.) In the /anteariiu and pretoiian 
bfcads of Roue." Bacott: uoyj; O/ " ' 



Jan'-ker, . [Etym. doubtful.] A long pole 
on two wheels, used in transporting luiis. 
(Scotch.) 

Jan nock. >. [Prob. a corruption of oamtodb 
(q.v.).] Oat-bread. (Scotch.) 

**Thelr bread was of oatmeal . . . baked In the form 
of a loaf called jannw-k, which is said to have been In. 
troduced by the refugee Flemings.' Tecktioinyiit, 
Dec. 1K1. p. IU. 

Jan' nook, a. & s. [Cf. Gael, ionannach = fair.] 

A. Asadj: Fair, just, straightforward. 

B. Astuljst.: Fairness, fairplay. 

Jan -sen ism, >. [For etytn. set def.] 

Church History : 

1. The tenet of a sect or party in the Roman 
Church, named after Cornelius Janseuius, 
bishop of Ypres in the Netherlands, who 
died A.D. 1640. After his decease a work 
of his was published, called Augustinus, in 
which Jansenius stated and explained the 
views of St. Augustine, mostly in that Chris- 
tian father's own words. At the instigation 
of the Jesuits, the Inquisition at Home, in 
1641, prohibited the work from being read, 
and, in 1642, Pope Urban VIII. pronounced 
it to be contaminated with several long con- 
demned errors. The doctors of Louvain took 
the part of Jansenius, gaining many adherents 
to their views. John du Verger de Hauranne, 
abbot of St. Cyran or Siegeran, who was be- 
lieved to have aided Jansensins In compiling 
the A'KjH*tiiu'*, introduced the system Into 
France. On May 31, 16i3, Po] Innocent X 
declared four out of five propositions extracted 
from Jansenius's work heretical, and a fifth, 
rash, irreligious, and Injurious to God. The 
celebrated jurist, Anthony Arnanld, accepting 
the principal statement that the views were 
censurable, maintained that they were not in 
Jansenius, nor had the Pope stated expressly 
that they were, on which, on Oct. 16, 1S56, 
Pope Alexander VII. declared that the con- 
demned propositions were those of Janseuius. 
The other party were then driven to asserting 
that the Pope might err as to a matter of 
fact though not in one of doctrine, especially 
when unaided by a general Council ; while 
the Jesuits, on the other side, maintained his 
infallibility both with regard to facts and 
doctrinal opinions. The Jesuits had accommo- 
dated their system to the views of courtiers 
and men of the world, among whom their 
strength lay ; the Jansenists evoked the en- 
thusiasm of the common people by manifes- 
tations of piety and devotedness. There was 
in a deep and narrow valley near Paris a 
nunnery, called Port Royal In the Fields. 
Its first abbess was Jacqueline, one of the 
daughters of Anthony Amauld who after- 
wards bore the name of Maria Angelica de 8. 
Magdalena. Its inmates were enthusiastic 
supporters of Jansenism. Jansenist peni- 
tents, of both sexes, built for themselves 
| cottages without the precincts of the cloister. 
Some were able men, and the authors of Port 
Royal became celebrated. One was Blaise 
Pascal. In 1709, Louis XIV., at the instigation 
of the Jesuits, ordered the nunnery to oe de- 
molished, and two years later had the bodies 
buried there disinterred, and rebnrled In other 
places. In 1698, Father Quesnel, then the 
head of the Jansenist party, published a work 
called Moral Observation* en the New Tetta- 



mtnt. Against this production Pope Clement 
XI. in 1713 fulminated the Bull Unigenilut, 
and those who did not accept It were cruelly 
treated. This drove them to fanaticism in- 
stead of crushing their spirit. Miracles were 
said to have been wrought again and again in 
vindication of the Jansenist doctrines. Con- 
vulsianaries and Flagellants sprang up. The 
Jansenist troubles continued more than a 
century, and even yet there are Jansenist 
churches in Holland at Utrecht and Haarlem. 

