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LIBRARY of the 





Universal Dictionary 













Prof Thomas H. Huxley, F.R.S.; Prof. Richard A. Proctor; Prof. A. Estoclet ; John A. Williams, 

A.B., Trinity College, Oxford ; Sir John Stainer, Mus. Doc. ; John Francis Walker, A.M., 

F.C.S.; T. Davies, F.G.S.; Prof. Seneca Egbert, M.D., Medico-Chirurgical College, 

Philadelphia; William Harkness, F.I.C., F.R.M.S.; Marcus Benjamin, Ph.D., 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C., 






(Copyright, 1897. by PKTBR FKNLON COLLIBB.) 


The principal points in which the UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY diners from other dictionaries are fully di 
I in the Preface, but it may be well to draw attention to the following : 

(1) Compound Words are inserted under the first element of the compound, and not in the place they would 
jccupy in strictly alphabetical order, if the second element were taken into account. Thus ANT-BEAB is inserted after 
AST, and not ifter ANTATBOPHIC. 

(2) The Pronunciation is indicated by diacritical marks, a key to which will be found at the foot of the seversi 
pages, but the division into syllables has been based solely on pronunciation, and with no reference to- the etymology 
of the word. In syllables wherein two or more vowels come together, not forming diphthongs, only that one of them 
which gives its sound to the syllable bears a diacritical mark, the others being treated as mute. Thus, in brUod, fe, 
float, the o is mute, the syllables being pronounced as if spelt brid, se, floL Words of more than one syllable bear * 
mark upon the accented syllable, as dl'-lSr. 

(3) The Etymology will be found enclosed within brackets immediately following each word. To understand 1 
the plan adopted, let it be noted (1) that retrogression is made from modern languages to ancient; and (2) that when 
fter a word there appears such a derivation as this "In Fr. ... Sp. ... Port. . . . ItaL . . . from Lat. . . .," 
the meaning is, not that it passed through Italian, Portuguese, Spanish and French before reaching English, but thrt 
there are or have been analogous words in French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian, all derived, like the English, from 
Latin original. 


The following List, which contains the principal abbreviations employed in the UNIVERSAL DICTIONARY, 
M inserted here for the convenience of persons using the work for the first time. A foil list, containing also the chW 
abbreviations in general use, will be given at the end of the final volume. 

A.N. Anglo-Norman. 
Arab. Arabic. 

Horm. Norman. 
Uonv. Norwegian, Norse. 

archaeol. archeology, 
arith. arithmetic. 

geog. geography. 
:eol. geology. 

pert perfect, 
>ers. person, personal 

4rain. Aramaic. 

0. Old. 

astrol. astrology. 

com. geometry. 

icrsp. perspective. 

Arm. Armorican. 
A.8. Anglo Saxon. 
Assyr. Assyrian. 
Boeh. Bohemian, or 
Bret. Bas Breton, or 
Celtic of Brittany. 
Celt. Celtic. 
Ohal Chaldee. 

O. H Ger. Old High 
3. 8. Old Saxon. 
Pers. Persian. 
Phcenic. Phoenician. 
Pol. Polish. 
Port. Portuguese. 
Prov. Provengal. 
Provinc. Provincial. 

astron. astronomy. 
auxlL auxiliary, 
lib. Bible, or Biblical, 
ilol. biology, 
bot. botany, 
carp, carpentry. 
Cent. Centigrade, 
cf. compare. 
C.G. S. Centlmetre-gramme- 

ram. grammar, 
ler. heraldry. 
list, history. 
ior. horology, 
lortic. horticulture, 
lydraul. hydraulics, 
lydros. hydrostatics. 
. e. id es(=that is. 
chthy. ichthyology. 

mar. pharmacy. 
tail, philosophy. 
ihilol. philology. 
ihot. photography. 
ihren. phrenology. 
)hys. physiology. 
}1., plur. plural. 
wet. poetry, or poetic*! 
polit. econ. political 

Dan Danish. 

Rabb. Rabbinical. 


Ibid. <Mdn>=the same. 


Russ. Russian. 

chem. chemistry. 

mp. impersonal. 

posa. possessive. 

R Eastern or East. 

Sam. Samaritan. 

Ch. hist. Church history. 

mper. imperative. 

pref. prefix. 

X. Aram. East Aramtean, 
generally railed Chaldee. 
Eng. English, or England. 
Eth. Ethiopic. 
Flem. Flemish. 
Fr. French. 
Fries. Friesland. 
Fri*. Frisian. 

Sanac. Sanscrit. 
Serv. Servian. 
Slav. Slavonian. 
Sp. Spanish. 
Sw. Swedish. 
Syr. Syriac. 
Teut. Teutonic. 
Turk. Turkish. 
Walach. Walachian. 

chron. chronology. 
class, classical, 
cogn. cognate, 
comm. commerce. 
romp, comparative, 
compos, composition, 
conchol. conchology. 
contr. contracted, or con- 

ndic. indicative. 
nfin. infinitive, 
ntens. intensitive. 
.ang. language. 
Linn. Linmeua. 
lit. literal, literally, 
mach. machinery, 
m. or masc. masculine, 
math, mathematics. 

pres. present, 
pret. preterite, 
prim, primary, 
priv. privative, 
prob. probable, probably 
pron. pronounced, 
pros, prosody. 
psychol. psychology, 
pyrotech. pyrotechnic! 

Ger. German. 
Goth. Gothic 
Or. Greek. 
Grls. Language of th* 
Heb. Hebrew. 
Hind. Hindustani. 
Icel. Icelandic. 
Ir. Irish. 
Ital. Italian. 
Lat. Latin. 
Lett. Lettish, Lettonian. 
L. Ger. Low German, or 
Platt Deutsch. 
Lith. Lithuanian. 

Wei. Welsh. 
a., or adj. adjective. 
adv. adverb. 
an. article. 
conj. conjunction. 
inter), interjection. 
pa. par. past participle. 
pnrtidp. participial. 
prep, preposition. 
pr.par. present participle. 
pro. pronoun. 
., &(., or TO6Jn. sub- 
stantive or noun. 
V. i. verb intransitive, 
v. t. verb transitive. 

crystallog. crystallogra- 
del. definition, 
der. derived, derivation, 
dimin. diminutive, 
dram, drama, dramatically, 
dynam. dynamics. 
E. East. 
eccles. ecclesiastical, 
econ. economy. 
e. g. exempli graUa=ior 
elect, electricity, 
entom. entomology, 
etym. etymology, 
ex. example. 

mech. mechanics, 
med. medicine, medical 
met. metaphorically, 
metal, metallurgy, 
metaph. metaphysics, 
meteorol. meteorology. 
melon, metonymy, 
mil., milit. military, 
niin., miner, mineralogy, 
mod. modern. 
myth, mythology. 
N. North. 
n. or neut. neut. 
nat. phil. natural philo- 
naut. nautical. 

q.v. quod Hide which **. 
rhet. rhetoric. 
Scrip. Scripture, 
sculp, sculpture, 
sing singular. 
S. South, 
sp. gr. speciric gravity, 
spec, special, specially: 
suff. suffix, 
sup. supine, 
snrg. surgery, 
tech technical, 
theol. theology, 
trig, trigonometry, 
typog. typography 
var. variety. 

Mag. Magyar. 
MfHliipv Lat MedlfBval 

ablat. ablative. 

f., or fern, feminine. 

nomln. nominative. 

viz. namely. 


accus. accusative. 

fig. figurative, figuratively 

numis. numismatology. 

W. West. 

M. H. Ger. Middle High 
Mid Lat. Latin of the 

agric. agriculture, 
alg. algebra, 
anat. anatomy. 

fort, fortification, 
fr. from, 
freq. frequentative 

obj. objective, 
obs. obsolete, 
ord. ordinary. 

tool, zoology. 
* Rare, or obsolete, 
f Unusual, or special octet 

Middle Ages. 
H Nf>w. 

antiq. antiquities, 
or. aorist. 

fut. future, 
gen. general, generally. 

ornith. ornithology, 
paleeont. palaeontology. 

equivalent to, or signi- 

N. H. Ger. New High 

approx. approximate, -ly 
arch, architecture. 

gend. gender . 
genit. genitive. 

pass, passive, 
path, pathology. 

t Note brae take nottac. 

r-inuisopny of Rhetoric, and, in the year 1826, 
Archbishop Whately issued his Elements of 
RAf forte. Campbell (Phil of Rhetortc, bk. i., 
ch i.)considers the art the same as eloquence, 
and deflnes it as " That art or talent by which 
the discourse is adapted to its end," and states 
that the ends of speaking (or writing) are re- 
ducible to four, to enlighten the understand- 
ing, to please the imaaination, to move the 
passions, or to influence the will. Broadly 
speaking, the aim of rhetoric is to expound 
the rules governing prose composition, 01 
speech designed to influence the judgment 
or the feelings. It includes, therefore, within 
its province, accuracy of expression, the 
structure of periods, and figures of speech. 

2 The art which teaches oratory ; the rules 
which govern the art of speaking with pro- 
priety, elegance, and force. 

3. Rhetoric exhibited in language ; artificial 
eloquence, as opposed to natural or real elo- 
quence ; declamation ; showy oratory. 

He acquired a boundless command of the rhetoric 

in which the vulgar ex press hatred and contempt. 

Macaulay : Bist. Eng., ch. iv. 

* 4. The power of persuading or influencing : 
as, the rhetoric of the eyes. 
rhe-tor'-io-al, * rhe-tor-le-all, a. [Lat. 

rhctoriats, from Gr. pnTOpKos (rhitnrikos) ; Sp. 
& Ital. retorico.] Of or pertaining to rhetoric ; 
involving or containing rhetoric ; oratorical, 

" Sententious showers. O let them fall I 
Their cadence la rhetorical." 

Orathaip : On the Death of a Gentleman. 

rhS-tor'-Io-al-tf, adv. [Eng. rhetorical; -ly.] 
In a rhetorical manner ; according to the 
rules of rhetoric ; like a rhetorician. 

' Elegantly adorned, rhetorically pronounced." 
Priinnc: 1 BMrio-Mtuttx, p. 385. 

rhe-tor'-i-cate, v.i. [Low Lat. rhetorioatus, 
pa par of rfcetoricor, from Lat. rhetor = a 
rhetorician.] To act the orator ; to rhetorize. 

" I do not heighten or rhetoricatt at ail in these 
particulars." traterland : Worto. ii. 4. 

* rhe-tor-a-ca'-tlon, s. [RHETORICATE.] The 
act or practice of rhetoricating; rhetorical 

" Certainly such rketorlcationt as this cannot be In- 
tended for any but such as are of the very weakest 
capacity.' Hare: Immort. of the Soul, bk. L, ch. I. 

rhgt-or-K'-clan, s. k a. [Fr. rhetoridm.] 
A. At substantive : 

1 One who teaches or professes the art of 
rhetoric, or the principles and rules of correct 
and elegant speaking and writing ; a professor 
or teacher of oratory. 

" They had been long instructed by rhetorician*." 
Ooldtmuh : Bee, No. 6. 

2. One who is versed in the rules and prin- 
ciples of rhetoric. 

3. A public speaker, espec. one who de- 
claims for show ; an orator. 

"His natural eloquence moved the envy of practised 
rhetorician!." Macuulay : Hitt. Ena., ch. iv, 

* B. As adj. : Becoming or suiting a master 
Of rhetoric. 

" Boldly presnm'd with rhetorician pride. 
To hold of any question either side. 

Bladcmore : Creation, ill. 

* rhe'-tor-ize, v.i. & (. [Eng. rhetor; -ize.] 

A. Intrans. : To play the orator ; to de- 

B. Trans. : To represent by a figure of 
oratory ; to introduce by a rhetorical device. 

A certain rhetorbod woman whom he calls mother." 
Jtilton: Apoloffy for Smectymnuui. 

rhSt'-or-jF, s. [RHETOR.] A rhetorician. 

" The same profession with the rhOoriet at Rome." 
Backet : Life of WiUiamt, i. 72. 

rheum (1), * rewme, * rheume, s. [Fr. 

rheume, from Lat. rheuma ; Gr. peO/ia (rheuma) 
a flowing, a flux, rheum, from pu (rheo), 
fut. pvo-op.<u (rheusomai) = to flow ; Sp. reuma ; 
Ital. reuma, rema.] 

Pathol. : A defluxion of fluids on any part ; 
specif., an inflammatory action of the mucous 
glands, attended with an increased and an 
altered state of the excreted fluids. (Parr.) 
" A palsy struck his arm ; his sparkling eye 
Was quench'd In rheum of age." 

Cowper : Talk, ii. 728. 

rhe urn (2), . [Gr. MOT. (rhion), pS (rha) 
= common rhubarb, from Rha = the Volga, 
near which it grows.] 

Bot. : Rhubarb; a genus of Polygonese. 
Calyx inferior, petaloid, six-partite ; stamens 

rhetorical Rhine 

about nine ; ovary superior ; ovule one, erect ; 
styles three, reflexed ; stigma, peltate, entire ; 
achenium three-angled, winged, with the 
withtred calyx at the base. Rheum Rhapon- 
ticum [RHAPONTicUM],is known as the Com- 
mon or Garden Rhubarb. [RHUBAKB, y B. 
officinal* (?), or R. palmatum (?), is the officinal 
Rhubarb RHUBARB, 2]. R. *"*" 
Puniaub Himalaya, from 6,200 to 14,000 feet, 
with R. Moorcroflianum and R. speciforme, are 
the chief sources of the Himalayan or Indian 
officinal rhubarb. It is less active than the 
common kind. The stalks of R. Emodi are 
eaten bv the Hindoos. Other Indian species 
arefl. Webbianum.R.nobile, R.arboreum which 
yields so much honey that the ground under 
the plants is wet with it, and R. Cimbarimtm, 
said to poison goats in Sikkira. -R. midutotm* 
grows in China and Siberia. The roots of 
K Ribes are used by the Arabs as an acidulous 
medicine, and its leaf stalks in the prepara- 
tion of sherbet. 

H Rhei radix : [RHUBARB, 2.]. 
rheu'-ma, s. [Lat. & Gr.] The same as 
RHEUM (i). 

i. Rheumatic fever. 


rheu'-nijf, t. [Eng. rheum (1) ; -ji.] 

1. Full of rheum ; consisting of rheum ; of 
the nature of rheum. 

2. Causing rheum. 

" And tempt the rheumy and un purged air 
To add unto Ilia sickness? " 

Shttketp : Juliut Ccetar, 1L 1. 

3. Affected with rheum. 

" Tough old Liickner. with his eyes grown rKmrnv.' 
Carlyle : French lien., bk. v., ch. ii. 

rhex'-i-a, (Lat. = alkanet (Arnhusa. tine- 
toria), not the modern genus.] 

Bot. : A genus of Melastomaceae, containing 
the American Deer grasses or Meadow beauties. 

rhlg'-d-lene, s. [Gr. piyoc (rhigos) = frost, 
cold, and Lat. oleum oil.] A petroleum 
naphtha, proposed by Dr. H. J. Bigelow, of 
Boston, U.S.A., as a local anresthetic. It is 
applied in the form of spray in minor opera- 
tions, producing intense cold by its evapora- 

* rhime, s. [RHYME.] 

* rhim'-jf, a. [RHYMV.] 
rhin-, pref. [RHINO-.] 

rheum-ar-thri'-tis, . Acute rheumatism 
of the joints. 

rheu-mat-Ic. * rheu'-ma-tte, Theu- 
mat Jok, * rheu-mat-icke, a. [Lat. 
rheumaticus, from Gr. p^aTuco* (rheumatilcos), 
from p.Ofio (rheuma), genit. pharos (rheuma- 
tos) = rheum ; Fr. rheumatique ; Sp. reumatico; 
Ital. reumatico, rematico.) [RHEUM (1).J 

1. Of or pertaining to rheumatism ; of the 
nature of rheumatism. 

1 In pathology, there are rheumatic arthri- 
tis, bronchitis, fever, gout, ophthalmia, para- 
lysis, pericarditis, Ac. 

2. Causing rheumatism. 

"This iw. rheumatic day." ** : Jfemr ITfcti 
of Windtor, ill. 1. 

3. Affected by or suffering from rheumatism. 

" If I were feeble, rheumatic, or cold. . 

These were true signs that I were waxed old. 

Drayton : Henry to Rotamond. 

I The Rheumatics: Rheumatic pains ; rheu- 
matism. (Vulgar.) 

rhen'-ma-tlsm, s. [Lat. rheumatismus ; Gr. 
pvu<mo>os (rheumatismos), from peSfia (rheu- 
ma).] [RHEUMA (1).] 

Pathol Acute articular rheumatism or 
rheumatic fever is produced by the presence 
in the blood of a poisonous material (probably 
lactic acid in excess), generated within the 
system by some derangement of the nutritive 
and elementary processes. The ordinary 
causes are exposure to cold and damp, sudden 
chill sitting in wet clothes or in a cold draught, 
and scarlatina also sometimes produces it in 
children. It is a distinctly hereditary disease, 
chiefly attacking persons from fifteen to thirty- 
five years of ae, but no time of life is exempt. 
Affections oftheheartarepresentin most acute 
cases, particularly pericarditis, with the blow- 
ing bellows-like murmur so characteristic of 
this complication, and this is apt to be perma- 
nent It is usual for many attacks to follow 
through life, and in the young chorea, or St. 
Vitus's dance, is a common sequent. The joints 
become swollen, red, hot, and painful even to 
agony Relief of pain and alkalinity of the 
blood are the most necessary indications for 
the successful treatment of rheumatism. I 
frequently becomes chronic, and assumes other 
forms as well as the articular, or rheumatism 
of the joints, such as myalgia, or muscular 
rheumatism, wry-neck, lumbago, gonorrhoea! 
rheumatism, and Arthritis deformans, in which 
deformity and twisting of the joints is the 
most m-ominent characteristic. 
rheumatism root, . 
Bot. : Je/ersonia diphylla, 

rheu-ma-tts'-maa, a. [Bug. rheumatism; 
al.] Pertaining to, or of the nature of rheu- 
matism ; rheumatic. 

rheu'-ma-ttze, s. [See def.] A provincial 
and Scotch corruption of rheumatism. 

rheu'-ma-toid, a. [Eng. rheumatism) ; -aid.] 
Pathol. : Resembling rheumatism. There 
is a rheumatoid arthritis. 

rheum -in, . [Eng. rheum(a); -in.] [CHRiso- 


rlu -na, s. [Gr. pis (rhis), genit. pivot (rhinos) 
= the nose.] 

Ichthy. : Angel - fish (q.v.), Monk - fish. It 
approaches the Rays in general form and 
habits. Almost cosmopolitan in temperate 
and tropical seas. [THAUMAS.] 

rhin-a can -thus, s. [Pref. rMit- (q.T.), and 
Gr. ixavfla (akantha) = a thorn.] 

Bot : A genus of Eranthemeie. RMnacan- 
thus communis (= Justicia nasuta) is a shrub 
four or five feet high, found in the south of 
India The fresh root and leaves bruised and 
mixed with lime juice are given by the Hin- 
doos for ringworm, Malabar or Dhobees 
(Washerman's) itch, 4SC. 

rhin-als-thet'-aOB, s. [Pref. rMn-(q.v.), and 
Gr. ourffirruioc (aisthilikos) = of or for percep- 
tion.) Odour sensations. (Rossiter.) 

rhin' al, a. [Gr. pis (rhis), genit. punt (rMno) 
= the' nose ; Eng. adj. suff. -al.] Of or per- 
taining to the nose. 

rhi-nan-thitd'-S-w, rhi-na_ __ ,- --. 

s. fl. [Mod. Lat. rhinanth(us) ; Lat. fern. pL 
adj. suff. -ideoj, -aceo2.\ 

Bot. : A sub-order of ScrophulariacesE. In- 
florescence, as a rule entirely centripetal, or 
aestivation quincuncial or irregularly imbri- 
cated one of the lateral segments being gene- 
rally external, the two upper ones always 
internal. (Bentham.) Tribes: Sibthorpeae, 
Buddleese, Digitaleese, Veronicese, Buchnerese, 
Gerardieae, and Euphrasies;. 
rhi nan thus, s. [Pref. rhin- (q.v.), and Gr. 
ai-os (anttos) = a flower. Named from the 
form of the corolla.] 

Bot. : Yellow-rattle : The typical genus of 
Rhinanthideffi (q.v.). Calyx inflated, four- 
toothed, upper lip of the corolla laterally 
compressed, entire, with a tooth-like appen- 
dage or lobe on each side, lower lip plane, 
three-lobed ; ovules many ; capsule two-celled, 
compressed. One, Rhinanthus Crista-galli, 
with two sub-species, major and minor, is 
British. The corolla is yellow, with the lobe* 
of the upper lip and the anthers bluish. 

* rhln-as'-ter, . [Pref- rhin-, and Gr. 
(aster) = a star.) 
Zoology : 

1. A synonym of Condylura (q.v.). 

2. A lapsed genus of Rhinocerotidae. 

rhi-na-tre'-ma, s. [Pref. rhina-, and Gr. 
Tpvjfii (Irema) a hole.] 

Zoo!. : A genus of Cajciliadee(q.v.), with one 
species, from Cayenne. 
rnind'-mart, s. [Etym. doubtful.] 

Sco< Lam : A word of occasional occurrence 
in the reddendo of charters in the north of 
Scotland, to signify any speuies of horned 
cattle given at Martinmas as part of the rent 
or feu-duty. (Bell.) 
Rhine (1), . [Lat. Rhenus; Ger. Rhein.] 

Geog. : A river running between France and 
f Confederation of the Rhine : [CosrKDtJRA- 


b6il, bo^; pout, jevfrl; cat, 9011, chorus, 9hln, bench; go, gem; thin, 
-clan, -tian = shaa. -tion, sion = BbiLn; -{ion, -jlon = than, -clous, - 


rhine rhinodermatidss 

Rhine-loess, s. [LOESS.] 

Rhine-wines, s. pi. A general term for 
wines made from the grapes grown on the 
borders of the Rhine, but more specifically fn 'in 
those of the Rheingaii, a district in the south- 
west of Nassau, and formerly belonging to the 
archbishopric of Mayence. The best white 
Rhine-wines are Johannisberg, Hochheimer, 
Rudesheimer, Steinbcrger, Rothcnberger, and 
Markobrunner. The Asmannsliauser is the 
best known of the red wines. 

rhino (2), rhene, . [A.S. rj/n = a water- 
course ; Wei. rkyn = a channel.] A water- 
course ; a wide ditch or dike. 

" Sedgetnoor . . . was Intersected by many deep and 
wide trenches which. In that country, are called 
rhlneg." Macaulag : Hilt. Kny. ch. V. 

rhi nel'-lus, s. [Mod. Lat. dimin. from pis 
(rhis), genit. piros (rhinos) = the nose.] 

Palaont. : A genus of Clupeidse, from the 
Upper Cretaceous of Mount Labanon. 

rhm-en-cS-phal'-Io, a. (RHINEMCEPBALON.) 
Anat. : Of or belonging to the rhinencepha- 

rhm-en-9eph'-a Ion, . tPref. rhin- (q.v.), 
and Gr. cyt<f>aAof (tngktphalos) = the brain.) 

Comp. Anal. : The anterior surface of the 
brain, consisting chiefly of gray substance, 
and giving origin to the small nerves which 
proceed, through the foramina of the ethmoid 
bone, to the nose. 

rhi ne'- stone, . An Imitation of a cut 
diamond, usually of paste or strass (a.v.), 

rhin-ich'-thys, >. [Pref. rhin-, and Or. ix0vc 

fchthy. : Long-nosed Dace ; a genus of Cy- 
prlnldie, from the fresh waters of North 

--. >. ft. [Mod. Lat. rhin(a); Lat 
fern. pi. adj. sulf. -idee.] 

Ichthy. : A family of Flaglostomous Fishes, 
section Batoldei. No anal lin, two dorsals ; 
spiracles present. Pectorals large, with the 
basal portion prolonged forwards, but not 
attached to the head. 

rhi-ni'-tis, . Inflammation of the nose. 

rhi'-nd, a. [Etym. doubtful.] Money, coin, 
gold or silver. (Slung.) 

rill no-, rhin-, prrf. [Or. pis <rhls\ gentt. 
piros (rMiws) = (1) the nose, (2) the nostrils.] 
Of or belonging to the nose or the nostrils ; 

rhi-n-b&t'-M, a, j*. [Mod. Lat. rMno- 
baH.m) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. sun". -idte.] 

1. Ichthy : A family of Plagiostomous Fishes 
section Batoidei. Tail long and strong with 
two well-developed dorsals, aiid a longitudinal 
fold on each side; caudal developed. Disc 
not excessively dilated, the rayed portion of 
the pectorals not being continued to the 
snout. Three genera : Rhynchobatus, Rhino- 
batus, and Trygonorhina. 

2. Palaxmt. : Apparently commenced In the 

Cm.trti.KS.nd Mod. 

. t . Ichtk V- * Th* tyP^al genus of Rhino- 
batidae, with twelve species, from tropical and 
lib-tropical seas. Cranial cartilage produced 
Into a long rostral process, the space between 
it and the pectoral being ailed by a membrane. 
Dorsals without spine, both at a great dis- 
tance behind the ventrals; caudal without 
lower lobe. 

2. Palffont. : One species, from the Chalk 
of Mount Lebanon, has been referred to thii ' 
genns. [SPATHOBATIS.] 

"rtu-no ? eV-I-al, rhi-no c^r-Ic al, 
o. [RHINOCEROS.] Of or pertaining to the 
rhinoceros : resembling the rhinoceros. 

rhi-nSo'-er-da'd, o. [Eng. r*inoar<oj);-otd.] 
Belonging to, or characteristic of the genus 
Bhinooeros. {Nicholson : Palaumt., ii. 829.) 

rhi-nS; -er-ds (The class, pi. Is rhi-nSc- 
Sr-Of-tes, but the form rhi-no9'-er-6s-e j 
la in ordinary use), ri no9'-er-6s, * rhi- 
no'o'-er-d't, . [Lat., from Or. pipu S (rhino- 
terds): pit (rhis). genit. pii/ot = (rhinos) = the 
nose, and pa (kerut) = a horn.) 

1. Zoology: 

(1) The sole recent genus of the family 
RhinocerntidseCq.v.). It falls naturally toto 
three sections, which some zoologists raise to 
the rank of genera. 

(a) Rhinoceros: Adults with a single large 
compressed incisor above on each side, occa- 
sionally a small lateral one, below a very small 
median, and a very large procumbent, pointed, 
lateral incisor; nasal bone pointed in front ; 
single nasal horn ; skin very thick, and raised 
into strong, definitely-arranged folds. There 
are two well-marked species : (1) Rhinoceros 
unicomia (Linnxus ; indicits, Cuvier), now 
found wild only in the terai region of Nepal 
and Bhutan and in Assam, though it had 
formerly a much wider geographical range ; 
(2) R. sondaicus (or javanus, Cuvier), the 
Javan Rhinoceros, is smaller, and distin- 
guished by the different arrangement of the 
folds of the skin, and by the small size or 
absence of the horn in the female. Found 
near Calcutta, in Burmnh, Malay Peninsula, 
Java, Sumatra, and probably Borneo. Ji. 
wntoontiawas known to the ancients, and was 
seen probably for the first time by modern 
Europeans when one was sent to the king of 
Portugal from India in 1513. 

(6) Ceratorhinus: Thefolds are not so strongly 
marked as in the first section. There is a 
well-developed nasal, and a small frontal hom, 
separated by an interval. The name, E. mi- 
matrensis has possibly been applied to more 
than one species, and two animals in the 
Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, presented 
considerable differences of form and colour. 
Dr. Sclater named one of them R. lasiotis, the 
Hairy-Eared Rhinoceros. Geographical range 
nearly the same as that of the Javan Rhino- 
ceros, but it does extend into Bengal. 

(c) Atelodvt, with two well-marked species, 
peculiar to Africa. Incisors rudimentary or 
wanting, well-developed anterior and posterior 
horns in close contact ; skin without delinite 
permanent folds. R. bicornis, the Common 
Two-horned Rhinoceros, is the smaller, and 
has a pointed prehensile lip. It ranges from 
Abyssinia to Cape Colony, but the progress of 
civilization and the attacks of English sports- 
men are rapidly reducing its numbers. Two 
varieties are said to exist, R. bicornis major 
and R. bicornis minor. Specimens in which 
the posterior horn has attained a length as 
great as or greater than the anterior have also 
been separated under the specific name of 
R. ktUloa [KEITLOA], but with scarcely suffi- 
cient reason. R. simus, Burchell's, the Square- 
mouthed, or White Rhinoceros, has a square 
truncated lip, browses on grasses, and fre- 
quents open country. It is the largest of the 
family, an adult male standing over six feet 
at the shoulder. The epithet White is a mis- 
nomer, for the animal is a dingy slate-colour. 
A local variety in which the horn has a forward 
rake is sometimes described as R. oswellii. 

(2) Any individual of the genus Rhinoceros 
t(l)J. The rhinoceros is the largest and most 
powerful terrestrial mammal, except the ele- 
phant, to which, as well as to the nippopota- 
musand tapir, it is allied. They are of low intel- 
ligence, and usually harmless, but when pro- 
voked they display considerable ferocity, and, 
though apparently so clumsily formed, can 
run with great speed. Only one is produced 
at a birth. The flesh Is sometimes used for 
food ; in the East Indies, the skin, which is 
said tc be bullet-proof at short distances, Is 
nsed for shields, and in South Africa it is 
made into whips. 

2. Palrtont. : R. pachygnathus, from the Mio- 
cene of Greece, was apparently intermediate 
between fi. dfcornwand R. simns. Four species, 
all bleorn, formerly inhabited Britain : R. 
tichorhinvs, the Woolly Rhinoceros (q.v.), 
from the Brick-earths of the Thames Valley, 
R. hmittzchus (Falc., leptorhimu, Owen), R. 
megarhinus (leptorhinus, Cuvier & Falc.) 
and R. etruscus, of Pliocene age. The one- 
horned Indian type was well represented 
(R. livoJensis, R. pateindims) In the Pleisto- 
cene of the sub-Himalayan region. R. tchleir- 
macherl, of the late European Miocenes, pos- 
sessed incisors and was bicorn. 

rhinoceros-beetle, a, 

E/itom. : Oryctes rhinoceros, so called from a 
horn or protuberance on its head. [OBYCTES.] 
rhinoceros bird, i. 
1. Buphaga afrlcana, the African Beefeater, 

or Ox-pecker. [BUPHAOA.] It is also a fre- 
quent companion of the rhinoceros, to wnicli, 
besides being of service in ridding him uf 
many of the insects that infest his hide, it is 
said to perform the friendly part of sentinel, 
uttering sharp, shrill cries on the approach of 

2. ThesameasRHiNOCER03-noRNBiL(q.v.X 

rhinoceros-bush, j. 

Bat. : Stoebe rhinocerntit, a composite cover- 
ing wide tracts of country in the South African 

rhinoceros-chameleon, . 

ZooL : Chnmwleon rhinoctratits, from Mada- 
gascar. There is a horn-like tubercle at tin 
end of the muzzle. 

rhinoceros hornbill, . 

Ornilh. : ISucerosrMnor-ms, from the Malayan 
peninsula and Borneo. Called also Rhinoceros- 

rhinoceros-tick, & 

Entom.: Ixodts rhinocerinui, parasiti* on 
Rhinoceros bicornis. 

rhl-noo-er-6f-lc, o. [Eng. rhinoarot; -lc.) 
* 1. Of or pertaining to a rhinoceros. (Th 

World, No. 160.) 
2. (In this sense, from Mod. Lat, rhimcrr- 

otidir): Belonging to, or characteristic of the 

family Rhinocerotidae (q.vA (Eiiciic. Brit. 

(ed. 9th), xv. 429.) 

rhl-no'c-er-o'f-.'-dsB, t rhl-n8 9eV-I-<l8, 

. pi. [Lat. rhinoceros, genit. rninocerot(is), 
rhinoceros); fern. pi. adj. sun", -idie.) 

L Zool. : A family of Perissodactyla (q.v.X 
Bead large, skull elungated ; brain cavity 
very small for size of skull ; limbs stout and 
of moderate length. Three completely de- 
veloped toes, each with distinct broad rounded 
hoof, on each foot. Mammae two, Inguinal; 
eyes small ; hairy covering scanty ; one or 
two median horns on face, of a more or less 
conical form, and recurved, often growing to 
a length of three or even four feet, and com- 
posed of a solid hardened mass of epidermic 
cells, growing from a cluster of long dermal 
papillte, which present the appearance of a 
mass of agglutinated hairs. One recent genus. 
[2] Distribution now restricted to Africa and 
portions of the Indian and Indo-Malayau 

2. Pakeont. : From the Miocene onward. 
Several forms have been described from 
America. Remains of a primitive perisso- 
dactylic form, from which the Rhinocerotidee 
may have descended, have been found In the 
Eocene of the Rocky Mountains. Hyracodon 
and Aceratherium (with four toes), from the 
Miocene, had no nasal horn ; Diceratherium, 
of the same age, had a pair of tubercles on 
the nasal bones, apparently supporting horns 
side by side. [RHINOCEROS, 2.] 

trhl-no-Che'-tl-dsB.s. pi [Mod. Lat rMno. 

clict(us); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suit', -idee.} 

Omith. : In older classifications a family of 
Grallaj, with one germs Rttinochetus (q.v.). 

rhi-no-che-ti'-nw, . pi [Mod. Lat. rhino- 
chet(us); Lat fern. pi. adj. suft*. -inoe.] 

Ornilh.: A sub-family of Gruidse, with on 
genus, Rhinochetus (q.v.), though Sundevall 
places here the genus Pediononras of Gould, 
sometimes classed with the Charadriidse and 
sometimes with the Tumicidae. 

rhi-no-che'-ttts, s. [Pref. rMno-, and Gr. 
XIUTT) (chatte) = long, flowing hair.] 

Ornith. i The sole genus of the sub-family 
Rhinochetime, with a single species, Rliino- 
chetus jubatus, from New Caledonia. It is 
bird of a bluish ash colour, partaking some- 
what of the appearance of a Rail, a Plover 
and a Heron. 

rhi no-deV-ma, . [Pref. rhino-, and Or. . 

Wpno (derma) =. skin.) 

Zool. : A genus of Bngystomatldse (In older 
classifications made the type of a family, Rhi- 
nodermatidse, which is now frequently merged 
in the first-named family). Fingen with a 
slight rudiment of web; toes incompletely 
webbed. There is a single species, Rhinoder- 
ma dariainii, from Chili. (Boulenger.) 

t rhi no der-m&t'-I-dss, s. pi. [Mod. Lat 
rhinoderma, genit. rhinodermal(ts) ; Lat. fern. 
pU adj. stiff. -Wee.) [RHINODKRXA.} 

fcto, fat, fie, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pSt, 
r, wore, wolt work, who. son t mate, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full ; try. Syrian, w, ce = 6 j ey = a ; qu = kw. 

rMnodon rhizobolacesB 


--, s. [Gr. p (rhis), genit. ptv<k 
' (rkinos)= the iiose; suff. -odon.] 

Ichthy. : The sole genus of the family 
Rhinodontidffi, with a single species, Bhinodon 
typicus t a gigantic shark, known to exceed 
fifty feet in length, and said to attain seventy. 
Common in the western parts of the Indian 
Ocean. It is harmless, the teeth being small 
and numerous, in broad bands. Snout broad, 
short, and flat ; eyes very small, 

rhi no don tl-dae, s. pi. [Mod. Lat, rhino* 
don, genit. rhinodo-nt(is) ; Lat. fern. pL adj. 
Buff, -idee.] 

fchthy. : A family of Selachoidei (q.v.X No 
nictitating membranes ; anal tin present ; two 
dorsals, the fi rst nearly opposite to the 
ventrals, without spine in front; mouth aud 
nostrils near extremity of snout. 

flu-nod' 6-ras, s. [Pref. rhino-, and Mod. 
Lat. etonw, from Gr. $6pv (doru) = Si spear.] 

Ichthy. : A genus of Siluridse, from the 
river? of tropical South America flowing Into 
the Atlantic. There is a series of bony scutes 
along the middle of the side. 

rhi-no gla m'-na, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. rhino- 
glait(is); Lat. neut. pi. adj. suff. -ina.] 

Ichthy. : A group of Siluridse (q.v.). Two 
dorsals ; six barbels ; ventrals inserted below 
posterior rays of first dorsal. Two genera : 
Rhinoglanis, of which a single example, an 
Inch and a half long, has been obtained from 
Gondoroko, on the Upper Nile ; and Callo- 
mystax, from the Ganges and Indus. 

rhi-n6-gla'-nls, s. [Pref. rhino-, and Mod. 
Lat. glanis, from Gr. y\a.vts (fflanis) =a a shad.] 

rhi no--gry'-phus, . [Pret rJUno-, and Lat 

grypkus. ] [G RYPUS. ] 

Ornith, : Turkey Vulture ; a genus of Sarco- 
rhamphma, with one species, Rhinogryphus 
aura, sometimes separated from Cathartas on 


account of its peculiar perforated nose, bat 
classed with that genus by older taxonomists. 
Range, from North America to the Straits of 
Magellan. It isabont thirty inches long ; plum- 
age black with purplish gloss ; head and neck 
bright red, which fades rapidly after death. 

rhi no-lith, s. [Pref. rhino-, and Gr. Aftoc 

(lithos) = a stone.] 

Pathol : A concretion, consisting of the 
phosphate and carbonate of lime and mag- 
nesia with mucus, sometimes arising in the 
nasal oavities. 

rhi no loph'-I -dae, *. pi. [Mod. Lafe. rhino- 

loplt(us); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -Idas.} 

Zool. : Horseshoe Bats ; a family of Mlcro- 
chiroptera. Bats with well-developed foli- 
aceous cutaneous appendages surrounding 
nasal apertures, and large, generally separated 
ears, without a tragus. The molars are 
acutely tubercular, enabling them to crash 
tlie hard cases of Coleoptera, which form a 
lame portion of their food. From temperate 
and tropical parts of the eastern hemisphere, 
from Ireland to New Ireland. There are two 
Rnh-families : (1) Phyllorhlninse, and (2) 
Rhinolnphina, with a single genus, Rhino- 
lophus (q.v.). 

rhi - nol- o-phi'-nre, t. pi [Mod. Lat. rhino- 
loph(u*); Lat. fern. pL adj. fluff, -ince.] 


rhi-nol'-6-phus, a. [Pref. rhino-, and Gr. 
Adieus (lophos) =. a crest.] 

1. Zool. : The sole genus of Rhinolnphinae, 
with twenty-four species, having approxi- 
mately the range of the family. In temperate 
regions the species hibernate in dry and warm 

hiding-places during the winter; in warmer 
regions they frequent hill-ranges, and many 
are clothed with long dense fur. The most 
important species will be found iu this 
Dictionary under their popular names. 
2. Palfeont. : Begins in the Eocene. 

rhi-no-nyc'-ter-is, . [Pref. rhino-, and 
Mod. La!., nycteris (q.v.),] 

Zool. : A genus of Phyllorhinae (q.v.), with 
one species, Jthinonycteris aurantiaca, the 
Orange-coloured Bat. The genus is interme- 
diate between Triaenops and Phyllorhina, agree- 
ing more closely with the former. (Dobson.) 

rhi-n6-phry'-ni-d, . pL [Mod. Lat, rhi- 
nopiiryn(us) ; Lat. fern. pL adj. suff. -idee.] 


rhi-no-phry'-nus, . [Pref. rhino-, and Gr. 
fypuvri (phrune) a toad.] 

Zool. : A genus of Bufonidse. Parotids ab- 
sent, transverse processes of sacrum large, 
fingers free, toes webbed, tips not dilated. 
One species, Rhinophrynus dorsalis, from 
Mexico. It is sometimes erected into a sepa- 
rate family, Rhinophrynidte. 

rhi-noph'-$rl-la, . [Pref. rhino-, and Gr. 
(iAAoc (phullon) = a leaf.] 

Zool. : A genus of Vampyri (q.v.), with one 
species, Rhinophylla pumilio, from Bahia. 

* rhi -nA-plast, s. [Pref. rhino-, and Gr. 
TrAao-o-w (plasto) = to mould.] A person hav- 
ing an artificial nose. [RHINOPLASTIC.] 

" The cunning Idolaters who had made Mr. Clint ft 
rMnopUut." Daily Telegraph, June 9, 1885. 

rhi no-plas'-tic, a. [Pr. rhinoplastiqnc.] 
[RuiNOPLAST.] Forming a nose. 

rhlnoplastic- knlto, s. 

Surg. : A knife used iu the Tagliacotian 
operation for artificial nose. 

rhinoplastic-opcration, 0. 

Surq. : A surgical operation for forming an 
artificial nose, or for restoring one partially 
lost, Also called the Taliacotian or Tagiia- 
eotian operation, from Jaspar Tagliacozzi, a 
surgeon of Bononia, by whom it was intro- 
duced about 1553. Tagliacozzi obtained the 
piece for the replacement by dissection from 
the shoulder or arm of the patient. Liston 
introduced the plan of cutting the piece from 
the forehead of the noseless. 

rhi no-plas-ty, s. [RHINOPLASTIC.] The 

rhi no po -ma, s. [Pref. rhino-, and Gr. 
wwfia (poma) = a cover.] 

Zool. : The sole genus of the group Rhino- 
pomata, of the sub-family EmuaHon urinffi. 
There is a single species, Rhinopoma micro- 
phyllum, ranging from Egypt, through Asia 
Minor, to India and Burma. It is a small Bat, 
about two inches long, with a tail of about 
the same length. The fur is short, and a 
good deal of the hinder part of the back 
naked; the limb-bones are long, rendering 
the animal active in walking. Common in 
ruins in Egypt, whence it is sometimes called 
the Egyptian Rhinopome. 

rhi-no-po'-ma-ta, . pi. (Mod. Lat., pi. of 
rhinopoma.] [RHINOPOMA.] 

rhi' no-pome, *. [RHINOPOMA.] 

rhi-nop'-ter-a, . [Pref. rhino-, and Gr. 
irrepov (pterori) = a wing.] 

1. Ichthy. : A genus of Myliobatidse (q.v.), 
with seven species from tropical and sub- 
tropical seas. The teeth are broad, flat, 
tessellated, in five or more series, the middle 
being the broadest, the others decreasing in 
width outwards. Tail very slender, with a 
dorsal fin before the serrated spine. 

2. Pateeont. : [ZYQOBATIS]. 

rhi no-rhce -a, . [Pref. rhino-, and Gr. plw 
(rheo) to flow.] 

Pathol. : Chronic inflammation of the nos- 
trils. Called also Oztena. 

rhi-no-sau'-rus, . [Pref. rhino-, and Gr. 
eravpos (soiiros) = a lizard.] 

Palceont. : A genus of Labyrinthodonts, 
group Brachyopiua, from the Lias. 

rhi -no -scope, s. [Pref. rhino-, and Gr. 
ffKoreta (skopeS) = to see.] An instrument for 

examining the posterior nares the rear por- 
tion of the nostrils. 

rhi-no scop'-Ic, a. [Eng. rhinoscop(e) ; -ic.] 
Of or pertaining to rhinoscopy or the rhino- 

rhl-n6s'-CO-p$r, . [RHINOSCM>PE.] Inspec- 
tion of the nasal passages by means of the 

rhi-pi^-er-a, a. [Gr. ptn-i? (rhipls) = a fen, 

and Kc'pac (keras) = a horn.] 

Entom. : The typical genus of Rhipiceridaa 
(q.v.). The species, which are few, are found 
in Australia and America. 

rhl-pi-9r'-l-de t . pL [Mod. I^t. rftijii. 
cer(a); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 

Entom. : A family of Serricornia akin to 
Elateridse. Antenna tn the males beautifully 
branched, sometimes fan-shaped. No groove 
for the reception of the fore sternum. The 
species are few. 

tf. [Gr. pint's (rhipis), genit. 
(rhipulos) = & fan.] Fanlike, having 
processes resembling a fan. 

rhi-pl-dd-den'-dron, s. [Pref. rhipido-, 
and Gr. favfyov (dendron) = a tree.] 

ZooL : A genus of Spongiomonadidce (q.v.). 
Animalcnlea ovate, with two anterior attenuate 
flagella. Two species, Rhipidodendron splendi- 
dum t from fresh water, and R. huaefoyi, from 
bog-water on Dartmoor. 

[Pref. rhipido- t and 
Gr. yopyelos (gorgeios) = of or belonging to the 

ZooL ; Fan-coral ; a genus of Gorgonldw. 
They are fan-shaped, with little warty polypes 
close to the hard tissue. Many species exist 
in the Pacific and the Atlantic. 

rhi-pi-diir'-a, . [Pref. rhipid(o)- t and Gr. 
ovpo, (oura) = a tail.] 

Ornith.: Fantails; a genus of Muscicapido, 
with forty - five species, ranging over the 
Oriental and Australian regions to the Samoa 
Islands and Tasmania. They are remarkable 
for a broad tail, which spreads out like a fan 
when the bird is in motion. The genus is 
especially represented in the Malay Archi- 
pelago, where every little island, or group of 
islands, has its peculiar species. 

rhi-plp'-ter-^, s. pi [Gr. pun's (rMpis)= 
fan, and irrtpov (pterori) = a wing.] 
Entom. : Strepsiptera (q.v.). (Latreille.) 

rhip-sal -J-d89, . pi [Mod. Lat. rhipsattfs') ; 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 
Bot. : A family of Cactaceae. 

rh5tp'-sa-lis, s. [Gr. pfy (rhips) = wicker-work. 
Named" from the flexible branches.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of Rhipsalidn. 
Flowers rotate, segments twelve to eighteen, 
stamens many, style one, stigma three- to six- 
rayed. All from the warmer parts of America. 
Jihipsalia pachyptera, bruised, is used as * 
fomentation for ill-conditioned ulcers. 

rhi-za-, rhi-Eo-, rhiz-, prtf. [Gr. pifa 
(rhiza) = a root. J 

Bot., Zool., &c. : Of or belonging to a root, 
or anything resembling it. 

rhi'-zanth, s. [Rnrz ANTHER.] A plant be- 

longing to the Rhizanthea:, 

t rhi-zan'-the- ce, *. pi. [Pref. rhiz-; Gr. 
ai^o? (anthos) = a flower, and Lat. pi. adj. 
suff, -ece.] 
Sot. : Rhizogens. (Blume.) [RHIZOOEH.] ., 

rhi'-zine, rhi-zi'-na, . [Gr. pi$a(rhiza)=* 
Bot. : The root of a moss or of a lichen. 

(Link.) Called also Rliizula, 

rhi-zo-, prtf. [RHIZA-.] 

rhi zo-blas'-tus, . [Pref. rhizo-, and Qc 
^Aaords (blastos) = a sprout, a shoot.] 
Sot. : An embryo which develops roots, 

rhl'-zo'-bol, *. [RHIZOBOLUS.] 

Bot. (PI.) : The Rhizobolaceae. (Lindley.) 

rhi-z6-bo-la'-9e-, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. rhiao- 
bol(us); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -acece.] 
Bot. : Rhizobols ; an order of Hypogynou* 

boll, boy; pout, jowl; cat, 90!!, chorun, chin, bench; go, gem; **", this; sin, a; expect, Xenophon, exist. -ing r 
-clan, -4ian = shan, -tiou, -slon = shun ; -{ion. -fion = zhun, -clous, -tious, -sious = shus. -ble, -die, Ac. = b9l del. 


rhizobolus rhodalose 

Exogens, alliance Guttiferales. Large trees 
with opposite, digitate, coriaceous leaves 
without stipules. Sepals five or six ; petals 
five to eight ; stamens very numerous ; ovary 
four, five, or many celled ; styles as many as 
the cells. Tr.iit. of several combined nuts, 
each nut indehiscent, one-celled, one-seeded, 
or abortive. Natives of tropical South 
America. Known geuera two. species eight. 

rhi-zob -d-lfts, i. [Or.$oXo 5 (rhizobolas) 

= striking root : pifa (rhiza) = a root, and 
(3oA (tolas) = a throw.] 
Bot : A synonym of Caryocar (q.v.). 

rhl'-zd-carp, s. [Pref. rhizo-, and Or. xapiroc 
(wrpos) = fruit.] 
Bot (Pi.): The Marsileacea (q.v.). (Lindfey.) 

rhi-zS-car'-paB, . pi. [RHIZOCARP.] 

Bot. : The Marsileacea (q.v.). 

rhi-zo-car -pous, o. [Eng. rhlzomrp ; -ovs.} 

1. Gm. : Of or belonging to a plant whose 
root endures many years, but whose stems 
perish annually. Used of herbs. 

2. Specif. : Of or belonging to a Rhizocarp 

rlri-z6-9eph'-a-Ia, s. ft. [Fret rMjo-, and 
Gr. c<f.aAi) (kephali) = the head.] 

Zool. : An order of the Crustacean sab-class 
Gnathopoda (= EntomostracaX often placed 
with the Cirripedia. Parasitic, usually as 
other Crustacea. Body sac-like, devoid of 
segmentation or limbs. The aperture of the 
aac is funnel-shape, and supported by a ring 
of chitin. From the circumference of the 
funnel, root-like processes branch out through 
the body of their host. Alimentary canal 
obsolete ; no cement glands. Hermaphro- 
dite ; the young pass through a Nauplins and 
a. Cypris stage. 


Zoo!. : Any individual of the order Rhizo- 
cephala (q.v.). 

"Mr. 8p0nc B4U mention* a ilmHy CAM In a 
Mkaoctj>Aalo*.'8tKfc. Brit. (ed. 9th). VE S. 

rni-xA-cri'-nfta, . [Pref. rhito- (q.v.), and 
Gr. icpuvv (fcrinon) = a lily.] 

ZooL: A genus of Apiocrinites (Pear- 

rhi -xi-d&nt. f. [Pref. rhizo- (q.v.), and Gr. 
ofiovt (odout), genit odorrof (odonlos) = a 

Cbiop. Xnot : A tooth with branching fangs 
anchylosing with the jaw. 

rhi-s6-d8p'-i*,. [Mod. Lat rhizod(u,), and 
Gr. o^rfr (opsw) = appearance.] 

PoJiront : A genus of Cyclodipteridae 
(TraquairX with two species, from the Coal- 
measures of Scotland and Staffordshire. The 
pectoral fin was obtusely lobate. 

i -zd-das, i. [Pref. rhizo-, and Or. 

Pttlaont. : A genus of Cyclodipteridae 
(Tnquair), with two species, from the Coal- 
measures near Edinburgh. It was probably 
the largest of the Palaeozoic Fishes. The 
huge teeth and detached bones of the head 
of Rhizodus hibberti led earlier observers to 
refer it to the Labyrinthodonts. 

*ii-xS flag-el-la-ta, >. fL [Pref. rtiw-, 
and Hod. Lat Jlagellata (q.v.).] 

ZooL : An order of Flagellate Infusoria. 
Animalcules progressing by means of pseudo- 
podial extensions of their protoplasm after the 
manner of the ordinary Rhizopoda, but hear- 
ing, at the same time, one or more flagellate 
appendages; oral or ingestive area diffuse. 
Genera : Mastigamosba, Reptomonas, Rhizo- 
monas, and Podostoma. (Kent.) 

rhi'-zi-gen, s. [Pref. rhizo., and the root 
of Gr. ytrmu (gmnao) = to produce.] 

Bot. (PI): In Lindley's classification, the 
third of seven great classes of the Vegetable 
Kingdom. Parasitic plants with cellular 
scales instead of true leaves ; stem an amorph- 
ous fungous mass, or a ramified mycelium 
sometimes destitute of spiral vessels. Colour 
brown, yellow, or purple, never green. 
Flowers naked, or with a trimeroos or pentam- 
erons calyx with stamens and carpels. Most 

of them stain water a deep blood-red. They 
vary greatly in appearance. Brown, Griffith, 
&c., opposed their erection into a separate 
class, believing them degenerate exogens. 
Called also Rhizanths. Orders Balauo- 
phoracee, Cytiuacea, Rafflesiacete. 

rhi -xoid, a. ft . [Gr. pifottiijj (rKixxtdti) = 
= root-like : pifa (rhiza) = a root, and ttfos 
(eidos) = form.] 

A* A> adj. : Resembling a root. 

B. As substantive : 

Bot. (PL): Slender root filaments affixing 
certain cryptograms to the ground. 

rhi-zoi -de-ous, o. [Eng. rhuold; suff. 
Bot. : The same as RHIZOID, A. 

rhi zo-mo, . [RHIZOME.] 

rhi-zo-ma -nl-a, . [Pref. rhizo-, and Eng. 

Bot. : An abnormal development of roots. 
It Is often seen in the ivy, the laurel, the 
fig, the apple, &c. In the fig the roots are 
often sent out around the line which surrounds 
the stem ; in the apple tree they appear in 
little bundles, absorb moisture, and decay. 
Rhizomania generally indicates something 
wrong with the ordinary root. 

rhi'-zome, rlriz ome, rhi zo'-ma, . [Gr. 

ptu*i" (rhizoma) = the mass of the roots of a 
tree ; pwja (rhiza) = a root.] 

Bot : A rootstock, a prostrate, thickened, 
rooting stem which yearly produces young 
branches or plants. Examples, various 
Iridaceae and epiphytous Orchids. 

rhi zo-mdn -a*, . [Pref. rhito-, and Mod. 
Lat. mono* (q.v.).] 

ZooL : A genus of Rhizoflagellata, with a 
single species, Rhizomonas rerrucoaa, found by 
Saville Kent in hay-infusions. 

* rhi-z6 mor -pha, t. [Pref. rhizo-, and Gr. 
/top^i} (morphe) = form.] 

Bat. : An old genus of Fungi found on root- 
like bodies, which are really the imperfect 
state of various other genera. 

rhi-zo mor -phoid, rhi zA mor -phoiU, 
a. [Eng. rhuomorph(a) ; -aid, -ouj.) Root- 
like in form. 

rhl zo-mjs, t. [Pref. rhizo-, and Gr. fivt 
(mus) = a mouse.] 

ZooL : A genus of Spalacinas (q.v.), with six 
specias, from Abyssinia, North India, Malac- 
ca, and South China. It differs from the 
typical genus in having the eye uncovered. 

t rhi-zoph'-a-ga, i. pi. [RHIZOPHAOCS.] 

Zool. : Root-eaters ; a tribe of Marsupials, 
with one family Phascolomyidae (q.v.). Two 
scalpriform incisors in both jaws ; no canines ; 
stomach with a special gland ; ctecum short, 
wide, with a vermiform appendage. (Oiwn.) 

rhi-zoph -a-gotts, (i. [RHIZOPHAODS.] Feed- 
ing or subsisting on roots. 

rhi zoph -a-gaa, . [Pref. rhim- (q.v.X and 
Gr. Qaytiv (phayein) = to eat.] 

Entftm. : A genus of NitidulidsK Ten are 

rhi~zoph -or-a, . [Pret rhizo-. and Gr. 
<t>oim (pharos) = bearing. Named from the 
aerial roots which it throws out.] 

Bot. : Mangrove ; the typical genus of Rhizo- 
phoraceee. Calyx four-parted ; petals four, 
acute ; stamens eight to twelve. The stem 
separates into roots some distance above the 
water. The wood of Rhizophora Manglf is 
good and durable, the fruit sweet and eatable, 
and the fermented juice forms a light wine. 
[MANGROVE.) The bark is good for tanning. 
Salt also is extracted from its aerial roots. 

rtu-zi-phd-ra'-9e-n, s. pi. [Mod. Lat rhi- 
tophoria); Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -oooz.] 

Bot : Mangroves ; an order of Perigynons 
Exogens, alliance Myrtales. Trees or shrubs, 
growing along sea-shores. Leaves simple, 
opposite, sometimes dotted, with convolute, 
deciduous stipules between the petioles. 
Peduncles axillary or terminal ; calyx lobes 
four to twelve, sometimes all uniting into a 
calyptra. Petals inserted into the calyx, 
equal in number to the lobes, and alternating 
with them. Stamens twice or thrice as many. 

Ovary two-, three-, or four-celled, each with 
two or more pendulous ovulns. Fruit inde- 
hiscent, one-celled, one-seeded, crowned by 
the calyx. Seed, on becoming ripe, sendii.g 
a long radicle to fix itself in the mud and thus 
prevent its being carried away by the ocean. 
The trees form dense thickets along the shorvs 
of the tropics of both hemispheres. Known 
genera five, species twenty. (Lindley.) 

rhi-zopli'-dr-ous, a. [Mod. Lat rXltopJio- 
r(a) ; Eng. adj. suff. -ous.] 

Bot. : Root-bearing ; belonging to tlie natn- 
ral order Rhizophoracea? (q.v.). 

rlu'-zo-pod, . [RHIZOPODA.] 

1. Zool. : A member of the order Rhizopoda, 

2, Bot ; The mycelium of a fungal. 

t rhl-zop 6-da, s. pi. [Pref. rhizo-, and Or. 
troiis (pans), geuit. iroJos (podos)= a foot] 

1. Zool. : A name introduced by Dujardin 
for an order of Infusoria, which were defined 
as auiuuilcules with mutable form, moving by 
means of multiform exsertile processes, with- 
out vibratile cilia or other external organs. 
When the sub-kingdom Protozoa was formed, 
the name Rhizopoda was retained for the class 
containing individuals with the power of emit- 
ting pseudopodia (q.v.), and the class was 
divided into five orders : Monera, Amoebea, 
Foraminifera, Radiolaria, and Spongida. The 
Rhizopoda are the Myxopodia of Huxley, and 
this latter name has been retained by Prof. 
Lankester in his reclassilication of the Proto- 
zoa (q.v.). 

2. Palcamt. : [FoKAKiNirERA, RADIOLARU, 


rlu zS-po -dl-iim, . [Pref. rhizo-, and Or. 
wottov (podim) = a small foot, dimin. from ntit 
(pous), genit. wotos (podoi) = a foot.) 
Bat : [RHizoroo, 2.). 

rtu-4-p6;-g6n, t. [Pret rtte>-, and Gr. 
rwY*M> (pogon) = a beard.] 

Bot. : A getras of underground Fungi. Rlii- 
Mopogon provincialit is eaten in Provence. 

rhi-z&i'-to-ma, . [Pref. rhizo-, and Gr. 
(rrd/Mi (sterna) = a mouth.] 

ZooL : The typical genus of RhizostomiMss. 
Bodycircuhir, hemispherical, excavated below, 
with four semilunar orifices, into which are 
inserted four roots of a pedunculated mass, 
afterwards developing into eight appendages 
with flbrillary suckers. Type Khizostoma 
cui-ieri. European seas. 

rhi-z4-t5m'-a-ta, i. pL [RHIZOSTOMA.] 

Zool. : A sub-order of Discophora (Medusas X 
having processes like rootlets around the 
mouth. They are covered with minute poly- 
pites, interspersed with clavate tentarula sus- 
pended from the middle of the umbrella. 

rhi'-co-stome, s. [RHIZOSTOMA.] 

rhi zfi-t6m -I-dsa, s. pL [Mod. Lat rfiito- 
ttom(a) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -ida. 1 

1. Zool. : A family of Lucemanda (Ntchol- 
ton}, equivalent to the order Rhizostoma of 
Prof. Martin Duncan. 

2. Potoont : A species occurs In the Litho- 
graphic slates of Solenhofen. 

rbi-zi-taz'-Is, . [Pref. rhino-, ard Gr. rofn 
(taxis) an arrangement] 

Bot. : The arrangements of roots, and the 
laws of their growth. It has been investi- 
gated by Clos. 

rhi zof-ro gus, a, [Pref. rhizo-, and 
(trogo) = to gnaw.] 

Entom. : A genus of Melolonthina;. 
tnffut solstitialit is the Midsummer Chafer. 

rhi'-zn la, . [Latinised dimin. from Gr. 
pt^a (rhiza) = a root] [RHIZINE.] 

rho'-da-lite, J. [Or. po&x>c (rhodoeis) = rose- 
coloured ; a connective, and Ai'lot (lithos) a 
stone (Afin.).] 

Win. .- An earthy rose-red mineral, with a 
soapy feel. Hardness, 2-0 ; sp. gr., 2'0. Com- 
pos : silica, 65*9 ; alumina, 8*8 ; sesqnioxide 
of iron, 11*4 ; magnesia, 0*6 ; lime, I 1 ; water, 
22*0 = 99*3. Occurs in amygdaloidal dolerite 
in county Antrim, Ireland." 

rho da-lose, rho -da-loze, a. [RHODHA- 


fete, tat, tare, amidst, what, fall, lather; we, wet, Here, camel. Her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
cr, wore, wolt work, wu& 4n; mute, cfib, euro, onite, ear, role, foil; try, Syrian. e, ce = e; ey = a; qn - kw. 

fhodanio rhodonite 


rho-dan'-Io, . [Eng. Thodan(ide) ; -ic.J 


rho'-dn-lde, s. [Gr. poSo* (rhodon) = a rose.] 
Chem.: A uame applied to sulphocyanates 
on account of the red colour which they pro- 
duce with ferric salts. (Watts.) 

rho-dan'-the, s. [Or. poSo* (rhodon) = a rose, 
and ai-Soi (anthos) = a flower. Named from 
the colour of the flower-heads.] 

Bat. : A genus of Helychrysese. Only known 
species Rluidanthe Manglesii, a beautiful com- 
posite ; its flowers, of the dry and unfading 
kind called everlasting, roseate or purple on 
the upper part, and silvery below. It is found 
in Western Australia, has been introduced 
into British greenhouses, and will grow also 
in the open air in a temperature between 60 
and 80% There are several varieties, but It is 
possible that two of these, R. atrosanguinta 
and B. are, as Paxton makes them, 
distinct species. 

rho-de-i'-na, P l - l Mod - Lat rhode(us); 
Lat. neut. pi. adj. sun", -ina.] 

Ichthy. : A group of Cyprinidse. Anal of 
moderate length, with nine to twelve branched 
rays ; dorsal short, or of moderate length ; 
mouth with very small barbels, or none. 
Four genera : Achelognathus, Acanthorhodeus, 
Bhodens, and Pseudoperilampus. In the fe- 
males a long external urogenital tube is de- 
veloped annually during the spawning season. 

rho-dS-o'-re't'-Io, a. [Eng. rhodeonHin) ; -to.] 
Contained in or derived from Bhodeoretin 

rhodeoretlo-acid, *. [COHTOLVDLIO- 


rhd-dS-oV-S-tfcl, >. [Gr. p6Sm< (rhodeta) = 
rosy, and pipim} (rhitini) = resin.) [CosvoL- 


rho-dS-S-rfif-In-Sl, 5. [Eng. rhodeoretin ; 


rho-dS-i-reVIn-ol'-Ic, o. [Eng. rhodeo- 
retinot ; -ic.) Contained in or derived from 
rhodeorotinolic acid, i. [CosvoLvo- 


Rhodes, >. [See def.] 

Geog. : An island off the iouth-west coast of 
Asia Minor. 
Rhodes-wood, . 

Bot. : Amyris bulsamifem, the West Indian 
Candlewood. Rhodes-wood seems a misnomer 
for an American plant. 

rho -de-iis, s. [Or. paStot (rhodeos) = rosy- 

Ichthy. : The typical genus of the group 
Rhodeina (q.v.V with three species from Central 
Europe and China. Rhodeui amarus, some- 
times found in warm springs, has a silvery- 
bluish band on the middle of the tail. 

rhod-ha'-ldse, . [Gr. poinw (rtodw) = 
rose-coloured ; iAs (tois) = salt, and suff. -oat 
Min. : The same as BIEBERITK (q.v.). 

Rho'-dl an, a. & s. [See def.] 

A, As adj. : Of or pertaining to Rhodes, an 
island in the Mediterranean. 

B. As su&st. : A native or inhabitant of 

Rhodion-laws, s. 7>Z. The earliest system 
of marine laws, said to have been compiled by 
the Rhodians after they had, by their com- 
merce and naval victories, obtained the com- 
mand of the sea, abdut 900 B.O. 

rhod'-Xc, a. [Eng. rhod(inm); -ic.] Contained 
in, or derived from rhodium (q.v.Ji 
rhodic-oxide, s. [RHODIUM.] 

rho ding, s. [Etym. doubtful.) 

Kaut. : One of the brass boxes for the 
journals of the pump-break. 

rh6-di'-d-la, s. [Mod. Lat., from Gr. poSov 
(rhodon) = a rose. So named because the 
roots smell like roses.] 

Bot. : A genus of Crassnleas. Rhodiotarosea 
Is now Sedum Khodiola. [SEDUM.] 

rhod'-ite, >. [Eng. rhocUivm) ; suff. -He (Min,)."] 
Min. : The same as RHODIUM-OOLD (q.v.). 

rho-di'-tes, . [Gr. pdi.os (rhodeos) = rosy.) 

Entom. : A genus of Cynipidae. Shodites 
rosce is the small gall-fly, the puncture of 
which produces the bedeguar of the rose. 

rhd'-di-um, s. [Latinised from Gr. poSov 
(rhodon) = a rose, from the red colour of some 
of its salts.] 

Chem. : A tetratomic metallic element belong- 
ing to the platinum group, symbol Rh ; atomic 
weight, 104-4 ; sp. gr. 10'6 to 12 ; discovered 
by Wollastou in 1804 in crude platinum. To 
obtain it, the solution from which platinum, 
palladium, and iridium have been separated 
is mixed with hydrochloric acid, evaporated to 
dryness, and the residue treated with alcohol 
of sp. gr. 0-837, which dissolves everything 
except the double chlorides of rhodium and 
sodium. On filtering, beating the residue to 
dryness, and boiling with water, metallic 
rhodium remains. It is a whitish-gray metal, 
very hard, less fusible and less ductile than 
platinum, unalterable in the air at ordinary 
temperatures, but oxidising at a red heat. 
When pure it is unacted upon by the strongest 
acids, but when alloyed it dissolves in nitro- 
hydrochloric acid. Rhodium forms but one 
chloride, RhClj, a brownish-red deliquescent 
mass, soluble in water. It forms four oxides : 
monoxide, RhO, a dark-gray substance, un- 
attacked by acids ; sesquioxide or rhodic oxide, 
RhoOs a gray porous mass, with a metallic 
iridescence ; dioxide, RhO 2 , a dark-brown 
substance ; and trioxide, RhO 3 , a blue floccu- 
lent powder, all insoluble in acids. The salts 
of rhodium are for the most part rose-coloured. 

rhodium-gold, s. 

Min. : A variety of native gold, said to con- 
tain from 34 to 43 per cent, of rhodium. 
Sp. gr. 15-5 to W8 ; brittle. 

rho'-di-te, rhd'-<U-oite, . [Gr. W 
(rhadva) = to tinge red ; suff. -ite (Jfin.).] 

Min. : An isometric mineral, found very 
rarely, and only in small crystals, on rubellite 
in the neighbourhood of Ekaterinburg, Perm, 
Russia. Hardness,8;; lustre, 
vitreous ; colour, white ; translucent ; pyro- 
electric. Not yet analysed, but from its 
blowpipe reactions it is supposed to be lime 

rhd-dl-zon'-Xo. o. [Gr. fottt. (rhoditf) = to 
tinge red ; Eng. (sa/)ro(n), and suff. .) (See 

rhodizonic acid, s. 

Chem. : A name applied to two distinct 
compounds, produced under different circum- 
stances from potassium carboxide. a-Rhodi- 
zonic acid, C 5 HiO 6 = (C 5 HO,T j Os _ dis . 

covered by Heller in 1837, is formed from 
carboxylic acid by the assumption of water, 
CioH 4 10 + 2H a O = 2C 6 H 4 8 . It crystallizes 
in colourless rhombic prisms, easily soluble in 
water and alcohol. On exposure to the air 
the crystals turn brownish-red, heated to 
100' they turn black, at a higher tempera- 
ture they decompose, leaving a carbonaceous 
residue. The a-rhodizonates, produced from 
the hydro-carbojtylates, are all red, and very 
insoluble. p-Rhodizonic acid, CioHjOa. This 
acid is unknown in the free state, but its 
potassium salt, C 10 K 6 O 8 , discovered by Brodie 
In 1859, remains undissolved when potassium 
carboxide is treated with absolute alcohol. 
It is distinguished from u-rhodizonate by the 
rapidity with which it absorbs oxygen on 
exposure to air and moisture, being converted 
into potassium croconate. 

rho-doH pref. [Gr. fitter (rhodm) = rose.] 
Of, pertaining to, or in any way resembling a 

rho do9'-er a, *. [Pref. rhodo-, and Gr. 
p (Jceros) = a horn.] 

Entom. : A genus of Papilionidas. Bhodocera 
rhamni of Newman is Gonepteryx rhamni of 
Stainton, &c. 

rno'-do-chrome, s. [Pref. rhodo-, and Gr. 

X/xu/ui (chroma) = colour.] 

Min. : A compact variety of Kammererite 
(q.v.), having a splintery fracture. 

rho-dS-chro'-site, . [Pref. rhodo-; Or. 

Xpuo-is (chrosis) = colour, and suff. -ite (Mm.). J 

Min. : A mineral belonging to the group of 

anhydrous carbonates. Crystallization rhom- 

bohedral; also occurs globular, botryoidal, 

and massive. Hardness, 8-5 to 4-5 ; sp. gi. 
8*4 to 3'7 ; lustre, vitreous ; colour, shades of 
rose-red when pure, dark-red to brown ; streak, 
white. Compos. : carbonic acid, 38-6 ; prot- 
oxide of manganese, 61'4 ; but the latter is 
frequently partly replaced by lime, magnesia, 
or protoxide of iron. 

rho-dS-ori'-nl-dse, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. rte- 
docrin(us) ; Lat. pL adj. suff. -idee.} 

Palceont. : A family of Crinoidea. Basals 
five, parabasals or sub-radials five ; arms 
ten or twenty, bifurcated two or three times. 
Devonian (?) and Carboniferous formations. 

rho-doc'-ri-nite, s. [Mod. l,e.t.rhodoorin(us); 
suff. -ite.] Any individual of the genus Rhodo- 

rho-do-ori'-nus, . [Pref. rtodo-, and Gr. 
tpii'o* (krinon) = a lily.] 

Palaxmt. : The typical genus of Rhodo- 
crinidse. Eight species are known, from th 
Devonian (?) to the Carboniferous. 

rho-do-dSn'-dre'-SB, s. pi. [Lat. rhododen- 
dr(on) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -OT.] 

Bot. : A tribe of Ericaceaj. Fruit capsular, 
septicidal. Buds scaly, resembling cones. 

rho-d<S-den'-drSn, . [Lat., from Gr. poW- 
cfripov (rhododendron) = the oleander or the 
rhododendron; pref. rhodo-, and Gr. tirlpar 
(dendron) = a tree. Named from the similarity 
in the flowers.) 

Bot. : The typical genus of Rhododendron 
(q.v.). Evergreen shrubs or low trees, with 
nve-lobed corolla, occasionally a little irregu- 
lar, and normally ten stamens, sometimes 
declinate. Akin to Azalea, which is distin- 
guished from it by having only five stamens. 
A few small species occur in Europe and Siberia, 
but the mountain regions of the United Stated 
and India are the true homes of the genus. B. 
moximiu forms dense thickets in parts of the 
Alleghanies, and presents a magnificent appear, 
ance when in bloom. The flowers are large, in 
corymbs, their color from pale carmine to lilac, 
R. cataubietue, a species with large purple 
flowers, grows in the southern Alleghauies. 
Numerous species occur in India, especially in 
the eastern Himalayas, among them B. Falco- 
neri, which is a tree 30 to 60 feet high with 
superb foliage, the leaves 18 inches long. B. 
argenteum bears flowers 4% inches long and 
equally broad, the clusters being very beautiful. 
The Rhododendrons have become favorite culti- 
vated flowers, and many varieties have been 
produced, some of them magnificent. The 
acid stems of R. nobUe are eaten by the Hindoos. 
The flowers of B. arboreum make a good sub- 
acid jelly, besides being of use as applied to the 
forehead for headache. S. chryvmthum and 
R.ferrugmeum are narcotic. 

rho do me -la, . ftnl rfcxto-, nd Or. 
ne\o (nto) = s limb. Named from the 
colour of the fronds.) 

Bot. : The typical genus of Rhodomele 
(q.v.). Promd cylindrical, inarticulate, opaque ; 
tetraspores in pod-like receptacles. 

rh6-d6-m6-li'-98-, rno-d*-me'-lS-, 

i. pi. [Mod. Lat rhodameHa); Lat fern. pL 
adj. suff. -oca, -e<e.] 

Bot. : An order of Algales, or a sub-order of 
CeramUceae. Frond jointed. Ceramidia hav- 
ing pear-shaped granules at the base of a cup- 
shaped envelope, which finally bursts by a 
pore. Tetraspores enclosed in transformed 
branches or stichidia. 

rhd-dA-me'-ni-a, . [RHODYMZNIA.] 
rhSd-i-mon-tade', . [RODOMONTADE.] 
rho-do-ntfr'-tus <$r as ir), . [Pref. rhoio-, 
and Gr. /II/PTOT (mitrtoi) = a myrtle.] 

Bot. : A genus of Myrtete. Rhodomyrtut 
tomentosa, a South Indian mountain shrub, like 
the common myrtle, produces sweet fleshy 
berries, eaten raw or made into a Jelly. 

rho'-don-Ite,. L 

suff. -ite (Mtu.).] 

Min. : A mineral crystallizing in the tri- 
clinic system, though its angles approximate 
to those of pyroxene. Hardness, 5'5 to 6'6 ; 
sp gr. 3-4 to 3-68 ; lustre, vitreous ; colour, 
shades of red; some varieties, greenish, 
yellowish; streak, white; very tough. 
Compos. : silica, 45 -9; protoxide of manganese, 
54-1 = 100 represented by the formula, MnO 

boll, bo?; ptfut, J6%1; cat, cell, chorus, 9hln, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, 
oian, -Uan = shaa. -tion, -sion = shim; -tion, -lon = zhun. -clous, -tious, -olous = shus. -we, -oie. 


rhodophyllite rhubarb 

SiOj ; the manganese is frequently partly re- 
placed, however, by protoxide of Iron, lime, 
and sometimes zinc. Dana distinguishes 
three varieties : (I) Ordinary, (a) crystallized, 
(b) granular, massive; (2) Caliiferous (Busta- 
mite), which contains from to 15 per cent. 
of lime ; (3) Zinciferous (Fowlerite). 

rho do phyl'-llte.s. [Pref. rhodo-, and Eug. 
Min. : The same as KAMMERERITE (q.v.). 

rho-do-rhi za, s. [Pref. rhodo-, and Or. pt'fa 
(rhiza) = a root. So named because the root- 
stocks smell like roses.] 

Bat.: A gi-nus of Convolvulesj, from the 
Canary Islands. The roots of Rhodorhaa 
Jluriila and R. scoparia are used as sternuta- 
tories. An oil, Oleum Hani Rhodiicetherfum, is 
extracted by distillation from their roots. 

rho' dd-sperm, . [RHODOSPEBJJE*.] 

Hat. : Any individual algal of the Bhodo- 

rho-do sper'-me-as, t rho do-spbr e- 

66, a. pi. [Pref. rhodo- ; Gr. <nrt'piia (sperma), 
or oiropa (-tj)ora), o-iro'pos (sporos) = a seed, 
and Lat. fern. pi. adj. sufT. -acm, -eee.} 

Bat. : Rose-spored Algals, one of the three 
great divisions of the Algals. The rose- 
coloured spores are of two kinds : spores in 
capsular bodies, external or immersed, and 
tetraspores (q.v.). Antheridfa are generally, 
It not universally, present. They are divided 
into two tribes : Desmiospermeae, in which 
the spores are formed on a joint or joints of 
the spore threads ; and Gongylospermese, in 
which they are massed together in a hya- 
line, mucous, ur a membraiiaeeous mother-cell. 

rho do-stau-rot'-ic, a. (Or. polm(rhodon) 
a rose, and o-ravpos (s(awro*) = a cross.] 
Rosicrueian. (Sen Jonson.) 

rho d<5 tin'-nic, a. [Eng. rhododendron), 
and tannic.) (See compound.) 

rhodotannic acid, . 
Chem. : Rhodoxanthin. Tannic acid extracted 
from the leaves of Rhododendron femtgineum. 

rho don an -thin, s. [Pref. rhodo-, and 
Eng. xanthin.] [UHODOTANNIC-ACID.] 

rho dy me-nt-a, rho-do-me'-nl-a, s. 
[Pref. rhodo-, and Gr. vpijr (humin) = a mem- 

Hot. : The typical genus of Rhodymeniacese 
(q.v.). [DCLSE.J 

rho dy m6 ni a^ce-se, . pZ. [Mod. Lat. 
rhodyment(a) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -aceie.] 

Bot. : An order of Algals, being the tribe 
Hhodymeniee, raised to an order. Frond 
membranous inarticulate, spores at first 
moniliform, fructitication doable ; first concep- 
tacles half immersed, with a mass of spores 
affixed to a central placenta. Purplish or 
blood-red seaweeds, widely diffused. 

rho-dy-me-nl-e'-SB, . pi. [RHODYHENI- 


* rhce' a dis, s. pt. [PL of Lat. rhaas, genit 
rhiyudia ; Gr. poidt (rhoias) = the common 
red poppy.) 

Dot. : The thirtieth order of Liunseus's 
Natural system. Genera: Papaver, Podo- 
phyllum, AC. 

rhomb (o silent), * rhombe, rhom'-bus, s. 

[Fr. rhombe, from Lat. rhombus; Gr. pop/So; 

(rhombos) = a spinning-wheel, a rhombus, from 

pe>i<i) (rhembo) = to re- 
volve, to totter; Sp. & rnmbo.} 
1. Geom. : An oblique 

parallelogram whose 

sides are all equal. The RHOMB. 

diagonals of a rhombus 

bisect each other at right angles. The area 

of a rhombus is equal to half the product of 

its diagonals. 

" Bare the nm bis labour, and that swift 
Nocturnal and diurnal rhomb luppos'd 
Invisible else above all stars, the wheel 
Of da; and night.' Milton : f. L., 11L 1H. 

3. CrystalL : A rhombohedron (q.v.). 

T FreaneTs rhomb : 

Optic* : An apparatus for converting plane 
Into circularly-polarized light [Polarization 
of Light). It is a parallelepiped of glass, of 

such length and angles that a ray of light 
entering one small end at right angles, twice 
suffers total reflection within the rhomb at an 
angle of about 54 (depending on the polarizing 
angle of the glass), and finally emerges at 
right angles from the opposite small end. 
When the beam of light is plane polarized, 
and the rhomb is so arranged that its reflect- 
ing faces are inclined at an angle of 45 to the 
plane of polarization, the beam emerges cir- 
cularly polarized. 

rhomb-porphyry, . 

Petrol. : A jwrphyry which encloses large 
crystals of orthoelase, presenting a rhombic 
outline, resulting from a peculiar habit of 
twinning. First described from the vicinity 
of Christiania. 

rhomb-spar, s. [DOLOMITE.] 
rhomb- (6 silent), pref. [RHOMBO-.] 

rhomb-ovate, a. [RHOMBOID-OVATE.] 

rhomb ar'sen-ite, s. [Pref. rftomo-, and 
Eng. arsenite.] 
Min. : The same as CLAUDETITE (q.v.X 

rhom'-blo, * rhdrn'-blck. a. [Eng. rhomb; 

1. Ord. Lang. : Having the figure or shape 
of a rhomb. 

" Mny other aorta of atone* are regularly figured ; 
the asteria in form of a star, aud they are of a rhom- 
We* figure." Grew. 

* 2. Crystall.: Orthorhomblt (q.v.). 
rhombic-mica, s. [PIILOCUPITE.] 

rhom-bo-, pref. [RHOMB.] With the form or 
shape of a rhomb. 

rhom-bo he' draL a, [Eng. rhombohedr(on); 

1. Geom. : Pertaining or relating to a rlioin- 
bohedron ; having forms derived from the 

2. Crystall. : A crystal system in which all 
the forms are, or can be, derived from one or 
more rhombohedrons, or which have the habit 
of a rhombohedron (q.v.). 

rhom-bo he -dron, s. [Pref. rhumbo-, and 
Gr. Spa (hedra) = a base, a side.] 

Geom, is Crystall. : A polyhedron bounded 
by six equal rhombuses. 

rhom'-boid, a. St, t. [Gr. po/ijSoeiSiji (rhom- 
boeides), from p6/xj3o? (rhombos) = a rhomb, 
and nKos (eiUos) = form, appearance.) 

A, As adjective: 

L Ord. Lang. : Shaped like a rhomboid ; 

II. Bat. : Oval, a little angular in the middle, 
as the leaf of 

Hibiscus rhom- \ \ 

btfoliiu. \ \ 

B. As tub- \ \ 
ttuntive : \ \ 

1. Geom.: A > - ^ 
parallelogram, . 
all of whose 


sides are not equaL The rhombns Is but a 
particular form of the rhomboid, in which the 
sides are all equal. 

* 2. Crystall. : Formerly used by a few min- 
eralogists for rhombohedron (q.T.). 

rhomboid ligament, . 

Anat. : A ligament connecting the cartilage 
of the first rib with the sternal end of the 

rhomboid muscles, s. pi. 

Anat. : Two muscles, the rhomboideus minor 
and the rhomboideus major, connecting the 
spinous process of the seventh cervical and 
first dorsal vertebra and the ligamentvm 
nuchce with the scapula. (Qitain.) 

rhomboid-ovate, a. Between rhom- 
boid and ovate in shape ; partly rhomboid 
and partly ovate. 

rhom-boid' al, a. [Eng. rJwmbotd; -al.] 
Having the sliape of a rhomboid ; resembling 
a rhomboid In shape. 

" Another rhomboidal selenltea of a compressed 
form, had umny others infixed round the middle of it," 

rhom-bo -I-des, s. [Or. pop./Soeii'ijs (rhom- 
boeides).'} A rhomboid. 

" The croase lines of a rltnmbotjrt." 

Hart: On OK Soul, pt 1L. bk. i. 

rhSm-boid-Ich'-thys, s. [Mod. Lat rhom- 
b(u3) ; Gr. tloos (eidos) = form, and ivWt 

Jchthy. : A tropical genus of Pleuronectidts 
(q.v.), but represented in the Mediterranean, 
and on the coast of Japan. There are sixteen 
species, prettily coloured and ornamented with 
ocellated spots. In a few species the ailult 
males have some of the tin-rays prolonged into 
filaments. Rhtmboidichthys grandisqunnui, the 
Japanese form, ranging to the American coast, 
has the scales deciduous. 

rhom-bo-s6-16-a, s. [Pref. rhombo-, and 
Mod. Lat. solea (q.'v.).] 

Ichlhy. : A genus of Pleuronectidse, with 
three species, from the coasts of New Zealand, 
where they are valued as fooil h'sli. The eyea 
are on the right side, the lower in advance o> 
the upper. 

rhom bus, s. [RHOMB.] 

1. Geom. : The same as RHOMB (q.v.). 

2. Ichthy. : A genus of Pleuronectidae (q.v.V 
Eyes on left side ; mouth wide, each jaw witu 
a band of villiform teeth, vomerine teeth pre- 
sent, none on palatines. Dorsal fin com- 
mences on snout; scales none or small. Seven 
species from the North Atlantic and the 
Mediterranean. Rhombus maximus is the Tur- 
bot (q.v.) ; R. mceotictis, the Black Sea Turbot ; 
It. lairds, the Brill, and R. mtgastoma, Uloch's 
Top-knot. R, punctatus is often confounded 
with Phrynorhombus unimaculatus, the Top- 

3. Paloxmt. : One species, Rhombus minimm, 
from the Eocene of Monte Bolca. 

rhou'-chal, a. [Lat rhonch^tis); Eng. adj. 
suff. -al.} Of or pertaining to rhonchus (q.v.). 

* rhori ohl-so -nant, o. [Lat rhonchue = * 
rattle, a snore, and sonant, pr. par. of sono = 
to sound.] Snorting. 

rhon^-chus (pi. rhSn'-ohi), >. [Lat, from 

Gr. poyx'"> (riiongclios),] 

Physiol. it Pathol. : A " dry " sound, heard 
by auscultation, in acute bronchitis, in the 
larger bronchial tubes. Sibilant rhonchi are 
beard also in asthma. 

rhone, s. [ROME, s.] A rain-water pip*. 

rho pal' -Ic, a. [Gr. pdrroAof (rhopalon) = i 
club which gradually becomes bigger from 
the handle to the top.] 

Pro*. : Applied to a line in which each suc- 
cessive word has a syllable more than the one. 
preceding it (Browne : Miscel. Tract 7.) 

Bern tibi confecl, doetfselme, dulclsonorum. 

Hope ever soljues miserable Individuals. 

rh6-pa-lS9'-er->, . pi. [Gr. pon-oAoi- (rho- 
palon) = a club, aud Kt'pa? (keras) = a horn. 
So named from the thickened club-like 
termination of the antenna;.] 
Entom. : Butterflies. [BUTTERFLY, II.] 

rho pal' 6 dSn. s. [Gr. p6ira\ov (rhoi>alr>n)= 

a club; -orion. (Bull. Soc, Imp. Nat., Moacoit, 

xiv. 400.)] 
Polteont. : A genus of Dinosauria, of Per- 

mian age, from a mine ou the banks ot 

the Dioma 

river, Oren- 

burg, Russia. 

It was found- 

ed on a frag- 

men t of a 

lower jaw, 


nine teeth not 

unlike those 

of Iguanodon. 

There is but 

one species, 



(named inhon- 

our of its dis- 

coverer). R. mantelii (F. de Waldheim) =. 

Iguanodon mantelii. [REONOSAURUS.] 
rho'-ttv-tjlfjin, . [HoricisM.] 
rliS -ta-9 is'-miis, . [ROTACUM.]. 
rho'-ta-cize, r. [ROTAOIZE.] 

rhu barb, Teu-barbe, "pew -barb, 
ru-barbe,. &a. [O. Fr.r*i)or*(Fr. rku- 
barbe), from Low Lat rheubarbarum (= rhtiim 
barbarum'), from Gr. or\ov ft&ppapov (rheon bar- 
baron) = rhubarb ; lit the rheiim from 


file, fat, far*, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot. 
or. wore, won; work, who, son; mate, cub, cure, unite, cur, rale, full; try, Syrian, w, oe = 6 ; ey = a; qn = kw. 

rhubarbario rhynchonella 


barbarian country. Gr. pfjav (rhlan) Is so 
Adjectival form, from Rha the old name of the 
Volga, on the banks of which the rhubarb is 
indigenous. Sp. ritibarbo; Port, rhenbarbo; 
Ital. reubarbaro, reobarbaro.] 
A. As substantive : 

1. Bot. : (RHEUM). 

2. /fort., <tc. : The common Garden Rhubnrb 
la Rhr.v>n Rhapnnticum, though some of the 
red-stalked rhubarb is from R. undulatum. 
The former plant has broadly cordate leaves, 
strongly veineil beneath. The footstalks are 
long, thick, and fleshy, with a channel above. 
Its growth is exceedingly rapid. It was 
brought, about 1573, from the banks of the 
Volga, where it is wild. Since 1820 the stalks 
have been used for tarts, and made into jam. 

3. Ptiarm. : Three leading kinds of rhubarb 
are recognized : (1) The Turkey or Russian 
rhubarb, which is wild neither In the one 
country nor the other, but used to be brought 
to Europe from China vid Turkey, and then 
from China vid Russia; (2) the East Indian, 
ml (3) the Batavian rhubarb. An extract, 
an Infusion, a syrap, a tincture, and a wine of 
rhubarb, with a compound rhubarb pill, are 
used in pharmacy. In small doses rhubarb is 
stomachic and slightly astringent; In large 
doses, a purgative, but Its action is followed 
by constipation. (GREGORY'S POWDEB.) 

B. At adj. : Bitter. 

" With your rhubarb words." 

Sidney : Altrophel A Stdla. llr. 

If Moiik's Rhubarb: (MONK'S RHUBARB]. 

ttu-bar'-bar-ic, a. [Eng. rhitbartar(in); 
if.] Contained in or derived from Rhubar- 
rhubarbarlc-acid, a. [CHBYSOPHASIO- 


rHu-bar'-bar-In, . [Low Lat. rhubartar- 
(;); -in (C&em.).] ICHRI-SOPIIANIC-ACIB.) 

* r'.id.-bar'-ba-tlve, a. [Etym. doubtful. 
A correspondent of Notes & Queriet (Sept 18, 
1S86, p. 233) says that it is the Fr. rebarbatif 
= stern, crabbed, cross. There is also, per- 
liaps, a play on the Eng. rhubarb.] (For def. 
see etyrn.) 

" A man wew better to lye under the hands of a Hang-., than oue of your rhubarbatif face*," Dfkkfr : 
.11 'itch Of in London, iii. 

rtii'-barb-y. a. (Eng. rhubarb; -y.J Of or 
I longing to rhabarb ; like rhubarb. 

rhumb silent), . [RUMB.] 

rh fts, . [Lat., from Gr. povv (rhous) = Khut 
Cotintts (?).] 

1. Bot. : A genus of Anacardiacese. Leaves 
simple or compound. Flowers in axillary or 
terminal panicles, bisexual or polygamous. 
Calyx small, persistent, five-partite; petals 
five; stamens five; ovary one-celled, sessile; 
fruit a dry drupe, with one exalbuminous 
eed. Nearly a hundred species are known. 
Most are shrubs, from six to ten feet high. 
They exist in all the continents. R. typhina, the 
Virginian or Stag's-horn Sumach, R. coriaria, 
the Hide Sumach of Europe, and It. cotinat of 
India, yield leaves which are used in tanning 
leather. The Smooth-leaved Sumach (R. 
flabra}, of the United States, has very acid 
leaves and fruit. The poisonous species of 
this country are R. toxicodendron, the Poison 
Ivy or Poison Oak, and B. ceneaata, the Swamp 
Sumach or Poison Elder. These cause severe 
skin eruptions, with violent itching, to some 
persons, from handling or even standing near 
them. In India, If. parvtfora, R. te?nialata, H. 
tuccedanea are used medicinally. Exudations 
from incisions in the bark of R. suecedanea 
and R. earntcifera yield the varnish used in 
Japanese and Chinese wickerwork. The 
former produces astringent galls, and its 
seeds yield a kind of wax; as do also those 
of R. Wallichii aud the Japanese R. varnix. 
The juice of the latter species blisters the 
skin. The Turks use the acid fruits of 
B. coriaria to sharpen their vinegar. The 
plant yields sumach (q.v.). The -wood of R. 
Cutinua is employed for inlaid aud cabinet 
work. [FUSTIC.] 

2. Palaiobot. : From the European Pliocene. 

rhiis' ma, s. [RUSMA.] 

Leather-manuf. : A mixture of caustic lime 
andorpiment or tersulphide of arsenic, used in 
depilation or unhairing of hides. 

*hy-ac'-6-lit, . [Gr. pvof (rhua^, genlt, 

fijaieo! (rhuako$) = * lava-stream, and Ai'Sos 
(Mhos) =* a stone ; Ger. rhyawlUh.] 

Min. : A name given by Rose to the clear 
crystals of orthoclase found in cavities in 
lavas, and especially in the volcanic bombs 
of Monte Somma, Vesuvius. 

rhy-a-cSph'-i-la, s. [Or. pua? (rhuax), genit. 
puaKoy (r/twafcos)" a mountain stream, and 
IjiiAoc ( pMlos) = a friend. ] 

Entom. : The typical genus of Rhyaco- 
philuhe (q.v.). 

rhy-a-co-phlT-J-dra, t. pi- [Mod. Lat. 
rhydcophilfa) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. sun", -idte.] 

Entom. : A family of Trichoptera. Pupa 
enclosed in a brown cocoon within a case. 

rhyme, ., r.i. Sc t. [This spelling is more com- 
monly used than the older " Rime," but many 
writers now prefer the older spelling. Rhyme 
was introduced in the IGth century through a 
mistaken correspondence witli rhythm. Ety- 
mologically it is incorrect.] [BlME.] 

rhyme'-lSss, a- [Eng. rhyme; -less.] Destitute 
Of rhyme ; not having consonance of sound. 

*' Doth beside on rfiymrJrn number* tread." 

Bp. Ball : Satirtt, bk. i. , sat. 4. 

trhym'-er, *rym'-er, t. [Eng. rhymfe), ;-.] 
One who writes rimes ; arhymester,aversiner. 

* rhym'-er-y, . [Eng. rhyme; -rg.] The act 

of making rimes. 

rhyme'-ster, * rhym'-ster, >. [Eng. rhyme; 
fter.) One who writes rimes : a poor or mean 

* Nay more, though all my rival rhynwttfri frown. 
I. too, c;ui hunt a poetaster down. 

Hyron: English Blird* Scotcn Rtttiewtn. 

rhym'-lc, o. [Bug. rhym(e); -ic.] Of or 
pertaining to rime. 

rhym'-Ist, . [Eng. rhym(e); -fat] A 

" He was good rhymltt. but no poet .' WoAmoji : 
lift of M,IUn. 

* rhym'-y, * rhim'-y, o. [Eng. rhym(e); .] 
Riming. (T. Brawn : Works, iii. 39.) 

rhynch-, prtf. (RHTNCHO-.] 

rhyn-chse'-a, s. (Gr. pvyxm (rhungchos) = a 
beak, a bill.) 

Ornith, : Painted Snipes ; a genus of Nn- 
meniinaj, with four species, from the Ethio- 
pian and Oriental regions, Australia, and 
temperate South America. The females are 
more richly coloured than the males, having 
the lores, sides of face, and neck chestnut. 
There is reason to believe that the male of 
Hhynchaa bengalensis undertakes the d,uty of 
incubation. (Ibis, 1866, p. 298.) 

rliyn-ohe'-ta, . [Pref. rhy^ch)-, and Gr. 
X<UTIJ (chaite)'= long, flowing hair,] 

Zool. : A genus of Tentaculifera Snctorla, 
with a single species, Ehyncheta. cyclopum, 
parasitic on Cyclops coronata. 

rhynoh-Icli'-thys, . [Pref. rhynek-, and 
Gr. i^Ws (ichthus) = a fish.J 

IchtKy : A genus of Berycidse, erected for 
the reception of forms now kuown to be the 
young of Holocentrnm. They differ from the 
adult fish in having the upper part of the 
snout pointed aud elongate. 

rhyn-ohi'-tej, s. [Gr. pvyx (rhungchos) = 
a snout ; suit 1 , -ifes.] 

Entom. : A genus of Curculionidse. They 
have brilliant metallic colours. Seventeen 
are British. The female deposits her eggs in 
young apples and pears, damaging the 
peduncle as well as the fruit, so that the 
latter falls. Ehynchitea bocehua, a richly 
golden purple species, sometimes greatly 
injures the pear crop in France, and damages 
the buds and leaves of the vine. 

rhyn-cho-, rhynch-, pref. [Gr. fuyx"? 
(rhunchos) = a snout.) Having a snout, or 
any process resembling a snout. 

rhyn-cho-bat'-tis, . [Pref. rhymho-, and 
Gr. ^ari's (batis) the prickly roach.] 

Ichthy. : A genus of Rhinobatidaa (q.v.) ; 
dorsals without spine, the first opposite to the 
ventrals ; caudal with lower lobe well de- 
veloped ; teeth obtuse, granular, the dental 
surfaces of the jaws undulated. T*tere are 
two species, Rhyrwhribatus ancylostomva and 
R. Ajedtlmsis, both alwut eight feet long, com- 
mon on the coasts of the Indian Ocaca. 

rh*n-cliSb-dSl'-la, s. [Pref. rhyncho-, and 
Gr. flot'AAa (bdella) = a leech.) 

Zool. : The typical genus of Rhynchobdel- 
Udse ( 

rh*n-oh5b-del'-li(-dB8, s. pi. (Mod Lat. 

rliynchobdelUa) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. stiff, -idee.] 

Zool. : A family of Leeches, having a pro- 

trusible proboscis. They are divided into 

Ichthyobdellidse and Clepsinidaj. 

rhyn-cli6-9e-plia'-ll-a, . pi. [RHYSCHO- 


1. Zool. : An order of Lacertiform Reptilla, 
with four limbs. Vertebrae with flat ends ; 
quadrate bone united by sutures with the 
skull and pterygoid ; an osseous infra- temporal 
bar. Sternum and a system of abdominal ribs 
well developed. One recent genus, Spheuodon 

2. Palaiont, : Represented in the Upper Cre- 
taceous and Lower Eocene by Cliampsosaurus, 
in the Trias by Rhynchosaurus and Hyperoda- 
pedon, and in the Permian by Proterosaurus, 
Sphsenosaurus, Telerpeton (?), and Sauroster- 

rhyn-oho-9e-pha'-U-an, a. & s. [RHYSOHO- 


A. As adj.: Belonging to, or having the 
characteristics of the order RhynchocephaUa 
(Encyc. Brit. xx. 473). 

B. As nbst. : Any individual of the Rhynr 

"These reptiles are rhync f *')c?ph<ilians.''~EiicyO- 
Brit. (ed. 9th), xz. 406. 

t rhyn-ch6-9epli'-a-lu8, 8. [Pref rhyncTio-, 
and Gr. *<aAii (kephalz) = the head.] 
Zool. : Owen's name for the genus Spheuodon 


t rhyA-Ch$-$6'-tI, . jH. [Pref. rhyncho-, 
and Gr. KTJTO? (ketos) = a sea-monster.] 
Zool. : The Ziphioid Whales. lZiFHiw.e.1 

t rhyn-cll8-5oe'-l9, . pi. [Pref. rhyncho-, 
and noiAos (fcoitos) = hollow.] [NEMEBTEA.] 

rhyxi-cliS^'-y-iSn, s. [Pref. rhyncho-, and Gr. 
Kiiav (kuon) = a dog. The latter element has 
reference to the large canine teeth.] 

Zool. : A genus of Maeroscelidida;, with one 
species, Rhynchocyon cernei, from the coast of 
Mozambique. It is about eight inches in 
length, exclusive of the rat-like tail ; the 
muzzle is produced Into a long, movable snnut ; 
fur rusty-brown, blackish on head and neck, 
with light reddish spots on hinder part f 
back, it lives in holes in the ground, and 
comes out at night to feed on insects. The 
hind limbs are not so disproportionately long 
as in the true jumping shrew ; all the feet are 
four-toed, and the dentition is anomalous. 

rhyn'-cho-diis, . [Pref. rhynch-, and Gr. 
uoouc (ocioiu) = a tooth). 

Palaiont. : A genus of Chimeroid fishes, dis- 
covered by Newberry in the Devonian rocks 
of Ohio. 

rhi-ch6-fla&-Sl-la-ta, i. fl. [Pref. 
rhyncho-, and Mod. Lat. flagellata (q.v.).] 

Zool. : A class of Corticate Protozoa, of 
globular or lenticular form, with a firm 
cuticular membrane, and reticnlarprotoplasm. 
There are two genera: Leptodiscus and 
Noetiluca. (Lmikester.) 

rhyn'-oh6-lite, . [Pref. rhyncho-, and Gr. 
Ai0o! (Uthos) = a stone.) 

Palreont.: A popular name for the fossil 
mandibles of some Cephalopods. (See ex- 

"Calcareous mandibles occur In all the secondary 
strata, but not hitherto in such numbers or circum- 
stances as to imply that they belouged to any other 
genus besides the true Nautilus. They are of two 
forma: those corresponding to the UPIOT mandible 
have been called ftftwMcfto/ifeifPalwoteutliisaud Ehyn- 
choteuthis of D'Orbiguy) ; whilst the lower mandible* 
constitute the genus Couchorhyiicbus of De JBlain. 
vllle."-0wn .- ttLlaant. (ed. 2nd), p. . 

rhyn cho nel'-la, s. [Latinised from Gr. 

puyxot (rhungchos) = a snout.) 

1. Zool. : The typical genus of Rhyncbonel- 
lidae (q.v.% Shell trigonal, acutely beaked, 
usually plaited ; dorsal valve elevated in front ; 
ventral flattened, or hollowed along the centre, 
Knowti recent species four, from the North 
Polar regions and New Zealand. 

2. Palceont. : Known species 882, from the 
Lower Silurian onward. Found in Europe, 
Asia, and North and South America. 

boll, b6y ; poUt, jo"Wl ; cat, 90!!, chorus, <jhin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, thi ; sin, a; ; expect, Xenophon, eylst. -ing. 
-oian, -tian = shan. -Uon, -cton = *hun; -tion, -fion = Zhou, -oious. -tious, -sious = shus. -We, -die, 4c. = bel, Ofl 


rhynchonellidffl rhytidolepis 

rhynchonella-zones, >. pi. 

Gtol. Two zones, the one that of Rhyncho- 
Htlla martini, in the Lower Chalk of England, 
between the Cambridge Greeusand and the 
Totternhoe stone ; and the other that of 
Shynchonella, cuviert, in the Middle Chalk, 
between the Melbourn Rock and the zone of 
Terebratitla gracilis. ^Etheridge.) 

phyn-ohd-nel'-li-dn, . pi. [Mod. Lat. 
rhynchonell(a) ; Lat fern. pi. adj. suff. -ute.] 

Zoo!, it Palceont. : A family of Brachiopoda. 
Shell impunctate, oblong or trigonal, beaked ; 
hinge line curved ; valves articulated, curves 
often sharply plaited ; hinge teeth supported 
by dental plates. Animal with elongated 
piral arms directed inwards. Prom the Lower 
Silurian to the Trias. 

Phyn-ehoph'-or-a (1), . [Pref. rhyncho- 
(q.vA and fern. sing, of Gr. op< (p/kmw) = 

Palaont.: A genus of Weevils from the 
Pnrbeckbeds. (Etheridge.) 

phyn-ohSph'-or-> (2X . pi. [Pref. rKyncho-, 
aud neut. pi. of Gr. $op (pharos) = bearing.] 
Entom. : A tribe of Tetramerous Beetles. 
Front of the head prolonged into a rostrum 
or snout, with the mouth at its extremity. 
The antennse are placed on the sides of the 
rostrum, at its base, its apex, or the parts 
Intermediate. They are geniculate, and have 
tiie tip clavate. The body is often covered 
with scales. It contains the weevils, the 
footless grubs of which are so Injurious to 
many plants, in the interior of whose stems, 
fruits, or seeds they live. Families : Cur- 
culionidre, Brentidse, Anthribidee, and Bru- 

rhyn'-cho-phb're, . [RHVSCHOPHOBA.] Any 
indi vidual member of the Rhynchophora(q.v.> 

rhyh-ohoph'-or-tis, . [Pref. rhyncho-, and 
Gr. <f>op<is (pharos) = bearing.] 

Aifom. : A genus of Curcnllonldre. They 
are of large size. The larvse live in the stems 
of succulent plants, as palms, bananas, the 
sugar-cane, &C. 

rhyn-ch6-pi'-n, . p!. [Mod. Lat. rhynchops, 
genit. rhynchop(is) ; Lat fern. pi. adj. suff. 

Ornith. : Skimmers, Scissor-bills ; a sub- 
family of Laridse, with a single genus, Rhyu- 
chops (q.v.). / 

rhyn'-chSps, . [Pref. rhynch-, and Gr. S<li 
(ops) = the face.] 

Ornith. : Skimmer, Scissor-bill ; the sole 
genus of the sub-family Rhynchopinse, with 
three species: one from America, one from 
India, and the third from the Nile and the 
Bed Sea. They differ from the Sternum- 
(q.v.) in having the bill long and thin ; the 
mandibles very narrow and compressed, the 
lower one being longer than the upper. 

rhyn-cho-rhl'-nus, . [Pref. rhyncho-, and 

Gr. pit (rAia), genit. ptyot (rAino*) = the snout] 

Palwont. : A genus of Murasnidse, with one 

species, from the Middle Eocene. 

phyn-chi-sau'-rl-an, o. [Mod. Lat. rhyn- 
chosaur(us) ; Eng. suff. -inn.] Belonging to, 
characteristic of, or resembling Rhynchosau- 
rns. (Owen : Palaxtnt. (ed. 2nd), p. 267.) 

rhyn-cho Bau' rfis, s. [Pref. rhyncho-, ad 
Or. o-aipot (sauros) = a lizard.] 

Palceont.: A genus of Cryptodontia, founded 
on fragmentary remains from the New Red 
Sands tone of the Grinsill quarries, near Shrews- 
bury. The skull differs from that of existing 
Lacertilians, and resembles that of a bird or 
turtle, especially in the absence of teeth. 
There Is one species, Rhynchosaurus articeps. 

rhyn-cho-sl-a, s. [Mod. Lat., from Gr. 
pOyxot (rhungchos) = a snout, so named from 
its beaked flowers.] 

Sot. : The typical genus of Rhynchosie 
(q.v.). Herbs or undershrubs, generally 
twining, with trifoliolate or simple leaves, 
and racemes generally of yellowish flowers. 
Species numerous, from Southern Asia, 
Australia, and America. 

Phyn cho sl-e'-aa, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. rhyn- 
chosi(a) ; Lat fern. pL adj. suff. -etx.] 
Bot. : A sub-tribe of Phaseoleae. 

rhyn-ch8s'-p6r a, s. [Pref. rhyncho-, and 
Gr. <nrupi (spora) = a seed. Named from the 
beaked fruit.) 

Bot. : Beak-rush ; the typical genus of the 
Rhynchosporidse(q.v.). Spikeletsfew, flowered 
in axillary or terminal corymV>3 or panicles, 
only one or two glumes flowering; bristles 
six or more, or none. Known species about 
fifty, from the temperate and tropic regions. 
Two, Rhychospom alto., the White, and S. jusca, 
the Brown Beak-rush, are British. 

rhyn-cho-spbr'-e-BB, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
rhyMhospoiia) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. sun", -co:.] 

Bot. : A tribe of Cyperacese, containing two 
families: Rhynchosporidaj (typical), and 
Sohoenidae (q.v.). 

phtfn-cho-BpoY-I-daJ, . pi. [Mod. Lat 
rhynchospor(a) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. sun. -Mfce.J 


Phyn-oho'-ta, s. pi. [Mod. Lat., from Gr. 

pvyx' (rhangchas) = a snout] 

Entom. : An order of Hemimetabola, the 
same as Latreille's Hemiptera. Sub-orders : 
Homoptera and Heteroptera. 

rhyn-ch&-teu'-thls. . [Pref. rhyncho-, and 
Mod. Lat. teuthis (q.v.).] 
Palaxmt. : (See extract under Rhyncholite). 

rhyne, >. [Russ.] The name given to the 
best quality of Russian hemp. 

Phy'-ft-lite, . [Gr. po> (rheS) = ta flow, and 
AMo! (lithos) = a stone.) 

Petrol. : A name originally given by V. 
Richthofen to certain rocks of late geological 
age occurring in Hungary, to distinguish them 
from trachyte (q.v.). They enclose quartz as 
an essential constituent, and bear evidence of 
having been viscous surface lavas, the fluxion 
structure being well denned. Most of the 
vitreous rocks, such as obsidians, Ac., are 
now included in this generic term, which also 
embraces those of the earliest geological 
age, most of which have lost their original 
aspect by subsequent devitrification. 

rhyoltte breccia, s. 
Petrol. : A breccia consisting almost entirely 
of fragments of rhyolites. 

t phy-par-i-graph'-ic, o. [Eng. rhyparo- 
graph(y); -ic.) 

1. Dealing with low life ; naturalistic. 

she takea a sort of Naturalistic delivht In describ- 
ing the most sordid and shabbiest features of the lout 
attractive klud of English middle-class life, and in 
doing thia never misses a rhi/rnroffrtiphic touch when 
he can Introduce one." Academy. April 3. 1886, p. 234. 

2. Pertaining to, or connected with rhy- 
parography (q.v.)i 

phy-pa-rSg'-ra-phy, . [Or. puirapos (rhu- 
paras) = filthy, dirty, and ypa^u (grapho) = to 
write, to draw.) 

Lit. : Dirt-painting ; a contemptuous term 
applied by the ancients to genre or still-life 
pictures. (Fairholt.) 

Phy'-phi-dse, s. pi. [Mod. Lat rhyph(u); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. sun*. -id<z.] 

Entom. : False Graneflies. A family of 
Dipterous insects. 

rhy '-phfis, s. [Gr. pvmK (rhupos) = dirt, filth.) 

1. Entomology: 

(1) The typical genus of Rhyphidse (q.v.). 

(2) A genus of Beetles, family Myceto- 
liili!ie. The larva of Jthyphus fcnestralis 
ives in cow dung. 

2. Palaont. : One species of Bhyphus (1), 
from the P^rbeck beds. 

. [Gr. pvn-u/cot (rhuptilaa) = 

IcWiy. : A genus of Percldae, with four 
species three from the West Indies and one 
from the Galapagos. Body oblong, com- 
pressed, covered with minute scales embedded 
in the thick skin. Spines of verticals but 
little developed, always in small number and 
short, and in some species disappearing en- 

phy-sim'-S-ter, s. [Or. pvo-i't (rhusis) = a 
flowing, a stream, and Eng. meter (q.v.). ~f An 
Instrument for measuring the velocity of fluids 
or the speed of ships. It presents the open 
end of a tube to the impact of the current, 
which raises a column of mercury in a gra- 
duated tube. 




rhy-BO'-diy, . [Gr. pmruSes (rhusMes)=i 
wrinkled-looking ; puo-ot* (rhusos) = wrinkled, 
and eTSo! (eidos) = f orm. ] 

Entom. : The typical genus of Rhysodid 
(q.v.). Antennge granulated ; articulations of 
the tarsi entire. 

rhy-so'-di-dee, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. rhytod(et); 
Lat fern. pi. adj. suff. -idte.] 

Entom. : A family of Necrpphaga or Clavi- 
cornia. Antennae eleven-jointed, the joints 
rounded, and of nearly equal width. Small, 
elongated, wood-eating beetles, with longi- 
tudinal furrows above. 

rhythm, * rithm, . [O. FT. rithme, from 
Lat. rhythmum, accus. of rhythmus, from Gr. 
pvdfLio; (rhvthmos) = measured motion, time, 
measure, proportion ; Fr. rhythme ; 8p. & 
Ital. riimo.J 

1. The measure of time or movement by 
regularly recurring motions, impulses, sounds, 
&c., as in poetry, prose, and music, and, by 
analogy, In dancing ; periodical emphasis ; 
numerical proportion or harmony. In poetry 
rhythm is the regular succession of arses and 
theses, or of long and short (heavy and light) 
syllables in a verse. In prose it is an arrange- 
ment of words in an expressive and pleasing 
succession ; but its regularity is not so great 
that it can be reduced to a law. When it can 
be reduced to a law, it loses the name of 
rhythm and becomes metre. In music rhythm 
is the disposition of the notes of a composition 
in respect of time and measure ; the measured 
beat which marks the characterand expression 
of the music. In dancing, the rhythm is re- 
cognised in the sound of the feet. 

"When we talk or write continuously abont any 
subject that appeal! to the passions, we gratify a 
natural lustincl by falling into a certain regularity. 
Both the voice and the arrangement of the word* fall 
under this regular influence : the voice ia modulated. 
and the words are regulated In a kind of flow called 
rhvlhm. Without rhythm, the expression of passion 
becomes spasmodic and painful, like the sobbing of a 
child. Rhythm averts this pain by giving a sense of 
order con trolling and directing passion. Hence rhythm 
IB in place wherever speech is Impassioned, ana in- 
tendea at the same time to be pleasurable: and tin. 
passioned speech without rhi/lhm is. when long con- 
tinued, unpleasing." Abbott A Steley : Eng. Letumt 
for Eng. People, \ 91. 

2. Rhyme, metre, verse, number. 

8. Physiol. : The proportion as to time be- 
tween the action of an organ, an intermittent 
or remittent disease, &c., at successive periods. 
Investigations as to the respiratory rhythm, 
establish first the number of inspirations per 
minute in normal breathing, and show the 
greater or less frequency in certain states of 
health. (Foster: Physiol.) 

* rhyth'-mer, s. [Eng. rhythm; -er.] A 
rhymer, a poetaster, a rhymester. (Fuller.) 

phyth'-mlc, rhyth'-mie-al, a. [Gr. putyu- 
icoc (rhuthmikos) ; Lat. rhythmicus.] 

1. Of or pertaining to rhythm; having 
rhythm duly regulated by cadences, accents, 
and quantities. 

" The rhythmical arrangement of Bounds not articu- 
lated produces music; while from the like arrange- 
ment of articulate sounds we get the cadences of prose 
and the measures of verse." Ouett : Hiitory of Englith 
KhaOtmi. bk. i., ch. 1. 

2. Med. : Periodical. 

rhyth'-mlc-al-ly, adv. (Eng. rhythmical; 
-ly.] In a rhythmical manner ; with rhythm. 

* rhyth'-mlcs, s. [RHYTHMIC.] That branch 

of music which treats of the length of sound* 
and of emphasis. 

* rhyth-mlng, a, [Eng. rhythm; -inf.] 
Making rimes ; riming. (Fuller.) 

* rhythm'-18s8, o. [Eng. rhythm; -lea.} 
Destitute of rhythm. 

rhyth-m5m'-8-ter, . [Or. pvoVo? (rhuthmos) 
= rhythm, and nerpov (metron) = a measure.] 
Any instrument for marking time to move- 
ments in music. 

rhyth'-mus, s. [Lat] Rhythm (q.v.% 

Phy-tl-. rhy-tl-d6- t pref. [Gr. pirn's (rhvtls\ 
genit. pvri8o(rtufido)=a wrinkle.) Wrinkled. 

rhy-ti-d6-, pref. [RHYTI-.] 

phy-ti-do-lSp'-fa, >. [Pref. rhytido-, and Gr. 
Afiri'e (lepis) = a scale.] 

Palteobot. : A genus of Sigillaroids. It has 
large, hexagonal, tripunctate areoles, and nar- 
row, often transversely striate, ribs. 

ffcte, fit, tare, amtdgt. what, tall, father ; we, wet, here, camel, hep, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
OP. wore, wolf, work, who, son ; mate, cub, cure, anite, car, rale, fall ; try, Syrian. SB, oe = e ; ey = a ; qa = kw. 

s.,-,l'-4-ma, . [Gr. P< m'8>|i (rtmttdoma) 
= a wrinkle.) " [RBYTI-.] 

Sot. : The scales produced by the formation 
of epiphloeum inside the liber or mesopuloeum, 

rny-tld-OB'-te-tis, . [Pref. rhytid(o)-, and 
Gr. 6o-reov (osteon) = a bone.) 

Palatmt. : A genus of Labyrinthodonts, 
described by Owen in 1884, from the Trias of 
the Orange Free State. (Quar. Journ. Geol 
Sac., xl. 333.) 

*hy-U-gl8s'-a, >. [Pref. rhyti-, and Gr. 
yAiio-o-o. (s/lossa) = a tongue.] 

Bot A genus of Gendarusseie. Species 
very numerous, generally with red flowers. 
They are from America and Southern Africa. 
An infusion of the leaves of the American 
Khvliglossa ptctoralis is used for diseases of 
the chest, or the leaves are boiled with sugar 
to make a stomachic syrup. 
rHy-ti'-na, . [Or. pirn's (rhutis) = a wrinkle, 
in allusion to the rugose nature of the skin.] 

1. ZooL : A recently extinct genus of Sirenia. 
Edentulous, mastication being performed by 
horny oval plates ; head very small in pro- 
portion to body ; tail with two lateral pointed 
lobes : pectoral limbs small and truncated ; 
kin naked, covered with a thin, hard, rugged, 
bark-like epidermis. Only one species known, 
Rhytina stelUri, the northern Sea-cow. It 
was discovered by Steller, a German naturalist 
in the Russian service, in 1741, and was then ex- 
tremely abundant round Behring's and Copper 
Island in the North Pacific. The last was sup- 
posed to have been killed in 1768, but Nor- 
denskibld obtained information from the na- 
tives of Behring's Island which led him to 
believe that a few individuals may have sur- 
vived to a much later date, even to 1854 
(Encya. Brit. (ed. 9th), xv. 391. Note). The 
habits of the Rhytina were similar to those of 
the Manatee, which it greatly exceeded in 
size, attaining a length of about twenty-five 
feet. Steller published an excellent account 
of its anatomy and habits, and quantities of 
its remains have since been discovered. A 
nearly perfect skeleton from Behring's Island 
has been placed in the Natural History Mu- 
seum, South Kensington. 

2 Palceont. : Occurs in the Post Pliocene of 

rtiy-tis ma, s. [Gr. purio-pa (rhutisma) = a 
darn or patch.] 

Bot : A genus of Phacidiacei (Ascomycetous 
Fungals), growing on the leaves of various 
trees and shrubs, and producing dark patches 
or spots on their surface. Rhytisma aceroides 
to found on the sycamore and maple, and S. 
Klicinvm on willows. 

l*-al,. [Sp.] Areal(q.v-). 

ry alle, *. * o. 

rhytidoma ribaldry 

rib, * ribbe, * rybbe, . [A.8. ribb ; cogn. 

with Dut. rib ; Icel. rif; Sw. ref-been (= nb- 

boue); Dan. rib-been; O. H. Ger. rippi; Ger. 

rippe ; RUBS, retro ; prob. from the sam root 

as rive.) 

L Ordinary Language : 
L Lit. : In the same sense as II. 1. 

" And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to f .11 npon 
Adam, and he slept: aud he took one of his rib, aud 
closed up the flesh instead thereof 6nm 11. U. 
2. Figuratively: 

* (1) A wife, in allusion to Eve. 

How many have we known whose heads hare beene 
broken by their own rib." Bp. Baa: Solomon I De- 


* (2) Anything long and narrow ; a trip : as, 
a ri6 of land. 

(8) A curved part on which anything rests 
for support ; specif., one of the extension rods 
on which the cover of an umbrella or parasol 
is stretched. They are made of whalebone, 
steel, or cane. 

* (4) (See extract.) 



ri'-al, *ry-al, 

(2), O.] [ROVAL.] 

A. As $ubst. : An old English gold coin, of 
rarying value ; in the reign of Henry VI., the 
gold rial was worth 10s. ; in the beginning of 


the reign of Queen Elizabeth, rials were cur- 
rent at 15s. each, and in the reign of James I., 
the rose-rial of gold was current at 30s., and 
lie spur-rial at 15s. ; a royal. 

B. As adj. : Royal, regal, noble. 
rl-al-te,*ry-al-te,i. [RIAL, a.] Royalty, 

ri'-an-cy, . [Eng. rian(t) ; -cy.) The 
quality or state of being riant ; cheerfulness, 
gaiety. (Carlyle.) 

* ri -ant, a. [Fr., pr. pr. of rir = to laugh.) 

1. Laughing, gay, merry, cheerful. 

" He was JoYial, riant. Jocose."- CaTlflf : Benrfni* 

2. Cheerful. 

" I rejoice yeur apartment Is so rtant. 'MUt. Cfr- 

"Thirdly. In settiug on your feather, whether It Is 
nared or drawn with a thicko ryabe, or a thluiie rybbi 
Sheritois the hard milll whichdivideth the leather./' 
-^sctam : Scholt o/SiooMfW, ok. i. 

IL Technically 

\. Anat. (PI.): Arched and highly elastic 
bones extending outwards and forwards from 
the vertebral column, and forming the lateral 
walls of the thorax. Normally they are 
twelve in number on each side, though a small 
thirteenth rib is sometimes seen. The first 
seven pairs are affixed to costal cartilages, 
uniting them to the sternum, whence they are 
called sternal or true ribs, the remaining five 
are asternal or false ribs. The three upper 
asternal ribs are united by their respective car- 
tilages to the rib above them ; the two lower, 
being unattached, are called floating ribs. A 
rib consists of a head or capitulum, a neck, a 
tubercle, a body, an angle, and a sub-costal 
groove. (goin.) Besides protecting the lungs 
from injury, the raising of the ribs by the ex- 
ternal inter-costal and other muscles enlarges 
the chest for inspiration oiir. 

2. Anything more or less resembling a rib, 
in form, position, use, *c. : as 
(1) Architecture : 

(a) A timber arch to support * plastered 

(6) Plain, or variously moulded, clustered, 
and ornamented moulding on the interior of a 
vaulted roof. 

(e) A term sometimes applied to the mould- 
ings of timber-roofs, and those forming tracery 
on walls and in windows. 

(d) A curved member of an arch centre. 
The rib of a bridge or roof may be of iron or 
wood, having an arched form and springing 
from abutments. The rib of a centreing is of 
wood and forms a part of a frame whose con- 
struction depends upon the span and expected 

(2) Sookbind. : One of the ridges on the back 
of a book which serve for covering the tapes 
and for ornament. 
3. Botany: 

(1) A main vein proceeding directly from 
the base to the apex of a leaf, or to the points 
of the lobes. 

(2) A projecting vein. 

I. Cloth : A prominent line or rising, as in 

6 llach. : An angle-plate cast between two 
other plates, to brace and strengthen them : 
as between the sole and wall-plate of a bracket 

6. Mining: A 
pillar of coal left 
as a support for 
the roof of a mine. 

7. Shipwright. : 
One of the curved 
side timbers of a 
ship or boat, to 
which the wooden 

ilanking and the 

iron vessels, a bar of the proper size is bent 
into the required form. 

" The euter skin was formed of. narrow planks 

fastened to internal frames or ritn."Caulfl T ecAns- 

ouJ Sduoator, pt xli-. p. Me. 

^1 A rib of ore : 

Mining : An irregular vertical table of 
metallic matter occurring in a vein of some 
other mineral. 

rib-band, . 

Shipbuilding : 

L A long strip of timber following the cur- 
vatures of the vessel and bolted to it* ribs to 
hold them in position and impart stability to 
the skeleton. A number of these are fastened 
at different distances from the keel. 

2. Square timbers fastened lengthways In 
the bilgeways, to prevent the timbers of the 
cradle slipping outward during launching. 
Rib-band Una : 

SMpbuild. : Oblique longitudinal section! of 
the hull. 
Rib-band nail : 

ShipbuUd. : Ribbing-nail (q.v.X 
Rib-band shore : 

ShipbuUd. : A strut to support the frame of 
a ship while building. Their heads rest 
against the rib-bands, and their bases on th 
slip or dock. 
rib vaulting, >. 

Arch. : Vaulting having ribs projecting below 
the general surface of the ceiling to strengthen 
and ornament it. When the ribs radiate from 
a central boss or pendant, it is termed fan- 
vaulting, or fen-tracery vaulting. 

rib, v.t. (RiB, .] 

1. To furnish with ribs ; to form with ribi, 
lines, or channels, as cloth. 

" Was I by rocks enjender'd. rt'< with steel. 
Such tortures to resist or not to feel?" Sandli. 

2. To enclose, as the body, with ribs ; to 


interior sheathing 
Is trenailed or 
pinned. In wooden 
vessels of consi- BIB. 

derable size, tim- 
ber of the required dimensions and form can- 
not be procured to make a rib of one piece, so 
it is made in sections scarfed together. These 
are known as the first, second, and third fut- 
tocks, and terminate in the top-timber. In 

.. .. too pos, 

3. To plough, so as to leave rib-like ridgei, 
somewhat apart. 


quin, >. [Fr.] 


1. A medieval 
engine of war, con- 
sisting of a kind 
of war-chariot for- 
tified with iron 
spikes, placed in 
front of an army 
arrayed for battle. 
In the fourteenth 

century they were furnished with small can- 

2. A powerful crossbow for throwing long 

rib aid, * rtt>-aud, * rib-nde, ryb- 
aude s. & o. [O. Fr. ribald, riband, nbauld 
(Fr. ribaut) = a ribald, a ruffian ; connected 
with O. H. Ger. Kripa; M. H. Ger. ri6 = a 
prostitute ; cf. 0. Fr. riber = to toy with a 
female ; Low Lat. ribaldta = a ribald, a lewd 
person ; ribalda = a prostitute.) 

A. At subst. : A low, rough, licentious, and 
foul-mouth fellow. 

A mad man, a riMurf , an adulterer." rau : Jo*s, 

*;& At adj. : Low, base, licentious), lewd, 

" A ribald king and court 
Bade him toll on, to make them sport. 

Scott : Marmion, L (Introd.) 

rib' aid-fob, o. [Eng. ribald; -ith.] Dis- 
posed to ribaldry ; ribald, lewd, licentious. 

The idle, rtluildtoh, and scurrilous mirth of the 
prophane." B?. : Wortl, L, I si. 

* rfb'-ald-rotU, * rtb-tvuld-rou, "ryb- 

aw-donae, a. [Eng. ribald; -ma.} Con- 
taining ribaldry ; ribald, lewd, licentious. 

" With rilnUtrai* sonjs and Jests." frytatt : I Of- 
trU-Uattlx, ill. L 

rib aid ry, * rib-aud-rle, . [O. FT. rt- 

bald'ere, ribauderie ; Sp. & Ital. ribaldena ; 
Port, ribaudaria.] The talk or language of a 
ribald ; lewdness, obscenity, indecency. 

" He was. as usual interrupted in his defense by 
TUaldry and scurrility frem the Judgment seat - 
Mataaiat : ffwt. *'". ch. T. 

J<S*1; oat. fell, ohonu. jliin. ben*; go, gem; thin, tW: -, a, ; expect. 

- - = . - 

. -die, to - 


riband ribroasting 

t rib -and. ' rib -ban, <. [RiBBOK.S 
riband-agate, s. 

Min. : An agate consisting of parallel bands 
of chalcedony of various colours. 

riband-jasper, t. 

Min. : A variety of jasper found in the Ural 
Mountains, in which the parallel bands are of 
varying or alternating colours. 

riband- wave, s. 

Entom. : A geometer moth, Acidalia aversata, 
very common in Britain. The larva feeds 
on the aveii3, the meadow-sweet, Ac. 

riband-weed, s. 

Bet. : Lam&naria aafckarina. 

' rib and, t>.t. [RIBBON, s.] To adorn with 
ribauiU or ribbons. 

" A ribanded wastcote, aud four clean pair of socks." 
-Beaum. i fla. : fair Haid at tit* Inn, Ui. I. 

rib -and -Ism, . [RIBBONISM.] 

rib aud, rlb-ande, . & a. [RIBALD.] 

rib aud rie, . [RIBALDRV.] 

rib-auld rous, a. [UIBALDKOUS.] 
rib band. >. [RIBBON.] 
ribbed, a. (Eng. rib; -ed.} 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Furnished with ribg ; having ribs. 

2. Having rising lines and channels, as cor- 
duroy cloth. 

3. Inclosed, as the body by ribs ; shut in. 

" A Neptune' park, rf&osrf and paled in 
With rocks unscaleable, aud roaring waters." 

Skalelii. : Cy.nWin.. 111. L 

IL Bot. (Of a leaf): Having several ribs; 
having three or more ribs proceeding from the 
base to the apex of a leaf, and connected by 
branching, primary veins of the form and 
magnitude of projer Teinlets. 

Ardt. : AD arch consisting of iron or timber 
parallel ribs springing from stone abutments. 

ribbed mudstoneu, >. pi. 

Geoi. : The lowest beds in the liofiat Strata. 
They correspond with the inferior part of the 
Upper Uandeilo. 

ribb'-ing, . [Eng.rib; -in$.} 

1. An assemblage or arrangement of ribs, 
as the timl-er-work sustaining a vaulted ceil- 
ing ; ridges on cloth ; veins in the leaves of 

X. Agrie. : A kind of imperfect ploughing, 
formerly common, by which stubbles were 
rapiiily turned over, every alternate strip only 
being moved. By this method only half the 
land is raised, the furrow being laid over 
quite flat, and covering an equal space of the 
level surface. A similar operation is still In 
use In some places, after land has been pul- 
verized by clean ploughing, and is ready for 
receiving the seed, and tiie mode of sowing 
upon Una thus prepared is also called ribbing. 

ribbing-nail, >. 

SJiiptjuild. : A nail with a large round head, 
with rings to prevent the head from splitting 
the timber or being drawn through; used 
chiefly for fastening rib-bands. Also called a 
rib-haud nail. 

rib ble, & [Another form of rabble, used 
only in the compounds.] 

* ribble rabble, a, 
L A rabble, a mob. 

2. Indecent or sill; talk. 

ribblo row, i. A list, a series, 

" This witch a ribb'o-rov ratieanes 
Of scurvy names in scurvj venea." Cotton. 

lib'- bin, rib'- and, rib -band. * rib ban, 
. ct a. [Ir. ribin = * ribbon, from rite = a 
flake, a hair, a ribbon ; OaeL riWun = a rib- 
bon, from rib, rite == a hair, a rag, a tassel a 
fringe ; Wet rhibi* = a streak ; 0. FT. riiwn, 
ruten, rubant (Fr. ruion).] 

A. As substantive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : A fillet of silk, satin, Ac. ; a narrow 
web of silk, satin, or other material, used for 
ornament or for fastening some part of female 

2. Figuratively: 

(1) A shred, a rag : as, The sails were torn 
into ribbons. 

(2) (PI.) : Carriage reins. (CoUaq.) 

' Mr. Tom Abbott on each occasion holding the 
rib!ni."-rwd, Dec. K. 1885. 

IL Technically: 

1. Fibre: A continuous strand of cotton 
or other fibre in a loose, untwisted condition ; 
a sliver. 

2. Carp. : A long, thin strip of wood, or a 
series of such strips connecting a number of 

3. Her. : One of the ordinaries, containing 
one-eighth part of the bend, of which it is a 

4. Metal-working : A long, thin strip of 
metal, such as a watch -spring ; a thin steel baud 
fur a belt or an endless saw ; a thin band of 
magnesium for burning ; a thin steel strip for 
measuring, &c. 

5. Xaut. : The painted mouldings on a ship's 

B. A> adj. : Of or pertaining to Ribbouium : 
as, a Ribbm Society. 

H (1) Blue ribbon : A small piece of ribbon 
of a blue colour on the breast, to indicate that 
the wearer belongs to the Blue Ribbon Army 
(q.v.), or at least is a total abstainer. 

(2) Blue Ribbon Army : A gospel temperance 
movement, inaugurated by Mr. William Noble 
on Feb. 10, 1878. The headquarters are at 
Hoxton Hall, London. 

(S) Tlu Blue Ribbon: The Order of the 

(4) Tlu Slw Ribbm of the Turf: The Derby 

(5) The Bid Ribbon : The Order of the Bath. 

(6) To Tuuuttt the ribbone: To drive. (Coltoq. 
or slang.) 

ribbon -brake, t. A 

form of brake having a band 
which nearly surrounds 
the wheel whose 
motion Is to be 
checked. One arm 
is made fast and 
the other is at- 
tached to the short 
arm of a bent lever, 
by means of which 
it may be at once 

applied to the RIBBON-BRAKE. 

greater part of the 

periphery of the wheel, exerting a fiictional 
pressure proportionate to the force applied 
to the lever. 

ribbon-flan, a, 

Ichthyology : 

1. Sing. : Regaleeta banktii, known also as 
the Oar-fish. Its length is about twelve feet ; 
colour silvery, with irregular dark lines and 
spots on the anterior part of the body; 
dorsal red ; snout truncated, mouth edentate, 
stomach prolonged as a pouch. 

2. PL: The Acanthopterygian division 
reeniiformes (q.v.). 

ribbon-grass, s. 

Bot. : Phalaris (Digraphis) arundinacea, var. 
variegata. [GARDENE&'B GAJIXKBS, L] 

ribbon-Jasper, t. [RIBAND-JASPER.] 

ribbon-lodge, s. An assembly of Ribbon- 
men, or their place of meeting. 

ribbon map, . A map printed on along 
strip which winds on an axis within a case. 

ribbon-saw, s. A band-saw (q.v.). 

Ribbon-Society, . 

Biet. : A secret society of Irishmen, origin- 
ated about 1808. Originally an association of 
Roman Catholics, founded in antagonism to 
the Orange Society of the northern coun- 
ties, it soon became an agrarian association, 
having as its main object the securing of 
"fixity of tenure." The members were bound 
together by an oath, had pass- words, signs, 
&c., and met in lodges. The name was derived 
from the piece of green ribbon worn as a badge 
in the button-hole. 

" The main object of the Ribbon Snciet* was to nre- 
vnt any landlord, under any drcumrtanees wbatmr, 
from depriving a tenant of his laud. 'Fixity of 
tenure, which has lately been so boldly demanded by 
the advocates of tenaiitrlsht. was then only necretly 
proclaimed In the lodtv. of the io. 6VxJv. and 
nxitr of tenure' it was determine.! to carry oat to 

the death. The second object wss to deter on pain fj 
almost certain death, auy Ujuaut from talciUK la&J 
from which any other tenant had been ev'ctad."- 
Tr*>* . Sa M* o/ /ris Ufa, ch. IT 

ribbon-tree, s. 

Bot. : Plagiuntftvs betulinus. 

ribbon-wire, . A strong ribbon con- 
taining wire threads ; also, wire made into flat 
strips for commercial purposes. 

ribbon-wood, s. 

Bot, : Hoheria populnea, of New Zealand, 

ribbon-worms, i. pi. 

Zoology : 


2. The Nemathelmintha or Nemertida (q.v.) 

* rib bon, v.t. [RIBBON, .] To adorn with 
ribbons ; to deck out or furnish with or as 
with ribbons. 

" Some o'er thy Tbamis row the ri&oon'd fair, 
Others along the safer turnpike fly." 

Hymn : Child* Harold, L 70. 

rib'-bon-ism, rib -and -ism, a. [Eng. 

ribbon, ribatul; -ism,] 

Hist. : The principles of Ribbonmen, or o: 
the Ribbon Society (q.v.). 

rib bon-man, s, [Eng. ribbon; -man.] A 
member of the Ribbon Society. [RIBBONISM.] 

" Wild deeds had been enacted by the liibbonm**." 
rr*ncA : Kealttiel o/ JriA Lift, ch. Iv. 

ri'-bes, *. [Dan. ribs ; 8w. risp, reps, or from 
Arab ribet = Rheum Ribes, a different plant.] 
Bot. : The typical genus of Grnssulariacete, 
Grossularia being a synouyn of Ribes. (Lind- 
ley.) The typical genus of Ribesieee (q.v.). 
(Sir Joseph Hooker.) Petals, small; scale-like 
stamens included or nearly so; style erect. 
Fifty-she species are known, from the north 
temperate lone and the Andes. Four are 
British, Ribes Groesularia, the Wild Goose- 
berry [GOOSEBERRY], R. alpinum, the Tasteless 
Mountain Currant, R. rubrum, the Wild Cur- 
rant, and R. nigrum, the Black Currant 
[CURRANT, B. I (2), (8).] Sir Joseph Hooker 
places species one under a section Grossularia 
with the character, "branches spinous, leaves 
plaited in bud, peduncles one to three-flow- 
ered," and the others under Ribesia (q.v.). 

ri-bes -I-a, >. [From Mod. Lat. rites (q.v.).] 
Bot. : A section or sub-genus of Ribes. 
Branches not spinous, leaves plaited in bud ; 
racemes many-flowered. Contains the cur- 
rants. (Sir Joseph Hooker.) [CORRAST.] 

ri bey I-a -ce-a>, . pi [Mod. Lat. riten(); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. buff, -aceoe.] 
Bot. : Grossulariace*. (Endttchtr.) 

ri bes-I-e-ffi, s. pi. [Mod. Lat ribesi(a); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. sun", -we.] 

Bot. : A tribe of Saxifragacew. Shrubs. 
Ovary one-celled ; fruit a berry. Type, Ribes 
(q.v.). (Sir Joseph Hooker.) 

rib gross, s. [Eng. rib, and grass.] 

Bot. : The genus Plantago; specif., Plantayo 
lanceolata. [RIBWORT.] 

rib ibe, * ryb ybe, . [Etym. doubtful.] 

1. Music: A small kind of fiddle; a rebec 

2. An old woman ; an old bawd. 

" Rode forth to sompne a widewe, an olde riM&s, 
Feiuing a cause, fur he wold nan a bribe." 

Chaucer : C. T., 6,895. 

*ri-W-ble, . rAdimin. ofr(W*e(q.v.).] A 
small ribibe. (Chau<xr: C. T., 8,332.) 

rib'-less,o. [Eng. ri6; 4e.) Having no ribs. 

" Tickle plenty's riUtu aide." 

Coteridy* : To a Young AM, 

rit roast, v.t. [Eng. rib, and rout.) To 
beat soundly ; to thrash. 

" I hare been pinched In flesh, and well Hbrotuted 
under in y former uiaaters ; but I'm In now tor akin 
and ail." L'Kttrwtg*. 

*rib -roast, . [RIBROAST, .] A sound 
beating ; a thrashing. 

" Suclie a piece of nlchiug as Is punishable with rlt- 
roatt. Marocctu Extaticut (15&5). 

rib roaat er, t. [F,ng. ribroast; -erA A 
smart or severe blow, especially with a riding 

rib roost Ing, . [RIBROAST, .] A sound 
beating ; a thrashing. 

" Administer a sound rioroa*cin0 to such m wen 
refractory." Daily Telgrap\, Nov. B. 1B82. 

fete, flat, tare, amidst, whit, fall, father; we. wit. Here, camel, her. there; pine. pit. sire, sir, marine; go. pit. 
or, wore, woll, work, who, son; mute, cub. cure, uaito, our, riUe, flUi; try. Syrian. e, o> = e ; ey = a ; qu = kw. 

ribston richesse 


rlb'-ston. 8. CFrom Ribston, In Yorkshire, 
where Si? Henry Goodricke planted three pips 
sent to him from Ronen, in Normandy. Two 
of the pips died, but the third became the 
parent of the Ribston apple-trees in England 
(Brewer.)-] A flne variety of apple ; also called 
a Ribston-pippin. 

ribston pippin, . 
rlb'-wort, . [Eng. rib, and wort.] 
Botany : 

1. Sing. : Plantago lanceolata. [RiBOBASS.] 
i PI. : Plantaginace* (q.v.). (.Lindley.) 
-rite. *-rick,JMS (A.S.rte = power, kingdom, 
dominion; IceC rlki; Ger. reich; Out. n,k; 
Goth, reiki. From the same root as Lat. rego 
= to rule ; Eng. regal, region, right, nch, sc. ] 
A suffix denoting jurisdiction, or the district 
over whii'h jurisdiction or authority Is 
cised, as bishoprw, Ac. As a termination in 
proper names it signifies rich or powerful, as 
Frederic = rich iu peace. 
rfc'-cl-a, . [Named after P. Francisco Riccio, 
a Florentine botanist] 

Bot The typical genus of Rlcciacew (q.v.). 
Minute green thalloid plants. Two terrestrial 
species, Jticcia glauca and R. crystallina, and 
two aquatic, R. flnitaiu and R. natane, are 

rio-ol-a'-ce-m, . ?1~ (Mod. Lat. rii(o); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -OOCB.) 

Bot Crystalworts ; an order of Acrogens, 
alliance Muscales. Small terrestrial herbs 
growing In mud or swimming and floating in 
water their leaves and stems blended into a 
cellular creeping frond, green or purple be- 
neath. Capsule valveleas, sunk in the frond, 
rarely free, at length bursting irregularly or 
opening by a terminal pore, and discharg- 
ing numerous spores without elaters. From 
Europe, the south of Africa, America, &c. 
Known genera eight, species twenty-nine. 
Closely akin to, if not constituting a tribe of, 

rice. * rize, * ryce, . [Fr. riz; Sp. 4 Port. 
arroz; Ital. rim; Latffrysa; Or. oWa(o>ruza) ; 
Pers orz; Arab, rora, or with the article 
or-roz.l The grain produced by Orym tatil-a, 
believed to be a native of southern Asia, 
though it grows apparently wild along some 
rivers in South America. It is a marsh plant, 
and the land on which it fs cultivated requires 
to be artificially irrigated. Sometimes small 
fields are surrounded by an earthen rampart 
descending from which one will sink ankle 
deep in mud. Rice is very extensively culti- 
vated in India, especially in Bengal, in the 
Eastern Peninsula and Islands, and iu China. 
It constitutes half the cereal crop of Africa. 
In 1700 it was accidentally introduced into 
the Southern States of America, and is now 
largely grown there. To a less extent it is grown 
In Southern Europe, It probably supports a 
larger number of the human race than any 
other cereal, or indeed than any other plant. 
It contains 85 per cent, of starch, and is con- 
idrred less nutritious than wheat. Professor 
Watt says that the husked seeds and the flour 
are demulcent and diuretic. In India they 
are sometimes used in diseases of the urinary 
organs and in catarrh, also as an external 
application to burns and scalds. 

H Canada, Water, or Wild Rice Is Zuania 
tmatica. [ZIZANIA.) Hungry Rice is Pas- 
falum exile. Mountain Rice, a variety of 
Oryza saliva, growing in dry places on Indian 
mountains. [PADDY.] 

rice-bird, . 

Ornith. : The Bob-o'-link (q.v.> 
rice dust, rice-meal, a. The refuse of 
rice after cleaning, consisting of the husks, 
broken grains, and dust; rice-meal It is 
used as food for cattle. 

rice-field mouse, 8. 

Zool. : Hesperomys polusMs. By some natu- 
ralists this species is made a distinct genus, 
Oryzomys (q.v.). 

rice-flour, . Ground rice for making 
puddings, &o. 

rice-glue, s. A cement ssld to be made 
In Japan by mixing rice-flour with cold 
water, and then boiling the mixture. It is 
white, becomes nearly transparent, and is 
useful for cementing layers of paper together. 


a 300 diameters.) 

rice-grains, >. pL 

Astron. : Certain forms of what may be 
bright clouds floating in the sun's atmosphere, 
with a dark background. 

rice-meal, . [RICE-DUST.) 

rice-starch, s. 

Chem. : The starch or floor of rice. The gra- 
nules are the small- 
est of all the com- 
mercial starches, 
varying in size 
from -00010 to 
00027 of an inch 
in diameter, angu- 
lar in form, and 
possessing an ex- 
tremely minute, 
often impercepti- 
ble central hilum. 
It is used to adul- 
terate pepper and 
ground ginger. 

rioe-milK. . Milk boiled and thickened 
with rice. 

rice-paper, . [RICEPAPER.] 
rice-pudding, . A pudding made of 

boiled rice and milk, with eggs and sugar. 

Currants are ofteu added. 

rice shell, s. 

Zool. : The genus Ollva (q.v.). 

rice-soup, 8. A kind of soup made with 
rice enriched and flavoured with butter, 
cream, veal, chicken, or mutton stock, a little 
salt and pepper, and thickened with floor. 

rice tendrao, . 

Zool. : Oryiorictes horn tetmdactyla. an in- 
sectivorous mammal described by Grandldier 
in 1870. In size it is somewhat smaller than 
a hedgehog, grayish-brown in colour, and 
having the snout prolonged into a short 
trunk. The damage it does to the rice-crops 
is doubtless occasioned by its burrowing in 
pursuit of worms and insects. 

rice troopial, . The tame as RICE- 


rice-water, s. Water thickened by boil- 
ing rice in it, sweetened with sugar, and 
flavoured with cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, Ac. 
It is often given in cases of diarrhoea. 

Rice-water evacuations: 

Pathol. : Evacuations resembling rice-water 
passed in cholera. More narrowly examined, 
there are found granular corpuscles, an abun- 
dance of water, a little epithelium, vibriones, 
albuminous flakes floating in a colourless 
fluid (whence the rice-water appearance), a 
little biliary matter, and a quantity of salts, 
especially chloride of sodium. (Tanner.) 

rice-weevil, i. 

Sntom. : Calandra oryzre, which attacks the 
rice plant in the Southern States of America, 
Called also SitophUvs oryzce. 

rice -Wine, . A highly intoxicating 
liquor made by the Chinese from rice. 

riee'-pa-per, . [Eng. rice, and paper.] 

1 A kind of paper introduced into England 
about 1803, and uamed from its supposed 
material, which was thought to be a sort of 
dried pulp of rice. It is, however, made of 
the pith of Aralia papyrifera, which grows 
wild in abundance in the island of Formosa. 
The stem is cut into lengths of eight or ten 
inches, and the pith pushed out, much as 
elders are cleared of pith. This is cut into 
a continuous spiral ribbon, about four feet 
long, which is spread out and flattened into 
sheets. Pictures are painted upon it by 
Chinese artists. 

2. A kind of paper made from rice straw, 
used in Japan, Ac. 

Iyu , riche, ryohe, a. [A.8. rice = rich, 
powerful. (For the change of to ch, cf. pilch, 
from A.8. pic, tpeech, and speak, otcj Cogn. 
with Dut. rijk; Icel. rikr; Sw.ri*;; Dan.rts; 
Goth. reik ; Ger. reich ; M H. Ger. rUkt ; Fr. 
riche; Sp. & Port, rico ; Ital. rvcco.J 

1. Abounding in riches, wealth, or material 
possessions ; having a large portion of land, 
goods, money, or other valuable property; 
wealthy, opulent. (Opposed to poor.) 

And Abram w. very rfc* In cattle, In silver, and 
In gold." 0neil zllL " 

2. Composed of valuable, precious, costly, 
or rave materials or ingredients; valuable. 
previous, costly, rare. 

3. Abundant In materials; yielding large 
quantities of anything valuable ; producing 
ample supplies ; productive, fertile, fruitful. 

11 The gorgeous East with ricHtU hand 
Pours on her OUB barbarick pearl and jold." 

Milton : P. L,,l\. m, 

4. Well supplied; abundant; well-filled; 
ample : as, a rich treasury. 

5. Abounding in qualities pleasing to the 
senses : as 

(1) Gratifying to the sense of taste ; abounding 
in nutritive or agreeable qualities ; as applied 
to articles of food, highly seasoned, abounding 
in oleaginous ingredient* ; as to articles or 
driuk, sweet, luscious, highly flavoured : u, 
a ricA pudding, rich soup, rixh pastry. 

(2) Gratifying or agreeable to the sense of 
sight ; vivid, bright ; not faint or delicate : as, 
rich colours. 

(8) Gratifying or agreeable to the sense of 
hearing ; sweet, mellow, harmonious, musical. 

" But village notes could ne'er supply 
That rfc* and varied rnel^ ^^ ^ ^ 

6. Abounding in humour or wit ; highly pro- 
vocative of mirtb or amusement ; laughable, 
comical, funny : as, a rich joke. 

t The rich: A rich man or person; rich 
people collectively. 

" The poor is hated even of his own neighbour ; but 
ffo rtc't hath many friends." Protterbf xiv. Vt. 

^ Rich is frequently used in the formation 
of compounds, the meanings of which art) 
sufficiently obvious, as rich-coloured, rich- 
fleeced, rich-laden, ltd. 

* rtoh-lett, a. Inheriting great wealth, 
(SKakap. : Cymbelint, iv. 2.) 

" rich, .t [Bica, o.] To make rich ; to n- 

10 ' O( J1 theee bounds . . . 

With shadowy forests, and with cliainpains ricA d, 
We rnalM the Udy." Soti>. : Lear. I. L 

r.9h-ar'-di-a, . [Named after L. C. L. U 
Richard, the French botanist (1754-1821).] 

Sot. : A genus of Orontiaceau The corm of 
Richardia, africana, a beautiful phut with a 
snowy spathe and golden spadix, was formerly 
used in medicine. It is the White Arum or 
Trumpet flower, sometimes cultivated in draw- 
ing rooms. 

aifh'-ard Roe, . [JOHN DOE.] 
rlgh-ard-so'-ni-a, . [Named after Richard 
Richardson, an English botanist.] 

Sot : A genus of Spermaeocidse. Trailing 
American herbs. The roots of Eichardsonia 
rosea and R. scdbra, have some of the proper- 
ties of ipecacuanha. 

rf-oheT-lite, . [After Rlehelle, Vise, Bel- 
gium, where found ; suff. -e (Min.).] 

ISin. : An amorphous mineral of a clear 
yellow colour. Hardness, 2 to 3 ; sp. gr. 2 ; 
lustre, greasy to resinous. Compos. : a by- 
drated phosphate of alumina, sesquioxide of 
iron, and lime. 

rich'-es, rioh-esse, s. [Properly a singu- 
lar but now used as a plural. Fr. richesse = 
riches, from rWui = rich (q.v.); Sp. St Port. 
riyueza; Ital. ricchezza.] 

* 1. Orig. : Used as a singular noun in thf 
same sense as 2. 

2. As a plural: 

(1) That which makes rich or enriches ; 
abundant possessions; abundance of hind, 
goods or money ; wealth, opulence, affluence. 

" M, *<* t. the eth fro 

(2) That which is or appears valuable, pre- 
cious, or estimable ; valuable or precious quali- 

The rfci of onr minds, our virtuous and com- 
mendable qualities." Sharp: Sermon*, vol. L, ser. . 

* (3) Abundance. 

" Jn whom we have redemption, through hii i Mood 
. according to the riOtn at his grace.' Spkoiani 

rich-ease, . [Fr-1 Bi 1 ' ea <1- v ->- 

After the rfdteMtt of hit gloria.'- WtKUff : **- 


richly rickety 

*Ih' - If, riohe - lion, ryche - liohe, 
rto-llce, adv. [Bug. rich ; -!.] 

1. In a rich manner ; with riches, wealth, or 
abundance of goods or estate ; with abundant 
or ample funds or possessions. 

" A l*dy richly left" 

SkUujp. : l/erdwra of Fni<. L 1. 

2. In a costly manner ; splendidly, sumptu- 

' And first, brought forth Ulyeses' bed. and all 
Tht ricUf furni.lit it." 

Chapman : ffomtr 1 Odytley xlii 

S. Plenteously, abundantly, copiously; In 
plenty or abundance. 

" Th livins Ood who us rtcWy all thing* to 
enjoy. '1 Timothy vi. 11. 

4. Highly, strongly : as, a punishment richly 

5. In a laughable or comical manner : as, a 
tory richly told. 

Ri9h mond, i. [See def.) 

lieng.: (1) The capital of Virginia; (2) a 
town in Berkshire County, Massachusetts. 

Richmond earth, . 

Geol. : An earth or bed near Richmond, in 
Virginia. It is of Eocene or Miocene age, and 
is largely composed of diatoms. 

rich -m<Snd-ite, . [After Richmond, Mas- 
sachusetts, where found ; suff. -ite (Min.).'] 

Min. : A variety of Gibbsite (q.v.) in which 
Hermann states that he found 37*62 per cent. 
of phosphoric acid. Newer analyses Indicate 
that Hermann's result was obtained from 
analysis of a wrongly labelled specimen. 

lich'-ness, rloh-nesae, i. [Bug. rich; 
L The quality or state of being rich or of 

Csessing abundance of wealth, goods, or 
is ; wealth, affluence, opulence, riches. 

2. Abundance of precious, costly, or valu- 
able ingredients or material; precionsness, 
costliness, value. 

"And in the rtcAn of the production! of thU 
third kingdom, he flattered himself he had found a 
full com|*nstiou for the insignificancy of thoee of 
the other two." Smith ; Wtattft of .Yationt, vol. 11. 
bk. IT, oh. Tli. 

3. Abundance, plenty, fulness of supply. 
A. Productiveness, fertility, fruitfulness. 

" Bring forth that Britlah Tale, and be It ne'er ao rare. 

ButCatmua with that Tale for rt>Arci ihall com- 

pare." Druyton : Poly-OU>ion, a. St 

6. Abundance of nutritive or agreeable 
qualities : as, richntM of food, Ac. 

6. Abundance of qualities pleasing or agree- 
able to the sight ; brightness, brilliancy ; as, 
richnea of colour. 

7. Abundance of qualities pleasing or 
agreeable to the ear : as, richnea of tone. 

8. The quality of being highly amusing or 
laughable ; comicality, funniness, wit : as, the 
richness of a story or joke. 

rich -ter ite, j. [After Prof. T. Rlchter ; 
off. -ite (.Min.).] 

Min. : This mineral as described by Breit- 
haupt appears to be In composition near the 
Bcheffente of Michaelson (q.v.). Crystals 
acicular ; sp. gr. 2-826 ; colour, isabella-yellow 
to pale yellowish-brown. Igelstrom found a 
similar mineral at Pajsberg, Sweden, which 
afforded the formula (MgO,MnO,CaO,KO,NaO) 
8iO 2 , the alkalis amounting to between 8 ana 
9 per cent. It is still uncertain whether this 
species should be referred to pyroxene or 

, . [Eng. rich, and weed.] 
Eat. : Pitta pumila. 

ric-In-e'-la-Id'-a-mide, . [Eng. rictiw- 
nt/(ui). au 'l amide,] 

Chem. : CigHssNOo. A product obtained by 
the action of alcoholic ammonia on ricine- 
laidin. It closely resembles elaidamide, melts 
at 91-93', and solidifies at 89*. (Watts.) 

ric In -6 la -Id-ate, . [Eng. ricintlawHic) ; 

Chem. : A salt of rieinelaidic acid. 

ricinelaidate of ethyl, . 

* QH s8 8 = Ci8H 3s (CjH ls )O3. Ricine- 
laidic ether. A crystalline mass, formed by 
the action of hydrochloric acid gas on an 
.alcoholic solution of ricinelaldic acid. It 
melts at 16*, and is slightly solmble in cold, 
but very soluble in hot alcohol.* 

1-19 In-6-la-Id-Io, o. [Mod. Lat. ricin(w), 
and Eng. glaitfta.] Derived from or containing 

rictnelaidio-aold, s. 

Ghent. : CigHgjOg. Palmic acid. Produced 
by the action of nitrous acid on ricinoleic 
acid, or by saponifying ricinelaidin with 
caustic potash, and decomposing the resulting 
soap with hydrochloric acid. It crystallizes 
in white silky needles melting at 50', is insol- 
uble in water, soluble in alcohol and ether, 
decomposing alkaline carbonates. The ricine- 
laidates of the alkali-metals are readily soluble 
in water ; the other salts are very Insoluble. 

ricinclaidic ether, . [RICINELAIDATE 


a'-id-In, . [Eng. rMnelavKti); -in.] 
CAem. : C3o.H 73 O7(?). A fatty body produced 
by the action of nitric peroxide on castor oil. 
It forms small white nodules, melts at 62', and 
is insoluble in water, but very soluble in 
alcohol and ether. Boiled with caustic potash 
it is converted into glycerine and potassium 
ricinelaidate. When submitted to dry distil- 
lation it yields a dark red spongy residue, and 
a distillate of oenanthol. 

ri-cln'-lc, a. [Eng. rran(in); -to) The 
same as RICINOLEIC (q.v.). 

rlg'-in-ine, >. [Mod. Lat. ricln(us); -int.] 

Chem. : An alkaloid found in the seeds of 
the castor-oil plant To obtain it, the bruised 
seeds are repeatedly boiled with water, filtered, 
and the filtrate evaporated to a syrup and 
treated with alcohol. It forms colourless rec- 
tangular prisms insoluble in water, slightly 
soluble in ether and benzene, but very sol- 
uble in alcohol. When heated it melts to a 
colourless liquid, and sublimes unchanged be- 
tween two watch glasses. 

ric-in-o-le'-a-mide,s. [Eng. rictnok(ic),and 

talline body produced by saturating an alco- 
holic solution of castor oil with ammonia gas, 
and heating for forty-eight hours in a salt 
bath. It forms beautiful white needles, melts 
at 66, insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol 
and ether. By heating with acids or alkalis 
it is converted into ricinoleic acid and 

rio-In-o'-le'-ate, . [Eng. Hcio!<ic) ; -ate.] 
Chem. : A salt of ricinoleic acid. 
rlcinoleate of ethyl, . 

Chem. : CjoHjsO, = CmHs^CjHsPs. Ricin- 
oleic ether. A yellowish oil produced by 
passing hydrochloric acid gas into an alcoholic 
solution of ricinoleic acid, and purifying by 
washing with water and sodic carbonate. It 
cannot be distilled without decomposition. 

rlc-ln-o-le'-Io, o. [Mod. Lat. rlcin(ui), and 
Eng. okic.] Derived from or contained in 
castor oil. 

ricinololc acid, a, 

CUm. : d-H^Oj = CuHjjO, j. Q ^^^ 

acid, ricinic acid. A monobasic acid produced 
by saponifying castor oil, or the oil otJatropha 
curau with potash or soda ley, and decompos- 
ing by hydrochloric acid. It is a pale yellow, 
inodorous oil, with a disagreeable harsh taste, 
sp. gr. -'J4 at 15', solidifies at 6' to a granular 
mass, and mixes in all proportions with alcohol 
and ether. It does not oxidise on exposure to 
the air, and gives, on dry distillation, oenan- 
thol. All ricinoleates are crystallizable and 
soluble in alcohol, many of them also in ether. 

ricinoleic ether, >. [KICINOLCATI or 


ri9 In o lie, a. [RICINOLEIO.] 

rl cln'-u-la, >. [Dimin. from Mod. Lat. 

ricimw (q.v.).] 

ZooL it Palasont.: A genus of Buccinidae, 
with a thick tubercnlated or spiny shell with 
callous projections on the lips. Recent 
species thirty-four, from Southern Asia and 
the Pacific. Fossil three, from the Miocene 
of France. 

rl9'-In-ua, . tLat. = (1) a tick, (2) Steinui 
communis, the fruit of which was supposed to 
resemble a tick.] 

Sot. : A genus of Crotonwe. Trees, shrubs, 
or herbs, having their leaves alternate, stipu- 
late, palmate, with glands at the apex of the 
petiole ; flowers in terminal panicles, calyx 
three- to four-parted, petals none, stamens 
many, polyadelphous ; stigmas three, bipartite, 
feathery ; fruit capsular, tricoccous. Ricinui 
communis, the Common Castor Oil plant, or 
Palma Christi, is a large shrub or small tree, 
indigenous in Arabia and North Africa (and 
India ?). It is largely cultivated all over the 
warmer countries. In Europe it becomes an 
annual. Fifteen or sixteen varieties of the 
plant have arisen. Prof. Watt (Calcutta Bxhib. 
Rep., iv. 60) reduces them to three sections : 
(1) small-seeded, (2) large-seeded, (3) a form 
grown, on account of its leaves, as food 
for the Eria silkworm. The small-seeded 
form is grown as a crop, the large-seeded one 
as a hedge. The seeds furnish castor oil, 
and are also used by dyers to render colours 
permanent. Persons camping near a field of 
the plant are apt to be attacked with diar- 
rbrea. The fresh juice is used as an emetic ; 
made into a poultice with barley-meal it is 
used in inflammation of the eye. The leave* 
as a decoction, or as a poultice, are lacteV- 
gogues and emmenagogues. 

1 Sicini oleum is Castor oil (q.v.). 

-rick, tuff. [-BIC.] 

rick, reek, * reke, . [A. 8. hreac; cogn, 
with IceL hraukr; O. 8w. ruka, ruga.] 

1. A pile or stack of corn or hay regularly 
heaped up, and generally thatched to preserve 
it from wet. 

" A crop BO plenteous at the land to load. 
Overcome the crowded barns, and lodge on rtcjfct 
abroad." Drfdtn ; Virgil : Otorate II. HS. 

2. A small heap of corn or hay piled up by 
the gatherer. (Prov.) 

" In the North they bind them up In email bundlee, 
and make small riot* of them in the field." Mortt- 

mtr : lluibilndry. 

* 3. A heap, generally. 

" So many fails to heap noon a Hdt" 

Silfaur : iafnificma. \,\a. 

rick-cloth, a. A tarpaulin or canvas cloth 
placed over ricks to protect them from wet. 

rick stand, i. A basement of timber 
or iron, or sometimes wholly or in part of 
masonry, on which corn-ricks stand or are 
built, the object being to keep the lower part 
of the stack dry and free from vermin. 

rick (1), D.I. [Ricn, i.] To pile or heap up In 


rick (2), v.t. [WRICK.] 

riok'-ery, >. pi [Etym. doubtful.] The sterna 
or trunks of young trees cut up into lengths for 
stowing flax, hemp, or the like ; or for span 
for boat masts or yards, boat-hook staves, otc. 

" rlck-et-lmh, o. [Eng. ricktt( v ); 4*.} 
Somewhat rickety. 

" Sorely there Is some other cure for a ricketitft body 
than to kill lt,"FuUtr : general Worthier ch. xL 

rick'-6t-ly, a. [RICKETS.] Ricketty, for 
which it is perhaps a misprint. 

"Weak, rickettv, and contemptuous." Oauden; 
Ttart of th4 Church, p. 342. 

riek'-Sts, s. [Prov. Eng. of Dorset and Som- 
ersetshire. Mahn connects it either with A.8. 
rig, hric = back, spine, or with wriggian = to 
bend ; cf. Eng. wriggle ; Skeat derives it 
from Eng. wrick, Mid. Eng. wrikken = to 
twist, with the pi. suff. -ets, and compares it 
with A. 8. to wring. The Greek looking ra- 
chitis is derived from it, and not vice versa.] 

Ptithol. : Motlitus ossium. Softening of the 
bones owing to the want of lime, shown 
by curvature of the long bones and enlarge- 
ment of their cancellous ends, usually ap- 
pearing between the ages of four and twelve 
months. Milk and lime-water, and cod-liver 
oil, with good nourishment, ventilation, and 
pure air, are the chief requisites for recovery, 
but this is not always certain. 

riolf-St-y, rfck'-et-ty. o. (RICKETS.) 

I. Lit. : Suffering from or affected with 

" In a young animal, when the solide are too lax 
(the case of ricketu children), the diet should be gently 
astringent." Arbuthnot : On Alimetui, prop. 7. 

IX Figuratively: 

1. Shaky ; threatening to fall ; unsteady 

" There we climbed on top of a ricXety old coach." 
Scribner't Jfaffarinc, Anff. 1877, p. 491. 

(.vte, f&t, Hire, amidst, what, tall, father; we, wjit, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, wire, sir. marine; go, pt, 
or, wore, wolf, work, who, son; mote, cub. cure, unite, ciir. rule, full; try. Syrian. . oe = e ; ey = a; qu = kw. 


rio We, . [Eng. rick, s. ; dim. suff. -In] 

1. A little rick or stack ; ajstook. 

2. A heap of stones, peat, "" 

2. The act of getting rid of something , the 

act of ridding one's self of something . the 

state of being rid or free ; freedom, deliverance. 

But rather **,* Iron, J-tJ-fggB.4.., 

I A good riddance: A fortunate or pleasant 
relief from a person's company. 

rid'-den, pa. par. [Ring, v.] 

l?e "las of a stone from water, or a canuon- 
tall' "bullet from water or the ground ; the 
a shot which rebounds from a flat surface. 

My third .hot -a. rnor, effective although an 
Widoubted rtcxket.--FieU, Jan. n, 188e. 

ricochet fire, ricochet-firing, t 

Mil A mode of firing with small charge 
and small elevation, resulting in a bounding 
or skipping of the projectile. In firing at a 
?ortifica P tion, sufficient elevation is given to 
just clear the parapet, so that the ball may 
bound along the terre-plem or banquette 
wU out ristag far above l& level. It is used 
with effect on hard, smooth ground against 
bodies of troops or such obstacles as abattis ; 
also upon water, either with round shot 
or rifle-balls. It was introduced by Vauban 
at the siege of Philipsburg, in 1688. 

j -den, pan jaw, i"i. 

J Frequently used in composition, as priest- 
ridden. [RIDE, v., B. 4.] 
rid'-der, . [Eng. rid, v. ; -er.] One who or 

that which rids. 

counsel, to guess ; Ger. rath . - 

1 A puzzle ; a puzzling question ; an enig- 
ma'- a proposition put in obscure or ambigu 
cms terms to exercise the ingenuity in dis- 
covering its meaning. 

2. Anything puzzling or ambiguous ; 

" I live, yet I teem to mywlf to 

___ -^ 

Dut. rijden; Icel. rldha ; Dan. ride ; 8w. rlda; 
Ger. mien ; O. H. Ger. ritan. From the sam 
root as raid, ready, and rood.] 

A. /ntranritiw : 

1. To be borne along, on the back of am 
animal, especially of a horse. 

2 To be borne or carried in a vehicle : as, 
To 'ride in a carriage, a train, &c. ; to drive. 

3. To be mounted on ; to sit astraddle. 

" To ride on the curled clbuda." 

Sltnteti>. : Tempeit, L I 

4. To have skill or ability as an equestrian ; 
to understand or practise horsemanship. 

ricochet shot, s. 


Gunnery : A bounding or leaping shot, fired 
at low elevation with small charge. 
ric 4-ch6t, .(. * i- [Fr- ricocher.] [Rico- 

CHET, 8.] 

A. Trans.: To operate upon by ricochet- 

B. Intransitive : 

1 Lit. : To skim or rebound, as a stone or 
tali along the surface of water. 

Then rio.!... dpo.lted half ! the braa. .hell to 
the wooden creen."-W. Oct. 17. 188S. 

2. fig. ' To be made ducks and drakes of ; 
to be squandered. 

rio tal, o. [Lat. rfc(iM); Eng. suff. -oZ.] 
Zool. : Of or belonging to the rictus. 

The mouth l open, defended by rictal brlrtUa." 


rlo'-ture. . [La*- ricturo.1 A gaping. 
rlc'-tus, . [Lat = the opened mouth.] 

1. Bol. : The orifice of a ringent or of a per- 
sonate corolla. 

2. Ornith. : The gape or opening of the 
mouth ; the mouth. 

rid, pret. & pa. par. of v. (BIDE, .] 

rid. 'redde, 'rldde,r.. [A.8. hreddan = 

Jo*snTtoh aw'ay, to deliver ; O. Fries reddo; 
Dut. redden; Dan. redde; Sw. rodde; Ger. 
rctte*, prob. from A.S. Krtedh = quick ; II. H. 
Ger. hrat, rod.] 

* 1. To free, to deliver, to save. 

Tht he might rid him out ol their lund.."- 

rid -die (2), * rld-ll, . (For hriddle, from 
A S Kridder = a vessel for winnowing com ; 
cogn. wmTlr. creatkair; Gael, criathar; Corn. 
croider; Bret, krouer = a sieve.] 

1 A sieve with coarse meshes, made of iron 
or basket-work, and used in separating coarser 
substances from the finer, as chaff from grain 
cinders from ashes, gravel from sand, large 
pieces of ore from the smaller, etc. 

The me are .hred and miiictd .o.mall aathey 
may pa through a litre or a riddle. -P. Holland . 

1 rtTMCWrWM : A board with sloping pins 
winch lean opposite ways, and between which 
wire is drawn to a somewhat zigzag course, to 
straighten it. 

3. JTouudinc/.-Acoarse sieve (half-inch mesh), 
used to clean and mix the old floor-sand of the 

4. Hydr.-eng. : A kind of weir in rivers. 

rid die (1), .. & * [RIDDLE (1), .] 

ft. Tram. : To solve, to explain. 

I.'t req.ul.ito another bore my nortrllat 

vi.i.iit me t'i)"-" 

B. Intrant. : To speak enigmatically, or 
in riddles. 

rid -die (2), .t * i- [A.S. \ridian.] 
(2), -] 

A. Transitive: 

I Topassthronghariddle,soastoseparate 
the' coarser parts from the liner ; to sift. 

To riddle the coal before wilding It to the pithead. 
Bail* Chronicle, Sept 8, 1885. 

2. To perforate with balls or shot, so as to 
make like a riddle. 

" Whow hull he riddled tllUt wa. a perfect aleve. - 

2 To free, to clear, to disencumber. (Fol- 
lowed by of. Frequently used reflexively.) 

IB1D ' 1 .,,.. jl.. 

Ann'd with thy might, rid "<*' J^J _ 

3. To drive away, to get rid of, to expel. 

I .111 rid ell bearte out of the land."-iCTicm 

i. To get rid of ; to do or make away with. 

"fH Intnaa.': To use' a riddle; to sift or 
screen materials with a riddle. 

Kobln Goodfellow ... he that riddle, for th. 
country maldee." Ben Jontan : Lote 

rid -dler (1), [Eng. riddle), v. ; -r.] One 
"ho propounds riddles; one who speaks in 

rid<U <* -mour^,, 

6. To dispose of, to finish, to despatch. 

The red plague rid you." 

ShaJcetp. : Tempett, L a 

.6. To make away with; to destroy by 

" You have rW thl. .weet young prince 1 

rid, a. [Rin, .] Free, clear. (Spenser : F. Q., 
VI. iv. 38.) 
U To get rid of: To free or clear one a self 

'"' - Eeduce bla wage., or ox* J^^'j^ nL 

rid dan96, s [Eng. rid; -once.} 

1/The act of ridding or freeing ; a clean- 
tog up or out ; a clearing away. 

" Thou .halt not make cle riddance at the corner* 
of thy Held." /* <"" "* 

rid'-dler (2), i. [Eng. riddle), v. ; -er.] One 

who sifts or riddles. 
rld'-dling, pr. par. or o. [RIDDLE (IX ] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. -48 adj. : Enigmatical. 

Jtiddlint triplet, of oU 


6. To be supported in motion ; to rest. 

" The axle-tree 
Or, which >"*" 

rid'-dllng, s. [RIDDLE (2), .] 

Utia.ll. (PI.) : Tlie middle size of broken 

ore which is obtained by sifting. 
rld'-dllng-tf , adv. [Eng. riddling; -ly.} 

lu rnaSnSof a riddle; in riddles; enigmati- 

cally, obscurely. 

Like the pe.tllence and oU-tadiiotfd ! tow. 
h """ 

IF A rope is said to ride when one of the 
turns by which it is wound lies over another, 
so as to interrupt the operation or prevent ita 

6. To be borne on or in a fluid. 

" A veuel rldei fait by, but not prepared 
For tlil deaign." SMteip. ' H inter I Tale, IT. a. 

7 To support a rider ; to move under 
saddle to move when driven or pulled : as, 
A horse rids easy, a carriage rida easy. 

8. To move or dance in a triumphant 

DUdain and worn ride iparkllng In her eye*. 

w*<p. : Much Ada About Nothmf,, 1U. L 

9. To have free play ; to practise at wilL 
Thou hait caueed men to ride orer our haada."- 
Pialm livt U. 

B. Transitive: 

L To sit, or be supported and borne on ; to 
mount and manage, as a horse. 

2. To go over or traverse in riding : as, To 
rid a mfle. 

3. To do, make, perform, or execute, ai on 
horseback : as, To ride a race. 

* 4. To manage, treat, or practise on in- 
solently or at will ; to tyrannize or domineer 
over. [RiDDEM.] 


ride, ''ryde (pa. t. rid rood, rode , P. 
rTar " rid * riden, ridden), v.i. ft t. [A.S. 
5ta.kt rod, pa. par. riden) ; cogn. with 

S tit 4. 

t 1. To ride at anchor : 
Ntmt. : To be anchored ; to lie at anchor. 

2. To ride down: 

(I) Ord. Lang. : To trample down or over- 
throw by riding or driving over. 

(21 Naut. : To bend or bear down by main 
strength and weight : as. To ride down a sail. 

3. To ride easy : 

Naut. : Said when a ship does not labour 
feel a great strain on her cables. 

4. Toridehard: 

Navt. : Said when a ship pitches or labonn 
violently, so as to strain her cables, masts, or 

5 To ride out : To continue afloat during, 
and withstand the fury of, as a vessel does a 

g V To ride the Jiigh Korse : [HioH, 1 (3)]. 

* 7 To ride the wild mare : To play at sea. 
saw. ' (Shaketp. : 2 Henry IV., ii. 4.) 

ride, s. >*. 

1. An excursion on horseback or In a vehicle. 

2. A saddle-horse. (Prov.) 

3 A road or avenue cut through a wood or 
pleasure-grounds for the exercise of riding; 

^A division or district established for 
excise purposes. 

ride-officer, >. An excise officer In charge 
of a ride. [RlDE, ., 4.) 
ride'-iv-ble, a. [Eng. ride, v. ; -note.] 

1. Capable of being ridden over; passable 
on horseback. 

The atr WM rldeat,le."-lMer : 
p. 4S. 

2. Capable of being ridden. 

I rodT every thing rfcleaN*"-SaW ' * 

Ktt: 1)1.. II . Ch. 111. 

ri-deau' (ean as 6). . [Fr. = a curtain, a 

11 Tori : A small elevation of earth, extending 
itself lengthwise on a plain serving to cover 
a camp from the approach of an enemy, or to 
give other advantages to a post. 


rift right 

rift (IX *reft, * rltte, * rytte, . (Dan. 

rift t from ripe = to rive (q.v.); Norw. rift ; 
Icel. rift = a breach ; Sw. rtfva = a rift, from 
rifca = to tear, to rive.] A cleft : a fissure or 
opening made by riving or splitting. 

" The clouds 

Prom many a horrid rift, abortive pour'd 
Fierce rain with lightning mix'd." 

Jttlton : P. &., IT. 411. 

rift (2), s. [Cf. reef(l\ a.] A shallow place in 
a stream ; a ford. (Pnw.) 

rtttr.e. At [RIFT (!),.] 

A, Trans. : To cleave, to split, to rive. 
" Strangling souls by thee are strengthened, 
Cloiiiii of le " 

: gpimetheta. 

" Tour GUI 

; Winter' t Tab, v. 1. 

lear asunder rifted. 

B. Intransitive : 

* L To burst open ; to split ; to be riven. 

Should rift to hear me." 

2. To belch. (Scotch.) 

rfg(l), *. [A.S. hrycg.] (RiDOB, .) 

1. The back of an animal. 

2. A ridge of land ; a strip of land between 
two furrows. 

3. A course, a path, a way. 

riff (2), s. [Connected with rickets and wriggle.] 

* 1. A wanton uncomely person. 

" Let none condemn them [the girls] for riyt because 
thtu hoytlng with the boys, seeing the Implicit? of 
their age wu a patent to privilege any Innocent pas- 
time." Fuller : Pitgah Hiytti,, ch. vL 

2. A strange uncomely feat ; a frolic. 

** He little guessed when he aet out 
Of running such a rig." Cvwper: John QUpin. 

S. A ridgel. 

^ To run the rig : To indulge in practical 

" Instead of good sense. polite wit, and genteel re- 
partee, they have a sort of rude briskness, and run 
th* riff, as the young templars and spruce wits call 
this aort of Joking-" T. Butt : Genuine Lctteri, ii. m. 

Fig (3),*. [Rio (2), p.] 

1. Lit. A Naut, : The peculiar style in which 
the masts and sails of a ship are fitted : as, 
square-rip, fore-and-aft-ri^, schooner-riy, Ac. 

2. Fig. : Drees ; an outfit for any purpose. 

rig (IX * rlgge. v.i. [Rio (2), .] To act 
wantonly ; to play the wanton. 

* tig (2), * rygge, v.t. [Norw. rigga = to bind 
up, to wrap round : cf. Sw. rigga Jia = to har- 
ness a horse.] 

L To furnish or fit with rigging. 

" With stays and cordage last he rigg'd the hip." 
Pope : Homer ; Odystey v. 881. 

2. To furnish with apparatus, gear, or tac- 
kling : as, To rig a purchase. 

3. To dress, to clothe. (Generally followed 
by out, and used especially when the dress is 
gaudy or odd) ; to equip. 

" Such as in Monmouth Street, or in Rag Fair, 
Would rig you out in seriousness or Joke." 

Byron : Beppo, r. 

f (1) To rig out a boon* or spar ; 
Naut. : To thrust out a pole or spar upon 
the end of a yard or bowsprit, in order to 
extend the foot of a sail. 

" If the Oenesta could have rigged a Jury bowsprit" 
Daily Telegraph. Sept. 10, 1885. 

(2) To rig in a boom : 

Naut. : To draw it in from its position at 
the end of a yard or bowsprit. 

(3) To rig the market : To raise or lower 
prices artificially for one's own private advan- 
tage ; specif., in Stock Exchange slang, to 
raise or lower the prices of stocks or shares, 
as by a combination of speculators, or as when 
the directors or officers of a company buy up 
the shares of the company out of the funds 
of the association. 

" Rigging the market for preference and'debenture 
tock in collusion with broken.' Daily Chronicle, 
June 23, 1886. 

Bi'-ga, . [See *ef.] 

Geog. : A city and port of European Russia, 
even miles from the mouth of the Diina. 

Riga-balsam, *. A balsam obtained from 
Sty rax Benzoin. 

rlg-a-do6n', *. [Pr. rigadon, a word of doubt- 
ful origin.] An old lively dance performed by 
a man and a woman, as the jig is danced in 
aome places. 

** Endearing Waltz ! to thy more melting tune 
Bow Irish jig and ancient rigadoon." 

Byron : The WaUt. 

* ri-ga'-tlon, s. [Lat. rigatio, from rigatus, 
pa. par. of rigo = to water'.] The act of water- 
ing ; irrigation. 

" Every field that has not torn* spring or aqueduct 
to furnish it with repeated rigatioiu." Swinburne : 
Tratelt through Spain, let. I. 

Bi -gel, s. [Corrupted Arabic.] 

Astron. : A star of the first magnitude at 
the left foot of Orion. Called also ft Orionis. 
It is of a bluish colour. 

ri-ge8'-9ent, a. [Lat rigesceTis, pr. par. of 
rigesco, incept, from rigeo = to be stiff.] Be- 
coming stiff or rigid. 

rlgg, rigge, s. [RiooE, .) A ridge, a back. 
** Left Rose the auld hurley-house, and the rigge be- 
longiiig to it." Scott: Waverley, p. 1M. 

* rigge-boon, s. A backbone. (Chaucer.) 
rigged, pa. par. or a. [Rio, u.] 

* rigged, a. [Eng. rigg, s. ; -ed.} Bidged, 

" The riyg-d camel." Ball : Satirtt. IV. It. M. 

rfgg'-er, *. [Eng. rig t v. ; -<r.] 

1. One who rigs or dresses; specif., one 
whose occupation is to rig vessels. 

" Both rese!s had to go Into the hands of the rigger* 
to be set right again." Daily Telegraph. Sept. 10, is*5. 

2. Mich. : A band-wheel having a slightly 
curved Mm. Fast and loose pulleys are so 
called in English works on machinery. 

rfgg'-lng (I), . [Rio<i)..1 

1, The back or top of anything. 

2. The ridge of a house ; a roof. (Scott : 
Antiquary, eh. xxxiii.) 

rigging-tree, . The ridge-piece or ridge- 
plate of a roof. 

rfgg'-Ingtf),*. [Bio,*) 

Naut. : The system of tackle or ropes which 
support the masts, extend and contract the 
sails, Ac,, of a ship. Standing rigging in- 
cludes the tackle employed to support the 
masts, &c., the shrouds and stays. Running 
rigging includes the ropes used in shortening 
sail, raising or lowering the yards, &c., such 
as the halyards, braces, sheets, clewlines, &c. 

" To know her by her rigging and her trim." 

: Prologue to Conyueit of Granada. 

11 rigg'-ish, o. [Eng. rig, (2), 8. ; -ish.} Wan- 
ton, lewd, unchaste. 

" The wanton gesticulations of a virgin in a wild 
assembly of gallants warmed with wine, could be no 
other than rigyuh and unmnidenly." Bp. Ball. : Con- 
tempi. i John liaptitt Beheaded, 

rig'-gle, vri. [WRIGGLE. ) To move one way 

and the other ; to wriggle. 

rig'-gle, s. [RiooLE, v.] (See extract) 

" Prom the Tyne northwards along the Scotch coast, 
sand-eels are known as 'horn-eels,' from the protrusion 
of the under Jaw. and along the Sussex coast as ' rig- 
alet or wriggles,' from their action of burrowing into 
the sand."- Field, Dec. 26. 1895. 

right (gh silent), * rigt. *ryght, "rygt, 

a., adv., A s. [A.S. riht (a.), rihte (adv.), 
riht (s.); cogn. with Out regt; IceL rettr; 
Dan. ret; Sw. rat; O. H. Ger. reht; Goth. 
raihts; Ger. recht. A participial form from a 
base rak; rag-, whence also Lat. rectus (for 
regtus) right, direct, answering to the pa. 
par. of rego = to rule.] 
A. As adjective : 

1. Ordinary Language : 

L In conformity with the rules which ought 
to regulate human conduct; in accordance 
with duty or the standard of truth and justice ; 
rightful, equitable, just. 

" Whatsoever Is right, that shall ye receive." Matt. 
XX. 7. 

2. Fit, suitable, becoming, proper, correct : 
as, the right dress, the right expression. 

3. Properly done, made, adjusted, disposed, 
or arranged ; orderly, well-regulated. 

" Man, like his Maker, saw that all was right." 

Pope : Kttay on Man, lit 233. 

4. Correctly done or performed; correct: 
as, The sum is not right. 

5. Not erroneous or wrong ; according to 
feet or truth ; correct, true. 

" If there be no prosi>ect beyond the grave, the In- 
ference Is certainly right, let us eat and drink, for 
to-morrow we die." Locke, 

6. Holding or passing a true or correct 
judgment; correct in judgment or assump- 
tion ; not erring, not mistaken. 

"Ton are right. Justice, and yon weigh this well." 
Ohaketp. : 3 Henry IV.. v. 1 

7. True, real, genuine ; not spurious ; nol 
only pretended or supposed ; actual, unques- 

"TU the right ring." Shalcetp. : ffenry VHL, T. a 

*8. Very; truly deserving the name; un- 

" I am a right maid for my cowardice." 
Shaketp. : Midtummer Night't Dream. Hi. 1. 

9. Applied to the side to be worn or placed 
outward : as, the right side of a piece of cloth. 

*10. Most direct, or leading in the proper 
direction : as, the right road from one place 
to another. 

11. Not left, but on the other side : as, the 
right hand, the right cheek, &c. 

12. Hence, most favourable or convenient; 
fortunate : as, The balance is on the right side. 

13. Straight ; not crooked : as, a right line. 
II, Mathematics : 

1. Formed by one line or direction rising 
perpendicularly to another. [RIGHT-ANGLE.] 

2. Rising perpendicularly ; having a per- 
pendicular axis ; as, a right cone, a right 

B. As adverb : 

1. In a right manner ; In accordance with 
the laws of God ; according to tlie standard of 
truth and justice ; justly, equitably : as, To do 
right, to act right. 

2. According to any rule or art; in order, 
correctly : as, To do a sum right. 

3. According to feet or truth ; correctly, 

" You say not right, old man ! " 

Shaketp. : Much Ado, V. I. 

4. Exactly, just, precisely, actually. 

" I will tell yon everything, right as It fell out' 
Bhakesp. : Midsummer Night Dream, IT. 2. 

5. Fortunately, conveniently ; in order and 
to the purpose. 

" If al! things fall oat right." 

Shaketp. : 1 Henry VI., 11. t 

6. In a straight or direct line ; directly. 

" Let thine eyes look right oa."Prowerbt iv. tt. 

7. In a great or high degree ; very, highly. 
" I gat me to my Lord right humbly." Psalm xxx. a. 

( Prayer-book. ) 

If In this sense the word is now little used, 
except in titles ; as, right honourable, right 
reverend, &c. 

C. As substantive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. That which is right or In accordance with 
the laws of God ; rectitude in conduct; 
obedience to laws, human and divine ; up- 
rightness ; freedom from guilt. 

" One rising, eminent 

In wise deport, spake much of ri<jht and wrong." 
Milton; RZt.lTW 

2. That which is right, just, or equitable; 
justice ; an act of justice. 

" Do me the common right to let me see them." 
Shaketp. : feature for Meature, ii & 

3^ The side or party which has justice OH 
Its side. (With the definite article.) 

" Weak men must fall ; for Heaven still guards tht 
right." Shakeip. : Richard II., iii. 1 

M. Freedom from error; conformity with 
truth and fact. 

" Thou hast ipoke the right." 

Shaketp. : ffenry V.. U. 1. 

5. A Just claim, or that which one may 
justly claim ; that which a person may law- 
fully possess or use, or which may be lawfully 
claimed of any person ; as, 

(1) Just claim, legal title, ownership ; legal 
power of exclusive possession and enjoyment. 

" Thon art the next of blood, and 'tis thy right" 
Shaketp.: Venitt * Admit. 1.184. 

(2) Just claim by sovereignty ; prerogative. 

"God hath a sovereign right over M, as we are hit 
creatures, and by virtue of his right, he mlght.'wlth- 
out injustice, have Imposed difficult tasks." Tillotton. 

(3) Just claim by courtesy, custom, or the 
principles of civility : as, A man has a right to 

(4) Just claim or privilege inherent in or 
belonging to as a member of a state, society, 
or community : as, civil and religious right*. 

(5) That which justly belongs to one. 

"To thee doth the right of her appertain, 
thou only art of her kindred "Tobii ri. 1L 

(6) Proiwrty, interest. 

" A subject iii his prince may claim a riyht. 
Nor suiter him with strength luipalr'd to fight." 
Orydrn : To the Imchett of Qrmonti. l"7. 

(7) Legal power or authority ; power of 
action : as, The police have a right to arrest 

f&te, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her. there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pSt 
or, wore, wolf; work, whd, sin; mate, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, fall; try, Syrian. , oe = e; ey = a; qu = kw. 

ft The side opposite to the left. 

.. Led her to 

rm . M . 

7. The most finished or outward surface, as 
of a piece of cloth. 

IT raw That which the law directs, a 
liberty oTdohig or possessing something con- 

^K^remptically as, n expression 


HI BiU of rights: [BILL (2), s.]. 

J By right, by right, : Rightfully, properly. 

opposed to peeresses by marnage. 

4. Petition of right: [PETITION]. 

5 Sight and left : To the right hand and to 
the left ; in all directions. 



1 Fin Applied to one who is an essential 
aid! fsfistaiitfor supporter: as, He is his 
right-hand man. 

Sight-hand rope : A rope laid up and twisted 
with the sun. 

right-handed, a. 

1 Using the right-hand more readily and 
effectually than the left. 




k of the Thames. 

t: A right To commence an action to a 

court of law. 

9. BigMo/ioiy: [WAT, .J. 

10. To do one right : 

(1) To do one justice ; to give one his due. 
(2) To pledge in drinking. 

" No.Vou iJe *m. m. *,*.--* 
/r.. T. . 

11. Trightt: 

) In a direct or straight line. 

right-hander, . A blow with the right 
hand. (Slang.) 

rlghmearted.*.. Having a right heart 
or disposition. 

right-line, . 

Geom. : A straight line. 

rtghUninded. a. Having a right mind 
or disposition ; well-disposed. 

right-mindedness, s. The quality or 
state of being right-minded. 


1 In a righteous manner; honestly; up- 
rightly ; in accordance with divine law. 
He that walketh r!Moiu(."-'*ul> xnlU. !. 

* 2. Rightfully, justly. (Swift.) 
3. According to desert. 

srit -yus-ness), "right- 

"Sssa : ste 'afi 

wia ncssb, * ryght -wls-nesse, s. [A.8. 


L Ordinary Language : 

1 The quality or state of being righteous ; 
purity of heart and conduct ; uprightness, m- 
' ^rity, holiness. 

HI. tbrone .hall b. Mt.bll.bed In rtl*t.oum*u. - 

T'justice ; accordance with desert : as, the 
righteousness of a sentence. 

- Theol.: Absoluterectitude It is used 


base, ] 



redresses wrong. 


(2) Completely, fully. (Stong.) 
12 To * to rigM.: To put in order; to 
rrauge ; to adjust what is out of order. 
13. Writ of right: [WRIT]. 


flueS t y subsUntively in the phrase, To send 
to the rijw oiwitf, that is, to pack-off, to dis- 
miss, to cause to fly.) 

right is taken. 
right-affected, a. Rightly disposed. 

angle ; perpendicularly. 


right angle or angles. 

tetto^M* it is a trirectangnlar triangle. 
9 Bot (O/ the primary veins of a leaf) : 
Jging Vom the Sidrib' at an angle between 
80' and 90'. 

Right-angled Com: [Cose, .., n L> 
right-ascension, s. [ASCENSION, B.] 
right-cone, . A cone whose axis is per- 
pendicular to the base. 

right-conoid, >. A conoid in which the 
rectifnTeal directrix is perpendicular to the 
plane director. 

circles whose planes are at right angles 
each other. 

right-whale, .. IOB^NL^D WHALE.) 
right (gh silent), .t. fc t [A.8. riWan, from 
rOU = right.] 

A, Transitive: 

1 To restore to the natural position ; to set 
upright. (equently used renexively.) 

2 To make correct from being wrong; to 
correct ; to set right. 

3. To do justice to ; to relieve from wrong. 

.. so |u,t to od to agBSBnr.. 1 1 

B. Intrans. : To resume an upright or verti- 


v (i) To right a shif : 
Naut. : To restore her to an upright positi 
after careening. 
(2) To right the helm : 

Naut : To put it amidships, that Is in a 
direct line with the keel. 

(gh silent), .t. [R'OHT, .] To 
ii<ys ^ ^ ^ ^^ 


rit'-yns), * right-wls 

1 Having the right or just claim ; justly 
entitled; holding or being by right or just 

L1I Th rtoAoW king " Macaulay : HM. Enff., ch. xvi. 

2. Belonging or owned by just claim ; law- 
limed or held. 

"'in accordance with right and jus- 
tice * equitable. 

" Yet not without hi. """'WR^. 
B b. th.t .Ing. the rwKft ! ~ 

4. Just, righteous. 

" The rfW/u Lycurgu.." 


* right-drawn, a. .Drawn in a just 
canse. (Shakesp. : Richard II., i. 1.) 
right-hand, s. & a. 

A. As substantive : 

1 Lit. : The hand opposite to the left. 
2' Fig.: An essential aid, assistant, or sup- 
porter : as, He is my right-hand. 

B. As adjective : 

1 Lit. : Situated or being on or towards the 
right hand ; leading towards the right hand. 

"The rllht-'utnd .teed with .liver white. 

or g morality ; free from guilt or sin 

I .m not come to 11 th. rtahMu, but rinnert to 
I,pentanoe."-<i'" lx. 13. 

2. Just. (John xvii. 25.) 

3. Done in accordance with the divine la 
just. (Spenser :F.Q., III. xi. 9.) 

4 Agreeable to the right ; just ; equitable 
justly deserved : as, a righteous doom. 
righteous (as rit-yus)^t [BIOHTEOU 
s ] To make righteous. (Bale.) 


taw o'r jusSce r^fully, legitimately, by 

2. Moral rectitude ; righteo' 

"Tbu. it falllth to n to fulfllle all 
Wycliffe : itatOuw iii. 15. 

right-less, right'-lSs (fffc silent), a. & ad. 
[Eng. right; -less.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Destitute of right ; having no right. 
Deprived of one's rights. 

!' ^8 odu : Wrongfully, without just right 
" wholK> " 

ivine will. 

.. Bb act u rijw [;< ' log ^rt... 

Not when it mart, bat **? j?ff*. i. 

. Properly, fitly, suitably. 

* -^cend^om b^V,, Unpi. , , that . 
thou rt oil d. . p t _ yll . ,. 


3. According to truth, reality, or fact; 
correctly, not erroneously. 

1 Straightly ; directly in front. 

- Sr.Aive. .blob r^ . 
8bo. nothing bnt toto": ^^ 

6. Exactly, precisely. 



rlghtness rill 

right -ness (gh silent), f. [Eng. right ; -ness.) 

1. The quality or state of being right ; con 
fbrmity tn rule, standard, or fact; correct- 
ness, rectitude, justice, righteousness. 

2. Straightness. 

move strongest ID a right line, which never. 
thel la not caused by the rlytuntvt of the hue, l>ut 
by the shortness of the distance.- Bacon : .fat. Hut. 

right -ward (gh silent), adv. [Eng. right; 
mrd.] Toward or on the right hand. 

" IttfflUifard and leftward rise the rocks." 


right - wise, right - wise - ly, &c. 


rig -Id, o. [Lat. rigidus = stiff, from rigeo = 
to be stiff; Fr. rigide ; Sp. & Ital. rigido.] 

1. Stiff, stiffened; not easily bent, not 

" A body, that l hollow, may be demonstrated to be 
more rind :uid fu flexible than a solid one of the same 
substance and weight" Rag: On th* Creation. 

2. Stiff and upright; bristling, erect: as, 
rigid spears. (Uilton: P. L., vi. 83.) 

w. Precipitous, steep. 

*' The broken Umlscai*. by degrees 
Ascending, roughens into rigid hills." 

Thornton : Spring. MO. 

4. Strict and unbending in opinion, prac- 
tice, or discipline; austere, stern, Inflexible. 
(Opposed to lev or indulgent.) 

" The riff id royalists, who had a scruple about sitting 
In an embly convoked by an nsarpet." .VacauJay : 
Bill. Ena.. ch. J.IIL 

6, Strict; severely just; sharp; not lax. 

" All tortures that 

A flinty hangman's rage could execute, 
Or rigid tyranny command with t'leaenre. 1 * 

Jfauinyfr: Reotgada. U. 4. 

6. Sharp, cruel, severe. 

"What the Sllures vigour unwithstood 
f Could do In rigid fight." Mail*: Cider, L in. 

rigid body, >. 

Mech. : A body which resists any change of 
form when acted on by any force or forces. 

rl-?ld'-l-ty, i. [Fr. TigtetiU, from Lat. rigidt- 
tatem, accus. of rigid Has, from rioidiu = rigid 
(q.T.) ; Ital. rigidita, rigidetza.] 
I Ordinary language : 

1. Tlie quality or state of being rigid ; stiff- 
ness; want of pliability; rigidneas. 

" AfTMMa'of the organs laauch a state w makes them 
resist that expansion." jlrftttfAaet : On AUntcntt. 

2. Stiffness of appearance ; want of ease or 

" Which severe observation of nature by the one 
In her commonest, and by the other in her abaoluteat 
fornie, moat Deeds produee In both a kind of rtaMt, 
and constituent!}- more natural ness than gracefulness. 
Rtltyuico H'olt .niaiia, p. 66. 

3. Strictness, severity, austerity, sternness. 
1L Meek. : Resistance to change of form. 
ifc-Id-ly, adv. [Eng. rigid; -ly.] 

1. In a rigid or stiff manner; stiffly; not 
flexibly or pliautly. 

2. With strictness or severity ; strictly ; in- 
flexibly ; with strict observance of rules or 

Quarantine bad been rtoidlji and veutlously el- 
apsed.- -flail, Cnrmaa,. Sent. JS, UK. 

tig -id-ness, j. (Eng. rigid; -nets.] 

1. The quality or state of being rigid : stiff- 
ness, rigidity. 

2. Strictness oransterityof temper; severity. 

" We read of some that are righteous overmuch and 
inch meus rigidntu prevails with them to Judge and 
condemn all but themselves^-Auewa*: pilgrim; 
Proyrftt, pt. L 

-t rl-gl d'-U-loas, a. [Mod. Lat. rigidulus, 
diijim. from Lat. rigtdlu = rigid.] 
Hot. : Slightly rigid. 

Xig'-lSt, . [Fr. reglit, from Lat. regvla A 
rule. I A flat thin piece of wood, nsed for 
picture frames ; also used in printing to regu- 
late the margin, tic. [REOLET.I 

" The pieces that ale Intended to make the frames 
fOTjiutjres, before they are moulded, are called rig. 

rig" ma role, . 4 o. [A corrupt, of ragman- 

A. At subst. : A long unintelligible story ; a 
succession of confused or disjointed state- 
ment* ; loose disjointed talk or writing ; in- 
cohen-n* harangue ; nonsense. 

" His i*ech was a fine sample, on the whole. 
Ol rhetoric, whteh the Imrn'd call rlgmarol*' 
Bgron : lion Juan, L 174. 

B. At adj. : Congftrtrnjr, of, or characterized 
BJ rigmarole ; unintelligible, nonsensical. 

*rig'-m-rol-ih,a. [Eng. ngnarol(e) ; .ish 
Incuht-rent, unintelligible, disconnected, non 
sensical, rigmarole. 

" Which in his rambling and ritrmarotit\ way h 
endeavoured to answer." Daily Telegraph. March 1 

ri'-gdl (I), . [ItaL rigolo.] A circle. 

" This Is a sleep. 

That from this golden rigot hath divorced 
So many English kings. ^ 

S*o*ee. .- s Henry IV., Ir. 4. 

ri'-g&l (2), . [REGAL, s.] A kind of musica 
instrument ; a regal. 

rig; -or, rig'-oirr, . [O. Ft. rigour (Fr 

rigueur), from Lat. rigorem, accus. of ripor = 

harshness, from rigeo = to be stiff; Sp. 4 Port. 

rigor; Ital. rigore.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. The state of being rigid or stiff; rigidity 
stiffness, rigidness. 

" If the gangrene be from cold, the part Is firs 
benumiu'd, then accompanied with a (.ricking pall 
also a redness, which by decrees turuetli black, an 
horrour and rigour seizeth upon the iiatient.' 1 Wise- 
man .- Surgery, li. 

2. Stiffness or inflexibility of opinion o 
temper ; sternness, stubbomiipss. 

3. Austerity or severity of life ; voluntarj 
submission to pain, abstinence, or mortiiica 
tion of the body. 

" This prince lived In this convent, with all th 
rigor and austerity of a capuchin." Addtton : On Italy 

4. Strictness, severity ; exactness, withou 
any abatement, relaxation, or mitigation 
(Opposed to lamess.) 

" Let him have all the rigour of the low.- 

Shakaf. : * ffenrf VI.. 1 s. 

5. Severity, harshness, sternness, cruelty 

" What vice has tt subdued ? whose heart reclaimed 
By riff"ttr ;" Cowper .- raj*, u. 420. 

*6. Violence, fury. 

"Therewith upon his crest 
With rigor so outrageous he smltt" 

Sl*x*r:f. .. LILU. 

7. Seventy, aspenty. 
H. Path, t Med. : 

1. A violent chill or ague-shake. 

2. Rigidity, stiffness ; as rigor^nortit (q.v.). 
rigor-mortls, s. 

Physiol. : The cadaveric rigidity or stiffness 
of the body which arises within seven hours 
after death. It begins with the muscles of 
the lower jaw and neck, then those of the 
trunk, next those of the arms, and, finally 
those of the legs. It ultimately passes off in 
the same order as it came. It is somewhat 
variable in its period, sometimes showing itself 
within hall an huur after death, and sometimes 
beiug delayed twenty or thirty hours. Its 
average period of duration Is from twenty-four 
to thirty-six hours. This is the most important 
of the various evidences of death, others which 
are occasionally relied upon, being apt tu prove 

I'-or-lsm, t rig'-our-ism, . [Eng. rigor, 

I Ordinary Language : 

L Rigidity in principle or practice 

8. Severity, as of style, writing, tc. 

IL Church Hist. <t Theology : The system 
which prescribes that in all cases the safer 
way- that of obedience to the law is to be 
followed. As Jansenicrt confessors adopted 
this view, the word rigorism is sometimes 
used as synonymous witli Jansenism (q.v ) 
Mitigated rigorism is known as Tutiorism 

"The line be draws ls not, what he probably thought 
Il^ea te *n ??. "^"^ ""' '"*" 


rlr-or-Ist, t rig -our 1st, o. t j. [Eng 
rigor, rigour; -(.] 

A. A3 adj. : Of pertaining to, or guided by 
the principles of Rigorism. 


norJa,n|;.'"'-~ IU d >">* 
no^plsee in his writings.- incyc. SrU. led. tti), ilv. 

B. As substantive : 

L Ord. Lang. : A person of severe or austere 
principles or practice ; one who adheres to 
severity or purity, as of style, Ac. 

IL Chunk Httt. Theology : 

1. A theologian or confessor who adopts 
and is guided by the principle, of RigorUm 

" One Rigortit lays down that It U a mortal sin to 
do su."-cve. flr*. (ed. Mh|. xiv. tw. 

* 2. A Jansenist confessor. 
" It Is not altogether without reason when they 
[the Jansenistsl were branded by thir adveraariea 
with the title of (uoru(.."_jfoii m ,,d, el a t;7j! 

rig'-dr-ous, *ry-gor-ous, a. (Fr. rigor- 
eux, from Low Lat. rigorosus, from rigor = 
rigor (q.v.); Sp. rigoroso, riguroso; Port, it 
Ital. rigoroso.] 

L Characterized by or manifesting rigor; 
evere, stern, inflexible; allowing no abate- 
ment or mitigation. 

" And finds him rtgorou* and severe." 

Covptr : Divine Love. 

2. Marked by rigor or severity ; severe, 
strict, stringent : as, ^rigorous administration 
of the law. 

* 3. Severe, harsh. 

" Who shall attempt* me with rtgorow wordes." 
Bfmer, : froiaart ; Crantcte. vol f . ch. cxjx. 

4. Severe, intense ; very cold : as, a rigoraia 

5. Exact, precise, strict ; scrupulously ac- 
curate : as, a rigorous definition. 

rlg'-dr-otts-ly, adv. [Eng. rignrout ; -ly.] 

1. In a rigorous manner ; severely ; strictly ; 
without abatement, relaxation, or mitigation; 
sternly, rigidly, inflexibly. 

2. Strictly, accurately; with scrupulous 

rig' or otis ness, s [Eng. rigorous; -neu.] 
The quality or state of being rigorous ; severity, 
strictness, rigor, exactness. 

Rigs' dag, .. The parliament of Denmark, 
consisting of an upper bouse, the Landething, 
and a lower, the Folkething. 

rigs da'-ler, s. [Dan. rige = a kingdom, and 

Holer = a dollar.) A coin formerly current la 
Denmark, value 2s. 2 2 ' 3 d. sterling. 

Rig Ve'-da, s. [Sansc. rich = praise, and 
<io = knowledge, cugu. with Lat. video = to 
see; Gr. oloa (oti) = I hive seen, I know 
Mid. Eug. I wit; Mod. Eng. wisdom.] 

Sansc. Literature: The oldest and most 
original of the four Vedas, and probably the 
oldest literary composition in the world. In 
all likelihood it was in course of composi- 
tion about 1,400 years B.C., but was not com- 
mitted to writing at that time. It contains 
no allusion to writing or writing materials, 
and Max Milller believes that for a long 
period it was transmitted orally from genera- 
tion to generation. It consists of 1,017 short 
lyrical poems, with 10.S80 verses. The re- 
ligion was nature worship, Indra, the Uloud- 
compeller, being the chief object of adoration, 
and, after him, Agni (cf. Lat. ignis) the God 
of fire. The Hindoo Triad had not yet arisen. 
[VEDA.] The Rig Veda does not recognize the 
institution of caste. Beef was eaten. Women 
held a high position, and some of the hymns 
were composed by them. The rite of suttee 
was unknown ; the conquest of Indra had 
only begun, and the Ganges, incidentally men- 
tioned, had not become a sacred stream. 

-, rig -wood ie, s. [Eng. rig 
= ridge, and witky.] The rope or chain that 
goes over a horse's back to support the shafts 
of a vehicle. Used by Burns adjectively u 
resembling a rigwiddie, and hence, span 
withered, sapless. 

" But wltber'd beldams auld and droll, 

Xisrvoodu hags wad spean a foul." 
... Burnt : Tarn ff fOiatittr. 

rile, v.l. [Roiu] 

1. To render turbid, as liquid ; to soil 

2. To make cross or angry; to vex, to 

" The moor she riled me." 

Tennyson. .Voi-l*ern CotUtr. 

rl-lle'-Td, rf-li-e -vo, s. [RELIEF.] 

rlU, s. [Welsh rhill = a row, a trench, a drill, 
contract, from rhigol=a trench, a groove, 

fete, . ftre Amidst, whit, An. fetier; we, wet, here, camel. Her. there; pine. pit. sire. r. marine; go. pot, 
or. wore. woU. work. who. .in; mute, cub, oiire. ijnlte, our. rule, All: try. Syrian. ... o> = e ; ey = a; g,u = kw. 

dimin. from rhig = a notch, a groove i ; Low 
Oer. rille = a brook, a rilL] A small brook , 
a streamlet, a rivulet. 

To "H" in rius or stuaU 

murmurs gently 


rill'-St, J. [Eng. ri; dimin. suff. -et.) A 
little rill or streamlet. 

Th' Industrio 
Tbo ri<, that 


e thu. labour. ! 

* r 

shored cogT Welsh rMm. 
= a rim, an edge, rMmio = to 
= to form a rim.) 

L Ordinary Language: 

1. The extreme edge, border, or margin or 
any tiling : as, the rim of a kettle, the nm of a 
hat, the rim of a glass, &c. 

2 The lower part of the abdomen or belly 
the peritoneum or inner membra 
'" , win fetch tb, * 

n. Technically: 

1. Nautical: 

(1) The extreme edge of the top. 

(2) The circular, notched plate of a capstan 
or windlass into which the pawls drop. 

2. Vehicles: 

(1) The circular wooden portion forming the 
periphery of a wheel. 

(2) The peripheral portion of a car-whe 
attached by spokes or web to the boss or nave. 

rim look, s. A lock having an exterior 
metallic case which projects from the face of 
the door, differing thus from a mortise-lock. 

rim, .(. [B'M, ! 

1. To form or furnish with a rim ; to put a 
hoop or rim on at the edge. 

2. To be or to form a rim round ; to border, 

ri'-ma, . [I/at.] 

1. 'Anat. : A cleft : as, the rima of the glottis. 

2. Bot. : The cleft-like ostiolum of certain 

ri-mau-da'-han.<>. [Native name.] 

ZaoL: Felis macnxxKs; about three 
long, or four with the tail, and combining the 
onrkings both of the tiger and the leopard. 
It Is found in Sumatra. 

rim' -base, . [Eng. rim, and bau.1 

1 Ordn. : A short cylinder at the junction 
of a trunnion wit h the gun. It Is an enlarge- 
ment or shoulder to the trunnion which forms 
the journal to the piece in elevating or depress- 

2 Small-arms: The shoulder on the stock 
of a musket against which the breech of the 
barrel rests. 

rlm'-ble-ram-ble, a. [A redupl. of ramble 
(qv.).] Vague ; harum-scarum. 

"The greatest part o( the task was only rlmMe 
reniJI " discourse. 1 ^ n> rw Prt* I 1 ""* 

t rim-bom -bo, s. [Ital.] 

Geol : A peculiar resonance of the gronnc 
when struck during some volcanic or earth 
quake convulsions. 

rill ring 

. . 

Icel. rima; Dai., riim; Sw. rim; O. H. Oer 
rim, arim = number; Ger. retm; Fr. nme 
Sn * Port, rima; Ital. nma; Irish rtmft, 
Welsh ray; Gr. op.frVo* (orifiw. I = numl ^ 
Gael aireamh. Tin; spelling rt!/me is not 
earlier than 1550. (StoU.)] 

1 A correspondence of sound in the final 
syllable or syllables of two or more words ; 
especially the correspondence in sound of the 
final syllable or word of one line of poetry 
with the final syllable or word of another. 
Three things are essential to a perfect rime : 

(1) Identity in the vowel sound, and, if the 
word, end Iri ,a consonant, in,' e ., con , s a " t ' 
also, as in try and cry, sight and I light. Idei ititj 
of letters is not enough, the identity must be 
one of sound ; thus, dose and lose, heath and 
death are not rimes. 

(2) Difference in the consonants preceding 
the vowel, as way and lay,f,nd and MM 

(3) Similarity of accent, as sing and fling ; 
tinging and^inff would not be good nines. 

* Words like oar and o'er, eye and 7, are 
assonances [ASSONANCE]. Rimes in which the 
final syllables alone correspond arecalledsingle 
or masculine (male) rimes, as taiuj, hand; 
those iu which the two final syllables corre- 
spond, the first being accented, are called 
double or feminine (female) rimes as frying, 
tnSS. Triple rimes extend over three , sylla- 
bles, as scrutiny, mutiny ; dutiful, beautiful. 

9 An expression of thought in verse ; 
poetry, verse, metre ; a composition, especially 
a short one, in verse. 

Thing. nnatMmpted yet lJj "'/i. . 

3. A verse or line riming with another. 

" 11. perhaps, the.e rtyme. of mine ihould sound not 
" to > 


ri-mOS'-l-ty, s. (Eng. rimoa(e); -.] Thl 
quality or state of being rimose. 

ri'-mous, o. [RIMOSE.] 

rim' -pie, t. [A.S. hrimpan = to wrinkle.) 

[RUMPLE.] A wrinkle or fold. 
rim'-ple,*.!. &i. [Dut. rtmpefen.] [RIMPL, s.] 

A. Trans. : To rimple, to rumple, to pucker 
" The akin was tense, also rimpted aud blistered." 

B. Intrant. : To become wrinkled, rumpled, 
or puckered ; to ripple (q.v.X 

Roamed by rimpling rivers, a 

rim' stock, s. [Eng. rim, and stock.] A clog- 

almanac (q.v.). 
ri'-mu-la, t. [Dimin. from Lat rimo = a 

Palreont. : A genns of Fissurellidre. Shell 

thin, and cancellated with a perforation near 

he anterior margin. Known British species 

seven ; three from the Lias, and four from the 

Lower Oolite. 

rim'-y, o- tEng. rime (i), .; .] l 

ing or covered with rime or hoar-frost ; frosty. 

The lr Is now cold, hot, dry. or moist : and the* 
thin, thick, foggy, rims, or poisonous. -Bar**- 

rin, .. [Rtrs.] (Scotch.) 

rtn-about, . One who runs about th 
country ; a vagabond. 

rind, * rinde, " rlne, rynde, . [A.8. 
rtS = the back of a tree, a """(of breml), 
cogn with O. Dut. rinde = the bark of a tree , 
O H Oer. rinta; Oer. rivde.] 

4. A word which rimes or corresponds in 
sound with another. 

11 Neither rime (or rhyme) nor reason: Ap- 
plied to anything absurd, foolish, or reckless. 

* "When, in the why. and the wherefor, '- *~ 

2. Bot. : A structure intermediate between 
epidermis and bark. 

rime (1), rhyme, * rhime, 'rjrme, r.t & t 

[A.8. riman.} 

\, Intransitivt: . 

1. To accord or correspond in the final 

" He was too wwm on picking; work to dwell. 
But fiwotted his notions as they fell, 
And. u they rhim'd, and rattl 

2 To make rimes or verses. 
There rn^ch'd the bard ud blockhead side by.slde, 
TNtorSw'd for hire, and patronl.'rt tor nrlde. 

B. Transitive: 

1. To put into rime : as, To rime a story. 
'2. To put or bring into a certain state by 
making rimes. 

rim Prob. connected with Or. 

mos), p<w (kruos) = frost, pv<rroMo5 (fcra- 

ttal'os) T= crystal (q.v.).] Hoar-frost ; froze 

or congealed dew. 

" In boor-frort. that which we call H * ' 
multitude of qnadTMmuUr, exactly, ngure 
"it piled without any order, one over another, -area 
Coma. Sacra, bk. i., en. iii., i 83. 

rime (2),* rim, . [Lat-rimo.] A chink, 
fissure, a rift. [KlMA.] 

cc ,, 

Tent the admlnion of wet or dry Ingested. - 
Vulgar jBrrouri, bk. iv., cb. vii 

. [Ety 
a ladder. 

IB (3X [Etym. doubtful.] A rung 
mnd of a I 

ami pest = a pestilence, a plague.) 

Animal Pathol. : A malignant and e 
cattle fever indigenous to the Asiau. 
ami elsewhere in Asia. Unknown in the 
United States. [CATTtE-PLAOt'E, 2.) 




course, or gutter. 
rln-et,. [HIND.] 

rin-for-ian'-dd (z as ts). od. [ItaL] 
Mtwic : The same as CRESCENDO (q.v.). 

themselves out aga 

rime-royal, * rhyme-royal, . A 

namVSrmerl? given to the stanza o7 ; seven- 
lines of ten-syllabled verse, in which the first 
and third lim-s rime, the second, fourth, and 
fifth, and the sixth and seventh. 
rime (2), v.l. [HrME(D, ! To freeze or con- 
geal into rime or hoar-frost. 

rim'-er (2), - (Eng. rim(e) (3), s. ; -tr.] 

1. A reamer (q.v.). 

2. Fort.: A palisade. 

JH.O. [Eng.rim;-fcM.] Having no 

rim ; without a rim. 

lots); 'Eng. circus (q.v.).] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1 Literally : 

(I) A circle, or a circular line, or anything 
In the form of a circular line or hoop : as, 

tni A circle or hoop of gold, or other ma- 
t.,^! worn on the fl'nger.V in the ears, or 
other parts of the body as an ornament. 

rimmed, JM. par. or a. [Bin, .] 

pies, &c. 


abounding in fissures, clefts, or cracks. 

"Our rimo od rimpled carcasses." -Ul/ce,ttr. 
Otta Podrltia, No. 19. 

ri-mose'-ly, adv. [Eng. rimose; -ly.) In 

01 A hoop of metal used as a means of 
attachment, of the nature of a link, as 
ring-bolt, lap-riw, the ring on a nee 
*c In other cases, as a means ot a?ws 
Mthekey-rW spUt-rln. Other applications 
are obvious : as, a napkin-nu, e. 

(2) An inclosed area or space, generally of 
circular form : as, 

(a) An area in which sports or games are held. 

" Place me. O place me In the A ^J r !"^ , . 
Where youthful ' A ^ff^^t nffSiUU. 

n,\ The inclosed space within which pugi- 
lists fight. 

(e) The inclosed P 1n . whic * ^Hhow or 
arc exhibited or exercised in a cattle show 
market, or at an auction. 

A nnmercm. company, gthered round the riwt. 

-St. Jama'l Baatu, Sept. 23. 18SS. 



(d) The space set apart for betting on * 
2. Figuratively: 
0) A circle. 

" Bat life within a narrow rina 
Of giddy Joys comprised. " 

Cotrper : BUI of Mortality. A.D. int. 

(2) A group of persons in a circle ; a circle. 

" Make a ring about the corps* of Gnaw." 

SkaJfetp. : Juliut Catar, iii. a. 

(3) A circular coarse. 

(4) A combination of persons for personal 
ends, as for controlling the market In stocks, 
or any particular commodity, or for political 

IL Technically : 

1. Anal. : Anything more or less like a ring. 
H Above the crest of the pubis there Is a 

superficial or abdominal ring, an oblique open- 
Ing, and an internal or deep abdominal ring 
and near them a crural ring. 

2. Arch. : The list, cincture, or annulet 
round a column. 

3. Bot. : One of the annual circular layers 
in timber. 

4. Comm. : A measure of staves or wood pre- 
pared for casks, containing four shocks or 240 

5. Geom. : The area or space between two 
concentric circles. 

6. Naut.: The appendage by which the 
cable is attached to the anchor by means of 
the shackle on the end of the chain-cable 
called the anchor-shackle. 

7. Sun. : An instrument formerly used for 
taking the sun's altitude, &c., consisting of a 
ring, usually of brass, suspended by a swivel, 
with a hole on one side, through which a solar 
ray entering indicated the altitude upon the 
inner graduated concave surface. 

8. Ordn. : A circle of metal of which there 
are five kinds, viz., the base-ring, reinforce- 
ring, trunnion-ring, cornice-ring, and muzzle- 
ting, but these terms do not apply to most 
modern ordnance. 

1 (1) Fairy rings : [FArRY-RisosJ. 

(2) Newton's rings : [NEWTOS]. 

(3) NobMt ringt : [Koaiu]. 

(4) Satnrn'i rings : [SiTURK]. 

(5) The Prix Ring: Prize-fighting or prhw- 
flghters collectively. 

(6) The ring: 

(a) Betting men or bookmakers collectively. 

".*!? r i n " ** bMn nard hlt "T " succes. of Hal. 
amnterie.- flatty Oirmlcb, Oct. It. isti. 

(6) The Prize Ring (q.v.). 

ring-armor, ,. Armor of ring, 
mail (q.v.). 

ring-barker, t. One who cuts the bark 
of a tree in a ring, so as to destroy the life of 
the tree. 

"Their skeleton nakednee. due to the ruthless aza 
Of therfn,.oarter."_flfly TOwraph, Sept W. mt 

ring-barking, ,. The act or practice of 
destroying the life of trees by cutting the 
lark in a ring. 

k!l ?* """UonaJU practice of thinning the tree, by 
i oy inches process, known as Banning and 
rtit-ar*r,. --flatty t^fra,^ Sept. 10. 18W. 

ring-bird, t. The reed-bunting (q.v.). 
ring-bit, . 

Manege : A bit having a ring cheek, whether 
loose or otherwise. 

ring-blaokblrd,>. The ring-ousel (q.v.). 
ring-bolt, . . 

Naut. : A ring passing through an eye in the 
end or a bolt which is secured to the deck or 
side of a vessel or on a wharf. It is used for 
attachment of a rope or tackle. On each side 
a port it is used for hooking the train- 
tackles by which the gun is manoeuvred. 

ring-bone, . 

Parr. : (See extract). 


. A go-between, no 
carrylng a fng as a token of 

ring-chuck, >. A hollow chuck whose 
grasping end is capable of being contracted by 
a ring, so as to hold firmly the object to be 
turned. The screw end fits the mandrel of 
the lathe-head. 

ring-coupling, . [THIKBLE-OODPLINO.J 
ring-course, s. 

Arch. : The outer course of stone or brick 
in an arch. 

ring-dial, . A pocket sun-dial In the 
form of a ring. 

ring-dog, . An implement for hauling 
timber, consisting of two dogs connected by a 
ring through the eyes. [Doo, .] 

ring-dotterel, .-. 

Ornith. : jEgialitis (in older classifications 
Charadriia) hiaticula.. It is much smaller 
than the Dotterel (q.v.), and is distinguished 
by its black collar, and its brilliant, gold- 
coloured eyes. This bird was formerly cele- 
brated in folk-medicine. To be cured of the 
jaundice it was held to be only necessary to 
look fixedly at the bird's eyes, with a firm 
faith in the success of the experiment. 

ring-dove, . [WOODPIGEON.] 

ring-dropper, s. One who practises 

"After hie punishment, he waa. daring some yean, 
lost In the crowd of pilferer.? rtaoXoSw/Tud 
sharper, who Infested the capital ' jfacautoy .- BUL 
Kng., ch. xviU. 

ring-dropping, . A trick practised 
upon the unwary by sharpers, who pretend 
to find a ring, or other article of jewellery 
made of imitation gold, which they sell to the 
victim as gold. 

ring-fence, .'. 

1. Lit. : A fence, Inclosing in a more or less 
circular line, an estate or considerable extent 
of country. 

2. fig. : An inclosing line or limit. 

ring-anger, t. The third finger of the 
left hand, on which the ring is placed in 

ring-footed gnat, . 

Bntam. : Culex annulatm, a British species. 
It frequents houses, and its bite causes 
greater irritation than that of the House- 
gnat, C. ciliaris. 

ring-formations, .-. pi. 

Attrm. : Certain walled or ramparted plains 
m the surface of the moon, supposed to be 
non-volcanic, as no central cone is discernible. 

ring-gauge, . 

1. Road-maUna: A ring two and a half 
inches wide in the aperture, used for deter- 
mining the size of broken stone under the 
Macadam system of road-making. 

2. Jewell : A conical piece of wood or a 
tapering metallic slip, having marked upon it 
a series of sizes of rings, according to an estab- 
lished gauge, or actual parts of an inch in 

3. Ordn. : A circular steel gauge used In in- 
specting shot and shell. They are made of 
two sizes for each calibre, the larger being a 
trifle more and the smaller a trifle less in 
diameter than the true calibre of the projec- 
tile All shot received must pass through 

len cloth. 


. A ring-fence 

ring - look, 
*. A puzzle-lock ; 
a letter-lock 



Old Arm.: De- 
fensive armour 
composed of 

small rings of RINO-MAIL. 

steel sewn edge- 
ways upon a strong garment of leather or 
quilted cloth. It differs from chainmail, in 

that the rings of the latter are interlaced wttfc 
each other, and strongly fastened with rivets 
It was worn in the thirteenth and part of the 
fourteenth centuries. 

ring-man, s. 

1. One connected with the betting- or prize 
ring ; a betting or sporting man. 

2. The third finger of the left hand : the 

* d * *""- 

ring-master, . One who has charge of 
the performances in a circus-ring. 

" T ,'!' ! w t blte ' h ns In the rtna-maaet'i stronz and 
merciless hand, "-erotic, June . 1885, p. K> . ^ 

ring micrometer, s. 

Optics : A metallic ring fixed in the field of 
a telescope, and used to determine differences 
of declination between stars from the differ- 
ences of time occupied by them in traversing 
different chords, either of the inner or outer 
periphery of the ring ; a circular micrometer. 

ring-money, . 

Numismatics : Money formed like a ring It 
was in use in Egypt and some other ancient 
nations before thecoins of ordinary form began 
Cajsar (at Bel. Gal., v. 12) is made to speak of 

annulis ferreis," " pro nummo," among the 
ancient Britons at the time of his invasion 
but there are two other readings of the passage. 
Rmg-money existed in Sweden and Norway as 
late as the twelfth century, and is still current 
in parts of Africa. 

ring-necked pheasant, >. 

Ornith. : Phasianus ttrrquatus, from China. 
Its plumage is extremely brilliant, with a dis- 
tinct white collar. It breeds freely in cap. 

ring-net, . A net used by entomologist* 
for catching butterflies. It consists of a ring 
of cane or metal, about fifteen inches in dia- 
meter, fixed on the end of a walking stick, and 
bearing a net of leno, or book muslin the 
length of the arm. The net must not end in 
a point, or the butterflies would get jammed 
into it and injure the feathery scales of their 

ring ousel, ring ouzel, . [Ousit, *., 

ring-rope, . 

Naut. : A rope secured to a ring-bolt in th 
deck to secure the cable or a purchase, or to 
check the cable in 

ring-sail, -. 

Naut. : A small, 
light sail set on a 
mast on the taf- 

ring -saw, >. 

A saw having an 
annular web. 


a. Having the 

shape of a ring ; 


ring-stand, . A smaH stand having 
projecting pins on which to place finger- 

ring-stopper, . 

Naut. : A long piece of rope secured to an 
after ring-bolt, and the loop embracing the 
cable through the next, while others in succes- 
sion nip the cable home to each ring-bolt in 
succession. It is a precaution in veering cable 
in bad weather. 

* ring r streaked. ring-straked, a. 

.Having circular streaks or lines on the body. 

"A He r? n i oved , thfl he-goats that were Hnp-ftraatai 
SSSS ""I " th she-goat, that were speckled." 

ring-tall, s. 

1. Naut. : An additional sail net abaft the 
spanker or driver, to extend its urea in light 

2. Ornithology: 

(1) A ring-tailed eagle (q.v.). 

. ^ any ot her authors mention the eagle and rlw- 
titUi In such terms as to leave the identity ol the Wrd 
almoet unquestionable.--*,.,. Cyclop. (W. MM.}. 

(2) The female of the hen-harrier (Cirait 
cyannt). So called from a rust-coloured ring 
formed by the tips of the tail-feathers. 


Xing-ta oom : 

Kaut. : A spar to rig out on the spanker- 
boom to set the ring-tail. 

ring-tailed, a. Having the tail marked 
withTseries ofrings or ring-like markings. 

Ring-tailed cat ' 

Zool. : The name given by the miners 
JtaSrif atluta, one of the Procyonld* , occur- 
ring in California, Texas, and the higher 

^ ( f\]^\&lri^an = X^ 
rinif-'coKn with Dut. ringen ; IceL hringja ; 
Dan ' ' ringe; Bw. ringa = to ring; Icel. Itrang 
= a'din ; Lat. clangor.} 

1 To cause to sound, as a sonorous metallic 
body, by striking, or causing to be struck by 

some body. 

2 To produce by ringing, as a sound or peal. 

3. To attend on, celebrate, proclaim, or 
usher in by ringing. 

No mournlul bell shall ring her funeral. 

Shakejp. : Titut Andronicut, T. S. 


regions of Mexico. It is about a yard long 

of which the tail occupies one 'third. The 

far is brown, and the tail beautifully ringed 

K is easily tamed, and makes an excellen 

mouserTwhence its misleading popular name 

Called also Cacomixle. 

Ring-tailed eagle : 

Ornilh. : An immature golden eagle (of from 

one to two years). 

Ring-tailed lemur : 

Zool. : Lemur catta. [MAOACO.l 

ring thrush, [BINO-OOSKL.] 

ring-time, . Time for marrying. 

ring tumbler, . 

Locksmith. : An annular-shaped tumbler 

rlne-vortex, t. A number of small 
etrdeTplaced side by side to formalargeron 


MetalL : The inner lining of a furnace. 

ring (2), . IBINO, (). "! 
L Literally: 

1 The sound of a bell or other sonorous 
body, particularly the sound of metals. 

In vain, with cymbal.' H 


ring" -or, s. [Eng. ring (2), v. ; -cr.) 

1. Ord. Lang. : One who rings, especially 
one who rings chimes on bells. 

" A bell without a rinjw." 

Btauinont : A Sonnet 

2. Mining: A crow-bar. 
3 Sporting dang ' 

Julent contestant in a race or game, 
entered under an assumed name. 


4 To cause to sound loudly. 

2. A chime or set of bells harmonically 


H. meant to hang ... r~ t , nd tm " b " "*">' 
bell* a. any In the world. Fuller. 

IL Figuratively: 

1 Any loud sound ; the sound of numerous 
voices; a sound continued, repeated, or re 

2. Particular character when uttered : hence, 
characteristic sound. 

- A kind ot youthful vigour, a manly 'rbv lut U> 
,,ttraneea.--fla Cromrf. Oct. 1, 1884. 

(i), * * < 1 EINO (1 >> ' -1 

5. To utter sonorously ; to repeat loudly, 
often, or earnestly; to proclaim, to celebrate, 
as, To ring one's praises. 

B. Intransitive: 

1 To sound, as a bell or other sonoro 
body, particularly a metallic 

8t On' the beech'i pride, and the oak. brown .ide. 

Lord Richard'. j*I5>V<,, !<,*,. iv. ,a. 
2. To practise the art of making music with 
bells tuned harmonically. 

L Ordinary Language . 

* 1 To encircle ; to surround with, or as 
with'a ring. (Shalcesp. : 1 Henry VI., iv. 4.) 

2. To fit with a ring, as the finger, or the 
snout of swine. 

Sill theee finger, ^^l^^j^li. i 

* 3 To wed by a marriage ring. 

"I wai bom ota true man and a rtoioVJ wife. - 
JW.ion : u>i Man. L 1. 

H. Technically : 

1. Hart. : To cut out a ring of bark from 
to as to obstruct the sap. 

2 Manege : To exercise, as a horse, by cans 
Ing'to run ronnd in a ring while being held b 
* long rein ; to lunge. 

" A line horn they were ringing." 

Helen, ch. vi. 

* B. Intrans. : To form a circle ; to circle 
to cluster. (Spenser : F. Q., vi. Introd.) 
| To ring a quoit : To pitch it so that 
'1 encircle the pin. 

rirunnff ~Holdt.r. 

3. To have a sensation of sound continue. ; 
to continue sounding ; to tingle : as, My ea.s 
ring with the noise. 

4. To sound, to resound. 

niallv one euwiou u..-~. 
2. A quoit pitched so as to encircle the peg. 

ring -ing, pr- !. "-,* l BlNO (*) *' 
A. As. pr. par. : (See the verb). 
B Asadj. : Having or giving out the sound 
of a bell ; resonant, sonorous, resounding : as, 
a ringing voice, a ringing cheer. 
C. As substantive : 

1 The act of causing to sound, as a sonoroui 
i metallic body ; the act or art of making music 
' with bells. ^ ^ ^ xmmaa 

"srAringing sound ; the sound as of belli 
ringing : as, a ringing in the ear. 
rlntt-lnK-1?, adv. [Eng. ringing; -ly.} In 
stringing, sonorous, or resounding manner, 
with a ring. 

" Glove on ground that answer, rinffinfflf 
The aaS^Sg^^U r. 1.U7. 

rfn-gle, v.t. [Eng. Ang (1), v. ; suff. -!.) 
To ring, as hogs. 

*, To be filled, as with report, fame, or 
talk as, The world ring, with his praises. 
6 To be famous or celebrated ; to resound. 

., who nn. in arm. " 


, .*. [Formed from ringlcad* 
- To act " nn 8 le <ler to - 
rintf-lead-er, i. [Eng. ring (1), s., and 
1. On who leads a ring, as of dancers, ac. 

J 1. To ring changes upon : 

(1) Lit. : To produce alternated or wi 
peals on. 

(2) Fig.: To ue wlou-ly, or in various 

whole em. to^amountto a Uttl J^J t *^ 

T To ring down : To conclude ; to end at 
onto- from the theatrical custom of ringing* 
beUto give notice for the fall of the curtain. 

3. To ring th bells backward :VoBomrt the 
chimes in the reverse order. (It was done *s 
a signal of alarm, danger, or fire.) 

1. To ring the changes : [CHANGE, *. !]. 
ringed, o. [Eng. ring (1), . ; *] 

I_ Ordinary Language : 

I. Surrounded with, or as with * ring 01 
rings ; encircled. 

2 Covered with, or as with rings. 

The rerface of the water wae rtnftd U aw. - 
nod, Oct. 17, 188S. 

IL Bot : Annulated (q.v.). 
* ringed-animals, s. pi- 
Zool. : The Annulosa (q.v.). 
ringed-carpet, -. 

Entom. : A British geometer-moth, Boarmu 
ringed-plover, . [BINO-DOTTEREI.] 

ringed-seal, s. 

and Fjord Seal. 

ringed-snake, s. 

Zool. : The common English snake, Tropt- 
donotus natrix (formerly Natrix torquata). 

ringed-worms, s. pi. 

Zool. : The Annelida (q.v.). 
rin-ent,a. [Lat. ringens, pr. par. of ringor 
= to gape.] 

1 Ord. Lang. : Gaping ; open wide. 

,,,_ -,!H, -t~a*Hi line Of 


-rw i top*'' Suprnnocy. v. . 

2 The leader of a faction, or any association 
of men engaged in any illegal enterprise, a. 
rioters, mutineers, or the like. 
rlntf-let, . [Eng. ri7i0(l), . ; dimin. suff. -1M.) 
L Ordinary Language: 
1. A little ring. 

3. A little circle ; a lairy ring. 

" When lalrle. in their rlngM; there 
Do danoe their nljhU, 

8. A curl, particularly of hair. 


rlng'-wdrm, . [Eng. ring (i), s., and worn.} 
- - Tinea tonsurans, an affection of 
'p, or chin, usually circular caused 

aSd the application of sulphurous acid and 
^arine o? iodine are among the most Affective 

2. ZooJ. : The genus lulus. (Suavntm.) 

rlngworm-shrnb, >. 

Bot. : Cassia alata. 

,. [A variation of ring (1), s. ; cf. pri- 

n of a sheet of ice, generally 



2. Botany: . 

(1) (Of an irregular manopetalous coroUa) : 
Properly havingthe two lips separated from 

pressed together. 

(2) More loosely, the same as PERSONATE. 

curling is played. 

2 A sheet ol artificially FSgS? *^jj 



rlnk'-er. s. [Eug. rink, \. --.] One who 

skates on a rink. 

rink'-ite, a. [After Dr. Rink ; suff. -tte(Jn.).] 
Min. : A monoclinic mineral occurring in 
crystals with variousothersat Kangerdluiirsuk 
West Oreenlaud. Hardness, 5 ; sp. gr. B-46 
colour, yellowish-brown ; transparent in thin 
splinters ; lustre, vitreous, greasy on fracture 
surfaces. The mean of live analyses gave 
fluorine, 5-82 ; silica, 2'08 ; titanicacid, 18-36 ; 
protoxides of cerium, lanthanum, didymium 
21-1!6; yttria, 0'St2 ; protoxide of iron 0'44 : 
lime, 23-20; soda, 8-fl8 =108-11. Lorenzen 

suggests the formula 2R E Oj + NaFl iu which 
B = Ce, La, Di, Y, Fe, Ca, and R = 81,71. 

rinse, relnse, rence, rense, rynsc, 
.t [O. Fr. riitser, reinser (Fr. rimxr). from 
Icel. hreinsa = to make clean, to cleanse 
from hreina = clean, pure ; cf. Dan. roue = to 
purify, from rem= clean ; Sw. renta. from ren 
= clean ; Ger. rein ; Goth, brains = pure 
clean.) To wash lightly ; to cleanse with a 
second application of clean water after wash- 
ing ; especially to cleanse the inner surface of 
by the introduction of water or other liquid. 
(Said of hollow vessels.) 

'I TJ". ll>ur|ji niilkraaldt occ*ionlly Hnutl 
oat their cam t the very .pof-rtrfd. Dec. . 188* 

rinse, . [RINSE,?.] The act of rinsing. 

rinker ripe 

> . - 

or that which rinses. 

rln -there-vint. . A a. (Scotch rt = run ; 
Eng. there, and mt.} 

A. At subst. : One who runs out of doors a 
gadabout ; a vagabond. 

B. At adj. : Wandering without a home ; 
vagrant, vagabond. 

(After Dd m - "d Gr - * 
) = a stone.) 

Mm. : The same as OSOFBITE (q.v.). 

"r^S?* 6 - ' CE'y" 1 - doubtful, bnt prob. after 
Del Rio ; n connect., and suff. -ite (if in.).] 

Art. : A variety of tetrahedrite (q.v.), con- 
taining 13 per cent of bismuth, for which 

T - w, v. [O. Pr. note, a woro 01 
doubtful origin ; rioter = to make a disturb- 
ance, to chide; Prov. rtota = dispute strife- 
Ital. riotto = quarrel, dispute, riot.) 
L Ordinary Language : 

L. Wanton and unrestrained conduct- nn- 

roar, tumult. 

t 2 - . R * vell '"B'.; fi'd, extravagant, and loose 
feasting or festivity ; excess, revelry. 

" Bat. in my absence, riot fills the place.* 

Pap* : Homer ; Udyufy xv. 666. 

IL Lam : A tumultuous disturbance of the 
peace by three or more persons unlawfully 
assembling together of their own authority in 
order to assist each other against any one who 
shall oppose them in the execution of a private 
purpose, and afterwards executing thi same 
to a violrnt and turbulent manner to the 
error of the people, whether the act intended 
were of itaelf lawful or unlawful 


* " """" WUdiy withoot octroi or 

*"^ * taHH^Uon.-- 

2. Togrowluxuriantly.orinrankabundance. 

" S? rerhe " d thfl wamlerliig Ivy and vine. 


U Among the memorable riots which have 
" Uoited stal<;s were ' I>.pctor's 
)! the Nstive American 

r xI ' ' 1 " 1 "' *. 

ohcs (1M) ; the Astor Place Kiut, against tbe 
in^Ush actor Macready (Ie49) ; u,e Druft 
M " [N"W York (1863) ; and the Anarcbto 
Riotdn Chicago (1886). fn addition there h 
been numerous riots arising from strikes of 

workingmen, of which the most deetmocive 
were those at Pittsburgh during the railroad 
strike of 1877, and at Chicago, in 1894. 

Riot Act, . Each state of the American 
Union has what is known as a Biot Act, 
which requires that a proclamation shall be 
read to any riotous assembly, requiring them, 
in the name of the law, to disperse, and cease 
from unlawful acts. 

li'-St, v.i. & t. [Fr. rioter, from riott = riot 


A. Intransitive: 

1. To raise a riot, tumult, or sedition : to 
act riotously. 

2. To revel; to go to excess in feasting, 
drinking, or other dissipation ; to act in a 
wanton and unrestrained manner. 

"The soldiers sang and ritited on the moor Amidst 
the,-- Macaulai : Biu. tag., ch. T 

3. To be highly excited. 

" No puUe Uut rtoU. and no blood that glows - 
Pop* : Sloita to Abelurd, 3M. 

t B. Trans. : To pass or spend in rioting ; 
to destroy or put an end to by riotous living 
(Tennyson : A-ylmer's Field, 391.) 

r> * ri-ot-our, * ry-ot-tour, . 

(Eng. not; -er.) 

1. Ord. Lang. : One who riots ; one who 
revels or goes to excess iu feasting or riotous 

" Theee rfotou,-. three, of which I U1I . . 
were Mt hem In a taverne for to drinke," 

Chaucer.- C. T..O.t,U. 

SL^iS: One who is 8 uil 'J' of assembling 
with others to do an act in an unruly and 
turbulent manner, and who refuses to retire 
on being ordered to do so by a magistrate. 

T Unnee. 17601 

ri'-ot ing, i. [RIOT. .] Riotous, dissipated, 
or loose conduct or living ; dissipation 

^-^ ^^ 
up ; Icel. rifa = to rive, to tsar ; rtla avtr = 

va rS^ ^O-'f "^ "*" " 
i Literally: 
' 1. To search out, to examine thoroughly. 

" Knpandf the reynes and hert." 

0-ft.Allu. Ponu ; Clnmtu, m. 

2. To separate by tearing or cutting the 
parts ; to tear or cut open or off; to rend, to 


Sail* ripp'd, seams op'nlng wide, and compass lost" 
Cowper : My Molhr'il'ic[,,if 

3. To take out or away by cutting or tearing. 

TTnti. i " f*^ " J was Irom his mother's womb 
ntimely n w , a." skakeip. : Moduli, v. r. 

4. To undo the seams of by cutting th 
stitches without slitting the fabric. 

* II. Fig. : To open for examination or dis- 
closure ; to search to the bottom, to bring to 
light, to rake up. (Followed by up.) 

" I don't like rippinf up old stories." 

rip-Baw, . A ripping-saw (q.v.). 

*rip (2), "rlppe, r.(. [A.8. rjpan; Goth. 
"rapjan; O. H. Ger. roufan.] To rob, to pil- 

" To rippen hem and nefen." Ormutum, 10,811 

rip (3), r.i. f Prob. a variant of rap (q.v.).] 
To swear profanely. i-"*J 

> *riPP (1), . [RiP(lX.] Arentmads 
ipptng ; a tear, a rent. 

rip (2), . [Icel. hrip.] A wicker basket to 
carry flsh in. 

* " ttl 

n/ . ."? * e 

Of willow twigs the ftQeBtyvu can wiah," 

Lawton : SecrtU of A nyliny. 

' rip (3), rlpp (2), . [A.8. rip, TO,, from 

^ n 't P ?' l = t<)reap(q - v ->-] A handful of 
unthreshed corn. (ScofcA.) 

" Hae, there'i a riff to tliy auld bagrle 
unu. ToUuAuU Mare 

- -i -- -. fling. rio, s. ; 
-we.) Rioting, riotous conduct, riotry. 
" The imace of superfluous rioUa.- 

ti'-At-oiis, * r^-ot-touse, o. [O. Fr. rioteux, 
from note = riot (q.v.) ; JtaL riattaso.} 

1. Indulging in riot or revelry; accom- 
panied or characterized by rioting or wanton 

iduct; wanton, licentious, dissipated. 
rr'S"***" 11 " >llb ' t * uce wiUl rtom llUig."-iu* 

2. Tumultuous ; partaking of the nature of 
a not or tumultuous and unlawful assembly 
seditions : as, a riotous assembly. 

3. Acting riotously ; tumultuous, turbulent, 

" Slew a riotous gentleman. " 

Shakeiv. : Richard 111., U. 1. 

riotous-assembling, . 

Lao,.- The unlawful assembly of a numbpr 
of persons to the disturbance of the peace. 

ii P . e , re n J do not '"sparse after proclam- 

aUou by the sheriff, or other law officer, they 

ne accounted guilty of felony. A riotous 

assembling differs from a riot only in the 

number of persons assembled together. 

ri'-6t-OUS-ljf, adv. [Eng. riotous; 4y.] 

1. In a riotous, wanton, licentious, or dis- 
sipated manner. 

gathereth by W^^ own 1, 

ra *= 8 < b : Dan. rt> 

1. A term of contempt; a base, low, mean, 
or worthless person ; a contemptible creature. 

2. An animal of no value, as a worn-out 
horse ; anything of no value. 

W( ... " Lilliputian peen 

With waited carcaatw their rita btuitrlde.' 
fr,uil of 

2. In a riotous or tumultuous manner- in 

ri-ot-ous ness, ri-<rt-ons-nse 

- 1 ""^"ty or state oi 

, * rl-ot-er-ie, . [Em?, riot- 
ry.] Riot, riotous conduct, rioting. 

.- ieOert, 

fate, lt, fare, amidst, what, 

wn , 

, ype, -ripe, 'ryppe, ta [Norw. 
Hpa= to scratch, to score ; cf. Sir. dial. rtp<i 
to scratch, to pluck asunder ; 8w. rroa - 
to scratch, to ripple flax; repa p =7^ 
np;rptt = scratch; Dan. opri^e = to rip 

ri-par'-I-an, a & , fL&t njla _ a ^ nki j 

A. As adj. : Pertaining to the banks of a 

B. At subtt. : One who dwells on the banks 
ot a river. 

riparian-nations, s. pi. Nations own- 
ing opposite banks, or different partt of the 
banks of the same river. (Whanon.) 

riparian-proprietors, s. pi. Proprie- 
tors owning hinds bounded by a river or water- 

ri-par'-I-oui, o. [Lat riporiiu = that fre- 
quents the banks of rivers.) 
Bot. : Growing by water. 

ripe, . * rjrpe, o. (A-S. rijw, prop. = flt f or 

reaping, from ripan = to reap; cogn. with 
jjut. ryp = ripe; rt;pii = to ripen; Gei. reij 
(O. H. Ger. nf.) = ripe, reijen = to ripen.) 
. ]i Re d yf<"T'l'ingorgaUiering; matured 
sufflfiently for use ; mature ; come to perfec- 

f tMng8 " aBd 

2. Advanced or brought to the state of 
being tit for use; matured: as ripe cheese, 

3. Resembling ripe fruit In ruddiness. 
plumpness, or the like. 

. Mature. *"*"' "" * * 

" The noble dame . . 

H>M re< !.yV >u 8 kn i(f | ''. nd council >age 
Held with tile chiefs of riper age." 

ScoB .- Lai ufO* Lait Minaret, 111. n. 

6. Fully developed; maturated, suppu- 
rated ; as, a rtpe abscess. 

6. Complete, finished, consummate- as 
ripe scholar. 

pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go. pot, 
Syrian. , ce = e; ey = a; qu = kw. 


7 Ready for action or effect ; mature. 

"The question ld low ben 
-Daul C/ironfci.. Oct. It. 1884. 

8. Fully qualified by gradual progress 
and improvement. 

At thirteen year. ha n. rip. to, U ualTerrtt,.- 
* ripe, s. [Lat. ripa.] A bank. 

The right rtTof th. river that there Cometh 
rfowne.'-trf"'"*- iM"irjf. IT. UO. 

ripe(l). rype(l), v.i.&t. IBIPE, a.) 

A. /TUroM. : To become ripe ; to n are, 

40 "And .o. from bour^tohour, we rf andr**- T> 

B. Trans. : To make ripe ; to ripen. 

" No >un to rip* the bloom." 

*. .' Am? Joan, I 1 - 

ripe (2), Type (2), - I*- 8 - *.] To 

rob, to pillage. 

ripe (3), * rype (3), ... [" OX ! To 

ransack, to si-;irrh. 

But we mint ripe his pouches a bit. and see if the 
tale ta true or no."-3oo Tou* Jtennertw. (Introd.) 

ripe'-lv. adv. [Eng. ripe, a ; -ly.) In a ripe 
banner; maturely ; at the lit KM 

" It flu us, therefore, ripely." 

Shakeip. : CfiiiWIna. Ill . 

rip -en, v.i. & t. (A.S. ripian.) [BipE, a.] 
A. Intransitive: 

L Ii(. : To become or grow ripe ; to be 
matured, as grain or fruit. 

Old law : One who brought nsh to market 
in inland towns. 

* ri-poste', s. [Fr., from Ital. riposto.) 

FeMing : The thrurt or blow with which 
one Slows up a successful parry ; hence, a 
smart reply or repartee. 

* rip'-per (l), [Rip'ER.] 
rip'-per (2), s. [Eng. rip (1), v. ; .] 

t Literally: 

1 One who rips, tears, or rends. 

2. A tool for edging slates for roofing. 

3. A ripping-tool (q.v.). 

II Fig. : To become ripe or mature; to 
approach or come to perfection or maturity : 
u, A scheme ripen* for execution. 

B. Transitive : 

L Lit. To make ripe, as grain or fruit ; to 
mature. (Pops : Sappho to Pluum, 9.) 

IL Figuratively : 

L To bring to perfection. 

" When to ripfntd manhood be shall grow. 
The greedy sailor nhall the seas forego. 

Uryden : VvrgU ; Pa*. IT. 4s. 

2 To mature, to fit, to prepare. 

" Further rtpau* in the knowledge of God's word. 
Fox : Actst. p. 8L 

ripe'-nSss, . [Eng. ripe, a. ; -ness.] 

L Lit. : The quality or state of being ripe, 
or come to that state of perfection which tits 
tor use ; maturity. 

They . . . never come to their maturitle and rtp* 
n^~P. BMond: /, bk. tit, oh. IT. 

IL Figuratively : 
I. Full growth. 

" Time, which made them their fame outlive. 

t.. 1886. p. 825. 

rip'-plng, pr. par. & a. [Bii- (1). ) 

A. As pr- P aT - ' < See the yerb) ' 

B. As adjective: 

1. Lit. : Cutting, tearing, rending. 
2 Fig. : First-class, capital. (Slang.) 

" Another ripftrw gallop.'-/* Keb. . 18. 
rlpplng-bed. > A stone-saw (q.v.). 
ripping-chisel, s. 

W Md-wark. : A crooked chisel for cleaning 
out mortises. 
ripping-iron, . 
Nautical : 

1. A hook for tearing old oakum out of the 

2 An iron instrument used by shipwrights 
to rip the sheathing boards and copper from 
off the bottoms of ships. 

ripping-saw, t. . A saw for cutting wood 
lengUiwise of the grain. 

rlODlnif-tool, s. An instrument for fol- 
lowlngaleam and cutting stitches without 
slitting the fabric. 

rip-Pie (1), v.i. & t. [A non-nasalised form of 
rimpte or rimpif, from A.8. hrympitte = l 
"Se (cogn^ with O. Dnt. rtmpef = a 
wrinkle, rimpeltn = to wrinkle), from Krvmjnn 
= to wrinkle; cogn. with O. H. Qer.hrWan, 
M H Ger. rimpfen; Ger. nunpfen = to 
wrinkle.] [RmpiE, ROMPLB-] 
A. Intransitive : 

1 To assume a wrinkled or ruffled surface, 
as water when running over a rough bottom ; 
to run in small waves or undulations. 

8. Perfection, maturity, completeness. 

* A thousand thousand Wearing!, 
Which time .hall HJ^g,, ., ,. 4, 

., . 

8. Complete maturation or suppuration, as 
of a'n ulcer or the like. 
* 4. Fitness, qualification. 

' Men roust endure 

* "'" " 

2. To make a sound as of water running 
gently over a rough bottom. 

No motion but the water's sound . 

2 Fiij A sound like that of water running 
gently over a rough bottom : as, a rippie of 

ripple-drift, >. 

Oeol An undulated structure often seen in 
mica schist, probably identical with the ripple- 
mark (q.v.) of certain sandstones. (Seeley.) 

t ripple-grass, s. 

Sot. : Plantago lanceolata. [RlB-GBASS.) 

ripple mark, s. pi. 

Geol (I'l ) : Furrows, on sandstone of all ages, 
produced by the ripple of the tide oil what 
was once the sandy shore of an ancient si-a, 
or water from eight to ten feet, or, in rarer 
cases from 300 to 450 feet dt-er,. Beach 
ripple may generally be distinguished from 
ripples due to currents by frequent changes in 
Its direction. 

ripple-marked, s. Having ripple-mark* 

* rip'-plet, s. [Bu 
A little ripple 

; d.'uun. su ff. -let.} 

rip'-pting, pr. par. or a. [RIPPLE (1), .] 
rIp'-pUng-13f, adv. [Eng. rippling i ;-!.] In 
a rippling manner; with ripples. 

'rfp'-pljf, o. [Eng. ripp(U); -ly.] Having 
ripples ; rippling. 

Into a shady, fresh, and rippla cove? 1 

rip'-rap, . [A reduplic. of rap (q.v.).] 

Civ -eno A foundation of loose stones, 
thrown together without order, as in deep 
water or on a soft bottom. 

ript, pa. par. or o. [RiP (1), ] 
* riptowell, 8. [First element = reap; etym. 
of second element doubtful.] 
Feud. Law : (See extract). 

ri-pid -*-lite, s. [Or. pnr <rMpis), genit, 
p.oos (rhipidps) = a fan, and Xi6o (hios) = a 
stone ; Ger. ripidolith.} 
Min. : The same as CLIBOCHLOKK and PKO- 


ripidolite-late, . 

Petro! A variety of chlorite slate or schist 
In which 'ripidolite (q.v.) forms the chlontic 
rip-I-4'-nist, s. [Eng. ripMo); -int.] 

Music : A performer who only assists in the 
ripieno parts. 

rlp-I-e'-no, . [Ital. = full.) 
Afusic : 

1 An additional or fllling-np part. Any 
part which is only occasionally required for 
the purpose of adding to the force of atutti 
is said to be ripieuo. 

2 A mixture stop on Italian organs : as, 
rlpieno di due, tre, quattro, cinque, &c., a 
mixture stop of two, three, four, five ranks, fcc. 

* rfp'-i-er, * rip'-per (1), . [Eng. rip (2), 

*B Trans.: To fret or dimple, as the 
surface of water ; to cover with small wa 'es 
or undulations ; to curl. 

rip'-ple (2), rip-el-en, v.t. [RIPPLE (2), s.] 
To clear or remove the seeds or capsules from, 
especially from the stalks of flax. 
(p'-ple (3), v.t. [A dimin. of rip (1) (q.v.).] 
To scratch slightly. 

"Having slightly rlfplti hU arm.--J>. Holland: 
Ammianut, p. 264. 

rfn'-ple (1), [Etym. doubtful.] Weakness 

or pai"s in the loins or back. (Scotch.) 
rip-pie (2), re-pyUe, >- [Eng rip (l), y ; 
suff. -te ; cf. 8w. repa = to ripple flax ; Dut. 
repel = a ripple, repen = to beat flax ; repelen 
= to ripple flax ; Low. Ger. repe ; Ger. nffel = 
a ripple, ri/e( = to ripple flax.] 

1 An instrument, with teeth like a comb, 
through which flax is drawn to remove the 
capsules and seeds, when the lint of the plant 
is to be used. 

2. An instrument for removing the seeds 
from broom-grass. (Amer.) 

rip'-ple (3), . (RIPPLE (1), .] 

1 Lit : The fretting or ruffling of the sur- 
face of water ; little curling waves. 

To rink down to the bed of the river without 
making so much as a rippte on its glaasy surface. - 
flollv faeartipli. July 10. 1888. 

av Dictionary. 

rf-sa'-la, s. [Hind.] A troop of horse. (Anglo- 

ris'-al-dar, 8. [Hind, rosota-dor.] The com- 

mander of a troop of horse. (Anglo-Indian.) 

T(pa. t. 'roos, rose, pa. par. riien), v.i. & t. 
.8. rfaan(pa. t. rd>, pi. ron,t>a. par. rie>i); 
cogn. with Dut. rijtm ; Icel. risa; O. H.Ger. 
Km Goth, reisan (pa. t. rait, pa. par. risans) 
in the comp. ur-reitan (= A.a Arttan, Ung. 
arise).] [RAISE.] 
A. Intransitive: 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1 To move or pass from a lower to a higher 
position; to move upwards, to ascend, to 
mount up : as, Smoke rises, a bird rfaes in the 
air, &c. 

2 To change frov-i a sitting, lying, kneeling, 
or reclining posturetoan erect one ; to become 
erect, to stand up. 

" RUe, take up thy bed and walk. 'John T. 8. 

8. To get up from rest. 

W itb that he hasted him to rits 
Anone." <"' ' " A - "| 

4. SpecV. : To ascend from the grave ; to 
come to life again. (Luke xxiv. 46.) 

5 To bring a sitting or session to an end ; 
to adjourn : as, The House rose at eight o clock. 

6. To grow upwards ; to attain a height; to 
stand or reach in height ; to ascend : as, The 
tower rises to a height of 100 feet. 

7. To have an upward direction ; to slope 

" Ash. on banks or rftinp ground! near riven, will 
thrive eiceedingly.--J<orti"'"- ' BabmOrg. 
8 To reach or attain a higher level by in- 
crease of bulk ; to swell : as, The tide rues. 

9. To swell or be raised in the process of 
fermentation, as dough or the like. 

10 To have the appearance or effect of ris- 
ing;' to seem to mount up; to become more 
prominent by occupying a more e'e'^ P- 
tion ; frequently, to appear above the horizon, 
as the sun, moon, stars, &C. 

" He maketh hi. sun to tiM on the evil and the 
good." U.irt v. . 

11 To become apparent ; to come into right 
to make an appearance ; to appear : as, Colour 
rises in the cheeks. 

12. To become audible. 

" A hideoue gabble riia loud 
Amomr the bolldem?- itUKat: P. L; 


rise Risso 

13. To have origin, source, or beginning ; to 
rise, to originate ; to be produced ; to spring. 

* 14. To return by revolution. 

" Nor would tlie various seasons of the year. 
By turn* revolving, rite and disappear." 

Blat*nore Creation, Ir. 

15. To in' rease in force or intensity ; to be- 
come stronger : as, The wind rises ; his anger 

16. To increase in sound or volume ; to be- 
come louder or stronger : as, The noise rose. 

17. To increase in value ; to become dearer 
or more valuable ; to advance in price : as, 
Corn rises. 

18. To increase in amount ; to become larger 
or greater : as, His expenses rose. 

19. To become brighter or more cheerful : 
as, His spirits rose. 

20. To become excited or hostile; to take 
np arms : to go to war ; espec. to rebel, to 
revolt (Frequently with up.) 

" Let us rill up Against Edom." OfcuUOA L 1. 

21. To set to work ; to betake one's sell to 
work. (Frequently with up.) (Nehem. ii. 18.) 

22. To take up a higher social position ; to 
advance in position, rank, dignity, power, 
wealth, or the like ; to be promoted ; to thrive. 

" Borne rite by sin. and some by virtue tall." 

Shaketp. : Meaturefor feature. 11 L 

23. To become more dignified or forcible ; 
to increase or improve in dignity, power, or 
interest. (Said of style, thought, or discourse.) 

" Tour author always will the best advise. 
Fall when he falls, and when he ruri, ritr.~ 

/iotcomm-'in : Xstdjr on FerM. 

24. To come by chance ; to happen, to 
occur : as, A thought rose to his mind. 

IL Technically: 

L Music : To ascend the scale ; to paas from 
lower note to a higher : as, To rise a semi- 

2. Print. : To be capable of being safely 
raised from the imposing stone. (Said of a 
forme which can be lifted without any of the 
type falling out) 

B. Trans. : To cause to rise. 

" An angler rose a flsh. and. In place of the usual 
mode, kept on casting over him." -Field, Jan. so. Use. 

rife (l), . [RISK, .] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of rising; ascent; specif., the 
rising of a fish to the fly. 

" I certainly had not expected a rite to my first 
oast" Held, April 4. IMS. 

< 2. Ascent, elevation ; degree of ascent : as, 
the rite of a hill. 

3. The distance through which anything 
rises ; height ascended : as, The Has of the 
river was six feet. 

4. Any place raised or elevated above the 
ordinary level ; an elevated place ; a rising 

To deck this rite with fruits of various tastes.- 

rUltpt : cider, L M. 

6. Appearance above the horizon. 

" Prom the rife to set' tShaJcetp. : Henry V., IT. L 

6. Spring, source, origin, beginning: as, 
the rise of a stream. 

7. Increase, advance, augmentation. 

" The rise of their nominal price U the effect, not of 
any degradation of the value of silver, but of the rite 
In their real price." 9mit* : Wealth if Bottom bk. i. 

ch. xl. 

t8. Advance in rank, honour, dignity, fame, 
or position ; promotion or improvement in 
octal position. 

" Wrinkled benchers often talked of him 
Approvingly, and prophesied bis rite. 

Tennfton . A rimer* l Reid, 474. 

9. Increase of sound in the same key ; a 
welling of the voice. 

10. Elevation or ascent of the voice In the 
Kale : as, a rise of a tone or a semitone. 

11. The height to which one can rise ; ele- 
vation of thought, mind, language, style, 4c. 

IL Technically: 

L Arch. : The elevation of an arch above 
the springing-line. 

2. Carp. : The height of a step in a flight of 

3. Mining : A perpendicular shaft or winze 
excavated from below upward. 

1 0) fix of land :' [UPHEAVAL). 

(2) To take (or get) a rise out of a person ; To 
get a laugh at his expense; to make him 
ridiculous. The expression has reference to 
the rise of a flab to a fly. {Slant Diet.) 

rise (2), rlsse, s. [A.8. 4 Icel. hrit.] A 
branch, a twig, a shoot, a sprout. 

" Ther he under rite lith." iafamim. 740. 

risen, pa. par. or a. [RISE, c.] 

ris -er, . [Eng. ris(e), v. ; -er.} 
L Ord. Lang. : One who rises. 
" The ile Xx. where the pallace stands 
Of th' early ritfr, with the roeie hand*." 

Chapman : Homer ; Odyttey xii 

IL Technically: 

1. Carp. : The upright board of a step. 

2. Mining : A shaft excavated upward. 

3. Found. : An opening through a mould, 
into which metal rises as the mould fills ; a 

* rlshe, >. [Rusa, >.] 

rish'-i (Eng. pi. rish'-is), rtk'-hi, . [Sansc. 
= a sage, a saint.] 
L Hindoo Mythology : 

(1) PI. : Seven ancient sages credited with 
the composition of the Vedic Hymns. The 
rislii of a mantra (q.v.) in any of the Vedas is 
the sage by whom it was composed or recited. 
In later times the whole Brahmanical caste 
pretended to trace their descent from the seven 
Vedic Rishis, but the Veda itself speaks of 
Royal Rishis (Rajarshis), who were probably 
of the Warrior caste. 

(2) Sing. : Any Brahmanical sage considered 
to be infallible. (Banerjee.) 

2. Hindoo Altron. : The seventh asterism of 
Ursa Major, or the sage to whom belongs any 
one of its seven conspicuous stars. 

ris>h -ta, ri>tah, >. [Mahratta, Hind., &c. 
ritha = various species of Sapindns.] 

Bot. t etc.: (1) Sapindus emarginatus; (2) 
an Indian medicinal oil obtained from the 
Soap-nut, S. detergent ; (8) the seed of Acacia, 

rlf-I-blT-l-ty. . [Bog. risible; -Uy.} The 
quality or state of being risible ; proneness to 

" How comes lownen of style and the familiarity of 
words to be so much the propriety of satyr, that with- 
out them a poet can be no more a satyrist, than with- 
out riribilii]/ he can be a man." Drvden : Juvenal. 

rls'-I-ble, a. [ Fr. , from Lat. risibilis = laugh- 
able, from risum, sup. of ru2eo = to laugh.] 

1. Having the faculty or power of laughing ; 
prone to laugh. 

" Laughing is our business ; as U because it has been 
made the definition of man that he is rinble." Govern- 
ment of Ule Tonffue. 

2. Exciting laughter ; laughable, ridiculous. 

" A few wild blunders, and riliUe absurdities." 
Joltnton : Preface to Ail dictionary. 

3. Belonging or relating to the phenomenon 
of laughter : aa, the risible faculty. 

ris'-I-ble-ness, . [Eng. ristblt ; -nets.] The 
quality or state of being risible ; risibility. 

rls'-I-bly', adv. [Eng. ristoQe); -fy-1 In 
risible or laughable manner ; laughably. 

rfs-I gal-lo, . [Ital.] [REALGAR.] 

ri -Ing, pr. pur., a., & s. [RISE, .] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective : 

I Ordinary Language : 

L Ascending, mounting ; moving upwards. 

2. Advancing or increasing in wealth, power, 
distinction, or position : as, a rising man. 

3. Growing up; advancing towards maturity 
or adult years : as, the rising generation. 

IL Her. : A term applied to birds when in a 
position, as if preparing to take flight. [Rous- 

C. At substantive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of one who or of that which 
rises ; a mounting up or ascending ; ascent ; 
specif., the appearance of the sun or a star 
above the horizon. 

2. The act of reviving from the dead ; re- 

3. An insurrection, sedition, revolt, or 
mutiny ; an assembling in opposition to 
government or authority. 

" To tmst to a general Htdif of the population. -- 
Moeaulat .- ffltt. Sag., ch. ix. 

4. That which rises ; as a tumour on the 

IL Technically: 

1. Naut. : A narrow strake in a boat, be- 
neath the thwarts. 

2. Mining : The same as RISER, II. 2. 

3. Ship-build. (PI.) : Thick planks support- 
ing the timbers of the decks. 

rising anvil, s. 

Sheet-metal Working : A double beak -iron. 

rising arch, s. A rampart arch. 

rising-floors, s. pi. 

Shipbuild. : The floor-timbers which rise 
fore and aft from the plane of the midship 

rising hinge, s. A hinge so constructed 
as to elevate the foot of an opening door, to 
avoid the carpet. 

rising-line, >. 

Shipbuild. : A curved line on the drafts of 
a ship, marking the height of the floor-timbers 
throughout the length, and thereby fixing the 
sharpness and flatness of a vessel's bottom. 

rising-main, s. The vertical pipe from 
a pump in a well to the surface of the ground. 

rising rod, . 

SUam-eng. : A rod in the Cornish steam- 
engine which rises as tiie cataract piston 
descends, by means of levers ; it then lift** 
catches by which the sectors are released, and 
the weights are enabled to open or shut the 
equilibrium or exhaust valves. 

rising square, s. 

Shipbuild. : A square upon which is marked 
the height of the rising line above the keel. 

rising-wood, s. 

Shipbuild. : A timber worked into the seat 
of the floor and into the keel to steady the 

risk, 'risque, >. [Fr. risque, from Sp. risco 
a steep rock, from Lat. reseco = to cut back : 
re- = back, and seco = to cut ; Ital. risico, 
risco, risigo ; Sp. riesgo = risk ; Low Lat. 
risigus, riscus ; Port, risco = a rock, risk.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Hazard, danger, peril ; chance 
of harm or injury. (Frequently in the phrase, 
to run a risk, i.e., to incur a hazard, to en- 
counter danger.) 

" Money out at Interest runs a greater ristfue than 
land does." Lock* : On Lowering tke Intereet. 

2. Comm. : The hazard or chance of loss, as 
of a ship, goods, or other property ; hence, 
used for the degree of hazard or danger. 

risk, t>.(. [Fr. risquer; Sp. arrucar, arrietgar.] 

[RISK, S.] 

1. To put in risk or hazard; to put to 
chance ; to hazard. 

" And, proud to make his firm attachment known. 
To save your life would nobly rtik his own." 

Confer : Trut\. MO. 

2. To venture on ; to dare to undertake : as, 
To risk a battle. 

risk er, s. (Eng. risk; -er.] One who risk* 
or ventures. 

" What courses other ritkert took." 

Butter: HudUmu. 111. . 

rlsk-fnl,a. [Eng. risk ; -fuHf).~\ Full of risk 
or danger ; hazardous, risky. 

risk -ft a. [Eng. risk; -.] Pull of risk; 
dangerous, hazardous. 

" Such a ritk* matter as that" WWtie Coliint: The 
Jfoomtone. pL L, ch. xzl. 

n sor I aL a. [Lat. risus = laughter, from 
rideo=. to laugh.] Of or pertaining to laughter; 
causing laughter. 

risorlal muscle, t. 

Anat. : The risorius. usually regarded as a 
part of the Platysma myoides muscle of the 
cheek which produces smiles. Called also 
Smiling muscle. 

ri-sSt'-td, >. [Ital., from riw = rice.} 

Cook. : A dish consisting of rice, onions, 
butter, and broth, served as a pottage, instead 
of soup, before dinner. 

* rlsse, pret. of v. [Rise, .] 

ris so ite, s. [After H. Risse; sufl*. -iU 
Min. : The same as BCKATITC (q.v.). 

Ris-so', . [A. Risso, an Italian naturalist; 
he made the Mediterranean fauna his life-long 

ftto, t, .ire, amidst, whit, tall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, jrlt, sire, sir, marine; go. pit, 
at, wore, W9H work, who. son; mate, cub, cure, unite, eiir. rttie, rill; try, SfrisUi. , oe = e; ey = ; qu = kw. 

rissoa rive 

study, and published L Ichthyology ** 
1810 and L-Uistoire NatunUe de I Europe 
MtridionaU in 1827.] (See compound.) 

Riaso's grampus, s. 

Zool Grampus arise**. The head is fuller 
and rounder than that of a porpoise, and its 
flippers are longer and narrower. *"* 
tint gray, darker above, lighter below, the 
markings on sides varying considerably. 
Found on the French and English coasts m 
rammer! probably visiting Africa or America 
in winter. 

rls-ao'-a. *. [Risso,] 

ZooL* Palceont. : A genus of .IftorinidK. 
Shell minute, white or horny, pointed, manj- 
whoried ' aperture rounded, operculum sub- 
r P i Kno P wn species : recent, about seventy 
world- wide in distribution, but especially from 

Bri'tain r onward. Forbes and Hanley enume- 
rated forty-ftve real or doubtful recent species 
as British. 

CaB-BO'-i-dM, s. pi. [Mod. Lat risso(a); Lat 
fern. pi. adj. suff. -ida.) 

Zool: A family of Holostomata. (Tatt.) 
Often merged in Littorinidffi. 

ri so-i'-na, s. [Mod. Lat. risso(a) ; Lat. fern, 
sing. adj. suBf. -ino.) 

Zool. * Palaent. : A sub-genus of Bissoa. 
Aperture channelled in front. Recent : species 
iity-six ; fossil, ten, from the Bath Oolite 

ris solo, s. [Fr.] 

Cook. : An entree consistingof savourymince 
of any kind, enclosed in pastry and fried. 
ri'-sus,s. [Lat=laughter.] (See compound.) 

rlsus sardonlcus, s. 

Pathol. : A kind of grin on the features in 
tetanut It was anciently attributed to the 
eating of the Sardoa, Sardous, or Sardonia 
Srtafi..theSardonianherb, which had leaves 
Separslei and was sweet ; it may have been 
a Ranunculus. The sardonic grin is a very 
unfavourable symptom in lesion of the nerves. 

rit. ritt, s [Prob. the same as rut (q.v.).] A 
slight incision made in the ground with a 
ipade. &c. ; a scratch made on a board, Ac. 

rit ritt. v.t. or i. (Bra, .] To make an 
incision in the ground with a spade or other 
instrument, as a line of direction for future 
delving or digging ; to rip, to scratch, to cut 
ri'-ta, s. (Etym. not apparent] 

Ichthv. : A genus of Siluridse, group Bagrina, 
from the East Indies. The region ft, front of 
the dorsal spine is covered with a senes of 
ri-tar dan do, a. [Ital.] 

Music : A direction to play or sing slower 
and slower. 

rite s. [Lat. riM = a custom; Fr. rit, rit*.} 
A solemn act of religion ; an act performed in 
divine or solemn service, as established by 
law precept, or custom ; a form, especially in 
religion or ceremony ; a religious ceremony ; 
a ceremonial. 

Are gone, or 

U Congregation of Rites: 

Soman Church: A Congregation Instituted 
by Sixtus V. towards the close of the sixteen 
century. Its object is to promote a general 
nniformtty (consistent, however, with the 
permission of innumerable differences of de- 
tail according to the customs and traditions 
of different nations) in the externals of divine 
worship. Secondarily, it deals with the 
canonisation and beatification of saint*, and 
is then extraordinary. (Addis at Arnold.) 

rite'-W adv. [Eng. rite, -!!/.] In accordance 

with ritual ; with all due rites and ceremonies. 

rt-ten-u'-td, a. [Ital.] 

Music: A direction to play or sing more 

* rith-r, . [BtJDDEB,] 

ri- tor -nol' -16, ri- tor -nolle', a. 

ritorneUe ; Ital. ritorneUo, dimiu. from ritorno 
-. return, ritornare = to return.] 
Kiwio: Properly a short repetition, as that) 
of an echo, or of the concluding phrases of an 
ii- especially if such repetition be played by 
one or^ore instruments, whilst the principal 
voice pauses. The word is now generally used 
to denote the introduction to an air or any 
musical piece. 

p. sis. 
ri-trat'-to, . [Ital.] A picture. [B- 

THACT, *.] 

-A ritratu of the .hadow of Vanity beraelf. - 
Sternt: TrtHram Shantll/. IT. "" 

ritt, v. or s. [RiT, o. or s.] 
rit -tor. . [Qer.] A knight ; a title given to 
a knight. 

.. Th. MO*, *%* JnL.aS.r .. 

t rft-teV-Ic, o. [Seedef.] Of or belonging to 
* tto physfcist Bitter, who, in 1801, first d*- 
covered the existence of Actinic rays. An 
old synonym of Actinic (q.v). 
rit-ting'-er-ite, . [After Here Bittinger; 
suff. -ite (Mitt.).] 

Min A rare mineral occurring in small 
rhombic tables, with native arsenic, at Joa- 
chimstlial, Bohemia, and Schemata, Hungary. 
Crystallization, monoclinic; hardness, 1'6 to 
3- lustre, sub-metallic to adamantine; colour 
varying, dull honey-yellow to hyacinth-red, 
sometimes blackish in parts ; streak, orange- 
vellow Composition notdefinitelyascertamed, 
but consists essentially of arsenic, selenium, 
and silver. 

rff-u-al, rif-u-all, o. * , [Fr. riM, 
from lit ritualis, from rttu = a nte; Sp. 
ritual; Ital. rituale.] 
A. As adjective: 
1. Oforpertainingtorites;consistingofritea, 

Initant I bade the priwt. prepare 


ri'-vage (age as Ig), l Fr -> from *** 
(Lat ripa) = a bank.] 
1. A bank, a shore, a coast 

" You ataud upon the rioaffe. and behold t 

2. Prescribing or regulating rites. 

" Th*, ritual law. restrained the Jew. from oon- 
TOTtol SnUllarly with the heathen, or nd-a 
perujnl" Watfrland: Worla, T. US. 
B. As subrtantirs : 
1 A book in which the rites and cere- 
monies of a church, or of any special service, 
are set down. 

2. The manner of performing divine service 
in any particular church or communion; 

" A. the I^' e ^' b f 1 h ^ d <; e ' n "to 1 .Lvrt o'f the 
Jewish ritual." Bp. Bonify: Sermotu, \ 

rlt-u-al Im, s. [Bng. ritual ; -ism.] 

1. The system of ritual or prescribed form 
of religious worship ; rituaL 

2. The observance of prescribed rites or 
forms in religion. 

3. A name sometimes used as synonymous 
with Tractarianism (q.v.), more J><>P>nZ-H 

Slied to the practices of a section of High 
hnrchmen, who sought to make the revival 
of Catholic doctrine manifest to the people 
by ornate ritual, and especially by the adop- 
tion of Eucharistic vestments. 

" It wa. out of mch circumstance. . . . .that .what 
wa. afterward, ealled RUuaUnX took it. riae. - 
Blunt : Diet. Sect*, p. 1M. 

rit-u-al-itet, a. & s. [Eng. ritual ; -.] 
A. 'AS adj. : Bitualistic (q.v.). 

- - -- " "-.movement con- 

2 A toll paid to the crown on some river* 
for the passage of boats or vessels thereon. 

ri'-val. s. 4 a. [Fr. rival, from Lat rivalto, 
Snmrivus = * stream, a river "Properly 
those who dwell on opposite banks of the 
same river or stream. Such people are under 
strong temptation to quarrel about water 
privileges ; hence the word rivals came to 
mean those in competition with each otlier, 
and disposed to quarrel even though nonver 
might be near." (Trench: Study of Word*, 
p. 198.) Sp. rival ; Ital. rivale.] 
A. As substantive : 

1 One who strives to reach or obtain some- 
thing which another is also seeking to gain, 
and which only one can possess ; a competitor 
for the same object as another. 

Hath in any. but in h.r. love.fellow.hip mahj. between riO* I "-m*n*l : Arcadia, 

2. One who emulates or strives to equal or 
surpass another in excellence ; a competitor, 
an emulator : as, rivals in eloquence. 

* 3. An associate, a companion, a comrade 

" If you do meet Horatio and Marcellui. thertwrft 
of my watch, bid th.m make harte. -OxOa^l 
Hamlet. L 1. 

B As adj. : Striving or seeking to reack 
or obtain the same object; emulous; stand- 
ing or being in competition for the same object. 

' You are two rital enemiea." 
Stokap. : ltUM,mm*r XioM I Dw*. 1- a, 

rlval-natlng, a. Hating any rival; 

" With rival-jMtirm enTy, set you on. 

ri'-val, .(. Si . [BivAi, .] 

A! Transitive: 

1 To stand or be in competition or rivalry 
with another ; to strive to reach or gain some- 
thing before or in opposition to. 

2. To strive to equal or surpass; to emulate. 

B. Inirans. : To be a competitor or rival. 

" Burgundy. 

W. But .ddrja.-d tow-rd you, ''"'"J.r'jS^. t 
Have rivaf d for our daughter. S*o*p. . L*<*r, L h 

ri'-val-Sss, . [Eng. rival ; -ess.] A female 

" Oh, my happy rivatou." Richardion : fa' M*. iv. 

ri-val'-I-t*. - [Fr- rivalUi, from Lat. 
rivalitatem, aceus of rivalitas, from nvalw = 
rival (q.v.).] 

1. The quality or state of being a rival ; 
rivalry, emulation. 

2. Association, equality, copartnership. 

ri' -vailed, pa. par. or o. [BIVAL, .] 
ri'-val-rf, . [Eng. riwil; -r.] The act of 
rivalling ; a state of competition or emulation ; 
a striving or effort to reach or obtain the 
same object which another is pursuing, and 
which only one can possess ; an endeavour to 
excel or surpass another in excel nee. 

* To muaa o'er rivaJrie* of yore." 

Scott : Lat at tit Lait Uirutra, IV. n. 

B. As sutat. : A person attached to strict 
observance of ritual ; specif, one J*"1J 
motes the Catholic revival m the Church of 
England. (/.) 


ri'-val-ship, . [Eng. rival; -ship.] The 
quality or state of being rivals; rivalry, com- 
petition, emulation. 

"A kind of rtnlMp agalnrt Thoma. AquiMa. - 
W<ua-tand. Warkt. It. W4. 

Blunt: Diet. Sectt, p. MO. 

rit-u-al-fof -lo. a. [Eng.rtto!; -o.] 

1. Pertaining or according to the ritual; 
adhering to ritual. 

2. Pertaining or relating to the ritualists. 

rtt'-n-al-W, adv. [Eng. ritual; -!.] By 
ritesY^y or according to any particular rite. 


Sw. rifm; to scratch ; Dut. njven; O. H 
Ger. riban; Ger. reiben.] 

A. Trans. : To split, to cleave, to rend 
asunder forcibly. 

- A bolt that * ( Q*/gg Bk ,. a 

B. Intrans. : To be riven, split, or rent 
asunder ; to open. 

And now-0 I would that earth _wou!d rto. 
And cloee upon me while alij..^ ^^ r ^ 

rive(2),'ryye.i'.<. [AEWV.] To sail to; 

to come, to arrive. 
rive,*. [BivE(lX-l A rift, a split, a rent, 

a tear. 

rtvel rivet 

[A.8. Hertzian = to wrinkle, 
(q.v.); Dat 


frequent, from rive ...,, ._ , . _,. 

Jeltn.} To contract into wrinkles ; to wrinkle, 
to corrugate, to pucker. 

" While every worm industrioasly wev<s 
And wiuds hla web above the rivelVd leaves.* 

Covfvr: Twvefcwuin, Me. 

rfV-el-lng(U *ryv-el-ing, . 

, v.] A wrinkle. 

had uo wera ne rjru*ting."WyoHfft : Epfit- 

' riv -el Ing (2X . [RIVEL, .] 

riv- el-Ing (3), . [Eng. r*w(r); dimin. (raff. 

.] A little river; a rivulet, a streamlet, 
a brook. (Prob. a misprint for riverling.) 

"Which, as nutine flouds from suiAllcst currents flow 
Derive* her sweet* to th - riMtinai below." 

AraUmrU .- JMBMS Aa&ssit*, p. Us. 

* riV-el-lng (3), .. [A.8. rtjij.] A rough 
kind of ahoe, formerly worn by the Scotch, to 
whom, for that reason, the term itself was 
ometunes applied in contempt. 

" Sam es left DM thing 
Boute M rivyn rifling* 

-l FatUical Son,,,, p. tor, 

riven, pa. par. or a. [BITE, r.J 

riV-er (1), . [Bug. nt (IX T.; <r.] One 
who rive* or rend*. 

riv'-er (2), "riv-ere, t. [Fr. _ 

river. The original meaning was a shore or 
bank, from Low Lat. riparia = (l) the sea- 
shore, a bank, (2) a river: prop. fern, of riparius 
= riparian (q.v. ) ; bp. ribera = a shore, a sea- 
Coast; Port. rioira = a meadow near the 
bank of a river ; ribeiro = a brook ; ItaL 
nviera = a sea-shore, a bank, a river.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

L Lit. : In the same sense as II. I. 

2. Fig. : A large and abundant stream ; a 
copious flow. 

" Rifert of water ran down mine eyes, because they 
keep not thy law. 1 * Ptalm cxix. 134. 

H. Technically: 

1. Geog. : A large stream of water flowing 
ever a certain portion of the earth's surface, 
and discharging itself into the sea, a lake, 
a marsh, or another river. A river is generally 
a stream of considerable size formed by the 
nuion of several brooks, streams, or rivulets 
When several streams join, so as to produce 
a river of considerable size, this last fe called 
the principal river, and tie minor rivers of 
which it is composed are called its tributaries 
affluents, branches, or feeder*. The district 
drained by such a system of streams or rivers 
to termed a river-basin (q.v.). Rivers gene- 
rally have their sources ii springs, or from 
the gradual meltingof thesnow and ice which 
perpetually cover the summits of the most 
elevated ranges of mountains. The channel 
or cavity in which a river flows is called its 
bed, and the solid land which borders the bed 
is its banks. The termination of the course 
of a river, or where it discharges itself into 
the sea, another river, Ac., is called its mouth. 
The following table shows the length and 
area of some of the principal rivers :, 

JMger ....... 2 600 


....... 2 600 

Darwin (Docent of Man, pt i., eh. vJOcon. 
Bdered rivers as harbours of refuge for certain 
fishes, and as standing to the ocean in the 
ame relation as islands do to continents. 
< \ ? l : iMTer8 m y i" some cases be aided 
in hollowing out their beds by existing ravines 
and fissures, in others their whole channel is 
scooped out by themselves. The most rapid 
movement of the water is at the surface, fric- 
tion retarding the lower and lateral ctnrente. 
A velocity of three inches per second at the 
bottom is sufficient to tear up fine clay six 
inches per second fine sand, twelve inches' per 
second fine gravel, and three feet per second 
stones as large as an egg. Hence the transport- 
inz power of a river is enormous, especially 
when in flood. The material carried forward 
to deposited in the estuary at the mouth of 
the Htream, and tends to form a delta (q v ) 

' 8ted in 8l1 ^o'oical periods ; 
m rocks 

3. Lam: Rivers are dtoiniralshed as navi- 
gable and non-na\-i^able : the former being 
the property of the state, and subject to state 
jurisdiction ; the latter the property of those 
through whose lands they flow. Improve- 
ment* in many of our inland uavigalile rivei>, 
by means of dam* and locks, aie now being 
made by the Government al public expense. 
The Ohio and some of its tributaries have been 
greatly improved by this method during the 
last few years. 

river-basin, s. [BASIN, ., B. II. 2. (6).] 

river-bed, river-channel,.. The bed, 
bottom, or channel of a river 

river-bullhead, s. 