" Perhaj* the beet description of JanlenUm Is that 
It was a profeesed attempt Co restore the ancient doc 
trine and discipline of the Church." Audit* Arnold j 
C'OJA. Dti-t., p. t 

2. An opinion or utterance characteristic of 
JaiiMc.nist teaching. 



" It Is eaay to ear that thea . . . Mack Ja*tent*mt 
no fruit of the tree, but the prod 



. . iluce of a men) 
Marltn : r<Main (1172), 1>. *. 



gralt' 

Jan' scn-ist, . 4 a. [For etym. see def.] 

A. At sutist. : A follower of Cornelius Jau- 
scnius. [JANSENISM.] 

Nobody admitted he waa a JavamfM.* Ad<lt ) 
Arnold : Vath. fHct. p. 406. 

B. At ad}. : Pertaining to, or characteristic 
of Jansenism (q.v.). 

* jant, s. & r. [JAUNT.] 
Jan'-thm a, s. [IANTBINA.] 



lftodn. UAUOTILT.] 
* Jant'-i-ncss, . [JACHTINESS.] 

Jan'-tu, . [Hind.] A water-raising machlna 
of great antiquity, used In Bengal for irriga- 
tion. It is a trough, cnunterweighted by an 
extended arm and balanced across a bar. As 
the trough end descends, it dips water, and. 
as it rises, the water runs towards the axis of 
vibration, and escapes at a lateral orifice into 
a trough, which conducts it to the field. 

Jan'-tJ, a. [JAUSTT.) 

Jan'-U-ar-jr, . [Lat. Januarint, from th* 
god Janus (q.v.).;] The name given to tba 
iirst month of the year. 

Jan'-us, i. [Lat., from Janua = a door.] 

Roman ATythoL : One of the most celebrated 
divinities of ancient Rome, and the only ona 
having no equivalent iu the Grecian mytho- 
logy. He was represented as a son of Apollo, 
and as having built a small town on the Tiber, 
which he called Janiculum. As the name 
implies, Janus was the god of doors and gates, 
ana in token of his office carried a key in his 
hand. The first month of the English year re- 
ceives Its name from him, and he presided over 
the dawn of every day and the commencement 
of every undertaking. Janus was usually re- 
presented with two beads, looking In opposite 
directions. His temple at Rome was kept 
open In the time of war, and shut in time of 
peace. 

Janus-cloth, . A fabric having each sids 
dressed, and different colours on the respec- 
tive sides. (Used for reversible garments.) 

Janus face, . A double-face ; deceit- 
ful lace. 

" The Janut-faoe of courtly pride." 

Tltamton : Liberty, IT. oil 

Janus-faced, a. Double-faced ; double- 
dealing ; two-faced. 

Janus headed, a. Double-headed. 
Jap, t. A Japanese. (U. 8. Oollaq.) 
Ja-pan', . [See def. L] 

1. The name of an island lying E.N.K. at 
China. 

2. A hard, black varnish, obtained from the 
Stagmaria vemiciflua of the East Indies. 

3. An asphaltnra Tarnish. 

4. Work varnished and figured In the Ja- 
panese style, 

* 5. A black cane. 

"You must always carry a coujurlng/apan m you 
hand." Quoe*** Academy (1B78). 



Japan-black, . The same as 

LACQUER (q.V.). 

Japan-cedar, . 

Lot. : Cryptomeria jftponica. 

Japan-clover, . 

Dot. : A low annnal plant (Letpedeza ftrieta), 
a native of Eastern Asia, introduced In sonn 
unknown manner, before 1845, into the South- 
ern States of North America, where it has 



Ote, at, fare, amidst, what, fall, father : trt, wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
w, wore, wolf, work, whd, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, onr. rule. fiiU ; try. Syrian. , o = e ; ey = a. qn = kw. 



japan -jargon 



2759 



pread with great rapidity. It grows to the 
height of a little over a foot on the poorest 
oil, and is much used as fodder. (Aiinantiale.) 

Japan earth, s. 

Tanning: Terra japonica, catechu, cutch. 
An astringent matter obtained from theorem 
Catechu and Acacia Catechu, used in tanning. 

Japan-ink, .*. A writing-ink which has 
a dark, glossy colour when dry. 

Japan lacquer, s, A kind of hard black 
varnish used in japanning, and obtained from 
Stagmaria vermcijlua, a tree belonging to the 
natural order Anacardiacese. It is very acrid 
and excoriates and blisters the skin. 

Japan lacquer-tree : Stagmaria vernicijtua, 

Japan-Illy, *. 

Bot. : Lilium japonicum. The flowers, which 
are white with a streak of blue, are seven 
inches across ; the whole plant is five feet high. 

Japan-medlar, . 

Bot, : Diospyros kaki. 
Japan-pig, . 

Zool. : Sus plicipes, a breed of pigs with the 
kin in thick folds. Called also the Masked Pig. 

Japan-varnish, . [JAPAN, s., 2.] 

Japan-varnish tree: Stagmaria vemiciflua. 
Japan-whale, a. 

ZoeL : Balasna japonica. It Is black above, 
paler below, and extends through the Pacitic 
from Japan to America, 

Ja pan, v.i. [JAPAN, a.) 

L Tocoatwood, metal, orpaperwith a thick 
coat of hard brilliant varnish. Japanning in- 
volves the baking of the varnished article. The 
Japanese employ a lacquer obtained from a 
tree (Rhus vernix) by making incisions In the 
trunk and collecting the juice ; this is at first 
like cream, but becomes black by exposure to 
the air. Their process is said to be as follows : 
After the juice has assumed a deep black 
colour, finely pulverized charcoal is added to 
it The lacquer is applied to an article in 
several successive coats, each being dried in 
the sun before the next is put on. It soon 
becomes extremely hard, and is polished with 
a smooth stone and water until it becomes as 
smooth as glass. On this surface ornaments 
and figures are traced with a brush dipped in 
a varnish of boiled oil and turpentine. Before 
this is quite dry, gold or silver leaf is laid on, 
and the whole afterwards receives a finishing 
coat of varnish. 

* 2. To give a polish and gloes to boots. 

M Aitli with ooot the MW Japanning *.rt.* 

0f.~ Trivia, bk. H. 

Jap an e^e, a. & . [Eng. Japan; -e.J 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to Japan or 
its inhabitants. 

" Silk, cotton, and Japanete article* of furniture,* 
Coo* : Third ravage, bk.vL.ch.viL 

B. As substantive : 

1. A native or inhabitant of Japan. 

2. The language spoken in Japan. 
Japanese-deer, a, 

Zool. : Cervus sika, 

Japanese - humpback, Japanese 

humpback whale, . 

Zool, : Megaptera kuzira, extending through 
the Pacific from Japan to California and 
Aleutia. 

Japanese silk, a. 

Fabric: A kind of dress goods having a 
linen chain and silken weft. 

Ja panned , pa. par. or a. [.JAPAN, r.J (See 
the compound.) 

Japanned-leather, s. Leather treated 
with several coats of Japan-varnish and dried 
lu a stove. 

Ja-pan'-ner, . [Eng. Japan ; *er.] 

L One whose business is to japan wares. 

* 2. A shoeblack. 

" They change their weekly barber, weekly newt, 
Prefer a nevrjapannfr to thvir shoes."* 

Pap* : Brac* * Zpiitlei, bk. L. ep. t., 1M. 

Ja-pan'-nlng, pr. far., o.,&*. [JAPAN,!),] 
A. A B. As pr. par. & particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As tubst. The art of coating wood, 
metal, or paper with a thick coat of hard, 
brilliant varnish. It originated in Japan. 



Ja-pan'-nish, a. [Eng. Japan ,- -;*k.\ Of or 
pertaining to Japan ; resembling Japanese art 
or wares. 

"Hovering between the raflaelesque ami the Japan- 
it}t,"Carlyl* : Life <y- Merlin<j. uh. vi. 

*Jape, T.L&t. [Etym. doubtfnl, but probably 
the same as GAB (q.v.).] 

A. Intrans. ; To jest, to play tricks, to 
amuse oneself. 

" It was DO tyme with hym to JajM nor toye." 

tiketton : Uouye <tf Courts. 

B. Trans. : To mock, to deride, to cheat. 
"Thus hath he Japed tbee ful many a yere. 

Chaucer: C. T., 1.788. 

* Jape, *. [JAPE, r.J A Jest, a trick, a joke. 