Ickthy.: Cottua goliia, the Miller's thumb 

river-crab, j. 

Zool. : The genus Thelphusa (q.v.). 
river-craft, s. Small craft or vessels 
which ply on ri vers, but do not put out to sea. 
river-crayfish, s. 
Zool. : Aitacus Jluriatilit. 
river-deity, . 
Compar. Belii;. : A river-god (q.v.). 

" !**?<<* to let them cross." Tatar.- 

river-delta, s. [DELTA.) 

river-dolphins, >. pi. 

Zool. : The family Platanistidas (q.v.)t 

river- dragon, s. A crocodile. (So 
called by Milton (P. L., i. 191), in allusion 
to Ezekiel xxix. 3.) 

river-driver, . A name given by lumber- 
men to one whose business is to conduct logs 
down running streams. 

river-ducks, s. pi. 

Ornith. : The Anatime. (Swrttwon.) 
river-god, *. 

Compar. Belig.: A river personified, and 
, worshipped aa a deity. [WATER-WORSHIP.] 

^~^^? e .' 1 ' v 1 ok _^ rter of Sehertaj - 

o . e ,< 

r: rrtm. Cult. (ed. IS'SI. 11. Jia. 

river-hog, . 

Zf-: Tlla genus Potamochosrus, sometimes 
IT B f u ^!'- no KS- Pata*uchana pmteillatm is 
the Red River-hog. 

river-horse, s. 
Zool. : Hippopotamus amjiKibiut. 
" They are the rtwr-Aorw and the crocodile, those 

river-Ice, s. 

Geol., *c. : Ice floating down a river. It is 
capable of carrying with it, or movingforward 
not merely gravel and pebbles, but boulders 
of large size. 

river-Jack viper, . 

" : ytpera rhinoceros, from West Africa, 
The head is flat, with a longish horn on each 
side of the snout. In captivity it hi very irri- 
table, and pntTs Itself out and hisses fiercely 
when visitors approach the case in which it is 

river-lamprey, . 

IcKthy: Petromyzon fuviaKUt. 

river-limpet, 9. 

Zool. : The genus Ancylos (q.v.X 

river-meadow, . A meadow on the 
bank of a nver. 

river mussel, s. 

Zool. : The genus TJnlo (q.T.> 

river of death, . 

Compar. Religions : An expression frequently 
met with in anthropological writings, and 
derived from the fact that, in very many forms 
of religion, the passage from the present to 
another state of existence is thought to be 
effected by the actual crossing of a river. The 
belief existed in classical times (cf. Virg. jn 
vt 134, 145, with Od. p.. 22), and is very widely 
spread among races of low culture In the 
present day (fylor : Prim. Cult., ch. xii., xiilA 
Allusions in Christianallegory and hymnolofrf, 
which seem to embody this notion, prolably 
refer to the passage of the Jordan by the Jews 
before entering the Land of Promise. 

river-plain, >. A plain by a ri ver. 
river-shrew, s. 

Zool. ; PotamogaU veiox. 
river-side, s. The bank or a nver. 
river-snail, t. 

Zool, : Paiudina. vivlpam, 
river-terrace, s. 

Owl ' A terrace along the side of a river. 
There is a steep clitl a few yards high sup- 
porting a tiat terrace, corresponding iu appear- 
anoe to the adjacent alluvial plain. The 
terrace is apparently horizontal, but really has 
a slope corresponding to that of the river. 
Sometimes two or three such terraces exist 
one above the other. They are produced by 
the slow and intermittent upheaval of the 
land. (Lyell.) 

river-tortoise, . [MARSH-TOETOISE,) 
river-wall, s. 

Itydr.^ng. ; A wall made to confine a river 
within deimite bounds, either (1) to prevent 
denudation or erosion of the banks ; (2) to 
prevent overflow of the land a((jacent or (S) 
to concentrate the force of the stream within 
a smaller sectional area lor the purpose of 
deepening a navigable channel. 

river- water, . The water of a river, a* 
distinguished from spring-water, &c. 

river-weed, . 

Hot.: The genus Podostemon. (Amer.) 

" rtv'-er, v.i. [RIVER, s.] To hawk by a 
river ; to fly hawks at river fowl. 

* rtv'-r-aln, a. [Fr.J Of or pertaining to a 
river ; situated on or near to a river ; border- 
ing on a river. 

1 " ( ^"?? ni ! 1 5""*l"t tu mule .hort work of the 
long.tallfed of rineruin defence! known a the Menbll 
poert.ou."-C<i Teinlt No 

" rtV-cr-et, 5. [Eng. rim; s. ; dimin. suff. 
a.) A little river ; a rivulet, a stream. 

" Whow violet reins in branched rieereit flow " 
Uniylvn : Dttront Wan, TL M. 

* rt''-er-hood, s. fEng. river, s. ; -hood,] 
The quality or state of being a river. IJlualt 
Miller, in Annandalc.) 

' riV-er-ine, a. [RrvEBAni.] 

* riV-er-ling, . [Eng. river; dimin. anff. 
ting.] A little river, a stream. 

" AU her hidden crystal! riocrlitist " 
H/lMer: Du Bfrtai, third dj, Mr.t week. IK 

rfv'-er-y, a. [Eng. river, s. ; -y.] 

L Of or pertaining to rivers; resembling 

"Branched with rlvtry veins, mennderlilce that. 

glide. antftott: Foln-OUi,^, t u. 

2. Abounding in rivers. 

rtV-St, *rer-et, .. [Rivrr (1), .] [FT. 

i Literally 

1. To fasten with a rivet or rivets. 

.." Hlp greaves and pogldroiu others rita fart." 

Drayton : tturont Wart, U. 

2. To clinch ; to fasten firmly. 

"In rirtttiny. the pin you rtoct in should stand TO. 
right to the place you rts it upon. Moion. 

II. Fig. : To fix or fasten firmly. 

" Toll on from watch to watch, biddinK my eve 
Fastriwrted on solenoe. sleei, defy.' 

ChurckUl : Gotham, ill 

riv'-6t (1), * rev-et, * ryv-et, s. [Fr. , from 
nver = to rivet ; a word probably of Scandina- 
vian origin ; cf. IceL rtfa = to Uck together.] 
A short bolt with a flat or rose head, em- 
ployed for uniting two plates or thin pieces of 
material. The stub end is swaged to pre- 
vent its withdrawal. When used for joining 
pieces of leather, as in making belting, an 
annular disc, termed a burr, is placed over 
this end previous to swaging, in order to give 
a greater bearing. Rivets are cut from round 
metal rods, and formed by special machinery. 
In riveting iron plates together, as In boilers, 
tanks, &c., the rivet is made red .hot, and 
while a sledge is held against the head, ttie 
end is swaged down by striking directly with 
a riveting-hammer, or a species of die called a 
snap-head Is interposed. In riveting together 
wooden surfaces, they may be lined with 
metallic plate, or washers may be placed under 
the head and the swaged burr, to prevent the 
indentation of the wood. 

" Jtifftt of steel and Iron clasp." 

rivet roadster 


rivet-boy, . The boy employed In the 
operation ./riveting K> take the riveto from 
the furnace. 

rivet-entter, . A jaw tool for cutting 
On* Hush the stub ends of rivets or bolts. 

rivet-hearth, s. A shallow, round fuel- 
trav mounted on three legs, aud having a 
circular bellows beneath it for blowing the tire 
in which rivets are made red-hot. 

rivet-joint. t. A joint formed by t rivet 
or rivets. 

TiV-et (2), [Etym. doubtful.] Bearded 
wiieat. (Tusxrr: Hvsbandric, p. 49.) 

riv et-er, *. [Eng. rivet, v. ; -er.} One who 

riv et ing, riv'-ett-lng, pr. far., a., & s. 

A. & B. As pr. par. <t particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As substantive : 

1. The act or operation of fastening with a 
rivet or rivets. 

g. A set of rivets taken colleotively. 

riveting-hammer, *. A hammer for 
awaMng a rivet wnen in position. It has 
long, flat-faced head and a narrow peen. 

riveting-machine, s. 

Boiler-making: A machine in which the 
operation of riveting boiler or other metallic 
plates is performed by steam-power. 

riveting-set, . A punch with a hollow 
fide, used for swaging the head of riveta. 

riV Ing, pr. par. or o. [Btvi (1), .] 
rlving-knife, . 

Coopering : A frow (q.v.). 

rivtng-machlne, . A machine for split- 
ting wood in the direction of the grain ; for 
hoops, staves, splints, as the case may be. 

ri'-TO, interj. [Etym. donbtful.J An excla- 
mation in Bacchanalian revelry. 

" Mml ay the drunkard/ Ukatetp. .- 1 JTennr ir, 

n' vose, a. [Lat. rlmt = a river.] 

Zool., c. : Having furrows more or less 
sinuate like the course of a river. 

rf-vo-tite, . [After Prof. Birot, of Paris ; 
enff. -ite (M in.). } 

Min. : A very compact amorphous mineral 
of a yellowish to grayish-green colour. Hard- 
ness, 3-5 to 4 ; sp. gr. 3'55 to S'62 ; fracture 
uneven, fragile. An analysis yielded : anti- 
monic acid, 42-0 ; protoxide of ailver, 1-18 ; 
protoxide of copper, 39-60; carbonic acid, 
21-0 lime, a trace, from which the formula 
28bO 5 + 4(CuO,AgO)C0 2 is calculated. 

liV-tl-let, . [Lat rivulus, dimin. from rims 
L Ord. Lang. : A small stream ; brook, a 

treamlet '' 

" The shade* ... n 

Through which me to refresh the gentle rlntl ett irnn. 
Dranton : Hat* Slj/iium. Nymph. . 
XL Entom. : A British geometer moth, 
Emmelesia ajfinitata. 
TaV-n-lIn, . [Mod. Lat rivuHd); *. 

riV-zered, a. (Etym. doubtful.] Half-dried 
and salted : as, rizzered fish. (Scotch.) 

roach (1), * roche, . [A.S. reohhe, reohche ; 
coen. with But. rog = a ray ; O. But. roch = a 
skate; Dan. rokke = a ray; Sw. rocka ; Ger. 
roche ; Lat. raia a ray.J 

Icldhy Leudfcus rutilus, common through- 
out Europe north of the Alps, aud found m 
great numbers in the Sea of Azov and the 
Caspian Colour most brilliant at spawning- 
time, .specially in males. Upper part of body 
bluish -green, inclining to black; sides, 
brighter, sometimes silvery-yellowish; belly 
silvery-white ; ventrals and anals red ; dorsal 
and caudal gray, with red spots, and often 
with a blackish border. Length about ten 
inches, but large specimens may measure 
fifteen. Roach are gregarious, and associate 
with Bream and Budd, often breeding wi 
them. They are not much esteemed as food 
fish In England ; in Bussia dried roach is a 
national dish, and the roe of the Caspian 
Boach is made into caviare, large quantities of 
which are annually exported. 

U As sound at a roach : Perfectly sound. 
(Perhaps a corrupt, of Fr. roche = a rock.) 

"The Roach .pawn, in April and May in Prunia, 
. *. u /^T^ j w iv nn i. n ^ what, the scale. 

Chem. : A mucilaginous substance obtained 
from a freshwater alga, Simla tuberosa. 

* riJC-a'-tlon, . [Lat rimtio, from rixatus, 
pa. par. of rixor = to brawl, to quarrel.) A 
brawl, a quarrel. 

* rix-a'-trta, . [BIXATIOS.] A quarrelsome, 
brawling woman ; a common scold. 

rlx'-dol-lar, s. [Dan. rijkudaalder, rtgsdaler ; 
8w. rikntaler ; Ger. reickstliaUr, from nichs, 
genit. of nich = an empire, and thaler =a dol- 
lar (q.v.).] 

L A silver coin made at the British mint 
for use in the island of Ceylon. It is valued 
at Is. (id., and is divided into twelve fanams 
of IJd. each. 

2. A silver coin used at the Cape of Good 
Hope, divided into eight schillings, and worth 
about Is. 6d. sterling. 

rlz'-om, . [RHIZOME.] 

Her. : The grain of oats, agreeing with the 
ear of other corn. 

e oac .paw 

Ma. in Austria, aid Jne ,M } 
of the male become rough. The fnhe. then {*) 
ill weedy Places in shoal., and eshiblt those lively 
moveiueiu which have glren rtae to the adage, 4i 
SJnl M a roilcft.' It is not often fe to depend on 
inedll etymology, but it had been .uppowd that 
theBoacn wi. uusapable of Incoming dlseued. and was 
hencYuained! after'st. Koch, the legendary .Becula. 
fat.'-Seelei/ : Freik-ualtr flAa of furope. 9. US. 

roach (2), s. [Etym. donbtful.) 

Naut. : The upward cnrve of the foot of a sail, 
made in order to clear the stays, spars, &c. 

roach (3), s. [See def.] A cockroach (q.v.). 

rotten (, roche, . Ifr. roche = a rock.] 
LA rock. (Palsgrave.) 
2 Befuse gritty stone, or a bed in position 
resembling it. The highest bed in tie Port- 
land Oolite is called the Roach bed. (Kther- 

road, * rode, * roode, . IA.8. rdd = a 
Joarney, an expedition, a road, from rod, pa. t. 
of rtdan = to ride. Raid and rood are thus 

* L An incursion, an eipedition, a raid. 

" The Scot who will make mad upon us." 

Shaketp : Htnry Y.. 1 1 

t. The act of riding ; a journey, a ride. 

" With > roadt he came to Leiceitex." 

Uluitnp. : Bmn rill., IT. t 

a An open way or public pawMtge ; a way 
for passengers ; ground appropriated to public 
traffic, and forming a line of communication 
between one city, town, or place and another 
for foot-passengers, vehicles, cattle, &c. 
Roads are variously constructed, according 
to the state of civilization and resources of the 
country through which they pass, and accord- 
ing to the nature and amount of the traffic 
to be provided for by them. [MACADAM, 
ToiuiPiitA STREET.] As a generic term road 
includes highways, streets, lanes, &c. The 
Romans were the great constructors of roads 
among the ancients : their roads were pave- 
ments resting on a foundation of rough stones 
consolidated into one mass by liquid mortar 
or grout. The four great Boinan roads m 
Britain were : 

1. Watltng Street ; from Kent, by way o London, 
tC1 ' 

which the superstructure of a railway rests 
The substructure of the way consists of the 
embankment, bridges, piling, ballast, &c.,and 
supports the superstructure, which consist* 
of the rails, ties, chairs, frogs, crossings, &C. 

2. Civ.-eng. : In common roads, the whole 
material laid in place and ready for travel. 

" The road in England i. alway. well kept, the roo* 
bed i* often like a ruck." Burrougha : Pepttcton, p. MS. 

road-book, . A traveller's guide-book 
of towns, distances, &C. 

* road-harrow, s. A machine for drag- 
ging over roads when they are much out of 
repair, to replace the stones, gravel, &e., dis- 
turbed by the traffic. 

road - locomotive, s. A locomotive 
adapted to run on common roads. 
road-metal, . [METAL, ., A. II. 1. 0)0 
road-roller, s. A heavy cylinder used 
for compacting the surfaces of roads. 
road-runner, s. 

Ornith. : Geocoixyi oalifornianus. Ita power* 
of running are so great that it is often hunted 
on horseback. 

road-scraper, . A machine for scrap- 
ing or cleaning roads. 

* road-steamer, . A road-locomotive. 

road-sulky, . A light vehicle or trap 

accommodating only oae person. [SULKY, .] 

road - surveyor, . A public officer 

whose duty is to supervise the roads In a dis- 

trict, and ee that they are kept in good order. 

t road-weed, s. 

Bet. : The genus PlanUgo, especially Plantajo 
major, which grows on hard roads. 

road-worthy. . Frt for the road or 

road, rode, v.t. & t. [Etym. donbtful, per- 
hajS from road. s. (q.v.), or from Lat. nto = 
to revolve, through Fr. roder, or 6p. rodear. 
Ct Notes o? Queries, 6th ser., iL 316.) 

A. Tram. : To rouse. 

" Whn punned or rotM br a dog. they may U 
rald once T" Wilton t Banapartt: American On* 
SSSy (!. 18MI, HL It, (Not.| 

B. Intransitive : 

1. (See extract). 

A good retrltTer . . . who wlU road or follow tbe 
footiSnT of game weU.--*rt<* : * <> * 
Sportiny Dogl, p. M. 

2. To fly in a body. 

To ahoot wildtool radtna in, half an boor after 
th aer., xL 1M. 

1. Ikeulld street ; from St. David'., Wale., by way 
Of Birmingham. Derby, aud York, to Tyiiemoutn. 
a. Posseway ; from Cornwall to Lincoln. 
4. Ermin Street; from St. David, to Southampton. 

4. A place where ships may ride at anchor, 
at some distance from the shore ; a roadstead. 
(Generally in the plural.) 

" Peering in map. for port, and roadi." 

Shatap. : Merchant at Venice, 1 1. 

& A means of access or approach ; a path. 

" Blave to no sect, who take* no private road: 
But look, through Nnture up to Nature . Ooil 

Pope: Eftai/ on Man, IT. 8SL 

1(1) Byroad: By walking or riding along 
the highway, as distinguished from travelling 
by sea or by ran. 

(2) On the road: Passing, travelling. 

(3) To take (he road : To set out on a journey. 

(4) To take to the road : To become a high- 

road-agent, . A highwayman. (Local.) 

road-bed, s. 

L Rail.-cng. : The bed or foundation u n 

road' -less, o. (Eng. road ; -lea.] Destitute 
of roada. 

ff often acre*, a i .siiff^M country a. fan as 
STime.'. S^tu, Jan. , UM. 

road' -man, s. [Eng. road, and man.] A 
man who works upon the roada. 

road'-side. s. & a. [Eng. road, and side.] 

A. At eubst. : The side or borders of a road. 

- By the roa<Ude toll and Perished, 
Weary with tbe march OI life 1 

Lmafcllaa: footttept of Aweli. 

B. As adj. : Situated or being on the side 
of a road. 

M Roadside waete. roadtiAe paBture. and roatltidt 
turi ]SSSSvtS^aj to the adjoinli* landowner." 
field, Oct. 17, 1891. 

road'-Btead, t. [Eng. road and stead.} Th 
same as ROAD, ., 4. 

" Cnnes the nadOead. and with gale. 
y morning lift, the." 

. . 

road'-ster, e. [Eng. road; suff. -etcr.] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1 A horse well fitted for travelling, or com- 
monly employed in travelling, specif, applied 
to a trotter. 

2. One who i much accustomed to driving ; 
a coach-driver. 

3 One who rides along the roads instead of 
following the hounds across country. (Hunt 

" Once In a way the roadaeri and shlrken are dU- 
tlnctly favoured. -eW. April , 19. 

4. A tricycle or bicycle built more heavily 
than one for racing purposes, to withstand the 
wear and tear of travelling on tiie high road. 

" It waa a .ubHantlal roaditer." Held, Dec. . 1884. 

II Kant. : A vessel which works by tides, 
and seeks some known road to await turn of 
tide and change of wind. (Smyth.) 


roadway robber 

road -way, rode'-way, . [Eng. rood, and 
way.] A highway, a road ; espec. the part of 
highway used by vehicles, horses, &c. 

" Never a mini's thought in the world keep* tbe 
roadway better than thine." Shaketp. : % Btnry IV., 

roam, * ram en, * rom-en, v.i. & t. [Etym. 
doubtful. Skeat suggests a theoretical A.S. 
ram wm (not found) = to stretch after ; hence, 
to seek, to journey or rove about ; cf. O. H. 
Ger. rdnun, rdman = to aim at, to strive after. 
44 It can hardly be doubted that the use of the 
word was largely and early influenced by the 
word Rome, on account of the frequent pil- 
grimages to it " (Skeat).] 

A. Intrans. : To wander about without any 
definite purpose, object, or direction ; to rove 
about, to ramble. 

" How eager are my thoughts to roam 
ID queet of what they lore 1 " 

Cowper : Otnfy Uymnt, ilii. 

B, Trans.: To range, to wander, to rove 

" Now she roonw 

: TaA, t. Mo. 

The dreary waste. 

roam, s. [ROAM, r.J The act of roaming, 
roving, or wandering ; a ramble. 

" The boondleM apace, through which these roren take 
Their reetleai roam.' Tou*ff : Jftffht TJuufktt, Ix. 

roam -er, . [Eng. roam, v. ; -er.] One who 
roams or rores about ; a rover, a wanderer, a 

roan, * roane, * roen, a. & . [O. FT. rouen 
(Fr. roumi), a word of unknown origin ; cf. 8p. 
ruano roan ; ItaL roano, rovano.] 

A, AS adj. : Of a bay, sorrel , or dark colour, 
with spots of gray or white thickly inter- 
spersed ; now generally used of a mixed colour 
having a decided shade of red. (Applied to 
hones or cattle,) 

" How shall I answer ho* and cry 
For ft roan gelding, twelve hcudc high T " 

Butler : JfedUnu, 1L 1 

B. As substantive : 

L A roan colour ; the colour described in A. 

2. An animal, especially a horse, of a roan 

'* Proud, prancing on his roan." 
Byron : Englitk Bard* t Scotch Re*ie**rt. 

3. Leather : Sheepskin tanned witli sumach ; 
the process is similar in its details to that 
employed for morocco leather, but lacks the 
graining given to the morocco by the grooved 
rollers in the finishing. It is used largely for 
bookbinding and sometimes for shoes. 

roan-antelope, *. 

Zool. ; jEgoceros leucopKcKus, from the open 
plains of South Africa. It is about six feet 
long, forty inches high at the shoulder ; 
heavily built, with upright mane, long ears, 
and acime tar-shaped horns; hide black, which 
colour reflected through the ashy-gray gives 
the animal its popular Dutch name Blauw-boc 
(Blue Buck). 

roan, s. [ROWAN.] 

roar, *rore, v.i. A t. [A.S. rdrian; cogn. 
with M. H. Ger. reren; Dut. reeren. From 
the same root as Lat. latro = to bark ; Sansc. 
rd = to bellow.] 

A* Intransitive: 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. To cry with a loud continued voice ; to 
bellow, aa a beast ; to shout. (Jeremiah ii. 15.) 

2. To cry aloud, aa in pain or distress. 

" Thereat he rored for exceeding peJne." 

aptntrr : f. $.. I. TliL 17. 

3. To make a loud, continued, and confused 
noise, as the waves, the wind, a crowd of 
people, or the like. 

" I am the Lord thy God, that divided the tea. whoae 
wave* roared." Itaiak H. 15. 

4. To laugh out loudly and continuously ; 
to shout in laughter. 

*5. To act riotously. (ROARING-BOYS.] 
IX ^et. : To make a loud noise in breath- 

ing. [ROARING, ., 2.] 
B. Trans. : To shout out loudly ; to cry 

aloud ; to call out or proclaim loudly. 

x Roar these accusations forth." 

Skaketp. : \ Henry VI., ill L 

roar, *rore, *. [ROAR, v.] 

1. A full loud cry or noise, as the cry of a 
beast ; a shout. 

" The roar of * whole herd of lions." 

Shaketp. : Ttmpett. 11. L 

f. The cry, as of a person in pain or distress. 
8. A loud, continued, and confused sound, 

as of the waves, the wind, a crowd of persona, 
or the like. 

"The ceaseless roar 
Which rushes on the solitary short." 

Byron ; Child* Baroid, it. M. 

* 4. A tumult. 

"PerceiuinghU enemies day ly to increase pon htm, 
and all the countries about to be in we." fox : 

fi. A shout or outcry of mirth or laughter. 

"Your flashes of merriment, that were wont to set 
tbe table In a roar." Skaketp. : Samlet, T. L 

roar'-er, *. [Eng. roor, v. ; -er.) 
J. Ordinary Language: 
L One who roars, shouts, or bawls. 

"The roartr is an enemy rather terrible than dan- 
geroos. He has no other qualification for a champion 
of controversy than a hardened front and a strong 
voice. " Rambler, No. 14. 

*2. One who acts riotously; a noisy, riotous 

" A lady to torn roarer, and break glasses ! " 

Mairingcr : Rentyado, L 1 

*3. A wave, a billow. 

" What care these roaren (or the name of king t '* 

Shaketp. : Temp+tt, i. 1. 

H, Vet, : A broken-winded horse. 

" If a hone is a roarer ... he will usually make a 
grunting noise when taking a fence." Stdnty : Book 
/ (JU Sorte, p. 698. 

* roar -ie, a. [RORY.) 

roar -ing, * ror-lng, * ror-yng, pr. par., o., 

& t. [ROAB, V.] 

A. As pr. par. : (See th verb). 

B. As adjective : 
L Literally: 

1. Shouting, noisy. 

2. Characterized by noise or riot ; riotous. 

" A mad roaring tlm*." Burn* ; O*it Time. 

IL Fig. : Going on briskly ; brisk, active ; 
highly successful : as, a roaring trade. (Colloq. 
or slang.) 

C. As substantive : 

1. Ord. Lang. : A loud, continued, or con- 
fused noise ; a loud cry, as of a beast ; a 
about, as of laughter. (Proverbs xir. 12.) 

2. Veterinary: 

(1) A peculiar sound emitted during respira- 
tion by some horses. When of a chronic type, 
it most frequently arises from a paralysed 
condition of the dilator muscles of the left 
side of the windpipe, and is very often hered- 
itary. (Sidney.) 

"Their horses make much muscle, and roaring la 
almoet unknown among them." Globe, NOT. 9, lass, 

(2) The act of breathing loud. [(1)J 

^ The roaring game : Curling. (Scotch.) 

* roaring -boys, s. pi. An old name for 

a set of noisy, riotous ruffians, who infested 
the streets of London in the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. They corresponded to 
the Mohawks of later times. 

* roar'-Ing-iy, adv. [Eng. roaring; -ly.] In 

a roaring manner. 

roast, * rost, * roste, v.t. & i. [O. Fr. rostir 
(Fr. rotir), from Ger. rotten = to roast, from 
rost = a grate, a gridiron, or from Irish roistin 
a gridiron, rosdaim, = to roast, rost = roast 
meat; Gael, rost, roist; WeL rAorfio; Bret, 
rosta = to roast.] 

A* Transitive: 

L Ordinary Language : 

L Literally: 

(1) To cook, dress, or prepare for the table 
by exposure to the direct action of heat, on a 
spit, &c. 

(2) To dry and parch by exposure to heat : 
as, To roast coffee. 

(3) To heat to excess ; to heat violently. 

" /toasted In wrath and fire." Shake tp, : Hamlet, ii, 2. 

2. Fig. : To banter, quiz, or chaff severely ; 
to tease unmercifully. (Colloq.) 

" Bishop Atterbtiry'i roatting lord Conlngsby about 
the topick of being priest-ridden." Dp. Attrrbury : 
Xptttolary Corretp., ii. 417. 

n. Metall. : To expose, as metallic ores, to 
a protracted heat below fusion, in order to 
expel sulphur, arsenic, carbonic acid, water, 
Ac., and frequently to effect oxidation. 

B. Intransitive : 

1. To cook or dress meat by roasting. 

"He couile rotte, and sethe, and broile, and frie." 
Chaucer: C. T.. ProL tit 

2. To become roasted or fit for the table by 
exposure to fire. 

roast, s. & a. [ROAST, v.] 

A. As tttbst. : That which is roasted, as a 
joint of meat ; that part of a slaughtered 
animal which is chosen for roasting, as the 
shoulder or leg of mutton, sirloin of beef, &c. 

" On holy days an egg or two at moat, 
But her ambition never reach 'd to roatt." 

Dryden : Cock * fox, M. 

B. As adj. : Roasted : as, roast beef. 

H * (1) To cry roast meat : Not to be able to 
keep one's good fortune to one's self. 

(2) To rule the roast : To have or take the lead 
or mastery ; to be master or chief. (Prob. 
for to rule the roost.) 

" Suffolk, the new-made duke, that ru/ the roatt." 
ShaJtttp. : 2 Btnry Tt^ L L 

roast-beef plant, s. 

Bot. : Iris fcetidissima. [IRIS.] 

roast-bitter, . A peculiar bitter prin- 
ciple, contained in the crust of burnt bread, 
similar to that produced by the roasting of 
different other organic substances. 

roast er, s. [Eng. roast; -er.] 
1. One who or that which roasts. 
* 2. A pig or other animal or article for 


" We kept a roatter of tbe lacking pig*." BladL 
more : Lorna Doone, ch. L 

roast' -ing, pr. par. or a. [ROAST, p.] 
roast Ing bed, s. 

Metall. : A floor or bed of refractory sub- 
stance on which ores are roasted. 

roasting - furnace, s. 

Metall. : A furnace in which ore is heated to 
drive off the sulphur and other volatile par- 

roasting-jack, . 

Domestic : An old fashioned device for turn- 
ing the spit on which meat was roasted before 
an open fire. 

* r6b, . [Fr., from Bp. rob, from Arab, robb = 
a syrup or jelly of fruit.] The inspissated 
juice of ripe fruit mixed with honey or sugar 
to the consistence of a conserve ; a conserve 
of fruit 

" The conserve or rather the rob that la made of 
them." Tenner : Via /lecta ad Vitam longam, p. 17L 

* robbe, v.t. & i. [O. Fr. robber, rober. 
The original sense was to despoil the slain in 
battle, to strip, to disrobe, from O. Fr. robbe, 
robe = a robe ; so Eng. reave (bereave) is formed 
in a similar manner, from A.S. redf= clothing; 
O. 8p. roWr; Sp. robor; O. H. Ger. rouion, 
roupon; Ger. rauben; Dut. raven,} 

A. Transitive: 

L To deprive, strip, or plunder of anything 
by unlawful force or violence, or by secret 
theft; to strip or deprive of anything by 
stealing ; to deprive unlawfully. 

" Thel robbiden hym and woundiden hym and wen- 
ton awey." tt'ycliffe : Luke x. SO. 

2. To plunder, to pillage ; to steal anything 

" Like a thief to come to rob my grounds," 

Shaketp. : 2 Henry VI.. IT. 10. 

3. To deprive, to strip. 

" That all the rest it sevm'd they robbfd ban 
Of bounty, aud of beautie, aud all virtues rure." 

Spenter i F. ., HI vi. 4, 

* 4. To steal. 

" To roft love from any." 
Shaketp. : Much Ado About Nothing, L S. 

B. Intrant. : To steal, to plunder, to pillage. 

" Hen and women sloub, and robbed thrugb the 
laud." Robert de Brunne, p. SB. 

* rob-altar, *. A sacrilegious plunderer. 
rob'-and, rob'-bin, s. [For rope-band.] 

Naut. : A piece of plaited rope, called 
sennit, used for fastening the head-rope of a 
sail to the jackstay ; a rope-band. 
Rob -ben Is land (s silent.) [See def.] 

Geog. : An island off the Cape of Good Hope, 
used as a penal station. 

Robben Island-snake, . 

Zool. : CoroneUa phocarum. 
r6V-ber, * rob-bour, *. [O. Fr, robbeur.] 

[ROB, V.I 

L Ordinary Language : 
1. One who robs or steals from another; 
one who commits a robbery ; a thief. 

" Who, turning to the robber bund. 
Bade (our, the bravest, take the brand.' 

Scott : Rokeby, HL SI. 

fat, fare, amidst, what, f&U, father ; we. wet, here, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine ; go, pot, 
or wore, wolt work, who, son: mate. cub. cure, unite, our. rule, full; try, Syrian. , oe = e; ey = a; qu = kw. 

robberdsman robustly 



2 One who takes that to which lie has no 
rieht one who strips or deprives another of 
anything by violence or wrong. 

IL Law: One who takes goods or money 
from the person of another by force or threats, 
nd with a felonious intent. 

robber-crab, s. 

Zoril. : Birgus latro. [BlROUS.] 

rob berds-man, * rob-bers-man, . 


r6b'-ber-y, rob-er-le.. [O. Fr. roberie.} 

1 Ord. Utng. : The act or practice of rob- 

bing or of taking anything from another by 

violence or wrong ; a plundenng, a pillaging , 


g taw : (See extract). 

The felonious and forcible taking, from th e per.o 

rob -ert, . (.HEBB-ROBERT.) 
R6b-er-tln,RSb-er-tine,. [Seedef.] 

Church Hist. : One of an order of monks, 80 
named after Robert Flower, the founder, 
A.D. 1187. 

rSb'-In, . [A familiar dimin. from Robert.} 

1. The Redbreast (q.v.). 
* 2 A trimming on the front of the dress. 

rSb'-In-ine, s. [Mod. Lat. robin(ia); -int I 

Comment., bk. lv.. ch. 17. 

r8b-bln(l),s. [Ceylon.] 

Comm. : The name given to the package m 

which Ceylonese, &c., dry goods as pej-per, 

are imported. The Malabar robbm of rice 

weighs 84 Ibs. (Simmonds.) 
rob bin (2), >. [Etym. doubtful.] The spring 

of a carriage. (Simmonds.) 

r8b'-bta(3), . [RoBAND.] 

robe. t. [Fr., from M. H. Ger. rout, roup; 
OH. Ger. raup; Ger. raub = booty, spoil a 
garment; cogn. with A.S. r V-sP?' 1 ' clo rr" 
ing: Icel. rouT= spoil; Itel. & O. Sp. roba, 
8p. ropa ; Port, roupa.] 

1 A kind of gown or long loose dress worn 
over other dress, especially by persons in 
high position, or engaged in any ceremonial, 
ordinance, or' rite ; a gown of state or office 
as of judges, priests, &c. ; a gown or dress of 
a rich, flowing, or elegant style or make. 

2 A dressed buffalo skin. A pack of robes 
is ten skins tied in a pack, this being the 
state in which they are brought to market. 

H Master of the Robes: An officer of the 
royal household, whose duty is to order and 
supervise the robes of the sovereign. Under 
him are several officers, as a clerk of the 
robes, a yeoman, three grooms, a page, a 
brasher, a furrier, a sempstress, a laundress, 
a starcher, and a standing wardrobe-keeper, 
at Windsor Castle, St. James's, and Hampton 
Court palaces, fcc. Under a queen the duties 
are performed by a Mistress of the Robes 
who is the highest in rank of the ladies in the 
service of the queen. (English.) 

5 Gentlemen of the robe (or of the long robe) : 

robe-maker, . A maker of official 
robes for judges, the clergy, barristers, mem- 
tiers of a university, &C. 

robe, r.t. & i. [ROBE, .] 

A. Transitive: 

i Lit. : To invest with a robe or robes ; to 
dress with magnificence ; to array. 

" Lying robed and crowned, 

^ (1) Robin run in the hedge : 

Bot. : Kepeta Glechoma. 

(2) Round-robin : [ROUNDROBIN]. 

Robin Goodfellow, s. A "drudging 
fiend," and merry domestic fairy, famous for 
mischievous pranks and practica jokes. At 
nieht-time he will sometimes do little servmes 
fof the family over which he presides. The 
Scotch call this domestic spirit a brownie ; 
the Germans, kobold or Knecht Ruprecht. 
The Scandinavians called it :Nisse God-dreng. 
Puck, the jester of Fairy-court, is the same. 


Robin Hood, s. A celebrated outlaw in 
thVreisn of Richard I. ; hence, a character m 
May-day and other games. 
robin-redbreast, . [REDBREAST.] 
robin-ruddock, >. The robin-redbreast . 

robin-wake, s. 

Bot. : The same as WAKE-ROBIN (q.v.). 
robin's pincushion, . The bedeguar 
of the dog rose. 

rb'-.-net (!),. [Fr.] 

Steam-eng. : A term for some of the cocks of 
the steam-engine, as the gauge, brine, and trial 

rob'-I-n6t (2), 
. [Eng. robin ; 
dimin. suff. -et.] 

1. A robin-red- 

"The mayit, merl, 

and robinet. 
Drayton : itut't Ety- 
ium. Nymph. Till 

2. Old Arm.: A 
military engine for 
hurling darts an* 


1L Fig- : To clothe, to dress, to invest, to 
cover : as, The fields are robed with green. 

B. Intrant. : To put on robes ; to array 
one's self in a robe or robes. 

rb' - erds - man, * rob - berds - man, 
* rSb'-erts-man, s. [Said to be named 
after Robin Hood, the celebrated outlaw of 
Sherwood Forest.] In the old statutes, a 
term applied to any bold robber or night thier. 
In Piers Plowman they are termed Roberdes 

" Koobertmen, or Keblieriitmen, were a sort of peat 
thieves mentioned In the statutes (5 Edw 8 *c-> . . . 
of whom Coke says, that Robin Hood lived m the 
reign of King Richard I., on the border, olBnlnd 
and Scotland by robberv, burning of houses, rapn 
and gpoll. Ac., and that these Robberdtmen took name 
I.' Law Dictionary. 

rob' -Ing, pr. par. or a. [ROBE, u.] 

robing room, s. A vestiary; a room 
where robes of state or ceremony are put on 
or off : as, a judge's roUng-room. 

ro-bln'-a-a, . [Named after John Robin, a 
tt-eMh botanist, herbalist to Henry IV.) 

1 Bot A genus of Galegese. North Ameri- 
can tree's', bearing deciduous, pinnate leaves, 
atd nodding racemes of white or roseate 
flowers ; calyx with five lanceolate teeth, the 
two upper approximate; legume many-seeded 
RobinmPseudacacia, a native of the United 
Staters the Bastard or False Acacia, called 
in America the Locust-tree. It is from fifty 
to eighty feet high, with loose racemes of 
fragrant flowers. The leaves, root, and mne 
bark are sweet. The wood is hard and 
durable, and used for trenails. In the south 
of France it is grown to furnish vine props. 
R. ida is the Rose Acacia of the Southern 
United States. 

2. Palaobot. : Found in the European Plio- 

ro-bln'-Ic, o. [Mod. Lat. robin(ia,); -tc.] De- 
rived from Robinia Pseudacada. 
robinic acid, s. 

Chem An acid found in the root of Robinia 
Pseudacatw.. It forms a syrupy mass, but 
becomes crystalline in contact with absolute 

ro-bln'-Mn, a. [Mod. Lat robing); -in 

Chem A yellow colouring matter found U 
the wood of Robinia Pseudacacia. Obtained 
by precipitating the aqueous decoction with 
basic acetate of lead, and decomposing the 
precipitate with sulphydric acid. 

--, . . . 

CACTI. : QsHsoOie. A yellow colouring 
matter found in the blossom of Robinia Pseud- 
acada. To extract it, the recently-gat Jiereil 
flowers are boiled in water, filtered, the filtrate 
evaporated, and the residue repeatedly ex- 
hausted with boiling alcohol. It crystallize* 
in delicate straw-yellow crystals having a silky 
lustre, melts to a yellow liquid at 195 , i 
slightly soluble in water and alcohol, insolu- 
ble in ether, but dissolves readily in alkalis 
and alkaline carbonate. Its aqueous solution 
is coloured dark brown by ferric chloride, and 
it reduces cupric oxide in a boiling alkaline 

robinine-sugar, . 

CUm.: Ci 3 H 10 Oj(?). A sweet brown syrup, 
obtained by heating robimne with dilute acids. 
It does not crystallize, smells of caramel when 
heated, and yields with nitric acid a large> 
quantity of picric acid. 

ro'-ble, . [Etym. doubtful.] 

Bot <*c. : Wood for shipbuilding, from > 
Bignoniad, Catalpa longissima, and Plalymis- 
cium platystachyum, one of the Dall/ergieB. 

* r8b V da'-vy, s. [Etym. doubtful ; ct 
rod, s.] A drink so called. 

" Sherry or *f *~g**& 4M( 

r&b'-or-ant, o. & . [Lat. rriborans, pr. par. 
of r<*oro = to make strong, from rot>ur = 

A. As adj. : Strengthening. 

B. As subst. : A strengthening medicine ; 

* rSb'-6r-ate, v.t. [I/at, roboratvt, pa. par. of 
ro(>oro = to make strong.] To make strong; 
to give strength to ; to strengthen, to confirm, 
to establish. 

" AnHnt Drivlleaes . . . whtch herein are robor*te& 

niSSSaS?-jKl: BM. camirf*.. u. M. 

* r8b-6r-a'-tion, s. [Low Lat. roboratio.) 
[RoBOBATE.] The act of strengthening, con- 
firming, or establishing. 

* rf-bbr'-S-an, * ro-bbr'-S-ous. a. [Lat. 
roboreus, from robur = strength, also an oak.) 
Made of oak ; strong. 

ro'-bur . [Lat. = C 1 ) hardness, strength, (2) 
the common oak, Quevcus robur.} (See etym- 
and compound.) 

Robur Carol! or Carolinum, s. 

Astron King Charles's Oak, a southern 
constellation, formed by Halley in 1676 from 
a portion of Argo Navis. 

ro bust', o. [Fr. minute, from Lat. nbutv* 
= stong, from O. Lat. rota ; Lat. robur = 
strength ; Sp. & Ital. robtafo.] 

1 Possessed of great strength; strong, 
lusty, sinewy, muscular, vigorous. 

" A robuit bolaterous rogue ,knockt him down. 
JT^nTiSi^.. bk. 1., I ilT. let. J2. 

2. Indicating great strength and vigour. 

Hi robuit, dliteuded cheit.'' 

Toung : Paraphratt o/Jao. 

3. Sound, vigorous : s, robust health. 

4. Requiring vigour or strength : as, robiut 

5. Violent, rough, rude. 

" Romp-loving mtw 
U bl'd .bout in %S3*S$ lmm . ,. 

ro-bust'-lous(iasy),a. [Bng. robust ; -io.J 
1. Robust, strong, vigorous, stout, sturdy. 

" TheM redundant locki, B 

2. Rough, boisterous. 


fo^ce or vigVur; stontly, sturdily, roughly, 

If they come In rotoitilouat . .. ! : ' M '" 
the brave? (ellowi."-Ben donjon .' DiKootria. 

ro-bust -ious-ness (i as y), ro-bust - 

Religion, slg. s. 1 

brfy ; p6ut. J6>1; cat, cell, chorus, 9 nln- bench; 

-tlan = shaa. -tlon, -ion = shun ; -tion, -f Ion = zhun. 

-clous. -t 


robustness rook 

FO-bfisf -ness. s. [Eng. robust; -iKsi.] The 
quality or state of being robust ; muscular 
strength or vigour : tlie condition of the body 
when in full flesh and sound health. 

"Beef may confer a rufi'ittnrit on my son's liinti<. 
but will hebetate hla In tellectuals/'.ir&uMnoii/'o;*'. 

ro bfist'-OUS, a. [Eng. rotnst; -oils.] Ro- 
hust. (Dryden: Don Sebastian, i. 1.) 

rfio, rukh, s. [Arab, rukh ; see def.] 

Arab. MytJiol. : A huge white bird, one claw 
of which is as big as the trunk of a large tree, 
and capable of carrying off an elephant and 
devouring it. Adolf Erman suggests that 
the fossil tusksof llhinoceros tichorhinus, winch 
have a faint resemblance to the hill of a 
gi'.Miitic bird, created the idea of the roc, 
which would then technically be a myth of 

roc am bole, t rok am bole, >. [Fr. 
rocambole; Ital. & Sp. rocantbola ; Sw. racken- 
toll ; Oer. rockenabolle = rye-bulb : rocken = 
rye, and bolle = bulby, because it ia bulbous 
and grows among rye.J 

Sot. <t Hort. : (1) Allium Scorodoprasum, a 
plant with bulbs like garlic, but with the 
cloves smaller. It is used for the same pur- 
poses as the shallot, garlic, &c. A native of 
Denmark, not much cultivated in England. 
(2) Allmm OpMoscorodon, from Greece. Some- 
times the two are considered to be identical. 

*OO-ceT-la, . [Port, roan = a rock. Named 
from the place of growth.] 

Sot. : A genus of Usneidse. Dull gray lichens, 
with a peltate disc, open from the front, and 
seated on a carbonaceous stratum. They 
grow on rocks by the sea. Roccella tinctori'a 
is the Archil, Orchil, or Orchella lichen. K. 
factformis, used, like the former, for a dye- 
plant, is less valuable. They occur in the ex- 
treme south of England. 

jroc-9el-Ian'-n-ide, s. [Eng. ro<xca(ic); 
aniline), and suff. -ids.] 

Hy/Otf' ) 
USa N 2 . 

Chem. : 

Phenyl-roccellaimde. A crystalline body ob- 
tained by heating roccellic acid with an excess 
of aniline, distilling, and treating the black 
residue, left in the retort, with alcohol. It 
forms colourless laminee, melts to a colourless 
liquid at 53', is insoluble in water, ammonia, 
and hydrochloric acid, but soluble in alcohol. 

roc-oel'-lio, a. [Mod. Lat rococo); -ic.] 
Contained in, or derived from plants of the 
genus Roccella. 

roccellic acid, i. 

Chem. : CtfHjaO. = ^I'gao :!)" j Q 2 . A. 
fatty acid discovered in 1830 by Heeren in 
Roccella, tinctoria, and other sjiecies of the 
same genus. It crystallizes in white rectangu- 
lar four-sided plates, or in short needles, melts 
at 132 to a colourless liquid, is tasteless, in- 
soluble in water, slightly soluble in boiling 
alcohol, but very soluble in ether. It is very 
slightly affected by reagents, but it decom- 
poses carbonates. The roccellates of the 
alkali metals are soluble in water. The barium 
salt, C]7H3<iBa"O4, is a bulky white powder, 
slightly soluble in boiling wa'ter, insoluble in 
Alcohol. The silver salt, Ci7H3,)Ag.2O4, ob- 
tained by precipitation, is a white amorphous 
mass, which darkens on exposure to ligljt. 

roccellic anhydride, s. 

Chem. : C^HanO^. A faintly yellow, neutral 
oil, obtained by heating roccellic acid to be- 
tween 220 and 280% mixing the brown mass 
with dilute soda-ley, and treating with ether. 
It dissolves easily in hot alcohol and in ether. 

roc-ceT-Un in, s. [See def.] 

Cktrn. : C 18 H W O, (?). A crystalline sub- 
stance extracted from KocceUa tinctoria by 
hydrochloric acid and boiling alcohol. It 
forms a mass of silky needles, insoluble in 
water, slightly soluble in cold alcohol and 
ther, but soluble in boiling alcohol. Hot 
nitric acid converts it into oxalic acid, 

reoh, v.t. (Ft. rochi = a rock.) To harden 
like a rock. 

" That winter's coldoease thee river harulye roch'.ny" 
Stanyhurtt : Conceuet, f. at. 

' roohe (1), >. [Fr.J A roach. 
roche (2), . [Pr.J Aroek. 

roche alum, i. 
rocho-lime, s. Quicklime. 
roches moutonnebs, . pi. 

Ceo?. : Projecting eminences of roe* which 
have been smoothed and worn into the shape 
of flattened domes by a glacier passing over 
them. They are called moutonnees because 
their small rounded bosses resemble the backs 
of a flock of sheep. 

R.6 chelle , s. [See def.] 

Geog. : A fortified sea-port of France, the 
capital of the department of Charente-In- 

Rochello- powder, s. [SEIDLITZ - POW- 

Rochelle salt, i. [SODIO-POTASSIC TAR- 


roch -et (1), ro^h'-St, t. [fr. rochet, from 
O. H. Ger. rocA, 
hroch (Ger. rocfc) = 
a coat, a frock : cf. 
Ir. rocan = a man- 
tle, a cloak ; Gael. 

1. An ecclesias- 
tical garment of 
fine white linen, 
differing from the 
surplice in being 
shorter, and open 
atthesides. Itwas 


formerly worn by 

riests and acolytes, but is now worn by 
ishops under the chimere. 

" The racket ia also derived from the albe . . . Ai 
the surplice is an augmentation of the albe. BO the 
rvcktt i< adiminutioti of the Mine . . . being ahorter. 
and either with tighter sleeve*, or without sleeves. 
It U well known that the clergy and bishop* were 
required formerly by the decree* of Synods to wear 
their atbes constantly; henoe therocAetj, which were 
merely reduced albas, were introduced from reasons of 
commodity . . . They were also worn by cantors and 
canons. also by choir children." Puffin : Otou. Etxlet. 
Ornament A Coitume. 

"2. A bishop. 

" Wringing the collective allegory of those seven 
angels Into seven single rochett. MUton: Retuunttf 
Church Oooernmtnt, ok. L, ch. r. 

* 3. A loose round frock or upper garment, 
the original of the ecclesiastical vestment. 

* ro9h-et (2), a. [Mid. Eng. roche = a roach ; 
diinin. sutt -et.] A kind of tlsh, by some 
taken for the roach, by others for the piper- 
fish, one of the gurnards. 

" Of rocket*, whitings, or common fish." 

Brotme: Britannvu Pattoralt, ILL 

* ro9h'-ette, i. [ROCHET (IX t.] 

roch Ing, o. [Etym. doubtful. Prob. from 
Fr. roclte = a rook (q.v.).] (See compound.) 

rochlng - cask, s. A wooden cistern, 
lined with lead, in which alum is crystallized 
after having been previously dissolved in water 
or by the action of steam. 

roch-le'd'-er-ite, s. [After Herr Rochleder: 
suff. -ite (Mm.).] 

Min. : A resinous substance originally ex- 
tracted by alcohol from melanchyme (q.v.). 
Colour, reddish-brown ; transparent to trans- 
lucent ; melting point, 100. Composition : 
carbon, 76-79 ; hydrogen, 9-06; oxygen, 14 '15 
= 100. Found also in large masses in the 
lignite of Zweifelsreuth, Eger, Bohemia. 

rock (1), "rocke (l), *rok, * rokke (l), . 
[Icel. roJ*r = a distaff; Sw. rock; Dan. rok; 
O. H. Ger. roecho ; M. H. Ger. rocke; Ger. 
rocken. Prob. from Dan. rokke = to rock 
(q.v.).] A distaff used in spinning; the staff 
or frame about which flux, wool, &c., is 
arranged, from which the thread is drawn in 

" With her roe*e, many a knocke 
Slw gave him on the crown,.." 

Sir T. More : Serjeant i Frere. 

rock (2), rockc (2), roohe, * rokke (2), 
t. [0. Fr. rake, roclte, roc, from Irish & Gael. 
roc = a rock ; Bret, roch.] 

I. Ordinary Language : 

L, Literally : 

(1) A large mass of stony matter ; a large 
fixed stone or crag ; the stony matter which 
constitutes the earth's crust, as distinguished 
from clay, sand, gravel, peat, <tc. 

" Down his wan cheek* briny torrent flowm. 
So silent fountains, from a root's tell he.vl." 

Pope : Homer; /Had ix. 14 

(2) In the same sjnse as II. 

(3) A stona of any size ; a pebble. (CoUoo> 
or humorous.) 

2. Figuratively: 

(1) A cause or source of peril or disaster 
(from vessels being wrecked on rocks) : as, 
This is the rock on .vhieh he split. 

(2) A defence ; a means of safety or protec- 
tion ; an asylum, a refuge. (Scriptural.) 

" They remembered that God was their roc*." 
Piatm Ixxviii. 85. 

(3) A kind of hard sweetmeat 

(4) The same as ROCK-PKIEOS (q.v.)t 

" Being a bit slow In firing a tist rock escaped him.* 
-Field, April i. 1955. 

IL neol. : Any portion of the earth's crnst. 
coherent or incoherent, any sedimentary 
stratum or any dyke or overlying mass of 
volcanic or plutonic mineral matter. The 
older writers drew a distinction between rocks 
and soils. Both are now regarded as rocks. 
So are blown sand, silt, mould, and peat ; 
though the last is soft, spongy, and of veget- 
able origin. AVere the vegetable character to 
exclude it, coal would have to be omitted too. 
Most rocks, originally soft, have become hard 
and compact by losing their moisture, and 
being subjected to pressure. As a rule a rock 
is not a bed of some simple mineral. In most 
cases there are crystals cemented together by 
imperfectly crystalline or amorphous matter, 
or there is a mixture of angular and rounded 
grains, also bound together by mineral matter. 
[MINERAL.] Viewed as to composition, there 
are three leading classes of rock : Siliceous 
or Arenaceous, some formed of loose sand, 
others of hard sandstone, with all intermediate 
grades ; Argillaceous rocks, i.e. rocks of clay, 
or more specifically having one-fourth alumina 
to three-fourths silica ; and Calcareous rocki 
composed chiefly of carbonate of lime, some 
of them proved, anil most of the others sus- 
pected, to be originally composed of various 
orgauisms. Viewed as to their origin, Lyell 
long recognized four kind of rocks : Aqueous 
or Sedimentary, Volcanic, Metamorphic, and 
Plutonic (all which see). A llfth category 
has now been superadded, viz., Aerial or 
jEolian, formed by the action of wind. 
Aqueous, JSolian, aud Metamorphic rocks are, 
as a rule, stratified ; Volcanic and Plutonic 
rocks generally unstratified : the last two are 
called igneous. Some stratified rocks are un- 
fussiliferous, others fossiliferons. For the 
stratigraphical or chronological order of thtj 
latter, see Fossiliferous. Much light has 
recently been thrown on the composition and 
origin of rocks, by subjecting thin sections of 
them to microscopic examination. [GBOLOQV.] 

^ Rock-cork = Mountain-cork ; Rock -milk 
= Mountain-milk ; Rock -soap = Oropwn ; 
Rock-oil = Petroleum. 

IT On the rocks : Quite out of funds ; iu want 
of money 

rook-alum, s. 

Min. : Sometimes applied to the massive 
form of alum. [Cf. Rock Salt.) 

rock basin, s. 

deal. : (I) A hollow, shaped more or less like 
a basin, in a rock. It may have been scooped 
out by a glacier ; (2) A basin in a rock pro- 
duced apparently by the movement of gravel, 
&c., driven forward by water. They occur 
sometimes in rocks to which the sea has 
access, and sometimes in granite or other 
rocks of mountain regions. 

rook-bird, .. 

Ornith. (PI.): The genus Rupicola (q.r.X 

rook-bound, a. Hemmed in, or sur 
rounded with rocks : as, a rock-bound coast. 

rook-butter, s. 

Min. : Impure efflorescences oozing from 
some alum shales in various localities, having 
the consistency of butter. Analyses show re- 
lations to Ualotrichite (q.v.), with which 
specitM Dana places them. 

rock cavy, t. 

Zool. : Cavia rupettris, found near the upper 
waters of rivers in the rocky districts of 
Brazil. It is about thirteen inches in length. 

rock cist, s. 

Bot. ; The genus Helianthemum. 

rock cod, i. A cod caught on a rocky 
sea-bottom. They are considered to be of 
better flavour than Jish from a sandy bottom. 

Ate, fat, fire, amidst, what, Bttl, tether; we, wSt, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, p5t, 
Mr. wore, wpll, work, who, con; mote, cob, cure, unite, cur, riile, lull; try, Syrian, w, ce = e; ey=a; qu- kw. 

rock rocker 


rock-cook, . 

Mi/A)/. : The Small-mouthed Wrasse, I^brus 
aaletus. It is about four inches long, and is 
taken occasionally in the Crab-pots on the 
Cornish coast. 

rock-cress, s. 

Bot. : (1) The genus Arabis (q.v.) ; (2) 
Crithmum maritimum. 

rook-crowned, a. Crowned or sur- 
mounted with rocks : as, a rock-crowned height. 

rock-crystal, . 

Min. : The limpid varieties of quartz (q.v.). 

rook-demon, s. 

Compar. Rdig. : A demon supposed to In- 
habit dangerous rocks, often identified with 
tbe rocks themselves. 

An early missionary account of a rock-de^m wor. 
hil.T,.Jbythe Huron Indians will show with what 
absolute personality savages can conoeire such a 
being. --iVor : Prim. Cult. (ed. 18731. il. 208. 

* rock-dO,s. The female chamois. (Grew.) 
rock-dove, rock-pigeon, i. 

OrnitK. : Columba livia. [CoujMuus.] 
rock-drill, s. A tool for boring rock by 
chisel movement or rotary motion. 

rock-fire, . 

Pyrotech. : An incendiary composition which 
turns slowly and is difficult lo extinguish. 
Used for setting fire to ships, buildings, ic. 
It is composed of three parts resin, four 
sulphur, t*n nitre, one regulus of antimony, 
and one turpentine. 

rock-fish, s. 

IcUhy. : (1) The Black Goby ; (2) a name 
given tx> various species of Wrasse (q.v.X 

* rook-free, a. Free from or without 

Whose shores, me thought, on good ad uantage stood. 
For my receit, rock-fret, and fenc'd from wind. Homer; <W.|f viL 

rock-goat,!. A goat which makes its 
home among the rocks ; a wild goat 

rock harmonicon, s. 

Music : An instrument, the sounds of which 
are produced by striking graduated lengths of 
rock-crystal with a hammer. 

rook-hearted, o. Bard-hearted; un- 

rook-honey, . Honey made by bees 
having their nests or abodes among the rocks. 
(Cf. Psalm Ixrxi. 16.) 

Then summer leniithen'd put his seaeon bland. 
And wif 

rock-hopper, s. 

OrnitK. : (See extract). 

In this scrub one of tbe ererted penguins, probably 
Xwlyptet chriitocoma. called by the sealers ia common 
with other species of tbe genus Eudyutes, the rock- 
hopper, has established a rookery. "-C. *>* Thorn- 
ton: Voyage of the Challeitger. ii. ISO. 

rook-kangaroos, . pi. 

Zool. : The genus Petrogale (q.v.). 
rock-leather, . The same ss BOCK- 
CORK (q.v.). 

rock-Illy, . 

Bot. : Selaginella convoluta, 

rock limpet, s. 

Zool. : The genus Patella (q.v.). [LIMPET.] 

rock-lychnis, s. 

Bot. : The genus Vis^aria (q.v.), 

rock manakln, . 

Ornith. : The genus Rupicola (q.T.X 

rock-maple, .-. 

Bot. : Acer saccharinum. 

rock-meal, t. 

Min. : A white cotton-like variety of car- 
bonate of lime, occurring as an efflorescence, 
falling into a powder when touched. 

rook-moss, s. 

Bot : A lichen, Ltcanora tartarca. [CUD- 

rock-oil, . (See PREOLZITJI.] 
rock-pigeon, <. 
t. The Rock-dove (q.v.). 
J. (Pi.) Sand-grouse (q.v.). 
rook-plant, . 
Bot. (PI.): Plants growing on or among 

naked rocks. Most have diminutive roots and I 
derive their chief support from the air through 
their leaves and stems. Examples : Lichens, 
Mosses, &c., various houseleeks (Crassulaces?), 
4c. The latter are often cultivated in rock- 
eries for their fine flowers. 
rock-rabbit, s. 
ZooL : Hyrax capensis. [HvRAi.] 
The South African Hyrax Is termed by the colonists 
Kill* I>iw or llock-r^bbit. and ia found in considerable 
plenty on the sides of the Table mountain. ' 
Wood : lllut. Sat. BUt., i. 790. 

rook-rat, .--. 

Zool. : The genus Petromys (q.v.). 

rock-ribbed, a. Ilaving ribs of rocks. 

rook-roofed, a. Roofed or arched over 
with rock. 

rock-rose, t. 

Bot. (1) The genus Cistus ; (2) the genus 
Helianthemum ; (3) Convolvulus Dorycnium ; 
(4) (PI.) the order Cistaceie. (Lindley.) 

rook-ruby, s. A name given by lapidaries 
and jewellers to the garnet, when it is of a 
very strong, but not deep red, and has a 
tinge of blue. 

rock-salt, s. 

Geol. : Salt deposited as a geological stratum. 
An Immense deposit of solid rock-salt is found 
on Petit Ause Island, Louisiana. The most 
famous mine in the world is that at Wlellroka, 
Galicia, which has been worked for centuries. 
Beds occur also in England, Austria, Poland, 
Russia, Spain, Ac. The salt of New York and 
Michigan is obtained from brine, due to solu- 
tion of rock-salt by the flow of underground 
waters. Rock-salt arose probably by the slow 
evaporation of sea-water in shallow gulfs or 
bays separated from the ocean by sand liars 
over which the waves occasionally broke, the 
thickness being produced by the slow sub- 
sidence of the land surrounding the gulf. 

rock-samphire, . 

Bot. : Crithmum maritimum. 

t rook-serpent, . [ROCK-SNAK^.] 


Steam-engine : 

L A shaft with tappets which raise the 
levers of the puppet-valves in a certain class 
of steam-engines. 

2. The shaft, with levers, used for working 
the' slide-valves, the notch of the eccentric 
rod dropping into a stud fixed in one of the 
levers ; the links 
of the slide-valve 
spindle being at- 
tached to the op- 
posite lever on the 
same sh.ift. 


Anthrop. : A nat- 
ural opening in a 
rock, utilized by 
man for temporary 
shelter or perma- 
nent residence. In ROCK-SHELTEB. 
some slight degree, 

the custom still survives in Pengord, masonry 
being added to render the residence more 
healthy and comfortable. 

" The very many observations which we have been 
able to make In the caverns and rocfc-^-e'fers of rYri- 
gord."- Lnrta * Chriat : Keliouia yljuua,,i (ed. 
T. R. Jones), p. 6- 

rook-slaters, s. pi. 

Zool. : The genus Ligia. [SLATER, II.] 
rook-snake, t rock-serpent, . 

Zool. : A name given in some of the British 
possessions to any individual of the genus 
Python (q.v.). Rock-snakes are among the 
largest of living reptiles ; specimens of eighteen 
and twenty feet long have been brought to 
Europe and trustworthy statements of the 
occurrence of individuals measuring thirty feet 
are on record ; but their size and strength are 
often much exaggerated. They kill their prey 
by constriction, and swallow it whole, com- 
mencing with the head. During the digestion 
the animal is lazy and unwilling even to 
defend itself when attacked. 

Roek-maka are mostly arboreal, and prefer local!- 

ties in the vicinity of water, to which the animal 

resortt for the purpose o( drinking. They move. 

climb and swim with equal facility." ffnoye. Brit. 

(ed. L't h), xx. 144. 

rock-staff, s. The lever of a forge-bellow* 
or other vibrating bar in a machine. 

rook-tar, . Rock-oil ; petroleum. 

rock-temple, s. A temple cut out of 
the solid rock, as at Ellora and other places 
in Hindustan. 

rock-thrush, s. 

Ornith. : The genus Petrocincla (q v.). 
rock-tripe, . [TRIPE DB ROCHE.] 
rock- violet, >. 

Bot. : Chroottpia Jolithut. 

rook-wood, . The same as Foam* 

WOOD, 2. 

rock-work, . 

1. Stones fixed in mortar In imitation of thj 
asperities of rocks. 

2. A natural wall or mass of rook. 

3. A rockery (q.v.X 

rSck (3), . [Roc.] 

rook (1), " rokke, v.t. & t tDn. rokke = to- 
rock, to shake, allied to rykke =to pull, to 
tug, from ryk = * pull, a tug ; cf. Ger. riicktn 
= to move by pushing ; ruck = a pull, a jolt, 
a jerk ; Icel. rugga = to rock a cradle.] 

A* Transitive: 

I. laterally: 

1. To move backwards and forwards, M a 
body resting on a support beneath. It differs 
from swing in that the latter expresses the 
vibratory motion of something suspewfed, nd 
from sftoite in denoting a slower aud more 
uniform motion. 

" He took her In his arms, and rocMrtff her to and 
fro. In faith, mistre-. said he. it i. high time for yo 
to bid us good night for ever. 1 Sidney : Arcadia, ill. 

2. To shake. 

" The god whose earthquakes ro<* the lolld grmind " 
Pop*: Jfomer; Iliad Xlli. 68. 

3 To move backwards and forwards in the 
arms, chair, cradle, &c., in order to induce 

" Hocked to rest on their mother's Ijreast." 

Shelley : The Cloud. 

4 To abrade the surface of a copper or 
steel plate, preparatory to scraping a inezzo- 
tinto. [CRADLE, ., B. 6.] 

"There were crets In the raOclna of the coiyer 
plate which were only known to Englunmeu. F<M 
MaU Oaieae. Feb. U. 1884. 

II. fig. : To lull, to quiet. 

" Sleep roc* thy brain!" 

Shitloetf.: Hamlet, Hi. t. 

B. Intrant. : To be moved backwards and 

The racking town 
Supplant* their footsteps." PhWpt : Cider, L 

rock (2), v.t. [ROCK (2), .] To throw stones 

at ; to stone. (Amer.) 

r6ck'-a-way, s. [Eng. rock, v., andaicay.) 
Vehicles : A kind of four-wheeled, two-seated 

carriage, with full standing top. 

rock'-c-lay, rock'-lay, >. [See dell A 
roquelaure (q.v.). (ScoteA.) 

rock'-er, s. [Eng. rocfc (1), v. ; -er.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. One who or that which rocks. 

" His fellow, who tbe narrow bed had kept. 
Was weary, and without a rocker slept ! 

Dryden: Cock t for. tM. 

2. A rocking-horse, or -chair. 

3. A low skate with a rounding sole. 
IL Tedinimttv : 

1. Eumifare : 

(1) A curved piece into which the two lgs< 
on the same side of a rocking -chair are inserted. 

(2) A curved piece underneath a child's 

2. Enar. : A cradle. [CBADLE, *., B. 5.] 

3. Metall. : A trough in which particles of 
ore are separated from earth by agitation in 
water. (CRADLE, ., B. 4.] 

4 Chem. : The congelation of a liquid is 
assisted by a slight agitation of its particles, 
which is effected in the ordinary process of 
freezing ice-cream by imparting an alternating 
semi-rotation to the vessel containing it, 

5. Sttam-eng. : A rock-shaft (q.v.). 

rocker-cam, s. 

Much. : A vibrating cam. 

rocker-shaft, . [ROCK-SHAFT.! 

bSB, btfy; pfiut. J6>1; cat, 611, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin. aj; expect, 
-clan, -tlan = shan. -tlon, -sion = shun; -tlon. -sion = ahun. -clous, -tlous, -slous - 

, -die. u 


rookery rod 

, . [Eng. rod: (2), a. ; -try.] An 
artificial mound of fragments of rocks, stones, 
and earth, raised in gardens or pleasure- 
grounds, for the cultivation of particular 
kinds of plants, as ferns, kc. 

* r6clf-et OX [ROCHET, (1).] 

rock'-St (2), * rok-at, . [Fr. mquette, from 
Ital. ruchetta, dimin. from rum = ganlen- 
rocket, from Lat eruca = a sort of eolewort] 
Sot. : A name given to various Cruciferse : 
O) the genus Hesperis (q.v.X and specif. 
Hesptris matronalii, the Italian species, culti- 
vated since 1697 in English gardens ; (2) the 
genus Di'-lrtaxis (q.v.) (Sir /. Hooter); (3) 
the genus Eraca, and specif. Ervca saliva 
(Loudon); (4) Sisymbrium Irio. 

rock et (3), rok-ettc, s. (0. Ital. raxhette 
= a bobbin to wind silk on, a rocket, dimin. 
from rocca =a distaff or rock ; so named from 
its long, thin shape, somewhat resembling a 
bobbin for winding silk ; Dan. & Sw. raket ; 
Ger. nickete, rakete.} 

1. A cylindrical tube of paper or metal 
tilled with a compressed mixture of nitre, 
sulphur, and charcoal, which on being ignited, 
propels it forward by the action of the liber- 
ated gases against the atmosphere. Rockets 
are used for various purposes ; as 

(1) In war : A military rocket is a projectile 
made and tilled like a common rocket, but 
with a case of sheet-iron or Atlas metal, and a 
hollow head containing powder, thus forming 
a "shell." The sizes in use in the service are 
the 9-pounder and 24-pounder. Formerly they 
were guided by the usual long rocket-stick 
screwed into a socket in the iron base of the 
case, but latterly this has been done away 
with, and the gas in issuing from the three 
vents impinges on three semicircular shields, 
causing the rocket to rotate, and steadying it. 

(2) For saving life at sea, by conveying a 
line to a stranded vessel. 

(3) As signals, or for mere pyrotechnic dis- 

(4) For killing whales. [HARPOON-ROCKET.] 

2. The lever by which a blacksmith's bellows 
re inflated. 

3. A tilting-spear, Having its point covered, 
o as to prevent injury. 

" Rady to luste, and to abyde all comers cnrtealy to 
Ton with roketlet."iemtri : froittart ; Cronucle, 
vol. 11., ch. clxiiil. 

rocket-bird, . (See extract) 

" IB the mango topes were procured examples of the 
Paradise flycatcher (Tchitrtta paraditi], generally 
yclept the rocket-bird by our osuntrymen. , field, 
April *. 1885. 

rocket case, s. A stout rase of card- 
board or cartridge-paper for holding the ma- 
terials of a rocket. 

rocket-drift, s. 

Pyrotech. : A cylinder of wood tipped with 
copper, employed for driving rockets. 

rocket-harpoon, s. [HAHPOON-EOCKET.] 

rock et-er, ?. [Eng. rocket (3) ; -er.] A term 
applied to a bird, as a pheasant, which, when 
flushed, rises rapidly straight up in the air. 

" It la nonsense to aay that a rocketer U eaeUy dis- 
posed of Field, Dec. , 1884. 

rock'- 6t- Ing, a. [Eng. rocket (3) ; -ing.] Ris- 
ing straight up in the air, as a rocketer. 

" I. standing with tome gentlemen, saw a rocketing 
pheasant, missed clean with both barrels come dowu 
a duster with the third." field, April 4. UK. 

rock'-I-ness, . [Eng. rocky (1) ; -ness.} The 
quality or state of being rocky or abounding 
with rocks. 

rock ing, rSck'-In, s. [Eng. rod; (1), s. ; 
-ing,] A country evening party, so-called 
from the practice once prevalent of the females 
taking their rocks with them and spinning. 

" On Fasten-e'en we had a rot-kin." 

Burnt : Epittle to A, Lapraik, 

rook-ing, pr. jar., a., & . [RocK (1), r.] 

A. 4 B. At pr. par. <e particip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 
C. At substantive : 

1, The act of one who or that which rocks ; 
the act or state of moving or swaying back- 
wards and forwards. 

2. The mass of stone or ballast laid to form 
the under stratum of a road. (Prov.) 

3. The motion of a steel mill on a copper 
cylinder intended for calico-printing, when 
the pattern of the mill Is to be repeated on 
the copper a number of times at intervals. 

4. The abrading of the surface of a copper 
or steel plate preparatory to scraping a mez- 
zotinto. [RocK (1), p., A. I. 4.] 

rocking chair, s. A chair mounted on 
rockers, so as to allow a backward and for- 
ward oscillation. 

rocking-horse, s. A wooden horse 
mounted on rockers, for the use of children. 

rocking shaft, . [ROCK-SHAFT.] 

rocklng-stono, s. A stone so balanced 
on a nutural pedestal that it can be moved 
backwards and forwards without its equili- 
brium being permanently disturbed. Some 
rocking-stones seem to have been produced by 
the deposition of a huge slab of rock home 
across an expanse of sea by a glacier, and 
which was detached on the shallowest part of 
a shoal when the iceberg took the ground. 
Upheaval afterwards raised it to its present 
position. Some rocking- stones have been 
made artificially, in imitation of those which 
have originated naturally. Popular opinion 
in Scotland and Iceland formerly supposed 
rocking-stones to be inhabited by a demon. 
Called also Logan or Loggr.n. 

rocking tree, s. 

Weaving: The axle from which the lay is 
1 suspended. 

* rock tah, a. [Eng. rock (2), s. ; -is*.] Some- 
what rocky. 

" His carcaase on rockith pinnacle hanged.** 

Stu nyAurtr . rirfjil : .SnM ii. 7I. 

Tock-land-ite, s. [After Rockland, New 
York, where found ; suff. -ite, (Min.).] 
Min, : The same as SERPENTINE (q.v.). 

rock -less, a. [Eng. rock (2), s. ; -lest.] Des- 
titute of or free from rocks. 

" I'm clear by nature as a rocklett stream. ** 

On/den : Ditto of Quite, 111. L 

rock -ling, s. [Eng. rock ; -ling.} 

Ichthy : A popular name for any species of 
the genus Motella (q.v.). 

" The pelagic, ova of the grey gurnard, the rockliny, 
and the lesser weever show " * 

Dec. M. 1M4. 

low oil globules." field. 

'-7 (1). o- (Eng. rock (1), v. ; -.] Shaky, 
insecure, unsteady ; hence, unfortunately, 
awkwardly. (Slang.) 

" Let him keep the tact of things having gone rooty 
with him aa dark as he cn7 Daily Telegraph 
Dec. 38, 1885. 

rock'-y (2), o. [Eng. rock (2), s. ; -.] 

1. Full of rocks ; abounding with rocks, 
" What could I do. alas ! encompassed round 

With steepy mountains and a rockjt ground ?** 

Boole : Orlando furtoto, II 

2. Made or consisting of rocks or stone. 

" The rocky pavement glittered with the show." 

Pope : Homer ; fliad XJlilL fM9. 

"3. Resembling a rock ; hence, hard, stony, 
obdurate, hard-hearted, hard as a rock. 

" Thy rocky laid wreck-threatening heart" 

Siaketp. : Rape o/Lucrece, MO. 

Rocky Mountain, a. 

Geog. it Zool. : Belonging to, characteristic 
of, or having its habitat in the Rocky Moun- 
tains, which stretch from the mouth of the 
Mackenzie river, in the Arctic Ocean, to the 
Anahuac mountains of Mexico. 

Rocky Mountain Locust : 

Zool. : Caloptenus spretus. It is very de- 
structive to fruit crops in the west and north- 
west of the United States. 

Rocky Mountain Pika : 

Zool. : Lagomyt princeps, a small rodent 
about six inches long, grayish-brown above, 
yellowish-brown on sides, grayish below. The 
American Indians call it Little Chief Hare, 
a circumstance which influenced Sir John 
Richardson, who first described the animal, 
in his choice of a specific name. 

ro-co'-OO, . [Fr., from rocaille = rock-work, 
from the character of the style.] 

Art : A florid, debased kind of ornament, 
which succeeded the style adopted by Louis 
XIV. and XV., and which exaggerated the 
main features and peculiarities of that fashion 
It is chiefly remarkable for the lavish abund- 
ance of its details, which are thrown together 
without propriety and due connection. Scroll 

and shell ornaments abound ; sometimes rock- 
work pavilions, birds and fishes, combined 
with enormous flowers. The term is some- 
times employed to denote a bad taste in de- 
sign and ornament generally. (Fairholt.) 

' rOC-O-lO, >. [ROQCELAURE.] 

ro-cou, s. [Roucou.] 

* roc-quet, s. [ROCHET (1).] 

rod, * rodde, s. [The same word as roes! 
I. Orrfinary Language : 

1. A long, slender stem of any woody plant, 
especially when cut and stripped of leaves or 
twigs ; a wand ; a straight, slender stick ; a 

" And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with 
a rod, and he die under his hand ; he shall be surely 
punished." Exodut xxi. 2O. 

2. Hence used more or less figuratively for 

(1) An instrument of punishment ; punish- 
ment, chastisement. 

" And a public school I really saw 
Where the rod was never used." 

fraed: Utopia. 

(2) A kind of sceptre or badge of office. 

" The rod and bird of peace and all such emblems." 
Smtetii. : Benrt rill., iv. 1. 

(3) A long, slender, and tapering wand or 
stick, or two or more such sticks joined end 
on end for fishing ; a fishing-rod. 

(4) Hence, used for the act or art of fishing. 

" There Is indeed a ' new world ' opened to tlie lover 
of gun and rod from the old lands across the sea." 
Hcribner'i Magazine, August. 18T7, p. SOS. 

(5) A fisher; one expert with the fishing- 
rod ; a rodster. 

" The late Sir P. SykesY a first-rate rod, was run out 
and broken, with one hundred yards, on the same spot, 
but a few days before." Pithing Gazette, Jan. 30, 1886. 

(6) A scale of wood or metal employed in 
measuring distances. 

(7) An enchanter's wand ; a wand possess- 
ing the power of enchantment. (Milton: 
Comus, 816.) 

3. A unit of lineal measure used in land 
surveying. It is equal to 5t yards, or 16J 
feet. A square rod is the usual measure ot 
brickwork, and is equal to 272J square feet. 

* 4. A shoot or branch of a family ; a trib, 
a race. (Psalm Ixxiv. 2.) 

U. Mach,, ttc. : A straight, slender piece 
of wood or metal, as the ramrod, wiping-rod, 
rifling-rod, used by gunsmiths and armourers ; 
the coupling-bar or lengthening bar of a drill- 
stock ; a boring-bar, a connecting-rod, Ac. 

f (1) Sodi and cones of the retina : 
Anat, : Elongated cylindrical rods, and short 
thick cones, situated between the external 
membrane and the pigmentary layer of the 

(2) Sods 0} Corti : 

Anat. : Two sets of stiff, rod-like bodies, the 
inner and outer rods of Corti, within the 
epithelium covering the Itasilar membrane of 
the ear. Together they constitute the Organ 
of Corti. 

(3) To kiss the rod: [Kiss, t>. 1 (4).] 

rod-chisel, s. A chisel on the end of a 

withe or rod, used by the smith in cutting 
hot metal. 

rod coupling, s. 

Well-sinking : A device for uniting the rods 
which carry the tools used in boring Artesian 
or oil wells, <fcc., so as to form a continuous 

rod-fisher, s. One who fishes with a 
rod, an angler. 

"It proved a most remunerative mode of Ashing 
and, because a greater number of flies could be worked 
on the line, a more injurious one to the rod-Jlther than 
the ordinary lath could possibly be." field, Dec. t, 

rod-fishing, s. Angling with a rod and 

" Kod-fAinf Is permissible until the end ot October - 
Gtobe, Sept. 9. 1886. 

rod-holder, . A rod-fisher. 

"They thus decrease the rental of waters either from 
net or rod-holder*.' L'attelfi Technical Educator, 
pi III., p. 85s. 

rod-Iron, s. Rolled, round iron for nails, 
fencing, ic. 

* rod-knights, s. pi. Servitors who held 
their land by serving their lords on horse- 
back. (Cowei.) 

ffcte, fat, fare, amidst, what, tall, father; we, wgt, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pt, 
or. wore, W9H work, whd, son ; mate, cub, cnre, unite, our. rule, full ; try, Syrian, , oe = e ; ey = a ; QU = kw. 


1 Hand and Bracelet. 

8 Hand. 

Photos by M<-yrowit7., New York. 

1 RAYS. 

i i. 4 Operators. 

5 Foot and Boot. 



rod toner, s. A special machine-tool 
for planmglocouiotive connecting-rods, guide- 
bars, and similar work. 
r 6d'-ddn,<. [ROWAN.] (ScotcA.) 

rod'-dy, o. [Eng. rod; -v-1 *<>11 of f^ 8 or 


rode, pret. ofv. [HIDE, .] 
rode, a.t. & i- (ROAD, .] 
ro dent, a. & J. [Lat. rodM, pr. par. of 

rodo = tognaw.) 

A. Ai adjective : 
I. Gnawing. 

2 Belonging or pertaining to the o 
Eodentia (q.v.). 

B. As subst. : An animal that gnaws ; specif. , 
any member of the order Rodentia (q.v.). 

rodent-ulcer, rodent-cancer, . 
Pathol. : An ulcer generally appearing I 
in a small and irritable pimple about the eye- 
lids, the malar bone, upper lip, scalp, rectum, 
vulva or uterus. It is irritable, and spreads 
when scratched, till at last it leads to. frightful 
disfigurement. It rarely appears before the 
fiftieth year of life. Excision will sometimes 
extirpate it permanently. 
ro-den'-ti-a (t as sh), i. pi. [Lat. neut. pi. o 
r/.i" pr. pal. of roda = to gnaw.] [RODENT. 
1 7,ool. : An order of terrestrial, diphyodont 
placental mammals, rarely arboreal or nata 
torial of small size ; two long curved incisor 
n each jaw, growing from persistent pulps. 
No canines ; molars and premolars rarely more 
than four in each jaw. Feet usually penta- 
dactylous, armed with claws; ha lux, when 
present, not differing from other digits. The 
incisors are adapted for continuous gnawing, 
and their action is assisted by the longitudinal 
position of the condyle of the lower jaw, in 
consequence of which the jaw can be moved 
backwards and forwards. They are divided 
into two sub-orders: (1) Snnplicidentata, 
which never have more than two incisors m 
the upper jaw ; and (2) Duplicidentata, which, 
when adult, have two rudimentary behind the 
normal incisors in the upper jaw. 

2 Palceont. : The oldest remains are from 
the' Uppr Eocene of Europe and America ; 
but as all the remains of the Rodentia can 
either be classed in, or are closely related to 
existing families, their first appearance must 
be sought for much farther back in time. 

ro-de'-tl-a (t as sh), s. [Named after H. J 
A Rodet, a French botanist, 1810-75.] 

Bot A genus of Achyranthese. Thenativei 
of India eat the bright crimson berries and 
also the young shoots, the latter fried in ghee 

rod'-! -yas. s. pi. [Native name.] 

Anthr'op. : A section of the native population 
of Ceylon. [VEDDAH.] 

n\i (meli) = honey. ] The j uice of roses mixe< 
with honey. (Simmonds.) 

* rSd'-4-mSnt, s. * o. [Fr., from Ital. Kodo- 
monte.] [RODOMONTADE.] 

A. As subst. : A vain boaster, a braggart 
a bully. 

" St. Jade Argues with the rodomonti of his time. 
Boil*: Wartl, 11. 274. 

B. As adj. : Boasting, boastful, bombastic 

rod 6 mon tade , a. [Fr. rodomontade, from 
Ital. rodomontada = boasting, brag. Calle 
after Rodomonte, the brave but boastful leade 
of the Saracens against Charlemagne in th 
Orlando Furioso of Ariosto. He is calle 
Ttoilamonte in Boiardo's Orlando Inamorato 
Vain-boasting, brag, bluster, rant. 

* r8d-"-m6n-tade', v.i [RODOMONTADE, . 

To boast, to brag, to bluster, to rant. 

* r5d-o-m6n-tad'-Ist, . [Eng. rodomon 
tad(e), ; -ist.] A blustering braggart, an empt 

"rod-o-mon-ta'-do, . & a. [RODOMON 

TADE, >.] 

A, As subsi. : Boasting, brag, bluster, rodo 
mon tade. 

B. As adj. : Blustering, boastful, braggart 

* rod-o-mSn-ta'-dor, . [Eng. rodomon- 
tauKe); -or.] A braggart, a boaster 

" Th greatest tAllteri Mid rodomoniodori of Spain." 
Outline : Qenffraphy ; Spain. 

rod'-ster, s. [Eng. rod; suff. -r.] An 
angler, a rod-fisher. 

rod-wood, s. [Eng. rod, and wood.) 
Bot. : Lcetia Guidonia, a Jamaica plant. 

roefl) TO, s. [A.S. rah. rdh-deor; cogn. 
with Icel. rd = a roc, rabukkr = a roebuck; 
Dan. raa, raabuk ; Sw. ro. = a roe, ra-boch = 
roebuck ; Dut. ree = a roe, reebok = roebuck ; 
Ger. reh, rehbock.] 

1. A roebuck (q.v.). 

2. The female of the hart. 

roe (2), roan, * rowne, s. [Prop, roan, the 
n being dropped from the erroneous idea that 
it was a plural suffix, as in oxen, shoon, &c. ; 
Icel. hrogn; Dan. ngn; Sw. ram; Ger. rogen.] 

1 The spawn or sperm of fishes. (That of 
the male is termed milt or toft roe, that of the 
female hard roe or spawn). 

2 A mottled appearance In wood, especially 
In mahogany, being the alternate streak of 
light and shade running with the grain, or 
from end to end of the log. 

roe-stone, . [OOLITE.] 
roe' -buck, roo-bnkke, s. [Roi (!)] 

Zool. ' Capreolus caprea, an elegant, small, 
and almost tailless deer, sttll surviving in the 
woods of Westmoreland and Cumberland and 
in Scotland, and common in the north of 
Europe and Asia below the snow-line. 

roebuck-berry, s. 

Bot. : The fruit of Rubtis saxatiHs. 

roed, a. [Eng. roe (2) ; -ed.l Filled or im- 
pregnated with roe. 

OB-meY-I-a (or oe as e), >. [Named after 
Dr. J. Roemer, Professor of Botany at Land- 
shut, in Germany, who died A.D. 1820.) 

Bot. : A genus of Papaveraceae. Annual 
herbs with yellow juices, much-divided leaves, 
two sepals, four petals, two to four lobes of 
the stigma, a linear two- to four-valved 
capsule, and many seeds. 

roe'-mer-ite (or oe as e), . [After A. Roo- 
mer, of Clausthal ; suff. -ite (Min.).'] 

Min. : A monoclinie mineral occurring in 
crystalline to granular masses at the Ram 
melsberg mine, Goslar. Hartz. 

Roent' gen's method, .. [After Wil- 
helm Conrad Roentgen, Professor of Physics 
at the University of Wurzburg, Germany.] 

Roentgen rays, .. 

Photog.: A hitherto unknown manifestation 
of force or energy, recently discovered by 
Professor Roentgen, reported by him to the 
Medico-Physical Society of Wurzburg on De- 
cember 4, 1895, and since verified by numerous 
investigators throughout the scientific world. 
This manifestation is a result of the action of 
the secondary electric or induction current 
upon highly exhausted vacuum tubes, and is 
entirely dUtinct from the so-called "cathode 
rays" produced by this current within such 
tubes and first described by Crookes as "radiant 
matter" and more lately and fully studied by 
Hirtoff, Hertz and Lenaril. 

The most notable quality of the Roentgen 
rays or, as he terms them, of the X-rays is 
the ability to penetrate considerable thick- 
nesses of substances heretofore considered 
opaque to all known forms of light, besides 
which they are also capable, either before or 
after such penetration, of acting actinically 
upon ordinary photographic plates and of pro- 
ducing fluorescence in certain chemical com- 
pounds. And, as the permeability of various 
substances to these rays depends largely, though 
not altogether, upou their respective densities, 
it is therefore possible to make upon sensitive 
photographic plates outline- or shadow-pictures 
of objects entirely hidden from normal sight, 
or to render these visible by interposing a 
fluorescent screen between them and the eye. 
Thus shadowgraphs or skiagraphs have been 
made of metal articles enclosed in wooden 
boxes, of coins, 4c. in purses, of the bones in 
the living body, &c. (see illustrations), and by 
means of the skiascope these same objects 
become immediately visible to the observer. 

It is interesting to note the degree of trans- 
parency of various common substances. Cork 

and paper are very transparent; so is water 
and several other fluids, but not so much so as 
cork. Wood, ebonite, vulcanite and animal 
flesh are readily penetrated and for consider- 
able thicknesses; one observer has secured 
good results thorough eight inches of wood 
and Nikola Tesla has recently obtained a good 
skiagraph of the ribs, clavicle, scapula, 4c. of 
the living adult. Of the metals, Roentgen 
reports platinum as the most opaque and 
aluminium the most transparent of those ex- 
amined ; the latter being about 200 times more 
permeable than the former. Lead is three and 
zinc six times as permeable as platinum. Salts 
of metals are about as transparent as their 
respective metals. Glass is comparatively 
opaque to the rays, having about the same 
decree of permeability as aluminium. The 
true nature of the rays is still uncertain and 
the subject of much discussion. It is known 
that they pass in straight lines and apparently 
have their origin on the surface, and not 
within the vacuum (Crookes') tubes Iran 
which they emanate. They are perfectly in- 
visible to the human eye, and only manifest 
their results, so far as we now know, by produc 
ing fluorescence or by acting on photographic 
emulsions. Inasmuch as ultra-violet light has 
the power of producing fluorescence and of 
penetrating to a degree certain substances 
ordinarily considered opaque, some have 
thought that the Roentgen rays are similar in 
nature to light. But Roentgen himself did not 
think that this could be so, inasmuch as he wa 
unable to refract, reflect or polarize the rays by 
any methods he was able to employ, and he 
suggests the possibility of their being due to 
longitudinal instead of the transverse vibra- 
tions in the ether an entirely new form of 
force-transmission. However, Tesla has very 
recently succeeded in deflecting the rays by 
means of zinc and other metals, and I 
possible that they still may be found to obey 
the laws of ordinary light and to be due to 
transverse ether vibrations of peculiar wav. 
length and frequency. It is also as yet un- 
known whether they have any other sourc* 
than the vacuum or Crookes' tubes, but the 
writer and others have succeeded in obtaining 
skiagraphs and other photographic effects by 
means of sunlight and by artificial light 
through aluminium plates one millimeter in 
thickness, as well as through vulcanite and 
other opaque substances. The immediate future 
will doubtless be prolific of much information 
concerning this new and wonderful dfccovery. 
(Seneca Egbert, M.D., April 10, 1896.) 
rcep per ite (or ce as e), . QAfter W. T. 
Rapper, who analysed it ; suff. -ite (Mm.).] 

Min. : A member of the group of chryso- 
lites (q.v.), containing much of the protoxides 
of iron, manganese, and zinc. 
rofe, pret. ofv. [RIVE.] 

ro ga'-tion, . [Fr., from Lat. rogaUonem, 
accus. of roja(io = an asking, from rogatus, pa. 
par. of rojo=to ask; Sp. rogation; Ital. ro- 

* 1. Rom. Law : The demand by the consuli 
or tribunes of a law to be passed by the people. 

*2. A supplication ; a litany. 

rogation-days, s. pi. The Monday, 
Tuesday, and Wednesday preceding Ascension- 
day, so called probably from the use of special 
rogations or litanies on those days. 

rogation-flower, . 

Bot. : Polygala mlgaris. 

Rogation-Sunday, s. The Sunday pre- 
ceding Ascension-day. 

rogation-week, s. The week in which 
the Rogation-days occur. 

rd'-ga-tor-tf, a. [Lat. rogaHus), pa. par of 
ro,o = toask; Eng. adj. suff. -ory.] Seeking 
information ; engaged in collecting informa- 

rogatory-letters, s. pi. 
Law A commission from one judge to 
another requesting him to examine a witness. 

ro'-gen-steln, . [Ger. rogen = roe, spawn, 
and stein = stone.] 

Geol. : A marly limestone, of Oolitic struc- 
ture, found in the Bunter (Lower Trias) ot 

*ro-geV-i-an, . A kind of wig. 

. rogge, . [Icel. rugga = to rock a cradle.] To 
shake, to rock. 

bffll. b6y; pout, Jowl; cat. cell, cnoru* S Hln, bench; go, gem; thin, this; In, as; expect^ 
-clan, -tlan = shan. -tlon, -sion = hun; -*!<. -jlon = ihun, -olous, -tlous, -*lou* = shus. - 


rogue roll 

rogue, * roge, s. [A wort of Celtic origin; 
cf. Ir. & Gael. ruaju pride, arrogance ; FT. 
rogue = arrogaut, proud, saucy, rude ; Bret. 
Tok, rag = arrogant, proud.) 

I. Ordinary Language : 

I. A tramp, a vagrant. 

5. A knave ; a dishonest person ; a rascal. 
(Applied especially to males.) 

3. A term of slight affection or tenderness. 

" You swrt little rosnu."-4a4Urp. : > atari jr.. 

11. 4. 

4. A wag ; a sly fellow. 

" Tou hare two san-aiita Tom. an arch. sly roovf." 
Coteptr: Truth, 201. 

6. A wild elephant, living a solitary life, and 
remarkable for its vicious temper, (fennent.) 

6. A horse of an uncertain temper, and not 
to be depended on. 

1, A plant which falls short of a standard 
reqnired by gardeners, nurserymen, Ac. 

tt Law : A sturdy beggar ; a vagabond, a 
vagrant. They were formerly liable to be 
punished by whipping, and having the ears 
cored with a hot iron. 

rogue -money, >. An assessment on each 
county for defraying the expense of appre- 
hending offenders, prosecuting them, and 
maintaining them in prison. (Scotch.) 

rogue'* march, . A tone played when 
a bad character is drummed out or discharged 
with disgrace from a regiment or ship of war. 

rogues' gallery, . A collection of 
portraits of criminals, preserved by the police 
authorities for purpose* of identification. 

rogue's yarn, . A worsted thread laid 
up in the middle of each strand of British 
dockyard rope to prevent theft. A different 
colour is used in each dockyard, in order to 
trace the maker of rope which proves defective. 

rogue, v.l. tt I. [Roocs, s.] 

A. Intransitive : 

1". To wander about as a tramp ; to live the 
life of a vagrant or vagabond. 

"If h. b* bat one* so taken Idly rogttlna. he may 

puuUh him with the stocks." Spenser : On Ireland. 

3. To act the rogue ; to play roguish tricks. 

B. Transitive: 

I. To call a rogue ; to denounce or brand as 
rogue or cheat. 

' To roffue and ridicule all incorporeal substance." 
ClutoorfA : Intell. Suttetx. 

2. To uproot or destroy, as plants which 
fail to come up to a required standard. 

rog'-uer-jr, . [Eng. rogue ; -ry.] 

* 1. The life of a vagrnnt or tramp ; vaga- 

" To lire In one land ii eaptivltr, 
To run all countries a wild roguery." 

Donne : Keyy X. 

2. Knavish or dishonest tricks ; cheating, 

" A flam more senseless than the royuerf 
Of old aunupicj and liugury." 

ttatler : Budibrtu. U. S. 

3. Waggery ; mischievous or arch tricks. 
rogue -ship, s. [Eng. rogue; -ship.] 

L The qualities of a rogue ; roguery. 
2. A roguish personage. 

" I would ICM a limb to SM their romeMpe totter." 

JJ'aum. A Flet. : .Yiyht Wallur. ill. 

rog'-nlBh, o. (Eng. rogu(e); -isK.} 

* I. Vagrant, wandering, vagabondish. 

2. Knavish, fraudulent, cheating, dishonest. 

3. Waggish, arch ; slightly mischievous. 

" He was, to weet, a little roffuitft page." 

Thornton : Cattle o/ Indolence. t 25. 

rog 1 uish-ly, adv. [Eng. roguish- ; -fy.] In a 
roguish manner; like a rogue; knavislily, 
mischievously, wantonly. 

"Hii heir rcffuUVy waiteth all." Oralnaer: On 
Ecclfi.. p. SOS. 

a*g utoh-ness, . [Eng. roguish ; -not.'] The 
quality or stole of being roguish; kuaviah- 
neas, archness, cunning. 

rog'-uy. a. [Eng. rogvtf); -/.] Rognish, 
knavish, wanton. 

A sbapbenTs 007 bad gotten a roffstr trlca- of cry- 
ing. 'A wolf,' and fooling the country with false 
alarms. " VKitrange: Fabiei. 

ro'-h&n, ro'-hIn-9, . [Hind, rohan; Beng, 
,- rohinn. ] 

Hot. : Soyir.ida fcbrifuga. 

rdh-t8-Ich-thy-i'-na. s. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
nhteichtUys) ; Lat. neut. pi. adj. sun*, -inn.] 

lektky. : A group of Cyprinidae ; anal very 
short, with not more than six branched rays ; 
dorsal behind ventrals ; mouth without bar- 
bels ; pharyngeal teeth in triple series. There 
is but one genus, Rohteichthys, with a single 
species(Rohteichthyinamicroltpis), from Borneo 
and Sumatra. 

rdh-tS-Ich'-thy, . [First element rohtee, a 
barbarous word coined by Sykes for a genus of 
Cyprinidffi now lapsed, and Gr. i^Wt (ichthvs) 


' rol-al, a. [ROYAL.] 

* roigne, . [Fr. rogue itoh, scab.] A scab, 
a mange, scurf. [Rosios.J 

* rolgnoua, o. [Fr. rogneux.] [ROIOME.] 
Scaoby, mangy, rough. 

roll, " roile, v.t. & i. [Etym. doubtful. 
Skeat refers it to O. Fr. roeler, a form of 
refer = to roll (q.v.).] 
A. Transitive: 

1. To render turbid, as by stirring or shak- 
ing up the sediments. 

"The spring . . . hat Just been roiled by a frog or 
musk-rat." Burrouffhl : Fepacton, p. 69. 

2. To excite to a certain degree of anger ; 
to annoy, to rile. (Pror.) 

" Hie spirit* wen very much roited." tTert ft : Life 
Of Lord tfuUford, 11. 69. 

3. To perplex. (Pnro.) 

* B. Intrara. : To roam about ; to roam, to 

" Were wont to rome aad rolte In olusUn." Stany- 
hurtt : DtKript. of Ireland, p. U. 

Toil, 'rolle, s. [Ktym. doubtful.) A 
Flemish horse. 

roil'-y, o. [Eng. roil, v. ; -y.] Turbid, muddy ; 
having the sediment stirred up. 

" Its current* too roity from the shower for flj.fijh- 
ing.'Burroufftu : Ptpacton, p. 8ft, 

* roin, *. [RoioNE.] 

* roin Ish, a. [RuTNisH.] 
rolnt, v.t. [AROTBT.] 

* roist, royst, r.i. [O. Fr. ruste = a rnstic, 
from Lat. rusticum, accus. of rusticus = rustic 
(q.v.).] [ROISTER, v.] To bluster, to swag- 
ger, to bully. 

" I have a routing challenge seut." 

Moiteap. : TroVite el Creetida, U. a, 

* roist'-er, v.i. [Fr. mtrt, another form of 
O. Fr. nute = a rustic.] [RoiST.] To bluster, 
to swagger, to act the bully. 

" Among a crew of roiitring fellows. " Swift. (Todd,) 

* rolst'-er, * r6yst'-er, t. [ROISTER, .] 

L A bully, a swaggerer, a blustering, noisy 
fellow, a rake. 

"He went to the royal court, laid aside his books, 
and for a time, so long as his money lasted, became a 
T0yrter.~ Wood: Athena Oxon., vol. i 

2. A drunken riotous frolic ; a spree. 

* roist er-cr, s. [Eng. roister ; -er.] A bold, 
blustering, noisy fellow ; a roister. 

* roist'-er-ly, a. & adv. [Eng. roister; -fy.] 

A. As adj. : Like a roisterer ; blustering, 
swaggering, violent. 

"They [women] delighted altogether In the garb 
and habit and rvletorlv fashions of wm."~a>trhet : 
Life of Wittiamt, p. IS. 

B. As adv. : In a blustering, bold, or bully- 
ing fashion. 

rdk'-am-bole, s. [ROCAMBOLE.] 

* roke, * rokke, u.i. or (. [ROCK 0), .J 

* roke (1), i. (ROOK.) 

* roke (2), >. [REEK.] 

1. Mist, damp, fog, smoke. 

2. A vein of ore. 

roke -age (age as Ig), ro'-koe, . [N. 
Amer. Ind. rookhie = meal.] Indian corn, 
parched, pounded np, and mixed with sugar. 
Called also yokeage. (Amer.) 

rSk'-e'-liiy, . [A corrupt of roquelaure 
(q.v.).] A short cloak. 

"And my mother's anid mutch and my red rolte- 
lay. "-*. Ileart of Xid-LeUuan, ch. IL 

r8k er, . [Etym. doubtful ; prob. roek (2\ 
s. ; -er.] The same as ROCKLINO (q.v.). 

ro kottc , t. [ROCKET.] 
" rokke, . [ROCK, i.) 

rok-y, a. [Eng. rok(e) (2), ,; ^,.) Mtatj, 

foggy, damp, cloudy. 

ro-l&n'-dra, *. [Named after David Ko- 
lander, a pupil of Linnaeus who travelled to 

Bot. : The typical genus of Rolandreie. 
Only known species Rotandra argtntra, the 
Silver-leaved Rolandra, from the West Indies. 

ro lin -dre-ee, . pi. [Mod. Lmt rolandr(a); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -MB.] 
Bot. : A. sub-tribe of Veriioniacefle. 

role, *. [Fr.= a roll, a scroll, a character in ft 
play, from Lat rotulus = & wheel.] A part 
or character represented on the stage by an 
actor ; hence, any part or function played by 
any one, a character or part assumed. 

"He was oca of thoee men of extraordinu-y ambf. 
lion and vanity, who mint play a great rule of touiK 
ort In their generation." Scribner't Magasim, Oct., 
1STS. p. 891. 

If Title rdh: The pflrt or character in & 
play which gives its name to the play : as, 
Hamlet, in the play of hamlet; Macbeth, IB 
that of Macbeth, &c. % 

roll, * roll en. * roule. * rowle, v.t. & i. 
[O. Fr. roltr (Fr. router), from Low Lt. 
rotulo = to roll, to revolve, from Lat. rotula, 
diniin. of rota = a wheel ; Sp. rollar, arrollar; 
Port, rotor; Ital. rotolare; Dut & Ger. rollen; 
Dan. rulle; Sw. rulla.] 

A. Transitive: 

1. To cause to revolve by turning over and 
over ; to move by turning on an axis ; to 
impel forward by turning over and over on a 
supporting surface. 

"And they.d, We camiot, until all the flocks b* 
gathered together, and till they roll the atone from 
tbe well's mouth." Gent-tit xxtx. 6. 

2. To move anything on its axis. 

3. To move in the arc of a circle. 

" Rolling hi* greedy eyeballs in his head." 

Shakeip. : Kape of Lucrecf. ML 

4. To wrap round on itself by rolling; to 
form into a spherical or cylindrical body by 

"Grind red lead, or any other colour with strong 
wort, and BO rr-U them up into long rolls like pencils. 
PfdcAawt .' On />ru irinj/. 

5. To inwrap ; to bind or wrap up in & 
bandage or the like. 

" Commlng out of the water, she rowlnth herself* 
into a yelluw cloth of fourteeue braces long." Ilack- 
Itiyt : royaffet, it. 320. 

6. To press or level with a roller ; to spread 
out or level with a rolling-pin or roller : aa, 
To roll a field. 

7. To revolve ; to turn over and over in 
one's mind. 

" Ful oft in herte he roltcth up and doun 
Tbe beautee of thine floreitu new and bright." 

Chaucer: C. T., l.T7I. 

8. To drive or impel forward with a sweep- 
ing, rolling motion : as, A river rolls its waters 
to the sea. 

* 9. To utter ; to give utterance or exprea- 
sion to in a prolonged, deep sound. 

" Who roH'd the pnalm to wintry sklea." 

Tennytnn : In Mtmoriam, IT. 1L 

B. Intransitive : 

1. To move or be moved along a surface by 
revolving ; to rotate or revolve as on an axis ; 
to turn over and over. 

" Rotting In dust and gore." Milton : P. L.. xi. MO. 

2. To revolve ; to perform a periodical revo- 
lution : as, Years roll on. 

3. To move or turn on wheels : as, The 
carriage rolled along. 

i. To turn ; to move in a circle , to revolve. 

" The poet's eye, in a flue frenzy rolling." 

Shateip. ; Jfidtummer A'iffht't ftream, T. 

5. To ride in a carriage. 

" The wealthy, th Injurious, try the stress 

Of business roused, or pleasure, ere their time, 
May roU in chariots." 

Vvrdtwortl. : Kxcurtion, bk. 1L 

C. To be formed into a cylinder or ball. 

7. To spread out under a roller or rolling- 
pin : as, Dough rolls well. 

8. To be tossed about from side to aide ; to 
rock, as in rough water. 

" The case of a vesael rWing at sea among warsx.** 
Brit. Quarterly Review, vol. ML, p. 99 (1973). 

9. To move in alternate swells and depres- 
sions, as waves or billows. 

" Icy aetu, where scare* the waters roll." 
Pop* ; Windior /' 

ate, f&t, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wSt, here, camel, her. there; pine, pit, siire. sir, marine; go, p 
r, wore, wglt work, whA, son; mute, cub, ciire, ijnlte, ciar, rule, rtU; try, Syrian. %O9 = e;ey = &; au = kw. 

roll rolling 


10. To tumble or fall over and over. 

" Down they fell 
By .boo-ndl. f --jhjgr.1 r*U" >L ^ 

11. To fluctuate ; to move tumultuously. 
Here tell me. if thou dar'st, my conscious soul. 
What din-rent norrowl did within Iheo roil 

friar: Solomon, il. 830. 

12. To wallow, to tumble : as, A horse rolls. 

13. To emit a long, deep sound like the roll 
of a drum, &c. 

All day long the nolle o( tattle rolled. "^ 

* 14. To wander, to roam. 

" M an shal not suffer his wif (TO roule aboute." 

Chaucer : C. T.. 3,3. 

* 15. To be enrolled. 

"In the last list, I presume, you roll." foote : 
IV Liar, L L 

I (1) To roll a drum : To beat a drum so as 
to produce a sound like that of a rolling body. 

(ROLL, 3., 12.) 

(2) To roll over : To kill, to shoot. 

" It ia sheer nonsense to say ... that it la a simple 
task to roll rabbits over dead as they shoot across a 
narrow drive." Field, Dec. 6, 188*. 

roll, * rolle, * roule, rowle, s. [In some 
senses directly from the verb to roil (q.v.), in 
others from O. Fr. rolle, roule (Fr. rO!) = a 
roll, from Low Lat. rotulum, accus. of ntulus 
= a roll, from Lat. rota == a wheel ; Bp. rolla, 
ml, rolde; Port, rota; ItaLrotofo, ruotolo.nllo.] 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of rolling ; the state of being 

* 2. That which rolls ; a flow in alternate 
rising and falling. (Thomson: Autumn, 17.) 

* 3. That which rolls, or is made or used for 
tolling ; a roller. 

Where land is clotty, and a shower of rain comes 
that soaka through, use a roH to break the clot*. 
Mortimer: Husbandry. 

4. Something made or formed by rolling; 
something formed into or resembling a cylin- 
drical body formed by rolling. 

" Large r-'llt of fat about his shoulders clung. 
And from his neck the double dewlap hung." 


5. A document which is or may be rolled up. 
" Behold an hand was sent unto me ; and, lo, a roll 

of a took was therein." Ezekiel 11 9. 

6. Hence, an official document generally. 

" Search was made in the house of the roHt."Ktra 

7. A register, a list, a catalogue, a category. 

" I am not in the roll of common men." 

Shaketp. : 1 Henry ir., lli 1. 

8. A quantity of cloth, &c., rolled or wound 
np in a cylindrical form : as, a roll of silk. 

9. A small piece of dough rolled up into a 
cylindrical form before being baked : as, a 
French roll. 

10. A cylindrical twist of tobacco. 

* 11. A large, thick curl : as, To wear the 
bair in rolls. 

12. The beating of a drum so rapidly that 
the sound resembles that of a rolling ball, or 
of a carriage rolling along a rough pavement ; 
any prolonged, deep sound. 

" And it passed, like a glorious roll of drums." 
Longfellow : Slate I Drea\ 

J A roll on the kettle-drum is produced by 
alternate single strokes of the sticks ; on side- 
drains tlie roll is made by alternately striking 
two blows with the left hand and two with 
the right, very regularly and rapidly, so as to 
produce one continuous tremolo. (Grove.) 

* 13. Round of duty ; particular office, func- 
tion, or duty assigned or assumed ; r61e. 

" Tn human society, every man has his roll and sta- 
tion aaaign'd him." L'Attranffe. 

11. Technically: 

1. Hooktrind. : A brass wheel, engraved on 
the edge, for hand embossing or gilding where 
* continuous line or pattern is to be impressed 
upon the cover or back of a book. 

2. Build. : A strip with a rounded top lal( 
over a roof at the ridge or at lateral joints, to 
raise the sheet lead at those pcints. 

3. Engr. : The cylindrical die in a transfer 
ring- press. 

4. Mtta.ll. : One of a pair, or series of rollers 
arranged in pairs, between which ores ar 

5. Metal-working : One of the pair of cylin 
ders between which metal is passed to dra 1 
it into a bar, or to flatten it out into a sheet 

6. Paper-making : A cylinder mounted wit 
blades for working paper-pulp in the tub. 

7. Wool-working: A carding of wool, de- 
livered broadside from the cards, and spine- 
what compacted in the process. Bolls are 
prepared for hand-spinning. 

I (1) Miattr of the Solit : [HASTEB, 5 10). 

(2) Boll* of Court and other bodia: The 
parchments (kept in rolls) on which are en- 
grossed by the proper officer the acts and pro- 
ceedings of the particular body, and which 
constitute the records of such public body. 

(3) The Bolls: A precinct situated between 
the cities of London and Westminster, en- 
joying certain immunities, and hence called 
the Liberty of the Rolls : the name being de- 
rived from the rolls or records deposited in its 

roll about, a. Fat and podgy, so as to 
roll about when walking. 

roll and fillet, s. 

Arch. : A rounded moulding with a square 
fillet on its face. It is common in the Early 
Decorated style, and passes by various grada- 
tions into the ogee (q.v.). 

roll-blotter, s. A roller around which 
sheets of blotting-paper are fastened, and a 
handle in whose forks the ends of the roller 
axis are journaled. 

roll-box, . 

Spinning: In the jack-frame, the rotary 
can or cylinder in which the bobbin and car- 
rier cylinder for the rovings revolve. 

roll call, . The act of calling over a 
list of names, as of students, soldiers, &C. 

roll-Joint, s. A sheet-metal joint In 
which the parts are rolled upon one another 
and pressed tight 

roll-lathe. . 

Much. : A lathe for turning off rolls for 
rolling-mills, calenderlng-machines, and for 
other purposes. t 

roll-moulding, t. 

Arch. : A moulding used in Gothic architec- 
ture, the upper half of which extends over 
the lower half, as if it were formed of a thick 
substance rolled up. 

rolT-a-ble, a. [Eng.roO, v.;-a&I.] Capable 
of being rolled. 

roll'-er, * rowl-er, . (Eng. roK, v. ; -en] 
I, Ordinary Language : 

1. One who or that which rolls ; specif., a 
cylindrical body turning on its axis, and used 
for various purposes, as for smoothing, crush- 
ing, levelling, spreading out, or the like. 

(1) A heavy cylindrical implement, of wood, 
stone, or (most frequently) of metal, set in a 
frame, and used for crushing clods, compress- 
ing and smoothing the surface of grass fields, 
or the like, levelling the surface of roads, 
paths, walks, &c. 

" A level lawn, shaven by the scythe, and levelled 
by the roller." Johnton : Life of Pope. 

(2) A rolling-pin (q.v.). 

2. That upon which something may be 
rolled up : as, the roller of a window-blind. 

3. That in which anything may be rolled 
a bandage ; specif., a long, broad bandage 
used in surgery. 

" Fasten not your roller by tying a knot, lest you 
hurt your patient." Witeman : Surgery. 

4. That upon which anything is rolled, so 
as to diminish friction. 

(1) A round piece of wood, &c., put under a 
heavy weight. [II. 4.] 

(2) The wheel of a roller-skate. 

(3) The wheel or castor of a table, chair, or 
the like. 

* (4) A go-cart. 

" He could run abont without a roteler or leading 
strings." Smit A : Live* of Highwaymen, il. 50. 

6. A long, heavy, swelling wave, such as is 
seen after the subsidence of a storm. 

"Under favourable conditions he may run In imme 
dlately behind a roller, and by quick work keep wel 
ahead of the following one, and so reach the beach in 
safety." BcrUmer't Jtagariitt. January, 1880, p. Me. 

tt Technically: 

1. Metal-working : A circular object in i 
machine acting as a carrier, a cutter, a die 
an impression-cylinder, or a flattener. 

2. Music : The studded barrel of the inusica 
box or chime-ringing machine. 

3. Kant. : A cylindrical anti-friction bar 

which revolves as a hawser or rope traverse* 
against it, and thus saves the rope from wear. 

4. Ordn. : A cylinder of wood, used as a 
winch in mounting and dismounting guns. 

5. Ornith.: Any individual of the family 
Coraciadse. Their popular name is derived 
from their habit of turning somersaults in 
the air, like a Tumbler Pigeon. Called also 
Roller-bird. [CoBacus.] 

"A most remarkable feature In the distribution el 
this family is the occurrence of a true roller (Coraciat 
temminckiij in the island of Celebes." Wallace : Oeof 
Dittnb. Attitn., ii. 813. 

6. Print. : [IKKINO-BOLLEB]. 

7. Saddlery: The broad, padded surcingle 
used as a girth to hold a heavy blanket in its 
proper position, generally made of twilled 
web with leather billets and chapes. 

8 Zool. (PI.): The family Tortricida (q.v.). 
Called also Short-tails and Short-tailed Bur- 
rowing Snakes. 

fl Ground Rollers: 

Ornith. : The genus Atelornis, from Mada- 
gascar. Their flight is very weak, and they 
come out only at dusk. 

roller-barrow, . A barrow mounted 
on a wide roller so as to cause no injury to 
the grass. 

roller-bird, . [ROLLER, ., II. 6.] 

roller-bolt, s. The bar in a carriage to 
which the traces are attached. 

roller-bowl, . 

Wool : A device at the delivery end of a 
wool-carding machine, for rolling the slivers 
detached by the dofflng-knife from the longi- 
tudinal band-cards of the dofflng-cylinder. 
The rolling compacts the slivers into cardlngs 
or rolls, which are delivered npon an apron, 
and are removed to the slubbing-niacbine. 
where they are joined endwise and receive a 
alight twist. 

roller-die, . A dia of cylindrical form, 
used in transferring steel-plate engravings for 
bank-note printing, and also the patterni to 
the rolls used in calico-printing. 

roller-gin, >. 

1. A gin in which the cotton Is drawn awaj 
from the seed by pinching-rollers, in contra- 
distinction to the saw-gin (q.v.). 

2. Hoisting: A gin provided with a roller 
on which the rope winds, and with a ratchet 
and pawl to sustain the weight. 

roller-lift, >. 

Print. : A small wheel to raise the rollers 
from the ink surface in a machine. 

roller-mill, t. A machine tor crushing 
or grinding grain or other substances between 
horizontal rollers, each having a positive 
motion ; also, a mill in which such machines 
are used. 

roller-mould, s. 

Print. : A mould in which composition ink- 
ing-rollers are cast. 

roller-skate, s. A skate mounted on 
small wheels or rollers, and used for skating 
upon asphalt or other smooth flooring. 

roller-stock, s. 

Print. : The frame upon which composition 
rollers are cast. 

rdll'-ey, I. [Prob. from roll, v.] 

Mining : A large truck in acoal-mine, holding 
two corves as they arrive on the trams from 
the workings A number of rolleys are coupled 
together and hauled by a horse to the bottom 
of the engine-shaft. 

rolley-way, . 

Mining: A tramway in a mine, 

roll'-Ick, v.l. [A dimin. from roll, v. (q.Y.).] 
To move or play about in a careless, merry 
fcshion ; to swagger, to be jovial. 

roll' Ick ing, o. [ROLLICK.] Swaggering, 
jovial, merry. 

"He described hU friends as >Hfc*i.wblades^Tl- 
dently mistaking himself for one of their set. ntt- 
dor* Hook : Jack Brag. 

roll'-ing, pr. par., a,., ft . [ROLL, 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective: 

1. Moving on wheels, or as if on wheel*. 

" Then flied up high behind the roMna wain ." 

Pope: Homer; Iliad xxii. *. 

boH, boy; pfint, Jowl; eat, 9011, ohorn.,, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, a,; expect, Xenophon, e^U*. -ig. 
-elan, -tlan = shan. tion, -sion = shun ; - tion. -slon = zhun. -clous, -tloo*. -sious = shus. -Me, -tfto, *c. - bel, Ota. 


^ ^ __ 

g, undulating; rising and falling 

roSf J ;''J| h *-fT" r! ' dll "r cluunrt. from Ait to 
roKuV l.n.lrto. -C Mur , lla,***,. Aug.. 1M2i p . ^ 

J. Making a continuous noise like the roll 
of a drum : as, a rolling fire of artillery, 

C. As substantive : 

L Ord. Lang. : The act of moving or beine 

oved by turning over and over ; revolution, 
rotation-; the act of levelling or smoothing 

IL Technically: 

1. Bookbind. : The process of flattening the 
pack of gathered signatures by hammering or 
passing through the rolling-press. 

2. MeialL : The process of drawing out or 
flattening metal by passing between rollers. 

. rolling-barrel, s. A barrel in which the 
ingredients for making gunpowder are pnl- 
nzed. It has an axis at each end, on which 
it rotates, and a door for the introduction and 
removal of materials. 

rolling chocks, rolling cleats, . pi. 
Naut. : Jaws on a yard to steady it against 
the mast when a ship rolls. 

rolling coulter, t. A sharp-edged wheel 
which is attached to the beam of a plough and 
cute downwardly through the grass and soil 
to divide the furrow-slice from the land. 

rolling-frame, . 

.Dyeing: The frame with rollers by which 
cloth is drawn through the dye-beck. 

rolling-friction, s. The resistance which 
rolling tody meets with from the surface on 
wnicn it rolls. 

rolling hitch, ... 

,{?*' ; . Auitcu round a spar, log, or cask, so 
that a pull upon the rope will roll the same. 

rolling-mill, . A combination of ma- 
chinery used in the manufacture of malleable 
iron and other metals of the same nature 
iron, which is heated and balled in 
the puddling furnace, is made into bars or 
sheets. It consists of rollers, journaled in 
pairs in metallic boxes in the iron standards 
or cheeks, and capable of being set toward 
or from each other by means of set-screws 
The grooves in the rolls are so made as to be 

ictive in giving the required form to the 
heated iron passing between them. The face 
of each roller has a series of grooves gradually 
decreasing m size towards one end. The iron 
ttuTrad l uUl OUgh e " Ch '" succes8ion r being 

ffoS^'inL thi!f "P 6 ""' 01 " two objecta are 
Mted: (l)the scoriae and other impurities 

ITfi ftTTWl lp(j OTiH /OV<vu*. -^ i _i m f 

rolling-tackle, . 

Naul. : A tackle which keeps a yard over to 
leeward when the ship rolls to windward It 
is hooked to the weather quarter of the yard 
and to a lashing on the mast near the slings ' 

fessor in P*aris.] 

Sot. : A genus of Anoneaj. Known species 
about twenty, nearly all from Brazil The 
natives use the wood of RoUinia muliifl,,m 
which is like lance-wood, for making spears. 

rol -lock, . [ROWLOCK.] 

rdT-jf-pdl-y, rol-ly-pol'-l*, * rol-lv- 
poo ley, * row-ly-pow-ly, * ron Iv 

POU-ly, a. & ,. [A redupl. of roll <q vYf 

A. At adject ire: 

1. Lit. : Shaped like . rolypoly; round 

eh. zix or&wtw .- Suttf, 

2. Fig. : Unstable, unsteady. 

B. As substantive : 

" Let us begin aome diversion; wbat d'ye think 

jKZ I. r * c u tri *""* '"--<''*'' 73S* 

2. A sheet of paste, spread over with jam 
and rolled into a pudding. 
* 3. A vulgar fellow. 
"Theae two 

L 116. 

"seaTchrto'ru^rale .'""'-'- 1BoMMiot ] T O 

*.*?!7a2'o>i b K. el , 1 1 "* ln to "<* " ""-- 


of plate, bolt, or bar, is given to the metal 

rolling-pendulum.*. A cylinder caused 
to oscillate m small excursions on a horizout" 
? tone. i t was designed as a time-measurer 
but is of no practical value. 

" Of thi, nort-hut. nd rormnK In tlie tand.- 

Sluttotp. : Hamlet, t L 

Bo-ma'- le, a. & t. [Pr. Somaiique; Mod Or 
Somalia:, from Lat. Roma. = Rome.] 

M^" A> S*' - ; Pertailli og or relating to the 
Modern Greek vernacular language or to 
those who speak it 

B. As mtat. : The vernacular language of 
Modern Greece ; the language spoken by the 
uneducated and the peasantry, sVcalled froin 
being the language of the descendants of the 

rolling pin, . A wooden cylinder 
ing .projectin handle at each end by 

Fabric : An Indian silk fabric. 

R m ,'~ an> <* & [Let Romania, from Roma 
= Rome ; Fr. Roman; By. & Ital. 
A. At adjective : 
L Literally : 

" K g to 

rolling-plant, .. 
rolling-press, . 


'or pi 

3. Applied to the common upright letter in 
printing, as distinguished from italic ; also to 

C !n Iett 

by mean, of rotation applied to the latter. 
rolling stock, rolling-plant, . 

" Burke, In h<e breut i Roman udou glow'd." 

B. Ai tvbstantive : Ca*ntw. 

t J' A " ative . f inhabitant of Rome ; one en- 
Joying the pnvileges of a Roman citiin. 

" Thl man la ft Roman." Actt 

2. A Roman Catholic. 

rolling-stone, t. 

It h *!.';L A 8 $ ne *? placed that at intervals 
It is displaced from ite resting-place, and rolls 
Z. Fig : A person who cannot settle in 

" ient ' but " 

t>U ApaMe 



t amty in the metropolis, and Peter have been 

** ^^rl'TT"^ "* 

not 'b^en Tr f tlle Bon * n *"M*5Mt..,,8 

Thf Pimroh unaer ecclesiastical officers 


in which ftS? <IecK\Ts 'aVsUeJhipIr"?? 
commends the faith of the Roman Christian 
e earnestly desires to visit (8-18), pnv 
j is not ashamed of the ?osn -I nt 
a'nZ^;'"' 8V8te t>c treatment of Chris- 
tian doctrine and practice to be found in tY 
^Testament. frying the Rmnan and ?the? 
parts of the Gentile world bv the liirht nf 
BEffi*** 8h < "owfearfunyco^pt 

i?f /I* ' en W ! re ' and lmw destitute of 
ncuse for their conduct (18-32). The Jew is 
next shown to have flagrantly violated the 

6&^iff^$a i jr;3 

ftte, fit. fare, amld,rt. ^t~^~^^~^T^. ">. ^-n^cteac. 

* -re, ^ ^ wh , ^ ^ ^ Z^sgsSttJttSi Stti g : * 

and ofDavid (iv.), he mammtoiomeaPaH 

Wessmgs which faith brings initsTaiif: j 
peace (v. 1), patience, experience hone ami 
eternal life (2-21). Nor does tl"'doc?ri'ne of 

Sf s ssfs'^nfS 

J^lT d by V 16 S P' rit of God . admitted to 
t epnv.leges of sonship, aided in prayer by 
the Spirit of God, they shall never be separated 
from the love of Christ, .ud through him shall 
be more than conquerors (16-39). The doctrine 
with^ref 1V "' e aoveI : ei S nt y is . n t treated of 
sionate idesire being expressed for tl'e aSraticS" 
ultmiately to take place, of the Jewish )*ople 
Ox.-xi.). Then follow ],ractical exhortation, 
with respect to Christian conduct in the several 
relations of life-as to friends, to enemies an 
persecutors, to the Roman civil authorities 
to the church in general, and to weaS 
brethren in particular^ (xii.-iv. 13). AftSln 
timating more minutely than before bJroWD S- 

s1"ut^tiOT s V from^i (I4 " 33)> and . 8endin 8 <*> 

rallw" 2 !^' he - cl(18es "'to a benediction 
l-^7j. No eminent critic has disputed thp 
genuineness of the epistle, wh!c is ac! 
knowledged even by Baur. It is first allud^ 
to by Clement of Rome, A.D. 95, by Ignatius" 
by Polycarp, by various Gnostics, by Justin 
Martyr by the writer of the epistle to 
Dlognetus &e., till finally Irenajus, about IK 
ifers to it by name. [PAULINE THEOLOOV.] 

Boman-alum, . An alum extracted 
from the volcanic rocks of the solfatena near 
maples, and containing more alumina than 
the common alum. 

Roman architecture, . 

Arch. : The Composite order. During the 
first centuries of tne Roman state the build- 
ings erected are to be ascribed lo the Etrus- 
cans Etruscan art forming the basis of Roman 
architecture; subsequently, in the time of the 
Scipms, the taste for Grecian art was mingled 
with it Greek architects were soon intro- 
duced into Italy ; and thus Roman architec- 
ture, like Roman art in general, conformed 
as nearly to the Grecian as the Roman genius 
permitted it to do. The reticulated masourv 
OPUS-MTICULATUM] is peculiar to Roman 
architecture. It consists of square cuneiform 
stones or tiles, with the broad ends facing out- 
wards, and arranged in lines, which do not 
ran horizontally, but intersect each other 1 

romance romanio 


et-work. The base and the corners of these 
walls consist of horizontal layers of square- 
stone, and there are sometimes intersecting 
belts of the same 
kind of material in 
the middle of the 
network itself. 
Amongst all the 
forms whk-h the 
Romans borrowed 
from foreign 
source 6 !, the art uf 
vaulting, which 
they learnt from 
the Etruscans, was 
that which they 
most skilfully 


adapted and devel- 
oped, and rendered the most distinctive ex- 
iirrssion of the peculiarity of their own style. 
Two modes of construction consequently ap- 
pear side by side in Roman architecture, viz., 
the Italian arch and the Grecian column. 

Roman-balance, s. An instrument for 
weighing, consisting of a lever having arms of 
unequal weight on the respective sides of its 
point of suspension, and a bob which traverses 
the longer and graduated limb. 

Roman-candle, s. A species of fire- 
work consisting of a tube partially filled with 
alternating perforated stars and small charges 
of gunpowder. Fire communicated to the 
upper end ignites the charges successively, 
which throw out the stars until all are dis- 

Roman Catholic, . & s. 

A. As adj. : Of or belonging to the Roman 
Catholics. [B.J 

B. As substantive : 

1 Church Hist. (PI.): The adherents of the 
Church which is Roman in its centre and 
catholic in its circumference. The word Cath- 
olic, meaning Universal, was used in early 
Christian and mediaeval times for the great 
ecclesiastical organization with which the 
vast mass of Christians were connected. 
When the Reformation took place, the Pro- 
testants refused to admit that the Church 
which they had left was entitled to call itself 
Catholic, and prefixed the adjective Roman, 
whilst its adherents claimed the designation 
Catholic without any limiting adjective. All 
admit it to be catholic in the sense of being 
the largest Church in Christendom, and all 
other episcopal Churches acknowledge the 
validity of the orders of its clergy. The 
number of Roman Catholics in the world has 
been estimated at 152,000,000, which is far 
too low ; at 213,518,063, at 214,370,000, and 
at 218,000,000. Taking the second of these 
estimates the distribution of Roman Catholics 
over the world is believed to be : in Europe, 
150,684,050 ; Asia, 8,311,800 ; Africa, 2,656,205 ; 
America, 51,422,566 ; Australia and the adja- 
cent islands, 443,442, making a total of 

The c-dieal difference between Protestants 
and Ri-inan Catholics lies in their conception 
of the Church. The latter hold that the 
Roman Church is the Church of the New 
Testament, with authority to define articles of 
faith, and that all bodies not in communion 
with her are either heretical or schismatic. 
Protestants' views differ widely from that of 
the High Churchman who, whjle denying the 
universal jurisdiction of the Pope, admits that 
as Bishop of Rome he is primus inter pares, to 
that which considers him the Man of Sin and 
the Antichrist of Scripture. From this fun- 
damental difference all others necessarily fol- 
low. Roman Catholics hold the Apostles', the 
Nicene, and the Athanasian Creeds, Transub- 
stantiation and the sacrifice of the Mass(q.v.), 
Seven Sacraments [SACRAMENT, ., II. 2.], the 
necessity of Confession [PENANCE], the exist- 
ence of a Purgatory (q.v.), the Immaculate 
Conception of the Virgin Mary, and the In- 
fallibility of the Pope. 


Roman Catholicism, s. The system, 
principles, doctrines, or rules of the Roman 
Catholic Church. 

Roman-cement, . A compound of 
pozzuolau and lime. 
Roman-collar, s. 

Ecdes. : A collar made of a parallelogram of 
lawn or fine linen, bound at the edge and 

stitched. It is worn by clerics and priests 
over a black, by bishops and prelates over a 
uurple and by cardinals over a scarlet stock. 
It is of quite modern date, and was originally 
only the shirt-collar turned down over the 

Roman-law, s. The Civil law ; the sys- 
tem of jurisprudence of the ancient Roman 

1 Roman law, like every other law, origin- 
ated in custom. Its first great stage Of de- 
velopment was reached in the publication by 
the Decemviri of the Twelve Tables, B.C. 451. 
These were supplemented rather than super- 
seded under the republic and the empire. 
Under the former, enactments made in the 
Camilla Centuriata and the Crnnitia Tributa, 
the Senatus Coiisulla, and the Magisterial 
Edicts, and, under the latter, the Imperial 
Constitutumes had the force of law. Finally 
the Justinian Code, A.D. 529, gave symmetry 
to the whole. The Roman law has more or 
less affected the legislation of all European 

Roman-literature, s. 
Literature: For nearly 500 years from the 
accepted date of the foundation of Rome its 
people had no literature, and when at length 
they attempted to supply the great want, 
they wrote in Greek, and in a servile manner 
followed Greek models. Ennius, who was 
born B.C. 249, laid the foundation of a genuine 
Latin literature. It gradually developed, 
culminating in the Augustan age. Cicero 
flourished B.C. 60; Caesar, 54; Cornelius 
Nepos, 44 ; Virgil and Horace, 28 ; Livy and 
Ovid 14. About A.D. 180 the Roman litera- 
ture 'began to decline, and by 539 it was in 
the last stage of decay. 

Roman-ochre, . A pigment of a rich, 
deep and powerful orange-yellow colour, 
transparent and durable. It is used, both 
raw and burnt, in oil and water-colour paint- 
ing. The colouring matt* 1* oxide of iron 
mixed with earthy matter. 
Roman-school, t. 

Art: The style which was formed or pre- 
vailed at Rome in the beginning of the six- 
teenth century, and which was remarkable for 
its solid and legitimate effects. The works of 
Raffaelle exhibit this school in its full develop- 
ment, and he is accordingly considered the 
great head of the Roman school. 
Roman-type, s. 

Print. : The ordinary printing type as op- 
posed to italic (q.v.). 
Roman-use, s. 

Ecdesiol. : The order of the Mass as offered 
in the Roman Church, and preserved from an 
earlier use in the missal. [SARUM-USE.] 

Roman-vitriol, > Sulphate of copper 
or blue vitriol. 

Roman-white, t. A very pore white 

ro-mance', ro-mannce, . A a. [0. Fr. 
rowans, roman, rttmant = (1) Roman, (2), the 
Roman language, (3) romance, from Low Lat. 
romanice = in a Roman manner or tongue, 
from Lat. Romania = Roman (q.v.); Sp. & 
Port, romance ; Ital. ramanzo ; Fr. romance = 
romance, roman = a romance.] 
A. As substantive : 

1 A tale in verse, told in one of the 
Romance dialects, as early French or Pro- 
vencal as the tales of the court of Arthur, of 
Amadis of Gaul, &c. ; hence, any popular 
epic belonging to the literature of modern 
Europe ; a fictitious and wonderful tale in 
prose or verse, and of considerable length. 

- If what is called a metrical romance. In ito most 
extensive acceptation, be properly defined a fabulous 
narrative or fictitious recital in verae. more or less 
marvellous or probable, it may be fairly concluded 
that this species of composition was known at a very 
early period to the Greeks, and, in process ol time, 
adopted from them by the Roman*," mum : 
Romance!, vol. i. 

2. A sort of novel, especially one dealing 
with surprising or marvellous adventures 
usually befalling a hero or heroine ; a tale 
picturing an almost purely imaginary state of 

" To love an altar built, 
Of twelve vast French Jtonvmcei, neatly gilt. 

Pope : Rape oftla Lack, iL M. 

3. A fiction, a lie, a falsehood. 

4 Romantic ideas or actions ; a tendency 
of the mind towards what is romantic, 

mysterious, or wonderful ; an intermixture 
of" the wonderful and mysterious iu literature. 

5. A simple rhythmical melody suggestive 
of a love story ; a" song or short instrumental 
piece in ballad style. 

B. As adj. : Pertaining to or descriptive ot 
the languages which arose in the south and 
west of Europe, bt>in^ chiefly founded upon 
the Latin, as spoken in tlie provinces subject 
to Rome. The Romance (or Romanic) lan- 
guages include the French, Provencal, Italian, 
Spanish, Portuguese, and Wallachian. 

ro mftnce , v.i. [ROMANCE, >.] 

1, To tell romantic or extravagant storiei ; 
to draw the long bow. 

2. To be romantic : to behave romantically 
or fancifully ; to build castles in the air. 

ro-man9'-er, s. [Eng. romance) ; -tr.] 

1. One who romances ; one who invents ot 
tells extravagant stories ; a liar. 

2. A writer or composer of romances. 

" The flctioiu of the Arabs were adopted by th 
Troubadours and first Gothic romaticert. Mlcut: 
The Liuiad, bk. ix. 

rd-man-ce'-ro, . [Sp.] A general name 
for a collection of national ballads or romances. 

t ro-manc' Ic-aL, o. [Eng. romance) ; -ical.] 
Resembling or having the character of h 
romances of the middle ages ; romantic. 

ro-manc'-lst, s. [Eng. romance); -ist.] A 

writer or composer of romances ; a romancer. 

" The charge, which had Voltaire for lt patron, that 

Gil Bias' was a plagiarism of previous Suanlall 

romanclstl.' Bally rSearapk. Dec. 24. 1885. 

* rd-man'-C^, o. [Eng. romance); -.] B 

"An old house, situated in a rommci plaoa," 
Ltff of A. Wood. p. 118. 

Ro-man-ese', s. [ROMAN.] The language of 
the Wallachisns, spoken in Wallachia, Mol- 
davia, and parts of Hungary. 

ro man esque (quo as k). * ro-man- 
esk, a. & s- [F r - romanesque.] 

A. As adjective: 

1. A term applied to the dialect of Langn*> 
doc [B. 1.) 

2 Pertaining to or denoting the style of 
architecture and ornament so called, prevalent 
during the later Roman Empire. 

3. Embodying romance ; representing sub- 
jects and scenes appropriate to romance; 
presenting fantastic and imaginary representa- 
tions, as of animals or foliage. 

4. Pertaining to romance ; romantic. 

B. As substantive : 

1. The common dialect of Languedoc, and 
some other districts in the south of France. 

2. (See extract). 

Komanetoue [is] a general term for all the debaafd 
styles of architecture which sprung from attempt, to 
imitate the Roman, and which flourished in Europe 
from the period of the destruction of the Roman 
Sfwr tm he introduction of Gothic architecture."- 
Qlouary of Architecture. 

3. A style of art in which fantastic and 
imaginary representations of animals and 
foliage are employed. 

romanesque-archltecture, s. 

Arch. : A general term applied to the sty]" 
of architecture which prevailed from the flftn 
to the twelfth centuries. Of these there are 
two divisions : (1) The debased Roman, preva- 
lent from the fifth to the eleventh centimes 
and including the Byzantine modifications of 
the Roman, and (2) the late or Gothic Roman- 
esque of the eleventh and twelfth centuries, 
comprising the later Byzantine, the Lombard, 
and the Rhenish, Saxon, and Norman styles. 
The former is a pretty close imitation of the 
Roman, with modifications in the application 
and distribution of the peculiar features ; the 
latter is Gothic in spirit, having a predomin- 
ance of vertical lines, and various other n 

rd-man'-Io, a. [ROMAN.] 

1 Pertaining to the Roman languages or 
dialects, or to the nations or races speaking 
them ; romance. 

" The Italic branch 1 represented among living 
languages only by the Romanic dialects, so called ai 
belni all de.ceuoed from the dialect of BOJV^ 
Latin." Whitney : Life t growth of LnnluaQ'. <* * 

2. Being in or derived from the Roman 

boll, bo?; pout. Jrfwl; cat, cell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, a.; expect, 
. -tlan = shan. -tton, -.ion = shun ; -Jlon. -}ion = ahtin. -oioua. -ttouB. -slou. = .*u. - 


Eomanish rondle 

Romanian, o. [Eng. .Roman ; -isji.] Per- 
ining to Romanism ; Roman, popish. 


"Bulls or letten at election only 
j Partryoi 

In the 

* Rd'-man-Isin, . [Bug. Soman;-lmi.l The 
tenets and teachings of the Church of Rome 
Roman Catholicism. 

"ThM PapMs he the common faith . . and 
their own proper XammOfm, to the yery same or like 
purpose u the Jews ha ye tile law and the orooheu ' 
Arrant : . Waiet to JjoMjtion, p. i, 

t Ro'-man-ist, s. [Eng. Roman; -fct] An 
adherent of the Roman Catholic church a 
Roman Catholic. (Fox: Actes, p. 241.) 

f ro -man-ize, .t & i. [Eng. toman; -te.] 
A. Transitive: 

1. To Latinise ; to fill with Latin words or 

"He did too much romonize our tongtie. leaving the 
**- almo " " ""'>''' hVfound 

2. To convert to Uw Roman Catholic re- 
ligion or opinions. 
B. Intransitive: 
L To use Latin words or idioms. 

"So splihlv rmumia*p. that the word of 
till was aet down In Latin. "Jfaton : 

.- . o 

2. To conform to Roman Catholic opinions. 

8peeci1 - (see eitr 

ro -man-iz-er. . [Eng. romani^e); -] 
One who romanizes ; one who converts or con- 
forms to the Roman Catholic religion. 

ro mansch , ro mansh , rou-mansch , j. 
[For Bomanith, from Roman (q.v ) ] A dia- 
lect spoken in the Grisous of Switzerland 
It is based on, or corrupted from the Latin. 

> . *>-maunt, >. 

* 1 - "won, the t being excrescent, as in 
tyranl, Ac.] A romance. 

"The LUn tongue, as ii oheemd hi an Ingenious 
writer, ceased to be .poken in Fnuioe .bout thiuluth 
century. and was succeeded by what was called 
e of 

. ee a was cae 

ton. . miitare of thelanJiaS tf 
Fruikl and ted LUin. i, the ion.VolchlT 

ro-man'-tf-cfat, s. [Eng. romantic; -fcf.j 
One who supports or is imbued with roman- 

rd-man'-tic-ly, adv. [Bng. romantic; -ly.] 
In a romantic manner ; romantically. 

po-mgn'-tJc-ness, s. [Eng. romantic; 
-nett.] The quality or state of being romantic. 

rdm'-a-ny. rom-a-ni, rom-ma-ny, . 

[Gipsy Rom = a man, a husband ; connected 
by Paspati with the name of the Indian god 
Raina, while Miklosich identifies it with 
Sansc. doma, domba = a low-caste musician.] 

L A gipsy. 

2 The language spoken by gipsies. (It is 

re to be found pure now, being in every 

case much corrupted by intermixture with the 

languages of the nations among whom the 

gipsies have lived.) 

" Whether Romani is derived from IndL Marathi 
ftc,. can only be determined by minute ' -" 


. ne yiuuue uveeton 

which, lonj neglected, are now beinjt carried 
~riou Orientalists. They have at leartertabushec! 
that Xomam stand, in & relation of a e- 

' I di " -tic, ro-man'-tlck, a. (Fr. ro- 
manttyut; 8p. & ItaL romaxtico.] 

L .Of or pertaining to romance ; partaking 
Of the nature of romance; marvellous ex- 
travagant, fanciful, wild 

Jf;,V en * "trawg*"' or fanciful ideas ; 


3. Pertaining to romances, or the popular 
literature of the middle ages ; hence, fictitious, 
Imaginary, ideal, chimerical. 

" Fiction's fair romuntte range." 
t nr-ui **"' MarMm - ' nmtrod.1 

4. Wndly picturesque; foil O f wild, fen- 

8 Scenei7: u> " n<i<! 

romantic school, t. 
Literature : 

. ^IS ^ /^* 17 f no<Jed in Qermany, 
bout 1808, by the brothers SchlegeL 

A similar school in France, represented 

Dnmiu> ' and 

ro-manz'-a (z as tz), s. (ItaL] 
Music : A romance (q.v.). 

ro-manz-I-e'-H (z as tz), >. pi. [ItaL = 
romancists.] A school of Italian poets who 
took for their subjects the romances of France 
and Spain, and especially those relating to 
Charlemagne and his knights. Ariosto is the 
chief poet of the school. 

ro man* -vite (z as tz), . [After Count 
Romanzov; suff. -tte (Aftn.).] 

ifin. : A brown variety of eisonite (q.v.l 
from Kimito, Finland. 

rom-aunt, . [ROMAHT.] 

rom-bel, <. [RUKBL.] A rumbling noise ; 
a rumour. 

rom bow line, *. [RUMBOWLIKS.] 