" And thus with feyned flaterle and japtt, 
He made the peraoun ami the j>eople his apes.' 

Chaucer ; C. T.. 707. 

*jap'-er, *. [Eng. jap(e); -er.} A jester, a 
buffoon, a trickster, a deceiver. 

" After this cometh the slnne of j'ipert, that ben the 
devil's apes." Chaucer : Pertvnet Tale. 

*Jap'fer-$?, *Jap'-er-ie', s. [Eng.^ap*; -ry.] 
Jesting, buffoonery, trickery. 

" They make folk to lauph at hir/ap^rto. as folk Anu 
at the gaudea of an ape." Chaucer ; 1'irtonet Tale, 

' Ja-pSf-3f-d, s. pi. [From Japhet, one of 
the sons of Noah.] 

Anthrop. : Dr. Latham's name for one of 
the three great divisions into which he divides 
the family of Man, the others being the Mon- 
golidae and Atlantidae. The Japetidse com- 
prise those nations also known as Indo-Euro- 
pean (q.v.). 

Ja-phe't'-aC, a. [Eng. Japhet; -<c.] Of, per- 
taining to, or descended from Japhet. 

Ja-pon'-ic (1), a. [Mod. Lat. Japonicus = of 
or belonging to Japan.] 

Japonic-province, s. 

Zool, & Geol. : A province of shells. It em- 
braces the Japanese Islands and the Oorea. 
(S. P. Woodward : MoUusoa.) 

Ja-pon'-ic (2), o. [Lat. (terra) japonica^ 
Japan-earth (q.v.).] (See compound.) 

Japonic acid, s, 

Chem. : C^HioOjs* An acid produced by 
exposing to the action of the air, a solution of 
catechiu in caustic potash. It is a black sub- 
stance slightly soluble in water, insoluble in 
alcohol and ether, but very soluble in alkalies, 
from which it is precipitated by acids. With 
potash it forms a black salt, which produces 
black precipitates with metallic solutions. 

Ja-pyg'-l'-d, s. pi. [Mod. Lat.Jowz(q.v.); 
Class. Lat iapyx; fern. pL adj. suff. -idee.] 

Entom. : A family of insects, order Thysa- 
nura gt.nv.ina, Bristle-tails. 

Ja'~p^x,a. IClass.myth. = a son of Daedalus ; 
a W.N. W. wind blowing in the south of Italy.] 
Zool. : The typical genus of the family 
Japygidee (q.v.). Japyx solifugus is a white 
species, about half an inch long, from the 
south of Europe, and /. glgas t about an inch, 
is from Cyprus. 

Jar, v.i. & t. [Representing an older *char, 
only found in its diminutive *charken = to 
creak like a cart or door, from the same base 
as Eng. care, crane, and Lat. garrio = to 
croak.] 
A* Intransitive : 

1. To utter a harsh or discordant sound, as 
from the shake or vibration of a substance 
struck or moved'; to vibrate harshly ; to be 
discordant. 

"O He I the treble Jar*. "Shatetp. : Taming of th 
Ehraw. 111. 1. 

2. To be unpleasant, harsh, disagreeable, or 
offensive : as, a word jars upon the ear. 

* 3. To disagree, to quarrel, to dispute. 

"Preach all Faith up. and preach all Reason down. 
Making those jar whom Reason meant to Join." 

Churchill : Ootham, 111 

4. To clash ; to disagree ; not to be in ac- 
cord ; to be inconsistent. 
" Perchance my heart and harp hare lost a string. 
And both may Jar." Byron : Chttde Harold, iii 4. 

B. Transitive: 

1, To shake ; to cause a tremulous motion In. 
*2. To be harsh, disagreeable, or offensive 
to ; to offend, to displease. 

" That saving Jan you, let in only say 
T were better that he never had been born." 

Byron: Cain, JILL 



* 3, Tu tick, to beat. 

" My thoughts are minutes, and with sighs they <OP 
Their watches <m uuto mine eyes." 



. 
: Richard //., v. t. 

Jar (IX * Jarre (1), *. [JAR, v .) 

1. A rattling vibration ; a harsh or di* 
cordant sound. 

" With raah and awkward force the chord he atiakes, 
And grliu with wuuder at tlie jar he mukes." 

Cuw/ter: CoHvertation, oa, 

2. A tick, as of a clock. 

" I love thee not a Jar o' the clock behind 
What lady-he her lord." 

Shaheip. : W inter' t TaU, L 1 

8. A clash of interests or views ; conflict or 
collision of opinions. 

"Instead of harmony, 'tla^ar, 
And tumult, and intestine war.'' 

Cowper : Jfuluul Forbearance. 

Jar (2X . [CHAR (4), s.] A word found only 
in the phrase, " On the ja" = ajar (q.v.). 

"I see Mrs. Bardell's street door on the Jar.*. 

Dickent; J'icAieick, ch. xxxiv. 

Jar (3), * Jarre (2), s. [0. Fr. Jare; Fr. Jarre. 
from Pers. jarrah =s a jar ; Sp. jarra = a 
JQg ; Ital. giara, giarro.} 

1. A vessel of glass or earthenware of various 
shapes and sizes, used for containing fruit, 
preserves, pickles, and various other domestic 
pxirposes. 

Ben J onion . fforac* ; Art* of Poetrte. 

2. The quantity contained in such a vessel ; 
a jarful. 

IT Leyden-jar : [LEYDEN], 

Jar-nut, . The pig-nut or earth-nut 

Jar (4), . [Etym. doubtful ; perhaps the same 
as JAB, 1.] 

Well-boring: A device used in boring by 
impact of the chisel, which is alternately 
lifted and dropped. 

Jar-a-ra'-ca, s. [Brazilian.] 

Zool.: Craspedocepbalus (Bothrops) brazili- 
ensis t a very venomous serpent, family Crota- 
lidK (Pit-vipers), found in Brazil. 

Jar-ble, Jar'-yel, v.t. [JAVE^ t.] To cover 
with dirt or mire ; to beimre. 

Jardo, s. [Fr.] A hard callous tumour in 
horses, a little below the bending of the ham 
on the outside. This distemper, in time, will 
make the horse halt, and grow so painful as 
to cause him to pine away, and become right- 
bellied. It is most common to managed 
horses that have been kept too much upon 
their haunches. ' (Farrier's Diet.) 

jardiniere (pron. as zhar din-yar), s. 

[Fr. = a female gardener.] An ornamental 
stand for flowers in a room. 

* jar'-gle, v.i. [Etym. doubtful ; probably a 
variant ot jangle, influenced by jargon (q.v.).] 
To speak harshly or discordantly ; to emit a 
harsh sound. (Bp. Hall : Satires.) 

* Jar'-gog-Ie, v.t. [Etym. doubtful, but pro- 
bably connected with jargon (q.v.).] To con- 
fuse, to jumble. (Locke.) 

Jar'-{?6"n (I), Jer'-go'n, . [Fr. jargon, from 
the same root as Lat. garrio.] [JAR, t?.] 

1. Unintelligible talk ; gibberish, gabble, 
chatter. 

"To that sanctimonious /rfl<m. which was Ma Shib. 
boleth, was opposed another jargon not lea abciin) 
and much more odious. " Jf<t xtulay : Hist. Eng., ch. lit 

2. Any phraseology or form of words pecu- 
liar to a sect, or profession ; professional 
slang. 

" To them the sounding Jaryon of the school* 
Seems what it IB a cap and bell for fools." 

Cowper: Truth, M&, 

*3, Confusion, disorder. 

*Jar'-g&n,*Jar-gowne, v.i. [Fr. jargonner.} 
[JARGON (1), .] To chatter, to talk uuintelli- 

" The noisy Jay, 
Jaryoning like * foreigner at his food." 

Longfellow : Poet's Tali, L 

Jar'-gon (2), Jor'-goon, 9. [Etym. supposed 
Cingalese.] 