* rome, r. i. [ROAH.] 
rome, >. [ROOM.] 

rome -ine, rome -ite, s. [After the crystal- 
lographer, Borne de 1'Isle; suff. -W -in 

Min. : A tetragonal mineral occurring in 
octahedrons, mostly very minute, with various 
others at San Marcel, Val d'Aosta, Piedmont 
Hardness, about S-5 ; sp. gr. between 4-714 
and 4-675 ; colour, hyacinth-red and honey-yel- 
low. Compos. : antimony, 62-24 - oxvtren 
16-32; lime, 21-44 = 100, which corresponds 
with the formula 3RO,8bO3,SbO{, 

rome'-kln, rom -kin, . [Etym. doubtful ; 
cf. rummtr.] A kind of drinking-cup. 

Tome pen ny, rome scot, -rdme- 
Shot, J. (A.8. Kome-seott, Romt-feok, Sampan- 
ntng, Rdmpasnig.] [SHOT (2), .] The same u 
PETER-PENCE (q.v.). 

Ro'-mie, a. An adaptation of the Boman 
alphabet, devised by Henry Sweet, and so 
named by him " because based on the original 
Roman values of the letters." 

Bdm'-foh, a. [Eng. JZomf ;.*.] Pertaining 
or belonging to Rome or the Roman Catholic 
Church. (Used with a slightly contemptuous 
force, as the .Bomia* church, Somirt ritual, &c.) 

^? ~v**' *^ [EnR ' *""<). &} A Roman 
Catholic, a Romanist. 

-lab-ness, . (Eng. rompisA; -nes^V 
The quality or state of being ronfpS,; ap- 
position to indulge in rough o/ boikerous- 

: A PP lied to an ordinary when broken, 


ron-dache , >. fFr.] 

OW 4rm. : A large circular shield for foot- 

ronde, . [Fr.] 

rjrpog. .- A kind of round, cursive character 
in imitation of French writing, similar to our 
old Chancery engrossing hand. 

ufiis (itte it net tu Tiloiide. 

ron -deau (eau as 6), ron -do, .. (Fr. nm. 
deau, from rond = round.] 

1. A poem written in iambic verse of eight 
or ten syllables, and in thirteen lines- 
must have but two rhymes. It contains three 
stanzas, the first and third of which have five 
lines each, and the second three ; there is also 
a refrain, consisting of the first word or words 
in toe first line, added, without rhyming with 

n?^" 1 ?,' !? the end of the ei hth line ^d 
of the thirteenth line. (E. Gosse. in Com- 
AiU Magcuiiu, July, 1877.) 

2. Music: 

(I) Apiece of music vocal or instrumental 
generally consisting of three strains, the first 
of which closes in the original key, while each 
of the others is so constructed in modulation 
as to reconduct the ear in an easy and natural 
manner to the first strain. 

" Rondo form differs from sonata or aruiphonifr 
form. In that the nrst part is not mrk.d L, fei.aU 
Ttforik-iMj subject doe. not modulate, but reapjear. 
m Its key^hord at the cloae ot the first pertod, d 
again after the modulation of the second sublert si 


tro-na.ii--o-l-iy,adr. (Eng. rommticol 
'!/.] In a romantic manner : fancifullv wildlv 

* ro-man'-tl-clsm, . [Eng. romonHe; -ton.) 

L .The quality or state of being romantic ; 

pecif. applied to the reaction from classical to 

mediaeval forms which originated in Germany 

2. That which is romantic ; romantic feel- 
Jng, actions, or expressions. 

a omt fart the dl.tlnctlon of mortal 

and venial iins.--SouM .- Sermon., vol. rll. BerT.7 

romp.s. [ROMP, t>.] 

1. A rude, awkward, forward girl, fond of 
boisterous or rough play. 

" g"*% Jiffiling. plotting chamher-maids arrive. 
Hojden. aud romps, led on by Geu'ral CliVi- 

OtauaH) .- n* Saciad. 

2. Rude or rough play or frolic 

(a A kind of jig or lively tune that ends. 
with the first strain repeated. 

ron'-diH, j [O. Fr., from rmd = round ; 8p. 
rondel; Ital. randeUo.} 

1. A poem in fourteen lines, properly of 
eight syllables. There should be but two 
rhymes throughout ; those in the first fourth 
fifth, ninth, and twelfth lines, and those of 
the second, third, sixth, tenth, and eleventh 
lines should correspond. The seventh and 
eighth, and thirteenth and fourteenth lines 
are repetitions of the first and second, ffi 
Gosse, in CornJiiU Magazine, July, 1877.) 

2. Something round ; a rondle. 

3. The same as RONDEAU, 1. 

*4. Fort. : A small, round tower erected 
at the foot of a bastion. 

r&np, v.i. [Another form of romp (q.v 11 
To play about rudely, noisily, and boister- 
ously ; to frisk about ; to indulge in romps. 

/'Ifonnd the creature nrnipin; aud rolling In full 
HbertT.-, Ttlfgraph, Sept. M, 1SK. 

romp -Ing, pr. par. or o. [Roxp, v.J 

g-iy, adv. [Eng. romping ;.;.] In 
a romping manner ; like a romp ; rompishly. 

S ~ d i~ 1 *r? i -* (t as h )- * t N " n 1 

Wm. Rondelet, M.D. (1S07-15M), a naturalist 
of Montpellier.] 

1. Sot.: A large genus of Hedyotida?. Shrub* 
with white, yellow, Hue, pink, roseate or 
scarlet flowers ; mostly from the hotter ports 
of America. The bark of Rondtletia ftbrifiiga 
is given at Sierra Leone in fevers. 

2. Perfumery : A perfume, named from Ron- 
deletia odorata, found in Mexico and Cuba, hot 
not really prepared from that plant. 

ron delle', . (RONDLE, II. g.) 

ron-deur', s. [Fr.] Rondure (q.v.). 

r8n'-dle. riSn'-del, s. [O. Fr. rondel, from 
rond = round (q.v.).] 

L Ordinary language : 

* 1. Anything round ; a circle. 

rondo rooker 


_, The step of a ladder ; a round, a rung. 
II. Technically: 

1. Fort, : The same as ROSDEL, 3. 

2. Her. : A roundel (q.v.). 

" IVrtaln rondto, given In arm,, ha. their nmes 
according to their several culours. t 

3. detail: A round plate or disc. The term 
is applied to the crust or scale which forms 
upon the surface of molten metal in cooling, 
and which is removed from the crucible or 
cistern from time to time as it congeals, in 
order to obtain the metal in a form suitable 
for farther treatment instead of in a solid 
mass. Spelled also rondelle. Copper thus 
treated is known as rose copper from its red 

ron' do, . [RoNniit;.] 

* ron'-diire, . [Fr. rond = round.] A circle. 

"With April's first-born flowers, and all thiiigs_rare 
That heaveus air in this huge rondure hem". 

Shalcetp. ' sonnet u. 

rone, prtt. ofv. [RAIX, .) 

rone, i. [Prom the same root as run; cf. 
nmnd; Prov. Eng. nine, and Prov. Ger. 
roun = a channel.) [RHONE.] (Scotch.) 

* rong, fret. & pa. par. ofv. [Eiso, v.] 

rohg, i. [RUNG, i.] A rung or round of a 

So many steps or ron?. as It were of Jacob's ladder. 
Bil\op Androm ; Sermon., p. Bel. 

rn' -l6n (1 as y), * ron'-yin, . [Fr. rogne 
= scab, mange, itch, from Lat rooijrmtm, 
accus. of rooigo = rnst] A mangy, seabby 
animal ; a scurvy person ; a drab. 

"Out of my doer, yon witch, you polecat, you 
ronJS. "-S*a*p. : Uerr, wi, oj windeST*. s. 

ront, . [BUNT.] 

rood, * rode, roode, s. [The same word as 
rod (q.v.). A.S. rd = a rod, a gallows, a 
cross ; cogn. with O. Fris. rode ; O. S. rtda = 
callows, cross ; Dut. roede = a rod, a perch, a 
wand ; O. H. Ger. riuti = a rod of land ; Ger. 
ruthe ; Lat nH = a rod, a staff.] 
* 1. A cross. 

"Heo brogte oore Lord Jhesu to dye on the root." 
Robert of QtoMcoiUr, 61. 

2. A cross or crucifix ; specif., a representa- 
tion of the crucified Saviour, or, more gene- 
rally, of the Trinity, placed in Catholic 
churches over the altar-screen, hence termed 
the rood-screen. The rood consisted of the 
three persons of the Trinity, the Son being 
represented as crucified. Generally figures 
of the Virgin and St. John were placed at a 
slight distance on each side of the principal 
.group, in reference to John ixix. 26. 

" Now. by the rood, ray lovely malj. 
Your courtesy has erred, he said. 

Scott : Lady of the Lake. i. 23. 

& A rod, pole, or perch. [ROD, ., I. 8.] 
4 A unit of superficial measurement, the 
fourth part of a statute acre, and equal to 40 
square perches or poles, or 1,210 square yards. 
" A time there was. ere England's griefs began, 
When every rood ot gr.nmd maintained Its man. 
Uoldtmitk: Deterttd Village. 

rood-arch, s. The arch In a church 
between the nave and chancel, so called from 
the rood beiug placed there. 

rood-beam, * rode-beem, . A beam 
across the entrance to the chancel of a church 
for supporting the rood. 

[He] llth ygrave 

rood-cloth, a, 

Ecdes. : A black or violet cloth with which 
the rood was covered during Lent 

* rood-free, a. Exempt from punish- 

rood-loft,>. Agalleryovertheentranceto 
the choir of a church, at the front of which the 
rood or crucifix was placed. It was composed 
of open tabernacle-work, in wood or stone, 
ami was approached by a small staircase in 
the wall of the building. [AMBO.J 

rood saints, s. pi. 

Ea-les. : Images of the Virgin and of St 
John, the beloved disciple, placed on each 
side of the crucifix. 

rood-screen, . An ornamental parti- 
tion separating the choir of a church from the 
nave.and often supporting the rood or crucifix. 

rood-tower, rood-steeple, t. The 

" I leue and tr 
Which died v 

tower or steeple built over the intersection 
f a cruciform church. 
* rood-tree, * roode-tre, . The cross. 

,t In Christes felth, 
on the roode-tre. 

rod'-dS-bSk, J. [Dut rood = red, and Sot = 
a buck.) 

Zoo! CepMlopus natalensis, tlie Natal Bush 
Buck. Colour bright nay, with short conical 
horns. It inhabits the thick brushwood of 
the forests about Natal and the country to the 

rood' -peer, . [Eng. rood, and pier (f).] 
Sot.: Phobero*. Ecklonii. (Avier.) 

ro6d'-y, a. [Etym. doulitful.] Rank in 
growth ; coarse, luxurious. 

rodf, rhof. Tof, "roofe, t. [For kroof. 
from A.S. Ard/=a roof; co*n. with O. Fris. 
href; Dut. roe/; Icel. Jiro/=a shed under 
which ships are built or kept ; Buss, kroa =a 

1 Arch. : The uppermost member of * 
building ; the cover of any house or building, 
irrespective of the material of which it is com- 
posed The simplest form of roof consists 
merely of inclined rafters, abntting at their 
upper end, and attached to a fixed bearing at 
the lower ends.' Roofs are of various kinds, 
and are distinguished (1) by the materials of 
which they are composed,.as iron roofs, wood, 
slate, tile, or thatch roofs, 4c., or (2) by the 
form and mode of construction, as gable- 
roofs, Hat lean-to, hip, curbed, ogee, man- 
sard &c. The span is the width between 
supports. The rise is the height in the centre 
above the level of the supports. The pitch is 
the slope of the rafters. 

" How reverend Is the face of this tall pita. 

Whose ancient pillars rear their marble beade. 

To hear aloft its arch 'd and pond rous roof. 

Conoreoe: Mourning Bride, U. 

S. Corp. : The timber framework by which 
the roofing or covering materials of a building 
are supported. It consists of the principal 
rafters, the common rafters and the purlins. 
(See these words.) The two varieties of roof- 
ing in use are King-post roofs and Queen-post 
roofs. (See these words.) 

3 Mining: The part above the miner's head; 
that part lying immediately npon the coal. 

4. Anything corresponding with or resem- 
bling the eovering of a house, as the arch or 
top of a furnace, an oven, a carriage, coach, 
&c. ; an arch ; the interior of a vault ; a ceiling. 

"The mo/ of the chamber." 

Shakeep. : Cymbeltm, H. i. 

5. Hence, fig., a canopy or the like. 

" The dust 
Should have ascended to the roof of heav'n." 

BttoJtetp. : Antony * Cleopatra, UL . 

6. A covering or shelter generally. 

" Heaven's arch ls oft their roof, the pleasant abed 
Of oak and plain oft serves them for a bed. 

Drummond : Speed* of Caledonia. 

7. A house In general. 

" Within this roof 
The enemy of all your graces Ifves. 

Skuteip. : At To* Lite It, B. S. 

8. The upper part of the mouth; the palate. 

" Swearing till my very roof was dry 
With oaths of love." 

Slutteep. : Merchant of Venice, IB. 1 

roof-guard, s. 

Build. : A contrivance for preventing snow 
from sliding from a roof. It consists usually 
of a continuous series of horizontal slates, 
slightly raised above the roof-cover and sup- 
ported by uprights. (Amer.) 

roof-tree, a. 

1. The beam in the angle of a root 

2. Hence, used for the roof itself. 

" Does all that lies in his power to make yon happy 
during your lengthened stay under his capacious 
roof-trei'Paa Matt Oatelle. Oct. 5, 1S8S. 

If To your roof-tree : A toast expressive of a 
wish for the prosperity of one's family, or of 
all under his roof. (Scotch.) 

roof-trass, s The framework of a roof, 
consisting of thrust and tie pieces. 

roof, v.t. [Roor, .] 

1. To cover with a root 

2. To arch over ; to cover. (Miltm: f. R., 
ii. 293.) 

3. To Inclose In a house ; to shelter. 

" Here had we now our country's honor roof it 
Were the grac'd person of our Banqno Preeent 

Shatetp. : Mactetk, liL 4. 

rodf '-er, s. [Ens;, roo/, v. ; -T.] One who 

roofs or covers with a roof. 

rodf '-Ing, pr. par. & s. [Roor, .] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. -4s mbitantive : 

1. The act of covering with a root 

2. The materials of which a roof Is com- 
posed ; mati-rials for a roof. 

3. The roof itself ; hence, used figuratively 

roof-less, a- lEng. roo/; -lew.] 
1. Having no roof. 

" Thither I came, and there amid the loom . , . 

2. Having no roof or shelter ; unsheltered. 

roof'-lSt, i. [Eng. roof; dimin. suff. -let.] A 
little roof or covering. 

*roof'-y. a. [Eng. roof; -y.} Having roof*. 

" Whether to roofy houses they repair, B 
Or sun themselves abroad ill open air. 

Dryden : Virgtt ; Oeoroto ill. et 

rook (1) . [A.S. hric, cogn. with Icel hrokr ; 
rkn. MOM; Sw. rota; Irish ft Gael, roan; 
O H. Ger. hruok ; M. H Ger. rou<* = a rook ; 
Ger. ruchert = * jackdaw . A word of imita- 
tive origin ; cf. Gael, roc = to croak (q.v.) ; 
Lat. raucus = hoarse.] 

1 OrniOi. : Coma fngttegus, an eminently 
gregarious bird, Inhabiting cultivated wooded 
districts, and apparently preferring to build 
and breed near the abodes of man. They are 
very widely distributed, and are probably 
nowhere more common than in England, 
Ireland and the south of Scotland. The 
adult male is from eighteen to twenty-two 
inches long; plumage Mack, glossed with 
purple on the upper parts, lower surface of 
wing- and tail-quills lustrous, dark grayish- 
black ; legs, toes, and claws black. Base of 
beak forehead, lores, chin, and throat bare, 
but the cause of this nudity is not known. 
Some assert that the feathers are abraded as 
the bird digs in the ground for food ; others, 
that it is a natural peculiarity. The female 
is rather less than the male, and her 
plumage is not so brilliant White and other 
varieties often occur. Their nest is about 
two feet in diameter; eggs four to six in 
number, bluish-green, blotched with brown. 
(See extract.) 


"The balance between inlnrr or benefit derlv 
om Rook, by agriculturists to. question whi 
eneral opinion seems to have settled by couiideru 
mage, though often great. Is m.ich mo 
ighed by the eervices rendered in t 
S million, of grub, of the cockd.sfer t 

than outweig 
destruction S milli 


, tlie l^rv^.^ 
Bird. led. .thl. tt 19. 

2 Fig. : A cheat, a swindler ; one who plucka 
pigeons ; a sharper. [PIGEON, s., I. 2.) 

" Such wits as he are, to a company of reasonable 
men like roo*. to the gamester., .ho only fill . .room 
at the tal.le. but are so far from contributing to the 
play, that they only serve to spoil the fancy of those, 
who do." Wtcherley : Country W\ft, 1. 1. 

rook-pie, . A pie made of yonng rooks, 

t rook (2), * roke, s. [Fr. roc, from Pers. rol* 
= a rook at chess.] 

CTais : One of the pieces in chess placed at 
the four corners of the board. It can move 
the whole ertent of the board In lines parallel 
to Its sides. Also called a Castlfl. 

rook (3), . [RicK.] 

rook (1), v.t. & *. [ROOK (1), *.] 

A. Tmni. : To rob, to cheat, to swindle, to 

"He [Sir John Denhsm] wa. much roo*J by 
gamesters." Aubrey: Anecdote!, 11. 817. 

* B. Intrans. : To cheat, to swindle, to rob, 
Pnt into a mlied herd of .nruly boye. and I ther. 

learning to root at spanlarthim.' ioc*e : On educa- 


t rook, f.i. [RooK (2X a.) To castle at chess. 

[CASTLE, .] 

rook (2), v.i. [RUCK, .] To cower, to ruek, 
to squat. 

"The raven rooKd her on the chimney-top." 

SAaketp. : t Henry VI., T. t 

* rook'-er (1), . [Eng. root (1), v. ; -r.J A 
cheat, a swindler. 

" Rooken and sharpen work their several end*,"- 
Sennet Bramut : Praia of Fottt. p. . 

rook'-er (2), 5. [Etym. doubtful ; cf. raker.] 
Bakery : A tool like the letter L, used for 
withdrawing ashes from the oven. 

bo^; poTU, J6*l; oat. cell, ohorus, chin, bench; go. tern; thin, 
shan. - 

*, * : Pect. 
-.Uou. = *to*. -We. 


rookery- root 

rook er f. j. [Bug. nil- (\\ . ; -try.] 

1. A wood. or grove of trees, used by rooks 
ror nesting places. 

2. Rocks, Ac., frequented by sea-birds for 

laying their eggs ; a resort of amis for breeding 

pUl'1'O.tcN. [I'KNtll'IS-HilOKERY.] 

;(. The rooks Vlonging to a ]<artlcular 
Wokery. (Tennyson; lacktley Hail, 68.) 

4. A lirolliel. (Slang.) 

6. A cluae assemblage of poor, mean, and 
dirty building*. Inhabited by the lowest 
classes ; a resort of thieves, sharpen, prosti- 
tutes, Ac. 

'ropk'-Jr; a. [Eng. root (IX ! .) In- 
habited by rooks. 

l.ulll thlrkelll ; anil the OTOW 
Makee wing to the rooJty wood." 

- Macbtth, III. 1 

room. roomo, roam, roume, . 

(A.S. riim=(s.) room, (a.) spacloux ; cogn. 
with Put. ruin = spacious. a romn ; leol. 
nimr spacious, room; Dan. ft Sw. rum; 
O. II. Qer. rum; Oer. mum; Goth, rum*,] 

L Ordinary language : 

1. Space, compass ; extent of place, whether 
great or small. 

" It li done w thoa hMt commanded, aud yet there 
b room. /.u* xlv. n. 

* 2. A place., a station. 

" Whan tlion rt hidden by any man to a iraddtnf, 
alt not iluon In tin hlgheat room "-;.K. itT. I. 

* 3. Olflce, post, station, position. 

" To have and enjoy that ofttoe aud room." Hot. 
ifUAerf ' Scotland (an. 11411. 

4. Place or station once occupied by another ; 
stead, as In succession or substitution. 

' ' Let Ui Ii mpply tl room." 

i,n,-.,,. I llmr, rl . 11. a. 

fi. An apnrt.ment in a house : as, a drawing- 
room, a bedroom, Ac. ; also an apartment In a 
ship : as, the bread-room, the gun-room, &c. 

* 6. A DOT or seat at a play. (Marstoii.) 

* 7. Family, company. 

" All the Oreeke will honour jron ai of MleeUal 

8. A Ashing station In British North America. 

9. Ability to admit or allow ; freedom for 
action ; opportunity, scope, latitude. 

"Will you not look with pity on me t 
Ii there no hopef U then no room for pardon T" 

A mill*. 

XL Mining : The worked space In a mine, 
Specially of a coal-mine, where the roof Is 
supported by regular pillars. 

IT 0) To give or Jen w room ; To withdraw ; 
to leave space for another to pass or be seated. 
(8) roma*room: To open a way or passage : 
to remove obstructions. 

" A man-, gift nuJbM* room (or him. and brinnth 
blin before great men." /ro. ivllt. if. 

room and space. . 

ShiplntUd. : The distance between the 
stations of the timber frames which consti- 
tute the ribs. It varies from 2ft. 6 la to 
t ft. 9 in. Room Is the rib ; space, the dis- 
tance apart 

Room and trace ttaff: A long measuring- 
rod used In sparing and regulating the dis- 
tance apart of a ship's frames. 

room-mate, . One who occupies the 
same room as another or others. 

room-paper, t. Wall-paper ; paper- 

room (!), . [Assamese.] A deep blue dye 
obtained from an Assamese plant of the genus 
Rnellla (q.v.v 

room, .t [ROOH (1), .] To occupy rooms 
or apartments ; to lodge. (Amtr.) 

" In their Junior year, he and Swart had agreed to 
try the experiment of rwmfnff together." Scrianor 1 ! 
MafWtn*. Aug., 1177. p. Ml 

room' age (age as Ig), .,. (Eng. room (1), 
s, ; -age.} Room, space. 

" H must bt a tllent character of hope, when there 
U food itore of roomaft and receipt, where thoee 
powen an itoweoV' H'o/rott , Xtmatiu, p. II. 

rodm'-sU, . [Hlnd. = ahandkerchlef.] The 
slip-knot handkerchief employed by the Thugs 
In their murderous operations. 

room -an, . (See def.) An Indian name for 
the pomegranate (q.v.V 

roomed. roomed, o. [Kng. roost (IX s. ; 


1. Having A room or rooms. Used in com- 
position : as, a ten-room^ house. 
" '2. Roomy. spacious, wide. 

" Th* wtxld Mid Uu vritle rottmtd Wi#." I' . 

I.*** ill. 

room' or. fi/iY. [KooM (1). .] Farther off; 

at or to a greater 

1 To ,70 (or put) roomer : 

Nant. : To tick about before the wind. 

"Tin 1 Hl.iw, to liln in) a i rial I tvluli'liiH. Oftiil* to 
him A*jt>ln lii th ntulit 10 II-M^UM to th unrtt.wnnl 
of Cat* KtninN-i, linuuii.' i"if roointrr AIK! not lieiiig h>i.u.i...eUifJwi|M.' r -//a>*/uyr: Yoyagt*, i .'1 11.. 
I't. il.. l\M. 

rodm'-ttal. o, & *. [Eng, room (1), n. ; -/'40-] 

* A. Atatij. : Full of I'n, n 1 1 tu' rooms ; romny. 
" Now hi & roonV.</ )iou thf aovil dot li flortt." 

B. As what.; As much or as many as a 
room will hold : as, a roomful of people. 

ro6m'-I-l& adv. (Eng. roomy; -Jy.) Spa- 

room 1 ness, a. [Kng. roomy : -..] The 
quality or state of being roomy ; spaciousness. 

room lias, * roam lea, n. [Kng. room 
(IX B. ; -IFSS,] WautiiiK in room or space. 

" The Btiypiw , . . i very uarowe and roumlti." 
Petal: Mark III 

' room rid don, a. [Kng. room (1), B., and 
ridden. In imitation of bedridden.] Confined 
to one's room, as by illness. (Dickens.) 

* rodm'-aome, a. [Eng. room (I), s. ; -tome.} 

" Rttch And roommm*) thron**." 

Wamtr: Albiom England, bk. ill. 

" room stfiad. . [Eng. room, and stead.] A 

"Six or MTen houw* or ronmttfadt." ArdMoloyia, 
XlL 188. 

* roomth, 5. [Bng. room (l), s. ; miff, -th, as 
in leng(A, &c.) 

1. Room. 

" Not flndtng fitting roomlA upon the rlntng -Jd." 
Dmitton : Polg-QIMon, a. . 

2. Spaofousness, rootnii.ess. 

* roomth 1 ndsa, . [Eng. roomMy ; -ntss.} 
Roominess, spaciousnesB. 

"Which body-hAunter of tMomt\lnf." Fairfax: 
BuVt t Mf*lfr of th* -,.,-!. 1. p. 41. 

* roomth -Borne, a. [Eng. roomth; -<om.] 
Roomy, spacious. 

"A plttwon-houie, roomttuwiw noiigh." ffaA: 

* rofimth'-J, roomth Ic, o. [Eng. room** ; 
y.) Roomy, spacious. 

" The land wai far room/Mar than the icale of mile* 
doth make It." rVUr : Holy War, p. 88. 

room y. a. [Eng. room (1), s. ; .] 

1. Having or afTordingampleroom; spacious, 

" Oun la a weedy country becftUM It U a roomy one." 
Burrttufffu : rrpartim, p. S71. 

2. Big ; broad or wide In frame. 

" She li a big roomy bitch, too. "-, Dec. , list. 

rodn. . [A.8., Sw., &c., rand = a border 
(Jamirfim).] A shred ; a border or selvage. 

" In thae auld tlraea, they thought the moon .* . , 
Won by drama, till her lart rooit." 

Burnt : Tl> William Stmftim. (Poet) 

rodn, roono, . & o. [Etym. doubtfuL] 

A, A* subst. : Vermilion. 

" I achalle m< the a nobylle itede. 
Aleo retle aa ony roono." 

Us. Ff. 11., SI, fo. . 

B. At adj. : Red as vermilion. 
roop, .. [Roop, v.) 

1. A cry, a call. 

2. Hoarseness. (Prov.) 

roop. .{. [A.S. Anipait; Icel. krojn; Dnt. 
roepen; O.Fris. hropti ; Goth. Aropjo.] [Roup 
(IX .) To cry, to shout 

roop It,, i [Eng. roop, a. ;-(=-ei).l Hoarse. 

roor bach, >. [From a fictitious extract 
from AooroncA't Tour, In 1836, published for 
political purposes by an American paper In 
1844.) A falsehood, a mis-statement; a sen- 
sational article, without any foundation, pub- 
lished, especially for political purposes, in a 
newspaper. (Amfr.) 

roo go, rou sah, ru a. .. [Hind, run.} 

Hut.: Andrt'j^ivtt S7j', n.inthliv, thf S\Vfi-t 

<':il;imus or Geranium-grass. It grows in 

roosa oil, rusa grass oil, t. An oil 
ObtslUM from the roosa-grass. It Is a power- 
ful stimulant, and is i-mplnyed fxtrriially in 
India In chronic rheumatism und rhenmatio 


rooso. ruso. t>.(. [Icel. Ardso; Dan. row; 
Sw. i-ns.i. 1 To extol, praise. 

" Lvl Ilka anp rnou the ford aa they find it." Sco 
Soli Han. . h. \\vli. 

roost (O. -roost, roust (1), "rowst, t. 

[A.B. Ms) KM. with O. S. hrnsl; (>. Han. 

roest = A roost; rwsten = to roost : connected 
with roo/(q.v.).] 

1. A pole or perch on which fowls rest at 

" He clapp'd wing* upon hi* roort and lung." 

Drydm : Cook t f'"Z 44. 

2. A collection of fowls roosting together. 
f At roast: Resting and asleep. 

roost (2), roust (2), . [ ROUST.) 
roost, t'.i. [Ronsr, >.] 

1. To occupy a roost , to sleep on a roost 

"The peacock In the broad Mb tree 
Aloft la rootled for the nlulit..- 

H'orrffwortA : WMf Dot, IT. 

2. To sleep, to lodge, to settle. (ColUxi.) 

roost cock, s. The common domestic 

roost or, s. [Eng. roosl, v. ; -er.} The male 
of the ilnine.stir fowl, acock. 

"The crow of nn early-rising rootttr." .ScHoner'l 
ilagatln*. Murch. 1MO (p. 770). 

root, rote, s. [Icel. rot; 8w. rot; Dan. rod 
The Icel. nil Is for i>ro< = r6rt, and henre nl- 
lied to Goth, waurts =a root; A.S. wj/rtf 
Eng. wor(((i.v.).] 
I. Ordinary language: 

1. Literally: 

(1) In the same sense as II. '.' 

" Thel eayen the fyge tree maatl dyn fro the rof/a." 
W,el<ft: ,Var*l. 

(2) An esculent root ; a plant whose root 
or tubers are esculent, as turnips, carrots, 
beets, &c. 

2. Ffjruraiiwfiy.- 

(1) That which resembles a root In position 
or function ; the |rt of anything which re- 
sembles the roots of a plant In manner of 
growth, or as a source of nourishment or sup- 

"To the root of the tongue." 

tftuikfip. . rim .n. T. L 

(5) The origin, source, or cause of anything. 

" The love of money la the root of all evil." 1 Tim. 

Tl. 10. 

"(3) The first ancestor : the progenitor. 

" The root and father 
Of many klnga." .vA.itrj/. . MaclMttt. II. 1. 

(4) The bottom or lowest part of anything. 

" I cannot delve him to the root." 

Slntwj... cym&Wlne, L 1, 

*(o) Ground, basis, foundation. 

' Remove the root of hla opinion." 

MoJtelp. WHin Tall, U. S. 

(6) Foundation, basis, support. 

" With a courage of uniluiken roof." 


II. Ttcnnieally: 

1. Anat. : That part of any organ orappend- 
age of the body which is buried In another 
part. Thus the root of a nail is the portion 
covered by the skin ; the root of a tooth, the 
base of It which Is lodged In a socket. 

* 2. Aatron. : The moment from which one 
begins to calculate the time of revolution of a 

3. Bat. : The radix or descending axis of a 
plant. The tendency downwards is very 
powerful. Unlike the symmetrically placed 
branches of the stem, the ramillcat ions of the 
roots look Irregular as If they arose from any 
part of the surface. There Is In them, how- 
ever, a certain Rhlzotaxls (q.v.X The roots of 
Dicotyledons are exorhizal, those of Mono- 
cotyledons endorhlzal, and those of Acoty- 
ledons heterorhizal. A root has no perfect 
bark, true pith, medullary sheath, or true 
leaves, and only a thin epidermis, a few 
stomate, and very rarely leaf-buds. Its growth 
is chiefly at the lower extremity. The body 
of a root is called the caudex, Its minute 
subdivisions the fibrils or radicles, and their 

fate, ftt, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wit, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, ire, MT. marine; go, pit. 
or. won, wolf, work, who, son ; mute, cab, cure, nniu>, efir. rtle, fall; try, Syrian, **, = e; ey = ft; qn = kw. 

root rope 


ends the spongioles. A primary root is one 
formed by the downward elongation of the 
a-si- . 'f the embryo, and is, therefore, in a [in 
with the stem ; secondary or lateral roots, like 
thole of ivy, spring laterally fom the stem 
in,] from the primary root, when tne 
p ,,,,ry Toot is fhicker than the branches 
which proceed from it, it is called a tap root, 
when it is no thicker than its ramifications 
which conceal it from view, the root is said 
to be fibrous. Other forms of roots are 
mole*!, fusiform, napiform. rotund, nodose 
or coralline, -loniliforra, tuberose or (finally) 
premorse. Most roots are terrestrial a few 
ire aerial, and a few aquatic. The chief 
functions of the root are to anchor the plant 
firmly in the ground, and to transmit upwards 
to the stem and leaves absorbed nutriment 
from the soil. Roots require air, and m 
some cases in gardens obtain it by pushing 
their way into old drains. 

3. Hvd.-eng. : The end of a weir or dam 
where it unites with the natural bank. 

4 Math : The root of a quantity is any quan- 
titv which being taken a certain number of 
times i a factor? will produce the quantity 

[SQUARE-ROOT, CUBE-ROOT.] A root 01 8 

Quantity may be real, or it may be imaginary. 
The character used to denote a root is V. 


5. Music: 

(1) A note which, besides its own sound, 
gives over-tones or harmonics. 

(2) That note from amongst whose over- 
tones any chord may be selected. 

(3) Sometimes used by modern musicians 
as describing a not* on which, when either 
expressed or implied, a chord is built up. 

6 Philol. : An elementary notional syllable ; 
that part of a word which conveys its essen- 
tial uieaning, as distinguished from the forma- 
tive parts by which this meaning is modified. 
I (1) Root Branch Men : 
Ena Hist. : A name assumed about 1641 by 
the extreme republicans, who advocated the 
abolition of monarchy and the overthrow of 
the Established Church. 
t (2) Root of scarcity : 
Agric. : The Mangel- Wurzel (q.v.). 
(3) To take root, to strike root : To become 
planted or fixed ; to be established, to thrive 
and spread. 

root -bound, a. Fixed to the earth by 
roots ; firmly attached, as though rooted to 
the ground ; immovable. 

" And you a statue ; or, aa Daphne waa, 
Root-bound, that fled Apollo." 

Milton: . 

root-breaker, root-bruiser, . 

Agric A machine for mashing or bruising 
potatoes, turnips, carrots, or other raw roots 
for feeding stock. 

* root-built, a. Built up of roots. 

" The root JtuOt celt." ShenOotu. 

rOOt-Cap, S. [PlLEORHIZA.] 

root-crop, s. A crop of plants with es- 
culent roots; especially of plants having 
iiugle roots, as turnips, carrots, beets, ie. 

* root-eater, . An animal which feeds 
on roots; specif., one of the Rhizophaga 

root-grinder, . A machine for com- 
minuting roots for the purpose of obtaining 
starch, sugar, or colour from them. 

root-hair, s. 

Bot. : Hair attached to a root ; a rhizoid. 

root-headed Crustacea, s. pi 

Zwl. : The Rhizocephala (q.v.). 

root-house, s. 

* 1. A house made of roots. 

2. A house or shed fn which roots or tops, 
as potatoes, carrots, turnips, cabbages, &c., 
are stored as winter food for cattle. 

root-leaf, s. A leaf growing immediately 
from the root. 

root-mildew, s. 

Hart.: A "mildew" consisting of some 
parasitic fungal attacking the roots of plants. 

root-parasite, . 

Bot. : A plant growing parasltically on the 
root of another one, as is the case with the 

root-pressure, . 

Hot Physio!. : The upward pressure exerted 
by the water absorbed by the root in greater 
amount than the plant requires. It some- 
times makes that which it drives upward 
exude in drops from the margins and tips ot 
the leaves, as in some grasses, aroids, 4tc. 

root-sheath, s. 

1 Anat. : The epidermic coat of the follicle 
connected with each hair of the head and of 
the body. 

2. Bot. : [COLEORHIZA]. 

root-vole, s. 

Zool Arrieola oxonomus, a large species, 
raiding from the Obi to Kamsehatka, It is 
migratory, like the Lemming (q.v.). 

root (1). * rote, .(. & i. [Root, >.] 

A. Transitive: 

1. Lit. : To fix by the root ; to plant and 
fix in the ground by the root, 

2 Fig To fix or implant firmly and deeply; 
to impress deeply and durably. (Used gene- 
rally in the pa. par.) 

" H" bonou, root* In * ' 

B. Intransitive : 

1. Lit. : To fix the root, to take root ; to 
enter the earth, as a root. 

- Enable the cutting, to root.' field, Oct. , 1885. 

2 Fig To become deeply and firmly es- 
tablished or impressed ; to take root. 

" There rooted between them .uch an affection." 
Shatetp. : Winter*, Tale, L L 

ro&t (2), * wrot-en, v.t ft (. [A.S. wrttan = 
to erub up; cogn. with O. Dut. wroeten; Icel. 
rdfo from rot = a root ; Dan. rode, from rod 
= a root (q.v.). The meaning has no doubt 
been greatly influenced by the verb root (1).] 
A. Transitive: 

1 To dig, burrow, or grub in with the snout ; 
to turn up the ground, as swine with their 

Would roo theae beantle* a.he rood the mead 
ShaJcelp. : Venu, i Adonu, 636. 

2 To tear up or out, as by the roots ; to 
eradicate, to extirpate ; to destroy or remove 
utterly, to exterminate. (Generally with away, 
out, or up.) 

"To root out the whole hated Umlly.'-Saatolp. . 
/tape of Lucre*. (Arg.) 
B. Intransitive : 

1. To turn up the ground with the snout, as 

2. To rummage about. 

root -ed, pa. par. & a. [ROOT (1), .l 
A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 
B As adj. : Deeply and durably impressed 
or established ; firmly fixed. 

" Pluck (rom the memory a roofed Borrow " 

Shaketp. : Macbeth, V. S. 

rodf-e'd-ly, adv. tEng. rooted; -ly.] In a 
rooted inanner ; deeply, strongly. 

" They all do hate him 
A. rootedlf a. t. " Shakeip. . Tempea, 111. I 

root -Sd-nSss, s. [Eng. rooted ; -ness.] The 
quality or state of being rooted or firmly fixed. 

rodt'-r (1), >. [Eng. root (1), v. ; -er.] A 
plant which takes root. 

"They require dividing and planting on fre.h .oil 
frequently, being rtroug rooter,."-field, March II, 

rodt-er (2), Tot-er, . [Eng. root(2), v ; -er.] 
One who roots up; one who eradicates or 
destroys utterly. 

" The rooter, and throngh.reformera made clean work 
with thechnrch."-*"!**.- Sermon,, ioL !., Mr. I. 

* roAf-er-tf, . [Eng. root, . ; -try, in Imita- 
tion of rockery.] A mound or heap made of 
roots of trees in which plants are set, as in 
rockeries in gardens and pleasure grounds. 

rofif-tast, o. tEng. root, s., and fast.] 

Firmly rooted. (State Papers, vi. 534.) 
* rootf-fast-nSss, . [Eng. root/art; -ness.] 

The quality or state of being firmly rooted. 

(State Paper*, vi. 534.) 
root'-l8ss, "roote-les, a. [Eng. root, s. ; 

less.] Having no root, destitute of roots. 

"Like a rooUeu teee."-r T. Mon: Worto, p. 110. 
rodt'-lSt, s. [Eng. root, s. ; dimin. suff. -let.] 

A little root ; a radicle. 

The mort delleate tendril, and rootlet, of treea."- 
Scribner; Magazine. December, Hit, P. ! 

root -stock, . [Eng. root, and stock.} 


root-*, a. [Eng. root, .; -y.] Full of, of 

abounding in roots. 

"Nor can with all the confluence break through hi. 
rootjf Bldea. - Chapman : Homer; Ihad ivli. 

roo'-ye'-bSk, . [Out.] [PALI.AH.] 
ro-pal'-IC, a. [Or. poiraAoi. (rhopalon)= t. club.] 

1. Club-formed; increasing or swelling 
towards the end. 

2. Pros. : The same as RHOPALIO (q.v.). 

rope, 'raip, "rape, Toop.'rop, . [A.S 
rap; cogn. without, reep; Icel. mp; 8w. 
rep; Dan. reb; Ger. reif; Goth, roips.] 

1 A general name applied to cordage over 
one inch in circumference. Ropes are o 
hemp, flax, cotton, coir, or wire, and are 
known by their construction. The most im- 
portant kinds are described in this Dictionary 
under their technical names. 

" Ax to cut, and rope, to .ling the load " 

Pope: Homer : Iliad xxiil. 1W. 

2 A row or string consisting of a number 
of things united : as, a rope of onions. 

3. An intestine. 

" HI. talowe aerreth for playiter. many one ; 
For haru-striog. hi. rope aerve ecne one. ^^^ 
A J.yttll Treatue on the Hortf. 

1 1 A rope of sand : A proverbial expression 
for a feeble or insecure bond or union ; a boi 
easily broken. 

2. To give a person rope : To let one go on 

3. Upon the high ropes: 

(1) Elated in spirit. 

(2) Haughty, arrogant. 

4. What a rope! What the devil! 

rope-band, . [BOBBIN.] 

rope-bark, s. 

Bot : Leather-wood. [DiRCA.] The bark is 
made into ropes. Called also Moose-wood, 
Wicopy, &c. 

rope-dancer, s. One who walks, dances, 
or otherwise performs on a rope stretcneo. as 
a greater or less height above the ground. 

rope-dancing, . The profession or act 
of a rope-dancer. 

rope-grass, . 

Bot. : The genus Restlo (q.v.). 

rope-ladder, . A ladder made of rope. 
Sometimes the cross-pieces, or rungs, are of 
wood. [SHROUDS.] 

rope-maker, . One whose profession 
is to make or deal in ropes. 

" God and the bear me witness, 
That I wa Bent lor nothing but a rope. 

Shukctp. : Comedy of Brrort, IT. ft. 

rope-making, . The act or business of 
making ropes, cordage, &c. 

Hope-making machine: Amaehine to-making 
ropeT One was invented by Sylvester in 
1783, and was patented by Richard March in 
1784 and by Edmund Cartwright in 1792. It 
has since been much improved. 

rope-mat, . A mat made of oakum. 

rope-porter, . A light, two-wheeled 
carriage employed in the Fowler system of 
steam ploughing to carry the rope clear of the 

rope-pump, . A water-elevator, con- 
sisting of a rope or ropes, or of a fibrous 
webbing, whose lower end dips In the water 
which is discharged at the upper end partly 
by centrifugal force, and part y by the com- 
pression of the rope on the roller. The water 
is retained in the rope by capillary action. 

rope-railway, . A railway on which 
the cars are drawn by ropes wound upon 
drums rotated by stationary engines. This is 
frequently done on inclined planes in mining 
districts, and is sometimes adopted as a tem- 
porary expedient pending the construction of 
grades of lesser slope. 

" rope-ripe, a. Fit for hanging ; deserv- 
ing of being hanged. 

Mach A hollow cylinder on an axle, and 
with ropes or bands round it to communi- 
cate motion to other parts of a machine. 
rope-shaped, a. [FOKILITORH.] 


rope roaal 

rope-spinning, *. The act or operation 
of spinning or twisting ropes. 

rope trick, 5. 

1. A juggling feat, introduced ioto Englaut 
from America by the Brothers Davenport, i 
18(*4. The performer was hound with rup*.> 
in a cabinet, or to a chair ; the lights were 
then lowered, and on their being raised he 
was discovered at liberty, having been re- 
leased, it was said, by spiritual agency. The 
trick was exposed by Mr. Maskelyne, at the 
Town Hall, Cheltenham, and the Davenports 
oon left England. 

* 2. A rogue's trick ; a trick deserving ol 
the half r. 

" She BUT perhaps call him half a score knave* or 
a: an' be begin oaoe, he'll rail in his rope-tricks." 
rnri. Tamil* If a* .*!". i. 1 

rope walk. s. A covered walk or ground 
where ropes are made. Us length is estimated 
In fathoms, and is from 100 to 200 fathoms. 
At one end is the spinning-wheel, which 
rotates the whirlers to which the ends ol 
, bunch of hempen fibres are secured, to be 
twisted into a yarn. Along the walk are hori 
rontal cross-bars with hooks, over which the 
yarns are swung as the men walk backward 
from the whirlers and pay out the yaru. 

rope-winch, i. A si-t of three whirlers 
driven by a strap and twisting three yarns 
which are to be laid up into a rope. 

rope-yarn, s. A single yarn composed 
jf fibres twisted right-handed ; used on ship- 
board for various purposes. [SPUN-YARN.] 
The size of a strand, and of the rope of which 
it forms part, is determined by the number 
of rope-yarns in it. 

rope's end, >. The end of a rope ; a 
short piece of rope used aa an instrument of 

rope's end, v.t. To thrash with a rope's- 
end ; to Bog. 

" He WM found out. and handsomely rope't-ended on 
hi* bare lee."Scril>ner'i MaffaMne, Nov., 1878. p. 76. 

rope, * roape, ti.i. & <. (ROPE, .J 

A. Intransitive: 

1. To be drawn out or extended Into a 
thread or filament by reason of any glutinous 
or adhesive quality. (Dryden: Viryil ; Oeorgic 

2. To hinder a horse from winning a race 
by pulling. (Racing slant/.) 

B. Transitive: 

1. To fasten with a rope or ropes : as, To 
rope a bale of goods. 

2. To connect together by ropes round the 
waist. (This practice is often adopted in 
mountain ascents, to guard against accidents, 
In case any of the party should slip.) 

" The partv were not roped, tLe guide* not thinking 
It necessary. . Jamti'i Gazette, Aug. 31, 1886. p. 11 

3. To draw as by a rope. 

4. To catch by means of a rope or lasso. 

"The gren mnle. strong In hi, youth. having been 
adroitly rtftf or laatoed, la led out Into ati open 
*tee*.--8cr&nei>i Xaya**e. April. 18.1. p. so. 

5. To mark out or inclose with a rope. 

"A level, though vry rough, OOOTM m 
roped out Field, Oct, 3, 1685. 

6. To pull or enrb, as a horse, so as to pre- 
Tent from winning a race. (Racing tlang.) 

* rop en, pa. par. of a. [REAP, .] 
' rop-er, s. [Eng. rojx ; -er.] 

1. One. who makes ropes ; a rope-maker. 

2. One who ropes goods ; a packer. 

rdp'-er-y, . [Eng. rope; -17.) 
1. A rope-walk (q.T.). 

"The ' hand*' employed In the various ronerfet lived 
too far awajt." Herr, England, June, 1883, p. 1M. 
* 2. Rogue's tricks ; roguery. 

t " What saucy merchant wa* tbl, that Wat so full of 
*b ropery t"SlM*e*p.: Borneo 4 Juliet, it 4. 

rop'-l-ly, adv. [Eng. ropy ; -ly.] In a ropy 
or viscoas manner; so as to be capable of 
being drawn out in a thread. 

rop'-I-ness, . [Eng. ropy; -nets.} The 
quality or state of being ropy; vUcosity, 
glutinousness, adhesiveness. 

rop'-ing, pr, par. or a. [Ropx, .J 

roping needle, . 

i Naut. : A heavy needle for sewing a sail to 
Its bolt-rope. 

* rop' ish, o. [Eng. roXy) ; -is*.] Tending 
to ropiuesa ; somewhat ropy. 

rop'-y, a. [Eng. rop(e); -y.] 

1. Resembling a rope or cord ; rope-like 

2. Capable of being drawn out in a thread 
or filament, as a glutinous or viscid sub- 
stance ; glutinous, viscous, viscid. Wine is s;ii> 
to be ropy when it shows a milky or flaky sedi 
ment, and aa oily appearance when poured out 

"Furled round with mouldy damps anil ropy stime.' 
lilair : Grace. 

* roquelaure (as ro'-ke-lore), * ro-o.ue- 

lo, s. [See extract.] 
A kind of short 
cloak for men. 
"The French tailors, 

be[ Dr. Harris, Bishou 

of LaudaffJ oheerved. 

invent new modes of 

dree*, and dedicate 

them to great men, 

as authors do books ; 

a* waa the case with 

the roaHetavre cluik. 

which then (about the 

year 1715) displaced 

the surtout ; and was 

called the royitefciure 

from being dedicated 

to the Dukeof Roque- 

laure. whose title was 

pread by this mean* throughout Prance and Britain. " 


Xi.ble: Continuation qf Granger, iii. 490. 

ro'-qnet (qnet as ka), v.t. [Ktym. doubt- 

In croquet : To cause the player's ball to 
strike another ball. 

ror'-al, a. [Lat. roralis, from ros, genit. rorit 
dew.] Pertaining to dew ; consisting ol 
dew ; dew-like, dewy. 

With raral wash redeem her" 

Green: The Spleen. 

* ror-a'-tion, s. [Lat. roratio, from ros, genit. 
rorw dew.} A falling of dew. 

roV-Ic, a. [Lat, nt, genit. rorfa = dew.] (See 
the compound.) 

rortc-flgures, t. pi. Figures visible only 
in vapour made upon plates of metal, glass, ic. 
Thus a cone resting for a little on a plate of 
smooth metal will leave behind it a copy, 
which will become visible if it be breathed 
upon. The phenomenon may be produced by 
the action of electricity. (Jtossiter.) 

ror"-ld, a. [Lat. roridta, from ros, genit. 
roris = dew.] Pertaining to, or consisting of 
dew ; dewy. 

" And now bewept by rrrrld clouds or deckt 
With beauty a* with raiment." 

V. Ball : .Viy H'urrVs, vt 11 

rbr-id'-ll-la, s. [Lat., dimin. from roridus 
= bedewed.] 

Bat. : A genus of Droseracese. At the Cape 
a very viscid species, Roriduta dentata, is 
often hung up to catch Hies. 

* rdr-iT-er-OUS, o. [Lat rorijer, from nt, 
genit. rorw = dew, and./ro = to bear, to pro- 
duce.] Producing dew or dew-like moisture. 

* ror-If '-lu-Mlt, a. [Lat ros, genit. rorit 
= dew, and fluent, pr. par. of fluo = to Bow.) 
Flowing with dew. 

ror quaL >. [See extract] 

Zool. : The genus Balaenoptera (q.y.). The 
rorquals are widely distributed, and some of 
them are found in almost every sea. They 
are piscivorous, committing great havoc 
among shoals of herring and on the cod- 
banks; they rarely congregate in "schools," 
and their capture is scarcely remunerative, 
as they yield comparatively little blubber or 

baleen. Sibbald's Rorqual (Baloznoptera sib- 
baldii), black above and dark gray below, 
attains a length of eighty feet, and is common 
between Scotland and Norway ; B. nifitreut, 
of almost equal size, is known to Pacific 
whalers as the Sniphnr-bottom Whale, from 
its yellowish belly ; B. mtueurue-, the Common 
Rorqual or Razor-back, from sixty to seventy 

feet lung, Muck above, and brilliant white 
below, frequently occurs on the European 
coasts; B.rwitrtila, the Leaser Rorqual, resem- 
bles the last, but is much smaller. The 
Rorquals are the largest and among the 
commonest of the whales. The head is flat 
and pointed, the body slender, the skin of the 
throat deeply folded in longitudinal plait-, the 
whalebone stout and coarse, and of little value. 

" The name Rvrqual is derived from the Nora* 
Rorq-val, signifying a whale with pleats or folds in the 
skin." Zootoffia, 1878, p. 5. 

* rdV-U-lent, a. [Lat. rorulentut, from rw, 
gt-nit rorw = dew.] Full of, or abounding In 

* rbr'-y, * roar-le, a. [Lat. ros, genit rort* 
= dew.] Dewy. 

"[He] ahooke hi* wings with roari* May-dewe* wet." 
Fairefax : Godfrey of Boulogne, L 14. 

* ros, s. [Eng. rush, s. (?)] 

JAW : A kind of rushes with which tome 
tenants were obliged to furnish their lords. 

rd'-sa, s. [Lat.] [ROSE.] 

1. Astron. : [ASTEROID, 223]. 

2. Bot. : A genus of plants, typical of the 
order Kosaceee (q.v.). It has five petals and 
numerous achenes, inclosed within the fleshy 
calyx tube, which is contracted at the orifice- 
Known species about thirty (Sir Joseph Hooker, 
1870), but Baker (Journ. of Bot., Sept., 1885) 
enumerates sixty-two species of garden roses, 
arranging them In ten groups. The wild rose 
occurs in Europe, Asia, and Africa, and in 
America throughout the United States and as 
far south as Mexico. It is of such diversity 
that former botanieta made more than 200 
species. These are reduced by some writers to 
less than a fifth of that number. [ROSE.] 

3. Pharm. : The petals of Sosa ctntlfdia are 
used for making rose-water. The petals of 
R. gallica are made into a confection used aa ft 
basis of pills, or occasionally as a slight 
astringent, which is given in an aphthous con- 
condition of the mouth. So are the hipa of 
R. canina ; they are slightly refrigerant. 

ros aye, s. [Fr.] An ornamental piece of 
plaster-work in the centre of a ceiling, in 
which a lustre or chandelier is placed. 

ro-sa -96-88, . pi. [Lat rot(a) ; fern. pi. adj. 
sun", -acfte.] 

Bot. : Uoseworts ; an order of plants placed 
by Lindley under his Rosal Alliance. Calyx 
four or ftve-lobed, free or adhering to the 
ovary ; petals five, perigynous, equal ; stamens 
indefinite, rising from the calyx just within 
the petals, curving inward in aestivation ; 
ovaries several or only one ; ovules two or 
more, generally suspended ; fruit either one- 
seeded nuts or acini, or several-seeded fol- 
licles ; the leaves' are simple or compound, 
generally with two stipules. Herbaceous 
plants or shrubs. The Rosacee are closely 
akin to the Pomaceae, the Drupacese, the San- 
giiisorbese, and some other orders. They are 
divided try Lindley into five families or tribes, 
Rosidw, Potentillfdae, Spirwid* , Quillaite, and 
Neuradese. The Rosaceas occur chiefly in the 
temperate and cold parts of the northern 
hemisphere ; when they occur in the tropics 
it is generally on high land. There is no un- 
wholesome plant in the order. They are in 
general astringent, and have been regarded as 
febrifuges. [For details, see Agrimonia, Bray- 
era, Fragaria, Geum, Gillenia, Potentilla, Rosa, 
Rubus, Spiraea, and Tprmentilla.) In 184 
Lindley enumerated thirty-eight genera and 
estimated the known sptcics at 500. Sir 
Joseph Hooker, in 1870, considered the genera 
to be seventy-one and the species 1,000, but he 
includes Lindley's Pomaceee and Drupaceae. 

ro sa ccoiis (ce as sh), a. [Lat roxtcm = 
made of roses ; Fr. rosace.] 

1. Having the petals arranged in the same 
way that they are in a single rose ; rose-like. 

2. (Of a corolla): Having no claw, or a very 
small one. (Link.) 

3. Of or pertaining to the natural order 
Rosacea? (q.v.). 

ros'-al, a, [Lat. ros(e); -at.] 

1. Rosy. (Ileetlome : Pomu.) 

2. Rosaceous. 

rosal alliance, s. [ROSALES.] 

*te, fat. lare, amid.t, what, lali, tothar; wi, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go. pot. 
r. wore, wolt, work, who, son; mute, cub. cure, tjnite, our, rule, full; try. Syrian. o>, oe = e; ey = a; *iu = kw. 

ro-sa'-lea, s. pi. I Lat. rota = a rose.] 

Sat Undle/s forty-second alliance of 
Dta& It stands between the Daplmalei j and 
thi SaxifrMales It is placed under his th ml 
ubdaM^erig'vnous &ogens. It contains 
XeTnUrs Calycanthace*. Chrysobalana..^, 
Ffcbace*. DrupaceaJ, Pomaces, Sanguisor- 
bacese, and Rosaces. 

rd-sal'-gar, . [RESAI.OAR.] 

rd-sa'-li-a(l), L . 

Vote: The repetition of a phrase or pas- 
sa s e, raising the pitch one note at each repe- 

r6-sa-U-a(2),. [ROSEOLA.] 

ram a-li'-na. s. [Lat. rosaUis); fern. sins. 
Miff "no So named because the cells are 
circularly'arranged like the petals of a rose. ] 

1 Zool A cenus of Imperforate Fora- 
rninlffm faniily Uvellidea, of Reuss. Series 
of li'reguUrly spiral, continuous aperture 
simple, i.e. not closed by a lid. 

2 Palteont. : Six British species from the 
Chalk and two from the Pleistocene. 

resales rose 

each of which begins with the Our 
[LORD'S PRAYER], is accompanied by m 
tion on one of the Mysteries in the life of Our 
Lord?and ends with the Doxology. Tins is pro- 
rly called the Dominican, or Great Rosary, 
fmt the name is often popularly given to t he 
Chaplet, which contains but fifty Aves llu. 
fifteen Mysteries which should be meditated 
oHuVing the recitation of the Rosary are 
divided into three series, each corresponding 

ros an-Il-ine, .. lEng. 

A red dye, occurring in commerce under the 

namesaniline red, a7*leine, fuehsine magenta, 
roseine, &c. It is prepared by ; heating a .mix- 
ture of dry arsenic acid and aniline to 140 .for 
six or eight hours. It forms colourless crystal- 
line plates, which are coloured red on expo- 
sure to the air, insoluble in water, but soluble 
in alcohol? The aniline reds used in dyeing 
are generally monoacid salts of 
roore or less pure. Rosamline acetate, 
ConH,oNi-C,>H.0 2 , chiefly used in England, 
fgnTs beautiful large crystals, which are more 
solnble in water than the other salts. Ros- 
aniline hydrochlonde, CaoHiaNa HCL pre- 
pared in France and Germany, crystallizes in 
iolden-green rhombic octahedra, and is very 
soluble in alcohol, with a ftne red colour. 

rd ar' i-an (1), . lEng. roa() ; -arian.} A 
grower of roses. 

... wul patiently test m.ny kind. 
d: Xmoteur't Roa Boot, p. 147. 

Coronation of the B. V. M. 

There are also the Rosaries of St. Bridget, of 
the Seven Dolours, of the Immac "}* Cn- 
ception, of the Five Wounds, and the Crown 
of Our Saviour. 

(2) The beads upon which any of the fore- 
coing forms of prayer are said. 

Dominicans, too. are reprint*! on tomb rf 
' ' 1 ' 

Arnold : Cath. Diet., p. 738. 

rosary-shell, . 

Zool. : The genus Monodonta (q.v.). 
rof-at-Sd.a. [ROSE.] Crowned or adorned 

with roses. 

R*a<i. h.vlng . ?ht'l'< four ro.. bout hi 
head." fuller : Vforthw, U. 518. 

ros-au'-rin, [Lat. rosa = a rose, and 

durum = gold.] [Rosouc-ACiD.] 
ros -old, * ros-eide, o. [Lat. roscidus, from 

ros = dew.] Dewy ; consisting of or contain 

inff dew. 

. . _ * obMrrable in toe Bower. 

rd sar I-an (2), >. (Eng. rosary; -ion.] A 
member of the Confraternity of the Rosary. 

" AjjotlnrKMorlun recommend* ipeoW temporal 
Intention." Kotarian. i. 878, 

ros'-a-ry. * ros-a-rie, . [Fr. main, from 
Low* Lai! rosarium = a cliaplet ; 8p. & Ital. 
nsario.} [Rose, .] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. A chaplet, a garland. 

rhrl.l I, as now knit them Into rMortof nd 
coronet'-j"^ Ta,tar : Jtul. * **.rcU of B 
lining, ch. hi.. I 1- 

2. A bed of roses ; a place where roses 

Mtet and the (alrot blonom tht ever 
buddrf SSSltrf the .hit. or red r^r^-Pr^ 
jSSuif Wi-i"* 0*t, ic., sign. D d. s. (Hot.) 

3 A coin so called from bearing the figure 
of arose, of foreign coinage, about the sue 
i penny but worth less than a halfpenny, 
chiefly smuggled into Ireland. In 1300 it was 
made death to import them. 

U, Technically: 

1. Cmpar. Relig. : A string of beads by 
means of which account is kept of the num- 
ber of prayers uttered. Tylor (loc. inf. at.) 
thinks that its invention or adoption was due 
the fact that, with advancing civilization, 
prayers, from being at first utterances as free 
and flexible as requests to a living patriarch 
or chief, stiffened into traditional formulas, 
whose repetition required verbal accuracy, 
and whose nature practically assimilated 
more or less to that of charms. 

"Thisdevotlon.1 ealciilatins.-niachlne is of A.iatic 
ation ; It had, if not It. <" "^VS" 1 , ' ATlS 


rose (K. orwwfa) much less so. It is sometinw 
,.,,,,f,)unded with the Ayrshire rose [see below], 
which is not wild. The true sweet-brier (S. 
rwj nosajand the small-flowered I sweet-brier 
are found chleflv in the smith of Eugland es- 
pecially on chalk. The villous rp.e (R.mUoM* 
f B widely distributed, whilst th,; burnet-lrav,.,! 
or Scotch rose (B. npinotiKitaa.) flourisl, r s 
best near the sea. Among the garden-speoie 
mav be mentioned the Ayrshire rose (R. capreo. 
lata) [see above]; the Bourbon rose a var. of 
K. indica; the cabbage-rose (R. "<^X J^ 
Chinese rose (R. indica) [see No. 2] 
Damask rose (A damascene), *h;fa.ry : roe(^ 
Lmmnr'aitn), the French rose R. <*")> ie 
one hundred leaved (B. cmtVolia), the Macart- 
nev rose R. bracleata ; the, tea-scented, a var. 
of K. Sioa ; the monthly (*. Mica the moss 
rose, a garden variety of K. centrfolia ; the- 
ofl-Kiialfose (fi. gallica), the prairie rose (R. 
xtioem ; the Provence rose (R. nntifoha), and 
tl " swa up rose (R. Carolina). From these th* 
numenjus varieties of florists' roses are de- 
rived The petals of R. damoscerui yield attar 
of roses when drilled. The fruit of R. tan** 
and some other species Is astnnge i it, an. .i may 
be used in cases of diarrhcea and similar com- 
plaints. The leaves of R. rubigmosa have been, 
used as a substitute for tea. 

ti. lamK uJ ls "> con '; el "i, ' u V.", r ; 
which It was Bulled to accompany, has nourished ever 
3io.--Wor: Prim. Cult. (ed. 18J), U. Wl 

2. Roman Church : 

(1) A form of prayer in which the Hail Mary 
(o v.) is recited 150 tunes in honour of the 
Virgin Mary. It is divided into fifteen decades, 

ros -coe-lite, . [After Prof. H. E. Boscoe 
and Gr. \iioi (lithos) = a stone.) 

Mln : A soft, micaceous mineral, occurring 
in minute scales, sometimes " Tan 8 ed m .,, fa "- 
like or stellated groups Sp gr. 2- 
2-938; lustre, pearly; colour, dark-brown to 
brownish green. Analyses made by Genth 
and HoBCoe, on material more or less impure 
through mechanical admixtures, indicate that 
it is avanado-silicate of aluniinaand potash, 
the vanadic acid present varying from 20;5 to 
over "per cent. Found intimately associated 
with native gold in California. 

rose. . & o. [A.S. rose (pi. rosan), from Lat, 
a = a rose, from Gr. pooo, (rhodm) = a 
rose from Arab, ward = a rose; Dan row; 
Sut Z," Qer. rose ; O. H. Ger rosa ; IceL & 
Sw. ros ; Irish * GaeL ros ; Welsh rhos.) 
A, As substantive : 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit : In the same sense as IL I. 

2. Figuratively : 

(1) A ribbon gathered into a knot in the 
form of a rose, and serving as a kind of orna- 
mental shoe-tie, knee-band, or hatband. 

"The Provencal ro* on rnyTaied shoes." Shatap. : 
Bamta. 111. 1. 

(2) A delicate pink colour. 

Her cheek, had lost the rose." 

Tennjnon : dwm* 17. 

(3) Full flush or bloom. 

"ThrowM yet upon her cheek.'' 

Byron : SlCffe of Corinth, zx. 

(ft A circular card or disc, or diagram, with 
radiating lines, as the compass-card or rose of 
the compass; the barometric rose, which 
shows the barometric pressure at any place 
in connection with winds blowing from dif- 
ferent points of the compass ; a wind-rose. 

(5) A perforated cup or nozzle acting as a 
strainer at the induction of water into a pump, 
or at the nozzle as a means of dividing the 
water into fine streams for sprinkling. 

(6) (See extract). 

The silver cup of it. breed is given to a bird in the 
clan of tram peters. A growth of bead-feathers called 
the rota coineB down completely over the eyes ol 
Inzenioiisly perverted pigeon, whose legs are decorated 
iTh long leathers thaynight rather have been looked 

H. Technically: 

1. Arch. : The same as ROSETTB (q.T.). 

2. Botany. 

n) The common English name of the genus 
Rosa(q.v-). The ordinary dog-rose or brier-rose 
(R caiiina) is very common ; the trailing dog- 

(2) A popular designation for a multitude 
of species belonging to various genera and 
even orders popularly supposed tx> bear a 

more or less close " mb P < |^^,S? n ,jv 
Rosa. The Chinese rose (1) tseeaboe](2> 

(Hibiscus rosa sinensis), tue *. 

(H. mutabilis), the Christmas IJ*"J* 

niger), the Com rose (I'apaver Khaxu), th 

Cotton rose (FUago) (American) Eklcr 

fGerarde's name for a variety of Vmrnwn 


flowered variety of K. Opuliu), the H 
(Helianthemum), the Jamaica rose MW"- 
ana), (2) (Bfafcea <riiin)is) ,; the Calabar rose^ 

Ros7 of the Alps &*>b**%j!^ 

and R ferrwiineum), Sage rose (1 urnera 
rStarSouth Sea rose (Jamaica name, Nenum 
Oleander), Sun rose (Hdianthemum). Wild rose 
(Klakea trinervis). Of the genera in the above 
list, Hibiscus is a Mallowwort, Papaver 
Poppy wort, Anastatica is cruciferous.N iscana- 
a Clovewort, Ac. 

3. Lock. : The annular scutcheon roum 
spindle of a door-lock. 

4. P otto!. : Erysipelas (q.v.). 

5 Script. iH&.rb-yW (chhabatseleth=Sonf 
of Solomon ii. 1, and Isa. xxxv. .D, h nt| been 
identified. Gesenius believes it to be the Au- 
tumnal Crocus (CoUhicum autumnale), and- 
Royle Narcissus Tazzetta. 

B. At adj.: Of a pink colour; coloured) 
like a rose ; rosy. 

1 (1) Under the rose [Lat. sub rosa] : Itt 
secret ; privately, confidentially. 
(2) Wars ol the Rosa : 

Ena Hist. : Civil wars between the houses 
of York and Lancaster for the English crown 
The Lancastrians wore for a badge a red and 
the Yorkists a white rose The rebeUionof 
the Duke of York against Henry VI. took 
place in 1452. Twelve battles followed, six in 
this reign and six subsequently. They com- 
menced with the battle of St. Albans A D. 
?465>nd ended with that of Bosworth Field, 
Aue 22 I486, which established Henry Vll.. 
and 'the Tudor dynasty on the throne. 

rose acacia, s. 

Bot. : Robinia hispida. 
rose-aniline, s. [ROSANILISE.} 
rose-aphis,!. [APHIS.] 
rose-apple, . 

Bot. : The fragrant fruit of Eugenia, molrw 
amsi*, E. ajpua, B. Jambos (Jzmbosa wigaris). 
&c., growifig in the East. It is made into 


Bot. : Adonis autumnalit. 

rose-bay, s. 

Bot. : Epilobium angustifolium. 


rose rosechafer 

rose-beetle, 5. 

Entom. : Cetonia attrata. [CETONIA.) 
rose-bud.1. [ROSEBUD.] 
rose-bug, . 

Entom. : The Rosechafer (q.v.). (.Amer.) 

rose-camphor, .--. 

t'kem. : The stearoptene of rose oil. I 
crystallizes in lamina?, melting at 34, an 
boiling between 280 and 300', is sli-tith 
Bauble in alcohol, but soluble In ether ati 
essential nils. It dissolves in potash an_ 
acetic acid, but is very slightly acted on by 
hydrochloric and nitric acids. 

rose-campion, .. 
Hot. : The genus Lychnis. 

rose-carnation, s. A carnation with 
rose-coloured stripes. (Tennyson: In Me 
noriam, c. 7.) 

rose-catarrh, rose-fever, . 

Puthol. : A catarrh or alight fever like hay- 
asthma, prevailing in parts of the United 
States, where roses are extensively cultivated 
It resembles, but Is not identical with, Hay 
fever (q.v.). 

rose-chafer, s. [ROSECHAFER.] 

rose-cheeked, a. Having red or rosy 
Cheeks. (Shakesp. : Venvn & Adonis, S.) 

Rose-cheeked Kingfisher : 

Ornith. : Ispidina picta, from the Ethiopian 
region. It feeds principally on grasshoppers 
and small locusts. 

rose-cold, . Rose-catarrh (q.T.X 
rose-coloured, a. 

1. Lit. : Having the colour of a rose. 

" They flung over her bead the roie-cot-ourtd bridal 
veil" Moon: Light of OH Oarem. (ConcJ 

2. Uncommonly beautiful ; hence, extrava- 
gantly dne or pleasing ; rosy. 

rose-copper, s. [ROSETTE, II. 4.] 
* rose-cross, . A Rosicrucian (q.v.). 
rose-cut, . 

Gem-cutting : A mode of cutting gems in 
which the back is left flat and the face is out 
into a series of inclined triangular facets 
arranged around a cential hexagon. It is 
adopted for thin stones. 

rose -diamond, s. The rose-diamond is 
flat below, and its 
upper surface has 
twenty-four trian- 
gular facets. The 
centre has a hexa- 
gonal arrange- 
ment, and the base 
of each triangle is 
Joined to another 
whose apex 
touches the mar- 
gin. The inter- 
vening spaces are 
cut into twelve 
facets in two 
zones. The upper or projecting is the crown : 
the lower portion, the teeth. 

rose-drop, . 

1. A lozenge flavoured with rose-essence. 

2. An ear-drop. 

3. A grog-blossom (q.v.). 
rose-elder, s. The Guelder-rose (q.v.). 
rose-engine, s. A lathe in which the 

rotatory motion of the lathe and the radial 
motion of the tool combine to produce a variety 
of curved lines. The mechanism consists of 
plates or cams set on the axis of the lathe or 
suitably rotated and formed with wavy edges 
or grooves which govern the motion of the 
cutting point toward or from the centre. 
rose-laced, a. Having a red or rosy fece. 
rose-festival, s. [ROSIERE.] 
rose-fever, . [ROSE-CATARRH.] 

rose-flsh, . A commercial name for a 
Norway haddock. 

rose-fly, . 

Entom. : The Rosechafer (q.v.Ji 

rose-gall, . 

Vtg. Pathol. : A gall produced by Rhoditet 

DIAGRAM saowiifo TH 


rose garnet, t. 

Min.: A rose-red variety of garnet (q.v.) 
found at Xalostae, Mexico. An analysis in 
dicates a relationship to the lime-alumina 
garnets or essonite (q.v.). 

rose-head, *. The same as ROSE, ., A. 

I. 2. (:j). 

rose hued, a. Of the hue of roses 

(Tennyson: Arabian Nights, HO.) 

rose-Iron, s. 

.if i n. : An iron-glance or haematite, occur 
ring in rosette-like groups of tabular crystals 
in several localities in Switzerland. 

rose-knot, s. An ornamental bnnch o 
ribbons plaited so as to resemble a rose. 

rose-lake, s. A richly tinted pigment 
prepared hy precipitating lac and madder on 
an earthy basis. Called also Rose-madder. 

rose-lashing, s. 

Navt. : A kind of lashing or seizing employee 
in woolding spars. So termed from its form 

rose-lathe, s. A rose-engine (q.vj. 

rose-leaf, t. The leaf of a row. 

rose-lichen, s. 

Rot. : Parmelia kamschadalls. It is nsed in 
calico-printing to give a perfume and a rose- 
tinge to the fabric. About twenty-live tons 
are annually exported from the hilly parts of 
India, where it grows. (Atkinson.) 

rose-lip, . A lip of a ruddy or rosy 

rose-madder, s. [ROSE-LAKE.] 

rose-mallow, s. 

Bat. : AWuca rosea, the Hollyhock. 

rose maloes, t. The liquid storax ob- 
tained from Liqnidambar orientate, 

rose-moulding, t. 

Arch. : A kind of Norman moulding orna- 
mented with roses or rosettes. 

rose-nail, i. A nail with a conical head 
which is hammered into triangular facets. 

* rose-noble, . An old English gold coin, 
stamped with the impression of a rose. They 

were first coined In the reign of Edward III 
and were current at 6s. 8d. They were also 
coined by Edward IV., of the value of 8s. 4d. 

"The succeeding kings coined roj..w, and double 
rote-noote*. Camdtn : ftema/ru. 

rose-oil, . 

Chem. : A volatile oil extracted from several 
speoies of roses, especially Rosa centifolia 
and R. moscliata. It is a thick, yellowish, 
fragrant liquid, solidifying at a low tempera- 
ture to a buttery mass of transparent, shining 
laminae, and having a sp. gr. 0'8912 at 15. It 
is frequently adulterated with geranium oil, 
but this may be detected by exposing the oil 
to iodine vapour, which does not alter the 
colour of rose oil, but imparts a deep brown 
colour if geranium oil is present even in 
minute quantity. 

rose-opal, . 

Win. : A rose-coloured opal, occurring with 
the qmncite(q.v.), the colour being attributed 
to organic matter. 

rose parrakeet, . 
Ornith. : Platycercus eximiua, native of 

rose-pink, . 

1. A coarse kind of lake, produced by 
dyeing chalk or whiting with a decoction 
of Brazil wood, &c. It is a pigment much 
used by paper-stainers and in the commonest 
distemper paintings, 4c., but too perishable 
to ment the attention of artists. 

2. A rosy pink colour or hue. 
rose-plantain, s. 

Bot. : Plantago major rosea. 

rose-quartz, s. 

Min. : A rose-red variety of quartz, mostly 
found massive, in veins, (,'olonrattributed to 
the presence of titanic acid, but Dana and 
others suggest it may be partly due to man' 

rose-rash, s. [ROSEOLA.] 

rose-red, o. Red as a rose. 

* rose-rial, i. A name for English gold 
coins uf various reigns and values; a rose- 
noble. The rose-rials of James I. were of the 
value of 30s. 

rose-ringed parrakeet, s. 

Ornith. : Pal&ornis torquatus, from Africa 
India, and Ceylon. It is about sixteen inches 
long ; green, with a black band from the chin 
nearly to the nape, rose-coloured collar round 
the back of neck. In the female a narrow 
collar of emerald - green replaces the rose 

rose-root, s. [ROSEWORT.] 
rose sawfly, . 
Entom. : The genus Hylotoma. 
rose snowball-tree, . 

Bot. : Viburnum Opulus roseum. 

rose-steel, s. A kind of steel of cementa- 
tion whose interior part exhibits, when frac- 
tured, a different texture from that of the 

rose-tulip, . 

Bot. : TuKpa rosea. 
rose-water, s. & a. 

A. As subst. : Water distilled from rose leavei 
in the proportion of two gallons of water to 
ten pounds weight of fresh petals from Rom 

" Let one attend him with a silver basin. 
Full of rm-matr, and bestrewd with flowen." 
SAaJcap. : Taming of the Shrev. {Induct. L) 

B. As adj. : Having the odour or character 
of rose-water ; hence, affectedly delicate, fine, 
or sentimental 

rose- willow, . 

Bot. : Salix purpurea. 

rose-window, s. 

Arch.: A Catherine-wheel or Marigold- 
window. [CATHERINE-WHEEL, .] 

rose, .(. (ROSE, >.] 

1. To make of a rose colour ; to redden : to 
cause to flush or blush. 

2. To perfume, as with roses. 

" To row and lavender my horainess " 

Tfnniftoti : Quern Mary, 111. ft, 

rose, pret. ofv. [RISE, .] 

ros'-S-SB, s. pi. [Lat. ros(a) = a rose ; fern. pi. 

adj. sun", -eae.} 

Bot. : A sub-order of Rosaceee, having the 
carpels free from the tube of the calyx and the 
stipules united to the petiole. It is divided 
into four families : Rosidae, Potentillidaj, Spi- 
raidas and Sanguisorbidaj. 

"ros'-e'-al, "rds'-i-al, s. [Lat. roseus, from 
rosa = a rose.) Resembling a rose in colont 
or smell ; roseate. 

"The stones are rotial, and 
Of the white rock." Datenant : T\t W(tt, it L 

*r6s'-e-ate, a. [Lat roams, from rosa = a 
rose; Ital. and Sp. rosato; Fr. rosat.] 

1. Rosy ; full of roses ; made or consisting 
of roses. 

" The most renowned 

With curious roteatf anadems are crowu'd." 
Drayton : The Mutet Klyttum, Nymph. 1 

2. Rosy, resembling a rose, rose-coloured. 

" Nor ever In aught earthly dip. 
But the morn's dew. her roiratt lip." 

ilMrt: Light tftlu aarm. 

roseate-tern, s. 

Ornith. : Sterna dougallii. 

rose'-b&d, s. [Eng. rose, and bud.l The bud 
of a rose ; the flowerof the rose just appearing. 

rose-bush, s. [Eng. ro, and lush.] Any 
of the shrubs or bushes which fall under the 
genus Rosa. 

ose -9ha fer, s. [Eng. rote, and chafer.') 

Entom. : A popular name for any individual 
of the sub-family Cetoniinse. 




= i; ey = 

^ kw . 

roseme rosland 


rose me, s. [Eng. rose; -ine.] [ROSANILINE.] 

rds'-e-lite, s. [After the mineralogist Gustav 
Rose, and Gr. Atfos (lithos)=.& stone; Ger. 

Min, ; A triclinic mineral occurring in 
beautiful small crystals at Sclmeeberg, Saxony. 
Hardness, 3*5 ; sp, gr. 3-506 to3'585. Compos.: 
a hydrated arsenate of lime, cobalt, and mag- 
nesia, the later numbers obtained correspond- 
ing with the formula RgAsgOg + 2aq. 

ro' -sol-lane, s. [Mod. Lat. rosell(us) rosy ; 
sutf. -nne (Min.) ; Ger. rosellan.] 
Min. : The same as Svanberg's Rosite (q.v.). 

ro-seT-late, a. [Mod. Lat. rosellatus, from 
Lat. rosa = a rose.] Rosulate (q.v.). 

ro-selle', s. [Corrupt, from Eng. red sorrel.] 

Bot. : Hibiscus Sabdari/a. The ripened cali- 
ces are acid, and in India, the West Indies, 
&c., are made into jellies, put into tarts, or, 
with water added, produce a cool, refreshing 

rose'-ma-ry, *rose ma rtne, *ros-ma- 

rlne(l), s. [O. F. rosmarin(Fr. romarin), from 
Lat. rosmnrimis, rosmarinum ( lit. marine 
dew, from ros=dew, and marinus = marine 
(q.v.); Ital. rosmanno; Hp.roamarino, romero; 
Port, rosmaninho.] 

Bot. : Rosmarinvs officinalis, a native of the 
South of Europe and Asia Minor, and culti- 
vated in India, &c. ; a very fragrant labiate 
plant with a white or pale-blue corolla. The 
leaves are sessile and gray, with the edges 
rolled round below. It is sometimes made 
into garlands. It is slightly stimulant, and 
tends to relieve headache and mental weari- 
ness. It is an ingredient ia Hungary-water 
(q.v.). It is also used as a conserve, and a 
liqueur is made from it. 

" When villagers my shroud bestrew 
With pansies, rvtemary, and rue." 

Scott : KoMby, V. 18. 

rosemary oil. s. 

Chem. : A transparent, colourless oil, ob- 
tained by distilling the fresh leavesand flowers 
of the rosemary wibb water. It is neutral, 
has a campborous taste, and the odour of the 
plant; sp. gr. 0'90SO at 15'5. and boils at 165- 

* rds'-en, o. [Eng. ros(e) ; adj. suff. -en, as in 
golden, &c.J Made of roses; consisting of, or 
resembling roses. 

" His leefe a roten chaplet." 

H'tmaunt of the Rote, 

ros'-en-ite, s. [After G. Rose ; n connect., 

and suit', -ite.] 
Min. : Tbe same as PLAQIONITE (q.v.). 

Ros-en-mul-ler, s. [The discoverer's 

name.] (See def. of If.) 
T[ Organ of Rosenmiiller : 
Anat. ; The parovarium. 

ro-se'-o'-la, s. [Lat. rosa = a rose.] 

Pathol. : Rose-rash, scarlet-rash ; a non- 
contagions, febrile disease, with rose-coloured, 
minute, non-crescentic spots, with itching 
and tingling. In infants it is called R. infan- 
tilis, and a variety occurs from exposure to 
sun in summer, known as R. (estiva. The 
action of belladonna, taken internally, occa- 
sionally produces it, and it sometimes precedes 
an attack of small-pox or typhus fever. It 
may also occur four or five days after vaccina- 
tion, in gout and rheumatism, or in cholera. 

*r<>s'-er, s. [ROSE, s.] A rose-tree, a rose- 

" They ben like to an hound, when he cometh by the 
roier, or by other bnshea." Chaucer: Pertonet Tale, 

* ros'-er-jf, a. [ROSABT.] A place where 
roses grow ; a rosary. 

* ros'-et, s. [Fr. rotette.} A red colour for 

" Grind cerusB with a weak water of gum-lake, roxet, 
ana vermilion, which maketh it a (air carnation." 
Peacham: On Drawing. 

rdse'-tan-gle, a. [Eng. rose, and tangle.] 
Bot. (PI.): TheCeramiaceae(q.v.). (Lindley.) 

Rd-sct'-ta (1), s. [See def] The name of a 
place in Egypt, on one of the mouths of the 

Rosetta-stone, *. The name given to a 
stone found near the Rosetta mouth of the 

N'ile by a French engineer in 1798. It is a 
tablet of basalt, with an inscription of the 
year 136 B.C., dur- 
ing the reign of 
Ptolemy Epi- 
phanes. The in- 
scription is In 
hieroglyphic, de- 
motic, and Greek. 
It was deciphered 
by Dr. Young, and 
formed the key to 
the reading of the 
hieroglyphic cha- 
racters. It wag 

captured by the BOSETTA-STONE. 

English on the de- 
feat of the French forces in Egypt, and is now 
in the British museum. 

rd-set'-ta (2), , [ROSETTE (?).] 

rosetta-wood, s. A name given to a 
good-sized East Indian wood, imported in 
logs, nine to fourteen feet in diameter ; it is 
handsomely veined. The general colour is a 
lively red-orange. The wood is close, hard, 
and very beautiful when first cut, but soon 
gets darker. 

ro-sette', s. [Fr., dimin. from rose= a rose 

L Ord. Lang. : Something more or less re- 
sembling, or designed to resemble a rose, and 
used as an ornament or badge ; as, a bunch of 
ribbons plaited, or of leather cut to the form 
of a rose. 

n. Technically: 

1. Arch.: An ornament in the form of arose, 
much used in the decoration of ceilings, cor- 
nices, &c. 

2. Art: Roset(q.v.). 

3. Gas: A form of gas-burner in which the 
gas issues at a circular series of holes re- 
sembling a rosette. 

4. Metall. : A disc of red copper from the 
refining-hearthor crucible, As the impurities 
are removed in the shape of scoria? or slag, 
and the metal exposed, the surface of the 
metal is congealed by throwing on water. 
This is called quenching. The hardened 
crust is of a red colour, anil is called a rosette. 
The operation being repeated, the metal is 
obtained in a form for ready handling and 
further treatment, instead of being in a solid 
mass. It is also known as rose-copper. 

5. Mill. : A circular arrangement of sails in 
a windmill ; the vanes attached to radial arms. 

ro-se'-tum, s. [Lat., from rosa = a rose.] A 
garden devoted to the cultivation of roses ; a 
nursery for roses. 

rose'-WOOd, s. [Eng. rose, and wood.] 

Bot. <& Comm. : The name given to wood 
which is either of a rose colour or, when cut, 
yields a perfume like roses. The best comes 
from South American Dalbergias. (Treas. of 
Bot.) Lindley says that the fragrant rosewood, 
or Bois de Palixandre of the cabinet-makers, is 
from two or three species of Brazilian Triptol- 
emese. Physocalymma Jloribunda also yields a 
beautiful rose-coloured wood. Brazilian rose- 
wood is imported in large slabs. Its colours 
are from light hazel to deep purple, or nearly 
black. It is very heavy, and is used for 
cabinet work, especially as veneers. Other 
kinds of rosewood are from Genista canariensis, 
Convolvulus Jloridus, C. Scoparia, &c. 

rosewood-oil, s. 

Chem. : A pale yellow, somewhat viscid, 
volatile oil, obtained from rosewood (q.v.) by 
distillation with water ; sp. gr. (V9064 at 15-5 . 
It is sometimes used to adulterate rose-oil, 
which thereby loses its buttery consistence. 

rose wort, s. [Eng. rose, and wort.} 
Botany : 

1. Rhodeola rosea. 

2. (PI.) : The Rosaceae. (LindUy.) 

Ros I cru cian, a. & s. [From a Latinised 
form of Rosenkreuz. See def.] 

A. As adj. : Of, or belonging to Rosenkrenz 
or the society which he is said to have founded. 

B. As&itbst. (PL): A mystic secret society 
which became known to the public early 
in the seventeenth century, and was alleged 
to have been founded by a German noble 
called Christian Rosenkreuz, A.D. 1388. He 

was said to have died at the age of 106. 
The society consisted of adepts, who perpetu- 
ated it by Initiating other adepts. It did not) 
interfere with religion or politics, but sought- 
after true philosophy. The Rosicrucians pre- 
tended to be able to transmute metals, to pro- 
long life, and to know what was passing in 
distant places. Manycontradictoryhypotheses 
have been brought forward regarding tlie 
Rosicrucians, and as it is admitted that their 
secret was never revealed, it is open to doubt 
if there was one to reveal. They are said to 
have died out in the eighteenth century. The 
writer of the article "Rosicrucians" in the 
Enoydopcedta Britannica (ed. 9th) believes 
that the Rosicrucian Society never existed, 
and that the persons making it known did so 
simply for a jest. As, however, the public 
believed in its existence, individuals from 
time to time declared that they belonged to it. 
Called also Brothers of the Rosy Cross. 

Ros-i-cru'-cian-Ism,s. [Eng. Rosicrucian ; 
-ism.} The arts, practices, or teaching of the 

ros'-I-d, s. pi. [Lat. ros(a); fern. pi. adj. 
sutf. -idee.] 

Bot. : The typical family of the sub-order 
Rosese (q.v.). 

ros'-ied, a. [Eng. rosy; -ed.} Adorned 
with roses or their colour. 

* ro'-sier (si as zh), * rosiero, s. [Fr. 
rosier.] A rose-bush. 

" Xe other tire she on her head die! wear. 
But crown'd with a garland of tweet rotier." 

Spe>aer: F. Q.. II. is. Ifc 

ro si ere, . [Fr.] The name given in France 
to a young girl who in a village contest is 
awarded a rose as the prize of virtue and wis- 
dom. An attempt has been made by a clergy- 
man to introduce a similar prize In South 

ros il, s. [ROSSEL.] 

tros'-X-l& adv. [Eng. rosy; -ly.] With > 
red or rosy glow. 

" The white Olympus peaks 
Ratify brighten, and the soothed gods smile.* 

Matthew Arnold : Empedoclet on Etna, IL 

rds'-in, s. [A doublet of resin.] 

1. Resin with a little water remaining after 
nearly all the oil has been distilled off. 

2. Resin with all tbe water distilled away. 
The solid residuum is then black, and is a 
compound of several hydrocarbons. It is 
called colophane or fiddlers* rosin, and is ap 
plied to the hair of violin, viola, and violon- 
cello bows to give them the necessary bite 
upon the strings. Rosin for the double bass 
is made of equal proportions of ordinary rosin 
and white pitch. 

" Rottn. if it be found in the flrre, is thought 
fault iu the wood, whereas the only oommodi tie of the 
pitch tree ifl her rotin." P. Holland : Plinie, bk. xvi., 
ch. x. 

rosin-oil, s. An oil obtained from the 
resin of the pine tree. Used by painters, also 
for lubricating machinery, Ac. (Simmonds.) 

rosin-tin, s. 

Mining: A. pale-coloured oxide of tin with 
a resinous lustre. 

rosin-weed, s. 

Bot, : Silphium kiciniatum. 

ros'-Jn, v.t. [RosiN, s.] To rub or cover over 
with rosin. 

" Wine vessels are not to be rosined, calked, and 
trimmed. 11 P. Holland : Plinie. bk. xviiL, ch. xi. 

Ros in an -te, s. [Sp. = the steed of Dor 
Quixote.] Any sorry horse. 

ros'-i-ness, * ros-y-ness, s. [Eng. rosy ; 
ness.] The quality or state of being rosy. 

" The fair morn breaks through her rotyne&s." 

Davenant : Qondibert, HI. 1. 

ros'-In-$r, a. [Eng. rosin; ~y.] Resembling 
rosin ; containing or consisting of rosin. 

ros'-ite, . [Eng. ros(e); suff. -ite (Min.); 
Ger. rosit.] 
Mineralogy : 

1. An altered form of Svanberg's anorthita 

2. The same as Chalcostibite (q.v.). 

ros' land, *. [WeL r&o* = peat, a moor.) 
Heathy land ; land full of ling ; moorish or 
watery land. 

boil, bo^ ; pout, jowl ; cat, fell, chorus, shin, bench ; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph = 
-cian, -tian = shan* -tioa, -sion = shun ; -(ion, -sion zhun. -oion% -tious, -sious - shus. -ble, -die, &c. - bel, deL 


rosmarine rostrum 

rds -ma rine (1), s. [ROSEMARY.] 
L Sea^iew, sea-spray. 
2. Rosemary. (Spenser: ifuiopotwot, 200.) 

" ros -ma-rine (2), s. [Norweg. nwmar = a 
walrus (rVs a horse, and mar (Lt mart) = the 
ses), from which ia formed Moil. Lat rosmnrw, 
now the specific name of the Walrus. There is 
no connection with the Latin ros marinHs(RosE- 
MARY]. The confusion seems to have arisen 
from a passage in Olaus Magnus (ed. 1558, 
Antv.) " nt 
cis aquse gra- 
mme vescan- 
tur." This 
appears in a 
German edi- 
tion of 1567 
(where the 
animal ia 
called Ross- 
mar) as "dem 
siisseii grasz." 
Gesner has 

Simply "gra- 

mine pasci- 
tur." He notes Germans living on the 
seaboard call it restinger, that in Moscovy or 
Scythian Hungary, not far from the source of 
the Tanais, it is called morsz ; and that some 
believe the Mod. Lat rosntarus to be formed 
from a (M.H.) Oer. rusdz, "which seems to 
have been coined to express the impetus and 
rushing sonnd with which the animal moves 
through the water."] 

Zuol. : The Walrus (q.v.). At the time 
Spenser wrote little was Known of this animal, 
but Gesner (Hint. Anim., iv. 249), to whom 
Spenser is indebted, was sufficiently well in- 
formed to point out that the picture given of 
it in Magnus's book was incorrect, both as to 


(From Olus Magnus, IOC. ftt.) 

{From Owner, loc, eiM 

the feet and the tusks, though he quotes Mag- 
nus's statement that the animal was as big as 
n elephant, that it climbed up the rocks on 
the sea-shore by the aid of its teeth, and that 
when it fell asleep after grazing, the fisher- 
men attacked and killed it for the sake of its 
teeth, which were in high estimation for the 
handles of swords, daggers, and knives. 

" And greedy roemarinei with vUages deforms," 
Spmttr: f. Q.. II. xiL 24. 

ros ma-ri -nl-dte, . pi. [Lat. roraiari(u<) ; 
fern. pi. adj. snff. -itlm.] 
Bet. : A family of Monardese. 

rSs-ma-ri'-nfis, s. (ROSEMARY.) 

Bot. : Tie typical genus of Rnsrnarinidae 
(q.v.). Calyx two-lipped, stamens two. 

Roy-mln'-l-an, o. 4 . (See def. B. 1.] 

A. As adjective: 

1. Belonging to, or characteristic of the 
Congregation described under B. 1. 

" The memben of the Komlnfnn Order, "-r. David- 
em: Pka. Sia. of A. Xotmini-SeriaO, p, xIL 

2. Belonging to, or characteristic of Ros- 
minianism (q.v.). 

" Manioni . . . applied the Rfxminlon principles to 
the art of composition." Cebtrwcg : Hut. PAO., ii. 7. 

B. As substantive : 

1. Eccla. <t Chunk Hist. (PI): A congrega- 
cation, consisting of priests and laymen, 
founded by the Abate Antonio Rosmini-Ser 
bati (1T97-1855), the members of which are 
bound "to embrace with all the desire of 
their souls every work of charity, without 
arbitrary limitation to any particular branch, 
undertaking all that should be required of 
them of which they should be capable." 
The novitiate lasts two years, and the mem- 
bers take the three vows o! poverty, chastity, 
and obedience, but wear no distinctive habit 
Each retains a sort of title to his own property 
but it is really at the disposal of the general. 
The Order owns no property. There is an 
English house for novices at Wadliurst 

( "luimembersarebetUTknowiiby theshorterniune, 
Kntmtnianl."'- T. Dafidtrin : Phil. 3yit. of A. Jlotinini- 
Strbati. p. xlTi. 

2. Pliilos. : A believer in, or supporter of 
Rosminiauism (q.v.). 

Ros-mln'-I-an Ism, . [En*. Romanian ; 

Philos. : The system of the Abate Antonio 
Rnsniini-Serbati. His starting-point and cen- 
tral principle wad the dictum of St. Thomas 
Aquinas, that Being (ens or ens commune) was 
the object of intelligence and the ground of 
the principle of contradiction. Rosmini saw 
that it is the essence of intelligence to have 
an object, and that that object is Being, and 
his whole system is merely a working out of 
the idea of Being into all its ramifications and 
principles, necessary and contingent. (Da- 

" The bet exposition of Romintaniim.* Peberwg : 

But. mi., it. & 

rosoglio, rosolio (both as ro-sdl'-I-o), 
ros'-d-li, ros'-si-li, s. [Ital. rosolio.} 

1. A red wine of Malta. 

2. A species of the ti nest liqueurs or creams. 

ros 6T-Ic, a. [Lat. road; ol(eum), and Eng. 
suff. -it.] Derived from rosaniliae. 
rosollc acid, s. 

A weak acid prepared by treating rosanillne 
with nitrous acid, and boiling the resulting 
diazo-compound with hydrochloric acid. It 
forms shining monoclinic prisms, closely re- 
sembling those of aurine, melts above 220, is 
insoluble in water, but dissolves readily with 
brownish-yellow colour in alcohol and ether. 
Boiled with aniline and benzole acid it yields 
a beautiful and permanent blue dye. 

Ross (1), . [Sir John Ross, a distinguished 
Arctic navigator (1777-1866).] 

Rosa's large-eyed seal, i. 

Zool. : Ommatoplwca rotrii. There is a stuffed 
specimen in the Natural History Museum, 
South Kensington. The skin is greenish- 
yellow, with close, oblique, yellow stripes on 
the sides, pale beneath. 

ross (2), . [Wel. rho>.l [ROSLAND.] The 
refuse of plants ; a morass, a marsh. 

r6ss (3), s. [Cf. Dan. roj = chips or shavings 
of wood.) The rough, scaly matter on the 
surface of the bark of certain trees. (Amer.) 

roas, r.fc [Ross (3), .] 

1. To strip the ross from. 

2. To strip bark from. 

3. To cnt np, as bark, for boiling or steeping. 

ros -sel, . [Ross (1), . ; ROSLAKD.J Light, 
sandy soil ; rosland. (Prop.) 

ros sel ly, ros -sel-y, a. [Eng- rotsd ; -J.) 
Loose, light, friable. 

" In Essex, moory Injid U thought to be the molt 
proper : that which I hare observed to be the best 
oil is a rosMly top, and a brick earthy bottom." 
Mortimer: Husbandry. 

ros set, s. [ROUSSETT*.] 

rosslgnol (as ros-sln'-ySl), i. [Fr., 0. FT. 
lossignol, from Lat. lusriniola, dimin. from 
luscinia = a nightingale.] The nightingale. 

ros'-so an-ti'-co, . [ItaL] 

Sculpture : A fine-grained variety of marble 
of a deep blood colour with small white spots 
or veins. It was used by the ancients for 

ros soli, . [Ital.] [ROSOOLIO.] 
ros'-tel, . 

ros tel-lar'-i a, s. [HOSTELLCM. J 

1. Zool. : Spindle-stromb ; a genus of 
Strombidse, with eight species, from the Red 
Sea. India, Borneo, and China ; range, thirty 
fathoms. Shell with elongated spire ; whorls 
numerous, flat ; canals long, the posterior 
one running up the spire ; outer lip expanded 
(enormously so, in some of the fossil species), 
with a single sinus, close to the beak. 

2. Palfront. : From the Lower Greensand to 
tho London Clay, In which formation the 
best known species, Sosteriaria ampla, is 

rSs'-tel-late, a. [Mod. Lat. rottellatm, from 
rofttllum.} Rostrate, beaked (q.v.). 

ros tel- II -form, o. [Lat. rotte!lum = 
rts-iei, and /arm* = form.] Having the form 
of a rosteL 

r5s-teT-lum, (pi. ros-tel -la), a. [Mod. 

Lat, diiniu. from Lat. rostrum.] 
Botany : 

1. The rhizonm of an embryo. 

2. A narrow extension of the upper ed^e of 
the stigma in certain orchids, a viscid yiand 
connecting the pollinia in the Bet orchis, &o 

a (Pi.) .-Hooks. 

rSs'-ter, s. [Dut. rooster = a gridiron ; hence, 
a grating, a table or list, a roster, )>rob. from 
the perpendicular and horizontal line* ou a 
tabular statement.] 

1. A roasting-iron, a gridiron. 

2. A list showing the turn or rotation of 
service or duty of those who are to relieve 
or succeed each other ; specif , a list showing 
the order of rotation in which officers, com- 
panies, or regiments are ordered to serve. 

"They well knew our regiment was one of the first 
Oil the rotter for home." Field, April 4, ISSi. 

roV-ter-ite, s. [Etym. doubtful, probably 
after one Rostero ; suff. -itc (Min.).] 

Mln. : A variety of beryl (q.v.), regarded 
as distinct by the describer, Grattarola, because 
of its crystal habit, optical characters, aud 
variation in chemical composition. 

ros thorn Ite, a. [After Heir Frani von 
Resthome ; suff. -ite (if in.).] 

Min. : A hydrocarbon occurring in lenticular 
masses in coal, at Sonnberge, Carinthia. Sp. 
gr. 1-076 ; lustre, greasy ; colour, brown, in 
thiusplinters wine-yellow. Compos. : CuH^O. 

" ros -tie, . [RosTEL.] The beak of a ship. 

" t'ectit rottratui. a barre or lever with an iroa 
point or end ; a rottl. n ~-A'omenclator. 

r5s' tral, o. [Lat mstralls, from rostrum = 
a beak ; Fr. oi Sp. rostral ; Ital. rostmU.} 

1. Pertaining to or resembling a rostrum. 

2. Pertaining to the beak or snout of an; 

rostral-column, s. 

Roman Antiy. : A column devoted to the 
celebration of naval triumphs ; it was orna- 
mented with the rostra or prows of ships. 

rostral-crown, s. A naval crown (q.v.). 

"The other, Commerce, wore a rottral crown upon 
her ..K'l'Totlrr, No. 1L 

rds -trate, ros -trat-ed, o. [Lat roetralut, 
from rosfrum = a beak.] 

* L Ord. Lang. : Furnished or ornamented 
with rostra or beaks. 

"An hondred and ten roitraUd Allies of the Beet 
of Mithridates. Arbuttmot: On Coins. 

2. Bot. <t Zool. : Having a rostrum ; beaked. 

ros'-trl-form, a. [Lat. rostrum = a beak, and 
forma = form.] Having the form of a beak. 

ros-tru lum (pi. ros-tru-la), . [Mod. 
Lat, dimin. from Lat. rostrum (q.v.).] 

Entom. : The oral suctorial organ of the 
Aphaniptera, as the flea, 

ros'-trum (pi. ros'-tra), a. [Ijtt, for rod- 
trum, from rodo =. to gnaw, to peck.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. In the same sense as II. S. 

2. A scaffold, or elevated platform In the 
Forum at Rome, from which public orations, 
pleadings, funeral harangues, Ac., were de- 
livered ; so called from the rostra or beak* at 
sliips with which it was ornamented. 

Myself will mount the rostrum In his faronr" 
AtUium : Cato, IL L 

3. A pulpit, platform, or elevated place 
from which a speaker, as a preacher, an auc- 
tioneer, &c., addresses his audience. 

" The attendance round the rotrnim was not a large 
one." Dally Chronicle. 8pt. 16. 188i. 

IL Technically: 

1. Aunt. : Anything shaped like a beak. 
Thus, there is a rostrum of the sphenoid bone 
and one of the corpus callositm, 

2. Km.: Any beak-like extension, as the 
stigma of some Asclepiads ; the upper end of 
the cornua of a corona, & c. 

3. Comp. Anat.: A snout or snout-shaped 
organ. It is nsed of the suctorial organ 
formed by the appendages of the mouth in 
many insects, [BEAK, a., B. 1 (c), RHYSCHOTA], 

fite, ftt, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, w8t, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine: Ro, pSt, 
*r, wore, wolf, work, who, son; mute, onto, cure, unite, our. rule, full; try, Syrian, se, ee= e; ey = a; u = kw. 

rosula rotary 


of the projecting jaws of the Platanistidse 
and the Ziphioid whales, the pointed part of 
the carapace of the Macioura, aud of similar 

4. Roman Antiq. : The beak or prow of a 
vessel ; a sort of ralu, to which were attached 
Bharp-pointed irons, the head of an animal, 
&c., anil which was fixed to the bows of a 
hip of war, either above or below the water 
line, and used for purposes of attack on other 

0. Distill.: The beak of a still, connecting 
the head with the worm. 

6. Surg.: A crooked pair of forceps with 
beak-like jaws. 

ros u la (pi. ros'-u-lre), . [Dimin. from 
Cat. roso = a rose (q.v.).] 
Botany : 

1. A number of leaves or petals packed 
together like the petals of a garden rose. 

2. (PI.): Little warts on the tliallus of 

ro^ u late, o. [Mod. Lat. rosulatia, from 
rofula (q.v.).] 

Bot. : Having rosulse packed closely to- 
gether like a rosette. 

ros-y, * ros-ie, o. ping. roa() ; *.] 

L Literally : 

I. Resembling rose in bloom, beauty, 
Colour, or fragrance. 

" Like a young envoy wnt bv Health, 
With rojy gute upon her cheek." 

Moore : ParadUt t (Ae Peri. 

*2. Hade in the form of a rose, 

3. Pale pure nd. 

II. Fig. : Very favourable. 

"The future look most ron/."FMd. Oct. t, l.'Si 

K Obvious compounds : Rosy-coloured, rosy- 
(.\eeked, &C. 

rosy bosomed, a. Having the bosom 
of a rosy colour, or tilled with roses. 

" Koty-bofom'd Spring." Ttumton t Spring, 1,010. 

rosy-cross, . The red cross of the 
Rosicrucians (q.v-X 

U Knights of the Rosy-cross: The Rosicru- 

* rosy-crowned, a. Crowned with roses. 

rosy- drop, s. 

Path.. : Carbuncled face, Acne rosacea. 
rosy featiier-star, >. [COMATULA.] 

rosy-fingered, o. Having rosy fingers. 
<Inritated from Homer's favourite epithet for 
the dawn.) 

" Nor did the roiy-flnger'd morn arise. 
And ebed her aacrtd light alonx the ikies. 

Fop* : tlumer ; Odi/uey X i U. 31. 

rosy-footman, a. 

Entom. : A British moth, Calligenia miniata, 
oneoftheLithosiidae. Called also Red Arches. 

rosy-kindled, a. Blushing. (Tennyson : 
Elaine, 392.) 

rosy-marbled moth, s. 
Enttrtn. : A British night-moth, Erastria 

rosy-marsh, >. 

Entom.: A British night -moth, Noctua 

rosy-minor, . 

Entom. : A British night -moth, Miana 
Kterosa. General colour of the upper wings 
gray, tinged with rosy. 

rosy-rustic, s. 

Entom. : A British night-moth, Rydrcecta 

rosy-tinted, o. Tinged with rose-colonr. 

(Tennyson : Two Voices, 80.) 

rosy-wave, . 

Entom. : A British geometer moth, Acidalia 

rosy-white, o. White, with a faint tinge 
of rose-colour. (Tennyson : (Enone, x. 176.) 

ros y, .(. [Ro8Y, a.) To make of a rosy 
colour ; to flush. 

r&t, * rot-en, *rot-l-en, *rotte, t.i. k t. 

[A.8. ration ; cogn. with Dirt, rotten; Icel. 
rotna ; Sw. ruttna ; Dan. raadne = to become 
rotten ; Sw. rota = to make rotten.) 

A. Intransitive : 

1. Lit. : To become rotten or putrid, to de- 
compose, to putrefy. 

" What I loved, and long must love. 
Like common earth call rut." 

tiyron : And Thou art Dead. 

2. Fig. : To decay morally, to moulder, to 

B. Transitive: 

\. To make rotten or putrid, to decompose, 
to cause to putrefy, to bring to corruption. 

2. To cause to take rot, to affect with rot, 
as sheep. 

3. To expose to a process of partial rotting : 
as, To rot Hax. [RETTINO.] 

4. Used in the imperative as a sort of im- 
precation = hang, confound : as, *' 'Od rot it." 

rot, s. [ROT, .] 

I. Ordinary Language: 

1. Literally: 

(1) The act, state, or process of rotting ; 
putrefaction, putrid decay, corruption. 

(2) A disease very hurtful to the potato, 
potato disease. 

2. Fig. : Nonsense, trash, bosh. (Slang.) 
IL Technically: 

1. Pathol. : A disease in sheep and other 
graminivorous animals, produced by the 
hydatids Fasciola bejutica and Distoma lanceo- 
latum, often living in great numbers in the 
gall, ducts, and bladder of the animal. The 
latter parasite has been detected in the human 

" Ills cattle must of rot and tnurren die." 

Milton : P. L., xii. 179. 

2. Veg. Pathol. : [DRY-ROT). 

f (1) Knife grinder's rot: [KNIFE-GRINDER]. 
(2) White-rot: [HYDROCOTYLE]. 
rot-gut, . & a. 

A. As subst. : A slang term for bad beer or 
other liquor. 

"They overwhelm their panch daily with a kind of 
flat rot-gut, we with a bitter dreggi&h small liquor." 

B. As adj. : A term applied to bad beer or 
other liquor. 

rd'-ta, s. [Lat. = a wheel.] [ROTARY.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. A roll or list showing the order of rota- 
tion in which individuals are to be taken ; 
a roster. 

2. A school-roll. 
H. Technically: 

1. Romttn Church : A tribunal within the 
Curia, formerly the supreme court of justice 
and the universal court of api>eaL It was 
instituted by John XXII., in 1828, and regu- 
lated l.y Sixtus IV. (1471-84) and Benedict 
XIV. (1740-88), and to it were referred those 
spiritual causes from foreign countries, now 
settled on the spot by judges delegated by the 
See of Rome. It consists of twelve members, 
called Auditors, presided over by a Dean, 
and is divided into two colleges or senates. 
Prior to 1870 one of these was a court of ap- 
peal for civil suits tried in different cities of 
the Papal States ; the other was a court of 
final appeal from (1) the appeal courts of the 
Papal States ; (2) all spiritual courts, in the 
secular affairs belonging to their competence ; 
and (3) the lower senate. The decisions of 
the Rota, which form precedents, have been 
frequently published. 

"The explanation of the namelssntd tobefftw^anffej 
that the marble floor of the chamber in which the 
Rota used to sit was designed so as to exhibit the ap- 
pearance of a wheel." Addit t Arnold: Cath. Wet., 

2. Kng. Hist. : The name of a political club 
founded by Harrington, the author of Oceana, 
in 1656. He advocated the election of the 
principal nincers of state by ballot, and the 
retirement of a certain number of members 
ot parliament annually by rotation. 

"A Parliament which may make old men grieve. 
And children that ne'er shall be bom complain 
1 mean such as dy'd before they did live. 
Like Harrington B Horn, or th' engine ot Vane." 

total Sm?i led. 1731), il. lit. 

Rota-club, s. 

Eng. Hist. : The same as ROTA, II. 2. 

r6-"ta'-oe-, s. pi [Fern. pi. of Mod. Lat 
rotaceus ; Lat. rota = a wheel.] 

Bot. : Linnzeus's fifty-second natural order 
of plants. Genera : Gentiana, Lysimachia, 
*.iiagallis, &c. 

ro -ta-9lsm, s. [Or. PUTOJCIO-MOS (rotakismas).] 
An exaggerated iirommciation of the letter r, 
produced by trilling the extremity of the soft 
palate against the back part of the tongue ; 
burr. It is common in the north of England, 
especially about Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

ro'-ta fjize, v.i. To practice rotacigm. 
ro-tsa form, a. [Lat. rota = a wheel, aud 
forma fnnn.J 

Bot. : The same as ROTATE (q.v.). 

rd'-tal, a. [Lat. rota = a wheel.] 

1. Of or pertaining to wheels or vehicles. 

" The Cannablere is in a chronic state of vocal and 
ratal tumult." O. A. Sola, in Illustrated London 
Xewt. Nov. 5, 1881, p. 489. 

2. Pertaining to circular or rotatory motion ; 

ro-ta - ll a, s. [Hod. Lat., from Lat. rota = 
a wheel.] 

Zool. it Paloxmt. : The typical genus of th 
family Rotalina (q.v.). Test spiral and tnr- 
binoid ; shell-substance compact and very 
finely porous. Each chamber is enclosed by a 
complete wall of its own, and there are canal- 
like spaces between the two lainellre forming 
each septum. The genus appears first in the 
Chalk, attaining its maximum in the Tertiary, 
aud lias many reueut representatives. 

ro-ta-Ud'-e-a, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. rotal(ici)t 
Lat. neut. pi. adj. suff. -idea.] 

ZooL <t Palaont. : An order of LankesterX 
Reticularia (q.v.), section Perfomta. Test 
calcareous, perforate, free or adherent. Typi- 
cally spiral and rotaliform. Aberrant forms 
evolute, outspread, acervuline, or irregular, 
some of the higher modifications with double 
chamber-walls, supplemental skeleton, and a 
system of canals. There are three families : 
Spirillinina, Rotalina, and Tinoporina. Widely 
distributed in space ; range in time from the 
Carboniferous onward. 

ro-tiU'-I-ibrm, a. [Mod. Lat. ntaWa), and 
Lat. forma = shape.) 

Zoo!. : Coiled in such a manner that the 
whole of the segments are visible on the 
superior surface, those of the last convolution 
only on the inferior side, sometimes one face 
being more convex, sometimes the other. 

ro-ta-li'-na, . pi. [Mod. Lat. rotat(ia) ; Lat. 
neut. pi. adj. suff. -ina.] 

ZooL it Palieont.: The typical family of 
Rotalidea(q.v.), with numerous genera. Test 
spiral, rotaliform, rarely evoluto, very rarely 
irregular or acervuline. From the Carbon- 
iferous onward. 

ro'-ta-line, a. & s. [ROTALISA.] 

A. As adj. : Belonging to or characteristic 
of the family Rotalina. (Nicholson.) 

B. As subst. : Any individual of the family 
Rotalina (q.v.). 

of the earl lest representatives of the AoftUtmt." 
PalmnU., i. lie. 

ro'-ta-ry, o. [As If from a Lat. rotarivt, 
from rota = a wheel ; cogn. with Gael, or Irish 
roth ; Welsh rhod ; Ger. rod, a wheel.] 
Having a motion on its axis, as a wheel ; per- 
taining to rotation ; rotatory. 

rotary-battery, s. 

ltela.ll. : A stamping battery for crushing 
ores. The stamps are arranged circularly 
around a vertical shaft, which carries around 
an inclined plane that raises and lets fall each 
stamp in succession. 

rotary-Mower, s. A form of blower In 
which the blast of air is obtained by the rota- 
tion of a piston or pistons, or of a fan. 

rotary-cutter, s. 

1. Metall. : A toothed disc on a mandrel, be- 
tween the centres of a lathe. Used in cutting 
gears, milling, occ. 

2. Wood: A cutting head in a planing- 

rotary-engine, >. A form of steam- 
engine in which the piston rotates in the 
cylinder or the cylinder upon the piston. The 
varieties are numerous, but, in practice, rotary 
engines are not found to be any more econom- 
ical than the reciprocating engine with crank 

rotary-Ian, s. 

Pneumatics: A blowing-machine with rotary 

boll, by ; pout, jowl ; oat, oell, chorus, ohln, bench ; go, gem ; thin, (his ; sin, as ; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-tan, -tlan = (ban, -tion, -sion = alma ; -{ion, - jion =. tin- -clous, -tious, -sious - slius. -ble. -die. &a = 'tsjl, dfL 


rotascope rothofflte 

rotary puddler, . 

Metall. : An apparatus in which iron is 
puddled by rotary mechanism instead of by 
band labour. 

rotary-pomp, . A pump whose motion 
Is circular. There are various kiuds ; in some 
the cylinder revolves or rotates, as the ease 
may be, moving in a circular path or rotating 
on its own proper axis. The more common 
form of rotary pump is that in which the 
piston or pistons rotate on an axis. [PUMP, t.] 

rotary-valve, s. A valve which acts by 
partial rotation, such as the four-way cock 
or the faucets used in the Worcester, Savary, 
and early Newcomen steam-engines. 

ro ta scope, . [Lat rota = a wheel, and Or. 
<7off<u (skopeo) = to see, to observe.] An in- 
strument, on the same principle as the gyro- 
scope, invented by Prof. W. K. Johnston of 
Philadelphia about 1832. [GYROSCOPE.] 

TO-tat'-a-ble, a. (Hug. rotate); -able.} 
Capable or admitting of rotation. 

" The rotattiMc lever pocket has a collar." Kniffta : 
Diet. Jftetonicf, a. v. Rutchtt-jack. 

ro-tate, a. [Lat. rolatus, pa. par. of rofo = 
to turn round, from rota = a wheel.] 

Bot. : Wheel-shaped. Used of a calyx, a 
corolla, Ac., of which the tube is very short, 
and the segments spreading, as the corolla of 
Veronica or of Galium. 

rotate-plane, rotato plane, a. 

Bot. : Wheel-shaped and flat without a tube : 
as, a rotate-plane corolla. (Let.) 

ro-tate', v.i. & t. [ROTATE, a.] 

A* Intransitive: 

1. To turn or move round a centre, to re- 

* 2, To do anything, as to discharge a func- 
tion or office, in rotation ; to leave office and 
be succeeded by another. 

B. Trans. : To cause to turn round or re- 
volve, as a wheel. 

ro-ta'-tlon, . [Lat rotatio, from ntatus, pa. 
par. of roto = to turn round like a wheel ; Fr. 
rotation; Sp. rotation; Ital. rotazione.] 


L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of turning, rotating, or moving 
round as a wheel does, the state of being so 

2. A return of events, calls to duties, &c., 
In a series, according to a rota or in a similar 
way, as the retirement of a certain number of 
a directorate from office at fixed intervals. 

H. Technically: 

1. Agric.: [1(4)]. 

2. Astron. : The turning of a planet round 
on its imaginary axis, like that of a wheel on 
its axle. In the infancy of astronomy it was 
assumed that the earth was at rest, and that 
the sun and stars moved round it from east 
to west. After note had been taken of the 
fact that when a boat is gently gliding along 
a canal or tranquil lake, the sensation to one 
on board is as if the boat were stationary, and 
objects on the bank moved past in the oppo- 
site direction, a second hypothesis became 
worth consideration, viz., that the apparently 
stationary earth might be like the moving 
boat, and the heavens resemble the really 
stationary banks. It gathered strength when 
it was considered that the earth was not a 
sphere but an oblate spheroid, as if rapid 
whirling had bulged H out at the equator, 
that Jupiter was yet more flattened at the 
poles than the earth, and that the direction of 
the trade-winds, cyclones, 4te., seemed the 
result of rotation. In 1851 Foucault completed 
the proof by making visible to the eye that a 
pendulum with a very long string alters its 
direction in a way which cannot be accounted 
for except by rotation. [GvHoscopE.] The 
rotation of the earth is performed with a 
uniform motion from west to east, and oc- 
cupies the interval in time which would 
elapse between the departure of a star from 
a certain point in the sky and its return 
to the same point again. The only motions 
which interfere with its regularity are the 
Precession of the Equinoxes and Nutation 
(q.v.). The time taken for rotation of the 
earth measures the length of its day (q.v.). 

, Bo with the other planets. The sun also 
rotates as is shown by the movement of spota 
across iU disc. [SUN. J The earth's rotation 

slightly increases the force of gravity in 
movingfrom the equator to the poles. Sir 
Win. Thomson, reasoning from some small 
anomalies in the moon's motion, inferred that 
ten millions of years ago the earth rotated 
one-eventh faster than it does now, and that 
the centrifugal force then wa to that now as 
64 to 49. 

3. Bot. : A rotatory movement of a layer of 
protoplasm, investing the whole internal sur- 
face of a cell, as well seen in Chara, &c. It 
was first investigated by Corti in 1774. Called 
more fully Intercellular rotation. 

4. Physiology: 

(1) The movement of a bone round its axis, 
without any great change of situation. (Qvain.) 

(2) The moving of the yolk in an ovum at a 
certain stage of development on its axis in the 
surrounding fluid. This was first observed by 
Leuwenhoeck in 1695. (Owen.) 

H (1) Angular velocity of rotation: [ANGULAR- 

(2) Alia 0} rotation : [Axis]. 

(3) Centre of spontaneous rotation: [CENTRE, 

(4) Rotation of crops : 

Agric. : The cultivation of a different kind 
of crop each year, for a certain period, to pre- 
vent the exhaustion of the soil. If a plant 
requiring specialty alkaline nutriment be 

n" ated year after year in the same field or 
, it will ultimately exhaust all the alkalis 
in the soil and then languish. But if a plant be 
substituted in large measure requiring siliceous 
elements for its growth, it can flourish where 
its alkaline predecessor is starved. Meanwhile 
the action of the atmosphere is continually 
reducing to a soluble condition small quantities 
of soil, thus restoring the lost alkalis. Manure 
will replace lost elements more quickly. The 
period of rotation is often made four years. 
[FocRCOORsE.] By the neglect of rotation 
soils in parts of Sicily, Asia Minor, Cam- 
pania, and Spain, which were once highly 
productive, are now barren. 

ro-ta'-tion-al, a. [Eng. rotation; -oZ.) 
Pertaining to rotation. 

"The rotational moment of momentum. " BaU : 
Story of the Heaveiu, p. 634. 

ro -ta-tlve, o. [Fr. rotatif.] Turning, as a 
wheel ; rotary. 

ro-ta-ti-, prtf. [Lot rolatus = whirled round.] 
(See etyrn.) 
rotato plane, a. [ROTATE-PLANE.] 

ro-ta'-tdr, s. [Lat, from rotatus, pa. par. of 
roto = to rotate (q.v.).] 

1. Ord. Lang. : That which moves in, or 
gives a circular motion. 

2. Anat. : A muscle imparting rotatory 
motion. Eleven pairs of small muscles are 
called rotatores spinte or vertebrarum (rotators 
of the spine or of the vertebrae). 

" ThU articulation is strengthened by strong muscles ; 
on the inside by tlie trice ps and the four little rotatori. 
Witeman: Surgery, bk. vii.. ch. Yin. 

t ro-ta-tor'-I-a, s. pi. [ROTATOR,] 
Zool. : The Rotifera. (Ehrenberg.) 

t ro-ta-tor -I-an, . [ROTATORIA.] One of 
the Rotatoria (q.v.). 

"The tiny creature, as it develops, shows IteeU a 
rotatorian. Scribneri itayazint, June, 1877. p. 154. 

ro'-ta-tor-jf, a. & t. [Eng. rotate); -cry.} 
A* As adjective : 

1. Pertaining to or consisting in rotation ; 
characterized by or exhibiting rotation ; rotary. 

"The ball and socket joint allows a rotatory or 
sweeping motion." Potoy : Jfnturat Theology, ch. ix. 

* 2. Going in a circle ; following in rotation 
or succession : as, rotatory assemblies. 

* B. As subst. : One of the Rotatoria (q.v.). 

" By it the Rotatoriei fix the posterior extremity of 
the body." Van der Botftn : Xooloyy (ed. dark), 1 1M. 

rotatory-engine, s. [ROTARY-ENGINE.] 
rotatory muscle. 
Anat. : A rotator (q.v.). 

rotatory-polarization, . [POLARIZA- 
TION, u.) 

r6tcn, s. [Welsh provincial name.] 

Geol. : Mudstone. 

" That disjointed incoherent state of mudstone, the 
rofi-h of the natives, so useless to the maeou and the 
miner, and so cold and profitless to the agriculturist.' 
JfurcMjon : 9ituria, ch. T. 

rotche, s. [Dut rotj = a petrel.) 

Uriiith. : Mergvlus iiulanoleucos, the Little 

rot9h'-et, . [ROCHET.] 

rotch'-y, o. [Eug. rotch; -y.] Composed of, 
or resembling rotch (q.v.). 

" What the inhabitant* term rotch or roccny land.' 
JVurcAijon : OUuriun Syitem, pt. i., en. XJC, 

rote (1), s. [0. Fr., from O. H. Ger. hrota, 
rota ; M. H. Ger. rotte ; Low Lat. rota, rotta, 
chrotta, from Welsh crwth ; Eng. crowd = 

Music : An old stringed musical instrument ; 
a kind of harp, lute, guitar, or viol. 

" Wei coude he singe and platen on a rots." 

CAaucer: C. T., 237. (ProL) 

rote (2), * roate, . [O. Fr. rott (Fr. route) 
= a road, a route (q.v.), whence O. Fr. mine 
(Fr. routine)^, routine (q.v.).] 

1. The frequent repetition of words, phrases, 
or sounds without any attention to their 
signification or to principles or rules ; a mere 
effort of memory ; repetition of words from 
memory only ; a parrot-like repetition of what 
one has learnt (Only in the phrase by rote.) 

" Instead of teaching it prayers by rote ... I would 
read to it." Mill Carter: Letter*, ill. 126. 

* 2. A part mechanically committed to 
memory. (Swift.) 
*3. A regular row or rank. (Prop.) 

rote (3), . [ROOT, .] 

rote (4), s. [A.S. hrutan; Icel. ranta.) The 
roaring of the sea, as it breaks upon a shore. 

rote (1), * roate, v.t. [ROTE (2), .J 

1. To learn by heart or rote. 

" Speak to the people 
Words roted in your tongue." 

. : Coriolanul, UL t. 


2. To repeat from memory. 

" If by chance a tune you rof." 

' rote (2), v.i. [Lat. rofo = to rotate (q.v.). | 
To go out by rotation. 

" A third part of the senate, or parliament, should 
rote out by ballot ever} 1 year." ZucAary Grey : A'oU 
on Bufttna. 1L 8, 1.106. 

rd-tel'-la, s. [Mod. Lat., dimin. from Lat 
rota = a'wheel.) 

Zool. : A genus of Turbinida; (q.v.), with 
fifteen species from India, the Philippines, 
China, and New Zealand. Shell lenticular, 
polished ; spire depressed ; base callous ; un- 
cini numerous, sub-equal. (Woodward.) Tate 
includes under Rotella the four sub-genera : 
Isanda, Chrysostoma, Microthyca, and Um- 

* rot-en, a. (ROTTEN.) 

rotheln (as ret -eln), s. [Ger.] [MEASLES.] 

rSfh'-er, a. t t. [A.S. hryther = a twvine 

A. As adj. : Bovine. 

B. As subst. : An ox. 

" It Is the pasture lards the roCAer i side." 

. : Timon of Athent, IT. I. 

rother-beasts, s. pi. Horned beasts. 

" The cruel boare to fall 

Upon the beards of rothrr-beattt had now no lust at alt 
Holding : Ovid ; Mrttimrp\otrt. 

r other-soil, s. Thedungof horned beasts. 

r8th'-er, s. [RUDDER.] 

rother nail, s. 

Shipbuild.: A nail with a very full head, 
used for fastening the rudder-irons of ships. 

roth lie gen de (thast), roth todt lie - 
gen de (th, dt as t), s. [Ger. = Red Layer, 
Red Dead-layer, so called by the German 
miners, because their ores disappear in the 
red rocks below the Kupferschiefer.) 

Geol. : A series of strata of Lower Permian 
age, constituting with the Zechstein the Dyas 
of Continental geologists. It occurs on the 
south side of the Hartz, and is divided into 
an Upper, Middle, and Lower series. It is the 
equivalent of the British Permian Red Sand- 

roth -6ff Ite, . [After Herr RothotT ; suff. -it 
Min. : A yellowish- to liver-brown variety 

fete, ttt, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her. there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go. p6t, 
or. wore, wplf. work, who, ion; mate, cab, euro, unite, cur, rule, fall; try, Syrian. , oe = e; ey = a; qu = kw. 

rotifer rouge 


of garnet, found at Longban, Sweden. Dana 
places it with his andradite (q.v.) division of 
the garnets, as a raanganesian lime-iron garnet. 

ro'-tl-fer, . [Lat, ro<u = a wheel, and /ero 
= to bear.] 
Zoology : 

1. Wheel-animalcule ; a genns of the family 
Philodinidfle. Free-swimming forms, which can 
also creep like leeches. They have two wheel- 
like rotary organs, and the body is somewhat 
spindle-shaped and very contractile. Rotifer 
vulgaris is the common Wheel-Animalcule, 
first observed by Leuwenhoeck in 1702. It 
has a white body, A to A inch lon S, gradually 
narrowed to the foot. The anterior part has 
a pioboscis, ciliated at the end, and the two 
eyes are placed there. There are two wheels 
at the sides of the front part of the body. 

2. Any individual of the Rotifers (q.v.). 

"In most of the free Rotifert the trochal disk is 
large." Ifuxley : Anat. Invert. Animalt, p. 197. 

r6-tlf' -er-a, s. pi. [Neut. pi. of Mod. Lat. 
rotifer, a. = wheel-bearing.] 

Zool. : Wheel-animalcules ; a group of Meta- 
zoa, which have been variously classified. 
Ehrenberg arranged them according to the 
peculiarities of their trochal discs, and Du- 
jardin according to their methods of locomo- 
tion. They are now often made a class of 
Vennes, with four families, Philodinidie, 

part of the body, which, by their motion, 

often resemble awheel revolving rapidly. In- 

testine distinct, terminated at one extremity 

by a mouth, at the other by an anus ; genera- 

tion oviparous, sometimes viviparous. [SUM- 

MER-EGOS.] The nervous system is repre- 

sented by a relatively large single ganglion, 

with one or two eye-spots, on one side of the 

body, near the mouth, and there are organs 

which appear to be sensory. They are free or 

adherent, but never absolutely fixed animals. 

" The Kotifera as low Metazoa witb nascentsegment- 

ation, naturally present resemblances to all those 

croups which in their simpler forms converge towards 

the lower Metazua." Huxley : Anat. Invert. Animalt, 

p. 193. 

ro -ti form, a. [Lat. rota = a wheel, and 
Jorma form.] 

J. Ord. Lang. : Shaped like a wheel. 

2. Bat. : The same as ROTATE, o. (q.v.). 

rd- ton-do, o. [Ital.] 
Music : Round, full. 

rot -ta, i. [Low Lat.] [BorE (1), r ] 

Music : A rote. 

rott tjoel -16 a>, rStt-bcel'-le-a>, . pi. 
[Mod. Lat. rottboell(ia) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. surf. 
Bot. : A tribe of Graminacese (q.v.). 

rStt-boel-ll-a, rott-bosl'-ll-a, s. [Named 
after C. F. Rottboll, Prof, of Botany at Copen- 
hagen, author of a work on grasses, &e. He 
died in 1797.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of Rottboellese. 

rSt'-ted, * rot-ed, pa. par. or o. [Roi, v.] 

rot ten, * rot -en, *rot-un,a. [Icel 

rotinti; Svt.rutten; >an. raaden.] 
i Literally: 

1. Putrid, decayed ; decayed by the process 
of decomposition ; putrefied. 

" That ilke fruit [medlar] is even lenger the wets, 
Til it be rottn in mullajc, or in atre." 

Chaucer: C. T.,,m. 

* 2. Fetid, ill-smelling, stinking. 
" Reek of the rotten Jews." 

Shaketp. : Coriolanus, 111. 3. 

3. Unsafe or untrustworthy through age or 
decay : as, a rotten plank. 

H. Figuratively : 

L Unsound, corrupt, deceitful, treacherous 

" A rotten case abides no handling." 

Shaketp. : 2 Benry IV., IT. L 

2. Untrustworthy ; not to be trusted, 

3. Defective through wear or exposure ; no 

" Breaking his oath and resolution, like 
A twist of rotten silk." 

Bhaketp. : Coriolanut, T. 1. 

4. Yielding beneath the feet ; not sound o 

" They were left moiled with dirt and mire, by re 
on of the deepness of the rotten way." Snollet : ffi 
tory of tfie Turkt. 

rotten -boroughs, s. pi. A name given 
to certain boroughs in England which, previ- 
ous to the passing of the Reform Act of 1882, 
retained the privilege of returning members to 
Parliament, although the constituency con- 
sisted of a mere handful of electors. In one 
case (Old Saruin) the borough did not contain 
a single inhabitant. 

rotten-stone, s. [TRIPOLI.] 

rot-ten, s. [Fr. roton.] [RAT, .] A rat. 

" I had them a' regularly entered, first wi' rottent." 
Scott : Guy Mannerinff, ch. xxli. 

rSt'-ten-ly, a. & ado. [Bug. rotten, a. ; -ly.] 
* A. As adj. : Rotten, crumbly. 

" A rottenly mould." Tutter : Uutbandrie, p. 44. 

B. As adv. : In a rotten manner. 

rot ten ness, * rot-ten-nesse, s. [Eng. 
rotten, a, ; -Bess.] The quality or state of 
being rotten ; putrefaction, unsoundness. 

"The machinery which he had found was all rust 
and rottenneai."Jtacaulay : Hist. ng,, ch. xL 

rot-tier' -a, s. [Named after Dr. Rottler, an 
eminent Dutch missionary and naturalist.] 

Bot. : A genus of Euphorbiacese. Bottlera 
tinctoria is a tree very common in India, and 
occurring also in the Indian Archipelago, 
Australia, and Arabia. The three-lobed fruit 
is covered with a red mealy powder, called in 
India Kamala (q.v.). As people in India 
occasionally paint their faces with the red 
powder, the tree itself is sometimes called the 
Monkey's face tree. It is used in the north- 
west provinces of India for tanning leather. 
It yields a clear limpid oil, useful as a 

rSt'-tler-in, . [Mod. Lat. rottler(a); -in 

Chen. : CnH^O.. A yellow crystalline 
substance extracted from the colouring matter 
of Rottlera tinctoria by ether. It forms silky 
crystals, insoluble in water, slightly soluble 
in alcohol, melts when heated, and then de- 
composes. Alkalis dissolve it with a deep- 
red colour. 

r5t'-t6-16, s. Pp.] A weight used in various 
parts of the Mediterranean. In Aleppo the 
ordinary rottolo is nearly 5 Ibs. ; that for weigh- 
ing silk varying from If to 1 j Ibs. In Malta 
the rottolo is 1 Ib. 12 oz. avoirdupois. 

rfit'-u-la, s. [Lat., dimin. f rora rota = awheel.] 
Anat. : The knee-pan ; the patella. 

rSt'-u-lar, a. [ROTULA.] 

Anat. : Pertaining or relating to the rotula 
or knee-cap. 

" The rotular groove is narrow and elevated." 
Tram. Amer. Philoioph. Society, 1878, p. 199. 

ro tund', a. & s. [Lat. rotundus = round, 
from rota = a wheel ; Fr. rotonde ; Sp. retondo, 
redovdo; Ital. retondo, ritondo.] [ROUND, a.] 

A. As adjective : 

I. Ordinary Language : 

I. Round, circular, spherical. 

" The cross figure of the Christian temples is more 
proper for spacious buildings than the rotund of the 
heathen : the eye is much betterfllled atfirst entering 
the rotund, but such as are built in the form of ( 
cross give us a greater variety." Additon : On Italy. 

*2. Complete, entire. (Cf. Hor., Sat. ii. 86.; 

II. Bot. : [ROUNDISH]. 

* B. As subst. : A rotunda (q.v.). 

"They are going to build a rotund." Shmttone 
Letter!, No. 47. 

ro tun'-da, s. [Ital. rotonda; Sp. rotunda, 
Fr. rotonde.] 

Arch.: A circular building or apartmen' 
covered by a dome, as the Pantheon at Rome 
the large central apartment in the Capitol o 
Washington, oic. 

"I went to see the Rotunda at Rome." Additon 
On Italy. 

ro-tun'-date, a. [Eng. rotund ; -ate.] 

Ord. Lang. & Bot. : Rounded off. (Used as 
a rule of parts normally more or less an 

ro-tun-dl-fo'-ll otia, a. [Lat. rotundus = 
round, and/olium = a leaf.] Having ronm 

ro-tund'-i-tjf, s. [Fr. rotonditi, from Lat 
rotunditatem, accus. of rotunditaa, from ro 
tunduf round ; Sp. rotundidad; Ital. ro 
tondita, ritondita.] 

1. Rotuudness, roundness ; spherical form, 

"Strike ftat the thick rotundity of the world 1" 

MaAeap. .- Lear, iii. 1 

*2. Roundness, completeness, entirety. 

d-tund'-ness, s. [Eng. rotund ; -ness.] The 
quality or state of being rotund ; rotundity. 

6-tun'-dd, a. [Ital. rotondo.] A rotumda 

6-tun-do-, pref. [ROTUND.] Roundly. 
rotundo ovate, a. 

Bot. : Roundly egg-shaped. (Loudon.) 

o-tu'-ri-er (er as e), * ro-tur-er, s. [Fr., 

from roture a piece of ground broken up, 
from Lat. ruptura=& rupture (q.v.).] A 
person of mean birth ; a plebeian or com- 
moner, as distinguished from a noble or person 
of good birth. 

" A vineyard.niau, and a roturer." Howll : Parly 
of Beaitt, p. IS. 

roii'-ble, ru'-ble, ru-bel, s. [Russ. ruU.] 
The Russian unit of monetary value. It is 
divided into 100 copecks. Its value is best 
derived from the gold imperial, or 10-ruble 
piece, which weighs 13-088 grammes, and is 
916 tine ; giving for the ruble 1-3088 grammes, 
worth in sterling 39'388d., or 3s. 3Jd. 

rouche, s. [RUCHK.] A goffered quilling or 
frill of silk, net, lace, &c., for trimming ladies' 

rou-eou , . [Braz. urucu, the native name.] 

rou'-S, s. [Fr., literally = wheeled, broken 
on the wheel ; prop. pa. par. of rouer = to 
break on the wheel, from Lat. rota = a wheel. 
The origin of the word is attributed to the 
libertine Duke of Orleans, who ruled over 
France during the interval between the death 
of Louis XIV. and the accession of Louis XV. 
He boasted that his satellites were of such a 
character that they, one and all, deserved to 
be broken on the wheel. He therefore called 
them roues. They, for their part, alleged that 
the word expressed their devotedness to their 
chief, which was so great that they would 
consent to be broken on the wheel for his 
sake. (Trench : Study of Words, pp. 122, 123.)] 
A person of dissipated or profligate habits, but 
not so abandoned in manners and. character 
as to be excluded from society ; a rake. 

rou en, s. [ROWEN.] 

rotV-e't (( silent), . [Fr.] A small, solid 
wheel formerly fixed to the pan of firelocks for 
the purpose of discharging them. 

rougo (g as zu), o. & s. [Fr., from Lat. 
rubews = red.] 
* A. As adj. : Red. 
B* As substantive : 

1. Ord. Lang. : A cosmetic prepared from 
the dried flowers of Carlhamus tinctorius, and 
used to impart artificial bloom to the cheeks 
or lips. It is applied by means of a camel's 
hair pencil, powder-puff, or a hare's foot. 
(The last method is chiefly used in theatrical 
making up.) When rouge is properly pre- 
pared, it is said that its application does not 
injure the skin. (Cooley.) 

2. Chan,. : [FERRIC-OXIDE]. 

ronge-orolx, . One of the pursuivants 
of the English heraldic establishment, so 
called from the Red Cross of St. George, th 
patron saint of England. 

rouge-dragon, s. One of the pursui- 
vants of the English heraldic establishment, 
so called after the Red Dragon, the supposed 
ensign of Cadwaladyr, the last king of the 

rouge et nolr, s. [Fr. = red and black.] 
A game of cards played by a " banker " and an 
unlimited number of persons at a table 
marked with four spots of a diamond shape, 
two being coloured red and two black. The 
player stakes his money on rouge or noir by 
placing it on the red or black spots. Also 
called Trente-un or Trente et quarante. [TRENTE- 

rouge-plant, . 

Bot. : Rivina, tinctorta, one of the Phyto- 
laccaceee, with a white flower, a native ol 

boil, bo>; potlt, J61W; eat, 9011, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, thl: sun, af ; expect, Xenophon, cflat. ph = t 
-dan, -tlan = than, -tlon, sion = liuii ; -tion, -flon - ihun. -elons, -tioiu, -stou* = chile, -bio, -die, *c. = bel, 4*1. 


rouge rough 

rouge (g as xh), s. [Etym. doubtful.] 

Football : In the Eton and some other 
games, a rouge is won when the ball passes 
behind the goal-line, but not through the 
1><'>U, and is touched first by one of the side 
which has forced it over. (New Book of Sports, 
1885, p. 59.) In the Rugby Union game, the 
term was formerly used to describe a touch- 
down (q.v.). 

rouge (g as zh), f.i. 4 (. [ROCGE, a.] 

A. Intransitive: 

1. To paint the cheeks with rouge. 

The ladles rouged and Indulged In all kinds of ex. 
travagancea.* Barptr'e Monthly. June, lisa, p. 2L 

* 2. To redden, to blush. 

I rouged pretty high." Mad. D'Arblai: mart. 
1 SH. 

B. Trant. : To iaint, as the cheeks, with 

rou get (get as zha), s. [Fr.] A disease to 


" To investigate the disease known ae twine fever, 
which Is unfortunately prevalent in several counties 
t the present moment, with a view to ascertain the 
trutb of the alleged identity ol that disease and 
roujrt," Dan* Chronicle, Aug. 12, 1836. 

ron-gette' (g as zh), .. [Fr.] A kind of 

rough (gh as f), rogh, " rou, 'row, 
* rowe, * ru, * rngh, run, o. & j. [A.S. 
nh = rough, hairy ; nitw = rough ; cogn* with 
Dut nig = hairy, rough, rude ; O. Dut ru; 
Dan. ru; O. H. Ger. niA; M. H. Ger. nA; 
Low Ger. ruug ; Ger. rauh.] 


L Ordinal 

1. Not smooth ; having prominences or in- 
equalities ; not level ; applied to things solid 
or tangible : as, 

(1) Having inequalities on the surface ; not 
smooth ; harsh to the touch. 

" And with bu bard, rough hand he wipes) 
A tear out of his eyes." 

Long/Mow: Village Blacltmith. 

(2) Not level or smooth ; uneven. 

Rough, uneven ways." Shaketp. : Richard //., u. a, 

(3) Not polished or finished off by art ; un- 
finished : as, a rough diamond. 

(4) Harked by coarseness ; coarse, ragged, 
baggy, disordered. 

" His baud made rough and rugged." 