Min, : The various coloured transparent or 
translucent varieties of Zircon (q.v.X with the 
exception of the hyacinth-red which is called 
Jacinth (q.v.X Found principally in Ceylon 
as waterworn crystals and pebbles. A colour- 
less variety, on account of its high lustre, 
was formerly used much in jewellery. 



bo^; pout, jo"wl; eat, eell, chorus, ohin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, ^Cenophon, eyist. Ing. 
Hdan. -tian - shan. -tion, -sion = shun ; -|ion, lon - zhun. -cious, -tloua, -sioua - skua, -ble, -die, Ac. - bel. dL 



2760 



jargonelle jaunder 



Jar-gon-elle . s. [Fr.] [JARGON (2).] A 
species of early pear. 

Jar -gon'-Ic, <u [Eng. jargon(2); -fc.] Pertain- 
ing to, or of the nature of the mineral jargon. 

* Jar'-gd'n-Ut, . [Eng. jargon (l);-i*t.J One 

who is fond of jargon or cant. 

" Nothing in the language of t 
caulay. Xuayt , Mad. ffArbtay. 

Jar -goon, s. [JARGON (2), .] 

Jarl (J as y), . [Icel. = a warrior.] A go- 
vernor of a province ; an earl. 

" Sine no more, 
Yb*rdoftue North. 
Of Vikinga and of Jarli f" 

Longfellow: Tignert Deaf*. 

Ja rool', s. [Native name.] 

Bot. : Lagerstromia reginte, common in the 
Indian peninsula and in Burmah. It yields a 
blood-red wood, which, though soft and open 
in the grain, is greatly used in India for boat- 
building and for the knees of ships on account 
of its great durability under water. The 
native Indian physicians esteem its various 
parts medicinal, the astringent root being used 
in thrush, its bark and leaves aa purgatives, 
and its seeds as a narcotic. (Annandale.) 

Ja ros-ite, *. [Named by Breithanpt after Its 
original locality Barranoo Jaroso, Spain ; suff. 
-ite (ifin,).] 

Min. : A rhombohedral hydrated sulphate 
of iron with some alkali ; colour, ochre-yel- 
low ; sp. gr. S'24-3-20; hardness, 2'5-3-5. 

Ja> -rah, *. [A native Australian word.] 

Bot. : A durable wood like mahogany, the 
product of Eucalyptus rostrata, a West Aus- 
tralian tree. 

t Jarred, a. [JAR (8\ .] Preserved or set in 
a jar : as, jarred fruit. 

Jar'-rlng-iy. oav. [Eng. jarring; -ly.] In a 
jarring, narsh, or discordant manner. 

* Jar'-r&a. [Eng. jar; -ry.] Jarring; rever- 
berating. (Stanyhurst : Virgil ; &n. i. 63.) 

Jar'-vejr, Jar'-v^, *. [Etym. doubtful] 

1. The driver of a hackney-coach. 

" The assembled Londoner* placed more faith In the 
ml four-wheeler, the grey hone, and the loquacious 
jarvey' Daily Telegraph, Deo. 16. 1888. 

2. A hackney-coach. 

Jas'-e^, Jaz'-ejr, s. [Supposed to be a cor- 
ruption of Jersey, as being made of Jersey 
yarn.] A worsted wig. 

" With an enf renzled grasp he tore the jaity from 
hia bead." Barham : Ingoldtby Legend* ; Jerry Jarvit 
Wig. 

Jas'-nawk, . [A corruption of eyas-hawk 
(q-v.).j A young hawk. 

Jash er, s. [Heb. lig (Yashar) = upright.] 
(See the compound.) 

If Book ofjasher : 

Hebrew Literature : The Book of the Up- 
riglit, a lost work referred to in Josh. x. 13 
and 2 Sam. i. 13. In 1751 a pretended transla- 
tion of it appeared. This was republished at 
Bristol in 1329, and again in 1833, but was a 
forgery. 

Ja Sld-i ans, s. pi. [YEZIDIS.] (Moshcim..) 

Jas-I-o-ne, s. [Gr. Wtui/i} (iasione)=& 
plant described by Theophrastus, either the 
Convolvulus or the Columbine.] 

Bot. : Sheep's-bit ; a genus of Campanula- 
ceae, sub-order Campanulese. The corolla 
segments are linear, the anthers connate, the 
flowers in terminal centripetal heads. Ten 
species are known from Europe, North Africa, 
and the West of Asia. One Jasione montana, 
Annual Sheep's-bit or Scabious, a plant with 
heads of small lilac-blue flowers, is found on 
heathy pastures, flowering from June to Sep- 
tember. 

J&8 i 6 -n-, t. pi. [Mod. Lat. ja8itm(e)(q. v.) ; 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -E.] 
Bot. : A tribe of Campanulacese. 

JAS mln-a -96 ee, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. jasmin- 
(urn) (q.v.) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -oce.] 

Bot. : Jasmin worts, Jasmineworts ; an order 
of Perigynous Exogens, alliance Echiales. 
It consists of shrubs often with twining stems, 
opposite or alternate leaves, generally com- 
pound, ternate, or pinnate with an odd one, 



sometimes simple, nearly always with an 
articulated j>eti<le, calyx persistent, live to 
eight-toothed, corolla monopetalous with five 
to eight divisions, stamens two, ovary two- 
celled, two-lobed, with from one to four erect 
anatropal ovules in each cell. Fruit either 
a double berry or a capsule. Known genera 
five, species 100, Ifrora India, South America, 
Africa, Australia, &c. 

Jas mine, jas min, jcs sa min, jes- 
sa mine, jas min lim, s. [Fr. jasmine; 
Bp. jasmin ; Port, jasmin the flower, jas- 
mineire = the tree ; Ital. gesmino, gelosmino, 
from Arab. & Pers. jdsuman, jdsme'n, jdsamin t 
jdsamun. (Muhn, &c.) 
tiotany : 

1. (Of the Jlrst four forms) : The English 
name of the genus Jasminum and especially of 
the common species J. officinal*. It has oppo- 
site pinnate leaves, a four- or five-cleft white, 
sweet-scented corolla. Though foreign to 
Britain, yet Gerarde, in 1597, mentions that 
it was used for covering arbours. Its 'native 
country was perhaps Persia. More than fifty 
apecies uf Jasmine are cultivated. 

If American Jasmine is Quainoclit ; the 
Bastard Jasmine of the West Indies is the 
genus Cestrnm ; Cape Jasmine is Gardenia 
Jiorida; Carolina Jasmine, Gelsemiumnitidum; 
Chili Jasmine, Mandevilla suaveolens; French 
Balsam, Calotropis procera ; Ground Jasmine, 
Passerina Stelleri; Night Jasmine, Nyctanthes 
arbortristis ; the Red Jasmine of the West 
Indies, Plumiera rubra; Wild Jasmine, Jas- 
minum officinale ; and Wild Jasmine of the 
West Indies = (1) A Pavetta, (2) An Ixora, (3) 
Faramea odoratUsima. (Treas. of Bot.) 

2. (Of the form Jasminum): The typical genus 
of the order Jasminaceae (q.v.). The jasmine 
of the shops is furnished by Jasminum offici- 
nale and J. grandijlorum. A similar perfume 
exists in J. Sambac; J. undulatum has slightly 
bitter leaves. The bitter root of J. angusti- 
folinm, ground small and mixed with the 
powdered root of Acorus Calamus, fs applied 
externally in the East in cases of ringworm. 
The flowers of J. grandiflonim strung on 
threads are worn as necklaces by the Hindoo 
women. The root of J. pubescens is regarded 
as alexitetric. The roots of/, humile furnish 
a yellow dye. (Hndley, Ac.) 

" From Jarmin* grove to grove may" st wander gay." 
Thornton: Summer, 7*. 

IT (1) Oil of jasmine: 

Perfumery : An oil obtained from the flowers 
of Jasminum grandiflorum, J. Sambac, and J. 
offlcinale, but Prof. Watt says that of about 
ffirty species of jasmine in India, nearly all 
might be used in manufacturing Oil and Otto 
of Jasmine. 

(2) Otto of Jasmine: 

Perfumery : A pomade made by impregna- 
ting suet with the scent of jasmine, and leav- 
ing it for a fortnight in pure rectified spirit. 

jas' mine-worts, s. pi. [Eng. jasmine t and 
worts.] 

Bot. : The name given by Lindley to the 
order Jasminace (q.v.). 

*Jasp, s. [Fr.jaspe.} Jasper (q.v.). 

"The floor* otjtup and emeraud was dlght," 

Sptnter : I'Mont uf Bett-ay. 