ShatMf. : lleury rl., ill 1 

(5) Violently agitated ; thrown into great 
waves : as, a rough sea. 

2. Harsh to the senses : as, 

(1) Harsh to the taste ; sharp, astringent, 

" Thy palate then did deign the roughen berry." 
Shaketp. : Antony t Cleopatra, L. 4. 

(1) Harsh to the ear ; grating, Jarring, dis- 
cordant. (Shakesp. : Pericles, til. 2.) 

3. Not mild or gentle hi character, action, 
or operation : as, 

(1) Wild, boisterous, untamed : as, a rough 
eolt, rough play. 

(2) Boisterous, stormy, tempestuous. 

For I can weather the roughest gale. 
That ever wind did blow7 

LoHufeUo**: WredL of the ttetpenu. 

(3) Harsh or rugged of temper or manners ; 
not mild, gentle, or courteous ; rude, un- 
polished. (Camper: Conversation, 843.) 

(4) Harsh, severe, stern, cruel, unfeeling. 

" Stem, obdurate, flinty, rough, remorseless." 

Skattep. : I He*rt rl., \. . 

(5) Not refined or polished : rude, un- 

" With rough and all-nnable pen." 

Mattes* : Henrn r. lEi-ilogue.) 

(6) Not gentle; not proceeding by easy 

" He gave not the king time to prosecute tfurt 
gracious method, but forced him to a truicker and 
rougher remedy." Clarendon - Civil War. 

(7) Hard, harsh, severs, unkind, cruel 

" And it certainly seems somewhat rough on the 
teat' boy." Dailf Telegraph. Oct. 10. IMS. 

t 4. Coarse, stale, stinking: as, rough bread, 
rough fish. 
6. Vague ; not exact or precise. 

" BealdM ear rough roate-surveys. depending on 
dead reckoning by time and compass bearings." 

II. flat. : Clothed with hairs, the lower part 
' of which irsesnbles a little bulb, and the upper 
short rigid bristle, as the leaves of Jioraao 

B. As substantive : 

1. The quality or state of being rough, 
coarse, or unfinished ; original state (w 
tin:) : as, a statue in the rough. 

* 2. Rough weather. 

"In callus you fish : in rough*, use songs and dances," 
fletchtr: PiKatory AV( yn, vn. 

3. A rowdy ; a rude, coarse fellow ; a bully. 
H 1. Rough and ready: 

(1) Unpolished ; brusque or unceremonious 
in manner, but reliable. 

(2) Not elaborate. 

" The method is a rough and ready one." fall Jfall 
Oattttt, Dec. so, lew. 

(3) Fitting or training in a rough or rude 
manner : as, rough and ready education. 

2. Hough and tumble : Applied to a fight in 
which all rule is discarded, and kicking, 
biting, &c,, are perfectly admissible. (Amer.) 

rough-arches, s. pi. 
Arch. : Arches formed by bricks or stones 
roughly dressed to the wedge form. 

rough backed caiman, s. 
ZooL : Alligator (Caiman, Gray) trigoxatiu, 
from tropical America, 

rough-east, r.f. 

L Ordinary Language: 

1. To form in its first rudiments ; to form 
or compose roughly. 

2. To mould without nicety or elegance ; to 
form with asperities and inequalities. 

" Nor bodily, nor ghostly negro could 
Hough*** thy figure in a sadder mould." 

Cleveland. (Toad.) 

XL Plaster. : To cover with a coarse sort of 
plaster, composed of lime and gravel. 

rough-cast, s. & a. 

A. As substantive : 

L Ord. Lang. : The form of a thing In Its 
first rudiments ; the rough model or outline 
of anything. 

" Tfae whole piece seems rather a loose model and 
rough-cast of what I design to do, than a cvuiL'lete 
wort "-Sir I. Dieof. 

2. Plaster. : A mode of finishing outside 
work by dashing over the second coat of 
plastering while quite wet a layer of washed 
fine gravel mingled with lime and water. 

B. As adj. : Formed roughly, without re- 
vision or polish ; rough. 

" This rmigh^ait. unhewn poetry wiu Instead of 
stage-plays, for the space of one hundred and twenty 
yean together," Dryden : JumnaL (Dad.) 

rough-caster, s. One who rough-casts. 

rough-chervil, s. 

Dot. .-The genus An thriscns (q.v.). (London.) 

* rough-clad, a. Having rough or coarse 

rough coat, s. 

Plaster. : The first coat on laths. On brick 
It is termed laying or pricking up ; on masunry, 
rendering or roughing. 

rough-customer, s. A troublesome and 
somewhat dangerous person to deal with. 

rough dab, s. 

Ichthy. : Hippoglossoides limandotdes, allied 
to the Halibut (q.v.), but much smaller, the 
largest specimen known being only fifteen 
inches long. It is rare on the British coasts. 

rough diamond, s. A diamond in the 
rough ; hence rig., a person of genuine worth, 
but unpolished in manners. 

rough-draft, rough-draught, s. A 

rough or rude sketch. 

" My elder brothers came, 

Rough-draughu of nature, 111 design'd and lame." 
Dryden. (Toad.) 

rough-draw, v.t. To draw or delineate 
coarsely or roughly : to trace rudely for first 

" His victories we scarce could keep In view, 
Or polish 'em so last as be rough-drew." 

Jirydm. (Tola.) 

rough-dry, v.t. To dry hastily, without 
smoothing or ironing. 

rough-file, s. A file with heavy, deep 
cuts. The angle of the chisel in cutting is 
about 12" from the perpendicular. 

rough-footed, a. Feather-footed: as, a 
rough-jooted dove. 

rough-grained, a. Rough in the grain ; 
hence, ttg., of somewhat coarse or unpolished 
manners ; brusque or rude iu manner. 

rough-head, s. 

Ichthy. : The Red-fin (q.v.). 
rough-hew, v.t. 

1. To hew roughly, without giving any 

2. To give the first form or outline to. 

There's a divinity that shapes our ends, 
Kough-hfutthtia how we will." 

MoJtesp. .- Samlet. T 1 

rough-hewn, a. 

1. Hewn roughly, without smoothing at 

" Timber rough-hewn from the firs of the forest. 1 * 
Lonyjillo* : CaurUhlp a/ Jlilet Standith, viti. 

* 2. Rough-grained, rude ; of rough or coars* 

" A rouffh-hetpn seaman, being brought before a Jus- 
tice for some misdemeanour, was by bun ordered away 
to prison." Bacon : Apophtkrgitu. 

3. Not nicely or neatly finished ; rough, 

' Jiuuftt-hfum, angular notes, like stones In the wall." 
Longfellow: llilet Standith. ill 

rough-hole, s. The name given In South 
Staffordshire to a shallow circular hole at the 
bottom of the cinder-fall of a blast furnace in 
which the slag accumulates. 

rough-hound, s. 

Ichthy : Scyllium canieula. Called also the 
Lesser Spotted Dog. In the west of Cornwall 
its Mesh is made into soup, and it is eaten by 
the Mediterranean fishermen. 

rough-legged, a. Having legs covered 
with leathers. 

rough-necked Jacare, i. 

ZooL : Jacare hirticollis, from Demarara, 
rough-parsnip, a. 

Hot. : Pastinaca Opr>panax, called also Opo- 
panax Chironum. [OPOPAICAX.] 

rough-plum, s. 

Hot. : Parinarium. excdsum. (Sierra Ltone.) 
Called also Gray, and Rough-skinned Plum. 

rough-rider, . 

1. Ord. Lang. : A horse-breaker. 

"Mitchell, the rough-rider, conies sailing down upon 
the scene with a four.yftarold," Field, Feb. 20. IBM. 

2. Mil. : A non-commissioned officer se- 
lected for drill in the riding-school, and for 
breaking in horses for military purposes. 
They are selected from cavalry regiments, 
and trained at the riding establishment at 

rough scuff, t. 

1. A rough, coarse fellow ; a rough. 

2. The riff-raff; the lowest class of the 
people ; the rabble. 

rongh-eetter, . A mason who builds 
rough walling, as distinguished from one who 
hews also. 

rough-shod, a. Shod with shoes armed 
witli pointa : as, a rough-shod horse. 

^[ To ride rough-shod : To pursue a violent, 
stubborn, and selfish course, regardless of 
consequences, or of the feelings cf others. 

rough -skinned plum, s. [ROUQH- 


rough-spun, a. Rough, unpolished, 


rough-string, . A carriage-piece (q.T.X 
rough-stucco, e. 

Build. : Stucco flouted and brushed in ft 
small degree with water. 

rough-tall snakes, >. pi. 

Zool. : The family Uropeltidae (q.v.). 

rough-tree, s. 

Nautical : 

1. A rough or unfinished spar or mast 

2. The portion of a mast above the deck. 
Rough-tree rail : 

Shipbuild. : A timber forming the top of 
the bulwark. It rests upon the top-timliers, 
and caps the external and internal planking. 

rough-wing, s. 

-Eiifom. : A British moth, Phtheochroa ru* 
gosana, one of the Lozoperidae. 

rough-winged swallows, s. pi 

Ornith. : The sub-family PsalidoprocnUui 

tate, fat, tare, amidst, what, fall, lather; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sir*, sir, marine; go, pdt, 
or. wore, wolf, worts, who, son; ants, cub, cure, unite, ear. rule, fall, try, Syrian, n, ca = ; ey = i; a.u = kw. 

rough. round 


rough- work (pa. t. and par. pa. rough- 
wrought), v.t. To work coarsely over, without 
regard to nicety, delicacy, or finish. 

" Continue till you have rough-vroHgkt all yoor work 
from end to end?' Mojcon : Mechanical Sxercitet. 

rough-wrought, a. Worked coarsely 
or roughly ; not finished off. 

rough (gh as f), v.t. [RouoH, a.] 

1. To make rough, to roughen : as, To rough 
horse's shoes. Usually done by inserting 
nails or studs therein to prevent the animal 
slipping in frosty weather. 

2. To protect a horse against slipping, by 
furnishing with roughed shoes. 

"If you do have them roughed, the front may break 
m> the Terr first day." Sidney : Book of the BOTH 
(ed. 2nd), p. MO. 

3. To give a rough appearance to. 

4. To execute or shape out roughly; to 
rongh-hew ; to rough-work. (Followed by out.) 

" I bad the first four acts roughed out and quite fit 
tor readin."-Co fern, Sept. M, 188U 

5. To break in, as a horse, especially for 
military purposes. 

J To rough it : To put up with hardships ; 
to live without proper accommodation. 

" Roughing it for a month or BO In this wild region." 
-Seribntrl Jtttaacine, Aug., 1177, p. m 

rottgh'-en(ghasf),t>.J.&i. (Eng.ro0;-n.] 

A. IVon*. : To make rough. 

"And now, though strained and roughened. BtlH 
Bung wildly iweet to date and bill." 

Scott : Lady of the Lake, IT. 21. 

B. Intrant, : To grow or become rough. 
rough-er, . [ROWEB (2).] 

rough' ie (gh as f), s. (Etym. doubtful ; 
prob. connected with rough, a.] A withered 
bough ; a sort of rude torch ; dried heath. 

- Laying the rougJiie* to keep the cauld wind fne 
you." Scott : Ovy ilannering, ch. liv. 

rough-Ing (gh as f), pr. par., a., & . 
[RouoH, v.] 

A. fc B. At pr. par. t partieip. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C* At substantive : ( 

L Ord. Lang.: The act of making rough. 

2. Hat-making: The hardening of a felted 
hat-body by pressure, motion, heat, and 

roughing hole, >. A rough-hole (q. v.). 

ronghlng-ln, .. 

Floater. : The first coat of three-coat plas- 
tering when executed on brick. 

roughing -mill, s. 

1. A lapidary'swheel, used in'roughing down 
the surfaces of gems to make facets. It is of 
iron, mounted on a vertical axis, and its upper 
disc is touched with diamond-dust for the 
harder gems. 

2. A grinding-mill used by lapidaries, con 
silting of a small copper disc, with a face 
turned true and flat, in which spicules of dia- 
mond are imbedded by hammering. 


Mttal-working : The first set of rolls in a 
rolling-mill, which operate upon the bloom 
from the tilt or shingling-hammer or the 
squeezer, as the case may be, and reduce it to 
the bar form. 

rough -ing; (gh as f), s. pi. [ROWEX. ] 
rough -Ish (gh as f ), a. [Eng. rough, a 

1. Ord. Lang.: Somewhat rough, rather 

"The . . . shell to thick, hard, and roughiih." 
Brainjtr: The Sugar Cane, bk. Iv. v. 227. (Note.) 

2. Sot. : Slightly covered with short, hard- 
ish poiuts, as the leaves of Thymus Acinos. 

rough 1^ (gh as f), adv. [Eng. rough, a ; -ly. 

1. In a rough manner ; with inequalities on 
the surface ; not smoothly or evenly. 

" Roughly hewed. 
Rude steps ascending from the dell." 

Kcott : Ooteoy, 0. It. 

2. Harshly, severely, hardly, cruelly. 

" Life has paaVd 
With me but roughly iuce I heard thee last." 

Couyer : Ms Mother' I Picture. 

8. Sharply or harshly to the taste. 

4. Harshly to the ear, discordantly. 

5. Boisterously, rudely, violently, tern 

6. Not with exactness or precision : as, to 
give a number ramghly. 

rough'- ness, * rough - nesse, . [Eng. 
rough, a. ; -ness.] 

1. The quality or state of being rough, or 
having inequalities on the surface ; uneven- 
ness of surface ; ruggedness. 

" While yt the roughnees of the stone remains.' 
Dryden : (Hid s Uetamorphoeet \. 

2. Harshness or asperity of temper ; coarse- 
ness or brusqueness of manners ; cruelty. 

" Roughneu to a needle** cause of discontent: 
severity breedeth tear; but roughnea breedeth bate. 

3. Coarseness of dress or appearance. 

4. Violence, tempestuousness, boisterous- 

5. Want of polish or finish; ruggedness. 

"The speech ... is round without roughneue."~ 
X. AT., Kp. to Maitter Harvey. 

6. Harshnesa to the taste ; sharpness, as- 

"Divers plants contain a grateful aharpness, as 
lemons ; or an austere and iucoucocted roughneu, as 
sloes. 'Browne. 

7. Harshness to the ear ; discordancy. 

" Our syllables reeemble tlieirs in roufhneu and fre- 
quency of consonant*." Swtft. 

rought, pret. o/n. [REACH, r.] 

rouke, .*. [RUCK.] To lie close, to cower. 

rou lade', . [Fr.] 

Music: An embellishment; a flourish; an 
ornamental passage of runs. 

* roule, r.t [Rou., .] 

rouleau, as ro-lo' (pi. rouleau* (Eng.), as 

ro 16s ; rouleaux (Fr.), as ro-lo), s. 

[Fr.) A little roll ; a roll of coins made up in 


ron-lette', . [Fr.= * little wheel, a castor, 
from router = to roll.] 

1. A game of chance played at a table, in 
the centre of which ia a hole surmounted by 
a revolving disc, the circumference of which 
is divided generally into thirty-eight com- 
partments, coloured red and black alternately, 
and numbered 1 to 36, with a zero and double 
zero. The banker or person in charge sets 
the disc in motion, and causes a ball to re- 
volve in the opposite direction ; this ball, 
after a few revolutions, drops into one of the 
compartments, and determines the winning 
numoer or colour. The players can stake 
their money on any number or group of 
numbers, or on any colour. If a player stakes 
his money on a single number and is suc- 
cessful he wins thirty-six times his stake. 
The amount won varies in other cases accord- 
ing to circumstances. 

2. An instrument used in engraving, me- 
clianical drawing, and plotting, for making 
dotted lines. It has a wheel with points, 
which, for use on paper, is dipped into ijidia- 
ink, so that the points impress a series of 
black dots or marks as the wheel revolves, 

Rou'-Un. s. [Francois Desire Roulin, a French 
naturalist of the latter part of the eighteenth 
century.) (See compound.) 

Roulln's tapir, >. 

Zool. : Tapirus villoaa, the Hairy Tapir, 
found on the inner range of the Cordilleras. 

roum, a. * . [ROOM.] 

A. -4s adj. : Wide, spacious, roomy. 

B. As subst. : Room, space. 

roum, . [Assamese.] A bine dye stuff from 
Assam obtained from a species of Ruellia. 

rdu-mansch, s. [ROMA.NSCH.) 

* rdum'-er, a. or adv. [ROOMER. J 

roun, * rtfvVn, * rovVno, v.i. t fc tA.S. 
runtan = to whisper, from nbt = a rune, a 
secret colloquy, a whisper.] [ROUND (2), v., 

A. Intrant. : To whisper. 

" Afterwarde when they wer Btepptd fro the bar 
they happed to be beard rowne and reioyce to gether 
that the! had gluen good euideuce fox aquitayleortheyr 
felow, with whom them self had ben at the same rob- 
bery.* Sir T. More: Worltee, p. 948. 

B. Transitive: 

1. To address or speak to in a whisper. 
2 To utter in a whisper. {Chaucer : C. T. 

roun, * roune, *, [Rou, .] A whisper j 
speech, song. 

"With blosmeD and with binles roune.' 

Jifiiti. Antiq.. i Ml. 

roun^e, s. [Of. Fr. fonce = a bramble; Tanclu 
= a round, a step, a rack.) 

Print. : A winch with roller and strap by 
which the carriage or bed of a press is run in 
and out ander the platen. 

roHn'-c8-val. * rfin'-ci-val, a. 4 . [From 
Roncssvalles, a town in Spam, at the foot of 
the Pyrenees, where the bones of the gigantic 
heroes of Charlemague's army were pretended 
to be shown.] 
A. As adj. : Large, strong. 

" Dig garden 
And set as a daintie thy runnval ptaae." 

Tutter: Jiuebandrjf. 
S. As substantive : 

1. A giant ; hence, anything very large and 

2. A pea ; now called a marrow-fat, from its 

"And another, stumbling At the threshold , tumbled 
In his ilisb of rounoemile before him." Arame .- A 
Jovial Crew, iv. 2. 

roun'-9ie, s. [Low Lat. nmciiuw.) A com- 
mon hackney horse. 

round, a., adv., t., & prep. [O. Fr. roond 
(Fr. rond.), from Lat. retundus, from rota = a 
wheel ; Don. rond; Giv., Dan., & Sw. ruiid.} 


A. Atadjcattvt: 

1. Having every part of the surface at an 
equal distance from the centre; spherical, 
globular : as, a round ball. 

2. Having all parts of the circumference at 
an equal distance from the centre ; circular. 

" At the round table." fihaketp. : a Henry TV., it L 

3. Cylindrical : as, The barrel of a gun is 

4. Having a curved form, especially that of 
an arc of a circle or ellipse : as, a round arch. 

5. Smoothly expanded; swelling, full, 
plump, corpulent. 

" The justice, in fair round belly." 

. : At rou Lite It. ii. 7 

6. Not broken or fractional; "not given a 
exactly or precisely correct : as, To speak in. 
round numbers. 

7. Large, considerable. 

" Ti a good round BUHL** 

Xtmketp. : Merchant of f*t fc, L S. 

8. Full, brisk, quick, smart. 

" Our moat bitter IOM were to be wen approaching 
at a round trot," Daily Ttitffrapk, Huron a. ISM. 

* 9. Continuous, fall, and open in sound ; 
smooth, flowing, harmonious. 

" Hi* style, though round and oomprabanatTe, wat 
Incurabered Bometfrae* by rarentheMi, and bcni 
difficult to vulgar undwrt*naiiiga." fU. 

* 10. Consistent and complete ; candid, 
fair, frank. 

' Round defiling i* the honour of man'* nature." 

* 1L Open, plain, candid. 
" You found ready and round answer*." C. BronU: 
Jane Eyre. ch. nvii. 

12. Free and plain ; plump. 

" Either a round oath, or a curse, or the corruption 
of one." Sharp : Sermont, vol. Iv., ser. 16. 

B. As adverb : 

1. On all sides. (Luke xlx. 43.) 

2. In a circular form or manner ; circularly. 

He that la giddy thinks the world goes rotwsd." 
Shattip. : Taming of the Shrea. V. 2. 

3. In circumference: as, a tree ten feet 

i. Through a circle or party, as of friends, to. 

" A health 1 let It go round." 

Shakeni. : Henry rill., L 4. 

& In course of revolution. 

" The time la come round." 

tfhrittetp. : Juliut Cajear, V. B. 

*6. From first to last; throughout the 
whole list. 

" She named the auciuut lieroee round." 

7. Not in a direct line or route ; by a line 
or course longer than the direct route : as. To 
go round. 

C. As substantive : 

L Ordinary Language : 
1. That which is round, as a circle, 
sphere, or a globe. 

" Fairest mover on this mortal round." 

ShaXetp. : Venue A Adonie, M*. 

bSil, btS^; pint, J61W; eat, 9011, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, ezlst. -Ing. 
-clan. tlan = shan. -tlon, -sion = snnn ; -^ion, -sioa = zhnn. -clous, -tloos, -sious = shua. -bie, -die, 4c. = bel, del. 



2. The act or state of giving or passing 
puind, as round a circle or party: as, The 
JOKU made the round of the table. 

3. The aggregate of similar acts done suc- 
cessively by each of a number of persons, and 
coining back to where the series began : thus, 
tin- playing of a card each by a company at 
table is a round. 

" The second round for the Tail silver club." Fiel d, 
Oct. 3, IMS. 

4. A constantly recurring series of events ; 
series of events, &e., which come back to 
tne point of commencement ; a revolution. 

"In the perpetual round of strange 
Mysterious change." 

LongfMow : Rain in Summer. 

* 5. An assembled group. 

" Sometime* I am Men thrusting my head Into a 
round of politlciana," Additon .' Spectator, No. 1. 

6. Rotation in office ; established order of 

" Bach new Utopians would have a round of govern- 
ment, aa some the like in the church, in which every 
poak becomes uppermost in ita turn." //0/yJ*i^. 

7. A dance in which the performers are 
ranged in a ring or circle. 

* 8. A roundelay, a song. 

* 9. A toast ; a health to pass round. 

10. The walk or circuit performed by a guard 
or an officer among the sentries, to see all are 
on the alert, and that everything is safe and 
In proper order : hence, the officer or guard 
who performs this duty. 

" [He] day and night keeps watchful round." 

Scott : Bridal ofTriermain. til. L 

11. The walk or beat of a person who 
habitually traverses the same ground, as, of 
m postman, a policeman, milkman, Ac. (Gene- 
rally in the plural.) 

" He contented himself with taking his roundt 
periodically, giving ample warning of ma approach to 
tnisdoers by vociferating the hour." Hcribner'i 
Jlaoaiint, August. 1880. p. Oi. 

12. That part of a pugilistic encounter 
lasting from the beginning till a temporary 
pause is called on account of one of tlie com- 
petitors being knocked down, or thrown or 
falling, or between one such pause and 
Another ; a bout. 

* 13. A vessel filled with liquor, as for 
drinking a toast. 

" A.geutle rfund fllfd to the brink. 
To this and t'other friend I drink.* 


* 14. A kind of target for archery shooting. 
" I lost the challenge at shooting at round!, and 

won at rover*." Burnet : Kecordt, bk. it 

tt Technically: 

1. Brewing : A vessel in which the fermenta- 
tion of beer is concluded. The rounds receive 
the beer from the fermenting tun, and dis- 
charge the yeast at their bungholes into a 

2. Joinery: 

(1) The rung of a ladder. 

. "But when he on^ attains the upmost round. 
He then unto the ladder turns his back." 

SfiaJcetp. : Juliiu Ccuar, 11. 1. 

(2) A stretcher (q.v.). 

3. Manige : A volt or circular tread. 

4. Military: 

(1) Ageneraldischargeofflreannsbytroops, 
in which each man fires once. 

(2) Ammunition for firing once: as, Ten 
rmtnds were served out to each man. 

5. Music : A composition in which several 
voices starting at stated distances of time 
from each other, sing each the same music, 
the combination of all the parts producing 
correct harmony. It differs from a canon, 
therefore, in that it can only be sung at the 
unison or octave. It differs from a catch, 
which is like it in construction, only in the 
character of the words. The catch should be 
amusing, the round may be even sacred. A 
round may be written out in the form of a 
canon, if it is of an elaborate construction, or 
has an independent accompaniment. When 
rang at the unison, a round is said to be for 
equal voices. 

6. Ordn. : A projectile with it* cartridge, 
prepared for service. 

IX As preposition : 

1. On every side of; all around. 

"The centre. If I may so say. round which the 
capitals of the Inhabitants of every country are con. 
, tinually circulating." SmM,: irtaUH of Xationi, 
bk. IT., ch. li. 

2. About ; circularly about ; about in all 

" SlLlrr the country round." Snaketp. : Macbeth, T. t. 

1 1. AH round : 

(1) Over the whole place ; In every direction. 

(2) In every detail or particular : as, He is 
good all round. 

2. A round of beef: A cut of the thigh 
through and across the bone. 

*3. Gentlemen of the round: Gentlemen 
soldiers, but of low rank, who had t" visit 
and inspect the sentinels and advanced guard ; 
a disbanded soldier gone a-begging. 

* 4. To be round with : To speak plainly or 
frankly ; to be open or candid. 

" Sir Toby. I must be round with you." Skaketp. : 
Tvxljtn .Vignt. ii. 3. 

5. To bring one round : 

(1) To restore one to consciousness, good 
spirits, health, or the like. 

(2) To cause one to alter hi.-* opinions, or to 
change from one side or party to another. 

6. To come round : 

(1) To recover consciousness, good spirits, 
health, or the like. 

(2) To change one's opinion or party 

7. To get round: [GET (2), u., If 22. J. 

8. To turn round : To change one's side ; to 
desert one's party. 

* 9. To lead the round : To be a ringleader. 
round-all, s. A somersault. 

round-backed, a. Having a round or 
stooping back. 

round buddlc, s. 

Mttnll. : A circular frame for working on 
metalliferous slimes, 

round-chisel, >. An engraver's tool 
having a rounded belly. 

round-dance, s. A dance, in which the 
couples wheel round the room, as a polka, a 
waltz, &c. 

round-edge file, s. A file with a convex 
edge, for tiling out or dressing the interdental 
spaces of gear-wheels. 

round-faced macaque, >. 

ZooL : Macacus cyclopis, from Formosa. It 
is closelyallied to M. rhesus [RHESUS], but has 
shorter limb-bones. Fur slate-coloured, thick 
and woolly ; tail hairy, about a foot long ; 
head round, ears small, face flat; forehead 
naked, dark whiskers, and a strong beard. 

round-file, s. A file circular in its cross- 

round fish, . 

Ichthy. : Salmo (Coregonus) yuadrilateralis. 
The specimen on which Sir John Richardson 
based his description was about eighteen 
nches long. It is not highly prized for food. 
" Oar voyagers named it the round-fun, and I have 
given it the specific appellation of quadrilateral ii on 
account of a flattening of the back, belly, and sides 
being superadued to it* general sub-fusiform shape." 
Sir J. RuAardton : Fauna Borcali-A mericana, iii. 204. 

round-game, s. A game, as at cards, in 
which an indefinite number of players can 
take part, each playing on his own account. 

round-head, s. [ROUNDHEAD.] 
round-house, s. (ROUNDHOUSE.) 
round-knife, s. 


2. Saddlery: The ordinary cutting-tool of 
the saddler, sharp on its convex edge. 

round-nosed chisel, s. A riffie (q.v.). 
round-nosed plane, s. 

Join. : A coarse-work bench-plane, the sole 
of which is rounding, 

round-number, *. A number which 
may be divided by ten without a remainder ; 
also a number not exact, but sufficiently near 
the truth to serve the purpose. 

U In round numbers : Approximately. 

round-off file, s. A small parallel, half- 
round file, whose convex side is safe, and 
having a pivot at the end opposite the tang. 

round-plane, s. 

Join. : A plane with a round sole for making 
rounded work, such as stair-rails, beads, &0. 

round-robin, s. [ROUNDKOBIN.J 
round-seam, s. 

Naut. : A seam made by sewing the edges 
of canvas together without lapping. 

t round-shot, . 

Ordn. : Spherical halls of iron or teeL 
usually cast. They are solid, while case and 
shell are hollow. 

round-shouldered, a. Having round 
or stooping shoulders ; round-backed. 

round-spliced, s. 

Xaut, : Splicing so carefully done that th 
shape of the rope is scarcely altered. 

Round Table, s. The table round which 
King Arthur and his knights sat, and from 
which they derived their title. 

If Knights of the Round Table: The name 
given in the Arthurian legends to a company 
'if twenty-four (or, according to another ver- 
sion, twelve) knights instituted by Arthur. 
They were bound on certain days to appear at 

round-tool, s. 

Wood-turning: A round-nosed chisel for 
making concave mouldings. 

round-top, s. 

Naut. : A platform at the mast-head ; a top. 

round-tower, s. A kind of tall, slender 
tower tapering frum the base upwards, and 
generally having a 
conical top. They 
are frequently mat 
with in Ireland, 
and in two places 
in Scotland. They 
rise from 30 to 130 
feet in height, and 
vary from 20 to 30 
feet in diameter. 
The object for 
which they were 
liuilt is uncertain, 

but they were pro- ROUND-TOWER. 

bably intended to 

be used as strongholds, into which people 
might retreat with their goods in time of 
danger. They were erected between the ninth 
and twelfth centuries. 

round-trade, a. A term on the Gaboon 
river for a kind of barter, in which the things 
exchanged comprise a large assortment of 
miscellaneous articles. Called also Bundle- 

round-trip, , A Journey to and from 
a place. (U.K.) 

round-turn, s. 

Kaut. : One turn of a rope around a timber ; 
or of one cable around another, caused by tht 
swinging of the ship when at anchor. 

round-up. >. 

1. Shipbuilding: The convexity of a deck. 

2. Herdwg: A herd of horses or cattle 
gathered together for suma special purpose; the 
gathering of euch herds; or the men and equip* 
age engaged therein. [See BOUND, v.l., 5.J 

round-winged muslin, >. 

Entom. : A British moth, Xudaria senex, out 
of the Lithosiidee. 

round-winged white-wave, >. 

Entom. : A British geometer moth. Cabers 

round-worm, . 

1. Sing. : The genus Ascaris (q.v.), spec. 
Ascaris lumbricoides, the Large Round-worm, 
being from six to fourteen inches long. 

2. PI. : A popular name for those wormi 
of the class Nematelminthes (q.v.), which 
have bodies of some thickness, 

round (1), v.t. & i. [ROUND, a.] 

A, Tmnsitirt: 

' 1. To make round, circular, spherical, 01 

2, To surround, to encircle, to encompass, 

* 3. To give a circular or spherical form to ; 
to raise in relief. 

"The figures on our modern medals are raised and 
rounded.'' Addlton: On Uedato. 

4. To move round or about anything ; to 
pass, go, or travel round. 

6. To collect together. (Usually followed 
by up.) 

" [Cattle] that have been ranging the open plains . . . 
hsve just been rounded up. ana are at last penned a 
a corral." ScrUmer't Jlagarine, April, Itwo, p. 960, 

fate, tat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pdt, 
or. wore, W9lf, work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full; try, Syrian. , ca = e; ey = a; qu = kw. 

round rounding 


mother, roundt apace." 

Winter Tale, U. L 

6. To mould into smoothness ; to make full, 
month, ami flowing. 

"Thee accomplishment*. applied In the pulpit. 
Appear by a quaint, terse, florid stile. rounded mto 
periods and cadencies." Staijt : Mitcellaniei. 

* 7. To make full or complete ; to complete. 
B. Intransitive : 

* 1. To grow or become round. 

The queen, your 

2. To go round, as a guard. (Milton.) 
3. To turn round. 

" The men who met him rounded on their heels." 

* 4. To become complete or full ; to develop 
Into the full type. 

t (1) To round a Kane : 

Manege: To make a horse carry his shoul- 
lers or haunches compactly or roundly, upon 
greater or smaller circle, without traversing 
or bearing- to a side. 

(2) To round in : 

Naut. : To pull upon a slack rope which 
passes through one or more blocks in a direc- 
tion nearly horizon!*!. 

(3) To round of: To finish gracefully, as a 
peech, with a well-rounded period. 

(4) To round to : 

Haul. : To turn the head of the ship toward 
the wind. 

(5) To round up : 

Naut. : To haul up ; usually to haul up the 
slack of a rope through its leading block, or to 
haul up a tackle which hangs loose by its fall. 

round (2), Townd, v.i. & (. [The same s 
ROUN, the d being excrescent, as in sotu-ii, 
expound, &c.] 

* A. Intransitive: 

1. To whisper. 

' They're here with me already ; whlsp'rlng.round/nff; 
Siciila la a so-forth." Shakeip. : Winter t Tale, i. 3. 

2. To tell tales ; to inform. (Slang.) 
B. Transitive: 

* 1. To whisper to ; to address in a whisper. 

"Talking with another . . . and rounding him in 
the eare."-/>. Holland: rlinie. hk. viL, ch, liii. 

2. To utter in a whisper. 
H 1. To round on : 

(1) To inform against. 

(2) To abuse, to rate. 

(3) To swear to. 

2. To round up : To rebuke. 

found a-bout, a. & s. [Eng. round, a., and 

A. As adjective : 

1. Indirect, loose ; not direct. 
" That support may be given In a hesitating, round. 
abvttt way. Standard, Nov. 6. 1885. 

* 2. Ample, extensive. 

"For want of having large, sound, roundabout 
ense." Locke: On the Understanding. 

* 3. Encircling, encompassing. 

B. As substantive: 

1. A large horizontal wheel or frame fur- 
nished with small wooden horses or carriages, 
on or in which children ride ; a merry-go- 

2. An arm-chair, with a rounded back. 

3. A kind of surtout. 

4. A close-fitting body-jacket; a jacket worn 
by boys, sailors, &C, 

* 5. A circular dance. 

* 6. A scene of incessant change, revolution, 
or bustle. 

round arm, n. [Eng. round, a., and arm.] 

Cricket : A term applied to a style of bowl- 
ing, first introduced about 1825, in which the 
arm is swung round, more or less horizontally : 
as, roundarm bowling, a roundarin bowler. 

f oun del, ' roun dell, * roun die, s. 

[O. Fr. rondel (Fr. rondelle, rondeau), from rond 
= round. So called from the tirst tune 
coining round again.] 

* I. Ord. Lang. : Anything round in form 
n figure ; a circle. 

"The Spanlardes, vniting themselves, gathered their 
whole fleet* close together into a roundeU."Hacktunt : 
t'oi/aget, 1. 596. 

IL Technically: 

* 1, Ancient armour : 

(1) The small circular shield carried by 

soldiers in the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries. It was composed of osiers, wood, 
sinews, or ropes, covered with leather or 
plates of metal, or stuck full of nails in con- 
centric or other figures ; sometimes made 
wholly of metal, 
and either con- 
cave or convex, 
and with or with- 
out an umbo or 
boss. It was held 
in the hand to 
ward off a blow, 
and was some- 
times only a foot 
in diameter. 

(2) The guard of 
a lance. 

(3) A round guard ROUNDEL. 
for the armpit. 

2. Fort. : A bastion of a circular form. 

3. Her. : A sub-ordinary in the form of * 
circle. It is improper to say a roundel or, 
gules, &c. , describing it by its tincture ; unless, 
first, in case of counter-changes, which follow 
the tinctures of the shield ; secondly, when the 
roundel is of fur, or of equal tinctures as a 
roundel ermine, a roundel cheeky or and 
azure. Otherwise roundels have distinguish- 
ing names, according to their tinctures. 
When blazoned or, they are called bezants ; 
when argent, plates ; when vert, pomeis ; 
when azure, hurts; when sable, agresses or' 
pellets ; when gules, torteaux ; when tenne or 
tawny, oranges ; when sanguine or murry, 

4. Poetry : A roundelay (q.v.). 

" Come, now a roundel, and a fairy song." 

Shaketp.: Xldrummer Jfiglit'l Dream, it. 8. 

5. Ordn. : A disc of iron having a central 
aperture, through which an assembling-bolt 
passes. It serves to separate the stock and 

r6"und'-6-lay, i. fO. FT. rondelet, dimln. 
from rtndel; rond = round.] [ROUNDEL.] 

1. A sort of ancient poem, consisting of 
thirteen verses, of which eight are in one kind 
of rime, and five in another. It is divided 
into couplets, at the beginning of the second 
or third of which the l>eginning of the poem 
is repeated, and that, if possible, in an equivo- 
cal or punning sense. [RONDEAU.] 

2. A song or tune in which the first strain 
is repeated. 

3. The tune to which a roundelay was sting. 

4. A dance in which all joined hands in a 

round -or (1), . [F,ng. round, a. ; -tr.} 
1. One who rounds. 
* 2. A round. 

" Was off amid a rounder of ' Thanlc'e. ma'am, 
thank' e." Blactonore : Chrittotfell. ch. xxxitl. 

3. (Pi.) : A game played by two parties or 
sides on a piece of ground marked off into a 
square or circle, with stations for a batter and 
bowler, and three goals or stopping places 
at equal distances from each other and the 
batter's station. The object of the batter is to 
strike the ball as far as possible away with a 
short bat held in one hand, so as to be able to 
make a complete circuit of the ground, passing 
through each goal, or as far as any one of the 
goals, before the ball is returned by one of the 
fielders. A complete circuit of the ground 
made at once counts a run. The batter is out 
if the ball, after being hit by him, is caught 
by one of the fielders, or if he is struck by the 
ball thrown by a fielder while running between 
any of the goals. 

4. A rock-boring tool having a cylindrical 
form and indented face. 

5. A plane used by wheelwrights for round- 
Ing off tenons. 

6. One who goes much about ; a man of the 
world. Alwi, a dissipated pel-son who frequents 
many low remits. ( Colloq.) 

' round'-er (21, s. [Eng. round (2), T. ; -tr.} 
One who whispers. 

round' -hand, *, At a. [Eug. round, a., aad 
A. As substantive : 

1. A style of penmanship in which the 
letters are formed r^und and full. 

2. A style of bowling in cricket in which 
the arm is swung round more or less horizon- 
tally ; as distinguished from underhand. 

B. As adj. : Applied to the style of bowling 
described in A. 2. 

round -head, s. & a. [Eng. round, a., and 

A. As substantive : 

Eug. Hist. : A term applied by the Cavaliers, 
or adherents of Charles I., during the Civil 
War of 1042, to the Puritans or adherents ot 
the Parliamentary party, from their wearing 
their hair cut short, while the Cavaliers 
allowed their hair to fall on to their shoulders. 

" The Koundneadi he regarded both with political 
and with personal aversion." J/ucuu/ay ; 11 tit. Eng.. 
ch. It 

B. As adj. : Pertaining or belonging to the 
Parliamentary party in the Civil Wur. 

" Animated by the Roundhead spirit." Slaeaulay : 
But. Eng., ch. V. 

round' head ed, a. [Eng. round, a., and] 

1. Having a round head or top: as, around- 
headed arch. 

* 2. Pertaining or belonging to the Round- 
heads or Parliamentarians. 

" The roundkeaded rebel* ot Westminster Hall." 

Scott . Kokeby, T. Ml 

* 3. Obstinate, strong, perverse. 

" Marry who thou woot, to make a shrew to shroud 
thee from the storms roundheaded opinion, that 
sways all the world, may let fall ou thee. Rowlfji: A 
Match at Midnight, ill. i. 

r6"und'-h6use, s. [Eng. round, a., and House.) 

* I. Ord. Lang. : A watch-house, a station- 
house, a lock-up. 

" I was three times In tueroundaoutt."Foot9 : TJtt 
Minor, I. 1. 

IL Technically: 

1. Nautical: 

(1) A small deck above the level of the 
quarter-deck or spar-deck, as the case may be, 
at the after end of the vessel ; a poop. Some- 
times termed the coach. 

(2) An erection abaft the mainmast for the 
accommodation of the officers or crew of a 

2. Sail. : A circular house with stalls foi 
locomotives around a turn-table. 

round'-Ing, pr. par., a., & . (ROUND (IX .) 
A. As pr. far. : (See the verb). 

* B. At adj. : Round, roundish ; nearly 

" A flexile sallow, entreiich'd, 
Rounding, capacious of the Juicy hord." 

Philip* : Cider, U. 

C. As substantive : 

i Ord. Lang. : The act of making round. 
IJ. TechnitaUy: 

1. Bookbind. : The process of giving a con- 
vex shape to the back of a book, hollowing the 
fore edge at the same time. 

2. Naut. : A service (q.v.). 

rounding adze, i. A kind of adze with 
a curved blade. 

rounding-gaugo, s. 

Hat-making : A tool for cutting hat-brim*. 

rounding --jack, s. A stand on which a 
hat is fixed to have its brim trimmed to shape 
and size. 

rounding-machine, s, 

Cooper. : A machine for giving a circular 
form to the heads of casks. 

rounding plane, s. 

Carp.: A tool which is a connecting-link 
between the tools of the carpenter and those 
of the turner. It has a plane-bit which is 
presented tangentially to the circumference 
of the circular-hole, so that the wood enters 
in a rough octagonal form and leaves it 
rounded, being rotated as it passes there- 
through. By this, or similar means, the 
bandies of umbrellas, hoes, rakes, pitchforks, 
and brooms are made ; as well as round otfico- 
rulers, chair and ladder-rounds, and many 
articles of similar shape. 

rounding tool, s. 

1. Forging : A top or bottom tool with a 
semi-cylindrical groove forming a swage for 
rounding a rod, the stem of a bolt, &c. 

2. Saddlery : A tool consisting of a pair of 
jaws with corresponding, semi-cylindrical 
notches, which form, when closed, a series of 
circular openings of varying sizes, through 
which leather straps are passed to be rounded. 

fc6H, bo}; pout, J<*1; cat, 9011, chorus, chin, bench; go. gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, ?enophon, ejlsfc ph - 1 
- tian-shan. -tion. -sion = shun ; -tlon, -ion = ahun. -cious. -ttous. sloua = anus. -We, -dla, tut. = nei, aei. 


roundish rout 

r6~und -Ish, u. [Eng. round, a. ; -i*h.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Somewhat round, nearly 
louiwl, approaching to roundness. 

' Tt is not every small track that oan rank* such a 
receiver, u Is of a rottndiia figure, unlesa to our ex. 
pertinent." Boyle. 

2. Bo:. : Orbicular, a little Inclining to be 
oblong, as the leaf of Mentha ntundijolia, 

roundish deltoid, a. 

Bot : Between orbicular and deltoid. 

round -ish ness, >. [Eng. rmnilish; -not.] 
1 he quality or state of being rouudidb.. 

roun -die, i. [ROUNDEL.] 

* round let, J. [O. Fr. rounded.] A little 
circle ; a roundel. 

" Made them to seem like rounetbts that rlM 
By a stone ca*t into a taiKhn brook." 

fimyton : Bunmt If an, Ti. 

r<Jund ly, atlv. [Eng. round, a. ; -ly.] 

1. In a round, circular, or spherical form. 

2. Openly, plainly, straightforwardly; in 
plain words. 

"Tell ui eo, roundly and abarply." C. Bnmtl: 
Jan* I/T*, ch. xxvii. 

3. Without much ceremony. 

" Hal/ w liat tl> may. I'll ratindlf |D abont her." 
ao*erp. : rumtNtf o/ CA Slrem, iv. 1 

4. Briskly, quickly. 

5. Completely, to the purpose, vigorously, 
in earnest. 

" By the maM, t was called any thing ; and I would 
have dun* any thing. Indeed, and ressneUjr too." 
SUuOutp. : 3 Heitry IV., 111. 2. 

round noss, * ronnde-nease, . [Eng. 
round, a; -ness.] 

1. The quality or state of being round, cir- 
cular, spherical, globular, or cylindrical ; 
circularity, sphericity, rotundity. 

" Mould It to tin monfauat of the mound.- 

Mann: Apttafc fionMn, li, 

S. Smoothness, fulness. 

"The whole period and oompftH of tliii speech wae 
delightsome for the roundnett, aud grave for the 
Btnuigenea*. Spenser. 

3. Plainness, openness, boldness, frank- 
ness : as, the roundness of an assertion. 

round ridge, .(. [Eng. round, a., and 

Agric.: To form into round ridges by 

round -rob-in, i. [Fr. rend = round, and 
ruban = a ribbon.] 

1. Ord, Lang. : A petition, remonstrance, or 
protest signed in such a way that no name 
hearts the list, the signatures being placed in 
a ring or circle. It was first adopted by 
French officers in signing petitions or state- 
ment* of grievances to their superiors. 

" The meiu ben of the Royal Cootmisaton aent to Sir 
George Greyaaortof nundrobin.' Daily Telegraph, 
Feb. 21. 1886. 

"L Old Coo.: A narrow ruff about the 

3. A small pancake. (Proy.) 

* . A blasphemous name given to the 
cramental wafer. 

"Certain food talker* . . . invent and apply to this 
moat boly eaerament names of deaniteaud reproach. 
u to all It Jack-ln-the-Box ami Sound-robin. " 
Coftrdatti Worlu, L 428. 

* round -Tire, . [Fr. rondettr, from rond = 
round (q.V.).j Circumference, circle, enclo- 
sure, round. 

" Tie not the rowmfsire of roar old-faced walla 
Can hide you from owr messengers of war." 

i . Sim Joint, U. L 

', a. [Eng. round, a. ; -y.] Round. 
" Her rotrndi sweetly swelling lips." 

roup (l), . [Roup, .] 

1. A cry, a shout. 

2. A sale of goods by auction ; an auction. 

f " Sometimes the roup became so noisy that men 

1 and women had to be forcibly ejected."-*. Jamett 
eeffe. Sept S, It**. 

3. Hoareeneaa. 

T Articles of raup: The conditions under 
which property is put up for sale by auction. 

roup (2), . [Scotch nmj>, roop = hoarseness.] 
A disease of poultry, consisting of a boil or 
tnmour on the rump. 

.<. ft t [A.8. hrtpan ; Icei hropa, = to 

A. Intrant. : To cry, to about 

B. Transit! iv : 

1. To expose to sale by auction ; to sell by 
auction. (Scott : Guy Manntring, ch. xi.) 

2. To sell the goods off by auction. 
roup -et, roup'-tt, a. [Roop(l), t.] Hoarse. 

"Her voice wae routiii and hoarse.** Smtt : Start 
of Xid-lsMtan. ch. XL 

ron'-rou, i. [Meiican.] 

Cabinet-making : A furniture wood torn 
some unidentified tree. 

rous '-ant, a. [Fr.] 

Her. : Applied to a bird In the attitude of 
rising, as if preparing to take tlight. \\hi-ii 
applied to a swan it is understood that the 
wings are endorsed. 

rouse (1), rouze, " ruse, * rowse, r. (. 4 (. 

[few. rusa to rush ; Dan. iu*e; A.S. hreosan.] 

A* Intransitive : 

' 1. To rush out of a covert. (Applied to 
beasts of chase.) 

" This hart mustd and aUle away.' 

* 2. To exert one's self ; to start forward. 

** Aneaa rvainy ae the foe canie on." 

Pope : Htmtr; JUad XX. IK 

* 3. To be excited or aroused to thought or 

4. To stand erect; to stand on end. 

My fell o( hart- 
Would at a dismal treatise rouM." 

^hxUlp. : JKociert, V. tV 

5. To rise ; to get up. 

"Night'* black ageuU to their prey do rowaf." 

6. To awake from sleep or repose ; to wake 

" UT lleI: J buckled their Bhiuing arma with haate. 
Troy rout dm eoon." F9pe : Homer; ntad viiLTO. 

B. Eejtex. : To stir one's self to exertion or 
action ; to bestir one's self. 

" Jtouu Uiee, man.* 

Shattip. ; llamm t Jutia, UL t. 

C. Transitive: 

'L To startle or drive from a covert or lair. 

" If they wolde vee but a fewe nombre of bounties, 
oaely to harborowe or roHM tke aaue." iVwol .- 
goeei lion , bk. L, ch. xviii. 

2. To raise, to erect. 

"Being mounted and both retutd In their aeata." 
M,i*p. . > atari lY., Iv. L 

3. To excite to thought or action from a 
state of idleness, languor, or inattention. 
" Routing each caitiff to his taak of care." 

OoaU : LmJt&Ou Lola, vl L 

4. To put into commotion ; to agitate, to 

" To rouje her ordered locka." 

Otid Enfliaud (1701), p. . 

& To awake from sleep or repose. 

" Shall we roiue the night-owl in a catch?" 

Shallop. : 7we(/(A fftfitt, iL SL 

rtitkfe (2), r.i. [Etym. doubtful] 

Navt. : To pull together, upon a cable, Arc., 
without the assistance of mechanical power. 

rouse-about block, >. 

Kaut. ; A snatch-block of large size. 

ro~ue (1), 5. [HOUSE (1), r.] A signal or call 
to awake ; the reveille. 

" At five on Sunday morning the mute was sounded. 
breakfast at aevu, and church parade at eight." Citu 
Prat, Sept. 80, 1U6. 

rouse (2), rd%-fe, s. [Sw. nw = a drunken 
fit, drunkenness, rusa = to fuddle ; Dan. ruus 

intoxication ; Dut. ran = drunkenness ; 
Ger. raitscti ; prob. connected with I eel. hros>i 

to praise ; aud ao with roue (3), t., and 
TOOK (q.v.).] 

L A drinking bout ; a carouse, a carousal. 

"And we will have a rouse In each of them, anon, 
lor bold Britons." imjonnn: ailmt Woman, iii. 1 

2. A full glass of liquor ; a bumper in 
honour of a toast (Shakap. : Othello, it. 3.) 

r6u (3), . [Roog,..j 
rouse, rouze, adv. [RODSE (1), r.] Straight. 

"Von should have comeoeit in cholerrmoeupon the 
etage."-fiu* o/ Buc*ins*am : Tht JUkorsoi, p. H. 

roll? -er, a. [Eng. roiue (1), T. ; . J 
L Ordinary Language : 
L One who or that which ronses. 

" In rushed the rousen of the deer." 

4eo <Mimtiila. 

2. Anything very great or startling, (slang.) 

3. Brv. : A stirrer in the hop-copper of a 

rous -ing, pr. par. 4 a. [ROUSE (1), t>.) 

A. -4 pr. par. ct a. : (See the verb). 

B. Js adjective: 

1. Having power to rouse, awaken, or ez- 

Cite ; exciting. (Slang.) 

2. Very great; startling, exciting. (Slang.) 

"In possession of a routine bade." Sttrnt t 
Trittram $liandy, vi. 109. 

rd"us'-lng-r^, ode. [Eng. rousing; -ly.] In 
a rousing manner ; so as to rouse; excitingly, 

rous sette', >. [Pr., dimin. from rora= red.) 
Zool. : Pteropus vnlgurit, from Mauritius 
and Bourbon ; probably occurring in Mada- 
gascar and Africa. A frugivorous bat, alut 
nine inches long, with a wing expanse ol three 
feet ; general colour rusty Fed, whence it* 
popular name. 

roust, i-.i. or i. [RUST, t>.) 

roust, roost, rost, s. [Icei. rostra cur- 
rent.] A torrent occasioned by a tide ; the 
turbulent part of a channel or firth caused by 
the meeting of rapid tides. (Scotch.) 

roSsf -a-bSut, u. [Prob for roost, and abmt ; 
cf. rooster.] A labourer on board a steamer ; 
a lazy, idle vagabond ; a loafer. 

" Ridicule of scoffing and incredulous canal boat 
captMins and ruuitiiboutt."~. l icritmfr't Jtaaamme. 
March. 1880, p. 660. 

roTsSf-fc a. [RousT, .] Rusty. (Scotch.) 

ro~ut (1), route, rowt, . [O. Fr. roufc= 
a rout, a defeat ... a troop or multitude of 
men or beasts ... a way, a street, a course ; 
prop, something broken, from Lat. rupta, fern, 
of ruptus, pa. par. of rumpo = to break ; ItaL 
rotto ; Sp. rota = a rout, a defeat ; Dut. ro< ; 
M. H. Ger. rofe, rotte; Ger. rotte; Dan. rodt. 
The word is thus the same as route (q.v.).J 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. The utter defeat of an army or body of 
troops ; the disorder and confusion of troops 
thus defeated and put to flight. 

" To these, glad conquest, murderous roue to those." 
Pol* : Homer ; Iliad liii. M. 

* 2. An uproar, a brawl, a tumult 

" Give me to know 
How this foul rout began." 

.-. i teip. : Olhttlo. U. t, 

*3L A company of persons;, and 
generally a rabble or multitude ; a tumultuous, 
disorderly, or clamorous crowd. 

To swear be would the rascal rowi overthrow." 

Thomson : Caette ttf htd'jerire. it IS. 

4. A fashionable assembly or large evening 

" She la the foundress of those assemblies called 
routs." Dr. Wltarton: Jtanelagk Bout*. 

6. Noise, tumult, uproar. 
" While the winds without kept whistling rout." 
Sladae : L*,t o/ UlgXtondt, p. ML 

IX Law : (See extract). 

" A rout is where three or more meet to do an uo. 
lawful act upou a common quarrel, as forcibly break* 
Ing down fences upon a riant cUuuied ol common or 
of way ; and make some advances towards it." black. 
stone: Comment., bk. iv., ch. ft. 

H*(l) The rout: The rabble, the common 

" After roe the rout is coming." 

Shaketp. : Taming o/ttie tArete, IIL S. 

(2) To put to the rout : To rout. 

rout-cake, . A rich, sweet cake for 
evening parties. 

rout-seat, . A light form or seat for 
evening parties. 

rolit (2), . [IceL nXo.] The Brent OOOM, 
Anser bemicla. 

rSd.t (3), * rowt, . [Rorrr (2), .J 

1. The act of bellowing. 

2. A roar ; a loud noise. 

rout (1), r.f. ft i. [ROUT (1), i.J 
A. Transitive: 

1. To break the ranks of, and throw into 
disorder ; to defeat utterly and put to flight 

" Turn back the routed and forbid the flight.' 

Pore : Homer; mad vi. Uo. 

2. To drive or chase away ; to expel 

*B. Intratu.: To assemble in a noisy or 
riotous crowd. 

" The meaner 

er tort routed together, and 

him." Baeott : Henry Vll., p. 6*. 

. . . alew 

rout (2), rowte, r.t 
t bellow, as cattle. 

[Icei. ran (a.) To roar ; 

Ote, at, fere, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pJH. 
or. wore, wolt work. who. Baa; mute, cub, cure, unite, eiir. rule. rtU,- try, Syrian. e, ce = e; ey = a; qn = kw. 

rout row 


rJut(3), rowt-yn, .i. [A.S. hrutan; Icel. 
hrjita, rjdta.) To snore. 

"Kite he routeth, for his hede mislay." 

Chaucfr : C. T., 8,643. 

ro"nt (4), v.t. & i. [A variant of root (2), v. 

A. Transitive: 

L Ord. Lang. : To turn up with the snout, 
as swint) ; to root. 

II Tech. : To deepen ; to scoop out ; to cut 
or dig nut, as mouldings, the spaces betveen 
and around block-letters, bookbinders' stamps 
&c. IRotrrER.) 

B. Intrans. : To root in the ground. 

" From trampling cattle, and the routing swine." 

H 1. To rout out : 

(1) To search thoroughly, and generally to 

(2) To cause to turn out ; to drive out, 

He wa routed out again, but got to ground in a 
rabbit hole.- field. Jan. 33. 1888. 
2. To rout up : To hunt up. 
" They had been routing up a oueer.looking crea. 
tnre." field, Feb. 31, 1888. 

route, * rute, s. [Fr. route. The same word 
as rout (1), s. (q.v.).] 
*1. A crowd. 

" Of wominen many a route 
Say that I have the moste atearlfast wife. 

Chaucer : C. T., 9,424. 

2. The course, way, or road travelled, or to 
be travailed ; a march, a course. 

J A route is chosen only by those who 
go to a considerable distance ; the road may 
be chosen for the shortest distance : the route 
and road are pursued in their beaten track ; 
the course is often chosen in the unbeaten 
track ; an army or a company go a certain 
route; foot passengers are seen to take a 
certain course over nelds. 

f To get the route : 

Mil. : To receive orders to march or quit 
one station for another. 

r, s. [Eng. rout (4), v. ; -r.J 
Joinery : A sash-plane made like a spoke- 
shave, to work on circular sashes. 

router-gauge, J. A gauge with a stem 
and adjustable fence, and provided with a 
tooth like a narrow chisel, adapted to cut a 
groove in wood or brass, for the purpose of 

router-plane, s. A plane having a broad 
surface, carrying in its centre one of the cut- 
ters belonging to the plough. It is used for 
levelling the bottoms of cavities. The stock 
must be more than twice the width of the 
recess, and the projection of the iron deter- 
mines the depth. The sides of the cavity are 
prepared beforehand by the chisel and mallet, 
the saw, or the cutting-gauge. 

router-saw, s. A saw having a cutting- 
point on each side of the blade, adapted to cut 
Into the wood, and a less prominent router- 
tooth to remove the chip between the marks 
or kerfs made by the cutters. 

ruth, rrfwth, a. & . [Wei. rhwth =large, 

A. A> adj. : Plentiful, abundant (Scotch.) 

B. As subst. : Plenty, abundance. 

" I trow there waa routh o' company." tSeott : Anti. 
iju'trij, ch. xL 

"routhe-les, o. [RCTHT.ESS.] 

routh'-ie, a. [Roura.] Plentiful, abundant. 

rdn'-tf-eY (final r silent), s. [Fr. route = a 
road.] One of a class of military adv-nturers 
of the twelfth century, who hired themselves 
to the highest bidder. So called from being 
always on the route or road. 

rou-tm'-a-rjr, a. [Bug. routine); -ary.] 
Pertaining 'to or involving routine. 

rou tine, s. [Fr. = a small path, dimin. of 
route = a route (q.v.). ] 

1. A round of business, pleasure, or amuse- 
ments, daily or customarily followed ; a course 
of business or official duties regularly pursued. 

2. Any regular habit or practice adhered to 
from mere force of habit. 

" He Iww certain Bet forme and routine! of speech." 
Butler : Kemaini, ii. 272. 

rout'-Ing, pr. far. or a. [RouT (4), .] 

routing-tool, s. 

Metall. : A revolving tool used for scooping 
out metal. Used in digging out the spaces 
between and around block-letters and book- 
binders' stamps, also in deepening the "white " 
spaces in stu-eotype and zincograpliic plates, 
and broad spaces in the lettering of uoorphites. 

* rout Ish, o. [Bng. rmt (1), s. ; *>.] Dis- 
orderly, riotous. 

"A rmti* assembly of sorry citizens.* SorOt : 
Kzamen, p. . 

* roTlt'-ous, o. [Eng. rout (1), s. ; -ou*] In 
manner of a rout. 

" rolit'-ous-ljf, adv. [Bng. routous ; -ly.] In 
a routous manner ; with tliat violation of law 
called a Boat. 

roux (zeilent), . [Fr. roux beurre = reddish- 
brown butter.] A material composed of 
melted butter and flour, used to thicken soups 
and gravies. 

rove (1), v. i. & t. [Allied to rnte and roo ; 
cf But. rooven = to rob; Dun. roue; Sw. 
rofva = to rob ; Icel. ra/a, rapa = to wander.] 

A. Intransitive : 

1. To wander, to ramble, to roam ; to go, 
move, or pass' without certain direction or 

" Ottll may I me. untutor'd, wild." 

Byron : To mward Noel Long. Btq. 

2 To have rambling thoughts; to wander 
mentally, to rave, to be light-headed ; henca 
to be in high spirits, to be full of frolic. 

"I wish she binna nfiig." Scott : Beau* of Mid- 
Lothian oh. XXV. 

* 3. To shoot an arrow with an elevation, not 
point-blank ; to shoot an arrow at rovers. 
[ROVER, f (2).] 

" TVith dally shew of courteous, kind behaviour. 
Even at the marke white of his hurt she rotted. 

Spenter : /". ft., V. V. 85. 

* 4. Hence, to aim, to direct a look, &c. 

Bhe ronxt at me with glaunclng eye.' 

Speneer: shephetvdi Calender; Aug. 

B. Transitive: 

1, To roam, wander, or ramble over or 


" Roving the field. I chanced 
A goodly te far distant to behold."^ ^ 

2. To shoot at rovern. 
3, To plough into ridges by turning one 
furrow upon another. (Amer.) 

rove (2), v.t. [Allied to reere(q.v.).] 

1. To draw through an eye or aperture ; to 
bring, as wool or cotton, into that form which 
it receives before being spun iuto thread; to 
card into flakes, as wool, Ate. ; to slub. 

2. To draw out into thread ; to ravel : as, 
To rove a stocking. 

rove-beetle, s. 

1. (Sing.): Any of the larger Staphylinidse, 
as Ocypus olen*. 

2. (PI.) : The Brachelytm in general. 

rove (1), i. [ROVE (2), v.} 

L Boat building : A small copper ring or 
washer, upon which the end of a nail is 
clinched on the inside of a boat. 

2. Spinning: A 'sliver of wool or cotton, 
slightly compacted by twisting. [Bovmo, 2.) 

rove (2i s. [ROTE (1), .] A roving or 
rambling about. 

" In thy nocturnal ro*f. one moment halt. " 

Toung : IfigJtt Thought*, i*. 675. 

roV-er, *rovare, s. [Dut. rooixr, from 
roouen = to rob. ] [ ROVK (!),.] 

* 1, A robber, a pirate, a freebooter. 

" The best men of ye cytl hy toyn ryotous neraones 
were mjoyled and rof.hid ; and by the roueri also of ye 
see." fabyan : Chronyde. p. 859. 

2. One who roves, rambles, or roams about ; 
a wanderer. 
1 A fickle or inconstant person. 

* 4. A kind of strong, heavy arrow, shot at 
an elevation, generally of 45. 

" Here be of all sorts, nights, rorert, and bntt- 
ahafta." Ben Jomon : Cunlhiu't ftevelt, v. 3. 
5. An archer. (Sen Jomon.) 

* 6. A mark on a target. 

7 In croquet a ball which has passed 
through all the hoops, and hit the stick oppo- 
site to the starting-post. The term is also 
applied to the player whose ball is in this 

* 1 (1) To run at rovers : To run wild, of 
without restraint. 

* (2) To shoot at rovers : 

Archery : To shoot at a target or mark with 
an elevation, not at point-blank ; to shoot an 
arrow at a distant object, not at the butt which 
was nearer ; hence, tig., to shoot at random, 
or without any particular aim. 

" You pretend to shoote at the butt*, yon ihoot quite 
at the roitere, and cleane from the mark* " Cranrner : 
Annoer to Gardiner, p. 68. 

* rov'-er-jr, 8. [Bng. rove (I) ; -ery.] Piracy, 

" Their manifold robberies and rovertei." P. Sot- 
land: Ciimd.n, 11.306. 

roV-ing (1), pr. par. or o. [ROVE (1), .] 

roving-Shot, s. A stray or random shot. 
rov'-lng (2), pr. par., a., & ;. [ROVE (2), v.) 

A. & B. As pr. par. <6 partinp. adj. : (See 
the verb). 

C. As substantive : 

Cotton-manufacture : 

1. The same as ROVE (2), s. 

2. A process intervening between carding 
and spinning, in which a number of slivers 
from the carding-machine, contained in separ- 
ate cans, are associated by being conducted 
between pairs of rollers, and then between 
other successive pairs, by which the com- 
bined sliver is reduced and elongated; the 
sliver, as it issues from the last pair of rollers, 
being brought to the condition of a rove by 
being slightly twisted by mechanical means. 

roving-frame, roving-machine, . 
A machine in which the process of roving 11 
effected. [Roviso, C. 2.) 

roving-head, s. A roving-frame used in 
the worsted manufacture. 

roving-machine, s. [ROVINO-FRAME.] 

roving-plate, s. A piece of iron or steel 
plate which is held to the top of a grindstone 
with its edge inclined at a small angle, for the 
purpose of smoothing Its surface. 

roving-reel, s. A contrivance for measur- 
ing the length of a roving, sliver, or hank of 

"rdV-Ing-iy, adv. [Eng. roving (1); -ly.} 
In a roving, wandering, or rambling manner. 

" God has actually beeu uleased to discover by si>er- 
natural revelation (what, by reason, without it, he can 
either not at all. or but rovingly guess at Boyle : 
Worke, v. 632. 

rdV-Ing-nesB, . [ roving (1); -MM.) 
The quality or state of roving. 

row (1), *raw, *rwe, "rowe, . [A.a 
raw, rawe.] 

L A series of persons or things set in or 
arranged in a continued line ; a line, a rank, a 
file. (Spenser: Ru ines of Rome, xxi.) 

2. Specif.: A number of houses standing 
together in a line. 

* 3. A line of writing. (Chaucer.) 

^[ In rows : 

Bat.: In lines or series, which are not 
necessarily opposite. The number of these 
rows is often indicated as bifarious = in two 
rows, trifarious = in three rows, &C, 

row-culture, s. 

Agric. : That method of culture in which 
the crops, as wheat, are sown in drills. 

row (2), s. [Row (2), v.] An excursion or trip 
taken in a row-boat. 

row (3), s. [ROLL, .] 

1. A roll, a list 

2. A roll of bread. 

r6w (4), s. (Put for rouse = drunkennenii, up- 
roar ; for the loss of the s cf. pea, cherry, 
sherry, 4c.] A riotous noise ; a noisy dis- 
turbance ; a quarrel, a tumult, a commotion. 

t row (1), v.t. [Row (1), s. To set, dispose, or 
arrange in a row or line ; to set or stud witn 
a number of things ranged in a line. 

row (2), v.t. & i. [A.S. rowan = to row, to 
sail, cogn. with Lut roeijen ; Icel. roo; Sw. 
ro; Dan. roe; M. H. Ger. ruejen.] [RUDDER.) 

A. Transitive: 

I. To Impel, as a boat, along the surface of 
water by means of oars. 

Mil, bo?; poUt. J<Jwl; cat, cell, choru^ c-in. bench; go, tern; thin, this; In, ; expect. *>"<>*>. e 

-tton, -lon = shuni f-tlon, -}ton=zhun, -clous, -ttoiu, -.Ion. = shu* -We. -41e. &c, = bel, del. 


S. To transport by rowing In a boat. 

B. Intransitive : 

It To labour with an oar or oars. 

"The sailors thip their oars, and resse to row." 
Drydfn .- Owid; MetamorpkoMt X. 

S. To be moved by means of oars. 
"A galley . . . rowed up to the flag-ship. " Jflc. 
Ditfovery 07 India. 

IT (1) Bow dry : An order given to the oars- 
nu'ti to row in such a manner as not to splash 
the water. 

(2) Roved of all : An order to cease pulling 
and lay in the oars. 

row-boat, . A boat propelled by rowing. 

" Then each took bow and bolU in hanil. 
Their roie-ooat launch'd and leapt to land." 

Scott : Lord of Utt lite*, ill. IX 

row-look, s. [ROWLOCK.] 

row-port, . 

Kaut. (PI) : Small ports near the water's edge 
for the sweeps or large oars, whereby a vessel 
is rowed during a calm. 

row (3), v.i. [ROLL.] To roll, to revolve. 

" I trust bowla will row right though they are awee 
ajee e'enow." Scott: Rob Kay, ch. xxvi. 

row (4), v.t. [Row (4), i.\ To involve In a 
row ; to abuse, to scold. 

* row, o. [ ROUGH.) 

* row'-a-blo, a. [Eng. row (2), v. ; -aW.] 
Capable of being rowed over or upon. 

"That long barren fen 
Once rowrtW*." Ban Jotuon: Horttot; Art o/ PottrU. 

-an, ro'-an, . [8w. ronn; Dan. ran; 
ei I-it. Ornui.] 
Ord. long. A Hot. : The Rowan-tree (q.v.). 

" How clang the rowan to the rock." 

Scot!: Jlarmion. li. (Introd.) 

rowan-tree, s. The Mountain Ash (q.v.). 

ro'-wa-nab,s. [Hind, ramannah.] A permit 
or passport. (East India.) 

roV-dS-dow, . [ROWDYDOW.) 

roV-dy, i. & a. [From Row, (4), .] 

A. As subst. : A noisy, rough fellow ; a rough. 

" A drunken, gambling, cut-throat rowdy." 0. 
Kinytlef : TV.) Peart Ago, ch. X. 

B. At adjective: 

L Rough, riotous, blackguardly, rufBanly. 

" Leaning with rowdy grace ou the bar." Sc)-i6n*r'i 
Jf17'U<ne, March. 1878, p. 84. 

2. Coarsely showy ; flashy, gaudy. 

ro"w -dj?-d<Jw, J. [From the noise of the beat 
of a drum.] A continuous noise. (Vulgar.) 

roV-dy-dow-dy, a. [ROWDYDOW.) Noisy, 

ToW'-djMsh, a. [Eng. rowdy ; -iA.) Charac- 
terized by rowdyism ; rough. 

ro"w-dy Im, . [Eng. rowdy; -im.) The 
conduct or behaviour of a rowdy or rough ; 

" That contingent of rovd.tttm which twelU every 
Urge crowd." flril/y TeteffraJA. Feb. , 18M. 

roV-tjl, *roV-ell, . [Fr. rouelle, from 
Low Lat. rofeJio, dimin. from rota = a wheel.] 
L Ord, Lang, : A little ring, circle, or wheel ; 
specif. : 

(1) The little wheel of a spur, formed with 
harp points. 

" Lord Harmlon turned, well wae his need 1 
And dashed the rovelt lu hla steed." 

Scott : liarmlon, TIL 14. 

(2) The flat ring in a horse's bit. 

" The Iron rowetti Into frothy fome he but." 

Speii**-:* .. I. ra. 
II. Technically: 

1. Farr. : A roll of hair, silk, or leather, 
corresponding to a seton in surgery. 

2. Agric. : The spiked wheel of the Nor- 
wegian harrow and other soil pulverizers. 

rowel-head, s. The axis on which the 
rowel turns. (Shukesp. : 2 Henry IV., 1. 1.) 

row eL, v.i. [ROWEL, .] 
Farr. : To insert a rowel in. 

"Rowel the hone in the chest." Mortimer: Bin. 

row'-el-lng, pr. par. or a. [ROWEL, .] 
roweling needle, s. 
Farr. : An instrument used in farriery to 
Insert a rowel through the skin of a horse. 

row royal 

rowellng scissors, a. 

Farr. : An instrument used in inserting 
ruwels iii the flesh of horses. 

niw en, ran -en, row-Ings, rough - 
LngS, a. [Prob. from Mid. Eng. row = rough,] 

1. A stubble-field left unploughed till after 
Michaelmas or thereabout, and furnishing a 
certain amount of herbage. 

"Turn your cows, that give milk, into your rowmt 
till allow cornea." Mortimer : Hutkandry. 

2. Aftermath ; the second crop of hay cut 
off the same ground in one year. 

" The rowen graaae afterwards comiueth up so thicke 
and high for pasture and fonage." /'. Holland : 
Plinie, bk. xviil, ch. xsviii. 

roW-er, . [Eng. row (2), v. ; -er.] One who 
rows ; one who manages a boat with oars. 

"Of the unhappy rtjteert some were criminals who 
had been justly coudemned to a life of hardship and 
danger.'- Jfocaufay . Uia. Kay., ch. xvl. 

row-et, row-ett, s. [ROWEN.] 

r<Jwl, rowle, s. [Etym. doubtful.] 

Nautical : 

1. The sheave of a whip-tackle. 

2. A light crane, formerly used to dis- 
charging cargo. % 

Rrfw'-le^.s. [Seedef.] 

Geog. : A parish in Staffordshire, three miles 
8.E. of Dudley, containing the Rowley Hills. 

Rowley rag, s. 

Herd. : Prismatic and columnar basalt in the 
Rowley Hills. [RAOSTONE.] 

* roV-llt. s. [Fr. roulette.] A small wheel. 

row-look (pron. rul -lock), . [Eng. row 
(2), v., and loci.] 

.Viiuf. : A crotch or notch on the gunwale 
of a boat, against which the oar works in 
rowing. Various devices are used : (1) Two 
short pegs or posts rising from the gunwale ; 

(2) an iron stirrup pivoted in the gunwale ; 

(3) an iron pin in the gunwale, and the oar 
fastened to it by a thong ; (4) a pin in the 
gunwale passing through a hole in the oar ; 
(5) a notch in the gunwale. 

-ljf, . [ROLLYPOLLY.J 

rdwn, rowne, v.t. or i. [Roo.] 

* ro^n'-er, *. [Eng. roum ; -er.} One who 
whispers ; a whisperer. (Fox : Ada, p. 605.) 

rowte, .{. [ROOT (2), .J 
rdwth, s. & o. [Roi TH.) 

ROJC -burgh, s. [A southern county of Scot- 
land, adjoining Northumberland, and the 
title of a dukedom. John Ker, the third 
duke (1740-1804), was a noted bibliophile, 
and the binding known as Roxburgh-style 
was so named because first employed in his 
library.) (See etym. and compound.) 

Roxburgh style, t. 

Bookbinding : A style of binding consisting 
of a plain leather (generally morocco) back, 
with the lettering in gold high up, plain cloth 
or marbled paper sides, the top of the book 
gilt-edged, but the fore-edge and tail left 
white, and trimmed, not cut. 

rox-burgh I a, >. (Named after Wm. Rox- 
burgh, .M.I)., Superintendent of the Calcutta 
Botanic Garden, 1793 to 1814.] 

Hot. : The sole genus of Roxburghiacese 
(q.v.), with four species from India. The 
stems are a hundred fathoms long. The roots, 
prepared with limewater, are candied by the 
Hindoos, but their flavour is insipid. 

rdx bnrgh I-a -90 w, t. pi. [Hod. Lat. 
racouroAt(o) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. sun". *uxct,) 

Bot. : Roxburghworta ; an order of Dictyo- 
gens. Twining shrubs with tuberous roots (?), 
reticulated and coriaceous leaves, with pri- 
mary ribs connected by secondary veins. 
Perianth large, petaloid, in four divisions. 
Stamens four ; ovary superior, one-celled, with 
two many-seeded placentae from the base of 
the pericarp, which is one-celled, two-valved. 
One genus, with four species, from India. 

rox -burgh-wort, s. [Mod. Lat. rozouraA<ia), 
and Eng. wort.) 

Dot. (PI.): The Roxburghiaceae. (Lindley.) 

rJy, O. [ROYAL.] 

* rtfy, . [Fr. rot] A king. 

ro^-al, *rol-at. Toy-all, Te-al. 
* rl-al, * ri alL a. 4 . [O. Fr. real, roial, 
(Fr. royal), from Lat. regalis = regal (q.y.).] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Of or pertaining to a king; pertaining, 
or attached to the crown ; regnl. 

" The roynl blood of France." 
Shakerp. : Altt Well Ikat Eadi WM. IL 1. 

2. Established, founded, or maintained by 
the king or the crown. [Rcoius.] 

3. Becoming or befitting a king; kingly, 
princely. (SAutep. : Henry VIII., iv. 1.) 

4. Noble, generous, illustrious. 

"How doth that royoj merchant, good Antonio?" , 
Stuikeip : Merchant of VfnicA, iu. t, 

* 5. Noble, magnificent. 

" Our royal, good, and gallant ship." 

Sbnki-iit. : Tempeit, T. 

6. Applied to a stag having antlers with 
twelve tines. 

"A royal stag, or animal with twelve tinea, is not 
now uncommon. ' FteUl. Jan. 9, 199&. 

B. .-I* substantive : 

L Ordinary Language. 

* 1. A rial (q.v.). 

2. One of the shoots of * stag's head ; a 
royal antler (q.v.Ji 

3. A royal stag. 

" I*i the time intervening from the sixth year of his 
existent*, the stag destined to be a royal Las a con- 
spicuously good head." field, Jan. 9, 1&89. 

II. Technically: 

1. Naut. : A mast and sail next above the 

" We were under royali at four o'clock in the af Ur- 
noon." Daily Telegraph, Aug. 15, 1885. 

2. Urdu. : A small mortar. 

3. Paper: A size of drawing and writing 
paper, measuring 231 * 12 inches, and weigh- 
ing according to quality. Often used aujec- 
tively : as, royal octavo, royal quarto. 

IF The Royals: 

Mil. : The name given to the first regiment 
of foot in the British Army, now called the 
Royal Scots, and supposed to be the oldest 
regular troops in Europe. 

Royal Academy, . An English society 
to promote the arts of painting, sculpture, 
and engraving. In 1765, a charter WM 
granted to "The Incorporated Society of 
Artists." Dissensions almost immediately 
arose, its more eminent members withdrew, 
and on Dec. 10, naS, obtained from the king 
a charter for the " Royal Academy of Arts, in 
London," now known as the Royal Academy. 
The first exhibition of their paintings took 
place at Somerset House, in 1780. In 1834 
the Society was removed to the National 
Gallery, then just erected in Trafalgar Square. 

Royal Academy of Music: A society founded 
in 1823, which gave its first concert in 1828, 
and was incorporated in 1830. 

royal-antler, s. The third branch of the 
horn of a deer. 

royal-arch, . A degree in freemasonry. 
royal-arms, arms-royal, >. pi. 

Her. : The personal arms borne by the suc- 
cessive sovereigns of a country, as distin- 
guished from those which they bear in their 
public capacity, namely, the arms of the) 
country over which they rale. 

royal-assent, s. [ASSENT, >, B.] 

Royal Astronomical Society, . A 

society for astronomical research, which was 
founded in London in 1820, and received iti 
charter in 1831. 

royal-bay, . 

But. : Laurus nobilis or indica. 

royal-bine, . A deep-coloured and beau- 
tiful smalt, and also a vitreous pigment, prin- 
cipally used in painting on glass and enamel- 
ling, in which uses it is very permanent ; but 
in water and oil its beauty soon decays, as is 
no uncommon case with other vitrified pig- 
ments. It is not in other respects an eligible 
pigment, being, notwithstanding its beautiful 
appearance, very inferior to other cobalt blues 

royal bounty, . A fund from which" 
money is granted to female relatives of officer! 
killed or mortally wounded on duty. 

royal burgh, o. [BCKOH.] 

fete, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, lather; we, wit, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pSt, 
or. wore, wplf, work, who. sin; mute, cub, core, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, w, 09 = e; ejr - a; qu -- kw. 

royalet rub 


roval- charter, . A charter granted by 
the sovereign, and conveying certain rights 
wd privileles to the subjects, as a charter 
granted to boroughs and municipal bodies, to 
Sversities and colleges, or to colonies and 
foreign possessions. 

Roval Family, s. The family of the 
sovereign specif, the Sovereign, the Prince of 
Wales and the Princess Royal. With regard 
to the other princes and princesses, the term 
Royal Family has two meanings. In the wider 
one it comprehends all those who are by any 
possibility inheritable to the crown. In the 
Narrower one it is limited to those who are 
within a certain degree of propinquity to t 
reigning prince, and to whom therefore the 
law iiays extraordinary respect. (Blaclatone : 
Comment., bk. i., ch. 4.) (EglM.) 

royal-fern, s. 

Bot. : The genus Osmuuda. 

royal fish, s. [FISH-ROYAL.) 

royal-glass, . Painted glass. 

royal-grant, s. A grant of letters patent 
from the crown. 

Royal Humane Society, s. [HU- 

Royal Institution, . An institution 
found*! in London by Count R'<>ford. Sir 
Joseph Banks, and others, March 9, 1799, and 
Incorporated Jan. 13, 1800. It is designed to 
diffuse knowledge, to facilitate the general 
Introduction of mechanical inventions, and 
teach by lectures and experiments the appli- 
cation of science to the common purposes of 
life It has, as a rule, had for its lecturers 
some of the first scientific men of the age. 
royal-mantle, *. 

Entom. : A British geometer moth, AiUiclea, 

royal-mast, s. 

Naut. : The fourth mast from the deck ; a 

* royal-merchant, s. A term formerly 
applied to merchants who founded principali- 
ties which their descendants enjoyed, as the 
Grimaldi of Venice, the Medici of Florence, 
&c also applied to one who managed the 
mercantile affairs of a state or kingdom. 

royal-mines, s. pi. Mines of gold and 

royal-oak, a. 

I Ord Lang. : An oak in Boscobel Wood in 
which Charles II. Is said to have taken shelter 
after the battle of Worcester, hence a frequent 
public-house sign. 

* 2. Astron. : Robur Carolinum. (HaUey.) 
Royal Observatory, >. [OBSERVA- 
TORY, t.) 

* royal-rich, a. Rich as a king ; rich or 
gorgeous enough for a king. 

Royal Society, s. A society for prose- 
cuting research in general and physico-raathe- 
matical science in particular, founded in 
London in 1660. In 1645, a few friends, in- 
cluding Drs. Wilkins and Wallis, established 
a scientific club in the metropolis, which 
maintained a chequered and intermittent 
existence sometimes in London at others in 
Oxford, till at length being revived at the 
Restoration it became the parent of the Royal 
Society. At a meeting of the club, held 
Nov. 28, 1660, the formation of a new society 
was resolved on , and its scope and constitution 
defined. Its first public action took place on 
Dec. 5, 1660, and the members, in 1662, ob- 
tained a charter, and were incorporated as the 
Royal Society. Charles II. nattered himself 
that he was its founder, and among the names 
of its fellows was that of the Duke of York, 
afterwards James II. Sir Isaac Newton was 
elected a fellow in Jan., 1672, admitted in Feb., 
1872 and in 1703 became president. The first 
number of the Philosophical Transactions, re- 
cording the work of the society, appeared on 
March 6, 1665. After 1800 the annual volume 
took the place of occasional numbers. In 
1709, a bequest from Sir Godfrey Copley led 
to the establishment of the Copley gold medal, 
and a donation from Count Rumford, in 1796, 
resulted in the foundation of the Rumford 
gold and silver medals. Two more medals 
were established by George IV. in 1825. The 
Linnsean Society branched off from it in liS8, 
the Geological Society in 1807, and the Royal 

Astronomical Society in 1820. For a consider- 
able time the number of the members stood 
at 600 ; latterly, however, only fifteen mem- 
bers have been annually elected, so that the 
number of fellows will in a few years be re- 
duced below 000. With the exception of a 
small Roman Academy, the Royal gootetar of 
London was the first of the kind established, 
the Royal Academy of Science at Paris not 
having arisen till lt)6<i. 

U (1) The Royal Society of Edinburgh : A 
Scotch society of a similar type, which was 
incorporated in 1783, having been developed 
from the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh, 
commenced in 1739. 

(2) Royal Society of Literature: A society 
founded under the patronage of George IV. in 
1823, and chartered in IS26. It awards gold 

royal standard, s. [STANDARD.] 

royal-tiger, s. [TIBER.] 

royal-yard, s. 

Naut. : The fourth yard from the deck, on 
which the royal is set. 

roV-al-St, * roY-6-let, . [A dimin. 
from royal (q.v.).J A petty king or sovereign ; 
a kinglet. 

There were ... two other royaletf, as ouly kings 
by his leave."-J*ur : Church But.. II. Iv. 10. 

* rolf-al-Ism, s. [Fr. royalisme.} The prin- 
ciples 'or cause of royalty; attachment to a 
royal government. 

roy'- al- 1st, s. & o. [Fr. royalitte.] 

A. As subst. : An adherent or supporter of 
monarchical government ; specif, applied to : 

(1) An adherent of Charles I. and Charles 
II. in the Civil War, as opposed to a Round- 
head (q.v.). 

" Hi. majesty and all royaliiU must necessarily 
yeeld that fhe port., forte, n'vy, ammunition, arines. 
Ed revenues thus seised on by the parliament, though 
his majestic', in point ol possession, yet are not his, 
but the kinzdomei in point ol right and interest, 
Sj . SoWeto" Por of Par&ament. pt. IL. p. 13. 

(2) An adherent of the Bourbon family after 
the French Revolution. 

B. As adj. : Supporting monarchical govern- 
ment ; belonging to the Royalists. 
ro^'-al ize, v.t. & *. [Eng. royal ; -ize.} 

A. Trams. : To make royal. 

" 5" y.!". ??^;,'?'.T,f ^f., b ^^ kta *' 

i ;;;., i. s. 

B. tntrans. : To bear royal sway. 

" II long he look to rule an 

r6V-al-ly, adv. [Eng. royal, ; -ly.} In a royal 
manner 'like a king ; as becomes a king. 

" It shall be so my care 
To have your 

* roy-alme, s. [O. Fr., Fr. royaume.] A king- 
dom, a realm (q.v.). 

The esublishement and contlnnaclon ol peace and 
tranqutlttte In this royalmt lor euer. Uaal. tfta 
Tettament, n. 6. (I'ref.l 

roV-al-ty, * roy-al-te, * roy-al-tte, s. 

TO. Fr. realte, reialte, royaulte (Fr. royaute), 
from Lat. regalitatem, accus. of regalitas, from 
regalia = regal (q.v.).] 

1 The state, character, or dignity of a king ; 
the condition of a person of royal rank. 
I. this the royalty " "" " ' 

2. The state of being of royal birth ; royal 

8. A tax paid to a person who holds a grant 
of a patent from the crown for the use of such 
patent ; it is generally at a certain rate for 
each article manufactured ; a percentage pai'1 
to the owner of an article for its use ; hence, 
a percentage of profits paid to ail author for 
the privilege of reprinting his works. which not only paid no royalty to author; 

but Ireely availed themselves ol the experience and. 

outlayoTAmerioan publisher, who had paid royalty. 

ScAlmer'l Magazine, May. 1880, p. U8. 

* 9. An emblem of royalty. 

" Did give him that same royalty he wears." 

ShalLtif. : 1 Benry If.. IT. . 

10. A royal manor ; a manor. 

Some extraordinary take, ol salmon hare been 
secured in the Avon royalty here this week. -Dolly 
Telegraph. Feb. 6, 1885. 

11. A kingdom, a domain, a province, a 

* 12 The area occupied by a royal burgh ; 
(pi.) the bounds of a royal burgh. (Scotch.) 

T& e'-na, 3. [Named after Adrian Van Royen , 
once Processor of Botany at Leyden.] 

Bot. : A genus of Ebeuacea;. Royem lucida 
is a white-flowered greenhouse plant. 
r6V-le-a. s. [Named after John Forbes Koyle, 
Esq., Superintendent of the Botanic Gardens 
at Saharunpore.] 

Bot A genus of Ballotidie. The leaves 
of Roylea elegans are used in India as a bitter 
tonic febrifuge. 
. r oyne (1), v.t. It i. [Fr. rogner.] To bite, M 


* ro"yne (2), v.i. [Fr. yrogner.} To growl, to 

Yet did he murmure with rebellious sound. _ 

And soltly ro,n when va^chol.r,^redour,d. 

-ish, a. [Fr. rogneux = mangy, from 
roqne = mange, scab, from Lat rubiginem, 
accus. of rubigo = rust.] Mangy, scurvy, 
paltry, mean. 

The royntoh clown, at whom so olt 
Your grace wa. wont to laugh. 

Shaketp. : At You Like It, U. & 

r6ys'-tSr, s. [ROISTER.] 

1. A roisterer. 

2. A drunken spree or frolic. 
To"ys -ter-5r, . [ROISTERER.] 
rfiys'-ter-otts, a. [Eng. royaler; -mu.] 

Unruly, revelling. 

"The royiterout yonng dogs."-Cartl.- fait t 
Pretent, bk. 11.. ch. XV. 

d-ton,s. (Seedef.) 
Geog. : A market town partly in Hertford- 
shire and partly in Cambridgeshire. 
Royston-orow, . 

Ornith. : Corms cornix, long considered a 
separate species. [Caow, ., III. 2. (B).] 

Evidence accumulated during many year., through 
the observation ol ornithologists ol many countrie. 
Hnd ot many schools, seem, at last to compel the con 
cTuilon that no specific distinction can be inaiiitoine.1 
between the birds long known Mienticlly as Corny 
corona and Corvut cornix, and in English as the Black 
or Carrion-Crow, and the Gray, Hooded, or RoyiM- 
Crow."Tarrett: Brit. Btrdi (ed. 4th). U. 27*. 

' r6y"-tS-lSt, 8. [Fr. roitelet, from roi = a 
king.] A petty king. 

" Causing the American royteletik turn all homa- 
jer. to that king and the crown ol England. I 

* rtjyf -ish, a. [Perhaps for riotish or 
Wild, irregular 

3. Deportment becoming or befitting a king ; 
kingly character. 

" Pallas had put by. 
With her lalre rod. rriysses 1 royalty. 

Chapman: Homer: Odyuey xvl. 

4. The person of a king ; majesty ; a title 
applied to kings. 

Thus his royalty doth speak in me." 

BhaXetp. : Xing John, T. J. 

5 The Sovereign, or a member of the 
Royal Family (the abstract put for the con- 
crete) : as, Royally was present. 

6 A right or prerogative of a sovereign ; 
especially a signorage due to a king from a 
manor of which he is lord. 

" With the property were connected royaltiel." 
Hacaulay : ffitt. Eny., ch. xxi. 

7. A tax paid to the crown or to the land- 
lord on the produce of a mine. 

ro zelle', . [ROSELLK.] 
roz'-et, s. [RosiN.] (Scotch.) 

r&b * rubbe, v.t. A i. [Gael, rub = to rub ; 
Ir& Gael, rlbadh = a rubbing ; Wei. r*u.6t<. 
='to rub; rhwb = i. rub; Ir. ruboir ; Gael. 
rubair = a rubber ; Dan. rubbe = to rub.] 
A. Transitive : 

1. Ordinary : 

1 To move or pass along, or over the sur- 
face of, with pressure or friction ; to applr 
friction to. 

She nib, her hands."-Sotp. : Macbttlh . L 

2. To clean by rubbing ; to wipe. 

3. To remove by rubbing or friction; to 

Some, with holdlwt in the nocke ol their shan. 
harde. rubbe the sklnne of their flngei-s. AK* 
ToxapMltu, bk. ii. 

bSil, b6y; P6ut, jtfM; cat, cell, chorn* 5^ ben^; go. gem; thin, this; 
-clan, -tlan = sham, -tlon, Hrton = .>hun; -tlon, -.ion = shun, -clou* -t 


mb rubble 

4. To spread a thin coating or covering over 
the surface of ; to smear. 

" What would make one aiupect that they rw6 the 
marble with it, it U ol**red. th*t the scent la 
stronger in the morning than at night," Additon : 
On ftafy. 

* 5. To polish, to retouch, to touch up. 
(Followed by over.) 

" The whole biumet* of our redemption It, to rub 
o**r the defaced copy of the creation, to reprint Ood'i 
linage upon the soul." SouM. 

"6. To hinder, to cross, to obstruct, to 
interfere with. 

-Tilth* duke'. pl-wa re. 
Whose disposition, all the world well knows. 
Will not be ruM 4 nor stopped. " 

: Lear, ii. X. 

* 7. To touch hard ; to gall, to chafe ; to 
fret or tease with gibes or sarcasms. 

" He who before h wa eipted, wa* afmiJ, After 
being perceived, was uharaed. now being hardly 
rubbed upon, left both feu- and abamo, and WM 
nored to anger.'- SUney. 

IX Building, Ac. : 

1. To polish or give a smooth surface to, 
as a stone, by erasing the tool marks by the 
agency of a piece of grit-stone with sand and 
water, so as to render the atone less liable to 
be affected by the atmosphere. 

2. To smooth, as the dipped surface of a 
brick with a piece of rough-grained stone. 

B. Intransitive : 
I Literally: 

1. To move or pass along the surface of a 
body with pressure ; to grate. 

2. To fret, to chafe, to make a friction. 

" Thta last allusion galt'd the panther more, 
BeauM indeed it r*t>bU upon the we." 

Dryden : Hind A Panther, lit 191 

* 3. Bowls: To incline or turn in towards 
the jack. 

IL Fig. : To move or pass with difficulty ; 
to get along with difficulty. (Followed by 
along, on, or through) : as, He can just manage 
to rub along. 

H Things are rubbed sometimes for pur- 
poses of convenience; but they are chafed, 
fretted^ and galled injuriously : the skin is 
liable to chafe from any violence ; leather will 
fret from the motion of a carriage ; when the 
skin is once broken, animals will become 
galled by a continuance of the friction. 

H 1. To rub down : 

(1) To reduce or bring to smaller dimensions 
by rubbing or friction ; to render less promi- 

(2) To clean by rubbing; to curry: as, To 
rub down a horse. 

* 2. To rub off: To go off in a hurry. (Gen- 
tleman Instructed, p. 361.) 

3. To rub out: To remove or erase by 
friction : as, To rub out marks. 

4. To rub up : 

(1) To polish, to burnish. 

(2) To rouse to action ; to excite, to awaken. 
rub, s. [Run, .] 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : The act of rubbing ; friction : as, 
To give anything a ru6 with a cloth. 

2. Ff yurativtly : 

(1) That which impedes, obstructs, or 
renders motion difficult ; an obstruction, an 

But erery rub is smoothed ou our way." 

Sfviketp. : Henry Y., 11. 1 

* (2) A difficulty, a cause of uneasiness, a 

(3) An unevenness of surface ; an Inequality. 

" To sleep 1 perchance to dream ; ay, there'a the rub." 
.SViteip. : ffamtet, Hi. l. 

(4) A reverse, a hardship, a difficulty. 

" We have met with some notable rubt already, and 
what are yet to corew we knew not." dunyan 
Pilgrim t Proffrett, pt h. 

(6) A sarcasm, a jibe, a taunt. 
(6) A rub-stone (q.v.V 
II. Technically: 

1. Bowlt: Inequality of ground which 
binders the motion of the bowl. 

2. Cord*: The same as RUBBER (q.v.X 
"'Can you one?' Inquired the old lady. 'I can* 

replied Mr. Pickwick. J>cubU. ftinale. ami the rub.''" 
Inckcru ; PicJevic*. ch. vi. 

rub-a-dub, . The sound of a drum when 
beaten. (From the sound.) 

rub-Iron, 5. A plate on a carriage or 
waggon-bed, against which the fore-wheel 

rubs when turning short Called wheel-guard 
plate in a field-artillery carriage. One is 
placed on each side of the stock. 

rub stone, *. A stone, usually of sand- 
stone, used to sharpen instruments ; a whet- 
stone ; specif., the flat stone on which the 
currier's knife is ground to an edge. 

t rii bace , t ru-b&ase', s. [Lat. ntUut = 

.Win. : (1) Rock-crystal from Braail, en- 
closing red scales of hematite or gothite ; 
(2) rock-crystal which, when lieated and 
plunged into a cool coloured solution, be- 
comes fissured, and admits the red colouring 
matter; (3) rubicelle (q.v.); (4) Rose-quartz 

rii-ba'-to, a. [lui, = stolen.] 

Music: A style of singing or playing in 
which some of the notes are unduly length- 
ened, and others proportionately contracted, 
so that the aggregate value of the bar is 

* rub bage (ag as Ig), * rub -bldge, . 

rubbed, pa. par. or a. [Res, t>.) 
rubbed work, -. 

Build. : Brick- or stonework smoothed with 
stone or sand and water. 

rutf-ber, s. [Eng. rub, v. ; -r.) 
I. Ordinary Language : 
1. One who or that which rubs ; an Instru- 
ment used in rubbing or cleaning ; a polisher : 

(1) One who rubs. 

" Mi a trees Toonglore, the grave rubber of your 
mistress' too." Betittm. A Flet. : Scornful Lady. 

(2) An instrument used in rubbing, as a coarse 
towel for rubbing the body after bathing. 

" The servants . . . lay 
The rubbert, and the buttling tbeeta display." 

Dry <ien : Juvenal, sat. 8. 

(3) A coarse file. 

(4) A whetstone or rub-stone. 

(5) A roll of cloth charged with emery, 
rottenstone, or other abradant or polishing 
material, for surfacing plates. 

2. At whist and some other games, two 
games out of three, or the game which de- 
cides the contest. 

** The rubber of matches between the two famous 
running meo-'Datly Telegraph, Sept. 9. 1895, 

3. An inequality or unevenness of ground ; 
a rub, an obstruction. 

4. Hence, obstruction, difficulty, hardship. 

5. That which rubs or grates on the feel- 
ings ; a rub, a sarcasm, a gibe, a taunt 

6. (PI): A disease in sheep, causing great 
heat and itching. Called also Scab, Shab, or 

7. India-rubber (q.T.). 

8. Hence, used for : 

(1) An overshoe made of india-rnbber. (Amer. ) 

(2) A small block or piece of caoutchouc 
used for erasing j > marks. 

(S) An india-rubber tire for the wheel of a 
cycle, perambulator, cab, &c. 

(4) The ball used in the game of lacrosse. 
It is about the size of a billiard ball. 

" He secured the rubber again, and made a second 
attempt at goal, which mimed." /\M March , 1886. 
II. Technically: 

1. Electricity: 

(1) That part of an electrical machine which 
rubs against the cylinder or disc. 

(2) The moving pad or piston of an electro- 

2. Mason. : A board or block used in grind- 
ing or polishing. In the mouldings of stone, 
an iron rubber mounted on a wooden stock 
is employed for fillets, beads, and astragals. 
These rubbers have convex or concave faces, 
according to the required contour of the work. 
A stone or wooden block covered with thick 
felt is used for polishing stone and marble. 

3. Naut. : A tool for flattening down the 
seams ia sail -making. 

4. VthicUt: The part of the waggon-lock 
which presses against the wheels. 

rubber-cloth, s. 

1. Fabric covered with caoutchouc. 

2. Caoutchouc in sheets. 

rubber-file. . A heavy, flah-bellied DU, 
designated by weight, which varies from four 
to fifteen pounds. They are of square or 
triangular section, and used for coarse work. 
When they have three flat faces and one 
rounded, they are known as half-thick tiles. 

rubber-knife, s. A rubber-saw (q y.). 
rubber-mould, .-. 

1. A flask or former for shaping plastic 

2. A vulcanite mould for shaping plates for 
artificial dentures, &c. 

rubber-saw, s. A circular knife used 
in cutting india-rubber. It is not properly a 
saw, but is so termed in the trade. It is 
driven at high speed, and kept constantly 
wet by a jet or spray of water. 

rub'-ber-ide, rub -ber-ite, rtV-ber- 
Old, t. Imitation) of commercial India 

* rub'-bldge, s. [RUBBISH.] 

rub -blng, pr. par., a., i j. [Ros, t.] 

A. & B. As pr. par. d particip. adj. : (3e 

the verb). 

C. As tubiiantiv! : 

L The act or process of wiping the surf, ice 

with pressure. 

2. That which ts obtained by rubbing; 
specif., an impression of an inscription ob- 
tained by rubbing. 

3. The process of straightening the wire* 
for needles. 

nibbing paunch, .<. 

Navt. : A piece of wood nailed on the fore- 
side of a mast to prevent, injury to the latter 
by yards or spars in raising or lowering. 

rubbing-post, a. A post set up foe 
cattle to rub themselves against. 

rubbing-stone, s. 

Bricklaying : A grit-stone, which is placed 
upon the bricklayer's bench, and upon which 
stones are rubtied smooth after being dressed 
by an axe to a shape suitable for gauged arc he.* 
domes, niches, or similar work. 

rub'-blsn, "rub'-bidge, "rob-eux, 
* rob-ows, ' rub bage, * rub brisn, t. 

[O. Fr. 'robel, pi. robeux or robeaux.] 

1. Fragments ; pieces broken or imperfect ; 
ruins of buildings. 

"A floe ruin is one thing, and a heap at r+bbii) 
another.'* Pop*; Htrmfr; Odifuey. (Fust.) 

2. Waste or rejected matter ; anything vile- 
or useless. 

3. Confusion, mingled mass. 

Thai nobl> art of political lying ought not to 11. 
an? longer in ritMltn and confUBion." Arfyuthnvt: 
SMiii-f i>> Jalai Hull. 

4. Nonsense : as. That Is all rubbish. 

* rubbish walling, i. [RUBBLE-WORK.] 

rub - bish - ing, a. [Eng. ru66is\; -ing.\ 
Trftsliy, worthles-s, rubbishy. 

" It WM a good ariur hell tent, and Memed a palace 
to me after Ule rubbithinj little Impostor." /'i*((i 
April 4, 1884. 

rttb'-blsh-y, a. [Eng. rubbtiK ; -y.\ 

1. Containing rubbish; consisting of rub- 

"Clearing- weedy, ntbbuky turf W. P. Hunur : 
Beoloyical Ktiiiy. p. 415. 

2. Trashy, worthless. 

rtib'-ble, s. [RCBBISH.] 

1. Pieces of rough stone ; rubbish. 

" Piece* of timber, ban of Iron, luiwey atones, to- 
gether with all the rubb't aud tonea In the walla of 
that great and glorious pile." Man King: r 

2. Stones of irregular shape and dimensions, 
broken bricks, &c., used to fill up behind the 
face courses of walls or in coarse masonry, 
also masonry of such stuff; rabble-work. 

"We lay the foundation of our house* with rub>>li 
ap to the lerai of the earth." toribner't Mayntint, 
October, 1878, p. M&. 

3. A name given by quarryinen to the upper 
fragmentary aud decomposed portion of a 
mass of stone. 

4. The whole of the bran of wheat before it 
is sorted into pollard, bran, Ac. (Prov.) 

rubble-stone, s. (See extract.) 

" Rubhl^ttonet owe their name to their being rubbed" 
and worn by the watir, at the latter end of the deluxe, 
departing in a hurry and with great prwipitatioa.' 

St, fit, are, amidst, what, &U, father; we, w5t, bare, camel, her, there ; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go. pot, 
or. wore, wolt work, wh6, son ; mate, cub, cure, unite, our. rule. All; try, Syrian. a>, as = e : ey = a: au = KW. 

rubbly Rutnoon 


rubble-wall, . A wall built of rubble- 
rubble-work, rubble-walling, . 

Maxm. : Masonry in which stones are used 
in the rough, without being dressed to size, 
unless on their exposed faces. 

riib'-bljf. a. [Eng. ru&W();-.) Abounding 
in small, irregular stones ; containing, or of 
the nature of rubble. 

ru'-bS-W, s. pi. [Lat. ru6(tw), fem. pi. adj. suff. 

Bot. : A tribe of Rosacete. Calyx persist- 
ent, ebracteolate ; carpels many ; ovules, two 
in each carpel, pendulous ; fruit of one or 
many small drupes. 

ru-be-an-hy'-dric, a. [Lat ruber = red, 
and Eng. anhydric.] Derived from, or con- 
taining sulphuretted hydrogen and cyanogen. 

rubeanhydric acid, s. 

Chem.. : A sulphydrate of cyanogen, CgN-iHjSa 
(Berzelius). Prepared by passing cyanogen 
gas and sulphydric acid into alcohol. It is 
deposited from the solution in yellow-red 
shining crystals, very soluble In water ; 
soluble in alcohol and ether. 

ru-bed'-in-ous, a. [Lat. rubedo, geuit 
rubedini* = redness.] Reddish. 

ru-be'-fa'-cl-ent (or 9 as sh), a. & . [Lat. 
rubejaciens, pr. par. of rubefacio = to make 
red : rubeo = to be red, and facia = to make.] 

A. At adj. : Making red, reddening. 

B. As substantive: 

Med, : A substance for external application, 
causing redness, but not followed by blister. 
The chief are : a weak solution of ammonia, 
compound camphor liniment, mustard, oil of 
turpentine, &c. 

ru-be-tac'-tlon, . [From Lat. rubefactus, 
pa. par. of rubefacio = to make ruddy.] The 
production of a red colour in water. In fresh 
water this Is effected by Astasia hmnatodes, a 
species of Daphne, by some Naidina, and by 
Red Snow (q.v.). In salt water it is done by 
Trichodesmum, &c. (Griffith & Henfrty.) 

ru'-hS-lSt, . [Eng. ruby ; dimin. suff. -let.) 
A little ruby. 

ru-bel'-la, >. German measles or rotheln. 

ru'-bel-lane, . [Lat. rubell(ui) = somewhat 
red ; suif. -ane (Mm.).] 

Afiit. : An altered Biotite (q.v.), occurring in 
an altered porphyritic dolerite in Bohemia. 

ru-belle' (1), s. [Ger., from reiben = to rub.] 
Metall. : An iron plate on which ores are 
ground to test them, or prepare for test by 

ru belle' (2), s. [Ger. rubettan.] A red colour 
in enamelling. 

rubelle- enamel, s. A process in which 
the design, after having been worked out in 
relief on the plate, or otherwise, of earthen- 
ware, is covered with an enamel of one colour. 
Those parts of the design where the layer of 
this enamel is thinnest show the lightest 
colour, while those where the impression o( 
the design has been deepest appear darkest. 

ru-beHite, . [Lat. rubell(ui)= reddish ; 
suff. -ite (Min.).] 

.Win. : A red variety of tourmaline (q.v.), 
occurring in crystals mostly transparent and 
containing lithia. 

Ru bens, - [Seedef] A celebrated Flemish 
painter (1577-1640). 

Rubens' brown, s. A pigment still in 
nse in the Netherlands under thisappellation. 
It is an earth of a lighter colour, more ochreous 
texture, and of a warmer or more tawny hue 
than the Vandyke brown of the London shops 
It works well both in water and oil, and much 
resembles the brown used by Teniers. 

ru-be'-6-la, i. [Mod. Lat, from Lat ruber 
= red.] 
Ued. : The measles (q.v.). 

rn'-be'-4-lold. a. [Mod. Lat. rubeola; -aid. 
Resembling rubeola or measles. 

Ttt'-ber-lte, *. [Lat. ruber red ; suff. -itt 
Min. : The same as CUPRITE (q.v.). 

rub-e-ryth'-rio. o. [Mod. Lat rub(ia), and 
Eng. erythric.] Contained in, or derived from 

ruberythrtc acid, . 

Chem. : C^H^O^ A yellow substance ex- 
isting in madder root, and extracted by a 
complicated process from the llltrate, obtained 
when the decoction of madder is treated with 
neutral acetate of lead, and the alizarin pre- 
cipitate removed. It forms yellow prisms of 
silky lustre, easily soluble in hot water, in 
alcohol, and in ether. By boiling with dilute 
acids ruberythric-acid is converted into ali- 
zarin and glucose. 

ru-bes cenge, s. [ROBESCENT.] A growing 
or becoming rubescent ; the state of being 
red ; a blush. 

ru-bes'-9ent, a. [Lat. rubeseens, pr. par. of 
rubes''", incept, from rit^eo^to be red ; ruber 
= red.] Growing or becoming red ; tendency 
to redness. 

* ru'-be-ns, s. [Lat. = red, reddish.] 

Geomancy: A figure constellation-like, re- 
presenting Mars direct. When Mars is 
retrograde he is called Puella. (Chaucer.) 

ru'-bl-a, s. [Lat. =madder; ru6*rtw = red.] 

Bot : Madder ; the typical genus of Hubi- 
acese, or a genus of Galiacea;. Corolla rotate, 
campanuUte, or funnel-shaped, four to live 
cleft, stamens four or five, fruit a two-lobed 
berry. About fifty species are known, chiefly 
from temperate regions. One, Rubiaperegrina, 
a plant with yellowish flowers, is British. 
R. tinctoria is madder. From R. cordifolia, 
called also R. Munjista. come the roots called 
Munjeeth (q.v.). R. sikkimensis yields a dye. 
R. Relboun is the Madder of Chili. The roots 
of R. augustissima are also highly coloured. 
R. nam is said to be poisonous. [MADDEB.] 

rn-bl-a'-9e-e, >. pi. [Mod. Lat. rub(ia); 
Lat fem. pi. adj. suff. -acece.) 

Bot. : An order of plants founded by Jussien 
in 1789. Monopetalous plants, with opposite 
leaves, interpetiolar stipules ; stamens in- 
serted in the tube of the corolla, and alter- 
nating with its lobes ; ovary inferior 
compound. Lindley separated it into Gali- 
aeeae and Cinchonaeeffi (q.v.). Sir Joseph 
Hooker recurs to the old arrangement 

ru-bi-a9'-Ic, a. [Eng. rubiacin); -fa.) De- 
rived from, or containing rubiacin. 

r ubiacic acid, s. 

Chem. : CsaHaOr/. Produced, according to 
Schunck, by boiling rubiacin or rubiafin with 
ferric nitrate or chloride, and adding hydro- 
chloric acid, which throws down impure rubi- 
acic acid. It is purified by reprecipitation. 
The acid is obtained as a lemon-yellow amor- 
phous powder, slightly soluble in boiling 
water, and reconverted into rubiacin by sul- 
phuric acid. 

ru-bK-a9'-In,. [Eng.niMac(ea5); -in(Chem.).] 
Chem.: C3jH K O 10 . Madder - orange. A 
yellow colouring matter, discovered by Runge 
in madder root. It crystallizes in light yellow 
plates or needles having a strong reddish- 
green lustre, slightly soluble in boiling water, 
but very soluble In boiling alcohol. It dis- 
solves in sulphuric acid, forming a yellow 
liquid, and in alkalis forming purple solutions. 
It is of little use as a dye, a piece of mor- 
danted calico being scarcely coloured by it. 

ru-bi-a-din, s. [Eng. rubiad(ip)in.] 

Chem. : CieHljO}. A substance produced, 
together with glucose, by the action of alkalis 
on rubiacin. It crystallizes in yellow needles 
or rectangular plates, which are slightly solu 
ble in alcohol With strong sulphuric acid il 
forms a yellow solution, and aqueous am- 
monia dissolves it at the boiling heat with 
blood-red colour. 

rn-bt-ad'-l-pln, . [Mod. Lat rubia; Eng. 
(a)dif(ose), and -in (Chem.).] 

Chem. : CgoH^Os (?). One of the compounds 
formed by the fermentation of madder with 
erythrozym. After the removal of alizarin, 
rubiretin, rubiafln, &c., it is obtained, along 
with rubiagin, from which it is separated by 
solution in cold alcohol. It is a yellowisl- 
brown fatty substance, soluble In alcohol an*, 
alkalis, the latter forming a blood-red soapy 

ru-bi'-a-fin, s. [Mod. Lat. ruMo;/ connect, 
and -in (Chem.).] 

Chem. : C&HjgOg (?). A substance isomeric 
with rubiadin, and produced by the fermenta- 
tion of rubian. It is separated, along with 
verantin, from alizarin, &c., by the action uf 
acetate of copper, and from verantin by l>oil- 
ing with stannous oxide. It crystallizes from 
the stannous solution in yellow shining plates 
and needles which behave in all respects like 

ru-bl'-a-gln, . [Mod. Lat rubia; g con- 
nect, and -in (Chem.).] 

Chem. : Produced by the fermentation of 
rnbian, and separated from rubiadipin by cold 
alcohol. It is obtained as yellow granules or 
grouped needles, insoluble in boiling water, 
soluble in boiling alcohol. Alkalis dissolve 
it with blood-red colour, and neutral acetate 
of lead throws down orange-coloured grains 
from its alcoholic solution. Formula uncer- 

ru' bl-an, . [Mod. Lat. rubUa); Eng. suff. 

Chem. : CagH^Oia. A glucoside, discovered 
by Schunck in madder root in 1847. It yields, 
under the influence of acids, alkalis, or madder 
ferment, alizarin, with other colouring matters, 
and glucose. It ia a dry, brittle, amorphous 
mass, resembling dried varnish, and of a deep 
yellow colour in thin layers, very soluble in 
water, less soluble in alcohol, and insoluble 
in ether. Its solutions are very bitter. Heated 
above ISO" it gives off orange-red vapours of 
alizarin. Oil of vitriol dissolves it with blood- 
red colour. 

ru-bi-on'-Ie, a. [Eng. rubian; -ic.] Con- 
tained or derived from rubian (q.v.). 

rubianic acid, i. 

Chem. : Ca,H3oOi4 (I). Produced hy the 
oxidation of rubian in contact with alkalis, 
and obtained by treating rubian with baryta 
water, eollectingthe barium compound formed, 
decomposing the latter with sulphuric acid, 
and recrystallizing from boiling water. It 
forms lemon-yellow silky needles, tastes bitter, 
reddens litmus, dissolves easily in boiling 
water and in alcohol, but not in ether. 

ru-bi-an'-in, s. [Eng. rubian ; -in.] 

Chem. : CsjHssOjs. Obtained by boiling 
aqueous rubian witli dilute sulphuric acid, 
dissolving out alizarin, &c., with boiling 
alcohol from the colouring matters produced, 
and continuing the treatment of the solid 
residue with boiling alcohol, from whence 
rubianin crystallizes in lemon-yellow coloured 
needles with silky lustre, moderately soluble 
in boiling water, very slightly in alcohol. 

* rn-bl-ble, >. [RIBIBLE.] 

ru'-bK-can, a. [Fr., from Lat. rubeo = to be 
red.] A' term applied to a horse that is bay, 
sorrel, or black, with a light gray or white 
upon the flanks, but so that this gray or white 
is not predominant there. 

* ru'-bl-ca-tive, s. (Lat rubeo = to be red.) 
That which produces a reddish or ruby colour. 

ru'-bl-oSlle, . [Fr., from ItaL rubiceUo, 
dimin. from rubino = a ruby.) 

Afin. .- A jeweller's name for a yellowish or 
orange-red transparent spinet (q.v.). 

rU-bX-chlor'-Ko, o. [Mod. Lat. rubi(a), and 
Gr. xAupot (Moras).] Contained in, or derived 
from Rubia tinctorum. 

rubichloric acid, s. 

Chem. : C lt H ie O t (?). An acid found in the 
root and leaves of Rubia tinctorum, and 
separated from an aqueous solution by basic 
acetate of lead in presence of ammonia. It 
forms a colourless or slightly yellow mass, 
having a faint nauseous taste, easily soluble 
in water and alcohol, and is converted by 
heating with hydrochloric acid into dark 
green flocks of chlorarubin. 

Ru-bi-con,s. [Lat.] A small stream of Italy, 
tallinu into the Adriatic to the north of 
Ariminum. It formed in part the northern 
boundary of rtalia Propria, and on this ac- 
count the Roman generals were forbidden to 
pass the Rubicon with an armed force, under 
dreadful imprecations, and to do so was con- 
sidered equivalent to a declaration of war. 
According to the story, Cfesar crossed the 

toll, bo>; pint, ]6wl; eat, cell, chorus, onln, bench; go. Item; thin, this; Bin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist, -ing. 
-clan, -tlon = shan. t ion. nion = shun ; -flan, -jlon = zhun. -OIOUB, tioiu. iou = shu. -ble, -die, fcc. = *!. del. 


rubicund ruby 

Rubicon with his array at the breaking out of 
the civil war with Pompey, exclaiming, " The 
die is castl" Hence the phrase, To cross (or 
past) the Rubicon = to take a decisive step 
in any enterprise. The position of the Rubi- 
con has not been clearly ascertained ; some 
identify it with Finmeaimo, some with Lusa, 
and others with Fisatello. 

ru'-bl-cund, a. [Lat. rubicvndus, Trom 
rubeo = to be red ; Fr. rubiconde.] 

1. Ord, Lang. : Inclining to redness, ruddy. 
(Said especially of the face.) 

" And thU way turns his rubicund, round face." 

LonafeUotp: Golden Legend, T. 

2. Bot. : Blushing, rosy-red. 

ru-bl Ciind -I t^, . [Eng. rubicund; -ity.) 
The quality or state of being rubicund. 

ru-bid-S-hy'-drau, *. [Lat rubidut = dark 
red, and Gr. Wwp (hudor) = water.] 

Chem. : C^H^On- A substance produced in 
the preparation of rubianic acid, and obtained 
as a reddish -yellow, transj>arent, bitter gum, 
yielding with water a yellow solution from 
which it is not precipitated by any metallic 
salt except basic acetate of lead. 

Hi bid ine, *. [Lat rubid(us) = dark red ; 

Chrm. : CjiHiTN. An organic base belong- 
ing to the pyridme series, and contained with 
several others in coal tar. It is a colourless 
liquid of oily consistence and faint odour, 
slightly soluble in water, freely in alcohol and 
ether, has a sp. gr. of 1-017, and boils at 230. 
Its salts have .a tendency to assume a reddish 
tint on exposure to the air. 

ru-bfd'-l-um, . [Lat r6idtw = dark red.l 
Chem. : A monad metallic element belonging 
to the potassium group, discovered by Kirch- 
hoff and Bunsen in 1860. Symbol Rb ; atomic 
weight, 85-4; sp. gr. T52. It has been de- 
tected in mineral waters, in several lepidolites, 
and in the ash of many plants, as tobacco, 
tea, and coffee. It may be obtained from the 
saline residue in the preparation of lithia from 
lepidolitcs, by adding platinic chloride, and 
dissolving out the potassium compound by 
repeated boiling with water. The chloro- 
platinate of rubidium is reduced with hydro- 
gen, and the purified chloride of rubidium, 
mixed with calcium tartrate and soot, is 
heated in a furnace, the volatilised metal being 
collected in a receiver containing mineral 
naphtha. It is a white metal with silver}* 
lustre, soft to the touch, and melting at 3S'5". 
Exposed to the air, it becomes covered with a 
gray film, and soon takes lire. When thrown on 
water it takes fire even more readily than po- 
tassium, and burns with a flame like the latter. 

rubidium chloride, s, 

Chem. : RbCl. Obtained by adding hydro- 
Chloric acid to the hydrate and slowly evapor- 
ating. It forms cubic crystals which have a 
vitreous lustre, are permanent in the air, and 

rubidium-hydrate, .. 

Chem. : RbHO. Formed by decomposing the 
sulphate of rubidium with barium hydrate, and 
evaporating the filtrate in a silver retort. It 
Is obtained as a white porous mass, which 
deliquesces rapidly in the air, possesses caustic 
properties as powerful as hydrate of potas- 
sium, and is soluble in alcohol. 

ru -bled, pa. par. or o. [RUBY, r.) 

ru-blf'-io, *ru-bir-ick, a. [Lat. ruber 
= red, and facio to make.] Making red ; 

"While the several ipedee of rays. u the ruM**. 
are by refraction separated one from another, they 
reUiu thorn motion* proper to each." Grew : Cormo, 
Sacra, bit. it, ch. ii. 

ru-bl-fl-ca'-tion, *. [Eng. rubify ; c con- 
ective, and stiff, -ation.] The act of making 
red ; rubefaction. 

"DealbaUon, ruination, and fixation." ffoH ; 
Lttrt, H. tt. 

* ru -bl-form, a. [Lat. ruber red, and/orma 
= form.) Having the form of red. 

''Of thOM rayt, which para close by the suow, the 
ruWorr* will be the least refracted ; and *> come to 
the eye in the directeat lines." ffneton : Optidu. 

ru-bl'-fy, v.t. [Lat ruter = red, arid facio 
(pass, jlo) = to make.] To make red. 

"White wine vinegar ! to be preferred . . . if it he 
UrjM the leave* of red row* in if 
ta ad VUam Longam, p. 190. 

rftn*r ; ria Recta a 

ril-big^In-ose, a. [Lat. rubigo, genit. ru- 
bigi'iis = rust.] 

Bot. : Dull red, with a slight mixture of 
brown. Used spec, of a surface covered by 
glandular hairs. 

ru-bigT-in-ous, a. [RUBIOINOSE.] Exhibit- 
ing or affected by rubigo ; rusty, mildewed. 

ru-bi'-go, *. [Lat.] 

Bot. : An old genus of Coniomycetous 
Fungals. Rubigo alnea is found on the under- 
side of the leaves of decaying alders. 

ru-bi-hy'-dran, s. [RUBIDEHYDRAN.] 

Chem. : Ccal^gOss. A substance formed by 
treating rubian with acid carbonate of barium. 
It is a brown-yellow transparent gum, with 
bitter taste, dissolves easily in water, less 
soluble in alcohol. 

*ru'-bln, s. [Sp.] Aruby(q.v.). 

"'Twtxt the perles mid rubitu." 

Spwtcr .- f. V . II. 11L 14. 

ru bin den Ic, a, [Ktym. not apparent,] 
rubindonic acid, s. [Is A MIC- ACID.] 

ru-bln'-Ic, a. [Fr. rubinique, from I rubine = 
a metallic preparation of a ruby colour.] (See 

rubinic acid, s. 

Chem. : Rufocatechuic acid. When a solu- 
tion of catechin in an alkaline carbonate is 
exposed to the air, and hydrochloric acid 
added, rubinic acid is precipitated in red non- 
crystalline flocks. It is a fugitive substance 
and blackens during the washing and drying. 
It combines with the alkalis to form salts. 

* ru'-bl-ous, a. [Lat. rubeus.] Red, ruddy, 

" Diana's lip 
Is not more smooth and rubtnut." 

p. ; Twelfth Jfight, I. 4. 

ru-bi-rSt'-In, . [Eng. rubi(an), and Gr. 
pyrivri (rhetine)= resin.] 

Chem. : C7H 8 O 2 . A substance obtained as 
a bye product in the preparation of rubian, 
and also produced by boiling chlororubiati 
with alkalis. It forms a reddish-brown resin, 
melting at 100* ; dissolves sparingly in boiling 
water, easily in alcohol, also in alkalis, and in 
oil of vitriol with orange-red colour. It does 
not dye mordanted fabrics. 

ru bis lite, *. [After Rubislaw, Aberdeen, 
where found.] 

3/in. : A compact granular mineral of a 
dark-green colour. It belongs to the indefi- 
nite substances classed under chlorite (q.v.). 

ru-bl-tan'-nfo, a. [Mod. Lat. ruW(a), and 

Eng. tannic.] (See compound.) 

rubi tannic acid , s. 

Chem. : A tannic acid extracted from the 
leaves of ]lubi<i tinctorum* 

ru'-ble, s. [ROUBLE.] 
ru'-bor,*. [Lat.] Redness. 

" A rubor of his countenance." fforA : Kxamm, 568. 

ru'-brlc, *ru-briche, ru brick, *ru- 
bricke, s. [Fr. rubrique (O. Fr. rubriche), 
from Lat. rubrica = (1) red earth, (2), a rubric, 
a title written in red ; from ruber red ; Sp., 
Port., and Ital. rubrica.] 

* 1. Red earth, red ochre. 

" The same in sheep's milk with rubriche and toft 
plteh.'TopuU : ffitt. Becutt, p. 133. 

2. That portion of any work, which, in 
the early manuscripts and typography was 
coloured red, to distinguish it from other 
portions ; hence specifically 

* <1) The title-page, or parts of it, the initial 
letters, &c., when written or printed in red. 

" No dat preflx'd 
Directs me In the starry rubric set." 

Milton; P. fi.,lr. SM. 

*(2) In law-books, the title of a statute, 
because formerly written or printed in red. 

* (3) The title of a chapter or main division. 

"Under the rubric 'Illusions of Perception.' we 
have an excellent account of the moat recent scientific 
theory of perception." AOvmanm. Oct. 15, 1881. 
(4) In prayer-books and other liturgical 
works, the directions and rules for the conduct 
of service, still frequently printed in red 

" It la prescribed In the rubric* of this day's service 
that If there be a sermon at all, and not a homily, it 
hall be upon this argument. The Doty of Subjection." 
Sharp : Sermon*, vol. ii., Mr. a. 

* (5) An ecclesiastical or episcopal rule 01 

3. That which is established, fixed, or settled 
by authority ; an authorised injunction ; hence, 
recognition as fixed or settled by authority. 

" Let him your rubric and your leant* prescribe." 
Cotefter: Pragren of Error. 18$. 

*ru'-bric, "ru'-brlok, * ru-brisshe, v.t. 


1. To adorn with or write in red ; to rubri- 

"Item, for rubriitheing of all the boolte." Patton 
Letter t, ii. 336. 

2. To enact as by a rubric ; to place or set 
in the Calendar. 

ru'-brlc, * ru -brick, t ru-brfc-ai, a, 

[RUBRIC, *.] 

1. Red, marked with red. 

" The light and rays which appear red ... I eoll 
rubric*, or red-waking." Jiewton; Optict. 

2. Placed in rubrics. 

" No rubrical directions are anywhere given." 
Warton : EngliA. Poetru, UL 1W. 

3. Pertaining to the rubrics. 

* 4. Pertaining to or contained in th 

" My father won't become a rubric martyr." 
Walpolt ; To Mann, ill. 86. 

t ru'-brlc-al, a. [RUBRIC, o.] 

* ru-brI-C&T-i-t& *. [Eng. rubrical; -ity.] 
A matter connected with the rubrics ; a point 
of ritual. (C. Kingsley : Yeast, ch. vi.) 

ru bri cate. v.t. [RUBRICATE, a.] To mark 
or distinguish with red. 

" The onehe doth rubricate oulie with his red letter*. ~ 
/"ttw .' Actti, p. 636. 

ru'-bri-cate, ru'-brl-cat-Sd, a. [Lat. 
rubricatus, pa. par. of nibrico = to' mark with 
red ; rubrica=. red earth ; ru&er=red. ] Marked 
with red. 

" The rest that stand rubricate In old kmlendar*." 
Spelman ; Original. <tf Terms, ch. 1L 

* ru-brl'-olau, * ru -brf^ist, *. [Eng. 
rubric ; -ian, -ts(.] One versed in the rubrics; 
an adherent or advocate for the rubric. 

* ru-brf9'-l-t& s. [Eng. rubric; -ity.} Red- 

" The rubricity of the Nile." Geddet. 

ru-bri-ni'-trtc, a. [Lat ruber = red, and 
Eng. nitric.} (See compound.) 

rubrinltric acid, s. [PICRAUIC-ACID.] 

rub' -sen* s. [Ger., contract, from rubesamen 
rai>e-seed, from rube = rape, and samen = 
seed.] Rape-seed. 

rubscn cake, s. An oil-cake, made from 
the seeds of Brassica prcecox, and much used 
on the Continent. 

ru'-bus, *. [Lat. = a bramble.] 

Bo*. ; A genus of Potentillidffi (Lindley) ; of 
Rubeae (Sir Joseph Hooker). Creeping herbs 
or sarmentose shrubs, almost always prickly. 
Flowers in panicles or solitary, white or red. 
Calyx five-cleft ; petals five ; style short, 
sub-terminal. Fruit of several single-seeded 
juicy drupes, in a protuberant fleshy re- 
ceptacle. Known species about 100, chiefly 
from the north temperate zone. The most 
important of these are R. frutieomu, the common 
Bramble, or Blackberry ; R. ozo4i7u, the Stone 
Bramble; R. Idcetu, the Raspberry ; Jt. CsMiW, 
the Dewberry; R. C hamcnuonu, the Cloud- 
berry ; and R. articus, which Linuceus charac- 
terizes as the prince of wild berries. The 
Blackberry U particularly prolific in th? United 
States, a number of varieties with very large 
luscious fruit having been produced by cultiva- 
tion. These include the Lawton, Early Harvest, 
Mammoth, and others. Of ornamental species 
of Kubus may be named R. odoratus, the 
Virginian Raspberry. 

ru'-b& * rn-ble, . & a. [O. FT. rubi, rubi* 
(Fr. rubis), from Low Lat. rubinum, accus. of 
rubinus = a ruby, from Lat. rw6*r = red ; 
rubeoto be red; Sp. rubi t rubin; Pert. 
rubim; Ital. rubino.] 

A. As substantive : 

I. Ordinary Lanffiuige : 

1. Lit. : In the same sense as II. S. 

" His ample forehead bore a coronet 
With Bparkling diamonds and with rubit$ tet." 

Dtydm : Patamon Jt Arcite, ill. &1 

Ate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, wire, sir, marine; go, pot. 
OP. wore, wolf; work, whd, sin; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try. Syrian. , oo = e; ey = a; qu = kw. 

ruby rude 


8. Figuratively: 
* (1) Redness. 

" Keep the natural ruby of your cheeks." 

Xliakap. : Macbeth, lit 4. 

(2) Something resembling a ruby ; a blain, 
blotch, a carbuncle. 

" He's said to have a rich face and rubies about his 
nose." Captain Jones, 
IL Technically: 

1. Horology: The jewel of a watch. The 
end-stone is usually a ruby in first-class work. 

2. Min. : A transparent variety of Sapphire 
(q v ) of a red colour, much esteemed as a 
jewel. The scarcest of precious stones, and 
known in commerce as Oriental ruby, to dis- 
tinguish it from Balas ruby (q.v.). 

3. Print. : A size of type, smaller than 
nonpareil and larger than pearL 

This line is set in Ruby type. 
B. As adj. : Of the colour of a ruby ; red. 

Wounds, like dumb mouths, do oi their ruby lips." 
ShaXesp. : Julius COHttr. in. 1. 

ruby-blende, s. [PYRAROYRITE, PEOUS- 


ruby-copper, s. [CUPRITE.] 

ruby-mica, -. 

Min. : A variety of Gothite, occurring in 
translucent fiery-red scales on limouite, near 
Biegen, Prussia. 

ruby-silver, s. [PYRAROYRITE, PROOT- 


ruby-spinel, . [BALAS-RUBY.] 

ruby-tail, s. 

Entom. : Chrysis ignita, the Common Gold 

Wasp. [CHHYSIS.] 

ruby-tiger, s. 

Entom. : A beautiful British moth, Phrag- 
mutobia fuliginosa. Fore wings reddish- 
brown, with a black spot; hind wings 
blackish, or dull pink, the hind margin and two 
central spots black ; expansion of wings an 
inch and a quarter. The larva is rusty-brown, 
with brownish hairs, and feeds on ragwort 
and other plants. 

ruby- wood, s. 

Bot. & Comm. : Red saunders-wood (q.v.X 

rn'-by\ v.t [RUBY, .] To make red. 

" With sanguln* drops the walls are rubied round." 
Pope : Homer ; Odyssey xx. 42s, 

ru-cer'-vine, o. [Mod. Lat. rwxrv(us); Eng. 
SUIT, -inc.} Belonging to, or characteristic of 
the genus Rucervus ; having antlers like those 
of the genus Rucervus. 

" Its antlers are large, and of the intermediate ru- 
cernne type." Oassells Xat. Hist., lii. 61. 

ru-ceV-vus, s. [Mod. Lat. n/(o), and Lat. 
owi-us (q.v.).] 

Zool. : An East Indian genus of Cerridas, or 
a sub-genus of Cervus. It Is allied to Rusa, 
but differs from it in having the bifurcate 
beam of the antlers further sub-divided. Ru- 
eervus schomburgki is Schomburgk's Deer, 
R. duvaucelli the Swamp Deer, and R. eldi 
Eld's Deer. 

ruche, ruohe'-Ing, ruch'-Ing, . [Fr. 

n*e = a beehive, from the quillings resem- 
bling honeycombs.] Quilled or gauffered net, 
lace, silk, and the like, used as trimming for 
ladies' dresses and bonnets. 

" The brim being formed of a large loose rucMng." 
queen, Sept. 2s. 18S5. 

ruck (1), v.t. [RUCK (1), >.] To wrinkle, to 

ruck (2), rucke, v.i. (Ct Dan. ruge = to 
brood.] To cower ; to lie or sit close ; to 
squat, as a hen upon eggs. 

" On the house did rucke 
A cursed owle, the messenger of ill successe aud lucke." 
Ooldinff : Ovid ; Metamorphoses. 

ruck (1), s. [Icel. Krukka = a wrinkle.] A 
wrinkle, a crease, a fold, a plait. 

ruck (2), . [Etym. doubtful.] An undis- 
tinguished crowd ; the common crowd or herd. 
" The cracks having decisively singled themselves 
out from the rue*.' Field, March (, 1886. 

ruok(3), . [Roc.] 

* ruc-ta'-tion, s. [Lat. ructatus, pa. par. of 
ructo = to belch.] The act of belching; a 

" Fumous ructattons or vapours." Ryot : Cartel of 
Velth, bk. lv., ch. xii. 

" rud, * rudd, >. & a. [A.S. rudu = red- 
ness ; Icel. rodhi, from raudhr = red.) 

A. As substantive : 

1. Redness, blush ; hence, a complexion. 

' Fast, with a redd rudd, 
To her chamber can slice flee." 

f tret : tteliqua, ill. t, L 

2. Red ochre. 

B. As adj. : Red, ruddy, rosy. 

" Sweet blushes staiu'd her rwd-red cheeke, 
Her eyeu were black as sloe." 

1'ercy : Keliqutt. ill. 1, 2. 

* rud, v.t. [Ruo, s.] To make red ; to redden. 

ru'-das, s, & a. [Fr. rude = rude, coarse.] 

A. As subst. : A coarse, foul-mouthed woman ; 
a randy. (Scotch.) 

B. As adj. : Bold, masculine, coarse. (Ap- 
plied to women.) 

"The auld earlin, a rudat wife she was." Scott : 
Antiquary, p. 430. 

rud-beok'-I-a, s. [Named after Olaus Rud- 
beck and his son, Professors of botany in the 
University of Upsal ; the former died 1702.) 

Sot. : The typical genus of Rudbeckieu- 
(q.v.). Handsome border annuals or perennials 
from North America. 

rtid-beck-i-e-ffl, . pi. [Mod. Lat rud- 
beckHa) ; Lat fern. pi. adj. suff. -B.] 

Bot. : A sub-tribe of composites, tribe Sene- 

rudd, s. [From its ruddy coloration.] 

Ichthy. : Leuciscus erythrophthalmus, the Red- 
eye (q.v.). 

rudde, . [A.8. rudu = redness.) Com- 

" His rudde Is like scarlet in grain." 

Chaucer : C. T., 13,694. 

rnd'-der, rod-er, " rSth'-er, s. [A.S. 
rodher = a paddle, from rdwan = to row ; 
cogn. with Dut. roer ; 8w. roder, ror; Dan. 
ror; Ger. ruder.'] 

L Literally: 
" 1. A paddle. 

2. That by which a ship is steered ; a Bat 
frame hung to the stern-post of a vessel and 
affording a means of steering. The rudder is 
moved by a tiller or a wheel. 

"Swept from the deck, and from the rudder torn.' 
Pope : Somer; Odyssey v. 405. 

3. Agric. : A sieve for separating the chaff 
from the grain. (Prob. a corruption of riddle.) 

IL Fig. : That which guides, governs, or 
directs the course of anything. 

rudder-band, rudder brace, . 

Naut. : That part of a rudder-hinge which has 
bands to brace the rudder and an eye for the 
pintle on the part attached to the stern-post. 

rudder-brace, s. [RUDDER-BAND.] 

rudder breeching, s. 

Naut. : A rope for lifting the rudder to ease 
the motion of the pintles in their gudgeons. 

rudder-case, s. [RUDDER-TRUNK.] 
rudder chain, s. 

Naut. : One of the chains whereby the rud- 
der is fastened to the stern quarters. They 
are shackled to the rudder by bolts just above 
the water-line, and hang slack enough to per- 
mit the free motion of the rudder. Their use 
is to prevent the rudder being lost in the 
event of its becoming unshipped. They also 
sometimes lead inboard, to be used in steering 
should the rudder-head or tiller give way. 

rudder-chock, s. [CHOCK.] 
rudder-coat, s. 

Naut. : A canvas clothing to the rudder- 
stock, which keeps the sea from passing 
through the trunk in the counter. 

rudder-fish, s. [PILOT-FISH.] 

rudder-head, s. 

Naut. : The upper end of the rudder, Into 
which the tiller is fitted. 

rudder-hole, s. 

Naut. : A hole in the deck, through which 
the head of the rudder passes. 

rudder nail, s. 
Naut. : A nail used In fastening the pintle 
to the rudder. 
rudder-pendant, >. 

Naut. : A continuation of the rudder-chain, 

secured by a staple around the quarter, under 
the moulding. In the end of the pendant a 
thimble is spliced, to which may be hooked a 
tackle, in case the tiller or head of the rudder 
is carried away. 

rudder-perch, s. A name given to a 
certain fish, said to follow the rudders of ships 
in the warm parts of the Atlantic. 

rudder-port, s. 

Shipbuilding: A helm-port (q.v.). 
rudder-stock, s. 

Naut. : The main piece or broadest part of 
the rudder, attached to the stern-posts by the 

rudder-tackle, s. 

Naut. : A tackle employed for operating the 
rudder in case its head is carried away, or for 
working a make-shift rudder. 

rudder -trunk, rudder -case, s. A 

casing of wood fitted or boxed firmly into the 

t ruddes, . [Etym. doubtful ; cf. A.S. rudt 
= rue.] 

Bot. : (1) Calendula officinalis ; (2) Chrysan- 
themum segetum. 

rud' -died, o. [Eng. ruddy; -ed.] Made 
ruddy or red. 

rud'-da-ly\ adv. [Eng. rudily; -ly.} In a 
ruddy manner ; with a ruddy or reddish 

" Many a hand's on a richer hilt, 
But none on a steel more ruddtly gilt." 

Byron : Siege of Corintli, xxvL 

rud' di-ncsa, * rud di-nesse, >. [Eng. 
ruddy; -ness.} The quality or state of being 
ruddy ; redness of complexion ; that degree 
of redness which is characteristic of good- 
health. (Applied especially to the complexion 
or colour of the human skin.) 

" The ruddinm upon her lip is wet." 

Bltatelp. : Winter'! Tall, V. I 

rud'-dle (1), rad die, red' die, >. [From 
the same root as ruddy.] A species of red 
earth, coloured by sesquioxide of iron. It is 
used for marking sheep. 

" Ruddle owes its colour to aa admixture of iron ; 
aud as that is in greater or less proportion. It is of a 
greater or less specific gravity, consistency, or hard- 
ness." Woodward. 

* ruddle-man, s. One who digs ruddle. 

chimney-sweeper." Hurt on : Anatomy o. 
p. 470. 

* rud -die (2), . [KIDDLE (2), .] A riddle, 
a sieve. 

"The holei of the iieve, ruddte, or try." P. Sol- 
land : Plutarch, p. 86. 

rud'-dle (1), v.t. [RUDDLE, a.] To mark with 


"A fair iheep newly ruddied." Lady Montagu: To 
Lady A'.rA. Oct. 10, 1718. 

* rud'-dle (2), v.t. [RADDLE, v.] To twist 

rud -doc, rud dock, * rud docke, 
* rud-dok, a. [A.8. rudditc; cogn. with 
Welsh rhuddog ; Cornish ruddoc = a redbreast. J 
1. The redbreast (q.v.). 

" The tame ruadocfce and the coward kite.** 

Chaucer: Attembly of FovHet. 

* 2. A gold coin, so called from its colour. 
"So he have golden ruddacket In his bag*." Lily: 

rfid'-dy, * rod-1, * rod-y, o. [A.S. * rudig, 
allied to read = red (q.v.).] 

1. Of a red or reddish colour ; red. 

" Not so the ruby flames with ruddy gleam." 

Boole : Orlando Purioto. bk. X. 

2. Of a lively flesh-colour, or the colour of 
the skin when in full health ; fresh-coloured 

" Where all the ruddy family around 
Laugh at the lests or pranks that never fail 
Goldsmith - 

3. Of a reddish or orange colour. 

"The ruddier orange, aud the paler lime." 

Cowper : Task, iiL R78. 

ruddy highflier, s. 

Entom. : A British geometer moth, Ypsipeta 

* rfid'-dy, v.t. [RUDDY, o.] To make ruddy 
or red. 

"It ruddied all the copse-wood (rlen " 

Scott : Lay of the Lou Minaret, vL 

rude, o. [Fr., from Lat. rudem, accus. of rudit 
= rough, raw, rude wild, unfilled; 8p. rudo; 
Port & Ital. rude.] 

Don, bo?; poUt, ]6%1; oat, eell, chorus, onln, bench; go, *em; thin, this; sin, a?; expect, Xenophon, ejist. pi i - 
-elan, -tlan = shan. tion, -slon = shun ; -$lon, -slon = zhun. -clous, -tious, sioos = shits. -We, -tUe, 4c. - be], oeL 



rudely ruff 

1. Characterized by roughness ; not nicely 
or delicately tini-shed, smoothed, or i>olished ; 
rough, coarse, rugged ; unformed by art, tuste, 
or skill. (Applied to material things.) 

"The be.iven-boru child 
All meanly wrapt**! iu the rude manger lie*." 

MM-*: T*# jVoWrtt.y. 

J. Rough or coarse in manners, unpolite, 
impuik-nt, imcourteous, uncivil, boorish. 

"They were rude even to brutality." Mmouilav : 
Bitt. Ln^ ch. riii. 

3. Characterized by roughness or coarse- 
ness ; uncivil, insolent. 

" Ton are to blame . . . 
To ute sd rude behaviour." 

5Ao**p. . Henry riff., IT 1. 

4. Ignorant, untaught, unpolished,clownish. 

" Where the rude villager. his Ubotrr done. 
In vexM spontaneous chant* some favoured name." 
Scott: Don Roderick, (lutrod. U.) 

6. Wanting or deficient in good taste, grace, 
or elegance ; unpolished. (Said of language, 
tjle, fcc.) 

" Rod* and nnplecuf ng be the lays." 

Ctneper : Ptatm exxxrlL 

6. Violent, tempestuous, boisterous, rough. 
{Applied to the sea, weather, Ac.) 

" Firmer he rooU him the ruder it blow.* 

Soo : Lady of t*e lake, U. 19. 

7. Fierce, impetuous : as, the rude shock 
Of armies. 

* 8. Harsh, severe, inclement : M, a rude 

*9. Robust, strong. 

I What the penny-a-liner* cull ruda health." C, 
ngtley ; 1'eatt, ch. xilL 

rude-growing, a. Rough, wild. 

** Whose month u covered with rude-growing briars." 
AhaJtftp. ; Titut Artdronicm. iL 4. 

r&de'-l& ado. [Eug. rude; -ly.} 

1. In a rude, severe, or rough manner ; 
without finish or polish ; coarsely. 

"They were all apparelled alike, and that very 
rudely and homely." Mvr: Vtvpia, bk. iL, en. vi. 

2. With rudeness, incivility, or insolence ; 
coarsely, boorishly. 

"You began rudelf." Sfoalbetp. :* *^*A t i. 

3. Violently ; with violence ; fiercely. 

' ttttdely break 
Her wonhlpp'd image fr.-ui Its bate." 

Jtoore : Light qf Ou Bartm. 

rude'-neBB, *. [ng. rude ; -nets.} 

1. The quality or state of being rude, coarse, 
or rough ; coarseness of finish ; roughness, 
un evenness. 

2. Coarseness of manners, conduct, or 
language ; incivility ; want of politeness, 
courtesy, or civility. 

" He generally affected In bis manner* and in bis 
housekeeping a rudeneu beyond that of his rude neigh- 
boor*." Macaulaf. HUL,, eh. itii. 

3. Want of polish, grace, or elegance ; in- 
elegance, ignorance. 

* 4. Violence, impetuosity. 

" The great SWIIIR and rudrnrst of hi* poize." 

Shaketp. : Troiiut A Creuida, i. 1 

* 5. Buisterousness, tern pest uousness, sever- 

"You can hardly be too sparing of water to your 
housed plant; the not observing ol this, destroys 
more plants than all the ru<lt?n?ttr* of the season. 
IWytt. K+Undar. 

ru dent ed, a. [Lat rudetw, genit rudenti$ 
= a rope, a cable.] 

Her. : The same as CABLED Oj.v.). 
ru deu-ture. s. [Fr.] [RUDENTED.] 

Arch. : Cable-moulding (q.v.)- 

ru'-der-a-r& a. [Lat ruderarlvs, from 
rudus stones broken small, and mixed with 
lime for plastering walls, Aic.] Belonging or 
pertaining to rubbish. 

* ru-der-a'-tlon, $. [Lat. rvderatio.] [Rtr- 
D K R A BY. ] The act of laying of pavement with 
pebbles. (Bailey.) 

rudo*M>& . [RUDE.] A coarse, rough 

" A mad-brain rudetbf fall of spleen. 
Who woo'd in haste, and means to wed at leisure." 
xHakrtp. : Taming oftke Shrew, iii. 3. 

Ru -des-heim-er, s. [See def.] One of the 
most highly esteemed white Rhine wines, so 
called from being made from grapes grown at 
Rudeshelm, a town in Nassau, on the banks 
of the Rhine. 

STU' dl mcnt, s. [Fr., from Lat. rudimentitm 
~ a thing in the rough state, a first attempt, 
fmm rndis=rude (q.v.); 8p. & Ital. rwli- 

L Ordinary Language: 

1. That which is unformed or undeveloped ; 
the principle wliich lies at tlie bottom f any 

iopmuiit; au unformed or tiufliiiBhed 

" Infectious as impure, yonr blk-litlnir pow'r 
Taints in iu rudiments the prouiiad fluw'r." 

Cvwptr : Cvntertation, 43. 

2. An elementary or first principle of any 
art ; especially, in the plural, the first ele- 
ments or elementary notions of any branch of 
science or knowledge ; first steps. 

" Iii these thy flrst es&ay*, and rudiment* of arms." 
Pitt: I'irffil; *neid*L 

IT. Biol. : A part or organ, the develop- 
ment of which has been arrested. [VESTIGE.] 

" With hornless breeds of cattle and sheep, another 
and singular kiud of rudintent baa been observe*!. 
namely, minute horns dangling attached to the skin 
alune . . . With cultivated pl&utait ia far from rare 
to liad the petala, stamens, and pistils represented l>y 
rudiments, like those observed in natural species." 
IXirtcin: Variation ?f Anim. t Plant*, en. rxiv. 

* ru'-dl-ment, v.t. [RUDIMENT, .] To fur- 
nish with or instruct in the rudiments or first 
elements, principles, or rules ; to settle in 
first principles. 

" It is the right discipline of knight-errantry, to be 
rudiment fd iu losses at first" Vayton: f'etttroiu 
A'ote*. p. 87. 

ru-dl-ment-al, a. [Eng. rudiment, s. ; -a/.] 
Pertainitig or relating to rudiments or first 
principles ; rudimentary. 

" Your first rudimental essays in spectatonhlp were 
made in my shop, where you often practised lor 
hours. " Spectator. 

rA-d!-m5nf-a-r& a. [Eng. rudiment, s. ; 


1. Pertaining or relating to rudiments or 
first principles ; dealing with or consisting in 
first principles ; elementary. 

2. In the state, form, or condition of a rudi- 
ment ; in an undeveloped state or stage ; in 
the first stage of existence ; embryonic. 

rudimentary-organs, *. pi. 

Biol. ; Organs in animals and plants which 
do no not attain full development, as the 
mammae of males among the mammalia and 
the pistil in male florets of some of the Com- 
posite ; or which occur in the embryo and not 
in the adult, as the teeth of foetal whales. 

" In order to understand the existence of rudimen* 
tary-oryant, we have only to suppose that a former 
progenitor possessed the parts in question In a perfect 
state, aitd that under changed habits of life they be- 
come greatly reduced." Darwin.* Uetcent qf Man (ed. 

rud'-Jsh, a. [Eng. rud(e); -isft.] Somewhat 
rude ; rather rude. 

* rud'-I-t& . (Eng. rud(e); -ity.] Rudeness. 

rud mis day, s. [For rood-maw-day, from 
rood = a cross.] The feast of the Holy Cross, 
of which there were two annually; viz., one 
on May 3, the feast of the Invention of the 
Holy Cross ; the other on Sept. 14, Holyrood- 
day, or the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. 

ru-d6l'-phine, a. [See def.] A term applied 
to certain astronomical tables, composed by 
Kepler, and founded on the observations of 
TychoBrahe. So named in honour of Rudolph 
II., Emperor of Bohemia. 

rfte, *rew t *rewe, v.t. & i. [Prop. Ante, 
from A.8. hredwan; cogn. with 0. Sax. hrew- 
an; O. H. Ger. kriuwan; Ger. renew; Dut. 
rouwen. From the same root as Lat. crudus 
= raw ; crudelis = cruel ; Eng. crude, Ac,] 
A. Transitive: 

1. To grieve for ; to regret, to lament, to re- 

" Ill-fated race ! bow deeply must they rue 
Their only crime, rlcinity to yuu." 

1 To pity. 

" AM the tears I shed." 

Xft'ideip. : Titui Andronicta. I. 

* 3. To cause to grieve ; to make repentant, 
compassionate, or sorrowful. 

" For thoofb I made /bon soorle in a plstle it rttcith 
me not." Wjfcliffe: 2 Cory nth. vii. 

4. To repent of, and withdraw, or attempt 
to withdraw from : as, To rue a bargain. 
*B. Intransitive: 

1. To have compassion. 

" And God so wisly on my soule rest*. 
As I shal even juge ben. and trewe, 

Chaucer. C. T., 1.864. 

2. To become sorrowful, penitent, or grieved. 

* rue bargain, r The forfeit paid by 
one who withdraws from a bargain. 

rue(l), *rume, s. [Fr. rue; Prov., Sp., & 
Port ruda; Lat & Itifl. ruUi: Gr. puni 
{rhute) = rue.] 

1. Bot. : The genus Ruta(q.v.). The common 
Rue is Ruta praveole-us, a plant, 
two ur three feet high, of a fetid odour, and 
an acrid taste. The Win ves are 
pinnate, the flowers yellow, the first that 
comes forth generally with ten stamens, the 
next with eight. A native of Southern Europe, 
but grown In gardens in the East and West 
Indies, in England, ,ve. 

" Here, in this place, 
111 set a bank of rue, sour herb of grace." 

Sh.itstp. : tiidiurd II., iii. 1 

2. Pharm, ; Rue, or Rue-oil (q. v.J, is a power- 
ful topical stimulant, an antispa-smodic, an 
emmenagogue, and perhaps an anthelmintic. 
It is used internally in flatulent colic, hys- 
teria, epilepsy, &c., and as an enema, and ex- 
externally as a rubcfacieut 

rue-oil, s. 

Chen. : The essential oil of Common Rue, 
obtained by distilling the plant with water. 
It is rather viscid, has a disagreeable odour 
and bitter taste, boils at 228, and solidifies 
about to shining crystalline l&minaj. The 
crude oil is chiefly composed of a hydrocarbon 
and one or two ketones of the paraffin group. 
The more volatile portion of the oil has the 
composition of turpentine oiL 

* rue (2), . [RUE, v.] Sorrow, repentance. 

rue'-f til, rcu-fol, * reu lull, * ru-feU, 

a. [Eng. rt(2),B. ; -full.] 

1. Causing to rue, lament, or grieve ; mourn- 
ful, sad, touching, lamentable. 

" A rueful sight, the wild shore strewn with wrecks.' 
tt'ordtttort* : Excursion, bk. r. 

2. Expressing or characteristic of sorrow or 
pity; pitiful. 

" With rttfull alien I eawe where Hector stood." 

Surrey: I'irffile ; <net IL 

3. Full of lamentations or mourniug. 

** Cocytus, named uf lamentHtiuu loud 
Heard on the rueful stream." 

M.ltvn: P. L. t 1LM9. 

rue'-f ul-1^, * ru-ful-ly, adv. [Eng. rueful; 
-ly.] In a rueful manner ; mournfully, sorrow- 
fully, piteously. 

" They oaase me to crie so n</W/jr." 

Chaucer ; Lamentation <>f Jtoffdalen. 

rue'-f ul-neas, s. [Eng. rueful; -ness.} The 
quality or state of being rueful ; sorrowful- 
ness, mourn fulness. 

rue 11, s. [REWEL.J 

* ru-elle'. . [Fr., dimin. of rtw = a street.] 

Abed-chamber in wliich persons of high rank 
in France, during the sixteen thaud seventeenth 
centuries, held receptions in the morning, to 
which those,distiuuit>hed for learning, wit, 
&c., were invited ; hence, a circle or coterie 
where the events of the day were discussed. 

" The poet who flourished In the scene, is condemued 
In the rueUe."~Dryden : Virgil ; .Bneid. (Pref.f 

ru eT-H-a, . [Named after John Huelle, 
botanist and physician to Francis I.] 

Bot. : The typical genus of Ruellieae (q.v.> 
Calyx five-parted, corolla somewhat cam- 
panulate with five equal spreading segments, 
stamens didynamous, included ; capsule two- 
celled, six to eight-seeded. The species are 
numerous. Some furnish a blue dye like 
tndigo, especially Ruellia indigotica, cultivated 
in consequence in China. 

ru-el-ll-e'-ie, a. pi. [Mod. Lat rutUi(a); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -em.} 
Bot. : A tribe of Acanthaeese. 

rue'-wort, . [Eng. rue (\\ s., and tc-ort,] 
Bot. (PL) : The Rutacese (q.v.X 

* ru-fSs'-^nt, a. [Lat. rufescens, pr. par. of 
rufesco, incept, form from rujus = red.] Red- 
dish ; tinged with red ; rather rusty ; nearly 

run* (1), * ruffe, . [A word of doubtful ori- 
gin ; prob. from the same root as Icel. rjufo 
(pa. t. ravf) = to break, to rip up ; A.S. 
reafan = to reave (q.v.) ; ct Dut ru\/'= 
fold ; Sp. r/o= frizzed, curled.] 
I. Ordinary Language : 
1. Lit. : A large collar of muslin or Unen, 
plaited, crimped, or fluted, formerly worn by 
both sexes. 

" They were come to that height of excess herein 
that twenty shillings were us'd to oe paid fur starching 
of a ruJTSffoweU: Letter*, bk. L, f 3. let S>. 

fittb, f&t, fare, amidst, what, f&U, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, p&t, 
or. wore, woli; work, wuo, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rule, full; try, Syrian, , 09 = e; ey = a; au - kw. 

ruff ruftmoric 


J. Figuratively: 
) Something puckered or plaited like a 


14 Soft on the paper ruff it -J, le&v . es J^.f'| va 
(2) A state of roughness or unevenuess ; 

As flelds mt all their bri^tl.-s up ; in ch a ^wer* 
(8) Hence, riotous conduct ; festivity. 

; in this rfi.<I Jollity, new, cam. 

p. 849. 

(4) An exhibition of pride or haughtiness. 

Prince. tht. in the nf of ail their glory. have 
been irtkrii du 11 fnuntbeheadof acoii'iuerinjjaruiy. 
Sic /.'. L'Esr range. 

(5) The top of a loose boot turned over. 

Why, he will look upon hi. boot, and sing ; meild 
the ru/ and ng.--A<.*ep. .- Air* Veil, lit 2. 

IL Technically: 

1 A/acA. : An annular ridge, formed on a 
shaft or other piece, commonly at a journal, 
to prevent endlong motion. Bulls sometimes 
consist of separate rings tixed in the positions 
intended by set screws, &C., and are then 
called loose rails. 

2. Ornithology: 

(i) Machetes pugnax, a spring and summer 
visitor to England, Ireland, and the North of 
Europe, having its winter home in Africa. It 
is rather larger than a snipe ; general plumage 
ash-brown, spotted, or mottled with black, but 
no two specimens are alike. In the breeding 
season the neck is surrounded by a frill or 
rutf of numerous long black feathers, glossed 
with purple, and barred 
with chestnut 
Whilst probably 
serving primar- 
ily as an attrac- 
tion to the 
this frill acts 
also as a 
shield, for 
the polyga- 
mous Ruffs 
are intensely 
and furious 
battles take 
place be- 
tween them 
for the possession of the females, which are 
called Beeves, and are more uniform in color- 
ation, and smaller than the males. The nest 
is usually of coarse grass, in a moist swampy 
place, the eggs four in number. Large num- 
bers are caught and fattened in Holland, and 
sent to England, where they are rapidly be- 
coming rare, owing to the destruction of their 
favourite haunts, the fens, by drainage. 

t (2) A breed of the Jacobin. The feathers 
fall more backward off the head, and He in a 
rough and confused manner, whence the 
pigeon has its name. (Moore : Columbarium.) 

ruff wheel, . 
Metatt. : An ore-cmshing mill for the pieces 
which will not feed into the usual crusher. 

ruff (2), s. [Port. ru/rt = a game with dice, a 
raffle. J 

* 1. An old game at cards, the predecessor 
of whist. 

2. The act of trumping, when you have no 
card of the suit led. 

What folly must inspire the wretched taste 
60 many precious trumps on rufft to waste. 

ruff(3), S. [BCFFE.] 

'A con _ .... 

bw vibrating beat of a drum ; a 


ruff (4), . [A contract, from rnfflt_ (2), 
(q.v.).] A It 

litre, s. [See def.) 

Icltthy. : AceriiM ctrnua, from the rivers of 
Europe. It is olive-green, marbled and spotted 
with brown, aiul resembles the Perch in habits. 
The n;une is said to be derived from the harsh 
sensation caused by its ctenoid scales. 

ruffed, a. [BUFF (1), -! 

ruffed-grouse, . [BONASIA.] 
rutted lemur, s. 

Zool. : Lemur mrius; called also the Black- 
and-white Lemur. 

ruT-li-an, "ruf-fl-on, *ruf-fy-an, 
ruf-y-an, a. 4k a. [Fr. nURm (*J. Fr. rujien, 
ruffle*) : cf. Hal. rujiano ; Sp. rujiau.) 

A* As substantive : 

* 1. Originally, one who seta forward an in- 
famous traffic between the sexes and is, as 
might be predicted, personally a libertine ; a 
pimp, a inder, a paramour. 

2. A brutal fellow ; a rough ready for any 
crime ; a robber, a cutthroat, a murderer. 

" With honourable ruflloiu in their lure." 

Thornton : Cattle of Indolence, I. 65. 

*B. At adj. : Pertaining to, or characteristic 
of a ruffian ; brutal, rufnniily. 
- Each .111*, tarn U. * 


" The drum beats a ruff, and an to bed." TaanfOtar 
Recruiting Officer, v. 

rHff(l), .. [RUFF (!),.) 
I. Ordinary Language : 
* 1. To ruffle, t disorder, to disarrange. 

" Whiles the proud bird, ruffing 1m fathers wyde 
And brushing liis faire brent, did her invade." 

Spenter: F. <j., III. xi. 82. 

2 To applaud with the hands or feet 
IL Falconry : To hit without trussing. 

ruff (2), v.t. or i. [RUFF (2), .] To tram 
instead of following suit. 

1 To over-ruf: To put a higher trump on 
suit trumped already by an adversary. 

* ruf -fl-an, v.l. [RUFFIAN, s.] To play or 
act the ruffian ; to raise tumult ; to rage. 

" If It hath rufflan'd so upon the sea." 

Shaketp. : Othello, 11. 1. 

ruf-H-an-age (age as Ig), . [Eng. 
ruffian; -age.) Ruffians collectively; rascal- 

"Escorted by the vilest rufflatuLge." PaJgrtut I 
Bi*. Norm. Jt Sng., iv. 678. 

ruf-fl-an-ing, *ruf-fl-an-yng,. [Eng. 
ruffian ; '-Ing.) Ruffianly conduct. 

" Bepent of light rvjUanvna* Udal : PeUr. 

* ruf-fl-an-iBn, a. [Eng. ruffian; -Mi.) 
Having tne qualities or manners of a ruffian ; 

ruf-ri-an-5(?in, . [Eng. ruffian ; -tsm.J The 
character, qualities, or conduct of a ruffian. 

M He too will have to use force and penalties to re- 
pre ruffianism.' Daily Telegraph, Sept 26. 1886. 

ruf -fi-an-like, o. [Eng. ruffian; -Hl-e.J 

ruf-fl-an-l^, o. [Eng. ruffian; -ly.} Uke a 
ruffian ; ben tting or becoming a ruffian. 

" His fond disguising of a Master of Art with 
ruffianly hair, unseemly apparel, and more unseemly 
company." 0. Barney : Pour Letter! touching Robert 
Greene, p. 7. 

* ruf-f In, o. & . 

A. As adj.: Disordered. 

His ruffln raiment all was stained with blood." 
Speruer: F. ., L iv. M. 

B. As sutst. : A ruffian, a ruffler. 

ruf -f Jn-OUB, o. [Eng. ruffin ; -out.) But 
flanly, outrageous. 

" To shelter the Bald monument from all the rujjlnot 
pride." chapman: ffomer ; Iliad vi. 

ruf-fle (1), * ruf-fel-yn, v.t. & I. [Burr 
(!),.] [Dut. ruy/elen = to ruffle, to wrinkle. 
A. Transitive: 

1. Tocontraetlntoplaitoorfolds;topucker 
to wrinkle. 

" A small piece of fine ruffled linen, running along 
the upper part of the stay, before." Attdinm. 

2. To furnish or adorn with ruffles. 

" Her elbows ruffled, and her totfring form 
HI propp'd upon French heels." 

Cowper: TaOc, Iv. M5. 

3. To disorder ; to disturb the arrangemen 
or order of ; to rumple, to disarrange ; to make 
uneven ; to throw into disorder. 

" With sudden wing and ruffled breast. 
The eagle left his rocky ne.t." 

liyron : Siege of Cortnth, xxxiu. 

4. To disturb the surface of; to cause t< 
rise In waves. 

" The whitening surface of the ruffled deep." 

Pope : ffomer ; Iliad IL 178. 

* 5. To throw together in a disorder! 

" I ruffled up fal'n leave. In heap, and found. 
Let fall from heaven, asleep interiulnate.* 


* 6. To throw into disorder by attacking 
to rout. 

" At Passage I have Men thee 
Ruffle the TarUrs a tliej Bed thy furie." 

/(mum. * flet. : Loyal subject, \. 8. 

of a ualr of fin* 

tise the value of. 

7. To discompose, to disturb, to agitate. 

v ere an Antony 
Would ruffle up your b^ii'iUt" 

khiiki-^j. : Juliut Catar, lit. X 

8. To disturb. 

"Adjusting the ruffled relations between the Sultan 
and his rebelUoua vassal." Ifaily chronicle, Oct. 1. 

* B. Intransitive : 

1. To grow rough or turbulent ; to be noisy 
or boisterous. 

" The bleak winds do sorely ruffle.' 

Shake,u. : Lear, U. 4 

2. To play loosely ; to nutter. 

' On his right shoulder his thick mane recliu'd, 
Ruffle* at speed, aud dances in the wind 

Dryaen : Virgil s Oearfie ill. IS*. 

3. To act roughly ; to be rough ; to be in 

They would ruffle with Jurors, and htforce them 
to find an they would direct. ''bacon: Henry I'll- 

U To ruffle one's feathers (or plumage) : 

1. Trans. : To irritate ; to make angry ; t4 
put out. 

2. Intrans. : To become irritated, angry, 

ruf '-He (2), v.i. [O. Dut. ro/eton = to pan- 
der ; Low Oer. ru/eln; Prov. Ger. ruffeln = 
to pander ; Dan. ru/er = a pander ; Low Gel 
ruffeler = a pimp.) To put on airs ; to swaggei 

" Lady. I cannot ruffle it in red and yellow." 

ben Jenlon : (.ynthut'l IteiKle. Hi. & 

riif'-ne (3), v.t. [RUFFLE, .) To beat the 
ruffle on : as, To ruffle a drum. 

rttf '-He (1), >. [BnFFLE (1), .] 

1. A strip of plaited cambric or other fine 
cloth attached to some border of a garment, 
aa to the wristband or bosom ; a frill. 

" The person who work, the hue of a | 
ruffles, for example, will sometimes raise tL -. 

perhaps a ienny worth of flax to 30 sterling. "Smith: 
Wealth of Xationi. bk. iv., clu Ix. 

2. A state of being disturbed or agitated ; 
disturbance, agitation, commotion. 

"Conceive the mind's perception of some object, 
and the consequent ruffle or commotion of the blood. 

3. A tumult, a melee. 

" This capttayne nioche stayed the title, notwith- 
itaiidyiug twenty or more peraoues were aleyne in the 
ruffles-Hall : Henry rill. (an. 19). 

U Ruffe o/ a boot: The turned-down top, 
hanging loosely over like a ruffle. 

ruf-fle (2), s. [Prob. from the sound.] A low, 
vibrating beat of the drum, not so loud as the 
roll, used on certain military occasions, as a 
mark of respeot. (Frequently contracted into 
ru/.) [RoFF (4), .] 

ruf'-fle-lf5M,o. fEng. ruffle ; -tea.] With- 
out ruffles. 

* ruf '-fle-mSnf . [Eng. ruffle; -mm,.\ Hie 
act of ruffling. 

ruf'-fler (U . (Eng. nM'XM *.; 

1. A sewing-machine attachment for forming 
ruffles in goods. 

2. A sort of heckle for flax. 

ruf'-fler (2), s. [Eng. ruffle) (2), v. ; -er.1 A 
bully, a swaggerer. 

11 Publications which rapplled her courtesan, and 
rufflert with appropriate menwu food, V. A, ay 
mondt : Renaittance in Italy, ch. x. 

* ruf -fler-y', . [Eng. ruffle, v. ; -ry.) Noise, 

disturbance. (Stanykurst.) 

ru-H-gal '-Ho, o. [Eng. ruffn\ and gallic.] 
Derived froui gallic acid, 
rufigallic-acid, s. 

C 6 H(OH)s. 

CoOa Para-elhv 

gic acid. Obtained by heating gallic acid with 
strong sulphuric acid to 70 or 80% It crystal- 
lizes in small, shining, red prisms, containing 
two molecules of water, sublimes above 120, 
is insoluble in water, slightly soluble in alco- 
hol and ether. With alkalis it forms a soluble 
red compound, and dyes cloth, mordanted 
with alum, a beautiful red colour. 

ru-fl-mor -io, a. [Eng. ny!(n); 
and suit; -ic.) Derived from or containing 
morintannic acid. 
rufimoric acid, s. 

Chem. : Produced by boiling morintannic 
acid with hydrochloric acid, and leaving the 
solution to itself for some time. The brick- 
red precipitate is washed with water dissolved 

bSil, bd>: pint, J.$*l; oat, 9ell, chorus, 9 Hin, UenoU; go, gem; thin. flU.; sin, a?; expect, <"opl""> e **- -** 

-Jloit, ^<m = hiio. -olou. -tiou* -.rtou. = 8liu8. -We, -die, &o. m bel, *!. 

-0*an.-tian = 



rufln ruinable 

in alcohol, and re-precipitated with water. It 
then forma a dark red amorphous powder, 
soluble in alcohol, slightly soluble in ether, 
and dissolves in sulphuric acid to a red colour. 
Boiled with i*>tash, it is reconverted into 
morintaunic acid. 

ru fin, . ' [Lat. ruf(us) = red ; -in (CAm.\] 

Chem. ; CojHooOjj. A red resinous substance 
produced by the action of heat on phlorizin. 
It dissolves in alcohol, and water dissolves it 
at boiling heat, but instantly decolourizes it. 
With strong sulphuric acid it forms a Hue red 

ru-f I-op'-In, *. [Eng. ru/(n) and op(a)n.J 

Chem. : C^H^OH^Oa. Obtained from opl- 
anic acid by heating with sulphuric acid. It 
crystallizes in yellowish-red needles, which 
dissolve in alkalis with violet-red colour. 

ru -f$-cat-e-chu'-Ic, a, [Lat. n</iw = red, 

and Eng. catechuic.] (See compound.) 

ruf oca techuic- acid, *. [RCBI NIC- ACID.] 

rn'-fous, a. [Lat. rujus.1 Reddish ; of a 

reddish colour, especially of a brownish or 

yellowish red; tawny; reddish orange, rusty. 

"The rich rufout colour* of their primaries," 

field, Sept. 18, ISM. 

rufous kangaroo-rat, s. 

ZooL : Hypsiprymnus rufescens, from Aus- 
tralia, where it is very common. When 
pursued, itT jumps like a jerboa, with great 
swiftness, for a short distance, and seeks 
shelter in hollows, logs, and holes. It feeds 
on roots and grasses. 

rufous oven-bird, . 

Ornith. : Furnarius rufus, common In Banda 
Oriental, on the banks of the Plata. 

rufous swallow, . 
Ornith : Hirundo rufula, 

ruft, . [RIFT, v.] Eructation, belching. 

ruf-ter-hood, *. [Etyiu. of first element 
doubtful ; second element, hood.} 

Falconry: A hood to be worn by a hawk 
when she is first drawn. 

fug (IX * rugg, [SW. rugg = rough, en- 
tangled hair ; cogn. with Low Ger. ruug ; Dut 
nig ; A.S. niA = rough (q.v.).] 

1. A heavy, nappy fabric, used as a wrapper, 
cover, or protection ; as 

(1) A cover of a bed. 

(2) A hearth-rng. 

(3) A cover for the legs, &c., against cold on 
journey ; a railway-rug. 

* 2. A rough, woolly, or shaggy dog. 

* rug-gowned, a. Wearing a coarse, 
shaggy dress. 

* rug-headed, a. Having shaggy hair. 

** We must rJnpplant thoee rough, rug-keadfd kern*." 
Stmketp. ; Richard It., ii i. 

rug (2), s. [Ruo, v.] A pull, a tug. 
5 To get a rug : To get a share. 
" Having gotten, it was thought, a rug of the com- 
pensattons. Scott : Redgauntlet, letter xi. 

rug, r.t [Cf. rogge.] To pull hastily or 
roughly, to tear, to tug. (Scotch.) 

ru'-ga (pl- ru'-gX *- [Lat. = a wrinkle.] 

1. Anat. : A wrinkle ; a transverse ridge on 
the convoluted ridges produced by the wrink- 
ling of the mucous membrane of the stomach. 

2. Bot. : A wrinkle. 

ru -gate, a. [Lat. rugatus, pa. par. of rugo=. 
to wrinkle. [RuoA.J Wrinkled ; having al- 
ternate ridges and depressions. 

rug'-ged, a. [Sw. rugg rough, entangled 
hair.] [Ruo(l), s.J 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Full of rough projections or inequalities 
on the surface ; rough ; broken into sharp or 
irregular points or prominences. 

" The rugged mass still lies, not many yards from 
Us oritfnaTsiU.'-Jfticau/ajr : Hitt. Eng. *iL 

2. Not made smooth or polished ; rough. 

" A rural portico of rugged stone " 

Pope: Homer; Odyuey xlr. 10. 

8. Rough in temper ; austere, harsh, crabbed. 
4. Surly, sour, uneasy, disturbed. 

" Sleek o'er your rugged looks, 
e bright and Jovial 'raonz your guests to-night." 
1 ij.: Macbeth, ill. 1 

5. Rough, uncouth ; wanting in refinement 
or grace. 

" With thanks 'twas all she could-tbe maid 
Hi* ruyyed courtesy repaid," 

Scott : Lady qf the La**, Tt 10. 

* 6. Bough with hair or tufts of any kind ; 
shaggy, bristly. 

"The rugged Fyrrfaus like th Hyrcanian beast." 
ShaXeip. ; Samlet, ii. 1 

* 7. Wrinkled, furrowed. 

44 The rugged forehead, that with grave foresight, 
Welds kingdom*, causes, and attain of state." 

Spenter :/*.., IV. L (Prol.f 

8. Not neat or regular ; uneven, ragged. 

"His well-proportioned beard made rough and ruoged." 
Skaketp. : 2 Henry VI., ill 1 

* 9. Stormy, tempestuous, turbulent, 
boisterous : as, a rugged wind. (Milton.) 

* 10. Violent, impetuous, rude, boisterous. 
11. Harsh or grating on the ear ; rough, not 


" Wit will shine 
Through the harsh cadeiice of a rugged line." 

KrydeH. (Todd.) 

IL Bot. : Rough with tubercles or stiff 
points ; scabrous. Used of a leaf or stem. 

e'd-iy, adv. [Eng. rugged; ~ly.] In a 
rugged manner; roughly, violently, sourly. 

** Look not so ruggedly on me." 

Seaum. * fitt. : Woman Hater, T. S. 

rug'-ged ness, * rug ged-nesse, s. [Eng. 
rugged; ness.] 

1. The quality or state of being rugged, 
rough, or uneven ; roughness. 

" As for the ruggednette of any blade." P. Holland ; 
Pliny, bk. zxrtiL, ch. ix 

2. Roughness of temper ; harshness, 
severity, coarseness, surliness, rudeness. 

" That unmanly sharpness and ruggednett of 
humour." Scott : CMXian Life, pt iiL, ch. ii. 

3. Violence, storminess, boisterousness. 

rug'-ging, . [Eng. mg (1), a. ; -in<r.] 

L Fabric : Coarse woollen wrapping or 

blanket cloth. 
2, Saddlery: A coarse cloth used for the 

body of knee- and other horse-boots. 

* rug'-g^, a. [8w. ruggig, from rugg = rough, 
entangled hair.] Rough, shaggy. 

" With flotery herd, and ruggy asahy heres." 

BSsMT.* C. r.,U* 

* rug -In, *. [Ruo (1), *] A nappy cloth. 

" The lips grew so painful, that she could not endure 
the wiping the ichor from it with a soft ruyin with 
her own hand. " Waeman : Surgery, 

ru-gine', *. [Fr.] A surgeon's rasp; an 
instrument for removing the diseased surface 
of bones. 

" If new flesh should not generate, bore little orifices 
into the bone, or rasp it with the rugine." Skarp, 

ru-gine', v.t. [Fr. ruginer.] To scrape with 
a rugine. 

" Where you find It moist, there you are to rugine 
it Witeman; Surgery, bk. T., ch. u, 

ru-g6'-5fa, *. pi. [Neut. pi. of Lat rugosus = 
wrinkled, from ruga (q.v.). So named from 
the wrinkled appearance of the corals.] 

1. Zool. : A group of Hadreporaria. Corallum 
sclerodermic, with a true theca. Generally 
both tubube and septa combined. Septa gen- 
erally some multiple of four, but with one or 
three prominent, or with a small channel. 
Simple or compound corals represented in the 
modern seas only by two genera, one from the 
Mediterranean, the other from Florida. Fami- 
lies : Stauride, Cyathaxonida, Cyathophyl- 
lul;.', and Cystiphyllidfe. 

2. Palceont. : Found in the Palaeozoic rocks, 
the Upper Greensand, and the Tertiary. They 
were reef-builders. 

ru'-gose, o. [Lat. rugosus, from ruga = a* 
wrinkle; Ital., Sp., & Port, rugoso.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Wrinkled ; full of or abound- 
ing with wrinkles. 

" The hnmerus has a well-marked rugote line." 
Tram. Amer. PhUotoph. Soc, (1878), xiti. 203. 

2. Bot. : Rough or coarsely wrinkled. 

* ru-go'-J-tjf, *. [Lat. rugosita*, from rugosus 
= rugose (q.v.) ; Fr. rugosite.] 

1. The quality or state of being rugose or 

2. A wrinkle, a pucker, a slight ridge. 

rti'-gous, a. [Lat. rugotut; Fr. rugueux.] 
The same as RUGOSE (q.v.). 

ru'-gu lose, a. [A dimin. from Lat. rvya = 
a wrinkle.] 
Bot. ; Finely wrinkled, as a leaf. 

Ruhm -korflC 5. [The name of a French 
manufacturer of scientific instruments, born 
1800.] (See compound.) 

Ruhmkorff'a coll, & [INDDCTION-COIL.) 
ru-iUe' f . [Fr. ruillee.} 

Build. : A pointing of mortar at the junction 
of a roof with a wall higher than itself. A 
fillet of mortar to shed the water. 

ru'-in, * mine, . [Fr. mine, from I^at 
ruina overthrow, from ruo = to fall down, 
to sink in ruin; Sp. <t Port, ruina; ItaL 
ruina, rovina.] 

* 1. The act or state of falling down ; a 
violent fall. 

" His ruin sUrtled the other steeds." 

Chapman, in AnnandaU. 

2. That change of anything which destroys 
it, or entirely defeats its object, or unfits it 
for use ; destruction, overthrow, downfall. 

" Buildings fall to ruin.' 

M*A ; PerM*. a 4 

3. Decay. 

" Let it presAga the ruin of your love." 

a*ake*p. ; Merchant <tf Venice, UL 1 

4. That which causes or promotes the 
destruction, downfall, or decay of anything ; 
bane, destruction, perdition. 

5. A building or other thing in a state of 
decay or dilapidation ; that which is fallen 
down and become worthless from decay r 
injury ; a wreck. 

6. Specif., in the plural, the remains of a 
decayed, dilapidated, destroyed, or forsaken 
house, city, fortress, or the like. 

7. The decayed remains of anything. 

" Beflectd to her eyes the rut HJ of her fnoe.* 

Dryden : Ovid ; Metamorphotet XT. 

* 8. A fragment ; a piece broken or fallen off 
a larger mass. 

" Then Alax seiz'd the fragment of a rock, 
Applied each nerve, and, swinging round on high, 
With force tempestuous, let tlie ruin fly." 

Pope : Homer ; Iliad vii. 822. 

9. The quality, state, or condition of being 
ruined, decayed, dilapidated, destroyed, or 
rendered worthless. 

" Repair thy wit, or it will fall 
To carele&n ruin." 

Sfaiketp. : Merchant of Pento*, IT. J. 

^ Blue ruin : Gin. (Slang.) 

ruin-agate, s. [Ger. ruinenachat, or 

Min, : A riband-agate which has been 
crushed in situ, and re-cemented by inn' H ra- 
tion of silica. Also called " brecciated agate." 
The most characteristic is that of Kuunersdorf, 

ruin-marble, s. 

Petrol. : A compact, marly limestone which 
has been much crushed and faulted. When 
polished it presents the appearance of ruined 
temples, houses, fortifications, &c., owing to 
the infiltrations of oxides of iron and man- 
ganese between the disturbed fragments. 
Found near Florence. 

ru'-In, v.t. & i. [Fr. miner; Sp. & Port. 
ruinar ; Ital. ruinare, rovinare.] [Rum, .] 
A. Transitive: 

1. To bring to ruin ; to cause to fall to 

Sieces or decay ; to damage essentially ; to 
ilapidate ; to destroy, to overthrow, to sub- 

" For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen." 

Jtai.ih i ii . 8. 

2. To bring to a state of poverty. 

" A particular merchant, with abundance of goods 
In his warehouse, niny sometimes be ruined by not 
being able to ell them in tiiae." SmU A ; Wealth / 
A-'in-mt. bk. 1 v., ch. i. 

* B. Intransitive : 

1. To tail violently. 

" Hell heard th' untufferable noise, hell saw 
He*v*u ruining fruin heav'n. and would have fled 
Affrighted." Jiittvn : P. L.. vi. 868 

2. To fall into ruins ; to come to ruin ; to 
fall into decay or dilapidation. 

3. To be brought to a state of poverty or 

" If we are Idle and disturb the Industrious In thsti 
business, we shall rutn the faster." Lodke. 

* ru -In-a : ble, a. [Eng. ruin; -able.} Cap- 
able of being ruined. 

fate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wSt, here, camel, her p there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pSt. 
or, wore. wol work. who. sou; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rmle, full; try, Syrian. , ce = e ; ey = a; qu = fcw. 

ruinate ruler 


ru In ate, v.t. & t. [Low Lat. ruinatut, pa. 
par. of ruino = to ruin.] 

A. Trans. : To rain ; to bring to ruin or 
decay ; to destroy, to overthrow. (Now only 
111 vulgar use.) 

" I will not ruinate my father's house.' 

Shalieei>. : t Henri F/., v. I. 

B. Intrant.: To fall or come to ruin or 

ru-in-ate, a. [Low Lat. ruinatut.} Ruined; 
brought to ruin ; in ruins. 

"The condition known in some hapless countries as 
r*inate."-0aill Telegraph. Jan. 20, 1886. 

t ru-In-a'-tlon, s. [Low Lat. ruinatw, from 

ruinatus, pa. par. of ruino = to ruin (q.v.).] 

The act of ruining ; ruin, destruction, decay. 

An engine of destruction and of ruination to trout 

lakes.' naid, Dec. . 1884. 

ru'-in-er, s. [Eng. ruin; -er.] One who or 
that which ruins or destroys. 

" The extreme ruiner 
Of others." Daniel ; Civil Wart, vil 99. 

ru-In'-i form, a. [Lat. ruina = a ruin, and 
forma = form, appearance.] Having an ap- 
pearance of the ruins of houses. (Applied 
to certain minerals.) 

ru'-in-ous, * rn-yn-ous, a. [Fr. ruineux, 
from Lat. nunosus, from ruina = ruin ; Sp. & 
Port, ruinoso ; Ital. ruinoso, rovino&o.] 

1. Fallen into ruin ; dilapidated, ruined. 

" Dyd his dilyRence to repayre ruynous places." 
Fabyan : Chronicle, ch. xlv. 

2. Consisting of ruins. (Isaiah xvii. 1.) 

3. Causing or tending to cause ruin or de- 
struction ; baneful, destructive, pernicious. 

After a night of storm so ruinous. " 

Milton : P. A, Iv. 

ru'-in-OUS-l^, adv. [Eng. ruinous ; -ly.] In 
a ruinous manner ; destructively. 

" His own decree will retort the most rulnouHf on 
himself. 'eoay of Piety. 

ru In ous-ness, . [Eng. ruinous; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being ruinous. 

rnkh, . [Roc.] 

* rul'-a-ble. a. [Eng. ruWf) ; -able.] 

1. Capable of being ruled ; governable. 

"The impression of your nature to be opiniastre and 
not rulabte." Bacon : To Lord Sues, Oct.. 1596. 

2. Subject to rule ; accordant to rule. 

rule, * reule, riwle, . [0. Fr. ruile, rmle, 
riegle (Fr. regie), from Lat. regula = a rule, 
from rego = to govern, to rule ; A.8. regol ; 
8p. regla; Port, regra; Ital. regola; Dut, 
Dan., Sw., & Ger. regel.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of ruling; government, sway, 
'empire ; supreme authority or control. 

" He that hath no rule over his own spirit is like a 
city that U broken down, and without walla" Pros, 
xxv. 28. 

2. That which is prescribed or laid down as 
a guide to conduct ; that by which any pro- 
cedure is to be adjusted or regulated, or to 
which it is to be conformed ; that .which is 
established as a principle, standard, or guide 
for action or procedure : aa 

(1) An established mode or course of pro- 
ceeding prescribed in private life : as, therufe* 
of society, theruies of etiquette, &c. 

(2) The laws or regulations established by 
competent authorities for the carrying on of 
certain games : as, the rules of cricket, the 
rules of horse-racing, &c. 

(3) A line of conduct ; behaviour. 

" You would not give means for this uncivil rula." 
Shalteip. : Twelfth xtaht, il. S. 

(4) A maxim, canon, or precept to be ob- 
served in any art or science ; a precept, a law. 

" That will confess perfection so could err 
Against all rules of nature." 

Shabap. ' OtJiello, L S. 

(5) Method, regularity ; propriety of be- 
haviour. (Shakesp. : Macbeth, v. 2.) 

3. A law or regulation, or a body of laws or 
regulations to be observed by a society, asso- 
ciation, &c., and its individual members. 

" A monastic rule is denned as a collection of lawt 
and constitutions, according to which the religious of 
a bouse or order are obliged to live, and which they 
have made a vow of observing. All the monastic 
rules require to be approved ol by the ecclesiastical 
superiors, and even by the Holy See, to impose an 
obligation of conscience on religious. When a re- 
ligious cannot bear the austerity of his rule, he is 
obliged to demand a dispensation from his superiors, 
or permission from the Holy See to enter a more 
mitigated order." J. Ji. Murphy: Terra Incognita. 
or the Convent* of the United Kingdom, pp. u, 15. 

4. An instrument by which lines are drawn. 
It consists of a bar of metal or wood, straight 
on one edge, to guide a pencil or pen. 

5. An instrument for making short linear 
measurements, and performing various opera- 
tions in mensuration. There are numerous 
varieties, according to the particular objects 
for which they are intended. The commonest 
form is that used by carpenters, joiners, and 
other artificers. It is divided into inches 
and fractions, and is usually jointed, so that 
it may be folded up and carried in the pocket. 
Some rules have a slider in one leg ; in Gun- 
ter's scale this is graduated and engraved with 
figures, so that various simple computations 
may be made mechanically. 

" Where is thy leather apron and ttiy rule t" 

Shatcetp. : Juliui Cottar, i. 1. 

H. Technically : 

1. Arith. di Alg. : A determinate mode 
prescribed for performing any operation, and 
producing a certain result ; a certain pre- 
scribed o[*ration or series of operations for 
the ascertaining of a certain result ; as, rules 
for addition, subtraction, 4tc. In algebra, if 
a rule is translated into ordinary language 
the result is a formula ; and conversely, if 
a formula is translated into ordinary language, 
the result is a rule. 

2. Law : A point of law settled by authority ; 
also the mode of procedure settled by lawful 
judicial authority for some court or courts of 
j ustice. Rules are either general or particular. 
General rules are such orders relating to mat- 
ters of practice as are laid down and promul- 
gated by the court for the general guidance of 
the suitors. Formerly, each court of common 
law issued its own general rules, without 
much regard to the practice in other courts ; 
but of late the object has been to assimilate 
the practice in all the courts of common law. 
The rules are a declaration of what the court 
will do, or will require to be done, in all 
matters falling within the terms of the rule, 
and they resemble in some respects the 
Roman edict. Particular rules are such as 
are confined to the particular cases in refer- 
ence to which they have been granted. 

3. Gram. : An established form of construc- 
tion in a particular class of words ; or the 
expression of that form in words. 

* 4. Music : A line of the stave. 

"There standeth the F fa ut cliefe on the fourth 
rule from below." Jtorfsy .- Introdiv-tim to Mueic. 

5. Plaster. : A strip or screed of wood or 
plaster, placed on the face of a wallas a guide 
to assist in keeping the plane surface. 

6. Printing: 

(1) A thin plate of metal used for separating 
headings, titles, the columns of type in a book, 
or columns of figures in tabular work. Rules 
are type high, and some have a guttered face 
so as to print a double line. 

(2) A composing-rule (q.v.). 

IT (1) Gauging-rule : Agauging-rod (q.v.). 

(2) Parallel-ruler : [PARALLEL]. 

(S) Rules of a prison : Certain limits with- 
outthe walls, within which prisoners in custody 
were sometimes allowed to live, on giving 
security not to escape. 

" On entering into recognisances to the Marshal of 
the Bench to return to the rules by a certain hour at 
night" Daily Telegraph, Jan. 6, 1889. 

(4) Rules of course : 

Law: Rules which are drawn up by the 
proper officers on the authority of the mere 
signature of counsel ; or, in some instances, 
as upon a judge's fiat, or allowance by tlie 
master, &c,, without any signature by counsel. 
Rules which are not of course are grantable 
on the motion either of the party actually in- 
terested, or of his counsel. 

(5) Rule of signs : 

Alg. : That rule that, in any operation like 
signs produce positive, and unlike signs pro- 
duce negative signs. 

(6) Rule of the octave : 

Music: A name given to a system of adding 
harmonies to the diatonic scale, using it as 
the lowest part. From the nature and rela- 
tion of the chords added, many laws as to 
progression and modulation were deduced ; 
in fact it was formerly taught as a formula for 
the assistance of students, who committed to 
memory the harmony or harmonies which 
each degree was capable of bearing. 

(!) Rule of the road : The rales or regulations 
by which traffic on public roads is regulated 

In this country, on meeting, riders or driven 
go to the right ; in Great Britain they pass U 
the left. 

(8) Rule of three: 

Arith. : A rule for finding from three given 
numbers a fourth, to which the third shall 
have the same ratio as the first has to the 
second. [PROPORTION.] 

(9) Rule of thumb: A rule suggested by 
practical rather than by scientific knowledge. 

(10) Rule to show cause ; rule nwi : 

Law : A conditional rule or order obtained 
from a judge, to be made absolute unless the 
party against whom it is obtained shows suffi- 
cient cause to the contrary. 

(11) The Rule : [NORMA, t. II. 1.]. 

rule-Joint, . A movable joint in which 
a tongue on one piece enters a slot in the 
other, and is secured by a pin orrivet. When 
the two pieces are in line, their ends abut, so 
that movement is only possible in one direc- 
tion. This arrangement IB used for carpenters' 
rules and table-leaves. 

rule staff, >. 

Shipbuild. : A lath about four inches In 
breadth, used for laying off curves. 

rule, *rewle, Tlwl-en, v.t. 4 i. [0. Fr. 
rutter, reguler (Fr. regler), from Lat regular 
to regulate (q.v.).] 

A. Transitive : 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. To govern, to command ; to have do- 
minion, control, or authority over ; to conduct, 
to manage, to restrain. 

"He that ruled them with a shepherd's rod." 

Cotrper: fxpoitulation, St. 

2. To prevail on ; to persuade, to advise, 
to guide. (Generally or always in the passive, 
as, Be ruled by me.) 

" With words like these the troops Ulysses rule*." 
Pope : Homer; Iliad il. SIS. 

3. To settle, determine, or lay down as a 
role. [II.] 

" This author looked upon U as a ruled point, a thing 
universally agreed to. " Waterfall.- Worlu, iv. 407. 

4. To mark with lines by means of or with 
the aid of a ruler ; as, To rule paper. 

U law : To establish or settle by decision 
or rule ; to determine. 

B. Intransitive: 

I. Ordinary Language : 

I. To have or exercise supreme power, con- 
trol, or authority ; to govern. 

" The weak were oppressed, and the mighty 
Ruled with an iron rod:' 

LongfeOow : JSfangeltne, L f. 

2. To prevail, to decide. 

"Now arms must rule." 

Shaketp. : 8 Henry YL, Iv. T. 

3. To stand at or maintain a certain level : 
as, Prices -ruled high. 

II. Law. : To decide, to determine ; to lay 
down and settle a rule or order of court ; to 
enter a rule. 

* rule'-less, * rn-lesse, o. [Eng. rule ; -lest.] 
Being without rule ; lawless. 

* rule'-less ness, i. [Eng. rulekss; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being without rules. 

" It [the Star Chamber] ruleleuneu or want ef 
rules." Academy. July 19. 1879. 

rnl'-er, * rewl-er, . [Eng. r;(e), v. ; -er.} 

1. One who rules or governs ; one who has 
or exercises supreme authority or power ; a 
governor, a monarch, or the like. 

" And he made him ruler over all the land of 
Ifcypt-" Oenetit xli. 43. 

2. One who makes or executes laws ; one 
who assists in carrying on a government. 

" Thy ruleri load thy cred it, year bv year." 

Covrptr : Expotttdtttton, 2S4, 

3. Among the Jews in the New Testament 
times the word "rulers" was sometimes used 
vaguely like " authorities "with us (John viL 
48), sometimes it may more specifically refcr 
to members of the Sanhedrim (Luke xxiii. 
13), in the example the ruler is a ruler of the 
Synagogue (cf. Mark v. 22), in another place 
the president at a feast (John il. 9). 

" While he spake these things unto them, hehold 
there came a certain ruler, and worshipped him. 
JfottAeu- tx. 18. 

4. An instrument with straight sides, for 
guiding a pen or pencil in drawing straight 

U MarquoVt rulers : [MAHQUOl]. 

t>6?; p-Sut, J<S^1; oat, cell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this ; Hn, a? ; expect, ^enophon. eylst. ph- I 
-dan, -tlan = sham, -tlon, HUon = ban; -flon, -jlon = ihftn. -clout, -ttoas, -*lons = !.&. -Me, -die. to. = bel, del. 


ruler sMp ruminantia 

rul'-er-Shlp, s. [Eng. rnlfr; -snip.] The 
position, office, or post of a ruler. 

" Continue to hold the rulenhip of the country." 
Stole, Sept 8, 1IU. 

* ru lesse, a. [RULELESS.J 

rul'-Ing, pr. par., a., & *. [RrLE, v.] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. .-Is adjective : 

1. Governing; having or exercising supreme 
power or authority ; chief, predominant, 

" Feel your ruling pawion trong in death." 

Pop*. Moral Kuayt, t 981. 

2. Used In directing, controlling, or man- 

" With hasty hand the ruling reins he drew." 

Pope: Bu>n?r; QdyiKy hi. BIS. 

3. Used in marking with lines : as, a ruling 

C. As substantive : 

Law : A rule or point settled by a judge or 
court of law. 

" The late rulingt exempt railway companies from 
ucli obligations." Field, Dec. 19, IttoS. 

ruling-elder, . 

Presbylerianism : An elder who does not 
preach but, as a member of the Session (q.v.), 
aids in ruling the congregation, founded 
OB 1 Tim. v. 17. 

ruling - machine, t. A machine for 
ruling paper with hues. 

*rul'-ing-l& adv. [Eng. ruling; -ly.] In a 
ruling manner ; so as to rule ; cuutrollingly. 

rtir- li - chles, * [Dnt ) Chopped meat 
stuffed into small bags, which are then cut 
into small slices and fried. (New York.) 

rftl'-lidn (1 as y) t *. [Of. riveting, from A.S. 

1. A shoe made of untanned leather. 

" Nowaday*, they weave cloth out of the wool of 
tkeir dwarf iheep, and manufacture ruRitmt or 
BOCAMiiu. out of their hide*." Standard, Oct. IB. 1685. 

2. A coarse-made, masculine woman ; a 
rndas ; a rough, ill-made animal. (Scotch.) 

r&l'-y (1), a. [Eng. ntZ(); -y.] Orderly, 
peaceable, easily managed. (Now only in the 

negative unruly,) 

" I meane the sonnes of rach rain sinning ilrea 
Are Mldome sne to r mine a ruly race. 

Gatfoigne : Comptaynt of rhylammt. 

rul -Jr (2), a. [Eng. rut, v. ; -ly.] Rueful. 

11 Ruly cbere I gaot to nuke." M& Atkmol* U. 

rftrn, . [See extract. J 

Comm. : A spirit distilled chiefly In the 
West Indies from the fermented skimmings 
of the sugar-boilers and molasses, together 
with sufficient cane juice to impart the 
ecmaary flavor. Like all other spirit, It is 
colorless as it issues from the still, but to suit 
the taste of the consumer, the distiller is 
bilged to color it before it leaves his premises. 
Its strength as imported is usually about 20 
per cent, over proof, but before passing into the 
amid of the consumer it is reduced with 
water. Rum sold below 35 per cent, under 
proof is considered to be adulterated with 
water, unless the purchaser Is informed of its 
exact strength at the time of purchase. Much 
of the rum sold in this country is merely plain 
spirit, colored with burnt sugar, and flavored 
with rum flavoring. Rum was formerly largely 
imported frum the West Indies. 

" Mr. N, Darnell Darli hae pat forth a derivation of 
the word rum, which gives the only probable uiitory 
of it. It came from Barbadoea. where the planter* 
Ant distilled it. Bomwhere between 1W and 1645. 
A MS. Det'*ri/:tin of Barbad***. in Trinity ColUy..' 
Dublin, written about iwi. aays: "The chief ludliug 
they make in the inland is rumbullion, alias Kill- 
DiYil, aiid this is made of sugar canes distilled, a hot, 
hellish, and terrible liquor. Q. Warren's fasmp- 
tton qfSwrimm. 1601, shows the word in Its present 
abort form: 'Aunt U a spirit extracted from the juice 
ml sugmr-CAties. .... called Kill-Uevil in New Eng- 
land 1 ' ' Jtumbitition ' IB a Devonshire word, meaning 
'a great tumult,' and may have been adupted from 
some of the Devonshire settlers in Barbmloes ; at any 
rate, little doubt can exist that it has given rise to 
cntr word rum, and the longer name rumbowiing, 
whlclt sailors give to their grog." Acadtmy,, 
M8fi, p. 196. 

rum-bud, i. A carbuncle on the noae or 
bee, caused by excessive drinking ; a grog- 

" B*4neM and eruptions generally hegfn with the 
D0*e . . . they have been called rum-budt, when they 
' la tL face." Dr. BuA: Sffecti of Ardent 

r\.m, a. & 5. [Etym. doubtful Skeat believes 
it to be a gipsy's word.] 

A. At adj. : Strange, old-fashioned, odd, 
queer. (Slang.) 

* B. As fubst. : A queer, odd, or strange 
person or thing. 

Ru ma ni an. Rdu-ma'-nl-an, . & >. 

A, AM adj. : Of or pertaining to Rumania 
(or Roumanift), a kingdom of southeastern 
Europe, declared independent in 1878. 

B. At tubtt.: A native, or resident of Bu- 
mania ; also, the language of that people. 

rumb, rhumb (b silent), 'roomb, *roumb, 

* roumbe. s. (Fr. rumb = a ruuib, a point 
of the compass, from Sp. rum6o= a course, a 
way, from Lat, rhombum, accus. of rhombus = 
a rhombus (q.v.) ; Ital. rombo.] 

1. Navig. : The track of a ship sailing on 
the same point of the compass. The rumb- 
line is also called the loxodroinic curve (q.v.). 
The angle under which the rumb-line cuts 
tlie meridian is called the angle of the rumb, 
and the an^le which it makes with the prime 
vertical is the complement of tlie rumb. 

2. One of the points on a compass-card. 

rum' -ble, * rom-ble. . [RUMBLE, v.] 

1. A hoarse, low, continuous sound, as of 
distant thunder ; a rumbling. 

* 2. A confused noise ; a disturbance, a 

" Atxrate whome he found mache heaniiif sse. rum&fe, 
baste, and buatnea*e. carriage and conuerauuce of her 
tutfc Into aauwtuary." tftr T. More : Work**, p. 13. 

* 3. A report, a rumour. 

4. A seat behind the body of a carriage. 

" 'Get up behind! 'he said. 'Getupin thertimWfc" 1 
Kckent: Martin Chvxtlewit, cb. liii. 

6. A rotating cylinder or box in which 
small articles are placed to be ground, cleaned, 
or polished by mutual attrition. 

* rumble - tumble, . The same as 

RUMBLK, t. 4. 

"Prom the dusty height of a rumblf -tumble." 
llfltan : W\al wtlt h do with Ut bk. i., cb, zr. 

rum' -ble, * rom-ble, * roum-ble, r.i & t. 

IA. word of imitative origin ; cf. L)ut. rom- 
melen; Dan. rumU; Sw.raada; Ital. rombare.] 

A* Intransitive: 

1. To make a hoarse, low, continued sound, 
as thunder at a distance. 

* 2. To make a disturbance ; to clamour. 

" The people cried and ronbltd up and dona." 

CAaueer ; C. T., 14.3W. 

* S. To roll about 

" And round the attics ntmotei." 

Tcnnyton: TW G9699, 46. 

' 4. To make a soft, murmuring sound ; to 

* B. Trant. : To rattle. 

rum -bier, . [Eng. rumble); -er.] One who 
or that which rumbles. 

rum -bllng, pr. par., a., & t. (RUMBLE, v.] 
A* At pr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. At adj. : Making a low, heavy, and con- 
tinued noise ; low, heavy, and continued. 

"They al*o thought that they heard then a 
rumbling noise, at of ere." ftunjtan ; PUyrim'i 
Proyrtti. pt. U 

C. As rubst. : A low, heavy, and continued 
sound ; a rumble. 

rumbling- drains, *. pi- 

Agric. : Drains formed of a stratum of 
rubble -stone. 

, adv. [Eng. rumbling; -Jy.] 
In a rumbling manner. 

rum'-bo, *. [A contract of rumbowling fov.\'] 
A nautical drink. 

rum bow -line, s. [Etym. doubtful. ] 
Naut. : Condemned canvas, rope, 4c. 

rum-bow'-Ung, s. [Etym. doubtful.] Grog. 
(See extract under RUM, *.) 

riim-bul -lion (1 as y), . [RUMBLE, v.} 

(For def. see extract under Run, t.). 

rum bus tic - ;>!, rum-bust -loua (1 as y), 

ru -men, *. [Lat. = the throat, the gullet] 

Compar. Anat. : The paunch ; the first cavity 
of the complex stomach of the Ruminautia. 

ru'-mcx, f. [Lat. = sorrel.) 

Sot. : Dock ; a genus of Polygones^ Sepals 

six, the three inner ones enlarging. Petal* 
none ; stamens six, styles three, stigma mul- 
tifid. Achene triquetrous, covered by tlie 
enlarged inner sepals, the latter often tubci 
culate. About fifty known species ; generally 
distributed, chiefly in temperate climnt-'s. ),' 
nljiinua was formerly employed as il. i 
hence it is called Monk's RlmUtrb ; E. M^/S 
is a pot-herb, H, Patientia was once used MS u 
laxative. In India the leaves of R. A 
are eaten raw, those of R. vcsicariits rw and 
as a pot-herb, and those of R. Wallichii or 
acvtva as a pot-herb only. The juice an- ; 
of R. vesicarius are said to allay the pains of 
toothache, scorpion stings, die,, and to check 
nausea. The species native to the Unilt-il 
have been added to by some European >-, 
which have become troublesome weed.-. Tln-y 
have great tap r.. ( .t>, and are with difficulty 
enidicated frum pastures. They also multiply 
rapidly by ei-ed. The Sorrels als-> !telng t" 
this genus, being distintniished from the Dix-ks 
by their acid taste, and their loaves and fluwers. 

Rum -ford, *- [Named after Benjamin Count 
Kumford, 1762 - 1814, an American called 
Thompson, once a schoolmaster at Rumford, 
now Concord in New Hampshire, a physicist 
and benevolent man. The title Count was 
conferred by the King of Bavaria.] (See 
etyni. and compound.) 

Rumford's photometer, s. A photo- 
meter consisting of a ground glass screen, and 
in front of it an opaque rod. Ttie lights to be 
compared, say a lamp and a candle, are placed 
at such distances as to throw on the M-IV--II 
shadows of equal intensity. The illuminating 
power of the two lights is directly proportional 
to the square of their distances from the- 

rum gump -tlous (p silent), a. [RUMOUMP- 
TION.J Sturdy in opinion; rough and surly; 
bold, rash. 

ru'-ml-a, *. [Lat., a reading in some MSB. 
for Rumina the goddess of nursing mothers, 
worshipped in a temple near the ng-tree (t'icu* 
ruminalis) under which Romulus and Rem8 
were said to have sucked the breast (rumis) of 
the she- wolf.] 

Entom. : A genus of geometer moths, frUiiily 
Enuomidfe. Rumia cratcngata Is the Brim- 
stone Moth (q.v.). 

ru'-ml-cln, *. [Lat. rwnex, genit. ruie(ii) 
= sorrel ; suff. -in (Cfcm.).J [CHRVSO-I-HAS- 


* ru -min al, a. [RUMINANT.] Ruminant, 

ru'-min-ant, a. & t. [Lat. ruminans, pr. 
par. of rumino = to ruminate (q.v.) ; Fr. 
ruminant ; Ital. ruminante.] 

A. As adj. : Chewing the cud ; of or belong- 
ing to the order Ruminantia (q.v,). 

"Th iiuiAsu* of ruminant quadrupedJ." Kaf : 
(A Creation, pt. it 

B. At subst. : An animal which chews the 
cud ; any individual member of the order 
Ruminautia (q.v.). 

ru ml - n&n' T tl-a (t as sh), *. pi. [Neut. pi. 
of Lat. ruminant.} [RUMINAMT.] 

1. Zool. : The Pecnra of LinnEPtis, a name- 
which is being revived by some recent natur- 
alists, whilst others c.tll them Cotvluphora. 
They form a natural section of the ttelenodont 
group of the sub-order Artiodactyla, or Even* 
toed Ungulates. They have bten divided in 
various ways. Prof. Flower restricts the name 
to what are sometimes called Horned Rumin- 
ants, or True Ruminants, and divides the 
section into two families, relegating tlie Peer- 
lets and Camels to separate sections. [1 'RAOU- 
LFDA, TYLOPODA.] Horns or antlers tiMully 
present, at least in the male ; foot with a 
symmetrical pair of toes, encased in hoofs, 
with usually two small lateral toes. The 
metacarpal and metatarsal bones of the two 
functional toes of the fore and hind limhs 
respectively coalesce, and form a single bone. 
[CANNON-BONE.] Stomach with four complete 
cavities [RUMINATION,!.]; placenta cotyle- 
donons. Dental formula (except for some ol 
th Cervid*) i. $, c. y, PM. |, M. J = 82. In 
the Cervidse tlie molars have short crowns, 

ITvte. filt, fare, amidst, what, fall, lather; we t wet, here, eamrl, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pdt, 
or, wore, wolf; work, wlio, son; mut^ cub, cure, unite, cur, role, foU; try, Syrian, re, = e; cy = a; qn = lnr. 

ruminantly run 


witli the neck just above tin- :iii l;ir border; 

In tho Bovidio the crowns are partially buried 
in the sockets. 

2. Palaeonl. : They appear first in the Mio- 
cene, and then witlnmt fronUl appendages ; 
but Sivatherium, like the recent Tetracerus, 
was quadricornous. 

ru'-min-ant-lfr adv. (Enz. ruminant; -ly.] 

In a ruminant manner ; by chewing. 

ru min ate, v.i. & t. [Lat. ruminatm, pa. 
]>.ir. of ninnno, n<niinor=to cliew the cu<l, 
to ruminate, from rumen, genit. ruminis = the 
tliroat, the gullet ; Fr. ruminer; Rp. t Port. 
ruininar ; Ital. ruminare.] 
A. Intransitive : 

1. Lit. : To chew the cud ; to chew again 
what has been slightly chewed and swallowed. 

" Ruminating flocka enjoy the shade." 

Cowfifr : aeroum. 

2. Fig. : To muse, to meditate, to ponder, 
to reflect. 

"I sat and ruminated on the lolllM of youth." 

B. Transitive: 

1. Lit. : To chew ever again. 

2. Fig. : To muse on ; to reflect on ; to 
mediuite over and over. 

" 1 may volv and ruminate mv grief." 

Shilap. Henry ft.. T. s. 

ru' min ato, riV-min-at-ed, a. [RUMIN- 
ATE, n.j 

Bat. (Of albumen in a seed) : Perforated in 
every direction by the dry cellular tissue. 
originating apparently in the remains of the 
nucleus in which the albumen has been 
deposited. Found in the Anonaceae and the 

ru-mln-a'-tlonL, . [Lat. ruminatio, from 
ruminatus, pa. par. of rumino = to ruminate 

1. Lit. A Animal Physiol. : The act of chew- 
ing the cud. The food of the ruminants is 
grass, which requires a longer series of 
chemical changes to convert a portion of it 
into blood, than does the flesh of other 
animals eaten by the Carnivora. To produce 
these changes there is a complex stomach 
divided into four parts, the Rutnex or Paunch, 
the Keticnlum or Honeycomb Bag, the 
Psalterinm or Manyplies, and the Abomasum 
or Reed. A ruminant does not chew the 
fodder which it eats, but simply swallows it. 
When it has had enough it retires to a quiet 
spot, forces up again to the mouth a portion 
of the food in its paunch, thoroughly chews it 
and then swallows it again. Another and 
another bolus is thus disposed of. Each of 
these, started from the paunch, was forced 
next into the honeycomb bag where it received 
its form and then went up the gullet On 
returning it passed direct from the paunch 
Into the manyplies or third stomach, and 
then to the abomasum. 

2. Fig. : The act of ruminating or medi- 
tating; a musing, pondering, or reflecting 
on a subject ; meditation, reflection. . 

" Retiring lull of rumination sad." 

Thornton: Autumn, MS. 

* ru mln-a-tive, a. [Eng. ruminaHe); -<.] 
Given to ruminating. 

" He was u ruminatiM u a cow."/ 1 . W. RoAinum : 
Bridge of Olagt. ch. L. 

rfi'-mln-a-tdr, a. [Lat.l Ona who rumin- 
ates or muses on any subject ; one who pauses 
to deliberate and reflect. 

pft'-mlne, v.i. [Fr. ruminer.] To ruminate. 

" Aa studious scholar he self rumineth." 
SiiltmUr : Du Bartat. silth day. (ourth week, . 

rum kon, rum kin, . [Ct rummtr.] A 
kind of drinking-vessel. 

rum' -mage (age ta Ig), t rom age, s. 


1. The act of one who rummages ; a careful 
search by looking into every corner. 

* 2. Bustle, turmoil. 

" This post-haste and romttge in the land." 

Shaketp. : Hamlet, I 1. 

rummage-sale, s. A clearing-out sale 
of unclaimed goods, remainders of stock, &c. 

rum mage (age as Ig), * rom -age, v.i. & t. 

[Eng. room ; -age.] 
A. Intransitive : 

* 1. Originally a nautical term, meaning so 
to stow goods in the hold of a vessel that 

there might be the greatest possible room or 

" And that the masters of the nlitpa do look well to 
the funn'iins, for they mivlit tiring away a great deal 
mow than they do." Backluyt: I oyaget. i. 808. 

2. To search ; to make careful search through 
a place. 

"To rummage (Ma-term): To remove any goods or 
luggage from one placo to toother, esj 401*11? to cleur 
the ship's hold of any ifooda or lading, in ordar to their 
teiii^' hainUonifly stowed or placed, whence the wrd 
IB uaed inton other o.-caiions iui t" riike into, or to 
March narrowly." PMllipt : Sew World of Word*. 

B. Transitive: 

* 1. To stow away goods tn closely. 

"Now whitest the mariners were romaglng ttoe 
ahlppes." JJacMui/t: Voyages, ill. 88. 

2. To search narrowly and carefully every 
part of; to make a careful search through ; to 

" Our greedy seafcen rummage every hold." 

Jirt/dt-n: Annul Mirabilit, ccvlli. 

rum'-mag-er (ag as J&), * rom-ag-er, s. 

[Eng. rummag(e); -er.] 

* 1. A person whose business it was to 
attend to the stowing away of goods in a ship ; 
a supercargo. 

" Provide a perfect mariner called a romager, to 
raunge and bestow all merchandise in such place M 
la convenient." ffackluyt : Yoyagtt, ili. 862. 

2. One who rummages or ransacks. 

rum'-mer, *. [But. roomer, romer; Sw. 
remcmare; Ger. romr = alargedrinking-glass.] 
A glass or drinking-cup. 

" Imperial Rhine bettow'd 
The generous rummer." PhUipi : Cider, u. 

rum -my (IX a. [Eng. mm, s. ; -y.} Of, be- 
longing to, containing, or flavored like rum. 

'-m (2), a. [Kng. rum, a. ; -y.] Strange, 
queer. (Slang.) 

* rum'-ney, . [Ktym. doubtful.) A kind of 
Spanish wine, occasionally mentioned by old 

" Spalne bringeth forth wines of white colour, but 
much hotter and stronger, aa ancke, rumny, and 
bastard.' 1 Cotfan : Savtn f Health, p. 339. 

rn'-mor, ru'-mour. . [Fr. rumeur, from 
Lat. rumorm, accus. of rumor = a noise, a 

1. Flying or popular report ; the common 
voice or talk. 

2. A current story passing from person to 
person, without any known authority for its 
truth ; a mere report. 

"It waa easy to understand why Lewis affected to 
flT credit to thew idle rumoun. Macaulay : Hitt. 
W. oh. i*. 

S Fame, report, repute, (Luke vti. IT.) 

* i. A confused and indistinct noise. 
" In Hen whersof, I pray you, bar me hence 

From forth the ooue and rumour of the neld. 

Xhakcip. : Xing John, T. 4. 

ru'-mor, v.t. [RUMOR, *.] To report, to 
tell; to circulate by report (Frequently 
with a clause or object.) 

*' VarloQB tales are rumour'a of his fate." 

EooU : Orlando Furiotv, bk. xxlx. 

ru'-mor-er, . [Eng. rumor, T, ; -er.] One 
who rumors, one who spreads rumors; a 
spreader of reports. 

" Go aoe thU rumourr whipp'd." 

iAofcwp. ; Coriolanui, IT. L 

* ru'-mor -ofts, * ru-mour-ouse, a. 
[Eng. rumor ; -out,] 

1. Murmuring; making a confused and con- 
tinued sound 

" Clashing of annourt, and rvmouroui sound 
Of stern billows." Drayton ; Jfo 

2. Pertaining to, or arising from rumor ; 
rumored ; of the nature of a rumor. 

"Oertain rumourout urmlse*." Watton : Xfmahit, 
p. 877. 

3. Famous, notorious. 

" The rumourouM fall of antlobryit H BaU : On the 
Revel., pt lit. 

riimp, * rumpe, *. [Icel. rumpr ; Sw. 
rumpa ; Dan. rumpe ; Dut. rompe.] 
I. Ordinary Language: 

1. Literally: 

(1) The end of the backbone of an animal ; 
used commonly of beasts, and contemptuously 
of human beings. 

(2) The buttocks. 

" His hlp and his rump made a right ace of pad**.' 
Cotton : Voyag* to Ireland, 111. 

2. Fig. : The fag- or tail-end of anything. 
"The disorderly and (unseemly proceedings of the 

rump of the opposition." Pall Mall Qatette, July 30. 

II. Eng. Hist. : The fag-end of the Long 
Parliament, itfter the expulsion of those 
favourable to Charles I., 1>y Cromwell in 
1648. It was diss >lved by Cromwell in 1653, 
but was afterwards reinstated on two occasions 
for brief periods. 

" It WM agreed that, burying farmer enrtiittw In 
oblivion, all efforts BhrmUl b made fur u\vrtlirow 
of the rump : BO they called tlie pwrlluneut, in allusion 
to that part of the animal body." Hume: Hut. Eng. 

(an. 1653). 

rump-fed, a. According to Steevens, fed 
on offals and scraps ; according to Narea. 
having fat buttocks. (Skakesp. : Macbeth, i. 3.) 

rump - parliament, s. The same M 
RUMP, ., if. 

rump Bteak, s. A beef-steak cut from the 
thigh near the rump. 

Rump-steak Club: A club in existence in 
1733 to oppose Sir Robert Walpole. Called 
also Liberty Club. 

* rump, v.t. [Rup, *.] To turn the back 
on ; to slight. 

" An old friend rumped him. and he winced uudar 
It" tiout bey : Letter*, Iv. ML 

* riimp' -er, s. [E T| g- "nt/mp; -er.] One who 
supported, or was a member of, the Rump 

" Dr. Palmer, a great rumner, warden of All flouls' 
College, being theu very ill and weak, had a rump 
thrown up from the street at his wludowa." Lift qfA. 
Wood, p. 140. 

rum' -pie, "rim pie, v.t. [A.S. hrimpan = 
to wrinkle, pa. par. gehrumpen ; cogn. with 
Dut. rompelen t rompen = to wrinkle, romjwl, 
rimpel & wrinkle.] [RiPPLE.] To wrinkle ; 
to make uneven ; to crumple, to crease ; to 
crush out of shape. 

rum' -pie, . [RUMPLE, v.] A fold!, a plait, a 
wrinkle, a crease. 

"The foul rumple other camel -back." 

Drydeu : Juvenal, X. 4U. 

* riimp'-less, a. [Eng. rump ; -lest.] Baring 
no rump or tail. 

*rum'-piy, a. [Eng. rumplfe); -y.] Having 
rumples ; rumpled. 

"They spin out . . . their rumply Infirm thread of 
existence.' Carlyl*: Sttayi; Count Caglioitro. 

Him'-piia, *. [Etym. doubtful.] A noise, a 
disturbance, a quarrel, confusion. 

rum'-pus, v.i. To make a disturbance. 

rfim'-BDiriz-zle, s. [Etym. doubtful.] A kind 
of frieze cloth made in Ireland from undyed 
foreign wool. 

ran, * renne (pa. t. ran, * run, * ronnt, pa. 
par. ran, * ronne, run), v.i, & t. [A.S. 
rinnan (pa. t. ran, pa. par. gerunneri), irnan, 
yrnan (pa. t. am); cogn. with Dut. rennen; 
Icel. renna, rinna; Dan. rind* ; Sw. rinna; 
Goth, rinnan ; Ger. rennen.\ 

A. Intransitive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. To move or pass over the ground in the 
swiftest manner, by using the legs mre 
quickly than in walking. 

" Now. aa they were thus on their way, there oaM 
one running to meet thin." Bunyan: Ptiyrim't 
Proffrett, pt 1L 

2. Hence, with modified meanings : 

(1) To move the legs nimbly : as, Childrett 
run about. 

(2) To move about in a hurried manner ; t 

(3) To contend in a race ; to race. 

(4) To enter into or engage in a contest ; to 
stand or offer one's self as a candidate for any 
office, post, or dignity. (Colloq. or slang.) 

(6) To flee for escape ; to fly. 

"As from a bear a mail would run for Ufa." 

Sitaketp. : Comedy of Errert, lit 1 

(6) To depart quickly and secretly ; to steal 

" My conscience will serve me to run from tkU 
Jew." Shaketp. : Merchant of Venice, li. 2, 

(7) To pass quickly. 

" To see the minute* how they run." 

Sh,iketp. : 3 a*nry VI.. U. ft. 

3. To pass over space rapidly. 

(1) To pass rapidly over or along the Btu- 
face ; to spread. 

" The fire ran along upon the ground." Sxodut ix. 


(2) To be carried along violently : as, On* 
ship runs into another. 

; prfut, J6*l; oat, cell, chorus, $hin, bencn; go, gem; thin, thto; sin, a^; expect, Xenophon, exlrt. -Ing. 
-elan, -tian = shan, -tlon, -don = shun ; -flon, -flon = shftn. -oions, -tlons, -slons = shu*. -We, -die. &c. = bel, del- 



(3) To move on wheels or runners : aa, A 
train run* to Liverpool. 

(4) To sail ; to take a course at sea. 

"The Dutch fleet ran fast before the gale." 
Jfacaulaf : Ifitt Kng., ch. 1 v. 

(5) To perform a passage by land or water ; 
to pass or go backwards and forwards from one 
place to another ; to ply : as, Steamers or 
coaches ran regularly between two places. 

(6) To spread in growing ; to extend. 

" Joseph Is a fruitful bough, whose branches run 
OTer the walL"_Sen( i|i. J2. 

4. To take a certain course ; to proceed, to 
go, to pass. (Said of voluntary action, or of 
the action of persons.) 

(1) To follow such and such a course ; to 
pass through a certain course or path : as, To 
run through life. 

(2) To go or pass In thought, speech, or 
practice : as, To run from one subject to 

(3) To continue to think or speak about 
something ; to dwell in thought or words ; to 
be busied. 

(4) To pass from one state to another ; to 
become, to fall : as, To run into debt. 

*(6) To make sudden and pressing de- 
mands : as, To run on a bank. 

5. To have such and such a course ; to go, 
to pass, to proceed. (Said of things.) 

(1) To make progress ; to pass. 

"Time and the hoar runt through the roughest 
**" Shaketp. : MacbcU,. I. s. 

(2) To have a certain course or line ; to ex- 
tend, to stretch, to lie : as, The road runs east. 

(3) To have a legal or established course or 
effect ; to continue in force, effect, or opera- 

"It Is nonsense to talk about maintaining the 
npremacy of the Crown, if the Queen's writ does not 
run throughout Ireland." Standard, Jan. 16. 1886. 

(4) To be popularly known or spread ; to be 
generally received. 

" There ran a rumour." Shaketp. : j/acbeth IT. ft. 

(6) To have reception ; to be received ; to 
eontinue, to pass : as, The book ran through 
several editions. 

(6) To be continued through a certain period 
of time ; to be kept up ; to be continued or 
repeated for a certain time : as, The play ran 
for a hundred nights. 

(7) To have a certain written form ; to read 
to and so to the ear : as, The lines run 

(8) To have a certain tenor or purport ; to 

" So run the conditions." 

Shateip. . Henry rill., 1. s. 

(9) To have a set form ; to take or fall into 
certain course or direction : as, The con- 
rersation ran upon a certain subject. 

(10) To have a general tendency ; to incline. 

"Temperate climates run into moderate govern, 
menu, and the extremes Into despotic power." Svnft, 

(11) To proceed, to turn, to be based. 

. " i' '' ""'^rating with him, to whom the sacrl. 
Ice is offered: for upon that the apostle's argument 

(12) To be carried to a pitch ; to rise : as 
Party feeling ran high. 

(13) To stand at or reach a certain standard 
or level ; to rule. 

" Where the fish run large." nod, Dec, M. 1S8S. 
14) To continue in time before becoming 
due and payable ; as, A bill runt thirty days. 

(15) To pass by gradual changes ; to shade. 
"In the middle of a rainbow tbe colours are suffl- 

deutly distinguished : but near the borders they run 
Into one another." Wattt. 

(16) To grow exuberantly ; to proceed or 
tend in growing. 

"If the richness 01 the ground cause turnips to run 
to leaves, treading down the leaves will help their 
routing. Mortimer. 

(17) To be carried on or conducted, as a 
business. (Amer.) 

(18) To continue or be left unpaid : as, The 
account has been running a long time. 

6. To have or exhibit fluid motion. 

(1) To flow or pass in any way. 

" The blood . . . rum In your veins." 

Shaketp. : Benry r., t ft. 

(2) To be wet with a liquid ; to be over- 
flowed ; to emit or let flow a liquid. 

" The greatest Teasel when f nil. U yon pour In still, 
must run out some way." Temple. 

(3) To become fluid ; to fuse, to melt. 

" AJ wai dissolve*, a* Ice begins to run." 

Adalton; Owld. (Toad.} 

(4) To be capable of becoming fluid ; to be 
fusible ; to have the property or qualitv of 

(5) To spread on a surface ; to spread and 
blend together : as, Ink runs on porous paper, 
colours run in washing. 

(6) To discharge pus or other matter : as, An 
ulcer runs. 

7. To have rotary motion, without change 
of place ; to revolve, to turn. 

" While the world runs round and round." 

Tennyton : Palace of Art, 13. 

8. To have or keep machinery going ; to be 
or continue in operation. 

" One week after .... the mill will be running." 
Money Market llevine. Aug. 29. 1884. 

9. To pass, to go. 

" E r ome " lust watch, while some must sleep. 
Thus runt tbe world away.l 

SJiakftp. : Hamlet. Hi. 2. 

10. To desert : as, A sailor runt from his 

H. Founding : A mould is said to run if the 
metal makes its way along the parting, or in 
any other way appears on the outside edges nf 
the flask. It is avoided by weighting the flask. 

B. Transitive: 

1. To cause to run or move quickly. 

2. To drive, to force ; to cause to be driven. 

" Sun on the dashing rocks thy weary bark." 

Shakegp. : Romeo i Juliet, T. s. 

3. To push, to thrust, to force : as, To run 
a nail into one's hand. 

4. To stab, to pierce. 

" 111 run him up to the hilta." Shaketp. . Benrt r., 

5. To accomplish by running : as, To run a 

6. To pursue, as a course ; to follow, to take. 

" This course which you are running here." 

Snatetp : Heart ''111., 11. . 

7. To cause to ply ; to maintain for running : 
as, To run a stage coach from one town to 

8. To cany on or conduct, as a business 

" They edit Journals, address public meetings, run 
Sf.if 1 ">"' dubs. -_0a, Telegraph, Feb. 

X6, 1806. 

9. To work ; to keep In operation. 

" We wen unable to run the mill." Money Market 
Review, Aug. 29. 1886. 

10. To introduce and carry through : as, To 
run a bill through Congress. {Amer.) 

11. To start, as a candidate. 

" IX." * L y" t candidate in each one of the seventy 
""ISM.' 1 ' out " ld ' C >r."-A.j, Telegraph, Oct 

12. To cause to pass : as, To run a rope 
through a block. 

13. To pour forth ; to emit, as a stream ; to 
cause to flow ; to discharge. 

" My statue 

Which, like a fountain with a hundred spouts. 
Did run pure blood." 

Shake*?. : Jultut Catar, 11. ft. 

U. To melt, to fuse. 

15. To form or shape in a mould ; to cast, to 

" Those hunters who run their own bullets." flur- 
rottytu : Pepacton, p. 11. 

* 16. To pursue In thought ; to carry in con- 

" To run the world hack to Ita first original and view 
nature in its cradle." South. 

17. To break through ; to evade : as, To run 
a blockade. 

18. To export or import without paying 
duty ; to smuggle. 

" Heavy Impositions lessen the Import, and are a 
strong temptation of running goods." 

19. To incur, to encounter: as. To run a 

* 20. To hazard, to risk, to venture. 

..." He w S uld "I""*" ta '" **"> "teh'ands to receive 
them, and run his fortune with theru."_CTaren*> . 
it pi I War. 

21. To draw or cause to be drawn or marked: 
as, To run a line. 

22. To sew by passing the needle throuRh, 
backwards and forwards in a continuous line, 
generally taking a series of stitches on the 
needle at the name time : as, To run a seam. 

* 23. To force into any way or form : to 
bring to a state. 

" 2?'* tongue that rnns so roundly In thy head 
Should run thy head from thy irreverent shoulders." 
Bhakerp. : Richard II., 1L L 

* 24. To make teasing remarks to ; to nag, 
to worry. 

IT I. To run after 

(1) To pursue ; to endeavour to obtain to 
hunt after. 

(2) To seek the company or society of : as 
He is very much run after. 

2. To run against : 

(1) To come into collision with ; to mwt 
with accidentally. 
* (2) To be adverse to. 

3. To run a natch with (or against) : To con 
tend in running with. 

4. To run away : To flee, to escape, to elope 

5. To run away with : 

(1) To convey in a clandestine or hurried 
manner ; to escape or elope with. 

(2) To bolt with : as, The horses ran away 
with the carriage. 

(3) To hurry on without deliberation ; to 
carry away. 

" Thoughts will not he directed what objects to pur- 
sne. but run an;,y with ft man in pursuit of those ideas 
they have in view." Locke. 

(4) To be carried away ; to adopt hastily : 
as, Do not run away with that idea, 

6. To run before : 
(1) To flee before. 

*(2) To outstrip in running; to excel, to 

7. To run down : 

(1) To run or drive against and overturn or 
sink : as, To run down a ship. 

(2) To chase to weariness, and capture : as. 
To run down a stag. 

(3) To crush, to overthrow, to overwhelm. 

(4) To pursue with scandal or opposition j 
to depreciate : as. To run down another's 

(5) To cease to work or act : as, A clock 
runs down. 

8. To run down a coast : To sail along it. 

9. To run foul of: [FouL, a.]. 

10. To run hard : 

S) To press hard or close upon in a race of 
jr competition ; to come very close to. 

(2) To press with jokes, sarcasm, or ridicule. 

(3) To urge or press importunately. 
U. To run in: 

(1) Transitive: 

(a) Ord. Jjang. : To take into custody ; to 
lock up. (Slang.) 

"It seemed at one time as If one or two leading 
owners of horses would be rum in." Field, Sept. 4. 

(6) Print. : To set up in one continuous para- 
graph without a break-line. 

(2) Intransitive : 

(a) To enter, to pass, or step In. 
(6) To come or get into (a state) ; as, To run 
in debt. 

12. To run in one's head: To linger in, op 
constantly recur to the memory. 

13. To run in the blood: To be hereditary. 

14. To run into : 

(1) To enter. 

(2) To come or get into (a state). 

"Have I run into this danger?" Shaketp. : AITt 
M ell, IT. 8. 

* 15. To run in trust : To get credit, to run 
in debt, 

16. To run in with: 

"(1) Ord, Lang.: To close, to comply, to 
agree with. 

(2) Naut. : To sail close to : as, To run < 
vfith the land. 

* 17. To run mad : To become mad, to go 
mad ; to run into excesses. 

" The worst of madmen is a saint run mad." 

Pop*. Satlra, IT. 27. 

18. To run of: 

(1) Intrans. : To run away. 

(2) Trans. : To decide by running, as a tie 
or dead-heat. 

19. To run on : 

(1) Transitive: 

Print. : To continue or carry on, as s line 
without a break. 

(2) Intransitive : 

(a) Ordinary Language : 
(i) To continue a course, 
(ii) To be continued : as, An account runt 

late, at, tare Amidst, what, tall, totter; we. wgt, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, .ire. sir, marine; go, pot, 
or. wore. wolt work. whd. son : mute, cfib, cure, unite, oiir. rule, full; try, Syrian. , ce = e; ey = a; qn = kw. 

run rundel 


(iii) To talk incessantly, to chatter. 

(iv) To joke, to ridicule. 

(i>) Print. : To be continued or carried on in 
the same line, without a break or beginning a 
Dew paragraph. 

20. To run on atl fouri ; to run on four legs : 

(1) Lit. : To run on hands and feet. 

(2) Fig. : To be exactly analogous or similar ; 
to agree exactly ; to correspond in every point. 
(Colloq.) (Followed by with.) 

"This statement runt on four legt side by side with 
Molk're'a famous statement that opium was soporific 
tecause it sent men to sleep. "-. Jameii Ocuatt, 
Sept. 8. 1686. 

21. To run one's face: To obtain credit in a 
bold manner. (Amer. slang.) 

22. To run one's letters: [LECTEB, .]. 

23. To run out : 
(1) Transitive: 

<a) Ordinary Language : 
ti) To thrust or push out ; to extend. 
*(ii) To waste, to exhaust : as, To run out 
an estate. 
(6) Technically: 

(1) Print. : To withdraw the carriage, with 
the forme of type, after taking an impression. 

(ii) Cricket: To put "out" while ruuning, 
or out of one's ground. 

"Marehant being foolUhly run out.* Daily Tilf 
graph, July 1. 1895. 

(2) Intrantitive : 

(a) To come to an end ; to expire : as, The 
lease has run out. . 

(6) To stop after running to the end of its 
time, as a watch or an hour-glass. 

(c) To spread exuberantly. 

" Insectile "<ml . . . run all out Into legs." * 

*(d) To be wasted or exhausted; as, An 
state runs out. 

"(e) To become poor by extravagance. 
(J) To finish in a competition. 

"Eventually ran out a winner by ninety-two 
polnU."-efa. April 4, 1885. 

24. To run out a warp, hawser, or caUt : To 
carry out its end to any object, for the pur 
pose of mooring, warping, &c. 

25. To run out the gum: To force their 
muzzles out of the port by means of the side 

26. To run over: 

(1) To overflow.. 

(2) To ride or drive over : as, To run over a 

(3) To go over, examine, or recount cursorily. 

"And In running wer Europe, we shall find that 
wherever learning has been cultivated, it has flourished 
by the aame advantages aa In Greece. Gotdtmitti. 
Politt Ltarnina, ch. IT. 

27. To run riot : [Rior]. 

28. To run the eye over : To look through 
rapidly or cursorily ; to skim. 

29. To run the gantlet : 

30. To run through : 

(1) Ordinary Language : 

(a) To go through, recount, or examine cnr- 
orily : as, To run through an account. 

(b) To spend quickly, to dissipate, to ex- 
hanst by extravagance : as, To run through fr 

(2) Founding: To pass a quantity of metal 
through a mould, to remove sullage, air, &c. 
and to make the casting solid. 

8L To run to teed : 

(1) IM. Jt Hort. : Rapidly to develop seed 
Used spec, of potherbs the leaves of which are 
eatable when in a young state, but becom 
tough and stringy when the plant la old and 

" Tho Tileit herb that runl to 
Tennyson : 

(2) Fig.: To become impoverished, ex 
bnusted , or worn out ; to go to waste. 

82. To run together: 

(1) Ord. Lang. : To nnlte or mingle, as 
metals fused in the same vessel, or as colour 
Used in washing. 

(1) Mining: To fall in, as the walls of 
lode, so aa to render the shafts and levels 1m 

S3. To run up: 

(1) Transitive: 

(a) To increase by addition ; to enlarge : u 
To run up a large account. 

(o) To erect ; especially to erect hastily. 

"And run up a store out o( so many planks and so 
much corrugated iron." Daily TOfarapn, Sept. 1. IMS. 

(c) To thrust up, as something long and 
( ( i) To raise in value. 

" Engaged in running up the prteee of the Southern 
Lines. * Jfoney Uarkrt Revie*. Aug. M. 1886. 

(e) To sew up, by taking a series of stitches 
on the needle at the same time ; to repair tem- 
porarily by sewing. 

(/) To add up : as, To run up a column of 

(2) Intransitive : 

(,i) Ord. Lang.: To rise, to grow, to In- 
crease : as, The amount runs up quickly. 

(6) Coursing : To be the second in a coursing- 
match ; to be the runner-up (q.v.). 

34. To run with the land : 

Law (Of a covenant) : To affect real property. 

run, s. [Bus, .) 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. The act of running ; a course ran ; specif. , 
a chase after an animal hunted. 

"After a four hourt' run last week." Jtailt Cnm<d. 
Oct. 25, 1884. 

2. A trip, a pleasure excursion. (Colloq.) 

" I think of giving her a run in London lor ft 
change." IHcksm : Martin Oiunltvit. oh. III. 

3. Power of running ; strength or ability to 

4. A course, progress, or flow ; especially, 
particular or distinctive course, progress, 
tenor, &C. 

" He nowhere usee any softness, or any run of verses 
to please tbe ear." Broom* : Hotel on tht Odyuey. 

5. Continued course : as, a run of luck ; 
espec., continued success or popularity. 

"The average duration of the theatrical run li 
much longer here." DaUf Stut. Jan. JS. 18. 

6. A stream. 

" A cold spring run came down off the mountain." 
Burrotiyht : Pepacton, p. 16. 

7. Free use of, or access to. 

" The shilling gave every gaest the run of the groan- 
ing board." St. Janut't OazetU, Sept 33, 1885. 

8. A general or extraordinary demand or 
pressure ; specif., a demand on a bank or 
treasury for redemption of its notes. 

"The run upon the Bank of Ireland and the Pro- 
vincial Bank was very severe." Xdu>, Sept 8. 1884. 

9. Character ; lay. 

" He knew the run of the country better than his 

neighbour!."- *1eM. >"' ' a - "" 

10. A place where animals mn or may rnn ; 
a large extent of grazing ground : aa a sheep 
run, a cattle run. 

11. A burrow. 

"These nimble creaturee disappear Into the earth In 
the twinkle of an eye, and have a hundred under- 
ground rum." Daily TOtfraptt, Jan. 18. 1888. 

12. Clamour, outcry. (Followed by against.} 

13. A plank laid down to support rollers in 
moving buildings and other heavy objects ; 
also as a track for wheelbarrows. 

14. A pair of millstones In working order. 
tt Technically: 

1. Cricket : The complete act of running 
from one wicket to the other by a batsman. The 
match Is won by the side making most runs. 

2. Mil. : The swiftest mode of advancing. 

3. Mining : The direction or lead of a vein 
of ore, or a seam or stratum of other mineral, 
as of coal or marble. 

4. Music: A succession of notes, either 
ascending or descending, played rapidly ; a 
series of running notes. 

5. Nautical: 

(1) The aftermost part of a ship's bottom 
which becomes gradually narrower from the 
floor-timbers to the stern-post. 

(3) The course or distance sailed by a vessel. 

(S) A voyage, trip, or passage from one por 
to another. (Seamen are said to be engage* 
on the run when they are shipped for a single 
voyage out or homeward, or from one po: l 
to another.) 

6. Cycling : An outing awheel, as a club run 
(a special outing appointed by the captain of a 
club for Its members), a century run (an outing 
covering a hundred miles), Ac. 

1 (1) By (or vith) a (or (he) run : Suddenly 
all at once. (Said of a fall, descent, or the 
like.) (Slang.) 

(2) In the long run,* at the long run: Inth 
nd, in the result, eventually. 

(3) The common run ; the run : That which 
is most commonly seen or met with ; tht 

(4) To get the run upon : To make a butt of ; 
to ridicule. 

(5) To let go by the run : 

Naut. : To let go at once or entirely, in 
place of slacking the rope and tackle by which 
anything is held fast. 

run up, i. 

1. llookhind. : A fillet mark which run* 
from head to tail on the back, without 
mitring with the horizontal cross fillets on 
the panels. 

2. Coursing: The race between two grey- 
hounds from the slips to the first turn of th 

"Pious Fraud scored the run-up from Alone." 
Field, Dec. 6, 1884. 

run, pa. par. & a. (Rut, r.j 

A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective : 

1. Liquefied, melted, fused. 

2. Deserted ; as a sailor who has deserted 
is marked in the ship's books as run. 

3. Conveyed on shore secretly ; contra- 
band, smuggled : as, run spirits. 

4. Applied to lineal measurements, as op- 
posed to square or solid. 

" Before ... the measurements can be brought Into 
the form of a bill, they have to be reduced In various 
forms . , . some being taken item by item . . othen 
are Uken by the lineal Inch, foot, or yard, and are 
then said to be run." Caufll'l TecAnicol Educator, 
lit. 111., p. 305. 

* rfin'-a-gate, run'-na-gate. * ren^e- 
gat, . it a. [O. Fr. rtiugat = renegad* 

A* As substantive : 

1. A renegade, an apostate. 
2. A deserter, a fugitive. 

"The Carthaginians shall restore and deliver baek 
all the rtneyatft {perfugai} and fugitives that have 
fled to their side from at.--P. Holland : Un. 9- 1U. 

B. As adj. : Renegade, runaway. 

"Not like enemies ouercome by battel], hat like) 
runnagtu* slauee." Ootdynff : Jutting, fol. 12. 

run' ~a-way, . & o. [Eng. run, and away.] ) 

A. As substantive : 

1. One who runs from danger or service; 
one who forsakes or deserts lawful service ; a 


" He won overtook two or three hundred of hU 
runaway) who had taken the same road." Macaulay: 
Bin. Xnf., ch. liiL 

2. One who roams or wander* on the 
roads ; a vagabond. 

" A sort of vagabonds, rueali, and runamiu.* 

Shatap. : Richard 111, T. a 

B. As adjective: 

1. Acting the part of a runaway ; fugitive ; 
deserting lawful service; breaking from re- 
straint : as, a runaway horse. 

2. Accomplished or effected by running 
away : as, a runaway match. 

* run - ca'- tlon, . [Lat. runcatio, from 
runcatut, pa. par. of runco = to weed.} The 
act of weeding. 

rttn'-f fa-ate, a. 

Bot. (Of a baf) : Hook-backed ; curved In a 
direction from the apex to the base, having 
the points of the great central lobes reflexed, 
as the leaves of Taraxacum (Leontodm 

r unclnato ptnntvtlfld, a. 

Bot. : Pinnatifld with the tips of the lobe 
reflexed. (Hooker: Studentt Flora (1873), 
p. 215.) 

run-oln-a-td-, jmf. (Lat nmdnatnu, pa. 
par. of runcino^to plane off, nuicina=c 

But. : Runcinatc (q.v.). 

runcinato-dentate, o. 

Hot. : Hook-backed and toothed. 

runclnato-lacinlate, a. 

Bot.: Both ruiiclnate and ladnlate. 

rand, * [Ger. & Dan. rand = a border.) & 
selvage of broad cloth ; list ; a border. 

" That's no liste or tailor's funds or selvage of claith." 
Scott : Antiauarf. oh. nil. 

*run'-del,s. [RUNNEL.] A runlet ; a moat 
with water in it. 

*SH, bo^ ; p5ut, jM; cat, jell, chorus, CUB. bench; go, gem; thin, this; ln, a?; expect; ?enophon, e^lrt. pt i = t. 
Hjlan, -tlan = Bhan. -Uon, -lion = shun; -{Ion, -jlon^zhun. -cioua, -tioua, -aious = shua. -We, -die, 40. = bel, dale 


rundle running 

ran -die, s. [A dimin. from round (q.v.).] 
L Ordinary Language : 
L A round or step of a ladder ; a ran f. 

" We are to consider the sever*! stop* and rundtti 
we are to ascend by." Duppa. 

2. Something put round an axis. 

"Of an axis or cylinder, oaring a rundl about it. 
wherein are fastened dirers spokes." Wutot ; aath. 

3. A ball. 

4. Something round or circular ; a circle. 
6. One of the bars in a lantern-wheel (q.v.). 
H. Naut. : The drum of a capstan. 

rtn -died (le aa el), o. (BUNDLE.) Bound, 

" His rundltd target" 

Chapman : Bomer ; Iliad rrtt 

rand' -let, " runde let, t. [Bm.R.] 

rune, . [A.S. run = a rune, a mystery ; cogn. 

with Icel. rui = a secret, a rune ; Goth, runa; 

O. H. Ger. rftna = a secret, counsel ; Ger. 

mumn; Mid. Eng. roun, round = to whisper] 


L Any letter of the Futhork (q.y.X They 
m formed almost entirely of straight lines, 
and may have been derived, as Schlegel sup- 
poses, from the Phoenicians, for several of the 
Runic characters bear close resemblance to 
the letters of the Phoenician alphabet. Schloe- 
ler holds that they are corruptions of the 
Roman alphabet, whilst another theory is 
that they are the original characters of the 
Indo-Germanic tribes brought from the East, 
and preserved among the races of that stock. 
The name Rune was first mentioned by Ten- 
anting Fortunatus in the sixth century as the 
Bame of a German letter. The knowledge of 
the Runes was confined to a small class, and 
they were used for purposes of augury, and 
for magical symbols. They have been grouped 
Into three systems the Anglo-Saxon, the Ger- 
man, and the Norse or Scandinavian ; but no 
great difference exists between them. Traces 
Of Runes in inscriptions occur in England in 
the old kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia, 
and East Anglia ; in Denmark, Norway, Swe- 
den, Germany, and Iceland. The so-called 
Bunes of North America are nothing more 
than Indian picture-writing. 

The mystic Woden, or Odin, the inventor of runes, 
eUlnji a higher place In the literature of northern 
Burope thai! the Greek Cadmus. "H'ttKm.' PrthMurio 

Annuli of Scotland, iL 286. 

8. Poetry expressed in Runes. 
" Runei were upon his tongoe, 
As on the warrior's sworo." 

LanefOlov : Ttyntr't TMat\ 

rnn'-r, , [Eng. run(e); -r.] * bard or 
learned man among the ancient Goths. 

ring, prel. & pa. par. o/v. [Rlrlo, t>.] 

rung, * rouge, s. [A.S. Krung one of the 
stakes of a cart ; cogn. with O. Dnt. range ; 
IceL rong = a rib in a ship ; Goth, krugpa = 
ft staff; Ger. runge = a pin, a bolt; Irish 
nnga = a rung ; Gael, rong a staff.] 
X. Ordinary Language: 
L A cudgel; a rough, undressed staff or 
piece of wood. 

" Till, "lap, eome in an nnco loon. 
And wl' ntng decide it." 

/>unu : Iium/ria rolMtm. 

t. The round or step of a ladder. 

8. The spoke of a wallower or lantern-wheel, 
or one of the radial handles projecting Cram 
the rim of a steering-wheel. 

4. One of the bars of a windmill-sail. 

IL Shipbuild. : A floor or ground timber of 
A ship's frame. 

rung head, >. 

Shipwright. : The upper end of a ship's 
floor timber. 

run 1C, a. [Eng. run() ; 
L Of, or pertaining to 

rune or runes ; cut in 

t 2. Scandinavian. 

Beneath the shade the 

Northmen came. 
Fixed on each vale a Annie 
Scott: Robibi/. IT. L 

runic-knot. . 

' Arch. : A peculiar twisted ornament belong- 
ing to early Anglo-Saxon or Danish times. 
Also called a Danish knot. 

runic staff, runic wand, . A willow 
staff inscribed with runes, used in magical 
ceremonies or divinations. 

run-kled (le as el), a. [WRINKLED.] 


run'-let (IX * rund'-lSt, . [A dimin. from 
O. P. ro)idcfe = a little tun or barrel, from 
rond = round.) A small barrel of varying 
capacity, from three to twenty gallons, but 
usually containing about fifteen gallons. 

" Have then a rttndlet of brisk claret" C 
The Ordinary, ii. 1. 

1 run'-let (2). . [A dimin. from run (q.v.).] 
A little stream, a rivulet. (Tennyson : In 
Memoriam, cxix. 13.) 

rnnn, 5. [Mahratta, &c. ran = a thicket, a 
wood, a waste.] A waste. (Used only of the 
Ruan of Cutch, which is a salt-marsh toler- 
ably dry in the hot season, flooded and im- 
passable in the rains.) 

* run'-nel, s. [A dimin. from run (q.v.X] 

I. A rivulet, a small stream or brook. 

" The familiar runnels of water which In the in. 
habited country Intersect the fond eTery few yards." 
Laity Teleyrapft, March 9, 18S& 

5. A runner. 

" Their roots, like molten metal cooled In flowing. 
Stiffened In coils and runners down the hank." 
4oMeU, in Burrougtu: Pepacton, p. 142. 

run'-ner, . [Eng. run, v. ; -tr.l 
L Ordinary Language : 
L One who runs ; one who joins In a race. 

"Foreepent with toil, as runners with a race." 

Shaluif. : I ffmrj 17.. U. t. 

2. A fugitive, a runaway. 

" Tis sport to maul a runner." 

Shakttp. : Antony t Cleopatra, IT. 7. 

* 3. A messenger. 

4. An old name for a detective officer : as, 

ft Bow-Street runner. (Dickens : Oliver Twist, 
ch. xxx.) 
6. A smuggler. 

"The unfair traders and nmnere." JTerO . Lift o/ 

6. A round piece of wood, on which any 
heavy weight is rolled along ; a roller. 

" The barn or house was pried up. and great runners. 
cBi in the woods, placed under it and under the 
runntn were placed skids." Scrt&ner'i Magazine, 
Nov.. 187J. p. . 

7. One of the curved pieces of a sled or 
sleigh which run or slide upon the ground 
and support the bed. 

8. A ship which runs a blockade. 

9. One whose business it is to solicit pas- 
sengers for railways, steamboats, &c. (Amer.) 

10. The slider of an umbrella to which the 
spreaders are pivoted. 

II. A run of water, a stream. 

" When they are going np the runners to spawn.". 
neld. Oct. 17, IMS. 

n. Technically: 

1. Hot. : A prostrate filiform stem, forming at 
Its extremity roots and a young plant, which 
itself gives birth to new runners, as In the 
strawberry. Properly it is a prostrate, vivi- 
parous scape, i.e., one producing roots and 
leaves instead of flowers. It is akin to a 
sucker, which, however, roots at various parts 
of its course. 

2. Entom. (PI) : The Cursoria (q.v.X 

3. Found. : A gate (q.v.X 

4. Killing. : The revolving millstone of a 
grinding-miU. It is usually, but not always, 
the upper stone. Sometimes both stones are 
driven, and thus become the upper and lower 
runner respectively. 

5. Naut. : A thick rope rove through a single 
block, a hook attached to one end and the 
other passed around one of the tackle-blocks. 
A whip-and-runner has a single block only, 
attached to the fall of the runner. 

6. Optics : A convex tool of cast-iron, on 
which lenses are supported while grinding in 
the shell. 

7. Ornith. (PI.) : The Cursores (q.v.X 

8. Saddlery : A loop, usually of metal, used 
in harness-making to receive a running strap 
or rein The gag-rein passes through runners 
suspended from the throat-latch on each side 
of tne throat. 

9. Stone-working: A rubber (q.v.X 

10. Well-boring. : A loop-shaped piece for 
taking hold of the topit or top-piece of the 
train of boring-rods. 

runner-ball, i. 

Gunpowder : A wooden dish which crushes 
the mill-cake through tlie meshes of the sieves 
in granulating gunpowder. 

runner-stick, s. 

Found. : A cylindrical or slightly conical 
piece of wood, which acts as a pattern to 
form the upright part of the gate. 

runner tackle, s. 

Xaut. : A luff-tacklo ipplied to the rnnnlng 
end of a rope passed through a movable pillow. 

runner-up, s. 

Coursing. : The greyhound which takes the 
second prize, losing only the final course w ith 
the actual winner of the stakes ; hence any 
competitor who runs second, or takes second 
place in any competition. 

"The falling together of last jeer's winner aa 
runnrr-up." field. Dec. 6. 1884. 

run -net, s. [RENNET.] 

run -ning, pr. par., a., & s. [Rov, .] 

A. As pr. par. : (See the verbX 

B. As adjective : 

1. Moving 01 proceeding at a run. 

2. Kept for running : as, a running horse. 

3. Discharging pus or matter: as, a running 

4. Not discharged at the time, but settled 
periodically : as, a running account. 

5. Interspersed with the original matter. 

"Her rnnniiM comment on the plates combine! 
sensible notes with good advice. 'AlAentntm, l>ec. 20, 

6. In succession ; without any day, week, &c,, 
intervening ; as, He came three days running. 

C. As substantive : 

L The act of one who or that which runs. 
2. That which runs or flows ; quantity run. 
8. Power, ability, or strength to run. 
4. Hatter or pus discharged from a sore. 

H (1) To make good one's running : To run as 
veil as one's rival ; to prove one's self a match 
for one's rival. 

(2) To make the running: 

Racing : To force the pace at the beginning 
of a race. 

(S) To take up the running : 

Racing: To take the lead In forcing the 
pace ; to take the most active part in any 

running-block, s. 

Naut. : A hooked block which moves as the 
fall is hauled upon. 

running board, s. A narrow platform 
extending along the side of a locomotive. 

running-bowline, t. 

Na-ul.: A knot in which the end is taken 
round the standing part and made into A 
bowline around its own part. 

running buddle, s. 
Mining: [BUDDLE]. 
running -bugs, . pi. 
Entom. : A term suggested i>y W. S. Dallas, 
F.L.8., for the Gcocores, or Land-bugs. 

running-days, i. pL 

Comm, : A chartering trm for consecutive 
days occupied on a voyage, Ac., Including 
Sundays, and not being therefore limited to 
working days. 

running-fight, . A fight kept up be- 
tween a party 
pursuing and 
one pursued. 

flre, >. A con- 
stant fire of ar- 
tillery or mus- 
ketry ; hence, a 
constant or con* 
tinned course of 
anything : as, a 
running -Jin Of 

* rnnnlng - 
footman,<. A 

livery - servant, KuK>iuio-rooT>iA. 

one or more of 

whom were formerly kept by noblemen, t/i 

fete, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
car, wbr,, wolf, work, who, son; mate, cub, cure, unite, car, rale, fall; try, Syrian. , 09 = e; ey = a;. qa = kw. 

runningly ruralist 


run before their carriages and aive notice of 

their approach. It is believed that the Duke 

of Uueensberry, who died in 1810, was the last 

in in England who employed running 

footmen. The illustration is from the sign 

of a public-house in Hayes-Mews, Berkeley- 

r formerly a house of call for musing- 

fooi me,,. (Notes * Queries, 2nd ser., i. 9.) 

"T*i,ruimtnl-r.nlmi!n dree.l in white, with Hack- 
-!.i! h.iix sUffsln their hands, headed the 
tr.iin."" Scott. Bride of Lammermoor. ch, Jtxii. 

running-gear, s. 

I', hide: The entire portion of the vehicle 
below the bed or body. Bpeoitioallj, the 
is, axles, perch (if any), hounds, bolsters, 
and tongue. 

running-hand, s. 

1. A style of penmanship in which the let- 
ters are formed without raising the pen from 

the pa|*r. 

2. Print. : A fount of type in imitation of 

such writing. 

running off, s. 

Found. : The act of opening the tap-hole of 
a blast-furnace to allow the metal to How into 
the channels aud thence to the moulds. 

running part, s. 

Kimt.: The h.inling-part or fall of atackle; 
as distinguished from the standing-part. 

running-policies, s. pi. 

Comm.: Open policies, covering the risk 
attaching to the property on board a ship, 
during an entire season, or up to some speci- 
fied date, instead of during a single voyage. 

running-rein, s. 

Manege: A driving rein which rrms over 
pulleys on the headstall to increase its freedom 
of motion. It frequently passes over sheaves 
on the bit and returns up the cheek, so as to 
pull the bit up Into the angle of the mouth. 

running-rigging, >. 

Naut. : Ropes for arranging the yards and 
sails, as braces, sheets, halyards, bowlines, isc. 

running-thrush, . [FRUSH, (2).] 

running-title, . 

Print. : A line at the head of e. page indi- 
cating the subject. [HEADLINE.] 

"rnn'-ning-ljf, adv. [Eng. running; -ly.] 
Without hesitation. 

" Played I not off-hand and running ;" 
R. Browning: Hotter Huguee of At te-OotM. 

rttn'-nion (i as y), . [RUNYON.] 

11 ru-noT-6-gIst, s. [Eng. runolog(y); -ist.] 
One skilled in runes. 

"The advanced school of Scandinavian runotoalat," 
Athenaeum, June 28, 1879. 

ru-nol'-4-gy, s. [Eng. run(e) ; -ology.] The 
science of runes ; the principles on which the 
study of runes is based. 

" The facts of runolofjy absolutely demand that the 
Tr-ni Ai:e in Scandinavia shall be many hundreds ol 
years before Christ" Academy, May 8. 1886. p. SSI 

run'-rlg, a. [Apparently from run and rig.] 
Applied to lands, the alternate ridges " 
which belong to different owners. (Scotch.) 

runt. * ront, s. [Etym. doubtful ; ct Dut. 
rund = a bullock or cow.] 

1. An animal smaller and shorter than the 
usual size of the breed. 

" A monstrous Welsh runt, the ugliest brute that 
probably could be found In the country." Field, 
Dec. . 1881. 

2. A shrivelled, sapless, withered animal. 

41 Tour hang beef was tho worst I ever tastpd ; and 
as himl as the very horn the old runt wore when she 
lived." Laud : Letter to Lord Strajforde, 

8. A dwarf ; a mean, despicable person. 
4. The stem of colewort or cabbage ; the 
lead stump of a tree. (Scotch.) 

* PoorWlllle, wl' nil bow-kail runt." 

Burnt : Halloween. 

6. A variety of pigeon. 

" There are nines weighing more than two pounds 
ncb."-n,Ma Telegraph, Nov. 17, 188S, 

6. A raw country girl. 
runf-y, a. [Eng. runt; -!/.] Short and thick. 

" A runty pig tied to a tob." Barper't Magatine 
Oct.. 1888. p. 196. 

run -way, . [Eng. run and way.] The run 
of an animal. 

" We stood so that each commanded one of the I 
Indicated." Burrougkt: Pepacton, p. 28- 

U pee', . [Mahr:ittarupal/a=Hind. npiya 
a rupee, silver, fiom Sause, rupya = silver, 
wrought silver, or gold.] 
Coinage : 

I A silver coin in use in the British 
dominions in India, with corresponding ones 
of much inferior workmanship and variable 
Viilue in the native states. In 1876 the Madras 
or Company's rupee of 16 annas, or 192 pice, 
was valued at Is. lOJd-i anu tlie Sicca rupee = 
IT", of the Company's rupee, Is. ll{d. Next 
ye ir (1876) the appreciation of gold began or 
became perceptible with the corresponding 
depreciation of silver. Tested by a gold 
standard the Madras rupee steadily fell, and 
in isss was worth about Is. 6d. only. As the 
Indian government receiving taxes in silver, lias 
to nay home charges in gold or its full equiva- 
lent, it lost, in 1876-7, a little over two 
millions of pounds sterling, and in 1882-3 
more than three millions. (W. W. Hunter: 
Indian Empire, Statesman's Year Book, <tc.) 

2. A gold coin. In 1875 the Bombay rupee 
was worth 1 10s. 1 Jd., the Madras one, of 15 
silver rupees, 1 9s. 2}d, Since then they 
have greatly risen in value. [1.] 

ru pe'-ll-an, o. [From the village of Rupel- 
moude, south of Antwerp.] (See compound.) 

rupclian beds, s. pi. 

Geol. : The Middle Oligocene of Belgium. 

* ru-pel'-la-ry, o. [Lat rujw = a rock.) 


Ru'-pert, >. [The nephew of Charles I.] 

Rupert's drop, t Rupert's ball, . 

A small globule of cooled glass with a long, thin 
projection. When this slender part is broken, 
the whole globule goes into small fragments. 
The name was given because the drops were 
first brought to England by Prince Kupert. 

ru'-pl-a, . [Gr. pvirot (rhupos) = dirt.) 

Pathol. : A bulbous disease, always syphili- 
tic, resembling pemphigus, but the crust be- 
comes hard, horny, and remains attached, the 
ulceration forming layer after layer under- 
neath, till it assumes the characteristic cockle- 
shell form of the disease. Underneath the 
scab a grey sloughy ulcer is present, and the 
rupia ulceration and crusts frequently form 
from syphilis without any bulbous eruption. 

ru-pi-cap'-ra, s. [Lat. rupet = a rock, and 
capra = a she-'goat. ] 

1. Zool. : Chamois(q.v.),agenusofBovldie; 
in Sir V. Brooke's classification the sole genus 
of Rupicaprinee. There is but one species, 
Rupicapra tragus, ranging from the Alps to 
the Caucasus. Elongate, slender round horns 
(in both senes) ; nearly erect from above the 
orbit, suddenly hooked backwards at tip; 
nose ovine, hairy ; fur soft. 

2. Palownt. : From the Post-Pliocene (oaves) 
of France. 

ru-pl-oa-prl'-nse, t. pi. [Lat. rupicapr(a) ; 
fern, pi.' adj. suff. -tttte.] [RUPICAPHA.] 

ru-plc'-O'-to, [Lat. rupes = a rock, and 
colo = to inhabit.] 

Ornith. : Cock of tho Rock ; a genus of 
Rupicolinse (q.v.), with three species, from 
the Amazonian region and Guiana. Bill mo- 
derate, robust, rather vaulted ; nostrils oval, 
lateral, partly hidden by the feathers of the 
elevated crest ; feet large, strong, syndactyle ; 
tarsi partially covered with feathers ; wings 
short, rounded. 

ru-pi-ci-ir-nSB, s. pi. [Mod Lat. rupicol(a) 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -(TUB.] 

Ornith. : A sub-family of Cotingidse, for- 
merly a sub-family of Pipridse. It now con- 
tains two genera : Rupicola and Phcenicocer- 
cus. (Wallace.) 

Rup'-pSll (ii as u), . nVilhelm Peter Ed 

ward Simon Riippell, a German traveller and 

naturalist, born 1790.] 

RiippelTs griffon, s. 

Ornith. : Gyps riippelli, from Abyssinia. 

rup'-pl-a, s. [Named after H. B. Ruppius, a 

German botanist.] 

Bnt. : A genus of Jnncnginaceas (Llnaleif), o 
Naiadeee, tribe Potamae (.sir J. Hooker) 
Flowers perfect, generally two in a peduncle 
arising from spnthaceous leaf sheaths. Peri 
anth none, stamens four, anthers one-celled 

Aehenes or drupes four, on long stalks, each 
ied. Known species one or more. 
Kttl'iiiit marilima, a small herb with linear, se- 
taee-'iis, submerged leaves, is found in Britain, 
in saltwater pools and ditches. 

rup'-tile, a, [Mod. Lat. ntptilis, from Lat. 
ruptus = broken.] 

Bnt. : Bursting irregularly, not in the line 
of union of parts in cohesion. 

rup'-tion, s. [Lat. ruptio, from ruptus, pa. 
par. of runpo to break.] A breach ; a 
breaking or bursting open ; rupture. 

" The plenitude of vessels or plethora causes an ex- 
travasation of blood, by ruption or apertion." W ite. 
man: Treat tie*. 

* rup'-tu-a-rjr, . [See def.] A corrupt of 
Roturier (q.v.). 

rup'-ture, 8. [Fr., from Lat, ruptitra, fern, of 
rupturus, fut. par. of rumpo = to break ; Sp. 
rotura: Ital. rutture.} 
I. Ordinary Language: 

1. Lit. : The act of breaking or bursting; 
the state of being broken or violently parted. 

" The age thataoou 

Bunting with kindly rupture forth disclos'd 
Their callow youug. Hilton : P. L., vil. , 

2. Fig. : A breach, as of peace, friendship, 
or concord, between either individuals or 
nations ; a quarrel ; a breaking off of frieudly 

IL Med. : Hernia (q.v.X 

U A Rupture Society to provide poor per- 
sons suffering from rupture with trusses, was 
established in London in 1804. 

rup'-tnre, v.t. & t. [RUPTCRB, .J 
A. Transitive : 
I. Literally: 

1. To break, to burst ; to part violently. 

" The vessels of the brain and membrane*. If rup- 
tured, absorb the extravaeated blood." filiarft. 

2. To affect with, or cause to sutler from 
rupture or hernia. 

IL Fig. : To cause a breach in ; to break. 

" The Treaty of Berlin, after having survived seven 
years, has at length been ruiXured^a an Important 
point." fliiBy Telegraph. Oct. 7. 1885. 

* B. Intrans. : To suffer a breach or dis- 

rup'-ture-wort, . [Eng. rupture, s., and 

Bot. : (1) Herninria, glabra [HERNIARIA] ; 
(2) Altertianthera polygonoides. 

rup'-tur-Ing, pr. par., a., & t. [BUPTOKE, .] 
A. & B. As pr. par. it partinp. adj. : (Set 
the verb). 
C. As substantive: 

Bot. : An irregular method of bursting ; the 
production of irregular holes or rents in a 
pericarp by the spontaneous contraction of 
part of it, as in Antirrhinum and Campanula. 

ru'-ral, *ru-rall, a. & . [Fr. rural, from 
Lat.' ruralis, from rws, genit. ruris = the 
country ; Sp. & Port, rural, Ital. rurale.] 
A. As adjective : 

1. Of or pertaining to the country, as dis- 
tinguished from a city or town ; resembling 
or suitable to the country ; rustic. 

" For I have lov'd the rural walk through lanel 
Of grassy ewarth." Cowper : Talk. 1. 1W. 

2. Of or pertaining to agriculture or fam- 
ing : as, rural economy. 

3. Living in the country ; rustic. 

" Here Is a rural fellow." 
Shakeip. : A ntony * Cleopatra, T. & 

B. Asrnbsl. : An inhabitantof the country. 

Ye said air Thomas punysshed the sayd vyllagei 
and rurattii bygreuous nuea/ Fafyan: Cronycli 
(Philip de Vaioyt, an. 19). 

rural-dean, . An ecclesiastic, under 
the bishop and archdeacon, who has the 
peculiar care and inspection of the clergy and 
laity of a district 

rural-deanery, >. The jurisdiction of a 
rural dean or archdeacon. It is an aggrega- 
tiou of parishes. 

* ru'-zaHsm, . [Eng. rural; -ton.] 

1. The quality or state of being rural. 

2. An idiom or expression peculiar to the 
country as opposed to the town. 

ru'-ral-fet, . [Eng. rural; -is(.] One who 
lends a rural life (Coventry : Philemon to Hy- 
daspes, conv. 3.) 

btfy ; poTtt. J<fiH; oat. cell, chorus, bin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xenophon, exist. -Jng. 
-eian, -tlan = shan. -tion, -sion = ehun ; -tion, -sion = zhun. -oions. -tious, nsious = 8hus. -ble, -die. &c. = Del, oaj. 


rurality russet 

rtt-ral'-l-ty', . [Eng. rural; -ity.] The 
quality or state of being rural ; ruralness. 

rn'-ral-ize, .i. * (. (Bng. rural; -ize.] 

A. Intrant. : To go into the country to 
live ; to live in the country. 

B. Trans. : To make rural ; to give a rural 
appearance to. 

rn'-ral-ly\ adv. [Eng. ruroj ; -!y.] In a rural 
manner ; as in the country. 

" Rurally situated at some distance from the body 
of the town." WaJte/Md: Siemoirt, p. Ts. 

rU ral ness, s. [Eng. rural; -ness.] The 
quality or state of being rural ; rurality. 

ru-rio'-i-llst, s. [Lat. rariccla, from rut, 
genit. rurfs = the country, and coto to live.] 
An inhabitant of the country. 

rn rl-dS-ca'-nal, a. [Lat. rug, genlt. rurb 
= the country, and decanus = a dean.] Of or 
pertaining to an archdeacon ; under the juris- 
diction of an archdeacon. 

" A diocese no larger than a ruriibeoitat dlitricf- 
Churc* Timft, Feb. 12. IBM. 

rn-rlg'-en-oSs, a. (Lat ni, gentt rurij 
= the country, and gigno, pa. t genvi = to 
beget.] Born in the country. 

rU'-sa, $. [Malay rutsa = a deer.) 

ZnoL : A genus of Cervidae, or a sab-genus 
of Ccrvus, with several species, from the East 
Indies. They are generally of large size, and 
have round antlers, with a snag projecting in 
front just above the base of each. There are 
several species, of which the best known is 
Rum aritotelis, the Sambur (q. v.). 

rtts'-CUS, *. (Lat. ruscum = butcher's-broom.J 
Bot. : Butcher's-broom ; a genus of Aspara- 
ginete or Asparagete. Dioecious ; perianth 
spreading, of sin sepals ; filaments combined 
into a tube ; stamens three, sessile ; ovary 
three - celled ; berry usually one -seeded. 
Known species four or five, from the north 
temperate zone. The seeds of some have been 
roasted as coffee. Ruttcvt acttleatvt was form- 
erly used as an aperient and diuretic, and H. 
hypoglossHm as a gargle. R. aculeatus is the 
common Butcher's Broom ; used by butchers 
in urope to sweep their blocks. 

ruse, . [PV. = a stratagem, from nurr = to 
beguile, from O. FT. reiser = to refuse, to 
recoil, to escape ; hence, to use tricks to 
escape, from Lat. recuso = to refuse.] A 
stratagem, an artifice, a trick, a wile. 
URusedegverre: Atrickof war; a stratagem. 

rush (1), 'resche, 'rlsche, -rfshe, 
* rusche, . [ A.S. roe, race ; Cf. Low Ger. 
rush, risch; Dnt. ft Ger. nwcfc; Lat nucum 
= butcher's-broom.] 

1. Literally & Botany: 

(1) The several species of the genus 
Jnncns. Marsh plants with flowers of higher 
organization than grasses or sedges, from 
which they are readily distinguished by 
their stem. This is nnjointed, and has a 
central pith which may be used as a very 
feeble taper [ROSH-LIOHT], and woven into 
baskets, ropes, Ac. The deep roots of some 
species, as Junaa amtus and /. maritimw are 
planted on the embankments of Holland, &c., 
to defend them against the encroachments of 
the sea. Some are troublesome weeds in un- 
drained land. (Job viii. 11.) 

(2) ChondriUa juncm. 

(S) Various plants more or less superficially 
resembling Juncus. 
(4) (PI) : The order Juncacese (q.v.X 

2. Fig. : Used to denote anything of little 
or no worth ; the merest trifle ; a straw, a ng : 
as, I do not care a rush. 

nub-bearing, n. & . 

A. As adj. : Bearing or producing rashes. 

B. As substantive: 

1. A name in the West Riding of Yorkshire, 
end some other parts of England, for the Wake 
or Feast of Dedication of a Church, when the 
parishioners used to strew the church with 
nshes and sweet-smelling herbs. 

2. (Pi.): Devices of wooden framework, 
overed with moss, rushes, and flowers, -with 
which a church is decorated on the Feast of 

The nuk-fcnrinin remain In the church over the 

*"* " 

rush bottomed, a. Having a bottom or 
seat made of rushes : as, a rush-bottomed chair 

* rash-buckler, s. A bullying, swagger 
ing fellow ; a swashbuckler. 

" Take Into thin number also their servants : I mean 
all that flock of stout, bragging rusn-ftuotfer*." Sir T. 
Mar* : Clopia (ed. Bobinsou), bk. it, ch, iv. 

rush-broom, .. 

Bot. : The leguminous genus Viminaria. 

rush-candle, s. A rush-light (q.v.). 

*' Some gentle taper. 
Though a rusn^nntU* from the wicker hole." 

JliUtm : Comut. 838. 

rush light, t. 

1. A tallow candle with a rush wick. Rush- 
lights are made in the same manner as dip- 
candles, a peeled rush Iwing used fnr a wick. 
One narrow ribbon of the rind is left on the 
pith to hold it together. The rushes thus pre- 
pared are bleached and dried. They are 
dipped vertically in the melted tallow several 
times, as usual with dip-candles. As they 
burn slowly, and give only a feeble light, they 
are often used in sick rooms. 

2. Any weak, flickering light 

rush-like, a. Resembling a rush : hence, 

" By only tilting with a nuk-Ui* lance.' 

Nirrourfor Maffittratet, p. 788, 

rush-mat, . A mat made of rushes, 
rush nut, .-. 

Bot. : Cypervs exulentia, a sedge, not a 
genuine rush. [CYPERUS.] 

* rush-ring, . A ring made of rushes, 
formerly used in mock-marriages. 

rush-toad, s. [NATTERJACK.) 

rush-wheat, s. 

Bot. : Triticum junceum, the Rushy Sea- 
wheat, a British plant growing along sandy 

rush (2), s. [Rrsn, .] 

1. Lit. : A pushing or driving forward with 
eagerness and haste ; a violent motion or 

" With a violent ru* severed him from the duke, 
who with the re-it went on quickly through the town 
-Rrli:,ui WMonianu, p. 230. 

2. Fig. : An eager demand ; a ran. 

" In Tiew of the ri of applicants for every free 

scholarship at schools and universities." Dailu Tel* 
graph, Sept. 2S, 1885. 

rush. * rusche, v.i. & t. [O. Sw. rustot, 
ntsa = to rush ; rtwia = to shake ; Dan. ruske 
Ger. rauschen = to rustle.) 

A. Intransitive : 

1. To move or drive forward with haste and 
eagerness ; to hurry forward tumultuously. 

" He thinks the queen Is ruthing to his anna" 

/"ope . Jfrmter ; Odyssey xx. 116. 

2. To enter with undue eagerness, or with- 
out due deliberation, reflection, and prepara- 
tion : as, To rusk into speculation, to rusk 
into print 

B. Transitive: 

1. To put forward oyer hastily ; to hurry 

" In the first place a nnmher of bills are rushed 
through Parliament. They must be passed code* qut 
cOUe." DaUt Ttleerap*. An.. , 1874. 

* 2. To throw down ; to overturn. 

" Of aUe his ryche castllles ruscfte doune the wanes.' 
Hart, Artlaarf, 1.339. 

* rushed, o. [Eng. rtw* 0), - ; -J.J 

1. Abounding with rushes ; rushy. 

" Near the nuVd marge o< CherwelTs flood." 

H'arton : Odtt. L 

2. Covered with rushes : as, a naked floor. 

rush'-er (I), . [Eng. rusk (1), s. ; -er.\ One 
whose business it was to strew rushes on the 
floors at dances, *c. 

" Fiddlers, ruAen, puppet-masters. 
Jugglers, and gipsies.^ eat Jonton. 

rftsh'-er (2), . (Eng. rush, v. ; -r.] One who 
rushes ; one who acts with undue haste and 

rush'-I-ness, . [Eng. rushy; -not.} The 
quality or state of being rushy or abounding 
with rushes. 

rfsh'-fc rush le, o. [Eng. n* (i), s. ; -.J 

1. Abounding with rashes. 
^-^'^ b ^"^'' fia ' *>. n-., 

2. Made of rushes. 

* rushy-fringed, a. Fringed or bordered 
with rushes. 
" By the ntAn-fringed bank." Hilton : Comut. 890. 

U Apparently a special coinage. Prof. D. 
Masson (note in lac.) says : 

" An adjective formed, as It were, from a previous 
compound noun, rushy-fringe ; unless, by a very 
forced device, for whirli Uiere is no juitliurlty, we 
should resolve the word thus riuh-jffringed." 

rfi'-sine, a. [Mod. Lat nu<o); -int.] 

Zool. : A name applied to a group of Deer, 
of which Rusa is the type. The horns have 
an anterior basal snag, and the heam ends in 
a simple bifurcation ; muffle not separate from 
muzzle, and set high ; hair-tuft on hind legs. 
" Another member of the Kuiina deer is the well- 
known Axis." Wood : llliu. .Vat. Silt.. L 698. 

ru-sI-oVsh'-ine, . [Etym. not apparent] 

Chem. : A red substance produced by evapo- 
rating the green solution formed when chlorine 
water and ammonia are added to a solution of 
quinine. It is soluble in alcohol. 

rusk, s. [Sp. rosca de mar sea-rusks ; roscn 
= a roll of bread ; cf. Port, rosca = the wind- 
ing of a serpent, a screw.] 

1. A kind of light cake, or a kind of soft 
sweetened biscuit. 

" After a hasty meal of coffee and nub, I got to th* 
water-side. - -M, April , 188S. 

2. A kind of small cake or loaf which has 
been rasped. 

3. A kind of light hard cake or bread, as for 
ships' stores. 

ros'-kte.s. [O. Fr. rusche (Fi. n*) = ahive.) 

1. A hive. 

2. A twig or straw basket for corn or meal 

3. A coarse straw hat. (Scotch.) 

rus'-ma, . [Turk, khyrysma.] A kind of 
depilatory used by Turkish women, and made 
of a brown and light iron substance, with 
half as much quicklime, steeped in water. 

Rusa, a. & . [RUSSIAN.] 

A. As adj.: Of, or pertaining to the ROM 
or Russians. 

B. As substantive : 

1. A native, or the natives collectively, of 

2. The language of the Russ or Russians. 

rfis'-sel.. [Prob. connected with rrasef (q.v.).] 
A woollen cloth first manufactured at Norwich. 

[ Dan Biusel : The for. ; so called from his 
red colour. 

rtts'-sSt, o. & . [O. Fr. rousset = nisset 
brown, ruddy, a dimin. from Fr. rmix (fern. 
rousse) = reddish, from Lat russus = red.] 

A. Ai adjective: 

1. Lit. : Of a reddish-brown colour. 
IT Formerly used loosely for gray or ash- 
coloured. (Cf. Notes <t Queries, loc. inf. cit.) 

" liuuct. so far as one can judge, described a sad 
colour, and was applied to various shades, both of grev 
and brown." A'ota A Qutriei (eth ser.j x. 49. 

* 2. Fig. : Rustic, homespun, coarse, plain. 

"Henceforth my wooing mind shall be expressed 
In rustet Yeas and honest kersey Noes." 

MuJtesp, . Love's Labour'* Lott, V. 1. 

3. Applied to the condition of leather when 
it is finished, excepting the operations of 
colouring and polishing the surface. 

B. As substantive: 

1. A reddish-brown colour : specif., a pig- 
ment prepared from the Rubin tinctoria, or 
madder root. It is of a true middle hue 
between orange and purple, not subject to 
change by the action of light, impure air, 
time, or mixture of other pigments. 

2. A country dress ; homespun cloth. 

" Himself a palmer poor. In homely ntutt clad.* 
flravton : PolfOlbion, a, II. 

3. A kind of apple of a russet colour and 
rough skin. 

" The nufft pearmaln Is a Terr pleasant frnit. con- 
tinuing long on the tree, and in the conservatory tr. 
takes both of the russetlng and pearrnsln In colour 
and taste ; the oue side beiug generally nieset. slid the 
other streaked like a peariuaiu."'-Jfortimr .- jffiw- 

" rnsset-pated, a. Having the head grey, 
or ash-coloured. (Notes <t Queries, 6th ser.. 
ix. 345, 396, 470, T. 49.) 

" fhatft-pated choughs." 
*oip. . Mtdaimmer XlfHf, Brfam, HL t. 

1 rUS'-aSt, v.t. [RUSSET, o.] To give a russet 
colour to. (Thomson: A Hymn, 96.) 

Ate, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wet, here, cameL her. there; pine, pit, sire, a 
or, were, wolf, work, who, son; mate, cub, cure, unite, oiir, rtale. flUl; try. Syrian, , OB = e 

sir, marine; go, pot, 
e; ey = a; qu = kw. 

russeting rustication 


s' set Ing, < [Bug. ruuet ; *> 
L The name as RCSSET, s., 3. 

S. Russet or coarse cloth. 

3. A clown, a rustic ; one dressed in coarse 

- A goodly hotch-potch I when Til nuserln 

rns-set-?, a. [Eng. russet, a. ; -v-l Of a 

russet colour. 
Buss -la (M as sh). .. [See def. 1.] 

1. Geog. : The name of an empire in the 
east of Europe. 

jj. Astron. : [ASTEROID, 232]. 

3. Leather: Russia-leather (q.T.). 

Russia duck, s. 

Fabric : Fine white linen canvas. 

Russia-leather, s. A kind of leather 
originally made in Russia, but now ureoared 
elsewhere, from the skins ot goats and sheep. 
It is usually of either a black or a red 
color, the latter being given by alum and a 
decoction of Brazil and sandal woods, the 
former by a solution of iron and sandal-wood. 
It is very strong, pliant, and waterproof, 
and has a peculiar faculty for resisting mois- 
ture and the ravages of insects. The strong 
penetrating odor is due to the oil of birch 
used in its preparation. It is especially useful 
in bookbinding. 

Russia-matting, . Bast-matting<q.y.). 
It is used for packing, and the bast of which 
It is composed for tying up plants. 
Rnss'-lan (ss as sh), a. & . [RUSSIA.] 

A. At adj. : Of or pertaining to Russis or 
Its inhabitants. 

B. As substantive : 

1. A native of Russia. 

2. The language spoken by the Russians ; 
Buss. It belongs to the eastern division of 
the Slavonic branch. 

Russian Church, t. 
Church Hist, it Ecdes. : The church esta- 
blished in Russia. It is an offshoot from the 
Greek church, the conversion of the Russians 
to Christianity having been effected by Greek 
missionaries. About A.D. 900, a metropolitan 
was consecrated at Constantinople for the 
see of Kiew, the capital of a Grand Duke. 
In 955 the Russian princess Olga went to Con- 
stantinople to be baptised. In 988 Vladimir 
the Great was also baptised, married the 
sister of the Greek emperor, and took active 
steps to spread Christianity in his dominions. 
In 1223 the Mongol Tartars invaded the 
country, and destroyed Kiew in 1240. In 1299, 
the seat of the metropolitan see was removed 
to Vladimir, and subsequently to Moscow. 
In 1415 a separation took place between the 
Russian and Polish churches. In 1702, Peter 
the Great swept away the dignity of the 
patriarch and proclaimed himself head of the 
Church. A Holy Synod was constituted to 
counsel and assist him in his government. 
The tenets of the Russian Church are essen- 
tially those of the parent Greek Church (q.v.). 
There are many dissenters. 

Russian-influenza, . An epidemic 
catarrhal trouble, familiarly known as grippe. 
Quite common in the United States during the 
last few years. 

Russian thistle, i. Saltala Kali (q.T.), 
the saltwort of onr ocean beach, from New 
England to Georgia, has a variety tragut, native 
to parts of Europe, and whose seeds have been 
introduced to this country. This is the so- 
called Russian-thistle, which has invaded the 
Dakotas and Nebraska, and is spreading else- 
where. It is a troublesome and persistent 
weed, so difficult to eradicate that Congress 
has been called upon for an appropriation for 
the purpose. The nearly spherical plants break 
off at the roots and are rolled by the wind as 
tumble-weeds, scattering their seeds as they go. 
The loss caused by it is great and increasing. 

Russ'-lan-ize (ss as sh), .(. [Eng. Russian; 
-ise.] To render Russian ; to subject to Rus- 
sian influence. 

Russ'-nl-ak, >. [Russ.] A member of * 
branch of' the Slavic race, inhabiting Galicia, 
Hungary, Podolia, Volhynia, and Lithuania, 
and distinguished from the Russians proper 
by their language and mode of life. 

Rus SO-, pref. [Eng., 4C. Russ (q.v.), and o 
connective.] Russian, as the fluMO-Turkish 
war of 1877-8. 

Rns'-sfi-phile, * Rus-sfiph'-H-fot, . & a. 

[Pref. Ruao-, and Gr. oWAot (philos) = loving, a 

A. At tub*. : A supporter of Russia or her 

S. As adj. : Supporting Russia or her policy. 

Rus'-soph'-n-Ism, t. [Eng. RussophiUs); 

-ism.] The sentiments or principles of a 

Rns'-s6-ph6be, . One affected with Rus- 

Rus-so-pho-bl-a, . [Pref. Russo-, and Gr. 

AoSos (phobos) = fear.] A fear of Russia, her 

power, or policy; a strong feeling against 

Russia or the Russians. 
Rtts'-s6-ph5b-lst, Rus-s5ph'-o-Wst, s. 

[RussoPHOBiA.] One who dreads or ll strongly 

opposed to Russia or her policy; a strong 

opponent of the Russians. 

rust, t. [A.S. rust ; cogn. with Cut. roesf ; 
Dan rust ; 8w. rojf ; Ger. rost, from the same 
root as A.S. rudu = ruddiness ; Eng. ruddy = 
red ; Goth, roth = red ; Lat. ruber.] 

1. Ordinary Languagt : 
L Literally: 

(1) Red (per- or sesqnioxide) orlde of iron, 
produced when that metal is exposed to the 

" Eats Into his bloody sword like rurt." 