Jas'-pa-chate, s. [Fr., from Lat. iaspachates, 
from Gr. icKrtrax<*Tij$ (iagpachatSa).] 
Min. : Agate jasper. 

Jas'-per, s. k a. [Lat iaspis = Gr. Wnxc 
(iaspis)=& green -coloured precious stone.] 
A* As substantive : 

1. Min. : An impure variety of silica (q.v.) 
of many colours and shades, but opaque even 
in thin splinters ; colouring matters usually 
sesquioxide of iron and alumina. 

" Of divers sort* of jatjtert, all the East part fby 
report) are most affected to that which is like the 
emeraud." P. Holland: Plinlc, bit. xxxvii., ch. Iz. 

2. Marble of a greenish colour, with small 
red spots. There is an antique jasper with 
small spots of black and white. 

3. A kind of earthenware prepared from 
pounded spar. 

B. As adj. : Made of jasper. 
^ Porcelain jasper : 

1, Min. : [JASPER]. 

2. Geol. : Butley considers that It la an 
altered argillaceous rock in which no crystal- 
lization has taken place. It has been formed 
by the combustion of adjacent coalseams, or 
In the proximity of eruptive rocks. 



jasper headed, a. Headed or iij'i> ! 
with jasper. 

"Take your KrTowt,jatjtfr-hculd." 

Lanaftllow : J/iawttlm. U. 

Jasper-opal, s. 

Min.: An impure variety of opal (q.v.). con- 
taining oxides of iron, and alumina ; mostly 
of yellow and red colours ; opaque ; distin- 

guished from jasper by its bright fracture. 

"Jas'-per-a-t&l, a. [Eng. jasper ; ated.\ 
Mixed with or containing particles of jasper. 



^, a. [Eng. jasper;-y.] Like Jasper; 
having the qualities of jasper. 

*Jas-pid'-S-an, a. [Lat. iaspideus, from 
iaspis = jasper.*] Like jasper ; of the nature 
of or containing jasper. 

*Jas-p3Cd'-3-0&S, a. [Lat. iatpideus.} The 
same as JASPIOEAN (q.v.Jt 

*Jos'-pold, a. (Fr. jaspe = jasper, and Gr. 
e'Sos (eidos)= appearance.] Resembling jan- 
per. 



Jasp - nyx, 

(iasponux).] 



9. [Lat., from Or. 



Min. : The ancient name for jasper-onyx, a 
jasper marked like the human nail. 



, t. pi [Hod. Lat, jassus ; Lat. fern. 
pL adj. suff. -idee.} 

Entom.: A family of Cicadellina. They 
have the hinder coxae transverse, and the 
hinder tibiae with two rows of spines. They 
are numerous and often elegant in form. 

Jas SOS, . [Etym. doubtful.] 

Entom. : The typical genus of the family 
Jassldse(q.v.). 

jat a-man so, Jat-a-man'-si, *. [Aa 

East Indian word.] 

Bot. : The native name of Nardostachys Ja- 
tamansi, the Spikenard of the ancients. 

Jat-e-o-rhiz'-a, . [Gr. ianfr (iates), and 
ia-rrjp (iater) = a physician ; cf. also tar<k 
(iatos) = curable, and pu> (rhisxi) a root.] 

Bot. : A genus of Menispermacese, Jateorhin 
palmata, or Cocculus palmatus, furnishes Co- 
lumba-root. It is a Mozambique plant. 

Jaf-ro-pha, 5. [Gr. iarpos (iatros) = a phy- 
sician, and" rpo^rj (trophe) = food, in allusion 
to the medicinal properties of the plants.] 

Bot. : A genus of Euphorbiaceae, tribe Cro- 
toneae. The seeds of Jatropha glandulifera 
yield an oil highly esteemed as a stimulant 
application in rheumatism and paralysis. 
Taken internally, they are violently purgative, 
irritant, and poisonous. Those of J. mvltifida 

, are also purgative, emetic, and poisonous. 
The expressed oil of J. glauca is used in India 
as an external application in chronic rheu- 
matism and paralysis ; the root of J. offici~ 
nalis is given in Brazil in syphilis. J. man