Camper : Table TaUt. I 

(2) A composition of iron-filings and sal- 
ammoniac, with sometimes a little sulphur, 
moistened with water, and used for filling 
fast joints. A joint formed in this way is 
called a rust-joint. 

2. Figuratively : 

(1) Any foul, extraneous matter, corrosive 
or injurious accretion or influence. 

(2) Loss of power by inactivity or sloth. 

"Our rational faculties, which being unemploy'd 
will naturally contract rust, and grow every day more 
weak and restive." *ott : Chriitian Life, pt. Hi., ch. 

IJ, But. <t Agric. : The rusty-coloured mil- 
dew of some cereals, &c., produced by co- 
niomycetous fungals. The common rust of 
corn is Puccinia graminix, which infests also 
ordinary grasses. The tufts are dense, oblong, 
often confluent, and forming long parallel 
lines changing from yellowish brown to 

If Obvious compounds : rust-coloured, rust- 
eaten, &C. 

rust-Joint, s. [RUST, ., 1. 1. (S).] 

rust, v.i. & t. [ROOT, i.] 
A. Intransitive: 
L Lit. : To contract rust ; to be oxidized. 

" Hil iwrd hangs rutting on the wall." 

Scott :Lm q/ tlte LaU ItinOrO, L . 

IL Figuratively: 

L To assume an appearance of rust. 
2. To degenerate or lose power through idle- 
ness or inactivity, 

" Most men would. In such a situation, have allowed 
their faculties to nut." MacaMlay : Bill. Snff., ch. iv. 
B. Transitive: 

I Lit. : To cause to contract rust ; to make 

Keep up your bright iword.. for the dew will not 
them. Shalcetp. : Othello. I 2. 

H Fig. : To impair by idleness or inactivity. 

* rust -rtl, a. [Eng. rust; fuUfi.'] Rusty; 
tending to produce rust; characterized by 

rus'-tfc, rus'-tfek, * rus-ticke, o. & . 

[Fr. rustiqw, from Lat. rusticut = pertaining 
to the country ; rus = the country ; op., Port. , 
ft ItaL rustico.] 

A. As adjective : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Of, or pertaining to the country ; rural ; 
living in, or fond of the country. 

" Our rusrie garden's barren." 

M ,1 <:,. .- Wtnler'l Tote, IT. I. 

2. Rude, unpolished, rough, awkward; 
wanting in refinement. 

11 KiuMc baronets and qulre. high Churchmen, high 
Tories, and halt Jacobites. " Macallan : But. Eny., 
eh. xlx. 

3. Coarse, plain, simple ; not costly M 

4. Simple, honest, artless. 

" Though oft he stop in nutic fear." 

Scott : Marmian. i. (Introd.1 

II. Build. : Applied to work coarsely ot 
rudely finished. 
B. As substantive: 

1. Ord. Lang. : An inhabitant of the conn try ; 
a clown, a swain. 

Hence, to your fields, ye ruiticfa /hence away 
Nor stiu with grief the pleasure! of the dy 

Pope: Homer i Odyuey xxl. 87. 

2. Entom. : A British night-moth, Caradrin* 

rustic chamfered work, . 

Masonry : The chamfered edges of the face 
of the ashlar have an angle of 135' with the 
face, so that at the joint the bevelling will 
form a right angle. 

rustic-coin, . [Rnsric-Qoora.] 

rustic-joint, . 

Masonry : A sunken joint between stones, 
either square or chamfered. 

rustic-order, . That kind of building 
in which the faces of the stones are hatched 
or nigged with the point of the hammer. 

rus&c-quoln, . 

Masonry : The ashlaring at the corner of 
house or wall, projecting from the face, and 
laid alternately stretcher and header with 
rustic joints. The quoins may have edges 
chamfered to an angle of 135' with the face ot 
the building, so as to make a right angular 
joint. The faces of the stones are usually 

rustic shoulder-knot, i. 

Entom. : Aparnm basilinea, a grayish, ochrr 
moth, with a black streak and a white spot. 
Expansion of wings an inch and a halt 
Larva feeds on wheat, &c. , is common In 
Britain, and destructive to crops. 

rustic-work, >. 

1. Wood : An imitation of rough or primitive 
work Furniture for summer-houses and 
lawns, made of limbs of trees, taking advan- 
tage of natural crooks to form the shapes 

2. Stone : Masonry Jagged over with a ham- 
mer to an irregular surface. 

" rus'-tic-al, * rus'-tlc-all, o. & . [Eng. 
rustic; -af.] 

A. As adj. : Rustic. 

" He confounds the singing and dancing o the satyrs 
with the rultical entertainment of the first Eomana. 
Dryden. (Todd.) 

B. As tubst. : A rustic. 

rus'-tle-al-ljr, adv. [Eng. rustical ; -ly.\ 
In a rustic, rough, or rude manner ; rudely, 
roughly ; without refinement or elegance. 

" For my part, h keeps me nutieaUy at homa." 
Suikeip. : A, 1'ou LOa It, i. 1. 

* rus'-ti-cal-ness, . [Eng. rustical ; -ness.] 
The quality or state of being rustical ; rusti- 
city, rudeness ; want of refinement or ele- 

Some will wonder how this shire, lying so near to 
London, the staple of English .civil 111., "hould b. 
guilty of so much nuOcalnetl.-fuUw : WortMas 

rus'-ti-cate, v.i. * t. [Lat. rusticttus, pa, 
par. of nsticor, from rut = the country.] 

* A. Intrant. : To reside in the country ; to 

" My lady 8cudmore. from having rtoHcattd In 
your company too long, pretends to open her eyes for 
the sake of seeing the sun." Pope. 

B. Trans. : To send to the country ; to com- 
pel to reside in the country ; specif., to sus- 
pend from residence and studies at a univer- 
sity, and send away for a time as a punishment. 
" On students who are liable at any moment to b 
natlcated and 'sent down' from a University be de. 
scribed as tenants of their rooms for a year? Ooif|r 
TeUffraph, Oct. 39, 1885. 

rus'-tl cat-ed, pa. par. & o. [RUSTICAT.] 

A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective: 

Build. : The same as Rcsnc, a. IL (q.T.X 

rfis-tJ-ca'-tlon, . [Lat. rusticatia.} [Rr 


L Ordinary Language : 

1. A living In the country ; residence In 
the country. 

HSU, bo?; p<at. J6%1; eat, 9 ell. choru-, ehin, bench; go, Item; thin, thi: **, f ; ejrpcct, Xenophon, e^lst. ph - 1 
-<jlan. -tlau = shan. -tion. -*ton = shun ; -Jion, -fton = xhtin. -clous, -tlous, -sious = shus. -ble. -<U. 4c. _ Dei, oei, 


rusticial Ruthenian 

2, At the Universities a punishment in- 
flicted on student* for certain otfenC'-s. by 
suspending them from residence and studies 
for a time. 

IL Arch, c. : [Rcsric-woEK]. 

" rtts-tl'-clal (cl as sh), a. [Eng. nuttc; 

-int.] Rustic, plain. 

rSs-tIc'-lM#, . fPr. rustMU.] The quality 

or star." c.f li-i-ii; ristic or rural ; rustic man- 
ners ; rural appearance ; simplicity, artless- 
neas, plain: 

W. who hTe lengthy memories shall aim the one 
peck of old ruaicita lu this prim spot." Daily Jele. 
graph. Sept l, issi. 

* rus'-tKo-iy, rfis'-tlck-iy, adv. [Eng. 
rustic ; -ly.] In a rustic manner ; rustically. 

"To you it seeines to {nuttclay}, Aiax Oileus said." 
Gtocvnan: Burner; Iliad niU. 

rtts-tio'-o-la, . [Lat rus. = of or 
belonging to thecountry, and colo = to inhabit.] 

Ornitk. : A genus of Scolopaciiue. Some- 
times separated from Scolnpax to contain the 
Woodcock, which, however, is more generally 
named Scolopax nuUcola. [WOODCOCK.] 

rnsf -l-lf, adv. [Bng. rusty ; -1y.] In a rusty 
manner ; so as to resemble rust. 

"Their armour they shouM make look so rurftty 
Mid lll.faraiiedly. a* "ell might become raeh wearers * 
fiidaff : Arcadia, bk. i. 

rfiaf-I-new, * rflst-I-ne8e, t. [Eng. 
rusty; -ness.] The quality or state of being 

"Cleare the methusn of the windpipe** F. Bat- 
loirf.- FllaU. bk. IX.. ch. ITU. 

rus'-tle (tie as el), t. [ROTTLB, .] The 
noise made by one who or that which rustles : 

a rustling. 

" Toe noise of a torrent, the ruetle of a wood."- 71* 
Idler, No. M. 

rus -tie (tie as el), * rtts'-sle, v.i. A t. [A 

freq. of Sw. rusta = to stir, rusita = to rustle ; 
Ger. ruscheln, ruschen, ravachen = to rustle, 
to rush.] 

A. Intransitive: 

1. To make a quick succession of small 
ounds, like the rubbing of silk or dry leaves. 
" The straw nulled as be turned his head." 

LongfU<ne: Sicilian's Tote. 

t. (See extract) (Amer.) 

" To rutt te around Is to bestir one's self in a business 
way. ' What are you going to do in Mandan ?' asked 
one man of another in a Bismarck saloon. 'Oh. I'll 
rutUe around and pick up something/ which meant 
tht he would look about for a good business opening. 
'Huttle the things oft* that table/ means clear the table 
in a hurry. To do a nutting business Is to carry on an 
active trade." Cfntury Magazine. 

B. Transitive : 

1. To cause to make a rustling sound. 

2. To clear. [A. 2.) 

rfi*'-tler (t silent), a. [Eng. nuWf); -r.] 
1. One who or that which rustles. 
1 (See extract^ 

" He *!f "dently hat they can In Dakota a 
nutter. To say that a man is a nutter is the highest 
Indorsement a Dakotan can glre. It means tharte Is 
pushing, energetic, xniart, and successful." Century 

rust less, o. [Eng. not ; -ha.] Free from 

"When once a bloodless and rustiest Instrument 
a. ; found, she was careful of the priaa,"_c. arena: 
tiueue, ch. TilL 

rf--tre (tre as tor), . [Fr.] 

Her. : A lozenge pierced round In the centre, 
the field appearing through it 

rtsf-f, rust-ie, rurt-ye, a. [A.S. 
rustig, from rust = rust (q.v.),J 

1, Ordinary Language : 
L Literally: 

(1) Covered with rust ; affected with mst ; 

" Some armed with leather, and some with nutse 
nayle. Serum: Froiuart; Oonycfe. Tol a, ch, 

(S) Of the colour of rust ; resembling rust 

2. Figuratively : 

fl) Dull ; impaired or deteriorated by in- 
meiivity, neglect, or diuse. 

"Thatprayer. said the Interpreter, has lain by tluit 
is almost r*Mt,."-Bu*ian >,rtsVs Profrea.vt. u. 

! Pnfna. ft. 11 

(2) Hi-tempered, surly, morose, obstinate 
perverse. (Slang.) 

(3) Rnnnh, hoarse, harsh, grating as a 
rutty voice. 

IT. But. : Rusl^coloured, light-brown, with 
a little mixture of red. (FEBEKOINOI-S. ] 

IT To ridt rusty: To be surlily or contu- 
maciously insubordinate or insolent. 

rnsty spotted-oat, s. 

Zool. : Felii ruMginosa, an Indian wild cat, 
greenish-gray, with a rufons tinge and rusty- 
coloured spots. Length of body sixteen or 
eighteen inches ; tail nine inches. Found in 
the Carnatic and Ceylon. 

rut (1), . [Fr. rut, ruit, from Lat. rvrUnm, 
accus. of rtijidis = the roaring of lious ; Fr. 
rutr; Lat. rugio = to roar.] 

1. The copulation of deer, and some other 
animals ; the season during which deer copu- 

2. A noise, tumult 

" There arose such rut th 1 unrnly rout among." 

Itrayttm : Poty-Otttton, a X. 

riit (2), * rutt, . [An incorrect snelliag of 
route (q.v.).J 
L Literally: 

1. The track or depression left by a wheel. 
" Hard, frozen, long, and cross rutt."Oi>jt,<,n : To 

lord Htfffld. Jan.. 17M. 

2. A line cut on the soil with a spade. 

3. A hollow, a depression, 

" In thy face here were deep run." 

H'ebxer: Oucko, of Ualft, II 1. 

IL fig. : A groove or habitual line of con- 
duct, thought, or feeling. 

"Mr. Weir, who has a strong feeling for character 
and_a ouirk eye for a single effect, got out of his usual 
=. acnbnert Magazine, May, 1880, p. IL 

A. Intrans. : To desire to come together 
for copulation. (Said of deer.) 

"Owing to the deer being in such flue order the 
nttliag will probably begin a little earlier this season. " 
Field, Jan. 2, 1886. 

* B. Trans. : To cover in copulation. 

" What piety forbids the lusty ram. 
Or more salacious goat, to rut their dam." 

Trrt/den : Ovid: Metamorphtteet I. 

rut (2X v.t. [ROT (2), .] 

1. To make ruts in. 

2. To cut a line on, as on the soil with a 

rii'-ta, . [Lat, from Pelop. Gr. pvnj (rhuti) 
= rue.J 

Bot. : Rue ; the typical genus of Rutacete 
(q.v.). Calyx four-partite, deciduous ; petals 
four, longer than the calyx, unguiculate, 
limb vaulted ; stamens eight ; receptacle with 
four nectariferous glands ; styles four, united 
above ; capsules four ; seeds dotted. Flowers 
yellow or white. The garden species is Kvta 
graveolent. (RoE.) R. mmtana, a Spanish 
species, is so acrid that it blisters the hand 
of any one who gathers it. 

ru-ta-ba'-ga, s. [Etym. doubtful.] 

Bot., Agric., ic. : The Swedish turnip, 
Brassica campcstris, var. rutabaga. 

ru-ta'-ce-8B, . pi. [Mod. Lat ni((o); Lat. 
fern. pC adj. snff. -acea.] 

Bot. : Rueworts ; the typical order of Ruta- 
les (q.v.). Trees, shrubs, or rarely herbs, 
with opposite or alternate, simple or com- 
pound leaves, covered with pellucid resinous 
dots. Calyx in four or five divisions ; petals 
as many, distinct or combined into a tube, or 
wanting ; stamens the same number, or twice 
or thrice as many, or by abortion fewer, 
placed around a disc ; ovary sessile or stalked 
ovules two, rarely four or more. Fruit of 
several capsules, cohering or distinct ; seeds 
in each capsule twin or solitary. Tribes 
CuspariesB, Pilocarpese, Boroniese, Eudiosmea 
Dictaranese, Rutea>, and perhaps Cneorea:. 
Genera forty-seven, species 400. (LindUy.) 

ru-ta' ceofis (ce as sh), a. [ROTACE*.] Of 
pertaining to, or resembling the natural order 
Rutacete (q.v.X 

rtV-tal, a, [RcTALia.] Of, belonging to or 
connected with, the genus Euta : as the Sutal 

ru-ta'-lesj, s-. pi. [Masc. and fern. pi. of Mod. 
iZi = of or belonging to the genus 

Bot.: The Hutal Alliance; an alliance of 
Hypogynons Exogens, having monodlchlamy. 
deous, symmetrical flowers, axile placenta, 

an imbricated calyx and corolla, definite! 
stamens, and an embryo with little or no 
albumen. Orders : 

Anrantiace*. Amrridaee*. Cedretaeeai. Jlelii 
Anaoardiaoeej. Ootinancsm E 

' *> 

rut -a-mide. s. [Eng. ra(in), and amide.] 

Chen.: (C,oH 19 0)H..N. Capramide. The 
primary amide of capric acid. It is 
by acting on an alcoholic solution of 
of ethyl with strong ammonia, andcrys 
from alcohol in shining, colourless 
having a silky lustre. It Is soluble in alcohol 
but insoluble in water. 

rate, i. [Etym. doubtful.] A miner's term 
for very small threads of ore. 

ru'-te-SB, s. pi. [Lat rutta); fern. pL adi 
suff. -etc.] 
Bot. : A tribe of Rutacese. 

riV-tS-la ru-rt-la, . [Fern, of Lat ruJj 

= inclining to gol ieii yi-llow.] 

Entom. : The typical genus of the Rutellna?. 
Claw-joint of the tarsi very long. 

t rft-tel'-l-dffl, . pi. [Mod. Lat. rntelta); 1*1. 
fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] (RUTELIN.I.) 

rA-te-li'-nae, ru- ti-li'-naa, . pi. [Mod. 
Lat rutela (q.v.), and fern. pL adj. suff. -iiue.J 
Kntom. : Goldsmith or Metallic Beetles ; a 
sub-family of Scarabeidw. Tarsi thick 
enabling the insects to cling firmly to tn-s ; 
joints of tarsi articulated closely together: 
claws unequal in size, not divergent. Splen- 
didly coloured beetles. Nearly the whole are 
from America. Formerly made a family Rnte- 

rftth (1), reoutho, * reuthe, * rewtho, 

. [From rue, V. (q.v.) ; IceL hryggdh, hrygdli.] 
1. Mercy, pity, compassion ; tenderness or 
sorrow for the misery, pain, or feelings of 

" Assaulting without ru 

The citadels of truth. - 
Wordntmrttt : Ode for a Oenerd 

" 2. Misery, sorrow. 

Ruth (2X . [Heb. ]rn (SutK), probably a con- 
traction either of min (revth) = comely as- 
pect, beauty, or of nwi (reutt) = a female 
friend ; Gr. 'Povfl (Rhouih).] (See the If.) 

T The Book of Ruth : 

Old Test. Canon: A short book now placed 
In the Hebrew Bible in the Hagiographa, be- 
tween the Song of Solomon and the lamenta- 
tions. The English Bible, following the Sep- 
tuagint and the Vulgate, arranges it between 
the books of Judges and Samuel During the 
times of the Judges, a certain Elimelech, of 
Bethlehem-Jndah, i.e., of Bethlehem in Judah 
as distinguished from Beth-le-hem in Zetmlun 
(Josh. xix. 15), to escape a famine then raging, 
went to Moab with his wife, Naomi, and his 
two sons, Mahlon and Chilion, who married 
two Moabitesses, Orpah and Ruth. There all 
the male members of the family died, and the 
widoweil Naomi, hearing that the famine was 
over, thought of returning home. Orpah, 
after starting with her, was prevailed on to 
return ; Ruth, the heroine of the narrative, 
could not be persuaded to go back, and hav- 
ing, after reaching Bethlehem, gone into the 
fields as a gleaner, she attracted the notice of 
Boaz, an aged kinsman, with whom she made 
a romantic, marriage, ultimately becoming the 
great-grandmother of King David, and an 
ancestress of Jesus Christ (Matt i. 5). The 
Book of Ruth is a beautiful idyllic composi- 
tion. It was penned not earlier than the time 
of David (ch. iv. 22), and probably much later, 
for there had been time for customs existent 
in the days of Boaz and Ruth to change (7). 
The narrative is in pure Hebrew, but there 
are Arair.oeanisms in the dialogues. Most 
critics place its composition before, but Ewald 
during, the Exile. Its canonicity has never 
been doubted. 

ruth' -a (th as t), . [Hind., Mahratta, 4c.] 
A carriage on two low wheels, sometimes 
highly ornamented ; a car ; a war chariot 
(Used of the car of Juggernaut, Ac.) (Soft 

Ru the'-nl-j^n. a. 4 *. [RUTHENIUM.] 

A. At adj. : Belonging to or characteristic 
of the Christians described under B. 

B. As substantive : 

Church HM. (PL): The name given to 
Christiana who use the Greek liturgy, trans- 
lated into Old Sclavonic, but profess obedience 
to the Pope. They are descendants of con- 
verts from the Russian Church, who have 
kept their old rites and discipline. 
The Kurgan, have a mantel 

Cart. Diet., p. 730. 

ru-then'-ic. a. [Eng. ruthenium); -fc.] 

Derived from ruthenium (q.v.> 
ruthenic acid, . [RUTHENIUM-OXIDES 

rn-the'-nl-um, a. [See extract.] 

ruthenic rye 

2. Causing ruth or pity ; piteous. 

" O Ulat mi death would My tbeae rutV"' deeds I" 
Shattw. : 3 Senru > /., ll. i. 

* 3. Rueful, woful, sorrowful. 

ruth'-f ul-iy, ad". [Eng. ruthfid ; -ly.} In a 
ruthful manner; sorrowfully, mournfully, 
sadly, piteously. 

ruth -less, a. (Eng. ruth, : -Im.] Having or 
feeling no ruth or pity ; pitiless ; insensible 
to the miseries or sufferings of others. 

" Struggling in vain with rut\l*a destiny." 

: ^reunion, bk. Tl 


turn. 11. (Pt. ID, 449. 

Chem A tetrad metallic element discovered 
by Osann in 1828, and first isol t d ',, ) y. C . lsas : 
1846. Symbol, Ru. Atomic weight 104. Itoccurs 
In platinum ores, chiefly in osmiridium, and li 
separated from the latter by heating to red- 
ness a mixture of this ore and common salt in 
a current of moist chlorine. By digestion in 
cold water an extract is obtained from which 
ammonia throws down the oxides of ruthe 
nium and osmium. The latter is expelled by 
heat and the former converted into ruthenate 
of potassium by fusion with potash, which 
yields oxide of ruthenium on addition of nitric 
acid On ignition in a stream of hydrogen 
the oxide is reduced to the metallic state in 
the form of porous fragments. With the ex- 
ception of osmium it is the most refractory of 
all metals, but can be fused in the hottest 
part of the oxyhydrogen blow-pipe. It then 
las a density of 11 to H'4, and is scarcely 
attacked by nitro-muriatic acid. 
ruthenium-chlorides, . pk 
Chem Ruthenium forms three chlorides: 

8) Bichloride, RuCl ? ; produced when pow- 
sred ruthenium is ignited in a stream of 
chlorine. It remains as a black crystalline 
powder, insoluble in water and in all acids. 
(2) Trichloride, RuCl 3 ; prepared by dis- 
lolving in hydrochloric acid the black pre- 
cipitate obtained from rutheniate of potassium 
by addition of an acid. It is a yellow-brown 
crystalline mass, easily soluble in water and 
alcohol. Witli snlphocyanide of the alkalis it 
yields a red coloration, changing to deep 
violet onjieating. (3) Tetrachloride, RuCU ; 
known onlv in combination in its double salts, 
t.g., K.,RuCl, which crystallizes in regular 
transparent octahedrons. 

ruthenium-oxides, s. pi. 

Chem. : Ruthenium forms five oxides : (1) 
Protoxide RuO, obtained by calcination of 
the dichloride, has a dark-gray colour, and 
Is not acted on by acids. (2) Sesouioxide, or 
rnthenious oxide, Ru 2 O s , produced when pul- 
verised ruthenium is heated in contact with 
the air, has a deep blue colour, and is in- 
aoluble in acids. (3) Dioxide, or ruthenio 
oxide, RuO z , formed by roasting the disul- 
phide. It is a black-blue powder with a 
tinge of green. (4) Trioxide, RuO 8 , commonly 
called rutheuic acid, is known in combination 
with potash, and is produced when ruthenium 
is fused with potash and nitrate of potassium. 
(5) Tetroxlde, RnO 4 , produced by passing 
chlorine into a solution of the fused mass ob- 
tained by heating ruthenium with potash and 
nitre. This volatile oxide passes over and 
condenses on the neck of the retort. It is 
golden-yellow and crystalline, volatilizes at 
ordinary temperatures, melts at 58, boils at 
1CMP, and is heavier than sulphuric acid. Is 
sparingly soluble in water. 
ruthenium-sulphide, s. [LADBITB.] 

rtth-er-ford-ite, .. [After Rutherford 
county, North Carolina, where found; suff. 

Min. : A monoclinic mineral, found in 
crystals and grains. Hardness, 5'5 ; sp. gr. 
6'58 to 5-69 ; colour, blackish-brown ; lustre, 
vitreo-resinous; opaque, but translucent in 
thin fragments; fracture, conchoidaL Stated 
to contain 58'5 per cent, of titanic acid and 10 
per cent, of lime. 

ruth -fnl, a. [Eng.-rufli;.JW(0.] 

1. Full of ruth, pity, or tenderness ; com- 
, merciful. 

rnth'-less-ly, adv. [Eng. ruthleti ; -ly.] In 
a ruthless manner ; pitilessly, cruelly. 

Like Herod, lie had rulhleuti/ 
Slaughtered the Innocent*." 

LmvfeUta: Birdt of KUHnguorth. 

ruth'-lSss-ness, s. [Eng. rviMea; -was.] 
The quality or state of being ruthless ; in- 
sensibility to the miseries or sufferings of 
others ; p'itilessness. 

rnt'-lc, o. [Mod. Lat. rut(a) ; Eng. suff. -fc.] 
Contained in, or derived from rue. 
rutlo-acld, s. [CAPRIC-ACID.) 

ru-tl-cll'-la, s. [Formed on analogy of mota- 
cilta, from 'Lat. rutilus = red, shining, and 
cilia = to set in motion.] 

Ornith. : The modern synonym of Phoeni- 
cura (q.v.). Twenty species, from Palsearctic 
and Oriental legions to Senegal and Abyssinia, 
and east to Timor. 

ru-tl-9tt-ll'-n8B, . pi. [Mod. Lat. ruticilUa); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -itus.] 

A sub-family of Sylviid* (q.v.). 

rU'-tll, > [ROTILE.] 

ru-tMa, . [RuTELA.J 

* ru'-tH-ant, <>~ [Lat. rutHam, pr. par. of 

rutilo = to make or be reddish ; rvt Hut = red ; 

Fr. rutilanl; Sp. & Ital. rutilante.} Shining, 


Parchment, coloured ltb vUi rutiUt mlitui*' 
XKlyn . Siitta. bk. II, ch. iv.. j I. 

ru'-til-ate, .i. [Lat. ratttoftw, pa. par. of 
rutilo.] [RDTILAUT.) To shine, to glitter. 

ru'-tfle, * [Lat. rutilta = fiery red.] 

Kin : A widely distributed mineral, occur- 
ring mostly in crystals, occasionally massive. 
Crystallization tetragonal. Much twinned, by 
repetition of the same twin often assuming a 
genioulated appearance. Hardness, 6 to 6'5 ; 
sp gr 4-18 to 4-25; lustre, metallic-adamantine; 
colour, red to reddish-brown, yellowish, black ; 
streak brown ; transparent to opaque ; frac- 
ture, sub-conchoidal to uneven. Compos.: 
oxygen, 39; titanium, 61=100, correspond- 
ing with the formula TiO 2 . Dana divides this 
species into: (1) Ordinary, which includes 
the brownish-red and other shades ; sp. gr. 
4-18-4-22, and the acicular varieties (sagenite 
or crispite, q.v.), often enclosed in rock crystal ; 
(2) Ferriferous : colour black, (a) nigrine, (6) 
ilmenorntile ; (3) Chromiferous, colour grass- 
green, owing to oxide of chromium. Found 
distributed in granite, gneiss, mica-schists, 
and sometimes in granular limestones. 

ru'-titt-ia, . [Eng. rutU(e) ; -in (Cim.).] 

Chem. : The resinous substance produced by 
the action of strong sulphuric acid on salicin. 

ru-tl-li'-nte. . pi. [Rrjrin,ra.B.] 
ru'-tU-tte, *. [RcTiLB.1 

ru'-tfat, . [Mod. Lat. ruKa); -* (Chm.).] 

Chem. : CaHagOiB- Melin. Rntlnlc acid. 
Vegetable yellow. A glucoside widely dif- 
fused in the vegetable kingdom. It has been 
separated from garden rue, capers, and waifa. 
It Is deposited from a boiled vinegar extract 
of the plant in an impure state, and on re- 
crystallization from weak acetic acid and 
treatment with charcoal it is obtained nearly 
pure. It forms pale yellow delicate needles, 
which melt at 120. and dissolve easily in 
boiling water, alcohol, and acetic acid. Rutin 
is coloured dark-green with ferric chloride, 
and when boiled with dilute mineral acids Is 
converted into sugar and quercetin. 
rutin sugar, . 

Chem. : A sugar isomeric with glucose, and 
produced when rutin is boiled with dilute 
sulphuric acid. Afterremovalofthesnlphunc 

acid, and the quercetin, which is also formed, 
it can be obtained as a colourless uncrystal- 
lizable syrup by precipitation with ether from 
an alcoholic solution. It has no action OD 
polarised light, is not fermentable, but reduce* 
cuprate of potassium in the cold. 

ru-tin'-Ic, a. [Eng. rutin; -tc.] (See com- 

rutlnlc-acid, s. [ROTIK.] 
rutf-Sd, pa. par. or a. [Ror, .] 

rut-ter (1), . [Eng. rut (1), v. ; .) One 
who ruts. 

* rut' -tor (2), s. [Dut. ruiter; Ger. reiter = 
rider.] A horseman, a horse-soldier, a trooper. 

" The prince finding Inn ruttm alert." r B. Wit 
Maim .- Action a/the IM CouMria, p. 87. (HIS.) 

rut'-ter-kln, . [A dimin. or contemptu- 
ous form of rutter (2).] (See etym.) 

" Such a rout of regular rutterkinx. some bellowing 
Sliitxtori, sign. G. vi. 

* rut'-tl-er, i. [Fr. nuti*r, from route = a 
route (q.v.).] 

1. A direction for the route or road, whether 
by land or sea. 

2. An old traveller, acquainted with roads ; 
an old soldier. 

* rut'-ttsn, o. [Eng. rut (l), v. ; -faM Lust. 
ful, libidinous, lecherous. 

" A Iooll.h idle boy ; but (or all that very ruttf*."- 
Skakap.: All'l If til Otal JfmU IfM, Iv. S. 

rut-tfah-nSss, . [Eng. rutUsh ; -nea.\ The 
quality or state of being ruttish, 

rut-tie, . [RATTLE, .) 
rut-tin, . [Native name.] (See componnd.) 
rutton - root, a. An Indian dye-root, 

Maharanga Emodi. 
riif-ty (1), a. [Eng. nt (2), 8. ; -.] Full of 

ruts ; cut up by wheels. 

" The Impediment o( the ruOjr cart traek oreroom*' 
Fifld. Feb. la, 1BU. 

1,0. [for rooty.} Full of roots. 

ru'-tyl, a. [Eng. nd(in); -*t.] 

Chm. : Ci H 19 0. Capryl. The radical of 
rutic or capric acid. The name is incorrectly 
applied to Decyl (q.v.). 

ru'-tjfl-ene, . [Eng. rvtyl ; -.] 

Chen. : C 10 H] 8 . A hydrocarbon, polymeric 
with acetylene, produced by the action of 
alcoholic potash on tribromide of diamylene. 
It is a colourless liquid having an agreeable 
odour, is lighter than water, and boils about 
150. It is soluble in alcohol and ether, na 
is a very unstable compound. 

ry-ao'-d-lite, . [RHTACOLITK.J 

* ry-bauld, s. & o. [RIBALD.] 

ry'-der, . [RIDEB.] 

rye (1), * reye, . 1 A-8. rygt ; Icel. rigr; 8w. 
rig; Dut. rogge; Ger. roggen. From the 
Teutonic type ruga = rye.] 

1 Bat Semle cereal*. The glnmes are one- 
nerved and shorter than the spikelet, the 
rachis is very tough. Not known in a wild 
state. It is the prevailing grain cultivated in 
the south of Sweden and Norway, in Denmark, 
Holland, the north of Germany, and part of 
Siberia. It is cultivated in the United Mates, 
chiefly for the making of whiskey. It grows 
on poor soils unsuitable for wheat. The value 
of rye is about two-thirds that of wheat ; its 
nutritious properties are to those of wheat as 
about 64 to 71. When formerly mixed with 
wheat it was called Meelin. It is the chief 
grain from which Hollands, or Holland gin, IB 

2. A disease in a hawk. 

rye-grass, . 

Bot. it Auric. : The genus Lolium, specil 
perenne, an excellent grass to mix with othere 
for permanent pastures, or to be sown free 
from admixture as part of tie rotation of 
crops. The variety E Halica is more valu 
able than the normal type. 


rye Sabbath 

rye-house, . 


A house in which rye is 

Bye House Plot : 

Sup. Hist. : A real or alleged plot which was 
designed to be executed in the vicinity of Rye 
House on the Lea, near Broxbourne, in Herts. 
A waggon, it is said, was to have been over- 
turned in a narrow lane in front of the royal 
carriage bringing Charles II. and the Duke of 
York (afterwards James II.) from Newmarket 
races. When the vehicle stopped, both were 
to have been shot A fire at Newmarket, 
March 22, 1683, delayed their retnrn, and, on 
June 12, the plot was discovered. On July 
21, Lord William Russell and, on December 7, 
Algernon Sidney were executed for alleged 
participation in the plot. The proprietor of 
the Rye House, Rumbold, and others also 
suffered. (See example under BOOTED, *fi 2.) 

rye-land, s. Inferior land suitable for 
the cultivation of rye (q.v.). 

rye-starch, . 

Chem. : The starch or flour of rye. The 
granules are larger 
than those of wheat 
or barley, some be- 
ing -0016 of an inch 
In diameter. The 
form of the largest 
granules is that of 
flattened disc 
with a depressed 
centre, having 
cracks on its outer 
edge. Thehilumis 
central, with lines 
radiating almost to 
the circumference. 
Rice -starch is 


(Magnified 100 diameter*,) 

sometimes used to adulterate wheat flour. 

rye (2), . [See del] A gipsy term for a young 
man. Romany rye = a young gipsy. 

ryke, v.i. [REACH, t>.) 
ryn'-chops, . [RHYNCHOPS.] 

rynd, . [Etym. doubtful.] 

Grintling-mill : The ball which supports the 
runner on the head of the spindle. 

ry'-it, s. [Arab, ra' iyat = the governed 
a subject, a peasant.] A Hindu cultivator of 
the soil ; a peasant who holds lands under the 
system of ryotwar (q.v.). 

ry'-it-war, ry-it-war'-ee', t. [Hind., Ac. 
rayatwari.] A system of assessment carried 
out in Madras by which the government enters 
Into direct relations with the cultivator, set- 
ting aside all middlemen and village com- 
munities, and taxes him only for the land 
actually taken into cultivation. Since 1858 
the system has been remodelled and improved 
There is fixity of assessment for thirty years. 

*rytll,. [Etym. doubtful.) A ford. 
ry'-tt-dSm, s. [RHYTIDOMA.] 
ry-ti'-na, t. 

ry-tj-phloo-a, . , 

Tinkle, and $Aoio (phloios) = the rind or 

[Or. pvrt{ (rhutts) = a 

bark. So named because the 

marked by numerous transverse rugosities.] 

Sot.: A genus of Rhodomeleaj. British 
pecies four. Rytiphlaa tinctoria yields a red 
dye called by the Romans Fucus. 

ryve,v.t [RIVE.] 


S, the nineteenth letter and the fifteenth con- 
sonant of the English Alphabet, represents a 
hissing sound, and is classed as a sibilant " In 
pronouncing , we touch the gum with a part of 
the tongue just above that part which is used 
In pronouncing the palatals ; but we touch 
the gum so lightly, and with the tongue so 
broadened out that we do not stop the out- 
ward flow of the breath completely : it oozes 
forth with that hissing sound which, whether 
in the human organ or in any other machine 
invariably results from the rapid flow of air 

' through a contracted passage." (Beames: 

Camp. Gran. Aryan Lang. (ed. 1872), i. 217 
There are two sounds attached to this lette 
in English ; the one surd, or uttered wit 
breath merely, the other sonant or voiced 
The flrst is a mere hissing sound, as in sin, so 
Ac. ; the other is exactly the same as that o 
*, as in music, mvse, Ac. S in some words, a 
isle, island, viscount, is silent. It Is closel 
allied to r, and even in the oldest English w 
have traces of the interchange, as in frore = 
froren frosen (frozen), gecoren = chosen, Ac. t 
has become st in hoist = hoise, whilst whiles 
Ac. It has been changed into c, as in mice = 
O. Eng. mys, once = O. Eng. ones, hence 
= O. Eng. henna, Ac. With a following h i 
forms a digraph, a weakening of an older am 
stronger sound sc, as shall = O. Eng. sceal, list 
= O. Eng. fsc, Ac. It has been changed int< 
ge, as In cabbage = Fr. cubits ; Lat cabusia 
sausage = Fr. saucisse ; Lat salsiiia. In pick 
(tee, owing to a mistaken etymology, it has 
become x. In Romance words s has passec 
into sh, as radish = Lat. radix; cash Fr. caise 
chaste = Lat. cojiso. From some words it has 
disappeared as in pea = O. Eng. pise = Lat 
pisttm ; hautboy = Fr.- hautbois ; puny = Fr 
puisne, Ac. In a few words we find an in 
truded s, as in island = O. Eng. ealand, igland, 
aisle = Fr. aile; squeeze, sneeze, scratch, smelt, 
Ac. It is represented by t in dizzy = O. Eng. 
dysig; freeze = O. Eng. freosan. In O. Eng. sc 
and sp were frequently transposed to cj and 
ps, as in ask = O. Eng. oxian, clatped = 
elapsed. S is an exceedingly common letter in 
English. It is the characteristic sign of the 
genitive case and plurals of nouns. 

S. As an initial is used for South, as in 
8. W. = South- West ; for Society, as F.R 8 = 
Fellow of the Royal Society ; for Saint, or 
double (SS.) for Saints. 
S. As a symbol is used : 

1. As a numeral for 7, and with a dash over 
It, 8, for 7,000. 

2. In chemistry for the element Sulphur. 
a, sae, coi^. * adv. (So.) 

sa'-adh, . [SADB.] 
sab-a-dir-la, . [CEVADILLA.] 
sabadilla gum -resin, s. 
CVm. : CooHMNaOj. Hydrosabadilllne. The 
resin of Sabadilla seeds. It 'melts at 165, is 
soluble in alcohol, insoluble in ether, and has 
an alkaline reaction. 

B&b-a-dlT-llo, o. tEng. KbadUl(a); -to.] 
Derived from sabadilla seeds. [ 

sabadllllo-aold, s. [CEVADIC-ACID.] 

ab-a-dll -line, . [Mod. Lat tabadUUa); 
-ine (Chem.).] 

Chem. : C^oHagNoOs. An organic base ob- 
tained by exhausting Sabadilla seeds with al- 
cohol of sp. gr. 0-844. It crystallizes in stellate 
groups of cubic crystals which melt at 200% 
but decompose at a higher temperature ; is 
slightly soluble in hot water, very soluble in 
alcohol, insoluble in ether. Strong mineral 
acids decompose it but it forms salts with 
dilute sulphuric and nitric acid*. 

sa-bn'-an, . [SABIAB.] 

sa-bte' an Ism, s. [SABIAKISM.] 

sa bre-Um, sa -ba-ism, . [SABIAKIS.I.] 

a'-bal, . [Name given by Adanson. It is 
supposed to have no meaning.] 

1. Bot.: The typical genus of Sabalidse 
(q.v.). Leaves Ian-shaped ; calyx cup-shaped 
three-cut ; petals three ; stamens six ; fruits 
round, or deeply two- or three-lobed with 
one homy seed. Known species eight or nine. 
Sabal Palmetto is the Palmetto palm (q.T.X 

2. Palvont. : From the Lignite of America, 
the Lower and Middle Eocene of Britain and 
the Oligocene of Vevay. 

sa-bal -I-das. .. pi. [Mod. Lat tabal; Lat 
fern. pi. adj. sun*, -idee.} 
Bot. : A family of Coryphea. 

a-ba -6th, . [Or. tafi^e (SabaStK) ; Heb. 
m0?(iM6Aao<A, pi. of >V?('WMi)=anarmy, 
spec. (1) the angelic army, (2) the army of the 
sky, viz., the sun, moon, and stars.) 

n. 1 vV' i Host8 ' ** armfe8 (e etym.) in 
the title Ood or Lord of Sabaoth, given to the 
Supreme Being (Bom. ir. 29; James v. 4). 

It corresponds to Lord of Hosts of the Old 

Testament. (1 Sam. i. 11 ; Psalms lix. 5, Ac.) 

* 2. Erroneously used for Sabbath (q.v.). 

" The Jew. doo reckon their dales by their dlatnc 
frm V l . r ?<*>< i the tint dale of their 
weeke lathe Brut dale of the tabaatlt and eo lorth."- 
HolinAed : Oacr. o/ E,,gland. ch. xiv. 

a-ba -thl an, s. [SABBATHIAN.] 

sab'-a-trine, s. [Formed from snbadilla 
(q.v.), on analogy of veratrine.] 

Chem.: CstHsgNjO^. An alkaloid dis- 
covered by Weigelin in saoadilla seeds 
forms an 


forms an uncrystallizable resin-like mass 
slightly soluble in water, soluble in alcohol! 
ether, chloroform, and benzol, and neutralize* 
acids forming salts. 

sab-ba -tar'-J-an (1), a. & s. [Lat. sabbatariui 
(a.) = pertaining to the Sabbath, sabbatical; 
(s.) = a Sabbath-keeper, a Jew.) 

A. As adj. : Of or belonging to the Sabba- 
tarians [B.] 

" Sabbatarian paradoxes, and Apocalyptinvll fren. 
llee under the nauje and oorert of the true profeeiont,* 
Mountaffut: An Appeal* to Caftar. (DedJ 

B* As substantive : 

* 1. In the sixteenth century, one who 
considered that the Christian Sabbath should 
be kept on the seventh day (Saturday! 


and 18th centuries, who insisted strictly on keeping 
the seventh day jw their Sabbath, accorcMng to the 
letter of the divine injunction. It Is only by a 
modern misuse of the word that a SaUutariali Is 
understood to be one wlio abj ures all work yu Sunday " 
Daily Teltffraph, Dec. 19. 1886. 

2. One who holds that the Lord's day is 
to be observed among Christians in exnctly 
the same manner as the Jews were enjoined 
to keep the Sabbath ; one who holds rigid 
views of Sabbath observance. The Shorttr 
Catechism (Q. 60) says : 

n",P? Sa'bath i. to be sanctified by a holy restlnj 
all that day even from such worldly employments ud 
recreations as are lawful on other days ; and spending 
'he whole time in the publick and private eiercise. 
01 uod s worship, except so much as is to be taken 
up in the work of necessity and mercy." 

Sabbatarian Controversy, . 

Church Hist. : A controversy regarding the 
manner in which Sunday should be kept, 
arising out of the publication of King James's 
Book of Sports [SPORT, .), published in 1618, 
between the High Churchmen, who were 
generally in favour of the king's views, and 
the Puritans, who very strongly opposed 
them. Though the controversy has altered 
its form, and access to museums, libraries, 
and picture-galleries is now contended for 
it has not yet reached its end. 

Sab-ba-taf -I-an (2), o. A . [See def.] 

A. As adj. : Of or belonging to Sabbatiu*. 

B. At substantive : 

Church Hist. (PI.) : The followers of Sab- 
batins, who in the fourth century observed 
the Sabbath as a fast. 

sab-ba-tar I-an Ism, . [Eng. tabba- 
tarian (1) ; -*m.] The tenets of the 8abb. 

"A writer as much opposed as himself to tha 
Sabl>atari.initrn of the Puritans." Cox Litcratu** 
o/U4 SaUaa Qualion (1861). ii. SSX 

Sab-ba-ta'-ti, . jjj. [IsraiBBATATi.! 
Sab -bath. s. & a. [Hetj. nj* (shabbath) = 
Sabbath, from m^> (shabath) = to rest] 
A. As substantive : 

1. Old Test. : A sacred day of rest, the 
Institution of which is flrst mentioned In 
Gen. ii. 2-3 : 

"And on th seventh day God finished his work 
hlch he had made: and lie rested on the seventh 
day from all bis work which he had made. And Ood 
HSf* UM seventh day and hallowed It ; becauu 
that on it he rested from all his work which Ood bad 
created and made," A', f. 

The prevailing interpretation of these verses 
is that the Sabbath was instituted t the 
Creation for mankind in general, and that 
septenary institutions (q.v.) may therefore 
be expected in all nations. Prior to the 
giving of the law from Mount Sinai, th 
Sabbath is mentioned in connection with the 
descent of manna (Exod. xvi. 5, 22-SOX 
The keeping holy of the Sabbath is enjoined 
the fourth commandment in Exodus 
5^*2** SL Ood ' 8 having rested after the 
Creation (Exod. xi. 8-11); In Deut. because 
of the deliverance of the Hebrew bondsmen 

Sabbathless Sabianism 


from Egypt (Deut. v. 12-15). Two lambs 
instead of one were offered when it came 
(cl'. Num. xxviii. 3-4 with ver. 9). Isaiah 
(Ivi. 2, Iviii. 13) strongly advocated its ob- 
servance. [SABBATH-BREAKING.] 

2. New Test. : Always in the gospels, and as 
a rule in the other books, Sabbath means 
tlie seventh day of the week. By this time 
its observance had become very rigid and 
punctilious, and Jesus himself was constantly 
denounced by the Pharisees and others as a 
Saiilath-bren'ker (Matt. xii. 1-2; Mark ii. 
2-3. Ac'.X In self-defence he laid down this 
principle : " The Sabbath was made for man, 
and not man for the Sabbath : therefore the 
Son of Man is Lord also of the Sabbath " 
;cf. Matt. xii. 8 with Mark ii. 28). In the 
epistles the keeping of the Jewish Sabbath is 
left optional with Christians (CoL ii. 16-17) ; 
the day for them is the Lord's day (q.v.) 
(Rev. i. 10). 

3. Theol. S: Church Hist. : For the first three 
centuries the Christian fathers in general 
drew a distinction between the Sabbath and 
the Sunday or Lord's day, regarding the 
former as Jewish and obsolete, and the latter 
as a divinely instituted day, joyous in its 
character as commemorating Christ's re- 
surrection. But from the days of the first 
and ambiguous edict of Constantine on the 
subject : 

"Let all Judges. Inhabitant! of the cities, and 

artificers, rest on the venerable Sunday Mies solisj. 

But husbandmen may freely and at their pleasure 

apply to the business of agriculture." 

there was an increasing tendency to transfer 
to the Sunday and, in a less degree, to saints' 
days and minor festivals the restrictions of 
the Jewish Sabbath. The third Council of 
Orleans (A.D. 538) strove to cheek this ten- 
dency, but in the same century we find 
legends of miraculous judgments on those 
who worked on the Sunday (Migne : PatroL, 
Ixxii. 61). The idea of the " Christian Sab- 
bath " seems to be enunciated for the first 
time in Alcnin (HomiL xviii. post Pent.). 
Smith (Christ. Antiq., ii. 1,052) says "that the 
general teaching of the schoolmen follows the 
express declaration of Aquinas, 'that the ob- 
servance of the Lord's Day in the New Law 
supersedes the observance of the Sabbath, 
not by obligation of the (divine) law, but by 
the ordinance of the Church and the custom 
of the Christian people.' " The Reformers 
generally were opposed to Sabbatarian views, 
which, however, more or less modified, have 
found a place in Protestant churches gene- 
rally, and reached their height in the Puritan 
period. Sabbath observance is stricter in 
Scotland than in England, and in England 
than on the Continent. (For the practice of 
many Londoners in Byron's time see Childe 
Harold, i., Ixix., tot,) [SABBATABIAS CONTBO- 


If In the middle ages Sabbath meant only 
Saturday. According to the elder Disraeli, it 
was first used in England for Sunday in 1554. 


5. The Sabbatical year among the Israelites. 

"In the seventh year shall be a t'tbbnth of rest unto 
the land, afoftoaJA for the Lvrd.'Leviticut xxv. 4. 

6. A time of rest ; intermission of pain or 

" Never any uAbath of release 
Could free his travels and afflictions deep." 

Daniel : Cieit Wart. 

B. As adj. : Of or belonging to the Sabbath, 
or to sacred text. 

", When the bells of Rylatone play'd 
Their Sabbath music' God us ayde I ' " 

H'ordtworth : White Doe of Rylitone, viL 

Sabbath-breaker, . One who breaks, 
violates, or profanes the Sabbath by neglect- 
ing the religious observance of that day. 

" The usurer Is the greatest tabbath-breaker. because 
his plough goeth every Sunday." Bacon : Euaj/t. 

Sabbath-breaking, . & a. 

A. At svbst. : The act of breaking, profan 
ing, or violating the Sabbath 

1. Jtvtish times : Moses, by the divine com- 
mand, punished with death a man who 
gathered sticks on the Sabbath (Num. xv. 
82-36). Nehemiah put an end to secular 
work among the Jews and the heathen 
Tyrians who came to traffic at Jerusalem 
(Neh. xiii. 15-22). 

2. Christian limes : The edict of Constantine 
[SABBATH] of course carried with it penalties 
on those who disregarded it. Legislation in 
favour of the Sabbath naturally followed in 
most Christian countries. In England 

statutes on the subject were passed under 
Athelstan, Henry VI., Charles I., &c. By 
the statute 29 Chas. II. c. 7., still in force : 

" No person is allowed to work on the Lord's day, or 
use any boat or barge, or expose any goods to sale, 
except meat in public houses, milk at certain hours, 
and works of necessity or charity, on forfeiture of Ss. 
Nor shall any drover, carrier, or the like travel upon 
that day, under pain of soe." 

The laws of colonial New England, enacted by 
the Puritans, and ordinarily known as the "blue 
laws " contained severe and stringent measures 
against Sabbath-breaking. Though these edicts 
have become obsolete, laws passed in the last 
century remain on the statute books of several 
of the states, and are occasionally revived, to 
the annoyance of the Americans of to-day. 

" Profanation of the Lord's dar, vulgarly (but Im- 
properly) called tnbbath-brtakiJts. BlackitOHf : Com- 
Si.nZ.Sk. 1..CU. (. 

B. As adj. : Breaking, or given to breaking 
the Sabbath. 
Sabbath (lair's Journey, a. 

Judaism : A very short journey, so as not 
to interfere with the rest of the Sabbath. 
The Mosaic law does not precisely define it. 
Practically it was fixed at 2,000 yards, because 
the fields of the suburbs for the pasture of 
the Levites' flocks and herds measured 2,000 
yards across. (Acts i. 12.) 

Sabbath school, 9. [SUNDAY-SCHOOL.) 

* sab' bath less, a. [Eng. sabbath; -las.] 
Having no Sabbath ; without intermission of 

" Tet this Incessant and tabbatMeu pursuit of a 
man's fortune leaveth not that tribute which we owe 
to God." Bacon : Advancement of Learning, bk. ii. 

sab bat i a, . [Named after L. Sabbati, an 
Italian botanist.] 

Bat. : A genus of Gentianaceae. Calyx and 
corolla five to twelve partite. Handsome 
North American plants, containing a pure 
bitter principle. The young stems of Sabbatia 
angularis are given in the United States as a 

sab bat ic, sab-bat -Ic-al, o. [Let. 

'sabbaticus, from sabbatum = sabbath (q.v.) ; 
Fr. sabbatigue : Sp. & Ital. tabatico.] Per- 
taining or relating to the Sabbath ; resembling 
the Sabbath ; bringing or enjoying an inter- 
mission of labour. 

"The famous tabbatical river for six days bears all 
before It with a mlfthty torrent, and carries stonea of 
such incredible bigness that tbere Is no passing over 
It: the admirable nature of that river is, that it kepB 
the talfbath and rests all that day." StSUin&Mt : Ser- 
mon*, ser. 8. 

sabbatical year, . 

Judaism : The name given to every seventh 
year, during which the Hebrews were not to 
sow their fields or prune their vineyards (cf. 
Exod. xxiii. 10, 11 ; Lev. xxv. 2-7 ; Deut. xv. 
1-11 ; xxxi. 10-13). 

* sab bat Ism, t. [Or. o-o.3imo-u.<x (<a!>- 
batismos), from o-a/30o.Ti'fco (sabbatizo) = to 
keep the Sabbath ; Lat. sabbatismus ; Fr. sab- 
batitme ; Sp. & Ital. sabatismo.} Observance 
of the Sabbath ; rest, intermission. 

" This U that tabbntitm, or rest, that the author to 
the Hebrews exhorts them to strive to enter Into 
through faith and obedience." Mttrt: Conjtaura 
CaUoHsttca, p. 210 {16531. 

t sab-bat ize, ... [Or. vaflpaTif* (sabbatt- 


" The tendency to inbbatizt the Lord's day Is doe 
chiefly to the necessities of legal enforcement" 
Smith : CArilt Antiy.. it 1.053. 

&b -ba-ton, s. [O. Fr. sabatine, from sabot.' 
Old Arm. : A round-toed, armed covering 
for the foot, worn during a part of the six- 
teenth century. 

sab'-bire, . [Etym. doubtful) A piece of 
timber ; a beam. 

sab dar if fa, . [From the specific name 
of the" plant.] 
Bot. : HibiKiu Sabdariffa. 

Sa-be'-an, a. 4 *. [SABIAN (2).) 
Sa -be ism, s. [SABIASISM.I 

sa bel-ine, a. [Low Lat tabtllimt.1 Per 
taining to, of the nature of, or resembling 
sable (q.v.). 

sa-bel -la, . [Lat. sabulum.] 

Zool. : The typical genus of the sub-family 
8al>ellinffi. Mouth transverse, across gills 
gills two, feathery; funnel comb -shaped 

spiral, and large. Stopper cylindrical. Front 
tubercles with hooks and bristles. Tube ge 
latinous, covered with sand. The Fan Sabella 
(Sabella pmicittus, sometimes called AmpM- 
trite venlilabrum) is common on the British 
coast. [AMPHITRITK, 2.] 

sab el la na. *. [Lat. sabidum = gravel.] 
Geol. : Coarse sand or gravel. 

Sa-bel -U-an, a. & s. [See def.J 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to any form ot 

B. As subsl. : One who adopts any form of 
Sabellianism (q.v.). 

Sa-bei'-ll-an-ism, s. [Eng. Sabellian ; -ism.) 
Church Hist. : The name given to any form 
of doctrine which denies a real distinction 
between the Persons of the Trinity : 

1. Patripassianism (q.v.). 

2. The doctrine of the adherents of Sahellins 
(an African presbyter of the third century), if 
not of Sabellius himself. It resolved the 
doctrine of the Trinity into three manifesta- 
tions of Qod to man, and taught that the same 
Person was the Holy Ghost when manifesting 
himself to the Christian Church, and, by 
parity of reasoning, the Son, when be ap- 
peared in Christ. Thus Patripassianism was 
avoided, but the Incarnation, as well as the 
Trinity, was denied, for the manifestation of 
God in Christ could differ only in degree, not 
in kind, from his union with other holy men. 
Akin to this teaching was that of Marcellus 
(bishop of Ancyra in the early part of the 
fourth century), who made the Logca a mere 
attribute of God, manifesting itself in tli 
Creation, the Incarnation, and the sanctifica- 
tion of Christians. 

sab-el-li-nas. . pi. [Mod. Lat. sabelKA; 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. guff. -ijuE.J 
Zool. : A sub-family of Serpulidse (q.v.). 

sa'-ber.s. [SABRE.] (Amtr.) 

sa'-bi-a, s. [Bengalee soobja t the name of 
one species.] 

J5of.. 'The typical genus of Sabiacea?. Shrubs 
with climbing branches, entire leaves, and 
small greenish flowers, from Asia. 

sa-bl a'-96-, . pi. [Mod. Lat. sabi(a); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -accte.] 

Bot. : A small order of Hypogynous Exogens, 
alliance Rutales. Climbing plants, with al- 
ternate exstipulate leaves ; flowers few, in 
short axillary panicles; sepals live, small, 
persistent, with coloured dots ; petals five, 
with rows of red glandular dots, persistent ; 
stamens, equal in number to the petals, and 
opposite to them ; filaments, short ; drupes, 
two, rounded, sub-reniform ; seed solitary. 

Sa bi an (1), Sa bo -an, Sa bte an (U 
o. & t. [See def.) 

A. As adj. : Of or pertaining to Saba, the 
chief city of that part of Arabia now called 

B. As suhst. : An inhabitant or native of 
Saba. They were extensive merchants of 
spices, perfumes, precious stones, &c., which 
they imported from India. 

Sa -bi an (2), Sa bee -an (2), Sa-bai -an, 

O. & 5. [SAI1IANI9H.J 

A. As substantive : 

1. A professor of Sabianism (q.v.X 

2. A name erroneously given to the Oriental 
sect called Christians of St John. [Jons (1), 

B. As adj. : Of or belonging to Sabianism 
(q.v.), or to the Christians of St John. [A. 2.) 

Sa bi an ism, Sa bw an Ism, Sa ba- 
ism, Tsa'-ba-ism, s. [According to the pro- 
fessors of Sabianism, derived from Tsabi, the 
son or brother of Enoch, but more probably 
from J5> (tseba) [SABAOTH], implying that 
they worshipped the host of heaven.) 

Compar. Belig. : A faith which recognized the 
unity of God, but worshipped angels or intel- 
ligences supposed to reside in the stars, and 
guide their motions, whence the lapse, at least 
on the part of the common people, to the wor- 
ship of the stars became easy. They had sacri- 
fices and sacred days, and believed in a future 
state of retribution. They were once numerous 
in Arabia, Syria, and Mesopotamia, and their 

bttU, IwJy; pint. J<fiW; cat, cell, ohorna, 9hln, bench; go, gem; thin, thl*: sin, us; expect, Xenophon, exist, ph -ft 
= sian, -tion, -sion = shun ; -tion, -floa = zian. -cloua, -Uous, -.dona = ahiatv, -bio, -die, 4c. = bel, del. 


sabicu saccharin 

aacred books were in Syriac. The early Mu- 
hammadans did not rank them with poly- 

ab'-I-ou, s. [SAVJCU.] 

Ab -ine, 5. (Lat. saMnus. See def.] 
Bot. : Juniperus Sabina. 

" Stibin* or aaviu will make floe hedge*." JA>rft- 
mer: Ilutb indry. 

a bin-e -a, *. [Named after J. Sabine, a 
secretary o"f the Lond. Horticult. Soc.] 

Bot. : A genus of Galegeae. Schombnrgk 
ays that the violet blossoms of Sabinea Jlorida 
are dangerous. 

a-bi'-no, s. [SABINE.] (See compound.) 
sabino tree. s. 
Bot. : Taxodinm distichum. 

a ble, s. & a. [O. F., from Russ. gobo1e = 
the sable, a boa, a tippet ; Low Lat. sabel am. ; 
Dut. sabel; Dan. sabel, zobel; 8w. sabel, sobel; 
Ger. fobel ; Sp. & Port, cebellina, tebellina ; 
Ital.tttetitno; Fr. zibelint.} 
A* As substantive : 
L Ordinary Language : 
L In the same sense as IL 2. 
8. The fur of of the sable. 
S. Applied fig. to black or mourning dress 
or garments. 

"'Tetdotb he live!' exclaim* the Impatient heir. 
And ighs tor tablet which he must not wear." 
Byrtm : Lara, i. 8. 

4. Sadness, mourn fulness, dulneas. 

" To clothe In table every tocial scene. " 

Cotffper : Ctmwertattan. 8T3 

IL Technically: 

L Her.: Black, one of the 
tinctures used in Mazonry. In 
engraving it is represented by 
perpendicular and horizontal lines 

2. Zool. : SfusteJa xibellina, the SABLE. 
most valuable of the fur-producing 
animals. It is found in the northern parts of 
Asia, and sable-hunting forms the chief occu- 
pation of many of Ihe Siberian tribes. Length, 

exclusive of tail, abont eighteen Inches, gen- 
eral colour brown, yellowish on throat. The 
for is extremely lustrous, and very valuable, 
an ordinary skin being worth six or seven 
pounds, and one of the finest quality will 
retch fifteen pounds. 

B, As adjective : 

L Hade of the fur of the sable. 

" I had a present from his daughter of * handsome 
table muff." Coot ; Third Voyage, bk. v. eh. Ix. 

2. Black ; of the colour of the sable ; dark. 

"And never of a tabter hue than now." 

Cooper ; Xxpottutatio*, 8M. 

able-antelope, a, 

Zool. : JEgoceros ni$er. 

able mouse, s. 

Zool. : The Lemming (q.v.), 

* sable stoled. a. Wearing a black stole 

Ot vestment. (Milton: Natii'ity, xxiv.) 

* sable-vested, a. Clothed in sables ; 
Covered with blackness or darkness. 

" Sable-vetted Nlghf JNttm : P. L., IL MS. 

a'-ble, v.t. [SABLE, 9.] To sablelze; to 
darken, to make dark or dismal. 

" And tabled all in bUck the shady sky." 

rittcher: Chritf* Triumph over Death. 

sa'-ble-ixe, tJ.(. [Eng. sable; -tee.] To make 
black or sable. (Davits: Paper's Complaint ,?*}.) 

ab li ere. s. [Fr., from table; Lat tabvlum 

= sand, gravel.) 
t *1 Ord. 7xjn0. : A sand-pit. 
S. Carp. ; A raising-piece (q.v.). 

sab -6t (t silent), *. [Pr.] 

1. Ord. Lang. : A wooden shoe made of one 
piece hollowed out by boring-tools and 
scrapers. The kinds of wood used are willow, 
poplar (Lombardy), beech, birch, aspen, ash, 
hornbeam, walnut. Sabots are worn by the 
peasants of France, Belgium, &c. 

" A ftutafn laufTitage, like the clattering noise of 
ta&olt'HrtimkaU : Agauut Sottoet, p. 20. 

2. itnin-rn'-f : 

(1) A circular block, usually of wood, liol- 
lowed outand fixed by tin straps to a (smooth- 

i projectile, so as to maintain its proper 
position in the bore of a gun, to prevent its 
upsetting in loading, wobbling in discharging, 
and to decrease windage by occupying the 
bore more perfectly than can be done by the 
projectile itself. 

(2) A gas-ring (q.v.X 

sa-bo -tl ere, s. [Fr. sabotiere, tarbotibv^ 
an ice-pail, for sorbetiere, frnm sorfnt = 
sherbet, an ice.] A Frein-h apparatus for 
milking ices. It consists of an outer pail of 
wood and an inner vessel of metal, to contain 
the cream to be iced. In the intervening 
space is a mixture of pounded ice and salt, 
or of sulphate of soda and hydrochloric acid. 
The contents of the inner vessel are agitated 
by a handle, and the frozen cream is occa- 
sionally scraped down. 

sa'-bre, (tore as ber), *sa'-ber, *, [Fr. 
sabre, from Ger. sabel, a word prob, of Hun- 

Sirian origin ; cf. Hung, szdbia = a sabre ; 
ut.,Dan., &Sw. sabel.] 

1. A sword having a curved blade, specially 
adapted for cutting. That for heavy cavalry 
has a slightly-curved heavy blade. The light 
cavalry sabre lias a lighter blade somewhat 
more curved. The horse-artillerv sabre is still 
shorter, lighter, and more curved, and has but 
one branch to the guard. 

2. A soldier armed with a sabre ; a horse- 

" He has alao a small body of cavalry, numbering 
UO tut>r*t."-itorniny Chronicle, Nov. 7. IBM. 

sabre toothed, a. Having teeth like 
sabres ; a term applied to the genus Machairo- 
dus (q.v.), on account of the extraordinary 
character of its dentition. 

" The mastodon . . . fell a prey to the great More* 
toothed feline Machairodu-." Vatokitu : Sarty Man 
<n Uritain, oh. I iL 

Sabre-toothed tiger : [MACHAIBODUS]. 

sa'-bre (bre as ber), v.t. [SABRE, .] To 
cut, strike, or kill with, a sabre ; to cut down. 

** Sabring the gunner* there." 
Tennyton: Cluirffeofthe Light Brigade, 

sa bre-taghe, sa bre-tasghe (bre as 

ber), . [Fr. sabretacke, from Ger. sabeltascht, 
from sabel =a sabre, and tasche a pocket.] 
A leather pocket suspended on the left side 
from the sword-belt of a cavalry officer. 

sib-U-lo*e, a. [SABULODS.) 
Bat. : Growing in sandy places. 

'-X-t#, s. [Lat *abulosu* = sandy ; 
from safri^um = sand.] The quality or state 
of being sabulous ; sandiuesa, grittiness. 

-u-lous, a. [Lat. sabulostis, from sabvlum 
= sand ; Fr. sabnleiLx ; 3p. sabuloso; Ital. sab- 
bioso.] Full of sand or grit ; sandy, gritty. 
(Applied chiefly to deposits in urine.) 

"ftabulom deposit* In the urine are of various 
kind*." Brande : Manual of Cktmittry, p. IBM. 

s6b ur ra tion, 9. [Lat. sa^rra = sand.] 
The application of hot sand, enclosed in a lu 
or bladder, to any part of the person ; sand- 

* S&C OX - [A.S. wcu.] [SAKE.] 

Law : The privilege enjoyed by a lord of a 
manor of holding courts, trying causes, and 
imposing fines. 

sac (2), s. [Lat. saccw = a bag, a sack (q.v.).] 
A bag, a cyst, a pouch ; a receptacle for a 


f Sac of the embryo : 

Bot, : The vesicle of the nucleus within 
which the embryo is formed. 

* sac' -but, f. [SACKBTJT.J 

&C-cade', f. [Fr., from O. Fr. tacquer. richer 
= to pull. J 

L Manege : A violent check the rider gives 

Ms horse by drawing both the r^ins very sud- 
denly, a correction used wlujii the horse bear* 
heavy on the hand, 

2. Music : Strong pressure of a violin bow 
against the strings, which, by forcing them to 
a level, enables the player to produce three or 
four notes simultaneously. 

* sac -cage (age as ig), t. [SACK ACS.) 

sac-car'-i-us, s. [SACCOS.] 

IcJithy. : A genus of Pediculati (q.v.), from 
South Australia, Tasmania, and New Zealand. 

sac -Gate, a. (Lat. towns = a bag.] 
Bot. : Bag-shaped. 

sac-chaV~a-mide,s. [Eng. *occftar(ose) ( and 

Chem. : C 6 H 12 N 2 O 6 = (C^Oa)* } g* A 
H4 J * 

white amorphous substance obtained by pass- 
ing dry ammonia gas into an etherial solution 
of ethylic saci-harate. By boiling with water 
it is converted into ammonia saccharate. 

t sac -char ate, a. [Mod. Lat. sacrhar ( ttu$ t 
from tacaiaru.m (q.v.).J Saccharine (q.v.). 

S&O-Ch&r'-Ie.a. [Eng. sacckar(um); -if.] Con- 
tamed in or derived from saccharum (q.v.). 

saccharic-acid, .-*. 
Chem. : C 6 H 10 O 8 


* - O 8 . A dl- 


baaic acid discovered by Scheele, and pro- 
duced by the action of nitric acid on cane- 
sugar, glucose, milk sugar, mannite. &c., 
aided by heat. It is deliquescent, uncryatal- 
lizable, soluble in watt-rand alcohol, insoluble 
in ether, and turns brown even at the heat of 
the water-bath. The saccharates are crystal- 
line, nearly insoluble in cold water, butso'luhle 
in boiling water. Sacchnrate of silver, CHg 
Ak'oOg, obtained by mixing the neutral potas- 
sium salt with nitrate of silver, is a white 
crystalline powder very soluble in ammonia, 
the solution depositing metallic silver when 

saccharic ether, 5. 

Chem. : Ci H l8 O 8 = CeHgfCyHg^Oa. Ethylic 
saccharate. Prepared by passing hydrochloric 
acid gas into an alcoholic solution of saccharic 
acid. It U obtained in the form of a syrup 
which gradually solidifies to a mass of t-ibular 
crystals, soluble in water and alcohol, slightly 
soluble in ether. 

sac' char ide, s. [Eng. saccharose); -ide.] 

Chem. (PL): Berth el ot's name for a series of 
compounds formed by heating dextro-glucose 
and other kinds of sugar with organic acids, 
They are divided into four classes : gl ucosides, 
or those produced from dextro-glucose ; le- 
vulosides, from Inevo-glucose ; galactosideg, 
from milk sugar ; and inosides, from inosite. 
The saccharides are soluble in water, and 
intensely bitter when they contain a volatile 
acid ; insoluble when they contain a lixed 

sac char If '-er-otis, a. [Lat saccharum = 
sugar, and /ero = to bear, to produce ; Fr. 
saccharifere.] Producing sugar: as, saccharlr 
ferous canes. 

Bio'-char-I-fI-~r, . A contrivance for 
converting the starch of grain and potatoes 
into sugar. 

sac-char' I-fy, v .t. To convert into sugar. 
sac cha ril'-la, . [Etym. doubtful.] 
Fabric : A kind of muslin. 

sac-cha rim c-ter, . [SACTHAROMETEH.] 
A form of polariscope devised by Mitscher- 
lich with special reference to testing sugars 
by polarised light. It is provided with a 
graduated circle for measuring the angles of 
polarisation, which serve as a basis of com- 
parison for the different qualities. The form 
now in use is provided with a scale, showing 
the percentage of sugar contained in the so 1 "- 
tion under examination. 

sac -cha-rf m'-e-tr^, s. [SACCHABOMETBY.J 
sac' -char-In, s. [Eng. saccha^im); -in.] 

Chem. : 07X3X0$ = C^Xjg&ffH. A 
sweet substance discovered by Fahlberg and 
Remsen in 1870, and named by them Anhydro- 

fite, fat. fare, amidst, what, fall, tether; we, wet, here, camel, her. there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, p*t 
or. wore, wol* work, who, son; mute, cub, cure, unite, our, rule, full; try, Syrian. , <e = e; ey = a; qu = kw. 

saccharine sacerdotalis 


orthosulphaminebenzoicacid. It may be pre- 
pared by oxidising urthotoluene with potas- 
sium permanganate. It forms white i:r 
soluble in hot water, alcohol, ami eth 
in. 'Its at 2-Ju' with partial decomposition. 
Its sweetness exceeds that of cane-sugar ; one 
part in 10 000 of water being distinctly per- 
ceptible. When taken into the system, it 
passes through unchanged. 

sac -char me, a. & s. [Fr. saccharin, from 
Lat. saccharvm = sugar (q.v.).] 

A. As adj.: Pertaining to sugar; having 
the taste or any other of the chief qualities 


" An essential a<rurf salt, sweating from . . . 
most plants." Arbuthnot : On Attm*a. ell. 111. 

t B. As tubst. : The uucrystallizable sugar 
of in lit wort. 
saccharine-compounds, a. pi. 

'rf. : Coini'numls consisting of, or con- 
taining a large pioportion of sugar. Tlie 
great use of these compounds, cane-sugar, 
K lucose, honey, &c., is, so far as the animal 
economy is concerned, to support the respira- 
tory process, and thereby maintain bodily 
temper jture. The production of heat in the 
1. ly is the result of a chemical change in the 
elements of the sugar, new compounds being 
produced. Some of these act only as heat- 
producers on the respiratory process, whilst 
others assist in repairing wasted tissue. 

saccharine - fermentation, s. The 

fermentation by which sugar is converted 
into alcohol. 

ac'-char ite, . [Lat. soecho,r(um) = sugar ; 
fluff. Ue (Min.).] 

Uin. : A granular massive variety of Ande- 
lite (q.v.), according to Dana; but by some 
mineralogists it is referred to Labradorite. 
Proliably the result of an alteration of a 
plagioclase rich in lime. Forms veins in 
serpentine at Frankenstein, Silesia. 

* sac' - char - ize, v.t. [Lat. sacchar(vm) = 
sugar ; Bug. verb. suff. -ix.} To form or con- 
vert into sugar ; to saccharify. 

" 1 1 is hoped the reader wilt pardon the Introduction 
of the verb tacchariff." Grainger: .Sugar-can*, i. 

sac -char-oid, sac-char-oid'-al, a. & s. 
[Lat. saccharum = sugar, and Gr. <I6os (eidos) 
= form, appearance.] 

A. As adj. (Of both forms) : Having a tex- 
ture resembling that of loaf-sugar : as, sacchar- 
oid carbonate of lime, <tc. 

B. As substantive : 

Chem. (Of the farm saccharoid) : A name 
given by Kane to a sweetish substance, prob- 
ably identical with orcin, produced by the 
decomposition of Heeren'a pseudoerythrin 
(ethylic oraellinate). (Watts.) 

sac-char-om'-e-ter, s. [Lat xuxharum; 
o connect., and Eng. meter.} 

Chem. : A form of hydrometer for testing 
liquids heavier than water. It consists of a 
bulb having a smaller bulb beneath, weighted 
with mercury or shot, and a graduated stern 
above. In water it sinks to a certain mark, 
but in symp it rises in proportion to the 
density of the latter. It is used for deter- 
mining the specific gravity of brewers' or dis- 
tillers worts, &c. 

ac-char-dm'-e-try, . f.Eng. saccfiaTO- 
meter ; -yl The act, art, or process of deter- 
mining the amount of sugar in saccharine 

sac char ose.j. [Eng. kc. otar(um); 

-ose.] ['CANE-SUGAR.] 

saccharose-salts, i. pi. 

Chem. : Salts produced by heating cane- 
sngar with organic anhydrides ; thus acetic 
anhydride gives saccharose octacetate, CvjH^ 
(CVIjOgJgOjii a white amorphous insoluble 
powder. On heating with water it is con- 
verted into acetic acid, dextrose, and tovulose. 

ae char-nm, s. [Lat. tcuxharum, xuxharon 
= sugar, from Gr. trcucxapoi> (sakcharon) 
sugar (q.v.).] 

1. Bot. : Sugar-cane ; a genus of grasses, 
tribe Andropogonese. Inflorescence in loose 
panicles, with lanceolate spikelets ; glumes 
two-valved, two-flowered, enveloped in long 
wool ; lower neuter with one pale, upper 
hermaphrodite with two. Mostly tropical or 

sub-tropical. Known species about sixty-two. 
rum oJI'u-LMirum is the Coinliiou Sugar- 
cane (.q.v.). Other Indian species S.fuscum, 
S. Mara, S. Munja, S. semidecMmbens, .s. 
liculatum., and S. sjnntaw ion have fibres used 
in the manufacture of ropes, strings, mats, 
and paper. The leaves and seeds are em- 
ployed for thatch, and the culms of some for 
native pens. 

2. Chem. : A trm fnrmerlysynonymouswith 

sugar, but now used almost exclusively to 

denote au invert sugar prepared from cane 

by the action of acids. It is largely 

used by brewers. 

site cha-ru'-mio, o. [Eng. saccharose), and 
(')""''' 1 Derived from or containing sacchar- 
um and ulmic acid. 

saccharumic acid, >. 

Chem. : Ci 4 Hi 8 O u =Cj4Hi308.3HaO. Formed, 
together with sjlucic acid, by the action of 
baryta on grape sugar, aided by heat. It is 
obtained as a yellowish-brown powder, having 
an astringent taste, and is soluble in water 
and alcohol, slightly soluble in ether. Its 
solution on exposure to the air gradually 
darkens, and deposits a brown substance. 

sac Chul mic, o. [Eng. soa*(an), and 
ulmic.] (See compound.) 
saochnlmio-acid, [SACCBULMIN.] 

sac chul -mln, 8. [Eng. sacch(arum), and 

Chem. : A brown substance obtained In the 
decomposition of sugar by dilute acids. 

site-elf' -er-ous, o. [Lat. saceus = a aac, and 
fero = to bear.) 

Hot. : Bearing a sac. 

Sac'-ci-form, *. [Lat. sacau=& sac, and 
forma = form.] Having the form or shape of 

, pref. [SACOTS.] Furnished with a aac 
or pouch, or any sac-like process or organ. 

ts&o-od-toSn-chi'-a'-ta, .}>*. [Pretsocoo-, 
and Hod. Lat. branchiata.] 

Zool. : An order of Tnnicata, with five 
families. Mantle united to the tunic at the 
two orifices, elsewhere commonly more or less 
detached ; brauchia, a dilated vascular sac, 
with a tentacular orifice, (Owen.) 

sac co bran'-chus, . [Pref. KKCO-, and 
Lat, brancMce = gills.] 

Ichthy.: Agenusof Silurina (q.v.), with four 
small species, 'from East Indian rivers. There 
is a lung-like extension of the branchial cavity, 
which receives water ; it is surrounded by 
contractile, transverse, muscular fibres, by 
which the water is expe'led at intervals. 

sac-co la'-bl um, . [Pref. KICCO-, and Mod. 
Lat, labium (q.v.).] 

Sot. : A large genus of Sarcanthidse ; named 
from a pouch in their lip. Beautiful orchids, 
epiphytes, from India and Madagascar, now 
frequently cultivated in greenhouses. 

t sac-cd-my'-I-dee, . pL [Mod. Lat. icco- 
my(s) ; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.] 

Zool. : Pouched Rats ; a family of Rodentia. 
According to Lilljeborg, it contains six genera 
and thirty-three species ; but the family is 
more often broken up, and its constituents dis- 
tributed among the sub-families of Geomyidse. 

* sac' co^mys, . [Pref. sacco-, and Gr. (ivt 
(mus) = a mouse.) 

Zool. : A genus of 8aceomyid, founded by 
F. Cuvier. It is ignored by Coues. 

sao-oA-pef-a-lum, . [Pref. sacco-, and 
Gr. m'TuAw (petalon) =a petal (q.v.).] 

Bot. : A genus of Anonaceae. Saccopetalum 
tomentosum is a large Indian tree with a 
straight stem and a thick bark. It yields a 
gum of the false tragacanth or hog-gum series, 
and the leaves are used as fodder. 

sac-co-phar'-yxut, . [Pref. KOOO-, and Lat. 
pharynx (q.v.). i 

Ichthy. : A genus of Mnraenidae (q.v.), with 
a single species, Saccopharynx flagellvm, a 
deep-sea Conger-eel, ofwhich only three si>eci- 
mens have been oliserved. Muscular system 
very feebly developed ; bones thin and soft, 
wanting in organic matter ; head and gape 
enormous ; stomach distensible in an extra- 

ordinary degree ; veut at end of trunk. The 
specimens known have been found floating 
on the surface of the North Atlantic with their 
stomachs much distended, having swallowed 
some other fish many times their own weight. 
They attain a length of several feet. (Gunther.) 

sac-cSp'-ter-yx, s. [Pref. stuxo-, and Gr. 
jrrepvf (fterux) a wing. ) 

Z'Kil. ; A genus of Emballonuridee, group 
Emliallomme, from the Neotropical region. 
Allied to the typical genus (Emballoimra); 
but in the males there is an alar glandular 
sac, the lining membrane of which secretes 
an unctuous reddish substance, with a strong 
amiuoniacal odour, which is probably of use 
in attracting the females (in whom the sac is 
rudimentary or absent). There are six species, 
divided by Peters into four sub-genera, ac- 
cording to the position of 'the wing-sac: 
Saccopteryx teptura and S. biliiieafa Sacco- 
pteryx proper; S. canina and S. leticoptera 
Pcropteryx ; S. plicata Balantiopteryx ; and 
S. caicarata = Centronycteris. 

sac-cd-so'-ma, s. [Pref. sacco-, and Gr. ow/ia 
(sdmi) the body.] 

Palreont. : A genus of Comatulidse. Fre 
Crinoids from the Jurassic rocks. 

sac oos'-to mus, s. [Pref. sacco-, and Gr. 
CTTiVa (stoiaa.) = a mouth. 1 

Zool. : A genus of Muridse, sub-family Cri- 
cetiuae, diflering from the typical genus in 
having the tubercles of the molar teeth ar- 
ranged in threes. There are two species, 
Saccostomus lapidariia and S. fmcus, from 

sac'-cn-lar, a. [Eng. KKCU!() ; -or.] Like a 
sac, sacciform. 

" It finally arrive* at a tmall taccular cavity." 
SteMon . Dairy faming. P. TU. 

sac'-on-lat-ed, o. [Eng. KKcuHe); -ated.] 
Furnished with saccules or little sacs. 

sao'-cule, >. [Lat. sacculus, dimin. from saccu* 
(q.v.).^] A little sac or sack ; a cyst, a cell. 

sac cn-li-na, s. [Mod. Lat. dimiu. from 
soociu=a bag.) [SACCO-.] 

Zool. : A genus of Rhizocephala (q.v.), with 
the habits of that group. The name is also 
applied to any individual of the genus. 

"A curionB opinion, quite recently expressed by a 
naturalist, M.Giuril . . . ig thjit the Feltoxaater of the 
Pagurus ha* become a Stuxulina on the cn*b ; the 
host having been transformed. Ita Roolyte has done the 
same thing under the siuue uiflueuca" Vantfineden: 
Animal farafitet, p. 60. 

sac' ciis, . [Lat. =a sack, a bag, from Gr. 
adicniK (sakkos) = coarse hair, a sack ; adi-ru 
(satto) = to pack or load.] 
Bot. : The corona of a flower. 

sa-cel'-lum, . [Lat., dimin. fro 
a sacred place, prop. neut. sing, of 
sacred (q.v.).] 

1. Rom. Arch. : A small unroofed enclosure 
containing an altar sacred to a deity. 

2. Eccles. Arch : A small monumental chapel 
within a church ; generally taking the form 
of a square canopied enclosure, with open sides 
formed by stone screens, the tomb in the 
centre being used as an altar, and, having an 
altar screen at its head. Within these chapels, 
masses were said for the repose of the souls 
of those buried there. 

sac-er-do'-tal, * sac-er-do'-tall, a. rpr. 
sacerdotal, from Lat. tacerdotalis = pertaining 
to a priest, from sacerdos, genit. sacerdotis = 
a priest, from sacer = sacred, and do = to 
give ; Sp. and Port, sacerdotal ; Ital. sacer- 
dotale.] Of or pertaining to priests or the 
priesthood ; priestly. 

"The ancient Fathers are still more particular In 
exuounding tbe tacerdntai consecration, and tbe 
divine sanctincattou consequent thereupon."- Vvtvr- 
la.nO.: Worla. voL vil.. p. W. 

saf-er-do'-tal ism,s. [Eng.*aceniofai;-im.] 
Sacerdotal system or spirit ; the character or 
spirit of the priesthood ; devotion to the in- 
terests of the sacerdotal order ; tendency to 
attribute a lofty and sacred character to the 

B&o-er-dd'-tal-Ist, s. [Eng. sacerdotalism); 
-ist.] A supporter of the sacerdotal system ; 
specif., a High Churchman. 

" The battle will have to be fought out between tin 
Lfberattonlste and the StuxTdutaliMtt." cho, Feb. 2S. 

toil, boy ; JxSnt, J6>1; cat, cell, chorus, jnln. bench; go. gem; thin, this: sin, as; expect, Xcnophon, e^lst -Ing, 
.-tiau = shan. -tion, Hilon = shun ; -tion, -sion = xniin. -clous, -tious, HiionB = butv -ble, -die, &c. = Del, del. 


sacerdotally sacrament 

S&9 er-do'-tal-lj. adv. [Eng. 
ly.] In a sacerdotal manner. 

sach'-el, *saoh-elle,. (SATCHKL.) 

a' chem, *. [North Amer. Indian. J A chief 
among some of the native Indian tribes ; a 
sagamore (q.v.). 

" Their tachem, the brave WntUwamiU." 

Longf<Ur,v> : Milet Standith, vli. 

sa chem-dom, . [Eng. sachem; -dom.] 
Tk government or jurisdiction of a sachem. 

"The tacketndom of Incas at MohegMi." iYitel : 
tft'It. Jud-Jti of Charier /.. IX 109. 

sa chem ship, . [Eng. sachem; -ship.] 
The office, dignity, or position of a sachem ; 

sa-chet ( silent), . [Fr.] A small bag for 
containing odorous substances; ascent-bag; 
perfume cushion. 

sa cheV-er 6L s. [After Dr. Sacheverel.) 
An iron *ioor or blower to the mouth of a 
stove. (HaltiweU.) 

sack (1), * sacke. " oak, * sakke, . [A. 8. 
tacc, from Lat. saccus ; Gr. aamax. (sakkos), 
from Heb. pip (tag) = stuff made of hair- 
cloth, sackcloth ; a sack for corn ; prob. a 
borrowed word in Hebrew ; cf. Coptic sok = 
sackcloth ; Ethiopic sak = a sack ; Dut. zak ; 
Dan. sak; Sw sdkk; Goth, sakkvs; Icel. 
ttkkr; 8p. & Port, toco; It. ecuxo; Fr. sac; 
Ir. & Gael, sac; Welsh Back.] 

1. A bag, commonly of a large size, made 
Of strong, coarse material, used for holding 
an<i carrying corn, wool, hops, &c. 

" The Parricide was afterwards sow'd up In a acJt or 
teg." Jfottday . Juvenal, sat. 8. (Note:) 

2. A measure or weight, varying according 
to the article and country. Thus, a sack in 
dry measure is 5 bushels ; of coal, 3 heaped 
bushels ; in coal weight, 112 Ibs. ; wool, 2 
weys or 13 tods, or 364 Ibs. (in Scotland, 24 
tone of 16 Ibs. each or 384 Ibs.) ; corn or flour 
weight, 280 Ibs. ; foreign sacks of flour vary 
from 140 to 200 Ibs. 

3. Sackcloth. (Wycli/c: Apocalips, li.) 
"U (1) Sac* and fork : The same as Pit and 
Gallows (q.v.). 

(2) To get the sack : To be dismissed or dis- 
charged from employment (Brewer suggests 
that the expression may be derived from the 
Turkish custom of fastening up in a sack and 
throwing into the Bosphorus any one ob- 
noxious to the Sultan.) 

"I wonder what old Fogg 'ud say. If he knew It I 
should get the iack."Dickeiii Pickwick, ch. xx. 

(3) To give the sack to . [GIVE, v., IT 10.]. 
sack-barrow, s. A sort of barrow used 

for moving loaded sacks in granaries, and 
other places, from one point to another ; for 
loading or unloading goods in ships, trains, &c. 

sack-tree, .<. 

Hot. : AntiarisoT Lepurandra saccidara. It 
is a stately forest tree, with alternate, oblong- 
elliptical, dentate leaves, growing on the 
Western Ghauts, &c. Bags are manufactured 
from it in the jungles near Coorg. A branch is 
cut corresponding to the length and diameter 
of the sack required. After being soaked it is 
beaten with clubs till the liber separates from 
the wood. The sack formed of the bark is 
turned inside out, and pulled down while the 
wood is being sawed off, a small piece, how- 
ever, being left to form the bottom of the 
sack. (Graham : Flora of Bombay.) 

sack (2), s. [Fr. sac = a sack, waste, ruin ; 
prob. from sac (Lat saccus) = a sack (q.v.), 
from the use of a sack in removing plunder.] 

1. The act of sacking or pillaging a town or 
City ; pillage, plunder. 

"The joe* of Orleans. "Snaketp. ; 1 Ben. VI.. U. 2. 

2. That which is obtained by sacking; 
booty, plunder, spoil. 

Sick (3), . [Prob. the same as SACK (1), .] 

* 1. A kind of loose cloak or mantle for- 
merly worn. 

" The floating for* Is thrown aside." 

Whitfhead : The Dog. 

2. The same as SACQUE (q.v.). 

S. A loose overcoat worn by men. 

sick (4), seek. . [Fr. c = dry (In the 
phrase vin fee), from Lat siccum, accus. of 
ticctu = dry ; Sp. fern = dry ; Dut. sek = sack ; 
Ger. sekt ; Sw. seek,] An old name for various 

sorts of dry wines, more especially those from 
Spain. [SHEBKV.] 

" Please you, drink a cup of swcfc" Shaktup.: Taminff 
Ofth* Xhrtrto [induct, il.J. 

* sack posset, s. A posset made of milk, 
sack, and other ingredients. 

" Snuff the caudles at supper on tlie Uble, because 
toe burning snuiT may fall into a dish of noup or tack- 
puttet." Swift : ItitCrucC, to Servant* 

sack (1), ... [SACK (l), ..] 

1. To put into a sack or bag. 

" Now the great work Is done, the corn is ground. 
The grist is iack'd. and every sack well bound.' 

2. To dismiss or discharge from employ- 
ment. (Slang.) 

sack (2), v.t. [SACK (2), .) [Fr. sacguet, from 
Lat. sacco = to put in a sack or bag.] To 
storm and destroy ; to pillage, to plunder, to 
devastate. (Said of a town or city.) 

"The adjoining hospital was lacked." llacautof : 
Bill. ny., ch. xi. 

sack age, 'sac -cage (age as It), s. 

[Eng. sack (2), v. ; -age.] The act of sacking 
or pillaging ; sack. 

"Cato survived not the rasing and tatxage of Car- 
thage/ r*. Holland: J'linie, bk. xv., ch. xviiL 

* sack -age, * sac -cage (age as Ig), v.t. 
[&ACKAOE, s.] To sack. 

" Townee taccaged and subverted." PvttfiAam : 
Englith Poetie, bk. i., cb. xxiv, 

sack-but, sagMrat, ' sag-butt, . [Fr. 
saquebute, from Sp. sacabucke = a tube or pipe, 
which serves as a pump ... a sackbut ; 
Fort, sacabuxa, sayuebuxo. Ultimate origin 

1. One of the Babylonian musical instru- 
ments mentioned by Daniel (iii. S, 7, 10, 15). 
It is the translation in the English version of 
the Bible of the word NJJD (sabbeka). Some 
authors identify it with the sambukS (0-0*1- 
flumj) of the Greeks and Romans, a kind of 
harp. [SAMBOKA.] 

" Psalt'ry and lockout, dulcimer and flute." 

Cowper : Progreu of Error, 188. 

2. The old English sackbut or sag-but was 
a bass trumpet, with a slide like the trombone. 

"A dead-march within of drum and tagbvtu." 
Beaum. t Ftet. : Had Loner, iii. 1. 

sack cloth, * sack cloath, * sacke- 

Cloth, s. [Eng. sack (1), s., and cloth.] The 
coarse cloth or stuff of which sacks are made ; 
coarse hempen or flax cloth ; a coarse cloth 
or garment worn in mourning, distress, or 
mortification. (Jonah, iii. 8.) 

* sack' -clothed, a. [Eng. sackdotK; -td.] 

Clad in sackcloth, mourning, mortified. 

sack' -dou die, t'.i. [Ger. dudel-sack = a bag- 
pipe ; dudeln = to play on the bagpipe.] To 
play on the bagpipe. (Scotch.) 

sacked', * sakked, pa. par. & a. [SACK 
(1), *} 

A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective ; 

1. Placed or put in a sack or sacks. 
2. Wearing a coarse upper garment. 

* Sacked -friars, * Sacked -frercs, 
* Sac-friars, * Sac-freres, s. pL The 
English translation of Eccles. Lat snccuti, 
socci, or saccit&, a general term for any monks 
wearing a loose upper garment of coarse cloth. 

sack er (1), s. (Eng. sack (2), v. ; -r.] One 
who sacks or pillages. 

* sack er (2), * sak er, . [SAKER.] 

sack ful (1), " sack' -fall (1), ' [Eng. sack 
(1), s. ; -full.] As much as a sack will hold. 

" This little ttickful of bones. I thought to bequeath 
to Westminster Abbey, to be interred in the cfoyster 
within the south side of the garden, close to the wall." 
~ .- Letters, bk. U., let. 29. 

* sack -ful (2), saek'-foll (2), a. [Eng. sack 
(2), s. ; -ftdL] Given to plundering or pillag- 
ing ; ravaging, pillaging. 

" Now will I ling the uvkfidl troopes. Pelaaglan Argoe 
held." Chapman.- Uomer; Iliad U. 

sack -Ing, . [Eng. sack (1), s. ; -ing.] 

1. Coarse hempen or flaxen fabric, of which 
sacks, bags, &c., are made. 

"Poles with lengths of cuane tacking nailed to 
them." fUd. Oct. 3, 16U. 

2. The coarse cloth or canvas fastened to a 
bedstead for supporting the bed. 

sack -less, saik less, * sac-les, * sacc 
lacs, * sak les, * sakke-les, a. IA.S. 

sa<:leas, from sacu = fault, alienee, and leas = 

less.] [SAKE.] 

1. Innocent ; free from fault or blame. 
"Whether any body touched, thee or no, I'm sure 

Edie's lackleu." Scott: Antiquary, ch. XXV. 

2. Quiet, peaceable ; not quarrelsome ; 
harmless. (Scotch.) 

3. Simple, useless, silly. (Scotch.) 

' sack'-less-ly, * sak-les-ly, adv. [Eng. 
sackless ; -ly.] Innocently; without blame 
or offence. 

* sacque, . [A form of sack (1), s. (q.v.).] 
A kind of loose gown or upper garment worn 
by ladies in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, and introduced from France in the 
reign of Charles II. It hung loosely over the 
back and shoulders. 

sa oral, o. [Mod. Lat. sacr(um); Eng. adj. 
suff. '^at.] Of, or pertaining to the sacrum 

Sac' ra ment, s. [Lat. sacramentum 1. In 
civil affairs, the sum which plaintiff and de- 
fendant in a suit had to deposit as security 
before the trial was proceeded with ; hence, 
any civil suit. 2. In military affairs : (1) the 
oath of fidelity taken by soldiers on their en- 
listment into the Roman army ; (2) any 
solemn obligation. Fr. sacrement ; Sp. & Ital. 
Sacramento. \ 
L Ordinary Language : 

* 1. The military oath taken by every Roman 
soldier, pledging him to obey his commander, 
and not to desert his standard ; hence, an 
oath or ceremony involving an obligation. 

"There cannot be 

A fitter drink to make this sanction In. 
Here 1 begin the lai-rament to all." 

Ben Jonton : Catiline, L L 

2. In the same sense as II. 

* 3. A sacred token or pledge ; the pledge 
of a covenant. 

" This worde tacramfnt Is as much to aay ae an holy 
tgne, ftnd reureseutth alway some promise of Gou. 
Tundall : Workei, p. 148. 

IL Technically : 

1. Protestant Theol. : The Church Catechism 
defines a sacrament as "an outward and 
visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace 
given unto us, ordained by Christ himself, as 
a means whereby we receive the same, and 9 
pledge to assure us thereof." It recognizel 
two only as generally necessary to salvation. 
Baptism, and the Supper of the Lord. Ar- 
ticle xxv. says that, they were ordained by 
Christ not only to be badges or tokens of 
Christian men's profession, but also, or 
rather, to be sure signs of grace and God's 
good will towards us, by whit-h he strengthens 
our faith in him. They have a wholesome 
effect or operation only to those who worthily 
receive them ; unworthy recipients purchase 
to themselves damnation [Cf. 1 Cor. xi. 29. 
The R.V. has "judgement"). The Westmin- 
ster Confession of Faith teaches essentially 
the same doctrine. It considers sacraments 
to be " holy signs and seals of the covenant of 
grace "(ch. xxvii.). 

2. Roman Theol : A visible sign, instituted 
by Christ, which confers ex opere operato 
sanctifying grace on man. [Opus OPERATUM.] 
Matter, form, and a minister acting with the 
intention of doing what the Church does are 
necessary to the valid administration of a 
sacrament. Besides sanctifying grace, sacra- 
ments confer sacramental grace that is, they 
aid the suscipient in a special manner to 
attain the end for which each sacrament was 
instituted, ((fury : Tract, de Sac. in Genen.) 
The Council of Trent (sess. vii., can. 1) defines 
that the Sacraments of the New Law were 
instituted by Our Lord, and are neither more 
nor fewer than seven in number : Baptism, 
Confirmation, Eucharist, Penance, Extreme 
Unction, Holy Orders, and Matrimony. The 
first five are necessary for all Christians, the 
last two are necessary only for the com- 
munity. Baptism, Confirmation, and Order 
imprint a character on their subject, and 
cannot be repeated without sacrilege. The 
terra Sacraments of the Old Law has been 
adopted to signify circumcision, the paschal 
lamb, the ordination of priests and Levitfts, 
&c., of the Mosaic economy. St. Augustine 
(adv. Julian,, v. 11) was of opinion that some 

fcte, tat, fare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wit, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pit, 
or. wore. wolf. work. who. son; mute. cub. cure, unite, our. rule, full; try, Syrian. <a. oe = e: ey = a; qu = kw. 

sacrament sacrifice 


remedy for original sin must have existed 

on and 

prior to the institution of circumcision, 

to this the name of Sacrament of Nature is 

often givsn. 

3 Law: By 1 Edw. VI., o. 1, 1 Eliz., c. 2, 
and 9 & 10 Wm. III., c. 32, any one reviling 
the sacrament of the Lord's supper was to be 
punished by fine and imprisonment. 

sac'-ra-me'nt, v.t. [SACRAMENT, .] To 
bind by an oath. 

When desperate men have mcrammted theinsel i 
to destroy. God can prevent and deliver. Arthbahop 
Laud : Work*, p. 86. 

sftc ra racnt al, * sac-ra-ment'-all. a. 

& s. [Fr. sacramental, from Eccles. Lat. sacra- 
mentalis; Sp. & Ital. sacramental.] 

A. As adjective: 

1. Of or pertaining to a sacrament or the 

" The laws which Instituted the SicrammMl Test. 
wer< i passed without the smallest difflculty."-*aco- 
lay : Bitt. Sng., ch. rviii. 

2. Constituting a sacrament; having the 
character of a sacrament. 

3. Bound by a sacrament or oath. 

"The lacramental host of God's elect." 

Covtper : Taik, 1L 84t. 

B. As substantive : 

Roman Theol. (In this sense prob. from 
Bccles Lat. sacramentale = a ceremony ac- 
companying the administration of a sacra- 
ment) : A name given to rites which bear 
some outward resemblance to the sacraments 
[SACRAMENT, II. 2], but which are not of 
divine institution. They are enumerated m 
the following verse : 

"Orans, tinctus, edeus, confesses, dans, benedieans," 

and are : The prayers of the Church, espe- 
cially the Lord's prayer ; holy water, blessed 
ashes palms, and candles, blessed bread ; the 
General Confession in the Mass and the Office ; 
almsgiving, and the blessing of bishops and 
abbots. The prayers, however, must be 
offered in a consecrated place, and the alms 
given in the name of the Church. 

"If the tacranuntalt are used with pious disposi- 
tions they excite Increased fear and love of God, and 
io? not in themselves, but because of these movement 
of the heart towards God. remit venial sins. Adda * 
Arnold: Cath. Diet., p. 732. 

ae-ra-ment-al-lft adv. [Eng. sacra- 
mental; -ly.] In or after the manner of a 

"The sacrament of the altar was not instituted to 
be received of one man for another Kicramentally. 
Buma : Recordi, pt. ii.. bk. i.. No. as. 

ac-ra-mSn-tar'-i-an, a. ft . [Eng. sacra- 
ment'; -arian.] 

A. As adjective : 

1. Pertaining to a sacrament or sacraments ; 

2. Pertaining or relating to the Sacramen- 

B. As substantive : 
Church History : 

1 A name given in the sixteenth century to 
those German reformers and their followers 
who opposed the Lutheran doctrine of the 


2. One who takes a high view of the efficacy 
of the sacrament ; a High Churchman. 
sacramentarian-controversy, *. 

Church Hist. : A controversy which arose 
to 1524 as to the nature of the Eucharist, in 
which the chief disputants were Luther, who 
maintained a real presence by means of con- 
substantiation (q.v.), and Zwingli, Carlstadt, 
and OJcolampadius, who maintained that the 
bread and wine were mere symbols of Christ's 
body and blood. This controversy led to the 
establishment of the Reformed Churches. 

ao-ra-mgn-tar'-i-an-lsm, . [Eng. oc- 
ramentarian; -i*m-] The principles, teach- 
ing, or practices of the Sacramentarians. 

" His account of the advance of sacerdotalism and 
soeramntariaflism." -* thenteum, Sept. . 1882. p. 886. 

sac ra mcnt -a ry, sao-ra-ment-a-rle, 
o. ft's. [Eng. 'sacrament; -ary; Fr. ocra- 

2. Pertaining or relating to the Sacramen- 

B. As substantive: 

I. Roman Ritual : A book containing the rites 
for Mass for the sacraments generally, and tor 
the dedication of churches, the consecration 
of nuns, &c. From it have been developed 
the Missal, the Pontifical, and the Rituale 

* 2. A Sacramentarian. [SACRAMENTAHIAN, 
B. 1.] 

11., bk. 

* sac-ra-mSnt'-ize, v.i. [Eng. sacrament ; 
ize.\ To administer the sacraments. 

" Born to preach and Mcranwmttxe." /WIer. , 

Ba-orar'-I-nm, . [I*'-. from Mer = sacred 


1 A sort of femily chapel in Roman 
houses, devoted to some particular deity. 

2. The adytum of a temple. 

3. That part of a church where the altar or 
communion table is situated. 

sa -crate, " sao'-rate, v.t. [Lat. sacra*", 
pa. par. of ocro, from sacer sacred.] 

" The marble of some monument .aerated to learn, 
ing." Wattrhouu: Apotoelior learning, p. 61. (1663.1 

sa-ora-tlon, s. [Lat. sacratto, from a-o- 
tus, pa. par. of socro = to consecrate.) ine 
act of consecrating ; a consecration. 

"Why then should It not as well from this h 
avoided' as from the other find a aeration J rtUr 
ham : Retoloct, p. 36. 

sa ere (1), > 

[Fr.] [SACKED.! 

A sacred 

sa-cre (2), 
solemnity, rite, or ceremony. 

" For the feast and for the (acre." Chaucer : Dream. 

* sa -ere (ore as ker), v.t. [Fr. sacrer, from 
Lat. SOCTO.) To consecrate, to hallow ; to 
dedicate or devote to some sacred service, 
office, or use. 

" He' was . . . taeryd or enoynted emperoure of 
Rome." Fabyan : Chronycle, ch, lv. 

sa -cred, o. [Prop, the pa. par. of Mid. Eng. 
socre = to consecrate ; Fr. sacre, pa. par. of 
sacrer ; Sp., Port., & ItaL acro.) 

1 Dedicated or appropriated to religious 
use ; consecrated ; made holy ; devoted to re- 
ligious purposes. 

2 Set apart by solemn religious ceremony ; 
consecrated, dedicated. (Followed by to.) 

" O'er its eastern gate was rais'd above H 
A temple, tnered to the Queen of Love. 

Uryden : Patamon * Arcite. ii. 46. 

3. Pertaining or relating to religion or the 
services of religion ; religious ; not secular. 

" Study we] 

devotion, founded in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century by a French nun of the 
Order of the Visitation, Sister Margaret Mary 
Alacoque(beatitied in 1864), and first preached 
in England liy Father de la OoloinlsMra. S.J., 
chaplain to Mary of Modena, queest of James 
II. The feast of the Sacred Heartis celebrated 
on the Friday (in England on the Sunday) 
after the octave of Corpus Christi. 

sacred ibis, s. 

Ornith. : Ibis religiosa, worshipped by th 
ancient Egyptians. ' (Cic., de Kat. Dear., i. 80 ; 
Juv., xv. 3.) 

sacred-place, t. 

1. Ord. Lang. (PL) : [HOLY-PLACES). 

2. Law : The place where a person is buried. 
sacred - standard, . The Labarum 


sacred war, >. 

Hist. &c. : A war about sacred places or 
about religion. Four sacred ware were waged 
in Greece (B.C. 595-338) chiefly for the defence 
of the temple of Delphi and the sacred terri- 
tory surrounding it. A Muhammadan war for 
the faith is called a Jihad (q.v.). The Crusades 
and the wars of the Reformation were sacred 
wars The quarrel which led to the Crimean 
war was at first a dispute between Russia 
and France about sacred spots at Jerusalem. 
When Russia fights, she uniformly gives out 
that it is a holy war ; and after the destruc- 
tion of the Turkish fleet at Sinope (Nov. 30, 
1853), it was officially or semi-omcially inti- 
mated that " the most pious Czar thanks the 
Lord of Lords for the success of the victori- 
ous Russian arms which triumphed in the 
sacred combat for the orthodox faith." 

sa'-ored-iy, adv. [Eng. sacred ; -ly.] 

1. In a sacred manner ; with due reverenc*; 

' Her high viceregent. tacrtdly ador'd." 

Pimlra : Dtath of (iusen Jta-jr. 

2. Inviolably ; with strict observance. 

" One instance of sobriety of mind, which ought to 
be mcredly regarded by the young."-SctT : Sermons, 
vol. ii., ser. 4. 

sa -cred-ness, . [Eng. sacred ; -nest.] 

1. The quality or state of being sacred; 
consecrated or appropriated to religion or 
religious uses ; sanctity, holiness. 

A. As adjective : 

1. Pertaining or relating to a sacrament or 
the sacraments ; sacramental. 

"I* M. Harding* had wel considered that whole 
homile, happily he woulde haue charged Chrysostome 
with his acri,mntarie quarel."We.- 
'dino, p. 894. 


him seife wit 

* 4. Devoted or dedicated in a bad sense ; 
accursed, baleful, destructive. (A Latinism.) 

5. Not to be profaned, violated, or made 
common ; inviolaole, inviolate. 

" How hast thon yielded to transgress 
The strict forblddanoe? bow to violate 
The sacred fruit?" Mttton: P. L.. Ix. 204. 

6. Entitled to the highest respect; vener- 
able, reverend. 

"Poet and saint, to thee alone were BlVn. , . 
The two most jwcred names of earth and heav n. 

Co!y . On the Death of Mr. Crau-lha*. 

7. Used as an epithet of royalty. 

"Justice, most tacred duke. Ofrant me Justice I ' 
Shaketp. : Comedy of Error*, T. 

sacred-apes, . pi. 

ZooL : The genus Semnopithecus (q.v.). 

sacred baboon, . 

Zool. : Cynocephalus hamadryat. 

sacred-bean, s. [NELUMBIUK.] 

Sacred College, J. The College of Cardi- 
nals at Rome. 

sacred fig, i. 

Bat. : Ficus religiosa. [Ficus.) 

sacred fire, s. 

Relig. : Fire used as a religious symbol, and 
kept continually burning. [FIRE-WORSHIP.) 

Sacred Heart, s. 

Roman Church : The physical heart of Chnst, 
considered, not as mere flesh, but as united to 
the divinity. It is the object of a special 


" In the sanctuary the cloud, and the oracular an- 
swers, were prerogatives peculiar to the ocre<inei o 
the place " South. 

2. The quality or state of being sacred or 
inviolable ; inviolableness. 

"An appeal to the mrtdneu of treatie."-Da|l 
Stvl, Sept. 28. 188S. 

* sa-crlf'-lc, * sa-orif'-ie-al, o. [Lat. 
sdcrificus, sacrijiealis.] [SACRIFICE, .] Em- 
ployed in sacrifice. 

* sa-crlf-lc-a-ble, a. [Eng. sacrifice ; -able.] 
Capable of being offered in sacrifice. 

"Whatsoever was taoiUcabtf, and Justly subject to 
lawful Immolation." Brovnt : Vulgar Erroun, bk. ., 
oh. liv. 

* fja-crff-Ic-ant, . P**. sacriflcans, pr. 
par. of ocn^o = to sacrifice (q.v.).] One 
who offers a sacrifice. 

" To gratify the lacrifcanti with thetdestruotlon of 
any person." BaUiwll : J/etamorphottt, p. 102. 

* aac-ri-fi-ca'-tion, s. [Lat. satrificatio.) A 
sacrificing, a sacrifice. 

* sae'-ri-f I-ca-tor, s. [Lat., from sacrijl- 
catus, pa. par. of saeriflco = to sacrifice (q.v.) ; 
Fr. sacrifieateur.] One who offers a sacrifice ; 
a sacriflcer. 

" The acrttc<or. which the picture makes to b 
Jephthah^-&on : Vulyar Xrrouri. bk. v., ch. liT. 

* satf-ri-f I-ca-tor-ft o. [Eng. sacrijwatar; 
-y.] Offering sacrifice. 

sac-rl-f 190, * sao-rt-ftse, v.t. ft *. fFr. 
sacrifier; Lat. sacriflw; Sp. & Port sacrijicar; 
ItaL sacrificare, sagriflcare.] [SACBIFICE .] 

A* Transitive : 

L Lit. : To make an offering or sacrifice of; 
to present, devote, or offer by way of expia- 
tion or propitiation, or as a token of thanks- 
giving or acknowledgment to some deity or 
divinity ; to immolate ; to present to God as 
an atonement for sin, to procure favour, or to 
express gratitude. 

U, Figuratively: 

1. To give up or surrender in favour of 


sacrifice sacrosanct 

higher or more impeiative duty or claim ; to 
destroy, give up, or suiter to be lost for the 
lake of obtaining suinet! 

"Tts a aad contemplation, ttmt we should larryice 
the I>M of the church to a little curiosity." Dewy 

2. To devote, with loss, hurt, or suffering. 

" Ere Diy young mind was McryScerf to books." 
>w<^ tu A 

3. To destroy, to kill. 

4. To soil or dispose of at a value under 
Cost price. 

"To tacrtjlce Mi outcomes of wetber lambs And 
dmft ewes below what he conceive* to be their true 
value." DaU* Teltyraph, Sept as, l&A. 
B. Intrans. : To oner tip a sacrifice or sacri- 
fices ; to make offerings to God, or toadivinity 
or d.-jty, by the slaughter and bun. 
victims, or of some part of them, ou an altar. 
" The Lacedemonians had a peculiar custom of UK-. 
rising to the Huaes.' Potter: Antiguitiei of Greece, 
bk. iii.. ch. ix. 

ac'-ri-f 190, sac-ri-flse, s. [Fr. mcrifice, 
from Lat. sacrijlcivm, from safer = sacred, and 
facia to make ; Sp. i Port, sacrijicio ; Ital. 
UKriflcio, sacrifttio.] 

J. Ordinary Language: 

L IMtraUy: 

(1) The offering of anything to God or to a 
dsity or divinity. (Chaucer : C. T., 2,233.) 

(S) That which is sacrificed, offered, or con- 
secrated to God or to a deity or divinity ; an 
imni"lated victim, or an offering of any kind, 
laid upon an altar or otherwise religiously 
presented by way of thanksgiving, atonement, 
or conciliation. 

"The (oothsayere Inspected all the socHXrei. to 


2. Figuratively : 

(1) The destruction, surrender, or abandon- 
ment of anything for something else ; a loss 
Incurred for the sake of something else ; the 
devotion or giving up of some desirable;object 
In behalf of a higher object, or to a higher or 
more imperative claim or duty. 

* I have made that ficrtjtc* of my Tenacity to the 
law. of polrtenem"-,M, gei/t 4, ISM. 

(2) That which is so devoted, surrendered, 
or abandoned. 

(3) The selling or disposing of goods at a 
value under coat price : as, To sell one's stock 
at a sacrifice. 

TJL Technically: 

1. Compar. Relig. : Sacrifices form an im- 
portant part of all early forms of religion 
Tylor (Prim. Cult., ch. xviii.) traces three 
stages in the development of the rite. (1) The 
gift theory, in winch the deity takes and 
values the offering for himself; (2) the 
homage-theory, in which the submission or 
gratitude of the offerer is expressed by a gift ; 
and (:)) the abnegation-theory, in which the 
worshipper deprives himself of something 
prized. With regard to their nature, sacri- 
fices are divide.! into (1) Bloody [(a) human 
(i) of the lower animals], and (2) Unbloody. 
The terrible cnstom of offering human sacri- 
fices was very widely spread |See extracts). 
It was known among the Greeks (fl. iv. 85, 
rviii. 336, xxi. 28 ; Eurip., Iphig.) and the 
Romans (Dio Cai., Hist. Rom., xhii. 24); and 
to frequently mentioned in Scripture (cf. Gen 
xxii. 1-4, Judges xi. 29-40, 2 Kings iii. 27, 
xvii. 31, xxi. 6. xxiii. 10, 2 Chron. xxviii. 3, 
xxxiii. 6, Jer. vii. 31, 32, xix. 5, 6, Ezek. xvi 
21, xx. 31, Mic. vi. 7. See also Kalisch: Lrvit 
pt i., pp. 381 sqq). Stnley (Jewish Church, 
40) says : 

- On the altars of Moah, and of Phoenicia. and of 
the distant Canaan! te wttleruents in 

"V'lff ""'' "" * eibcab.'lnlbVd'a.'k 
v~~* of Hinnom. under the very walla of Jeru- 
aleiu-thla almost irrepreasible Mndency of the bun,. 
Ing teal of a primitive race found Ita terrible exprea. 

As civilization advanced, human victims were 
replaced liy symbols (Ovid : Fatti, v. 665-fi60) 
or oxen or sheep were offered in their stead.' 
Unbloody sacrifices consisted of libations 
incense, fruit, and cakes (often in the form of, 
and as substitute* for, real animals). It is 
noteworthy that though the first sacrifice 
mentioned in the Old Testament (Gen. iv. 3) 
belonged to this category, the first sacrifice 
accepted (Gen. iv. 4) was a bloody one. 

"The custom of aacrlDehnj human life to the rods 
arose undoubtedly from the belief which uniier 
different forms has manifested itself at all times and 
In all natious. that the nobler the fir-Hjtos and the 
dearer to ita posseaaor. the more plaaaing U would be 
to the gods. "- . Diet. Mtta., p. m. 

2. Old Tett.: Sacrifices were of two kind 

ly and unbloody. Those designed t 

atone for sin were of tire former kind (Lev. i. 

vii. ; cf. Hub. ix. I!:'), The idea of sacritic 

appears in Gen. iv. 3-5, and viii. 20, bi 

>rd sacrifice does not occur i 

the A.V. till xxxi. 54. The paschal lamb 

called a sacrifice (Exod. xxxiv. 25 ; Deut. xv 

2) Even from jtatriarchat times sacrifice 

were limited to clean beasts and birds, an 

: on an altar (Gen. viii. 20). Man 

i>f these sacrifices were made by fin-. [BrRNT 

OFFERING.] A certain portion of the slai 

tl was reserved for the priest (Deui 

xviii. 3). Under the law there were moruin 

and evening sacrinces (1 Kings xviii. 2'j 

Ezra ix. 4, 5; Dan. viii. 11, la, 13; xii. 11) 

besides weekly sacrifices on the Sabbath 

sacrifices at new moons, annual ones, Arc 

Not merely were there stated sacrifices fo 

the people at large, arrangements were a 

times made that private families also shonlc 

possess the boon (1 Sam. xx. 6, 20). Unde 

the Monarchy sacrifices were confined tc 

the temple at Jerusalem (2 Chron. vii. 12) 

Thanksgiving was called a sacrifice (Lev. vii 

12, IS ; Psalm cvii. 22 ; oxvi. 17 ; Jonah ii. 8), sc 

was praise (Jer. xxxiii. 11). Ultimately sacrifice 

having hardened into a ceremonj with little 

influence on moral conduct, is itself disparagei 

(Psalm xL 6 ; Hosea vi. ). and preference is 

accorded to obedience (1 bam. xv. 22) justice 

or righteousness (Prov. xxi. 8) and inercv 

(Hosea vi. 6). 

3. Nev> Test. : Abel's offering is now called a 
sacrifice, and its excellence is made to arise 
from the faith with which it was offered (Heb 
xi. 4). The frequent repetition of the sacri 
flees under the law Is adduced as evidence o 
their failure to remove sin (Heb. vii. 27 ; x. 1- 
8). Jesus is at once the sacrificing lu'gh priest 
(Heb vii. 12) and the victim sacrificed (ix. 26). 
To lore the Lord is declared by Jesus to be 
more than all sacrifice (Mark xii. S3), and 
thanksgiving and praise (Heb. xiii. I5)are again 
ranked as sacrifices. 

4. Thtxl. : The evangelical doctrine is that 
the sacrifices of the older economy were types 
and shadows of the atoning sacrifice made by 
Christ For instance the lamb ottered by 
Abel typified the Lamb of God (John i. 29), 
the devotion of the lamb to death implied a 
confession on the part of Abel that he was 
sinful, and deserved to die, coupled with a 
hope that the substitution of the innocent 
lamb for the guilty offerer would be permitted. 
It is held that when Jesus died his sacrifice 
once for all satisfied Divine justice, and no 
other was requisite, or would, if offered, be 
accepted (Heb. ix. 12, 26-28, x. 10, 12, 14). 

sac'-ri-fic-er, . (Eng. sacrytcr.*), v. ; *r.] 
One who sacrifices. 

"Metellna the high priest and chief 
Borne.'*'. BoUani: flinie, bk. U-. ch. xxr. 

sac-ri-fi9'-lal($as8h),a. [Lat. sacriJkiaRs, 
from sacrificiiM sacrifice (q.v.).] Pertain- 
ing to or connected with sacrifice ; performing 
sacrifice ; consisting in sacrifice. 

" When we come to consider the Eucharist In Ita 
tacrifidal rtew." Waterlmrtd : ITorfcf. vii. 4L 

sacrificial-mound, a. 

Anthrop. : (See extract). 

" The name of nenfcial-mtiundt has been conferred 
on a class of monuments peculiar to the New World. 
. . . The most noticeable characteristics of tb jcrt- 
fcisJ-mounJjHre: their almost lurariable occurrence 
within eueluaurea; their regular construction in 
uniform layers of gravel, earth, and Baud disposed 
alternately in rtratu conformable to the shape ofthj 
mound : and their covering a symmetrical hearth or 
altar of burnt day or stone, on which are deposited 
numerous rehca. In all instances exhibiting traces, 
more or less abundant, of their hating bean axpoaed 
lire."- C. Hilton : frWXorteJIan, 

s&c'-rf-lege, * sac'-rMedge, sac ri 
legge, . [Fr. sacrilege, from Lat. tacrilegium 
= the robbing of a temple, the stealing of 
sacred things, from sacrilegus = a sacrilegious 
person, one who steals from a temple : tacer 
= sacred, and lege, = to gather, to steal ; Bp., 
Port., & Ital. tacrilegio.] 

1. The violation or profanation of sacred 

Sacrilege is the diversion of holy and ecelestastick 
nee." ]MlMian -' 

to the action at 

L 193. 

2. Specifically: 

(1) The alienation to laymen or to common 
purposes of what has been dedicated, appro- 
priated, or consecrated to religions persons or 

(2) The breaking and entering a church, op 
place of worship, and coinimtni. 
in. It. was formerly a capital ollence, but 
is now punished as burglary (24 4 25 Viet, 

, <r. [Eng. t 
A sacrilegious person. 

" A wedlocke breaker, a pul.lic imirtherer and I 
WrCwsr. Ualintlted : Bio. Scotland (an. liiij. 

sic ri Ic -glous, a. [Lat. mcritegus.) 

1. Guilty of sacrilege ; violating or profan- 
ing sacred things. 

" But tacrOtgimu thou. bait all great works defac'd/ 
Itraytvn : Polv-litbioit. a. JL 

2. Characterized by or involving sacrilege* 
profane, impious. 

" May hate pursue his iocrtt?tout lust ! 

Bfron : Curie oj iliuern. 

----, adv. [Bug. saerile- 
giout; -ly.] In a sacrilegious manner; with 
sacrilege ; profanely, impiously. 

i. V! ow<! . < " ir - fl**" <" tto the snare her siiten 
n rW r h ' ri * d "* l " t ta pr iuilu.ctiou of 
the God. iacruegiou*ly attouipu this forbidden sight" 
H arburton : Divine Legation. 

eac-ri-le-glous-ucss, . [Eng. mmle- 
gwus; -ness.] The quality or state of being 
sacrilegious ; profanity, impiety. 

"S&C-rl-le-fcfat, . [Rng. merilftft) ; -in.) 
A sacrilegious person ; one who is guilty of 

" The hand of God it still upon the posterity of 
Antiuchus Epiphaites. the taerOefla:' ~-&pelman : 

jf, sao-rl-leg-ie, . [Lat 

tacrilegium.] Sacrilege. 

" Thou th.t wlatlst mawmetis, dolst lacrileai*.- 
WyeHfe : Komayrtel it 

sac-ryng, pr. par. It i. 

* jw'-oring, 

[SACKE, t).J 

A. Aspr. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As rubst. : The act of consecrating ; con- 

" The tacrlny of the kings of Prance Is the sign of 
their sovereign priesthood as well as kingdom. "-air 
V. Temple. 

acrlng-bell, . A sanctns-bell (q.v.). 

sa -crist, . [Low Lat sacritta, from Lat 
Kicer sacred (q.v.).] 

1. A sacristan (q.v.). 

" A socrisf or treasurer are not dignitaries In tha 
church of common right, but only by custom." 
Ayliffe: rartrffon. 

2. A person retained in a cathedral to copy 
out music for the use of the choir, and to take 
care of the books. 

siaC'-rte-t-UI, (Fr. sacristatn, from Low 
Lat. sacrista ; Sp. sacristan.] An officer of 
a church who has charge of the sacristy and 
all its contents. Now corrupted into Sexton 


" And let the drowsy ticrinatt 
Still count as slowly as he can." 

Catenae' : dtrletabel. 

8fio-riB-ty, iio'-rist-rj?, j. [Fr. tamstie, 
from Low Lat tamstia.] The apaHment in 
an ecclesiastical edifice, in which the vest- 
ments, books, and sacred vessels are pre- 

" Baemed all on ore, within, around. 
Deep tacrutt/ and altar's pale ' 

Scott : Lay of the Loft Minftret, rt H. 

sa-cro-. pref. [SACRUM.] Of or belonging to 
the sacrum. 

sacro-coccygean, a. 

Anai. : Of or belonging to the os conrygte 
and to the sacrum There is a 

sacro-lllae, a. 

Anat. : Of or belonging to the ilium and to 
the sacrum. There is a tacro-ittac articulation. 

sacro sciatic, a. 

Anat. : Of or belonging to the hip and to 
the sacrum. There are sacro-sciatic foramina, 
ligaments, and notches. 

sacro vertebral, a. 

Anut. : Of or belonging to the vertebra 'md 
the sacrum. There is a sacro-vcrttbral articu- 

sic'-ro- sanct, a. [Lat. sacrotanct-as, from 
soar sacred, and tanctui = holy.) Sacred 
and inviolable. 

" The Roman church . . . makes Uaeh* Htiacroeanet 
n* ul "'falllble." Jrw.- Jntiaote afaUta Idolatry. 

fite, t, fore, amldrt, what, f&U, father; we, wt5t, here, cameL her, thre; pine, pit, sire, air, marine- go pfit. 
or. wore, wolf, work, whd, sin; mute, cfib, oiire, nnite, our. rule, fall; try, Syrian, en. o> = e; ey = a; qu = kw. 

sacrum saddle 


a'-orum, s. [Lat. (M) sacrum = the sacred I 
(bone), because it was formerly offered in 
acritioes.] [Luz.] 

Anat. : Five vertebrae rapidly diminishing 
In size from above downwards, and united 
Into one mass. With the exception of the 
coccvx it constitutes the lower |>art of the 
column. It unites with the ilia (haunch bones) 
to form the pelvis. 

fid * sadde, o. [A.S. sad = sated, satiated ; 
cogn. with O. Sax. Slid = sated ; Icel. :Mr, 
Kulhr ; Goth, satlu ; Ger. salt = satiated, full ; 
Lat, salur =sated, deep-coloured, sat. satis 
enough : Welsh sad = tirm, steady, discreet, 
is probably borrowed from Mid. English.] 
1. Sated, satiated, tired. 

" Sad at mine londe." Lai/aram. >,m 

2. Steadfast, firm ; not to be moved. 

M H was foundid on awd stoon." Wyetiffe : Lute rL 

3. Firm of purpose or mind. 
4. Strong. 

" But we uuldere [frmiorei\ men owen to sinteyne 
tbe febleueaM of site men, i not plo to luulf.'- 
Wyclijf'' Rvmujfnet IV. 

6. Heavy, weighty, ponderous. 
-HI. hand. more --' 

sely haadled by tadde and 
ties. Bvrnert : 

6. Heavy, close. (Applied to bread, when 
the dough has not riseu properly.) 

7. Heavy, close, compact, cohesive. (Said 
of soil.) 

Chalky land, ape naturally cold Mid tad, and 
therefore require warm api,liui lions and lightoomuost. 
J/ucri'/tf r : Mutbutidry. 

* 8. Grave, weighty, serious. 

" Whlche treaty was wysely 
discrete couasayle at bothe 
froiaart : Cronycle. vol. i.. ch. ccxvu. 

9. Sedate, serious, grave ; not gay, light, 
Or volatile. 

" She is never tad but when she sleeps." 

>7i,<A-**/'. ; i/ucA A .. ii. 1. 

10. Sorrowful, melancfioly, mournful, down- 
cast, grieving, gloomy, dejected. 

" As-aiust hia own tad breast to lift tbe hand.* 
Thornton : Summer, 1.678. 

11. Exhibiting the external appearance of 
grief ; downcast, gloomy. 

12. Characterized by sadness. 

" The air be ohose was wild and tad." 

Scott : Atarmion, 111. . * 

13. Causing sadness or grief; afflicted, 
lamentable : as, a sad accident. 

14. Bad, vexatious, naughty, wicked, tire- 
some : as, He is a sad fellow. 

16. Dark-coloured. 

" 01 a ladder hue than the powder of Venice glass." 
Browne : Vulgar irreura 

ad -cakes, >. pi. Unleavened cakes. 

' sad-eyed, * sad-faced, o. Having a 
ad or grave countenance. 

sad-hearted, a. Sorrowful, sad. 

sad-iron, s. An iron with a flat face, 
Used for smoothing clothes ; a flat-iron. 

ad-tree, s. 

Bot. : Nyctanthu Arbor trittit. [NTCTAN- 

(ad, v.t, [SAD, a.] To make sad ; to sadden. 
Sa dal me Ilk, a. [Corrupted Arabic = the 
king's lucky star.] 

Astrm. : The chief star of the constellation 
Aquarius (q.v.). Called also a Aquarii. 

ad da, sad'-dah, s. [Pers. sod-etar = the 
hundred gates or ways : sod (Sansc. cata) = 
* hundred, and dor = door, way.] 

1. (Of the form sadda) : A work in the Per- 
ian language, constituting a summary of the 

2. (Of the farm saddah) : An old Parsee fes- 

ad -den, v.t. ft i. [A.S. owadian = to fUl ; 
lodian, = to feel weary or sad.] 
A. Transitive: 

Ordinary Language : 

L To make sad, gloomy, or sorrowful; to 

- His name could Hidden, and his acts surprise, 
But tbey that fear'd him darbd not to despiM. 

Byron : Cortair, i. 1). 

i, To make heavy, close, or compact. 

" Karl if binding, and taddtnint oj land is the jreat 
prejudice It doth to clay lands." UorHmer: But- 

* S. To make dark- coloured. 

II. Dyeing <t Calico-print. : To apply mor- 
dants to, so as to tone down the colours 
employed, or cause them to produce duller 
shades than those they ordinarily impart. 

B. Intrans.: To become sad, nn-l;.nrln.;v, 
or downcast. (Tennyson : Enoch Arden, 260.) 

B&d'-der, s. [SAUDA.) 
sad'-der, camp, of o. [SAD, o.] 

sad die, "sad-el, *sad-elle, . [A.S. 

sadol: cogn. with Uut. auld; Icel. sndhall: Sw. 
& Dan sadel; O. H. Ger. satiil : (iw. satlel ; 
Russ. siedlo ; Lat. selta. From the same root 
as seat, sit, &c.] 
L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : A seat or pad to be placed on the 
back of an animal to support the rider or the 
load. Besides the. ordinary kinds, the man's 
saddle and the side-saddle for women, there 
are cart, gig, pack, ambulance, camel, and 
ox saddles. 

" He employed himself In providing horses, taddtet, 
and weapons for hla younger and more active 
accomplices." Macaulat : Hat. Em/., ch. Hi 

2. Fig.: Anything resembling a saddle; 
specif., a rise aud fall on the ridge of a hill. 

" It Is a pretty high Island, and Tory remarkable, 
by reason of two laddlet. or risings and fallings on the 
top." Dampler: Voyage! (an. 16B6). 

II. Technically: 

1. Bridge-build. : A block on the summit of 
a pier over which suspension cables pass, or 
to which they are attached 

2. Build. : A thin board placed on the floor 
In the opening of a doorway, the width of the 

3. Mach. : A block with a hollowing top to 
sustain a round object, as a rod upon a bench 
or bed. 

4. Naut. : A piece or block hollowed out to 
fit another portion, which is seated thereon, as 

(1) The block on a yard-arm which receives 
the studding-sail boom. 

(2) The block on the upper side of the 
bowsprit to receive the heel of the jib-boom. 

5. Ordn.: A support on which a gun Is 
placed for bouching. 

6. Railway: 

(1) The bearing or braes resting on the 
journal in the axle-box. 

(2) A chair or seat for a rail. 

1 (1) Saddle of mutton, venison, ite. : Two 
loins of mutton, &c., cut together. 

(2) To put the saddle on the right (or wrong) 
horse: To impute blame to the right (or 
wrong) person. 

addle-back, t. 

I. Ordinary Language : 

1. A name given to a hill or Its summit 
when somewhat saddle-shaped. 

2. A name given by fishermen to a bastard 
kind of oysters, unfit for food. 

IL Technically: 

L Build. : A coping with a double slope to 
shed rain. 

2. Geol. : A familiar name for an anticlinal. 

3. Zool. : The Harp-seal (q.v.). 

" Rink says s full-grown taddlf-back weighs about 
SMlba," CatteU't Jfitt. Silt., ii. 236. 
Saddle-back seal : 

Zool. : The Harp-seal (q.v.Ji Called also 
saddle-backed, a. 

1. Ord. Lang. : Having a low back, and an 
elevated neck and head. (Said of horses.) 

" Horses, toddle-backed , have their backs low, and a 
raised bead and neck." farrier't Dictionary. 

2. BuUd. : Applied to a coping with a double 
slope to shed rain. 

addle-bags, t. pi. 

Saddlery: A pair of bags connected by a 
leather seat, laid over or behind the saddle. 

saddle-bar, . 

1. Carp. : An iron bar crossing a window- 
frame, and serving as a stay for the fretwork 
or glass secured in leaden cames or bars. 

2. Saddlery: The side-bar, side-plate, or 
spring-bar of a saddle-tree, one on each side 
connecting the pommel and cantle. 

saddle-bow, s. 

Saddlery: The pommel (q.v.X 
Wrapt round some burthen at his taddje-bov. m 
Byron ; Lara, IL H. 

saddle-cloth, s. 

Saddlery : A housing, a shabrack. 

* saddle-fast, o. Seated (irmly in th 
saddle. (Scott : Lay of last Minstrel, iii. 6.) 

saddle-gall, s. A sore upon a horse's 
back caused by the saddle. 

saddle-girth, s. 

Saddlery: A band of leather or webbing 
attached on one side of the saddle, and, 
passing under the horse's belly, secured to 
the other side by a buckle and strap, serving 
to keep the saddle in place. 

" And, bursting in the headlong sway, 
The faith less Huldte-ytrthi gave way." 

Scott : Itafceby, vt SS. 

t saddle-graft, v.t. To graft by the 
method known as suddle-graftiug (q.v.). 

saddle-grafting, s. 

Hort. : A method of ingrafting by forming 
the stock like a wedge, and fitting the end of 
the scion over it, like a saddle ; the reverse 
of cleft-grafting (q.v.). 

* saddle-hill, i. A saddle-back. 

"A remarkable ladtUtMll, "-Cook: firtt T n af. 
bk. U., ch. Til. 

saddle-horse, s. A horse used or kept 
for riding with a saddle. 

saddle-joint, . A form of joint for 
sheet-metal, in connecting adjacent boiling- 
pans or adjoining strips in rooting. One 
portion overlaps and straddles the vertical 
edge of the next 

saddle-like, o. Saddle-shaped, saddle- 

On each lde ot this break the land U quite low ; 
beyond the opening rises a remarkable wldlt-U** 
hllL 11 Oool : Third foiaai, bk. 11.. ch. vlt 

saddle-maker, i. A saddler (q.v.). 

saddle-nail, s. 

Saddlery : A short nail having a large, 
smooth head, used in making saddles. 
saddle-nosed, a. Broad- or flat-nosed. 

"Flat- headed and taddli-noud." Jarrii: Dm 
, pt. L, bk. Ui., oh. U. 

saddle-quern, s. 

Archaol. : A contrivance for grinding or 
crushing corn. It consisted of a bed-stone, 
slightly concave on its upper surface, aud a 
stone rolling-pin or muller, which was used 
with a peculiar rocking and grinding motion. 

" aaddle-ovtrru of the same character occur also la 
France." Evant : Jnetons Stone Implementt, p. 826. 

addle-rail, s. 

Sail.-eng. : A rail which has flanges strad- 
dling a longitudinal and continuous sleeper. 

saddle-reed, . 

Saddlery : Small reeds nsed In the place of 
cord to form the edges of gig-saddle sidea 

saddle-roof, s. 

Build. : A double-gabled roof. 
addle-rug, s. A cloth under a saddle. 
addle-shaped, a. 

1, Ord. Lang. : Having the shape of a saddle 
IL Technically: 

1 Bot.: Oblong, with the sides hanging 
down like the laps of a saddle, as the labellum 
of CatUeya Loddigesii. 

2. deal. : Bent on each side of a mountain 
or ridge without being broken. 

saddle-shell, s. 

ZooL : Anomia ephipphium. [AxomA.] 
saddle-sick, o. Galled from riding. 
addle-tree, >. 

1 Saddlery : The frame forming the support 
of a saddle ; usually made of wood. The 
parts are secured together by tenons and 
mortises, and held in place by a covering of 
canvas or wet raw-hide, which is tacked 
tightly, and then shrunk by drying. The 
tree consists of a pommel, cantle, and two 
side-bars. Two stirrup-bars are added ana 
iron staples for the valise, if required. 

" For noddle-tree Karce reach'd had be, 
His journey to begin." Covper: Jolm vtlft*. 

2. Bot. : Liriodendron tulipifera, 

ad'-dle, v.t. [SADDLE, i.J 
I. Lit. : To put a saddle on. 
- Saddle my hors..- Stotetp- ' Mdurd //.. T. f. 

boll, bo?; p.5ut, J6%1; cat, cell, chorus, chin, bench; go, gem; thin, this; i 
-tion, -sion = than ; -tion, -fion = zbnn. -clous, -tious. 

as; expect, Xenophon, 
shu. -bin, -die, *<* 

*rt *** 


saddler safeguard 

IL Figuratively: 

L To load, to burden, to fix upon as a bur- 

"ButthestatuteUklndonly tobecroel. It taddlet 

2. To Hz across, as a saddle on a bone's 

" The nest of thli specie. U always. without eicep. 
Moil, toddled upon the upper surface ol some limb " 
5cr*6r'i Magazine, Dec., 1878, p. 172. 

8dd dler, *sad'-ler, s. [Eng. saddl(e) ; -r.] 
One whose occupation is to make saddles. 

"Mr. John Dennis was the ion of a tadler. In Lon- 
don. born lu lr." Pop* : The Dunciad, L (Note.) 

sad'-dler-jf, . [Eng. saddle ; -ry.] 

1. The articles usually manufactured by or 
sold by a saddler. 

"He inveited ... in large quantities of vuldlen- 
Hughet : Tom Brown at Oxford, eh. xlviii. 

2. The trade, occupation, or employment 
of a saddler. 

* 3. A room or apartment where saddles 
Ac., are kept. 

sad dllng, . [Eng. saddle); -int.] A 
saddle-shaped rise or depression in the ground. 
" Here the land U low, making a toddling between 
two small hills." Dampirr: Voyagei tan. 1684). 

sad du-oa Ic, o. [Eng. Saddw(a) -ofe] 
Pertaining to or characteristic of the 8ad- 

sad-dn-ce'-an, a. [SADDUCEE.] Pertaining 
or relating to the Sadducees. 

Ad du 906, a. [Lilt Sadduaei; Or. 2aS- 
iWaiot (Saddukaioi) ; Heb. D'pVry (Taadoqim), 
from pVl^ (Tsadoq) = a proper name, Zadok, 
or from p;TO (tsaddiq) = just. Bee def. J 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit : In the same sense as II. 

2. fty. : One who disbelieves in a future 
World, and, in consequence, lives only to this. 

" To shame the doctrine of the Sadducee." 

Bfrm : CXildt Harold, U. 8. 

tt Judaim (PI.) : One of the three Jewish 
ects. The current tradition, which was first 
published by Rabbi Nathan in the second 
century, is that the Sadducees derived their 
name from a certain Zadok, a disciple of Anti- 
gonus of Soko (B.C. 200-170). In the opinion of 
Geiger and others, the Zadok from whom they 
derive their name was the priest who declared 
in favour of Solomon when the High Priest 
Abiathar adhered to Adonijah (1 Kings I. 32- 
15). His descendants had a subsequent pre- 
eminence (Ezek. xL 46, xliii. 19, xliv. 16, xlviii. 
II). Not that the Saddncees became a party 
o early, or that Zadok was their founder; 
Jut that some of them may have been his 
lescendants, and all admired his fidelity to 
die theocratic government, even when the 
Head of the priesthood had gone astray. It 
was their desire to be equally faithful. All the 
Jews admitted that the Mosaic law was given 
t Sinai by Jehovah himself. Most of the 
people, with the concurrence and support of 
the Pharisees, believed that an oral law of 
Moses had similarly come from God The 
Sadducees rejected this view, and would accept 
nothing beyond the written word. They were 
the Protestants of the older economy Cer- 
tain consequences followed. In the Mosaic 
law there is no reference to a state of rewards 
and punishments in a future world. When 
Jesus proves the resurrection from the Penta- 
teuch, he does so by an inference, there being 
no direct passage which he can quote (Matt, 
rxii. 31, 32). The Sadducees therefore denied 
the resurrection from the dead (verse 23). The 
doctrine of a future world is taught in some 
passages of the Old Testament, spec, in Dan. 
xiv. 2, 3, &c., which should have modified 
their belief. That it did not do so can be 
explained only by supposing that they attri- 
buted a higher inspiration to the Mosaic law 
than to other parts of the Old Testament. 
Epiphanius (Hceres., xiv.) and some other of 
the fathers assert that the Sadducees; rejected 
all the Old Testament but the Pentateuch. 
Probably, however, these writers confounded 
the Sadducees with the Samaritans. In Acts 
pin. 8, it is stated tliat they say that " there 
is neither angel nor spirit" How they could 
ignore all the angelic appearances in the Penta- 
teuch (Gen. xvi. 7, 11, xix. 1, &c.), is hard to 
understand. Perhaps they may have believed 

that, though angelic appearances once took 
j'lnce, they had now ceased. It is surprising 
that a sect with these views should, at least 
at one time, have almost monopolised the 
highest places in the priesthood ; yet such was 
the case at least temporarily (Acts iv. 1-6). 
But, with all their sacred office and worldly 
rank, they could have had no hold on the 
common people. It is probable that, when 
Christianity spread even among its Jewish 
opponents a belief in the resurrection, the 
Sadducees must have still further lost ground ; 
but they ultimately revived, and still exist, 
under the name of Karaites (q.v.). 

sftd -du 9ce-lsm, sad'-du-f ism, . [Eng. 

Sadduc(ee) -ism; Fr. saduceismt.} The doc- 

trines, tenets, or principles of the Sadducees. 

" Infidelity, or modern Deism [which is littb else but 

revived Kplcureism. HaJ.hieitm, and Zendiluism."- 

WaUrlattd: H'arlt, vili. 80. 

* sad'-dq-9ize, r.f. [Eng. Sadducee); -te.] 
To conform to or adopt the doctrines or prin- 
ciples of the Sadducees. 

Sadditcitinf Christians, I suppose they were, who 
aid there was no resurrection. --AUerliuri . Strmont. 
vol. 11. i href.) 

[Hind., &c. = pure or 

Sadh, Saadh, 


Compar. Kelig. (PI.): A Hindoo religious 
sect founded, A.D. 1658, by a man called 
Birbhan. They believe in one God, who alone 
is to be worshipped. They have no temples 
but assemble at stated periods in houses or 
courts adjoining to them. They teach a pure 
morality. Their numbers are few, and they are 
found chiefly in Furruckabad, Delhi, Mirza- 
pore, &c. (Btv. Mr. Fisher, Mr. Trant, 4c.) 

sad'-ly, adv. [Eng. *KJ, a. ; -Ijj.] 
*1. Firmly. 

" There is no more to My but est and we* 
In gon the speres tadlji In the rest" 

Chaucer : C. T.. 2,602. 

*2. Seriously, gravely, soberly, with seri- 

" give ont about the streets, you two. 

3. Steadily. 

4. In a sad, sorrowful, or mournful manner ; 
with sadness or mourning. 

" mter 'J>lds name with K%.plainlIve voice.' 
Wordneorth: ThanJctffiviny Ode, Jan. 18, 1813. 

5. In a manner to cause sadness : calamit- 
ously, miserably. 

" Hence author* of Illustrious Damn 
Are tadly prone to quarrel.' 

Coyrptr : FritttdiMp. 

6. In a dark or sad colour ; darkly. 

sad nes, -sad-nes, . [Eng. tod, a ; -*,.] 
*1. Firmness, compactness, closeness. 

'I,', that " "' ontwardlie to 

2. Steadfastness, firmness. 

,Jl Tbe ^'! >r i r- "H*""?". * wityngekepe you self, 
lest ye be dlsseyved by errour o( unwise men and 
falle awei fro youre owne Mrftwai." Wyclifft: * fw! 

* 3. The state of being serious or in earnest 
seriousness, gravity. 

" Sen. Tell me in ladniu who she 1. yon love 
Jtom. What T .hall I groan and tell yoS " 

Sttaketp. ' Romto t Juliet. 1. 6. 

4. The quality or state of being sad ; mourn- 
fulness, sorrowfulness, dejection of mind 

" Ana many a varied shore to sail along. 
By pensive Sadneu, not by Fiction led " 

Byron : ckilde Barold. 11. at 

8. A melancholy look ; gloom of counten- 

" Yes. she was fair t-Matllda, thon 
Hast a soft ladneu on thy brow " 

Scott : Xokebf, IT. M. 

. ot, T. . 

8. The quality of being gad or saddening : 

aad'-wei (w as v), . [SANDIVM.J 
ae, cmj. or odp. [So.] (Scotch.) 

t MB-niir-I-d, ,.pl. [Mod. Lat. mnur^); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -idee.} 
ZooL : A family of Oligoehwta. 

t (UB-niir'-IS, t. [Gr. mtvouait fsoinourwl 
= wagging the tail.] 

ZooL : The type-genus of Sajnurid*. Upper 
Ip exsert, spoon-shaped ; clitellum small, dis- 

sae'-terj-berg-ite, s. [After Prof. Saeto 
berg; sun", -ite (J/in.).] 

Min. : The same as LEUCOPVHITE (q.v.). 
safe, ' saaf, sauf. a. & ,. [Fr. sauf; from 
Lat. salvum, accus. of salvus = whole, safe foi 
WTOM, from aervo = to keep safe, to preserve ; 
Sp., Port., & Ital. salvo.] 
A. As adjective : 
1. Free from, or not liable to danger of any 

" We cannot endure to be duturbej or awakened 
from our ple.uiug lethargy. For we aim 


2. Free from or having escaped danger, hurt 
harm, or damage; in good condition, un- 

3. Not accompanied with or likely to cause 
danger or injury ; affording security and 
safety ; not exposing to danger. 

" Devise the attest time and tafett way to hide iw." 
Shatap. : At rou Lite II. i. s. 

4. No longer dangerous ; beyond the powei 
of doing harm. 

" But Banquo's tuff. 
Ay, my good lord, ia/e In a ditch he bide. 

Xhujtetp. : ttaxbft\ ilL 1 

5. Sound, whole, right, good. 

" Nor do I think the man of mfe discretion." 

ahaXetp. : Measure Jar Mtaturt, L L 
B. As substantive: 
*1. Safety. 

" If I with Kfe may grant thl. deed.- 

fretton : Sing Camo'JM. 

2. A place of safety ; specif., a strong case 
for containing money, account-books, and 
other valuable articles, to gnard them from 
the attacks of burglars, and generally pro- 
vided with means for protecting them again** 
the action of flre. 

3. A meat-safe (q.v.). 

4. A pantry. j 

5. A piece of leather placed under a buckta. 
to prevent it from chafing. 

6. A smooth edge to a file. 

safe-alarm, . An alarm clock or other 
contrivance to notify a watchman or the 
police of the tampering with a safe. 

safe conduct, * safe - conduite, . 

nat which gives or provides a safe passage : 

(1) A convoy or guard to protect a person 
in or passing through an enemy's or a foreign 

(2) A written pass or warrant, given by the 
sovereign of a country, enabling the holder 
to pass safely through the country. 

* safe-conduct, v.t. To conduct or con- 
voy safely ; to give a safe passage to, espe- 
cially through an enemy's country. 

" SafKxmducting the rebel, from their ships." 
Shaketp. : KitAard 111., iv. 4. 

safe-edge file, . A file having a smooth 

safe-keeping, . The act of keeping or 
preserving in safety ; secure guardianship. 

safe-look, t. A complex lock for a safe. 
* safe-pledge, s. 

Law : A surety appointed for one'g appear- 
ance at a day assigned. 

"safe, v.t. [SAFE, a.) To make or render 
safe or secure. 

S*a*Mp. : Antony t Cleopatra, i. S. 

safe'- guard (u silent), * safe -garde 
saufe-gard. "save-gard, *save- 
gnaro, . [Eng. tafe, and guard.] 

i Ordinary Language : 

1. One who or that which protects or da- 
fends ; a defence, a protection. 

" Dove, will peck in ta/eouard of their brood." 
Shaketp. : t Hfnrj/ 17., il. J. 

* 2. A convoy or guard to protect a tra- 
veller ; a safe-conduct 

"On ta/oguard he came to me." 

t&akeip. : Coriolanut. lit 1. 

*3. A passport; a warrant of security 
8 iv en by a sovereign to protect a stranger 
within his territories ; formerly a protection 
granted to a stranger in prosecuting his right* 
fn due course of law. 

* 4. A riding-skirt ; a large oute 



i = kw. 



worn by females when riding to protect them 
from the dirt. 

"On with your cloak nd *Wward," Earn Alley, 1.1. 

H. Technically: 

1. Railway Engineering : 

(1) A rail-guard at a switch or crossing. 

(2) A cowcatcher (q.v.). 

2. Paper : [SAFETY-PAPER]. 
8. Zml. : (See extract). 

"The name of monitor ia sometime* given to Amer- 
tau. Kcertuiu lizards. e.pectaUy of the geuu. fl.lT.tor 
(Dam. * Bib.|, more proi^rly called We?uur*..J.r- 
rfspoiioing in pait to TupinambU (Daud.l ami Tejus 
(Merr.l. and toMonitor (Fitz.|." Riplta t Dana! 
American Cyclopaedia, *1. * 

Sfe'-guard(ii silent), "safe'-gard, 'save- 
gard, ' save-guard, v.t. [SAFEGUARD, s.] 
To make safe or secure ; to secure, to protect, 
to guard. 

"The government Intends to do everything In Ita 
power to lafeguard tboM interest.."- OaUl Tele- 
graph, Sept 38, 1S8&. 

afe'-ljr, *sauf-Iyche, * save-ly, adv. 
[Bng. safe; -ly.] 
1. In a safe manner ; in a manner free from 

danger or luuunl. 

"Go tafely on to seek thy ion." 

Shake*?. : Tempett. 11. 1. 

1 Without hurt, injury, or damage ; in 
good condition. 

"Safely In harbour U the king's ship." 

SAaketp. : TempeU. I i. 

3. So as to prevent danger or escai* ; in 
Close or safe custody ; securely. 

" To keep him lately till hU day of trial." 

Shaketp. : Richard II., IT. L 

afe'-ness, >. [Bug. safe ; -ness.] The quality 
or state of being safe ; the state of being safe 
or of conferring safety ; freedom from danger 
or hazard ; safety. 

afe'-ty, * safe-te, * sauf-te, . [O. Fr. 

tauvete, from Lat. salvitatem, uccus. of sal- 
vitas, from salmi = safe.] 

1. The quality or state of being safe or fres 
from injury, damage, or hurt; exemption 
from hurt, injury, or loss. 

" Hath passed In tafety through the narrow seas." 
Shaketp. : 8 Benry VI.. Iv. 8. 

5. The quality or state of being free from 
liability to danger or injury ; freedom from 
danger ; a state or condition out of harm's way. 

8. The quality or state of not causing danger 
or hazard ; the quality of making safe or se- 
cure, or of giving confidence, justifying trust, 
ensuring against harm, or the like ; safeness : 
u, The safety of an experiment. 

4. Preservation from escape ; safe custody. 

" Hold him In to/ftf.' Skaktip. ; Kameo t JMlet. V. i. 

6. A low form of geared bicycle with 
wheels of equal or nearly equal size. 

safety-arch, . A discharglng-arch (q.v.). 

safety-belt, s. A life-belt. 

safety-bridle, >. A bridle designed to 
promptly check a runaway horse. 

safety-buoy, . A life-buoy. 

safety-cage, s. A hoisting and lower 
Ing chamber for mines, having gnards which 
arrest the descent if the rope break or over 

safety-car, >. 

L A life-car (q.v.). 

8. A safety-cage (q.v.). 

safety chain, s. 

Bait, : A slack chain which attaches a truck 
to a car-body. (Amer.) 

safety-funnel, s. A glass funnel wit! 
a long neck for introducing acids, &c., intr 
liquids contained in bottles or retorts, am 
under a pressure of gas. 

safety-fuse, . [FOSE (IX . (8).] 
safety guard, s. 

Bail.-eng. : An axle-guard to keep the wheel 
en a track at a switch. 
safety-hoist, s. 

1. Hoisting-gear on the differential-pulle 
principle, which will not allow the load t 
descend by the run. 

2. A catch to prevent the fall of a cag 
when a rope breaks 

Safety-hook, s. A device to prevent 
watch from being detached from its chain b 
accident or by a sudden jerk. 

safety-lamp, s. A lamp for the purpose 
of giving light in mines where fire-damp pre- 
vails. The commonest form is that invented 
by Sir H. Davy, in 1816. The principle of his 
lamp lies in the fact that flame will not pass 
through a fine net-work of wire or gauze. The 
flame of the lamp is enveloped by a cylinder 
of wire-gauze, the apertures in which must 
not exceed ,", of an inch square, through which 
the air passes freely, even if charged witli fire- 
damp. When the lamp is lighted and intro- 
duced into ail atmosphere mixed witli lire- 
damp, the size and length of the flame are 
first increased. When the inflammable gas 
becomes as much as one-twelfth of the volume 
of air, the cylinder becomes filled with a feeble 
blue flame, within which the flame of the wick 
burns brightly ; its light continues till the 
fire-damp increases to one-sixth, or one-fifth, 
when it is lost in the flame of the fire-damp 
which fills the cylinder with a pretty strong 
light ; but when the foul air constitutes one- 
third of the atmosphere, it is no longer fit for 
respiration. In some forms of the lamp a 
glass cylinder is placed inside the wire gauze ; 
this resists air-currents, and ensures a steadier 
light. Experience, however, has shown that 
Davy's lamp is not an absolute protection 
against the danger of explosion from fire- 
damp, and a perfect safety-lamp is still a 

safety-lintel, . A name given to the 
wooden lintel which is placed behind a stone 
lintel in the aperture of a door or window. 

safety-lock, s. 

1. Lock. : A lock so contrived as not to be 
opened by a picklock or without the proper 

2. Fire-ana : A lock provided with a stop 
or catch to prevent accidental discharge. 

safety-match, . A match tipped with 
a chemical preparation which will not ignite 
except through the application of -great heat 
or when rubbed on a specially prepared sur- 
face covered with a detonating preparation. 

safety-paper, . A paper chemically or 
mechanically prepared, so that its colour or 
texture will be changed by beiug tampered 

safety-pin, . A pin having its point 
fitting into a kind of sheath, so that it may 
not be readily withdrawn or prick the wearer 
or others while in use. 

safety-plug, s. 

1. Steam : A fusible plug (q.T.% 

2. Fire-arms: A device to prevent barrels 
from bursting by the expansion of their con- 
tents, or gases generated therein. 

safety-rail, s. 

Bail-mg. : A guard-rail (q.v-X 

safety-rein, s. 

Saddlery: A rein to be used in case the 
horse attempts to run away. It usually has 
a special purchase of some kind intended to 
draw the bit violently into the angles of the 
mouth, to throw a blind over the eyes, to 
draw a choking strap around the throat, Ale. 

safety-stop, s. 

1. A device on a pulley or sheave, to keep 
it from running backward. 

2. A stop-motion in a spinning-machine 
knitting-machine, loom, &c., which arrests 
the motion in case of the breakage of a sliver 
yarn, or thread, as the ease may be. 

safety-strap, s. 

Saddlery : An extra back-band passing ove 
the seat of a gig-saddle, having holes through 
which the terrets pass to keep it in position 
the ends being buckled to the shaft-tug ; r 
as a safeguard on light trotting harness. 

safety-switch, s. 

Kail, : A switch which returns automatically 
to its normal position after having been moved. 

safety-tube, >. 

Chem. : A straight or bent tube adapted t 
a gas-generating apparatus, to prevent tli 
liquid into which the delivery tube dips, fron 
passing back into the vessel in cousequenc 
of diminished internal pressure. 

safety-valve, s. 

Steam-eng.: A valve which automaticall 
opens to permit steam to escape or air t, 
enter the boiler in order to prevent Its ex 

plosion or collapse. Of these there are two 
Kinds, the one internal, opening to tbe inner 
side when the pressure of steam is less than 
a given weight ; the other opening to the out- 
side when the pressure of steam exceeds a 
given weight. The latter is the more im- 
portant, and consists commonly of a lever of 
the third class pivoted at one end ; the valve, 
which is on a stem projecting from the lower 
side of the lever, is conical, and tits into a 
corresponding seat. The lever has notches 
for receiving the hook or loop of a weight 
which is suspended therefrom, and may be 
moved from one notch to another, like the 
weight of a steelyard, so that a greater or less 
amount of steam pressure may be required to 
lift the valve from its seat. In locomotive 
engines, it is fixed at one end to a stud, and 
rests on the valve at a short distance from 
this stud. Its length is proportioned to the 
area of the valve, and a spring-balance in- 
dicates the pressure in pounds per square 
inch on the boiler above atmospheric pressure. 
Safety-valves are also used with boilers of vari- 
ous kinds, air and gas engines, proving-pumps, 
and hydraulic -presses. Locomotive-engines 
have two valves placed on the boiler for the 
escape of steam when it exceeds certain limits. 
One of them is placed beyond the control of 
the driver, and is called the lock-up valve. 
The other is regulated by a lever and spring- 
balance at a little lower pressure than the 
lock-up valve. 

sar-fa-an, . [Russ.] 

Leather : A dyed leather made at Astracan 
and other parts of Asiatic Russia. It is prin- 
cipally prepared from goatskins, and the 
colours used are red and yellow. The articles 
used in its preparation are lime, dog's dung, 
and bran. 

saT-fior-ite, . [Ger. safflor = saffron ; sun*, 

Jtfirt. : A variety of Smaltite (q.v.X con- 
taining over 10 per cent, of iron. 

* S&T -flOW, . [SAFFLOWEH,] 

sSr-flow-er, . [Eng. saf(frm), and Jlowtr; 
Ger. so/lor, safflar.] 
Sot. : [CARTHAMUS]. j 

saf'-fron, " saf fran, saf-roun, . ft a. 

[Fr. safran, saffnn, from Arab. jo'/aran = 

A. As substantive : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. In the same sense as II. J. 

2. A colour. [SAFFRON-COLOURED.] 
H. Technically: 

1. Bat. : Croats tativus, a species with light 

Eurple flowers, which come out in autumn, 
t grows in the south of Europe and in parts 
of Asia. 

2. Chem. : The dried stigmas of the saffron 
crocus, used in dyeing and for colouring tinc- 
tures. They have an orange-red colour, an 
aromatic odour, a bitter taste, and impart a 
yellow colour to water, alcohol, and oils. It 
was formerly met with in two forms, viz., 
hay-saffron and cake-saffron, but the former 
is now alone in demand. It is often adulter- 
ated with the florets of the safflower, or the 
marigold, but these are easily detected by 
their different shape and colour. 

3. Pharm. : Saffron is slightly stimulant. 
In England it is used in the treatment of 
exanthemata, but chiefly as a colouring agent 
in preparing medicines and in cookery. The 
natives of India use saffron as a remedy in 
fever, melancholia, catarrhal affections of chil- 
dren, and as a colouring matter in some dishes. 

B.' As adj.: Having the colour of the 
Bowers of saffron; yellow. [SAFFRON-CO- 

" This companion with the tnffron face." 

HlKtkeip. : Comedy / Errort, iv. 4. 

T Meadow saffron: [CoLCHlcuuJ. 

saffron -coloured, a. 

Bot Yellow, with a perceptible mixture of 
red, deeper than that of orange, and with a 
dash of brown. 

saffron wood, >. 

Bot. : Eksodendron croceum. (South African.} 

sar-tron, v.t. [SAFFEON, .] To tinge witto 
saffron ; to make yellow ; to gild. 

" Ribands, bells, and nfrond llnnen." 

Sen Jonton : oonff *s- 

b6il, b6y; p^ut, Jowl; cat, 9 ell, chorus, S liin. bench; go, gem ; thin, this ; sin. as ; expect, ^enophon. ejist. ph- -t. 
-Stan, -tiM. = sham. -Uon. -.rton = shun; -tion, -Bion = zhun. -oious, -tious, -slous = shus. -Me, -*Ue, Ac. = Del, del. 

saffrony sagina 

n-y, a. [Eng.*a/ron; -|f.] Having 
the colour of saffron. 

"Th woman win of complexion yellowish or 
tufrong. Lord: lint, oj tJu Bantam, p. ft, 

sif-ra nin, . [Fr. tafia* = saffron (q.v.) 

Ctei*. : Saffron-yellow. Polycuroite. Tlie 
yellow colouring matter of sal'fron, obtainet: 
as an inodorous powder, soluble in water and 
al.liol, almost insoluble iu ether. It is 
coloured blue by sulphuric acid, green by 
nitric acid, and dark brown by hydrochloric 


-rene, . [Fr. safr(an) = saffron ; -ene.) 
Chen.: CioHja. One of the constituents of 
sassafras oil. It boils at 155-157% has a 
sp. gr. of 0-834, and deflects the ray of 
polarized light to the right 

ag, sag-gen, sagge, seg (Scotch), v.i. 
A (. [Sw. sacka = to settle, to sink down ; 
Dan. *iM<= to have stern way ; Oer. sacken. 
= to sink; Low Ger. sakken = ta settle (as 
dregs). Prob. an unnasalized form of sink.} 

A. Intransilii-e : 

L Ordinary Language : 

1. Lit. : To droop ; to hang the head down- 
ward ; to sink, incline, or hang down owing 
to insufficiently supported weight ; to settle ; 
to sink in the middle. 

* Drawee to the tagging dog milke white as snow." 
Brottna : Brit. Pattoratt, 1L . 

2. Fig. : To yield nnder the pressure of 
ores, difficulties, *c. ; to waver, to fluctuate ; 
to become unsettled ; to give way. 

" SUtea, though bound with the straltest taws, often 

tt Kaut.: To incline to the leeward; to 
make leeway. 

" Pnritan . . . was tagging to leeward a good deal." 

B. Trans. : To cause to bead or give way ; 
to load, to burden* 

ag. i. [SAO, .] 

1. Ord. Lang. : The act or state of sagging, 
linking, or bending. 

2. .Yaw/. : An inclination to the leeward. 

"Shoving through it very slowly, with a surprising 
tag to leeward." Dttilg J'titgrap*, Sept. 3. lott. 

sag, sagge, o. [SAO, .] Heavy, loaded. 

" Eates the tan-it 
And well-bestrutted bee's sweet bagge." 

a'-ga, >. [IceL saga = a saga, a tale ; A.8. 
tagu=* saying, a saw.] [SAW (2), .] An 
ancient Scandinavian tale, legend, or tradi- 
tion, of considerable length, and relating 
either historical or mythical events ; a tale, a 
history, a story, a legend. The Scandinavian 
sagaa were compiled chiefly in the twelfth and 
three following centuries. The most remark- 
able are those of Lodbrok, Hervara, Vilkina, 
Volsunga, Blomsturvalla. Ynglinga, Olaf Tryg- 
g-ya-Sonar, with those of Joiusvikingia and of 
Knytlinga (which contain the legendary his- 
tory of Iceland), the Heims-Kringla and New 
ii Ida, dne to Snorri Sturluson. 

* saga-man, . One who wrote or recited 

" To the alehouse, where he sat. 
Game the Scalds and Hag " 

&g a-be'-nfim, s. [SAOAPENUM.] 

a ga -dons, a. [As if from a Lat. lagacio- 
ns, from sagai, genit. sagacit = keen, saga- 
clous, from the same root as tagio = to per- 
ceive by the senses; Fr. & Ital. tagace; 8p. 

' 1. Quick of scent ; scenting or perceiving 
by the senses. (With o/.) 

" Sagaclout o/ hil quarry from eo far." 

Milton: P.L,x.nt. 

2. Intellectually keen or quick ; acute, or 
harp in discernment or penetration ; discern- 
ing, shrewd, acute. 

3. Full of, or characterized by acuteness or 
wisdom ; sage, wise : as, a sagacious remark. 

4. Indicating sharpness, acuteness, or pene- 
tration ; sage-looking. 

" CUpe spectacles on her mffaciaui nose.' 

Cowper : Conrertatlvn, 7. 

6. Endowed with and showing a great 
mount of intelligence; acting with almost 
human intelligence. 

" NataraHsU Meara m, that an animal* we toga, 
ciotu In proportion ae they are removed from The 
tyranny of othen.--.GoU>nittA.'/>olUee<>rn(n?. ch.ll 

sa-ga'-cious-ljf, adv. [Eng. sagacious ; -III. 
Iu a sagacious manner ; with sagacity, acute 
ness, or wisdom ; sagely. 

" He sh'.iui 1 1 Boy opportunities so MiMefoiufv " 
ar: ^emwiu, vul. LVier. I 

sa-ga -clous-ness, . [Eng. sagacious 
-ftfta.) The quality or state of being saga 
cious ; sagacity. 

Of much counsel at agpneioutiMai." 
/Malt. Sutttm, p. 269. 

a-gao'-I-ty, s. [Fr. sagactti, from Lat. so- 
'tern, accns. of sagacitas, from sagaz, genit. 
sagacis = sagacious.] 

1. The quality or state of being sagacious , 
quickness or acuteness of discernment or 
judgment; shrewdness; readiness of appre- 
hension with soundness of judgment. 

" A terrible tagacity informs 
The poet's heart." Cotcpr: Table TaVk, 4M. 

2. Intelligence resembling or approaching 
that of mankind : as, the sagacity of a dog. 

sag'-a-more, >. [SACHEM.] 

1. Among the North American Indiana, a 
king or chief. (It is generally used as synony- 
mous with sachem, but some writers make the 
sachem a chief of the first rank, and the Kga- 
more a chief of the second rank.) 

" Be Ittayamart, sachem, or powwow." 

Longfellow: Hil ft Standlttt. i. 

* 2. The juice of some unknown plant used 
in medicine. (Johnson.) 

B&g'-a-pe'n, s. [SAOAPENOK.] 

sag-a-pe -num, . [Gr. o-oyamiwi/ (sagapl- 
non) = a plant, prob. Ferula Pvnica, and the 
gum derived therefrom.] 

Chem. : A gum-resin imported from 
and Persia, and said to be derived from ^ 
Persian, It has an odour of garlic, an acrid 
bitter taste, melts at 100, is slightly soluble 
In water, but very soluble in alcohol. The 
alcoholic solution la resolved by ether into 
two resins ; one, insoluble in ether, brownish- 
yellow, brittle, inodorous, and tasteless ; the 
other, soluble in ether, reddish-yellow, tran- 
sparent, and possessing a bitter taste. 

* SA gar (I), t. [SAKEK.] 
" a-gar' (2), . [CIGAR.] 

sa-gar'-ti'-a (or t as h), . [Samed after 
the Sagartii (Herod, vii. 85), who were armed 
with lassoes.] 

ZoA : The type genus of Sagartiadas. So- 
gartia viduata is common on many parts of 
the British coast 

a gar-ti'-a-dw, . pt [Mod. Lat. tagartXa); 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff. -arfce.] 

Zool.: A family of Actinaria, with two 
genera, Actinolobee and Sagartia. 

_ , _. [Fr. sagatis; Sp. sagatl, from 
Lat sagum = a blanket, a coarse mantle.] 

Fabric: A miied woven fabric of silk and 
cotton ; sayette. 

Bar-Wit, "sag'-bitt, . [SACKBTJT.] 

sate, ' sauge, * sawge, . [A.S. salwige; 
Fr. sauge ; Port, talva ; Prov. Sp., Ital., & Lat. 


\. The genns Salvla (q.v.)., gpecit Salvia 
oflctnalii and S. grandiflora. The first of 
these is the common garden sage, a native 
of the south of Europe, which has been 
developed into many varieties. Formerly it had 
a high reputation as a sudorific, an aromatic, 
an astringent, and an antiseptic, hut it has 
not now a place in the pharmacoposia. The 
Chinese use it as a tonic for debility of the 
stomach and nerves. It to employed in 
cooking for sauces and stuffing for luscious 

2. The genns Artemldia, the sage bnsh of the 
Great Basin of the West. 

sage-apple, a, 

Botany : 

1. Salvia pomifera. 

2. A Cretan name for a gall on Salvia effl- 

sage-brush, . [SAGE, .. 2.) 
sage-bosh, s. 

Sot. : 0) Artemisia. trMentata ; (2) Lantana 
tnoolucrata. (Bermvdian.) 

sage-cock, t. , 

ornilh. : Centrocercus uropltasianus. Called 
also Cock of the Plains. It is the largest of 
the American grouse, an 1 the malo has a dis- 
tinctive character iu the bare spaces of orange- 
colonred ekin on each side of the nock, which 
he inflates during tlie muting st-ason. Range 
from the Black Hllh! to California and Oregon 
and from British Columbia nearly to Arizona. 
t feeds on the wormwood [SAOE, ., 2] of the 
plains, and, in consequence, its flesh becomes 
so bitter as to be unBt for food. 

sage, a. & . [Fr., from Low Lat. sabium (not 
found), for sapium, accus. of Lat aapivt 
(found only in the negative nesapiua) = wise, 
from ipio = to be wise; ItaL taggio; Sp. 
eabio.} [SAPIENCE.] 

A. As adjective: 

1. Wise, sagacious ; acute or sharp in dis- 
cernment with sound judgment ; prudent, far. 

" Stft, ftm men." Shaltrip. . mcllant /// UL T. 

2. Characterized by wisdom or sagacity; 
well-judged; well-considered; sagacious: 

3. Learned. 

* 4. Grave, solemn, serious. 

B. As subst. : A wise man ; a man of gravity, 
judgment, and wisdom ; especially, a man 
venerable for years, and of sound judgment 
and prudence ; a grave philosopher. 

" For so the holy tagei once did sing." 

Hilton i Ttu yattvttg. 

sage'-ljf. adv. [Eng. sage, a. ; -!y.] In k 
sage, wise, or shrewd manner ; with sound 
discernment and judgment ; sagaciously. 

" To whom our Saviour vigtly thus replied." 

J/I/lon . P. K., IT. IU, 

sag-en-ar'-i-a, s. [SAOESE (2).] 

Palmbot. : A genus of Lycopodiacea; or 
sub-genus of Lepidodendron. From the Upper 
Silurian of Bohemia, and from the Upper 
Devonian to the Triassic of Britain. 

sa-gene' (1), . [SAJEXE.] 

* sa-gene' (2), . [Or. aa^tni (sagenl) = m 
large diag net, a sieve.) A net ; anything re- 
sembling a net ; network. 

" Iron roads are tearing up the surface of Europe . . . 
their great utptne is drawing and twju-hiua the ancienl 
frame and strength of EuKlaud (osether " A'lutin 

frame and strength of EuKlaud (oset 
Modern fainuri led. 1816), ii. 6. 

sage'-ngss, t. [EUR. sage, a. ; ness.'] The 
quality or state of being sage ; wisdom, dis- 
cernment, judgment, shrewdness, sagacity, 
prudence, gravity. 

"In all good 'learning;, virtue, and tfgnm.' 
AKlutm: Toxophilut, bk. i. 

t>-gen'-ite, . [Gr. o^n, (sagini) = a net ; 
suff. -ite (Mi*.).] 

-Win. : Reticulated groups of acicular 
crystals or capillary fibres of rutile (q.v.X 
sometimes enclosed in quartz. 

S&g-en-it'-Io, o. [Eng. tagmit^e); -ic.] Of 
or belonging to aagcnite (q.v.). Loosely ap- 
plied to all rock-crystal enclosing acicular 
crystals of other minerals as well as rutile. 

sag-S-rSf -I-a, s. [Named after M. Sageret, 
a French agriculturist] 

Bat. : A genus of Rhamnea-. Shrubs, often 
thorny, with slender, half-climbing branches, 
and black or dark brown fruit. The leaves of 
Sageretia theeznns, growing in China, the 
Himalayas, and tiie Salt and Suleiman ranges, 
are used as a substitute for tea. Its fruits 
are eaten, as are those of & Branderthiana 
and S. opposMfolia, also Indian species. 

sa'-g8S, . [Fr. rngesse.} Wisdom, learning. 
sageuess. (GlanviU: Plut Ultra, p. 8.) 

;, r.i. [SAO, .] 
sagge, . [SAO, a.] 

B&g'-ger, & [SEGOAR.] 

1. A seggar (q.v.). 

2. Clay used in making such pot*. 
saggT-mg, s. [SAO, .] 

-Y'<1. : A term applied to a ship when thtr 
middle portion of the keel and bottom arch 

sa-gi-na, . [Lat. = a stnffing, a fattening.) 
Sot. : Pearlwort, a genns of Alainese. Sepals 

tSte, lat, JSire, amidst, what, tall, father: we, w8t, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, pot, 
ar. wore, wolt; work. whd. son; mute, cub, cure, unite, our. rule, full; try, Sjrrian. , oe = e; ey = a; an = kw. 

saginate saiga 

lorn or five; petals four or five, entire or 
emarginate, sometimes wanting ; t m^ns tour 
to ten ; styles four or five ; capsule four- to 
flve-valveU. Known ape.-ies tight, from the 
temperate zones. Six are British: Sagina 
avttalu S procumbent. S. iamtUis, S. wtralts, 
Siubulttta, and S. nodosa. All but S. taxa- 
tilis and S. nivcdis, which are Alpine spem-s, 
are common. 

ae'-In-ate, r.t. [Lai. saginatiu, pa. par. 
of sagino=ta fatten, to feed.] To pamper, 
to fatten, to glut. 

* g-ig-in-a'-tlon, s. [SAGINATE.] Feeding, 

They use to put them tor tagiMtion, or. In English, 
tor feeding.-- ro*C.- Four./oo(e<i uu. p. 81. 

sa-git'-ta, s. [Lat. = an arrow.) 

* 1. Arch, .-The keystone of an arch. 

2. Astnm. : The Arrow ; a small northern 
constellation, one of the forty-eight ancient 
asterisms. It is situated between the bill of 
the Swan and Aquila, and is traversed by a 
branch of tlie Milky Way. A nebula in Sagitta 
was resolved by Sir Wm. Herschel, in 1(83, 
into a cluster of stare. (Ditnkin.) 

* 3. Geometry : 

(1) The versed sine of an arc. (From the 
resemblance of an arrow standing upright on 
the string of a bow.) 

(2) The abscissa of a curve. 

4 ZooL : The sole genus of Chaetognatha, 
with several species, found on the surface of 
the ocean all over the world. They are trans- 
parent unsegmented worms, about an inch 
lonR without parapodia, but the chitinous 
cuticle is produced into a finely striated lateral 
fin on each side of the body and tail. At 
each side of the head are strong claw-like 
chitinons processes which serve as jaws. The 
genus presents analogies with both the Nema- 
toidea and the Annelida ; but its develop- 
ment is, in some respects, unlike anything at 
present known in either of these groups. 
(Hwttef. Anat Invtrt. Anim., eh. xi.) 

ag'-It-tal, a. [Lat. sagittalis, from safitta = 
an arrow".] 

1. Ord. Lang. : Pertaining to or resembling 
an arrow. 

2. Anat. : Of or belonging to the suture 
between the parietal bones of the skull. The 
name sagittal is given to this suture because 
it seems to meet the coronal suture as an 
arrow meets the string of a bow. 

" In the iorlll nd certsln other monkeys, the 
cranium of the adult male presents a strongly-marked 
las/iltat crest" Oancin: Daaeat of Han. p. Kt. 

sag-it- tar -I -a, s. [Fern. sing, of Lat. agit- 
tarius = persai'ning to an arrow. So named 
from the shape of its leaves.] 

Bot. : Arrowhead ; a genus of Alismacea. 
Monoasious ; stamens and styles many ; 
achenei one-seeded, compressed, margined, 
collected into a head. Known species about 
fifteen. One, Sagillaria sagitltfotia, is European. 
It has white flowers and purple anthers, and 
is found in ditches, canals, 4c. Various 
pecies are astringent. S. sinensis is cultivated 
for food in China. 

Sag-It- tar'-l-us, (Lat = an archer.) 

Astron.: The Archer (I); the ninth sign of 
the Zodiac, and the third of the southern 
signs, containing eight visible stars in two 
quadrangles. In the latitude of England it is 
so low that it can be recognized only on very 
clear nights and when near the meridian ; in 
latitude 34 S. it is only a few degrees north 
of the zenith. A line from Deneb through 
Altair will intersect Sagittarius. 

* sftg'-lt-tar-jf, . 4 a. [Lat taaittariui = 
an archer.) 
A. As substantive : 

1. Class. Mythol. : A centaur, who is repre- 
sented as coming to the assistance of the 

its'-It-tate, o. [Lat. sagitta = *n arrow.) 
Sliaped like the head of an arrow; arrow- 
headed (q.v.). 

S&g'-it-tat-ed.a. [SAOrnvrs., Resembling 
an arrow ; sagittal. 
Bagittated-calamary, . 
Zoo!. : Tlie genus Ommastrephes, and es- 
pecially Ommaslrephes sagittatus, used for bait 
in the cod-fishery on the tanks of Newfound- 
land. Gould -ays that " so swift and straight 
is their progrw*, that they look like arrows 
shooting through the water." 

a'-go, s. [Malay, sag*, sag*.} 

Foods : The soft inner portion of the trunks 
of the Sago-palm (q.v.). They are cut into 
pieces about two feet long, which are split 
into halves and the soft centre extracted, and 
pounded in water till the starch separates. 
(SAO.O-STAKCH.) It is then washed, and be- 
comes soft meal. This is shaken in a bag til 
it becomes granulated or pearled sago. Six 
or eight hundred pounds of sago are made 
from a single tree. A less amount is obtain- 
able from Caryota ureru, the Bas- 
tard Sago-tree, from Phtenixfar- 
inijera, and, in Java, from the 
pith of the Gebang-palm, Corf- 
pha Gebanga, and some of the 

sago-palm, s. 

Bot. <t Conn. : Any palm fur- 
nishing Sago. Specif., " 
Ion lave, which 
is spineless, and 
if. (or Sofia) 
Rumphii, which 
is spinous, be- 
sides being 
mailer. The 
former grows in 
the East Indies, 
the latter in Mo- 
luccas, Sumatra, 
and Borneo. Granulated sago, prepared from 
its pith, is imported into India, and used as 
a diet for invalids. (Calcutta Exkto. Sep.) The 
illustration shows the tree and its fruit. 

sago-starch, s. 

Chem. : The starch extracted from the stem 
of Sagus Rumphii, and probably of other 
species of palm. 
The granules are in 
size as large as 
those of arrow-root, 
somewhat elongat- 
ed in form, rounded 
at the larger end, 
compressed or 
truncated at the 
smaller, and vary- 
ing in length from 
0008 to -0020 of an 
inch. The hilum, 
which is situated 
at one end of the 
granule, is in some 
a minute circle, in others a slit or cross. Sago 
is largely nsed in the manufacture of the so- 
called soluble cocoas, and is also frequently 
added to the cheaper varieties of arrow-root 

t sa'-gd-In, t sa'-gdn-ln, . [For etym. 
and 3ef . see extract under SAJOD.) 

sag'-ra, s. [Gr. 2ayp<w (Sagras) = a river ol 
Bruttium, on the east coast of the peninsula. 
Entom. : The typiaal genus of the Sagridas 
(q.v.). They have greatly-developed hm<i 
legs, and are called in consequence Kangaroo 
beetles. Their colours are brilliant red 
purple, or green. Found in the tropics of 
Asia and Africa. 

The dreadful offXiT 
ts our numbers." 
Shatap. : Troitia t Crmida. T. 8. 

B. The arsenal at Venice, or the resilience 
there of the military and naval commanders 
So called from the figure of an archer over th 
gate. (Shakesp. : Othello, I. 1.) 

B. Aa adj. : Of or pertaining to an arrow 
used for making arrows. 

" With snch differences of reeds, vulls. 
criptory, Mid others, they mlt'ht be furn 
Judes."-flr<mm . JcKan Traat 


(Magnified 100 diameters.) 

sag'-ri-das, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
fern. pL adj. suff. -Ida.] 

Entom. : A family of Enpoda. Manrtibles 
terminating in a sharp point; lingua deeply 
emarginate or bilobed. 

sa-gu-er'-us, s. [Malay tagv = the name o 
various palms (?).] 

Bat. : A genus of Arecese. Sagverus sac- 
chari/er (Arenia saecharijera) is from twenty 
to twenty-five feet high, and is very common 
in the islands of the Indian Archipelago, th 
Moluccas and Philippines. The spadices ar 
wounded and then pounded without detach 
ing them from the tree. This causes them t 
yield a quantity of saccharine matter, whic 


may be boiled into sugar or be converted by 
fermentation into an intoxicating liquor. 
When the trees are exhausted by this drain on 
their energies, sago is obtained from the 
trunk, as much sometimes as 150 or 200 pounds 
from a single tree. Tlie cab!>age-like bunch 
of young leaves at the summit of the stem is 
eaten, the leaf-stalks yield strong and useful 
tibres, and the mid- 
rib of the leaves is 
nsed for pens and 
for tabes through 
which to N"w ar- 
rows. (Lindley. ) 

a' gum, >. [Lat] 
Rom. Antiq.: 
The military cloak 
worn by the Ro- 
man so'idi'Ts and 
Inferior officers, as 
distinguished from 
the paludamen- 
tnm or cloak worn 
by the superior 

officers It was the garb of war, as the toga 
was of peace, 
a -gus, s. [Malay aagu = the name of various 


Bot. : A genns of Calamese, sometimes made 
a sub-genus of Metroxylon. Spikes terminal ; 
seeds with internal markings like nutmegs. 
Sagus lams, of Rumphius (Metroxylm Sao*), 
and S. genuine, yield the finest sago. They 
form great forests in the Moluccas. The 
bristles of S. fllaris, a Malay plant, are dried 
and used for sewing linen garments. 

[Eng. aa(e), s. ; -y.] FnH of sage ; 

seasoned with sage. 

sa'-hlb, . [Hind., from AraU = master, lord.] 
The common term nsed by natives of India 
and Persia in addressing or speaking of 
Europeans. The feminine form is Sahibah. 

sahl'-ite, . [After Sala (old spelling, Sahla), 
Sweden, where found ; sun*. -Ue (3/in.).] 

M in. : A name formerly applied to a greyish- 
green variety of pyroxene from Sala ; but now 
adopted by Dana and others for a group, viz., 
the lime-magnesia-iron pyroxene. 

sa'-l, t 9'-H s. [For etym. and def. see 
extract under SAJOD.] 
sa -ic, . [Fr. savfae, from Turk, shaika.] 

Naut. : A Levantine vessel like a ketch, 
but without top-gallautsail or mizzen-topsail. 

8atd(alasS),prt.o/ll.,po.}ior.,*o. [SAT,*.} 

A. As pret. *jn. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective : 

L Declared, uttered, spoken. 
2. Before-mentioned, aforesaid. (Used chiefly 
In legal documents.) 

King John succeeded his mid brother In the king- 
dom of EngUnd and dutchy of Normandy.- Hal*. 

* sale, n.t. or t. [SAY, .) 
sa'-i-ga, s. [Native name.] 

Zoology : 

1. A genus of Bovidse, with one species. 
Saiga tartarica, from eastern Europe and 
western Asia. [Coios.] They differ so much 
from all other antelopes that some naturalist* 
have made them a distinct family. 

2. Any individual of the genns Sai'sa. 
hey are about the size of a fallow- 
deer tawny yellow in summer anil 
light gray 
in winter ; 
only in the 
male, less 
than a foot 
long, slight- 
ly lyrate and 
The nose is 
large, fleshy, 
and probos- 

BAKJA - ciform, and 

the nostrils are widely expanded, so that the 
animals have to walk backwards as they feed. 

saiga- antelope, s. 

Zool. : The same as SA!OA, 1. (2). 
" The large animals In the centre are t 


sail sain 

ail, * sayle, * sell, * seyL s. [A.S. segel, 
tegl ; cogu. with Dut, zeil ; Icel. segl ; Dan. 
eil; Sw. scgcl; Ger. segel. From a root 
signifying to bear, to eudure, to resist.] 
L Literally: 

1. A piece of canvas cloth spread to catch 
the wind, so as to cause or assist in causing 
a ship or boat to move through the water. 
Sails are supported by the masts, spars, or 
stays of the vessel, and take their names 
from the mast, yard, or stay on which they 
aie stretched, as the mainsail, &c. The upper 
edge of a sail is the head, the lower edge the 
foot, the vertical edge the leech, the weather 
side or edge (that is, the side or edge next the 
mast or stay to which it is attached) of any 
but a square-sail (q.v.) is the luff, and the 
other edge the after leech. The clews or 
clues are the lower corners of a square sail, 
or the lower after corner of a fore-and-aft 
sail. A tack is the lower weather corner of a 
square sail, or the lower forward corner of 
& fore-and-aft sail. The earing is the upper 
corner of a square sail. A square sail is one 
extended by a yard hung (slung) by the middle 
and balanced. A sail set upon a gatf, boom, 
or stay is called a fore-and-aft sail The sails 
of modern ships are usually made of several 
breadths of canvas, sewn together with a 
double seam at the borders, and edged all 
round with a cord or cords, known as the 
bolt-rope or bolt-ropes. The seams in a square 
sail are vertical, in a fore-and-aft sail they are 
parallel with the after-leech. 

" Sailt were commonly of linen, sometimes of any 
other materials fit for receiving and repelling the 
wind*. In Dlo. we hare mention of leathern tail* ; 
it was likewise usual, for want of other latit, to hang 
op their garment*." Potter : Antiquitiet qf Greece, 
' bt. ili., chTxir. 

2. A wind-sail (q.v.). 

3. That part of the arm of a windmill which 
catches the wind. 

4. A ship, a vessel. (By extension, applied 
to a fleet.) 

" We hare descried . . . 
A portly Mif of ships make hither ward." 

SAaltetp. : Perielet, L 4. 

5. A journey or excursion by water ; a pas- 
sage in a vessel or boat. 

" The very se*-mark of my outward tail." 

Mot***. : Othello, T. 1 

IL Fig. : A wing. (Poet.) 

** Like to an eagle. In hi* kingly pride 
Soaring through his wide empire of th alre, 
To weather Ini brode tttittt." 

Spenter: F. ., V. IT. U. 

T[ (!) Full sail : With all sails set 

(2) To nil close to the wind: To go to the 
\ery verge of propriety, or to act so as just to 
scape the letter of the law. 

(3) To saU under false colours: [FALSE- 

(4) Under sail : Having the sails spread, 
ail-boat, . A sailing-boat (q.v.). 

* sail-broad, a. Broad or spreading as 
the sail of a ship. (Milton: P. L. t ii. 927.) 

sail clutch, s. 

Nant. : An iron band fastening a sail ; a 
substitute for hoops or lashiug. 


Ichthyology : 

L The genus Carpiode*. 

2. Selache maxima. 

" From It* habit of swimming slowly along with It* 
lorswl fin. mid sometime* part ofitsHtck. out of water, 
tt has obtained in the North the name of SaU-jUA." 
rarreil ; BritiA Fiihet, ii. fiO*. 

all-flake, . 

Ichthy. : Rhombus megastoma. 
ail-hook, . 

Naut. : A small hook for holding the sail 
cloth while sewing. 

sail-hoop, *. [Hoop (1), *., II. 2 (IX] 

sail-loft, *. A large apartment where 
sails are cut out and made. 

sail maker, s. One whose business or 
Occupation is to make and repair sails. 

" Every individual had been sick except the tatt- 
maJt*r"Coo* : firtt Voyage, bk. ii., eh. z. 

ail-needle, s. 

Naut, : A large needle with triangular 
tapering end, used in sewing canvas. 

ail-room, . 

Naut. : An apartment or bunk on board 
hip where spare sails are stowed. 

sail- wheel, s. A name sometimes applied 
to the tachometer of Woltmann. [TACHO- 

* sail-yard, *. 

Naut. : The yard or spar on which sails are 

" With glance to swift the subtle lightning pact 
As spilt the mil-yardt." prydtn : Juvenal. 

sail, * saile, sayle, * seyle, v.i. it t 
[SAIL, .] 

A. Intransitive: 

L Literally: 

1. To be propelled or driven forward by the 
action of the wind upon sails, as a ship on 

2. Hence, to be moved or propelled, as a 
ship or boat, by any mechanical power, as by 
steam, oars, &c. 

3. To be conveyed in a vessel on water ; to 
pass by water. 

" Fro Cipre he was tailand," R. de Brunne, p. 171. 

4. To set sail ; to begin or start on a voyage. 

" On the 13th, at six o'clock in the morning, I tailed 
from Plymouth Sooud." Coo* . Second Voyage, bk, L, 
ch. L 

IL Figuratively : 

* L To swim, as a fish or swimming bird. 

" To which the store* of Crcesus, in the scale. 
Would look like little dolphiua, when they tail 
In the vast shadow of the British whale." 

Dryden : (Todd.) 

2. To pass smoothly or gently by ; to float. 

" No murmurs strange 
" Upon the midnight breeze tail by." 

Scott : Banff Incantation. 

3. To glide ; to move smoothly and gently : 
as, She sailed into the room. 

* 4. To pass, to go. 

" And forth I let hire tayle ID this manere." 

Chaucer ; 0. T., *,76L 

B. Transitive: 
L Literally: 

1. To pass or move over or upon In a ship 
by means of sails, or other propelling power, 
as steam, oars, &c. 

* 2. To pass through, over, or upon, as In a 

" Sail seas In cockles." SkaJutp. : Peridot, IT. 4. 

3. To complete or perform by sailing. 

" The match could not be tailed through before the 
Close time." field. Sept. 4, 188G. 

4. To direct or manage the motion of at sea ; 
to navigate. 

" Each craft was taOed by a lady." /tatty Tdeffrapk, 
Sept. 11, 1835. 

*1X Fig. : To fly through. 

" Sublime she tatl* 

Th' aerial space, and mount* the winded gales." 
Pope. (Todd.) 

U To sail over: 

Arch.: To project beyond a surface. (GwiU.) 

sail -a-ble, a. [Eng. sail, v. ; -able.} Capable 
of being sailed on, over, or through ; navig- 
able ; passable by ships. 

* sail' -borne, a. [Eng. sail, a., and borne 

(q.v.).] Borne, conveyed, or propelled by 

sail-cloth, *. [Eng. sai"7, B., and cloth.] 

Fabric: Canvas for sails, made of flax, 
hemp, cotton, or jute. In thickness and 
weight, it varies from 221bs. to 44lbs, per 
bolt of 38 yards, 24 inches wide. 

* saile, v.t. [ASSAIL.] 

sail'-er, * sayl-er, . [Eng. sail, v. ; -r.] 

* 1. One who sails ; a sailor, a seaman. 

" Saylert by their voyages, find ont and come to the 
knowledge of these tarres." P. Holland: Plinie, 
bk. 11. ch. In. 

2. A ship or other vessel, spoken of with 
reference to her manner, power, or capabilities 
of sailing : as, a fast sailer. 

sail Ing, sayl-ing, * seyl-yng, pr. par., 
a., & s. [SAIL, r.) 

A. & B. As pr. par. d particip. adj. : (See 
the verb), 

C. As substantive : 

L The act of one who or that which sails. 

"And whaniie teyltmg was not afkir for that fasting 
was pasdd." Wy&ffe: Dedit sxvii. 

2. The art or rules of navigation ; the act, 
art, or operation of conducting or directing 
the course of a ship from port to port ; navi- 

" There was tome smart tailing shown." /VW, 
Sept. 4, IBM. 

I Sailing is distinguished, according to tin 
methods employed in solving the different 
problems that arise. 

If (1) Current sailing : The method of deter- 
mining the true course and distance of a ship, 
when her own motion is combined with that 
of a current. 

(2) Globular sailing : [GLOBULAR], 

(3) Great circle sailing : [GREAT]. 

(4) Mercator's sailing: That in which the 
problems are solved according to the princi- 
ples of Mercator's projection. [MERCATO&'S 


(5) Middle latitude sailing : [MIDDLE], 

(6) Oblique sailing : [OBLIQUE]. 

(7) Parallel sailing : [PARALLEL, a.]. 

(8) Traverse sailing : [TRAVERSE, a.]. 

sailing-boat, s. A boat propelled by, or 
fitted for a sail or sails, as distinguished from 
a row-boat. 

sailing-carriage, s. A wheeled vehicle 
propelled by sails. (Cf. Milton: P. L.. iii 

sailing-instructions, s. pi. 

Naut. ; Written or printed directions issued 
by the commanding officer of a convoy for the 
masters of the ships under hi3 care, explaining 
his signals, and appointing a place of rendez- 
vous if the ships should be dispersed bj 
tempest, or to escape capture by the enemy. 

sailing-master, . 

Nautical : 

1. The same as MASTER, *., A. II. 4. 

2. In the American Navy, a warrant officer, 
ranking next below a lieutenant, whose duties 
are to navigate the vessel, and, under the direc- 
tion of the executive oflicer, to attend to the 
stowage of the hold, to the cables, rigging, &c. 

sailing-orders, s. pi. [ORDER, s. * (10).] 
sailing-over, s. 

Arch. : Projecting beyond a surface. 

sail -less, a. [Eng. sail, s. ; -less.] Destitute 
of sails. 

" John . . . saw the disk of the ocean 
SaUteu. sombre, and cold." 

Longfellow: Mile* Standiik, 11L 

sail'-or, * sall-our, *. [Eng. sail, v. ; -or.J 

1. Ord. Lang.: A mariner, a seamen. (Usu- 
ally applied to one of the ordinary hands, 
or those before the mast.) 

"She would stt and weep 
At what a tailor suffers." Covper : Talk. 1 ML 

2. Entom. : A child's name for any Tele- 
phorus of a bluish colour. [SOLDIER,] 

sailor-fish, . 

Ichthy. : Any species of the genus Histio- 
phorus. [XiPHiiDA.] 

" In the warm waters of the Indian Ocean a string* 
mariner ia found that baa given rise to many curiuu* 
tales among the natives of the coast thereabout They 
toll of a wonderful sail often cn in the calm staaonj 
preceding the terrible hurricanes that course over 
thoae waters . - . One day the phantom craft actually 
appeared to the crew of ail Indian steamer, and aa it 
pftised by under the stern of the vessel, the queer 
1 sail ' was seen to belong to a gigantic sword-tish, now 
known as the tailor-fuh. The sail was really an 
enormously developed dorsal fin that was over tea 
feet high, and was richly coloured with blue awl 
iridescent tints; and as the fish swain along on or neat 
the surface of the water, this great fin naturally 
waved to and fro, BO that, from a distance, it could 
easily be mistaken for a curious aaiL" St. Xickolat, 
Oct., 1886, p. sjo. 

sailor-like, a. Like a sailor or sailors. 

Sailors' home, s. An institution where 
sailors may board and lodge while they are on 
shore. The first was opened in Londoa In 
1829. Sailors' homes have since been estab- 
lished in the princi])al English sea-ports. 

* Sail'-or-le'ss, a. [Eng. sailor ; -less.] Des- 
titute of sailors. 

" Ships tailorlett lay rotting on the sea.* 

Byron : JJarlcnem. 

* sail our, s, [SAILOR,) 

* sail -y, a. [Eng. sail, s. ; -y.] Like or re- 
sembling a sail. 

" From Penmen's craggy height to try her nat'Iy wiiigm," 
Draytfm : Polg-Otbion, s. 9. 

saint, . [SEAM (3), .] Lard, fat. (Prov. & 

sa'-I mi-ris, & [Native name.l 

Zool : Callithrix sciureus, the Squirrel Mon- 
key (q.v.). Cuvier gave it generic distinction. 

* sain, pa. par. [SAT, v.] 

late, fat, fare, amidst, what, fall father; we, wet, here, amel her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go, p6t, 
or, wore, wqlf, work, who, son ; mute, cub, cure, unite, cur, rul*. full; try. Syrian, , oe = e; ey = a; qu = kw. 

sain sake 


aln, sane, v.t. [A.8. seinan, segnian = to 
sign, to bless; stgen, 0n = a sign, from Lat. 
tjnum=a sign; Ger. segen = a sign, segnen 
= to sign, to bless.] To sign with the sign of 
the cross; hence, to bless against evil in- 

" Sign it with Croat. and lain It with bead, 
Sin, th, Ave, and saythe creed.^ 

sain foin, sairi-f&in, saint'-fSln, s. [Fr., 
from soin = wholesome, and/oin = hay ; Lat. 
sanum foznum = wholesome hay, or less pro- 
bably from Fr. saint = sacred, and fain = hay ; 
Lat. sanctum fcenum.] 
Bot. : The genus Onobrychis (q.v.X 

aint, * saynt, * saynct, * seint, * seinte, 
seynt, s. [Fr. saint, from Lat. sanctum, 
accus. of sanctus = holy, consecrated ; prop. 
pa. par. of scmcio = to render sacred, to make 
holy ; Sp. nnto, san ; Ital. santo.] 

1 A person sanctified ; a person eminent 
for piety and virtue ; a godly or holy person. 
(It is applied especially to the Apostles and 
other holy persons mentioned in Scripture.) 

" But onely if he be some tetnte. 
Whiche God preserueth of his grace. 

Gowcr : 0. A., Till. 

4 One of the blessed In heaven. 

"You a taint with "ainii your sett have won.- 

Spenter: F. o... II. USi. 
* 3. An angel. 

"Behold the Lord oometh with ten thousand of hla 
tatnti.~-J*de U. 

4. One who for his or her piety has been 
canonized by the Roman Church. The title 
Saint is generally abbreviated to St. before a 
personal name. (The abbreviation for Saints 
Is 88.) [INVOCATION, U.) 

$ A small sect calling themselves Saints 
first obtained places of worship in London in 

If 1. St. Agnes' flower : 

Bot. : The genus Erinosmm. 

2. St. Atulrew 1 ! crust: 

(1) Ord, Lang. : A cross shaped like the 
letter X. 

(2) Bot. : Ascyrum Crux Andrea. 

3. St. Anthony's fire: Erysipelas. 

4. SI. Barbara's crest : 
Bot. : Barbarea vulgaris. 

6. St. Barnaby's thistle : 
Bot. : Centaurea solslitialit. 

8. SI. Boniface' s pennies: The separated por- 
tions of the stalk of the Lily Encrinite. 

7. St. Cassian beds : 

Geol : A series of beds of Upper Triassic 
ge in the Southern Tyrol, consisting of cal- 
careous marls, with Ammonites, Gasteropoda, 
Conchifera, Brachiopoda, Corals, &c. 

8. St. Catherine's flawer : 
Bot. : Nigella damascena. 

9. St. Christopher's Kerb : 

Bot. : (1) Osmunda regalis, (2) Actea spicata. 

10. St. Cuthberfs beads : 

Palceont. : A popular name for the separated 
portions of Encrinites moniliformis. 

11. St. CutKbert's duck : [EIDER-DUCK], 

12. St. Elmo's light: The Corposant (q.v.). 

13. St. George's ensign : The distinguishing 
badge of ships of the Royal Navy, consisting 
of a red cross on a white field, with the Union 
Jack in the upper quarter next the mast. 

11. S(. Helen's series : (OsBORNE SERIES]. 

15. S(. Ignatius bean : [IONATIUS'S-BEAN]. 

16. St. James's wort : 
Bot. : Senecia Jacobcea. 

17. St. John's bread : 

Bot. : Ceratonia siliqiui. So called because 
tn the opinion of some, it furnished th 
" locusts " eaten by John the Baptist in th 
wilderness. More probably, however, th 
locusts were the actual insects. 

18. St. John's wort : The genus Hypericum 
spec., //. perforatum. 

19. St. Leger: The name of a horse-rac 
for three-year-olds, instituted in 1776 b 
Colonel St. Leger, of Park Hill, near Don 
caster, but not called the "St. Leger" til 
two years afterwards. It is run at Doncaste 
in September of each year. (Pron. Stt'-lin-ger 

20. St. Martin's flower : 

Bot. : Alstnemeria Flos-Martini. 

21. St. Martin's herb : 

Bot. : Sauvagesia erecta. It is very muci- 

22. St. Martin's summer : A popular name 
for the mild damp season which sometimes 
prevails from November till about Christinas, 
due to the prevalence of south-westerly 

23. St. Mary's flower: 

Bot. : Anastatica H ierochuntiana. 

24. St. Monday : A Monday spent in idle- 
ness and dissipation. Used only in the phrase 
To keep St. Monday = To idle away Monday 
instead of returning to work. 

25. St. Peter's fingers : 

Pafaont. : A popular name for Belemnites. 

26. St. Peter's wort : 

Bot. : (1) Primula veris ; (2) the genus 
Ascyrum ; (3) the genus Symphoria ; (4) 
Hyperiaum Aseyron ; (5) Hypericum yuad- 

27. St. Simonian : A supporter or adherent 
of the Count de St. Simon (1760-1825), a social- 
istic reformer, who proposed the institution 
of a European Parliament, to arbitrate in all 
matters affecting Europe, and the establish- 
ment of a social hierarchy based on capacity 
and labour. 

28. St. Simonianitm, St. Simonism: The 
doctrines, principles, or practice of the St. 

29. St. Thomas-tree : 

Bot. : Bauhinia. tomentosa. 

30. S(. Vitiu's dance : [CHOREA.] 

* saint-seeming, a. Having or assum- 
ing the appearance or a saint ; hypocritical. 

"A nint-tetming and Bible-hearing hypocritical 
puritan." Mountayu* : Appeal* to Catar, p. is. 

saint's bell, . The Sanctus-bell (q.v.). 

* saint, v.t. & i. [SAINT, *.] 

A* Transitive: 

1. To enrol among the list of the saints by 
an official act of the pope ; to canonize. 

I'll have him tainted,- Beaum. * fltc. : Scornful 
Lady, Iv. I 

2. To salute as a saint. 

" Lower voices taitit me from above.* 

Tmn t Kn .' St. Si.JKm Stflila. 151 

3. To give the character or reputation of a 
saint to. 

" Such an Impression of hl goodness gave, 
As tainted him." Daniel: Civil Wart, L 

B. Intrant. : To act or live as a saint or 
with a show of piety. 

Think women still to thrive with men, 
To sin, and never for to taint. 

Shaketp. : Pattionat* PUgrtm, 343. 

* salnf-dom, s. [Eng. saint; -dom.] The 
state or condition of being a saint ; the state 
of being canonized ; canonization. (Tennyson . 
St. 'Simon Stylites, 6.) 

saint'-ed, pa. par. & a. [SAINT, .] 

A. As pa. par. : (See the verb). 

B. As adjective: 

1. Canonized ; enrolled among the saints. 

" And the lightning showed the tainted 
Figures on the casement painted." 

Lon'jfeUow : Norman Baron. 

2. Entered into bliss ; gone to heaven. (A 
euphemism for dead.) 

3. Sacred, holy. 

" And, like a glory, the broad sun 
llaugs over tainted Lebanon." 

Moore : Paradite * the Peri. 

4. Holy, pious. 

"A most tainted king." 

Shaketp. : Macbeth, Iv. a 

* saint' ess, * saynt-ess, s. [Eng. saint 
s. ; -ess.] A female saint. 

"The must blessed company of sayntes and tavn. 
ctte*." Bishop Fisher : Sermon*. 

saint foin, s. [SAINFOIN.] 

t saint'-hood, s. [Eng. saint ; -hood.] Th 
state, character, rank, or position of a saint 
saint ; saintship. 

" Sainthood, as hitherto understood, implies a livin 
faith rejoicing in the consciousness of God. T. Dana 
ton: Phil. Sytt. of A. Rormini, p. xliii. 

* saint' -Ing, s. [Eng. saint, v.;-ing.] Canon 

41 Meriting ai well bis tainting as his seat. 

Drayton : Poly-Otbvm, s. 34. 

* saint'- fab, a. [Eng. taint ; -i4.] Some 
what saintly. (Used ironically.) 

saint' ism, *. [Eng. saint ; -ism.] Th 
quality or character of a saint. 

" The pains he took in converting him to godliness, 

L., to canting Puritanism and Ouintitm. Wood: 

falti Oxon., vol. 11. 

saint -like, a. [Eng. taint; -like.] 

1. Like or resembling a saint ; saintly, holy. 
3. Becoming or befitting a saint. 

" In accents tender and tainflUce." 

Longfellow : Evangeline, ii. &. 

saint' -U-lj?, adv. [Eng. saintly ; -ly.] In a 
saintly manner. (Poe : Kationale of Verse.) 

saint 11 ndss, [Eng. saintly; -ness.] The 
quality or state of being saintly. 

saint -IJr, a. [Eng. saint; -ly.] Like a saint; 
becoming or befitting a saint ; saintlike. 

Men of orthodor faith and laintlf UIt-"Macat. 
(ay : Bill. Rng., ch. xl. 

saint 61 6 gist, s. [Eng. saint, and Or. 
Aoyos (logos) = a word, a discourse.] One who 
writes or is versed in the lives or history of 
saints ; a hagiologist. 

saint -ship, . [Eng. saint; -ship.] The 
character or qualities of a saint ; saintly 
character or condition. 

"Whose large blue eyes, fair locks, and snowy hauda, 
Might shake the taintthip of an anchorite.' 

Byron: Child* Harold, L. U. 

salP, a. [SORE.] (Scotch.), v.t. [SERVE.] (Scotch.) 

sair Ing, sair'-In', >. [SAia, .] As much 
as satisties or serves the turn ; enough. (ScotcA.) 

salr'-iy, salr'-lle, adv. [SOKELT.] (Scotc*.) 
salthe, i. [SEETHE.] 

Sai'-va,>. [SIVA.] 

Hindooism : A follower of Siva, the third of 
the Hindoo Triad ; spec., a monastic devotee of 
the god. H. H. Wilson (Religious Sects of the. 
Hindoos, 1862, p. 32) divides these devotees into 
nine orders : Dandis and Dasnamis, Jogis, 
Jangamas, Paramahansas, Urdhabahus, Akas 
Mukhis and Nakhis, Gudaras, Rukharas Suk- 
haras and Ukharas, Kara Lingis, Sannyasis, 4c. 

Sai'-va-vite, o. & s. [Sansc., ic. Saiwa; 
connect., and Eng. sun", -tie.] 

A. At adj. : Of or belonging to Siv or hi 

B. As subst. : A Saiva (q.v.). 

sa-1ene'. sa-gene' (l), - 

"sian measure of length, equal to 1 '167 English 
fathoms, or about seven English feet. 

saj'-li, . [Hind, khar-suji or suji-khar.] In- 
"dian barilla, produced by burning Anthroo- 
Salicornia orachiata, Salsola Kali, Sumla fru- 
ticosa, S. tndtca, and S. nudiflora. 

sa ]6u' (J as zh), t. [For etym. and def. ses 
extract. ] 

"These (the genus Cebus] are the little masters of 
the woods.' accordliiz to Azara, and hould be called 
Oaf (the 'C' is soft), which has been altered t 
Saiou by the extraordinary talent which the French 
have of confounding spelling and sounds in other Ian- 
zuaaes BufTon divides the monkeys noticed abuve 
rthe genera Ateles. Lagothrii. and Cebua] into Sapa- 
Joat and Sagoint, the larger kiuclii belonging to the 
Brst. and those about to be noticed ICebilsJ to the last. 
He modified, he says, the words ORHPHMBN and Cagoni. 
their C being pronounced as & But Azara says tl.nt 
the real words are Caigonazon and Cai, they being 
pronounced as written, and the first means Great Cai. 
ind the last Cai or Cay. simply Monkey. Hajaut is 
a derivative from Cagoni. and animals properlv in- 
cluded by it constitute the genus Cebus, but to add to 
the confusion Mr. Wallace calls them Sapajom. 
Prof. M. nuncan. Ul Cauell'l Sat. Bill., 1. 178. 1T. 

sa'-ka, s. [Native name (?)] 

Bot. : Cnpaifera puoiflora and C. bracteata, 
which yield timber of great toughness. They 
grow in Demerara. 

sake, . [A.S. sacu = strife, dispute, crime, 
accusation ; cogn. with Dut. znac = matter, 
case, cause, business, affair ; Icel. sdk = a 
charge, guilt, crime ; Dan. sag ; 8w. sak ; Ger. 
sacAe; Goth, sakan =to contend, to rebuke.) 

1. Final cause, end, purpose ; purpose or 
desire of obtaining : as, To tight for the sake. 
of freedom. 

2. Account, reason, cause, interest ; regard 
to any person or thing. 

" Yield thee Mmottl ; quarter take. 
For thine own, thy daughter's take. 

Byron : Sieoe of CorinOt, IVIL 

U (1) The plural is used in such phrases as, 
For your rates, For their sakes. 

boH, bo?,< pint, J<RM; oat, cell, chorus, chin, beneb; go. gem; thin, this; sin. as; expect, Xenophon. ejlst. pi i-l t 

= rtta;-tloii,-fion = huii. -lou. -tlous, -sious = shu*. -We. -die, *c. _ Bel, 04 


(2) The sign of the genitive is often 

(a) When the word preceding sake ends in a 
sibilant: as, for goodness lake, for conscience 
take, &c. 

*(b) When the word ends in other letters : 
u, torjuskiotl sake, for safely sake, Sec. 

*3, A fault, a crime, a dispute. [SACKLESS.] 

" For desert of ram tote." 

K. Km. Alia. Potmi. lit U. 

1 Sato is only used in such phrases as are 
given above, and is always preceded by /or. 

sa'-kr, sa ere, . [Fr. acre = (1) a fal- 
con ; (2) a piece of ordnance ; Sp. & Port. 
acre; from Arab. sojr=a sparrow-hawk. 
The names of various hawks were frequently 
given to pieces of ordnance. J 

1. A hawk ; a species of falcon ; properly, 
falco sacer, a European and Asiatic falcon. 

" On bit right band new 
A o*r. Mcred to the god of view." 

Ckapmun : Uoinir ; Odyilcy XT. 

2. A small piece of artillery. 

"On the buttons were planted culveruisandiafcrj.- 
Maemutay : Bat. Aug., ch. xii. 

s&k'-er-et, t. [SAKEB.] The male of the 


sakh-rat', i. [Arab. = a rock, a hewn stone.) 
Muhnmmadan Myth. : A sacred stone of an 
emerald colour, which, by reflection, imparts 
the azure hue to the sky. If one possess the 
smallest fragment of it, he acquires miraculous 

sa kl (1), s. [Native name.] 

Toot : The geuus Pithecia (q.v.X Their 
faces are strangely human in appearance, 
and some of them are easily tamed, and be- 
come amusing and affectionate. The members 
of the genus usually known by this name are 
the Hairy Saki (Pithecia Kirsuta), the Scarlet- 
faced, White-skinned, or Bald-headed Saki (P. 
Minis) ; the Black-headed (P. melaiuxxphala) ; 
and the White-headed Saki (P. leucocephala). 
P. satanas is the Couxio, and P. monachus the 

B'-kl (2). sa'-ke, . [Japanese.) The native 
beer and common stimulating drink of the 
Japanese. It is made from rice, and is drank 
warm, producing a very speedy but transient 

" They seem clever people, those Japanese wbo lately 
enabled their convict friends to get drunk on hambuos 
Oiled with iaU."St. Jama 1 , a<ame. Sept, U, ISM. 

sok I-eli,sak i-a,sak-eo yoh,.'. [Arab. 
taka, saklca a water-carrier, a cupbearer.] A 
machine nsed in Egypt for raising water from 
the Kile for the purpose of irrigation. It is a 
modification of the Persian wheel, and con- 
aists of a series of cogged wheels, turned by 
buffalo or camel, each revolution of the 
wheel working up a series of earthen pitchers, 
which empty themselves into a trough or pool. 

" Here the fields are watered by means of wheels to 
which wator.Jars are aUached-the so*w."_e. 
fetri: fyfft led. Bell), 68. 

Stile 1 ta, s. [Bengali, Ac., from Sansc. nkti 
power, energy.) 

Hindwism : A worshipper of the Sakti, 
the power or energy of the divine nature in 
action, and personified in a female form. If 
the proclivities of the worshipper are towards 
the adoration of Vishnu, then the personified 
Sakti is termed Lakshmi or Haha-Lakshmi ; 
If it be towards that of Siva, the Sakti is 
denominated Parvati, Bhavani, or Durga. The 
principal religions books of the Saktas are the 
Tantras (q.vT). It is believed that at least 
three-fourths of the Hindoos of Bengal are of 
this sect, and of the remaining fourth, three 
are Vaislinavas to one Saiva. (Relig. Sects of 
the Window, 1862, p. 82.) Wilson divides the 
Saktas into Dakshinis, Vamis, Kancheliyas, 
and Kararis. Another classification is into 
the Dakshinacharis and the Vamacharis, fol- 
lowers of the Right Hand and of the Left 
Hand Ritual. The latter are accused of great 

saker salamander 

Chem.: Formerly nsed In chemistry to dis- 
tinguish salts, and now sometimes used in 
compound names. 

sal ammoniac, s. 


2. Mvn. : An isometric mineral, occurring 
hi crystals, also in stalactites, massive, and 
as efflorescences. Hardness, 1'6 to 2 ; sp. gr. 

1 "528 ; lustre, vitreous ; colour, white, whe 
pure ; translucent to opaque ; soluble ; t ist 
saline, pungent. Compos. : ammonium, SS'7 
chlorine, 66 '3 = 100, hence the formula 
NH 4 CL Frequent as sublimation products i 
volcanic craters, notably well crystallized i 
that of Vesuvius. 

3. Pharm. : It sometimes relieves pain i 
neuralgia, and has been given in chronic bron 
chitis with abundant expectoration. Kxtr; 
nally it is slightly stimulant, and is believec 
to aid in dispersing tumours. 

sal-polycrestus, . [POTASSIC-BUL 


sal-prunella, >. [PKUNELLA-SALT.] 
sal volatile, s. 

L Chem. : Aromatic spirit of ammonia. 
2. Pharm. : Its actiou is that of free am 

sal (2), . (SAUL.) 

sa-laam', sa lam , . [Arab, naldm = sa 
luting, a salutation ; of. Heb. shelam = peace 
shdUm=to be safe.) A ceremonious saluta 
tion or obeisance among Orientals, consistin 
in the bending of the head with the bod, 
downwards, in extreme cases nearly to the 
ground, and placing the palm of the rigl 
baud on the forehead. 

" ' Eo I who art thou ?'' This low talam 
Replies of Moslem faith I am.'" 

Byron : Giaour. 

H To send a person one's salaam : To presenl 
or send one's compliments. 

sa-laam', sa lam , .i. & t. [SALAAM, .] 

A. Intrans.: To make a salaam or obeisance 
to bow ; to salute with a salaam. 

B. Trans. : To make a salaam to ; to salute 
with a salaam. 

" A my Intelllgent-lookinr, amiable little lady, 
who tatamttl us in Turkish style." Scribner't itaga- 
Xiu, June, IS!;, p. I49i 

* sa laam stone, s. [Ger. mlaamsteln.] 

Min. : Stated to be an Indian naiil* for a 
variety of spinel occurring in six-sided prisms, 
but much doubt exists both as to the origin 
of the name itself and its application. 


[Eng. salabl(e) ; ity.) Salableuess. 

sal'-a-ble, t sale'-a-ble, 'sale' ha 

ble, a. fEug. sal(f) ; -able,] That may be 
sold ; marketable ; ready for sale ; in demand. 

sal'-a-ble-ness. .. [Eng. salable; -,.} 
The quality or state of being salable ; salability. 

*sal'-a-bl*, * sale' a-bly. *,. [ lng . 
"*'(') ; -] In a salable manner. 

sa-la -cl a, . [Lat. = the wife of Neptune.] 
Hot. : A genus of Hippocrateaceee. Stamens 
three; frnit berried. Known species about 
sixty. Salada dulcis, of Brazil, s. pyrljbrmis, 
of Sierra Leone, which resembles a bergamot 
pear, and S. Sozburghii, of India, have eatable 

* sa-la'-elons, a. [Lat. salax, genlt salads ; 
-otto = tx> leap.) Lustful, lecherous. [Rur, v.] 

* sa la -clous ly, mlr. [Eng. salacious; -ly.] 
In a salacious manner ; lustfully, lecheronsfy. 

" sa-la -cions-noss, . [Eng. salacious; 
ness.] The quality or state of being salacious ; 
lust, lecherousness, salacity. 

salacitas, from salax'= salacious (q.v.).] Sa- 

"The Immoderate tanaclty. and almost unparalleled 
excess of veuery. which every September may be ob- 
serve-d in this animal. " Browne : Vvtgar Errouri, 
bk. ill., ch. Ix. 

sal -ad, * sal-ado, sal lad, sal-lat, 
* sal'-let, s. [Fr. salade, from O. Ital. salata 
= a salad of herbs, prop. fern, of salato, pa. 
per. of saliire to salt, to pickle, from sal, 
ie(Lat. sat) = salt (q.v.); Dnt salade; Dan., 
8w., & Ger. salat.] 

I. Generally, a dish of certain vegetables 
prepared and served so as to be eaten raw ; 
specif., a dish of lettuce, endive, radishes, 
mustard, land and water-cress, celery, and 
young onions, dressed with eggs, salt, mustard, 
oil, vinegar, or spices. 

2. A dish composed of some kind of meat, 
as chicken or lobster, chopped and mixed witS 
uncooked herbs, and seasoned with some con- 
diment, as lobster-salad. 

3. A lettnce, (Colloq.) 
salad burnet, s. 

Bot. : The genus Poterlnm, nd specif 
Polerium Sanguisorba, the leaves of which are 
eaten in salad. 

salad-cream, . A prepared dressing 
for salads. 

-salad-days, * sallet - days. s. pi 

Green, unripe days ; years of inexperience. 

When I was green in lu'dJiS?-' "' 

Skatetp. . Atmi t Cltapatra, t, t 

salad oil, s. Olive-oil. 

salad- spoon, s. A spoon of wood or 
Ivory for mixing and serving salads. 

'sal-ade, i. [SAJJJT (2).] 
1 Sal'-a dine, a. [From Saladin, properly 
' f 

Saladine-tenth, >. 

Law : A tax imposed on England and France 
in 1188 by Pope Innocent HI., toobtain money 
for the crusade then about to be led by 
Richard I. of England and Philip Augustus 
of France against Sulailin, Sultan of Egypt. 
It was a tenth on every one's annual income, 
and on his movable goods except liis clothes* 
books, and arms. Some religious orders were 
exempt. The tax was continued after the 
crusade was at an end, and became tlic ground 
for the taxing of ecclesiastical benefices for 
the Pope. The example was ultimately imi- 
w tated by various sovereigns. 

* sal -ad-ing, s. [Eng. salad; -ing.} Herb* 
and vegetables for salads. 

'The spring vegetables, as asparagus, straw berries, 
and some sort of trading, are more easily digested 
thanjpean, peaches and nectarines.- CAeyM.- On 

sa'-la-Ite, sa' lite, s. [SAHUTK.] 
sa-laT, . [Native name.) (See compound.) 
salal-berry, . 

Bat. : The berry of Gnaltheria Shallan. It 
is about the size of a common grape, and 
grows in the valley of the Columbia River, In 

sa-lam', . A t. [SALAAH.] 

ol-a-man'-der, . [Fr. salamandre, from 
Lat salamandra; Gr. <ro*andvtf>a(salamandra\ 
= a kind of lizard; cf. Pere. zmandT = a 
I. Ordinary Language : 

1. In the same sense as II. 1. 

2. (With reference to the curious popular 
belief that the salamander can live in fire) a 
person who seems at home in close proximity 
to fire of any kind. 

" He was so much at his ease amid the hottest flre 
of the French batteries that his soldiere gave him 

the honourable nickname of the Salamander." 

Jfaeaulaj/.- ffitt. Xng., ch. xxl. 

3. A circular iron plate used in cooking ; a 

4. A term sometimes applied to a fire-proof 

* 8. A heated iron for firing cannon. 

6. A large iron poker, which, being heated 
to redness, is then used lor lighting fires, or 
for browning certain dishes. 

IL Technically: 

* 1. Alchemy : An imaginary being having 
human form, and possessing the power of 
living in fire. Paracelsus placed them among 
his elemental spirits. 

" Scorching Salamander, bnm ; 
Nymph of Water, twist and um." 

wort*. .' r.ital led. Ansterl. 
2. Zool.: A popular name for an > individual 
of the Salamandrinee (q.v.), the Tritona or 
Newts being distinguished as Aquatic or 
Water Salamanders, and the other genera as 
Terrestrial or Land Salamanders. They are 
timid, sluggish, lacertiform creatures, feeding 
on worms, slugs, snails, and insects. When 
alarmed, they exude from the pores of the) 
back and sides a milky humour, injurious to 
small animals but innocuous to man. From 
this circumstance. Salamanders have probably 

ate, lit, tare, amidst, what, tall, father; we, wSt, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit, sire, sir, marine; go. pCt. 
or, won. wolt work, whd, son ; mute, oub, oiire, unite, our, rule, tull; try, Syrian, w, 08 = e ; ey = a; o.u = kw. 

salamandra salesman 


derivoJ their popular reputation of liing 
Tenomous, which, hi.wtw, is totally without 


foundation. Strange teles have been told of 
them from very early times, particularly that 
the icy coldness of their bodies enabled them 
to endure fire without being injured, and 
even to extinguish the flames in which they 
were placed. Pliny records that he tried the 
experiment, with the natural result that the 
Salamander was burnt to powder, but the 
fable received credence among the uneducated 
until quite modern times. 

salamander - cloth, s. An incom- 
bustible cloth, said to be made from skins 
of salamanders, but really manufactured from 
asbestos. [SALAMANDER'S-HAIB.] 

" The lalamander-clath sent by the Tartar king to 
the Ruman PontlnV Kay. Cyclop. (Xat. IIM.I. L 179. 

salamander's hair, * salamander's 

wool, . A name once given to a species of 
fibrous asbestos, which is incombustible. 

al a man-dra, >. [SALAMANDER.] 

Zool. : The typical genus of the family Sala- 
marwlridip (q.v'.). Head thick, tongue broad, 
palatine teeth in two series, parotids large, 
toes free, numerous warty growths on sides. 
There are two species : Sala-n^ndra maculosa, 
the Spotted Salamander, from Central Europe 
and the mountainous district* on both sides 
of the Mediterranean, and S. atra, the Black 
Salamander, from the high mountains of Cen- 
tral Germany, France, and Switzerland- The 
young of this species undergo their meta- 
morphoses in the body of the mother. A 
young tadpole prematurely extracted, and 
placed in water and watched by Mile. Marie 
de Chauvin, lost its gills, which were replaced 
by others. It lived for fifteen weeks at the 
bottom of its tank, when the gills atrophied, 
and, after moulting, the animal quitted the 
water. The gill-clefts then closed, and it be- 
came an adult land-salamander, 

al-a-man'-drf-dse, . pi- [Mod Lat tala- 
maiuir(a); Lat fem. pL adj. suff. -ido}.} 

1. Zoology: 

(1) A family of Urodela, approximately con- 
terminous with the group Salamandrinse (q.v.). 

(2) A family of Salainandrinse (q.v.). Pala- 
tal teeth iu two longitudinal rows diverging 
posteriorly. Genera: Triton, Salamandra, 
and Salamandriua. 

2. Palcmtf. : The older family [(!)] does 
not appear before the Tertiary, but in strata 
of that age forms have been discovered in all 
respects resembling existing types. From the 
Miocene of CEningen comes Andrias scheuchztri, 
closely allied to Menopoma, and sometimes 
included with it in the genus Cryptot.ranciius, 
with the specific name of homo diluvii testis, 
by which its discoverer first described it 

al a-man'-dri-form, a. [Lat. salamandra,, 
and forma = form.) Resembling a salamander. 
" The body Is talamandrVorm." JWcAoton;.- Po- 
'Vy, it r~ 

al-a-maa-dri'-na, s. [Mod. Lat sala- 
mandria); Lat fern. smg. adj. sun", -ina.) 

Zool. : A genus of Sakimandridie, with one 
species, Salamandrina perspicillata, from Italy 
and Dalmatia. Tongue fixed in front ; hind 
feet with four free digits. Upper part black, 
witli triangular reddish spot on head ; white 
beneath, spotted with black. 

sal a man-dri nc9, i. pi. [Mod. Lat tola- 
mandr(a); Lat. fem. pi. adj. suff. -(TKC.) 

Zool. : A sub-ori'.er of Urodela, with four 
families : Molgidae, Salamandridae, Plethodon- 
tida, and Amblystomidse. The group is highly 
characteristic of the North Temperate regions, 
a few species only extending into the Neo- 
tropical, and one into the Oriental region. 

* sal a man' -dr me, a. [Eng. salamander; 
4ne.] Pertaining to, or resembling a sala- 
mander ; capable of resisting fire. 


We ohierved In it a certain tatamandrine quality 
that made It capable of living In the midst of ft and 
flauie." Adduan I Spectator, No. 281. 

sal a man'-drold, s. [SALAMANDROIDES.) 
Any individual^ the old family Salamandrida, 
or the sub-order Salamandrinae. 

" It U really the skeleton of a talamamtroid of large 
glze." .VtVhotom : Paheont.. it. 177. 

" sal-a man-drd'-l-des, s. [Or. o-A<i)ia.-jpa 
(safamaiuira) = the salamander, and <ioo s 
(eidos) = resemblance.] 

Palaont. : The name given by Jager to a 
species of Labyrinthodon, which he raised to 
the rank of a genus. 

3al-a mah'-quese (qn as k), a. & . [See 

A. At adj. : Of or pertaining to Salamanca 
or its inhabitants. 

B At subst.: A native or inhabitant of 
Salamanca ; in the plural, the people of Sala- 

sa-lam'-ba, s. [Sp.] A kind of fishing ap- 
paratus, used on the banks near Manilla, fitted 
upon a raft composed of several tiers of bam- 
boos. It consists of a rectangular net, two 
corners of which are attached to the upper 
extremities of two long bamboos, tied cross- 
wise, their low- 
er extremities 
being fastened 
to a bar on the 
raft., which acts 
as a hinge; a 
movable pole, 
arranged with a 
counterpoise as 
a sort of crane, 
supports the 
bamboos at the 
point of junc- 
tion, and thus 
enables the 
fishermen to raise ordepress the netat pleasure. 
The lower extremities of the net. are guided by 
a cord, which, being drawn towards the raft 
at the same time that the long bamboos are 
elevated by the crane and counterpoise, only 
a small portion of the net remains in the 
water and is easily cleared of its contents by 
means of a landing-net. (Annandale.) 
sal' anx, . [Etym. not apparent.) 

IcMhy. : A genus of Salmonidee, with a 
single species, SalanxchiTiensis, asmall whitish 
fish, known on the coast of China as White- 
bait It lives at a considerable depth, and ap- 
proaches the coast only at certain seasons. 
The scales are very delicate and deciduous. 
sa-lar'-l'-as, . [Etym. doubtful; cf. Lat. 
'salar = the specific name of the salmon, and 
salariut = a dealer in salted-fish.) 

IcWiy. : A genus of Blenniidie, with sixty 
species, ranging northwards to Madeira, and 
southwards to Chili and Tasmania. Certain 
individuals of some specie!! possess a longi- 
tudinal cutaneous crest, which, however, is 
not a sexual characteristic. Mature males 
have generally higher doraal fins and more 
intense and variegated coloration than females 
and immature males. 
sal'-a-rled, a. [Eng. salary ; -d.] 

1.' Having a salary ; receiving a salary. 
2. Having a salary attached to it; paid by 
a salary : as, a salaried post, 
sal-a-ry, * sal-a-rye. * aal-e-rye, 
*sal'-la-r*, s. [Fr. ntoir = a salary, a 
stipend,' from Lat. solarium, prop. = sa t- 
money, or money given to the soldiers for salt, 
salarius = pertaining to salt, o( = salt; Sp., 
Port & Ital. solaria.] The recompense, pay, 
or consideration paid or agreed to be paid to a 
person periodically for his services, usually a 
fixed sum to be paid by the year, half-year, or 
quarter. When paid at shorter intervals it is 
generally termed wages ; thus, a judge receives 
a salary, while a bricklayer receives wages. 

" A to mywiiarv. he told me. I should have M 
dollars per mouth." Dampier : Voyage* (au. 1690). 

sal'-a-rf, .. [SALARY, .] To pay by a 

salary. (Only in the pa. par.) 
sal'-dan-ite, . [After the river Saldana, 

Colombia, South America, where found ; suff. 

1. The act of selling ; the act of transferring, 
the ownership of or property in a thing for a 
price in money ; the exchange of a commodity 
for a price agreed on in money paid, or to be 

This nle at office*" SAatop. . J tttml 71., L a. 

2. Power or opportunity of selling ; demand, 
market, vent. 

" Rearing of all husbandry commodities, knowing 
that they shall have reily *i/ for them at those 
towns. '.Ipetiter : Slate of Ireland. 

3. Public selling to the highest bidder; 
exposure of goods in a shop or market ; 

If (1) Bill of sale ; [BILL (3), ., IV. t ()]. 

* (2) House of sale : A brothel. (Shaketp. : 
Hamlet, ii. 1.) 

(3) On sale, for sale : Offered to purchaser! ; 
to be bought or sold. 

(4) Sale by inch of candle : [!NCH-OF-CANDL 

* (5) To set for sale : To offer to any one. 
Sale-room, s. A room in which goods 

are sold ; an auction-room. 

sale (2), s. [Prob. from Lat. salisc = a willow.) 
A wicker-basket. 

" Who to entrap the fish In winding taU 
Waft better seen t " 

Sftfiuer.' Stuphenrils Calender; Dee. 

sale (3), s. [A.S. sail, genit. sales ; O. H. Ger. 
sal; Gcr. saal] A hall. 

" When he had tolde this tale 
To that senwly iu tale." Perceval, !,. 

sale, . t. [SALE (!),.] To sell. (Octovian. 

sale'-a-ljle, a. [SALABLB.] 

sal-e-br6s'-I-ty, . [Eng. salebrous ; -Uy.] 
The quality or state of being salebrous ; rough- 
ness, ruggedness. 

" Yet is not this without iU thorax and talebretUt I " 
Peltfi'im : Upon Seclel. U. X 

sal'-S-brotts. a. [Lat. saltbrosw, from 
salebra = a rough place.) Bough, rugged, un- 

eV ' " Thorongh a vale that's lalehrmi Indeed." 

COUti: If ondtn at Of Peatt. 

sa-le -ni-a, . [A euphonic word of no signi- 

L Zool. : The typical genus of Saleniadss 

2. Poteon*. : From the Cretaceous times 

r. \.'t tO9mf*J 

Min. : The same as ALUNOOIN (q.v.). 
sale (1), . [Icel. sola, sal = a sale, a bargain ; 
Sw. tain; Dan. salg.] [SELL, .] 

sal-e-ni'-a-dte, s. pi. [Mod. Lat. 
Lat. fern. pi. adj. suft -odn:.] 

1 Zool. : A family of Regular Echinoids. 
Test generally spheioidal, hemispherical, or 
depressed ; apical disc large, with a sur-anal 
or supplementary plate in addition to 'he ten 
which are normal 
2. Palaxmt. : From the Jurassic onward. 

sal ep, sal op, sal'-Sb, sal'-ab, B>- 
Ioop\ s. [Arab. Mfco ; Turk, sallel,.] 

I Ord. Lang. : A diet-drink, formerly pre- 
pared from the powdered roots of Orchis mas- 
cula, and sold to the working classes of 
London early in the morning. Tlie salep-stall 
has long been replaced by the coffee-stalL 

H Chem. : Saleb. Salab. The tuberous roots 
of Orchis masmla, and other allied species, 
washed, dried, and afterwards reduced to 
powder. It has a dirty yellow colour, and 
in water swells up to a bulky semi-transparent 
Jelly It consists chiefly of bassonn and 
starch, and is considered very nutritious. 

sal-er. * sal-ero (1), . [Fr. saliert,] A 

al-S-ra'-tfis,al-a5-ra'-tfis,s. [Mod. Lat 
salaeratua.] An impure bicarbonate of potash 
with more carbonate dioxide than is posMJMII 
by pearl-ash. It is prepared from pearl-ash by 
exposing it to carbonic acid gas. It was for- 
merly much used in the United States in making 
bread to neutralize acetic or tartaric acid, and 
thus render the bread light by the escape of 
carbonic acid gas. It has nearly gone oat of 
use for this purpose, being replaced by baking 

sale?'-la dy, t, ABalenwoman. (U.S.) 

Bales man, . (Bug- * and mnn - 1 One 
whose occupation or business is to sell good, 
or commodities ; specif., a wholesale dealer 
in various commodities. __ 

*6H, b6jr; pollt, J6>1; cat, 9611. chorn., S Hiii. bench; go, gem; tUln, this; sin, as; expect, * eno ? ho "* 
tion, -.ion = shun ; %lon. -^on = dxiia. -cioiw. -tlous, -.Oon. = tfiiia. -We. -die. *c. 



sales-woman ealicylite 

ale? -worn an. ... A woman who fulfil 
the functions of a salesman. 

ea lewe, sa lue, r.t. [Ft. nluer.] X 
salute (q.v.X 

"The beay Urke. the nekMfer of dy. 
guiuipurt In hire tony the inorwe gray." 

Ctuiuar .- C. r.. 1.4H. 

sale'-wdrk, s. [Eng. sole and uwrfc.] Worl 
done or made for sale ; hence, used for worl 
carelessly done. 

" I tee DO more in you than ta the ordinary 
Of Nature's fci/rwerfc." 

SkalMp. : AtTauUto It. 111. t. 
SOlfO, r.l. [SATE.) 

Sa 11 an (1), a. Sis. [See clef] [SALIC.] 

A. .-15 adj. : Of or pertaining to a tribe o 
Franks who settled on the Sala (now the 
TSS.-I), from the third to the middle of tin 
fourth century. 

B. Xsjutw*,: Amember of the tribe describee 
under A. 


a -li-an (2), a. [See def.] Of or pertaining 
to the Salii or priests of Mars in ancienl 

Stxlian- hymns, . ;"' Hymns which 
were sung at the annual festival by the Salii, 
in honour of Mars, and other deities, and dis- 
tinguished men. They were accompanied by 
warlike dances, clashing of shields, ic. 

a -I! ant, a. [SALIENT.] 

sal i-aunce, 'sal-lance, . [SALLY.; 
An assault, a sally, an onslaught. 

" Why with >o fierce nllaitet 
And fell Intent, ye did at e*nt me meet." 

Spnmrv F. .. 1L L . 

Sal-Ic, a. [Fr. talvpu = of or pertaining to 
the Salic tribe.] A term applied to a law or 
code of laws established by the Salian Pranks ; 
specif., applied to one chapter of the Salian 
code regarding succession to certain lands, 
which was limited to heirs male, to the exclu- 
sion of females, chiefly because certain military 
duties were connected with the holding of 
those lands. In the fourteenth century females 
were excluded from the throne of France by 
the application of the Salic law to the succes- 
sion of the crown. 

il I oa ? e SB.sal I 9 In c ,. ;!. [Lit. 
alii, genit. salia(is) = a willow ; Lat fern. pi. 
adj. guff. -oeetE, -inece.] 

Sot. : Willowworta ; an order of Diclinous 
Exogens, alliance Amentales. Trees or shrubs, 
having alternate simple leaves, with the 
primary veins deliquescent, often with glands 
on the edges or on the stalks ; stipules deci- 
duous or persistent ; flowers diceceons, amen- 
taceous, naked or with a membranous cup- 
Bke calyx ; stamens two to thirty, distinct or 
monadelphons ; anthers two-celled. Ovary 
superior, one-celled, many-seeded ; style one 
or none ; stigma two or four ; seeds very 
small, with long silky hairs from their base. 
Distribution, the north temperate and Arctic 
zones, and on mountains further south. 
Known genera two, Sallx and Populus (q.v.). 

sal-I-ca -ceoiis (oe as oh), a. [Hod. Lat 
Kliaux(as); Eng. adj. salt, -ow.) Belonging or 
relating to the willow or to the natural order 
Salicacese (q.v.). 

sal I^car-I a, . [Mod. Lat, from talix, 
genit solicit = * willow.] 

Ornith. : A genus of Silviidse. Six species 
are European; SalicarUt loautdla, the Grass- 
hopper Warbler (now Acrocephalus ncevius); 6 
lurdoidM, the Thrush-like Warbler (Acrocepha- 
Ita arundinaceus) ; s. phru'jmilu, the Sedge 
Warbler (AcroctphalM jetonooonttw); s. lus- 
c*nioWe, Savi's Warbler (Acnxxphalta lusci- 
nioida); S. aruntiinaeta, the Reed Warbler 
Cfcrocephalus areperas), and S. galactota, the 
Rufous Warbler (Aidon yalactodes). 

JU i 90 turn, s. (Lat; from taUx; genit 
talicii = a willow.) A willow bed or planta- 

sil I 9111, s. [Lat. salix, genit. a*fc(u) = a 
willow ; -in (Chem.).-] 

Chen. : C^gOr = C^HTCKOHVO.CeH^H., 
OH. A substance discovered by Leroux, and 
existing ready formed in the bark and leaves 
of most varieties of willow and several pop- 
lars. It may be produced artificially by the 
action of nascent hydrogen on helicin, or by 
boiling popnlin with lime or baryta water. 
It crystallizes in colourless prisms of bitter 

taste, melts at 198*, and is soluble in water 
and alcohol, insoluble in ether and oil 01 
turpentine. Heated to 260*. it gives off water 
together with acid vapours, and leaves a yellow 
residue, insoluble in water, finally turning 
brown and carbonisiog. [SALIX.] 

S&l-i~9ln'~-eB, s. pi. [SALIC ACE.-E.J 

sa-llc-i6n-al (o as sh), sal don al, 
sal -i cct, sol cion eH, s. [Lat. salix = 
a willow.) 

Music: An organ stop of so?*; and delicate 
quality, supposed to be similar in character 
with the salicis fistula^ or withy-pipe. It is 
generally placed in the choir organ, but some- 
times in the swell, in either case replacing 
the dulciana, which it greatly resembles. 

sal-i-cor-nar -I-a, .. [Named by Cuvier, from 
a fancied re-seinblauce to Salicomia (q.v.).] 

Zool, : The typical genus of Salicornariadse 
(q.v.). Surface divided into rhomboidal or 
hexagonal spaces, with irregularly placed 

sal-i-cor na-ri-a-dse. s. [Mod. Lat tali 
cornaria; Lat. fern. pi. adj. suff -(i^cUx.] 

1. Zool, : A family of Polyzoa. Coencecium 
erect, dichotomously divided, with cylindrical 
branches and cells disposed around an 
imaginary axis. 

2. Pcticcont. : From the Tertiary onward. 

sal-i-cor -ni a, . [Lat sal, genit salis = 
salt, and cornu = a horn. Named from the 
saline properties of the genus, and the horn- 
like branches.] 

Bot, : Marsh -samphire, Glasawort ; a genus 
of Chenopodiacete. Annual or perennial leaf- 
less herbs, with cylindrical, jointed, succulent 
stems. Flowers bisexual, minute, in threes 
at the base of the internodes. Perianth 
fleshy, three- or four-lobed ; stamens one or 
two ; styles two. Fruit a compressed utricle, 
enclosed in the enlarged perianth. From salt 
marshes, &c., chiefly in the temperate zones. 
Known species five or six. S. htrbacea is 
common in the salt marshes of the Atlantic 
States. Various species furnish soda in large 
quantities; Salicornia brachiata, common along 
the coasts of India and those of Indian salt- 
lakes, does so. [SAJJI, 1.] S. indica (Artkroc- 
nemum indicum) might be similarly used. 

Sil -i-cos-yl, f. [Eng. salicyl); Or. o<r^ 
(osme) odour, and suff. ~yl.] 

Chem. : CVHsO*. A monatomic radicle which 
may be supposed to exist in salicylol and its 

sal I-cyl, . [Lilt talix, genit *aZtc(u) = i 
willow ; -yl.] 

Chem. : C^H^O. The diatomic radicle of 
salicylic acid and its derivatives, unknown in 
the free state. 

salicyl acetic-acid. s. 



(^Hg0 4 = CjHjO V0> Aceto- 

H 1 

salicylic acid. Discovered by Gerhardt, and 
obtained by heating salicylic acid with chloride 
of acctyl. It crystallizes in tufts of slender 
prisms, soluble in boiling water, alcohol^ 
and ether, and reacts with ferric salts like 
salicylic acid. 

salioyl sulphuric-acid, i. [SIILPHO- 


S&l-I-cyi-am'-Ie, o. [Bng. xUcyl, and -omtc. ] 
Derived from or containing salicyl and am- 

salicylamlc acid, s. 

A weak 

a J 

acid produced by the action of strong alcoholic 
ammonia on wintergreen oil (methylsalicylic 
acid). It crystallizes in yellowish white 
laminae, having a strong lustre, insoluble in 
cold water, soluble in boiling water, alcohol, 
and ether, melts at 132, and boils at 270'. 
Strong acids and alkalis convert it into acid 
salicylate of ammonia. 

sal i-cyl-a-mide, . [Eng. niicyl, and 

dnced by the action of ammonia on etherial 
salicylates. It crystallises in yellow plates, 
and melts at 143*. 

al-I-cyi'-ate, s. [Eng. tallcyHw); <.] 
Chem. : A salt of salicylic-acid, 

salicylate of soda, s. 

Chem. : 2NaC7H 5 O3.H5O. Sodium salicyl- 
ate, prepared by mixing 100 parts of pure 
salicylic-acid with sufficient water to form a 
paste, and then adding 104 parts of pure sotlic- 
carbonat*. It forms small, colourless, or 
nearly colourless, crystalline scales, inodorous, 
and possessing a sweetish saline taste, soluble 
in fifteen parts of cold water aud six parts 
of alcohol, very soluble in boiling water, the 
solutions being neutral or very faintly acid. 
Perchloride of iron colours a concentrite.l 
solution reddish brown, and a dilute solution 
violet. Like salicylic-acid, it is a powerful 
antiseptic, and is frequently ;nliii><i t' 
wines. &c., to preserve them. It is highly 
recommended as a specilic for rheumatism, 
the dose varying from 10 to 30 grains. 

S&l-I-cyT-Io, a. [Eng. salicyl; -fc.J De- 
rived from the willow. 

salicylic-acid, s. 

Chem. : C^BsOs = <C7 ^^' } O a . Spinoylio 

acid, prtho-hydroxy-benzoicacid. A dibasic 
acid existing ready formed in the flowers of 
Spirtea Ulmaria, and obtained synthetically 
by the oxidation of saligenin, or by heating 
sodium phenol to 180" in a stream of carlKm 
anhydride. It has a sweetish-sour taste, and 
crystallizes in colourless four-sided prisms ; 
is slightly soluble in cold, more so in boiling 
water, very soluble in alcohol and ether, 
melts at 158', and sublimes at 200* in slender 
needles having a strong lustre. Ferric salts 
impart to its aqueous solution a deep violet 
colour. The salicylates are all crystalline and 
soluble. Salicylic acid is employed as an 
antiseptic and antiputrefactive agent. One 
grain added to each ounce of a fermenting 
liquid will at once arrest fermentation. It 
has the power of preserving for a time milk, 
fresh meat, albumen, &c., and is used in the 
surgery, either alone or mixed with starch, to 
destroy the fetid odour of cancerous surfaces 
or unc'leansed wounds. 

salicylic-aldehyde, s. [SALICYLOL.] 

salicylic-anhydride, i. [SALICVLIDE.] 

salicylic-ethers, .-. pi. 

Chem.: Ethers produced by distilling sali- 
cylic acid with an alcohol and strong sul- 
Shuric acid. (1) Methylsalicylic acid, CgHgOs. 
aultheric acid. This ether, which exists 
ready formed in oil of wintergreen, is a colour- 
less oil, having a penetrating odour and a 
sweet aromatic taste, sp. gr. 1-18 at 10*, 
slightly soluble in water, very soluble in 
alcohol and ether, and boiling at 222*. (2) 
Ethylsalicylic acid, CsH 1( ,Oj. A colourless 
oil, sp. gr. 1-1S4 at K) , sparingly soluble in 
water, very soluble in alcohol and ether, and 
boilingat 225. (S) Amylsalicylic acid, C 12 H ;8 O,. 
A colourless, strongly refracting liquid, having 
an agreeable odour, heavier than water, and 
boiling at 270*. 

sal-I-cyT-ide, s. [Eng. salicyl ; -ide.] 

Chem. : CVHiOj. The anhydride of salicylic 
acid, obtained by treating dry sodium sali- 
cylate with phosphoric oxychloride. It is a 
white amorphous mass, insoluble in water, 
alcohol, and ether. When heated, it melts to 
a transparent liquid, which, on cooling, 
solidifies to a translucent mass. 

sal-I-cyl i-mide, s. [Eng. salicyl, and 

Chem. : OrH s NO = 

crystalline powder, produced by the action of 
heat on salieylamic acid. It does not melt at 
200", is insoluble in water, alcohol, ether, and 
aqueous ammonia, but dissolves in alcoholic 
ammonia, forming a yellow solution. Ferric 
chloride colours it purple. 

sal-I-oyl'-ite, s. [Eng. salicyl; -.] 

Chem. (PI.): Compounds formed by the 
action of salicylol on metallic oxides and 
hydrates, those of the alkali metals being 
moderately soluble in water, the others in- 
soluble. (1) Salicylite of ammonia, C 7 H i 
(NH 4 )Os, obtained by shaking salicylol with 
strong ammonia at a gentle heat, crystallizes 
in yellow needles, insoluble in alcohol, and 
melting at 115*. (2) Salicylite of copper, 
C 14 Hi Cii"O 4 , is obtained by agitating an 

t*te, tat, tare, amidst, what, fall, father; we, wSt, here, camel, her, there; pine, pit. sire, sir, marine; go. pot, 
or. wore, wolf, work. who. son; mute, oab, cure, unite, cur. rule, full; try, Syrian, a, at = e; ey = a; qn = kw. 

salicylol salivation 


alcoholic solution of salicylol with aqueous 
cuprie acetate. It crystallizes in iridescent 
green needles, very slightly soluble in water 
and alcohol. 

eU-l-9yl-oi,s. [Eng. salicyl; -ol.] 

Clem. : CVHeOj = (CjHjO/' } g Q - Salicylic 

aldehyde, salicylous acid. Volatile oil of 
pirsea. Obtained by distilling the flowers 
of Spircm Vlmaria, or by the oxidation of 
galigenin, with a mixture of potassic dichro- 
mate and sulphuric acid. It is a colourless 
iromatic nil, sp. gr. 1-173 at 15, solidifies at 
20, boils at 196", and is soluble in water, 
alcohol, and ether. It is inflammable, burn- 
ing with a bright but smoky flame, gives an 
intense violet colouration with ferric salts, 
and forms compounds with strong bases. 

al-I-gyl'-OUS, a. [Eng. salteyl; -<"] Da- 
rived from or contained in salicylic acid. 

salloylous-acld, s. [SALICYLOL] 

al-I-jyl-ur'-.'c, a. |[Bng. salicyl(ic), and 
wric.] Derived from or containing salicyl and 

alloy lurio- acid, s, 

Chen. : C 9 H 9 N04 

Ha -) 

_(C 7 H 4 0)"/N 
-(C 2 H,0)"f0 2 . 
H ) 

cic acid. An acid found in urine after sali- 
cylic acid has been taken internally. It forms 
Blender shining crystalline needles, melts at 
160, is soluble in boiling water and alcohol, 
slightly soluble in ether. Its solutions colour 
ferric salts violet like salicylic acid. 

tsa-11 ence, . [Eng. salien(t); -.] The 
quality or state of being salient or projecting ; 
projection, protrusion. 

" Bat the street-face of thii noble building has suffi- 
cient talicnce and ilignity to tet Its mark on the great 
thoroughfare." DaSf Telegraph, Sept. 1, un. 

a -11 ent, sa H-ant, a. & >. [Fr. millant, 
pr. par. of saillir = to leap ; Lat salio, pr. par. 

A. -As adjective : 

L Ord. Lang. (Of both forms) : 

1. Literally : 

(1) Moving by leaps ; leaping, bounding, 

"The legs of both sides moving together, as frogs 
and mlittnt animals. is properly called leaping." 
Brovme: I'ulgar Errourt, ok. lr., ch. vi. 

(2) Shooting up or out ; springing. 

" The talient spout, far streaming to the Iky." 

POJM : Dundad, iL lea. 

(3) Beating, throbbing. 

" The talient pulee of health gives o'er." 

Blackloek: An Ode. 

(4) Having the apex pointed towards the 
outside; projecting 

outwardly : as, a salient 

2. Fig. : Forcing It- 
elf on the notice ; eon- 
picuous, noticeable, 

tt Her. (Of the form 
saltern) : A term ap- 
plied to a lion or other 
beast, represented in a 
leaping posture, with 
his right fore-foot in 
the dexter point and 
his left hinder-foot in the sinister base of the 

B. As subst. : A salient angle or part ; a 

salient-angle, s. 

Fort. : Two united faces, presenting the 
vertex outward, as in the redan and bastion. 

sa'-ll-ent-ly, adv. [Eng. salient; -ly.] In 
a salient manner. 

a-llf'-er-ous, a. [Lat. sol = salt ; fero = 
to bear, to produce, and Eng. adj. suff. -ous.] 
Producing or bearing salt. 

"In Cheshire the pumping of the brine from the 
taliferout and gypseous strata produces subterranean 
hollows." DawKtnl : Oave-Buntinff, ch. 11 

saliferous-beds, >. pi. 

Oeol : Beds containing rock-salt (q.v.). 
Generally of Triassic age ; some in Russia are 

* saliferons-system, . 
Geol. : The Triassic Rocks. 

sal'-I-fl-a-ble, a. (Eng.saUfy; -able.] Cap- 
able of being salifled, or of combining with an 
acid to form a salt. 

s&l-I-f I-oa'-tlon, 5. [Eng. salify : c connect, 
and suff. -a<m.) The act of alifying; the 
state of being salified. 

ar-K-fy, v.t. [Lat. sal = salt, and facia (pass, 
o) = to make.] To form into a salt by com- 
ining an acid with a base. 

sa llg'-Sn-ln, . [ En g- nlUcyl); Or. yitx><i<o 
(gennad) = to produce, and sufT. -in (Chcm.).] 
Chem, : C7H 8 O 2 = CeHj(OH).CH 2 .OH. A 
crystalline compound produced from salicin 
by the action of acids and of emulsin. It 
forms white rhombic tables, having a pearly 
lustre, easily soluble in hot water, alcohol, 
and ether, melts at 82', and sublimes at 100. 
Ferric salts produce a deep blue colour in its 

sal-I-glyj'-Io, a. [Eng. iK(cy<); fy<<<>9, 
and -ic.J Derived from, or containing salicy- 
lic-acid and glycosine. 
saliglyclc acid, i. [SALICYLORIC-ACID.] 

sal'-J-g8t, . [Fr.] 

Bat. : A plant, Trapa natans, the Water 

sa-llm'-e-ter, . [Lat sal = salt, and Eng. 
'meter.} An instrument for measuring the 
amount of salt present in any given solution. 
They are imperfect instruments, each requiring 
to be graduated for the particular salt which 
it is required to test. 

sa-ll na, . [Sp., from Lat. sal = salt.] 

1. A salt-marsh or salt-pond inclosed from 
the sea. 

2. A place where salt is made from salt 
water ; salt-works. 

* sal-l-na'-tlon, . [Eng. salinty; -ation.] 
The act of washing with, or soaking in salt 

"The same pickle they use in lallnation." Qrten- 
Wl: Artaf Emlxtlminsf, p. 59. 

Sty-line', a. & s. [Fr. salin, fern, saline, from Lat 
"saliniu (only found in the neut sallnum, 
a salt-cellar, and the fern. pi. salincc = salt- 
pits), from oi = salt; Sp. & Ital. talino = 
saline ; Sp., Port. , it Ital. saUna, Fr. saline 
= a salt-pit.] [SLT, s.] 

A. As adjective: 

1. Consisting of salt ; constituting salt ; 
having salt as a constituent. 

" That the sun continually raised dry saline exhala- 
tions from the earth." OotdimitJi : Jfitt. of Che Earth, 
ch. XT. 

2. Partaking of the nature or qualities of 
salt ; salty. 

" The land being generally of a nitrous and lalint 
nature." Anton: Voyaget, ch. v. 

B. As subst. : A salt-spring ; a place where 
salt water is collected in the earth ; specifically 
applied to salt lowlands in the Argentine 
Republic, where the vegetation consists only 
of a few saline plants. 

saline-plants, s. pi. 
Boi. : Plants growing in salt places, and 
having a saline taste. 

saline purgatives, . pZ. 

Pharm. : Purgatives resembling hydragogues 
in their effects, tut the action is much slighter. 
They are best combined with other aperients, 
and include phosphate of soda, tartrate of 
potash, sulphate of soda, sulphate of magnesia, 
citrate of potash, and cream of tartar, in small 

saline-waters, . pi. 

Hygiene : Waters with salts in solution. 
Those which have sulphate of soda or sul- 
phate of magnesia as their chief ingredients, 
are at Epsom, Cheltenham, Leamington, 
Pullna, Seidlitz, Carlsbad, and Marienbad ; 
those with sulphate or carbonate of lime, or 
both, are the thermal waters of Bath and 
Buxton ; those with carbonate or bicarbonate 
of soda are Ems, Teplitz, &e. 

sa llne'-ness, s. [Eng. saline, a.; .ness.] 
The quality or state of being saline ; salinity. 

sal-I-nif '-er-ous, o. [Lat. *talinus = saline, 
and/ero = to bear, to produce.] Producing 
salt ; saliferous. 

sa lln -I-form, a. [Lat. *saZin,ua = saline, and 
/orma = form.] Having the form of salt. 

sa-lln'-i-ty\ s. [Eng. saline, a. ; -ity.] The 
quality or state of being saline ; sitliueness. 

" Ex|jeriinentsweremadeasto the salinity of water." 
Field, Dec. 36, 1886. 

sal-i-nSm -i-ter, s. [Eng. taline; o connect, 
and -meter.] An apparatus or instrument for 
ascertaining the salinity of water, or the 
density of brine in the boilers of marine steam- 
engines. The thermometrical method is by 
ascertaining the boiling-point of the brine. 
This is used in salt-works, the scale l*ing 
graduated to indicate percentages. The hydro- 
metric method is by finding its specific gravity 
at a given temperature. 

sa-li-no-te'r-rene', a. [Lat. *salinvt = 
saline, and Eng. terrene.} Pertaining to, or 
consisting of salt and earth. 

" sa-lin'-ous, a. [Lat. *safiuus.] Saline, salty. 

"Ascribe their induration . . . unto talinoui spirit*." 

"Ascribe th 
Browne . rulyar Er 

. . . 
urt, bk. il.. ch. L 

sa llque (as sal ik, or sa-lek'), n. [SALic.] 

sal-l-r6t'-in, . [Eng. sa(i(dn), and Gr. 
pirnVT] (rhitini) = resin.] 

Chem. : C 7 H 6 O. A resinous body produced 
by the action of dilute acids on saligenin or on 
salicin. Insoluble in water and ammonia, 
soluble in alcohol, ether, and strong acetic 
acid, but reprecipitated from their solutions 
by water. 

s&l-Is-bur'-I-a, . [Named after Richard 
Anthony Salisbury, an English botanist] 

1. Sot. : A genus of Taxaceaj. Salisbwria 
adiantifolia, the Oinkgo, or Maiden-hair tree, 
is sixty to eighty feet high, with a straight 
trunk, a pyramidal head, and fan-shaped de- 
ciduous leaves, with forked veins. 

2. Pakeobot. : From the London Clay. 

sal'-ite, .(. [Lat salitut, pa. par. of salio 
to make salt; ja! = salt] To salt ; to im- 
pregnate or season with salt. 

sal-Ith 8L s. [Eng. mli(cyl); (e)(A<!/0, nd 

SUtT. -0(.] [PHENETOL.] 

sa-li'-va, s. [Lat. ; cf. Gr. <rtoA<> (sialon) = 
spittle ;" Russ. slina.] [SLIME.] 

Physlal. : The salivary secretion or spittle. 
It consists partly of animal principles (osma- 
zome, mucus, and ptyaline), and partly of 
saline, which closely resemble those of the 
blood. Saliva moistens the food, and thus 
assists in mastication and digestion. In some 
animals it has a solvent action on certain 
food stuffs. It converts starch into sugar. 

sa-li'-val, a. [Eng. saliv(a) ; -at.] Pertaining 
*to saliva ; salivary. 

"Small canals like the ialival." Greu>: Come. 
Sacra, uk. 1., ch. v. 

t sa-ll -van, a. [Eng. saliv(a) ; -an.] Salivary 

" May it not be that the talioan secretion contains 
a larger quantity of active princlplef" Proc. Zool. 
Soc., 1882, p. 32. 

sal i-vant, a. & s. [Let. salimns, pr. par. of 
salivo = to spit forth, to salivate.] 

A. At adj. : Exciting or producing saliva- 
tion ; salivating. 

B. As subst. : That which excites or pro- 
duces salivation. 

saT-I-va-rjf, a. [Lat. salivarius, from saliva; 
Fr. sali'vaire.] Pertaining to saliva ; secreting 
or conducting saliva ; salival. 

" Such animals as swallow their ailment* without 
chewing, want salivary glands." Arbuthnot : On Alt' 
mentl, en. t 

salivary-cells, *. pi. Cells within the 
saccules or alveoli of the salivary glands. 

salivary-glands, . pi. 

Anat. : Glands secreting saliva. They art 
the parotid, sub-lingual, and sub-maxillary 
glands, composed of minute follicles con 
nected by branches of thin duct, on which 
they are set like grapes on the stalk, sur- 
rounded by blood-vessels and areolar tissue. 

sal'-I-vate, v.t. (Lat salivatui, pa. par. of 
salim = to salivate.] To purge by the salivary 
glands ; to excite or produce an unusual secre- 
tion and discharge of saliva in, generally by 
the use of mercury ; to produce ptyalism in. 

" The methods of mliaatiny are dirers, but all by 
mercury-" Wiieman : Surffery, bk. vlii., ch. x. 

sal-i-va'-tlon, s. [Lat. talivatio; Fr. m!i- 
vation.] The act or process of exciting 01 

WU, btiy; ptSut, J6%1; cat, jell, chorus, 9hln, bench; 50, gem; thin, this; sin, as; expect, Xcnophon, eylsfc ph = t 
don, -Man = shan. -tion, - sion = shun ; tion, -aion = xh&n. -clous, -tious, -sious = hits, -ble, -die, ic. = bel, 


producing au unusual secrvtion and discharge 
of saliva, generally by the use of nifrcnry ; 
ptyalism: an abnormally abundant st- 
and flow of saliva. 

" The fan moor ot nitration is not properly tpkttle," 
"" n ; Surgtry. bk. viii.. ch. x. 

"Sa-li-VOU8, a. [Lat. salivosus, from saliva ; 
Fr. xtlireitx ; Sp. sa^troso.] Pertaiiiins to 
saliva ; partaking of the nature or qualities or 
saliva ; consisting of, or abounding in saliva. 

" There liappeueth an elongation vt the uvula, 
ttinmirh thn nlmii'ltuiee of talivout humour flowing 
upon if H'uMHon.- 3ury*rf, bk. iii., ch viL 

a lix, *. [Lat. -& willow; cf. Gael. & Ir. 
teileach; Vfel.helig; Cornish Aetafc= a willow.] 

1. Bot. : Willow ; the typical genus of S:ili- 
caceae (q.v.). Catkins erect, their scales quite 
entire; perianth none, except one or two 
nectariferous glands ; stamens two, combined 
Into one, or two to five ; rtitrmaa two, entire or 
cloven into two. Known species 160. One reason 
why the species have been unduly multiplied, 
and why much difficulty exists in determining 
finally how many there are, is the occurrence 
of hybrids. The willow genus is popularly 
divided iu to sallows, osiers, and willows (q.v.). 
AH are trees or shrubs, loving moist places 
and growing rapidly. They vary greatly in 
mK, from S. alba, sixty feet high, valuable as 
a timber tree, growing with rapidity, and 
producing much wood, to 5. herbacta, only a 
few inches. S. arctica and S. polaris go fur- 
ther north than anyother known woody plants 
The bark of many is used for tanning, and is 
About half as valuable as that of oak. Many 
are used for hoops and basket work, specif. 
JB. viminalis fOsiEB.}, 5. stipiilaris, S. rubra. 
8. fvrbyana, S. triandni, S. m&llissima, and 
S. vittllina. One of tlie toughest is S. pur- 
puna, and it has a very bitter bark, A resin 
exudes from the fragrant leaves of S. pentandra. 
Various Indian species are used for basket- 
work, the bark for tanning, and the young 
shoots and the Leaves to feed cattle. Dr. 
Majendie, believed that the salicin made from 
onus species was a febrifuge like quinine. 
He specially valued the European S. pvrpurea, 
S. Hdix, S. pentandra, S. Russelliana, S. vitd- 
tina, and the American S. eriocephala, S. nigra, 
S. ami/era. Dr. Garrod believed them useless 
for the purpose. A decoction of the bark of S. 
Caprea has good effect in psoriasis. In Egypt, 
the sweet-scented catkins of S. asgyptiaca are 
used in preparing a medicated watei, said to 
fee cardiac and sudorific. In England, S. alba 
and S. rosmarini/olia were once credited with 
frimilar properties. Willows are very common 
in the United States, there being about 25 
species, usually found by water courses or along 
the Bides of ditches. Of the introduced species 
the Weeping Willow (S. Babylonica) is most 
valued, its beantifnlly pendant branches aud 
twigs giving it a highly ornamental appearance, 

2. PaltxoboL : From the Cretaceous rocks of 
North America aud the Middle Eocene of 

Bill -lee, s. [See def.] 

Gtog. : A seaport on the west coast of Mo- 
rocco. The inhabitants were formerly notorious 
for their piracy. 

Sallee man, >. 

* 1. Ord. Lang. : An inhabitant of Sallee ; a 

2. Zwl. : VMOa, mdgarit. [Cf. Portuguese 

" fin] the iwxx>rap*nyinK Illustration maj be Men a 
wmarkable creature, called by the ponular ujuue of 
OaUat - man. >,ime- 
iimei cumipted. la ' 
anticml fjtetiion, to 
Sally -until. " Wood 
lUtu. Xat. nut., lit 

W 16n der?, s. 


et, 'sal ade, 
"sal ette, j [O. 

Tr. Kilade, from 
Ital. celatu = a 
helmet, from Lat. 

cnamentea, from ctelo z= to engrave, to orna- 
ment ; calum = a chisel, a graver.] 

Old Arm. : A light kind of helmet, intro- 
duced during the fifteenth century, chiefly 
for the use of foot-soldiers. They wore made 

salivoiifl salmon 

with movable and ftxed visors, as shown in 
tlie illustration. 

" Many ft time, but far & tnltrt, my braln-T 
been cleft with & bruwn-bUL" Shak&p. ; 3 an 
ir. l& 

* sal'-lSt (2), * sal let-ing, 5. [SALAD.] 

* B&1 -li-anoe, 8, [SALIANCE.] 

sal -U-got (t silentX s. [Fr.] A ragout of 

tsar-low, v.t. [SALLOW, a.J To make sallow. 

sal -low, * salghe, * sal ly, * sal we , * sal- 
whe, .*. [A.S. sealh ; eogn. with. Icel. setja; 
Sw. nf'ily, sdij; Dan. selje; Ger. sahliceide; 
O. H. Ger. salahd ; Lat. salix; Gael, seileach ; 
Ir. sail, sailetich ; Wei. helug ; Gr. eAuoj (helike) ; 
Fr. saule, saulx; Ital. soldo, sate.] 

1. Botany: 

(1) Stilix Caprea, the Common Sallow, called 
also the Goat Willow and Palm. [PALK- 
SCNDAT.J It flowers in April ;tnd May. 

" Bend the pliant ntTTtw to a shield." 

fttwfcM.' Tfttocriiuf. Idyl, 19. 

(2) (PI.): One of the three popular divisions 
of the genus Salix. Trees or shrubs, generally 
with downy, branched stipules ; obovate, 
hoary, more or less wrinkled leaves, stipulate, 
with conspicuous veins on their lower side. 
Sallows are burnt to make charcoal. 

2. Entom, : The genus Xanthia. specif, the 
Salluw-moth (q.v.). 

sallow-kitten, . 

Entom. : A British moth, Dicranura furcula, 
allied to the Puss-moth (q.v.X 

sallow moth, 5. 

Entom. : Xanthia cerago, a moth with pale 
yellow, purplish -marked fore wings and while 
hind wings. The violet-brown larva feeds on 
the Hallow. 

sallow-thorn, s. 

Bot. : The genus Hippophae (q.v.). 

sal'-low, *sal-ow, * sal-owe, 'salwhe, 

a. [A.S. wiit ; cogn. with Dut. zaluw tawny, 
yellow ; Icel. solr = yellowish ; O. H. Ger. 
joZo = dusky ; M, H. Ger. sal ; = dirty.] 
Ofayellowish colour; of a pale, sickly colour, 
tinged with dark yellow. (Applied to the 
skin or complexion.) 

" What ft deal of brine 
Hath wuhed thy tallow cheek* for Komliue." 

SAoA^ip. : Romeo A Juliet, 1L & 

* sal -low ish, n. [Eng. sallow, a. ; -i&h.] 
, Rather sallow ; somewhat sallow in colour. 

sal -low-ness, s. [Eng. sallow ; 'ness.} The 
quality or state of being sallow ; paleness 
tinged with a dark yellow colour. 

"A fili diet wooH gire mch a taUotmrnt to the 
celebrated beuutlea of thu iaiiuia. a* wonW icwce 
wiUte Uiuui dutiogoUhftbifl from tbowj of France. " 

sJU -ly, *. [Fr. saillie, prop. fern, of tailli, 
pa. par. of satiltr = to go out, to sally (q.v.) ; 
Sp. salida; Port, sahida ; ItaL talita.] 
L Ordinary Langwgt: 

* L A leaping forth ; a darting, a spring, a 

" I make a sudden tally. 
And flp*rltie out among the feru." 

Teitnyton : Ths Brook, 24. 

SL A rushing or bursting forth ; a breaking 
out; a sadden eruption; specifically, a sud- 
den breaking or rushing out of troops from a 
besieged place to attack the besiegers. 

* 3. An excursion, a trip, a run. 

" Every one shall know a country better, that makee 
often taUitt into it, and Uarene* it up aud down." 

4. A spring or darting of intellect, fancy, or 
Imagination ; a flight of fancy, liveliness, wit. 
or the like. 

" WiUi merry sattfef 

Binding their chant." 
LaxefeUow : BKnd Oirt */ Catttl-CuiU*. 

*5. An act of levity or extravagance; a 
frolrc, an escapade; wild gaiety. 

" We find people Trry brisk and actlre in aeatmtu of 
joy, breaking out continually into vantoo and ertra- 
Tftgant talltot.' Search: Light qf A'ature, vol. L. pt. 
it., ch. xxl. 

IL Arch. : A projection ; the end of a piece 
of timber cut with an interior angle formed 
by two planes across the fibres, as the feet of 

common rafters. 

ally-port. 5. 

1. Fort. : An opening cat !n the glacis, 
through which a passage leads by a ramp from 

the terreplein to the covered way of the to- 

t>'rior ; a postern; 
an underground i 
]>assage from a for- 
tification for mak- 
ing sallies from the 
covered way. 

2. Naut. : A port 
on each quarter for 
entering or leaving 
a fire vessel after 
the train is ftreU. 

ttr-lf, *sal-y, 

v.i. [Fr. sailltr = SALLY-PORT. 

to go out, to issne, 

to leap, to bound ; from Lat. salio = to leap.] 

1. To Ifap or rush out; to dart, burst, or 
break out ; specifically, to rush out suddenly, 
as a body of troops from a besieged place, to 
attack the besiegers ; to make a sally. 

" Thlnk'st thou we will not tally forth, 
To ipoll the apolUr ma w* may t" 

Jforff .- Ladjf of the Lakt, T. f. 

2. To spring, to issue. 

" AJ to the hooted hurt, the taUyiny spring.- 

Sal'-ly Lunn, s. [See def.] A to*-cake; ao 
called from Sally Lunn, the pastry-cook of 
Bath, who used to cry them about in a basket 
at the close of the eighteenth centary. Dal- 
mer, the baker, bought her receipt, aud made 
a song about the buna. 

" Tell cook to butter the Sally Luniu on both sitl*.' 
fUltL. Oct. 37, 1863. 

sal ma-gun -di, sal'-mi-gund, . [Pr. 
salmigondis ; prob. from Ital. sedame salt 
meat, and conaito = seasoned.] 

1. Lit.: A mixture of pickled herrings, cold 
dressed chicken, salt beef, radishes, endive, 
olives, Ac., arranged with regard to contrast 
in colour as well as flavour, and served with 
oil, vinegar, pepper, and salt. 

2. Fig. : A mixture of various ingredient*; 
au olio, a medk-y. 

sal-ma -11-a, s. [Sans, sdlmali = the specie* 
of the genus described.] 

Bot. : A genus of Bombacea*. The honey of 
Salmalia malabarica, a very large deciduous 
tree found in India and Burmah, is said to be 
purgative and diuretic, the bark and root 
emetic, and the gum aphrodisiac. 

sal mi, sal -mis. s. [Fr., from Ital. salami; 
pi. of salanu = salt meat.) A ragout of masted 
woodcocks, larks, thrushes, and other birds 
and game, minced and stewed with wine, small 
pieces of bread, and other ingredients, intended 
to provoke the appetite. 

sar mi ac, *. [See def.] A contraction of 
Sal-ammoniac (q.T.). 

sal mite, *. [After Vieil-Salm, Belgium, 

where found ; suff. -He (Min.).] 

-A/in. : A variety of Chloritoid (q.v.X In 
which a part of tlie protoxide of iron is re- 
placed by protoxide of manganese. 

sal mo, 5. [Lat.] 

lcht\y.: The typical genus of the family 
Salmonidje. Body covered with email scales ; 
mouth-cleft wide, the maxillary bones extend- 
ing to below or beyond the eye ; conical teeth 
In jaw-bones, on vomer, palatines, and tongue. 
Anal short, with less than fourteen rays ; 
pyloric appendages ; ova large. Young with 
parr-marks. Tlie genus is sub-divided into 
two groups, Salmones and Salvelini. 

salm -on (I silent), * sal mon, * sal mond, 
* sau moun, . [O. Fr. atunan, saulmon 
(Fr. saumon), from Lat. salmonem, accus. of 
salmo a salmon ; prob. lit. = a leaper, from 
salio = to leap; 8p. salmon; Ital. salmone.] 

Ichthy.: The genus Salmo (q.v.X and espe- 
cially Salmo salar, the most important of ana- 
dromous f^od-flshes, on account of its abund- 
ance and its rich, delicious flavour. Range, 
temperate Europe southwards to 43* N. lat., 
excepting rivers falling into the Mediterranean ; 
in America its southern boundary is 41* N. lat. 
It Is an extremely beautiful fish, very sym- 
metrical, and its form is admirably adapted 
to rapid motion, even against powerful 
currents. It is distinguished from all other 
species of tlie genus by the form of the oper- 
cular bones, which show a rounded outline to 
the posterior edge of the giU-covera, the 
longest diameter of which to the nose would 
be in a line through the eye. In all ether 

Ate, l&t, fare, amidst, what, All, fitther; we, wet, here, camel, her, ttiire; pine, pit, sire, air, marine; go, 
or, wore, woli; work, who, son: mute. cnb. cure, unite, cur. rule, full; try, Syrian. , OB = e; ey = a; an = kw. 

salmonea salpingcecidse 


usual migratory species the name line would 
pass below the eye. The adult male fish is 
readily distinguished by the lower maxillary 
fcone and cartilage greatly protmding. This 
to very remarkable in spent-fish, and, if not 
absorbed, may hinder them from feeding, 
causing them to pine away and die. The tail 
of the full-grown Salmou is straight across, 
while in the grilse and young Salmon it 
is forked. The colour is a rich bluish or 
greenish gray above, changing to silvery 
white beneath, sprinkled above the lateral 
line with rather hurge black spots. It grows 
to a lengtli of from four to five feet, though 
the female becomes mature at a length of 
about tifteen inches, and the male at a length 
of seven or eight iuches. 

Speaking generally, the flsh in its fall-grown con. 
dltton i> known at the iiMon ; one on It* second 
fwturn from the sea IB oft*n termed a yerlinff " the 
Beveru, or a botcher on its first return, when under 
BTO pound* weight, although the more general desig. 
nation ia qrilte : "lieu under two pound* weight. It Is 
usually termed latman-peal by fishmongers. Ironi 
one to two years before It lot gone to the aea,,it i 
known as a warr. win*, smolt, imett. Hilmon-Sry, *prw, 
or tttlman-sprina I Northumberland), tamlet.brundluig. 
tnaerling, eto^M". blue-Jin, "rf. I*1W. friaa. 
,'/. draper. iMiiring, araerl Icuprlriy, Hsrrlma, or 
iparlinam W.ile.I In Sorthnrnberlalrf. a milter or 
pawning male is kuowu as a tiiminrr-CDck, or gib-fish, 
nd a saJmoii as a nnun. In tile Severn, a aalmou 
which has remained iu fresh watvr during the summer 
without going t*> the lew ia termed a UtttrM. Alter 
pawning, this rUh is a letU or Hat, but a male is gene- 
lilly termed a tipuei-. and a female a Ihniider or a .bap 
oil In the Kibble, according to WiMughby. tumon 
if the fir* year are termed smrtn, of the lecoud year 
Jprod*. of the tliird year nturu. ol the fourth year 
firhMill, of the llfth year half-fit*, of the iljth year 
salmon." Day : mtiet & Grant Hrit. * Irel., li. W, . 
The Salmon is an anadroraous flsli, entering 
rivers mostly to spa\vn in a locality where 
the eggs will be hatched and the fry reared. 
It h:is been surmised that some enter rivers 
to rid themselves of marine parasites. Dur- 
ing the summer months the Salmon roams 
long the coasts, loitering in estuaries and 
near the moutha of rivers. On its way to 
the breeding grounds in the upper reaches 
the Salmon has many obstacles to en- 
counter, and salmon bidders are fixed by 
the proprietors of fisheries to help the flsh 
ta its ascent. The eggs are deiwsited in a 
gravelly bed, and their deposition and im- 
pregnation occupies about ten days. The 
male, as a rule, keeps guard near his partner, 
and the Zoologist (1847, p. 1,650), gives an 
animated account of a battle between two 
males probably for the possession of a female, 
in which the victor inflicted mortal injuries 
on his foe. When the young fish emerge from 
the egg, the umbilical vessel is still attached 
to their stomachs, and the nourishment con- 
tained therein serves them for several weeks, 
during which time they lie concealed among 
the stones at the bottom of the stream. Till 
their second year they remain in the river, 
when they commence their migratory career. 
The pollution of rivers and other causes have 
led to a great diminution in the numbers of 
Salmon, and for many years their artificial 
propagation has been successfully carried 
on. Salmon were formerly exceedingly abun- 
dant in the rivers of New England nnd eastern 
Canada, bat their numbers have been greatly 
reduced by indiscriminate fishing, while from 
Borne rivers, once full, the Connecticut, for 
instance, they have disappeared. In some 
rivera of the Pacific States, particularly the 
Columbia, they are very abundant, though 
over-fishing is causing a rapid decrease in their 
number*. The rivers of Alaska auso contain 
ealmon in abundance. Great quantities are 
annually canned in the Fudnc region, whence 
they are sent to all parts of the wurld. The 
government is actively engaged ia the effort to 
restock these streams with salmon, and also to 
prevent the destructive methods of fishing in 

salmon berry, *. 
Sot. : Rubus spcctabilis. 
salmon color, . The color of the flesh 
of the salmon. 

salmon colored. . Of the color of 
the flesh of the salmon. 

salmon fishery, s. A place where Salmon 
fishing is carried on. The salmon catch in the 
Columbia River, Oregon, amounts to as much 
as 2,000,000 pounds a year. The bulk of these 
are canned and shipped. Alaska also adds 
a large quota to the annual exportation. In 
Europe, Norway and the British Islands 
furnish the best salmon fisheries. The annua 
catch in Great Britain and Ireland is about 
700,000 pounds. 

salmon-ladder, salmon-stair, s. A. 

fish-way (q.v.). 

salmon-stair, . [SALMON-LADDER. ] 
salmon-trout, s. 

lehthy.: Salaui tnUta; \ North European 
flsh. much more common in Scotland Uan in 
England. Its habits are those of the Salmon. 
It attains a length of about three feet ; upper 
parts blackish, usually with a purplish tinge 
on the silvery sides, under part silvery. 
Called also Sea-trout, and in Wales and 
Ireland White-trout. The flesh is pink, richly 
flavoured, and much esteemed. 
sal-mo'-nes, *. pi. [Lat., pi. of salmo (q.v.).] 

Ichthy. : Salmon and Trout having teeth on 
the body, as well as on the head, of the 
vomer. The species are very numerous ; 
among Hie chief are Salmo salar (the Salmon), 
S. trtitta (Sea-trout or Salmon-trout), S. Jario 
(Common Trout), S. lemanut (the Lake Letnan 
Trout), S. go-tiimnsie (Galway Sea-trout), S. 
Jerox (the great Lake-trout), S. stomaaiicus 
(the Gillaroo), S. leixneneis (the Loch Leven 
Trout), and S. namaycush (the great Lake- 
trout of North America). 

salm'-6n-et (1 silent), s. [Eng. salmm; 
diuiin. sutf. -et.] A little salmon, a samlet. 

sal mon-ic, a. (Eng. !mo;-K.] Derived 
from the salmon. 

salmonic acid, s. 

Chem: A reddish fatty acid, existing, ac- 

cording to Fremy, in the reddish muscles of 
various species of salmon. (Jt'a/ki.) 

sal-mon'-i-dae, *. pi. [Lat. salmo, genit. 
salmon(is); fetn. pi. adj. sutt. -ute.J 

1. Ichthy. : A family of Physostomi (q.v.). 
Body generally covered with scales ; head 
naked, no barbels; margin of upper jaw 
formed by the intermaxillaries mesially and 
by the maxillaries laterally ; belly rounded ; 
small adipose fin behind the dorsal ; pyloric 
appendages generally numerous, rarelyabsent ; 
air-bladder large, simple; peeadobranchi* 
present. The ova fall into the cavity of the 
abdomen before exclusion. The genera are 
numerous, and valuable as food-fishes. They 
are fresh-water and marine (deep-sea). The 
former are peculiar to the temperate and arctic 
regions of the northern hemisphere, one oc- 
curring in New Zealand, and many of them 
descend to the sea periodically or occasionally. 

2. Pakeont. : From the Cretaceous onward. 


aalni - on Old (t silent), o. 4 . [Eng. salmon ; 

A. As adj. : Belonging to, characteristic of, 
or resembling the genus Salrao (q.v.X 

B. At titbit. : Any fish of tie genus 
Salmo (q.v.). 

" Chemistry has not strnplted vt with an analysis 
of the substance which gives the piuk cuionr tu the 
flesh of many galmorioittit; but there Is Uttle doubt 
that it is identical with and produced by the yijjmenta 
of many salt- and fresh. water Crustaceans, which form 
a favourite food of these flihe*." GuntAtr : Study of 
Fithea, p. 632. 

Ba Ion, t. [Fr.] [SALOON.] An apartment 
for the reception of company ; a saloon, a 
picture-gallery ; hence, in the plural, fashion- 
able assemblages, circles of fashionable society. 

sa-loon', s. [Fr. salon, from O. H. Ger. sal 
"(Ger. saal) = a dwelling, a house, a hall ; eogn. 
with Icel. sair; A.3. seel, sele.} 
I. Ordinary language : 

1. A spacious and elegant apartment for the 
reception of company or the exhibition of 
works of art ; a hall of reception ; a large 
public room ; a kail for public entertainments ; 
an apartment for specific public use. 

" He had descended frmn the pnrod mlntm." 

ITerdaswrA: Xcurwi. bk. Ti. 

2. A refreshment-bar, a public-house. 

3. SfttplmtMim/ : The main apartment In a 
passenger steamer. 

IT. Arck.: A lofty, spacious hall, frequently 
vaulted at the top, and usually comprehend- 
ing two stories, with two ranges of windows. 
It is often in the middle of a building, and is 
sometimes lighted from the top. 

saloon carriage, saloon car, t. 

Rail.~eng. : A passenger-car fitted up with 
ofas and chairs. 

saloon-keeper, *. One who keeps a 
saloon ; pec/., uue where intoxicants are sold. 

* sa loop , * sa lop , *. ISALEP.] 

L Salup (q.v"). 

2. A similar beverage prepared from an in- 
fusion of Sassafras bark, and formerly sold In 
the streets of London in the early morning. 

" There ia a com position, the ground.wrk of which 
I have understood to be the sweet wood yclept aaw.v 
fras. This wood boiled down to a kind of tea, and 
tempered with an infusion of milk mid <rug*r, liath to 
&.U1M5 tutes a delicacy beyuud ti.e Ciiina luxury . . . 

* saloop house, . A house where sa- 
loop was prepared and sold. (Old it New 
London, i. 6i.) * 

" sa lo -pi an, a. [Eng. salop; -ian.} Qt, or 
pertaining to saloop (q.v.^ 

"The only talopian house." Lamb: Praite it 

sal-pa, >. [Lat., from Gr. o-oAmi (so/pX 

trapmf (sarpe) = a sea-lish.] 

Zool. : The typical genus of Salpidie (q.v.X 
Animal sub-cylindrical, half an inrh to tea 
iuches long, truncated in front, pointed be- 
hind. They have a transparent, elastic outer 
tunic, elongated, compressed, and open at 
both extremities. A single narrow, plicated, 
ribbon - shaped branchia extends obliquely 
across the pallial cavity. Sexes distinct, with 
alternation of generations. The young Sal- 
pians quit their parent in long chains ; after 
floating about for a time the society is dis- 
solved, and each produces a solitary yonug 
one like itself; in the next generation there 
is a chain again. 

salpa chain, s. [SALPA.] 

t sal -pi an, s. [SALPA.] A mollusc belonging 
to the geiius Salpa (q.v.). 

"In the transparent /j>iu>u these fi